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Full text of "Pottery & porcelain, a guide to collectors; containing nearly two hundred illustrations of specimens of various factories, nine coloured plates, and marks and monograms of all the important makers"

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Mrs. Harry Lenart 


























&c. &c. 

Printed by BALLANTYNIi, HANSON &• Co. 

At the B.illantyne Press, Edinburgh 




N preparing Pottery and Porcelain for a 
new edition, I have endeavoured to 
make such improvements as will afford 
additional help to the inexperienced 
collector. , 

The chapter on " Hints and Cau- 
tions," which has gained approval in 
many quarters, is enlarged, and should now be more 
effective in safesfuardinor the reader against errors and dis- 
appointments. A new chapter on " Values and Prices " has 
been added, with information which should be of some in- 
terest and service. 

Several of the notices on ceramic factories have been 
rewritten, and many new ones added, together with marks 
and fresh information. The list of Sevres decorators has 
been rendered more complete by the addition of some sixty- 
five names and signs, while the other soft-paste factories 
have received more attention than in previous editions. 
The notices of the Staffordshire potters will be found to 
give better descriptions of individual work, and a list of 
marked specimens will assist identification. 

The illustrations have been reconsidered ; unsatisfactory 
ones replaced, and several fresh ones, including three new 
coloured plates, added. 

In giving additional information as to the peculiarities 
and characteristics of different kinds of porcelain, I have, 



when possible, made references to public collections where 
specimens of indisputable genuineness may be inspected. 

Full recoo^nition is given in the text to those authors 
whose works I have laid under contribution ; it is therefore 
unnecessary to allude to them in the preface. 

My sincere thanks are due to numerous correspondents 
who have sent me interesting particulars of specimens in 
their collections, and I take this opportunity of reminding 
my readers that I am always glad to receive any such in- 
formation to be available for future editions. 

In presenting this edition to the public I may perhaps 
be allowed a brief retrospect. The work in quite different 
form was published in 1878 as my first literary effort; it 
appeared as a small hand-book dealing only with European 
porcelain and Italian majolica ; and was received by both 
press and public with considerable appreciation, possibly 
more than it deserved, and ran through several editions. 

In 1892 I published Illustrated History of Ftirniiure, 
which was immediately successful, and is now in its si.xth 
edition, and at the publishers' suggestion my small Pottery, 
remodelled so as to form a companion volume to Fnrnittire, 
was issued in 1900. A second edition was published in 
1905, and although for a work of this kind an unusually 
large number of copies was printed, this is now exhausted, 
and a third edition, in enlarged form, is called for. 

Conscious of many shortcomings, I can at least assure 
my readers of the sincerity of my desire to place at their 
service the knowledge acquired during a lifelong experience. 


32 St. James's Street, 
London, S.W. 




A resume of the History of Pottery from the EarHest Times — Egyptian, 
Greek, Roman, Italo-Greek, Persian, Samian, and British Archaic 



Hispano-Moresco Lustred Ware — Malaga, Granada, Valencia — Delia 
Robbia Enamelled Earthenware — Italian Majolica : Pesaro, Faenza, 
Gubbio — Maestro Giorgio Andreoli — Urbino — Castel Durante — 
Naples, &c. &c. — Trench Pottery : Bernard Palissy — Henri Deux or 
Saint Porchaire — German Stoneware : Greybeards and Bellarmines, 
Gres de Flandres — Staffordshire Pottery: Elers Ware — Fulham 
Stoneware — Elizabethan Jugs — Place's Ware — Toft's Ware — Delft 



The Eighteenth Century — Difference between Pottery and Porcelain — 
Hard and Soft Paste — Three different Kinds of Soft Paste described 
— Chinese Porcelain — First European Porcelain — Florence, Venice, 
Saxony — Bottger's Hard Paste — Josiah Wedgwood, John Sadler, 
Richard Chaffers, Cookworthy of Plymouth — The Chelsea and Bow 
Factories, and other Continental and English Porcelain-makers of 
the Eighteenth Century 






A Review of, and Comparison between Past and Present Ceramics — Notes 

on the Brussels 1910 Exhibition 37 



Forming a Collection — Public Collections in Museums — Auctions — Guaran- 
teed Invoices — Standard of Excellence — Common Errors — Spurious 
Lowestoft — Detecting Restorations — Old Sevres and its Imitations 
— Redecorated China — Repairing Breakages — Washing and Packing 
Old China 52 



Notes and descriptions of various Misleading Marks, and general remarks on 

the Value of the Marks on China — References to Recent Litigation . 69 




Abruzzi Ware — Adams — Alcora — Amstel — Angouleme — Anspach — Ar- 
dennes — Arnheim — Baden — Baranufka — Bassano — Bayreuth — 
Belleek — Berlin — Boissette— Bordeaux — Bourg la Reine — Bow — 
Bristol — Cambrian — Capo di Monte — and upwards of three hundred 
notices and references, concluding with Zurich and Zweibriicken . 79 


A Glossary of Terms used by Dealers and Collectors, with their meanings, 

including the description of the "knock-out" system at auctions . 460 





Relation of Price to Value — Comparisons with twenty-five years ago — On 
the advantage of buying simple and good specimens in preference to 
more pretentious ones — Remarks on the Prices and Values of 
"Chinese Porcelain," English Pottery, "English Porcelain" — The 
Trapnell Bristol Collection — Notes on Examples of the different 
Factories sold at recent sales — Continental Porcelain — Majolica — 
Rhodian, Persian, and Damascus Ware — Palissy Ware . . . 474 


Works of Reference on English Pottery and Porcelain — Oriental Porcelain 

— General, including English, Foreign, and Continental . . . 4S6 


Chelsea Porringer {coloured plate) 



Italo-Greek \^ase ..... 
Specimens of Ancient British Pottery 




Hispano-Moresco Vase facing 

Sicilo-Arabian Vase, Thirteenth to Fourteenth Century 
The Alhambra Vase ........ 

Tazza of Sgraffiato, or Incised Ware, Fifteenth Century 

Specimen of Bella Robbia Ware . 

GuBBio Plaque, St. Sebastian 

One of M. Giorgio's Signatures . 

Palissy Ware Dish ..... 

Saint Porchaire Salt-cellar 

Elizabethan Stoneware Jug, date mark 1600 

Teapot of Elers Ware ..... 

German Stoneware, Sixteenth Century 

Bellarmine of Fulham Stoneware 

Dish of Toft Ware ..... 

Cup of Mr. Place's Ware .... 

Design of Ornament on Pottery by Palissy 











Knife-handle of Menecy Porcelain . 





Specimen Vase of Modern Worcester Porcelain 

MiNTONS Copy of Sevres Vase 

MiNTONS Copy of Sevres Vaisseau a Mat 

Specimens of Doulton's Lambeth Ware 

Specimen of Belleek, Ice-pail 

A Crown Derby Cup, Cover, and Saucer 


facing 38 

• 43 

• 45 

Sauce-boat of Bow Porcelain 


Figure of a Cat, Early Slip Decorated Ware. 



Plaque of Alcora Faience ........ 81 

EcuELLE of Apt Faience ........ 86 

Cup and Saucer of Arras Porcelain ...... 88 

Specimen of Belleek ...... • • 93 

Milk-pot of Berlin Porcelain ....... 95 

Soup Tureen of Bow Porcelain loi 

Bow Teapot with two Spouts . . . . . . .101 

A Set of Three Groups of Old Bow China . . facing 102 

Bristol Delft Plate (Edkins) io8 

Bristol Delft Election Plate 108 

Bristol Delft Plate 109 

Small Mug of Bristol Pottery . . . . . . .110 

Tureen, Cover, and Stand of Bristol Porcelain . . .no 

The Teapot of the Burke Service 112 

Bristol Mug with Champion's Portrait. Pair of Bristol 

Figures facing 113 

A Pair of Pots and Covers, Buen Retiro Porcelain facing 116 
Capo di Monte Group of the Peep-show . . . . .120 
Specimens of Caughlev . . . . . . . . .124 

Teapot of Chantilly Porcelain 127 

Group of Small Chelsea Flacons .... facing 129 


XI 11 

Chelsea Figures ok Apollo and Muses 

Chelsea Figure of Britannia 

Pair of Chelsea Groups (Seasons) Modelled by 


A Chelsea Vase, one of Lord Burton's Set of Sev 
Three Chelsea Vases, part of Lord Burton's Set 

of Seven ....... 

)j )) )> J) >» »j 

Chelsea "Bee" Milk-jug ..... 
Chinese Celadon Crackle Vase .... 
Fine Specimen of Old "Powder Blue" Chinese Por 

ce:lain ........ 

Chinese Enamelled Porcelain Dish, familk rose 
Blue and White Set of Ginger Jar and Pair oi 


Chinese Porcelain Vase .... 

Specimens of Old GRks de Flandres . 
Cannette of Siegburg Stoneware 
Cabaret of Copenhagen China 
Chelsea-Derby Vase {coloured plate) 
Chelsea-Derby garniture of Vases and Ewers 
Cup, Cover, and Saucer of Crown Derby . 
Old Crown Derby Dwarfs .... 

Early Dresden Vase, " Augustus Rex " Period 
Dresden Figures (Acier's Modelling) . 
Pot-pourri Vase, Old Dresden Porcelain . 
Dresden Harlequin ..... 

Dresden Tankard ...... 

Portion of Dresden Service, Horoldt Period 
Dresden Vase, Blue Encrusted Flowers . 
Milk-pot of Dresden Porcelain . 
Frankenthal Vase, Venetian Vase, Neapolitan 
Pair OF Fulda Figures of Peasants . 
Fulham Stoneware Bust of Prince Rupert 
The West Malling Elizabethan Jug . 
Specimens of Old Fui.ham Stoneware . 

