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Coryat^s Crudities 



In Two Volumes 



Volume II 



GLASGOW 

PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS BY 

ROBERT MACLBHOSE ^ COMPANY LTD. FOR 

JAMBS MACLEHOSE AND SONS, PUBLISHERS 

TO THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW 



MACMILLAN AND CO. LTD. 
THB MACMILLAN CO. 
SIMPKINy HAMILTON AND CO. 
MACMILLAN AND BOWBS 
DOUGLAS AND FOULIS 



LONDON 
NBW YORK 
LONDON 
CAMBRIDGE 
BDINBURGH 



MCMV 



o 



Coryat's Crudities 

Hastily gobled up in five Moneths travells in 
France, Savoy, Italy, Rhetia commonly called 
the Grisons country, Helvetia alias Switzerland^ 
some parts of high Germany and the Nether- 
lands ; Newly digested in the hungry aire of 
Odcombe in the County of Somerset, and now 
dispersed to the nourishment of the travelling 

Members of this Kingdome 



By 
THOMAS CORYAT 



VOLUME II 



Glasgow 
James MacLehose and Sons 

Publishers to the University 
New York: The Macmillan Company 

MCMV 



t • 





• 






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• • 






• 






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• • • 


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• • • 






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• • 


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• • • 


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^ fc fc » • 



... V * • 



THE TABLE 

PAGB 

Observations of Vicenza, 2 

Observations of Verona, 16 

Observations of Brescia, 41 

Observations of Bergamo, ..... 49 

Observations of Rhetia, commonly called the 

Grisons Country, ..... 63 

An Oration by Hermann Kirchner in Praise of 

Travel in Germany, . -7» 

Observations of Chur, 88 

Observations of Helvetia, otherwise called Switzer- 

land, ....... 92 

Observations of Zurich, ..... 94 

Epistle from Thomas Coryat to Gaspar Waserus, 113 

Epistle from Thomas Coryat to Gaspar Waserus, 121 

Epistle from Gaspar Waserus to Thomas Coryat, 122 



^o i^^ 



THE TABLE 



PACB 



Epistle from Thomas Coryat to Rodolphus 

Hospinianus, . . . . .123 

Epistle from Thomas G>ryat to Hemy Bullinger, 127 
Epistle from Thomas Coryat to Marcus Buelerus, 130 
Epistle from Marcus Buelerus to Thomas Corjrat, 135 



Observations of Baden, .... 
Observations of Basle, .... 

Observations of Some Parts of High Germany, 



Observations of Strasburg, . 
Observations of Lower Baden, 
Observations of Turlowe, . 
Observations of Heidelberg, 
Observations of Spires, 
Observations of Frankenthal, 



Observations of Worms, 
Observations of Mayence, 
Observations of Frankfort, 
Observations of Bingen, 



Observations of Bonn, 



137 

178 
181 
199 
205 
207 
231 
252 

269 
287 
295 

309 



VI 



THE TABLE 



Observations of Cologne, • 

Observations of Nimeguen,. 

Observations of Gorkum, . 

Observations of Dordrecht, 

Observations of Flushing, . 

Posthumous Fragments of the 
George Coryat, 

IndeX| .... 



Poems of 



Rev. 



PAGE 

357 
362 

364 
373 



377 
409 



VII 



ILLDSTRATIONS 

PAGB 

A Delineation of the Amphi-Theater of Verona, 24 

A True Figure of the Famous Clock of Strasburg, 192 

A Sci(^[raphie or Modell of the Great Tun of 

Heiddberg, 224 

Frederick IV., Count Palatine of the Rhine, 232 

The Pembroke Dragon, 392 



IX 



THE SECOND VOLUME 



OP 



Coryat^s Crudities 

Containing his Observations of Vicenza, Verona, 

Brescia, Bergamo, Rhetia, commonly called 

the Grisons Country, Helvetia, Some 

Parts of High Germany, Stras- 

burg, Heidelberg, Worms, 

Mayence, Frankfort, 

Cologne and 

Gelderland 



XI 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



VOLUME II 



IDeparted from Venice in a Barke to Padua about eight 
of the clock in the evening the eighth day of August 
being Munday, after I had made my aboad there sixe 
weekes and two dayes, and came to Padua about nine of 
the clocke the next morning. Here I was very graciously 
U5ed by my Lord Wentworth. For he invited me most Ltrd 
kindly to dinner to his owne table, which courtesie the ^«ta 
very course of humanity doth injoyne me thankfully to 
remember. After dinner I walked with him to the Santo, 
where I observed divers things that I have already men- 
tioned in my observations of Padua: as an exorcisme 
performed by a Priest for the expelling of the divell out 
of a man possessed : a monument of one of our English 
Earles of Devon-shire : another of Petrus Bembus, &c. 

I departed from Padua about two of the clocke in the [p «g».] 
afternoone the same day, being conducted in my way by 
my kinde friend Mr, George Rooke, of whom I have 
made mention before in my discourse of Padua, and came 
to a sclitary house thirteene miles beyond, about seven 
of the clocke in the evening, where I lay that night. When 
I was out of Padua I observed that there are no woods, f*''^ «' 
groves, shrubs, or any manner of trees growing neare to """' 
the citie, as there wcre in former times. For all of them 
havc beene cut downe within these few yeares. I noted 
a singular point of policy in this. For the Venetians who 
are the Lords of Padua, have caused this to be done, to 
the end that there shall be no place of shelter for the 
cnemies to shroude themselves in, if any should happen 

t:mpproach to the citie, with an intent to assault it. AU 
C-C II. I K 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Guasto^ a 
toaste pku 



0- *93.] 



ScaRgtf^s 
verses on 
Fkenza, 



that space which is so voyd of trees, is called the Gnasto, 
that is, the waste plot ; not because it is altogether waste 
and unprofitable, as bearing no commodity at all. For 
it beareth great store of Melons and other fruites: but 
because there grow no trees there. This Guasto is 
extended about some three miles in length, before I could 
come to any trees. The like Guastoes they have also 
about their other cities in Lombardy, &c. 

I departed from the solitary house about sixe of the 
docke the next morning being Wednesday, and came to 
Vicenza about eight of the dock. The distance betwixt 
that house and Vicenza is five miles. 

My Observations of Vicenza, in Latin Vincentia 

and Vicetia. 

Julius Caesar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 

Vicenza. 

BAcche pater, Ceres alma bonae bona numina pads, 
Quae patulos agros, qui juga curva tenes. 
Quid rerum, quid amidtiae cum Marte cruento 

Vobiscum.? vestrum ut vexet utrumque foror? 
Pulchra racemiferos domitat Vicetia colles, 

Laetaque spicilegi jugera findit agri. 
Caedis amor, caedis germanae insana cupido : 

Nec patrius nato est tutus ab hoste cruor. 
Nusquam iter est: vastata jacent latrone protervo 

Ruscula, corruerunt ignibus hausta suis. 
Parce (ne&s) scelerare manus Gens debita coelo, 

Imbueque ignoto pectora digna deo. 
Divinae &cies, regio ccelestis : at hujus 

In cceli medio tartara dira vigent. 

This city was built about three hundred twenty fbure 
yeares before Christs incamation, by the people called 
Euganei, whom Antenor the Trojan expulsed from that 
place, where he built Padua, and not long after it was 
much inlare^ed by those Gaules that were called Galli 
Senones, wnich followed Brennus in his warres. There 



OBSERVATIONS OF VICENZA 

are two rivers that run through it, whose names are 

Bacchilio and Eretinus, whereor Bacchilio is the fairest, 

over the which are built seven bridges, partly of stone 

and partly of timber. On thc left hand of the bridge, ' 

which leadeth into the citie from Padua, I told sixteene 

pretty water-mils, which are very commodious to the H'aur milli. 

citie : it is thought to be about some foure miles in com- 

passe with the suburbes, being seated in a plaine at the 

tbote of the hill Bericus, and built in that manner that 

it representeth the figure of a ScorpJon. For it extendeth [p. »9+.] 

it sclie much more in length then breadth. And about 

the West end it is so slender and narrow, that it resembleth 

the tayle of a Scorpion : it is invironed round about with 

a bricke wall, wherein are eight gates : many goodly 

Palaces and stately buildings, both publique and pnvate I 

sawin this citie. In the first street as I came in from Padua 

I observed a very beautiful palace of a convenient heigth, 

in the front whereof I read this inscription : Has aedes 

quanta celeritate ignis consumpsit, tanta fere M. Antonius 

Walmarana Stephani Equitis clarissimi filius a fiindamentis 

erexit anno M.D.XCIII, In the great market-place is 

erectcd a stately pillar of freestone of some twenty foote 

high with the winged Lion upon it. The Prsetorium "^^ 

or the citie standeth at the north side of this market-place, '^''*'*"*«' J 

which is a very sumptuous and magnificent building, but 

much inferiour to that of Padua. It is in length fifty sixe 

paces, and in breadth twenty two ; at the higher end there 

is a Tribunall, above the which the winged Lyon is placed, 

richly gilt. Berwixt the Lyon and the Tribunall I read 

this inscription, written upon a ground of gold. Antonio 

Bernardo Juriscon. & patri optimo ob rempub. domi 

forisque fseliciter administratam, urbe pontibus, carcere, 

foro, templis exornata, Judaeis & noxiis ejectis, civitate in 

pristinam dignitatem studiis & sanctis moribus restituta, 

monte Pietatis ftindato, grata Vincentia posuit, M.CCCC. 

LXXXVI. The roofe of this Praetorium is hollow as that 

of Padua, having many yron beames that come athwart 

or a crosse from one side to the other, as that of Padua. 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

The outward roofe is covered with lead. In each side 
above is a faire gallery adomed with TOodly pillars : like- 
wise each side beneath hath a walUce sarnished with 
marveilous faire great pillars, sixe being compacted 
together in one, which doe make a faire arch : of which 
arches there are nine: one of these lower walkes is 
thoroughly finished, viz. the northerne by the market- 
[p. 295.] place : but not that in the South side ; when I was in 

Vicenza, they were building very diligently every day to 
end the same: which without doubt will be a most 
beautifuU walke when it is once brought to perfection, 
and it wiU yeelde a great omament to the Praetorium. 
So then of aU these faire walkes high and low, which 
belong to the Palace there are foure. Also there are two 
or three paire of stately staires that leade up to the haU. 
A marvelktu Neare unto this Palace there is a Tower of a marveilous 
sknder toaer. hgjgth, as high (in my opinion) as that fiunous Towcr of 

Cremona or St. Markes of Venice, but so exceeding 
slender that I never saw any Tower in aU my Ufe so high 
of such a slendernesse. 

There are foure very memorable things to be seene in 

this citie: the Monastery of the Dominican Frycrs, the 

Palace of the Count or Earle Leonardus Walmarana, his 

Garden neare to the west gate that leadeth to Verona, and 

Themonastery a famous Theater, built anno M.D.LXXXIIII. In the 

^^ . Monastery of the Dominican Friers is to be scene the 

Friars. thorny crowne of our Saviour Jesus Christ (as they say) 

which St. Lewes King of France, anno 1259. bestowed 
upon his brother at Paris, who hapned afterward to be 
Bishop of Vicenza, and a Dominican Frier. They report 
that he was the man that bestowed this crowne upon the 
Monastery. In my notes of Paris I have written something 
of this crown. For in Paris they say that they have the 
thomy crown : and here in Vicenza the Dominicans most 
constantly affirme, that none hath it or can have it but 
themselves : eyther they must prove that Christ had two 
severaU crowns of thornes put upon his head (which is 
contrary to the history of the EvangeUsts) or else it must 

4 



OBSEBVATIONS OF VICENZA 

needes foUow that one of these crownes is fklse. Never- 
thelesse I went thither to see it fqr my mindes sake, but I 
could not possibly obtaine the £ivour, though the Friers 
otherwise used me very courteously, affirming that it was 
never shewed to any man whatsoever but upon Corous [p. »96.] 
Christi day, and that it was kept under three locks. One 
of the M onkes shewed me a very memorable thing in this 
Monastery. For he brought me into their kitchin, and TAem^Msitry 
tokl me, that where thc chimney is, even where their ^^^- 
meate is wont to be rosted and sodde, certain Arrians 
heretofore lived, their principall Master reading from a 
chaire that stood in the same place, the Arrian doctrine 
to his disciples and followers : but at last the holy Bishop 
Bartholomew (of whom I have ahready spoken) chaced 
them out of the Citie, and in their roome placed the 
Dominicans. 

Thc Palace of the Earle Leonardus Wabnarana seemeth ^^''^ 
to be a very magnificent building, if the inside be cor- ^^^^^ 
respondent to the front next to the street. For that front ^^^^' 
is very beautifull, having much pointed diamond worke 
about the bottome, and about the toppe many prety 
histories curiously cut in stone. Under one history is 
written, Ars superat naturam : under another where grey- 
hounds are most exquisitely carved, these two Greeke 
wordes are written iraXXirro9 Trovwvy whereby is meant that 
hunting is the most generose and noble exercise of all 
others. Both these emblemes are made on the right 
hand as you go into the house. On the left hand this 
under a fine historicall worke. Ubi periculum, ibi 
festinandum. Againe over the dore this noble and most 
remarkable inscription is written very ^e in stone: 
Maria Austria Augusta, Caroli Quinti, Maximiliani 
Secundi, Rodolphi Secimdi Imperatorum filia, uxor, mater, 
i Philippo fratre Hispaniarum Rege Potentisimo, ad 
regendum Lusitanorum quondam Regum Imperium nuper 
partum, k Germanii accita per Italiam iter raciens, in his 
xdibuSy qu6d ipsa ob veterem Austriacorum Principimi 
erga hanc domum dientelam maxim^ volvit, cimi Mar- 

S 5 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

garita Maximilianoque filiis Archiducibus, i Leonardo 

vValmarana Comite eodemque Philippi R^s Pension- 

ario, splendidissimo apparatu accepta niit. Anno. M.D. 

LXXXI. IV. Kal. Octobris. 

[p- *97'] The third is the Garden of the foresaid Earle Leonardus, 

j^ ., which is so delectable and pleasant that it seemeth a second 

garJen. Paradise. At the entrance of it over the first gate I read 

this inscription in Capitall letters. 

Civis. Amice. Advena. 
Qui loci amcenitate cupis oblectarier, 

Securus huc ingredere, 
Teque largit^ recrea. 
Nullus intus canis, nullus Draco ; 
Nullus falce minaci Deus. 
Onmia sed tuta, benigneque 

Exposita. 
Sic volvit Comes Leonardus 

Wahnarana Hortonun Dominus, 
Modestiam qu6d tuam & Con- 
tinentiam Custodem fore fi- 
dat optimum. Anno M.D.XCII. 

After I came into the garden I turned on the right hand, 
and descended into a verjr pleasant and delicious walke, 

Tie siconi at the entrance whereof I read this second inscription made 

tnsmpnoH. jj^ stone over a faire gate. 

Si te imprudentem graviores 

Fort^ 
Huc usque insequutae sunt 

Curae, 
Eas velint nolint procul 
Nuncutabeant facito. 
Hilaritati namque & Genio 

Pars haec potiss. dicata est. 

Againe, having passed through that gate and walke 
which was but short, I entred mto a third walke of a 
notable length (for it was at the least two hundred paces 

6 



OBSERVATIONS OF VICENZA 

bng) beset with most delightfuU trees on both sides. At 
the entrance of this walke there standeth another statelv 
gate, ovcr the which I read this third inscription, which '^he Mrd 
ind^de is most witty and eiegant. inscnftm. 

Cedros hosce qui dempserit, [p. 298.] 

Floresve carpserit, 
Is Sacrilegus esto; 
Vertunmoque & Pomonae, 
Queis sunt sacri, 
Poenas luito. 

In both sides of this walke I saw Cedar trees, Orange, Fndt tms. 
Lemmon, and Pome-citron trees, and fruits of all these 
kindes ripe. Amongst the rest I observed passing &ire 
Citrons, which made my mouth even water upon them, 
md caused me aknost to transgresse his law. One side of 
the walke is invironed with a goodly wall, by the which 
the fruits doe grow. About the middle of the walke 
there is built a prety convenient house, wherein tame 
connies and divers sorts of fine birds are kept, as Turtles, 
&c In the middle of the garden is built a faire round 
roofe, supported with eight stately pillars of white stone, 
it is said that it shall be all covered with lead, but it was 
not when I was there. Aiso I saw a fine Labjn^inth made jf/nf 
of boxe, but the dore was locked that I could not get in. ^h^^^ ^f 
And many lofty Pine trees, but some of them were so ^' 
nipped with the cold frost and snow that fell the winter 
before, as those were in the king of Frances garden at the 
Tuilleries, that they were even starved. Aiso for the 
more addition of pleasure to the place, there is a sweet 
river fuli of fine fish running by that fruitfull walke, 
wherehence is ministred store of water to moisten the 
garden in time of drougth. Finally to condude, such is 
the affluence of all delights and pleasures in this garden, 
that it is the most peerelesse and incomparable plot for 
the quantity that ever I saw. 

Thc fourth and last memorable thing of this City is a TheTkeatre 
stately faire Theater, which was built by certaine Scholars e^^*^^*^- 

7 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIBS 



[P- *99] 



Muscwiti 

Ambassadon 

enterudmd. 

Jafmiise 
noblemen. 



Inscripdon in 
tke Tkeatre. 



in the yeare M.D.lxxxiiii. that were called Academid 
Olympid, but why so called I know not. It hath an 
Orchestra made in it according to the imitation of the 
Roman Orchestraes, which is at the lower end of the 
degrees, or (as I may more properly terme them) benches 
or seates, whereof there are fburteene^ each above another, 
compassing something more then halfe the Theater, and 
contrived in the fashion of an halfe Moone. In that 
Orchestra none sit but Noble and eminent persons. He 
that shewed me this Theater told me that the Orchestra 
and fourteen benches would containe about some three 
thousand persons. The Scene also is a very faire and 
beautifiill place to behold. In this Theater was acted a 
play for many yeares since with divers goodly shewes 
before William Gonzaga Duke of Mantua, father to the 
present Duke Vincentius Gonzaga. Againe, afterward 
certaine Moscovite Ambassadors that came from Rome, 
were very honourably entertained in this Theater with 
musicke and a banouet. And after them certaine youn^ 
Noblemen of that farre remote region in the £ast called 
Japan or Japona, being descended of the bloud royall of 
the Country, were received here with great state, at what 
time Livius Pajellus a sing^ular Orator pronounced an 
eloquent Oration in praise otthem. But one of the latest 
great shewes that was made here was presented before the 
torenamed that famous Earle Leonardus Walmarana, in 
the yeare 1585. For at that time the Tragedy of 
Sophodes, which is intituled Oedipus, was most excellently 
acted in this Theater. The history of the acting whereof 
is finely painted in the Court wal at the very entrance to 
the Theater. Over the three dores of which Court I rcad 
these three inscriptions, written in Capitall letters. 

This over the first. 

Olympicis Exdtamento. 
This over the second. 

Civibus Oblectamento. 
And this over the third. 

Patris ornamento. 
8 



OBSERVATIONS OF VICENZA 

In the front of the Scene, directly opposite to the [p. 300.] 
Orchestra, this is written: 

Virtuti ac Genio 
Olympicorum Academia 
Theatmm hoc k fiinda- 
mentis erexit, Anno 

M. D. LXXX. IIII 

Andrea Falladio Architecto. 

Without the City also are two most stately and goodly 
things to be seene. Whereof the first is a very magnificent 
arch built about the end of the City, southward as you 
goc up to the hill Bericus. The other is the Palace of Tki paUuioj 
the Earle Odoricus Capra. The arch certainly is a very ^^^^^^- 
sumptuous monimient being of a lofty heigth, and sup- 
ported with foure portly marble pillars, two on one sicle, 
and as many on the other. At the top standeth the winged 
Lyon in white stone, and at both the endes of the toppe 
two statues aiso of white stone are erected. In the front 
of the outside of the arch, this is written under the 
Lyon. 

Deiparae Virgini Berici 
Montis 

Jacobus Bragadeno Am- 

bross. F. Praef. Religionis 

& urbis amantiss. D. 

M. D. XCV. 

After I was entred within this arch, I ascended a mar- Marvelkus 
vailous high paire of staires, much higher then those that ^^^ ^^^^' 
I have mentioned in my description of Lyons. For they 
are of that heigth that they will make a weake body utterly 
weary before he can attaine to the toppe. For they con- 
tadne no lesse then a hundred and fifty neeses. And you 
must ascend by five greeses at a place tiil you come to the 
toppe, the severall partitions being in number thirty. 
Truly they are the highest staires that ever I trode in my 

out of a Church or house. At the left hand of the [p. 301.] 

9 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

ascent a little after I was entred within the arch, I read 
this inscription in a stony pillar. 

Qjiis ascendet in montem sanctum tuum? 

In another pillar on the right hand, this: 

Innocens manibus & mundo corde. 

After I was come ahnost to the toppe, I found this 
inscription in a stony pillar on the left hand. 

Franciscus Bernardinus 

Saracenus 
Scalas fecit ex stipe 
public^ privatimque 

Collata, 
& viam reliquam 
ad Mariae templimi usque 
silice promovit. 

C I 3 I 3 C. 

And this inscription in another stony pillar on the right 
hand. 

Hospes si properas, 

Pauldm sistito, 
Urbis, collium, fluminimi, 
Agrorum, Alpium aspectu 

Laborem lenito. 
Abi. perge pius, 
Dei matrcm Virginem 

Salutato. 
Stratae viae commodum 
Piis precibus rependito. 

ThiTmpkof After I had ascended those staires I went to the Temple 
Man^ of the Virgin Mary, seated upon the toppe of the hil, and 

about a mile distant from the City. All the Monkes that 
dweli here are meerely lay-men. In the Moneth of 
August when I was there, this Monastery was exceedingly 
frequented with people, and so it is every yeare in the 
same Moneth. For they hold this opinion and doe very 

lO 



OBSERVATIONS OF VICENZA 

confidently maintayne it, that by the prayers which godly [p. 30».] 
people doe make in the Church of diat Monastery that 
Moneth, one soule shall be redeemed out of Purgatory 
fbrsooth. Infinite are the votive tables that I saw hanged 
about the walles of this Church. I saw many indeede at 
the Altar where our Lady is worshipped at the Arsenal, 
and in other places of Venice, but never a quarter so many 
in one place as here. I walked into the Cloyster of the 
Monks, and into a high gallery at the toppe of the Monas- 
tery, where they have a passing sweet prospect. Surely 
they dweil in as convenient a place fbr a retired life as 
any I saw in Italy, nay none comparable to it. They say 
that many miracles are shewed in this Monastery. 

The other memorable thing without the City, is the 
sumptuous Palace of the above named Earle Odoricus 
Capra, which is a little mile distant fi-om the City. It is 
built upon a prety eminent hillocke, and is roimd (in 
which respect it is called in the Italian Rotonda) haying 
fbure very beautifuU fi-onts, which doe answere the foure 
parts of the world. At the East fi-ont as I ascended to Thedrm $f 
the house, I saw three white statues erected, and under ^«rir. 
them the picture of a blacke Goate which is his armes. 
Under the which I read this. 

Scriptum 
Memoriae perpetus 

Mandans haec 
Dumsustinet & abstinet. 

At the West end under another scutchin this is written. 

Qju aedes has arctissimo 
Primogeniturae gradui 
Subjecit. 

At the North side this under a third scutchin. 

Und cum omnibus censibus, 
Agris, vallibus, & collibus 
Ultrk viam magnam. 

II 



CORYArS CRUOITIES 

[p- 30$'] In the South side this iinder the fburth scutchin. 

Marius Capra 
Gabrielis F. 

Every front hath sixe most stately great pillars, and two 
paire of staires to ascend to the same, dich contayninfi; 
eighteene faire greeses. The roofe of the house is round, 
and very pretily adorned partly with curious pictures, and 
partly with statues, whidi worke was contrived by the 
jfn open nof. elegant pensill of Alexander Magantia. Also the roofe 

is open for the raine to descend into a very convenieot 
place made of purpose in the hall for the receiving thereof • 
In one of the higher chambers there is the fairest chimney 
fbr davy and jeames that ever I saw, saving that of the 
ICing of France at his Palace of Fountaine JSeleau before 
mentioned. For it was made of an extraordinary fine 
coloured marble, beautified with faire veines of divers 
colours. This marble came from Verona. In another 
chamber I saw a davy and jeames of touch stone, and a 
A siauly table boord of the same : also there is a statelv celler under 
cilkr. ^^ Pahice, the roofe whereof is vaulted. At the farther 

end of this cellar as you go forth of it into a faire vineyard, 
this impresse is written over the dore in great letters. 

Antrum non CimiaBum 
Neque Homericum videbis, 

Sed Bacchi; 
Hospes ingredere, 

Laetior abibis; 

But I found not the words of the inscription true ; for I 
went not out more merily then I came in, because the 
cellarer had not the honestie to bestowe as much as one 
draught of his wine upon me. 
Thi Biskofs I was at thc Palace of the Bishop of Vicenza whose 
^^'- name is Dionysius Delphinus. In this Palace is the towne 

prison. 

This City was much annoied by the army of that 
[p. 304.] mercilesse Barbarian Attila, with many other famous dties 

la 



OBSERVATIONS OF VICENZA 

of Italy, after hee came out of his country of Scythia 
to spoyle the EuropDean Cities. Also the Emperour 
Fredericke the second besieged it about the year a 
thousand two hundred and forty, and afterward having 
entred it by force of armes, he defaced a great part of it 
with the fijrie of the fire. 

For the sight of most of these notablc things that I 
enjoyed in this faire citie, I doe acknowledge my self 
exceedingly beholding to two Italian yong Gentlemen ^""f 
that were Vlcentines borne, whose names were Thomas "?'' 
dc Spanivellis, and Joannes Nicoletis; especially fo one 
of them, who kept me company almost all that day that I 
spent there, and conducted me from place to place till he , 

had shewed me all the principall things of fhe cifie. For 
sorely many Italians are passing courteous and kinde 
towards strangers, of whose humanitie I made friall in 
divers other cities in Italie, as Padua, Venice, Verona, 
Brixia, Bergomo, &c. Therefore I will ever magnifie and 
extoU the Italian for as courteous a man to a stranger as 
any man whatsoever in Christendome. For I have had a 
little experience In my travels of sonie of every principall 
nation of Chrisfendome. 

The firsf that converfed this Cifie from Paganisme to 
Chrisfianitie, was Prosdocimus thaf preached the Gospell 
first at Padua, as i have before mentioned. 

The Vicentines were first subject to the Signiorie of 
Venice about the yeare 1404. at what time they submitted 
themsclvcs of their own accord to the Venetians. 

That day that I came forth of Vicenza, being Thursday 
and the eleventh day of Augusf, I saw a franticke and A fran^ 
iunaticke fellow runne up and downe the citie with a '""^^* 
gowne about him, who kepf a very fiirious stirre, and 
drew many people about him. 

Thc West gate of the Citie that leadeth to Verona, 
hath a very lofty Towre of a goodly heigth, and without [p- 305-] 
the same on the left hand, I saw a marvailous sumptuous 
gate made of free-stone, and newly built, but not fully 
finished. All the front is confrived wifh pointed diamond 



I 




Ficenza. 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

worke. At that place there is nothing at all built but 

only this gate. This charge me thinkes might have beene 

well saved) fbr it serves ror no other purpose but onely 

for a beautifuU entrance into a faire meadow. 

Ficenza \ will now conclude my observations of Vicenza with 

famousfir ^^ memorable Italian sayings, the one of the Counts and 

^^-jj^ Knights of Vicenza, which is this : 

Quanti hk Venetia ponti e Grondolieri, 
Tanti hk Vicenza Conti e Cavallieri. 

That is, looke how many bridges and Grondoleers Venice 
doth yeeld, so many Counts, and Knights doth Vicenza. 
Tke toine rf Xhe other, of the wine of Vicenza, which is in a manner 
proverbially spoken of , as other conunodities are of other 
Italian cities, viz. 

Vin Vicentin, 
Pan Paduan. 
Tripe Trevizan. 
Putana Venetian. 

That is, The Wine of Vicenza, 
The Bread of Padua. 
The Tripes of Treviza. 
The Cortezans of Venice 

Thus muchof Vicenza. 

Departed from Vicenza about tenne a docke in the 

morning, the eleventh day of August being Thursday, 

and came to Verona the next day about nine of the docke 

in the morning: The things that I observed bewixt 

Armed Vicenza and Verona are these. Most of the horsemen 

harumin ^^^ j jj^^^ y^tn fumished with muskets ready charged, 

VUenza and ^^^ touch-boxes hanging by their sides full of Gunpowdcr, 

Venna. together with little pouches full of bullets; which is a 

[p. 306.] thmg so commonly uscd in most places of Itaiie, that a 

man shall scarce finde a horseman in any place riding 

without them. I heard that this is the reason of it: 

because the people of the country are so given to villainies, 

14 



I 



FHOM VICENZA TO VERONA 

that they will rob, rifle, and murder passengcrs, if they 

are not sufficiently provided to defend themselves against 

them. At every miles end by the way for the space of 

tenne or twelve miles, I saw certaine prety stony pillars* Piilaritrecud 

erected by the high way side, such as we call in Latin h'^°"'y"'''- 

cippos, whereof some had Inscriptions, some had not, 

which I suppose were set up for many ycares since, even 

in the time of the Roman Monarchie to limit their miles. 

whereupon many auncient Latin authors whensoever they 

would mention a place of Italie distant certainc miles fi-om 

a dtie, would say, decimo &c lapide ab urbe distat. Some 

of the Inscriptions of these pillars were so auncient and 

even eaten out with timc, that I could hardly reade above 

two or three lettcrs of them : Perhaps they were set up 

beforc, or not long after, Christs incarnation. Againe 

somc had crosses on them as being erected by Christians. 

On the right hand as I travelled to Verona, I saw three 

vcry stately and strong castels upon hils, adorncd with 

goodly battlements, &c. whereof one, which stood almost 

m the middle way betwixt Vicenza and Vcrona, was butlt 

by the Princely femilie of the Scaligers of Verona, as a 

certaine gravc Gentleman tolde me that I ovcrtooke riding 

upon the way, who discoursed with mc very femiliarly 

of many mattcrs in Latin : the same castle is now possessed 

by the noblc Contarens of Venice, 

Thc tcrritories of Vicenza and Verona doe confine and 
meete together about a place called Turre, which is but Tum. 
one solitarie inne, so caJled because the signe thereof is a 
tower. This is thirteene miles beyond Viccnza. About [p. 307.] 
nine miles on this side Verona I sawe a most magnificent 
Palace not about half a mile distant from thc way on thc 
left hand. I was told that it belonged to a Venctian 
Clarissimo, callcd Pctcr Gritti. 

That day about fivc of thc clocke in the afternoone -^ vuUnt 
there fell a marvailous violent showre after I was past ''"^'^- 
about some two miles beyond Villa nova, which is seven- 

nc milcs from Vicenza, that continued almost for the 
*The»e kinde ofpillars Plutarch doth call oij^ia in Viu Gracchi. 




CORYATS CRUDITIBS 



Sheep 
toanting. 



[p. 308.] 



ScoBgn^s 
verses tffon 
refona. 



Tki antiqmty 
rfVermM, 



space of three miles, even till I came to my lodging, and 
made me wet to the very skinne, that I did even rigere 
frigore. 

1 observed great abundance of vinCTardes on both sides 
of the way, and exceeding fertile Champaines, goodly 
meadowes, pastiires, come fieldes, and arabk groundes 
both betwixt Padua & Vicenza, & also betwixt Vicenza 
and Verona. Onely I saw one speciall conunodity want- 
ing, wherwith (Gkxl be thanked) IBngland is so abundandy 
furnished, as no place (I think) in su Christendome more, 
being indeed a thing exceeding necessary iox the sustenta- 
tion of mans !ife, as any other thing wluitsoever that God 
hath given unto man, viz. sheepe. For I remember I 
saw but three little flockes in all the way betwixt Padua, 
and Verona, which are forty eight miles distant. 

Within a mile of Verona on the left hand of the way 
there is a faire little Monastery that belongeth to the order 
of those Monkes that are called Camaldulenses, which 
doe weare white gownes and cowles of the same. There 
are but eight of the Fraternity, their Church is very iaire, 
and they have a Cloyster that invironeth aknost their 
whole Monastery, round about adomed with manv beauti- 
full pillars, whereof I told twenty eight of a great bignesse. 

My Obscrvations of Vcrona. 

Julius Caesar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 

Verona. 

ITaliae canimus semper florentis ocelliun, 
Calliope nequeat grandiiis uUa loqui. 
Aucta deis, auctura poli Verona Quirites ; 

Quot cives, tot habens sydera digna Jove. 
Non animi, non ingenii vigor acrior usquam, 

NuUa creat plures Martia terra duces. 
Transferre in coelum volvit sibi Jupiter, atqui 
Clarior in nostris malvit esse locis. 

This citie is of that antiquitie, that some do write it 
was first foxmded by the ancient Hetruscans and hath 

16 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

beene in dmes past accounted one of their twelve dties 
on this side the Apennine mountaines. But afterwards 
in processe of time^ the Gaules that are called Senones, 
having passed over the Alpes under the conduct of their 
Captaine Brennus, came into this part of Italy, and ejected 
tfaoae Hetruscans out of the possession thereof , and greatly 
amplified and enlarged the same. So that it was called 
Verona quasi Brenona, from their Captaine Brennus. But 
there are some that write, that it had the denomination of 
Verona from Vera, the name of a noble familie amongst 
the Hetruscans. Surely it is a very delectable, large, and 
popuious citie, and most sweetely seated:«for the noble 
river Athesis runneth by it which Virgil calleth amoenus, 

§ Athesin ceu propter amoenum. 



It issuetli out of the Alpes not far fi-om the city of Trent. 

This river yeeldeth a speciall commoditie to the citie. Vt^^^ 

For although it be not able to beare vessels of a great ^* 

burden, yet it carrieth prety barges of convenient quan- 

titie, wherein great store of Merchandise is brought unto [p- 309«] 

the dty, both out of Germany and from Venice it selfe. 

In one side of this river, I toid nineteene water-mils, which 

were like to those that I saw upon the river Rhodanus at 

the dtj of Lyons. There are fbure bridges which joyne 

tx^ther both the bankes of the river, whereof one is very 

&ire and beautifull above the rest. By the sides of that 

bridge that I passed over when I entred into the city from 

Vicenza, I observed two faire stones of white marble ^^^jf^^^ 

opposite to each other, with armes and scutchins in 

them : in that which is on the right hand I saw this 

inscription. 

Qui fluminis vim passus 

annos plures jacuerat, 
Civitatis ornamento, 

& commodo 
Pons tandem est restitutus. 

§^nel 9. 

CC. II. 17 B 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

And under the same this: 

Andrea Gritti Principe, 
Francisco Foscaro Praetore, 
& Hieronymo Zano prefecto. 
an. Salutis M.DXXIX. 

In that on the left hand this: 

Fluminis impetu disjectum pontem 
diligentisl Joannis iEmi Prsetoris 
pen6 restitutum, Francisci Foscari 
Successoris cura perfecit. 

Also I noted a third stone of white marble, in which are 
written certaine auncient characters of that antiquity that 
I thinke no man can reade them; because indeede they 
are partly defaced. A certain Italian joung Gentleman, 
unto whom I was much beholding for the sight of many 
noble antiquities of this citie, toid me that this river 
TheinuHiia' Athesis doth sometimes so extremely swell, that it hath 
!S/'*' utterly overwhelmed aU the bridges, and much annoywi 

the citie. For testimony whereof he shewed me this 
[p* 310.] memorable inscription written in the corner of a certaine 

wall not farre from the river, which mentioneth a very 
strange and unusuall inundation thereof . 

Viator haec hlc tabida 
posita est ut perpetu6 
sciri possit summas 
nostri fluminis 
aquas huc usque 
pertigisse. 
die XXX. Octobris 
anno M. D. L xvii. 
& siccitate & 
diluviis infausto. 

This Table is placed about twenty foote higher then 
the bridge, according to my estimation, which argueth so 
strange an inundation of the Athesis, that I doe not 

18 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

rcmember I cver read of the like, saving once of thc 
Tybcr in the time of the Emperour Mauricius when S. 
Gregory was Pope. For then the Tyber so far exceeded 
his usuall bounds, that he overflowed the very walles of 
Rome. 

Thc forme of the building of this citie is something likc 
to that of Turin in Piemont : for it is almost square. The 
greatest part of it standeth in a plaine, and some part of 
it that bendeth to the South, is situate upon a hill, whereon 
are built two stately Castles, the one of S. pEelix, the other 5^<i^CW«fl/ 
of S. Angelo ; also it hath one more in the plain that "^'""'' 
standeth neare to the river: that of St. Felix is invironed 
with a fiiire bricke wall, which is adorned with battlements 
that yceld so faire a shew, that from the west it is seene a -^H 

great way off. AII these Castles, especially those two on ^H 

the hill, are passing well furnished with munition and 
irtiUcry for the defence of the citie against the invasion of 
thc enemy. The wals of the citie are the fayrest of all the ^^*' '^'^^^ "'^ 
Italian cities that I saw, and indeede fayrer then any I ever ^'"' 
saw before in all my life. For they are of a marveilous 
hcigth, in some places forty tbot high, according to my [p. 311.] 
estimation, buiU all with bricke, and rairely beautified with 
battlements. Also there are five gates in them of great 
antiquity, whereof some are garnished with curious 
carvings, images, and marble pillars. The compasse of the 
wholc citie together with the suburbes is thought to be 
bctwixt sixe and seven miles. Within these few yeares it 
is become very strong ; for the Venetians doe daily 
ttengthen it with wonderfiill strong fortifications, ram- 
piers, and bulwarkes, which they have incompassed with 
deepe and broad Trenches, so that it seemeth to be almost 
inqffegnable. 

So many notable antiquities and memorable monuments 
Vt to be seene in this noble city of Verona, as no Italian 
dtie whatsoever {Rome excepted) can shew the Hke. But 
die worthiest and most remarkable of all is the Amphi- '^^ 
theater commonly called the Arena, seated at the South- "^f^''''""^' 
west end oi the city where cattell are sold ; whereof I 
'9 




I 



thealrei finl 
bnik by the 
Athenians. 



I ' CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

have expressed a picture in this place, according to the 
forme of it, as it flourished in the time of the Roman 
Monarchy. This word Amphitheater is derived from 
these two Greeke words at^^'i which signifieth about, and 
flew/tai to behold, because which way soever a man doth 
view it, he findeth it of a circular and round forme, So 
that herein an Amphitheater differeth from a Theater, 
because an Amphitheater is every where round, but a 
Theater (according to the forme of the auncient Roman 
buildlng) is but halfe round, being made in the fashion of 
an halfe circle or halfe Moone. The model of these kinde 
of Amphitheaters which the auncient Romanes built in 
Rome, and other places of Italy, was derived from the 
Athenians, who were the first that erected an Amphi- 
theater. Certainly this present building, whereof I now 
speak, is a most stupendious masse of worke ; ^ 



Non opus, at moles, qualem neque tota vetustasaH 
vidit, & haec setas non habitura parem ; _■ 

To use those verses of it that one wrote in praise of the 
[p. 311.] King of Spaines Palace at Escuriall in Spaine. For indeed 
it is such an admirable Fabricke that it drawcth all 
strangers into admiration thereof : and I am perswaded that 
the beauty thereof after it was first built and throughly 
consummated, was so glorious, that it no lesse drew 
spectators from most of the principall places of thc world 
to contemplate the excellency thereof, then that famous 
Temple of Vespasian in Rome, dedicated to PaJIas, which 
is 50 highly commended by Josephus the Jew. It was 
reported unto me by Gentlemen of good notc in this citie 
of Verona, that the like Amphitheater is not to be seene 
at this day in all Italy, no not in Rome it selfe. Ncyther 
doe I thinke that antiquity could ever shew a fayrer piece 
Vtrma of worke for an Ampnitheater ; but it is very ruinous at 
rmrlino'^' this time. For the principall ornaments thereof are 
demolished and deftced, So that it hath lost morc then 
hallc of its pristine glory: it is uncertaine who was the 
first founder thercof, That it was built by onc of the 




OBSERVATIOTJS OF VERONA 1 

Roman Emperours every man beleeveth, but by whom no ^^^^H 
Chronicle, Annals, or auncient History doth certainly ^^^^H 
record. But Torellas Sariana, a learned man borne in ^^^^H 
Verona, who hath written certaine bookes of the antiqui- ^^^^H 
fics of this citie, Js drawen by certaine arguments and ^| 

conjectures to affirme, that it was built by the Emperour H 

Augustus, and that in the two and fortieth year of his H 

Empire, which was that very year that our blessed Saviour ^M 

was borne into the world, Were such a building to be I 

made in England, I thinke it would cost at the least two m 

millions of our pounds, thal is, twenty hundred thousand I 

pound, even as much as tenne of our layrest Cathedrall I 

Churches. For it is all built with redde marble : which SeJ marHt.\ 
although it were a very chargeable piece of workemanship ; I 

yct they could build it as cheape there as in any part of al I 

Itaiy. For in the territory of Verona they have divers M 

nurble quarries, and that of sundry colours, as white, | 

blacke, redde, &c. It was dedicated to Janus, and hath as [p. 313.] 1 
yct many notable things to be seene, which do argue the ^ 

singular beauty thereof when it Hourished in his prime. ^B 

For it was invironed with two round walles, whereof the m 

ouCward was a thing of rare magnificence. Which by the -^ 

invasion of many barbarous people, as the Gothes, 
Hunnes, (who under the conduct of their King Attila 
sadted this city) and Longobards under their King ^if 
Alboinus, hath beene so ruinated, that there is but a little ^'"/'*"*""'' 
pm thereof standing, the marble stones being puUed ;_ ,^/ 
downe, and removed therehence, partly for the garnishing barbarians. 
of the private houses of the city, and partly for ofher uses. 
This, together with all the other partes of the machine, 
was built with redde marble, all the pieces being cut 
square which doe very excellently garnish the worke. 
That which remaineth at this day of the outward wali, 
though it be but little, doth testifie that it was a wondrous 
architecture. For there are now standing three rankes or 
rowes of arches, and each row doth containe three severall 
degrecs of arches more, built one above another, and 
rused to a wonderful heigth, at the least one hundred and 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Thi arcAit. fifty foot high, according to my estimation. These arches 

were heretofore distinguished with stately pillars of redde 
marble answerabie to the rest : and the hiehest degree of 
the third was most gloriously beautified with faire statues 
made of Corinthian worke, which were placed betwixt the 
pillars and the arches; every arch having two severall 
statues, so that to doubie the niunber of the arches, which 
are in al seventy, there were erected one hundred forty two 
statues: which yeelded a passing ornament to the walL 
Again, these three degrees of arches were built of as many 
distinct formes of workmanship, namely the Corinthian, 
the lonicke and the Doricke. Also above these foresaid 
degrees there was a fourth ranke of building, which was 
erected at the very toppe of all, viz. a degree of windowes 
made all open, without either glasse or any other thing in 

[p. 314*] it. These corresponded the niunber of the arches, even 

seventy two, and served for the people to sit in, to the 
end they might the more convenientiy behokl the eames 

T^ **^^^^ and exercises in the Amphitheater. All this outward wal, 

^^^ ^^' whereof now there is but a little fingment left, onely those 

three ranks of three severall arches that I have ah-eady 
mentioned, did round about inviron the whole buildins^ (as 
I have before said) beins some twenty foote distant nt>m 
the inner wal. But the mner wai it seUe doth stand prety 
well, and yeeldeth a most stateiy shew, though some 
parts of the toppe be something blemished. For all the 
arches doe as yet remaine, even seventy two ; for I walked 
round about them, and tolde them all. Now whereas of 
the outward wai there were three deerees of arches, there 
are not above two in this outward wau, which stand directly 
one above another, so that the niunber of those above 
doth answere them beneath. And for the better grace of 
the worke there is inserted betwixt eveiy arch a goodly 
pillar of red marble, the base whereof bemg made of the 
same matter, is five foot thicke, and the distance betwixt 
every couple of pillars is sixteene foote. The lower arches 
are now converted to very base and sordid uses. For they 
serve partly for stables to put horses and hay in, and partly 

.22 



l 



I 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

lor tipliog houses for poore folkes to sell wine in, and 
oti-*r nccessaries. After I had exactJy viewed aU the 
oiitward parts, I was adniitted into the inside by a fellow 
Uut gets his living altogether by shewing the same to 
smngers, and as soone as I came in, I was driven into 
grcat admiration. For I saw so many things as wtll make 
1 stranger not a little wonder. There I observed the 
^es, or benches, made of redde marble, incompassJng BeHiheiofreJ 
the cavca, or plaine within it round about, and ascending "'"'^ '' 
fey degrees one above another to the very toppe, which 
oc in number forty two : but the greatest part of the 
flarble of these benches Hath beene (to the great biemish 
<tf the work) carried away tbr many yeares since by those [p. 315.] 
baibarous people that have much eclipsed the glorious 
I bcnity of this building. Yet the gentlenien of Verona 
hlTe within these few yeares something repayred it againe. 
For they have bestowed so great charges in mending them 
00 both sides with new marble bencncs correspondent to 
the rormcr, that those on the right hand cost them three- 
«ore thousand crownes, and those on thc left sixe thou- 
sand, as a Gentleman of Verona told mc that shewed me 
i 4iK particulars of the Amphitheater. Thcse threescore Grta/ ciarges 
■Mri sixe thousand crownes being not the fiftieth part of ■^'' "'"^'"S- 
fHkcharge (as I thinke) that the whole building would cost, 
^fee it now to be built from the foundation, may give a 
nu some conjecture what an infinite and excessive masse 
rf money it cost in those dayes when it was first founded, 
diough I belccve thcir building was then much chcaper 
dieo now. Aiso thcse Gentlemen of Verona doc daily 
btuitifie it with new addition of marble benches, becausc 
ihey have oftentimcs great shewes exhibited here to the 
peoplc upon festivall dayes, as running at Tilt, and othcr 
Doble exercises, especially upon their Carnivall day, which 
is observed amongst them in the same manner as our 
Shrove-tuesday with us in England, being called Carnivall 
from thc two Latin words, Caro and Vale, that is, farewell 

IScsh, because after that day they eate no more fiesh till 
iMter. These foresaid two and forty benches have in 
^ 1 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Thi henchis former times contained three and twenty thousand pl| 
coHtMwd (hj^^ ^^j-g ^hg spectators of the games pkyed the 

^f^ foote and halfe and no more being fimited to 

* particular person. The higher bench is esteemed «J 

dred fourescore and three pearches in compasse, and 
the middle, namely the one and twentieth, a hi 
two and forty. Every pearch being ten fbote 
Likewise from north to south it is thought to be^ 
hundred and threescore foote long : and from east 
three hundred and forty foote broad. AU that o[ 

[p. 316.] void space at the toppe was wont to be covered ovcr 

with curtaynes at the time of their publique games, 
end to keepe off the scorching heate of the sunne^i 
otherwise would very much annoy the people. 
galleries in the inside are contrived after a very 
manner, not unlike unto Labyrinths. For there a 
degrees of them vaulted one above another, 
which both those that were above upon the ben< 
descend to goe forth of the roome, and they 

Tkirooms fir ascended to rneir seates. Also I observed certaine 

thibeasts. ^here the beasts were kept, with whom the Gl 

were to fight. These roomes have at one end 
little open places to let in the aire for the refreshing 
beasts, such as we call in Latin spiracula. The cai 
greene plaine in the middle is made in the forme 
egge, sharpe at the ends, and broade at the sides, 
to a pond that I have seene in one of Sir Frands 
gardens in Middlesex : and it is in len^th nine & 
pearches, in bredth two and twenty and lialfe. For 
exactly observe the length and bredth of it. NoiWj 
divided in the very middest by a certaine kind of 
to that of our Tilt-yard at Whitehall, where the 
Gentlemen and Nobleman of Verona doe soi 
encounter at justs and tomaments. In the mid< 
this plaine divers spectacles and games were wont ijj 
shewed in former times to the people, whereof somef! 

Bloodyjigku, sisted especially of a most bioudy kind of fight bei 

men and beasts, which was performed by their Gladiid 

«4 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

For aocording to the aundent custome of the Romans 
certaine enormous malefactors that had committed some 
capital crimes, being condemned to fight for their lives 
with wilde beasts^ were in this place and such other 
(whereof Rome had manv, as the Circus maximus, &c.) 
exposed with their swordes and targets, and such other 
weapons to the fury of savage beasts, as Lyons, Beares, 
Tigres, &c, if fortune favourcd them so well that they slew [p. 3» 7-] 
those beasts, then both their lives were saved, and also 
they had some reward bestowed upon them, which was 
conunonly called brabium, in token of their victory. But 
if they were slaine by the beasts, it was esteemed as a just 
recompence for their wicked deserts. But to condude this 
discription of the Amphitheater of Verona, it is a worke of 
such admirable magnificence that as I never saw the like 
before, so I thinke in al my future travels (which I deter- 
mine God willine to undertake hereafter both in Christen- 
dome and Paganisme) I shall never see a fairer. 

Thus much concerning the Amphitheater. 

ALso I saw the rudera of an aundent Theater which was ^* muwit 
a distinct building from the foresaid Amphitheater, ^^^- 
upon a hill on the farther side of the Athesis, neare to the 
gardens of the Dominican Friers. 

The Palace which doth now belong to the Capitano, was ^^ ^^^ rf 
heretofbre the habitation of the Princely Scaligers : at the ^^^^- 
kft hand of the porch whereof , which is a very magnificent 
and stately buiiding, are three very faire arches nmde with 
free stone, and adomed with diamond worke. In the front 
of this buildine which is newiy buiit, & looketh towards 
that goodly wa&ewhere there is a great meeting of Gentle- 
men and Merchants twise a day, this inscription is written 
over a dore betwixt two scutchins. Regia hujus superi- 
orem utramque partem longa incurii ruinam ita minitan- 
tem, ut pene reparationis desperationem cunctis adferret, 
Justinianus Contarenus Prsetor, Franciscus Priulus Pne- 
fectus ab extremo vindicarunt occasu, & in long6 splendi- 
diorem fadem pristin& restitu&oint c I 9. I o. c I L 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Againe, betwixt two other dores neare unto this, there is 
written this also over the scutchins in the same front. 

InscrifHm in Virtuti & Honori 

tkePalace. jvJii Contareni Praetoris, & Bernardi Marcelli Pnefecti, 

quorum singidaris prudentia ut in regendi urbe mirific^ 
[p. 318.] emicuit : sic in maxima rerum perturbatione bellicis appa- 

ratibus vacando, amborum vigilantia, ceieritas, diligentia 

fuit suspicienda. c I o. I o. cvi. 

Besides in the inside of the Palace I read this inscription 
written in a new wall that includeth part of the court 
betwixt two golden scutchins over the dore. Atrii hujus 
quod conficiendum supererat, ne suo ornamento destitutum 
squaleret, Justinianus Contarenus Prsetor, & Daniel Del- 
phinus Prsefectus, unanimes onmi cultu perfectum D. M. 
D. CIII. 

In another wail of the court right opposite unto this, 
many Noblemens armes are very gallantly painted, 
amongst the rest the spread-Eagle about the toppe of the 
wail, under which this is written. Aquilae bicipitis pectori 
Justinianorum prisci stemmatis quse cernis afi&xa insignia. 
Mapheus Justinianus dum pro Veronensibus contra Bebra- 
censes strenu6 pugnat, parto hostiimi vexillo hsc sibi 
bellica virtute vendicavit, M. C C. L. 
Greai store •/ Jn a lower roome which is on the riffht hand of the court 
-«»'*•• as you come in from the street, I obLved great store of 

munition, especially great pieces of Oroinance upon 

wheeles, and lesser, as sakers, &c. that roome being wholly 

replenished with filrniture for war-fer^. ^ ^ 

7hi Piazza. The Piazza or the publike walke without the Palace is a 

faire place, paved al with bricke. In iength it is three- 
score and seven paces : in bredth five and forty. And it is 
on every side indosed with goodly buildings. At the East 
with the Praetors Palace, at the West with a certaine 
goodly auncient building that serveth for publique uses. 
At the South with the Praefectus Palace, at the North with 
the Councell house, which is a very faire building, having 
foure beautifuH windowes in the front, and a goodly walke 

26 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

adomed with ninc stately pillars of blcw and porphyric 
marblc that make eight faire arches. Over the gate of the 
Councell house this inscription is written above two golden 
scutchins: Ubique simul. [p. 319.] 

And againe^ this under thc same in golden lctters upon 
an azure ground. Pro sununa 

fidc 

Summus amor, 

M. D. XCII. 

Also the higher part of thc front is garnished with five ^«'^ heauHfki 
beautiful marble statucs of certaine famous learned men '^^'- 
borne in this noble City, who with the excellent monu- 
ments of thcir wit have much ennobled their Country. 
The first is of Marcus Vitruvius, who hath written ten 
bookes of Architecture, being next to the Palace wall of 
the Praetor. Next to him, Valerius Catullus the Poet. 
The third Caius Plinius the Historiographer. The foiu^th 
^mvlius Maccr the Poct that wrote certaine poems of 
hearbes. The last, Cornelius Nepos an eloqucnt Poet in 
thc time of Cicero. Also there is another or Hieronymus 
Fracastorius, erectcd over a stately arch that standeth at the 
west end of thc Councell house. 

I saw thc monuments of two of the noble Scaiigers of Monmnents rf 
Verona in a little Churchyard, adjoyning; to thc Church ^ ^^^^- 
called Maria Antiqua, but a little way oistant from that 
Palace, wherc they livcd in former times, which now 
belongeth to the Venetian Capitano, as I have before said. 
Thc fairest whereof is that of^ Mastinus Scaliger, standing 
at one corner of the Churchyard, which is such an exceef 
ing sumptuous Mausoleum that I saw not the like in Italy. 
It is supportcd with sixe stately pillars of porphyrie marblc, 
without the which are sixe sumptuous pillars more very 
curiously wrought with prety works and borders. At the 
topjpe ot which outward pillars are certaine littie pinnades, 
eacn whcrcof sustaineth an image of an armcd man 
made in alabaster. Also above tnose sixe piilars there 
is a marvailous rich worke made of alabaster, whereon 

«7 



S' 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

[p. 320.] there stand more images very exquisitely carved. 

Upon the toppe of ail, even upon a little pinnade 
^^^** standeth the statue of Mastinus Scaliger himselfe on 
scaliffr. horsebacke made of alabaster. It doth very neare 

represent the living shape of him. For it is said 

that it was made in his life time. In the lower part of 

the monument this Epitaph is written. 

Caligera de gente fui, celebrique ferebar 
Nomine Mastinus, claras dominabar in urbes. 
Me Dominum Verona suum, me Brixia vidit, 
Parmaque cum Luca, cum Feltro Marchia tota. 
Jura dabam populis equo libiamine nostris 
Omnibus, & fidei, & Christi, sine sorde secutor. 
Occubui prim6 post annos mille trecentos 
£t decies quinque, heu, lux ibat tertia Juni. 

The other monument is of Canis Grandis, or Magnus 

MaffiMs Scaliger, which standeth in another corner of the same 

^ ^^^' Churchyard right opposite unto this, the same being a 

very magnificent thing adorned with many piUars and 

statues of marble, but something inferioiir to this. There 

also is this Epitaph. 

I Canis hic grandis ingentia facta peregit, 
Marchia testis adest quam saevo Marte subegit, 
Scaligeram qui laude domum super astra tulisset, 
Majores si Farca dies infida tulisset : 
Hunc Julii geminata dies undena peremit, 
Jam lapsis septem quater annis mille trecentis. 

Also there is a third monument of another Scaliger 
Prince, called Canis Signorius; which is erected direcdy 
over the Church dore, the Epitaph whereof I could not 
perfectljr reade. 

This City in the time of the Roman Monarchy was a 
The fossessors long time subject to the Romans. Afterward it was pos- 
ofFermi. ses^ by the Ostrogothes, and after them by the 

Longobardes, whose first King Alboinus kept his Court 
here. At last they gave place to the successors of Carolus 
Magnus, as Pipin his sonne, Prince Berengarius and 

28 



S' 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

othcrs, that kept their Couit here. After them, it came [p. 3^1-] 
into the hands of the Tyrant Ezzelinus : who being acain 
dispossessed, these Scaliger Princes (of whom I have bcfore 
spoken) and others of the same faniihr had the soveraigne 
dominion of this City for the space of two hundred yeares, 
till Joannes Galeatius Viscount of Milan abrogated their 
governement in the time of Antonius Signorius Scaliger 
about the yeare 1396. After which time the said Galea- 
tius swayed Verona eighteene yeares. But as soone as he 
was dead, one of the Scaligers recovered it a^ne. The 
same being made away with poyson, Franas Carrarius 
enjoyed the Principality halfe a yeare. But the Venetians 
beine; exasperated against him for Scaliger^s unnatiirall 
death, deposed him againe about the yeare 1405. and 
governed the same till the yeare 1509. Then it was seven 
yeares subject to the Emperour Maximilian, who in the 
yeare 1517- restored it to the Venetians, that have con- 
tinually from that time to this present day enjoyed the 
possession thereof . 

The principaU market pkce of the City is very faire, ^'Jlf'^^*^ 
which I take occasion to mention by reason of a notable ** ' ^'' 
thing that I observed there tending to idolatry. For on 
the tront of a iaire house adjoining to this market place, 
there standeth the image ot the virgin Mary, made in 
white marble with Christ in one arme, and a booke in one 
of her hands. Under the which this superstitious inscrip- 
tion is written concerning the adoration of the same 
image. 

Quisquis 

Sacram hanc B. M. Imaginem 
Sole occidente 

Comprecatus fuerit, 
Huic 

Centum dies 

£x esl pcenitentia 

Quam acturus erat, 

Indulgentur. [p. 322.] 

Francisco Veritate Com. Praetore. cb.b.c.vii. 

«9 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

A little above this inscription this is written in gold 
letters. 

Diplomate Pauli V. Pontifids Maxi. 

Againe on the right hand of the image this. 

Mariae 
Quae est maxinia, 
Virgini, Christi matri, 
Auxiliatrici, Conservatrici, 
Placide, propitiae, seamde, 
Quam quotidi^ statd horiL 
Prostrati homines adoranto ; 
Incorporati omnes negociatores 

Stipe collata 
Signum hoc marmoreum, 
P. Paulo Malaspina Praet. 

Inchoatum 
Vincentio Manuello Juriscon. Praef. 

Perfectum 
Poni curaverunt 

Reverendissimi 
Joannes Baptista Arnoldus, Joannes Baptista Tachetus, 
Joannes Pona, Franciscus Lutiascus, Natalis Roccaius, 
Laiirentius Tudeschinus, clo.Io.cvii. Cal. Augusti. 

Also I saw about the middle of the same market place 

J pkMmt a marvailous pleasant fountaine, adomed with a very 

^■"^^" andent marble image, wearing a crowne upon her head; 

that is said to be a representation of Verona. From divers 

spouts of this statue, jugis aquse fons doth incessantly flow. 

Besides, at the higher end of this market place there is 

erected a very stately marble pillar with the winged Lyon 

advanced upon it. And in a Gentlemans house of the City 

but a little way from that, I saw a very beautifuU paire of 

winding stayres, made by that singular architect Andreas 

[p. 323.] Palladius, which by reason of the curious workemanship 

thereof are much shewed to stranmrs. 

There are some Jewes in this aty, though not so many 
as in Venice or Padua, who are shut up £rom the Christians 

30 




■ OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

ih their Ghetto by three gates ; upoti one whereof, which ''■*' G-*''» «/ 
standeth at one end of their street, I read this inscription. '*' ^'^'- 
Auctore Patre nostro piissimo Augustino Valerio Car- 
dinali optimo, Judfei hunc in locum publico Municipum 
Principisque decreto condusi sunt : Julio Csesare Nogarola 
Comite Antonio Fontanelo Jurisconsulto Gratia-Deo Ram- 
baldo Cur. cId.Io.Ic. Catharino Zeno PrKtore, Petro 
Mauroceno PrEcfecto. At another end is erected another 
gate right opposite unto this, at the toppe whereof this is 
written. Religionis ergo septum hoc ex Decurionum 
pkcito Senatusque Veneti authoritate decretum optimo 
nvente Deo ac Augustino Valerio Cardinali amplissimo 
Pastoralibus officlis, adjuvante Catharino Zeno Prsetore, 
Mauroceno Prasfecto. Julii Cssaris NogarolE Com. M. 
Antoni Fontaneli I c. Gratia-Dei Rambaldi Prxsidum 
curil perfectum conspicitur, cIo.Id.Ic. 

The buildings of this city, especially those that belong ^^*' bnildings 
to the Gentlemen, are very feire, being for the most part ^ '"^' 
built with bricke : though I have seene some of the 
Gentlemens houses built with passing feire stone, and 
richly adorned with many goodly marbie pillars; the pen- 
tices or eavisses of their houses being much broader then 
I have obscrved in other cities. AIso many of their 
outward walles and their chimneys are very fairely painted, 
which giveth great ornament to their houses. I observed 
one Palacc amongst the rest beautified with a passing faire 
front, which was contrived wholy with pointed diamond 
worke. Thc like whcrcof I have before mentioned both in 
onc of the outward bulwarks of the castle of Milan, & 
in the east front of the Dukc of Venices Palace. But that 
diamond worke was made only in a littlc part of each front, [p- 3>4-l 
even about the lower end. But this whole front was 
adorned with it from the bottome to the very toppe, 
which yeelded admirable gracc to the edifice. 

In another front of one of their houses I read this pro- 
phesie of Christ, written under the picture of Sybilla 
Tyburtina. Virgo concipiet. TktCctkedral 

I was in their Domo, which is their Cathedral Church Ckunh. 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 



The Bishop of 
Ferma, 



[P- 3*5-] 
Eufrofitu 

firstpnachid 

thi gupel in 

rtrOM* 



dedicated to om Lady ; a very auncient and goodly build- 
ing, wherein are shewed some notable monuments. But 
that which is most of all esteemed and reverenced of the 
Citizens, is the Sepulchre of Pope Lucius the third of that 
name, which I saw. This Lucius died in Verona, Anno 
MCLxxxv. when he came thither to prodaime a generall 
Councell, Urban the third being substituted in his place. 
But that elegant Epitaph which is written upon his tomb 
I did not observe, being afterward bestowed upon me by a 
friend of mine, even this : 

Luca dedit lucem tibi Luci, Pontificatum 
Ostia, Papatum Roma, Verona mori. 

Im6 Verona dedit tibi veri vivere, Roma 
Exilium, curas Ostia, Luca mori. 

The fairest Organs that I saw in Italy dr in any other 
country, are in this Domo. 

The name of him that was Bishop of Verona when I 
was there, was Albertus Valerius, being successor to 
Augustinus Valerius, that was afterward made Cardinal. 
His Palace is neare to the Domo, the front whereof is very 
faire, having foure stately pillars of marble at the entrance, 
which are supported with two great square bases of the 
like marble, in one whereof this inscription is written : 

Probis 
Improbisque 
Par aditus ; 
Dispar 
Exitus. 

This city first received the Gospell by the preachinff of 
Eupropius, who was sent thither fi-om Rome by &nt 
Peter. Since which time they have had many godly and 
learned Bishops, whereof thirty sixe have bin canonized 
for Saints, by reason of the great holinesse of their lives. 
The chiefest of them all being Saint Zeno, the numen 
tutelare or protector of Verona, who was a godly Bishop 
of this citie, and a faithfuU Martyr of Christ, who suffered 

3« 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

in the seventh persecution of the Church undcr the 

Emperour Decius, unto whom King Pipin above saide 

built a very sumptuous Church at the West end of the 

Citie, which is beautified with many goodly ornaments. 

In the front thereof about the entrance of the same many 

religious histories are presented in Alabaster. Also the 

first gate is a worke of great sumptuousnesse, being decked 

with many pretty iittle peeces of brasse, wherein many 

notable histories of the bible are passing curiously de- 

scribed : likewise at the sides of this gate there are carved 

two exceeding great Lyons in red Marble, that sustaine 

two goodly pillars. Within thc Church there is an extra- 

ordinary grcat front made of porphyrie. In a low crypta 

or vault of this Church I saw the monument of Saint MimumtittBf 

Zeno, & againe above nearc to the quire his statue made ^' ""■ 

in stone with a miter upon his head. He is pourtrayed 

laughing and looking very pleasantly, in his left hand he 

held a reeden rcd, the top whereof was pretily made with 

bone finely wrought, which indeed was nothing else but 

thc top of his Crosier: at the ende hanged a counterfeited 

Trowte, in token that hee was much delighted in taking 

of Trowtes, as a Benedictine Monke tolde me. There I 

read this inscription, Anno Dom. trccentessimo primo 

Beatus Zeno moritur duodecima Aprilis. 

I saw the monument of King Pipin whom I have before Monumeni o/ 
mentioned, the sonne of Carolus Magnus, in a little Cell '"^ ''*"■ 
adjoyning to this Church ; this sepulchre is supported with 
foiire prety pilJars of marble. AU strangers that are 
admitted to the sight of this tombe, doe first enter by a dorc [p- 316.] 
that is most commonly locked, into a greene rude Court, 
and so descend by a paire of staires of some tenne or twelve 
grecses. There is great store of water oftentimes hard by 
the monument issuing out of the spring in the same place, 
as there was when I was there, which certainc Monkes 
tolde me is of great vertue to cure sundry diseases, 
This King dyed in Milan (as I have before said in my 
description thcreof) but his body was afterward removed 
hither, and interred in this place, according to his owne 
C.C IL 33 c 



I 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



A marbli 
tabemack. 



Churchof 
S, AnastasUh 



[P- 3»7-] 



request in his death-bed. For Pipin so deardy loved 
Verona, that he kept his royall Court sometimes therein. 

In the quire of this Church I observed an admirable faire 
marble tabernacle that belongeth to the Benedictine 
Monks, the fairest that ever I saw made of marble. It is 
beautified with two exceeding rich marble pillars, which 
although they are but little, yet by reason of the adinirable 
curiosity of the worke formed therein by the hand of Dame 
Nature her selfe, and distinguished with passing variety of 
fine colours ; they are esteemed so predous, that fbr them 
and the tabernade it selfe a certaine Gentleman of Venice 
ofi^ered three thousand crownes, as one of the Monkes 
told me. 

I was in the Ch\irch of Saint Anastasia that belongeth 
to the Dominican Fryers, a building of notable magnifi- 
cence. In the body of the Churci I observed twelve 
exceeding huge pillars of marble which were the greatest 
that ever I saw, even greater then those two famous piUars 
of Phrygian marble in Saint Markes place in Venice, neare 
to the Adriatique gulfe, which I have before mentioned in 
mv description of Venice. Sixe of these stand in one side 
of the Church, and as many in another. At one side of 
the Church I saw a marvailous faire monument of Janus 
Fregosius Prince of Genua, adomed with fbure most 
sumptuous pillars of Alabaster, and an excellent ima^ of 
himselfe made of the same matter, with a trunchion m his 
hand, and a crested hehnet upon his head. At the top of 
the monument this epitaph is written in Touchstone. 

Deo Opt. Maxi. 
Janus Fregosius Lig\u-um Princeps, 
Ac Venetae reipub : terrestrium copiarum 
Omnium Praefectus, ubi fortissimi Duds offida 
Domi forisque prsestitisset ; Sac. H. T. F. I. 
Hercules fihus paternae pietatis memor. F. 
I observed foiire passing beautifull piUars of a flesh- 
coloured marble at one of the Altars of the body of this 
Church, which are estimated at three hundred crownes a 
peece. 

34 



■ OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 1 

"-In the Monastery of the Olivetan Benedictine Monkes \ 

which are attyred with white vailes made of a kinde of Say ] 

and copes of the same, I saw a most sumptuous paire of Sumptum I 
Organs, and a very admirable workemanship in certaine '^i^'- J 
wainescot piilars in their closet, where their priest did put -^ 

on his roabes for the celebration of masse. M 

Also I visited the Monastry of the Bartholomsean I 

Monkcs seated up>on a hill on the farther side of the -1^1 

Athesis, and I observed their fountaines which they told *l 

me arc of singular efficacie for the curing of certaine I 

infirmities. I 

I was admitted into the most magnificent Palace of ^^' 'f \ 
Count Augustinus Justus, but not without some favour, J^fy,^ I 
There I saw stones with very ancient inscriptions, which I j^itui. 1 
could not reade by reason of the antiquitie of them. Also I 

I was shewed a certaine higher roome in the Palace which J 

was a place of that singular glory, that I saw not the like ■ 

in any private house of Italy, the beauty thereof consisting I 

especially of pictures which hanged round about the roome, i ■ 

beeing in number one hundred fifty nine, and such as repre- 1 

sented some of the worthiest and most eminent persons of ^ 

the world in divers ages. There I saw many of the Roman ' 

Emperours most exquisitely painted, and some of the fP- J^^-J 
German Emperors, and Kings of Spaine : also Kings of ^^^lj^ 
France : many Dukes of Venice, and divers Popes : of our 
Enelish Kings but one. and that was King Henry the 
ejghth. But the Italian painter erred, for the picture more 
truely represented Henry the seventh, then H. the eighth. 
There I saw the three femous Scaligers of Verona, whom 
I have before mentioned, Mastinus, Grandis Canis, and 
Canis Signorius ; the pictures of sixe of the most Six grtat 
renowned great Turkes. Of Totylas King of the '^ ' 
Gothes. Of Alchitrof King of jEthiopia. Of Muleamet 
Scirisso King of Marocco. Of Scanderbeg. Of David 
dc Degli Abissini the present Presbyter John. Of Tam- 
berlan. Of Gattamelita the Generall of the Venetians 
land forccs. Of Sinan Bascia a famous Captaine of the 
great Turke, and many other fine pictures representing 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

persons of both sexes that will miich delight a cuiious 
traveller. Therefore I counsell thee whatsoever thou art 
that meanest in thy travels to see Verona, to make meanes 
to bee admitted into the Palace of Count Augustinus 
Justus, and to see this noble and glorious roome befbre 
thou dost come forth of it : fbr many English gentlemcn 
have seene it, as the Italian told me tluit shewed it to me. 
ThePalaci fi^^ the Italian shewed me his garden, which is a 
garden. second Paradise, and a passing delectable place of sohoe, 
beautified with many curious knots, fruites of divers sorts 
and two rowes of lofty Cypresse trees, three and thirty in 
a ranke. Besides his walkes at the toppe of the nrden a 
little under St. Peters Castle, are as pleasant as ue heart 
of man can wish ; being decked with excellent fruites, as 
Figges, Oranges, Apricockes, and with Cypresse trees. In 
one of these walkes is a delicate litle refectory : at one side 
whereof there is a curious artificiali rocke, adomed with 
many fine devices, as scoilop shels, and great variety of 
other prety shels of fishes brou^ht from Cyprus: and 
mosse groweth upon the same as ir it were a naturall rocke. 
[p. 3*9-] This place certainely is contrived with as admirable curio- 
sity as ever I saw, and moystened with delicate springs and 
fountaines conveighed into the same by leaden pipes. I 
J have seene in England one place something like to this, 
even in one of the gardens of^that noble knight Sir Fiands 
Carew of Middlesex, who hath one most excellent rocke 
there framed all by arte, and beautified with many el^^ant 
conceits, notwithstanding it is somewhat inferiour unto 
this. A^ine in another walke I saw his fine cha{^)ell, 
wherein his Chaplaine doth often say Masse to him. 
Amiumfid \ observed a very moximefuU shew performed by 
sfectacie. Monkes in Verona. For I saw eighteene couples of them 
accompany a corse of one of their Fraternity to Church, 
being attired with blacke buckram vailes, and marked with 
the signe of the starre on the left side of their breasts, girt 
with a blacke girdle, their heads covered with a bbicke 
hood that came over all their shoulders, and hid all their 
face. Before their eyes were made two holes to looke out : 

36 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

i of them carryed a burnitig candle in his hand of virgin 
waX) and some of them three candles, and there was put 
into every candle two peeces of their little tin money cafled 
gazets. 

This citie was besieged by the Emperour Charlemaine 
shortly after the batteTl betwixt him and Desiderius the 
kst King of the Longobardes neare the citie of Vercellis, 
whereof 1 have before made mention. At what time 
Adalgisius the sonne of the said Desiderius having escaped 
by flight from the foresaid battell, fortified himserfe herein 
together with Queene Berta the Wife of Carolomannus, 
who was the eldest brother of the Emperour Charlemaine. 

But Charlcmaine without any long siege got the citie 
into his possession, because the citizens yeelded them- 
selves unto his mercy, Also it was besieged about onc 
hundred and fourteene yeares after that time by the Em- 
perour Arnolphus, who by Berengarius Duke of Forum 
Julii, now calied Friuli (a Prince that sometimes in those 
daies kept his court in this city) was sollicited to come into 
Italy with an army of men to aide him in his warres against 
his gTcat femulus Guido Duke of Spoleto who contended 
with him for the Kingdome of Italy : but the citie received 
no great hurt by his siege ; for it quickly yeelded it selfe 
into thc hands of the Emperour, as it did before to Charle- 
maioe. 

Ncare this citie was fought a great battell, anno 778. 
betwixt the Emperour Charles the second surnamed the 
Batdi and the two sonnes of his brother Lewes surnamed 
Germanicus, whose names were Caroloman and Charles : 
in this batteil (which was fought about two years after the 
greal battell waged at the towne of Andernach in Ger- 
roany, which I will hereafter mention in my notes of the 
samc place, betweene the said Emperour and his Nephew 
Lcwes another of these Princely brethren) was the Emper- 
our conqucred by his Nephewes, and shamefuUy put to 
flight, shortly after the which he died in Mantua, as I have 
bcTore written. 

Herc Philippus Arabs, the first Christian Emperour was 
37 




[p. 330.] 



A great baiile 
A.D. 778. 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

slaine by Decius the Captaine of his fbrces in IllTricum, 
and afterward his successor in the Empire. Here also 
Deatk of Alboinus the first King of the Longobards died an un- 
AlMnus, naturall death. For wnereas the saia King, after hc had 
taken the iamous citie of Pavie by a long siege out of 
the hands of Longinus the first Exarch of Ravenna, kept 
his court in this citie of Verona, and solaced himselfe 
with feastes and banquets: he compelled his wife Rosa- 
munda to drinke one day at table out of the * skull of her 
father Cunimundus, whom a little before he had slaine : 
for the which his Queene intending to be revenged upon 
him for that most inhumane and oarbarous injury, con- 
spired with one Hehnichildus a noble Longobard, to kill 
the King her husband, with promise both to many him 
if he would execute the matter, & to bestow the Kingdome 
of Lombardy upon him. Whereupon Heknichildus being 
[p. 331O tempted with this faire ofi^er, miudered Alboinus, as he 
was asleepe in his bedde. And so by this meanes he 
obtained indeede the marriage of the Queene, but not 
the possession of the Kingdome. For being constrayned 
to flie away presently after he had committed this bloody 
Queen assassination, he came with his wife Rosamxmd to Ravenna 
ie«.W. ,0 ^^ Court\)f Longinus before named, where after th^ 
had remayned a little while, Longinus falling in love with 
the Queen, perswaded her, to the end he might the sooner 
enjoy her in marriage, to poyson her new husband Heknil- 
childus. The Queene shortly after delivered her husband 
a poysoned cup as he came one day out of a bath, which 
when he had greedily dranke, and now perceived the 
violent efi^ect of the poyson, he compels Kosamund to 
drinke the rest; so that she died presently with her 
husband. Here Ludovicus King of Italy, the sonne of 
Boson King of Province, by his wife Hermingardis 

* The like ezample I have read of the sknll of the Greeke Emperour 
Nicephonis who succeeded the Empresse Irene, and divided the Empire 
with Charlemaine. For after he was slaine by the Balgarians the King 
of Bulgaria did set his skull in a plate of silver, and commonly dranke 
in the same at his banqnets instead of a cappe. Carion. Chronic. lib. 4. 

38 



OBSERVATIONS OF VERONA 

daughter to the Emperoiir Charles the second svirnamed 
the Bald (whom I have before mentioned) had his eies 
plucked out of his head by Duke Berengarius before 
named. 

Besides those famous learned men borne in Verona, that 
I have above mentioned, with many other most excellent 
wittes, that it hath ever bredde from time to time, I have 
often read of two most worthy women borne in this city, ^«^ vmtkf 
whereof each was esteemed the Phoenix of her time for *^^- 
learning, with mention of whom I wiU end this description 
of Verona ; the one was called Isota Nogarola a * virgin, 
who attained to so great knowledge, that she was very 
eloquent in the Greeke and Latin tongues, and wrote 
manv excellent Latin Epistles to Nicolas, the fifth Pope 
of tnat name. Also she composed an elegant Dialogue, 
wherein she disputed the matter, who committed the 
greatest sinne Aciam or £ve. The other was f Genebria, 
who in the time of Pius the second of that name Pope, 
wrote sundry Latin Epistles with a most elegant stile; 
which two women have no lesse ennobled this famous 
dtie, with their learning then Aspasia, and Diotima, did [p« SS^*] 
Athens, Comelia, Rome, Cassandra Venice, or Hilde- 
gardis the citie of Bing in Germany. 

Thus much of Verona. 

IRemained in Verona all Friday after nine of the docke 
in the moming, all Saturday, and departed therehence 
upon Sunday being the fourteenth day of August, about 
one of the docke in the afternoone, and came to a little 
towne called Desensan, in Latin Desentianum, which is Deseman. 
subject to the Venetians, and two and twenty miles beyond 
Verona, about eight of the clocke in the evening. In this 
space I observed onely a faire Fortresse of the Venetians 
at a towne called Peschiera, fourteene miles from Verona : PescMgrs. 
the other things were ordinary, as faire Vineyards, 8«:. 

* Falgosns liU 8. cap, 3« Memorabiliam. 
t Gesneras Biblioth. 

39 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

This towne Desentianum is situate neare to the eoodly 
lake Garda heretofore called Benacus, which Virgilmen- 
tioneth in these wordes : 

Fluctibus, & fremitu assurgens Benace marino. 

The first name Benacus was imposed upon it fit>m a towne 
so called, and also the new name Garda fi^om a towne 
situate neare to it, which retaineth that name at this day. 

^^ ^ This lake is called in the Italian Lago di Gardo ; it is said 

to be thirty five miles long, and in some places fi)urteene 
broad. I heard that it is commonly esteemed the noblest 
Lake of all Italy, and some doe not sticke to prefisrre it 
before the famous Lacus Larius, now called Lago di Como. 
The fidre River Mincius that numeth by Mantua (of 
whom I have before made mention) issueth out of this 
Lake : it is oftentimes very rough and boysterous, inso- 
much that at sometimes of the yeare it is very dangerous 
for passengers to passe that way. The cause of which 
roughnesse is ascribed unto the high clifiFes that indose it 

[p- 333*] on both sides, and interclude the windes, who having not 

the liberty there as in the open sea, doe extremely tosse 

GoUen sandi. up and downe the waters. It yeeldeth golden sands iike 

those of Tagus by Lisbone, and Pactolus by Sardis in 
Lydia. Also it aboimdeth with fish, especialiy Carpes, 
Troutes, and Eeles. This lake is very memorable for one 
thing, to wit, for a fiunous victory gotten near imto it of 
the Germanes, by that worthy and victorious Emperour 
Flavius Claudius the successor of Galien, of whom the 
liistorians do write he partly slew and partly tooke captive 
two himdred thousand. 

I departed fi-om Desentianum the next day beinc 
munday, and the fifteenth day of August about seven of 
the docke in the morning, and came to Brixia, commonly 

Bmcia. called Bressa, being eighteene miles beyond it, about two 

of the clocke in the afternoone : in which space I observed 
nothing memorable, but onely some few ruinous Castles, 
which seeme to be buildings of great antiquity. 

40 



OBSERVATIONS OF BRESCIA 

My Observations of Brixia. 

Julius Cssar Scaliger hath written this Hexastichon upon 

Brixia. 

QUae pingues scatebras specula despectat ab aTta SeaUget^s 
Postulat imperii Brixia magna vices. ^Brescia^ 

Ccelum hilanun, frons Iseta urbi, gens nescia fraudis. 

Atque modum ignorat divitis uber agri. 
Si regeret patrias animis concordibus oras, 
Timc poterat Dominis ipsa jubere suis. 

This citie standeth in that part of Lombardy which is 
called Longobardia Transpadana, because it is beyond the 
river Po, and is situate in a plaine at the foote of a hill, 
being in compasse three miles. It was first founded by Bnscia 
the aundent Gaules called Cenomani, though some doe fi^^^h^^ 
write it was a Colony of the Romans. I heard that there ^ ' 
are some notable antiquities and inscriptions in this citie, [p. 334.] 
but I must intreat thee (gentle Reader) to pardon me 
although I doe not conununicate them to thee. For I 
made so short aboad in the Citie, that I could not observe 
halfe so much as I would have done if I had remained 
there but one whole day. 

It is invironed with strong walles, wherein there are 
five gates, and fbrtified with a most impregnable Castle 
that standeth upon a hiU, built ail with free-stone. Also 
it is weli watered with pleasant springs and sweete fbun- 
tains, as any citie I saw in Italy, nay none the like. Which 
flow incessantly from many fine Conduits in sundry 
maricet-places, and it is moystened with a river cailed 
Garza, which indeed is but little, yet very conunodious 
to the Citie. 

The Palace wherein the Venetian Praetor and Praefectus ^^f of 
doe lie (for here both have but one Palace, though in ^'^^^^- 
othCT dties they have two) is a simiptuous building, and 
fumished with great store of munition and artillery. At 
the west gate thereof , which is most conunonly guarded 
a guard of Souldiers that doe attend there all the day 

4« 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

with Partizans in their handes, I read this inscription over 
a Scutchin on the right hand as I went into the court. 

Dux, Heros, Scriptor Paruta, 
Regis, geris, edis, 
Urbem, res, libros, 
Imperio, arte, manu. 

And this a little under the same, 

Fide, Virtute, Integritate, spectatissimo viro 
Paulo Parute hujus iirbis rraefecto 
Optimc merito, anno Dom. M.D.Lxxxxi. 

Tke Pakce Xhe Palace court is thirty sixe paces long and forty broad, 
^^* and all the wals round about are adorned with sundry 
armes of the Venetian Gentlemen. Also in the middle of 
[p. 335-] the coiirt there is an ex;ceeding pleasant Conduit that 
spowteth out water in three degrees one above another; 
in the second degree are sixe prety pipes, out of the which 
the water doth most abundantly flow: also the higher 
part doth exceeding pleasantly powre out water. At the 
west end of the Palace in the outside of the wall, this is 
written under the winged Lyon. 

iEterne pacis, justitie, libertatisque Defensor. 

Over the dore of the Praetors chamber I read this impresse. 

Diligite justitiam qui judicatis terram. 

Armowr. I went into one of the Praetors inner roomes, which I 

saw furnished with armoiir round about all the walles, as 
helmets, costlets, and other armour fbr armes and thighes, 
which served only for horsemen. The like armour also 
was on both sides of the entry within that roome, which 
leadeth to the lodgings of the Prsefectus. Under which 
armoiir I saw on both sides launces and speares fbr horse- 
men. At the north side there is a goodly brasen dore 
made like a latteise window, throuj^h me which I saw five 
faire roomes more, passing well mrnished with armour. 
At that gate are exceeding faire pillars of blacke marble, 

42 



OBSERVATIONS OF BRESCIA 

interlaced with prety white vaines. Many fine pictures 
of armed men are made by the sides of that northerne 
dore. Opposite imto this roome is another faire chamber, 
the roofe whereof is curiously adorned with excellent 
pictures. 

Their principall market place is very faire, at one corner Principal 
whereof there standeth a goodly high pillar of free-stone, ^^^^P^^- 
whereon the winged Lyon is advanced according to the 
custome of the "N^netians, who have erected such a pillar 
in the principall market place of every Citie subject to 
their dominion, as I have before mentioned in Vicenza 
and Verona. At the west end of this market place there 
standeth a most stately Councell house, which was very 
faire, and covered with lead before it was burnt. But 
they have reedified and marvailously beautified it beneath [p. 33^0 
with goodly pillars, and above round about with borders 
and workes in great arches, and with marble pillars and 
images of admirable curiosity, representing some of the 
auncient Roman Emperours, so passin^ faire that I have 
scarce seene a more curious and artifiaall architecture in 
Italy, saving the Amphitheater of Verona, the Palace of 
Padua, and some few of the Venetian buildings. 

In the Domo which is dedicated to our Lady I saw a Cathidral 
very faire monument of Francis Maurocenus their last ^*^^* 
Bishop, who was also Cardinall. His statue is erected 
above a most beautiful stone wherein his Epitaph is 
written : and above the same his Cardinals hat and armes. 
His Epitaph is this. 

D. T. V. 

Joanni Francisco Mauroceno 

Patricio Veneto 
Prisca gentis nobilitate, vitse sanctitate, 
Religione, omnique virtutum genere, 

Ac rerum gestarum gloria clarissimo. 
Qui post amplissimas in dabaudia, Gallia, 
Hispania, Polonia, Constantinopoli reipub. nomine 
Singulari cum integritate, fide, prudentia, 

43 



CORYAT^S CIUJDITIES 

Animi excelsi atque invicti magnitudine, 
Ac denique onmium approbatione, 
Obitas legationes; 
A Gr^oria XIII. ultr6 designatus, 
Mox k Sixto V creatus 

Brixiensis Episcopus, 
£t ab eodem in Gallia iterum ad Henricum IIL 
Summa cum potestate difficillimis temporibus missus 
Re felicit^ gesta, absens extra ordmem 
S. R. l£. Cardinalis 
Ingenti cum onmium bonorum acclamatione factus est, 
£t simul 
Legatus k Latere. 
337.] Ad extremum omnibus vitae ornamentis ciunulatus 
In £cclesiaB susgremio incredibili ejusdem 
Ac totius Venetae atque ade6 ChristianaB Reipub. 

Merore, 
Verus Gregis Pastor, ac liberaliss, pauperum Pater, 
£x hac vita adeternam demigravit, 
Anno cId. I3. Xcvi. Men. Janu. die xiiii. 
Pauperes hujus Civitatis Brixice 

Hacredes ab eo ex asse instituti. 
Ope Marini Georgii ipsius Cardinalis Consob. 

£t in £piscopatu Successoris 
Parenti optimo grati animi monumentum P. 
Vixit Ann. Iviii. Men. iii. Di. xv. 
Sedit Ann. x. Men. i. Di. ix. 
/ Emperor In this Domo is kept a very memorable monument (if 
nstaHtin/s that were true which the Brixians do report of it, as 
without doubt it is absolutely false) namely the Crosse 
that was presented unto the £mperour Constantine in the 
south part of heaven, about the going downe of the sun, 
at what time he marched with his army towards Rome, to 
joyne battell with Maxentius. In which Crosse these 
characters were plainly seene : In hoc signo Constantine 
vinces. The Brixians doe call this Crosse whereof they 
so much boast, Oroflamma, which signifieth the golden 
Flame, &c. and they affirme that it representeth the colour 

44 



ts. 



OBSERVATIONS OF BRESCIA 

of heaven. Albeit I hold this tradition to be a 
meere, yea, a very erosse figment (fbr what wise 
man that hath his wit in his head and not in his 
heele, will beleeve that this should be the very same 
heavenly Crosse ? seing we reade that Constantine himselfc 
could not have the same, but in steede thereof made 
another Crosse the next day after of gold and predous 
stone, which was bome before him in steede of a standard, 
Euseb. de vita Constant. lib. i.) yet for the sadsfaction 
of my mind I made meanes to seeit, but I could not 
obtayne the sight thereof, because it is shewed but at 
certayne times. 

The Bishop of Brixia hath many temporall dignities [p. 338.] 
added to his spirituall, so that he is intitled a Duke, 
Marquesse, and Earle. 

I visited the Church of the Dominican Friers* which Ckurckrfthi 
is a very fayre building, the Quire being beautified with *f^'^^* 
many goodly ornaments, amongst the rest their new taber- 
nacle is a very glorious piece of worke. One of the 
Friers told me that they keepe a bone of one of Mary 
Magdalens armes here : but I could not obtaine the cight 
of it, because it is shewed but at certaine times. 

The nimnenr which is dedicated to the holy Martyr St. 
Julia, is a building of great antiquity. For it was b\iilt 
by Desiderius the last King of the Longobards in the 
time of Carolus Magnus, about the yeare 750. The 
Church thereof hath beene lately renewed and beautified 
at the charges of the Nunnes. Upon the firont I read 
this inscription. 

Relicto Templo quod Desiderius 
Rex Salvatori erexerat, 
Hoc nobilius Deo & Sanctae Juliae 
Dicatum Sacrse Moniales 
Construxerant. An. Sal. cI3.I3.Ic. 

This Nunnery hath beene in times past a receptacle of NtiMnfrj 0/ 
many royall Laoies, who after their entrance into the same ^* "^*^^- 
spent aU the remainder of their lives there in divine medi- 

45 



CORYATTS CRUDITIES 

so purloyned one of them out, and brou^ht him home 
into England. Which had it been at that time perceived, 
perhaps it might have cost me the lying in the Inquisition 
longer then I would willingly have endured it. 

Thus much of Brixia. 

[p- 341O T Departed from Brixia about eight of the dock in the 
X morning the sixteenth day of August being Tuesday, 

Bergamo. and came to Bergomum commonly called Bergomo the 
last City of the Venetian Signiory about seven of the 
clocke in the evening. The distance betwixt these two 
Cities is thirty miles. I observed in this space great 
abundance of goodly vineyards, which at that time yeoded 
ripe grapes passing faire and sweet. For I did oftentimes 
borrow a point of the law in going into their Vineyards 
without leave, to refi-esh my selfe with some of their 
grapes. Which the Italians like very good fellowes did 
winke at, shewing themselves more kinde unto me then 
the Germans did afterward in Germany, as I will hereafter 
declare in my observations of their country. For they 
will not graunt a stranger that liberty to goe into any of 
their vineyardes without leave, as the ItaCans doe. The 

PiiosMt greatest part of the way betwixt these Cities is as pleasant 

traveutng. ^^ ^^ j ^yelled in Italy. For it is very plaine and even ; 
one spacious lane, on both sides whereof the goodly vine- 

Jrardes grew, extending it selfe about eighteene miles in 
ength. All that day I saw great abundance of people 
;oing to and fro, but especially forward towards Bergomo, 
lecause there was a great faire there at that time; most 
of the horsemen being well appointed with muskets or 
pewternels ready charged, according to that custome of 
the Italians that I have before mentioned. 



48 




OBSERVATIONS OF BEKGAMO 



jKpi 



My Observations of Bergomo. 

fulius CfEsar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 

Bergomo. 

INgenium, corpus, mores, obtutus, amictus, 
Tecta, cibus, gressus, guttura, sermo, sonus : 
'mnia crassa modis insignibus, omnia dura, 
Sic valeant silices ut superare suos. 
[sta domi ; sed vicinus si aspergat acetum, 
Artibus atque dolis vincitur ipse suis- 

This City was built about a hundred and fifty yeares 
bcforc thc incarnation of our Saviour Christ, by one 
Cirinus King of Liguria. It standeth on the side of a 
hill, having in the east and south the pleasant plaine of 
Lombardy before it. So that from many places of this 
City there is as sweet a prospect as any place of Italy 
doth yeeld. In the north and west are great hils that 
leade towards the Alpes. It is devided into two parts, 
the higher and the lower. Unto the higher there is a 
long and ledious ascent. It was my chaunce to bc herc 
at the time of their hir the next day after Barthelmew 
day, which lasteth a whole weeke ; bcing kept in a large 
plaine a little way distant from the lower part of the City, 
This was the greatest iaire that ever I saw in my life, 
except that of Franckford in Germany, whereof I will 
hereafter speake. For there was a great concurse of people 
not onely from the Cities of Lombardy, but also from 
many other principal CitJes of Italy : besides many 
Germans both out of the GrJsons country and Switzerland 
rcpaire hithcr at this time : excecding plenty of all manncr 
of commodities being there sold. 

The first that planted the doctrine of Christian religion 
in the City, and chaced idolatry and Paganisme out of it, 
was St. Barnabas, who preached the Gospell first also at 
Milan. 

Thc Cathedrall Church is dedicated to our Lady, and 
standeth in the higher part of the City : a very notable 




[p. 34»'] 



S. Barthsh- 
mew'i Fair. 




1 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



^^H feire building though but little. At the entrance of the 

^^H north gate there are two feire pillars of red marble, suf>- 

^^H ported with two huge Lyons or the same matter, At the 

■ toppe over an arch which is above the dore, is advanced 

a gallant fellow on horsebacke made in alabaster. One 
[p- i^J-] part of this northerne front on the right hand as you enter 
into the gate, is passing beautiflill, being compacted wholly 
of sundry sorts of marble and alabaster, which doe yecld 
a very glorious shew. The greatest part of it is made 
of checker worke. In the middest of this front is a feire 
round window garnished very excellently with many prety 
pieces of marble, at the sides whereof are erected the 
statues in alabaster of two famous Roman Emperours. 
Julius Caesar on the left hand, under whom this is written 
in great Roman letters : Divus JuUus CEsar. And above 
him this: Imperavit annis V. On the right hand the 
effigies of Trajan, under whom is written : Divus Trajanus 
Augustus. And above : Imperavit Annis XVIII. But 
I perceive that they calculate the time of his raigne within 
compasse. For al the historians write that he raigned 
nineteene yeares and halfe. These statues are made to 
the middle part of their breast and no further, I told 
certaine Italian Gentlemen that observed me writing, they 
were much to blame to erect the images of prophane 
heathen men upon their Church. For although it were 
good to keepe such antiquities, yet they ought not to be 
placed upon Churches where Christ is worshipped ; but 
rather upon their Councell houses, or their private build- 
ings. This part of the frontispice is passing faire, and 
worthy to be noted by an industrious traveller. 

After I entered the north gate I observed in a fiiire litle 
chappell on the right hand of the Church, an exceeding 
Monumeiti of sumptuous monument of Barthelmew Coleon the General 
OiU^'"^'^ Captaine of the Venetians land forces, as I have before 
mentioned in my discourse of Venice. They say it was 
made in his life time by his owne appointment. He is 
represented on horsebacke, all in glittering gold in his 
complete armour that he wore in the field, and his miritary 




OBSERVATIONS OF BERGAMO 

tninchion in his right hand. All this monument is made 
of pure alabaster, wherein are represented many notable 
historics done in the pretiest litle images and works that [p- 3H*] i 
I saw in any City of Italy. The whole worke is supported 
with four alabaster pillars, at the foote whereof are 
expressed the heads of Lyons. At the toppe of all is 
advanced his helmet and crest with his armes, at the sides 
are hanged two auncient banners which are grievously 
rent and torne with antiquity. A little from his Tombe 
there is hanged up a feire cloth of arras, in the middest 
whereof his armes are finely wrought, which are three 
testicles. The reason is, because nature gave him three 
stones, one more then other men have, as I have said 
before in my description of Venice. The monument it 
selfe is a worke of that admirable sumptuousnesse, that I 
esteeme it the fairest I saw in Italy, saving that of Mastinus 
Scalieer in the little Churchyard at Verona. The Epitaph CcWi 
■.selfcUthis. D. O. M. '""^' 

Bartholomjeus Colleonus de Andegavia, virtute immortali- 
tatem adeptus, usque ade6 jure militari fuit illustris, ut 
non modo tum viventium gforlam fonge excesserit, sed & 
posteris spem eum imitandi ademerit. Saepius enim k 
diversis Principibus, ac deinceps ab iUustrissimo Ven. 
Senatu accepto Imperio tandem totius Christianorum 
exercitus, sub Paulo Secundo Pontifice Maximo, delectus 
fuit Imperator: cujus acies 14. annis ab ejus obitu, solo 
jam denincti Imperatoris tanquam vivi nomine militantes, 
jussa cujuscunque alterius contempserunt. Obiit 4. 
Nonas Novembris, Anno Dcmini 1475. 

There are two very sumptuous Pulpits on both sides 
of the Quire without, made of blacke and white marble, 
having faire winding staires to ascend to them, wlth a very 
rich rail at the edge made of brassc, and adorned with 
many curious and fine workes. 

One of the Priests of the City told me that there are AimTabk 
forty Masses said every day in this Church : An admir- ^*^**- 
able devotion cerfainly. The greatest part of them is 
5> 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

celebrated in two little Chappels on both sides of the 

Quire. Where I noted two exceeding curious ndles at 

[p- 345-] the entrance of them, the pillars whereof are made of 

white and blacke marble, and the upper part ex versicolore 

marmore. 

The nofofthi The roofe over the Quire is very beautifully concamer- 

Choir. ated, and richly gilt. Round about the upper end of the 

Quire there is as exquisite a peece of worke as ever I saw 

of that kinde. For a certaine cunning artificer called 

Franciscus de Ferreo monte hath with extraordinary 

curiosity contrived the history of the oreation of the 

world, and many other histories of the old Testament in 

wainscot. So rare a worke that it is most admirable to 

behold. There are also two very rich paire of Organs 

on both sides without the Quire, most sumptuously gilt, 

and imbossed with many very excellent workes. 

The At the west end of the Church right opposite to the 

BafHstery. Quire, I saw a passing faire and auncient Fabricke, built 

of sundry kinds of marble, wherein are baptized the 
children of Noblemen onely. It is an admirable archi- 
tecture, raysed unto such an heigth that it doth even touch 
the roofe of that part of the church where it standeth. 
It is built round and adorned with sixe partitions of little 
marble pillars, whereof many are Porphyrie, each partition 
contaynmg fourteene sevenul pillars. At the toppe there 
standeth me image of an Angell. Againe betwixt every 
partition prety images are nmde in redde marble: Also 
about the middle ofthe worke sixe alabaster images roimd 
about the same, being distant asunder by an equall dis- 
tance. The dore at the entrance is made of brasse, and 
contrived like a Latteise window. I observed in a redde 
marble stone, which is about the foot of this rare worke, 
a notable thing which is not to be omitted, even the true 
resemblance of a serpent, formed more exquisitely in the 
stone by the hand of nature her selfe the most cunning 
architect of all, then the most curious artificer in the world 
could possibly have done. A thing that was shewed me 
[p. 346.] by an Italian, as a matter very worthy my observation. 

5« 



OBSERVATIONS OF BER6AMO 

This piece of marble may be vay propcrly called Ophiti- 
call (of which I have written before in my notes of Venice) 
because it doth so truely present t6v Skjhv^ that is, a 
Serpent. 

The Arras and hangings about this church are as faire as 
I saw in any Church of Italy. 

The Palace of the Bishop of Bergomo, whose name is Bisitf^^s 
Joannes Baptista, doth loyne to our Ladies Church, but ^^'- 
is the basest and most beggarly Palace for a Bishop that 
I saw in Italy. 

I was at the Prsetorium, which is in this higher part 
of the citie, a very obscure and meane Palace, and inferiour 
to all the other Palaces of the Venetian Praetors that I 
saw. The name of the Praetor when I was in Bergomo 
was Vincentius Barocius. 

Hard by our Lady Church there is a stately walke, ^^ 
which I take to be their Exchange, and a place where they ^^^^^- 
meete about their dvill afFaires. It is tairely roofed, & 
sumptuously vaulted, and supported within with two 
degrees of pillars. It is square ; for it is but thirty two 
paces every way. In the middle of the easterne wall, 
which is at the upper end of the walke, I read this inscrip- 
tion upon a large table of Touch-stone. 
Andres Gussono Praetori, 
Viro virtutibus omnibus 
Atque inprimis in hanc patriam 

Charitate insigni. 
Qui pauperes pras fame deficientes 
Ingenio quidem, liberalitate 
Autem maxime sustinuit: 
Qui ne ab ea ampliiis premerentur, 
Ad rem frumentariam 

Viam invenit. 
Qui montem pietatis ad multos 
Annos derelictum, honestiiis 

Qukm antek erexit. 
Qui utriusque fori juribus [p. 347.] 

Consulens, sua cuique 

53 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Hacteniis confusa, distinxit. 
Qui hsec levia existimans 
In commodis nunc aldoribus 
Vires suas omnes contendit. 
B. B. B. D. D. An. P. Chr. Nat. M. D. Lxxxix. 



Churchoftki 

jfuffuthtton 

FrUrs. 



Ambrose 
Calepim, 



[p. 348.] 



I visited the Church of the Augustinian Friers which is 
situate in the middle of the hill, betwixt the higher and 
the lower citie. A little within the entrance of the Church 
there are two faire Fonts of blacke marble that serve for 
their holy water. Their Tabernacle upon their high altar 
is a very cosdy thing. For it cost them two thousand 
duckats, which is two hundred thirty three pound six 
shillings eight pence sterling. Within that Altar there is 
a marvailous rich table, that covereth ahnost all the wall 
of the higher Chappell where their high Altar stsuideth, 
even from the toppe to the ground, being adomed with 
the picture of S. Augustine, and some other Saints. Also 
they have a wonderrull rich paire of Organs lately made, 
and decked with exceeding faire pillars, made indeede but 
of Wainscot, but so curiously handled, that it yeeldeth a 
very faire shew : it is said it shal be all gilt. There are 
twelve Altars in this Church, one against another, sixe in 
each side, made in so many seveiall Chappels; in one 
whereof there lyeth the body of famous Ambrose Calepine 
heretofore one of the Friers of this Monastery. This is 
he that made that notable Latin Dictionary so famous over 
all Christendome, which hath beene since his death so 
inlarged and augmented by the studious labours of other 
learned men, that were he now alive he would scarce know 
his own worke. It grieved me to see how obscurely he 
was buried: For he hath nothing but a flat stone upon 
him, without Epitaph or any other memoriall that might 
derive the fame of so worthy a mans name to future ages. 
All that space of the wall which is betwixt every one of 
those foresaid twelve Chappels, is beautified with a rich 
Taffata hanging: on which there hangeth one of the 
pictures of the twelve Apostles : the whole twelve being 

54 



OBSERVATIONS OF BEHGAMO 

phced upon the twelve severall hangings. Also each of 
these hangings differeth from another in colour. 

Over one of the dores of the Trinity Church, which is Triniiy 
in the 4ower part of the citie, these verses are written : CAMrcA. 

Aurea perpetu6 fiinduntur ab sthere dona 
His adytis : si quidem Romana sacraria Clemens 
Explicuit, sociasque animas effecit & aras. 

Also over the same dore there is an arch, about the edge 
whereof without the same arch, this following is written 
in a roimd compasse : 

O summ^ excellens caelestis gloria regni, 
Quam pius ecce Deus si velit ipse dabit. 

Againe, xmder that, this is written within the arch, a litde 
above the picture of the Virgin Mary, holding Christ in 
her armes: 

Angelicas inter mentes, superasque phalanges. 

Under the same direcdy over the dore as you enter into 
the Church, this Tetrastidie. 

Filia, nupta, parens, magni rectoris Olympi, 

Idem qui natus virque paterque fuit. 
Adsint ut caeptis quae sunt tria numina & unum, 

Hasc tria Virgo roga Filia, Nupta, Parens. 

The Gentlewomen of this city doe weare very strange Counterfitt 
kinde of chaines about their neckes. A stranger at tfae Chains, 
first sight of them will imagine they are very precious 
omaments, worth three or toure hundred duckats, and 
made of pure gold : as indeede I did. But after better 
consideration he will find them counterfait. For indeed 
they are but copper, as an Italian told me. They hang 
very large about their necks, being about three times 
double, and have extraordinary great linkes. Also I j. 
observed that their attire doth much differ fi-om the habits 
of the Italian Gentlewomen in other cities of Itaiy. For [p. 349.] 
whereas most of their gownes are of Sattin or Taffata; 
the sleeves of them are exceeding great in the middest, 
and so little at the hands, that they cannot weare them 

55 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



A rudi 
Sakct. 



upon the sleeves of their other garments. So that they 
alwaies hang loose and flapping. This fashion they have 
borrowed &om the Spaniaros. For I saw it much 
used by the Spanish Gentlewomen at Turin, and by 
a woman Mountebanke in Venice that imitated the 
Spanish attire. 

The laxiguage of this City is esteemed the rudest and 
grossest ofall Italy, as the Bosotian dialect was the basest 
of all Greece. In so much that one of our English men 
Thomas Edwards in his Monostiches that he hath com- 
posed of the Italian Cities, hath written this verse of 
Bergomo. 

Bergomum ab inculta dictum est ignobile lingua. 

The governement of it is as the rest of the Cities subject 
to the Venetians. Heretofore it was subject to the Roman 
Empire, when the same flourished in his glory. But after 
the downefall thereof it was spoiled by Attila when he 
destryed Brixia, Verona, and other famous cities of Ttaly. 
Then the Longobardes had the dominion of it for a long 
time : then again the Kings of Italy made it tributary to 
them. In the time of whose sway thereof it hapned to 
Bergamo be once very straightly besieged by the Emperour Arnol- 
besiiffd phus about the yeare of our Lord 900. much about the 
900. ^^^ ^^^ j^^ besieged Verona aiso, as I have before men- 
tioned. But he had not long girt it with siege before he 
expugned it by force of armes. And having entred the 
same, he apprehended and hanged one Ambrose Earle of 
the City, wno fortified and detended it in the behalfe of 
Guido (whom I have before mentioned) Duke of Spoleto 
against Berengarius Duke of Friuli. After the Kings of 
Itaiy the Turrians and Vicoxmts of Milan succeeded in 
[p- 35^] ^c government thereof. Also the Scaligers of Verona 
and the Frenchmen. But at last it suDJected it selfe 
voluntarily to the Venetians, imder whose protection it 
enjoyed tranquillity and peace at this day. 

This City yeelded me the worst lodging for one night 
that I found in all my travels out of England. For ail 

S6 



OBSERVATIONS OF BERGAMO ^ 

thc Innes wcrc so extreme fiill of people by reason of 1 

the faire, that I could not get a convenient lodgmg though 1 

I would havc givcn two or three duckats for it. So that I 

I was faine to lye upon straw in one of their stables at the ^ '^'"'^ I 
horsc feete, according to a picture that I have made of it " ^"^' I 
in the frontispice of my booke. Where (notwithstanding I 

my repose upon so uncouth a pallate) I slept in utramquc J 

axirem, cven as securely as upon a bedde cf downe, bccausc ■ 

of my long journey the day bcfore. And it was long 1 

belbre I could obtayne this favour, whtch was at last ^^^J 
granted me by the meanes of an hcnest Italian Pncst who ^^^^| 
nad beene a traveller. Unto whom I was not a litle ^^^^| 
beholding for some curtesies that I received at his hands in ^^ 

Bergomo. He promised to revisit me the ncxt morning, ■ 

to the end to shew me the antiquitics of the City. But ^ 

he was prevented to my great gricfe by thc villany of a -J 

ccTtaine bloud-thirsty Italian, who for an old grudge he 1 

barc to him, shot him through the body in his lodging | 

with a pcwterneU. 

Also a certayne Dominican Frier of this City called ^ nurtim 
Vincentius de Petrcngo, who was the chiefe rcadcr of the r^'""^"" 
Praedicatory tamily, and stiicd himselfc de Conventu 
BascHx, did so grcatly gratific mc in this City, that I 
cannot conveniently let him passe in this Treatise of 
Bergomo, without somc kindc of mcntion of his name. 
For I received a specialJ favour at his hands, which was 
thjs. When I was to goe forth of thc City towards the 
Grisons country, and so into Germany, being ignorant 
of the way, I repaired to the Augustinian Friers to crave 
some directicns of them for my journey. But none of 
them could dircct me themselves, though very kindly they [p- 35'-] 
brought mc acquainted with this foresaid Dominican, to 
the end hc should satisfie me about the matter, because 
he had lived within these few yeares in the territory of 
the Grisons, as a Chaplaine to a certaine Clarissimo of 
Vcnicc that was sent Ambassador unto thcm, at what timc 
he prcached against the Calvinists of their country, as hc friendh 
hinisclfe told me. Truly he gave mc as friendly councell Camitl. 




The Sfam>i 
in^uiiition le 
bi fiartd ij 
Traveliers. 



[P- 3S*- 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

as any Protestant could have done. For he told mc what 
daungers there were betwixt that and Germany, and the 
meancs how I might avoid them : that I was a Calvinist, 
he said he was fuQy perswaded, bccause I was an English 
man. Notwithstanding he would willingly give me the 
best counsetl he could, in regard I was a stranger in those 
parts. Therefore he significd unto me that it would be 
very dangerous for me to passe in one place cf thc Grisons 
country within a fcw milcs after thc entrance thereof, if 
I were not very circumspect, For he saJd there was a 
certaine Castle seated by the lakc of Como which was 
possessed and euarded by a garrizon of Spaniards, by 
which if I should happen to take my journey, they would 
lay their Inquisition upon me, as soone as they should 
perceive that I was an EngHshman, and so consequently 
torturc me with extreme cruelty, if they saw me constant 
in the profession of my religion, till they might compeil 
me to abjure it, which if I would not doe by thc violence 
of their punishments, then at last they would put me to 
dcath, and excarnificate me after a very bitter and terrible 
manner. For the avoiding of which dangers he counselled 
me to leave the Castle on the left hand of my way, and 
so to passe on the right hand towards a towne called 
Chiavenna. Thus by the kind advice of this honest Frier 
I tooke such a way in the Grisons country, that I shunncd 
the Spanish Inqulsition, which otherwisc would not (I 
bclecve) have given me leave to bring thus much newes 
out of Italy into England, except I would have renounced 
my rcligion, which God forbid I should ever doe, not- 
withstanding any torments of Spaniards or any other 
enemics of the Gospell of Christ. I am sure all kinde 
of Fricrs will not give Protestants the like counsell to 
cschew thc bloudy Spanish carnificina, (which is almost 
as cruell a punishment as Phalaris his brasen bull, or the 
exquisitest tormcnts that the Sicilian Tyrants wcrc wont 
to inflict upon offenders) but on the contrary side 
endcvour rather to intrappe them therein. 

Those angry flies caJled cimices, which are generally 
S8 




OBSERVATIONS OF BERGAMO 

disperscd over al! places of Italy in thc sommer time, did 
very much offend me in this City, as they did also in every 
City of Italy. They will shrewdly bite a mans skinne, 
and leave their markes behind them, yet they will doe no 
grcat hurt to a man. 

I observed a strange phrase both in this City and aJl 
other Italian dties where I was, that whensoever any Italian 
doth discourse in Latin with a stranger or any man else, 
he will very seldome speake to a man m the second person. 
As tbr example he will not say, Placet ne tibi : but Placet 
ne dominadoni tuae or vestrs. So that they doe most 
commonly use that circunilocution, even to the meanest 
person that is. 

I observed another thing also in the Italians pronouncing liaRan pro- 
of the Latin Tongue, which though I might have men- "^'"'f^gof 
tioned before in the description of some of the other " "' 
Italian Cities; yet scing I have hitherto omitted it, I will 
hcre make mention thereof, rather then not at al, because 
this is the last City of Italy that i shall describe in this 
iourney. The Italian when he uttereth any Latin word 
wherein this letter i is to be pronounced long, doth alwaies 
pronounce it as a double e, viz as ee. As for example : 
he pronounceth feedes for fides : veeta for vita : ameecus 
for amicus, &c. but where the i is not to be pronouneed 
long he uttereth it as we doe in England, as in these 
wordcs, impius, aquila, patria, Ecclesia : not aqueela, 
patreea, Eccleseea. And this prcncunciation is so generall [p. 353.] 
in all Italy, that every man which speaketh Latin soundeth 
a double e for an i. Neither is it proper to Italy only, 
but to all other nations whatsoever in Christendome saving 
to England. For whereas in my travels I discoursed in 
I^tin with Frenchmen, Germans, Spaniards, Danes, 
Polonians, Suecians, and divers others, I observed that 
every one with whom I had any conference, pronounced 
the i after the same manner that the Italians use. Neither 
would some of them (amongst whom I was not a littlc 
inquisitive for the reason of this their pronounciation) 
sticke to affirme that PUutus, Terence, Cicero, Hortensius, 
59 




Bergan. 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

Csesar, and those other selccted flowers of eloqucnce 
amongst the auncient Romans, pronounced thc i in that 
sort as they themselves doe. Whereupon having observed 
such a generall consent amongst them in the pronounciation 
of this letter I have thought good to imitate thesc nations 
herein, and to abandon my oid English pronounciation of 
vita, fides, and amicus, as being utterly dissonant from 
the sound of all other Nations ; and have detcrmined 
(God willing) to retaync the same till my dying day. 

TaB/amous Amongst othcr learncd men of great note that this 
" "-^ city hath bred, I will name two femous persons that after 
they had a long time livcd hcrc in the profession of Popery, 
being at last truly illuminated with Gods holy Spirit 
abandoned this Citie which was their native soile, and 
went into Germany, where they undertooke the profession 
of the Gospell of Christ, and afterward persevered in the 
Protestants religion til their last breath, These were Hier- 
onymus Zanchius, and Gulielmus Gratarolus, Whereof 
the first was a most singular Divinc, and a zealous Preacher 
of Gods word in the rcnowned Cities of Strazbourg, 
Hcidelbcrg, and othcr places of Gcrmany. Besides he 
hath exceedingly edified the Christian common-weale, 

[p. 35+.] espccially that which doth most sinccrcly professe the true 
doctrine of Christ, by those manifold and most solid 
workes of Divinity, that he hath pubhshed to thc world, 
which will continue a sacred memory of his name till the 
worlds end. The other though he were by profession a 
Physition, and an excellent man in that faculty ; yet he 
applicd himselfe to the study of Divlnity also, which doth 
appearc by one notable Treatise that he wrote de notis 
Antichristi. At last he dicd in the femous University of 
Basil, wherc he spent the greatcst part of his life aftcr 
his conversion. 

Thus much of Bergomo. 

