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Full text of "Postilla"

6 o^^ 



HARVARD UNIVERSITY 




LIBRARY 



OF THE 



Museum of Comparative Zoology 



/ / 



POSTILLA NOS. 1-50 



MARCH 1950 — JUNE 1961 



*«<>ft COMP ZOOL. 
LIBRARY 

APR 23 1968 

HARVARD 

university: 



PEABODY MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
YALE UNIVERSITY, NEW HAVEN, CONN. 



CONTEXTS 



List of Papers 



5 



Author Index 



List of New (yeiiera 



9 



List of Xew Species 



9 



List of Xew Subspecies 



10 



List of ^Lips and Illustrations 



11 



LIST OF PAPERS 

No. 

1. Notes on Indian Birds. III. Birds from Assam. S. Dillon 
Ripley. March, 1950. 

2. Rare Migration and Wintering Records from the Yucatan 
Peninsula. Raymond A. I'aynter, Jr. March. 19.50. 

.'3. A Small Collection of Birds from Argentine Tierra Del 
Fuego. S. Dillon Ripley. A^jril, 1950. 

4. A New Tanager from Mexico. Raymond A. Payntcr. Jr. 
May, 1950. 

5. A Large Pycnodont from tlic Niobrara Chalk. Joseph T. 
Gregory. Decembci', 1950. 

(). Notes on Indian Birds, IV. Some Recently Collected Birds 
from Assam. S. Dillon Ripley. February, 1951. 

7. New Passerine BiiiU fiom the In<h)-Chinese Subregion. 
H. G. Deignan. May, 1951. 

8. liassarisciis in Miocene Faunas and '' Pota niotlicriii nt 
Lycopoiaiu'icnm Cope." fl()>c|)li T. (iicgory and 'I'hcodoi-e 
Downs. May, 1951. 

9. Birds Collected and N'otcd Round Dhahran. Saudi Aral)ia. 
and Bahrein Island. S. Dillon Ripley. May. 1951. 

10. 'riiree Birds from the .Mountains of Muscat. S. Dillon 
Ripley. .November, 1951. 

11. Geographical Naiiation in (iarrula.v Saniiio Swinhoe. 
H. G. Deignan. March, 1952. 

12. A New Genus of Thrusji from Eastern Afric-a. S. Dillon 
Ripley. April, 1952. 

i:}. The Thrushes. S. Dillon Ripley. Scpteml)er, 1952. 

14-. A New Race of Black-Throated liabblcr from Assam. 

S. Dillon Ripley. December, 1952. 
15. Ttipothonur Scutes from Germany. JoNcph T. (iregory. 

May, 195:J. 
1(). TypothoruA' and Disnidtonuclms. Jose{)h T. (iregoiy. 

June, 1953. 
17. Notes on Indian liir(U. \ . S. Dillon Itipley. December, 

1953. 
IS. Three New Birds from the ^'ucat,in Peninsula, llaymond 

A. Paynter, Jr. ^[arch. 1954. 
19. Birds from Gough Island. S. Dillon Ripley. July. 1954-. 



C LIST OK I'Al'ERS 

No. 

20. Notes on Indian Birds, \1. Additional Comments on the 
Wren-Babbler, Spelaeornis. S. Dillon Ripley. July, 1954. 

21. A New Fruit Pigeon from the Philipi)ines. S. Dillon Ripley 
and D. S. Rabor. February, 1955. 

22. Additions to the Ornithogeography of the Yucatfin Penin- 
sula. Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. A})ril, 1955. 

2.*i. A New White-Throated S])inetail from Western Brazil. 
S. Dillon Rii)ley. October, 1955. 

24. A Thresher Shark from Long Island Sound. James E. 
Morrow. December, 1955. 

25. Avifauna of the Jorullo Region, Michoacan, Mexico. 
Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. March, 1956. 

26. Cuban liird Notes. S. Dillon Ripley and George E. 
Watson, 8rd. May, 1956. 

27. Meteorites in the Collections of Yale T'^niversity. Kurt 
Servos. September, 1956. 

28. The S])ecies of Xotharctns from the Middle Kocene. Peter 
Robinson. January, 195T. 

29. A Redefinition of the Subspecies of Fod'uituv Acutus. 
James E. Morrow. February, 195T. 

80. Notes on the Horned Coot, FnUca Connita Buna parte. 
S. Dillon Ripley. February, 1957. 

31. New Birds from the Western Papuan Islands. S. Dillon 
Ripley. March, 1957. 

32. Additional Notes on the Horned Coot, FuUca Cornuta 
Bonajxirte. S. Dillon Ripley. June, 1957. 

33. On a New Species of Anisops (Hemijitera, Notonectidae) 
from the Moluccas. G. F. Hutchinson. November, 1957. 

34. Notes on an Additional Fxamjole of the Fruit Bat, Sco- 
tonycteris Ophiodon Pohle. Alvin Novick. March, 1958. 

35. Notes on Indian Birds, ^TI. S. Dillon Ripley. April, 1958. 

36. On the D()ul)tful \'alidity of T(uhi)j)Jeus Hoeveni Pocock, 
an Indonesian Horseshoe Crab (Xiphosui'a ). Talbot H. 
\Vaterman. June, 1958. 

37. A Note on the Firethroat and the Blackthi-oated Robin. 
S. Dillon Ripley. Sei^tembcr, 1958. 

38. Connncnts on Birds from the Western Pa]nian Islands. 
S. Dillon Ripley. April, 1959. 



T.IST OF PAPERS 



No. 

39. On Makaira Nigricans of Lacepede. James E. Morrow, 
Jr. May, 1959. 

40. A New Si)ecies of Grammatofftoiiiias (Family Melano- 
stomiatidae) from the Western North Atlantic. James E. 
Morrow, Jr. May, 1959. 

41. Birds from Djailolo, Halmahera. S. Dillon Ripley. Sep- 
temher, 1959. 

42. Character Displacement in Indian Nuthatches (Siffo). 
S. Dillon Rii)ley. December, 1959. 

4'}. "^J^vo New liii'ds fi'om Angola. S. Dillon ]{i])lcy. January, 
19(50. 

44. Sinojxt from the Cuchara Formation of Colorado. Peter 
KohinsoM. February, 1960. 

45. \otes on the Embrvoloiry and Evolution of the Mciia- 
podes (Avcs: Galliformcs). (ieorge A. Clark, Jr. Febru- 
ary, 1900. 

4(). Fossil Am})hibians from Quarry Nine. Max K. Heclit and 
Rirliard Estes. June, 19(K). 

47. Additions to the Avifauna of Noi'thern Aiiirola. I. 
S. Dillon Ripley and Gcrd H. Hcinrich. July, 19(i(). 

48. Rodents and La^()morj)h.s from the Miocene Fort Lo^^an 
and Deep River Formations of Montana. Craifj ('. lilack. 
January, 19(51. 

49. Results of Research in the Antofa"'a>ta Ran<>es of Chile 
and liolivia. Luis Iv Pena and Ruth TatiMck. June, 19(51. 

50. The Avifauna of Mount Katan^lad. S. Dillon Rijjlev and 
D. S. Rabor. June, 19(51. 



AUTHOR INDEX 

Black, Craig C, ^S 

Clark, George A., Jr., JfO 

Deignan, H. G. 7, 11 

Downs, Theodore and Josepli T. Gregory, 8. 

Este.s, Richard and Max K. Hecht, J^U 

Gregory, Joseph T., 5, 15, 10 

Gregory, Joseph T. and Theodore Downs, 8 

Hecht, Max K. and Richard Estes, 4^^ 

Heini-ich, Gerd H. and S. Dillon Ripley, 4?' 

Hutciiinson, G. E., SJ 

Morrow, James ¥.., Jr., ^^, 29, 39, 40 

Novick, Alvin, 34 

Patrick, Ruth and Luis p]. Pena, 4^ 

Paynter, Raymond A., Jr., "2, 4, 18, 22, 25 

Pena, Luis E. and Ruth Patrick, 4^ 

Rabor, D. S. and S. Dillon Ripley, 21, 50 

Ripley, S. Dillon, 7, J, 0, 0, Id, 12, 13, 14, 17 , 19, 20, 23, 30, 

31, 32, 35, 37, 38, 41, 4^, -'iS 
Ri])ley, S. Dillon and Gerd H. Heinrich, ^7 
Ripley, S. Dillon and D. S. Rabor, 21, 50 
Ripley, S. Dillon and George E. Watson, 3rd, Hi 
Robinson, Peter, 28, 44 
Servos, Kurt, 27 
Waterman, Talbot H., 30 
Watson, George E.. .'3rd, and S. Dillon Itipley, 26 



8 



LIST OF NEW GENERA 



Comohatrachus aenigmatis, 4.6: 6 
Comoncciitro'ulca niirshi, Jf6: 8 
Modulatrlv, 7 J; 2 
\iglarodon, 48: 2 



LIST OF NEW SPECIES 

Amphora atacfniiaiKi, -j.9; 50 

Amphora holiriana, 4'^ ■ •'*1 

Amphora rarvajaUaua, 4'^' ^- 

Anisops sijlv'ta, -i-i : 1 

Dih/xon/tjs xcoodi, 4'^- 1'-^ 

Eumys vUensis, 4^- ^ 

Erythriira roloria, ■'>(): 18 

(irammatostomlas circularis, 4'^' 1 

Hadrodus marshi, •') : 1 

Mcgalagiis daxcsoni, 4^ : 17 

Mouarcha jnHanac, -iS : 9 

Xavicala afacainana, ^.9; 45 

Xat^icula carTajidunia var. carra jaliana. 'ff) : 45 

Xavicula 1/ii.s}}, 4-^ ■' -^^ 

XavicKla psciidosepta, J^i) : 49 

Xectarinia sororia, 4-^ ■' 2 

Xiglarodon kocrveri, 48-' 3 

Paciculns montanus, 4^ : 10 

Ptilinopus arcann.s, Jl : 1 

Serin/i.s m'nidanensis, ■')(>: 13 



9 



LIST OF XEW SUBSPECIES 

Acrklotheres crisiatellus funiidiis, 1: 4 
Aepypodius arfakianus m'lsoliensis, SI: \ 
Annnomanes deseri'i insidaris, 0: 6 
Anthnu s'niiUis travancorienfiis, 17 : 2 
Arhorophdit torqiieola interst'mcta, 6: 1 
CoUocalui esculent a nubihi, 41: 4* 
Crateroscelis murifui finnosa, SI: 3 
Dendrocolaptes certhia legtersi, 18: 1 
Dendrocopos darjellensis fumidus, 6: 3 
Diicnla hadia caroVniae, 17: 1 
Dumetella ghibrirostrifi cozitmeJana, 18: 3 
Eos squamnta attcnua, SI: 2 
Galerida crisfnta t]ioi>/si, 10: 1 
Garrnlcur sunnio comis, 11: 3 
Garrnlax sannio oblectans, 11:3 
Gerygone magnirostris occasa, 31: 3 
Horeites fiavolivaceons alexanderi, 6: 6 
Indicator xanthonotus fulvns, 6: 2 
Nectarinia sericea mariae, SS : 13 
Olignra castaneo-coronata ripleyi, 7:3 
Parus major vanriei, 1 : 2 
PeUorneum rnficeps vocale, 7 : 2 
Pericrocotus flam mens gonzalesi, f>0 : 8 
PhrygUns nnicolor nlthnus, S: 10 
PhyUoscopus fnscatus mariae, 6: 5 
Piranga roseo-gnlaris tincta, 4: 1 
Platyrinchns mystaceus timothei, 18: 2 
Prinia gracilis anguste, ■> : 10 
Psalidoprocne albiceps suff/isa, If.S : 1 
Pycnonotus Jcucotis dactyJiis, 9: 8 
Pyrrhula lencogenys coriaria, •')(): IT 
SpeJaeornis chocolatinns chocolatinus, '2<i: 4 
Spelaeornis chocolatinns nagaensis, 6: !• 
Stachyris nigriceps coei, 1^: 2 
Stvrnus contra sordidns, 1: 3 
Tit mix nana in sola fa, 47: 2 
Xanthotis clirysotis aiistcra, •)/; -t 



10 



LIST OF MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIOXS 

MAPS 

Collecting localities of Gerd Heinrich in North Angola 19oT 

58, 1^7: 2 
Geographical orientation of species of Sit fa, 4~' 6 
Jorullo region, ]\Iichoacan, Mexico, ^^ : 12 
Ma]) of areas visited by Luis Pena, J^O : T 
Mindanao Island, oO : 7 



ILL! STRATIOXS 

Alopias vulpiiins from I.,ong Island Sound, 'J^.: .'3, tig. 1 
A portion of the iiialpais seen from .Jorullo. J-'>: 11. fig. 2 
Comohatrachus aenigmatis, ^6'; 15, IT, pi. 1. tigs. 2, -!■, 0, ])1. 2. 

Coinonecturoides marshi, 1^6: IT, pi. 2. fig^. '}, 4 
Comparative scries of urodele femoi-a. Ji<) : 11). |)1. '5. HgN. 1-1) 
Diatoms from the alimentary tiact of I'linciiicoptimi.s jdiiw.si 

(Sclater), J^O : 57, pi. 1, figs. 1-12 
Eohatrdchns agilis Marsh, Jffl: 15. IT, |)1. 1. figs. 1. .'}. 5, ])1. 2, 

Head of Fnlica conutta, '}(): 5 

Horned Coot contrasted with Ltin/.s scrniitiis, -id: .'J 

Horseshoe crabs (Xi})hosura), -H) : l.'J, 15, IT, pl>. I, H. HI. 

figs. 1-11 
Inacaliri marshes and tolar region, .'t'.l : 1) 
Jorullo fi-om the plain at I. a Pucrta, '■'»: 11. fig. 1 
Laguna Coloi-ada in liolivia, J^fl : 11 

Male "parina chica," Phocmcoparrits jannsi (Sclater), 40: 27 
Xotharctus gracilis (Marsh), .^S : 25. 2T. pi. 1, figs. 1, 2, -t-8, 

pi. II, figs. 2, .'J, () 
Xotharctus robnstior I>,eidy, :3S : 2T. pi. II, figs. 1, 4-5 
Xotharctus teuchrosits? 2H : 25, pi. 1, fig. 3 
Xotharctus tenebrosus Lcidy, 28: 25, 27, pi. I, figs. 9-10, j)!. 

II, fig. T 
Phoeiiicoparrus jamcsi (Sclater), ^.V; 5 
Scnor Pena at Laguna Verde, 30: 3 

11 



12 I-IST OF MAI'S AND IT,T.r STKATIONS 

Seriiui.s iiiiudanens'is aiul Krijthrnra coloria, ■')(): 5 

Sinopa cf. vnlpecida Mattliew, jf^; 2 

Toc'once and Paniri volcanoes, J^O : 16 

Traversay drawing of Makaira nigricans, -^U : 2, fig. 1 

l^nidentified anuran, YTM 1:394., J^6 : IT, pi. 2, figs. 5. G 

Unknown rei)tile, YPM 15(38, J^O : 15, pi. 1, figs. 7. 8 



iM fciuO "Ma^ej^U 



^tf' ^S 1950 

mmfi 

mnJm 

^ J T ula — 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 




Number 1 March 10, 1950 New Haven, Conn. 



NOTES ON INDIAN BIRDS III 
BIRDS FROM ASSAM 

S. Dillon Ripley 

I have recently been checking over specimens of birds from 
Assam, some kindly presented to me by Mr. Salim Ali, and 
others recorded by me on a recent survey for the Assam Govern- 
ment. The following notes appear worthy of setting down 
here. 

Alcippe rufogularis 

Comparison of a freshly-collected specimen of the Red- 
throated Tit-babbler from Gabru, Belsiri River, north Assam, 
on the edge of the Bhutan Duars (type locality of rufogularis), 
with a fresh specimen from Tezu, near Sadiya in the Mishrai 
Hills, shows that there are two races of this species as follows : 

1. Alcippe rufogularis rufoguluris Mandelli (type locality Bhutan 
Duars). 

Characters: brown above and paler, more gray below. 

Range: Bhutan Duars and northern Assam north of the Brahmaputra 

east presumably to the Dlhang. 

2. Alcippe rufogularis collaris Walden (type locality Sadiya). 
Characters: much darker on the crown and rufescent on the back. 
Flanks more heavily washed with brown. 

Range: northern Assam east of the Brahmaputra and Dihang, south 
to Manipur. 

Only fresh specimens of this species are worth comparing, 
as is the case with some other members of the genus. I am most 
grateful to Mr. H. B. Usher for help in comparing my material 
with the types and other specimens in the British Museum. 



2 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 1 

Parus major 

I have examined thirteen fresh skins from Nepal, Bengal, 
and Assam as well as older skins borrowed with the courteous 
cooperation of the authorities concerned, from the U. S. Na- 
tional Museum and the American Museum of Natural History. 
I agree with Ticehurst (Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 36, 
1933, p. 921) that nipalensis differs from cinereus of Java by 
the greater amount of white on the second outer rectrix. On 
the mainland there appears to be a continuous cline in color 
with topotypical nipalensis from Nepal being somewhat paler 
on the back than birds from Bengal or Burma. 

Birds from northern Assam have a much reduced area of 
white on the second outer rectrix, comparable in this respect 
to cinereus, but they differ from that form in being more 
suffused with grayish-smokey on the flanks. I, therefore, 
propose: 



Parus major vauriei subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale No. 9334), 
collected December 21, 1946, by S. Dillon Ripley at Chabua, 
Northeastern Assam. 

Diagnosis : from nipalensis this race differs by having re- 
duced white patches on the second outer rectrices and a darker 
smokier wash on the flanks. From cinereus this race differs by 
the smokier wash on the under surface. From ambiguus this 
race differs by having somewhat more white on the second 
outer rectrix and by being darker, smokier on the flanks. 
From decolorans it differs by smaller size. 

Measurements of type: wing 59, tail 53.5, culmen 10.5, white 
area on second outer rectrix (measured on inner web) 9mm. 

Range: Northeastern Assam. I have not been able to de- 
termine from fresh material the extent of the range of this 
form into central Assam. It is possibly another of the races 
which attain a climax of saturation in Lakhimpur. 



Mar. 10, 1950 Notes on Indian Birds III 3 

Remarks: it gives me great pleasure to name this race for 
Dr. Charles Vaurie of New York, who has been most helpful 
with identifications on numerous occasions. 

Two new races of Sturnidae 

Sturnus contra sordidus subsp. nov. 

Type: 9 ad. (S. Dillon Ripley Coll. No. 1802, deposited 
in Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale), collected November 21, 
1946, by Salim Ali at Sadiya, Northeastern Assam. 

Diagnosis : from contra contra Linnaeus, described from 
"India" and hereby restricted to Calcutta, Bengal, this race 
differs by having the streaklets on the shoulders much reduced, 
and quite lacking on the nape. In color these streaklets are 
sepia rather than vinaceous or drab. This race also differs 
from contra in the much darker underparts which are deep 
vinaceous-drab in tone. The thighs also are streaked with black 
rather than dark brown as in the nominate race. 

From superciliaris and floweri this race differs as does 
contra, in not having the forehead streaked with white, in 
lacking the broad supercilium of those races, and in being very 
dark on the back. 

Measurements of type: wing 120, tail 71, bill (from skull) 
32. 

Range: Northern Assam from Dibrugarh and Margherita 
north to the foothills around the Brahmaputra gorges and 
east through the Lohit Valley. North Cachar birds are some- 
what intermediate, showing a cline in coloration between contra 
and sordidus, but are better placed in contra. 

Remarks : Whistler (Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist, Soc, 36, 
1933, p, 725) expresses doubt about the race dehrae Baker, set 
up for the more western and southern population of this star- 
ling in India. I agree with him after having examined freshly- 
collected Indian specimens from Nepal and Central India, and 
suggest that dehrae be made a synonym of contra. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Miiseum No. 1 



Acridotheres cristatellus fumidus subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (S. Dillon Ripley Coll. No. 1803, deposited in 
Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist. Yale), collected November 21, 1946, 
by Salim Ali at Sadiya, Northeastern Assam. 

Diagnosis: from fuscus (restricted to east Bengal by Baker) 
this race differs by being darker, more sooty on the upper 
parts particularly on the rump, and darker, more smokey on 
the abdomen and belly. In fuscus this area is pinkish-ashy ; in 
fumidus the pale color is much reduced in area in most speci- 
mens, and darker in tone. The thigh coverts also are blackish 
rather than dark vinaceous-gray as in the nominate form. 

From grandis this race differs in the color of the bill and 
in the darker plumage. 

Range : Assam in north Cachar and north to Lakhimpur and 
the Mishmi Hills. 

Remarks : there is some variation in the extent of the color 
of the underparts in this form, but none are as pale on the 
abdomen as Indian specimens. The literature on this species is 
extensive and somewhat confusing. Much remains to be learned 
about the relationship of the species and its sibling, alhocinctus 
in Burma. 

N.B.: Previous notes in this series appeared in Journal Bosibay Natcrai, 
History Society 47, No. 4, August 1948, and Zoologica 33, pt. 4, December 
1948. 







YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 2 March 27, 1950 New Haven, Conn. 



RARE MIGRATION AND WINTERING RECORDS 
FROM THE YUCATAN PENINSULA 

Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. 
Osborn Zoological Laboratory 

While collecting ornithological specimens from October, 
1948 to August, 1949 in the territory of Quintana Roo, on 
some of the islands off the east coast of the peninsula, and for 
a short while in the state of Yucatan, a number of wintering 
and migrating North American species were taken. Some of 
these specimens constitute new, or rare, records for the penin- 
sula and cast additional light on the winter range and migra- 
tion routes of common North American birds. The specimens 
referred to hereinafter are incorporated in the collections of 
the Peabody Museum. A comprehensive report on my Yucatan 
Peninsula collection is in preparation. 

Numenius americanus Bechstein 
Long- billed Curlew 

The Long-billed Curlew has been recorded from Cozumel 
Island by Salvin (Ibis, 1889: 379) but never from the main- 
land of the peninsula. However, on March 31 while at Vigia 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 2 

Chico, an abandoned village on Ascension Bay, Quintana Roo, 
a flock of five curlews was seen flying about a quarter of a 
mile ofi" shore. On April 7, again at Vigia Chico, eight curlews 
were found on a sand-bar a short distance from the shore. 
They could be studied with binoculars with ease but were too 
far out to be collected. 

Catoptrophorus semipalmatus inornatus (Brewster) 

Western Willet 

The only example of this species seen was a male which 
was collected in southern Quintana Roo at Xcalac on Febru- 
ary 3. The willet has been recorded from Yucatan by Lawrence 
(Ann. Lye. N. Y., 9: 210, 1878) and on Cozumel Island by 
Salvin {Ibid.: 379). Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., 50 (8) : 
317, 1919) has listed these records under C. s. semipalmatus 
but apparently he did not examine the specimens and merely 
assumed only the eastern race occurred on the peninsula. It 
seems probable that both races do occur there but, until the 
old specimens can be examined, inornatus is the only race 
definitely recorded. 

Steganopus tricolor Vieillot 
Wilson's Phalarope 

Wilson's Phalarope has never been recorded from the Yuca- 
tan Peninsula. There are numerous records from central 
Mexico and the migration of the species through the lower 
portion of the peninsula is not unexpected. The only specimen 
seen was a lone male which was taken on May 19 at Laguna 
Chacanbacab (also called Laguna Alton), a large shallow body 
of water in Quintana Roo near the border of Campeche at the 



Mar. 27, 1950 Yucatan Records 3 

base of the peninsula. The date is unusually late for a bird 
so far south (see, e.g.. Bent, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus., lJf.2: 28, 
1927) but the specimen was exceedingly thin and may have 
been unable to migrate farther north. 

Caprimulgus carolinensis Gmelin 
Chuck-will's-widow 

On April 5, at Cayo Culebra, Ascension Bay, a single speci- 
men of this species was secured. No others were seen or heard. 
It has never been found on the peninsula or nearby islands and 
presumably does not winter there. During the first week of 
April the arrival of a wave of migrants composed of a number 
of diurnal species was noted and presumably this species was 
among them. 

Tyr annus tyr annus (Linnaeus) 
Kingbird 

On April 3 we began field work on Cayo Culebra and secured 
two specimens of this species from the great number which was 
present. The Kingbird was not found on the mainland previous 
to this date but, upon our return on April 7, it was seen quite 
frequently during the months of April and May whenever we 
were in rather open country. Both Salvin (Ibid.: 362) and 
Boucard (Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond., 1883: 448) reported the 
species abundant in northern Yucatan in the same months. 

Bombycilla cedrorum Vieillot 
Cedar Waxwing 

A very rare species on the mainland of the peninsula. A 
single waxwing was seen feeding in the sea-wrack at Xcalac 
on February 2 and another bird was seen and collected at 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 2 

Tabi (an Indian village about twenty miles northwest of 
Carrillo Puerto, Quintana Roo) on March 12, The only pre- 
vious mainland record was a bird which was taken at Izalam, 
Yucatan in February, 1879 (Boucard, Ibid.: 442), Griscom 
(Amer. Mus. Novit, No. 236: 4, 1926) found the species 
abundant on Cayo Centro, Chinchorro Bank in January, 1926, 
but it was not present during my field work in February, 1949. 



y 



Vireo virescens virescens Vieillot 
Red-eyed Vireo 



One specimen was taken at Carrillo Puerto on April 8 and 
another at Chetumal, Quintana Roo on April 14. These were 
the only ones seen. The Red-eyed Vireo apparently passes 
through the Yucatan Peninsula in early April and has moved 
north by the time Vireo v. flavoviridis returns in large numbers 
in mid- April. Boucard {Ibid.: 441) records a specimen taken 
at Silam, Yucatan, in November by Gaumer but he notes, "No 
specimens sent to me." It would seem that the record is an 
error since no one has collected this vireo during the fall or 
winter months in spite of extensive collecting. The only pre- 
vious record was a bird heard singing on April 3 by Cole at 
Chichen Itza (Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., L (5): 136, 1906). 

Limnothlypis swainsonii (Audubon) 
Swainson's Warbler 

A specimen taken on February 12, forty-six kilometers west 
of Chetumal, is the third record of this species for the Yucatan 
Peninsula. Although rare, it seems to occur regularly in the 
lower portion of the peninsula where little collecting has been 
done. 



Mar. 27, 1950 Yucatan Records 6 

Helmitheros vermivorus (Gmelin) 
Worm-eating Warbler 

The Worm-eating Warbler has been recorded twice before 
from the mainland and once from Cozumel Island, The fourth 
record for the region was secured forty-six kilometers west of 
Chetumal on February 17. 

Vermivora pinus (Linnaeus) 
Blue-winged Warbler 

Boucard {Ibid.: 440) reported the only previous record of 
this species which presumably was collected in Yucatan. On 
March 12, while at Tabi, a single specimen was seen and 
collected. 

Vermivora peregrina (Wilson) 
Tennessee Warbler 

A male was collected on Cayo Culebra, Ascension Bay, on 
April 6. The few existing records for this species are from 
Cozumel Island. It has not yet been found on the mainland. 

Dendroica tigrina (Gmelin) 
Cape May Warbler 

This warbler regularly winters in the West Indies. The only 
previous Mexican records are both from the Yucatan Penin- 
sula. Boucard (Ibid.: 440) reported a bird in Yucatan and 
Peters collected one in Quintana Roo (Auk, XXX: 387, 1913). 
I secured one on Cayo Norte, Chinchorro Bank on February 
4. Its presence on Chinchorro is not surprising since these 
small islands have great West Indian affinities, as does Cozumel 
Island to the north. 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 2 

Dendroica caerulescens caerulescens (Gmelin) 
Black-throated Blue Warbler 

One specimen taken on Cozumel Island on January 12. 
This is the second record of this species for the island, again 
indicating the island's affinities with the Antilles. 



Dendroica castanea (Wilson) 
Bay-breasted Warbler 

One of the most interesting discoveries resulting from the 
work on the Yucatan Peninsula was the presence of the Bay- 
breasted Warbler in great numbers in early May. The only 
other Mexican record I have been able to discover was a bird 
taken at Tehuantepec (Lawrence, Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. ^: 15, 
1876). Unfortunately, I was present in Chetumal only two 

days during the migration of the species and my data is not 
so abundant as might be desired. Previous to the days in 

Chetumal I was in the city of Merida, and after that time in 
the rainforests in the middle of the peninsula. In neither local- 
ity did I see the species. However, on May 6 two specimens 
were taken at different localities in the low second growth out- 
side the town of Chetumal. On the next day one specimen was 
taken, on a short trip to the outskirts of the town, and five 
more were seen mixed in with a flock of yellow warblers (Den- 
droica aestiva) and Magnolia Warblers (Dendroica magnolia). 
It would appear then, from the lack of records from central 
Mexico, that the species migrates through Central America and 
up through the Yucatan Peninsula and then across the Gulf 
of Mexico. 



Mar. 27, 1950 Yucatan Records 7 

Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) 
Scarlet Tanager 

The Scarlet Tanager appears to be another species which 
migrates through the peninsula in the manner of the Bay- 
breasted Warbler. The first specimen seen was collected on 
April 1 outside of Chetumal. Field work took me to regions 
less suitable for the species during the month but on May 5 
another specimen was taken at Chetumal. There are only a 
few other records for the peninsula although Boucard (Ibid. : 
443) states it is common near Merida, presumably in the 
spring. 



ievju^GLocn^ 



LimRY 

SEP 22 I95CI 

HARVARD 

aJutta 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 




Number 3 April 3, 1950 New Haven, Conn. 

A SMALL COLLECTION OF BIRDS FROM 
ARGENTINE TIERRA DEL FUEGO 

S. Dillon Ripley 

In the spriiig of 1948, Mr. Stephen Sanford generously 
suggested that a representative of the Peabody Museum of 
Yale accompany his party on a brief visit to Tierra del Fuego 
for collecting purposes. Unfortunately the group was some- 
what delayed in arrival due to difficulties with weather and 
planes, but in mid-April they arrived at Rio Grande on the 
east coast. Mr. Sanford was accompanied by his wife, Mr. 
Van Campen Heilner and Mr. Migdalski. The first part of 
their stay was at Estancia "Sara" near Rio Grande where 
the country was very open and treeless, but Mr. Migdalski 
was later able to go farther north to the Estancia of the 
Bridges family where there were trees in some number. During 
his actual collecting time April 27th to May 20th, Mr. 
Migdalski was able to collect 78 specimens of 35 species, a 
difficult assignment due to the severe autumnal weather and 
many of the species having already migrated north. One 
advantage, however, was the fact that all the birds were in 
fresh plumage, although an additional difficulty was the heavy 
deposit of fat which all specimens carried. Some species showed 
definite gonadal enlargement, presumably correlated with the 
migratory season, and heavy fat deposition. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 3 

The grateful thanks of the Museum must go to Mr. and 
Mrs. Sanford for assisting so generously in securing this 
valuable material, as well as to the authorities of the American 
Museum of Natural History and the Museum of Comparative 
Zoology for permission to examine specimens in their care. 
Color notes are by Mr. Migdalski. 

List of the Species 

Phalacrocoractdae 

Phalacrocorax hrasilianus brasilianus (Gmelin) : Brazilian 
Cormorant. 

A female cormorant was shot on May 16. Mr. Migdalski has 
noted the soft parts as : "iris brown ; eyelids yellow ; bill, upper 
mandible dorsally brown, laterally greenish-yellow, lower 
mandible greenish-yellow, skin of throat yellow; legs black." 

This bird is in immature plumage. It measures: wing 
226 mm., tail 149 mm., culmen 4*4< mm. 

Ardeidae 

Nycticorax nycticorax ohscurns Bonaparte: Chilean Night 
Heron. 

A male taken May 20 is of this dark-bellied form. Soft parts: 
"iris red ; ocular skin greenish-yellow ; bill, upper mandible 
brownish-black, yellowish-green at the base, lower mandible 
distally for 1/3 of the length brownish-black, remainder yel- 
lowish-green ; legs, suffrago, posterior tibio-tarsus, anterior 
tibio-tarsus greenish-black; feet black, pads yellow." Wing: 
349. 

Threskiornithidae 
Theristicus coudatus melanopis (Gmelin) : Black-faced Ibis. 

A single female of the ibis of Tierra del Fuego was collected 



Apr. 3, 1950 Birds from Argentine Tierra del Fuego 3 

April 29. Soft parts: "iris red; bill and facial skin black; 
legs purplish-red." 

Anatidae 
Cygnus melancoryphus (Molina) : Black-necked Swan. 

A male Black-neck was shot on April 30. It has a wing 
measurement of 436. Soft parts : "iris brown ; bill, upper 
mandible dark slate, tip fleshy gray ; facial skin red ; legs and 
webs fleshy." 

Coscoroha coscoroha (Molina) : Coscoroba Swan, 

A male Coscoroba taken May 4 is in partial immature plum- 
age. A few feathers on the crown and a considerable area of 
the upper back, a few scapulars, tertials, median wing coverts 
and upper tail coverts are tipped with brown. The primaries 
are blackish terminally. This immature plumage is very swan- 
like. Soft parts : "iris light brown, bill reddish purple, legs 
and webs pinkish-flesh." Wing: 145. Not common. Found only 
on inland ponds. 

Lophonetta specularoides specularoides (King) : Crested 
Duck. 

The most abundant duck at this season. Three males were 
skinned out of a good number shot on April 28 and 29. Two 
males are in very worn plumage. One bird is in extremely 
fresh plumage indicating the closeness of the moult. Soft 
parts: "iris red (2), light brown (1); bill, upper mandible 
bluish-black, lower pinkish-orange ; legs and webs brownish- 
gray." Wing: 257.5, 259 (worn), 275. 

Chloephaga poliocephala Sclater: Ashy-headed Goose. 

A male Ashy-head weighing five pounds was taken on May 1. 
Normally these birds leave about the seventh of April, and 
Mr. Migdalski consequently found this the least common of 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 3 



the geese. It is in fact the least common species in the Rio 
Grande area. Soft parts : "iris dark brown ; bill black ; tibio- 
tarsus orange with black mottling; feet, middle toe and webs 
black, inner and outer toes black with orange sides." Wing: 
363. This bird is in worn plumage although the tail and wing 
feathers have been largely freshly moulted in. 

Chloephaga rubidiceps Sclater: Ruddy-headed Goose. 

A pair and a young female were taken April 27 and 29. This, 
the second most common species in the area, is said to leave 
normally by April 15. They return in early September and 
usually begin to breed about October 24. The clutch size 
ranges from 4 to 11 eggs. Birds are flocking for migration 
by about April 10. One adult weighed 4 pounds 8 ounces. 
These birds are in wing moult. They measure: wing $ 325, 
5 314, im. 9 329. The adult female seems to be growing a 
new set of primaries, while the males' are being partially shed. 
The tarsus of these specimens measures: 66.5, 64, im. 65. 

Chloephaga picta picta (Gmelin) : Upland Goose, Caiquen. 

This is the most numerous species in the San Sebastian region. 
An adult and an immature male and an adult female were 
collected on May 1 and 2. These are the Barred Upland type, 
the predominant type in this area. Mr. Migdalski failed to 
find the white males during his stay. Local information 
claimed that most males were of the barred type, and that the 
pure white birds were a color phase. 

This species arrives in the area in early September and 
seldom begins breeding before October 17. The average clutch 
is seven eggs which take the normal incubation period. By 
the end of February most of the young can fly. Migration 
begins the last week in April and by May 20 nearly all birds 
have left. Those few that stay over the winter usually suffer 
from frozen feet and become very thin. Local estimates report 
that seven to ten geese eat as much grass as one sheep. 



Apr. 3, 1950 Birds from Argentine Tierra del Fuego 5 

Geese are said actually to be drawn by the sheep, as they 
prefer cropped grass. Thus the density of the geese is greater 
in the sheep grazing areas. Where they are heavily concen- 
trated the amount of goose excrement is said to become so 
great that sheep are driven away. Consequently for many 
years now the upland geese have been a pest and a bounty 
is paid for their destruction, at the rate of 4 cents (Argen- 
tine) an egg, 15 cents per gosling and 50 cents for an adult 
bird. In 1947-8 alone the Estancia "Sara" staff at Rio 
Grande broke 35,000 eggs, and another nearby estancia broke 
75,000 eggs. The cook and her husband on one estancia during 
that season collected 4,000 eggs, 900 young and 400 adults 
for the bounty. These specimens measure: wing S 427 (worn), 
$ 392; tail S 177, 9 156;culmen $ 33, 9 32; tarsus $ 84, 
9 77. Weight S 6 pounds 4 ounces, 9 6 pounds. 

Chloephaga hybrida hyhrida (Molina) : Kelp Goose. 

A pair of Kelp Geese were collected at Viamonte on May 11 
and 15. They were wary and difficult to approach. Migdalski 
never saw them farther than 60 yards from the shore, once 
or twice on sheltered small ponds near the beach. The 
"Kelpers" as they are called locally, arrive in March 
and leave in September in contrast to the other species. 
Soft parts : "iris dark brown, bill black, legs, feet and webs 
bright yellow; iris brown, bill fleshy, legs, feet and webs 
bright yellow." Wing: $ 381, 9 344. Both birds are freshly 
moulted and weigh: $ 5 pounds 12 ounces; 9 4 pounds 
8 ounces. 



Tachyeres patachonicus (King) : Flying Steamer Duck. 

Two females were taken May 1 and 4. One is subadult and 
is in moult. The reddish throat patch is prominent in this 
bird. Wing: ad. 296, subad. 260. Soft parts: "iris dark 
brown; bill (ad) greenish-yellow basally, distal half bluish- 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 3 



black, (im) yellowish-green, tip black; legs and feet yellow, 
webs grayish-black." The flightless species does not occur so 
far north. 

Anas versicolor fretensis King: Southern Gray Teal. 

A single male, taken April 29, measures: wing 219. Soft 
parts : "iris dark brown, bill, upper mandible black, basal half 
excluding culmen yellow, lower mandible bluish-gray ; legs 
and feet greenish-gray, webs black." 

Anas georgica spinicauda Vieillot: Brown Pintail. 

A female was collected April 27. The tail is worn but the 
wings are freshly moulted and measure: 229. The bird was 
very fat and greasy. Soft parts : "iris dark brown ; bill, upper 
mandible yellow, culmen and tip black, lower mandible yellow, 
tip black ; legs and toes gray, webs black." 

Anas flatnrostris flavirostris Vieillot : Yellow-billed Teal. 

With the Crested Duck, the commonest species at Rio Grande. 
Birds were taken the end of April, all fat, freshly moulted and 
in good condition. Wing: S 179 (m), 9 191, 192. Soft 
parts : "iris dark brown ; bill, upper mandible yellow, culmen 
and tip black ; lower mandible yellow, tip black ; legs and feet 
gray, webs black." 

Anas sibilatrix Poeppig: Chiloe Widgeon. 

A single male, freshly moulted, was collected April 29. 

Accipitridae 

Buteo polyosoma polyosoma (Quoy and Gaimard) : Rufous- 
backed Buzzard. 

Two varicolored immature birds, presumably a male and 
female, were secured on May 2 and 15. Soft parts: "iris 



Apr. 3, 1950 Birds from Argentine Tier r a del Fuego 



creamy-brown, yellowish-brown ; bill greenish-gray, black tip 
to upper mandible ; cere greenish-yellow ; legs yellow." Wings : 
$ ? 440, 9 ? 500. 



Falconidae 
Milvago chimango chimango (Vieillot) : Chimango. 

Three females were collected at Rio Grande in late April. 
They are tame confiding birds. Soft parts: "iris dark brown; 
bill horny-gray, cere fleshy; legs bluish-gray." Wing: 283-304. 

Polyhortis plancus plancus (J. F. Miller) : Carancho or 
Caracara. 

A male was collected at Rio Grande May 4. Soft parts: "iris 
light brown ; bill creamy-white, touch of light blue at the 
base; cere orange; ocular skin orange; legs yellow." Wing: 
415. 

Falco sparverius cinnamominus Swainson: Chilean Kestrel. 
A female with a wing measurement of 205 was taken May 2. 

Haematopodidae 
Haematopus leucopodus Garnot : Magellan Oyster-catcher. 

A pair were found at Viamonte May 3 and 16. They measure: 
wing $ 261, 9 256. Both are rather worn. Soft parts : "iris 
orange red ; eyelids yellowish-orange ; bill, upper mandible 
dark brown, reddish-orange at base, lower mandible basally 
orange red, distally dark brown ; light grayish with fleshy 
touches." 

Haematopus ater Vieillot and Oudart: Quoy's Black Oyster- 
catcher. 

A male taken May 3 has a wing measurement of 271. Soft 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 3 

parts : "iris orange red ; eyelids orange red ; bill red ; legs 
light creamy-flesh." 

Thinocoridae 
Attagis malouinus (Boddaert) : White-bellied Seed Snipe. 

Two males, a female and a specimen in alcohol were taken 
in late April and May. These birds are in fresh plumage, 
wing S 165, 175, 9 172. Soft parts: "iris brown; bill dark 
horn ; legs creamy gray." 

Charadriidae 
Oreopholus ruficollis (Wagler) : Slender-billed Dotterel. 

A male with a wing measurement of 167 was collected May 
3. This is a very late date for this Dotterel. No other shore 
birds were taken or seen. This bird was extremely fat. 

Laridae 
Larus marinus dominicanus Lichtenstein : Kelp Gull. 

A single male of April 27 has soft parts : "iris brownish-gray ; 
eyelids pinkish-orange ; bill yellow, distal third of lower 
mandible reddish-orange ; legs greenish-cream.' 



j> 



Strigidae 
Buho virginianus nacurutu (Vieillot) : Magellan Horned Owl. 
A female with a wing of 350 was shot at Viamonte May 11. 
Soft parts : "iris yellow ; bill and cere black." 

Picidae 
Campephihis magellanicus (King) : Magellan Woodpecker. 

A pair were taken in a patch of forest fifteen miles inland 
from Viamonte on May 19. The female has slightly enlarged 



Apr. 3, 1950 Birds from Argentine Tierra del Fuego 9 



ovaries. Soft parts : "iris orange ; bill and legs grayish-brown." 
AVing: S 221.5, 9 216. 



Furnariidae 

Aphrastura spinicauda spinicauda (Gmelin) : Thorn-tailed 
Creeper. 

Common in the trees at Viamonte. Soft parts : "iris brown ; 
bill, upper mandible black, lower whitish-flesh, tip black ; legs 
greenish-brown, pads greenish-yellow." Wing: 6 64, 65, 
9 60-62. 

This race is more pure brown, less rufous than specimens 
from Southern Chile, which should be separated as tupinieri^ 



Pygarrhicus alhogidaris (King) : White-throated Tree-Runner. 

Another common spiney-tail about Viamonte. Soft parts : 
"iris brown, dark brown ; bill, upper mandible black, lower 
grayish-white, dark tip ( 5 ), light grayish-white, dark tip 
(9); legs brown." Wing: <? 85-88, 9 83-85. 



Tyrannidae 
Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz) : Fire-eyed Pepoaza. 

Two males taken May 13 and 14 were the only tyrannids seen. 
Soft parts: "iris red." Wing: 120, 122.5. 

Muscicapidae 
Turdus falcklandii magellanicus King: Magellan Robin. 
Some of these thrushes, taken between May 11 and 15, are 



10 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum ^ No. 3 

coming into breeding condition. All specimens are very fat 
and freshly moulted. Wing: i 137.5-144, 9 131, 132. 

Fringilltdae 

Phrygilus unicolor ultimus, subsp. nov: Tierra del Fuego 
Plumbeous Finch. 

Type: $ ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 9335.) collected 
at Viamonte, Rio Grande, Tierra del Fuego, Argentina, on 
May 16, 1948, by E. C. Migdalski. 

Description: similar to unicolor (type locality Tacna, 
restricted by Hellmayr) but larger, the adult females with 
somewhat darker, more blackish streaks. From tucumanus 
and inca this race diifers as does unicolor. From grandis these 
birds differ by being lighter gray in color in the male, and 
in the females by being lighter, less rufescent on the back, with 
lighter streaking. 

Measurements: wing $ 98.5, 9 94.5, 95: tail $ 72.5, 

9 65, 66: culmen (from skull) $ 13, 9 12.5 (2). A series of 
eleven birds from Chile and northern Argentina measure: wing 

$ 88-92.5, 9 81-88; tail $ 60-68.5, 9 59-61.5; culmen 

$ 11-12, 9 11-11.5. 

Remarks : These birds are in fresh plumage. Soft parts : 
"iris brown ; bill, upper mandible dark horn, lower light horn ; 
legs brown." 

Zonotrichia capensis australis (Latham) : Patagonian Sparrow, 
Chingolo. 

Two males were collected in mid-May. Both birds have con- 
siderable streaking on the crown. Wing: 78, 84. 

Icteridae 
Notiopsar curaeus (Molina) : Chilean Blackbird. 

Not uncommon about Viamonte in mid-May. One male had 
slightly enlarged testes. Wing: $ 137, 138, 9 129, 132. 



Apr. 3, 1950 Birds from Argentine Tierra del Fuego 11 

Trupialis militaris militaris (Linnaeus) : Red-breasted Star- 
ling, Pecho Colorado. 

Common at Rio Grande in April and May. Soft parts: "iris 
brown ; bill, upper mandible dark horn, lower light grayish- 
horn ; legs slate gray (some with a brownish tint)." 



'nM \\ 



\ecA3 ~~V\avjevA^ 



^^p 22 \m 




YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 4 



May 22, 1950 



New Haven, Conn. 



A NEW TANAGER FROM MEXICO 

Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. 

Osborn Zoological Laboratory 

Piranga roseo-gularis tincta subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (No. 9153, Peabody Mus. Nat. Hist., New 
Haven), collected at Chetumal, Territory of Quintana Roo, 
Mexico, Nov. 12, 1948, by Raymond A. Paynter, Jr. 

Diagnosis : Compared with typical roseo-gularis the male 
differs in being more saturated gray above, grayer on the 
breast, and washed with buffy on the abdomen. Compared with 
cozumelae it is equally dark above but with a reddish tinge, 
slightly deeper pink on the throat, and faintly streaked with 
pink on the breast and upper abdomen. The tail is shorter 
than in either race. 

The female of this form is more buffy below than roseo- 
gularis and lighter on the pileum than typical cozumelae. 

Immature specimens of both sexes are highly variable and 
are inseparable from roseo-gularis and cozumelae. 

Measurements: Ridgway (Bull. U. S. Nat. Mus. 50 (2):99) 
states that cozumelae has a longer tail and a shorter wing than roseo- 
gularis. However, in my series of specimens, the difference between 
the mean tail length of the males of tincta and the means of the 
other two races is the only statistically significant interracial differ- 
ence in external measurements. P'<.02. 





Race 


Adult Males 


Adult Females 


Character 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 


Mean 


Standard 

error of 

mean 


No. 
Speci- 
mens 


Mean 


Standard 

error of 

mean 




tincta 


8 


64.81 mm. 


±.58 mm. 


7 


63.00 mm. 


± .60 mm. 


Tail 


roseo-gularis 


12 


67.08 


±.71 


6 


62.76 


±1.40 




cozumelae 


4 


67.25 


±.69 


2 


63.75 


± .25 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 4 

Three adult males of tincta collected in Chetumal during Novem- 
ber and December had a mean weight of 2i.83it.21 grams, whereas 
two males of the same race from Carrillo Puerto taken in March 
weighed 22.90ib.40 grams. The difference between the two means is 
statistically significant. P<.02. A female collected in January at 
Chetumal weighed 22.00 grams. 

The only weights available for roseo-gularis are two males taken 
at Xcan and Kantunil Kin in April which weighed 23.40 and 22.60 
grams, and two females from Tabi and Kantunil Kin, taken in 
March and April, which weighed 23.20 and 20.70 grams. 

A male and female of cosumelae, taken in January^ weighed 22.30 
and 22.90 grams respectively. 

Range : The more humid regions of the central and southern 
portions of the Yucatan Peninsula including Campeche and 
Quintana Roo. The range of roseo-gularis should be amended 
to include only the more arid portion of the peninsula, roughly 
consisting of the entire state of Yucatan and the northern tip 
of Quintana Roo. 

Material Examined: 54 specimens of all races. 

roseo-gularis: 26 specimens from Chichen Itza, Yuc, Xocempich, 
Yuc, Xbac, Yuc, "Yucatan," Kantunil Kin, Q. Roo, Xcan, Q. Roo, 
and Tabi, Q. Roo. 

tincta: 19 specimens from Chetumal, Q. Roo, Carrillo Puerto, 
Q. Roo, Acomal, Q. Roo, Palmul, Q. Roo, Chunyaxche, Q. Roo, and 
Pacaitun, Camp. 

cozumelae: 9 specimens from Cozumel, Q. Roo. 

Discussion : The specimens from Pacaitun, Campeche, 
approach roseo-gularis clinally in the coloration of the back 
but they have been placed with tincta because of their shorter 
tails. 

The variations in the weights of the males of tincta are 
extremely interesting. Greater weight is possibly an additional 
racial character of tincta. From the few available data the 
birds from Chetumal are definitely more heavy than those from 
Carrillo Puerto. It may be that Chetumal is an area where the 
racial characters are most strong and Pacaitun, Carrillo 
Puerto, etc., are areas which show a gradation toward roseo- 
gularis. Variations in color and tail length seem to support 
this hypothesis. Weight variation may be seasonal but exam- 
ination of the gonades indicates that it is not correlated with 
the development of these organs. 

I wish to thank the authorities of the Museum of Compara- 
tive Zoology, the Chicago Natural Museum, and the American 
Museum of Natural History for permitting me to examine 
material in their care. 



UMMtt 
HAY 21 l9Sll I f-^ annuel 



/l^a^tllu 



^^m y|vle peabody museum 

OF Natural History 



Number 5 December 29, 1950 New Haven, Conn. 

A LARGE PYCNODONT FROM 
THE NIOBRARA CHALK 

Joseph T. Gregory 

Among the fossils collected on the Yale Scientific Expedi- 
tion of 1872 are fragments of the skull and dentition of a 
large pycnodont fish. These were found by O. C. Marsh 
in the Cretaceous chalk exposures along the Smoky Hill 
River in Kansas on November 6, 1872. They are of particular 
interest as an example of extreme reduction of the dentition 
in an aberrant member of this family of durophagous fishes, 
and also because of their unusually large size. The specimens 
confirm the distinctness of a genus described by Leidy from 
the Cretaceous of Mississippi. It is quite fitting that the species 
should be named for their discoverer. 

CLASS PISCES (OSTEICHTHYES) 
Order Pycnodontoidea 

FAMILY PYCNODONTIDAE 

Hadrodus marshi new species 

Type: Premaxillary, left and part of right splenials, and frag- 
ments of skull roof of one individual, Y.P.M. Catalogue 
of Vertebrate Palentology, no. 1950. 

Type locality: "South side Smoky Hill River, 2 miles east of 
North Fork." This places it in Logan Co., Kansas, about 
five miles west of Russell Springs. 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 5 



Formation and age: Probably upper Niobrara Chalk, early 
Senonian. 

Diagnosis : Two-thirds the size of Hadrodus priscus Leidy, 
premaxillaries shorter and much higher than in that species 
and not excavated anteriorly; anterior prehensile tooth 
smaller than posterior. Splenials with 4 rows of irregularly 
oval teeth, some of which bear apical cusps ; teeth of the 
lateral row slightly larger than the others ; 4 to 5 teeth 
in each row. 



DESCRIPTION 

PreTtiaxillary: A left premaxillary lacking the dorsal ex- 
tremity is tall and short, of fairly stout proportions, more 
similar to Gyrodus (Hennig, 1906, pi. X) than to such forms 
as Proscinetes [Microdon]. There is no trace of a horizontal 
process along the border of the mouth. It is about twice the 
size of that of the large specimen of Gyrodus circularis Agassiz 
figured by Hennig. The median surface is straight and bears 
throughout its length a suture for the opposite premaxillary; 
these bones must have been closely united throughout their 
length, in a normal fashion, not diverging as they have been 
restored in Gyrodus (Hennig, 1906, p. 148, pi. X). On its 
posterior margin is a large oval, vertically elongate depression, 
its upper end merging with the lateral surface of the bone. 
Two large, bicuspid, prehensile teeth are ankylosed to the oral 
margin. These differ from those of H. priscus figured by Leidy 
(1873, pi. 19, figs. 17-20) in somewhat greater disparity in 
size, and in the less distinct groove separating the cusps on the 
outer surface of the crown. They lack the posterior concavity 
characteristic of most pycnodont "incisors." The premaxillary 
bone itself differs markedly from Lcidy's figure in its relatively 
greater height — which may be due to incompleteness of that 
specimen — and in the absence of an excavation in the anterior 
border. Leidy (1873, p. 294) interpreted the excavations 
above the roots of the teeth as spaces for developing replace- 
ment teeth. In the opinion of most students of the pycnodonts 



Dec. 29, 1950 



A Large Pycnodont 



(cf. Woodward, 1895, p. 194) there was no tooth replacement. 
Neither the form of the cavity in the premaxillary of Hadrodus 
nor its remoteness from the dentigerous border suggests that 
it was an alveolus; however, Saint-Seine (1949, p. 121) has 
observed unworn replacement teeth in just this position in 
Proscinetes [Microdon] sauvanausi Thiolliere. Hence Leidy's 
inference may be correct, although the mechanism of replace- 
ment and ankylosis of the teeth to the premaxillary remains an 
enigma. A more plausible interpretation is offered by Smith- 
Woodward (1895, p. 193) who suggests that the excavation 
lodged the nasal capsule. 

Measurements of the Premaxillary 

mm. 

Maximum length, anteroposterior 26.0 

Height as preserved, including teeth 66.0 

Length of first tooth 10.1 

Width of first tooth 7.3 

Length of second tooth 12.4 

Width of second tooth 8.7 





A B 

Figure 1. Hadrodus marshi, n. sp. Type specimen, Y.P.M. 1950. 
A. Medial view of premaxillary showing interpremaxillary suture and pocket 
for olfactory capsule in posterior border. B. Lateral aspect of premaxillary. 
X 1. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 5 



Splenials : A large left splenial with extremely deep anterior 
symphysis and only moderate coronoid process, and the pos- 
terior part of its left homologue show that the lower jaw of 
this genus differed in detail from other pycnodonts. It is only 
slightly longer than that of G, circularis, but much deeper, 
especially anterior to the front teeth where it reaches its 
maximum depth. The symphysial area is short, deep, with a 
straight posterior boundary. Its lower fourth forms a nearly 
round facet separate from the remainder of the denticulate 
suture. Possibly this small area met the opposite splenial, and 
the coarser suture was with the dentary. If so, the latter bone 
was further reduced than in Mesturus (Woodward, 1895, pi. 
15; Saint-Seine, 1949, p. 107, fig. 38) or Gyrodus (Hennig, 
1906, pi. X and Weitzel, 1930, p. 93), but perhaps no more 
than in Proscinetes [Microdon] (Saint-Seine, p. 112, fig. 41). 
There is no indication of contact with the dentary on the 
lateral surface of the splenial, except possibly at the extreme 
front. This is a characteristic pycnodont condition and sup- 
ports the reference of Hadrodus to this Order in spite of 
considerable diiferences in dentition. 

The large size of the upper prehensile teeth suggests that 
lower incisors should likewise have been prominent. It is pos- 
sible that the dentary was larger than suggested above and 
the lower jaw as a whole about twice the size of that of 
Gyrodus circularis, with proportions similar to that species. 

Four rows of irregularly oval teeth with one to three cusped 
crowns are present. Unlike other pycnodont genera, the lateral 
row contains the largest teeth ; they are subequal in size, about 
9 mm. in their long diameters, separated by spaces of about 
1 mm. The most posterior bears three cusps in a straight 
line along its crown ; the second from the front bears an 
obscure single, laterally placed cusp. In the second and third 
rows the teeth are slightly smaller and more variable in shape. 
A single large tooth with two apical cusps forms the fourth, 
innermost row. Variability in both number and shape of the 
teeth is indicated by the fragment of the right splenial in 



Dec. 29, 1950 



A Large Pycnodont 




Figure 2. Hadrodus marshi, n. sp. Type specimen, Y.P.M. 1950. 
A. Left splenial, lateral aspect. B. Left splenial, medial aspect. C. Right 
splenial, dorsomedial aspect, x 1. 



6 Postilla Yale Peabody Musemn No. 5 



which the posterior tooth of the lateral row, as displayed on 
the left side, is absent, and the teeth of the second row are 
nearly as large as those of the lateral row. 

The crowns of the teeth are smooth except for the papilla- 
like tubercles at the apex. In this they differ markedly from 
Gyrodus and are more similar to Gyronchus [Mesodon] or 
Proscinetes [Microdon]. There is no trace of the tendency 
toward transverse broadening of the teeth seen in Coelodus or 
Anomoeodus. Similar papillae are present on the crowns of 
tritoral teeth of Acrotemnus faha Agassiz. That species, how- 
ever, differs from Hadrodus in the much greater transverse 
width of its tritoral teeth, in the presence of a marked trans- 
verse ridge along their crowns, and in having a group of 
papillae adjacent to but not upon this ridge line. In Hadrodus 
the papillae are upon the ridge, if any is present, and tend to 
be oriented anteroposteriorly if more than one papilla occurs. 



Measurements of the Splenials 



mm. 



Anteroposterior length (reconstructed from both) 120 

Depth in front of crushing teeth 48 

Anteroposterior length dental battery 47 



Roofing bones: Several fragments of thick skull bone orna- 
mented by closely but irregularly spaced, rounded tubercles 
are present. Most probably they are portions of opercular 
bones, although insufficient borders remain to determine their 
exact position. None shows traces of canals of the lateral line 
system. Some fragments show a lower radiating type of 
sculpture near the thin margins such as Hennig (1906, p. 161) 
describes on the preoperculum of G. circularis. The thick tu- 
berculated layer of ganoine above extremely cancellous bone 
is characteristic of pycnodonts ; Hadrodus shows coarse tu- 
berculation commensurate with its large size. Such strong 
sculpture is found in Gyrodus and in Gyronchus [Mesodon] 



Dec. 29, 1950 A Large Pycnodont 



hoeferi, the earliest appearing pycnodont ; other members of 
the family are said by Hennig {Ibid., p. 179) to have 
considerably weaker tuberculation. 



DISCUSSION 

Dr. David H. Dunkle has called my attention to the re- 
semblance of this specimen to certain semionotids. Bifid pre- 
hensile teeth are characteristic of Dapedium, whereas the 
incisors of pycnodonts have single crowns, concave internally. 
Dapedium also has crushing palatal teeth. However the shape 
of the premaxillary of Hadrodus differs greatly from that of 
Dapedium in its great vertical and short horizontal extent, 
and also in the absence of surface ornamentation. Conceivably 
the premaxillary of Hadrodus could be derived from that of 
the early Jurassic Dapedium by shortening and dorsal ex- 
tension, but as Dapedium had already attained a deep body 
and relatively high, short skull without vertical elongation of 
the premaxilla, it seems unlikely that such a change would 
have occurred. Aside from the form of the incisors, there is 
no reason to postulate this relationship. 

The form of the splenial teeth, particularly the develop- 
ment of one or a few papillae on the crown, is not unlike that 
of some species of Lepidotes such as L. mantelli Agassiz. Wide 
and irregular spacing of the splenial teeth, and lack of dif- 
ferentiation of these teeth into rows of small and large tritors 
are most unlike normal pycnodonts and far more like Lepidotes. 
Also, the deep anterior portion of the splenial is suggestive 
of that genus. No trace of tooth succession can be found, 
however, and the shape of the premaxillary bone is very unlike 
Lepidotes in which there is a well-developed alveolar ramus 
along the oral margin and a slender ascending process arising 
from the anterior end (Saint-Seine, 1949, p. 138, fig. 161, p. 
140). Nor is there any trace of a separate coronoid bone such 
as occurs in the semionotids. The splenial alone forms the 
major portion of the lower jaw and its coronoid process, as 



8 Postilla Yale Peabody Museuin No. 5 

in other pjcnodonts. Thus the resemblances lack detail in- 
dicative of relationship and may reasonably be ascribed to 
convergence. 

Only one other species of pycnodont is known from the 
Niobrara formation, Micropycnodon kansensis (Hibbard and 
Graffham). This is a small fish, scarcely one-third the size of 
Hadrodus marshi, which may readily be distinguished by its 
more typically pycnodontid splenial dentition, with two rows 
of small teeth lateral and one row internal to the principal row 
of enlarged crushing teeth. Coelodus streckeri Hibbard from 
the underlying Carlisle shale of Kansas is also of Turonian 
age. Pycnodonts are more numerous in the lower Cretaceous 
of the Gulf of Mexico embayment, several genera having been 
reported (Williston, 1900, Gidley, 1913). 

The type locality and horizon of Hadrodus priscus Leidy 
are uncertain ; Columbus, Mississippi, is on the Eutaw forma- 
tion but only a short distance from the base of the Selma 
Chalk. The horizon may well be equivalent to the Niobrara 
and close to that of H. marshi. Whether the characters here 
used to seperate these species are valid remains to be deter- 
mined by future discoveries of more complete material from 
these and other localities. Differences in the form of the pre- 
maxillary seem sufficient for specific distinction of the two 
forms. 

Although it is difficult to estimate the size of the fish from 
such fragments as are available, especially when the pro- 
portions of the genus are not accurately known, it seems 
worthwhile to point out that Hadrodus may well have been 
the largest of the pycnodonts. If its proportions were similar 
to those of Gyrodus circularis, it may have exceeded a meter 
in length. The premaxillary is twice the size of that of a large 
specimen of G. circularis described by Hennig, and the splenial 
exceeds those of that species by 30 to 50 per cent. 

Hadrodus shows the most reduced and specialized dentition 
thus far known among the pycnodonts. Reduction in number of 



Dec. 29, 1950 A Large Pycnodont 9 



teeth, increase in size of the external row and corresponding 
decrease in importance of the next to innermost row of the 
splenial teeth, and development of a diastema between teeth 
of the dentary and splenial are all divergent from the general 
trend of pycnodont evolution, and separate Hadrodus sharply 
from all other described genera. Closest resemblances, in denti- 
tion, appear to be with Gyronchus [Mesodon] and certain 
species of Proscinetes [Microdon]^ in which the crushing teeth 
are irregular in size and distribution. It is interesting to note 
that the dental evolution of the pycnodont line leading from 
Gyronchus to Hadrodus parallels that of the placodont rep- 
tiles from Paraplacodus through Placodus and Cyamodus to 
Henodus (von Huene, 1936). 

Four main types of dentition have evolved among the pycno- 
donts. Eomesodon, the earliest form, and Gyronchus [Mesodon] 
have smooth crowned crushing teeth arranged in irregular 
rows and uneven in size. In Mesturus and Proscinetes [Micro- 
don] the teeth attain regular arrangement in longitudinal 
rows ; their crowns are smooth or with apical pits. This type 
of dentition persists into the Eocene Pycnodus. Gyrodus has 
similar rows of teeth, but the crowns are ornamented with 
concentric rings of mamillary papillae. Coelodus shows diver- 
gence in the transverse broadening of the enlarged teeth, 
beginnings of which may be observed in some species of Prosci- 
netes. Anomoeodus may represent a further development of 
this line, with degeneration of the lateral rows of teeth. Finally, 
Hadrodus has greatly reduced the number of teeth and shifted 
emphasis from internal to external rows. It will be most in- 
teresting to discover the vomerine dentition which accompanied 
this modification. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I am indebted to Dr. David H. Dunkle of the United States 
National Museum for critical comments and advice. The il- 
lustrations were prepared by Miss Shirley Glaser. 



10 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 6 



Refeuexces 

Dunkle, D. H. and Hibbard, C. W. 1946. Some comments upon the 
structure of a pycnodontid fish from the Upper Cretaceous of Kansas. 
Univ. Kan. Sci. Bull., vol. 31, pt. I, pp. 161-181, 3 pis. 

Gidley, J. W. 1913 Some new american pycnodont fishes. Proc. U. S. 
Nat. Museum, vol. 46, pp. 445-449. 

Hennig, E. 1906. Gyrodus und die Organisation der Pyknodonten. Pa- 
laeontographica, Bd. 53, pp. 137-208, pis. 10-13. 

Hibbard, C. W. 1939. A new pycnodont fish from the Upper Cretaceous 
of Russell County, Kansas. Univ. Kan. Sci. Bull., vol. 26, pp. 373-375, 
Ipl. 

Hibbard, C. W. and Graffham, A. 1941. A new pycnodont fish from the 
Upper Cretaceous of Rooks County, Kansas. Ibid., vol. 27, pp. 71-77, 
1 pi. 

Leidy, Joseph. 1857. Notices of some remains of extinct fishes. Proc. 
Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 1857, pp. 167-168. 

. 1873. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the 

Western Territories. Rept. U. S. Geol. Surv, of the Territories (F. 
V. Hayden), vol. 1, pp. 14-358, 37 pis. 



Saint-Seine, P. de. 1949. Les Poissons des Calcaires lithographiques de 
Cerin (Ain). Nouvelles Archives du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle de 
Lyon, Fasc. H, vii -f 351 pp., 26 pis. 

Weitzel, K. 1930. Drei Reisenfische aus den Solnhofener Schiefern von 
Langenaltheira. Abh. Senckenbergischen Naturforschenden GeseUschaft, 
Bd. 42, pp. 85-113. 

Williston, S. M'. 1900. Cretaceous fishes — selachians and pycnodonts. The 
University Geological Survey of Kansas, vol. 6, pp. 237-256, 1900. 

Woodward, A. S. 1895. Catalogue of fossil fishes in the British Museum 
(Natural History), part HI, 544 pp., 18 pis. 



Meuu -^ci^^^ 



UWMlt 

MAY 21 195 



U-^adiiia 



i!m;*?^sitty4le peabody museum 



OF Natural History 



Number 6 February 28, 1951 New Haven, Conn. 

NOTES ON INDIAN BIRDS IV* 
SOME RECENTLY COLLECTED BIRDS FROM ASSAM 

S. Dillon Ripley 

During a collecting trip this autumn and winter in Assam's 
eastern Naga Hills and Manipur, a number of interesting 
specimens were secured which seem to warrant preliminary 
description prior to further publication. The localities of all 
these forms are within the Naga Hills District or the 
Chief Commissioner's District of Manipur (formerly Manipur 
State), and will be dealt with in detail in a later paper. I 
am most grateful to the authorities of the British Museum, 
the United States National Museum, and the American Museum 
of Natural History for allowing me to examine comparative 
material in their care. 

Arborophila torqueola interstincta, subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12006) collected 
November 30, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley on Mt. Zephu, 93 
miles east of Kohima, eastern Naga Hills, Assam. 

Diagnosis : from torqueola of the Sikkim Himalayas this 
race differs by being more heavily and distinctly barred on 
the back and inner wing coverts in both male and female 

* Previous papers in this series have appeared in the Journal, Bombay 
Natural History Society 47, 1948, p. 622; Zoologica 33, 1948, p. 199; and 
PosTiLLA, 1950, No. 1. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 6 



plumage. The lower parts in both sexes are richer and darker 
chestnut, and richer and darker rufous-buff on the thighs 
and upper under tail coverts. 

Compared to batemani of Mt. Victoria and the Chin Hills, 
this form differs as does torqueola, lacking the greater degree 
of chestnut on the sides of the neck and the greater area of 
chestnut on the scapulars. From griseata of Tonkin this popu- 
lation differs in having richer, darker chestnut streaking 
on the flanks with more pronounced and distinct white drops 
on the centers of the feathers, and with the black central 
patch on the feathers of the under tail coverts much reduced 
in extent. 

Measurements (mm.) : 

wing tail culmen (from skull) 

4>S, S 144.5-156 53-62 19-21 

9 150 56 19 

Range: Upper Chindwin River drainage area in eastern 
Naga Hills of Assam and Burma. 

Indicator xanthonotus fulvus, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12001) collected 
December 11, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley at Pfutsero, eastern 
Naga Hills, Assam. 

Diagnosis: from xanthonotus of the Himalayan Range this 
race differs by being darker, more blackish on the upper parts 
and darker, more blackish on the abdomen, thighs and under 
tail coverts. The streaking of the abdomen though blackish, 
is less in extent, thus less prominent. On the forehead the 
golden patch extends somewhat less far back on the crown, 
and the edging to the feathers of the back and scapulars is 
reduced. 

Soft parts : iris brown ; bill yellowish-horn, distal half of 
upper mandible and lower mandible brown ; feet grayish-brown. 

Weight: 29 grams. 



Feb. 28, 1951 Notes on Indian Birds IV 
Measurements (mm.) : 





wing 


tail 


culmen 


$ 


90 


67 


11 


9 


86 


56 


10 



Range: Naga Hills, Margherita {?) Assam, and Myitkina 
District, north Burma. 

Remarks : An opportunity to examine the material in the 
British Museum showed at once the existence of a dark eastern 
race of the Yellow-backed Honeyguide. The only specimen 
from Burma is the one recorded by Smythies (Ibis, 91, 1949, 
p. 645) with which my type agrees. An additional character 
of this race may be slightly smaller size, but more material 
would be needed. I include Margherita in the range of the 
form as Stuart Baker's sight record (Fauna Brit. India IV, 
1927, p. 132) presumably refers to this form. 

My male specimen is moulting out the feathers of the nape. 
Both near Pfutsero, 28 miles east of Kohima at 6000 feet 
altitude, and on the slopes of Mt. Japvo, 10 miles southeast 
of Kohima at 7000 feet, we found cliffs abounding in wild 
bee nests, and both were investigated for Honeyguides. Birds 
were present, but the height of the nearby trees and the 
thick vegetation as well as the comparatively short duration 
of our stay made collecting very difficult. The Angami Naga 
name is "Mephi Tsu Kelie Para." The body of the type is 
preserved in alcohol. 

Dendrocopos darjellensis fumidus, subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12002) collected 
November 9, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley on Mt. Japvo, Naga 
Hills, Assam. 

Diagnosis : from darjellensis this subspecies differs by be- 
ing darker, more smoky on the underparts, particularly the 
lower throat and breast and with a more richly colored vent 
patch. The nuchal patch also is darker. There appears to be 
a tendency in these birds to heavier streaking below, although 
I am not sure whether this character would hold in a large 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 6 



series. Specimens of fumidus are smaller also than typical 
darjellensis, although Burmese examples, which in color repre- 
sent darjellensis, are also small. 

Measurements (mm.) : 

wing tail culmen 

$ 126.5 83.5 32 

2 9 123,126 76 31,32 

Range: higher hills in Cachar, Naga Hills and Manipur 
from 5000 to 9000 feet. 

Spelaeornis chocolatinus nagaensis, subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12004) collected 
November 12, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley on. Mt. Japvo, Naga 
Hills, Assam. 

Diagnosis : compared to chocolatinus this race is much more 
olivaceous-brown, less rufous above, the lores, cheeks and 
sides of the head grayish-brown rather than reddish-brown. 
The throat is white, the breast pale brownish-white, narrowly 
spotted, with terminal blackish edgings to the feathers. There 
is dimorphism in this subspecies, females being much more 
rufescent below, in this approaching the two existing unsexed 
specimens of chocolatinus although by no means matching 
them. The type and paratype of chocolatinus may thus both 
be females. In any case the fine spotting on the underparts 
and the white throat at once distinguish this race from the 
nominate form. 

From oatesi this race differs by being more grayish-brown 
about the head, and the spots and terminal edgings on the 
feathers of the lower surface being strikingly different, much 
finer and more delicate in pattern and form. 

From reptatus this subspecies differs by having a white 
throat and far more pronounced spotting below. 



Feb. 28, 1951 Notes on Indian Birds IV 
Measurements (mm.) : 





wing 


tail 


culmen 


45 $ 

2 00 

9 


49-52 

49, 62.5 

48 


41-44 

42(2) 

41.6 


13-14 

12.6, 13 

12.6 



Range: Naga Hills. 

Remarks : In my review of this genus (Auk. 67, 1950, 
p. 390) I had no material from the Naga Hills. Thus it may 
be now supposed that longicaudatus must occur from the 
Khasia Hills southeast across southern Cachar without enter- 
ing the eastern Barail Range, for it apparently does not 
occur on Mt. Japvo. 

Phylloscopus fuscatus mariae, subspec. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12005) collected 
October 19, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley at Moirang, Manipur. 

Diagnosis : upper parts dark olive brown, rump hair brown, 
a distinct supercilium varying in tone from cinnamon-rufous 
to ochraceous-buff, lores and ear coverts blackish-brown, 
cheeks and sides of throat ochraceous-buff mixed with hair 
brown, the latter becoming predominant on the sides of the 
breast. Throat and center of breast whitish to pinkish-buff. 
Flanks and thighs cinnamon brown, under tail coverts and 
under wing coverts ochraceous-buff. Outer edges of tail feathers 
tinted with olive green. Rictal bristles three extending nearly 
to end of nasal groove. Nasal hairs extending nearly to end 
of nasal groove. 

Measurements (mm.) : 

wing tail culmen 

3$$ 57.5-63.5 60-55 10.5-11 

9 57 43 (m.) 10 

Wing formula : 2 = 8. Sixth primary emarginate on the 
outer web. First primary exceeds the coverts by 12-14 mm. 
Third, fourth or fifth primary longest. 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 6 

Soft parts: (different labels note varieties in color) iris 
brown ; bill, upper mandible brown, dark brown, black ; lower 
mandible basally yellow, distally brown, yellowish-brown, 
brown tip, yellowish horn ; feet brownish-yellow, light brown, 
greenish-brown ; pads yellow. 

Weight : S S 7-8.5 grams ; $ 8 grams. 

Range: four specimens were taken at Kanglatongbi and 
Moirang in Manipur. 

Remarks : This form is closest to Phylloscopus fuscatus 
from which it differs in darker coloration, a richer, more 
ochraceous-buff tone to the cheeks, sides of the under parts, 
and under wing and tail coverts, a shorter bill, and, presum- 
ably, a slightly different wing formula, the third primary 
equalling or exceeding the fifth and fourth primaries. 

The subspecies may have been overlooked in collections due 
to the difficulty of identifying willow warblers in general, and 
foxing. The specimens collected by us were in low bushes and 
long grass in swampy areas, behaving rather like Phylloscopus 
subaffinis in this respect. They were often near cultivation. 
It is undoubtedly a wintering bird and should be looked for 
in similar situations in the northern plains of Assam. 

It gives me great pleasure to name this subspecies of willow 
warbler after my wife who worked tirelessly as a member 
of the recent Yale-Assam Expedition. 

Horeites flavolivaceous alexanderi, subsp. nov. 

Type: 9 ad. (Yale Peabody Museum No. 12003) collected 
November 21, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley on the Phek-Meluri 
Road, 60 miles east of Kohima, Naga Hills, Assam. 

Diagnosis : from flavolivaceous of the Himalayas this race 
differs by being much darker below, more olive buff with dark 
buffy breast and flanks. Compared to weheri of Mt. Victoria 
this race is richer, more olive buff on the breast and flanks. 
Compared to both preceding races, this form is darker above 



Feb. 28, 1951 Notes on Indian Birds IV 



and intermediate in size apparently, the bill larger than 
weberi. 

From the Shan form, intricatus, these birds may be dis- 
tinguished by being much darker, more buffy below and 
darker above. 

Measurements (mm.) : 

wing tail cubnen 

5 9 48,61 53.5,54 12, 12.5 

Soft parts : iris brown ; bill black, base of lower mandible 
pinkish-horn ; lower mandible yellowish, tip brown ; feet flesh, 
pale brown. 

Weight: 6, 7 grams. 

Range: eastern Naga Hills. 

Remarks : This is a difficult species to collect, skulking in 
high grass and light second growth scrub. The call is a wren- 
like "tsick." The area where we found this race is in the 
Chindwin drainage, so it may well extend into the Naga Hills 
of Burma. 

This form is named for my friend Horace Alexander, the 
well-known field student of Indian birds who accompanied me 
on part of my journey into the eastern Naga Hills. 






//^adliii 



d 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



NiyS. COMP. ZOOL 
UBRARY 

JUN 1 1952 
HARVAHQ 



Number 7 May 10, 1951 New Haven, Conn. 

NEW PASSERINE BIRDS 
FROM THE INDO-CHINESE SUBREGION* 

H. G. Deignan 



Aware of my interest in the races of the babbhng thrush, 
Pellorneum ruficeps Swainson, Dr. Dillon Ripley has sent for 
my examination five specimens of this bird recently collected 
by him in the hill country of eastern Assam. Three of them, 
from the Naga Hills District, prove to agree very well with 
P. r. chamelum Deignan and serve to extend northeastward 
the range of this form, which is otherwise known from the 
Garo Hills, Khasi Hills, and Cachar Districts. The remain- 
ing two, from Manipur, are the first I have seen from that 
District, and are apparently sufficiently distinct from all 
other described populations of Assam and Burma to justify 
the erection of yet another subspecies, which, at Dr. Ripley's 
kind invitation, is named below. 

For the loan of material for comparison with that in the 
Yale Peabody Museum and the United States National Mu- 
seum, I am indebted to Dr. Dean Amadon and the authorities 
of the American Museum of Natural History. 

* Published with permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 7 



Pellorneum ruficeps vocale, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M., No. 12007) collected at Kangla- 
tongbi {ca. lat. 24<°59'N., long. 93°54'E.), elev. 2933 ft., Chief 
Commissioner's District of Manipur (formerly IVIanipur State), 
October 19, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley (original number 33). 

Diagnosis : while inseparable by characters of the under 
parts from P. r. chamelum (Cachar District), the new form 
differs from chamelum by having the forehead, crown, and 
nape chestnut (rather than rufous) ; the blackish-brown cen- 
ters to the feathers of the uppermost back obsolescent (rather 
than sharply defined) ; the olivaceous brown of the remaining 
upper parts deeper in tone. 

From P. r. hilarum (Pakkoku District, Burma), it differs 
in having the forehead, crown, and nape chestnut (rather 
than rufous) ; the blackish-brown centers to the feathers of 
the uppermost back more clearly defined ; the olivaceous brown 
of the remaining upper parts much deeper in tone; the under 
parts more strongly washed with buff, and with the central 
streaks of the feathers of the breast and sides of the abdomen 
broader and more numerous. 

Range: the valley of central Manipur. 

Remarks : I have given detailed comparisons of the new 
race only with the two that occur nearest its range, one to 
the west and northwest of Manipur, the other to the southeast. 
From such more distant forms as ripleyi (Lakhimpur District 
south of the Brahmaputra) and stageri (Myitkyina District, 
Burma), it is immediately separable by its obsolescent (not 
well-defined) dark centers to the feathers of the uppermost 
back, as well as by other characters. 

II. 

I have for some time been aware that the population of 
Oligura castaneo-coronata (Burton) inhabiting Szechwan and 
northwestern Yunnan could not properly be combined with 



May 10, 1951 New Passerine Birds 3 



either of the recognized races, the nominate one from the 
Himalayas or 0. c. abadiei (Delacour and Jabouille). 

Again I am indebted to the authorities of the Yale Peabody 
Museum and the American Museum of Natural History for 
the loan of comparative material that enables me to define 
the characters of the new form. 



Oligura castaneo-coronata ripleyi, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (U.S.N.M., No. 296605) collected in the 
Likiang Mountains, Yunnan Province, China, in June 1923, 
by Joseph F. C. Rock (original number 584<). 

Diagnosis: from 0. c. castaneo-coronata separable by sig- 
nificantly greater length of wing and tail (see measurements 
below) and the slightly paler and brighter orange-rufous of 
the pileum. 

From O. c. abadiei distinguishable by slightly greater length 
of wing and tail and the distinctly paler and brighter orange- 
rufous (without brownish cast) of the pileum, which is, 
moreover, sharply defined from the olive green of the mantle, 
rather than insensibly intergrading with it. 

Measurements (mm.) : 

0. c. castaneo-coronata (16 specimens) 

Wing: 45-50 (avg. 16 spec: 47.25) 
Tail: 21-26 (avg. 12 spec: 23.5) 

0. c. ripleyi (7 specimens) 

Wing: 52-57 (avg. 7 speg. : 55.4) 
Tail: 28-32 (avg. 7 spec: 30.3) 

0. c. abadiei (4 specimens) 

Wing: 50-53 (avg. 4 spec: 51.5) 
Tail: 27-29 (avg. 4 spec: 28) 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 7 



Remarks: Delacour (Ibis, 8Jf,, 1942, p. 515), removing this 
species from the genus Tesia, has estabhshed for it the new 
generic name Chlorotesia (there misspelled Chorotesia; but see 
ibid, the seventh line below), in the belief that Oligura, like 
Tesia, has Tesia cyaniventer Hodgson for genotype. This is, 
however, not the case. 

Oligura of Hodgson first appeared in Gray's ZooLOGiCAii 
Miscellany, ISli, p. 82, as a nomen nudum, with mention 
of Oligura {Tesia) cyaniventer and 0. flaviventer. 

The genus was first properly diagnosed in Proceedings of 
THE Zoological Society of London, 13, 184«5, p. 25, with 
reference to the same two species, in reverse order. 

In The Genera of Birds, 1, 1849, p. [156], G. R. Gray 
affirms that Tl^esia^. castaneo-coronata (Burton), of which 
Tesia flaviventer Hodgson is listed as a synonym, is the geno- 
type of Oligura Hodgson, as he does again in Catalogue of 
The Genera and Subgenera of Birds Contained in The 
British Museum, 1855, p. 31 (where, for the first time, he 
treats Oligura as a valid genus). Thus, since 1849, Sylvia? 
castaneo-coronata Burton has been the genotype of Oligura 
Hodgson, by subsequent designation of G. R. Gray. 

Having shown that Oligura Hodgson is properly applied 
to Sylvia? castaneo-coronata Burton, I must now discuss its 
homonym, Oligura Riippell. The former first appeared in 
August 1845, the latter in "1845," and it is not possible to 
prove that Hodgson's name has priority of publication. 

The genotype of Riippell's name is Troglodytes micrurus 
^wp^Q[\ = Sylvietta hrachyura micrura (Riippell), a mere 
sub-species of Sylvietta hrachyura Lafresnaye, the genotype of 
Sylvietta Lafresnaye, 1839. Riippell's name never achieved 
wide currency and can almost certainly never in the future 
be brought into use ; Hodgson's, on the other hand, has been 
employed by authors for a century. In the circumstances, it 
seems best simply to assume that Hodgson's name antedates 
Riippell's (as I have done above), and to consign Delacour's 
Chlorotesia to its synonymy. 







YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Mos. COP. zoyi. 

UERARY 

JUN 1 1952 

wmhm 

UNIVERSITY 



Number 8 May 10, 1951 New Haven, Conn. 



BASSARISCUS IN MIOCENE FAUNAS 
AND "POTAMOTHERIUM LYCOPOTAMICUM COPE" 

Joseph T. Gregory and Theodore Downs 
Introduction 



Cope described a fragment of the lower jaw of a small 
carnivore from the "Loup Fork of Cottonwood Creek, Oregon," 
as Lutrictis ? lycopotamicus (1879, p. 67). The type has 
been lost, but was figured (Cope - Matthew, 1915, pi. 119c, 
figs. 5 and 5a). Matthew (1904, p. 254) corrected the generic 
reference to Potamotherium (as Cope himself also had done 
at the time the plate was prepared), and noted the loss of 
the type and absence of other specimens. He considered it a 
small species and later (1915, loc. cit.) suggested that it was 
related to Sthenictis. Also, in 1915, he gave the locality as 
Pawnee Creek, Colorado, a lapsus calami. In 1922 Thorpe 
referred two specimens in the Yale Peabody Museum collec- 
tions to this species. Although these are from the Niobrara 
River fauna of Nebraska, they may well contain the key to 
the identity of the Oregon form. 

Restudy of the specimens described by Thorpe and examina- 
tion of additional material from the Niobrara River fauna 
and of fragments from the Crooked River region in Oregon 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 8 



lead us to the conclusion that they belong to a genus of pro- 
cyonid carnivores, which is inseparable from the living Bas- 
sariscus Coues on the basis of lower jaws and teeth alone. 
A maxillary, described below, which appears referable to 
the same species, differs markedly from the Recent form, how- 
ever, and suggests that were more known of these animals, a 
distinct genus might be indicated. Potamotherknn Geoffroy, of 
which Lutrictis Pomel is a synonym, is a European otter dis- 
tinguishable from Bassariscus (and from these fossils) by its 
larger size, stouter jaw, more anteriorly placed single mental 
foramen, much shorter Mo, more posteriorly situated metaconid 
of Ml, and characters of skull and upper dentition too numer- 
ous to mention here. 



Bassariscus parvus Hall from the Niobrara River Fauna 

Direct comparison of the specimens described by Thorpe 
(1922, pp. 444^-445: Y. P. M., Nos. 12825, 12834) and an 
additional lower jaw (from locality V3218, U. C. M. P., No. 
33147) [see Stirton and McGrew, 1935, p. 127], with Bas- 
sariscus astutus (Lichtenstein) shows close agreement in such 
important features as the straight and slender horizontal 
ramus of the lower jaw; four premolars, the first single rooted; 
presence of two mental foramina situated beneath Po and P;{ ; 
and the form of the lower carnassial with a high trigonid, 
including a well developed metaconid, and a basined heel. The 
form of the premolars in Yale Peabody Museum No. 12825 
also agrees with Bassariscus. These specimens differ from B. 
astutus and agree with the type of B. parvus from Cedar 
Mountain, Nevada, in the greater crowding of the premolars 
and relatively shorter trigonid of M^. One specimen from 
locality V3218, University of California Museum of Paleon- 
tology No. 29225, shows as much crowding as the type of 
B. parvus. None of the 13 specimens of B. a. raptor (Baird) in 
the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology which were examined show 
this condition. Niobrara River specimens are below the average 



May 10, 1951 



Bassariscus In Miocene Faunas 



length of B. asfutus, although within the range of variation of 
the recent species, as shown by the following tabulation. The 
length of Ml in the type of B. parvus is less than in any of 
the recent specimens, although the deviation is not significant. 



Measurements in Millimeters 
Length of Mi 

Coefficient 
Number Observed Standard of 

Specimens Extremes Mean Deviation Variability 

B. astutus 

(Hall, 1927) 40 6.9-8.0 7.49 ± 0.04 0.265 ± 0.030 3.54 ± 0.40 



B. parvus, 
type 

B. parvus, 
Niobrara River 2 



7.0-7.3 



6.8 
7.15 



Lengtii talonid Mi 

Coefficient 
Number Observed Standard of 

Specimens Extremes Mean Deviation Variability 

B. astutus 

(Hall, 1927) 40 2.4-3.0 2.70 ± 0.02 0.150 ±0.017 5.56 ± 0.62 



B. parvus, 
type 

B. parvus, 

Niobrara River 2 

Errors are standard errors. 



2.4-2.5 



2.7 
2.45 



A maxillary with P^ - M", U.C.M.P. No. 31983, from 
locality V3218, Niobrara River fauna, (fig. 1) occludes so 
well with U.C.M.P. No. 33147 that it may have come from 
the same individual. It differs from a series of 13 specimens 
of B. astutus raptor in : P^ crowded by P^ ; P* with relatively 
larger parastyle, with smaller protocone, and without hypo- 
cone ; M^ with somewhat stronger parastyle ; M" with para- 
style more prominent and hypocone deflected more posteriorly ; 
infraorbital foramen more elongate dorsoventrally. The num- 
ber and height of cusps and general shape of the teeth other- 
wise resembles B. a raptor. This maxillary bears considerable 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 8 



resemblance to that of foxes in the absence of a cusp posterior 
to the protocone of the upper carnassial, in the strong para- 
styles on M^ and P^, and in the vertical enlargement of the 
infraorbital foramen. It differs from that of the kit fox, Vidpes 
macrotis arsipus (Elliot) (4 specimens from Yuma Co., Ari- 
zona, in M.V.Z.) in: more crowded P^-P^ ; shorter carnassial 
shear ; more prominent parastyle and less developed hypocone 
of M^, the latter cusp not so deflected posteriorly ; protoconule 
and metaconule less developed on M^ ; M^ proportionately 
shorter and with less developed cingula and hypocone. 





Figure 1. Bassariscus parvus Hall. Left maxillary, U.C.M.P. No. 31983, 

x2. Drawing by Owen J. Poe. 



As McGrew pointed out (1938, pp. 326-327) the principal 
distinctions between Bassariscus and the primitive fox, Pseu- 
docynodictis, lie in the presence of a posterointernal cusp 
and more anterior protocone on the upper carnassial, relatively 
larger metaconule of M^, and greatly reduced cingula and 
absence of hypocone on M^ in the former genus. The specimen 



May 10, 1951 Bassariscus In Miocene Faunas 



here described resembles Pseudocynodictis gregarius (Cope) in 
the absence of a posterointernal cusp on P^, large parastyle of 
M^, narrow anteroposterior diameter across the protocone 
of M^, somewhat vertical infraorbital canal, and nearly similar 
size; it differs in the relatively lesser width across the proto- 
cone of P^, weaker hypocone of M\ and undeveloped inner 
cingulum (smaller hypocone) of M^. Nothocyon lemur (Cope) 
differs more markedly in having a still more prominent meta- 
conule and larger hypocone on M^ (thus approaching Procyon) 
and greater anteroposterior length of the inner part of M^. 

If correctly associated with the Bassariscus-li\ie jaws, this 
specimen reveals that the late Miocene B. parvus retained a 
primitive, essentially canid pattern in the upper dentition 
although the lower jaws are scarcely distinguishable from the 
recent B. astutus. Two other procyonid genera, Cynarctus 
and Cynarctoides, (McGrew, 1938) lack the postero-internal 
cusp of the upper carnassial, but these have progressed much 
farther from the primitive condition typified by Pseudocyno- 
dictis in their molar pattern. Confirmation of the association 
of these specimens would probably justify erection of a new 
subgenus for Bassariscus parvus and related forms in which 
the upper carnassial lacks a fourth cusp, but material here 
described does not warrant proposal of a new name. The dis- 
tinctness of B. parvus from B. astutus, not demonstrable on 
features of the lower jaw alone, is supported by the tentative 
association of this maxillary dentition with its unique charac- 
ter combination. 



? Bassariscus lycopotamicus (Cope) from Oregon 

As figured by Cope the type jaw was slender and straight 
like that of Bassariscus, and contained four premolars in life. 
Cope described the trigonid of the carnassial as low, and the 
illustration shows it worn down almost to the level of the 
talonid. It is difficult, especially in the absence of the type 
specimen, to judge whether this wear could have been pro- 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 8 



duced on a Bassariscus tooth with its tall trigonid, or whether 
the tooth was originally lower crowned as in Sthenictis. The 
type of Bassariscus antiquus matthewi (Merriam), U.C.M.P., 
No. 12539, is a heavily worn specimen and the trigonid and 
talonid of Mi are worn to nearly the same level. Although P^ 
of this specimen is broken at the crown it still shows less wear 
than Mj. A similar difference in relative wear is apparent 
in the figure of Potamotherium? lycopotamicum, so it seems 
possible that the type of that species could have been a Bas- 
sariscus. Unfortunately the number of molars behind the 
carnassial cannot be determined as the specimen is broken off 
directly behind Mi. 

A specimen from Paulina Creek, Oregon, in the collection 
of Yale Peabody Museum, No. 14313, bears much resemblance 
to Bassariscus. Its ramus is straight and slender but broken 
off in front of the greatly defaced Mj. Ma is absent. The 
talonid of Mi is preserved and has a basin with distinct ento- 
conid and hypoconid. Although somewhat smaller than the 
B. parvus specimens from Nebraska there is little in this frag- 
mentary material to distinguish it from them. Paulina Creek 
is in the Crooked River region and could be either a Mascall 
(Miocene) or Rattlesnake (Pliocene) locality. The locality 
data given by Cope for P. ? lycopotamicum likewise is inade- 
quate to identify the source formation. No other specimens 
have been found to verify the location and even in 1907 Mer- 
riam and Sinclair (p. 195) pointed out that mixture of ma- 
terial from the Mascall and Rattlesnake formations is easily 
possible. 

It thus seems that ^'Potamotherium" ? lycopotamicum is 
probably referable to Bassariscus, and may have come from 
either Miocene or Pliocene. The limited material available is 
insufficient to demonstrate its affinities with other species. 

Other Miocene occurrences of Bassariscus 

Fossil cacomistle remains have been found in the Lower 
Snake Creek fauna {B. antiquus Matthew and Cook), the 



May 10, 1951 Bassariscus In Miocene Faunas 



Virgin Valley fauna {B. antiquus matthexvi Merriam), and 
Cedar Mountain fauna {B. parvus [Merriam] Hall). B. 
antiquus was distinguished from the Recent B. astutus by its 
larger paraconids on Mi and Mj, and by the slightly wider 
heel of M2. Merriam (1911, p. 246) sought to establish a 
new genus, Probassariscus, on these characters, but Hall 
(1927, p. 438) has pointed out that the variability within 
the Recent genus is such that the fossils should not be accorded 
more than subgeneric distinction. B. antiquus matthewi was 
not satisfactorily distinguished from the Snake Creek species, 
and Hall (loc. cit.), although recognizing the possibility that 
better material might reveal differences, maintains that the 
fossils can not even be shown to be subspecifically distinct. 
B. parvus Hall (B. nevadensis Merriam, 1916, non G. S. Miller, 
1913) was considered by Merriam to be nearly indistinguish- 
able from the Recent "miners cat" of California, and Hall 
based most of his distinctions from Bassariscus astutus on 
the crowding of the premolars and size of trigonid of Mj. 
The material here described suggests that the species may 
be valid. 



At present then, the following extinct species of Bassariscus 
can be recognized : 

B. antiquus Matthew and Cook, Lower Snake Creek, 
Virgin Valley 

B. parvus Hall, Cedar Mountain, Niobrara River 

.'' B. lycopotamicus (Cope), Mascall or Rattlesnake 

All are founded upon lower dentitions and differ only in minute 
characters from the living Bassariscus astutus (Lichtenstein). 
The lower teeth of this genus have undergone extremely little 
change since Oligocene time. The upper molars also are con- 
servative, the principal distinction from P seudocynodictis be- 
ing a reduction of M~, but the upper carnassial has become 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 8 



modified in the Recent genus through addition of a postero- 
internal cusp and greater development of the internal cingu- 
lum on P^. A specimen from the late Miocene Niobrara River 
fauna suggests that this feature had not been acquired at 
that time. 



Other American species referred to Potamotherium 

Potamotherium still appears in some faunal lists of North 
America* so it seems advisable to point out that those Ameri- 
can fossils which have been identified with this European otter 
are not at all related to it. BrachypsaUs pachycephalus Cope 
was referred to Potamotherium by Hay (1902, p. 768) ; it 
is a far larger and stouter animal than P. valet oni (the geno- 
typic species) and the type of a now well-known American 
genus of Mustelinae (not Lutrinae). Potamotherium lacota 
Matthew from the Pliocene of South Dakota is likewise larger 
and referable to BrachypsaUs; it appears close to B. modicus 
Matthew. As shown above, Potamotherium ? lycopotamicum 
Cope is probably not a mustelid at all but Bassariscus. 



Acknowledgements 

We are grateful to Dr. R. A. Stirton for assistance and 
permission to examine pertinent specimens in the University of 
California Museum of Paleontology, and to Dr. Alden H. Miller 
for access to comparative material in the Museum of Vertebrate 
Zoology. Valued comments concerning the material or manu- 
script have been received from Donald E. Savage, Robert W. 
Fields, Wann Langston, and Walter Wheeler. Owen J. Poe, 
artist of the University of California Museum of Paleontology, 
prepared the illustration. 

* Not, however, in Simpson's Classification of Mammals, 



May 10, 1951 



Bassariscus In Miocene Faunas 



8 
05 



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10 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 8 



Measurements in Millimeters 
U.C.M.P. No. 31983, upper dentition 



P3 
P4 

Ml 

M2 



Greatest 

anteroposterior 

diameter 


Transverse 
diameter 


Anteroposterior 

diam. across 

protocone 


4.2 


2.1 




6.5 


4.0 




6.2 


7.3 


3.7 


3.2 


4.9 


2.2 



Bibliography 



Cope, E. D., 1879. Observations on the Faunae of the Miocene Tertiaries 
of Oregon. Bull. U. S. Geol. and Geogr. Survey of the Territories, 
vol. 5, pp. 55-69. 

Cope, E. D. and Matthew, W. D., 1915. Hitherto unpublished plates of 
Tertiary Mammalia and Permian Vertebrata. Amer. Mas. Nat. Hist., 
Monograph series No. 2. 

Hall, E. R., 1927. Species of the mammalian sub-family Bassariscinae. 
Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull., Dept. Geol. Sci., vol. 16, pp. 435-448. 

Hay, O. P., 1902. Bibliography and catalogue of Fossil Vertebrata of 
North America. U. S. Geol. Survey, Bull. 179. 

Matthew, W. D., 1904. New or little known mammals from the Miocene 
of South Dakota. Amer. Mus. Expedition of 1903. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., 
Bull., vol. 20, pp. 241-268 [p. 254]. 

Matthew, W. D. and Cook, H. J., 1909. A Pliocene fauna from western 

Nebraska. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., vol. 26, pp. 361-414 [p. 377, 

fig. 6]. 
McGrew, P. O., 1938. Dental morphology of the Procyonidae with a 

description of Cynarctoides gen. nov. Field Mus. of Nat. Hist., Geol. 

Series, vol. 6, no. 22, pp. 323-339. 
Merriam, J. C, 1911. Tertiary mammal beds of Virgin Valley and 

Thousand Creek in northwestern Nevada, Part H, Vertebrate Faunas. 

Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull., Dept. Geol., vol. 6, pp. 199-304. 

Merriam, J. C. and Sinclair, W. J., 1907. Tertiary faunas of the John 
Day Region. Univ. Calif. Publ., Bull., Dept. Geol., vol. 5, pp. 171-205. 

Stirton, R. A. and McGrew, P. O., 1935. A preliminary notice on the 

Miocene and Pliocene mammalian faunas near Valentine, Nebraska. 

Amer. Jour. Sci. (5), vol. 29, pp. 125-132. 
Thorpe, M. R., 1922. Some Tertiary Carnivora in the Marsh Collection, 

with descriptions of new forms. Amer. Jour. Sci. (5), vol. 3, pp. 

423-455. 







YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



UERARY 

WN 1 1952 

HARVARD 
lINlVEasiTY 



Number 9 May 10, 1951 New Haven, Conn. 

BIRDS COLLECTED AND NOTED ROUND DHAHRAN, 
SAUDI ARABIA, AND BAHREIN ISLAND 

S. Dillon Ripley 



During the past summer of 1950 my wife and I spent 
from July 16-27 on a visit to Dhahran and its vicinity, and 
the following two days on Bahrein Island. We were the guests 
of the Arabian-American Oil Company and the Bahrein Petro- 
leum Company. Both organizations were extremely cordial 
and cooperative to us and we have been most grateful for 
their generous hospitality. The weather at this season is hot 
around Dhahran but fairly dry with moderate winds from 
the north and northwest. Midday temperatures ran up to 
110°F. in the shade. On Bahrein the temperatures were slightly 
lower but the humidity much greater, reaching close to satura- 
tion point at times. 

Due to complications too numerous to detail here, my col- 
lecting facilities were limited during my stay. I was fortunately 
able to borrow guns from the authorities of the Oil Companies, 
although my ammunition was unsuitable for these weapons. 
But at least I could thus secure some specimens for positive 
identification. My list of species collected or observed is frag- 
mentary compared to that of the only previous paper on the 
area by Ticehurst and Cheesman (ibis, 1925, pp. 1-31), but 
it may be interesting from the fact that my observations 
were made during; the summer whereas Cheesman's were made 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 9 



during the winter months, and also the fact that considerable 
transformations have occurred in the desert areas along the 
east coast of Saudi Arabia around Dhahran. In Cheesman's 
time (1923) the area was largely unmapped and untraversed 
by a European. Today there are roads, and a railroad inland 
to Hofuf, and towns have sprung up along the coast such as 
Al Kobar, and Dhahran farther inland, with surrounding 
gardens and vegetation which are attracting birds and crea- 
ting countless favorable opportunities for them to nest and 
linger over the hot summer season. Such a garden is the Imhoff 
garden below Dhahran town where treated organic wastes 
have been used to fertilize the desert and create a lush small 
oasis. Here is a transitional stage in a succession from desert 
to fertile land with shade and water, and already a number 
of species have become adapted to a summer residence there. 

I am most grateful to the authorities of the United States 
National Museum and to the American Museum of Natural 
History for the loan of specimens in their care. My list 
follows. 



\^Struthio camelus syriacus Rothschild: Arabian Ostrich. 

I am greatly indebted to Mr. Thomas Barger of Arabian- 
American Oil Company for presenting an egg of this form 
to the collection of the Pcabody Museum at Yale University. 
It had been purchased in the market at Hofuf in 1947 and is 
very weathered, but shows the smooth characteristics and 
remnants of the gloss mentioned by Rothschild (bull. brit. 
ORNiTH. CLUB, 39, 1919, p. 82). It measures 141 x 110 
mm. Oil officials assured me that the ostrich has not been seen 
since 1939 along the pipeline route through northern Saudi 
Arabia to Jordan. In that year a bird was shot by Arabs 
working on the pipeline survey. Local Arab rumors are that 
a very small population, perhaps 20 may exist in the center 
of the great Nafud desert north of Hail.] 



May 10, 1951 Birds Collected and Noted 



Phalacrocorax nigrogularis : Socotra Cormorant. 

This species was seen sitting in small groups of less than 
a dozen individuals along the shore below Al Khobar, and 
individual birds flying in the Gulf were observed from the 
launch on the way over to Bahrein Island. No information 
was obtained on their breeding. 

A large heron (Ardea purpurea ?) was seen in flight July 
22 near the oasis of Qatif along the coast. 

Haliaetus albicilla : White-tailed Sea Eagle. 

An immature bird with brownish tail flew over our launch 
not far from Bahrein on July 27. 

Coturnix coturniw coturnix (Linnaeus) : Common Quail. 

A female in emaciated condition was brought to me by an 
Arab boy at Qatif. 

Haematopus ostralegus : Oyster-catcher. 
A pair circled over our launch near Bahrein the same day. 

Charadrius alexandrinus : Kentish Plover. 

Kentish Plovers were seen commonly along the coast, and 
there were young birds just on the wing at the Imhoff garden 
during our visit. 

Charadrius mongoltis -. Lesser Sand-plover. 

A single bird with reddish-bufl'y breast and a collar round 
the nape was seen along the strand at Al Khobar July 20. 

A number of flocks of possible Redshank (Tringa totanus) 
were seen in the distance flying along the coast at this time. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 9 



Numenius phaeopus : Whimbrel. 

These big curlews had arrived by July 21 and were in 
great numbers (up to 200 in an individual flock) all along 
the coast from Ras Tanura south below Al Khobar. 



Limosa lapponica: Bar-tailed Godwit. 

Seven godwits were seen along the shore, pairs or individuals 
among the flocks of curlews on July 21. 

Cursorius cursor cursor (Latham) : Cream-colored Courser. 

Adults and possible young were seen at the Imhoff gardens 
and an adult collected on Bahrein. Birds were mostly in pairs 
and on the desert but always near trees, water or cultivation. 
Soft parts : iris dark brown ; bill black, base of lower mandible 
flesh; legs white, pads yellowish. Weight 125 grams. 

Larus argentatus : Yellow-legged Herring Gull. 

I was surprised not to see Slender-billed or other gulls. 
Birds seen at Dammam and Ras Tanura all seemed to be large 
pale Herring Gulls. 

A few Caspian Terns {Hydroprogne caspia) were seen along 
the beaches. 

Sterna repressa : White-cheeked Tern. 

White-cheeked Terns were found breeding on a sand spit 
near the causeway at Ras Tanura on July 22. Eggs were 
found in small numbers, and juvenile birds well-feathered were 
also seen. Possibly these eggs represented a second clutch, or 
perhaps the first clutch of young birds of the previous season. 



May 10, 1951 Birds Collected and Noted 



Sterna anaethetus : Bridled Tern. 

The race fuligula of the Bridled Tern breeds along the 
Gulf. Numerous birds swooped over us at Ras Tanura on the 
sand spit, and well-feathered young were noted. 

"Qatar" birds (Pterocles senegallus ? ) were heard calling 
in the early morning on the desert south of Awali on Bahrein. 
It is thought that the Sandgrouse may breed there as well 
as on the near-by Qatar Peninsula on the mainland. 

The Rock Dove (Columba lima) and the Little Brown Dove 
(Streptopelia senegalensis ) were both seen near gardens and 
cultivation at Dhahran and Ras Tanura. 

The Bee-eater (Merops apiaster). Roller (Coracias gar- 
rulus) and Hoopoe, "Hudhud" (Upupa epops) were all seen 
on Bahrein, and the latter two species were found in the date 
gardens and at the Imhoff garden on the mainland. 

[A specimen of the Desert Woodpecker (Picoides dorae, 
\^Desertipicus auct.]) was presented to us by Mrs. William 
A. Eddy. It had been collected at Taif, and is unknown so 
far from the eastern part of the Arabian Peninsula.] 

Alaemon alaudipes doriae (Salvadori) : Bifasciated Lark. 

In the desert fringe about the gardens young birds were 
on the wing at the time of our visit, some already in the post- 
juvenal moult. Although noted very scatteringly on the desert 
the vast majority of Bifasciated Larks were seen by us near 
or even occasionally in the gardens. 

A male measures : wing 129.5, tail 89, culmen 28 mm. Birds 
of the year were also collected. Soft parts : iris light brown, 
eyelid yellow; bill brownish-white, upper mandible grayish 
or whitish horn, tomium whitish, lower mandible gray, pinkish- 
gray at base. The gape is orange-yellow in juvenile birds, 
yellow in first year birds. Legs dirty white, pads yellow. 
Weight, adult $ 46.5 grams. 



6 Postilla Yale Pcahody Museum No. 9 



Ammomanes deserti insularis, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (No. 2005, S. Dillon Ripley Coll.) collected 
on Bahrein Island, July 28, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley. 

Diagnosis : This form belongs to the group of deserti in 
which the outer edges to the wing coverts and the upper tail 
coverts are tinged with rufous. The upper plumage when 
freshly moulted is of a composite color. The bases and the 
areas along the shafts of the feathers tend to be hair brown 
with a broad outer margin of vinaceous-buff thus giving an 
"ecru" or vinaceous tone to the outer parts of the feathers. 
The type is in a partial moult. It is thus possible to see 
that the old worn back feathers are paler, approaching 
pinkish-buff. 

The scapulars and secondaries are externally margined 
with vinaceous-buff, the inner sides of the feathers dark olive- 
brown. The outer edges of the primaries are creamy-buff for 
most of their length, the inner edges and tips drab. The 
freshly moulted tail feathers approach clove brown with vin- 
aceous-buff edging. The worn tail feathers are lighter, nearer 
sepia. Below, this specimen is pale whitish-creamy in color 
washed on the breast with vinaceous-buff. There are a few 
indistinct streaks on the feathers of the throat and upper 
breast, which are dark clove brown in color. 

From the above description it will at once be seen that this 
bird bears no resemblance to azizi, the "Hamra" or Desert 
Lark of the near-by Arabian mainland, a very pale pinkish- 
white bird. From parvirostris, this form differs by being more 
tinged with vinaceous above and paler below. It is paler than 
phoenicuroides or iranica. It is a much paler bird than 
saturatus but approaches its vinaceous tone. 

Measurements : type, wing 94, tail, 60, culmen 14* mm. 

Soft parts : iris dull light brown ; bill greenish-yellow basally, 
yellowish-gray distally ; legs yellowish-white. Weight, 26.5 
grams. 



May 10, 1951 Birds Collected and Noted 



A small flock of these birds was encountered July 28 in 
a stone-filled wadi five or six miles into the desert south of 
Awali on Bahrein. I heard them first, a series of faint twitter- 
ing calls and walked over from our car to investigate. The 
birds had hopped down into a small ditch where water was 
seeping from an abandoned pipeline, part of the first con- 
struction put in by the Petroleum Company. I noted, in con- 
trast to what has been said of this species previously, that the 
birds were drinking or at least dipping their bills into the 
water of the rivulet. The flock flew off" and I had a chance to 
secure only one specimen. After that they kept a long distance 
from me on flat ground. 



Galerida cristata magna Hume: Crested Lark. 

A scattering of these birds was seen on the desert near 
Dhahran and Ras Tanura and at Awali on Bahrein. Mostly 
they favored the vicinity of gardens presumably for water 
and shade. We often saw these and other larks panting with 
bills agape in the shade of tamarisk trees. Birds were in heavy 
moult at this season with fully fledged young on the wing. 



Eremopteryx nigriceps sincipitalis (Blyth) : Finch Lark. 

The Finch Lark was seen only in and near gardens during 
our stay. Some specimens were in breeding condition. Young 
birds were on the wing. Males were still displaying, and this 
with their condition indicates that a second nesting occurs 
in this species. The male displays by a fluttering flight at a 
low height over the ground. The females sit below. Evidently 
the blackish lower plumage shows off to advantage in this 
way. At the same time, by being on the lower surface the 
heavy dark color is of no advantage to predators.* 

* In this connection I agree with Armstrong (ibis, 1951, p. 314), who 
suggests that in flight such a dark ventral surface is correlated with 
display, contra Meinertzhagen. 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 9 



Measurements: wing $ 82, 85,5, $ 80.5; tail $ 48 
(moult), 53.5, 5 46; culmen $ 12, 12.5, $ 12 mm. Weight 
? 17.5 grams. 

These birds seem slightly paler above, more tinted with 
vinaceous than birds from Aden and Southern Arabia, but 
this is probably due to the stage of the moult. 

A swallow, rather greenish-black above and white below 
was seen about the office buildings at Dhahran and at Awali 
on Bahrein. I never had a good look at the birds. Could this 
be the House Martin (Hirundo urhica)? 



Pycnonotus leucotis dactylus, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (No. 2014, S. Dillon Ripley Coll.), collected 
at Dammam (near Dhahran), Saudi Arabia, July 24, 1950, 
by S. Dillon Ripley. 