Fulham Stoneware Jug 

Vase of The Hague China .... 
Harburg Jug ....... 






















1 48 





The Essex Jug ....... 

Small Marked Teapot of Belle Vue Pottery . 

Round Dish of Old Japan Porcelain . 

Wine Bottle of Lambeth Faience 

Specimens of Doulton's Lambeth Ware 

Leeds Ware Dish ....... 

Limbach Porcelain Set of Figures, the Seasons 
Bowl of Liverpool Delft ..... 

Liverpool Bowl, " Success to the African Trade " 
Pair of Longton Hall Vases .... 

Longton Hall Vase ...... 

Set of Five Longton Hall Vases 

Lowestoft Porcelain Specimens, with Initials and 

Dates .... ... 

Lowestoft Teapot ....... 

Three Lowestoft Teapots {coloured p/aie) 
Lowestoft Coffee-pot ...... 

Specimens of Porcelain generally ascribed to 

Lowestoft ....... 

Coffee-pot of Lowestoft Service 

Lowestoft Flask 

GuBBio Plate, by M. Giorgio, cin. 1520 

Castelli Majolica Vase 

Caffaggiolo Pitcher ...... 

Caffaggiolo Plate, circ. 1515-20 .... 

Majolica (Urbino) Vase {coloured p/ate) 
Caffaggiolo Plate {coloured plate) .... 

Ewer of Mason's Ironstone China 

Hochst (Mayence) Group and Pair of Ludwigsburg 


Milk-pot of M^ne^y Porcelain .... 

Barber's Dish of Moustiers Faience . 

Nantgarw Porcelain, Specimens of Service 

A Toby "Fillpot" ....... 

Vase of Nevers Faience ..... 

Ewer of Nevers Faience ..... 

Nottingham Ware Posset-pot .... 

Cream-jug of De la Courtille Porcelain . 
Can of Rue Thirou Porcelain .... 















facing 25S 

■ 258 

facing 259 

• 259 



facing 282 





Specimen Plate, marked Lefeuvre, Paris . 
Narghili-stand of Persian Porcelain . 
Ewer of Persian Porcelain ..... 
Persian Flask (coloured plate) .... 

Persian Wall Tile Decoration in Relief, Seventeenth 


Pinxton Ice-pail 

Sweetmeat-stand of Plymouth Porcelain . 
Rhodian Faience Ewer (coloured plate) . 
Rhodian Faience Plates ..... 

Rockingham Flower-pot 

Shoe of Rouen Faience ..... 

Helmet-shaped Ewer of Rouen Faience 
Jardini&re of Rouen Faience .... 
Salt-cellar of St. Cloud Porcelain . 
Saint Porchaire Candlestick .... 
Three Unusual Pieces of Salt-glaze {coloured plate) 
Coloured Salt-glaze Sauce-boat .... 

Fine Salt-glaze Dish 

Three Salt-glaze Teapots ..... 
Jardiniere of Sceaux Faience .... 
SivRES Vase, Green Ground .... 

Specimens of the Empress Catherine Service of Old 

SfevRES ........ 

SisvRES biscuit Group of Children 

Specimens of Sevres Dessert Service in Windsor Castle 

Lyre-form Clock of Sevres China 

Si;vRES Porcelain Vase (coloured plate) . 

Copeland, late Spode, Two Specimens 

"The Launch," Specimen of Copeland's Parian 

Specimen Plate of Copeland China 

Staffordshire Pottery Group, Parson and Clerk 

Staffordshire Pottery, Bust of Wesley 

Basket-form Dish of Strasbourg Faience . 

Fountain of Strasbourg Faience .... 

Swansea Coffee-Can ...... 

Specimens of Swansea Ware and Porcelain 
Specimens of Swansea Porcelain (Ordinary Domestic 



















EcuELLE OF Venetian Porcelain .... 

Cup of Wedgwood's Blue and White Jasper Ware 
Lamp of Black Wedgwood (Basaltes Ware) 
Copy OF THE Portland or Barberini Vase . 
Wedgwood Vase of Blue and Whiie Jasper Ware 
Wedgwood Blue and White Jasper Ware Vase . 
Portrait Bust of Josiah Wedgwood . 
Coffee-pot of Whieldon Ware .... 

Teapot of Agate Ware ...... 

Whieldon Ware, A Pair of Birds, Brown and Green 


Important Specimen of Wincanton Pottery 
Portrait of Dr. Wall, Founder of the Worcester 

Factory ........ 

Very Early Blue and White Worcester Cup . 

Specimens of China Tokens used about 1763 

Old Worcester Coffee-pot, Blue Salmon Scale 

Ground, and Figure Subjects 
Worcester Vase of Hexagonal Form, Yellow Ground 

part Transfer, part P.\inted Decoration . 
Specimen of Copper Plate used at Worcester . 

Centre Vase of Hexagonal Form with Birds, and 
Pair of Vases with Figure Subjects (Worcester) 

Four Worcester Plates, Various Patterns 

Specimens of Worcester of the Barr, Flight and 
Barr Period ........ 

Specimen of Worcester, Chamberlains Period . 

Specimens of Worcester of Various Decorations 

Vase of Worcester Porcelain, Late Period, with 
Arms of Nelson ....... 

Set of Three Important \Vorcester Vases, painted 
BY O'Neale 

Posset-pot of Wrotham Ware ..... 

Design on the Back of a Plate ^L•\I)E for H.M. 
Queen Victoria, by the Royal Worcester Porce- 
lain Company ........ 

Italo-Greek Vase 

A Pi.v.MOUTH in the Trai'nell Collection 











facing 440 
facing 444 

• 445 

• 447 

• 45° 

facing 450 

facing 454 

• 45^) 





<lncicnt pottcrj> 

V J^i^^-0~~l TV— t-Cil 




HE potter's art may be said to iiave origi- 
nated almost with the creation of man. 
The first time the earth was moist, the 
earliest inhabitant (whether he was the first 
man of the Book of Genesis, or a more 
mythical pre-Adamite) must have noticed 
the impressions made by his own weight in 
the wet, plastic earth ; and, in accordance 
with our homely proverb, necessity doubt- 
less produced the invention of some water-holding earthen 
vessel, crude and rough, sun-dried and porous. Without much 
archaeological investigation, it is simply obvious that this crude 
form of pottery would become improved by degrees, the earth 
would be better selected for its purpose, artificial heat would be 
employed, and, that the vessels might be really water-tight, some 
kind of glaze would be applied to the rough porous composition. 
Patterns of forms have never been wanting since the first gourd or 
the first fruit of any kind enriched the earth, and improvements 
in manufacture, for utility and ornament, must have come about in 
the natural order of progress. The word ancient suggests thoughts 
of the pyramids and Egypt ; and from the famous old countries 
at the eastern end of the Mediterranean — from Egypt, Phoenicia, 
Assyria, Cyprus, and Asia Minor — we have gathered our earliest 
specimens of pottery, as we have gathered our earliest specimens 
of almost every other branch of art or industry. 

Although the invention of glass is attributed to the Phcenicians, 
considerable use was made of some opaque glass in Egypt as 



early as the fourth dynasty. With a chemical knowledge rendering 
possible the production of glass, there would be no difficulty in 
adapting a vitreous glaze to ceramic productions, though doubtless 
a series of experiments would be required to alter the paste to admit 
of some incorporation of the glaze and prevent its scaling. It is 
well known that the knowledge of metallic oxides was in the 
possession of Eastern nations centuries before its importation into 
Europe, and Dr. Drury Fortnum mentions the early use of copper 
by the Assyrians and Babylonians for the production of a beautiful 
turquoise blue. This art was especially adapted to the decorative 
bricks of terra-cotta, which were also enriched by geometrical 
designs, and in some cases by such subjects as representations of 
the chase. The most recent date for these has been fixed at 
522 B.C., when Babylon was destroyed by Darius. In some of the 
old tombs of Mesopotamia have been found curious shoe-shaped 
coffins of terra-cotta covered with a vitreous saline glaze and 
containing glass beads showing a moderately accurate knowledge 
of vitrifaction and the use of silex (a property of sand which forms 
the flinty element of glass). These coffins, and the glass beads 
they contain, are mentioned by M. |acquemart. Dr. Birch, and 
Dr. Drury Fortnum. 

In the earliest attempts at decoration, a white surface was an 
important matter, and to obtain this a light pipeclay was milled 
with water, and, when the piece was sufficiently fired to be fixed, 
this thin clayish coating, known as " slip," was applied ; the design 
was then scratched through, showing the ornament on the coarse 
buff ground, the whole piece being then re-fired. This process 
was the earliest form of decoration, and many specimens are to 
be found in our museums. 

It is a singular fact that, notwithstanding the centuries that 
have passed since the time of the old Egyptian potter, if we com- 
pare the potter's wheel of the present day with the representations 
preserved to us in the old tombs of Thebes, there is but little differ- 
ence — a revolving disk of wood turned by the foot, and enabling 
the potter to " throw " a round plate, saucer, or vase. 

The introduction of stanniferous or tin enamel was a much 
later invention, though it has been asserted that in the early 
manipulation of metallic oxides, this was used as a pigment in 
colouring, but not as an enamel, the invention of which will be 
noted much later. In a rapid sketch like the present, it is 
unnecessary to dwell long on each epoch of Ceramic Art. The 
reader will find in our niu^eums specimens carefully arranged and 


labelled, and if he takes an intelligent interest in the subject he 
will soon find his taste almost unconsciously developing, and 
these splendid national institutions, with their educational 
libraries, will be to him what they were intended by a wise 
Government to be — "the picture-book of the art student." If he 
have the time and inclination to elaborate his knowledge, works 
such as those of Brongniart, Marryat, Jacquemart, Chaffers, Drury 
Fortnum, and Llewellyn Jewitt will not be consulted in vain. 