IRemained in Bergomo all Wcdnesday, and departed 
therehence the next day being the eighteenth of 
August, about clevcn of the clocke in the morning, and 




FROM BERGAMO TO MEZOLT 

came to a village called St. Johns in the valley Brembana, 
about sixc of the clocke in the evening. This was sixteen 
miles from Bergomo. The first viliage that I passed 
through was Zogno, which was twelve miles beyond 
Bergomo : and St. Johns foure miles beyond that. 
AI ihe villagcs both of the valley Brembana and of 
the Grisons country are commonly called by thc name 
of terrx : evcry severall village a terra. Thcre runneth a 
very swift river through this valley called Brembus, where- 
hence thc valley hath the name of Brembana. Most of 
this valley is an ascent leading towards the AIpcs, At the 
entrancc it is something plcasant way, but aftcr I had 
passed somc sixtecn miles it was vcry laboursome and 
painfull to travell, as well in regard of thc stecpnesse, as 
of thc extrcmc hard stones wherewith the greatest part of 
the way is pitched, 

I departed from St. Johns about seven of the clocke in 
the morning, the nineteenth day of August being Friday, 
and came to a terra, upon the mountame Ancone called 
Mezolt about sixe of the clocke in the evening. This 
dayes journey was but eleven miles. I passed through 
two villages of Terraes betwixt St. Johns and Mezolt. 
Whereof the first was Allapiazza, where I dincd with 
certaine Sclavonians, who told me that about five daies 
befbre that, there were thirty Bandits taken about eight 
miles bcyond that place, who lay in waite in certaine privy 
corners of the mountaines, to spoile the passcngers that 
were to travell that way towards Bergomo feire. Thesc 
Bandits are banished men, who for some notorious villany 
that they have committed in their owne countries, doe 
voluntarily flie away for feare of punishment, and being 
afterward very poore and destitute of maintenance, they 
live by rifling and spoyling of travellers. The other of 
the two Terraes is called Ulmo, thrce miles on this side 
Mezolt. Within halfc a milc aftcr I was past Ulmo I 
beganne to ascend the Mountainc Ancone, which is other- 
wise called Montanc de S. Marco, a vcry high Alpe and 
difficult in ascent. There lay at the same Inne at Mezolt, 



[p. 355-] 

Mtzatt. 



Tiirty 
Baniiitt 




GORYATS CRWFTIES 

tltaSM where I did, a certaine Grison ealled Joanne Curtabatus 
"ff^^l/ borne in Chiavenna, with whoni I had much good dis- 
*"^ ' course. For he spake prety good English. And lived 
many yeares heretofore in Cambridgeshire with Sir Horatio 
Palavicino an Italian, whom he served. He told me he 
was a Protestant : I foimd him a man of very courteous 
behaviour, and indeede he did me a certaine kindnesse, 
in which respect I thought it fit to name him in my 
journall. 

I departed firom Mezolt about sixe of the docke in the 
morning the twentieth day of August being Saturday, and 
came about eight of the docke in the evening to a Terra 
f^p' called Camp three and twenty miles beyond it, in the 
fhiitfuU vaUey Telina commonly called Valtulina in the 
Grisons country. From Mezolt to the toppe of Saint 
Marks Mountaine it is foure miles. There standeth an 
35^0 Inne built upon the toppe of this Mountaine which is the 
farthest boimd of the Venetian Signiory, which extendeth 
it selfe in length firom the City of Venice to this place, 
no lesse than an hundred threescore and fourteene miles. 
In all which space the Venetian money is current. Over 
the dore of the foresaid Inne the golden wine^ed Lion is 
erected, under whom this insaiptiSn is writt^iti blacke 
letters upon a golden ground. 

Via hsec ab urht Bergomi Morbinium tendens 
Temporis injwia & montium ruinis interrupta, 
Atque penitus interdusa, ad comjnimem usum et com- 
modum non mod6 aperta fuit & instaurata, sed et- 
iam planior ac latior effecta, insuper extructa prsesen- 
ti rerum vectigalium taberna. Quae opera ab Aloy- 
sio Priolo Praetore inchoata, & a Joanne Quirino Prae- 
fecto ex Serenissimi Senatus decreto perfecta 

fuerunt atque absoluta Anno cl^. I^. Xdv. 

The end of my Observations of Italy. 



6a 



OBSERVATIONS OF RHETIA 




My Observations of Rhetia commonly called 
the Grisons Country. 

jEtwixt the foresaid Inne and Morbinio it Mirbinl». 
i nine mi]es. In all which space there is 
a continuall descent from the Mountayne. 
This Morbinio is seated at the very footc 
of the hill, and is the first Towne of the 
Grisons country, situate in the foresaid 
valley Tehna, which is famous for wines. 
For indecd it yeeldeth the best wines of al the Grisons 
country, which are esteemed so good, that they are there- 
hence carryed to all the principall and remotest places of 
the Grisons territory. As to Curia the Metropolitan City Curia. 
of the country threescore and seven miles off. None of 
those wines are carryed in Carts. Because the narrow- 
nesse of the waies is such that no Carts can passe there : [p. js?.] 
but al upon horses backs. In this Towne and all other 
places ot this valley they speake Italian, but such rude 
and grosse language as in the City of Bergomo, or rather 
worsc. 

The name of Rhetia commeth from Rhetus a certayne Tkeimntryaf 
King of Tuscia, who being expelled out of his owne "*"■ 
country by Bellovesus the Gaule about 587. yeares before 
the incarnation of Christ, at what time he conquered the 
Insubres, and built the City of Milan, came with many 
of his subjects into these valleys seated betwixt the Atpes, 
where they built Castels and foriificarions for their defence. 
And after his time the country had his denomination from 
him aa I have already said. 

This country of Rhetia is at this day divided into two 
parts, thc higher and the lower : all that Tract which 
bcginneth from the fitrther edge of Switzerland, and 
iacludeth some part of Lombardy as farre as the lake of 
Como, (the inhabitants whereof are commonly calted the 
Grisons) is the higher Rhetia. The lower deriveth his 
beginniiig from the river Lycus, which divideth Chis from 
«3 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

the higher, and extendeth it selfe as farre as the river 
^nus, which boundeth Rhetia and Bavaria. 

I observed a special commodity in this countrey that 1 

Grfat could not see in Italy. For I saw grcat abundance of 

ebnHJaiitrt sheepe here, which I met driven in the way in many great 

"J ' "f- flocks, all the sheepe being according to my estimatlon 

at the least foure thousand : but I heard they were not 

the sheepe of the countrey, but the citizens of Bergomo, 

which were kept here about the Alpine mountaines almost 

al the yeare, and at that time of the yeare the sheep-heards 

doe use to drive them home every yeare to their Masters. 

'""'«'■ Also I noted marveilous abundance of little hip-frogges 

in that part of this valley Telina, where I travelled. I 

nevcr saw the hundreth part of them in so short a space 

in all my Life: Most of thcir meadowes being so fijll of 

them, that I could not step five or sixe steps but I should 

[p- 358-] finfie a little frogge ; a thing that I much wondred at, 

because I could not search out the naturall reason why 

there should be more store of them there then in other 

Countries. In my journey bctwixt Morbinio and Camp 

where I lay that night, I left that castle on the left hand 

whereof the Dominican Frycr Vinccntius of Bergomo told 

me, which is guarded by a Garison of Spaniards. AIso I 

saw the noble lake of Como, upon the brinke whcreof 

the foresaid castle standeth : this lake is called in the 

The Lake Italian Lago di Como from the city of Como seated by 

9f ««»■ it^ which grieved me that I could not see, because it is 

possessed by the Spaniards. For there I should have seene 

two notable things the one a worthy elogium of Plinius 

Secundas, who was a citizen of Como, though borne in 

Verona, as I have before said ; that elogium I heard is 

written upon our Lady Church dore : the other thc famous 

study of Paulus Jovius that excellent Historiographer and 

citizen of this citie also. That study is to this day shewed 

standing in a little Pcninsula neare to the city which was 

once vcry elegantly adorncd with the images of a great 

Lmultitude of femous men, cspecially such as excellcd in 
uiy i^culty of learning, a learned elogium being added to 
64 



OBSERVATTONS OF RHETIA V 

every one by the same Jovius. This lake is othcrwise .^^J^H 
called Lacus Larius from the Greeke word Xapo^, which ^^^^H 
signifieth gavia, that is, a Sea-mew or Sea-gul, because ^^^^H 
there is wonderfull pleiity of them about this Lake. The ^^B 
foresaid Jovius hath most elegantly described this lake in 1 

a pecuiiar Treatise thereof. 1 

That night that 1 lay at Campe, which is a Terra, situate Camj>e, M 
by the goodly lake of the Grisons, distant about foure fl 

miles from the take of Como, and in some places at the I 

least two miles broad, there happened such a horrible H 

thunder, lightning and raine all that night, that it caused I 

an exceeding fiuxe of waters from sundry places of the m 

mountaines on both sides of the valley, that the next ■ 

morning 1 could not goe by land to the next village, by I 

reason of the extreme inundation, but was constrayned to [p. 359.]!l 
row thither in a boat. I departed from Camp about seven M 

of the clocke in the morning, the one and twentieth day ^M 

of August being Sunday, and came to a Terra called ^| 

Candolchin being eighteene miles beyond it, above five 
of the clocke in the afternoone, where I lay that night. 
In this space I observed nothing memorable ; only I passed 
through the towne Chiavenna, in Latin Clavenna, situate Chiavert»a. 
at the farther end of the valley Telina, standing in a valley 
of the same name, in which I travelled fiill twenty miles, 
This towne ministred some occasion of comfort unto me, 
because it was the first Protestant town that I entred since 
I went out of ItaJy, yet not wholly Protestant. For some 
part of it embraceth Popery, and heareth daily masse. 
The Protestants that are here professe the CaJvinian not 
the Lutheran religion, who had a very learned Preachcr 
when I was there, called Octavianus Mcjus, who was 
brought up in Geneva, his parents being Itahans of the 
city of Luco in Tuscanie. In this towne dwelt Joannes 
Curtabatus, of whom I have before spoken, who refreshed 
my heart with a cup of excellent wine. This towne 
is rich, and inhabited with many wealthy merchants; 
also it hath great store of goodly vineyards growing 
about it. 




_ Rtiigi toayi. 



[P- 36a] 



^ i:heerfui 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

The wayes both in the valley Telina some few miles 
before I came to Chiavenna, and also in the ascent of thc 
valley Candolchin, are very offensive to foote travellers. 
For they are pilched with very sharpe and rough stones 
that will very much punish and grate a mans feete. I 
observed that the poore Alpine people dwelling in the 
mountaynous places of the Grison territory, doe send their 
children abroad into the high wayes with certaine hoddes 
tyed about their necks, to gather up all thc horse-dung 
that they can finde, which (as I take it) serveth onely for 
the dunging of their Gardens. The like I saw many doe 
in the valley Brembana, and in some few places of Lom- 
bardy a little before I came to Bergomo. 

I passed through a delicate great meadow a little on 
this side Candolchin, contayning at the least forty acres 
by my estimation, which was a thing that 1 much wondred 
at, by reason that the countrey is so extreme stony and 
barren, Invironed with such huge steepe mountaines on 
both sides, and for that the Terra is situate in a marvailous 
high place, having very high mountains both at the ascent 
unto it, and the descent. 

The houses in the poore Terraes of the Grisons that 
are situate about the mountaines, are so made, that both 
the endes and the sides doe consist of whole pine trees, 
compacted together in steede of stony wals, though in 
many places their walls are stony also, especially in thcir 
faire townes, as Chiavenna &c. 

A certaine Priest of this country cheered me with very 
comfortable wordes at mine Inn at Candolchin, because 
he saw I was a solitary man and a stranger. For he told 
mee that because the fiire of some places of the country 
was hard and the ways bad, hec would endeavour with 
chccrfijli termes lo rowse up my spirits, and to be as merry 
as a solitary man could, because I travellcd in as honest 
a country as any in all Christendome. For had I a 
thousand crownes about me, I might more securely travell 
with it in their country without company or weapon, then 
in any other nation whatsoever : affirming that he never 




OBSERVATIONS OF RHETIA 

hcard in all his life of any man robbed In that country. 
This his speech was afterward confirmed unto me in other 
places : which if it be true, I attribute more to the honesty 
of this nation, then to any other that I could ever see, 
rcade, or heare of under the cope of heaven ; but whether 
I should ascribe this their innocencie to the severitie of 
the lawes of their Country inflicted upon robbers, (whose 
examples perhaps may terrifie others, and deterre them 
from committing the like ofFences,) or to the inherent and 
natural vertue of the people I know not, onely this I say, [p. 361.] 
that I never heard of such rare honesty before in all my 
life, in any people whatsoever before or since Christ. 

I Observed in Candolchin and other places before I 
came thither, both in the valley Brembana and Telina, a 
straiige kinde of wooden cuppes like pailes, in which they ffooi/en cufu 
bring up Wine to their Ghestes, with prety convenient 
pipes about a foote long, to powre out the Wine into the 
Glasse or cuppe, these are used also in most places both 
of the Grisons country and Switzerland. 

I departed from Candolchin about eight of the clock 
the next morning being Munday, and the two and 
twentieth of August, and came that night to a towne 
called Tossana situate at the foote of a hill, twenty five Tmcna. 
miles beyond it, about seven of the clocke in the evening; 
The language in the valley of Candolchin is Italian. 

After I was past Candolchin, I did continually ascend 
for the space of eight miles till I came to the toppe 
of a ccrtaine high mountaine called Splugen mountaine. 
Betwixt all this valley of Candolchin, which beginneth a 
little on this sidc Chiavenna, and extendeth it selfe to 
the top of the foresaid mountaine, there runneth a very 
swift lakc called Lir. I travelled sixteene miles in this 
valley of Candolchin. From the toppe of the Mountaine 
to the descent it is sixe miles. At the foot of the hill 
there is a town called by the name of the Mountain, viz : 
Splugen, which is wholy Protestant. From this place Splu^n. 
forward all the Grisons speake Dutch. Here at Splugen 
I entered into a third valley of the Grisons country, 
67 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 



[p. 362.] 



namely the valley of the Rhene, which is so called 
because a littie arme of the noble river Rhene runneth 
through it. In this valley of Rhene I travelled tenne 
miles. The Rhene which runneth through this valley, 
flowes with such an extreme swiftnesse, that the water 
thereof in certaine placeswhere it falleth downe from steepe 
cataractes, raiseth a certaine reaking mist to a great heigth, 
which proceedeth from the greate violence ot the torrent. 
From Splugen to another towne of the same name 
Westward it is a mile, from that to a towne called Sassam 
five miles, from Sassam to Tossana seated at the foote of 
a mountaine at the farther end of the valiey of Rhene, 
five miles more. I meane not five miles of the Grisons 
JGrisMmile country. But I reduce their miles to our English com- 
miUs^^"^^* putation, one of theirs being five of ours. All those 

foresaid towns professe the Protestant Religion. I 
observed a custome in this country that is not used (I 
thinke) in any place in Christendome, that whensoever a 
stranger or any other of the same country, doth aske one 
of them upon the way how many miles it is to any place, 
he wiU not answere so many, but will tell you in so many 
howers you may be there. Which yeeldeth a very uncer- 
taine satisfaction to a traveller, because the speede of all 
is not a like in travelling : For some can travell farther in 
one howre, then others in three. 

In many places of Rhetia, till I came into that part of 
it which is almost wholy Protestant, I saw many little 
Chappels built by the high way side (as in Savoy) tending 
to Superstition ; as the picture of Christ, the Virgin Mary, 
and sometimes of some Saints above the Altar. 

The trenchers in most places of this country are so 
strange, that although perhaps I shall seeme ridiculous to 
the reader to mention so meane a matter ; yet howsoever 
by reason of the noveltie of them, they shall not passe 
unmentioned. They are for the most part at the least an 
inch thicke, and as large in compasse as a cheese of my 
country of Somersetshire that will cost a shilling. 
The tyle of most of their houses is made of pieces of 

68 



Tlkick 
trenchers. 



OBSERVATIONS OF RHETIA 

wood as in Chambery in Savoy, not of earth as in France, 
Italy, and England. 

The Windowes of their houses are exceeding little in 
all their Terraes and in most of their townes, the greatest 
part whereof are covered with litde boordes in the outside. 

In sundry places of their country I observed divers b- 363-] 
Castles and Forts of great antiquity built upon high ^X-/^ 
rockesy and eminent hils. But now they are much 
ruinated, and of reparations : it is likely that these were 
built either by the foUowers of King Rhetus that inhabited 
this Country after he was ejected out of his Kingdome of 
Hetruria in Italy by Bellovesus the Gaule (as I have before 
said) or by the People of the coimtry for meanes of 
defence against the armies of the Romans, that under the 
conduct of Julius Caesar and many other noble captaines 
of Rome, made themselves a way through this country 
by force of armes into Germany. 

They built a great multitude of little cottages upon the 
very toppes of the steepe Alpine Mountaines, as in Savoy, 
and have many littie plottes there also, as in Savoy. 

Although the greatest part of this coimtry doth yeeld 
very poore people : yet I have observed some few places 
passinfi^ wel furnished with all manner of necessary com- ^ ^f^ 
modities for the sustentation of mans life : as Oxen and \^IZ 
Sane, Sheepe, Goates, many goodly meadowes and pas- 
tures, indifferent corne fields, and abimdance of wood that 
eroweth upon the sides of the Moimtaines. Their drink 
is not beere, but wine, the greatest part whereof the valley 
Telina doth minister to the remoter places, as I have 
before said. Also they are competently stored with hempe, 
which they doe not strip with such laborious diificultie as 
we doe in England by the meanes of their fingers, but by 
certaine wooden instruments made for the same pxirpose 
that do very easily sever the stranne firom the scale. Their 
bn is cpodi in many places and very cheape. Amongst 
many cushes that come to their table Martelmasse beefe 
is very fi^uent. 

But seeing I am now come into that part of the Grisons 

69 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

country which speaketh Dutch, I wil here interrupt my 
[p- S^^-] description of it by the addition of a most elegant Latin 
Oration that I have annexed imto this discowse written 
in praise of the travell of Gcrmany by that learned Gcrman 
Hermannus Kirchnerus, the author of the first Oration 
that I have prefixed before my booke, and according to 
my meane skiU rudely translated into oiu* mother tongue 
by my selfe: which although perhaps it may seeme unto 
sonle a meere impertinent matter to my present discourse : 
^Ha a yg^ jjj re&ard that Rhetia is a member or Germanie, whose 
^^ language a great part of it speaketh, and my first intro- 
duction that conveighed me into this noble coimtry of 
Italy, after my survay of some parts therof ; I hope the 
candid reader wil not miscenswe me for inserting this 
into my Observations, especialiy seeing the elegancy of it 
is such, that it cannot be but pleasant to all readers what- 
soever, but more particularly unto travellers, & most of 
all unto those that either have ab-eady seene some parts 
of Germany, or intend hereafter to see it. As I for mine 
owne part have superficially observed some few principall 
Cities thereof, and determine by the gracious permission 
of the Ahnighty to see most of the famous Cities and 
;reatest Princes Coiu-ts both of all the higher parts of 
fermany & the Netherlands, which are places that to an 
industrious traveUer wiU yeeld infinite both experience and 
deUght. To detayne thee long with preambles of praises 
of this most imperiaU and renowned Region out of my 
Uttle experience of the same, were a matter very super- 
fluous, seeing this most eloquent Oration doth as Uvely 
paint her out in her true coloiu-s as ever ApeUes did his 
Venus avaSvojuievfi. Onely the better to encourage thee 
to see her glorious beauty, whereof I my selfe have to my 
unspeakable joy and comfort perceived a Uttle gUmpse, I 
say with Kirchnerus, that Germanv is the Queene of aU 
other Provinces, the Eagle of all Kingdomes, and the 
Mother of aU Nations. Therefore omittmg fiurther intro- 
ductions I present unto thy gentle and favourable censiu^ 
this exceUent Oration it selre. 

70 



IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 




Another Oration made by the foresaid Hermannus 

Kirchnerus, a Civil Lawier, Orator, and Poet, 

w &c. And pronounced in thc noble University 

^P of Marpurg above named, by a worthy Schollar 

f of his Henry de Stangi, a Silesian, upon this 

Theme. That the travell of Germany is to be 

preferred before all other travels. 

F ihose things which seeme greatly to tend 
to the knowledge of common affaires, to 
the information of a right judgemcnt, to 
the wisdome of a civill life, and the perfect 
understanding of good counsets, are to be 
earnestly commended and diligently deti- 
vered unto youth, which shall be hereafter 
advanced to the helme of publique authority : surely there 
is no rcason why I should doubt but that the most laudable 
custom of travelling, and the desire of knowing the 
manners of forraine countries and nations, the lawes of 
Cities, and formes of common-weales abroad should be 
both esteemed very profitable atid pleasant, and also be 
furthered to the uttermost with all manner of helpes, and 
accounted the most necessary thing of all others for youth, 
according to that excellent speech of Apollonius which is 
every where extant amongst the ancients concerning this 
matter, that a yong man ought to travell out of his 
country no otherwise than if he were destitute of house 
or home. Which custome of travelling if we have read 
to have beene at any time frequented and used of any 
nation whatsoever, certes we may most plainly perceive 
as it were at noone-tide that it is at this day most famously 
exercised by the men of our Germany, even by the 
common and almost daily endevour of our Princes and 
noble Personages that travell into farre countries, so that 
there is scarce found a man of any note and fame in the 
courtly life, in the politique conversation, and civill society, 
which hath not both leartied the manners and languages of 



praiueftravtl 
in Gfifiiiny. 



I 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



rforraine nations, and also seene abroadc in the world the 
state and divers governments of Kingdomes, that hath not 
with eyes and feete made use of England, Italy, France, 
and Spaine, and observed whatsoever is memorable in 
remote nations, and worthy to be seene in every place of 
note. 
I Cermani' Now as no man doth doubt but that this custome of 

travelRng ^^^ Germanes travelling out of Germany beyond the Alpes 
enmJendid. ^"'^ ^^e Seas, is greatiy to be commended especially if they 

»prescribe unto themselves a just and laudable end of 
travelling : so againe who will not say but that this 
preposterous order of our men is justly to be condemned 
which they observe in the course of their travels, when 
as most of them after they have with great dihgence sought 
out the Roane, the Seine, the Tyber, and the Po ; and 
not only curiousiy searched for the ruinous theaters of the 
ancient Romans, and the rubbish of their decayed build- 
ings, but also crept inlo all the stewes, all the brothell 
houses, and burdelloes of Italy, after I say all these things, 
have so omitted the sight of the most beautifull Cities of 
Germany their country, the most elegant Townes, the well 
governed Common-weales thereof altogether unltnowen 
unto them, that they are not able as much as to name the 
principall ornaments of Germany, Which thing truly is 
not only unworthy a Citizen that loves his country but 
also an argument of notable negligence, & most unbeseem- 
ing a German man, not to Itnow, not to see, not to search 
out Germany wherein he was borne and brought up, 
wherein he hath all his wealth and all his estate, and for 
whose sake (if neede should require) he ought not doubt 
to powre out his vitall bloud. And why so7 are you not 
all constrayned (my feliow Academicks) to subscribe to this 
my opinion that the knowledge of no nation is so necessary 
as the searching out of a mans owne country, and the 
manners thereof, and ihe right understanding of that 
common-weaie whereof each of us is a part and member ? 
the Lamiae that are a certaine kinde of Monsters, are 
I at in the Poeticall fables, in that they were so 




IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

blimle at home that they coiild not see their owne affaires, 
couki fbresee nothing ; but when they were once gone from 
home, thej were accounted the most sharpe-sighted and 
curious searchers of all others: so who doth not thinke 
that the eyes of our Germans that gadde into Italy, 
France, and I know not whither, are very ridiculous, when 
as by taking long voyages unto farre remotc people, after 
they have cunousiy sought out all matters amongst them, 
are ignorant of the principall things at home, and know 
not what is contayned within the precincts of their country, 
and are reckoned altogether strangers in their native soile. 
What is there nothing (saist thou) at home that is worthy 
to be seene and knowen, and for whose sake a jowney 
ought to be undertaken? I that am a stranger m mine 
owne country will contend with thee in this Oratorian 
field conceming this subject, and will produce most 
apparant reasons to prove that the travell of Germany is 
more excellent then of all other nations, and to be pre- 
ferred before all others. Wherefore I intreate you to 
entertaine my Oration with gentle eares, yea I earnestly 
lequest and beseech you for the love sake of your coimtry, 
to receive my speech with yoiu- wonted favour and 
indulgence, while I give you a tast of the principall 
omaments of our conmion country. 

Therefore that my Oration may derive her beginning f^hattravei 
even from this, I will aske this first question : how many 
travellers there are that when they undertake any voyage 
do ri£;htly understand what travell meaneth. Since many 
doe fondly imagine that it is nothing else then a certayne 
gaddinc; about, a vaine beholding of sundry places, a 
transmigration firom one country to another, whose feete 
doe only move firom place to place, and whose eyes are 
conveighed firom one field to another. Of whom thou 
mayest very rightly use that knowen speech of the Poet. 

The climate, not their minds they change, 
That sayling over every Sea doe range. 

But we will say that he is the man that visiteth forraine 

73 



meaus. 



I 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

Kingdomcs and doth truly travell, and that according to 
the censure of all learned men, the consent of Historians, 
and the opinion of politicians, he I say, who whither 
soever he directeth his journey, travelleth for the greater 
benefit of his wit, for the commodity of his studies, aiid 
the dexterify of his hfe, who moveth more in minde then 
body, who attayneth to the same by thc coursc of his 
travel, that others doe at home very painfully and with 
great study by turning of bookes. Wil! you havc me 
(my worthy Auditors) speake more plainly to you? it is 
travell that stirreth up wisdome, purchaseth fortitude, 
confirmes it being purchased, gives light unto us for the 
instruction of our manners, makes us from barbarous to 
be gentle and milde natured : it rooteth out a fond selfe 
love, it availeth to sufFer labours, to undergoe dangers, 
and with a valiani and manly minde to endure them, and 
sheweth us the nearest way to the solid learning of all 
things, What need many words ? let travell be the plenti- 
fuU institution of all our life. For histories doe tcach 
us that men of old time dJd travell to that end. So that 
AtKiint Solon travelled into Asia, Plato into Egypt, Pythagoras 
travilkn. j^jq \xa\y^ thc Romans to Marselleis, Mithridates into 
Cappadocia, and others undertookc very long and tedious 
voiages to this end, that they might gather together the 
lawes and ordinances of their common-weale out of the 
divers decrees of sundry nations, and that the best of them, 
after they had gathered them, might convert them to the 
use of their country, that whatsoever excellent things they 
did reape abroade amongst others, they might bring them 
home, and at home instruct their countrymen therem. If 
thou undertakest the desirc of travcllmg with that minde 
and intent, to what end dost thou goe forth of thy country ? 
whither dost thou bend thy course? to what end dosi 
thou travell with the swallow leaving thy nest? doth not 
Praiitsf Germany in respect of the plenty and commodity of those 
Girmany. fhings, by many degrees excell all other nations ? who as 
fhe Queene of all other Provinces, the Eagle of all 
Kingdomes, the Mother of all nations, doth shee not most 





IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

I plentifijlly impart unto thee all those thinges which may 

tend as well to the happy institution of a common-weale, 

1 as to integrity of manners, purity of religion, and piety of 

I life, the ornament of wit, and the elegancy of speech? 

] for if thou desirest to know the formes of common-weales, 

I and the governement of a Monarchie, if thou wouldest 

1 ■-■nnderstand the manner of an aristocraticall rule, and of 

I the popular state, where shalt thou better and more exactly 

^learne these things then in Germany, which is as it were 

an abridgement of the world? pray goe with me (my 

courteous Auditors) and consider the most goodly 

Common-weales and Cities of our Gcrmanie. What I 

^^ Pf^y you, will you finde wanting in that most stately 

^LConunon-weale of Strasbourg, in that most plentifull 

^«■Norimberg, in most elegant Auspourg, in spacious Colen, 

^Hiin most beautifull Lubeke, in that worthily commended 

^HiBresIaw? In which cities according to the testimony of 

^BScaliger in his booke intituled of the praise of Cities, 

^■«quitie her selfe doth reigne, all iniquity is banished, 

justice doth governe, for unjustice no place is left, good 

men are called forth with rewardes, and evill men called 

backe from vice and punishments, If thou desirest to 

behold the most happy state of an Empire that can be 

devised in the world, namely of our most sacred 

Emperour, our most potent Electors, our illustrious 

Princes, our Earles, Barons, Nobles, and other rankes 

knit together with a most admirable bond, thou shalt 

not see it any where but in Germany, but onely 

in Germany, I say. In Germany thou shalt behold 

the steppes of the ancient Persian Empire, and a cer- 

taine lively image thereof : in Germany, the power 

and liberty of the Grecians : in Germanie thou shalt 

observe the possession of the ancient Romanes. Wouldest 

thou with Cyneas the Ambassadour of Pyrrhus crave such 

a Senate of the Empire, wherein should be all Kings, all 

like to auncient Pyrrhus? In no place of the earth shalt 

thou findc it but onely in Germany, Wilt thou heare 

onsullations of the weightiest matters of all the world? 

75 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

^^^^^^^ No where shalt thou heare them but in the Diets of 

^^^^^^H Germany. Witt thou have Captaines of the great Empire 

^^^^^^^^ mightier then the successors of Alexander himselfe? No 

^^^^^^H where shalt thou 6nd it but in Germany. Dost thou crave 

^^^^^^H the most famous Tribunall in the whole Empire, the shop 

^^^^^^H of the auncient Roman justice, and as it were the Sessions 

^^^^^^H of the old Amphictyones of Greece ? No where shalt thou 

^^^^^^H behold it but in Germany. Good God, if for the behold- 

^^^^^^H ing of this most sacred meettng those andent heads of the 

^^^^^^r civill law could be recalled to the fruition of this vitall 

^^H breath, Papinlanus, Paulus, Ulpianus, Pomponius, Caius, 

^^M Julianus, and ali other sacred Masters of the lawes could 

^^r returne into this world out of their ashes, truly I beleeve 

they would travell into the middle of Germany from the 

Elysian fields, yea I will say that Astrfea her selfe the 

Goddesse of justice would descend with them from heaven 

to place her habitation there also amongst mortall men. 

But what shal) I say of the other fruits of travell? 
where shalt thou more happily and studiously attaine to 
all the liberal sciences then in Germany, which doth excell 
the auncient Egyptians in the study of Geometrie, the 
Hebrews in Religion, the Chald^ans in Arithmeticke, the 
Grecians in all arts, the Romans in discipline, and in variety 
of mechanicall trades, constancy, and fortitude, ali other 
nations. Which the very strangers themselves how much 
soever they envy us, are constrained to confesse maugre 
their hearts. Bodin wrote this though he were very 
sparing of the German praise, the very truth it selfe 
wresting the speech from him, he wrote it I say, and 
proclaimed it of the Germans with an open voice, out of 
the Kingdome of France, Neither can any other man 
write otherwise of it. Let them behold so many learned 
TSe German Athenx in Germanie, so many noble Universities, as that 
of Vienna in Austria, of Heidelberg in the Countie Pala- 
tine, of Colen by the Rhene, of Prage in Bohemia, of 
Erdfurt and Jene in Thuringia, of Leipzick, of Rostock, 
Louan, Friburg, Ingolstat, Basil, Gripswald, Tubingen, 
Mentz, Wittenberg, Franckford, Konigsberg, Julia, in the 




IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

Duke of Brunswicks dominion, Strasbourg, Altorph, Let 
them also behold this our famous seate of all the Muses, 
which hath nourished that opinion of a most happy genius 
and nature amongst all strangers even from her firsf 
beginning, that even as Ammianus hath writtcn of the 
University of Alexandria, that it never dismissed any 
from it but endewed with learning; so out of this noble 
Academie there have sprung Counsellors for Kings over 
all the world, and for our sacred Emperor himselfe, and 
governors and teachers for all common-weales, Churches, 
and Schooles. What also shall I say of those other 
Universities like unto ours? unto whom 1 would not 
doubt but that al! the Sages of the Grecians, all the wise 
Romans, and all the famous Orators would travell into 
Germany, if they should happen to enjoy the benefite 
of life againe, 

No where shalt thou find so many Archimedes, so many 
Vitruvii, so many NasicEe, so many Ciceroes, so many 
Horaces, so many Virgils, so many Sctevolae, so many 
Papiniani, as in Germanie. Which also Argyropylus the 
learnedst of the Grecians confessed at Rome in the Popes 
Court, when he cryed out that all the graces, all arts, and 
good letters were fled beyond the Alpes into Germany, 

The day would fail me if I would make a Catalogue of 
the most femous wits that are in this one Province of 
Hassia, and especially in this University wherein we Ilve, 
how many and how great lights it doth yeeld that may 
compare with that admirable antiquity of the auncient 
Grecians and Romans. Here could I point out to thee 
with my finger Caians, L^clians, Mufians ; here Galens, 
here Platoes, here such as Socrates, here TuIIIes, here 
Virgils, here also (which is the most to be wished for thing 
of all) the Chrysostomi, the Epiphanii and Athanasii. 

Wilt thou go to lcnow military discipline? where I Germam 
pray thee shalt thou finde the Schoole of Mars but amongst /""'" '■ 
the Germans, amongst whom it was thought in former 
limes that Mars himselfe dwelt ? for which cause Alexander 
that both in substance and name was great, very wisely 





I 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

thought it was not good for him to provoke thc Germans 
into the field. AIso C. Caligula, and Augustus stoode in 
such feare of them that when they heard a rumour of their 
comming into Italy, they doubted much of their safety, 
so that both of them fled beyond the sea : what can be 
more gloriously spoken of the Germans Mars ? what more 
worthily reported .' no man by force of arms recalled the 
Gothes when they invaded Spaine, no man expulsed the 
Saxons when they surprized Brittaine, no man kept out 
the Vandals when they subdued Africk, no man repelled 
the Francks when they vanquished Gallia, no man re- 
pressed the Ostrogothes when they conquered Itaiy. Most 
incredible hath been the strength of our warlike valour, 
and our military arts have been admired by all nations 
wherewith our Germany hath excelled in all ages, and with 
which it hath gotten the prize from all nations, and the 
Empire and praise of the victory even from the Romans 
themselves which were the conquerors of all other people. 
Most justly is Germany to be called the shop of Mars, 
which hath ministred most valiant Captaines, and expert 
souldiers and forces to all famous battels that were ever 
waged in any parts of the earth, from the time of the 
great voiage or Xerxes. For what skirmish, what fight, 
what notable campe was there ever in the field in the 
time of our forefathers without Germans? what sea, what 
country is so remote unto whom the gleaves and halberts 
of our Germans are at this day unknowen? as for those 
warres which are waged at this day in the Netherlands 
and in Hungarie, are they not managed by the helpe and 
industry of our Germans? what sayest thou to the most 
mighty Tyrant of the east which most earnestly attempted 
with fire and sword to destroy the whole world, have not 
the armes of the German Mars brought him into those 
streights that he was compelled humbty to crave peace, 
and having craved it could hardly obtaine it? moreover 
in no place of the world are thcre to be seen stronger 
munitions, greater fortresses, better fortified Cities then in 
Germany. No where can a man see greater provision of 
78 




m PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

pceces of Ordinance, engins and warlike instruments then 
in Germany. I could name unto thee the principall Forts, 
Castels, garrizons, and armouries of our most potent 
Dukes, Princes, and Common-weales over all Germany, 
whereof part I know with mine eies, and part have heard 
with mine eares. I could shew unto thee Vienna the 
raost invincible Fortresse of Christendome, that hath beene 
so often assaulted by the frustrate attempts, and great 
enterpnses of that most cruell enemy : I could point out 
unto thee Dresden a place of incredible strength and 
puissance : I could name Custrinum the strong seate of 
Brennus : I could speak cf the fortifications and rampi 
of Meidenburg : the wals, and lofty battelments and 
towers of Strasbourg : also I could mention the Castels 
and strength of Norimberg : the greatnesse of Colen : the 
puissance of Ulm : the force o( Auspurg : withall I could 
make relation of this most auncient Province of the vahant 
Catti, which is strengthned with most invincible fortifica- 
tions, even to the great admiration of the eyes and eares 
of all strangers: besides I could tell thee of a great many 
other strong fortifications of Germany, whose number doth 
exceed the gates of the Thebanes, were it not that in this 
ptace I make my speech unto those that know their country 
of Gcrmanie more exactly then my selfe. 

I passe over the exercises of the frequent tilts and 
horscmanship used in the Courts of so many mighty 
Princes, I speake nof of their manners and grave dlscipline 
which doe much confirme the science of military vertue. 
Goe thy wayes now, and see whether thou canst secke for 
in any other part of the earth a greater opportunity of 
understanding warlike affaires. But perhaps thou wilt say 
that a man may reape more pleasure in the travcls of 
Italy and France. How so I pray thee ? for truly I see 
not, I understand not how that should be true. Whom 
will not the magnificence of Palaces Jn Germany dehght, 
the beauty of so many royall buildings, and most artificiall 
architectures ? which heretofore ^neas Sylvius an Itahan 
borne, and the most learned of all the Popes when he 




^ 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

^^. made his aboade in Germantc, affirmed that he could not 

^Kr sufficiently admire. 

^^1 The counterfaited and painted delights of Italy are much 

^^M canyed about the world, but pray how can they compare 

^^M with these our pleasures and commodities? those present 

^l themselves only to the outward eies and pleasure of the 

f body : but these bring great pleasure of the minde accom- 

panied with singular profite. Pray what can Italy, France, 
England, or Spaine shew unto thee that Germany hath 
Thefirithty ^^^ j ^^^ (.[,q^ dehghted with the pleasure of fields, the 
■^ "■ fertility of trees, the ptenty of vineyards? thou needest 

not run into Campania for that purpose, or visit the 
Florentine gardens, or goe beyond the Alpes to see the 
Orchards and famous Paradises of Cardinals. Germany 
will afford thee ferre more elegant both gardens and fields 
not only of our soveraigne Princes and noble Peeres, but 
also of our most wealthy Citizens of Norimberg, Aus- 
pourg, and else where. The Rhene, and Neccar, will shcw 
thee that abundance of vineyards, that plent)' and excel- 
lency of wine, the Moene will yeeld thee that amcenity, 
and so will the Ister, that neither the Adnatique gulfe, nor 
ihe Seine, nor Tyber can compare with those ptaces of 
Germany. What need I report unto thee our woods and 
groves, wherein nature her selfe doth take pleasure to 
inhabite.' in what country shalt thou find the samc more 
fruitfull, and better replenished with all pleasures & 
delights then in Germany? the pleasure of hunting which 
many doe preferre before all other recreations of this life, 
thou mayest enjoy in Germany to thy very fill. Dost thou 
delight to behold the sea? and to see the ebbing and 
flowing of the armes thereof, to goe aboord great ships, 
and to exercise thy selfe with navigation? then goe to 
the maritime cities of lower Germany, and to their most 
elegant mart Townes. Desirest thou to know the iashions, 
habits, and languages of sundry nations? Germany will 
shew thec in the havens of Hamborough and the Baltical 
Cities, Russians, Italians, Frcnchmen, Englishmen, Span- 
iards, Polonians, Danes, Suecians, and also the farthest 




IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

Portmgals. Besides so many plentifuU mines of copper, 
yron, silver, and gold, in Germany, in Bohemia, (whicn is 
also a great part of the German Empire) in Misnia, in 
Moravia, in Saxony, in Silesia : for the knowing whereof 
who would not be drawen from the farthest boundes of 
the whole world? I well know that Cornelius Tadtus 
woukl retume into Germany from the infernall parts, if the 
fates would permit him, that he might behoid all these 
things, and illustrate them with new writings. Doe thou 
not passe over the most holsome and pleasant bathes of 
Gennany, unto the which when Poggius the Florentine 
came, he thought that he was arrived at a new Paradise, in 
90 much that he wrote that nothing in the whole compasse 
of the earth could be found more pleasant, more sweet, 
then the bathes of Baden : for he said that there was the 
seate of the Graces, the bosome of love, and the Theater 
of pleasure. Art thou delighted with most witty fabricks 
and inventions? In no place of the world shalt thou 
finde more witty engins and excellent peeces of worke- 
manship, then in Germany. Which all strangers are 
constrained to graunt, in so much that they say, the 
Germanes have their wit at their fingers ends. By the 
Germanes wit the art of printing was first invented, of 
all arts that ever were as the most profitable, so the wittiest 
invention, so that it seemeth to be ascribed not so much 
to mortall men, as to the immortall God, which is mani- 
fested by the testimony of a certaine Poet that saith thus. 

O Germany first foundresse of that skill 

Then which time passed hath nought more useful found, 

Teaching the Presse to ease the writers quill. 

To what end should I advance the other inventions of 
the Germans ? what shall I name unto you their Gunnes ? 
which although they were invented to the destruction of 
men, yet for the goodly invention they are worthily 
oommended. 

The art of making clocks that were in the time of Clockmaking. 
Carolus Magnus brought into Germany by the mimificence 
a c. II. 8i F 



GfftMH 

antiquiHes, 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

of the Persian Ambassadors, which at that time were a 
great miracle to ovir people, the East, and Persia her selfe 
that first gave them, having now received them againe 
from the hands and wits of the Germanes, doth greatly 
admire them, according as Augerius hath certified us. 

But perhaps thou wilt say that Italy will shew thee 
more auncient monuments, and more imafi^es of antiquity. 
Report I pray thee (for I desire to hear it) the ruines of 
auncient Theaters, the decayed pillars of the auncients, 
and the fields where Troy was, as Virgil speaketh. 

But (good God) Germany wiU present unto thee many 
more rehques of auncient things, wnich was a very flovirish- 
ing Kingdome with Cities and Villages above a thousand 
years before Rome was built. For what can Italy shew 
answerable to the antiquity of the German Trevu-s? if 
thou dost looke upon the old ruines and mortar, the 
auncient stones that have continued there even from the 
time of the old Babylonian Ninus, doe present unto thee 
the most true signes of walles built with pitch and slime. 
If it pleaseth thee to behold the townes and buildings of 
the ancient Romans, looke upon Colen, Auspvirg, and 
other most ancient Cities. If thou wovddest see tombe 
stones with auncient inscriptions and statues, thou hast the 
monument of Drusus, neare Mentz, upon a hill by the 
Rhene, which the auncient historians have so often men- 
tioned. There is nothing in all the Italian antiquities that 
can be preferred before those of Germany. Can the sight 
of Cannse, of Trebia, and Thrasimenus, that are so 
famoused for Annibals victories and his slaughter of 
the Romans, more delight thee then the Rhene and 
Danubius, which for the space of three hundred years 
bare the brunt of the Roman forces ? Can those auncient 
places of Italy minister more pleasure unto thee where 
heretofore the Volsci, the Veientes, the Sabini, thc 
Hetrusci, inhabited, then those, where the auncient 
conquerers of so many Kingdomes, and the vanquishers 
of Italy it selfe, even those victorious people of Ger- 
manie, the Gothi, the Longobardi, the Catti, the Suevi, 

82 



IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

the Sicambri, the Bructeri, the Angrivarii, the Bavari, 
the Treviri, the Nervii, the Nemetes, the Triboci, the 
Vangiones, the Ubii, the Frisii, the Cimbri, the Franci, 
and other innumerable most glorious nations dwelt ? Doth 
the memory of Scipio, Metellus, and Julius Csesar, more 
delight thee then the statues of most valiant Ariovistus, 
warlike Harminius, invincible Charles, couragious Roland, 
glorious Hennr, and of other heroicall Worthies? but 
why doe I call up dead men to the stage? why doe I 
sp^dce of those that lie in the graves ? admit that all these 
things so worthy to be seene and heard, were wantins 
imto us, yet the hospitality of the Germans, the excet 
lentest vertue of all others (the praise whereof derived 
firom their parents they doe most worthily maintayne) 
whom would it not incite to travell into Germany, whom 
would it not allure, whom would it not draw? which it 
is written the famousest amongst the auncient Romans to 
have done, namely Pliny, Tacitus, Julius, Augustus, 
Tiberius, who vaunted that he travelled nine times out 
of Italy into Germany. But what a kinde of solitarinesse 
was there then of old Germany, what an unshapen face, 
what a roughnesse, so that if it be compared with the 
present Germany, it seemeth to be made a golden and 
marble country out of a leaden and wooden, even as Sylvius 
hath testified, whose eyes the brightnesse of the Empire 
and the German nation did so dazell, that he wrote this 
to the men of his owne nation. Let us endevour that we 
may be called rather Germanes then Italians, but although 
we cannot prevaile to bring that matter to passe, yet 
howsoever let us direct our studies to that end, that we 
may alwaies obey that famous nation. Adde unto aU 
these things the Germans faith and inte^ity, and the most 
safe seate of travelling. Italy is full of a thousand 
treacheries, of a thousand dangers, and Spaine also is as 
full of them, whereof a man may most truly use that 
speech. 

Moumine; and dread in every place, 
And deaths fell image shewes her face. 

83 



CORYAT-S CRUDITIES 

Since therefore these things arc true, why shoixld any 
man wondcr that from thc remotest regions of the 
southerne world the Antipodcs, and those whom all the 
age of the Romans knew not, and whose bcing to havc 
beleeved it was accounted a most haynous crime and deadly 
offence, have of late yeares arrived in Germany, after an 
infinite length of travell to see our most valiant Nether- 
landers? Againe, why should anv man wonder that not 
only in the time of the Empire of Charles the Great, but 
Persianambas' ^lso no longcr then seven yeares since, the Ambassadors 
^Qmnan^^ of the King of Persia came to ovir most Sovcndgne Prince 

Mauritius to Cassels (which Pcter Ramus commended at 
Paris out of thc Kings Professors chaire of thc University, 
and which in his writings he stiled by the name of a second 
Syracusae where Archimedes dwelleth) being movcd with 
the femc of so worthy a Prince, whom all forraine Nations 
and People doe admirc and honour fbr the Phoenix of 
his time, and from thence to have travelled through the 
middle of Germany to our most invincible Emperour 
Rodolph. It is evcn incredible to be reported how much 
they admired the Cities and Townes of Germany, our 
Princes territories, and the large bounds of the Empire, 
the strong Cities and Fortresses. I thinke there are some 
in this company, that when they were commorant in this 
Province with our most noble Prince for some certaine 
dayes, and saw those Ambassadors, they heard how greatly 
they commended the mimition of Cassels, affirming that 
there was not the like in all Persia. With what wonder 
and astonishment they beheld the armoury, the rampicrs 
and trenches thcre, how they observed the magnificcnce 
of the Palaces and Gardens, and how they commended the 
pompe and regall glory of thc Court. For thcse things 
trom their report came afterward to our eares. Moreover 
why should a man wonder, that men being; so ofren 
publiquely sent from the innermost desarts of thc Russians 
and Moschovites came into Germany to behold thc glory 
of the imperiall Diet, the might of thc Empire, thc 
elegancy or the Cities, and thc most noble institution of 

84 



IN PRAISE OF TRAVEL IN GERMANY 

the common-weale. Also we understand by the report of 
Augerius Biisbequius a most true Writer, that when as 
in tnc memory of our fathers, the Ambassadors of Solyman 
the great Turke came to Franckfort to the assembly of 
the Frinces, being conducted thither through the middle 
of Germany, they were even amazed and astonished with 
wondering at the most populous Cities, the multitude of 
Castels, most beautifuU Provinces of the most potent 
Electors and Princes. Also it is manifest that the like 
hapned to the Polonians and Frenchmen, when they 
guarded King Henry out of the Kingdome of France 
through the middle of Germany; so that they affirmed 
they then understood with what great power and glory 
Germanie did excell all other Kingdomes. jn ehquent 

Let others therefore goe according to their affections fanegyru. 
whither they list, let them travell into England, remaine 
and dye in Italy, let them waxe tawnie in Fortingall, and 
be dyed with the Sunne and soile of Spaine, let them 
travell into France, saile into Scotland, and let others 
againe goe to other places; for mine owne part I have 
resolvea that I will never aiter my opinion, but will ever 
thinke that the travell of Germany is to be preferred before 
all others, and to be more profitable and pleasant then 
others : and as Plato is said to have given thanks to the 
Gods in that he was an Athenian born and not a Theban, 
so let us most worthily congratulate ovir good fortunes 
in that we are not strangers, but Germans borne. And 
surely I doe even promise my selfe (my gentie Auditors) 
that there is not one of you all but after he hath considered 
the reasons of this my opinion, and weighed my arguments 
with an equall and indifferent judgement, he will be of the 
same minde that I am, and approve my speech. 

We beseech the almighty God that is the founder of Aprayerfir 
all Regions and Provmces, with all possibie earnest ^^^^V* 
prayers, that he would protect, save, and defend our 
common country Germanie, being the Mother and sove- 
raigne Queene of all other Kingdomes, adorned with the 
imperiall roabe of dominion and glory of the Csesarean 

»5 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Majesty above all other Empires and Kingdomes, most 

purely illuminated with the light of Gods hoJy word above 

all other nations, decked with victories and most glorious 

triumphes, endowed with most mighty, happy, and wise 

Emperours, Princes, and Governours, enriched with all 

gifts of humane blessings and prosperity, against all the 

assaults of ovir enemies : and finally that he would embrace 

it even to the worlds end with the sweetnesse of his 

inexhausted goodnesse and clemency ; but most espedally 

that he would everlastingly preserve in a most flourishing 

estate this Province of Hassia, which is the most beautifuD 

of all Germany, wherein I am a sojomer for learning sake, 

Hassia I say, which heretofore brought forth the most 

potent Macedonian Philip of Germany, William the most 

wise Solomon of Germany, and now the Prince Maurice 

the only miracle of all vertue and learning : also I beseech 

him that he would make our Church and Academie 

fruitfull like a fertile vineyard, and perpetually 

protect it against wolves and beares, and all 

the attempts of our adversaries, that 

we may sing and cry out with the 

Kingly rrophet, He hath 

not done thus to 

every nation. 



PINIS. 



86 



OBSERVATIONS OF RHETIA 

HAving imparted unto thee this most excellent Oration [p- 3^^0 
in praise of the travell of Germanie, the reading 
whereof cannot be but very delightfull unto thee, I wiU 
now retume unto that part of the Grisons country where- 
hence I digressed, even to Tossana, where I entred a Tossana. 
fourth valley which is called by the same name as the other 
inimediately behind it, namely the valley of Rhene, 
because that river runneth through this also where it 
inlargeth it selfe in a farre greater bredth then in the other 
valley. Also some doe cdl it the vailey of Cviria from 
the citie of Curia the metropolitane of the country, stand- 
ing in the principall and most fertil place thereof . 

I departed from Tossana about seven of the docke in 
the morning, the three and twentieth of August beeing 
Tuesday, and came to Curia tenne miles beyond it, whicn 
is the head citie of the country (as I have before said) 
about one of the clocke in the arternoone. 

I observed many wooden bridges in this valley, made Bridgts made 
of whole pine trees (as those of Savojr) which are rudely tfp^^ trees. 
clapped together. One of those bridges is of a great 
length, about one hundred and twenty paces long, and 
sixe broad, & roofed over with timber. AJso it hath fovire 
very huge wooden pillars in the water. This bridge is 
made over the river Rhene, about five miles on this side 
the citie of Curia, over the which every stranger that 
passeth payeth money. 

I observed this country to bee colder by halfe then 
Italie, the ayre beeing heere as temperate as with us in 
England. 

The abundance of Peares and Apples in many places •^^daiue rf 
of Rhetia, especially about the citie ot Curia, is such that ^''''«^^^**^- 
I wondred at it : For I never saw so much store together 
in my life, neither doe I thinke that Calabria which is so 
much stored with peares, can yeeld more plenty for the 

auantitie or space of ground, then this part of Rhetia [p- 3^7«] 
oth. Their trees being so exceedingly laden, that the 
boughes were even ready to breake mrough the weight 
of tne fruite. 

87 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

The Alpes on both sides of this valley are farther 
distant a sunder, then in the other parts of Rhetia that I 
had before passed, hy meanes of which distance, the space 
betwixt them being exceedingly enlarged, doth yeeld many 
fairer meadowes then I saw in me other places of the 
country : amongst the rest I passed one very goodly and 
pleasant meadow about a mile on this side Curia, which 
in my opinion contained about two hundred Acres. 

My Observations of Curia, 
Commonly called Chur, the Capitall Citie of Rhetia. 

CAur. /^ Uria is of some antiquitie, for it was built about the 

\j^ yeare after the incarnation of Christ 3 54. at what time 
Constantine the Emperour when he made warre against 
the Alemannes, lodged his campe in this valley, and in the 
same place where the citie now standeth, kept a kinde of 
court or Sessions for the debating of the common affaires, 
wherehence the citie bein^ biult a little after his departvire, 
had the name of Curia, but it was often after that called 
by the name of Augusta Rhetorum or Rhetica, as I have 
before written in my notes of Turin. It is seated under 
an high Alpine Mountaine, and built in a triangular forme, 
having on the east and south the steep Moimtaines, 
whereof those on the East are well planted with vine- 
yards; on the west and north side is a g^oodly spacious 
plaine, especially that on the North, wherin the river 
Khene runneth, being about an English mile and halfe 
distant from the citie. It is invironed with a faire wall, 

[p. 368.] having three gates therein, and adorned with certaine 

pretty turrets that doe much beautifie the same. It was 
converted to the faith of Christ shortly after the first 

TheCathedral building thereof . The Cathedral Church is dedicated to 

Church. g Martin^ 2LCLd was built by one Thello a Bishop of this 
city, in number the seventeenth, about the year 770. 
This Church belongeth to the Protestants, the whole dtie 
indeed being Protestant (but of the Calvinist religion) 
saving onely some little part, which in a Church that is 

88 



OBSERVATIONS OF CHUR 

tiilt in the higher part of the Citie hath daily masses 
celcbrated. In that Church I saw one very auncient 
monument o( a certaine Bishop of this citie, but destitutc 
of an Epitaph, so that the citizcns could not tell nie what 
his namc was that lay buried thcrc. AIso I observcd in 
the same Church many images, superstitious pictures, and 
Papisticall vanities, as an exceeding great and long picture 
of Saint Christopher, carrying Christ upon his shoulders, 
and the image of an Asse with extraordinary long eares, 
and Christ sitting upon him bare-legged and bare-footed. 
I was in thc Bishops Palace which standeth in the higher 
part of the citie, bccing a very fairc and goodly building, 
and of great antiquitie. For thc Bishopricke of Curia ^'*' 
is esteemed one of the anticntest Bishopricks of all "■' 
Germany, For it beganne in the yeare 452, The first 
Bishop being one Asimo, who was one of the number of 
those Bishops that were assembled together at the Coun- 
cell of Chalcedon in Grecce. Since which time there hath 
beene a succession of some eighty Bishops unto him that 
was Bishop when I was therc, whose name was Joannes 
Flugius, but a Papist, He lived not in the City, but in 
another place of Germany in voluntary banishment. For 
about some twelve moneths before I was in Curia, there 
was a tumult raised in the City, whereof I heard he was 
the principall Authour. Whercupon because he feared 
that the Citizens would have punished him, hc wcnt 
voluntarily into exile, so that now hc liveth a very obscure 
and private life, There is great trafficke exercised in this [p. 369.] 
City, being the place where they lade and unladc their 
merchandise. For whcnsoever they send any merchan- 
dise beyond the Mountaincs, thcy lay two packes upon 
each horsc. For they use only horses in this country, 
not carts, by reason of the narrownesse of the waies, as I 
have before said. And the same horses when they returne 
home, bring backe that noble wine that I have above 
mentioned of the valley Telina otherwise called Valtulina. 

I was in their Councell house, in the principail roome Tie Cound 
whcreof they hang thc picture of the present Duke of ^'""'- 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Saxony Christian the second. The reason why they so 
much grace him, is, because he was a great benefactor to 
the City when he passed that way into Italy. In this 
Councell house the Magistrates of the State which are sent 
from the townes of Rhetia, one from every Towne, doe 
keepe their Sessions thrise every yeare about criminall and 
civill matters. They have two Councels, the greater and 
the lesser. The greater consisteth of threescore and foiu"- 
teene Magistrates, which deliberate and consult about 
pubhque matters touching the whole state. The lesser 
consisteth of fourteen Magistrates which determine 
matters concerniiig the city Curia only. Againe, the 
whole State of Rhetia is devided into three leagues, 
which are nothing else than Fraternities or Com- 
munities that elect and send Magistrates for the execution 
The Rhaign of the affaires of the common-weale. These leagues 
Leagiui. were contracted amongst themselves at several times 
for the better defence of the country against thc 
forraine invasion of strangers, who before that con- 
federation did often oppresse them with many villanies 
and enormous injuries. The first, wherein the Bishop 
of Curia, the Deane and Chapter, and the City are united 
together, was begunne and contirmed in the yeare 1419. 
The second in the yeare 1424 in a towne called Trontz, 
and concluded by the Abbot of Disertinum, the Earle of 
[p. 370.] Masauc, and the Baron of Rezuns. At what time the 
Abbot added this condition, that the same league should 
not be made to the prejudice either of the Roman Empire 
whose Prelate he was, or of the Lordes of Milan whose 
Earle he was. The third and the last was concluded in 
the yeare 1470, amongst ten jurisdictions of those that 
live in a part of Rhetia called Prettigoia. And at last 
all these three leagues linked themselves together in one 
forme of union and confederacy for the better strengthning 
of their common-weale against the violent incursions or 
forraine forces. Moreover they are at this day united with 
the Switzers. He that will be ferther instructed in the 
popular governement of the GrJsons, let him reade a booke 




OBSERVATIONS OF CHUR 

written by that learned Josias Simlerus of Zurich in 
Switzerland, who (as a learned man told me in Cxuia) hath 
written a peculiar Treatise of the common-weale of the 
Grisons. 

In this City there is a mint where they stampe money ^ mint in 
of gold, silver, and tin that serveth for the whole territory. ^^- 
This mint I saw together with their armoury house, but 
I had not the opportunity to enter into either of them. 

Here was Magnentius (whom I have before mentioned 
in my notes of Lyons) prodaimed Emperour by his 
Souldiers against Constance the second sonne of Constan- 
tine the Great, at what time the same Magnentius was 
generall Captayne of the Roman legions in Rhetia, and 
afterward he slew the same Emperour Constance as he 
slept in his bed in a towne called Helena not farre from 
the Pyrenean mountaines. 

In the principall market place which is opposite to St. Theprincipal 
Martins Church before mentioned, there is a goodly feire *w^^/^^- 
conduit with a faire statue of an armed man standing 
upon the toppe thereof, a thing very excellently handled. 
The Citizens bestowed great charg^es that year 1608 that 
I was in the City in repayring this conduit, so that they [p. 371.] 
have greatly beautified it. 

I r^id these verses following written upon a rich citizens 

house of this City, even upon the outside of the wall over 

thc dore. _ 

Deus. 

Stant dextra kevaque undae, procede Viator 

transi, rumpe moras, anteriora vide. 

Viator. 
Duc me, nec sine me, per me Deus optime, duci, 

nam duce me pereo, te duce salvus ero. 

Thus much of Curia. 

IDeparted from Curia about sixe of the docke in the 
moming the tbure and twentieth of August being 
Wednesday, and came to Walastat a towne of tne coimtry 
of Helvetia, now called Switzerland, foure Helvetian HeheHa. 

91 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

miles, that is, twettty of our English, beyond it, about 
seven of the clocke in the evening. 

The King of France hath built a most magnificent Palacc 
in Rhetia, withtn a mile and halfe of the citie of Curia 
ncare to the river of Rhene, where a French Ambassador 
made his residence when I was in the country, being sent 
to the state of the Grisons from the King of Prance. 
The end of my Observations of the Grisons Country. 

[p- 37*0 The beginning of my observations of Helvetia, 
otherwise called Switzerland. 

He name of the first towne of Switzerland 
that I entred is Ragatz, ten English miles 
beyond the citie of Curia. There Rhetia, 
and Helvetia doe confine. I travelled in 
Rhetia seventy three English miles be- 
twixt Morbiniiun at the entrance of the 
^ country, & this towne of Ragatz at the 
Tii boMMji entrance of Switzerland. This countrey of Switzerland is 
»/^iztr~ gjtuate betwixt the Mountaine Jura, the lake Lemanus 
(which ts otherwise called the Lake Losanna) Italy, and 
the river Rhene : and it is bounded on the East with the 
Earledome of Tyroll, on the West with Savoy and Biu-- 
gundy, on the South with the Coctian Alpes now called 
mount Senys (as I have before mentioned in my notes of 
Savoy) Lombardy, the Dukedome of Milan, and the 
Territory of Piemont on the North with the river Rhene. 
Againe, the bounds of Switzerland extend themselves 
about two hundred and forty miles in length, according 
to the computation of Cssar, which appeareth to be tnie 
at this day ; but in bredth it containeth not ahove eighty 
miles, thougb Cxsar inlargeth the breadtb of it to a 
greater distance. 

Within a quarter of a mile after I entred into Switzer- 
land I passed through a very goodly meadow, whicb I 
thinke contained at the least five hundred acres. That 
day thcy mowed some part of the same meadow, and 





OBSERVATTONS OF SWITZERLAND 

carryed away hay ready made out of some other part 
thereof, I wondred to see their hay harvest so late, being 
about two moneths later then with us in England. For 
that was Barthelmew day iti Switzerland. But I attribute 
that harvest to the fatnesse and fertihty of the ground. 
For I beleeve they have two hay harvests, one about that 
time that ours is in Engknd, and this I take to be their 
second hay harvest. The first Rhenish wine that I dranke 
was at Walastat, from which place downward, till I entred 
into Holland, I had continually Rhenish wine in all the 
Helvetical and German townes and cities. But not that 
only: for in some places of Switzerland I had good redde 
wine also : but after I was out of Switzerland I tasted no 
other wine but onely Rhenish. 

I departed from Walastat about three of the clocke the 
next morning being Thursday and the five and twentieth 
of August, and passed in a Barke upon the goodly 
Helvetian lake twenty English miles that day, and about 
seven of the clocke in the evening arrived at a solitary 
house by the water side, where I lay that night. The diet 
of Switzerland is passing good in most places; for they 
bring great variety of dishes to the table, both of rost and 
sodde meates : and the charge is something reasonable; 
for my Spanish shilling did most commonly discharge my 
shot when I spent most. 

This Helvetian lake that runneth through a good part 
of Switzerland belwixt the Alpes, is in many places of a 
great breadth, at the least two English miles broad, Our 
barke passed one wooden bridge made over this lake, of 
an extraordinary tength, the longest that ever I saw, even 
as long as the lake is broad, viz. two miles, so that it 
joyned together both the bankes of the lake. 

I departed from that solitary house about tenne of the 
clocke that night in the same barke, and came to Zurich 
fifteene English miles beyond it, about foure of the clockc 
the next morning being Friday, where I solaced my selfe 
all that day, and the better part of the next day with the 
learned Protestants of the citie I passed thirty five 



[P- 373-11 



i 




SUd 
it V 



CORYAT-S CRUDITTES 

English miles upon the Helvetian lake betwixt Walastat 
and Zurich. 

[p. 374.] My observations of Zurich, in Latine Tigurum, 
the Metropolitan Citie of Switzerlaiid. 

''Uch is the antiquity of this citie, that it is thought 

O it was built in the time of Abraham (which was about 

m^ two thousand yeares before the incarnation of Christ, and 

^H thirteene hundjed yeares before the foundation of Rome) 

^H as Rodolphus Hospinianus that glittering lampe of learn- 

^H ing, a most etoquent and famous Preacher of this citie 

^H tolde me ; together with two more, Solodurum an other 

^H faire city of Switzerland, & Trevirs in the Netherlands, 

^H which by reason that they were built about one time are 

^l called the three sister cities of Germany. In the time of 

1 . Julius Csesar this citie was but an obscure village : so that 

he called it Pagus Tigurinus, but in continuance of time 

A jiUaiatit it grew to be a beautifuU citie. It is most delicately 

"*■ seated in a very fertile soile that yeeldeth great plenty of 

corne and wine. Also it is most pleasantly moystened 

with water, partly with the noble Helvetian or Tigurine 

lake that washeth one side thereof, being of a goodly 

breadth, almost two English miles broad; partly with the 

river Sylla which runneth by the west side of the city, 

into which the ashes of Witches, Sorcerers, and Heretiques 

are cast, after their bodies are burnt, as I will hereaftcr 

ferther declare in my notes of this citie ; and partly with the 

pleasant lake Limacus mentioned by Cssar. This is 

derived out of the Tigurine lake, and runneth through the 

middest of the citie, so that it maketh two severall cities 

the greater and the lesser : having three feire bridges over 

the same, but built with timber, where the citizens doe 

Tie Lake of Msud^Ay walke, This lake imparteth two speciall com- 

Zurich. modities to the citie, the one that it yeeldeth abundance 

of fish, and those passing good ; the other that it carrieth 

[p. 37;.] many pretty little Barkes, and such like vessels of a meane 

burden that serve for the conveying of corne, and many 

other necessaries forth and backe for the use of the citizens. 





OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 

In this lake they have two great wooden wheeles neare to 
the bridges, each by a severall bridee, made in the forme 
of water-mils, which are in continuaU motion, so cunningly 
and artificially composed, that they doe incessantly spout 
out water through a great multitude of pipes. Truely 
it is a very delectable sight to beholde. Likewisc 
I observed that upon both the sides of the lake which 
extendeth it seife very near fifteene English miles in length, 
there groweth great abundance of delectable vineyardes. 
This city is walled round about with very goodly wals, 
built with exceeding strong stone of great antiquity, and 
beautified with faire battlements. AIso there are sixe very 
magnificent and stately gates in the wals, built wholy with 
square stone, and made in the forme of strong bulwarkes, 
which doe greatly beautifie the citie ; and they are gar- 
nished with the armes of the citie displayed thereon, wnich 
are two Lyons and a coate of white and blew. In thesc 
wals are many strong and auncient Towers, which served 
heretofore for fortifications against the hostile fbrce, 
whereof sixe are in that part ot the wall which is in the 
west side of the citie, being built with a pretty kinde of 
stratagematical invention. For the first of these sixe is so 
artificially contrived, that some part of it runneth a litle 
into the wall, so that almost the whole Tower butteth out 
from the maine wall into the ditch adioyning to it, saving 
that Httle which is inserted into the wall. The next Tower 
entreth farther into the wall, and so every other by degrecs 
one after another farther and farther till the last, which is 
the sixth, is inserted whoUy into the wall, that no part of 
it at all butteth out towards the ditch. A certaine learned 
young man of the citie called Marcus Buelerus, unto 
whom I was exceedingly beholding for the sight of most 
of ihe principal) things of Zurich (being appointed to 
keepe me company by the meanes of that singular learned 
man Rodolphus Hospinianus) tolde me, that the reason 
why these Towers were built after such a strange and 
extraordinary forme, was this, because if the towne should 
happen to be assaulted or besieged by the enemy, the 



GmHj tealb. 



A kenti 
gfadt. 

[P- 376.] 




The hkt ef 
(rop. 



Zurich lignl- 
fielhticaciliei. 



[P- 377-] 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

presidiarie souldiers which for the defence of the citie 
should watch in those Towers, might the more commodi- 
ously see one another, and so give watch-word to each 
other as occasion required. Hard by the wall where these 
foresaid Towers are built, there runneth a little muddy 
lake, which by the auncients was called the lake of frogs, 
which name it continually retaineth even to this day, by 
reason of the great abundance of frogs therein. There is 
a marveilous pleasant walke for the citizens to walke in 
hard by that lake. AIso there are five more of those 
Towers made in other parts of the wall, so that in the 
whole wall there are eleven Towers, and five Gatehouses 
or Bulwarkes before mentioned, which doe yeeld a speciall 
grace to the whole Citie. About the East-side of the 
Citie, unto the which from the lower parts you have a 
pretie easie ascent, there is another exceeding pleasant 
and delectable greene walke hard by the Trench (for the 
whole wall of the Citie is invironed round about with a 
Trench) of a quarter of an English mile long, That 
part of the Trench is a very pleasant greene, where the 
Patricians and Gentlemen of the Citie doe keepe Deere, 
having built there sundry Iittle pretie houses whcrein 
they use to feede them with hay in the winter time. 

The Citie hath his name of Zurich from two King- 
domes; for the Dutch word Zurich signifieth two 
Kingdomes : the reason thereof is this, because in times 
past one part of it, even that which is on the ferther banke 
of the River Limacus, belonged to a certalne KJngdome 
called Turgovia, which retaineth that name to this day, 
part whereof belongeth to the state of Zurich, the other 
part which is on the hither banke of the river belonged to 
a Kingdome or Province called Ergovia, which yet keepeth 
his name, and now belongeth to the Tigurines. Also the 
Latine name was heretofore Turegum, before it was called 
Tigurum, and it was so called, Quasi duorum regum 
civitas. That name of Turegum was very auncient, for 
so it was called in the time of Julius CiEsar as well as 
Tigurinus pagus. For testimonie whereof this verse was 
96 





OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 

heretofore found in one of the gardens of the Citie, as 
my fcresaid friend Marcus Buelerus told me, being written 
there by the appointment of Julius Cassar himself, and 
continued there a long time after, even this, 

Nobile Turegum, multarum copia rerum. 

There are fbure Churches in the Citie, whereof the feyrest ^*'"^ ^f ' 
was built by Clodoveus King of France, and dedicated to 5 j;™/^ 
Saint Felix, and Saint Regula, by whose names it is called 
at this day : These Saints, Felix and Kegula, are highly 
estccmed amongst the Tigurines, but not in that super- 
stitious manner as Saints are amongst the Papists : the 
reason why the Tigurines doe honour them, is, because 
they were the first that preached the Gospel in the Citie, 
as my foresaid friend Buelerus told me, and for their bold 
confession of the Christian Religion were martyred in the 
Citie in one of the first persecutions of the Primitive 
Church : their manner of death was beheading. For the 
place where they were beheaded was shewed me neere to 
one of their Bridges on the farther side of the Limacus, 
viz. a very auncient faire building, which is called in 
Latine aquatile templum, because it is built altogether 
in thc Limacus : this place was heretofore in time of 
Paganisme a temple of idolatrie, but now it is altogether 
alieoated from holy and Religious uses, though it bec 
continually called by the name of a Temple, and serveth 
as a publicke house for secular affaires. Without thc 
edi6ce, almost round about halfe the compasse, there is a 
pretie walke paved with stone, the edge whereof is gar- 
nished with len huge stonie Pillars. In this place three [p. 378.] 
Martjrrs suffered Martyrdome together : Namely the fore- Tirte 
said Felix and Regula who was his wife. The third was """''yi. 
a Priest called Exuperantius. Two of these three, viz, 
Felix & Regula, craved before their execution, that they 
might be buried in a certaine place of the Citie that they 
themselves appointed ; which I saw in this foresaid 
Church, where there is a plaine Stone laid over their 
bodies. The like Miracle is reported of them as is written 



i 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

^^^ of St. Denis in France, as I have before mentioned, that 

^^L they carried their heads in their hands after they were 

^^1 strooken off from their bodies, to the place where they 

^^H desired to be buried. How true or false this is, I will not 

^^B dispute the matter, because I never read the Historie in 

^^B any authenticke writer, onely I heard it of the learned 

^f^ men of the Cltie. In the Cloyster of thts foresaid Church 

of Saint Felix and Regula, I saw to my great comfort the 

Sepakkrei af Sepulchers of sundry femous and learned men, who were 

fiti^us mtn. singular ornaments and most glorious bright-shining 

Lampes of Christs Chiirch, since the reformation ot 

Rehgion began in Switzerland, and such as by their hoH- 

nesse of hfe, sinceritie of doctrine, and the manifold 

Monuments of their most learned workes, have infinitely 

benefited the Church of God, and purchased themselves 

eternitie of name till the worlds end. These are the men 

whose bodies He enterred in this Cloyster, Peter Martyr 

the Vermilian. Henricus Bullingerus, Rodolfus Gualterus, 

Theodorus Bibliander, Conradus Gesnerus, Ludovicus 

Lavaterus, Josias Simlerus, Joannes Gulielmus Stuckius, 

&c. Truely it grieved me to see so many rare men so 

meanely buried. For none of them had any more than 

a fiat stone laide upon them without Epitaph, or any maner 

of inscription to preserve them from oblivion ; in so much 

that a stranger cannot know one Sepulchre from another, 

except one of the Citie shew him the particulars. Surely 

[p- 379'] the memorie of these worthy men would quickly be 

extinguished among the Tigurines, if they had not in 

their life time immortalized the same by their learned 

writings. For the Tigurines honour none of their citizens 

that are buried in the citie, of what fecultie, dignitie, or 

merit soever they are, either with faire monuments, or 

beautified by Carolus Magnus, who upon the yeare 8io 

bestowed great charges upon the same. For a monument 

of whose imperiall munificence the Tigurines have erected 

3 goodly stonie statue to the honour of his name in the 

South side of one of the towers of the Church, whJch is 

therehence called the tower of Carolus Magnus. This 



OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 

statue is made according to the full proportion of a mans 
bodie with a golden Diademe upon his head, a Scepter in 
the right hand, and a golden sword in the left. 

The second Church is dedicated to Saint Peter, whereof 
part is reported to bc of that antiquitie, that it was built 
in thc lime of Abraham, and at the first building thereof 
was consecrated to the worship of the Paynime gods: tor 
ihc lower part of it toward the fbundation argueth the 
ancientnesse ihereof, being built in the outside with 
pointed diamond work like unto certain buildings that I 
observed in Italie, as I have before mentioned. The 
dtizens were bestowing great charges in repairing the 
steeple of the Church when I was in Zurich. The third 
is the Abbesse Church which Ludovicus King of Germanic, 
and the nephew of Carolus Magnus founded in the yeare 
853. neere unto which he built a feire Nunnerie, whereinto 
none were admitted but onely noble women. Both the 
Church and the Nunnery were built indeed by the appoint- 
ment of the foresaid King Ludovicus, but Rupcrtus Duke 
of Alemanny disbursed the greatest charge thercof, and 
Ludovicus contributed something to the same, The first 
Abbesse was the Lady Hildcgardis King Ludovicus 
daughter, This Nunnery is now converted to a Schoole 
which hath beene a most truitful] seminarie of many 
excellent learned men, Ex quo ludo tanquam ex equo 
Trojano (to use "Ciceroes words that he spake of Isocrates 
schoole in Athens) multi eniditissimi viri prodierunt. 
For this schoole hath beene the nurse of all the ^mous 
Tigurine divines that have florished in this citie, and so 
ennobled the same by their learned writings since the 
rcformation of religion bcgan. Herein are ever brought 
up 16 striplings of the most exquisite and pregnant wits 
that can be selected out of the whole citie, and when 
they have accomplished the foure and twentieth yeare of 
their age, they are transplanted thcrehence, and enter into 
the Ecclcsiasticall fiinction. In all that space they are 

ought up in thc studie of humanity and divinitie at the 
* 1 Lib. dc Orat. 



Cirnrck»/ I 
S. Peter. 



[p- 380.] 

Sannery 




i 



Gaipar 

afamaui 
iraveliei: 



[p. 3«,.] 



Wiafom Mftd 

by ike 
Helvelians 
againsi ike 
Rmans, 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

piiblike charge of the citie. The fourth and last Church 
is that which heretofore belonged to the Predicatores or 
Dominican Friers. 

I was in their armory unto the which I had accesse by 
the meanes of a worthy learned man of the citie, a great 
professor of eloquence, a singular linguist. For he spake 
seven languages, being very skilfull in the Hebrew and 
Greeke tongues, and a famous traveller, For besides Italy, 
Germany, and France, which he had well travelled over, he 
had been also in England, Scotland, and Ireland, a man of 
so rare and excellent gifts, that he hath attained to that 
which the Grecians Ciul \-fKVKKo-KmZfiav, that is, an exact 
knowledge in the seven liberal sciences. His name is 
Gaspar Waserus. When I came afterward to Frankford 
at the time of the Mart, I saw a most singular Latine 
Oration made by him upon the life and death of that 
femous Pastor of Zurlch, Joannes Gulielmus Stuckius, 
who died in this citie not long before my being there. 
This foresaid Waserus sent a scholer with me to the 
Tigurine Prefect, a noble man of the citie, whose name 
was Hortmannus Eselerus, who used me very graciously, 
discoursed with me in Latin, sent a Mandato under his 
hand to the keeper of the armory to shew me the same. 
Truly I have seene farre greater armories then this, as that 
of Milan, but especially those of the Arsenall of Venice. 
Also our owne in the Tower of London yeeldeth more 
store of munition then this : but never in my life did I 
see so well a furnished place for the quantity. Amongst 
the rest of those things that this Armory doth present, it 
yeeldeth more notable antiquities then ever I saw in any 
armorie before. For heere I saw those arrows which the 
ancient Helvetians used in the time of Julius Csesar, when 
they fought with the Romanes. They are very short, but 
exceeding big, being above two inches in compasse, and 
headed with great three-forked heads. Of these arrowes 
I saw a greai quantity : Likewise the banners & ancients 
that the Helvetians displaied in the field against the 
Romans, which are almost eaten out with antiquity : And 




OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 

many of the Romans enslgnes with their armes in fhem, 

even the eagle, which the Helvetians wonne from them in 

fight. These banners arc something lesse then those that 

are used in this age. Also I observed many shields which 

they used in their skirmishes with the Romanes, being 

made of sinews, one whereof I saw exceedingly mangled, 

and hackied with stroakes of swords, &c. All these things 

are shewed in one of the higher roomes of the Armory, 

For it consisteth of many faire roomes most curiously kept. 

Also there is shewed another most worthy monument in 

the same roome, even the sword of William Tell an 

Helvetian of the towne of Swice, who about some three 

hundred years since was the first author of the Helveticall 

confederation which hath been ever since retained in iheir 

jjopular government, by reason of a certaine notable 

cxploit that he atchieved. Therefore I will tell a most //"'i"? "f 

mcmorable history of Will Tell before I proceede any ^''^""' ^ 

fiuther, being very pertinent to this purpose, which was 

this, as I both heard it tn the Citie, and afterward read it in 

thc third booke of Munsters Cosmography. When as [p- 382.] 

the Germane Emperours being the Lords of the principall 

Cities of Helvetia constituted forraine Prefects and rulers 

about three hundred yeares since as their deputies over 

three townes, especially above the rest, nameiy Sylvania, 

otherwise called tlnderwald, Urania, commonly called Uri, 

and Swice, it hapned that the Prefect of the towne of 

Swice behaved himselfe very insolently, abusing his 

authority by immoderate tyrannizing over the people, 

For amongst other enormous outrages that he committed, 

this was one. He commanded one of his servants to 

compell atl travellers that passed such a way, to doe TraveUen 

reverence to his hat that was hanged upon a staffe in the '""'"■^ ' 1 " 

high way. The people unwilling to offend the Magis- j,^i_ 

rrate, did their obeysance unto the hat. But one amongst 

the rest, even this foresaid William Tell, being a man of 

a stout courage, refused to doe as the rest did. Where- 

upon he was brought before the Magistrate, who being 

grievously incensea against him for his contumacie, 



I 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

injoyned him this pennance : that he should shoote an 
arrow out of a crosse-bow at an apple set upon his sonnes 
hcad that was a little child, whom he caused to be tied to 
a tree for the same purpose, so that if he had fayled to 
strike the apple, he must needs have shot through his 
sonne, This he commanded him because this Tell was 
esteemed a cunning archer : At the first he refiised to doe 
it : But at last hecause he saw there was an inevitable 
necessity imposed upon him, he performed the matter 
greatly against his will, and that with most happy successe. 
For God himselfe directing the arrow, he shot him so 
Tht «ppU cunningly, that he strooke ofF the apple from the childs 
cunaingly >hot head without any hurt at all to the child. And whereas 
°y ' • he had another arrow left besides that which he shot at his 

sonne, the Prefect asked him what he meant to do with 
that arrow : he made him this bould and resolute answere. 
[p. 383,] If I had slaine my child with the first, I would have shot 
thee through with the second. The magistrate hearing 
that, commanded him to be apprehended, and carried away 
in a barke, And when he was come betwixt the towne 
of Urania, and a certaine village called Brun, having by 
good fortune escaped out of the boate, he ranne away with 
all possible expedition over the difficult places of the 
mountaines, where there was no common way, and so 
came to a place neere to the which he knew the tyrant 
would passe, where he lay in ambush in a secret corner of 
the wood till he came that way, and then shot him through 
with his other arrow. It hapned that this Tell did weare 
the foresaid sword about him when he atchieved these 
worthy actes, in regard whereof the Switzers have ever 
since that time hanged up the same in their Armory for a 
most remarkable monument, though me thinks it had 
beene much better to have reserved the arrow with which 
he shot through the tyrant, then the sword that he wore 
TtlPi expteii then. This noble exploit was the first originall of the 
the eriffnal 0/ Helveticall confederation. For shortly after these matters 
' """" were acted, those three foresaid townes of Underwald, Uri, 
and Swice united themselves together in a league by a 



tie Helvetic 





OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 

solemne forme of oath about the year 1316. to the end to 

shake off the yoake of those forraine tyrants. And after- 

ward the other Cities of the Province imitated them, so 

that in the end all the Cities of Helvetia conibined them- 

selves together in a league of unity, which though it hath 

beene otten assayed since that time to be dlssolved and 

violated by the forraine forces of mighty men, as by some 

of the German Emperours, by Leopold, and Fredericke, 

brothers and Dukes of Austria, by the Earles of Kyburg, 

&c, yet it hath continued firme and inviolable to this day. 

As for the name of Switzers it grew upon this foresaid 

occasion, even because the above mentioned William Tell 

the first author of this league was borne in the towne of 

Swice. For before that time all the inhabitants of the 

country were called Helvetians. Having now reported [p. 384.] 

this notable history, which I could not conveniently omit, 

I will return againe to the armory. I saw also in the ^" Jnnent 

foresaid higher roome, an Ancient that the Switzers got ^ /'"d 1 

in the field from that famous Charles Duke of Burgundy. o/Buraindt. 

For there were most bitter warres waged betwixt the 

Helvetians and this Duke Charles for the space of three 

yeares, in which space they fought three very hot battels 

in as many severall places, the Helvetians ever carrying 

away the glory of the field from him, and in the last 

skirmish about the City of Nancey in Lorraine they slew 

him (after he had lived three and fortie yeares, one moneth, 

and five and twentie daies,) with three grievous wounds, 

upon the Epiphany which we commonly call twelfe day, 

Ajino 1477. But to returne once more to this higher 

roome of the armory ; besides these foresaid antiquities, 

hecre I observed a marvailous multitude of costlets, and 

head peeces, and a great deale of complete armour of 

proofe, for the whole body, which is so finely disposed in 

order, and so elegantly kept, that it yeeldeth a wondrous 

feire shew. 

At the upper end of this roome I saw two artificiall men Tu>e artijicial 
standing a pretie distance from each other, even at the "leniManiieiir. 
coracrs of the roome, armed with their complete armour 
103 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



[p. 385.] 

AU swu of 
ordiumce. 



Armsfir 
iOyCXX> men. 



of proofe, and crested helmets upon their heads, which a 
stranger at the first entrance of the roome would conjectiire 
to be living, and very naturall men standing in their 
armour; this also giveth no small grace to the roome. 
In another roome I saw most terrible swords made accord- 
ing to the imitation of those that the ancient Helvetians 
used in their warres against Julius Cssar) being two-edged, 
and of a great length, above two yards long, having many 
steelen pranges, or sharpe hookes at the sides. In another 
roome I saw onely speares and laxmces, whereof there was 
a goodly company. Againe in another, axes and mattocks 
for pioners to use about digging of trenches. In the lowest 
roome of all, which is the fourth, I noted an exceeding 
multitude of pieces of ordinance of all sorts, as culyerins, 
demiculverins, demicannons, sacers, basiliskes, &c. whereof 
some were taken as trophies fi-om the foresaid Duke of 
Burgundy, being indeed pieces of admirable beauty and 
value, adorned with his armes, and many curious borders 
and works contrived in the same. Amongst the rest I 
saw one passing great murdering piece, both the ends 
thereof were so exceeding wide, that a very corpulent man 
might easily enter the same. This also was wonne in the 
field firom the same Duke. Besides, I saw seven huge 
and very sumptuous brasen pieces equalling at the least, if 
not exceeding the length of the longest piece I saw in the 
Citadell of Milan, above named. All these things I saw 
kept very daintily, and in passing good order. Although 
this armoury be well able to arme ten thousand men, yet 
if there should happen any occasion of warres, they neede 
not use any of it : because every private man of the citie, 
together with the rest in the other townes, villages, and 
hamlets of the country are privately very well furnished in 
their owne houses : onely if they hire any strangers then 
they use it, but not else. The Tigurines are able to 
furnish fortie thousand armed men in their whole terri- 
tory; but the Citie it selfe armeth two thousand onely 
and no more. 

Thus much of the Armoury. 

X04 




OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 



^ T Saw their campus Martius, where both in ancient times The CamfM: 



. thcy were wont to muster their souldiers, and so do at "^'"'"'"- 
this day. It is a very goodly greene plaine, where I 
observed five exceeding massy piUars of stone, which serve 
onJy tor this purpose, that souldiers may in the time of 
muster discharge their peeces at them for the better triall 
and proofe of them. I noted every one oi the pillars to 
be much battered with the force of their bullets. 

There are two prisons in the City, whereof one standeth [p- jS6.] 
■ 1 the water, being buih in the manner of a Tower, unto Tme fmimt. 



1 



I 



the which none can come but by water: herein capitall ^H 

offenders and debtors are kept. The other is one of those ^l 

sixe Towers in the westerne wall of the City already 
mentioned, unto which they are ccmmitted that have done 
some small and veniall crime. 

There is one very delectable greene in an eminent and ^ dtkttabU 
high part of the City, where there grow many goodly ^'"'' 
trees that doe make a pleasanf grove. Here stand many 
stony tables of a convenient bignesse with benches about 
them for their archers to sit at their refection, after they 
have exercised themselves with shooting, which is an exer- 
cise much used amongst them. Neare unto this place 
dwelt one of their Consuls when I was in Zurich. For 
they have two Consuls in the City, which doe not change 
every yeare as the Romans did, but when they are cnce 
elected into the Consulat, they keepe that consular dignity 
while they live, except upon some just desert they are 
degraded, 

Their L,ictcres or Serjeants doe weare party-coloured 
cloakes, which are of a blew and white colour according to 
the armes cf the City. 

Their houses both publique and private are very feire. 
Their private houses of a goodly heigth, many of them 
foure stories high. Their matter of building is partly 
fi-ee stone, and partly timbcr. For they have no bricke 
at aU. 

The habits of the Citizens doe in scme things differ -''">' ifHit 
from the attyre of any nation that ever [ saw before. For <"*'^'"' 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

all the men doe weare round breeches with codpeeces. 
So that you shall not finde one man in all Zurich from a 
boy of ten yeares old to an old man of the age of a himdred 
yeares, but he weareth a codpeece. Also all their men doe 
weare flat caps and rufFe bandes. For I could not see 
one man or boy in the whole City weare a falling band. 

K 387.] Many of their women, especially maides doe use a very 
strange and phantasticall lashion with their haire that I 
never saw before, but the like I observed afterward in 
many other places of Switzerland, especially in Basil. For 
they plait it in two very long locks that hang downe over 
their shoulders halfe a yard long. And many of them doe 
twist it together with prety silke ribbands or fiUets of 
sundry colours. 

Yange hids. The beds of the Innes of this City and of ail the other 
Helvetian and German Cities are very strange, such as I 
never saw before. The like being in the private houses 
of every particular Citizen as I heard. For every man 
hath a light downe or very soft feather bedde laid upon 
him whic^ keepeth him very warme, and is nothing offen- 
sive for the burden. For it is exceeding light, and serveth 
for the coverled of the bedde. In the refectory of that 
Inne where I lay which was at the signe of the two Storkes, 
there is a stove, such a one as I have before mentioned in 
my Observations of Padua, which is so common a thing 
in all the houses of Switzerland and Germany (as I have 
before said) that no house is without it. I foimd them 
first in Rhetia, even in the City of Curia. 

^atsoil The soile round about this City is so exceeding fat, 

that it yeeldeth wonderfull plenty of corne, which is every 
weeke sold here in so great abundance that it doth not 
only sufiBize for the maintenance of the City, but also 
is commxmicated to their neighbouring Townes, being 
conveighed unto them partly in fiarkes upon the Helvetian 
lake, and partly with carts and upon horses backs. Also 
the City is served with such passing store of provision of 
all sorts whatsoever, that a man may live as cheape here as 
in any City of Switzerland or Germanie. For I observed 

106 




OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 




I 



: my Inne, which was at the signe of the two Storkes, 
more variety of good dishes then I did in any Inne in my 
whole journey out of England, our ordinary being sixe 
battes, that is, fifteene pence EngHsh. Every bat counter- 
vailing two pence halfe peny of our English money. 

About an English mile directly beyond the Citie West- [p. 388.] 
ward, I saw a place where maleractors are punished. ^^'f 'f 
Which is a certaine greene place, made in the forme of a ^""" """' 
pit, neere unto the which there standeth a little Chappell, 
wherein some Clergie man doeth minister ghostly counsell 
unto the otFendour before he goeth to execution. In that 
Chappell I sawe wheeles. If they should happen to 
tremble so much that they cannot stand upright {as some- 
times offendours doe) they are punished in the Chappell. 
As about some fourteene yeeres before I was at Zurich, 
three Noble Tigurines were beheaded in that Chappell 
because they were so incHned to trembling that they could 
not stand upright. The punishments that are inflicted 
upon offendours are divers, in number five, whereof the Fiv. 
firsf is beheading, which punishment they onely do sustaine pumsimnti. 
ihat are incestuous men or high-way robbers. The second 
is the Gallowes, upon the which those are executed that 
commit Burghlarie or burne houses. The third is the 
water, which incestuous women doe suffer, being drowned 
therein. The fourth is the fire wherewith Witches, Sor- W'ift^j bumt 
cerers, and Heretickes are punished ; and after their bodies '""''/''• 
are burnt, their ashes are cast into the River Sylla afore- 
said. The fifth and last punishment is wheeling, which 
is onely for murderers. This Citie hath suffered great 
alteration and change of Governement. Heretofore it 
was governed many yeares by the Dukes of Almannie or 
Suevia till about tiie yeare 1083. it was againe freed from 
them. After that, about the yeare 1136. it was recovered 
againe by Fredericke Duke of Suevia, who was afterward 
made Emperour of Rome, and excluded Conrad Duke of 
Zaringia out of the possession of Zurich. About the 
ycare 1336. on the seventh day of June, there rose a j itjiiian ia 
sedition in thc Citie, so that the whole Senate was removed ike diy. 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

or rather expulsed out of Zurich, and another substituted 

[p- 389 ] in their place, which caused great tumults and confusion in 

the Citie. For there were many Noblemen and Gentle- 

n men of the Senate, which being united together by a 

^H mutual affinitie, governed the whole state according to 

^B their pleasure, and executed many unjust and wrongfuU 

^' judgenients to the great prejudice and oppression ofthe 

Citizens. At what time the greatest part of the old 

Senators retired themselves to a place called Rapperswyl 

to John Earle of Habspurg. For the Tigurines slew one 

of the Earles of Habspurg, for whose death John aforesaid 

that succeeded his father in the Earldome, determined to 

be revenged upon the Citizens. Whereupon certaine 

Souldiers that promised the Earle to betray Zurich to him, 

approched privily by night to the Citie. But the Tigur- 

ines being forewarned or the conspiracie, very providently 

prevented the matter, and slew many of the souldiers, 

tooke the Earle prisoner, and tortured the traytors with the 

torment of the wheelc, in the yeare 1350. About some 

ZMricA two yeares after that, Albert Duke of Austria besieged 

^J'^"^nh '^^^'^ ^^^^ ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ fbrces he could make of his 

DfAusiria ' """"^' ^^^ *^^ auxiliaries of the Earle of Wirtemberg, and 

the Bishops of Strasbourg and Basil. The Cities of Berne 

and Friburg aided him also. But the Tigurines being 

confederated with the Jnhabitants of the Townes of Swice, 

Underwald, Uri, and Lucerne defended themselves very 

valiantly against theJr enemies, tilJ at last there was a peace 

concluded on both sides, with condition that the Tigurines 

should set John of Hapspurg at libertie. Many other 

bitter brunts also this Citie hath often endured both before 

the time of the confederation and since, having beene 

tossed to and fro from one Lord to another, as if shee had 

beene Dame Fortunes tennis ball. But at this day by the 

gracious indulgence of the heavenly powers, it enjoyeth 

great peace and a very halcedonian time with the rest of 

the Helveticall Cities under that happie league of union, 

[p. 390.] being subject neither to Klng nor Kaysar. And if warres 

should happen, it hath so fortiBed it selfe in time of peace 




OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 




rith store of munition and provision fbr warfare, that it is 
well able to defend it selfe against any foiraine forces. 

Hcre might I make mention of the forme of their 
Aristocraticail state, their severall and distinct Magistrates, 
the manner of the election of them, and such other memor- 
abie particulars touching the administration of their 
commonweale. But I must needes confesse I did not - 
use such curious inquisition for these matters as I might 
have done : contenting my selfe rather with these foresaid 
matters (which I learned partly by the observation of mine 
own eics, partly by the instructions of my learned friend 
afbresaid Marcus Buelerus; and partly by reading of 
Munsters Cosmoeraphy, unto whom I acknowledge my 
selfe beholding ror some of these above mentioned 
histories) then with the exact knowledge of their govern- 
ment, which I could not possibly attaine unto by reason 
that I made my abode there, but a day and halfe. Where- 
fore I intreat thee (gentle Reader) to pardon me though 
I ca.nnoi informe thee of their aristocratie according to thy 
expectation, promising thee that I will as well as I am able 
supply that in my next journey into this country (for I 
determine by Gods heavenly assistance to see hereafter all 
the thirteene principall townes of Switzerland) which I 
have now omitted in the observation of their government. 
I received much kindnesse in this Citie of one Master ^ ^'"^ 
Thomannus the Prefect of the corne market, whom I could ^'^fi"- 
not but mention in this discourse gratitudinis causa. A 
sonne of his called Gaspar Thomannus a man of good 
gifts, and a lover of learning hath beene many yeares com- 
morant in our Universitie of Oxford. 

Amongst other learned men that I conversed with in ///nrj 
this Citie, Henry Bullineer was one of the chiefest, BulRnffr. 
a. man of very singular learning, the nephew of that 
famous preacher and writer of godly memory Henry 
Bullinger the successor of Zuinglius in the Ecclesiasticall [p. 39'-] 
function of Zurich. This man is a very vigilant preacher 
of this Citie, and a painefull labourer in the Lords Vine- 
yard, He shewed himselfe very dcbonaire and courteous 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

unto me. For he led me mto hJs studie, which is exceed- 
ingly well Rirnished with divinitie bookes, and much 
augmentcd with many of his grandfethers. Aniongst the 

BuUingfi^i resr, he shewed me a manuscript of his grandfethers never 

manmmpti. yet printed, which was an historie of the Popes lives ; and 
a manuscript Epistle of Theodorus Beza unto him, wherein 
he delivered his opinion of the said worke. Also he 
shewed me one most execrable booke written by an Itatian, 
one Joannes Casa Bishop of Beneventum in Italy, in praise 
of that unnaturall sinne of Sodomy. This booke is written 
in the Itahan tongue, and printed in Venice. It came first 
to the hands of this mans grandfether aforesaid, who kept 
it as a monument of the abhominable impurity of a papisti- 
cal Bishop, to which end this man also that received it from 
his grandfiither, keepeth it to this day. 

A i/range \ observed a strange Latin phrase amongst the learned 

a n !> ras(, ^^^ ^^ ^^j^ Citie, which is Hkewise used in most Cities 
and Universities of Germany (as I have heard) at the least 
in all those where I have benc. Whensoever any of them 
discourseth in Latine with a stranger, he will not speake 
to him in the second person, as to say, Ut vales Domine ? 
but alwaies in the third person after a stranger maner then 
ever I observed before. As, Ut valet Dominus? cujas 
est Dominus,'' quamdiu commoratus fuit Dominus in 
Italiai' in quam regionem jam tendit Dominus? placet ne 
nomino? By this word Dominus meaning your selfe to 
whom he speaketh, though at the first time I heard that 
phrase, I conceived that they meant a third person. After 
I had duly considered this pretie Germanisme, and com- 
pared it with a phrase that is fi-equent in the holy 

[p. 39^.] Scriptures, I perceived that they borrowed this forme of 
speech from the very Scriptures themselves. Which made 
me much the more applaude the same : As for example, 
when Jacob brought a great drove of Ewes and Kine to 
present to his brother Esau for a giff, he spake thus unto 
him : I have sent it that I might nnde fevour in the sight 
of my Lord. Genesis cap. 33. verse 8. Meaning Esau 
himselfe to whom he spake, although indeed he seemed to 




OBSERVATIONS OF ZURICH 



speakc of a third person : The like phrase being used 
twise in the same Chapter, and very often in many other 
places of Scripture. 

It is a matter very worthy the consideration to thinke 
how exceedingly God hath blessed this cJtie with a great 
number of most rare wits, and passing learned men within 
these foure score yeares. For though it be no Universitie 
to yeeld degrees of Schoole to the students : yet it hath 
bred more singular learned writers (at the least in my poore 
opinion) then any one of the famousest Universities of all 
Christendome, especially Divines, and such as have con- 
secrated their name to posterity even til the end of the 
world by their learned works. For the writers of this City 
have bene no ordinary or triviall men that have divulged 
to the world triobolary pamphlets, but such as have pub- 
lished bookes both of the greatest volume, and of the most 
excellent & sohd learning, being men endewed with those 
admirable gifts as have made them equall, if not superiour 
to the proToundest Scholers of Christendome ; and such 
men they are as may very truly apply unto themselves that 
speech of Saint Augustine : Nos sumus ex illorum numero 
qui scribendo proficiunt, & proficiendo scribunt. Yea 
many of them have bene such as have shined hke most 
glittering blazing starres, not onely in their owne country 
of Switzerland, but also in all other regions and kingdomes 
of the Christian world that doe sincerely embrace the 
doctrine of the reformed Church. For what Doctors can 
we name in any Universitie of all Europe that excelled 
these men, Huldrichus Zuinglius, Henricus Bullingerus, 
Theodorus Bibliander, Rodolphus Gualterus, Ludovicus 
Lavaterus, Conradus Gesnerus, Josias Simlerus, Joannes 
Jacobus Frisius, Gaspar Megander, Joannes Gulielmus 
Stuckius. Whose writings being replenished with most 
sweete and exquisite learning doe as mute witnesses very 
sufficiently testifie and confirme the truth of my speecli. 
Neither doe I thinke that any man which doth judicially 
reade their bookes will dissent from my opinion : Besides 
many more of an inferiour ranke that have partly bene 




J 



[p. 393.] 

Famaus 
Docrori. 




I 



Jeregatory /o 
Oxfird and 
CmhrUgc. 



[P- 39+-] 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

borne in this Citie, and partly professed there ; Men of 
excellent parts, and well knowen unto the world by their 
learned volumes, whom notwithstandmg I will passe over 
unnamed, that the reader may not deeme me ambitious in 
reciting the names of learned men. At this day that worthy 
man Rodolphus Hospinianus with whom I conversed in 
Zurich (as I have before saJd) hath much illustrated this 
Citie with his manifolde bookes fiill of great learning. 
Howbeit I doe not by this praise of Zurich derogate from 
the learned men of mine owne country. For I am per- 
swaded that our two famous Universities of Oxford and 
Cambridge do yeeld as learned men as any in the world ; 
but for the quantity (not the quality) of writing the Tigur- 
ines without doubt have the superioritie of our English 
men. To conclude this narration of Zurich : I attrioute 
so much to this nobie citie, that for sweetnesse of situation, 
and that wonderful exuberancy of all things whatsoever 
tending both to profite and pleasure, I compare it at the 
teast even with Mantua herselfe, in Italy, whom before \ 
have so highly extolled, if not preferre it before the same : 
though indeed that be greater in compasse then this. For 
that is foure Italian miles about, but the circuite of this 
comprehendeth no more then halfe an Helvetian mile, 
which is but two English miles and a halfe, 
Thus much of Zurich. 

HEre I have thought good to adde to my description 
of Zurich before I proceed any further with my 
observations of my travels, certaine Latine Epistles that I 
sent to some of the learned men of the Citie ; partly 
because thou mayest read a briefe epitome in my first 
Epistle of my ensuing observations betwixt that Citie and 
the farther end of Germany where I was imbarked for 
England, and partly because my friends that shall happen 
to reade my booke, may understand that it was my good 
fortune to enter into a league of friendship with some of 
the profound schollers of this worthy Citie ; a thing that 
hath ministred no small joy and comfort unto me. This 





EPISTLE TO GASPAR WASERUS 

first Epistle following is to that rare Linguist and fkmous 
traveller Gaspar Waserus. My superscription was this. 

Clarissimo viro 
Domino Gasparo Wasero 
Eximio Philologo, & politioris literaturje in celc- 
berrim& Civitate Tigurini apud Helvetios 
Candidato, amico suo dilccto. 

The Epistle it selfe is this. 

Ubitabis arbitror (clarissime vir celeber- ^"'^ » 
rimeque Musarum antistes^ aliquid sinistri f^^ 
mihi accidisse in profectione mei Ger- 
manica inter vestram civitatem Tigurinam 
& patriam meam, quoniam in tanto isto 
temporis intervallo ad te haud scripserim, 
proijt fidelitfer tibi promisi. Veniam mihi 
des qusso. Nam tot tantisque negotiis districtus fui 
statlm post appulsum meum m patna, ut vix respirandi 
tempus mihi nierit, nedum scribendi otium. Quod ad 
peregrinationem meam Germanicam attinet post discessum 
meum k Tigiu-o, jucundissima sani atque laustissima fiiit 
tota illa profectio, & secundis ventis mare trajeci, donec 
mihi coutigit Anglite 

Kairvov aTroQpwKovra vo^ai, 

Ut Homerus de suo Ulysse canit, ac tandem exopta- 
tissimum patrii mei soli littus auspicat6 appellere. Sed 
quandoquidem tibi pollicitus «um, si mihi contingeret in 
patrii pedem figcre, literas tibi scribcre non tantiim signi- 
ficantcs gratitudinem meam ob tuam cximiam erga me 
bcncvolcntiam pari conjunctam humanitate (quam gratl 
quidam prtedicatione semper pradicarc soleo rois tpiKotiou- 
tnn9 atquc eruditis meis amids, & cujus gratta tibi ingentes 
gratias rcddo ab inttmis cordis mei reccssibus dimanantes) 
sed etiam aliquem tibi gustum pnebentes mearum Ger- 
manicarum ooservationum ; ccce hascc crassa Minerva 
ccn 113 B 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

EfistU to contextas observatiunculas tibi mitto Sxnrep iv t5 eiriTo/j^^ 
^^^* quoniam epistolaris ista brevitas cogit me illas coangustare» 
& in multo succinctius compendium reducere, qu^ in 
meo avToypa(^<p exemplari exaravi. Has ut sequi bonique 
consulas, donec in publicum fusids scriptum meum hodoe- 
poricum divulgaverim post meas longinquas peregrina- 
tiones, Belgicam, Saxonicam, Danicam, Alemannicam, 
Suecicam, Polonicam, Hispanicam, alteram etiam Italicam, 
Siculam, Scoticam, Hibernicam, Germanicam, ^gyptiacam, 
ac denique Hierosolymitanam (nam omnes istas regiones 
si non peragrare,- saltem invisere fleov iiiovro^ decrevi) te 
. impens^ rogo. 

A Badeni igitur vestra Helvetica exordium sumam. 
Ibi sacellum quoddam prope basilicam mortuorum calvariis 
atque ossibus ade6 refertam vidi, ut alterum Golgotha 
vocari non immerit6 possit. Profect6 

Obstupui, stetenintque ; comse 



Quando prim6 infinitam illam congeriem animadverti. 
Reor equidem die mundi novissimo totam myriada 
animarum illa ossa resumpturam. Badenses illos super- 
stitionibus Papisticis & idolatricis cultibus supra modum 
addictos observavi. Nam plurimas imagines ad idolo- 
latriam spectantes in basilica vidi. Hinderhovise, quse 
exiguo intervallo distat a Badena lustravi vestras Helveti- 
cas thermas, qu6 magna populi multitudo ^ multis locis 
circumcirci partim t?? SiarpiPnq iwKa^ partim morborum 
curandorum causd tunc confluebat. Particularia balnea non 
minus sexaginta illic numeravi. Peculiare avvray/jia de 
illorum virtute scripsisse celeberrimum iUum tum medi- 
cum tum philosophum Henricum Pantaleonem Basilien- 
sem retulit mihi quidam quem in bahieo quodam sese 
lavantem vidi sacerdos. Sed de errore meo in vi^ ante- 
quam in illa bahiea incidere possem, scripsi in Episto^ 
me^ ad Dominum Hospinianum, quam, si placuerit, legas. 
In Kiningsfeldiano Monasterio propb civitatem Brooke, 
quod jam pertinet ad Dominos Bernenses, observavi 
monumentum Leopoldi ultimi ejus nominis Austriae Ducis, 

114 



EPISTLE TO GASPAR WASERUS 

qui multoties Helvetios infestis armis oppugnavit, & in ' 
templi choro picturam suam uni cum suis viginti septem 
proceribus graphice depictam. BasileEc cultissimK, splen- 
didissimffi, atque munitissimaE civitati mutta mihi apprimt 
arriserunt, Cathedralis Ecclesia divas Marix dedicata 
magnificentissima est, & microcosmo quodam insignium 
tum antiquorum tum neotericorum monumentorum 
egregie ornata. Illic in penitiori quadam asde, scilicfet 
schola Theologica, familiaritfer versatus fiii cum prasstan- 
tissimo iUo & Theologo & Philologo Joanne Jacobo 
GryncEO, cujus eruditum commercium me valdt oblectavit. 
Suavissimus meherclfe ac €va(j)p6SiT0ii senex est in suis collo- 
iis, de quo merit6 potest illud Homericum prEcdicari 

ro y\tMT(T^t ^ieXtToj yXvKlwv pitv avS^ 
atque illud 

■rh. 



f 



A'fli' apto 
Ibi etiam celeberrimum 



reipoy^Ot efifieyai aWtav. 

llum Theologum Basiliensis 
Academise tov aij-rep apll^^Xov (ut Pindancis verbis utar) 
Amandum Polanum i Polensdorf. in schola Theologica 
prxlegentem audivi. Nec non Dominum Zuinggerum 
summi illius Philosophi Theodori Zuinggeri Basiliensis 
fiUum, virum profect6 elegantissimum, ac publicum GrascEe 
IiDguas in il!a Academia professorem unam ex Homeri 
Iliadibus publicfe interpretantem. Munacii Planci Lug- 
duni fundatoris statuam ligneam affabri exstructam, intra 
pTKtorii Basiliensis atrium observavi, cum pluribus aliis 
memorandis rebus quas illa inclyta civitas suppeditat. 
Argentina, quo advectus eram i Basilea secundo Rheno, 
non parum solatii mihi prjcbuit. Turrim illam exquisi- 
tissimam Cathedralis Ecclesiae uni cum femigerato illo 
horologio pen^ ad stuporem sum admiratus, Urbis situs, 
ledium tum publicarum tum privatarum splendor atque 
elegantia sensus meos voluptate quadam nova titillavit. 
Baden3° inferiori, qus ad Marchionem ipsius Principem 
pertinet, balnea adeo calida sunt, ut vix illorum scaturien- 
tem aquam nudis manibus attrectare possem; aiunt 
Aurelianum Imperatorem horum fijisse inventorem. 





CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Efistk 19 ista civitas cum altera Badeni religione consentit, nimi- 
^^ rtim Papistica. Tamen princeps illorum, qui religionem 
profitetur reformatam, s^ \ vobis Tigurinis atque nobis 
Anglis par^m discrepantem (etenim Lutheranus est) non 
residet hlc, sed Turlaci. Ubi multi quidem difficultate 
intra civitatis portas admissus fui. Sed nuUis rationibus 
veniam ingrediendi Principis aukm impetrare potui. 
Tamen prsenobilis quidam generosus, qui fuit primarius 
aulae ipsius Prsefectus, perhumanissim^ me tractavit. 
Inde Heidelbergam profectus sum Palatinatus inferioris 
Metropolin atque florentissimam Academiam. Hlc 
Comitis Palatini ad Rhenum Frederici quarti qui religi- 
onem vestram & nostram amplectitur, au^ustissimum 
palatium non sine difFcultate quadam intromissxis vidi, & 
in quadam cella vinaria vas quoddam vinarium stupends 
ac portento sae capacitatis, ad cujus summitatem lignei 
scala ascendebam. Locupletissimae illius Bibliothecse, 
quse extructa est in quadam parte primariae Ecclesise dedi- 
catae S. Spiritui, tam copiosi supellectile librorum & 
impressorum & manuscriptorum admiraculum usque in- 
structae, mihi copiam fecit Principis Bibliothecarius 
eximius ille politioris literaturae Candidatus Janus 
Gruterus. Sed repentinus duorum adolescentulorum 
Principum Anhaltinorum ingressus me impediebat, qu6 
minus bibliothecam ex voto lustrarem. Postquam 
deliciis Heidelbergae oculos atque animum satis pavissem, 
Spiram iUam Imperialem per deserta nemorum me contuli. 
Hic coUegium Jesuitarum adii, cum quibus a^ifux^^iw seu 
veUtationem quandam habui, quoniam Munsteri Cosmo- 
graphiam, cujus Spirensem aescriptionem in ipsorum 
bibliotheci legi, malign^ deprav^nt ; expungentes non- 
nuUos locos, hoc sciUc^t praetextu, quoniam adversus 
fidem CathoUcae Romanae Ecclesiae faciebant. Saluta- 
tionem divi Bernardi Abbatis ClarevaUensis ad beatam 
virginem Mariam in basiUcl hujus urbis observavi aeneis 
Uteris in tribus rotundis marmoribus incisam, O clemens 
Maria, 6 pia Maria, 6 dulcis Maria. Ista verba iUum 
loquutum fuisse ad lapideam imaginem ipsius stantem 

ii6 



EPISTLE TO GASPAR WASERUS 

ad dextram introitus Chori asserunt Spirenses Papista;, ac 
tum imaginem edidisse vocem ; Bernardum autem hisce 
verbis illum increpasse : Dominatio tua sui ipsius oblita 
est. Non decet enim fceminam ioqui in congregatione. 
Multa pra:terea alia notatu dignissima hic vidi. HJnc 
mihi Wormaciam contendenti, inter ambulandum in vJa 
publica casus quidam infaustus infestusque contigit. 
Nam forte ex trita semita in vineam quandam ad carpendos 
paucos uvarum racemos deflectens, quibus sitim meam 
raerendte tempore restinguerem, quia tam libere ac im- 
pune me illic id facturum speravi, quod antea in nonnullis 
Longobardiae vinetis factitavi ; repente a quodam rustico 
bipennifero apprehensus eram, qui subitaneo suo incursu 
metum sane non vulgarem mihi, utpote inermi, incussit. 
Detraxil enim capiti meo petasum, atque Alemannicis 
suis verbis, qua; ego prorsus ignorabam, minas mihi in- 
tentavit. At ego inscius idiomatis sui, a:que ac 
^aTpayoi ^piipio^, obmutui. Tandem vero interventu 
quorundam qui Latinos meos sermones intellexerunt, & 
pro me ad illum Germanice interpretati sunt, ac moUibus 
suis dictis ferocientes ipsius spiritus placarunt, lis ita com- 
posita est, ut minuto precio gaterum redjmerem. Wor- 
macis totam istam historiolam quibusdam Evangelicis 
ministris, & aliis facetis congerronibus narravi, qui ex 
illa relatione in efFusissimos cachinnos soluti erant. 
Civitas ista Wormaciensis non mediocriter mihi adblan- 
dita ftiit. Quadrata turris Basihca; S. Petri e longinquo 
conspicua, superba asdificia, prsecipue Episcopale prope 
Ecclesiam extrinsecus insignibus gentihtiis, & picturis 
duodecem Sibyllarum, quibus particularia illarum vati- 
cinia de Christo subscribuntur ; Pra:torium in cujus 
frontispicio Fredericus tertius Imperator depingitur, 
ampla fora, spatiosEe platete, firmi muri fossis circumfusi, 
propugnacula, omnia denique voluptatis materiam pere- 
grinis praebent. A Wormacia per Openheimiam in latere 
montis instar Jerusalem sitam, Moguntiam perrexi Elec- 
toris Archiepiscopi dignitate, & typographis tot ingenua- 
nim artium fcecundE matris invento celebrem. Hic in 




^ 





CORYATS CRUDITIES 

EfisiU M Jebusitas rursiis sive illos Romani Pontificis Hierarchice 
Gmf^ar Janisarios, & iJTrepao-jr/irruj Ignatianas colluviei fratres incidi, 
"'"''"■ cumque Nicolao Serrario eorum Patriarcha, qui tam 
virulentis convitiis in Lutherum (edito quodam de Lutheri 
magistro libro) debacchatus est, congressus sum. Com- 
pluribus vetustis monumentis tam sacris quam profanis 
Moguntia abundat. Inter caetera prope Monasterium 
Benedictinorum in quodam edito colle vineis consito 
observavi lapideum Colossum Drusi privigni Octaviani 
CEEsaris, ingentem sanfe molem, a forma glandis Germanicfe 
Aichelstein appellatam, Hic Drusum cum Germanis 
dimicasse, ac post insignem victoriam de eis reportatam, 
gloriosum trophEeum eum erexisse perhibent. Hinc per 
Rheni & Mosni confluentem navigio Francofurtum advec- 
tus eram, ubi nundinis illis autumnalibus totius Europae 
celeberrimis interfui, multosque meos conterraneos ad 
summum meum gaudium vidi. Populorum diversorum, 
pra:sertim prEcdivitum mercatorum, ex plurimis Chris- 
tianismi partibus, non tantiim ex omnibus ferfe opulen- 
tissimis Germanise vestrEe urbibus, sed etiam ex Italia, 
Gallia, Dania, Anglia nostra, Polonia, Scotia, &c, confertlm 
huc confluentium ingentem concursum hjc sum conspicatus. 