Diagnosis : From mesopotamiae this form differs by being 
paler, less smoky on the breast with a touch of drab. Ticehurst 
and Cheesman {loc. cit., p. 15) writing of the series collected 
around Hofuf note that the birds are larger and grayer than 
the Indian race leucotis and with a yellow eyelid. Larger, 
they are (wing 86-94 versus 79-86 in leucotis) with propor- 
tionally longer tail and larger bill, but they are almost as 
pale on the lower surface as the typical Indian race. This at 
once sets them apart from mesopotamiae, which is also large, 
has a yellow eyelid, but is darker, smoky-gray below. In his 
"Birds of Mesopotamia" (journ. bombay nat. hist, soc, 
28, 1922, p. 383), Ticehurst comments that he is not sure 
that this character of darker underparts holds good for 
mesopotamiae, and that Basra birds may be suffering from 
industrial melanism. Amara specimens agree with Basra 
birds in being dark, and I am inclined to think that this is 
a valid character. Nor does it seem to me likely that the 
Bulbul may be an introduced bird in eastern Saudi Arabia 
and Bahrein as Ticehurst and Cheesman also suggest (ibid. 



May 10, 1951 Birds Collected and Noted 



p. 15). Unless some concrete proof is put forward in regard 
to these two suppositions, I would prefer to believe the 
evidence of the specimens which would seem to indicate that 
three populations recognizable by size, presence or absence 
of a yellow eyelid, and color of underparts are involved. The 
Iraq and Arabian birds are larger than the Indian form and 
have a yellow eyelid, and they may be distinguished from each 
other by the southern, Arabian bird being paler. Intergrades 
may well occur in intervening areas, and I have not examined 
specimens from Bahrein unfortunately, but they presumably 
fit into dactylus. 

Soft parts : iris reddish-brown, eyelid yellow ; bill black ; 
legs grayish-black. Males were in breeding condition. 

The Bulbul was seen only in the date gardens, where pairs 
were feeding young just out of the nest. Other pairs were 
singing and giving evidence of a second nesting. From local 
reports these birds apparently enter the newer settlements 
like Dhahran during the winter season, but remain in the 
date gardens during the summer. Dahran's growth of tam- 
arisks and other trees is not yet heavy enough to give sufficient 
shade, or perhaps the lack of date palms means that the 
area is still deficient in insects. 



Erythropygia galactotes syriaca (Hemprich and Ehrenberg) : 

Rufous Chat. 

Pairs were seen in the date gardens at Qatif, Dammam, and 
on Bahrein. Nest building and singing were actively going on. 
Nests were being constructed in date palm fronds about five 
feet off the ground. All specimens were in moult and one 
Juvenal was collected in heavy moult. The males had enlarged 
gonads. The only note heard was a Prmia-like, "tsee, tsee, 
tsee." One bird, alarmed, made a rather hissing, sibilant chat- 
like note, flying up to a low branch from the ground, and 
flicking its reddish tail as it landed. 



10 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 9 



Measurements: wing $ 82, 83.5, $ 81.5; tail $ 62, 64, 
9 62; culmen (3) 16 mm. Weight $ 21 grams. 

These birds are a richer, darker brown than familiaris from 
India, Transcaspia, Kenya, and Arabia and match syriaca 
from farther to the north tolerably well in color. 

Prinia gracilis anguste, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (No. 2010, S. Dillon Ripley Coll.) collected 
on Bahrein Island, July 28, 1950, by S. Dillon Ripley. 

Diagnosis : This race belongs to the group of Streaked 
Wren-Warblers with sharp black subterminal bands on the 
tail, unlike lepida and irakensis. It differs markedly from its 
nearest geographic representative hufufae, however, by being 
darker and more brownish-gray above than that form, with 
narrower shaft streaks. The tail feathers are similarly broad 
and barred as in hufufae. From yemenensis this form differs 
by having narrow shaft streaks on the upper surface, ap- 
proximately 1 mm. in width in contrast to the streaks of 
1.75 — 2 mm. in width of the southwest Arabian subspecies. 
It also seems to lack the rufous tone to the plumage of the 
forehead found in that population. Otherwise in general colora- 
tion the upper-parts are similar to yemenensis. Below, anguste 
seems to be clearer white on the throat and upper breast, 
however. 

Measurements: wing 46, tail 60, culmen 11 mm. 

Soft parts : iris buffy-yellow ; bill black ; legs pinkish-brown. 
Weight 7 grams. Gonads enlarged. 

I should have hesitated to describe this single bird were its 
characters not so different from its geographical neighbors. 
It is interesting that the bird of Bahrein should be so unlike 
hufufae of the adjacent mainland. Although I searched for 
this species in Qatif and the coastal date gardens I failed 
to find it. In contrast I saw several in the date gardens on 
Bahrein, although the birds were shy. 



May 10, 1951 Birds Collected and Noted 11 

Passer domesticus hufufae Ticehurst and Cheesman: 

House Sparrow. 

Common in the gardens and the newer oil settlements around 
Dhahran. A male with enlarged gonads was taken July 21. 
The soft parts were: iris brown, bill black, legs yellowish- 
brown. This bird and the swallow were the only two species 
seen in and around these settlements except for a solitary 
bewildered-looking Roller, which blundered into the backyard 
of a house at Abqaiq during a windstorm. 

Corvus corax ruficollis: Brown-necked Raven. 

An odd pair were seen along the roads leading to the differ- 
ent oil communities on the mainland and a pair in the desert 
south of Awali. They frequently perch on the telephone poles 
or wires. They have a single low raven-like croak. 






/f^adlUa 



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JUN 1 1952 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUlVf 

OF Natural History 



HARVARO 
' IfHlVERSiTY 



Number 10 November 1, 1951 New Haven, Conn. 

THREE BIRDS FROM THE MOUNTAINS OF MUSCAT 

S. Dillon Ripley 

Dr. W. Wells Thoms, a resident of Muttrah in Muscat, 
has been kind enough to send me several specimens of the 
flora and fauna from the Jebel Akhdar Mountains which lie 
within the territory of the Sultanate of Muscat and Oman 
in southeastern Arabia. Three bird specimens taken among 
the fruit trees near the village of Seik at 6300 feet above 
sea level are most interesting as affording the first recorded 
specimens from this mountain range. 

Streptopelia senegalensis camhayensis (Gmelin) : 
Indian Little Brown or Laughing Dove. 

A single female dove proves to be somewhat dark in plum- 
age tone, but indistinguishable from south Indian examples 
of this subspecies. The record is an unusually interesting one 
as the brightly colored typical senegalensis of Africa has 
always been considered the resident form of Arabia. If this 
specimen represents the valid breeding population of the 
Jebel Akhdar (as indeed there is no evidence to indicate that 
it is not), it is another link between the fauna of Muscat and 
the Indian subregion, similar in kind if not in degree, to the 
presence of a Tahr {Hemitragus jayakari) in these isolated 
southeastern Arabian mountains. 

Galerida cristata thomsi, subsp. no v. : 
Green Mountains Crested Lark. 

Type: 9 ad. (No. 2021, S. Dillon Ripley Coll.) collected 
at Seik, Jebel Akhdar, Muscat, July 1951, by W. Wells 
Thoms. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 10 

Diagnosis : this is a dark Crested Lark which bears no 
relation in its coloration to magna from the lowland deserts 
of adjacent Saudi Arabia. It is nearest that form in the 
smallness of the streaklets on the upper breast. Similarly 
the inner edges of the primaries are pinkish buff as in magna, 
but darker. In tone of coloration, however, this form is near 
imami of the Yemen highlands, but altogether darker, more 
blackish on the upper surface, the back, wings, and tail. Be- 
low, the streaklets on the underparts are much finer than 
in imami, not wider than approximately 1-1.5 mm., compared 
to 2-4 mm. for the latter form. 

Measurements: wing 98.5, tail 61.5, exposed culmen 16.5 mm. 

This single bird is so noticeably darker than equally worn 
specimens of inagna or imami that it would seem to require 
a name. In its response to the isolated montane environment 
of the Jebel Akhdar it seems to parallel imami, but its dimen- 
sions and characteristics show a relationship to magna in- 
dicating that it is an offshoot of that widely dispersed form. 

It gives me great pleasure to name this Green Mountains 
Crested Lark for its discoverer, Dr. Thoms. 

Anthus similis arahicus Hartert: 
Arabian Long-billed or Rock Pipit. 

The third species collected by Dr. Thoms proves to belong 
to this form, not previously recorded from Muscat. 







liSiiiim 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM: 

OF Natural History 



Jp 1 1952 
HARVARD 



Number 11 



March 26, 1952 



New Haven, Conn. 



GEOGRAPHICAL VARIATION IN 
GARRULAX S ANN 10 SWINHOE * 

H. G. Deignan 



Garrulax sannio was described by Swinhoe in 1867, from 
Eukien, and Garrulax albo-superciliaris by Godwin-Austen 
in 1874, from Manipur. In "The Annals and Magazine of 
Natural History," (4) 17, 1876, p. 34, the latter author 
indiscreetly published the following: "I take the earliest op- 
portunity in this paper to suppress the species {Garrulax 
albosuperciliaris) figured in the 'Journ. Asiat. Soc. Bengal,' 
1874, and described by me in the 'Proc. Zool. Soc' for 1874. 
It is, I find, the same as G. sannio, Swinhoe. The only vari- 
ation I noticed in the single specimen with which I have com- 
pared it was a slight difference in the shade of coloration of 
the upper surface; this is one often seen in birds taken on 
the extreme limits of their range." 

Despite the fact that but one specimen of each form was 
compared, and despite the improbability of any Garridax's 



* Published with permission of the Secretary of the Smithsonian 
Institution. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 11 



ranging unchanged from southeastern China to Assam, all 
subsequent writers on Indian birds have taken Godwin-Austen's 
remarks at full value. But the loan to me by Dr. Dillon 
Ripley of three recently taken skins of G. albo-supercUiaris 
(one virtually a topotype) in the collection of the Yale 
Peabody Museum of Natural History has shown that Godwin- 
Austen's bird is perfectly distinct from SAvinhoe's. Moreover, 
the loan of 51 specimens from China, Laos, and Tongking 
kindly sent me by the authorities of the Chicago Natural 
History Museum, and the further loan of seven specimens 
from Laos (David-Beaulieu Collection), again by courtesy 
of the Yale Peabody Museum, to be added to the already long 
series from China in the United States National Museum have 
indicated that there are, in addition, two unnamed subspecies 
in the territories intervening between Manipur and Fukien. 

Mayr (Ibis, 1941, pp. 58-59) has commented on this species 
as follows : "The only character that varies geographically . . . 
is the colour of the postocular stripe. It is pale brown ... in 
Yunnan birds, blackish in a series of birds from Wanhsien, 
eastern Szechwan. In view of the intermediate position of 
specimens from the type-locality . . ., it seems best not to 
recognize any races." 

This statement is but partially true. First of all, the 
Manipur-Naga Hills form is immediately separable from all 
others by its very distinct color tones. Among Chinese popu- 
lations, variation appears not only in the color of the postocu- 
lar stripe, but also in the purity of color of the supercilium 
and in the intensity of color in the general plumage. The 
extremes of variation appear, a) in northwestern Yunnan 
and southeastern Sikang, and b) in Szechwan. Despite the 
fact that two very different races divide southwestern China 
between them, no intergradation is apparent in this region, 
but rather, as was indicated by Mayr, in the southeastern 
provinces of China. 

In order more clearly to discuss the geographical variation 
of Garrulax sannio, it will be necessary first to name the 
two extremes of the Chinese series of populations, as follows : 



March 26, 1952 Garrulax sannio Swinhoe 



1, Garrulax sannio comis, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (U.S.N.M., No. 296636) collected on the 
Likiang Plain, elev. 8200 ft., northwestern Yunnan Province, 
China, August 18, 1923, by Joseph F. C. Rock (original 
number 1060). 

Diagnosis: separable from G. s. sannio (Fukien) by having 
the postocular stripe light rufescent brown (not blackish 
brown or brownish black), and by having the white or creamy 
supercilium suffused with rufescent brown just above and 
behind the eye (not unsullied white or creamy). 

Range: Sikang and western Yunnan, elev. 6,000-14,000 ft. 
Populations of the Shan States, Laos (south to Chiang 
Khwang), and northwestern Tongking (valley of the Black 
River), found at elevations between 2,000 and 4,900 feet, 
are either inseparable from topotypical comis or represent 
comis > sannio. 



2. Garrulax sannio oblectans, subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (U.S.N.M., No. 277649) collected near Ipin 
[Suifu], elev. 1400 ft., southwestern Szechwan Province, 
China, November 22, 1923, by David C. Graham. 

Diagnosis: separable from G. s. sannio (Fukien) by having 
the several browns of the pileum, mantle, rectrices, throat 
and breast, belly, and under tail coverts more saturate and 
strongly rufescent (not olivaceous). 

From G. s. comis (Yunnan), it differs in the same characters 
as from G. s. sannio, but also by having the postocular stripe 
brownish black (not light rufescent brown) and by having 
the supercilium unsullied white or creamy (not suffused with 
rufescent brown above and behind the eye). 

Range: Chinese province of Szechwan, elev. 1,000-6,000 ft., 
and northern Kweichow. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Musewm No. 11 



Remarks : Garrulax sannio may be considered an autochthon 
of southern China, which probably originated as a species 
in northwestern Yunnan or southeastern Sikang, where is 
found a race (comis) that shows in the adult certain charac- 
ters (such as the light rufescent-brown postocular stripe) 
that appear in other races only in the immature plumage. 
From this center it has pushed out in two directions : west- 
ward across northern Burma as far as Manipur and adjacent 
parts of Assam {albo-supercUiaris)^ where it is rare, and 
southeastward along the rivers as far as the Southern Shan 
States, northern Laos, northernmost Annam, and Tongking, 
in all of which it is common at elevations from 2800 to 
4900 feet. 

Specimens from these southeastern regions represent popu- 
lations of individuals variably intermediate between topo- 
typical comis and topotypical sannio (Fukien), which there- 
fore cannot definitely be named. The majority, however, from 
localities west of the Black River-Red River divide (western 
Tongking) are nearer comis, while the majority of those 
from east of the divide are nearer sannio; this line might then, 
simply for convenience, be considered the boundary between 
the two forms. 

It may be supposed that the species next advanced north- 
eastward through the southeastern provinces of China, where, 
as the race sannio, it now occupies the hills of Kwangsi, 
Kwangtung, Fukien, Kiangsi, and northeastern Hunan (Yo- 
yang [Yochow]). 

Having reached the valley of the Yangtze in Kiangsi and 
Hunan, and by now accustomed to elevations much lower 
than those of the ancestral homeland, the species readily ad- 
vanced westward up the great river into the lowlands of 
Szechwan, here to give rise to the race ohlcctans (birds from 
southwestern Hupeh are already ohlectans > sannio). 

Thus, while the ranges of comis and ohlectans are contigu- 
ous, it may be seen that these two are farthest apart in 
distance traveled from the original home, and, by the same 



March 26, 1952 Garrulnx sannio Swinhoe 



token, of all Chinese populations farthest apart in external 
characters. Interbreeding of the two races, with consequent 
masking of their differences, is inhibited by the fact that 
they occupy distinct altitudinal ranges. That the geographi- 
cally distant G. s. sannio should be the intermediate between 
them is accounted for by the history of specific expansion 
I have hypothesized above. 

So far as is now known, the range of G. s. albo-superciliaris 
is wholly isolated from those of its Chinese cousins and, as 
might be expected, this is a very distinct form by the deep 
(scarcely rufescent) brown of its pileum, the cold dark 
olivaceous brown of its mantle, and the strong vinaceous wash 
over its entire under parts. Its postocular stripe is blackish 
brown in the adult. 

Since the birds of this genus are subject to alteration of 
color by wear, I should mention that my diagnoses have been 
based wholly upon fresh-plumaged adult specimens. The pos- 
sibility of post-mortem change has also been considered and 
discounted, since skins of G. s. comis taken twenty-nine years 
ago do not differ significantly from one collected in 1945, 
and the oldest specimens of each race are roughly equivalent 
in age and should therefore have altered to the same degree. 
For the record, I should state that I have examined 40 
examples of comis from Yunnan and Sikang, taken in 1923, 

1928, 1929, 1930, and 1945; three of sannio from Fukien, 
taken in 1923 and 1930; forty of oblectans from Szcchwan, 
taken in 1921, 1922, 1923, 1924, 1925, 1928, 1929, 1931, 
1932, 1933, and 1934; three of albo-superciliaris, taken in 
1950. Of the birds of Laos and Tongking, intermediate 
between comis and sannio, I have had 36, collected in 1924, 

1929, 1930, 1938, 1939, and 1941. 






H-^a^tula 



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LIBRARY 

JUN 1 1952 



HARVARD 
YALE PEABODY MUSMJM 

OF Natural History 



Number 12 April 2, 1952 New Haven, Conn. 



A NEW GENUS OF THRUSH FROM EASTERN AFRICA 

S. Dillon Ripley 



In connection with a revision of the thrushes, I have 
examined specimens of Turdinus stictigida Reichenow through 
the courtesy of the authorities of the American Museum of 
Natural History. This rare and seldom observed species found 
only in the hills in parts of Tanganyika was described as a 
babbler and placed in Illadopsis by W. L. Sclater {Systema 
Avium /Ethio pic arum, 1932:363). In his revision of the bab- 
blers {UOiseau, 191*6, 16:13) Delacour has pointed out that 
the Spot-throat is certainly a thrush and not a babbler in 
the lengthening of its narrow bill, and its long and slender 
tarsus and toes. M. Delacour placed the species provisionally 
in Cossypha, noting that it bore a slight resemblance to 
anomala and archeri. 

Virtually nothing was known of the habits of the Spot- 
throat until Moreau published his observations (Ibis, 1932 : 
672 and 1938:302). He noted particularly its thrush-like 
habits and beautiful voice. He further described the nest, 
eggs, and nestlings, all reasonably thrush-like, but unfor- 
tunately the nestlings were destroyed before he could observe 
the Juvenal plumage. 



In its uniform coloration, spotted throat, and wing and 
tail formation, stictigula- differs notably from the members 
of the genus Cossypha, and I therefore propose the erection 
of a new genus. 



Module trix, n. gen. 

Type. — Tiirdinu^ stictigitla Reichenow 1906. 

This genus is similar to Cossypha Vigors 1825 in its narrow 
bill and its long tarsi and toes ; but the wing, which is 
rounded, has the sixth primary longest rather than the fifth 
and the first primary is less than two-thirds the length of 
the second (shorter than in species of Cossypha). The tail, 
which is shorter than the wing and of 12 feathers, is slightly 
rounded rather than squared, the individual rectrices being 
somewhat pointed. The color pattern of Modulatrix is distinc- 
tive uniform deep olive brown on the crown and back, with 
a faint tendency to terminal barring on the feathers of the 
center of the back. The tail is rich rufescent. Below, the 
throat is buffy-gray with terminal black spots ; the abdomen 
is rufous. The flanks are dark brown. There is no tendency 
to a white eyebrow, crown or presuperciliary spot or stripe, 
so uniform a feature of Cossypha. 

Measurements of three males are: wing, 79-81; tail, 71-72; 
culmen, 16 ; and tarsus, 29-30 mm. 

Two forms of this genus have been described: 

1. Modulatrix stictigula stictigula (Reichenow) 

2. Modulatrix stictigida pressa (Bangs and Loveridge) 
"Modtdatrix," a singer TerfuU. 



p^ 



a 



MUS. COMP. ZOOL. 
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YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

APR 23 1968 

OF Natural History 

HARVARD 

UNIVERSITY. 
Number 13 September 18, 1952 New Haven, Conn. 



THE THRUSHES 

S. Dillon Ripley 

"The merle, the mavis, and the nichtingale, 
With mirry notis mirthfully forth burst," 

from May by Gavin Douglas, 1513. 



The thrushes are one of the most cosmopolitan of the groups 
of birds. References to the nightingale as Procne rather than 
as Philomela occur in the work of Apollodorus, about b. c. 
140. By the time of Ovid, b. c. 43-18 a. d., Philomela had 
become the nightingale and so continued through early legend 
and poetry. The Persian bulbul of the eastern poets was un- 
doubtedly the nightingale which was supposed to pour forth 
its strain of melody while pressing its breast against a rose 
thorn to ease its heart's pain. Thrushes of numerous sorts 
have been noted as superlative songsters in many countries 
since earliest times. 

By the Nineteenth Century Seebohm (1881) and other stu- 
dents of birds were inclined to list the thrushes as the most 
highly developed among the birds on account of their singing 
qualities and the development of the plantar tendons. Newton 
(1893) citing Cabanis (1847) and W. K. Parker (1872-1873) 
disagreed, and later arrangers from Stejneger to Stresemann 



2 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

have listed tlie crows and their allies as the highest group of 
the Oscines. 

The work of Seebohm (op. cit.), however, and that of Seebohm 
and Sharpe (1898-1902) have certainly been, historically, the 
most important monographs on the thrushes. These authors 
felt, as I do, that the thrushes represent a subfamily, the 
Turdinae, closely allied to the warblers, S3'lviinae, from which 
they differ by not possessing a complete double molt, and by 
having in nearly all cases a spotted plumage in the young. 
Thrushes also, in most cases, have a booted rather than a 
scutellated tarsus. But even these rather generalized characters 
tend to have exceptions. Perhaps in such closely related groups 
as those within the Passeres, exceptions tend to prove the rule. 

Hartert (1910) also listed the thrushes as a subgroup within 
the Muscicapidae, and this arrangement has been followed 
recently b}' Mayr and Amadon (1951). The principal 
objections to such a classification have been expressed by 
Witherby, Jourdain, Ticehurst, and Tucker (1938). In actual 
effect the objections to listing the thrushes as a subfamily 
may be reduced to the simple fact that the group is a very 
large one numerically, and that to lump them together with such 
other large groups as the warblers, babblers, and flycatchers 
into a single family may be an exceedingly unwieldly arrange- 
ment. This of course is true, but against this must be balanced 
the lack of well-defined characters, morphological or otherwise, 
to separate these groups. If categories, and especially higher 
categories in the Class Aves are to have comparable validity 
to those in other classes of animals it would be well to be some- 
what more conservative in these matters than many systematists 
have been in the past. It has been amply demonstrated in 
recent years that man}' of the minutiae, the characters set 
up by avian taxonomists to create such categories as subgenera, 
genera, subfamilies, and the like, based on the relative differ- 
ences between the length of the tarsus and the wing or tail, 
the length of bristles versus the bill length and so on, are 
extremely plastic in nature. Too much reliance on such relative- 
ly trivial morphological characters serves rather to obscure than 
to define relationships. 

My inclination then to list the thrushes as a subfamily is 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



based not only on the consideration of morphological and 
evolutionary characters, but also on the desire to be consistent. 
The characters separating the groups of the Muscicapidae are 
so few and inconstant that to keep the groups as separate 
families serves only to damage the concept of the term, family. 
Within the Muscicapidae, the differences between the numerical- 
ly largest subfamilies may be listed as follows: 



Subfamily 


Juvenile 
plumage 


Double 
m.olt 


Tarsus 


Rictal 
bristles 


Muscicapinae 


spotted 


uncommon 


weak, 
scutellate 


strong 


Timaliinae 




unspotted 


uncommon 


scutellate 


present 


Sylviinae 




unspotted 


usual 


scutellate 
primarily 


distinct 


Turdinae 




spotted 


uncommon 


booted or 
scutellate 


variable 



Relatives 



Besides the above closely related subfamilies, the dippers, 
Cinclinae, seem to me to be nearly related to the thrushes 
as suggested by Stejneger (1905), and I am inclined to agree 
with Mayr and Amadon (op. cit.) in making them a subfamily 
of the Muscicapidae. 

The mockingbirds, Mimidae, recently have been considered 
a separate family, but formerly were included as a subfamily 
of the wrens (Coues and others). Perhaps both wrens and mock- 
ingbirds should be placed in the Muscicapidae as suggested 
recently by Mayr and Amadon (op. cit.). The tarsus of the 
mockingbirds is barely scutellate. The internal anatomy of this 
group differs only slightly in the narrowness of the anteorbital 
region of the skull, the rather narrow descending process of the 
nasal bone and the slightly differently shaped coracoid, sternum, 
and the narrow pelvis. In Dumetella the maxillo-palatines ap- 
proach the thrushes exactly in shape, rather than being clavi- 
form as in the other mimine genera. These differences are no 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

more compelling than those between other subfamilies of the 
Muscicapidae. 

Ridgway (1907) erected a family for Zeledonia, the aber- 
rant wren-thrush of Costa Rica on the basis of its possessing 
10 tail feathers. The young also are not really spotted, hav- 
ing only a tendency to pale edgings on the feathers of the 
lower parts. In view of the diversity of the thrushes, and from 
the appearance, anatomy (Py craft, 1905), and of what is 
known of its habits, I consider Zeledonia to be a relict member 
of the Turdinae, and a geographical representative allied 
to the short-wings, a group of South Asian chat-thrushes of 
the genus Brachypteryx. 

The hedge-sparrows {Prunella) are kept by most authors as 
a separate family. Field and museum study inclines me to the 
belief that these birds are a subgroup within the thrushes as 
proposed by Baker (1924). The hedge-sparrows have scutel- 
late tarsi, but the structure of the tibiotarsus in Saxicoloides 
seems to me intermediate and leading directly to Prunella. 
The musculature of the cheek in the hedge-sparrows puts this 
genus into the chat-like thrushes according to Beecher (personal 
communication), as does the immature plumage which is streaked 
or mottled. I consider, therefore, that the hedge-sparrows are 
a group of the chat-like thrushes which has become secondarily 
bunting-like in its food adaptations. 



Acknowledgments 

I am most grateful to the authorities of the American Museum 
of Natural History and the United States National Museum 
who have loaned me material in their care. Several individuals 
have been particularly helpful in discussions, notably Dr. J. P. 
Chapin who has generously shared with me his wealth of knowl- 
edge on the African thrushes. Without his advice I should have 
been unable to consider many of these peculiar genera. The 
comments of Messrs. Amadon, Beecher, Deignan, Delacour, 
Friedmann, and Peters have all been sought and freely given. 
Their advice has been most welcome and instructive. 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 5 

Distribution 

The thrushes would seem to be primarily of Palaearctic 
origin, I believe. The greatest number and complexity of forms 
occur in the Old World, Africa, also, has been an important 
evolutionary center in this subfamily, especially in the chat- 
like forms. From Eurasia there have been several invasions 
into the New World, even reaching outlying groups such as 
Hawaii and isolated Tristan da Cunha. In the other direc- 
tion invasions have penetrated into the Australian region, and 
into Polynesia. New Zealand apparently has not been reached. 
Turnagra, formerly considered the New Zealand thrush, now 
appears to be nearer the shrike-billed flycatchers (Oliver, 1945). 
No continental area, however, is without some member of the 
thrush group. 



Arrangement 

In general the thrushes fall into two large groups or tribes, 
the chats and the true thrushes. The name for the second group 
is a convenient one in that the word, thrush, conjures-up to 
the mind a generalized bird of a definite size; a bird which 
might be a robin in the United States, a song thrush in England, 
a mistle thrush, fieldfare, or blackbird in many parts of Europe 
and northern Asia, or their equivalents in such a variety of 
places as Tierra del Fuego and the Solomon Islands. These 
birds are all of a roughly equivalent size and shape and even 
have roughly similar types of song. The chats on the other 
hand are in general small, skulking, often very difficult to see 
or observe if they belong to jungle-living species, and do not 
generally convey the impression of being thrushes at all except 
to the initiated, aside from those species which happen also 
to possess fine songs. 



Chat Thrushes 

The chats seem to me to represent the earlier forms of the 
subfamily. They are all smaller; many are more specialized 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

for tropical or subtropical habitats ; they are less uniform as 
a group, and generally present the impression of containing 
more end-lines of evolution and differentiation among them, 
more relicts. The exceptional cases of unturdine-like characters 
such as unspotted young, scutellate tarsus, prominent bristles 
and so forth occur among the chat-like aggregation. As a tribe, 
then, they would seem to have had a longer history. Some 
genera are transitional between thrushes and warblers. Others 
resemble the flycatchers. In general the chat tribe might be 
characterized as being smaller, possessing more slender legs, 
more diverse nesting habits, weaker song, and a tendency to 
brighter, more variegated plumage in adult and young. Diverse 
as they are, however, they seem to stand closer together as a 
group, distinct from the larger, more compactly evolved true 
thrushes. Mr. William Beecher's anatomical researches on the 
musculature of the cheek of passerine birds inclines him, also, 
to this division into two main groups within the Turdinae 
(personal communication). The largest development numerical- 
ly of the chat thrushes has taken place in Africa and may well 
have commenced there for all that we know geologically or 
climatologically speaking. 

The most primitive of the chat thrushes would seem to consist 
of two types, the short-wings, personified by Brachypteryx 
and Zeledonia, which I feel are equivalent tropical relict forms 
of the Old and New World, and the genus Erythropygia, which 
seems rather like a link between the warblers and the thrushes. 
Near Erythropygia may come the aberrant Drymodes of 
Australia and New Guinea, a relationship suggested to me by 
Dr. Amadon. I had previously thought these scrub-robins 
nearer the true thrushes, the group with closer geographical 
connections. In pattern of coloration there are many similar- 
ities even though the longer tail in Drymodes, longer than the 
wing in all cases, is certainly proportionally different from 
that in Erythropygia, 

From such warbler-like origins have developed the robins, 
Erithacus, with their bewilderingly diverse complex of relatives 
in Africa, the magpie-robins, Copsychus, the fork-tails, Enicu- 
rus, the solitaires, Myadestes, of the New World, an early suc- 
cessful invader of that area witli its own offshoot, Phaeomis, 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 7 

and its Old World relict relatives, Cochoa (?), and possibly 
Stizorhina ( ? ) . 

The remaining subdivisions of the chat thrushes are more 
uniform, running from the redstarts, Phoenicurus, again 
through an array of African relatives, to Cercomela and the 
chats, Saxicola, beyond which in the evolutionary scale would 
seem to lie the wheatears and the rock-thrushes. Low down 
in the chat thrush group lies the small twig leading off through 
Saxicoloides to Prunella. 



True Thrushes 

The true thrushes consist of a more uniform group of birds 
in size, almost all of which have fine powers of song. These 
birds range from open heath in the temperate and subarctic 
regions to deepest tropical jungle. They have strong tarsi, 
strong bills lacking frontal hairs in most cases, and they molt 
from immature plumage in the first autumn directly into the 
adult plumage. 

These thrushes have certain seemingly more primitive off- 
shoots among them, notabl}^ Myiophoneus of the Indo-Malaysian 
region, several isolated genera in Celebes and New Guinea, and 
at least three separate invasions of the New World. The earl- 
iest of these would seem to be represented by the forest thrush 
of the West Indes, Cichlherminia, and the Tristan da Cunha 
thrush, Nesocichla, which I feel shows New World rather than 
Old World affinities. 

A second invasion has produced the distinctive birds grouped 
currently in the genera, Hylocichla and Catharus, birds of the 
forest or the forest edge which in their habits and song seem 
almost intermediate between the nightingale-robin group of 
the Old World, and the true thrushes. A third rather inter- 
esting minor invasion in terms of end results has left two 
stranded species of the Zoothera assemblage in western North 
America and Mexico. A final invasion has populated the whole 
of both continents with a multitude of true thrushes of the 
genus Turdus which I would rank as the most highly developed 
genus of the subfamily. Whatever the varying points of view 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

may be as to its place in the evolutionary sequence, it is certain- 
ly the most widespread of all the genera. 



The Genera 

Sharpe (1903) listed 75 genera in his "Hand List" in the 
family Turdidae. Excluding Turnagra and Ephthianura, and 
adding eight genera placed by him in the Timaliidae and Sylvi- 
idae, namely Drymodes, Chaetops, Cataponera, Myiophoneus, 
Arrenga, BracTiypteryx, Heteroxenicus, and Agrobates raises 
his total to 81. In the list following I propose that the number 
recognized be 46, a reduction of 45 per cent. 



1) CHAT THRUSHES 

Among the chat thrushes several generic names seem more 
usefully dropped than retained. The genus Heteroxenicus 
Sharpe, a new name for Drymochares Gould, was separated from 
Brachypteryx on the basis of having a tail less than twice 
the length of the tarsus. The type of Heteroxenicus cruralis is 
now considered a subspecies of the species B. montana of most 
authors, so unimpressive does this tail character appear. The 
same character was used for the species stellatus, type of 
Drymochares. The genus Heinrichia was erected by Stresemann 
for the species calUgyna discovered on Celebes by Heinrich. 
It is similarly, if somewhat somberly colored to Brachypteryx, 
but happens to be somewhat larger than the other species. I 
can glean no indication of its habits or structure being in any 
way different from a typical Brachypteryx. 

In the genus Erythropygia I include Tychaedon, a renaming 
by Richmond of Sharpe's Aedonopsis, erected for the species 
signata of South Africa. In color pattern and habits this brown 
robin-chat seems to belong with the scrub-robins and should 
be placed there. The fact that the culmen in signata is longer 



Turdus 



Zoothera 



Oenanthe 

Myremecocichlo 

Chaetops 
Thamnolaea 



Catharus 
Cichlhermlnio 
Cataponero 
Amolocfchla 



Saxicolo 
Cercomelo 
Emorginato 

Phaeornis 




Phoenicurus 



Erithacus 



Cossypho 



Zeledonio 



Drymodes (?) 
Erythropygio 



A suggested evolutionary tree. 



10 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

than the hind toe with claw does not in any way separate it 
from Erythropygia. 

I have felt impelled to place nearly all the small robin-like 
birds in one expanded genus, Erithacus. This action will be 
questioned by many, especially in western Europe where the 
robin is preeminent, a familiar bird to all, indeed a legendary 
bird. The weight of public opinion will lean toward keeping 
the Robin Redbreast apart, separate. Outside Europe, in Asia 
and Africa, however, there are so many parallel and related 
forms of robin-like birds that I prefer to lump them all into 
this one genus. Seebohm {op. cit.) included Luscinia, Larvivora, 
and Calliope in Erithacus, genera which were revived later and 
are used currently, although in the "Handbook" (Witherby, 
Jourdain, Ticehurst, and Tucker, op. cit.), Luscinia is enlarged 
to include Cyanosylvia. All these genera are separated from 
each other on the basis of the development of the rictal bristles, 
the degree of squareness or roundness of the tail, and the softness 
of the plumage. In habits all are very similar, their young are 
similarly spotted, the bill is rather slender, the rictal bristles 
generally small, and indeed they present a very uniform ap- 
pearance as a group of robin-like species. Delacour (1951) 
attempts to separate the blue-throat, svecica, from the night- 
ingale, megarhyncha, but as the British Handbook points out 
{op. cit.), color cannot serve as a sole basis for generic separa- 
tion, so that it is better to align all these species in the single 
genus. 

The genus Tarsiger is distinguished from Calliope by having 
a throat colored similarly to the underparts, and from lanthia 
by having the tail only about twice the length of the tarsus. 
In habits and general appearance these forms are so similar 
that I would consider their differences only of specific rank. 
lanthia is distinguished as having the tail feathers rather 
pointed, again not a sufficient reason it seems to me to separate 
it from Erithacus. "Tarsiger' shows a tendency in this direction. 

Three African genera appear to me to be better placed in 
Erithacus. These are Pogonocichla, Sheppardia, and Stiphror- 
nis. Pogonocichla, while separated from the typical Robin Red- 
breast by bright plumage and a distinct patch of briglit feathers 
at the base of the throat, has no other morpliological or ethol- 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 11 

ogical characters to distinguish it. Sheppardia and Stiphrornis 
are simply forest-living robins. The sole character of the first 
genus is its xery slightly' arched bill, and of the second, a white 
spot in front of the eye. Both these forms are very closely 
allied to the typical Robin Redbreast and my own feeling is 
that rubecula is in fact a species which originated in Africa 
from some common ancestor of all these related African forms, 
and which has extended into Europe in a gradual process 
during the inter-glacials. There is no evidence for such a sup- 
position, of course, beyond the distribution of the species as 
it stands today with populations scattered around the Mediter- 
ranean and the Middle East, but the migration pattern of 
rubecula of Europe and the British Isles with the provocative 
occasional occurrence of a tendency toward a second breeding 
in the autumn by resident robins in England as discussed by 
Lack (1946), seems to me to point toward a tropical origin. 

Very close to Erithacus is the little white-bellied robin-chat of 
Fernando Po Island and the eastern Belgian Congo, the species 
roberti, which has been placed in the genus Cossyphicula by 
Grote. So little is known of the habits and life history of this 
species that I feel that nothing can be done except to leave 
it as a monotypic genus. The species, while colored very similar- 
ly to the robin, has a rather broader bill, well-marked bristles 
and weak legs and feet. 

Next to the robins are the larger robin-chats of Africa placed 
in the genus Cossypha, a brightly colored group, usually with 
a white crown patch or superciliary stripe. Bessonornis, founded 
on the species humeralis, seems to me untenable as it differs 
only slightly in color pattern. 

Pseudocossyphus of Madagascar has a rather broad culmen 
with prominent bristles like Cossypha. I feel that the species 
imerina and sharpei should be included in the latter genus. 

Near Cossypha is the species stictigula of eastern Africa, 
removed from the babblers by Delacour (1946) and placed 
by me (1952) in a monotypic genus, Modulatrix. 

The genus Cichladusa in proportions seems near Cossypha 
and I place it there noting that Chapin (personal communica- 
tion) avers that in song and behavior it is near the robin-chats. 
Meinertzhagen (1951) states that Cichladusa is a synonym of 



12 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

Erythropygia although he gives no reasons. I cannot agree 
with his opinion. 

Following Cichladusa I place Alethe which also seems near 
Cossypha and following this Xenocopsychus, which Chapin 
(1948) places in the Cossypha group, not far from humeralis. 

Cercotrichas and Piuarornis seem to me closely related 
monotypic forms, and Delacour {op. cit.) has removed the 
latter from the babblers where it was placed by Sclater (1930) 
and others. Heim de Balsac and Mayaud (1951) feel that 
Cercotrichas is very close to Erythropygia galactotes, but the 
latter is only one species of the genus and a rather aberrant 
one at that. I would place these two genera between the Cos- 
sypha group and the Copsychus group. Within Copsychus I 
include Kittacincla and Trichixos. 

The genus Irania with a single species gutturalis seems quali- 
fied to stand by itself midway between the robins and robin- 
chats (Cossypha) of Africa and the redstarts of the Palaearctic 
region. 

To Phoenicurus, the genus of the redstarts, I Avould add the 
genera Adelura, Chaimarrhornis, Diplootocus, Rhyacornis, and 
liuticilla. Adelura and Huticilla have alread}' been united by 
Hartert {op. cit.). Chaimarrhornis and Rhyacornis are simply 
redstarts with more aquatic habits, in the former case the sexes 
being colored alike, in the latter differently. There seems to be 
no other significant difference to waiTant generic separation. 
Diplootocus was erected by Hartert (1902) for the species 
moussieri of North Africa on the basis of size and proportions. 
Bannerman and Priestley (1952) feel that in habits it is sepa- 
rated from Phoenicurus and that the retention of the genus 
Diplootocus is thus advisable. In coloration certainly it cannot 
be separated, nor can I find that Whitaker (1905) or others 
who speak of its habits can make its generic separation sound 
convincing. It seems to me merely a distinct miniature redstart 
just as scouleri is simply a distinct miniature forktail. 

Near Phoenicurus I would place Hodgsonius. In its plumage, 
its longish tail and its habits it seems intermediate to me between 
the redstarts and the blue robins, Myiomela, contra Baker 
{op. cit.), who placed this species with the short -wings, Brach- 
ypteryx. Myiomela, the blue robin, formerly called Notodela, 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 13 

includes also Callene which differs from it only in lacking a 
white patch at the base of the outer tail feathers. 

Hodgson's Grandala of the Himalayas was placed by Seebohm 
{op, cit.) with the American bluebirds, Sialia. I do not agree 
that the genus, Grandala, cannot stand by itself, but I do feel 
that this single Himalayan species is most closely related to the 
North American bluebirds who have, ever since the time of 
Audubon been called "Redstarts" by European visitors. Cer- 
tainly Grandala and Sialia in habits, coloration, and in overall 
appearance seem close to the redstarts as exemplified by 
Phoenicurus. 

The forktails, Enicurus, are a compact group of slender- 
legged, long-tailed birds which have become adapted to living 
along the edges of jungle streams in southern Asia. The genus, 
Microcichla, erected for the species scouleri does not seem to 
me to be valid, based as it is on the single character of the 
short tail. Otherwise scouleri is identical with the other fork- 
tails, merely smaller. Delacour {op. cit.) comes to the same 
opinion. Hydrocichla has been proposed for two of the smaller 
species of Enicurus. Except that the tail is shorter and perhaps 
somewhat less forked, I can find no other distinction and do 
not feel that this is a valid genus. Beecher (personal com- 
munication) finds the cheek anatomy of the forktails similar 
to the other chat-like thrushes. 

Four genera with a broadened bill and a tendency to promi- 
nent bristles are found in parts of the New and Old Worlds. 
Cochoa, the broad-billed, long-winged thrush of the Himalayas, 
Indo-Chinese countries, and the Malaysian area has been vari- 
ously assigned to the true thrush group near Myiophoneus, by 
some authors, and as a sort of relict, near the short-wings, by 
others. Sharpe (1879), placed Cochoa in the Prionopidae in 
the "Catalogue of Birds", and listed Phaeornis immediately 
next to it. Sharpe (1881) also suggested that Cassinia (now 
Stizorhina) was close to Myadestes. It has seemed to me that 
all these genera might replace each other on the different contin- 
ents and might be a group of relict forms of which only the 
solitaires of the New World have any very large distribution and 
group of species. What is known of the habits of the rarer 
forms fits in fairly well with those that are better known as 



14 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

the solitaires. Phaeornis, the Hawaiian Islands thrush is very 
close to Myiadestes in wing and tail proportions but with larger 
feet and longer legs. It may be kept as a distinct genus as 
a measure of its separation from the mainland species in time 
and degree of evolution. 

Two genera, Entomodestes and Cichlopsis, seem better united 
to Myiadestes, however. In color Entomodestes seems to differ 
from typical solitaires, but individual species of Myiadestes, 
such as geniharbis, do also, and I can find no other valid 
characters. Cichlopsis is simply a plain brown solitaire with 
a paler yellowish-tinted throat and paler underparts. 

The genus Neocossyphus, while bearing a close resemblance 
to Stizorhina in color and plumage pattern, seems to differ in 
habits to some extent, being a shy, typically chat-like species 
of the undergrowth, while Stizorhina is more arboreal. Neo- 
cossyphus has two species which are most closely related to 
each other and to no other, and which are sympatric in consid- 
erable parts of West Africa in Gabon and the Cameroon. The 
genus seems near Alethe and Cossypha in many ways. The 
young are not spotted. 

The typical chats consist of a group which shades through 
various degrees of size into the true thrushes. These are pri- 
marily birds of the open country, perching on a rock, a small 
bush or other eminence, looking from this vantage point for their 
insect prey and hawking out after it. Emarginata is a typical 
chat from Africa, closely related to Cercomela, which is in itself 
close to Saxicola. I have united Karrucincla with Emarginata, 
and Pinarochroa with Cercomela, as I can find no outstanding 
differences either morphological or ethological between them. 

In Saxicola, for the most part brightly patterned small chats, 
I include Oreicola and Pratincola. All are similar in plumage, 
sexually dimorphic forms with spotted young, and entirely 
similar habits. Oreicola is separated on the basis of a longer, 
more graduated tail, but among the species of Saxicola cur- 
rently recognized, this distinction fades out. The genus was 
founded on pyrrhonota, and so Rhodophila Jerdon has been 
more recently used (Baker, 1930). Pratincola (founded on 
rubetra) loses its validity as a genus if Saxicola is used as a 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 15 

genus for the small chats and not for the wheatears as Hartert 
(op. cit.) proposed. 

Pentholaea is close to Saxicola but seems differently formed in 
wing and bill, distinctly enough to remain as a genus apart. 

Thamnolaea, a much larger bird, approaches the wheatears 
as does Chaetops which resembles it in pattern. Myrmecocichla 
is another genus of large clifF-chats which is approaching the 
wheatears. In Myrmecocichla I include Sciocincla as to me 
these larger dark species, nigra and arnotti, belong in Myrme- 
cocichla rather than in ThaTnnolaea. 

The genus Oenanthe has recently been ably discussed by 
Vaurie (1949, 1950). I follow his arrangement. 

An offshoot from the thrushes may well be placed here, 
although there will be those who differ. Saxicoloides seems to 
be related to Prunella and I place these two genera at this point, 
followed by Monticola. In Saxicoloides the bill is slender and 
rather downwardly curved, the tarsus is very well developed 
and is scutellated and the wings are long and pointed. The 
young are obsoletely barred and streaked. In Prunella the bill 
is rather wide at the base and hard, the culmen rounded and 
slightly curved. The feet are very strong and the tarsus is 
short, but scutellated. Both genera are hole-nesters, in banks 
or walls, and both have reduced song. Both genera are rather 
shy and skulking, and do not associate with other birds to a 
great extent. In both, family parties or groups occur after 
the breeding season. 



2) TRUE THRUSHES 

The genus Monticola seems to me closely related to the chats 
and wheatears and serves, therefore, to introduce the tribe of 
true thrushes. Meinertzhagen {op. cit.) has recently rearranged 
the species reducing the number to four. I would recognize eight. 

Next to Monticola in a linear arrangement I place Myio- 
phoneus, although the genera have little in common. Myio- 
phoneus seems, however, a rather relict genus of thrush confined 
to southern Asia and the Himalayan area, therefore, a primitive 



16 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

member of the group. Delacour (1942) has reviewed the genus, 
including Arrenga of Ceylon which is suppressed. 

Geomalia of Celebes is closely related to the next group which 
I would include in Zoothera. These are the ground thrushes 
which have been placed in various genera, Geokichla, Oreocincla, 
Ixoreus, BidguHiyia, and others. Delacour and Mayr (1945) have 
already suggested that Oreocincla is a synonym of Zoothera. 
All are characterized by having the bases of the secondaries 
and many of the primaries white, occasionally tinted with buff, 
but distinctly demarcated from the surrounding brown. This 
is particularly noticeable on the underwing. In pinicola the 
axillaries are uniform white, the most extreme variant of this 
coloration. The wing is rounded in virtually all the species, the 
tarsi are not scutellated, the young are spotted on the back 
and breast, the tail is nearly even and may contain 12 or 14 
feathers. The group seems to me an old one, widely spread in 
the Malaysian and African areas, ranging as far as Australia 
and the Solomon Islands and across to eastern Siberia, the 
western coast of North America, and the highlands of Mexico. 
The birds are all forest or jungle species, shy, unobtrusive, 
nesting fairly near the ground with well developed powers of 
song. 

Two genera found in the Moluccan-New Guinea region 
seem to me to be very primitive offshoots of the true thrushes, 
possibly most nearly related to Turdus. These are Amalocichla 
of New Guinea which has two species only. One species is 
rather small and looks almost exactl}^ like a Brachypteryx. 
The other is large and looks like a Turdus. And yet in pattern 
and proportions the two species are very close, indeed, to each 
other, closer than to anything else. Perhaps these two species 
represent an accidental hold-over, a demonstration of founda- 
tion thrush stock. Cataponera of Celebes is very thrush-like in 
form and apparently in its habits also. 

Two other primitive genera which seem related to Turdus 
are Nesocichla, the Tristan da Cunha thrush, and Cichlherminia, 
the forest thrush of the West Indies. Although by no means 
closely related to each other, I find them reminiscent enough 
in pattern and form to hazard a guess that the Tristan thrush 
came from some ancestral thrush stock of the New World, 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 17 

rather than from Africa as has been suggested. A similar deri- 
vation has been suggested for some of the other Tristan 
avifauna (Lowe, 1923). 

Dorst (1950) has made a recent, most interesting study 
of the genus Turdus, in which he includes the genus Hylocichla, 
found primarily in the New World. His reasons for doing so 
are the extraordinary superficial resemblance between the 
European song thrush and the North American wood thrush. 
To American ornithologists familiar with both species in life, 
Dorst's reasons are not compelling. The resemblance seems 
to be more one of parallelism in external appearance only. The 
wood thrush is a much more delicate bird in build with far 
more slender legs and slender, long bill, somewhat broadened 
at the base. However, the striking difference between the 
American thrushes of this group and the European song thrush 
is in habits. The song thrush is far more like European thrushes, 
the redwing, fieldfare, and blackbird in its habits, seeking food 
in the open, running forward with a succession of hops or a 
short run, head often on one side and so forth ; the behavior 
which in America is associated with the American robin and 
other true thrushes. The wood thrush and its relatives on 
the other hand are rather shy, forest birds, whose behavior 
can be compared more nearly with a European nightingale. 
The display of a song thrush tends to be on the ground, that 
of a wood thrush in flight. The song thrush nests in hedgerows, 
bushes, low trees, sometimes on the ground or on banks. Its 
eggs are spotted like those of other European thrushes. The 
wood thrush tends to nest in trees, usually in thick cover, 
often in heavy woods, from six to 50 feet above the ground. 
The eggs are unspotted, and of course, much smaller. 

The wood thrush in fact is the largest member of a group 
of thrushes found in the Americas which also includes a group 
of Neotropical species listed by most authors in the genus 
Catharus. Except for the fact that most species of Catharus 
are rather dark in color, some having a blackish cap, there is 
no difference in proportion or size among the species of the 
two genera, Catharus and Hylocichla, and no difference in 
their habits, although the Catharus species are not famous for 
fine song, with the exception of frantzii whose song has been 



18 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

compared to that of the hermit thrush, guttatus. In fact 
the hermit thrush links the two genera, as in it the 10th primary 
is long, as long as in some species of those separated by 
Ridgway {op. cit.) in Catharus, whose principal character 
was the presence of a long 10th primary.^ Ridgway himself 
(op. cit.) was perhaps the first to point out the extreme close- 
ness of these two genera, the one a neotropical group of 
species, the other temperate. In view of the series of interme- 
diates running from the smallest species listed under Catharus 
up to the largest and palest of those forms, and on to the 
smallest species listed under Hylocichla, in view, too, of the 
acknowledged similarity of the habits and appearance of the 
groups of species, it seems wiser to merge both groups into 
one genus of which Catharus is the oldest name. Should some 
utterly convincing anatomical or other proof of the distinct- 
ness of these two groups of species be produced in the future, 
I would gladly acknowledge my error in suggesting this course, 
but at present with the current state of information, it seems 
wiser to emphasize relationships of species rather than their 
presumed diversity. 

The genus Philomeloides Blyth, quoted by N. Wood ("British 
Song Birds," May 1836, p. 25), was a nomen nudem at its 
first appearance. I do not agree with Wolters (1950) that 
Philomeloides Blyth is tenable for Hylocichla which in any 
case as I have stated above, I feel should be merged with 
Catharus. 

In the genus, Ttirdus, I include Arceuthornis used by some 
for the mistle thrush, fieldfare, and redwing on the basis of 
a smaller bill and similar plumage in the sexes. I also include 
Haplocichla and Mimocichla, two AVest Indian genera closely 
related to each other which differ from most Turdus species in 
having white tips to the tail feathers or else a white patch 
on the innermost greater wing coverts. Patches of white or 
grayish white appear in other widely scattered species of 
Turdus, ranging from the white gorget, and grayish white 

1 In fact if Ridgway's strict diagnosis of the genera Catharus and 
Hi/Iocichla is followed, it might be better to list guttatus in Catharus 
and leave the rest of the species familiarly placed in Hylocichla in 
that genus ! 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



19 



margins on the tail feathers and primaries, secondaries, and 
coverts of the ring-ouzel (T. torquatus) to the ashy gray 
patch on the wing coverts of the gray-winged blackbird (T. 
boulboul) of India. I cannot feel that the coloration of these 
species should separate them from the genus Turdus. Haplo- 
cichla has already been supressed by Bond (1940). 

Finally, I include Platycichla in Turdus, a monotypic genus, 
whose species, flavipes, with a somewhat stouter bill seems 
hardly to separate it from the rest of the South American 
members of Turdus. 

Following is a list of the genera proposed to be synonymized 
in this and other recent revisions: 



Adelura 

Arceuthornis 

Bessonornis 

Callene 

Calliope 

Chaimarrhornis 

C'ichlopsis 

Cyanosylvia 

Diplootocus 

Drymochares 

Entomodestes 

Geokichla 

Haplocichla 

Heinrichia 

Heteroxenicus 

Hydrocichla 

Hylocichla 

lanthia 

Ixoreus 

Karrucincla 

Kittacincla 

Larvivora 



Phoenicurus 

Turdus 

Cossypha 

Myiomela 

Erithacus 

Phoenicurus 

Myadestes 

Erithacus 

Phoenicurus 

Brachypteryx 

Myadestes 

Zoothera 

Turdus 

Brachypteryx 

Brachypteryx 

Enicurus 

Catharus 

Erithacus 

Zoothera 

Emarginata 

Copsychus 

Erithacus 



Luscinia 

Microcichla 

Mimocichla 

Notodela 

Oreicola 

Oreocincla 

Pinarochroa 

Platycichla 

Pogonocichla 

Pratincola 

Pseudocossyphus 

Rhodophila 

Rhyacornis 

Ridgwayia 

Ruticilla 

Sciocincla 

Sheppardia 

Stiphrornis 

Tarsiger 

Trichixos 

Tychaedon 



Erithacus 

Enicurus 

Turdus 

Myiomela 

Saxicola 

Zoothera 

Cercomela 

Turdus 

Erithacus 

Saxicola 

Cossypha 

Saxicola 

Phoenicurus 

Zoothera 

Phoenicurus 

Myrmecocichla 

Erithacus 

Erithacus 

Erithacus 

Copsychus 

Erythropygia 



The Species 



In the following list of the species of thrushes, I have at- 
tempted to list the genera in the linear arrangement necessary 
for a manuscript, but often so misleading from the point of 
view of relationships. In the particular cases where I could, 
I have tried to list the relict species or others which seemed to 
me from my own subjective point of view- to be the representa- 



20 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

tions of the earliest or more generalized ancestral forms first, 
and to list the more highly evolved forms last. To some extent 
my listing may seem to conform to the "Age and Area" concept, 
if only because the more widely distributed forms often seem 
to represent more highly evolved species. But as each species has 
its own evolutionary rate, as each is responsive in its own way 
to the environment, to the changes in it, and to the relative 
degree of isolation with which it is confronted, there is no 
hard and fast rule such as "Age and Area" presupposes. Many 
so-called primitive forms may owe their primitive character 
to a secondary loss in a more specialized or isolated environ- 
ment. Many species may be similar on an entirely superficial 
level. Others may be closely related but may have developed 
strikingly different ecological characteristics, as well as a vary- 
ing degree of morphological differentiation. 

I have tried to list all the subspecies, but in many cases 
have been unsure of these forms. Those which I have not seen 
and have formed no concrete opinion on are followed by an 
asterisk. 

I. Brachypteryx stellata stellata Gould 

" fusca Delacour and Jabouille 

" hyperythra Jerdon and Blyth 

" major major (Jerdon) 

" " albiventris (Fairbank) 

" calligyna calUgyna (Stresemann) 

" " picta (Stresemann) 

" " simplex (Stresemann) 

leucophrys nipalensis Horsfield and Moore 
carolinae LaTouche 
" " langbianensis Delacour and 

Greenway 
" " wrayi Ogilvie-Grant 

" " leucophrys (Temminck) 

" montana cruralis (Blyth) 

" " sinensis Rickett and LaTouche 

" " goodfellowi Ogilvie-Grant 

" " poliogyna Ogilvie-Grant 

" " brunneiceps Ogilvie-Grant 

" " mindanensis Mearns* 

" " malindangensis Mearns 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



21 



Brachypteryx montana saturata Salvador! 

erythrogyna Sharpe 
" " montana Horsfield 

fioris Hartert 

II. Zeledonia coronata Ridgway 

III. Erythropygia coryphaeus coryphaeus (Lesson) 

abbotti Friedmann* 
hamertoni Ogilvie-Grant* 
leucophrys lecoptera (Riippell) 
eluta Bowen 
vulpina Reichenow 
brunneiceps Reichenow 
" soror Reichenow 

jugens xJowen* 
vansomerni Sclater 
" ruficauda Sharpe 

zambesiana Sharpe 
munda (Cabanis) 
pallida Benson 
sclateri Grote 
pectoralis A. Smith 
leucophrys (Vieillot) 
kabalii White 
hartlaubi Reichenow 
galactotes galactotes (Temminck) 
minor (Cabanis) 
syriaca (Hemprich and 

Ehrenberg) 
familiaris (Menetries) 
paena benguellensis Hartert 
dainarensis Hartert 
paena A. Smith 
leucosticta collsi Alexander 

leucosticta (Sharpe)* 
reichenowi Hartert 
barbata erlangeri Reichenow* 
greenivayi Moreau* 
quadrivirgata (Reichenow) 
rovumae (Grote) 
barbata (Finsch and Hartlaub) 
wilsoni Roberts* 
signata (Sundevall) 



22 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



No. 13 



IV. Drymodes hrunneopygius brunneopygius Gould 
" " pallidus (Sharpe) 

superciliaris colcloughi iNIathews 
" " heccarii (Salvador!) 

" " superciliaris Gould 

brevirostris (De Vis) 
nigriceps Rand 



V. Erithacus erythrothorax erythrothorax (Hartlaub) 

gabonensis (Sharpe) 
xanthogaster (Sharpe) 
" mabirae (Jackson) 

sharpei sharpei (Shelley) 

usambarae (Macdonald)* 
gunningi gunningi (Haagner) 
bensoni (Kinnear)* 
sokokoensis (van Sommern) 
cyornithopsis cyornithopsis (Sharpe) 
lopezi (Alexander) 
acholiensis (Macdonald)* 
bangsi (Friedmann) 
houghtoni (Bannerman) 
aequatorialis (Jackson) 
margaritatus ruzcenzorii (Ogilvie-Grant) 
guttifer (Reichenow and 

Neumann) 
elgonensis (Ogilvie-Grant) 
keniensis (Mearns) 
macarthuri (van Sommern) 
orientalis (Fischer and 

Reiclienow) 
" johnstoni (Shelley) 

transvaalensis (Roberts)* 
lebombo (Roberts) 
margaritatus (Sundevall) 
swynnertoni (Shelley) 
rubecula melophilus Hartert 
rubecula (Linnaeus) 
xanthothorax Salvador! and Festa 
sardus Kleinschmidt 
superbus Koenig 
witherbyi Hartert 
atlas Lynes 



» 
»> 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 23 

Erithacus rubecula tataricus Grote 

caucasicus Buturlin 
hyrcanus Blanford 
sihilans (Swinhoe) 
luscinia (Linnaeus) 
megarhynchos caligiformis (Clancey and 

von Jordans)* 
megarhynchos (Brehm) 
** corsa (Parrot)* 

" hafizi (Severtsov) 

lusciniodes (von Jordans)* 
africana (Fisclier and Reichenow) 
aJcahige akahige (Temminck) 
tanensis Kuroda 
kobayashii (Momiyama) 
calliope camtschatkensis (Gmelin) 
beicki (Meise) 
calliope (Pallas) 
svecicus svecicus (I>innaeus) 

namnetum (Noirmoutier) 
occidentalis (Zarudny) 
cyaneculus (Wolf) 
luristanicus nom. nov.^ 
pallidogularis (Zarudny)* 
abbotti (Richmond) 
tianschanicus (Tugarinov)* 
kaschgariensis (Tugarinov)* 
altaicus (Sushkin) 
saturatior (Sushkin) 
weigoldi (Kleinschmidt) 
przevalskii (Tugarinov)* 
kobdensis (Tugarinov)* 
pectoralis pectoralis (Gould) 
confusus (Hartert) 
ballioni (Severtsov) 
tschebaiewi (Przevalski) 
ruficeps (Hartert) 
wickhami (Baker) 
pectardens (David) 

"^Erithacus svecicus magniis (Zarudny and Loudon), 1904, is preoccupied 
by Philomela magna Blyth, 1833 (a nornen nudum in synonymy with 
Luscinia luscinia Linnaeus), 



24 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

Erithacus hachisuhae nom. nov.^ 
" cyane cyane (Pallas) 

" " hochaiensis (Shulpin) 

" hrunneus (Hodgson) 

" komadori komadori (Temminck) 

" " namiyei (Stejneger) 

" " subrufus (Kuroda) 

" cyanurus cyanurus (Pallas) 

" " rufilatus (Hodgson) 

" " praeticus (Bangs and Phillips) 

pallidor (Baker) 
" " albocoeruleus (Meise) 

" " ussuriensis (Stegmann) 

" chrysaeus chrysaeus (Hodgson) 

■whistleri (Ticehurst) 
" " vitellinus (Stresemann) 

indicus indicus (Vieillot) 
" " yunnanensis (Rothschild) 

" " formosanus (Hartert) 

" hyperythrus (Blyth) 

" johnstoniae (Ogilvie-Grant) 

VI. Cossyphicula roherti roberti (Alexander) 

" rufescentior (Hartert) 

VII. Cossypha insulana insulana Grote 

granti Serle 
" " kungwensis Moreau 

poUoptera polioptera Reichenow 
" " tesmanni Reichenow 

" " nigriceps Reichenow 

bocagei Finsch and Hartlaub 

archeri Sharpe 

isabellae isabellae G. R. Gray 
" " batesi (Bannerman) 

" natalensis natalensis A. Smith 

hylophona Clancey* 
" " garguensis Mearns 

" dichroa (Gmelin) 

" semirufa semirufa (Riippell) 

3 As Marquess Hachisuka has noted (in litt.) Erithacus obscura Berezow- 
ski and Bianchi, 1894, is preoccupied by Cyanecula obscura Brehm 1831, 
a synonym of Erithacus svecicus cyaneculus (Wolf), 1810. 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 25 

Cossypha semirufa donaldsoni Sharpe 

" " intercedens (Cabanis) 

heuglini heuglini Hartlaub 
" " suhrufescens Boacage 

" " intermedia (Cabanis) 

cyanocampter cyanocampter (Bonaparte) 
" " periculosa Sharpe 

bartteloti Shelley 
" caffra iolema Reichenow 

kivuensis Schouteden 
" " caffra (Linnaeus) 

namaquensis Selater 
albigularis alhigularis (Reichenow) 
maclounii (Shelley) 
" " porotensis (Bangs and Loveridge) 

" " njombe Benson 

" " anomala (Shelley) 

humeralis (A. Smith) 
niveicapilla niveicapilla (Lafresnaye) 

melanonota (Cabanis) 
albicapilla albicapilla (Vieillot) 
giffardi Hartert 
" " genderuensis Reichenow 

omonensis Sharpe 
sharpei sharpei G. R. Gray 

erythronata Lavauden 
imerina Hartlaub 

VIII. Modiilatrix stictigida stictigula (Reichenow) 

pressa (Bangs and Loveridge) 

IX. Cichladusa guttata guttata (Heuglin) 

rufpennis Sharpe 
arquata Peters 
ruficauda (Hartlaub) 

X. Alethe castanea castanea (Cassin) 

woosnami Ogilvie-Grant 
poliophrys Sharpe 
fUlliborni fiilliborni Reichenow 

usambarae Reichenow 
poliocepJiala poliocephala (Bonaparte) 
castanonota Sharpe 
carruthersi Ogilvie-Grant 



26 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



No. 13 



Alethe poliocephala alceleyae Dearborn 
" diademata (Bonaparte) 

choloensis clioloensis Sclater 
" " namuli Vincent* 

sharpei (Shelley)* 

XI. Xenocopsychus ansorgei Hartert 

XII. Cercotrichas podohe podohe (P. L. S. Miiller) 

" " melanoptera (Hemprich and 

Ehrenberg) (.?)* 

XIII. Pinarornis plumosus Sharpe 



XIV. Copsychus saularis saularis (Linnaeus) 

ceylonensis Sclater 
andamanensis Hume 
prosthopellus Oberholser 
amoenus (Horsfield) 
erimelas Oberholser 
nesiotes Oberholser 
sacnecus Oberholser 
nesiarchus Oberholser 
masculus Ripley 
pagiensis Richmond 
javensis Chasen and Kloss 
problematicus Sharpe 
pluto Bonaparte 
adamsi Elliott 
mindanensis (Gmelin) 
seychellarum Newton 
albospecularis albospecularis (Eydoux and 

Gervais) 
" pica Pelzeln 

" inexpectatus Richmond 

malaharicus malabaricus (Scopoli) 
indicus (Baker) 
leggei (Whistler) 
albiventris (Blyth) 



4 Two specimens of this form in the collection of the Bombay Natural 
History Society from S. W. Arabia have brownish quills and a rufous 
patch on the inner webs, but they are very worn specimens. 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 27 

Copsychus malabaricus interpositus (Robinson and Kloss) 
" " minor (Swinhoe) 

" " mallopercnus (Oberholser) 

tricolor (Vieillot) 
" " melanurus (Salvador!) 

" " opisthopelus (Oberholser) 

" " javanus (Kloss) 

" " omissus (Hartert) 

" " ochroptilus (Oberholser) 

" " heterogynus (Oberholser) 

" " eumesus (Oberholser) 

abbotti (Oberholser) 
" " suavis Sclater 

" " nigricaudus (Vorderman) 

" stricklandii Motley and Dilwyn 

" barbouri (Bangs and Peters) 

" lusoniensis luzoniensis (Kittlitz) 

" parvimaculatus (McGregor) 

" " superciliaris (Bourns and 

Worcester) 
" niger niger (Sharpe) 

" " cebuensis (Steere) 

" pyrropygus (Lesson) 

XV. Irania gutturalis (Guerin) 

XVI. Phoenicurus alaschanicus (Przewalski)) 

erythronotus (Eversman) 
" caeruleocephalus Vigors 

" ochruros gibraltariensis (Gmelin) 

" aterrimus von Jordans* 

" ochruros (S. G. Gmelin) 

" " semirufus (Hemprich and 

Ehrenberg) 
" " phoenicurdides (Horsfield and 

Moore) 
" " xerophilus Stegmann 

" " rufiventris (Vieillot) 

" phoenicurus phoenicurus (Linnaeus) 

" " algeriensis (Kleinschmidt) 

" " samamiscus (Hablizl) 

" " turkestanicus Zarudny* 

" hodgsoni (Horsfield and Moore) 



28 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 13 



Phoenicurus frontalis frontalis Vigors 
" sinae Hartert* 
sehisticeps schisticeps (Gray) 
" beicki Stresemann 

auroreus auroreus (Pallas) 
" leucopterus Blyth 
moussieri (Olphe-Gaillard) 
erythrogaster erythrogaster (Giildenstadt) 
maximus Kleinschmidt 
grandis (Gould) 
leucocephalus leucocephalus Vigors 

pamirensis (Zarudny and 

Moltchanow) 
hicolor (Ogilvie-Grant) 
fuliginosus ftiliginosus Vigors 

affinis (Ogilvie-Grant) 
frontalis frontalis (Blyth) 

orientalis (Delacour and Jabouille) 



XVII. Hodgsonius phoenicuroides phoenicuroides (Gray) 

ichangensis Baker 

XVIII. Myiomela leucura leucura (Hodgson) 

camhodiana (Delacour and Jabouille) 
diana sumatrana (Robinson and Kloss) 

diana (Lesson) 
frontalis (Blyth) 

XIX. Grandala coelicolor coelicolor Hodgson 

" florentes Bangs and Peters 



XX. Sialia sialis sialis (Linnaeus) 

grata Bangs 
episcopus Oberholser 
fulva Brewster 
azurea Swainson^ 

meridionalis Dickey and van Rossem* 
mexicana mexicana Swainson 
australis Nelson* 
" " anabelae Anthony 

occidentalis Townsend 



c Replaces guatemalae Ridgway. 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



29 



Sialia mexicana hairdi Ridgway 
currucoides (Bechstein) 

XXI. Enicurus scouleri scouleri Vigors 
" " fortis (Hartert) 

velatus sumatranus (Robinson and Kloss) 

velatus Temminck 
ruficapillus Temminck 
immaculatus (Hodgson) 
schistaceus (Hodgson) 
leschenaulti indicus Hartert 
sinensis Gould 
frontalis Blyth 
borneensis (Sharpe) 
leschenaulti (Vieillot) 
chaseni de Schauensee 
maculatus maculatus Vigors 
guttatus Gould 
omissus Rothschild 
robinsoni Baker 



XXII. Cochoa purpurea Hodgson 
viridis Hodgson 
azurea beccarii Salvadori 

a2urea (Temminck) 

XXIII. Myadestes townsendi townsendi (Audubon) 

calophonus Moore 
obscurus obscurus Lafresnaye 

oberholseri Dickey and van Rossem 
occidentalis Stejneger 
cinereus Nelson 
insularis Stejneger 
elisabeth elisabeth (Lembeye) 

retrusus Bangs and Zappey 
(jenibarbis solitarius Baird 
montanus Cory 
dominicanus Stejneger 
genibarbis Swainson 
sanctae-luciae Stejneger 
sibilans Lawrence 
ralloides ralloides (d'Orbigny) 
plurnbeiceps Hellmayr 
venezuelensis Sclater 



30 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 13 



Myadestes ralloides candelae de Schauensee 
" coloratus Nelson 

melanops Salvin 
unicolor unicolor Sclater 

veraepacis Griscom 
pollens Miller and Griscom 
leucogenys leucogenys (Cabanis) 

" gularis (Salvin and Godman) 

" peruvianus (Hellmayr) 

" chubbi (Chapman) 

leucotis (Tschudi) 
coracinus Berlepsch 



XXIV. Phaeornis obscura obscura (Gmelin) 

lanaiensis Wilson 
rutha Bryan 

oahensis Wilson and Evans 
myadestina Stejneger 
palmeri Rothschild 

XXV. Stizorhina fraseri fraseri (Strickland) 

rubicunda (Hartlaub) 
vulpina Reichenow 
finschii (Sliarpe) 

XXVI. Neocossyphus rufus gabunensis Neumann 

arrhenii Lonnberg 
rufus (Fischer and Reichenow) 
poensis poensis (Strickland) 
praepectoralis Jackson 
granti Alexander 

XXVII. Emarginata sinuata (Sundevall) 

schlegelii benguellensis (Sclater) 
namaquensis (Sclater) 
schlegelii (Walilberg)* 
pollux (Hartlaub) 



XXVIII. Cercomela fusca (Blyth) 

" dubia (Blundell and Lovat)* 

melanura melanura (Temminck) 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



31 



Cercomela melanura neumanni nom. nov.^ 

" lypura (Hemprich and Ehrenberg) 

" " aussae Thesiger and Meynell* 

dirensis Hartert 
" ultima Bates* 

scotocerca scotocerca (Heuglin)* 
spectatrix S. Clarke 
furensis Lynes* 
turkana van Someren 
enigma Neumann and Zedlitz 
familiaris sennaarensis (Seebohm)* 
omoensis (Neumann) 
falkensteini (Cabanis) 
angolensis Lynes 
gambagae (Hartert) 
hellmayri (Reichenow) 
" galtoni (Strickland) 

familiaris (Stephens) 
liibberti (Reichenow) 
sordida sordida (Riippell)* 
erlangeri Reichenow* 
schoana Neumann 
ernesti Sharpe 
hypospadia Shelley 
olimotiensis Elliott* 



XXIX. Saxicola rubetra (Linnaeus) 

macrorhyncha (Stolicza) 

insignis (Gray) 

dacotiae dacotiae Meade-Waldo 

murielae Bannerman 
torquata theresae Meinertzhagen 

hibernans (Hartert) 

rubicola (Linnaeus) 

maura (Pallas) 

desfontainesi Blanchet* 

archimedes Clancey* 

variegata (Gmelin) 

indica (Blyth)'^ 

6 The name erlangeri Neumann and Zedlitz, is preoccupied in the genus 
Cercomela. 

7 I include indica, as I believe the breeding form of the Himalayas 
diflfers from the Palaearctic race, maura. This whole species seems in need 
of critical examination and revision, but I have not seen enough material. 



32 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

Saxicola torquata przewalshii (Pleske) 
" " yunnanensis (LaTouche) 

" " stejnegeri (Parrot) 

armenica Stegraann* 

leucura (Blyth) 
" " gahrielae Neumann and Paludan 

felix Bates 

albofasciata Riippell 

jebelmarrae Lynes 
" " axillaris (Shelley) 

promiscua Hartert 

vioptana Bates* 

nehularum Bates 

adamauae Grote 

pallidigula (Reichenow) 

salax (Verreaux) 

rohusta (Tristram) 

torquata (Linnaeus) 

sibilla (Linnaeus) 

ankaratrae Salomonsen 
" " voeltzkowi Grote 

tectes (Gmelin)^ 
delacouri David-Beaulieu* 
caprata hicolor Sykes^ 

nilgiriensis Whistler 

airata (Blyth) 

burmanica Baker 

caprata (Linnaeus) 

albonotata Stresemann 

francki Rensch 

cognata Mayr 

piirrhonota (Vieillot) 

fruticola Horsfield 

aethiops (Sclater) 

wahgiensis Mayr and Gilliard 

belensis Rand 
jerdoni (Blyth) 
ferrea Gray 
" gutturalis gutturalis (Vieillot) 

luctuosa Bonaparte* 

8 Stresemann {Ihis, 1952, 94:520), shows that Gmelin's name must be 
used rather than horboncnsis Sclater. 

9 1 include rossornm (Hartert) in bicolor, vide Demcntiev (Systema 
Avium Rossicarum, Paris, 1935, ]). 254). 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



33 



XXX. Pentholaea albifrons albifrons (Riippell) 

" " pachyrhyncha Neumann 

" " frontalis (Swainson) 

" " limhata Reichenow 

clericalis Hartlaub 
" melaena (Riippell) 

XXXI. Thamnolaea cinnamomeiventris cinnamomeiventris 

(Lafresnaye) 
" " albiscapulata (Riippell) 

" " subrufipennis Reichenow 

bambarae Bayes 
" " cavernicola Bates* 

coronata coronata Reichenow 

kordofanensis Wettstein 
" semirufa (Riippell) 

XXXII. Chaetops frenatus frenatus (Temminck) 

aurantius Layard 



XXXIII. Myrmecocichla tholloni tholloni (Oustalet) 

chaboti (Menegaux and 

Berlioz) 
bifasciata (Temminck) 
aethiops aethiops Cabanis 

buchanani Rothschild 
sudanensis Lynes 
cryptoleuca Sharpe 
formicivora formicivora (Vieillot) 

minor Roberts 
nigra nigra (Vieillot) 
stoehri Sclater 
arnotti leucolaema Finsch and 

Reichenow 
collaris Reichenow 
arnotti (Tristram) 
harterti Neunzig 

XXXIV. Oenanthe tractrac tractrac (Wilkes) 

albicans (Wahlberg) 
isabellina isabellina (Temminck) 
bottae (Bonaparte) 
frenata (Heiiglin) 



34 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 13 

Oenanthe isabellina heuglini (Finsch and Hartlaub) 
" " campicolina (Reichenow) 

" xantlwprymna xanthoprymna (Hemprich 

and Ehrenberg) 
" " chrysopi/gia (de Filippi) 

kincji (Hume) 
" oenanthe leucorhoa (Gmelin) 

nivea (Weigold) 
" " oenanthe (Linnaeus) 

" " virago ^Meinertzliagen 

" " seebohmi (Dixon) 

phillipsi (Shelley) 
" deserti oreophila (Oberholser) 

atrogularis (Blyth) 
" " deserti (Temminck) 

" " homochroa (Tristram) 

" hispanica hispanica (Linnaeus) 

" " melanoleuca (Giildenstadt) 

finschii finschii (Heuglin) 
" " harnesi (Gates) 

picata (Blyth) 

lugens hoscaweni Bates 
" " lugentoides (Seebohm) 

" " persica (Seebohm) 

" " lugens (Lichtenstein) 

halophila (Tristram) 
" " vaurei Meinertzhagen* 

luguhris luguhris (Rlippell) 
" " schalowi (Fischer and Reichenow) 

" monacha (Temminck) 

alboniger (Hume) 

pleschanka pleschanha (Lepechin) 
" " cypriaca (Homeyer) 

" leucopyga leucopyga (Brehm) 

" " ernesti Meinertzhagen 

" leucura leucura (Gmelin) 

" " riggenbachi (Hartert) 

" " syenitica (Heuglin) 

" monticola monticola Vieillot 

" " atmorii (Tristram) 

" " albipileata (Bocage) 

" moesta moesta (Lichtenstein) 

" " theresae Meinertzhagen 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 35 

Oenanthe moesta brooksbanki Meinertzhagen 
pileata pileata (Gmelin) 
" " livingstonii (Tristram) 

XXXV. Saxicoloides ftdicata cambaiensis (Latham) 
" " stuartbakeri Koelz 

interinedia Whistler and Kimiear 
" " fulicata Linnaeus^" 

" leucoptera (Lesson)^^ 

XXXVI. Prunella collaris collaris (Scopoli) 

" " subalpina (Brehm) 

montana (Hablizl) 
rufilata (Severtzov) 
" " whymperi (Baker) 

" " nipalensis (Blytli) 

" " tibetana (Bianchi) 

•* " " ripponi Hartert 

" " kwenlunensis (Buturlin)* 

" " erythropygia (Swinhoe) 

himalayana (Blyth) 
" rubeculoides rubeculoides (Moore) 

" " muraria (Meinertzhagen) 

" stropJiiata sirotensis Koelz* 

" " jerdoni (Brooks) 

strophiata (Blyth) 
multistriata (David)* ? 
montanella (Pallas) 
" fulvescens fulvescens (Severtsov) 

" " dresseri Hartert 

" " dahurica (Taczanowski)* 

" " ocularis (Radde) 

" " fagani (Ogilvie-Grant)* 

" atrogularis atrogularis (Brandt) 

huttoni (Moore) 
" koslowi (Przewalski) 

loStresemann {Jhis, 1952, 94:521), points out that fulicata must be 
restricted to Pondichery on the peninsula of India. Ptymatwra, restricted 
by Whistler {Jour. Bomb. Nat. Hist. Soc, 1935, 38:286) to Pondichery 
thus becomes again a synonym of fulicata. 

11 Bufirenter Swainson 1831, based on "Le traquet a queue striee" of 
Levaillant (Oiseaux d'Afrique, pi. 188) is hereby restricted to Pondichery 
also. This leaves Lesson's name (1840) for the Ceylon bird. 



36 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 13 



Prunella modularis modularis (Linnaeus) 

occidentalis (Hartert) 
hebrideum Meinertzhagen 
hibernica Meinertzhagen 
lusitan'wa Stresemann 
enigtnatica Dunajewski* 
orientalis (Sharpe) 
ohscura (Hablizl) 

rubida (Teraminck and Schlegel) 

ivimaculata (Hodgson) 



True Thrushes 



XXXVII. Monticola rupestris (Vieillot) 

explorator explorator (Vieillot) 

tenebriformis Clancey* 
hrevipes brevipes (Waterhouse) 

" pretoriae Gunning and Roberts* 

rufocinereus rufocinereus (Riippell) 
" sclateri Hartert 

" tenuis (Friedmann) 

angolensis Sousa 
saxatilis (Linnaeus) 
gularis cinclorhynchus (Vigors) 

gularis (Swinhoe) 
rufiventris (Jardine and Selby) 
solitarius solitarius (Linnaeus) 
longirostris (Blyth) 
scorteccii Moltoni* 
behnkei Niethammer* 
magnus (LaTouche) 
philippensis (P. L. S. Miiller) 
pandoo (Sykes) 
" madoci Cliasen 



XXXVIIL Myiophoneus bliglii (Holdsworth) 

melanurus (Salvadori) 
glaucinus castaneus Ramsay 

glaucinus (Temminck) 
borneensis Sclater 
robinsoni Ogilvie-Grant 
horsfieldii horsfieldii Vigors 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 37 

MyiopJioneus horsfeldii insularis Gould 

caeruleus turcestanicus Zarudny 
teminckii Vigors 
eugenei Hume 
caeruleus (Scopoli) 
crassirostris Robinson 
dicrorhynchus Salvadori 
flavirostris (Horsfield) 

XXXIX, Geomalia heinricJii hein7'ichi Stresemann 

viatinangensis Stresemann 

XL. Zoothera schistacea (Meyer) 

dumasi duviasi (Rothschild) 

joiceyi (Rothschild and Hartert) 
interpres interpres (Temminck) 
leucolaema (Salvadori) 
minima (Hachisuka) 
erythronota erythronota (Sclater) 
dohertyi (Hartert) 
mendeni (Neumann) 
wardi (Blyth) 

cinerea (Bourns and Worcester) 
peronii peronii (Vieillot) 
audacis (Hartert) 
everetti (Sharpe) 
sibirica sihirica (Pallas) 

davisoni (Hume) 
citrina citrina (Latham) 

cyanota (Jardine and Selby)^^ 
melli (Stresemann) 
aurimacula (Hartert) 
innotata (Blyth) 
andamanensis (Walden) 
gihson-hilli (Deignan) 
alhogularis (Blyth) 
ruhecula (Gould) 
orientis (Bartels)* 
aurata (Sharpe) 
piaggiae p'laggiae (Bouvier) 

12 Comparison of material in New York inclines me not to recognize 
the race, amadoni (Biswas), 1951. 



38 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

Zoothera piaggiae hadii (Macdonald)* 

kilimensis (Neumann) 
" " rowei (Grant and 

Mackworth-Praed)* 
williamsi (Macdonald)* 
" oherldnderi (Sassi) 

" gurneyi gurneyi (Hartlaub) 

" " otoinitra (Reichenow) 

" " usanibarae (Neumann) 

raineyi (Mearns)* 
" " chuka (van Somern)* 

" princei princei (Sharpe) 

" " cameronensis (Sharpe) 

" " graueri (Sassi)* 

hatesi (Sharpe) 
" crossleyi crossleyi (Sharpe)* 

pilettei (Schouteden)* 
" naevia naevia (Gmelin) 

" " meruloides (Swainson) 

" pinicola (Sclater) 

spiloptera (Blyth) 
talaseae (Rothschild and Hartert) 
margaretae (Mayr) 
" andromedae (Temminck) 

" mollissima zvhiteheadi (Baker) 

" " simlaensis (Baker) 

" " griseiceps (Delacour) 

" " mollissima (Blyth) 

" dixoni (Seebohm) 

" dauma imbricata Layard 

" " neilgherriensis (Blyth) 

" " dauma (Latham) 

" " miharagokko (Momiyama)* 

" " toratugami (Momiyama)* 

" " aurea (Holandre) 

major (Ogawa) 
" " horsfieldi (Bonaparte) 

" " choiseuli (Hartert) 

eichlwrni (Rothschild and Hartert) 
papuensis (Seebohm) 
" " ma^hiki (Forbes) 

heinei (Cabanis) 
" " lunulata (Latham) 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



39 



Zoothera dauma halmaturina (Campbell) 
" " macrorhyncha (Gould) 

monticola monticola Vigors 
" " atraia Delacour and Greenway* 

marginata marginata Blyth 
" " parva Delacour 

" terrestris (Kittlitz)* 

XLI. Amalocichla sclateriana sclateriana De Vis 

occidentalis Rand 
incerta incerta (Salvadori) 
" " olivascentior Hartert 

brevicauda (De Vis) 

XLII. Cataponera turdoides turdoides Hartert 

tenebrosa Stresemann 
" " abditiva Riley 

" " heinrichi Stresemann 



XLIII. Nesocichla eremita eremita Gould 

" " gordoni Stenhouse* 

XLIV. Cichlherminia I'herminieri I'herminieri (Lafresnaye)* 

" " lawrencii Cory 

" " dominicensis (Lawrence) 

" " sanctae-luciae (Sclater) 

XLV. Catharus gracilirostris gracilirostris Salvin 
" " accentor Bangs 

griseiceps russatus Griscom 
griseiceps Salvin 
" " phaeopleurus Sclater and Salvin 

aurantiirostris clarus Jouy 
" " melpomene (Cabanis) 

" " bangsi Dickey and van Rossem 

costaricensis Hellmayr 
" " aurantiirostris (Hartlaub) 

" " birchalli Seebohm 

" " insignis Zimmer 

" fuscater hellmayri Berlepsch 

" " sanctae-martae Ridgway 

" " fuscater (Lafresnaye) 

" " caniceps Chapman 



40 Postilla Yale Peahodij Museum No. 13 

Catharus fuscater mentalis Sclater and Salvin 
" occidentcdis olivascens Nelson 

fulvescens Nelson 
" " occidentalis Sclater 

" " alticola Salvin and Godman 

" " frantzii Cabanis 

" dry as dry as (Gould) 

mactdatus (Sclater) 
mexicanus (Bonaparte) 
" " cantator Griscom 

" fumosus Ridgway 
" fuscescens fuscescens (Stephens) 

salicicolus (Ridgway) 
" fuliginosus (Howe)* 

" minimus minimus (Lafresnaye) 

bicknelli (Ridgway) 
ustulatus ustulatus (Nuttall) 
" swainsoni (Tschudi) 

almae (Oberholser) 
oedicus (Oberholser)* 
" guttatus r/uttattis (Pallas) 

" nanus (Audubon) 

" slevini (Grinnell) 

" sequoiensis (Belding) 

" " polionotus (Grinnell) 

" " aiiduhoni (Baird) 

" " faxoni (Bangs and Penard) 

" crymophilus (Burleigh and Peters) 

mustelinus (Gmelin) 

XLVI. Turdus hewsheri bewsheri Newton 

" " comorensis Milne-Edwards and 

Oustalet 
olivaceofuscus olivaceofuscus Hartlaub 
xanthorhynchus Salvadori 
nigrilorum nigrilorum Reichenow 
" " poensis Alexander 

olivaceus chiguancoides Seebohm 
" " saturatus (Cabanis) 

adamauae Grote* 
" " hocagei (Cabanis) 

" " centralis Reichenow 

" " pelios Bonaparte 



September 18, 1952 



The Thrushes 



41 



Turdus olivaceus stormsi Hartlaub 

■mlliami White 
" graueri Neumann 

" " swynnertoni Bannerman 

smithi Bonaparte* 

transvaalensis (Roberts)* 
" " olivaceus Linnaeus 

ahyssinicus abyssinicus Gmelin^^ 
baraka (Sharpe) 
" " oldearni Sclater and Moreau* 

" " hamhusicola Neumann 

" " polius Mearns* 

" " elgonensis (Sharpe) 

" " deckeni Cabanis 

" " uluguru Hartert 

" " roehli Reichenow 

helleri (Mearns)* 
" " nyikae Reichenow* 

" " milanjensis Shelley 

" libonyanus verreauxi Bocage 

tephrinus Oberholser^* 
" " tropicalis Peters 

" " niassae Rensch* 

" " costae Rensch* 

" tephronotus tephronotus Cabanis 

" " australoabyssinicus Benson* 

" menachensis Ogilvie-Grant 

ludoviciae (Phillips) 
" litsipsirups simensis (Riippell) 

" " litsipsirupa (Smith) 

" " kosteri Neumann* 

" " stierlingi (Reichenow) 

" fischeri natalicus Grote 

fischeri Hellmayr* 
" " belcheri Benson* 

" dissimilis Blyth 

" hortulorum Sclater 

" unicolor Tickell 

" cordis Temminck 

13 I am much indebted to Dr. Chapin for suggestions on the arrangement 
of this and the following species. 

14 Replaces cineraseens Reichenow, a name which is preoccupied in 
the genus Turdus, 



42 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 13 



Turdus albocinctus Royle 

torquatus torquatus Linnaeus 
" " alpestris (Brehm) 

amicorum Hartert 
" boulboul (Latham) 

merula ticehursti Clancey 
" " merula Linnaeus 

cahrerae Hartert 
" " azorensis Hartert 

agnetae Volse* 
mauritanicus Hartert 
algirus (Madarasz) 
aterrimus (Madarasz) 
" " insulamm Niethammer* 

syriacus Hemprich and Ehrenberg 
maximus (Seebohm) 
intermedius (Richmond) 
mandarinus Bonaparte 
sowerhyi Deignan 
nigropileus (Lafresnaye) 
spencei Whistler and Kinnear 
simillimus Jerdon 
bourdilloni (Seebohm) 
kinnisii (Blyth) 
poliocephalus erythropleums Sharpe 

indrapurae Robinson and Kloss 
luseri de Schauensee 
javanicus Horsfield 
biesenbachi Stresemann* 
fiimidiis S. Miiller 
rchiteheadi (Seebohm) 
seebohmi (Sharpe) 
albiceps Swinhoe 
thomassoni (Seebohm) 
" mayonensis (Mearns)* 

mindorens'is Ogilvie-Grant 
nigrorum Ogilvie-Grant 
" " kelleri (Mearns) 

" " malindangensis (Mearns)* 

celebensis (Biittikofer) 
hygroscopus Stresemann 
" sterlingi INIayr 

" " schlegeli Sclater 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 43 

Turdus poliocephalus deningeri Stresemann 
" " versteegi Junge 

" " heysseri Mayr 

" erehus Mayr and Gilliard 

" " papuensis (De Vis) 

" " canescens (De Vis)* 

heinrothi Rothschild and Hartert 
" " renellianus Mayr 

bougainvillei Mayr 
" " hulamhangrae Mayr 

" " vinitinctus (Gould) 

" " poliocephalus Latham 

" " xanthopiis Forster 

pritzhueri Layard 
" " albifrons (Ramsay) 

" efatensis Mayr 

hecki Mayr 
malekulae Mayr 
" whitneyi Mayr 

" " placens Mayr 

" " vamhorensis Quoy and Gaimard 

" " ruficeps (Ramsay) 

" " layardi (Seebolmi) 

" " tempesti Layard 

hades Mayr 
" vitiensis Layard 

" " samoensis Tristram 

" chrysolaus orii Yamashina 

" " chrysolaus Temminck 

" celaenops celaenops Stejneger 

" " yakushimensis (Ogawa)* 

niveiceps (Hellmayr)* 
" rubrocanus rubrocanus Hodgson 

" " gouldi (Verreaux) 

" kessleri Przewalski 

feai (Salvadori)* 
" pallidus Gmelin 

" obscurus Gmelin 

" ruficollis atrogularis Jarocki 

ruficollis Pallas 
" naumanni naumanni Temminck 

" " eunomus Temminck 

" pilaris Linnaeus 



44) Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 13 

Turdus musicus coburni Sharpe 

" musicus Linnaeus^^ 
" ericetorum hebridensis Clarke 

" " catherinae Clancey* 

ericetorum Turton 
" " philomelos Brelim 

" " nataliae Buturlin* 

" viscivorus viscivorus Linnaeus 

" " reiseri Schiebel 

deichleri Erlanger 
" " theresae Meinertzhagen* 

" " bithynicus Keve-Kleiner* 

" " transcaspius Zarudny* 

" " bonapartei Cabanis 

mupipennis mupipennis Laubmann 
" " conquisitus Bangs* 

swalesi (Wetmore) 
aurantius Gmelin 
ravidus (Cory) 
plumbeus rubripes Temminck 
" " coryi (Sharpe) 

schistaceus (Baird) 
plumbeus Linnaeus 
" ardosiaceus Vieillot 

verrillorum (Allen) 
flavipes flavipes Vieillot 

venezuelensis (Sharpe) 
polionotus (Sharpe) 
melanopleurus (Sharpe) 
xanthoscelus Jardine 
leucops Taczanowski 
chiguanco chiguanco Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 
" " anthracinus Burmeister 

nigrescens Cabanis 
fuscater cacozelus (Bangs) 
" " gig^s Fraser 

" " quindio Cliapman 

15 Mayr (Ibis, 1952, 94:532-534) suggests using musicus for the song 
thrush and iliacus for the redwing, on the basis of a reexamination of 
Linnaeus' Editions of the "Systema" and "Fauna Svecica," a suggestion 
with which I am heartily in accord. Perhaps this question can be finally 
voted on and an opinion rendered by the International Commission on 
Zoological Nomenclature. 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 45 

Turdus fuscater gigantodes Cabanis 
ockendeni Hellmayr 
" " fuscater Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny 

serranus infuscatus (Lafresnaye) 
cumanensis (Hellmayr) 
" " atrosericeus (Lafresnaye) 

" " serranus Tschudi 

nigriceps nigriceps Cabanis 

subalaris (Seebohm) 
reevei Lawrence 
olivater olivater (Lafresnaye) 
" " caucae (Chapman) 

sanctae-martae (Todd) 
ptaritepui Phelps* 
" " paraquensis Phelps* 

duidae Chapman 
rorairnae Salvin and Godman 
maranonicus Taczanowski 
fulviventris Sclater 
falcklandii falcklandii Quoy and Gaimard 

magellanicus King 
rufiventris juensis (Cory) 
" " rufiventris Vieillot 

leucomelas albiventer Spix 

leucomelas Vieillot 
" " cautor Wetmore 

amaurochalinus Cabanis 
ignobilis differens (Nelson) 
" " plebejus Cabanis 

ignobilis Sclater 

goodfellowi Hartert and Hellmayr 
" " debilis Hellmayr 

murinus Salvin 
arthuri (Chubb) 
lawrencii Coues 
fumigatus bondi Deignan 

personus (Barbour) 
" " aquilonalis (Cherrie) 

" " fumigatus Lichtenstein 

" " hauxwelli Lawrence 

colombianus Hartert and Hellmayr 
parambanus Hartert 
" " obsoletus Lawrence 



46 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 13 



Turdus haplochrous Todd 

nudicjcnis umbrinus Griscom 
grayi Bonaparte 
tamaulipensis (Nelson) 
casius (Bonaparte) 
incomptus (Bangs) 
nudigenis Lafresnaye 
extivius Todd 
maculirostris Berlepsch and 

Taczanowski 
jamaicensis Gmelin 
albicoUis assiniilis Cabanis 

renominatus Miller and Griscom 
rubicundus (Dearborn) 
leucauchen Sclater 
parcolor Austin* 
atrotinctiis Miller and Griscom 
oblitus Miller and Griscom 
cneplwsus (Bangs) 
coibensis Eisenmann* 
daguae Berlepsch 
paragtiayensis (Chubb) 
albicoUis Vieillot 
crotopesus Lichtenstein 
contemptus Hellmayr 
spodiolaeinus Berlepscli and 

Stolzmann 
berlepschi Todd 
phaeopygus Cabanis 
phaeopygoides Seebohm 
minuscidus (Bangs) 
rufo-palliatiis rufo-palUaUis (Lafresnaye) 

graysoni (Ridgway) 
ruftorques Hartlaub 
migratorius migratorius Linnaeus 

nigrideus Aldrich and Nutt 
achrusterus (Batchelder) 
caurinus (Grinnell) 
propinquus (Ridgway) 
phillipsi Bangs 
confinis Baird 



September 18, 1952 The Thrushes 47 

Literature Cited 

Baker, E. C. Stuart, 1924. The fauna of British India; Birds. 2d ed., 2:187. 

, 1930. Ibid., 7:100. 

Bannerman, D. and Priestley, J., 1952. An ornithological journey in 
Morocco in 1951. Ibis, 94:427. 

Bond, James, 1940. Check-list of birds of the West Indies. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Phila., p. 108. 

Cabanis, J. L., 1847. Ornithologische Notizen. Arch. f. naturges., 13:186-256, 
308-352. 

Chapin, J. P., 1948. The systematic position of Xenocopsychus ansorgei. 
Auk, 65:292. 

deBalsac, H. and Mayaud, N., 1951. Sur la Morphologic, la Biologie et la 
Systcmatique de Cercotrichas podobe (P. S. L. Miiller). Alauda, 
19:137-151. 

Delacour, J., 1942. The whistling thrushes (genus Myiophoneus). Auk, 
59:246-264. 

, 1946. Les Timaliines. L'Oiseau et la Revue Francaise 



d'Ornithologie, 16:13. 

Delacour, J., 1946. Notes on the taxonomy of the birds of Malaysia. 
Zoologica, pt. 1, 31:3. 

-, 1951. Commentaires, Modifications et Additions a le Liste 



des Oiseaux de ITndochine Francaise, (II). L'Oiseau et la Revue 
Francaise d'Ornithologie, 21:30. 

and Mayr, E., 1945. Notes on the taxonomy of the birds of 



the Philippines. Zoologica, pt. 3, 30:112. 

Dorst, Jean, 1950. Considerations Systematiques sur les Grives du Genre 
Turdus. L'Oiseau et la Revue Francaise d'Ornithologie, 20:212-248. 

Hartert, E., 1902. Novitates Zoologicae. 9:325. 

, 1910. Die Vogel der Palarktischen Fauna. Berlin, Heft. 5, 6, 

pp. 640-761. 

Lack, David, 1946. The life of the robin. London, pp. 144-147. 

Lowe, P. R., 1923. Notes on some land birds of the Tristan da Cunha 
group collected by the "Quest" Expedition. Ibis, 11th ser., 5:523-529. 

and Amadon, D., 1951. A classification of recent birds. Amer. 

Mus. Nov., no. 1496, 42 pp. 

Meinterzhagen, R., 1951. Some relationships between African, Oriental, 
and Palaearctic genera and species with a review of the genus 
Monticola. Ibis, 93:451. 

Newton, Alfred, 1893. A dictionary of birds. London, 1:72. 

Oliver, W. R. B., 1945. Avian evolution in New Zealand and Australia. 
Emu, 45:148. 



48 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 13 

Parker, W. K., 1872. On the structure and development of the crow's 
skull. Monthly Microscopical Jour., pp. 217-226, 253. 

, 1873. On the development of the skull in the genus Turdus. 

Monthly Microscopical Jour., pp. 102-107. 

Pycraft, W. P., 1905. Ibis, 8th ser., 5:1-24. 

Ridgway, R., 1907. The birds of North and Middle America. Bull, U. S. 
Nat. Mus., Wash., pt. 4, 50:1-179, 885. 

Ripley, S. Dillon, 1952. A new genus of thrush from eastern Africa. 
Postilla, Apr. 12, no. 12, 2 pp. 

Sclater, W. L., 1930. Systema Avium Aethiopicarum. 11:446. 

Seebohm, H., 1881. Catalogue of the birds of the British Museum. 
5:640-761. 

and Sharpe, R. B., 1898-1902. A monograph of the Turdidae. 



London, 2 vols. 

Sharpe, R. B., 1879. Catalogue of the Passeriformes or perching birds in 
the collection of the British Museum. London, 4:2. 

, 1881. Catalogue of the birds in the British Museum. London, 



6:368. 



, 1903. A hand-list of the genera and species of birds. 

London, 4:111-184. 

Stejneger, L., 1905. The birds of the genus Cincliis and their geographical 
distribution. Smith. Misc. Coll., 47:421-430. 

Vaurie, Charles, 1949. Notes on the bird genus Oenanthe in Persia, Afghan- 
istan, and India. Amer. Mus. Nov., no. 1425. 

, 1950. Variation in Oenanthe lugubris. Ibis, 92:540-544. 



Whitaker, J. I. S., 1905. The birds of Tunisia. London, pp. 61-64. 

Whitherby, H. F., Jourdain, F. C. R., Ticehurst, N. F., and Tucker, B. W., 
1938. The Handbook of British Birds. 2:1. 

Wolters, H. E., 1950. Akad. Verlag. Gust, and Portig. K.-G. Leipzig, 
p. 1130. 



ic»\ x:.» 'J 



H^adilL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 14 December 15, 1952 New Haven, Conn. 



A NEW RACE OF BLACK-THROATED BABBLER 

FROM ASSAM 



S. Dillon Ripley 



MU5. CO^P. Jyi. 



m^ 2 4 1953 



The Mishmi Hills in northeastern Assam, India, were so 
violently devastated by the great earthquake of August 1950 
that whole hillsides for miles along the narrow steep valleys 
have been denuded of soil and vegetation. Centuries will be 
needed in some areas to restore even an approximate habitat 
for the fauna. That this fauna is in many respects unique 
was abundantly shown by the Smithsonian-Yale Expedition of 
1946-1947, the results of which were discussed in "The Birds 
of the Mishmi Hills" by Mr. Salim Ali and myself {Jour. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 48(1) :l-37, 1948). It is a sad fact 
that the fate of many of these little known bird and animal 
species will probably remain unknown for an indefinite period 
of time to come. 

Meanwhile, reexamination of specimens of the Black-throated 
Babbler from the Mishmi Hills, at the suggestion of Mr. H. G. 
Deignan, prompts the recognition of another population of 
this species as follows : 



Stachyris nigriceps coei, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M., No. 9585), collected January 4, 
1947, by S. Dillon Ripley at Dreyi, Mishmi Hills, northeastern 
Assam, India. 

Diagnosis: from typical nigriceps of Nepal and the Hima- 
layas ranging east into northern Assam this form differs by 
generally darker tone of plumage, and by having a blackish 
unstreaked throat and very slightly darker ear coverts. 

From spadix of Cachar and the Khasia Hills this popula- 
tion differs by being notably darker with a more blackish 
throat and dark, really seal-brown, ear coverts. Compared 
with coltarti, the subspecies found in Margherita, the Naga 
Hills, and north Burma, coei differs by having dark brown 
rather than rufous-brown ear coverts, and by being a purer, 
less rufescent brown below. 

Range: Mishmi Hills, northeastern Assam, India. 

Remarks : in describing the subspecies, spadix {Btdl. British 
Ornith. Club, 68:89-90, 1948), I left the Mishmi Hills popula- 
tion unnamed as an intermediate. Recent collections in the 
Naga Hills in 1950 of coltarti demonstrated anew the fal- 
lacy of this course and the necessity for recognizing this 
population. 

It gives me great pleasure, therefore, to name this new 
subspecies for Yale's notable benefactor and collector of 
ornithologica, William Robertson Coe. 



^1 



d^addu 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



mi. COiP. 203L 
LIBRARY 

FEB 3 195^ 



Number 15 



May 12, 1953 



New Haven, Conn. 



TYPOTHORAX SCUTES FROM GERMANY 



Joseph T. Gregory 



Among a small lot of Triassic fossils from Wlirttemberg 
presented to Professor O. C. Marsh by Dr. Eberhard Fraas 
is a lateral dorsal armor plate of a pseudosuchian, Yale 
Peabody Museum no. 3694, which bears a small pyramidal 
spine. Similar plates were figured by H. von Meyer (1861, 
p. 341-342, pi. 43, figs. 4-7) and attributed to "Belodon." 
These plates so closely resemble the corresponding portions 
of the armor of Typothorax meadei Sawin from the Dockum 
formation of Texas that familial or even generic affinity is 
suspected. Inasmuch as no horned pseudosuchian has hitherto 
been recognized from Europe, they deserve particular notice. 

Description: The spine was directed outward and back- 
ward, but rose little or not at all above the level of the reptile's 
back, which suggests a thoracic position. The dorsal surface of 
the plate is slightly convex, triangular in outline as preserved. 
The medial portion is broken off so that its full width and 
precise shape cannot be determined. Traces of the smooth, 
narrow, anterior border which was overlapped by the plate 
ahead of it are present ; the remainder of the dorsal surface 
is covered by a weak sculpture of ridges and grooves radiating 
from a pitted area above the junction of the lateral and dorsal 
portions of the plate, which might be termed the base of the 
spine (fig. 1). 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 




Description of Illustrations 

Left lateral thoracic dermal scute of pseudosuchian allied to Typothorax, 
Y.P.M. no. 3694. From Keuper formation near Stuttgart, Wurttemberg, 
Germany. All figures X 1. 

Figure 1. Dorsal surface 
Figure 2. Anterolateral surface 

The anterior and posterior edges of the spine are acutely 
angulate (fig. 3). An angular ridge also runs inward on the 
lower side of the spine for less than a centimeter from the 
apex and then disappears into the rounded surface which 
joins the anterior and posterior faces of the spine and merges 
with the lateral face of the plate. 



Typothorax scutes from Germany 




3 1954 



-T 



Figure 3. Posterolateral view 
Figure 4. Internal surface 



The lateral portion of the plate is very short antero- 
posteriorly but projects down conspicuously from the nearly 
flat dorsal portion, almost at right angles to the latter, below 
the base of the spine. Its medial surface (fig. 4) consists of 
an anterior inwardly directed narrow band which abruptly 
turns upward to merge with the posterior face of the spine. 
A shallow depression lies medial to the base of the spine at 
the posterior internal junction of the lateral and dorsal parts 
of the plate. The dorsal section is flat internally. 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 

Along the anterior face of the bone (fig. 2) a slight ridge 
branches from the angle between anterior and dorsal surfaces 
and roughly divides the face into equal parts, a lower with 
radiate sculpture and an upper "spine" area with weaker orna- 
ment of pits. The posterior face of the spine has a weak con- 
cavity leading to the internal surface at the angle between 
lateral and dorsal sections of the plate. 

Measurements: 

Length, normal to posterior margin 60 mm. 

Length, anterolateral corner to tip spine .... 82 mm. 
Height, dorsal surface to tip lateral process . . 46 mm. 

Comparisons: The plates from Germany appear to differ 
from those of Typothorax meadei Sawin in the somewhat 
shorter spine which does not curve backward so markedly at 
its tip as do those of the lateral dorsal plates of that species. 
Also it lacks any indication of the faint dorsal ridge from the 
tip of the spine, which occurs on the Texas specimen. It differs 
from the lateral plates of Desmatosuchus in its smaller size, 
the broader base to the spine which is indistinguishable from 
above from the whole dorsal surface of the plate, and in the 
fine radial sculpture rather than coarse irregular pitting on 
the dorsal surface. These features are essentially those which 
distinguish Typothorax from Desmatosuchus. 

It would appear to differ from Stegomus as Typothorax 
does, in the much greater development of the laterodorsal spine 
and in the reduced size of the lateral portion of the plate. From 
Stagonolepis it apparently differs in the development of a 
strong spine and in the more acute angle between dorsal and 
lateral faces. This is somewhat uncertain, for although the 
limited assemblage of plates figured by Huxley did not include 
any like the lateral dorsals of Typothorax, it is not impossible 
that such existed. The mid-dorsal plates of the two genera are 
quite similar. Typothorax differs from Stagonolepis in its 
ventral armor, which consisted of separate small quadrangular 
plates (Sawin, 1947, p. 232) instead of the articulating scutes 
of the latter genus (Huxley, 1877, p. 10-11). 



Typothorax scutes from Germany 6 

Dermal "skin plate" armor was first associated with phy- 
tosaurs by H. von Meyer in 1861. At that time he figured a 
large number of the trapezoidal, longitudinally ridged plates 
which have since come to be known as mystriosuchid, and also 
a few elongate-rectangular plates bearing knob-like eminences 
and showing a coarser sculpture. On the same plate with these 
long plates (von Meyer, 1861, pi. 43) he illustrated a lateral 
dorsal plate extremely similar to the one described above. All 
of these specimens were referred to "Belodon" (ibid, p. 337- 
342), but it is clear that there was no association with the phy- 
tosaur skeletons ; they merely were found in the Stubensand- 
stein which also produced the phytosaurs. E. Fraas (1896, 
p. 16) definitely described the elongate median dorsal plates 
and attributed them to Phytosaurus kapffi. Von Huene (1911, 
p. 103) affirmed the association of this type of plate with 
Phytosaurus kapffi, and contrasted them with the mystrio- 
suchid plates. 

In North America this quadrangular type of plate has been 
found principally associated with pseudosuchians ; Desmato- 
suchus and Typothorax have such plates as the median elements 
of their dorsal armor; they are found with a pseudosuchian 
type pelvis and vertebrae in University of Michigan Museum 
of Paleontology no. 13950, described as a "phytosaur" b}^ 
Case (1932) at a time when that term was also applied to 
DesmatosuchusASke forms. Occasionally such plates have been 
found near phytosaur skulls (Camp, 1930, p. 89, and a plate, 
Y.P.M. no. 3695, found near a Machaeroprosopus gregorii 
skull at San Jon, New Mexico), but never demonstrably in 
association with them. Camp has expressed his skepticism over 
the association of this type of plate with Phytosaurus kapffi, 
and the presence of these unmistakably pseudosuchian lateral 
armor plates in the Wiirttemberg Triassic strongly suggests 
that the specimens figured by von Meyer actually belonged 
to Typothorax or a closely related genus which has otherwise 
escaped detection in the German deposits. 

Without more material it is impossible to decide whether 
the plates from the German Keuper represent Stagonolepis, 
Typothorax, or another as yet unknown genus of pseudosuch- 



6 Postilla Yah Peahody Museum 

ian. Consequent!}' to propose a name for this almost unknown 
form at this time would be most improper. However, the exist- 
ence of such a creature seems well established; its presence 
serves to strengthen the faunal similarity between the late 
Triassic faunas of Europe and North America. 

BiBLIOOBAPHY 

Camp, C I>., 1930. A study of the phytosaurs with descriptions of new 
material from Western North America. Univ. Calif. Mem., vol. 10, 
174 p., figs. 1-49, pis. 1-6. 

Case, E. C, 1932. A perfectly preserved segment of the armor of a 
phytosaur with associated vertebrae. Univ. Michigan, Contrib. Mus. 
Paleontology, vol. 4, no. 2, p. 57-80, 6 figs., 8 pis. 

Fraas, E., 1896. Die Schwabischen Trias-Saurier nach dem Material der 
Kgl. Naturalien-Sammlung in Stuttgart zusammengestellt. Festgabe 
des Koniglichen Naturalien-Cabinets in Stuttgart zur 42. Versammlung 
der Deutschen geologischen Gesellschaft in Stuttgart, p. 1-18, pis. 1-6. 

Huene, F. von, 1911. Beitrage zur Kenntnis und Beurteilung der Para- 
suchier. Geologische und Palaeontologische Abhandlungen. n.f. Bd. 10, 
p. 67-121, pis. 12-19. 

Huxley, T. H., 1877. The crocodilian remains found in the Elgin sand- 
stones, with remarks on the ichnites of Cummingstone. Memoirs of 
the Geological Survey of the United Kingdom, Mon. Ill, p. 4-68, 
(quarto), pis. 1-16. 

Meyer, H. von, 1861. Reptilien aus dem Stubensandstein des oberen 
Keupers. Palaeontographica, Bd. 7, (1859-1861), p. 253-346, pis. 28-47. 

Sawin, H. J., 1947. The pseudosuchian reptile Typothorax meadei. Jour. 
Paleontology, vol. 21, p. 201-238, figs. 1-13, pi. 34. 



L, 



/f^addia 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



FEB 3 1954 






Number 16 



June 3, 1953 



New Haven, Conn. 



TYPOTHORAX AND DESMATOSUCHUS 



Joseph T. Gregory 



Much uncertainty has been expressed bj students of North 
American Triassic reptiles over the relationships and possible 
synonymy of the pseudosuchian genera Typothoraw Cope 
(1875R), Episcoposaurus Cope (1887A), and Desmatosuchus 
Case (1920B). Still another genus belonging to this group, 
Acompsosaurus Mehl (1915), has been described, but its rela- 
tionships to the better known forms have never been adequately 
determined. In the course of preparing faunal lists of the Dock- 
um formation it was necessary to face the problem of nomencla- 
ture of these reptiles ; the inadequacy of some of the early de- 
scriptions led me to examine Cope's types (one of which had 
never been illustrated), and to compare these with the more com- 
plete specimens described by Case (1922B) and Sawin (194T). 