Greek Pottery. — Passing on, then, from the earliest known 
specimens, we should follow the story of Ceramic Art, and find 
how the contact between the Phoenician merchants and the ancient 
Greeks, brought about an importation from Egypt into Greece of 
such art as existed ; and how this, under the influence of the many 
peculiar characteristicsof the Greek people, was turned aside,altered, 
and improved into a quite distinct school. Art in Egypt has been 
well said to be " the expression of religious sentiment, and repre- 
sentation of revered symbols." In its earlier stages it had be- 
longed to the genus which has been termed sensualistic, that is, 
a type of art having for its ideal the reproduction of nature, 
and not the embodiment of thought. Its development in this 
direction was prevented by the peculiar tenets of Egyptian re- 
ligion, and the utter subjection of art to canon law. 

Now, with the Greeks, we find this great difference : instead of 
being held down and fettered by religion, their art, in the hands of a 
poetical and imaginative people, may be said to some extent to 
have governed their religion. A well-told, though perhaps very 
old, story of the origin of the Corinthian capital, given by Jacque- 
mart, is apposite enough to justify quotation. " Callimachus 
wandering in the country, dreaming of numerous conceptions, 
was struck with the appearance of a child's grave, on which the 
mother had placed a basket of fruit, but had laid a tile on the 
orifice of the basket, to prevent the birds devouring the collation 
prepared for the beloved Manes. An acanthus had sprung up 
there, and its flexible stalks, arrested in their ascent by the rough 
tile, had bent spirally. Nothing more was necessary ; the tile 
became the abacus of the capital, the leaves of the acanthus 
enveloped its base with a notched crown, and the most elegant 
among the orders of Greek architecture was found." 

The ordinarily accepted derivation of ceramic from its Greek 
root was for the Greeks too prosaic, and another source was 
suggested by attributing to the potter's art a divine or heroic origin 
— Ceramus, son of Bacchus and Ariadne, being credited with its 


invention.^ This is mentioned merely to show how far sentiment 
governed the growth of the ideal in Greek art, and not with the 
idea of claiming even a groundwork of truth for the fable. Like 
art in every other country, it was imported in a certain form, and 
gradually improved, and was certainly not the sudden invention of 
any single genius. 

The paste used in the vases, especially those made for domestic 
use, and called amphor;c, was of a very coarse, common de- 
scription, and they are only entitled to rank as works of art by 
their purity of form. These amphorae were used for the storage 
of wine and grain ; those for the former purpose were made with 
pointed bases, so that they could only stand by being inserted 
some inches in the earth, and were in this manner placed in the 
cellars ; some of these vessels were six feet high. 

The second, and higher class of pottery of ancient Greece, 
was that composed of vases suitable for prizes at the Olympian 
Games, for wedding and other presents. The paste was of better 
quality, and considerable pains are manifest in its finish and 
decoration. There were only three colours used — brick-red, black, 
and the natural colour of the paste — buff. The black colour was 
laid on as a glaze, and with a very fine lustrous effect — it is said to 
have been composed from oxide of iron ; and when both inside and 
outside of a vessel were so coated, the paste had every appearance 
of being black throughout. Sir Charles Robinson seems to have 
been much struck by the beauty of these vases. He says : "The 
forms or contours of the pieces display such admirable combination 
of beauty and fitness, that it is difficult to resist the conclusion 
that they were the result of an inherent art instinct in the pro- 
ducer, guided and controlled by abstract geometrical laws of the 
profoundest nature ; and yet it is difficult to believe that any such 
abstruse scientific knowledge could have guided the artisans who 
produced them " {Catalogue of the S/iaiidon Collection). 

The only explanation that offers itself is, that these people had 
an inherent art instinct, and despising servile copies of natural 
objects, sought beauty in the combination and modification of 
patterns so lavishly supplied by nature. The custom of preserving 
such vases in the tombs has been the means of handing down to 
us a considerable number, and so much light has been thiown 
upon their dates by arch;eologists, that they can be with moderate 
certainty assigned to different epochs, from 700 B.C. to 150 B.C., 
the most modern being thus some two thousand years old 

' Ceramic, from KipantKOt, of or for potlcry, from K^pa/xoi, pollers' carlli or clay. 


Minute descriptions of specimens would be superfluous ; many 
may be seen simply for the trouble of a visit to the British 
Museum, where the vases of this kind are classified into different 
periods of the fictile art, with dates ; a catalogue of them is 
obtainable of the attendant. 

To Greek ceramics belong also those amphoraj made in the 
islands of the Archipelago, and there are some cases of these 
specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum, the collection having 
been considerably augumentcd by Dr. Schliemann's excavations. 
Their chief peculiarity is the coarse, buff-coloured paste, which 
bears some signs of decoration by means of lines scratched 
through the surface, the glaze being so incorporated with the 
body as to leave only a slight surface polish. Probably this 
tended to harden and make the vessel more durable. 

The shattered condition of many Greek vases is accounted for 
by the custom of placing them on the funeral pyre before removal 
to the tomb, and in some cases the ornament is almost charred 

The best period of Ceramic Art among the Greeks was a little 
after the time of Pericles, when their civilisation was at its zenith. 
The drawing was infinitely more refined, gods and heroes being 
no longer represented as angular beings with exaggerated muscles, 
but, as nearly as possible, by the perfection of human forms. 

In the decline of Greek art which followed, artists appear to 
have indulged in fancy, without being guided by those governing 
principles necessary for its proper restraint, and from the latter 
end of the fourth century, a great falling off in the artistic quality 
of their productions appears to have taken place. 

Roman Pottery. — Roman simplicity in the earlier ages gave little 
encouragement to decorative art, and it was only after the Second 
Punic War, when the Romans were thrown into close contact 
with the Greeks, that more attention was paid to the arts intro- 
duced from Greece. Prisoners taken in battle who were artists, 
were set at liberty and much honoured ; and as, with their methods, 
the mythology of their country also became naturalised, there 
is a great similarity in the Greek and Roman specimens preserved 
to us. 

The dates of Etruscan pottery can only be approximately esti- 
mated. The black moulded ware is said to have been made between 
the eighth and the third centuries B.C., while the vases with imita- 
tions of Greek paintings are ascribed to a long period, extending 
from the sixth to the second century B.C. There is an excellent 


collection of these vases in the British Miiseinn, also in the Louvre, 
the Vatican, and the museums of Naples, Florence, and Bologna. 

The term " Etruscan " used to 
be applied to the art products of 
this transition stage, especially to 
the black and red ware, the manu- 
facture of which the Romans 
learned from the Greeks, but this 
term has been abandoned for the 
more correct one of Gra3CO-Roman 
or Italo-Greek. The ov\\y fabrique 
that, according to Jacquemart, is 
strictly entitled to be termed Etrus- 
can is that founded in 655 B.C. by 
Demaratus, father of Tarquin the 
Elder, a celebrated Greek potter, 
who fled to Tarquinii, then a 
flourishing town of Etruria, and 
who was followed by many of the 
principal potters from the father- 

Samian Pottery. — There are in 
the British Museum, and also in 
many other museums, numerous 
specimens of a red lustrous ware, 
chiefly fragments of bowls and dishes for domestic use, some- 
times plain, but frequently ornamented with designs in low relief. 
This is called Samian ware, probably because it is supposed to 
have been first made at the Greek island of Samos ; but it is, by 
general consensus of expert opinion, the domestic ware made for 
table use by the Roman potter wherever he happened to find 
clays suited to his purpose. Specimens are attributed to Germany, 
Gaul, Italy, and Spain. A great many vessels of this ware have 
also been discovered during excavations in different parts of 
England, where there were settlements during the occupation of 
the Romans. Mr. Chaffers affirms that no remains of kilns have 
been discovered in England ; he is therefore of opinion that such 
ware was brought from Italy, and the reader is referred to 
his pages for much information aiiout this particular kind of 
pottery. It is apparently always made of the same material, a 
sealing-wax red clay with a brilliant glaze, although from being 
buried in the earth this has in many cases decomposed. As it 

Ilalo-Greek (Etruscan) Vase in the 
British Museum. 


would have been impossible to obtain in tiie different parts of 
the Roman Empire always the same clay, it has been suggested 
that a peculiar red paste was invariably mixed with the clay to 
colour it. 

Ancient Bnlisli Pottery. — Apart from the Samian Pottery, which 
was probably imported into Britain, there were established during 
the Roman occupation several native potteries. The best known 
of these, Upchurch, on the banks of the Medway, and Castor, in 
Northamptonshire, are fully dealt with by Chaffers, who gives de- 
scriptions of some of the specimens which have been found. The 
Upchurch ware was generally black, on account of its being baked 

Specimens of Ancient liriiish I'oltcry in the Northampton Museum. 
Front a Photo-^ra^h kindly siipfilU-d hy Mr. T. J. George, F.G.S., the Cutator. 

in the smoke of vegetable substances, while the Castor pottery is 
of a yellow body, ornamented by rough designs of human figures, 
fishes, foliage, and scrolls, scratched into the surface by skewer-like 
instruments of varying sharpness and thickness. 