* Non, mihi si hnguie centum sint, orique centum, 

Infinitas harum nundinarum divitias narrando percensere 
possum. In bibliopolarum platea admirandam omni- 
genorum librorum copiam animadverti, 8f inter reliquos 
elegantissimam tuam orationem in obitum immortali 
memoria digni vestrae Tigurinje Ecclesiae summi Anfistitis 
Joannis GuTielmi Stuckii. A Francoflirto terrestri itinere 
Mogunciam redii, & inde exigua cymba Rhenum usque 
ad Coloniam Agrippinam sulcavi. In isto spatio multas 
priEcIaras civitates atque oppida in utraque Rheni ripa 
elegantisim^ sita praeterivi. Colonia ista magnificen- 
tissima atque frequentissima civitas est omnium quas in 
Germania vidi, & situm amcenissimum habet. Nihil non 
splendidum & nitidum hic: tantiim fsEce & sordibus 



EPISTLE TO GASPAR WASERUS 

Pontificiarum superstitionum tota contaminatur. Multas Epinle a 
egregias & non contemnendas antiquitates hic perlustravi. j^^'^ 
Integram historiam trium Regum, quorum sepulchrum 
adeo ostentant Colonienses, ex' typographica quad; 
tabula extra sacrarium appensi (in quo ftrtur illorum o 
recondi) excripsi. Sed totam illam narrationem nuga- 
torium commentum esse plurimi Orthodoxi censent. 
Sancti Gereonis templum visitavi, ubi ossa Thebieorum 
atque Maurorum Martyrum reponuntur; Sanctas etiam 
Ursulae mese conterraneac templum. Hlc magna multi- 
tudo ossium & craniorum asservatiu-, quae thecis vel 
operculis byssinis ac bombycinis aureis stellulis distinctis 
cooperiuntur. Colonia relicta liquidam viam Rhenanam 
per Clivensem ditionem, Geldriam, & Hollandiam semper 
tenui, in multis inclytis urbibus, Novi omago, Gorcomo, 
Dordraco pernoctans. A Dordracena illa urbe Virginali 
(tali enim epitheto cives illam insigniunt, partim quod 
semper invicta steterit, partim etiam quod Virgo illam 
fundaverit) & clarissimo Emporio Euripum usque ad 
Armurum primum Zelandiae oppidum tranavi, k quo per 
Middleburgum Zelandia: Metropolin Flishingam deveni, 
qus peregrinationis meae GermanicE extimus erat ter- 
minus. Hinc plenis carbasis pcr caeruleum elementum 
vectus Londinum appuli, ubi paucos dies inter amicos 
mecs, (qui obviis ulnis me post longos terrae marisque 
labores amplexi sunt,) corporis & animi reficiendi causa 
commoratus, tandfem in exoptatissimam patriam meam in 
Comitatu Somersetensi, qui jacet in occidentali AngliE 
parte, laetabundus perveni. Hic fuit ultima periodus 
longinquae meas peregrinationis qua; a Venetiis ad patrios 
kres millenis viginti quinque milliariis Anglicis constabat. 
Habes jam (Cjrnatissime Vir) eTvvT6ii.a»; descriptam meam 
Germanicam itinerationem k vestro Tiguro. Sed hoc 
censeas velim nullam Germanicam civitatem majore solatio 
ac voluptate me afFecisse quJtm vestram. Nam omnia illic 
ade6 mihi arrisere, ut copiosiorem illius descriptionem in 
meo oSonropiKii libro quim ullius alterius Germanicae urbis 
(exceptis taotum Basilea, Heidelberga, Spira, & Colonii) 




I 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Rfutlef fecerim. Armamentariiun vestnmi omnimodo apparatu 
^^P^ bellico instructum, antiquis Aquilis & vexillis Roman- 
orum, nerviceis cljrpeis, oblongis atque ancipitibus ensibus 
utrinque, plurimis praeacutis cuspidibus armatis, gladio 
Gulielmi Tell Suitensis confoederationis vestrae Helveticse 
authore, excusso Prsfectorum vestratium externorum 
jugo, qui immani ac plan6 barbarica in civitates vestras 
tyrannide grassati simt, variisque aliis insignibus antiqui- 
tatibus summ^ decoratum, & exquisitissimo decentissi- 
moque ordine excultiun, hyperbolias ad multos meos con- 
terraneos preconiis extuli. Nec non elegantem civitatis 
situm, amcenum Limaci interfluxiun, nitida templa, 
turrita ac pinnata mcenia profundis vallis circumdncta, 
firmissima propugnacula, pulchras plateas, elegantia sedi- 
ficia, excellentem vestram aristocraticam politiam, summam 
in exteros humanitatem, maximam rerum onmium tmn 
ad utilitatem tum ad voluptatem conducentium exuberan- 
tiam, nihil non summis laudibus ad sydera evexi. Vestrse 
denique civitati tantum tribui, ut paradisum deliciarum, 
fertihssimiun ingeniorum totius Giermaniae seminarium, 
& ipsissimum Musarum domiciUum non immerit6 appel- 
laverim. Unvun tanttun hoc vobis deesse affirmavi, nimi- 
rum cohonestationem virorum Tigurinorum tam Martis 
quam Musarum ornamentis illustriiun statuis, Mausoleis, 
& honorariis virtutum eorum epitaphiis atque elogiis, quae 
ubique in omnibus coeteris Germaniae civitatibus observavi, 
praecipu^ ver6 Basileae, Heidelbergae, Spirae, ac Moguntiae. 
Sed omnia haec una aun Gallicis, ItaUcis, & Rheticis 
observationibus quas jamdudum coUegi, & Hispanicis, 
Polonicis, Danicis, Saxonicis, Turcicis, quas posthkc 
(Christo duce) coUecturus sum, tandem divini numinis 
auspiciis in unum corpus redacta, copios6 expUcata, ac 
certo quodam ordine ac methodo digesta & typis excusa 
videbis. Interek impoUtis hisce Uneis extremam coroni- 
dem imponens, te oro atque obtestor, in amicorum tuorum 
album referre digneris tibi addictissimum (etsi 

Sit penitiis toto divisus ab orbe Britannus) 
Thomam Coryatum Odcombiensem. 

Londini pridie Calendas Augtuti : Anno Regis BtavBpunrov 1609. 

120 



EPISTLE TO GASPAR WASERUS 



To the same also I wrote this poore Grecke EphtUtt 
Epistle. W'"^ 

, , , , ... . Wastrus. 

KA( Tuin-ac oXcyar ypafifiai E XXfji-war avayvievai ('Antp 
o^tMTaTt Toe Koi {piXofioiirroraTf) <toO Seofiai. ica v yap 
avatSev(Tiai Koi aTreipoKoXlai yinipai, aW' (i/xwr t^s etiiji Trpat 
CT« tiXixptneoTaTri? ivi/ola? TtKfutpia ovk aipai^ Tvy)(avova'ii' 
ovtrai. ovTwi (nairrov iuSaifiovit^w, oti e/ioi iv virepBaXiriTiaK 
j(tOfMti TTTf vepia~irovSaiTTOu o-^y i^iXiu! Tvy^elv avve^i], T^r ■TroXii 
/toWov inf ivtppaiwtat ij aXX^ ns ^Sovn ^( aTreXauo'' eii Taij 
oSolvopiaK i/JMK. OTi Si koto tov Aij^uotrOewj, To ^ivXa^ai 
Ta^aflo^ Tiw KTii(Ta!T6ai TroXXif )(ii\nrwTepov Tivat ooKei, tSc 
Apovqereiet a-tj/jielov tiyovfuu t^v otjv iptXiav imjTa/xefov itayTi 
Tpoirte TreipairQat avriiv thvXafiu. fitjSeva Si Xo^yoi' ;8(Xt(« 
Tpot Toi^T* i^evpiiTKetv otoi t' ^V, '^ emaroXriv (roi Trifnraiv, -ytoi/t 
cirdTToXur elvat oiove! opyavinai aiTiar, Si ds etwOafiev wf to TroXXa 
TQt (biXta^ ^e^atovv, aa Si diTij ^ <ptXia irap' tjniv aXX^Xoif 
au^6^, TQvTO (TOi ev^ofiai (twv Moinrtvf Xa/iTrooVaTOl' «Xeof) 
bjtrrt avTiTefiireiv e/ioi Tu ypafipiaTa eK tov Tiyovpov, wvTrep 
ovStv fi-ot yaptivrepov "i ■KoQeiviarepov avtifidttj, to Se fioxpov 
TOTOv Stdrrrrtfia ovSev eiTTiv ifiirdoKTfia Trpat tovto. paSliot 
yap ovvtj airooTeXXeii' uura Trpot AyyXtav inro tov ippayKo- 
dmvpTm TSiTWVTroXvdpvWtjToiveKfivwv ayopwv Katpw. eav TavTiji 
T% iptXavBpaivtai ifi a^ionrijv, Stiwov aXtrrw ttJs (piKtat trvvSiiTfi^ 
ifii Toi aei wrripiy^eK. eppaxTO 6 T^t TraiSeiat dxtXTT^o, eoil &v 
xaX<v "Sw, a-e, 6 fioi avfi^tiireadai eXvil^w iv Tip ep-^Ofiivui Oepel. 
oeofiat troO trpotretirelv irap ifiov eKeivov ivyev^ Tiyouptvov Kvpiov 
O pTfiavvov A'iv€\epov, 09 tpiKavQpwrroTaTa fioO e^iJraTO airr» 
dtTi T^t eavToO e« ifit ipiXavOptomas \aptv o>9 oioc Te fieyiiTTtiv 
avoSlSwfit. 

EufievitTTarot trov ipiXiK, a-o) aei ewt tik TeXem-^t mveixtpiyftivot 
Owfiat K-opiaToi A^-yyXof o ek tij? 0'oKOfiffiat. 
AovSivoBev irpwTti itrrafiivov "Zitipo^Ppiuivot Tip eTet tteTU Tif^' 
iva-dpKUKTiv ^^OTiipot Tou KiitTfiov ^(iXtorrT^e^cucoirioiTTai ivvarif. 

Having about some three quarters of a year since re- 
ccived an answer from thjs learned man, I have thought 
it oot amisse to insert it into this place, as an argumeDt 




EpUtitJhm 
Waiina. 



y 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

of his love unto me ; but I will not expresse his super- 
scriptioQ, as I have done those of the Epistles that I 
wrote unto all my foure learned friends of this Citie of 
Zurich, because he ascribeth such titles unto me, as I 
oever did, nor shall deserve in my life. The Epistle 
itselic is this. 

S. P. D. 

Itene tux (Doctissime Vir) quas ex ultimis 
nundinis autumnalibus ad me dedisti, 
mihi redditse, & longi ^tissimce fuerunt 
multis nominibus. Nam, pneter iter 
tuum, quod graphici & luculent^ admo- 
dum descripsisti, clar^ ex eis per^)exi 
eximiam tuam benevolentiam, qul me 
licit abseotem, & longissim^ k vobis dissitum egregii 
sani prosequeris, & ad eam perpetuandam proporr6 te 
quasi devincis. Qute causa est, cur non noluerim isthoc 
Epistolium tibi reponere, & eandem tibi de me quoque 
polliceri. Iter egregium profecti est, quod ab eo tem- 
pore, ex quo Ji me discessisti, fclicitj:r Dei grati^ confecisti : 
& optandiun esset, ut multi tui similes extarent, qui non 
transcurrendo tantimi corpora aspicerent, sed introspicerent 
etiam animos, rerum momenta, non margines aut super- 
ficies. Tum major profecto hominum poUticorum & 
prudentum, quibus etiam in Ecclesia habemus opus, sine 
dubio extaret numerus. Hoc si diUgentiori cune mihi 
fuisset in AngUa, Scotiil, Hibernia, Belgio, Gallia, Ger- 
manil, ItaUa, & dibi, quum provincias illas florentissimas 
peragrarem, paul6 melius res se mes haberent. Pneclari 
igitur tu, qui omnia ista qu^m diUgentissim^ observare, 
scrutari, connotare voluisti. Etenim meminisse tandem 
hec tanta juvabit. 

De rerum statu nostrarum pauca habeo ad te scribere. 
Rex GalUse rec^ns In Helvetiis conscribi curavit sex milUa 
peditum ; qute ad redigendos ducatus Juliacensem, CUven- 
sem & Montensem in potestatem Prindpum Brandebiu-- 
genis & PaUtini, in Galliam hlnc proficiscentur. Qu6d si 



EPISTLE FROM GASPAR WASERUS 

Serenissimus Rex vester, (uti ftcturum credunt & optant B^Utlefr 
omnes boni) sua quoque conjungat auxilia, magnam sane „/^^l_,^ 
jacturam faciet Antichristus. Apologiam ejus cum pra^- 
fatione monitoria refutatam esse i BeDarmino, haud dubife 
jam cognovisti. Regerit is Cramben Pontificiam millies a 
nostris refiatatam magna sua ignominia, Vestrum jam est 
Regis vestri causam contra Lanistam istum Purpuratum 
in manus sumere, & masculfe propugnare ; prout per Dei 
gratiam virorum generosissimorum & in hac palfestra exer- 
citatissimorum apud vos ingens est copia. Deus optimus 
maximus vestris laboribus prolix^ benedicat ; cujus clien- 
tela", seu Xttikvi atT(pa\finariij, te commendo corditiis mi 
■Thoma optime, & amicissime. Tiguri i6 Mart, 1610 
^r Tui studiosissimus Gaspar Waserus, 

^^ Professor sanctarum linguarum in scholS TigurinS. 



I 



This Epistle following is to M. Rodolphus E/>iiiu a 
Hospinianus a learned Preacher and writer of '^'^"'P^f^ 
^_ controversies of the Citie of Zurich. The preachtr. 
^■1 superscription whereof is this. 
^V* Reverendissimo viro Domino Rodolpho Hospinlano 
^V prsstantissimo theologo, vigilantissimoque animarum 
^^ pastori in inclyta civitate Tigurina Helveticarum 
urbium Metropoli. 

The Epistle it selfe is this. 

Tsi non ut hominem perfrictae frontis, 
audacis tamen genii seu ingenii fortasse 
(Vir Clarissime) me redargueris, qu6d ad 
te ausim scribere, & Musas tuas severiores 
hisce intempesttvis lineis interpellare. 
Condones quaeso meae audaciae. Nam 
talem opinionem tua: humanitatis ac 
egregii candoris imbibi, quippe qu6d femiliarissimo tuo 
commercio in Eedibus tuis TigurJ me dignatus fueris, ut 
non omnin6 ingratas tibi istas Hteras fore mihi penitus 
persuaserim, prsesertim cum proficiscantur Jl grato animo 





CORYATS CRUDITIES 

EpiiiU u gratias tibi singulares reddente ob tuam summam erga me 

,, T. benevolentiam, quam satis abund^ demonstrasti, quando 

Uoipimaniii, ... ,.''., , , , ,. . ^ 

Preacher. "lum eruditum, suaviter moratum,ac lietEC mdolis juvenem 
Marcum Buelerum mihi ut comitem conciliasti toto illo 
tempore quod contrivi in vestra civitate. Juvenis ille, cui 
plurimis nominibus me devinctissimum ingenufe agnosco, 
idoneus & index & dux mihi fuit. Nam insignit^r mihi 
gratificatus est tum indicando mihi precipuas maximaque 
observatione dignissimas res, quas vestra suppeditavit 
civitas, ut templa, arces, propugnacula, scholas, celeber- 
rimum vestrum armamentarium omni munitionum genere 
ac TracoTrXia instructum, nihil visu dignum omittens : 
tum etiam ducendo vel potius deducendo me in via mea 
Badenam versus, 8f quando nobis mutuo valediximus, vim 
lachrymarum {6 tenellum & liquidum cor) profiindendo, 
Ejus humanitati atque t^ avatit^rrEi omnino tribuo, 
quod tam copiosam historiolam vestrae civitatis scripserim. 
Multo enim pleniorem narrationem feci in meo oSonropu:^ 
Tiguri ac rerum Tigurinarum, quam uUius alise civitatis 
in Germania, exceptis duntaxit quatuor, Basilea, Heidel- 
berga, Spira, & Colonia. Parvi (reverende vir) tuo con- 
silio una quadam re. Nam si memineris, consuluisti mihi 
digredi pariim ex via ad videndum balnea prop^ Badenam 
vestram Helveticam. Sed in multis profecto diverticulis 
& ignotis callibus erravi, antcquam illa invenire potuerim, 
hac prajcipue de causa, quoniam inscius vestrE lingus non 
potui Germanicfe percontari viam. Tantum hac phrasi uti 
solius eram. Her ist das der raight stroze auf balnea. 
Sed Germani, prsecipue rustici illi Corydones quibus 
obviam dedi, existimantes prce rudi mea atque imperita 
verborum Teutonicorum pronuntiatione me peregrinum 
fuisse, & vestriE linguje ignarum, mihi interroganti semper 
annuerunt, & gestibus quibusdam subobscuris viam in qua 
progrederer, mihi indigitarunt, sed non viam ad balnea. 
Non enim intellexerunt quid sibi vellet meum verbum 
Balnea, Tandem post multam deambulationem Kininfs- 
feldianum Monasterium veni, ubj a quodam docto juvene, 
qui linguam Latinam mediocriter calluit, sciscitatus sum 



EPTSTLE TO R. HOSPINIANUS 

ubt essent balnea Badensia. Respondit, me illa prxteri- 
isse, & a tergo reliquisse per totum Germanicum millt- 
arium. Quare efflagitationum mearum instantia illam & ] 
oravi & exoravi, ut ad balnea me comitaretur. Quod 
humanitatis officium benevolentissime mihi prEestitit,atque 
ita post multos errores balnea illa lustrare & eorum virtu- 
tem expJorare mihi contigit. Juvenis ille quoniam 
eandem quam ego religionem professus est, femiliari sua 
societate, & blandis facetiis me valde recreavit. Inde pro- 
fectus sum Brookam, Rheinfeldiam, ubi iteriim leniter ac 
amoene labentem vestrum Limacum observavi, ac tandem 
Basileam. Hic genialiter biduum contrivi versando cum 
plurimis egregiis viris, Musarum & rei literarix candidatis, 
Sed recensere tibi omnes meas Germanicas observationes, 
quas in illis inclytis civitatibus curiosiiis collegi, esset tum 
prolixum tum superfluum, prsecipufe quoniam in Epistola 
mea ad celeberrimum illum Dominum Gasperum Wase- 
rum concivem tuum, qua fieri potuit maxima brevitate illa 
omnia succincte attigi, quam (si tibi visum fuerit) legas. 
Amicos illos tuos, quos ut a te salutarem me orasti, viros 
reverendissimos, atque egregiis virtutum & eruditionis non 
vxilgaris laudibus excuItissimOE, Academire Oxoniensis ful- 
gidissima luminaria, Dominum Doctorem HoIIandum 
regium Theologije apud Oxonienses professorem, & Domi- 
num Doctorem Rivium novi Collegii ibidfem Gardianum 
(ut vulgo vocant, Anglicfe (he Warden) haud quaquam 
vidi, ex quo domum redii. Sed salutem tuam illis trans- 
misi per conterraneum tuum Dominum Gasparum Thom- 
annum Tigurinum, qui multos annos Oxonii literis operam 
dedit. Cum illo familiaritatem nuper inivi. Nam literas 
illi a patre suo viro honestissimo sane (ut mihi videtur) & 
pientissimo tradidi, cui gratias quasso maximas des meo 
nomine, quod me Tiguri humanissimi tractaverit. 
Quinetiam noc oro te, ut iHi significes, filium suum adversa 
fortuna apud nos uti ; nam tanta inopia & paupertate 
Uborat, ut irufivaOeiat' quandam in me commoveret 
utque vicem ejus maximfe dolerem. Proinde sicuti ego 
illi consulvi ut in patriam rediret, ubi cum parentibus, 





CORYATS CRUDITIES 

^/u«^« propinquis, & necessariis reliquum setatis conterat, prae- 
^^^!L^ cipui quum patria sua eruditissimis viris abundet, quorum 
PrtacAer. ' societas illi tum adjumento in confidendo doctrinse suie 
studio, & levamento in sublevandl sua egestate futura sit ; 
sic edam pater ipsius <l>ika(rropyiav suam dedarabit, & 
paterni erga illum amoris spedmen egregimn edet, si 
literas ad illum scripserit, quibus eum ad penates suos 
Tigurinos revocet, qu6 tandem aliquand6 post diutumum 
istud quasi volimtaniun exilium ex duld sui patri& sibi in 
canide sua adminiculum, & veluti idonemn aa senectutem 
suam sufiFulciendam baculum sit. Tum patris tum patriae 
sue causa opto ei ex animo magis secundam fortunam 
qukm apud nos fruitur. Nam patriam ipsius tanto amore 
amplector, ut (si Deus mihi vitam prorogaverit) in prox- 
ima mea Germanica profectione totam vestram Helvetiam 
perlustrare decreverim, praecipu^ tredecem vestros Can- 
tones, Tigunun & Basileam iterum, Bernam, Scafusium, 
Solodurum, Lucemam, Friburmun, Swidam, Uraniam, 
Sylvaniam, Tugium, Glaream, I Abbatis cell:^. 

Sed qu6 tandem excurrit vel expatiatur calamus meus? 
ignoscas quaeso prolixitati meae (dignissime vir) nam tua 
humanitate fretus (quam re ipsa non ita pridem expertus 
sum) calamo meo nimis laxas habenas dedi, quas jam 
restringere expedit, ne tibi in pulcherrimo tuo Theologico 
studio impigre currenti ista levicuk Trapepya sint impedi- 
mento, qu6 minus ad extremam curriculi metam per- 
venias. Promisit mihi (egregie vir) ingenuus ille juvenis 
Marcus Buelerus se sollidtaturum te ut mihi rescribas, si 
pri^s ad te scriberem. Quo me favore si dignatus fueris, 
usque ad extremum vitae halitum obstringes 

Tibi deditissimvun, tuaeqiie doctrinae haud 
minimum praeconem 

Thomam Coryatum Odcombiensem. 

Londini pridie Calen. August Anno 1609. 



136 



EPISTLE TO HENHY BULLINGER 




The third Epistle I sent to M. Henry BuUinger ' 
aforesaid, the superscription is this. 
Viro ornatissimo amico suo Henrico Bullingero, cele- 
berrimi illius viri Henrici Bullingeri summi Tigurinae 
urbis quondam antistitis nepoti, eruditissimo ac 
vigilantissimo apud Tigurinos in Helvetia Ecdesi- 
astse. 

The Epistle it selfe is this. 

Via inter reliquos meos Tigurinos amicos 
non ultimum locum tenes (ciarissime 
charissimeque mi Bullingere) h me paucis 
compellandus & salutandus es. Ne si 
intellexens me ad Dominum Hospim- 
anum & Dominum Waserum Uteras 
dedisse, teque omisisse, ingratitudinis 
notam mihi inuras, quum tam benevole, tam humaniter, 
tam comitfcr multo supra tum expectationem tum meritum 
meum domi tus Tiguri ultimo autumno me tractaveris, 
Nam tam benigno ac dulci alloquio me ignotum ac pere- 
grinum in jedibus tuis dignari, manifestum liberalis animi 
argumentum fuit ; sed in bibliothecam tuam, in illud tam 
varie copioseque instructum Musaeum (quod mult6 majus 
crat) me introducere, librorum tuorum elegantissimorum 
copiam mihi facere, avi tui beatse memoriEe manuscripta 
volumina ostendere, humanitatis tute singularis ut insigne 
indtcium & praedicavi meis doctis conterraneis, nonnuUis 
aulicis viris, celeberrimarum Academiarum nostrarum 
alumnis, & equestris ordinis generosis; & prsdicare non 
supersedebo, 

•Dum memor ipse mei, dum spiritus hos reget artus. 

Proinde fiicere non potui quin paucis hisce lineis te 

salutem, partim ut turpem ingratitudinis labem subter- 

fugiam ; partim etiam ut amicitia nostra firmiiis coalescat, 

^jupd summoperfe expeto. 

k 



CORTATS CKUDTriBS 

M§it^ m Antequam vidi Masacam timiiiy tam &h]d aooqit, tnm 
^^ ^ ui daobas probatis aatfaoribos legi, Joannrm Casun Epis- 
jifliiqipi. ^pp,^^ Boieventanam in Ifalia de Sod om ig r hadibas 

libdlam oonscripsisse. Aadiofcs illi apud qoos iDias fit 
mentio, sant isti, Joannes Jaelhis iUe nostcr PlicEnix 
Anglicas, j^nscopas Saridmnensis^ in soa eknntissima 
d wti f fi " K kn fr Ecdesix A"pl<^^*^ Annlogiam & c *" '* - m "^p ^ 
iiie tous contenaneas Ccmndus Gesncras in soa Bibli- 
otfaeci, qui faiscc verbis illom librum menKxat. Imparis- 
simus luc nd>uk> cdidit poemata qujedam Italic^ in 
publicum Venetiis cxcusa, in quibas (pnA sodas) Sockmi- 
iam kadibus eztollit. Istorum autfacnticoram scriptDrum 
autfaoritate nixus, sarpiusculi Papicolis in Ai^ia & alibi 
rctuli quendam Papisticum Episcopum Italicum tam ^iur- 
cum librum scripsis», eumque typb imprin^^ 
ut nullus nostrae rctormataB rcligionis p r o tessor vd aodirc 
illum patientir ferrct, nc dum talcm conscribcrct. Rc- 
fiagati mihi sunt Papists dc isto libro vcrba ficicnti, & 
tam potinacitir affirmarunt nullum ejusmodi fibrum \ 
Casa fiiissc scriptum, ut aliquantum dubitavcrim utrum 
vcrum cssct quod dc illo libro memorifle prodiderunt 
gravissimi isti autfaorcs. Scd quum jam tandcm faiscc 
oculis illum intucri in tuo Musaeo mifai oontigcrit, non 
video cur cxccrandam illius consceleratissimi Episoopi 
spurdtiam cxcuscnt Pontificii. Etsi autcm ille immundis- 
smius libcr sit dignus qui aut Thetidi, aut Vcneris tradatur 
marito (ut elegant^ politissimus ille Politianus loquitur 
de Homero \ se translato in quadam Epistola ad Jacobum 
Cardinalem Papienscm) tamen tibi consulerem reservarc 
potius in Bibliotheci tua illud detestandum monxmientum 
ad perpetuum Papisticae immundiciei dedecus & infiuniam. 
O vos terque quaterque beatos Tigurinos, qui per totum 
pen^ Christianum orbem, pnccipu^ religionem reformatam 
& veri Christianam profitentem, pro fidei vestrse puritate, 
assiduE & indefessi in scribendo industria, singulari & 
incomparabili doctrina, & eximia pietate, suprii reliquos, 
etiam in extremis oris plagisque totius Christianismi cele- 
bramini. Ita enim Deus vestrae dvitati & incolis bene- 

198 




EPISTLE TO HENRY BULLINGER 

dixit, ut nulla sit Christianismi pars tam longe dissita, quo i>«'i « 
non nominis vestri celebritas [jervaserit, prssertim ex quo J^D 
puriorem Evangelii doctrinam amplexi estis, Nam tem- 
pore illo tenebrarum, quo crassis illis superstitionibus & 
idolomania Papistica immersi estis, non memini vel unum 
clarum virum vescram civitatem peperisse. Sed ex quo 
Papismo nuncium remisistis, & repurgatam doctrinam filii 
Dei, sacrosanctum ejus Evangelium in cordibus vestris 
plantastis, prsedicastis, in circumjacentibus regionibus, dis- 
seminatis, & tam vocibus quim accuratissimis vestris 
scriptis eam propugnastis, Deus bone quot strenui & 
heroici Jesu Christi athlet^, quot imperterriti veritatis 
Evangelicae ■Kpomypi Tiguri exorti sunt, qui pro ortho- 
doxa & veteri Catholica doctrina vere Apostolica, verfe 
Christiana contra ementitum RomanE EcclesiE Catholi- 
cismum, & commentitium Papalis tyrannidis primatum 
calamis suis, & spirtualibus gladiis pugnantes, sibi & 
patriae sux immortalem gloriam nulla temporis injuria 
intermorituram pepererunt? nam tot egregios verbi divini 
assertores contra novitias & spurias Cacolycie Romanse 
Synagogae traditiones apud vos intra octoginta annorum 
spatium natos arbitror, quot nullam aliam totius Christi- 
anismi Academiam vix peperisse reor. Ut autem caeteros 
Tigurinos Doctores taceam, Henricus BuIIingerus avus 
tuus pis memoriae instar omnium erit, qui doctrinam 
sinceriorem Jesu Christi purissime ut flfoiri/ciwTot & 
QfoSihaKTo^ Doctor & docuit, & promovit ad insignem 
Christianffi reipub. utilitatem, & elaboratissimis suis lucu- 
brationibus vestram civitatem, non minus quim Smyrnam 
suam Homerus, aut Mantuam Virgilius maximfe nobili- 
tavit ; cujus libris Theologicis, prKsertim Decadibus suis 
tantum authoritatis tribuimus nos Angli, quantum Sibyl- 
linis oraculis antiqui Romani ; usque adeo ut publice in 
Ecclcsiis nostris eas asservari authoritate Regia mandatum 
sit, quo plebeii homines iis concionibus in sacrosanctis 
Christianae fidei mysteriis iaciliCis informentur. Hunc si 
imiteris (doctissime mi Bullingere) hujus vestigiis si 
inhjerescas, & tam vitae integritate qu^m doctrinic puritate 
c.c. II laa 1 




I 



1 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

EfiitU • si illius genium exprimas (quod te summis conadbus facere 

a!!^ accepi) veri te avissare dicam. Quod ut fadas, dos Angli 

^^^' (qui avi tui sanctissimam memoriam veneramur) p^ecipue 

e^, qui tecum aliquam saltem ezternam si non intimam 

amidtiam contraxi, ardentibus votis exoptamus. 

Macte igitur virtute tua, sic itur ad astra 
(Egr^e vir,) & istam quam nactus es Spartam oma, hoc 
est, istam saoam &cultatem Theologicam quam suscepisti, 
excole, ut tandem consummatissimus Theologus & Ex- 
desise Christi fiilgida lampas, sicut Luna Inter minores 
Stellas, evadas. Vale doctissime mi BuUingere, & hunc 
animulum meum veri & o^f^cv^ tui amantem ut redames 
te instant^ oro. Tui studiosissimus 

Thomas Coryatus Odcombiensis. 
Londini Pridie Calendas Augusti, Anno 1609. 

E/iitkm The fourth and last Epistle I sent to my fiiend 
B^eni. Marcus Buelerus above named. 

The superscription is tbis. 
Egrc^iK indolis & opbnue spei juveni Marco Buelero 
Musanmi alumno, ac beni merito suo amico, Tiguri 
PrimarieB Hdvetiec Civitatis rd literarise & bonis 
artibus operam danti. 

The Epistle it selie. 
Andcm aliquando (darissime mi Buelere) 
post longas monts hasce literas tibi mitto, 
non sinc dokwe profect6 ablatam fuisse 
niihi td te scribendi oppcHtunitatem toto 
] f t o tempore ex quo patriam meam ;^>puli ; 
prfpeditus ninuriim magna n^odonun 
niok, quc statim post meum m patrife 
fines iDgressum me undique drcumvaUarunt. Sed pnestat 
ser6 scnbere qukm non omnina Non possum satis amplas 
gradas tibi reddere (mi Buelcre) ob tuam insignem 
faumanitatem ultimo autumno Tiguri mihi pnestitam. 





EPISTLE TO MARCUS BUELERUS 

quam quoad vixero grata atque tenaci memoria complectar, Epistk te 
&, si in Helvetia aliquod tempus conterere mihi iterum ^"'y''^ 
contigerit (quod fortassfe aliquand6 accidet pra; amore illo 
quo uberrimam tuam patriam amplector) aliquod sanfe 
gratitudinis specimen edam, quod tuam in me benevolen- 
tiam aliqua ex parte rependet. Nam tua potissimum ope 
adjutus plurima memoranda in vestra Civitate Tigurina 
observavi, quiE forsan posthac typis excusa uni cum 
Gallicis, ItaJicis, & Germanicis meis observationibus 
videbis. 

Memini (mi Buelere) in mutuis nostris colloquiis inter 
deambulandum me sciscitatum fliisse te an Graecam lin- 
guam calleres, (eque respondisse, qu6d etsi adhuc ejus 
imperitus esses, tamen divino numine aspirante eam addis- 
cere decreveris. Ego illa occasione Jmpulsus, in laudem 
prasstantissimse Jllius Ungua; aliquantum digressus fui, 
promisique (si unquam ad te scriberem) ad illius studium 
te seri6 cohortari velle. Proindfe non abs re erit, si paucas 
lineas exarem, quibus tanquam stimulis seu calcaribus 
quibusdam ad elegantissimK illlus lingua; cognitionem 
imbibendam te incitem, Quum multa sint (mi Marce) 
quJF te ad Graecam linguam perdiscendam exacuere pos- 
sunt, tum h^c duo potissimum. Prim6 exempla omnitun 
vestratium celeberrimorum Tigurinorum, qui doctrinje 
laude fioruerunt. Nam quum multos clarJssimos immor- 
talique memoria dignissimosviros vestra civitas produxerit, 
Huldicuni ZuingHum, Henricum Bullingerum vestri Bul- 
lingeri egregii Theologi jam apud vos viventis avum, 
Theodorum Bibhandrum, Conradum Gesnerum, Rodol- 
phum Gualterum, Ludovicum Lavaterum, Rodolphum 
CoUinum, Josiam Simlerum, Joannem Jacobum Frisium, 
Joannem Guilielmum Stuckium, cum plurimis aliis prEc- 
stantissimis viris, qui in vestro Helvetico orbe tanquam 
splendidissima luminaria refulserunt, omnes istos Graeci 
non mediocritfer doctos, sed ea lingua ad amussim excultos, 
ad ejusque summum quasi apicem et fastigium pervenissc 
reperies ; quippe cuius adminiculo veritatem indagare, 
errores remtare, & Pontificiorum prava dogmata atque 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Efiftli t9 mpoSiSaa-kakiav evertere fkcilids possent Nam ex omnibiis 
^^HfL ill^stribiis viris quos vestra aluit civitas, ne unimi quidem 
nominare potes qui Gnec^ ling^uk non imbutus fuerit. 
Secund6 consideratio crassae insatise nonnullorum, qui etsi 
famam aliquam ob superfidalem quandam doctrinam in 
repub. literaria adepti fuerint, tamen quia hujus linguee 
cognitione destituti fu&*e, in multos putidos ac fcedos 
errores prolapsi sunt, & scriptis suis perridiculas quasdam 
absurditates ipsis etiam pueris irridendas & reprehendendas 
mandarunt. Nam Petrus Comestor Ecclesise Trecensis 
presbyter, qui vixit anno i2o6. & prestantissimus sui tem- 
poris theologus existimatus fuit, hoc vocabulum Eunuchus 
derivare non dubitavit ab ei; quod significat ben^, & Nuche, 
victoria. Nimiriim qu6d egrema & pen6 ccelestis victoria 
ei visa fuerit. Quum re veri dedicatur oxo t^ «/i^ quod 
significat cubiculum, & exetv habere, id est, sese in cubiculo 
connere, quia eunuchi ad cubiculorum & gyneoeorum 
custodiam curamque comparari solebant, qu6d andllis 
expeditiores essent, & ob exemptos testiculos ad coitum 
inepti. Nicolaus etiam Lyranus egregius apud nos Anglos 
theologaster, & Minoritanae famihae summum decus, qui 
fioruit anno 13 lo. hypocritam appellari affirmavit ab hypos 
quod est sub, & crisis aurum. Quia sub auro scilic6t 
exterioris conversationis habet absconditum plumbum fal- 
sitatis : anile profect6 delirium, & puerilibus sibilis exdpi- 
endum. Alius etiam Theologus non infimse apud 
Pontificios classis, diabolum traxisse nomen scribit k dia 
quod est duo, & bolus morsus (d lepidum & perfacetum 
caput, ne dicam plumbeum) qu6d duobus sdlic^t morsibus 
totum hominem devoret, uno corpus, altero animam. Sed 
constat airo roS SiafiaXXeiv potius deduci diabolum, quoniam 
quum sit humani generis hostis, homines apud Deum 
odiminiatur. Nonn^ subsannas nasoque suspendis adunco 
istas pueriles etymologias .^ quare ne ejusmodi crassa errata 
committas, quae ex Graecae hnguse ignorantia oriri solent, 
tibi amic^ consulo 

Exemplaria Graeca 

Noctiirna versare manu, versare diurna. 

13« 



EPISTLE TO MARCUS BUELERUS 

Ut cum Horatio loquar. Nam (ut idem affirmat) Sfiakm 

Miuvus 

Graiis ingenium, Graiis dedit ore rotundo Btubnu. 

Musa loqui. 

Memorise proditum est Joannem Capnionem quem aUks 
vocabant Reuchlinum, authorem hujus apoththegmatis 
fiiisse : Hebrsos quidem bibere fontes, Grsecos yer6 rivos, 
Latinos autem paludes. Quare rivulis istis limpidissimis 
temet proluas, rivulis inquam qui in carminibus Homeri, 

( a quo ceu fonte perenni 

Vatmn Pieriis ora rigantur aquis) 

abund^ scatent, in Demosthenis et Isocratis orationibus 
melle Hymettio dulcioribus. Crede mihi mi (Buelere) 
etsi salebrosa sit & spinosa via ad Athenas Graecie acro- 
polin, tamen illuc si semel perveneris, infinitis deliciis & 

3uadam voluptatum affluenti^ animum tuum pasces. 
Ludimenta fortasse Gnecse lingue aspera & acerba simt, 
tamen postquam sedulitate & V igilantia industrii eorum 
acerbitate superaveris, singularem quandam jucunditatem 
ind^ percepturus es. Memento illius non tam veteris 
quim veri dicti ; x^^^ '^^ «coXa, & pervulgati illius 
versiculi. 

Dulda non meruit qui non gustavit amara. 

iisdem pen^ verbis te alloquor (mi Buelere) quibus 
Helenus Virgilianus ^neam affatus est. 

*Via prima salutis 

(inquit Helenus>) sed gloriae atque felicitatis, inquam ego, 

(Quod minim^ reris) Graia pandetur ab urbe. 

2t Grseca videlic6t lingua potissim^m petenda est illa cog- 
nitio quae te merit6 beare potest. Brevem istam parsenesin 
ad politissimae illius linguae scientiam comparandam aequi 
quaeso bonique consulito, exemplis nimiriim nixam tum 
multorum Doctorum qui in vestra civitate Tigurina floru- 

*^neid 3. 
133 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Epistlno erunt, quonim fama propter summam atque feri incom- 
itftfiTitf parabilem eorum in omni doctrinarum genere praccipu^ 
niierus. Theologiae scientiam in totum Christianum orbem eman- 
avit, & quos non mod6 non abhorruisse h, Graec^ lingua sed 
etiam ad ipsum illius cuhnen aspirasse manifestum est; 
tum etiam absurditatum quarundam, quse ex illius linguae 
inscitia profecte simt. 

Quod mihi promisisti Tiguri vehementissim^ te oro 
prestare. Nam poUicitus es mihi, si scriberem ad tres 
illos pereruditos atque egregios viros, Dominum Waserum, 
Dominum Hospinianum, & Dominvun BuUingerum^ te 
iUos soUicitaturum ut mihi rescribant. Quare quum ad 
iUos scripserim, obsecro te ad me Uteras dare ut lUis per- 
suadeas. Quam mihi humanitatem si prsestiterint, me 
iiUs Gordiano quodam amicitiae nodo perpetu6 devindent. 
Porr6 hoc te rogo, ut gratias maximas meo nomine 
Domino Thomanno rei frumentaris apud vos prsfecto 
pro sua erga me benevolentia haud vulgari agas, eiqui 
significes me tradidisse fiUo suo Uteras quas ab eo accepi 
Timiri, nec non fiUum suum secunda valetudine perfrui, 
sed jam 

Non flavit veUs axmi secimda suis. 

Hse simt quas tamdiu abhinc tibi promisi Uterae, quas sequo 
atque benevolo animo te accepturum spero, praesertim 
missas ^tui aKifiSiiXm amantissimo amico ; aliquam etiam k 
te Epistolam vicisslm expecto, quam mihi pergratam fore 
tibi penit^s persuadeas. Vale beUissime mi Buelere. 

Tibi obstrictissimus tuaequ^ incolumitatis cupidissimus, 

Thomas Coryatus Odcombiensis. 
Londini pridi^ Calendas Augusti 1609. 

FRom my friend Marcus Buelerus, unto whom I wrote 
this Epistle, I received in answere of mine at the same 
time that my learned friend Mr. Waserus sent me that 
before mentioned, which for the love sake I beare unto 
him, in regard of the great courtesies he did me in Zurich, 
I have thought good to communicate to the world, though 

134 



EPISTLE FROM MARCUS BUELERUS 

indeede it be but piaine, and wanteth that elegancy that I 
expected from him. The titles that he attributed unto 
me (because I will not acknowledge them, as being alto- 
gether unworthy of the least of them) I have omitted, as 
I have done those of Mr. Waserus before. 

His Epistle is this, 
Tane litera; a te (vir clarissime & charis- 
sime) tandem ? Quod in gaudio im- 
proviso, vix credidi ipse meis oculis cum 
legerem, manibus ciim tenerem. Deum 
ego testor, ut in solo nomine tuo lecto 
exsilii. Officium mihi fuit tua scriptio, 
im6 beneficium,quia«n-(0'A^frea)restindex; 
quia etiam, quam sermone benevolentiam tu ante bien- 
nium, eam nunc affatim ostendit Epistola tua venusta, 
lepida, & pro re ipsa bella, qua me summo studio, pro 
amore, pro familiaritate nostra, pro candore denique tuo 
singulari ad Grcecas literas exhortaris, multis rationibus 
firmissimis allicis, persuades, delectas ; ab hoc enim tem- 
pore, quo ad me tuae literae venerunt, & antfe, omnem 
meam operam & laborem in hoc studio collocavi, quoad 
JKJtui dtligentissimfe ; a ju^ ^e /xfndOtiica irpoerTKip^onai Tais 




■o\l 



yap , 







Epuikjrm 

Marcm 

Buelerm. 



' y(prifTifj.wv 



eirtfyifiatt. 

evieixmi So^d^eiv, q v€pL Totv a^tiuTwi/ axpi^w iiriiTTarTQai. 
•ttcarrfi Oe t^ irept Ttjv ^ppavtjaiv ftrifieXeiai eiicoTiuf (tu aiTiov eivai 
vofuiTeii. Aictye eKeho otKaios av ex KapSla^ X"!""' *X/"* /ieyoKtiv. 
Convictu Domini Beumleri usus sum eo tempore, cum 
adfiiisses, nunc vero Domini Henrici Bullingeri, ad quem 
etiam literas dedisti, quem ego propter mirificam (piXav6pa>- 
riai' & singularem erga me benevolentiam & amo & colo. 
Videbis fortassis aliquando alios libros multos, quos Domi- 
nus Beumlerus praestantissimus Theologus edidit, (si 
mod6 nostrorum Tigurinorum Theologorum libros evol- 
vere cupias) multa enim volumina scripsit contra D. 
Heilbrunnerum, Pistorium, Bellarminum, Jacobum 
AndreEC, Philippum Nicolai, Faustum Socinum, & alios 
hsereticos recentiores. Ex tuis literis denique conjecturam 
»3S 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Marcus 
Bwelenu. 



Bfhtle/rm fecere potui te incolumem in patriam rediisse; gratulor 
itaque tibi reditum illum prosperum in patriam tuam, & 
(ut debeo) vehement^r g^audeo, post longinquam tuam in 
regionibus transmarims peregrinationem. Plurimiun 
tibi arridet nostra ^Helvetia, & ^iKavdpanrla, qvA gens ista 
praedita est, insignis ; contrk ego Angliam in pectore amo, 
cdm ob religionem sinceram, tum propter Doctores (ut 
audio) fato qu6dam natos ad optimas artes, & erudiendam 
rudem nostram aetatem. Itaque si Deus vitam et vires 
aliquas, viaeque securitatem in hac aestate annuerit, studio- 
rum causa Heideibergam vel Steinfurtum proficiscar, et in 
reditu in patriam, me vestra etiam Anglia per aliquot 
menses habebit quod tam ben^ Deus (aveo) qukm ego 
avid^. Plura adderem, sed quoniam inclusas has volvit 
suis literis Clariss. Scholae nostrae Rector Dominus 
Waserus, fasciculus ne supra modum cresceret, hlc sub- 
sisto, plura quidem addere jussit amor, qui magnus mihi 
in te & sanctus. Valdi de valere cupio, (optime vir) kcu 
(f>iKoutrra avri <^iXeii/. Si respondere velis, ad nundinas Fran- 
cofurtenses autumnales Tigurum mitte literas ad Domi- 
num Waserum, qui mihi (si Tiguri adhuc immora) reddet, 
sin miniis, ad me transmittet. Itenun vale. Tiguri in 
patria 8. Cal. Aprii. Anno ultimi temporis 1610. 

Tui Studiosissimus Marcus Buelerus 
Tigurinus SS. Theologiae studiosus, 

il\ucptvil9 KCU aVUTTOKptTO^ (piiXiK. 

BUt now at length I will returne to my observations 
againe. I departed from Zurich upon a Sat\u*day 
being the seven and twentieth of August, about two of 
the clocke in the afternoone (being conducted about two 
miles in my way by my friends Mr. Thomannus and 
Marcus Buelerus, who at our final departing bedewed his 
cheekes with teares) and came to a place nine English 
Maristella. miies beyond it called Maristella, which is hard by the 
river Limacus, about eight of the clocke in the evening. 
I passed the river in a boate, and lay that night in a 
solitary house by the river side. Betwixt Zurich and 

136 



[P- 395-] 



I 



OBSERVATIONS OF BADEN 

Maristella I observed a passlnc feire and spacious country 

full of excellent faire corne fields, About eight miles be- 

yond Zurich I passed by a certaine Chappellstanding by 

the high way side wherein was an exceeding massy multi- 

tude of dead mens bones and skuUes heaped together. 

These are said to be the skultes of the Souldiers of Charles ^ muhiiudt 

the great Duke of Burgundie, (whom I have before men- "/"O""- 

tioaed in my notes of Zurich) and the Switzers, who not 

&rre from this place fought a great battell, in which there 

was great slaughter on both sides. 

I departed from Maristella the next morning being 
Sunday and the eight and twentieth of August about 
aeven of the clocke, and came to the City of Baden com- 

Ljnonly cailed ober Baden, two English miles beyond it, 

Libout eight of the clocke. 

My Observations of Baden. [p, jggi 

THis City is of some antiquity. For it is mentioned BrJen. 
by Cornelius Tacitus, that famous Historiographer 
that lived in the time of Tiberius CEesar. I passed a 
bridge over the river at the entrance of the City. It 
standeth in that part of Switzerland which is called 
Ergovia, and on the farther side of the river there lyeth 
the territory of Turgovia. On one side of the towne are 
certaine hilles, and on the other the river Limacus afore- 
said that runneth by Zurich, on which river they doe 
usually passe in boates betwixt Zurich and this City. 
Againe, the City is so built that it standeth on both sides 
flf the Limacus. It lyeth in the very medituUium of 
Helvetia, which is the reason that the confederates doe 
*lebrate all their publique assemblies that concerne the 
whole state in this City. There standeth a Castell upon 
the toppe of the hill which doth now suffer great dilapida- 
tions. One thing I observed in the German Cities that 
I could not perceive in any place of France, Savoy, Italy, 
or Rhetia. Namely, the heads of boares nailed upon the Bears' keadi 
^^^ dores of dwelling houses of Cities and Townes. The "mled upen 
^^Lfirst that I saw in Germany were in this City of Baden. '^'' 

L 






CORYATS CRUDITIES 

For here I saw many of them hanged upon the dores both 
at the entrance into the City, and in the fairest streete. 
These heads are of certaine wilde boares that the people 
doe kill in hunting in the forrests and woods of the coun- 
try. Which hunting of wilde boares is more exercised 
by the Germans then by any other Christian nation. And 
it is the custome of the country whensoever they havc 
killed any great boare to cut off his head, and erect it in 
that manner as I have akeady spoken. The like I ob- 
served afterward in many other German Cities. I was in 
the fairest Church of the City which is dedicated to our 
Lady, where I saw a great many pictures and images ^for 
[p. 397.] this City is wholly Papisticall) and one very curious Altar 

made of wainscot. On the south side of the Church 
A ckapel there standeth a little Chappell, wherein I saw an exceeding 
hottsimd "^^^^^^d^ of dead mens bones and skulles laid together 
skuUs. ^^ ^^ west end thereof . I never saw so many dead mens 

bones together in all my life before. For the number of 
them was so great, that I thinke at the day of judgement 
at the least ten thousand soules will challenge them. 
Surely for what cause they heape together these bones (I 
confesse) I know not. 
The Earldm This Citie in times past was subject to a proper Earle 
ofBaden. ^f jj^j. own«, who was intitled the Earle of Baden. But 

about the yeare 11 80. Henry their last Earle of Baden 
being dead, the Earledome was translated by the meanes 
of a certaine Lady to the Earles of Kyburg. Againe, 
after the death of Hortmannus the last Earle of Kyburg, 
who died about the yeare 1260, there rose a great conten- 
tion about this Earledome. But at last Rodolphus Earle 
of Habspurg that was afterward elected King of the 
Romanes, got the possession of it, and after his death it 
was continually possessed by the Dukes of Austria tiU 
the Councell of Constance. At what time the Helvetians 
by the commandement of the Emperour Sigismund first 
seised upon it, who have ever kept it from that time tiU 
this day. 

Thus much of the Citie of Baden. 

138 



THE BATHS OF BADEN 

IDeparted fi-om this City about tenne of the clocke 
the same Sunday, and tooke my journey directly to- 
wards the Bathes which are within halfe an English mile 
of the Citie. For Master Hospinian of Zurich did 
earnestly counsell me to see them, as being a place very 
wcrthy my observation. But there hapned sucli a sinister 
accident unto me upon the way, that it was very difficult h 

for me to find them out ; whereby I verified the old ■ 

speech, though indeed the same be properly spoken in fl 

another sense ; Difficilia quie pulchra. For by reason that [p. 398.] * 
I was ignorant of the Dutch language, those that met me 
by the way could not understand my speeches, and so 
gave me no certaine directions to finde out the place. 
Whereupoo I went five Engiish miles beyond il before I ^ '"'ppy ""'- 
could learne any newes of it, even to the famous Monas- ^"'' 
terie of Kiningsfelden neere the Citie of Brooke. Which 
accident ministred occasion unto me to see certaine 
memorable monuments in this foresaid Monasterie, which 
I had not seene, if this occurrent had not driven me thither. 
Here I hapned to insinuate my selfe into the acquaintance 
of an honest sociable SchoUer, who very courteously 
walked with me five miles back to the bathes. For I was 
stroken with such an ardent desire to see them, that I 
could not be satisfied before I had beene there, though it 
were forth and backe ten miles out of my way. There- 
fore I will first describe them, and after returne to the dis- 
course of the Monastery againe. 

My observations of the Bathes of Baden. 

CErtainly this is the sweetest place for bathes that ever The iaiAi e/ 
I saw, by many degrees excelling our English bathes ^''"*''*»^'- 
both in quantity and quaiity. The antiquity of them is 
such, that (as a certaine learned man told me in the same 
place) it is thought they were found out before the incar- 
nation of Christ. The place is called Hinderhove, being 
seated in a low bottome about a bow shot from the high 
way, and about halfe an English mile westward from the 
high way, and about halfe an English mile westward fiom 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

the Citie of Baden. They are much the more commodi- 
ously and pleasandy situate by reason of the sweete river 
Limacus running by them, which divideth them into two 
parts, the greater and the lesser. For those on this side 
[p. 4^3.] the river are called the greater, and those beyond it the 

lesser. The bathes are mstinguished asimder by severall 

houses that are nothing else then Innes serving for the 

entertainment of strangers. And whereas every Inne hath 

Bathsnamd his proper signe, the bathes have their names from the 

ofoflim^ same signes. As in one Inne which hath the signe of the 

Beare, the Bathes in the same place being in number sixe 
are called the Beare bathes, and so the rest of the bathes 
have their denomination from their peculiar sijgnes. In 
another Inne called the Simne are eight, in a pkce called 
the Statehove eleven, at the signe of the Crowne seven, 
at the Flower three, at the Oxe sixe, in a place called by 
the same name that is the generail appellation of all the 
bathes, viz. Hinderhove, seventeene, in an open court 
sub dio two publike bathes, whereof one is the greatest of 
them all ; in which I told seven and thirtie poore people 
bathing of themselves. For these two serve ondy loc 
the plebeian and poorer sort. So that the totall number 
of them amountedi to threescore. None are admitted to 
these bathes in the Innes but the richer sort, and such as 
doe sojourne in the same. For many of the strangers 
are tabled there for a certain stinted price by the weeke. 
And some of the thriftier sort onely pay for their lodging, 
and procure them provision from the Citie. For it is a 
place of great charge to them that pay for their weekly 
diet. Although the number of the bathes be so great 
as I have aheady spoken: yet the originall fountaines 
that feede them all are but few, no more then two, which 
are so hot at the first spring thereof , that a man can hardly 
endure to touch them with his bare hands, the like whereof 
I wiU report hereafter of the bathes of the iower Baden 
A gnat ^^ ^^ Marcjuisate. Howbeit the water of these bathes 
imconrtiof themselves is of a very moderate temperature. Here 
/HR^. was a great concurse of people at the time of my being 

140 



THE BATHS OF BADEN 

there, which was at the Autumne, even the eight and 

twentieth day of August ; as at the same tlme every 

yeare many resort thither from Zurich, BasiU, Berne, and [p- +o+-] 

most of the Helveticall Cities, and from the Citie of 

Constance, &c. the strangers that are to be seene in Hin- 

derhove, amounting sometimes to the number of a 

thousand persons, besides some few that Ue abroad in the 

country for the bathes sake. Many of those people that 

lay at Hinderhove when I was there, were Gentlemen of 

great worth that repaired thither from the foresaid Cities 

partly for infirmities sake, and partly for meere pleasure 

and recreation. Most of the private bathes are but Htde, 

but very deiicate and pleasant places, being divided 

asunder by certaine convenient partitions wherein are 

contrived divers windowes, to the end that those in the 

bathes may have rccourse to each other, and mutually 

drinke together. For they reach out their drinking 

glasses one to another through the windowes. The 

roomes over head are lodgings for the strangers. Here 

I have observed the people in the bathes feede togcther ^"■""^ 

upon a table that hath swimmed upon the superficies of '^gthn ' 

the water. Also I have noted another strange thing 

amongst them that I have nof a little wondred at. Men 

and women bathing themselves together naked from the 

middle upward in one bathe : whereof some of the 

women were wives (as I was told) and the men partly 

bachelers, and partly married men, but not the husbands 

of ihe same women. Yet their husbands have bene at 

that time at Hinderhove, and some of them in the very 

place standing hard by the bathe in their cloathes, and 

bcholding their wives not onely talking and femiliarly 

discoursing with other men, but also sporting after a very 

pleasant and merry manner. Yea sometimes they sing 

merily together but especially that sweet & most amor- 

ous song of solus cum sola ; I meane another mans wife, 

& another man naked upward (as I have aforesaid) in one 

bath. Yet all this while the husband may not be jelous 

though he be at the bathes, and seeth too much occasion 



I 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

[p- 405-] of jealousie ministred unto him. For the vcrie name of 
jelousie is odious in this place. But let these Germanes 
and Helvetians do as they list, and observe these kind of 
wanton customes as long as they will; for mine owne 
part were I a married man, and meant to spend some litde 
time here with my wife for solace and recreation sake, 
truly I should hardly be perswaded to suffer her to bath 
her selfe naked in one and the selfe same bath with one 
onely bachelar or married man with her, because if she 
was faire, and had an attractive countenance, she might 
perhaps cornifie me. For I might have just cause to 
feare lest if she went into the water with the effigies of 
a male lambe characterized upon her belly, the same 
might within a few howers grow to be an homed ram 
(according to a merry tale that I have sometimes heard) 
before she should return again to my company. Here 
also I saw many passing faire yong Ladies and Gentle- 
women naked in the bathes with their wooers and 
favorites in the same. For at this time of the yeare 
many woers come thither to solace themselves with their 
beautifull mistresses. Many of these yong Ladies had 
the haire of their head very curiously plaited in locks, 
& they wore certaine pretty garlands upon their heads 
made of fragrant and odoriferous flowers. A spectacle 
exceeding amorous. A certaine learned man that I found 
bathing himselfe in one of the bathes, told me that 

p^JJ, , Henry Pantaleon that famous Philosopher and Phisition 

^^ of Basiil, (who made his abode two or three yeares in 

this place) hath written a peculiar booke of the vertue 
and eflFect of these bathes. Moreover he affirmed that 
they are of very soveraigne vertue for the curing of 
these infirmities, viz. the tertian and quartan ague, the 
itch, the cholicke and the stone; and it hath one most 
rare vertue that I never heard of any bathes in all the 
world. For he told me that they are of admirabie 
efficacie to cure the sterilitie of women, and make those 
that are barren, very fruitfuil bearers of children. A 

[p. 406.] matter verified and certainly confirmed by the experience 

142 




THE BATHS OF BADEN H 

"^f many womcn. Thc water of the bathes is mingled 
with great store of brimstone and a small quantity of 
alum, (as Munster affirmeth, from whom I dcrive thcse 
few lines following concerning the vertue of thc bathes) Vtrtut! sf tit< 
by meanes whercof it hcateth and dryeth up all noysome 
and cold humours. Also it is good for those infirmities 
which proceedc from the cold of the head, as the lethargic, 
the apoplexic, the diseases of the eares and eyes. It con- 
sumeth thc flcame, heateth and dryeth up the stomach, 
helpeth the digestive faculty, openeth the obstructions of 
the liver and splcene, asswageth the biting and fretting of 
the guts, appeascth the paine of the members that pro- 
ccedeth from cold, and to conclude, it cleanseth the skinne 
from spots and freckles. But it hurtcth those thaf have 
a hot and dric complexion, and such as arc wcakencd with 
the consumption. But old folkes, of what sexe soever 
they are, reape no benefit by these bathes. A placc that 
imparteth his vertue after a partiall manncr rathcr to the 
fcminine then masculine kinde. And so finally I end 
this discourse of the Hclveticall bathes of Hindcrhove 
wifh that elegant Elogium of Poggius the Florcntine in 
praise of thc same, cven that it is a sccond Paradisc, the 
seate of the Graces, the bosome of Love, and the Theater 
of pleasure. 

Thus much of the Hclveticall bathcs of Hinderhovc 
commonly called thc bathes of Baden. 

IDeparted from Hinderhove about fourc of thc clockc 
in the afternoone the same Sunday, and about sixe of 
ihe clock returned to the foresaid Monasfcry of Kinings- ;yj,^,„™ ^f 
felden situate in thaf part of Switzerland which is called Kmngiftldtn. 
Ergovia, belng accompanied with my learned associat 
of the same place, whom I have before mcnfioned, who 
very kindly shewed me all the principall and most notable [p. 407.] 
things of the Monastery. This placc doth now belong 
to the noble Citie of Berna, the Church thereof being 
translated from Popery and superstitious uscs to the true 
service and worship of God, where every sunday there is 




CORYAT"S CRUDITIES 

a sermon preached by a learned Minister. This Monas- 
tery was first founded about the yeare 1408. by a certaine 
The Empress Empresse called Elizabeth who was the daughter of 
E&zcBeti. Meinhard Earle of Tyrol and Goricia, and Duke of Car- 
inthia, a woman much f^moused amongst the historians 
for finding: out the mines of salt in the Towne of Halles 
near Gemunden in the higher Austria. Shee was wife 
even the only wife of Albert the Emperor and King of 
the Romans, unto whom shee bare (as historians doe 
record) no lesse then one and twenty children. She im- 
posed the name of Kiningsfelden (which is a Dutch word 
compounded of two more that doe signifie the Kings- 
fields) upon the foresaid Monastery, The reason of which 
appellation was this. Because in the same place her 
husband Albert above named was slaine betwtxt the rivers 
of Arola and Risus, by his nephew John Duke of Suevia, 
and afterwards buried in this Monastery. But before I 
write any more of this Monastery I will relate a very 
notable history which I have read in the third booke of 
Diaihof Munsters Cosmographie, concerning the lamentable death 
ff ' f k °^ *^^ ^^''^ Emperour in this place, hoping that it will be 
^mani ' ^^^^ grateful to any reader whatsoever to reade so memor- 
able a matter as I will nowreport, The foresaid John being 
the Emperor^s nephew by his eldest sonne Rodolph, was 
lately come to a Princely estate by the death of his fiither, 
who was newly slalne in his chamber. And shortly after 
he beganne to play the scape-thrift, being much given to 
prodigall expences. Whereupon his grandfather restrained 
him from the managing of his estate, assigning the Duke- 
dome of Suevia which was now in his possession, to the 
administration of some principall Stewards that should 
[p. 408.] have the oversight of his lands and revenewes, till he came 
to more maturity of yeares. And in the meane time 
maintained him in his owne Palace in a convenient state 
answerable to the degree of a young Prince. But John 
beganne to murmure against his grandfether for that he 
curbed hira of his former liberty, and being impatient of 
thcse matters consulted with three Gentlemen more that 



MONASTERY OF KININGSFELDEN 

were continuall)' conversant with the Emperour (for they 
were the principall Squiers of his body) how he might be 
revenged upon his grandfather. The names of these were 
Rodolphus de Wart, Walterus de Essenbach, and Hul- 
dricus de Palma. It hapned upon the eight day of May 
Anno 1308. within a short space after these Catilines had 
linked themselves together in this mischievous league of 
conspiracy, that the Emperour being in a merry humour 
at table where these foure sate, did put certaine garlands 
of roses upon his sonnes head that sate at the same table. 
But these conspirators were so ferre from being merry 
with fhe rest that they would not as much as eate any 
thing with them, but still ruminated upon their diabolicall '^ •Habolical 
plot how they might compasse it to massacre the Emperor, ''" ' 
which they prosecuted in this manner. The Emperor 
after he had dined tooke horse to ride towards the river 
Rhene, where he meant to take boate, and so to passe 
downe to the City of Rheinfelden. In his journey he was 
accompanied with these foure only. When they were past 
a prety way in their journey, these lewd miscreants having 
the good Emperour alone by himselfe, Rodolphus said to 
his confederates how long shall we suffer this carkasse to 
ride? and so taking the horses bridle by the hand, when 
as the innocent Emperour rode on securely (as he thought) 
and familiarly talked unto them accordingly to his wonted 
manner, Duke John his nephew drew his poinado out of Murdtrefi/ie 
his sheath, and with the same gave the Emperour the first '"P"'"''- 
blow upon the necke, wherewith he strooke him downe 
from his horse. Next came Huldricus de Palma, and with 
his fewchon clove his head and face asunder, (6 most Cy- [p. 409.] 
clopical viilaine) and the other two stabbed and grievously 
hackled his body with many wounds. So this was the 
most tragicall end of this worthy Emperour, that by the 
historians is much commended for his heroicall vertues, 
after he had reigned ten yeares, and most valiantly fought 
twelve severall battels in the field, in all which he got a 
glorious victory of his enemies. But the Lady Adrastia 
fl meane the just vengeance of God) pursued these impious 
c. c n 145 K 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 



DMhJ$k9 

ferfetaaUy. 



HwUncns ile 
Pdmds 
miserahle end. 



RMihhkMs de 
JFartbnken 
«r tie wkeeL 



Waherdi 
Essenbaci^s 
obscure deatlu 

[p. 410] 



blood suckers aocording to that ei^;ant speech of the 
Lyrick Poet. 

Rar6 antecedentem scelestum 
Deseruit pede pcena daudo.* 

For all foure of them came to most lamentable ends. 
Duke John that gave the first blow, after he had lived a 
most uncouth and solitanr life in the desert forrests and 
woods among the dens of wilde beastes, conveighed him- 
sclfe at len^ into Italy, where being sent by the Pope to 
the City of Pisa in Hetruria to the Emperor Henry the 
seventh the successor of the foresaid Emperour Albertus, 
he was condemned to perpetuall imprisonment in the habit 
of an Eremitan Frier. Huldricus de Pakna that dove 
the Emperours head asunder, dyed miserably in a poore 
house in the City of Basil, his Castell being seised upon 
by Leopold Duke of Austria, and divided amongst his 
brothers, with all his other substance. Rodolphus de 
Wart after he had a long time hid himselfe, was at length 
detected with his man. Himselfe being tyed to a horses 
taile, was after a most ifi;nominious maner drawen to exe- 
cution, and all his menibers very cruelly broken with the 
torment of the whede: so was his man also. And the 
last of them Walterus de Essenbach, after he had lived a 
sheepheards life for the space of five and thirty yeares, at 
last dyed very obscurely. This worthy historie I havc 
thought good to prefixe befbre my ensuing discourse of 
this Monastery or Kiningsfidden by way of introduction 
thereunto ; having taken occasion of this historicall narra- 
tion, partly by meanes of the denomination of this place 
of Kiningsfelden, and partly for that thc Emperors body 
was buried therc by his forcsaid wifis; Who erectcd the 
Monastery for that purpose, and for a perpctuall monu- 
ment of that most execrablc villany conunitted by those 
foure cut-throates above named, even in the yeare 1308. 
beforc mentioned. And again the next yeare foUowing 
it was translated thcrchcncc to the City of Spira, whcrc it 

*Hon. lib. 3. Ourmi. Od. 2. 
146 



MONASTERY OF KININGSFELDEN 

was intombed with a most mournefuU solemnity upon the 

fourth day of September, next to his father Rodolphus 

Habspurgensis the Emperour, as I will hereaftcr report in 

my Observations of Spira. Therefore I will now returne 

againe to the foresaid Monastery. The abovesaid Em- 

presse assigned this place for the habitation of Monks of Menii 

the femily of St. Bennet, and Nunnes of the order of St. **"*' 

Clara. Who although they lived apart in severall and 

distinct roomes of ihe Monastery,yet it is to be conjectured 

that as fire and flaxe, when they meete together, doe yeeld 

a flame ; so these perhaps might sometimes have some 

furtive conversation in hugger mugger si non castfe, tamen 

caute. A thing that hath eftsoones hapned in such Mon- 

astcries as are the receptacles of those promiscuous 

convents of both sexes Monks and Nuns. The bodies 

of divers royall persons were buried in this Monastery, 

besides the Emperour Albert whom I have akeady men- 

tiooed. Whereof the principall was the foresaid Empresse 

Elizabeth foundresse of the house. Here also was buried '^"J"'' ^"""^ 

AgBes her owne daughter by the foresaid Albert, and the "" , 

wife of Andrew King of Hungarie, who after the death of 

her husband having renounced the world, and consecrated 

her seife whoUy to a reiigious IJfe, spent the remainder of 

her daies, even eight and forty yeares in the citie of Brooke 

neare adjoyning to this Monastery, where at last shee was 

buried as I have already said. Likewise here was buryed 

that famous Leopold the last of that name Duke of 

Austria, surnamed gloria or decus miiitise, the glory of the [p- 4"] 

miiitary discipline ; who was nephew to the Emperour 

Albert before mentioned, and fourth sonne of Aibert 

surnamed the wise, who intitled himseife the first Exarch 

of Austria. 

This Leopoid about the yeare 1385. conduded a peace Ltopeld Uzt 
betwixt the house of Austria and the Confederates of \, "J^ 



1 



Switzerland, with an intent to aboUsh aU manner of con- 
tention betwixt them. But shortly after this the hot 
broiles of wars began more fierceiy by reason of certain 
tumuits that rose betwixt the Prefects of the country and 



CORYATS CRUDrriES 

the Citizens of Liiceme : so that many of the oonfederate 
cities rose in armes against the Duke, who both assaulted 
and sacked certaine townes that the house of Austria laid 
daim imto. Whereupon the adverse armies confronting 
each other in the field, the Confederates surprised the 
Dukes forces in the yeare 1386. Againe the same yeare 
there was a fresh truce concluded betwixt them, which being 
shortly after violated, they mustred up their forces once 
more on both sides that same yeare, and joyned battell 
againe the second time neare to the towne of Sempach 
in Switzerland, the Duke having adjoined unto him the 
strength of many German Peeres and noble Personages, 
who aided him with the best power they were able. The 
Confederates understanding that the Dvdce was approached 
^t^^j neare to Sempach aforesaid, met him in a certaine imeven 
s^n% Oe P^^ ^^ ^^^ 8^^^ disadvantage, where he & the rest oF his 
Stoiss. Nobles being well horsed, were constrained to alisht Irom 

their horses, and abandon them. For they comd stand 
them in no steed in that place, & so at length they came 
to hand strokes, & fought a most vehement skirmish on 
both sides. But the Duke & the Nobles being tired out 
with the extreme heat of the Sunne, & their long fight, 
were forced to give place to their enemies, so that 3iey 
retired themselves backe toward their horses, but before 
they could come to them, they were so eagerly pursued 
p. 412.] by the Switzers, that they were almost all slaine in that 
confiict : Duke Leopold himselfe lost his life ; Otto, the 
Marquesse of Hochberg, John Earle of Zollern, and many 
other Nobles of inferiour degree. After that the bodie of 
the Duke and of threescore of his Nobles were brought to 
this Monastery, where they were all buried. The monu- 
ment of the Duke standeth in the bodie of the Church, 
being indosed within an yron grate, where there is written 
this Dutch Epitaph following, which my scholasticall com- 
panion abovesaid copied out for me, and here I have set 
downe the very same words, word for word, that he 
delivered me, even these. 

143 



MONASTERY OF KININGSFELDEN 

In disem grab ligend von unseren hochgeboren hershafft T'^ DMs 
w>n OsteryA, die Edlen Frauwen und herren. epitaph. 

Die hernach geschriben stond. Zum erstenfrauw Eliza- 
beta geborne von Kerndten Kunigs Albrects von Rome 
gemachel, der of der Hofstat verlor syn leben. Demnach 
Agnes Iro dochter wylund ICinigin in Ungern. Ferner 
siuch unser gnediger Herr Herzog Lupold der Zu Sem- 
pach vorlor synleben. 1386. 

Hertzog Lupold der Alt, und frauw Catrina syn 
gemachall geborne von Saphoy. Un frauw Catrina L-o 
tochter Herzogin von Lessin. Herzog Heinrich und fro 
Elizabeta syn gemachel geborne von Vimburg. 

Herzog Frioerich Kunig Friderichs der von Rome. 

Fro ECzabeta Herzog in von Luttringen. 

Frauw Gutta Grauin von Ottingen Deren gedencken [p. 413.] 
thimd. 

The same in English. 

In this grave are buried of our most excellent house Theepitapk 
jf Austria, these Noble Ladies and Lords. Eng&iM. 

First Lady Elizabeth of Kemdten, wife of Albertus 
King of the Romanes, which was slaine in his Palace. 

Next Agnes their daughter, sometimes Queene of 
Himgarie. 

Item, our gracious Lord Leopold that lost his life at 
Sempach. 1386. 

Duke Leopold the old, & Lady Katharina of Savoy his 
wife, and Lady Katharina their daughter, Dutchesse of 
Lessin. 

Also Henry and Ladie Elizabeth of Virnburg his 
wife. 

Duke Fredericke sonne of Fredericke King of Romc. 

Lady Elizabeth Dutchesse of Lorraine. 

Lasdy Lady Gutta Countesse of Ottingen, whom forget 
tiot in your praiers. 

Morover in the Quire of the same Church I saw the 
Dukes picture made in his armour upon the wall with 
fburteene of his Peeres painted in armes also on the right 

149 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

hand of hiiri) and thirteene more on the left hand. Besides 
thev shewed me a certaine long wooden chest in a high 
gallery) which the foresaid Diike filled up with halters, 
wherewith he meant to have hanged the noblest Captaines 
and other worthjr persons of the Confederates. I observed 
a thing in the Cloyster of this Monastery that moved no 
small commiseration in me : which by reason of the rare- 
nesse of the example I will not let passe unmentioned. 
An exampk of ^y companion shewed me a certain old man walking alone 
hMmaujratuj. ^^ himselfe, who having beene from his youth tiU within 

these late yeares, a learned man of singular gifts, & a most 

excellent Schollar, was so much altred now m his decrepit 

[p. 414.] age, that he had not only lost his memory, being imable to 

remember his owne name, (an accident that I have read 
hath hapned heretofore to two famous Orators, whcreof 
the one was Messala Corvinus, a noble Gentleman of 
Rome : the other George Trapezuntius, a learned Orator 
of Greece, & principall Secretary to one of the later Popes) 
but also was come to that most miserable state, that he 
could not discharge the necessaries of nature after that 
civill and decent manner as other people do, but after a 
most loathsome & beastly fashion. Truly this man was a 
most notable example to put every learned man in mind of 
his humane frailty, and to teach many proud princocke 
scholars that are pu£Fed up with the opinion of their 
learning to puU downe the high sailes of their lofty spirits, 
and to keepe the golden meane in the levell of their 
thoughts, since God is able to make the learnedest and 
wisest man in the world not only a child againe in his 
declining yeares, but also such a kind of odious creature 
by depnving him of the use of reason, and the light of 
understanding, as doth equal the unreasonable beastes of 
the field in a brutish filthmesse. 

Thus much of the Monastery of Kiningsfelden. 

FRom this Monastery I tooke my Journey to the city 
of Brooke, being about foure furlongs beyond it, 

whither I came about 8 of the clocke in the evening, 

150 



OBSERVATIONS OF RHEINFELDEN 

something appkuding my selfe in a manner, and congratu- 
lating my owne good fortune & successe for that experience 
■which I had gotten the same day by the sight of the citie 
of Baden, the Bathes of Hinderhove, & the noble Monas- 
tery of Kinings-felden. This daies journey was but small, 
no more then sixe English miles. 

Of this citie I can say but Uttle, because I came in late, 
and went away betime in the morning, Onely I under- 
stood that it is all Protestant, consenting with thc 
Tigurines in religion. Here I found the kindest host 
that I had in my whole voyage out of England. 

I departed from Brooke about sixe of the docke in the [p. +15.] 
morning the nine & twentieth of August being Munday, 
and came about seven of the clocke in the evening to the 
Citie of Rheinfelden, this daies jouriiey being twenty Rhcinfelde 
English miles. I can say very little of this Citie, because 
I made my aboad there but a night, and departed there- 
hence betime the next morning, even about sixe of the 
clocke ; onely one short note I will give of it, and no 
more : That the ancient Earledome of Rheinfelden derived 
his denomination from this citie, a famous Prince (of whom 
I have often read,) being the last Earle thereor, namely 
Rodolphus Duke of Suevia, unto whom Pope Gregory the 
seventh sent a golden crowne when he warred against the 
Emperour Henry the fourth, with this memorable (that I 
may not say prophane) inscription. 

Petra dedit Petro, Petrus diadema Rodolpho. 

I observed that it professed the Popish religion, and that 
it is sweetly watered by the Rhene. About the townes 
end a little before I entred the Citie, I observed a great ^ greai 
gallows supported with three great piilars of free stone, S^""""- 
neere unto which there was a wheele that served tbr the 
execution of murderers, the like whereof I have often 
seene in France (as I have before mentioned) and many 
such in divers other places of Switzerland, 

I departed from Rheinfelden about sixe of the clocke 
the next morning being Tuesday, and the thirtieth day of 



I 



k 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

August, and came to Basil, sixe English miles beyond it, 
about nine of the clocke. In this space I observed a great 
multitude of verie faire Vineyards planted on both sides 
of the Rhene. 

[p. 416.] My Observations of Basil, in Latine Basilea. 

Basli. nr^His noble citie is situate in that most fertile territorie 

X of Sungovia heretofore called Sequania, bordering 
upon the confines of Switzerland, which tnough it standem 
not in the province of Helvetia, yet it is reputed one of 
the Helvetical Cities, both because it confineth upon the 
frontires of the country, and also for that it was incor- 
porated into the confederation in the yeare 1501, since 
which time it hath continually maintained her liberty 
maugre all her enemies, and embraceth that popular 
government that the other cities doe. Who was the first 
founder of it I cannot certainly finde. For I have not 
read it in any author. But I conjecture that it began to 
be built shortly after the dilapidations and ruines of the 
Jugusta ancient Citie of *Augusta Rauracorum, which was built 
Rauracorum. ^^^ fmc from this Citie by the same noble Roman Gentle- 

man that was the founder of the Citie of Lyons, Munatius 
Plancus, whom I have before mentioned. The ruines of 
which Citie are shewed at this day as notable monuments 
of the antiquitie and beautie thereof, when it flourished in 
ancient times. From this Citie Augusta was Basil also 
heretofore called Augusta Rauracorum. Truly it is very 
likely that the founders of this Citie of Basil first derived 
much of the matter for the founding and beautifying of 
their Citie from the foresaid Augusta. In regard whereof 
the Citizens of Basil have very lately erected a most 
beautifull statue of the foresaid Munatius Plancus made 
of wood in his military ornaments, which I saw placed 
upon a wooden pillar in the court of their Senate house, 
and honored with a learned Elogium. Munster proveth 
out of the thirtieth booke of the histories of Ammianus 

* This City or at the least the Rudera thereof now remaining are at 
this day called Augst. 

15* 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Marcellinus that most learned souldier that served under [p. 417.] 

the Emperour Julian the Apostate, that Basil was a 

flourishing and famous Citie in the time of those coUeague 

Emperours Gratian and Valentinian about 382 yeares after 

Christes incarnation. As for the name of the Citie the ^CI^^^SJ "f 

authors doe something differ. For some will have it called "' ' 

Basilea quasi Pasilea, that is, a place of passage, because 

there was a common passage from one banke to the other 

in boats upon the river Rhene, before the bridge was built 

for the use of the Citie. But Munster saith that Ammi- 

anus aforesaid draweth the etymologie of it from the 

Greeke word ffuffiXda which signifieth a kingdome, as 

being a royall and kingly Citie fit for the residence of a 

Kings court. Surely it is exceeding sweetly situate, 

having on onc side of the Rhene a pleasant plaine that 

yeeldeth great abundance of wine and corne, but especially 

corne ; on the other side hils, in number three, whereon 

one part of the Citie standeth. Also the ayre of this T»"^'i^"^^' 

Citie is esteemed as sweet and comfortable as in any City ""^" 

o( the whole world, as a certaine English Gentleman told 

me that soiourned in the University for learning sake at 

the time 01 my being there, who affirmed that it was the 

most delectable place for ayre that ever he lived in. 

Againe, it is as finely watered as ever I saw Citie, partly 

with goodly rivers, and partly with pleasant springs or 

fountaines that doe incessantly flow out of delicare con- 

duits. The rivers are these, the Rhene, the Byrsa and 

the Wiesa. The Rhene divideth the Citie in the middest, 

and maketh two several Cities, the greater and the lesser 

Basil : the greater being on the farther side of the Rhene 

upon the foresaid hils, which Citie was esteemed heretofore 

a part of the territory of the Sequani, and a member of the 

French Kings dominion ; the lesser on the other side upon 

thc plaine, which was ever reputed part of Germany. But 

at this day both the Cities are accounted within the com- 

passe of the German precincts. But because I now 

speake of the division into two parts by meanes of the [p. 418.] 

river Rhene running betwixt them, I will mention a thing 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



runto thee (gentle reader) out o{ my poore experience in 
travell, that if thou meaiiest to see these countries thy 
selfe, thou maiest hereafter observe this particular matter 
as well as I my selfe have done ah^eadie. The ancient 
Germanes and Helvetians observed this rule In former 
times at the founding of their Cities, that when they laid 
the foundation of any Citie hard by any famous river, they 
J« ancifnt built one part of it on one banke of the same river, and 
caitsm in ^^^ other on the opposite banke. Which thine I have 
OHiidmecitui. . , '' , it i . >i ■ ■ 

seene with mme owne eyes in three HelveticaiJ aties, 

namely, in Zurich situate by the foresaid Limacus, Baden 
by the same river, and this citie of Basil by the Rhene ; 
and the Hke I have heard is to be seene in two more 
Helvetian Cities, namely Lucerne upon the river Ursula, 
and Solodure upon the Arola. After the same manner 
also the Citie of Lyons in France is built upon the rivers 
of Arar and Rhodanus, Paris upon the Sequana, the City 
of Vicenza in Italy upon the Bacchilio, and Verona upon 
the Athesis. But the Cities of the other parts of Germany 
are not built thus, though they stand by goodly rivers ; 
as Heidelberg by the Neccar, Mentz & Colen by the 
Rhene, Nimmighen by the Wahahs, Confluence by the 
Mosella and Rhene &c. every one of them standing wholy 
upon one banke. But to returne againe to the Rhene by 
this Cltie of Basil, these two Cities, the greater and the 
lesser Basil are united and conjoyned together by a 

jt menit woodden bridge made over the river, which bridge is a 

oruigt. ygi^ [j^gg ^^(j meane thing, being corapacted together of 

many rough plankes and uneven peeces of timber that 
hang something loose, so that a stranger being un- 
acquainted with the way will be afraid to ride over it. 
Yet by reason that it is of a convenient breadth, both 
horses and carts do passe securely too and fro that way. 

[p. 419,] I wondred to see so base a bridge belonging to so faire a 
Citie. But a learned Gentleman of the University yeelded 

A gpod reaim a good reason to me for the same. For he tolde me that 

fir lit lame. ^jjg Citizens are afi-aid of the Duke of Savoies assauJtJng 

of them, who if he should suddenly invade them, the lesscr 



Jiyr 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Citie in the plaine he may perhaps take by force of armes, 
but they will prevent him from comming to the greater 
Citie on the hils by taking up the bridge, which they can 
doe in a moment, by reason that the boords do so loosely h 

hang together ; wheras if it were a strong bridge, they H 

could not dissolve it with so great exp>edition. I will H 

speake something aiso of the abovenamed Rivers Byrsa 
and Wiesa. These are much inferiour to the Rhene in 
greatnesse, but very commodious to the Citie. For the 
Byrsa doth cary pretie boats wherein are brought many "^^ *'"'■ 
" eecessanes to the Citie, as much timber that serveth for ^y""- 
he building of their houses, and wood for fuell to make 
fire in their chimneies. This river springeth out of the 
iamous mountaine Jura, mentioned by CtEsar that divideth 
the Helvetians ftom the Sequani, distant about one daies 
journey from the city. The place where it rlseth being 
inhabited by French men, and passing well wooded, which 
is the reason that the river doth communicate such store 
of Wood to the Citie. The other river Wiesa springeth Tie River 
out of a contrary place, out of the blacke wood which is *''"<'■ 
caUed in Latine nigra Sylva, being a part of that famous 
wood Hercinia mentioned by Ciesar. This river im- 
parteth the same commodities to the Citie that the Byrsa 
doth and one more. For it yeeldeth great store of fish, 
especially trouts. As for the fountaines or publicke con- 
duits of the Citie before mentioned, they are exceeding 
delectable & pleasant to behold. For whereas there are 
many market places in the citie, these conduits are erected 
in every several market place, which doe continually spout 
out water most pleasantly, as those of the citie of Brixia in 
Lombardie which I have before spoken of, but these are 
both fkirer & pleasanter then the Brixian conduits ; a [p. +10.] 
commodity that ministreth no small ornanient to the citie. 
For they are in number many, and very curiously built. 
Each of these two cities is walled about with very ancient "^^ antieat 
and faire walles of a convenient hight, adorned with battle- 
in ments that doe make a beautifijU shew, especially those on 
■■■itfae North side of the greater Basil, being built upon the 

L 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

very brinke of the banke of the Rhene. In the wals of 
both Cities are seven gates, five in the greater Citie, and 
two in the lesser. Upon the outward wal of the gatehouse 
of one of these foresaid gates, even the same gate where 
I entred the greater Citie after I had passed tfae foresaid 
bridge, I saw the picture of an exceedin^ huge Gigantean 
Switzer, advanceci on horse-backe on me nght hand of 
the gate. He is painted in his armour like a martiail 
Captaine with his banner displaied in his hand, wherein 
is represented a stafFe which is the armes of Basil. He is 

AgMutSwlss, pourtraied something lesse then those monstrous kinde of 

Giants that are written of in ancient histories, yet much 
greater (in mjr opinion) then the greatest man tlmt is now 
to be found in the whole world. It is reported by the 
Citizens that there was heretofore a certaine Switzer of a 
bignesse correspondent to this picture. But I could finde 
no man that could tell me the true historicail narration 
of the matter, though I was very inquisitive of many. 
The streets of the Citie are very iaire, and neatly kept : the 
private buildings beautifull, many of them being of a 
goodly height, foure stories high, and for the most part 
buift with timber. 

I was at their Councell or Senate house, which is likc to 
be a very sumptuous building when it is once finished. 
For it was not throughly ended when I was there. Here 
I saw the statue of Munatius Plancus of whom I have 
before written. 

The Churches of the citie are in number eight, whereof 
foure are cailed Parish Churches, and the other foure 

TheCatkidral Deacons Churches. The Cathedrall Church is dedicated 

to our Lady, and standeth in the greater City. A building 

[p. 421.] of singular magnificence and beauty, the sight whereof 

and that passing variety of worthy monuments in the same 
gave me such true content, that I must needs say I preferre 
it before the fairest Church I saw in Germany, though the 
Cathedral Churches of Strasbourg, Spires, Wormes, 
Mentz, and Colen be greater ; yet certainly for curiosity 
of architecture and exceeding decent keeping, the best of 

156 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

these is inferiour to this: only I except a part of the 
Church of Strasbourg, namelv the tower, which I will 
hereafter describe; for I attribute so much to the same, 
that I give the superiority unto it not onlv of all those 
towers that I saw in mjr whole voyage, but also of all other 
towers whatsoever in Christendome, as I have heard verv 
learned and famous travellers report that have seene both 
that and the fairest towers of Europe. But to returne to 
this glorious and most elegant Church of Basil the very 
Queene of all the German Churches that I saw, according The qunn of 
as I have before intitled our Lady Church at Amiens of ^f^^ 
the French Churches; truly I extoll it so highly that I 
esteeme it the most beautifull Protestant Churoi that ever 
I saw, saving our two in London of Paules and West- 
minster, which doe very little excell this in beauty (though 
something in greatnesse) if any thing at all. The body 
of it is garnished with two rowes of goodly pillars, sixe 
in a side. Also it is beautified with a very faire paire of 
Organs that are decked with passing curious wainscot 
worke, and a very sumptuous Pulpit adomed with a most 
excellent peece of workemanship of wainscot also. Like- 
wise at tne West end of the body there are two very 
stately rowes of seates made of wainscot with very exquis- 
ite workemanship, and most artificiall devices in the same. 
Over the which are raised three curious borders, in the 
middle whereof which is advanced to a very convenient 
heigth, this impresse or inscription is written in golden InscrifHm 
letters upon a blacke ground. wertkistau. 

D. S. (p. 422.] 

In Honorem 
Summi Basiliensis 

Magistratus 
Verae religionis assertoris, 
Juris justitiaeque defensoris, 

quo ipsam loco 
In Dei conspectu gratabunda 

suspicit Ecclesia, 

i$7 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Eundem ipsi pia devotaque 

observantii, 
Summiss^ consecrare 
volvit. 

kunA trimly Truly I observed every thing in the body of this Church 

P^* disposed in such a comely order, and so trimly kept, that 

it did even tickle my soide with spirituall joy to behold 

the same, and so I thinke it will every zealous and godly 

Protestant, in so much that I did even congratulate and 

applaude the religious industry of the Basihans. And I 

am perswaded that one godly prayer pronounced in this 

Church by a penitent and contrite-hearted Christian in 

the holy Congregation of the citizens, to the omnipotent 

Jehovah through the only mediation of his sonne Jesus 

Christ, is of more efiicacy, and doth sooner penetrate into 

the eares of the Lord, then a centurie yea a whole myriad 

of Ave Maries mumbled out upon beads in that super- 

stitious manner as I have often seene at the glittering 

Altars of the Popish Churches. The Quire is very 

decently graced with many faire pillars, and the frontispice 

thereof marvailously adorned with gilt scutchins and armes 

of divers royal and Princely Potentates. On the left hand 

of the body of the Chwch as you enter into the Quire, I 

mb of saw the Sepulcher of that thrise-famous Erasmus Rotero- 

wwiw. damus that Phoenix of Christendome, and well deserving 

man of the common-weale of learning, who was so 

. 423.] delighted with the noble City of Basil, that he studied 

here many yeares together, being a great benefactor to the 

City as I wil hereafter mention, and at last finished his life 

in the same. His body lieth interred under a flat stone, 

neare to the which is erected a beautifuU pillar of red 

marble about three yardes high (according to my estima- 

tion) two foot thicke, and an ell broad, at the toppe 

whereof the eflSgies of his face is expressed, with this 

word Terminus (by which impresse I thinke is meant that 

death is the end of all things) written under it in golden 

letters: and imder the same this epitaph cut in golden 

letters also. 

158 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Christo Servatori S. EpUapkof 

Des. Erasmo Roterodamo Eramm. 

viro omnibus modis Maximo, cujus 
incomparabilem in omni discipUnarum 
genere eruditionem pari conjunctam 
prudenti^ posteri & admirabuntur) et 
prsedicabunt : Bonifacius Amerbach- 
lus, Hier. Frobenius, Nic. Episcopius 
hsredes, & nimcupati suprems suas 
volimtatis vindices, Patrono optimo, 
non memoris (quam immortalem sibi 
editis lucubrationibus comparavit, iis 
tantisper dum orbis terrarum stabit, 
supernituro, ac eruditis ubique gen- 
tium colloquuturo) sed corporis 
mortalis, quo reconditum sit, ergd, 
hoc saxum posuere. Mortuus est 
IIII. Id. Jul. Jam septuagenarius. 
An. ^ Cnristo nato 
M.D.xxxvi. 

In the North side of the Quire I observed the monu- [p. 424.] 
ment of the Empresse Anna, upon the which her image 
is made at length with her young sonne Charles hard by 
her within an yron grate, and in the wall adjoyning I read 
this epitaph. 

D. O. M. S. Epiu^hoftke 

Annse Augustac Empress 

Burchardi Comitis Hoven- ^***' 

burgensis filiae, Rodolphi 
I. fmperatoris Augusti, Comitis 
Habspurgensis, 8«:. Conjugi, & 
foBCundae parenti Austriae Prin- 
cipum, Sereniss. Alberti. i. Imper. matri, 
unk cum Carolo *filioIo, Anno 

*Manster saith in the life of Rodolphus HabspurgensiSy that shee 
had another sonne buried with her, namely Hartmannus that was 
drowned in the river Rhene. 

159 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

1289. 19. Martii hk sepultae. 
S. P. Q. Basiliensis, quum sacram 
hanc s^em nitori suo pristino 
restituendam curaret, hono- 
ris ergo, circitfer 316. post exequias Annos, 
H. M. L. P. 



The clmurs, At the East end of the Church are two faire Cloisters, 

wherein I observed a little common-weale of worthy 
monuments, whereof some are auncient and some new. 
Certainly I never saw so many epitaphs together in one 
Church in all my life. For most of those that have beene 
erected of late yeares, being inserted into the walles of the 
Cloyster round about, are beautified both with elegant 
epitaphs, and with prety little turned pillars of marble, 
or other faire kinde of stones, garnished with gilt scutchins, 
armes, and such like curious workes. In one of these 
Cloysters I saw these three epitaphs together, side by side, 
in one and the selfe same row, written in certaine con- 
venient stones upon the wall, and under the same as many 
severall flat tomb-stones, under which the bodies of those 
famous men are interred that are nominated in the same 
epitaphs : The first of them was this. 



Tkefirst 
epitaph in ihe 
chnsters. 

[P- 4*S-] 



Dum Jacobum Meierum 
hujus indytae urbis 
Consulem prudentis- 
simum, consultissimum- 
que, pietatis sanae 
cultorem, ac promo- 
torem primarium, 
omnis honestatis, 
quod in ipso fuit 
instauratorem dili- 
gentissimum, lapis 
subjectus contegit. 
Anno Salutis M. D. X X X I I. F. F. 



160 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

The second is this. 

D. lo. Oecolampadius Tke siMd 

professione Theolo- ^^^ ' 

gus, trium linguarum 

peritissimus, author 

Evangelicae doctri- 

nse in hac urbe pri- 

mus, & templi hujus 

verus Epus. Ut doc- 

trin^ sic vitse sanc- 

timoniH poUentissi- 

mus, sub breve saxum 

hoc reconditus jacet.* 

The third this. 

Domino Simoni GrynaBO TkeMrd 

ahnae hujus Academiae ^ ^^ * 

rectori, & laude, & 

memorii sempiterna 

ob linguarum Latinse 

Gracae & Hebraicae 

peritiam, omnisque 

phin« ad miraculum us- 

que cognitionem, ob 

Theolofifiae verae sci- r^ ^^^fi 

cntiam^& usum digno, ^ ^^'^ 

monumentmn hoc dicatum est. 

That which is omitted about the yeare of his death, I 
will add my selfe. He dyed Anno 1539. In one part of 
the other Cloyster I saw these two epitaphs something 
neare together, the one of that fkmous man Pantaleon 
written in golden letters in a faire stone, inserted into the 
wall directiy over his tombe. 

* Here he hath not expressed the yeare of his death, which was 1531. 
thortl/ after Zuinglios was slaine in Switzerland. 

caii. 161 L 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Efitapk to Trinnno 

PMtMim. Henrici Pantaleonis 

Basil. Philos. et Medici Epita. 
Disce tuam sortem quiomque hsec pelligis ; ista 

exuviae recubant Pantaleonis humo. 
Scin cujus, quem nec sacrse latuere Camcense, 

qui potis in numeriun cosere dulce melos. 
Clinicus, & rerum naturse consaus omnis, 

doctus & in fastos didere gesta patrum. 
Testis erit sacris physicis operata juventus, 

regia qu^ Rhenus mcenia lambit aquis. 
Testis erit generosa armis quam vindice penna 

claravit scriptis Teutonis ora suis 
Testis honos vivax, amplissima jura palati 

queis auxit Comitem Maxmiliana manus. 
Longa aevi series, trieteris & hebdomas annum 

bis quina, adversis intemerata malis. 
Lustra novem physice, thalamus dena unus & idem 

vendicat, & sena bis quoque prole beat. 
Sic famae, sic naturae sat vixit, & nujus 

5)ert8esus vitae cessit in aetheream. 
xxii. M. viii. d. xxii. an. Ch. clo. lo. 
xcv. Martii iii. 

The other of that learned Civilian Franciscus Hoto- 
mannus, which was erected above his tombe also, and 
written in golden letters with a deaths-head, and an houre- 
glasse over it. 

[p. 427.] Trinuno S. 

Franciscus Hotomannus 
ex ant. & nob. 
Bfitspk to Hotomannorum iamil. apud Siles. 

^''^*^ German. pop. 

Lutetiae Par. natus, 
Pius integerque juris justitiaeque 

Antistes, 
Jus C. Rom. Scrip. illustr. 

163 



Hotman. 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Valent. Cavar. & Avarid Bitur. */^ * 

ann. mult. docuit: %^^ 

De 8um. reipub. consultus 
sap. respon. 
Legation. German. 
Sub Car. ix. Franc. Reg. 

prosper^ gest. 
Patriam ob civil. bell. 

spont. linqu. 
In Germ. ceu patr. alt. 

concess. 
Principib. ob scient. ac prob. 
acceptiss. 
Basileae Ra\iracorum 

pub. damno luctuque 
plac. fato funct. 
B. A. L X V. M. V. D. X X. 
G A. c I D. I D. XC. P. id. Feb. 

lo. F. amicique Basilese p. 
Againe under the same I read this written upon a flat 
stone that covereth his bones. 

Fran. Hotomanni 
L C. 
Mortales exuvias 
Tantisper asservandas, 

dum 
Christo jubente 

Immortales exurgant, [p. 428.] 

Amici 
Sub hoc saxo 
deposuere. 
Loco honoris ergd 
Ab aedis curatonb. 
liberal. concesso. 
vix. an. bciii. Men. v. d. xx. 
ob. prid. id Febr. 
ann. 
c I 3. \ 0. X C. 

163 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Bfitapklo 
Frams 



Epitaph to 
Ccflius 
Secutulus 
Curio, 

[P- 4*9-] 



Againe upon the same stone these verses are written. 

Gallia progenuit, servat Bosilea sepultum, 

Interitus expers nomen ubiqiie viget. 
Hunc pietas tumulum, tumuliun himc Astrea tuentur, 

Astrea cultorem sutun, 
Cultoremque sutun pietas post fata tuetur 

Adversa iata huic seculo. 
£t si desertas gemebimda voce queruntur 

Cultore privatas suo: 
Quin reditum ad superos infestH voce minantur, 

Ni talis exemplum viri 
Hujus tu inspector tumuli, pietate sequaris, 

Ni nos sequamur posteri. 
Hoc ipse h tmnulo clamat post fata superstes, 

Hoc ips^ mandat posthiunis. 

In another part of the same Cloyster I saw these three 
epitaphs together written in golden letters in the wall, 
with armes and scutchins over them, directly over the 
bodies of the persons themselves. 

The first of that famous Ccelius Secundus Curio, of 
whom I have before spoken in my description of Turin. 

Hospes have, & disce 
Non Coelius heic, 
Sed Ccelii <rw/jLa, imo oTJ/jLa 
Spiritum Christus habet. 
Caetera nomen 
verae pietatis, 
humanitatis, 
singularis eruditionis, 

prudentiae, 
insignisque constantiae, 
quum a-Sifia in* 
tunc verh erit 

* The Word which is herc wanting was Hebrcw, which (I confesse) 
I omitted, by reason that I am ignorant of the Language. 

164 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Coelius Secundus Curio. 

hospes si dididsti, 
vale 
Reliquit aet. su. an. Ixvii. 

Sal. cb. Id. Lxix. 
A. D. vui. K. L. D. C. B. 

The second of one of his sonnes. 

Leoni Epitaph to Hs 

Curioni Ccelii S. C. F. '**• 

Religionis purioris causi 

cum parentib. exuli. 

nobili, integro, 

sincero 

Peregrinationibus, 

Captivit. laboribus 

attrito. 

An. Ch. M. D. C. I. die Octo. vi. 

seta. suse. an. bcv. 

extincto 

Conjux & liberi 

amoris & pie- 

tatis ergd 

H. M. P. 

The third. 

Ccelius Secundus Curio Augus- Tketkird 

tino filio dulciss. sanc- epitapk. 

tissque polyhistori ac fa- 

cundo Basil. Scholse Rhe- [p. 430.] 

tori. cujus corpus helc cum 
III. sororib. lectiss. jacet, 
spiritus cum Christo : no- 
men immortal. lib. scriptis 
vivit in terris. socio & 
hcerede studiorum or- 
batus, d\un reviviscit po. 

165 



CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

vixit ann. xxiix. 

obiit an. Do. clo. lo. Ixvii. 

die xxiiii. 

Oct. 

Hujus ad exemplum juvenes florentibus annis 

vivcre rith Deo discite, riti mori. 

Many notable Many other notable epitaphes I saw there, which the 
epitaph. shortnesse of my aboade in Basil and the urgent occasions 

of calling me away therehence would not permit me to 
write out, as of Hierom Frobenius, and Michael Isingrius, 
two femous printers of the citie, &c. But what is now 
wanting, I hope shall be hereafter supplied ; for by Gods 
grace I will one day see Basil againe. 

But one most elegant epitaph I will adde, which is to be 
found in this citie, and very memorable both for the fame 
of the person upon whome it was made, and the worthi- 
nesse or the Author that composed it. There was given 
me by a learned man, a student of the Universitie (of 
whome I was inquisitive for the antiquities of the citie) 
this excellent epitaph which he told me is extant in a 
Church of the lesser Basil beyond the Rhene that belonged 
once to the Carthusian Monkes, made upon the death of 
that famous Civilian Ludovicus Pontanus a Roman borne, 
who died of the plague in this citie of Basil, anno 1439. 
at the time of the generall Councell celebrated here : the 
author hereof was jSEneas Sylvius who was afterward 
Bishop of Rome (as I have before written) by the name 
[p. 431-] of Pius Secundus, the learnedest Pope that hath beene 

these thousand yeares. The Epitaph is this. 

BpitapJkiy Si mille aut totidem rapuisses usque virorum 

-^«f^ Pestis, adhuc poteram parcere saeva tibi. 

SyMMs. Vivens quo nusquam fuerat prajstantior alter, 

Extinctum potiiis reddis iniqua lues. 
Quem fletis leges, quem fletis jura, sacrique 

Nunc Canones: obiit, quem coluistis, herus. 
Hic vos ornarat, vestras, ubicunque fuerunt, 
Solverat ambages : nunc sine voce jacet. 

x66 



1 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

Heu voces, heu verba viri divina, memorque 

Ingenium : quo vis nunc tua multa loco est? 
Heu Romane jaces, quo non Romanior ullus 

Ante fuit, quo nec (oTth futurus erit. 
Te pater, & charus retur mod6 vivere frater, 

Heu quantos gemitus ille vel ille dabit? 
Te Roma atque omnis plorabit Etruria, teque 

Tota petet lachrymis Itaia terra pjis. 
Te nunc Concilium, te nunc ululatibus unum 

Ipsa quoque extinctum queritat Ecclesia. , p^^^H 

Heu vanas hominum mentes, heu pectora cceca, ^H^^^I 

Cuique dies certum est fata dedisse suos. ^^^^^^ 

PEt nos, cum superi statuent, veniemus ad illos, 
Nemo pariim vixit, cui bona vita fiiit. 
I was in their theological schoole which is at the south Theohpeal 
corner of the church, unto the which you cannot passe but ''^'"'''/^'ii''- 
through the Quire. It is a very decent and comely place, 
but inferiour to our Divinity schoole of Oxford. At the 
upper end is a seate for the Divlnity reader to sitte in ; 
and all the middle from one end to the other is fiUed up 
with very convenient seates for the hearers, The walles 
are decked with Hebrew, Greeke, LaCine, and Dutch 
sentences out of the Scriptures, and with the testimonies 
of those famous men of our reformed religion that have 
been heretofore Readers in that place, as of Andreas 
Carolostadius. &c. 

In this schoole I heard Amandus Polanus a Polensdorf, [p. 432,] 
that femous Divine & learned Writer reade a divinity 
lecture, but his audience at that time was very small : I 
observed a certaine forme of teaching at this lecture which jf liivmiy 
I never noted in any place before that time. For he did ittture. 
often repeat every principall sentence of note, a matter 
very avaylable for the hearers memory : not used by any 
publike professour of Oxford. The like custome I have 
heard is observed by the professours of many other Dutch 
Universities, especially by those of Leyden in Holland. 
In this roome also it was my good fortune not only to sec, 
167 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

but also to converse with in familiar discoiirse (to my 

6'eat joy & comfort) that admirable ornament of this 
niversity Joannes Jacobus Grynaeus the sonne of the fore- 
^^^ said Simon Grynaeus whose Epitaph I have above written. 
fjMMs. ^ ^^ ^£ ^^^ speciall marke that he may be well called 

a second Oecolampadius, that is, a glittering lampe of 
Gods House. For he is a man famoused over most of 
the Westerne Universities of Christendome for his learned 
lucubrations and most solid workes of Divinity, which are 
divulged to the world to the great benefit of Christes 
Church. As the Ecclesiasticall history of Eusebius, Ruf- 
finus, Socrates, Theodoret he hath illustrated with a learned 
Chronographie. Also the workes of Ireneus Bishop of 
LyonSy with arg^uments and observations of divers reading. 
An epitome of the Bible containing the arguments of the 
bookes and chapters of the olde Testament. A short 
interpretation of the psahnes 133. iio. 19. Also he hath 
written a commentary upon the Prophets Ha^eus, 
Hababuc & Malachie : a brief Chronology of the £van- 

Hisbooks. gelicall history: A Sciojg^raphie of sacred Theologie 
according to the three formes of methode, synthesis, 
analysis, and definition. Unto the which he hath added 
threescore Theses contayning the principall heads of our 
religion. Likewise he hath written a synopsis of the 

[p. 433.] history of man. And two hundred several Theses dis- 
puted in this University. A consolatory booke in the 
time of the pestilence. An excellent treatise to the Count 
Palatine of Rhene de Ecclesiae Paling^enesia, which I have 
often read with great pleasure. AlT which workes have 
bene printed in tnis Citie. This worthy man continueth 
to this day a publike Divinitie reader of this University. 
And at that time when I was there did begin to interprete 
the Genealogie of Christ out of the first chapter of St 
Mathewes gospell, as he himselfe tolde me. Hee is at this 
time betwixt seventy & eighty veares of age. They 
esteeme him in Basil an Imitator of Erasmus his phrase as 
Polanus of Cicero. I found him very affable, and ftiU of 
learned discourse and singular variety of matter, and so 

x68 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 1 

iacil and plausible in his delivery, that me thinkes that 
notable verse of Homer in praise of Nestor may be very 
properly spoken of him, 

TOy Koi atro yXw<j-(n]i /ieXiTO^ yXvKMV ptev avo^ 

Which is thus incomparably well interpreted by Cicero : 
Cujus ex ore melle dulcior fiuebat onitio. He tooke great 
pleasure in discoursing of our English Universities, and 
of the learned men of England in former times, as of 
Veneralis Beda, (whom I have before mentioned in my 
notes of Paris) and Alcuinus the schoolemaister of Carolus 
Magnus. And also he highly commended Queene Eliza- 
beth and our present King James. 

I observed one thing in the outside of this Cathedrall 
Church (whereof I have before written) that I never noted 
in any other, which although the reader perhaps will 
esteeme but a meane thing and unworthy the mention, yet 
for the novelty of the matter I will speake of it : it is Exjuinu 
noihing else but the tyle. A matter of rare curiosity. ''^"^- 
For this Church is so exquisitely tyled, that it maketh a 
wondrous faire shew a farre ofF : the tyles being made of 
many colours, blew, yellow, and red, and wrought by way 
of checker worke. In a little pretty greene yard or court 
walled about adjoyning to this Church and neere to the [p- 434-] 
Rhene I noted the strangest Tree that ever I saw, being -^ "oiaile 
of the Ladnes called Tilia, of the Dutchmen Linda, which '^"- 
standeth in the middest of the court, and spreadeth his 
boughes and Ummes a great way forth in an equall com- 
passe, at the teast thirtie foote broad (in my opinion) every 
way. The boughes being supported with a great company 
of long poles to beare them up the more orderly. I heard 
there is such another tree in the Citie ; but I saw it not. 
The like I saw standing in the high way within a few miles 
of the Citie of Heidelberg, but it is much inferiour to this. 
In the outside of the West end of the Church there is 
erected a goodly Statue of Saint George on horse-back, 
thrusting his launce into the throate of the Dragon, 
Likcwise I observed at the West end of the Church a very 
.69 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

plaine yard, which I therefore mention because in times 
past they were wont to celebrate notable justes and torna- 
ments in this place about the beginning of Lent, upon 
that day which we commonly call Shrove-tuesday. 
Afamom Amongst the rest there was one famous meeting here 
^**^*^'* (as a certaine learned Gentleman of the University told 
mee, being also mentioned by Munster in his description 
of Basil) upon the yeare 1376. at what time one of the 
Leopolds Duke of Austria, exercised himselfe at the afore- 
said game, with many other great Peeres. This tomament 
is something memorable, because at that time there was 
raised such a tumult amongst the Citizens, that the Duke 
was constrained to flie over the Rhene to the lesser Basil 
with many of his Nobles, whereof some were taken 
prisoners, as Rodolph Earle of Habspurg, Rodolph 
Marquesse of Hochberg, &c. But at length the matter 
was pacified after those Citizens that were the ring-leaders 
of the sedition, were executed for their malapertnesse. 
^^ The Universitie is seated in the greater Citie, beeing 

Umventiy. f^^^ instituted by that learned Pope Pius secundus, who 
[p« 43S-J ^s first called ^neas Sylvius before his Papacie. It 
hapned that when he made his abode in this Citie, he was 
so exceedingly delighted with the situation thereof, that 
within a short space after, he made it a seminary of 
learning, endowing it with such priviledges and liberties 
as Bononia in Italie and other Universities did enjoy. 
His first grant he confirmed at Mantua in the yeare 1459. 
and the second yeare of his Popedome. The Colledges 
are but few, no more then two in number, beeing 
distinguished by the names of the higher and the lower 
colledge, both which I visited. The lower was built by 
Erasmus, which he hath inriched with maintenance. The 
higher hath no revenewes or very little to maintaine the 
same ; so that the greatest part of Students are tabled in 
the Citie at their own charge. 
A Greek In a certaine roome of Erasmus CoUedge I heard a very 
lecture. learned Greeke lecture read in one of Homers Iliads by 
Mr. Zuinggerus the publike professour of the Greeke 

170 



_ bacl 



I 



I 

I 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

tongue, who was the sotine of that iamous Theodorus 
Zuinggerus a great Philosopher of this University. 
Surely although the Academie be but small, yet it hath 
bred a great multitude of passing learned men within these 
threescore yeares of all principatl faculties, especially 
Divines, and many excellent Philosophers, For besides 
those famous men whose monuments and epitaphs I have 
before mentioned, many worthy professours of learning '"^"J aninky 
have spent their time in this noble University as in a most ^^^iJJ 
sure harbour and pleasant receptacle of all the Muses. As 
Sebastian Munster, Conradus Lycosthenes, Henricus 
Glareanus, Hieronymus Gemussus, Joannes Amer- 
bachius, and his three learned sonnes, Bonifecius, Bruno, 
ind Basilius, whereof the two later have most learnedly 
llustrated the workes of Saint Hierome ; Gulielmus 
' 'Gratarolus whome I have before mentioned in my 
description of Bergomo ; Sebastianus Brandus, Theodorus 
Zuingerus, and many other excellent men, whose memory [p. 436.] 
will ever live in their learned workes. 

Amongst other calamities that this Citie hath in former ^<"^' 'f^* 
times sustained, as the sacking of it by barbarous Attila, ^ ^i"'"- 
King of the Hunnes, and the burning of it afterward by 
the Hungarians in the time of Lewes the fourth Emperour 
of that name, there happened two notable earthquakes (as 
I both heard of a learned man in the Citie, & alsa read 
in Munsters Cosmographie) that did not a little ruinate 
the same. Whereof the first was in the yeare 1346. ^"lablt 
The second 1356. at what time most of the principall ^"'''^i'^*' 
buildings of the Citie, both sacred and civill were utterly 
shaken, and rooted out of their foundations, the Citizens 
by good fortune escaping with their lives by flight out 
of the Citie, yet one hundred of them were slaine with the 
fell of the houses. Moreover the ruine of the buildings 
caused so great a fire by the collision of them together, as 
lasted many dayes, and destroyed both man and beast. 
A spectacle exceeding tragical. For the repayring of 
^^^ which ruines many came to Basil from some of the Cities 
^^Kof Alsatia and Helvetia, and within a short space well 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



CouncUof 
Basle. 

[P- 437-] 



repeopled the Citie, and beautified it with many stately 
houses that they raised up from the foundations. This 
Citie was heretofore Episcopal, the first Bishop thereof 
being one Walanus in the yeare 704. who lived in the 
time of Pipin King of France, the father of Carolus 
Magnus. And it was for the space of many yeares adomed 
with the residence of a Bishop whose Palace was in the 
lesser Basil till the yeare 1365. one Joannes de Wan an 
Italian, being the last Bishop; a man of that turbulent 
spirit as utterly overthrew the Bishopricke by his insolent 
behaviour. 

Besides many other notable things that have much 
enobled this stately Citie, these two are esteemed not the 
least, namely that famous *Councell that was celebrated 
and kept here anno 1431. under the Emperour Sigis- 
mundus and the Popes Eugenius the fourth, & Felix 
the fifth: and that notable art of printing, which hath 
these many yeares much fiourished in this Citie, not so 
much for the excellency of the print (which indeed is no 
better here then in other Cities) as for the singular 
industrie and great labours of the Printers of the Citie 
(that have bene as leamed men as most of that faculty 
in Christendome) namely Joannes Operinus, the two 
Frobenii, John the father, and Hierome the sonne, Michael 
Isingrius, Sebastian Henricpeter, Joannes Hervagius, 
Nicolaus Episcopius, Joannes Wolphius, firc. Which 
worthy men have taken as great pames to purge many 
ancient and learned authors both sacred and prophane from 
those manifold faults and errours which bv the injury of 
the times were crept into them, as Hercules did in times 
past in the cleansing of Augeas stable. Of those battels 
that have beene waged neere to this Citie, I finde two above 
Tf9owtabU the rest most memorable: whereof the one was fought 
by Julius Caesar against Ariovistus King of the Germanes, 
even the last battel that was waged with him, at a place 
called St. Apollinaris, which was one Dutch mile j&om 

* At thb Councell it was decreed that the authority of a generall 
Conncell was greater then of the Pope. 