From this study it is evident that the type of Episcoposaurus 
haplocerus Cope is a specimen of the large, horned genus well 
known as Desmatosuchus Case and quite unlike E. horridus 
Cope, the type of Episcoposaurus. Desmatosuchus, the type 
species of which becomes D. haplocerus (Cope), is a valid genus 
quite distinct from Typothorax Cope, which is best known from 
the Texas species T. meadei Sawin. Cope's original type of 
Episcoposaurus horridus is hopelessly mixed with bones of other 
individuals, some of which were referred by him, and later by 
von Huene (1915A), to Typothorax, and which include char- 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

acteristic dorsal armor of that genus. Although it is not 
demonstrable from the type material, the similar proportions 
and size of the limb bones originally described as Episcoposaurus 
horridus by Cope to those of Typothorax meadei Sawin, and 
the intimate association of these bones with larger armor 
plates of Typothorax, strongly suggests that E. horridus Cope 
actually is a synonym of T. coccinarum Cope. The pelvis and 
associated fragments of Acompsosaurus wingatensis Mehl are 
clearly pseudosuchian but are not diagnostic portions for 
generic identification within this Family. There is some sug- 
gestion that they may belong to Typothorax. 

Discussions of this problem with Professors C. L. Camp and 
E. C. Case have stimulated this attempt to solve a persistent 
taxonomic puzzle. It is a great pleasure to record the assist- 
ance rendered by many colleagues in the course of this study. 
Repeated opportunities to examine Cope's types and other col- 
lections from the region of Gallina, New Mexico, at the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History have been given me by Dr. 
Edwin H. Colbert, with whom I have profitably discussed many 
aspects of this problem. Dr. Horace G. Richards of the Acade- 
my of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia graciously peniiitted 
me to study the type of Episcoposaurus haplocerus and to bor- 
row portions of that specimen for illustration. Through the 
kindness of Dr. E. C. Case of the University of Michigan, I have 
been able to study the type of Desmatosuchus spurensis closely 
and to benefit from his long experience collecting in the Triassic 
of western Texas. Professor A. S. Romer has permitted me 
to examine an undescribed skeleton of Typothorax in the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard. The illustrations 
were prepared with great care by Miss Shirley Glaser. 

Bibliographic citations correspond to those used in O. P. 
Hay's "Catalogue and Bibliography of Fossil Vertebrates of 
North America." Museum locations of specimens are abbreviated 
as follows : 

A.M.N.H. American Museum of Natural History, New 
York City, New York 

A.N.S.P. Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 

Pennsylvania 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 3 

M.C.Z. Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard 

University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 

U,M. University of Michigan, Museum of Paleon- 

tology, Ann Arbor, Michigan 

Y.P.M. Peabody Museum of Natural History, Yale 

University, New Haven, Connecticut 



Taxonomic History 

During the summer of 1874, E. D. Cope accompanied one 
of the parties of Lt. G. M. Wheeler's Geograpliical Survey 
west of the 100th Meridian in northwestern New Mexico (Cope 
1875U)/ In the region of Gallina, New Mexico, he collected a 
few scraps of reptilian bones which he described (Cope 1875R) 
as Typothorax coccinarum Cope. Largely on the basis of these 
he correctly determined the age of the strata as Triassic. Cope's 
original description of Typothorax mentions in order: a frag- 
ment of a jaw which he recognized as phytosaurian ; dermal 
scutes ; part of vertebral centrum ; and the head of a femur. 
A phytosaur tooth also was associated. A second specimen in- 
cluding part of the top of a skull, pitted dermal bone like the 
type, and a single keeled scute was doubtfully referred to the 
species (Cope 1875R, p. 266). 

David Baldwin collected new material from the Gallina Creek 
locality in 1881 which formed the basis for a more detailed 
discussion of Typothorax and the description of Episcoposaurus 
horridus by Cope several years later (1887A). Typothorax was 
diagnosed on the basis of dermal plates, ribs, and femur; the 
jaw fragment was excluded from the type, which Cope restricted 
to the dermal scutes with regular round pitting, figures 4, 5, 
and 9 of plate 22, Cope 1877K. This emendation of the type 
appears perfectly valid, for the restricted type is more homo- 
geneous than the original, yet is strictly part of it. Skin plates 
of large size attached to each other by matrix (Cope believed 

lAn illuminating account of this trip is given by G. G. Simpson in, 
"Hayden, Cope, and the Eocene of New Mexico." Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
Proc, 103, p. 1-21, 1951. '~^Z~7^^' 



FEB 3 1954 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

them fused to ribs) and a complete femur of small size from 
the 1881 collection were referred to Typothorax; but smaller, 
keeled dermal plates, a large and massive femur, bones of the 
forelimb, and some vertebrae were made the type of Episcopo- 
saurus horridus. These specimens (A.M.N.H., nos. 2710-2713) 
are intimately mixed, partly still in matrix, the two types of 
dermal plates occurring together but not in original position. 
There is no evidence as to which limb bones are associated with 
each type of armor ; if size is regarded as a criterion, the large 
femur of Episcoposaurus should belong with the Typothorax 
araior, and the smaller femur would be associated with the 
keeled plates. It is more than likely, however, that the two 
types of skin plates came from different parts of the same 
animal, and that the larger hind limb bones are associated with 
them. The small femora which Cope and von Huene regarded 
as Typothorax may well belong to one of the small phytosaurs 
which occur in the deposit, or else are those of somewhat 
smaller individuals of Typothorax. The size difference is easily 
accounted for on the basis of growth, the greater curvature of 
the shaft and twisting of the ends are harder to evaluate, for 
in these Triassic clays bones are frequently deformed in vari- 
ous ways. I do not regard the differences as proof of original 
diversity in form. Limb bones of M.C.Z., no. 1488, from the 
Ghost Ranch above Abiquiu in northwestern New Mexico are 
intermediate in size and similar to the ^^Typothorax^^ material 
in form. Alternatively, the large femur may be incorrectly as- 
sociated, though this seems unlikely in view of Sawin's 
discoveries. 

Von Huene redescribed and figured the material in the 
American Museum in 1915 (Baldwin's collection of 1881). 
He pointed out the difficulty of determining the association of 
bones and also of determining which specimens were in fact 
the types. By error he regarded the specimens which formed 
the basis of Cope's 1887 redescription of Typothorax as the 
type of that species, and included with it fragments of tibia, 
metatarsals, and scapula which Cope (1887A, p. 210) had re- 
garded as of uncertain reference. Although realizing the un- 
certainty of association of the various dermal plates and other 
bones, von Huene attributed to Typothorax a number of small 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 5 

scutes bearing conical central eminences (1915A, figs. 7-10) 
in addition to the flat, shallowly pitted plates. Some of these 
he regarded as caudal, others as lateral to the costals. (Com- 
parison with the articulated armor of M.C.Z., no. 1488 
and Typothorax meadei Sawin shows that they are from proxi- 
mal and medial parts of the tail.) These plates are sculptured 
with ridges and grooves radiating outward from the central 
boss exactly like those which von Huene and Cope attributed 
to Episcoposaurus (cf. von Huene 1915A, fig. 24). 

Von Huene rejected the association of fore and hind limbs 
of Episcoposaurus on the grounds that the bones were too dis- 
proportionate in size; he restricted the type of E. horridus to 
the large femur and referred the small forelimb bones to a 
mystriosuchid phytosaur, possibly "Belodon" scolopax Cope. 

However, the femur of T. meadei is much longer and stouter 
than that referred to T. coccinarum. If Sawin's figures 7 A and 
B are compared with von Huene's figures 1 (Typothorax coc- 
cinarum) and 12 (Episcoposaurus horridus) it will be seen that 
the femur of the Texas pseudosuchian is far less curved than 
that attributed to Typothorax and much more like that of 
Episcoposaurus. Moreover the dimensions of the bones agree 
better with the latter genus. 



Measurements in millimeters of limb bones 



Typothorax Typothorax Episcoposaurus Typothorax 
coccinarum sp.? horridus meadei 

(AMNH 2710) (M.C.Z. 1488) (AMNH 2713) (Texas 31185-84) 



Length femur 

Length humerus 
Length radius 
Length ulna 



22 



25.8 



17.5 



13.0 



31.5 (est.) 


33 


lacks condyle 




22 


21 


• • 


14 


16.1 


18 



6 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 16 

The humerus and ulna of T. meadei are quite similar to those 
belonging to the type collection of Episcoposaurus horridus 
which von Huene (1915A, p. 493, 499, figs. 25-27) rejected 
as too small to belong with the femur of that animal. Their 
proportions suggest that Cope may have been correct in his 
reference of the small forelimb and large femur to the same 
animal (Episcoposaurus horridus). 

But the probable association of the Episcoposaurus femur 
(lectotype of E. horridus) with unmistakable armor of Typo- 
thorax, and the further likelihood that the supposed distinctive 
armor of Episcoposaurus is merely that of the tail rather 
than thorax or abdomen, and finally the intimate association of 
the type specimen of Episcoposaurus horridus with bones refer- 
red by Cope as well as subsequent students to Typothorax coc- 
cinarum, all suggest that only one species is present. If this 
be so (it is probably incapable of absolute proof), Episcopo- 
saurus is a synonym of Typothorax having been established 
upon remains of the same species. 

Smaller femora referred by von Huene to Typothorax coc- 
cinarum probably belong to younger individuals of that species, 
but in no case have any crucial bearing on the taxonomic 
problem as they are not primary types. 

W. F. Cummins of the Second Geological Survey of Texas 
began explorations of northwest Texas in 1889. In 1890 he 
found vertebrate fossils in the Dockum formation and in 1891 
collected near Dockum the specimen which Cope described as 
Episcoposaurus haplocerus. Cope himself accompanied Cummins 
on a collecting trip along the east side of the Staked Plains 
in 1892, securing additional material including fragments of 
pseudosuchian armor which he referred to Typothorax (Cope 
1893A, p. 17). The thick, coarsely sculptured armor plate 
and large lateral horns of E. haplocerus are obviously so similar 
to Desmatosuchus spurensis Case as to leave no doubt of specific 
identity. The type localities are only a few miles apart and at 
about the same level in the Dockum formation. 

In 1917 Professor E. C. Case of the University of Michigan 
discovered a pseudosuchian skeleton in Crosby County, Texas, 
which he described in 1920 as Desmatosuchus spurensis. Later 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 7 

Case (1929B, p. 43) suggested that Desmatosuchus might prove 
to be a synonym of Episcoposaurus ; Sawin (1947, p. 233) was 
also of this opinion. This view undoubtedly arose from com- 
parison with Cope's description of E. haplocerus, which is 
indeed the same as Desmatosuchus. But this animal, which will 
have to be known as Desmatosuchus haplocerus (Cope), differs 
widely from Episcoposaurus horridus, the type species of the 
genus Episcoposaurus. As has been pointed out above, the latter 
is probably a synonym of Typothorax coccinarum. 

A full description of the type of E. haplocerus is given below, 
with comparisons to Case's excellent account of Desmatosuchus. 
Desmatosuchus differs from Typothorax most obviously in the 
coarser and unequal pitting of the dermal armor plates and 
in tlie greatly enlarged horn over the shoulder region. 

In 1915 Dr. M. G. Mehl of the University of Wisconsin 
described the pelvis, sacrum, and other fragments of a pseudo- 
suchian from a "red shale series near the base of the Mesozoic 
section" at Fort Wingate, New Mexico, and called the fossil 
Acompsosaurus wingatensis. The specimen is not readily com- 
parable with the better known members of the group ; some 
points in the description suggest Typothorax, others Desmato- 
suchus. There is no satisfactory indication that it represents 
a distinct genus. (I have not been able to examine this specimen.) 

The extensive collections from Howard County, Texas, by 
the Texas Bureau of Economic Geology, W. P. A. Paleontolog- 
ical Survey, under the supervision of Grayson Meade in 1940 
included two skeletons of a pseudosuchian described as Typo- 
thorax meadei by Sawin (1947). The species differs in minor 
details from T. coccinarum Cope and provides by far the most 
complete picture thus far obtained of the anatomy of these 
reptiles. 

Other specimens of Typothorax have been obtained in eastern 
Arizona and northwestern New Mexico by the University of 
California, the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and Yale Pea- 
body Museum, but these have contributed little toward the un- 
derstanding of the family. Thus far Desmatosuchus has been 
found only in the Crosby County area of Texas. 



8 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 16 

Systematic Revision 

Class REPTILIA 
Order THECODONTIA 

Family Stagonolepidae 
Genus Typothorax- Cope 1875R 

Typothorax Cope. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc. 27, p. 265, 
1875 ; type species by original designation Typothorax coc- 
cinarum Cope. 

Episcoposaurus Cope. Am. Philos. Soc, Proc. 24, p. 213-217, 
1887 ; type species by original designation Episcoposaurus 
horridus Cope. 

Quadrupedal archosaurian reptiles 2l^ to 3 meters long, with 
short, pointed heads, depressed bodies enclosed in dermal armor 
of overlapping bony plates, and with forelimbs much smaller 
than hind limbs. 

Skull pointed, flat-topped, overlapped by nuchal armor ; the 
upper temporal opening laterally situated, lateral opening low, 
not completely known. A large antorbital fenestra. Mandible 
edentulous anteriorly and possibly covered by horny beak. 

Dorsal armor of two rows of overlapping plates, medial pair 
of plates flat, wider than long except in anterior cervical series, 
flat or with low conical or pyramidal eminence near center of 
posterior edge ; lateral plates angulate with dorsal and lateral 
flanges meeting at sharp angle below base of projecting lateral 
spines ; no enlarged, hornlike shoulder spines ; surface of scutes 
covered with shallow, round, uniform sized pits about ^ cm. 
in diameter, except on smooth anterior articular flange and on 
bosses and spines which are covered with fine punctation ; armor 
plates relatively thin (5 to 8 mm. thick). 

Ventral armor of small polygonal plates in regular rows 
narrower near the midline than laterally, with anterior flange 
for articulation with overlapping plates similar to dorsal series ; 
pitting of ventral plates similar to dorsal armor. Tail enclosed 
in rings consisting of four keeled plates each rising to an angu- 

2 The name Typothorax is derived from the Greek tvttos, a model or 
image, and dwpai, breastplate, in allusion to the shallow pitting of the 
dermal scutes which resemble a hammered surface. 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 9 

lar posterolateral point; sculpture consisting of punctate sur- 
face on boss and weak pits or grooves radiating from boss over 
remainder of outer surface except articular flanges. Distal 
caudal plates elongate rods with posterior projecting spikes. 

Pelvis resembling that of Phytosauria but with ilium higher 
and more elongate anterior and shorter posterior iliac spines. 
Pectoral girdle poorly known, the glenoid an open, posteriorly 
directed notch as in crocodiles, coracoids rounded medially and 
not elongate as in Crocodilia ; dermal shoulder elements unknown. 

Humerus with ends expanded, at 45° angle, shaft slender; 
rear limb much longer and more massive than forelimb ; femur 
nearly straight (slightly sigmoid) with strong 4th trochanter; 
tarsus with crocodiloid astragalus. Feet pentadactyl, toes of 
manus short and weakly clawed, those of pes with stout claws ; 
metatarsal V hook shaped. 

Typothorax is readily distinguished from Desmatosuchus by 
the absence of enlarged curved horns on the dorsal armor over 
the shoulder, by the regular round pitting of its armor, by 
relatively thin dermal plates, and by its slightly smaller size. 

Typothorax coccinarum^ Cope 1875R 

Typothorax coccinarum Cope. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 
27: p. 265, 1875. 

Cope, E. D. 1877K, p. 29-30, pi. 22, figs. 1-9. 
Cope, E. D. 1887A, p. 210-213, pi. I. 
von Huene, F. 1915A, p. 485-490, figs. 1-10. 

Episcoposaurus^ horridus Cope. Am. Philos. Soc, Proc, 24., p. 
213-217. 

3 The trivial name coccinarum was given by Cope from the Latin coc- 
c'lneus, scarlet colored, referring to the red-beds from which the specimen 
was derived. 

4Cope gives no hint of the derivation of E piscoposaurus ; two suggestions 
are possible. Latin episcopus, bishop -f saurus, in allusion to the resem- 
blance of some of the conical caudal scutes to a bishop's mitre. Alterna- 
tively, as Cope regarded the animal an ally of the phytosaurs, the literal 
Greek derivation cirl, over -|- aKoirtlv to look at -\- aavpa, ffavpos, a lizard; 
a reptile which looks over or upward, in allusion to the high and upwardly 
directed orbits of phytosaurs is possible. Tlie specific name, horridus, 
was derived from the Latin horrere, to bristle or tremble with dread, to 
be terrible. 



10 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 16 

Type: U.S.N.M., no. 2585, dermal scutes (Cope 1877K, pi. 22, figs. 4, 5, 
and 9.) Collected by E. D. Cope, October 5, 1874. 

Type locality: "Triassic red beds of the western side of the Sierra Madre 
on Gallinas Creek" (Cope 1877K, p. 28). This site has been relocated 
by Camp (1930B, p. 143) as at Cerro Blanco, north of Gallina, New 
Mexico. It lies near the center of the NVa sec. 9, T. 23 N., R. 1 E. 
New Mexico Principal Meridian. Chinle formation. Upper Triassic. 

Type of Episcoposaurus horridus: A.M.N.H., no. 2713 (formerly 2307). 
Two caudal vertebrae (proximal and distal); humerus; two ulnae; 
femur lacking condyles; proximal part of tibia; distal part of fibula; 
calcaneum; a number of dermal bones. Splenial possibly associated. 
Von Huene (19 15 A, p. 492-493) designated bones of hind leg as 
lectotype. From same locality as type of Typothorax coccinarum. Col- 
lected by David Baldwin, April 12, 1881. 



The only diagnostic features of the type of Typothorax coc- 
cinarum are the thin, flat, dermal plates ornamented with 
numerous rather small, shallow round pits. A single keeled 
scute in the original collection was regarded by Cope (1875R, 
p. 266) as of uncertain reference. The later collection by Bald- 
win (A.M.N.H., nos. 2710-2713) contained both flat plates 
which Cope referred to Typothorax (1887A, p. 211) and 
keeled plates which he ascribed to Episcoposaurus (ibid, p. 216- 
217). 

Both Cope (1887A) and von Huene (1915A) emphasized 
the difference in size and shape of the femora as distinctions 
between Typothorax and Episcoposaurus. At first sight the 
massive straight femur of the latter appears quite different from 
the small sigmoid femora attributed by Cope to Typothorax. 
But aside from the question of reference of these specimens, 
discussed on a previous page, the similar shape of the head 
of the two bones, and the intermediate character of the femora 
of Typothorax meadei Sawin and M.C.Z., no. 1488 makes refer- 
ence to the same species at least reasonable. The surprisingly 
small foi'elimb of "Episcoposaurus" is now known from T. 
meadei to be characteristic of Typothorax, and the difi'erence 
in shape and pattern of the dermal plates appears to be con- 
trolled by their location on the body; the flat plates which 
Cope regarded as typical of Typothorax belonging to the median 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 11 

dorsal series of the back, the keeled plates of Episcoposaurus 
(fig. 17) belonging to the caudal series. 



Typothorax meodei^ Sawin 

Typothorax meadei Sawin. Jour. Paleontology, 21, p. 201-238, 
1947. 

Syntypes: Univ. Texas, Bur. Econ. Geol., Coll. no. 31185-84 A, "frag- 
mentary skull, a poorly preserved vertebral column, appendages, and 
dermal armor susceptible of reconstruction from the anterior cervical 
region to the proximal caudal. Associated with this specimen were numerous 
small dermal buttons and plates referable to the ventral and appendicular 
armor," and no. 31185-84B, fairly complete skull, portions of nuchal plates, 
fragments of dorsal plates, incomplete vertebral column, major limb bones, 
fragmentary remains of the girdles. 

Three other specimens referred. Collected by Grayson Meade and 
W. P. A. Paleontological Survey, 1940. 

Type locality: Univ. Texas, Bur. Econ. Geol., loc. 31185, Quarry 3A, 
3 miles north of Otis Chalk, Howard Co., Texas, Dockum formation. 

These specimens belong to a rather wide and flattened animal 
with a short pointed pseudosuchian skull, prominent, backward- 
ly directed spines along the edge of the dorsal armor, large rear 
limbs and relatively weak forelimbs, and rather crocodiloid 
feet. Sawin (1947, p. 233) distinguished the species from T. 
coccinarum Cope on the basis of (1) pyramidal instead of 
conical eminences on the median dorsal plates and (2) smaller 
size. A further distinction between the Texas specimen and 
Typothorax coccinarum is the uniform presence of posteromesial 
eminences on the rear borders of the median series of plates 
in T. meadei. On T. coccinarum these plates are flat. 

As pointed out above, the limbs have the proportions and 
form of those of Episcoposaurus horridus. Sawin's illustra- 
tions of the dorsal armor suggest a radial pattern on the median 
plates, and the presence of keeled bosses on these plates is 
distinctly more like the type of Episcoposaurus than that of 
Typothorax. The admixture in this animal of the supposed 
characters of the two genera further supports the evidence of 
their identity. 

5 The species was named for the collector. Dr. Grayson E. Meade. 



12 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 16 

Our knowledge of the range of variation in these reptiles 
is far too meagre to permit a reasonable assessment of the 
biological validity of these species. It would be equally unwise 
to unite them in spite of these tangible differences or to flatly 
assert that the differences were unquestionably due to genetic 
isolation. The excellence of the Typothorax meadei specimens 
in comparison to other material of the genus is ample justifica- 
tion for retention of the specific name in the absence of proof 
of identity with another form. 



Typothorax cf. coccinarum Cope 

Typothorax is represented in collections of Yale Peabody 
Museum from the middle part of the Dockum formation west 
of San Jon, New Mexico. Two fragments of median dorsal plates 
with characteristic shallow pitting were found during the excava- 
tion of a Machaeroprosopus gregorii skull (along with several 
other specimens which could not possibly have belonged to 
that animal), and the fragmentary weathered remains of much 
of a carapace (Y.P.M., no. 3696) were collected nearby. None 
of these plates show any trace of a boss or tubercle on the 
median series. Short posteriorly directed spines at the angles 
of the lateral plates are suggested by a few fragments. 

With grave doubts, a large thin median scute of a mid-dorsal 
series (Y.P.M., no. 3695) found near the same Machaeroproso- 
pus skull is referred to Typothorax (fig. 16). Its shape and 
thinness suggest this genus, but the ornamentation consists of 
radial ridges and grooves arranged around the very low round 
conical boss, which lies slightly behind the middle of the plate 
and rises less than a millimeter above its general surface. Inas- 
much as one of the typical Typothorax plates mentioned above 
was found only a few inches from this plate, and as both 
show the same prominent anterointemal projection one may 
wonder whether the difference in sculpture is anything more 
than an artifact of preservation and preparation. The upper 
surface of the peculiar scute appears damaged. It (Y.P.M., 
no. 3695) is generally similar to those from the Keuper of 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 13 

Wiirttemberg attributed by von Meyer (1861, pi, 43, p. 337- 
342) and Fraas (1896, p. 16) to Phytosaurus kapffi. 

Rectangular median plates with similar sculpture charac- 
terize the specimen (U.M., no. 13950) from the Dockum forma- 
tion on Cerita de la Cruz Creek northwest of Amarillo, Texas, 
which Case (1932 A) referred questionably to Phytosaurus. 
Pelvis and vertebrae of that specimen are of pseudosuchian 
rather than phytosaurian type, as Case realized (ibid, p, 71- 
74) ; the dermal armor is more like Typothorax than Desmato- 
suchus and may be tentatively referred to the former. 

The posterior portion of a Typothorax skeleton was collected 
from the Chinle formation at the Ghost Ranch on Canjilon 
Creek northwest of Abiquiu, New Mexico, by a party from 
Harvard University, Professor A, S, Romer most kindly per- 
mitted me to examine this specimen (M,C.Z., no, 1488; also 
other bones, no, 1487). It is important because the typical 
flat Typothorax plates of the body are associated with keeled 
scutes on the tail. Also its size is intermediate between the 
various specimens described by Cope as Typothorax: coccinarum 
and Episcoposaurus horridus. The femur is 25.8 cm. long, 
essentially straight and stout like that of E. horridus but 
with a well developed 4th trochanter. The tibia is very broad 
and massive, 12.5 cm. long. Another tibia from the same locality, 
no. 1487, is 13.5 cm. The humerus is 17.5 cm. long to the ulnar 
condyle; an ulna is 13.0 cm. If my interpretation of the speci- 
men is correct the ventral armor consists of transverse bands 
of plates which overlap in the same fashion as the dorsal armor, 
with an articular flange on the anterior external edge of each 
plate. Two narrow rows of plates along the midline are flanked 
by an uncertain number of wider scutes ; all have shallow round 
pits like the dorsal armor, arranged in a faintly radial pat- 
tern about a central point. The latter is not raised as a boss 
above the surface. 

Camp (1930B, p. 3) reported Typothorax locally abundant 
in the upper Chinle formation of Arizona and Utah, and rare 
in the lower part of that formation. Camp, Colbert, McKee, 
and Welles (1947, p. 4) list ^^Stagonlepis'"' Typothorax, and 
Episcoposaurus in the Lower Chinle fauna of Arizona and 
Utah, and Typothorax in the Upper Chinle of northwestern 



14 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

New Mexico. I have collected characteristic armor of the genus 
from the lower Chinle near St. Johns, Arizona, but am not able 
to determine whether early and late species can be differentiated. 



Desmatosuchus^ Case 

Desmatosu^hiLs Case. Jour. Geology, 28, p. 524-529, 1920. 
Type species by monotypy Desmatosuchus spurensis Case = 
Episcoposaurus haplocerus Cope. 

Large quadrupedal pseudosuchians, 3 meters or more in 
length, with short-snouted skull, depressed body covered by 
heavy bony armor, the lateral plates over the shoulders pro- 
longed into curved, hornlike spines. Limbs and feet unknown but 
presumably crocodiloid. 

Dorsal armor distinguished from that of Typothorax by its 
greater thickness, much coarser and less regular pitting of the 
exposed surface, and by the great elongation of the laterodorsal 
spine over the shoulder. 



Desmatosuchus haplocerus (Cope) 

Episcoposaurus haplocerus Cope. Am. Philos. Soc, Proc, 30, 
p. 129-131, 1892J. 

Wilson, J. A. 1950, p. 113-114, figs. 1-3. 

Desmatosuchus spurensis Case. Jour. Geology, 28, p. 524-529, 
figs. 1-4, 1920. 

Case, E. C. 1921A, p. 133-147, pi. 3 (endocast) 
Case, E. C. 1922B, 26-48, figs. 7-20, pis. 5-10. 
Case, E. C. 1929B, p. 50-51, fig. 21. 

" The name is derived from the Greek deffua, Siffnaros, a band or fetter, 
and <roi/xos, a crocodile, in allusion to the encircling bands of armor plates. 
The specific name spurensis was given for the town of Spur, Dickens Co., 
Texas; haplocerus comes from the Greek AttXos, simple, and Kepas, a 
horn, referring to the hornlike spines of the armor plates. Professor E. 
C. Case tells me that he formed the name by analogy with Desmatochelys 
Williston. 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 15 

Type of D. spurensis: U.M., no. 7476, skull; an associated skeleton belong- 
ing to the same individual includes the greater part of the vertebral 
column, ribs, fragments of the pelvis, and dermal armor of the back. 
Collected by E. C. Case in 1917 and 1919. 

Type locality: Near the east bank of Blanco or Catfish River, about one- 
half mile east of the crossing of the old mail road from Spur to 
Crosbyton, Crosby County, Texas. 

Type of Episcoposaurus haplocerus Cope: A.N.S.P., no. 14688; a 
sacral and two caudal vertebrae, right scapula, ribs, and about 30 
demal plates. Collected by W. F. Cummins, July 20, 1891. 

Type locality: Near windmill in top pasture 3 miles north of Dockum, 
Dickens Co., Texas. 



Distinctive characters include the short-snouted pseudo- 
suchian skull with broad parietals and the temporal fenestrae 
lateral in position. It is obviously similar to, though not identical 
with, the skull of "Typothorax" mead'ei, which unfortunately is 
also difficult of interpretation in the postorbital region. The 
vertebrae differ from those of phytosaurs in the lower neural 
spines of the cervical, lumbar, and sacral regions, in the more 
projecting and lower parapophyses of the thoracic series, and 
in the somewhat lesser expansion of the dorsal ends of the 
neural spines in the thoracic area; the expanded tips of the 
spines are carried back farther than in Machaeroprosopus, 
however. 

Ribs are broad, stout, with a median supporting ridge run- 
ning along their internal surface. 

The pelvis is imperfectly known. A referred specimen, U.M., 
no. 7470, has a stronger anterior process of the ilium than 
phytosaurs. Pseudosuchian features are shown by the glenoid 
region of the scapula. 

Most distinctive of Desmatosuchus is the development of the 
dorsal armor with enlarged hornlike spines above the shoulder 
region. The armor consists of median and lateral paired plates. 
The median series of plates are rectangular, wider than long, 
and bear a smooth anterior facet over which the anterior plate 
moved, elsewhere they are ornamented by coarse, shallow^ pit- 
ting and by a median posterior raised boss. The lateral dorsal 
plates are angulate, extending from the median series out to the 
side of the back and thence downward along the flank. At the 



16 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

angle, a stout spine projects outward. These spines are long 
in the cervical region, reach a maximum in the curved shoulder 
horn, and then are abruptly shorter. 

It seems very likely that the ilium, U.M., no. 7322 (Case, 
1922B, pi. 13A) from Sand Creek in Crosby County, Texas, 
and the pelvis and vertebrae, U.M., no. 74*70, from the head 
of Holmes Creek, Crosby County, belong to Desmatosuchus. 
Case (1929B, p. 48-50) has pointed out reasons for such refer- 
ence; the different form of ilium in Typothorax meadei (Sawin, 
1947, p. 218, fig. 5A) makes confusion with this form unlikely. 

Case (1929B, p. 43) and Sawin (1947, p. 233) have sug- 
gested that Desmatosuchus may prove to be a synonym of Epis- 
coposaurus. These statements seem to have arisen from compari- 
sons with E. haplocerus Cope. 

This species, attributed by Cope to his genus Episcopo- 
sawrus, was based upon a dorsal and two caudal vertebrae, 
a right scapula, ribs, and 30 dermal plates, found by Cummins 
in 1891, near Dockum, Texas. Only the armor is at all com- 
parable with the other type material. It has never been figured, 
although Wilson (1950) gave drawings of topotype material 
(Texas Bur. Econ. GeoL, no. 18569) which was supposedly 
part of the original specimen. 

Through the kindness of Dr. Horace G. Richards of the 
Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia, I have been 
permitted to examine and illustrate the type material. To one 
familiar with these pseudosuchians the remains are obviously 
so close to Desmatosuchus spurensis Case as to leave no doubt 
of specific identity. The type localities are only a few miles 
apart, and at about the same level in the Dockum formation. 

The "single dorsal vertebra" mentioned by Cope (figs. 6, 7, 8) is a 
sacral, to judge by the massiveness of the rib which abuts against the 
side of the centrum as well as the short transverse process. Its centrum 
is slightly wider than tall, with moderately flaring, shallowly concave 
faces and an evenly rounded ventral surface without trace of keel. The 
neural canal was narrow and rather deeply grooved into the upper sur- 
face of the centrum in the middle position. On one side part of the heavy 
neural arch is preserved adjacent to the head of the sacral rib. This 
structure occupies the posterior half of the vertebra, and the rib facet 
stands out from the side of that body with smoothly curved outline. In 
front of it the side of the centrum is excavated, behind the flaring anterior 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 17 

rim. This rim is marked by vertically elongate facets on either side which 
can only be interpreted as supports for the head of the expanded rib 
of the adjacent vertebra. Cope mentions the presence of rib facets at 
each end, a most unusual feature. As first sacral ribs are generally larger 
than the second, it seems most reasonable to assume that this is the 
second sacral vertebra and that these elongate facets supported the en- 
larged first sacral rib. 

The broad centrum, absence of twin ventral keels which characterize 
the second sacral of Machaeroprosopus, (Camp, 1930B, p. 65), and the 
curving upper surface of the transverse process and second sacral rib, 
suggest Acompsosaurus and the specimens U. M., 13950 and 7470 described 
by Case (1932 A, p. 67-68, figs. 5-6). Unfortunately little of the sacrum 
was preserved in the type of Desmatosuchus spurensis, but this vertebra 
seems to differ from those of phytosaurs in a manner similar to other 
parts of the column of that animal. 

Two other vertebrae were considered by Cope to be caudals; one of these, 
which he described (1892J, p. 130), may well be a proximal caudal. Its 
transverse processes arise from the middle of the body of the centrum 
below the level of the neural canal. The ventral surface is flattened, and 
meets the lateral surfaces with an abrupt though rounded angle. These 
angular ridges terminate in facets for chevrons, as do those of phyto- 
saurs. Anterior and posterior faces are flat or nearly so, and as Cope 
indicates, somewhat taller than wide. 

The third vertebra in the collection, which was not described by Cope, 
consists of only a broken centrum, quite narrow and compressed, more 
like those of phytosaurs. Its association with the remainder of the speci- 
men is questioned. 

Great thickness characterizes the fragment of scapula (figs. 4, 5) which 
is all of the shoulder girdle preserved. Cope noted the normal inward 
curvature of the ventral portion, below the glenoid and acromion. How- 
ever, the bone is not necessarily thinner here, as he said, for a sub- 
stantial portion of the medial surface is broken away. Likewise the coro- 
coid suture was undoubtedly more extensive than the small area preserved 
next to the glenoid. A prominent tubercle for the long head of the 
triceps muscle lies 8 cm. above the glenoid on the posterior edge of the 
blade. Above this the blade widens and thins, rather symmetrically. 
Thinness of the dorsal edge, especially anteriorly, suggests that most 
of the blade is preserved. 

Comparison of this specimen with the fragment of the glenoid region 
of Desmatosuchus (Case 1922B, fig. 19) is difficult as there is little in 
common between them. The prominent acromion and thick oval base of 
the blade appear similar. It is also evident that the glenoid must have had 
something of the helical form indicated in Case's figure. These features 
seem suflBcient to establish the association of this kind of scapula with the 
more characteristic dermal plates. 

Numerous features of the scapula distinguish it from that of phytosaurs, 
especially slight concavity of the anterior profile, the short massive blade, 
and the pronounced acromion process. It differs from the scapula of 
Stagonolepis (Huxley 1877, pi. x, fig. 1) in greater thickness, much 
greater separation of glenoid and triceps tubercle, and stronger acromion. 
The scapula of Typothorax meadei as figured by Sawin (1947, fig. 3) ap- 



18 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 16 




June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 19 

pears to be more expanded above, but also has a prominent acromion and 
triceps tubercle. These forms are by far closest to one another in char- 
acters of this bone. 

The rib fragments with flattened external surface and inner convexity 
are quite similar to those of Desmatosuchus (Case, 1922B, fig. 14), and 
separable from the narrower and more rounded ribs of phytosaurs. 

By far the most distinctive portions of the type of Episcoposaurus 
haplocerus Cope are the plates of dermal armor. Three transverse series 
of plates are figured herewith, and also two other isolated plates of 
different form. All plates are ornamented in their flatter portions by 
coarse, irregularly round pits up to one centimeter in diameter. The tuberos- 
ities and spines are coarsely punctate. No trace of radial arrangement of 
the sculpture can be detected. The plates are characterized by greater 
thickness than phytosaur plates of similar size, or than the plates of 
Typothorax. All are incomplete; the anterior and most of the posterior 
edges are broken away on the more anterior series so that the smooth 
articular flanges are not preserved; these are clearly shown by the more 
posterior plates. 

As Cope pointed out, the plates of each transverse row were suturally 
united. Each row consisted of 2 pairs of plates, the median flat, the 
lateral, angulate and spinebearing. Both Case's reconstruction of Desmato- 
suchus and Sawin's of Typothorax show the median series increasing in 
width posteriorly to the lumbar region and then gradually decreasing. In 
Desmatosuchus the cervical plates are thicker than those farther back, 
have more nearly a right angle between the dorsal and flank portion of the 
lateral plates, and greater ventral development of the lateral plates. The 
type of E. haplocerus agrees in showing a decrease in the angle between 
the dorsal and flank portions of the lateral plates as the median plates 
increase in width, and a reduction in thickness of the median series as they 
increase in width. Aligning the plates on these characters gives a progres- 
sive series almost suggestive of contiguity. By far the largest lateral spine 
is on the most anterior of these series; accordingly the preserved portion 
may be compared with the 5th to 9th series of Desmatosuchus as restored 
by Case (1922B). 

The right median and lateral plates are present in the most anterior 
preserved series which is that bearing the enlarged shoulder horn (figs. 



Desmatosuchus haplocerus (Cope). Type specimen of Episcoposaurus 
haplocerus Cope, A.N.S.P., no. 14688. All figures x Vz. 

Figure 1. Dorsal view posterior cervical series of dermal armor, bearing 
shoulder horn. 

2. Median view of lateral, horn-bearing, plate of posterior cervical 
series, shown in figure 1. 

3. Anterior view of same series as figure 1. 

4. Posterior view of scapulocoracoid. 
6. Lateral view of scapulocoracoid. 

6. Left lateral view of sacral vertebra. 

7. Anterior view of sacral vertebra. 

8. Posterior view of sacral vertebra. 



20 



Postilla Yale Peabody Mtiseum 



No. 16 




June 3, 1953 Tt/po thorax and Desmatosuchus 21 

1-3). The median plate is longer than wide, bears a round tubercle iVs 
cm. in height posterior to its center, and is strongly concave from side to 
side ventrally, but convex anteroposteriorly below, particularly at the 
sutural edges which are lenticular in outline. The right lateral plate has 
very little dorsal extent, and this is entirely covered by the base of the 
horn (fig. 3). Its flank projection is extensive, and at right angles to the 
dorsal part. The horn itself rises in continuity with the lateral surface of 
the plate, its axis sloping outward at an angle of 25° from the vertical, 
and its medial edge reaching the suture with the median plate. Its base 
is longer than wide, and slightly flattened medially. Toward the tip of the 
preserved portion the beginning of a backward curve is apparent. 

In comparison with the large horn of the type of Desmatosuchus spuren- 
sis Case, this plate difi'ers in the upward direction of the spine, and in its 
more rapid tapering, suggesting lesser length. Possibly these are in part 
due to individual variation. I am inclined to regard the angle of the horn 
as better established on Cope's type than in Case's specimen. 

The second preserved series, which may well fall next behind the first 
and thus be the sixth in Case's animal, is represented by the left median 
plate and the conjoined right median and lateral plates (figs. 9, 10). A 
faint line of pores on the inner surface and of irregular small pits above 
mark the course of the fused suture between them. The medial plates 
are similar to that of the previous series save for slightly greater width. 
Their lenticular longitudinal section is shown in figure 11. The lateral 
plate, in contrast to that of the preceding series, has an obtuse angle 
between dorsal and flank portion, considerably greater dorsal extension, 
and a much smaller horn base. The lateral extent of the plate and length 
of horn cannot be safely inferred from the broken remains. The diameter 
of the horn is not greater than that in the 3rd series to be described below. 
This series differs from that lying behind the large horn of Desmatosuchus 
in retaining essentially the same thickness of plates. 

An incomplete median plate and articulating horn-bearing scute (figs. 
12, 13) differ from the two preceding series in the appreciably thinner bone. 
Dimensions of this series suggest that it could have immediately followed 
the one just described. The bone is appreciably thinner than in plates of 
the cervical series, and does not thicken greatly at the sutures. The boss 
and sculpture of the median plate are quite similar to those of the last (?) 
cervical series, but the distance from boss to lateral border of the plate 
is greater. Also, the boss may be closer to the posterior edge, although 



Desmatosuchus haplocerus (Cope). Type specimen of Episcoposaurus 
haplocerus Cope, A.N.S.P., no. 14688. All figures x Vs. 

Figure 9. Anterior view of anterior thoracic series of dermal armor, con- 
sisting of paired median and right lateral plates. 

10. Dorsal view of same segment as figure 9. 

11. Median view of right median plate of series shown in figures 
9 and 10. 

12. Anterior view of a more posterior segment of the thoracic armor. 

13. Dorsal view of segment shown in figure 12. 

14. Dorsal view of median plate from a more posterior dorsal series 
than figures 12 and 13. 



22 



Postilla Yale Feahody Miiseum 



No. 16 




15. Machaeroprosopus sp. Phytosaur pelvis found near type locality 
of Episcoposaurus haplocerus by Cope in 1892. A.N.S.P. x Yz, 

this is not certain as all edges are badly broken. The lateral plate bears 
a short conical spine directed both upward and outward. Its anteroventral 
and posterodorsal surfaces bear flattened facets in the portion preserved. 
The lateral flange of the plate forms almost a right angle with the dorsal 
portion, and appears to have been fairly extensive from the thickness of 
the broken edge. The suture between plates of this series is somewhat 
irregular, in contrast to the straight sutures between the cervical plates. 

Other incomplete median plates of the dorsal region are preserved, one 
of which is illustrated in figure 14. These plates show a pronounced 
depressed flange devoid of sculpture along the anterior margin; the round 
conical boss lies close to the posterior edge, and the sculpture is very 
coarse. The thickness, away from the boss, is about 2 cm. 



Included with the type of Episcoposaurus haplocerus is a 
phytosaur ilium (fig. 15) of the type figured by Case (1922B, 
fig. 27 C; 1927D, U.M., no. 7244). A field label accompany- 
ing it says "pelvis supposed to be Episcoposaurus haplocerus. 
Found 50 yards from type specimen. Windmill, Top Pasture. 
Coll. : E. D. Cope." As Cope accompanied Cummins in 1892 
this must have been obtained a year later than the type. Cope 
did not mention it in his description of E. haplocerus ; the 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 



23 






I7B 



16. Cf. Typothorax sp. Median dorsal armor plate from Dockum 
formation west of San Jon, New Mexico. Y.P.M., no. 3695, x V2- 

17. Caudal scute from type material of Episcoposaurus horridus 
Cope, A.M.N.H. no. 2713. Specimen figured by von Huene, 
1915, fig. 24. A. Dorsal, and B. medial views, x Vs- 



distance of 50 yards is too great to permit association with the 
remainder of the specimen, and its form is unlike that which 
has been found more intimately associated with pseudosuchian 
remains. The ilium probably belongs to M achaeroprosopus 
(Camp, 1930B, p. 78-79, fig. 16) which occurs abundantly in 



24 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

the Dockum of this area. The length of the spine of ilium is 
219 mm. 

Desmatosuchus haplocerus differs from Typothorax meadei 
in: 

1. Thicker armor plates, especially anteriorly. 

2. Coarse pitting of plates with no trace of radial arrange- 
ment. 

3. Tuberosities and horns rounded instead of angular. 

4. Larger size. 

5. Median dorsal plates have central tuberosity behind 
middle of plate but not reaching posterior margin. 

6. Fifth lateral plate, situated over shoulder, produced into 
long backward curving horn. 

It differs from "Episcoposaurus horridus" in : 

1. Larger size. 

2. Thicker armor plates. 

3. No radial pattern to sculpture. 

4. Bosses on median dorsal scutes not keel-like. 

5. Probably in presence of shoulder horns. 

There can be no possibility of generic identity between these 
forms. 

Acompsosaurus~ Mehl, 1915 

Acompsosaurus Mehl. Science, n.s.,41 , p. 735, 1915. Type 
species by monotypy Acompsosaurus wingatensis Mehl. Sci- 
ence, n.s.,41 , p. 735, 1915. 

An imperfectly known genus which resembles Desmatosuchus 
in form of pelvis but has Typothorax-like dermal plates. Pos- 
sibly a synonym of Typothorax. 

7 The name Acompsosaurus is derived from the Greek av, lacking or 
without, KOfjixpos, elegant, and (ravpos, a lizard, hence a reptile lacking 
elegance. It was given, according to Mehl, because of the massive construc- 
tion of the pelvic girdle. The species was named for Fort Wingate, New 
Mexico. 



June 3, 1953 TypotJwrax and Desmatosuchus 25 

Acompsosaurus wingatensis Mehl 

Acompsosaurus wingatensis Mehl. Mehl, Science, n.s., 41, p. 
735, 1915. 

Mehl, M. G., Toepelman, W. C, and Schwartz, G. M., 1916, 
p. 33-39, figs. 12-14, pi. III. 

Type: Univ. Wis., no. 3811, pelvic girdle and fragments of vertebral centra, 
ribs, dermal plates, phalanges. Collected by M. G. Mehl and G. M. 
Schwartz, 1914. 

Type locality: Region of Fort Wingate, New Mexico, in red shale series 
near base of Mesozoic section (no. 2 of section). 

The pelvis is characterized by a forwardly projecting spine 
of the ilium, deep vertical apronlike pubis, and moderatel}^ 
elongate ischium. The acetabulum is imperforate. Case (1929B, 
p. 51-52) has pointed out its resemblance to certain pelvic 
remains found in the Dockum formation of Texas ; there is 
good reason to refer these to pseudosuchian, perhaps Des- 
matosuchus. The associated dermal plates, some of which are 
closely related to the ribs like those of Typothorax, resemble 
that animal in lacking any trace of the keels or spines such 
as are found on phytosaur plates, and also in their circular 
pitting. The pits are also described as deep, which suggests 
Desmatosuchus. 

Acompsosaurus may well be a synonym of Typothorax, al- 
though the poorly preserved types make such determination 
difficult. Its relationships, at least, appear closer to Typothorax 
than to Desmatosuchus, if characters of the dermal plates are 
regarded as significant. The form of the pelvis differs from that 
of Typothorax meadei, but there may be errors in Sawin's 
reconstruction of this region from incomplete materials. Possibly 
Acompsosaurus is really a third distinct type of pseudosuchian, 
but this seems most doubtful. 

Bibliography 

Camp, C. L., 1930B, A study of the phytosaurs with description of new 
material from western North America: Univ. Calif., Mem., v. 10, p. 
1-174, pis. 1-6, figs. 1-49, 1 map. 



26 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 16 

Camp, C. L., Colbert, E. H., McKee, E. D., and Welles, S. P., 1947, A 
guide to the continental Triassic of northern Arizona: Plateau, Mus. 
No. Ariz., V. 20, no. 1, p. 1-8. 

Case, E. C., 1920B, Preliminary description of a new suborder of phyto- 
saurian reptiles with a description of a new species of Phytosaurus: 
Jour. Geology, v. 28, p. 524-535, figs. 1-6. 



, 1921A, On an endocranial cast from a reptile, Desmatosuchus 

spurensis, from the upper Triassic of western Texas: Jour. Comp. 
Neurology, v. 33, p. 133-147, 3 pis. 

, 1922B, New reptiles and stegocephalians from the Upper Trias- 



sic of western Texas: Carnegie Inst. Wash., Pub. 321, p. 7-84, 14 pis., 
33 figs. 

-, 1927D, A complete phytosaur pelvis from the Triassic beds of 



western Texas: Univ. Mich., Contr. Mus. Geology, v. 2, no. 12, p. 
227-229, 1 pi. 

-, 1929B, Description of the skull of a new form of phytosaur, with 



notes on the characters of described North American phytosaurs: 
Univ. Mich. Studies, Mem., Mus. Paleontology, v. 2, p. 1-56, figs. 
1-24, pis. 1-7. 

-, 1932A, A perfectly preserved segment of the armor of a phyto- 



saur with associated vertebrae: Univ. Mich., Contr., Mus. Paleontology, 
V. 4, no. 2, p. 57-80, figs. 1-6, pis. 1-8. 

Cope, E. D., 1875R, The geology of New Mexico: Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., 
Proc, V. 27, p. 263-267. 

, 1875U, Report on the geology of that part of northwestern New 

Mexico examined during the field season of 1874 by E. D. Cope, 
palaeontologist and geologist: Ann. Kept. Geogr. Explor. and Survey 
west of 100th Meridian, by G. M. Wheeler; Appendix LL, Ann. Rept. 
Chief of Engineers, p. 981-1017, (p. 61-97 of separate report) pis. ii, 
V, vi. 

, 1877K, Report on the extinct Vertebrata obtained in New Mexico 



by parties of the expedition of 1874: Rept. Geogr. Survey west of 100th 
Meridian by Lt. G. M. Wheeler, v. 4, pt. 2, p. 1-365, pis. 22-83. 

-, 1887A, A contribution to the history of the Vertebrata of the 



Trias of North America: Am. Philos. Soc, Proc, v. 24, p. 209-228, 
2 pis. 

-, 1892J, A contribution to the vertebrate paleontology of Texas: 



Am. Philos. Soc, Proc, v. 30, p. 123-131. 

-, 1893A, A preliminary report on the vertebrate paleontology of 



the Llano Estacado: 4th Ann. Rept. Geol. Survey Texas, 1892, pt. 2, 
p. 1-137, pis. 1-23. 

Fraas, E., 1896, Die Schwabischen Trias-Saurier nach dem Material der 
Kgl. Naturalien-Sammlung in Stuttgart zusammengestellt. Festgabe 
des Koniglichen Naturalien-Cabinets in Stuttgart zur 42. Versammlung 
der Deuteschen geologischen Gesellschaft in Stuttgart, p. 1-18, figs. 
1-10, pis. 1-6. 



June 3, 1953 Typothorax and Desmatosuchus 27 

Huene, F. von, 1915A, On reptiles of the New Mexican Trias in the Cope 
collection: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull., v. 34, p. 485-507, figs. 1-64. 

Huxley, T. H., 1877, The crocodilian remains found in the Elgin Sand- 
stones, with remarks on the ichnites of Cummingstone: Geol. Survey, 
United Kingdom, Mem., Mon. 3, p. 1-52, pis. 1-16 (quarto). 

Mehl, M. G., 1915, New reptiles from the Trias of Arizona and New 
Mexico: Science, n.s., v. 41, p. 735. 

Mehl, M. G., Toepelman, W. C, and Schwartz, G. M., 1916, New or little 
known reptiles from the Trias of Arizona and New Mexico with notes 
on the fossil-bearing horizons near Wingate, New Mexico: Univ. Okla., 
Bull., U.S., no. 103, p. 1-44, figs. 1-16, pis. 1-3. 

Meyer, H. von, 1861, Reptilien aus dem Stubensandstein des oberen Keu- 
pers: Palaeontographica, Bd. 7, p. 253-346, pis. 28-47. 

Sawin, H. J., 1947, The pseudosuchian reptile Typothorax meadei: Jour. 
Paleontology, v. 21, p. 201-238, figs. 1-15, pi. 34. 

Wilson, J. A., 1950, Cope's types of fossil reptiles in the collection of the 
Bureau of Economic Geology, The University of Texas: Jour. 
Paleontology, v. 24, p. 113-115, figs. 1-3. 



/l^a^tilL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



I^IJS. Ct:^'?. 1091. 
L!3PJ;HY 

FEB 3 1254 



Number 17 December 18, 1953 New Haven, Conn. 



NOTES ON INDIAN BIRDS. V* 
S. DILLON RIPLEY 

When my wife and I were in the Naga Hills in 1950, 
we collected two specimens of the Grayheaded Imperial 
Pigeon which I subsequently considered to represent the form 
griseicapilla, recorded by Baker (1928, Fauna of British 
India, 5:204) from southeastern Assam, and extreme eastern 
Bengal. The Imperial Pigeon was the only species of this genus 
seen by us in the Naga Hills, where pigeons of this impressive 
size and beauty now seem rare, no doubt due to the assiduous 
attentions of the Nagas themselves. 

Subsequent comparison of these specimens with birds both 
in the Peabody Museum collection and in the American Museum 
of Natural History in New York, from northeast Burma, 
Tenasserim, Thailand, and Indochina shows that the birds 
from the Naga Hills are distinct as follows : 

Ducula badia caroUnae subsp. nov. 

Type: ? ad. (Y.P.M., no. 12042), collected December 9, 
1950, by S. Dillon Ripley at Phek, eastern Naga Hills, 
Assam, India. 

•Previous papers in this series have appeared in 1948, Jouh. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc, 47:622; 1948, Zoologica, 33:199; 1950, Postii.i,a, No. 1; and 
1951, Postilla, No. 6. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No, 17 

Diagnosis : From insignis, the subspecies of the eastern Hima- 
layas and adjacent foothills and the Khasia Hills, this 
subspecies differs by having the forehead and crown over- 
laid with gray, the vinous or lilac-gray color of the mantle 
reaching only to the hind na})e and neck. The wing coverts 
and edges of the secondaries, and especially the lower back 
and rump are distinctly gray, a brighter, more light color 
than the mouse-gray, or dull brownish-gray of insignis. 
From griseicapilla, this form differs in the noticeably paler, 
more grayish tone of the scapulars, edges of the secondaries, 
lower back and rump. This lighter more pure gray tone 
seems to invade the tail also, the terminal band being paler, 
more pure gra}', although this may be due to comparative 
age of the specimens examined. Certainly no other specimens 
in the long series examined by me throughout the species 
have as light pure grayish colors in the areas above listed. 

Measurements: $ 9 ; wing 242, 240; tail 181, 173; culmen 
21.5, 25.5 mm. Soft parts: iris, gray; bill, coral or carmine- 
cherry basally, distally brownish-horn ; feet, coral or 
carmine-cherry. 

Range : Eastern Naga Hills, and probably Cachar and Manipur 
south through the hills to east Pakistan as cited by Baker 
{op. cit.) for the westernmost range of griseicapilla, al- 
though no specimens have been available for comparison. 

Remarks : It gives me very great pleasure to name a new sub- 
species of this magnificent pigeon in honor of Mrs. William 
Robertson Coe. 

Among an interesting collection of birds sent to me recently 
by Mr. N. G. Pillai of the Travancore-Cochin government are 
four specimens of a pipit which I should like to describe as 
follows : 

Anthus similis travancoriensis, subsp. nov. 

Type: 9 ad. (Y.P.M., no. 23327), collected by N. G. Pillai 
on the road to Muthukuzhi, about 4500 feet altitude in the 
Ashambu Hills, April 15, 1952, Travancore-Cochin State, 
southern India. 



Notes on Indian Birds. V 3 

Diagnosis : From similis simiUs of Bombay, Mysore, and Madras, 
this form differs in being uniformly darker above and below 
and with a much larger area of dark brown on the inner 
web of the penultimate tail feathers. The feathers of the 
upper surface are clove-brown edged, in fresh plumage, 
with dark tawny-olive. Below, this population is cinnamon 
rather than buff. The edgings to the outer tail feathers are 
darker, tawny-olive rather than wood-brown. In size there 
seems to be no difference. 

Measurements : Type — wing 89.5, tail 75.5, culmen 17.5 mm. 
A male molting into fresh post-juvenal plumage is too small 
to measure. 

Remarks : These specimens are so much darker than any other 
pipit belonging to the species found in India that I cannot 
understand how the single Travancore bird mentioned in 
the Ornithological Survey of that State (1936, Jour. 
Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 38:764) was not commented upon 
at least. Were it not for the similarity in plumage pattern 
with similis and the locality, it would be easy to confuse 
these birds with one of the dark African forms. In this 
connection it is worth pointing out that in the specimens 
of travancoriensis examined, there is an important difference 
from typical similis. Baker {op. cit., p. 278) in his key to 
the Indian pipits, separates trivialis, hodgsoni, and sordidus 
(^ similis) from nilghiriensis on the basis of a very small 
pale tip to the inner web of the penultimate tail feather. The 
specimens of travancoriensis have large pale tips, nearly 
or more than a third of the total length of the tail. Of 
course they differ from nilghiriensis in the uniform tone 
to the plumage. 

The Rufous Babbler, Turdoides subrufas, of Travancore — 



Cochin is a far more richly colored bird than the neighboring 
populations from the western Ghats of Bombay, Goa, parts of 
Madras and Mysore. Through the kindness of Mr. Greenway 
I have been able to borrow the type of Lafresnaye's "TfmaZia" 
poecilorhyncha (NpilgViprrips) from thpiVTnspum of Compara- 



tive Zoology (Harvarc )6;iiiiSriES^'^pi^ia€n agrees adequately 

LIBRARY 

FEB 3 1954 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 17 

with present-day specimens of typical subrufus and so should 
be considered a synonym. However, Sharpe (1883, Cat. Bds. 
Brit. Mus., 7:390) described Argya hyperythra from Madras 
on exactly the characters represented by my present series of 
Travancore — Cochin birds. I should like to revive this name, 
therefore, fixing the type locality at Palghat, and list the 
following populations : 

a). Turdoides subrufus subrufus (Jerdon), type locality, 
Wynaad. 

Synonym, Timalia poecilorhyncha Lafresnaye, type 
locality "Neilgherries" hereby restricted to the northern 
slopes of the Nilgiris, as this species does not ascend to 
the summits of those hills. 

Range : Bombay in the western Ghats from Mahableshwar 
south, Goa, Coorg, western Mysore, and western Madras 
south to the northern slopes of the Nilgiri Hills, and 
east to the Shevaroys. 

b). Turdoides subrufus hyperythrus (Sharpe), type locality, 
restricted to Palghat. 

Range: Southwestern Madras and Travancore-Cochin. 



-J 




YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natueal Histoey 



SEP 2 2 l>jb4 



Number 18 



March 6, 1954 



New Haven, Conn. 



THREE NEW BIRDS FROM THE YUCATAN 

PENINSULA. 

RAYMOND A. PAYNTER, Jr.* 

In the course of an ornithogeographic survey of the Yucatan 
Peninsula the following new subspecies were found. It is be- 
lieved that the description of these three races completes the 
long list of Peninsular endemics, with the possible exception 
of several forms for which there is still inadequate material. 



Dendrocolaptes certhia legtersi subsp. nov. 

Type: 6 ad. (Y.P.M., No. 8471), collected March 4, 1949, 
by Raymond A. Paynter, Jr., at Carrillo Puerto, Quintana 
Roo, Mexico. 

Diagnosis: closest to D. c. sancti-thomae, the contiguous race, 
but considerably more pallid ventrally and slightly more 
pallid dorsally ; the distinctive rufescent tone of the under- 
parts is almost lacking, the gray of the chin is lighter, 
and the pileum is less richly rufescent. 

Range: known only from Carrillo Puerto and Tabi, in central 
Quintana Roo ; probably ranges northward on the Penin- 
sula to the limit of the rain forest. 

•Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 18 

Remarks: this is another example of a species characteristic 
of the rain forest which responds to the drier conditions 
of the Peninsula by becoming more pallid. 

Specimens from southern Campeche and southern Quin- 
tana Roo exhibit an approach toward this new form. 

It is a pleasure to name this race for Mr. D. B. Legters, 
a resident of Yucatan, who has been of inestimable assist- 
ance in the field and who collected many of the specimens 
used in these studies. 

Specimens examined : D. c. legtersi — four males and one female 
from Carrillo Puerto and Tabi, Quintana Roo. D. c. sancti- 
thomae — 38 specimens, of both sexes, from Nicaragua, 
Honduras, British Honduras, Guatemala, and Mexico, in- 
cluding Veracruz, Oaxaca, Chiapas, Campeche, and southern 
Quintana Roo. 



Platyrinchus mystaceus timofhei subsp. nov. 

Type: i ad. (Y.P.M., No. 13735), collected February 25, 
1951, by Raymond A. Paynter, Jr., 24 km. NW. Xtocomo, 
Quintana Roo, Mexico. 

Diagnosis : nearest to P. m. cancrominus but dorsally lighter, 
more olive rather than brown ; ventralh' paler yellow, the 
breast band less well-defined, and the streaking reduced. 

Range: rain forest in Quintana Roo and Campeche, Mexico, 
in Peten, Guatemala, and in British Honduras. 

Remarks : specimens from Peten and from southern and central 
British Honduras are slightly less pale than those from Quin- 
tana Roo and Campeche. 

This race is dedicated to the memory of Timothy H. 
Laughlin, who spent the last months of his short life as 
my companion and assistant in Yucatan, and to whom 
I shall always be greatly indebted. 



Three New Birds from the Yucatan Peninsula 3 

Specimens examined: P. m. timothei — six males and two fe- 
males from Agua Blanca, Km. 21 on the Chetumal-Bacalar 
Road, 46 km. W. Chetumal, 24 km. NW. Xtocomo, Car- 
rillo Puerto, Tabi, and Chacalal, (^uintana Roo ; one female 
and one unsexed from La Tuxpena, Campeche; five males 
and two females from Uaxactun, Peten ; three males and 
one female from Manatee Lagoon, Toledo District, and 
Cayo District, British Honduras. P. m. cancrotninus — 21 
specimens of both sexes from Nicaragua, Honduras, Guate- 
mala, and Mexico, including Veracruz and Tabasco. 



Dumetella glabrirostris cozumelana subsp. nov. 

Type: 6 ad. (Y.P.M., No. 8786), collected January 6, 1949, 
by Raymond A. Paynter, Jr., on Isla Cozumel, Quintana 
Roo, Mexico. 

Diagnosis : differs from the nominate form in having a longer 
and slightly heavier bill. 

Range: Isla Cozumel, Quintana Roo. 

Measurements : D. g. cozumelana — the culmen, from the base, 
of seven males ranges from 22.5 to 25.0 mm., with a mean 
of 23.64 ± 0.29 mm. ; one female 22.5 mm. ; D. g. glabri- 
rostris — seven males from the mainland of Quintana Roo 
and from Half-moon Cay, British Honduras range from 
21.5 to 22.0 mm., with a mean of 21.79 ± 0.09 mm., and 
five females from Quintana Roo, Campeche, and Yucatan 
range from 21.0 to 22.5 mm., with a mean of 21.60 ±: 0.26 
mm. The difference between the means of the males of the 
two forms is statistically significant (P < 0.01). 

Remarks : I am unable to recognize any character which war- 
rants maintaining the monotypic genus Melanoptila for 
this species. In structure, size, and behavior this is merely 
an all-black species of Dumetella. 

Although not a strongly marked race, as are so many 
of those endemic to Isla Cozumel, its characters appear to 
be consistent. 



4 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 18 

Slightly heavier weight may be an additional character 
of D. g. cozumelana, although the data are insufficient 
to prove the suggestion. Four males from Isla Cozumel 
weighed 39.4, 40.3, 40.3, and 41.8 grams; a female 41.3 
grams. Two males of D. g. glabrirostris from Quintana 
Roo weighed 36.8 and 38.1 grams ; two females from Quin- 
tana Roo and one from Campeche 35.3, 36.1, and 31.6 
grams respectively. 

Specimens examined: D. g. cozumelana — seven males, one fe- 
male, and one unsexed from Isla Cozumel, Quintana Roo. 
D. g. glabrirostris — four males, three females, nine unsexed 
from Chetumal, 24 km. NW. Xtocomo, Carrillo Puerto, 
Ch'ich', Isla Holbox, and Isla Mujeres, Quintana Roo; 
one male and two unsexed from "Yucatdn," Chich^n Itzd, 
and Xocempich, Yucatan ; one female from 2 km. N. Agua- 
da Seca, Campeche ; two males and two females from 
Belize and Half-moon Cay, British Honduras. 

For lending me necessary comparative material under their 
care I am obligated to E. R. Blake of the Chicago Natural 
History Museum, to H. Friedmann of the United States Na- 
tional Museum, to J. D. Macdonald of the British Museum 
(Natural History), to R. W. Storer of the Museum of Zoology, 
University of Michigan, and to J. T. Zimmer of the American 
Museum of Natural History. 



t^-WW^^ I . 



/] // SEP 2 2 1954 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM ~ 

OF Natural Histoey 



Number 19 July 9, 1954 New Haven, Conn. 



BIRDS FROM GOUGH ISLAND 

S. Dillon Ripley 



Recently the Yale Peabody Museum has been fortunate 
enough to secure a small collection of birds from Gough Island 
in the South Atlantic Ocean, south of Tristan da Cunha. 
These specimens were secured through the intercession of Mr. 
R. Upton, now of the Bechuanaland Protectorate, formerly of 
Tristan da Cunha. It is of peculiar interest that these birds 
should come to Yale, as one of the first collections of birds 
from Gough, secured by Mr. George Comer, was formerly in 
the possession of Mr. G. E. Verrill, son of Professor A. E. 
Verrill of Yale ; reported upon in the Proceedings of the Con- 
necticut Academy of Arts and Sciences (1895, 9:430-477), 
and certainly, at least, passed through the doors of the Pea- 
body Museum. Except for the type of the Gough Island gal- 
linule, now in the American Museum of Natural History in 
New York, the whereabouts of the Comer collection at the 
present time remains a mystery. The Museum's grateful thanks 
are due to Mr. Wilmarth S. Lewis and to Mr. W. Sheffield 
Cowles for help in securing these interesting specimens. I am 
also grateful to Dr. Robert Cushman Murphy of the American 
Museum for showing me specimens in his care. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 19 

Daption capensis (Linnaeus) : Cape Pigeon. 

A male was taken on Gough October 12, 1952. The species 
has not previously been recorded from the neighborhood of this 
island. 



Fulmarus glacialoides (A. Smith) : Antarctic Fulmar. 

This species also is newly recorded from Gough. A male was 
collected September 13, 1952, and measures : wing 330, tail 
120.5, culmen 43.5 mm. 

Pachyptila forsteri (Latham) : Broad-billed Prion or Whale 
Bird. 

A female, September 5, 1952. Wing 204, tarsus 34, middle 
toe and claw 38 mm. 

Bulweria macroptera macroptera (A. Smith) : Great-winged 
Petrel. 

A male, December 15, 1952. Wing 302 mm. This specimen 
is somewhat more grayish about the throat and forehead than 
a July female from Tristan da Cunha. Although this bird was 
presumably not taken during the breeding season (July on 
Tristan), it appears to be the first definite record for Gough 
Island. 



Bulweria incerta (Schlegel) : Atlantic Petrel. 

A male and a female taken December 15, 1952, have wing 
measurements of: S 318, 9 326 mm. These specimens are ap- 
parently the first recorded from Gough Island. L^nfortunately 
the condition of the gonads was not stated. Compared to July 
specimens they appear to be in very slightly more worn, 
brownish plumage. 

Bulweria brevirostris (Lesson) : Kerguelen Petrel. 

A male and female, December 15, 1952. These birds meas- 
ure: wing $ 257, $ 265; tail S 110, 2 107; exposed culmen 



No. 19 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum ' ^ 3" 

$ 26.5, 9 28.5 ; tarsus $ 38.5, 5 37 mm. The collection of 
these specimens on Gough, although unaccompanied by data 
on their breeding condition lends credence to the original sup- 
position that the Kerguelen Petrel might breed in the neighbor- 
hood of Tristan da Cunha (Salvin, 1896, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus., 
25:410), and later reinforced by the collection of a female in 
January 1946 on Inaccessible Island (Roberts, 1948, Ann. 
Transvaal Mus., 21:60). Gough Island is far enough south 

(lat. 40°19'S.), to lie within the Subantarctic Zone, and the 
date of collection (December) corresponds to that for the sea- 
son of nestlings in down, on Kerguelen Island, the only present- 
ly known breeding place for this rare species. These birds 
match approximately in size those recently reported from 
Kerguelen by Milon and Juanin (1953, VOiseau, 23:17). 

Bulweria mollis mollis (Gould) : Soft-plumaged Petrel. 

Three specimens taken on December 15, 1952, measure: 
wing 3 249, $ (2) 260; tail $ 111.5, $ 112, 120; culmen 
S 28, $ 28, 29 ; tarsus $ 34, ? 36, 37 mm. 

Fregetta grallaria melanoleuca Salvadori: Tristan Storm 
Petrel. 

A pair taken December 15, 1952, have wing measurements of 
$ 171, $ 155 mm. 

Pelecanoides urinatrix dacunhae Nicoll: Tristan Diving 
Petrel. 

A female, December 15, 1952, measures: wing 117.5, tail 37, 
culmen 16 mm. This specimen confirms the occurrence of this 
subspecies on Gough Island. 



Puffinus assimilis elegans Giglioli and Salvadori: Tristan 
Shearwater. 

A female, December 15, 1952, measures: wing 190, tail 65, 
culmen 26, tarsus 42 mm. 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 19 

GaUinula nesiotis comeri (Allen) : Gough Island Cock. 

The Gough Island Cock, so-called, was originally described by 
J. A. Allen (1892, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Bull, -i :57) as differing 
from nesiotis of Tristan (now extinct .P) in having greath^ re- 
duced areas of white on the edges of the wings and the flank 
feathers. In size and structure the two forms appear to be so 
close that it seems useful to list them as subspecies rather than 
species. 

A pair and a downy young female were collected on Decem- 
ber 15, 1952. The adult birds measure: wing $ 145.5, 9 141.5; 
tail S 63, $ 67; culmen (with shield) S 42.5, 2 40; tarsus 
$ 48.5, $ 47.5 ; mid-toe with claw S 64, 9 67. The soft parts 
of these birds appear to be as recorded by Clarke (1905, 
Ibis, 5(8) :258-259), the frontal shield and basal two-thirds 
of the bill being bright coral red, the distal third yellow. The 
legs in these specimens are red splotched with greenish yellow, 
the feet rather greenish yellow, the pads, nails, and posterior 
margins of the tarsi being blackish. 

The downy young bird, previously undescribed, is exactly 
similar to a downy young gallinule or moorhen. It is covered 
with black down and has black legs and feet. The bill is horn}' 
yellow, the upper mandible having a median black band and a 
black tip. The lower mandible is horny yellow, the basal half 
of the gonys and the tip being black. 

Allen (op. cit. :58) created the genus Porphyriornis for the 
Tristan and Gough Island gallinules on the basis of combining 
the short thick bill and oval nostrils of ''Ionornis"=Porphy- 
rida, with the coloration of GaUinula. Actually the nostrils are 
oval, set in a nasal depression in Porphyrula, just as they are 
in GaUinula. The bill is stouter in the Gough and Tristan 
species than it is in a typical gallinule, but this is a feature 
of island species in any case, and its shape, and that of the 
frontal shield are virtually identical. These island birds, as 
well as the gallinules, both belong to the group which have 
narrow lateral membranes on the toes as pointed out long 
ago by Sharpe (1894, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. 23:6), and in fact 
the only striking morphological differences are the reduction in 



No. 19 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 5 

size of the wings in connection with flightlessness, and the 
heavier, more rugged appearing feet and tarsi, usually a corol- 
lary development. 

It appears to be a question, then, whether the genus Por- 
phyriornis should be maintained. Peters (1934, "Check-list of 
the Birds of the World," 2:206, footnote) united lonornis with 
Porphyrula feeling that the minor external differences of the 
species concerned were not of generic significance. Porphyrula 
differs from Gallinula in lacking lateral membranes on the 
toes, in having a bright plumage in the adult, differently colored 
young, and a posteriorly pointed frontal shield. These char- 
acters add up to a cumulative factor which may be considered 
to imply generic value. The sole character of " Porphyriornis," 
aside from relative proportions, is flightlessness. Flightlessness, 
whether verified in fact or not, has not been thought of as hav- 
ing generic importance in the case of Rallus wakensis, for 
example, (Rothschild, 1903, Bull. Brit. Ornith. Club, 13:78). 
In the case of ducks, flightlessness is not considered to have 
generic value in itself. The Auckland Island and Campbell 
Island flightless teal have been made subspecies of the New 
Zealand Brown Duck, Anas aucklandica, by Delacour and 
Mayr (1945, Wilson Bull. 57:20, 39). 

Purple gallinules have been shown to occur rather commonly 
on the Tristan group of islands as occasional vagrants. An 
immature male and female in the Yale Peabody Museum col- 
lection were taken on Tristan in May and June 1952. (See also, 
Hagen, 1952, "Birds of Tristan da Cunha, Results of the 
Norwegian Sci. Exped. to Tristan da Cunha 1937-1938," No. 
20: 199-201). If Purple gallinules can wander from the New 
World so easily to Tristan, it seems quite possible that the 
Tristan and Gough Island gallinules represent an endemic 
population derived from vagrant Gallinula of New World 
origin. 

Rowettia goughensis (Clarke) : Gough Island Bunting. 

Two pairs of this interesting species were secured December 
15, 1952. They measure: wing 5 98.5, 100.5, 5 96 (worn), 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 19 

104-; tail $ 76.5,81, 2 81.5, (w.) ; culmen $ 18,19, $ 18,19; 
tarsus $ 29, 30, 5 27, 31 mm. On the label it is noted that 
the birds were seen from sea level to 1800 feet. 

Certainly in outward appearance Rowettia seems of New 
World origin, markedly similar in color pattern to Melanodera 
as pointed out by Lowe (1923 Ihis, 5(11) :511-513). 



^Ouuo "« U-CcO 



/l^aduL 



a 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural. History 






Number 20 July 9, 1954 New Haven, Conn. 

NOTES ON INDIAN BIRDS. VI. 

ADDITIONAL COMMENTS ON THE WREN- 
BABBLER, SPELAEORNIS 

S. Dillon Ripley 



At the suggestion of Dr. Walter Koelz, I have assembled 
a number of specimens of Spelaeornis, the small Wren-babbler 
whose status I reviewed in 1950 {Auk, 67:390-391), and again 
in 1952 {Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc, 50:492-494, and col. 
pi.). Dr. Koelz has kindly loaned me a series of 10 specimens, 
which with my own series and 16 specimens of chocolatinus 
and longicaudatus from the British Museum and five specimens 
of longicaudatus in the American Museum of Natural History 
has given me a total of 38 examples of these two species for 
study. I am most .grateful to Dr. Koelz as well as to the 
authorities of the Institutions concerned for permission to 
examine this material. 

Dr. Koelz' original question concerned my statement 
(1950 and 1952) that I had examined a specimen of Spelaeor- 
nis longicaudatus from Kedimai, Manipur, and that thus this 
species overlapped S. chocolatinus in range. As a result, being 
sympatric, they must be listed as separate species. Dr. Koelz 
felt (personal communication) that the differences between the 
species were so slight that they must be considered as all one. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 20 

On further examination I find I must stick to my original 
statement that these are two valid species, and it may be worth- 
while here to list the differences between them. 

A. S. longicaudatus. This species described from the Khasia 
Hills, occurs as far east as Manipur (one specimen known 
and reexamined). It is rather olive brown above, each feather 
particularly on the head and upper back, margined narrowly 
with black; the rump, tail, and outer edges of the wings and 
wing coverts tinged or edged with rich chestnut or rufous. In 
most, but not all, specimens (perhaps partly due to poor make- 
up of the skins) there is a small, buffy, ashy or white streak 
just over the eye. The lores, cheeks, and ear coverts are ashy. 
Below there is a small white chin spot and a number of the 
feathers of the lower breast and abdomen are terminally 
white, or tipped with white, particularly along the distal end 
of the shaft and inner margin of the feather. The effect is to 
produce an irregular patch of white on the abdomen. The rest 
of the underparts tend to be deep buff to ferruginous buff, 
rather rufous buff along the flanks. The feathers of the sides 
of the throat and upper breast have pale buffy shaft streaks, 
roughly elongated and diamond-shaped in outline. Higher on 
the sides of the neck, the feathers have subterminal buffy cres- 
cent-shaped spots, producing a slightly scaled appearance. 

B. S. chocolatinus. This species occurs from Cachar and 
the Naga Hills south to Manipur, the Chin Hills, Bhamo and 
the Shan States in Burma, north to Yunuan, and in Tonkin. 
The nominate form described from Kedimai, Manipur, differs 
from longicaudatus by being deeper, darker olive brown above, 
but with similar narrow black terminal margins on the head 
and back. The upper parts including the rump and upper tail 
coverts and tail tend to be rufous in females, which show con- 
siderable dimorphism in this regard. All sexed specimens which 
show this rufous suffusion are females. The lores, cheeks, and 
ear coverts, and a circumocular ring are ashy. The underparts 
show some variation, females tending to have the white areas 
reduced to a chin spot or small patch, and an abdominal patch 
similar to that in longicaudatus. The majority of specimens, 



No. 20 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



ho\vever, 13 out of 17 or 76 per cent, including all the males 
and one female (in which the buffj throat patch is very ex- 
tensive and light in color), have large areas of white or palest 
buff on the throat extending continuously down to the abdo- 
men and belly, so that the underparts may appear largely 
white with ashy sides of the neck, and buff or olivaceous flanks 
and under tail coverts (see the colored plate, 1952, op. cit. 
in which the female is the upper figure, the male the lower). 

The feathers of the sides of the neck and flanks in typical 
chocolatinus have narrow white shaft streaks opening out near 
the tip to a narrow whitish fork enclosing a black terminal 
spot. The white or buffy feathers of the lower throat and breast 
have this same pattern, which on the white feathers is indicated 
simply by a terminal black spot. 

These differences are summarized below : 



Species 


) 




Upperparts 


Supercilii 


iry 


Pattern of 
Underparts underparts 


A. 






brownish 


small, 
usually 
present 




uniform, with reduced, pale 
white submen- shaft streaks 
tal spot and on sides 
patch on abdo- 
men 


B. 






dark olive 

or rufous 

brown 


absent 




apparently sex- prominent 
ually dimorphic, streaks and 
ranging from black spots on 
largely white breast and 
{ $ ), to large- sides 
ly buff ( 9 ) 


Measurements: 

v.'ing mean 


tail 


wing-tail 

index, 

mean per cent culmen 


A. 20 ( i 


i 


2 


9 ) 49-55 52.8 


± 0.41 


45-55* 50.1 ± 1.36 90-100 11-14 mm. 


B. 16 ($ 


s 


9 


9 ) 46-52 50.1 


± 0.43 41.5-47 


.5 43.8 ± 0.43 81-93 12-14 mm. 



* One Juvenal female from Mawphlang, Khasia Hills, in the Koelz collec- 
tion has a tail measurement of only 43.5 mm. 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 20 

Comparison of the means of the tail length of these two 
samples gives a figure for o-j of 1.53 which is statistically signi- 
ficant although somewhat high. It appears, therefore, that 
there is a distinct likelihood that any specimen of. species B., i.e., 
chocolatinus, will tend to have a shorter tail measurement than 
specimens of the typical form of species A., i.e., longicaudatus. j 

Finally the examination of all available specimens of choco- 
latinus from Manipur and the Naga Hills has convinced me 
that sexual dimorphism is a prominent feature of this species, 
that the type and other known specimens of chocolatinus 
from Manipur, although unsexed, are most probably females. 
In addition Dr. Koelz's series from the Naga Hills contains 
three strongly rufous colored females, far richer than any in 
my original series when I described nagaensis (Postilla, 1951, 
No. 6:4), with much reduced white areas on the lower parts. 
As these specimens are inseparable from chocolatinus, I feel 
that all should be combined under that name as follows : 

Spelaeornis chocolatinus chocolatinus 

(Godwin- Austen and Walden) 

Pnoepyga chocolatina Godwin-Austen and Walden, 1875, 
Ibis, 5(3) :252. (Kedimai, Manipur.) 

Elachura haplonota Baker, 1892, Ibis 4(6) :C2. (Hangrum, 
N. Cachar.) 

Spelaeornis chocolatinus nagaensis Ripley, 1951, Postilla, 
No. 6:4. (Mt. Japvo, Naga Hills.) 

Range — Assam in the hill ranges of north Cachar from 
Hangrum east to the Naga Hills in the Japvo area and east 
to Pfutsero at least, south to Kedimai in Manipur, presumably 
above 5500-6000 feet, in evergreen forest. 




YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural. History 



NOV 171955 



Number 21 February 28, 1955 New Haven, Conn. 

A NEW FRUIT PIGEON FROM THE 
PHILIPPINES 

S. DHXON RIPLEY AND D. S. RABOR 

Recentl}^ while collecting in the Mount Canlaon area of 
Negros Island, on a joint Yale — Silliman University Expedi- 
tion, Dr. Rabor secured a single female specimen of an unusual 
Fruit Dove. Comparison M'ith specimens at Yale, at the Ameri- 
can Museum of Natural History, and at the U. S. National 
Museum (through the courtesy of officials of those Institutions) 
reveals that this single specimen is unlike any other Fruit 
Dove presently known. It may be described as follows : 

Ptilinopus arc anus n. sp. 

Type: 5 ad. (Y.P.M., No. 23535), collected May 1, 1953. by 
D. S. Rabor at Pula (Pulopantao), Mount Canlaon, Negros 
Island, Philippines. 

Diagnosis : This Fruit Dove bears no resemblance to the other 
small Fruit Doves of the Philippines such as Ptilinopus 
melanospila or superhtis (accidental in the Sulu Archipe- 
lago). In size and general pattern of coloration it resembles 
the species viridis of the southern Moluccas and New 
Guinea most closely. It differs from this species, however, 
in the solid-colored yellow under tail coverts, the more vivid 
green (not bronzy green) tone of the plumage, the whitish 
throat, and the more extensive yellow margins to the sec- 
ondaries. There is no trace of gray on the greater wing- 
coverts although scattered feathers on wings and back are 



washed with a French green or plunibeus green tone. But 
more important perhaps, unlike the species vlridis or indeed 
most other species of Ptilinopus, there is a large circle of 
naked skin around the eye, roughly 3 mm. wide in the dried 
specimen, pointing anteriorly towards the rictus. This area 
is far more prominent than in the species hyogastra, for 
example. 

Another species to which this specimen might be com- 
pared is P. monachus of the north Moluccas from which 
it differs in the richer yellow under tail coverts, the yellow 
edging to the abdomen and vent feathers, and the promin- 
ent yellow edging to the secondaries. 

A general description of P. arcanus is as follows : fore- 
head French gray shading over the eye into apple green, 
a rich vivid tone characteristic of the upper and under 
plumage ; first primary heavily emarginated ; primaries 
blackish, secondaries and tertials shining emerald green 
with yellow edges becoming very marked on the inner ter- 
tials and greater wing coverts to make a distinct yellow 
wing bar in repose. Central tail feathers green, outer four 
pairs with blackish gra}' on the inner webs, and an ill-de- 
fined subterminal white spot. Occasional feathers at random 
on nape, back and wings show traces of a French green or 
plunibeus green tone. Throat whitish, shading into green 
of underparts, the breast and abdomen having a grayish 
effect due to the pronounced gray bases to the feathers 
showing through. Lower abdomen whitish, the feathers sub- 
terminally tipped green, shading to yellow on the vent ; the 
under tail coverts entirely yellow. Bill (in the dried skin) 
black, feet evidently dull purplish red, orbital skin yellowish 
(in the dried skin). 

Measurements: Wing 100, tail 54', culmen 13 mm. 

Range: Known only from the slopes of IVIount Canlaon, north- 
central Negros Island, Philippines. 

Remarks: This specimen was one of a pair shot out of a large 
fruiting tree on the edge of a camp clearing, at an altitude 
of 3000 feet. The presumed mate was unfortunately lost 
in the undergrowth. It will be a matter of considerable 
interest to study the plumage pattern when the male of this 
species is discovered. 

NOV 1 7 1955 



'/ 'I -f^v-lfr •;«-»l/'V^»ll 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



N0V17195S 



Number 22 



April 29, 1955 



New Haven, Conn. 



ADDITIONS TO THE ORNITHOGEOGRA- 



PHY OF THE YUCATAN PENINSULA 



RAYMOND A. PAYNTER, JR.* 



Since completing the manuscript for "The Ornithogeography 
of the Yucatan Peninsula" (Peabody Mus. Bull., 9, 347 pp., 
1955), I have received from Mr. D. B. Legters a small collec- 
tion of birds from the Peninsula, principally from the Territory 
of Quintana Roo. The distribution of the avifauna in the region 
is still imperfectly known and the breeding and migration dates 
have been sketched in only the broadest terms. It was, there- 
fore, not surprising that Mr. Legters' collection should contain 
much of interest and that it should serve to modify parts of a 
study so recently completed. Rather than accumulate these 
new data in vague anticipation of a revision of the work in the 
distant future, it seems the better course to make them ac- 
cessible now. I am much indebted to Mr. Legters for continuing 
to collect and for allowing me to place on record these obser- 
vations. 



Ictinia plumbea. A fledgling was collected at Tabi, Quintana 
Roo on June 23, 1954. The previous record of the species 

* Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Massachusetts. 



breeding on the Peninsula was a nest with incubated eggs in 
late April (Paynter, Ibid. -.56). 

Claravis pretiosa. On June 25, 1954 a male with enlarged 
testes was taken at Tabi, Quintana Roo, extending the known 
breeding season by three months. Mid-March is the earliest 
record (Paynter, Ihid.:V2Q), but nesting throughout the year 
is to be expected. 

Chordeiles acutipennis micromeris. A Lesser Nighthawk was 
collected at Chetumal, Quintana Roo on March 21, 1954. The 
species had not been found on the mainland of Quintana Roo 
previously. This is also the earliest spring date from the 
Peninsula. The bird was presumably a transient. 

Capriviulgus salvini hadius. A female, which was incubating 
two nearly full-term eggs, was taken at Tabi, Quintana Roo 
on March 6, 1954. Nesting must have begun about the third 
week in February. A nest with eggs has been recorded on 
June 5 (Paynter, /6i^. :143), indicating that the breeding 
season is unexpectedly prolonged. 

Caprhmdgus vociferus vociferus. The first Peninsular record 
for the Whip-poor-will is a male which was obtained at Dzid- 
zantun, Yucatan on November 21, 1953. 

Pachyramphus major itzensis. A male at Tabi, Quintana 
Roo exhibited enlarged gonads on June 9, 1954. Indications of 
breeding have been noted before only in a female collected in 
mid-July (Paynter, Ibid. •.182). 

Myiodynastes luteiventris luteiventris. The latest this species 
has been found on the Peninsula is July 20, 1954, when a speci- 
men was taken at Tabi, Quintana Roo. Careful observations 
may extend the date by six weeks. 

Onychorhynchus coronatus mexicanus. Males with enlarged 
gonads were found at Tabi, Quintana Roo on June 24 and 
26, 1954. Reproductive activity had been reported only in 
early June (Paynter, 76iJ. :199). 



Iridoprocne bicolor. Six specimens were collected for Leg- 
ters in the vicinity of Chetumal, Quintana Roo in January 
1953. The fact that I collected in the Chetumal area for ten 
months but never found this species, seems to indicate that its 
occurrence must be irregular. 



"to* 



DumeteUa glabrirostris glabrirostris. A male was taken with 
enlarged gonads at Tabi, Quintana Roo on June 26, 1954. 
This is apparently' the first time reproductive activity has been 
noted in the species. 

Vireo flavifrons. On September 2, 1953 an example of this 
species was shot on the beach at Santa Clara, Yucatan. Many 
migrants were seen approaching the land from the Gulf on that 
day and it is presumed that this bird had arrived by the same 
route. There is, however, no definite record of the species as 
a trans-Gulf migrant, but it is an uncommon visitant on 
the Peninsula and probably does not cross the Gulf in large 
numbers. 



Mniotilta varia. A specimen taken at Tabi, Quintana Roo 
on August 3, 1954 and one taken at Xcan, Quintana Roo on 
April 29, 1949 are the earliest and latest records of this species 
in the region. 

Hahia rubica nelsoni. The only recorded instance of this 
species breeding on the Peninsula is a male which had enlarged 
testes on July 20, 1954 at Tabi, Quintana Roo. 



Habia gutturalis peninsularis. A male in immature plumage, 
but with enlarged gonads, was collected at Tabi, Quintana Roo 
on June 25, 1954. May 18 is the only other known date on 
which breeding birds were taken (Paynter, Ibid. :280). 



Eucometis peniclllata pallida. Sexually active males were 
found at Tabi, Quintana Roo on June 24 and 28, 19^4, The 
species has not been reported breeding later. 



< W0l/?7f95* 



Volatinia jacarina splendens. A breeding bird was collected 
at Tabi, Quintana Roo on June 26, 1954, which is three weeks 
later than the previous date (Paynter, Ibid.: 293), 

Spinus psaltria jouyi. A male from Tabi, Quintana Roo had 
enlarged gonads on June IT, 1954. There seems to be no prior 
breeding record for the race. 



I I. ^-^ wY '/cwyi— ' • I 










YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF NATuaAL History 



Number 23 October 25, 1955 New Haven, Conn. 

A new White-throated Spinetail 

from western Brazil^ 

S. Dillon Ripley 

The Yale Peabody Museum has acquired recently by ex- 
change with the Cleveland Museum of Natural History, a 
considerable segment of the bird collections made by Mr. 
S. M. Klages. This series, amounting to 4,389 specimens, 
represents the major part of an original collection of 5,000 
specimens purchased by the Cleveland Museum from the Car- 
negie Museum of Pittsburg shortly after it had been made in 
the early nineteen-twenties. The collection consists of speci- 
mens from French Guiana and from the States of Para and 
Amazonas in Brazil. Many of the taxonomic papers of Mr. 
W. E. C. Todd of the Carnegie Museum have of course been 
based on specimens from the Klages collections, the major 
parts of which are still housed in the Carnegie Museum. No 
general report has been written on the collection as a whole, 
although some of the areas included in this collection have 
received detailed treatment by authors on other material, most 
recently the comprehensive paper by Count Gyldenstolpe on 
the avifauna of the Rio Purus in western Amazonia (1951, 
Ark. for Zool., Ser. 2, 2, no. 1). 

Among the interesting specimens in the collection from 
western Brazil, are two examples of the White-throated 



' Dedicated in honor of Professor Alexander Petrunkevitch's eightieth birthday. 



Spinetail, previously unreported from this area, which may 
be known as : 

Synallaxis albescens pullata subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (Y.P.M. No. 29701) collected February 9, 
1923, by S. M. Klages at Sao Paulo de 01iven9a, Rio Solinioes, 
western Brazil. 

Diagnosis : This is the darkest population of the species. 
The back in this form lacks the grayish tinge to the brownish- 
toned mantle of the typical form, as well as of inaequalis, or 
the distinctly grayish-tinted griseonota. In color the back 
of these examples is dark sepia, nearly clove brown, only 
slightly more olive-brown on the rump, and equally dark 
brown on the upper tail surfaces. The wing coverts are darker, 
more rufous than any of the other forms, although the pileum 
seems similar in tone to that of inaequalis. Below, these speci- 
mens are dark gray, rather pure in tone, not as tinted with 
brown as in the other races, the black spot on the throat rather 
pronounced, although this may be seasonal. The center of the 
abdomen is pure albescent. 

Range : Western Brazil on the Rio Solimoes at Sao Paulo 
de Oliven^a. 

Remarks: Pinto (1938, Cat. das Aves do Brasil, 1:408- 
09), lists no specimens of this species from the Rio Solimoes, 
nor do other authors who have revised the populations of this 
species, such as Zimmer (1935, Am. Mus. Novit., No. 
819:2-3), or Todd (1948, Ann. Carnegie Mus., 31, art. 
4:34-37). Gyldenstolpe (1951, op. cif.: 159-160), does not 
report the species for the Rio Purus where this form might be 
expected in the future to occur. It is to be expected that this 
population might appear in patches of suitable biotope in the 
immediately adjacent areas of extreme southern Colombia or 
eastern Peru, in which latter country, the species is so far 
unrepresented. 

In addition to the forms mentioned, specimens of S. a. in- 
signis, S. a. nesiotis, and S. a. australis, have also been ex- 
amined, from all of which this new form differs in greater de- 
gree as described. 



tW'^ J 7 1955 



-^ / I ri ' i 11^^ //c»/c^ 'j^ 



H-^adilla 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



mi. COMP. zdGL 

LIBRARY 

JUN 2 2 1956 

IfARVARO 

i:^!vekS(ty 



Number 24 



December 5, 1955 



New Haven, Conn. 



A THRESHER SHARK FROM 
LONG ISLAND SOUND 

James E. Morrow* 



The Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory recently received 
a fine specimen of the common thresher shark, Alopias vul- 
pinus (Bonnaterre) through the courtesy of Mr. S. Doane 
of Speed's Bait Shop in Niantic, Connecticut. Mr. Doane 
called us to identify a "strange shark" brought in by a sport 
fisherman. The fish had been foul hooked in the tail while the 
angler was trolling a blue mullet plug for bluefish, and had 
required about twenty minutes to bring to the boat. The 
locality of capture was stated to have been "between Plum 
Island and the Bloody Ground." This would be roughly five 
to six miles due south of Niantic. 

The specimen, a juvenile female weighing 43 pounds, is now 
in the Bingham Oceanographic Collection of Peabody Museum. 
Measured parallel to the mid-line, the length of the body from 
the tip of the snout to the anterior edge of the pre-caudal 
notch was 957 mm. The total length, with the tail laid out in 
a more or less natural position (Fig. 1), was 1982 mm, or 6 
feet 6 inches. The greatest depth of the body was 204 mm. 
Bigelow and Schroeder (Fishes of the Western North Altantic, 



Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory 



Pt. 1, pg. 171, 1948) give information suggesting that young 
threshers are between three and five feet long at birth. Al- 
though nothing is known of the rate of growth of this fish, 
nevertheless it would appear that the present specimen was 
quite young, possibly only a few months old. 

The particular interest of this specimen lies in the locality' 
of its capture. It seems probable that thresher sharks must 
occasionally occur in Long Island Sound, if only for the reason 
that they are quite abundant in nearby waters and would be 
expected to enter the sound from time to time purely on the 
basis of random wanderings. However, Bigelow and Schroeder 
(op, cit., pg. 174) state that there is only one previous record 
of the thresher shark from Connecticut. This is the report by 
Linsley (Amer. Jour. Sci., ^7: 76, 1844), who recorded a 
specimen from Stonington, albeit with a question mark. Our 
specimen, then, would seem to be the only one which can defi- 
nitely be ascribed to Long Island Sound. 

Why the thresher shark, so abundant in outside waters of 
New England, should be so rare in Long Island Sound, is not 
at all clear. Perhaps the most logical suggestion is that the 
lower salinity of the sound is not suitable for these animals. 
Riley (Bull. Bingham Oceanogr. Coll., 13 (3) : 5-39, 1952) has 
shown the salinity gradient between Block Island Sound and 
the eastern end of Long Island Sound to be of the order 
of 1.5 y^^ in a distance of only a few miles. It may be that 
this salinity gradient is sharp enough to act as a barrier to 
their entrance. However, lacking definitive knowledge of the 
salinity tolerance of the thresher shark, this must remain 
merely a suggestion. 



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YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



{^IIS. CO^P. 200L. 
LIBRARY 

JUN 2 2 1956 

HARVARD 
OHiVERSlTY 



Number 25 



March 14', 1956 New Haven, Conn. 



AVIFAUNA OF THE JORULLO REGION, 
MICHOACAN, MEXICO 

Raymond A. Paynter, Jr.* 

INTRODUCTION. 

In 1759 the small volcano of Jorullo suddenly arose from the 
floor of a valley in south-central Michoacan, Mexico and, like 
its modern counterpart, Paricutin, 80 kilometers to the west, 
soon covered the surrounding farmlands with a thick blanket 
of ash. Gadow (1930) estimates that within seven years about 
45 square kilometers of land had been seriously devastated 
and lay under up to 100 meters of lava and cinders ; less severe 
damage occurred over a much wider area. Senescence then be- 
gan and the volcano ceased to show outward activity after 
1774. 

Mountains ring the valley about Jorullo, forming a vast 
amphitheatre with the volcano (alt. ca. 1300 m.), a cinder 
cone, in the center (Fig. 1). To the west there is a wide breach 
in the mountains which is occupied by an expansive plain of 
volcanic sands, through which a stream passes. The village of 
La Play a (alt, ca. 750 m.) is located on the banks of a brook 
leading to the stream and a short distance to the south. 



* Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University, Cambridge, 
Massachusetts. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody M7isetimi No, 25 

between the water and the edge of the lava flow {malpais) , is the 
settlement of La Puerta (Map 1). 

Except for the volcano and the malpais, the surrounding re- 
gion is almost wholl>' under cultivation or used for pasture. 
It is, therefore, a countryside typical of this section of Mexico, 
having fields dotted with palms or other useful trees and with 
woods along the streams and in scattered clumps. In the farmed 
area there is nothing to indicate that total devastation had 
taken place only 200 years ago. 

The malpais consists of jumbled heaps of rough lava with 
lichens, grass, Opuntia, and xerophilous shrubs and small trees 
dispersed throughout in varying densities (Fig. 2). The recent 
origin of the lava is evident. The sides of Jorullo are covered 
with grass, bushes, and low trees, including oak and pine. A 
comprehensive description of the vegetation of the entire area 
is presented by Gadow (1930). 

The fauna of Jorullo has been little studied, although the 
site has been visited with comparative frequency, owing to 
the interest it holds for geologists. The first person to collect 
zoological material at the volcano seems to have been Baker, 
who obtained three birds on May 3, 1890 (Stone, 1890). In 
1903 Nelson and Goldman were at Jorullo, from March 27 to 
29 (Goldman, 1951), collecting plants, mammals, and birds, 
but no report on their work was prepared. Dr. Herbert Fried- 
mann kindly examined the catalog at the United States Na- 
tional Museum and informs me that five birds were taken. 
Gadow was the next to work in the region. In 1908 he spent 
about a month studying the herpetofauna, in particular, which 
led to the publication of a valuable account of the faunal re- 
colonization of Jorullo (Gadow, 1930). No further biological 
investigations are known to have been carried on until June 
1950, when a field party from the Museum of Zoology at the 
University of Michigan spent two days collecting around La 
Playa and on the volcano. Dr. Robert W. Storer has sent me 
a list of the 12 birds that he and E. K. Miller obtained, as well 
as a summary of those species that were observed. From Octo- 
ber 10 to 18, 1950, the late Timothy H. Laughlin and I col- 
lected birds and herpetological specimens in the valley, spend- 
ing most of the period on the plain, near La Playa and La 



Mar. 14, 1956 Avifauna — Jorullo Region 3 

Puerta. The birds are deposited in the Yale Peabody Museum 
of Natural History and the reptiles and amphibians in the 
University of Michigan Museum of Zoology. From July 1 to 3, 
1951, William E. Duellman collected herpetological material 
near Jorullo for the University of Michigan. Utilizing speci- 
mens obtained by the Michigan parties, my collection, and por- 
tions of the incomplete manuscript of the present paper, he 
published a report on the herpetology of Jorullo (Duellman, 
1954). 

The area about Jorullo is too much disturbed by human 
occupation to attempt to study its recolonization by birds. 
However, in spite of its comparatively recent devastation, a 
great part of the district is similar to farming country else- 
where in that section of Mexico and its avifauna is probably 
comparable to that found in any like habitat on the edge of 
the Rio Balsas drainage system. The following list is an enu- 
meration of the species occurring in the valley about Jorullo 
and on the slopes of the volcano. The collection made in 1950 
forms the basis of this account but, to make it as complete as 
possible, I have drawn upon the unpublished data generously 
given me by Drs. Friedmanii and Storer. Nevertheless, the list 
still does not contain every species resident in the region and 
certainly gives but the roughest indication of the visitant and 
transient avifauna. For example, I saw individuals of Colum- 
bigallina, Leptotila, Myiarchiis, and Semrus but was unable 
to identify the species with confidence ; certainly other forms 
were present but were not encountered during our short visit. 
Those birds which seem to be reported from Michoacan for the 
first time are indicated by an asterisk (*). 




4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 25 

ANNOTATED LIST. 

Coragyfs atratus (Bechstein). Black Vulture. The more abundant 
vulture. In the mid-morning as many as 28 could be seen circling 
over the valley. 

Cathartes aura subsp. Turkev Vulture. Only one bird was seen 
during the entire period, although in other parts of the state it has 
been reported as being common (Blake and Hanson, 1942; Lea 
and Edwards, 1950; Davis, 1953). 

Buteo nitidiis subsp. Gray Hawk. A single individual of this 
species was identified with certainty. Storer saw an adult during 
his visit. 

Polyhorus plancus subsp. Crested Caracara. On October 17 two 
caracaras ranged over the fields on the western side of the stream 
at La Puerta. 

Falco sparverius subsp. Sparrow Hawk. Very common. 

Ortalis vetula subsp. Plain Chachalaca. The only suitable habitat 
for chachalacas is on the surrounding hills. The species is uncommon 
owing to intensive hunting but was heard calling each morning. 

Phtlortyx fasciatus (Gould). Barred Quail. 2 $ , Oct. 12; 1 5 
19, Oct. 16. Quail were extremely abundant in the fields, although 
the villagers kill them with sling shots at every opportunity. All the 
birds collected had enlarged gonads. The males weighed 125.0, 
135.1, and 136.2 grams; the female 126.4 grams. 

Actitis macularia (Linnaeus). Spotted Sandpiper. Several were 
seen regularly along the river. 

Columba fasciata subsp. Band-tailed Pigeon. Small flocks passed 
over the valley several times. 

Zenaidura macroura subsp. Mourning Dove. A few were seen 
each day. 

Zenaida asiatica subsp. White-winged Dove. This was the most 
abundant of the larger doves. 

Scardafella inca (Lesson). Inca Dove. Common. 

Ara militaris subsp. Military Macaw. Gadow (1930:42) reported 
seeing a pair of these birds daily. 

Aratinga canicularts ehurniro strum (Lesson). Orange- fronted 
Parakeet. 1 $ , Oct. 13. The specimen has the broad orange fore- 
head and more yellow ventral coloration of A. c. ebrunirostrum, 
but the size (wing 139.5 mm.; tail 114.0 mm.) is indicative of a 
tendency toward A. c. clarae. The species was seen frequently, 
particularly in trees standing within fields. The bird weighed 
73.5 grams. 



Mar. 14, 1956 Avifauna — Joridlo Region 5 

Amazona finschi finschi (Sclater). Lilac-crowned Parrot. A female 
was collected by Nelson and Goldman. Flocks of parrots, presuma- 
bly of this species, were observed each morning and evening but tliey 
never alighted. 

Piaya cayana mexicana (Swainson). Squirrel Cuckoo. 1 $, 
Oct. 12. Fairly numerous, several being seen each day. The speci- 
men weighed 99.7 grams. 

Crotophaga sulcirostris subsp. Groove-billed Ani. Abundant wher- 
ever there were cattle. 

Geococcyx velox melanchima Moore. Lesser Road-runner. A male 
road-runner was collected by Nelson and Goldman. I saw none in 
the Jorullo region, although they were noted often on the road 
between Ario de Rosales and La Huacana. 

Glaucidium brasilianum subsp. Ferruginous Pygmy-Owl. A speci- 
men was collected at La Playa by Storer, who informs me that it 
exhibits characteristics of both G. h. cactorum and G. h. ridgwayi. 
A series is needed for subspecific determination. 

Caprimulgus ridgwayi ridgwayi (Nelson). Buff-collared Night- 
jar. Storer obtained a specimen on June 19. A few were seen during 
our visit. 

Amazilia beryllina viola (Miller). Berylline Hummingbird. 1 .'', 
Oct. 12; 1 $ , Oct. 14; 1 $ , I .^ Oct. 16. An abundant form. The 
males weighed 5.0 and 5.4 grams; the unsexed birds 4.9 and 5.1 
grams. 

Selasphorus rufus (Gmelin). Rufous Hummingbird. 1 $, Oct. 18. 
The specimen, which weighed 2.6 grams, was obtained at the base 
of the volcano. While this form was definitely not so numerous as 
Amazilia beryllina, their relative abundance was not determined. 
At least two other species of hummingbird were present, but not 
identified. 

Momotus mexicanus mexicanus Swainson. Russet-crowned Mot- 
mot. 1 $ }, Oct. 12; 1 9, Oct. 18. Fairly numerous. The female 
weighed 75.5 grams and the bird which was uncertainly identified 
as a male weighed 91.0 grams. 

*Dryocopus lineatus scapularis (Vigors). Lineated Woodpecker. 
Miller secured a young female two miles south of La Playa. This 
appears to be the only record of the species from Michoacan. 

Centurus chrysogenys flavinuchus Ridgway. Golden-cheeked 
Woodpecker. 1 $ , Oct. 11 ; 1 5,1 9 , Oct. 14. Abundant in thinly 
wooded areas. The males and female weighed, respectively, 75.7, 
87.3, and 66.3 grams. 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Miiseum No. 25 

Phloeoceastes guatemalensis nelsoni (Ridgway). Pale-billed 
Woodpecker. Nelson and Goldman collected a female, which is the 
only time the bird has been recorded in the district. 

Xiphorhynclius flavigaster mental'ts (Lawrence). Ivory-billed 
Woodcreeper. A single bird was seen on the trunk of a palm on 
October 13. The species has not been seen previously in the vicinity 
of Jorullo, although Nelson and Goldman took a specimen at 
nearby Cayaco. 

Platypsaris aglaiae albiventris (Lawrence). Rose-throated Be- 
card. 1 S , Oct. 13. The specimen, which is immature and in heavy 
molt, weighed 28.5 grams. It was taken in a densely wooded area 
along a stream. No other was seen. 

Pyrocephalus rubinus mexicanus Sclater. Vermilion Flycatcher. 
1 $ , \ }, Oct. 13; 1 $ , Oct. 11; 1 $ , Oct. 16. One of the most 
conspicuous elements of the avifauna, especially in the pastures. 
The gonads of one male were very enlarged, those of another mod- 
erately enlarged, and those of the last small. The last bird retains 
about one quarter of its immature plumage and weighed 12.8 
grams. The remaining males weighed 14.0 and 14-.3 grams. The 
unsexed specimen, which is in immature plumage, weighed 12.6 
grams. 

Tyratinus vociferans vociferans Swainson. Cassin Kingbird. A 
female was taken by Nelson and Goldman. To date it is the 
only record from the vicinity of Jorullo. 

T yrannus melancholicus occidentalis Hartert and Goodson. Tropi- 
cal Kingbird. 1 9, Oct. 12; 1 $ , Oct. 14. Common. The weights 
of the male and female were 41.5 and 30.0 grams, respectively. 

Myiozetetes similis subsp. Vermilion-crowned Flycatcher. Several 
pair were along the river. 

Pitangus sulphuratus derhianus (Kaup). Derby Flycatcher. 1 <$ , 
Oct. 18. The bird weighed 84.0 grams. An abundant form. 

Contopus pertinajc perttnax Cabanis and Heine. Greater Pewee. 
1 9 , Oct. 1 1 ; 1 $ >, Oct. 14; 1 $ , Oct. 17. The species was rather 
numerous in the fields where a few trees remained. The male and 
female weighed 24.2 and 25.8 grams, respectively; the bird of 
doubtful sex 24.3 grams. 

Empidonax minimus Baird. Least Flycatcher. 1 9 . Oct. 12; 1 9 , 
Oct. 16. Several seen daily. One bird weighed 9.9 grams. 

Progne chalybea subsp. Gray-breasted Martin. Storer informs me 
that there were two martins present at the hacienda in La Playa. 



Mar. 14-, 195G Avifauna — Jornllo Region 7 

Stelgidopteryx ruficollis fulvipennis (Sclater). Rough-winged 
Swallow. 1 6 , Oct. 13; 2 $ , Oct. 17. From Brodkorb's discussion 
(1942) of the races of Stelgidopteryx rujicollis, it is apparent that 
these specimens are referable to S. r. fulvipennis. Their chins and 
throats are conspicuously tinged with buff and the shafts of the un- 
der tail coverts are faintly darkened subterminally. Their respective 
measurements are, wing (flat): 120.0, 119.0, 116.0 mm.; tail 56.0, 
51.0, 53.0 mm.; weight, 16.0, 15.0, 15.4 grams. Lea and Edwards 
(1950) have recorded the species breeding in the region of Patz- 
cuaro and tentatively identified a specimen as 5. r. fulvipennis. 

Flocks of up to fifty birds appeared over the stream at La Puerta 
late each afternoon. 

Corvus eorax subsp. Common Raven. Ravens were seen flying 
over only once, although on the road between Ario de Rosales and 
La Huacana they were numerous. 

Calocitta formosa formosa (Swainson). Magpie Jay. 1 <5 , Oct. 
14; 1 9, Oct. 16. Moderately abundant. The male and female 
weighed 213.3 and 205.5 grams, respectively. 

C ampylorhynchus rufinucha humilis Sclater. Rufous-naped Wren. 
Dr. Storer collected a male at La Playa, which he informs me is 
nearest to humilis but show evidence of introgression with gularis. 
I saw none of these wrens during my visit. 

Thryothorus pleurostictus nisorius Sclater. Banded Wren. 1 $ , 
Oct. 13. Observed several times. The specimen, which is in heavy 
molt, weighed 23.8 grams. 

Troglodytes a'edon parhmanii Audubon. Northern House Wren. 
1 $ , I ? , Oct. 17. These specimens, taken in widely separated 
localities, were the only house wrens seen. The male weighed 10.0 
and the female 9.7 grams. 

Mimus polyglottos leucopterus (Vigors). Common Mockingbird. 
1 $ , Oct. 15; 2 9 , Oct. 18. Mockingbirds were encountered among 
the lava flows only at the base of Jorullo, where they were numer- 
ous. It is surprising that none was seen in the vicinity of the village. 
The weight of the male was 46.5 grams ; that of the females 44.6 
and 44.7 grams. 

Turdus rufo-palliatus rufo-palliatus Lafresnaye. Rufous-backed 
Robin. 1 $ , Oct. 13; 1 9 , Oct. 14. Abundant. The male and female 
weighed, respectively, 76.0 and 74.5 grams. 

*Catharus ustulatus swainsoni (Tschudi). Olive-backed Thrush. 
1 $ , Oct. 15. The specimen was brought in by a boy and seems 
to be the first record of the species from Michoacan. It weighed 
30.0 grams. 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Mu'Seum No. 25 

Polioptila caerulea cacrulea (Linnaeus). Blue-gray Gnatcatcher. 
1 $, Oct. 12; 1 9, Oct. 13. These birds have tlie following meas- 
urements: wing (flat), 52.5 and 52.5 mm.; tail, 50.5 and 51.5 mm.; 
culmen (base), 15.5 and 14.5 mm.; weight, 5.4- and 5.5 grams. 
The large size of the specimens indicates that they must be either 
the nominate form or P. c. amoenissima. They are pale ventrally 
and match perfectly some fall specimens of the former race from 
the southeastern United States. It would appear that the birds 
should be called P. c. caerulea and that they are probably winter 
visitants. However, the matter is complicated by the discovery by 
Davis (1953) of a breeding female and two juvenal males, in the 
vicinity of Tzitzio, whose measurements exceed those of P. c. 
deppei, the race which might be expected to be resident, and thus 
approach in size the more northern races. It is obvious that the 
gnatcatchers of this region sorely need study, but adequate breeding 
material is first required. Nevertheless, because the two birds in 
the present collection seem indistinguishable from certain indi- 
viduals from the eastern United States, it is reasonable to assume 
they are P. c. caerulea, although Lea and Edwards (1950) chose 
not to name a male exhibiting similar characteristics, which they 
obtained in March at Patzcuaro. 