Many of the vases or urns made at these ancient British 
potteries were thick, clumsy, and very imperfectly fired. They 
were probably baked by being placed on the funeral pyre while 
the body of the dead person was being consumed. They were 
evidently not sun-dried, or their long period of burial in the earth 
would have softened them into their original clay. Drinking cups 
were of more delicate composition. A considerable improvement 
in the process of manufacture evidently took place subsequent to 
the Roman invasion ; the lathe was used, and ornament, introduced 



by means of the " slip " process, became more common. In tlie 
earlier periods, the vessels, chiefly cinerary urns, had been formed 
entirely by hand, and considerable skill was required to build up 
the thin walls of the larger vases or urns ; in a number of examples 
these are so neatly rounded as to give them the appearance at 
first sight of having been turned by a wheel. This, however, was 
not the case with the pottery of what are termed the three great 
prehistoric periods. 

Specimens of Ancient British Pottery in the Northampton Museum. 
From a Photograph kindly sufpUed by Mr. T. J. George, F.G.S., the Curator. 

In this brief sketch, the transition of Ceramic Art is apparent 
— from Egypt as its cradle, to Greece as its nursery, and to Rome, 
the scene of its after-growth and struggle. There, lost for a time 
amidst the chaos of revolution, it appears again, but as it were 
from a fresh source, some notice of which will be found in the 
following chapter. 

Again taking Egypt as a starting-point, we find that the Jews, 
after their long sojourn in the land of their advanced taskmasters, 
carried away some of the arts of civilisation which they had 
learned ; and though with a nomadic people fragile vessels would 
be in but little request save for use, still the knowledge of manu- 
facture of articles of clay, and some methods of decorating them, 
would have been acquired. The strict Mosaic Law, however, 
forbidding the making of any graven image, was the raison d'etre 
of a new school of decoration — Religion here, as in all ages, leaving 
its stamp deeply impressed upon Art. 

Though the Jews were not artistic potters, they may be said 
for this reason to have founded the school of floral and "eo- 


metrical decoration to the exclusion of any animal representation ; 
and as their successors, the Arabs, were subject under Islamism 
to a similar law, upon the Hebrew foundation was raised the 
edilice of Arabian art. The conquest of the Moors spread over 
the north of Africa, Spain, and Sicily, and there are abundant 
traces of brilliant tile decoration, to which they were so partial, 
ornamenting their famous mosques, and penetrating wherever the 
ramifications of trade carried the art products made for other than 
their own use. Whether the Arabs taught the Persians, whose 
country they invaded A.D. 651—652, the art of decorating pottery, 
or whether, as Major Murdoch Smith suggests, they were them- 
selves the pupils of the vanquished, must of course remain doubt- 
ful. In the consideration of this question the specimens of 
Persian and Hispano-Moresco pottery, forming part of the valuable 
collection bequeathed in 1878 by Mr. Henderson to the British 
Museum, should be carefully studied and compared, the arrange- 
ment of the collection in the room set apart for its reception being 
very favourable for an instructive inspection. 

For Major Smith's theory there is much to be said, and he 
points out that whereas the followers of Mohammed were rude 
Bedouins, the Persians at that time had acquired considerable 
culture. On the other hand, there are but few, if any, specimens 
the dates of which are anterior to the Arab conquest, and Major 
Smith only accounts for this by the statement that every artistic 
object of less durable materials than metal or stone, was destroyed 
by the conquerors. 

Apart altogether from the rise of art in Egypt, and its chver- 
gence in two streams, the one to Greece, and the other through 
the e.xodus of the Israelites into Arabia, there is a ceramic art 
of great antiquity in China, remarkable for the high state of pro- 
gress which it appears to have attained with none but native help. 
Its secrets were kept so well, that until a comparatively recent 
date, scarcely anything was known to the outside world of its 

The object of this chapter being, however, to show the con- 
necting art links between the different countries mentioned, a 
notice of Chinese ancient pottery may be more properly classed 
with the alphabetically-arranged notices of different manufactories. 


Q^cDiaetial anD dcnaisfsfance 

HETHER the manufacture of an enamelled 
earthenware with a stanniferous glaze was 
an art native in Italy, or whether it was 
imported from Spain and the Balearic Isles, 
has been a matter of contention between 
writers on the subject. Twenty years ago 
the author adopted Marryat's view that it 
was imported, and the name which was 
given to the ware, " Majolica," seemed to 
lend colour to the theory of its being derived from the island of 
Majorca. In the year 1115 the Pisans are said to have besieged 
and captured Majorca, and to have taken with them the captive 
king and a rich booty, which included some of the pottery made 
in the ibland by the old Moorish potters. However, Ur. Drury 
Fortnum, perhaps the best authority upon the subject of Majolica 
and similar wares, has carefully examined the fragments of the 
disks which were said to have been placed by the victorious Pisans 
in their churches, and has arrived at the conclusion that these 
are of native Italian work, and show no signs of Moorish origin. 

Then we have Passeri's statement that pottery works existed 
in the neighbourhood of Pesaro from a very early period, that 
during the dark ages the art was neglected, and revived in the 
early part of the fourteenth century. 

It would seem, therefore, that while the name of the ware 
probably came from Majorca, the manufacture of ornamental 
earthenware was indigenous in Italy. 

If, however, we cannot accord to the Moorish potters the 
credit of introducing their art into Italy, we cannot deny to them 
the merit of those beautiful productions which we now term 
Hispano-Moresco pottery. Little was known of this kind of 

Victoria and Albeit Museum. 


pottery as a distinct class until Baron J. C. Daviliier wrote his 
Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Moresques a ReJIds Mctalliques, Paris, 
1 86 1. Its manufacture dates from the eighth century, the date of 
the Mosque of Cordova, but of this early period there are scarcely 
any examples extant, save in Museums and Mosques. The orna- 
mental wall-tiles of the Mosque of Cordova are good specimens 
of Hispano-Moresco work. Of the later productions of the de- 
scendants of the first Moorish potters, we have many excellent 
representations, made from the twelfth to the seventeenth century. 
These are mostly deep, round, buff-coloured dishes, decorated 
with pale or dark copper-coloured lustre, sometimes with inter- 
lacing ornaments, sometimes with blue colour introduced, some- 
times with a coat of arms, but more generally with a text from 
the Koran. 

One of the finest examples of this class is a two-handled vase 
in the Pottery Gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum (No. 
8968). It is labelled as the production of Malaga, and was pur- 
chased by our Government from the Soulages Collection. We 
give an illustration of this beautiful vase, but the specimen itself 
should be carefully studied, as no illustration can do justice to its 

The process that produced the effect known as lustred, madrc- 
pcrla, reflet melalUque, and under other synonymous terms, is thus 
described by Dr. Fortnum : — 

" Certain metallic salts were reduced in the reverberatory fur- 
nace, leaving a thin film upon the surface, which gives a beautiful 
and rich effect." 

The early Moorish potters have not only left the impres- 
sion of their Art upon Spanish Ceramics, with the result in 
the shape of Hispano-Moresco ware, which we have just been 
discussing ; but excavations in the island of Sicily have brought 
to light fragments of plain and lustred pottery of an earlier 

Dr. Drury Fortnum ascribes the origin of this pottery to the 
time of the Saracenic occupation of Sicily of some fifty years, 
from A.D. 832 to 878, and he has suggested a special title, that of 
Sicilo- Arabian, for the ware made in Sicily which he traces to this 
Arabic influence. 

The paste is of a dull white colour, somewhat over- 
fired, the glaze thick and found in " tears " or " blobs " about 
the base, and the decoration consists of inscriptions in Arabic 
which are more picturesque than readable. A specimen of 



this kind of pottery in tlie Victoria and Albert Museum is here 
illustrated : — 

Sicilo-Arabian Vase, painted with Arabic inscription, thirteenth to fourteenth 
century (X'ictoria and Albert Museum). 

The last refuge of the Moors in Spain from the power of their 
Christian conquerors was Granada, and here was founded (aliout 
1250) the Alhambra, the well-known fortress-palace; we thus 
have an approximate date for the famous Alhambra vases. These 
fine specimens of Moorish pottery are said to have contained gold 
and treasure. Only one now remains ; and aided by careful draw- 
ings and tracings taken by Haron Davillier, M. Deck of Paris was 
enabled some years ago to make a reproduction in faience. The 
original vase, of which there is an illustration on the opposite p^ige, 
is four feet three inches high and seven feet in circumference ; 
its body is very graceful, terminating in a pointed base, wliile its 



beaiilifully-propoiiioned neck is ornamented by two handles that 
are flat, and not unhke outspread wings. 

The Allianilira Vase, from a drawing made in 
tlie AUiambra Palace, Granada. 

The principal Moorish potteries were at Malaga, Granada, 
Valencia, and Seville. At both the latter places the Spaniards 
have continued the manufacture of their celebrated tiles. 

The earlier decoration of Italian majolica was by means of a 
" slip " composed of fine white clay, and the painting was upon 
this surface, which was then glazed by a transparent preparation 
composed of oxide of lead and glass, the finished productions 
being known by the term " Mezza-Majolica." 

Another kind of decorative earthenware was made in the 
north of Italy, by coating the body of the article with a "slip" 
or argillaceous covering, and then engraving or incising the 
design in this "slip" before glazing. This ware has been termed 
sgraffiati, sgraff'talo, or incised ware. The colourings are green, 


brown, and yellow ; specimens are scarce, and one of a Tazza 
on a tripod foot, which is in the Louvre Museum, is here 
illustrated : — 

Tazza of Sgraftiato or Incised Ware. North Italian, fifteenth century (Louvre ftfuseuni). 

The introduction of oxide of tin enabled the potter to produce 
an opaque glaze or enamel, thus obviating the necessity of the 
" slip," and providing a much better vehicle for colours. 

The invention of this latter preparation is generally attributed 
to Luca della Robbia, a name synonymous with Italian plastic 
art, and though it is asserted by M. Jacquemart and Dr. Fortnum 
that the knowledge of stanniferous or tin-enamel was anterior to 
Luca della Robbia, there can be no reasonable doubt that he 
altered and improved the process. 