173 



Great 
printirs. 



battles. 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 



Basil, standing in the same side of the Rhene which was 
heretofore accounted part of France : The other was waged 
neere to the Citie upon the seventh of September in the 
yeare 1444. betwixt the Armeniaci (so called from a 
certaine Earledome of Aquitanie, the Earle whereof was 
a great Commander in that Armie) under the conduct of 
Ludovicus Dolphin of Fance, who was afterward the 
eleventh King of that name ; and the Helvetians. Which 
battell is much the more memorable by reason of the 
unequall number of the fighters. For three thousand of 
the Helvetians conquered twenty thousand of the French 
men. But so that all the Helvetians lost their lives in 
fight, in that manner as we reade the valiant Spartans did 
at the skirmish of Thermopylse in Greece, when three 
hundred of them being conducted by their valiant Captaine [p, 438,] 
Leonidas, opposing themselvcs with a few othcr Grccians 
against the huge armie of the Perslans, Fmhfim: of 

The men ot this Citie weare great codpieces and ruffe ,^, ciiy. 
bandes as the Tigurines do. Also they weare a strange 
kind of hat, wherein they differ from all other Switzers 
that I saw in Helvetia. It is made in the forme of a cap, 
very long crowned, whereof some are made of felt, and 
some of a kinde of stuffe not unlike to shagge in outward 
view. It hath no brimmes at all, but a high fiappe turned 
up behind, which reacheth almost to the toppe of the hat, 
being lesser and lesser towards the toppe. This fashion 
is so common in the Citie, that not onely all the men 
generaUy doe weare it both Citizens and Academicks {in 
so much that Amandus Pollanus wore the same in the 
Divinity schoole) but also the women whatsoever, both 
yong and old. Moreover their women, cspecially maides 
doe weare two such plaited rowles of haire over their 
shoulders whereln are twisted ribbons of divcrs colours at 
the endes, as the women of Zurich. I observcd many 
women of this Cltie to be as beautlfull and faire as any I 
saw in all my travels : but I wiU not attribute so much to 
them as to compare them with our English women, whomc 
I justly preferre, and that without any partialitie of affcc- 



1 




CORYArS CRUDITIES 

tion, before any women that I saw in my travek, for an 
elegant and most attractive natural beautie. 

ytitoftke xhe diet in their principall Innes is passing good, 

^^* especially at their Ordinaries. For the variety of meate 
and that of the better sort, it is so great that I have not 
obser\'ed the like in any place in my whole joumey saving 
at Zurich. But indeed it is something deare, no lesse then 
eifi^ht battes a meale, which are twenty pence of our money. 
They use to sitte lonc^ at supper, even an houre and a 
halfe at the least, or aimost two houres. The first noble 

P* 439*] carowsinc; that I saw in Germany was at mine Inne in Basil. 
Where I saw the Germanes drink helter-skdter vcry 
sociablvy exempting my selfe from their liquid impositions 
as well as I could. It is their custome whensoever they 
drink to another, to see their glasse filled up incontinent, 
(for therein they most commonly drinke) and then they 
deliver it into the hand of him to whome they drinke, 

Ij^*^ esteeming him a very curteous man that doth pledge the 
whole, according to the old verse: 

Germanus mihi fi-ater eris si pocula siccas. 

But on the contrary side^ they deeme that man for a very 
rusticall and unsociable peasant, utterly unworthy of their 
company, that will not with reciprocal turnes mutually 
retaliate a health. And they verifie the olde speech 
n TriQi fi &7ridiy that is, eyther drinke or be gon. For 
though they wiU not offer any villanie or injury unto him 
that refuseth to pledge him the whole, (which I have often 
seene in England to my great griefe) yet they will so little 
regard him, that they will scarce vouchsafe to converse 
with him. Truly I have heard Germany much dispraised 
for drunkennesse before I saw it ; but that vice reigneth 
no more there (that I could perceive) then in other coun- 
tries. For I saw no man drunke in any place of Germany, 
though I was in many goodly Cities, and in much notable 
company. I would God the imputation of that vice could 
not be almost as truly cast upon mine owne nation as upon 
Germany. Besides I observed that they impose not such 

«74 



OBSERVATIONS OF BASLE 

an inevitable necessity of drinking a. whole health, especi- 
ally those of the greater size, as many of our English 
gallants doe, a custome (in my opinion) most barbarous, 
and fitter to bee used amongst the rude Scythians and 
Gothes then civill Christians : yet so frequently practised 
in England, that I have often most heartily wished Jt were 
clean abolished out of our land.as being no small blemishto 
so renowned and well governed a Kingdome as England is. 

It was my chance to heare very dismall and unhappy ^"^^ , 
newes in this city of my most learned and worthy countri- "* ' 
man Mr. Hugh Broughton. For there was dispersed a ^^' ** '-' 
fame for a little time about the University that he had 
utterly abandoned his religion, and inserted himselfe into 
the Jesuitical femily at Mentz, But afterward I under- 
stood that it was a very felse and malicious tale. For when 
I came to Mentz I heard of alt the particulars by a certaine 
English Priest living amongst the Jesuites, who told me 
that there hapned a certaine unlucky occasion of acquaint- 
ance betwixt Nicholas Serrarius the Coryphjeus of the 
Jesuites of that City and Mr. Broughton, which ministred 
the original matter of that scandalous rumour in many 
German Cities : but that he continued as vehement an 
adversary against the Papisticall religion as ever he was. 
Thus at length I end my discourse of this renowned City 
and University of Basil with the remembrance of my 
famous countriman Mr. Broughton, who for his exquisite 
skiU in the sacred languages of the Hebrew, Chaldean, 
Syrian, and Greeke hath purchased himselfe a great hsne 
in some of the worthyest Cities and Universities of Ger- 
many ; the place of his aboade being the noble Citie of 
Amsterdam in HoIIand, when I was in the Netherlands. 
Thus much of Easil. 

IMade my aboade in Basil all Tuesday after nine of the TravtlHng 
clocke in the morning, all Wednesday being the one ^" 
and thirtieth and last of August, and departed therehence 
in a barke secundo cursu upon the river Rhene betwixt 
five and sixe of the clocke tn the morning the first day of 



H 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

September being Thursday, and came to the Citie of 
Strasboiirgy which is foxire score English miles beyond it, 
about eleven of the clocke the next moming being Friday, 
and the second day of September. By the way I passed 
by two Cities, both seated on the right hand of the Rhene, 
whereof the one is called Neobourg, the other Brisac 
p. 441.] Both these are Papistical. The Thuiiday night it was my 
chaunce to lie about twenty miles on this side Strasbourg 
in my boate sub dio upon a wadde of straw, having fbr 
my coverled the cold open aire which did not a little punish 
me : yet I comforted my selfe with the recordation of the 
old verse, 

Dulcia non meruit qui non gustavit amara, 

that I did not deserve the sweet junkats of my little 
experience without some bitter pilles and hard brunts of 
adverse fortune. 

But before I come to the description of Strasbourg I 
will speake something of the Rhene, because at Basil where 
I first was imbarqued upon the same, it extendeth it selfe 
^f^k^M ^ ^^ ^ greater bredth then I could see before. This noble 
*^' Rhene, being next to the Danubius the fairest river of all 
Germany, which it disterminateth from France, deriveth 
his original spring from a certaine Mountaine of the 
RheticaU Alpes cafled Adula but a little way distant ftom 
the Citie of Curia above mentioned, which yeeldeth two 
severall fountaines, wherehence rise two rivers that meete 
together in one about five English miles above the said 
Curia, whereof one is called the first Rhene, the other the 
second. Betwixt these two fountaines and the spring of 
the Rhodanus that I have above spoken of in my descrip- 
tion of Lyons, there is interjected no longer space then of 
three houres journey, the high Mountaine Godard (which 
is commonly esteemed the highest of all the Alpine Moim- 
taines) deviding them asunder. Virgil calleth this river 
bicornis: as 

*£xtremique hominum Morini Rhenusque bicomis, 

♦iEnei. 8. 
176 



OBSERVATIONS OF THE RHINE ■ 

because it hath in a manner hornes, and those in number 
rwo, whose names are Lecca and Wahalis. In which Branchi of 
respect other Poets also as well as he termed it bicornis, ''*< Rhint. 
By these hornes are meant certayne armes as it were or -^ 

secondary rivers derived out of the same. For indeede 
in Virgils time it had two cornua only, which about the [p. 442.; 
entrance of HoUand, heretofore called Batavia, doe dis- 
gorge themselves partly into the river Mosa, and partly 
into the westerne Ocean. But within a few yeares after 
Virgils death it beganne to be called tricornis by the addi- 
tion of a third river whose name is Isella. Which Drusus 
thc brother of the Emperour Tiberius, at what time he 
levied armes against the Germanes, conveighed out of the 
Rhene by the meanes of a large ditch that his Souldiers 
digged out of the maine land for the same purpose, to 
the end that he might object the same as an obex or a 
barre for repulsing the violent invasion of the BatavJans, 
which were the people of the country, against him. Julius 
Cssar caused the portraiture of this river (as Tranquillus 
writeth in his life) to be made in gold, and presented in 
his triumph of France, as being the only river that devided 
Germany and France, which he had with such great diffi- 
culty made subject to the Romans : the like whereof he 
did of the lamous river Rhodanus, as I have before written 
in my Observations of Lyons. One most memorable and 
admirable thing I will report of this river, which I have 
read in an eloquent Epistle of Angelus Politianus sent to 
his friend Jacobus, Cardinal of Pavie. A thing that he 
hath borrowed (as I conjecture) out of the Booke of 
Cornelius Tacitus de Germanorum moribus, which was 
this. The Rhene had in times past one more strange ^ itran^ 
property then any river in the whole world that I could f^P"''^- 
either heare or reade of in any history whatsoever sacred 
or prophane, that whensoever any infants were cast into 
his channell (a thing that hath sometimes hapned) if they 
were begotten out of lawfiill wedlocke, the river as a just 
revenger of the mothers polluted bedde would presently 
swallow it up in his swift streame ; but if he found them 
177 M 



1 

1 




i 




[P- 443-] 



The bounJi of 




[p- +44-] 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

to be begotten in the honest and chaste couple of mairiage, 
he would gently and quietly conveigh them upon the toppe 
of the water, and restore them into the trembling handes 
of the wofull mother, yeelding safety unto the silly babe 
as a most true testimony of the mothers Impolluted 
chastity. 

The end of my Observations of Switzerland. 

My Observations of sotne parts cf high Germanie. 
Eing I am now come into Germanie I wil 
speake something of the boundes of the 
country, and their names together with 
their etymologies, that are very elegant. 
Also I will make some short mention of 
Alsatia, the name of the territory wherein 
Strasbourg standeth, and so anon descend 
to the description of the City it selfe, Gcrmanie is the 
largest region of all Europe, being divided from France 
by the river Rhene, from Rhetia and Pannonia by the 
Danubius, from Sarmatia now called partly Polonia partly 
Prussia, likewise from Dacia (whereof the greatest part is 
now called Transylvania) by certaine mountaines. The 
Qther parts are bounded with the Ocean. This country 
had two names heretofore before it was called Gcrmany, 
viz. Teutonia and Alemannla. Teutonia some will have 
to be so called quasi Tuisconia from Tuisco the sonne of 
the Patriarch Noah by his wife Arezia, who after the 
general! inundation of the world, having all that vast 
country that lyeth betwixt the rivers Tanais and the 
Rhene, assigned unto him by his father for a Kingdome to 
reigne in, came into these westerne parts of the world 
shortly after the deluge, and made his residence in some 
place neare to the Rhene. Others derive it from one 
Teutanes (which derivation is the better in my opinion, 
and more answerable to the name of Teutonia) who was 
the Lord of this country after the death of King Tuisco. 
Likewise the name Alemannia hath foure etymologies. 
17S 



OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH GERMANY 

For some write that it taketh his denomination from Eijmnhgy sf 
Alemannus the surname of Hercules, who (as that ancient jlUmavma. 
Chaldasan authour Berosus writeth) did heretofore reigne 
in this country. Others say that it commeth from Mannus 
the sonne of the foresaid Tuisco. But the best and most 
elegant etymologie of all, is to derive if (as some learned 
doe) from two German wordes which doe altogether agree 
with our Engtish, even from AU man, as the people called 
Marcomanni (which are now those of Moravia) had their 
name from Marck, which signifieth the bound of a coun- 
try, and the word Man. So that they which deduce the 
name of Alemannia from All man (as Munster doth) give 
this reason for it, because the auncient Alemannes were 
very couragious and valiant men, yea they were AIl men : 
as when we in our English idiome doe commend a man 
for his valour, we sometimes say such a man is all courage, 
all spirit : so the Aleman quasi All man, he is all valour, 
every part of him is viril, manly, and couragious, no jot 
effeminate, which indeede was verified by their fortitude 
and manly cariage in their warres against the Romans. 
Though this etymologie be passing good and deserveth 
(in my opinion) to be most approved above all the rest, 
yet I perceive that Philip Melancthon, speaking according ^tl'^''"!"»' 
to the opinion of other writers, affirmeth that the Aleman "<*"'""'■ 
is so calJed quasi Allerleyman a Dutch word which signi- 
fieth a promiscuous multitude, which heretofore conjoyned 
themselves together to recover their iiberty, by reason 
of the tyrannicall insolencies of the Roman Captaines. 
Againe I observe in reading of histories the first mention 
or this word Aleman, in the historie of the Emperour 
Valerius Probus, who of the Franci and Alemanni slew 
foure hundred thousand, The third name Germania Germania. 
which is the moderne appellation of the country, hath as 
elegant an etymologie as Alemannia. For it is called 
Germania from the Latin word Germanus, which doth [p- +45-1 
sometimes signifie a mans naturall brother both by fether 
and mother, quasi ex eodem germlne natus, one that issueth 
from the same stocke, that is, one that springeth from one 
179 



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CORYArS CRUDrriES 

and the selfe same mothers belly. The reason of this 
etymologie is this : Because the auncient Germans did with 
such a brotherly affection share dangers and fortunes of 
warre, that those which remained at home by applying 
themselves to the affaires of husbandrie, maintayned the 
wives and children of them that were gone into the warres 
for the conunon safety of their country : and againe those 
that had beene a yeare abroad in warrare, returned home 
into their country to exercise tillage, & to nourish the 
families of those men that were pressed fbrth into the wars 
in their roome. Now though I doe in this place prefixe 
this discourse of the boundes and the aundent names of 
this country by way of an introduction to my ensviing 
description of the German cities, you must consider that 
this particular country on the farther banke of the Rhene 
where Basil, Strasbourg, Spira, Wormes, Mentz, &c. doe 
stand, was not heretofbre in the time of the aundent 
Romans, as Julius Cssar, Drusus, and other valiant 
Worthyes that conquered it, called Germanie (for al this 
long tract was devided from Germany by the river Rhene 
as r have before said about the beginning of this discourse) 
but in those times it was ever esteemed tor a part of Gallia, 
and so was reputed for the space of many hundred yeares 
after, till the time of the Emperour Charlemaine and his 
successors, and then it beganne to be called Germany as 
well as the other parts on the hither side or banke of the 
Rhene (which are indeed the true and andent Germanie) 
since which time it hath continually retained the same 
name to this day. Having now spoken of the baondes 
and names of Germany, I will briefly mention this country 
wherein Strasbourg standeth, and so at length after so long 
a preamble (which I hope will not be irksomc to a judicious 
[p. 446.] reader) relate the particulars of the City itselfe. The 
Jlsace. name of the country is Alsatia (as I have before written) 
but commonly called in Dutch Elsass. It is devided into 
two parts, the higher and the lower Alsatia: a terntory 
very populous, frequented with goodly Cities and townes 
(whereof these are the chiefest, Strasbourg, Rubeaquum 

180 



OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

commonly called Rufach, and Colmaria) inriched with Tkt ganitn 
precious mines of silver, and is accounted so fertile a plot "/Gtrmany 
o{ ground that some doe not doubt to call it the garden 
of Germany. Heretofore it was called the lesser France, 
and that for the space of five hundred yeares. Afterward 
it was converted to a Landgraviat, and for many yeares 
acknowiedged a Landgrave for the supreme Lord thereof, 
as the territorie of Hassia doth at this day, and as Thur- 
ingia did heretofore. 

Thus much of the Bounds and divers Namcs of Germanie, 
and of the territorie of Alsatia. 

My Observations of Argentina cr Argentoratum, 
commonly called Strasbourg the Metropolitan 
City of Alsatia. 

Slnce I came into England I found these verses following i 

in praise of Strasbourg and the famous tower of the | 

Cathedrall Church, in a certaine elegant booke that a 
Gentleman a kinde friend of mine and my neighbour in Georgt 
my country of Somersetshire, one Mr. George Sidenham Sideniam'. 
the sonne and heire of my right Worshipfull friend Sir "'"f '" 
John Sidenham, very lovingly communicated unto me, c^^^ 
which by reason of the elegancy thereof I have thought 
expedlent to prefixe before my description of this noble 
City, hoping that they will be very pleasing to the learned 
Reader. 

URbs antiqua jacet (primi colucre Triboces) [p- 447-] 

Argentoratum, ripis contermina RhenJ. 
Dives opum, & nulii veterum virtute secunda, 
Sive fidem spectes, & religionis honorem ; 
Sive forum, canosque Patres, sanctumque Senatum, 
Justitixque decus : seu limina culta Lycei, 
Insignesque viros : seu duro maenia saxo 
Condita, & armatas adversa in pra-"lia vires, 
Marmoreasque domos, atque ardua tecta domorum. 
H^ templum augustum, ccelataque turris in urbe 
Verticc prospiciens alto (mirabile dictu) 



I 



I 



CORYATS CRUDITEBS 



^UeMUw^i 



frmtirf 



[P. 448.] 



Surgit, & ezcelsum caput inter nubik condit. 
Tota toreumatibus, pictisque exdsa columiiiS) 
Tota patens lud, & kni perflabilis aura, 
£t cono insignis galeae, & testudine drcum 
Quadruplid septa, & nullo violabilis ictu. 
Prima solo posuit quondam fundamina duro 
Steinbachii natus de gente Ervinus, & onme 
Ad galeam duxit ^opus, & testudine sepsit. 
Tempore quo imperii gessit Rodolphus habenas 
Habspurgus, Comitum Germanus origine Cesar. 
Nunc illam multis servantque fbventque minores 
Impensis, magnoque locant in honore, suosque 
MaJOTes hac kude sequant. Nam fulmine tactam 
Soepiiis immensi repararunt sumptibus aeris. 
Jamque ade6 nuper, foribus qui maxima templi 
Stant adyta austrinis, soda testudine juncta, 
Excelso fabricam posuerunt pariete muri 
Intus ut exactas mortalibus indicet horas, 
£t Solis Lunacque vias, noctesque diesque, 
£t menses, fastosque in lon^iun digerat aevum. 
Mirum opus ingenii, mirandique arte paratum. 
Quale kboriferi nesdsset radere tomus 
Praxitelis, Cous nec depinxisset Apelles, 
Nec Polydetaeus duxisset in aere caminus. 
Quale nec ^tnaeis olim Telchines in antris, 
Nec rigidus Steropes, nec qui polit arma Tonanti 
Muldber aetema potuisset nngere massa. 
Quale nec hoc toto quisquam conspexit in orbe, 
Nec facili aspiciet, seu Gallica regna pererret, 
Seu totam Italiam lustret, seu Teutonis orbem 
Viribus ingenii superantem climata mxmdi 
Toties invisat, seu Persica rura peragret, 
Sive adeat Libyen atque ultima littora Thules. 

Strasburg. OTrasbourg standeth in the lower Alsatia, and is situate 
O in a very pleasant and delectable plaine about a quarter 
of an £nglish mile distant from the Rhene, yet well watered 

*A &alt bnt somethmg tolenble. 

182 




OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

with three other rivers, as the Kintzgus, the Illa, and the 
Bruschus, whereof the last runneth through a. part of the 
City ; a place of such passing fatnesse and fertility (as a 
certaine English Merchant told me called Robert Kingman 
an Herefordshire man borne, but then commorant in 
Strasbourg with his whole family when I was there) that 
for amenity of situation and exceeding plenty of all things 
that the hart of man can wish for, it doth &rre excell all the -^"^"y ^/'' 
other Cities of the same territorie, though some of them " ""' 
are very faire, as Rubeaquum, Selestadium, Colmaria &C. 
in so much that when I did throughly contemplate the 
sweet champaignes, meadowes, lakes, vineyards, and 
gardens about the same, I said to myseife that I might 
very justly call the circumjacent plaine about this City 
sumen Alsatife, that is, the most principall and (ruitfull 
place of all Alsatia, as Flavius Vopiscus an ancient historio- 
grapher did heretofore terme the fields of Rosea neare to 
the City of Bononia, sumen Itaiia;. This part of the 
country with some other bordering places therecf was once 
inhabited by a lcinde of people called *Triboces, before 
such time as it was called Alsatia, wherehence it was called 
Tribocum regio, So ancient is this City that it is thought 'fwj^''* 
it may contend with any German City whatsoever for ^'^' 
antiquity, saving those three that I have before mentioned, [p. 4.49.] 
nameiy Trevirs, Zurich, and Solodurum. Nay Munster 
doth not doubt to affirme (but spealcing after other men) 
that it was built at the same time those Cities were, so 
that as the City of Trevirs had her denomination from 
Trebeta the sonne of Ninus King of the Assyrians : so was 
this city tirst called Trebesburgum (as the same Munster 
reporteth) or Tyrasburgum from the very same founder. 
And afterward by the changing or addition of some letters 
it was called Strasburgum. Againe there are others that 
attribute the change of the name from Trebesburgum to 
Strasburgum (as the foresaid authorwriteth) to the tyrannie 
of Attila King of the Hunnes, who after he had demolished 
this City with many other noble cities of Germany, did 
* These are mentioned by Csur. 

■83 



I 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

StratbMrg ^ith such extreme furie deface the walles thereof , that he 

"^'^ opened a free way and passage for aU rru^ 

whatsoever promiscuously to enter the same; whicb 
accident gave occasion of the name Strasbourg, that is^ a 
City that yeeldeth a conmion way for all men to passe 
through: for Stroze in the high Dutch signifieth a way. 
Also the same Attila imposed an other name upon it, 
which it retained but a little while, viz Polyodopolis, which 
signifieth as much as the former name Strasbourg. For 
it is composed of three Greeke wordes, iroXiv which 
signifieth many, oio^ a way, And iroXif a City, that is, a 
City that a man may many wayes passe through. But thc 
name Argentina was imposed upon it fi-om the Latm word 
Argentum that signifieth silver, because when the City was 
subject to the Roman Empire, some Qusestor in the behalfe 
of the Senate of Rome made his residence and kept his 
Audit in this City to gather up all the rents and tnbutes 
due to the Romans in those parts, as being their gazo- 
phylacium, that is, a place where their checker-chamber 
was for the safe keeping of the Roman treasure, even as 
Lyons was heretofore appointed a checker City for the 

[p* 450-] Romans in the Province of France, where they had such 

another Officer assigned for the same piupose, I have 
before written in my Observations of that Citie. 

Notabk There are many goodly things in this renowned City 

^**^'' that doe much heautifie the same. As the loftinesse of 

the building, the multitude of their houses, the beauty 
and spaciousnesse of their streetes and the cleane keeping 
thereof, the great fi-equency of people, their strong walles 
made of hard stone, and adorned with stately battlements, 
divers towers, strong bulwarkes, fkire gates, mighty and 
deep trenches that are moated round about : and of those 
walles I observed two severall, being by a convenient space 
distant asunder, and each of them environed with a deepe 
ditch. Truly these double walles do much grace the Citie. 
But the principall things of all which do espedally illustrate 
and garnish Strasbourg are but two, which because they 
are the most matchlesse and incomparable fkbrickes of all 

184 



OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 




I 



Christendome, no Citie whatsoever in all Europe yeelding 
the like, I will something particularly discourse thereof. 
These are the Tower of the Cathedral Church and a Clocke 
within the Church. But before I speake of eyther of 
these I wil first make relation of their Church, because that 
is as it were the maine body, whereof these two are the 
principall and fayrest members, 

The Cathedrall Church is dedicated to our Lady, and Caihedral 
commonly called the Minster of Strasbourg. It was first ^""^"l 
founded about the yeare 508. by Clodoveus the first Chris- ""^ -^^ 
tian King of France, who was the founder of the principal ~ 

church oF Zurich also, which is called by the name of Saint 
Felix and Regula as I have before said. At the entrance 
of the Church are three dores made of massie brasse, and 
decked with many historical matters of the old and new 
Testament, which are very curiously expressed in pretty 
little images over the same dores. Within the Church, 
about the west end of the body thereof, there is a feire [p. 4S'0 
paire of Organs that were new mending when I was there, 
and like to be passing beautifiil! when they are throughly 
ended. For the Citize-s bestowed great charges in gilding 
of them. I observed one thing in this Church that I 
never saw in any Church before, even a Well in the South -^ ^^ '" '^ 
side of the body : the water whereof serveth for divers ' "" " 
uses, as to sprinkle the Church to the end to keepe it 
cleane, also for the baptizing of their Children, Stc. But 
this Church yeeldeth the superiority to the Cathedral 
church of Basil that I have before so much commended 
(saving only for the two foresaid matters which I will 
hereafter describe) for I could not perceive as much as one 
monument in the whole Church. They have a very 
religious exercise in this Church. For twise every day 
in the weeke here is a sermon preached by a learned Divine. 
The other Churches in the citie are sixe in number. 

Having now spoken of the Church, I will next mention 
those two memorable things that I have already named. 
But I will first begin with the Tower, in regard it is the Touieroffhe 
&irest of the two. Surely the same is by many degrees ''*"'■''*■ 
185 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

thc exquisitest peecc of work for a Towcr that ever I saw, 
as wel for the height, as for the rare curiosity of thc 
architccturc ; so that neithcr France, Italy, nor any City 
in Switzcrland or vast Gcrmany, nor of any Provincc or 
Island whatsoever within thc prccincts of the Christian 
world can shcw thc likc. It was begun in the ycarc 1277. 
at what time Rodolph Earle of Habspurg was Emper- 
our of Gcrmany, and was continually building for the 
space of eight and twcnty ycarcs togcther, till it was 

Thi onHuct. brought to fiill perfcction. Thc principall Architcct was 

onc Ervinus of Steinbach (as thc Author of those cxcellent 
Hcxametcr vcrses which I have prcfixed bcforc this 
dcscription of Strasbourg doth testifie) who contrived thc 
wholc modcll of the workc himselfc, and was thc chicfc 

[p. 451.] Mason in the performing of this pecrclessc Machinc, which 

hc raiscd from the vcry foundation to the toppe with 
square stoncs most artificially and rarely cut. The staires 
that leade up to the towcr, are madc windingly, bcing 
distinguishcd with fourc scvcrall dcgrees, and whcre thc 
thicknessc doth begin to be acuminatcd in a slcnder toppc, 
thcrc are eight dcgrecs more of thosc winding staires that 

Tii bali. risc above thc first foure. The ball which standcth upon 

the highcst toppe of all, seemeth to those that are bcncath 
upon thc ground, no greatcr thcn a bushcl, yct the dr- 
cumfcrcnce thcreof is so largc that it will wcll containc 
fivc or sixc sufficient and stout men upon thc same. The 
manifold imagcs, pinnaclcs, & most curious devices carvcd 
in stonc that are erccted round about the compasse of the 
Towcr, are things of such singular bcautie, that thcy arc 
vcry admirablc to bchold, and such as will by rcason of the 
rarc novclty of thc workc, drivc a stranger that is but a 

jiidtmlioftki novice into a vcry cxtasie of admiration. Also the altitudc 

^*^' of it is so strangc, that from the bottomc to the toppc it is 

saide to containc fivc hundrcd scventy foure Gcomctrical 
foote ; which much cxccedeth the famous Italian Towcrs, 
as that of Crcmona, which is cstccmed the lofticst of all 
Italy, Saint Markes of Vcnicc, which although it bc but 
two hundrcd cightie footc high, yct thc Vcnetians doc 

186 



OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

account it a Tower of notable heigth, as indeed it seemeth 
to all those that come to Venice by Sea: likewise the 
slender tower of Vicenza is very high : but they all are 
much inferiour to this unmatchable tower of Strasbourg, 
Wherefore to conclude this discourse of this tower, I 
attribute so much untc it, that I account it one of the 
principall wonders of Christendome. 

The second notable thing is a Clock (as I have already Tht dock. 
spoken) which standeth at the South side of the Church 
neere to the dore. A true figure or rcpresentation wherof, 
made according to the forme it selfe as it standeth at this 
day in the Church I have expressed in this place. Truly [?■ +S3-] 
it is a fabricke so cxtraordinarily rare and artificial that I 
am confidently perswaded it is the most exquisite piece of 
worke of that kinde in all Europe. I thinke I should not 
commit any great errour if I should say in all the world : 
the bolder I am to affirme it, because I have heard very 
famous travellers (such as have seene this Clocke and most 
of thc principall things of Christendome) report the same. 
It was begun to be built in the yeare 1571. in thc moneth 
of June by a most excelient Architect & Mathematician of "^^,. 
the Citic of Strasbourg, who was thcn alive when I was v^'i'''^ 
there. His namc is Conradus Dasypodius, once the 
ordinary profcssour of the Mathematicks in the Universitie 
of this Citie : A man that for his excellent art may very 
fitly be called the Archimedes of Strasbourg; and it was 
ended about three yeares after, even in the yeare 1574. in 
the same moneth of June about the feast of Saint John 
Baptist. This work contayneth by my estimation about 
fifty foote in heigth betwixt the bottome and the top ; it 
is compassed in with three severall rayles, to the end to 
exclude all persons that nonc may approach neere it to 
disfigure any part of it, whereof the two outmost arc made 
of timber, thc third of yron about three yardcs high. On 
the left hand of it there is a very ingenious and methodical 
observation for the knowing of the eclipses of the Sunne 
and Moone for thirty two yeares. At the toppe whereof 
is written in fair Roman letters 
187 



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CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

TYPI ECLEPSIUM 
SOLIS ET LUNiE 

Ad ANNOS XXXII. 

On the same hand ascendeth a very faire architectonical 
Machine made of wainscot with sresit curiosity, the sides 
being adorned with pretty littlc pfllers of marble of divers 
colours, in which are three degrees, whereof each con- 

'arvtnffw tayneth a faire Statue carved in wainscot: thc first the 
Statue of Urania one of the nine Muses, above which her 

p. 4S4.] name is written in golden letters, and by the sides thesc 
two words in the like golden lettcrs, Arithmetica & 
Geometria. The second the picture of a ccrtain King 
with a regall Scepter in his hand. But what King it is I 
know not. Above him is written Daniel 2. Cap. The 
last is the picture of Nicolaus Copernicus that rarc 
Astronomer, under whom this is written in fairc Roman 
letters : Nicolai Copcrnici vcra cffigics ex ipsius autographo 
depicta. At the very toppc of this rowc or scrics of 
workc is crected a most exccllent effigies of a Cocke which 
doth passing curiously represent the living shape of that 

f cmmterfnt vocal creaturc, and it crowcth at certaine hourcs, ycelding 

^k crmo. ^s shriU and loud a voice as a naturall Cocke, yca and such 
a kindc of sound (which makcth it the more admirablc) 
as counterfeyteth very neere the truc voyce of that bird. 
The houres are elcven of thc clocke in the moming, and 
three in the afternoonc. It was my chance to hcarc him 
at the third hourc in thc aftcrnoone, whereat I wondcrcd 
as much as I should have done if I had scene that famous 
wooden Pigeon of Architus Tarentinus the Philosophcr 
(so much cclebratcd by thc ancicnt Historians) flic in the 
ayrc. On the right hand also of this goodly architccture 
there is another row of building correspondent to the forc- 
said in hcigth, but difFcring rrom it in formc. For the 
principall part thereof consisteth of a paire of winding 
staires made of free stone, and most delicately composed. 
I could not pcrceive for what use they scrve, so that I 
conjccture they are made espccially for ornament. Againe 

i88 




OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

in the middle worke betwixt these two notable rowes that 
I have now described, is erected that incomparable fabrick ^" 
wherein the Clocke standeth. At the lower end whereof, '^""'P'"''' ' 
just about the middle, I observed the greatest astronomicall 
globe that ever I saw, which is supported with an artificial 
Pellican wounding his breast with his beake ; wherewith 
they typically represent Christ, who was wounded for the 
salvation and redemption of the worlde : and about the [p- +S5'] 
middest goeth a compasse of brasse which is sustayned 
with very elegant little turned pillers. Opposite unto 
which is a very large spheare beautified with many cunning 
conveighances and wittie inventions. Directly above fhat 
standeth another orbe which with a needle (this is a 
mathematicai terme signifying a certaine instrument abcut 
a clocke) pointeth at roure houres only that are figured at 
the foure corners thus : i. 2. 3. 4. each figure at a severall 
corner. At the sides of the orbe two Angels are repre- 
sented, whereof the one holdeth a mace in his hand, with 
which he striketh a brasen serpent every houre, and hard 
by the same standeth a deaths head finely resembled ; the 
other an houre glasse, which he moveth likewise hourely. 
Notable objects tending to mortification. Both the lower 
endes of this middle engine are very excellently graced 
with the portraiture of two huge Lyons carved in marble. 
This part oi the third fabricke wherein standeth the clocke, 
is illustrated with many notable sentences of the holy StHUnmon 
Scripture written in Latin, As, In principio creavit Deus """"^" 
ctelum et terram. Gene. 1 cap, Omnis caro fcenum, 
Pet. I. cap. I. Peccati stipendium mors est. Rom. 6. Dei 
donum vita arterna per Christum. Rom. 6. Ascendisti in 
altum, cepisti captivitatem. Psal. 68, Againe under the 
same are written these sentences in a lower degree : Ecce 
ego creo ccelos novos et terram novam. Esaise 65. Ex- 
pergiscimini et laetamini qui habitatis in pulvere. Esa. 26. 
Venite benedicti patris mei, possidete regnum vobis para- 
tum. Discedite a me maledicti in ignem Eternum. Math. 

Cthese sentences divers goodly armes are 
1 beautified with feyre Scutchins. Under the 
189 
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CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Exjtthiit same many curious pictures are drawne which present 

dtvicti. onely histories of the Bible. Again above thal orbe 

which I have already menticned, there is erected an other 
orbe or spheare wherein are figured the houres dis- 

[p. 456.] tinguishing Time, and a great company of mathematicall 
conceits which doe decipher some of the most abstruse & 
secret mysteries of the noble science of Astronomy. Like- 
wise an other Orbe standeth above this that I last spake 
of, within the which is expressed the figure of an halfe 
moone and many glittering starres set forth most gloriously 
in gold, and againe without are formed foure halfe moones 
and two fiill moones. Above the higher part of this Orbe 
this impresse is written : Quje est hac tam illustris, similis 
aurorx, pulchra ut Luna, pura ut Sol.'' At the sides of it 
beneath, this poesie is written, which is thus distributed: 
Dominus lux mea, on the left hand ; & this on the right 
hand, Quem tiraebo .-' Also above the same Orbe I 
Seven beUs ef observed an other very exquisite device, even seven little 

''""- pretty bels of brasse (as I conceived it) standing together 

in one ranke, and another little bell severally by it selfe 
above the rest. Within the same is contrived a certaine 
vacant or hoUow place wherein stand certaine artificial men 
so ingeniously made that I have not seene the like. These 
doe come forth at every quarter of an houre with a very 
delightfull and pleasant grace, holding small banners in 
their hands wherewith they strike these foresaid bels, every 
one in order alternis vicibus, and supply each other with a 
pretty diligence and decorum in this quarterly fijnction. 
Under the place where these two men doe strike those 
foresaid bells, these two sacred Emblemes are written : 
Ecclesia Christi exulans : And, Serpens antiquus Anti- 
christus. The highest toppe of this fabricke is framed 
with such surpassing curiositie that it yeeldeth a wonderfull 
ornament to the whole engine, having many excellent little 
portraitures and fine devices contrived therein of free stone, 
and garnished with borders and workes of singular art. 
Moreover the corners of this middle worke are decked 
with very beautifiill little pillers of ash-coloured marble. 



OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

whereof there stand two in a place, those above square, 
ihose beneath round. Thus have I something superfidalty 
described unto thee this fkmous Clocke of Strasbourg, 
being the Phornix of al the clocks of Christendom. For 
it doth as far excel aJ other Clocks that ever I saw before, 
as that of the Piazza of St Marks in Venice, which I have 
already mentioned, that of Middelborough in Zeland 
which I afterward saw, and atl others generally, as farre 
(I say) as a fayre yong Lady of the age of eighteen yeares 
that hath beene very elegantly broughf up in the trimming 
of her beauty, doth a homely and course trull of the 
Countrie, or a rich orient pearle a meane peece of amber. 

But I am sorry I have not made that particular relation 
thereof as that excellent fabricke doth deserve. For these 
few observations which I have written of it I gathered in 
little more than hatfe an houre, where I had no mans 
assistance to instruct me in the principall things that 1 
doubted off, determining then to make a full description 
of tbose particulars that I have expressed in the effigies 
thereof, had I not been barred of opportunity by the Sextin 
that at that time that I was in the middest of my curious 
survay of the same, was to shut up the Church dores. 
Howbeit I wish that that little which I have written of it 
(if it should happen to be read by any of the wealthy 
Citizens of London) may bee an encouragement to some 
wealthy Fraternity to erect the like in Paules Church, or 
some other notable Church of London for the better 
ornament of the Metropohtan Citie of our famous Island 
of great Britaine. A thing that I heartily wish I may one 
day see come to passe. Having therefore now ended this 
discourse of the Clocke (whereof I wish all English Gentle- 
raen that determine hereafter to sec Strasbourg, to take 
an exact view, as a matter most worthy of their curious 
obscrvation) I will returne to the relation of some other 
memorabte things of this Citie. 

Thc Armourie of Strasbourg, which it was not my good 

fortune to see, was reported unto me by a Gentleman of 

^^^^ie University to be a most worthy and beautiflilt place. 



[p- 457-] 

Tie Pheenlx 
o/all the 
ckch b/ 
ChrisleitJom. 



exampie. 



The armeury. 
[p. 45 8.] 



CORYAT-S CRUDTTIES 

furnished with such admirable variety of all manner of 
munition fit for warre-fare, that no Citie of all Germany 
can shew a fairer, saving only Dresden in Saxony where 
the Duke keepeth his Court. 

Thus much of the Clocke of Strasbourg. 

MAny of the buildings of Strasbourg are very faire 
and of a goodly heigth, foure stories high, especially 
their publique houses, as their Councell house, &c. But 
Housno/ the greater part of their houses are built with timbcr. 
Straibkjg. yhis thing I especially observed in the houses of Stras- 
bourg, which I noted else where in divers other cities of 
Germany both before I came thither and afterward, as in 
Basil, Mentz, Heidelberg, Spira, &c, that both the endes 
of their houses doe rise with battlements, and a great many 
of these houses of Strasbourg I saw built in that manner 
that not only the endes, but also the sides are gar- 
nished with battlements, a forme of building much 
affected by the Germans, and indeede it giveth no small 
grace and ornament to the house. Here also I observed 
one of the fairest shambles that I saw in all my travels. 
In the front of one of the citizens houses I saw fifteene 
of the first Roman Emperours very galantly painted. 
The There is in this City a University, but a very obscure 

Umptritty. ^^^ meane thing, nothing answerable to the majesty of so 
beautifijU a City. For it hath but one CoUedge, which I 
visited, being both for buiiding and maintenance one of 
the poorest Colledges that ever I saw, in so much that I 
cannot report any memorable thing of it, only it hath a 
prety Cloister belonging unto it. 
fFemen'i \ observed that some of the women of this City do use 

/"""""■ that feshion of plaiting their haire in two long locks hang- 
[p. 459-] ing downe over their shoulders, as before in Zurich and 
Basil. But it is not a quarter so much used here as in 
Basil. As for those strange kinde of caps that the women 
promiscuously with the men doe weare in Basil (as I have 
before said) none of them are used here, but most of the 
women, especially their Matrons doe weare very broad 




OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

ips made of doth, and furred, and many of them blacke 
velvet caps of as great a bredth. 

The battels that have been fought in former times neare Famoui 
Strasbourg have not a little famoused the citie. For here heiilet. 
fought the Emperour Julian the Apostata about the yeare 
360. with the Allemanne forces, at what time eight of the 
Allemanne Kings having united their power together, con- 
veighed their armies over the Rhene, and incountred the 
Emperour in this place, but with very unfortunate successe. 
For the Romans got the victory of the Allemannes, and 
tooke their corpulent King Chondomarius prisoner in bat- 
tell. Againe about the space of twenty yeares after that 
overthrow, the Emperor Gratian slew no lesse than thirty 
thousand Alemannes neare this City. Also the Emperour 
Philip that succeeded Henry the sixth, made warre against 
Strasbourg about the yeare 1 200. and at last surprized the 
same by torce of armes, 

It was first converted to Christianity in the time of the Straiburg 
Emperour Nero by the preaching of St. Maternus one of ^**'''"':"^" 
the Disciples of St. Peter the Apostle, who was assisted in 
that holy worke by his two companions Valerius and 
Eucharius. But not long after that it renounced the 
Christian religion, till the Bishops of the City of Mets 
reconciled them again unto Christ, in regard whereof the 
City continued a long time under the Diocesse of the 
Bishop of Mets. But at last Dagobert King of France 
created one Amandus a holy man of Aquitanie, Bishop of 
Strasbourg about the yeare 630. and instituted a goodly 
Bishoprick in the City, being then a member of the King- 
dome of France (as I have before said) which he endowed 
with most ample rents and revenewes. Ever since wHich [p. 460.] 
time the City hath had a Bishop of her owne, the seate of 
the present Bishop being the antient towne of Taberna 
commonly called Zabernia in Alsatia ; where the Bishops 
of Strasbourg have these many yeares made their residence. 

The governement of Strasbourg hath beene often 5,rLLr/" 
changed. For it was first subject to the Lords of the City 
of Trevirs; after that to the Roman Empire, to whom it 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

was tributarie for the space of five hundred yeares till the 
time of the inclination thereof : this City being the seate 
of residence for the Roman Lieutenant that was first con- 
stituted here by Julius Cssar himselfe, and commonly 
called Comes Argentoratensis, who resided here with a 
garrizon of Soul£ers for the defence of the City against 
the Germans, having the administration of al that tract of 
Alsatia under the people of Rome, yet his authority was 
subject to a superior Roman Gentleman that was resident 
in Mentz, who was commonly called Dux Moguntinus. 
Thirdly to the French men, especiaUy in the time of their 
King Dagobert. But in processe of time it came into 
the hands of the German Emperors, fi-om whose jurisdic- 
tion being afterward in a manner exempted, it doth at this 
day enjoy fuU Ubertie, a golden peace, and tranquiUtie of 
estate, being governed after a most exceUent aristocraticaU 
forme of common-weale, the particulars whereof I cannot 
as yet report unto thee, because I spent so Uttle time in 
the City, no more than one whole day, that I was not able 
to informe my selfe so fiiUy in their govemment as I wished 
to have done. 
Tki reRgm The reUgion of the City is the same that the reformed 
of Strasburg. Churches of Germanie doe embrace, which it hath evcr 
most constantly professed unto this day since the maine 
reformation begunne in Germanie shortly after Martin 
Luthers oppugning of the venaU indulgences in the 
Universitie of Wittemberg. The principall instaurators 
[p. 461.] of the EvangeUcal doctrine in the city were those vaUant 
champions of Jesus Christ Martin Bucer, Wolfangus Fab- 
ricius Capito, and Gaspar Hedio. Whereof the two last 
died in this City, and were here buried. But the present 
reUgion professed among them is not altogether conform- 
able unto ours in England. For they embrace the 
Lutheran doctrine, wherein they difFer something from 
our Church of England, as in the omni-presence of Christ, 
the consubstantiation, &c. 

Besides many other learned men of great note, five most 
worthy ornaments of learning hath this famous citie bred, 

194 



OBSERVATIONS OF STRASBURG 

with remembrance of whom I will end my description of 

Strasbourg. These five were Joannes Sturmius, Joannes Fhe nast 

Sleidanus, Jacobus Micyllus, Joannes Guinterius, and vimhy nma- 

Joannes Piscator: which have much ennobled this City ^'""y 

by their rare learning, The first partly by his honorable '^ ' * ' ■ 

Ambassages undertaken for the common-weale of Stras- I 

bourg to divers forraine States, having spent nine yeares ^ 

amongst them : and partly by his excellent works, being 

as sweet a Ciceronian as any University of Christendome 

did yeeld. The second by his manifold learned bookes, 

especially by that historie worthy of immortall praise 

digested into sixe and twenty bookes (commonly called 

his Commentaries) which he wrote concerning the state of 

religion in Germanie, and those memorable accidents that 

hapned in the Empire after the Coronation of Carolus 

Quintus : both these men died in Strasbourg, and doe 

there lie buryed. The third hath written many excellent 

workes of great learning, which have purchased him 

immortality of fame, The fourth is Joannes Guinterius 

bome in the towne of Andernach situate by the Rhene,who 

hath consecrated his name to posteritie as well as the rest ^ netabU 

by his learned writings, He was a notable Physition, and "h""^- 

learned Greeke reader in the University of this City : he 

also died in this City, and was here buried, The fifth and 

last Joannes Piscator {who when I was in Germanie was 

alive, and fiourished with great fame of learning in the [p. 4,61.] 

citie of Herborne, where he was publike reader of Divinity) 

hath as much famoused this noble Citie with his learned 

lucubrations as any of the foresaid writers, being such solid 

workes of Divinitie as have exceedingly profited those 

members of Christs Church which doe embrace the 

reformed religion. 

Thus much of Strasbourg. 

IRemained in Strasbourg all Friday after eleven of the 
clocke in the morning, and departed therehence the 
Saturday following being the third day of September, about 
cleven of the clocke in the morning, A little beyond the 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



A nuU 
bridgi over 
the RMm, 



EngRsh and 

German 

miles. 



[P- 4^3.] 



Hehetiany 
Middle 
GennM cnd 
Netherland 
miles. 



townes end of Strasbourg I passed a wooden bridge made 
over the Rhene that was a thousand four score and sixe 
paces long. For I paced it. The longest bridge that ever 
I passed. But it is nothing faire. For the boordes and 
plankes are verie rudely compacted together. At one end 
thereof there is erected a little hoiise, where a certaine 
officer of the citv dwelleth, that remayneth continually there 
at the receipt of custome to receive moneyof every stranger 
that passetn that way for the maintenance of the bridge; 
the common pay being something lesse then our EngBsh 
farthing. 

About sixe of the docke in the afternoone I came to a 
Protestant towne called Litenawe, where I lay that night. 
This towne is about sixteen English miles distant from 
Strasbourg. 

But because I will from henceforth cease to iise that 
often repetition of this word English in the computation 
of the German miles, I will exdude that word hereafter, 
and put downe mile only: whereby I understand the 
English mile, as much as if I did expresse the word. 
For I am desirous to reduce the computation of the long 
Dutch miles to our Engiish account. My reason is, 
because as I have akeady cast up the generall summe of all 
the miles betwixt the place where I was borne in Somerset- 
shire and the Citie of Venice, and that according to our 
English miles: so likewise I determine after I come to 
the end of Germanie, or arrive at London, to cast up the 
number of al the miles betwixt Venice and my coxmtry 
according to our ordinarie miles of England. But because 
a man cannot altogether so predsely and exactly reduce the 
German miles to our English, as to say the space between 
two such Cities or townes containeth just so many English 
miles, neither more nor lesse: I doe therefore aime and 
give the nearest conjecture that I can bv tracing of their 
•ound. For this is my generall rule, to reduce an 
[elvetian mile which is the longest of all the German 
miles, to five Engiish, being in some places of Switzerland 
as much as sixe of our miles : every mile betwixt the Cities 

196 



OBSERVATIONS OF LOWER BADEN 

of Strasbourg and Mentz to foure English, those in that 

space being called the middle German miles, which are 

afterward almost as great in all that space betwixt the said 

Citie of Mentz and Colen. And finally those of the ^h 

Netherlands which beginne at the City of Colen, and are ^H 

commonly esteemed the least miles of Germanie, to three ^^ 

English, 

I departed from the foresaid Litenawe a little after seven 
of the clock in the morning the next day being Sunday, LmiT Baden. 
and came to the City of Baden the MetropoTis of the 
Marquisate of Baden, about foure of the clocke in the 
afternoone. This dayes journey was sixteene miles. I 
found almost as great difficulty in finding out this Baden 
so famous for her bathes, as 1 did when I went to the 
bathes of Hinderhove neare the higher Baden, as I have 
before mentioned. For by the way I had this mischance, ^h 

that whereas I passed all the way betwixt these two places ^H 

in woods and vast deserfs, glancing sometimes by meere •^V 

chance upon some poore hamlet, I found the waies to be l«iricaie 
so exceeding intricate, ihat after I had wandered almost °'^^'- 
three miles about the wood alone by my selfe, at length [p- +64-] 
to my great discontent I returned to a village where 
I had beene about two houres before. So that I was for 
the time in a kind of irremeable labynnth, not knowing 
how to extricate my selfe out of it, till at the last an honest 
clowne that dwelt thereabout in the country, brought me 
into the right way, and gave me such certaine directions, 
that after that time I missed my way no more betwixt that 
and Baden. 

About a mile and halfe on this side Baden I observed a 
solitarie Monasterie situate in a wood : being desirous lO 
see it I went to the place, and craved to enter into it, but I 
could not by any meanes obtavne accesse into the house : 
but one of the Friers (for here dwell five Franciscans of -^ kaipUablt 
the Mendicant familie) to the end to give me some kinde '""''■ 
of recompence and amends for my repulse, like a very 
good fellow bestowed upon me a profound draught of good 
Rhenish wine, which gave great refection to my barking 



k 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

stomache. A courtesie that I neither craved nor expected. 

Also he told me that thcir fraternity was much infested by 

the Lutheran faction of the coimtry. As I departed there- 

hence towards Baden I met one of the foresaid five riding 

homeward, who immediately retumed againe, and having 

overtaken me he discovered his griefe unto me after a vcry 

pensive and disconsolate manner. For he told me that he 

A Breviarj had lost his Breviariimi, and asked me whethcr I had found 

^^^ any such booke. This Breviarium is a certaine kindc of 

jouu . Popish booke containing prayers to their Saints and other 

holy meditations, which Fnests and Friers doe as firequently 
use as we Protestants doe the Bible. The first of them that 
I saw was in Venice. At last the Frier after very diligent 
seeking having found his precious jewell, retumed home 
once more, and when he met me, told me with a cheareftiU 
coimtenance and mery heart that he had fovmd that for the 
which he had before so much dejected his spirits. 
[p. 465.] One notable accident happened unto me in my way a 

little before I came to this Monastery and the citie of 

Baden, of which I will here make mention before I writc 

any thing of Baden. It was my chance to meetc two 

RagffdBoors. downes commonly called Boores, who because they went 

in ragged doathes, strooke no smail terrour into mee; 
and by so much the more I was afraid of them, by how 
much the more I found them armed with weapons, my 
selfe being altogether unarmed, having no weapon at all 
about me but onely a knife. Whereupon fearing least 
they would eyther have cut my throate, or have robbed me 
of my gold that was quilted in my jerkin, or have stripped 
me of my dothes, which they would have found but a 
poore bootie. For my dothes being but a threed-bare 
tustian case were so meane (my doake onely excepted) 
that the Boores could not have made an ordinary supper 
with the money for which they should have sold them; 
fearing (I say) some ensuing danger, I undertooke such a 

Eolitike and subtile action as I never did before in all my 
fe. For a iittle before I mette them, I put ofF my hat 
very curteously unto them, holding it a pretty while in my 

198 



I 

I 



OBSERVATIONS OF LOWER BADEN 

hand, and very humbly (like a Mendicant Frier) begged ^ ^'W^Z 
somc money of them (as I have something declared in the ''"''"""""■ 
front of my booke) in a language that they did but poorely 
understand, even the Latin, expressing my minde unto 
them by such gestures and signes, that they wel! knew what 
I craved of them : and so by this begging insinuation I 
both preserved my selfe secure & free from the viotence of 
the ciownes, and withal! obtained that of them which I 
neither wanted or expected. For they gave me so much of 
their dnne money called fennies (as poore as they were) 
as paid for halfe my supper that night at Baden, even foure 
pence halfe-peny, 

My Observations of Baden. [p- 466] 

"^His Citie is called the lower Baden in respect of the Loioer Baden. 
higher Baden of Switzerland that I have already 
described : both which are about 140 miles distant asunder. ^H 

It is but little, being seated on the side of a hil!, well ^H 

walled, and hath no more then two Churches, whereof one 
is within the walJes, adjoyning to their Market place, being 
dedicated to Saint Peter and Pau!, and was built by their 
first Marquesse, as a learned man of the Citie told me, 
The other standeth without the walles. The Citie is 
invironed round about with hills greatly replenished with 
wood. It is the capitall Citie or the countrie where it 
standeth, which taketh her denomination from this citie, 
being called the Marquisat of Baden. For there is a 
Marquesse of this citie, and of the whole territorie Tht Mar^uen 
belonging to the Marquisat, who is a soveraigne Prince rf^'^^'"- 
of great power and authority. Sometime he keepeth his 
Court in this citie, as in the winter time; the Palace of 
his residence beeing a very sumptuous and Princely build- 
ing. But all the Sommer time he is most commonly 
residcnt partly at the towne of Turlowe a principall 
member of his Dominion and Prlncipality, whereof I will 
hereafter make relation ; and partly at his stately Castell of 
Milberg which is about foure miles distant from the fore- 
said Turlowe. AIso in former times their Prince was wont 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Thi MarqidS' 
ate creatid 
A,D. 1153. 

[p. 467.] 



A toUrant 
Lutheran. 



Baths ofgreat 
antiquity. 



to keepe his Court in a certaine ancient Gistell of great 
strength that I saw eastward standing upon the side of a 
hill, and distant some halfe mile from the citie. A place 
of great antiquity. 

The Marquisate of this Citie and the circumjacent terri- 
torie was first instituted by the Emperour Barbarossa about 
the yeare of our Lord 1 153. who created one Hermannus 
an Italian Nobleman of the citie of Verona, and a kinsman 
of his, the first Marquesse. A higher dignity thcn his 
predecessours of that country enjoyea, who mtituled them- 
selves no more then Earles of Baden. The said Herman- 
nus inlarged this princely title by the addition of another 
Marquisate, namely that of Hochberg in Brisgoia, not 
farre from the citie of Friburg, both which Marquisates he 
attained unto by the mamage of a certaine German 
Countesse whose name was Judith. Since which time 
all the succeeding Princes of Baden have ever stiled 
themselves Marquesses of Baden & Hochberg, to the 
present Prince Frederick now livinc;. This Prince is a 
Protestant, but of the Lutheran r^gion. A man that 
granteth full liberty of conscience to those his subjects that 
wil not be reclaimed from the Popish religion ; so that he 
sufFereth Masses, and such other Papisti^ ceremonies in 
this citie of Baden (which I understood to be wholy 
Popish) without any such restraint as other German 
Princes doe use, especially the Count Palatine of Rhene 
& the Lansgrave of Cassia, who (as I have heard) do not 
permit any exercise of the Romish Religion in any part of 
their Dominions. 

But having thus far digressed from my discourse of 
Baden, upon the occasion or mentioning the first institution 
of the Marquisate & the religion of tne present Prince, I 
will now returne to the description of the city. There 
is one thing that maketh this citie very famous, namely 
the Bathes, which are of great antiquity. For authors doe 
write that they were found out in the time of Marcus 
Antoninus surnamed Philosophus the seventeenth Emper- 
our of Rome, about the yeare of our Lord 160. who was 



aoo 




OBSERVATIONS OF LOWER BADEN 

so delighted with the bathes of this place that he built the 

citie for their sakes. Truly they are very admirable for 

two respects. First for the heate. Secondly for the raulti- 

tude. As for the heate it is so extreme that I beleeve they 

are the hottest of all Christendome, especially at their 

fountaines, whereof I myself had some experience. For 

I did put my hand to one of the springs, which was so hot [p- 468.] 

that I could hardly endure to handle the water, being of 

that force that it would scald my fingers very grievously if Scalding hi 

I had suffered it to runne upon them tiU I had but told "'""'■ 

twenty, Yea the heate is so vehement, that it is reported 

it will seeth egges, and make them as ready to be eaten 

as if they were boyled in water over the fire. Also if onc 

should cast any kinde of bird or pigge into the water at thc 

original spring, where it is much hotter then in the bathes 

thcmselves that are derived from the same, it will scalde 

off the feathers from the one, and the haire from the other. 

Likewise the multitude of them is marvailous, which I 

will report, though many incredulous persons will (I 

beleeve) applie the old proverbe unto me, that travellers 

may lie by authority, The number of them I heard doth 

amount to three hundred severall bathes at the least. 

Which I did much the more wonder at because when I 

was at the bathes of Hinderhove by the Helvetical Baden, 

I saw so great a company there, even sixty (which I 

esteemed a marvailous number in comparlson of the few- 

nesse of our English bathes at the City of Bathe in my 

country of Somersetshire, where wee have no more then 

five) that I thought there were not so many particular 

bathes so neare together in any one towne of Europe. 

But in this lower Baden the number of them is so exceed- Thue 

ingly multiplied, that it will seeme almost incredible to hmdred bsihs 

many men that have ever contained themselves within "' "'''*''■ 

the limits of their owne native soyle, and never saw the 

wonders of forraine regions. For whereas the bathes of 

the lower Baden are distinguished by severall Innes, in 

number thirteene, but after an unequall manner, so that 

some Innes have more and some lesse : that Inne wherein 



\ 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

I la7) which was at the signe of the golden Lyon, contained 
more bathes then ail these foresaid threescore of Hinder- 
hove. For in the same Inne were no lesse then threescore 
& five severall Bathes, as a learned man told me that laie in 
[p. 469.] a house adjoyning to my Inne. All these bathes are 
devided asunder by a great many roomes of the house, 
and covered over head ; the space that is limited for each 
bath being square and very narrow, so that in one and the 
selfe same roome I observed foure or five distinct bathes. 
All these bathes are of an equaU heate, none hotter or 
colder then an other. Also I heard that they are tnost fre- 
quented in the Sommer time, contrary to our English 
bathes & tho^ at Hinderhove, which are used only at the 
spring and autume. The water of the bathes is mingled 
with matter of three severall kindes, brimstone, salt, and 
alume, as Munster writeth : unto whome I am beholding 
for this short ensuing discourse of the vertue of these 
bathes, as I was before in the description of the bathes of 
Hinderhove. Those that have tried them have found the 
Tkevirtues vertue of them to be very soveraigne for the curing of 
rfthibaths. jiiygj.s diseases, as the asthma^ which is an infirmity that 
proceedeth from the difficulty of the breath, the moistnesse 
of the eyeS) the crampe, the coldnesse of the stomacke, the 
paine of the liver and the spleene proceeding fi-om cold; 
also it helpeth the dropsie) the griping of the bowels, the 
stone, the sterility of women : It appeaseth the paine of a 
womans wombe, keepeth ofF the white menstruous matter, 
asswageth the swelling of the thighes, cureth the itch and 
blisters or whelkes rismg in any part of the body ; and to 
be short, it is said to be of greater efficacie for curing of the 
gowte then any other bathes whatsoever either of Germany 
Sr any other country of Christendome. ^ 

I saw one thing in this citie that I did not in any other 
place of Germany. For that morning that I went ther- 
hence, I saw a muster of a band of gallant soldiers in the 
Market place. 

Thus much of Baden in the Marquisate, commonly 

called lower Baden. 



202 



OBSERVATIONS OF ETTLINGEN 

IDeparted from Baden about eight of the clocke in the [?■ i7<^-] 
morning of the fifth day of September being munday, 
and came to the towne of Turlowe eighteene miles beyond 
it, about sixe of the clocke in the afternoone. The things 
that I observed betwixt these two places are these. After 
I was passed a few miles beyond Baden, I survayed an 
exceeding pleasant and fruitfuU country full of corne //f ""^ 
fieldes, whereof some are so ample, especially one that l -^ '' 
noted above the rest, that it confayneth at the least sixe 
times as much in compasse (according to my estimation) 
as the best corne field of that famous mannour of Martock 
in Somersetshire neere to the parish of Odcombe where I 
was borne. AIso that country is passing even and plaine, 
and wonderfiilly replenished with wood. The townes 
betwixt any cities I finde to be very frequent and iaire, 
having gates, and some of them walls. One towne I 
passed betwixt Baden and Turlowe, calJed Etlingen, that Eitfingen. 
is very memorable for the antiquity thereof. For accord- 
ing to a faire inscription lately written in the towne wall 
necre to one of their gates, it appeareth that it was built 
about MCX yeares before Christs incarnation. It much 
grieved me that a certaine occasion called me away so 
suddenly that it deprived me of the opportunity to write 
it out, otherwise I had ranked that with these memorables 
of Germany. In this towne was that famous Historio- 
grapher Francis Irenicus borne, who hath written twelve 
bookes of the German Cities. I observed also marvailous M<3n-e//Bui 
abundance of fruits in the Marquisate of Baden, especially IT '""''?' 
of peares, insomuch that the very hedges in the high-way 
neere to any towne or village have great store of peare 
trees growing in them. Likewise I noted a wonderfiil 
great company of frogges in most places of this territory, 
especially in their Lakes, So that a man can hardly walke 
by any lake but he shall see great abundance of frogs leape 
into the water out of the bankes wherein they shrowd 
themselves. I observed also likewise in most places not 
only of this territory but also in most of the other parts tp- 47 '0 
of high Germany neare to any Towne or Village, an extra- 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Great ordinary great quantity of cabbages, colcworts, turnips, 
^^t^li ^^ radishes, which are sowen in their open fields, where 
' are to be seene hundreds of acres sowen in one of their 
fields. I never saw the like either in France or Italie. 
For their store is so great that I am perswaded they have a 
hundred times more of these commodities than we in 
England, though equall and indifferent quantity of groimd 
be opposed to each other. Moreover I perceived that 
because God hath so plentifuUy blessed them with these 
commodities, that they are not such niggards of them as 
to watch them in the field, to the end to preserve them 
from strangers, but rather they give free leave to any 
passengers to trespasse them, by going boldly into their 
ground, and taldng a convenient quantity of these things 
tor their owne use. For their turnips and radishes are so 
toothsome and pleasing to the palate, that I have often 
seene many a poore traveller with a fiu^thing loafe in his 
hand (for bread is so cheape in many places of Germany, 
especiaUy in some of the higher parts, that a man may buy 
a convenient loafe for two of their little tin coynes caUed 
fennies that value but Httle more then an EngUsh farthing) 
goe into their common fields, and take so many turnips and 
radishes out of a plot, that he hath made an indifferent 
meale to satisfie nature, & asswage hunger for one poore 
farthing ; though his meale in an Inne or victuaUing house 
might perhaps cost him twenty times as much how thrifty 
soever he werc. 

I could sec no Snaile in aU Germanie but red, Uke those 

that I saw a Uttle on this side the Alpes in Savoy, as I 

have before writtcn. In every part of the country I espied 

Hemp great store of hemp which the women do beate out of^ the 

beattrs. strannes with certayne prety instruments made of wood 

[p. 472.] (such as I have before mentioned in my description of the 

Grisons country) not decorticating it, or as we caU it in 

Somersetshire scaling it with their fingers, with that 

extreme labour and difficulty as our Engfish women doe. 

I never saw country so weU wooded (Lombardie only 

excepted) as aU this territory betwixt Baden and Turlowe, 

204 




OBSERVATIONS OF TURLOWE 

the Martian Forrest otherwisc calfcd Nigra Silva, so spoken 
of in many authors, spreading it self over the country, 
through part whereof I have travelled. Also I attribute 
very much to all the other parts of Germanle that I 
travelled through for singular plenty of wood. 

My Observations of Turlowe. 

THey are so strict in Turlowe for the admittance of TurleKt. 
strangers into the towne, the gates being continually 
guarded with Halberdiers appointed for the same purpose, 
that a stranger can very hardiy obtaine the fevour to come 
into the towne, So that before I could enter within the 
gates, I was constrained to send certaine testimonies that I 
had about me to the Prefect of the Princes Court, whom 1 
found afterward to be a very courteous and affable Gentle- 
man, and one that used me very graciously. 

This is a very prety towne, though but little, situate in 
a most fruitfull playne, having on the North-east-side a 
certaine hill that is planted round about as full with vine- 
yards as can be. Upon the top of this hill standeth a very T/ie Tmer of 
high and eminent tower which in some places of Germanie Turlatet. 
is to be seene at the least forty miles off as I thinke. From 
this tower hath the towne his name, being called in Latin 
Turlacum from the Latin word turris, which signifieth a 
towcr. The Emperor Rodolph that was Earle of Habs- 
purg before his inauguration to the Empire, conquered this [p. 473.] 
tower together with the towne, at what time he made warre 
upon the Marquesse of Baden. This towne was added lo 
the Marquisate by the Emperour Frederick the second, 
who out of his imperial bounty bestowed the same upon 
the Prince for the better inlarging of his territory. The 
towne is well walled, adorned with faire gates, and with A/ah mbh. 
one streete amongst the rest that yeeldeth a beautifiill shew, 
even the same wherein the Princes Palace standeth, the 
houses being of a goodly heigth. The religion of the 
towne is Lutheran according to that of their Prince, the 
principall Pastor being intitled the Superintendent of Tur- 
lowe. AIso the towne is beautified with a goodly schoole 



CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

^ki Paiaci of which yeeldeth a notable Seminarie of learning. For 
urkwi. therein are read most of the liberall sciences. The Princes 
house is a very magnificent and beautifuU Palace, but it 
was not my good hap to survay the inward beauty thereof . 
For no strangers can be permitted to enter into any of the 
German Princes Palaces without great difficulty, whcreof 
I had experience againe afterward at Heidelberg at the 
Court of the Count Palatine of Rhene. The Prince of 
Baden was not resident in Turlowe when I was there, but 
at his stately Castell of Milberg five miles from it, where 
with certaine German Earles and divers other noblemen 
of the country, he solaced himselie at hunting of Deere. 
I saw the Castell a farre ofF, which seemed to be a building 
of great strength and magnificence. 

Thus much of Turlowe. 

IDeparted fi-om Turlowe the sixth day of September 
being Tuesday about eleven of the clodke in the mom- 
ing, and came to a solitary house standing in the middle 
way betwixt Turlowe and Heidelberg, about seven of the 
clocke in the evening, where I lay that night. This house 
was fourteene miles beyond Turlowe. After I had travelled 
>• 474-] a quarter of a mile beyond Turlowe, I observed a matter 
thousand ^^at made me wonder. For I saw almost a thousand hay- 
ymakirs. makers dispersed abroade in severall great meadowes about 
the towne. The like I observed aU that day in my joumey 
forward. At the first sight of this I imagined that it was 
their only hay-harvest, and that they had not mowed their 
meadowes at all before that time : but after more mature 
consideration of the matter, when as I called to my remcm- 
brance the late hay-harvest that I saw in Switzerland about 
thirteene dayes before, I conceived that it was their second 
harvest. For the fertilitie of their meadowes is such that 
they mow them twise in a Sommer. The like whereof I 
have noted in sundry places of England : but in Germanie 
it is much more common then witn us, in so much that I 
thinke they use it a hundred to one more then we in 
England. 

ao6 




OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

I departed from the foresaid solitary house the seventh 
day or September being Wednesday about sixe of the 
clocke in the niorning, and came to the noble City of 
Heidelberg twelve miles beyond it about noone, being 
almost wet to the skinne with a vehement shower of raine. 

■ ^- My Observations of Heidelberg. 

^^P Julius Cfesar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 

^^P Heidelberg. 

NObilis Imperio Franconia dextra potenti 
Belligero nulli Marte secunda viget. 

^^ Cum victis ab se pepulit vectigal Alanis, 
^^L Libera Germano nomine Franca fuit. 

^^M Nec contenta suis angustis finibus (illi 
^^L Quse par virtuti terra fiitura foret?) 

^^K Egreditur : superat. Germani 6 pectus honoris. 
^^^ Victoris victos nomina ferre sat est, 

^^K Non aliunde venis, Francusve est Hectoris ullus. 
^^M Quid petis k victo stemmata ? tota tua es. 

^^^ The territorie wherein this City standeth is called the 
lower County Palatine, or the lower Palatinate (whereof 
Heidelberg is the Metropolitan City) a very fertill soile, 
especially the plaine part thereof that yeeldeth abundance 
or all necessaries for the sustenance of man, as store of 
wheate of the finest sort, barlie, coleworts, cabbages, 
turnips, and radishes, such as I have before spoken of in 
the Marquisate of Baden. This Plaine is fairely beautified 
with goodly meadowes and pastures also which do feede 
plenty of fat bullocks, and sheepe. Likewise the hilly 
part is plentiflilly furnished with vineyardes and chest-nut 
trees, & much frequented with Deere, Goates, and Kids. 
Neare the City great store of Hearnes doe nestle them- 
selves in the woods upon the hils. This short discourse 
of fhe commodities of the territorie I thought good to 
prefixe before my description of the City by way of an 
introduction to the ensuing Treatisc. Therefbre now I 
will relate the particular matters of the City it selfe. And 
ao7 



1 



StaSffr'i 



[p- 47 SO 



Heidflberg 
ihe Mtfro- 
psStan cily of 
ike lotver 
Palatinate. 



I 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

^itymokgy I will dcrive my beginning from the etymologie of thc 
Heidelherg. name. Some derive this word Heidelberg from Heydel- 
ber which doth signifie black-berries, such as doe grow 
upon brambles, because in former times there were more 
of them growing about this City then in any other part 
of the country. Some from Heydelbeern, that is, m^tle 
trees, which doe yet grow plentifully upon the hilles about 
the City. Of this opinion is that learned Paulus Melissus, 
who calleth Heidelberg urbem myrtileti. Againe there 
are others that draw the name from the Dutch word 
Heyden, that sifirnifieth a Nation, because this place was 
ever wel inhabited with people by reason of tlTe oppor- 
tunity of the seate. Moreover there are some that affirme 
it is called Heidelberg quasi Adelberg, that is, a noble 
47^] City, in regard of the nobility, the elegancie, and swect- 
nesse of the situation thereof . Whererore seeing there is 
so great diversity of opinions amongst the leamed about 
the derivation or the name, I will not dispute the matter 
which is best or worst, but referre it to be discussed by 
the learned censure of the judicious reader. Truly the 
situation thereof is very delectable and pleasant. For it 
standeth in convalli inter fauces montium, that is, in a 
narrow valley which is on both sides beset with hils, and 
those very commodious. For they are planted with many 
fruitfull vineyards. Also it is most pleasantly watered 
f river with the famous river Neccarus, otherwise called Nicrus, 
kMT. ^j^j runneth by the north side of the City. And it is of 

so great note, that they commonly esteeme it the third 
river of Germany next to the Danubius and the Rhene. 
It riseth in Suevia even in the black Forrest which is called 
in Latin Nigra Sylva about the space of foure hoiires 
joxirney from the fountaine of Danubius, and at len^th 
exonerateth it selfe into the Rhene, being before multipked 
with some other rivers, as the Cocharus and the laxus, 
which doe infuse themsdves into the Neccar not farre from 
the towne of Wimpina in Suevia abovesaid. I observed 
a goodly wooden bridge built over the Neccar, the fairest 
certainly that I saw m Germany, but not the longest, 

ao3 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

supported with sixe huge stony pillars strongly rammed 
into the water, and very feirely covered over head with an 
arched roof of timber-worke. At the farther end whereof 
there standeth a feire tower on the banke of the Neccar 
which doth very much beautifie the bridge. This river is 
very commodious to the City of Heidelberg in two 
respects. First for that being navigable it carieth a kind Boorion thi 
of rude boate called of the Latines ratis (such as I have * 

seene in divers other places of Germany, and also in 
France, used upon their greater rivers for carrying of hay, 
timber, wood, &c.) which is most commonly laden partly 
with timber for building, and partly with wood for fire that 
commeth out of the Forrest called Ottonica a part of the [p- +77j' 
Hercynia not farre from the city of Heidelberg; and by 
this Neccar the said commodities are brougnt first to 
Heidelberg for the furnishing of the City, and from that 
to the Rhene, wherewith it mingleth it selfe a little on this 
side Spira, and therehence to all the westerne Cities and 
townes situate on both sides of the Rhene as iarre as the 
towne of Bing. Secondly, because it ministreth great 
abundance of good fishes to the City, espedally the delicate 
barbils. 

The City is strongly walled, and hath foure faire gates The City. 
in the walles, and one very goodly streete above the rest 
both for breadth and length. For it is at the least an 
English mile long : and garnished with many beautifull 
houses, whereof some have their fronts feirely painted, 
which doe yeeld ati cxcellent shew. Also it hath sixe 
Churches. Namely that of the holy Ghost : St. Peters: 
The Church in the Princes Palace : the French Church : a 
Church in the suburbes : And the Predicatorie church 
which belonged once to the Dominican Friers. But the 
Church of the hoiy Ghost which adjoyneth to their great 
market place, is the fiiirest of all, being beautified with 
two singular ornaments above the other Churches that doe 
greatly grace the same : the one the Palatine Librarie, the 
other the monuments of their Princes. The Palatine TAr Pakiiu 
Librarie is kept by that most excellent and generall Schollar ^'^'''"y- 



[ 



i 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



[p. 478.] 



A sckolarly 
Ubrarian. 



Mr. Janus Gruterus the Princes Bibliothecarie, of whom 
I have reason to make a kind and thankeful mention, 
because I received great favours of him in Heidelberg. 
For he entertained me very courteously in his house, 
shewed me the Librarie, and made meanes for my admis- 
sion into the Princes Court. Well hath this man deserved 
of the common-weale of good letters, because he hath 
much benefited and illustrated it by his elegant workes, 
as his Animadversions upon all the workes of Seneca the 
Philosopher, and his Fax artium, which though it be 
nothing but the compiling together of other mens workes, 
yet the singular industrie that he hath shewed in it together 
with his fine methode, doth deserve no small praise. A 
man that for his exquisite learning hath beene received into 
the friendship of some of the greatest SchoUars of 
Christendome, especially of Justus Lipsius, betwixt whom 
divers elegant Epistles have passed that are published to 
the world. I observed him to be a very sweet and 
eloquent discourser. For he speaketh a most elegant and 
true Ciceronian phrase which is graced with a facill & 
expedite deliverie. In so much that I dare parallell him 
in a manner for the excellency of his Latin tongue with 
Mr. Grynaeus of Basil whom I have before so much 
extolled. But I will cease to praise my friend Mr. 
Gruterus, because his owne worth doth more truly com- 
mend him then I shall ever be able to doe with my 
inelegant stile, and so I will returne to that famous Pala- 
tine Librarie. It is built over the roofe of the body of 
the Church. A place most beautifull, and divided into 
two very large and stately roomes that are singular well 
furnished with store of bookes of all faculties. Here are 
so many auncient manuscripts, especially of the Greeke 
manuscripts. ^nd Latin Fathers of the Church, as no Librarie of jJl 
Christendome, no not the Vatican of Rome nor Cardinall 
Bessarions of Venice can compare with it. Besides there 
is a great multitude of manuscripts of many other sorts, 
in so much that Mr. Gruterus told he could shew in this 
Librarie at the least a hundred more manuscripts then 



Ancient 



210 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

Mr. James the publique Bibliothecarie o{ Oxford could in 
his famous Universitie Librarie, For what bookes that 
Librarie halh or hath not he knoweth by Mr. James his 
Index or Catalogue that was printed in Oxford. Amongst 
other bookes that he shewed me one was a feire large 
parchment booke written by the great grandfather of 
Fredericke the fourth that was the Count Palatine when 
I was there. Truly the beauty of this Librarie is such 
both for the notable magnificence of the building, and [p. .^.79.] 
the admirable variety of bookes of all sciences and 
languages, that I beleeve none of those notable Libraries ^.^^ 
in ancient times so celebrated by many worthy historians, ' '^"^" 
neither that of the royall Ptolomies of Alexandria, burnt 
by Julius CtEsar, not that of King Eumenes at Pergamum 
in Greece, nor Augustus his Palatine in Rome, nor Trajans 
Ulpian, nor that of Serenus Sammonicus, which he left 
to the Emperor Gordianus the yonger, nor any other what- 
soever in the whole world before the time of the invention 
of printing, could compare with this Palatine, Also I 
attribute so much unto it that I give it the precedence 
above all the noble Libraries I saw in my travels, which 
were especially amongst the Jesuits in Lyons, Spira, and 
Mentz. Howbeit Mr. Gruterus will pardon me I hope 
if I preferre one Librarie of my owne nation before tne 
Palatine, even that of our renowned University of Oxford, 
whereof fhe foresaid Mr. James is a keeper. For indeede 
I beleeve it containeth a few more books (though not 
many) then this of Heidelberg. There hapned one 
disaster unto me when I was in this Librarie. For shortly ^ diiiiiier. 
after I came within it, and had survayed but a few of the 
principall bookes, it chanced that two yong Princes of 
Anhalt which are descended from the most ancient Princely 
femily of all Germanie, came suddenly into the roome 
upon me, being usherd by their golden-chained Gentle- 
men. Whereupon I was constrained to withdraw my selfe 
speedily out of the Librarie, all the attendance being given 
unto the Princes : by which sinister accident I lost the 
opportunity of seeing those memorablc antiquities and 



I 



M(muments in 
OeCkMrck 



CORYATS CRUDITBES 

rarities which Mr. Gruterus intended to have oommuni- 
cated unto me, and so consequendy I my selfe the same 
to my coimtry. Let this therefore suffice fbr the Pahtine 
Librarie. 

The second omament of this Church of the Holy Ghost 

is the Chappel wherein the monuments of their Princes 

[p. 480.] are contained. This standeth at the East end of the 

Church, being a most elegant roome, and is indosed on 
one side with certaine yron dores made lattise-wise, and 
for the most part locked, that I could not procure the 
meanes to see them, my leamed friend Maister Gruterus 
being busie with the foresaid young Princes. Therefbre 
for these monuments I must trast my eares (the worst 
IfATn^ witnesses) rather thcn my eyes. There I heard werc 
Ghosu buried these Princes, Rupertus Senior Duke of Bavaria, 

Count Palatine of Rhene, and King of the Romanes, the 
founder of the Church of the holy Ghost ; and his wife 
Elizabeth, who dyed about the yeare 1410. also two 
Counts Palatine Rodolphus & Ludovicus under one altar, 
whereof the first died anno 1209. and the other 13 19. 
againe Frederick that died in the yeare 1476. also Wol- 
phangus Count Palatine of Rhene that died in the yeare 
1558. All these lye within the said Chappell with other 
Princes and Princesses. But the Epitaphes which I thinke 
are elegant to grace the memory of so great persons, I 
could not obtaine. Notwithstanding what is wantin^; of 
those Epitaphes within the Chappell, shall be a Etde 
supplyed with one most excellent Epitaph that I found in 
the body of the Church written upon thc monimient of 
Philip Count Paktine of Rhene, one of their worthiest 
Princes, who was very famous in his life time for many 
memorable acts, especially for freeing the noble citie 
Vienna from the sicge of the Turkes. Seeing I was 
fhistrated of the other Princes Epitaphes in the Chappell 
which I hoped to have brought with me into Englsuid, 
being very unwiUing to leesc this also which I saw was 
worthy the carrying over thc Sea, I apprehended it with 
my pen while the Preacher was in his pulpit : for I doubted 

212 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

least if I had differred it till the end of the sermon, the 
dores might have bene sodainly shut, & so I should have 
bin defeated of the opportunity. The monument it selfe 
is in that side of the Church where the pulpit standeth, 
being inserted into one of the main pillers ot the church, 
and mvironed round about with a pretty inclosure or rayle 
made of yron worke. There is represented his Statue at 
length carved in milke-white Alabaster with his glittering 
Armour gilted, holding a short Pole-axe in his right hand, 
and a sword in his left ; that part of the monument where 
his Statue standeth, is wonderfull curiously wrought with 
very exquisite workcs in stone, wherein are represented 
many pretty histories. At the toppe are erected his armes 
and scutchin. Under the which, betwixt his armes and 
the higher part of his Statue, his Epltaphe is written in 
touchstone. It seemeth a double Epitaph. For one is 
X^tin, and the other Dutch. The Latin after these tedious 
preambles I do now at length present unto thee. 
Csetera qui circum lustras monumenta viator, 

Hsec quoque non longa est perlege pauca mora. 
Si ducis audita est forsan tibi tama Philippi, 

Clara Palatinte quem tulit Aula domus : 
Qui modo Pannoniam defendit ab hoste Viennam, 

Et solvit trepidos obsidione viros ; 
Tunc cum Threicii vastarent omnia Turcas, 
Et tremerent subito Norica regna metu. 
Mox etiam implevit magnum virtutibus orbem, 

Utilis hinc armis, utiGs inde toga. 
Illius hac tegitur corpus venerabile terra, 

Hic animam, hic vitam reddidit ille Deo. 
Qu6 te si pietas, si quid movet inclyta virtus, 

Junctaque cum summa nobilitate fides : 
Huic opta ut cineres placida cum pace quiescant, 

Condita nec tellus durior ossa premat. 
Nam pius ad cceli sublatus spiritus arces, 
Cum Christo vivit tempus ii 

Decessit 4. Non. Julii 
Anno Dom. M. D. Xlviii. 



Mcnuintn/ M 
Couvf Philip. 



S..] 

I 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

^tatis sua: Xliii. cujus P. F. MemoriiE Dux 
Otto Henricus Cotnes Palatinus 
[p. 481.] Frater amantissimus M. H. F. C. 

Anno Dom. M. D. L. 
Thus much concerning the Church of the Holy Ghost. 

BEsides this foresaid Church, there are two things more 
which doe very notably adorne and beautifie this 
stately Citie, the first the most gorgious Palace of the 
Prince, which is commonly called in Dutch Das curfijr 
stelich Sloss. The second, the famous University. The 

Tie Priiuei pnnces Palace I will first speake of, It is exceeding 
difficult fcr a stranger to enter into one of the Germane 
Princes Courts (as I have before said in my description 
of Turlowe) except he hath some friend living in the same, 
which I found verified by mine owne experience at the 
Count Palatines Court. For I could not possibly be 
admitted without some speciall and extraordinary favour, 
which was this. Master Gruterus understanding by my 
owne report that I was acquainted with our noble Ambas- 
sadour Sir Henry Wotton then resident with the Signiorie 
of Venice, the lame of whose excellent learning and 
generose qualities hath greatly spread itselfe in Heideiberg 
(for there hath he beene heretofore, and Honorably enter- 
tained at the Princes Court) counselled me to goe to a 
learned Doctor of the Civill Lawe dwelling in the Citie, 
whose name was Master Lingelsemius, heretofore Tutor 
to Fredericke the fourth, who was then the Count 
Palatine when I was in Heidelberg, (and therfore 
the better able to procure his fi-iend accesse to the 
Court) and a familiar acquaintance of Sir Henry 
Wotton. Whereupon t repaired to his house, insinu- 
ating my selfe partly with a token fi-om Master Gruterus, 
and partly by the meanes of Sir Henry Wottons 
name, which was so acceptable unto him, that he enter- 
tained me after a very debonaire and courteous maner, 
and sent one of his men with mee to the Prefect of the 

[p. 48J.] Princes Court, who gave me admittance into the Palacc; 



Masler 

LiyffUmim 
Doctor of 
Clvil Law. 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

I noted the situation thereof to be very pleasant. For it PalaeeBf 

is seated at the South side of the Citie upon the side of ^"'^'^"'^- 

an eminent hill, having as sweete an ayre as any Palace 

whatsoever in all Germanie. At the foote of the same 

hill on the left hand, there is a very faire building, which 

serveth for the Chancerie house of the Palatinate, wherein 

matters of controversie are handled ; and from thence 

there is a very tedious & difficult ascent by a steepe stonie 

way to the Palace it selfe. I learned at the Court that 

there was heretofore an other Palace besides this, situated 

upon the very top of the same hill, which hapned to bc 

utterly destroyed in the yeare 1537. as it appeareth by 

certaine elegant Elegiacal verses that worthy Jacabus 

Micyllus of the Citie of Strasburg, wrote to liis learned 

friend Joachimus Camerarius about the yeare and day of 

the ruine thereof, by a certaine memorable yet rufuU 

accident ; for the fire of heaven it selfe consumed it, The r-*' Palate 

Telum trisulcum Jovis {I meane the lightning) striking <^""^,'-^ h 

casuaily a heape or Lrunpowder tnat was kept m a certauie J £f , .,_ 

roome of the Palace, which no sooner tooke fire, but 

immediately in the very twinckling of an eye it burnt up 

the whole building, and scattered the stones (a most 

lamentable spectade to behold) ferre asunder, some downe 

to the present Palace where the Prince now dwelleth, and 

some to the Citie, to the great detriment of both places. 

The ruines of the same palace are yet shewed (as I heard) 

upon the top of the hill. But now I will returne againe 

to the Princes palace where he keepeth his residence ; every 

thing that I saw there did yeeld matter of speciall marke 

and magnificence. The fiither of Fredericke the fourth, 

and Prince Fredericke hjmselfe have beene great builders, 

His father built all the part of the Palace on the left hand 

of the first Court, which is beautified with a very stately 

frontispice, and distinguished with great varietie of not- 

able workmanship. But Prince Fredericke hath built an [p. 48^.] 

other part of the Palace which doth farre excell that ; even 

all that gorgeous buildlng at the entrance, which by reason 

of the most admirable and rare sumptuousnesse of the 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Architecture, beinfi; built all with square stone, and gar- 
nished with goomy statues, do(h adde infinite grace 

w/ oftki to that part of the Palace. Both the Fronts of the 

*^'' Palace whereof I now speake, as well that without 

looking towards the Citie, as the other within to- 
wards the Court, doe present workmanship of great 
state, as I have ak^dy said. But there is great 
difference betwixt them. Fcm- the inward front is much 
more glorious and resplendent then the other. The 
principall omament that graceth it, is the multitude of 
laire statues (which the outward Front wanteth) very 
loftily advanced towards the fairest part of the Court, 
whereof there are foure distinct degrees or Series made 
one above another. The same statues are carved in a 
singular faire milk-white stone, which seemeth as beauti- 
fulT as the fairest Alabaster, and formed in a very large 
proportion, expressing all the parts of a mans body, and 
done with that artificial curiositie, that I beleeve were those 
famous statuaries Polycletus and Praxiteles alive againe, 
they wovdd praise the same, and confesse they were not 
able to amend them. For they imitate the true naturall 
countenance and living shape of those heroicall and 
Princely Peeres, whom they represent. Most of them 

airstatues. are the statues of the famous Palatine Princes to the last 
of them Fredericke the fourth. Also Emperoxirs, Kings 
and Queenes are there poiu^trayed. This Front is raysed 
to a very great height, and decked with marveilous curious 
devices at the top, all which ornaments concurring together 
doe exhibite to the eyes of the spectator a sncw most 
incomparable. Truely for my owne part I was so exceed- 
ingly delighted with the sight of this rare frontispice, that 
I must needes confesse I attribute more unto it, not out 

). 485.] of any partiall humoiu" or overweening phantasie, but 
according to the upright sinceritie of an impartiall opinion, 
then to the Front of any Paiace whatsoever I saw in 
France, Italy or Germanie. Yea, I will not doubt to 
derogate so much from the Fronts of the French Kings 
palaces which I saw both in Paris and Fountaine Beleau ; 

216 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

of the Duke of Venice, of that exquisite building before 

mentioned which belongeth to one of the sixe Companies 

or Fraternities of Venice, adjoyning to St. Roches Church, 

where I heard that heavenly musicke ; so much I say doe ^Si 

I derogate from the fronts of al these Palaces, that the i^H 

fairest of them doth vale bonnet (in my opinion) to this ^l 

royall inward fronf of the Count Palatines Palace. The 

lower part of the same front doth containe one of those 

sixe Churches whereof I have before made mention, viz. 

The Courtly Church, where the Prince & his family of the T^' 

Court heareth divine service and sermons, and the higher 

part many gorgeous roomes for the Princes use: wherein 

many noble Peeres of Germanie and France solaced them- 

selves when I was at the Court, the number of whom 

was so great that I heard there were then resident at the 

court forty worthy personages of great note out of both 

Nations, besides their foUowers, Gentlemen that ruffled it 

very gaUantly. But to conclude my narration of this part 

of the Palace, certainly it is so regall a structure that I 

conjecture it cost at the least forty thousand pounds 

sterling. This Prince hath newly built a very stately 

long porch also at the entrance of the Palace, which was 

not throughly finished when I was there. 

There is a notable thing to be seene in this Palace, the 
sight whereof it was not my hap to enjoy, because I heard 
nothlng of it before I went out of the Palace : a matter 
of great antiquity. Namely certaine ancient stony pillars, ,' A, fy,„ 
in number five, which the Emperor Carolus Magnus above iiajy. 
eight hundred and fifty yeares since brought from the City 
or Ravenna in Italie, and placcd them afterward in his [p. +86.] 
Palace of Ingelheim a place of hjgh Germany within a few 
miles of the City of Mentz, where he was borne, and 
oftentimes kept his Court. The same pillars were of late 
yeares removed from the said Ingelheim to Heidelberg 
by the Prince Phihp of whom I have before made mention 
in my discourse of the Church of the holy Ghost, who 
erected them in this Palace whereof 1 now speake, and are 
there shewed for a principall ancient monument to this day. 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

But some of the Gentlemen of the Princes family did 

sufficiently recompence my losse of the sight of these 

ancient pillars by shewing me a certayne peece of worke 

'^fffS^a^ that did much more please my eies then the sight of those 

^ ^' pillars covdd have done. For it is the most remarkable 

and famous thing of that kinde that I saw in my whole 
journey, yea so memorable a matter, that I thinke there 
was never the like fabrick (for that which they shewed me 
was nothing else than a strange kinde of fabrick) in all the 
world, and I doubt whether posterity will ever frame so 
monstrously strange a thing : it was nothing but a vessel 
full of wine. Which the Gentlemen of the Court shewed 
me after they had first conveighed me into divers wine 
cellars, where I saw a wondrous company of extraordinary 
great vessels, the greatest part whereof was replenished 
with Rhenish wine, the totall number contayning one 
hundred and thirty particulars. But the maine vessel 
above all the rest, that superlative moles unto which I now 
bend my speech, was shewed me last of all standing alone 
by it selfe in a wonderfull vast roome. I must needes 
say I was suddenly strooken with no smail admiration 
upon the first sight thereof . For it is such a stupendious 
masse (to give it the same epitheton that I have done 
before to the beauty of St. Marks streete in Venice) that 
I am perswaded it will affect the gravest and constantest 
Ont ofthe man in the world with wonder. Had this fabrick beene 
woH^s oftMe extant in those ancient times when the Colossus of Rhodes, 

the Labyrinths of -^gypt and Creta, the Temple of Diana 
[p. 487.] at Ephesus, the hangmg gardens of Semiramis, the Tombc 

of Mausolus, and the rest of those decantated miracles did 
flourish in their principail glory, I thinke Herodotus and 
Diodorus Siculus would have celebrated this rare worke 
with their learned stile as well as the rest, and have con- 
secrated the memory thereof to immortaiity as a very 
memorable miracle. For indeede it is a kinde of mon- 
strous miracle, and that of the greatest sise for a vessell 
that this age doth yeeld in any place whatsoever (as I am 
verily perswaded) under the cope of heaven, Pardon me 

218 



I 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

I pray thee (gentle Reader) if I am something tedious in 

discoursing or this huge vessel. For as it was the strangest 

spectacle that I saw in my travels : so I hope it will not be 

unpleasant unto thee to reade a ful description of all the 

particular circumstances thereof : and for thy better satis- 

faction I have inserted a true figure thereof in this place 

(though but in a small forme) according to a certaine 

patterne that I brought with me from the City of Franck- 

ford, where I saw the first type thereof sold, Also I have 

added an imaginary kinde of representation of my selfe 

upon the toppe of the same, in that manner as I stood 

there with a cup of Rhenish wine in my hand. The 

roome where it standeth is wonderfuU vast (as I said 

before) and capacious, even almost as bigge as the fairest 

hall I have seene in England, and it containeth no other 

thing but the same vessell. It was begunne in the yeare ^^*' *» ^« 

1589. and ended 1591. one Michael Warner of the City ^"^■'* 

of Landavia being the principall maker of the worke. It 

containeth a hundred and two and thirty fiiders, three 

omes, and as many firtles. These are pecuHar names for 

certain German measures. Which I will reduce to our 

English computation. Every fuder countervaileth our 

tunne, that is, foure hogsheads, and is worth in HeJdel- 

berg fifteene pound sterling. So then those hundred two 

and thirty fuders are worth nineteene hundred and foure- [p. 488.] 

score poundes of our English money, The ome is a 

measure whereof sixe do make a fiider, the three being 

worth seven pounds ten shillings. The firtle is a measure 

that countervaileth slxe of our pottles : every pottle in 

Heidelberg is worth twelve pence sterling. So the three 

firtles containing eighteen pottles, are worth eighteene 

shillings. The totall summe that the wine is worth which '^^' ^"". 

this vessell containeth, doth amount to nineteene hundred riftuniiteorti 

fourescore and eight pounds and eight odde shillings. ^1988.8/. 

This strange newes perhaps will seeme utterly incredible 

to thee at the first : but I would have thee beleeve it. 

For nothing is more true. Moreover thou must consider 

that this vessel is not compacted of boords as other ' 



ther barrels ^h 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

are, but of solid great beames, in number a hundred and 
twelve, whereof every one is seven and twenty foot long. 

The tm^s Also each end is sixteene foote high, and the belJy 

Smnuums. eighteene. It is hooped with wonderous huge hoopes of 
yron (the number whereof is sixe and twenty) which doe 
containe eleven thousand pound weight. It is supported 
on each side with ten marvailous great pillars made of 
timber, and beautified at both the ends and the toppe with 
the images of Lyons, which are the Princes armes, two 
Lyons at each end, a faire scutchin being affixed to every 
image. The wages that was paid to the workeman fbr 

/// cost his labour, (the Prince finding all necessary matter for his 
worke, and allowing him his dyet) came to two thousand 
three hundred and fourescore Florens of Brabant, each 
Floren being two shillings of our money, which summe 
amounteth to eleven score and eighteene pounds sterling. 
When the Cellerer draweth wine out or the vessel, he 
ascendeth two severall degrees of wooden staires made in 
the forme of a ladder which containe seven and twenty 
steps or rungs as we call them in Somersetshire, and so 
goeth up to the toppe. About the middle whereof there 

[p. 489.] is a bung-hole or a venting orifice into the which he con- 
veigheth a pretty instrument of some foote and halfe long, 
made in the forme of a spout, wherewith he draweth up 
the wine, and so poureth it after a pretty manner into the 
glasse or &c. out of the same instrument. I mv selfe had 
experience of this matter. For a Gentleman of the Court 
i accompanied me to the toppe together with one of the 
Cellerers, and exhilarated me with two sound draughts of 

Thewine. Rhenish wine. For that is the wine that it containeth. 
But I advise thee gentle Reader whatsoever thou art that 
intendest to travell into Germany, and perhaps to see 
Heidelberg, and also this vessell before thou commest out 
of the City ; I advise thee (I say) if thou dost happen to 
ascend to the toppe thereof to the end to tast of the wine, 
that in any case thou dost drinke moderately, and not so 
much as the sociable Germans will persuade thee unto. 
^ For if chou ahoiUdest chance to over-swill thy selfe with 

aao 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

wine, peradventure such a giddincsse wil benumme thy 
braine, that thou wilt scarce finde the direct way downe 
from the steepe ladder without a very dangerous precipita- 
tion. Having now so copiously described unto thee the 
vessell, I have thought good to adde unto this my poore 
description, certaine Latin verses made by a learned 
German in praise of the vessell, which I have selected out 
of the coppy that I bought at Franckford, being printed 
at the Universitie of Lcyden in Holland by one Henry 
Hcestenius Anno 1608. and dedicated to a certaine Noble 
man called Hippolytus Lord President of the Princes 
Chancerie Court. 



The 



verses are 



the; 



OTia dum vario partiri quemque labore, 
Exercere suas experiorque vices. 
Nauta rates, enses miles, rus curvus arator, 

Piscator tractat retia, pastor oves, 
Me quoque dum sfudium novitatis dulce tenebat, 

Nescio quod rari verso laboris opus. 
Vas immane, ingens, quod fortfe jacere videbam, 

Vas majus nostro robore pondus erat, 
Diogenis tanti prfe pondere Vasis habebat 

Dolioli parvi parva figura nihil. 
Nec qui projectis turbabat montibus sequor 

Hoc versare Cyclops sustinuisset onus. 
Nec, qui ducebant, potuissent ducere plures 

Trojanum, Trojas flebile robur, equum. 
Voluendo tanto desperabundus abibam, 

Par oneri nec enim, nec satls unus eram. 
Quis mihi conanti tantum superare laborem 

Attulerit sociam certus amicus opem? 
Vos Oratores, quos has Fredericus in oras 

Misit in auxilium pacis, adeste, precor. 
Forsan erit, nostra per vos hac mole levata, 

Nonnihil hoc vestrum quo relevetur onus, 
Ergo jugum mecum superate quod indicat arcem, 



[p- 490-] ! 



Lrgo 
Qu 



lua vas artifices hoc statuere manus. 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

frsts in Nec dubia est, facilis nos semita ducet euntes, 
me rfthe Omnibus est signis & via nota suis. 
Est locus excultis genialis & utilis hortis, 

Collibus apricis, pampineisque jufiis. 
Quk Nicer excelsas Pater alluit mdytus arces, 

£t prono Rhenum spiunifer amne subit. 
Qull myrtiUorum montem probat esse Melissus, 

Qui Myrtilleti nomen in astra tulit. 
Hic specimen natura loci, genius(jue locavit, 

Copiae & hic cornu fertile, dixit, habe. 
Ubertas renmi nullis feliciiis arvis, 

Hlc Bacchi, hic Cereris copia tanta venit. 
Horrea distendant ut fruges saep^, coloni 

Respondet votis tam ben^ cultus ager. 
Ssep^ per autiunnum superantia munera Bacchi, 

Condere rit^ suas copia nescit opes. 
Quin sua saep^ nocet lascivis copia Faunis, 

Quo nimis occcecat prodigus usus opum. 
^ J.O1 1 Et dubitamus adhuc dare pectora grata datori 

Nostra Deo, tantis coelit^s aucta bonis? 
Sed designatis ne collibus altids istis, 

Terminus hic positus, progrediamiu*, erit. 
Collibus Heroes prisci his habitasse feruntur, 

Servat adhuc sedes signa decusque Patrum. 
Sed praeter veterum monumenta augusta Parentmn 

Nil prius Aonidum vertice collis habet. 
Dum licuit cultos hos olim intravimus hortos, 

Et posthac tempus visere forsan erit. 
Nunc age, fas magni Vas instar visere montis, 

Divina structum Palladis arte cadum. 
Vel Cuppam, vel quo te molem nomine dicam, 

Seu monstrum, salv^ te pietate, vocem. 
Authorem primam si Pallada vasis habemus, 

(Nam rerum artificem tot posuere Deam.) 
Invideat Bacchus, fiatque injiu*ia Divae, 

Cum Baccho quid enim mascula Pallas habet.^ 
Vitisator Dux acer ades; tibi nostra parentet, 

Te Musa authorem Dux Casimire canit. 

222 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

Pro charo Princeps dum sceptra Nepote gerebas, 

Pace Palatinam multiplicante domum. 
Inter, qus domus alta colit, decora alta Parentum, 

Qui tantEE, optabas, conderet artis opus. 
Nobilis author, adest, urbs quem Landavia misit, 

Fine potita suo gloria ponit opus. 
Ponit opus, decus acre Ducum, non quale priorum, 

^tas vel vidit, nulla vel ausa manus, 
Non, mihi si prjestent mirandam Djedalus artem 

Ipse, Syracusius ve! fiiber ille suam : 
Immanem molem satls hanc describere possem, 

Ante suo voluam pondus onusque loco. 
Clara Rhodos jactet mJraclum immane Colossum, 

Et Laurentiacum Bcetica terra suum, 
Et Batavi currum, qui prEEvolat ocyor Euro, 

Quodque fide majus nuUo agitatur equo. 
Quisque suum jactet : par huic tamen esse negamus [p. 491,] 

Dolium, onus, molem, pondus, & arcis opus. 
Laude opus hoc dignum est : oculos cum ccetera pascant, 

Spectaclum ventres hoc satiare potest. 

Thus finally I shut up the description of this strange 
Vessell with a certaine admirable thing that I heard 
reported of it in Frankford, after my departure from 
Heidelberg, that the same being fiill of Wine was once 
drunke out in the space of eight dayes, at the time of a 
certain noble meeting of Princely Gallants at the Court. 

Seeing I am now writing of the memorables of the 
Princes Palace, I will make mention of the Prince him- 
selfe that is the Lord of the Palace, and of his Princely 
titles or Electorall dignitle, But first of his titles. Thus "^,^ ^''«^. 
he is most commonly stiled : Serenissimus Princeps, fitt. '' 
Elector, Comes Palatinus ad Rhenum, Sacri Romam 
Imperii Archidapifer, & Bavariae Dux. He is the chiefe 
Elector Prince of the Empire above the other secular 
Princes, which are the Duke of Saronie, and the Mar- 

auesse of Brandenburg, having the superioritie of them in 
lese two respects. First in that he giveth his suffrage in 



I 




Etyfitotogj Of 
PtkHne. 
[p- +93-] 



CORYATS CRUDTTIES 

the election of the Emperour before them, Secondlyl^ 
because he taketh prioritie of pkce above them at any 
imperiall Diet, For he sitteth on the right hand of the 
Emperour, being the next man to the King of Bohemia, 
The reason why he is intitled Archidapifer (which word 
doth signifie the principall Sewer to the Emperour) is 
because he is chiefe Sewer to the Emperour, and attendeth 
him at Table the first meale that hee maketh after his 
Election, according to an ancient custome that hath beene 
ccntinually observed at the Emperours election any time 
these sixe hundred yeares and a little more, by the first 
institution of Otho the third Germane Emperor of that 
name. As for his title of Palatinus added to Comes, the 
opinions of the learned doe much differ about the etymo- 
logie of the word ; for some say it is derived from the 
word Palas which was heretofore the name of a Country 
called Capellatium, inhabited in former times by the 
ancient Intuergi, a people that dwelt in that part of the 
Palatinate where Heidelberg now standeth. Of this 
opinion is Gaspar Peucerus and learned Beatus Rhenanus. 
Whereof the later citeth a place out of Ammianus Marcel- 
linus for the better confirmation of the matter, Others 
draw the word Palatinus from Palatium, because the Count 
Palatlne is an eminent Peere of the Emperours Palace : for 
indeede Counts Palatine were heretofore the Prefects of 
Palaces, especially in the Courts of Emperours, where they 
bare the ilke authoritie to hlm that was in times past Major 
Domus in the French Kings Court. Agalne, there are 
some that affirme it hath his name from a certalne Castle 
situate in the middle of the Rhene, called Pfeltz, which 
word signifieth in the high Dutch a Palace. It was my 
chance to passe by this foresaid Castle in my journey by 
water upon the Rhene betwixt the Cities of Mentz and 
Colen, as I wil! hereafter report. From the same word 
Pfaltz this Prince is most commonly the Pfaltsgrave of 
Rhene ; but that etymologle, which I approve above the 
rcst, is the derivation of Palatinus from Palas the Name 
of the Countrey : fbr it maketh more for the dignitie and 




J 



\ineiil7li/r,i 




OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

honour of the Prince, to derive his name from that then 

from any other thing, because it argueth the greater 

antiquity of his title. For Ammianus MarceUinus that 

calleth thc tract about Heidelberg, Palas, Uved for more 

then a thousand & two hundred yeares since, even in the 

time of the Emperor Julian the Apostata. Moreover the 

addition of these words (Ad Rhenum) to Comes Palatinus 

groweth herehence, because the greater part of his terri- 

torie doth lye by the river Rhene. As for the originall 

of this renowned stocke of the Casimires (for that is the Family nam 

gentilitiall name of the Count Palatines familie) it is oftAe Prince 

derived from Arnolphus surnamed Malus the eldest sonne ^"''""'f- 

of the Emperor Arnolphus by his first wife Agnes. So ^ 

that it is above seven hundred yeares old. Likewise the 

Electoral dignity of this Princely familie is of good 

antiquity. For it beganne about the yeare 1003. At 

what time the hereditarie succession of the Empire was 

converted to an election ; Henry the Count Palatine being 

the first Elector of this femilie, who with other Princes 

Spiritual and Temporal elected Henry the second sur- 

named *Sanctus (the first of all the German Emperors that 

was chosen by the Suffrages of the Elector Princes) into 

the Empire in the yeare abovesaid ; but now I will speake 

a little of him that was Count Palatine of Rhene at the 

time of my being in Heidelberg, namely Fredericke the '^""'"^' ''• 

fourth of that name, who died as I understand this last Pa/g/i„ 

Sommer. He was a man of most heroicall and Princely 

parts. He matched in the Princely house of Orange. 

For he manyed the noble Lady Ludovica daughter to 

William that worthy Prince of Orange that was slaine at 

the Towne of Delph in Holland, and sister to that 

renowned Prince Maurice generall Commander of the 

• Hee vfi» SQ called for his moat rarc continencie, becauac though he 
had a most faire Lady to hia wife called Cunegunda, and did concinuall)' 
lie in the same Bed wiih hcr: Yet both of them wich » mutuall consenl 
abitained from carnall copulation and preserved their virginity till their 
deaCh. The Hke cxamplc I thinkc is not to bec found at this Day in 
Chnitendome. 



I 



1 




CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

Armics of thc unitcd Provinccs : hec was much addicted 
to learning, and accountcd a grcat Mccoenas and patron 
of thc Muscs. And (which is thc principall thing of all) 
hcc was a singular Nutritius and foster-fathcr of the 
Church. For hce professcd thc samc rcformcd Religion 
that wcc doe in England, and hath uttcrly rootcd Poperie 
out of his Dominion, which first began to be suppressed in 
the Palatinatc by Frcdericke thc sccond of that namc 
Count Palatinc of Rhcnc, in thc ycarc 1546. Besides hee 
descrveth great praisc for one most princcly vertue, even 
His njal his royall hospitalitic ; for he hath thc fame to bc the most 
kospttoBij. magnificent Housc-kccper of all thc Germane Princes, the 

Dukc of Saxonic (though his superiour in largencsse of 

Dominion and opulcncie of estate) thc Marquesse of 

Brandenburgc, thc Duke of Brunswicke, and all the other 

[p- 495-] Soveraignc Jnrinces of Germanic, being inferiour unto him 

in this most laudable cxcrcisc of Hospitalitic ; who was 
sometimes so passing bountifull, that I havc hcard there 
havc beenc a hundr^ sevcrall Tablcs in his Palacc fillcd 
at onc meale with ghests, and very bountifuUy fumishcd 
with meate. It was my chance whcn I camc to the Citie 
of Colcn, to sce his Effigies very curiously made, answer- 
able to the life, according to the originall patternc whereof 
I have procured another Figure to be made, as trucly 
correspondent to the first, as my Carvcr could by imitation 
attainc unto, and have placed it here for the better omament 
of this discoursc of the Count Paktine. Likewisc I have 
addcd sixe Latinc verscs, which I found subscribed to his 
Efiigics in the foresaid Citic of Colen, with mention of 
whidi I wil cnd this treatisc of thc titles attributcd to the 
Count Palatine of Rhenc, and the narration of Prince 
Fredericke the fourth. 

[p. 496.] Thus much of the Pfaltzgraves Palace, his Electorall 

dignitie, titles, and Princely hospitalitie. 

[p. 497.] T T 7Hereas I said before that there are two things which 
Unhersity of ^^ doe notably beautifie this Citie, besides thc Chxirch 
Heidelberg. of thc Holy Ghost, namely the Princes Palace, and thc Uni- 

226 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

versitie; having ended my description of the former two, 

I will now make relation of the Universitie, being verie 

sorie that I cannot discourse so largely thereof as I would. 

For that little time that I spent in Heidelberg (which was 

no more then one whole day) I bestowed in seeing the 

Palatine Library, the principall Church, and the Princes 

Court. So that I omitted to see any of their CoUedges, 

and therefore unable to satisfie thy expectation of those 

things which perhaps thou wilt most require at my hands. 

Only I can tell thee the founder of the Universitie was 

Rupertus the elder, whom I have before mentioned, Count 

Palatine of Rhene, and King of the Romanes, the same 

that founded the Church of the holy Ghost. This laud- ^"'^''T'^ - 

able worke he began in the yearc 1346. The CoIIedges -YJI^g ' * 

are but three in number, whereof that which is called the 

Colledge of Wisedome is the feirest, in which their theo- 

logicall exercises are handled. The second is the Casi- 

mirian CoIIedge, wherein are exercises of alJ the liberall 

sciences. The third is called the Bursa, wherein all 

faculties are professed also : although this Universitie be 

but little, yet it hath partly bred, and partly entertained 

many singular men of rare learning that have both 

eternized their owne names, and greatly graced this 

Universitie with the excellent fruits of their studies that 

they have communicated to the world. For here lived 

and died famous Rodolphus Agricola that most learned 

Frisian of the noble Citie of Groninga. The Elogium Erasmu/i 

of whose excellent learning written by Erasmus (as I finde '/"gy o" 

it in his Chiliades, even in the first Chiliad in the nine ^'^"!l^ 

and thirtieth adage of the fburth Centurie) because it is ^' 

very memorable, and doth greatly illustrate the glorie of 

this rare man, I will here expresse, whose words are these. 

Hoc equidem adagium eo libentius refero, quod mihi 

refricat novatque memoriam pariter ac desiderium Rodol- [p- 498.J. 

phi AgricolK Frisii, quem ego virum totius tiim Germaniffi, 

tCim Italia; publico summoque honore nomino : illius, quie 

genuerit : hujus, qux literis optimis instituerit. Nihil 

enim unquam hic Cisalpinus orbis produxit omnibus liter- 



I 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

ariis dotibus absolutius: absit invidia dicto. Nulla erat 
honesta disciplina, in qu4 vir ille non poterat cum summis 
artificibus contendere. Inter Grsecos Graccissimus^ inter 
Latinos Latinissimus. In carmine Maronem alterum 
dixisses : In oratione Politianum quendam lepore referebat^ 
majestate superabat. Oratio vel extemporsdis ade6 pura, 
ade6 Germana, ut non Frisium quempiam, sed urbis 
Romanse vernaculum loqui contenderes. EloquentisB tam 
absolutae parem adjunxerat eruditionem. Fhilosophie 
mysteria omnia penetraverat. NuUa pars musices quam 
non exactissim^ odleret. Extremo vitse tempore ad literas 
Hebraicas ac Scripturam divinam totum animum appulerat 
Atque hsec conantem fatorum invidia virum terris eripuit 
nondum annos natum quadraginta, sicut accipio. Thus 
much Erasmus of Rodolphus Agricola, whose testimonie 
consisting of so many sweete words I was the more willing 
to alledge, because it is an introduction to a most elegant 
JgricMs Epitaph written upon the said Agricola by that famous 
epitaph. ^^ learned Venetian Gentleman Hermolaus Barbarus 

Patriarch of Aquileia ; which Epitaph (as it is extant upon 
the monument of him in one of the lesser Churches of 
Heidelberg) was conmiunicated xmto me by a leamed 
Gentleman of the Universitie, (and mentioned also by 
Erasmus himselfe in the same adafi^e whence I have derived 
the premisses) who told me that Agricola was buried there 
Anno 1485 in the habite of a Franciscan Frier, according 
as I have sometimes observed secular men buried in 
Italy. 

The Epitaph is this. 

Invida clauserunt hoc marmore fata Rodolphum 
Agricolam, Frisii spemque decusque soli : 
[P* 499-] Scilicet hoc uno meruit Germania laudis 

Quidquid habet Latium, Grsecia quicquid habet. 

Having now insisted upon the praise of worthy Rodolpus 
Other kamed AgricoTa in regard he was buried in this renowned dty, I 
min. wil briefly name some other learned men of this noble 

228 



OBSERVATIONS OF HEIDELBERG 

University, & so finally end this discourse of Heidelberg. 
Here Hved Joannes Dalburgius counseller to Ludovicus 
Count Palatine of Rhene, and afterward Bishop of 
Wormes, a man of singukr learning. Here also pro- 
fessed that admirable Hebrician Conradus PelHcanus, who 
rcad the Hebrew lecture ; and Sebastian Munster his Seiaiimt 
successor in the same lecture which he read there five years, '"'""*''• 
as he himselfe doth write. Likewise he wrote some part 
of his Cosmographie in this Universitie, as Mr. Gruterus 
tcld me : here Joannes Virdungus that notable Mathema- 
tician professed the Mathematicke disciplines. Here 
Gulielmus Xylander borne in fhe renowned citie of 
Augusta, and famoused over all Christendome for his 
excellent learning, especially in the studie of humanitie, 
read Philosophie and Astrologie for the space of many 
yeares ; and also did at last shut up his vitall daies in this 
citie. Here that Phcenix and miracle of her sexe Olympia O^mpU 
Fulvia Morata an Italian Gentlewoman borne,spent a eood \~*'"' 
part or her time m sacred meditations, and most sweete 
exercises of learnJng, after she had abandoned the vanities 
of the Duke of Ferraraes Court in Italy, and the popish 
religion; who by her incessant study profited so much in 
the Greeke and Latine tongues, that she hath immortalized 
her feme by her most elegant writings, and added some 
grace to Heidelberg even by leaving of her precious bones 
there. liere Victorinus Strigelius publikely professed 
after he had before bene a professor in the two Universities 
of Jene and Leipzicke. Here Joannes Willingus a 
singular Divine and preacher of the Court florished. Here 
preached that worthy man Gaspar Olevian : here those rare 
divines, three shining lamps of Christs Church, Emanuel ^*^'' ihking 
Tremellius a Jew borne as I have before written in my note ^^'t ' 
of Venice ; Zacharius Ursinus, and Petrus Boquinus read \„_ eoo.\ 
with no lesse profit then praise the publike lectures of 
divinity. Whereof the first hath infinitely profited the 
Church by his excellent translation of all the old ^ 
out of Hebrew into Latine with his learned 
Francis Junius, and their sound scholaies upon 
339 



I 



profited the ^H 

d Testament ^H 

:d copartner ^H 

'n the same. ^H 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

The other two have like most valiant champions of Christ, 
especially Ursinus, fought the Lords battell against the 
enemies of Gods true religion, partly with their eloquent 
tonmies, and partly with their elegant quilles. The one 
of them, I meane that holy Ursinus, having besides many 
other most learned tracts of divinity, written so incompar- 
ably leamed a Catechisme, and so profitable imto Gods 
Church, that I thinke there was never any booke of the 
like subject since the time of the Apostles worthy to be 
paralleled with it; the other, besides many excellent 
theologicall tracts that he hath written, hath most manfully 
defenaed the old and ancient Christianisme against the new 
and counterfaited Jesuitisme. Here also lived Paulus 
Melissus that excellent Poet and worthy Knight Palatine. 
Here Bartholomew Kicherman that notable artist professed 
Logicke and Philosophy. Here finally flourished those 

Fmrfmm foure famous men at that time that I was in Heidelberg ; 

*^' David Pareus publike professor of Divinity, Dionysius 

Gothofredus an excellent civill Lawyer, Doctor Lingel- 
semius and Janus Gruteruswhom I have before mentioned, 
such as greatly gratified me in the citie. All these from 
the first to the last have bene so excellent and learned 
writers that thev have gotten themselves such a celebrity 
of name, as will never be extingmshed while the fabricke 
of the world do last. 