The species was abundant. 

*Lanius ludovicianns excubttorides Swainson. Loggerhead Shrike. 
1 9 ?, Oct. 18. This race appears not to have been recorded pre- 
viously from Michoacan. The specimen, which weighed 46.4 grams, 
was taken in the malpais. No other was noted. 

*Vireo hypochryseus hypochryseus Sclater. Golden Vireo. 1 9 , 
Oct. 13. The specimen was the only one seen. It weighed 12.9 grams. 

Mniotilta varia (Linnaeus). Black and White Warbler. A single 
bird was present almost daily at our camp. 

*Vermivora ruficapilla ridgzvayi van Rossem. Nashville Warbler. 
1 S , Oct. 12. Lea and Edwards (1950) found the nominate form 
to be a common transient in the spring, but V . r. ridgwayi had not 
been reported heretofore. The species was seen on several occasions 
near La Puerta. The bird weighed 8.1 grams. 

*Vermivora luciae (Cooper). Lucy Warbler. 1 .'', Oct. 17. Only 
this bird was encountered. Its weight was 6.0 grams. 

Parula americana pulchra (Brewster). Parula Warbler. Miller 
collected a specimen on the slopes of Jorullo. 

Dendraica auduhoni nigrifrons Brewster. Audubon Warbler. 1 S , 
Oct. 14. A first winter bird which weighed 12.8 grams. 

Dendroica nigrescens (Townsend). Black-throated Gray War- 
bler. 1 9 , Oct. 17. The only one seen. It weighed 7.2 grams. 



Mar. 14, 1956 Avifauna — Jorullo Region 9 

Geothli/pis trichas subsp. Common Yellowthroat. Several birds 
were constantly present by the stream at La Puerta, but the 
proximity of houses prevented any collecting in that area. 

Wilsonta pusilla pileolata (Pallas). Pileolated Warbler. 1 $, 
Oct. 16. Abundant in brushy areas. The bird weighed 7.2 grams. 

Cassiculus melanicterus (Bonaparte). Yellow-winged Cacique. 
1 $, I 9, Oct. 12. Very common, particularly in the palms near 
the village. The male weighed 82.6 and tlie female 70.9 grams. 

Cassidix meilcanus obscurus (Nelson). Boat-tailed Grackle. 3 2, 
Oct. 16. Although Blake and Hanson (1942) found the nominate 
form in the vicinity of Apatzingan, only about fifty kilometers to 
the west of Jorullo, these birds are very dark and defiiiiteh' refer- 
able to C. m. obscunis. The species was moderately abundant. The 
specimens weighed 111.8, 122.1, and 126.3 grams. 

Icterus bullockii bullockii (Swainson). Bullock Oriole. 1 S , Oct. 
11. Numerous. The bird weighed 34.2 grams. 

Icterus spurius spurius (Linnaeus). Orchard Oriole. A single 
male was seen on two days. 

Icterus leagleri wagleri Sclater. Black-vented Oriole. There is 
a female of the species in the collection made by Storer at La Playa. 

Icterus cucuUatus cucullatus Swainson. Hooded Oriole. 1 $ , 
Oct. 13; 1 $, I 9, Oct. 14. Frequently observed in the palms. 
The males, both of which are adults, weighed 24.6 and 25.1 grams; 
the female, which is immature, 23.6 grams. 

Icterus pustulatus subsp. Streak-backed Oriole. Several were 
identified at La Playa by Storer on June 19. 

*Piranga rubra subsp. Summer Tanager. A pair was seen on 
October 13. 

*Passerina cyanea (Linnaeus). Indigo Bunting. A single female 
was observed on October 16. 

*Passerina ciris subsp. Painted Bunting. 1 $ , Oct. 13. The bird 
is in the process of assuming adult plumage and its measurements 
fall within the range of overlap for the two races. It, therefore, 
cannot be assigned to either race, although, as shown by Storer 
(1951), the nominate form is not known to winter in western 
Mexico. The bird weighed 14.0 grams. 

Volatinia jacarina subsp. Blue-black Grassquit. Noted by Storer 
in June but not by us in October. The sparsity of fringillids, par- 
ticularly those which are usually in the weeds along roads, was 
striking. 



10 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 25 

Chondestes grammacus strigatus Swainson. Lark Sparrow. 2 $ , 
1 9 .'', Oct. 15; 1 9, Oct. 18. Large flocks occurred in the malpais. 
One of the males had very enlarged testes while in the other they 
were slightly enlarged. The bird identified with certainty as a 
female exlnbited no indications of gonadal activity and none of tlie 
living birds showed sexual behavior. The indications of breeding, 
plus the fact that Baker (Stone, 1890) obtained the species at 
Jorullo on May 3, suggest that the species may be resident. 

The males weighed 24.9 and 25.3 grams; the female 26.8 grams; 
the bird of doubtful sex 27.6 grams. 

Aimoph'da ruficauda subsp. Stripe-headed Sparrow. Storer found 
this species common about La Playa. I saw none in October. 



I/ITEIUVTI'RE CrTED 

Blake, E. R. and H. C. Hanson, 1942, Notes on a collection of birds 

from Michoacan, Mexico: Chicago. Field Mus. Nat. Hist., Pub. 522, 

Zool. Ser. 22, (9): 513-551. 
Brodkorb, Pierce, 1942, Notes on some races of the rough-winged swallow: 

Condor, 44: 214-217. 
Davis, John, 1953, Birds of the Tzitzio region, Michoacan, Mexico: Condor 

55: 90-98. 
Duellman, W. E., 1954, The amphibians and reptiles of Jorullo volcano, 

Michoacan, Mexico: Univ. Mich., Mus. Zool., Occasional Papers, No. 

560. 24 p. 
Gadow, Hans, 19.30, Jorullo: Cambridge, Eng. The University Press, xviii 

+ 100 p. 
Cjoldman, E. A., 1951, Biological investigations in Mexico: Smithsonian 

Misc. Coll., 115, xiii + 476 p. 
Lea, R. B. and E. P. Edwards, 1950, Notes on birds of the Lake Patzcuaro 

region, Michoacan, Mexico: Condor, 52: 260-271. 
Stone, Witmer, 1890, On birds collected in Yucatan and southern Mexico: 

Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila., Proc, 42: 201-218. 
Storer, R. W., 1951, Variation in the painted bunting (Pagserina cirig), 

with special reference to wintering populations: Univ. Mich., Mus. 

Zool., Occasional Papers, No. 532. 12 p. 





Fig. 1. Jorullo from the plain at La Puerta. Oct. 17, 1950. 




Fig. 2. A portion of the malpais as seen from the summit of Jorullo. Oct. 15, 1950. 



Wj%. co^p. mi 

VUN 2 2 1956 
mwM 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM j C^'^l^J^SITY 
OF Natueal History 




Number 26 May 21, 1956 New Haven, Conn. 

CUBAN BIRD NOTES 

S. Dillon Ripley and George E. Watson, 3rd 

The following notes are the result of a collecting trip to Cuba 
by one of us (Watson), for the Yale Peabody Museum between 
August 6 and December 12, 1955. Nesting dates or other data 
are given where they may supplement Bond's definitive works, his 
Check-List of Birds of the West Indies^ Philadelphia, 1956, and 
earlier Field Guide of Birds of the West Indies, New York, 
1947. We ai'e very grateful to Dr. R. A. Paynter, Jr. for com- 
ments and measurements on the collections at the Museum of 
Comparative Zoology at Harvard. 

Podiceps dominicus dominicus (Linnaeus) : rarely seen and 
shy. Young found in the Zapata Swamp, October 19. A male 
and female with enlarged gonads, taken on this date, weighed 
182 and 167 grams respectively. The juvenal, which is in body 
down, has on the crown a developing median streak of light 
cinnamon-brown juvenal feathers, paler towards the forehead. 

Podilymhus podiceps antiUarum Bangs : an incubating bird 
was observed August 14, with young hatched two days later. 
A trio of adults weighed : $ 325, 345 ; 5 355 grams respectively, 
while a nearly full-grown female, in immature plumage, weighed 
247 grams. These weights are notably less than those recorded 
by Paynter (Bull. Yale Peabody Mus., 9:22, 1955) for the 
typical subspecies in Yucatan in winter. 



2 Postilla Yale Pedbody Museum No. 26 

Bubtdcius ibis ibis (Linnaeus) : a flock of 150 Cattle Egrets 
noted daily during September at Finca Dayaniguas in Pinar 
del Rio, always with the same herd of Brahman cattle. Three 
specimens from this flock are now in the Villalba Collection at 
the University of Havana. A few were seen about Lake Ari- 
guanabo in mid-November. The species has since been found in 
Oriente. 

Dendrocygna arborea (Linnaeus) : becoming rarer in Cuba; 
formerly common, now rare in the Lanier Swamp, Isle of Pines. 
Young, beginning to assume feathers (perhaps six weeks old), 
were seen south of San Cristobal, Pinar del Rio, in early Octo- 
ber. Adults were in extremely worn plumage at this time. 

Aix sponsa (Linnaeus) : downy young seen in Pinar del Rio 
in late September. 

Oxyura dominica (Linnaeus) : young of about eight weeks 
(heads still downy, primaries breaking sheaths) seen in Pinar 
del Rio, Sept. 16. Specimens taken at this time weighed: ad. 
$ 386, im. $ (in first year plumage) 387 ; ad. 9 445, im. 9 (in 
first year plumage) 275 gm. The subadult birds have notably 
wider, paler margins to the feathers of the back and wing cov- 
erts, and more fluffy, almost downlike feathers on the under- 
parts with distinct wide pale margins which, due to the relative 
sparseness of the feathering in this area, give a rather mottled 
effect. 

Buteogallus anthr acinus gundluchii (Cabanis) : not a shy 
species and apparently becoming rarer. Two seen and two more 
heard during a day's walk to the south coast of the Isle of 
Pines. 

Grus canadensis nesiotes Bangs and Zappey : said to be very 
common in the Zapata Swamp where they are a staple in the 
local diet. Two flocks of 13 and 16 seen in Pinar del Rio, south 
of Paso Real, in September and December. 

Pardirallus maculatus inoptatus (Bangs) : abundant in the 
Zapata Swamp. A female laying was taken Sept. 16. Heard (?) 
Isle of Pines, Nov. 6. Weight: S $ 195, 198; 9 9 153, 167, 
190 gm. Local name (at Santo Tomas = Las Mercedes, Za- 



May 21, 1966 Cuban Bird Notes 3 

pata), "Gallinuela Color-Guineo." Call: infrequent deep, chesty 
grunting; also a clucking tuk-tuk-tuk, etc, gradually 
accelerating. 

Among the rails, the breeding season seemed to be at its 
height in September. Half-grown young Rallus elegans ram- 
sideni Riley, (local name; "Martillera"), were found in Pinar 
del Rio in December. Porzana flaviventer gossii (Bonaparte) 
was laying on Sept. 9. 

Porzana Carolina (Linnaeus) : a subadult female taken Sept. 
9 at Dayaniguas represents an early record for this species. 

Porphi/rula martinica (Linnaeus) : a male Purple Gallinule 
in the subadult greenish-brown plumage was collected August 
27 at Aguada de Passajeras, Las Villas, near the eastern edge 
of the Zapata Swamp. The bird had greatly enlarged gonads 
indicating that it might be capable of breeding, although in 
immature plumage. The forehead shield was swollen and tumid, 
although dull colored. Nests of this species were seen on Sept. 9. 

Among other species, week-old young of Gallinula chloropus 
cerceris Bangs were found in early September. Fulica ameri- 
cana Gmelin, on the other hand, would seem to breed earlier, as 
nearly full-grown young were seen in September. 

Chlidonias niger surinamensis (Gmelin) : a male was taken 
from a flock of four on Sept. 16 at Dayaniguas in Pinar del 
Rio. 

Geotrygon montana montana (Linnaeus) and Geotrygon 
chrysia Salvadori: both species were common on the Isle of 
Pines near the Lanier Swamp. Although found in the same 
forest, the former was more inclined to be near water and in 
damper places, while the latter was seen in slightly drier areas 
and was noted more often perched in trees. 

Staroenas cyanocephala (Linnaeus) : not encountered on 
the Isle of Pines although said to have been fairly common in 
the past. In Cuba found rather commonly on the hillsides north 
of Candellaria in Pinar del Rio. Call : two notes, fast and rather 
deep like a soft fog horn. 

Aratinga euops (Wagler) : a flock of 25 were noted at Santa 
Tomas in the Zapat a Swa m p, associ ^ated with a flock of 
Amazona. 



MUS. CDMP. Z30L 
LIBRARY 

JUN 2 2 1958 

MARVARD 



4 Postilla Yale Pedbody Museum No. 26 

Coccyztis americanus americanus (Linnaeus) : a young bird 
out of the nest but not yet flying was found at Soledad on 
August 28. 

Glaudicium siju siju (d' Orbigny) : the collection of fifteen 
of these Owlets both on Cuba and the Isle of Pines shows that 
Ridgway's race, vittatum, from the Isle of Pines (Bull, U.S. 
nat. Mus., No. 50, Pt. 6:782,805, 1914) should be recognized. 
Eight birds from the Isle of Pines seem grayer, more heavily 
barred as Ridgway points out, and are larger : Cuba, wing $ S 
88-92 ; 9 9 98-103 ; Isle of Pines, wing S S 94, 95 ; 9 9 102- 
109 millimeters. In weight there is a distinct correlation; Cuba, 
(? S 55, 55, 57 (one 75 gm. = 9 ?) ; 9 9 66.5, 73.5 (one 55 = 
$ ?) ; Isle of Pines, S $ 65, 68, 9 9 84 (2), 85, 89 (2), 92 gm. 
Thus there is a difference of as much or more than ten grams 
between the corresponding sexes, an average of twelve to fif- 
teen per cent of the body weight of the birds. Call: a high 
squeaking. In December, a male on the Isle of Pines uttered a 
slowly repeated too too, too. 

Gymnoglaux lawrencii Sclater and Salvin : common in the 
damp forests of Santo Tomas in the Zapata Swamp, common 
also in the forest near Paso Piedras on the Isle of Pines. The 
collection of a series of nine specimens shows that Bangs' race, 
exsul, from western Cuba and the Isle of Pines cannot be upheld. 
The race exsul (Proc. New Engl. Zool. CI., 4:91, 1913) was 
separated on the basis of being less reddish and more dusky 
brown above, with the white spots on the dorsum being larger 
and more numerous. Dr. Paynter has assisted us by comparing 
Bangs' original series, which he notes show the characters enu- 
merated by Bangs, but as in our series, these characters do not 
remain distinctive when additional specimens of later date are 
compared. Call: usual note { $ ^) is a soft accelerating Coooo- 
cooo-coo-cn-cu-cu, etc., becoming somewhat higher pitched at 
the end. The reply ( 9 ?) is an alto hui, hid, hui, hui, more 
clearly separable into syllables, and slower than the rather 
similar cry of the Glaucidium. 

Caprimidgus cubanensis cuhanensis (Lawrence) : Nightjars 
were common in the region of Las Mercedes, Zapata Swamp, 



May 21, 1956 Cuban Bird Notes 5 

and near Lanier Swamp, Isle of Pines. The only specimen col- 
lected at the Zapata Swamp in mid-October, proved to be the 
migrant, C. caroUnensis Gmelin. 

Colaptes auratus chrysocaulosus Gundlach: noted commonly 
at one or two spots in the Sierra del Cristal in Oriente. A pair 
of specimens from this area are notably erythristic in coloration, 
apparently an uncommon characteristic of the Cuban 
population. 

Riparia riparia riparia (Linnaeus) : seen commonly in flocks 
during September in Pinar del Rio. 

Corvus palmarum minutus Gundlach : found only at Finca 
La Manaja near Matahambre in Pinar del Rio where a flock 
of eight were seen. The "cao" is unknown now at Porto Ex- 
peranza. Nearer the hills, through the pines to the bases of the 
sugar loaves, local information was that the crow (possibly 
this species) had been common in the past, but had disappeared 
along with the parrots and parakeets when the deciduous woods 
were lumbered. La Manaja has a deciduous grove. A pair 
weighed :S315;9 263 gm. Call : a low craa, craa. 

Vireo gundlachii Lembeye : a juvenal bird just ready to fly was 
taken at Soledad in mid-August. A gray specimen of this spe- 
cies, exhibiting the phenomenon of schizochroism, almost totally 
devoid of lipochrome pigment in the plumage, was collected on 
the Isle of Pines, Oct. 29, and another was seen. In color this 
specimen closely resembles the species Vireo vicinior Coues from 
the far western LTnited States and northwest Mexico. 

Dendroica pensylvanica (Linnaeus) : a single specimen was 
taken in mangroves at Finca Dayaniguas Sept. 24. 

Teretistris fernandinae (Lembeye) : a common species in the 
lowlands at sea level from the eastern Zapata Swamp west, and 
also on the Isle of Pines. Weight: 5 5 11.5—13.75;$ 9 10.5, 
10.75 gm. Not breeding at this time. 

Teretistris fornsi Gundlach : seen only at 2500 feet above sea 
level in the mountains above Nicaro. Three females weighed: 
10.5 (2) ; 11.25 gm. 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Mibseium No. 26 

Torreornis inexpectata Barbour and Peters: the Zapata 
Finch was seen three times in October near Las Mercedes, 
always in small flocks. The birds work over a low bush in much 
the same manner that warblers do, occasionally uttering a hiss- 
ing note. Will respond to hissing by the observer. Local name 
"Gorrion." The following weights were recorded:^ 5 26.6, 27; 
o o 25, 27 ; 9 26 gm. 



^-. 



/v 






YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



JAN 2 9 1957 1 

HAEVAaB 
BNIVnSilY 



Number 27 



September 28, 1956 



New Haven, Conn. 



METEORITES IN THE COLLECTIONS 
OF YALE UNIVERSITY 

Kurt Servos^ 

ABSTRACT 

More than 400 localities where meteorites fell are recorded in this first list 
compiled in more than fifty years. The list combines the catalogues of two major 
collections housed in Yale University: the Peabody Museum Collection and the 
Carl Bosch Collection, which has been catalogued and is now being published for 
the first time. 

Introduction 

H. S. Washington (1897, p. 83-87) was the last person to compile 
a catalogue of the meteorites in Yale collections. When he compiled 
that list the entire collection was a part of the Peabody Museum of 
Natural History and his list was essentially a revision and moderniza- 
tion of the catalogue that E. S. Dana had prepared in 1886. During 
the fifty years after Washington's compilation of the catalogue some 
accessions were added to the collection which did not find their way 
into other catalogues. In 1949, however, a great collection of minerals, 
the Bosch Collection, was provisionally deposited in the University 
and the meteorites in that collection are here listed for the first time. 
A short note previously called attention to the noteworthy specimens 
in that collection (Servos, 1954)). 

Acknowledgements 

Professor Horace Winchell advised me in the compilation of this 
list and to him I express my sincere appreciation. Professor Harrison 
S. Brown and Mr. Walter Nichiporuk, both in the California Institute 

^Present address: New York State Museum, Albany, New York. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 27 

of Technolog}', and Dr. E. P. Henderson of the U. S. National Mu- 
seum gave valuable advice. Two undergraduate students, Richard F. 
LaGanza and Andrew N. Jergens, Jr., spent many hours working over 
the Peabody Museum Collection. The Department of Geology in Yale 
University generously gave financial aid in the form of the William 
E. Ford Scholarship and for this I express my profound gratitude. 

Explanation of the List of Meteorites 

The data in this list include merely the locality name, number of 
the specimen and the weight, with appropriate postillations in some 
cases. We have refrained from listing the synonymy, date of fall or 
find, and type of meteorite because that information is readily avail- 
able in such standard references as Prior's Catalogue of Meteorites, 
as revised by Hey. 

The assignment of serial numbers to specimens was arbitrary and 
these numbers do not represent either the number of falls or the 
number of individual fragments, but rather the approximate number 
of accessions to the collections. The meteorites in the Bosch Collection 
are identified by the prefix ]M (here listed under each individual local- 
ity) ; those in the Peabody Museum Collection have the prefix P ; and 
the few meteorites in the Brush Mineral Collection are distinguished 
by the prefix B. 

The guide for nomenclature of localities is Hey (1953), The 
synon3'my established in that catalogue is followed here. Some obvious 
geographical errors appearing on the original labels have been cor- 
rected in making this list although, of course, the basic catalogue of 
the collections shows also the original data. Prior's Catalogue was 
useful in resolving such errors. 

Many of the specimens in the Bosch Collection were originally 
acquired by trade or purchase from other collections or from supply 
establishments. In order to keep errors and confusion at a minimum, 
when these specimens can be traced directly to their source, the weights 
reported for these specimens are those given on the labels even though 
they may disagree slightly with the present weights of the specimens. 
For specimens that have more than one label showing different weights, 
the lower one is recorded here. The specimens in the Peabody Collec- 
tion, on the other hand, were re-weighed and any discrepancy' between 
the weight recorded here and the weight of the corresponding specimen 
in a previous list indicates that a portion of the specimen has been 
withdrawn from the Collection for trading or other use. Unless other- 
wise indicated, weights are given in grams. 



1 

JA^ 2 9 J57 

Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale Unive 'sity 3 

Specific Notes IN Reference TO THE List I (|«l s ».*i4ii 1 1 

Three pallasites from Mexico (M123, 2.29 g. ; M551, 38 g. ; and 
M552, 26.5 g.) in the Bosch Collection, found in 1893, have labels 
with insufficient information to assign them to specific localities. 

About 26 specimens in the Peabody Museum Collection lack labels 
which would permit them to be assigned to specific localities. 

The assignment of specimen P286 to Santa Rosa is made with 
more than a moderate amount of trepidation and uncertainty. The 
specimen was given by Wm. Huland, Esq. to Benjamin Silliman. 
H. S. Washington, in his Catalogue,^ wrote that "G.J. Brush suggests 
that this ii^ a specimen of the Otumpa Iron" but the original label 
has not been recovered. In an older catalogue, compiled in December 
1868 hy Professor G. J. Brush,^ this specimen is described "Marked 
Meteoric Iron found in Columbia So. Am from Wm. Huland Esq 
London to B. Silliman. May this not be a specimen of the Tucuman 
(Otumpa) Iron.? G.J.B." 

Specimen P421 was acquired by Professor George R. Wieland in 
Mexico and was donated by him. Its assignment to Morito is uncertain 
but probably correct and is based on Wieland's reference to it as the 
"Humboldt Iron."3 

The total weight of the Homestead fall in the Peabody Collection 
is 36,252 grams ; the largest individual of this fall weighs 11.960 grams. 

St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar (P22) is listed despite the fact 
that it does not appear in most modern catalogues. Because informa- 
tion in the literature concerning the St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar 
(P22) iron is scanty, the find is here tentatively listed under meteorites. 

The specimen labelled Feroe Islands, North Sea (P204) is listed 
tentatively with the meteorites although precise information is lacking. 

We consider Asheville (P20a) and Black Mountain (P20b) a 
"paired" fall but we list them separately because the information on 
their original labels does not permit more specific assignment. 

Both the Bosch Collection and the Peabody Museum Collection 
contain some specimens of pseudometeorites which are not listed here 
because the information they offer has questionable value. 

^ Catalogue of the Collection of Meteoric Irons, Yale University, Peabody Museum. 
1896. (MS in the Peabody Museum.) 

^Meteoric Iron in Mineralogical Cabinet of Yale College. 1868. (MS in the Yale 
Peabody Museum.) 

^Reference made at the time of donation. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Admire, Lyon County, Kansas, 
U.S.A. 

M104 73.8 

M455 85 

M456 400 

Agex, Lot-et-Garonne, France 

M105 0.80 

P235 7 

AiNswoRTH, Brown County, 
Nebraska, U.S.A. 

M214 11.2 

P162 (1 pc— 90 g., 1 vial— 

3 g.) 93 

Akbarpur, Saharanpur district, 
India 
P173 1 

Albareto, Modena, Italy 

M109 0.9 

M114 0.1 

Aleppo, Syria 

M113 0.95 

Alessaxdbia, Piedmont, Italy 

M107 15.05 

Alfianello, Brescia, Italy 

M103 (2 pes) 79.67 

M539 81 

P277 (3 pes) 176 

Algoma, Kewaunee County, 
Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

M233 12.4 

Allegan, Allegan County, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

M106 25.96 

M518 18 

P183 89 

Alt Bela, Ostrava, Moravia, 
Czechosloval<ia 

M218 10.22 

Ambapur Nagla, Aligarh district, 
India 

M119 1.1 

Anderson, Hamilton County, Ohio, 
U.S.A. 

M460 34.5 

P85 6 



Arispe, Sonora, Mexico 

M232 20 

M402 590 

Arlington, Sibley County, 
Minnesota, U.S.A. 

P128 10 

AsHEviLLE, Buncombe County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 
P20a (vial with fragments) . .36 

Auburn, Lee County, Alabama, 
U.S.A. 
P281 2 

AuGUSTiNOvKA, Ekatefinoslav, 
Ukraine 

M208 36.4 

M212 6.2 

M215 130 

P135 103 

AuMALE, Alger, Algeria 

M205 (2 pes) 35.55 

AuMiERES, Loz^re, France 

M120 17.34 

AussoN, Haute Garonne, France 

M115 2.5 

M499 19.8 

P241 18 

Babb's Mill, Greene County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M230 32.73 

Bachmut, Ekaterinoslav, Ukraine 
P261 2 

Bacubirito, Sinaloa, Mexico 

M311 65 

M328 2.54 

P155 98 

Ballinoo, Murchison River, 
Western Australia 

M268 6.5 

P114 75 

Bandono, West Java 

M102 0.46 

M545 4 

Barbotan, Gers, France 

M534 51 

P284 (2 pes) 12 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 6 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Baebatta, Deniliquin, County 
Townsend, New South Wales 

MlOO 113.5 

M465 132 

P28 106 

Bath, Brown County, South 

Dakota, U.S.A. 

M98 200 

M524 33 

M662 16.7 

P225 (2 pes— 42 g., 125 g.) . . 167 

Bath Furnace, Bath Coimty, 

Kentucky, U.S.A. 

MlOl 4.95 

Beab Creek, Jefferson County, 
Colorado, U.S.A. 

P53 (2 pes— 5 g., 151 g.) ..156 

Beardsley, Rawlins County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M457 37 

P296a 42 

P296b (2 pes- 6.9 g., 22.4 g.) 29.3 

Beaver Creek, West Kootenay 
district, British Columbia 

M116 27.87 

P180 (2 pes)— 12 g., 68 g.) . .80 

Bella Roca, Sierra de 
San Francisco, Santiago 
Papasquiaro, Durango, Mexico 

M209 135.58 

M331 92 

P99 (2 pes— 77 g., 328 g.) . .405 

Benares, United Provinces, India 

P174 (2 pes) 1 

Bendeg6, Monte Santo, Bahia, Brazil 

M223 253 

M229 53.97 

P86 (2 pes— 2 g., 162 g.) . .164 

Behlanguillas, Burgos, Spain 

P272 14 

BiELOKRYNrrscHiE, Zaslavl, Volhynia, 
Ukraine 
M97 1.74 



Billings, Christian County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

M219 (3 pes) 27.3 

P203 15.5 

Bischtube, Nikolaev, Turgai, 
Siberia 

M224 190.19 

M432 1532 

P133 361 

Bishopville, Lee County, 
South Carolina, U.S.A. 

M87 1.65 

Mill 0.9 

P50 (3 pes— 5 g., 58 g., 

137 g.) 200 

Bitburg, Trier, Germany 

M86 (37 pes) 31.02 

P8 (4 pes) 64 

Bjurbole, Borga, Nyland, Finland 

M94 264.84 

M411 635 

M464 257 

M.541 33 

P198 182 

Black Mountain, Buncombe 
County, North Carolina, U.S.A. 
P20b 6 

Blansko, Brno, Moravia, 
Czechoslovakia 

MllO 2.38 

Bluff, Fayette County, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

M108 258.7 

M418 950 

P87a 338 

P87b 434 

P87c 61 

P87d 78 

BoHUMiLiTz, Vimperk, Bohemia 

M211 130 

M226 40.20 

M259 54 

P14 37 

BoRGO San Donixo, Parma, Italy 

P205 9 



6 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



BoBi, Betul district, Central 
Provinces, India 

M95 12.32 

M567 3.3 

P160 30 

BoRKur, Maramaros, Ruthenia, 
Ukraine 

M91 4..46 

BowDEN, Cape Province, 
South Africa 

M82 1-* 

Braunau, Trutnov, Bohemia 

M213 15 

M216 4 

P90 10 

Bremervorde, Hanover, Germany 

M51 0.38 

M495 1.5 

Brenham Township, Kiowa County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M72 249.2 

M77 119 

M79 28.55 

M474 175 

M475 113 

MSS.'J 1-7 

PlOl (4 pes— 266 g., 567 g., 

701.5 g., 1263.5 g.)..2798 

PlOlb 21.5 

PlOlc (dust) 4.8 

P292 3671 

P395 101.5 lbs. 

B322 20.55 

Brtogewater, Burke County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 

M225 30.5 

P107 19 

Bur-Gheluai, Bur-Hagaba district, 
Italian Somaliland 

M547 77 

BuRLixtiTON, Otsego County, 
New York, U.S.A. 

Pll 723 

BuscHHOF, Zemgale, Latvia 

M89 (12 i)cs) 2.6 

M533 1.2 



BusTEE, near Gorakhpur, 
Basti district, India 

P192 11.5 

Butler, Bates County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

M231 12.17 

P278 970 

BuTsuHA, Champaran district, 
Bihar, India 
P187 92 

Cachiyuyal, Atacama, Chile 

P260 2.5 

Caxok Diablo, Coconino County, 
Arizona, U.S.A. 

M210 2378 

M222 150 

M228 80.25 

M235 31.88 

M237 122 

M253 605 

P103b 937 

P103C 323 

P103d 318 

PlOSe 41 

P103f 26 

P103g 500 

P103h 341 

P103i (bottle with 

shavings) 1056.5 

P103J (filings) 20.5 

P103k (filings) 10 

P1031 (shavings) 20 

P103m (shavings) 25.5 

P103n (bottle with 

shavings) 1660 

P103o (graphite nodule) ...721 

P400 374.6 kg. 

B6134 429.5 

Cantox, Cherokee County, 
Georgia, U.S.A. 

Pill 82 

Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau 
County, Missouri, U.S.A. 
P56 (10 fragments, 18 g., 

main mass, 1460 g.) 1478 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 7 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Cape op Good Hope, Cape 
Province, South Africa 

M247 6.79 

P5 8 

Carlton, Hamilton County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M243 (3 pes) 13.43 

M263 57.5 

PlOO 172.5 

Carthage, Smith County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M238 12 

M255 3.5.7 

M257 370 

P24 105 

Castalia, Nash County, 
North Carolina, U.^.A. 

M88 0.2 

P76 ,...248 

Castine, Hancock County, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

P116 16 

Chandakapur, Berar, Central 
Provinces, India 

P166 40 

Chantonnay, Vendee, France 

M85 89.59 

M396 176 

M535 (4 pes) 12.5 

P283 (2 pes— 3 g., 41 g.) ... .4.1 

Chari.otte, Dickson County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

P404 (turnings) 1.5 

Charsonville, Meung, Loiret, 
France 

M96 0.26 

P250 (2 pes) 16 

Chassigny, Haute Marne, 
France 

M92 1.3 

Chateau-Renahd, Montargis, 
Loiret, France 

M15 41.34 

M93 307 

M498 26 

P280 (2 pes) 91 



Chesterville, Chester County, 
South Carolina, U.S.A. 

M244 12.49 

P27 751 

Chinautla, Guatemala 

M265 77.5 

Chupaderos, Jimenez, Chihuahua, 
Mexico 

M439 2375 

Coahuila, Mexico 

M250 "Fort Duncan" 66.63 

M251 "Bonanza" 293 

M254 "Santa Estate," 

"Couch Iron" .53.5 

M258 189.7 

P49 "Bonanza" 48 

P64a 1508 

P64b 1502 

P64c 2707 

P88 "Sanchez Estate," 

"Couch Iron" (38 g., 

379 g.) 417 

P122 "Fort Duncan" 29 

P122 "Fort Duncan" (dust)..l 

CoBijA, Pampa of Santa Barbara, 

Antofagasta, Chile 

M90 35.04 

P238 67 

Coi.D Bokkevei.d, Ca])e Province, 
South Africa 

M.548 1.6 

P229 (2 pes— 13.1 g., 

96.4 g.) 109.5 

CoLLEsciPOLi, Terni, Umbria, Italy 

M118 (2 pes— 7.2 g., 10.09 g.) 17.29 

CooKEvrLLE, Putnam County, 

Tennessee U.S.A. 

M260 85 

Coopertowx, Robertson County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

P281a (2 pes) 120 

P231b 695 



8 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Cosby's Creek, Cocke County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M221 1 

P17a 917 

P17b (small fragments) 8.2 

PI 7c (small fragments) ....262 
Costilla Peak, Taos County, 
New Mexico, U.S.A. 

M394 135 

P150 172.5 

Covert, Osborne County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M458 1365 

P405 1419 

Crab Orchard Mouktains, 

Rockwood, Cumberland County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M59 115.6 

M473 8 

P226 96 

Cranberry Plains, Poplar Hill. 
Giles County, Virginia, U.S.A. 

P62 22 

Cranbourne, Victoria, Australia 

M240 1 

P134 "Beaconsfield" 148 

P146 (2 pes) ing 

Cross Roads, Wilson County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 

P165 8 

CuLLisoN, Pratt County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M74 85.6 

Cumberland Falls, Whitley 
County, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M470 155 

Dalton, Whitfield County, 
Georgia, U.S.A. 

M241 8.2 

P94 34 

Dandapub, Gorakhpur district, 
India 

P211 32 

Danville, Morgan County, 
Alabama, U.S.A. 

P193 11 



Deep Springs, Rockingham County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 

M248 27.4 

Denton County, Texas, U.S.A. 

P42 66 

Deport, Red River County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M264 300 

Descubhidora, Catorce, San Luis 
PotosT, Mexico 

M413 363 

P58 192.5 

Dhurmsala, Kangra district, 
Punjab, India 

M60 217.5 

M544 59 

P233 (2 pes) 93 

Djati-Pengilon, Ngawi district, 
Java 

M69 1.27 

P228 (2 pes— 0.5 g., 240 g.) .240.6 
Drake Cheek, Nashville, Sumner 
County, Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M34 1.2 

P220 (2 pes—* g., 426 g.) . .430 
Duel Hill (1854), Walnut 
Mountains, Madison County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 

M278 14.17 

P41a 4224 

P41b 45 

P41c 22 

DuNDRUM, County Tipperary, 
Ireland 

P77 69 

DuNOANNON, Scott Couuty, 
Virginia, U.S.A. 

M262 250 

DuRALA, Punjab, India 

M36 0.4 

P213 (6 pes) 2.5 

Eagle Station, Carroll County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M62 76 

M471 60 

P96 70 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 9 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Ehhekbero, Yuma County, 
Arizona, U.S.A. 

P43 11 

Elbogen, Bohemia 

M220 12 

P7 8 

El Capitan Range, Lincoln County. 
New Mexico, U.S.A. 

M245 69.84 

P113 252 

Elm Ceeek, Admire, Lyon County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M76 (2 pes— 7.34 g., 8 g.) . .15.34 
P210 74 

Ensisheim, Alsace, France 

M527 1.2 

P118 (2 pes) 18 

Ergheo, Brava, Italian Somaliland, 
East Africa 

M65 143.55 

M496 183.5 

M546 232 

P406 57 

Erxlebex, Magdeburg, 
Prussia 
P207 13 

Estacado, Hale County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M64 162.87 

M459 310 

M479 1.8 

M540 1.27 

P200 410 

EsTHERviLLE, Emmct County, Iowa, 
U.S.A. 

M61 (3 pes) 40.26 

M476 9.5 

M477 (2 pes— 8 g., 22 g.) ... .30 

P168 (2 pes) 30 

P168 (679 pes) 48449 

B320 (10 pes) 93.05 



Faemingtott, Washington County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M70 133.5 



Fahmington — Continued 

M557 23.9 

P230 (3 pes— 31 g., 45 g., 

216 g.) 292 

Feroe Islands, North Sea 

P204 2 

FiNMAEKEN, Arctic Norway 

M404 244.5 

Fisher, Polk Coimty, Minnesota, 
U.S.A. 

M63 46.4 

M71 10 

M408 680 

Forest City, Winnebago County, 
Iowa, U.S.A. 

M401 204 

M440 720 

M441 166 

M560 27.3 

M561 8 

M575 47.6 

P37a (8 pes— 7 g., 14 g., 

74 g.) 95 

P399 (991 pes) 28066.5 

B321 22.7 

Forsyth, Monroe County, Georgia, 
U.S.A. 

P196 132 

Forsyth County, North Carolina, 
U.S.A. 

M249 150.5 

M261 487.2 

Fort Pierre, Stanley County, 
South Dakota, U.S.A. 

P36 846 

P36 (shavings) 9.8 

Frankfort (stone), Franklin 
County, Alabama, U.S.A. 

P46 186 

Frankfort (iron), Franklin 
County, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

P54 87.5 

FuTTEHPUR, Allahabad district, 
India 

P227 86 



10 



Postilla Yale Pedbody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



GiBEON, Great Namaqualand, 
South-West Africa 

M287 "Mukerop" 435.5 

M289 "Goamus Farm" 134 

M294 "Mukerop" 380 

M297 "Great Fish River" ... 195 

M299 "Mukerop" 53.1 

M300 "Lion River" (2 pes— 

4 g., 26.3 g.) 30.3 

M303 "Amalia Farm" 663.55 

M304 "Grondorn Farm" ...2790 

M308 "Mukerop" 296 

M309 "Goamus Farm" 270 

M414 "Mukerop" 852 

M416 "Great Fish River" .. 1400 

M417 "Amalia Farm" 1290 

M579 "Mukerop" ca. 100 lbs. 

P33 "Lion River" 40 

P45 "Amalia Farm" 6974 

P141 "Mukerop" 950 

GiLGOiN Station, Brewarrina, 
County Clyde, New South Wales 

M38 104.96 

M410 701 

IM428 1316 

P424 229 

GiHGENTi, Sicily, Italy 

M68 1.35 

M537 43 

P170 66 

Gi-ORiETA Mountain, Santa Fe 
County, New Mexico, U.S.A. 

M239 40.2 

P79a 2636.5 

P79b 1091 

P151 45 

Gnadenfrei, Silesia, Germany 

M32 0.75 

Grand Ravids, Kent County, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

M242 36.2 

M246 27.79 

M301 82.2 

P82a 624 

P82b (2 pes) 65 



Ghosnaja, Mekensk, Terek, 
Caucasus 

M58 0.56 

Grossliebenthal, Odessa, Kherson, 
Ukraine 

M532 32.2 

Gruveh, Hansford County, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

P409 17.4 

GuTERSLOH, Westphalia, 
Germany 

P32 4 

Guilford Cotjntt, North Carolina, 
U.S.A. 
P12 16 

Hainholz, Minden, Westphalia, 
Germany 

M73 68.5 

M503 34.5 

P38 8.5 

Hammond Township, St. Croix 
County, Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

P96e 89.5 

P96g 304 

P396 22,730 

Harrison Countt, Indiana, U.S.A. 

P194 17 

Harrisonville, Cass County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

P407 1878 

Henbury, McDonnel Ranges, 
Central Australia 

M283 (6 pes) 198 

M284 (4 bombs) 169 

M286 1180 

P408a 885.5 

P408b (4 pes— 37 g., 41 g. 

45.5 g., 204.7 g.) ...328.2 

P408c 128.5 

P408d (4 scoriaceous 

bombs) 151.2 

P408e (4 iron-shale balls) ..183.7 
P408f (10 drops black silica 

glass) 7.7 

P408g 1214 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 11 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Hessle, Upsala Sweden 

M43 132.2 

M47 (2 pes— 4.85 g., 5.4 g.) .10.25 

M507 32 

P74 (2 pes) 58 

Hex River Mountains, 
Cape Province, South Africa 

M277 118 

P108 46 

HoBA, Grootfontein, South-West 
Africa 

M571 (shattered fragments in 

limestone) 631 

HoLBRooK, Navajo County, 
Arizona, U.S.A. 

M425 78 

M480 (3 pes) 4 

P61 (2 pes) 75 

P51 (4 pes) 21 

P51 (8 pes) 82 

P51 (6 pes) 492 

P51 1191 

P51 ( 7 pes 184 

P51 (43 pes) 223 

Holland's Stoke, Chattooga 
County, Georgia, U.S.A. 

M269 34.6 

PUS 92 

Homestead, Iowa County, 
Iowa, U.S.A. 

M40 48.25 

M559 35.5 

M576 , 105.8 

P56 (21 pes) 35,890 

P267 862 

Honolulu, Oahu, Hawaiian 
Islands 

M37 (3 pes) 2.25 

M42 14.75 

P188 667 

Hraschina, Zagreb, Croatia, 
Yugoslavia 

M234 0.4 

PI 3 



HuizoPA, Temosachic, Guerrero 
district. Chihuahua, Mexico 

P298 294 

HuNGEN, Hesse, Germany 

M542 21 

HviTTis, Abo, Finland 

M54 (3 pes) 121.4 

P212 76 

Ibbenbuhren, Westphalia 
Germany 

M56 0.5 

Ilimaes (iron), Taltal, 
Ataeama, Chile 

P158 172 

Imilac, Desert of Ataeama, Chile 

M52 34.29 

M57 (2 pes— 13.96 g., 

28.4 g.) 42.36 

M415 1600 

M434 16900 

M481 10 

M482 ...43 

P13 (4 pes— 17 g., 84 g., 

82 g., 177 g.) 310 

P157 (2 pes) 61 

B319 (7 pes) 26.75 

Indarch, Shusha, Elisavetpol, 
Transcaucasia 

M31 135.9 

M467 16 

Indio Rico, Buenos Aires, 
Argentina 

M35 (2 pes) 4.7 

Itapicueu-Mihim, Maranhao, Brazil 

P248 6 

Ivanpah, San Bernadino County, 
California, U.S.A. 

P70 4 

Jackalsfontein, Beaufort West, 
Cape Province, South Africa 

M46 30.2 

Jamestown, Stutsman County, 
North Dakota, U.S.A. 
M266 68.65 



12 



Postilla Yale Pedbody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Jelica, Serbia 

M44 125.37 

M570 7.04 

P179 29 

Jenky's Creek, Wayne County, 
West Virginia, U.S.A. 

P279 (vial) 6 

Jerome, Gove County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 
M7 (2 pes— 2.62 g., 

26.41 g.) 28.93 

P181 242 

P256 (7 fragments) 45 

P256 501 

P394 62 lbs. 

Jhcno, West Punjab, Pakistan 

P25 16 

Joe Weight Mountain, 
Independence County, 
Arkansas, U.S.A. 

M270 (3 pes) 149.58 

M282 74 

P97 104 

Johnstown, Weld County, 
Colorado, U.S.A. 

P410 90 

JoNZAC, Charente-Inf6rieure, 
France 

P266 (2 pes) 2 

JuviNAS, Libonnfes, Entraigues, 
Ard^che, France 

M501 21.6 

P169 (2 pes) 38 

Kaba, Debreczen, Hungary 

M18 0.27 

P195 (vial) 4 

Kansas City, Missouri, U.S.A. 

P422 1.12 

Kendall County, Texas, U.S.A. 

M285 123.5 

P112 186 

Kenton County, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M273 164.9 

M409 447 

P264 5670 



Kerilis, Mael Pestivien, Callac, 
C6tes-du-Nord, France 

MIO 0.89 

P271 4 

Kebmichel, Vannes, Morbihan, 
France 
P159 70 

Keenouv6, Morbihan, France 

M6 172.6 

M497 12 

P282 (vial) 3 

P282 (14 pes) 14 

Kesen, Iwate, Honshu, Japan 

M22 5.27 

M543 6 

P239 423 

Khaiepub, Bahawalpur State, 
Pakistan 

P215 8 

Kissij, Chistopol, Kazan, Russia 

M5 22,48 

Knyahinya, Nagy-Bereszna, 
Ungvar, Czechoslovakia 

M4 87.3 

M8 (2 pes— 9.96 g., 

10.95 g.) 20.91 

P218 (2 pes) 66 

Kodaikanal, Palni Hills, Madura 
district, Madras, India 

M271 74.21 

M397 31.9 

Kraiienberg, Zweibriicken, 
Rhenish Bavaria 

M25 2.65 

M568 0.4 

P268 1.6 

Krasnojarsk, Yeniseisk, Siberia 

Mil 24.4 

M207 3.6 

M469 16 

M488 94.2 

M492 6 

PllO (2 pes— 16 g., 432 g.) .448 

PllOa 1346 

B306 126 

B307 (2 pes— 7 g., 15.3 g.) ..22.3 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 13 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Ktushu, Japan 

M126 96.55 

M616 37.8 

P176 12 

Laborel, Dr6me, France 

M27 1.15 

P246 8 

La Caiixe, Grasse, Alpes 
Maritimes, France 

M281 24.7 

P411 (dust) 0.5 

La Geange, Oldham County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M276 28.79 

P60 46 

L'AiGLE, Orne, France 

M28 115.45 

M538 20 

P199 (2 pes— 2 g., 907 g.) . .909 
Lakc6, Vendome, Loir-et-Cher, 
France 

M13 36.7 

M563 35 

P276 26 

Lan^on, Bouches-du-Rhone, France 

M20 0.64 

La Peimitiva, Santa Catalina, 
Desert of Tarapaca, Chile 

M325 25 

Lekaet6, Sdros, Czechoslovakia, 

M272 18.4 

M275 39.69 

P9 121 

Le Peessoie, Indre-et-Loire, France 

M17 0.1 

P275 4 

Lexingtok County, 
South Carolina, U.S.A. 

P68 49.5 

Lime Creek, Claiborne, Monroe 
County, Alabama, U.S.A. 

M274 59.94 

P15 64 

Limerick County, Ireland 

P273 0.5 



LissA, Bunzlau, Bohemia 

Ml 48.38 

M506 11 

Little Piney, Pulaski County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

P177 24 

LrxNA, Dvinsk, Latvia 

M2 8.7 

Locust Grove, Henry County, 
Georgia, U.S.A. 

M279 187.22 

M431 1824 

Long Island, Phillips County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M122 138.3 

M522 296 

P209 150 

I_x)STTovrN, Cherokee County, 
Georgia, U.S.A. 

P121 3 

Lucky Hill, Bellevue, 
St. Elizabeth, Jamaica 
M267 (2 pes— 15.04 g., 

21.2 g.) 36.24 

M280 3.8 

Luis Lopez, Socorro County, 
New Mexico, U.S.A. 

M292 34.6 

P153 57 

LuoTOLAx, Viborg, Finland 

M125 0.6 



Macau, Rio Grande do Norte, 
Brazil 

M124 2.76 

P136 9.5 

Madoc, Hastings County, 
Ontario, Canada 

P35 26 

MagueAj Aeva, Czechoslovakia 

M288 79.95 

M298 8.8 

M307 105 

P18a 822 



14 



Postilla Yale Feahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Magura — Continued 

P18b 300 

P18c (2 small fragments — 

3 g.) 3 

P18d (dust) 2.8 

Makbhoom, Bengal, India 

M121 4-4r8 

Maeion, Linn County, Iowa, U.S.A. 

M39 39.8 

M558 17.5 

P163 (2 pes— 368.5 g., 

652 g.) 1020.5 

B310 9.6 

Mahjalahti, Viipuri, Finland 

M137 65.57 

M462 61 

Mascombes, Corr^ze, France 

P253 21.9 

Mauerkhichen, Upper Austria 

M138 29.45 

M569 4.3 

P98 12 

McKiKNEY, Collin County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M127 184.26 

M128 13.55 

M395 260 

M436 717 

M478 264 

P184 104 

P208 135 

Menow, Alt-Strelitz, Mecklenburg, 

Germany 

M131 7.1 

Meeceditas, Chauaral, Atacama, 

Chile 

M295 10 

M317 16.38 

M366 173.7 

P115 18 

Meen, Praesto, Denmark 

M78 15 

M129 170.35 

M485 19.9 



Mezo-Madaeas, Transylvania 

M135 66.79 

M564 32.6 

P244 20 

MiGHEi, Olviopol, Kherson, 
Ukraine 

M132 (2 pes— 0.92 g., 

14.63 g.) 15.55 

M442 2 

M443 20 

M531 3 

P242 27 

MiLEXA, Varazdin, Croatia, 
Yugoslavia 

M139 51.39 

P219 6.8 

MixAS Gerais, Brazil 

P223 30 

MiKCY, Taney County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

M130 118.92 

M574 82.4 

P140 7 

P217 67 

MissHOF, Courland, Latvia 

M146 1.95 

P190 24 

MiSTECA, Oaxaca, Mexico 

M302 179.62 

M412 145 

P124 10 

Mocs, Cluj, Transylvania 

M136 115.41 

M430 735 

M493 128 

M504 32 

P243 23 

P247 (2 pes) 92 

Modoc (1905), Scott County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M520 (2 pes) 6 

P164 121 

Monroe, Cabarrus County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 

M19 0.45 

P186 232 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 15 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Monte Milone, Macerata, Italy 

P245 3.5 

MooRANOppiif, County Lansdowne, 
Western Australia 

M290 26.2 

P117 4 

(?)MoRiTo, Chihuahua, Mexico 

P421 ca, 17 lbs. 

MoEHiSTOwN, Hamblen County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M134 90.73 

M472 8 

P252 114 

MoTTA Di CoNTi, Casalc, 
Piedmont, Italy 

M148 0.9 

Mount Browne, County Evelyn, 
New South Wales 
M141 (2 pes— 0.8 g., 

80.5 g.) 81.3 

Mount Dyhrino, Singleton district. 
County Durham, New South 
Wales 

M133 (2 pes) 64.95 

M572 444 

Mount Edith, Ashburton district. 
Western Australia 

P137 205 

Mount Joy, Adams County, 

Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

M296 50 

M305 264.75 

P120 (12 pes) 280 

Mount Stirling, York, 

South- West Division, 

Western Australia 

M334 113 

P144 249 

Mount Vernon, Christian County, 
Kentucliy, U.S.A. 

M140 (4 pes) 81.15 

MuNGiNDi, County Benarba, 
New South Wales 

M314 111.20 

P287 37 



Muonionalusta, Kiruna, 
Norrbotten, north Sweden 

M323 207 

M438 915 

Murphy, Cherokee County, 
North Carolina, U.S.A. 
P130 (2 pes) 202 



Nakhla, Abu Hommos, 
Alexandria, Egypt 

P214 25 

NANJE3IOY, Charles County, 
Maryland, U.S.A. 

P127 879 

Narraburra Creek, Temora, 
County Bland, New South Wales 
M329 0.1 

Nejed, Central Arabia 

M315 106.9 

P92 30 

Nelson County, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M322 6.6 

M327 97.95 

P40 112 

B309 (2 pes— 12.05 g., 

79.05 g.) 91.10 

Nenntmannsdoef, Pima, Saxony 

P66 47.5 

Nerft, Courland, Latvia 

M154 "Swajahn" 8.37 

M155 "Swajahn" 14.2 

M505 "Swajahn" 38 

P216 "Swajahn" 48 

Ness County (1894), Kansas, 
U.S.A. 

M151 134.87 

M521 7 

P197 (4 pes— 4 g., 30 g., 

174 g., 493 g.) 701 

Netschaevo, Tula, Russia 

M313 (2 pes— 3 g., 16.3 g.) ..19.3 

M321 38 

P69 31 



16 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



New Concord, Muskingum County, 
Ohio, U.S.A. 

M149 74.4 

M519 22.3 

P167a 284 

P167b 6718 

B301 447.05 

Ngawi, Madioen, Java 

M145 6.03 

N'GouREYMA, Jenne, Massina, 
French West Africa 

M320 148.3 

M435 396 

P152 87 

Niagara, Grand Forks County, 
North Dakota, U.S.A. 
P93 19 

NoBLEBOROuoH, Lincoln County, 
Maine, U.S.A. 

M143 0.1 

P201 6 

NocoLECHE, Wanaaring, County 
Ularara, New South Wales 

M316 40 

P76 7 

NoGOTA, Entre Rios, Argentina 

M166 (2 pes) 1 

P139 (4 pes) 9 

Novo-Urei, Karamzinka, 
Nizhni-Novgorod, Russia 

M147 14.32 



Oaklet (stone), Logan County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M152 242.07 

M407 732 

M573 197 

P234 102 

OBERNKiRcnEN, BUckerbcrg, 
Rinteln, Hesse-Nassau, Germany 
P91 90 

OciiANSK, Perm, Russia 

M198 (3 pes) 123.43 

M.513 96 

P142 (3 pes) 190 



Odessa, Ector County, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

P294 85 

Oesel Island, Esthonia, 
Baltic States 

M5a 7.55 

M528 2.9 

P257 (5 pes) 7 

Oktibbeha County, Mississippi, 
U.S.A. 

P84 0.5 

Olive NZA, Badajoz, Spain 

M429 525 

M511 51 

Orange River (iron). South Africa 

P39 18 

Obgueil, Montauban, 
Tarn-et-Garonne, France 

M164 4.59 

M167 8.92 

P425 1.5 

Oenans, Doubs, France 
P258 (1 pc— 86 g., 

vial— 3 g.) 89 

Obvinio, Rome, Italy 

M162 4.33 

Ottawa, Franklin County, Kansas, 
U.S.A. 

M168 4.7 

Otumpa, Gran Chaco Gualamba, 
Argentina 

M227 8 



Pacula, Jacala, Hidalgo, Mexico 

M174 8.39 

P290 (2 pes) 2.5 

Paragould, Greene County, 
Arkansas, U.S.A. 

P297 6 

Parnallee, Madura district, 
Madras, India 

M156 20.1 

M515 8 

P191 (2 pes— 1899 g., 

9 fragments — 44 g.) 1943 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 17 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Pavlodah (pallasite), 
Semipalatinsk, Siberia 

M157 7.79 

M491 4.2 

Pavlograd, Ekaterinoslav, 
Ukraine 

M144 (2 pes) 1.31 

P251 (2 pes) 19 

Persimmon Cheek, Cherokee 
County, North Carolina, U.S.A. 
M332 (2 pes— 3.4 g., 

18.82 g.) 22.22 

Peteesbueo, Lincoln County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M171 1.05 

P171 (stone— 14 g., 

2 vials— 10 g.) 24 

PiLLiSTFER, Estonia 

M170 "Aukoma" 12.9 

M489 "Aukoma" 35 

P224 12 

Pipe Cheek, Bandera County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M160 25.38 

P288 (3 pes) 54 

PmsBUHO, Allegheny County, 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

P26 158 

Plainview (1917), Hale County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

P286 276 

P412a 2029 

P412b 285.5 

P412c 148.5 

Pltmouth, Marshall County, 
Indiana, U.S.A. 

M318 44.6 

M403 393 

P105a Ill 

P105b 94 

PoNCA Cheek, Holt County, 
Nebraska, U.S.A. 

P48 4 

Potter, Cheyenne County, 
Nebraska, U.S.A. 

P413 486 



Prairie Dog Creek, Decatur 
County, Kansas, U.S.A. 

M169 96.1 

Pricetowk, Highland County, 
Ohio, U.S.A. 

M173 1.05 

PuiTusK, Warsaw, Poland 

M26 "Lerici" 0.14 

M158 252.55 

M159 (18 pes) 86.8 

M163 2.4 

M426 87 

M468 54.5 

M490 17 

M512 141 

M529 400 

P237 (13 pes) 675 

B303 69.15 

B304 44.4 

PuQuios, Copiapo, Atacama, Chile 

M293 70.1 

P102 (2 pes) 39 

Putnam County, Georgia, U.S.A. 

M310 2.2 

M330 22 

P16a 290 

P16b (dust) 1.2 

B311 82.5 

QuENGGOUK, Bassein district, 
Lower Burma 

M165 2.09 

Rakovka, Tula, Russia 

P414 0.3 

Red River, Texas, U.S.A. 

P401a 1635 lbs. 

P401b (chips) 16.3 

P401c (dust) 2.3 

Reed City, Osceola County, 
Michigan, U.S.A. 

M326 122.9 

Renazzo, Cento, Ferrara, Italy 

M161 0.86 



18 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



RicHAHDTON, Stark County, 
North Dakota, U.S.A. 

M398 198 

P415 1428 

Richmond, Chesterfield County, 
Virginia, U.S.A. 

P129 254 

Rochester, Fulton County, 
Indiana, U.S.A. 

P202 (2 pes— 6 g., 8 g.) 14 

Rodeo, Durango, Mexico 

M3I9 163.05 

M422 100 

RoEBOURNE, Hamersley Range, 
North-West Division, 
Western Australia 

M291 315 

M399 265 

P126 83 

RosARio, Honduras 

P125 8 

Roy, Harding County, New Mexico, 
U.S.A. 

P416 462.2 

Ruff's Mountain, Lexington 
County, South Carolina, U.S.A. 

M333 47.45 

P30 510 

RussEL GuLCH, Gilpin County, 
Colorado, U.S.A. 

P55 121 

Sacramento Mountains, Eddy 
County, New Mexico, U.S.A. 

M324 123 

M33.3 195 

M336 (2 pes— 2.07 g., 

133.95 g.) 136.02 

M406 250 

P274 4692 

St. Augustine's Bay, Madagascar 
P22 7 

St. Caprais-de-Quinsac, 
Gironde, France 
M175 0.45 



St. Francois County, Missouri, 
U.S.A. 

P47 68 

St. Genevieve County, Missouri, 
U.S.A. 

M339 413 

P149 174 

St. Mark's Mission Station, 
Transkei, Cape Province, 
South Africa 

M176 (2 pes— 2.57 g., 

26.45 g.) 29.02 

St. Mesmin, Aube, France 

M178 8.45 

M500 5.6 

St. Michel, Finland 

M463 96 

Saline Township, Sheridan County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M188 66.9 

M189 146.1 

M523 43.2 

Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. 

P221 631 

Salt River, Bullitt County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

P29 751 

P29 (dust) 7 

San Angelo, Tom Green County, 
Texas, U.S.A. 

M.337 60.19 

M341 800 

M351 61 

P123 66 

San Cristobal, Antofagasta, Chile 

M306 129.3 

M338 0.2 

M348 14.2 

M454 355 

Sandia Mountains, Albuquerque, 
New Mexico, U.S.A. 

P423 10 

San Emigdio Mountains, 

Kern County, California, U.S.A. 
P249 (2 pes) 6 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 19 



LOCALITY 



IN GRAMS 
WEIGHT 



LOCALITY 



IN GRAMS 
WEIGHT 



Santa Apolonia, Natlvitas, 
Tlaxcala, Mexico 

M236 23.4 

Santa Catharina, Brazil 

M187 275.9 

M346 342.1 

P67 (5 pes) 145 

P67 (164 pes) 370 

Santa Rosa, Tunja, Boyaca, 
Colombia 
M312 "Rasgata"( 2pes— 

2.11 g., 2.54 g.) 4.65 

M343 "Toeavita" (2 pes— 

16.6 g., 19.42 g.) 36.02 

M357 "Toeavita" 10 

M419 "Rasgata" 255 

P78 "Toeavita" (2 pes) ...13 
P286 56 

Sao Juliao de Moeeiba, 
Ponte de Lima, Minho, Portugal 

M342 36.87 

M345 415.5 

M352 23.7 

M354 1180 

M370 139.8 

P132 45 

Sarepta, Saratov, Russia 

M847 19.12 

M353 101 

ScHONENBEBG, Pfaffenhauscn, 
Swabia, Bavaria 

M177 0.27 

ScHWETz, Kwidzyn, Poland 

P289 257 

Scott City, Scott County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M405 52 

ScoTTSviLLE, Alien County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M349 276.77 

P80 (2 pes) 52 

P80b 33 

Seabsmont, Waldo County, 
Maine, U.S.A. 

M553 1.5 

P138 (4 pes) 12 



Seelasgen, Schwiebus, 
Brandenburg, Germany 

M340 37.56 

M350 10.4 

M356 32.85 

P291 (2 pes— 4 g., 75 g.) ... .79 

P291 88 

P291 (dust) 4.6 

Segowlie, Bettiah, Champaran 
district, Bihar, India 

P232 45 

Selma, Dallas Coimty, 
Alabama, U.S.A. 

M184 0.5 

Seneca Falls, Cayuga County, 
New York, U.S.A. 

P31 382 

Seees, Macedonia 

M193 0.28 

M200 1.85 

Shalka, Bishnupur, Bankura 
district, west Bengal, India 

M179 10.29 

P189 (1 pe— 1 g., 1 vial— 

3 g.) 4 

Shelbuene, Grey County, 
Ontario, Canada 

M180 50.93 

M461 49 

M517 56.2 

P182 165 

Shingle Springs, El Dorado County, 
California, U.S.A. 

P59a 433.5 

P59c (turnings in bottle) 9.3 

Shrewsbury, York County, 
Pennsylvania, U.S.A. 

P259 90 

Seena, Tuscany, Italy 

M185 4.68 

P270 (3 pes) 9 

SiLVEB Crown, Laramie County, 
Wyoming, U.S.A. 

M368 133.5 

P109 46 



20 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



IN GRAMS 
WEIGHT 



LOCALITY 



IN GRAMS 
WEIGHT 



Sioux County, Nebraska, U.S.A. 

P417 28.5 

Slobodka, Yukhnov, Smolensk, 
Russia 

P255 (2 pes) 23 

Smithland, Livingston County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

P418 (dust) 0.9 

Smith's Mountain, Rockingham 
County, North Carolina, U.S.A. 

P419 (dust) 6 

Smithville, DeKalb County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M359 .10.83 

M360 77.48 

M377 48 

M378 37 

P21 61 

Soko-Banja, Aleksinac, Serbia 

M203 1-3 

M509 43 

M510 54.5 

P254 (2 pes) 22 

Stalldalen, Nya Kopparberg, 
Orebro, Sweden 

M202 36.4 

P145 23 

Stannern, Iglau, 

Moravia, Czechoslovakia 

M186 162.17 

M466 80 

M526 14.3 

P6 (3 pes) 109 

Staunton, Augusta County, 
Virginia, U.S.A. 

M365 119.03 

M400 356.5 

P61a 74 

P61b 879 

Steinbach, Erzgebirge, Saxony 

M172 29.4 

M424 34.5 

P2 (2 pes) 3 

P71 23 



Taboe, Bohemia 

M182 44.7 

Tadjeha, S6tif, Constantine, 
Algeria 

PIO 27.6 

Tambo Quemado, Peru 

B6109 42.5 

Taeapaca, Chile 

M355 18.5 

P402 17 

Tazewell, Claiborne County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

M358 130.77 

P34 407 

B308 (2 pes— 9.45 g., 

27.35 g.) 36.80 

Tennasilm, Esthonia, Baltic States 

M437 3825 

P175 143 

Thunda, Windorah, County Grey, 
Queensland 

M363 49.1 

P106 (3 pes) 168 

Thuhlow, Hastings County, 
Ontario, Canada 

M373 21.09 

Tieschitz, Pferov 

Moravia, Czechoslovakia 
M14 (2 pes— 2.5 g., 

7.13 g.) 9.63 

Tjabe, Padang, Rembang, Java 

M514 0.8 

P65 (3 pes) 1 

TocoPiLLA, Antofagasta, Chile 

M392 ca. 36.4 lbs. 

ToLUCA, Mexico State, Mexico 

M362 338.9 

M367 323.63 

M371 26.1 

M374 1602 

M376 38 

M380 420 

M433 3475 

M565 10 

P3a 968 

P3b 444 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 21 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



ToLucA — Continued 

P4 (3 pes— 8 g., 11 g., 

865 g.) 884 

B302 26.2 

B318 (shavings in vial) 

B5221 35.5 

B6129 (Poinsett Iron) 0.2 

ToMBiGBEE River, Choctaw and 
Sumter County, Alabama, U.S.A. 

M252 263.5 

M393 157 

P143 497 

ToMHANNOCK Cheek, Reussclacr 
County, New York, U.S.A. 

M48 0.6 

P185 13 

ToNGANOxiE, Leavenworth County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M375 40 

P131 128 

TouBiL River, Achinsk, 
Yeniseisk, Siberia 

M379 67.7 

P156 28 

Tourinnes-la-Grosse, Tirlemont, 
Belgium 

M45 15.95 

M508 2.4 

Trexton, Washington County, 
Wisconsin, U.S.A. 

M364 (2 pes— 22.77 g., 

80.6 g.) 103.37 

P63a 48 

P63b 65 

P63c 19 

P63d (dust) 2 

Trenzaxo, Brescia, Italy 

M190 33.29 

M194 64.5 

M486 2.3 

P269 42 

Tryox, McPherson County, 
Nebraska, U.S.A. 

P420 446.8 



TucsoK, Pima County, Arizona, 
U.S.A. 

M369 "Signet Iron" 160.37 

P52 (?) 31 

P83a "Signet Iron" 79.5 

P83b "Carleton" 158 

P83c "Signet Iron" (dust).. 12.8 

Tysnes Island, Hardanger fiord, 
Norway 

M530 2 

Umbala, Punjab, India 

P222 1 

Union County, Georgia, U.S.A. 

P154 216 

Utrecht, Holland 

M536 3.9 

P172 4 

Vac A Muehta, Taltal, Atacama, 
Chile 

M16 "Dona Inez" 15.6 

M23 "Llano del Inca" 41.8 

M33 "Llano del Inca" 26.24 

M67 "Dofia Inez" 86.5 

M192 "Cerro la Bomba" 12.21 

M195 "Cerro la Bomba" . . . .151.2 

M196 (6 pes) 2.2 

M197 "Mejillones" 1 

M199 62.7 

M201 46.25 

M206 29.6 

M483 "Dofia Inez" ..53.7 

M484 "Llano del Inca" 37.6 

M549 "Cerro la Bomba" 55 

M550 "Cerro la Bomba" ....19 

P72 "Sierra de Chaco" 40 

P236 "Doiia Inez" (3 pes) ..57 

P403 "Llano del Inca" 

(3 pes) 92 

Vavilovka, Kherson, Ukraine 

M191 3.04 

Veramin, Karand, Tehran, Persia 

M487 35 



22 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Veekhne Udinsk, Transbaikal, 
Siberia 

P119 22 

Victoria West, Cape Province, 
South Africa 

M372 16.2 

ViGABANO, Ferrara, Italy 

M204 44.29 

M427 1398 

P240 87.5 

VouiLLE, Poitiers, Vienne, France 

M55 0.55 

M502 3.3 

P265 (3 pes) 74 

Waconda, Mitchell County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

M41 (2 pes— 11.57 g., 

15.07 g.) 26.64 

M49 38.47 

M556 46.5 

P262 (7 pes) 160 

Walker County, Alabama, U.S.A. 

M361 7.92 

P23a 350 

P23b 21 

Warrexton, Warren County, 
Missouri, U.S.A. 

P57 (5 pes— 2 g., 4 g., 6 g., 

68 g., 107 g.) 187 

Weaver Mountains, Wickenburg, 
Maricopa County, Arizona, 
U.S.A. 

M385 88.4 

Welland, Welland County, 
Ontario, Canada 

M383 44.67 

M387 28 

M388 65 

P104 57 

Wessely, Hradisch, Moravia, 
Czechoslovakia 

M12 (3 pes) 0.27 

Weston, Fairfield County, 
Connecticut, U.S.A. 

M554 3.8 



Weston — Continued 

P81a 32.3 lbs. 

P81b 160 

P81c (11 small pes and 

vial) 47 

B305 17.35 

Whitman, Grant County, 
Nebraska, U.S.A. 

M81 (3 pes) 3.59 

Wichita County, Texas, U.S.A. 

M386 46.21 

P89 167 

Willamette, Clackamas County, 
Oregon, U.S.A. 

M381 (2 pes— 34.09 g., 

242.5 g.) 276..59 

WiLLiAMSTowN, Grant County, 
Kentucky, U.S.A. 

M389 38.7 

P161 80 

Wold Cottage, Thwing, 

Scarborough, Yorkshire, England 
P73 1 

Yatoor, Nellore, Madras, India 

M9 0.1 

P178 27 

YouNDEGiN, Avon, South- West 
Division, Western Australia 
M384 (2 pes— 1.46 g., 

101.33 g.) 102.79 

M391 756.8 

P147 124 

Zaborzika, Zhitomir, Volhynia, 
Ukraine 
P206 22 

Zacatecas, Mexico 

M382 (2 pes— 15 g., 

21.75 g.) 36.75 

M390 ....30 

Zavid, Zvornik, Bosnia, Yugoslavia 

M24 74.95 

M29 69 

M566 66.6 



Sept. 28, 1956 Meteorites in the Collections of Yale University 23 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



Zebrak, Hofovice, Beraun, Bohemia 

M21 19.91 

M494 3 

ZsADAXY, Temes district, 
Romania 

M3 1.42 

THIN SECTIONS 

P277 Alfianello, Brescia, Italy 

P225 Bath, Brown County, South Da- 
kota, U.S.A. 

P56 Cape Girardeau, Cape Girardeau 
County, Missouri, U.S.A. 

M65 Ergheo, Brava, Italian Somali- 
land, East Africa 

P230 Farmington, Washington County, 
U.S.A. 

P51 Holbrook, Navajo County, Ari- 
zona, U.S.A. 

P282 Kernouve, Morbihan, France 

P239 Kesen, Iwate, Honshu, Japan 

P218 Knyahinya, Nagy-Bereszna, 
Ungvar, Czechoslovakia 

P247 Mocs, Cluj, Transylvania 

P186 Monroe, Cabarrus County, North 
Carolina, U.S.A. 

P167 New Concord, Muskingum Coun- 
ty, Ohio, U.S.A. 

P171 Petersburg, Lincoln County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

P237 Puttusk, Warsaw, Poland 

P221 Salt Lake City, Utah, U.S.A. (2 
sections) 

P6 Stannern, Iglau, Moravia, Czech- 

oslovakia 

P262 Waconda, Mitchell County, Kan- 
sas, U.S.A. 
Kansas, U.S.A. (2 sections with- 
out further information) 
POLISHED SECTIONS 

P296 Beardsley, Rawlins County, 
Kansas, U.S.A. 

PlOl Brenham Township, Kiowa 
County, Kansas, U.S.A. 

P103 Canon Diablo, Coconino County, 
Arizona, U.S.A. 



P168 Estherville, Emmet County, 
Iowa, U.S.A. 
Gladstone, Union County, New 
Mexico, U.S.A. 

P409 Gruver, Hansford County, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

P51 Holbrook, Navajo County, Ari- 
zona, U.S.A. 
Hugoton, Stevens County, Kan- 
sas, U.S.A. 
LaLande, De Baca County, New 
Mexico, U.S.A. 

B309 Nelson County, Kentucky, U.S.A. 

P142 Ochansk, Perm, Russia 

P294 Odessa, Ector County, Texas, 
U.S.A. 

P297 Paragould, Greene County, Ark- 
ansas, U.S.A. 

P412 Plainview, Hale County, Texas, 
U..S.A. 

B311 Putnam County, Georgia, U.S.A. 

P416 Roy, Harding County, New Mex- 
ico, U.S.A. 

B9252 Sao Juliao de Moreira, Minho, 
Portugal (schreibersite) 

B308 Tazewell, Claiborne County, 
Tennessee, U.S.A. 

P420 Tryon, McPherson County, Ne- 
braska, U.S.A. 
Weldona, Morgan County, Col- 
orado, U.S.A. 

Miscellaneous 
I. Tektites 

australite 

M80 (3 pes) 9.69 

M421 (3 pes) 48.13 

M453 12.83 

billitonite 

M217 (3 pes) 66.77 

M423 31.75 

M450 2.58 

M451 (4 pes) 

Darwin glass 

M80 (3 pes) 7.78 

M452 5.82 



24. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 27 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



moldavite 

M420 16.03 

M444 (2 pes— 0.80 g., 

39.57 g.) 40.37 

M445 12.11 

M446 23.98 

M447 5.85 

M448 21.73 

M449 (2 pes) 29.59 

B6844 6.95 

II. Meteoritic minerals 

cohenite 

P9253 Cranbourne 1.5 

P9253 Magura 1 



LOCALITY 



WEIGHT 
IN GRAMS 



kamaeite 

P9254 Cranbourne 2 

rhabdite 

B177 France 0.6 

sehreibersite 

P9252 Sao Juliao de 

Morelra 12.8 

taenite 

P9255 Cranbourne 2 

P9255 Toluca 2.5 

III. Impactite 

impactite (15 pes) 

P103z Meteor Crater, 

Coconino County, 
Arizona, U.S.A. ..24.57 



REFERENCES 

Dana, E. S., 1886, Catalogue of the Collection of Meteorites in the Peabody MOseum 
of Yale College: Am. Jour. Sci., (3), v. 32, Appendix ff. p. 246. 

Hey, M.H., 1953, Catalogue of Meteorites: London, British Museum (Natural His- 
tory), 432 p. 

Servos, Kurt, 1954, Meteorites in the Carl Bosch Collection of Minerals, Yale Uni- 
versity: Geochimica et cosmochimica acta, v. 5, p. 299-300. 

Washington, H.S., 1897, Catalogue of the Collection of Meteorites in the Peabody 
Museum of Yale University: Am. Jour. Sci., (4), v. 3, p. 83-87. 



O "^ / V At - ' ^ l5 ^ M ^' c/ et^j; 



fl^a^tdL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



MBS. rO"^. ZOOL 

JAN 2 91957 

immm 



Number 28 January 21, 1957 New Haven, Conn. 

THE SPECIES OF NOTHARCTUS 
FROM THE MIDDLE EOCENE 

Peter Robinson^ 

Granger and Gregory (1917) recognized eight species of 
Notharctus from the middle Eocene of North America. These 
were all recorded from the Bridger formation. In the light of 
recent studies of natural populations this seems too high a 
number. The material has been restudied to discover if there 
are significant differences in morphology between Notharctus 
specimens from the same locality ; if populations from various 
localities differ significantly within a given member ; if there 
are stratigraphically separable variations ; and if non-Bridger 
middle Eocene Notharctus specimens belong to the same species 
as Bridger specimens. These studies show that there are only 
three valid species of Notharctus in that part of the middle 
Eocene, represented by Bridger B, C, and D. 

Osborn (1902, p. 191) considered that the genus Notharctus 
Leidy was separable from the lower Eocene genus Pelycodus 
Cope by the following characters, "Jaw stout. Symphysis typi- 
cally coossified. Superior molars quadrate, with pronounced 
hypocone; a mesostyle." This distinction breaks down: Pely- 
codus jarrovi has quadrate molars and a pronounced hypocone. 
The genera Pelycodus and Notharctus need thorough revision. 

Since lower jaws are the commonest mammalian remains, the 
statistical studies have been based mainly on them. The mor- 

' Department of Geology, Harpur College, Endicott, New York. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 28 

phology of all teeth has been studied. Species are differentiated 
solely on dental characters, as there is not sufficient skeletal 
material for any statistical study. 

I have used the following abbreviations : 

A.M.N.H. . . . American Museum of Natural History 

Y.P.M Yale Peabody Museum 

Univ. Wyo. . . University of Wyoming 

U.S.N.M. . . . United States National Museum 

OR observed range 

N number in sample 

M mean 

M (with a superscript or subscript) molar 

S standard deviation 

V coefficient of variability 

W tr width of trigonid 

W tal width of talonid 

W max maximum width 

L length 

P (with a superscript or subscript) premolar 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I wish to thank the American Museum of Natural History 
for the use of the museum's collection and for the photographs 
of their specimens. Dr. George Gaylord Simpson and Dr. Bobb 
Schaeffer of that institution were very kind in discussing strati- 
graphic problems. Dr. Paul McGrew of the University of 
Wyoming generously lent me two specimens in his care and dis- 
cussed the Morrow Creek locality with me. Dr. David Votaw 
of the Yale University mathematics department criticised some 
of the statistics. Drs. Stuart A. Northrop and Vincent Kelley 
of the University of New Mexico have read the manuscript and 
offered criticism ; Dr. Kelley especially helped in the prepara- 
tion of the illustrations. 

Dr. Joseph T. Gregory of the Yale University geology de- 
partment has helped and guided this project since he first sug- 
gested it in 1952. 

I am greatly indebted to my wife for typing the manuscript. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 



Stratigraphic Occurrence 



mm. zooL 

JAN 2 9 1957 
yHlVERSlTY 






THE BRIDGER FORMATION 

The Bridger formation of southwestern Wyoming was di- 
vided by Mathew (1909) into five members, A-E in ascending 
order. Wood (1934) included A and B in the Black's Fork 
member, C and D in the Twin Buttes member, and omitted the 
unfossiliferous E from the discussion of faunal correlation or 
member rank. The specimens of Notharctus that have been 
studied come from B and C and D. 

Twin Buttes member localities listed below have produced 
81 specimens of N. robustior and 6 specimens of N. gracilis: 



Beaver Creek 

Birch Creek 

Burnt Fork 

Burnt Fork Post Office 

Dry Creek 

Henry's Fork 

Henry's Fork Divide 



Henry's Fork Hill 
Lane Meadows 
Lonetree 
Sage Creek 
Summers Dry Creek 
Twin Buttes 



Black's Fork member localities yielded 86 specimens of A^. 
tenebrosus and 7 specimens of N. gracilis : 



Black's Fork 

Church Buttes 

Cottonwood Creek 

Granger Station 

Five miles south of Granger 



Six miles south of Granger 

Grizzly Buttes 

Little Dry Creek 

Millersville 

Five miles east of Millersville 



In Bridger B, N. gracilis and N. tenebrosus occur at all 
levels. In Bridger C and D, N. tenebrosus is replaced by its 
descendant N. robustior and A^. gracilis is present and appar- 
ently unchanged. N. tenebrosus and A'^. gracilis also occur at 
the same localities in Bridger B and N. robustior and N. gra- 
cilis are found together in Bridger C and D. There are no 
changes in A^. tenebrosus or A^. robustior from locality to lo- 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 28 

cality. There is apparently no change in N. robustior between 
the Bridger and Washakie formations ; there is no significant 
variation in A^. gracilis over its entire geographic or vertical 
range. 

THE HUERFANO FORMATION 

More than 600 feet of middle Eocene rocks are present in 
the upper part of the Huerfano formation of south central 
Colorado. The upper strata contain a fauna which is younger 
than the Lost Cabin and older than the Bridger B and there- 
fore could represent stratigraphically the sparsely fossiliferous 
Bridger A. The lack of Bridger A fossils makes direct cor- 
relation impossible. The upper Huerfano has many species 
which are of lower Eocene affinity and many of middle Eocene 
relationship. Notharctus is represented by N. nunienus, a spe- 
cies usually found in lower Eocene deposits. It seems, there- 
fore, that it would be better to omit it from this discussion. 



THE GREEN RIVER FORMATION 

N. gracilis has been collected from two widely separated 
localities in the Green River formation. One locality is in the 
Morrow Creek member, Green River Basin of Sweetwater 
County, Wyoming. The other locality is questionably in the 
Evacuation Creek member, Uinta Basin, Uintah County, Utah. 
The relationship of these localities to the Bridger formation 
is not known exactly: McGrew (personal communication) con- 
siders the Morrow Creek locality to be upper middle Eocene; 
Burke (1935) considered the questionable Evacuation Creek 
locality perhaps equal to the lower Bridger. Dane (1954) 
places the Evacuation Creek member directly below the Uinta 
formation. This would indicate an upper Bridger (upper middle 
Eocene) age. 

THE WASHAKIE FORMATION 

Middle Eocene deposits in the lower Washakie formation of 
south central Wyoming are termed Washakie A. These de- 
posits are equivalent to Bridger C and D and contain N. ro- 
bustior. No specimens of N. gracilis have been reported from 
the lower Washakie. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 5 

Systematic Revision and Descriptions 

Family ADAPIDAE Trouessart 

Subfamily notharctinae Trouessart 

Genus Notharctus Leidy 

Type species: Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy 

Notharctus gracilis (Marsh) 

Plate I, figs. 1-2, 4-8, Plate II, figs. 2-3, 6 

Hyopsodiis gracilis; Marsh, 1871, p. 242 

?Microsyoi)s gracilis; Leidy, 1872A, p. 20 

Notharctus gracilis; (Marsh) Cope, 1872, p. 471 

Smilodectes gracilis; (Marsh) Wortman, 1903, p. 362 

Notharctus matthewi; Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 847-848 

Pelycodus relictus; Gregory, 1917, p. 631 

Notharctus gracilis; (Marsh) Troxell, 1926, p. 423-428 

Type: Y.P.M. #11800. Broken left lower jaw with P4-M1. From Grizzly 
Buttes, Wyoming. Bridger B. Lower middle Eocene. 

Range: Entire middle Eocene, found in Green River formation of Wyom- 
ing and Utah and in upper and lower Bridger formation. 

Hypodigm: A.M.N.H. #12011 (Type of P. relictus and N. matthewi), 1U71, 
13030, 12566; Y.P.M. #11800, 12904, 12965, 12966, 12969, 12970; Univ. 
Wyo. #965, 966. Some numbers have more than one specimen included 
and several have both upper and lower dentitions, and right and left 
side of upper and/or lower tooth rows. 

Description: Smaller than N. tenebrosus and N. robustior. Two ridges 
enclosing a basin on posterior half P3. Ridge runs from the hypoconid 
of M3 to the protolophid. Single external cusp on P^ 

Discussion: the lower third premolar has a single central cusp. 
Three ridges are present on the cusp : one runs forward and 
joins the cingulum; the other two go posteriorly and join 
the cingulum at the corners, forming a basin between them. 
A small cusp is present on the cingulum between the junc- 
tions of the posterior ridges. There is a swelling on the 
lingual cingulum directly below the position where the meta- 
conid would arise. 

The fourth lower premolar has a large protoconid lo- 
cated slightly forward of center. It has a smaller meta- 
conid which seems to have been formed by the fusion of a 
projection from the protoconid and a swelling on the lin- 
gual cingulum. This projection occupies the place of the 
interior posterior ridge on P3. There may be a small "hy- 
poconid." 



6 



Postilla Yale Peabody Musewm 



No. 28 



mm. 

2.8.. 
.9 . 

.1 

.a 

.3 



3.l„ 
-2„ 

•31 
.4 

.six 

.6..X 
.7 X 



Brjdger B 



X 
X 



BridgerC,D 



M orrowCreek 



Wtr. M 



I 



X 
X 

X 
X 



W tr.M 



X 
X 



X 



X 
X 



Figure 1 

Frequency diagrams of trigonid widths of first and second lower molars 
of Notharcttis gracilis specimens from lower and upper Bridger faunas 
and Morrow Creek (Green River) fauna. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 7 

The first two lower molars are not morphologically dis- 
tinct from those of A^. tenebrosus. They are considerably 
smaller. There may or may not be a paraconid. If it is pre- 
sent, it is largest on Mj. The third lower molar is quite 
distinct. On the Mg of Notharctus a ridge joins the proto- 
conid and metaconid. In N. gracilis this ridge is connected 
to the hypoconid by a ridge running from the hypoconid 
to this ridge (see pi. 1, fig. 2), whereas in N. tenebrosus 
and A'', robustior it joins a ridge running back from the 
protoconid. 

The fourth upper premolar bears a single external cusp 
and a single internal one. The external cusp shows no evi- 
dence of dividing. 

The first and second upper molars are similar to, but 
smaller than, those of N. tenebrosus. The third upper mo- 
lar has a rectangular outline but lacks a hypocone. It has 
a prominent lingual cingulum and a prominent mesostyle. 

This species is distributed throughout Bridger time. It 
has been found in the Black's Fork and Twin Buttes mem- 
bers of the Bridger formation and Morrow Creek and 
Evacuation Creek members of the Green River formation. 
It is not common. 

Leidy considered Marsh's "Hyopsodus" gracilis to be the 
same as his Microsyops gracilis, and named the latter for 
that reason (1872). He later changed his mind and con- 
sidered it separate (1873). In his original description he 
noted that if H. gracilis = M. gracilis. Marsh's type would 
take precedence. It appears from illustrations that M. gra- 
cilis is distinct. This is fortunate for if it were not, No- 
tharctus gracilis would become the type of the genus 
Microsyops, thus producing much confusion. 

Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy 

Plate I, figs. 9-10, Plate II, figs. 7-8 

Notharctus tenebrosus; Leidy, 1870, p. 114; type: U.S.N.M. No. 3752 
Limnotherium tyrannus; Marsh, 1871, p. 43; type: Y.P.M. No. 11856 
Hipposyus formosus; Leidy, 1872, p. 37; 1873, p. 90; type: U.S.N.M. 

No. 3757 
Tomitherium rostratum; Cope, 1872, p. 470; type: A.M.N.H. No. 5009 
Thinolestes anceps; Marsh, 1872, p. 205; type: Y.P.M. No. 11786 A 

and B 



s 



Postilla Yale Feahody Museum 



No. 28 



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January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 9 

Limnotherium aflne; Marsh, 1872, p. 207; type: Y.P.M. No. 11795 
Notharctus osborni; Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 848; type: A.M.N. H. 

No. 11466 
N. anceps; (Marsh) Granger and Gregorj^, 1917, p. 849 
N. affinis; (Marsh) Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 850 
N. tyrannus; (Marsh) Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 851 
N. tenebrosus Leidy; Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 851 
iV. pugnax; Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 853; type: A.M.N.H. No. 

11461 

Type: U.S.N.M. No. 3752. Right lower jaw with Ci, P2-M3, from Black's 
Fork, Bridger Basin, Wyoming. Bridger B. Lower middle Eocene. 

Range: Lower middle Eocene of Bridger formation. 

Hypodigm: A.M.N.H. #5009, 11449, 11452, 11454, 11456-57, 11460-61, 
11463-11467, 11469, 11472, 11475, 12002, 12568, 12569, 12572, 12575, 
12578, 12583, 12586, 13022, 13024-13027, 13029, 13031, 13130, 14567, 
14568, 18985-87, 18989, 18990; Y.P.M. #11786, 11795, 11856, 12151, 
12153, 12911, 12923, 12932, 12935, 12939, 12941, 12948, 12957-12959, 
12963; U.S.N.M. #3752, 3757 (Casts of these specimens are available 
in Peabody Museum.) Some numbers include several specimens. 

Description: Size larger than N. gracilis. Posterior ridge on P3 divides 
halfway down protoconid. No ridge from hypoconid to center of 
metaconid-protoconid ridge on M3. P* has two external cusps or indi- 
cations of them. 

Discussion: The third lower premolar has a single cusp with 
anterior and posterior ridges. The posterior ridge divides 
about halfway down the cusp. The interior branch joins 
the cingulum at the postero-interior corner ; the exterior 
branch joins internally to the external corner. The en- 
closed basin is small and does not show on worn teeth. 

The fourth lower premolar has a more pronounced "hy- 
poconid" than that on the P4 of A^. gracilis. It is joined 
to the protoconid by a ridge which divides the heel of the 
tooth into more or less equal parts. In worn specimens, 
the heel appears as a shelf. 

The first lower molar teeth are similar to those of N. 
gracilis, except for larger size. On M3 the ridge running 
forward from the hypoconid joins a ridge running back- 
ward from the protoconid. It does not join the protoconid- 
metaconid ridge. There is rarely a complete external cin- 
gulum on the molars of A^. tenebrosus. Occasionally it ex- 
tends backwards onto the heel. 

The fourth upper premolar of A'^. tenebrosus shows a 
divided external cusp, or furrows running down the internal 



10 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 28 





Gri22ly 


Church 


BlocksFork Cottonwood|MillersvJlle I 


Little Dry 
Creek 


mm 


Buttes 


fiultes 




creen 1 








Wtr.M) 






3.2 


X 












3. 














.4 


X 












.5' 


XXX 












.6 


XX 










X 


.7' 


xxx 


XX 






X 




8 


XXX 






X 


XX 




.9 


xx 


X 


X 




X 




4. o! 


>x 












.1 












XX 


.2 


.X 


X 






XX 




.3 


X 






X 






.4 


xx 












.5 


'x 












.6 














.7 








X 






.8 














.9 


X 






X 






5.0 














.1 


- 


X 
















Wtr.M_ 






3.6 


X 






z 






.7 


X 












.8 


XX 












.9 














4.0 


XX 


XX 










.1 


XXXXXX 








X 


X 


.2 


xxxxx 


XX 










.3" 


^x 




X 




X 




.4 


X 






X 


X 




.5" 






X 




X 


XX 


.6. 


, 










X 


.7 


xx 


X 




X 






.8 














.9 


X 








X 




5.0. 


X 


X 










.1 


X 












2 


X 










X 


.3 


. 












.4 














5 














»^ 


V ' 


} 










.6 


X 












.7 


X 


X 











Figure 2 

Frequency diagrams of trigonid widths of M, and M, of Notharctns 
tenehrosus from various localities in Bridger B beds. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 



11 



and external sides of the cusp suggesting a division (see 
pi. 1, fig. 9). The third upper premolar is near an equila- 
teral triangle in shape. 

The upper molars are larger than those of A^. gracilis, 
but smaller than the average molars of N. robiistior. The 
M^ is not rectangular. 

Granger and Gregory (1917) included Tomitherium ros- 
tratum Cope and Hipposyus formosus Leidy in their de- 
scription and concept of A'', tenebrosus. This writer also 
includes A'', anceps (Marsh), N. affinis (Marsh), A'', tyr an- 
nus (Marsh), A'', osborni (Granger and Gregory), and N, 
pugnax Granger and Gregory. 



N. tenebrosus 
N. pugnax . . 
N, osborni . . 
N. anceps . . . 
N. affinis . . . 
N. tyrannus . 



Length in 




Condition of 




millimeters 


f 


paraconids- 






M1-M3 


M, 


M2 


M3 


18.5 


strong 


weak 


weak 


20.7 


present 


absent 


absent 


16.6 


small 


vestigial 


absent 


17.5 


present 


vestigial 


absent 


18.0 


present 


vestigial 


absent 


18.0 (est.) 


low 


absent 


absent 



After Granger and Gregory, 1917 



Listed above are some of the characters which Granger 
and Gregory considered pertinent in their classification of the 
lower Bridger Notharctus specimens now included in A^. tene- 
brosus. As stated above, in Notharctus if a paraconid is pres- 
ent it is always more pronounced on the first molar. The data 
quoted here (taken from types) bear this out. On five of the 
t^^pes there is no paraconid on M3 ; on two, there is none on 
Mo; on one there is a strong paraconid on M^. Development 
of the paraconid is variable, under influence of a gradient 
which diminishes to the rear. 

Modem studies of populations have shown that there is a 
variation in living forms of the same species. There is no 
reason why this should not be true for fossil forms and Simp- 
son and others have applied this reasoning to studies of fossils 
(Simpson and Roe, 1939). The range in lengths of the lower 
molar series of the types is 16.6-20.7 mm., a distance of 4.1 



12 



Postilla Yale Peabody Museum 



No. 28 



CQ 

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January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 13 

mm. The observed range of all specimens is 16.1-22.2 mm. or 
6.1 mm. The lengths of the individual teeth all vary at least 
1 mm. between limits. Assuming that all teeth were packed end 
to end, the possible range (from observed specimens) is 16.4-— 
23.5 mm. As there is some overlapping of teeth in a row, the 
figures for natural rows are smaller. 



Notharctus tenebrosus? 

Plate 1, fig. 3 

A specimen of Notharctus in the American Museum of Natu- 
ral History (^11481) has a peculiar lower third molar. The 
length of the tooth is less than that of the second molar. It 
lacks the enlarged hypoconulid. Due to its similarity to typical 
specimens of N. tenebrosus in the characters of its anterior 
molars and premolars, it is classified as A^. tenebrosus?. Gran- 
ger and Gregory thought that it might represent the jaw of 
Aphanolemur gibbosus, but no teeth are known for this species. 
It is considered an aberrant form of A^. tenebrosus, and has 
not been included in the hypodigm of that species. 

A.M.N.H. ^11481, Grizzly Buttes, Bridger Basin, Wyoming, 
Bridger B 



Length 
W max 
W tr . 
W tal . 



Notharctus robustior Leidy 

Plate II, figs. 1, 4-5 

Notharctus robustior; I-eidy, 1872, p. 364; type: U.S.N.M. No. 3750 
Telmatolestes crassus; Marsh, 1872, p. 206; type: Y.P.M. No. 11782 
Hipposyus robustior; (Leidy), 1873, p. 93 

Notharctus crassus; (Marsh) Granger and Gregory, 1917, p. 854-856 
Notharctus robustior Leidy; Gazin, 1934, p. 71 



M, 


, M„ 


M3 


5.3 


5.? 
3.6 


5.1 
3.4 


3.2 


3.6 


. . . 



14 



Postilla Yale Peahody Musev/m 



No. 28 



Type: U.S.N.M. No. 3750. Henry's Fork, Bridger Basin, Wyoming. Bridger 
C or D. F. V. Hayden collection M.. 

Range: Upper middle Eocene of Bridger formation (Bridger C and D) 
and of Washakie formation (Washakie A) of southwestern Wyoming. 

Hypodigm: A.M.N.H. #11451, 11982-11987, 11990-93, 11995-97, 11999, 12000, 
12003, 12005-12010, 12564, 12565, 12567, 13023, 13133, 13134; Y.P.M. 
#11782, 12900, 12905, 12908, 12909, 12911-12916, 12918, 12920, 12925- 
12931, 12933, 12934, 12937, 12940, 12945, 12953; U.S.N.M. #3750 (Cast 
in Peabody Museum. Many numbers have several specimens included, 
especially in the Peabody Museum collections.) 

Description: Larger than iV". tenebrosits, otherwise quite similar. P^ has 
pronounced double peak to external cusp. 



Discussion: It is extremely difficult to tell some specimens of 
N. tenehrosus from some of N. rohustior. The two ranges 
overlap and where the age data are unknown, the detenmina- 
tion can be difficult, if not impossible. 

A few pertinent measurements of A'^. tenehrosus and N . 
rohiistior are quoted below for comparison. 



N. tenehrosus 



Length M3 ... 
W. max. M3 . . 

W trigonid Mj 
W trigonid Mo 



Range in 






millimeters 


Mean 


N 


6.2-9.3 


7.85 ± 0.154 


32 


3.4-4.7 


4.12 ± 0.057 


34 


3.2-5.1 


3.98 ± 0.061 


45 


3.6-5.7 


4.41 -+- 0.064 


54 



Length M3 . . . 
W. max. M3 . . 
W trigonid Mi 
W trigonid Mo 



N. rohustior 






Range in 






millimeters 


Mean 


N 


7.7-9.6 


8.66 ± 0.068 
5.01 ± 0.045 
4.72 ± 0.041 
5.42 -+- 0.050 


39 


4.3-5.7 


41 


4.2-5.4 


47 


4.6-6.3 


62 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 



16 





Henrys Fork 


Twin Buttes 


Henrys R)rk 


BurntFork 


Henrys Fork 
Hilt 


mm. 






Divide 


pn. 






Wtr.M, 






4.2 








X 




-3 . 




X 






X 


A 


XX XX 




X 




X 


-5 


XX 










.6 


xxx 


X 








.7] 


"xxx 








X 


.8 


"xxx 










9 


"xxxx 




X 




X 


5.0 " 


!.x 




X 






. 1 


x 


X 








.2 


;x 










.3^ 


X 










■4' 


a 








X 








Wtr.Mg 






4.6 


X 


X 








.7 












8 








X 




.9 




x 


X 


X 




5. 


XX 








X 


.1 




X 




X 




.2' 


X>XXXX 


XX 








.3 


XX 








X 


4 


.XX 


X 






XX 


.5 


.XX xxx 










6^ 


.X 










.7 


xxx 




X 






.8 


.XXXX 










.9' 


.XX 




X 






6 .0 


.XX 




X 






.1. 






X 






.2. 












.3 


,x 











Figure 3 

Frequency distributions of trigonid widths of Mi and M, of Notharctus 
robusflor from various localities in upper Bridger formation. Specimens 
from both Bridger C and D divisions are included at all localities. 



16 Postilla Yole Peahody Museum No. 28 

The most significant distinction between these species is the 
width of M3. The ratio of the difference of the means to the 
standard error of the difference (V^^d) is 12.59, a highly sig- 
nificant figure. A^. robustior certainly arose from A^. tenebrosus 
but the samples shown here prove there is a statistical difference 
in the populations. A similar test proves that there is no dif- 
ference in the populations of A^. gracilis during Bridger time. 

Specimens of A^. robustior from the Washakie formation fall 
near the middle of the range of the Bridger specimens. They 
have been included in the statistical analysis of the species. 
The measurements are, for the characters used above: 

A.M.N.H.* Mean of all 

^13133 ^13134 N. robuatior specimens* 

L M. 8.7 8.4 8.66 

W max. M, 4.4 4.7 5.01 

W trigonid M, 4.6 4.5 4.72 

W trigonid M, 5.3 5.2 5.42 



VARIATION 

Histograms for measurements of teeth of A^. tenebrosus are 
distinctly bimodal. The separation of the peaks is not great ; 
1 mm. is the maximum. The areas under the peaks are not 
equal, but are not sufficiently unequal to be significant. It is 
my opinion that this bimodality is due to sex differences. The 
animals are morphologically similar ; one would expect a morph- 
ological dissimilarity if more than one species was present. The 
coefficients of variability for the lower teeth vary from 11.45 
mm. for the length of M3 to 7.54 mm. for the length of Mi. 
The average is 9.772 mm. This is high but not too high for a 
variable species. It has been pointed out that rarely do more 
than one species of a genus inhabit a given area and when two 
congeneric species do live in one habitat, one greatly outnum- 
bers the other. This is the case in both the upper Black's Fork 
member and in the Twin Butte member of the Bridger forma- 
tion. A^. gracilis is one-tenth as common as A^. tenebrosus or 
A^. robustior. 

* All measurements given in millimeters. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 



17 



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18 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 28 



When the deposition of the Bridger formation began, the 
area had just emerged from the Green River Lakes. Notharctus 
tenebrosus was a new species in the Bridger B time. The source 
area for this species could have been any one of several inter- 
mountain basins of the Wyoming, Colorado, Utah area. 

The Bridger environment was similar to the source area, but 
different enough that N. tenebrosus had to adjust to it. It is 
natural for a species to be variable in a new environment. Simp- 



r6 



o A/, tenebrosus 
O N. robustior 



5 ^ 

E 



-4 



O 

o ® o 
o o o 
o ° ooo 
o 
©oooo 
oo o 
o o oo 
o ° oo o 
oo 

o o o Q o 

O o 

o 



o 
o o 
o o 



o o 
o 



Wo Ml (millimeters) 
4 ^^ ' 5 

_i I 



6 

_i 



Figure 4 

A scatter diagram comparison of anterior and posterior tooth widths 
of first lower molars of Notharctus tenebrosus and N. robustior. 



son states (1953, p. 140), "In a group not already at the se- 
lective optimum, selection should, given a sufficient store of 
appropriate variation, move the group to that optimum." 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 19 

Notharctus tenehrosus was a species not at the selective opti- 
mum; neither was its descendant, N. robustior, evidently, but 
it was closer to it. 

The variation of the N. tenehrosus — iV^. robustior line de- 
creased in time. The average size of A^. robustior was larger 
than that for A^. tenebrosus; however, the maximum size of 
A^. robustior is within the probable limits for A^. tenebrosus. 



O 
r6 O OO 

OOO 
O O 

OO °oo 
o® 
oooo 

O OO 
OOO 
©OOO o 

o °o o 



5^ 0©0 

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CM 



O 

OOO 

O O 



o 



o 



$ 



O O o 



OOO 

o o o o 

OOO 



Wn Mp (millimeters) 

4 ^ "^ 5 

_i I 



Figure 5 

Scatter diagram comparison of anterior (trigonid) and posterior (tal- 
onid) widtlis of Mj of N. tenehrosus and N. robustior. 



N. robustior is therefore a more highly adapted species than 
its ancestor A^. tenebrosus. 

The scatter diagrams for anterior/posterior widths of Mi 
and M2 of A'', tenebrosus — N. robustior on figures 4, 5 show that 



20 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 28 

the variability is greater for N. tenehrosris. The maximum 
values of measurements of A^. robustior are only 0.3 mm. 
greater for Mi and 0.6 mm. greater for M2 than the maximum 
values for A'^. tenebrosus. N. robustior represents the maximum 
size for the evolutionary line that could live in the environment 
at the time. 

A^. robustior also has somewhat bimodal histograms. Why 
the tendency toward bimodality should be less is not known al- 
though it is partly caused by the general tendency for a de- 
crease in variability. Perhaps the smaller sex was tending to 
become as large as the other for adaptive reasons. 

It is interesting to contrast the data for N. grdcilis with 
that of the N. tenebrosus — A'^. robustior line. A^. gracilis re- 
mained practically unchanged during the entire middle Eocene. 
The greatest coefficient of variability for the lower molars is 
6.11 mm.; the smallest 2.97 mm. The average is 4.437 mm. 
These data were compiled from 16 specimens from Bridger 
B, C, and D, and the Green River Morrow Creek locality. 

The recorded geographic range of A^. gracilis includes south- 
western Wyoming and northeastern Utah ; A^. robustior is 
found only in the Bridger and Washakie basins of Wyoming. 
A^. tenebrosus was restricted to the Bridger basin. At its maxi- 
mum, the area of the A', tenebrosus — N. robustior group was 
less than half that of N. gracilis. In none of the localities in 
which A'^. gracilis occurs is it common. The combined wide dis- 
tribution and infrequent occurrence of A", gracilis is interesting 
Possibly N. gracilis inhabited the higher areas and only oc- 
casionally visited the plain. If this were true it would account 
for its ability to spread to other areas more easily than N. 
tenebrosus — A^. robustior. 

The statistical data for these species have been compiled 
fully only for measurements of the lower teeth as these are 
the most common remains. Certain problems were encountered 
in measuring. The measurement of a tooth length will be dif- 
ferent if measured alone or in place in a row. The maximum 
error for this is perhaps 0.2 mm. This would not be considered 
harmful for large teeth (Simpson, 1949A). When dealing with 
an animal which has small teeth, the chances of a significant 
error are increased. For example, the mean length Mo of N. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 21 

rohustior is 7.04 ± 0.071 mm. The means of four groups of 
M2's, determined by their association with other teeth, are as 
follows : 

Lengths in millimeters of Mj 

M2 isolated Mean =7.19 N = 10 

Ml M2 7.08 26 

M2 M3 6.79 12 

Ml M, M3 7.10 16 

The means of these subgroups are within one standard de- 
viation from the means of the entire sample. This is not too 
significant but it suggests that single teeth would give larger 
parameters (in absolute values). 



22 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 28 



EEFERENCES CITED 

Burke, J. J., 1935. Preliminary report on fossil mammals from the Green 
River formation in Utah: Carnegie Mus. Annals, v. 25, p. 13-14. 

Cope, E. D., 1872. Third account of new Vertebrata from the Bridger 
Eocene of the Wyoming Territory: Am. Philos. Soc. Proc, v. 12, 
p. 469-472. 

Dane, C. H., 1954. Stratigraphic and facies relationships of upper part of 
Green River formation and lower part of Uinta formation in Duchesne, 
Uintah and Wasatch counties, Utah: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists 
Bull., V. 38, p. 405-425. 

Gazin, C. L., 1934. On the priority of specific names for the upper Bridger 

Notharctus: Jour. Mammology, v. 15, p. 71. 
Granger, W. and W. K. Gregory, 1917. Revision of Eocene primates of 

tlie genus Notharctus: Am. Mus. Nat. History Bull., v. 37, p. 841-859. 

Gregory, W. K., 1917. Genetics vs. Paleontology: Amer. Naturalist, v. 51, 
p. 631. 

Leidy, Joseph, 1870. Descriptions of Palaeosyops paludosus, Microsus 
cuspidatus, and Notharctus tenebrosus: Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. Proc, 
V. 22, p. 114. 

1872A. Remarks on fossils from Wyoming: Acad. Nat. Sci. 

Phila. Proc, v. 24, p. 19-21. 

1872B. Remarks on some extinct mammals: Acad. Nat. Sci. 



Phila. Proc, v. 24, p. 87-38. 

— 1872C. On the fossil vertebrates of the early Tertiary forma- 



tion of Wyoming: U. S. Geol. Survey of Montana, etc., F. V. Hayden, 
Report for 1871, p. 864. 
1873. Contributions to the extinct vertebrate fauna of the 



Western Territories: U. S. Geol. Survey of the Terr., F. V. Hayden 
Report, V. 1, pt. 1, p. 93, pi. 6, fig. 40. 
Marsh, O. C, 1871. Notices of some new fossil mammals from the Tertiary 
formation: Am. Jour. Sci. (3), v. 2, p. 35-44. 

1872. Preliminary descrijition of new Tertiarj' mammals, pts. 

II, III, and IV: Am. Jour. Sci. (3), v. 4, p. 202-224. 

Matthew, W. D., 1909, The Carnivora and Insectivora of the Bridger Basin, 
middle Eocene: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Memoirs, v. IX, pt. VI, p. 291- 
567. 

Osborn, H. F., 1902. American Eocene primates and the supposed rodent 
family Mixodectidae: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., v. 16, p. 169-214. 

Picard, M. D., 1955. Subsurface stratigraphy and lithology of Green River 
formation in Uinta Basin, Utah: Am. Assoc. Petroleum Geologists 
Bull., v. 39, p. 137-163. 

Simpson, G. G., 1940. Mammals and land bridges: Wash. Acad. Sci. Jour., 
V. 30, p. 137-163. 

1949 A. A fossil deposit in a cave in St. Louis: Am. Mus. 

Novitates, No. 1408. 

1949B. The meaning of evolution: New Haven, Yale Univ. 



Press. 

1953. The major features of evolution: New York, Columbia 



Univ. Press. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 23 

Simpson, G. G. and Anne Roe, 1939. Quantitative zoology: Numerical con- 
cepts and methods in the study of recent and fossil animals: New York, 
McGraw-Hill. 

Troxell, E. L., 1926. Smilodectes or Notharctus: Am. Jour. Sci. (5), v. 11, 
p. 423-428. 

Wood, H. E., 1934. Revision of the Hyrachyidae: Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Bull., 
V. 67, p. 181-295. 

Wortman, J. L., 1903. Studies of Eocene Mammalia in the Marsh Collec- 
tion, Peabody Museum, pt. II. Primates: Am. Jour. Sci. (4), v. 16, 
p. 345-368. 



24 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No, 28 



Plate I 

Figure 1. Notharctus gracilis (Marsh). Right P*-M-, A.M.N.H., no. 12011, 
part of type specimen of N. matthewi Granger and Gregory. 
Grizzly Buttes, Wyoming, Bridger B horizon. Crown view of 
teeth, x3. 

Figure 2. Notharctus gracilis (Marsh). Left lower jaw with C1-M3, 
A.M.N. H., no. 12011, part of type of N. matthewi Granger and 
Gregory. Crown view of teeth, x3. 

Figure 3. Notharctus tenebrosus? Right jaw with P3-M3, A.M.N.H., no. 
11481, Grizzly Buttes, Wyoming, Bridger B. Crown view of 
teeth, x2. 

Figures 4-8. Notharctus gracilis (Marsh). A.M.N.H. no. 13030, Bridger B 
formation, Cottonwood Creek, Wyoming. Figs. 4-7, crown views. 
Fig. 4, right P3-M,; Fig. 5, left M1-M3; Fig. 6, left M^-M''; Fig. 
7, right P'-M^; Fig. 8, externo-lateral view of right maxillary 
P^-M^, same specimen as fig. 7. All x2. 

Figures 9-10. Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy. Right maxillary with P*, M', 
and M,. A.M.N.H., no. 13027, Grizzly Buttes, Wyoming, Bridger 
B formation. Fig. 9, externo-lateral view; Fig. 10, crown view. 
Both x2. 

Photographs by permission of the American Museum of Natural History. 



January' 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 

Plate I 



25 









i\ 





'\^ 



M 




*\'. ') 




5 
, 1 cm. , 










10 



26 January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 



Plate II 

Figure 1. Notharctus robustior Leldy. Y.P.M., no. 11782, right lower jaw 
with P3-M3, type of Telmatolestes crassus Marsh. Henry's Fork, 
Wyoming, Bridger C or D. Crown view of teeth, x2. 

Figures 2-3. Notharctus gracilis (Marsh). Y.P.M., no. 12970, Twin Buttes, 
Wyoming, Bridger C or D. Fig. 2, right maxillary with P--M^; 
Fig. 3, left jaw with P^-Ms. Crown views, x2. 

Figures 4-5. Notharctus robustior Leidy. Y.P.M., no. 12905, Lone Tree, 
Wyoming, Bridger C or D. Fig. 4, left maxillary with M--M^; 
Fig. 5, left lower jaw with P3-M3. Crown views, x2. 

Figure 6. Notharctus gracilis (Marsh). Type specimen, Y.P.M., no. 11800, 
Grizzly Buttes, Wyoming, Bridger B. Left jaw with P3-M1, 
crown view, x2. 

Figure 7. Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy. Y.P.M., no. 11786A, Grizzly Buttes, 
Wyoming, Bridger B. Cotype of Thinolestes anceps Marsh. Left 
maxillary with M^-M*, crown view, x2. 

Figure 8. Notharctus tenebrosus Leidy. Y.P.M., no. 11786B, Grizzly Buttes, 
Wyoming, Bridger B formation. Cotype of Thinolestes anceps 
Marsh. Left jaw with P4-M3, crown view, x2. 

Photographs by permission of the Yale Peabody Museum. 



January 21, 1957 The Species of Notharctus 

Plate II 



27 




8 








I 



I 1 Cm. I 








MUS. 

LU. ^ \ 

MAY 2 31957 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 29 February 12, 1957 New Haven, Conn. 

A REDEFINITION OF THE SUBSPECIES OF 
FODIATOR ACUTUS 

James E. Morrow* 

ABSTRACT 

Analysis of characteristics of 11 Atlantic and 54 Pacific specimens of 
Fodiator acutus showed that the two subspecies F. a. acutus and F. a. 
pacificus could not be distinguished on the basis of the original diagnosis, 
but that such distinction could be made on the basis of the eye and the 
snout expressed as a percentage of head length. It was also shown that 
F. a. pacificus Bruun and Hemiexocoetus caudimaculatus Fowler are syn- 
onyms of Fodiator acutus rostratus (Giinther). 