This talented artist was born about 1 400, and worked under a 
clever goldsmith of Florence, one Leonardo. Finding his genius 
for design cramped by the process of working in metal, he applied 
himself to sculpture, and became a pupil of Lorenzo Ghiberti, 
to whom are attributed the gates of the Baptistery at Florence. 
Luca was fortunate enough to secure the favour and patronage 
of Pietro di Medici, who gave him some commissions for sculpture 
in the Church of Santa Maria dei Priori at Florence. Although 
Della Robbia was a very young man at this time (Paul Lacroix 
gives his age at seventeen), he appeal s to have had so many orders 
pressed upon him for execution, that he abandoned marble, as he 



liad abandoned metal, for the more easily manipulated clay. 
Jacquemart suggests that, as a sculptor, lie would make his 
models in wax or clay, before executing his designs in marble ; 
and as, with his increasing fame, rapidity of production became 
desirable, the idea would naturally occur to him to render the 
clay atmosphere-proof by some enamel, which would improve its 
effect, and make it an excellent sulistitute for marble. He also 


One of a set of twelve round plaques, 28 inches in diameter, in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, painted in various shades of blue, with a white moulded border or frame. 

appears about this time to have taken into partnership his two 
pupils, who have been termed his " brothers," Ottaviano and 
Agostino ; but one does not hear much of them, save as working 
under his direction. Several iine specimens of his workmanship 
still adorn the principal churches of Florence ; there are also 
some good pieces in the Louvre, and our own Victoria and Albert 
Museum is very rich in Delia Robbia ware. 

Most of his subjects are in high relief, and adapted for church 
enrichment. The enamel is fine in quality, beautifully white. 



opaque, and highly histrous ; and the modelling of his cherubs, 
especially the faces, which have been left quite ungiazed and with 

theiroriginal sharpnessuntouched, 
are really masterpieces of plastic 
art. From some good specimens 
extant, we know that he also 
painted on the flat surface. A set 
of round plates or tondini (Nos. 
7632-7643), now at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, are remark- 
ably tine. They represent the 
twelve months of the year, and the 
figure in each is a husbandman 
at work according to the month 
represented ; they are painted in 
different shades of blue on a white 
ground. (See page 15.) 

Luca was succeeded by two 
generations of artists, their style 
varying only indetail,and soform- 
ing what may be termed a Delia 
Kobbia school of art, 1420-1530. 
Of his descendants, his nephew 
Andrea is the most famous, and 
many of his productions are so ex- 
cellent as to be easily confounded 
with those of his uncle. At his 
death in 1528, Andrea was suc- 
ceeded by his four sons, three of 
whom followed the family calling. 
Doubtless many pieces sold as the 
work of the great Luca, although 
of inferior merit, were in reality 
the product of his grandsons' 
workshops. One of these, Giro- 
lamo, went to France, where 
Jacquemart tells us that he super- 
intended the decoration of the 
Chateau de Madrid in the Bois 
de Boulogne. Meanwhile the home works iiad been directed 
by Giovaiuii Delia Kobbia, but the " art " had degenerated into 
" nianufactme," and a general decadence took place. Moreover, 

Gubbio Plaque, St. Sebastian (in relief), 
dated 1501 (Victoria and .'\lbert Museum). 



the secret of the white enamel had become widely known, and 
in consequence many imitations were made. 

In the new Sculpture Gallery at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum the reader will find numerous examples of this school 
of ceramic modelling and enamelling, well arranged. It is really 
a wonderful exhibit. 

While Florence had become famous for Delia Robbia ware, 
other Italian states and cities had made rapid strides in the 
manufacture of enamelled earthenware — Pesaro, P'aenza, Gubbio, 
Urbino, Pisa, Bologna, Ravenna, Forli, Castel Durante, Caffagiolo, 
Naples, Turin, and others ; and if he wishes to become acquainted 
with the characteristics of these different fabriqucs, the reader 
should study MM. Delange and Borneau's beautifully illustrated 
volume. Faiences Italienncs dit Moycn Age ct dc la Renaissance, 
which also contains a sketch-map showing the geographical 
position of some twenty-three of these Italian factories. (See 
separate notice of Majolica, Chapter VII.) 

The most noted in the list of ateliers of the Italian Renais- 
sance is that of Gubbio, not because its average productions are 

One of M. Giorgio's signatures. 

more excellent than those of other factories, but because a 
certain artist, Giorgio Andreoli, with whose name the celebrated 
Gubbio plates are now associated, worked there. He was a native 


of Pavia, and on becoming established at Gubbio, which was in 
the Duchy of Urbino, he acquired the right of citizenship. He 
was subsequently ennobled by his patron the Duke Guidobaldo, 
and judging from the number of specimens extant, he must have 
worked diligently. The first known dated specimen attributed 
to him is the plaque of St. Sebastian, modelled in relief, which 
is in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and of which we give an 
illustration on page 16. It is dated 1501. 

There is a plate by him in the British Museum, signed and 
dated 15 17, and in the same show-case are several other very 
fine specimens. He was known as, and generally signed himself, 
Maestro Giorgio, his signatures showing various curious con- 
tractions and combinations of rough sketchy monograms. 

The pigments used by M. Giorgio were particularly brilliant, 
and his lustred ware is remarkably iridescent. 

From the end of the fifteenth to the middle of the sixteenth, 
century, and especially while Guidobaldo was Duke of Urbino, 
1538—74, ceramic art in Italy may be said to have been at its 
best. Artists of celebrity not only prepared designs, but painted 
many of the pieces, though the fallacy that Raffaele actually 
decorated the majolica known as Kaffaele ware has been ex- 
ploded by the incompatibility of dates. During this period, 
too, subjects from the Scriptures and mythology were intro- 
duced as decoration for vases and plates. Many of the finest 
specimens were made for presentation to neighbouring poten- 
tates, a practice serving as a great encouragement to the Art, by 
stimulating the recipients of these much-valued gifts to become 
proprietors of majolica manufactories themselves, and to take a 
personal interest in their progress. 

The first real porcelain made in Europe, dated as early as 
1580, is stated to have been made at Florence, under the patron- 
age of Francesco de Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany. About a 
hundred years previous to this there is a record of a " transparent 
and beautiful porcelain " having been made at Venice, and the 
writer of a letter which has been preserved mentions the sending 
of two specimens to a friend in Padua, but no one knows of the 
actual existence of any more convincing evidence of fifteenth- 
century European porcelain. It was translucent, of a kind of 
soft paste with a thick, creamy, lead glaze, and the bottle decorated 
with Renaissance ornament in cobalt blue which is in the Salt- 
ing collection is a good representative specimen, and is known 
as " Medici china." (See notice under Flokence, Chap. VII.) 


Towards the end of the sixteenth century, Eastern porcelain 
was introduced into Italy. Partly on account of this and partly 
owing to increased competition, the production of majolica seems 
to have languished, the factory at Castel Durante being the last 
to remain in a flourishing condition. However, at the death 
of its patron, the Duke Francesco Maria II. (1631), it followed 
in the wake of the Pesaro, Urbino, and many other important 
manufactories of Italian enamelled earthenware. 

We have observed that the art of making enamelled earthen- 
ware, called generally, though not very accurately, majolica, 
spread from Italy to France. Doubtless the manufacture of 
pottery of some artistic pretension may be traced to native 
fabnqiies before any foreign introduction, but certainly a great 
improvement may be attributed to the importation of Italian 
potters and artists, just before and during the reign of Francis I. 
The occupation of Naples by Charles VIII., though only tempo- 
rary, prepared a road which Francis I. followed, and the taste 
of the French was thoroughly awakened by contact with the 
Italians and an acquaintance with their cities, so rich in works 
of art. The marriage, too, in 1553, of the Dauphin, afterwards 
Henri II., with Catherine de Medici, daughter of the Duke of 
Urbino, would account for the introduction of Italian artists 
into France. 

The French, however, appear very speedily to have naturalised 
Italian art, and adapted the different improvements they thus 
learned to their existing potteries of Beauvais, Saintes, and others. 
The traces of a foreign element soon vanished, and can now 
usually be detected only by experts, in pieces with French in- 
scriptions that show signs of unfarailiarity with the language. In 
the archives of Rouen is a document quoted by Jacquemart, dated 
22nd September 1557, which mentions the manufacture of artistic 
tiles, of somewhat elaborate design, for the King, by a potter of 
that time. The introduction of the tin-enamel gave a great 
impetus to ceramic art, which also found liberal patronage 
amongst the nobility of P'rance. 