Thus much of Heidelberg. 

[p. soi.] T Departed from Heidelberg the eight day of September 

A being Thursday about nine of the clocke in the mom- 
ing, and came to the City of Spira which is twelve miles 
beyond it, about five of the clock in the afternoone. 

A greatvfood. Betwixt these two Cities I passed through a great wood, 

which by reason of the manifold turnings and windings of 
the way like a company of voluminous Meanders, did so 
exceedingly perplexe me, that I got out of the same with 
no small difficulty. About three miles before I came to 
Spira I was ferried over the Rhene in a boate. 

330 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 



My Observations of Spira commonly called 

Spier. 

THis City hath had two names, Spira and Nemetum ; 
whereor Spira was the ancientest : which Peucer 
aifirmeth to have been imposed upon the City from the 
Greeke word a-Treipa, which amongst many other signi- 
(ications signifieth also a Pratorian cohort. Because 
whereas Constantius Chlorus the iather of Constantine 
the great was esteemed either the first founder or the 
inlarger thereof, (in which I have read he buried his 
mother Claudia the daughter of Fbvius Claudius the 
Emperour, and the predecessour of the Emperour Aureli- 
anus) he placed a Prsetorian cohort in this City for fhe 
defence both of the same place and of the territorie about 
it. Therefore seeing it doth manifestly appeare (saith 
Pcucer) that Constantius made his Rendevous about these 
places neare adjoyning to Spira, the conjecture is neither 
absurd nor ahene from the historicall truth, fhat Spira had 
her denomination from certain Grecian cohorts. But in 
processc of fime fhis name Spira was converted to Neme- 
tum from certaine people called Nemetes, who inhabited 
that territorie where the City now standeth, which name it 
retained for the space of many yeares till the yeare after 
Clirists incarnation 1080. at what time it recovred her old 
name againe, by reason that a certaine Bishop whose name 
was Rudiger (as Munster relateth the history) did include 
a certaine Village called Spira neare adjoyning to the said 
Nemetum (which indeede was fhe frue remnant of the 
ancient Spira built in the fime of the foresaid Constantius) 
within the walles of the City. And by this meanes thc 
old buf not the firsf name Nemefum (reccived from thc 
foresaid people Nemetes) was exfinct : and the ofher namc 
of Spira (the true ancient appellafion firsf affributed unto 
it at the time of her originall foundafion) rose againe. 
Sincc which time it hath continually retained fhe same 
name to this day, but with an addition of the name of the 



•4 

Sfiirei aiie 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

people Nemetes. For it is commonly called Spira Neme- 
tum. Againe Munster difFering from the opinion of 
learned Peucer draweth the name of Spira from a certaine 
river so called, that issueth out of certaine hils not &rre 
from the City. Which river (saith he) gave the name to 
the ancient villag^e, and hath since conmiunicated the same 
unto the City it selfe, because it runneth at this day 
through the City. But I preferring the opinion of Peuccr 
had rather derive it from the Greeke word tnretpa signi- 
fying a band of Souldiers (which me thinks is the more 
elegant derivation) then from the river Spira. 

Situatm of Yhe situation of it is very pleasant. For it standeth in 
ptres. ^ fertiil plaine, being watered partly by the foresaid river 

Spira that runneth through it, and p^utly by the noble 
Rhene, which indeede washeth not the walles thereof as it 
doth Basil, Mentz, and Colen, and many other Cities and 
Townes, but is remote from it about the space of one 
furlong. The compasse of it is something larger then 
that of Heidelberg, and is invironed with goodly walles 
that are exceedingly beautified both with battlements, and 
with very lofty *towers being of such a heigth that they 
equal the towers of many or our English Churches, the 
liice whereof I have not seene in any place in my whoie 

[p. 503-] journey, saving only one in Padua called Antenors tower 

whereof I have before spoken. Also many of these 
towers have peculiar gate-houses belonging to them, which 
doe greadv garnish the City, and make it very conspicuous 

/^^r/i anJ ^ f^^ qQ 'j^jjg streets are many, and very faire as well 
^* for breadth as length; especially the great streete that 
leadeth to the Cathedrall Church, which is on both sides 
five and thirty paces broade ; for I paced it : and decked 
with many sumptuous buildings that yeeld the farre fairer 
shew, because some of the pnncipallest have their fronts 
very curiously painted. Also that exquisite forme of 
building their houses (whereof I have made mention before 
in my description of Strasbourg) by garnishing both the 

* These towers and their walles were built by one of their Bishops 
called Rudiger, of whom I have already spoken. 

232 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

endes with battlements, which are by little and little 
acuminated till they rise to a sharpe toppe, doth especially 
adorne their buildings. Which ^hion I observed in 
Heidelberg also, and in most Cities both of higher and 
lower Germanie. 

The Churches of the City are in number sixteene, Ckmrthestf 
whereof foure are Collegiat, foure that are called Parish ^f^^' 
Churches, foure of Mendicant Friers, three of Nunnes, 
and one of Jesuits. Their Cathedrall Chiirch is dedicated 
to our Lady, (which our eloquent but Apostate country- 
man Robert Turner in a Tract intitled Triumphus 
Bavaricus, affirmeth to be as great a grace to this City 
as a white tooth to an iEthiopian) a very magnificent 
structure that yeeldeth a most gorgeous shew a larre ofF 
by reason of the foure lofty turrets built at the corners 
thereof, which to those that come towards the City do 
TO-esent a prety kinde of forme not unlike to a cnuUe. 
This Church was founded about the yeare 1030. by the 
Emperour Conrade the second surnamed Salicus. Who 
upon the twelfth day of Julie the same yeare placed the 
first fundamentall stone with his owne handes. But by 
reason that God called him out of the world before he 
could accomplish his worke, he injoyned his sonne Henry 
the third in his death-bedde, who succeeded him in the [p. 504.] 
Empire, to finish the building that he beganne, which was 
accordingly performed by his said sonne. 

I observed more monuments of Emperors and royall ^^ rvjal 
Persons buried in the Quire of this Church then in any ^*****"^- 
other whatsoever in my whole voyage. For here lie the 
bodies of eight German Emperors and two Empresses, 
besides many other worthy wights of both sexes. The 
Emperors I will reckon by desprees in order as they reigned. 
The first was Conradus Sdicus the sixteenth German 
Emperor, and the first of the imperiaU familie of Fran- 
conia, who was founder of the Church as I have akeady 
said. Here was he buried after he had reigned fifteene 
yeares, his body being translated hither from the City of 
Utricht in the Netherlands, where he died in the yeare 

«33 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

1039. ^^ ^^ ^^^^ Gisela the daughter of 
King of France was buried in the same place about five 
HeMry III. yeares after. The second was Henry the third the seven- 
s^iuuintk teenth German Emperor siu-named the Blacke, the fbresaid 
Empmr. Conradus his sonne by his wife Gisela, who died in the 
yeare 1056. of his age forty, of his Empire seventeene, 
being choaked with a morsell of bread. There was he 
interred the fifth day of November which was the same 
day that he was borne. Their monuments I saw in the 
middle of the Quire, being not built with that royall 
magnificence as the Tombes of great Potentates are in this 
ambitious age. There were some other royall Peeres of 
the same stocke or familie biu-ied there also: but every 
one hath not his severall epitaph. For this one short 
epitaph serveth for them all. 

Filius hic, pater hlc, avus hic, proavus jacet isdc, 
Hlc Proavi conjux, hlc Henrici senioris. 

By Proavi conjux is meant the Empresse Gisela, by 

Henrici senioris the Empresse Bertha. The third was 

^^n ^r* ^^^"7 ^^^ fourth, the eighteenth Germane Emperour 

G^»m surnamed the elder, the former Henry his sonne by the 

Emferor. Empresse Agnes the daughter of the Duke of Aquitanie : 

[p. 505.] this is that heroicall and martiall Emperoiu- that fought 

sixtie two battels in the field, in most whereof hee got the 

victorie: hee died in Liege upon the seventh day of 

August, in the fiftie and sixe yeare of his age after he had 

reigned fortie nine yeares, and in the yeare of our Lord 

1106. his body was brought to Spira, five yeares after his 

death (diuing al which time it was kept above ground in 

the foresaid Citie of Liege, and deprived of the honour 

of biu-iall by the Popes commandment) where he was 

interred neere to his wife Bertha the daughter of Otto an 

Italian Marquesse ; shee was biuied there about nineteene 

yeares before, in the yeare 1087. her body being translated 

^heuentk ^^^^^^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Mentz. The tourth was Henry 
Germim ^^^ ^hYi^ the nineteenth Germane Emperour, surnamed 
Emferor. the yonger, the foresaid Henry the fourths sonne by his 

«34 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

wife Bertha : his body was brought thither from Utricht, 
where he died the tenth day of August 1 125. after hee had 
reigned nineteene yeares. The nfth is Philip borne in PMGpof 
the Citie of Bamben^, once Duke of Suevia, the foure and -^^^W- 
twentieth German Emperoiir, and the fifth sonne of that 
famous and victorious Emperoiu- Fredericke Barbarossa by 
his wife Beatrix: hee was slaine by Otto Paktine of 
Whittelbach in his Chamber in Bamberg, when his Physi- 
tion did let him bloud upon the tenth day of July in the 
yeare 1208. after he had reigned ten yeares. His body 
was first buried in the Cathedrall Church of Bamberg neere 
the Emperoiu- Henry surnamed the Holy, and afterward 
by the Emperoiu- Fredericke the second brought to Spira. 
His moniunent is graced with no other Epitaph, but this 
short inscription : 

Philippus Bambergensis. 

The sixth, Rodolphus Habspurgensis the two and thirtieth Rodofyk rf 

German Emperor, who died in a towne called Germers- ^^/'^*'y- 

heim seated upon a banke of the Rhene, the eighteenth 

day of August in the year 1291. of his age seventie and [p. 506.] 

three, of his Empire nineteene: fi*om the same hee was 

brought to Spira shortly after his death, and buried here 

with the rest. The seventh Adolphus Nassousensis the ^^ffof 

successQr of the foresaid Rodolphus, who after hee had ^^^- 

reigned eighteene yeares, was slaine neare this Citie upon 

the sixth day of July in the yeare 1298. by Albertus 

Austriacus afterward Emperour and the sonne of the 

Emperour Rodolphus Habspurgensis. For they fought 

a DueU, that is, a single combat in a field hard by Spura, 

where Albert suddenly invaded Adolphus as soone as hee 

was dismounted fi^om his horse; for as Adolphus was 

rising up to take horse againe, Albert prevented him, and 

with his sword did cut his throate. The eight and last 

Emperour is the foresaid Albert, of whom I wiU make 

no more mention in this place, but that hee.was buried 

here. Because in my discourse of the Monasterie of 

Kiningsfelden in Switzerland I have written a large history 

33S 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

of his most lamentable end, and of the translating of his 
body to this place. 

Besides the Monuments of ail those renowned persons 
intombed in the Quire, I also saw in the same place a 
memorable inscription in Latine verses concerning the 
persons themselves, which because I was barred of the 
opportunitie to write them out before I departed out of 
the place, by gpod fortime I procured the same of a leamed 
man of the Citie, who reated them to me perfectly by 
heart, even these. 

EpitaphoftAi Famosi Reges, clari Comitesque Ducesque, 

Emfem-s. £^ Reginarum nobilis usque phalanx : 

Hoc in magnifico (dum stabimt secula) templo 

Vestrarum laudum fama perennis erit. 
Quipp^ domo nostra, cui munera magna dedistis, 

Haud frustrk pkcuit corpora vestra tegi. 
Sperastis precibus animas quandoque levari, 
Hic facilem ad superos spes erat esse viam. 
[p. 507.] Vivite faelices seterna laude sepulti, 

Quoram animas coelum, corpora terra tenet. 

In the body of the Church I saw many things very 

worthy the observation. But two of them are more 

memorable then the rest. Therefore I will name them 

ReRcsofSaiHt f;j.st. These were matters concernine: Saint Bemard 

Abbot of Claraval in Bi^gundy. The one his salutation 
to the Virgine Mary. The other a coppy of a certaine 
Epistle that he wrote to the Bishop of Spira 8«:. His 
sdutation to the Virgin Mary is a most notable matter, 
which I was the more willing to observe, because I had 
both read, and often heard of it before I came thither. 
The history is this. When Saint Bernard came at a 
certaine time to the this Citie of Spira, he went to the 
Cathedrall Church to serve God, and as soone as he came 
within the first dore at the west end of the Chxirch, he 
kneeled very devoutly upon his knees, and zealously 
elevating both his hands he saluted the image of the Virgin 
Mary (which is shewed to this day at one corner of the 

236 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

outside of the Quire on the right hand thereof as you 
enter into the Church from the west dore) with thesc three 5««/ 
salutations, which for the better confirmation of the ^^^^^' 
memory of the matter to posterity were shortly after sahaaHous. 
writtcn in three severall pkces of the Church where he 
kneeled, being the space of thirty five foote distant 
asimder. The first was this, written in capitall letters in 
the same manner as I present it to thee. 

O 

CLEMENS 

MARIA. 

Which wordes are cut in brasen letters within a roimd 
peece of blew marble. But the word Maria is written 
otherwise then the rest. For it is contrived in that manner 
that the 5. letters of her name are severally made in the 
5. leaves of a rose, which are very curiously represented [p- 5^8.] 
in the same peece of marble. In the middle stone where 
he kneeled the second time, is written his second saluta- 
tion. 

O 
DULCIS 
MARIA. 

In the third his last salutation. 

O 

PIA 

MARIA. 

It is reported that the image did utter a voyce at that time ^ ^aking 
to Saint Bernard very like to a living and articulate voice *^^' 
of a man, by way of thanking & conunendinfi^ him for his 
devotion. But what the speech was I comd not reade 
in any authentick author (though I know Robert Turner 
whome I have mentioned a little before, writeth in his 
Trimnphus Bavaricus, that the image made this answere : 
Gratus ades nobis Bernarde,) nor heare from the report of 
any learned man. Yet I was very inquisitive fbr the 

237 




CORYAT-S CRUDITIES 

matter in Spira amongst the learned of all sorts 1 
Protestants and Papists, no man being able to tell me. 
But the answere that Saint Bernard made to the image I 
meane to conceale till some other edition of my booke 
after my fiiture travels, (if God shall mercifully prolong 
my life to accomplish some other outlandish voyage) and 
that for certaine reasons of no meane importance which I 
will not discover to the world. 

The other memorable thing of Saint Bernard that I saw 
Lp- 5°9l in the body of this Church, was a coppy of a certaine 
Saini Epistle that he wrote to the Bishop of Spira, the Clergie, 
e^tk^ ' ^"'^ ^^^ people of the citie, to the end to exhort them to 
joine their helpe and assistance unto those heroicall Princes 
that did in his daies undertake that famous voyage under 
the conduct of Godfrie Duke of Bouloigne to conquer the 
holy land, and eject the barbarous Saracens and Paynims 
that had possessed the same. Howbeit in this Epistle he 
maketh no mention at a! of the foresaid Godfrie- I finde 
that St. Bernard Hved about forty sixe yeares after he wrote 
this Epistle. For whereas it is very iikely that he wrote 
it about the time of the Councell of Clermont in France 
which was assembled by Pope Urban the second, of pur- 
pose to animate the Christian Princes to undertake that 
honourable expedition for the expugning of the holy land ; 
that Councell was holden anno 1 094. and St. Bernard died 
1 140. about the end of the raigne of the Emperour 
Lotharius the second. Surely the sight of the epistle did 
much comfort my heart, and in a manner refocillate my 
spirits. It is written in a very ancient peece of Parch- 
ment (which seemeth to be very neere five hundred yeares 
old, as being written eJther in the time of St. Bernard 
himselfe, which is almost so long since, or very shortly 
after) and hanged upon one of the pillars on the 
right hand of the Church, First of all this in red 
letters : Hjcc est epistola quam beatus Bernardus tem- 
pore illo ad passagium ad hortandum misit Domino 
Episcopo Spirensi, Clero, et populo universo. Next 
fbllaweth ^int Bemards owne superscription which 
=•38 



r 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 



was this. Domino et patri *karissiino venerabili Epis- 

copo Spirensi, et universo, Clero, et pcpulo, Bernardus 

Clarevallensis vocatus Abbas in spiritu fortitudinis abun- 

dare : then foUoweth the epistle itselfe in the latine tongue, 

which because I cannot communicate to my country for a 

meere novelty (for it hath bene commonly printed in all 

the editions of Saint Bernards workes, being in number 

the three hundreth two and twentieth epistle) I will not Ip- 5'o-]| 

set downe in Latin, supposing that many learned men will 

censure it for a superfluous labour, seeing it hath bene 

these many hundred yeares so common in the world. Yet 

since it was my hap to finde it out as I walked alone in the 

Cathedrall Church of Spira whereof I now write, being 

indeedc a most excellent treatise in respect of the worthi- 

nesse both of the argument and the author ; I thought it 

not impertinent to translate it according to my meane skil 

into our vulgar fongue (which I never heard to be done 

before by any man whatsoever:) submitting my simple 

translation to the favorable censure of the curteous 

reader. 

The Epistle I say itselfe is this. 

mAm to treate with you about a businesse of Christ, Saini 
m whom is all our salvation. Thls I speake that fi'™"^'» 
the authority of the Lord may cxcuse the unworthi- 'g^J^^j 
nesse of the person of the speaker, and that the considera- 
tion of selfe-utility may excuse it also. I wis I am but a 
meane man, yet I doe not meanely desire you all in the 
bowels of Jesus Christ. Now then there is that occasion 
of my writing unto you that I dare presume to salute the 
whole community of you with my letters. More gladiy 
would I doe it by word of mouth, if as I want not will, so 
also I had opportunity to performe it. Lo fnow (my 
brethren) is the acceptable time, lo now Is the day of plenti- 
fuil salvation. For the earth hath moved and trembled, 

*■ Thus was this word writtcn cven with the letter k at the beginning, 
according to ihat o]de and obselete manner. 
t 2. Cor. 6.cap. i. ve. 



CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

^^ ^ because the God of heaven hath begunne to lay waste his 
^tiuk^'^ owne land. His I say, wherein he hath bene seene to teach 
En^sked. ^^ word of his Father, and man with men to converae fbr 
the space of thirtie yeares and more. His certainly, since 
he hath iUustrated it with so many mirades, and dedicated 
fp- 5"-] it with his owne bloud, in which the first flowers of resui^ 
rection budded, and now our sinnes requiring it, the 
adversaries of die Crosse have sacrilegiously made head, 
wasting in the face of the sword the land of promise. For 
now it is well neare come to passe, if there be no bodie to 
resist, that they will rush into the very Citie of the livine 
God, overthrow the very shops of our redenrntion^ and 
poUute those holy places which were purplea with the 
bloiid of the Lambe immaculate. Yea they yawne with 
sacrilegious mouthes (out alas) to enter the very sanctuary 
of Christian religion, and they endeavour to invade and 
tread under feete that very bed wherein our Ufe fbr our 
sakes hath slept in death. What doe ye vaUant men? 
what doe ye that are the servants of the Crosse? what, 
wil ye give that which is holy imto dogs, f & pearls unto 
swine? how many sinners having there confessed their 
sinnes with teares have obtained pardon, after that the 
uncleannesse of the Pagans hath bene banished out of the 
Citie by the swords of our forefathers? the maUdous 
man sees this, and envies at it, gnasheth his teeth, and pines 
away. He stirreth up the vessels of his iniquity, intend- 
ing not to leave as much as any print or step of so great 
devotion, at the le&st if he can seise upon (which God 
forbid) those JHolyes of Holyes. And that would be to 
aU ages a most disconsolate griefe, because the losse is 
irrecoverable, but especiaUy unto this most impious 
generation it would breed an infinite confusion, and shame 
everlasting. But what thinke we brethren? what, is the 
hand of the Lord § shortned or become weake to save, in 
that he caUes his Uttle wormes to preserve and restore unto 
him his inheritance? what, is he not able to send more 
then twelve legions of Angels, or but say the word, and 

t Matth. 7. cap. 6. ve. { Sancu Sanctorum. §Ess^ 57^ cap. ye. 1, 

240 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

your land shall be deliveredr verily it is in his power to Sdin( 

do it when he list. But I tell you thc Lord God doth trie B'"<^^^^* \ 

you. He lookes backe upon the sonnes of men if £„^,4,/ I 

there bc any that understands, and enquires for II her, and 

bemoanes her case. For the Lord hath pitie on his people, [P- 5 ' *•] 

and doth provide a wholesome remedie for those that are 

grievously fellen. Consider how great cunning he doth 

use to save you, and be amazed at it. Behold the depth 

of his pietie, and be of good cheere O ye sinners. He 

will not your death, but that ye may be converted and live, 

Fcr he seekes an occasion not against you, but for you. 

For what is it but a studied occasion of salvation & picked 

out only by God himselfe, that the omnipotent doth 

vouchsare to quit from their bondage murderers, robbers, 

adulterers, pcrjured men, and those that are vassals to 

other crimes, as if they were a nation that had wrought 

righteousnesse? Doe "not distrust 6 ye sinners, the 

Lord is debonaire. If he meant to punish you, he wouM 

not only not crave your service, but would not entertainc 

it being offered by you. I say againe, weigh the riches 

of the goodnesse of fhe most high God, observe the 

counsell of his mercy, he either makes himselfe to have 

want, or seemes as though he had, while he covets to 

relieve your necessities. He will be held a debtor that 

he may give wages unto those that serve in his warfare, 

even indulgence of sinnes, and everlasting glory. Blessed 

may I call the generation whom so plentifull a time of 

indulgence layes hold upon, whom that pleasing yeare to 

the Lord and truly Jubilie doth finde alive. For this 

blessing is dispersed over all the world, and to the ensigne 

of life all men flie together with a kinde of contention. 

Therefore for as much as your territorie is fruitfuU of 

f valiant men, and knowen to be full of such as are in the 

IIThc Cltlc of Jeriisakm. •Joel 2. 

t In ihe Latin copp)' of SainC Bcrnardi Episde 1 find thesc wordo. 
Quia erg6 ftEcunda vitiorum terra vcstra, &c. vv^hcrcin I observe a faulL 
For I am pcrawaded that that word vitiorum should be virorum. Other- 
wise there can be no sense in it. The consideration whereof hath 
induccd me to translate it accordingly. 

C. C II 341 Q 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

^^ prime of their jouth (as your praise is sprcad all oivcr, and 
^^T^'' thc hmc of your prowesse hath filled thc whc^ worid) be 
g^LfigHf^ yce also couragiously girt, and in zcale of the Christiu 
name bctake yoursclves to happy armcs. Let fbrmer noc 
warfare but nialicc cease, whercwith ycc arc wont mutullj 
to destroy one another, that yee might bc mutuaDy cx»- 
sumed. What direfiill wilfiikiessc stirrcth upwretches,thit 
[p- 5 '3'] neighbours should pierce that body whosc soule perhapsts 
in case to perish. But he shall not escape to boast of it, and 
a sword luth pierced him to the very soule wfaen he dodi 
but onety rcjoyce at the fall of his enemie. To ezpose 
ones selfe to such a danger, were a token of madnesse, noC 
of prowesse. Neyther might it be ascribed to hardinesK^ 
but rather to folly. Now thou hast couramous aoldieri 
thou hast warlicke man where thou maiest skirmish witb- 
out danger, where it is both a glory to conquer, and to diei 
gaine. If thou art a wise and thriving Merchant, if a 
purchaser of this world, I bring thee tydings of a crett 
rayre, see thou slippe it not. Take the sime oftlic 
crosse, and thou shalt obtaine indulgence of aU thy stniio 
whereof thou shalt make a confession with a contrite heait 
The matter it self if it be bou^ht, is had fbr little or 
nothinc;. If it bee taken upon a devout shoulder, withotf 
doubt it is worth the Kingdome of God. Well therefiit 
have they done that have abeady taken the heaveiil^ 
cognisance, and others may doe well to lay hold on tiiit 
which may availe to their salvation. Touching tbc 
rest I advise you (my brethren) yet not I, but abo 
Gods *Apostle with me, that credite is not to be givento 
every spirit. We have heard and rejoice how the spA 
of God boileth in you : but it is altogether necessary tbt 
a due temperature of knowledge be not wanting. Tbt 
Jewes are not to be persecuted, nor to be slaine, no not 
so much as to bee banished from you. Aske yoursehcs 
the holy Scriptures. I know what is reaid in d»c 
§ Psalme prophesied of the Jewes. God shewes me (quod 
the Church) concerning my enemies, that thou kiU thoD 

♦ I John 4. § 50. 

242 




OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

not, least at any time my people prave forgetful. They Saiw 

are certaine living marks pointing out unto us the Lords ^^y''* 

passion. For this cause they have beene dispersed into a!l £„,/;,^,^_ 

Countreys, that while they sustaine the just punishment of 

so great a crime, they may be witnesses of our redemption. 

Whereupon the Church speaking in the same psalm addeth [p. 514.] 

this, Disperse them in thy vertue, and put them downe 

O Lord my profector : which hath accordingly come to 

jjasse. For they are dispersed, they are put downe, they 

sustaine hard captivity under Christian Princes. Not- 

withstanding about the evening they shall be converted, 

& there will be a respect had of them in time. Finally, 

when the multitude of the Gentiles shall enter in, then 

all Israel (saith the fApostle) shall be saved. But in the 

meane time whosoever dieth, remaineth in death, 1 

[ say not that wheresoever they Jare not, we grieve that 

I Christian usurers doe worse Judaize, at the least if they 

j ought to be fitly called Christians, and not rather baptized 

, Jewes. If the Jewes are altogether confounded, how then 

, shall their salvation or conversion promised in the end, 

j prosper? Surely the very Gentilcs themselves (if their 

j conversion were likewise to be expected) were rather to bc 

, fbrborne then "smitten with the sword. But now since 

( they first began to offer violence unto us, it behoveth 

I those that doe not carry the swordes in vaine, to repulsc 

, force with force. Yet it is a part of Christian piety as to 

conquer the proud, so also to spare subjects, especially 

those whose the lawe is by promise, those from whome 

the Fathers were decended, and from whom Christ sprang 

according to the flesh, which is blessed for ever. How- 

beit it were to be required of them, according to the tenor 

of the Apostohcall mandate, that they should altogether 

exempt al those free from the exaction of usurie thatshall 

take on them the badge of the crosse. Also it is necessary 

(my most beloved brethren) that if any man perhaps 

t Rom. ri. JThe Jewej. 

* In most or the Latine copic! it is expetendi. But it ii (aUc. For it 
must bc petendi. 

243 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Samt 

Berward^s 

iputle 



[p-515-] 



desirous to be cheefe amongst you, would by his fbrward- 
nesse forestall the govemment of the armie, yee nve no 
t eare at all imto him : and if he make as though he were 
sent from us, it is not true. Or if he sheweth letters sent 
as from us, ye may say they are altogether false, that I may 
not call them furtive. Ye ought to choose warlike men, 
and Chieftains expert in those afFaires, and to take order 
that the armie of^ the Lord may march together, that It 
may every where have strength, and may not sustaine 
violence from any whatsoever. For there was a certaine 
man in the first voiage before Jerusalem was taken, called 
Peter, of whome ye also (unlesse I am deceived) have often 
heard mention. He marching alone with his soldiers, 
exposed the people that believed him, to so great dangers, 
that either none of them or very few escaped, that perished 
not either with himger or the sword. Thercfore it is 
altogether to be feared that if yee shall doe the like, the 
like may happen imto you also. Which God turne from 
you that is blessed for ever. Amen. 

Having now ended those two things that I said bef^Mre 
were the most memorable of all in the body of this Chiirch, 
I will digresse to some other matter, and will first make 
A sumftuous mention of a certain pulpit that standeth on the left hand 
fulpit. of the body of this Church, as you come into it from thc 

street. I suppose that some hyper-criticall carpers will 
taxe me of vanity for adding such triviall things to my 
Observations, as descriptions of Pulpits. But I cravc 
pardon of them although I describe this pulpit of Spira. 
For it was so glorious and resplendent an architecture, that 
I was unwilling to let it passe unmentioned, being the 
fairest thing of that nature that I saw in my travels, saving 
one onely pulpit before mentioned in my discourse of thc 
City of Amiens. Which notwithstanding in some respects 
is inferiour to this whereof I now speake. The roofe or 
covering of this sumptuous pulpit is made but of wainscot, 
but so wonderfull gorgeously gilt, and adorned with 

t The ordinary Latine text is false. For instead of audeat it must be 
audiatur. 

«44 




OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

sundry colours, that it yeeldeth a shew most beautifull : in 
certaine square peeces of this roofe I read these sacred 
poesies. The first this. *Hodie si vocem ejus audieritis, 
nolite obdurare corda vestra. In the lower square ihis, 
Beati qui audiunt verbum Domini & custodiunt ilJud. A 
little under this fPrEedica verbum, insta opportune, im- 
portunfe, argue, obsecra, increpa in omni patientia & 
doctrina. The other part of the pulpit is exceeding 
sumptuous also, being made of white free-stone, which is 
so faire that it may compare with some kinde of alabaster, 
and garnished withcurious images, works, and borders most 
richly gilt, and decked with many sententes taken out of 
the holy Scriptures. In the inside of the dore where the 
prcachcr ascendeth the pulpit, this is written in golden 
letters. JAscendo ad patrem meum & patrem vestrum. 
Also these sentences are written in the outside of the 
pulpit about the compasse as the Preacher doth ascend. 
§(^omodo prsdicabunt nisi mittantur? sicut scriptum 
est. Qiiim preciosi pedes Evangelizanfium pacem, 
Evangelizantium bona? Next this. "Euntes in mun- 
dum universum praedicate Evangelium omni creaturje. 
Againe this. tDominus dabit verbum Evangelizantibus 
virtute multa. Then this. tCIama, ne cesses, quasi tuba 
exalta vocem tuam, & annuncia populo meo scelera eorum. 
All these sentences are written in one row. Under these 
in the lower part of that curious stony compasse this is 
written. §In novissimo autem die magno stabat Jesus 
& clamabat, dicens, Si quis sitit, veniat ad nie & bibat. 
Likewise there are set forth in the outside of this exquisife 
workemanship fhe images of fhe foure Docfors of the 
Latin Church. Sf. Augustine and St. Ambrose in their 
Episcopall habites, St. Hierome in his Cardinals weedes. 
St. Gregorie with his triple crowne. Our Lady with 
Christ in her armes. St. Stephen Pope, and two Bishops 
more whose names are not expressed. 

* Psal. 9+. t 2 Tim. 4. cap. J John 20. v. 17. 

gRom. 10. 15. *Mar. 16. 15. 

+ Pm1. 67. 13. JEsa. 58. ver. 1. SJohn 7. 37. 




CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

Tki siveH Also thc scven workes of mercy are after an historicall 

"^^ ^f manner very artificially represented in stone. Undcr the 
^^' first this is written in golden letters. Esurientes pasccrc 

Undcr the sccond. Potum dare sitientibus. Under the 
third. Operirc nudos. Under the fourth. Captivos 
rcdimere. Under the fifth. .Slgrotos inviserc. Undcr 
the sixth. Hospitio percgrinos susciperc. Undcr the 
[p- 5 1 7-] seventh. Mortuos sepelire. Also thc basc of this pulpit 
is vcry sumptuous, on both sides whereof there arc insertcd 
pceces of touch-stone. In one side this is written. Ebcr- 
hardus Dei gratii Episcopus Spirensis & Prsepositus 
Wcissenburgensis, Imperialis Camerse Judex, &c. Cathe- 
dram hanc in honorem Dci omnipotentis & omamentum 
celcberrimse hujus basilics nova hac forma construi & erigi 
fecit Anno Saiutis humanse. M.D.X.C.V. nihil aliud optans 
qxikm ut posteritas cx hoc loco verbum Dei pi^ & Catholic^ 
crudita, rusis ad Deum precibus, semper sui grato animo 
meminisse velit. On the other side of the base this also 
is written in another peece of touch-stone. Revcrendissi- 
mus Princeps & Dominus Restaurator hujus Cathedne 
Ebcrhardus k Dicnhcim electus fuit in Episcopum Anno 
Domino M. D. Lxxxi. setatis suae xxxix. £t in Judiccm 
Camcrse solito juramento receptus ultima Aprilis cum 
xxvii. ejusdem ant6 solenni equitatu in urbem Spirensem 
esset ingressus Anno Salutis Humanse M. D. Lxxxiiii. 
obiit Anno setatis suse, *&c. Episcopatus, &c. 
Monument to Qn thc left hand of the bodie ot the Church there is 
I Btskof. ^ passing sumptuous monument of one of the Bishops of 
Spira, whose image is made at length with a representation 
of his Episcopall habits, and many curious workes and 
histories are excellently cut in stone. Also it is adomcd 
with many sentences of Scripture. At the vcry top of all 
this is written. Si charitatem non habuero, nihil siun: 
and under that : Repleti simt omnes spiritu sancto, whcrc 
the effigies of a dove is carved. Above the effigics of 
Christ this in golden letters. Mihi autem absit gloriari 
nisi in cruce Domini nostri Jesu Christi. Gal. 6. under that 

* The yeare is not expressed in the original. 

246 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

againe. Vigilale, quia nescitis diem neque horam. Matth. 
25. under that, his Epitaph in golden letters, which is this. 
Reverendissimo Principi ac Domino Domino Marquardo 
ab Hattstein Episcopo Spirensi & Praeposito Weissenbur- 
gensi CtcsarcEe Majestatis Consiliario,ac Imperialis Camerx 
Judici pro laudatissimEE meraoriae, dum vixit, pietate, doc- 
trina, authoritatc, rerum experientia, consiliis, & singulari [p. 5 '8.] I 
prudentia conspicuo & ceieberriipo, nec non de Ecclesia 
Spircnsi multis modis optimfe merito, monumentum hoc 
pietatis & nunquam apud posteritatem intermoritura 
recordationis ergo poni fecerunt ejus heredes, Obijt 
autem Ktatis suEe 51. Episcopatus 2i. Judicatus 21. 7. 
Decembris. Anno Domini 1581. cujus anima requiescat 
in pace. Amen. under that is written this sentence. In , 
principio creavit Deus ccchtm & terram. Gen. i. under ] 
which sentence the historie of the creation of the world 
is very curiously expressed in stone. 

Opposite unto this there is erected on the right hand of v*«'4«" 
the Church a faire monument of another Bishop of Spira, '""""""■ 
whose image is made at length also as that of the former, 
with his episcopall habits, and under the same this Epitaph 
is written. Reverendo atque illustri Domino D. Georgio 
Episcopo Spirensi ac Com. Palat. Rheni Ducique Bavarie , 
admiranda clementia, prudentia, & pietate undique con- 
spicuo, ac demum flagranti Anglico sudore immatur4 
morte defiincto, pius in Episcopatu Successor Philippus I 
a Flersheim hoc monumentum instituit. Obiit autem I 
Anno Salutis 1529. die 28. Septembris, qui Kterna lucc 
fruatur. 

There is adjoyning to the South side of this Church a jf podi/ 
goodly cloister, in the which I observed an exceeding ^"'"^''- 
multitude of ancient monuments wherewith the cloyster 
is beautified round about, but the time would not give 
me leave to write them out, For I made my aboad in 
this city but one whole day. This cloyster invironeth s . 
very pleasant greene quadrangular Court, in the midst 
whcreof there is the most memorable thing of that kinde 
that I saw in my travels, even a representation of the 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

moiint Olivet. This is (in my opinion) onc of the most 
exquisite works in all Europe, built in a roimd forme, 
ana raised to the height of some fortv foote by my estima- 
tion. It is supported with sixe goodly pillars of free stone, 
within the which is described the history of Christs praying 
[p. 5 '9'] upon the Mount Olivet, for there he is represented pro- 

strate upon his knees, and elevating his lumds when he 

prayed to his Father. Also three of his disdples are 

pourtraied sleeping in as many sevend places apart. The 

whole fabricke within those pillars consisteth of many 

Rifresentatum notable devices. There are two very artificiall rayles of 

ofMount stone contrived in the maine worke, and within the same 

ORvet. thcre stand the pourtraitures of ten souldiers having as 

many severall and distinct weapons in their hands. In 
another place are pourtraied five soldiers more standing 
together, and conduding how they may take Jesus. Also 
Judas conmiing to kisse his master with a treacherous kissc 
is excellently presented. About the top of the Moimt 
where there standeth an Angell with a crosse in his hand, 
the figures of olives are very cimningly expressed. Like- 
wise round about the rockc (for the lower part of this 
structiu-e is made in the form of a rock) they are so arti- 
fidally made, that they yeeld a most delectable shew. 
Within the rocke is a little Chappeil having windowes 
made in the maine rocke to conveigh in the light. Herc 
every Friday is Masse said. The outside of the building 
is inclosed with a faire indosure of stone worke. Upon 
the which, round about the same, is made a ikire compasse 
or rayle of yron, such as we call in Latine Cancelli, of somc 
two yardes high that incompasseth the whole worke. Also 
the tops of those barres are headed like the forkes of 
arrowes, to the end that no man shall come within thc 
place. There is but one onely dore that leadeth to this 
Mount Oiivet and the Chappell within the same. To 
condude, such is the strange curiositie of this worke, that 
it driveth all the beholders into admiration, and is a thing 
of such fame that few strangers come to the Citie but scc 
it before they goe forth againe. 

248 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPmES 

■ Who was the first Bishop of this Citie I cannot finde. Bhiefrit^m 
But I have read fhat there was a Bishopricke insfituted in ^f"""- r 
the same before 348 yeares after Christ. From which time [p- 5*°'1H 
till fhe reigne of Dagobert King of France, it was exceed- 
ingly eciipsed and deceased. But the same King well 
repaired it againe, and created Afhanasius thaf was one 
of his Chaplaines, Bishop of Spira about the yeare 610. 
sioce which fime there have bene many famous Bishops, 
whereof fhose of lafer yeares have bene sfiled with the 
titles of Princes: he fhat was Bishop when I was fhere, 
was called Eberhardus Adinheim, who was about the age 
of threescore yeares when I was in the Citie: one that 
alwaies resideth at a Palace he hath in the counfrie, as fhc 
rest of his predecessors have done thcse many yeares, 
Thus much of the Cathedrall Church and the 
Bishopricke. 

IWas in the Colledge of the Jesuites who used me vcrie Celltge of the 
kindly. But one especially above all the rest, whose ^t"^"- 
name was Jonas Keinperger the chiefe of the Jesuiticall 
family, who shewed me fheir librarie, where I saw a notable 
company of goodly bookes, But in one of them 1 
observed a matter that argued the injurious and naughty 
dealing of the Jesuits. For whereas amongst the rest of 
their bookes fhey had Munsfers Cosmography, I looked 
info it to informe my selfe somefhing of the antiquities of 
fhe Citie, and by chance turning over some leaves, I found 
notable places expunged by these criticall Aristarches, and 
demanded of fhem why they did deface any part of so 
famous an authors workes. They answered me fhat 
Munster was an heretike and an aposfafe, affirming fhat 
after he had renounced his Monkish religion, he main- 
tained many heretical points in his writings. Wherefore 
because there were certaine matters in his Cosmography 
that made against the faifh of thc Catholike Church of 
Rome, thcy would not suffer thcm to remaine in the 
booke. How these mcn and others of divers Papisticall 
orders have dealt with the Fathcrs of thc Church also, and 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

divers godly authors of great antiquitie by their wicked 
falsifications, putting out those things that have made 

[p. 521.] against them, and supplying the same with some com- 
mentitiall forgeries of their owne braines, it doth evidently 
appeare to the world by the Index expurgatorius printed at 
Geneva and Strasbourg. I foimd one of those Jesuites 
so skilfull in some of our English histories, that he dis- 
coursed unto me of certaine ancient matters of old 
Brittaine, especially of our Kings of Northumberland. In 
their Library they keepe the picture of their Bishop Eber- 
hardus above named» because he hath shewed himselfe a 

CkMrekrf creat benefactor imto them. Father Jonas shewed mc 
' their Church also. Which though it be not very ereat, 
yet it is exceeding glorious and beautifuU, being gamished 
with a great multitude of faire pictures and images. Their 
table above the high Altar is a passing sumptuous thing. 
But I could not perceive the inward glory thereof , because 
it is most commonly shut, and never opened but upon 
speciall daies. At the upper end of the Chimrh there are 
certaine seates made onely for Earles, Covmtesses, and 
other great persons to sit in, who do eftsoones repayre to 
their Masses, as Father Jonas told me. And by die sides 
of their walles in the inside of the Church, they have 
lately made five very curious seates of wainscot, three on 
one side, & two on another, for the Priest to sit in, to the 
end to heare the confessions of ofFenders. All this Church 
was built within these few yeares, not at their owne cost, 
but meerely by the benevolence and liberality of well dis- 
posed benefactors that have bountifuUy contributed to the 
building thereof. Of the Fraternitie of these Jesuites 
there are onely twentie. 

Anciint I heard that there were certaine temples of idolatrie 

^f^'- heretofore in this city erected by the Etnnicks, before it 
was converted to Christianity, & those in number three; 
which is also confirmed by Mvmster, whereof one was 
dedicated to Diana, which was nere to the place where 
the CathedraU Church now standeth. An other to Mer- 
cury in a place where there was afterward a Monastery- 

250 



OBSERVATIONS OF SPIRES 

of Benedictinc Monkcs. And thc third to Vcnus, upon [p« 5**-] 
a hiU at the west cnd of the city, whcre I observed thc 
Church of Saint Guido; but at last Dagobert King of 
France demolished them all, so that now there arc not to 
be seene vel Vestigia quidcm, as much as the least ruines 
thereof ; but only the placcs where they stood. 

Attila King of thc Hunncs after he marched out of SpinssacieJ 
Hungary and Austria with his huge Armie to conquer h ^^- 
Germany, grcatly wastcd this city of Spira, ransackin| 
it aftcr a most cruell and mercilesse manner with fire anc 
sword, as he did other of the German cities that I havc 
akeady described, and othcrs also that I shall hereafter 
describe. 

This City doth not embrace that vmity of religion that Proustant aitd 
the citics of Strasbourg, Basil, and thc other reformed irf' 
citics of Switzerland, Dut is distractcd into a doublc ^^' 
religion, Protestant and Papisticall; thc Protestant pro- 
fessmg the Lutheran Doctrine, beeing the prcdominant 
part, though the Cathedrall Church bclongeth to the 
Papistes in rcgard their Bishop is a Papist. For a lcarncd 
preacher of the city one Nicolaus Frisius that used me 
very curteously, told me that most of thc principall 
familics professe the reformed religion. But thcrc is a 
kind of murmuring bctwixt both parts, though it be so 
concealed that it breaketh not out into any open jarrcs, 
fuU liberty of conscience & cxercise of relifi^ion being 
permittcd to each faction without any contradiction. 

Now it were fitte to speakc something of the governe- 
ment of this noblc city, and to mention thcir principall 
Magistrates, their afFaires in justice, and such othcr 
memorable pointes of policy, as the description of so 
worthy a City doth require. But seeing I made so shortc 
aboade thcre, I hope thou wilt be satisfied with thc 
premisses. Only I can say that it is an imperiall dty. 
Therfore let this suffice for Spira. 

Thus much of Spira. 

[I departed 
251 



IVorms, 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

[p* 5 2 3-] T Departed from Spira about eight of the clocke in the 
X morning the tendi dav of September being saturday, 
after I had made my aboade there all fridav, and came to the 
beautifull city of Wormes about sixe or the clock in the 
aftemoon. This daies joumey was seventeen miles. 
Betwixt Spira and Franckendall twelve, and from that to 
Wormes five. I observed that all the tract betwixt these 
two cities doth yeeld a most fertile & pleasant soyle that 
bringeth forth abundance of ail manner of commodities, 
as corne, grapes, fruites, all manner of rootes, and what 
not.J* 

Frankentkdl. I observed that in Franckendai which I never saw in 
any city or towne before, and I have not heard of the likc 
to be seene in any city of Christendome saving only in thc 
city of Nancy the Metropoiitan of Lorraine. For all thc 
houses of the towne are newly built, having bene raised 
from the foundations within fifty yeares, as I heard in 
Spira. Before which time Franckendall was the name of 
a Monastery onely and not of a Towne. Part of the 
Monastery being defaced, the whole Church remayneth to 
this day, being the onely Church of the Towne, and a very 
goodly building, which a man may see a farre ofF from 
every quarter of the country. This Monastery was built 
in the time of the Emperour Henry the fift about thc 
yeare 1119. by a certaine rich Gentleman of the city of 
Wormes called Eckenbertus Kemerer, who converted his 
whole estate into money, and bestowed the same upon 
the building of this Monastery, which he devided into 
two parts, & distinguished it by the names of the greatcr 
and the lesser Monastery. For the greater served for 
Monkes, whereof he himselfe having abandoned the world, 
was the first Abbot ; and the other for Nunnes, whereof 
his wife Richlindus was the first Abbesse. But now this 
Monastery is alienated from Popish uses, the Church 
being possessed by the Protestants of the towne that 

[p. 524.] professe the same religion that we doe in England, where 
they hear Gods word truly preached, & receive the Sacra- 
ments duely administred. I observed one feire street in 

252 



OBSERVATIONS OF FRANKENTHAL 

this towne which is much graced with the new buildings. 
For all the buildings of the towne being new (as I said 
before) they yeeld the much fayrer shew. Also I saw a 
goodly market place in the towne. More then this I 
cannot speake of Franckendail because I made no aboade 
at all there, but only glanced through it in my way to 
Wormes. 

Thus much of Franckendall. 

THere hapned unto me a certaine disaster about the A diiasur. ' 
middest of my journey betwixt Franckendall and 
Wormes, the like whereof I did not sustaine in my whole 
journey out of England. Which was this. I stept aside 
into a vineyard in the open field that was but a litle distant 
from the high waie, to the end to taste of their grapes 
wherewith I might something asswage my thirst : hoping 
that I might as freely have done It there, as I did often 
times before in many places of Lombardie without any 
controulement, There I pulled two little dusters of them, 
and so returned into my way againe travelHng securely 
and jovially towards Wormes, whose lofty Towers I saw 
neere at hand. But there came a German Boore upon me ■ 
(for so are the clownes of the country commonly called) ' 
with a halbert in his hand, & in a great fury pulled off 
very violently my hat from my head (as I have expressed 
in the fi^ontispice of my booke) looked very fiercely upon 
me with eyes sparkling fire in a manner, and with his 
Almanne wordes which I understood not, swaggered most 
insolently with me, holding up his halbert in that threat- 
ning manner at me, that I continualJy expected a blow, and 
was in deadly feare lest he would have made me a prey 
for the wormes before I should evcr put my foote in the 
gallant City of Wormes, For it was in vaine for me to [p- S*S-] 
make any violent resJstance, because I had no more 
weapon then a weake staife, that I brought with me 
out of Italy. Although I understood not his speeches, 
yet I gathered by his angry gestures that the onely 
cause of his quarrel was for that he saw me come 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

forth of a vineyard (which belike was his maisters) 
with a bunch of grapes in my hand. AU this while that 
he threatned me with these menacing termes I stood bcforc 
him almost as mute as a Seriphian nx>gge, or an Acanthian 
grashopper, scarce opening my mouth once \mto him, 
because I thought that as I did not understand him, so 
likewise on the other side he did not understand me. At 
length with my tongue I began to reencoxmter him, tooke 
heart a grace, and so discharged a whole volley of Greeke 
and Latin shot upon him, supposing that it would bee an 
occasion to pacifie him somewhat if he did but onely 
thereby conceive that I had a little learning. But the 
implacable Clowne 

*Non magis incepto vultum sermone movetur 
Quim si dura silex, aut stet Marpessia cautes. 

And was so farre from being mitigated with my strange 

Rhetoricke, that he was rather much the more exaspera^ 

against me. In the end after many bickerings had passed 

Friendsin betwixt us, three or foure good fellowes that came from 

med. Wormes, gkunced by, and inquired of me what thc 

Siarrell was. I being not able to speake Dutch asked 
em whether any of the company could speake Latin. 
Then immediately one replyed unto me that he could. 
Whereupon I discovered unto him the whole ciramistance 
of the matter, and desired him to appease the ram of that 
inexorable and unpleasant peasant, that he might restore 
my hat againe to me. Then he like a very sociable 
companion interposed himselfe betwixt us as a mediator. 
But first he told me that I had committed a penal trespasse 
in presuming to gather grapes in a vineyard without leave, 
[p. 526.] affirming that the Germanes are so exceeding sparing of 
their grapes, that they are wont to fine any of their owne 
countreymen that they catch in their vineyards without 
leave, either with purse or body ; much more a stranger. 
Notwithstanding he promised to do his endevour to gct 
my hat againe, because this should be a waming for me, 

*-^nei. 6. 
«54 



OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

and for that he conceived that opinion of me that I was a 

good fellow. And so at last with much adoe this contro- 

versie was compounded betwixt the cullian and my selfe, 

my hat being restored unto me for a small price of redemp- 

tion, which was twelve of their little coynes called fennies, 

which countervaile twenty pence of our English money. 

But I would counsel thee gentle reader whatsoever thou Cemelit^ 

art that meanest to travell into Germany, to beware by my f"'"^^'- ' 

example of going into any of their vineyardes without 

leave. For if thou shalt happen to be apprehended in ipso 

facto (as I was) by some rustical and barbarous Corydon 

of the country, thou mayest perhaps pay a ferre deerer price 

for thy grapes then I did, even thy dearest blood. 

My Observations of Wormacia Otherwise called 
civitas Vangionum, but most commonly Wormes. 

THe situation of this femous city did as much delight ; 
me as of any city whatsoever I saw in Germany. For ' 
if is situate in a most pleasant plaine that doth very plenti- 
ftiUy yeeld great store of all manner of commodities 
serving as well for pleasure as profit. For I saw goodly 
store of corne, especially wheate growing in the fertile and 
spacious fieldes about the city. Also they have great plenty 
of feire vineyards, yea such exuberancie of all things I 
observed in the whole compasse about the city, that I [p- S*7-] 
think there is nothing wanting unto them that the heart 
of man can desire. Besides it is much the more oppor- 
tunely seated by reason of the noble river Rhene that 
runneth neere unto it, yet not so neere that it watereth 
the walles thereof, as it doth Mentz, but is so farre distant 
(rom it as from the City of Spira, that is, about the space 
of one fiirlong. I heard a thing in this city that I did not 
a little wonder at, that the territory round about the same 
is so exceedingly frequented with people, that there are < 
no lesse then two hundred several townes & villages 
within the space of foure Dutch miles of the city, which 
doe make sixteene of our English. Withall he added 
this, that it hath bene often observed that some people of 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

each of these two hundred Townes and Villages have 

repayred to the city to market, and retumed backe againe 

the same night to their owne houses. A matter that 

seemed so strange unto me, that I have neither read nor 

heard of the like to be observed in so small a plotte of 

groimd. 

9imSngrf This City is esteemed of great antiquity. For somc 

^orm. authors doe write that it was a colonie of the Trevirians, 

and that it beganne to be built within a few yeares after 

the City of Irevirs situate by the Mosella was founded 

by that Babylonian Prince Trebeta the sonne of King 

Ninus. The people that did first inhabite it were caUea 

Van^iones, which was the name not only of the inhabitants 

of tne City, but also of all such as dwelt round about in 

divers places of the country a prety way remote from thc 

City. From these Vanriones the City tooke her denomi- 

nation of Civitas Vangionum, which name it retaineth to 

this day. Also it was in former times called Berbero- 

magum as learned Peucer doth write. Which name hc 

saith is mentioned by Ptolomaeus in his Geographie. 

From which word the present name Wormacia (for at this 

day it hath two Latin names, viz. Civitas Vangionum and 

I. 528.] Wormacia) taketh his denomination. For they make this 

etymologie of it, Wormacia quasi Bormacia. As for thc 

moderne Dutch word Wormes it is derived by cond^tion 

of the letters from the Latin word Wormacia. 

^ml^tngsof The buildings of this City are very faire, both sacred 

^ ^9- and civill, and many of their streetes doe yeeld a beautifuU 

shew both for length, breadth, and the stately houses on 

both sides. Their walles are strong and ancient, and 

beautified with faire gate-houses. Their Churches like- 

wise, because the City standeth in a plaine, doe present a 

most delectable and gorgeous sight to those that approach 

towards the City from any quarter whatsoever, either west, 

Uthedral north, or south ; especially their Cathedral Church dedi- 

ihurckofS, cated to St. Peter, which being adomed with foure most 

^^* eminent towers of a very magnificent structure, do exhibite 

to the eies of the beholder a forme like to a cradle. The 

256 




OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

like whereof I have before reported of the foure towers 

of the Cathedrall Church of Spira. This Church of St. 

Peter I visited, but observed no such memorable monu- 

ments therein as our Lady Church of Spira yeelded to me, 

and therefore I will passe it over with a word commending 

it for a. building of notable magnificence, and {as I con- 

jecture) of great antiquity, fhough I must confesse I know 

not the historie of the foundation of it. Because nonc 

of the learned men of the City, amongst whom I was very 

inquisitive for the matter, could certifie me thereof. But 

that which is wanting in the description of the Cathedrall 

Church, shall be a little supplied with the mention of the 

Bishops stately Palace adjoyning thereunto, although I Tie Bishaft 

cannot write halfe so much of the same as I would have "''''"■'■ 

done if I could have obtained accesse into the inner roomes, 

which I found to be a matter of great difficulty, because 

the Bishop whose name was Gulielmus (more then that 

they could not tell me) was resident in the country at his l^ 

Palace of Ladenburgum when I was in Wormes. So that 

what I now write of the Palace is only of the frontispice tp 5^9-1 

thereof, a matter of surpassing beauty ; and that which I 

will report of this front is a thing so notably memorable, 

that as I saw not the like before, and doe doubt whether 

I shall ever see the like againe hereafter in any place of 

Christendome in my fiature travels: so I hope it will be 

very pleasant to the learned reader to reade so rare a 

matter as I will now present unto him. Even the sacred 

Prophecies of those twelve famous Prophetesses called the The S.ijr/6*j 

Sibyllse, who although they were Pagans borne, and lived ^"5»^"' 

and died amongst the Gentils, yet Almighty God did 

infuse into them that evQto^ fiiror, that divine spirit of 

prophecie, that they pronounced many excellent Orades 

of the Saviour of the world Jesus Christ, whereof some 

are such as doe in some sort aeree with the predictions of 

Gods owne Prophets of his holy city Hierusalem. These 

prophecies are written upon the front of the Bishops wall 

(as I have akeady said) which hath beene lately so beauti- 

fuUy repaired, that it is at this day fhe most sumptuous 

CC. II 25; R 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 



Thefirst 



Tii siCMd 
frofkicy, 

[P- 530.] 

Tki tkird 
frophicj. 



Tkifiurtk 
frofhicy. 



Tkififtk 
profktcy. 



Tki sixtk 
fropkicy. 



front of any Bishops Palace that ever I saw. Each of 
these prophecies hath the picture of the authour thereof 
made above it with her name annexed to the same, and a 
notation of the yeare is added to some of them but not 
to all, wherein they flourished before Christs incarnation. 

The first is Sibylla Delphica \mder whom this is written. 
Vixit ante adventum Christi 1525. And againe under 
the same picture this prophecie is written in laire Roman 
letters. 

1. Nascetur Propheta absque coitu ex Virgine, eum 
cognosces propriimi Dominum tuum, ipse verus erit Dei 
filius. 

The second is Sibylla Samia. Vixit Anno ante adventum 
Christi 1365. Her prophecie is, 

2. Ecce veniet dives & nascetur de pauperculsl, & bestise 
terrae adorabimt eum, clamabunt, & dicent : Laudate emn 
in atriis ccelorum. 

The third Sibylla Erythraea. Vixit ante adventum 
Christi Anno 1289. Her prophecie is, 

3. In ultiml setate humiliaDitur Proles divina, jacebit 
in f ceno agnus, & puellari ofFi educabitur. 

The fourth Sibylk Phrygia. Vixit ante adventum 
Christi 121 5. Her prophecie is, 

4. Ex Olympo Excelsus veniet, & firmabit concilium 
in cslo, & annimciabitur Virgo in valibus desertorum. 

The fifth Sibylk Cumana. Vixit ante adventum Christi 
550. Her prophecie is, 

5. Magnus ab integro seclorum nascitur ordo, 
Jam redit & Virgo, redeimt Saturnia regna, 
Jam nova progenies ccelo demittitur alto. 
Tu mod6 nascenti puero, quod ferrea *Pu 
Desinet, ac toto surget gens aurea mimdo. 
Casta fave Lucina, tuus jam regnat ApoUo. 

The sixth Sibylla Hellespontia. Vixit Anno ante adven- 
tum Christi 544. Her prophecie is, 

6. De excelso cselorum habitaculo prospexit humiles 

* I fbund it thus in the originaly by which what they mean I 
know not, 

258 



OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

suos, & nascetur in diebus novissimis de Virgine Hebrsei 
cum cunabulis terrse. 

The seventh Sibylla Tiburtina. Vixit ante adventum 
Christi 92. Her prophecie is, 

7. Nascetur Cluristus in fiethleem, annunciabitur in Tke seventk 
Nazareth regnante Thauro pacifico fundatore quietis. O M?^- 
fcBlix illa mater cujus ubera lactabunt illum. 

The eighth Sibylla Cimerica. Vixit ante adventum 
Christi 332. Her prophecie is, 

8. In prima fade Virginis ascendet puella, facie pulchril, Tke eigktk 
capillis prolixa» sedens super sedem stratam, puerum f^^* 
nutriens, dans ei ad comedendum & bibendiun, jus pro- 

prium lac de ccelo missum. 

The ninth Sibylla Agrippa. Vixit ante adventum 
Christi, &c. fHer prophede is, 

9. En invisibile veroum palpabitur, germinabit ut radix, Tke mna 
siccabitur ut folium, non apparebit venustas ejus, dram- M^*^- 
dabitur alvus materni & florebit Deus Istitii sempitema, [p* 531*] 
& ab hominibus conculcabitur. 

The tenth Sibylla Libyca. Her prophede is, 

10. £cce veniet dies, & illuminabit Dominus densa Tkiunik 
tenebrarum & solvetur nexus Synagogae, & rednent labia t^^^P^' 
hominum, & videbxmt regem viventium, & tenebit illum 

in CTemio virgo Domina gentium, & regnabit in miseri- 
cordii, & uterus matris ejus erit statera amctorum. 
The eleventh Sibylla lEuropsea. Her prophede is, 

1 1 . Venit ille, & transibit colles & latices Olympi, reg- Tke ibpentk 
nabit in paupertate, & dominabitur in silentio, & egredietur fr^f^- 
de utero Virginis. 

The twelfm Sibylla Perfica. Hcr prophede is, 

1 2. Ecce bestia conculcaberis, & gignetur Dominus in Tki twelftk 
orbem terrarum, & gremium Virrinis erit salus gentium, M^*^* 
& pedes ejus in valetudine honunum, invisibile verbum 
palpabitur. 

Above these pictures are written many elegant distiches 
in divers severall places, two verses in a place, which seeme 

fThe notation of her tiine u omittedy and 10 of all the rat 
fbllowing. 

«59 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

to have beene newly written. I had a great desire to 
write them out. But the time would not give me leave. 
For that day that I wrote these Sibylline prophecies, I spent 
but sixe hours in Wormes, by reason that a certain urgent 
occasion called me away from the City even about noone, 
which deprived me of the opportunity to write those 
verses. Otherwise I had set them downe in this place. 
Btsioffurf I will now give a little glance at the Bishopricke of 
IVorms. Wormes, seeins: this discourse of the Bishops Palace doth 

give me occJon to make some relation thereof . For 
many yeares since this was an Archbishopricke, but by 
whom it was first founded it is a matter altogether uncer- 
taine. For some write (as Munster saith) that it was 
instituted by Clodoveus the first Christian king of France, 
about the yeare of our Lord 500. others againe doe report 
[p- 53»0 that it began many yeares before. Which the said Mun- 

ster proveth to be true. For he affirmeth that one Victor 
Archbishop of Wormes was at the generall Counsell 
holden at Colen in the yeare 348. with many other Bishops 
that were assembled thither from all the famous Christian 
coimtries of Europe for the deposing of Euphrates Arch- 
bishop of Colen, because he was with such pertinacy 
addicted to the Arrian heresie, that he would not be recon- 
ciled to the xmity of the Church. The Archbishop of this 
Citie was in ancient times a man of so great power and 
Richistprelate eminent authority, that he was absolutely the richest 
ofGermany. Pj-elate of all Germany. For he was Lord over all those 

iarge territories which the Count Palatine of Rhene, the 
Landgrave of Hassia, and the Archbishop of Mentz doe 
possesse. Also he had no lesse then sixteene Bishops 
under him that were subject to his jurisdiction as his 
SufFragans. The first Archbishop was the foresaid Victor, 
fi-om whose time the Archbishoprick flourished till the 
time of Pipin King of France, who deposed one Guerilio 
from his Archiepiscopall dienity by reason of a certaine 
lewd fact that he had committed, and translated the Arch- 
bishopricke from Wormes to Mentz, which hath ever 
since retained it to this day. Also the said Archbishop- 

260 



OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

ricke of Wormcs was from thcnceforth convertcd to a 
Bishopricke, one Wernharius that immediatcly succeedcd 
the foresaid Guerilio, being chosen the first Bishop thereof 
in the timc of Carolus Magnus. From which timc the 
Citie of Wormes hath bcne evcr graced with a Bishop by a 
continuall and orderly succession of them till this prcsent 
Bishop Gulicknus, whom I havc beforc mentioncd. 

Thus much of the Archbishoprickc and Bishop 

of Wormcs. 

THe Praetorium or Senatc house of thc Citic that TkiSenau 
adjoineth to the market place is a vcry sumptuous f^^- 
building, the front whereof is beautified with many faire 
pictures. But the faircst of all is of Fridericke the third 
of that name Emperour, who is vcry gloriously painted [P- 533-] 
in gold, sitting in his throne with his Imperiall crownc 
upon his head, and his Scepter in his hand, and under him 
this is written. 

Fridericus 3. Imper. Aug. 

1593- 
Under that this. 

Rcnovata cst hsec basilica 1592. 

Againe under that I read this distich writtcn in goldcn 
letters. 

Astra Deo nil majus habent, nil Csesarc tcrra, 
Si terram Csesar, si regit astra Dcus. 

Also under that I read this inscription in a long line, above 
the which two souldiers were painted in thcir armour, 
leaning downe a little. And at onc cnd of thc front another 
souldier in his complete armour, displajdng an ancicnt, 
and at the other end is painted a Queene with a crowne 
upon her head. This inscription (I say) did I reade there 
in that long line. 

Libertatem quam majores peperere dign^ studeat fovcre 
posteritas. Turpe cnim esset parta non posse tueri. 

361 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Quamobrem Vangiones quondam cum Julio conflictati jam 
tibi CsBsar perpetul fide cohserent. 

StatMis offour Next vmto this in another part of the same front are erected 

Germmi ^^ statues of foure German Emperors that were bene- 

fi^rors. factors to the citie, very sumptuously gilted for the better 

ornament of the praetorium, with their imperiall Diadems 

upon their heads, each canying a sword in one hand, and 

a globe in another. 'They are represented onely to the 

girdle : The first Carolus Quintus, the second Ferdicandus 

Primus Csesar, the third Maximilianus Secxmdus, the 

fourth Rodolphus Secundus. And under them is written 

in golden letters Anno 1581. Georgio Euchario Mosbach 

& Joanne Kigele Reipub. ^dilibus, basilica hsec est 

sedificata. Againe under that I read this inscription 

written in golden letters. Austriacae familise heroibus 

vindicibus lioertatis patrise ultra C C L annos amissae 

[p. 534.] vetustse Vangionum Wormaciae S P Q. beneficionun 

memor locavit. Anno 1581. Also in the same ranke of 
that part of the front this impresse foUowing is written 
in the like golden letters upon a grovmd of Azure, neere 
to the portraiture of a greene Dragon supporting a coate 
of armes, wherein is figured a key; which dragon with 
jirms of the rest is the armes of this Citie of Wormes. Draco 
IVorms. ckvem tenens industria vastas solitudines excoli, fide & 

constantia ad decus perveniri demonstrat. Hsec majores 
Vangionum urbis suae arma esse voluerunt. Also another 
part of this Praetorium is beautified with simdry notable 
historicall descriptions of the ancient Romanes. Under 
one whereof I read this foliowing. 

Anciint Sexti Tarquinii regii filii libidine factum est, ut Romas 

exactis regibus consulare imperium jurejurando consti- 
tueretur, isque honos prim6 Lucio Junio Bruto sceleris 
vindici decerneretur. Next this. 

Patrii amoris vim ex animo potifis ejicere, liberosque 
securi ferire quim libertatem civium perfidii imminui 
nobili exemplo. 

L I Br. docuit: 
262 



Romans. 




OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

Then againe this. Horatiutn CocUtcm contra omncs 
hostium copias tenuit in ponte solum sine ulla spe salutis 
siue patrise salus. Also this. Pro imperii gloria atque 
dignitate magnum animum suscipiendum Mutius ad necem 
Porsennee impulsus, docet. Last of all this. Ut Cloelia 
Virgo, ita omnes suo casu aut confirmare patnE salutem, 
aut periculum morari debent. 

Under the Senate house there is a faire walke supported 
with stately pillars that doe make a pretie arch at the top. 
Also the roofe of the walke is finely painted, wherein are 
made the pictures of all the Emperours. A sight very 
beautifull. 

The government of this Citie hath bene divers accord- Governmentaf 
ing to the change of times, and it hath acknowledged many ' "^" 
Lords, It was first subject to the Trevirians, as being a 
colonie of the Citie of Trevirs, to whom they payed a [p. S3S-] 
yearely tribute. Next, to the Romanes, where one or thcir 
Prefects resided with a garrison of souldiers for the defence 
of the citie against the Germans on the other side of the 
Rhene. Their first Prefect was appointed by Julius Csesar, 
who in the like manner assigned more Prefects with garri- 
sons for other cities & townes, as I shall hereafter declare 
in the description of them, the authoritie of each being 
so limited, that he was subject to a superiour Governor 
who was the Prefect of Mentz, or rathcr the Duke of 
Mentz commonly called Dux Moguntinus, as I have 
before written in my observations of Strasbourg. Thus 
fbr the space of ;oo years this Citie sustained the yoke of 
a servile subjection under the Romane Emperours, even 
tiil the time of that flagellum Dei Attila King of the ^Drmi wM 
Hunnes, who breaking with a great armie out of the ' ""^' 
country of the Sicambrians which are now those of 
Gelderland, destroyed this Citie together with all the 
other famous cities that were situate on that banke 
of the Rhene, which was in those daies esteemed a great 
part of the Frcnch Kingdome. From the time of that 
miserable ruine and depopulation, the Citie was ever ahen- 
ated from the Romanes. Againe within fewe years after 
363 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

that desolation, the inhabitants of the territorv thereabout 
reedified the City, adorning it with walles, Cnurches, and 
goodly buildings. And within few yeares after these 
reparations it came into the hands of the French kineSy 
who governed it a long time ; and were so delighted with 
the sweetnesse of the situation, and the opportunity of 
the place, that some of them kept their Court there, as I 
will hereafter mention. But at iength by the fatal revoiu- 
tion of time it descended to the sway of the Germane 
Emperours, whereof some have mced it partly with tfae 
residence of their Court in this Citie, partly by the 
solemnization of great marriages, and partly by the cele- 
bration of generali counceis and other famous meetings, 
[p 53^0 as I will by and by more particulariy declare. So that at 

this day it flourisheth in a most opulent estate, and 
enjoyeth great peace under their sacred dientele and 
protection. 

So delicate a place is this City of Wormes ^fbr indeed 

I attribute much to it bv reason of the admirable amenitie 

Frenci Kingt of the situation thereot) that some of the French Kings 

rMdid at ^ j eftsoones keepe their royall residence here when it was 

subject to their dominion, as I have before written, For 
we reade that Pipin King of France kept his Court here in 
the yeare 764. when he condemned Tassilo King of 
Bavaria of treason. Also in the yeare 769. the said King 
Pipins sonne Charies (who was afterward that most 
renowned and victorious Emperour of Germanie sumamed 
the Great, from the greatnesse of his valiant exploites) was 
in this city crowned King of France. Againe in the yeare 
770. Prince Adolphus tnat was the Generall Captaine of 
King Charles forces, marched from this city with his armie 
towards the Saxons, and in the yeare 779. brought with 
him some of the Princes of Saxonie to this City as nostages 
to King Charles. In the yeare 783. Charles being now 
inaugurated into the Empire, solemnized a royall marriage 
in Wormes with the Lady Fastrada, who was his fourth 
wife, and the daughter of the Earie of Franconia. In the 
yeare 790. the same Charles the Great kept his imperiall 

264 



OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 



tby ■ 

con- ^H 

> ^l 



Court for the space of a whole yeare in this City, but 1 

reason that his Palace was casually burnt and utterly con- 

sumed with fire, he removed his Court therehence to his 

Palace of Ingelheim where he was borne, not farre from 

the City of Mentz. Moreover there have bene five 

femous Councels kept in this City. Whereof the first ^^*' Cnundls 

was celebrated by Ludovtcus Pius the Emperour and sonne ^ '"^'' 

of the foresaid Charles the Great in the yeare 829. The 

second by Ludovicus the second who was the sonne of the 

foresaid Emperor in the yeare 868. in the moneth of May, 

having asscmbled together a great multitude of Princes 

and Bishops against the errors of the Grecians. The third ( 

by Henry the third and Pope Leo the ninth about the 

time of Christs nativity (which we commonly call Christ- 

masse) in the yeare 1051. The fourth by that worthy 

Emperour of sacred memorie Henry the fourth in ihe 

yeare 1076. which Councell is much the more famoused 

for that by the consent of all the German Bishops which 

he then assembled together, saving those of Saxonie, he 

deposed Pope Hildebrand otherwise called Gregorie the 



seventh. The same Emperour at d\\ 
frequented this City, because ii 



s other times much 1 
1 the middest of all his bittCT 1 
persecutions and conflicts which he sufFered by meanes of 
the Romish Clergie, he found Wormes a most secure 4 
refrige and shelter for him ; the Citizens being so lovingly 
inclined to succour him in his afflictions that they nevor i 
forsooke him, but exposed both their bodies and goods 
for his safety to the very utmost of their power, which 
thing hath purchased them no small praise. The fifth and fifthandjast 
last Counceli by the Emperour Henry the fifth in the ^^*»"'- 
yeare 11 22. the Bishop of Ostia being sent thither with 
two Cardinals in the behalfe of the Pope, at what time that 
great controversie was composed betwixt the secular 
Princes and the Ecclesiasticall Prelates about the bestow- 
ing of Bishopricks and spirituall preferments. As for 
great marriages celebrated in this City, I have read of one 
very famous marriage kept here besides that before men- 
tioned of Charles the Great, which I am the more willing ' 
a6s 



hich I 

and FiftkoHdhit 

the <^oi"i"'- 
ffith 

that ^^1 

ular ^^H 

ow- ^^H 

for ^l 

one ^^1 

len- Famous ^^M 
ling marriaga.^^^ 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

to mention becaiise the woman here married was bcnme 
in my owne country of England. For here in the yeaie 
1235. or thereabout, the Emperour Fredericke the second, 
solemnized a most pompous marriage with the Lady 
Isabella the daughter of King John of England. This 
Lady was his third wife. Amon£[St many other thinss 
that historians have written of this City one memorable 
matter is of one of our English Kings, even King Richard, 
538.] for whose memorie sake I wili make some mention of 
him ; after that William King of the Romans was slaine 
by the Frisians there was a great jarre betwixt the Elector 
Princes about the eiection of a new Emperour. For some 
of them stoode for Alphonsus King of Castella, others 
mgRkkard for Richard King of England. In this Dissension the 
En^d. chiefest Princes which were of the predominant faction, 
namely the two Archbishops of Mentz and Colen, and 
Ludovicus Count Palatine of Rhene, chose the fbresaid 
King Richard. Whereupon shortly after this election he 
travelled into Germany, and after many solicitations and 
neat promises of favour he was honourably entertained 
m this City of Wormes in the yeare 1258. in the moneth 
of Julie. But before he was admitted within the gates 
of the City, the Wormacians drew him to this composition, 
that he should presently disburse ten thousand markes of 
siiver for the necessity of the City: which being pcr- 
formed according to their demand, they afterward did 
homage irnto him. After which time King Richard 
returned into England, and about two yeares after, even 
in the yeare 1260. came backe againe to Wormes, where 
he was a prety while resident in the City, diiring the time 
of whose residence there he compounded certaine contro- 
versies both betwixt the city of Wormes & the towne of 
Oppenheim, and aiso betwixt Wormes it seife and some 
Nobiemen of the same City. Moreover the same King 
itof celebrated a famous Diet in tliis City of Wormes about 

"^* nine yeares after that, even in the yeare 1269. and con- 

duded a publique peace in the whole City, abolishing all 
manner of toUes and taxes both by land and water. All 

a66 



OBSERVATIONS OF WORMS 

these memorable histories tending to the illustration of 
this renowned city of Wormes, I have thought good to 
insert into these my observations, as I have found them 
in Munsters Cosmographie, unto whom they were sent 
fi-om the Senate of the same City (as he himsetfe affirmeth) 
by way of an epitome of the Wormacian Annals, for the 
better garnishing of his Cosmographicall volume. 

What famous persons of great marke have bene buried 
in this city I know not, because I surveyed not the monu- 
mentes, but surely I heard of no more then one great man, 
who was a Prince of great renowne in his daies. Namely 
one Conradus Duke of Franconia, surnamed the Wise, 
who was the sonne in lawe of the Emperour Otho Magnus, 
whose daughter Ludgarda he married. This Conradus 
was slaine with an arrow in that famous battel that the 
foresaid Emperor fought with the Hungarians upon the 
fourth day of August anno 955, neere to the city of 
Augusta, from which place his body was afterward brought 
hither to Wormes, and here interred. But it was not my 
hap fo sce the monument it selfe. 

One principall thing that I observed in my observations 
of Basil, Strasbourg, and Heidelberg, namely the writing 
of a short index of such famous proressours of learning as 
have lived or died therein, l have omitted in these two last 
cities of Spira and Wormes. Because I have neither read 
nor heard of any excellent men that they ever bred. Onely 
Wormes was once adorned with one singular scholer 
whome I wiU not let passe without mention, and yet but 
briefly name him, because I have ah-eady spoken of him 
in my observations of Heidelberg. This was Joannes 
Dalburgius a very rare man in the age wherein he lived, 
& a great Mecoenas and fosterer of learned men : who 
after he had enjoyed the Episcopall dignity foure yeares, 
died in the yeare 1503. in his Palace of Ladenburgum. 
More then him I cannot name in this city of Wormes. 

It remayneth now that I speake a httle of the religion 
of this city, according to that course that 1 have hitherto 
observed in every German city saving Basil. Therfbre I 
267 



[p- 539-] 



itn omiimn. 

• J 1 



Tie rt/igion e/ 



I 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

will briefly tx^uch this, and so make an end of this history 
). 540.] of Wormcs. The rehgion is mixed as that of Spira. For 
it is partly Protestant of the Lutheran religion, and parthr 
Papisticall. Unto the Papistes belongeth the Cathedrall 
Church as that of Spira, because the Bishop of this City is 
a Papist. But the Protestant faction is both the greater 
in number, and the stronger in power. For abnost all the 
better families of the City are Protestant. 

Thus much of Wormes. 



I 



Departed from Wormes about halfe an hower after 
twelve of the clocke the eleventh of September being 
fpenheim. Sunday, and came to Oppenheim a pretty faire towne in 
the lower County Palatine, which is about twelve miles 
beyond Wormes, about sixe of the docke in the evening. 
I observed a very fruitfull soyle in all that space of ground 
betwixt Wormes and Oppenheim bearing notable com- 
modities, as corne, vineyardes^ &c. This Towne belongeth 
to the Pfaltzgrave of Rhene, and professeth the same 
religion that he doth. Here died Rupertus King of the 
Romanes who was afterward buried at Heidelbo^g, as I 
have before mentioned in my notes of that City. The 
inhabitants of this towne do attribute very much to the 
situation of it. For they affirme that it is situate in the 
ppenhem same manner as holy Jerusalem was : Because it standeth 
mparedwith upon the side of a hill. For so we may reade that a part 
^rusalem. of Jerusalem stood, even the same part which is called 
Sion, which (as Historians do write) was built upon thc 
very side of a hill, the toppe whereof was adorned with 
King Davids Palace. Also the inhabitants of the City of 
Bergomo in Italy (whereof I have before written) may as 
well compare the situation of their City with that of 
Jerusalem, as these men of Oppenheim. For that standeth 
as pleasantly upon the side or a hill as this doth. Truly 
the sight of them both is so pleasant that the Cidzens may 
justly boast of it. They have one pretty Church in 
. 541.] Oppenheim called Saint Catharines which is seene afarre 
off. 

268 



1 

nd ^^'"wft' T1 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

■ I departed from Oppenheim the twelfth day of Sep- 
tember being munday about sixe of the clocke iii the 
morning, and came to the city of Mentz about tenne of the 
clocke in the morning. which was tenne miles beyond it. 
It was my hap in this journey betwixt Oppenheim and 
Mentz to have such a notable companion as I never had 
before in all my life. For he was both learned and ■ 
unlearned. Learned because being but a wood-cleaver 
(for he told me that he was the Jesuits wood-deaver nf 
Mentz) he was able to speake Latine. A matter as rare 
in one of that sordid facidtie as to see a white Crowe or 
a blacke Swanne. Againe he was unlearned, because the 
Latin which he did speake was such incongruall and dis- 
joynted stuffe, such antipriscianisticall eloquence, that I 
thinke were grave Cato alive (who for his constant scverity 
was caJled a-yfXatrror, because he never or vcry seldome 
laughed) he should have more cause to laugh if he should 
heare this fellow deliver his minde in Latin, then when he 
saw an Asse eate thistles. 

My Observations of Mcguntia otherwise called 
Moguntiacum, but commonly Mentz. 

THe situation of this City is pleasant, yet not com- *'«'«'«" 9 
parable to that of Strasbourg, Spini, and Wormes. "J""" 
For each of these standeth in a pleasant plaine. But this 
is inclosed on the south and east sides with a hill, which me 
thinkes doth something eclipse the beauty of the city. 
Yet these hilles are very commodious to Mentz. For 
they are most plentifully planted with faire vineyardes. 
All the north side is washed with the river Rhene which 
runneth hard by the walles thereof. I observed that this 
city is built in a longer formc then any other German [P- H*-] 
citie that I saw, saving Heidelberg, the breadth of it being 
not very great. Yet this lenpth doth yeeld a passing faire 
shew to those that approach towards the city from any 
quarter either by land or water, saving onely from the 
south. Because the hilles on that side doe interclude the 
sight of the city. The streetes are raany, and some very 
169 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

faire, being adorned with many goodly buildings of ^preat 

antiquity, whereof divers I observed foure stories hieh; 

aiso their walles are very strong and ancient, & beautmed 

Thi micient ^ith five gates. But the oide Mentz that flourished in 

^^* the dme of Julius Csesar, stood not so neere the Rhene as 

this doth ; but higher upon the hill, as it doth manifesdy 
appeare by those ancient rudera that I perceived in divers 
places of the same hill. Which being afterward destroyed 
by Attila King of the Himnes, the foimders of this second 
city thinking this to be a more opportune place fbr the 
. building of their City then that upon the hfll, have now 
built it hard by the Rhene, as I have ah-eady said. I finde 
some diiference amongst the historians about the first 
founder of this City. For some write that it was built 
by Prince Trebeta the founder of Trevirs and Strasbourg. 
DerivaHoH of CHhers ascribe the first foundation to one Mofi^tius a 
*^' Trojan, fix)m whom they say it hath the denomination of 
Moguntia. And others a^ne do affirme that the name 
Moguntia is deri ved fi*om Moganus a river running neere 
to it, which is otherwise called Mcenus that runneth by the 
city of Franckford. For at this City the Moenus and 
the Rhene do meete and make a confluent, as at Lyons 
the Arar and the Rhodanus, at the Citie of Confluencs 
(whereof I shall heereafter speake) the Mosella and the 
Rhene. How this appellation of Mogxmtia degenerated 
in processe of time to this moderne name of Mentz I do 
not know. But the like abbreviation I perceive hath 
hapned to other German Cities. For the old name of 
[p- 5430 Aquisgranum that noble City of Province is now come to 

Aach, Turegiun (of whom I have before written) the 
Metropoiitan of Switzerland to Zurich, Rubeachum a 
fiunous City of Alsatia to Rusach, Wormacia to Wormes, 
and so Moguntia to Mentz. 
Thi The chiirches of the city are tenne, whereof the 

rl^f^"^ Cathedrall is a building very sumptuous, and adorned with 
a tower of a very emment heigth, but inferiour to other 
German churches that I saw berore, especially those two of 
Basii and Strasbourg. This church is dedicated to Saint 

270 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 



:ntz ^^^^^M 
the ^^^H 



Martin, and was first founded about the yeare loi i 

one Willigisus the foure and thirtieth Bishop of Mentz 1 

that was privie Counseller to the Emperour Otho the I 

second, and the first elector of the Empire of all the 

Moguntine Archbishops. Of whom it is written that he '"*' »"^"'' "/ 

had the picture of a wheele painted in his refectory with ^ ■^""' "J 

this inscription 

Willigise memineris quid sis, et quid ollm fijeris. 

Since which time the wheele hath ever beene the armes 
of the Archbishoprick of Mentz, and confirmed by the 
Emperour Henry the second surnamed the Holy. This 
foresaid Cathcdrall church was onely begun by that Bishop 
Willigisus, but not finished by him. For the third Bishop 
that succeeded him, one Bardo Abbot of Fulda was the 
man that brought that noble worke to perfection, I 
observed a thing both in this church, & in most of the 
other German churches, as also in many of the civill 
buildings of their cities, that I could never perceive in 
any of mine owne country of England, or France, Savoy, 
or Italy : that in the outside of the roofe of their buildings, 
even in the middest of the tiling they have a great company 
of open places like windowes contrived in both sldes of P?'* 
the roofe, to what use it served I could not devise. For ™" 
if it be made for light sakc, it seemeth in my opinion 
something needlesse, because the other windowes of the 
same edifice do minister sufficient light. Therefore I 
thinke it served for some other use, which unto me is 
altogether unknowne. Many goodly monuments this fP' 544-] 
church contayneth both ancient and moderne, but especially 
of their Bishops, Whereof one I observed to be more 
beautifull then the rest, which is erected on the north slde ■ 

of the body of the Church, and inserted into one of the I 

maine pillers. This is of their last Archbishop. His ^" 
statue is erected at length in his episcopall ornaments, J^^^'^' 
most curiously carved in alabaster with a miter on his 
head exceeding richly beset with pearles and precious 
stones fairely reprcsented in the same. Also it is garnished 



i 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

with many pillars of costly marble, and sundry goklen 
scutchins. At the top of all two Angels are pourtrayed 
sitting, and holding a peece of parchment in their right 
hands, wherein this is written, 

Memento homo qu6d dnis es. 

And in their left handes lilies. Above them is represented 
an other Angel soimding of a Trumpet. Beneath, about 
the base of the monument, this Epitaph is written upon a 
faire peece of touchstone. 

D. O, M. 
R"^ et IU*^ Dfio Dno Wolphango de nobili et vetusti 
Camerarionmi de Wormacii dictorum k Dalburg fiunilii : 
Archiepiscopo et Principi Electori Mogxmtino prudentia, 
eloquentia, et justitia singulari, de tota Ecclesia et repub. 
ben^ merito, anno Dni 1592. magno omnium desideno et 
consensu electo, in regimine annis 19. moderato et pad- 
fico; anno denique 1601. die Aprili 5°. pih pladd^ue 
defuncto, et hic publico omnium luctu recondito Joannes 
Suicardus Successor Prsedecessori meritissimo F. C. Anno. 
1606. 

AIso on the South side of the Ch\m:h, a little within thc 
entrance, I saw another more sumptuous monument then 
this before mentioned, of a certayne Bishop of Wormes, 
who was also Warden and Deane of this Cathedrall Church 

cewitaph. ^f Mentz. I take this monument to be nothing else then 
a cenotaphium, that is, a Sepulchre void of a body, being 

545.] erected only for honour sake, according to the custome of 
the ancient Romans. For it appeareth by the epitaph 
subscribed that the body was buryed at Wormes. It is 
raised to an exceeding heigth, even thirty foote high by 
my estimation, garnished with goodly pillars of great 
value, partly of changeable-coloured marble and partly of 
touch-stone; and adorned with great store of Scutdhins 
and Armes, curious golden borders, and workes. About 
the middle is made the effigies of him at length in his 
Episcopall ornaments with his Crosier, and his hands that 
are covered with his episcopall red gloves, are elevated to 

27S 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

the image of Christ erected opposite utito it upon a Ikire 
Crosse of touch-stone. Under the same this epitaph ii 
written in golden letters upon a feire ground of touch- 
stone, 

Georgius Dei gratia Episcopus Wormacien, 
ex nobili famiha k Sconenburg ortus, hujus 
Metropolitanie Ecclesia; Prsepositus, ac pniis 
Annis xviii. Decanus, tandem vero Cae- 
saris Rodolphi II. vices in Conventu De- 
putatorum Imperii gerens obiit SpirE, 
sepultus autem Wormacix in Ecclesia 
Cathedrali. In pace quiescit Princeps de 
Repub. Christiana ac presertim Ecclesia 
cui prudentia singulari, studio & labore 
indefesso, laudeque eximia prsfuit atque pro- 
fuit, optim^ meritus. Anno M. D. Ixxxxv. 
die xi. Mensis Augusti, 

Opposite unto this rich monument there is a marvailou* 
curious Altar adorned with great variety of marble, and 
exquisite images gilted and carved in Alabaster. Amongst 
the rest I noted one thing very attentively, even a great 
Whale swallowing up the Prophet Jonas, A device pass- 
ing finely contrived. Many other goodly monuments I 
saw there of their Prelats and others decked with Epitaphs, 
which the shortnesse of time would not give me feave to 
write out. Besides I observed two faire Pulpits in the 
body of the church. Whereof one was verj' sumptuous, 
the toppe being wonderfull curiously decked with many 
excellent works richly gilted, yet al made in wainscot : 
besides I noted certaine pretty little images of alabaster 
very artificially expressed in the same toppe, As of thc 
three principal christian vertues, Faith, Hope, and 
Charity. Also the foure Cardinall morall vertues, Justice, 
Fortitude, Prudence, and Temperance. There are written 
these two sentences out of Saint Paul. 

Stella a stella differt in claritate : sic resurrectio mor- 
tuorum. I. Cor, 15. ca. also above that this is written in 




epitafi. 



[p. s+6.] i 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

golden letters. Praedica verbiim, insta opportun^ impor- 

tune, argue, obsecra, increpa, in onmi patientia et doctnni. 

2. Tim. 4. 

CoHvertm 0/ This City was converted to Christianity in the time of 

MayeiKi. gj^jj^ VzyjX the Apostle as soone as any city of all Germany. 

For eyther Crescens which was one of Saint Pauls scholars 

whome he mentioneth in the second £p. to Tim. 4. cap. 10. 

ver. or Crescentius who was aiso his Schoier, was the first 

Apostle of this city, and (as they say) the first Bishop. 

Atter whom there was a succession of many holy and godly 

AnEnfitfMM Bishops. But their first Archbishop was mine owne 

A Unshi f co^tryman (as I have both often read, & aiso heard from 

MMjencef ^*^ learned Jesuite Nicoias Serrarius of Mentz) whome 

I will therefore honoris causH, mention. Even Bonifadus 
an Engiishman, one of the rarest and worthiest men that 
ever possessed the Sea of Mentz, and therefi^re much 
celebrated amongst the ieamed Germanes for his divine 
learning and holy conversation of life. His name was 
first Wmifride, and was a Benedictine Monke (as Serrarius 
told me) befbre he came to Mentz. He was the seven- 
teenth fiishop of this City, and came over in the time of 
Pipin King of France, about the yeare 776. At what timc 
the Archbishoprick of Wormes being extinct in the timc of 
their Archbishop Gervilio, was translated hither, as I have 
befbre reported in my observations of that City. This 
[p* 547O Boniface was in a manner the second Apostle of Germanyi 

and much reformed divers Churches in many parts of that 
Country, as in Thuringia and elsewhere (as I have reade in 
the workes of learned Melanthon) greatly taxing the 
Priestes for adultery, and infiicting the punishments of a 
whole yeares imprisonment upon the ofi^endours. He was 
Archbishop of this City five and tiiirty yeares, and thc 
founder or that most famous Abbey of Fulda in Buchonia, 
which remaineth yet to this day, and is esteemed one of 
the most magnificent Monasteries of all Christendome ; 
in the which at last he himselfe was buried, after he had 
suffered martyrdome in his old age amongst the Frisians 
for the free preaching of the Gospeli. So that his monu- 

274 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

mcnt is shewed in that Abbey to this day. Besides many 

other worthy Archbishops that flourished in this City after ' 

my countryman Bonifacius, Rabanus Maurus that was once 

Abbot of the foresaid Abbey of Fulda, is much celebrated 

by authors, being the fifth Archbishop after Bonifecius, 

whome I therefore name because he was the disciple of 

an other most femous and learned countryman of mine 

owne, Venerabilis Beda, I have beforc mcntioned who 

was the first elector Archbishop of this city, namely 

Willigisus. Ever since which time the Archbishop of this ^*' 

city hath beenc a sovcraiene Prince of most eminent „'"'' " *'* "^ 

authonty. ror besides his great a>gniory and Jarge terri- ,tt'ereipi 

tory that he hath to maintame his principalitie, he is the Prince. 

cheef Elector Prince of the sacred Roman Empire next to 

the King of Bohemia above al the rest. Also he is intituled 

Chancellor of Germany for the more addition of dignity. 

Moreover his spirituall jurisdiction extended it selfe so 

farre that he hath these i2 Bishopricks subject to his sea, 

namely that of Curia in Rhetia, Constaiice in Suevia, Stras- 

bourg in Alsatia, Spira, Wormes, Wirceburgum Franconia, f 

Augusta in Vindelicia, Aistet in Bavaria, Padeborna in 

Westphalia; in Saxony these 3. Hildiheim, Halberstat, & 

Verda. The name of him that was the present Archbishop [ 

of Mentz when I was there was Joannes Suicardus, who 

then kept his resldence at a palace he had in the countrie. 

I observed his Palace in the Citie to be a building of great 

magnificence standing about the farther end of the west 

part of Mentz, and built hard by the Rhene, whlch to 

those that comc to the Citie eyther by water, or by the 

North side of the land doth present a very faire shew, 

and much beautifie that part of the Citie. AIso there is 

another goodly building adjoyning next to it, which is the 

Chancery house of the Citie. 

The antiquities of this Citie both sacred and civill are ■^«^jiitie' qf 
more then in any City whatsoever in all Germany. In so ^'O"*''- 
much that the foresaid Jesuite Serrarius hath lately written 
a very elegant booke of the Moguntine antiquities which 
he shewed me; having dedicated it to the present Arch- 
a7S 




CORYArS CRUDITIES 

bishop Joannes Suicardus. But it was my chance to soe 
but one of them, which of all the civill is esteemed the 
most remarkable in the whole Citie. And indeed a thing 
very worthy the observation both for the worthincsse of the 
founder, the nobility of the worke, and the mention of it 
in ancient authors. In that I came to the sight of it I do 
thankfuUy acknowledge my selfe beholding to the foresaid 
Jesuite, who very kindly procured me the meanes to see 

c aT' ^^* ^^ nothing else then a stonie Colossus erected in 

^ ^' a vineyard upon the top of a certaine hill on the South 
side of the Citie, (where in fbrmer times a part of the 
ancient Citie stood) neere to a Monastery dedicated to St. 
James, in which there is a convent of St. Bennets Monks 
at this day. The vineyard is invironed round about with 
a wall of a convenient height, to the end to preserve the 
monument that none may come to it without leave. 
And there is but one way to it by a dore that is 
alwaies locked. The author of this was Drusus Nero the 
sonne in law of Augustus Cscsar by his fburth and last wife 

[p« 549-] Livia Drusilla, and the brother of the Emperour Tiberius. 
This monument did he erect just about the time of Christs 
incarnation, when he waged warre with the Germanes in 
this place (as both Cornelius Tacitus and Suetonius do 
make mention) leaving it unto posterity as a memorial of 
his name, that he had once skirmished there with the 
Germanes, and conquered them in battell. The thing it 
selfe is a very huge and massie moles of stones ranuned 
together, and made something in the forme of an akome. 
For which cause it is called in the Germane tongue Cichd- 
stein which signifieth an akorne. Howbeit the lower part 
of it differeth something from the fashion of an akome. 
But the higher part resembled it as neere as can be. For 
all the lower part from that part of the foundation which 
appeareth above the ground to almost the middle, is made 
square, whereas the lower part of an akorne is round ; and 
from corner to corner I take it to be almost fortie foote. 
All the higher part ascendeth lesser and lesser towards the 
top, yet aJter such a round manner, that it doth very 

376 




OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

artificiaily resemble an akorne. One very strange thine I -^ stroHff 

observed in this masse, that whereas I and another Gentle- "'"'■ 

man that went with me to see it, stroke the stones of the 

worke at the farther corners, he at one corner, and I at 

another, with little stones that we tooke up for the same 

purpose ; the noise of the stroake would easily be heard 

from one corner to another which were about fiftie foote 

asunder, though we strooke the stones of the moles as soft 

as could be possible, A matter much to be wondered at 

except either the foundation be hollow, or some part of the 

same square masse. A Gentleman of good quality told 

me that when Albertus Marquesse of Brandenburg did of 

late yeares oppugne this Citie with great hostilitie, he 

did set a worke certaine masons to pull it downe, as being A hard lasi. 

a prophane Pagan monument. But they found such 

extreme difficuity in pulling the stones asunder, though 

they iaboured most painfiiliy with their mattocks and other [p- SSo-] 

instruments, that after they had done a littie they ceased 

from their worke. For tliey found it almost as difficult 

to puU it downe as to build it up, by reason that the stones 

are with such admirable hardnesse compacted together. 

Yel that which they did to the upper part of it, hath much 

disfigured and biemished the grace of the monument. 

Besides many other things that have greatly graced this 
city, and made it famous over alJ Christendome, as the 
Archiepiscopal dignity, the antiquity of the foundation, 
the noble monuments, the sumptuousnesse of their build- 
ings publikeand private, thefrequencyof peopieinhabiting 
the same, and the opportunity of the situation, that most 
incomparably excellent art of printing which was first ■^''}''f 
invented in this city, is not to bee esteemed the least, nay f""'"'SJ'^" 
rather it deserveth to bee ranked in an equal dignity with Majtnce. " 
the worthiest matter of the whole city, if not to bee 
preferred before it. For in this City of Mentz was the 
divine art (to give it an epitheton more then ordinary by 
reason of the excellency or the invention) of printing first 
devised by a Gentleman or rather a Knight of this city 
one Joannes Cuttenbergius in the yeare of our Lord one 
377 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

thousand foure hundred and forty, even in that veiy yeare 
that Fredericke the third was inaugurated into the Empire ; 
and in the time of their Archbishop Theodoricus who was 
the sixty seventh after Crescens the first Apostle of the 
City. Well might that ancient Poet write those verses in 
praise of this noble art that Kirchnerus hath cited in his 
oration of Germany; which I have inserted into my 
observations ; 

O Germania muneris repertrix, 
Quo non utilius dedit vetustas, 
Libros scribere, qux doces, premendo. 

For surely if we rightly consider it, we shall finde it to 
be one of the most rare and admirable invendons that ever 
was since the first foundation of the world was laid. For 
[p. 551.] what I pray can be devised in rerum naturi more strange 
then that one man should be able by his Characters com- 
posed of tinne, brasse, & *stibium to write more lines 
in one day then the swiftest Scrivener in the world can 
do in a whole yeare ? according to that old verse 

Imprimit ima dies quantiun vix scribitur anno. 

A matter that may seeme incredible to the understanding 
of many men, yet most certainely verified by experience. 
FsrtMis of By vertue of this arte are communicated to the publike 
pnnnng. yjg^g ^f ^hg Worlde the monuments of all learned authors 
that are set abroach out of the sacred treasiirie of antiquity, 
and being now freed from that Cimmerian darknesse 
wherein they lurked for the space of many hundred yeares, 
and where they did cum tineis ac blattis rixari, to the great 
prejudice of the common weale of learning, but espedally 
of Gods Church, are divulged to the common light, and 
that to the infinite utility of all lovers of the Muses and 
professours of learning. By this arte all the liberall 
sciences are now brought to full ripenesse and perfection. 
Had not this art bene invented by the divine providence of 

^This is a kind of white stone found in silver mines which thej 
use in printing. 

278 




invention of Vnheniij ^ 
Mayetue. 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

God, it was to be feared lest the true studies of all dis- 
ciplines both divine & humane would have suffered a 
kind of shipwrack, and have bene halfe extinct before this 
age wherein we breathe. I would to God we would 
thankefully use this great benefite of our gracious God 
(as a learned author saith) not to the obscuration but the 
illustration of Gods giory, not to dis-joine but rather 
to conjoine the members of Christes militant Church here 
on earth. 

Within a short spacc after this singular 
printing ensued the institutjon of a University in this 
city, in the time of the Archbishop Theodoricus, under 
whom printing began. I think this University was never 
great, Surely what it was in former times I know not, 
but at the time of my being there it consisted principally 
of one Colledge, which was that of the Jesuites, a building [?■ ! 
that was lately founded within these few yeares, and 
endowed with convenient maintenance by the munificence 
of the Archbishops, whereof Joannes Suicardus who was 
Bishop when I was there, (as I have before said) hath bin 
a notable benefactor to it. This CoUedge is a convenient 
faire house, but much inferiour to the majestie of divers 
Colledges in our famous Universities of Oxford and Cam- 
bridge, to whome I attribute so much for the statelinesse 
of their building, that I preferre some of them by many 
degrees before any Colledges that I saw in my travells. 
It was my hap to visite this Colledge, where Nicolaus 
Serrarius the Antesignanus of all the Jesuiticall femilie 
used me more kindely and famjliarly then I thinke he 
doth every Protestant that commeth to him. For besides 
other courtesies he shewed me their Library, which is a Tit Liirarj, 
passing feire place, and furnished with great variety of 
excellent bookes, especially Theologicall. I will give this 
Serrarius his due ; for Virtus etiam in hoste micat : cer- 
tainly he is a man of that excellent learning, that hee 
deserveth great praise. Also he is reported to be so rare 
a linguist, chat I heard he speaketh at least sixe languages. 
I would to God hee would cease to write so virulently 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



fii^ near 
Majinci. 

[P. 553.] 



against our Protestants, e^>ecially poore Martin Luther» 
whom he hath most bitterly exagitated in that invective 
booke intituled de Lutheri magistro, by magistro meaning 
the Devill. 

Besides these two things iast mentioned, the art of 
printing and their Universitie, this City is much ceiebrated 
by historiographers for three other matters. First the 
fighting ot many famous battels neare to tfais City. 
Secondly for certaine notable bridges built here over thc 
Rhene. Thirdly for the death of great personages in the 
£^^^' same City. The principall battels fought there were 
wajB^ed by the Romans : as by Drusus Nero whom I have 
betore mentioned, who skirmished in this place with the 
Germans. But this was not the place where he brake his 
legge by falling from his horse, as some doe write. For 
that mischance he had at the towne of Bing (as I will 
hereafter mention) which is situate about some ten miles 
beneath Mentz upon the left banke of the Rhene. Also 
Awelianus the sixe & thirtieth Roman Emperor fought a 
great battell here with the Franci,* when he was but a yong 
man, before he was chosen into the Empire, and in that 
skirmish got a glorious victorie by slaying at the least 
thirty thousand of them. Likewise the Emperour Otho 
swnamed the Great, brought a great armie hither against 
his rebellious sonne Ludolphus (whom I shall hereafter 
mention againe) intending to have incountred him in 
battell, but it hapned otherwise. For Ludolphus not 
daring to skirmish with his father, contained himself within 
the walles of the City, where after he had beene besieged 
for the space of nine weekes, there was a truce concluded 
betwixt his father and himselfe. The bridges that were 
built here were two, very famous for their founders. For 
the iirst was built by Julian the Apostat the three and 
fortieth Emperour of Rome, and is mentioned by Anmii- 
anus Marcellinus the historiographer, which he caused to 
be made after he had conquered the Alemannes about 
Strasbourg, as I have before mentioned. After that battell 

* These were Gerxnam, and the inKabitants of Franconia. 

2S0 



Famom 
brUgts, 




OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

he came thus farre down with his armie from Alsatia, and 
made this bridge for the better conveighing of his Souldiers 
over the Rhene, to the end to skirmish with the Germans 
on the other side of the water : the other bridge was buUt 
by the Emperour Charlemaine in the year 813. he 
bestowed marvailous cost on this bridge, though it wer» 
made but of timber. For the workemen were ten whole 
yeares building ot it ; who compacted it together with 
such admirable strength, that it was thoughl it would have 
lasted for ever. But in the yeare of our Lord 823. even 
in the moneth of May, it hapned by a very dismall chance 
to be utterly consumed with fire, the raging furie whereof [p. 
wasted that in the space of three houres, which ten yeares 
labour with infinite cost did scarce joyne together. As 
for great persons that ended their lives in this City I 
have read of foure especially of eminent marke. The 
first was that famous Roman Emperor Alexander Severus, 
who by the meanes of one Maximinus a Thracian Captaine 
that succeeded him afterward in the Empire, was here most 
cruelly slaine by a company of seditious souldiers that he 
appointed for the same purpose, even after he had lived 
nine and twenty yeares, three moneths and seven daies. 
His death was the more memorable because the historians 
write that he died the very same day that Alexander the 
Great did, which was the eight and twentieth of Julie, 
being the day of his nativity also. The second was that 
vertuous Lady Mammea mother to the foresaid Emperour, 
and Aunt to that vicious Emperour Heliogabalus, who 
was slaine here at the same time with her sonne. Th© 
third an Empresse, whose name was Fastrada, the fourthJ 
wife of the Emperour Charlemaine, of whom I have madei 
mention before in my Observations of Wormes, In this 
City shee was buried in the year 792. in the Church of. 
St. Albanus. Also in the same Church is shewed the 
monument of Ludolphus Duke of Suevia, the eldest sonne 
of the Emperour Otho surnamed the Great, by his firstf 
wife Edith an English Lady. This Ludolphus died a 
naturall death in Lombardie after he had gotten the victory 



The Roman 
Emptror 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

of King Berengarius the third of that name, being sent 
against him by his father Otho. But his body was after- 
ward brougrht to this City of Mentz by the meanes of his 
brother William Bishop thereof . Ludovicus Pius thc first 
Emperoiu* of that name, and the sonne of the Emperor 
Charlemaine, died in this City in the threescore and fourth 
yeare of his age, after he had reigned seven and twenty 
yeares : but his body was afterward bwied in the City of 
[p* SSSO Mentz neare his mother Hildegardis. Likewise many 
Sahtsand ^f Qods Saints and holy Martyrs of the Church have 
^ ' beene crowned in this Citv with the crowne of martyr- 
dome. But the chiefest or all was the foresaid Albanus, 
who being a Grecian borne was expelled out of his native 
City Phihppi of Greece (unto the inhabitants whereof St. 
Paul wrote his Epistle) by certaine Heretiques of his 
country in the yeare 425. and shortly after amved at this 
City of Mentz, together with one of his countrymen 
cailed Theonestus, where at length he suffered death for 
the Gospels sake, and was buried in a part of the dty, 
where there was a Church erected afterward to the honour 
of his name. In which the body of the foresaid Empresse 
Fastrada doth lie interred. 

One thing that is very memorable I wiU not omit in 

the discourse of this famous City of Mentz, that it gave 

the first vitall light to that learned and Rhetoricall Shee- 

Pope JottH. Pope Joane, where after shee had sate two yeares in the 

Popedome, immediately after Leo the fourth, she died 

in child-birth. For it is most certaine that shee was borne 

in this place, being confirmed by the authority of many 

learned and ancient authours, though Onuphrius Panu- 

inius an Augustinian Frier of Verona, and some of the 

Patriarches of the Jesuiticali societie have of late yeares 

gone about to prove the contrary. 

Ju&usCMf^s Julius Caesar having conquered all the Cities on this 

^Gal&cum ^^^^ ^^ ^^ Rhene which was in his time called Gallicum 

Rttus. littus, the shore of Gallia, &c. planted garrisons in each 

of them as I have ah-eady said, ror the better fortification 
of the place, and to keepe the bordering people living in 

283 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 

the same territorie in awe and subjection of the Romans. 
For which cause he assigned Lieutenants called in Latin 
Prcefecti, to all the principall Cities and Townes that hc 
had conquered. But him rhat he appointed Governour 
of this City he placed in a more eminent degree of dignity 
then the rest. For he intitled him Dux Moguntinus, as 
I have before written in my Observations both of Stras- [p. SS^.] 
bourg and Wormes. So that all the other inferiour Pre- 
fccts were aUogether subject to his becke. And of those 
Prefects there were ten severall persons that resided in as 'J""'"* 
many distinct places for the defence of the country. ^"^" '' 
Whereof the chiefest was commorant at Strasbourg, as I 
have before said, The second at a place called Sehz. 
The third at Zabern in Alsatia where the Bishop of Stras- 
bourg doth commonly keepe his residence. The fourth 
at Altrip not farre from Spira. The fifth at Wissenburg. 
The sixth at Wormes. The seventh at Blng. The eignt 
at Boppard. The ninth at Confluence. The tenth and 
last at Andernach. The authority of all these inferiour 
Lieutenants was confined within those limits, that they 
had not the powcr to attempt any matter of moment 
without the leave of the Moguntine MarshallorLieutenant 
whom they acknowledged for their Generall Captaine. 
Also every one of them had a complet legion assigned 
him for the defence of thc place, which how much it 
containeth I have before menfioned in my notes of Lyons. 
Two principall Marshals or Lieutenants of the Romans 
that made their residence in this city I will brieHy mention, 
because ihey were men of great eminency, and much 
celcbrated by the ancient Roman historiographers. The 
first was Flavius Vespasianus, the same that was afterward 
Emperour, and the successor of Vitellius. Here he 
resided in the time of the Emperour Claudius as I take it. 
The second was Rufus Virginius, a man much mentioned 
by Cornelius Tacitus. This Virginius is the same that 
with Julius Vindex Captaine of the Roman legions in 
France, and Sergius Galba (afterward Empcrour) of those 
in S[>aJne made an insurrection against the Emperour Nero, 
283 



Ttec emi. 
Rema» 
rieuienitiilt. , 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

the newes whereof drove him to that pittifuU exi^eat that 
he was faine to cut his owne throate. But how Tong this 
City was swayed by a Roman Marshall after the time of 
Julius Csesar, truly I do not certainly know, howbeit I 
557*] conjecture that it was subject to the Romans as long as the 
other Cities in the same banke of the Rhene, as Strasbourg, 
Wormes, &c. even till the time of the Hunnicall King 
Attila, which being then expugned by his hostile swor^ 
and consumed to dust and ashes by his incendiarie 
souldiers, it was afterward most sumptuously reedified 
by Dagobert King of France, remaining for the space of 
many yeares under the dominion of the French Kings, till 
at iast having shaken off the yoke of forraine Lords, it 
was whoUy subject to their Archbishop, who is at this day 
the soveraigne Prince and Lord of Mentz, which City doth 
professe the same religion that he himselfe doth, wnich is 
that of the Church of Rome. 

Thus much of Mentz. 

Was imbarked at Mentz the thirteenth of September 
being Munday, about seven of the clocke in the mom- 
ing, and passed downe the goodly river Mcenus, which at 
Mentz doth min^le it selte with the Rhene tiU I came 
to a towne withm foure miles of Frankford where I 
arrived, and from thence performed the rest of my jowney 
by land, and came to the Citie of Frankford which is 
sixteene miles from Mentz, about five of the clocke in the 
afternoone. But before I begin to write any thing of 
Franckford, I wiU make some ftirther mention of the river 
Mcenus, and of such things as I observed betwixt Mentz 
lir Mainf, and Franckford. This Mcenus which heretofore was other- 
wise caUed Mogonus, is a very faire navigable river, in 
some piaces almost as broad as the Rhene at Mentz. It is 
commonly esteemed the fourth river of Germany, and is 
in the catalogue of the Germane rivers ranked next to the 
Neccar that runneth by Heidelberg. It riseth in the 
countrie of Voitlandia which confinetn upon Saxonie, even 
a Uttle beyond the Citie of Bamberga, and so rowUng 

a84 



I 



OBSERVATIONS OF MAYENCE 




along with a great company of crooked windiiigs (not much [p- 558-] 

unlike to the noble Asiaticke river Mceander so celebrated 

by the ancient Poets for his often turnings) through the 

territory of Franconia, and entertaining these three rivers 

more, the Pegnetius at Norimberg, the Tuberus at Roten- 

burg a Citie of the foresaid Franconia, and the Mimlingus 

(all which doe issue out of the forrest Ottonica that I have 

before named in my discourse of Heidelbcrg;) at iast it 

joyneth with the Rhene, right opposite to the city of 

Mentz as I have already said. I have rcad foure Greeke Meianctien'i 

verses of Philip Melancthon with a translation of the same „'•"" „'-' 

mto as many Latme, which he once made m a very con- 

ceited and wittie veine upon the five letters of the name 

of the river Mcenus, which according to a pretty kind of 

hieroglyphicall manner he hath so finely contrived, that the 

five letters (but as they are the elements of the Greekc 

alphabet, not as Latine characters) doe expresse the full 

number of the daies of the yeare. I have therefore 

thought good to mention those verses in this place, since 

this present discourse of the Ma^nus doth minister this 

occasion unto me : because I thinke they will be very 

acceptable to the learned reader. The learned reader I say, 

but not to the unlearned. For indeed he must have both 

learning and a good capacity that shall rightly conceive the 

meaning of them. Truly the elegancy of them in my 

poore judgement is such, that for mine owne part I will 

boldly say thcy do expresse the most ingenious conceit 

that ever I read in my life. In so much that the first timc 

I saw them, I did even hugge them with a great applause. 

Whatsoever thou art that dost applaud elegancies, judici- 

ously reade these verses, and then I thinke thou wilt say 

they arc worthy to be placed in the very front of thy 

index of clegant conceits. Without any longer preambles 

I present unto thee the verses themselvcs, even these. 

^^teya tSiv SKKwv tw ipoi^av ^payxf Topelav 
fiavOave, ovpavloui Kai 6eov tpya (hopm. 

TTi eroyf otitiXoi/ eXicei Trtwa fi/iara inwrXof, 

TW TroTrafi.ov ippaXei ToQvofia iiftaSeirov. 

■>8s 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



SMwg o/ 
tki cnceit. 



SuMilry 
traveUers, 

[p. 560.] 



The Latine translation is this. 

Discite prsecipui solis motumque viasque, 
Vos quibus est patrium Francica terra solum. 

Namque dies totus quot traxerit ambitus anni, 
Id fluvii vestri vox benfc nota sonat. 

Now the whole pith and marrow of the conceit doth consist 
in the resolving of the fivc letters of the word *Mcnus. 
For if thou apply every letter of it as one of the Greeke 
Alphabet unto those numerall figures that the same Greeke 
letters do expresse, then thou shalt presently apprehend 
the conceit, and must needs praise it for a passin^ witty 
invention. Therefore thou must thus resolve the letters : 



M 


40 


E 


5 


N 


50 





70 


2 


2CX> 



The totall number doth make up the exact summe of all 

the daies in the yeare, even 

365- 

Now I will returne againe to my liquid journey betwixt 
Mentz and Franckford upon the river Mcenus. The 
barke wherein I was carried contained a strange miscellany 
of people of sundry nations at that time, whose languages 
were (I thinke) a quarter as much confounded as theirs were 
in ancient times at that famous conflision of Babel. For 
in this barke there were some few of every principall nation 
of Christendome travelling towards Frankford Mart that 
began the day before. Amongst the rest, one of them 
was borne in the country of Lithuania that adjoyneth to a 
part of Poland, a passing sweet scholler, and a traveUer 
that had lately lived in the University of Monachium 
commonly called Mynichin in Bavaria, a man that yeelded 

* Though the word be Moenus with oe dipthong ; yet here he 
doth write it Menus, eliding the dipthong. For otherwise the con- 
ceit will not hold« 

a86 



OBSERVATIONS OF FRANKFORT 

sinfi^nlar delight unto xne by his variable discourse seasoned 

wim much polite learning. On both sides of the Moenus 

I observed a very fat soile, and two sumptuous palaces. Sumptmu 

Whereof one that I saw on the right hand, situate alone /*^^'' 

by it selfe in a very spacious and pleasant meadow, was the 

most Princely and royall building that I saw in Germany, 

saving the Pfaltzgraves of Rhene in the citie of Heidel- 

berg. For this was a seat well beseeming an Emperours 

Court; and the situation so sweet and delectable that it 

seemed to me to stand in a second garden of Eden. This 

one place doth sufficiently confirme the truth of Kirchners 

elegant agnomination in his Oration of the praise of 

Germany, that the Mcene will yeeld as great amenity as 

the Po of Italy, or any other forraine river. The name 

of the place is Kelsterbach. Heretofore the Landgrave of Kilsterbiuk. 