Introduction 

The primitive flying fish species, Fodiator acutus (Cuvier 
and Valenciennes), was divided into two subspecies, F. a. acutus 
from the Atlantic and F. a. pacificus from the Pacific, by Bruun 
(1933) on the basis of 38 or 39 vertebrae in Atlantic specimens 
and 4*1 vertebrae in a single specimen from the Pacific, "along 
with u number of other smaller, yet distinct differences in pro- 
portions and fin-ray characters." Breder and Nichols (1934) 
noted vertebral counts of 39 in two specimens of F. acutus 
from the Pacific coast of Panama and therefore rejected the 
validity of the new subspecies. They also considered pacificus 
to be a nomen nudum because of the incomplete description. 
Later, Bruun (1935) gave a complete tabular description of 

* Bingham Oceanographic Laboratory 



2 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 29 

the type of F. a. pacificus, comparing it with four specimens 
from the Atlantic Ocean oif the coast of Angola, and with the 
type of Giinther's Exocoetus rostratus (Giinther, 1866) from 
Hawaii. Bruun's differential characteristics may be summa- 
rized as follows : 

ATLANTIC PACIFIC 

Dorsal rays 10 — 11 9 

Anal rays 11 10 

Pectoral rays ll- — 16 13 

Predorsal scales 21-24 24-26 

Vertebrae 38-39 41 

Gill rakers 7 + 22 8 + 24- 

Subsequently, Breder (1938, p. 12-16) accepted the validity 
of this diagnosis, and noted several additional characters, as 
shown in his key: 

"A. Gill rakers 7+22; predorsal scales 21 to 24; dorsal 
10 or 11; anal 11; body depth 4.1 to 4.8; dorsal in- 
sertion 1.32 to 1.38; interorbital 3.6 to 3.7; pectoral 
rays 14 to 16. Fodiator acutus acutus 

AA. Gill rakers 8+24 or 25; predorsal scales 24 to 26; 
dorsal 9 or 10 ; anal 10 or 11 ; body depth 4.85 to 6.0 ; 
dorsal insertion 1.31 ; interorbital 3.9 to 4.0; pectoral 
rays 13. Fodiator acutus pacificus." 

However, a specimen of F. acutus taken by the Yale South 
American Expedition at Cabo Blanco, Peru, on April 1, 1953, 
could not be ascribed to either subspecies on the basis of the 
characteristics given by Bruun and by Breder. This at once 
raised the suspicion that the two subspecies might not be valid, 
but might be merely the result of examining too few specimens. 
Accordingly, a study of a larger number of individuals was 
attempted. As far as Pacific specimens were concerned, the re- 
sult was gratifying, but, although nearly every museum in the 
United States and western Europe was canvassed for material, 
the combined efforts of all could produce but 11 specimens 
from the Atlantic Ocean. 



Feb. 12, 1957 Subspecies of Fodiator Acutus 



MAY 2 3 1957 

HAIARO 
UNIVERSITY 



Materials 

The following material has been available. The numbers in 
parentheses indicate the number of individuals included in each 
sample. 

Pacific Material 

Bingham Oceanographic Collection, Peabody Museum of Nat- 
ural History 

No. 704 (3) No locality 

1004 (9) Concepcion Bay, Mexico 

1011 (5) Concepcion Bay, Mexico 

1012 (5) Concepcion Bay, Mexico 

1040 (2) San Jose del Cabo, Baja California 
1101 (3) Las Perlas Islands, Gulf of Panama 
1193 (1) San Felipe Bay, Baja California 

British Museum (Natural History) 

No. 1898.12.31.40-41 (2) Sta. Elena Bay, Ecuador 
1903.5.15.298 (1) Panama 

1938.12.12.44 (1) Galapagos Islands 

1938.12.12.45 (1) Galapagos Islands 
1938.12.12.46-47 (2) Galapagos Islands 

1939.7.10.17 (1) Galapagos Islands 

1939.7.10.18 (1) Tehuantepec, Mexico 

United States National Museum 

No. 82006 (5) Chame Point, Panama 
119729 (2) Concepcion Bay, Mexico 

Chicago Natural History Museum 
No. 2580 (2) Gulf of California 

41516 (1) Galapagos Islands 

41517 (1) Galapagos Islands 
41703 (1) Galapagos Islands 
49217 (3) Bahia Honda, Panama 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia 
No. 7484 (1) No locality 

7508 (1) Mazatlan, Mexico (Type of H. caudimacu- 
latus Fowler) 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 29 

Atlantic Material 

American Museum of Natural History 
No. 9023 (2) Angola 

British Museum (Natural History) 

No. 1906.8.24.128 (1) Angola 
1938.10.10.23 (1) Nigeria 
1938.10.20.24. (1) Nigeria 

Chicago Natural History Museum 

No. 4913 (2) Caribbean Sea, 14° 30' N, 80° 30' W 

Zoologische Staatsinsitut und Zoologische Museum Hamburg 

Nos. HI, 2,3,4 (4) West Africa (Measurements from 
Bruun, 1935). 

There have thus been 54 specimens from the Pacific Ocean and 
11 from the Atlantic available for study. It early became ap- 
parent that a considerable degree of allometric growth existed 
in most body proportions among the smaller individuals, but 
that this allometry had largely ceased at a standard length of 
about 100 mm. Consequently, the smallest specimen utilized 
in the comparison of these factors was 95 mm. in standard 
length. Hence, there were 39 Pacific and nine Atlantic speci- 
mens available for this purpose. Even though the size of the 
Atlantic sample still leaves much to be desired, it is more than 
twice as great as the amount of material that was available to 
Bruun. All the material, regardless of size, was utilized in 
analysinff meristic characters. 

Discussion 
In the analyses of the various characteristics of the two 
groups, it was found that only two of the characteristics on 
which the subspecies were erected actually showed a significant 
difference between the groups (P<0.02). These characteristics 
were the number of predorsal scales and the width of the in- 
terorbital space. For the latter, it was found that a greater 



Feb. 12, 1957 Subspecies of Fodiator Acutus 5 

degree of separation could be effected by expressing the width 
of the interorbital as a function of the length of the head rather 
than as a function of the standard length. In addition, there 
may be a difference in the number of pectoral rays. However, 
as will be shown later, the differences shown in these characters 
are not sufficient to warrant subspecific rank for the two groups. 
On the other hand, the length of the snout and the anterior- 
posterior diameter of the eye, in relation to head length, appear 
to be valid characters upon which the subspecies may be based. 

The number of pre-dorsal scales varies between 20 and 25 
in the Atlantic material, and between 22 and 28 in the Pacific, 
with mean counts at 22.3 and 24.5 respectively (Fig. lA). It 
will be observed, however, that the standard deviations of the 
tAvo distributions overlap by an amount equal to about 33 per 
cent of the smaller. Such a high degree of overlap is indicative 
of a corresponding degree of intergradation and is generally 
considered as indicating less than subspecific differentiation. 

The width of the interorbital space, expressed as a percentage 
of the head length (Fig. IB), ranges between 24<.7 and 28.8, 
with a mean at 27.0 in the Atlantic material. In the Pacific 
specimens, however, these values are somewhat lower, the range 
spreading from 22.2 to 26.8, with the mean at 25.4. This dis- 
tribution is skewed by the inclusion of a single specimen whose 
interorbital was only 22.2 per cent of the head length, the next 
lowest value being 24.0 per cent. P^liminating the single low 
v.ilue ])roduces a considerable reduction in the range of the 
sample and almost entirely eliminates the skewness, but has no 
other marked effect. However, whether the sample is taken 
whole or without the one individual, the standard deviations 
again show considerable overlap, actually equal to 58.7 per 
cent of the smaller standard deviation. Clearly, this cannot be 
considered as indicating subspecific differentiation. 

The distribution of the counts of pectoral fin rays in the 
Atlantic material is such that graphical representation is mean- 
ingless. A total of 16 counts showed 15 fins with 14 rays each 
and one with 16 rays. In the Pacific material, 94 counts 
showed 4.3 per cent of the sample with 12 rays, 63 per cent 
with 13 rays, and 33 per cent with 14 rays. The mean counts 
were 14.1 for the Atlantic specimens and 13.3 for the Pacific. 



6 Postilla Yale Pcahody Museum No. 29 

The distribution in the Atlantic material suggests that in a 
larger sample, more lower counts would be expected. There- 
fore, although the number of rays in the pectoral may actually 
be a good indicator of the subspecies, this cannot be deter- 
mined from the present samples. 

Some most interesting results were derived from a compari- 
son of the snout as percent of head length in the two samples. 
The Atlantic and Pacific groups are clearly different (Fig. 
IC), the former having a mean value of 36.3 per cent as com- 
pared with 39.6 per cent for the latter. The standard devia- 
tions of the two distributions do not overlap at all, even though 
the upper limit of range of the Atlantic sample includes the 
whole standard deviation of the Pacific material. This skewness 
of the Atlantic material is caused entirely by two individuals 
from the Caribbean Sea, whose snout lengths were 39.7 per 
cent and 41.4 per cent of their head lengths. As may be seen 
from a comparison of the upper and middle distributions in 
Fig. IC, inclusion of these two specimens (the only ones from 
the western Atlantic) results in a discontinuous distribution. 
When the two Caribbean specimens are removed from considera- 
tion, the Atlantic material has the distribution shown in the 
upper line of Fig. IC, There can be no doubt that the upper 
Atlantic group and the Pacific group are different. It also 
appears as though the Caribbean material may represent a 
population that is distinct from that of the west African coast, 
although the material is not large enough to draw reasonably 
reliable conclusions. However, this possibility is certainly not 
out of the realm of probability, especially when it is realized 
that F. acutus is generally confined to coastal waters and is 
therefore extremely unlikely to undertake long movements back 
and forth across the Atlantic. This is precisely the situation 
that could lead to separate, distinct races on either side of the 
ocean. 

It will be seen from Fig. IC that the standard deviations of 
the Pacific sample and the whole Atlantic sample do not quite 
meet, indicating a separation of a little more than 84 per cent. 
This degree of separation seems fully adequate to indicate sub- 
specific differentiation. Comparing the west African material 
alone with the Pacific specimens, they are separated by a large 



Feb. 12, 1957 Subspecies of Fodiator Acutus 7 

gap, indicating a pronounced degree of differentiation. With 
a larger sample, this could be interpreted as showing full speci- 
fic rank for each group, but with the number so small this as- 
sumption is not warranted here. 

The diameter of the eye, again expressed as a percentage of 
the head length (Fig. ID), also provides a reliable character 
for the distinction of the two subspecies. The Atlantic material 
covers a range from 27.1 to 31.5 per cent, with the mean at 29.2 
per cent. B}- contrast, in the Pacific material the eye is only 
22.7 to 28.1 per cent of the head length, with the mean at 25.4 
per cent. As with the length of the snout, the standard devia- 
tions of the two samples do not meet, showing that here, too, 
the samples represent separate subspecies. 

Synonymy 

The synonym}' of the subspecies of Fodiator is no less in- 
volved than are the characters upon which the separation may 
be based. Biniun named his Pacific subspecies pacificus, and in 
his 1935 paper noted that there also occurred in the Pacific 
the at-least-nominal species, Hemiexocoetus caudimaculatus 
Fowler and ExocoeUts rostratus Giinther, both of which are 
clearly Fodiator. The type (and only) specimen of H. caudi- 
maculatus is a juvenile, so that comparison with the adult ma- 
terial used here would be of no value. However, this specimen 
does not differ in any significant way from other juveniles of 
comparable size that are labelled Fodiator acutus. Bruun 
(1935) gave measurements of the type specimen of Exocoetus 
rostratus. It is undoubtedly a Fodiator, and almost certainly be- 
longs in the Pacific subspecies. Thus, the eye is 24.3 per cent 
of the head, a Pacific characteristic ; the snout, at 36 per cent 
of the head, could fall within either category ; pectoral rays 13, 
while not a clear cut character, also suggests the Pacific sub- 
species ; and the locality of capture, the Hawaiian Islands, pro- 
hibits any other conclusion. 



8 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 29 

Conclusions 

The subspecies of Fodiator acutus have been shown to be 
inaccurately dia^iosed, but analj^sis of various characteristics 
permits a redefinition of the subspecies, as follows : 

A. Atlantic Ocean. Eye 29.2% (27.1-31.5%) of head: 
snout 35.1% (33.6 — 36.9%) of head in west African 
specimens, 40 — 41% in Caribbean. 

Fodiator acutus acutus (Cuvier and Valenciennes) 

AA. Pacific Ocean. Eye 25.4% (22.7 - 28.1%) of head; 
snout 39.6% (36.1 - 42.7%) of head. 

Fodiator acutus rostratus (Giinther) 



Feb. 12, 1957 Subspecies of Fodiafor Acufus 9 

Literature Cited 

Breder, Charles M., Jr. 

1938. A contribution to the life histories of Atlantic ocean 
flying fishes. Bull. Bingham oceanogr. Coll., 6 (5) : 
1-126. 

Breder, Charles M., Jr. and John T. Nichols 

1934. On the significance of vertebral counts in exocoetid 
taxonomy. Proc. biol. Soc. Wash., 4-7: 37-43. 

Bruun, Anton F. 

1933. On the value of the number of vertebrae in the classi- 
fication of the Exocoetidae. Vidensk. Medd. dansk 
naturh. Foren. Kbh., 9^: 375-384. 

1935. Flying fishes (Exocoetidae) of the Atlantic, system- 
atic and biological studies. Dana Rep., 6: 1-108. 

Giinther, Albert 

1866. Catalogue of the fishes in the British Museum. Vol, 6, 
XV + 368 pp. Brit. Mus. (Nat. Hist.) 



10 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum Feb. 12, 1957 



LEGEND FOR FIGURE 

Figure 1. Distribution of several characteristics in Fodiator acuttis. A. 
Pre-dorsal scales. Upper line, Atlantic sample; lower line, Pacific sample. 
B. Interorbital width expressed as percent of head length. Upper line, At- 
lantic; lower line, Pacific. C. Snout as percent of head length. Upper line. 
West African specimens; middle line, all Atlantic material (dashed base 
line shows discontinuity in sample); lower line. Pacific specimens. D. Eye 
as percent of head length. Upper line, Atlantic ; lower line. Pacific specimens. 




X 



J I L 



J L 



J L 



19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 



B 



I m I 




J J 



22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 





■k 



J L 



_L____J \ I 



33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 



D 




-WBoar 



I I I 1 I I I I I 1 

22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 



WUS. COMP. ZOOL. 
LIBRARY 

APR 23 ^^3 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM harvard 
OF Natural History UNIVERSITY 




Number 80 Fcbnuu y 28, 1957 New Haven, Conn. 

NOTES OX THE HORNED COOT, 
FUIJCA COBNVTA BONAPARTE* 

S. Dm, I. ox Ru'LEY 

In May, 195(), while on a visit in South America on Ijehalf 
of the International Committee for Bird Preservation, I was 
fortunate enough to meet Senor Luis E. Pena G. tlirough the 
good offices of Dr. R. A. Pliili])})i, the well-known Chilean orni- 
thologist. Senor Pena, an entomologist, has recently spent two 
seasons in the highlands of northern Chile, in the mountains of 
eastern Antofagasta just south of the Bolivian border. His 
trip has been well described in his own words (1954'). 

On liis trips, Senor Peiia has been lucky enough to observe 
one of the rarest and least known birds of the world, the 
Horned Coot, Fiilhri corn ii fa. The other naturalist who has 
seen them, also a Chilean, is Senor William R. Millie, who 
found the species and the first known nests on I.aguna Grande 
in the high region of Huasco in 193fi, 194<5, and 19-10. Some 
of Millie's observations are given in "Las Aves de Chile" by 
Goodall, Johnson and lMuli])pi (1951). Both these gentlemen 
have been kind enough to furnish me with notes on the species, 
and from Senor Peiia, I have obtained a pair of his specimens 
which are now in the Yale Peabody Museum Collection. 

FnUca cornuta was described by Bonaparte from a single 
specimen collected in the highlands of Bolivia, in 1853, and for 
many vears this skin remained uni(|ue. It was illustrated in a 
drawing of the head in a pa])er by Sclater and Salvin (1868). 
Hcllmayr and Conovei- (1942) list eight specimens of the 

* An inforiiial synopsis of this ))M])cr was ])resentecl at the Seventy-fourth 
Stated Meeting of tlie Anieriean Ornitliologist's Union in Sei)tembcr, 1956. 



2 J'ostilla Vale I'cabodjj Miisiinn No. 'M) 

.s})ecies in iiiusciiiii collect ioii.s. all t'l-om tlic lii^lilaiids of south- 
ern liolivia or noi-tli\vcsfern Argentina in Tucunian. Hesides 
these, there was apparently one other .specimen collected at 
Laguna lilanoa, Catanuu'ca I'rov. Arfrentina, IDLS, now in 
New York, and five specimens fi-oni noi'thern Chile subsequentlv 
taken by Millie and l*eiia, making a total of fourteeji in mu- 
seum or private collections. 

Fulica conuitd and Fnlica g'n/anfca, the Giant Coot, arc 
the two largest coots in the world, measuring up to 11) or 20 
inches in total length. The Giant Coot also has a restricted 
range to the north of the Horned Coot, in the cordillera of 
central and southern Peru, Bolivia and extreme northern Chile. 
U'he two species are a})parently allo])atric. 

The Horned Coot, however, differs fi'oin all othei- members 
of its family in the extraoi'dinary wattle which arises in the 
frontal area. Where all other species of the tribe of coots and 
/^allinules characteristically possess a horny shield or cutan- 
eous structure in the area of the forehead, ]>osterior to the bill 
this species possesses a wattle which is identical in both sexes, 
and which is flanked by a pair of smaller wattles. The central, 
large wattle, which in our specimens measures <5 29, 9 33 mm. 
in total length in the dry skins, is fleshy and ])erhaps somewhat 
extensible or erectile, although neither Peiia nor Millie noticed 
this in life. In these specimens, in breeding' condition taken on 
October 9, 19.55, the wattle is far more develoj)ed than in the 
other museum skins which I have examined ; some of which cer- 
tainly were innnature birds. It may be, however, that out of 
the innnediate breeding cycle, the wattles shrink in si/e. The 
female in Dr. Philippi's collection, secured by Millie and said 
to be on the nest, has a poorly devclo})ed fleshy ])rotuberance, 
about the size of the drawing of the type in Sclater and Salvin 
(op. cif-), and similar to three innnature s])ecimens in the 
American .Museum of Natural History's collection in New 
York. 

The two small Hanking wattles ui our specimens stand erect 
on either side of the largi' wattle, and nieasui-e; c? 4, 9 (5 nun. 
in length. All three wattles terminate in tufts of thick celluloid- 
like tilo|)lumes, further extending the length of the stinicture 
l)y some 15-20 mm. In addition, the large wattle wliich lies 
forward over the bill, jjointing in an antei-ioi- direction, is cov- 



Feb. 28, 1957 Horned Coot, F/iUca Cornntn Bonaparte 3 







,«?». \ i 




Senor Pefia at a nest site on I.aguna Verde, 4200 m. alt. 

t' 




lC^*% 




One of Senor Peila's sjiecimens of the Horned Coot contrasted with 

Lanis srrr(nii(s for size. 

Photos bv L. E. Pefia G. 



4> Postilla YaJc Pcahody Museum No. '30 

ered iri-e<Jiilarly on the dorsal surface witli small tufts of down. 
All of this is well illustrated in the accoiii})anyiiig })late by 
Robert Clem. 

A strange feature which is aj^parently more obvious in life, 
for Millie's field notes mention it specifically, is a small patch, 
appearing white in life, lying below the wattle, at the base of 
the maxilla. Under examination with low ])()wer magnification, 
this is revealed to be a fleshy carvuicle, the rugose skin dis- 
tended into minute })atches which a})pear to be filled with a 
fatty mass, for in the dried skin, the color has changed from 
Avhite to a dull, ])alc yellow. 

The bill color, as shown in the plate, apj)ears to be olive- 
yellow in life, brightening towards the base of the mandibles to 
dull orange. There is a black patch along the culmen, wider at 
the base including the de])ression in which the external nares 
lie, and extending out, more narrowly to the tip of the culmen. 

The other unicjue feature of the Horned Coot is its nest. 
Nesting has been observed by both Millie and Pena. Pena found 
nests with incubated eggs in December on Tiaguna \'crde (alt. 
■I'JOO m.) on the slo])es of Vulcan Hecar, in the northeast of 
Salar de Loyoquis. Millie found nests with young in December 
and January and a nest with eggs in late Xoveml)er. He also 
found nest building in progress on NOvcmber 27, 194-(), at 
Jiagunita de Kncierro (alt. 1200 ni.). I (piote from Millie's 
letter : 

"I watched a pair constructing their nest for about 
three hours. They, too, had selected a sheltered place with 
comparatively shallow water. They were just finishing 
the stone structure made of stones of the si/e of small 
potatoes, carried there by them in their beaks. On this 
mound which. I later measured to be about 1 mt. in di- 
ameter and (50 cms. hioh and which I calculated to con- 
sist of at least 1. l/o tons of ])ebbles they then proceeded 
to place algae* carried to and fro in rapid journeys. 

* Mr. Millie has siibsccjucntly brcn again to the liijjrli cordillcra of tlic 
Atat-aina, and at my rcipicst si-nt inc on Novonihcr JK lO.")*!, a specimen 
of i)lant material Iroin the lake, which he asserts the coots use in nest 
hiiildinjr, and also feed on. T ;im irratefnl to Professor (Jilhert M. Smith 
of Stanford L'niversity, who has examined this s])ecimen and reports that 
it is in fact not alga, but M j/rioiihi/lhiiii. a flowering ])lant, and a far more 
probable source of nest building m.-itcrial than an alga. 



P^o. 3 



Horned Coot 




1 



Robert V. Ckm 



Head of Fulica connita 



6 



Postilla ]'(ih- Pcabody Museum 



No. 30 




o 

I 



D 

C 

o 

m 






CD 
ID 

> 



3 

o 



CD 

C 

0) 



Feb. 28, 1957 Hoimkh] Coot, Fnlica Corniita Bonaparte 7 

U'liis was accomplished l)y s\vinniiiii<>^ out to where they 
found the slime whence they would tip n\) with head 
down and come up with a load of tlie material and carry 
it to their nest, first making- a sort of landing ramp. When 
I left that evening they had made quite a large portion 
of the nest. Both birds worked in this home building pi'oj- 
ect. Several old nests from yjrevious years were also seen 
and all had these stone )nounds as a foundation." 

J'ena describes a similar nest on Laguna \ erde, ttO meters 
from the shore and in water ^O centimeters deep, covered with 
vegetable material and based on a truncated cone of stones. A 
diagramatic sketch of the nest is given. 

The eggs of Fitlica rornuta are roughly similar to those of 
the Giant Coot, about the size of a turkey's &g,g', and vary 
from 58.5 to 78 nun. in length and '38.2 to 58 mm. in width, 
stone gray to buff in ground color, speckled or blotched with 
dark gray or brown. The clutch consists of three to four eggs. 

Fulica gigantca of Peru, like other members of the family, 
makes a more tyj)ical nest of a mat of floating water weeds. 
The Giant Coot also nests twice a year, in August and again 
in December. No otlier known bird constructs its own island of 
stones on which to nest. All authors who have studied the nat- 
ural history of this xerophytic area in the high Andes of 
northern Chile and Bolivia, s])eak of the paucity of vegetation. 
It seems possible to s])eculate that this stone platform nest 
habit has evolved in response to the lack of vegetation, and also 
])erhaps to the presence of ])redators on the shores. The local 
Black-headed Gull, Lams Hcrranus found breeding on Laguna 
Verde by Pen a was nesting on a projecting stone, two meters 
out from the shore of the lake. 

Other associated bird species seen by Peiia in December be- 
sides the gull, were the Andean Flamingo, Fhoenicoparrus 
(HkViuhs, and in October, the Junin Grebe, Colijii/bii.s occipitalis 
jiniicnsis, and Puna Teal, Anas versicnJor pnva and the Andean 
Crested Duck, Lophonctfa specnloides alficola. 

The October birds, taken by Pena were ])aired and courting, 
thus possibly exj)laining the enlargement of the wattles. Pena 
reports that the weather is ferocious at this altitude in October, 
the wind almost ceaseless from the WSW. At 11 a.m. })art of 
the lagoon was covered with ice which he had to break and swim 



8 ]»()stilla Vale Pcabodij Mnscnm Xo. 'M) 

in to retrieve his .specimens. The oiilv nioderate season in this 
area is from December to February, and tliis probably deter- 
mines the nesting cycle which differs from that of Fiilica gigan- 
tea. 

No definite information is available about the territorial be- 
havior of FuJica corn/if (I. (ioodall, ffohnson and Phillipi (t. c. : 
1ST) report 30 nests of FiiJiai giganfca on all parts of Lake 
C'otacotani. Xeithei" Mr. Millie nor Mr. I'ena have rej)orted 
more than a single })air of Fulica coninfa on any one lake, 
though they have s])oken of abandoned and old nest sites. From 
the meagei- evidence available, it would a})pear that Fulica 
corjiufd tends to be tciritonai and ungregarious. 

SlJMMAUY 

Fi'om the above observations it appears that the Horned 
Coot, unlike the Ciriant Coot, nests only once a year, from the 
end of \ovenil)er to the beginning of Jaiuuirv, that its pre- 
ferred nesting area is small lakes in northern Chile, southern 
Jiolivia and northwestern Argentina above 12, ()()() feet, more 
conunoidy above 13, ()()() feet in essentially a xerophytic zone. 

During the courtship period there is a cotisiderable develop- 
ment ill both sexes of elaboivite frontal wattles with an associ- 
ated local caruncle, .\ctual courtshij) behavior has not been 
observed, but nuist involve use of these highly developed ap- 
])endages, as the frontal shield is used in other coots, described 
by Gullion (1953). 

Vnlike other bii'ds. lionaparte's Iloi-ned Coot builds its own 
Klba, a nest composed of an island of stones erected by the 
pair, and covered with a mass of plant material. 

TiiTKitATiKF. Cited 

GootiiilU .1. I)., A. W. Jolmson. jiikI K. A. Pliili])])i. I!).",!. "Las Aves de 
C'liilc," Hm-nos Airt-s, 2:1H4-1H7. 

CJullioii, (;. W., 195:{, Coiuior, r)o:|()f)-l.s.-). 

Hclltiiayr, ('. !•:. iiiui 1?. Conovi-r, 1!)I2, I<'icl(l .Mils. Nat. Hist. /ool. Scries 
1:5(1). Xo. 1:122. 

I'cuH, I.uis H., 19;)-l-, "K.\])l()raciniics «ii la ("ordillcra dc .Kntofajrasta." Kc\-. 
cliilcua Hist. nat. Xo. 11, .'5 1 : lf!;5-l,S(i. 

.Sriatcr, P. i .. and ( ). .Salviii, ISflS, I'roc. /ool. Soc. London: Uhi. 



o -/i/i~ '^ r^^^ ii^^-^t^ij 



/f-^adliL 



a 

YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 




Number 31 March 28, 1957 New Haven, Conn. 

NEW BIRDS FROM THE 
WESTERN PAPUAN ISLANDS 

S. Dillon Ripley 

As a preliminary to further publications on the work of 
the 1954 Yale Peabody Museum Expedition to the Moluccas, 
I should like to describe the following new forms of birds col- 
lected on the trip undertaken by myself and my wife. Following 
our departure from Netherlands New Guinea in December, 
1954, my assistant, Jusup Khakiaj, made a small collection of 
birds on the Islands of Misool, the Schildpads, Kofiau and 
Waigeu in early 1955. In addition to funds from Yale, my 
work was financed by a Fellowship from the Guggenheim 
Foundation as well as a Grant from the National Science 
Foundation. To the authorities of these organizations I am 
deeply grateful. I must also record my thanks to Drs. Dean 
Amadon and Charles Vaurie of the American Museum of Nat- 
ural History, and Mr. R. M. de Schauensee of the Philadelphia 
Academy of Natural Sciences for help in examining specimens 
in their care. 

Aepypodius arfakianus misoliensis subsp. nov. 

Type: 2 ad. (Y.P.M., no. 36560), collected November 22, 
1954, by S. Dillon Ripley ten kilometers W.N.W. of Tamulol, 
Misool Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 31 



Diagnosis : Compared to arfakianus, a series of three speci- 
mens, have more slender, slimmer bills which appear not so 
highly arched as in the mainland population from New 
Guinea. In addition, the feathers of the vent are tipped with 
slatj-gray, paler and lighter than in New Guinea birds, and 
the chestnut of the upper and under tail coverts is duller, less 
rich in appearance. This population appears to be smaller in 
size also. 



Measurements : 

arfakianus 9 5 5 9 $ 
wing 

260-272 (267.8) mm. 



tail bill 

(from ext. naris) 

130-149 (141.9) 20-22 (21.4) 



misoUensis 3 $ 9 9 
wing 

243, 261.5, 264 mm. 



tail 

131.5, 141.5 



bill 
(from ext. naris) 

19, 20, 21.5 



Range: Misool Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 

•Remarks : The occurrence of this large Bush Turkey on 
Misool Island as well as Cuvier's Bush Turkey, Talegalla 
cuvieri, is a remarkable discovery. It is planned to publish 
detailed comments on these species at a later date. 

Eos squamata attenua, subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. no. 36561) collected March 22, 1955, 
by Jusup Khakiaj on Kamoa I. Schildpad Is. north of 
Misool. 

Diagnosis : From squaviata this form differs by having a 
much reduced nuchal collar. Only one specimen of three 
shows a patch on the nape of the neck, and in all the speci- 
mens the prominent patch on the foreneck and upper breast 
extending to the throat is lacking or only lightly indicated 
with a few purplish blue tips to the feathers. The under sur- 
face of the tails of these birds tends to be rather brighter and 
more reddish, more like obiensis. From this form as well as 



MAY 2 3 1957' 

March 28, 1957 New Birds from Western Papuan lslands^^^^i^}^^\ 

guenbiensis it differs, however, in lacking the purplish oc- 
cipital spot, the pronounced collar, and, in obiensis, the black 
scapulars and greater wing coverts. 

Range: Kamoa, Lophon and presumably in the rest of the 
group of the Schildpad Is., north of Misool. 

Crateroscelis murina fumosa subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. no. 36562) collected Nov. 18, 1954, 
by S. Dillon Ripley inland from Tamulol, Misool Island, 
Netherlands New Guinea. 

Diagnosis: This form is nearest capitalis from Waigeu from 
which it differs in the male in the head being darker, more 
blackish brown. Below in both sexes Misool birds are 
much more reddish on the underparts. Compared to C. m. 
monarcha from the Aru Islands this population appears to 
be much more richly colored. Like capitalis the Misool birds 
are smaller than typical murina of New Guinea with the top 
of the head in the male darker, more richly colored. 

wing tail culmen 

Measurements: 5,99 53, 52.5, 55 33, 33.5, 35 16, 15(2) 

Weight: 5,99 15, 12, 13 grams. 

Range: Misool Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 

Gerygone magnirostris occasa subsp. nov. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. no. 36563) collected May 2, 1955, by 
Jusup Khakiaj on Kofiau Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 

Diagnosis : From cobana, brunneipectus and conspicillata, 
this form differs by being much more richly yellow on the 
abdomen, belly and under tail coverts, in this character ap- 
proaching the form, rosseliana from the Lousiade Archipel- 
ago, from which it differs in having the throat whitish and 
with a brownish tinge on the pectoral area. On the upper- 
parts it is darker, more brownish olive than the geograph- 
ically neighboring forms mentioned above. Above it is close 
to affinis from northern New Guinea, although again it is 
much more brightly colored on the lower surface than that 
form. 



4 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 31 

wing tail culmen 

Measurements: 53.5 37 11.5 mm. 

Range: Kofiau Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 

Remarks : This form is described from a single specimen un- 
fortunately, but a specimen which is so strikingly different 
from its geographical neighbors that it would seem to re- 
quire recognition. 

XanthoUs chrysotis austera, subsp. nov. 

Type: S ad. (Y.P.M. no. 36564) collected Nov. 15, 1954, 
by S. Dillon Ripley at Tamulol, Misool Island, Netherlands 
New Guinea. 

Diagnosis: From chrysotis this form differs by being darker 
and possibly somewhat smaller in size. The tone of the upper- 
parts is darker olive, brownish. The throat is dark gray, 
tinted at the lower edges with olive green. The lower parts 
are dark, considerably darker than chrysotis, and much 
darker than fusciventris. This form is much brighter, more 
yellowish-tinted on the breast and more olive-tinted on the 
back than saturatior, differing from that form as does chry- 
sotis. 

Measurements : 2 $ 5,2$ $ 



wing tail 


culmen 


5 96,103.5 (moult) 5 83,84 (moult) 


5 29,31 


$92,94 (moult) $73,77 (moult) 


$ 25.5,26 


Weight : 5 49, $ 38 grams. 




Range: Misool Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 





Remarks: The wing measurements of typical chrysotis fall 
within the range of 100-110 mm. for males and 95-100 for 
females. It would appear that the Misool birds are smaller 
than the form from the mainland of New Guinea, although 
lack of material and moult in two specimens prevents com- 
plete certainty in this case. 




m* 




I'll 



n 










YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural Histoky 



Number 32 



June 20, 1957 New Haven, Conn. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE HORNED COOT, 
FULICA CORNUTA BONAPARTE 

S. Dillon Ripley 



Subsequent to the publication of the notes on this curious 
species contained in PostUIo No. 30, Feb. 28, 1957, new in- 
formation has come to Hght which seems worth printing here. 
Again I am indebted for these added observations to Sr. Wil- 
liam R. Millie of Vallenar, Chile, as well as to Sr. A. W. John- 
son of Santiago, who have recently returned from a trip to the 
high altiplano of extreme northern Chile and western Bolivia. 

Mr. Johnson and Mr. Millie found a group of tv/elve Horned 
Coots on an artificial lake called Tranque Caritaya, altitude 
3600 metres, in the south of the Department of Arica, Chile. 
This extends the range of Fulica cornuia north more than 500 
kilometres from the previously known range in Chile. Lake 
Caritaya is only 60 miles from Lake Cotacotani where Fulica 
gigantea has been observed (1951, Goodall, Johnson and Phil- 
ippi, Las Aves de Chile, 2: 185-188), although it is 1200 metres 
lower in altitude. 

At this lake Messrs. Johnson and Millie found three nests 
on February 9 and 10, 1957, of which one was occupied by a 
female brooding a clutch of eggs, about one-third advanced in 
incubation, and the others gave evidence of having been recently 
occupied. A point of great interest was that the nests were con- 
structed entirely of vegetation, apparently Myriophyllum, 
vide Millie, in the usual coot fashion, but that the shape of 
these nests was similar to those made of stones far to the south, 



being cone-shaped with the greater part under water ap- 
parently resting on the bottom, unhke the mat-shaped, hirgely 
floating nests of FuUca gigaufea and the smaller species. 

It seems possible to speculate, therefore, that the nests made 
of stones in the alpine xerophytic zone where Fulica cornuta 
has previously been observed, which have only a coating of 
M yrlophijUum on the surface, have been developed as a unique 
nest building habit in direct response to the lack of vegetation, 
and that where vegetation is abundant this species will build a 
nest using traditional materials, although in a particular shape, 
peculiar to itself. 

Three further points of interest emerge from these observa- 
tions of extension of range of this species. The presence of 
several birds on Lake CaritaA^a implies at least that Fulica 
cornuta is more tolerant than its occurrence in the south would 
suggest. Perhaps the local abundance of food and nesting ma- 
terials allows compression of territories in this situation. In 
addition it would appear that Fulica gigantea and Fulica 
cornuta are at least geographically sympatric, although the 
species may be altitudinally or ecologically isolated in this zone 
of presumed overlap. 

Finally, the lateness of this nesting date in February might 
allow the Horned Coot to nest twice in the year. The Giant 
Coot nests in August, and again in November-December. Fulica 
cornuta has been known to breed only from late November to 
early January, now to February. Further investigation is 
needed to determine whether a double nesting cycle may occur 
in this species in the northern part of the range. 



j ^ j^\^j r^ /I v/ p// 




//^adLiLi 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Nattkal History 



Xuinber 88 



Nov. 1, 1957 



t! 









New Haven, Conn. 



ON A NEW SPECIES OF ANISOPS 

(HEMIPTERA, XOTOXECTIDAE ) 

FROM THE MOLUCCAS 

G. E. HrTCHiNsox' 



In a small collection of acjuatic insects made by Dr. S. Dil- 
lon Ripley in the Moluccas, two specimens of the genus Ani- 
sops are present. One of these is a female specimen from 
Misool which is possibly referrablc to A. stali Kirk.; in tlie 
absence of a male it is obviously impossible to make a precise 
identification. The second specimen appears to represent a 
new species. 

An'isops sylvia sp. n. 

Stramineous with dark venter abdominis, no s})ecial pigmen- 
tation. 

A moderately small, fairly wide-headed species with a long 
pronotum, anterior half of body subparallel, widest just before 
the middle. 

i Head wide (1.84<nnn), almost as wide as pronotum, about 
four times the anterior width of the vertex (0.36mm) which is 
just over twice the width of the synthlipsis. Anterior margin 



^ Department of Zoolof/t/, Yale Un'ivcrsitij. 



2 V()^[\\\ii Vale Pcabodfj aMuschin Xo. 33 

of lie;i(l between eyes verv sliglitly roiiiuled hiuI luirdly ])!•()- 
jectin^-, frontal interocular region hardly visible in lateral 
view, no longitudinal roll-like ridge between eyes (fig. 1). 

Pronotuni just over twice (l.^Tnmi) the length of the head 
(O.OTnnn) as seen from above and three fourths as long as 
wide (1.95mm); sides slightly diverging from anterior to hu- 
meral angles, posterior margin very slightly flattened centrally; 
exposed j)ortion of scutellum about half (O.TOnnn) the length 
of pronotum. 

Facial tubercle low, simple, glabrous, with traces of slight 
lateral depressions just inside postero-ventral corners of eyes. 
Labrum very short, much wider than long (fig. 2) ; prong of 
third rostral joint very slightly longer than the joint itself, 
apex subacute. 

Anterior femur sub])arallel, suddenly constricted apically, 
tibia with comb in two sections, of eleven small proximal tooth- 
like irreffularlv set elements and sixteen distal lamelliform 
elements; tibial chaetotaxy as in figure 3; claw one-third the 
length of tarsus. 

Intermediate claws equal and regularly curved. Dimensions 
of joints of legs in millimeters: 

Femur Tibia Tarsus 

Anterior 1.38(100) 1.24(90) 0.86(62) 

Intermediate 1.60(100) l.KJ(91) 0.()«(I1) ()..54(:il) 

Posterior 2.72(100) 2.16(80) 1.18(43) 0.73(27) 

Length ().4nnn, maxinunn breadth 2.()nnn. 

INDONESIA: Molucca Archipelago; (ing Sibela, liatjan Is. 

Sept. 19, 1954. 16 . S. Dillon Rii)ley (holof/jpe P.M.) 

In the structure of the tibial comb, with a series of short 

])roximal followed by long distal elements, A. salvia resembles, 

among the ninety well-known (lirooks, 1951) species of the 

genus, only .1. nigrolincata Lundblad (1933) from Java, India, 



\()v. 1, 1957 New Species of Aiiisopa 



li 



I /lU'^vi^^ 




Anisops sylvia, sp. n. holotyjic 

1. Lateral view of head. 

2. Labrum and rostral ])rong. 

3. Anterior tibia. 

Anisops niyrolineuta Lundblad, iSohawa, Pakistan 

4. Tibial comb of ^ . 



•1 Postilla Yah- Pcuhody Museum No. 33 

Pakistan, Burma and the Phili])j)ine Islands. Tlic new species 
differs strikingly from A. nigrolineuta in lacking the longitudi- 
nal rounded ridge between the eyes on the antero-ventral region 
of the head ; the seriation of the elements of the comb is even 
better developed, with more numerous but more reduced distal 
elements in A. sylvia than in A. nlgrolincdia (tig. 4-). The new 
species resembles both A. nigroUneata, and A. 'paran'igroVineata 
Brooks from the uplands of central and south India, in the 
excessively short labrum, and in the long pronotum. The three 
species clearly form a natural group and are certainly more 
closely allied to each other than to any other members of the 
genus. 

I am greatly indebted to my friend Dr. llii)ley for the 
opportunity to describe this species, and to Mrs. Nancy S. 
Kimball for professional assistance with the figures. 

REFERENCKS 

Brooks, G. T., 19.51. A revision of tlie genus An'tKoiiis (Xotonectidae, He- 
mjptera). Kans. Univ. Sci. Bull. 34: 304-519. 

Lundbald, O., 1933. Zur Kenntnls der aquatilen und semiaquatilen Hemip- 
teren von Sumatra, Java und Bali. Arch. Hydroblol. Suppl. 12: 1-489. 



r\ 



/V/7 " /i/f^u^ if/^ vi^- ^^\ 



/f^adUL 




a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 34? 



March 7, 1958 



New Haven, Conn. 



NOTES ON AN ADDITIONAL EXAMPLE 
OF THE FRITT BAT, 

SCOTOXYCTEIUS OPHIODOX POHLE 

Alvix No VIC k^ 



111 the Peabodv Museum collection of bats there is a single 
specimen of a fruit bat which appears to be closely allied with 
Scotonycter'is ophiodon Pohle (lO^S) and Scofoiii/cter'is ophio- 
don cansdalei Hayman (lOJ^S), both of which are known only 
from the type specimens. 

Scoionycter'is ophiodon Poiile. Skin and part of skull, Y.P.M. 
#944-2, collected in Liberia, 1928(?), by G. P. Cooper. 

Most of the cranial portions of the skull are missing, includ- 
ing the posterior and ventral borders of the orbits and the 
zygomata. This specimen is similar to Scotonycteris ophiodon 
Pohle and to S. o. cansdalei Hayman in general size and in 
external and dental characters. Like cansdalei it has cons})icu- 
ous white patches at the posterior angles of the eye and ex- 
tremely faint and inconspicuous white tufts at the anterior 
base of the ears (both spots lacking in ophiodon). The white 
border of the upper lips is conspicuous for only two-thirds of 
tiie way forward towards the nostrils but can be traced faintly 

1 Dcixirtmcnt of Zoolof/i/, Yale Unircrsili/. 



2 FostiWn Yale Peabodi/ Museum No. 3J< 

all the way to the nostrils. In ophiodon the white border is said 
to include the nostrils ; in cansdalei it reaches two-thirds of the 
way to the nostrils. These two forms have otherwise been dis- 
tinguished by cranial features Avhich can not be assessed in this 
specimen. Neither author has mentioned the conspicuous yellow- 
ness of the skin ventral and anterior to the orbit and the small 
bright yellow patches of fur ventral to the postorbital patches 
of white seen in this specimen. The skin of the rostrum is 
faintly 3'ellow; the skin under the jaw and extending back to 
the breast is also yellow, darker anteriorly and fading to a 
faint yellow posteriorly. Otherwise Hayman's description of the 
fur and color of cansdalei agrees in detail with the present 
specimen. 

The measurements of the three specimens are compared in 
Table 1. The present specimen differs markedly from the other 
two in total length but this measurement is unreliable in pre- 
pared specimens. The hindfoot is somewhat longer as are all of 
the metacarpals while the forearm and pollex are in the same 
range. The palate is similar in total length but the post dental 
palate is slightly longer. The breadth m^ — m^ is greater but the 
breadth c — c and the interorbital constriction are only slightly 
greater. The mandible is distinctly longer and is also higher at 
the coronoid. The teeth are all but identical in size and form 
with those of the previously described specimens. Thus this bat 
differs most interestingly from cansdalei in having increased 
yellowness of the skin of the head with the appearance of yellow 
tufts of fur posterior to the eyes. Furthermore it differs in 
having a longer hind foot, longer metacarpals, and a longer 
and higher mandible. 

REMARKS 

In 194<3, Pohle described S. ophiodon from Bipindi, Camer- 
oons, as the second species of the genus, previously known only 
from the genotype, S. zenlieri, whose range included the Camer- 
oons and Fernande Po. S. ophiodon was characterized by its much 
greater size and by striking dental peculiarities, of which the 
most important are the secondary cusps on the inner edges of 
uj)})er and lower canines and the heightening of the canines and 



March 7, 1958 Scoionycterh Ophiodon Pohle 

cheekteeth ; the latter also being provided with prominent in 
ner cusps. aS". o. ophiodon also lacks the white spot behind the 
eye found in zenkeri but agrees in most other respects in mark- 
ings and color. 

Pohle considered that some of the characters of ophiodon, 
particularly those of the cheekteeth, showed affinity to Casinyc- 
teris argynnis, whose close external similarity to Scotonycteris 
has been discussed by Andersen (1912). Pohle felt that the 
palatal characteristics of Casinycteris by which the genus is 
principally defined were unstable and proposed to relegate the 
genus to synonomy with Scotonycteris. Hayman (194<5), how- 
ever, has convincingly defended the independent position of the 
genus Casinycteris. Thus the three species belonging to two 
genera — Scotonycteris zenkeri, S. ophiodon, and Casinycteris 
urgynnis — present an interesting group. The heightening of the 
inner cusps of the cheekteeth of ophiodon is a feature very 
closely approaching the dentition of Casinycteris argynnis, 
rather than S. zenkeri. The normal palate is shared by the 
two species of Scotonycteris but not by Casinycteris. The sec- 
ondary cusps of the canines of ophiodon are found neither 
in zenkeri nor in Casinycteris. Externally these three are very 
similar, being distinguished only by details (which may well be 
variable) of the facial markings. The white ear tuft which is 
characteristic of all other epomophorine bats disappears in 
zenkeri and ophiodon but reappears in cansdalei, in the present 
specimen, and in Casinycteris ; the white spot behind the eye is 
not found in ophiodon. Yellow postorbital spots appear only in 
the present specimen. 

It appears that these three species form a natural group as 
judged by external appearance, dentition, cranial character- 
istics, wing membrane insertion, and many other considerations. 
The material at present is too sparse to attempt a clear analy- 
sis of the larger group when so few specimens represent most 
of the forms. It appears that its aberrant palate justifies re- 
taining the genus Casinycteris. I am not prepared any more 
than was Hayman to erect a new genus for ophiodon because 
of its dentition. I feel that its clear dental separation from 
zenkeri should be emphasized by the erection of a new subgenus. 




4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 34 

Havinan cliosc to express the position of cansdah'i as a sub- 
species of ophiodon with the comment that the differences might 
be of specific value. I am reluctant to name a new form from the 
present specimen in view of its incomplete skull and of its being 
a single specimen to be compared with only single specimens of 
both ophiodon and cansdcdei. The differences, nevertheless, be- 
tween the Peabody ^Museum specimen and the types of ophiodon 
and cansdalei appear to be slightly greater than the differences 
between the latter two. For the time, I suggest considering this 
specimen to be a variant of Scotonycteris ophiodon Pohle. Its 
discovery in Liberia increases the known range of this fruit bat 
to include Liberia, Gold Coast, and the Cameroons. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Andersen, Knud. 1912. Catalogue of the Chiroptera in the 
Collection of the British Museum. 2d ed. Vol. I. Mega- 
chiroptera. London, British Museum of Natural Histor}'. 

Hayman, R. W. 1945. A new Scotonycteris, with notes on 
other Gold Coast bats. Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., (11)12, 
T66-775. 

Pohle, H. 1943. Scotonycteris ophiodon, sp. n., eine neue Art 
epomophoroider Flughunde. S. B. Ges. naturf. Fr. Berl. 
1942 (1943): T8-8T. 



March 7, 1958 Scotonyctcris Ophiodon Pohle 5 

TABLE 1 

All measurements are in millimeters. Where a blank appears, 
the portion concerned could not be measured. The measurements 
of ophiodon and cansdalei are taken from Hayman (1945). 

Scotonycteris S. o. Y. P. M. 

0. ophiodon cansdalei ^9442 

Head and Body 105 115 143 

Tail 1 ... palpable 

Hindfoot 14 15 19 

Ear 20.5 22 

Forearm 75 76 73.8 

Pollex .36.5 31 35.2 

2nd metacarpal 39 35 43.2 

3rd metacarpal 54 52 58.5 

4th metacarpal 50 49 55.5 

5th metacarpal 51 50 54.9 

Skull, total length 36 36 

Palation to inc. foramina 17.6 17 17.7 

Palation to basion 12.2 13 

Post-dental palate 6.4 6 7.0 

Rostrum 9.2 10 9.6 

Braincase at zygomatic root 16 15 ... 

Zygomatic breadth 21 22.5 

Breadth mi— mi 12.6 12 13.4 

Breadth c— c 6.7 7.5 7.8 

Breadth of postorbital processes 11.2 14 

Interorbital constriction 6.4 7 7.2 

Diameter of orbit 9 9 

Length of mandible 26.5 26.5 29.5 

Height at coronoid 11.2 12 14 

Upper tooth row c— ms 11.9 12 11.9 

Height ci 6.1 5.5 6.0 

Height p3 3.8 4 4.1 

Height p4 3.1 3 2.8 

Height ml 2.3 2 2.3 

Height c^ 4.1 4 4.1 

Height pg 4.1 4 3.9 

Height p^ 3 3 3.2 

Height m^ 2.4 2.1 2.2 

Height m^ 1.1 1.2 1.3 



■AjPf 









YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 35 



April 21, 195S New Haven, Conn. 



NOTES ON INDIAN BIRDS. VII.* 



S. DlI-LON RlI'LKV 



Pycnonotns Itucoycnya (Gray) 

In my forthcoming hand-list of Indian birds, I have treated 
the White-cheeked Bulbuls as Ijelonging to a single species. I 
have been interested, therefore, to read a discjuisition on this 
interesting problem by ^'aurie (195S, Anier. Mns. Xuvit. No. 
1869:14-15) whose conclusions differ from mine. Pycnonotns 
leucogenys Icncogenys is a sprightly, cockaded bulbul which 
ranges along the Himalayas from extreme eastern Afghanistan 
at medium altitudes up to 8000 feet, following the main river 
valleys such as the Kunar, Jheluni, etc., moving into such mar- 
ginal areas as Ha/ara and Chitral with the advent of warm 
weather. Thence it extends east to Nepal, Sikkim and Assam 
north of the Brahmaj)utra River. It is a wandering species where- 
cver it occurs in the northwest, addicted to cultivated areas 
and moving with the seasons. The distribution in the higher 
latitudes of its range (above 33° N. lat.) seems to be a mar- 
ginal fluctuating one, implying that the species has reached 
the limit of its ecotolerance and is probably subject to sporadic 
occurrences and numerical fluctuations in this area. Such be- 
havior may be shown some day to account for the two ques- 

*'I'he prcci-ding number in this series a})i)eared in Postilla, No. 20, July 9, 1854. 



2 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 35 

tioned sifjht records of Zarudiiv in the Tfid/hik S.S.H. Tliev 
may have been vagrants or strays during a warm weather ])ost- 
breeding wandering season. 

Whistler (un])ublished MSS and Popular Handbook of In- 
dian Birds, 1941, and subsequent dates) speaks of this form as 
occurring in Afghanistan, although he doubts its occurrence 
in his subsequent publication on Afghanistan (19-l-t, Jour. 
Bombay Xat. Hist. Soc. U-5'i-^) ; Baker also records it (1922, 
Fauna Brit. India, Birds, 1 :390). The Afghan population has 
recently been described as a new subspecies, picru, by Koelz 
(1954-, Contrih. Inst. Regional Exploration, No. 1:11) who 
collected a series near I.aghman in extreme east Afghanistan in 
May, 19oT. My own feeling is that these birds may well have 
recently arrived as summer visitors to the area from the lower 
valleys to the east. They do not appear to be separable from 
pt)pulations farther to the east, vide Vaurie, op. cit. supra, and 
Traylor (in litt.) who kindly examined specimens in the Chica- 
go Museum for mc. 

Pycnonotus leucogenys leucotis is a lowland form, reaching 
6000 feet in warm weather in the Kandahar area, more addicted 
to dry arid localities in tro})ical dry deciduous and semi-desert 
as well as desert facies. I^ike leucogenys, liowever, it fretjuents 
cultivated areas and spreads with the sjjread of gardens and 
groves, probably thereby extending its range. This form is 
the common White-eared liulbul of West Pakistan and western 
India extending north to Kandahar and southern Afghanistan. 
West, the s})ecies extends to Iran, Ira<|, and Arabia. P. I. 
leucotis lacks a crest and, therefore, appears quite distinct 
from leucogenys, especially in nuiseum skins. Dr. Bowdler 
Sharpe was, at one time, inclined to separate the two forms into 
different genera {vide Whitehead, 1909, Ibis -.llS). My own 
reaction when I first saw leucotis and leucogenys separately in 
tlie field was that although in habits and behavior they were 
identical, nonetheless they were recognizable in terms of plum- 
age differences as separate species. 

However, there is an intermediate })0})ulatioii which occurs 
at exactly the meeting place of the two forms, the u})per Indus 
River in North West Frontier Province of West Pakistan in 
the Bannu and Kohat districts where the Kabul River joins 




A})ril 21, U)r>S Indian Birds. VII. 



the Indus. This popuhition has been discussed by Whitehead 
(1909, op. (•// :112-114) under tlie name Molpastes leiicogenys. 
He does not seem to liave been aware that he was discussing 
Pycnonotiis leucogenys humii which differs from leucogenys in 
possessing a blackish head with reduced olive wash on the back. 
The raiiffe of humii, which was described bv Oates in 1889 
{Fauna Brit. India, Birds, 1 :274'), extends up the Kabul River 
at least to Jalalabad thence east in Bannu and Kohat districts 
to Cambellpur and Rawalpindi, Jlielum and the Salt Range of 
West Punjab. 

Vaurie, on the basis of one specimen (1958, op. ci^:16), has 
given a key to the species which implies that humii is closer to 
leucotis and so should be listed with it. Specimens in the Yale 
Collection and others I have examined in London show that 
Vaurie's description is at fault and that humii is, in fact, an 
intermediate. 

Vaurie's charactei's are as follows: 



size 



If'iirof/riii/.s 


leiicotin 


hiltliii 


"lar}r<'r, more 


smaller 


smnll, but with 


robust, distinct- 




a "slightly lar- 


ly larfjer hill 




ger" bill than 


witli more 




U'uroth 


strongly devel- 






oped riotal 






bristles" 







[The above is not sup})orted by the evidence. Ty})ical leuco- 
tis has a smaller bill, but when the western, Persian Gulf forms 
are comi)ared, their size becomes ecjual to leucogenys. As is so 
often the case with chains of subspecies, nearly contiguous forms 
tcnfl to have more pronounced size differences than those more 
spatially separated.] 

color "greenish on the "grayish "identical vvitli 

back and rumji brown" in fresh nominate 

in fresh plumage leucoth" 

plumage" 

[The above is not entirely accurate. The intermediate humii. 



Postilla Yale Vcabodij Museum 



No. 35 



ill trt'sh })lumage, has a faint greenish-olive tinge on tlie back, 
exactly intermediate between leucogenys and leucotis.] 



crest 



leucogenys 

"narrowly 
edged with 
white . . . more 
conspicuous 
above the eye 
thus forming a 
distinct super- 
ciliary streak" 



leucotis 

"no crest . . . not 
edged ... no 
streak" 



humii 

"crest feathers 
black, not edged 
with white . . . 
broader and 
rounded" 



[The above does not entirely describe the situation in liiunii 
which has the feathers of the head exactly intermediate between 
the condition of leucogenys and leucotis, the feathers slightly 
lanceolate but somewhat broader, with pale edgings to the 
feathers above and behind the eye and a distinct short white 
superciliary streak, more prominent in some specimens than 
others.] 



crown color 



•brown" 



•black" 



•k" 



[In humii the crest feathers are brownish black, not pure 
black. 1 



I would prefer to list the variations in these forms as follows : 





Crest 


Super- 
ciliary 
Streak 


Back 
Color 


Check 
Patch 


Blackish 

edging to 

feathers 

at nape 


\'ent 


leuco(feiii/s 


long, 
brown 


present 


greenish- 
olive 
brown 


smallest 


present 


lemon 
yellow 


humii 


moder- 
ate, 
brown- 
ish- 
black 


present 

but 
reduced 


dull 

oliv«' 

brown 


inter- 
mediate 


])resent 


lemon 
yellow 


leucotis 


lack- 
ing, 
black 


lacking 


grayisli- 
brown 


largest 


nearly 
absent 


chrome 
yellow 



April 21, 1958 Indian Birds. VII. 5 

From the ahovc it will be seen that humii t)icu})ies the posi- 
tion of an intermediate in morphological characters, and occurs 
in the area where the ranges of" leiicogenys and leucotis meet. 
As the form has intermediate and recognizable characters and 
possesses a discrete range, it would appear to qualify by every 
conservative definition as a subspecies linking two adjacent 
subspecies. 

The possibility must not be neglected that hnntii is a hybrid, 
as Vaurie has noted. If it can be shown to be a hybrid, then it 
is strange that the 30-odd specimens which have been collected 
have not shown a great deal more variation. It could be that 
this is a case of interspecific hybridization as shown by Meise 
(19.'3{). Jo/ir. f. Orn., 5,^:631-672) for two species of Passer 
in the Mediterranean, or Chapin (1948, Evolution, ^:111-126) 
for Paradise Flvcatchers, Terpsi phone species in Africa. Both 
these cases have been due ])erhaps to disturbance of the en- 
vironment. Similarly, in Ceylon (194-6, Sfiolia Zeijlanica, 
^4^:218-220), I have described hybridization in two well marked 
subsj^ecies of Drongos. Bulbuls hybridize in the area, witness 
the hvbi'id specimens taken in Bannu District, between P//rtiO' 
notus loicogenys leucotis and Fycnoiiotus cafer intermedins. 

I believe, however, that in this case hniuii represents a stable 
form, possibly derived from an original hybridization between 
two rather morphologically difif'erent ancestors, possibly merely 
one of a series of widely spaced steps in a discontinuous cline 
of originally geographically isolated and spatially evolved sub- 
species. Should the former supposition, with its im})lication of 
a stabilized hybrid swarm seem feasible, it would provide a most 
interesting subject of experimental study, as worthy of re- 
search as the provocative j)o{)ulation known as the Marianas 
Mallard, Anas oasfaleti, which has been described as a })ossibie 
hybi-id swarm by Yamashina, (1947, Pacif. Set. //:121-124). 

Thk Namf, of thk WiiiTE-irEADKi) Bahht.kk 

The names of the White-headed Babbler and its close rela- 
tive, the Bombay Babbler or Jungle Babbler from Ceylon and 
Peninsular India have been the subject of c()nsideral)le «on- 
fusion over the years. 



(j PosHlla )'tiU- Peabody Musetim No. 35 

Jerdon (18().'j, Bds. of India, 2 •.59-{^'^) listed the tlieii-kiiown 
forms of these babblers from India as: Malarorircus tcrricolor 
Hodgson from Bengal, the Nepal lowlands or fcrai and ad- 
jacent areas; Malacocircus griseus (Gmelin), in the Carnatic, 
with perhaps a closely allied form, M. affin'is Jerdon, in the 
south of Malabar; M<dacocircus malabaricus Jerdon in the 
Peninsula, and Malacocircus somervillei (Svkes) in Bombay. 
He mentions M. striatus Swainson of Ceylon which he says is 
very close to tcrricolor. 

Gates (1889, Fauna of Brit. India, Birds, /:11()-114) lists 
Crateropns canorus (liinnaeus) for the whole of India, with 
Crateropns griscns (Gmelin) in Southern India, Crateropns 
striatus (Swainson) iji Ceylon, and Crateropns somervilHi 
(Sykes) in the Westei-n Ghats. This is the same arrangement 
as that of Sharpe, (1SH3, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mas., 7 :4.8()-483) 
who listed the same four species with ecjuivalent ranges. 

. More recently, Baker (1922, Fauna Brit. India, Birds, 
i:19()-195) listed three species with added subspecies for the 
area: 1) Turdoides tcrricolor tcrricolor (Hodgson) in north- 
ern India to Bengal, Tnrdoides tcrricolor inalaharicns (Jer- 
don) in southern India, Tnrdoides tcrricolor sindianns (Tice- 
hurst) in West Pakistan and western India; 2) Tnrdoides gri- 
seus griseus (Gmelin) in southern India north only to a line from 
Ellore, SecunderabatI and Belgaum, and Turdoides griseus 
striatus (Swainson) in Ceylon; 8) Tnrdoides somervillei 
(Sykes) from Bombay south to Travancore. So in a period of 
fifty-nine years, these babblers had been reduced from five spe- 
cies to three, with at least eight names being used for the 
various forms. 

In volumes 7 and 8 of his work (1930), Baker introduced 
two additional names for the first time (pp. 36, 601). These 
were the substitute name Turd us polio plocani us Oberholser, 
1920, a new name for Tardus griseus Gmelin, preoccupied 
by Tardus griseus of Boddaert 1T83. In addition he listed 
Turdoides striatus (l)umont) 1823, an earlier name than T. 
striatus of Swainson, 1832, and gave to it the type locality 
of Ceylon. 

I'nfortunately, Baker had a})parently not consulted either 
the oriy-inal volume of Levrault's Dictionnaire from which 



April 21, U).-)S Indian Hirds. VII. 7 

Duniont's name came, nor tlie valuable early work of Jerdon, 
1847, Illustrations of Indian Ornithology. In the latter volume 
(text to plate XIX) Jerdon discusses M. striatus Swainson 
from Cvlon and says: 

"It was founded on a Ceylon species which Mr. Swainson 
identified with a bird in the Paris Museum hibelled (rraciila 
striata. It is Cossyphus striatus of Dumeril (Blyth), and 
Philanthus striatus of Lesson. 

"It is not impossible, however, tliat the striatus of the 
French Museum is one of the allied species, either terricolor, 
malabaricus, or orientalis, which Swainson might have readily 
enougli mistaken for it. Lesson says it was from Bengal ; if 
so it is probably terricolor." 

The most recent and far more biologically interesting treat- 
ment of these species is that of Whistler and Kinnear (19.*}6, 
Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 55:737-74-1) who point out that 
there are in fact two species involved. One is the Jungle Bab- 
bler which ranges from West Pakistan and northern India in 
the Himalayan foothills, Nepal, east to Bengal and western 
Assam, and south throughout the Peninsula. The second spe- 
cies is the White-headed Babbler which occurs in Peninsular 
India as far north as Belgaum on the west, Chanda in the 
center, and Andhra in the east to the border of Bastar. In 
Ceylon also, the White-headed Babbler occurs with, in addition, 
the Rufous Babbler, which is combined nowadays with the 
Indian Jungle Babbler as a well marked subspecies. In the 
species somermllei. Whistler and Kinnear recognize four sub- 
species: sindianus (Ticehurst), terricolor (Blyth), malabari- 
cus (Jerdon) and somerzrillei (Sykes). In the species striatus 
they list polioplocamus Oberholser and striatus (Dumont). 
Later Whistler (19-i4<, Spolia Zeylanica, '23:Vd\), discussing 
the species striatus, reintroduces the name affinis (Jerdon) for 
the Indian Peninsular race of the species, without saying that 
he evidently considers this an earlier name than that of Ober- 
holser, as a substitute for the name griseus (Gmelin), pre- 
occupied. 

Out of this history of varying nomenclature and usage, one 
fact emerges. North of the Peninsula proper of India, in areas 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 35 

such as Bengal, only one form of this babbler occurs ; it is the 
one which has normally been named terricolor, ascribed either 
to Hodgson or lilyth, but of whose proper appelation Jerdon 
(1845, op. cit.) had expressed a doubt. 

The original description of Dumont (182.'J, Diet. Sci. Xat. 
[ed. LevraultJ, ^.9:2()8) is of a bird which he calls Cossijphiis 
striatus and of which he remarks that several individuals have 
been received, collected in "liengale" by Mace and Dussumier, 
their si/e being that of a common thrush, and their color donii- 
nantly reddish gray. One specimen has some brown transverse 
striations on the breast, and among the others the striations 
are longitudinal and paler. 

In response to a query about specimens at the Paris Museum, 
Professor Berlioz has kindly written me as follows (in lift.) : 

"We have in our old mounted collection a specimen which 
possibly might have been the type of Dumont's description; 
but nothing is more doubtful as, in the register, it bears only 
the mention 'ty])e' (but of which author.'') and, without any 
label, the only mention, underneath — by a comparatively re- 
cent handwriting — 'Bengalc, Mace' . . . the head certainly 
does not show any sign of lighter, whitish color in front, and 
the culmen (18 mill.) is intermediate in size between our 
long-billed specimens from the Central Provinces in India 
and the short-billed from Southern India and Ceylon. 

"However, the most obvious remark is that it is not the 
typical white-headed bird with short bill from Ceylon; but 
nothing can be ascertained about it being Dumont's type of 
C o s sy phus striatus.'''' 

The above at least determines that in fact Cossyphu.s stria- 
tus as defined by Dumont came from Bengal (where only one 
species occurs), and that the sole specimen i-cmaining of those 
collected by Mace corresponds to the Jungle Babbler, a bird 
approximately the size of a Thrush (over-all length 250 milli- 
meters approximately), upper plumage brown, rather reddish 
brown on the head and rump, slightly fulvous on the upper tail- 
coverts, the back with dark streaks and })aler shaft-stripes; 
tail brown, tipped paler and cross-rayed ; lores whitish with a 
narrow black line above them, breast and iuider})arts, fulvous- 



April 21, 1958 Indian Birds. VII. 9 

ashy to wliitisli, the sides tinged with brown. As lectotype, I 
select the specimen Paris Museum No. 8.614 labelled "type" 
from "lieng-ale" collected by Mace. 

The followino- forms of Jungle and White-headed Babbler 
should thus be listed in India and Ceylon: 

Tnrdo'ides striatus (Dumont) : Boiiibay Babbler 
or Jungle Babbler. 

Pakistan, India and Xepal. 
Turdoides strlaliis slndianus (Ticehurst). 
Crateropus Terricolor sindinnus Ticehurst, 1920, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI., 

4():lo6. (Karachi, Sind.) 
Range. — West Pakistan south to India in Kutch, Rajasthan and Del- 
hi, intcrgrading south of this line Into neighhoring subspecies. 

Turdokless gtriatiis orientaJia (Jerdon). 

M.{(d(tc()circu!<) oricntalis Jerdon, 1847, 111. Ind. Orn. text to pi. 19. 
("jungles of the Carnatic and more especially among those of the 
Eastern Ghauts," hereby restricted to Horsleykonda, west of Nel- 
lore.) 

Range. — Intergrades with the preceding form in the little Rann of 
Kutch and Saurashtra, thence northeast to Agra, south and east to 
Narbada River, M.P., intergrades with striafiii^ along the Jumna 
River in northwestern M.P. and southern U.P. and a line southeast 
to the Godavari Delta; Madras, Mysore. 

Turdoides ntr:ntu)< soiiicri'illi'i (Sykes). 

Tinutlia Soiiiervilh'i Sykes, 1882, Proc. Zool. S(jc. London :88. 

("Ghauts" ^ Bombay Ghats). 
Range. — Bombay State from Surat Dangs south along the coast, in- 
tcrgrading with the following form in Goa. 

Turdoides striatic) iiKilalxiriru.i (Jerdon). 

M.{ahtcocircii)i) iiKihdxiririin Jerdon, 1847, 111. J ml. Orn. text to ])1. 19. 
("forests of Malabar and on the sides of the Neilgherries" ^ Tra- 
vancore vide Whistler 19:«, J.B.X.H.S., 38:72.) 
Range. — Western Mysore and Goa where it intergrades with the pre- 
ceding form, south through western coastal Mysore and Kerala, in- 
tergrading with orientalis at Tenmalai near the Ariankivu gap. 

Turdoides striatus striatus (Dumont). 

Cossyphus striatus Dumont, 1828, Diet. Sci. Aat. (ed. Levrault), 
.■ . • 29:268. (Bengale) 

M. {alacocercus) terricolor "Hodgson" = Blyth, 1844, Jour. Asiat. 
Soc. Bengal, 13:367. (Nepfd.) 

Range. — Northern and eastern India from U.P., Jumna River east 
through the Nepal terai along the Himalayan foothills to Assam, 
as far as Dibrugarh, southeast in the drainage of the Ganges and 
Brahmaputra rivers in West Bengal and East Pakistan, to Orissa, 
Andhra, and the Godavari delta. 



10 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 86 

Turdoides striatus rufescens (Blyth). 

M. {alacocercus) rufescens Blyth 1847, Jour. Asiat. Soc. Bengal, 

/6:453. (Ceylon) 
Range. — Low country wet zone and southwestern hill zone of Ceylon. 

Turdoides (i^inis ( Jerdon) : AVhite-headed Babbler 

Peninsular India and Ceyon. 

Turdoides afinis nffinis (Jerdon). 

M. {alarocirciis) affinis Jerdon, 1847, III. hid. Orn. text to pi. 19. 
())enin.suia = Kanara dist., Mysore, restricted herewith.) 

M. {al(trocirciis) Elliittii Jerdon, 1847, 111. hid. Orn. text to \)\. 19. 
(Travancore) 

Turdoides poliojilocaniiis Oberholser, 192U, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washitig- 
ton, .f.?:84. New name for Tiirdus f/riseus Gmelin, 1789 (Coroman- 
del Coast, India), nee Tnrdus griseiis Hoddaert, 1783. 

Range. — From eastern Bombay (Clianda) and the Ckniavari Hivej 
Valley (Ellore and Dumagudiam) south through Andhra, Madras, 
Mysore, and the drier })arts of Kerala to Cajie Cormorin, and on 
the west coast from Mangalore north to the Gaprabha River. 

Turdoides affinis taprobanus subsj). nov. 

Malacocircus siriatus Swainson 1883, Zoal. Ilius ser. 2, 3, pi. 127 and 
text. (Ceylon.) ner (Uissi/pbu.s .s-lriotiis Dumont 1823 = Turdoidea 
st riot IIS (Dumont). 

Range. — Ceylon. 

Remarks. — This form differs from the Peninsula population as pointed 
out by Whistler (1944, S/iolia Zejilnnica 2.'?:131) having a much grayer 
wasii on the head and body, and with reduced or absent subterminal 
blackish spots. In addition, Ceylon specimens lack the grayish-white 
heads, characteristic for the birds of southern India. 

There is a tendency for Ceylon birds to be larger than South In- 
dian birds; wing: 1()4..5-110 mm. vs. 98-104 mm. in the Y.P.M. series. 
Whistler and Kinnear (1936, .lour, lionihaij Nat. Hist. Soc, ,?.7:739) 
give measurements for Peninsula birds from 94.5-109 nwn., so it may 
be that there is too much overlap to be significant. 

Type.— V. P.M. No. 20220, i ad. collected 13 September, 1950, by 
S. Dillon Ripley at Alawna, Ceylon. 

Certhia himalaynna Vigors 

In the Bulletin of the British Ornithogists' Club, (^^, 1922, 
p. 140) Col. Meinert/.hagen states that the type of Vigor's 
Certhia himalayana "was undoubtedly collected in either Garh- 
wal or Kumaon," and that the specimen from Pushut, Afghani- 
stan de.signated as "type" in Gadow's handwriting in the Brit- 
ish Museum collection, probably done when he was writing the 



April 21, 1958 Indian Birds. VII. 11 

British Museum Catalogue, Volume 8, must be disregarded. 
Meinertzhagen then goes on to name tlie extreme northern and 
northwestern Himalayan population as Certhia himalayana 
limes, a name which is considered valid today. 

Two years later, Ticehurst and Whistler, (1924, IbisAdH- 
473) discussing the area in which Vigor's birds were secured, 
stated that the principal collection came from the western 
Himalayas which "for our purpose must be considered as the 
area of Gahrwal (sic) and Kumaon, from Simla to the Ne])alese 
border." They specifically state that there were no birds from 
Nepal in the collection. 

It would thus seem that under ihe International Rules as 
amended at Paris and Copenhagen, 1948 and 1953, Col. Mein- 
ertzhagen's action in stating that Vigor's specimens must have 
come from Garhwal or Kumaon, can be interpreted as that of 
a first revisor, (see proposed Draft of the Regies by Professor 
Bradley, 1957, Bull. Zool. Nomenel. 14 (1/6) :115-116, Article 
17, "Localities of Origin"). However, it would appear in view 
of the vagueness of Col. Meinertzhagen's ascription of locality 
and the fact that in 1830 when the collection came to Vigor's 
hand the geographical area from Garhwal to Kumaon could 
include the entire sweep of hills from Simla to the Nepal 
border, exclusive of the independent Raja's Hill States, that 
Messrs. Ticehurst's and Whistler's action of 1924 of narrow- 
ing the type locality to the Simla-Almora district is perfectly 
valid and proper. Such an action is envisaged in Paragraph 
(a) (3) of the Bradley Draft {op. cit.) . . . "priority shall 
apply hetxceen two or more authors attempting to establish a 
designated typieal locality for a species, but subsequent re- 
striction of a designated typical locality shall be allozcable." 

I thus feel that Ticehurst and Whistler's action is correct in 
this instance, and that they have validly restricted the type lo- 
cality of Certhia himalayana Vigors to Simla-Almora district, 
as it is understood today in strict political terms. 

Vaurie (1957, Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 1855:13) discusses 
this species and points out that Meinertzhagen's action ante- 
dates that of Ticehurst and Whistler, but does not attempt to 
re-restrict or designate a more specific type locality, apparently 
being unaware of the vagueness, especially in the usage of the 



12 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 35 

183()'s of such a term as "Garhwal and Kuniaon." He 
also casts doubt on my naming (Proc. Biol. Soc. Woshington 
6.j/:l()6) of a darker })0})ulation, Certhia himolayana infima 
from western Nepal, from whence it had not with certainty 
been previously recorded. (There is a Hodgson specimen, an 
immature bird labelled "Nepal," in the British Museum collec- 
tion, of uncertain attribution and useless for subspecific analy- 
sis.) It would seem a})])ropriate in view of the existence of 
co:n])arative material at neighboring institutions for Vaurie to 
have borrowed specimens in order to compare them critically as, 
so far as I know, the Amei'ican Museum of Natural History 
collection lacks material of this species from Nepal or eastern 
Kumaon. However, Vaurie, accepting a vague type locality of 
"Garhwal and Kumaon," merely states that with such a type 
locality, "the cline is not sufficiently steep to warrant in my 
opinion the nomenclatural se})aration of the population from 
western Nepal from that of neighboring Kumaon or Garhwal. 
I consider infiji/a a synonym of nominate himolayana.^'' 

In this connection, it seems a})()ropriate to record that Rand 
and Fleming (1957, "liirds from Ne{)al," FiehJiatw •.7.oo\og\, 
..^ / (1 ) :l'il, working with actual specimens, state: "We have 
three Mussoorie birds . . . for comparison. The Nepal birds 
are darker on the flanks, back and tail, supporting Ripley's 
descri})tion for C. h. }iiiir)na"' \.sic: infinut]. Mussoorie is cer- 
tainly within the vague general locality of Garhwal and Ku- 
maon, and their specimens should serve as a comparative series 
within the raupc as defined bv anv of these authors. I am in 
consequence listing infima as a valid subspecies in my Indian 
hand-list, and acce])ting the Ticehurst and \Vhistler restricted 
tvpe localitv for the nominate subspecies. 



S^/^ff ^ /v £u^ Jl^ jf i/ a, /)/ 



/l^o^tilL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



No. 3() 



June 27, 1958 



mm 

OCT 2 2 1958 
OKtYEHSITY 



New Haven, Conn. 



ON THE DOUBTFUL VALIDITY OF TACHYPLEUS 

HOEVEXI POCOCK, AN INDONESIAN HORSESHOE 

CRAB (XIPHOSURA)^ - 

Talhot H. Waterman 

Dpjiftrfmeni of Znnlof/i/. Yale VniventUii 



There are four undoubtedly valid species of living xipho- 
surans. One of these, Limulus polyphemus (L.), is from the 
western North Atlantic. The other three have d-iflFerent distri- 
butions in the western Pacific and the Bay of Bengal. Thev 
comprise Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille), Tachy- 
pleus fridentatus Leach and Tachypleus gigas (Miiller). All 
of these are well represented and recognized in collections. A 
third species of TachypJens, T. hocveni, was named by Pocock 
(1902) for certain figures in van der Hoeven's monograph 
on the Xiphosura (1838; Plate I, figs. 2, 10; Plate II, fig. 14). 
A key to recent species of Xiphosura is presented as an Ap- 
pendix and in figs. 9-11. 

1 Respectfully dedicated to my colleague and friend Dr. Alexander 
Petrunkevitch. 

- These studies were aided by a contract between the Office of Naval 
Research, Department of the Navy, and Yale University, NR 168-091, and 
by a grant from the Pacific Science Board of the National Research 
Council. 



2 Postilla Yale I\aho(hj Museum Xo. 3G 

According to its definition T<ich ifplciis hocvcni resenibU's T. 
gigoH ill all known respects cxc'e})t that the median terminal 
seo'inents of the ''•cnital o])ercuhini in lioerwni are separate and 
overia]) a^yllllnot^ic•all y. instead ol' hein^ nnited, symmetrical 
and contif^uous as in g'lgas. A})pareiitly Pocock himself never 
saw a specimen of liis s])ecies, and none have since been reported 
either in the field or in iiius(Mini>. It is of interest, therefore, to 
inquire whether or not 'racli //pic/i.s liocrcni is a Vfdid s])ecies, 
closely related to. hut distinct from T. c/ifja.s. Doubt of such 
validity has already been raised on rather <»;eneral "rounds by 
Gravier (1{)29) in his review of specimens of Xiphosura in 
the Paris Museum Xational d'Histoire Xaturelle. Present at- 
tention to the ])roblcm was stimulated by the author's interest 
in speciation and distribution of horseshoe crabs particularly 
with relation to their eyes and visual })hysiolo^'y (Waterman. 
1951; 19r);ja.h; 1954.a,b,c; 1955; Waterman and Enami. 195:}; 
Waterman and ^Viel^sma, 1954'). 

In an attempt to settle this moot taxonomic ))oint. a lari^c 
number of Tachi/pleus gigcis have been studied to determine 
whether any individuals could be found attributable to 7'. 
hocvcni as detined by Pocock. Specimens examined include the 
avithoi's own material collected on Singapore Island in 1952; 
the collections oi the Kaffles Museum, Singa])ore; the Zoolo- 
iy\sch ^Museum, Amsterdam; the Rijksmuseum van X'atuurlijke 
Historic, I.eiden ; the Universitets Zoologisk ^Museum. Co})en- 
hagen ; and the Museum of Comjiarative Zoolooy. Harvard 
T'niversitv'. Relevant material was found in onlv three of 



■ li sliouUl he inentioned that visits or im|uirirs nddrrsscd to a iuitnh;T 
of otlier museums revealed that no s})ecinu'ns either of Tarhiiplfus r/if/os 
or Tnrh\i})lrv!i hncx'nii were ]iresent: I'.S. Xational Museum. Washiiifrton. 
D.C.; Peahody Museum. Yale I'niversity; Ameriean Museum of Xatural 
History, Xew "^'ork ; Museum Zoolojrieum Uofroriensc. Uofror (formerly 
i5nili'ii/,(ir>:), Indonesia; Iiistitut ( )eeanopra)>hi(]ue de N'hatranjr, \'ietnam: 
Natin-ai History Museum. Manil i, Phili]>iiine IJepulilic ; the National Mu- 
seum. Sydney and Xat'onal Museum of \'ietoria, Mell)ouriH'. Australia. 
In Mfidition. re\ie\v of the iircsenl collcet ions in the l^ritish Musemu (Nat- 
ural History) and the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris 
shows that no relevant material has heen ac(|uired since the el issie papers 
of Pocock (1902) and (Ira\iri- ( I !)L'!> ) which arc mainstays of our present 
l<iio\\ Icdpc of horseshoe ciah taxonomy and distrihut ion. 'I'he author is 
nmch indehted to the Directors and staffs of these institutions, as well as 



June 27, 1958 Tachifplcus hoeveni Pocock 



OCl 221 






tliese; tlie nniscuins at Amsterdam, C()})enliagen and Xeideii. 
Of greatest interest was finding that the Leiden museum 
has what is undoubtedly the original specimen of a male o})er- 
culum from which van der Hoeven's Plate II, fig. 14 was drawn 
(reproduced fig. 1). Because this particular figure was a crucial 
one cited by Pocock in establishing TacliypJeus hoeveni^ the 
specimen in (juestion is presumptive type material for that 
species. It is hereby designated the lectotype (figs. .'3,4<). This 
operculum, which is in alcohol, had been Number 1038 in the 
Collection of the Zoological Laboratory, L^niversity of Leiden. 
It was transferred to the museum when that collection was 
dispersed. Other records show that van der Hoeven's anatom- 
ical collections were given by him to the Zoological Laboratory 
at I^eiden so that this evidence fits well with the identification 
of the specimen. 

AVhen examined by the author in August 195.'3, the jar ct)n- 
taining this interesting o])erculuni held among several other 
labels, a note in the handwriting of Dr. H. D. Blote, Assistant 
Director of the I>ciden Museum. Translated from the Dutch 
this reads, "Tiiis preparation most probably is the original of 
Plate II, fig. 14 in J. van der Hoeven's Recherches sur I'His- 
toire Xaturelle, etc. des Lumules, Leiden 1838. See Pocock, 
Ann. Mag. Xat. Hist. VII, Ser. IX, 1902, p. 264." 

Careful comparison of this specimen with the figure in ques- 
tion leaves little doubt of the correctness of Dr. Blote's attri- 
bution (figs. 1,3). Xote particularly that even the edges where 
the appendage was cut from the rest of the body and the slight 
scar on the lateral margin at the right agree almost perfectly. 
Only in the exact proportions of the appendage and degree 
of overlap between the terminal medial elements does the speci- 
men differ from the figure. But as the specimen itself had been 
stapled to a slab of soapstone, some changes in its shape and 
in the position of its parts would not be surprising in the 
course of the 115 years since it was drawn. The maximum 



all those mentioned in the text, for their generous eoo]ieration and assist- 
ance in examining available material. Tlianks are also due to Dr. Fenner 
A. Chace, Jr. of the U.S. National Museum and Dr. Charles L. Remington 
of the Yale University Zoology Dejiartment for their liel])ful suggestions 
concerning the manuscript. 



4 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 36 

widtli of this Lcideii specinieii was 70.5 millimeters wjiiie that 
of the drawing, stated to he natural si/.e, is about TO milli- 
meters wliicli provides another important point of agreement. 

It should be j^ointed out that Pocock's inter])retation of 
van der Hocven's figures does not agree with the original s])ec'i- 
men in certain respects not visible in tlie })lates. The British 
zoologist believed that the opercular elements which overlap 
in T. hoeveni were se])arated medially, unlike those of T. gigds 
which are normally united (fig. 8). However, in the T.eiden 
Museum operculum they are, in fact, not separate in the mid- 
line. The edges appear to overlap, not because they are free 
medially, but merely because the appendage is ])leated with 
a double fold in that region. Whether this fold was ])rcsent in 
the living animal is not obvious from its appearance. 

Unfortunately, this single xiphosuran fragment is all that is 
known to remain of van der Hoeven's original material. Con- 
sequently, it is not possible to settle the point directly whether 
this unique opercular detail is really a valid species character 
or merely an individual idiosyncrasy. As Pocock correctly 
])ointed out, however, three of the four drawings of the oper- 
culum labelled Limulus moluccanus Latreille (= Taehypleus 
gigas) in van der Hoeven's monograph show identical over- 
lapping elements in both adult male and adult female specimens 
(reproduced figs. 1,2,5,6). At its face value this does make the 
})eculiarity seem taxonomically significant. Van der Hoeven's 
failure to connnent in anv wav on this aiiomalv is accordin":lv 
the moi'c exasperating. 

On the other hand, close reading of van der Hoeven's text 
reveals (18.'J8, ]). 2) that only two sj)irit specimens of T. gigas 
were available to him for the anatomical woi-k reported. Vet 
measurements of three specimens are given (18.'}8, p. 10). It is 
not e\j)licit whether two of these are the anatonn'cal subjects, 
which of them may be merely dried exam})les, or what the total 
number of individuals studied may have been. If two coin])lete 
specimens oidy wci-e available for the four di-a wings concerned, 
it is possible that the same operculum may have been used as 
a model for the figures of more than one animal. The fact that 
the operculum, still extant, was already detached from the 



June 27, 1958 T(uhij plain hoi'vciii I'ocock 5 

whole speciincii, wlien druwii for van der Hoeven's Plate II, 
fig. 14, adds some likelihood to this possibility. 

Further circumstantial evidence is provided bv the mirror 
image similarity of the oi)ercula in figs. 2 and 10, Plate I. 
This is carried even to the ])eculiar extra plates present in the 
]M-oximal lateral margins of the overlapping sections in both 
drawings (reproduced figs. .'5,6). The collaboration of another 
artist in drafting Plate I in contrast to the anatomical Plates 
II and III drawn entirely by van der Hoeven himself may also 
lend credibility to this notion. The extra opercular plates men- 
tioned above, which arc not symmetrical, could also be taken as 
evidence that this operculum is abnormal ; in general all nor- 
mal xiphosuran external anatomical features are bilaterally 
synmietrical. 

One must, therefore, entertain the possibility of Tachyplcns 
hoeveni being merely an abnormal T. gigas. Some independent 
but congruent evidence has been found that abnormalities of 
the median distal plates of the genital operculum are not rare 
in this animal. In the Amsterdam Museum there is a Tdchtjpleus 
gigas (Xo. Xi 1001), collected in East Sumatra by J. C. van 
der Meer Mohr, which also has overlapping elements at the 
margin of the operculum (fig. 7), although the specimen is 
otherwise normal. The overlapping plates are not, however, 
the median distal elements as in the Leiden specimen but are 
the lateral distal elements. These are so lobed along their 
medial margins that the edges lie over one another for a short 
distance. None of the 8 other specimens of T. gigas in the 
Amsterdam collection show any similar o])ercular anomalies. 

Another T. gigas with a deformed operculum is present 
among the 11 specimens of this species in the Copenhagen 
Museum, a male from Penang Island on the west coast of 
Malaya (collected by the research ship "Galathea"). As in the 
Amsterdam specimen, there is a small medial overlap in the 
lateral distal opercular plates in this animal. In this case, 
though, the reason for the anomaly is more obvious, since there 
is a considerable healed wound in the edge of the operculum 
on the left side, and both prosoma and opisthosoma show dis- 
torted or missing parts. Further evidence for a widespread 
occurrence of structural abnoi'malities in Tachypleus gigas is 



(5 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 30 

given by van der Meer Mohr (19*34), but no opercular devia- 
tions are mentioned specifically. In 7'. tr'uhuidi us, however. 
Sniedley (19.*31) rejjortcd tiuit various specimens diti'er con- 
sideral)ly in the degree of" sej)aration of the internal opci'cular 
branches at their ti})s. 

From tlie s})eciniens examined and here discussed one would 
conclude that the peculiar fold and other uni(iue details of the 
van der Hoeven TachijpJeus o])erculum in I^eiden are but minor 
teratological variants of TaehypJeus giga.s. 

On the other hand the geogra})hical origin of van dei- 
Ploeven's material in the Moluccas is an element that in all 
fairness should weigh on the side of the validity of T. hoeren'i. 
Few, if any, specimens of Xiphosura from these islands are 
known in nuiseum collections. Conse(|uently, studv of Tachif- 
pleus from Ceram. Halmahera, and adjacent islands might 
indeed show that T. hocvcu'i exists as a taxoiu)inically distinct 
form in these regions. 

Yet such a circumsci'ipt distribution would be uni(]ue for a 
xij^hosuran species, since the four definitely known recent forms 
have wide ranges. Liitiulus polijpluniius (L.) occurs from Xova 
Scotia to Yucatan on the cast coast of North America, a large 
spread in latitude, covering a shore line several thousand miles 
long. Tachijpleus tridentatus I>.each occurs south fi-om the 
Inland Sea of Japan, along the China coast, in the western 
islands of the Phili])pine liepublic, in Hainan and at least as 
far south as Nhatrang in south central Vietnam (Flower, 
1901 : Smedley, 1929, 19.'31 ; Shoji, 19:52; Asano, 1942; Water- 
man, 1953a)^. Tachyplcus gigns (Miiller) overlaps the latter 
species by occurring in northern Vietnam (Prof. C\ Boisson, 
I'niversitv of Hanoi, personal connnunication ) and NOrth Bor- 
neo, extends west to the Orissa coast on the Bay of Bengal and 
east as far as Torres Strait (Pocock, 1902; Annandale, 1909). 
Cnrc'nioscorpins rotundicauda (liatreille) has been reported in 
the southern Philip])iiies, Indonesia, Malaya, the (rulf of Siam, 
and the Bay of Bengal. 



I It' the sinTiiiu'iis of Liiiiiihis l(iii<ii.'<iihnis (.sic) ( ;= Tdclii/ ph iis IrUhu- 
toliis) rc'iiorted (in lit.) \n the Australifin Musinim, Sydney, arc correctly 
idciilified, tills species occasionally reaches as t'ar as the west coast of 
Malava. 



June 27, 195S T achy picas hoevcni Pocock 7 

On the basis of the evidence at lumd one must conclude that 
Tachypleus hocveni is a dubious species at best and most Hkely 
was named for an abnormal operculum of TachypJeiis gigas. 
But since the original material does not permit a definitive 
solution of the ])roblem, it is to be hoped that the interest and 
opportunity of studying the xiphosurans of the Moluccas will 
develop in the near future to resolve the dilemma more de- 
cisively. However, a recent attempt to do this failed. At the 
author's request. Dr. Dillon Ripley of the Peabody Museum 
at Yale I'niversity, who spent three months of 1954 in the 
Moluccas collecting specimens of various animals, particularly 
birds, tried to obtain horseshoe crabs from these islands. 

According to information he most kindly gathered, ikan 
mimi or imi imi, as these animals are called in Indonesia, were 
known to fishermen in the Moluccas but were said not to occur 
there. According to these sources the nearest place wjiere sucli 
crabs were ordinarily caught was Menado. This is a town on 
the nortliern arm of Celebes more than 200 miles westward 
across the Molucca Passage from Ternate, Tidore, Halmahera 
and other islands in the group. Not only were no s})ecimens 
of T. hoeveni to be obtained even in Menado, but no evidence 
for the occurrence of any species of Xiphosura in the Moluccas 
themselves was found despite the fact that T. gigds and Car- 
cinoscorpius are well known from other parts of Indonesia. 

The reported complete absence of these forms in the area 
concerned is the more batHing since the Moluccas are the first 
place of occurrence cited for the xiphosurans in the East 
Indies. L'Kcluse in 1605 figured specimens of Cancer mohic- 
cmms, a horseshoe crab sent to Holland reputedly from the 
Moluccas. Kumphius (1705) in his famous book about the 
natural history of these islands illustrates a horseshoe crab 
under the name of Cancer perversns. This animal, lie states, 
was well known by him to occur in the Moluccas (he was work- 
ing in Amboina in the southern ])art of the archipelago) and 
he also had received a specimen of it from Menado. 

Summary 

1. In reviewing material suitable for determining the valid- 
ity of Tachypleus hocreni Pocock, an original fragmentary 



8 I'ostilla Yah' Peahody Museum No. .'30 

s})ecimen ap])arently used by van <ler Hoeven for one of tlie 
figui-es cited as tlie type by Pocock was re-examined in the 
Rijksnuiscuni \an Xatuurlijke Historie in T.eiden. This speci- 
men itself, here designated the lectotype, and Pocock's mono- 
ora])h do not alone permit a decisive conclusion whether the 
material re})resents an anomalous Tachijpleus g'igas' or another 
valid s]iecies. 

2. Evidence has been obtained from single specimens in the 
Amsterdam and Copenhagen zoological museums that o))er- 
cular anomalies, comparable to but distinct from the one for 
which Tdch/jplcus hoeveni was erected, are not rare in Tachij- 
pleus gigas. 

8. The fact that van der Hoeven's material came from tlie 
Moluccas, a region from which few, if any, xi])hosuran s])eci- 
mens have since been studied, leaves open the possibility of a 
taxonomically significant geogra})hic variation in this area. 
However, a recent search failed to find any Xiphosura in the 
Moluccas. 

4). It is concluded that TaeJi/jjdeus hoeveni is probablv a 
synonym of T. gigos, but this synonymy can only receive its 
decisive test when substantial series of Indonesian xi])hosurans 
have been studied. 

5. A key to recent species of Xiphosura is presented as 
an A])pendix. 



June '27, 195S 'J\icli// plena hocvi'ti'i Pocock 9 

References Cited 

Annandale, X. 100*). T1h> habits of kiiifr crabs. Rcc. Ind. ?f,is.. .1:294-295. 

Asano, V. 191-2. On tlic life history of I'lirlijiplciis f ridrntiit iis. (In Jap- 
anese) Jioliiiii/ and Zi)<il(i(/i/, I'arc and -liiiillrd. /'^:12()-12-1.. 

I/Kc'luse, C. de 1605. Exoticorum I-ibri Decern. (Antver]>ae) ex officina 
Plantiniana Raphalenfrii, ]>]). 1-378. 

Flower, S. S. 1901. Notes on the milli|iedes, centijjedes, scor])ions, etc. of 
tlie Malay Peninsula and Siam. J. Strait.t Branch Roif. Asiatic Sue, 
36 :l-4>8. 

Gravier, C. 1929. Revision de la collection des Limules du Museum National 
d'Histoire Naturelle. Hull. Mns. Xal. Hixt. ^at. Paris, Ser. 2, 7:813- 
331. 

van der Hoeven, J. 1838. Recherches siir I'TIisfoirr Xaliirfllc ct I'.l nafnmie 
drs Liniiih's. I eyden, Luchtnians. pj). 1-48. 

van der Meer Mohr, J. C. 1934. Sur quelques malformations chez la limule, 
Tachjiplriis (lii/as. Miscfll. Zool. Siiiiiaf ran(( , S7:l-3. 

Pocock, R. I. 1902. The taxonomy of recent sjtecies of Liniiihis. .Inn. Ma;) 
Xal. Tlist.. 0:2.')fi-2()(). 

Rumphius, CJ. E. 1705. D'.l luhninisrhr Raritcitkanxr. Amsterdam, Halma, 
p]i. 1-340. 

Shoji, K. 1932. Morjiliology and biolojry of Xi])liosura. (In .laj^anese) 
Fnkn,)k(( Xal. Jlisl. .J. 7:28-52. 

Smedley, X. 1929. Malaysian kinp: crabs. Bull. Raffles Mus.. 5:73-78. 

. 1931. X'otes on kini;: crabs (Xiphosura). Hull. Raffles Miis., 

.7:71-74. 

Waterman, T. H. 1951. Polarized light navigation by arthr()i)ods. Trans. 
X.Y. J cad. Scl., 7^11-14. 

. 1953a. Xi])iiosura from Xuong-Ha. Amer. Scientist, ^/:292-302. 



. 1953b. Action potentials from an artliropod ocellus: the median 

eye of Lininlns. Rroc. Xat. Acad. Sci., .?.0:()87-()94. 



. 1954a. Directional sensitivity of single ommatidia in the com- 

ound eye of LitiniUis. Prnc. Xat. Acad. Sci., 4^:252-257. 

. 1954b. Polarized liglit and angle of stimulus incidence in the 



compound eye of Lininlns. I'rac. Xal. Acad. Sci., 40:25H-262. 

1954c. Relative growth and the compound eye in Xiphosura. 



/. Mori>h., .0.5:125-1.58. 



10 Postilla Yale Peabodij Miiscnm No. 36 

Waterman, T. H. l!);)^. Polarized lifrlit and animal navigation. Sri. .Inicr. 
JO.i: 88-94. 

Waterman, T. H. and M. Enami. 19.'):3. Xeuroseorction in the lateral rudi- 
mentary eye of Tachj/i'lciin, a xiphosuran. (Abstr.) Convepno sulla 
Xeurosecrezione, PuhhJ. Staz. ZonJ. Xapoli, Ij: Su])))!., 81-82. 

Waterman, T. H. and C. A. G. Wiersma. 19.54. Tlie functional relation be- 
tween retinal cells and oi)tic nerve in Linndiis. J. Ex/i. Zoo].. /;?6:.59-86. 



June 27, 1958 Tachiiplciis horrent l^ocock 11 

Appendix 



KEY TO UECENT XIPHOSTKA 



1. Tail s])ine oval or circular in cro.ss section with no 
marked dorsal ridge. Adult sexual characteristics : Male, first 
two pairs of walking legs modified as chelate claspers (fig. 

11 A) Carcmoscorpius rotundicauda (Latreille) 

Tail spine triangular in cross section with marked dorsal ridge 
along most of its length 2. 

2. Genital operculum (first opisthosomal appendage) with 
three endopodite segments on each side (including tab-like ter- 
minal element) (fig. lOA). Adult sexual characteristics: Male, 
first pair of walking legs modified as hemichelate claspers (fig. 

11 B) Limulus polt/phemus liinnaeus 

Genital operculum with two endopodite segments on each side 
(fig. IOC) 3. 

3. Distal endopodite segments of genital operculum over- 
lapping in midline (according to Pocock not united in midline 
but are so in lectotype; see text) (fig. lOB). Adult sexual char- 
acteristics : Male, ])resumably first two pairs of walking legs 
modified as hemichelate claspers. Female, presumably first three 
movable lateral opisthosomal spines long, other three short 

stubs (fig. 9B) Tachypleus hoeveni Pocock 

Distal endopodite segments of genital operculum united and 
not overlapping along midline (fig. IOC). Adult sexual charac- 
teristics : Male, first two pairs of walking legs modified as hemi- 
chelate claspers; anterior margin of prosoma scalloped (fig. 
9A). Female, first three movable lateral opisthosomal spines 
long, other three short stubs (fig. 9B) 4. 

4. Usually three spines on posterior dorsal surface of opis- 
thosoma over base of tail spine (fig. 9B) ; lateral eyes black, 
no pseudopupil visible ; lateral eye length not more than 5-(i 
per cent of prosoma length along the midline 

Tachypleus trident at n a Leach 

One spine only on posterior dorsal surface of opisthosoma over 
base of tail spine; lateral eye brownish, pseudopupil visible; 
lateral eve length more than 6.5 per cent of opisthosoma length 
along the midline Tachypleus gigas (Miiller) 



12 rostilla Yale Pcahndij Miisriim Xo. 3(5 



Plate I 

Fip:. 1. Posterior surface of the genital ojiereuluin of a male Moluccan 
xijihosuran as figured by van der Hoeven (1838, Plate II, fig. U). The 
original author does not mention the anomalous double fold in the midline 
of the central terminal segments and referred this drawing to Linnilns 
iiiohiccdinis {= Tachni)J('uii (/ic/a.s). Pocock (1902) considered this oi)ercular 
fold, which may also be seen in figs. 3, 4, 5 and 6, grounds for establishing 
a third s])ecies of Tdchi/plciin, T. hocvenl. Maximum lateral extent (width) 
of this o])erculum 70 mm. 

Fig. 2. Posterior surface of the genital oi)erculum of a female Moluccan 
xi])hosuran as figured by van der Hoeven (1838, Plate II, fig. 1-")). This 
also was assigned by the original author to LlmuUis- )ii<)hircfniii.-< ( ^ Tdrh;/- 
ItUnn (iuiuk). Note that the median margins of the inner and outer terminal 
segments are neither folded nor overlap))ing and are normal for the species 
like those shown in fig. 8. Maximum lateral extent of tliis o])erculum 
85 mm. 

Fig. 3. Posterior surface of the genital ojitM-culum of a male xi])hosuran 
which is most likely the original s])ecimen from whicli van der Hoeven's 
(1838) Plate II, fig. 14 (fig. 1, above) was drawn. Except for the length 
witltli ratio, the two agree closely. Photograph courtesy of the Hijksinu- 
seum van Natuurlijke Historic, Leiden. Maximum lateral extent of this 
specimen 70.5 mm. 

Fig. 4. Anterior surface of the same s]iccinien as shown in Fig. 3. Since 
tiiis ])eculiar ()i)erculuni a])])arently was the basis for Pocock's s])ecies 
T((rhi/i>h'us hocvciii, it is designated as the lectotype pending final clarifica- 
tion of its validity. 'I'he specimen is in the Hi iksmuscuni van Xatuurlijke 
Historic, Leiden, through whose courtesy the jiliotograpli is reproduced. 



June 27. 195S Tdcliz/plc/is liocvuii Pocock 



13 






*'-> ^ 




Plate I 



l-i Postilla Ytdc Viuthodij M/isc/ni/ No. 36 



Pl.ATE II 

Fifi. 5. Part of van der Hoeven's (1838) Plate I, fig. 2 showirifr thr 
ventral surface of a mature female Tachy})lciiK (]irosoma length 100 mm.). 
This drawing was identified by the original author as LUiiulnx vioJii red tins 
[-=1 T. f/ifffiii) but on the basis of the genital o]iereulum with the over- 
la])]iing median elements was considered by Pocock to be T. hocvcni. 

Fig. 6. Plate I, fig. 10 of van der Hoeven (1838) showing the ventral 
surface of a male Tachi/ pirns o])isthosoma (prosoma length 82 mm.). As in 
fig. o abo\e the overla]i]iing distal moiety of the operculum induced Pocock 
to include this in T. hocxun't although van der Hoeven had referred it to 
Liiindiis iiioliiccdniis ( ^ T. tfi</((s-). Pocock used this figure and that shown 
in fig. .5 above as evidence that the ])eculiar folds in the ojterculum shown 
here in figs. 1, 3, and 5 were not just an individual idiosyncrasy since the 
same thing is shown in drawings of both sexes. Note however, that the 
opercula in the drawings re])roduced in figs. 5 and G are mirror images 
of each other and nearly identical which suggests that one opercidum was 
used as a model in drawing two individuals. 

Fig. 7. Ventral view of jiart of the opisthosoma of a mature mal(> 
T((rhy]il('iis jfijids ())rosoma length 98 mm.) with an anomalous genital 
operculum showing some overlaj) of median elements. Note, however, tint 
here the outer terminal segments rather than the central ones as in tiic 
I.eiden s])ecimen (fig. 3) form the overlapping pair. Also observe tliat tin- 
median edges of these segments are free, not fused, and just folded over 
as in the other case. Si)ecimen Xi 1001 in the /oologi.sch Museum, Am- 
sterdam, through whose courtesy the ])hotogra]>li is re])r()dueed. 

Fig. S. \'eiitral view of ])arT of the ojiisthosoma of a mature Tdch ii ph iis 
(/i(/(is (prosoma length 95 nun.) witii a normal genital oiiereulMiii siiowing 
the smootli median fusion of tiic central distal segments with no folding 
and tile free edges and absence of overlaji in the lateral distal segments. 
Photograph courtesy of the Zoologiscli Museum. Amsterdam. 



June 27, 1958 Tachijphn.s hocvein Pocock 



15 




Tlate II 



1() VosWWii Yale Peaboclij Mii.siiim Xo. 36 



Plate III 

Fip. 9. Adult sexual characteristics in Tarhijjili iis t rhh nlitl us. A. Male 
prosoma siiowing scalloped anterior margin, dorsal view. X 0.3. B. Female 
opisthosoma showing lateral movable spines ("-/) and species character- 
istic ]K)sterior median ones (r/,, /;, (), dorsal view. X ().;3. 

Fig. II). (lenital opercida showing s])ecies characteristic endo))odite seg- 
ments {<(, /), c), anterior view. A. Lliniihi.s /kiI i/jiJu iiins with tluH-e of these 
segments. X 0.5. B. T. hocvcni with overla])))ing segment {b) (after van 
der Hoeven, 1838). X 0..5. C. T. (/ii/ds with two endo])odite segments. X 0.4. 

Fig. II. First claspers of adult male, anterior view of left appendage. 
A. ( '(irrliioarorpiiix rat uiuVuutiKla, chelatt'. X \~i. B. L. poli/phcinii.^, hemi- 
chelate, X 0.7. C. T. tridcntntus, hemichelate. X 0.7. 

(Figs. 9-11 drawn by Shirley P. Glaser) 




Figure 9 



Dorsal ridge 




A 



B 




C 





B 




Figure 10 



Figure M 



Platk III 



y V 



/l^adilL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Mas. COMP. ZOOL 
LiBRARy 

MAY 2 5 1960 

HARyARO 
UNIVERSITY 



Number IH 37 September 15, 1958 New Haven, Conn. 

A NOTE ON THE FIRETHROAT AND THE 
BLACKTHROATED ROBIN 

S. DiLLOX RirLEY 



While on a visit to tlie fU.S.S.R. recently, I had the oppor- 
tunity of examining two specimens of the small chat, the Black- 
throated Robin, collected by Berezowsky and Bianchi and 
described by them in 1891 as ^''harvvoora''' obscura. Both are 
adult males in fully adult ])luniao-e and are in the Zoological 
Museum in Leningrad. 

Also in the Leningrad collection is an adult male specimen 
of '^Calliope'''' pec tar dens David. Due to the kindness of Dr. 
A. Ivanov, I was able to examine these specimens closely. Later 
in London I examined the series of pectardens and the single 
male obscura which have already been reported on by Goodwin 
(1956, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 7G: 74-75). Mr. H. G. Deignan has 
also kindly sup})lied me with information on the fine series 
of pectardens in the U. S. National Museum. 

Goodwin and Vaurie (1956, Bull. Brit. Orn. CI. 70: 141- 
l-l.'i), have published their comments on these two species, 
bringing forward the o])inion that both were color phases of 
a single species. In connection with studies on the subfamily 
of the thrushes for the Peters' "Checklist," I was anxious to 
determine this matter to my own satisfaction. 

The principal problem as to the identity or discreteness of 
these two populations is lack of specimens showing stages of 



Postilla Yale Pcahody Muscn 



m 



No. 30 



plumage. In tlie Britisli Museum and the U. S. National Mu- 
seum collections there are fine series of pectardens from Yun- 
nan, southeast Sikang and southeast Tibet. A single male adult 
pectardens^ perhaps a post-breeding season bird has been taken 
in southwest Shensi. There are many immature males, two 
presumed females (so identified), and a young male in the 
spotted plumage of the nestling. The specimens of obscura, 
however, are confined to adult males, so that the differences 
or resemblances between the two populations must be consid- 
ered only as between the adult male plumages. Tliese males 
of obscura come from southeast Kansu, and southwest Shensi 
in west China. 

The obvious difference between the adult males is that the 
throat and breast are black in obscura, while in pectardens an 
approximately similar area is orange, and in addition whereas 
both species have the sides of the neck black, there is a white 
patch on the side of the neck in pectardens. Goodwin and 
Vaurie's thesis (1956, toni. c'lt.) is that this color diff'erence 
is not a difference in })attern, that, therefore, it is a simple 
genetic re])lacement, and that the species has a dimorphic 
breeding j)lumage, as has been noted in some species of wheat- 
ears {Oenanthe). 

Examination of the specimens in Leningrad and other mu- 
seums has inclined me to disagree. While extremely close the 
patterns are different as the following sketch shows. 






1. iiliKcii i-(t . adult d 



I I white 

I \ dark blue 



2. iKctanh //.v, adult 



W'luMi cxaiuiiu'd closely it can be seen tint the black i-dfriufr to the u])])er 
])art,s is more extensive in iiirla rdciix, extending onto tiie hristk'-like fore- 
head featiuTs, ()\-er tiu' eye, and more broadly and in a different pattern 
alonjr tiie sides of I lie neck. 



Sept. 15, 1957 Firetliroat ;ind Blackthroated Rob 



I r^""> 7noL 



L. . 



,JVlAY2§13bO 

HAr . .na 

The ])livsical nieasurenients of these birds do not ^PF|f||(yAK|TY 
differ sioiiificantly. My measurements, while not ng 
actly with those of the authors cited, are roughly similar ; 

winir tail culnit-n (in mm.) 

ohsriini 3cfd" 6.5-71..5 .')0,50,.54 lo-lT 

ixrtanhus lOcTcf ()4-71 .52..5-.58 (mean 55.7) 14..5-17 

There appears to be a slight tendency towards a longer tail 
in pectardens which may be a function of its habits. However, 
comparing the wings of the specimens, there is a difference. 
In ohscura the primaries in freshly moulted birds are of a 
broader, more rounded a})pearance, the 4th and 5th tending to 
be equally long, the third tending to be shorter. In pectardens 
on the other hand the ])rimaries in freshly moulted birds are 
individually more pointed in shape. In these birds the 4th 
primary tends to be longest, the 3rd and 5th more equal, with 
a slight tendency for the 5th to be the longer of the two. 

In Juvenal pectardens the 4th and 5th primaries are equally 
long, as in the adult of ohscura. But a young $ pectardens 
taken in January in northern Burma (B.M.coll.) on winter 
grounds, already has the more pointed wing of the adult. 
This would indicate that in this species there is a complete 
post-juvenal moult, involving the wing feathers, even though 
the assumption of full adult ])lumage only comes gradually 
in successive later moults. 

From the above it appears to me tiiat these po})ulations 
represent two distinct species, whose ranges may or may not 
be partly overlapping in northwest China. The northernmost 
species, obscura, is apparently more sedentary as indicated by 
the shape of the wing and indeed the paucity of specimens in 
collections. The more southern species, pectardens, indicates 
by the appearance of the wing and the occasional records of 
winter birds in Sikkim, Assam and northern Burma to the 
south of its usual range, that it is a more migratory species. 
In addition the minor differences of distribution of black on 
head, neck and sides of u])})er breast, serve to reinforce the 
more obvious, but more questionable from a genetic point of 
view, differences between orange and black throat patch and 
presence or absence of white neck spot. I believe that eventual 
examination of females and young of ohscura will substantiate 
^the distinctness of these two species. 



/ n 1/ t^/y 



y 



/l^a^tilL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Xuinbcr 38 



April 20, 1959 



\mm 

MAY 2 5 1959 

HARVARD 
UNIVEJ^ITY 



New Haven, Conn. 



COMMENTS OX BIRDS 
FROM THE WESTERN PAPUAN ISLANDS 

S. Dillon Ripley 



1. Birds fruin Kof'um Island 

Opportunitie.s for visiting Kofiau Island (often called Kof- 
fiao, Kavijave, Kavijaaw, or Pojjpa in the literature) are few 
and far between. The island lies nearly ninety miles west of 
Sorong, regional ca})ital of western Netherlands New Guinea, 
exposed to strong swells in the monsoon seasons. No boat an- 
ciiorage exists and the small poj)ulation of Besarese fishermen 
lives primarily on a few offshore rocky islets. 