About this time, too, Bernard Palissy, after many trials 
and failures, had achieved a success dearly bought and richly 
merited, and those curious dishes, plates, and vases which have 
rendered him justly famous, were produced. This remarkable 
man was born, about 15 10, at La Chapelle Biron, a small village 
between the Lot and Dordogne in Perigord. Of poor parentage, 
he seems to have had a natural thirst for knowledge, to which 


want of means proved but a slender barrier, and he found time to 
visit the chief provinces of France and Flanders. He married in 
1539, and settled in Saintes as a glass painter and land measurer, 
and some years later, happening to observe a beautiful cup of 
enamelled pottery, he seems to have been seized with a remark- 
able enthusiasm to become a potter, and to have liad no other 
end in life but to disc(5ver the secret of a line enamel. Beyond 
a knowledge of glass manufacture he possessed no other technical 
information, and, therefore, set about his task under considerable 
disadvantages. Experiment after experiment only resulted in dis- 
appointment, and the whole of his savings and the principal part 
of his scanty earnings were also devoted to the object he had so 
enthusiastically set his mind to attain. The complaints of his wife, 
and the distress of his home, could not deter him from the keen 
pursuit of what appeared to all his friends and neighbours a hope- 
less task, and at length, after discharging his last workman for 
want of money to pay wages, and parting with every marketable 
chattel he possessed, he actually burned the floor boards of his 
house in a last attempt to make a successful firing. For sixteen 
long years victory was denied to this zealous potter, but, tardy as 
it was, it came at last, and Palissy had the delight of removing 
from his kiln a comparatively perfect specimen of the enamelled 
earthenware with which his name has been identified. The sub- 
jects he elected to illustrate are well known : reptiles of every 
variety, in high relief and of wonderful fidelity to nature, were 
the strong points of his decoration, though figures and flowers 
were occasionally introduced. His fame soon spread, and obtained 
for him the patronage of Henri II. of F'rance, who gave him 
liberal commissions and protection. In religion, as in art, Palissy 
was earnest and conscientious ; having embraced Protestant 
principles, he was proscribed by the edict of the Parliament of 
Bordeaux in 1562, and, notwithstanding the personal influence 
of the Due de Montpensier, was arrested and his workshop de- 
stroyed. The King claimed him as a special servant in order to 
save his life, and subsequently he only escaped the massacre of 
St. Bartholomew by Court protection. At the age of eighty, how- 
ever, he was again arrested and confined in the Bastille, and, after 
again and again refusing to sacrifice his religious principles, 
though, it is said, he was once personally urged to do so by the 
King (Henri 111.), lingered on in prison until 15^9, when he died, 
a martyr, like so many cjthers of his time, to the Protestant faith. 
That he was naturalist as well as potter, his excellent representa- 



tions of reptiles and insects cnn leave no doubt, and it is worthy 
of remark, that these natural objects are, without exception, 
iialioiial. His celebrated Marguerite daisy ornament was in all 
probability adopted out of compliment to his Protestant pro- 
tectress, Marguerite of Navarre. 

Palissy had many imitators and pupils, and the manufacture 
of the PaHssy ware was continued until the time of Henri IV. 
A plate, with a family group of this monarch and his children, 
exists now, and has been repeatedly copied.^ It may be observed 
here that the original Palissy vase was very light ; the imitations 
are much clumsier. There are some excellent examples to refer 
to in the Salting bequest. 

In speaking of French ceramics of the Renaissance period, 
the celebrated, and now extremely rare, Saint Porchaire ware 
claims attention after Palissy ; this, unlike Palissy ware or the 
enamelled pottery of Italy, is an encrusted faience. Its origin is 
attributed to a woman of great taste, Helene de Hengest, widow 
of Artur Goufher, formerly governor of Francis I., and Grand- 
Master of France. This lady used to reside during the summer at 
the chateau of Oiron (a small locality in the dependency of Thouars), 
and was said to have established under her immediate patronage 
a pottery managed by Bernart and Charpentier. The ware was 
of fine paste, worked with the hand, and very thin, and upon the 
first nucleus the potter spread a still thinner layer of purer and 
whiter earth, in which he graved the principal ornaments, and then 
filled them in with a coloured clay, which he made level with the 
surface. It is, therefore, a decoration by incrustation rather than 
by painting. During Helene's lifetime the pieces were principally 
vases commemorating the death, virtues, and idiosyncrasies of her 
friends, but after her demise, in 1537, the fabriqui' being con- 
tinued by her son, the decoration became richer and mainly of 
an architectural type ; pieces of this class are now occasionally 
seen in good collections, though it is said that not more than 
sixty-five authenticated specimens are in existence. Salt-cellars, 
triangular or square, give us the Gothic window of the collegiate 
chapel of Oiron, supported by buttresses having the form of the 
symbolic termini supporting the chimney-pieces of the great gallery 
of the Chateau Gouftier (some few years afterwards sacked during 
the religious wars). Royal emblems, cyphers, and shields also 
occur as part of the ornamentation. 

' MM. Del.inge et Boineaii's illusLrated volume, L'QLnvres de Bernard Palissy, should 
be Consulted. 



This beautiful faience was, until a few years ago, known by 
the name of Faience cfOirou, or Henri Deux ware ; but, on the 
authority of M. Edouard Bonnafte, a learned writer on French 
art, who took some pains to trace its origin to the village of Saint 
Porchaire, it has been acknowledged by collectors under its more 
correct title of Saint Porchaire.^ 

Of all ceramic gems it is the most costly, and to judge by 
the more recent public sales where pieces have changed owner- 
ship its price seems to rise rather than fall. At the sale of 

Saint Porcliaire Sall-cellar (Victoria and AUierl Museum). 

the Fountaine (Narford Hall) collection, three specimens which 
were found in an old clothes-basket under a bedstead at Narford 
Hall, realised the enormous sum of £b2-},b. At the Spitzer sale in 
Paris, 1893, a tazza which at the Hamilton Palace sale a few years 
previous had brought ;/.i2i8, was purchased by Mr. George 
Salting for £1500, and this is now at the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. A candlestick in the collection of Mr. Leopold Koths- 
child cost the stun of .^3675. Those of our readeis who would 

' In the calalojjuc of the Sahini; l>ci|uest llie Victoria and Allien Museum authorities 
appear to prefer the former name of Henri II. ware. 


= 3 

learn more particulars of this highly prized and coveted kind of 
ware will find a table, which was compiled by Mr. Chaffers and 
revised and brought up to date by the author of the present work, 
in the later editions of Chatters' Marks and Monograms. (See 
separate notice under Saint Porchaire, Chap. VII.) 

The success of this beautiful and delicate faience did not 
outlive the two first potters; the limited production, therefore, 
as well as its undoubted merit, is a reason for its value. 

The famous wares of the Renaissance period were, then, 

Eli/,abellian Sluneware Tiisj, silver-mounted. Mall Mark dale 1600 
(Victoria and Albert Miiseinii). 

the "Henri II.," or Saint Porchaire, and the ware of Palissy ; 
but at this time a considerable number of smaller ateliers were 
producing specimens of varying merit, under the immediate 
patronage of many art-loving seigneurs in Southern France. 

Some of the more important of these makers will be found 
noticed in the alphabetical list of ceramic factories in a subsequent 
chapter — among others that of Franvois Briot, a skilful goldsmith, 


and also a potter, whose woik, contemporary with that of Palissy, 
is sometimes confounded with it. (See notice under Briot, Chap. 
VII.) As upon specimens from some of these smaller French 
potteries there is no fabriquc mark, it is difficult to decide to 
which potter to assign them. Some, however, bear as part of 
their decoration the coat of arms or heraldic device of the 
owner of the property where they were made. 

The Persian school of ceramics, embracing the pottery of 
Persia, Damascus, Anatolia, and Rhodes, belongs to the period 
which we are now considering. In the preceding chapter some 
allusion has been made to this school, influenced as it was by the 

Teapiii of Klers Ware (VioUiiia and Albert Miiscimi). 

old Mosaic Law ; and in the later productions of the thirteenth 
to the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries we find this influence 
still predominant, though it wanes during the seventeenth century, 
when figures of men and of animals began to appear in tlie scheme 
of decorations. Under separate notices in Chapter VII., on Persia 
and Rhodes, some fuller particulars relative to this kind of pottery 
will be found. 

With the Middle Ages had come the Crusades, bringing to 
Europe a better acquaintance with the Saracenic art, and the 
production of tiles, which is now on such an enormous scale in 
England, may be said to have originated from this source. 



G(;rman Stoneware (Sixteenth Century). 
Four-iiandled Waler-iug. 


Stoneware of a decorative kind was 
also made in Nuremberg and many 
other parts of Germany ; the famous 
cannettes of Cologne being made about 
the si.xteenth century, and imported 
thence to England, where their manu- 
facture was attempted, and patents 
granted in 1626. (See notice under 
Cologne, Chap. VII.) Some thirty or 
forty years previous to this date, how- 
ever, stoneware of a superior kind had 
been made at Staffordshire, one of the 
earliest potters being one William Simp- 
son, and, later, the fictile art in England 
received an impetus by the immigration 
of some Dutch potters, the brothers 
Elers, who brought with them the secrets 
that were known at the time to some 
of the Continental potters. (See also 
Eleks, Chap. VII.) 

The well-known "greybeards" may be mentioned her 

Bellarminc, (if Kulliam Stoneware 
(Schreil)er Collection, Victoria 
and Albert Museinn). 



These jugs were first made in caricature of Cardinal Bellarmine, 
who, through opposition to the Reformed rehgion, was unpopular 
in the Low Countries. Tradition ascribes to the Cardinal a 
somewhat bulky person, together with a long beard, hence these 
jugs were called " Bellarmines." For those who are interested 
in tracing our slang terms back to their derivation, Mr. jewitt 

Dish ofTtffl Ware, decxn'alcil in slip (Vicloria and Alliert Museum) 

quotes from an old play, showing that the vernacular " mug" was 
taken from these jugs. 

Under the notices of different potteries in Chapter VII., the 
reader will find some particulars of the work of both English and 
Continental potters during the sixteenth and seventeenth cen- 
turies. In P'ulham, John Dwight established in 1671 a manu- 
factory where, after many experiments, he succeeded in producing 
a material which he termed porcelain, hul which has been 


happily called by Professor Churcli a '' porcellaneous stoneware," 
and for which he took out a patent. (See also notice under 
Flilham, Chap. VII.) 

At Wrotham, in Kent, were produced, in the early years of 
the seventeenth century, those quaint, slip-decorated posset-pots, 
tygs, and dishes which are picturesque ceramic reminiscences 
of this time. 

Some excellent stoneware jugs and tankards were also made 
at Brampton near Chesterfield, at potteries in the neighbourhood 
of Nottingham, and some other districts. 