Hassia was Lord of it. But I understood that he hath sold 

it within these few yeares to a certaine Germane Prince. 

The other Palace stood in a certaine towne on the left 

hand of the Moenus about foure miles on this side Franck- 

ford, and belongeth to the Archbishop of Mentz; but 

that is much interiour to this. A little on this side the 

townes end of Franckford I observed a most rufuU ^ruifidstght 

spectacle that strooke a certaine horrour into me, and so 

I thinke did into the hearts of most other relenting 

travellers that passed that way: the bodies of sixteene 

men hanging upon a great stonie gallowes hard by the 

high way side, supported with many great stony pillars. 

My Obscrvations of Franckford. tP- 5^"] 

Julius Caesar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 

Franckford. 

MUlta laboratis debet Franckfordia sulcis: ^oRgtt^s 

Multa racemiferis vinea culta jugis. F^^lyT 

Quid referam, quanta & quae convexere metalla? '^^•^ 

Que Mars bellipotens, quae petit alma Ceres? 
Hiic Italus patriis miratur partibus orbem, 
Advectxun htic stupuit Gallica magna suum. 

287 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

Hic Qriens, hic terra nobis comperta sub astris 

Agnoscit Genii semina plena sui. 
Nec tamen in brutis sola hsec commercia rebus: 

Hic animi seternse sed cumulantur opes. 
Quod si res paucas operosa est dicere merces : 

Non magis est, cunctas res operosa dare? 

This City is commonly called Franckfort am Mayn, 

that is, Franckford situate by the river Mcenus. For they 

give that addition to the name to the end to make a difFer- 

ence betwixt this Citie, and another of the same name in 

the dominion of the Marquesse of Brandenburg, situate 

by the river Odera that is famous for her Universitie. 

Terrimy and The Territory wherein it standeth is called Franconia aliks 

ir^^l^Zf Francia Qrientalis, situate in the very medituUium or heart 

ranjwrt, ^^ ^ Germany, at the farthest edge whereof Franckfbrd 

standeth. The situation of it is pleasant. For it is seated 

in a spacious pkine that veeldeth notable abundance, yea 

a very Cornucopia of aU necessary commodities. The 

Citie was first called Helenopolis from Queene Helena an 

English woman bome, and the mother of Constantine the 

Great. But in processe of time the denomination was 

changed from Helenopolis to the present name Franco- 

[p. 5^*-] furtum, which is derived from Francus the name of a 

Prince who was the sonne of Marcomirus King of thc 

country of Franconia, wherein (as I have ab-eady said) 

Franckford standeth. It is distinguished by the rivcr 

City dividid Moenus into two parts, the greater and the lesser. Thc 

tnto two parts. j^gg^ jg called Saxenhauscn, that is, thc houses of thc 

Saxons. Againe, these two are joined together by a vcry 
faire bridge built all with stone, and supported with a 
dozen goodly stony pillers each couple making a faire 
arch. Though the city be divided into two parts, yet thc 
government is all one, and they are governed by onc 
Senate. The walles that do inviron the dtie, are built 
with such admirable strength, beeing compacted all of 
hard stone, and beautified with a great company of towers, 
strong bulwarks, and faire gatehouses, that they yeekl a 

288 



OBSERVATIONS OF FRANKFORT 




most singular grace to the city. Also the same walles are 
indosed with deepe trenches and moates. The principall 
Church of the city, which was built by Pipin King of 
France (as Munster affirmeth) who dedicated it to the 
honour of our Saviour, though it bee now called Saint 
Bartholmewes Church, doth present a good!y shew a farre 
off. Yet the inward matter of the Church is but ordinarie, 
and differeth but little from other colledge Churches of 
Germany, 

There are two things which make this citie famous over ^lf^Aonof the 
all Europe. The one the election of the King of the l^^^l"'^'^' 
Romanes, the other the two noble feyres kept heere twise 
a yeare, which are called the Martes of Franckford, As 
for the election, Charles the fourth Emperour of that 
name established a decree for the perpetuall choosing of the 
King of the Romanes in this citie about the yeare 1350« 
which he confirmed with his golden seale of armes. Before 
which time the place of the election was uncertaine. For 
it was sometimes at Mentz, sometimes at Hagenaw, some- 
times also at Franckford, and elsewhere, according to the 
discretion of the Elector Princes. By the King of the 
Romanes I meane him that either in the life of the [p. 563.] ' 
Emperour which is in possession of the Empire, or shortly 
after his death, Is chosen for his successor by the Elector 
Princes ; which title the chosen Prince doth retaine till 
he be afterward confirmed and crowned by the Pope. 
And after his coronation that title being abolished, he is 
stiled Emperour Augustus. The first institution of this 
custome is attributed to Otho the third German Emperour 
of that name, who being in the city of Rome about the 
yeare of our Lord looo. after he had punished those two 
famous rebels, Pope John the eighteenth, and Crescentius 
ConsuII of the City, ordained it for a perpetuali decree by 
rhe consent of Pope Gregory the fifth, that hee which 
should be successour in the Empire, should be intituled 
King of the Romanes untill by his coronation hee were 
throughly inaugurated into the Empire. 

The first that was chosen King of the Romanes was 
c. c 11 aSg 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Hinry II , tke 
first Rman 
En^eror 
ckosen at 
Frankfirt, 



[p. 5^4.] 

Tkifairs of 
Frankfirt, 



GoUsmithi 
work. 



Hemy the second surnamed Sanctus. This constitution 
of Charles the fourth hath remained inviolable ever since 
his time for the space of two hundred and fifty yeares. 
For there was never King of the Romanes chosen in any 
place since his death but oneiy in Franckford. Munster 
maketh mention of a certaine custome observed in this 
City^ as a lawe at the time of the Electors dissention 
about the election of the King of the Romanes; 
which is this: when the Elector jPrinces cannot s^gree, 
one of the competitors that are named Kin^ or the 
Romanes, is to lie in armes neere the dty of Franck- 
ford with an army of men for the space of halfe a 
moneth) to the end to skirmish with his competi- 
tor ; and if he getteth the victory in battel, or by other 
peaceable meanes doth grow to a composition with his 
adversarie, then hee is admitted within the gates of the 
citie, and saluted King of the Romanes, not else. Experi- 
ence of this hath bene made betwixt Henry Landgrave of 
Thuringia and Conrade the sonne of Frederick the second. 
And also betwixt Ludovicus the Bavarian, and Frederick 
of Austria. As for the Fayre it is esteemed, and so indeed 
is the richest meeting of any pkce of Christendome, which 
continueth 14 daies together, and is kept in the moneth 
of March for the Spring, and in September for thc 
Autumne. This Autumnall Mart it was my chance to 
see, Where I met my thrise-honourable countryman thc 
Earle of Essex, after he had travelled in divers places of 
France, Switzerland, and some parts of high Gennany. 
The riches I observed at this Mart were most infinite, 
especially in one place called llnder Den Roemer, where 
the Goldsmithes kept their shoppes, which made the most 
glorious shew that ever I saw in my life, especially somc 
of the Citie of Norimberg. This place is divided into 
divers other roomes that have a great many partitions 
assigned unto Mercers and such like artificers, for thc 
exposing of their wares. The wealth that I sawe herc 
was incredible, so great that it was unpossible for a man 
to conceive it in his minde that hath not first seene it with 

290 




I 

■ M 

i 



OBSERVATIONS OF FRANKFORT 

his bodily eies. The goodHest shew of ware that I sawe ^^ g^^^ 
in all Franckford saving that of the Goidsmithes, was made 'p.? ' 
by an Englishman one Thomas Sackrield a Dorsetshire- 
man, once a servant of my tather, who went out of England 
but in a meane estate, but after he had spent a few yeares 
at the Duke of Brunswicks Court, hee so inriched himselfe 
of late, that his glittering shewe of ware in Franckford did 
farre excell all the Dutchmen, French, Italians, or whora- 
soever else. This place is much frequented during the 
whole time of the Mart with many eminent and princely 
persons. There I saw the Earle of Sconenberg one of the 
most potent Earles of all Germany, For his yearly 
revenues are (as I heard) about forty ihousand pound 
sterling. AIso I sawe many other Earles and some Pfeltz- ^""3 
graves : the number of whome is much multiplied (I "'^^"""' 
understand) in Germany. The reason whereof is because 
if any Landgrave, Pfaltzgrave, or Earle, hath any sonnes, [p. sfiS-):, 
all of them more or lesse do share in dignity. For all the 
Landgraves sons if he hath ten or twenty, are Landgraves 
as well as himselfe. The like doth happen to the Pfaltz- 
graves, Earles &c. But although their dignity be equall, 
yet their estates are very unequall, For it falleth out very 
often that the eldest brother hath almost al, and many 
of the younger brothers but small meanes of maintenance. 

After this I went to the Bookesellers streete where I ^"-fWf/'^ 
saw such infinite abundance of bookes, that I greatly 
admlred it. For this street farre excelleth Paules Church- 
yard in London, Saint James streete in Paris, the Merceria 
of Venice, and all whatsoever else that I sawe in my travels. 
In so much that it seemeth to be a very epitome of all the 
principall Libraries of Europe. Ncither is that streete 
femous for selling bookes onely, and that of all manner of 
artes and disciplines whatsoever, but also for printing of \ 
them. For this city hath so flourished within these fewe ■ 
yeares in the arf of printing, that it is not inferiour in 
that respect to any city in Christendome, no not to Basil 
it selfe which I have before so much commended for the 
excellency of that art. Likewlse I visited divers Cloysters 



I 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

full of wares and notable commodities, especially the 
Cloyster of Saint Bartholmewes Church ; where amongst 
other things I saw a world of excellent pictures, inventions 
of singular cwiosity, whereof most were religious, and 
such as tended to mortification. Moreover I saw their 
^^ Exchange neere to the place before mentioned cailed Under 

Exchauff, Den Roemer. This is nothing like to ours in London, 
the Rialto of Venice, or that which I saw afterward at 
Middleborough in Z^and. For it is nothing but a part 
of the streete, xmder the open ayre. Here I observed a 
frequent concurse of wealthy Merchants from ail the 
famousest regions of Christendome. I noted a thing in 
this fayre that I never did before in any place. £very 
[p. 566.] man selleth his ware in his owne house, except forreners 
and those that hire shoppes in the Burse. So that there 
d strange is no common place either in the streetes or in any open 
enstm. j^j ^j. ggjj ^^ j observed at the Fayre of Bergomo in 
Italie and in all other places) but only within the conipasse 
of their owne private houses. Which maketh the Fayrc 
seeme but little, though indeed it be very great. I have 
read that this City was once deprived of their Fayre by 
the Emperour Charles the fourth, about some two hundred 
and fifty yeares since, who for a certaine grudge that hc 
bare to the Franckfordians by reason that they entertayned 
his adversary Gunterus Earle of Schwartzenburg within 
the City, and proclaimed him King of the Romanes, tooke 
away the Fayre from Franckford, and removed it to 
Mentz; but being afterward reconciled to the City, hc 
restored it againe to them. 

I observed no monuments of any note in this City. 
Though in St. Bartholmewes Church fas a learned man told 
me after I was gone from Franckford) I might have seene 
the monument of the foresaid Earle Gunterus, who was 
competitor with the said Charles the fourth for the Empire, 
and afterward King of the Romans. For he died in this 
City being poysoned by a physition, after he had reigned 
sixe moneths, and was finaQy buried in the said Church. 
Here also died Ludovicus surnamed Germanicus for that 

292 



OBSERVATIONS OF FRANKFORT 

he was KJng of Germanie, the third sonne of the Emperour 

Ludovicus Pius by his first wife Irmengardis, in the yeare 

of his age threescore and ten, of the Lord 876. But he 

was not buried here. For his body was afterward carryed 

by his sonne Ludovicus the third to a pkce in the territorie 

of the Wormacians called Laureacum. I went to the 

Monasterie of the Dominican Friers because I heard that UntKtaib J 

there were certaine monuments and cunous rarities to be Jrian. 

seene amongst them, but they were so unsociable and pre- 

cise, that they would not affoord accesse to any strangers 

at the time of the Mart. 

The reJigion of this City is both Protestant and Papisti- [p. 567.] 
call; the Protestants prcfesse Luthers doctrine. The 
principall Church which is dedicated to St. Barthelmew 
belongeth to the Papists, most of the other to the Pro- 
testants, saving the Churches of Monasteries. 

I reccived a speciall kindnesse in this City of an English Mr. TAomm 
Gentleman, with the commemoration of whose name I ■*'«'- 
wiil finish my Observations of Franckford, even Mr. 
Thomas Row the eldest sonne of Sir Henry Row, that 
was Lord Maior of London about two yeares since. Truly 
this Gentleman did me such a singular courtesie there, 
that he hath perpetually obliged me unto him all the dayes 
of my life. 

Thus much of Franckford. 

HAving spent two whole daies in Franckford, Wed- 
nesday and Thursday, I departed therehence the 
sixteenth day of September being Friday, about ten of the 
clocke in the morning, and travelled by land to Mentz 
whither 1 came by sixe of the docke in the afternoone. 
This journey was sixteene miles. I remained that night 
in Mentz. And whereas I meant to have gone the next 
morning to Ingelheim Court sixteene miles from Mentz I«ge!ieii 
to have seene the place where the Emperour Charles the ^*'"''- 
Great was borne, and that magnificent Palace which he 
built there, whercin he sometimes kept his Imperiall Court, 
and whtch is yet shewed to this day ; certayne Gentlemen 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

of Colen craved my company in a boate downe the Rhene 
towards Colen. Whereupon I committed my selfe to the 
water the same morning being Saturday and the seven- 
teenth of September, about eight of the clocke, and aune 
to the City of Boppard, which is thirty miles beyond it, 
about eight of the aocke in the evening. 

[p. 568.] My Observations betwixt Mentz and Boppard. 

SHortly after I had passed beyond Mentz, when I 
beganne to observe divers strong Townes and Castles 
situate hard by the Rhene, and more upon the left banke 
in that part of Germanie, which was in the time of the 
Roman Empire reckoned a member of Gallia, then upon 
Aserwu the opposite shore; I entred into a serious kinde of 
fxammatm, examination of my selfe, how it came to passe that one 
banke of the Rhene was exceedingly planted with townes 
and fortresses, and the other very slenderly. And to the 
end I might be the better resolved in the matter, I asked 
a learned Gentleman in my boate that was a Senator of 
Colen, what was the reason that the left banke of the 
Rhene was more frequently inhabited then the other. 
Who answered me in that manner as gave me no fiill 
satisfaction. At last, after I had ruminated long upon the 
matter, I called to my remembrance the warres that Julius 
Caesar waged with the ancient Germans, and did quickly 
satisfie my owne selfe without any further inquisition. 
For I conjectured that many of these Townes and Castels 
were built by the Romans, at what time they fortified that 
tract of the Rhene with presidiarie souldiers for the better 
defence of their Provinces against the violent excursions 
of the Germans, that bordered neare unto them upon the 
adverse banke. Neither was my conjecture vaine. For 
this is most true, and confirmed by the irrefragable 
authority of many ancient and authenticke historio- 
CTaphers, that many of these places were built by the 
^L ^i^' Romans themselves, shortly after Caesar had conquered 
hank ofthi tjallia. 1 his is the reason that there are so many magni- 
JUdm. ficent and ancient Cities on the left banke of that long 

294 






OBSERVATIONS OF BINGEN 

tract betwixt Basil and Colen. Namely Strasbourg, Spira, 
Wormes, Mentz, Bing, Boppard, Confluence, and Bonna. 
But on the other side I saw no City or Towne of any [p. 569,] 
note, but only Brisac a little from Basil, and yet that was 
but a meane thing in comparison of some of these. The 
like whereof I have heard is to be observed in one of the 
bankes of the Danubius betwixt the place of the rising 
thereof and Hungarie, In which banke there are many 
stately Cities built, as Patavia, Ratisbona, and divers 
others. But on the opposite banke there are no ancient 
Cities or Citadels to be seene. The reason Js, because the 
Romans durst not raise any on that side for feare of the 
sudden invasion of the Germans that dwelt neare at hand. 

I observed many custome Townes betwixt Mentz and Ciuiomttncni. 
Colen, which are in number eleven. They belong to 
divers Princes Spirituall and Temporall, who receive a 
great yearlie revenue by them. All passengers whatsoever 
they are, noble or ignoble, must arrive in each of these 
places, and stay a whne till the boatemen hath paid custome 
for his passage. To the passenger it is no charge at all, 
but only to the master of the boate. If any should dare 
in a resolute and wilfull humour to passe by any of these 
places, and not pay the stinted summe of money, the 
Publicans that sit at the receipt of custome, will presently 
discharge (as I heard) a peecc of Ordinance at them, and 
make them an example to all after-commers. Richard one 
of our English Kings did once very graciously abolish all J 
these tolles and taxations by water, to the great benefit 
of the Germans and at other passengers, when he kept his 
Court in the City of Wormcs, after he was elected King 
of the Romans by the Elector Princes, as I have before 
mentioned in my Observations of that City. Which thing 
purchased him the great iove and good wili of the people ^ 
for that little time that he lived in Germanie. 

The first of these townes where we arrived was Bing, Bmgen. 
a piace of great antiquitie, in Latine Bingium, that 
belongeth to the Archbishop of Mentz, and professeth the 
Popi^ religion. At this towne thcre is a river called Naha [p. S70.] ' 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

that infuseth it selfe into the Rhene, where they botfa do 
make a confluent. This is one of the garrison townes 
that I have before mentioned» that were subject to die 
Marshall of Mentz, where there lay a company of nt- 
sidiarie souldiers with a Roman Prefect, by the appoiiit- 
ment of Jxilius Caesar, for the defence of that limit againit 
the Germanes. There are three things that have much 
famoused this towne. The first the death of Drusus Nero^ 
whom I have before mentioned. The second the Nunne 
Hildegardis that once lived there. The third a towcr 
standing in the Rhene, whereof anon I wil write a notable 

Diotkof historie. About the death of Drusus the historians do 

Dnmu Niro. jj^^^ differ. For some report that he was slaine by thc 

Germanes, sitting upon his horse. Others, that he penshed 
by a fall from his horse. Which of these histories is 
truest both of the place and manner of his death, seeing 
I finde difference amongst the historiographers, I wili not 
certainly affirme, but leave it to the judgement of the 
leamed that are more expert in the Romane histories then 
my selfe. But surely for mine owne parte I am drawen 
by certain conjectures to beleeve that he died at this 
towne. Amongst other reasons this is one : because thert 
is a certaine fountaine shewed to this day neare to this 
towne (as Munster writeth) that is called Druselbrun, that 
is, the fountaine of Drusus, as having his denomination 
from the foresaid Drusus that died here. As for the 

S. Hildigard. Nunne Hildegardis, she lived here about the yeare of our 

Lord I i8o, as Gesner writeth, and was of the order of St 
Bennet, even in the time of St. Bernard Abbot of Clara- 
vallis; betwixt whom there was great friendship, as it 
appeareth by their mutuall Epistles that they wrote to 
each other, which are yet extant in the works of St 
Bernard. Truly there are very admirable matters written 
of this woman by the historians. For it is reported that 
she was often rapt in the middest of her sleepe with 

[p. $71.] certaine enthusiasmes, that is, divine inspirations, whereby 

she leamed the I^atine tongue after a most miraculous 
manner without any teacher. A thing that will seeme 

296 



OBSERVATIONS OF BINGEN 

unto many readers a meere paradoxe, but certainly for my 
owne part I beleeve it to be true, For I receive it frora 
the authority of a very grave writer Sebastian Munster. 
Besides she was esteemed a great prophetesse in that age. 
And she wrote many treatises both in prose and verse : as 
the hfe of St. Rupertus the Confessor ; the life of St. 
Disibodus Bishop : 135 severall Epistles, besides many 
other things that are mentioncd by Gesner in the catalogue 
of her works. But the third thing that is reported of this 
towne is a thing passing memorable and very worthy thc 
observation. Such a wondrous and rare accident as I never 
read or heard of the like before, Therefore I will relate 
it in this place out of Munster for one of the most notable 
examples of Gods justice that ever was extant in the whole 
world since the first creation thereof. It hapned in the 
yeare 914 that there was an exceeding femine in Germany, 
at what time Otho surnamed fhe Great was Emperor, and 
one Hatto once Abbot of Fulda was Archbishop of Mentz, ■^rcUiiitf I 
of the Bishops after Crescens or Crescentius the two and """'■ 
thirtieth, of the Archbishops after St. Bonifacius the thir- 
teenth. This Hatto in the time of this great famine 
befbre mentioned, when he saw the poore people of the 
country exceedingly oppressed with ramine, assembled a 
great company or them together into a barne, and hke a 
most accursed & mercilesse caitifFe burnt up those poore 
innocent soules, that were so farre from doubting any such 
matter, that they rather hoped to have received some 
comfort and reliefe at his hands. The reason that moved 
the Prelate to commit that execrable impiety, was because 
he thought that the famine would the sooner cease, if 
those unprofitabie beggars that consumed more bread then 
they were worthy to eate, were dispatched out of the 
world. For he said that these poore foikes were like to [p. 571.] 
mice, that were good for nothing but to devoure corne. 
But Aimighty God the just revenger of the poore folks 
quarrel did not iong suffer this hainous tyranny, this most 
detestabie fact unpunished. For he mustred up an army 
of mice against the Archbishop, and sent them to persecute 
297 



CORYATS CRUDITIBS 

His MsserM him as his furious AlastorS) so that they afflicted him boch 
^- day and night, and would not suffer him to take his rest 

in any place. Whereupon the Prelate thinking that he 
should be secure firom the injury of mice if he were in a 
certaine tower that standeth in the Rhene neere to the 
towne, betooke himself unto the said tower as to a safe 
refuge and sanctuary from his enemies, and locked him- 
selfe in. But the innumerable troupes of mice continuallj 
chaced him very eagerly, and swunune unto him upon tbc 
top of the water to execute the just judgement of God, and 
so at last he was most miserably devoured by those silly 
creatures ; who pursued him with such bitter hostility, thit 
it is recorded they scraped & gnawed off his very name 
from the waUes and tapestry wherein it was written, after 
they had so cruelly devouied his bodie. Wherefore the 
tower in which he was eaten up by the mice is shewed to 
this day for a perpetuall monument to al succeeding ages 
of the barbarous and inhumane tyranny of that impious 
prelate, being situate in a litde greene Iland in the middest 
of the Rhene neere to this towne of Bing, and is conunonly 
called in the Germane tongue the Mowse tum. 

After I was a litde past Bing, even about the west end 

of the towne, I observed that upon the sides of the 

Rhene, which I did not perceive before in any other part 

of Germany. For both sides of the river were indosed 

with steepe rocky mountaines that ranne on a great way 

A msslAtuii of in length as farre as the towne of Bonna, which is a littk 

castks oHtki on this side Colen, even for the space of fiftie miles at thc 

^' least, upon the tops of which mountaines I saw an exceed- 

ing[ multitude or Towers, Castels, and Citadels on both 
[p. 573.] sides, which belong unto those Princes in whose territories 

they stand, being built for the better fortification of those 
frontier parts of their Princedomes. Some of them seeme 
to be of that antiquitie that I am perswaded they were 
built by the ancient Romans, especially those of that shore 
which was heretofore esteemed a part of Gailia. Aiso I 
perceived that these mountaines doe hemme in the Rhene 
in a farre straighter compasse, then before I came thither, 

298 



OBSERVATIONS OF BACHARACH 

even almost by halfe. For it is in divers places so narrow 
betwixt the rocks that a man may easily cast over a stone 
from one banke to the other, as a certaine Germane told 
me that passed in the same boate with me. But afterward 
when I came to Bonna, I observed that those hils did 
desinere in planiciem, which plaine did continue from 
thenceforth till I came to the farthest bound of my journey 
upon the Rhene in the Netherlands. None of these rocks 
could I perceive in that whole tract betwix Basil and 
Strasbourg, saving one upon the which the towne of 
Brisac is situate on the right hand of the Rhene ; but a 
pleasant plaine on both sides which I heard extended it 
selfe as ferre as Mentz, and from Mentz hkewise the plaine 
continueth even to the towns end of Bing, and then 
(as I have said) beginne those steepe rockie mountaines, 

Thcre is a very strange custome observed amongst the Ahardea^ 
Germanes as they passe in their boates betwixt Mentz and 
Colen, and so likewise betwixt Colen and the lower parts 
of the Netherlands, Every man whatsoever he be poore 
or rich, shall labour hard when it commeth to his turne, 
except he doth either by friendship or some small summe 
of money redeeme his labour. For their custome is that 
the passengers must exercise themselves with oares and 
rowing alternis vicibus, a couple together. So that the 
master of the boate (who me thinks in honestie ought either 
to doe it himselfe, or to procure some others to do it for 
him) never roweth but when his turne commeth. This [p, 574.] 
exercise both for recreation and health sake I confesse is 
very convenient for man. But to be tied unto it by way ■ 

of a strict necessity when one payeth well for his passage, I 

was a thing that did not a little distaste my humour. I 

The next custome Towne that we arrived at is called I 

Bacchara, which is in the dominion of the Pfeltzgrave of | 

Rhene, and situate on the same left banke of the Rhene ; ■ 

a place as femous in Germanie for her generose wines Wines af 
growen upon the hill of Furstenberg neare unto it, as the ^«"unberi 
valley Tellina is in the Grisons country, Falernus in Cam- 
pania, or Chios in Greece. It seemeth by the name to 



I 



i 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

be a towne of great antiquity, and to have beene built in 
the time of Gentilisme. For some make the etymologie 
of the name to be quasi Bacchi ara, the Altar of Bacchus. 
Because that drunken God Bacchus had Altars erected unto 
him in this place in time of the Pagan idolatrie. Othen 
derive it from Bacchus only^ which by a Rhetorical figure 
called metonymia doth signifie wine. The reason of thit 
derivation is because this towne doth yeeld most excellent 
wine as I have ah^eady said. The religion of the towne is 
Protestant. 

W. The third telonium is called Cuve which belongeth to 

the Pfaltzgrave also. This Towne is situate on the 
opposite banke, and is very memorable for one thine, 
which is a certaine Castell (whereof I have befbre ma£ 
mention in my Observations of Heidelbere;) situate in 
the middle of the Rhene called Pfaltz, which signifieth 
a Pakce, wherehence commeth the word Pfaltzgrave 
(otherwise commonly called Palsgrave) one of the most 
eminent and Princely titles of the Count Palatine of 
Rhene. This towne professeth the Protestant religion 
also. 

beririsii. A little beyond Cuve we passed by the elegant little 
City of higher Wesel, in Latin Wesalia superior, but 
commonly called Ober Wesel for distinction sake betwixt 
that and the lower Wesel in Cleveland. This towne is 

». 575.] situate on the left banke of the Rhene, and belongeth to 
the Archbishop of Trevirs the third spiritual Elector of 
the Empire, who hath had the dominion of Wesel these 
many yeares, even since the time of Henry the seventh 
Emperour of that name, by whom it was morgaged to the 
Archbishopricke of Trevirs, for a certaine summe of 
money, and never since redeemed. It is strongly walled 
and beautified with many faire Towers built on the walles. 
The religion of it is Popish. Much is this towne spoken 

cHId off for tne martyrdome of a yong child in the same called 

trtyr. Wernerus, of the age of seven yeares, in the yeare 1287. 
For it is written that the same Wernerus was in the same 
yeare upon the thirteenth day of May most cruelly 

300 



OBSERVATIONS OF OBER WESEL 

marfyrcd by the barbarous Jewes, in this manner : They 
tied him to a certaine wooden pillar in a low vault under 
thc ground, and whipped him so bitterly, that the pjoore 
innocent child died with it. After they had thus handled 
him they conveighed away his corps, and buried it under 
a certaine hedge where brambles and thornes grew, but 
being afterward casually found out by some of the townes- 
folke of Wesel, it was therehence translated to a place 
called Bavaricum, where they built a church to almighty 
God in memory of that punie Martyr, & it is called by 
the name of Wernerus Church at this day. As for the 
wooden piUar whereunto they tyed him when they 
scourged him to death, it was afterward removed to an 
hospitall Church of Wesel neare to the Rhene, where they 
erected it at the toppe of the high Altar, and is there 
shewed to this day for a monument of that Jewish cruelty. 
In this towne was borne that famous Divine *Joannes de 
Wasalia, mentioned by Matthias Illyricus in his tract 
intitled Catalogus testium Veritatis, qui ante Lutheri tem- 
pora Antichristo reclamarunt. For this Joannes in the 
middest of the darknesse of Poperie gave a Iittle glimpse 
of light in Christs Church, though it was greatly obscured 
and suppressed by the iniquity of the times wherein he 
lived. 

When we were passed Wesel we came to another [p. 576.] 
custome Towne situate on the same banke of the Rhene, 
which was the fourth. The name of it is St. Gewere, a Si. Gear. 
Protestant towne, and it standeth in that territory whose , 

inhabitants were in former times called +Catti, a very 
warlike people much mentioned by Cornelius Tacitus and 
other writers of the Roman histories ; but now it hath 
fhe name of Hassia, which is a Landgraviat subject to the 

* But I will not conCdenily afiirme tha[ hee w» barne in thls 
towne. But eiiher in ihia or the Lower Wesel in Cleve-land I 
know he was borne. 

t Prom this word commeth Cattinelnbogen the ancient name of 
a Towne in Hassia wherhence chc Landgrave deriveth one of hii 
Princelj' titlet. 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIBS 



f eataract 
\i Rltine. 



OM 



>• 577.] 



^ mrry 
Mtmfir 
rangtrs at 
\ G^r. 



renowned Prince Maurice the present Landgrave of the 
Country. To him doth this custome towne belong. It 
hath the denomination of St. Gewere from a certaine hdj 
man called Goarus (for the Latin name of the towne is 
Sanctus Goarus) that came hither out of Aquitanie in the 
time of the Emperour Mauricius, and livea in this piace 
a holy and religious life. 

Here I observed a verjr violent source of the tonent 
of the Rhene, which conuneth to passe by meanes of a 
swift cataract, that is, a fall of water from some iineven 
part of the streame. Also I heard that there is a deep 
gulfe, rapidus vortex in this place, which wit^ a most 
mcessant greedines swalloweth down the water hj meanes 
of the manifold anfracts and intricate windings thereof, 
which continuall drinking up of the water is said to be 
the naturall cause of the great violence of the streame that 
appeareth more there then in other places. It is often 
oDserved that this place in the time of a raging tempest 
is so dangerous that no boates dare passe that way, or if 
any should by force of the storme be driven in against their 
willes, the passengers doe very hardly escape with their 
lives. This foresaid towne of St. Gewere doth not want 
the meanes to make it something memorable as well as 
the rest of the Rhenish townes, though in quantity it bc 
inferiour unto all those that I have aJready named. For 
there is one thing in it that doth make it much spoken off, 
whereof I will report a merry and short historie. A littlc 
within the towne gate there hangeth an yron collar iastened 
in the wall with one linke, which is made fit to be put upon 
a mans neck without any manner of hurt to the party that 
weareth it, and they use first to conveigh it over the head, 
and so to the necke. This collar doth every stranger and 
freshman the first time that he passeth that way (according 
to an ancient custome observed amongst them) put upon 
his necke (at the least as the Gentlemen told me that went 
in my boate) which hee must weare so long standing till 
he hath redeemed himselfe with a competent measure of 
And at the drinking of it there is as much jovialty 

302 



wme. 



OBSERVATIONS OF ST. GOAR 

and merriment as heart can conceive for the incorporating 
of a fresh novice into the fraternity of boone companions. 
And from thenceforth he is free from all such manner of 
exactions as long as he liveth. That this is true I know 
by mine owne experience. For I was contented for 
novelty sakc to be their prisoner a litle while by wearing 
of the foresaid collar. This custome doth carry some 
kinde of affinity with certaine sociable ceremonies that wee 
have in a pkce of England which are performed by that 
most reverend I.ord Ball of Bagshot in Hamptshire, who 
doth with many and indeed more solemne rites invest his 
Brothers of his unhallowed Chappell of Basingstone (as 
all our men of the westerne parts of England do know by 
deare experience to the smart of their purses) then these 
merry Burgomaisters of Saint Gewere use to doe. In this 
towne was I like to separate my selfe from my Moguntine 
company. For as soone as I heard that the towne did 5r. Goar 
belong to the Landgrave of Hassia, the very name of that *'^ " '^, 
worthy Prince (whome for his admirable wisedome they fff,,^ 
do not undeservedly stile with the title of the Solomon 
of Germany) did strike into mee such a longing desire 
to see his Court at Cassel, that I was with great difficulty 
withdrawne by the perswasions of my company from goir 
thither. For he is a Prince of such rare and miraculous 
gifts of learning (the same whereof when I was in Germany [p. 578.] 
did doctorum volifare per ora virorum, and exceedingly 
resounded farre and neare in the eares of all learned men) 
that next to my dread Soveraigne King, and his gracious 
son Prince Henry, the most unparalleled father and sonne 
of all the Christian world, 1 do most honour and reverence 
the memory of this learned and religious Prince. For his 
religion together with the same that is generally professed 
over his whole dominion, is altogether consonant to ours 
in England. And his learning is so rare (beeing confirmed ^ /"'W ] 
by the testimonies of thousands of the learneder sort) ' 
that he speaketh sixe or seven languages most elegantly, 
& his affection to Englishmen is so great, that no stranger 
of any part of Christendomc can bee more welcome to him 
303 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

then an Englishman. Although I say I was strooken with 
such a longing desire to see the Coiut of this most fanoous 
Prince (whome I have here obit^ glaunced at with this 
exorbitant digression from my mame matter upon the 
occasion of arriving in a towne of his dominion) yet the 
opportunity of my German assodats recalled me, and so 
arter much Mercuriall and Joviall conversation in this 
Towne of Saint Gewere, we retumed againe to our boate, 
and proceeded fbrward in our joumey. A little bevond 
the west end of this town I observed a very beautiful and 
stately Castel, the fayrest of all that I sawe that day, situate 
upon a lofty hill which belongeth to the fbresayd Land- 
grave also as well as the towne. At length about eight 
^offard. of the clocke at night we arrived at the towne of Boppard, 
as I have before said, and there reposed our selves tili the 
next mominj;. This city of Boppard is situate upon the 
left banke of the Rhene, and was our fifth custome towne. 
This city is very ancient, fbr it was built in the time of 
Julius Cesar, or (as I thinke) before. But this is certainly 
tme, that it was in that time extant. For here lay an 
P- 579-] other Roman Prefect with a garrison of souldiers, one of 
the tenne subject to the Moguntine Marshall, as I have 
before said. The name of it in those daies was Bodobigra. 
As for this present name of Boppard, in Latin Boppaidia, 
some write that it is so called quasi Bonport, which word 
signifieth a good or commodious haven Towne. I have 
read that it was once oppugned, and after the siege of a 
^^fpard few daies taken by Richard one of our English Kings, 
^^R' jL d because it made resistance against him when he came into 
^England. Germanic after he was elected King of the Romanes. For 
in those daies it was an imperiall Citie, in regard whereof 
King Richard challenged it, & so it remained till the time 
of Henry the seventh, who morgaged it to the Archbishop 
of Trevirs for a summe of money, at the same time that 
he did upper Wesel. Ever since which time it hath bene 
subject to the dominion of the Archbishop of Trevirs, and 
professeth the same religion that he doth, which is that 
of the Church of Rome. I am sorry that I can speake no 

304 



OBSERVATIONS OF BOPPARD 

more of this city, as of the monuments and antiquities 

thereof (for some I heard are there fo be seene) which it 

was not possibie for me to survay, because I came there 

late in the evening, and departed early the next day beeing 

Sunday and the eighteenth of September, about sixe of 

the clocke in the morning. The next Telonium that wee 

came unto was Lanstein the seventh in number, which is Lahniiein. 

in the dominion of the Archbishop of Mentz, and of the 

Popish reiigion. This standeth m the left banke of the 

Rhene also. From thence we came to the Citie of Con- 

fluentia commoniy called Cobolentz, on the left hand of 

the Rhene, which beiongeth to the Archbishop of Trevirs ; 

and hath her denomination from the Latin word confluere, 

which signifieth to runne together, because in that place 

there is a confluent of two noble rivers, the Rhene and the 

Mosella. The later of them is cailed Obrinca by Ptoie- RiverMaitl 

mseus Aiexandrinus. It riseth out of the country of 

Lingones in France, commonly called Langres, and runneth [p. s8o.] 

by the Cities of Mentz and Trevirs, and washeth a great 

part of the Country that was heretofore called Austrasia, 

but now Lotharingia, from fhe Emperour Lotharius the 

first, who changed the name thereof, commoniy Lorraine. 

I observed a fayre wooden bridge over this river at Con- 

fluence supported with thirteene arches. This City is not Cobltnzan 

inferiour in antiquity to any other of these Rhenish Cities ^"'""'"^- 

or townes that I have named since I came from Mentz. 

For it flourished in the daies of Juiius CECsar, in whose 

time it was pianted with a garrison of soidiers in the 

behaife of the Romanes, and governed by one of the 

foresaid tenne Roman Prefects that were subject to the 

high Marshail of Mentz. I observed that this city is 

invironed with strong walles, feyriy adorned with pretty 

little Turrets, thaf do yeeld a very deiicate shew. In this 

City was holden an Imperial Diet about the yeare of our 

Lord 1 137. where most of the greatest Princes of Germany 

were assembled to choose Conrade the third that was Duke 

of Suevia, Empcrour. The religion of it is Papisticall. 

AIso ihere was shewed mee a very feire Monastery upon 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Castkof 
Haummtein, 



[p. 581.] 



AndemacL 



Tm great 
hattks. 



a hill neere the City, which is inhabited by a convent of 
Carthusian Monkes. Likewise on the other side of the 
river right opposite to the City, I saw a very strong and 
impregnable Castell called Hermenstein, situate upon a 
very eminent rocke. It belongeth to the Archbishop of 
Trevirs also, and is esteemed the strongest and greatest 
Castell of all Germany bevond all comparison. I heard 
that it is exceeding plentimlly furnished with all manner 
of warlike munition, and continually kept by two hundred 
presidiary souldiers, which do most vigikntly gard it night 
and day, and are so carefuU of it, that they wul not give a 
stranger leave to come within it, though hee would give a 
g^t svunme of money to see it. The eighth custome 
Towne is called Engers, which is subject to tne Archbishm 
of Trevirs. The ninth Andernach situate upon the len 
side of the Rhene, a very ancient towne in the Diocesse 
of the Archbishop of Colen. For here resided another 
of the Roman Prefects in the time of Julius Cesar, and 
was the place where the last of the tenne garrisons hj 
that were subject to the authority of the Moguntine Mar- 
shall. It was in former times called Antennacum. For 
so doth Ammianus Marcellinus that ancient Historio- 
grapher call it. For many hundred yeares agoe it suffered 
great dilapidations. But in the yeare 11 20. it was very 
rairely re-edified by a certaine Archbishop of Colen who 
bestowed very great cost upon it. For besides the inward 
ornaments of the towne hee beautified it with stroner walles, 
& built many fayre Towers in them, which do greafly grace 
the towne. An ornament that I much observed in these 
Rhenish Cities and townes betwixt Mentz and Colen. 
In this towne was that worthy man Joannes Guinterius 
borne, once publike professour of the Greeke tongue b 
the University of Strasbourgr, as I have before mentioned 
in my discourse of that Clty. Neere this towne were 
fought two very great battels in the moneth of October 
anno 876, betwixt the Emperour Charles the second sur- 
named the Bald, and Lewes the second sonne of the elder 
brother, surnamed Germanicus, in which battel his Nephew 

306 



OBSERVATIONS OF ANDERNACH 

won the honour of the field to his great glory, and did 
put the Emperour his Uncle to flight. The second was 
betwixt that victorious German Emperour Otho surnamed 
the Great, and Ebarhardus Duke of Franconia, whereln the 
Duke was slaine ; and Gislebertus Duke of Lorraine, who 
married the Lady Gerbirga the Emperours eldest sister, 
and was confedcrated with the said Eberhardus, was 
drowned in the river Rhene but a little from the place 
where the battell was fought. Here the Emperour partly 
slue and partly tooke prisoners all those Earles and great 
Lordes that held with his enemies. This hapned about 
the yeare of our Lord 950. The tenth is called Lintz, fp. 581.] 
situate on the right banke of fhe Rhene, and in the 
Diocesse of the Archbishop of Colen, whose religion it Lint. 
professeth. This towne is femous for the residence of the 
femperour Frederick the third, who did sometimes keepc 
his imperiall Court here, and at last died in this towne of 
a surfet by eating too many mellons, upon the nineteenth 
day of August in the yeare of our Lord 1493, and of his 
age seventy eight, after hee had swayed the Empire fifty 
tnree yeares, 4 moneths, & 4 daies. He lived 3 yeares 
longer then Augustus Cfesar, & reigned 3 yeares lesse. 
But his body doth not he here ; for it was translated from 
this place where it lay for the space of 20 yeares, to Vienna 
in Austria, in the yeare 13 15, and the seventh day of 
November, where his bones have bene kept ever since in 
a most magnificent Mausoleum. From Lintz we went to 
an obscure towne in the Diocesse of Colen, called Uber- Ohennini^ 
winter that standeth in the left banke of the Rhene, and 
came thither about sixe of the clocke in the evening, 
where wee remained all that night. This daies journey 
betwixt the Citie of Boppard and Uberwinter contained 
some thirty miles. In this place we solaced our selves after 
our tedious iabour of rowing as merily as we could. One 
merry conceit amongst the rest that I heard in thts good -^ ""J^ 
company I will here relate. One of my Moguntine "■""■'"■ 
associats that was a merry Gentleman, and one tnat had 
lately bene a student in the Llniversitie of Altorph neere 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

the City of Norimberg, told me as we sate together at 
supper, that a certain Bishop had two kind of wines in 
his cellar, a better and a worse, that were called by two 
distinct names, the better Noli me tangere, the worse 
Utcimque. And that a certaine merry conceited fellow 
that sate at the Bishops table, havin^ dianke once or twise 
of the utcunque, so much disliked it that he wouki drink 
no more of it. Therefore he spake to one of the Bishops 
servants that waited at table, to give him a draught of tne 
[p* $83 ] ^^^ ^^ tangere, & withal pronounced unto him, in the 

presence of the Bishop these two merry Latin verses ex 
tempore. 

Si das Utcunque, dsemon vos tollat utrunque : 
Ibis ad astra poli, si fers Me tangere noh. 

With this and such other pleasant conceits we recreated 
our selves that night at Uberwinter, and the next moming 
being munday and the nineteenth of September^ we tooke 
boate againe about three of the clocke, and came to Colen 
which was eighteene miles beyond it, about tenne of the 
same morning: our whole journey betwixt Mentz and 
Colen was about seventv eight miles. I observed in a 
great many places^ on both sides of the Rhene, more 
gallowes and wheeles betwixt Mentz and Colen, then ever 
I saw in so short a space in all my life, especially within 
few miles of Colen, by reason that the rusticall Corydons 
of the country, which are commonly called the Boores and 
Fm-bootm. the Free-booters (a name that is given unto the lewd 
murdering villaines of the country that live by robbing 
and spoyling of travellers, beeing called Free booters, 
because they have their booties and prey from passengers 
free, paying nothing for them except they are taken) do 
commit many notorious robberies neere the Rhene, who 
are such cruell and bloody horseleaches (the very Hyene 
& Lycanthropi of Germany) that they seldome robbe any 
man but forthwith they cut his throat. And some of 
them doe afterward escape, by reason of the woodes neere 
at hand in which they shelter themselves free from danger. 

308 



OBSERVATIONS OF BONN 

Yet others are sometimes taken, and most cruelly excarni- Tieir 

ficated and tortured upon these wheeles, in that manner /•""*""■'■ 

that I have before mentioned in some of my observations 

of France. For I sawe the bones of many of them Ue 

uppon the wheele, a doleful spectacle for any relenting 

Christian to beholde. And upon those gallowes in divers 

places I sawe murderers hane, partly in chaines, and 

partly without chaines. A punishment too good tbr these 

CyclopicaJI Anthropophagi, these Caniball man-eaters. 1 [p, 5S4,] 

have heard that the Free-booters doe make themselves so 

strong, that they are not to be taken by the country. For 

I observed a tcwne about twenty miles on this side Colen, 

called Remagan, situate neere the Rhene, which about Remagen 

some ten yeares since was miserably ransacked by these 'f^'^^ 

Free-booters, who banded themselves together in so great -^" "' 

a troope as consisted of almost three thousand persons. 

The towne it selfe they defaced not, but only took away 

their goods, to the utter undoing and impoverishment of 

the inhabitants, The like they did to a goodly Palace 

hard by it called the Priepositura, by reason that it 

belongeth to an Ecclesiastical Proepositus, a man of great 

authority, that doth sometimes make his residence in that 

place. Within a few miles on this side Colen we arrived 

at the layre towne of Bonna situate on the left bank of the Bohh. 

Rhene, a place of great antiquity. For it was built either 

a little before the mcarnation of Christ, or in the time of 

Christ. That it is ancient it appeareth by the testimony 

of that famous Geographer Claudius Ptolemieus of Alex- 

andria, who lived about 140 yeares after Christ, in the 

time of the Emperour Marcus Aurelius Antonius sur- 

named Philosophus. This towne is the eieventh and the 

last Telonium of all those betwixt Mentz & Colen. It 

bclongeth to the Archbishop of Colen, and professeth the 

same religion that he doth, which is that of the church 

cf Rome. Here the Archbishop hath a Palace situated ^rtiBiii 

hard by the Rhene, a most magnificent and princely build- '*"''''■'■ 

ing, but much inferiour to divers PaJaces both of our Kir 

James, and of many Noblemen of England. Which 



I 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

therefore adde because one of my company that advised 

me to behold it well, told mee it was a Palace of so great 

magnificence, that he thought all my coimtry of England 

comd not yeeld the like. But surely his opinion was verv 

false and erroneous. For besides many other English 

[p. 585.] Palaces that do surpasse that of the Archbishop of Colen, 

there is one in mine owne country of Somersetshire, even 

the magnificent house of my most worthy and right Wor- 

StrEdwarJ shipful neifi^hbour and Mecoenas Sir Edward Phihppes now 

MMUr\fthi "^*^^^^^ of the Rolles (whome I name honoris causi) in 

Roiit. ^^ towne of Montacute, so stately adorned with the 

statues of the nine Worthies, that may bee at the least 

equaUy ranked with this of Bonna, if not something pre- 

ferred before it. At this towne the stiepe Rhenish 

Mountaines, which did on both sides indose the Rhene 

like to naturall walles or Bulwarkes betwixt the towne of 

Bing (as I have before said) and Bonna for the space of 

more then fifty miles, do desinere in planiciem, which 

>lain continued till I came to the farther bound of my 

oumey upon the Rhene in the Netherlands, as I have 

)efore said also. Bonna with Colen and many other 

goodly Townes in that tract was once most grievously 

spoyled by the Normans in the time of the Emperour 

Lotharius the second. 

It hapned that this nineteenth day of September when 
I came to Colen, was according to the computation of thc 
Church of these parts of Christendome the feast of St. 
Michael the Archangel, which was ten dayes sooner there 
then with us in England. Upon which day there werc 
many religious ceremonies celebrated in the City of Colm, 
and great shewes of Saints reliques. Amongst other 
things I observed a very frequent concurse of people at a 
little Chappei situate on the left side of the Rhene about 
a mile on this side Colen, in which they report the body of 
5. MMmus. St. Maternus was buried, who was one of the Disciples of 
St. Peter the Apostle, and the first converter both of thc 
City of Colen, and of divers other Cities and Townes in 
the Provinces thereabout from Gentilisme to Christianity. 

310 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

Buf at this day there is only the shrine of him shewed in 

the foresaid Chappell in which his body was once in- 

tombed. That shrine they worshipped very religiousty 

with many holy ceremonies upon that day of St. Michael. [p. 586,] 

But now it is only an empty monument void of any thing. 

For his bones were afterward carried to the City of Trevirs 

{as I heard divers report in Colen) where they are kept to 

this day together with many ancient reliques of other 

Saints which that City doth more abundantly yeeld (as 

many have told me m divers places) then any City of all 

Christendome saving Rome. 

The end of my Observations of some parts of 
high Germanie. 

The Beginning of my Observations of the 
Netherlands. 



I 



My Observations of Colonia Agrippina com- 
monly called Colen. 

'JiUius Cjesar Scaliger hath written these verses upon 
Colen. 

Maxima cognati Regina Colania Rheni, 
Hoc te etiam titulo Musa superba canit. 

Romani statuunt, habitat Germania, terra est 
Belgica, ter fcelix nil tibi Diva deest. 



Scariger'i 



I He ancient Ubii that are mentioned by 
Csesar and Tacitus, having abandoned 
their owne native country, which was 
neare to the river Albis in Saxonie, by 
reason oi their continuall broiles and con- ' 

flicts with the Suevians, came into this 
territory where Colen now standeth, and [P- 587-] 
are said to be the first original founders thereof, many founJtn of 
yeares before the incarnation of Christ, fi-om whom the ^"'"S"- 
City derived the denomination of Ubiopolia before it 
was called Colonia. But I cannot finde in any authour 




A 



CX)RYAT'S CRUDITIBS 

either the designation of the certaine yeare of the foimcbr 

tion, whereby a man might gather how long beibre the 

comming of Christ it was first fbunded, or mention of a&y 

principaB men of that nation of the Ubii that might bie 

properiy intitled the foimders thereof. After it was 

roimded by these Ubii, it hapned that Julius Cesar haviog 

conquered it together with many other Rheniah Cities 

before mentioned, on the left side of the river, buik i 

wooden bridge over the Rhene, to serve for the oon- 

veighing of his armie into the other side of the riveri 

that he might fight with the Germans : and from thenoe- 

forth it was under the subjection of the Romans for many 

yeares. Not long after tne time of Julius Cssar it was 

so exceedingly amplified and inlarged by the Romans, 

that it farre surpassed all the Cities whatsoever in all the 

fokfffi bordering Provmces. But to whom the glory of this 

12^^^ , amplification is to be ascribed, the authours doe some- 

SiRomans. thing difiFer. For the Colonians themselves thinke (as 

it appeareth by a memorable inscription written upon their 

Prsetorium which I will hereafter mention) that Marcus 

Vipsanius * Agrippa sonne in law of Augustus Csesar (fbr 

he married his daughter Julia the widow of his worthy 

nephew Marcellus, who was sonne to his sister Octavia) 

founded it about sixteene yeares before the incarnation or 

Christ. Others attribute it to Agrippina the wife of 

renowned Germanicus Csesar, and daughter of the fore- 

said Marcus Vipsanius Agrippa by his wife Julia ; which 

certainly in my opinion is the more probable of the two, 

because it is confirmed by the testimony of a very authen- 

ticke and irrefragableauthour,Cornelius Tacitus,who lived 

shortly after the time of Agrippina, even in the daies of 

p. 588.] the Emperour Tiberius. For he writeth that the Lady 

Agrippina to the end shee might shew her power to the 

bordering nations of her country, commanded that a 

colonie of old sovddiers (which we commonly cail trained 

sovddiers) should be planted in the towne or the Ubians, 

* This is that Agiippa of whom Virgil speaketh in his eighth ^nd. 
Parte aiii ventis & diis Agrippa secundis arduus, &c. 

312 



7 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

who imposed a double name upon it, both that of Colonia, 
because it was amplified hj a colonie of Roman souldiers, 
and that of Agrippina from her owne name, because shee 
was borne in that towne. From that time it was inhabited 
by the Romans for the space of foure hundred yeares, till 
the time of Marcomirus King of France, who chaced them 
out of the City, After that the Emperour Otho sur- 
named the Great, tooke it away from the Frenchmen, and 
made it tributarie to the Roman Empire, under whose 
sacred protection it hath ever since remained for the space 
of more then sixe hundred years to this day. 

The situation of Colen is very delectable, For it Situatiim af 
standeth in a pleasant and fruitfuU plaine hard by the ^""S?"- 
Rhene, which washeth the walls thereof, as it doth Basil 
and Mentz. The compasse of it is so great, that I heard 
it credibly reported a man can hardly goe round about 
it under the space of foure houres, which if it be true, it 
containeth in circuit at the least eight of our Enghsh 
miles. The buildings of the City both publique and 
private are very faire, and many of their private houses 
I observed to be of a notable heigth, even foure stories 
high, whereof some are built altogether with stone, and 
some with timber. As for the walles of the City they City viaib, 
are built in that manner that they yeeld great beauty to 
the same. For they are compacted of very strong and 
hard stone, and raised to a stately heigth,and distinguished 
with a great company of turrets which doe specially gar- 
nish the citie. Besides whereas the wall extendeth it 
selfe in a great length upon the very banke of the Rhene, 
it presenteth a farre of a passing beautifiill shew unto 
them that approch towards the City upon the river, either [P- 589-] 
from the East or West. Their streets and market places Stretis and 
are many and very spacious, especially two market places """'*«' /^< 
that I tooke exact notice of above the rest, whereof the 
one in which they ordinarily sell their necessaries and keepe 
their markets, is a hundred threescore and sixteen paces 
long, and threescore and three broade. The other where 
their Merchants doe meete twise a day which they call 
3»3 




CORYATS CRUDITIBS 



in Latin fonim fcEnarixim, because they use to sell hay 
in the same, is the fairest that I saw in my whole voyage, 
saving that of St. Marks street in Venice. For it is two 
himdred and fourescore paces long, and fourescore and 
fbure broade. For indeede I meated them both. And 
this last market place is marvailously graced with many 
svmiptuous and stately buildings both at the sides and the 
endes. Surely the beauty of mis market place is such by 
reason of so many magnificent houses inciuding it^ that I 
thinke if a downe that never saw any faire shewes in his 
life should suddenly arrive there, he would be halfe 
amazed with the majestie of the place. The number of 
Cokffii kas their Churches is more (if that be true that many reported 
*J*J^ imto me) then in any City I saw in my joumey, though I 

have written of two hundred in Venice. Nay I thmke 
no city in Christendome doth yeeld so many savin^ Rome, 
but I speake with a restriction, if that be true which they 
reported. For they say thcir city can yeeld a Church m 
every day in the yeare : that is, in the total number, three 
himdred threescore and five. But in this simune they 
reckon all their little chappels belonging to Nimnes and 
to all other religious convents whatsoever. Yet I be- 
leeve they can hardly make up the full nximber of three 
hundred threescore and five. For Munster that maketh 
a catalogue of their Churches, reckoneth no more of them 
then there are weeks in the yeare, even two and fifty, 
which abridgeth their number by three himdred and 
fifteen. But indeede he exdudeth out of his account all 
their little chappels, whereof I understand there is a great 
multitude in the city, all which they adde imto the rest 
to make up their number of three hundred threescore and 
five. 

Their Cathedrall Church which is dedicated to St. 
Peter, is a goodly building, but it is great pittie that it is 
so imperfect. For it is but halfe ended. Doubtlesse it 
would be a very glorious & beautifuU worke if it had been 
throughly finished, especially for the outward workman- 
ship, which is excellently adorned at the east end with 

314 



[P- 590-] 



CatkiJral 
Churckof 
S. Pe/ir. 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

many lofty pillars and plnnades that doe wonderfully gar- 
nish that part. Amongst many other worthy monuments 
that are contained in this Church, one is that which is the 
most (umous of all Europe, whose feme hath resounded 
to the farthest confines of all Christendome. For what 
is he of any meane learning or understanding that hath 
not at some time or other in his life heard of the three T?' '^*™ 
Kings of Colen? Therefore because it is so remarkable q'E^_ 
a monument, and so mucH visited by all strangers that 
come to the Citie, I visited it as well as the rest, and 
observed it aftcr a more strict and curious manner then 
every stranger doth. For I wrote out the whole history 
of them, and have made as particular a discription of the 
monument as I could possibly doe. Therefore both the 
description of the sepulcher wherein the bones of the 
Kings lie, and the history I present unto thee for a 
noveltie. For certainly I for mine owne part never read 
it in print before I came thither, Neither havc I heard 
of any man that hath seene it publikely printed but in the 
same place, which is the reason that moveth me to beleeve 
fhat this will be a novelty to every reader that hath not 

seene the same there as I have done. Biame me not if I ^ 

am something tedious. For this being the most renowned Tieir mimu- 
monument oT Christendome may not be briefly past over "jl^^lj':! 
with a few words. Though I know that most of our cAriiUmiom. 
learned Protestants will take this history for a mcere fig- 
ment, neither am I for mine ownc part likewise perswaded 
but that there are some vaine and frivolous things con- [p. 591.] 
tained in it, which cannot be justified by the most learned 
Papists of Christendome : in so much that whereas I often 
observed for that little time that I was in the Citie, many 
devout oraizons made at the monument, I said to my • 

selfe that their praiers unto the kings were in vaine, & '• 

did but beate the aire, whether the bones of the Magi 
were there or no, Howbeit seeing chere are some few 
things amongst the rest that are not altogether unworthy 
the noting, I hope it will not be offensive unto any learned 
& zealous Protestant that I have here inserted this history 
3^5 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

of the three Kings, which I thinke was never beibre so 
amply communicated to my country. This iamous sraul- 
cher standeth at the East end of the Church in a nire 
Chappel that containeth nothing but the same Monu- 
ment, unto the inner part of wmch Chappell there is no 
accesse all the day but betwixt sixe and eight of the dodce 
in the morning, because the dore of it is alwaies locked, 
savinc; at that time. The fabricke it selfe by reason oi 
the glorious and most resplendent ornaments about it, is 
so rich that I never saw the like, neither doe I thinke that 
in all the westerne parts of the world there is the like to be 

Tii skrine. seene. The shrine that containeth the bones of these 
Saints is within the Chappel (as I have abready said^ and 
is elevated some two yurds above the ground, being 
inclosed round about with a double grate of yron barres 
of some foure yards hi^h, contrived in the fbrme 
of a lattise window, and rairely painted with red in the 
outside towards the Church. AIso in the same port of 
the lattise that looketh towards the Church, there is repre- 
sented a great multitude of ^olden starres, in token that a 
starre conducted them to ^hrist. The matter whereof 
the shrine is composed wherein their sacred bones are 
shrowded, is pure bright shining brasse, wherein are two 
rowes of pretty religious images, made in brasse also, 
and it is garnished with many exquisite devices contrived 
in checker worke with ^e colours that doe much adome 

[p. 592.] the monument. Besides there is wonderfull abundance of 
precious Stones of different kinds and great worth, in- 
serted into two severall degrees of the monument, whereof 
many are fuUy as big as my thumbe. For the tombe is 
divided into two parts, the higher and the lower. At thc 

Wist end of West end or front of it which looketh towards the Church, 

tkitmb. there are many glittering and rich ornaments, which are 
not so openly exposed that every body may come to 
handle them. For there is a partition betwixt them and 
that part of the Church where people use to stand to 
behoid them. Some of the principall riches doe consist 
partly in an image of our Lady, & partly in certaine cups 

316 




OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

or goblets that hang at the front. The image of our 

Lady who is represented bearing Christ in her armes, is 

very costly. For it is said that it is made of pure silver, 

and double gilted. The goblets in number ten, which 

are hanged directly before the image upon a brasen rod 

some two yards long, are said to be made of massie gold, 

one whereof the Emperour Charles the fifth bestowed 

upon the monument. For a testimony whereof there is 

hanged up a square plate of gold, wherein the blacke 

spread-eagle which is the Emperours armes, is engraved, 

and this inscription following is written. Invictissimus '""■"/*"''"f w 

atque potentissimus Carolus V. Imper. & Hispaniarum 

rex Augustissimus, Deo omnipotenti, beatie MariEe, S S 

tribus Regibus die 3 Januarii, Anno Domini. 1554. prx- 

clarum munus dono obtulit, Liltewise unto another 

of these tenne ihere is fixed another square plate of gold, 

wherein this inscription is written. Beatte Virgini Maria 

sanctissimee, & tribus Regibus Reverendus & illustris 

Princeps & Dominus D, Joannes Gebhardus ex Comiti- 

bus i Mansfelt electus & confirmatus Archiprarsul Agrip- 

pinus, sacri Romani Imperii per Italiam Archicancella- 

rius, Princeps Elector, Westphalis & AngariEe Dux, Leea- , ,„ 

_ ' '^ , j- ■'^ .1 1 S- r j- Imagee/OnT 

tusque natus, dono dicavit. Also, berore our Ladies i^^j° 

image there hangeth a marvellous rich crosse of massie 

gold adorned with a great multitude of precious stones, [p- 593-] 

& under her image there are many rich stones of divers 

lcinds. Moreover before her image there stand fbure 

candelsticks wherein there do alwaies burne foure waxen 

tapers. Two of these candelsticks are exceeding faire 

and much costHer then the rest. Againe the top of the 

frontispice of the monument is beautified partly with the 

images of the three Kings formed in silver, and richly 

gilted, who are most curiously counterfaited, bearing their 

gifts in thelr hands, gold, mjrrhe, and fr^nkencense ; 

and partly with the like image of our Lady standing 

in the very middest with Christ in her armes. One ^'""i" 0/'^' 

of the Kings is prcsented like a blacke Moore with a '*"'' '^*' 

golden crowne upon his head. The other two uncovered- 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

In the outward edge of the front these vcrscs m 
written. 

Corpora Sanctonxm loculus tenet iste Magorum, 
Indeque sublatiim nihil est alibive locatum. 
Sunt juncti Felix, Nabor & Gregorius istis. 

In the middle of this outward edge there is presented i 
faire scutchin and armes under the which this is written. 

Renovatum aere Q. R. D. Joannis 

Walschartz Tungri S. T. D. 

Hujus Ecclesise Canonid, Anno 1597. ora pro eo. 

All this that I have hitherto written since I first made 
mention of the monument, containeth nothing but a 
istory ofthe description thereof. Now followeth the history which is 
wument. altogether as memorable as the monument it selfe. It 
was within these few yeares printed at Colen, and is pasted 
upon three severall tables which hang apart in as many 
distinct places without the Chappel. It is divided into 
nine particidar sections. Also each section hath its mar- 
ginall notes, which because they are so many that the 
margent of the Page cannot conveniently containe them, 
I have (contrary to the common custome) subscribed thc 
quotations belonging to each section, directly under thc 
section it selfe. 

>• 594-] The title of the history is this. 

Brevis historia M agorum ex sacris literis & probatis 
Ecclesiae scriptoribus collecta. 

The historie it selfe is this foUowing. 

i*Ty^Agi, qui primi onmium ex gentibus Christi Salva- 
-LVA toris inrantiam in Bethleem ^decimotertio post 
nativitatem die adorarunt, ^ tres numero fuenmt. Ac si 
"^Epiphanio credimus, ex Abraham originem duxerunt, 
ex filiis ejus quos ex ^ Cethura ancilla suscepit, descen- 
dentes. Cui non repugnat qu6d ' Origines et • Chryso- 
stomus ad ^Balaam JProphetam Gentilem, Magorum 

318 



mt sectm. 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

originem referunt. Nam & ipse, sicut etiam ' Regina 
Saba, ex ejusdem CethurEe filiis duxit originem. 

The quotations of this first section are these. 
' Math. 2. ''Ammonius Alexandrinus in Harmonii 
Evangelica. Alcuinus de divinis officiis. cap. de Epi- 
phania. Anselmus in 2. Math. Nicephorus lib. i. 
Ecclesiastici historise. cap. 13. = Leo serm. i, 3, 4, c, 6, 
7, 8. de Epiphania. August. serm. i. de Epiphania, & 
Rupertus in 2. Math. ^ In compendio doctrinEC Chris- 
tianse. ' Genes. 25. ' Homilia 13. in Numer. * Homilia 
ex variis in Math. locis. Petrus de Natalibus lib. 2. Cata. 
Sanct. 4 cap. 48. cap. ^ Numer. 24. ' 3 Reg. 10. 

2 Nomina eorum, aetas, & vultus cujusmodi, fuerint, 
& qua? quisque munera obtulerit, sicut ex majorum tradi- 
tione acceperat, his verbis describit Venerabilis ' Beda. 
Primus, inquit, dicitur fuisse Melchior, senex barba pro- 
lixa & capillis, aurum obtuHt regi Domino. Secundus 
nomine Gaspar, Juvenis imberbis, rubicundus, thure quasi 
Deo oblatione aigna Deum honorabat. Tertius fiiscus, 
integr^ barbatus, Balthasar nomine, per myrrham filium 
hominis moriturum professus est, Quod autem unus [p, 595 
eorum niger & ^thiops depingi soleat, ut in multis iisque 
antiquis apud nos picturis apparet, ex eo profectum vide- 

tur, tum quod Beda tertium fuscum fiiisse perhibit, tum 
quod ex Psalmo 72, die Regum in Ecclesia decantatur, 
Coram illo procident .Sthiopes. 

The quotation of this section is short, only this. 
Venerabilis B. in Collectaneis. 

3 Non obscuri eos loci aut ordinis, sed Principes viros TAin/ 1, 
atqui etiam Reges fuisse, quod Christi gloriam maximfe 
illustrat, pium est credere. Id enim veteris legis ■ figurae, 
qufe in Solomone antecessit, 8f Prophetarum, maximi 
^ Davidis & " Esaise, vaticiniis consentaneum est. 
Quorum ille inquit. Reges Tharsis & insula- munera 





CORYArS CRUDITIES 

ofFerent, Reges Arabum & Saba dona adducent. Po»- 
terior vero : & abulabunt gentes in liunine tuo^ & R^es 
in splendore ortus tui. Qus de Magorum vocatione 
oblationeque ab Ecclesia & ^ sanctis Patribus inteUigtintur. 
Item ^ Herodis ac totius urbis Hierosolymitans ad eomm 
adventum trepidatio, munera item predosa, quse ex thes- 
auris suis deprompsisse referuntur, Majorum denique 
traditio soriptis, ' sermonibus cantionibus, hymjiis, & pic- 
turis ut vulgaribus sic antiquis prodita, confirmant. Nec 

2uidquam ad rem facit quod Evangelista non appeUavit 
LCges, sed Magos. Id enim ' cons^t6 factum est^ quod 
Chnsti gloria nostraque religio Magorum sive Sapientum 
testimonio podiiis qukm Regum potenti^ constabiliendi 
videretur. 

The quotations of the third section. 

• 3 Reg. lo. ^ Psal. 72. • Esaiae 60. * Chrysost. homiL 
I. ex variis in Matth. lods. Leo sermone de Epiphanil 
* Matth. 2. cap. 3, ver. ' Tertullianus lib. 3. contn 
Judseos cap. 9. Isidorus de passione Dominica cap. 15. 
Ansebnus & Theophylactus in 2. cap. Math. Vide Cicer. 
de Divinatione. Plinius lib. 3. naturalis historiae. cap. 
I. Adam Sasbont homil. de Epiphanii. Frandscus 
Suarez in 3. par. D. Thomce tomo 2. 'Melchior Canus 
lib. II. Locorum Theologicorum, cap. y. Hector Pin- 
tus in I. cap. Danielis. Csesar Baronius lib. i. Anna- 
lium. 

• 59^-] 4 Ad professionem eorum quod attinet, tametsi non 

desint qui ^ Magorum nomine maleficos ac magids artibus 

mrthsictum, instructos accipiant : potior tamen illorum sententia nobis 
esse debet qui ^ Sapientes astrologos fuisse arbitrantiu', 
qui arte mathematica (ut ^ Cjrprianus loquitur) vim & dis- 
cursum noverant planetarum, & elementorum naturam, 
& astrorum ministeria certis experimentis observabant 
Undft convenient^ admodiim, divina * Sapientia qucB dis- 
ponit omnia suavit^r, Stelise potissimiiim indido illos tan- 
quam astrorum peritos ad se pertraxit, accedente tiun 

3to 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

gratiae divinat lumine, tum hominum ex Scripturis demon- 
stratione. Nam de loco ^ubi Christus nasceretur, k 
Scribis, ex ^ Michea instructi sunt & Stellam illam Messiae 
ortum significare, ex ^ Balaam Prophetii per Majorum 
traditionem acceperunt. 

The quotations of the fourth. 

^ Justinus dialogo contra Tryphonem. Origines lib. 
I. contra Celsum, & homilia 13. in Numeros. Chrysos- 
tomus homilia i & 14 ex variis in Matth. locis. Augusti. 
sermone 2 de Epiphanii. ^Chrisost. homilia 2 operis 
imperfecti. Leo sermone 4 de EpiphaniH. Hieronymus 
in 2 cap. Daniel, & 47 Esaise. Anselmus & Rupertus in 
2 Matth. ^ sermo de stelli & Magis. ^ Sapientise 8. 
* Matth. 2. ® MichesB 5. ^ Numeri 24. Origines 
homilia 13 in Numeros & lib. i contra Celsum. Leo 
sermone 4 de Epiphanii. 

5 Ex Arabii Fcelice venisse, quod ^ Justinus Martyr, f^iftA sictm. 
^ TertuUianus, ^ Cvprianus, & * Epiphanius memoris pro- 
diderunt, verisimile videtur. Tum quod Arabia respectu 
Judeae ad Orientem, Tacito^ teste, sita; tum •qu^d 
iuri, ^thuris, & m^h« ferax sit: demiim quodVc 
opinio consentiat cum Esais ^ vaticinio : Omnes de Saba 
(quse, teste in eum locum, & libro qusstionum in Gene- 
sim D. Hieronymo, Arabia est) venient, aurum & thus 
deferentes. Cum illo item •Davidico. Reges Arabum 
et Saba dona adducent. Et rursus. Dabitur ei de auro 
Arabiae. 

The quotations of the fifth. [p. 597.] 

^ Justinus Martyr dialogo contra Tryphonem. ^ Ter- 
tuUianus lib. contra Judsos cap. 9 et lib. 3 contra Mar- 
cionitas cap. 13. ^ Sermone de SteM et Magis. * Com- 
pendio doctrinae Christianae. ^lib. 5 historiarum. 
®Psal. 71. ^ Tertullianus Apologetico cap. 30, 42. 
Plinius lib. 2 naturalis historise, cap. 14. ^cap. 60. 
^Psal. 71. 

c c. II 321 X 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

SixtA ucfm. 6 Porr6 ^ auri, thuris, et myrrhac munera Christo bbtu- 
lerunt, quod his rebus Arabia imprimis abundaret et 
superbiret. Deindi qudd ^ Regina Saba, quam ex gente 
et familia Magorum fuisse proditum est, similia dom, 
aurum, inquam, et aromata, quibus j?emmas predosis 
addidit, Solomoni Regi, in typum Christi donavent 
Adde quod, qus Cethurs filiis munera dedisse Abraham 
in 25 Geneseos commemoratur, ea ex Hebneonim tradi- 
tionibus ^Epiphanius refert, vestes, aiuxun, thus, & 
myrrham fuisse. Postremo non tam gentis suse moitm 
& exempla majorum, verumetiam mysdcam rationem 
secuti, hoc quod cordibus credunt, muneribus ^ protestan- 
tur; Thus deo, mvrrham homini, auriim offerunt rtgi, 
& his se instruunt donis, ut adoraturi unum, tria se seim 
credidisse demonstrent, auro honorantes personam r^^iam, 
myrrha humanam, thure divinam. 

The quotations of the sixth. 

^ Math. 2. ^3 Reg. 10 cap. ^ Compendio Doctriiue 
Christians. ^ Leo sermone 2 de Epiphania. 

Swefitk y Post Christi ascensionem, Ji ^ D. Thoma Apostolo in 

secriati. fj j^ Christi pleniiis instructi, ad hoc baptizati, im6 ^ Pas- 

tores etiam et Doctores sive Episcopi in populo suo 
ordinati sunt, magnamque Gentilium turbam ad Chris- 
tianse religionis cultum adduxerunt, atque ita ut primitias 
frugum copiosa messis consequitur: sic Magos primitias 
credentium ex Gentibus, innumerabilium fides populonun, 
tanquam uberrima seges est subsecuta, impletumque 
vaticinium ^Davidis, qui postquam praedixerat, Reges 
Arabum et Saba dona adducent, subjungit, Et adorabunt 
eum omnes Reges, et omnes gentes servient ei. Itcm 
[p. 598.] * Omnes gentes quascunque fecisti, venient et adorabunt 
coram te Domine, et glorificabunt nomen tuum. 

The quotations of the seventh. 

^ Chrysost. homilia. 2 operis imperfecti. antiquum 
Calendarium citatum ab Henrico rinto, dialogorum 

3^2 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

parte secunda cap. 21. Petrus de Natalibus in Gitalogo 
Sanctorum lib. 26. cap. 48. ^Chrysost. homilise 6 m 
Matthseum, & homilia 1 7 ex variis in Matth. locis. ^ psal. 
71. *p8al. 85. 

8 Postquam in senectute boni ex hk viA decesserunt, Ei^secthM. 
corpora eorum prim6 Helens Augustae studio Constanti- 

nopolin allata, deinde Mediolanum ab Eustor^io ejus 
urbis Episcopo traducta, ^ tandem anno post Christum 
natum 1 1 64 una cum corporibus SS. Foelicis ^ & Naboris 
Martyrum in hanc urbem Reinoldo Archiepiscopo trans- 
lata, hoc loco deposita fuerunt. Ut ver6 tribus Magis 
pari numero consociarentur & Martyres, duplicareturque 
funiailus triplex Sanctorum, divinit^s accidit opera Bru- 
nonis Archiepiscopi, ut duobus illis Martyribus accederet 
tertiuSy Gregorius Spoletanus presbyter, sub Diodesiano 
& Maximiano passus. £x quo tempore Colonia Aggrip- 
pina non minus celebris esse ccepit istis trium Regum 
alionmique sanctorum reliquiis, qu^m Hierosolyma 
Stephano, Roma Petro & Paulo, aut Hispania Jacobo, 
Gallia denique Martino & Hilario. 

The quotations of the eight. 

^ Gulielmus Neubrigensis lib. 2 rerum Anglicanun 
cap. 8. Crantzius lib. 6. rerum Saxonicarum cap. 24. 
Petrus de Natalibus Catalogo Sanctorum lib. 2. cap. 48. 
& lib. 4 cap. 45. Sigonius libro 140. de regno Italise. 
^ Ambrosius epistola. 85. 

9 ^ Agnoscamus in Magis adoratoribus Christi voca- Nhitk seetm. 
tionis nostrae fideique primitias, & quem illi infantem 
venerati sunt in cunabuUs, nos omnipotentem adoremus 

in coelis. OfFendebant ilU infantem parvulum modicis 
& vilibis pannis involutum, videbant reclinatum duro in 
prsesepio, aut sinu matris pauperculs exceptum, & tamen [p. 599.] 
nihil his omnibus rebus ofFensi viri barbari, veraeque 
pietatis & fidei rudes adhuc & ignari, ^ procidentes adora- 
verunt. ^ Imitemur saltim Barbaros nos qui cselorum 

3«3 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

cives sumus. Et qui Christi majestatem, potentiam, 
factaque admiranda, oc Christianae fidei mysteria cognovi- 
mus, fidem nostram illorum exemplo confirmemus. 
Itaque cum in Ecclesia Catholici, quae veri ^Bethleem, 
seu domus panis est, idem Christi corpus extertiis spede- 
bus tanquam fasciis obvolutum ponitur, consecratur, 
ofFertur, sumitur, aut quovis modo nobis representatur : 
excitemur animo, horrescamusque & quam decet ad tanta 
mysteria, & animi pietatem & reverentiam corporis affen- 
mus. Nihil nos conturbet cogitationem fluctus, nec 
sensuum fallax judicium, nihil hsereticorum fabulationes 
moveant: sed Dei verbum certos fadat. ^Quoniam 
erg6 iUe dixit Hoc est corpus meum: nulli teneamur 
ambiguitate, sed credamus, & oculis intellectus id per- 
spiciamus, ac postrati veneremur. 

Oratio Ecclesiae. 

Versus. Reges Tharsis & Insulae munera ofierunt^l |_ 
Respon. Reges Arabum & Saba dona adducent. j ^' 

The quotations of the ninth. 

^ Leo serm. 2 de Epiphania. ^ Matth. 2. ^ Chrisost. 
homilia 24 in i ad Corinth. homil. 6 ad populum Anti- 
ochenum. ^ Gregorius Magnus homilia 8 in Evangelia. 
^Chrysost. homiha 83 in Matthaeum. 

Also this foUowing in the same Table. 

Deus illuminator omnium gentium, da popidis tuis 
perpetua pace gaudere, & illud lumen splenaidxun in- 
mnde cordibus nostris, quod trium Magonun mentibus 
aspirasti. 

Againe. 

Lsetetur Ecclesia tua Deus Beatorum Martyrum 
tuonun Foelicis, Naboris, & Gregorii confisa suffragiis, 

3«4 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

atque eorum predbus gloriosis & devota permaneat, & 
secura persistat. 

Per Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Coloniae exeudebat Joannes Durekius, 

Anno 1596. 

Because this history is something memorable, though [p. 600.] 
indeed at the latter end there bee some false doctrine 
touching the reall presence of Christ in the sacrament, 
as being a thing compiled by the Jesuiticall Rabbines of 
this city, as I do conjecture: I have thought good to 
adde my naked translation of the same, as I have done 
before of Saint Bernards epistle to the Bishop of Spira, 
because every man that will reade this, cannot (I am 
sure) xmderstand it in the Latin. Therefore, that he 
might not be deprived of so notable a matter as this is, 
I have done my endevour to translate this historie into 
English, desiring thee, whatsoever thou art (gentle 
reader) to pardon me, if I have not so exactly done it as 
thou wouldest require at my handes. For as I told thee 
in my epistie to thy selfe, which I have prefixed before 
my booke, I neither professe my selfe a schoUar, nor 
acknowledge my selfe worthy to be ranked amongst 
scholars^ but onely wish to be accounted a friende and 
lover of the Muses. 

A History of the Magi gathered out of the holy 
Scripturcs, and approved Writers of the Church. 

^ nnHe Magi, which first of all the Gendles adored the ^<>^ ^^ 

JL infancy of our Saviour Christ in Bethleem the thir- ^^S^^^- 
teenth day aiter his nativity, were three in number. And 
(if we beieeve Epiphanius) they derived their pedime fix^m 
Abraham, descending fi^om his sonnes which ne beeot 
upon his handmaide Cethura. Neither is it any thmg 
repugnant unto this, that Origen and Chrysostome do 
referre the pedigree of the Magi to Balaam an heathen 
Prophet. For both he and the Queene of Saba drew 

325 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

[p. 6oi.] the originall of their stocke from the same aonnes of 

Cethura. 
Sicmtdsictm 2. What their names, agc, and countenancc were, aod 
Engrukid. ^j^^ gj^ g^ Qf ^gj^ offered, venerable Beda (accocd- 

ing as he had received it by the tradition of his fbrenithers) 
expresseth the matter in these wordes. 

The first, auoth he, is said to be Melchior, an olde mao 
with a long oeard and haire. He offered Golde to die 
Kit^ our Lord. 

'Die second, whose name was Gaspar, a beardlesK 
young man and ruddie, honoured God with Frankeo- 
sence, as being an oblation beseeming God. 

The third, called Balthasar, being tawny and fulfy 
bearded, by Myrrhe signified that the Sonne of man 
should die. But in that one of them is wont to be 
painted black, and as an ^thiopian, (as it appeaieth hj 
many & those very ancient pictures amongst us) hereupon 
it seemeth to be grounded, both that Beda afiirmeth that 
the third was tawnie, as also that in the 72 Psalme it is 
sxmg in the Church upon the Kinges day, The iEdiio- 
pians shali fall downe before him. 
TMrdsictm 3. That they were not of any obscure place or degree, 
Euffiskid. but princes, yea kings, which doth greatly illustrate thc 
glory of Christ, it is a part of piety to beleeve. For it 
is agreeable both to the figure of the oid law which went 
before in Solomon, & to the prophecies of the Prophets, 
especialiy of David and Esay; whereof the one saith, 
Tne Kings of Tarsis and of the Iles shali bring presents, 
the Kings of the Arabians and of Saba shali bring gifts. 
The other saith : And nations shall waike in thy &ht, 
and Kinges in the brightnesse of thy rising up. Which 
thinges are understood by the Church and thc Holy 
Fathers, of the calling and oblation of the Magi. This 
also is confirmed by the feare of Herod, and of thc whok 
City of Jerusalem at the time of their conuning : by those 
precious giftes which they are said to have opened out 
[p. 602.] of their treasures, and by the tradition of our forefkthers, 
by writings, speeches, songes, hymnes, and pictures as 

326 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 



common, so very ancient. Neither doth this make at all 
to the matter, that the Evangelist hath not called them 
Kings, but Magi. For that was done to great purpose, in 
regard that Christes glory and our religion seemed to bee 
established rather by the testimony of Magi cr Wisemen, 
then by the power of Kings. 

4. As concerning their profession, albeit there are some 
that by the name of Magi doe understand wicked piersons, 
and those that practise magicke artes : yet the opinion of 
them ought to prevaile more with us that thinke they 
were wise Astrologers, who by the Mathematicke art (as 
Cyprian speaketh) knew the force and course of the 
Planets, and by certaine rules of experience observed the 
nature of the Elements, and the offices of the Starres. 
Wherehence it came very conveniently to passe that the 
divine Wisedome, which doth sweetly dispose all things, 
drew them unto it especially by the token of a starre, as 
being men skilfull in the arte of Astronomy : whereunto 
was added both the light of the Divine grace, and also a 
demonstration of men out of the holy Scriptures. For 
they were instructed by the Scribes out of the Prophet 
Micheas concerning the place where Christ should be 
borne, and they received it as a certaine tradition of their 
forefathers out of the Prophecy of Balaam, that thc same 
starre did signifie the birth of the Messias. 

5, That they came out of Arabia FceUx (as Justin 
Martyr, Tertullian, Cyprian, and Epiphanius have written) 
it seemeth very probable. Both because Arabia, in respect 
of Judca, is situate towards the East (according to the 
testimony of Tacitus) and also because it yecldeth plenty 
of gold, frankencense, and myrrhe. Finally for that this 
opinion doth agree with the Prophecie of Esay. AU they 
of Saba (which is Arabia, as Hierom doth witnesse upon 
the place, and in the booke of his Questions upon Genesis) 
shall come, and bring gold and frankencence. And with 
that of the Prophet David. The Kinges of the Arabians 
and of Saba shall bring gifts. And againe, unto him shall 
they give of the gold of Arabia. 





CORYAT S CRUDITIES 

Sixtk sictiM 6. Moreover they presented unto Christ the gifb of 
Eng&sM. e;olde, frankencence, and myrrhe, because Arabia abounded 

in these things especially, and gloryed therein. Also the 
Queene of Saba, whome authors do write to have bene of 
the stocke and familie of these Magi, bestowed the like 
giftes, namely goide and spices (unto which shee added 
precious stones) upon King Solomon as being a fiffure 
and type of Christe. Againe those giftes which Abruam 
in the 37. of Genesis is said to have given to the sonnes 
of Cethura, Epiphanius writeth (according to the ttadh 
tion of the Hebrewes) to have bene garments, golde, and 
myrrhe. Lastly, they did it not so much to toUow the 
manner of their nation and the examples of their fbre- 
fathers, but also for a mysticall reason sake. For this 
that they beleeve with their hearts, they protest with thdr 
giftes ; they offer frankencence to God, myrrhe to a man, 
and goid to a King. And they provide themselves such 
giftes, that when they worship one, they dedare to the 
world that they beleeve at one time in three distiiict per- 
sons ; seeing they honour the Kingly person with gcude, 
the humane with myrrhe, and the divine with franken- 
cence. 
SivintksieHon 7. After Christes ascension they were more fuUy in- 
En^kid. structed by St. Thomas the Apostie in the faith of Christ, 

and also baptized, yea (which is more,) they were ordained 
Fastors and Doctors, or Bishops of the people amongst 
whome they lived, and brought a great company of Gen- 
tiies to the worship of Christian religion ; and even as t 
plentifull harvest doth foUow the first fruits : so the laith 
of an inumerable multitude of people, as it were most 
[p. 604.] abundant corne, followed the Magi that were the first 

fruites of the beleevers of the Gentiles; and thus the 
prophecie of David is fulfilled, who after he had pro- 
phecied, The Kings of the Arabians and of Saba shaD 
bring giftes, by and by hee addeth, And ail King^ shall 
worship him, and ali nations shall serve him. ^so, all 
nations which thou hast made, shall come and worship 
before thee O Lord, and shall glorifie thy name. 

328 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

8. After that in their old age they had departed out of £igiri stcn 
this life, their bodies being brought first to Constanti- ^»i^"^f^- 
nople by the meanes of the Empresse Helena, then to 

Milan by Eustorgius, Bishop of that Citie, at last in the 
yeare after the incarnation of Christ 1 1 64. being trans- 
lated therhence to this city in the time of Reinolds Arch- 
bishop thereof, together with the bodies of the holy 
Martyrs Saint Felix and Nabor, they were reposed in this 
place. But to the end that the Martyrs might by an 
even number be accompanied with the three Magi, and 
that a triple corde of Saintes might bee double-twisted 
together, it hapned even by the providence of the Al- 
mighty, that by the meanes of Bruno Archbishop of this 
City, a third Martyr should bee added to the former two, 
to wit Gregory a Priest of Spoletum, that suffered martyr- 
dome under the persecution of Dioclesian and Maximi- 
nian, Since which time Colen began to be no lesse 
famous for the reliques of these three Kings & of other 
Saints, than Jerusalem was for Stephen, Rome for Peter 
and Paul, or Spaine for James, or France for Martine and 
Hilarie. 

9. Let us acknowledge in thc Magi that were the W"M *«/w 
worshippers of Christ, the first fruits of our calling, & ^"glii^td. 
faith, & let us adore him being omnipotent in the heavens, 
whom they worshipped being an infant in his cradle. 
They found him wrapped with little base clowtes, they 
saw him lying in a hard manger, or luUed in the lappe of 
his poore mother ; yet those Barbarians that were as yet 
utterly ignorant of true piety and faith, being nothing 
offended with these things, fell downe and worshipped 
him. Let us then, that are citizens of the Kingdome of 
Heaven imitate these Barbarians at the least : & whereas 
we have knowne the majestie of Christ, his power, ad- 
mirable actes, and the mysteries of Christian faith, let us 
confirme our feith by their example. Therefore seeing 
that in the Catholike Church, which is the true Bethleem 
or the house of bread, the same body of Christ being 
wrappcd with outward signes as it were with swathing 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

bandes, is placed, consecrated, offered, taken, or any other 
way represented unto us : let us be stirred up in minde, 
ana tremble, & bring with us both piety of minde» and 
reverence of body, as it beseemeth tnose that partidptte 
so great mysteries. Let neither the waves of our thoughts, 
nor the deceitfull judgement of our senses a jote trouble 
us, neither let the tales of Heretikes any thinfi^ move us. 
But let the word of God assure us in this point. Since 
then he himselfe hath said, This is my Body ; lct us be 
touched with no manner of doubt» but beleeve aod 
perceive the same with the eies of our understanding» and 
upon our bended knees devoutly worship it. 

The praycr of thc Church. 

The Verse. The Kings of Tarsis, and of thc' 
Ues shall brinfi: presents. 

The Ans. The Kings of the Arabians and 
of Saba shall bring gifts. 

There hapned a thing unto me presently after I had 
written out these memorabie matters of the three Kings 
and the three Martyrs, that yeelded unto me a kind of 
recompence for my iong labour of writing, For one of 

HndCaMon. the Canons of the Church that stoode neare unto mc when 
I had almost ended my writing, supposing that I was a 
stranger, and observing that I ioved antiquities, invited me 

606.] with a kinde of courteous and civill importunity to his 
house, though we never saw each other before, and cnter- 
tained me with much variety of good cheare. 

Thus much concerning the Monument of the 

three Kings. 

IN one little Chappell of the same Church, this is 
written over the Tombe-stone of one of thcir Suf- 
fragans. 

Laurentius Fabricius Urdingensis S.T.D. Episcopus 
Cyren. Suffraganeus Coloniensis, obiit xxii. Jiuii anno 
CI^. 13. C. R. I. P. 

330 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

Nccre unto this thcre is a very faire monument of Otkir 
Ailabaster erected to thc honor or one of their Arch- «*«««'»^' 
bishops, where I reade this brief Epitaph. 

Wah-amus Dux Juliacensis Archiepiscopus 

Coloniensis. 

In another little chappeU are two ancient monuments of 
two Bishops more, whereof the one is of Fredericus Comes 
de Sorverden Archiepiscopus Coloniensis, and St. Rein- 
oldus Archiepiscopus Coioniensis, qui 3 Reges a Medio- 
lano Coloniam attulit. 

In the one side of the Church without the Quire iveth 
the bodie of the Earle Arnspurgensis, who bestowed his 
Earledome upon the Archbi^hoprick of Colen. 

Upon one of the yron gates that belongeth to the 
Chappell where the Archbishop Reinoldus lyeth, there is 
i table hanged up with a little yron chaine, wherein this 
religious and holy stufFe forsooth is written, which I have 
thou£:ht good to set downe in this place for a notabie . , 

Bxample of the grosse superstition and vanity of thc Papists ^fp^fJst 
in this citie of Coien. snfersHH^». 

De indulgentiis promerendis in celebratione missse, quae [p. 607.] 
dccantatur quotidi^ in capeM Beatae Mariae Virginis, 
Metropoiitanae Ecclesiae Coloniensi concessis. Anno 
Domini. 1454. 

Sub Archiepiscopo Theodorico. 

Omnibus & singulis Christi fidelibus, contritis & con- 
fessis, qui hujus missse celebrationi & decantationi prse- 
sentes fuerint, & flexis poplitibus devot^ Pater noster ciun 
A.VC Maria tribus vicibus legerint, de omnipotentis Dei 
miscricordii & Beatorum Petri & Pauli Apostolorum ejus 
mcritis et authoritate confisi, auadraginta dierum indul- 

K^ntias de injunctis iis poemtentiis miserecordit^ in 
omino reiaxamus. 

Oratio de beati Maril Virginc contra pestcm. 
Obsecro te clementissime Deus> qui vitse ac mortis 
drdinariam habes potestatem, per intcrcessionem genitricis 
Virginis Mariae, pcstilentiae plagam miscratus a nobis 

331 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

averte : ut in tui viventes pietate, fonte vitac perennis^ 
corde, voce, atque omni operatione laudemus per Christum 
Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

I observed a faire monument erected over an yron dore 

at the entrance of the east end of the quire, verv richly 

gilted with many curious borders. And in the middle of 

Efitafkof the same I read this ensuing Epitaph written in goldcD 

jS^ letters. 

Quis sit sarcophago quteris spectator in isto ? 
Ilac plebeius humo non requiesdt homo. 
Hic Archiprsesul Princepsque elector Adolphus, 
Schawenburgiacxmi stemma decusque cubat. 
Imperii vigor & darissima gloria sacri, 

Agrippinensis mitra verenda soli : 
Reiigionis amans & propugnator avits, 

Delicise populi, nobilitatis amor. 
In terram dignus nunquam fuit iUe reverti, 

Si non und^ satus quisque recedat homo. 
Terra suam refovet terram ceu sedula mater, 
Ad coelestem anima est dia reversa patrem. 
Tantisper dum reddatur tibi spiritus ipse, 
[p. 608.] Corpus humo natum triste reciunbis humo. 

Christus enim corpus terrse revocabit ab alvOy 

Spiritui & reddet cui fuit ante datum. 
In spe coelestis recubas hic divite vitae 
O pater, 6 placidi pace potire pater. 
Pace potire Pater toto memorabilis aevo, 
Virtutum specimen pace potire pater. 

Afterward I entred into the Quire it seife : Whcre I 

observed three faire monuments of their Archbishops, 

whereof the first is of the foresaid Adolphus, whose epitaph 

I have akeady written. He is buried on the left side of 

His sifukkri. the quire. His sepulchre is a very sumptuous peece of 

Worke. For there his statue is made at length in alabaster, 
being represented ieaning upon one of his armes togetfaer 
with his episcopall roabes. AU that part of the monument 
both above and beneath the statue, is richly decked with 

332 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

faire workes and borders, images and pillars which consist 
partly of alabaster, and partly of toucnstone. About the 
foote of the monument this epitaph is written. 

Reverendissimo Domino D. Adolpho Archiepo. 

ac Frincipi Electori Coloniensi, S. Rom. Impii 

per Italiam Archicancellario, legatoque 

nato> Westphaliae & Angariae Duci> &c. ex 

illustri familisl Comitiim k Schawen- 

burg oriundo, electo die xxiiii. 

Januarii Anno M. D. Xlvii. qui pi^ & pru- 

dent^ Archiepiscopatui prsefuit annis 

ix menses ii. dies xxv. tandemque 

ultimmn diem in Domino clausit. anno 

M. D. Ivi. die xx. Septembris. 

Right opposite irnto this moniunent is the second, being ^^ '^^ 
erected on the right hand. This also is a very siunptuous **^**^'- 
peece of workemanship. For it is advanced to a goodlv 
heigth and garnished with his image contrived at length 
in akbaster in his magnificall roabes. Likewise the [p«6o9..] 
workes, piUars, and images being composed all of alabaster, 
are correspondent to those of the opposite moniunent as 
much as may be. 

The epitaph is this. 

Reverendissimo Domino D. Antonio electo ac con- 
firmato Frincipi Electori Coloniensi, S. S. Imperii 
Per Italiam Archcancellario, Legatoque nato, 
Westphaliae & Angariae Duci, ex iUustri fami- 
lii Comitum k Schawenburs oriundo» electo 
Anno M D. Ivi. die xxvi. Octobris, qui fratri succedens, 
in Domino obdormivit. An. m.d. Iviii die xviii Junii, atque 
preventus morte, fratri justum moniunentiun 
erigere non potuit uti cceperat. Reverendissimus 
Dominus D. Gebhardus electus Archiepiscopus Frinceps 
Elector Coloniensis Dominis & affinibus suis 
charissimis pietatis ergd posuit. An. 1501. 

The third is of one of their Frinces caUed Gulielmus de 

333 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Genepe. An ancient thing, his image being made in 
Alabaster upon the tombe. But no Epitaph saving a few 
words in prose written about the foure comers of the 
monument. 

Having now ended my discourse of the notable monu- 

ments of the Cathedrall Church, I will speake next of the 

^"i^ ^ Bishopricke before I proceed any furtner, as bei^ an 

CiMgHe. adjimct to the Church. The first Apostle of the Ubians 

was S. Maternus, as I have before written, who was the 

first Bishop of this Citie of Colen. But who was thdr 

first Archbishop I cannot find. It appeareth that it was a 

very ancient Archbishopricke, because Euphrates that was 

deposed for his Arrianisme at the Councell holden at Coleo 

in the yeare 348. (as I have before written) was in those 

daies stiied with the title of an Archbishop. Yet Munster 

writeth that the Archbishopricke began a long time after, 

about the Yeare 755. in tne time of Charles the Great; 

being translated hither from the City of Utricht, which 

was about that time grievousiy wasted by the EHmes & 

[p. 610.] Normanes. The titles of the Archbishop do appeare by 

those Epitaphes that I have before written. Thercfore 

it is supernuous to make any more mention of them. 

DMckf rf Onely I wiil add a briefe note of his title of the Dutchie 

Wistphaua. ^f Westphalia and Angrivaria. This titie is of good anti- 

?uity. For the Archbishop that lived in the time of thc 
Imperour Frediricke Barbarossa, by certaine meanes 
attained to the Dutchie of Westphalia about some 400 
yeares since, which dignity the Elector Prince hath evcr 
since enjoyed to this day. Of the three spirituall Elector 
Princes this Archbishop is the middle, being next to the 
Mcguntine, and before the Trevirian. His diocesse did 
in former times extend it selfc very farre. For five othcr 
great Bishopricks were subject to his jurisdiction^ namely 
that of Munster in Westphalia, Utricht, and of Liege in 
the Netherlands, of Minda and Osnaburg in Saxonie. The 
present Archbishop doth most commonly make his resi- 
dence at a Palace he hath in the country, and very seldome 
in the Citie. His religion together with that of Colen and 

334 




OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

all the othcr townes in his territory, is Romish. Yet I 

have read of two worthy Archbishops of this sea that 1'<^' 

were so much addicted to the reformed religion, that they ^/^''t"^'" "{ 

meant to have rooted Popery out of their aominions, and gfj-,j^„_ 

in steed thereof to have planted thc true religion of Christ. 

But their religious and godly endevors did not take efFect, 

The first of these was Hermannus Comes a Weda. who 

having sent for Philip Melanthon and Martin Bucer in the 

yeare 1543 to employ their ministery in reforming the 

Chiirches of his Electorate, was shortly after deposed, 

and dispossessed of his Archbishopricke both by the Pope 

and the Emperour, the foresaid Adolphus, whose Epitaph 

I have beforc written, bein& substituted in his roome. 

The second was Gebhardus Truccessius, unto whom the 

like disaster hapned, to the hindering of his godly designe- 

ment, as to the first. Here will I obittr give a littie glance 

at a matter which is a kind of appendix unto this discourse [p. 611.] 

of the Bishopricke of Colen. After I had something 

survayed that long tracf betwixt the Cities of Basil and 

Colen, whereof some part I had travelled by land, and 

had otherwise passed by another part upon the Rhcne ; and 

withall had observed so many goodly Cities endowcd with 

Bishopricks on that left side of the river, no lesse thcn Blikapria en 

sixe, namely Basil (for that was once a Bishopricke though '''/^^! ■'""'' f 

it be not now) Strasbourg, Spira, Wormes, Mentz, & ■'' 

Colen ; and could not hearc of any on the adverse side of 

the Rhene : by and by I entered into a scrious consideration 

how it came to passe that therc were planted so many 

Bishopricks on one side of the river, & none at all on the 

other. But at last I searched out the cause which was this. 

For that the Cities on the left side being subject first to 

the Rojnanes, and afterward to the Frenchmen, were by 

them sooner converted to Christianity, then thc Germane 

Cities on the right side. For Gallia being converted by 

S. Denis (as I have before written) one of the disciplcs of 

S. Paul, gave occasion of thc speedier conversion of these 

Cities also, in regard they wcre subject to the kingdome 

oi France after the time of thc Romanes. 



i 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 

After this I visited three other Churches, which next 
to the Cathedrall are accounted both the famousest and 
ancientest of all Colen. These are S. Ursulaes, the Mac- 
chabees, and S. Gereons. But first I went to S. Ursulaes, 
because she was my countrywoman. For shee was a 
Brittane borne, the name of England being unknowne io 
hi9ry 0/S. her time. Here I will take occasion to rekte some short 
^* history of her, by way of an introduction to my discoune 

of the monuments of the Church. There was in Brittaine 
a most Christian King called Dionet, who was the fiLther 
of this Ladj Ursula, the fame of whose vertues extended 
it selfe so rarre that a certaine King (his name I can not 
. 612.] mention) hearing of the same, resolved to marry her to 
his onely sonne, who sent Ambassadors to her ikther with 
strict commandement that they should not retume without 
her. But the king was much afflicted to consider that hii 
daughter being brou^ht up in the faith of Christ, should 
be married to an Infidell. And therefore was unwilling to 
give his consent to the marriage. Howbeit by a certaine 
revelation from God, he was required to grant the king 
his request, but with this condition, that his sonne shouu 
be baptized, and that he should give unto his daughter 
eleven thousand Virgins, to the ena that she might convert 
them to the Christian religion ; which being granted, and 
she having converted them all to the faith, a little after 
sailed into France with a [M-osperous wind, and from thenoe 
to Colen, where she with her husband and all her company 
artyrdm of q{ Virgins sufFred martyrdome for the faith of Christ, in 
UrsMla. ^j^^ yeare 238. being all put to the mercilesse dint of thc 
sword by certaine Barbarians, and heathenish Moores that 
did at that time inhabite this Citie of Colen. The bones 
of them being afterward gathered together were brougfat 
unto this place, and laid in this Church which is dedicated 
to S. Ursxila the principall Captaine of the whole company. 
Since which time they have been very reli^iously kept in 
the same place. Many yeares after which, this Ladj 
Ursula with the rest of the eleven thousand Virgins was 
canonized by the Chiu^ch of Rome for a Saint : the sixe 

336 




OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

and twentieth day of Ocfober being consecrated to their 
memory, as it appeareth by our ordinary Calendars printed 
amongst us. Having now made some historical narration 
of this Lady Ursula, I will descend to the relation of some 
[jarticular matters that I observed in this Church whereof Ciardo/S. 
I now speake, dedicated unto her. Here I saw a great " ' 
many monuments. For here I told five & thirtie great 
stony sepulchres of great height, breadth, & length. 
Amongst the rest I saw the tombe of S. Ursula herselfe 
with her image erected at one end of it, and it is inclosed 
round about with a grate of yron which none of the rest [p. 613] 
have. Also this together with all the rest hath a candle- 
sticke infixed into it ; and the pictures of many Queenes 
with crownes upon their heads are represented upon the 
sides of the monuments. Belike they were slaine here by 
the Moores at the same time that S. Ursula was. The 
skull of S, Ursula with two more is placed in the quire 
at the top of the high altar, being put in a case or covering 
of gold, but they are never shewed but upon speciall daies. 
Saint Ursulaes head is placed in the middest of the three : 
all which have certaine yron latteises made before them. 
The bones of these virginall Martyrs are kept in severall Bmia Bfsht 
places, partly in the Church of the Macchabees, and partly "^'''y'- 
m the Church of S. Ursula. But here is the greatest part 
of them, being distributed into divers places or the Church. 
For as soone as I entred it, I observed them first in that 
part of the church which is without the body, where on 
three sides of the same part of the Church, their bones lie 
in great heaps together, Under them are placed their 
skuTs, all which are covered over with a sleight kind of 
covering, But in the bodie of the Church I observed a 
farrc greater multitude of these mortifying objects. There 
also they are divided into three parts that inclose the bodie. 
And their skuls with the like coverings are laid under 
them. Likewise many images of them are erected in 
divcrs places. At one end of rhe Church there is a certaine 
frame made in the forme of a cupboord that containcth 
their skuls onely, that are covcred with coverings !ike to 
c.c. u 33; V 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

the rest before mentioned, which I saw through a frame of 
glasse that is placed before them. ^&^^^ ^ ^^ ^PP^ 
parte of the quire round about are mled up with dieir 
Dones, the skms being placed under them, whereof most 
have blacke taffata cases that are distinguished with littk 
spangels, which yeeld a shew like twinkling starres in the 
firmament. At the west end of the Churdi I saw a cer- 
[p. 614.] taine secrete roome with an yron dore and strong barres 

to it, wherein are kept many religious and ancient rdiquesi 

which are shewed but upon some speciall festivall dayes. 

SnfinAim rf Truely these Colonians are no more to be condemned for 

tki Pafists. attributing that adoration and worship unto these dumbe 

bones androtten skulles, which is properly and only due 
to the invisible God creator of heaven and earth» who wili 
be served in spirit and truth, and not Mrith such blinde 
devotions that are seisoned with the leven of superstition : 
no more I say, are they to be condenmed for these things, 
then for their superstitious prayers which I have observed 
written in some of their Churches. Espedally in this 
Church of St. Ursula, whereof foure I wrote out, and 
brought them home with me into Engbind, which I have 
here thought good to conununicate to the reader, as well 
as the rest. Hoping that they Mrill be so farre from cor- 
rupting any good christian that shall reade them, that they 
wil rather the more confirme him in the true religion of 
Christ, by observing the grosse vanities of the ^apists. 
The first was this, which I saw written in a certaine table 
hanged upon one of the pillars. 

Prayerstotke De Beatissiml virgine Marii. 

^' Haec est praeclarimi vas paracleti Spiritus sancti» haec cst 
gloriosa avitas Dei. Haec est mulier virtutis, quae ^con- 
trivit caput Serpentis. Hsec est soie speciosior, luni 
pulchrior, auronl rutilantior, stellis prseclarior. Hanc pec- 
catores devot^ adeamus, rea pectora tundamus, dicentes. 

* This is a most impious and blasphemons speech. For it was not the 
Virgin Marv that brused the head of the Serpent, bat onl)r Jesns Christ 
the son of God. 

338 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

Sancta Maria, Sancta Maria, demens pia Domina nostra, 
fac nos tuis precibus consortes coelestis glorise. Versus. 
In omni tribulatione & angustia nostr^ succurre nobis 
beatissima Virgo Maria. 

Oremus. 

Famulorum tuorum qusesumus Domine delictis ignosce, 
ut qui tibi placere de actibus nostris non valeamus, geni- 
tricis filii tui Domini Dei nostri intercessione salvemur: 
Per eundem Christum Dominum nostrum. Amen. 

Here followeth a second prayer to the [p. 615.] 

Virgin Mary. 

O Domina mea Sancta Maria, me in tuam benedictam A seemd 
fidem, ac singularem custodiam, & in sinum misericordis trajir » tke 
tuae hodii & quotidii, & in hora exitus mei, & animam '^^- 
& corpus meum tibi commendo: omnem spem meam & 
consolationem meam, omnes angustias & miserias meas, 
vitam & finem vitae mese tibi committo. £t per tuam 
sanctissimam intercessionem & perpetua merita, omnia 
mea dirigantur & disponantur opera seomdum tuam 
tuique fihi voluntatem. Amen. 

In another side of the Church I read this prayer, 
[Minted in a prety little table hanged up at one of their 
candlesticks together with other tables written in Dutch. 

Oratio studiosi ad Sanctam Ursulam. 

Ego me & parentes & consanguineos meos, omnesque Afrajir» 
mihi beni faventes, tuae intercessioni 6 Sancta Ursula ^* ^^«^' 
commendo. £t rogo per virginitatem tuam ut nobis 
fortitudinem in resistendis dapmonimi insidiis, constantiam 
in adversitatibus, prudentiam in actionibus nostris, con- 
silium in rebus dubiis, mihi foelicem progressum in studiis 
meis \ Domino nostro Jesu Christo impetrare digneris; 
tuaque sanctissima intercessione nos delictorum catenl 
constrictos solvere, ac salutaria corpori ac animo per 
nobilissimum sanguinem tuum, quem pro Christi amore 
efiFundere non perhorruisti, quaeso expostulare non inter- 

339 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

mittas : & adolescenti qui in honorem tuum hanc oratiun- 
culam composuit, minique in omnibus adversitatibus 
succerrere digneris. Amen. Under the prayer this is 
written with a pen. 1607. ^7* Mensis Apnlis. 

Clamri of the Next I went to the Church of the Maccabees, in which 
MMccahas. ^^j yeport the Bones of that holy mother of the Macca- 

bees and her seven sonnes doe lye, that were with such 

most horrible and exquisite tortures punished by King 

Antiochus before the incarnation of Chiist, as it appeareth 

at large in the seventh chapter of the second booke of the 

Maccabees, where it is mentioned that the seven sonnes 

[p. 616.] together with their mother had their tongues and thc 

Martyrdom §/ utmost jparts of their bodies cut ofF by the conunande- 

tkiMsccMieis. ment of King Antiochus, their skinne pulled over their 

heads with their haire ; and lastly were fryed in a fiying 
pan, only because they would eate no swines flesh. Cer- 
tainely this monument is very memorable, and worthy to 
be seene by a curious traveUer, if a man were sure that 
these were the true bones of them. For truly fbr my 
owne part I will confesse, I love to see these kind of 
things as much as any man living, especially when I am 
perswaded that there is no delusion. But indeed there is 
so great uncertainty in these Papisticall reliques, that a 
man cannot certainly tell which are true, and which are 
false. Over the dore as I entred the Court that leadeth 
to the Church, I observed the image of the mother and 
her seven sonnes boyled in a cauldron, with the flames 
of fire under it, and beneath the image this inscription is 
written. 

Salomona vocor cocta sartagine, 
Cum liberis litor ignis aspergine, 
Agens moestissimum Deiparce typum. 

Under another image also in the same front, this is 
written. 

Unda Rheni rosea fit sanguinis madore, 
Corpora Virginea hlc ensis stant in ore, 
Dat Prssul Keinoldus Maccabeis sedem. 

340 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

Againe, over the dore at the entrance of the Church it 
s^e, I read these two verses written in golden letters 
upon a ground of aziire. 

Arca Virsineo prids h!c imbuta cruore, 
Nunc macabeorum corpora sacra tegit. 

In the quire of the Church is the Monument of the MMumintto 
mother and her seven sonnes behinde the high Altar, ^^^^^'' 
whose bones and skulles (they say) are kept in the same. 
The moniunent is made of wainscot, at the top whereof 
the image of King Antiochus is erected with Solomona 
and her seven sonnes, but one of the images of the seven 
is broken. Upon one side of the monument I read this [p. 617.] 
inscription in golden letters. Diva Solomona cum 
septem suis filiis Maccabeis in hic arca continetur. In 
another side this. Antiochus Rex septem fratres Macca- 
beos & matrem eorum martyrio interemit. Round about 
the Quire of the Church these sentences are written in 
golden letters. In one place this. O quim fragrantia 
hlc redolent Martynun opobalsama. Next this. O 
qudm purpurei hic spirant Vir^inum flores. In another 
place this. Hic cert^ sunt candidis Lilia rosis mista. In 
another place this. £t prata spiritalibus vernantia gem- 
mis. Hic vides serta quibus Dominus coronatur. In 
another place this. Ut in penitissimo pectoris tui 
recessu. Last this. Vivus tibi semper atque caelestis 
ignis exsestuet 6 Colonia. Againe about the body of the 
Church this is written. 

Christo par decus atque habeat hoc Paracletus idem. 
Maxima dehinc sacro dabitur reverentia cultu 

Reliquiis diviim ccelitibusque piis. 
Ecce Panomphaeo dicata haec sacra Tonanti, 

Sacra profecto sedes sanguine tincta sacro. 
Ecce triumphales arcus super^que triumphos, 

Aptaque virgineo pulchra trophaea choro. 
Victor adest Christus, victrix est Ursula virgo, 

£t Macabaeorum paima decora Ducum. 

341 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

In another place this. 

Hic Sanctis optata quies, optataque Tempe, 
Qiii quondam herooso hoc procubuere solo. 

Hi coelo, terrae, pelago dominantur et aurse, 
£t summum norunt conciliare Deum. 

Non igitur talis toto thesaurus in orbe, 
Exuperans Crsesi divitiasque Myde. 

In another part of the Chiirch under the historicall 
Pictures of St. Ursula and other Virgins that were Mar- 
tyred with her, this is written. Ursulanarum virginum 
stragem hic pih et sinceri o viator venerator. In another 
place this. Sacrum earundem sanguinem hoc Magdalens 

[p. 6i8.] quondam* infusimi sacello reverent^ colunto. In an- 
other place this. Insigne hoc Pugilum Christi poljran- 

MMjnScs. drium puro corde exosculantor. AIso I observed an 
exceeding multitude of the Virgins bones laid within cer- 
taine yron lattises round about the Quire, and the body 
of the Church ; and under them are erected their images 
represented a little beneath their breast, and fairely gilt. 

Lastly, I visited the temple of Saint Gereon, a holy 
man that was martyred in this city, in the tenth persecu- 
tion of the primitive church under the Emperour Dio- 
clesian. Over the dore whereof at the first entrance this 
is written in golden letters. 

Templmn Sanctorum. 

Gereonis sociorumque ejuss ccc. xviii. Thebeonim Mar- 
tyrum & Gregorii, sociorumque ejus ccc. Ix. Maurorum 
Martyrum. 

ri!^'^^^ In this Temple I saw many Tombes of Thebean Mar- 
mgn^n. ^^^^ ^*^ ^^^^ martyred with Saint Gereon, and of thc 
Moores that sufFered martyrdome with Saint Gregory. 
These tombes are in the body of the Church : seven in a 
Tombe, eight, ten in a Tombe, 8«:. with the pictures of 
them in the outside, whose bodies are inclosed in thc 

* By this I gather that the holy Virgins were slaine in this very place 
where the Church now standeth. 

342 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

inside. Also there is one veiy grcat stony Tombe in a 
lowe vault or crypta, under the entrance of the Quire, 
and at the entry or the same vault there is an yron grate. 
In this Tombe lyeth the body of Saint Gereon, and many 
more of the Thebean Martyrs. In the same vault there 
is a taper alwaies burning. Also round about the Quire 
the whole history of his martyrdome and his associats is 
written in Latine in ancient doth of Arras. And towards 
the end of the Quire the bones and skulles of the same 
Martyrs are inclosed within a frame of glasse on both sides 
of the Quire, their skulles being covered with pretty 
silken cases as those of the Virgins in the Church of 
Saint Ursula and the Macchabees. In the middest of 
each of these bones is the head of a blacke Moore placcd, [p. 619.] 
made as farre as his breast, whereof the one representeth 
Saint Gregory ; whom the other, I know not. 

The histories of sacred and religious matters being 
ended, I will now descend to civill and secular matters : 
and will make mention of their Prjctorium or Senate 
house, which they commonly call the Rathausz. Cer- TheRathhaui. 
tainly the outward workmanship of it is a thing of such 
gorgeous magniiicence and admirable state that I preferre 
it both for the front, and for most of the outward worke, 
before any Senate house that ever I saw either in my owne 
country, or abroad : only the PrjEtorium of Padua ex- 
cepted, which is commonly esteemed the fairest of Chris- 
tcndome. This of Colen is of a most lofty heigth, which 
maketh it seen a farre oiF, wholy composed of very ele- 
gant stone, & most excellently beautified with great store 
oi faire images ; also the curious workes in stone, the 
pinnacles, and other exquisite devices together with the 
delicate white toppe, doe yeeld a most pompous shewe, 
Hard by this goodly building which seemeth to be of 
some antiquitie, is lately erected another portly edifice as 
part of the Senate house, which doth marvaJIously adorne 
it. For besides other ornaments it hath a faire galery, 
and a fine wallce beneath. Thc edge whereof is beauti- 
fied with rich marble piilars, whose bases are exactly 




GORYATS CRUDITIES 

wrought with many artificiall borders. Also to adde the 
more grace to the worke the pillers of the top are at both 
eades ^ted. Moreover there is another thing which doth 
exceedingly gamish this beautifuU structure. For whereas 
there are three severall fronts beionging to this buikUng, 
each of them is decked with memorwle histories touching 
the antiquities of this renowned city, which indeed doe 
wwthily illustrate the place. In the fairest front of all, 
these two histories. First this. 