Odoardo Beccari visited Kofiau in July, 1875, on a schooner 
from Ternate, intending to spend several days (1875). His 
visit was cut short, however, by illness, and he spent only 
thirty hours there. Fortunately he was able to collect a total 
of JfO specimens during that time including topotypes of 
Tanysiptera ellioti and Hhipidura vidua. These forms had 
been taken in 1867 by David Hokum, an assistant of Mr. 
Hoedt a })rofessional supplier of birds in Aml)on. In 1875 also 
Bruijn's collectors from Ternate visited Kofiau, and except 
for an undated visit by Bernstein, this seems to have been the 
last ornithological visit to the Island. 

During 1954< while studying birds in the Moluccas and West- 
ern Papuan Islands on a field trip,^ my wife and I attempted 

' This field work was supported by research fellowship grants from the 
CiUjfgenheim Foundation and the National Science Foundation as well as 
funds from Yale and the Vose Fund of the Explorer's Club of New York. 



2 Tostilla Vdli- I'ciihod// Museum No. .'J8 

to visit Kofiau. Neither patrol vessels nor coniniercial sclioou- 
ers were availal)le, however, during our stay in New Guinea 
ami an attempt to secure the services of an oil c()m])anv tlvnig 
Ijoat also failed. Somewhat later my assistant, Jusu}) Khakiaj, 
managed tt) visit Kofiau in 1955 in a seagoing canoe accom- 
})anied by an Arafura bird hunter from Misool. He spent 
fifteen days from the 25 A})ril to 9 May on the Island and 
was able to clamber about the rocky foreshore and climb a 
short way into the heavily forested interior. 

Kofiau Island is about fifteen miles long, ruiuiing in an east- 
west direction. It is heavily wooded, and the present settlements 
are essentially on the offlying islands such as Djailolo and 
Deer which lie just north of tlie mainland of Kofiau separated 
from it by a narrow sheltered channel. Kofiau lies outside of 
the 200 meter bank which marks the Sahul Shelf and includes 
such islands as Salawati, just off the New Guinea mainland, 
and Misool, some thirty miles south south-east of Kofiau. The 
island has several hills, one nearly a thousand feet tall, named 
Mata or Boemfoar. 

The Boo Islets which lie about ten miles west of Kofiau in- 
clude one islet Boo Ket jil an alternative name of which is Popa. 
This name has been applied to Kofiau in the literature. Beccari 
in his letter to Salvadori (1875, tom. cit.rTOT) speaks of 
"Poppa" as being a misnomer for Kofiau, which he spelt Kof- 
fiao. David Hokum in 18(57 c;illed the island Kavijaaw. 

Jusup Khakiaj's collection while small, is of interest, as it 
appears to be the first made in perhajjs eighty years. I am 
very "-rateful to the authorities of the AmeiMcan Museum of 
Xatural History for permission to examine specimens in their 
care. 

Of the thii'ty-one known species and subspecies from Kofiau, 
listed in the following pages it is interesting to note that they 
fall uito tiiese several cateoories. 

S})ecies of unknown affinities: one, DiK/iIa species (seen but 
not collected). 

Migrants: three, PluviuVis doii/hiicti fulvus, Mcrops oruafus. 
Halcyon sanrfa .suucfa. 



April 20, 1959 Hirds from Papuan Islands 

This leaves twentv-seven forms which may })e character 
as follows : 



ma. \,mv. ZUUL 

imm 

MAY 2 5 1959 



Zi 



■il 



umm 

(INilfERSin 



1) Forms connnon to Moluccas and New Guinea; seven 

B tit o rides striafNs papuensis 
Fandion haUaefus melv'dlensis 
Megapodms freycinet freycinet 
Chalcophaps indie a indica 
Caloenas nicobarica nicobarica 
Path ijccph (da ph a ion otuvi 
Xectarinia jugnlaris frenata 

2) Forms representing New Guinea subspecies (includes Kai 
and Aru Islands) ; fourteen {=^ 51%). 

Ptilinopus rivoJi prasinorrhous 
PtiUnopHs viridis pectoralis 
Macropygia aniboincnsis doreya 
Opopsitta diopthahna diopthaJiiut 
Microp.sitta keiennis chlorod'cin tlia 
Geuffroyns geoffroyi pncherani 
Cacomantis varioJosHs infaustus 
Alcyone pnsilla pusilla 
Pitta sordida nova-guineae 
Coracina teniiirostre miiUerii 
Gerygone nuignirostris occasa 
MontireJia aleeto eliaJ ybeoee phal n s 
Monareha guttula 
Philemon novaegnineae novaeguineae 

3) Forms representing ]\loluccan subspecies; two (= ^%)' 

Coraeina papuensis melanolora 
Dicrurus hottentottus atrocaerideus 



■i) Forms intermediate between s})ecics of the Moluccas and 
New Guinea; four (^ 15%). 

Tanysiptera (galatea) ellioti 
Uhipidura rufiventris vidua 
Monareha jidiariae 
Xectarinia sericea mariae 



•i Postilla Yah' Pcahody Museum Xo. 88 

From tlie above it will be seen that while 51% of the Kofiau 
residents are overwhehningly of close New Guinea affinity, 
ahnost one quarter or 22% represent forms either intermediate 
or more nearly Moluccan in their affinity, thus corresponding 
closely with the geographical position of the Island. That 
15% of these represent endemisms is a remarkable example of 
the inherent speciation potential of such an island in such a 
geographic location. 

Annotated List of Birds from Kofiau 

In the following list, I have given the names of the collectors 
in brackets at the end of the discussion. 

1) Butorides striatus papuens'is Mayr 

5 , May 8, 1955, wing 178 nun., culmen 05 nnn. This 
specimen is small compared to Mayr's measurements (1940), 
but agrees with at least one specimen, although it was listed 
as possibly subadult, recorded by A'an Bcnnnel (194'8 : .*39T). 

( Khakiaj ) 

2) Fandion hcdiaetus mclvdlcusis Mathews 

5 April 30. (Khakiaj) 

3) Megapod'ius freyc'met freyclnct Gaimard 

9 May 2 (Bruijn, Beccari, Khakiaj) 

■1) riuvialis dominna fidva (Gmelin) 

An adult, unsexed, in breeding dress was taken in May. 
(Khakiaj). 

5) PtU'niopus rivoli ptun'ttiorrhoiis Gray 
(Beccari) 

G) PtUinopus vii-'idis pectoiud'is (Wagler) 
(Beccari) 

7) Ducula SY).? 
Jusup Khakiaj reported the presence of a large fruit pigeon 
on Kofiau. The birds were high up in forest trees, difficult to 
see, as always, and resisted his collecting efforts. He believes 
that the species represented is Ducula rupynstcr. 



April IJO, li)')}) liirds from rapuan Islands 5 

8) Macro pugia amhoinensis doreya Bonaparte 
$ subadult, April 30 (Beccari, Khakiaj). 

i)) Chalcophaps indica indica (Linnaeus) 
(Beccari) 

10) Calocnas nicoharica nicobarlca (Linnaeus) 

(Hoedt) 

11) Opupsitta diophthalma d'lophtludind (Honibron and Jac- 

quinot) (Beccari) 

12) Micropsitta keiensis chloroxantha Oberholser 

(Beccari) 

13) Gcoffroyus geoffroyi pucherani Souance 

$ , April 30. Wing 164. (Hoedt, Khakiaj) 

11-) Cacoinani'is variolosus infaustus Cabanis and Heine 

$ , April 25. Wing 117, culmen 20. Iris grayish, bill 
dark brown, feet yellowish. ( Bernstein, Khakiaj ) 

15) Alcyone pusUla pusllla (Tennninck) 

(Beccari) 

16) Halcyon sancta sancta Vigors and Horsfield 

9 , May 8. (Beccari, Khakiaj) 

IT) Tanyslptcra {galatea) cllioti Sharpe 

This beautiful kingfisher had a decidedly international intro- 
duction to the world of natural histor}'. Collected by Hoedt's 
collector, presumably David Hokum in 186T, the type speci- 
men was acquired by Count Turati of Milan who sent it to 
Jules Verreaux in Paris for identification. There it was seen 
by Mr. Daniel Giraud Elliot of New York who advised that the 
specimen be sent to Dr. Sharpe in London who described it in 
1869. Other specimens from Hoedt reached Leyden. Beccari 
collected the species for the Genoa Museum, one of the speci- 
mens of which came into the Rothschild collection and is now 
in New York. 

The series collected by Jusup Khakiaj includes six adults, 
all labelled females, taken May 1-5, and two young birds 



() 



Postilla Yale Peabudy Museum 



No. 38 



labelled males, taken May 1 and 2, in first winter or first basic 
plumage. The adults are alike in possessing a uniformly white 
rump and upper tail coverts, in this and the largely white tail 
bearin": a certain resemblance to sahrina of the Moluccas. 

This population has been kept separate from that complex 
of populations of the Moluccas, Papuan Islands and parts of 
the New Guinea mainland, all now included in the species 
galatea, on the basis of having tail feathers which arc not 
sharpl}' spatulate at the tip. This is essentially true as dem- 
onstrated by this series. All the adults except one possess 
broad central tail feathers, narrowing somewhat near their 



Fig. I 



V 



V 



L/ 



V 



Kifiurc 1. 'I'lircc states of i)linn ijrc and tail coloration of 'r<(utisiiUcr(i {galu- 
Ica) cllioll, \\.. coiitrastcii with an adult of a more typical 
Tani/siiil<r(( (jalatcti of the subspeeies mdnjarelluu-, A. 



April 20, 1959 Birds from Papuan Islands 7 

terminal ends and tapering slightly to a bluntly rounded and 
broad tip. In four cases the sub-terminal segment of the tail 
shaft where the feather shows signs of tapering is dull bluish 
black or blackish. In one of these birds a very narrow area of 
the vanes adjacent to the shaft is edged with blue. One adult 
has almost completely white tail feathers, only a trace of 
blackish shading appearing on the edge of the subterminal part 
of the shaft. (Fig. 1). 

A single adult shows marked polymorphism. While the rump 
and u])per tail coverts are white, and while the tips of the 
tail feathers are broadly and bluntly rounded, the subterminal 
area of the tail, representing a third of the total length of the 
central feathers is distinctly narrowed and the vanes strongly 
washed with blue. The effect is close to that of T. g. sabrina. 
This specimen is im})ortant in demonstrating the persistence 
of an old ancestral allele in what is not a completely homo- 
geneous population. One is impressed that this is a species in 
statu nascetidi or as Mavr has called it a form of "almost 
s])ecific rank," (1942). 

The young birds are interesting as Sharpe has noted (1892) 
in that the under parts are washed with "ochre" or rich brown- 
ish buff", with almost completely reduced marginal edgings of 
blackish so noticeable in other forms. These young birds have 
bright blue caps, scapulars and lesser and median wing coverts, 
and ultramarine upper back and primary coverts, the latter 
with reduced brownish edging. The feathers of the lower back 
and rump are largely pale brown with white centers and 
blackish margins, rather strikingly different from the rump of 
related forms. The tail feathers are blue above, very pale at 
the centers, and noticeably broader than young of other forms. 

In these two birds the breast feathers are very badly frayed, 
indicating the wear of grubbing for insects in muddy jungle 
undergrowth. 

Measurements: Wing fi $ ad. 101.5-108 (105.5) mm. 

Tail () 9 ad. 153 (moult.^)-215 (190.4). 
Culmen 6 $ ad. 37-40 
wing-tail ratio 5 9 ad. 49, 53, 54, 
57, 64% 

(Hokum, lieccari, Rruijn, Khakiaj). 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 38 

18) Merops ornatus Latham 

$ ad. ]May (5. (Kliakiaj) 

19) Pitta sord'ula novae-gnineoe Miillcr aiul Schleo-cl 

5 ad. May 5. Wing 104-. (Beccari, Khakiaj ) 

20) Coraeina tefiiiiro.stre niiillerii Salvadori 

(Beccari) 

21) Coraeina papuensis melanolora (Gray) 

6, 9 ad. May 9, Wing 6 150.5, 9 U9 : culnicn (from 
skull) c^ 31, 9 32. (Beccari, Khakiaj) 

22) (ierygone magnirostris occasa Ki])ley 

6 ad. May 2. Type. 

As pointed out in the original description (1957) this form 
differs from its geographical neighboring forms, eobana, brun- 
neipectus and conspicillata from the neighboring islands of 
Waigeu, Batanta and Salawati; western New Guinea, and the 
Aru Islands by being much more riclil}' yellow on the under- 
parts. In the color of the underparts it approaches rosseliana 
from the Louisiade Archi])elag() and in color of the upper- 
parts it is close to affinis from north New Guinea, an interest- 
ing example of pattern replacement in geogra})hically related 
forms. (Khakiaj) 

23) Rhipidura rnfiventris vidua Salvadori and Turati 

c5 ad. May 5. 

A topotype of this subspecies, not collected for presumably 
eighty years. As Beccari points out (1875:707), David Ho- 
kum collected the original specimen for Hoedt who sent it to 
Turati. Wing 71?. 5, tail 75.5, culmen 16. 

This form differs markedly from guJnris the adjacent popu- 
lation of the Western Papuan Island by being much smaller 
(wing i i 83-92), the gray breast band marked with white 
spots, lacking in guJaris, but })resent in ohieusis and kordensis, 
and by having the abdomen and belly plain white, not washed 
with pinkish buff as in gularis. (Hokum, Beccari, Khakiaj) 

24) Monarcha aJeeto ch(dijheocephaJus (Garnot) 

$ ad. May 8. (Beccari, Khakiaj). 



April 20, 1959 IJirds from Papuan Islands 9 

25) Monarcha guttula (Garnot) 
(Beccari) 

2()) Monarcha jnlianac new species.* 

Type: S ad. (Y.P.M. no. 39235) collected April 26, 1955, 
by Jusup Khakiaj on Kofiau Island, Netherlands New Guinea. 

Diagnosis : from guttula this species which is known from 
a single adult male differs by being- slightly larger, wing 81, 
tail 73.5, culmen 17; compared to a small series of giittiila 
from Misool and Waigeu, S S , wing 76.5-79, tail 67.5-71, 
culmen 14<-16, [Gyldenstolpc's measurements (1955) are equiva- 
lent] and by the following differences in pattern and color : 
back bluish black rather than gray ; wing coverts are bluish- 
black throughout, in guttula the inner wing coverts are grayish, 
the greater wing coverts are bluish black with pronounced white 
terminal spots ; below the prominent black bib reduced to a 
narrow diamond-shaped throat patch, extending in a median 
point towards the upper breast, the white of the breast ex- 
tending on the sides to the area below the eyes. Like guttula 
the tail of this species is black above, and below the outer four 
pairs of tail feathers are tipped with white, the outermost 
broadly so, the white area representing about 40% of the 
length of the feather. 

This species is much more closely related to what I would 
prefer to call the leucurus superspecies and should be included 
in it, I believe. This superspecies consists of three additional 
populations as follows : 

A) Monarcha everetti Hartert. This small Monarch 
flycatcher is found only on Tanahdjampea, an island of 
the Saleyer group south of Celebes and north of Flores, 
between five hundred and eight hundred miles west of the 
locus of its nearest relatives in the Moluccan-Papuan re- 
gion. This species represents, as Rensch points out (1936) 
an incursion of papuan-australian origin into the lesser 
Sunda-Celebesian area, an area which is primarily of 
oriental affinity. I entirely agree with Mayr (194-4) that 

*This species is named, by gracious permission, in honor of Her Majesty, 
tlie Qneen of the Netherlands. 



10 VosWUii Yale Peohodi/ M/isann No. 38 

this species has nothing- to do witli the widespread Monar- 
cha trhirgatus as Meise attempted to demonstrate (1929). 
As Mayr notes, this is an "instance of ill-advised applica- 
tion of the principle of fTeofrray)hical re])resentation." 
Simply hecause the widely distributed gray-backed scrub- 
inhabiting S})ectacled Monarch happens to be absent 
from certain islands is no reason for including highly dis- 
tinctively-plumaged arboreal-type Monarchs in the same 
species. 

This species is smaller than its relatives, and differs 
from them in having a white rump, and by having a ])ro- 
nounced white patch on the inner margins of all but the 
outermost primary, and on all the secondaries making a 
poorly concealed white wing patch which nuist be ex- 
tremely noticeable in flight. In addition, the black throat 
patch is like a large bib in shape, extending down onto 
the upper breast. The tail, which is rounded, lias the four 
outer tail feathers tipped with white, the outermost white 
for half its length. 

The female is gray above with whitish lores, the upper 
tail coverts huffy white and the tail black with whitish tips 
to the outei'most feathers. Below the breast is lieht 
ochraceous-buff paling into grayish on the throat and 
sides of flanks and into dull creamy white on the ab- 
domen. This female plumage is markedly different from 
the forms described hereafter. 

In proportions of tail length to wing length and bill 
size, this species seems similar to its relatives to the east. 
In shape, however, the tail is much more rounded, the 
outer tail feathers being only 76% as long as the central 
tail feathers. It is also notably smaller; wing 35 5 
67.5-69; tail 67-70.5; culmen 15-16; 9 wing 58.5, tail 60, 
cuhnen 14<.5. This form is represented as "A" in Figure 2. 

B) Monarcha leucurns lencurus Gray. This ]iopulation 
occurs on the Kai Islands (also spelled Kci or Key) of 
extreme eastern Indonesia, south of the western end of 
New Guinea. With Joricatus I believe it forms a species. 
Both are rather large Monarchs, blue l)lack above with 



April 20, 1959 Birds from Papuan Islands 



11 



a varying shape of throat patch below which extends nar- 
rowly onto the u])per breast. The outer three pairs of 
tail feathers are white, some brownish margins occurring 
on the penultimate and third inner feathers. The fourth 
pair of tail feathers has a black inner web for the basal 
one-third of its length. 

The female is dark bluish-gray on head and upper 
back, brownish gray on the lower back, upper tail coverts 
blackish gray, central tail feathers black ; below center 
of throat gray, sides of throat and breast dark orange 
rufous, paling to warm brown on the flanks ; center of 
abdomen white. 

Size medium ; wing 4< S S 75-80 ; tail 74-77 ; culmen 17- 
18; $ wing 71, tail 74, culmen 17. 

This form is represented as "B" in Figure 2. 

C) Monarcha leucurus loricatus Wallace. This po])u- 
lation is found on the large island of Buru just west of 
Ceram. Although Stresemann (1914) mentions this form 
as occurring from the coast to the higher tableland and 
not higher than 800 meters in altitude, Toxo])eus in Sie- 
bers (1921-22) found it only in the mountains at 1200 
meters. This is the largest of the forms, the male blue- 
black above; below with a black throat patch just reach- 
ing the upper breast, and with a small patch of bluish 
black on the sides of the breast just before the bend of 




Fig 2 



Figure 2. Monarcha everet.fi. A; Monarcha leucuriis leucvriis, B; Monarcha 
Icvrurus lorirafvn, C; Monarcha jnUanae, D. 



12 Postilla Yale Peahody Mnseuni No. 38 

tlie wing. The tail is only slightly rounded, the outer- 
most feathers being 8*3-86% of the length of the central 
tail feathers. The two pairs of outer tail feathers are 
white with some blackisii along the base of the shaft, 
the third pair with a very narrow (2 nnn.) black tip, and 
the fourth pair with a black tip some 10 nnn. in width. 

The female is brown on the forehead, more grayish, 
"hair-brown" on the crown and nape, and russet on the 
back, wing coverts and rump. The tail feathers are 
brownish black above. Below except for some grayish on 
the chin and center of the upper throat, the female is warm 
vinaceous brown. The outer tail feathers are rich buffy 
brown instead of white as in the female of leucurus. 

Size largest ; wing 4 c? 5 86-91 ; tail 72.5-85.5 ; culmen 
17-20; female wing 77.5, tail 75. 

This form is represented as "C" in Figure 2. 

D) Monarcha jiiUdnae. The single male differs from 
everetti and leucurus by having a gray rather than bluish- 
black crown and nape, shading into the white of the neck 
behind the black auricular patch. Unlike everetti but Hke 
leucurus, the rumj) is concolorous with the back and there 
are no white patches on the inner margins of the wing 
feathers. Below julianae has a small roughly diamond- 
shaped throat patch, the white of the throat extend- 
ing; laterallv forward to below the eves. The outer tail 
feathers are tipped with white rather than largely white 
as in everetti or all white as in leucurus. The tail is some- 
what rounded, the outermost feathers approximating 85% 
of the length of the central tail feathers. 

This new species is represented as "D" in Figure 2. 
I'^nfortunately, the female of this new form is unknown. 
It would be interesting to know if the female is dimorphic 
as in the leuctiras superspecies, and if so if it is predom- 
inantly russet in tone as in leucurus or grayish and isabel- 
line as in everetti. 

The fact that juliatiae can coexist on a small island 
the size of Kofiau along with the widespread Monarcha 
guftnla (collected foi-merly by Beccari) is an example of 



April 20, 1959 Birds from Papuan Islands 13 

liow little is understood of the ecology and niche rela- 
tionships of the Monarcha species. MonarcJia guttvla is 
stated by Mayr (194<4', t.c.) to belong to the trmirgatufi 
group, although it cannot be considered a member of a 
superspecies as it overlayjs with trivirgatus in the Louisi- 
ade Islands, l^ndoubtedly a close analysis of the feeding 
habits and spatial relations of these species will reveal a 
great deal about the problem of coexistence and competi- 
tion. Monarcha tr'mirgatus in my experience is a bird of 
scrub, low bushes and substage vegetation, found from the 
coast up to 2500 feet altitude. Monarcha guttula, at least 
on Misool Island, was found in the substage and also high 
up in the lower storey of the canopy forest. Unfortu- 
nately, Jusup Khakiaj has not noted the position in the 
forest of the single male of julianae which he secured. 

27) Pachycephala phaumoUivi (Bonaparte) 

2 9 ad. May 3, 5. (Khakiaj) 

28) Dicrurus hot tent of ns atrocacrnJus Gray 

2 5 ad. April 25. 

Wing 9, 150, 16.3; bill (using Vaurie's scale, 1949:284) 
25, 25 mm. 

These two specimens place the Kofiau birds with the large- 
billed })opulation of Halmahera and Bat j an Islands, rather 
than with the Avest New Guinea carhonar'uis where they had 
been assigned by previous authors including Vaurie (1949) 
who had not examined specimens. Thus the spangled drongo 
of Kofiau belongs to the Moluccan rather than the Papuan 
form. (Beccari, Khakiaj). 

29) Nectarinia sericea mariae, new subspecies 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. No. 39234), collected April 25, 1955, 
on Kofiau I., Netherlands New Guinea, by Jusup Khakiaj. 

Diagnosis: compared to cochrani (Stresemann and Palu- 
dan) of Waigeu and Misool Islands, this form has a pansy- 
violet rather than steel-blue with a purplish gloss, throat 
patch. This color is nearer that of typical sericea which, how- 
ever, is more bluish, merely shaded with aster purple (Ridgway, 
1912). The cap color is far more greenish than in sericea or 
cochrani, approacluTig in this respect auriceps of the Moluccas 



14 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museuin 



Xo. 38 



althougli it is less yellow-green than in that form. In tlie same 
way tlie iridescent color of the wing coverts, rump, and upper 
tail coverts is more greenish-blue rather than steel blue with 
a purplish-greenish gloss. This is especially noticeable in the 
area of the lower back. The single female appears somewhat 
brighter in color on the yellow undcrparts, nearer typical 
sericea than either cochrani or auriceps. 

In si/e these birds also approach typical srrirra: 

Willi/ Tail Ciiliiifii 



26 
9 



.59, 61 
54 



■3.5, 37 
32.-5 



18, 19 
18 



A series of cochrani measured by Stresemann and Paludan 
(1932) showed wing measurements of 54-58, 9 51, and in 
sericea 6 $ 60-64, 9 51.5-53 mm. 

This Kofiau Island population represents an interesting 
example of discontinuous gcogra])hic variation of the type 
referred to so exhaustively by Mayr (toni. cit. 1942:77-84). 
If the distinguishing characters of the iridescent colors of the 
male mariae are contrasted with adjacent populations running 
from left to right as one travels from west to east the follow- 
ing discontinuous clinal pattern emerges : 





auriceps. 


mariae. 


riirhraiii 


sericea, 




Moluccas 


Kofiau 


W. Pai)uan Is. 


New Guinea 


throat 


bluish 


l)ansy-vio]et 


steel-blue 


bluish shaded witii 


eolor 








aster ])ur])le; des- 
cribed as "reddish 
lilac" by Gylden- 
stople (1955:376) 


cap 


golden- 


"chrysojirase- 


bluish- 


bluish-green. 


color 


green 


green" 
(Ridgway) 


green, 

"tyrolitc 
green 
(Ridgway) 


"tyrolite-green" 


rump 


steel 


yellowish 


bluish-green 


bluish green with 


and wing 


blue 


blue green 


with a faint 


a taint \cllowish 


coverts 






yellowish 
suffusion 


suft'usion 



April 20, 1951) Birds from Papuan Islands 15 

Named in honor of my wife, Mary Livingston Ri})ley. 
Range: Kofiau Island (Beccari, Khakiaj). 

29) Xi'ct(irin'u( jiigularis frcnata (Miiller) 

2$ Apr. 24-, 27. Wing, 54.5, 57.5. (Khakiaj) 

JiO ) I'hiliinoii iioi'iiegnuwite novaegu'incae (Miiller) 

Jusup Khakiaj failed to collect this noticeable bird for the 
same reasons that he missed securing the fruit pigeon. Both 
species tend to dwell in the upper heights of the trees. (Beccari). 

2. New or noteworthy records from 
the Western Papuan Islands 

1) Procellaria pacifica clilororliyncha Lesson 

A male of this form from Kabare, Waigeu Island taken by 
my assistant, Jusup Khakiaj, on October 8, 1955, appears 
to be the second record for New Guinea vide Mayr (1941:5). 

Wing 267, tail 131, culmen (from external nares) 31. 

2) (lUiira crhtatd minor Schlegel 

A })air of Crowned Pigeons from Misool, the female in the 
melanic plumage sometimes encountered in this form, the throat 
and belly blackish, divided by a narrow smoke^^-blue chest 
band, the upper surface of the tail largely black, are consider- 
ably smaller than birds from Waigeu. In addition, a male from 
Misool recorded by Mayr and de Schauensee (1939) and a 
pair of birds in the American Museum collection are similarly 
small, wing S S 327-335, 9 ? 320, 324. Waigeu birds meas- 
ure: wing 3 S 350-365, 9 $ 318 (1), 333-353. It is possible 
that additional material might reveal the existence of a distinct 
subspecies on Misool, which in several other instances seems 
to have evoked the emergence of populations with smaller 
dimensions than on the mainland of New Guinea or neiohbor- 
ing islands. 

3) Cuculus satnratus )iatnrutns Blyth 

A male from Waigeu I. taken Sept. 21, 1955 with a wing- 
measurement of 187.5 appears to belong to this small sub- 
species. Presvnnably the immature recorded by de Schauensee 
(1940) with a wing measurement of only 172 represents satu- 
ratus rather than horsjidJi. 



16 I'ostilla Yale I'ldbody Mnseuni No. .*}8 

4) CoUocalia vamkorcnsis grani'i Mavr 

Three males of this foini w t re taken on Misool, a new record 
for that ishmd. Win«4' measurements 114 (2), 11(5. In size 
they seem s]i<>-litly smaller than ty])ical (jraiifi, hut are similar 
in color to that form. 

5) Coracma morio 'uuirfNiii (Mevcr) 

A male of this form taken hy me at Fafaiilap. Misool I. on 
27 November, 1954-, is an extension of range of this species 
to that island. 

6) Eupetes cacrulescens cdtrulcsiens Tennninck. 

A male taken at Wasa, Misool I. by Jusuj) Khakiaj on 
February G, 1955, substantiates the old record of Neumann's 
type of '^occidenfaUs" as having come from "Waigama" on 
MisooL Wasa is not far from Waigama, but in any case the 
form ranges all over the island as we saw it in dense forest at 
Tamulol nearer the south coast. 

7) PoiuatoNtoiints isidori isidori (Lesson and Garnot ) 

An unsexed adult taken in September, 1955, by Jusup 
Khakiaj aj)pears to be a first record for Waigeu Island. This 
seems surprising in view of the work of Stein and Bergman. 

8) Iiliij)idiir(i fhmiothordci' thmiothordd' ^luWev 

At Tamulol on Misool, I collected a male specimen of this 
Faiitail on November 14, 1954, which is a new record for the 
island. It does not ditif'er from mainland New Guinea speci- 
mens and weighed 19 grams, 

>i. Birds from Ajoe Island 

Ajoe is the largest of a group of coral islets about twenty- 
five miles north of Waigeu Island. It is a sandy island, about 
three miles by a mile and a half in area, rising to a height of 
nearly three hundred feet. It is covered with scrub and coconut 
palms and there are several villages of Besarese fishermen. 
These Besarese ])eople, a mixture of Malay and liiak Island 
J'apuan oiMgin, are noted sailoi's in the region, and in former 
days j)racticetl a certain amount of local piracy and free lance 
snuiggling. 



April 20, 11)5<) Birds from Papuan Islands 17 

Jusup Khakiaj collected a few birds on September 1, 1955, 
on Ajoe, and as the island has not been visited by a collector 
before, it is worth noting that he obtained the following species : 
Eos squamaia sqnamata, Merops onidtus, Hdlcyon saiicfa 
sancta, Aplotih iii/jsoJctisis mijsoh'nui.'i. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Beccari, ()., LS75, Littt-ra Ornitologica intorno agli uccelli osservati duranto 

in suo rcx'fnte viaggio alia Nuova Guinea. Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. 

Genova, 7:704-720. 
Gyldenstol))e, Nils, 19.55, Birds collected by Dr. Sten Bergman during his 

exjiedition to Dutch Xew Guinea 1948-1949. Ark. f. Zool. Kungl. 

Svenska Veten. Ser. 2, 8(2) :182-397. 
Mavr, E., 1937, Birds collected during the Whitney South Sea Expedition, 

'33. Amer. Mus. Xovit. Xo. 91.'):1-11. 
Mavr, E., 1940, Birds collected during the Whitney Soutli Sea Expedition, 

"41. Amer. Mus. Xovit. Xo. 1056:6. 
Mavr, E., 1941, List of Xew Guinea I5irds. Amer. Mus. X"at. Hist. X'ew 

' York. 
Mayr, E., 1942, Systematics and the Origin of S])eeies. X'^ew York: 153. 
Mavr, E., 1944, The Birds of Timor and Sumba. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. 

"Hist. 83(2) :162. 
Mayr, E., and de Schauensee, R. M., 19.39, Zoological Results of the Denison- 

Crockett South Paeific Expedition for the Academy of Xatural Sciences 

of Philadelphia. Part V. — Birds from the Western Papuan Island. 

Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 91:147. 

Meise, W., 1929, Die Viigel von Djampea, Jour. f. Orn. 77:4.58-460. 

Riplev, S. D., 1957, Xew Birds from the Western Papuan Islands, Postilla, 
Y.P.M. Xo. 31:3. 

Rothschild, Lord, Strcsemann, E., and Paludan, K., 1932, Ornithologische 
Ergebnisse der Ex))edition Stein. X'^ovit Zool. 38:127-247. 

Salvador!, T., 1880-1882, 1889, Ornitologia della Papuasia e delle Molucche, 
Mem. del R. Accad. del Sci. Torino 33 et seq. 

de Schauensee, R. M., 1940, On a collection of Birds from Waigeu, X'otulae 
Xaturae, Xo. 45:7. 
1940, On a collection of Birds from Waigeu. X'otulae X'aturae, X"o. 45:7. 

Sharj)e, R. B., 1869, On a new Kingfisher belonging to the Genus Tdiij/sii)- 
tera. Proc. Zool. Soc. London :630. 

Sharpe, R. B., 1892, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. 17:306. 

Siebers, H. C, 1921-1922, Boeroe Expeditie, Fninut BiiriKuui, Jvcx: 151. 

Stresmann, E., 1914, Beitriige zur Kenntris der Avifauna von Burn. Xovit. 
Zool. 21:388. 

Van Bemmel, A.C.V., 1948, A Faunal List of the Birds of the Moluccan 
Islands. Treubia 19 (2) :323-4()2. 

Vaurie, C, 1949, A revision of the bird familv Dieruridae. Bull. Amer. 
Mus. Xat. Hist. 9.3, Art. 4:289. 



fijiir* «'>"n 700! I 




OCT 18 I960; 



•IWl I • 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



No. 39 



May 2. 1959 



New Haven. Conn. 



ON MAKAIRA XIGRICAXS OF LACePeDE 

By 

James E. Morrow, Jr. 



INTRODUCTIOX 

The identity of Mahaira niyricans has long been a puzzle 
to ichthyologists engaged in studies of the istiophorids. While 
undoubtedly a marlin of some sort, the published description 
and figure (Lacepede, 1803 : 688— 091, PI. 13, fig. 3) are such 
that it has been impossible to identify the fish with any known 
species. Lacepede himself never saw the actual specimen, but 
made his description from the notes and a sketch sent to him 
by MM. Traversay, Fleuriau-Bellevue, and Lamathe. The first 
named was the sub-prefect of La Rochelle, the second was said 
to have been a well-known naturalist of the district, and the 
third appears to have been a gentleman resident at Ars, on the 
western side of the lie du Re, where the fish was found washed 
up on a beach after a storm. 

Recently, through the efforts of Dr. Willard Hartman, Pea- 
body Museum of Natural History. Yale University, we received 
photographs of the original sketch (reproduced here as fig. 1) 
and notes from the librarian of the Museum National d'His- 
toire Naturelle in Paris. On this drawing, several notes give 
the dimensions of various parts of the fish. These notes are 
in two handwritings. One is rather coarse and heavy and con- 
tains several misspellings. Presumably this is the hand of the 
person who drew the sketch. The other hand is much finer, 



Postilla idle I'ldboil 11 M/isc/i 



III 



No. 39 



appai'iiitlv that of a well-ediu-ated j)ei-s()n. and is presumably 
the writin<>' of eitlier M. Fleui-iau-liellevue or .M. Lainathe. 
The ini})re.ssion gained by exainiiiiiio- the notes in the two hands 
is that those in the coarser hand were made first, and that 
those in the finer hand represent additions and corrections. 
Prof. Georges May, Department of P^rench, Yale University, 
kindly puzzled out the sometimes ratjicr illegible notations and 



arcnaic usages. 



;- \ 




Fifriirc 1. 'I'lic Traversay drawin^r. ,,,) \\liirli Lacopede based liis description 
of Miikdiro iiifirirKii.i. See text for iiotatioiis. Tlie small picture at tlie lower 
left is tlie illustfiition published by I.aeepede. 



Over the snout of the fish is written *'2 pieds de Longure 
De la l*icque ou defense"; along the anterior edge of the dorsal 
fin. "hautur '2'>i })ouze" ; above the middle of the back, in the 
better handwriting, "Cettc pai'tie se re})lo)oit sur elle mC-nie 
dans le corps de ranimal et saillois de 4 ou 5 })ouces a I'ex- 
terieur"'; along the anterior edge of the second dorsal "Kleron 
1) |)ouze"; across the spread of the tail, ''liauture de la (pieue 
4 ])ie(ls de haut." and in the better hand. "(Tune pointe a 
rautre"; below the caudal pedinicle. "pointe l)*os 2 pouze" ; 



May 2, 1959 Mdhaira nigricdii.s ot Lacepede | iir 3 

de deboute" (the last two words quite illej^yible, butl Pro^n' i^IartTl 
suggests that a poorly educated person luiglit liava mj^d(fi. 



usage of tlie adverl) "debout") ; below the belly, I.^^Pii r^'-p'^' 
entier De Longueur 10 pieds," and below this, in the better 
hand "trois pieds de profil"; along the anterior edge of the 
pectoral fin, "Longuer 23 pouze." Notes on the back of the 
drawing, apparently written by Lacepede and copied for us 
by Dr. Hartman, read: "II pesait 365 kylogr. 730 lbs." (the 
latter in pencil in another hand ) "Les habitants de I'lle de Rhe en 
ont mange avec plaisir. La chair etait un pen seche, non huileuse. 
Makaira, Makaira noira,tre. L'individu dessine a ete pris aupres 
de la rochelle. La tempete I'avait jete sur le rivage. Le sous- 
prefet Traversa}' m'a donne le dessin sur lequel j'ecris cette 
note." 

The notes on the separate page, in a hand similar to the finer 
one on the sketch, read: "Notes a ajouter a la description du 
poisson echoue sur les cotes de I'Isle de Re en Vend'"'" an 10. _ 
dont le dessin a ete remis a M. de Lacepede par M. de Tra- 
versay. Ce poisson n'a point d'event sur la tete comme les 
Marsouins. L'os de la deffense ressemble asses a I'yvoire. La 
deffense est ronde, et sans tranchans d'aucun cote, elle est droite, 
unie et sans sillons. II n'a point de dents, son palais etoit extre- 
ment apre a la main. La chair tres blanche, courte, seche et 
d'un gout fade. 

"Ces renseignmens ainsi que le dessein, ont ete donnes a M. 
Fleuriau-Bellevue par 31. Lamathe fils, demeurant a Ars, Isle 
de He M. Lamathe lui a maiido qu'il repondrois tres volontiers 
a toutes les questions que M. de Lacepede jugerois a propos 
de lui faire a ce sujet." 

DISCUSSION 

Much of the difficulty that has been encountered in attempt- 
ing to identify any currently known species of marlin with 
Makaira nigricans is the direct result of two errors made by 
I^acepede in writing his description. First, he stated "Longueure 
totale, 330 centimetres," but the notes on the original drawing 
clearly say that the length of the body — not the whole fish — 
was ten pieds (about 3250 mm). On this point. Cuvier (1831: 



4 I'o.stilla y<ilc Pfiihodii Mn.siinn No. 39 

21)0). i-eferriiiM to the fi<iui'c publislicd by LacL'j)e'cle, remarked, 
"M. (le Lacepede a fait I'efaire le dessiii d'ajircs ces dimen- 
■-ioiis ecritcs; iiiais je crois (ju'il a trop raccourci le corps, et 
(]iie Tauteur d\\ dcssiii n'entendait \m\s coiiiprendre dans les 
vin^t [sic] pieds I'epee iii la C'audale." Followinu' Cuvier's hint, 
it would seem that the po-tei'ior reference ])oint in measuring 
the length of the body was >omewhere near tiie base of the tail. 

But from what anterior ])()int was the body measured? Com- 
})arino- the length of the spear given by Lace])cde (2 pieds, or 
about ()50 mm), with various measurements of snout length in 
other large marlins indicates that the spear of .1/. nigricans 
must have been measured from its tij) to the tip of the lower 
jaw. Both the angle of the mouth and the anterior border of the 
eye are too far back. Measurements to either of these points 
from the tip of the snout would, in such a large fish, be on the 
order of 900 to 1,000 mm or more, rather than 650 mm. The 
nostril, another possible reference point, is so close to the eye 
that measurements to this would still be far larger than 650 
nun. The most ]>robable reference points for the snout measure- 
ments are thus the tip of the snout and the tip of the lower jaw. 
At 650 nnn, this length of snout is quite reasonable for a large 
fish. Lacking evidence to the contrary, it is logical to assume 
that the anterior reference point in measuring the body length 
was also the tip of the lower jaw. This results in a standard 
length of the fish, from the tip of the snout to the tail base, of 
about .'}900 mm. This is indeed a very large fish, but it is not 
beyond the recorded or reported size for several species of 
marlins. 

The second error of transcri])tion in Lacej)ede's article is his 
statement "une hauteur d'une meter" (1,000 nmi),w]iereas the 
note on the sketch reads "trois ])ieds de profil" (974? mm). To 
the ichthyologist, "])rofir' i> not the same as body de])th 
(hauteur). The latter is the straight-line distance from the mid- 
dorsal to the mid-ventral line, while the former is the distance 
between these two lines inea>ui"e(l around the curvature of the 
body. For white niarlin, our data indicate that the depth varies 
between 79^^ 'uid SO^ of the ])rofili-, averaging 82%. Data 
supplied by Dr. C K. Rol)ins, Marine Lal)oi-atory, University 
of Miami, produce an average relationship of a fraction over 



Mav 2, 1959 Malaira n'u/ricdns of Lace})e(le 5 

82% foi- 26 speciiiien> of Atlantic blue marliii. Xakamura 
(1938: 5) reported that the depth averaged between 83% and 
86% of the profile in the three Pacific species examined by him. 
Since M. nigricans was an Atlantic fish, it seems justifiable to 
take 82.5% of the ])rofile for an approximation to the body 
depth, or 804< mm. 

Two other points re(}uire connnent. It has been suggested that 
the awkard positioning of the })ectoral fins in the sketch was 
intended to portray the rigid pectoral fins of the black marlin 
of the Indo-Pacific. Indeed, we ourselves (Morrow, 1959) ad- 
vanced somewhat the same line of reasoning in seeking to 
establish the identity of Tetrapfurus indicus Cuvicr. But there 
we were dealing with a drawing made b}^ an experienced zoologi- 
cal illustrator. In the present situation, the drawing apparently 
was made by someone witli little education, zoological knowl- 
edge, or artistic ability. l*articularly since the black marlin 
has never been recorded from the Atlantic ocean, it seems to us 
far more probable that Cuvier's (1831: 289) inter])retation 
was correct — that, consciously or no, the artist was influenced 
by experience with a fish that must have been well-known to 
him, the broadbill swordfish, and drew the fins as he thought 
thev ouo-ht to be rather than as they were. 

The statement that the meat of M. nigricans was "tres 
blanche" has also been taken to indicate the black marlin, whose 
flesh is very white in contrast to the red meat of the Atlantic 
species. However, we have eaten nearh' all the istiophorids*, 
and can testify from personal experience that the flesh of all 
these turns white when cooked. Since the rest of the description 
of the meat obviously refers to its condition on the table, the 
statement regarding color can only mean that it was well done. 

The remaining measurements, etc., seem clear enough, and as 
Lacepede and the notes agree, there seems to be no need for 
further comment. We now have a set of dimensions for M. 
nigricans as shown in Table I, and by exercising only the mini- 
nunn of imagination, it should be possible to reconstruct the 
beast. The result is shown in fig. 2. 



* Atlantic and Indo-Pacific- blue niarlins. black, white and striped marlins, 
Atlantic and Indian ocean sailfisli, Indo-Pacific spearfisli. 



6 



Postilla Yale Pcabodi/ Museum 



No. 39 



TABLE I 
Revised dimensions of Makaird niijrirdiix Lacepede* 

Height of dorsal fin 2'i jxnic-es 

Lengtli of pectoral fin 2;5 jiouces 

Depth of body 2.49 ])ieds 

Length of snout, to 

tip of lower jaw 2 pieds 

Length of body, tip of 

lower jaw to tail base 10 pieds 

Standard length 12 pieds 

Tail spread, tip to tip i pieds 

Height second dorsal fin 9 polices 

I cngth ])osterior edge of 

first anal fin 15 pouces 



622 mm 

622 mm 

804 mm 

6.50 mm 

32.50 mm 

3900 mm 

1300 mm 

214 mm 

460 mm 



* At the time when I>acepede wrote, the pouce and pied had not been 
standardized. In converting to the metric system, we have used 1 pouce 
=^ 2.707 cm and 1 pied ^= 0.3248 m. While this may result in some snrill 
error in absolute size, it will not affect the j)roi)ortional relationships. 



The general facies of the recon.struction reseiiihle those of 
the bhie marhn more closely than those of any other species. 
Particularly, the robust body and moderately low dor.sal fin 
place M. nigricans with the blue rather than white among the 
Atlantic sj)ecies. The pectoral fin is very short, but its length 
falls at the lower limit of the range for blue marlin (Conrad 
and LaMonte, 1937: 218), and found also in black and Indo- 
Pacific blues (see Table II). The shape of the first anal fin is 




40 50 

PERCENTAGE OF 



70 
LENGTH 



Figure 2. M<ik<(ir<t iii(/rir(iii.i rct'onst ructed according to tiic revised meas- 
urements of Table I. See text for discussion. 



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8 Postilla Ytilc Pcahody Museum No. 39 

a bit odd for any niarlin species, but may be accounted for 
bv tbe assumption tbat eitber the fin was damaged or was not 
fully erect when measured. Some support for the former may be 
found in the presence of a stub of bone (point d'os) just be- 
hind the first anal, indicating that the second anal had been 
damaged and lost. The second dorsal fin seems rather high, but 
we can offer no explanation. 

The weight of M. nigricans, 804 pounds, is rather light for 
a fish of its assumed length. Either we have made a gross error 
in assuming this length (which does not seem likely, as the 
various proportions fit quite well), or it really was a thin fish. 
According to length-weiglit relationships derived from various 
sources (our own data, as well as that published by Gregory 
and Conrad, 1939. Tables I and III; Conrad and LaMonte, 
1937, Table I; Royce, 195T, Appendix Tables 1 and 2), a fish 
this size should have weighed well over 1,000 pounds. However, 
the same data also show that individual weights may differ 
from the computed regression by as much as -iO/^c of the ex- 
pected value. There are also a number of possibilities which 
would result in a lighter weight than expected. First, the fish 
was washed ashore. This fact, coupled with its large size, at 
once suggests that it was an old, sick, dying animal, quite pos- 
sibly emaciated. Second, it may well have lain on the beach for 
a day or two before being weighed. The rapid loss of weight 
by fishes out of water is so well known as to wan-ant no 
further comment. Third, it is quite possible, even probable, that 
the fish was cut u]) in order to be weighed more easily, with 
concomitant loss of body fluids. It may even have been evis- 
cerated. And finally, it i> not improbable that the weight was 
estimated, without ever ])utting the fish on a scale at all. 

AVe can now compare the reconstructed M. nigricans with 
each of thr currently recognized (or i-ecently dc^(■ribed) species 
of marl in (see 'I'able II). 

The depth of the body, at 20.0'^ of the standard length, 
agrees with the Atlantic blue marlin {M . anipht), the Indo- 
l*acific l)Iue {M. ma::ara). and the black marlin {Istiompax 
indicii.s). The body i> much too dec]) for either the Avhite {M. 
(ilbid(i) oi- the striped {M. diida.r), and not deep enough for 
the Bermuda marlin {M. hcniiudae). 



May 2. 19.")9 Maldira nigricans of Laccpede 9 

The height of the dorsal fin, expressed as a percentaoe of the 
depth of the body, also appears to eliminate identification with 
the white, striped, and Bermuda marlins. In all three of these 
species, the height of the dorsal fin is greater than the body 
depth, but in .1/. nigricans the dorsal height was less than 80% 
of the body depth. This value agrees well with tlie figures for 
the two blue marlins, but is somewhat too high for the black 
marlin, except for a single specimen. 

Tlie height of the dorsal as a percentage of the standard 
length agrees with the two blue marlins and the white marlin. 
It is far too low for the Bermuda marlin, slightly low for the 
striped, and a little too high for the black, although two speci- 
mens of this last species had dorsal heights that overlapped 
with M. nigricans. The weight of the evidence here, however, 
favors the blue marhns over the others. 

The pectoral fin of M. nigricans, at 16'"x of the standard 
length, is too siiort for any known species. Both the black and 
the Indo-Pacific blue, however, come close to this value at the 
low end of their ranges, and the Atlantic blue is not far off. 
Conratl and I.aMonte (1937: 218) give a lower limit of 1, 6 of 
the standard length for this last species. The relative length of 
the pectoral fin seems to rule against identity with either the 
striped or the white marlins, which have rather long pectoral 
fins. 

The length of the snout, from its tip to the tip of the lower 
jaw, is 16.7Sc of the standard length in M. nigricans. This 
value is only just beyond the upper limit observed in the Indo- 
Pacific blue, and is within the range of all the others except the 
striped marlin. 

M. nigricans, at a weight of 804 pounds and an estimated 
total length of about 15 feet, was nuich too large to have been 
either a white or a striped marlin. Although the rod and reel 
record for the latter is listed at 692 pounds, the fact that this 
individual, caught nearly thirty years ago, was so much bigger 
(see Table II) than any individual taken since, despite greatly 
increased fishing intensity, suggests that it may have been mis- 
identified. It is quite possible that the fish was really an Indo- 
Pacific blue, a species generally not recognized by American 
anglers and ichthyologists at the time. Be that as it may, the 



10 Postilla Ydlc Veaboily Museum Xo. 39 

size of .1/. iii(jr'i<a>is falls well within the recorded or reported 
range of the two blue marlins and the black niarliii. 

The locality of capture at once rules out identification of 
M. nigricans with any of the three Pacific species. In the more 
than 150 years since the discovery of M. nigricans, with thou- 
sands of marlin taken each \'ear in recent times, not a single 
individual of any Pacific species has ever been reported from a 
location in the Atlantic, nor has any individual of an Atlantic 
species ever been found in the Pacific. (A possible exception is 
found in the Atlantic and Pacific blue marlins, which may or 
may not represent a single species. They are treated here 
as two separate species.) Neither the black nor the striped 
have been found in the Atlantic at any time. 

Sunnning up, then, the pectoral fin of M. nigricans is slightly 
shorter than the shortest pectorals of the Atlantic and Pacific 
blues, and the black. The gap between M. nigricans and either 
the striped or the white is rather wider, and there is no com- 
parative data for the Bermuda marlin. Of the remaining six 
characteristics considered, three rule out identification with 
the white marlin, viz : ( 1) de])th of body as percentage of stand- 
ard length; (2) height of dorsal as percentage of depth; (3) 
overall size. Five factors militate against identity with the 
striped marlin: (1) depth of body as percentage of standard 
length; (2) height of dorsal as percentage of depth; (3) snout 
length; (4) habitat; (5) overall size. Comparing with the black 
marlin, three factors indicate non-identity: (1) height of 
dorsal as percentage of dei)th ; (2) height of dorsal as per- 
centage of standard length ; (with possible exception as noted) ; 
(3) habitat. With respect to the two blue marlins. only one 
factor, habitat, rules out the Pacific form. All characteristics 
of M. nigricans are in agreement with those of the Atlantic blue 
marlin. The few measurements available for the Bermuda marlin 
absolutely ])rohibit any possibility of indentifying this form 
with M. nigricans. 

Makaira nigricans i> thu> otablished as the foi'in currently 
known as M . tinipla, the Atlantic blue marlin. The specific name, 
nigricans. ha> ])riority over an/pla by 58 years. Mahaira nigri- 
cans is the- tv})e s))ccies of the genus. The type s])ecimen itself 
was eaten. The tv])e material of the species is a sketch, accom- 



May "2. 1950 Mah'tiini n'n/ricinis of Lacejjede 11 

panied by notes and nieasurenients, now with the orif(inal manu- 
script of Histoire Xatu relic des Poissons. volume S, by Cuvier 
and Valenciennes, in the library of the Museum National 
d"Histoire Xaturelle, Paris. 

SVXOXYMY 

Makaira nigricans Laepede. 1803, Histoire naturelle des 
Poissons, Paris, vol. 4, pp. 688-G91. PI. 13, fig. 3. 

Tetni pt/inis luvschelii Gray, 1838, Ann. Mag. nat. Hist., 7, 
313, PI. 10. 

Tetrapturiis am plus Poey, 1860. Memorias sobrc la historia 
natural de la Isla de Cuba, vol. -J. ))}). 237. 243-244 : ibid.. 1861, 
PI. 15, fig. 2. 

Makaira perezi de liuen, 1950. Publ. t'ient. Serv. oceanogr. 
Pesca, Montevideo, ■'» : 171-175. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

The field wc/rk involved in accumulating much of the com- 
parative data used here has been assisted and supported l)v 
Messrs. Wendell W. Anderson, Thomas Shevlin, John K. 
Howard. Alfred C. Glassell Ji-.. Al Pflueger, the American 
Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Society of the Sigma 
Xi. Assistance in other directions has been received from Dr. 
Willard D. Hartman, Prof. Georges May, and Dr. C. Richard 
Robins. Messrs. Howard and Robins and Miss Francesca R. 
I.,aMonte have criticised the manuscript. To all these good 
friends and institutions, grateful thanks are tendered. 



12 Postilla Yale Piabodij M/iscnw No. 39 

t 

LITERATI HE CITED 

C'oiiraci. (1. Miles, and Francest-a R. LaMonte. 1937. Observations on tiit- 

boiiy form of tin blue niarlin {Makaira uUiricdiis anijila Poey). Bull. 

Anier. Mus. nat. Hist.. 74 ( + ): 207-220. 
C'uvier, Cieorges. 1831. In C'nvier and \'alenciennes, Histoirc naturelle des 

poissons, S: 287-291. Paris. 
Gregory, William K.. and G. Miles Conrad. 1939. Body-forms of the black 

marlin {M(ik(iir(( n'u/riraiin iiidrliua) and striped marlin {Makairn 

mitsiikurii) of New Zealand and Australia. Bull. Anier. Mus. nat. 

Hist.. 76 (8): 443-4-56. 
I.acepede, B. G. E. de. 1803. Histoirc naturelle des poissons, 4-' 688-691, 

PI. 13, fig. 3, Paris. 
Morrow, James E. Jr. 19.59. On the identity of Tctrapfin-us indicus Cuvier, 

1831. Copeia (In press). 
Xakamura. Hiroshi. 19:38. Report of an investigation of the spearfishes of 

Formosan waters. Rei)t. Taiwan Govt.-Genl. Fish. E\]>t. Sta.. 10. 

Translated from the Japanese by W. G. van Campen. V. S. Fish. 

Wildl. Serv., Spec. Sci. Rejjt., Fisheries No. 155, 19.55. 
Royce, William F. 19-57. Observations on the spearfishes of the central 
" Pacific. Fish. Bull. 1^4, Fish. Bull. U. S. Fish Wildl. Serv., 57: 496-5-54. 



podllL 



a 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



l^ys, '^"'"^ ^OQl 
OCT 18 1960 
UNIVERSITY 



Number -tO 



Mav 28, 1959 New Haven, Conn. 



A NEW SPECIES OF GHAMMATOSTOMIAS 
(FAMILY MELANOSTOMIATIDAE) 
FROM THE WESTERN NORTH ATLANTIC 

James E. Morrow Jr.* 



The g-envis Grammatostomias is most easily distinPTiished 
from other genera of tlie family by the presence of a streak or 
loop of luminous tissue on tiie sides of the body above the 
lateral row of serial ])hoto])hores. Within the geiuis, the form 
of the loop or streak, and the number of ra3^s in the pectoral 
fin appear to be valid characteristics upon wliich tlie several 
species can be distinguished. 

(ira iinndtostoinia.s circNlaris, new species 




Figure? 1. Griimmutoi^tomins circiihirh, new species. Drawn from the type 
spieinien, 135.6 mm from snout ti]) to tail base. The si<in of the caudal 
region has been slightly restored in the illustration. Drawn by Miss 
Shirley Glaser. 

Study Material. Type Specimen. One specimen, 135.6 mm in 
standard length, from the western north Atlantic, north of 
San Juan, Puerto Rico; Yale Peabody Museum of Natural 
History, Bingham Oceanographic Collection, No. .'3T7'3. 

* Bingliau] Oceanographic Laboratory, Yale University. 



2 Postilla Yale I'lalxxl/j Mn.siinii No. 40 

Disf'inctirc Characters, (i. circ/ilari.s is .se})!iratcd from the 
otlier two species ot" tlie ^eiius bv the ])resence of 9 pectoral 
rays and bv the nearly ciiTulai- form of the hiteral h)()p of hun- 
mous tissne. 

Description. Proportional measurements of the type speci- 
men are expressed as percentages of the standard length unless 
otherwise indicated. 

Bodtj: depth 10.5. 

Head: !;).() 

Eifc-.-l.iS: 16.5% of head. 

Siiuiit: ;i.-i; 21.7 /c of head. 

Interorbital : 4.1; 20.0'' r of head; ca. 150''V of eye diameter. 

Distance from snont: to origin of dorsal fin 7<S..'3 ; tt) origin 
of anal fin 7<S..'3 ; to orii>in of ventral fins 45.8. 



!-> 



Dorsal fin : I'ays 21 ; length of base 14.(). 

.inal fin: I'ays 23; length of base 17.0. 

Pectoral fin : rays 9. 

Ventral fin : rays 8. 

Branchiostegal raijs: 10. 

Serial photophores: \entral row: I-P T, P-V IS. V-A 21 (tlie 
last two above atial base). AC 1.'}. Lateral row: ()-\ 18, 
V-A 19. 20. 

Body slender, compressed, de|)th about 1 10 of standard 
length. Caudal j)edunclc about 5"^^ of standard length, strong- 
ly compressed. liarl)el pigmented basallv, broken off. the part 
jemaming not (juite as long as head. 

Head about 1 (> of standard length, its doi-sal j)rofik' gently 
j'ounded, pi'eniaxilla projecting into dorsal line. Snout longer 
than eye. Interorbital width greater than snout, about 1 1. 2 
times eye, slightly convex, with a low. inconspicuous I'idge above 
each eye. Kye round, about 1, G of head. A small light organ 



May 28, 1959 A New Species of (irdiinnafoafoiii'ui.s 



3 



})resent on ventral ed^e of fleshy orl)it below jj^jiie v. nOtVeye. 
J^ostoculnr or*4an elongate, its len<j;th about 5 times its \<'i"dth,~" 
leno-tli less tlian 1 2 eye, long axis parallel to uppcT^jjtw'. A 
small, vertically elongate luminous sj)ot pi'estn(| l3)ff(2i"6 1960 
three small spots on upper jaw, one just before V{Vfi^''';'^J\'''^'" 
organ, a second elongate spot behind })ostocul{ r, an(^_ 'fl'T^Wrd 
round one behind. Branchiostegals 10, a photo jhoUliWbKJiitfti- 
brane near base of each ray. 



]\Iouth extending nearly full length of head, gape straight, 
l^remaxilla with a large fixed tooth anteriorly, followed by a 
larger depressiblc one which is largest tooth in up])er jaw. 
These followed by two rigid, outer teeth, a depressible inner 
tooth, a rigid outer, a depressible inner, and five rigid teeth to 
posterior end of premaxilla. ^Maxillary with about 28 small 
oblique denticles on posterior ])art of its ventral margin. Man- 
dible with a large, rigid fang anteriorly, followed by a minute 
rigid tooth, a depressible tooth and a rigid outei- tooth. lU'hind 
these, three inner deprcssiljle teeth and three rigid outer teeth, 
apjjroximately in pairs, inner teeth longer than outer ones. 
Behind these, 11 small rigid teeth in single row, irregular in 
size, 1st and 4th longest. A'omer without teeth. Palatines with 
.'} oi- 4< teeth in single row on each side, 2nd and 4th teeth 
minute. Two ])airs of backwardly-directed teeth on tongue. 
Twelve small single teeth on first gill arch. 

Pectoral fins close to mid-ventral line, theii' origins just 
below posterior edge of gill openings, fins of 9 long, slender, 
dark-colored rays, sevei'al with slim luminous bodies, one with 
a larffe thick mass of hnninous tissue basal! y. Pectoral rays 
about as long as a head. \ cntral fins of 8 rays, well developed, 
originating before middle of standard length. Dors.il and anal 
origins on same vertical, anal base longer than that of dorsal, 
both fins with thick sheaths of Ijody skin extending well u[) on 
the rays. Caudal forked. 



Sides of body with a nearly circular line of luminous tissue, 
its antero-posterior diameter slightly greater than length of 
post-ocular part of head, extending backwards from gill open- 
ings (see fig, 1). Vertical extent from near dorsum almost to 



4 Postilln Yale Peahody Museum No. 40 

lateral row of sei'ial |)hoto])iiore.s. liUminous line (|iiite even, 
smooth, without zig/a^'s oi- noticeable thickenings. 
- Skin smootli, scaleless, marked with vertical rows of tinv 
photophores, and witli ninnei'ous small oi-gans scattei'ed over 
liead and bod}-. 

Color. The alcoholic specimen is dark brownish black. Serial 
])hotophores bluish, luminous loop ])ale violet. 

Type LoeaJity. North of San Juan, Puerto Rico, 18° 55' N, 
60° 10' W to 19° 05' N, 65° 59' W; to 225 fathoms. 

Xunie. 'r\w species is named circ/ihiris, with reference to the 
nearly circular sha])e of the lateral loop of luminous tissue. 

Comparh'ion With Other Species. The present species is most 
easily compared with others in the <4enus by means of the 
following- key. 



')-> 



Key to S])ecies of Cirauniiatostoii/ias 

la. Sides with a long- luminous line fi'om ,pist behind gill cover 
to behind ventral bases, hooked shar])ly downward at its 

anterior end. Pectoral with 5 rays (Jeutatiis Goodc and 

Bean, 1895* 

lb. Si<les with a closed loop of luminous tissue. Pectoi-al I'ays 
9 to 11. 

2a. Luminous looj) elongate, extending posteriorly about to 
ventral bases, its anterior ventral ])oi-tion thickened and 
zigzag flagelliharha Holt and Hyrne. 1910. ■** 

2b. Luminous loop nearly cii'cular, without thickenings or 
zigzags rirc/ilti ris new species. 

A(hii()-icle(l(jeiiieiits. We wish to express our gratitude to Dr. 
Richard H. Backus, Woods Hole ()ccaiiogra})hic Institution, 
who collected the type specimen, for his gift of the same to the 
Peabody Museum's Bingham Oceanogi-aphic Collection. \Ve are 
also gi-ateful to Miss Shirley Glaser for her fine drawing. 



* Laneprotoxus angulifer Beebe 19.'52 is a .s\ lumv in. 

** Lamprotoxus paucifilis Regan and Trewavas 1930 and lAtiiiprotn.vHs 

]ihau<)hr<)chu.i Regan and 'l're\\a\ as lf);5() are synonyms. 



H-^a^tilL 



MBS. COMP. ZOOL 
UBRARlf 

APR 2 6 1960 

NARI/ARD 
a I UNIVERSITY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



No. 41 Sept. 15, 1959 New Haven, Conn. 

BIRDS FROM DJAILOLO, HALMAHERA^ 

S. Dillon Ripley 



My wife and I had the opportunity of spending a week in 
the vicinity of Djailolo on the island of Hahnahera from 
September 2 through 8, 1951-, during a trip in the Moluccas 
sponsored jDartly by the Guggenheim and National Science 
Foundations as well as Yale University. 

Djailolo was visited briefly b}' Alfred Russel Wallace in 
1858 who remarked (1869) on the lack of original forest in 
the area around Sahoe, and the vast extent of heavy grass and 
high reeds which made bird study very difficult. We had origin- 
ally intended to spend several months on Hahnahera, but were 
prevented from doing so by a local outbreak of guerilla activity 
and so had to content ourselves with a short visit to the Djai- 
lolo area. 

In back of the village there is a low, conical, three thousand 
foot mountain. Mount Djailolo, which has patches of heavy 
forest on its steep slopes. In addition, an experimental agri- 
cultural farm at Achango, seven kilometres by road to the 
north gave us an opportunity to camp in the midst of a varied 
environment, patches of dense scrub mixed with sago swamp, 

^ Dedicated to Professor Erwin Streseman in honor of his seventieth birthday. 



2 I'ostilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 41 

cleared fields, high stands of cultivated trees such as kapok 
and shade trees used in the plantations of cocoa and nutmeg. 
Five kilometres farther along this road to the north is a small 
auxiharv airstrip which occasionally serves the Ternate area. 
Altogether in 195-4 this was a far more rewarding mixture of 
scrub and second growth forest than one would be led to be- 
lieve from Wallace's description. 

Is this short time wc failed to see many of the birds collected 
by Wallace or later visitors such as Bernstein, Heinrich, or 
de Haan. However, we made a small collection and a few ob- 
servations which may be of interest. 

Several species were seen but not collected as follows : 

Sterna sumatrana, Djailolo Bay 

Tadorna radjah radjali. The Radjali Shelduck was flushed out 
of a sago swamp at Achango, the female uttering the char- 
acteristic grunting call as they flew. 

Spizaetus gurneyi. A pair of this hawk-eagle was observed on 
the slopes of Mount Djailolo. As the birds flew they showed 
a prominent mirror patch at the base of the primaries. The 
birds first appeared about 8:30 a.m., circling high over the 
heavy forest about half way up the mountain approximately 
1500 feet above sea level. Their circling was purposeful, taking 
them ever lower down to lower altitudes, finally to the area of 
semi-cultivation and scrub until they were lost to view in the 
lowland coconut plantation. 

Hornbills, Aceros plicatus ruficoUis, were coming into breed- 
ing condition at this time although still occupying a communal 
roost in the kapok trees. However, display flights were com- 
mon. The appearance of the Hawk-eagles seemed to drive 
them into a frenzy of display. Six liornbills could be seen at 
one time in the air, circling round and round in tight circles 
as the hawk-eagles flew by, banking sharply with set wings 
making a characteristic whirring, drununing sound. 

Rallus ph'dippensis subsp. Two rails were flushed from the 
paddy fields at Achango on September 8. They were close 
enough to spot the grayish-streaked sides, brownish-grayish 



Sept. IS, 1959 Birds from Diailolo, Halmahera I „P''i';'W 

back and reddish streak through the eye identifying them as -^ 

the Banded RaiL Presumably they were migrants into the 
north Mohiccas from Austraha and belonged to the population 
yorVi. This species has not previously been recorded from 
Halmahera vide van Bemmel (1948). 

Centropus hengalensis medius. Seen in long grass at the Djai- 
lolo airstrip. 

Species collected. 

1.) Accipter novaehoUandiae griseogularis (Gray) 
In a backyard garden at Achango. 

2.) Ptilinopus hyogastra (Temminck) 

Often perched on telephone wires. Males were coming into 
breeding condition ahead of females. The first female with 
enlarged ovaries was taken in October on Batjan. Weight; 
$ $ 159, 169; 9 9 105, 162 grams. 

3.) Ducula bicolor (Scopoli) 

4.) Reinxvardtoena reinwardtsi reimvardtsi (Temminck) 

5.) Macropygia amhoinensis hatchianensis (Wallace) 
9 ovaries enlarged September T, weight 139 grams. 

6.) Geoffroyns geoffroyi cyamcollis (S. Miiller) 

Not breeding. One bird very worn. Weight $ $ 174<, 188, 
9 9 160, 188, 190, 222 grams. 

7.) Scyfhrops novaehoUandiae Latham 

The Channel Bill appeared for the first time on September 
2, and was seen daily flying north in small groups from two 
up to ten. The birds appeared to be migrating. A single male 
had small fruits in the stomach. I^nrecorded previously from 
Halmahera. 

8.) Centropus goliath Bonaparte 

This coucal was heard to give two calls, a curious chuck- 
ling which sounds like a rail, and a deep low moaning roar. 
Local name, "Sokukud." 



4 Postilla Yale Peaboclij Museum No. 4<1 

9.) Of us leucospilus (Gray) 

This is a large dark owlet, larger than any of the forms 
of scops (wing of our 6 173 mm.), dark above and with pro- 
nounced dark central streaks on the feathers of the upper 
surface. 

In southern Asia the typical call of scops may be likened 
to "tonk tonk ta tonk." As Heinrich (1940) has noted, this 
species calls entirely differently. A single male perched about 
thirty feet above the ground in dense shade trees at Achango 
called a single, rasping "kwok" at regular intervals with per- 
haps ten seconds between each call. Tiie resonance and growling 
quality of the call sounded more like a barking deer than a bird. 
Weight IfiO grams. Local name, "Goroko." 

10.) Ninox connvivens rufosfrigata (Gray) 

A female collected from a shade tree at Achango had a 
two-syllabled call like the yapping of a small dog, "ow-wow, 
ow-wow." Heinrich (1956) found this owl in the mountains in 
contrast to our experience. 

11.) Caprimulgus macrurus schiUmdUeri Stresemann 

A male in breeding condition weighed 79 grams. Call, tlie 
familiar "tock tock" of the species. 

12.) CoUicalia vonikorensis moluccarnm Stresemann 

A female coming into breeding condition weighed 11 
grams. Another female weighed 12 grams. First record of 
this subspecies for Halmahera vide Van Bemmel (19-i8). One 
of these specimens with a wing measurement of 114 mm. seems 
exceedingly close to the race waigeuensis. The other female 
with a wing of 107 mm. fits closer to moluccarum. These speci- 
mens belong to the vanikorensis assemblage with uniform backs 
and unfeathered tarsus. Local name "putih." 

13.) CoUocalia esculenta mihila, new subspecies. 

Type: & ad. (Y.P.M. no. 36960), collected September 6, 
1954, by S. Dillon Ripley at Achango, Djailolo, Halmahera, 
Indonesia. 

Diagnosis : The single specimen of Glossy Swiftlet taken 
by me on Halmahera prom])ted me to examine comparative 
material of this s])ecies. Fi-oni this it is at once apparent that 



Sept. 15, 1959 Birds from Djailolo, Halmahera 5 

the population found on Morotai, Halmahera, Ternate and 
Tidore differs strikingly from typical esculenta of Obi, Buru, 
the southern Moluccas, Celebes (Sulawesi) and New Guinea in 
being dark below, the abdomen being clouded over. The feath- 
ers of the abdomen have dark greenish or dark greenish fuscus 
centers with white edges onlv. In this character nubila is 
similar to dodgei of Borneo or hagoho or isonota of the Philip- 
pines. This population, however, is smaller than these, more 
northern forms, and also far more glossy on the back, match- 
ing typical escnJenta in this. In addition the abdomen is even 
more suffused than in the Philippine races. 

Wing measurements of nuh'ila are; 6 5 93 - 96 ; 3 ? 92 - 

95 ; 5 sex indet. 90 - 96 mm. Weight, 15,6 grams. 

This new form is extremely interesting from a zoogeo- 
graphic point of view, showing as it does a strong relationship 
to the populations of the southern Philippines. 

I am grateful to Dr. Junge at Leyden, Professor Strese- 
mann at Berlin and Dr. Amadon of the American Museum of 
Natural History in New York for the loan of specimens in 
their care. 

14.) Hemiprocne mystacea confirmata Stresemann 

A pair were in breeding condition in early September and 
weighed S 76, 9 69 grams. 

15.) Cei/cV lepidus uropygiaUs (Gray) 

Weight; $ $ 11-20 (mean 16); 9 ? IT, 22, 30 grams. 

16.) Halcyon diops diops (Temminck) 

Common in cultivated areas, often on telephone wires. In 
addition to the character of the breast band in the female, the 
lack of the white neck ring and so forth, there is a pronounced 
weight difference between the sexes. A young male which an- 
swers to the description of the "young female" in Sharpe 
(1892) weighed 37 grams. Two S adult weighed 43,45; 9 9 
ad. 65, 65 grams. Local name "Chawahiru." 

17.) Halcyon funcbris (Bonaparte) 

This heavy-set dark brownish green kingfisher, while pos- 
sessing a plumage pattern of s]i()ts and neck ring rather like 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 41 

the chloris assemblage has a superficial resemblance to the 
brightly colored icincheUi-homhroni grou]) of the Phili])])ines. 

18.) Tanys'ipfcrd galatea isis Gray 

Comj)arisou of a small series of Racquet-tailed Kingfishers 
from Hahnahera and Batjan shows that Halmahera birds have 
an ultramarine crown only very narrowly bordered on the 
sides with cobalt which forms a superocular stripe. In the 
Batjan population the cobalt is much more pronounced, being 
broad, extending onto the crown and making a noticable nuchal 
ring. G. R. Gray (1860) described isis from "Batchian and 
Gilolo," a name which has been merged with margarethae of 
Heine (1859) from Batjan. I hereby restrict the type locality 
of isis to Gilolo ( = Halmahera) which thereby becomes avail- 
able for the Halmahera population. 

A female called with a single soft mewing note. Weight 
$ 55, 9 9 6-t, 78 grams. Local name, "Menyalum." 

19.) Eiirystomus orientalis pacificus (Latham) 
Weight S $ 175, 182 grams. 

20.) Hirundo tahiticq frontalis Quoy and Gaimard 
One, sex indet. weight 15 grams. 

21.) Arfarnus leucorliynchus leiicopygialis Gould 
Male, weight -16 grams. 

22.) Aplonis metallica metaUica (Temminck) 

Starlings were in small flocks in scrub-edge of forest areas 
about 650 feet above sea level. They made a series of short 
tinkling calls. Weight 9 60 grams. Local name "Hidis." 

23.) Corvus valid us Bonaparte 
Local name "Bokogk." 

24.) Lycocorax pyrrhopterus pyrrhopterns (Bonaparte) 

This crow-like bird of paradise occurs from sea level to 
the tops of the mountain ridges. Normally the call is a very 
harsh ras])ing "tschak tschak." A paii- at Achango were 
sitting closely side by side on a coconut palm frond. Both birds 
had enlarged gonads on September 7. A third bird was sitting 
near by. One bird, the male, was making a very deep, low 



Sept. 15, 1959 Uirds from Djailolo, HHliiiahera 7 

"oin" sound, evidently a display note. It seemed to swell up and 
bow sliffhtlv as it called. Local name "Siamit." 

25.) Lalage aurea (Temminck) 

A bird of open scrub; i weight 32 grams. 

26.) Coracina atriceps magnirostris (Bonaparte) 
Weight i 150, 9 128 grams. 

27.) Coracina papiwnsis melanolora (Gray) 
Weight $ 82 grams. 

28.) Hysipetes affinis chlorls (Finsch) 

Specimens from Halmahera seem slightly more bronzcy, 

less pure yellow green above and below than those from Batjan. 

There is no difference in size, however, and this distinction does 

not seem marked enough to warrant nomenclatoral recognition. 

Birds were in breeding condition in September. Weight 

c^ 6 38, 4<1, 9 9 4)1, 42 grams. Local name "Klaitua." 

These bulbuls were often in small family parties of from 
two or three to nearly a dozen. On one occasion I found 
Monarcha trivirgatus flocking with them evidently in a mixed 
feeding association. They occurred in open scrub or dense for- 
est from sea level up to nearly five thousand feet without 
evident altitudinal or habitat preference. 

29.) Myiagra galatea galatca Gray 

A male in breeding condition weighed 11 grams. The bill 
of this specimen shows no evidence of mal-formation but in 
form resembles typical Monarcha species, being laterally com- 
pressed, with little of the tumid appearance of Myiagra. No 
other specimens collected, or examined in the series in the 
American Museum of Natural History show this appearance, 
perhaps a mutant gene for bill shape approaching the related 
monarch flycatchers. 

30.) Monarcha trivirgatus himaculatus Gray 

Male in breeding condition, weight 15 grams. 

31.) Nectarinia sericea auriceps Grav 

A male had ejilargcd gonads although a female showed 
no enlargement. Weight ^ 8, 9 7 grams. 



8 Postilla Yale Peabod/j Museum No. ttl 

32.) Melitograis g'doJens'is (Bonaparte) 

A male with gonads enlarged was taken in substage forest 
growth at 8.50 feet above sea level. The bird called with a 
single harsli rasping note. Weight 5^ grams. Local name 
"Sotosoto." 

This lioneyeater was always seen as a solitary individual 
and seemed to show aggressive behavior. On one occasion as 
I have described elsewhere (1959) I saw a single bird disperse 
a flock of bulbuls. 

33.) Loinhura fcrruglnosa jagori (von Martens) 

A male with gonads slightly enlarged was taken out of a 
small flock in heavy weeds on the edge of a gai*den at Achango. 
Weight 13 grams. Local name "Kotolor" 

Like Hypsipetes, CoUocaUa esculenta nubila and perhaps 
Pitta inaxhna and Halcyon funcbris, the occurence of Lon- 
chura ferruginosa jagori on Halmahera emphasizes the zoo- 
geographic link between the northern Moluccan islands and 
the Philippine Archipelago. Although the predominant early 
avifaunal influence in the area can be said to have come from 
the Australian-New Guinea region witli these islands contain- 
ing the most westward extensions of tlic families of the Birds of 
Paradise and the Honeyeaters, represented in each case by 
endemic genera, still the importance of the Philippines should 
not be undcremphasized. It is instructive in this regard to be 
in Halmahera during the migration as we were, and to note 
the arrival daily of such species as the warblers, Phylloscopus 
and Locus'tella, the flycatchers, swallows, and the others, so 
many of whicli liave obviously come directly from the islands 
to the northwest on passage. These connections can only have 
been adventitious, over water, but the route is there ready to 
hand. 

lITKRATrRK CITKI) 

Gray, G. H. IHliO, Proc. Zool. Sue. London : 347. 

Heinrich G. 1940, Journ. f. Orn. vol. 88 (1) : 5. 
19.5G, Jour. f. Orn. vol. 97 : ;56. 

Rijiley, S. D. 19.59, Evolution vol. 1:5 (in pri'ss). 

Slmriie, R. B. 1892, Cat. Bds. Brit. Mus. vol. 17 : 2.14. 

Van Bemmel, A.CA^, 1948, Trcubia vol. 19 (2) : 323 -402 

Wallace, Alfred Russol, 1869 The Malav Archipelago, London 2 vols., re- 
printed 1922 : 242. 



/l^a^tiUi 



kPR 2 6 1960 

mm 

^ IINIl/ERSITY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

or Natural Histouy 



Number 42 December 20, 1959 New Haven, Conn. 



CHARACTER DISPLACEMENT 
IN INDIAN NUTHATCHES (Sitta). 

S. Dillon Ripley 



Is connection with work on the birds of India, I have had 
occasion to arrange the various nuthatches of the genus Sit fa 
occuring in India in a purely hnear listing suitable for a check- 
list. Arrangement of this sort at once reveals that far more 
is at stake than a mere listing can indicate. Some aspects of 
the problem are given in the recent comprehensive treatise by 
Voous and Van Marie (1953) who have attempted to recreate 
the distributional history of the several species of Sitta of 
Southeast Asia. 

It is quite clear from a study of these nuthatches that 
several species are involved, that they are all closely related 
and that they tend to replace each other. However, where 
these species are sympatric they show character displacement 
as well as a degree of niche specificity, thus a tendency to 
special adaptations as discussed by Brown (1958). That 
closely related species of nuthatches exhibit this type of spe- 
ciation allowing geographical overlap and ecological specificity 
has been well illustrated by Vaurie (1950, 1951) in his two 
papers on Sitta neumayer and S. tephronota of west central 
Asia. These two species of Rock Nuthatches are admitted to 
be most closely related to each other. Voous and Van Marie 
(ibid: 54) feel that the Rock Nuthatches are in addition a 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. -i'i 

central Asian offspring of the common European Tree Nut- 
hatch adapted to a xeric environment. That these forms 
could have split off from the tree-inhabiting nuthatch at op- 
posite geographically isolated ends of two glacial refugia in the 
southeastern Mediterranean and central Asia respectively 
seems conceivable. At a later stage the two populations, al- 
most indistinguishable morphologically and with similar habits 
and ecological requirements, having spread into contiguous 
areas have evolved adaptively so that both can coexist in 
the same range without hybridization. Morphologically the 
two species differ in the area of overlap by a significant change 
in bill size. Whereas isolated populations at the ends of the 
range have similar bills, the overlap populations differ greatly, 
the Asian tephronota possessing a large bill, the Mediter- 
ranean neumayer a relatively small bill. In addition whereas 
both species possess a black facial stripe of equivalent size 
and length, running from the base of the bill through the eye 
and back to the nape, the overlap populations differ greatly, 
the eye stri])e in Asian tephronota being nuich enlarged and 
prolonged farther backwards, that of the Mediterranean neu- 
mayer being greatly reduced to a strip between bill and eye 
passing backwards to just above the auricular region. Thus 
two species which are virtually sibling species have developed 
prominent recognition marks and adaptations for food gath- 
ering sufficient to prevent interbreeding and reduce competition. 

That competition is a factor seems inevitable from what is 
known of the habits of these species, both living in xeric areas 
of cliff's, rocks and low stunted trees, lioth occur in tlie same 
areas and liave been collected together at the same altitude. 
This biotopc would appear to be homogeneously diverse to use 
Hutchinson's term (1957) and would confirm his supposition 
tliat In stable homogeneously diverse biotopes the abundances 
of different species are arranged as if the realized niches were 
n on -overlap ping. 

A different series of constants are involved in the Hinuilayan 
ranges of India and Pakistan. From tlie lowlands to the 
heights of 1 ,'),()()() feet above sea level, a luuiiber of biotopes 
occur wliicli are essentially hcterogcncouslv diverse, woodland 






December 20, 1959 Indian Nuthatches (Sitta 

of different types ranging from cultivation and t 



)AFR2 61S60 



a t ropi 
rat4s=»ai 





scrub to tropical, subtropical, pine, temperatJt^JUff' ;a Ipine. 
forest. The following species of Sitta may be listed, giving 
such ecological details as are known : 



Species 



Habitat Preference 



Altitudinal Range 



1) Sitta castanea 
castanea 



Sitta castanea 
neglecta 



Sitta castanea 
cinnamoventris 



Sitta castanea 
cashmirensis 



mango groves, orchards, 
cultivation, tropical 
deciduous forest 



troi)ical lowland forest, 
also scrub and cultiva- 
tion 



lowlands to 3,500 feet 
in central India; low- 
lands to foothills 1,000 
ft. in Himalayas 

lowlands to 2,500 ft.. 



masonry walls, gardens, edge of the plains 
bamboo clumps, scrub, (winter) to 4,500 ft. 

sub-tropical forest 



mixed forests at all 
levels, lower parts of 
trees 



4,.500-l 1,500 ft. 



2) Sitta europaea, mixed forests at all 

various subspecies levels 



Sitta europaea 
montium 



mixed alpine and fir 
forests 



4,500-8,500 ft. 



4,500-12,000 ft. 



3) Sitta himalayensis, heavy mixed forests, 5,000-10,000 ft. 

various subspecies usually deciduous, strong 
preference for oaks; 
may descend to under- 

yrrowth 



4) Sitta leucopsis 



5) Sitta victoriae 



almost exclusively upper 7,000-12,000 ft. 
parts of trees in fir and 
})ine forest 



alpine forest, avoids 
i)ines 



7,500-9,200 ft. 



6) Sitta yunnanensis liarren fir forest 

association 



9,000-15,000 ft. 



4 Post ilia Yale Pcahodij Museum No. 42 

iVs ])ointed out by \'()()us and \'an Marie (ibid:59-61) all 
these species are roughly similar in size and close to each other 
in pattern. Some wing and bill measurements can indicate 
relati 



ive size: 







bill 


Wing 






(mean length m.m.') 


(mean m.m.) 


1) 


castanea castanea 


19.1 


7.5. .5 




" neqJecta 


19.8 


79.9 




" c'lvnuiuoi'Ciitris 


23.2 


83.7 




c(({<h))nn'nsiit 


21.8 


85.2 


2) 


cufopaca, various subspecies 


18.8 


78.6 




" nagaensis 


19.1 


78.2 




" montlum 


19.1 


80.2 


3) 


h'lnuiln iicntflx hututUiyensis 


1.5.9 


72.3 




a list rails 


16.6 


73.6 


4) 


Icticojisin Icii CO {mil 


21.6 


79.2 




" przewalnkii 


17 


75.1 


5) 


vie to viae 


14.) 


70.2 


6) 


i/i(iiiianf'tif!Li 


17 


73 



Status of Sitta castanea 

Sltta castanea with its various allopatric subspecies has often been listed 
as part of the common Palaearctic Tree Nuthatch species, Sitta europaea. 
It is obvious that it is most closely related to Sitta europaea and it satis- 
fies a taxonomist's criterion by being strictly allopatric, both geographi- 
cally and ecologically. However, Sitta castanea differs from europaea by 
having jironounced sexual dimori)hism and a strikingly different color pat- 
tern on the under surface of the males. Its distribution throughout the 
Gangetic plain and hills of the Indian Peninsula, with the develojiment of 
a distinct subsi)ecies in the Eastern Ghats, gives strong evidence for a 
long colonization similar to that of some of the double invasions and relict 
forms discussed by me previously (1949). I feel that it belongs to an early 
break-oft' of europaea stock, separated from that sjiecies in time and by the 
imposition of two other old Palearctic invasions into the Himalayan chain, 
the earliest Sitta leucopsis, the second Sitta hinialai/ensis. Contra Voous 
and Van Marie {ibi(l:53, 55) I believe that the hill i)oi)ulations of cas- 
tanea, namely cashuiirensis, almorae, cinnamoventris and tonkinensis, whicli 
are all larger in measurements than the lowland po]niIations, castanea and 
nef/Iecta (see measurements) have developed from the older lowland stock 
which has been able to capture and exj)loit vacant niche space in the ad- 
jacent hills in post-pluvial times. That this has been done more than once 
is shown by the isolated eastern, Indochinese ])o])ulation of tonkinensis 
whicli has devclojx'd a higliland form in tlie same way that the western 
forms have evolved. 

S'tia leucopsis and Sitta hiiiialai/ensis 

I would have listed these in my zoogcographie study of the Indian 
avifauna (1959) except that by ranging into the Indochinese and Chinese 
subregions, thcs<' six-cics did not fit my criteria for such a listing. How- 
ever, I would include thcni here along with sjiecies I did list (ibid -.79) 
.such as Zoothera xcardi. I'arus iiielanolophus, Sitta forniosa and Pj/rrhula 
enithrocephala and I', aiirautiaca as Palaearctic relicts. 



December 20, 1959 Indian Nuthatches (Siffa) 



5 



iS'///« victoriae 

From the list of measurements it will be noted that this isolated species, 
confined to the summits of the Chin Hills, Mount Victoria, of western 
Burma, is relatively small in size. It has been listed in the ]iast as a 
sub-species of S. himala>/eiisig, indicating obvious affinity, (Voous and 
Van Marie, ibid: 58) but they as well as other authors have overlooked 
the fact that hiDndaiicusia has been taken on the same mountain. 

A view of a map should prove Instructive here. Surveying the Himalayan 
chain from Kashmir east to Sikang and northern Indochina, I have in- 
dicated the zones of ecological overlap between the s]>ecies imder discus- 
sion. Although the ranges overlap geographically, it can be seen that there 
is ver}' little overlap among these species: 



Altitude 
(feet) 
15000 r 



12000 



10000 



7000 



5000 



1000 







■ 



I 



A B 



W 



n 


ri 


fb 


Ci 


Ci 


C; 


Ol 


<o 


> 


~v 


~». 


O 


Q 


Q 


t> 


5> 


:a 


Q 


Cb 


Cb 


<b 


Q 




Q 




3- 


5j 


^ 


= 


<5 




— h 

o 


Cb 




3 


01 


:a 


tn 


to 



o 

3 
Q. 



1 



3 

5) 

to 






o 

O 

■o 

c 



o 

3 
CO 



i 






Cb 



Cb 



«5' 



Figure 1. Altitudinal Ranges of Sjiecies and subs})ecies of Sittn. 











^ X 


c 

«. 


l( / 


<, 

^ 










( \ 


\ 


*;^"~^ I 


-•x/--\^---^; 








■^ J 




_,,- ■ 


.^^/\ J- 


-^S 


-N 


< 








> 


>^ 


D 


^^''' 






\ 






'I- 


y 




/ yff;----^::- 


<l3 




\ 


Vi 




" C"^ 


< 


/ 


C3 


C3 


\ 


\ 




V 




1 


O 

•^ 
U 






\ 

\ 




I 


3 


/ ^-^ 




N 




\_ X^.-A'^^.. ,- 


1 




^r ^^y^ 


• 


1 

1 
1 






^-^H' 




5^^: 


y 


^ X^'^ 

T 




^ - "^ 




X 








^ 


-^^^^yy 1 










\VA 


/ 


^" 




'" '' 










• • 


/ 




C^o 




<0 








1 • • 
1 • • 


/ 




cJte. 












• • 


1 








<13 


<a 






• : • l^ 1 






N 


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' •. -I; \ 




¥ 




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V ••1 1 








— . 


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'•'•I 1 

--^'•1 1 








^ 


< 






r : A V, 










:3 






- • • ■ _ 

^ / : il ! 


\ 


\ 


\ '^ 












OD ' • •1 ( 


> 


\ 


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lJ 


Q 










V 


^^ 


5 


C3 






/ ••*' / '^ 




^>^ 


"O 


:3 
-3J 

1 
1 


o , 






m/ 




"X 


1 ** 


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- s 
CD 


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^J / 




^ 


1 ^ 

1 Z 


r 


i . 


yr 


/> 




■>w / 






\ 


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^^^-^ 


If 


^ // 










v 




^ // 










\ 




|[ 


< 1 










\ 




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^ 11 












k _^ 


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il 












^^— x^"*'*^ 


I \ 


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JVJ 


>^^ ^-.^.J^p^^^ 


A^ 












«i^ 


^^p--- 






1 






^'i(v 


% 


y. 



Figure 2. Map showing geographical orientation of species of Sitta. 



December 20, 1959 Indian Nuthatches (Sitta) 7 

From the above it can be seen that there are only a few 
cases of overlap which need to be explained. Among the sub- 
species of castanea there is no overlap. The apparent range 
overlap is due to wintering birds of the montane subspecies 
descending into the range of the lowland form out of the 
breeding season. In addition A, B and C are allopatric with 
E, G, and H. The following range overlaps then need some 
word of explanation. 

1. In Kashmir and adjacent areas of West Pakistan and 
eastern Afghanistan, Sitta castanea cashmirensis overlaps 
with aS". I. leucopsis but is ecologically separated, the latter 
prefering the upper branches of firs and pines, the former the 
lower branches of mixed deciduous and evergreen hardwoods. 
These two species then occur within the mosaic elements of a 
heterogeneously diverse biotope. There is no competition, 
hence no character displacement. 

2. In eastern Assam in the hills south of the Brahmaputra 
lliver, although castanea has a separate population, koelzi, 
it is allopatric with europaea, the latter not occuring below 
4,500 feet, the former being a lowland and submontane form 
uj) to 4,500 feet. However, a population of himaJayensis over- 
laps with europaea in these hills and occupies the same alti- 
tudinal range and much the same biotope. Both inhabit mixed 
forest. The only known ecological difference is the preference 
of h'lmalyensis for oaks, rhododendrons, and lower areas of 
trees. Evidently a degree of interspecific competition exists 
here. In the contact area both have evolved recognizable dis- 
tinct populations showing character displacement. The char- 
acter displacement follows the same general pattern as in the 
-case of the Rock nuthatches. (See Fig. 3, Page 8) 

As the figure indicates, the overlap population of europaea, 
called nagaensis, has become very pale on the under surface 
with a slimmer bill and a pronounced facial stripe. The over- 
lap population of himaJayensis, called australis, has become 
richer buff on the under surface with a stouter bill and a 
shorter facial stripe. Thus morphological differences empha- 
sizing both feeding habits and recognition are involved in this 
interspecific situation. That characters having recognition 



8 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 42 



A. europaea 

(not in contact) 



B. himalayensis 

(not in contact) 




C. europaea 

(contact Eastern 
Assam, Mount Victoria) 



D. himalayensis 

(contact Eastern 
Assann, Mount Victoria.) 



E. victoriae 

(contact Mount Victoria) 



Figure 3. Outline sketch to show ditferences between syrni)atric popuhitions 
of si)ecies of S'ltta (C, D., E.) coin])are(i to two jioiuilatioiis not 
in eontaet (A., B.). 

value are devel()})ed even between these two fairly distinct 
species would ini])ly that selection pressure towards plumage 
pattei'u differences is heavy. In a similar way North American 
warblers have evolved marked ])henotyj)ic differences as well as 
behavioral and food gathering adaptations as discussed by 
Alac Arthur (1958). 



December 20, 1959 Indian Nuthatches (Sitta) 9 

On Mount Victoria south of the Assam Hills, a third s^'m- 
patric species is introduced, Sitta victoriae. This species with 
a range of 7,500-9,200 feet overlaps altitudinally on the moun- 
tain stopes with cnropaea^ which reaches 8,500 feet, and witii 
himalai/i-nsis, with wiiich it is assumed to be most closely re- 
lated, which also reaches 9,200 feet. It would appear from a 
biogeographical point of view that victoriae is an old relict 
species, first to arrive of a double invasion by himahvyensis 
stock. It has a known ecological preference for alpine forest 
and avoids pines. Himalayensis also avoids pines and co-occurs 
with victoriae in mixed and alpine forest. Europaea may occur 
in alpine as well as mixed forest. In this case europaea and 
himalayensis have a wide range in eastern Assam of co-occur- 
ence and their morphological characters have been described. 
The third species victoriae differs by being noticably smaller 
with a more weak and slender bill and different facial ])attern. 

3. Eastwards in Tibet, Burma, Thailand, Indochina and 
Yunnan there is little actual overlap. Wherever europaea 
has invaded the mountains of southeast Asia, castanea keeps 
at lower altitudes. In the single instance where castanea in- 
vades the mountains, europaea is absent. Himalayensis occurs 
at predominantly higher altitudes. 

L The single instance of co-occurence is in the case of 
three species in Sikang or eastern Tibet. Here are found a 
population of europaea, one of leucopsis, and Sitta yunnanen- 
sis. Leucopsis has developed rich bright color on the under- 
parts in contrast to the population of leucopsis found in the 
Himalayas. The population of europaea, known as montium 
is intermediate in color of underparts, while the palest of the 
three is yunnanensis. Leucopsis lacks an eye stripe, possessed 
by the other two of differing lengths, longer in europaea, and 
has a short bill, the shortest of the three. In this instance 
yun7ianensis has a relatively long needlelike bill, and europaea 
an intermediate, stouter bill. From the table of measurements 
it will be seen that europaea montium differs from other popu- 
lations of the species by being larger with a larger bill, thus 
showing character displacement in the presence of the other 
two species. Schafer (1938) reports that europaea and yun- 



10 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 4.2 



nanensis were found together, although tlie latter was found 
only in rather barren, fir forest. He found leucopsis less often, 
in more open parkland. In the presence of yunnanens'is the 
population of europaea found with it appears to have de- 
veloped a shorter, stouter bill, larger size, and a longer eye 
stripe, as well as somewhat more richly colored underparts, 
all tending towards character displacement. Even leucopsis, 
not apparently' in close competition, would appear to have 
been affected, so markedly does it differ from the other popu- 
lation of the species. 



europaea 



F. leucopsis 



H. yunnanensis 




Figure 4. Outline sketch showing diflferences between symjiatric jiopuhi- 
tions of three species of 8\tt(\ located on the map, Fig. 2. 



Summary 

Character displacement including external features of rec- 
ognition value has been shown to occur among nuthatches in 
the heterogeneously diverse biotope of the mountains of the 
eastern Himalayan chain. Species of nuthatches which arc al- 
lopatric elsewhere, replacing each other at various altitudes or 
in differing forest associations, here come together ajid dem- 



December 20, 1959 Indian Nuthatches {Sift a) 11 

onstrate adaptive characters indicating the presence of inter- 
specific competition, and a lessened degree of niche specificity. 
As would be anticipated, the biotope of the eastern Himalayas 
appears to be more rich, more diverse, capable in at least two 
cases of supporting a greater number of potentially com- 
peting species. The more boreal biotope in the western Him- 
alayas exhibits an expected mosaic pattern of distribution of 
potentially competing species. This pattern with the phe- 
nomenon of character displacement would seem to agree with 
the niche model postulated by Hutchinson and Mac Arthur 
(1959). 

LITERATURE CITED 

Brown, W. L. Jr. 195H, "General Adaptation and Evolution." Syst. Zool. 7 
(4): 157-168. 

Hutchinson, G. E. 19.57, "Concluding Remarks." Cold Spring Harbor 
Symposia on Quan. Biol. Sf : 415-427. 

Hutchinson, G. E. and Mac Arthur R. H., 1959, "A Theoretical Ecological 
Model of Size Distributions among Species of Animals," Amer. Nat. 
93: 117-125. 

Mac Arthur, R. H., 1958, "Population Ecology of some Warblers of North- 
eastern Coniferous Forests." Ecology, 39 (4): 599-619. 

Ripley, S. D., 1949, "Avian Relicts and Double Invasions in Peninsular In- 
dia and Ceylon." Evolution 3 (2) : 150-159. 

Ripley, S. D., 1959, "Zoogeograjihic Considerations on the Indian Avi- 
fauna," Jour. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 'i6: 72-81. 

Schafer, E., 1938, "Ornithologische Ergebnisse . . nach Tibet," Jour. /. 
Orn. 86 (Sonderheft) : 46, 62, 284. 

Vaurie, C. 1950, "Notes on some Asiatic Nuthatches and Creei)ers." Amer. 
Mus. Novit. No. 1472: 1-29. 

Vaurie, C. 1951, "Adaptive Differences between Two Sympatric Species of 
Nuthatches {Sitta)r Proc. Xth Int. Orn. Cong. Upi)sala: 163-166. 

Voous, K. H, and Van Marie, V.G., 1953, "The distributional History of 
the Nuthatch Sitta europaea L." Ardea 41 extra No. 19.53: 1-68. 



e^ -i^ 



IJ^ Ottilia 



. W^. ZOOL 
APR 2 6 1950 
UNIVERSITY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number ^3 Jaiiuai'y 4, 1960 New Haven, Conn. 

TWO NEW BIRDS FROM ANGOLA 

S. Dillon Ripley 

During the course of his first collecting trip for the Peabody 
Museum in Angola, Mr. Gerd Heinrich secured two interesting 
new birds in Malange District in the northeast of that fasci- 
nating Country. The Museum is most grateful to the Depart- 
ment of Overseas of the Government of Portugal, the Govern- 
ment officials in Luanda and the officials of the Diamond Com- 
pany who aided Mr. and Mrs. Heinrich unstintingly during 
their expedition. 

Psalidoprocnc albiceps sajfusa, new subspecies. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. no. -Ki4<54<), collected January 6, 
1958, by Gerd Heinrich 15 kilometres southwest of Cacolo, 
Malange Dist. Angola. 

Diagnosis : Two males taken at this locality differ from 
albiceps by having the under wing coverts and axillaries pale 
creamy ffravish-brown rather than brown. The ear coverts 
also are grayish rather than deep brown, or mixed brown and 
white. The two specimens have dark grayish rather than white 
throats, although this may represent a ])lumagc succession 
stage. In addition the white crown is much reduced, confined 
to a small white cap. Comparison of these birds with the series 
in the American Museum of Natural History fails to reveal 
any correlation with various stages of immature plumage in 
the species. I am indebted to the authorities of the Museum 



2 I'ostillH Yah' Peabody Museum No. -43 

in New York, as well as to Mrs. B. P. Hall of the British 
Museum (Natural History) for cooperation in comparing 
these birds with specimens in their care. 

Measurements: 2 S i , wing 101,102; tail 68, T0.5 ; culmen 
(from skull) 7, 7mm. 

Remarks : These two males are coming into breeding condi- 
tion with slightly enlarged testes. They were taken in a clearing 
in savannah and gallery forest at 1-iOO metres altitude asl., 
and represent an apparently new record for Angola as Avell 
as a range extension westward for the species of several hun- 
dred miles from the southeastern Belgian Congo. 

Nectarinia sororia, new species. 

Type: 9 ad. (Y.P.M. no. -t()4.'5.5), collected November 7, 
1957, by Gerd Heinrich 42 kilometres northeast of Du(}ue de 
Braganfa, Malange Dist., Angola. 

Diagnosis : From Nectarinia verticalis this species differs 
in the only specimens known, both adult females, by lacking 
the brilliant green metallic cap, which is replaced with soft, 
dark brownish-gray, the edges of the feathers having a faint 
light greenisli metallic iridescence. In addition the underparts 
are darker, dark grayish olive, rather than grayish olive with 
a faint vinaceous tinge as in verticalis. On the u})})er })arts the 
specimens are otherwise similar to verticalis, although perhaps 
a trifle brighter, more yellowisji olive. Finally in ])ro})ortions 
these specimens vary distinctly from females of verticalis 
cyanoceph(tJa taken in the same area; 

hill wing/bill 

wing tail (from skull) index 

xdnirlii (it..'), ().'). 5 4.'), 4;i 21.."), 2:5iiiin. ;3:}, 35% 

verticalis riidnocc phtihi . . . (id, ()().5 lO, \2 2o, "Jfi 41, 43% 



Thus in body si/c these s])ccimens are larger but the bill is 
noticeablv shoi'tcr. In a series of females of verticalis, both 



.Tanuarv 4, lOGO Two New Birds from Anpt la 



mii;i. 



1 . 

APR 2 6 I960 



3 



cyanocephaja and viridisplendensy in the Am 

collection, individual wing measurements reach 65, but such 

specimens possess correspondingly long bill measurements up 

to 28nmi. The wing/bill index brings this difference out rather 

forcibly. 

Remarks : Both females of this new species are adult with 
completely ossified skulls according to Mr. Heinrich who noted 
the difference in the head plumage pattern in the field and 
first drew my attention to the specimens. These two birds Avere 
taken at Duque de Bragan^a and Cacolo nearly seven hundred 
miles apart, both at an altitude of 14^00 metres and in gallery 
forest. I should hesitate to describe a new species of sunbird 
on females alone were it not for the interest biologically of 
the different bill ratio. Evidently this sibling form can co- 
occur ecologically, in a competitive situation with a virtually 
identical sister species. It will be interesting to discover the 
plumage of the males, which may perhaps be similarly reduced 
in brightness. 

Range: Known only from 4*2 kilometres northeast of Duque 
de Bragan^a and from 15 kilometres southwest of Cacolo, 
Malange District, Northeast Angola. 



pad'ilL 



a 



YALE FEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



MUS. CO^^?. 700L 

It;"" ;'• V' 

OCT 18 1960 

HARVARD 
ONIVERSilY 



XuiubLT 44" 



Februaiv 15, !!)()() New Haven, Conn. 



SIXOPA FROM THE CUCHARA FORMATION 

OF COLORADO 

by Peter Robinson 
Peabody Museum, '^'alr University 



In June of 1958 the writer collected a fragment oi a skull 
of Sinopa cf. vidpccnht Matthew from the Cuchara formation 
near La \'eta, Huerfano County, Colorado, Only two other 
fossil mammals are known to have been collected from the 
Cuchara formation: one of these is lost (letter from R. C. Hills 
to AValter Grangei-, dated December T, 1910, in the files of the 
American Museinn of Natural History); the other specimen 
is mis])laccd. The lost s|)ecimen was a 1''^ of PJicnacodns iiitcr- 
iitcd'ins (letter from AValtei- Granger to li. C. Hills, dated 
November 2.'J, 191()) and the misplaced specimen is a lower 
jaw of H ijr<tvothcrui)ti{^Yio\\\\)\)us) . Granger did not detci-- 
niinc the species of the Hi/rdcofhcriii in specimen. Both Hyra- 
cotheri/u!/ and PJiciuic()<lns intiii/udiii.s are found throughout 
the early Eocene. 

The Siiiopa specimen, Yale Peabody Museum (Yl^M) No. 
IG-KH), is fi-oni the lower part of the Cuchara formation, 
probably less than 1000 feet above its base. The Cuchara 
formation is a])))r()ximately 5000 feet thick in the La Veta 
area (Johnson 1958 ]). 505). The exact locality is shown on 
aerial photograph No. CL22-;3(), of the 1 :20,000 series flown 
by the Forest Service in 1937. Using the coordinate system 
described by Olson (194-8 p. 189), the locality is placed on the 
photograph at 1.22-4.74 starting from the lower left hand 



2 



I'oNfilla Yale Pidhodij M/isi/im 



No. 44 



collimatin«>; mark. This cx})()sure is in SW j S19 T'JDS R(57\V 
aj)})i'()\iiiiatcl V four miles east of La \ eta. 

Older C'ARMVOUA 

Suborder Creodoxt.v 

Family Hyaeiiodontidae 

Sinopa cf. viiljxc/ihi Mattlicw 1915 

YPM No. lOlGO is most similar to Sinopa valpccala Mat- 
thew. The specimen consists of the orbital region of the skull 
with parts of P^-M'^ of both sides preserved. M^ is slightly smaller 
than referred specimens of ^S'. vnlpccula in the American Mu- 
seum of Natural History. P^ and M" agree well with the referred 
specimens. The M" possesses a lingual cingulum ; tiie lingual 
jjortion of M' is missing. M'^ had a metacone, hut it is l)rokcn 
off. The presence of a metacone on M'" and the lingual cingulum 
on M~ show that this specimen is not referral)le to Tritein- 
iiodon. The buccal portion of M'^ overlaps the metastylc of 
M" ; iiow much of the })resent condition is due to ])()st-mortem 
crushing is not certain. 




midline 



Fijriirc 1. Siiniiiii ft', i-iil /kciiIh Matthew, Yl'M Xo. KiKiO, from tlu' Cu- 
cliara t'oriiiat ion, I Inert' iiio County, C'oloracio. I'alatal view of the rijrht side 
of si\uil frag-ment witii I'l-M' i)re.sent. MajrMitieatit)n 2X linear. 



Feb. 15, li)()() Sinopa from flic Cuchara Formatioii 3 

Tlie buccal lcn<.ths of teeth of YPM No. HUGO ;mr 

left P' left M' rij-:iit M^ ri|:ht 

6.3niin 5.3min 5.1iuni 




The type .sj)et'iiiieu of <S'. r/il pcctihi came from the L® 
level of the Bighorn Basin (Matthew 1919 p. 80). \R 
.specimen^s arc found as low as the upper Grey Bull level of 
the same basin (Matthew 1915 p. 80). Gazin (1952 p. 53) 
referred a specimen fi'om the La Barge fauna of the Knight 
formation to this species. Gazin correlates the I^a Barge fauna 
with tlie ty})e Lost Cabin of tlie ^Vin(l Rivei' Basin (Gazin 
1952 p. 10). Therefore known specimens of S. ludpccnla occur 
througii tlie upper half of the lower Eocene rocks of Wyoming. 
The possibility that tlie s])ecies occurs also at earlici- levels is 
good since specimens referraljle to it are rare and coeval 
species of Sinopa {iS. strenua and S. mnlticiisp'is^ Matthew 
1915 p. 74<,80) occur throughout the lower Eocene. The pres- 
ence of Sinopa cf. vulpecula in tlie lower beds of the Cuchara 
formation indicates an early Eocene age for the beds from 
which the specimen came, and perhaps a late early Eocene age. 
The occurrence of H /jnicoflicr'iiiii/ and PJiciKuodiis supports 
this age determination; the locality ( ics ) of tliese specimens 
is (are) not known. Recent work l^y Johnson (1958 ]). 565) 
cites a probable early Eocene age based on stratigi-a]ihic 
}iosition. 

The Cuchara formation can, by inference from its thickness, 
include Ijeds of middle Eocene and perhaps younger rocks. 
The writer is currently describing the fauna of the Huerfano 
formation; lie believes that the Cuchara and Huerfano forma- 
tions are in general correlative. However, detailed discussion 
of this will a})j)car later. 

Tiie wi-iter wishes to thank Dr. E. H. Colbei-t of the Amer- 
ican Museum of Natural History for allowing hin\ to study 
the Sinopa material and for allowing him to refer to the cor- 
res])ondence of Walter Granger and R. C. Hills. Mrs. Rachel 
H. Nichols of the same institution kindly helped locate speci- 
mens and correspondence. Dr. Joseph T. Gregory of Peabody 
Museum graciously criticized the manuscript. 



Postilla Yalf I'cdhod/j Musi/nn No. -A-i 



ni;i'i;iii:N'Ci:s 



(i;i/.iii, ('. I... I!'")2. 'I'lic lower l\()C(iic Kiiifrlit toniiatioii of western Wyoiii- 
iiijr ami its iiiaininaliaii faunas, Sinitlisonian Mise. Coll. v. 117 no. IM 
p. 1-K2. 

Clran^er, Walter, l!*!-"), .\ revision of the l(»wer Eocene Wasatch and Wind 
River faunas, ])art III, Order Condylartlira, Families Phenacodontidac 
and Meniscotheriidae, Amer. Mus. Xat. Hist. Bull. v. 34 p. 329-361. 

Johnson, li. B., lf).")K, Geology and coal resources of the Walsenburg area, 
Huerfano County, Colorado, V. S. Ceol. Survey, Bull. 1U42-0 ]). .557-.5K3. 

Mattliew, W . I)., 1915, A revision of tlie lower Eocene Wasatch and Wind 
River faunas, part I, Order Ferae (Carnivora), Suborder Creodonta, 
Amer. Mus. Xat. Hist Bull. -U ]). l-l():i. 

Olson, 1'',. {'., IfJ^y, A ))reliniinary rejiort on the \ertehrates from the I'er- 
mian \'ale formation of Texas, ,lour (ieol. v. .36 ]). 186-19.S. 



-^ !\PR 2 8 i960 




till 



MNimslTY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 45 February 15, 1960 New Haven, Conn. 
^^ ^ 

NOTES ON THE EMBRYOLOGY AND EVOLUTION 
OF THE MEGAPODES (AVES : GALLIFORMES) 

By George A, Clark, Jr. 
Zoology Department, Yale University 



Members of the family Megapodiidae of Australia and the 
Pacific Islands incubate their eggs artificially using such heat 
sources as fermentation, volcanic activity, or the sun. The 
available data suggest that young megapodes receive almost 
no parental care. Young birds are exceedingly precocious, 
being able to fly on the day of hatching and feeding actively 
only a few days after hatching. 

Portmann (1938, 1951, 1955) has listed as reptile-like the 
following characters of megapodes : no egg tooth at hatching, 
lack of down feathers in embryos or nestlings, lack of parental 
care, primitive method of incubation (by solar heat), long 
incubation period (8 weeks for Leipoa; Frith, 1956), large 
number of eggs laid, slow growth to adult size (especially for 
Alectura), primitive structure of the brain. These features 
have been interpreted as showing that the megapode method 
of reproduction has evolved directly from that of reptilian 
ancestors. 

Contrary to this idea, Pycraft (1900, 1907, 1910) thought 
that the megapode reproductive adaptation had evolved from 
a more typical galliform reproductive pattern (see Fig. 1). 



Postilla Yale I\ ahodt/ Museum 



No. 45 



THE EGG TOOTH 

In several enibrvos of Talegnlla job'uii.si'i a white .spot on 
tlie anterior end of tlie upper jaw is in the same relative posi- 
tion as the egg tooth in a chick embryo {Galhis domesticus) 
shortly l)efoi-e hatching (see Fig. 2). The e(r;^ tooth is not so 
cons])icuous in older Talegalla embryos. In Megapodius prit- 
chardu an eg^ tooth is not apparent shortly before hatching 
(Fi-iedmann, 1931). Megapodes hatch by kicking their wav 
out of the shell (Campbell, 1903). Tiie vestigial egg tooth 
indicates that the mega])odes have evolved from })irds which 
iiatched relatively earlier in ontogeny. An analogous example 
of a vestigial character of phylogenetic significance is the 
egg tooth found in embryos of certain marsupials (Hill and 
deBeer, 19.50). 