In Staffordshire our potters were making those buff-coloured 
dishes which we now recognise as " Toft 
ware," and concerning which, under a 
separate notice, more details are given. The 
illustration on p. 26 of a very quaint dish, 
signed by the potter, will give an idea of 
this peculiar ware, which marks a distinct 
period in our national ceramics. 

Francis Place deserves mention as a „ ,, „ ^ i„ ■ ^^r 

Small Cup of Place s Ware 

potter of this period (seventeenth century), in Mr. Thomas Buymon's 
He was apparently a gentleman of ample CoiiL-ction. 
means and cultured taste, and established -a. fabrique in the Manor 
House, York. There is in the Victoria and Albert Museum a 
quaint little mug, in appearance resembling agate, only z\ inches 
high, which was presented to the Museum by the late Sir A. W. 
Franks. It was purchased at the famous sale of the contents 
of Strawberry Hill, and has a time-worn and faintly-inscribed 
label which is in all probability in the handwriting of Horace 
Walpole — " Mr. P'rancis Place's china." 

Mr. Thomson Boynton possesses a similar specimen which 
is illustrated on p. 27 from a photograph. 

Before passing on to the introduction of porcelain, mention 
must be made of the celebrated Delft, the manufacture of 
which flourished in the seventeenth century. The old Dutch 
town of Delft, between The Hague and Rotterdam, belonging 
to a nation which, at that time, was the only European Power 
to' which the Japanese allowed an entrance into their ports, 
availed itself of its large importation of Eastern porcelain to 
attempt copies thereof. These took the shape of a product 
known as " Delft," which, though an earthenware in substance, 
has yet much of the feeling and character of Oriental porce- 

2 8 


lain, and, in the fine colour (the Oriental blue) and peculiar 
bluish-white of the ground of some of the best specimens, is 
very closely assimilated to its original models. Like the term 
majolica, " Delft " is often wrongly applied to all kinds of glazed 

Design uf Ornament on Pottery liy I'alissy- 




E are accustomed to speak and to write of 
certain marked developments in Art and 
Industry as belonging to a century, a reign, 
or a dynasty, although the actual periods 
of the almanac or the life of a sovereign 
may not coincide with the changes to which 
we refer. It is convenient in a general 
way to consider steam and telegraphy as 
the product of the nineteenth century, to 
refer to a certain form of ornament as " Queen Anne " or 
" Georgian," and in a similar connection we must consider the 
eighteenth century as the century of porcelain, just as the sixteenth 
was that of majolica. 

Ceramics have always been rightly divided into two distinct 
classes — pottery and porcelain. The term " porcelain," or, as it 
is often called, china, should include tho^e articles produced by 
an artificial mixture of certain mineral elements, known by their 
Chinese names of kaolin and petuntse, or their English ones of 
china clay and felspar. 

Porcelain is translucent and breaks with a smooth fracture, 
either shell-like or granular according to its composition, hard or 
soft paste, of which we shall speak presently. Pottery is opaque 
and breaks with a rough fracture, that is, will show rough edges 
where broken. 

The derivation of the word Porcelain is said to be from the 
Portuguese porccllana (a little pig), and is explained by the fact 
that the Portuguese, the pioneers of Eastern trade, used as a 
currency in their traffic little cowrie shells {poixcllana), so called 
from their shape resembling that of a pig. When they brought 
home the first specimens of real porcelain from China, and the 
novel commodity required a name, its shell-like appearance at 


once suggested tlie title, and as porcelain or china it has ever 
since been known. 

Porcelain varies considerably in composition, and is divided 
roughly into two classes, hard paste and soft paste. Hard paste 
of whatever nationality is very similar in its component parts, and 
contains only the natural elements already mentioned of china 
clay and felspar. The china clay is an infusible plastic body, 
while the felspar is a dry, fusible material by which the whole 
mass is bound together in partial vitrifaction. This felspar con- 
stitutes by itself the hard glaze which is the surface of hard 
porcelain, and if we attempt to scratch this with a file or the 
blade of a knife, it will resist any attempt to make an impression, 
unless the file should be specially tempered for such a hard 

Soft paste porcelain is of different kinds, varying according 
to the particular recipe adopted and also to the purpose for 
which the porcelain is intended. M. Brongniart has divided it 
into three classes : — 

I. Porcelainc tcndrc aiiificielle in which we should include the 
earliest made French porcelain of Rouen and St. Cloud, also that 
afterwards made at Vincennes and Sevres. 2. Porcelain tcndrc 
nalnrcUc, which embraces the china made at Bow and Chelsea 
and the other English factories which followed them, always 
excepting Plymouth and Bristol. Mr. William Burton in his 
valuable writings on this subject has given the analyses of the 
different compositions, which vary in each case, and has termed 
them artificial porcelain. 3. Brongniart distinguishes a third class 
which he terms porcelainc inixte or hybridc, and under this classih- 
cation he includes the early Florentine porcelain made in the 
si.xteenth century and that of some other Italian fabriqucs. 

Whatever be the combination of clays, lime, sand, or of 
animal and mineral ingredients which make up the many varieties 
of soft paste porcelain, they have all a general similarity, and 
their softness is a question of degree. A very soft or as it is 
technically termed " fat " specimen of old Sevres, a piece of 
Nantgarw, or a Minton imitation of Sevres, each differing in 
appearance to a trained eye and also to the touch, all possess 
a vitreous body and a soft glaze which could be scratched by 
a knife or other sharp instrument. This glaze, too, instead of 
forming itself in the kiln as it does in the case of hard paste 
porcelain, is applied by a subsequent firing to that of the body, 
and at a lower temperature. Acids from fruits, ruul dyes, will 


stain soft paste, while hard paste will be impervious to such 
contact, and while the fracture of hard paste will show edges 
like those of a broken shell, the edges of soft paste porcelain 
when broken will be granular or, as it has been described, like 
the broken surfaces of a lump of sugar. It is also hred at a 
lower temperature than the hard paste china, and while it lends 
itself to the colour effects of decoration more kindly than does 
the harder description of china, it naturally cannot compare 
favourably with it in respect of durability. 

Specimens of Chinese porcelain had found their way to England 
as early as 1506, when a present of some "Oriental china bowls" 
was made to Sir Thomas Trenchard, then High Sheriff, by Philip 
of Austria, when his Majesty visited Weymouth, being driven 
there by stress of weather during his voyage from the Low 
Countries to Spain. Amongst the new year's gifts to Queen Eliza- 
beth, 1587-88, was "a porringer of white porselyn and a cup of 
green porselyn," presented by Lord Burghleigh and Mr. Robert 
Cecil. Probably one of the most ancient specimens of porcelain 
in England is the Celadon bowl which was presented to New 
College, Oxford, by Archbishop Warham some time between 
1504 and 1532. 

The secrets of manufacture were well kept by the Celestials, 
and inquisitive travellers were regaled with many a hoax, which, in 
default of better information, was retailed and believed in Europe. 
Thus Lord Bacon, certainly one of the best-informed men of his 
time, in an argument at the bar during the impeachment of Haste, 
speaks of the " tniiies" of porcelain, " which porcelain is a kind of 
plaster buried in the earth, and by length of time congealed and 
glazed into that fine substance." 

It was also stated that porcelain was made of eggshells and 
seashells, beaten small and buried in the earth for a hundred years ; 
hence the old couplet — 

"True fame, like porc'laiii earth, for years must lay 
Buried and mixed with elemental clay." 

Another fable was that the mysterious porcelain cups were of such 
a nature as to betray poison by a sudden change of transparency. 
It must of course be borne in mind, that before the Cape of 
Good Hope had been doubled by the Portuguese traders, every 
specimen brought home had been carried across the desert on the 
backs of camels, and that, owing to the monopoly of Eastern 
trade, enjoyed first by the Portuguese and subsequently by the 


Dutch, the EngHsh East India Company was shut out from import- 
ing Oriental porcelain for some time after its formation in 1650. 

Pere d'Entrecolles, the Superior-General of the French Jesuits 
in China, who established a mission in some of the provinces of 
the Celestial Empire, writing in 1717, mentions the number of 
furnaces in a single province, that of Feouliang, as having in- 
creased from 300 to 3000 ; and the same writer, who appears to 
have been most anxious to impart to his countrymen the secret of 
porcelain manufacture, having learnt from his Chinese converts 
many particulars, sent home a list of specific instructions, accom- 
panied by specimens, to Father Orry at Paris in 17 12. The 
information thus acquired by the French potters laid the founda- 
tion of the famous manufactory at Sevres. 

We have seen, in a previous chapter, how the importation of 
true porcelain into Europe about the end of the seventeenth 
century caused the decline of the majolica fahriqitcs. Its 
finer and more compact body, its superiority for all vessels of 
use, and, moreover, the novelty and secret of its production, 
attracted the attention of art-loving sovereigns and noble patrons 
of the different ceramic ateliers, and the manufacture of artistic 
majolica was comparatively forsaken. It must also be re- 
membered that, previous to its introduction into Europe as a 
manufacture. Oriental porcelain had connnanded a very high 
price amongst collectors ; the difficulty of importation, owing 
to the exclusive manners of the Chinese, accounting in a great 
measure for this. 

There is some doubt as to who can claim the credit of having 
first made porcelain in Europe. Jacquemart tells us of the liberal 
offers made by Alfonso, Duke of Ferrara, Modena, and Reggio, to 
obtain the services of a Venetian potter who was reputed to 
possess the coveted secret, but who declined the Duke's over- 
tures on account of the journey and his age. Another story, 
which is substantiated by the archives of Florence, is interesting 
as showing the importance attached to the secret of making 
porcelain. In 1567, owing to the accidental discharge of a 
cannon in the ducal arsenal, the master-founder, who was also 
chief potter, one Camillo, was mortally wounded, and there 
was considerable excitement lest he should die without first 
revealing the secret of making porcelain, which he was believed 
to possess. Jacquemart quotes an extract from the note of the 
ambassador to the Grand Duke of P'lorence, announcing the event 
to his master: "Camillo da Urbino, maker of vases, and jxiinter. 


chemist in some sort to your Excellency, who is the real Modena 
inventor of porcelain." 