M. Vipsanio L. F. Agrippse, qui Octavii Imp. Aug. 
[p. 620.] aener ejus in Pontif . ac Trib. pot, imperioque Collega 

ractus & successor ab eo delectus, Senatum populumque 
Ubionmi trans fl. Rhenimi in hanc citeriorem ripam 
traduxit, urbemque hanc auspicato opportimissimoque 
k primis fundamentis loco condidit ; moenibusque 
firmissimis cinxit, atque variis publicis operibus et 
illustribus monumentis omavit. Cos. S.P.Q. Agripinensis 
post tot ssecula fundatori suo grati. 

Next this. 

But betwixt these two inscriptions there is a golden 
Lyon carved in stone, toj^ther with a certaine valiant 
Champion, who dapping his cloake about his arme> did 
very couragiously thrust his hand into his mouth, & slue 
the Lyon. 
Historyofthi Therefore before I write the nexte inscription I wiU 
^»^ ofa YitTt, adde a passing memorable history, which I have both 

heard in the Citie, and read in Munster, touching the man 
that slue the Lyon ; which indeed is as worthy the readif^ 
as any thing I have written in my whole booke. It 
hapned about the yeare of our Lord 1260. that there was 
reat dissention betwixt the Archbishop of Colen and the 
\\ty : at what time it chanced also that two of the Canons 
of the Cathedrall Church that favored the Bishops faction, 
had a certaine Lyons whelpe, which they fed and brought 
up for the honour of the Bishop. Now whereas the said 
Gmons bare a great spite and nialice to the Consul of the 
dty whofse n»me was Hermannus Gryn, they invited him 

344 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

one day very kindly to dinner under colour of friendship, 
and when he came to their house, shewed him this young 
Lyon, whome they kept hungry without meate some two 
or three daies before, and so forced him unawares and 
fearing no such matter, to approach neerer to the Lyons 
denne then it was fitte for him. Presently after this the 
Canons conveighed themselves out of the roome, and hav- [p. 621.] 
ing shut the dore waited without, still expecting when the 
Lyon would devoure the man. But the Consul being a 
man of a notable courage and stout spirit, when he sawe 
that he was by the treachery of tnese lewd Prelates 
brought to these extremes, either to be devoured by that 
meralesse and fierce beast, or to fight manfuUy for his 
life, did put on a valiant resolution, verif ying that speech 
of Virgil, 

•Audentes fortuna juvat 



Clapped his cloake about his left hand which he boldly 
thrust into the Lions mouth as he came gapins; towards 
him, & with his right hand slue him, & so finaUy by this 
meanes escaped free from danger. Afterward he sent 
OfiScers for the two Canons with commandement to 
apprehend them, and to see them incontinently hanged. 
Which was accordingly performed. Having now men- 
tioned this remarkable history of this valiant Colonian 
Champion (the like whereof I never read or heard of, 
savinjg^ Sampson, Daniel the Prophet, King David, 
Benaiah one of Davids three Worthies, Captaine Lysma- 
chus in the time of Alexander the Great, and one of our 
En^lish Kinges Richard the first surnamed Cor de Lyon) 
I wiU now at length after so long an introduction adde the 
second inscription which is this. 

Flavio Valerio Constantino Max. Aug. P. F. Constantii 
F. Imp. invicto quod ad immortaUtatem Impcrii R. 
gloriam ac limitis summam utiUtatem et 
ornatum factu diflScilem lapideum pontem in 

*^aei. 9. 
345 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

perpetuiun exerdtui cum liberet adversus Francos 
ne in Galliam transirent. ipse heic 
utramque Rheni ripam Agrippinensem quipp^ Frand- 
Conjungendo mimiens impositoquasiflumimin [camque 
hostes jugo construxerit S. P. Q. Agrippinensis. 

In another front that looketh towardes the East these two 
histories are written. 

[p. 622.] First this. 

Imcriftms C. Julio Cscs. 

wr Mr Edst Quod Ubiorum Principes, Senatum, civitatemque eorum 
-^^ Transrhenanam Amplam atque florentem finitimaSueoruin 
gente longi maxima Germanorumque omnium bellicosis- 
sima injuriis belbi et obsidione pressam in amidtiam 
fidemque S. P. Q. R. receperit, et exercitu Romano p 
geminatos pontes Sublidos k se perquam celeritir con- 
lectos, ex Treviris trans Rheniun in ubios Cn. Pompeio 
et M. Crasso Cos. traductos liberarit, Senatus popuiusque 
Ubiorum, 

Next this. 

C. Octavii Caes. Imp. P. P. Augusti 

^ternae memorie. 

Ob Prindpes, Senatum, populumque Ubiorum ejus aus- 

pidis ex vetere transrhenana sede in hanc dteriorem 

Rheni ripam per M. Agrippam generum, 

orbe terra marique pacato 

foslicitir traductos 

Senatus Populusque 

Ubiorum. 

In the westerne fi-ont these two histories are written. 

First this. 

Imp. Csesari F. L. Justinian P. F. Aug. 

346 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

Gratis testande apud Foederatos Quiritibus Agrippinen- 

ses preclaris olim juris Italici propter perpetuam in 

Rom. Imperiiun fidem beneficiis donatos, ideis 

fortissimus religiosissimusque Imp. Uni- 

verso etiam legum corpore ad amplio- 

rem justitise reique publicse toti- 

us orbis reformands cultum 

k se renovato, consignarit. 

S. P. Q. Agripp. 

Next this. [p. 623.] 

Imp. Caes. Maximiliano Austrio Ferd. f. Philippi N. 
Maximiliani. 

Pronep. Frid. Abnep. Augusti Caroli v. Imp. Genero 
Cum Otto primus Cognomento Magnus Imp. Germanise 
insigniores Civitates ac Coloniensem imprimis liberas 
fecisset, & qui eum sequuti sunt antiquis conservandis, 
novis insuper privilegiis eam ornarint auxerintvi. Tu 
ver6 potentissime Imp. omnium anteriorum Caesarea 
authontate plenissime ea confirmaveris, pacem publi- 
camque quietem patrise pater difilicillimo rerum statu 
paraveris, ea propter grate mentis instinctum numini 
majestatique tuse cujus stirps longa antiquaque Impp. 
serie consurgit, et invicta virtus sola pietate superata est. 
S. P. Q. Agripp. hanc tabukm aere publico devotus col- 
locari jussit. CIO. 10. Lxxii. 

Under these histories round about the three fronts, the 
heades of the twelve first Romane Emperours to Domi- 
tian, are carved with their titles round about them written 
in gold. The lower part of this Praetorium is adorned L^uirfartof 
with seven very beautifuU arches, whereof five are made ^ ^Moms. 
in one rowe, and two at the sides. At the toppe of the 
fix)nt, even in the middle of the same, the image of justice 
is advanced in milke-white stone, with a sword in one hand 
& a payre of scales in an other. At the ends of the toppe 
the armes of the city are curiously presented, viz: the 
Lyon and the Griphin, and betwixt them their scutchin, 

347 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

which is a golden helmet. At the toppe of all, the Em- 
perours armes the blacke spread eagle is erected, adoraed 
with a golden Crowne, in regard the dtie is imperialL 

wirsiiy of Now I wiU make some short mention of their Univer- 

^S^' sitie. For there is an Universitie in this citie: whidi 
was instituted in the veare 1388. under Pope Urban. It 

624.] consisteth of three Colledges, whereof I saw the andentest, 
and the Jesuites Colledge. But they are but metne 
buildings in comparison of the noble Colledges of oor 
famous English Universities. 

I observed a pretty towne on the other side of thc 

««c Rhene called Teusch, which though I was not at it, but 

onely saw it afarre ofF, I will mention for two most 
memorable matters that I have heard and read of it 
The one is, that it is reported to have bene first inhabited 
by andent Tuisco otherwise called Teuto (whom I have 
before mentioned) the sonne of the Patriarch Noah by 
his wife Arezia ; who being sent by his father into these 
parts of Europe, made his residence in the same place, 
which is said to derive his denomination of Teusch from 
this Teuto. Howbeit, I will not confidently avoxich this 
to be true, thou^h I depend upon the authority of a suffi- 
cient author Sebastian Munster. Otherwise I will not 
avouch it. The other, that there was an andent castell 
built in that place by the Emperour Constantine, where 
there lay a garrison of souldiers for the defence of thc 
Citie of Colen. I am the sooner induced to beleeve this, 
because it is verified by the testimony of Philip Melan- 
thon, who writeth that there was a table found once in an 
ancient Monastery of Teuch, wherein there was an inscrip- 
tion that confirmed this matter. 

I cannot write of any famous battels that have benc 
fought neere this Citie, as I have done before of those by 
Basil, Strasbourg, and Mentz: because I have neither 
heard nor read of any. Onely I can say that it was oncc 
much blemished by Attila King of the Hunnes, and a 
long time after that by the Normanes in the time of thc 
Emperour Lotharius the second, who did much edipsc 

348 



OBSERVATIONS OF COLOGNE 

the glory of it, and defeced many goodly buildings at thc , 

same time that they sacked the towne o( Bonna, as I have 

before written. But in steed of writing of worthy battels, 

I will menfion two famous wights that once lived in this [p- 61 s] 

citie, who by their excellent Martial discipline and re- 

nowned victories, will be eternized in Chronicles of feme 

till the end of the world. The one was Ulpius Trajan 

that puissant Spaniard and the fourteenth Romane Em- Tteo/amim. j 

perour, who being adopted by Cocceius Nerva to succeed """■"*"■ 

him in the Empire, was sent for to this citie of Colen, 

where he was then Captaine or Lieutenant of a Romane 

legion. The other was the victorious warrier and glorious 

conquerour of the Saracens Carolus Martellus (of whom I 

have before made mention in my notes of S. Denis) who 

after the death of his fether Pipin was imprisoned in this 

citie, being a yong man, by the meanes of his stepmother 

Woldruda. But being by the mercifull providence of 

God afterward released, he became the most fortunate 

and valiant Martialist that was then in all the world. 

Now were it expedient that I should make some rela- 
tion of their magistrates & government. But I hope 
thou wilt pardon me, although I cannot satisfie thee in 
those affaires of policy. I would have thee consider that 
I made my abode in Colen but two daies, During which 
space I hope thou wilt say I was not idle. 

Here at the conclusion of this history of Colen I will 
briefly mention one notable thing that I saw in this citie, 
besides all the rest before mentioned. It was my chance 
to see the picture of our famous English Jesuite Henry ^«"7 
Garnet, publikely exposed to sale in a place of the citie, T^""" 
with other things. Whose head was represented in that 
miracuious figure imprinted in a straw, as our English 
Papists have often reported. A matter that I perceive is 
vcry highly honoured by divers Papists beyond the seas. 
Though I thinke the truth of it is such, that it may be 
well ranked amongst the merry tales of Poggius the 
Florentine. 

Thus much of Colen. 




CORYArS CRUDITIES 

[p. 626.] T Departed from Colen in a boate downe the Rhene 
X upon a Wednesday being the one and twentieth of 
September, about two of the docke in the afternoone, 
after I had made my aboade there two daies, and came to 
a certaine solitary house nine miles beyond it, situate bj 
the river side, aoout eight of the dodce at night, being 

En^ accompanied with foure English men whose names weit 

^!^!^^^ Peter Sage, and James Tower Londoners, William TasseD 
a Cambndgeshire man. These three had bene at Frandc- 
ford Mart. The fourth was one Richard Savage a 
Cheshire man, that came then from the University of 
Minvchen in Bavaria ; where he had spent some time m 
studie. The two later of these foure proceeded in their 
journey with me till we came to Flushing the farthest 
towne of Zealand, where I was imbarked for England, & 
there we parted companie. AIso there was another in 
out boate, whose company I enjoied all the way betwixt 
Mentz and Colen, that ministred great delight imto nie 
with his elegant learning. His name was Christopher 
Hagk, bome in Koningsperg the Metropolitan dtie of 
Prussia, and a famous University. Also he was the sonne 
and heire of the high Consul of the dtie. A sodable & 
pleasant Gentleman, and one that had bene a traveller for 
the space of a dozen yeares in the famousest regions of 
Christendome, as Germany, France, Italy, England, Den- 
marke, Poland, &c. 

I departed from the foresaid solitary house about three 
of the clocke in the moming the two and twendeth of 
September being Thursday, and came to the town of 
Rees in Cleveland about seven of the docke at night. 
This dayes journey consisted of thirty miles. The first 

DmuUorf. towne that I came unto was Dysseldorp a faire towne of 
Cleve-land, situate hard by the Rhene, which is famous 
for two things, the one a magnificent Palace bdonging to 

[p. 627.] the Duke : the other the residence of the Dukes Court 
here. I am sorry that I can speake so little of this Palace. 
For I tarryed but a quarter of an houre upon the shore, 
which shortnesse of time affoorded me no more leisure 

350 



OBSERVATIONS OF DUSSELDORF 

then to survay after a superficiall manner some parts of 

the outside only. Yet as Httle as I viewed it, I observed 

it to be thc most sumptuous building of any dwelling 

house that I saw in all the Netherlands. This Palace hath 

one singular commodity belonging to it, For a part of 

the Rhene is finely conveighed under it by certaine con- 

venient vauhs made for the same purpose. The Duke of 

this place is a Prince of great power and authority. For 

his titles are these : Duke of JuHers and Cleve-land, and ^".^"f , \ 

Count of Ravensperg, and Ravestein. The grcatest part ' ' 

of these Dukes have been buried in the Colledge Church 

of this towne of Dysseldorp, where I understand they are 

honered both with sumptuous monuments and elegant 

epitaphs. The religion of the * present Prince is Romish : 

he married the daughter of the Duke of Lorraine. I 

heard in the country that he wanted onc principall thing 

to grace his Prlncely titles and ample dominions. For it 

was generally reported that he had not that pregnancy of 

capacttie as others have, A httle wtthout the towne wa!l 

I saw a certaine instrument that is very frequently used J teautifik 

in these parts, called a crane, which serveth for the draw- "'"'*• 

ing up of vessels and such other things of any weighty 

burden, to the land from out of boates. I doe therefore 

name this instrument, because it was the most beautiflill 

of that kinde that I saw in al Germanie. 

When we were a few miles past beyond this towne, we 
glanced by the towne of Duysburg situate in Cleve-land, 
also hard by the Rhene. This towne is fiimous for con- 
taining the bones of that worthy man Gerardus Mercator ' 
borne in a towne in Flanders called Rupetmunda, who by DaiiiurT. 
the universall sufFrage of all the learned is esteemed the 
most excellent cosmographer & mathematician (Ortelius [p. 6i8.] 
only excepted) that hath flourished in the world these 
thousand yeares. For he hath written such exact and 
elegant geographical tables as wil! never sufFer his name 
to be committcd to oblivion. 

Betwixt Duysburg and the towne of Rhene Barkc I 
• I roune the same Prince that wai thenfalive when I wai thcre. 



Gfrartliu 

MmaMr 




CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

observed the lamentable tokeas of the Belgicke watres 
three Churches very miserably battered and sacked, whkb 
was done by the souldiers of the Grave Maurice. About 
a mile before I came to Rhene-Barke I saw a certaine towcr 
Dinslaken. in the towne of Dinslaking in the Province of Cleve-kod, 
the walles whereof are said to be of such an exceediog 
thicknesse that no peece of Ordinance is able to pieite it, 
but it will reverberate the buUet, be it never so grcit 
For I heard it verycrediblyreported that theyare eighteeiie 
foote thicke. Wben I came to Rhene-Barke, which is a 
towne belonging to the Archduke Albert, and guarded fay 
a garrison of his souldiers, there hapned this accid e n t ; 
our whole companie was stayed from passing any farther 
by certaine officers fbr the space of two houres, to our 
great terror and amazement, in so much that we couU 
not be sufFered to depart till we had been all convened 
before the Govemor of the towne, who was a Spaniah 
Gentleman, a man that used us more gradously tmui we 
expected. For after a few termes of examination he gendjr 
dismissed us. Here I saw one of their towers most 
gprievously battered with shot, and many of their other 
Duildings, which was done about a dozen yeares since by 
the Grave Maurices souldiers. I heard most tragicall 
Tm newes of two Englishmen in this towne. For it was 

En^hmen reported unto me, that whereas two of them went into thc 
kiUid, fjgij ^Q fight, the one being slaine by the other, he that 
killed his fellow was condemned by the Govemor to 
receive this punishment ; to be shot to death by a dozen 
of his countrymen. And to be first tyed to a post ot 
some such thing with a paper pinned upon his breast, 
p. 629.] having a blacke marke in the middle. So this was ac- 
cordingly performed. But the ofFendour was so stout- 
hearted a fellow, that his countrymen were constnined to 
discharge two or three voUeys of shot at him befbre thcy 
could mroughly dispatch him. 

After we were gone from Rhene-Barke, we passed by 

^^'^^' the faure City of under Wesel, in Latin inferior Wesalia, 

which is so odled for distinction sake, betwixt this and the 

35» 



OBSERVATIONS OF WESEL 

higher Wesel before mentioned, in the Diocesse of the 
Archbishop of Trevirs. This City is in Clevc-land (which 
country was in former times inhabited by the ancient 
Tenctheri mentioned by Cfesar and Tacitus) and is 
esteemed the feirest city of the whole Province, though 
the City of Cleve be indeed the Capitall, and hath the 
principall name, in regard the Province hath her denomi- 
nation from the same place ; howbeit, it is reported to be 
inferior to Wesel. It was not my good hap to goe into it, 
but only to passe by it, yet I perceived that it yeeldeth a. 
most elegant shew afarre off by meanes of her lofty towers, 
goodly walles, bulwarkes, and other statelv buildings both 
publique and private. It is seated a prety way within the 
land, and ferther from the Rhene then the other Rhenish 
Cities and Townes are, even about some two fiirlongs in 
my conjecture. There is a prety arme of the Rhene 
derived unto it in a (aire channel that maketh a very com- 
modious river called the Lippia, in which there lay a great 
multitude of ships when I passed by it. For it is a City 
of great trafficke, and very populous, as I heard. 

fobserved a little beyond Wesel on the same side of 
the Rhene that Wesel standeth, certaine trenches and 
rampiers in an open field, where the renowned Grave 
Maurice made his Rendevous with all his armie about 
some dozen yeares since, when he battered the towne of 
Rhene-Barke. 

About some three miles from Wesel on the other side SaiBi Truyfn. 
of the Rhene, I saw a faire towne called Saint Truyen, 
but indeede I could see but a little part of the towne, [p. 630.] 
saving their principall Church, which seemeth to be a 
beautifriU building, This towne was once built upon a 
hill not farre ofF, but being there wasted and destroyed 
(fbr the ancient ruines of it are to be seene to this day) it 
was afterward built in a plaine, even there where it now 
standeth. 

I arrived at fhe towne of Rces in Cleve-Iand about Rtti. 
seven of the clocke at night, as I have before said. Of 
my arrivall there I will report one memorable thing. 
c ciii 3S3 2 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

Whereas the gates of the towne were locked befote m 
came thither, presently after our arrivall we made all the 
meanes that might be to be admitted into the townc 
But we were absolutely denied it a long dme. Wher^ 
upon we went into one of the ships that laj at the kej, 
determining to take a hard lodging there au nieht upc» 
the bare boordes. No sooner were we in the wip but I 
beganne to cheare my companie as well as I couid wiA 
Cm^^m consolatorie termes, and pronoimced a fcw veraes and 
•ui tfVtr^' fragments of verses out ox Virgil, tending to an exhorti- 

tion to patience in calamities, as: 

* Quicquid erit, superanda onmis fortuna ferendo est. 

And, 

§ Per varios casus & tot discrimina renun 
tendimus in patriam 

And, 

X ^Dabit Deus his quoque finem. 

And the same hemistichiiun that I spake jojrfullie unto 
my selfe, when with much labour and dimculty I was 
come to the toppe of the first Alpine mountaine Aigube- 
lette, as I entred into Savoy : 

t forsan & haec olim meminisse juvabit. 

A sympathitic But at last, thc Burgo-master of the towne being touched 
BMrgmasur. ^j^j^ ^ certaine sympathic of our misery (having himselfe 

belike at some time tasted of the like bitter pilles of ad- 
verse fortune, according to that memorable speech of Dido 
in Virgil : 

[p. 631.] Non ignara mali miseris succurrere disco,) 

was contented that the gates should be opened to admit 
us into the towne, but first he sent two souldiers to us 
with their muskets charped, to the end to examine us 
what we were, and so after a few termes of examinatioD 

«iEnei. 5. SMna. 2. { Ibid. tIbi<L 

354 



OBSERVATIONS OF REES 

they kindly conducted us to our inne, and that to our 

infinite comfort, For we were all most miserably weather- 

beaten and very coid, especially I for mine own part, who 

was almost ready to give up the ghost through cold. But 

when we came to our inne we were exceedingly refreshed 

with all things convenient for the comforting of distressed 

travellers. This townc of Rees belonged to the Duke of 

Cleve-Iand, and professeth the Romish religion as he did. 

It hath but one Church, wherein I observed a wonderfull „_ '^J 

multitude of Papistical images & pictures, amongst the 

rest the images of St. Christopher and St. George of 

Cappadocia killing the dragon, and another of that royall 

Virgin the King of ^gypts daughter, whom he freed 

from the serpent. In the Churchyard I saw an exceeding 

company of stonie crosses infixed upon the graves of 

them that have been buried there, in which their names 

are written, and the yeare of the Lord wherein they died. 

Which is a custome much observed in many places of the 

Netherlands. The market place of the towne is very The marht% 

faire, being two hundred sixe and twenty paces long, and ^**^' 

five and fifty broade. For I paced it over. Also the 

sides of it are adorned with two goodly rowes of bricke 

buifdings, the ends whereof together with the sides are 

beautified with battlements according to the feshion of 

the German houses in divers other Cities and Townes, as 

I have before mentioned. But they use not halfi; so much 

those kinde of little windowes in the outside of the roofes 

of their houses, as they doe in the cities of higher Ger- 

many, as I have before spoken. This market place is 

much graced with a faire towne house that standeth at [p. 631.] 

the east end. I observed one thing in this towne which 

I did not in any other towne in all Germanie, though I 

understand it is very frequently used in many townes of 

the Netherlands. For all the night a certaine fellow 

walked about the towne, and once every houre winded a Hbuu seundid 

horne. Thc like he did also hourely in the day time, wr a iBm. 

and sometimes he sounded a trumpet from a certaine 

place of the tower of the Church. I heard that this cus- 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 

tome is continually \ised in this towne : so that thcy gi?e 
a certaine yearlie stipend to a fellow that executeth this 
office. I made my aboade in Rees all day the three aod 
twentieth of Septembcr being Friday, by reason that tlic 
weather was so boysterous, and the Rhene so furioiis, 
that there was no travelling^ upon the river without gittt 
danger. But the foure and twentieth of September being 
Saturday I departed therehence about sixe of the dodkt 

Btnurkk. in the morning, and came to Emricke a faire towne of 
Cleve-land sixe miles therehence and situate by the 
Rhene, about nine of the docke the same moming. In 
this towne I saw nothing memorable (fbr indeede that litde 
time that I spent there I bestowed in the refection of mj 
body, that I had no leisure to walke abroade) and there- 
fore I will let it passe without any farther mendon but 
only the name. I departed therehence about noone the 
same day, and came about three of the docke in the after- 
noone to the City of Nimmigen in Gdderland, being nine 
miles beyond it. This dayes joumey was but fifteene 
miles. In my joumey betwixt Emricke and Ninunigen 

Cleve. I saw the City of Cleve, in Latin Clivium, the Metro- 
politan of Cleve-land, situate afarre off from the Rhene, 
a prety way up in the covmtry. It seemeth to be a faire 
City. For it yeddeth a beautifuU shew afarre off. Also 
I observed one very memorable thing about six miles on 
this side Nimmigen, a certaine sconce in an island of the 
Rhene called Skinkel-sconce. I heard that it is esteemed 

[p. 633.] the strongest sconce of all Europe. It belongeth to thc 
States, and standeth in a certaine little Island which was 
converted to such an impre^able fortification by the rarc 
invention of a certaine Dutchman whose name was 
Skinkel, from whome the fort hath his denomination. It 
hapned that this Skinkel was afterwards drowned in the 
river Waell neere the city of Nimmigen. The sconce is 
joyned to the land on one side by a wooden bridge. 

But now before I begin to write of the dty of Nim- 
migen, I will make some mention of the coundy wherdn 
it standeth. The Latine name is Gddria, but the vulgar 

356 



OBSERVATIONS OF GELDERLAND 

Dutch Gelderland ; one of the seventeen Provinces of i 
the Netherlands, and one of the eight united Provinces 
that belong to the States. In the East, it is bounded with 
Cleveland : in the West with Holland & Brabant. In the 
North with Frisland & a creekc of the German Sea. In 
the South with the country of Julia. It is said that the 
whole Province is so plaine, that there is not as much as 
one hill of any note to be seene in it. Againe, all this 
plain is so exceedingly fiirnished with abundance of wood, 
that there are few vacant places unwooded. Besides it is 
esteemed so fertile a Territory, that it bringeth forth all 
manner of commodities whatsoever, saving wine. For 
two thinges it is very memorable. For the admirable 
store of corne that it yeeldeth, and the goodly pastures and j 
meadowes for fetting of Cattel. For the which it is so i 
tamous, that sometimes leane cattell are sent hither to ' 
grazing from the farthest confines of Denmarke. Also it 
is well watered with these three famous Rivers, the Rhene, 
the Maze, and the Wael, and so populous that it containeth 
twenty two walled townes, and three hundred villages. 
The ancient inhabitants of this country, many yeares before 
the incarnation of Christ, and after, were called Sicambri, 
which are mentioned by Csesar and Tacitus : and they 
were so called either from a Queene called Cambra (as 
Munster writeth) or rather (as learned Peucer affirmeth) [ 
quasi Sec Cimbri, that is, the Cimbri which dwelt necre 
tne sea. 

Some are of opinion that the ancient Menapii mentioned 
by Cjesar did once inhabite this Province. But 1 differ 
from them. For I take the Menapii to be those that 
inhabiced the Territory about the city of JuUacum com- 
monly called Gulick. 

My Observations of Nimmigen. 

THis Citie hath three names, in Latine two, Neomagus Nimegutn. 
and Noviomagus. But the vulgar name is Nim- 
migen. It is the Metropolitan of Gelderland. And is 
of that antiquity, that it was built about 582. yeares before 
357 



I 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



the incarnation of Christ by the andent Sicambri. It is 
situate neere the river Wahalis commonly called the Waell, 
which is one of the three mouthes of the Rhene wherewith 
he exonerateth himselfe rartly into the Ocean, and partlj 
into the river Meuse. The Emperor Charles the Great 
was so delighted with the situation of this city that he 
did often keepe his Imperiall Court here, & built a very 
magnificent palace in the same, which stood a long time 
after his death, till the furious Normans invaded the Citf 
in the time of the Emperour Lotharius the second» wbo 
utterly destroied that palace with many other buildings 
TkeMorket of the City. The streets are very faire, espedally one 
'^^'* amongst the rest, which is the same that leadeth up to the 

market place from the gate neere the river WaeU at the 
entrance of the towne. But this streete is very uneven, 
being a continuall ascent till one doth enter the market 
place. Againe it is much graced with two ^oodly rowes 
of beautiml buildings on both sides, being built all with 
bricke, and garnished with batdements, according to the 
LP' 55'J German forme of building, as I have before often mcn- 
tioned. Their market place is very faire and spacious, 
paved all with bricke, and adorned with statelv buildings 
on every side. A little beyond their market place is their 
principal church. You enter a pretty church before you 
come into the Churchyard, over the gate whereof these 
two sentences are written in golden Tetters. 

Concordia parvae res crescunt, discordia 
magnae dilabuntur. 

Which sentence is taken out of Salust. The other 

Beata Civitas cujus Dominus spes ejus. 1606. 

Tki Ckurck. The Church it selfe is a very faire building, and is decked 
with many beautifull and great tables placed upon the 
walles in divers partes of the Church, wherein are writtcn 
sentences of Scripture in golden letters. Also it is beaud- 
fied with a faire paire of Organs which have the blacke 
Spreadeagle the Emperours armes in it, in regard the Citie 

3S8 



OBSERVATIONS OF NIMEGUEN 

is imperiall. Hard by the Church there is an ancient & 
magnificent building, which l think in times past was a 
religious house. But now I understand it is converted to 
a schoole. Upon one side whereof towards the Church 
are tenne buttresses, and in each space betwixt every couple 
of them is written one of the tenne Commandements all 
of them being comprehended in as many Latin verses. 
Likewise under this schoole there is a roome reserved for 
the bestowing of munition. The Pra;torium or rather T6e Setun \ 
the Stadihouse (for so in all the CJties & townes of the W«"- 
Netherlands doe they call a Senate house, the word being 
compounded of Stadt, which in the Dutch tongue signifieth 
a towne, and house) is a very ancient & stately place, the 
front whereof is graced with many fiiire images. At one 
side of the towne neere to their key I observed an ancient 
Castell built with bricke, and invironed with a faire wall. 
Besides all these ornaments of the City already mentiooed, 
there is one thing more that doth specially erace it. Even 
a faire front of building at the entrance of the city before [p. 636.] :4 
you enter the first gate. Which front or series extendeth 
it selfe in a goodly leugth, and ministreth a notable orna- 
ment to that part of the city. The City is subject to the 
Empire, as I have already said (though indeed at this day 
it bee principally under the dominion of the States) unto 
which it payeth the least tribute of any imperiall City -^ itrangt 
whatsoever. For that which they pay is nofhing but a '"'"''■ 
glove full of gunnepowder that they send once every yeare 
to the city of Aquisgranum otherwise called Aken, accord- 
ing to an ancient custome that they have observed these 
many ycares. The religion of the city is wholy Protestant. 
It is much given to traffique, and inhabited by many 
wealthy Merchants. When I was in Nimmigen, therc 
was a great garrison of soldiers planted there that consisted 
of three thousand men of armes, who did continually 
watch and ward for the defence of the City. Againe this 
great company was divided into twenty other lesser com- 
panies, whercof each contained one hundred and fifty 
soldiers, of which three were Englishmen, 
359 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIES 

In this dty was borne one famous learned maa, wbaai 

for his great learning sake (though indeed he were an 

PeurCamsus. Arch-papist) I will name, even Peter Canisius. He was 

the fit^t Jesuite of Germany, and chosen Provinciall of tlie 
rest of the German Jesuites by Ignatius Lovola himadfe 
that Spanish soldier and first founder of the Jesuiticali 
family. After which time in Rome, Sidlie, and in diven 
Universities of Germany, espedaliv Ingolstad, hee was 
publike reader of Divinity, & lastiy at Friburg a &yre 
city of Switzerknd, where he died the seventy seventfa 
yeare of his age, and there lieth buried. 

Thus much of Ninunigen. 

[p. 637.] T Observed certaine things both in this Citie of 

X migen and in other townes of the Netherlands, 

I could not perceive in any place of high Germany. For 

it is their custome in the Innes to place some few peeces of 

browne bread hard by the guests trencher, and a little white 

EaAngauums loafe or two. In many phures also at the b^nnin^ of 

in thi dinner or supper they bring some mardemasse beefe (i^raich 

NetkirloHds. Qyxstomt is uscd also in some places of the Grisons countrie, 

as I have before mentioned) and a good pesde of bacon to 
the table, before they bring any other thing. This I 
observed at Colen, Rees, and other places : at the ende of 
the meale they alwaies bring butter. One of their 
customes I much disliked, that they sit exceeding long at 
their meales, at the least an howre and haife. And very 
seldome do they go to supper before seven of the docke. 
In most piaces betwixt Coten and the farther end of the 
Netherlands even till I came to Vlyshingen conmionly 
cailed Flushing the farthest towne of Zealand, I observed 
Drinking that thcy usuafly drink beare & not Rhenish wine, as in thc 
^^- higher parts of Germany. For thcy have no wine in their 

country. This custome also I observed amongst those of 
Cleveland, Gelderland, and Holland, that whensoever one 
drinketh to another, he shaketh his fellow by the hand, 
and whensoever the men of the country come into an 
Inne to drink, they use to take a tinnen tankard fuU of 

360 




OBSERVATIONS OF GELDERLAND 

beere in their hands, and sit by it an howrc together, yea 
sometimes two whole howres before they will let their 
tankards go out of their hands. 

I departed from Nimmigen about eight of the clocke in 
the morning the fivc and twentieth of September being 
Sunday and came to a fkire towne in Holland called 
Gorcom situate by the river Waell, about sixe of the clock 
at night. This daies journey was foure and twentie miles. 

One thing I will here speake of the river Rhene that I 
have not before mentioncd, that whereas he descendeth pp, 638.] 
prono or secundo cursu in all that long space betwixt the 
citie of Basil and this river of Waell, into the which 
togelher with two more that I have already named, he 
dischargeth himselfe : all barkes or boates that come downe 
thus far, do goe very easily, because it is with the streame : 
which is the reason that all passengers which dcsccnd do 
pay but a sraall price for thcir passage ; but on the con- 
trary side all that ascend doe strive very painfiiUy against 
the streamc. So that all thcir vessels are drawen by 
horses with great might and maine. For this cause all 
passengers that ascenQ into the highcr parts of Germany 
doe pay much more for their carriage than those that 
dcscend. 

In my journey betwixt Nimmigen and Gorcom I passed 
by two pretty townes of Gelderland, situate by thc rivcr 
Waell, whereof thc first is called Tiel, which is about Tie/. 
twelve miles bcyond Nimmigen ; thc second Bommcl, Bammel. 
which is sixc mites beyond Ticl. This Bommel is the 
ferthest frontier towne westward of Gelderland, and 
mcmorable for onc thing. For I saw a great buUct sticke 
in the Tower of thcir Church, even about the toppe, which 
was shot by thc enemj' in the ycare 1574. which figures 
(1574) arc subscribed in such grcat characters under the 
buUct, that a man may vcry plainly discernc thcm aiarre 
off. From Bommel to Gorcom it is sixe mUes. Also I 
observed another towne opposite unto Gorcom on thc other 
side of the river, caUed Worcom. 

Seeing this townc of Gorcom is in Holland, I will speake 
361 



Boati dfawn 
i^ the Rhine 



! 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 

a little of the country in which it is situate, befere I make 
Cmm/ry 0/ any more mention of the towne it selfe. This countrjr 
HdiMd. ^^^ heretofore called Batavia, and the inhabitants Batavi, 
which are mentioned by Caesar and Tacitus. They were 
in times past accoimted a very sottish & foolish peopk^ 
even as the Boeetians were amongst the ancient Graecians. 
But in this age they deserve not to be so esteemed. For 
. . , I they are as ingenious both for al manuary arts, and also 
LP- 59'J|fof ^^ ingenuous disciplines, as any people whatsoever 
in ali Christendome: which a man that tiveth amongst 
them may easily perceive. The name of Batavia was 
commonly in use til the yeare of our Lord 860. at what 
time there hapned such an exceeding invmdation as over- 
flowed a great part of the coimtry, and did so scowre and 
wash the very bowels of the earth, that it hath bene ever 
since o-ofKfxiStfi (as a learned author writeth^ that is, 
holiow and spungie. For which cause the old name of 
Batavia was afterward changed to Holland, which is so 
cailed quasi hoUow knd, or quasi Hol-land. For hol in 
the Flemish tongue doth signifie as much as our word 
hole. 

My Observations of Gorcom. 

Gorkim. T Shall doe this towne more wrong then I have done to 
X any other citie or towne of note in Germany, in which 
I lay a whole night, and in no other respect but onely in 
speaking so little of it, concealing the admirable beauty 
tnereof. For I had not the opportunity to siuvey it 
throughly according to my desire, oecause I came late into 
it, & departed therehence something early the next mom- 
ing. The sweetnesse of the situation, the elegancy of 
their buildings, the beauty of their streets, and all things 
whatsoever in this town, did wonderfuliy delight me, m 
so much that as soone as I entred into one of the longer 
streets, me thought I was suddenly arrived in the Thes- 
salian Tempe, or the Antiochian Daphne. For indeed it 
is a most elegant and sweet little towne, situate in a plaine, 
hard by the goodly navigable river Waell. 

362 




OBSERVATIONS OF GORKUM 

And I observed some of their streets to be pjassing 
beautifiili, botb for breadth and length. And they are Srreeii paved 
much graced by the fayre bricke pavier. For every streete "' ' 
is very delicately paved with bricke, which is composed 
after that artificiall manner that a man may walke there [p. 640.] 
presently after an exceeding shower of raine, and never 
wet his shooes. The buildings are all of brick, of a goodly 
heigth, and an exxellent uniformity in most of the streets, 
the toppes rising with battlements. I observed that these 
kinde of prety buildings are of a just correspondency on 
both sides of the streets, which doe minister notable beauty 
to the towne. Their market place is very spacious and 
neatly paved with bricke like to the streets. At one side 
whereof there is a faire Stadt-house adorned with a beauti- 
full turret, from the toppe of which I heard it credibly 
reported by a Gentleman of good note, a man may plainly 
perceive in a faire day two and twenty goodly walled 
townes, together with many faire villages and Gentlemena 
Palaces in the country. At their docke or key which is 
neare to one of their bridges, I observed a great company 
of prety ships and barkes also. Another of their dockcK 1 
hath a faire bricke walke hard by it, without the gate of 
which walke I observed a certaine wooden image which 
presenteth the figure of a man as farre as the breast. This 
image is erected as a marke or bound to the end that no 
forraine barkes or other vessels may passe beyond it, which 
is lawfuU for those only of the same towne and none else, 
The religion of the towne is Protestant, For it belongeth 
to the States. 

I departed from Gorcom about seven of the clocke in 
the morning the sixe and twentieth of Scptember being 
Munday, and came to the towne of Dort twelve miles Donireeit.] 
beyond it about ten of the clocke the same morning. In 
this space I observed one speciall fhing. On both sides of 
the river Waell I saw a great company of little castels or 
Forts not above halfe an English mile distant asunder, 
which they call Ridouts, wherein presidiarie souldiers do 
lie for the defence of the country, fifty persons or there- 
363 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

about in each. The like I observed alao betwixt 

Nimmigen and Gorcom. I heard that this was the 

[p. 641.] occasion of building these Ridouts : because the enemie 

was wont heretofore to invade the States territories io 
the night time, and to take some GentlemAn or ^eciaU 
man prisoner, and to keepe him captive till he ransomed 
himseUe with a great siunme of money. Hereupon fer 
the security of me coimtry, the States thought mod to 
|erect these little Ridouts. I ^bserved another thinfi; aiso 
|betwixt Gorcom and Dort that moved great compassion in 
Chwrckis ime. For I saw many Churches halfe drowned, all the 
uuder waiir. / upper part of the tower appearinfi^ very plainly above the 

water. There were heretotore faire Parishes beloi^ing to 
these Churches, which were utterly defaced with the 
mercilesse furie of the angrv God Neptime aknost two 
^ 'ed yeares since, as I wil hereafter more pardcularly 
dedare, so that there is not the least token of them to be 
seene at this day. Moreover I saw a faire Castell drowned 
a little on this side Dort, which in former times belonged to 
a noble man of the country. It was seated in a faire towne, 
which hapned to be so overwhehned with v^ater at the 
same time, that the sea did so loose his raines of liberdr 
to the destruction of the other townes, that there remayneth 
not the least stone thereof to be seene, saving only a part 
of the foresaid Castell that doth now belong to the towne 
of Dort, by which they enjoy certaine priviledges. 

My Observations of Dort. 

THis City in Latin is called Dordraciun, but the 
common word is Dort, and some doe call it Dordrecht. 
It is a very famous, opulent, and flourishing towne, and 
memorable for many things, especialiy one above the rest 
Dordrecht the which is worthy the relation. For it is cailed the Mayden 
^^^«^«9 y city of Holland, ^in which respect it may be as properly 
r ^ *i called Parthenopohs, as Naples is in Italie, and Mayden- 

burg in Saxonie) and that for these two causes. First, 
because it was built by a Maide, but none of the Citizens 
could tell me either the name bf her, or the yeare of the 

364 




OBSERVATIONS OF DORDRECHT 



Lord when the foundation was laid. Neither indeede can Oon/refit ' 

l findc it in any historian that hath written of the HoUand- ^"jt^^ " 

ish Cities. But certaine it is that a Virgin was the first 

founder of it. For a monument whereof they have 

pictured a beautifull Virgin in lively colours according to 

the fiill proportion of her body, over the gate neare to 

their haven at the first entrance into the towne. Which 

picture is adorned round about with the armes of the 

principall femihes of HoDand. Besides, for a farthcr testi- 

mony of this mattcr thcy use to stampe the figurc of a 

maide upon one of thcir coyncs that is calJed a Doit, 

whereof eight goe to a Stiver, and tcn Stivcrs do makc 

our English shilling. Secondly, because almighty God 

hath privilcdged this towne with such a speciall fiivour 

and prerogative, as no City or Towne that I ever read or 

heard of in all Christendome, saving only Venice. For 

it was never conquered, though all the circumjacent Cities 

and townes of the whole territorie of Holland have at 

somc timc or other beene expugned by the hostJle force. 

Thc situation of it is very pleasant. For it standeth in a 

prety island being invironed round about with foure rivers Situation^ 

that make a confluent, which are the Mosa, the Wacil, ^»"^'"«ic ^ 

the Linga, and the Merva ; according to a prety distich 

that I have read of the same rivers, wnich is : 

Me Mosa, & Wahalis, cum Llnga Mervaque cingunt, 
Eeternam Batavse Virginis ecce fidem, 
But if I should relate how it came to passe that this plot 
of ground was first converted to an island, 

•Quis talia fendo 

Myrmidonum Dolopumve, aut duri miles Ulysses 

Tcmperet k lachrymis? 
For indecde it is a most lamentable and tragicall mattcr to [p. 64,3.] 
be spokcn, and such a thing as cannot but move grcat 
commiseration. For whereas a part of it was evcr joyned_ 
to the maine territorie of Brabant, till the yeare of 01 
Lord 1420. it hapned that these foure foresaid rivers 



CORYArS CRUDITIES 



BratsMt 

immmJ^^ J hm 

1420. 






Mtnt bmlt by 
tke Earl of 
LeicisUr, 



[p. 644.] 



together with a part of the sea, did that very yeare upon 
the seventeenth day of April breake up their repacula, 
their bounds within the which they did ever soDcrly 
containe themselves till then, and made such a wofuU 
inimdation in the covmtry, that I never read of the like 

in Christendome since ^^^ PT"^^]! ^tMly^"lC jjr ^^^ ^'"^ 
of the Patriarch .NQah. rot they overwhelmed sixteene 
talre Townes : some write there were no lesse then thrcg- 
score and ten of them drowned. And they 

p at the least a hundred thousand persons with al 
goods, cattels, and whatsoever else. The pittifuU tokens 
whereof I saw in divers places of the coundy thereabout, 
namely certaine towers of Churches appearing above the 
waters, which belonged to those Parishes that were 
frequently inhabited with people till the time of that 
delug^e. 

The buildings of this Towne, both publique and private, 
sacred and civill are very beautifuU, being biiilt all with 
bricke, and garnished with those kind of prede battk- 
ments that are so much used in the Batavian Cities. 
Their streets also are of a notable len^h and breadth, 
in number many, and paved with bncke as those of 
Gorcom. 

Besides other publike buildings of the towne I visited 
their mint, which was built by our fkmous Elarle of 
Leicester, at the front whereof the Emperours armes arc 
erected : above the which this word is written in golden 
letters, Moneta. And againe under that, Divo Carolo 5. 
Csesari. Likewise there are eight Latine sentences written 
upon the front : foure on the one side of the armes, and 
as many on the other. This is the first. Pax & tranquilla 
libertas. The second, Nomen pacis dulce est. The tnird, 
Pecunia vincere speciosum non est. The fourth, Pecunia 
mater beili. The foure on the other side are these. The 
first, Paci semper est consulendum. The second, Paa 
sublata leges esse non possunt. The third, Omnia pecunia 
effici possunt. The fourth and the last, Pecunia effectrix 
multarum voluptatiun. After this I sawe a beautifull 

366 



OBSERVATIONS OF DORDRECHT 

Palace called the Doole, which was likewise built by the Thi Palace. 
Earle of Leicester: it is a very magnificent building, in 
which the Grave Maurice his Excellencie doth use to lie 
whensoever he is commorant in Dort. Also there is 
an other feire house wherin his Excellencie doth sometimes 
repose himselfe, which is the signe of the Peacocke. In 
that place lay Marquesse Spinola the General of the Arch- 
dukes Armie, when he came thither from the Hage, a 
little before my comming to Dort. Their Stadt-house is 1 
a very iaire building of a goodly height, and built all with 
square stone, which is rarc to bee seene in Dort, Therc 
are foure Churches in thc towne, whereof two belong t 
the Citizens; of which one is the feirest of them sll, 
building that seemeth to be of great antiquitie, but adorned 
with no worthy Monuments or Antiquities: onely it hath ' 
faire Tables hanged upon divers Pillars, wherein are * 
written sentences of holy Scripture, like to those that I 
sawe in the great Church at Nimmigen. The third 
Church belongeth to the Englishmen, the fourth to the 
French. Out of those foure Rivers that inviron the ^'"3 '^ 
Towne round about, and make it an Iland, there are some '* ""' 
pretie armes derived into the Towne, which doe make 
certaine inferiour rivers that are very commodious to the 
inhabitants. Over one of them that runneth through the 
middle of the towne, there are many pretie Bridges, but 
two especially very feire. Whereof one is of Timber, the 
fairest woodden Bridge fhat I saw in Germany, saving that 
of Heidelberg. For it is so broad that three Cartes may [p. fi+s-ll 
passe joyntly together over it. On both sides of this 
bridge there lyeth great abundance of shippes. The other 
is or stone, the edges whereof are finely rayled with yron 
rayles contrived in curious workes. 

For traffique I have heard that this towne doth more F&uriiihg 
flourish then any town of all HoIIand, saving famous "'"^- 
Amsterdam. And the Merchants of the towne are said 
to be very wealthy. For heere is the principle Staple of 
HoIIand for all manner of Wines, especially thc noble 
Rhenish Wine, from whence it is afterward transported 
367 




CORYArS CRUDITIES 

into divers remote reeions, as to Enffhnd, &c. But the 
greatest part of it being first sophisticated in I>ort with 
their &c confections. 

Mmmary fhe manuary trades of al sorts in this townc are oom- 

^^' mended for excellent. It was garded with five companies 
of presidiary soldiers when I was there» wherec^ one was 
English. For the Leager (this is the name of the States 
armie which doth use in the time of warres to lie abroad 
in the fieldes) was dissolved when I was in HoUand, by 
reason that there was a truce betwixt the Aichduke and the 
States, and it was distributed into many severall com- 
panies that were planted abroad in divers cities and townes 
for the common ^ety of the country. 

What excellent men finr the omaments of lcaming this 
towne hath bred I doe not remember, savine one whose 

Gulielmus name was Guliehnus Lindanus, who flourished about some 
• forty yeares since. A num in his kinde very fiunous, 
though indeed a Papist. In this towne of Dort he was 
borne, but he spent the greatest part of his life afterward ixi 
Ruremunda a City of (^derland, whereof he was bishop. 
This man also hath commended his name to posterity 
by his manifold workes, especially theologicall, as other 
learned men whome I have named in my description of 

P g ^. some of the German Cities. 

^' ^ '"^ Having now related some of the principall thinges of 
this noble towne, I will condude my observations thereof, 
partly with mention of their religion, which is the Pro- 
testant. For Popery is deane exterminated out of the 
towne; and partly with that memorable elofi^ivun that is 
commonly attributed unto it by all those that know it 
well, that it is the very Garden of HoUand. 

Thus much of Dort. 

FRom this towne I once resolved to have directed mj 
journey to a certaine memorable place not fiure there- 
hence that I might have commimicated one notable thing 
&nr€p €¥ irfHxrdlfKtfi fiepei^ by way of over-plus, to my friends 
& country as weU as the rest, yea such a thing, as is the 

3« 




OBSERVATIONS OF LAUDUN 

most monstrous and prodigious matter that was in any 

place of the whole world since the creation thereof. But 

my resolution was htndered by a certaine sinister chance. 

Yet [ will make some relation of the matter as I have not 

only heard, but also read it in a good author. Though 

surely I feare least many will deeme if a meere exorbitant i 

digression to write of those things either by reading or 

report which doe not fall within the compasse of my 

travels. There is a Monument extant in a certaine Mon- 

astery called L,audun neere the famous university of Mtmaiierj ^ 

Leyden in HoUand, where a certaine Countesse called """ 

Margarite was buried, who was the wife of one Hermannus 

Earle of Henneberg, the daughter of Florentius the fourth 

of that name, Earle of Holknd and Zeland, and the sister 

of William King of the Romanes. This Countesse hapned 

to be delivered of three hundred sixty five children at 

one burden about three hundred and fourteene yeares 

since, even just as many as there are daies in the yeare. 

AIl which, after they were baptized by one Guido Suf- [p. 6+7.] 

fragan of Utrecht, the males by the names of Johns, & 

the females by the names of Elizabeths, died that very 

day that they came into the world : and were buried all 

together in one monument in the Church of the foresaid 

Monastery of Laudun, which is to this day shewed (as I 

have heard many worthy travellers report that were tbe 

eie witnesses of the matter) with a most memorable Latine 

inscription upon it, together with two brasen basons 

wherin all fhose infants were baptized. This strange 

history will seeme incredible (I suppose) to al readers. 

But it is so absolutely and undoubtedly true as nothing 

in the world more, The occasion of which miraculous 

and stupendious accident I will here set downe (seeing I ^ mimeiilm 

have proceeded thus ferre in the narration of a thing that '>'"^""- 

I have not seene) because it may confirme the stronger 

belief in the reader. It hapned that a poore woman came 

a begging to the foresaid Countesse Margarite, bearing a 

twinne of young babes in her armes. But the Countesse 

was so &rre from having any commiseration upon her, 

C.C II 369 3A 




CORYArS CRUDITIES 

that she rather scomefully rejected her, affirminfi^ that it 
was not possible shee should have those two chudren by 
one man. The poore soule bein^ much vexed in spirit 
through these injurious words of the Lady, pronounced 
A himr such a bitter imprecation upon her, that she wished that 
imfmatuM. God would shew a mirade upon the Lady, as well fbr a 
due revenfi;e upon her that had so slandered her, as for 
the testifjong of her imspotted honesty & chastity; she 
wished, I say, that God would shew this mirade, that the 
Lady might bring forth as manv children at one burden 
astherearedaiesmthe veere; which indeed came to passCi 
according as I have betore mentioned. For the Ladie in 
the fbrtieth yeare of her age was deiivered of just so many 
upon a saturda^ about nine of the docke in the moming, 
in the yeare or our Lord 1276. The truth of this most 
portentous mirade is confirmed not so much by that 
[p. 648.] inscription written in a certaine table upon her tombe, as 
by sundry andent Chronides of infallible certainty both 
manuscript and printed. Pardon me I beseech thee 
(curteous reader) for this my boldnesse in reportii^ matters 
that were beyond the limits of my travels. Notwith- 
standing I have thought good to mention it in this place 
for a matter beyond all comparison remarkable of that 
kinde that ever was in the world, being induced to the 
commemoration of this history fbr these causes. First, 
because I heard very frequent speeches of it in the towne of 
Dort which I have last described, partly by Englishmen, 
and partly by other strangers. Secondly, because the fame 
of it had invited mee to have seen the place, if one 
disastrous impediment had not crossed me. Thirdly, 
because I am perswaded this history was never before 
written in our English tongue, till the History of the 
Netherlands was set forth in English since my arrivali in 
England from beyond the Seas, by that worthy traveller 
andthrise-worthy serjeant at Armes unto our Kinges most 
excellent Majesty, and most faithfull attendant quondam 
upon the right Worshipful Sir Edward Phillips lately the 
most illustrious speaker of the Parliament house, and now 

370 



OBSERVATIONS OF HOLLAND 

Maister of the Rolles viz : Maister Edward Grimston. 
Wherefore after this long digression I will now returnc 
againe to the discourse of my foliowing travels. 

I departed from Dort towards Zeland in a barke 
the seven & twentieth of September being Tuesday about 
noone, and lay the same night in a hard lodging of my 
barke upon the water, about fortie miles beyond it : in this 
space I observed these things. I sawe a goodly Townc 
called Zirixee, in Latine Zirza^a, situate in an Iland whosc 
name is Scowen, on the right hand of my journey : this 
Towne is commended for a beautifull place, But nothing 
whatsoever hath so much graced it as the birth of that 
admirable sweete Scholler, tnat worthy ornament of learn- tp- ^49-] 
ing Levinus Lemnius a Physition, who hath purchased ^«"'"J" 
both himselfe and his Countrey eternitie of praise by his ''""'"' 
elegant Booke De occultis naturee miraculis, and other 
excellent fruites of his ripe wit that are commonly read in 
the world to the great benefit of the learned. In the same 
Iland where Zirixee standeth, there is an othcr feire Towne 
called Brewers Haven, and a Sconce called Bominec, 
belonging to the States. On the other side of the river, 
right opposite to Zeland, I observed two Ilands more, 
whereot the one is called Tarnous, the other Targous. 
But before I came towards those Ilands, I passed by a part 
of Brabant where Bergenopzomc standeth a little within 
the Iland, which is said to be a very strong Towne that 
belongeth to the States. AIso I observed in this journey A piRjid 
a great many high Towers in the water, which were here- ^W*'* 
tofore Parish churches, and belonged to some of those 
Parishes that I have before spokcn ofF, which were 
drowned in the yeare 1420. I observed a speciall thing 
in one side of the river as we passed forward in our 
journey. Many Boores of the country laide a great deale 
of strawe and earth uppon it at thc edgc of the bankc, 
to the ende to preserve the banke, that the water may not 
eate and devoure the earth, and consequently breakc into 
the land to drowne it, as it hath donc heretoforc in many 
other placcs thereabout. J 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



I departed froin the foresaid place where I lay all night 
upon the water, about seven of the dodce in the moming 
the eight and twentieth of September beeing wednesday, 
and came to a haven towne of Zeland called Armu, about 
sixe of the docke at night. This daies joumey was nine 
miles. The inhabitants of this Island were in former times 
called Mattiad, which are mentioned by Comelius Tadtus. 
As for the Island it selfe wherein this Towne, Middle- 
borough, and Flushing stand, it is commonly called 

[p. 650.] Walcheren. In this towne of Armu I sawe nothing 
memorable but their Stadt-house. For it is but a littk 
towne. Yet it is famous for one thing. For there al the 
Ships that come from Dort do arrive, as in a safe station, 
& therehence many a great fleete doth often iaunch fbrth 
into the Ocean Sea. 

I departed from this towne of Armu about seven of the 
docke in the moming the nine and twentieth of September 

FksUng. being thursdav and Michaebnas day, & came to Vbssingen 
commonly cailed Flushing, a famous haven Towne of this 
Island Zeland, about two of the docke in the aftemoone. 
This dayes joumey was but five littie miles. 

In my journey betwixt Armu and Vlissingen I passed 
through the beautifuU Citie of Middleborougn in 2^1and, 
which is about a mile beyond Armu. But I cannot write 
the tenth part of it that this notable Citie deserveth. For 
I employed those fewe houres that I spent in the dty 
otherwise than in matters of observation. Yet that litde 
which I did observe I will relate. For I will not do this 
goodly Citie that wrong as to write so copiously of many 
other Cities, and nothing at ali of her. 

MiiUtteburg. Middleborough hath her denomination fi-om a Noble 
Roman Consul called Metellus, who is said to have bene 
the first founder of it. For some do call it in Latin 
Metelburgum auasi Metellibur^um, that is, the towne of 
Metellus. It is strongly walled, beautified with fiure 
gates, goodly streets, and very statelv buildings of bricke 
Kke to those of the townes of HoUand. Their Market 
place also I observed to be a fayre and spadous thing, and 

37« 



l 



OBSERVATIONS OF MIDDLEBURG 

was exceedingly (requented with people rhe same day that 

I was there. Likewise their Stadt-house is a very ancient Netaile 

and beautiftill buiiding, bujlt all of free stone (which I *«^'V- 

observed to be as rare in Middelborough as I did before in 

Dort) and the front adorned with many goodly images that 

yeeld a delicate shew. I sawe their exchange also, which [p. 651.] 

is a very elegant little place, distinguished with laire 

walkes, neere to the which there is a pleasant grove. I 

visited likewise the house of our English Merchants, which 

is a faire building, having delicate gardens and walkes 

belonging to it. And I went to their feyrest Church, 

which is graced with a curious clocke, and with two roonu- 

ments of great feme. But it was not my hap to see eyther 

of them. Whereof the one was of William Earle of IVWiam Earl 

Holland and Zeland, and afterward King of the Roroanes, "ffj^^^ 

who being slaine by the Frisians about nine yeares after ''" 

the beginning of his reigne, in the yeare one thousand 

two hundred fifty five, his bones were solemnly buryed in 

this Church about seven and twenty yeares after his death. 

The other is of that rare Schollar and learned Writer 

Adrianus Junius, who is iamous for many notable workes 

that hee left behinde him as the true monuments of his 

pregnant witte, especially his ample Dictionary consisting 

of Greeke & Latine words. I observed also their Haven, 

which is a very convenient place, and was the receptacle 

of many goodly shippes when I was there. 

Their religion is Protestant, answerable to that which 
the reformed Churches of England and HoUand doe 
professe. 

Thus much of Middelborough. 

My Observations of Vlyshingen commonly called [p- ^si.] 
Flushing, but in Latin Flissinga. 

THe situation of this towne is very memorable. For SitMtiena/ | 
it is built in the forme of a pitcher, which is slender ^'^•"^"'S- 
at both the endes, and wide in the middle. In regard 
whereof the name of the towne is derived from the Di 
373 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 

FkuBug h word Flessche, which si^ifieth a pitcher. For indeed he 
J9rm$/a that shall righdy consider the forme of the building 
fiu^. thereof, wiU say that it doth very neare represent thc 

fashion of a pitdier. For I for mine owne part observed 
the site of it, and found it verfr correspondent to die 
mould of a pitcher, the endes being slender and the middle 
long. Which is the reason that the inhabitants doe pre- 
sent the figure of a pitcher in their flagges & banners that 
are advanced at the tops of the mastes m their ships. The 
towne is not great: yet verfr fiure, and beautified with 
many stately ouildings, that are made all of bricke, 
according to the rest of the Zelandish and HoUandish 
cities. It is inhabited with many rich Merchants that have 
within these fiswe yeares verfr much inriched themselves 
J muMg by .fhe art of navigation. Their haven is verjr strong, 
iarkgr. ^^ [^ jg ^ notable harbour of goodly ships. For I can 

say more of Flushing then of any other haven towne that 
I saw in my travels : that their haven contained such an 
exceeding multitude of ships, as I could not see the like 
in Venice it selfe, the Arsenall only excepted. For I heard 
that all those tfaat I saw at Flushing were in nimiber at 
the least two hundred. 
TkiSuuithaus. Their Stadthouse, that was newly building when I was 

there, is like to be a verjr magnificent worke. The fi:t>nt 

being raised to a notable heigth, and adorned with many 

[p- ^53-] fidre armes, scutchins, and ouier curious devices that doe 

exceedingly beautifie the same. Here I sawe those birds 

called Storkes that I have before mentioned in mj observa- 

tions of Foimtaine Beleau. 

FUuUag Xhis towne is garded with a garrison of English 

^^T^^^^ Souldiers, whereof one (who was a Gentleman) I saw very 

' martially buried that day that I came into Flushing, witD 

a dolefull beating of many drummes, and discharging of 

many volleys of shot. AII the companies of soulmers 

in this towne are commanded by that right worshipfull 

and most worthy Knight Sir William Browne, who is 

Deputie Governour of this towne under that right 

honourable and illustrious Robert Sidney Viscount Lisle. 

374 



OBSERVATIONS OF FLUSHING 

I received a very spedal courtesie m this towne both of 
the foresaid noble Knight, and of a certaine learned, godly, 
and religious Minister Mr. Pots, who is the Preacher of 
the towne {for it professeth the Protestant religion also as 
welJ as Middleborough) for the which they have perpctu- 
ally bound me unto them in all officious respects or duc 
observance till I cease to enjoy this common vital breath. 
Therefore tandem aliquando, with this thankfull cora- 
memoration of their names (since I have not as yet any 
other meanes to express my gratitude towards them, but 
only by this remembrance of them in my booke) I here 
adde ultimam coronidem, the full period and finall con- 
dusion to my outlandish observations. 

I made my aboade in Flushing ail Friday being the last 
day of September, and departed therehence in a barke thc 
first day of October being Saturday, about foure of the 
docke in the afternoone, and arrivcd at the custome house ^irivaim ^ 
in London the third day of October beine Munday, about ^""^- 
foure of the docke in the afternoone, after I had enjoyed 
a very pleasant and prosperous gale of winde all the way 
betwixt Flushing and London. 

The distance betwixt Flushing and London is a hundred 
and twentie miles, 

The number of Miles betwixt Venicc and Flushing : in [p. 654.] 
which account I name only some of the principall Cities, 
as I have done before in the computation of the miles Number 0/ 
betwixte my native Parish of Odcombe and Venice. For "'^f l^tiwen 
it is needlesse to name all the particular miles betwixt alJ Fi^Hi^g" 
the cities and townes I passed through. Because it would 
be a repetition of that which I havc ah-eadie done. ^^ 

Imprimis, betwixt Venice and the Inne before mentioned Tiiulefiti ^B 
upon the toppe of the Mountaine Ancone, otherwise called '^iole journij. 
Montane de St. Marco, being the farthcst bound of the 
Venetian Signiorie Westward, . .174 

Item, betwixt the Inne, and the City of Curia in ^^^m 

Rhctia ^^H 



CORYAT^S CRUDITIBS 

Item, betwixt Curia and Zurich the Metropolitan 

City of Switzerland 55 

Item, betwixt Ziirich and Basil 40 

Item, betwixt Basil and Strasbourg. • . . 80 
Item, betwixt Strasbourg and Heidelbem* • 72 

Item, betwixt Heidelberg and Fianckibrd. 67 

Item, betwixt Franckibrd and Colen. 92 

Item, betwixt Colen and Nimmigen in Gelderland. 54 
Item, betwixt Nimmigin and Dort in HoUand. 34 
Item, betwixt Dort and Flushing in Zeland. 53 

The totali is .... 797 

Againe betwixt Flushing and London. . .120 
Againe, betwixt London and Odcombe. .106 

The totall betwixt Venice and Odcombe. . 1023 

The totali betwixt Odcombe and Venice as I 
travelled over France is (as I have befcH^ 

written^ 952 

The totall of my whole joumey forth and backe . 1975 

[p- 655] T^He Cities that I saw in the space of these fivc 
X Moneths, are five and forty. Whereof in 
France five. In Savoy one. In Italie 
thirteene. In Rhetia one. In Hel- 
vetia three. In some parts of 
high Germanie fifteene. In 
the Netherlands 
seven. 



FINIS. 



376 



POSTHUMA 

FRAGMENTA 

POEMATUM 

GEORGII CORYATI 

SARISBURIENSIS, 

Sacr^ Theologia Baccalaurei, 

Quondam e sociis Novi Collegii in inclyta 

Academia Oxoniensi, 

Ac postea Ecclesias Odcombiensis in agro Somer- 

setensi Ministri, ubi tandem Anno 1606. 

extremum vitas diem clausit. 




LONDINI, 

Anno Domini 161 1. 



I* 





Serenissimo Principi Henrico Christiani Orbis 
Tito, id est, humani generis Deliciis, Principi 

,, WallijE, Duci Cornubise ac Rothsaias, Comiti 
Palatino Cestrix, Equiti splendidissimi ordinis 
aure» periscelidis, &c. 

On sum nescius (Serenisslme Princeps) 
nonnullos mihi objecturos, supervacaneura 
To avpodSioinxTov opus me jam suscipere, 
observationibus meis in regionibus exoticis 
isla posthuma poematum Patris mei frag- 
menta quse jam subsequntur, attexendo ; 
nec deerunt fortasse aliqui nimis rigidi 
censores, qui mordaculis suis sannis nomen meum per- 
stringere atque sugillare non dubitabunt. Proinde Celsi- 
tudini tuae rationes explicabo quibus fretus poemata ista 
in medium proferre, & ex Cimmeriis illis tenebris quibus 
multos annos tatitarunt, in lucem edere mihi visum est. 
Primo, quoniam pater meus pia: memoriae Gcorgius 
Coryatus paulo ante obitum suum de carminibus, quae 
in juventute sua (Musis faventibus ac propitia Minerva) 
contexuit, mecum colloqui subinde solitus est, rogavitque, 
ut (si illi superstlti esse 

Divum pater atque hominum rex 

mihi indulgenter concederet) pauca poemata sua qua: 
penes mc misse animadvertebat, tandem aliquando h situ 
vetustatis eruerem, pra;Ioque mandarem. Secundo, quia 
piurimi mei (piKofiaviToi amici, tum consanguinei, tum 
ramiliares congerrones, qui patrem meum, (dum com- 
munis hujus lucis usura fruebatur) medulUtus amarunt, 




GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 

& jam fato defiinctum nomen ejus gratissima quadam 
recordatione commemorare solent, instanter precibus suis 
me identidem sollicitarunt, ut posthuma ejus poemata 
typis excudi curarem. 

Quare cum patris voluntati, tum amicorum postulatis 
morem gerens, Juvenilia ejus Celsitudini tuae dedicare 
una cum itinerario meo ausus sum, Celsitudinemque tuam 
humiUime oro ut sub S^enissimi nominis tui auspiciis 
ista qualiacunque poemata in vulgus emanare patiatur. 
Nec elogia quibus patris mei memoriam cohonestarunt 
atque iUustrarunt duo celeberrimi scriptores, quorum 
unus in Germania natus erat, alter in patria mea Anglia, 

1*am tacebo. Hic nimirum Jacobus Middendorpius in 
ibro quodam quem de totius orbis Academiis conscripsit ; 
ille autem, scincet Joannes Casus Medicins Doctor; & 
Coll^i Pivi Joannis Prscursoris apud OxDnienses quon- 
dam socius, in el^ntissimo libro suo quem Speoilum 
Mondium Inscripsi^ charissimi patris mei nomerhujus- 
modi verbis citavit. Georgius Coryatus poeta Oxoniensis 
ita quondam cecinit, & statim uterque ista carmina gus 
subjungit 

Et duo sunt totum Gymnasia nota per orbem, 
Oxonium studiis florens, mihi dulcis alumna, 
R^s opus; tuaque (illustris Rex Cantaber) sedes 
Magnifice florens sacris Academia Musis. 

Quae carmina quadraginta plus minus annis elapsis 
cum plurimis aliis de descriptione Angliae, Scotias, & 
Hyberniae, Serenissimae Reginae Elizabethae beatae me- 
moriae (jam cum caelicolis in caelesti Hierosolyma vitam 
angelicam agenti) nuncupavit. Sed ea cum duobus pene 
miUibus versuum quos iv rij oKftij aetatis atque ingenii 
sui composuit, elegantibus sane ac k viris eruditis non 
parum laudatis, sive patris incuria, sive temporis injuria 
partim interiere ac extincta jacent, partim cariosis chartis 
adeo tineis edacibus corrosis sepeliuntur, ut omnis mihi 
spes praecidatur uUam iUorum particulam in pubUcum 

emittendi. Qjom vero jam conquisivi, & in unum quasi 

3S0 



THE EPISTLE DEDICATORIE 

corpus coUegi, quum atiimo patris mei nomen ab oblivione 
vindicandi hoc susceperim^ ut Manes ejus illud* poetse 
usurpent, 

Non omnis moriar, multaque pars mei 
Vitabit Libitinam ; 

Serenitatem tuam iterum enixissime obsecro, ut contra 
virulentos Momorum morsus, qui dente Theonino aliorum 
lucubrationes rodere solent, eadem mpoffinj^tivy ac pro- 
pitio tuo patrocinio protegere clementissime dignetur. 

Cdsitudini tuse 

devotissimus deditissimusque 

Thomas Coryatus Odcombiensis, 

Peregrinans pedesterrimus. 

*Honi. Qinnin. lib. 3. Od. 30. 



[Exhortatio ad 

3»! 



6EORGE CORYArS POEMS 



Exhortatio ad Serenissimam Anglis Reginam, 
Dominam Elizabetham, sexto sui regni anno, 
ut nubat. 

OVirgo & Princepsy 6 Regis filia, Regis 
Et soror, 6 Regis Uxor ut esse vdis. 
Te tua forma, decus, virtus, pietasque, fidesque 

Hoc rogitant, patriae ut perpetiare Pktrem. 
Sic tibi sic poteris, patriae sic utilis esse : 

Angelici in terris vivere posse rogant. 
£n tibi sic poteris, patriae sic utilis esse 

Non poteris : patriam prole beare potes. 
Si potes, ereo vdis : Regalem sumito sponsum, 

Sic tibi, sic patrise consule Virgo tusc. 
£n Daemon satagit, stimulat Caro, Mundus adurit, 

Sola potes tantis belligerare malis ? 
Si modo sola potes, vestram sed respice gentem. 

Ne miserum Satanas devoret ore e;regem. 
Da deus hanc mentem, da nostra Pnnape dignum 

£t regem et Prolem : caetera jam dederas. 
Tuque tui Princeps regimen sic dirige regni, 

U t post hoc regnum ccelica regna petas. 



p 



In effigiem Reginse. 

lAUas, Juno, Venus, sophia, diademate, forma, 
Corda, caput, vultus, imbuit, ornat, alit. 



The English. 

Pallas, Juno, Venus, with wisedome» 
Crowne, and comely hewe, 
Thy heart, head, face, endewes, adornes, 
And deckes most fine to view. 



332 



6E0RGE CORYATS POEMS 



Allusio ad illud Ovidii Metamorphoseosl Scripta 
in dictum patris Penei ad filiam[ad 
Daphnem. j Eandem. 



SJEph pater dixit, Generum mihi filia debes 
Saepi pater dixit, Debes mihi nata Nepotes. 
Sic pater Henricus : Generum mihi filia deoes, 

Longaque debetur posteritas Proavis. 
Nata potes regnare ? potes sine compare vitam 

Ducere ? & hac rara dote beata, mori ? 
Ingenium, doctrina, fides ; huic consona doti 

R^num, forma, decus, sinmila summa tibi. 
Hisce tuo Patri non es virtutibus impar, 

Major at ille un& est, & minor ipa Patre. 
Quod talem Patri licuit te cernere rrolem, 

Qualis adhuc Natse non datur uUa suse. 
Sic minor & major» minor es tu, major at ille, 

Tu minor : hoc partu major at esse potes. 



Alia allusio ad eandem. 

Dlxerunt olim : Rex & Regina beati, 
At nunc plebs dicit, Tantum Regina beata. 
O utinam possent (si sint pia vota) sonare, 
Sunt cum Prole sua Rex & Regina beati, 
Tunc essent omnes, simul omni ex parte beati : 
Patria, Plebs, Princeps, Rex & R^ina beati. 

De novem literis Reginas Nominis Elizabeta, 

DIc cur literulas habet Elisabbta novenas ? 
An Musas quod amet Elisabeta novem ? 
Est ita, sed ratio subit hac tamen altera major, 
Te Musae quod ament Elisabbta novem. 



3S3 



GEORGE CORYArS POEMS 



^nigma ad eandem per eundem. 

ANeKa dicat lo, solenni ex more triumphans, 
virgo parit, nobis Elisabbta parit. 
An tibi quae peperit virgo, peperisse videtur ? 

Mater sola parit, virgoque nuUa pariL 
Ai^lica sola suos sentit Respublica fcetusy 
Concipit huic virgo commoda, virgo parit. 

Prosopopeia ad Portam Palatii Episcopi Wintoni- 
ensis, ut Reginse aperiatur ad illius ingressum. 

GLara bipartitas aperito Janua portas, 
Ut repetat Pnncros interiora domus, 
Mox ea majori fiilgebit lumine dives 

Quim micat Arctoo nobilis Ursa Polo. 
Ante fuit foelix multorum nomine Ro^m, 

Ut nunc est fbelix non tamen ant^ niit. 
Nam si Marte, fide, doctrina, stemmate, forma 

Clarior uUa foret, darior ista foret. 
O nostri ut fuerit Cordis tam * Janua lata, 

Intrares tectum (Cor puto dulce) meum. 



^lste lepor refeitur ad nomen ejus Cor-yate. Posteriori sjllaba 
scilicet yate, idem significante Anglic^ quod Latin^ janua. 

3S4 



6EOR6E CORYATS POEMS 



Pro quinque minis tria verba scripta nomine 
gratiarum actionis & valedictionis ad eandem 
per eundem. 



s 



I mihi non parcis, non audeo dicere verbum : 
At mihi parce precor, sed tria verba tibi. 

NUBE 



Quod scripsi spero, quod spero postulo, Nube, 
Sic tibi, sic patrise consule Virgo tuse. 

VIVE 

Sic vive ut vivas, sic regnum dirige Princeps, 
Ut tibi sit proles, quse tua regna regat. 

VALE 

Hoc tibi postremum dicetur carmine verbum, 
Quod peto, quod rogito, quod precor, oro, 

VALE. 



De insignibus Anglise ad eandem in Anglise 
descriptionem per eundem. 

Hlnc Leo & inde Draco parmam qui sustinet, iste 
Prudentes, validos denotat ille duces. 
Qui paritir certant Domina sub Principe (cujus 

Praslucent medio stemmata fixa loco) 
Sustinuisse humeris Regalia Principis arma, 
Ingenio iste suo, viribus ille suis. 



[Pnefatio in 
c. c n 385 3 B 



6EOR6E CORYAT^S POEMS 



Praefatio in librum Psalmorum, k Georgio Coryato 
Latine translatum, ad Serenissimam Anglis 
Reginam D. Elizabetham de variis carminum 
generibus. 

Math. i6. 

TU Deus atque tui divina potentia verbi 
Es mihi, Christe etiam, non mihi Papa 
Petra. 
Petrus erat Christi tantum firmissima Petra, 
Et mihi Christe Petra es, & mihi Christe 
Petrus. 
Supra vel supir hanc sat erit si struxero 
Petram, 
Hanc statuit Dominus, noluit esse aliam. 
Petram Pontifices non hanc statuere, sed 
altram, 
^dificabo igitur qukm potero super hanc 
Ecclesiam mores, vitam, famamque fidemque 
Nostram : Christe Petra es, non mihi Papa 
Petra. 
Porta cui triplicem gestans in limine mitram 

Inferni custos praesidet assiduus. 
Non huic vel duplici circundatus ense nocebit, 

Praevaleat summi spesque fidesque tui. 
Adversus Petram hanc sua tendunt retia 
Papae, 
lUam sed Dominus proteget usque Petram. 

Sacras tuas Majestatis fidelissimus subditus 
devinctissimusque scholaris Oxoniensis. 

Georgius Coryatus. 



Tu 
Es 

Pctrus, 
Et 

Supra 

Hanc 

Petram 

.£dificabo 
Ecdesiam 

Nostram. 

Porta 

Inferni 

Non 

Pnevaleat 

Adversus 

lUam. 



336 



GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 



Viridis Draconis Triumphus, in funere clarissimi 
viri D. Gulielmi Herberti nuper Baronis Car- 
difiensis, Comitisque Pembruchiensis, & regiK 
Auls Oeconomi primarii, ad asternam tanti viri 
memoriam. 

ridante Dra- 




Bpice Penbruchium specie ■ 
conem 
Leclor, & auratum per colla virentia 

Torquem, 
Hamatosque ungues, oculosque, alasque 

volucres, 
Immanemque jubam, & formosos cor- 
poris artus. 
Hunc neque Phryxei custodem velleris olim 
ColchiacK flevere nurus, neque Mala sororum 
Servantem Hesperiis Alcides vicit in hortis. 
Cynthius innumeris fixit Pythona sagittis, 
Et tua servantem (Gradive) fluenta Draconem 
Cadmes fixere manus : Hunc frangere nemo 
Heroum, Divumve potest : non Aesone natus, 
Non Jove, non profugas ab Agenore missus in oras. 

Ipsa ade6 qus cuncta domat, legesque cruentas 
Imponit rebus Mors implacabilis ortis, 
Mors ipsa hunc solum superare nec ausa Draconem, 
Nec fKJtuit ; nam cum terris superesse vetaret, 
Inseruit ccelo : nunc illic fulgidus ardet, 
Qui micat, & flexu voluentes dividit Ursas, 
Aut ubi contortis Ophyuchia brachia spiris 
Implicat, & longos ducit per inania tractus. 

Solus enim soli didicit parere Leoni. 
Hunc coluit, Regemque suum patienter adorans 
Esse tulit : quem nec vis uUa, nex hosticus ensis, 
Nec Jovis aEthereo disjectum fulmen Olympo 
Fregit adhuc, hunc una sut cultura Leonis 
Pcrdomuit, Dominique feros procumbere fecit 
Ante pedes : fiilvum metuunt ita cuncta Leonem. 
387 



i 




GEORGE CORYAT S POEMS 

Sed nec inudlibus coluit tam grande tribunal 
Obsequiis, ipsique adeo fuit utile tanto 
Concessisse Duci, cujus tot martia gessit 
Auspiciis, varias & fortia bella per oras. 

Capta sub Henrid primum Bullonia ductu 
Vulgavit rutilis Herberti nomen in armis : 
Regia quo fulvi mens inclinata Leonis 
Conspicuo viridem promovit honore Draconem. 
Protinus & celsum miles conscende caballum, 
Ense caput feriens, auratis (inquit) in armis. 

Nec minus uxorem prasclari stemmatis Annam 
Despondet Regina tuam Catharina sororem, 
Par tibi, par iUi virtus, Par denique nomen. 
Tres tulit ex ista virides celebresque Dracones 
(Quot Leo Regalis magnos darosque Leones) 
Henricum comitem, Eduardumque, Annamque teneUan 
Junxit & hos vivens tsedis illustribus omnes. 
Et nunc cum charis vivunt confortibus onmes, 
Atque diu multos peragant foeliciter annos. 
Jam Leo grandsevus vitales deserit auras, 
Et charum catulis commendat voce Draconem. 
Inde fuit R^;um, R^narumque per annos 
Delitias multos, multo insignitus honore. 
Octavo Henrico, Eduardo, Marias, Elizabethse, 
Et patri & natis charissimus omnibus unus. 

Nam simul Eduardus tener ille Leunculus Anglis 
Prodit, ad acceptos aliquid Draco majus honores 
Addit adhuc, multoque magis prorumpit in altum. 
Rursus factus Eques magnusque Magister equorum. 

Quid referam positis tot praslia gesta trophaeis ? 
Tot spolia ? & ductos civili ex hoste triumphos ? 
Ut vigili occiduos sedaverit arte tumultus ? 
Horrendosque suo superarit Marte rebelles ? 
Magnum opus, & multo quassitam sanguine laurum. 
Hic sese in Gyros, & multa volumina torquens, 
Terrificis altas quatiens dangoribus alas, 
Claruit ante alios virtus generosa Draconis. 
Hinc Baro Cardifios regali munere fasces, 

388 



i; 



GEORGE CORYAT'S POEMS 



Pembnichiumque Comes titulis adjunglt honorem. 

Proh dolor, Eduardus fato succumbit, & ejus 
Protinus ad Mariam volvuntur sceptra sororem. 
Jamque iterum in patrifE grassatur viscera ferrum. 
Evocat innumeros funesta ad bella Viatus, 
Armatamque manum Londini ad moenia ducit, 
Prseficit huic bello, & rebus Regina gerendis 
(Nam quid agat.') viridem (spes hsec fuit una) Draconem, 
lUe suum partes virus diffundit in omnes, 
Ille per insanos ruit imperterritus hostes, 
Confunditque viros, vincitque capitque Viatum, 

Quin aliud tractans Maria? sub nomine bellum, 
^uintinos forti perrupit milite muros, 
Contudit & sasvos pulchro certamine Francos, 
Hispanus dum bella gerit : sic scilicet unus 
Prsripuit cunctis omni in certamine palmam, 

Nec dextram patulo frustri gerit ore cruentam, 
Invictus, victorque potens. An segnior idem 
(Elisabetha) tuos pugnasset miles in hostes, 
Te nisi pace frui, tua mens, & qui tua servat 
Regna Deus mallet: sub te quod vincere posset 
Non habuit, seramque togam te ferre coactus 
Edidicit regnante senex : neque pr£elia gessit 
Ulla, nisi extremum hoc sasva cum morte duellum. 
Quo tamen & victor (quod sazpius ante) triumphans, 
Lxtus, ovans, Superum ad coslestia tecta recessit. 

Apostrophe ad lUustrissimum Henricum Comitem 
Penbruchiensem Gulielmi filium. 

AT tu clare Comes, Comitis clarissime proles, 
(Henrice) huc flectas oculos, hos perlege versus. 
Multa patris virtus animo, multusque recurset 
Ejus honos, maneant infixi pectore vultus. 
In te certa tui remanent vestigia patris, 
Os oculosque Patri similes, moresque paternos 
Egregii reddis; superest ut comprecer unum hoc, 
Ut patris exemplo discas parere Leonl. 
389 



1 



6EOR6E CORYAT S POEMS 

Whereby the Lyons Kingly minde indined to advance 
The Dragon greene to higher state, to more triumphant 

chance, 
He stoutly strikes him with his sword, Arise my Knight, 

he saies, 
Bestride thy horse, use gilded spurres, and weare the like 

alwaies. 
And likewise of a noble house, with him to lead his life, 
O Katherine Queene, thy Sister Anne he doth espouse to 

wife. 
In natures giftes a peere to thee, in virtues rare a peere, 
And Parre by name, a meeter match, I deeme no time did 

heare. 
Of her he leaves three Dragons green, three impes of 

worthy fame, 
(The Lyon of the princely race, in number left the same) 
Henry this Earle, and Edward eke with Lady Anne hjs 

deere, 
All which he joinde to worthy mates, whiles that he lived 

here. 
And now they live in happy state, each one both man and 

wife, 
God graunt them many yeares to live, and lead a joyftill life. 
The Lyon old leaveth this ayre, there is no other choyce, 
And to his yong, this Dragon green, commends with 

Kingly voice. 
To kinges & queenes, from time to time, thus was he 

holden deare, 
As by the honours he attainde, most plainly doth appeare. 
To Henry eight, to Edward sixth, and to Elizabeth, 
The father and the children all, he was beloved till death. 
For when the little Lyon came (king Edward) to his reigne, 
In honour more the dragon grew, he had a greater traine ; 
Made of the noble order Knight, (a Knight so was he 

twise) 

And after maister of the Horse : thus did this Dragon rise. 

Of trophies pight for foughten fields, what should I here 

recite ? 

392 



6EOR6E CORYAT S POEMS 

The goodly spoiles, the triumphes got of civill foe by fight ? 
The Westerne tumults how he quencht, to shew here do I 

cease, 
And how those furious rebels were by his force brought 

to peace. 
A deed worth praise, a palme not wonne without expence 

of blood, 
The Dragons curtesie shineth yet, the ground did feele 

him good. 
He cast him there in compasse wise, and folding wreathes 

he makes, 
With grisly shrikes his lofty wings amongst those ghests he 

shakes. 
For these exploits done in thc West, tis knowne every 

where, 
Both Baron of CardiiFe was he made, & County of Pem- 

brokeshire, 
O rufuU day, King Edward dies, his fatall time is come, 
And Mary doth possesse the Crowne, his sister hath his 

roome; 
And now anew by Wyats fetch, there gins a civill broyle, 
Against the Queene he doth conspire with all his force and 

toyle. 
He leadeth forth his rebell route, even unto London wall, 
The Queene doth make chiefe of this warre, & Captaine 

generall, 
The Dragon green. What should she do ? what othcr 

hope remaind ? 
He spits his venim round about, wherewith her foes are 

stainde. 
Through thickest of the enemies rout, without feare doth 

hego, 
The traytors tremble, he them o'errunnes, and taketh 

Wyat tho. 
An other battaile yet he fought under Queene Maries 

name, 
S. Quintines walles his soldiers shakt, and got the gole 

and game. 

393 



6EOR6E CORYAT S POEMS 

And in the field the Frenchmen forst to flee before his face, 
Whiles Philip war in France doth hold : this dragon had 

such grace, 
That in each fight from all the rest, the pahne he still did 

get, 
And therefore in his open mouth the bloudy hand is set 
A G>nquerour invincible ; would he have bene more slacke 
(Elizabeth) to fight for thee, and put thy enemies backe ? 
But that the God who rules the Reahn, & eke thy heavenly 

minde, 
Makes thee enjoy a quiet time ? for thee he could not finde 
Just cause to shew his manly heart. And now well smitte 

in yeares, 
He learnes the quiet gowne to d'on, to him no warre 

appeares : 
But this last fight with cruell death, to whome he yeddes 

not yet ; 
His worthy Ghost with triumphes joy in starry sky is set. 
And as in life for good successe, a triumpher he was, 
So now with glee into the heavens, the Dragons sprite doth 

passe. 

The conversion of thc Triumph to thc right 
honourable Henry Earle of Pembroke his 
sonne and heire. 

BUt thou (my Country Lord) most worthy impe of 
counties race, 
Henry my L. reade thou these lines, turne hitherward thy 

face. 
An heape of Fathers haughty acts, and honours to thy 

minde 
Presents themselves, his countenance in heart do thou fast 

binde. 
The perfect signes of Pembrokes blood in thee do fiiU 

remaine, 
Thy face, thy eies, thy fathers looks, thy deeds shew his 
wordes plain. 

394 



GEORGE CORYAT^S POEMS 

One thing my Lord there resteth yet, which I do boldly 

crave, 
That fathers lore thy lesson be, t'obey the Lyon brave. 
And as the Sire pleasde the old, and all the Lyons seede, 
By his example be thou prest therein eke to proceede. 
Do as you do, prostrate before the Lyon lay you downe. 
The Lyon, or the Lyonesse, which now doth beare the 

Crowne, 
Was ever bent, and most propense unto the Dragon greene, 
As King her father was his friend, so hee his mendly 

Queene. 
Whose onely gift did him preferre to beare so high a 

port, 
Lord Steward of her house, chiefe guide & guerdon of her 

Court. 
She can exalt the Dragons impe, before the Dragon old, 
And will I trust God graunt her life, long reigne over us 

to hold. 
God grant the Pembroke Dragon may likewise live many 

a yeare, 
That he may leame the Lyon well both for to love and 

feare. 

Your honours most hiunble Chaplayne, 

George Coryate. 

Ad illustrissimum Comitem Oxoniensem. 

GLare Comes, generis summum decoramen aviti, 
Insuper Angliaci magna Columna soli. 
Da veniam tenui modulanti carmina plectro, 

Qu6d nequit optatis verba referre sonis. 
Te tua nobilitas commendat & inclyta virtus, 

Fortiaque eximii corporis acta tui. 
Nil opis externas quasris, nec carmina (quamvis 

Carmen amet quisquis carmine digna gerit) 
Huc tamen adveniens cum Principe nobilis hospes, 
Carminibus nobis excipiendus eris. 

39S 



6EOR6E CORYAT S POEMS 

Tum quia Musarum tanto capiaris amore, 

Aunbus his modulis occinit una tuis. 
Tu velut hesterna cepisti carmina nocte, 

Hac quoque sic capias carmina nostra die. 

Tuo Honori deditissimus, 

Georgius Coryatus. 

Ad illustrissimum virum Dominum Burghleium 
primarium Angliae Thesaurarium. 

SI locus hic superest, inter si gaudia tanta 
Admittunt tenues tua magna n^otia Musas, 
Omnis Pegasii properaret turba fiuenti. 
Htc tibi gratificans, & nobile nomen adorans. 
Ast licet hse sileant, cythari tamen obstrepet una, 
Olim nominibus tibi devinctissima multis, 
Hsec mea Calliope est, ne dedignere canentem. 
(Inclyte vir) totam tibi quse cum corpore vitam 
Devovet, & gratam reddit testantia mentem 
Carmina more suo, sed multo majus amore. 
Obsequiis concede suis, concede Camoenis. 
Scilicet hisce mei Domini quod sedibus hospes 
Advenis, accepta Regina, proximus astas, 
His mihi carminibus summo excipiendus honore. 
Hoc superest magno profundam vota Tonanti, 
FceUx Nestoreos hlc quum superaveris annos, 
Det tibi promissam super aurea sydera vitam. 

T. H devotissimus 

Georgius Coryatus. 



396 



GEORGE CORYAT'S POEMS 

Ejusdem Carmina ad iUustrissimos Oxoniensis & 
Cantabrigiensis Academis Cancellarios D. 
Robertum Dudleium Comitem Leicestrensem 
& D. Gulielmum Cecilium Dominum Burgh- 
leium, pronunciata in magna Aula Novi 
CoUegii Oxoniensis, Astronomice. 

SYdera qui lustrat, qui spherica corpora cernit, 
In sphEra geminos cernit is esse Polos. 
Arcticus est alter, Polus est antarcticus alter, 

Hoc splendente Polo non micat ille Polus. 
Nos tamen htc geminos lucere videmus In urbe 

Hac nostra claros stelligerosque Polos. 
En micat Oxonii Polus inclytus Oxoniensis, 

Dudleius nostri duxque decusque Poli. 
Lucet & hac nostra Polus alter in urbe Cecillus, 

Ut videas geminos jam simul esse Polos. 
llle Polus noster studiorum stellifer Atlas, 

Hic Cantabrigti lucida stella Poli. 
Quod simul hanc nostram juncti venistis ad urbem, 

Quod simul unus honor junxit utrosque Polos, 
Accipite haec simili simul 6 pietate Patroni, 

Vivite fcelices atque valete Poli. 

Clarissimo & honoratissimo Viro D. GuHelmo 
Cecillo Baroni Burghlceo, ordinis Periscele- 
dis Equiti aurato, Summo AngHs Thesau- 
rio, RegiEE M"' a sanctioribus consiliis, & 
Academis Cantabrigiensis Cancellario dignis- 
simo, rheumate laboranti pharmacum, unde 
ex morbo convaluit. 

MUIta aliis alii, tibi semper reddimus unum 
Carmen, at est docto grata medela viro, 
Carmine dii superi placantur crimine liesi, 

Carmen amat quisquis carmine dign; 
Fertur Alexandrum peteret quum morbus, 
Carminibus lectts convaluisse cit6. 
397 



leia viro. ^h 

bus, Homeri ^^1 



6EOR6E CORYAT S POEMS 

Huc venio, & redeo, maneo, rogo, quoerito^ plango» 

Audio nil nisi te morbus iniquus habet. 
Comprecor (ut prosim tibi) magni carmen Homeri» 

Quo tu perlecto convaluisse potes. 
Nunc tibi devotos morborum postulo divos. 

Nunc mihi Mercurium consuluisse rogo. 
Iste Jubet libros medicorum ut consulam, et illi 

Nec tibi, nec mihi se consuluisse negant 
Hos repeto docti promitdt multa Galenus, 

Rheumatico certam datque Salernus opem. 
Quos ^o sic paucis conjunxi versibus, ut sint 

Auxuioque tibi, prsesidioque tibi. 
Perlege de morbo vestro breve carmen. Homerus 

J[uvit Alexandrum, te mea Musa juvet. 
1234 
Jejuna. vig^a. caleas dape. tuque labora. 

5 . ^ . . 7 

Infundas calidum. Modicum bibe. comprime fiatum. 

8 
Hsec bene tu serva, Si vis depellere rheuma. 

1 Jejuna. 

Ejice Rheumaticos jejunans (optime) fiuxus, 
Jejunare bonum est, sed macerare, malum. 

2 Vigila. 

Tu multum vigilas. & dormis raro. quid inde ? 
Vis dormire magis ? & vigilare minus ? 

3 Caleas dape. 
Teque dape, (ast calida) meque juvabis ope. 

4 Tuque Labora. 
Nonne labor studium multorum ? lectio multa ? 
Est labor ille animi, sit labor iste manus. 

5 Infundas calidum. 
Hoc liquet, ut frigus tanti sit causa doloris, 
Infusum calidum pellere rheuma potest 

6 Modicum bibe. 
Cuncta facis modici, modici comedisque bibisque, 
Quid juvat ut jubeam te modicum bibere ? 

39« 



6EOR6E CORYATS POEMS 

7 G>mprime flatum. 
Et flatus, ventusque nocent, tu comprime flatum, 
Naribus ut pulsus non ferat inde caput. 

8 Haec beni tu serva &c. 
Hsec htnh si serves, nec possis pellere rheuma, 
Consule tunc Medicos, namque Scholaris ego. 

Ad eundem gratiarum actio pro 40 solidis 4 se illi 

dono donatis. 

QUatuor ex vestra venerunt aurea dextra, 
Et data tu nostris versibus apta refers. 
Munera carminibus tua sunt majora tenellis, 

Ast utinam verti versus in illa queat. 
Tum tibi carminibus possem pergratus haberi, 

Quatuor atque darem terque quaterque tibi. 
Pondere sed nequeunt, numero sed munera vestra 

iEquiparare queunt, parque referre pari. 
Ast tioi ponderibus, nec munera versibus sequa, 

Quando referre mihi non datur ulla tibi. 
Aurea nec possim tibi carmina ferre Cecili, 

Aurum nec cures, quando poeta refert. 
Aurea tanta tibi quod sint quot carmina Vati, 

Atque tua haec dixit * Desipientis opes. 
Aurea nuUa tibi, sed tantum, Carmina reddam. 

JErta, nam mea sunt, aurea nuUa mihi. 
Auro quando tuo mea carmina nuUa referre 

iEqua queant, summus reddat id ipse Deus. 

Ejusdem ad eundem querela pro Principe, Patria, 
& Musis, in Pseudocausidicos se injust^ oppri- 
mentes. 

SlcUidum immortale decus CeciUe Sororum, 
Principis, & Patriae summa columna tuas : 

* Sic dixit iliustrissima tna nzor in carminibus snis ad Georgium 
Bnchanannm Scotiae poetam. 

399 



i 



6EOR6E CORYAT'S POEMS 

Suscipe pro regno, pro Musis, Principe, posco 

Provoluens pedibus paucula verba tuis. 
Reginam, Regnum, Musas immaniter omnes 

Causidici spoliant, dilaniantque suas, 
Decipulis l^^um, linguis venalibus, astu, 

Sumptibus immodicis, innumerisque malis. 
Non peto Causidicos qui causas dicere vere, 

Sed qui pro lucro dicere falsa solent. 
Lex bona, l^s et est bonus usus. & optimus ordo : 

Ast bona saepe malus non bene tractat homo. 
Hinc vis & lites, dolus & furor, impetus, ardor, 

Quum trahit ad mores optima quaeque malos. 
Quando trahit retrahitque viros ad devia legum^ 

Ut Cacus Herculeos traxit ad antra boves. 
Ast precor Alcides veluti superaverit illum, 

Hosce novos poteris exuperare Cacos : 
Alcidesque boves illos velut extulit antris, 

Sic nobis vestram ferre velitis opem. 
Regnum forte potest, sed Princeps fortiter illos 

Legibus Angliacis exuperare suis. 
Nos opis expertes Musae flavaeque monetas, 

Imbelles, illis nil nisi praeda sumus. 
Qui potes, ergo velis miseras defendere Musas, 

Sub patrocinio sint maneantque tuo. 
Fasne nefasne siet, jus, situe injuria juris, 

Non reputant, modo sic diripiantur opes. 
Dicite, sed quales ? Sapiens sic dixerat olim, 

Aurifluas, nuUas Insipientis opes. 
Ast utinam veras sapientum quaerere gazas 

In ccelo inciperent, & nisi vera loqui, 
Causidici falsi, qui leges munere torquent, 

Falsaque pro veris substituisse solent. 
Haec tibi Stellato venient dicenda Cubiclo, 

Hlc ubi Stella potens, tu Cynosura micas. 
Interei ver6 Musarum nobile Sydus, 

Unica Castaliis spesque salusque deis, 

Noscere supplicibus petimus te vocibus ista, 

£t sine lege malis ponere posse modum. 

400 



GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 



Sicelidtlm immortale decus Cicille s 

Principis & Patris summa columna, Vale. 

T. H. deditissimus, devinctissimusque 

Georgius Coryatus. 
Sacrx Theologiae Baccalaureus. 

Ad illustrissimum virum D.Joannem Puckeringum 
Magni SigilH Custodem. 

INclyte qui regni suprema negotia tractas, 
Cujus & ingenio consilioque vigent, 
Da veniam tenui modulanti carmina Muste, 

Quod nequit optatis verba referre sonis. 
Multa & magna tibi cupio proferre, sed obstat 

Hic dolor auditus debilitasque mei. 
Ast tibi committo me, causam, pectora, vitam, 

Et pro judicio stentve cadantve tuo. 
Plurima ssepe dedi Regins carmina, saepe 

Hsec mihi munific^ munera plura dedit. 
Testis erit Dominus nunc Thesaurarius iste 

Inclytus Aonidum, magnus Apollo, Parens. 
Et si vixisset, Dominus Dudleius esset, 

Oxonii Phffibus qui mihi semper erat. 
Et si vixisset, nunc Walsinghamius esset, 

Clarus Eques, Domin<e Principis altra manus. 
Hic mihi surreptas (qua tu nunc parte laboras) 

Principis assensu restituebat opes. 
Sic age. Reginam, Patriam, Musasque juvato, 

Hinc tibi proveniet gloria, fama, decus. 
Summe Pater totum qui torques numine coelum, 

Reginam & regni sceptra tuere sui. 
Et tibi perpetuam super aurea sydera vitam 

Det tibi perpetuus qui regit astra deus. 

T. H. devotissimus 

Georgius Coryatus 
Sacne Theologiae Baccalaureus. 

OC 11. 401 3C 




GEOR6E CORYATS POEMS 

Reverendissimo in Christo Patri ac Domino D. 
Joanni Vitegifto Archiepiscopo Cantuariensi, 
totius Angliae Primati ac metropolitano, 
Georgii Coryati in nomen ac cognomen suum 
et in librum illius adversus Thomam Cart- 
wright, elogium atque Evangelica Ak/>o9<x<^. 

FU I Iget in aethereo veluti Sol aureus orbe, 
It I que reditque vias, pervolitatque Polum : 
Ho I c agit Angliaco florens tua gloria Regno, 

Mo I mus ut injudeat, progreditura magls. 
Mis I sus ab excelso cceli Rectore supremi, 

Sus I picis hunc animo, pectore, voce Deum. 
A I rdua divini reseras mysteria verbi, 

De I que tuo totus provenit ore Deus. 
O I mnia, fklsiloqui tollis deliria Vatis, 

Cu I ras ipse gregem, peUis et ipse lupum. 
I [procul umbrisequax, procul ito tenebrio T. C. 

No|n potes in clara luce videre diem. 
Men I te manuque tu& destruxit mcenia Babel, 

lo I manu Nemrod concidit ipse sua. 
An I non Nestoreos igitur tibi comprecer annos ? 

Nes I toreum quando pectus et ora refers ? 
Vi I ribus humanis deus altior omnibus unus, 

Te I dedit, aethereas quo caperemus opes. 
Gift I etenim Angligenis donum cognoscitur esse, 

Us I us et 6 doni maximus esto Dei. 

V, R. P, devotissimus 

Georgius Coryatus. 



402 



GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 

Epitaphium Reverendissimi in Christo Patris ac 
Domini D. Jcannis Piersei, seu potius nostri 
temporis Persei, Episcopi quondam Sarisburien- 
sis, ac postea Archiepiscopi Eboracensis, & 
MetropoHtani ejusdem, Mecaenatis sui optimi, 

TRistis ut Andromede monstris objecta marinis 
Perseia erepta est inviolata manu : 
Romuleo Ciiristi subjecta Ecclesia monstro 

(Quod fera terribilis dicitur esse maris) 
Sic erepta tua; divins robore dextrEc 

Gaudet, & in laudes occinit ista tuas. 
Piersei celsus perrupit spiritus oris 

Ora Medus<ei sanguinolenta Pap^. 
Saxa Deos quondam, truncos qufE numina fecit, 

Transtulit & vivos in fera saxa viros: 
Saxea facta tua nunc squalet Bestia voce, 

Pallas ut in clypeo Gorgonis ora geris, 
Nunc viget Andromede florens Ecclesia Christi, 

Inachides vicit, perdomuitque feram, 
Phorcis obit, clypco Pallas caput intulit altum 

Anglorum Pallas, Regia virgo, caput. 
Pallada sic nostram Capltis veneramur honi 

Perseus horrendte quod dedit iste neci, 
Ergo Pater, PrECSul, Pra;co sanctissime Perseu, 

Christi athleta potens, perdomitorque PapiC ; 
Andromedes capias gratantia carmina nostra:, 

Scilicit ex victa lasta trophiCa fera. 
Terruit excelsos olim qus BuUa Monarchas, 

Os tetrum in supieros impia verba tonans. 
Mitra triplex duplices geminans cum clavibus enses, 

Supremum inferni, Cerbereumv^ caput. 
Seu Draco multorum Capitum, teterrima pestis 

(Monstrum horrendum, ingens, quod solet esse Papa) 
Ille sacro Domini percussus flamine verbi 

In Phlegetontaea jam Styge monstra parit. 
At tu summe Pater terris surrepte, triumphans 

Es cum sydereo nobilis umbra Deo. 
403 




GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 

Epitaphium Reverendissimi in Christo Patris ac 
Domini D. Joannis Juelli Episcopi Sarisbu- 
riensis, Meccenatis sui optimi. 

JUlius Austriacos Caesar cum vicerat Anglos» 
Fertur ad occiduas castra locasse plagas : 
£t fiuidasse suo de nomine Caesaris urbem, 

Sive Sarisburiam Caesareamvi voces. 
Julius abscessit, rexitque hanc jure Juellus, 

Angliaci nuper maxima Gemma soli. 
Quo neque vir melior quisquam, neque Episcopus alter 

Doctior, aut vita purior ullus erat. 
Hoc sua testantur pulchri monumenta laborum, 

Proque Dei scripti relligione libri. 
Queis nunquam scripsit quisquam meliora, locutus 

Nfcc magis Hyblaeo verba referta favo. 
Fulminat in vitia : in verae pietatis amantes 

Spargit Evangelica singula plena fide. 
Chara Uto imprimis, cunctis mortalibus asqua 

Vita fuit, nullis mens pia fracta malis. 
Mortalis vitae pertaesus, & asthera scandens, 

Evolat ad superas inclyta Gemma domos. 
Ergo JueUe vale rutilo preciosior auro, 

Angliaci nuper fiilgida Gemma soli. 

Aliud Epitaphium in eundem. 

Buccina, Pastor, Eques, sonuit» pavit, superavit, 
Christum, AngloS) Papam, voce» labore, manu. 

The English. 

A Trumpet, Shepheard, Knight, did sound» feed, overcome, 
Christ, England, Pope, with voice, labour, hand. 



404 



GEORGE CORYAT'S POEMS 

Epitaphium in lectissimam fceminam D. Annam 
Ciifton, D. Joannis Clifton Equitis uxorem, 
sepultam Baringtonis in agro Somersetensi. 
A NA equitis conjux Joannis Clifton, & ANNA 
N ata Patris Domini Montegli, gloria, lume N 
N ec non vita viri dum vixit, nobile lume N 
ANNA hiec in partu periens hlc conditur ANNA. 

Ad clarissimum virum D. Eduardum Dierum 
optime de se meritum. 

DUm tibi carminibus cupio pergratus haberi, 
Hkc subiit mentem soUicitudo meam. 
Multa an pauca darem, seu prorsus carmina nulla, 

An alio possem gratior esse modo. 
Multa jubent (prasclare) tibi me scribere multa, 

Purus amor, probitas, officiumque meum. 
Sin tibi multa darem, culparem carmina multim, 

Sic melius multo, si tibi nulla darem. 
Sin tibi nulla darem, merit6 tibi nullus haberer, 

Nec memor officii dicerer esse mei. 
Quid faciam quasro? numero, vel pondere justo, 

Carmina tu modulo dimetiare tuo ? 
Si numero; non multa fero, sin pondere, multa, 

Etsi pauca tibi, sint modo grata, feram. 
Ac si me logices non multum regula fallat, 

Nec tibi multa fero; nec tibi nulla tamen. 
Accipe perplacida gratissima carmina fronte, 

No alio possum gratior esse modo. 
Gratulor adventum vobis cum Principe lcetum, 

Et cum nobilium (chare Diere) choro. 

Epicedium D. Richardi Worselii clarissimi 
migeri, Insul^ Vectensis olim Prxfecti. 

URsula Worselium cur deflet sponsa maritum ? 
Quidvfc gemunt raptum nati duo pignora Patrem ? 
Quidve suum Dominum fiimuli toto agmine plangunt ? 
Quid lachrymis luget populus Vectensis obortis? 
405 



6EOR6E CORYAT'S POEMS 

Quidve suum Phoebum Musae lachtymentur ademptum ? 

Cur ego ? cur tantos gemitus ? cur fundo querelas ? 
Nonne gravis dolor est quum tot moriuntur in uno ? 
Vir, Pater, & Dominus, Rector, Philomusus, amicus ? 

Epitaphium ejusdem, Parentum ejus, clarissimi 
Equitis & Dominae, Jacobi & Annae Worselias, 
matris suae etiam Parentum D. Joannis Lec, 
Equitis clarissimi, & illius Dominas Annx, 
duorum etiam filiorum ejusdem Richardi Pulu- 
ere bombardico sublatorum : Octo nimirum 
hominum in una Ecclesiae superiori parte tumu- 
lis quatuor inclusorum, octo versibus comprc- 
hensum. 

EN pia Worselii lapis hic t^t ossa Richardi, 
Insula Praefectum quem gemit ista suum. 
Quem pater adversa Materque aspectat in urna, 

Matris & in media spectat uterque parens. 
Ad latus Mc nati pueri duo, sorte perempti 
Praepropera, infesti pulveris igne jacent. 
Foelices omnes, vel quos sors dira coegit 
Tristia funestis claudere fata rogis. 

Vester affinis summ^ devinctus & devotus 

Georgius Coryatus composuit, & posuit. 

Epitaphium Clarissimi Viri Gulielmi Awberii, 
civilis juris Doctoris, Vicarii Generalis Archi- 
• episcopi Cantuariensis, & supplicum libellorum 
Reginae Elizabethae Magister. 

HIc situs Awberius, Legum Clarissimus ille 
Doctor & Interpres, j usque piumque docens : 
lUe fori judex quum Cantuariensis obivit 
Munus, & eximie prsestitit illud onus : 
Supplicibus praefectus erat, summisque Libellis 
Principis Elisabeth, queis bene fiinctus, obit. 
Quid referam ingenium, mores, vitamque probatam, 
Consilium, studium, judiciumque suum ? 

406 



GEORGE CORYATS POEMS 

Quid genus & proavos & maxima nomina dicam ? 

Pradia quid vel opes enumerare juvat? 
Vel sua turritis surgentia mcenia saxis? 

Tecta domus miris aedificata modis? 
Non bona fortuns deerant, non corporis, artis 

Mentis & egregise vis sibi magna fuit. 
Testis erit Princeps, proceres, populique Britanni, 

Quos coluit studiis, officiisque suis. 
PrEcipue testis sit munificentite & auri 

Supplicibus precibus pauper inopsque suis. 
Nam veluti Princeps est clementissima, sic is 

Supplicibusque favens simplicibusque fuit, 
Charus erat toti populo, procerumque catervs, 

Reginfe imprimis, Principibusque viris. 
Audiit Oxonii superantem se sua Princeps, 

Tunc admirata est ingeniumque suum. 
Quum tot Pandectas, quum tanta volumina legum 

Tam cit6 tam subito volveret ore suo. 
Sic cum vixisset, famamque decusque parasset 

Eximium, vitse jam satur, astra petit. 
Atque animam Domino reddens, corpusque sepulchro 

Awberius, nomen liquit in orbe suum. 

Epitaphium Trium Ckrissimorum Armigeromm | 
sepultorum Londini in proxima Ecclesia West- 
monasteriensi, D. Rowlandi Vaughan nuper 
Sereniss. Regins Angliae D. Elizabethae cor- 
poris Armigeri: D. Joannis Vaughan ejusdem 
Regins in partibus Borealibus a Consiliis, ac 
D. Gulielmi Vaughan ejusdem Rowlandi filii, 
D. Gulielmi Cecilli, Equitis inaurati, D. 
Burghleii, totiusque Anglis D. Thesaurarii, 
nuper clarissimi charissimique servi. 

CEmite tres uno conclusos funcre claros, 
Et consanguineos, conspicuosque viros. 
Armigeros omnes: Rowlandus at Armiger unus 
Corporis Elisabet Principis hujus erat. 
407 



6EOR6E CORYATS POEMS 

Principis & corpus sic defendebat, ut armis 

Hoc vivo est ausus perdere nemo suis. 
P6st miseri sacrum statuerunt perdere corpus, 

Vertit in authores sed Deus arma suos. 
Vertat & usque precor, Reginam prot^t usque 

Talibus Armigeris, ccelitibusque suis. 
Armiger excellens Joannes nomine Vaughan 

£t pius, et prudens, & venerandus homo. 
Ergo k consiliis regni Borealibus hujus, 

Inclyta consiliis prsestitit acta suis. 
Ergo tibi charus Domina 6 darissima Knevet, 

Conjugii junxsti quem tibi jure virum : 
Tam beni qui vixit mortis htnh finiit horam, 

Hic etiam adversa parte sepultus adest. 
Hic Guliekne jaces Rowlandi maxima proles, 

Spes patriae, ac patrui, spes quoque primi Patris. 
Quem cit6 praereptum praedara insignia, virtus 

Inclyta, mens foelix, caelica vita beant. 
£t si forma viros commendet ut aurea virtus, 

Huic Phaebi facies, corpus Alexis erat. 
Nobilibusque viris si laus placuisse, Cecillo 

Est tua laus Domino perplacuisse tuo. 
At Rowlande Pater, Joannes Patrue Vaughan 

(Quos priiis hic tumuli condecoravit honos) 
Nunc charo juncti nato, claroque nepoti 

In supera aeterni vivitis &rce Dei. 

G. C, 



Index 



Abbeville, Thonnaa Coryat at, i. i6o; 

gallows at, 160. 
Abdua, tiver at Cremona, I. 257. 
Abraham, ancestorof ihe Magi, ti. 325. 
Achmet, Sultan, and the defence of 

Acrostic on Thomas Coryat by Beo 

Jonson, 1. 19. 
Aclors in Venice, I. 386. 
Adige river at Verona, II. 17, 154; 

overflowings of, 18. 
Adinheim, Eberhardus, bishop of 

Spires in Coryat's time, 11. 249. 
Adolph of Nassau, thirty-third Gennai) 

Emperor, II. 235. 
Adolphus, archbishop of Cologne, epi- 

laph and monumenl of, 11. J32. 
Adrian, Emperor, and Justinus, I. 209. 
Adrian, Pope, and Charles the Great, 

Adula, spring of the Rhme al, IL 176. 
jEnus, nver m Rhaetia, II. 64. 
Agnes, wife of Andrew, king of Hun- 

gary, II. 147. 
Agnes, first wife of Empcror Amol- 

phus, II. 225. 
Agnes, Empress, wife of Henry III., 

II- 234- 
Agricola, Rodolphus, praise of, by 

Erasmus, II. 327; epitaph ol^by Bar- 

barus, 228. 
Agrippa, Marcus Vipsanius, and Co- 

logne, II. 312, 
Agrippa, Sibylla, prophecy of, II. 259. 
Agrippina, wife of Germanicus Caesar, 

and Cologne, II. 31Z. 
Aiguebelette, the first Alp in Savoj-, 

seen by Thomas Coryai, i- 21; ; his 

-nof, 216. 




A iguebelle, neartheAiguebelettem 

Aix in Provincc, Court of Parliament, 

,9. 

Aken, Nimeguen's tribute to, 11. 359. 
Alaric, king of the Goths, in Italy, 

'■305- 
Albanus, martyr at Mayence, 11. 282. 
Albert, Archduke, at La Fere, in 

Picardy, I. 156. 
Albert, duke of Austria, ai Ziirich, 11. 

108. 
AJbert, emperor and king of the 

Romans, slain by John, duke of 

Swabia, It. 144. 
Albertus, statue of, ai Padua, t. 279. 
Alberius, Austriacus, and the death of 

Adolph of Nassau, 1298, [i. 235. 
Albis, nver in Saxony, 1. 237. 
Alboin, first king of the Longobards, 

I. 336, 238 ; at Verona, ti. 21, 28 ; 

deaUi of, at Verona, 38. 
Alciat, epigram of, 1. 229. 
Alcuin and the Sorbona, 1. 171 ; 

schoolmaster of Charlemagne 11. 

169. 
Aldobrandini, Cardinal, ambassador 

of the Pope 10 Charles Emanuel, 

Duke of Savoy, [. 231. 
Alemannia, etymologies of, 11. 178. 
Alemannus, surname of Hercules, 11. 