THE LABIAL GROOVE 

The labial groove of the u])i>er jaw is conspicuous in the 
Talegalla embryo with the most prominent egg tooth (see Fig. 
2). This groove was not found in somewhat older Talegalla 



conception 



1 



vestigial egg 
tootti (time?) 



hictching 

and 

flying 

4 



megopode 




ennbryonic period 



hypot tieticol 
typical [_ 
gal liform 



egg tooth 

A 



hatching 



flying 



>ssk^k^^s"<-;\<4y^MJi 



3 



ennbryonic period 



period of requisite 
parental care 



8 



TIME IN WEEKS 

Figure I. Diafrrain of the hypothesized inorpholofjical and behaxioral 
development of the inegai)ode coniiiarid wifli that of more typical galli- 
naceous birds. 



^^^ 2 3 I960 

Feb. 15, 1960 Enibryolooy and Evolution of ^^^'^'i^Qii'filCIT^ 

embi\vos. According to Hamilton (1952: 375), tlic remnants 
of the labial g-roove are shed on the nineteenth day of incu- 
bation in the chicken. 



EARLY PLUMAGE SEQUENCES 

The newly hatched inega})ode bears primarily pennaceous 
feathers in contrast to the "downy plumage" of more typical 
gallinaceous birds at hatching. Studer (1877, 1878, 1889) 
re])orted finding down featliers at the tips of the pennaceous 
feathers in Megapodius embryos. Both pennaceous feathers 
and down were ensheathed. Studer believed that the down feath- 
ers were lost before hatching. Blaszyk (1935) thought that 
what Studer had termed a down feather was mei'ely the result 
of making a section through tlie distal end of an ensheathed 
pennaceous feather. Blaszyk (1935) and Becker (1959) found 
no traces of embryonic down feathers in Megapodius. Neither 
Blaszyk (1935) nor Becker (1959) commented on a study by 



a 





L 



■%JoLlJS!^^=cSJi-S«" 





C, 

Figure 2. a. Dorsal view of tlie upper jaw of a TalegaUa embryo; note 
the vestigial egg tooth, h. Lateral view of the upper jaw of the same 
Talegalla embryo; note the labial groove, c. and d. Dorsal and lateral 
aspects of the upper jaw of a chicken at the time of hatching. 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. ^o 

Pycraft (1900 ). who liad reported fiiuliiin- down-like rudiments 
on Hie tij)s of tlie first pennaceoiis feathers in Megapodius 
embryos. I have made a preliminary examination of embr\^onic 
TalegaUa feathers and have found evidence that Pycraft's 
account is fundamentally correct. 

lioth tlie five week old pheasant {Fhasianus cohhicus; West- 
erskov, 19.57: 20) and the newly hatched megapode bear 
predominantly juvenal plumage. Thus at roughly 8 weeks 
postconception the megapode and typical gallinaceous birds 
appear to reach similar levels of plumage development. Wallace 
(1860) commented that the newly hatched megapode behaves 
about as maturely as a chicken at one month posthatching. 

SPECIAL EMBRYONIC ADAPTATIONS 

Correlated with the prolongation of the prehatching period, 
certain embryonic adaptations are present in the megapodes. 
Meyer (1930: 5) reported that in Megapodius yolk weight 
was about 60% of total egg weight in boiled eggs; this was 
conn)ared with a figure fi-om the literature of 30% for Gallus 
doiiu'sticus. 

Megapode eggs are usually incubated with the small end 
pointed downward. Bellchambers (1921) thought that this 
aided the escape of the newly hatched bird from the mound. 
Umanski (1926) reported on the eflfects of placing incubating 
chicken eggs on end. The proportion of teratological effects 
was greater in eggs placed with the blunt end down than in 
ones with the pointed end beneath. Normally when the chicken 
egg lies horizontally, the early embryo lies in a horizontal 
plane. I'manski suggested that the teratological forms found 
in eggs placed u])right might result fi-om the failure of the 
blastoderm and early embryo to reach a horizontal })lane. 

Experiments (Marshall, 1939) have sliown a failure in 
hatching success in chicken eggs luiturned during incubation. 
Megapode eggs usually are not turned and yet hatch relatively 
successfully. Marsliall (1939) concluded that there nuist be 
anatomical and/or physiological differences between mcgaj)odes 
and the domestic fowl with respect to turning. 

One of the presumed embryonic a(la[)tations related to the 
long enibrvonic period of the mcg;ipodes is a general lack of 



Feb. 15, 1960 Embryology and Evolution of Megapodes 5 

coordinated movenient of the embryo until shortly before 
hatching. It is obvious that a megapode at six weeks post- 
conception (about two weeks prehatching) would not be so 
active as a chicken six weeks postconception (three weeks 
posthatching). I suggest that a physiological barrier pre- 
vents extensive coordinated behavioral activity of the meea- 
pode embryo during the latter part of the prehatching period. 
It would be profitable, perhaps, to examine the cholinergic 
system in the megapode embryo (Boell, 1955: 547). 

In species using fermentation as a heat source for incubation 
the presence of aerobic bacteria should presumably greatly 
deplete the available ox^^gen supply. It has been suggested 
that one of the functions of mound regulation in such species 
is to provide oxygen for the embryos which would otherwise be 
under anaerobic conditions (Meyer and Stresemann, 1928: 68; 
Mayr, 1930: 105-106). Megapodius apparently does not open 
the mound during temperature regulation (Frith, 1959: 57). 
It would be of considerable interest for studies of develop- 
mental metabolism if megapodes were found to have an ex- 
tended period of embryonic anaerobic respiration (Boell, 1955: 
522-523). 

Further studies on the egg tooth, plumage development, and 
other aspects of megapode embryology and anatomy are cur- 
rently in progress at this laboratory. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

Dr. Renate Becker, Mr. H. J. Frith, and Dr. K. Westerskov 
have kindly given useful references. I am grateful to Mr, H. J. 
Frith, Dr. J. P. Trinkaus, Dr. E. J. Boell, Prof. G. E. Hutch- 
inson, and Dr. S. D. Ripley for helpful discussion of the 
problem. I wish especially to thank Dr. Philip S. Humphrey 
for initially suggesting this study and for his most valuable 
suggestions and comments. I am greatly appreciative of the 
extended efforts of Dr. E. T. Gilliard, who collected for the 
Yale Peabody JNIuseum of Natural History a number of em- 
bryos of TalegaUa during his recent expedition to New Guinea. 
Miss Shirley Glaser has generously given of her time in prepa- 
ration of the figures. The studies reported here were conducted 



6 Postilla Yalf Pcabody Museum No. 4)5 

using the facilities of the De})artiiient of Zookigy and Peabody 
Museum of Yale University. 



SUMMARY 

A vestigial egg tooth in embryos of TalegaUa is strong 
evidence that megapodes have evolved from gallinaceous birds 
which hatched relatively earlier in ontogeny. It is hypothesized 
that much of the maturation which occurs during the post- 
hatching development of typical gallinaceous birds occurs 
before hatching in megapodes. The vestigial egg tooth, the 
labial groove of the upper jaw, and vestiges of down feathers 
plus the state of plumage development and behavior in newly 
hatched megapodes support this hypothesis. Some speculations 
on possible unusual embryonic adaptations are presented. 



REFERENCES CITED 

Becker, R. 19.59. Die Strukturanalyse der Gefiederfolgen von Megapod'ms 
freijc. rehizc. und ihre Beziehung zu der Nestlingdune der Hiihnervi'igel. 
Rev. Suisse Zool., 66: 411-527. 

Bellchambers, T. P. 1921. The Mallee Fowl of Australia. Avicult. Mag., 
(Ser. 1.3), 12 (2): 19-24. 

Blaszyk, P. 1935. Untersuchungen iiber die Stammesgeschiciite der Vogel- 
schuppen und Federn und iiber die Abhangigkeit ihrer Ausbildung am 
Vogelfuss. Von der Funktion. I. Gegenbaurs Morjih. Jahrb., 75: 483- 
521. 

Boell, E. J. 1955. Energy exchange and enzyme development during eni- 
bryogenesis. Pp. 520-555. IX: Willier, B. H., P. A. Weiss, and Y. Ham- 
burger. Analysis of development. 

Campbell, A J. 1903. The mound-building birds of Australia. Bird-Lore, 
5: 3-8. 

Friedmann, H. 1931. Observations on the growth rate of the foot in tlie 
mound birds of the genus Megnpodius. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus., 80 
(Art. 1): 1-4. 

Frith, H. J. 195G. Breeding habits in the family Megapodiidac. Ibis, 98: 
620-640. 

Fritli. H. J. 1959. Incubator birds. Scientific American. 201 (no. 2): .52-58. 

Hamilton, H. L. 1952. Lillie's development of the chick. 3rd ed. Pp. xv -\- 
1-624. 

Hill, J. P., and G. R. de Beer. 1950. Development of the Monotremata. 
A'^II. The development and structure of the egg-tooth and the caruncle 
in the Monotremes and on the occurrence of vestiges of the egg-tooth 
and caruncle in Marsupalia. Trans. Zool. Soc. I.ond.. 26: 503-544. 

Marshall, W. 19.39. The Brush-Turkey and "turning." Emu, 38: 489-491. 

Mayr, E. 19.30. Beobachtungen iiber die Brutbiologie der Grossfusshiihner 
von Xeugtiiiu'a {Mcgapotliiii^. Talegallus and Aepi/podiua). Orn. Monats- 
ber., 38: 101-106. 



Feb. 15, 1960 Embrvology and Evolution of Megapodes T 

Meyer, P. O. 1930. Untersuchungen an drii Eiern von Mef/apiKliiis t reinifn. 

Orn. Monatsber., 38: 1-5. 
Meyer, P. O., and E. Stresemann. 1928. Zur Kenntnis der Entwickhing 

von Mec/apodlus und Oxyura im Ei. Orn. Monatsber., 36: 65-71. 
Portmann, A. 1938. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der postembryonalen Entwick- 

lung der Vogel. Rev. Suisse Zool., 45: 273-348. 
Portmann, A. 1951. Ontogenesetypus und Cerebralisation in der Evolution 

der Vogel und Sanger. Rev. suisse Zool., 58: 427-434. 
Portmann, A. 1955. Die postembryonalc Entwicklung der Vogel als Evolu- 

tionsproblem. Acta XI Congr. Int. Orn., 1954. Pp. 138-151. 
Pycraft, W. P. 1900. A contribution towards our knowledge of the pteryl- 

ography of the Megapodii. Pj). 483-492. IX: A. Willey. Zoological re- 

svdts . . . New Britain, New Guinea, Loyalty Islands . . . Part IV. 

Cambridge at the Univ. Press. 
Pycraft, W. P. 1907. On the origin of diiferences between nestling birds. 

Proc. Fourth Internat. Orn. Congr. Pp. 454-459. 
Pycraft, W. P. 1910. A history of birds. Pp. i-xxxi -f 1-450. 
Studer, T. 1877. Ueber die Bildung der Federn bei dem Goldhaarpinguin 

und Mef/apodiii.s'. \'erhandl. der schweiz. naturforsch. Gesellsch., 60: 

240-246. 
Studer, T. 1878. Beitrage zur Entwicklungsgeschichte der Feder. Zeitschr. 

wiss. Zool., .30: 421-4.36. 
Studer, T. 1889. Embryonalentwicklung der Vogel. IX: Die Forschungs- 

reise S. M. S. "Gazelle" in den Jahren 1874 bis 1876, Vol. Ill: 107-124. 
Umanski, E. 1926. Zur Frage iiber den Einfluss der vertikalen Lage des 

Eies auf die Entwicklung des Embryos von Gallus domesticus. Zool. 

Anz., 68: 81-87. 
Wallace, A. R. 1860. The ornithology of northern Celebes. Ibis, 2: 140-147. 
Westerskov, K. 1957. Growth and moult of ]iheasant chicks. Xew Zealand 

Dept. Int. Aft'airs Wildl. Publ. Xo. 74: 64 pp. 




Mils. COMP. 7001 
OCT 18 I960 

mum 

CJllVERSiTY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natukal History 



Number i6 



June 30, 1960 New Haven, Conn. 



FOSSIL AMPHIBIANS FROM QUARRY NINE 

by 

Max K. Hecht' and Richard Estes" 



The original intention of this investigation was to determine 
the identity of Eobatrachus agilis Marsh. It was soon evident 
to us, as to other workers, that the type materials represented 
more than one species. Fragments referred to this form by 
Moodie (1912, 1914*) rejoresent an ilium of a reptile, a femur 
of a salamander, an unidentifiable fragment of a tibiofibula 
of a frog and two distinctly different types of frog humeri. 
Unavailable to us at this time are the vertebra and urostyle 
illustrated but not discussed by Moodie (1914). Marsh (1887) 
described this form in the following words : "More recently, 
various bones of small, anourous amphibians (Eobatrachus 
agilis) have been found, the first detected in any Mesozoic 
formation." Moodie (1912) described Marsh's material and 
selected the larger humerus as the t3'pe (Yale Peabody Mu- 
seum no. 1862). He stated that the elements represented a 
form close to Bufo and later (191'1) actually placed it in the 
Bufonidae. Simpson (1926 a and b) merely records the pres- 
ence of a modern frog in the fauna. '^ The importance of these 
specimens is that the frog remains are among the oldest known 
and the salamander is the earliest record of that group. Appli- 

' Dei)t. of Biolog}', Queens College, Flushing 67, New York. 
- Dept. of Paleontology, University of California, Berkeley 4, California. 
^ Reig (1957) for unknown reasons referred Eobatrachus to the Discoglos- 
sidae. 



2 Postilla Yah- Pcahodij Museum No. 4-f) 

cation of naines to .such fragnientary material is in part a 
matter of taste, but the antiquity of the material and its close 
correspondence to modern forms make it useful to place the 
material within the established system of classification. 

The senior author is responsible for the sections dealing 
with anurans ; the junior author for the remainder of the 
specimens. 

Class Amphibia 
Superorder Salientia 
Order Anura 
Suborder Aglossa? 
Family inceriae sedis 
Eohatrachus ogilis Marsh 

Plate 1, figs. 1, 3, 5 

Holotyj^e: Yale Peabody Museum no. 1862, the distal poi-- 
tion of a humerus. 

Locality: Quarry 9, Como Bluff, \Vvoming. 

Diagnosis: Distinguished from all known frog humeri by the 
following combination of characters : A) base of the shaft of 
the humerus perpendicular to the main axis of the humeral ball 
{eminentia capifafa of Gaupj), 189-t, henceforth referred to as 
the ball), B) a deep triangular fossa })resent (fossa cubitus 
ventralis) at the upper end of the ball, C) the ball a fully 
developed spherical articulating surface which is proportion- 
ately large in size, D) a small olecranon scar which is nearly 
triangular in form but with its a})ex nearest the lateral border 
of the humerus, E) weakly developed epicondyles, the medial 
epicondyle larger than the lateral epicondyle but reduced in 
size as compared to other frogs, F) narrowest cross-section 
(or neck) of the humerus is just above the ball. 

Description: A broken distal portion of a rigiit frog hu- 
merus measuring 6 nnn. in length. On its distal })ortion is a 
completely rounded but abraded ball, with a diameter of 
2 nnn. "^rhc medial epicondyle is a small slightly abraded nubbin 
medial to tlic ball. On the opposite side of the lateral epicondyle 
is a slight ridge with no evident rise or mound. From the two 
e])icondyIes, two distinct ridges run proximally on the main 



MUS. CO^^?. ZCDl 
OCT 18 1960 

June 30, 1960 Fossil Amphibians from Quarr}^ Nir e ^f'']'^'l 



«u 



distinct ^i 



shaft of the humerus. Lying between the two ridges is 
fossa {fossa cubitus ventraUs) which is roughly triangular. 
The base of the triangular pit is formed by the ball and its 
deepest area is on the medial side above the ball. It gradually 
becomes shallower both proximally and laterally. The apex of 
the triangular fossa is rounded and lies midway between the 
two epicondyles. The lateral surface of the medial epicondyle 
forms a weak flange which projects slightly medially. The 
olecranon scar, on the posterior surface of the ball, is a small 
triangular area whose apex is the same height as the ball and 
lies miday between the two epicondyles. The neck of the hu- 
merus (the area of smallest cross-section) is apparently long 
and begins far above the ball. There are no indications of a 
ventral ridge or crest on the neck of the humerus. Comparisons 
of the fossil with living frogs are based on the following gen- 
era : (Unless otherwise indicated only one species of each genus 
has been examined.) 

Leiopelma, Ascaphus (Leiopelmatidae) ; Pipa, Xenopus (Pi- 
pidae) ; Discoglossus, Barbourula, Bomhina, Alytes (Discoglos- 
sidae) ; Rhino phrynus (Rhinophrynidae), Pelohates (2 i^\)Q- 
cies), Scaphiopus (3 species), Megophrys (3 species) (Peloba- 
tidae) ; Pelodytes (Pelodytidae) ; Leptodactylus (2 species) ; 
Batrachophryne, Calyptocephalelln, Etipsophus, Physolaema, 
Telmatobius, Ceratophrys, Eleutherodactylus, Pleurodema, 
Adelotus, Kyarranus, Limnodynastes, Lechriodtis, Helioporus, 
Rhinoderma (Leptodactylidae) ; Dendrobates (2 species), 
(Dendrobatidae) ; Atelopus (Atelopodidae) ; Bufo (25 spe- 
cies), Ansonia, N ecto phr ynoides (Bufonidae) ; Hyla (10 spe- 
cies), Acris, Gastrotheca (2 species), Diaglena, Smilisca (3 
species) (Hylidae) ; Pseudis (Pseudidae) ; Rana (5 species), 
Arthroleptides (Ranidae) ; Phrynomerus (Phrynomeridae) ; 
Astylosternus, Dyscophus, Probreviceps, Kaloula, Uperodon, 
Gastrophryne (Microhylidae) ; Hyperolius, Rhucophorus, Me- 
galixalus (Hyperoliidae). 

Discussion : The humerus of anurans is one of the most easily 
identifiable structures because of the presence of the prominent 
ball on the distal end. The basic morphology of the humerus 
is discussed by Gaupp (1894) and the terminology to be fol- 
lowed will be based on this work. Unfortunately this classic 



4 Postilla Yale Pcabody Museum Xo. 46 

study is based only on members of the genus Rana and there- 
fore many described features of the humerus are characteristic 
only of that family or even that genus. The main aspects of 
the morphology of the humerus are amply illustrated in Fig- 
ures 39-41 of this work. The discussion will be restricted to 
the distal portion of the humerus. On either side are two epi- 
condyles, the lateral and the medial. In most frogs the medial 
is larger and more prominent, whereas the lateral epicondyle 
is usually small or represented by a slight nubbin. Immediately 
above the ball there may be a slight or relatively deep depres- 
sion, the fossa cubitis ventralis (Gaupp lS9-t, hereafter re- 
ferred to as the fossa). On the posterior surface of the humeral 
ball there is almost always a roughened tria?igular area which 
will be called the olecranon scar. This represents the area which 
articulates with the olecranon process of the radio-ulna. Im- 
mediately above the widened distal end of the humerus, there 
usually is a neck region which generally has the narrowest diam- 
eter of the entire humerus. On the proximal end of the humerus 
of almost all frogs there is a crista ventralis (Gaupp 1894). 
In many frogs this ridge is quite long and extends onto the 
neck of the humerus but usually it is absent on the neck region. 
On the basis of morphology the humerus of Ascaphus and 
Leiopelma have much in common. There is a distinct fossa 
and reduced epicondyles in Leiopelma. Eobatrachiis can read- 
ily be distinguished from Leiopelma by the more advanced 
structure of the ball. Ascaphus has a modern ty})e of ball 
but the fossa is very small and shallow. The nature of the 
fossa and the expanded lateral and medial epicondyles and 
their flanges distinguish it readily from Eobatrachus. The 
Pipidae is characterized by a small but well developed ball, 
with equally developed epicondyles and a deep triangular fossa. 
The symmetry of the pipid fossa is much greater than that of 
EobafracliKs but the fossa is relatively better developed than 
in any other known living or fossil frog. The ball of Eoba- 
trachiis is nuich more advanced than either genus although the 
reduction in size in the pipids may be due to aquatic adaptation 
and reduction of jumping abilities. The Discoglossids are pre- 
cluded from relationship to Eobatrachus by the lack of the 
fossa. Other features are characteristic of the Discoglossidae 



June 30, 1960 Fossil Amphibians from Quarry Nine 5 

which eliminate them from further discussion. The Pelobatidae 
and the Pelodytidae can be eliminated because there is no sign 
of the fossa (except a tiny fossa-like depression in Megophrys) 
and the apex of the olecranon scar tends to lie laterally rather 
than medially. The condition of the humerus among the lepto- 
dactyloid frogs (including Leptodactylidae, Dendrobatidae, 
Atelopodidae, Rhinodermidae following Griffith, 1959) is most 
variable with the single exception that the fossa is never pres- 
ent except weakly in Batrachophrynus, which differs from 
Eohatrachus by the presence of a low ventral crest on the neck 
region {crista ventralis) and reduced medial epicondyle in the 
living species. The Pseudidae and Centrolenidae may be dif- 
ferentiated from Eohatrachus in the same manner as the other 
leptodactyloid families. The bufonids can be easily distin- 
guished by the complete lack of the fossa, the generally curved 
humerus and by the apex of the olecranon scar being more 
laterally than medially oriented. The distal portion of the 
humerus of Hylidae is variable, but is usually characterized 
by the complete lack of a fossa or at best a lunate deep trench 
just above the proximal border of the ball. The medial epicon- 
dyle is usually moderately or weakly developed and the lateral 
epicondyle is variable in size from very small to very large. 
The ranid humerus can be distinguished from the fossil by 
the small pit-like fossa which lies just above the ball, very 
prominent medial epicondyle, laterally oriented apex of the 
olecranon scar, and by the general curvature of the humerus. 
The phrynomerid humerus is distinguished by its very small 
ball, elongate diaphysis, and reduced olecranon scar. The fossa 
in this form is ver^^ shallow, triangular, and extremely short. 
Both the Ranidae and Hyperoliidae have a deep fossa just 
above the proximal end of the ball. This fossa is distinctly 
different in its form from those of Eohatrachus. It appears 
that in both of these families the depression may merely be 
formed by enlargement of the sphere-like pattern of the ball. 
Both these families also differ from the fossil by the great 
development of lateral extensions or flanges from the epicon- 
d3'les, the relatively large size of the medial epicondyle and 
the lateral position of the olecranon scar. 

From the above discussion it appears that there is no clear 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum Xo. 46 

relationship between Eobatrachus and any of the living fam- 
ilies of frogs. The large size of the ball, the development of 
the fossa, the reduced medial epicondyle, the shape and form 
of the olecranon scar and the perpendicular position of the 
humeral shaft all indicate a unique association of characters 
not found in any living or fossil frog seen. The only frogs 
which approach Eobatrachus as far as the development of the 
fossa is concerned are the Pipidae and perhaps Leiopelma. 
In all of these the fossa is a symmetrical trough which is not 
the case in Eobatrachus. In both Xenopus and Pipa the hu- 
meral ball is very small with relatively large epicondyles, 
whereas in Eobatrachus the humeral ball is verv larg-e and 
the epicondyles are reduced. Certainly as far as the ball is 
concerned the humerus is an advanced structure but the de- 
velopment of the fossa may indicate a more primitive con- 
dition. The assignment of Eobatrachus to Montsechobatrachi- 
dae is at best a guess and perhaps it should be considered a 
more advanced frog than that. Validity of the assignment of 
Eobatrachus to this family (Ronier 194<5) cannot be deter- 
mined from the published material of Montsechobatrachus. 

Superorder Salientia 

Order Anura 

Suborder Neobatrachia 

Family incertae sedis 

Comobatrachus aenigmatis, new genus and species 

Plate 1, figs. 2, 4, 6 

Holotype: Yale Peabody Museum No. 1863, the distal por- 
tion of a frog humerus. 

Locality : Quarry 9, Como Bluff, Wyoming. 

Diagnosis: Distinguished from Eobatrachus by its shallower, 
symmetrical triangular fossa cubitus ventralis and less devel- 
oped medial epicondyle; similar to some leptodactylid, micro- 
hylid and hyperoliid frogs in the presence of the fossa cubitus 
ventralis, but distinguished from these groups by the poorly 
developed medial epicondyle, the medial position of the apex 
of the olecranon scar and straight shaft of the base of the 
humerus. 



June fiO, 1960 Fossil Amphibians from Quarry Nine 7 

Description: A broken distal ]>ortion of a right frog humerus 
measuring 5 mm. long. At the distal end of the fragment there 
is a large distinct abraded ball (eminentia capitata) which has 
a diameter of approximately 1.3 mm. On the medial side there 
is a small indistinct slightly abraded medial epicondyle and 
on the opposite side there is no distinct evidence of a lateral 
epicondyle. The surface of the area of the lateral epicondyle 
is slighth' abraded. The area of each epicondyle forms slight 
rounded ridges which meet at the base of the neck. Between 
the two ridges is a fossa the shape of an isosceles triangle 
whose base is the upper end of the humeral ball. The fossa is 
shallow ; the deepest area being at the upper border of the 
humeral ball. Posteriorly, the olecranon scar is triangular in 
form and its apex is slightly higher than the humeral ball. 
The apex lies midway between each epicondyle. The neck of 
the humerus is relatively low and begins above the expanded 
distal end of the bone. 

Discussion : The relationships of Comobatrachus are appar- 
ently with the more modern frog families. The development of 
the ball and the general shape of the fossa indicate no relation- 
ship to Leiopelmatidae, Pipidae, Discoglossidae, or Pelobati- 
dae. Among the Neobatrachia the Bufonidae, Atelopodidae, 
Dendrobatidae, Pseudidae (and other groups now placed in 
the Leptodactylidae by Griffith, 1959) and Hylidae are pre- 
cluded from consideration by either the complete lack of a 
fossa or only the slightest indication of such a structure. The 
fossa of the Ranidae is merely a lunate cleft above the humeral 
ball. Among the Hyperoliids there is no fossa in Rhacophorus 
or Megalixalus but a distinct one in HyperoUus. The base of 
the humerus of Comobatrachus bears a distinct resemblance 
to Eupsophus (Leptodactylidae), Hyperol'ms (Hyperoliidae), 
Probreviceps and Kaloula (Microhylidae). There are distinct 
differences between the aforementioned modern frogs and Co- 
mobatrachus. In all the modern frogs the medial epicondvle is 
better developed and the fossa is distinctly shorter than in the 
fossil. As a result of these comparisons there is apparentlv no 
family of living frogs to which Comobatrachus can be assigned, 
though it appears to be a member of the more advanced fam- 
ilies of the Neobatrachia (Reig 1958). It is probable that the 



8 Postilla Valr Pcahodij Museum No. 46 

medial ejjicontlA'le has been eroded or broken awa^- and if so 
the humerus would perhaps conform more closely to one of 
the above genera. Assvnning that the epicondyle has not been 
too badly damaged, it would appear that no family of living 
frogs would include the features of Coinohairachus. Therefore 
we can only conclude that it represents one of the more 
advanced families, possibly something related to the more gen- 
eralized Leptodactylidae or perhaps a family as advanced as 
the Microhylidae or Hypcroliidae. On the basis of probability 
a leptodactyloid affinity appears more likely. 

Order Urodela 

Family incertae sedis 

ComonecUiroides marshi, gen. et. sp. nov. 

Plate 2, figs. 3, -i ; Plate 3, fig. 6 

Holoty])c: Yale Peabody Museum 3919, complete right 
fenuir. 

Tvpe locality: Quarry 9, Como Bluff, Wyoming. 

Diagnosis : Distinguished from living salamanders princi- 
pally by the presence of endochondral ossification and heavier 
ossification of the perichondral diaphysis. 

Description : The femur is characteristically urodele, with 
narrow diaphysis, expanded and unossified proximodistal ex- 
tremities, and tiny, anteroventral twiglike trochanter. The 
head in cross section is rounded dorsally, and has a slight 
ventro-posterior angle. The tip of the trochanter is missing, 
and the point of separation of shaft and trochanter is about one 
millimeter distal to the preserved proximal edge of the head. 
The trochanter is continued on the diaphysis by a crest which 
diminishes distally, but remains discrete almost to the pre- 
served distal edge of the bone. The dorsal surface of the distal 
end is swollen and pitted for ligamentary attachment. Ven- 
trally the distal end bears two tiny foramina. The outline of 
the distal end is oval, slightly concave ventrally and convex 
dorsally. In cross section, the bone of the shaft is quite thick 
and there is endochondral ossification within the expanded 
extremities. Maximum length of femur. 11.5 nun.; maximum 



June 30, 1960 Fossil Ampliibians from Quarry Nine 



9 



diameter of distal extremity, 3 mm. ; maximum diameter prox- 
imal end, 2.3 mm. 

Discussion : Femora and humeri of urodeles may be distin- 
guished easily by the following characters. In cross section, 
the distal end of the femur is always convex dorsally and con- 
cave ventrally ; both dorsal and ventral edges are convex in 
humeri, giving a lobate appearance. The humeri always possess 
a strong bladelike crest ventrally, continuous with the head, 
and a smaller trochanter is sometimes present dorsally (e.g. in 
Salamandriclae, see Francis 1934, pi. 7, fig. 42). Femora of 
living families of urodeles are quite distinct, particularly with 
respect to tlie outline of the head in cross-section, and to a 
lesser degree the shape and orientation of the trochanter. The 
outline of the distal ext remit}" is less characteristic but may 
also be helpful. Plate 3 shows outlines of femoral heads of 
all families (except Sirenidae which lack hind limbs) of living 
urodeles. P]ach drawing is based on several specimens and is 
intended to reflect the characteristic shape for each family 
rather than that of any particular individual. The following 
material was seen: (numbers in parentheses indicate specimens 
examined) 



Ambystomidae 

Amhystoma tigrinum (3) 
A. opacum (1) 
Rhyacotriton Olympic ns (1 ) 
Siredon mexicamim (1) 

Hynobiidae 

Hynoh'uis stejnegeri (1) 
Bat rachu perns pinch onii 

(1) 

Cryptobranchidae 
Andrias scheuchzeri 

japonicus (4) 
Cryptohrayichtis 
aUegheniensis ( 1 ) 



Salamandridae 

Salamandra atra (2) 
S. maculosa ( 1 ) 
Mertensiella caucasica ( 1 ) 
Taricha granulosa (1) 

Amphiumidae 

Amphiuma tridactyhnu (3) 
A. means (1) 

Proteidae 

Proteus anguinus (1) 

Necturidae 

Nee turns maculosus (4) 
A^. punctatus (1) 

A^. beyeri (1) 



10 Postilla Yale Peabod?^ Museum No. 46 

Plethodontidae 

Plethodon c'mereus (2) 
Leurognathus 

marmorata (1) 
Desmognathus fuscus (2) 
Pseudotriton ruber (1) 

Tlie shape of the head of the femur was found to be rela- 
tively constant in all families except Ambystomidae. Rhyaco- 
triton resembles Ambystoma, both differ from Dicamptodon 
ensatus. The proximal ends of femur and humerus are difficult 
to distinguish in Siredon mexicanum, probably due to lack 
of ossification. Comparison of the figures will show that the 
closest resemblance to the Como Bluff specimen is with Nec- 
turus (considered here as a family separate from Proteus, 
following Hecht 1957). There is some similarity to Amphvima, 
from which it is distinguished by the less sloping posterior 
border of the head and the slightly different angulation of 
the trochanter. Characters of the shaft, trochanter, and distal 
end are shown in Plate 2. Ambystomids have a relatively di- 
vergent trochanter, often connected proximodistally to the 
shaft bv thin crests or webs of bone. The short stubbv femur 
of the cryptobranchids with its blunt trochanter is easily 
recognizable, and the outline of the distal end is especially 
characteristic. Salamandrids often have ossified extremities and 
the trochanter is falcate with a rounded excavation between 
trochanter and head. This condition is also found in pletho- 
dontids, though they may be separated by the proximal outline 
of the head. Proteus has a very reduced femur, with only a 
tiny ridge instead of a trochanter. Necturids are characterized 
principally by the rounded outline of the femoral head, which 
lacks any prominent crests or angles, and in this respect 
Comonecturoides most closely resembles this family. Compar- 
ison with Necturus beyeri and especially N. punctatus was 
difficult due to reduced ossification in limb extx-emities of these 
forms. Both of these species show a little more anteroposterior 
compression of the head of the femur than does N. maculosus, 
but this is in ])art due to lack of ossification in the most prox- 
imal ])art of the shaft. In pcronnibranchiate or larval types 



June 30, 1960 Fossil Ampliibians from Quarry Nine 11 

onlv tlie larger specimens or species are well ossified enough 
for comarison. 

Interrelationships of the various families based on the out- 
line of the femoral head are as follows. The similarity is 
greatest between hynobiids and Aviby stoma, to be expected 
due to the close relationship between the two groups. The 
salamandrid outline is easily derived from this type as is the 
plethodontid. The necturid outline is probably closer to the 
hynobiid or perhaps the salamandrid than to any of the others 
(the latter relationship suggested by Noble (1931) on the 
basis of reproductive structures) and the similarity of Am- 
phnmia (probably a salamandroid derivative) to Nectiirus may 
strengthen this suggestion, though of course no particular 
weight may be placed on this single character. The stubby 
outline of the cryptobranchid femur is unlike any other. 

Class Reptilia 

Order Sauria.'' 

Plate 1, figs. T, 8 
Yale Peabody Museum 1568. — right ilium. 

Description : The ilium is a flattened blade, smooth medially, 
with no indication of a sacrel attachment. Dorsally and ven- 
trally there are crests developed, giving a lenticular cross- 
section. Posteriorly these crests disappear and the cross-sec- 
tion is circular at the tip. Anteriorly there is a prominent 
crest with a boss laterally for muscle attachment. The acetab- 
ular area is broken ventrally and no trace of attachment for 
pubis or ischium remains. A tiny part of the acetabulum 
is present. 

Discussion: This bone was first discussed by Moodie (1912), 
p. 287) who indicated that it was "quite peculiar" and would 
"possibly be sufficiently characteristic to sustain the validity 
of Professor Marsh's genus Eobatrachus.^^ Later (1914, p. 
533) he indicated that there were four pits on the articular 
surface marking the "synchondrosteal union of the halves of 
the pelvis." These pits are breakage surfaces ; no evidence of 
the actual articular surface remains. Reference of this bone to 
the Reptilia indicates that it must be the right ilium with the 
narrow tip pointing posteriorly, rather than the left bone with 



12 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. ^G 

anteriorly pointing tip as Moodie suggested. There is a super- 
ficial resemblance to raniforni frogs, principally due to the 
size of the dorsal crest, but anuran ilia in general lack the 
ventral crest and are relatively nnich longer than this specimen. 
The short, compressed bladelike shape most closely resembles 
that of the Sauria. Ilia of all families of lizards have been 
examined, as well as those of other recent and many fossil 
reptiles. The general shape of the bone conforms most closely 
among lizards to certain gekkonids (e.g. Thecnclactylus) but 
the latter differ in the less well developed dorsal muscular 
crest. Breakage of the acetabular region renders further com- 
parison fruitless ; the primary reason for discussion of the 
bone here is indication of its reptilian nature. 

SUMMAKV AND COXCLUSIONS 

The ty})e materials of the earliest known North American 
fossil frog Eobatrachus ag'iVis Marsh are redescribed. The holo- 
type of E. agilis is a right humerus and the genus is tentatively 
referred to the Aglossa (Reig 1958). No comparison is pos- 
sible at this time with Montsechohatrachus and family refer- 
ence is left o])cn. The other anuran humerus associated with 
the type is distinctly different and is made the type of a new 
genus and species Comohatraehus aeniginatis which is referred 
to the Neobatrachia (Reig, ibid) without family assignment, 
though it is possible that it is of leptodactyloid relationships. 
The associated femur is identified as a urodele, incertae sedis, 
described as Coiiiouecturoides marshi and a similarity to Nec- 
turidae noted. The associated ilium is not anuran and is prob- 
ably that of a lizard or closely related reptile. The distinctive 
characters of frog humeri and urodele femora are discussed. 

Mook (1918) characterized the environment of the Morrison 
formation as a broad flood})lain with abundant running water. 
AVieland (1925) suggested a temperate to cool climate, while 
Simpson (19.'J.'3) favored a warm to tropical climate. Salaman- 
ders are primarily North Temperate today and seek cooler, 
moister habitats. This may indicate a temperate to warm 
temperate rather than a tro})ical environment during Morri- 
son time. 



June 30, 1960 Fossil Anipliibians from Quarry Nine 13 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

We are most grateful to Dr. J. T. Gregory for allowing us 
to study the Como Bluff specimens, to Dr. E. H. Colbert for 
generously providing the facilities of the American Museum 
of Natural History, and to Mr. C. M. Bogert and Dr. Richard 
Zweifel, Department of Reptiles and Amphibians, American 
Museum of Natural History, and Dr. Ernest Williams, Mu- 
seum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard College, for allowing 
us free access to comparative material in their collections. The 
authors wish to thank Drs. Maxim Lamotte, Marvin Wasser- 
man, Theodore Cohn, and Eric Matthews for gifts of com- 
parative materials. Research time for the senior author was 
made possible by National Science Foundation Research Grant 
and American Philosophical Society Grant which are grate- 
fully acknowledged. S})ecial thanks are due Chester Tarka 
for his excellent photographs of the specimens. 

REFEEEXCES 

Eaton, Theodore H. Jr. 1958. An Anatomical Study of a Neotropical Tree 

Frog, Centrolenc prosoblepon (Salientia: Centrolenidae). Univ. Kans. 

Sci. Bull. Vol. XXXIX, no. 10, pp. 4.59-472, figs. 1-20. 
Francis, Eric T. B. 1934. The Anatomy of the Salamander. Oxford, Claren- 
don Press, xxxi -|- .381 ])., 3 figs., 25 pis. 
Gau])p, Ernst. 1896. Eckcr's und Wiedersheim's Anatomie des Frosches. 

Braunschweig, Viewig und Sohn, vol. 1 and 2, .548 p., 146 figs. 
Griffith, I. 1959. The ]ihylogeny of Snilnthillus U>iil)ati(t! and the status of 

the Brachycephalidae (Ami)hil)ia, Salientia). Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 

vol. 132, part 3, pp. 457-487, figs. 1-18, pis. 4. 
Hecht, Max K. 1957. A case of ])arallel evolution in salamanders. Proc. 

Zool. Soc, Calcutta, Mookerjee Memor. vol., pp. 28,3-292. 
Moodie, Roy L. 1912. An American Jurassic Frog. Amer. Jour. Sci. (ser. 

4), vol. XXXIV, pp. 286-288. 
• 1914. The Fossil Frogs of North America. Amer. Jour. Sci. (ser. 

4), vol. XXXVIII, pp. .531-.536, figs. 1-2. 
Mook, C. C. 1918. The habitat of the s:iuropod dinosaurs. Jour. Geol., vol. 

XXVI, pp. 459-470. 
Noble, G K. 1931. The Biology of the Amphibia. London and New York: 

McGraw-Hill, xii -|- 577 pp., 174 figs., map. 
Reig. Osvaldo A. 1958. Proposciones )!ara un-i nueva macrosistemat'ca de 

los anuros. Physis, vol. XXI, pp. 109-118. 
Romer, Alfred S. 1945. Vertebrate Paleontology. Univ. Chicago Press, 

687 p., 377 figs., 4 tables. 
Simpson, G. G. 1926. The fauna of Quarry 9. Amer. Jour. Sci. (5th Ser.), 

vol. XII, i)p. 1-11, 1 fig. 
. 19.33. Paleobiology of Jurassic Mammals. Palaeobiologica, V 

Band, pp. 127-1.58, 6 figs. 
Wieland, G. R. 1925. Dinosaur feed. Science (n.s.), vol. 61, i)p. 601-603. 



14 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 4(5 



PLATE 1 

Eobatrachus ugilis Marsh, tyj)c- specimen, YPM 1862 

Fig. I. Ventral view of rigiit iiumerus 
Fig. 3. Dorsal vit u of right hunieriis 
Fig. .5. Medial view of right humerus 

Comobatracht^ii aeiiii/iiiatix, n. gen., n. sp., type specimen, YPM 1863 

Fig. 2. Ventral view of right humerus 
Fig. 4. Dorsal view of right humerus 
Fig. 6. Medial view of right humerus 

Unknown reptile, YPM 1568 

Fig. 7. Lateral view of right ilium 
Fig. 8. Medial view of right ilium 

[Present magnification x 10] 



June .*J(), 19()() Fossil Amphibians from Quarry Nine 15 



<X> 




Lo 






* i^iT"^ -^^ ^ 



16 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 46 



PLATE 2. 

Eobafrachus agilis Marsh, type specimen, YPM 1862 
Fig. 1. Lateral view of riglit humerus 

Comobaf radius ae nit) mat is, n. gen., n. sp., type specimen, YPM 1863 
Fig. 2. Lateral view of right humerus 

Comonecturoides mnrshi, n. gen., n. sp., type specimen, YPM 3919 

Fig. 3. Dorsal view of right femur 
Fig. 4. Ventral view of right femur 

Unidentified anuran, YPM 1394 (Part of original type of Eobatravluts (U)U\s) 

Fig. 5. Dorsal view of distal end of tibiofibula 
Fig. 6. Ventral view of distal end of tibiofibula 

[Present magnification x 10] 



June 30, 19(50 Fossil Amphibians from Quarry Nine IT 










18 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 46 



PLATE 3. 

Comjiarativc series of urodcle femora. Above: outline of riglit femur, an- 
terodorsal view. Below: outline of left femoral head in section; the dorsal 
surface uji and the anterior surface to the right. Not to scale. 

Fig. 1. Plethodontidae 
Fig. 2. Salamandridae 
Fig. 3. Proteidae 

Fig. 4. Ambystoraatidae 

1. A nihjint <))i)a 

2. Di(-((iiii>t()(}(i7i 
Fig. 5. Hynobiidae 

Fig. 6. Coiiianeeturoides ))iarnhi, n. gen., n. sp 

Fig. 7. Necturidae 

Fig. 8. Cryptobranchidae 

Fig. 9. Amphiumidae 



Jnno 30. 1960 Fossil Amphibians from Quarry Nine 19 













7 



8. 



9. 







MOS. Ca?IP. ZOOL 
LiBKAui 

OCT 18 I960 

HARVARD 
UNIVERSITY 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natukal History 



Xuniber 4<7 



Jnlv 1, 1960 



New Haven, Conn. 



ADDITIONS TO THE AVIFAT NA OF 
NORTHERN ANGOLA I. 

S. DiLLox Rii'T.EY Axn Gerd H. Heixrich 



During the course of a year's visit to Angola for the 
Peabody Museum in 1957-58 by one of us (Heinrich) a number 
of interesting new records were made. Specimens have been 
critically compared in the Peabody Museum bv one of us 
(Ri])ley) and the advice of Dr. James P. Chapin is here 
gratefully acknowledged. The accom|)anying map sliows the 
course of Mr. HeinriclTs travels. Grateful acknowledgement is 
made to the Diamond Company and its Museum for their 
wonderful hospitality. 

Hieraaetus (ifr'udiiii.s (Cassin) 

A male was shot in a coffee plantation at Roca C'anzele 
September 26, 195T by Prince Gustav von Schoenaich Carolath 
and presented to the collection. 

Gnttera edouard'i schoutedeui Cha))in 

The occurrence of tliis form of the blue-spotted guinea 
fowl in Angola is liereby noted with the presentation to Yale 
(if a female taken by the chief of the post office at Camissombo, 
September 17, 1958. 

Xintiida ineleagris inarungensis Schalow 

Cacolo, Somba and Dundo in dry savannah woods. 



Postilla Ydic Pcdhodif Miiseinii 



No. 47 



uochimo R 
Venssimo Sarmento 

mba (=Sombo ) 

I 
o//(=Camissombo) 




rique de Carvolho 
= Saurimo) 



RHODESIA 



ANGOLA 



100 miles 



100 kilometers 



Tnrnix tunnt insolata, new subspecies 

Type; i ad. (Y.P.M. Xo. 50,087) collected by Gerd 
Heinricb February 7, 1958, .'J5 km. west of Camissombo, nortb- 
east Angola. 

Diagnosis: from TuruLv ikiiki tliis form, known from two 
males, differs in color so strikingly as to suggest a new species. 
Turn'uv tunut is distinguisbed fi-oni the contiguous species 
.sijh'dticd by ti'iflingly larger size, by the lack of a pronounced 
median crown stripe and by the presence of blackish bars on 
the neck and upper chest which may extend incompletely 
across the fore-neck in males. This subspecies differs from 
typical nana by being extremely pale, bleached, lacking the 
dark shading of the crown and solid blackish color of the lo\ver 
back and rump. In this form the general coloration aboye is 
gi'ayisli with I'educed black patches on the feathers, highly 
cross-hatched with brown. There is an iii(li>tinct median crown 
stripe, slightly more pronounced than in typic;il ndiia. The 



July 1, 1960 Avifauna of Xortlicrii Angola I. 



wmg 



MUS. \!.m?, ZOOL 
LIBRA.vt 

OCT f 8 1960 

e u.tt^l'ARD 



he 



uwrasiTY 



coverts are whitish with a sandy-buff tone. Tl 
parts are whitish with an incomplete buffy wash on 
neck and obsolete bars on the sides of the neck. In size this 
form is similar. Two males have wing measurements of 80.5 
(type), 79; tail .'30 ; culmen 11, 10; weight -iG, 4<-t.5 g. Soft 
parts: iris pale yellow with inner and outer bi-owii rings; up- 
])er mandible blackish, lower whitish with dark tij); feet 
pinkish ivory. 

Remarks: these birds were found on a dry, sandy, grassy 
plateau at 1100 metres altitude. Specimens loaned to us 
through the courtesy of the British Museum (Natural His- 
tory) and the Chicago Museum of Natural History, come 
from Ndala Tando in the Benguella area of Angola, from 
northern Rhodesia and from the Kasai. All agree in being 
similarly and typic<dly dark. Thus this bleached form occupies 
an isolated savannah area in the center of the range of normal 
lunui. 



Excalfdcior'ia (Kldtisonii (Verreaux) 

A male was taken 25 km. northwest of Nova Gaia in a 
grassy meadow near a bi-ook December 5, 1957. 

SorotJinird hohml bohnii Reichenow 

The bird collection of the zoological laboratory of the 
Diamond Company in Dundo contains a specimen of this 
species, a male, collected November 21, 1957, in the Luachimo 
valley near Dundo by a native. Length of wing 88 mm., of 
tarsus 2'3 mm. 

Stephanihyx Inguhris (TiCsson) 

A single specimen was collected on the roadside between 
Dundo and Calulo on the northern side of the Cuanza river. 

Charadr'ms fricoUnris tr'icolltiris \'ieillot 
Taken at Luanda August 1, 5, 1957. 



Lams fnscufi fuscns Linnaeus 

All immature female from near Luanda, taken August 7, 
1957, is new for Angola, 



4 I'ostilhi Vdlc Pfdbodtj MiisCNiit No. 47 

Columba iiniciiictti Cnssiii 

Luafhiino River, near Duiulo, 800 in. altitude; Roca Canzele* 
north of Quiculungo, 600 ni. altitude. This handsome pigeon 
lives in mature stands of tropical rain forest and tropical gal- 
lerv woods, keeping always to the crowns of the oldest, tallest 
trees, usually about 100 feet above the ground. Not rare in 
the coffee woods north of Quiculungo, but difficult to observe 
and to collect on acct)unt of its dwelling above the normal 
reach of eye and gun. 

Citvuhis canoni.s gularis Stephens 

South of Duque de Bragan^a, near the road to Matete, in 
a savannah parkwood : single, medium-sized trees and patches 
of low bushes alternating with open, grassy spaces. 

This species seems to l)e very rare in Angola. During two 
and a half years of work it has been met with only once. When 
the call of the male was heard for the first time, it seemed to be 
the call of a dove or a barbet, rather than that of a cuckoo. It 
has no similarity with the familiar voice of the European C. 
canoruH, being much softer, deeper, more muffled and accentu- 
ated on the second svllable instead of on the first. The calline- 
begins usually witli a few monosyllabic notes like "uk . . . . uk 
.... uk .... " and then changes over to a fairly short series of 
duosyllabic calls, each accentuated in the second syllable. The 
whole song thus sounds like this: "uk .... uk .... uk ... . 
ukuk .... ukuk . ukuk . ukuk." The calling male is perched, 
well hidden, in the crown of one of the medium sized trees of its 
biotope, as described above. From a })air, chasing each other, I 
heard a sharp, ringing call like: "})it pit pit pit })it," fairly 
.similar to the voice of the female of the European C. canorus. 

Ctni ropii.s grillii yr'iUu Hartlaub 

Forty km. northeast of l)u(jue de Bragan^-a, 1250 m.;25 km. 
northwest of Nova Gaia, 1250 m. altitude; Kassai River, 40 
km. northeast of Canza, 900 m. altitude in open, wide, marshy, 
flat and treeless stream valleys of the high plateau in stands of 
tall grass in the drier areas. 



July 1, 19(50 Avifauna of Northern Angola I. 5 

In both males collected in December one of the testes was 
maximally enlarged, the other not at all. In April, in the Kas- 
sai valley, the s})ecies was still in full breeding condition and 
here, for the first time, the opportunity was found to study 
its voice which is rather different from the other s])ecies of 
the genus. The call was heard only during the early moi-ning 
hours, but then many times and from different directions. It is 
two-syllabic sounding approximately like "julup", dull in 
sound, but nevertheless loud and audible from afar. This call is 
usually repeated two to six times in succession and often 
followed by a short series of monosyllabic sounds, like "du - 
du - du - du." These notes are dee})er than the main call, more 
nuiff'led and not so far carrying. One morning Heinrich 
stalked a bird that was continuously calling in a thicket of 
12-foot tall grass. It was perched on a branch of an over- 
grown, dead bush, some 3 yards above ground, almost un- 
interru])tedly calling as described above. The specimen turned 
out to be not a male but a female with maximally enlarged 
ovaries. A few minutes later, and about 4'0 yards ahead 
Heinrich flushed and shot the male. It too, had maximally 
enlarged gonads. But thei-e is not the slightest doubt that the 
caller was indeed the female, as Heinrich was close enough to 
observe the movements of the head synchronized with the calls. 

Myioceyx lecontei lecontci (Cassin) 

A female was taken at Ro<,a Canzele in heavy forest along 
a brook on October 1, 1957. 

Berenicornis aJhocristatus cassini (Finsch) 

A specimen taken on the Rio Luachimo near Dundo on May 
11, 19.'58, and another specimen, a juvenile, in the museum at 
Dundo presumably from Lunda province taken in 194(5, extend 
the range of this form into northeastern Angola. 

Trie hoi a em a hirsutum chapini Bannerman 

A male and female were collected near Diuulo on the Rio 
Luachimo in February and May. 



6 Postilla Yale Pvahody Museum No. 47 

Marronijx grhtncood'i Benson 

In the re<rion of Lake Carunibo at i)()() ni. altitude, one 
specimen was found on March 2()th. in a marshy meadow 
along a stream. Tlie biotope was not at all diflt'erent from the 
u.sual habitat of M. fiillrrbonii, several specimens of which 
were in the sanie meadow. A careful examination of the whole 
area showed that the single specimen of M. gnmxvoodi was 
a solitary one. 

Macrosphenns concolor (Hartlaub) 

The olive lonabill was found on the Luachimo river, near 
Dundo, 800 m. altitude and on the Kassai river, -iO km. north- 
east Can/a at 900 m. altitude. 

Witliin the tropical gallery wood this skulking little bird 
has chosen a rather specialized habitat. It is rarely found in 
the thickets of the lower floor. Instead it searches the very 
densest tangles of hanging vines, the webs and veils of lianas 
which here and there wrap the ti'unk of crown of a single tree, 
sometimes creating an almost solid mass of clustered vegetation. 

Under this excellent covci- the small birds would l)e in- 
visible if their lively actions and characteristic voice did not 
betray them. There are two slightly different versions of the 
warbling song, both, however, ecjual in timbre and in their 
somewiiat intrusive, eager, hurried delivery. The basic tune of 
the first version is four-syllabic, and sounds like "tutuhuo" 
with the strong accent on the penultimate syllable, which is 
somewhat hi"her than the othei-s. This four-svUabic tune is 
repeated manv times in rapid se(juence without the slightest 
intermission: "tutuhuotutuhuotutuhuotutuhuotutuhuo ...."" 
The other version is only three-syllabic with the accent on the 
first syllable: "huititi." It too is re[)eated rapi<lly and eagerly 
many times: huitiHIiuititihuititiliuititihuititi . . . ." In both 
versions the volume and the s|)ee(l of the delivery increases 
slightlv and gradual) v toward the end of the secjuence. Heinnch 
observed the species always in pairs. 

Syhnettd dcNti dc/tti (Ogilvie-Grant ) 

The single collected specimen, a female with slightly en- 
larged ovaries, was shot May 11th from the crown of a tall 



Julv 1, 1960 Avifauna of Northern Aiigt)la I. 7 

tree in tropical gallery woods, close to the border of the 
liUachinu) river, near Dundo ; altitude 800 in. 

Apolis gosUngi goslingi Alexander 

Found on the Luaciiinio river, near Dundo, 800 ni. altitude 
in tropical gallery wood. This species keeps always to the im- 
mediate neighborhood of the river, usually searching the 
foliage of branches hanging directly over the water or of 
bushes standing on little islands in the river. 

The song is easy to distinguish from that of A. nifogtilaris 
and ./. alticola, as its basic strophe is monosyllabic; it is re- 
{)eated about seven to twelve times in (juick succession with 
even accentuation of each syllal)le: "tchi tchi tchi tchi tchi tchi 
tchi." Thus the song has a somewliat twittering timbre. 

Cisticola inelaniiru.s (Cabanis) 

The discovery of this secies in northeast Angola pi-oves the 
point made by Chapin (1953, Bds. Belgian Congo, pt. .*J:.'J80) 
that this form is identical with Dryodromas pearsoni Neave 
which thereby becomes a synonym of Cabanis' older name. 

Found about 50 km. southwest of Cacolo, at 14-00 m. altitude 
in the continuous dry woods of the high ])lateau. In contrast 
to most of the species of the genus this one does not depend on 
grassland or any other dense cover. The birds are, however, 
more often found in the neighboi'hood of grassy clearings than 
in the depth of the forest. 

Not very elusive and not difficult to observe as they usually 
dwell in the branches and crowns of lower trees, searching the 
foliage in the same manner as Apolis species do, for which 
Heinrich mistook them several times. Disturbed, or excited 
.specimens flip their wings with a purring noise. 



V 



/l^oddia 



A 



FEB 251963 



^ 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 4-8 



Jan. 16, 1961 New Haven, Conn. 



RODENTS AND LAGOiAIORPHS FROM THE MIOCENE 
FORT LOGAN AND DEEP RIVER FORMATIONS OF 

MONTANA 

CuAic; C. Black', Carnegie Museum, I'ittsburgh, I'a. 



The rodents and rabbits described below represent a part 
of a collection made by Dr. H. J. Koerner for the Peabody 
Museum of Natural History, Yale University, during the sum- 
mers of 1935 and 1937 near Fort Logan, Montana. I would 
like to thank Dr. Koerner for the stratigra])hic and locality 
data used below and Dr. J. T. Gregory for the opportunity 
to study these specimens. I would also like to thank Prof. 
B. Patterson, Prof. A. E. Wood, and Dr. Mary Dawson for 
many hel})ful connnents and criticisms. The illustrations are 
by Mr. James O. Farley and were made possible by a grant 
from the Gulf Oil Corporation. 

The following foi-ms are described below: 

Fort Logan Fm. 

Nighirodou hoerneri n.g. & s}). 
Eumys eliensis n. sj). 
Palaeolagu.s hypsodns 
Mcgalagns dcncsuiil n. sp. 



' 'I'his study was begun wliik- tlic author was Uufus B. Kellogg Fellow 
from Amherst College. 



2 Fostilla Yah- Pcahodij Museum No. 4-8 

Deep lliver Fin. 

ProtospcrmophUus (luyu.siicips 
Monosauliur cf. M . hcspcriis 
Pac'iculus luoiifauus ii. sp. 
Moohomys cf. M. dlfifluiu'nius 
Dilxkomys ivoodi n. sp. 
Hypolagus sp. 

Of these forms, Protospcnnoph'dii.s tiinj/ist/crps (Matthew N: 
Mook, 19.*}.'J) and Mookoinys altipuniinu.s (Wood, 19.'il) have 
been ])reviously reeoi'ded from the Deep River Formation. 

In addition, Mesoguulns Ixdlcn.sis (Rig^s, 1S99) has been 
reported from the Deep River Foi'mation but it is not repre- 
sented in tlie present collection. 

U'he followinti" abbreviations are used throuphout : 

A.M.N.H. — American Museum of Natural History, New 
York 

l^.K. — Museum of Natural Ilistoi-y, Tniversitj of 
Kansas 

Y.l'.M. — J'eabody Musium of Natural History, Vale 
University 

Class MAMMALIA 

Ordei- RoDKNTiA 

Family Aplodontidae 

Niglarodou', n. ^en. 
(Figure la X: 1)) 

'l\//}>c sj)cc'ic.s : XigltirodoN honucr't", n. sp. 

Diagnosis: Jaw slender and less i-obust than that of Mcnisro- 
iiiys or Sncrllclodou : teeth rooted, more hypsodont than in 



^ From Nifflfirof! (Ir. whistle and Odan Gr. tooth. 
'For H. J. Korriicr wlio miidc tlu- collection. 



»lp(« 



Jan. Ifi, 19fn Rodents and I^agomorphs 



3 



Haploiui/s or AUoinys, less so tlian in Mcniscomijs and Sexvel- 
lelodon; flexids persisting to, or near, tooth base; molars of 
equal size; posterior protoconid arm well developed, passing 
across the molars to prominent mesostylid on Mx-Mg ; prin- 
cipal cusps prominent with buccal and lingual flexids deep ; 
mesoconid extremely large on P4. 



•ammmimtm^m 



Niglarodon koerneri, n. sp. 

Tijpe: Y.P.M. Xo. 14024?, right mandible with P4-M3, lacking 
the incisor, coronoid process, and angle. 

Hypodigtu : Type only. 

Horizon a7ul Locality: Section 4, TlOX, R5E, Meagher Coun- 
ty, Montana, Fort Logan Formation, Arikareean. 



^- "f?: 









l'ik:-^SSk 




-s&^ 



c 



N 



- V 



^^ f 






.JL^ 



B 



Figure 1. Niglarodon koerneri n. sp., Y.P.M. No. 14024, type. A. Right 
P^-M,, anterior end to ttie right, XIO. R. Lateral view of rightmandible, X-l. 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 48 

DESCRIPTION 

Tlie angle and coronoid process are missing but the cond^'le 
is preserved and lies in a plane only slightU' above the tooth 
row. It is not greatly elevated as in Tardontia and Aplodontia. 
The masseteric ridge is weak in comparison with the other 
early Miocene genera although it ends in a well-defined tuber- 
cule below the anterior roots of Mi. The coronoid process rises 
steeply between M2 and M3. The mental and dental foramina 
are as in Sewellelodon and Aplodontia. 

The fourth premolar has five well-defined major cusps. The 
protoconid and metaconid are joined posteriorly, the antero- 
flexid cleaving the anterior face of the tooth to within .5 mm. 
of the anterior root. There is a minute cuspule, that barely 
breaks the continuity of the slope, present at the base of the 
jarotoconid anteriorly. The metastylid is large and separated 
from the mesoconid and entoconid by a deep mesoflexid di- 
rected anteriorly. The protoflexid and hypoflexid join buccally 
and are extremely deep, reaching almost to the base of the 
crown. The metafossettid is small and shallow. 

The molars are all nearly similar in structure. The hypo- 
conid is the largest cusp. The anterior cingulum is separated 
from the metaconid in unworn teeth by a shallow cleft, but 
becomes fused with the metaconid slope after little wear. There 
is a distinct mesoconid on all the molars. The hypofossettid has 
been cut off on Mi and Mo as a very small lake; it is still 
slightly open on M.^. The protoflexid is open in all three molars 
and would never have been cut off to form a lake. The meta- 
fossettid is small on all molars but larger than that on P4. 
The posterior protoconid arm is well developed, extending to 
the mesostylid but is lower on M., than on Mi or IVL) ; it is 
separated froni the metaconid by a narrow flexid, which would 
soon have closed off to form a lake on M, and Mo, as it has 
on M'^ and from the entoconid by a wider and much deeper 
mesoflexid. The teeth are worn in such a way that the meta- 
conid is by far the highest cusp on all the teeth. 

DISCUSSION 

Niglarodon is the fifth genus of aplodontid to be described 
from the Lower Miocene of North America. Haplomys, known 



Jan. 16, 1961 Rodents and Lagomorphs 5 

only from the John Day, is much too low-crowned to be closely 
related to Niglarodon. Allomys, also known only from the 
John Day, has become more highly specialized than any other 
Lower Miocene aplodontid through the development of numer- 
ous accessory lophs and pits in the upper and lower cheek 
teeth. Sewellelodon and Meniscomys (see Shotwell, 1958, for 
the most recent review of aplodontoid evolution) from the 
Middle and Upper John Day would appear to have the closest 
relationships with Niglarodon. The crown pattern is basically 
similar in all three genera with only minor variations. The 
major differences between these genera are in robustness, 
height of crown and depth of crown pattern. Of the three, 
Niglarodon is the most generalized. The teeth are high- 
crowned, although not as much so as in Meniscomys or Sewel- 
lelodon, and the depth of crown pattern has kept pace with this 
increase in crown height, which is not the case in the other two 
genera. Niglarodon would therefore seem to represent an 
earlier stage in the a})lodontid line leading to Meniscomys and 
then through Sezcellelodon and Liodontia to the recent Aplo- 
dontia. Also, because of its more generalized structure, Nigla- 
rodon would seem to be closer structurally, although not in 
time, to the point of aplodontid-mylagaulid divergence than 
Meniscomys. 

MEASUREMENTS 



r 






' " ^ 




a-p 




tr.^ 


P. 


;3.1{) 




1.80-1.95 


M, 


1.90 




1.60-1.70 


M, 


2.00 




1.75-1. TO 


M;, 


2.10 




1.75-1.60 




Family 


Sciuridae 


Protospermophilii.s 


a>ig/isficcj)s 


Matthew and :Mook, 1933 



* When two transverse measurements are given, the first is that of the 
protoloi)h or metalophid, the second is that of the metaloph or hypolophid. 
All measurements are in millimeters. 



6 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 48 

Horizon and Locality: Section 25, TION, R5E, Meagher 
County, Montana. Deep River Formation, Upper Heming- 
fordian. 

Referred Specimens: Y.P.M. Xos. 14029 maxillary with M^, 
14030 partial maxillary with M^-M", 14031 partial left man- 
dible with M1-M3, 14032 partial left mandible with Mj-Mg, 
14033 partial left mandible with Mj-Mo, 14034 partial left 
mandible with Mi. 

DESCRIPTION 

The six specimens here referred to Protospermo philus an- 
giisticeps agree well with the type also from the Deep River 
of Montana. A detailed description of these specimens is de- 
ferred to a later paper dealing with the evolution of the North 
American Tertiary Sciuridae. 

Family Castoridae 

Monosaidax cf. M. hesperus (Douglas, 1901) 

(Figure 2) 

Horizon and Locality: Section 1, T9N, R4E, Meagher County, 
Montana. Deep River Formation, I'pper Hemingfordian. 

Referred Specimen: Y.P.M. No. 14035, a right mandible with 
Mj-M^, lacking the anterior portion of the jaw in front of 
Ml, the incisor, and ascending ramus. 



A 



/ 



^■■^ 



V 



FifTure 2. A. Mo)iosfiuln.r cf. .V. hcsperun (Douglas), Y.P.M. No. 14035, 

riglit M,-M„ anterior end to tho right, X7 1/2. 



Jan. 16, 19(51 Rodents and Lagomorphs 7 

DESCRIPTION 

Ml is only slightly worn, M2 unworn, and M^ unerupted. 
All the molars would show three fossettids with further wear. 
The hypostriid (sense of Stirton, 1935, p. 392) is relatively 
shallow and extends only halfway down the crown. There is a 
small fossettid on all the molars anterior to the parafossettid 
and another small fossettid posterior to it on Mi-Mo. This 
small posterior fossettid is cut off from the metafossettid and 
is extremely shallow. The reference of this specimen to Mono- 
saulax hesperus is based on the presence of the small anterior 
fossettid. As Stirton (1935, p. 416) observed, however, the 
species of Monosaulax are not clearly defined and any specific 
assignment is at best dubious at present. 



. MEASUREMENTS . 



a-p tr. 

M, 3.45 3.00-3.50 
Mo 3.30 3.20-3.40 
M3 2.90 

Family Cricetidae 

Etiviys eliensis, n. sp. 
(Figure 3a & b) 

Type: Y.P.M. No. 14022, left ramus with I, Mi-M., lacking 
the ascending ramus and inferior border. 

Hypodigm : Type only. 

Horizon and Locality: Section 28, TUN, R5E, Meagher 
County, Montana. Fort Logan Formation, Arikareean. 

Diagnosis: Teeth large in relation to jaw size; teeth progres- 
sively longer from Mi to M.^ ; posterior protoconid arm joining 
metaconid on M1-M3 ; no lingual arm of anterior cingulum on 
M2-M;j ; mental foramen near inferior border of mandible below 
anterior root of M,. 



8 



Postilla Vale Pcahodi) Muscnin 



No. 48 



DESCRIPTION 



The ascending ramus, angle, and inferior border of the man- 
dible are missing. Enough of tiie jaw is present, however, to 
demonstrate that it is relatively small and slender in relation 
to tooth size in comparison with other species of Eumys. This 
jaw is ecjual in size to that of Eumys brachyodus, somewhat 



/^: 




^ 





'""■^t^^ 



B 

Figure 3. Evnij/s elictisis n. s\^., Y.P.M. No. 11022, type. A. I-oft Mi-M,, 
anterior end to the left, XT 1/2. ^^. Lateral view of left mandible, X5. 



smaller and less robust than that of E. dcgans, yet the denti- 
tion is larger than in either of these two species. There is a 
small accessory foramen iinniediately anterioi" to the mental 
foramen. The masseteric scar terminates below the middle 
of M.,. 



Jan. IG, 1961 Rodents and Lagomorphs 9 

Ml is the smallest tooth of the series. The anteroconid is 
small, as high as the protoconid, to which it is joined by a 
short anterior protoconid arm, but it is well below the meta- 
conid. The posterior protoconid arm passes postero-lingually 
and joins the posterior slope of the metaconid and with wear 
should join with that cusp. There is a very short mesolophid 
and a short lophid (buccal portion of mesolophid of Wood, 
1937, p. 249) which passes buccally from the ectolophid. This 
crest is also present on M2. The posterior cingulum is sepa- 
rated from the entoconid by a relatively deep cleft. There is 
no lingual portion of the anterior cingulum on Mo or M3. The 
posterior protoconid arm on Mo and M.j, would join the meta- 
conid with further wear. The valley between the protoconid 
and hypoconid does not open to the buccal side where it is 
dammed by a thin ridge more so on Mo than on Mo. There is 
no mesolophid on M-^ but the posterior protoconid arm is well 
developed. The posterior half of Mo is constricted, the hypo- 
conid and entoconid being closely appressed. The anterior and 
buccal sides of the incisor are rounded while the medial face 
is flat. The enamel is restricted to the buccal face. 

DISCUSSION 

There are several characters of Evmys eliensis that are not 
to be found in any other species of the genus with which I am 
familiar. The extreme inferior and posterior position of the 
mental foramen is unique. The increase in the length of the 
molars from Mj to M.^ is also unusual. In all other species Mi 
is generally the longest tooth. And, finally, the large size of 
the teeth in relation to jaw size is striking. 

The only previously described specimen which comes close 
to Eumys eliensis in tooth size and structure is U.K. No. 8483 
described by Galbreath (1953, p. 73) as Eumys sp. This 
specimen is from the lower part of the Cedar Creek Member 
of the White River Formation. However, this specimen is 
described as having a large, heavy jaw, which is decidedly 
not the case in E. eliensis. 

E. cricetodonioides, laiidens, and spoJccmensis (White, 1954) 
are all large species comparable in overall size to E. eliensis 
but in all three forms the length of the molars decreases from 



10 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 48 

M, to M ;. There are also several differences in crown pattern. 
"^I'liere is no liiif^ual portion of the anterior cingulum in E. 
eliensis, which further separates it from E. cricetodontoides 
and latidens. It is probably closest in crown pattern to E. 
spoJiCinensis from which it differs in the slight development of 
the mesolo})hid on Mi and the buccal crest between the proto- 
conid and hypoconid of Mo. Furthermore, E. spoA-anensis is of 
Middle Oligoccne age. 

As White (1954, p. 410) has pointed out, the intermontaine 
species of Enmys {cricetodontoides, latidens, and spohanensis, 
to which may be added eliensis) share certain features not 
possessed by the plains forms {Euiuys obliquidens, elegans, 
brachyodas, ea-ignus, and planidens). lentil a revision of the 
genus as a whole is undertaken, however, exact relationships 
will be extremely difficult to determine. It would appear, never- 
theless, that E. eliensis was probably derived from tlie Middle 
and I.ate Oligocene Eumys complex known to have been living 
to the west of the Fort Logan area. It certainly shares more 
characters with this group than with the plains forms. 





MEA! 

a-p 


sUREMENTS 

tr. 


I 


2.3 


2.1 


Ml 


2.50 


1.7-1.95 


M, 


2.60 


2.3-2.3 


M, 


2.75 


2.25-1.75 



I'acicultis ii/oiihiiui.s n. sp. 
(Figure 4a i\: b) 

Type: Y.P.M. No. 14027. ])artial right maxillary with M'-M", 

Hypodigm: Type ntid V.I'.M. No. 14020, broken right maxil- 
lary with M' ill |)lacc and isolated M-'-M'^ 

Horizon d/id Locality: Section 8, TK)\, 115E, and Section 3, 
TION, R5E, Meagher County, Montana. Deep River Forma- 
tion, Upper lIcMiingfordian. 



Jan. 1(), 1961 Rodents and Lagomorphs 



11 



Diagnosis : Kelatively high crowned ; teetli narrow in relation 
to length ; all buccal re-entrants deepening toward centers of 
teeth; posterior cinguluni short; all five crests extremely prom- 
inent ; mesoloph reaching to buccal margin on all molars ; no 
accessary lophs of Euinys type ; no hypocone on M^. 



_^^ „<*^-Tr^j^ 





/ 



B 



Figure 4. Faciculun VKintaniig n. sp. A. Y.P.M. Xo. 14026, right M'-M% 
anterior end to the right, X15. B. Y.P.M. No. 14027, type, right M'-M", 
anterior end to tlie right, X20. 



DESCRIPTION 

The upper molars are all extremely simple when compared 
with those of Kumys, Leidyinys, or Scottim/is. There are no 
accessory lophs passing from the protocone to the anterior 
cinguluni nor any sign of mesoloph-metacone connections. 
M^ of Paciculus montanus is smaller than those of the various 
species of Eumys and than it is in Leidymys. All the teeth are 
narrower in relation to their lengths than are those of other 



12 Postilla Yale Peabody Museum No. 48 

eumviiies with the exception of Scoftlnius. The complete nieso- 
loph passing transversely across M'' to the buccal margin is 
unifjue for the group. 

DISCUSSION 

Paciculus montanus is extremely similar to P. insoUtus 
(Wood, 19.30a) from the Middle John Day of Oregon. It differs 
somewhat in tooth proportions and is possibly somewhat higher 
crowned than the earlier species, but could easily have been 
derived from it. The relationships of the genus are still not 
clear. The dentition is more conservative than any other 
eumyine, which makes it difficult to derive Paciculus from any 
of the known Oligocene species of Eumys. 

MEASUREMENTS 



/ 


No. 


U027 


No. 


llp026 




a-p 


tr. 


a-p 


tr. 


w 


2.3 


1.6-1.5 


2.35 


1.8-1.7 


M- 


1.75 


1.8-1.65 


1.80 


1.8-1.65 


M^ 






1.50 


1.60 



Family Heteromyidae 

Mookom'is sp. cf. M. aJt'ifiu minus Wood, 1931 
(Figure 5a) 

Referred specimen: Y.P.iVI. No. 14036, left ramus with PpMj^, 
lacking ascending ramus and condyle. 

Horizon <nid Locality: Section 1-i, TION, R5E, Meagher 
County, Moiihma. Deep River Formation, Fp])er Heming- 
fordian. 

DESCRIPTION 

This specimen a])pears to be identical in nearly all respects 
to A.M.N.H. No. 21360 from the Deej) lliver Beds, 7 mi. south 
of TiOgan, M()n^^ana. The teeth are more worn but exhibit the 
same pattern. The only difference between the two is that Mo 
is slightly larger than M, in Y.P.M. No. 14036 (Wood, 1931, 
p. 4, fig. 4) whereas it is slightly smaller in the type. In this 
respect it resembles M . parvus from (\)l()i-ado. Since the type 
of M. altijinminus and Y.P.M. No. 1403(5 botli come from the 



Jan. 1(), IDGl Rodents and Lagoniorplis 13 

Deep River Beds near Logan, Montana, reference to M. alfi- 
fi/im'mns rather than M. parvus is to be preferred. The possi- 
bility exists that 31. altijluminus and M. parvus are conspecific 
but I have not had an opportunity to see the types. 



ft 




B 

Figure 5. A. Mookomi/n cf. M. altiffumimis Wood, Y.P.M. No. 14036, left 
P.-M , anterior end to the riirlit, X15. I^. Dikkonnis xcoixli n. sp., Y.P.M. Xo. 
14038, type, left P.-M,, anterior end to right, XlO. 





a-p 


tr. 


P4 


.85 


.70- .85 


Ml 


1.00 


1.20-1.00 


M2 


1.10 


1.25-1.10 


M, 


.95 


1.10-1.00 



Family Geomyidae 

Subfamily Geomyinae 

Dikhomys ivoodi,^ n. sp. 
(Figure 5b) 



5 Named for Dr. A. E. Wood. 



14 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 48 

Tijpe: Y.P.M. No. 140:38, left rainiis with I, P4-M1. 

Hypodigm: Type only. 

Horizon and Locality: Section 23, TION, R5E, Meagher 
County, Montana. Deep River Formation, Upper Heniing- 
fordian. 

Diagnosis : Crests uniting in centers of teeth ; enamel complete ; 
two cusps on anterior lophid of P4, only slight trace of anterior 
cuspule; anterior column of P4 shorter than in D. matthewi. 

DESCKIPTION 

The jaAv is broken through the alveolus of M^. Mo-M.. are 
missing together with the angle and the ascending ramus. The 
masseteric ridge is very prominent, ending below the anterior 
root of 1*4. The mental foramen lies antero-ventral to the an- 
terior end of the masseteric ridge. The diastema is long and 
shallow. 

P4 and M] are similar to those of D. matthezvi (Wood, 
1980b) cxce]it that the anterior column of P^ is not as long as 
in that species. The teeth are not as worn as those })reviously 
described. The anterior and posterior lophids of P^ bear two 
distinct cus])s. The two lophids of P4 and M, unite just buccal 
of the center of the tooth to form the ty])ical geomyine H-pat- 
tern. The buccal re-entrant is shallower than the lingual and is 
closed on Mj. On Pj, a shallow valley immediately lingual to 
the antero-posterior crest iuf^t fails to split the anterior lophid 
i)i two and there is a snuill shallow fossettid in the center of 
the posterior lophid. At an advanced stage of wear the mcta- 
loj)hid and hypolo])hid of M, would luiite into a single colunm 
completely ringed with enamel. 

. DISCUSSION 

Wood (19801). ]). 20) suggested that Dilikomys would be 
an "ideal starting point for the evolution of the latter Geo- 
myinae." This interpretation was based on the pattern of the 
lower ])remolars in which the two lophs unite at the center of 
the tooth to give a subcircular nietalophid and a compressed 



Jan. 16, 1961 Rodents and Lagomorphs 15 

hypolophid as in the later forms. Wilson (1936, ]). 28), in 
discussing PJiosaccomys, said, "the genus cannot be directly 
ancestral to any existing gopher but in cheek-tooth characters 
at least, may show a structural stage through which the Geo- 
myinae have passed." However, I may observe that worn teeth 
(Wilson, op. cit. PI. 2, fig. 5 & 6) are certainly suggestive 
of those found in TJwmomys. The absence of a groove in 
the upper incisor would also agree with the condition seen 
in Tliomovtys, although this is a rather tenuous character. 
Hibbard (1951*, p. 357) pointed out this possible relationship, 
but at the same time he suggested that the genus Gregorymys 
might be ancestral to the Geomyinae, stating (1954, p. 357) 
that "in Gregorymys, the presence of the groove ("sulcus"), 
wliich varies as to position on the upper incisor, the develop- 
ment of the skull, and the dental pattern seem to indicate an 
ancestral relationship to, rather than a parallelism with, the 
Geomyinae." However, the dental pattern seen in Gregorymys, 
especially in P4, is far removed from that of any geomyine. 
There is no indication of a central union of the anterior and 
posterior lophs. In the contemporary Dikko?uys, however, we 
do find a premolar pattern similar to that seen in Thomomys 
and Geomys and also in PUosaccomys. 

If the suggestion that tlie geomyine premolars developed 
from a condition such as that found in Dikkomys and Plio- 
saccomys is accepted, the next consideration is the derivation 
of the single column molar of the later forms. The molars of 
PUosaccomys are markedly different from those found in 
Dikkomys. The union of the lophs in PUosaccomys begins at 
the buccal margin and spreads inwards until only one column 
remains. In Dikkomys, on the otiier hand, the union is first 
in the center of the tooth. Tlie buccal margins then unite 
enclosing a lake, tlie union then proceeding lingually. On the 
basis of molar structure, it would seem that PUosaccomys and 
Dikkomys represent two distinct lines of later Tertiary geo- 
myine evolution. Which of these lines, if either, is leading to 
the modern forms it is impossible to say at present. It would 
appear, however, that the premolar pattern seen in the two 
genera is the most logical starting point so far known for 
the recent Geomvinae. 



10 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 48 



. MEASUREMENTS 



a-p 

P4 1.45 
Ml 1.50 



tr. 

1.15-1.30 
1.60-1.65 



Order I.agomorpha 

Family Leporidae 

Palaeolagus hypsodus Schlaikjer, 1935 
(Figure 6a) 

Referred Spee'nncn: Y.P.M. No. 14021, portion of left maxilla 
with P''-M-. 

Horizon mid Loeality: Section 5, TION, R5E, Meagher 
County, Montana. Fort Logan Formation, Arikareean. 



fy 



■r 



i^rg 



i^m^^^jf^. 





.} 






B 



Figure 6. A. Pakieolagvs hi/ii.iodus Schlaikjer, Y.P.M. Xo. 14021, left 
I"-M% anterior end to left, XIO. B. Mef/ahigus daxvsoni n. sp., Y.P.M. No. 
14023, type, right P--M^ anterior end to tlie right, X.5. 



Jan. 16, 19C1 Rodents and Lagomorphs 17 

DESCRIPTION 

The specimen consists of a portion of the maxilla with 
P-'^-M- and the alveolus of M^. P^ has the typical abbreviated 
anteroloph and the persistent J-shaped crescent. The hypos- 
tria almost reaches the crescent, traversing about a third of 
the width of the tooth. The hypostriae on P^-M" extend ap- 
proximately half-way across the teeth and are persistent. 
Enamel is absent externally and is thin posteriorly on all the 
teeth. Cement is well-developed, filling the hypostriae on all 
teeth and the crescent on P'^. It does not appear to extend 
onto the main body of any of the teeth, however. 

DISCUSSION 

As Dawson (1958) has pointed out, it is extremely difficult 
to separate P. hi/psodus Schlaikjer (1935) from P. hurkei on 
the basis of isolated dentitions, particularly upper dentitions. 
Reference of Y.P.M. No. 14021 to P. hypsodus in this case 
is based first on size and secondly on the flattening out of the 
buccal face of the anteroloph of V\ In P. hiirkcl (Wood, 
19-tO, Fig. 97) the buccal face of P'" appears to be of rather 
uniform slope. Whether this character is constant remains to 
be seen, but it is apparent in all illustrations of the two species 
so far published. 

This occurrence extends the range of the species as given 
by Dawson {op. cit.) from Wyoming, South Dakota, and 
Nebraska, into Montana. 



a-p 




1 

tr. 


P"* 1.80 




2.00-3.10 


P^ 1 .80 




3.30-3.00 


IVr 1.80 




3.30-2.90 


M- 1.50 




2.60-2.10 


Megalagus 


dawsoni^, n. sp. 


(Figure 


6b) 



Named for Dr. Mary Dawson. 



18 Postilla Yale Pcahody Museum No. 48 

Type: X.V.^l. Xo. 14028, right maxillary with P-'-M". 

Hijpod'igm: Type and Y.l^.M. Xo. 140*37, left niaxillarv with 
P"-M'' j)oorly ])reserTe(l. 

Horizon and Locality: Section 28, TUN, R5E, and Section 
23, TlOX", R5E, Meagher County, Montana. Fort Logan 
Formation, Arikareean. 

Diagnosis: Buccal roots presumably present (seen on M") ; 
teeth high-crowned ; hypostriae cement-filled, shallow on P'^-P'^, 
deeper on M^-M~, passing one-third of the way across the 
crown. 

DESCRIPTION 

The check teeth are more higli-crowned than in any otlier 
species of the genus, and have prominent buccal roots. P" ex- 
iiibits two anterior re-entrants, the buccal being shallow and 
extending approximately 2.5 mm. down the anterior face of 
the tooth, the lingual deeper and extending halfway down the 
anterior face. The hypostriae are shallow and extend only 
partway down on P'^-P^, but are decj^er and extend well below 
the level of the alveoli on M'-M~. The teeth are longer in rela- 
tion to their width than in any other species of Megalagus. 



DISCUSSION 



The reference of these specimens to Megalagus is based 
upon the })rescncp of buccal roots and the shallow develojnnent 
of the hypostriae on P'^-P'. The dentition of M. daxvsoni shows 
several advances ovei- other species of the genus, notablv the 
development of cement and greater hy})sodonty. In this regard, 
M. dawsoni has progressed further than .1/. priniifivus, the 
only other Miocene s])ecies. ^1/. da'wsoni re])resents a further, 
more advanced level of develo})ment, derivable fi-om J/, fur- 
gidus, as is M. priniifivus^ but distinct from it. 



Jan. 1(), 1901 Rodents and Lagoniorphs 19 



MEASU HEME NTS 



Y.P.M. No. 14023 





a-p 


tr. 


p2 


1.2 


2.1 


p3 


3.0 


2.5-3.4 


p4 


2.8 


3.5-3.5 


M^ 


2.5 


3.3-3.1 


M- 


2.2 


3.1-2.5 



HifpoJagns sp. 

Referred Specimen : Y.P.M. No. 1-1028, partial left maxillary 
with alveolus of P", broken P\ and P^-M\ 

Horizon and Locality: Section 25, TION, R5E, Meagher 
County, Montana. Deep River Formation, Upper Heming- 
fordian. 

DESCllIPTION 

The specimen is much too poor for definite reference, but 
on the characters available it would seem to be close to Hypo- 
lagus veins. The crenulations of the hypostriae are slight on 
M', more wavv on P^. 





MEASUREMENTS , 

a-p tr. 


V' 


2 


.1 


4.2 


Ml 


2 


.3 


4.3 



REFERENCES 

Dawson, M. R., 1958. Later Tertiary Leporidae of North America. Univ. 
Kansas Paleont. Contrib., Vertebrata, Art. 6, pp. 1-75, 2 pi. 

Galbreath, E. C, 19.5.3. A Contribution to the Tertiary Geology and Paleon- 
tology of Northeastern Colorado. Univ. Kansas Paleont. Contrib., 
Vertebrata, Art. 4, pp. 1-120, 2 pi. 

Hibbard, C. W., 1954. A new Pliocene Vertebrate Fauna from Oivlahoma. 
Papers Mich. Acad. Sci., Arts, and Letters, v. 39, pp. 339-359. 



20 Tostilla Yale Pcahodtj Museum No. 4-8 

Matthew, W. D. and Mook, C. C, 193.'3. New f^xssil Mammals from tlie 
Deej) River Beds of Montana. Amcr. Mus. Xovit., 601, pp. 1-7. 

Uiggs, E. S., 1899. The Myhigaulidac: An extinct Family of Seiuroinorjjh 
Rodents. Field Columbian Museum, Geol. Ser. 1, pp. 181-187. 

Selihiiivjer, E. M., 1935. Contributions to the Stratigraphy and Paleontology 
of the Goshen Hole Area, Wyoming. IV. New Vertebrates and the 
Stratigrapliy of the Oligocene and Early Miocene. Bull. Mus. Comp. 
Zool., V. 7(), no. 4, pp. 97-189, 41 pi. 

Shotwell, J. A. 1958. Evolution and Biogeography of the Aplodontid and 
Mylagaulid Rodents. Evolution, v. 12, pj). 451-484. 

Stirton, H. .\., 19:5.'). A Review of tiie Tertiary Heavers. I'uiv. Calif. Pulil., 
Bull. Dept. Geol. Sci., v. 2:5, no. i:j, i)p. 391-158. 

White, T. E., 1954. Preliminary Analysis of the Fossil Vertebrates of the 
Canyon Ferry Reservoir Area. Proc. U.S. Nat. Mus., v. 103, no. 3320', 
p}). 395-438. ' 

Wilson, R. W., 1930. A Pliocene Rodent Fauna from Smiths \'alli'y, Ne- 
vada. Carn. Inst. Wash. Publ., 473, pp. 15-84, 2 pi. 

Wood, A. E., 1931. Phylogeny of the Heteromyid Rodents. Anier. Mus. 
Novit., 501, pp. 1-19. 

1936a. The Cricetid Rodents deseril)cd by l.eidy and Cope from 

the Tertiary of North America. Amer. Mus. Novit., 822, pp. 1-8. 

1936b. Geomyid Rodents from the Middle Tertiary. Amer. Mus. 



Novit., 866, pp. 1-31. 
1937. The Mammalian Fauna of tlie White River Oligocene. 



Part II. Rodentia. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soc, n.s., 28, ]>]). 115-269, 11 pi. 
-1940. The Mammalian Fauna of the White River Oligocene. Part 



III. Lagomori)lia. Trans. Amer. Phil. Soe., n.s., 28, pp. 271-362, 2 \A. 



\J 






i 




lrLb25'i363 




YALE PEABODY MUSEUM 

OF Natural History 



Number 49 



June 23, 1961 New Haven, Conn. 



RESULTS OF RESEARCH IN THE ANTOEAGASTA 
RANGES OF CHH.E AND BOLIVIA 



I. Birds : Lns E. Pena 



II. Diatoms: Rtth Patrick 



Color Plate: Roger Tory Peterson 



'J 



June 2^}. 19()1 AntofMoasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 



EXPLORATIONS IX THE AXTOFAGASTA RANGE, 
WITH OBSERVATIONS ON THE FAUNA AND FLORA 

Luis E. Pena* 
Saxtiago, Chile 

About the middle of May, 1957, I began the initial steps 
towards the making of an expedition to the Antofagasta Range 
(Chile, S.A.), a region rich in scientific possibilities, yet rela- 
tively unknown. 

The Curator of ^'ertebrate Zoology of the Peabody Museum 
of Natural History at Yale I'niversity, Mr. S. Dillon Ripley, 
commissioned me to make a study of the birds of this range 
and to locate one of the lesser flamingos called "])arina chica," 
about which little is known. 

Several persons have helped me with data and suggestions. 
Among them I am especially thankful to the following: Dr. liuis 
Sandoval, Director of the Centro de Estudios Antropologicos 
at the L^niversity of Chile; Mr. ^Villiam E. Rudolph, engineer 
of the Chile Exploration Company ; Dr. Rudolfo A. Philipju, 
Chief of the Ornitholoffv Section of the Museo Nacional de 
Historia Natural de Santiago, who was kind enough to classify 
some of the birds and critically examine these notes ; Mrs. 
Rebecca Acevedo of the Botanical Section of the Museum who 
classified the plant collection; Octavio Barrios Valenzuela, my 
good friend and President of the Sociedad Chilena de Etomo- 
logia, who has always encouraged me in this work ; Juan G. 
Rojas and Luis A. Flores, employees of the Chile Exploration 
Company who helped by supplying me with much valuable 
information; and Pedro and Mario Soza, also employed by 
the above company, who were always ready to give me their 
help. I must especially mention my assistant, Gerardo Barria 
Peredes, who collaborated on this trip with great enthusiasm 
and earnestness. 

* Research Associate, Peabody Museum, Yale University. 



4> Post ilia Yale Pctibodij Museum No. 49 

M_v main interest was to observe and, wherever possible, to 
collect the birds which pass the winter on the high ranges of 
the Andes in the interior of the ])rovince of Antofagasta. 
During the spring, summer, and })art of the autunm months, 
the bird life of this region is numerous in species which dis- 
appear during the winter, migrating to warmer climates. My 
other mission was to recheck the presence of some insects which 
I had collected on earlier trips. These were little-known species 
which had been classified recently. Another object of this trip 
was to meet the expedition that the Ccntro de Estudios Antro- 
pologicos of the University of Chile had sent to the region of 
San Pe(h-o de Atacama. I was to show them the exact location 
of certain archaeological discoveries made on my past explora- 
tions through these parts. This never took place, however, 
since we were unable to meet each other in the field. 

These notes have been arranged in two parts. They are: 
firstly, a synopsis of the trip with observations on what I have 
seen in the regions visited in chronological order ; secondly, a 
systematic list and a discussion of the birds collected. 

I do not pretend to list here all the birds of the Antofagasta 
range, but I have tried to discuss only what I have accom- 
plished in these two months of exploration (June and July) 
in a region of Chile so little known in general and even less 
known during this rugged period of the year. 



PART ONE 

Synopsis of the Trip 

I left Santiago on July 6, 1957, in my jeej) with a trailer 
provided by the Centro de Estudios Antropologicos of the 
I'nivcrsity of Chile, and witli my two assistants, Gerardo 
Barria Pa redes and Herman \'aras, for Domeyko, a little vil- 
lage located in the })rovince of Atacama. Two days later I 
arrived at Clnujuicamata where I was received by Mr. William 
E. Hu(l()l})h who arranged for everything I needed. Valuable 
information was obtained from Mr. Juan A. Rojas and Mr. 
Luis A. Flores about the roads and about the location of the 




Phoenicoparrus jamesi (Sclater) 



6 Postilla Yale Piubodij Mnseinn No. 49 

flamingos which inhabit the muuiitaiiis. I headed for Inacalii'i 
from Chuquicamata where the Cliile Exploration Company has 
some encampments. But on arriving at Lasana, a place located 
on the Loa River, I had more trouble with the trailer and had 
to return to Chuquicamata, leaving tiie encampment installed 
near Pucara de Lasana, one of the most important archaeo- 
logical centers of the area. We finally left for Inacaliri on 
Julv 12. Before arriving at the San I'edro railroad statit)ii 
the road veers towards the soutli following tlie San Pedro 
River along the west bank. Tliis river runs from soutli to north 
through the slope formed by the enormous San Pedro and 
San Pablo volcanoes. Just as I liad feared, a heavy storm had 
broken out during the night in this region, and it was not too 
long before we ran into the first big patches of snow. 

An enormous plain extends from the San Pedro railroad at 
;3,2()() meters, going soutli in a gradual ascent until it reaches 
the Ojos del Rio San Pedro at 3,800 meters. This entire region 
is covered with "tolares," that is, fields in which the dominant 
plant is the "tola" {Baccharh tola Phil.). The drought had 
affected these fields enormously, and I tried without success to 
collect some insects from among the roots of the tola and the 
Opiintia. I found only the remains of some Tenebrionidae, of 
the genera rraoch and PsectrasceUs, and some elytra of Ciir- 
culionidae. A great many of the species of these groups spend 
tiie winter underground among the roots of the plants, waiting 
for good weather before coming out — a fact that lias been 
proved on earlier trips to the Domeyko range and to the east 
of San Pedro de Atacaina. In tiiis entire stretch, I did not see 
a bird or any other living tiling crossing our path. The Ojos 
del Rio San Pedro are fertile marshlands whicii begin at tiie 
foot of the San Pedro volcano. Generally speaking, the loca- 
tion of the source of a river or spring is called "ojo" (i.e., 
eye). Here in these lowlands I was able to observe many ducks 
and coots. I was not acquainted with the road, however, and hur- 
ried on, expecting to iHin into difficulties because of the previous 
niiiht's snowfall. On arriving at Inacaliri, we were taken care 
of by the custodian of the dam which provides Cliu(]uicamata 
with water. I spent several days in this place, establishing it 



Rio Son Pedro 




68< 



V San Pedro ' 

A A V. San Pablo ) 

Ojo de San Pedro /f 

ii v. Inacaliri 



-Siloli 



/ InacalirT^ZrA^V. Siloli 
Y Paniri \ \ \ 

1 V V. Linzor 

/ \ 
Toconce / 1 

Aiquina^_^^«— — — • Linzor 



22°- 



I 



Chuquicamata 



; / 




Vegas del Totio^ 



I 
\ 



/ 
I 



Lag una 

\ Co /era da 
\ 
I 

\ 

/ 



\ Laguna 



MAP OF AREAS VISITED 
BY LUIS PENA 



V 



\ I Verde 

Lincacabur' ^-^ 



,' San Pedro 
^^de Atacanna 



as de Ceja 




23' 



<3 Lagunas de Carvajal 
• Tilopozo 



• Peine 
• Tilomonte 



Map of areas visited by the autlior. 



8 Fostilhi Yale PitilxuJ// Mnsv/un No. -iO 

as a central point from which I phmnccl to make trips to 
several diverse places: Ojos del Rio San Pedro, Cabana, Siloli, 
and Laguna Colorada (Bolivia). 

Inacaliri: I stayed from June 12th to the 2Tth in this 
location, which is situated at an altitude of 4,000 meters. It 
is located in the neighborhood of the Inacaliri River and is 
flanked by fi type of vegetation {Festuca juncea Phil.) used 
for pasture. On both sides there are thickish, vertically-cut 
stone palisades. These have an average height of some 40 
meters and are inhabited by large tjuantities of rodents includ- 
ing vizcachas (Lagklium viscacut). It is not uncommon to find 
traces of the fox Dusicyon sp. as well. The tolas with their 
rounded hillocks are spread all over these walls. 

In these surroundings one finds an undetermined species 
of Opuntia (Cactaceae) which forms very characteristic hemi- 
spheres and under which, on othei' occasions, I have found 
numerous examjiles of Coleoptera of various families. Some 
other })lants which attract attention are: Lampnya medici- 
nalis I'hil., Li'pidophyUuvi quddiuuiyuUtn' (Meyen) Benth. 
and Hook., and Adesmia pojyphylla Phil. This last plant, when 
it blooms, is visited by species of Hymenoptera, and especially 
by bees of the family Megachilidae. There are also some species 
of grasses in these places, the most common of which is Stipa 
venustn Phil. As these plants dry, they leave an ever widening 
type of matting in the shape of a horseshoe, the edges of which 
are bordered by living jjlants. 

This entire region is sun-ounded bv volcanoes. To the north 
are the Colan ])eaks (.5,500 meters) and the Inacaliri. more 
than .5,(500 meters high, on the Bolivian frontier. Towards the 
south, one finds the Ccrro del Leon, more than 5,700 meters 
high, and the open volcano Toconce with a height of almost 
5,500 meters. 'Vo the east there is a chain of mountains over 
5,500 meters in altitude which foi'ins the frontier with Bolivia. 
Among them is the Silaguala string and the Cerro Silala, also 
called Siloli, 4,800 meters in height. To the west rises the 
majestic Paniri volcano. It bordei's on the Inacaliri River and, 
furthei- on, the southern l)rancli of the San Pedro. Close to 
(5,000 nietei's high, it is very similar in appearance to the 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 



9 



Toconce volcano. More towards the northeast are the brother 
volcanoes, San Pedro and San Pablo, each over 6,100 meters 
in altitude. 

In spite of having looked diligently' for insects, especially 
Tenebrionidae, I found nothing except some Circulionidae be- 
neath the rocks. I was able to observe some Di})tera flying 
among the few tolas in bloom. These were of the family Syrphi- 
dae belonging to the genus Volucella. The remains of Coleop- 
tera were always found beneath stones and in the necks of 
])lants. Close to 3, .'500 meters I found a species of Praocis 
(Tenebrionidae) in such bad condition that identification of 
species was impossible. 






Inacaliri niarslif.s and tolar region in the vicinity of 
my first base camp, 390 meters. 



This entire region is uninhabited because of the extraordi- 
nary drought which had lasted for more than four years. 
As a result I was able to observe some birds, and examples of 
nearly all of these were collected. Close to the place of the 
same name, the Inacaliri River joins with the Cabana River 



10 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 4<9 

which comes from the south. Together they form extensive 
marshhands where Hamas and burros may often be seen grazing. 
These marshes arc ahnost permanently frozen and only on 
very hot days, so few during these months, can one see the 
water flowing. As in all the marshlands of the area, there is 
a hard and spinv grass here which forms a compact carpet 
occasionally broken by the water from small streams. This 
pasture grass is Oxychloe and'ina I'hil. There is another species 
of j)lant called Calamagroisis (iriiiid'inacea Phil, as well. Life 
in the water is meager. We found only some examples of 
Coleoptera of the family Elmidae. These constitute a part of 
the diet of the various species of l)irds which frequent these 
lowlands. 

Ojos del Rio Sax Pedro: As in the great majority of the 
origins of mountain rivers, the source of the San Pedro has 
formed swampy areas. The "ojos" of this river are at 3,800 
meters altitude and are very near the base of the San Pablo 
volcano. Here are lagoons and stagnant backwaters bordered 
with vegetation. This growth is made uj) in ])articular of two 
kinds of ])lants. One of them is Oxychloe and'ina Phil., and the 
other is a fairly high straw-grass which forms little islands 
in places and is used by birds for nesting. To the north of 
these marshes there is a native settlement called Ojos de San 
Pedro. It is made up of a dozen houses constructed of stone, 
mud, and straw. On tlie outskirts of the village there is a 
large watershed of lukewarm water which is the actual source 
of the river. These people keep sheep, llamas, and burros. While 
the shee]) graze on the banks, this is not so with the burros. 
Thev are often seen in the watci-, submerging tlicir heads in 
order to bi'ing u]) a ty])e of watei- plant which grows there 
and which ])rovides them with food. 

Hunters have totally driven away the birds in this area. It is 
])ainful to see the (juantity of cartridge cases of all calibers 
and kinds which one finds scattered over the landscape. The 
Ojos del Rio San Pedi'o is an idi-al region for nesting ducks, 
coots, and flamingos. The south side of the m;irsh is very 
swampy and white in color like ;i salt marsh. 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Cliile and Bolivia 11 

Cabaxa : This area is located on the eastern slope of" the 
Cabana River just a few kilometers from the marshes of Ina- 
caliri; that is, it is in the place where these rivers meet. The 
altitude is close to 4,000 meters, and the atmosphere is similar 
to that of Inacaliri which has the same plants but is nuich 
more open. 

Silala: Following the Inacaliri Pass towards the west, there 
is a place called Silala, or Siloli, close to the Bolivian frontier 
at an altitude of 1^,250 meters. There is a sluice here and a 
hydraulic intake valve for all the waters which go as far as 
the city of Antofagasta. An expedition of tiie Chicago Museum 
of Natural History visited the place in 1924". Many interesting 
species of birds occur here. 

Laguna Colorada (Bolivia) : I made a trip to this lagoon, 
one of the objectives of the expedition, since three species of 
flamingos inhal)it the area. The Silala, or Siloli, Pass is nearby, 
at 4,550 meters. There is a fairly good vehicular road used 




A view of the Laguna Colorada in Bolivia taiien in a southwest 
direction from Its extreme northeast, 4,400 meters above sea level. 



12 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 49 

by trucks wliich transport sul})hur and esparta grass from 
Bolivia down to the railroad station at San Pedro for ship- 
ment l^v rail. Tiiis mountainous pass is guarded by two Bo- 
livian policemen who live in decidedly bleak conditions. Past 
the frontier, the road leads south along the east side of the 
Silaguala chain. There are vast, smooth expanses there where 
herds of vicunas {Lama vicugna) graze. These animals are 
much persecuted locally by the Bolivian police as well as the 
native inhabitants, although Koford (1957), in his fine paper, 
feels that the vicuna population has remained relatively static 
recently. 

Laguna Colorada, covering an area of nearly 20 kilometers 
square, owes its name to its coloration. We arrived and circled 
the lagoon until we came to a place where the water springs 
from the slope of the hill. The water is warm here as it flows 
into the lagoon, and I was able to wade barefoot. It was here 
that we observed and later captured some species of birds 
such as the "caiti" and the famous "parina chica." The warmer 
water was observed as a long and narrow strip which fades 
out towards the south end of the lagoon after a few miles. 
Tiie lagoon itself is quite shallow. With my helper I went 
over the entire length of the warm water, and its greatest 
depth hardly reached 60 cm. The aquatic vegetation is notable 
where the water is warmest, that is, near the source at the 
slope of the hill. A small plant here, intensely green in color, 
covers the surface. Beneath the water there is a species of 
dark-green alga in which insects swarm. I saw a species of 
aquatic Hemiptera belonging to the family Notonectidae, very 
similar to and possibly of the same species which I collected 
ill the Loyoquis lagoon in a similar habitat. That lagoon is 
located dee]) in the interior of the range in the })r()vince of 
Antofagasta and is near the Argentine l)order. This litMuip- 
tcran is under study at the T'niversity of Kansas. Thousands 
of Di])tera were walking and flying over tjic water. 

Laguna C'oloi'ada jjrcsents a fantastic spectacle difficult 
to describe. There are places where red-colored pools occur in 
the midst of skv-blue and e;rav water. The farther ed"e of the 
lagoon is red and white and has for a backdrop the snow- 



June 2'S, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 13 

covered mountains on the Chilean frontier. The periphery of 
the lagoon has all the aspects of a salt marsh, as do most of 
the Andean lagoons. It is formed from hundreds of little islands 
which are more or less one meter square and are surrounded 
by calm water. A straw-grass grows in these surroundings. 
The beauty of the place brings to mind the lagoon and even 
the salt marsh at I^oyoquis, mistakenly called Quisquiro on 
our maps. I cannot be sure, but I believe that nearly all of 
the lagoon was frozen, with the exception of that part which 
was warmed naturally by the waters from the hot spring. 

From Inacaliri, our first base camp, we continued towards 
the south, in ])art skirting the eastern side of the Cabana 
River and passing to the east of the Toconce volcano in order 
to reach our second base camp at Linzor. The entire region is 
identical, with tolas, ravines, marshes, and enormous hills, 
many of which had been very active volcanoes at one time. 
No living thing is discernible here except "Uaretero" trucks 
which can })c seen descending from time to time with their 
bulky loads. 

After some hours of travel, we arrived at lAn/.or and reached 
the Chile Exploration Com])any's encampment. This was won- 
derfully fitted out for the studies which I had to make. We 
made several exploratory field trips from this base to Toconce, 
the Tatio Geysers, the Tatio Marshes, Ayquina, and the Turi 
Marshes. Everywhere we went we found traces of the expedi- 
tion of Carl Koford, who had s])ent months with his family 
studying the fauna in the mountainous regions of Chile, Peru, 
and Bolivia. 

LiNzou : Tiie reservoirs which supply Cluuiuicamata with 
water are located at the source of the Toconce River, at some 
4,100 meters altitude. The water is carried down by means of 
an aqueduct. The Government also takes advantage of the 
water in the ravine at this ])lace, using the same type of pipe- 
line transmission as the reservoirs to carry it down to some 
of the salt])eter refineries. Linzor is located southeast of the 
Toconce volcano. There is a good road from there to Chu- 
quicamata ])assing near the outskirts of the village of Toconce 
and crossing the Turi Marshes. 



14. Postilla Yah' Peahodij Museum No. -19 

The rivers whicli flow down from the mountains forming the 
Bolivian frontier have created marshlands in places. It is here 
that the birds gather, and it was here I especially came to 
look for them. The tolas are abundant everywhere in this 
region and "llareta," Laretia compact o (Phil.), was found in 
the vicinity of the camp. However, since they make excellent 
fuel, very few plants of this species are to be found that have 
not been used by man. 

The proximity of the snow-covered mountains which sepa- 
rate Chile from Bolivia makes the climate rough. When I 
arrived at I^inzor, I found a large part of the trail almost 
completely covered with snow. During my stay there the days 
were sunny, and the snow melted until there were only a few 
patches left in shady spots. Linzor is a splendid site for setting 
up a base camp. From here there are roads which go in all 
directions and paths which approach areas with special charac- 
teristics, whether they be valleys among the ranges and high 
peaks or marshlands and rivers. However, the flora cannot 
be appreciated in this weather, especially after such heavy 
droughts. This place has essentially the same characteristics 
as Inacaliri, exce})t that there are llareta fields here. The river 
fauna is practically the same. Elmidae (Coleoptera) abound. 
My attention was attracted many times on seeing "naiads" 
of ephemeropterans in the waters of the river, and afterwards 
I was also able to see some examples of these primitive insects 
flying on their nuptial flight on a hot morning. This material 
is being studied by Dr. Demoulin of the Institut Royal des 
Sciences Naturelles of Belgium. 

We still had hopes of returning to Inacaliri for a few days 
in order to revisit the I^aguna Colorada of Bolivia, but it had 
snowed so much that it was impossible for me to attempt a 
new trip to that marvelous lagoon. 

The Tatio Geysers: "^rhc Tatio Geysers are located some 
20 kilometers from Linzor and are at an altitude of 4.250 
meters. On a plain surrounded by hills, do/ens of steaming 
openings form part of tlie active crater of a volcano. These 
oj)enings continue along the ravine and downwards, and all 
the sj)ilhvays of salt and bitter waters join to form the Salado 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and IJoIivia 15 

River wliicli in turn meets tlie lA)a River near the village of 
Chiuchiu. 

We were able to visit this curious place three times, once 
sta^'ing the night in order to observe these fields at sunrise. 
At seven o'clock in the morning the scene is unforgettable. 
From hundreds of openings one may see columns of vapor 
rising to heiglits greater than (50 meters. This happens because 
of the intense cold at that hour ( — 14<.5C) which causes con- 
densation. From time to time a breeze comes along and all the 
cokmins bend and undulate like serpents. As the sun comes out, 
the magnificence of the sj)ectacle reaches its highest point, and 
little hy little, as the sun rises, the columns of vapor disappear 
until at ten o'clock in the morning one may only see vapors 
coming from the most active openings. 

On observing these escape valves close at hand, one may 
enjoy the sight of some very curious formations. The boiling 
waters in the interiors of the openings become activated in 
some cases every two to ten or more minutes to the point of 
leaping out to heights of a little more than half a meter. The 
salts in the waters form crusts of the most varied colors, in 
the shape of pearls in some cases or of superposed terraces 
in others. In many of tlie quieter openings beautiful lagoons 
have been formed, some of them up to 3 meters in diameter 
and (juite deep. Their waters are of an extraordinary trans- 
parency, which contrasts with others where the water is muddy 
and from the interior of which slow bubbles of gas rise up. 
In many of these openings the plant and animal life is active 
enough. One can see fibrous aquatic plants and insects of the 
family Notonectidae which swarm inside. On top of the water 
one can see thousands of flies sliding around. The temperature 
in whicli life develo})s here is 30C, in spite of reports of finding 
species there which live in waters of temperatures near boiling 
point. I also observed here larvae of the batrachian species, 
Telmatohius halli edentatus Capurro, 1954<. It is very danger- 
ous to approach these openings since the ground is liable to 
fissure, and one risks sticking a foot or leg into boiling water 
as has happened on past occasions. These geysers are in the 
middle of swampy fields. Birds were surprisingly scarce here. 



16 



Po.^tilla Yale Pcabodtj Museum 



Xo. J.9 



On the first of these trips we iiad to retui'ii early, sini'e on the 
trip up tiie snow drifted on the road, and twice we ^'ot stuck 
with our .iee|). A species of "vi/cacha" is \ery conunon in all 
these phiccs, and several times thev came out of their caves 
to within a few meters of where thev were heiiiff observed. 

Toc'oxc'k: C'oniini!' (h)wn throuiih the Linzor ravine through 
a win(hn<4' road, we arrived at the vilhige of Toconce, situated 
at 3,300 meters altitude. Knormous blocks of vertical volcanic 




Tile 'roc'oncf noIchmo (5.500 iiu'trr.s), and to the ri^lit the Paiiiri xolcaiio 

((),()()() inctci-.s). In tlie fori'frroiind may be si'cii a typical tolar whicli is 

made u]) of tii(> tola jilant {lidccha r'ls liila. Phil.). 



stones form immense walls full of cavities. All aloiio' the route 
one sees towers of a thousand forms — esphmades of stones 
which resemble oroat rivers of rock. The vegetation gradually 
chanoes until one arrives at the branch of the road which 
goes to Toconce. Between 3,500 and 3,800 meters I was al)le 
to collect the following dominant plants: Vcr})cii(i scr't pliioidcs 
(iill. and Hook., Fdh'unui .s(iiiant(it<i Phil., JiacclKiris tola var. 
Icjid (I'hil.) Reiche, Psihi holri'icusis (\Vcdd.) Cabrera, Adis- 



June 23, 1901 Aiitofaj^asta liHimo^; of Chile and liulivia 17 



niia poJiiphifUd Pliil., Lon/jxif/d nurUchudi.s Pliil., Fahiana de- 
iiiiddtd Miers., and Fahidtui dcserticohi Reiclie. 

The viHage is on tlie south slope of the ravine of the Toconce 
River and is not accessible by vehicle. In order to arrive there 
one must cross the river and then climb up a long, stony grade. 
At tiie bottom of the ravine there is an encami)nient which is 
occupied with the work involved in carrying the waters of this 
river to the city of Antofagasta. With this usurpation of their 
rights the cultivated fields of the natives will remain without 
sufficient irrigation, all of which has produced considerable 
quiet indignation. 