"?9- 
Alexander III., Pope, and Frederick 

Barbarossa at Venice, I166. I. 349. 
Alexandria, body of St. Mark the 

evangelist broughl from, 3 10, 1. 354. 
Allapiaiia, Thomas Coryal at, 11, 61. 
AJIey, Peter, panegync verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1, 75-76. 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Allobroges, peopk of Vientia, I. 1 1 8. 
Alphonsus, king of CasieDa, pretendant 

to the empire of Germany, 11. 266. 
Alsatia, descriplion of, 11. iSo. 
Altorf unlversily, inGermany, II. 307. 
Amadeus, first duke of Savoy, 1415, 

afterwards Pope Felix V., i. 118. 
Amandus, Arst bishop of Strasburg, 

II. 193. 
Ambigatus, king' of ihe Celts, 1. 241. 
Ambrose, earl of Bergamo, 11. 56. 
Amerbachius, Joannes, and his sons, 

leamed men of Basle, 11. 171. 
Amiens, Thomas Coryat at, i. 161 ; 

Scaliger^s verses on, 161 ; surprise 

of, by the Spaniards, Ijg?, 165. 
Amphitheatreat Verona,descriptioiiof, 

II. 19 f. 
Amsterdam, Hugh Broughtoa at, II. 

I7S- 
Anacharsis, travels of, t. 128. 
Anafectus, Panluccius, first duke of 

Venice, c. 700, i. 418. 
Ancone mountain, Mezolt near, ti. 61 ; 

distancefromtoCbur in Rhaetia,375. 
Andernach, battle of, 776, II. 37 ; birth- 

place of Guinterius, 195 ; batlles of, 

306. 
Andrew, king of Hungary, 11. 147. 
Angelus, Politianus, epistles by, I. 



of, at Basle, 



393- 
Anna, Empress, 

II. 159 
Anne, Queen, wife of James I. of 

England, her picture in Venice, I. 

426. 
Antennacum, see Andernach. 
Antenor, Padua built by, 1. 138, 270; 

epitaph of, 371. 
Antiquities of Germany, it. 82. 
Antoninus, Marcus Aurelius, the phil- 

osopher, and the city of Amiens, 1. 

161 i the sevenieenth Emperor of 

Rome, II. 2oa 
Antoninus Pius,and the Cilyof Amiens, 

I. 161. 
Antoninus, Verus, and the fourth per- 

secution of the ChrisCians, 1. 207. 
Antonio, fellow-traveller of Thomas 

Coryat, 1. 228, 
'ATefti^uiTi^iXot, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 22-26. 
Aponus, Petnis, statue of, at Padua, 

I. 38a 



Aquileia, in Einperor Martian's tiiiK, 
and Attila, i. 305 ; Cardtnal Gri- 
mannus, patriarch of, 321 ; Henno- 
laus Barbarus, patriarch of, 11. 31S. 

Aquinas, Thomas, and Corpus Chrisii 

Arar (Latinnameof river SadneXi.aoj; 
.154. 



Argentina, Roman name for Strasbur^ , 

II. 184. 
Arians, Bartholomew, bishop of 

Vicenia, and the, II. 5. 
Ariovistus, king of the Cermans, balllc 

of Julius Caesar against, at Basle, 

u. 172. 
Aristotle, travels of, 1. iz8. 
Armoury of the Duke^s Palace ai 

Venice, I. 345. 
Armoury of Ziirich, II. 100. 
Armu in Zeeland, Thomas Coryat ai, 

II. 372- 
Amolphus and the siege of Vetona, ii. 

37 ; at Bergamo, 900, 56. 
Arnolphus Malus, son of Emperoi 

Arnolphus, 11. 22;. 
Arola river, 11. 144; Solodure on, 154. 
Arsenal of Venice, descriplion of, [. 

358. 
Asimo, first bishop of Chur, 452, 11. S9. 
Athanasius, bishop of Spires, c 61D, 

11. 349. 
Athenaeum, meaning of, 1. 396. 
Athesis river, see Adige. 
Attalus, martyr at Lyons, 1. 207. 
Altila at Lyons, 1. 204 ; at Cremoiu, 

260; at Padua, 273; in Ilaly, 30;; 

in Vicenia, 11. 13 ; in Verona, 31 ; 

at Brescia, 47 ; at Bergamo, s5; ai 

Basle, 171 ; at Strasburg, 183; » 

Spires, 351; at Wornis, 263; il 

Cologne, 348. 
Augsl, see Augusta Rauracorum. 
Augusta, name of many ciiies, i. 230. 
Augusta Rauracorum, built bj Muni' 

tius Plancus, II. 152. 
Aurelian, battle of, with the Gemutu 

near Mayencc, 11. 380, 
Ausonius, verses on Milan by, t. liO- 

341. 



Autharus, third king of the Longo- 

bards, i. 235. 
Awbrey, WiUJam, epitaph of, by George 

Coryat, 11. 405-406. 
Aymon, lasl earl of Savoy, I. 2 18. 

Bacchara, on the Rhine, 11. 299. 
Bacchilio, river of Vicenza, 11. 3, 154. 
Baden, Thomas Coryat at, II. 137 ; on 

the Limacus, 154. 
Baden, Lower, Thomas Corj'at at, il. 

197; marquisaie of, 199; Hochberg, 

title of ihe raarquesses of, 200, 
Badley, Richard, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, i. io7-i 10. 
Bajazet, 3Dd Tamberlane, 1. 349, note. 
Baker, Wiiliam, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 79-Bo. 
Baiaam, ancestor of the Magi, II, 335. 
Ball, Lord, of Bagshot in Kampshire, 

customs of, II. 303. 
Balthasar, third wise king, offcrs 

myrrh, II. 326. 
Barbarus, Hermolaus, patriarch of 

Aquileia, Agricola's epitaph by, U. 

Bardo, abbot of Fulda, cathedral of 
Mayence finished by, II. 271. 

Barocius, Viccntius, praetor of Ber- 
gamo. H. 53- 

Bartholomew, bishop of Vicenza and 
the Arians, 11. 5. 

Basil, see Basle, 

Basle, bishop of, and Zilrich, II. 108 ; 
death of Huldricusof Palma at, 146; 
Thomas Coryat at, 152 ; elymology 
of, 1 53 ; on the Rhine, 1 54 ; cathedral 
of, 156; university of, founded by 
Fius fl., 170; Attila at, 171 ; Coun- 
cil of, 1431, 172 ; distance from, to 
Slrasburg, 376, 

Bassano, owner of Livy's house, I, 282, 

Bassanum near Trent, 1. 273, 

Bastard, Thomas, panegyric verses on 

ii^Thomas Coryat by, I. 78. 

Bat, Swiss money, 11. 107. 

Balavia, former name of Holland, II. 
362. 

Baths of Baden, de^cription of, 11, 139- 
143; discovered in 160,200; number 
of, 201, 

Batiles fought near Cremona, i, 259. 

Beatrix, wife of Frederick Barbarossa, 
II. 235. 



Beauvoisis, province of, I. 167. 

Bede, Venerable, it. 169 ; Alcuin, 

scholar of, 1. 171. 
Belford, Master, secretary of Sir Hcnry 

Wotton, 1. 376. 
Beilicure, archbishop of Lyons, 1. 204. 
Bellovesus, son of Ambigatus, king of 

the Celts, 1. 241. 
Bembo, Cardinat, monument of, in 

Padua, 1. 287. 
Benacus Lake, i. 364. 
Beratterius, Nicolas, and the pillars of 

St. Mark's Place in Venice, 1. 324. 
Berberomagum, see Worms. 
Berengarius, Duke of Friuli, 11. 56. 
Berengarius, Prince, at Verona, 11. 

28. 
Bergamo, subject lo Venice, I. 420 ; 

Thomas Coryat at, 11. 48-60; 

Scaliger^s verscs on, 49 ; cathedral 

ofi 49-53 ; church of the Augusti 

fn3rsin,54; Attilaat,56; Amolphus 

at, 56. 
Ber|[en-op-zoom in Brabani, 11. 371. 
Bencus, hill near Vicenia, 11. 3. 
Beme, city of, againsC Zurich, li. loS ; 

Kinmgsfelden Monastery,possession 

of; II. 143- 

Bertha, wife of Henry IV., 11. 234. 
Bessarion, Cardinal, his library at 

Venice, i, 321, 
Betsa, Venetian tin coin, 1. 423. 
Bevelaqua, La, Thomas Coryat at, L 

269. 
Bibliander, Theodorus, leamed 1 

of Zurich, 11, <_ 
Bibliothecii by Gesner, I. 394. 
Bing, see Bingen. 
Bingen on the Rhine, U. 209; Thomas 

Coryat at, 295, 
Biron, marshall of, at Amiens, 1. 166. 
Blandina, martyr at Lyons, I. 207. 
Blood, rain of, io Brescia, 11. 46. 
Boars' heads on bouses in Baden, 



BoUanus, Dominicus, s< 

and bishop of Brixia, n 

I, J82, 
Bominee, Sconce in Scowel Island, 11. 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



fionifacius, EnglishbishopofMayence, 

II. 174- 
Born, description of, ii. 309. 
Bononia, Caroius Quintus and the 

Pope at, I. 340, 
Bonus, Joannes, firsl dweller on tbe 

Rialio, L 304. 
Bookseilers' Street in Frankfort, 11. 

391. 
Boppard, description of, captured by 

King Richard of England, 11. 304. 
Boquinus, Petrus, preacher at Heidel- 

berg, II. 229. 
Borromeo, Cardinal, his monument 

in Milan, i. 244. 
Boson, king of Province or Provence, 

11. 38. 
Bouillon, Duke of, inasler of the horse 

of the king of France, 1. 193. 
Bouillon, Godfrey, duke of, and the 

first crusade, 1094, 11. 238. 
Boulogne, Thonias Coryat at, 1608, 

I. 157 ; ga]lows at, i. 158. 
Bourbon, monument of the Cardinal 

of, at St. Dcnis, 1. 185. 
Brabant inundated by the sea, 1420, II. 

Bragadino, Antonius, at the siege of 

Famagusla, i. 421. 
Brandenburg, Marquess of, and Rugia 

Island, I. 237. 
Brandus, Sebastianus, leamed man of 

Basle, 11. 171. 
Braves, Venetian bandits, 1. 413. 
Brembana Valley, Brembus river ia, 

II. 61. 

Brembtis river in Brembana Valley, 

u. 61. 
Bt«nes, M. de, ambassador in Con- 

staniinople, i. 31 1. . 
Brennus, Gaiilish chief, in Verona, 11. 

17- 
Brenta river, near Padua, 1, 270. 
Brescia, sutiject to Venice, I. 420 ( 

Thomas Coryat at, II. 40 ; ScaligeHs 

hexastichon on, 41 ; cathedral of, 

43 ; Altila at, 47. 
Bressa, see Brescia. 
Bretueil, Thomas Coryat at, 1. 167. 
Brewers Haven in Scowen Island, II. 

3?i- 
Briare, Thomas Coryat at, I. 196. 
Bridge over the Mincius, I. 266. 
Bridge, wooden, at Mayence, built by 



Charles the Great, 813, 11. 2S1 ; 

destroyed by fire, 823, a8i. 
Bridges in Paris, i. 171 ; in Venice, 

512 ; in Dordeecht, II. 367. 
Bnsac on the Rhine, 11. 176. 
Brixia, see Brescia. 
Brondolo, haven of Venice, 1. 304. 
Brooke, Christopher, panegyric venti 

on Thomas Coryat Qy, I. 56'S7- 
Brooke, Kiningsfclden Monasterynev, 

II. 139 ; Thomas Coryat at, tt. 150. 
Brothers, the four Albanian, statues of, 

in Venice, 1. 331. 
Broughton, Hugh,supposed conveision 

of, 11. 175. 
Brownc, Sir William, depuly governoi 

of Flushing, II. 374, 
Bnile, Albertus de, carving done in St. 

George's Church by, I. 383. 
Brun, William Tell at, 11. 102. 
Bruschus, river in Slrasbuig, II. 183, 
Bucentoro, the, Veneiian ship, i, 359. 
Bucer, Martin, reformer in Stiasborg, 

11. 194 ; reformed preacher, 335. 
Buelerus, Marcus, of Zurich, ^endly 

to Thomas Coryat, 11. 95, 97, 109; 

Thomas Coryat's epistle 10, l3o-i34; 

his epistle to Thomas Coryat, 13;- 

136. 
Buffoleroin Lombardy^Thomas Coryat 

at, I. 237. 
BuIIinger, Herry, learned maa of 

Zurich, II, 98, log, III : manuscripts 

of, 1 10 ; Coryat's epistle to, 127-130, 
Burdeaux, in Aquitaine, Couri of 

Parhament, i. 179. 
Burghley, WilliamCecil, Lord,Ceorge 

Coryat to, Ii, 395 f- 
Burials, strange, in Venice, t. 393. 
Bursa College, at Heidelberg, 11. 127. 
Busbequius, Augerius, Gennan writer, 

11. 85. 
Butterflies, great swarms of, in Savoy, 

1. 223. 
Byrsa river at Basle, 11. 153, 155. 

Cadmus, Thebes built by, 1. 138. 

Caesar, Julius, Iravels of, 1. 138; battle 
of, against Ariovistus, king of the 
Germans at Basle, it. 172 ; and tbc 
institution of the Roman prcfecti 
in Gaul, 281. 

Calais, Thomas Coryat at, 160S, 1. 151^ 
sands of, 153; descriptioQ of, 155^; 




captured by the Spa.ni5h, 156; dis- 
tance from, 10 Paris, 301. 
Calepine, Ambrose, Augustinian friar 
in Bergamo, Latin Di[:tiaaa.ry by, 11. 



11.215. 

Camp, viltage in Valtulina valley, 11. 

6i ; Thomas Coryat at, 65. 
Campegius, Symphorianus, his Lalin 

tract on Lyons, I. 214. 
Campjan, Thomas, panegyric verses 

on Thomas Coryat by, i. 73. 
Campion, Edmund, picture of, in the 

CoIIege of Jesuits at Lyons, 1. iia 
Campus Mariius, in Ziirich, 11. 10;. 
Canal, Grand, at Venice, I. 306. 
Canareio, quarter in Venice, i. 306. 
Candia or Creie, subject to Venice, 

I. 421. 
Candianus, Thomas, consul of Padua, 

I. 305. 

Candolchin, Thomas CoTyat at, it. 65, 

6?. 
Canisius, Peter, lcamed man of Nime- 

guen, 11. 360. 
Capitano, military head of the forces 

in ihe land cities subjeci to VenJcc, 

Capito, Wolfangus Fabricius, refor- 

mer in Strasburg, 11, 194. 
Capra, Ear! Odoricus, palacc of, in 

Vicenia, II. 9, 11. 
Carew, Sir Francis, gardens of, II. 24 

36, 
Carinthia, Meinhard, diJce of, II. 144. 
Carolosiadius, Andreas, Protestant 

reader of Basle, 11. 167. 
Carolus Calvus, see Charles the Bald. 
Carolus Magnus, see Charles the Great. 
Carolus Martellus, see Charles Martcl. 
Carolus Quintus, see Charles V, 
Carrarius, Francis, and Verona, II. 29. 
Caiteromachus, Scipio, of Padua, 1. 298. 
Cartwright, Thomas, 11, 401. 
Casa, Joannes, bishop of Beneventum, 

II. 110, 
Casaubon, Isaac, and Thomas Coryat, 

I. 180. 
Casimires, family namc of the Count 

Palatines, ti. 225. 
Casimirian College at Heidelberg, il. 



Casaandra, picture of, in Venice, t. 393. 

Cassels, Prince Mauritius and the 
Persiao ambassadors al, 11. 84. 

Castella, haven of Venice, I. 304 ; 
quarter in Venice, 306. 

Casiiglione, or Castilion, Balthasar, 
poet and orator, 1539, I. 268. 

Castles of Verona, n. 19. 

Castriot, sce Scandcrbeg. 

Cathedral Church of Basle, 11. 156; 
monument of Erasmus in, is8 ; of 
Berganio, 49-53; of Brescia, monu- 
menls of, 43 ; of Chur, buitt by 
bishop Thetlo, 770, 88 ; of Cologne, 
314; descriptionof,3i5; of Mayence, 
founded by Witligisus, bishop, c. 
1011.271; pulpits in, 273; ofSpires, 
Robert Tumer on, 233 ; S. Bcrnard's 
satutation lo ihe Virgin in, 236-237 ; 
of Strasburg, founded by Clodoveus, 
$oS, 1S5 ; of Verona, 31 ; S. Zcno'* 
monumenc in, 33 ; of Worms, 256. 

Caici. ancienl wartike people, 11. 301. 

Cenis, see Senis. 

Cethura, ancestress of the Magi, 11. 
325- 

Chambery, capitalcily of Savoy, I. 217. 

Chambre, ta, see La Chambrc. 

Chapineys used in Venice, i. 400. 

Chapman, John, panegyric verses on 
Thomas Coryal by, 1. 7I'73. 

Chappet de ta Royne, Thomas Coryat 
at, 1. 195. 

Charenton, Proleslant prcachers aC, 
I. 185. 

Charit^ la, Thomas Coryat at, i. 198. 

Charles the Bald, lcing of France, 
monumenc of, at SC. Denis, l. 183, 
368 ; and the Normans, 197 ; deaCb 
of, at Mantua, 267; at Verona, 778, II. 
37; ai Andemach, 776,37; Ludovicus 
king of Ilaly, grandson of, 39 ; tjatltc 
□f, wlth Lewis II. at Andemach, 
306. 

Chartes the Creat (Charlemagne), 
Sorbonne founded by, 796, I. 171 ; 
in Italy, 230 ; and Pope Adrian, 235 ; 
al Verona, II. 28; and Chc siegc of 
Verona, 37 ; tower in Zurich, 98 ; 
and tlie ecctesiastical atfairs of 
Germany, 361 ; crowned king of 
France al Worms, 769, 264 ; wooden 
bridgc buitl ai Maycncc by, 813, 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Charles Martel, monument and 
epiCaph of, at St. Denis, r. 184 ; 
impnsoned al Cologne, 34^. 

Charles IV. German Emperor, 11, 292. 

Charles V. Kiog of France, first 
Dauphin, 1364, i. 194- 

Charles V. of Spain, battlc between 
Francis I. and, 1. 230, 35; ; and the 
Pope al Bononia, picture of, at 
Venice, 340 ; statue of. in theSenate 
HouseofWorms, 11. ibi. 

Charles, son of Empress Anna, monu- 
ment of, at Basle, 11. 1 59. 

Charles, Duke of Burgundy, and the 
Swiss at Ihe ballle of Granson, 1476, 
I. 192 ; and the Swiss, 11. 103. 

Charles Emanuel, prcsent Duke of 
Savoy, i. 23r. 

Chatillon, admiral of France, and the 
Mount Falcon gallows, i. 170. 

Chiavenna, Thomas Coryat at, tl. 65. 

CJuliades by Erasmus, 11. 227. 

Chioggia, haven of Venice, r. 304. 

Chiqumie, Veneiian coin, va!ue of, 

I. 389 ; gold coin, 422. 
Chondomarius, kingiprisoner of Julian 

the Apostate, 11. 193. 

Christian II. Duke of Saxony, bene- 
factor to Chur, ri. 90. 

Chur, or Curia, prlocipal 10 wn of 
Rhelia, 11. 63 ; Thomas Coryat at, 
87-92 ; past history and description 
of cathedral of, 8B-89 ; eonfederation 
of, 1419, 1424, ri. 90 ; distance from, 
to Zurich, 376. 

Church, cathedral, of Amiens, descrip- 
tion of, I. 162; cathedral of Milan, 
description of monoments in, 244 ; 
cathedral of Paris, 172 ; of Nevers, 
198 ; cathedral, at Turin, 23^ ; of 
the Augusiinian friars in Bergamo, 

II. 54; of Madonna Miracoloso in 
Venice, 365 ; of the Maccabees, in 
Cologne, 340 ; Maria Aniiqua, in 
Verona, 27 ; of Middieborough, 
monuments of, 373 ; of Bees, 355 ; 
of S, Albanus at Mayence, 28r ; 
S. Anastasia, in Verona, 34 ; of 
S.Barbara,inManiua, 1.266; S. Bar- 
Iholomew^s, in Frankfort, 11. 289 ; S. 
Calherine's in Oppenheim, 268 ; of 
S. Felix and S. Regula built by 
Clodoveus, king of France at Zurich, 
97 ; Grcek, S. George's, descriptiou 




of, r. 367 ; ceremonies in, 36&i^ 1 
S. Gcreon, and thc martyrs, reha m 
Cologne, II. 342; of S. Justium 
Padua, 1.288; ofS. Mary in Viceoa, 
II. (o; S. Mark's in Ventce, I. 347, 
S. Paurs in Venice, 385 ; of S. Pm 
in Zurich, n. 99; of S. UrsuU 10 
Colognc, 337. 

Churches in Lower Baden, rl. Vjn 
in Calais, ceremoaies io, t. 1 53 ; Id 
Cologne, ri. 314; of Dordrecht, 367 . 
of Heidelberg, 209 ; in Lyons, 1. 
208 ; of Mayencc, ri. 270 ; in Mthn, 
description of. I. 242, 247, 254 ; al 
Spires, II. 233 ; S. Anlhony^s, m 
Fadua, i. 286 ; S. John and Paul in 
Venice, description o( 36I- 

Cicero, travels of, i. 129. 

Ciconia, Pascalis, Duke of Veoice, 
Palma castle built by, iS93, i- 4ii- 

Cimerica, Sibylla, prophecy of, tt. 159. 

Cirinus, king of Liguria, Beij^o 
built by, II. 49. 

Claraval in Burgundy, S. Benani, 
abbot of, II. 236. 

Clarke, Josias, Anagrain, on Thoaas 
Coryat by, I. 81. 

Ciau(l]a,motherof Constantius Chlarus, 
buried at Spires, II. 131. 

Claudius, Flavius, Emperor, and ihc 
battle near Lago di Como, ir. 40. 

Clavel, William, panegyric verses ra» 
Thomas Coryat by, 1. 35-36. 

Clermont, Thomas Coryat at, I. 167 ; 
dynasiyof thecountsof,i6S; coimcii 
of, in France, 1094, 11. 238. 

Cleve, capital of Cleveland, IL 353, 
3S6. 

Cleveland, Duke of, titles of, II. 135. 

Clifton, Anna, epitaph of, by Geor^ 
Coryat, 11. 404. 

Clock of Strasburg, description of, 
II. 187. 

Clodovcus (ClovisX king of Franc«,aiid 
the churchof S. Fclix and S. Reguli 
ai Zurich, 11. 97 ; and tbe bi^i^ 
of Worms, c. 500, 260. 

Cloister of S. Felix and S. Regula 
church, monumenis of, 11. 98. 

Cloistcrs in Basle calhedrai, 11, 160 

Coblentz by thc Mosella and Rhitie, 
II. i;4. 

noi 





Cocbarus, river, tributary oF the 
Neekar, ii. 208. 

Coctiae, Alps, froni king Coctius, i. 325. 

Coctius, king, victor o( ihe ancient 
Gauls, I. 23;. 

Colen, see Cologne. 

Coleon, Barthelmcw, of Bergomo, 
captain of the Venetians, i. 420 ; 
picture of, in Venice, 361 ; monu- 
ment of, in Bergamo cathedral, 
II. 50. 

Colmaria in Alsatia, 11. iBi. 

Cologne by the Rhine, 11. 1 54 ; couocil 
of, 348, 260 ; S. Maternus, first 
apostle of, 310 ; Scaliger^s verscs 
on, 311 ; founders of, 313 ; descrip- 
tion of, 313 ; calhedral and churches 
of, 314; the Magi, and the other 
saints in, 329 ; bishopric of, 334 ; 
S. Ursula's churcfa in, 337 ; Mac- 
cabees' church in, 340 ; university of, 
348 ; Attila at, 348 ; distance from, 
to Nimeguen, 376. 

Colonia, see Coiogne. 

Colossus, stone, near Mayencc, erecled 
by Drusus Ncro, II. 276. 

Como, Lago di, or Lacus Larius, 
dcscriplion of, 11. 40. 

Companies, city, in Venice, 1. 389. 

Cond^, Prince of, al Konlainebleau, 

I. 195. 

Confederation of Switierland, 1316, 

II. 103 ; of Rhaelia, 90. 

Conrad H.,Empcror,sumamed Salicus, 

cathedral of Spires founded by, 

c. 1030, II. 233. 
Conrad the Wise, monument of, in 

Worms, II. 267. 
Consilio di Dieci, in the palace of the 

duke of Venice, i. 340 ; after the 

Roman Dccemviri, 1. 41S. 
Conslantine, Emperor, eross of, kepl 

in Brescia, il. 44 ; at Chur, 354, ^o. 
Conslantius Chlorus, founder of Spires, 

II. 231. 
Contarcno, Thomaso, PodestS of 

Padua, I. 294. 
Contarens, Cardinal, ComimmLitallhof 

Vtnia translated into Enghsh, 

I- 3- 
Contarenus, and thc public schools of 

Germany, I. 135. 
Copemicus, Nicolaus, his statue on thc 

Strasburg clock, 11. 188. 



Corbet, Richard, panegyric verses on 
Thomas Coryat by, I. 70-71. 

Corfii, or Corcyra Island, subjcet to 
Venice, I. 421. 

Comelius, Marcus, bishop of Padua, 

I. 293. 

Corpus Christi eeremonies in Paris, 
described by Thomas Coryat, i. 176- 
178, 182. 

Corvinus, Messala, Roman orator, 

II. I5a 

Coryat, Rcv. Gcorge, Postkuma frag- 
mtnla poematum of, Ii. 377-407. 

Coryat, Thomas, dedicatory episllc to 
Henry, Prinec of Wales, by, I. i-6 ; 
his epislle lo the reader, 7-15 ; 
charaeter of, by Ben Jonson, 16-18 ; 
acrostic on, by Ben Jonson, 19; 
verses by, 120; Carolus Wimier 
of ihe Praemonstratenian Order 
and, t6i ; his cpistles to Gaspar 
Waserus, II. 113-121 ; answer of 
Gaspar Waserus to, 122-123: his 
epistle to Rodolphus Hospinianus, 
123-126 ; his epistte to Henry Bul- 
linger, 127-130; hisepistleioMarcus 
Buelerus, 130-134; answerof Marcus 
Buelerus to, 135-136; to the Princc 
of Wales, 379. 

Cosmograpky by Munster, 1. 421 ; 11. 
109. 

Cotton, Rowland, panegync v 
Thomas Coryat by, !. 32-33. 

Courtesans in Venice, I. 401-409. 

Courtney, Edward, Earl of Devonshire, 
buried in Padua, 1. 287. 

Courts of Parliament in France, i. 
179- 

Cranficld, Lionei, panegyne verses on 
Thomas Coryat by, 1. 63-64- 

Crema, sec Cremona. 

Crcmona, Sealiger^s verses on, 1. 257 ; 
besieged by the French, 160 ; subjeel 
10 Venice, i. 42a 

Crescens, first apostle of Mayence, 
II. 274. 

Crocodile, stuffed in Padua, descrip- 
of, I. 290. 

Cross of Emperor Constantine 
Brescia, 11. 44. 

Crown, iron, of the Lombard kings 
Modoetia, I. 252 ; of ihorns, 
Chrisi, II. 4. 

Cumana, Stbylla, prophecy of, I 



I 



CORYAT-S CRUDITIES 



Cunegunda, wifc of Henry II- thc 

Cunimundus, father of Queen Rosa- 

mund, II. 38. 
Cups, woodcD, used in SwiizerLand, 

11. 67, 
Curia, see Chur. 
Ciirio,CaeliusSecundus, 1.233 ; ^itaph 

of, at Basle, 11. 164, 165. 
Curio, Leoni, san of, epitapb of. at 

Basle, II. 165. 
Cunabatus, Joannes, and Thomas 

CoryatatMezoit, 11.62; atChiavcnna, 

65. 

Cutlenbergius, joannes (Gutenberg), 
printing iDvented by, 1440, 11. 177. 

Cuve OD the Rhine, 11. 300. 

Cyprus Island, sometjme subjcct to 
Venice, I. 431. 

Cyrus, iiavels of, i, 135. 



Dagobert, kinjj, monument and epitaph 
of, at S. Denis, i. 1S3 ; bishopric 
of Strasburg f^unded by, c. 630, 
11. 193 ; and thc heathen lemples in 
Spires,il. 2SI. 

Dalburgius, Joaunes, counsellor to 
Ludovicus and afierwards bishop of 
Worms, II. 2;8, 267. 

Danube, Trajan's bridge over ihe, 
I. 309. 

Dasypodius, Conradus, architea of the 
clocL of Strasburg, II. 1S7. 

Daulus, Zenus, consul of Padua, L 305. 

Dauphin or Dolphin, origin of the title 

Davis, John, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 101-107. 
Decemviri^ Roman, modei of the 

" Consilio di Dicd," i. 418. 
Decius, Emperor, and the seventh 

persecution of the chuich, 11. 33 : 

and Philippus Aiabs, 11. 37. 
Delph in Holland, death of William 

Prince of Orange ai, 11. 225. 
Delphica, Sibylla, prophecy of, 11. 258. 
Delphinus, Dionysius, bishop of 

Vicenia in Coryat^s ttme, 11. 12. 
Denmarke, king of, Veneiian gentle- 

man, 1425,1.415. 
Desensan, Tbomas Coryat at, 11. 39. 
Desiderius, last king of Ihe Longo- 

bardes, i. 235 ; nunnery ai Brescia 

built by, 750, II. 4S- 




Deuti, on ihe Rhine, «ytn 

II. 348. 
Dia/ogue^bjjosias SimlenisTtgiiriK 

I. 394- 
Diana's tempte in Spires, II 150 ;# 

molished by Dagobert, 351. 
Dictionary, Latin, by Ambnose C* 

pine, iL 54. 
Dier, Edwaid, Ceorge Coryai i 

n.404. 
Digges, Dudley, panegj-ric verses ■ 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 31-32. 
Dijon in Burgundy, Court of Paris 

ment, L 179- 
Dion Cassius. Greek author, 1. 309. 
Dionet. king of Britain, latbei of 

S. Ursula, II. 336. 
Disertinuro, abbot or, and the o» 

federation of Rhetia, 1414, IL ga 
Dodo, Pctrus, captain of Padn^ l 

293. 
Doit, Dulch coin, 11. 365. 
Domitian, Emperor, and ifae fiie& 

1. 268. 
Domo or Cathedral in Italy, L 29;. 
Donato, Leonardo, Duke of VeaKA 

L 309, 41 8. 
Dones, John, pancgyric vetses <K 

Thomas Coiyal by, 1. 71. 
Donne, John, pancgyric verses oi 

Thoraas Coryal by, (. 37-39. 
Doole, palace of Dordrccht, built bi 

the Earl of Leicestcr, Ii. 367. 
Dordrecht, Thomas Coryat at. il 363: 

maidcn city of Holland, 364 ; situ 

tion of, 365 ; churches of, 3^ r dis- 

tance from, 10 Flushing, 376 
Dorso Duro, quarter in Vcnice, 1. 306 
Dotrula, prefect, Lombard tyiam, 

I- 23S- 
Dourlans, Hcmand Teillo, govemoKi 

1. 165. 
Dover, distance fi-om, to Calai^ t 

301. 
Drayton, Michael, panegyric verseJ m 

Thomas Coiyat by, 1. 97-98. 
Drepanum, haven in Sicily, i. 184. 
Dress wom in Venice, 1. 398 ; br 

womcn, 399; of gentlewomen i» 

Bergamo, II. 55 ; of the Swiss 1= 

Zurich, 105-106; of women inStiasi' 

burg, 191 ; of Helvetians, 173. 
Drinkmg in Germany, 11. 174; in ibc 

Netherlands, 360. 




i Ncro, and the stone Colossus 
' Mayence, li. 276 ; battles of, 

; deaih of, at Bingen, 296. 
jon, silvcr coin in Venice, I. 422. 
d, M., Proiestant preacher at 
renten, i. 185. 
Idorf in Clcveland, Thoroas 



prata 



I- 350- 



Cleveland, Gerardus 
cator buried at, II. 351. 
idorp, see Dusseldoif. 

[uakes al Basle, 1346, 1356, II. 

ardus, Duke of Ftanconia, baltlc 

Itho the Great wilh, at Ander- 

1, II. 307- 

iastica! Hislory, by Eusebius, 

'1- 

ds, Thomas, MonosHches by, 

ation from, II. ;6. 

phus, fourth King of the Longo- 

Is, I. 260 ; at Mantua, 267. 

)n, Mode of, in Venice, i. 41Q. 

etb, Empress, Kiningsfelden 

astery founded by, 1408, 11. 144. 

eth, Queen, George Coryat in 

seof, 11, 381-384. 

eth, wife of Rupertus, Duke of 

, Laurence, panegyric vcrscs on 

mas Coryat by, I. gg-ioi. 

(rich, Thomas Coryal at, 11. 356. 

s, on the Rhine, II. 306. 

ipius, Nicolaus, princer of Basle, 

72. 

,us of Rotterdam, monurnent of, 
he caihedral of Uasle, 11. 158; 
;e of Rodolphus Agricola by. 



la, Ji. 96. 
lus, see Po. 

:aea,Sibylla,prophecy of, 11. 258. 
us, Hortmannus, prefect of 
ch and Thomas Coryat, 11. 100. 
bach, Walterus de, and the 
der of Emperor Albert, 11. 145 ; 
:h of, 146. 

n the Signiory of Veoice, I. 269. 
en, antique town near Baden 
Tutlowe, 11. 203. 
:rius, disciple of S. Denis, i. 
; shrine of, 185. 



Eugenios IV., Pope, and ihe CouDcil 

of Basle, i43'i n. 172. 
Euphrates, Archbishop of Cologne, 

deposcd by ihe Council of Cologne, 

348, 11. 260. 
Europaca, Sibylla, prophecy of, 11. 25^ 
Eusebius, bishop of Cacsarea, his 

account of the martyrs of Lyons, 1. 

207 ; EccUsiastiial Htstory o/, 11. 

168. 
Eustorgius, bishop of Milan, and the 

bodies of the Magi, 11. 339. 
Exchange of the merchants in Paris, 

descripiionof, 1. 172; of Venice, 313 ; 

of Bergamo, li. 53 ; at Frankport, 

292. 



I. 305, 
Faraagusta, or Salarais Island and the 

Turks, I. 421. 
Families, noble, in Vcnice, i, 414. 
Fans, used in llaly, 1. 256. 
Famaby, Thomas, alias Bainrafe, 

panegyric verses on Thomas Coryat 

by, I. 81-33. 
Fastrada, fourth wife of Charles the 

Great, 783, 11. 264 ; death of, at 

Mayence, 281. 
Feasts, religious, in Venice, 1. 388. 
Feiix V., Pope, formerly Amadeus, ist 

duke of Savoy, 1. 2i8 ; and the coundl 

of Basle, 1431, II. 172. 
Fenton, William, panegyric veri 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 73-74. 
Ferdinandus Primua Caesar, sia 

in the Senate House of Worms, II. 

262. 
Ferivarius, John, travels of, i. 129. 
Fcrroe monte, Franciscivs de, work of, 

in Ber)^mo Cathedral, II. 52. 
Ferry, descripiion of a, in Italy, 1. J33. 
Field, James, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 115-116. 
Fighls, street, in Venice, 1. 413. 
Firtle, German measure, ii. 219. 
Fiessinga, see Fiushing. 
Florentus IV., Earl of Holland 'and 

Zeland, It. 369. 
Flogius, Joannes, bishop of Chur in 

Coryafs time, 11. 89. 



Flushing, or Ulissingen in Wakheren 
Island, drinking habits of, ii. 360, 
372 i eiymoiogy of, 374 ; distancc 
from, lo London, 375-376. 

Foelix, see Felix. 

Foniainebleau, Tbomas Coryai at, 1. 
185 ; forest of, 186; palace of, 187 ; 
gardens of, 188. 

Fontigo, ihe, in Venice, descripiion of, 
I. 384- 

Food in Venice, 1. 395. 

Forest, Black, or Nigra Sylva, Ihe 
Neckar^s source in, 11. 208. 

Foreat, Oitonica, near Heidelberg, 11. 
209. 

Forks, used in Italy, I. 236. 

fracastorius, Hieronymus, of Padua, 
I. 298. 

Francis 1., baitle between, and Charles 
V. near Turin, i. 230 ; prisoner at 
Piiighiton, 255. 

Franckendal, Tbomas Coryat at, II. 
252. 

Frankforl, Scaliger^s verses on, II. 
287-288 ; Thomas Coryat at, 288- 
293 ; descriplion of, 288 f. ; eleclion 
of ihe King of the Romans at, 289 ; 
fairs at, 290, 292 ; distance from, to 
Colopne, 376. 

Fredenck I., Barbarossa, II. 23; ; at 
Padua, 1 1 70, 1. 273 ; and Pope Alex- 
ander III. al Venice, 1 166. 349. 

Frederick II,, and ihe lown and tower 
of Turlowe, 11. 205 ; Counl Pala- 
tine, and ihe Popish chutch, 1 546, 
226 ; Emperor, marriaee of, with 
Isabella, daughter of King John of 
England, at Worms, 1235, 266. 

Frederick III., Emperor, picture of, 
in cbe Senale House of Worms, il. 
261 ; deaib of, at Liniz, 1493, 307. 

Frederick IV., Count Palatine, manu- 
script book by the greal-grandfather 
of, kepi in Heidelberg library, 11. 

Frederick, Duke of Austria, and ihe 

Swiss Confederaiion, 11. 103. 
Freeboolers, near the Rhine, 11. 308. 
Fregosius, Janus, monument of, in S. 

Anastasia's church in Verona, 11. 

34. 
Friburg, ciiyof, against Ziirich, 11. 108. 
Frisius, Joannes Jacobus, leamed man 

of Zunch, II. III. 




CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Frisius, Nicolaus, at Spires, tL 251. 
Frobenius, Hicrome, pnnter of B*dt 

II. 166, 172. 
Frobenius, John, printer of BiiJe, 

11. 172. 
Frogs, used as food in Icaty, 1. i^; 

in Rhaetia, 11. 64 ; lake of, at Ziirid, 

96. 
Fuder, German measure. 11. 219. 
Fulco, Earl of Anjou, travels of, I. Iji 
Fulda, abbey of, founded by Boni^c 

II. 274. 
Fulgosus, Rapbacl, of Padua, t. 39& 
Funerals in Verona, 11. 36. 
Furcamountain, spring of ihe RhodasiE 

ai, I. 205. 
Furslenberg, wines of, 11. 299. 
Fuscarus, Duke of Venice, I. 334 ; Md 

Che King of Denmark, 1425, I-415. 

Gabriel, archbishop of Philadclpbii, 

and Thomas Coryal, at Venice, 1. 

369. 
Gaieatius, Joannes, Viscouni of Milam, 

and Verona, 11. 39. 
Gaileys, Venetian, 1. 359 ; and slatts 

in Venice, 414. 
Gallows at Boulogne, description oi, 

!. 158 j al Abbeville, 160 ; al Gn- 

monl, 168; on Mount Falcon, 170; 

of alabaster in Ventce, 330 ; it 

Rheinfelden, 11. 151 ; near Frank- 

fon, 287 ; near the Rhine, 308. 
Garda, see Benacus. 
Garden of Earl Leonardus Walmaiani 

in Vicenia, description of, 11. 6. 
Gardens of Fontaincbteau, 1. 188. 
Gardo, see Benacus. 
Gamet, Henry, picture of, at Colognt, 

11- 349' 
Gaspar, second wise king, offers tnii- 

incense, II. 326. 
Gatcameliia, and the reducing <i 

Padua 10 the signiory of Venice. 

1402, I. 274; statuc of, 286; of 

Namia, renowned capiain of tiK 

Venetians, 420, 
Gazet, Venetian tin coin, I. 422. 
Gelderland, province of the Nethu- 

lands, 11-357- 
Gemusaeus, Hieronymus, professot a 

Basle, II. 171. 
Cenebria, leamed woman of Veroiu, 

II. 39- 



Cenepe, Culielmus de, 

in Cologne, II. 334. 
Genet, M. de la, deputy-governor of 

Calais, and Thomas Coryat, 1. 151. 
Gcography^ '\yj Plolomaeus, 11. 256. 
Gerbirga, wife of Gisleberius, 11. 307. 
Gennany, universitics in, number of, 

I. 8 ; praise of, by Bodin, 132 ; Pope 

Leo's ambassadors in, 133; Con- 

tarenus and the public schools of, 

135 ; piaise of, by Bodin, 11. 76 ; 

Thomas Coryat's description of, 

178-311 ; etymologyof, 179; George 

Sidenham's verses on, 181-183, 
Germersheim, death of Radolph of 

HapsburK at, 1291, II. 23$. 
Gesnerus, Conradus, leamed man of 

Zurich, on Petnis Aponus, 1. 180 ; 

Bibtiolheca by, 394 ; 11. 98, iii. 
Ghelto, the, in Venice, description of 

I. 370 ; in Verona, 11. 31. 
Gisela, daughler of Lolharius, king of 

France, wife of Conrad II., li. 734. 
Gislebertus, Dukeof Lorraine, diowned 

near Andemach, 11. 307. 
Glareanus, Henricus, professor at 

Basle, 11. 171. 
Class, Venetian, 1. 387. 
Codard, roountain, highest Alpine 

mountain, 11. 176. 
Godfrey, Duke of Bouillon, and the 

first Crusade, IC94, 11. 338. 
Golden Lyon, Thomas Coryat's inn 

at Lower Uaden, Ei. zoz. 
Gondolas, descripiion of, i. 313. 
Goniaga, Viceniius, Duke of Mantua, 

I. 231 ; palace of, i6s. 
Gonzaga, William, father of Vincenlius 

Gonzaga, 11. 8. 
Goodier, Henry, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 28. 
Gorcom, see Goikum. 
Goricia, Meinhard, Earl of, 11. 144. 
Gorkum, on the Waell, Thomas Coiyat 

at, 11. 361 ; beauiy of, 362. 
Gospel of S. Maik, kept in Venice, 1. 

355- 
Gothofrcdus, Dionysius, civil iawyer 

in Heidelberg, 11. 230, 
Goths in Piedmont, i. 230. 
"^ by ihe Venelian nobility, 



I-397. 
Granson, baille of, Swiss a 



1476, 1. 



Giatarolus, Gulielmus, famous preacher 
of Bergamo, II. 60 ; Icamed man of 
Baste, 171. 

Gralian, Emperor, II. 153; and the 
name of Amiens, 1. 161 ; Germans 
defeated by, near Strasburg, II, 193. 

Graveling, M. de Rosne, govemor of, 

I. 156. 

Gregory VII., 01 Hildebrand, Pope, 
and the golden crown of Rodolphus, 
Eail of Kheinfelden, 11. 151; deposed 
by the fourth Council of Worms, 11. 
265. 

Grenoble, or Gralianopolis, in Dol- 
phinie, Court of Parliament, i. 179. 

Giiffin, Ceoige, panegyiic verses on 
Thomas Coryat by, 1. 101. 

Grimanno, Maiino, Duke of Venice in 
Thomas Cor>'at's time, i. 309 ; in 
Corj^at^s time, his picture, 425. 

Grimannus, Caidinal, patriarch of 
Aquileia, 1. 321. 

Grimston, Edward, history of the 
Netherlands by, II. 371. 

Grisons, sec Rhaetia. 

Gritti, Petcr, Venelian palace of, II. 15. 

Groninga, Rodolphus Agricola, born 
at, II. 22?. 

Giuierus, Janus, biblioihecary 01 
libiarian of the Palatine libiary, 11. 

Giyii, Hermannus, and the slaying of 

the lion, in Cologne, 11. 344. 
Crynaeus, Joannes Jacobus, of Basle, 

woiks of, II. 168. 
Grynacus, Sim 
Guallerus, Rodolphus, leamed r 

Zurich, II. 98, III. 
Guard, French, I. 191 
Guaslo, Albertus, Marquess of, and 

the arscnal of Venicc, 1. " 

opinion on Venice, 427. 
Guasto or Wasie plot in Italy, 11. 2. 
Guerilio, last archbishop of Worms, 

deposed by Pepin, king of Francc, 

II. 260. 
Gucrilius, Joan 

friend to Thomas Coryal, I. 367. 
Guido, Duke of Spoleto, 11. s^- 
Guinlcrius, Joannes, leamed man 

Strasburg, II. 19J ; bom at Andei- 

nach, 306. 
Guise, Duke of, his broiber, and 

Thomas Coryai at Lyons, ). 213. 




CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Gulick, see Menapii. 
Gulielmus,bishop of Worms in Coryat^s 

time, II. 257, 261. 
Gunterus, Earl, competitor of Charles 

IV. for the German empire, li. 292. 
Gyfford, John, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, i. 67-69. 
Gymnosophist, meaning of^ i. 58, note. 

Habspurg, John of, prisoner at Zurich, 

1350, II. 108. 
Habspurg, Rodolphus de, li. 147. 
Hagk, Christopher, Coryat^s fellow- 

traveller, 11. 35^ 
Hair, dying of the, in Venice, i. 401. 
Halles, salt mines at, 11. 144. 
Halswell, Robert, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, i. 67. 
Harrington, John, of Bath, panegyric 

verses on Thomas Coryat by, I. 27. 
Hartmannus, son of Empress Anna, 

II. 1 59 note. 
Harvests, two in Italy, l. 268 ; in Ger- 

many, 11. 206. 
Hassia, Landgraviat of Germany, 11. 

301 note. 
Hatto, archbishop of Mayence, history 

of, 914, II. 297. 
Haunschildt, George, scholar of Her- 

mannus Kirchnerus, i. 122. 
Health, bills of, required to travel into 

Italy, I. 214. 
Hedio, Gaspar, reformer in Strasburg, 

II. 194. 
Heidelberg by the Neckar, li. 154; 

Scaliger^s verses on, 207 ; etymolog ies 

of, 208 ; churches of, 209 ; distance 

from, to Frankfort, 376. 
Helena, town near the Pyrenees, ll. 

Helena, Empress, and the bodies of 

the Magi, li. 329. 
Helenopolis, see Frankfort. 
Hellespontia, Sibylla, prophecy of, il. 

258. 
Helmichildus and Queen Rosamund, 

II. 38- 
Helvetia, see Switzerland. 
Henneberg, Margarite, wife of Her- 

mannus, Earl of, li. 369. 
Henricpeter, Sebastian, printer of 

Basle, II. 172. 
Henry II., King of France, and the 

Louvre, i. 173. 



Henry II^ tfae Saint, German £■• 
peror, 11. 22^. 

Henry III., king' <^ France,aDdAe 
Order of the Holy Ghost, L 193; n 
Venice, 1574, l. 309; testimonj<( 
338 ; Venetian £^tleman, 1574» 41)- 

Henry III., the Black, German Ea- 
peror, cathedral of Spires finiski 
by, II. 233 ; son of Conrad II^ n. - 
234; and the third Coandl d 
Worms, lo^i, 11. 265. 

Henry IV., King of France, at Rom, 

I. 165 ; death of, 168 ; his pictiirem 
Venice, 425. 

Henry IV., the elder, Emperor of 

Germany, son of Henry III. aad 

Agnes, IL 234 ; and the foarfi 

Council of Wormsy 1076, 11. 265. 
Henry V., the younger, Emperor of 

Germany, son of Henry IV. aid 

Bertha, ii. 234 ; and the fifthConocS 

of Worms, 11 22, 11. 265. 
Henry VII., Emp^ror of Gennai^ 

and John of Swabia at Pisa, n. 1461 
Henry, Prince of Wales, dedieatof; 

epistle to, by Thomas Coryat, L 1-6; 

his picture in Venice, L 426 ; TboiBis 

Coryat to, II. 379. 
Henry, last Earl of Baden, 1180^ H 

138. 
Heraclea, town of, dwelling-place d 

the first Dukes of Venice, l. 418. 
Herbert, William, George Coryat in 

memory of, II. 386 f. 
Herbome, John Piscator at, ll. 195. 
Hercinia or Nigra Sylva, Wiesi^ 

spring from, II. 155. 
Hercules, travels of, I. 13$. 
Hercules, Alemmanus, sumame ci 

IL 179. 
Hermannus, first Marquess of Badeo, 

II 53, II. 200. 
Hermenstein Castle, near Coblenz, U- 

306. 
Hervagius, Joannes, printer at Bask, 

II. 172. 

Hildegardis, Lady, daughter of Idng 

Ludovicus, II. 99. 
Hildegardis, S., nun at Bingen, frieod 

of S. Beraard, 1 180, 11. 296 ; wwks 

of, 297. 
Hildegardis, wife of Charles the Giea: 

and mother of Ludovicus Pius, n. 

282. 



430 



Hinderhove, or baths of Baden, ii. 

139- 143. 
Hipiiolytus, Lord President of the 

Prinees' Chancery Coojl, verses de- 

dicated to. ii. 2:1-223. 
History, EccUsiaslicat, of Eusebius, 

11. 16S. 
Hochberg, title of the Marquesses of 

Baden, n. loo; Otto, Marquess of, 

deathof, 11. 148. 
Hoestenius, Henry, printer of the 

university of Leyden, II. 221. 
Holland, Hugo, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 43-49 ; friend 

of Thomas Coryat, 425. 
HoUand, meaning of, 11. 362. 
Honorius, Emperor, 409, 1. 305. 
Horses of the King of France at 

Fontainebleau, 1. 190 ; used to draw 

boats on the Rhine, II. 361. 
Hortmannus, last earl of Kyburg, 

1260, II. 138. 
Hoskins, John, panegyric ^'erses od 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 58-61. 
Hospinianus, Rodolphus, leamed man 

of Zurich, 11. 95 ; Thomas Cory3i's 

epistle to, 123-126. 
Hotoman, francis, epitaph of, al 

Basle, 11. 162-164. 
Houses, Venetian, I. 307 ; at Spira, 

description of, 11. 232. 
Hughes, Richard, panegric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 119. 
Humbertus, Bishop, and the stone 

bridge over the Arar, I. 205. 

laxus river, iributaiy of ihe Neckar, 

II. 208. 
lUa, river in plain of Strasburg, 11. 

183. 
Imbert, or Hubert, Dauphin of Vien- 

nois and Philip VL, ijiS, I. 194- 
Ingelheim Palace, Charles the Great 

at, II. 217 ; Court at, 265. 
lntuergi, people dwelling formerly in 

Palatinate, 11. 224. 
Irenaeus, lirst bishop of Lyons, I. 209 ; 

II. 168. 
Irene, Empress, and the sacred images, 

I. 368. 
Irenicus, Francis,historiographer,bom 

at Ethngen, 11. 203. 
Irmengardis, first wife of Ludovicus 

Pius, II. 293. 



Isabelia, daughter of King John of 
Eogland, marriage of Emperor 
Fredetick II. with, 1235, 11. 266. 

Isella, branchof iheRhine, 11. 177. 

Isingrius, Michael, ptinter of Basie, 
II. 166, 172. 

Isota Nigarola, learned woman of 
Vcrona, 11. 39. 

llalians,courtesy of,toforeigners, II. 13. 

Italy, Thomas Coryat in, 1. 227, 428. 

Jackson, John, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 96. 
Jacobus, Cardinal,epistlefrom Angelus 

Politianus to, II. 177. 
James I., King of England, his picture 

in Venice, 1, 425, 426. 
James, Thomas, Librarian of the 

Bodleian Library at Oxford in 

Coryat's time, II. 211. 
Jason, travels of, i. 132. 
Jesuits' College at Lyons, description 

of, I. 209; in Chambery, 117; at 

Turin, 232 ; in Spires, II. 249. 
Jews in Venice, description of, 1. 372. 
Joan, Pope, bom at Mayence, 11. 382. 
Joannes Baplista, bishop of Bergamo, 

Ealace of, II. 53. 
n, Don, and the battle of Lepanto, 

I. 289. 344- 
John, Duke of Swabia, and the murder 

of Emperor Albert, II. 144 ; punish- 

ment of, 146. 
John, eatl of Habspurg, prisoner at 

Zurich, 1330, II. 108. 
Jonson, Ben, character of Thomas 

Coryat by, i. 16-18 ; a 

Thomas Coryat by, 19. 
Jones, Inigo, panegyric 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 64-65. 
Jovius, Paulus, study of, on Lago di 

Como, 11. 64. 
Jucundus, bishop of Paris, 1. 171. 
Judith, Countess, wife of Hermannus, 

Marquess of Baden, IJ. 200. 
Juelli, Jobn, bishop of Salisbury, epi- 

laph of, by George Coryat, 11. 403. 
Julian theAposiaie, Ammanianus Mar- 

ceUinus, soldier of, II. 1^3 ; battle 

of, with some German kmgs, near 

Slrasburg, 360, 193; Mayence bridgc, 

built by, 280. 
Junius, Adrianus, monuments of, in 

Middleborough Church, 11. 373. 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Junius, Francis, learned man of Hei- 

delberg, ii. 229. 
Jura Mountain, Byrsa's spring from, 

II. 155. 
Justmian, I., Emperor, c. 550, L 273. 
Justinus, Emperor, and Narses, I. 237. 
Justinus, martyr at Lyons, l. 209. 
Justus, Augustinus, paLace of, in 

Verona, 11. 35. 

Keinperger, Jonas, head of the Jesuits 

in Spires and Thomas Coryat, IL 

249. 
Kelsterbach, on the Rhine, 11. 287. 
Kemerer, Eckenbertus, founder and 

first abbot of Franckendal monas- 

tery, c. 11 19, ll. 252. 
Kicherman, Bartholomew, philoso- 

pher at Heidelberg, 11. 230. 
Kigele, Joannes, architect in Worms, 

IL 262. 
Kingman, Robert, Englishman settled 

in Strasburg, 11. 183. 
Kings, the Three, of Cologne, 11. 31^ ; 

images of, 317; history of, Latm, 

.318-325 ; English, 325"330- 
Kiningsfelden, monastery of, near 

Brooke, ll. 139 ; Thomas Coryat at, 

143 1 possession of Beme, 143 ; 

meaning of name, 11. 144. 
Kintzgus, river, in plain of Strasburg, 

IL 183. 
Kirchnerus of Marpurg, Hermannus, 

orations by, L 4, 11, 122-148; in 

praise of travel in Germany, li. 

71-86. 
Kni^hthood, orders of, i. 193. 
Konmgsperg, birth-place of Christopher 

Hagk, II. 350. 
Kyburg, Earls of, and the Swiss con- 

federation, li. 103 ; and the earldom 

of Baden, 138. 

La Bevelaque, Thomas Coryat at, l. 

269. 
La Chambre, Thomas Coryat at, l. 223. 
La Charit^, Thomas Coryat at, i. 198. 
Ladenburgum, palace of, residence of 

the bishops of Worms, 11. 257. 
La Fere, in Picardie, Archduke Albert 

at, I. 156. 
Lahnstein on the Rhine, ll. 305. 
Langres, Voga Hill, near, i. 171 ; 

spring of the Mosella at, li. 305. 



Larius, Lacus, or Lake Como, meamif 

of name o( il. 65. 
Lasnebourg, or Lanslebouig, Thooas 

Coryat at, l. 224. 
La Tour du Pin, Thomas Coryat t, 

L 215. 
Laudun, Monastery of, Maigarite d 

Henneberg, buried in, li. 369L 
Lauredanus, Leonardus, Duke d 

Venice, tomb and epitaph o( L 361 
Lauredanus, Peter, Duke of Vema^ 

1568, L 361. 
Lavaterus, Ludovicus, leamed man of 

Zurich, IL 98, II I. 
Lecca, branch of the Rhine, 11. 177. 
Leicester, Earl ol^ mint of Dordredit, 

built by, II. 366 ; tfae Doole, boih 

l>y> .367 ; Georgc Coryat to, 396£ 
Lemnius, Levinus, leamed man of 

Zirixee, IL 371. 
Leo, Pope, his ambassadors to Ger- 

many, i. 133. 
Leo Ifl., Greek Emperor, and tfae 

sacred images, I. 368. 
Leo IX., Pope, and the third comidl 

of Worms, 105 1, 11. 265. 
Leopold, Duke of Austria and tbe 

Swiss confederation, IL 103 ; and 

the murderers of Emperor Albext, 

146; buried at Brooke Monastery, 

147 ; wars and death of, 148. 
Lepanto in Greece, Don John of 

Austria, at the batde of, i. 289, 344. 
Lewis 1 1. of Germany, battle of Ciuuies 

the Bald with, at Andemach, IL 306. 
Lewknor, Ludovic, panegyric vcrses 

on Thomas Coryat by, i. 27-28. 
Lezere, lake or river in Savoy, i. 205, 

221. 
Library of Mayence, li. 279 ; in Holy 

Ghost Church, Heidelberg, 209. 
Libyca, Sibylla, prophecy o^ ll. 259. 
Liege, death of Henry IV. at, 1106, 

n. 234. 
Lieutenant of the Castle, of the land 

cities, subject to Venice, i. 42a 
Limacus river at Baden, 11. 137; 

Zurich on, 154. 
Lime tree, description of a, in Basle, 

IL 169. 
Lindanus, Gulielmus, leamed man of 

Dordrecht, bishop of Ruremunda, 

II. 368. 
Linga river, near Dordrecht, 11. 365. 



432 



INDEX 



LiDgelscmius, Doctor of Civil Law at 

Heidelberg, and Thomas Coryat, ii. 

21 4, 23a 
Liniago, in the signiory of Venice, 

I. 269. 
Linti, on the Rhine, dcath of Frederick 

ni.at, 1493, 11.307. 
Lio, castle for soldiers of Venicc, i. 

388. 
Lippia, river, at Cleve, 11. 353. 
Lipsius, Justus, rriend of James 

Grutenis in Heidelberg, 11. 310. 
Lir Lake, near Splugen Mountain, 

n. 67. 
Litenawe, Thomas Coryal at, tl. 196. 
Liver, Veneiian coin, value of, i. 3B9 ; 

silvcr coin, 42J. 
Livy, three statues of, ai Padua, 1. 

37Si 277i 278 ; his house, 281-285. 
Loches, Lodowic, Duke of Milan, 

prisoner at, 1500, i. 239. 
Lodi, Thomas Coryat at, i. 254. 
X«dowic, Duke of Milan, and the 

Swiss and French armies at Novara, 

1500, 1.239. 
Loire, river in France, I. 197. 
Loiseau de Tourval, Jean, panegyric 

verses on Thomas Coryat by, 1. 1 1 1- 

Lombardy, past history of, i. 237 ; 

fenility of, 238. 
London, disiance from, 10 Dover, 

I. 301 ; Thomas Coryat's return lo, 

u. 37S ; distance from, to Odcombe, 

376. 
Longinus, first exarch of Ravcnna and 

Queen Rosamund, 11- 38. 
Longobards in Piedmoni, I. 230; past 

history of the, 237. 
Longolius, Christopher, of Fadua, 

I. 298. 
Lotharius, Empetor, and the Nor- 

manes, 1. 197. 
Loure, sec Louvre. 
Louvre, description of thc palace of, 

I 173- 
Loyola, Ignatius, founder of thc 

Jesuics, II. 360. 
Lucernc, an ally of Ziirich, II. 108 ; 

on the Ursula, 154. 
Lucic Fesina, ncar Padua, 1. 300, 

394- 



Ludolphus, son of Otho the Great, 
battle of, with his father II. 280 ; 
death of, 2S1. 

Ludovica, wife of Frederick IV., Count 



Palat 



[. J2S. 



Ludovicus It., sumamed Germanicus, 

Emperor, and the second ciuncil of 

Worms, 868, 11., 265, dcath of, at 

Frankfort, 293. 
Ludovicus Pius, Empcror, and Ihe first 

CouncilofWorms, 829, II. 26;;dcath 

of, ai Mayence, 282. 
Ludovicus, king of llaly, grandson of 

Charles che Bald, II. 38. 
Ludovicus, Count Palatine, 1319, 11. 

212; and Joannes Dalbui^ius, his 

counsellor, 228. 
Ludovicus, dauphin of France (after- 

wards Louis XI.) and the Helve- 

tlans, near Basle, 11. 173. 
Lugarda, wifc of Conrad the Wise 

11. 367. 
Luietia, meaning of, I. [71- 
Luthcr, Martin, and thc Witti 

univcrsily. II. 194. 
Lycosthenes, Conradus, profcsj 

Basle, II. 171- 
Lycurgus, cravels of, I. 13;. 
Lycus, river in Rhctia, II. 63. 
Lyons, Thomas Coryat at, I. 202-214 ; 

Julius Caesar Scaligcr^s hexasnchon 

on, 203 ; Fontius Fi[ate's exile and 

deach aC, 207 ; distance from, to 

Turin, 301 ; on the Arar and Rho- 

danus, 11. 1^4. 

Macaronicon, by John Donnc, I. 39. 
Maccabees, m.irtyrdom of che, 11. 340. 
Magantia, Alcxander, work o^ in 

Viccnia, 11. 12. 
Magi, see Kings of Cologne. 
Mag^icntius, Empcror, proclaimed at 



Chur 



II. 91. 



, statue of, in Verotia, II. 28. 
Mainc, river, at Frankfort, II. :". 
Malomocco, haven of Venice, i. 304 ; 

dweliing-place of thc Brst Dukes of 

Venice, near, 1. 418. 
Malta or Melita, S. Paul and the viper 

at, I. 412. 
Mammea,motherofAlexanderSeverus, 

death of, at Mayencc, 11. 281. 
Mandevile,SirJohn,'EngIishUlysses,' 

"■ 303- 



CORYAT'S CKUDITIES 



Manes, the heretic martyr in Persia, 

I. 363. 
Mannus, son of Tuisco, 11. 179. 
Mantua, Vicentius Gonzaga, Duke of, 

I. 231 ; Thomas Coryat at, a6i ; 
Scaliger^s verses on, 262 ; birth-place 
of Virgil, 263. 

Marcelliaus, Ammanianus, soldier of 
Julian the Apostaie, 11. 152 ; on the 
etymology 01 Palatinate, |[. 224. 

Marcomirus, king of Francc, and 
Cologne, II. 313. 

Maicus Aurelius, see Anloninus. 

Margarita, ^miliana, monastery, built 
by, near Venice, i. 387, 406. 

Margarite, wifc of Hermannus, earl 
of Henneberg, buried in Laudun 
monaster^, 11. 369. 

Maria Antiqua, church in Verona, 

II. 27. 

Marislella, Tliomas Coryat at, II. 136. 
Market place of Brescia, il. 43 ; at 

Chur, 91 ; in Verona, 29. 
Maron. a guide or conductor in Iialy, 

I. 226. 

Marot, French poet, 1, 31 nole, 42 

Marpurg, umversity of, 11. 71. 

Martin, Richard, sonnet lo Thomas 
Coryat by, I. 39 ; quotalion from a 
letter of, 10 Thomas Coryat, 239 ; 
letier from, to Sir Henry Woiton, 
1608, 377-379- 

Martock Manor, near Odcombe, in 
Somersetshire, II. 203. 

Martyr, Peter, the Vermilian, leamed 
man ofZuricb, 11. 98. 

Martyrs of Lyons, history of, by Euse- 
bius, bishop of Caesarea, 1. 207 ; of 
Brescia, ii. 46; of Zurich, 97 ; at 
Mayenee, 282 ; Theban, buried in 
S. Gereon's Church, Cologne, 342. 

Mary, Virgin, picture of, by S. Luke, 
the Evangelist, kept in Venice, 1. 355. 

Masauc, Earl of, and the confederatioo 
of Rhelia, 1424, 11. 90. 

Mattiaci, former inhabitantsof Zeeland, 

II. 372- 

Maturus, martyr at Lyons, 1. 207. 
Maurice of Orange, commander of the 

Neiherland armies, 11. 225 ; towns 

sacked by, 11. 352. 
Mauritius, Prince, at Cassels, and the 

Persian ambassadors, 11. S4. 



Maurocenus, Francis, last bishop tf 

Brescia in Coryat's time, 11. 43 
Maurocenus, Vincentius, Venttja 

knight, monument of, i. 38::. 
Maurus, Rabanus, abbot of Fulii^ 

11. 275. 
Maximiiian L, Emperor, and Vercni. 

II. 29. 
Maximilian II., statue of, in tU 

Senate House of Wortns, 11. 162. 
Maximinus and the murder of Alo- 

ander Severus at Mayence, 11. jSi. [ 
Maximus, bishop of Turin, 420, i. 231, 
Mayence, 11. 154 ; prefect of, aod ibi 

cilyofWorms, II. 263; descripnad 

of, 269 f. 
Maze, river in Celderland, 11, 353-, 
Medicis, Katharine de, description of 

hcr monument ai S. Denis, i. 184. 
Megander, Gaspar, leamed man cf 

Zurich, II. III. 
Meinhard, Earl of Tyrol and Gorid», 

II. 144. 
Mejus, Octavianus, Protestant prcachn 

!D Chiavenna, Ii. 65. 
MelancthoD, Philip, his opinion on tbe 

ctymology of Alemannia, 11. 179; 

reformed preacher, 335 ; on Deuti, 

34B ; verses on thc river Maine, 185. 
Melchior, first king, oifers gold, IL 

326. 
Meleager, epigram of, I. 229. 
Melissus, Paulus, poei and knight 

Palatine at Heidelberg, II. ija 
Menapii, former inhabitantsof Geldet- 

land, 11. 3S7. 
Meniana, or Italian lerracc, I, 307. 
Menii, see Mayence. 
Mercaior, Gerardus, buried at Duys- 

burg, II. 351. 
Merceria, streel in Venice, i, 328. 
Mercurys temple in Spires, 11. 150; 

demolished by Dagobert, 251. 
Metva river, near Dordrechi, 11. 365. 
Meiellus, Mlddleborough founded bc, 

11. 372. 
Mezolt, near Ancone Moiintain, U. 61. 
Micyllus, Jacobus, learned man ci 

Strasburg, II. 195 ; of StTasburE. 

to Joachimus Camerarius of Heidei- 

berg, 215. 
Middleborough m Walcheren island, 

n. 372; founded by Mctellus, 37] 1 

church, 373. 




Milan, Dukedom of, Spanish posses- 

sion, I. 239. 
Milan, Scaliget^s verses on, Thomas 

Coryat at, 1. 240 ; hislory of the 

foundation of, 241 ; Roman em- 

perots in, 251; govemors of, 253; 

disiance from, to Padua, 301 ; in 

Emperor Martin's lime, and Attita, 

305- 
Milberg Castle at Badeo, 11. 199, 306. 
Mimiingus river, Iributary of the 

Maine, 11. 3S5. 
Mincius river, I. 264. 
Mint of S. Mark's in Venice, descrip- 

tion of, I. 332; of Dordrecht, built 

by the Earl of Leicester, 11. 366, 
Mirandula, birth-place of Joannes 

Picus, I. 261. 
Misnia, Theodorus, Marquess of, and 

Frederick Barbarossa, 1166, I. 35^ 
Mithtidates, travels of, to Cappadocia, 

II. 74. 
Mocenigus, Duke of Venice, and 

HeDiy III., King of France, 1574, 

1.415- 
Modena, Duke of, i. 231. 
Modoetia, iron crown of the Lombard 

kings at, i. 252. 
Moenus river, see Maine. 
Mogonus, see Maine. 
Moguntia, or Moguntiacum, see May- 

Mohno, Clarisslmo of Venice, t. 393. 

MoUdus, Peter, Protestant preat^er 
at Charenton, I. 185. 

Momford, Thoroas, panegyric verses 
on Thomas Coryat by, 1, 77-78. 

Monasteries at Amiens, 1. 164; at 
Milan, 246; of Benedictine monks 
in Padua, description of, 287 ; of 
Benedictines in Venice, 380 ; at 
Lyons, 2I0 ; built by Margarita 
jCmiliana, near Venice, 387, 406 ; 
of Camaldulenses, near Verona, 11. 
16 ; in Verona, 35 ; of Carthusian 
monks at Cobleni, 305 ; ofDomini- 
cansin Vicenza,4 ; of Kiningsfelden, 
near Brooke, 139 ; Thomas Coryat 
at, 143 ; possession of Bema, 143 ; 
monks and nuns, fotinded by Em- 
press Eliiabeth, 147. 

Money, Venelian, i. 432, 

Monoitiches by Thomas Edwards, 
quotation tVom, 11. 56. 



Monsferratus, marquesses of, kings of 

Italy, I. 230, 
Montacute, Sir Edward Philippes of, 

II. 310. 
Montargis, Thomas Coryat at, i. 196. 
Montigny, M. de, Protesiant preachcr 

at Charenton, i. 185. 
Montmelian, strong castle at, L 319. 
Montmorency, M. de, high constable 

of France, I. 169. 
Montrescut, Porte de, at Amiens, 

1. 166. 
Montreuil, Thomas Coryat at, 1. IjS ; 

description of, 159. 
Monuments in Holy Chost Church, 

Ueidelberg, II. 3I3 ; in Spires 

cathedral, 333 ; to bishopsof Spires, 

in the calhedral, 246-247- 
Moore, Dr,, in Padua, and Thomas 

Coryat, i. 399, 
Morata, Olympia Fulvia, leamed 

Italian woman at Heidelbci^, II. 

239. 
Morbinlo in Rhetia, II. 63. 
Mosa river, near Dordrecht, 11. 365. 
Mosbach, George Eucharius, archiiect 

in Worms, 11. 262. 
Mosella, the, 11. 154 ; spring of, at 

Langres, 305. 
Moulins, description of a fair at, I. 3ol. 
Moonlebanks, i. 267 ; in Venice, 409. 
Mount Falcon, near Paris, gallows on, 

I. 170. 
Mowse Turn, in the Rhine, 11. 298. 
Mgnatius Plancus, cities founded by, 

I. 303. 
Mimster, Sebastian, Cosmography by, 

I. 421 ; II. 109 ; quotation froro, 152, 

153; professorat Basle, 171; leamed 

man of Heidelberg, 239 ; on Deuti, 

348 ; etymology of the word Spires, 

333 ; Cosmography and the Jesuits 

of Spires, 249. 
Murano, fabrication of Venetian glass 

at, I. 387. 
Music, beauiiful, in Venice, i. 390. 
Musto, Paulo j^milio, and ihe epitaph 

of Antenor, I. 271. 

Naha river, tributary of the Rhine, 

II- 295. 
Nancy, battle of, between Charles, 
Duke of Burgundy and the Swi 

1477, II- 103- 




CORYArS CRXIDITIES 



Narses, Eunuch, and the c 



ning t 



the Longobards in Italy, i. 237; 

Padua repaired by, c. 550, I. 173- 
Naupacius, see Lepanto. 
Neccarus, see Neclcar. 
Neckar river, at Heidelberg. 11. 154, 

Jo8. 
Nemeles. Spires inhabiled by people 

called, II. 231. 
Ncmetum, see Spires. 
Neobourg oa ihe Rhine, 11. 176. 
Neomagus, see NLmeEUen.j 
Neihertands, Thomas Coiyat in the, 

H- 3>i-3?6; eating customs m the, 

360 ; overfioodings of, 364. 
Nevers, Thonias Coryai at, his de- 

scription of, I. 198-200. 
Nevill, Henry, of Abergavenny, pane- 

gyric verses on Thomas Coryat by, 

1.26. 
Nicaea, council of, in Biihynia, i. 368. 
Nicoletis, Joannes, friend of Thomas 

Coryal in Vicenza, 11. 13. 
Nicrus, see Neckar. 
Nilus, crocodiles in, I. 291. 
Nimcguen by the Wahalis, 11. 154; 

Thomas Coryat at, 357 ; distance 

from, lo Dordrechi, 376 ; founder of 

Worms, 156. 
Ninus, king of the Assyrians, 11. 183, 

256. 
Noah, Tuisco, son of, and Areria, 

11. 178. 
Norimbet^, the Pegnetius river at, 

11. 285. 
Normanus at Cologne, 11. 348. 
Notre-Dame of Paris, sce Church. 
Novalaise, in Piedmont, 1. 22$. 
Novara, firsi ciiy of the dukedom of 

Milan, 1. 239; battte between French 

and Swiss at, 1500, Z39. 
Noviomagus, see Nimeguen. 
Nunneries, at Amiens, I. i63;at Brescia 

built by King Desiderius, 750, il. 

4^ ; at Zurich, founded by Ludovicus, 

kmg of Germany, 853, gg. 

Odcombe, dislance from, 10 London, 

I. 301 ; to Venice, 11. 376. 
Olevian, Gaspar, preacher at Heidel- 

berg, 11. 229. 
Olivet, represeniationof Mount, it) the 

cloister of Spires caihedral, 11. 248. 
Ome, German 1 



Operinus, Joa 
1. 172., 



., printer of Bisle, 



Oppenheira, neax Wonns, 11. M; 

death of Rupertus, king of ilst 

Romans al, 368 ; S. Caibcnac' 

Church in, 168. 
Ostrichcs, description of, 1. 190. 
Olho, Viscouni of Milan, his siogie 

combat with Volucis, 1. J45, 
Otho thc Great, batlle of, wilh his aui 

Ludolphus, II. zSo; with Ebe- 

hardus, at Andemach, 307. 
Owen, John, epigram a.nd distichonon 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 74. 

Padua, buili by Antcnor, i, 138,170: 
Scaliger^s decastichon on, descrip- 
lion of, 270; past history of, 273; 
monuments of, iSt ; djstance from, 
lo Venicc, 301 ; in Etnperor Mir- 
tian's lime, and Atlil^ 305 ; subjecc 
to Venice, 420 ; Lord Wentworlh 
and Thomas Coryat al, II. I. 

Pados, see Po. 

Page, Samuel, panegyric verses oo 
Thomas Coryal by, I. 76-77, 

Pajellus, Livius, orator of Vicenia.iLB. 

Palace of the Viscounts of Milwi, 
description of, I, 245 ; of the Dufce; 
of Maniua, 165 ; of Padua, descrip- 
tion of, 274 ; of the bisbop of Padiu, 
293 : of Earl Leonardus Walmaiana 
in Viccnia, 11. 4, 5 ; of Odoricai 
Capra, 9, ti ; of the Scaligers, ai 
Verona, 25 ; of Counl Augustinus 
Justus in Verona, 35 ; of Breidi, 
41 ; palaccs of Brescia, 46 ; of tbe 
bishop of Bergamo, 53 ; of iIk 
princc at Heidelberg, 214; of the 
bishop of Worms, 257. 

Palaces in Venice, i. 308 ; of iheDutt 
of Vcnice, 318 ; descrjption of, 33} 

Palatinate, Lower, Heidelberg, meno- 
politan city of, II. 307. 

Palatine princes, ritles of, 11. uj; 
eiymology of, 224. 

Palavicino, Sir Horatio, II. 62. 

FalaeDlogus,Constantine,lastChristian 
Emperor of Constaniinople. ha 
opinions on Padua, 1453, i. 174. 

Patladio, Andrea, architect of Vicena 
theatre, 11. ^. 

Palma Caslle in Forum Julii, Venetiia 
possession, i. 410. 





INDEX 



Panicke, lulian corn, i. 234. 
Pannonin, the Longobards in, I. 337. 
Pantaieon, Henry, philosopher and 

ph^ician of Basle, at Daden, II. 143 ; 

epiiaph of, at Basle, [62. 
Panuinius, Onuphrius, friar, and Pope 

Joan, |[. 2S2. 
Papia, capital of the Longobardes, t. 

338. 
Pareus, David, professor of divinity m 

Heidelberg, 11. 330. 
Paris, Thomas Coryat at, I. 170-182; 

Scaliger^s verses in praise of, 170; 

distance from, to Lyons, 301 ; on 

the Seijuana, It. 154. 
Participitius, Angelus, Dukeof Venice, 

builds the palace of the Dukes, 809, 

'■ 333- 
Paul, Friar, of the Order of Serviies, 1. 

380. 
Paulus, siatue of, at Padua, i. 379. 
Pavia, 1. 238 ; Charles V. and Francis 

L at, I. 255. 
Pavy, see Pavia. 
Pawlet, John, of (jeorge Henton, 

Eanegyric verses on Thomas Coryat 
y, I, 6i. 
Paylon, John, pancgyric verses on 

Thomas Coryal by, I. 39. 
Peacham, Henry, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, 1. 113*115. 
Pearch, measun^ II. 24. 
Peel, Antony, hanged in effigy, i. 168. 
Pegnetius river, iributary of the Maine, 

11. 385. 
Pellicanus, Conradus, leamed man of 

Heidelberg, 11. 329. 
Pepin, King, and S. Zeno's monument 

in Verona caihedral, 11. 33 ; monu- 

ment of, 33 ; and the ecdesiastical 

affairs of Gerraany, z6o ; of France, 

residence of, at Worms, 764, 364. 
Persica, Sibylla, prophecy of, II. 359. 
Pcschiera, Venetian forl at, 11. 39. 
Petrarch, Francis, canon of Padua, I. 

395 ; his library lefi to ihe Senaie 

of Venice, 331. 
Petrengo, Vincentius de, Dominican 

Friar of Bergamo. and Thomas 

Coryat, II. 57- 
Peucerus, Gaspar, on ihe etymology 

of Sabaudi, 1, 118 ; etymology of the 

word Spires, 11. 333 ; on the etymo- 

logy of Palatine^ II. 324. 



Pfaltz, castle in the Rhine, II. 324. 
Phaesulae, near Florence, I. 305. 
Philip Auguslus, and Ihe Louvre, 

c. 1214, I. 173. 
Philip IL, king of Spain, his picturein 

Venice, L 42;. 
Philip VI. of Valois, Klng of France, 

and the title of Dauphin, 1328, I. 

194. 
Philip, twenty-fourth German Em- 

peror, son of Frederick Barbarossa 

and Beatrix, 11.33$ '• Straaburg taken 

by, I300, II. 193. 
Philip, Count Palaline, and Ihe palacc 

of Heidelberg, 11. 217, 
Philippes, Sir Edward, master of the 

rolls, 11. 310. 
Philippus Arabs, tirst Christian em- 

peror, death of, ai Verona, 11. 37. 
Phillips, Robert, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, i. 30-31. 
Phillips, Sir Edward, Thomas Coryat's 

patron, i. 317 ; 11. 370. 
Phrygia, Sibylla, prophecy of, II. 3;S. 
Picardy, province of, I. 157. 
Pickeney, see Picquigny. 
Picquigny, in Picardy, Thomas Coryat 

at, i. 160, 164. 
Picus, see Mirandula. 
Piersey, John, bishop of Salisbury, 

archbishop of York, epitaph of, by 

George Coryat, 11. 403. 
Pisa, in Etruria, Henry VII., eraperor 

of Germany at, 11. 146. 
PiscaCor, Joannes, learned man of 

Strasburg, II. 195, 
Pius IL, Pope,epitaph by, 11, 166-167; 

university of Basle founded by, 170. 
Pizighiton, Francis L, king of France, 

prisoner at, 1. 255. 
Plancus, Munatius, Augusta Raura- 

corum buili by, 11. i;3; siatue of, 

inBasle, is6. 
Plato, travels of, I. 138 ; travels of, to 

Egypt, II. 74. 
Flinius Secundas, elogium of, in Corao, 

II. 64. 
Plutarch. quotation from, i. 2;i, 3:1. 
Po, or Padus, or Eridanus, river in 

Turio, I. 330. 
Podestk, Magistrate, ruling the land 

cities subject to Venice, 1 419. 
Poggios, cbe Floreniine, n. 81. 143, 

349- 



4 



CORYAT*S CRUDITIES 



Polanus, Amandus, a Polensdorf of 

Basle, II. 167. 
Pc^tianus, Angelus, epistle from, to 

Cardinal Jacobus, li. 177. 
Polma, Huldricus de, and the murder 

of Emperor Albert, li. 145 ; death of, 

at Basle, 146. 
Polycarpus, bishop of Smyma, i. 209. 
Polyodopolis, Attila's name for Stras- 

burg, II. 184. 
Pompey, travels of, i. 138. 
Ponds, carp, at Fontainebleau, i. 187. 
Pontanus, Ludovicus, at the council of 

Basle, 1439, II. 166. 
Pont de Beauvoisin, Thomas Coryat 

at, I. 215. 
Pont de Nieullet, at Calais, 1. 156. 
Ponte de Rialto, description of, i. 309. 
Pontius Pilate, exile and death of, at 

Lyons, i. 207. 
Poole, Henry, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 29-3^ 
Portraits in palace of Augustinus 

Justus, II. 35. 
Posihutna fragmenta poematum of 

George Coryat, II. 377-407. 
Pots, Mr., preadier at Flushing, 11. 

^375- 

Praepositura, sacked by freebooters, 

II. 309- 
Praetorium of Vicenza, description of, 

II. 3- 
Prefects, Roman, instituted by Julius 

Caesar in Gaul, il. 283. 
Prettigoia, confederation of Rhaetia, 

signed at, 1470, il. 90. 
Prince Royall^ the English ship, i. 359. 
Prison, State, in Venice, l. 357. 
Procurator of S. Mark, dignity in 

Venice, l. 419. 
Prosdocimus, first apostle of Padua, l. 

293 ; first apostle of Vicenza, il. 13. 
Psalms, preface to a book of, translated 

by George Coryat, 11. 385. 
Ptolomaeus, Geographie by, II. 256. 
Puckering, John, George Coryat to, ll. 

400. 
Pulpit in Spires cathedral, ll. 244-246. 
Pulpits in Mayence cathedral, il. 273. 
Punishments m Switzerland, 11. 107. 
Pythagoras, travels of, to Italy, 11. 74. 



Quin, Walter, panegyric verses on 
Thomas Coryat by, l. 54-56. 



Radagisus, king of the Goths m Italf, 

1.305. 
Ragatz in Switzerland, n. 92. 
Ramus, Peter, quotation firom, n. S4. 
Rapperswyl, Jonn of Habspuig at,iL 

108. 
Rathaus in Cologne, description o( a 

343- 
Ravilliacke, murderer of Heniy IV, 

I. 168. 

Rees, Coryat at, ll. 350 ; diardi o( 

355- 
Regius, Raphael, of Padua, i. 298. 

Ramagan, sacked by freebooters, u. 

309. 
Rezuns, Baron o^ and the coofeden- 

tion of Rhetia, 1424, 11. 90. 
Rhaetia, geographicsd divisions o( IL 

63 ; Thomas Cor^at at, 63-70, 87-88; 

confederations o^ 90. 
Rhaetus, king of Tuscia, and the name 

of Rhetia, IL 63. 
Rheinfelden city, Thomas Coryat at, 

II. 151. 

Rhenanus, Beatus, on tbe etymok)gy 
of Palatinate, II. 224. 

Rhene-Barke, Thomas Coryat at, 
II. 352. 

Rhenes in Litde Britaine, Court of 
Parliament, l. 179. 

Rhine, at Basle, 11. 153; Thomas 
Coryat on, 176 ; cataract or water* 
falls on the, 302 ; bisboprics on the 
left side of the, 335 ; river in Gelder- 
land, 357. 

Rhine Valley and River, ii. 68, 87. 

Rhodanus river, l. 205 ; li. 154. 

Rialto, Joannes Bonus, first dweller di 
the, m Venice, i. 304 ; Ponte dc, 
309 ; or Exchange of Venice, 312 ; 
temporary dwellmg-place of some 
Dukes of Venice, 418. 

Rice-bank at Calais, i. 15$. 

Richard I., king of England, elected 
Emperor of Germany at Wonna^ 
II. 266 ; and the tolls and taxes in 
Germany, 295 ; Boppard town caip- 
tured by, 304. 

Richlindus, wife of Eckenbertus 
Kemerer, first Abbess of the Franc- 
kendal monastery, 11. 252. 

Richmond, Robert, panegyric verses 
on Thomas Coryat by, i. 50-54. 

Ridouts, or forts near the Waell, 11. 563. 



428 



Rivole, or Rivoli, Thomas Cor>'at at, 

I. 227. 

Robertellus, Francis, of Padua, I. 298. 
Roch Melow or Molom, high moun- 

lain near Novalaise, i. 22;. 
Rodolph, eldest son of Emperor Alberl, 

II. 144. 

Rodolph 11., statue of, in the Senatc 

HouseofWorms, 11. 262. 
Rodolphus, Count Palaiine, 1209, 

11. 212. 

Rodolphus, Duke of Swabia, Earl of 

Rheinfelden, 11. i;i. 
Rodolphus, Earl of Hapsbui^, kiag of 

the Romans, 11. 138 ; 32nd German 

Emperor, 235 ; and the conquest of 

Turlowe, 205. 
Romans, travels of, to Marseilles, u. 

74- 
Rooke, George, Thomas Coryal's 

friend, i, 272 ; Thomas Coryat's 

friend ai Padua, Ii. 1. 
Rosamund, Queen, 11. 38. 
Rosne, M. de, govemor of Graveling, 

I. 156. 

Rotenburg, the Tuberus river at, 11. 

285. 
Rouen in Nonnandy, Coun of Parlia- 

ment, i. i79- 
Row, Sir Henry, Lord Mayor of 

London, II. 293. 
Row, Thomas, and Thomas Coryat at 

Frankfort, 11. 293. 
Rowland, and the Cleft Rock, near 

S. George's, 1. 227- 
Roy, M. de la, French Protestant, and 

Thomas Coryat, I. iSo. 
Rudiger, bishop of Spires, II. 231. 
Rufach in Alsatia, 11. 181. 
Ruffinus, 11. t68. 
Rugia Istand, and ihe Longobards, 

1- 137. 
Rupelmunda, birthplace of Mercator, 

II. 3S'- 

Rupertus, duke of Alemanny and the 
nunnery of Zurich, 11. 99. 

Rupertus, the elder, founder of the 
cnurch of the Holy Ghost, and of 
the university, Heidelberg, c. 1346, 
II. 212, 227 ; king of the Romans, 
death of; at Oppenheim, 11. 268. 

Ruremunda, Lindanus, Bishop of, 
II. 368. 



S. Albanus Church at Mayence, 11. 281. 
S. Ambrose, bisbop of Milan, and 

Theodosius I., I. 242. 
S. Andr^, Thomas Coryal ai, 1. 223, 
S. Anthony of Padua, I. 286. 
S. ApoUinaris, bishop of Ravenna, tirst 

apostle of Brescia, 1 19, 11. 46 ; near 

Basle, 172- 
S. Bamabas, Milan converted to 

Christianity by, i. 244 ; first apostle 

of Bergamo and Milan, II. 49. 
S. Barihelmew, martyr in Albania, 

■- 363- 
S. Bartholomew^s Church in Frank> 

fort, II. 289. 
S. Bernard, abbot of Clarai-al in Bur- 

gundy, his salutation 10 the Virgin, 

II. 236-337 ; his letter to the Bishop 

of Spires aboul the first Crusade, 

1094, 238 ; translation of his letter 

to the Bishop of Spires, 239-144 ; 

friendship of, with Hildegardis, 296. 
S. Brixe, Thomas Coryat at, I. 168. 
S. Croce, quarter in Venice, 1. 306. 
S. Denis, firsi apostle of the Gauls, 

I. 169 ; shrine of, near Paris, Thomas 

Coryat at, 169, 182, 185. 
S. Erasmo, haven of Venice, 1. 304. 
S. Georges in Ilaly, Thomas Coryat 

at, I. 227. 
S. Geran, Thomas Coryat ac, 1. 201. 
S. Gereon, martyr in Cologne, li. 343, 
S. Gewere, on the Rhine, u. 301 ; 

merry custom at, 302. 
S. Goar, see S. Gewere, 
S. Gregory, martyr in Cologne, 11. 342. 
S. Jean de Mauricnne, Thomas Coryat 

at, i. 223. 
S. John Baptist's Day in Piedmont, 

I-234- 
S. John's village in the firembana 

Valley, Thomas Coryat ai, 11. 6t. 
S. Lewis,king of France and the bishop 

of Vicenza, II. 4. 
S. Liew, Thomas Coryat at, 1. 168. 



S. Marco, quarter in Venice, I. 306 ; 
nnarket-place of, description of, 314 ; 
piazta of, dcscription af, 323. 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



S. Mark, the cfMge fat, Py ° ? ^ 

Veoke, his bodj braaglit hvm 

AleBmdria, 8ia» i. 354- 
S. Mary^s Chordi in Wcma, n. iol 
S. Matenms» fim jmosde of Scras- 

barg, IL 193; nrst aposde of 

Cologne, 310, 334- 
S Michael Mooastery,iiear S.Geoigc% 

S Panl and the Tiper in Maka, L 412 ; 

place in Venice, 385. 
S Polo, qnarter in Vcnice, L 3061 
S Reinoldns, archhishop of Cologne, 

IL 331. 
S. Sapborine de Lay, Thooias CorTat 

at, L 201. 
S. Stephen, first martyr, tomb oi^ in 

Venice, L 381 ; place in Vcnicc, 

games i^ycd in, 3^85. 
S. Tmycn, on the Rhinc, li. 353. 
S. XjTsabkj history of, IL 336 ; chnrch 

cij in Cologne, 337. 
S. Zcno, bisbop and patron saint of 

Verona, IL 32 ; monamcnt oi^ in 

Vciona Cathcdral, 33. 
Saba, Qoccn oi^ anccstry oi, IL 

Sabaodi, pcoplc of 5^voy, ctynKMC^ 

of thc namc, i. 218. 
Sackficld, Thomas, Dorsctshirc-man, 

scttlcd in Frankfort, IL 291. 
Sage, Pctcr, Coryafs fcllow travcllcr, 

n. 3SO. 
Sala rivcr in Saxony, l. 237. 
Salamis, scc Famagusta. 
Salt mincs at Hallcs, n. 144. 
Salust, quotation from, l. 421. 
Samia, Sibylla, prophecy of, II. 258. 
Sanctus, mart>T at Lyons, l. 207. 
Sangona, Latin namc of ri^xr Sonc, 

I. 205 ; Thomas Coryat at, 268. 
Sansovinus, Jacobus, statues of the 

tower of S. Mark, made by, l. 328. 
Santo, see Anthon/s Church. 
Sapor, King of Pcrsia, and Empcror 

Valerian, l. 349 note. 
Sarbini, Arnaldi, bisbop of Nevers, 

1592, 1. 2ca 
Sariana, Torellas, and the antiquities 

of Vcrona, n. 21. 
Sartorius, Joanncs Antonius, and 

Thomas Coryat, i. 256, 258. 
Sarum, Thomas Coryat at, l. 293. 
Sassam in Rhaetia, 11. 68. 



tranrdlery o. 350C 

vyat in, L 215-My; 
218; CnnilyofdieM 

0^23«- 

FomkfiHt, n. lA 

Scahgcr« Ccn Gnmde, n. 29. 
Scafigcr, Oawns SigiiQfioSy statoe (% 

IL 28L 

Scafigcr.Jomies GalentiDS, I $96^0.39. 

Scafigcr, Jalias CacsajTy his venes n 

AHucns, I. 161 ; his hernlirhnB ii 

of Pnris, 170 ; of Lyoos, 205; 

ociostiriioii, on Tnrin, 229 ; 1b 




257 ; his vcises a 
Mantna, 262 ; decasticfaon 00 P^ 
270 ; Teiscs on Vcnice^ 301 ; vcnes 
OQ Wcnin» n. 3 ; verscs on Vcnn, 
16 ; palace of the, 25 ; moomDCBls 
of the,27; hensti<iioo on Bresdi, 
41 ; Tcrscs on Bagamo, 49 ; veiscs 
on HddelberK, ao7 ; vcrses <■ 
Frankfcrt, 2^-288; vcises ob 
Colcgne, 311. 

Scafigcr, Mastiiwwj statae ai, ii 
Vcrona, IL 27. 

Scandcrbcg, George Castriot, Kflf 
of Senria and Epims, statne (d, it 
Vcnicc, l. 36a 

Scoocnbcrg, Earl oi, at the Fraokfat 
£ur, II. 291. 

Scory, John, pan^yric Tcrses od 
Thomas Coryat by, i. 36. 

Scowcn island, in the NcthcrlaDds, 
II. 371. 

Scinc rivcr, or Sequana, L 171 ; u. 

154* 
Scmpach, battle oi, betwccn Leopok), 

Dukc of Austria, and die Swiss, 

IL 148. 
Scnate House of Wonns, ll. 261. 
Sencca, quotation firom, l. 204 ; wods 

of, IL 2ia 
Senis Mount, I. 222. 
Sequana, scc Scine. 
Scrrarius, Nicholas, Jesiut of Miy* 

cncc, n. 175, 274, 279. 
Scverus, Alcxander, £mperor, slain at 

Maycncc, ll. 281. 
Scward, John, Laurence Whitaka^ 

cpistlc to, I. 149. 
Shccp in Rhaetia, 11. 64. 



430 



INDEX 



Sian in Piedmonl, Thomas Coryat at, 

!■ 233- 
Sibyllae, prophecies of the, II. 357. 
Sicambri, fonner inhabitants of Gel- 

derland, ii- 3S7- 
Sidenham, Ceorge, his verses on 

Germany, II. 181-181. 
Sidney, Robert, Viscount Lisle, Govcr- 

nor of Flushing, il. 374. 
Sigismund, Emperor, and ihe Earldom 

of Baden, II. I3g;and the Dukedom 

of Savoy, I. ai8 ; and ihe Council 

of Basle, 1431, 11. 173. 
Simlerus. Josias, treatise by, 11. 91 ; 

leamed man of Zurich, 98, 11 1. 
Singers, Venetian, i. 391. 
Skinkel-sconce, in an island of the 

Rhine, 11. 356. 
Slade, Saniuel, of Merton College, 

praised by Archbishop Cabnel, 

I. 370. 
Sleidanus, Joannes, lcamed man of 

Strasburg, II. 195. 
Smaragdus,second exatch of Ravenna, 

Smith, Nicholas, panegyric verses on 

Thonias Coryai by, 1. 98. 
Smyma, Polycarpus, Bishop of, I. 209. 
Socrates, 11. 168. 
S0I, Venetian coin, value of, I. 389 ; 



tin c 



., 433. 



Solodurum, see Solodure. 

Solomono, mother of the Maccabees, 

II. 341. 
Solon, iravels of, to Asia, 11. 74. 
Sone (Sa6ne) river, or Arar, or San- 

gona, I. 205. 
Sophia, Empress, and Narses, i. 337. 
Sorbona, founded by Charles the 

Great, 796, 1. 171. 
Sorverden, Frederick, Comes de, arch- 

of Colo^e, 11. 331. 
Spianivetlis, Thomas of, friend of 

Thomas Coryat in Viccnia, 11. 13. 
Speronus, Spcronius, statue of, at 

Padua, I. 32 1. 
Spira or Spier, see Spires. 
Spira river at Spires, 11, 232. 
Spires, 11. 147 ; conflucnce of the 

Rhinc aod Neckar near, 309 ; 

Thomas Coryat at, II. 331-251 ; 



churches of, 233 ; cathedral of, 233 ; 
Attila at, 251 ; death of Adolph of 
Nassau near, 1298, 335 ; Allila at. 



251. 



Lir Lake 



Splugen, town a 

near, II. 67. 
Sladthaus of Flushing, 11. 374 ; of 

Nimeguen, 359. 
Stangi, Hcnry de, scholar of Herman- 

nus Kirehnerus, 11. 71. 
Statues in the Duke's Palace in Venice, 

I. 321 f ; of learned men in Verona, 

II. 37. 

Steinbach, Ervinus of, li. 182 ; archi- 

tect of Strasburg tower, 186. 
Stilico, Consul, and Radagisus, 1. 305. 
Stiver, dutch coin, II. 36;. 
Stones, huge, in Savoy, i. 321. 
Storks, descriptionof, 1. 189; at Flush- 

ing, 11. 374. 
Strangwayes, John, panegync verses 

□n Thomas Coryat by, I. 34-35. 
StrasbiJrg in Alsatia, II. 1S0-194 1 

bishop of, and Ziirich, 108 ; Attila, 

183; cathedral, 185; bishopric of, 

193 ; distance from, 10 Heidelberg, 

376. 
Strigelius, VicCorinus, professor at 

Heidelberg, 11. 229. 
Stuckius, Joannes Gulielmus, II. 98, 

100, 111, 19S. 
Suetonius, i. 307. 
Suevia, see Swabia. 
Suicardus, Joannes, archbishop of 

Mayence in Coryat's time, 11. 275. 
Sungovia, or Sequania in Switzerland, 

II. 151. 
Sunnazarius, Jacobus, reward bestowed 

by Venicc on, 1. 301. 
Susa. Thomas Coryat near, 1. 227. 
Sutdin, John, panegyric verses on 

Thomas Coryat by, I. 64. 
Swabia, Wimpina in, II. 208. 
Swice, prefect of. and William Tell, 

II. 101 ; at the help of Zurich, loS. 
Swiss at the batlle of Granson, 1476, 

I. 19Z. 
Switzcrland, Thomas Coryat in, II, 92 f ; 

boundaries of, 92 ; origin of thc 

Sydenham. George, panegyric verses 
on Thomas Coryat by, I. 65-67. 

Sylla river, in Switierland, witches* 
ashcs thrown in, 11. 107. 



CORYATS CRUDITIES 



Sylvins, iCneas, see Pius II. 
Synagogues in the Ghetto, description 
of; I. 371. 

Taberna, see Zabemia. 

Tacitus, on Baden, li. 137 ; qaotation 

from, 177 ; hisaccountof thefounda- 

tion of Cologne, 312. 
Tamberlane, Bajazet and, I. 349, note. 
Tarara^ Thomas Coryat at, I. 202. 
Tarentmus, Architus, wooden pigeon 

o^ II. 188. 
Targous island, in the Netherlands, 

IL 371. 
Tamous island, in the Netherlands, 

II. 371. 
Tarquinius Priscus, L 138, 241. 
Taruisium, see Treirsa. 
Tassell, William, Coryat^s fellow-travel- 

ler, II. 350. 
Tassilo, kin^ of Bavaria, condemned 

by king Pipin, 764, li. 264. 
Taylour, Thomas, galley-slave in 

Venice, i. 414. 
Teillo, Heraand, goveraor of Dourlans, 

I. 165 ; Amiens surprised by, 166. 
Telina, see Valtulina. 

Tell, William, history of, 11. loi £ 
Tenctheri, former inhabitants of 

^Vesel, II. 353. 
Tesino, see Ticino. 
Teusch, see Deutz. 
Teutonia, etymologies of, II. 178. 
Theatre of Vicenza, 11. 7, 9 ; at Verona, 

25- 
Thebes, built by Cadmus, i. 138. 

Thello, Bishop, and the cathedral of 

Chur, 770, II. 88. 
Themistocles, travels o^ l. 138. 
Theodoret, 11. 168. 
Theodosius I., S. Ambrose, bishop of 

Milan, and, l. 242. 
Theonestus, companion of S. Albans, 

II. 282. 

Theseus, travels of, I. 135. 

Tholosa, in Languedoc, Court of 

Parliament, l. 179. 
Thomannus, prefect of Zurich, and 

Thomas Coryat, li. 109. 
Tiber, overflowings of, 11. 19. 
Tiburtina, Sibylla, prophecy of, ll. 

2J9. 

Ticmo, river, l. 235. 
Tiel, on the Waell, il. 361. 



Tigurinas, Josias Simleros, 

by, L394. 
Tieurum, see Ziincli. 
Tilt-yard at Whitc^ial], ll. 24. 
Tinctoretus, see Tintoretto. 
Tintoretto, pictores in Venice bft 

L 342, 344. 
Titian, pictures c£, in Padoa, L 287; 

statues by, in Venice, 333. 
T^ 'Opift-^d, panegyric verses on Thoaas 

Coryat by, I. 81. 
Torture, public, in Venice, L 592. 
Tossana, Thomas Coryat at, ll. 67, 87. 
Totila, 5th king of Ravenna, L 289. 
Tour du Pin, see La Toor dn Pin. 
Tower of St Mark in Venice, de- 

scription of, L 325 ; of Vicenza, IL 4. 
Tower, James^Coryat^s fellow-traveDer, 

IL 3$a 
Trajan, Emperor, at Cologne, IL 349; 

his brid^e over the Danube, L 309 
Trapezuntius, Geoige, Greek orator, 

IL i$a 
Treasurer of the land cities subject to 

Venice, l. 42a 
Treasures of the French kings at 

S. Denis, l. 182. 
Trebeta, son of Ninos, king of tbe 

Assyrians, li. 183. 
Trebeta, Prince, founder of Mayence, 

11. 270. 
Tremellius, Emanuel, i. 374 ; preacher 

at Heidelberg, li. 229. 
Tremoville, commander of the French 

at the battle of Novara, 1500, L 

239. 
Trent, Bassanum, near, i. 273« 

Trevirs, one of the three oldest cities 

in Germany, ll. 183 ; founded by 

Prince Trebeta, 256 ; Strasborg, 

subjected to, 193. 
Trevisa, subject to Venice, l. 42a 
Triboces, former inhabitants of Alsada, 

II. 183. 
Triphone, the Jew, and Justinus, L 

209. 
Trithemius, John, and the writings of 

Bishop Maximus, I. 232. 
Triumphus BavaricuSy by Robert 

Turaer, ll. 233. 
Trontz, confederation of Rhetia, 1424, 

signed at, 11. 9a 
Traccessius, Gebhardus, archbishop c^ 

Cologne, IL 33$. 



432 



INDEX 



Tuberus river, tributary of the Maine» 

II. 285. 
Tuetanes, lord of Tuetonia, II. 178. 
Tuilleries, palace of the, I, 175. 
Tuisco, son of Noah and Arezia, il. 

178 ; and the foundation of Deutz, 

348. 
Tun, Great, of Heidelberg, ll. 218. 

Turegum, see Ziirich. 

Turgovia, 11. 96. 

Tunn, illness of Thomas Coryat at, I. 

229 ; Scaliger^s verses on, 229 ; his- 

tory of, 230 ; distance from, to 

Milan, 301. 
Turlowe in Baden, Marquisate of, II. 

199 ; Thomas Coryat at, 203 ; con- 

quered by Emperor Rodolph, 205. 
Tumer, Robert, Triumphus Bavaricus 

by, on Spires Cathedral, il. 233. 
Turre, limit of Vicenza and Verona, 

II. 15. 
Two Storks, inn at Ziirich, Thomas 

Coryat at, 11. 107. 
Tyrol, Meinhard, Earl of, 11. 144. 

Uberwinter, on the Rhine, Thomas 

Coryat at, li. 307. 
Ubii, founders of Cologne, il. 311. 
Ubiopolis, see Cologne. 
Ulissmgen, see Flushing. 
Ulmo, Thomas Coryat at, II. 61. 
Ulyshingen, see Flushing. 
Underwald, or Sylvania, in Switzer- 

land, II. loi ; at the help of Zurich, 

108. 
Universities in Germany, l. 8 ; ll. 76 ; 

of Basle, 11. 170; of Cologne, 348; 

of Heidelberg, 226; of Mayence, 

279 ; of Wittenberg, Martin Luther 

at, 194. 
Urban II., Pope, and the first Crusade, 

1094, II. 238. 
Urban IV., Pope, and the Corpus 

Christi day, l. 176. 
Urban VI., Pope,university of Cologne, 

founded by, 1588, 11. 348. 
Uri, or Urania, m Switzerland, li. loi, 

108. 
Ursinus, Zacharius, preacher at Heidel- 

berg, II. 229. 
Ursula river, Luceme on, 11. 154. 
Usumcassanes, kin^ of Persia, his 

presents to the Signiory of Venice, 

I. 356. 



Utrecht, death of Conradus IL at, ll. 
233; death of Henry V. at, 1125, 

235- 

Vadianus Glareanus, panegyric verses 

on Thomas Coryat oy, l. 86-95, ^'^ 

119. 
Valentinian, Emperor, II. 153. 
Valerian, Emperor, and Sapor, king of 

Persia, i. 349 note. 
Valerius, Albertus, bishop of Verona 

in Thomas Coryat's time, 11. 32. 
Valerius Brobus, Emperor, 11. 179. 
Valtulina Valley, il. 62. 
Vangionum, see Worms. 
Vau^han, Rowland, John, and William^ 

epitaph of, by George Coryat, il. 

406-407. 
Vegetius, on the army of ancient 

Rome, I. 212. 
Venice, Signiory of, Padua added to, 

by Gattamelita, 1402, i. 274 ; Gulf 

of, 303. 
Venice, description of, l. 301-428; a 

* maiden city,' 415 ; government of^ 

417 ; possessions of, 420 ; Coryafs 

departure from, II. 1 ; distance from, 

to Ancone mountain, 11. 375. 
Venus's temple in Spires, demolished 

by Dagobert, il. 251. 
Vercellis in Piedmont, S. John 

Baptist's day in, i. 234. 
Verona, subject to Venice, l. 420 ; 

Scaliger^s verses on, Thomas Coryat 

at, II. 16 ; description o^ 17-40, 

154. 
Veronne, forest of, near Abbeville, l. 

160. 
Verses, paneg>Tic, on Thomas Coryat, 

I. 22-121. 
Vespasianus, Flavius, Roman prefect 

at Mayence, 11. 283. 
Vic, M. de, govemor of Calais, 1608, 

I. 152. 
Vicenza, subject to Venice, l. 420; 

Scaliger^s verses on, 11. 2 ; descrip- 

tion of, 3 ; Attila at, 12 ; on the 

Bacchilio, 1^4. 
Vicetia, see Vicenza. 
Victor, archbishop of Worms, and 

the Council of Cologne, 348, ll. 

260. 
Vienna, inhabited by Allobroges, l. 

218. 



C.C II 



433 



as 



CORYAT'S CKUDITIES 



Viiicentia, see ^cenza. 

Vmeyards and whie bouses in SaToy, 

L 219 ; in Piedmont, 233. 
Virdungus, Joannes, mathematician in 

Heidelberg, IL 229. 
Yirgil, at Cremona, L 260 ; his verses 

on Mantua, 262 ; Mantua, birth- 

place o^ 263 ; quotation from, IL 

176U 
Virginius, Rufus, Roman prefect at 

Mayence, 11. 283. 
Visdossein, M. de, govemor of Calais, 

L 156. 
Vo^ hill in Burgundy, L 171. 
Voitlandia, Maine river rises in, il. 284. 
Volucis, Otho, Viscount of Milan, his 

single combat with, I. 246. 
Vopiscus, Flavius, historiographer, 11. 

183. 
Voragine, Jacob de, and the legend of 

S. Denis, l. 169. 
Vorpillere, Thomas Coryat at, i. 214. 
Vulteius, travels o^ i. 130. 

Wael, river, in Gelderland, il. 357. 
Wahalis, Nimeguen by the, n. 154; 

branch of the Rhine, 177. 
Walanus, first bishop of Basle, 704, 

II. 172. 
Walastat in Switzerland, Thomas 

Coryat at, IL 91, 93. 
Walcheren island, towns in, 11. 372. 
Walks, vaulted, in Padua, i. 298. 
Walmarana, Earl Leonardus, palace 

ofi in Vicenza, 11. 4. 
Wan, Joannes de, last bishop of Basle, 

1365, IL 172. 
Wamer, Michael, builder of the great 

tun of Heidelberg, 11. 219. 
Wart, Rodolphus de, and the murder 

of Emperor Albert, IL 145 ; death of, 

146. 
Wasalia, Joannes de, leamed man of 

Wesel, 11. 301. 
Wesems, Gaspar, of Zurich, ll. 100 ; 

Thomas Coiyat^s epistles to, 1 1 3- 1 2 1 ; 

epistle from, to Thomas Coryat, 

122-123. 
Watchman in the Netherlands, n. 355. 
Weda, Hermannus Comes a, arch- 

bishop of Cologne and the Reform, 

"• 335. 
Wentworth, Mary, monument of, at 

Calais, L 154. 



Wentworth, Lord, Thomas Cofyaiai, 

at Padua, IL i. 
Wemerus, martyred child in V^esa, 

1287, IL 3oa 
Wemharius, first bishop of WoraB»iB 

the time of Charles the Great, Q. 

261. 
Wesel, Higher, Thomas Coryat it, 

IL 3oa 
Wesel, Under, in Cleveland, IL 352. 
Wheel, Tormentor^s, near BoologBe, 

L 159. 
Whippings, public, at Lyons, l. 213 
Whitaker, Laurence, panegyric voses 

on Thomas Coryat by, L 40-43; 

Elogie of Coryat^s Cradities, 149. 
Whittelbach, Otto Palatine o( £m* 

peror Philip murdenKl by, 120S, 

IL 23S. 
Wiesa river at Basle, 11. 153, 155. 
William, Earl of HoUand and Zelaod, 

monuments to, in Nfiddlebofoogh, 

11. 373. 
William, Prince of Orange, £ither of 

Ludovica, wife of Frederic^ IV^ 

IL 225. 
Willigisus, bishop, founder of tbe 

cathedral of Mayence, c loii, il 

271. 
Willingus, Joannes, preacher at Heidel* 

berg, 11. 229. 
Willoughby, student in Padua, and 

Thomas Coryat, i. 299. 
Wimier, Carolus, of the Pracmon- 

stratenian Order, and Thomas 

Coryat, L 161. 
Wimpina in Swabia, 11. 208. 
Windows, French, i. 197 ; of Lyons, 

204 ; size of, in Rhaetia, 11. 69. 
Wines, variety of, in Venice, i. 424. 
Wirtemberg, Earl of, and Zurich, 11. 

108. 
Wisdom, CoIIege of, at Heidelberg, 

IL 227. 
Witches bumt in Ziirich, 11. 107. 
Wittemberg, University of, Martin 

Luther at, II. 194. 
Woldmda, wife of king Pipin, 11. 

349. 
Wolphangus, Count Palatine, 15581 

II. 212. 
Wolphius, Joannes, printer of Basle, 

IL 172. 
Worcom, on the Waell, 11. 361. 



434 



INDEX 



Wormacia, see Worms. 

Worms, Joannes Dalburgius, bishop 

of, II. 229 ; Thomas Corvat at, 252- 

268 ; description of, 255 f. 
Worsley, James and Anne, epitaph of, 

by George Coryat, ll. 405. 
Worsley, Richard, epitaph of, by 

George Coryat, 11. 404-5. 
Wotton, Sir Henry, English ambas- 

sador in Venice, l. 272, 332 ; praised 

by Archbishop Gabriel, 370 ; letter 

from Richard Martin to, 377-379. 

Xylander, Gulielmus, philosopher in 
Heidelberg, li. 229. 

Yaxley, Robert, panegyric verses on 
Thomas Coryat by, I. 34. 

Zabarella, Francis, of Padua, I. 298. 
Zabemia, or Tabema, seat of the 

bishops of Strasburg, II. 193. 
Zamolxis, travels of, I. 128. 
Zanchius, Hieronymus, famous prea- 

cher of Bergamo, li. 60. 



Zani or Zanus, Sebastianus, Duke of 
Venice, 1 166, i. 349 ; and his be- 
trothal to the sea, 11 74, 359. 

Zante island, or Zacynthos, I. ^20. 

Zanus, Petrus, Duke of Venice, and 
the lions of S. Mark^s, l. 348. 

Zara, subject to Venice, l. 421. 

Zebenico, subject to Venice, l. 421. 

Zedechias, Jewish physician, 872,1. 267. 

Zeno, Joannes Baptista, Cardinal, his 
tomb in S. MarVs Church, Venice, 

Zirixee, in Scowen island, ll. 371. 

Zogno, Thomas Coryat, 11. 61. 

ZoUem, John, £arl of, aeath of^ ll. 148. 

Zuinggems, professor of Greek at 
Basle in Coryafs time, il. 170. 

Zuinglius, pastor of Zurich, ll. 109, 
iii. 

Ziirich, II. 96 ; lake of, II. 94 ; history o^ 
94 ; description of, 95-112 ; Thomas 
Coryat leaves, 136 ; on the Limacus, 
1 54 ; one of the three oldest cities 
in Germany, 183 ; distance from, to 
Basle, 376. 



435 



CORYAT'S CRUDITIES 



Tke following list of Erraia is reprifUed from the original edition. 

ERRATA. 

In the first Oration of Kirchnerus for plency read plenty, ibid. fbr 
contained r. contemned. ibid. for matters r. manners. pag. i6. lin. 30. for 
hairse r. haire. p. 21. 1. 4. for hore r. horse. p. 23. I. 14. for videt r. 
vidit. p. 29. 1. 14. for subdio r. sub dio. p. 35. 1. 15. for preambulating r. 
poambulating. p $8. 1. 31. for from r. ta p. 63. 1. 17. for prestin r. 
pristin. p. 136. 1. 33. for remited r. remitted. p. 149. 1. 35. for atten- 
tator r. attentato. p. 161. 1. 16. for Vinetia r. Venetia. p. 162. 1. 24. for 
twenty r. twentieth. p. 163. L 16. for fourty r. forty. p. 167. 1. 6. for 
breath r. breadth. p. 202. 1. 33. for ratriae r. patriae. p. 206. l. 17. for is 
r. it p. 257. I. 27. for shall r. shalt p. 271. 1. 30. for maner r. manners. 
p. 308. L 16. for sounded r. founded. p. 312. L 21. for Sariana r. Saraina. 
p. 297. L 17. for Lordships r. Mannors. p. 38 j. L 3. for sacers r. sakers. 
In the last line of one of the pages of my latm Epistle to Buelerus for 
connere r. continere. p. 397. L 19. for afterwaed r. afterward. p. 419. L 
16. for wood r. forrest p. 422. L 7. for ipsam r. ipsum. p. 438. L i. for 
opposing r. opposed. p. 467. L 18. for Cassia r. Hassia. p. 492. L 9. for 
Saronie r. Saxonie. p. 495. L 2. for who read which. p. 509. L 14. for of 
r. or. p. 522. L 30. for in r. of. p. 539. L 30. for canot r. cannot. p. 
573- L 3. for Princedomes r. Principalities. p. 578. L 3. for beuatifull 
r. beautifull. p. 581. L 34. for slave r. slue. p. 561. 1. 13. for nobis r. 
novis. p. 603. L 35. for inumerable r. innumerable. p. 621. 1. 13. for 
ength r. length. p. 623. 1. 24. for to r. two. p. 622. 1. 6. for belbi r. 
beUi. 

Other faults there are also in the booke at the least halfe a hundred 
(I beleeve) unmentioned in this place, which I intreate thee to winke at, 
and to expect a truer Edition, which I will promise thee shall make 
recompence for the errors now past. 



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