The ravine is rich in botanical species. Curtadiria ataca- 
mensis Phil, grows in various places near the water. On the 
sides there are large (juantities of Cactaceae. Among those 
which attract s})ecial attention there is a species of high spiny 
cactus which has been used from time innnemorial for building, 
since its interior contains a rather hard and resistant wood. 
There are two or three species of Opuntia and a species of 
"sandillon" with red thoi'ns. On the slopes the following ])lants 
are dominant: Ejdudra americana Humb. Bon. ex Willd., Bac- 
charis rnpicola H.B.K., and Atriplcx (uvdhir'is Phil. On the 
cultivated terraces there is an abundance of Baccharis jnncea 
Desf., and Fabiana dcserticohi Rciche. There is also a rather 
common species of undetermined nettle wliose flowers are visited 
very often by the only species of hummingbird that I saw. 
On the banks of the ditches one sees a very abundant species 
of graminaceous plant called Bromus cdtharticus A ahl. 

In the enormous rocks which are in front of the villajie on 
the northern stream of the river, a waterfall has bored dee])lv 
and has formed a very narrow ravine which is shady and damp. 
There the ancient inhabitants of the village had constructed an 
aqueduct in the form of an arch. It was made of stones and 
the water ran on top, but nowadays it is not used. In this little 
ravine I collected a few plants which turned out to be : Epi- 
Johium gldKCtoii Phil. var. stenophtjila Reiche; a species of 
SolaniDii, undetermined because of being incomplete; Polij- 
pogon austraUs, Brongn. ; and a variety (or possibly an un- 
described species) of Mutisia Unearifolia Cav. 



18 Po-stilla Yale Pcabudy Musium No. 4;9 

The woi'k wliic-li has been effected b_v the natives for making 
these hinds workable is a(hniral)le. The construction of Iiica- 
tvpe terraces covers a hirge area. Corn, alfalfa, onions, garlic, 
and carrots are harvested, as well as a large variety of fiowers. 
At this time there were gilliflowers and carnations. 

From the archaeological point of view the outskirts of the 
village comprise one vast field of study. There are many dry 
stone walls, burial grounds, and granaries in the vicinity of 
the village. The granaries are still used to guard grain. They 
are circular constructions, a})proximately 1.5 to 2 meters high, 
made of stone, and with roofs of this material. On one side 
they have a little door about 30 x 30 cm. 

Life abounds in the waters of the ravine. From beneath each 
stone lifted from the bottom of the river scurry dozens of 
naiads of Fphemeroptera and many larvae of Plecoptera. I 
was also able to observe other insect larvae, such as those of 
a micro-lepidopteran which makes its cocoon beneath the sub- 
merged stones. I have seen adults of this little moth on top of 
the stones of the river. I saw very few Coleoptera and the few 
that there were belonii'ed to the family Flmidae. There are also 
great quantities of })lanarians on these submerged stones. 

Among the few insects observed were the following: vespid 
wasps of the subfamily Eumeninae; some examples of adult 
Ephemeroptera ; an abundance of fiying Chironomidae (Dip- 
tera) ; some s})ecies of Silulidae (Diptera) which let themselves 
be seen from time to time circling around our faces. Only two 
examples of butterflies were observed: a lycaenid and a s})ecies 
of the family Ilcspcrtuhtc, possibly of the genus HijlcphUd. 

TiiK Triu Marshes: Following the road whii-h goes to Chiu- 
Chiu, one finds a large and extensive flat region which is 
bordered on the iioi'th by the Toconce and Paniri volc'anoes 
and on the south by the Toconce ravine and the Salado River 
more to the north. This plain is called the Marshes of Turi. 
This flat land which is at an altitude of 3,100 meters is well- 
used bv burros, sheej), and some mules. 

On the eastern extremity of this plain the baths of Tui-i 
are to be found. Here a volume of warm water s])rings into a 
rustic pool and is used by the natives as a medicinal bath. 



June 23, 19<)1 Antofa^-asta Kaiioes of C'liilc aiu! Bolivia 19 

At the foot of the I'aniri volcano tliere are three native 
ranches or ^roups of farms which are dedicated to agriculture. 
These are the villages of Cupo, Paniri, and Topain. In l^aniri 
there are orcliards, and coi-n, wheat, alfalfa, beans, and prickly 
pears are cultivated. In the others there are no orchards, 
probably because of the climate. In tlie vicinity of the Turi 
baths there is an interesting archaeological site perhaps more 
important tlian Toconce. 

Ayqt'ina: From the heights of the ravine of the Salado River 
can be seen the ancient, picturesque village of Ayquina, ele- 
vated on the slopes of volcanic rocks at .'3, ()()() meters altitude. 
Cultivation is carried out in fields constructed in the Incan 
manner; that is, on terraces equal to those in Toconce. Wheat, 
corn, alfalfa, and several species of vegetables and flowers are 
produced. The river lias groups of typical Cyperaceae on its 
banks. In the marshy areas there is a type of compressed pas- 
turage w^here llamas, goats, and burros graze. Some pear and 
pepper trees shade the village and the ravine. 

The I'avine contracts as it ])rogresses east and is (juite nar- 
row, being sufficient only to let the small overflows tlirough 
when they run during these months. 

The Tatio Makshes : The waters which flow down from the 
heights such as the Tatio volcano, 5,300 meters in altitude, 
converge to form a ravine which is very wide at the beginning 
and very narrow afterwards. These waters flow from south to 
north and spill into the salt waters flowing out of the geysers 
forming the Salado River, which has a definitely volcanic ori- 
gin. The wide area of the ravine is dotted by extensive marshes 
which are used by the inhabitants of Toconce, Ayquina, and 
Caspana as pastures The situation is ideal for water birds, 
although only a limited number of species were seen, perhaps 
because this was the winter season. The waters of the marshes 
and the river were in large part covered with ice ; nevertheless, 
many insects were found beneath the stones submerged in the 
river. I observed a large quantity of a species of beetle of the 
family Elmidae, perhaps the same which lives in JAn/.ov. Some 
Diptera were flying over the surface of the water, and they 



20 Postilla Yale Pralxx]// Mitscm No. 49 

were found bv tlie Imndreds beneath tlie stones whicli were 
almost in contact witli the water. I also observed sonic s])ecies 
of gamma ridean amplii])ods. 

From Ijinzor we continued south, following the road which 
runs ])arallel to the Bolivian frontier. We passed by the Tatio 
Geysers, the Tatio Marshes, to the west of the Putana volcano, 
and tried to reach San Pedro de Atacama on that same day, 
July 8. In tlie Tatio Marshes I observed a group of seven 
vicunas, normally so shy, grazing peacefully on the side of 
the road in spite of the fact that we passed them at a distance 
of scarcely 10 meters. 

After several hours we reached the completely abandoned 
sulphur mines of Tatio. These mines are located in the marshes 
which arc the source of the Putana River. Here we observed 
several flocks of ducks. 

Then by mistake we took the wrong road, not a rare thing 
for those who do not know the region since there are dozens of 
tracks which were made by the workers of the sulphur mines 
and the "llaretales." We followed along the edge of the 
Putana River until we crossed one of its tributaries which 
came down from the east. From there we continued along the 
south side of the river and later began to go up an interminable 
hill. This was obviously an abandoned road, since we had to 
cross over landslides from time to time. It was impossible to 
turn back because the road was very narrow and bordered on 
the edge of a deep precipice. It was already night when Ave 
came to a small plateau in which enormous stones covered with 
the remains of llareta stood out everywhere. All the terrain 
was sandy and we saw dozens of tracks. We followed the trail 
which had been used most, but it ended, and, walking from 
one side to another, we found ourselves completely lost. This 
was at 4,200 meters and in the middle of the Llaretal del 
Carcanal. By luck there was plenty of dry llareta wlilch 
served as excellent fuel, for it was bitterly cold. My assistant 
suffered a sharp attack of "puna," altitude sickness. On the 
following day, after lieating the water from the I'adiatoi- of 
the jeep, we reti'aced oui' steps to the marshes of the Putana 
River \\ itli the object of locating the road which would take us 



June 2.'i. 1901 Aiitofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 21 

towards San Pedro de Atacania, !)ut once again we found 
ourselves on another llareta road with no possibility of turning 
around on the narrow ])atli. After traveling several kilometers 
the road ended, and we were finally able to maneuver around 
in order to return. Around five o'clock in the afternoon and 
after crossing an enormous chain of snow-covered mountains 
at more than 4,800 meters, we succeeded in arriving at San 
Pedro de Atacama. We remained here from the 9th to the 1-tth 
of July. My intention was to explore some lagoons in the 
interior of the Atacama salt marsh with the object of studying 
the flamingos there which are absent at this season from the 
lagoons of the high ranges. We worked in Guatin, Laguna 
Verde (Bolivia), and the lagoons aiid marshes of Ceja in the 
interior of the Atacama salt marsh. 

San Pedro de Atacama : To the north of the Atacama salt 
marsh and at an altitude of 2,4-10 meters there is a series of 
fertile oases amorig which the oasis of San Pedro stands out. 
This is a village of great historical importance which has 
always been one of the most attractive places for scientists 
who are especially interested in anthropological and archaeo- 
logical studies. Tlie soil of this oasis receives weak saline water 
which comes from the eastern hills. 

One of the outstanding sights here is that of tlie immense 
chain of mountains and volcanoes which extends from north 
to south, and which serves as a background when, looking 
towards the east, the Putana volcano, 5,700 meters high, stands 
out, followed by the Sairekabur mountain with an altitude of 
6,000 meters. Tliere is also the marvelous volcanic cone called 
Licancabur, apjn'oximately 6,000 meters in altitude, where 
Inca ruins have been found at the sunimit and at the foot of 
which there are vast unexplored remains. Beyond lies the Juri- 
quez volcano, 5,700 meters ; the Purico, Hekar, and Potor 
volcanoes; I.,aguna \ erde ; and the enormous Laskar volcano 
with its steaming crater. Farther to the south is the Tumisa 
volcano, 5,500 metci-s ; the Miscanti mountain, 5,600 meters; 
Miniqui, 6,000 meters; and the immense Pular with a height 
of more than 6,200 meters. In the distance lie the snow-])eaks 
of Socompa and Llullaiyaco. Towards the west the arid Do- 



22 Postilla Yale Pcabotl/j Mhsciim No. -19 

nievko ran^e extends, with the sino-lc legendary peak of Cerro 
del Quinial, on the summit of which I have also found ruins. 
As soon as we arrived at San Pedro de Atacama, I went 
to see Father Gustavo Le Paige, the parish priest of tliis area 
who has amassed valuable study material into a small archaeo- 
logical museum. 

Laguna Verde : On the eastern side of the I.icancabur vol- 
cano, to the north of Juriquez volcano, and at 4-, 100 meters 
altitude, the I.aguna Verde s])rcads out. It owes its name to 
the beautiful emerald-green color of the water. It almost has 
the form of an isosceles triangle. Vegetation is very spare all 
over the area, consisting of bunches of straw-like grass, pos- 
sibly of the species Stipa vennsta Phil. As in all Andean la- 
goons, the shores are covered with a white earth giving the 
effect of a salt marsh. 

Nearly all the lagoon was covered with a thick layer of ice 
with the exception of a part of its eastern side. At the extreme 
noi-theast of the lagoon there is a spring of hot water which 
])revents complete freezing. This place is used by some birds 
as a wintering area. I saw about !()() grebes as well as 86 
horned coots. On a previous tri]) in February with my friend 
Gerardo Melcher from the l^niversity of Chile I had seen a 
quantity of flamingos which were now nearh' absent except for 
one ])air of immature specimens. This observation added to 
those made in the Laguna Colorada (IJolivia) and the data 
gathered from the inhabitants of the region supports my the- 
ory that the flamingos migrate to milder climates such as 
the Atacama and the Punta Xegra salt marshes in the winter. 

The wind from the iioi-thwest began to rise a little before 
eleven o'clock in the morning, and shortly after noon it was 
already unbearable, making big waves on the ])art of the lagoon 
which was free of ice. In this period (July) it snows intensely, 
and in order to succeed in reaching the lagoon it was necessary 
to cross huge patches of snow. 

Gt'atin: From San Pedi-o de Atacama. following the same 
route to the northwest, there is a place with cultivation located 
at about 8, .500 meters above sea level and with waters originat- 



June 2'i, 19(51 Antofagasta llang-es of Chile and Bolivia 23 

ing from the Puritania baths not far distant. Guatin is an 
extension of artificially watered pastures which are used for 
the cultivation of a curious variety of corn of great yield and 
which has become acclimatized to these altitudes and to the 
saline waters. Alfalfa is also cultivated there. On the river 
bed there is an exuberance of vegetation. The entire area in- 
dicates ancient habitation, as has been proven by Father Le 
Paige with his archaeological discoveries. 

On the slopes there is an abundance of tola and a large 
quantity of cactus of the genus Opuntia, as well as other types. 

Salar de Atacama: Between the ranges of the Andes and 
those of Domeyko, and divided through the middle by the 
Tropic of Capricorn, extends the Atacama salt marsh. In area 
it is close to 2,700 square kilometers, and its appearance, ob- 
served from the air at an altitude of 2,000 meters, is that of an 
immense white plain dotted with occasional mounds. In its 
depressions there are lagoons of the most diverse colors, green- 
ish blue being the dominant. From the air one perceives semi- 
circles which seem to be salt formations and give an appearance 
of snowdrifts. 

On reaching the surface level the appearance is totally dif- 
ferent from that observed from the air. Only an immense ])lain 
can be seen, bordered by mountains on all sides. Advancing 
towards the interior of the swamp, the trees disappear. The 
swamp is dominated in parts by a halophytic species of pas- 
ture grass. Here nitrous formations jut out of the ground in 
irregular shapes, making walking very difficult. Little by little 
the grass disappears. The salt excrescences have diverse forms. 
In some cases they are snow-white and form tiny splieres. In 
others the ground is like a checkerboard divided into polygons, 
the angles of which are made up of walls of salt crystals which 
stick out somewhat in the manner of chains no more than 
10 cm high. These formations originate generally in the areas 
around the waters which are in the salt marsh. I observed the 
hard nitrous excrescences which jut out to 50 cm from the 
ground at the edge of the area of vegetation. 

The lagoons are not very deep in general. The bottom is 
of a soft, smooth, slippery material which has been precipitated 



24 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 4)9 

very slowly. This is formed of layers of difl'erent colors: green, 
white, yellow, rose, and black, perhaps duo to fungus and other 
vee-etable matter which has found an ideal environment for 
growing. I noted that the bottom surface of these lagoons was 
always whitish in color. It seems probable that the guano of 
the birds which abound tiiere ])lays an important part in the 
growth of certain material. There are tongues of saline struc- 
tures below the surface of these lagoons which have the most 
capricious forms. 

In January, February, and sometimes March, the waters 
of the salt marsh increase; they increase again during the 
season of snowfalls and rain in the range, i.e., June, July, and 
August. I believe that a study of the plankton of these waters 
will be very rewarding. The east side of this marsh has never 
been visited by a scientist. Hei'e there are extensive unknown 
lagoons, grasslands, and strange salt formations. 

Marshes and Lagoons of Ceja : With a vcrv strontj; north 
wind blowing, my assistant and I, riding on mules, penetrated 
the northern Atacama salt marsh on July I'i. Going in a south- 
erly direction and in a straight line towards Socompa volcano 
which could be seen on the hori/on, we should have arrived at 
a little path which would take us to our destination, the Te- 
benquiche lagoon. When we had once abandoned the tree area, 
we entered extensive fields. Kvervwhcre were the burrowine-s of 
a rodent, possibly of the genus Ctenomys known in the region 
by the name "ucultur" or "tunduco." Here salt water lies 
about 5-10 cm below the surface. 

AVith an unbearable heavy wind bh)wing behind us, we ar- 
rived, after two and a half hours of intermittent gallo])ing, 
at the niai'shes and lagoons of Ceja. There we left our mounts, 
as the nuiles sank up to their hocks in very sticky, gray nnid. 
The waters of these lagoons are quite salty, but in the neigh- 
l)()rlio()d thei'e are some wells opened bv the inhabitants who 
from time to time ])asture their cattle in tiiese remote regions. 
This water, though not sweet, is potable. 

Very few birds were observed. Some Hamingos Hew off at 
our arrival. Only one flamingo was captured, and it turned out 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 25 

to be the common species which we know in the central zone 
of the country. The others flew off to adjacent lagoons. 

It was impossible to get to Tebenquiche lagoon, the largest 
in the salt marsh, since we would have needed perhaps two 
more hours of walking. My greatest fear was to lose our way 
because of the dust and gravel clouds which hindered our 
sight. This nitrous dust cloud blasted our faces and the mules, 
sometimes making movement almost impossible. The gusts of 
dust would pass, losing themselves in the distance, only to 
return a few moments later. They could be seen coming as 
dark, dragging clouds, and at times it was difficult to have to 
put up with them. Our eyes suffered terribly, since we were 
not provided with adequate protection. All the plants collected 
disappeared in the midst of a series of gusts, and we did not 
have the spirit to get down and round them u]) again. 

We arrived back at San Pedro de Atacama when it was 
completely dark and found that our helpers were preparing to 
set out to look for us. 

On July 16 I left for Talabre, a ravine which runs parallel 
to the one at Hekar, beginning at the eastern base of the 
Laskar volcano in the marshes of Saltar and Tumbre. In this 
ravine alfalfa is cultivated, and the family which lives there 
has flocks of sheep and llamas. 

In Talabre I found my good old traveling companion, Fabio 
Soza, with whom I have explored these regions on several occa- 
sions ; he is a man who knows all the corners of the Andes. He 
had some insects which he had collected for me, among which 
were species that were only recently described on the basis of 
specimens collected in those regions. All were Tenebrionidae 
and Curculionidae. Among the first were examples of Ento- 
mochilus varius laevis Kulzer, Physogasier nitidns Kulzer, 
and Psectraselis intricaticollis Fairm. Also among the insects 
collected by him were examples of vespoid wasps and six ex- 
amples of one of the most extraordinary species of Andean 
butterflies, already observed by me in the Salar de Pujsa in 
December, 1952. It is a subspecies of Argyrophorns lamna 
(Satvridae) which will be described by Dr. Ureta. 

This butterfly flies from Pujsa to Aguada de la Perdiz, to 



26 rostilla Yale Pcabudy Muacam No. 49 

the east of tlie Snlar de Aguas Calieiites, a place near tlie 
Argentine Frontier. Tlie species is very difficult to obtain 
since its flight is so rapid, and because of the height of its 
habitat, close to 4,300 meters, it is almost impossible to run 
in order to capture it. 

With Fabio Soza as our guide, we returned to the camp left 
in Aguas Blancas and continued the tri}) south in order to 
visit the Carvajal lagoons situated in the Atacama salt marsh 
on its eastern side : Peine, Tilomonte, and Tilopozo. 

C'akvajal Lagoons: losing the jeep, we entered the Ata- 
cama salt marsh on the east side as far as the muddy ground 
permitted and set up one kilometer from the Carvajal lagoons. 
On looking over the lagoons with binoculars, I could see hun- 
dreds of flamingos in the water. I could clearly see three dif- 
ferent species, among which was a small white form which 
turned out to be a female "parina chica," Phoenicoparrns 
janu'si. On entering the lagoon we found the remains of the 
flamingo nests. There were dozens of mounds of white mud, 
already much worn but still sticking out of the water a few 
centimeters. 

On the following day, we collected a pair of Phoenico par- 
vus jamcs'i. 

Peine: At an altitude of 2,300 meters on the western slope 
of the mountains which come down by the Atacama salt marsh 
is located the village of Peine. It is in the middle of very 
ancient, abandoned ruins. Surely some of them belonged to 
that culture and people known as Atacamena, who spoke the 
curious Kunsa language. This village lived in total isolation 
from the rest of the country, and the inhabitants were farmers. 
There is a ])rc)fusi()n of "algarrobo" (Mimosaceae) here. The 
"chanares" ( Pa])ilionaceae) trees were slightly green as it was 
mid-winter. Corn, wheat, and alfalfa arc cultivated principally. 
In the distance groups of flamingos were observed on the Peine 
lagoon flocking in lai-ge numbers to the centei" of the water. 
During the sunnner months this is the favorite })lace for nest- 
ing. The inhabitants of the village gather the flamingo eggs 
fi'om miles around and pack them in boxes which are then 



June 2.'i, 19()1 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 27 




Male exanii)k' of tlic "])arina cliica" (I'lioeiiirdparriix Jamcsi, riciatiT) 
collected at the I-aguna Colorada (Bolivia). 



carried on burros towards San Pedro and sold there. Last year 
it was calculated that they had extracted approximately 10,- 
000 eggs. It is reported that the flamingos lay a single egg in 
each nest. When this is removed, the birds will lay a second and 
finally a third during the nesting months of December and Feb- 
ary. It appears that flamingos do not nest here every year. 

TiLOMOXTE : The oasis of Tilomonte is towards the south 
and in the middle of the desert, near Peine. It is a true forest 
of "algarrobo" and "chanares" in the middle of a plain where 
corn and alfalfa are cultivated, irrigated by the salt water 
of the ravine. 

TiLOPOZO : On the extreme south of the Atacama salt marsh 
there is a large area of marsh covered with grasses. We trav- 
eled as far as the Banos de Tilopozo which spring from a 
hot-water overflow. This place must be ideal for birds dur- 
ing the summer nesting season, but they are now absent. The 



28 Postilla Yale Fcahudy Museum No. 49 

hurricane-force wind made continuing with the jeep impossible 
because of the hail of sand and rock which had already heavily 
scratched the windshield. 

We returned to Santiago on July 26 after a fruitless visit 
to the salt marshes of Pedernales and Maricunga, more than 
250 kilometers to the south of Atacama. Flamingos do nest 
on these marshes in the summer months. 



PART TWO 

Annotated List of Birds Collected or Observed 

The list of birds reported here includes observations made 
in December, 1957, and in January, 1958, on a second visit 
with Dr. Roger Tory Peterson. Specimens collected are now 
in the Peabody Museum at Yale University. A series of our 
material is also in the collection of the Museo Nacional de 
Historia Natural of Santiago. 

Pterocnemia pennnta tnrapacensis Chubb 

Several pairs were observed in Inacaliri at 3,900 meters, 
and on the Turi pampa (3,100 meters). One specimen was 
captured by persons from Inacaliri and carried to the San 
Pedro station with the object of removing its fat, since it is 
highly desired as a remedy for rheumatism and arthritis. Be- 
fore this, however, I took the following measurements: length 
from the point of the bill to the end of the tail, 14-i cm; wing, 
50 cm ; bill, 7.2 cm ; tarsus, 33 cm. 

On examining the contents of the stomach, I found it replete 
with roots and thick stems of the tola. 

Tinamotis pentlandi Vigors 

This species of "partridge" is somewhat frequent in the high 
regions of the Antofagasta range between 3,500 and 4',500 
meters. A slightly wounded s])ecimen attacked me by flying 
against my face as I a])proachcd to photogra])h it at a dis- 
tance of 3 meters; later it fled, tossing off" a large (juantity 
of fetid excrement. An example was captured in Inacaliri at 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 29 

4, 000 meters altitude. A small flock was observed on the Tatio 
volcano at 4?,-tOO meters. 

Phoenicopterus chilensis Molina 

The Chilean flamingo is common in the central zone of Chile. 
It is found in the lagoons of the north where it is known by 
the name of "tococo." The specimen taken came from the 
lagoons of the Ccja marshlands, situated in the interior of 
the upper sections of the Atacama salt marsh approximately 
30 kilometers to the south of San Pedro de Atacama. It was 
a solitary bird. 

Phoenicoparr/fs andiuus (Philippi) Bonaparte 

At Ojos del Rio San Pedro two innnature specimens of this 
"parina" were captured, locally called "hiticti." Birds were 
observed in the Ceja lagoons and in those of Carvajal, situated 
in the interior of the Atacama salt marsh. At night they could 
be heard calling, and it is at that hour that they move from 
lagoon to lagoon. It is diflicult to distinguish them from the 
"paiina chica" {Ph. jami'si)^ when thev arc in their habitat, 
since it is impossible to approach them, and their coloration 
and size is very similar. 

Phoen'icoporrus jaiiwsi (Sclater) 

One of the objects of this expedition was to study this rare 
flamingo. Xo one has had recent news of this species. In 1957, 
Dr. Francisco Behn, in company with Mr. A. W. Johnson and 
Mr. Guillermo Millie, had traveled in these areas with the sole 
object of finding this bird and making studies of a biological 
character (Johnson, Behn, and Millie, 1958). They succeeded 
in capturing a female example and obtained several nests of 
eggs, all in the Laguna Colorada of Bolivia in the month of 
February, 195T. In the same place, situated a few kilometers 
from the frontier, I succeeded in capturing an adult male 
example and two innnature specimens. The population was 
reduced. I was onlv able to see T adults and about 20 nestlings 
already old enough to fly. The adults were extremely shy; not 
so the young ones which walked about trfUKjuilly scarcely 



30 Postilla Yah' Peahody Museum No. 49 

10 meters from us, as we, with the water a little bit below 
our knees, were exploring the lagoon in the region not affected 
by ice. Later on, in the lagoons at Carvajal to the east of the 
Atacama salt marsh and in front of the Hekar or Camar 
ravine, we succeeded in capturing another example. 

This "parina," called "chururu" by the inhabitants, is prob- 
ably not as rare as had been thought previously. Many times 
my attention was called to the fact that the mountain lagoons 
were almost completely deserted by birds, according to infor- 
mation received from the inhabitants. However, the flamingos 
were abundant in the Laguna Colorada during the summer and 
nested there. This was proved by Dr. Behn, although his cal- 
culation for the species was low, 0-8% of the total of 3,000 
birds of 3 species seen (torn. cit. 19.58: 290). 

With the object of studying tlie possible movements of the 
species about the Atacama salt marsh area, I traveled among 
the lagoons of the interior observing an immense quantity of 
flamingos in a number almost impossible to calculate. But, in 
view of the quantity of little lagoons which exist in this vast 
region, I cannot make any firm estimate of this population. 
Unfortunately, I was not able to go as far as the Punta Negra 
salt marsh which is south of the Imilac railroad station. I was 
assured that flamingos nest there by the thousands during 
the months from December to February. It seems to me that 
the Atacama salt marsh is the nesting center and the place in 
which the majority of the flamingos spend the winter. 

These flamingos are vagrants. The mountain lagoons freeze, 
though not entirely, since nearly all of them receive hot springs. 
But the influence of hot water is only felt in a limited space, 
as I had observed in the Laguna Colorada (Bolivia) and the 
Laguna \'crde. These birds migrate to salt-water lagoons of 
a better climate such as the Atacama salt marsh. Some speci- 
mens maintain tlicmselves in the Andean lagoons, but they are 
always isolated. 

In the entire region the people who know about the "pa- 
rinas," including the natives wlio sj)end the siuiimer on the 
Laguna Colorada as well as the ])eople from Toconao, Peine, 
and Socaire, who live for a ])art of the year on the eggs of 
these birds, distinguish four well-defined species of flamingos 



June 23, 1901 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 31 

and "parinas." Thev iiave a name for each, taken from the call 
which the birds emit. The first is the "tococo" (Ph. chilensis), 
the common species which is also found in the central region 
of Chile. The second is the "hiticti" {Ph. and'mus) which is 
more reddish in color than the first one and larger in size. Its 
call is very similar to its name: "hi-ri-ri-ri-ri-ri." The third 
one is the "chururu" {Ph. jamesi) which is the species that 
was thought to be the most scarce and turns out to be the 
most abundant. Its characteristic call is "chu-ru-ru-ru-ru-ru." 
The fourth is a species which we have not been able to locate. 
In my opinion it comprises young examples of jamesi. On vari- 
ous occasions I was able to hear its call of "huaj-cha-ta-ta." 

Upon observing the stomach contents of these birds {Ph. 
jamesi), I found only some mud of greenish-yellow color mixed 
up with fine sand. Under the microscope I could see that the 
contents represented a compact mass of diatoms, which agrees 
with the observations of Dr. F. Behn. 

Phoenicoparrus jamesi is a common enough bird, as are 
all the "parinas" and flamingos of the Andes. It is very diffi- 
cult to observe and capture, however, since it is very shy. 
It nests on the Laguna Colorada of Bolivia and almost posi- 
tively on the Andean salt-water lagoons such as the Pujsa 
salt marsh and the Loyoquis salt marsh. According to the 
word of the people of the region, it lays eggs three times 
a year. 

A second visit to Laguna Colorada made by Dr. Roger Tory 
Peterson and myself from December 20-27, 1958, adds to our 
knowledge of the relative abundance of the three flamingo 
species. During the second visit the observed ratio of flamin- 
gos was : 

Ph. jamesi no less than 7,000. 

Ph. adinns 300. 

Ph. chilensis 100. 

This compares with the figures of Johnson, Behn, and Millie 
for January, 1957 {torn. cif. 1958): 

Ph. jamesi 40 to 50. 

Ph. adinns 1,500 approximately. 

Ph. chilensis 1,500 approximately. 



32 Postilla Yale Peahodij Museum Xo. 49 

Chlocphaga melanoptera (Eyton) 

I have observed this species always in pairs at altitudes of 
3,500 meters (Ojos del Rio San Pedro) to 4,250 meters on 
the marshlands which are the sources of the Salado River; 
that is, the Tatio Geysers. It was not possible to capture 
examples. 

Lophonetta speculariokJes alt'icola (Mencgaux) 

This is perhaps the most common duck of the movmtain 
marshlands which were ex})lored. I observed it from 2,400 me- 
ters to 4,400 meters in Chile as well as in Bolivia. It nearly 
always travels in pairs and is rarely seen in flocks (the ravine 
of Pastos Largos, Atacama). It is known as the "pato rial" 
and is very much desired on account of its flesh and size. It is 
easily distinguished because it is much larger than the other 
ducks with which it lives. 

Anas versicolor p/iiut Tschudi 

Rare in the region explored ; I observed some examples only 
in the Ojos del Rio San Pedro (3,800 meters) and in the 
Laguna Colorada of Bolivia at 4,400 meters. 

Anas flavirostris oxyptera Meyen 

A conmion duck on the Inacaliri marshes and on the Ojos 
del Rio San Pedro. They were observed in flocks of from 15 to 
30 examples. It was also seen on Laguna Colorada, Bolivia, 
at 4,400 meters; Tilopozo (2,400 meters) ; the Putana River; 
and the ravine of Pastos Largos, this last in the province of 
Atacama. 

Fiilica americana peruviana Morrison 

Very common in the Ojos del Rio San Pedro where it is 
persecuted by hunters. 

Fulica corniifd B()iia])arte 

This rare species is known only from the high ranges of 
the Andes. It is called "huai-i" or "socar" bv the natives. 



June 28, 1901 Antofagcasta Ranges of Cliile and Bolivia 33 

Very little is known about its habits. I observed 36 examples 
on the Laguna Verde at 4,100 meters. They were all swimming 
on the eastern side of the lagoon, since the water there is 
always temperate. The rest of the lagoon was frozen over with 
a thick cap of ice. It was very amusing to see these birds 
emerge from the water and try to walk on the ice, while at- 
tempting to flv. It was impossible for them to maintain their 
footing on the frozen surface. They lived there in common witl^ 
a large group of Podiceps occipitalis juninensis, some pairs of 
Lophonetta specularioides alticola and Anas flaxfirostris oxyp- 
tera. Three examples were captured and were weighed as fol- 
lows: 9 , -i lbs.; i , 5 lbs. 12 oz. ; i , 5 lbs. 5 oz. 

The color of the bill is yellow, with greenish-olive tints. 
Towards the base it is somewhat reddish and the upper part 
of the culmen is black. The feet are greenish-black with some 
yellow. The iris is red. 

All of the examples which were observed had fully developed 
caruncles. On opening their stomachs, I found little food, and 
this was made up of aquatic grasses which abound in the 
temperate parts of the lagoon. Most of the stomach contents 
consisted of volcanic sand. 

In a little lagoon near the Laguna Verde (Bolivia) the 
remains of the nests of these Fidica were seen. For a descrip- 
tion of the nests farther south see Ripley (1957 a and b), and 
Behn and Milhe (1959). 

Orcophobis ruficolUs (Wagler) 

Flocks with numerous specimens were observed in the marsh- 
lands of Turi at 3,200 meters. They were extremely shy. They 
flew in more or less compact groups and at a distance of 
more than 200 meters. They are known by the name of "chu- 
churi" or "tiutila." 

Charadrius alticola (Berlepsch and Stolzmann) 

A relatively scarce bird which was observed only in the Ina- 
caliri marshes (4,000 meters). It was abundant at the Tatio 
volcano (4,250 meters) and was even more common in the 



3-i Postilla Yale Peahodi) Museum No. 49 

Atacama salt inarsli, on tlie Carvajal lagoons, and the marsh- 
lands at Ceja. 

This plover was seen running after food on the muddy little 
beaches which are formed at the shores of the salt marsh 
lagoons. 

Phegurn'm mitehellii (Fraser) 

It is known as "pijlulo" by the inhabitants of the Inaca- 
liri region. Onh' two examples were observed in the Inacaliri 
marshes at approximately 4-, 000 meters. 

Capella paraguaiae innotata Hellmayr 

Only one snipe was observed in the marshes of Inacaliri. 
It flew off at the moment my foot was about to crush it. 
According to what I was told, it is quite common during the 
summer months. 

Recurvirosir(t andina Philippi and Landbeck 

The "caiti," known in the region as "caichon," is frequently 
found in the salt-water lagoons and lowlands of the Andean 
region. The two examples obtained are immature and come 
from the Laguna Colorada. At that place there were small 
groups of three to seven specimens resting on the warm water 
of the lagoon, since the rest of the water was frozen. This 
friendly little bird was also observed in the lagoons of the 
marshes of Ceja and Carvajal in the interior of the Atacama 
salt marsh (2,-iOO meters). 

Thbio'.'onis nini'i'rc'oru.s ru iNic'ri'orus Kschscliolt/. 

Two examples were taken in June while the camp was being 
set u[) in the desert region in front of the village of Domeyko 
in the province of Atacama. It is a bird which abounds in 
the rejjfion. 



-t)' 



Til in <)(•() ru.s o rbigni/ia n us o rbigni/ia n us 

I. Geoffroy St. Hilaire and Lesson 
The "puco-puco" or "poco-poco" is very conmion in all of 
the marshes explored; it was observed between 3,800 and 4,300 



June 2t3, 1901 An tofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 35 

meters. It is always seen in little flocks of three to eight. It is 
elusive, hiding itself among the crevices where the water from 
the marshes runs, always with its head sticking up. As soon 
as it takes flight, it utters a characteristic cry. 

Larus serranus Tschudi 

The "gaviota" is frequently found in all weather in the 
lagoons of the high ranges of the Andes. An example was 
observed in the Laguna Colorada of Bolivia (4, 400 meters) 
living with "caitis" and "parinas." Others were seen on the 
lagoons of Carvajal and the marshes of Ceja in the interior 
of the Atacama salt marsh (2,-iOO meters). All were wearing 
their faded winter plumage. 

Zenaidura auriculata auriculata (Des Murs) 

This dove, so common in the central zone of the country, 
had not been captured previously in Antofagasta. In San 
Pedro de Atacama it is extremely abundant during the winter 
months. Several flocks were observed in Toconce as well as 
in the high desert zone of Paposo (the southern coast of the 
province of Antofagasta). An example was secured from To- 
conce (3,030 meters). 

Metriopelia melanoptera melanoptera (Molina) 

An example was collected in Lasana on the banks of the 
Loa River. 

Psilopsiagon aurifrons orhygnesius (Souance) 

Several flocks of "caturros" were observed in Inacaliri 
(4,100 meters), in Toconce (3,030 meters), and on the out- 
skirts of the Talabre ravine (3,200 meters). It is a rather 
common little parrot which nests in the area. 

Crofophaga siilcirostris sulcirostris Swainson 

I was surprised to find an example of this bird in Peine 
because it had to cross so manv kilometers of desert area to 



36 Postilla Yale Feahody Museum No. 49 

arrive there. I observed it among the branches of a Bolivian 
pepper tree which is near the ])ublic square. According to 
what the natives told me, this bird had arrived there at the 
end of the month of March. It was not captured. 

Orcotrochihis estclhi (rOi'ljiii'iiv and Lafresnave 

Common in Toconce where some examples were collected. 
They are to be seen in cultivated areas visiting the flowers of 
the nettle "ortiga." 

Geositfa isaheU'ina (Philij)])i and Ijandbeck) 

This species, so rare in collections, was observed on the 
outskirts of Potrerillos in the province of Atacama while I 
was on the road to the salt marshes of Pedernales. It has 
only been known previously from the ])rovince of Coquimbo 
further south. 

Geositfa punensis Dabbene 

Very common in several places between 3,200 meters and 
4<,300 meters. It is found most frequently around houses and 
in the regions of the tolas. It is known by the name of "roilita" 
(Talabre). Some examples were taken on the outskirts of the 
Turi marshes (3,100 meters) and in the tolas of Inacaliri. 

Upucerthia dumetaria hallinani Chapman 

A rather common species which is difficult to capture because 
it is very shy. Examples were observed in Ayquina (3,030 
meters), Guatin (3,500 meters). Peine (2,400 meters), and 
San Pedro de Atacama (2, -400 meters). It is always seen 
traveliiiiT over the sown and cultivated terraces. It emits a 
strident and characteristic call. It is connnonly known ;is tlie 
"lucho-lucho" (Toconce) or the "lichi-lichi" (Talabre). 

Upiicrrfh'ia nipcoiida (Meyen) 

This bird is quite rare. It frecpients the tolas where a few 
exam])les were seen. It was observed in I-inzor (4,100 meters) 
and InacaHri (4,000 meters). 



June 2»3, 19()1 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 37 

Asthencs modesta modesta (Eyton) 

Common above 3,500 meters, it was observed among the 
tolas. It is frequently seen on rocks and on the ground search- 
ing out its food. It is very easy to capture since it allows one 
to approach to within a few meters. The vulgar names given 
to it in these regions are "pipo," "lucho-lucho," and "caci- 
que" (Peine). 

Leptasthenura aegithaloides berlepschi Hartert 

Known as "tijerita" or "chiriviri" (Talabre) and as "qui- 
ron" in Peine, it is a very common little bird between 2,400 
meters (San Pedro de Atacama) and 4,100 meters (Linzor). 
It frequents cultivated fields and the regions of the tolas. It is 
always seen among the slirubs searching out food. 

CincJodi's fuscus albiventris (Philippi and Landbeck) 

Very common in the marshes and rivers in Inacaliri (4,100 
meters), the Ojos del Rio San Pedro (3,800 meters), Silala 
(4,200 meters), Vegas del Tatio (4,300 meters), Toconce 
(3,300 meters), Guatin (3,500 meters), Peine (2,400 meters), 
and the Laguna Colorada of Bolivia (4,400 meters). It is 
extremely tame; the natives call it "requete chico" (Toconce), 
"alcalde," and "itirico" (Peine), and "sapero" (Talabre). It 
lives in some places with the congeneric C. atacamensis ata- 
camensis. In observing the stomach contents of some samples, 
we found insect hirvae, possibly of Lepidoptera Heterocera, 
and many remains of aquatic vegetation. 



Cinclodes atacamensis atacamensis (Philippi) 

Less frequent than the previous species. Several examples 
were captured in Toconce (3,300 meters), Linzor (4,100 me- 
ters), and Silala or Siloli (4,300 meters). No examples were 
observed in Inacaliri (4,100 meters). In an example taken in 
Linzor, I found remains of coleopterous insects of the family 
Elmidae, so common beneath the stones submerged in the 
streams. There were also little stones and an uncountable num- 
ber of little snails of the genus Littoridina. 



38 Tostilla Yale Peabodi/ Muscitm No. 49 

Agriornis andicola albicauda (Phili])]n and Laiitlbeck) 

The "gaucho" is one of the rare sj^ecies wliicli with kick 
may be observed from time to time. It lias only been found in 
Putre in the interior of the province of Tarapaca, Department 
of Arica. A specimen from Linzor was collected on the out- 
skirts of the Ojalar River at an altitude of -1,100 meters. 

Agriornis montana maritima (I^afresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Examples were observed in Inacahri (4,000 meters) and 
in its innnediate environs. In Linzor (4,100 meters) it seems 
to be more common, though not so in Toconce (3,300 meters) 
where it was rather scarce. 

The stomach contents of one of the exam})les was com- 
posed of the seeds of the })rickly grass {Oxychloe andina Phil.) 
which grows in the swamps and marshes, the remains of a 
chrysidid hymenopteran, and a species of Di})tera (Syrphidae, 
genus Volucella) . In a female example ca})tured in Linzor I 
found its stomach full of the same seeds, water plants from 
the streams, and the remains of insects which were impossible 
to determine. In another male example I found seeds and a 
wing-bone of a small bird. In Peine I observed a "gaucho" in 
the process of killing a small mouse. 

These birds frequent the tolas, the shores of streams, and 
marshes. 

MuscisaxicoJa rupvertex paUidiceps Hellmayr 

Known as "fraile" or "cura," it is one of the mo.st char- 
acteristic birds of the traveled regions. It is (juite connnon 
between 3,300 meters and 4,250 meters. It frequents the marsh- 
lands and streams in search of food. 

MusrisfLvicoIa capistnito ( liurmeister) 

As connnon as the previous s{)ecies and with very similar 
habits. Exam})les were observed in all the ])laces visited from 
3,200 to 4,250 meters. This "fraile" dwells in Patagonia and 
ill Tierra del Fuego and spends the winter in the ranges to 
the north. All of the examples had very faded j)lumage. 



June 2.*J, 19(51 Antofagasta Ran<j-es of Chile and liolivia 39 

Muscisaciucoht iiuiciiJirosfri.s ludciil'irosfr'ts 
Lafresnaye and d'Orbign}^ 

Called the "fraile chico," it is very connnoii in Ayquina 
(3,030 meters). It has been observed running on tiie cultivated 
terraces and on the shores of running waters. In San Pedro 
dc Atacania (2,400 meters) ground-tyrants were observed in 
the fields cultivated with alfalfa. 

Lesson'ia nifa areas (Sclater and Salvin) 

Only one example was captured at the Ojos del Rio San 
Pedro (3,800 meters), even though some pairs were observed 
in the marshes which form the streams which are the sources 
of the San Pedro River. Few examples were observed in the 
lagoons of Carvajal in the interior of the Atacama salt marsli. 

Aufhv.s- correndcra catamarcac Hcllmayr 

I oljscrved this subspecies of "bailarin chico" in the marsh- 
lands of the Ojos del Rio San Pedro, 3,800 mctei's ; also, in 
a lesser quantity, in the marshlands of Ceja, which arc in the 
interior of the Atacama salt marsh at 2,450 meters ; and in 
great abundance at the southern extremity of the same salt 
marsh at the location of the Tilopozo marshes. They arc al- 
ways found in humid })laces among the tall grasses where they 
hide, making their capture rather difficult. It is a rather shy 
little bird. 

TroglodytcH nnisciihis atacamensis Hellmayr 

Common in the thickets of San Pedro de Atacama between 
2,400 and 3,300 meters. 

Turdiis cliigiuinco (tnthracinus Burnicister 

This species of thrush, very connnon in Bolivia and Argen- 
tina, has been sporadically collected in Chile. Its nesting had 
never been observed before in Chilean territory. On this trip 
I was able to observe numei'ous examples in the valleys of the 
Loa (Lasana) River. In San l^cdro de Atacama, wliere it is 



40 Postilla Yale Piahodi) Museum No. 49 

known as "lachiraclu."" it is cxtreinelv al)viii(laiit. as it is also 
in the oasis of" Toconat) (2,400 meters). Affording to infor- 
mation iiiven by tlie natives, I was assured tliat they nest tliere. 

Passer dotiicst'iciis (loiitcsticits (Linnaeus) 

The "gorrioji" has now arrived at tlie village of San Pedro 
de Atafama, with its usual instiiifts of destruftion towards 
the small autoclithonous birds. 

PhrygUiis (itriccps (liafrcsnavc and d'Orbigny) 

I found this beautiful fringilline in abundaufe in Toconce 
at 3,300 meters. Some cxam])les were faptured on the outskirts 
of T-inzor (4,100 meters). Tiiey also abound in Guatin, a 
place located to the northeast of San Pedro de Atacama at 
more or less 3,500 meters altitude. They always travel in small 
flocks. Tlie female is much rarer than the male, and we were 
able to capture only one example in Toconce. It is a harmful 
bird since it destroys vegetables and eats corn, wheat, and 
oats, especially when they have not vet matured. It is vulgarly 
known by the name of "comesebo." In Talabre it is called 
"chasca." 

PhrygUus iinicolor iiii'uolor (Tiafrcsnaye and d'Orbigny) 

Only a few examples were observed, both in Siloli (Silala) 
at 4,200 meters and in Toconce (3,300 meters). An example 
was observed in the I.,aguna C'oiorada and another in the La- 
guna Verde, both in Bolivia. 

Phr/jgihis dorsalis Cabanis 

This rare little bird, known in Chile by only two or three 
examples found in these ranges, turns out to be extremely 
common and numerous specimens were observed and captured, 
'i'he "suite," as they call it in some plac-es. was observed in 
Inacaliri (4,100 meters), Silala or Siloli (4,300 meters), the 
Tatio (leysers (4,200 meters), Lin/or (4,100 meters), and 
Laguna C'oiorada in IJolivia (4,400 meters) . I understand that 



June 23, 19(51 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 4<1 

it abounds in Tumbre, a place to the northeast of the Laskar 
volcano at an approximate altitude of 4^,000 meters, where I 
was assured that it nests. It is not a shy bird and frequently 
approaclies to within a few meters. Numbers are seen in the sur- 
roundinii' areas of the small streams which form the marshes 
of the deep ravines. When chased, they fly toward the walls 
of tlie ravine, resting tliemselves on the rocks. From time to 
time they may be seen flying directly upwards where they 
remain immobile in the air by beating their wings. Later they 
let themselves fall again toward the earth. Their presence is 
revealed by a fine call which they express with a penetrat- 
ing "pii." 

FlirygUus fnificcfi fnif'icrti (Kittlit/) 

The "vale" is known in a large part of the counti-y as a 
rather destructive and damaging little bird. It is frequently 
seen in Toconcc (8,300 meters), Guatin (3,500 meters), and 
Talabre (3,300 meters) wliere I was able to observe it in 
flocks of about 20 birds. 

Zonotrichia capensis antofagasfac Chapman 

This is ])ei-ha})s the most characteristic bird of agricultural 
sites situated between 2,400 meters and 3,500 meters in the 
entire region visited. It is known by the name of "chincol" 
and is extremely common in the village of Toconce (3,300 
meters), at Ayquina (3,030 meters), San Pedro de Atacama 
(2,400 meters), Tilomonte and Toconao (2,500 meters). It is 
observed in groups or alone. 

Spitius afratii.s (Lafresnaye and d'Orbigny) 

The "canario" is very much desired by the natives as 
it has a beautiful song. After capturing them by means of 
traps, they raise them in cages. They abound in the region 
of Siloli in the summertime. We were not able to obtain ex- 
amples in spite of h.aving seen some in the Toconce ravine 
(3,300 meters). 



42 Postilla Yah- Piahudii Mitscnn No. ^\) 

Sic alls iiropi/gialis iirop/jgialis (Lafresnaye and (rOr})ifrny) 

I only observed two flocks of this "chirigue," l)otli very 
numerous. One of them was at the Ojos del Rio San Pedro 
(*},<S()() meters) and the other at the Vegas dc Inacaliri, a 
place close to 4-, ()()() meters. 



LiTERATrRE CiTED 

Bclin, F. and Millie G. 1959. Beitrag ziir Kcnntnis ch-s Riissclhliisshuhns 
{I'lilifd ctiniHtu Bonaparte). Jour. f. Orn. 100: 119-1;}1. 

Jolinson, A. W., Behn, F., and Millie. W. R. lOoS. The South American 
Hamingos. Condor 60: 2S9-299. 

Koford, C. B. 1957. 'V\\v vieuna and tlic ])iina. Keol. Monoir. 27: lo:5-219. 
Ripley, S. D. 1957a. Notes on the horned eoot, FuHr(( cornuhi Bonajiarte. 
Postilla no. 30: 1-8. 

Riphn', S. D. 19571). Additional notes on the horned eoot. Postilla no. 
32: 1-2. 



June 23, 19(31 Aiitoiii^a.sta Ranges of Chile and Jioli\ ia -43 

II 

DIATOMS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) FROM THE 

ALIMENTARY TRACT OF PHOEXICOPARRUS 

J A MESI ( SCLATER ) * 

Ruth Patrick 

AcAi)i:3iv (II- Natural Scikxcks, Piiir.Ai)i:i.i'niA, Pa. 



During December, 1957, Phoenicoiiarrus jamesi (Sclater) 
was collected by Senor Luis Tena from Laguna Colorado Puna 
de Atacama, Bolivia, at an elevation of 4-, 4-00 meters. Walcott 
(1925) describes this lake as strongly alkaline with springs 
at the north end. On the shores were salt de])osits consisting 
of sodium and potassium carbonate, sodium chloride, and 
borax. In July, 1957, Senor Luis Pena collected this s])ecies 
in Salt Lake, Atacama, Chile and in Lagunas dc Carvajal 
(salt), Atacama, Chile. Roth collections were taken at an 
elevation of 2,4-00 meters. 

An analysis of the contents of the alimentary tracts of these 
birds showed that they were mainly diatoms. The most common 
species were Navicula carvajaUana sp. nov., Aiiiphord atdca- 
mana sp. nov., NavicvJa Iiiisii sj). nov., and Xitrjscliiti (ivccdcns 
var. chilcnsis var. nov. 

These findings confirm the jjredictioii of Jenkins (1957), 
based upon the type of filters of Phoenicoparrus jamesi, that 
this bird would feed on algae or diatoms. It is interesting to 
note that the more common diatoms in the alimentary tract 
have a similar size range. 

At all three locations the commoner diatoms were the same. 
This is probably due to the fact that the areas in the lake 
which were favorable feeding grounds for these l)irds suj)])lied 
ecologically similar habitats for diatoms. Also, since these 
stronglv alkaline salt-water lakes represent a very specialized 

* The author wishes to ex])ress her a))]ireciation to an anonymous donor 
who heljied to make this ])ublication jiossible. She also wishes to thank 
Miss Helen Wu who made the drawings. 



■i-i I'ostilla Vtilc I'ldhod/j M/i.si/iin No. 49 

habitat tor diatoins, the nuinbcrs of kinds of species wliieli 
can ^Tow under tliese coiuhtions ai'e rehitivelv hniited, and 
therefore the diatom floras of these hd\es would be more similar 
than is generally the case in the more usual fresh or brackish 
water lakes. The two lakes in Chile are (juite close tog-ether, 
but it is unlikely that the birds captured in Bolivia had })re- 
viously fed in the Ciiilean lakes. 

The fact that tlaminp'os may feed on altiae has been re- 
jiorted by various workers. Ridley et al. (1955) and fJenkins 
(1957) state tliat in Kast African Lakes, Phoenicuitaias minor 
(Geoffroy) feeds almost exclusively on blue-green algae and 
on small diatoms. Usvially diatoms are mixed with the blue- 
green algae and sometimes diatoms without the blue-green 
algae seem to be the main source of food. 

According to a letter written by Dr. Robert P. Allen to 
Mr. Ritlley (Jenkins, 1957), Fhocnicoptcnis ruber Triune in 
tlie Baiiamas feeds on mud rich in bacteria, blue-green algae 
and, to a lesser extent, diatoms. 

A systematic list of the species identified in this study is 
given below. The slides on which these identifications are based 
are in the diatom herbarium of tlic Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences of I'hiladelphia. The ty})e specimens are ringed on 
the slides. 

Suborder MOXORAPHIDIXEAK 

Family Achxaxthaceae 
Genus Aclinanthes Bory 

AcJiiKuiiJus hrcvipcs var. iiitcniicd'Kt (Kiit/.) CM. 

AclntdiitJics hrcv'ipcs var. iiifcniicdid (Kiit/.) CI., K. Sveiiska 

Vet.-Akad. Handl., ser. 2, .J7 (.'}): 19;J, 1895. 

DisTiniirnox : Chile, Atacama, Salt I^ake, alt. 4,400 m, coll. 
T,uis Pena, .July, 1957 (A-G.C. 2()098). 

Arhftanthcs Junich'ittiKt var. rosfrtita Schult/ 

AvIuKiitthcs li(i/ifl,i(iN(i var. rostnita Schultz, Bot. Ai'ch., /•>': 

191, fig. :J9, 1920. 

Disrinmriox : Chile, Atacama, Salt Lake, alt. 4.400 m. coll. 
Luis Pena, July, 1957 (A-G.C. 2()09.Sa ) ; Lagunas de Carva- 
jal, alt. 2.400 m. coll. Luis Pena, July. 1957. ( A-G.C. 20100). 



June 23, 19()1 Aiitofanasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 45 

Family X-wutlaceae 
Genus Xavicula Borv 

Navicula atacaniauc! sp. nov. PI. 1, Fig. 10 

Valva lineari-lanceolata ai)icibus acutis apiculatis leniter. 
Area axiali angusta. Area media rectangularis latus distendens 
ad margines valvae. Striis lineatis, parallelis in media parte 
valvae et convenientibus ad apices. Striis, 10-11 in 10/x; longi- 
tudo, l<9-50jLi; latitude), ()-T;«. 

A alve linear-lanceolate with acute, slightly apiculate ends. 
Axial area narrow. Central area a broad rectangle extending 
to the margins of the valve. Striae lineate, parallel in the 
center of the valve and slightly convergent toward the apices. 
Striae, 10-11 in 10/^; length, 49-5(V; breadth, 0-7^- 

This species is similar in sha})e, striae structui-e and angle, 
and narrowness of axial area to Xaviciihi direct d (\V. Sm. ) 
CI. It difit'ers in the presence of a broad rectangular central 
area and in its smaller size. 

Type locality : Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4-, 400 ni, coll. Luis Pena, December, 1957. 

Specimen illustrated : A-G.C. 26098a, Holotype. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 

Naviciila carvajaliana 

var. carvajaliana s]). nov. PI. 1, Figs. 1, 2, 3 

Valva lineari ad linearcm-lanceolatam. Apicibus nuitabilibus 
in forma rotundis, cuneatis aut rostratis. Pseudosepta brevi 
distende supra apices. Area axiali distincta semper ferme minus 
(juam uno quadrante latitudinis valvae. Area media mutabili, 
transversa forinante fasciam saltem in uno latere valvae, altero 
latere saepe cum uno aut duobus striis positis late. Striis 
radiatis leniter in media parte valvae, parallelis aut conventis 
leniter ad apices. Angulo striarum inique facto valve concava 
leniter ad aream axialem. In formis angustis striis paene pa- 
rallelis et valva non concava ad aream axialem. Striis fractis 
inaequaliter, punctis obscurissimis. si adsunt. Striis, 14- in 10(W- 
in media parte valvae ad 18 in 10/j^ ad apices valvae; longitudo, 
36-70iu; latitudo, 8-15^t. 



•i() Postilla Ydlc I'cdixxl// Miisiiini No. 49 

\'alve linear to linear-lanceolate. A})ices variable in shape, 
rounded, wedge-sliapcd or rostrate. A short ])seudoseptuni ex- 
tendin<4' over each of the apices. Axial area distinct, usuallv 
less than one-fourth tlie width of the valve. Central area vari- 
able, transverse, forniin^- a fascia at least on one side of the 
vahe, the other side often with one or two widelv placed striae. 
Striae slit^htly radiate in center of valve, parallel or sli^>htly 
convergent at the apices. Angle of striae partially caused by 
the valve being slightly concave toward the axial area. In nar- 
row forms the striae almost parallel and valve not concave 
toward axial area. Striae irregularly broken. Functa if present 
veiy indistinct. Striae, 14 in 10/^ in center of valve to 18 in 10/* 
at ends of valve; length, 3()-T()/a ; breadth, 8-15/^. 

This taxon is highly variable as to the shape of the valve, 
and one would recognize some of the variations as sej^arate 
subspecies or varieties if they did not intergrade into each 
other. On ])late 1, figs. 1, 2, .'3 are illustrations showing some 
of the extremes of variation of these intergrading po})ulations. 
Some specimens have been found, that are not illustrated, in 
which the apices of the valve are not di-awn out, but the valve 
sim])ly narrows to a rounded end. 

This species is a member of that group of taxa which are 
intermediate between Staiiruneis and Navicnla, that is, it seems 
to be closely related to S. fhcniiicohi (Peters.) Tund ( \ew 
Phytol., .^.'^(l) : {)1, figs. 3 K-AA, 194()) and Xaxuciila Incom- 
posita Hagclstchi (Xew York Acad. Sci.. Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
& Virgin Isl., <S'(:}) : 28{), pi. 7, fig. 2, 1<);JJ)). This taxon resem- 
bles SfoKroneis in that the s])ecimens have a transverse hyaline 
area which in gii'dle view seems to be slightly thickened, par- 
ticularlv at the central nodule of the valve. However, it does 
not have striae which are radiate at the ends of the valve and 
resolvable into puncta. which characters are typically asso- 
ciated with species belonging to the gi'uus Sta/iroiiri.s. This 
species has a ])scudoseptuni at the ends of the valve which is 
found in species belonging to the genera Sfdnroucis and Xavi- 
cida. Since I cannot be sure that the central area is a true 
stauros and since the striae, although breaking into irregular 
])ieces, do not I'csolve into ])uncta and are slightly convergent 
at the ends, it seems wiser to place this species in the genus 
Nav'uiihi. 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 47 

This taxon is also related to Navicula allorgei Manguin 
(Algvies Guadeloupe, p. 58, pi. 3, fig. 51, 1952) but differs in 
the angle of the striae and the usual presence of a distinct 
fascia at least on one side of the valve. It is also larger and 
the shape is more variable. 

Type locality: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4<,4<00 ni, coll. I.uis Pefla, December, 1957. 

Specimen illt^strated: A-G.C. 26098a, Holotype, fig. 1; 
Cotypes, figs. 2, 3. 

Distribution: In addition to the type locality: Chile, Ata- 
cama, Carvajal Lake, alt. 2,400 m, coll, Luis Pena. July, 1957 
(A-G.C. 26100) ; Atacama, Salt Lake, alt. 2,400 m, coll. Luis 
Pena, July, 1957 (A-G.C. 26099a, b). 

Navicula carvajaliaiia var. attenuata var. nov. PI. 1, Fig. 12 

Valva lineari lanceolata, apicibus rotundis atteiuiatis. Pseu- 
doseptis praescntibus. Area axiali angusta, distincta. Area 
media fascia transversa interdum stria praesenti in ea in uno 
latere valvae. Striis radiatis leniter in media parte valvae, plus 
aut minus convenientibus ad apices, Striis intermissis inaequa- 
liter sed non punctatis. Striis, 13 in 10/u, in media parte valvae 
usque 16 in lO/u. ad apices; longitudo, 44-60^; latitudo, 6-11^. 

Valve linear-lanceolate with attenuated, rounded apices. 
Pseudosepta present. Axial area narrow, distinct. Central area 
a transverse fascia sometimes with a stria present in it on one 
side of the valve. Striae slightly radiate in the center of the 
valve, more or less convergent at the ends. Striae irregularly 
interrupted but not punctate. Striae, 13 in 10/a in middle part 
of valve to 16 in 10/>i at apices; length, 44-60/^; breadth, 6-11/^. 

This taxon is distinguished from the nominate variety by 
the narrow attenuated ends of the valve. No intergrades were 
found between this form and the other forms which are highly 
variable. 

Type locality: Chile, Atacama, Salt Lake, alt. 2,400 m, 
coll. Luis Peiia, July, 1957. 

Specimen illustrated : A-G.C. 26099a, Holotype. 

Distribution : Known only from the type locality. 



48 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 49 

Navicula luisii sj). iiov. Tl. 1, Fig. 4 

Valva lineai'i lanceolata, apicibus lotuiulis acutis. Pseudo- 
septo ad apices. Area axiali distincta circa uiiuin (juadrantem 
latitudinis valvae. Area media fascia transversa. Striis attin- 
gentibus aream crassioribus quam alterae striae. Striis radiatis 
leniter per magnam partem valvae, parallelis ad apices. Striis, 
14-17 in 10m; longitude, 6.'3-89m ; latitude), 9-14/^. 

Valve linear-lanceolate with acute, rounded ends. Pseudo- 
septum ])resent at apices. Axial area distinct, about one-fourth 
the width of the valve. Central area a transverse fascia. Striae 
bordering the central area a little thicker than the other striae. 
Striae slightly radiate throughout most of the valve, parallel 
at the apices. Striae, 14-17 in 10/^; length, ()3-89/x ; breadth, 
9-14/x. 

This species is distinguished from Navieuht v(trvaj(iliana 
bv the striae bordering the fascia being distinctly thicker 
than the other striae and by its larger size. It is near ^V. in- 
composita Hagelstein (Xew York Acad. Sci., Sci. Surv. Porto 
Rico and Virgin Isl., ,S'(8) : 386, ])1. 7, fig. 2, 1939) but differs 
in the regularity of the striae whicji are a little coarser than 
in N. incomposita. The shape of the valve is also different 
and the axial area is broader. 

This species is named for Senor Luis ]*ena who collected the 
ilamingos which were examined for this study. 

Type locality: Chile, Atacama, Salt I>ake, alt. 2,400 m, 
coll. lAiis Pena, July, 1957. 

Specimen illi'strateu : A-G.C. 2()()99a, Holotype. 

Distribution: Known only from the type locality. 

Navicula oppug?iafa Hust. 

Xax'icula oppugnafa ITust., Arch. Hydrobiol., ^^^(4): 925. ])1. 
42, fig. 1, 1945. 

Our specimens differ from those illustrated ])y Hustedt in 
that the central area is a little larger and the sti'iae in the 
middle of the valve are slightly curved. The ccnti-al area of 
these specimens is similar to those illusti-ated by Foged (Folia 
Limnol. Scandinavica, no. (5, pi. 2, figs. 12-14, 1954). 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 49 

This species was fairly common in Laguna Colorado. 

DisTRiBiTiox : Bolivia, Tuna de Atacama, I^aguna Colorado, 
alt. 4,400 m, coll. Luis Pena, December, 1957 (A-G.C. 26098a). 



Navicula pseudosepta sp. nov. PI. 1, Fig. 5 

Valva lanceolata, apicibus rostratis ad rostratis-capitatis. 
Pseudoseptis praesentibus. Area axiali angusta, distincta. Area 
media non dissimili areae axiali. Striis radiatis in media parte 
valvae et parallelis ad convenientibus leniter ad apices. Inter- 
dum striis in uno latere nodulis mediae crassioribus quam in 
latere altero. Striis non decernunt in puncta. Striis, 13-15 in 
lOfj. ad median: partem valvae usque 18 in 10/j. ad apices; 
longitudo, 51-68/^; latitudo, 11-13/^. 

Valve lanceolate with rostrate to rostrate-capitate ends. 
Pseudosepta present. Axial area narrow, distinct. Central area 
not differentiated from axial area. Striae radiate in the center 
of the valve and parallel to slightly convergent at the apices. 
Sometimes striae of one side of the central nodule coarser 
than on the other side. Striae do not resolve into puncta. 
Striae, 13-15 in Wfi at center of valve to 18 in lO^i at apices; 
length, 51-68fc; breadth, 11-13/x. 

This species is most closely related to X. carvajaliana which 
is described in this paper. It differs in the lack of a central 
area which is a fascia on one or both sides of the valve. Also, 
the striae are not irregularly broken. It resembles in shajje of 
valve and structure of axial and central areas N. cuspidafa 
var. amhigua (Ehr.) CI. It differs in the formation of the 
striae which do not resolve into puncta forming longitudinal 
lines. Nor are pscudose])ta present in A^. cuspidafa var. amhi- 
gua (Ehr.) CI. 

Type locality: Chile, Atacama, Lagunas de Carvajal, alt. 
2.400 m, coll. Luis Pena, July, 1957. 



Specimen illt^strated: A-G.C. 26100a, Holotype. 
DisTRiBi'Tiox : Known only from the type locality. 



50 Postilla Yale Peahoily Museum No. 49 

Navicula salinicola var. boliviaiia vai". nov. PI. 1, Fitr. 11 

Valva lineari attenuata ad apices acutos. Area axiali an- 
gusta, distincta. Fissuris tcrminalibus distinctis. Area media 
vix dissiniili areae axiali. Striis lincatis ])arallelis in media 
parte valvae et conventis leniter ad apices. Striis, 10-12 in 
10/a; longitudo, 10-80/^.; latitudo, 4<-6yu.. 

Valve linear, narrowed toward the acute apices. Axial 
area narrow, distinct. Terminal fissures distinct. Central area 
scarcely differentiated from axial area. Striae lineate, parallel 
in center of valve and slightly convergent at the apices. Striae, 
10-12 in 10/x; length, 16-30^; breadth, 4.-6/X. 

This taxon is very similar to the nominate variety A"^. soUni- 
cola Hust. (Abhandl. Naturwiss. Verein zu Bremen, ri/:638, 
figs. 61-69, 1939) in si/e, shape, structure of axial and central 
areas, and type and angle of striature. It differs in the number 
of striae, which are mucli coarser in this taxon. 

Type locality: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 m, coll. Iaus Peiia, December, 195T. 

Specimen illustrated: A-G.C. 26098a, Holotype. 

Distriuftion: Known only from the type locality. 

Family Cymbellaceae 
Genus Am})hora Ehr. emend. Kiitz 

Amphora atacaniana sj). nov. PI. 1, Fig. 8 

Margine dorso valvae convexo valide, margine ventrali con- 
cavo leniter. Raphe })ropiore ad marginem dorsum (juam ad 
marginem ventralem. Area axiali angusta, distincta. Area 
n'edia ])ai-\a. Striis punctatis subtilissinic. Striis, 26-28 in 10/^; 
longitudo, 31-52/a; latitudo, 6-9/ti. 

Dorsal mai'gin of valve strongly convex, ventral margin 
slightly concave. Raphe nearer to dorsal margin than to ven- 
tral margin. Axial area narrow, distinct. Central area small. 
Striae very finely })unctatc. Striae, 2(5-28 in 10/'; length, 
31-r)2/x; breadth, 6-9^. 

The valves of the frustules are very convex and therefore 
the shape varies greatly according to the angle at which they 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 51 

lie on the slide. In some specimens the raphe appears very 
close to the dorsal margin. Sometimes, as in the illustration, 
a hyaline area is present near the ventral margin. One rarely 
finds this diatom in girdle view, but in such specimens as I 
have seen the intercalary zone is complex. 

This species is distinguished by the convexity of the valve, 
the raphe which is fairly near the dorsal margin, and the very 
fine striae. The portion of the valve ventral to the raphe lies 
in a distinctly different plane from the portion dorsal to 
the raphe. 

Type locality: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 m, coll. Iaus Pena, December, 1957. 

Specimen illustrated: A-G.C. 2')098a, Holotyi)e. 

Distribution: In addition to the type locality: Chile, Ata- 
cama, Salt I^ake, alt. 2,4<00 m, coll. Luis Pena, July, 1957 
(A-G.C. 26099a) ; Lagunas de Carvajal, alt. 2,400 m, coll. 
Luis Pena, July, 1957 (A-G.C. 26100). 

Amphora boliviana sp. nov. PI. 1. Fig. 9 

Margine dorso valvae convexo valide, margine ventrali con- 
cavo leniter. Area axiali angusta. Area media lanceolata in 
forma in latere ventrali raphis, obscuro in latere dorso. Striis 
punctatis crasse in latere dorso raphis, punctatis obscure in 
latere ventrali. Striis 18 in 10/x in latere dorso raphis praeter 
ad apices ubi sint 20 in 10/^. Striis in margine ventrali 22-23 
in 10/A, punctatis obscure; longitudo, 57-58/x; latitudo, 7-8/x. 

Dorsal margin of valve strongly convex, ventral margin 
slightly concave. Axial area narrow. Central area lanceolate 
in shape on ventral side of raphe, indistinct on dorsal side. 
Striae coarsely punctate on dorsal side of ra])he, indistinctly 
punctate on ventral side. Striae 18 in lO/u on dorsal side of 
raphe except at the apices where they may be 20 in lO^-i. Striae 
on ventral margin 22-23 in 10/^, indistinctly punctate; length, 
57-58/x; breadth, 7-8|it. 

This species is characterized by the striae which are coarse 
and distinctly punctate on the dorsal side and fine and in- 
distinctly punctate on the ventral side. The central area is 



52 Postilla Yale Peabody Muse/uti No. -iO 

absent on the dorsal side of the valve ami lanceolate in .sha})e 
on the ventral side. This species does not seem to be vcrv 
closely related to any species which I have seen. It belongs in 
the general group of s])ecies comprising A. coffeacformis Ag. 
and A. acutiiiscula Kiit/. 

Type locality: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 m, coll. Luis Pefia, December, 1957. 

Specimen illi'strateu : A-G.C. 26098a, Hol()tvi)e. 

Distribution: Known only from the ty])c locality. 



Amphora carvajaliana s}). nov. PI. 1, Fig. T 

V'alva marginibus ventralibus concavis et margine dorso con- 
vexo valide. Apicibus valvae rostratis-capitatis. Ra})he ])rope 
marginem ventralem valvae. Area axiali distincta, nulla area 
media in latere dorso valvae. Striis absentibus in latere ventrali 
valvae; in latere dorso punctatis crasse, radiatis leniter. Striis, 
18 in 10^1 ; longitudo, 10-28/".; latitudo, 4-5/^. 

Valve with ventral margin concave and dorsal margin 
stronglv convex. Apices of valve rostrate-capitate. Raphe 
near ventral margin of valve. Axial area distinct, no central 
area on dorsal side of valve. Striae absent on ventral side of 
valve; on dorsal side coarsely punctate, slightly radiate. Striae, 
18 in lO/u; length, 10-28/x; breadth, 4-5/x. 

This species is cliaracterized by the lack of striae on the 
ventral margin of the valve and tlie coarsely punctate striae on 
the dorsal side of the valve. This species, in si/e and sha])^', 
resembles A. banijaiaiui Greguss and Weber ':' (IJotanikai 
Kozlemenyek, -^-^ : 287, pi. .'J, fig. 55, 19:38) but differs in that 
it does not have a broadening of the axial area into a recog- 
nizable central area on the dorsal side of the valve, and the 
striae are distinctly and coarsely i)unctate. It also resembles 
A. titryhia Greg. (Trans. Koy. Soc. Edinb., ^/(4) : 510, pi. 12, 
fig. 63, 1857) but differs in the striae^ which are coarsely 
punctate and finer. 

Tyi'k LocAi.rrv: Chile, Atacama, Lagunas dc Carvajal, alt. 
2,400 111, coll. Luis Pena, Julv, 1957. 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Chile and Bolivia 53 

Specimen iei.t^stkated : A-G.C. 2()l()()a, Holot y})e. 

Distribution: In addition to the type locality: Chile, Ata- 
cama. Salt Lake, alt. 2,4>()() ni, coll. Luis Tena, July, 1957 
(A-G.C. 2C099a). 



Family Nitzschiaceae 
Genus Nitzschia Hass 

Nitzschia acoedens var. ehileiisis var. nov. PI. 1, Fig. 6 

\'alve linear with rounded ends. Keel puncta short, distinct, 
distinctis, 12-13 in 10/'; striis distinctis, non decretis facile in 
puncta, 26-28 in 10/^; longitudo, 56-90/^; latitudo, 5-6/x. 

Valve linear with rounded end. Keel puncta short, distinct, 
12-13 in 10;Lt. Striae distinct, not easily resolved into puncta, 
26-28 in 10/u; length, 56-9(V; hreadth, 5-6/x. 

This variety differs from the nominate variety (Hust., Abh. 
Naturw. Ver. Bremen, Ji : 663, fig. 115, 1939) in the more 
rounded apices, size of the valve, and the fine keel puncta. 

Type locaijty : Chile, Atacama, Salt Lake, alt. 2,4*00 m, 
coll. Luis Pena, July, 1957. 

Specimen illustrated : A-G.C. 26099a, Holotype. 

Distribution: In addition to the ty})e locality: Chile, Ata- 
cama, Lagunas de Carvajal, alt. 2,400 m, coll. Luis Pena, 
July, 1957 (A-G.C. 26100). 



Nitzschia amphibia Grun. 

Nitzschia amphibia Grun., Verh. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 1^: 574, 
1)1. 18, figs. 23 a-c, 1862. 
This species was common in the collection. 

Distribution: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4<,1<00 m, coll. Luis Peila, December, 1957 (A-G.C. 
26098a). 



54 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 49 

Nitzschia epithemoides Gruii. in CI. and Grun. 

Nitzschia epithemoides Grun. in CI. and Grun., K. Svenska 
Vet.-Akad. Handl., ser. 2, 77(2): 82, 1880. 

This species was fairly common in the collections. It is a 
brackish to marine species. 

Distribution : Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 m, coll. Luis Peiia, December, 19.57 (A-G.C. 
26098a). Chile, Atacama, Salt Lake, alt, 2,400 m, coll. Luis 
Pena, July, 1957 (A-G.C. 26099a); Lacunas de Carvajal, 
alt. 2,400 m, coll. Luis Pena, July, 1957 (A-G.C. 25100). 



Nitzsehia hungarica Grun. 

Nitzschia hungarica Grun., Verb. Zool.-Bot. Ges. Wien, 12: 
568, pi. 18, figs. 31 a-b, 1862. 

This is a brackish to fresh-water species. It was fairly fre- 
quent in the one collection. 

Distribution: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, Laguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 HI, coll. Luis Peiia, December, 1957 (A-G.C. 
26098a). 



Nitzschia palea (Kiitz.) W. Sm. 

Nitzschia palca (Kiitz.) \V. Sm., Syn. British Diat., .^- 89, 
1856. 

This species can stand a great variety of water conditions 
and often develops in large masses in polluted water. 

Distribution: Bolivia, Puna de Atacama, I^aguna Colo- 
rado, alt. 4,400 HI, coll. Luis Pena, December, 1957 (A-G.C. 
26098a). 



June 23, 1961 Antofagasta Ranges of Cliile and Bolivia 55 

LlTERATlRE CiTED 

Jenkins, P. M. 1957. The filter-feeding and food of flamingoes ( Phoenl- 
copteri). Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. London, Ser. B., (no. 674) 240: 
401-493. 

Ridley, M. W., B. L. Moss, and R. C. Lord Percy. 1955. The food of 
flamingoes in Kenya Colony. Jour. East Africa Nat. Hist. Soc, 22, 
no. 5 (97): 147-159. 

Walcott, F. C. 1925. An exjjedition to the Laguna Colorado, Southern 
Bolivia. Geogr. Rev., 15: 345-3(J(i. 



56 



Po.stilla Yale Pcahodij Muscimi 



No. 49 



PLATE 1 



Fig. 1, 2, 6 XnvicuUt nirr(tj((li(iii(( si). iu>v. 

Fig. 4 y<ii'irul(( liii.'<ii sp. iiov. 

Fig. 5 y((riciil<( iinciiddscptit s]). nov. 

Fig. 6 \it^i<rhi(i (icccdtiDi var. cliilcii.'<i,i \ar. nov. 

Fig. 7 Jiniihont (■(tn'(ij(ili<(ii(i sp. iion'. 

Fig. 8 ^liiiphoni (it(ic(tiiH(ii>i sp. nov. 

Fig. 9 ^hiiphnr(( holivUiiKi sj). now 

Fig. 10 Xin'iculd ((/((cdiiKdiK sp. nov. 

Fig. 11 Novicidd sdliniroht var. fxilh'iaiHi \ar. nov. 

Fig. 12 NavictilK c(irvaj<(li<nia var. nttcinidta var. nov. 



o 




o 



o 

■fc 




o 



o 




o 




o 
■fc 




o 




o 



o 



8 



? - Np\- f 




//-^a^tLiia 



1 FEB "5 '933' 



YALE PEABODY MUSEUM' 

OF Natural History 



Number 50 June 26, 1961 New Haven, Conn. 



THE AVIFAUNA OF MOUNT KATANGLAD 

S. Dillon Ripley 

AND 

D. S. Rabor 

In April -May and again in the last week of December 
1960, the Peabody Museum of Yale and Silliman University 
jointly sponsored a small trip by Professor Rabor's assistant, 
Mr. R. B. Gonzales, and a group of Silliman University 
students to Mount Katanglad, Bukidnon Province, central 
Mindanao Island. This area had been visited once before by 
ornithologists of the Danish Philippine Expedition (Salo- 
monsen, 1953). Mount Katanglad is most interesting as it 
reaches an altitude of over 7,800 feet above sea level and lies 
in a range of hills in central Mindanao, somewhat isolated 
from the high massif of Malindang and Dapiak to the west 
in the eastern edge of the Zamboanga Peninsula. Likewise, it 
is separated from the Mount Apo hills of the southeast by the 
drainage valley of the Mindanao River and from the Diuatan 
Mountains of the northeast by the similar but narrower valley 
of the Kalgasan River. 

Of the endemic subspecies of montane birds of Mindanao 
found on Mount Katanglad, four prove to belong to more 
western Malindang forms and six to southeastern Mount Apo 
or Mount McKinley forms. Twelve others are shared in com- 
mon with both areas of mountains, while five forms are found 
to be endemic to this central mountain massif alone. 



2 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 50 

The discovei'v of two new species, a finch and a fire-tail 
finch, illustrated herein by Robert Verity Clem, is particularly 
noteworthy. 



Acciplter trhnrgatus extimus Mayr 

A pair of crested goshawks from Mount Katanglad have 
prompted us to re-examine the Mindanao population. We 
have, therefore, borrowed material kindly loaned by Dr. A. L. 
Rand of the Chicago Natural History Museum and Mr. R. M. 
de Schauensee of the Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sci- 
ences. Mayr (1949) reviewed the races of this species and 
pointed out the differences between the male and female 
plumages in the adult. 

Adult females of extimus are very dark tawny rufous on 
the breast with a variable amount of rufous sometimes form- 
ing an almost solid rufous breast-shield as in the male. The 
flanks are variably barred more lightly or more heavily. When 
heavily barred they are very close to trivirgatus and in fact 
would be very difficult to separate except for size, being much 
smaller. When the underparts are lightly barred, the appear- 
ance is close to the continental forms except again for size. 
The Palawan race palaicanus Mayr is far more distinct from 
its neighbors, the female's pattern of droplets of blackish 
rufous on the breast being close only to layardi of Ceylon. 

Males of extimus are far more distinct interalia than 
females, their pale light-rufous underparts setting them apart 
from palawanus or trivirgatus with minor variation. The 
single male from Katanglad is astonishingly dark, approaching 
javanicus. Two Negros males are very light in color with some- 
what reduced barring, although they can be matched by a 
Davao male. A Negros immature tends to be very darkly 
spotted on the underparts. Altogether, this population shows 
considerable variation in color which, were it not for its small 
size, would make it difficult to identify with certainty. 

Writing of Ceylon and South India birds, Mayr (torn, 
cit.: 8) questions Whistler's diagnosis of the difference between 
females from the two areas. Comparing a female of layardi 



June 26, 1961 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 3 

from C'eylon with one of peninsulae from Kerala, the differences 
cited by Whistler are shown to be correct. The Ceylon female 
has smaller and darker markmgs on the lowerparts, exactly 
as pointed out by Whistler. 

Trichoglossns johnstoniae johnstoniae Hartert 

A large series from Mount Katanglad belongs to the Mount 
Apo form rather than pistra Rand and Rabor from Mount 
Malindang. 

Prioniturus montanus waterstradti Rothschild 

Six specimens from Mount Katanglad seem as bright about 
the head as waterstradti from Mount McKinley and Apo and 
also similar to birds from Mount Malindang which have been 
kept separate as malindang ensis Mearns by Rand and Rabor 
(1960). We feel that these Katanglad birds span the slight 
differences enumerated by Rand and Rabor and that Salo- 
monsen was right in combining the Mindanao populations. 

CoUocalia esculent a hagoho Hachisuka 
A male was taken May 1 above 4,200 feet. 

Cuculus saturatus horsfieldi Moore 

A female from Katanglad enlarges our collection of this 

migrant cuckoo from the Philippines to include Luzon, Min- 

doro, Samar, and Mindanao. Found from sea level to 5,000 

feet; all specimens taken in April and early May. Weight: 

$ $ 92.5, 106.5 g, 2 2 80, 80 g. 

Otus hakkamoena everetti (Tweeddale) 

A pair taken on Mount Katanglad at 4,200 feet are in the 
rufous phase of this small owl as listed by Delacour and Mayr 
(1946), agreeing well in size and color with two additional 
specimens from Davao in the Hachisuka collection. A male 
from Bohol, boholensis auctorum, agrees in size with the 
Mindanao birds but is in the gray phase. The race nigrorum 



4 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 50 

Rand (1950) is a striking one. An adult male in the Yale 
collection from Cuernos de Negros has a wing measurement 
of 148 mm; tail, 75; culmen, 20. 

Mimizuku gurneyi (Tweeddale) 

A female taken on Mount Katanglad at 4,300 feet repre- 
sents perhaps the sixth known specimen of this rare species. 
It measures: wing, 274; tail, 139; culmen (from cere), 26. 
The description of this genus in Hachisuka (1934) empha- 
sizes the cere which is indeed tumid and in which the external 
nares are large and prominent. The bill is heavy, the maxillary 
tomia are buttressed with a cutting tooth-like point before 
the downward sweep begins towards the tip, a feature totally 
unlike the smooth bills of Otus species. The upper surface has 
a softly mottled appearance, not heavily vermiculate as in 
Otus, the scapulars ornamented with patches of whitish buff, 
tipped black, the patches on both inner and outer webs. The 
back is heavily streaked with black as in the head, the nuchal 
collar is very broad, the feathers only tipped with black, 
and the primaries and secondaries have a much reduced, barred 
pattern. 

Until more is known of the habits and behavior of this rare 
owl, we would hope that its distinct appearance and huge size 
would entitle it to remain as a monotypic genus. 

Batrachostomus Septimus Septimus Tweeddale 

A Juvenal sexed as a female was collected May 6. Presum- 
ably just out of the nest, this bird has well-formed wings and 
tail feathers capable of flight, but the feathers about the head 
and face are still downy. Overall, the plumage can be charac- 
terized as Juvenal. Some downs, barb downs, carried on the 
ends of barbs of the juvenal feather tips, may be seen, especi- 
ally on the throat and undcrsurface. On the back this bird is 
indistinctly barred with wavy bars of blackish brown. Some 
feathers are much darker than others, perhaps indicating a 
replacement stage. On the undersurface the throat and breast 
are barred, the belly whitish, the lower tail coverts pale buff. 




above Serinus mindanensis 
below Erythrura coloria 



6 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 50 

Lanius vaUdirostris hachisuka Ripley 

Two females of this species have wing measurements of 86.5, 
90; culmen (from skull), 20, 20. In size, therefore, they agree 
with botli hachisuka Ripley from Mount Apo and quartus Rand 
and Rabor from Mount Malindang. The-ty})e and one other 
specimen of hachisuka measure: wing, 87.5, 87.5; culmen 
(from skull), 20, 19.5. (In the original description [194-9] 
I measured the culmen from the beginning of the feathers of 
the forehead.) The type and unique quartus (1958) measure: 
wing, 93.5 ; culmen, 22. 

Rand and Rabor separated quartus on size and color. The 
breast and abdomen are whiter, the under tail coverts white, 
and the flanks richer and deeper rufous. The Katanglad speci- 
mens are mixed in color. One resembles hachisuka in having 
a rich rufous wash on the underparts. The other has this con- 
fined to the flanks. Dr. Rand has kindly examined these and 
states (iji litt.) : "One specimen [pale-breasted with rufous 
flanks] is very similar to the type of quartus, differing only 
in the 2 mm shorter wing, the slightly more pale gray in the 
forehead (in quartus the forehead is almost like the back), 
and the faint rufous wash on the breast." 

These wholly unexpected specimens representing -iO^/c of the 
known specimens of Strong-billed Shrikes from Mindanao, 
occurring as they do on an isolated mountain in central 
Mindanao separating eastern Mount Apo from western Mount 
Malindang, are surprising in bridging exactly the essential 
color differences which allowed quartus to be described from 
the west and hachisuka from the east. It appears likely that 
additional Mindanao material would show that these shrikes 
are oversplit. 



Curacina lucyrcguri Mearns 

We have examined 39 specimens from Mount Katanglad and 
15 from Mount Malindang, and we find individual differences 
in the shade of the color of the flanks are great enough in each 
population to prevent assigning them to a geographical local- 



June 26, 1961 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 7 

ity. There is no appreciable difference in the color of the breast. 
In size we note the following: 

Mount Katanglad wing adult S $ 103-108 (104.6), 

$ $ 99-101< (100.8). 
Mount Malindang wing adult S $ 104^-109 (107.2), 
9 9 101, 103. 
These wing measurements imply an overlap of all but 1 
millimeter which seems far too small to be significant. Re-ex- 
amination of Salomonsen's description and comparison of 
these specimens forces us to the conclusion that peterseni 
Salomonsen (1953) should be regarded as a synonym of 
mcgregori. 




MINDANAO 
ISLAND 



8 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 50 

Pericrocotus flamnieus gonzalesi subs}).n. 

Type: i ad. (Y.P.M. No. 58896), collected May 10, 1960, 
by R. B. Gonzales on Mount Katanglad, Malaybalay, Bukid- 
non Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines. 

Diagnosis: From johnstoniae of Mount Apo, this form 
differs in the male by being more richly orange-yellow on 
undej'surface, wing edgings, and tail. Two females appear to 
bear this color difference out, although in one specimen the 
diff'erence is only readily observable in the color of the tail. 
Compared to novus of I^uzon, males are })aler, far less ver- 
milion, especially on the rump and tail. Similarly, gonzalesi 
is far less vermilion than is leijtensis. In general then, gonzalesi 
is a very well-marked intermediate, especially in the males, 
representing a discontinuous cline in a stage from the lemon- 
yellow or egg-yellow populations, johnstoniae and marchesae 
of Sulu, and the rich vermilion orange of novus and leytensis. 

Measuremexts: Wing, $ i 78, 83, 9 9 T8, 80; tail, $ $ 
76, 83, 9 80. 

Range: Mount Katanglad, central Mindanao from 4-, 000 
to 5,000 feet. 

Turdus poliocephalus katanglad Salomonsen 

Salomonsen's description (1953) brings out very well the 
striking characters of this well-marked subspecies. 

Zoothera andromedae Temminck 
Another record for Mindanao, taken in May and December. 

Ptilocicichla ?nindanensis mindanensis (Blasius) 

A single female of this little-known form was taken December 
26, between -1,500 and 5,200 feet. 

Macronus striatieeps mearnsi Deignan 

A small series of this species confirms the dark-rufous tone 
of the montane forms of striatieeps from Mindanao. It appears 
as if the Katanglad birds are even darker than those from 
Mount Apo and Mount Malindang. 



June 26, 1961 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 9 

Bradypteriis caudatns iinicolor (Hartert) 

Two females were taken on Mount Katanglad April 24- and 
May 9. They measure: wing, 57, 61; tail, 67, 77; culmen, 15, 
14;. 5. These two specimens are the first of this rare species 
received at Yale. The bird with smaller measurements is pre- 
sumably subadult. In any case, the throat is buffy with reduced 
white patch, no blackish spotting, and the gray of the breast 
is patchy. It compares favorably with the type of unicolor 
which is also in immature plumage according to Dr. Amadon 
(inlitt.) who has kindly compared our specimens in New York. 
The adult bird appears indistinguishable from malindangensis 
(Mearns) according to the plate in Hachisuka (1935). Under 
the circumstances, it seems wiser to combine the Mindanao 
populations under the oldest name unicolor for that island 
pending securing additional material from the Philippines. 

Megalurns palusfris forbesi Bangs 
Taken at 4,000 feet. 

Phylloscopus trivirgatus flavostriatus Salomonsen 

A series of this form exhibits the distinctive character cited 
by Salomonsen, darker, more olive crown, more buffy super- 
ciliary and pale, washed-out looking underparts. Collected 
from 5,800 to 7,400 feet above sea level. 



v 



Phylloscopus olivaceus olivaceus Mosele 
Apparently common from 4,200 to 5,500 feet. 

Phylloscopus borealis horealis (Blasius) 
Found from 4,200 to 5,200 feet. 

Orthotomus cucullatus heterolaemus (Mearns) 
Apparently common in the forest from 4,200 to 6,200 feet. 

Rhinomyias gularis goodfellowi Ogilvie-Grant 
Two males and a female of this little-known form were taken 
on Mount Katanglad in April at 6,200 feet. The males with 
wing measurements of 95, 96 are larger than the female (wing 



10 Po.stilla Yale Pcahody Museum No. 50 

93.5), but otherwise indistinguishable, being perhaps only a 
trace darker, more slaty on the back. 

Muscicapa hyperythra montigena (Mearns) 
Three males and five females belong to the rufous-tailed 
Mount Apo form of this thicket flycatcher. There appears to 
be no difference in size or color between these birds and the 
latter race. 

Muscicapa panayens'is nigrUoris (Hartert) 
Apparently common above 4,200 feet on Mount Katanglad. 

Muscicapa mugiiiiakl Temminck 

A female from Mount Katanglad taken December 22 repre- 
sents our second specimen of this migrant flycatcher from the 
Philippines, the first being a male from Cuernos de Negros, 
Xegros I., taken December 25, 1952, by Rabor. 

Rhipidura nigrocinnamoniea hutchinsoni Mearns 

This is a somewhat intermediate population, as might be 
expected, between hutchinsoni of northwest Mindanao, Mount 
Bliss, and Mount Malindang, and southeast Mindanao, nigro- 
cinnamomea from Mount Apo. In a series of 22 specimens, all 
have a more or less broad band of white across the forehead, 
although the makeup of the skins is often poor in this region. 
However, 2 of the 22 show traces of white on the upper breast. 
One of these has the white area as well-developed as typical 
nigrocinnamovwa . The other is paler only on the upper breast. 

Sitta frontalis apo Hachisuka 

A series of 25 specimens from Katanglad is nearer the south- 
eastern Mindanao apo, of which the type is in the Kipley 
collection at Yale. One Katanglad bird, a male, is as dark 
below and washed with lilac as Rand and Rabor's zamhoanga 
(1957). Three specimens of the latter from Mount Malindang 
show a considerable range of color from very dark washed 
with lilac below to closely similar to our Katanglad and Mount 
Apo birds. Evidently, this is a somewhat variable population. 



June 26, 19(51 Avifauna of Mount Katanxjlacl 11 



to' 



Rhahdornis inornatus zamhoanga Rand and Rabor 

The smaller creeper from Mount Katanglad appears to 
match closely zavihoanga from Mount Malindang, although 
here we lack the race alaris from Mount McKinley. 

Dicaeum anthonyi kampalUi Manuel and Gilliard 
As Salomonsen has pointed out (1960), the Katanglad 
population agrees with southeastern Mindanao kautpalili. Our 
■i specimens are smaller than those measured by Salomonsen 
and are, therefore, closer in size to the race named by Manuel 
and Gilliard. Measurements: wing, S 55, 57. 5 ; 9 56, 57. At 
present there appear to be 10 known specimens of this species. 
We are grateful to Dr. Gilliard for comparing our male with 
the American Museum specimen of kcnupal'di. 

Dicaeum ignipcctus apo Hartert 
Five males and two females of this rare form were collected 
at the 4,200 foot level. 

Nectarima jugularis jugularis (I>iniuieus) 
A pair were collected at 4,200 feet, and agree well with 
lowland specimens. 

Aethopyga primigena prim'igena (Hachisuka) 

A series of 33 specimens from Mount Katanglad agrees 
perfectly with the type and another male in the Ripley collec- 
tion at Yale from Mount Apo. These birds were found up to 
6,000 feet. An immature specimen taken A]jril 3 has a paler 
throat with more pronounced yellow on the longitudinal central 
streak and more noticeable yellow breast spot. The yellow 
color on the flanks and underparts is paler, also more citrine 
than in adult examples. 

Aethopyga boltoni maUndangensls Rand and Rabor 
These birds are closer to the west Mindanao race than to 
that of Mount Apo. They are somewhat darker below, the 
feathers of the breasts of males and females having pronounced 
greenish-olive centers, but above they are indistinguishable, 
sharing with malindang en sis the tendency to iridescence on 



12 



Postilla Ycde Peahody Museum 



No. 50 



the liead which is nearly absent in typical boltoni. It seems 
best, then, to kee}) this ])opulation combined with that of 
Malindang. 

Arachnothera clarac vi(dindangensis Rand and Rabor 

This newly described form (1957) proves to be represented 
on Mount Katanglad from whence Gonzales has sent one male 
taken March 20 at 4,200 feet m breeding condition, and a 
further 5 specimens in December. 

Zosferops montann montana Bonaparte 

Apparently very common from •i,000 to 6,200 feet. We can- 
not distinguish the slight differences between these birds and 
those of Mount Apo cited by Salomonsen (1953). 

Apoia goodfellowi goodfellorei (Hartert) 

This mountain whiteye belongs to the Mount Apo subspecies 
and was found from 4,200 to 7,400 feet. 

Hypocryptadius cinnmnomeus Hartert 

A series of 34 specimens from Mount Katanglad proves 
to be intermediate when compared with 7 specimens from 
Mount Apo (topotypical cinnamomeus) and 17 specimens from 
Mount Malindang {nudindangensis Rand and Rabor). The 
latter form was described (1957) as being "like cinnamomeus 
of Mount Apo but upperparts brighter cinnamon rufous ; 
breast tinged with brighter cinnamon ; abdomen and under tail 
coverts whiter (less grayish)." One individual from Mount 
Apo is as bright and whitish below as any specimen from 
Mount Malindang. Katanglad birds are in general rather 
somberly colored below, more grayish throughout, but on the 
upperparts they are indistinguishable from those of Mount 
Malindang. These differences may be described below : 





Upperparts 


Lowerparts 


Apo 


darker? 


darker (86%) 


Katanglad 


lighter 


darker 


Malindang 


lighter 


lighter 





June 26, 1961 Avifauna of Mount K,atanglad 13 

If, then, these cliaracters are to be taken at face vahie, the 
Katanglad birds should be combined with the MaHndang pop- 
ulation on the basis of the cok)r of tlie upperparts, and with 
the Apo population on the basis of the lowerparts. There is no 
difference in size. 

As the differences at best seem relatively slight, perhaps 
indicative only, faced with this soknnonian choice it seems 
wisest to us to include all the Mindanao birds under a single 
name and revert to a monotypic species. 

Birds were collected from 4,200 to 6,200 feet. 



Serinus niindanensis, sp.n. 

Type: 6 ad. (Y.F.M. No. 58898), collected Aprjl 19, 1960, 
by R. B. Gonzales at Malaybalay, Mount Katanglad, Bukidnon 
Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines. 

DiAGXosis: Upperparts blackish-brown, the margins of the 
feathers indistinctly and widely edged with greenish olive ; 
forecrown extending very nearly to the base of the bill, golden 
yellow, reaching below to the cheeks, throat, and breast ; no 
white ring around the eye ; greater median and lesser wing 
coverts, rump and upper tail coverts broadly edged with 
golden yellow ; underparts including under tail coverts dull 
white, the flank feathers narrowly streaked with a central 
streak of blackish brown; primaries and rectrices black, a 
faint trace of a yellowish edging on the outer margin of the 
median portion of the sixth and seventh primary. Bill appar- 
ently olive horn-colored, feet dark-brown. 

The bill of this species is remarkably stout and arched, far 
more so in proportion than in estherac. The maxillary tomia 
are angled and thickened to produce a dentate bulge midway 
from the angle to the tip. This gives a pronounced cutting 
mechanism to the mid-point of the comissural line. 

Measurements: AVing, 70; tail, 49; culmen, 9 mm. 

Range : Known only from Mount Katanglad, central Min- 
danao, southern Philippines. 



14 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum No. 50 

Remarks : Serinus vnndanensis, while obviously close to 
estherae, is best kept in a superspecies. The species estherae 
divides into 3 subspecies as follows : 

(a) vanderbUti (de Schaunensee), of which ripleyi (Chasen) 
is a synonym, Mount Loser area, Atjeh, north Sumatra, 7,000 
feet above sea level ; 

(b) estherae (Finsch), west Java on Mount Pangrango 
and Poentjakpas near Bogor 4,300 to 6,000 feet and perhaps 
Mount Telemojo south of Semarang in central Java; and 

(c) orientaUs (Chasen, 1940) east Java on Mount Ajekajek, 
Tengger mountains over 7,000 feet. 

All these races are very similar to each other, differing only 
in size, tone of color, and size of the white ring around the 
eve. These populations are roughly equivalent to each other; 
the sub-specific category is unequivocal. In contrast, viindan- 
ensis is distinctly different in pattern and color, not equivalent, 
and to merge it with the races of estherae would be decidedly 
ambiguous. 

This specimen has prompted us to look again at the relation- 
ships of these isolated montane relict forms. The most recent 
note on the taxonomy of estherae is that of Delacour (1946) 
who remarked simply : "The species estherae is certainly not 
referable to the genus Ser'nius, but to Carduelis, its nearest 
relative being C. {=^Hi/pacanthis) monguiUoti from the moun- 
tains of southern Annam." Hi/pacanthis (type, spino'ides) had 
been combined earlier with Carduelis by Mayr, among others, 
who remarked (1941): "As far as the genera Hypacanthis 
and Spinas are concerned, nobody has yet brought forward 
any valid reason why they should not be united with Carduelis, 
as Hartert proposed more than thirty years ago." 

Hartert (1910) indeed proposed that the Goldfinch be 
united with the Siskins, Linnet, Twite, and American Gold- 
finches on the basis of bill shape, color pattern, similarity of 
wing and tail, and stout feet. This suggestion was followed 
in the British Handbook (1938 et seq.) in which the genus 
Carduelis includes, besides the Goldfinch, the Siskin, the Twite, 
the Linnet, and the Redpoll. These latter birds, in which the 
wing pattern differs, browns and pinkish reds ])redominate in 



June 26, 1901 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 



15 



the plumage, and in whicli the pale-edged forked tail appears 
longer in proportion to the wing, have been kept separate in 
Acanthis more recently by Vaurie (1959). All of these species 
have a distinctive bill, almost conical in shape with a tendency 
to a thickened, swollen base. In contrast Serinus, the Serin, 
the Citril, and the Gold-Fronted Finch, S. pusillus, all have 
short, stubby, tliick bills, witli the culmen distinctly curved, 
not straight. 

After looking over these species of the Palearctic, it seems 
impossible to align the species from Java, Sumatra, and 
Mindanao with CardueUs monguiUoti or its relatives, ombigua 
and spino'ides. Some of the differences may be expressed below : 





Longest 
Primary 


Wing 
Patch 


Tail 
Patch 


Top of Head 


Bill 


CardueUs 
superspecies 


first; not 
always 


])resent on 
primaries 


l)resent 


dark, only 

yellow 

superciliary 


sharp, 
conical 


extherae, 
mindanensis 


second and 
third 


absent 


absent 


yellow 


swollen, 
bullfinch-like 



Once a careful examination of the specimens is made, the 
island birds with bills as tumid and curved as in the genus 
Carpodacus or Pyrrhida, with an entirely different wing pat- 
tern, with areas of yellow round the head and breast in a very 
different arrangement, with the yellow edgings of the rump 
feathers carried right out throughout the upper tail coverts, 
it can be seen that they are strikingly different. These species 
are as different from CardueUs in their own right as is 
Hhynchostruthus of the Somali arid zone of northeastern 
Africa and southwest Arabia. 

If these birds do not fit in CardueUs, could they then fit in 
some other Cardueline genus.'* The first description of estherae 
(Finsch, 1902) placed it in Crithagra. The type of this genus 
is sulphuratus of South Africa, and the genus is now considered 
synonymous with Serinus. In the arrangement of the pri- 
maries, second and third longest, they fit in better with Serinus 
than with CardueUs. Serinus, found in the Palearctic and in 
Africa, is characterized as having a very short, thick, tumid 
bill, culmen distinctly curved, tail deeply emarginated. The 



16 



Postilla Yale Peahody Museum 



No. 50 



wing is long, longer than the tail, the wing/tail index varying 
from 15-S2fc. 





Herlnua 


estherue, 
mindanenxi-fi 


Bill 


small, tumid 


more rounded, more 




tumid, larger in 
I)roportion 


Facial Pattern 


tendency to super- 
ciliary; crown i)atch 
in two species 


no eye stripe; 
crown patch 


Back 


streaked 


plain 




Tail 


forked, wing/tail 
index 75-82% 


barely forked 

67-70% 




Hump 


yellow, usually not on 
upper tail coverts 


yellow extending 
through upper tail 
coverts 




Wing Covert Edgings . . 


normally match color 
of the back 


distinct from 
back 


Primaries 


edged with yellow 


almost totally reduced 
or absent 







The primary arrangement of Serinus, with the exception of 
flaviventris in which the jfirst primary is longest, inclines us 
to feel that the tropical island species are nearer to Serinus 
than to Cardu^lis contra Delacour. The bill shape is far more 
similar, especially to some of the African members of the 
Serinus throng. All these are less strongly hooked or rounded, 
or indeed as swollen in the mid-section of the tomium of the 
maxilla. In some ways these tropical island species strongly 
resemble Carpodacus. The bill, although more bullfinch-like, 
resembles that of the common Asian species erythrinus. The 
plumage patterns, if yellows are substituted for reds, are not 
too dissimilar. 

In the same way Rhynchostruthus bears a certain re- 
semblance to Hhodopechys. CaUacanthis burtoni of the Hima- 
layas bears an even closer resemblance to Cardu^lis carduelis, 
and in this case it is possible to hazard a guess that hurtoni 
may be a Palearctic relict which was evolved from an ances- 
tral goldfinch. No such guess seems readily apparent or in 
order for Rhynchostruthus on the other hand. 



June 26, 1961 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 17 

Our opinion, then, is that these birds belong with the ex- 
panded genus Serinus and that the Philippine bird, though 
sympatric, differs as significantly from the three known closely 
allied races of estherae as do the three sympatric forms of 
Carduelis, spinoides, amhigua, and monguiUofi, kept by modern 
workers, Mayr (torn. cit. supra) and Vaurie (1949), as 
separate species in a superspecies. 



Pyrrhula leucogenys coriaria, subsp.n. 

Type: $ ad. (Y.P.M. No. 58899), collected April 11, 1960, 
by R. B. Gonzales at Malaybalay, Mount Katanglad, Bukidnon 
Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines. 

DiAGXosis: From apo Hachisuka (19-H), of which the type 
and one other specimen are in the Ripley collection, this form 
differs by being darker, more suffused with olive, "mummy 
brown" rather than "prouts brown" both above and below. 
From steerei Mearns this form differs by being much darker, 
the darker smoky brown being of the same grayish tones 
rather than in the more tawny tone of apo. All these three 
populations are smaller than leucogenys of Luzon and have 
all-black bills. 

Measurements: Wing, c^ i 74-79, $ 5 76, 78; tail, i $ 
64-66.5, $ 5 61.5, 64; exposed culmen, i 6 10-11, $ 9 10, 
11.5. 

Remarks: It is interesting that this race situated in a 
central position geographically should be much darker than 
the two populations it separates, that of Mount Malindang 
to the west and Mount Apo to the southeast. Taken together 
running from west to east or vice versa, these populations 
represent a sharply discontinuous geographical cline. 

Lonchura malacca jagori (Martens) 

As Parkes (1958) has pointed out, this variable black- 
headed population had best be left under the catch-all jagori 
rather than further split as Salomonsen (1953) has suggested. 



18 Postilla Yah Peahody Museum No. 50 

Erytliriira coloria, sp.n. 

Type: i ad. (Y.P.M. No. 58897), collected March 26, 
1960, by R. B. Gonzales on Mount Katanglad, Malaybalay, 
Bukidnon Province, Mindanao Island, Philippines. 

Diagnosis: This species resembles Erythrura tr'ichroa of 
the Moluccas and Melanesian areas, thus differing completely 
froiM hypcrytJira and viridifacies, the other known parrot 
finches of the Philippines. From trichroa it differs in its 
richer, more intense emerald-green coloration and in the pres- 
ence of a bright scarlet patch lying behind the blue cheeks 
and extending from the postocular area down to the sides of 
the throat. The blue patch covers the forehead and forecrown, 
the cheeks, and an area immediately behind the eyes. 

Measurements: -i S 6 wing, 51-56, 9 5-t.5: tail, 35-38, 
S 33; culmen (from skull), 11-13, $ 11 mm. 

Range: Known only from Mount Katanglad, Bukidnon 
Province, central Mindanao, Philippines. 

Remarks: This species was found in small clearings or 
openings in the forest from ■i,200-4<,500 feet, often perching 
on grass close to the ground. The birds were quiet and moved 
singly or in pairs ; when disturbed, flying to the nearest dense 
growth, often near small streams, perching on branches close 
to the ground. 



Additional Species Taken on Mount Katanglad 

Pernis philorhyinhus phUippensis Mayr 
Butastiir indicus (Gmelin) 
Accipiter virgatus confusiis Hartert 
Hieraaetns Vieneri formosus Stresemann 
Spilornis cheela holosp'dus (Vigors) 
Fcdco severus Horsfield 
Gallus gallus I^innacus 

PtU'inopus leucotis brevirostris (Tweeddale) 
PtUhiopus nmethystina mindanens'is (Manuel) 



June 26, 19()1 Avifauna of Mount Katanglad 19 

PtUinopus occipitalis Gray 

Ducida carola mindanensis (Ogilvie-Grant) 

Columha vitiensis griseogidaris Walden and Layard 

Macropygia phasianella tenuirostris Bonaparte 

Loriculus philippensis apicalis Souance 

Cuculus fiigax pectoralis Cabanis and Heine 

Cacomantis variolosus sepidcralis (Aliiller) 

SurnicuJus lugnbris velutinus Sharpe 

Centra pus viridis viridis (Scopoli) 

Eurostopodus macrotis macrotis (Vigors) 

Hemiprocne comata comata (Tennninck) 

Harpactes ardens ardens (Tennninck) 

Halcyon smyrnensis gularis (Kuhl) 

M crops •viridis americanus Miiller 

Eurystomus orientalis cyanicoUis Vieillot 

Penelopides panini affinis Tweeddale 

Aceros leucocephalus leucocephalus (Vieillot) 

Megalaima haemacephala haemctcephala (Miiller) 

Dryocopus javensis multilunatus (McGregor) 

Dendrocopus maculatus fnlvifasciatus (Hargitt) 

Chrysocolaptes lucidus lucid us (Scopoli) 

Lanius cristatus lucionensis Linnaeus 

Lanius schach nasutns Scopoli 

Oriohis chinensis snhicnsis Sharpe 

Oriolus xanthonotus samarensis Steere 

Dicrurus hottentottus striatus Tweeddale 

Artavms leucorhynchus leucorhynchus (Linnaeus) 

Aplonis minor todayensis (Mearns) 

Sarcops calvus melanonotus Ogilvie-Grant 

Basilorns miranda (Hartert) 

Corvus macrorhynchus philippinus Bonaparte 

Coracina striata Jcochii (Kutter) 

Pycnonofus goiavier suluensis Mearns 

Hypsipetes philippimis saturatior (Hartert) 

Muscicapa griseisticta griscisticta (Swinhoe) 

Muscicapa westermanni westermanni (Sharpe) 

Muscicapa panayensis nigriloris (Hartert) 

Culicicapa helianthea panayensis (Sharpe) 



20 Postilla Yale Peahody Museum Xo. 50 

Monarcha azurea azurea (Boddaert) 

Pachycephala phiUppensis apoens'is (Mearns) 

Orthotomus atroguloris frontalis Sharpe 

Tardus obscurus Gnielin 

Dicaeum hypoleucnm hypoleucum Sharpe 

Dicaeum nigr'dore nigr'dore Hartert 

Dicaeum bicolor bicolor (Bourns and Worcester) 

Dicaeum pygmaeum daxmo Mearns 

Lonchura leucogastra manueli Parkes 

LiTERATl-RE CiTED 

Chasen, F. X-. 1940. Notes on some Javan Birds. Treubia 17: 263-4. 
Delacour, J. 1946. Notes on the Taxonomy of the Birds of Malaysia. 
Zoologica 31: 4. 

and Mayr, E. 1946. Birds of tlie Philippines. Macmillan, New York. 

Finsch, O. 1902. Notes Leyden Museum 23: 151. 

Hachisuka, M. 1934-193.5. The Birds of the Philippine Islands (3, 4): 
.50, 402. Witherby, London. 

1941. Further Contributions to the Ornithology of the Philipjiine 

Islands. Tori 11 (51-52): 88. 

Hartert, E. 1910. Die Vogel der palaktischen Fauna 1: 65-6. 
Mayr, E. (with Stanford, J. K.) 1941. The Vernay-Cutting Expedition to 
Northern Burma. Ibis: 361. 

1949. Geographical Variation in Accipiter trivirgatus, Amer. Mus. 

Novit. no. 1415: 1-12. 

Parkes, K. C. 1958. Taxonomy and nomenclature of three sjiecies of 
Lonchura (Aves: Estrildinae). Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. 108: 291. 

Rand, A. L. 1950. A new race of owl, Otus bakkanuena, from Negros, 
Philippine Islands. Nat. Hist. Misc. 72: 1-5. 

and Rabor, D. S. 1957. New Birds from the Fhili])]iines. Fieldiana: 

Zool. 42: 18. 

1958. The races of the Siirike, Lanius valUJlrostrix. Fieldiana: 



Zool. 39: 85. 

1960. Birds of the Philippine Islands: Siquijor, Mount Malin- 

dang, Bohol, and Samar. Fieldiana: Zool. 35: 260-308. 

Ripley, S. Dillon. 1949. A new race of Shrike from the PhilipjMnes. Bull. 

Brit. Orn. CI. 69: 121. 
Salomonsen, F. 1953. Miscellaneous notes on Philij)])ine Birds. Vidensk. 

Medd. fra Dansk naturl. Forcn. 115: 272-281. 

1960. Notes on Flowerjieckers (Aves, Dicaeidae) 2. The Primitive 

Species of the (Jenus Dicaeuiii. Amer. Mus. Novit. no. 1991: 22-3. 

Vaurie, C. 1949. Notes on some Asiatic Finches. Amer. Mus. Novit. no. 
1424: 8. 

1959. The Birds of the Palearctic Fauna: 611. London. 

Witherby, H. F., Jourdain, F. C. R., Ticehurst, N. F., and Tucker, B. W. 
1938 et. seq. The Handbook of British Birds 1: 57. 



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