In the preceding chapter some reference has been made to the 
first soft paste porcelain made at Florence, and under the notice 
of that factory some additional particulars will be found. This 
was termed Medici porcelain, and only some forty specimens are 
known to exist. 

Venice also claims to have been the first in this field, but 
there is no record of any successful production until later, though 
we know that attempts were made as early as 1520. In 1695 a 
soft porcelain of fine quality was made at St. Cloud (see Chap, VII.), 
and the invention was protected by special royal patents and con- 
cessions. These Jacquemart quotes in exteiiso, also some interest- 
ing e.xtracts from the Mcraire de France for the year 1700, 
recording the visits of royalty and aristocracy to the factory. 

The first true hard porcelain was, however, made in Saxony 
in the year 1709, and fostered by the keen personal interest of 
Augustus II., Elector of Saxony and King of Poland, this 
manufactory became in a few years famous for its beautiful 
productions. Every precaution was taken to ensure the secrecy 
of the highly-prized recipe ; and when Charles XII. of Sweden 
invaded Saxony in 1706, Bottger, at that time busily employed 
in making the experiments that resulted successfully some three 
years later, was sent with three workmen under a cavalry escort 
to Konigstein, where, safe from molestation, he could continue 
his work in a laboratory especially fitted up for him in the 
fortress. His fellow-prisoners formed a plan of escape, but 
Bottger was prudent enough to disclose the scheme, and by 
this act of fidelity became subjected to less rigorous confine- 
ment. In 1708 he succeeded in withdrawing from his furnace 
a seggar containing a teapot, which, in the presence of the King, 
was plunged into a vessel of cold water without sustaining any 
injury, and he improved on this signal triumph in subsequent 
trials, until the great manufactory at Meissen was opened under 
his directorate in 1709-10. (See notice of Dresden, Chap. VII.) 

From the notices of the different factories in Chapter VII., 
it will be seen how, by means of runaway workmen, the secret 
of porcelain manufacture spread to other centres ; first to Vienna, 
and afterwards to many other German towns, wherever the 
facilities existed for the establishment of the necessary works, 
and supply of the kaolin. In a great number of cases, how- 
ever, the career of prosperity was short, owing to many diffi- 



culties, of which the cost of management was not the least. 
Such factories were often the expensive toys of artistic potentates, 
and perished for lack of the necessary subsidies when the patron 
died, or when from other circumstances funds were not available. 
Specimens of their manufacture have, in consequence, become 
rare and valuable, not only for their scarcity, but because, as 
they were in many cases produced at great cost, without regard 
to making the factory self-supporting, they have intrinsically an 
artistic value superior to the vast bulk of the productions of more 
recent manufactories, which are conducted on commercial 

In England our potters had not been idle in attempting to 
produce, like their Continental rivals, a material that would 
compare favourably with the real porcelain of China. We 
have seen how John Dwight in the latter half of the seventeenth 
century nearly succeeded, and also how the brothers Elers, 
settling in Bradwell and also near Burslem, produced a red 
ware, not unlike that made by Bottger of Meissen, and also closely 
assimilated to the earlier red Chinese ware. 

As an illustration of the extreme caution observed by success- 
ful potters, it is said that the Elers only employed workmen of 
the lowest intelligence for certain processes, fearing that their 
secret would be known and betrayed. In Dr. Shaw's History 
of the Staffordshire Potteries, a book which contains a vast 
amount of carefully collected information on the subject, we 
find the story of a master potter named John Astbury feigning 
idiocy in order to get employment in the Elers' works, and so 
obtain access to their secret recipes and methods. It was on 
account of competition and the annoyance of finding that rival 
potters shared their jealously guarded secrets, that the Elers 
relinquished their works in Staffordshire and, according to Dr. 
Shaw, removed to Lambeth or Chelsea about 1710. 

The next great name which stands out in the history of 
ceramic progress in England is that of Josiah Wedgwood, who 
having been apprenticed to his father in 1744, after a short 
partnership first with Harrison and then with Thomas Whieldon, 
started on his own account in 1759. Three years afterwards he 
produced his celebrated cream ware, called "Queen's ware," and 
in 1768 he took Thomas Bentley into partnership for the orna- 
mental work in his manufactory, which had by this time developed 
into a very extensive business. 

In 1752 John Sadler, a master printer of Liverpool, discovered 



the cheaper and quicker method of decorating Wedgwood's 
cream-coloured ware by transfer printing (see Liverpool, Chap. 
VI 1.), and he and liis partner Guy Green, by means of this 
process, enormously increased the demand for such ware. 

Richard Chaffers, a prominent Liverpool potter, hearing of 
Wedgwood's success, and fearing that he would be beaten out of 
the market unless he could find the means to manufacture " true 
porcelain," travelled on horseback to Cornwall in 1755, with a 
thousand guineas in his holsters, to find and purchase the "soap- 
rock " which was the necessary ingredient. When he found 
this material in Cornwall, and succeeded in producing a china 
similar to Oriental porcelain, his first presentation was to his great 
rival, Wedgwood. The story of Richard Chaffers — who died in 
1765, soon after his adventurous and successful journey — is well 
told by Mr. Joseph Mayer, in whose collection are some of the 
trial pieces of Chaffers' porcelain. In these days of the twentieth 
century, when articles of china are in such common daily use, 
it is difficult to realise the heartburnings and jealousies, the diffi- 
culties, disappointments, and suspense endured by our eighteenth- 
century potters, in producing a material which should equal or 
surpass the famous Chinese porcelain. In the large edition of 
Chaffers there are given some extracts from letters written in 
the year 1756-63 respecting the results of Richard Chaffers' ex- 
pedition, and they read now almost as do the reports from the 
managers of gold mines in Africa or Western Australia at the 
present day. Thus : — 

1756, October 2. — "He will send about ten tons of clay, but was afraid of a 
disturbance between the lords of the land when he weighed it off; his 
charges out at this present was not up nor down of thirteen pound." 

1759, December 8. — " Teppit had weighed of the clay nine tons and seventeen 
hundred of as nice a clay as ever was seen, and said there was a man 
down in October who said he would give any money for such a parcel." 

1761, May 23. — "We have found a very good bunch of clay ; if it holds we can 
rise two or three hundred a day, and when the level is in, I hope it will 
serve for many years." 

1763, October 5. — "Sends off ten tons more in thirty-five casks. In 1764 the 
soap rock yields well, and is duly shipped ?'/rf Hull to Liverpool." 

There are many more, and also a note that in May 1755, 
the " mine " of soap rock was sold to the Worcester Porcelain 
Company for ^500. 

About this time, or some years previously, experiments had 
been made by William Cookworthy of Plymouth with Cornish 
kaolin and granite stone, and a patent, which had considerable 


influence upon our native porcelain manufacture, was taken out 
by him in 1758. The works at Plymouth were transferred to 
Bristol in 1770. (See notices on these factories in Chap. VII.) 

Then we have the commencement of the Chelsea Factory 
prior to 1745. We know that the Bow Factory was doing an 
extensive business in 1760 — and in 175 1 we find Mr. William 
Duesbury establishing the Derby Works, and Dr. Wall of Wor- 
cester founding the celebrated factory in that city. China was 
made at Lowestoft in 1756, John Turner commenced his china 
works at Caughley, Shropshire, in 1772, and the Rockingham 
works were founded in 1757. Under the different notices in a 
subsequent chapter the reader will find particulars of ail these 
factories ; the dates of their initiation are given here to emphasise 
the fact that in England, as on the Continent, our potters were 
making great strides in the development and perfecting of their 
art. There are in books and newspapers of the time many re- 
ferences to the new invention of the da}'. Numerous quotations 
from the letters of persons interested in this novel industry 
might be given, in which the different clays and methods are 
discussed. Various patents were taken out by inventors of new 
processes, and there was, as we have seen, an active rivalry 
between manufacturers and art patrons, in making and improving 
" true porcelain." It is a sign of the times that the Bow manu- 
factory was called " New Canton," while in the epitaph of Thomas 
Frye he is described as " The Inventor and First Manufacturer 
of Porcelain in England." 

The names of inventors, founders, and manufacturers of 
porcelain, to which we have just referred, are those of some of 
the pioneers. Later we have Spocle and his successor Copeland, 
the great house of Mintons, and the Davenports in England. In 
Wales, Mr. Dilwyn produced his beautiful Swansea and Nantgarw 
china, while in the north of Ireland Mr. Armstrong's enterprise 
achieved the Belleek factory. 

During the eighteenth century, then, we find that in England 
and on the European continent the manufacture of porcelain 
passed through its early experimental stages, and developed into 
an important industry. 


Knife-handle of Mene^y porcelain. 



N Art, as in manufactures, a characteristic 
phase of development has been the gradual 
education of the million to a knowledge of 
its many wants ; thus, with the growth of 
wealth and civilisation, the circumstances 
of Art have materially changed, even if 
her laws have altered but little. She now 
aims, not as formerly, to produce luxuries 
for the few, but to supply the wants of 
the many, and the artist is no longer dependent upon a single 
patron, but upon society at large. On the other hand, the great 
commercial ideal of making a speculation remunerative is applied 
more and more to undertakings having for their object the pro- 
duction of artistic works, and in too many cases art degenerates 
into manufacture. Against this disadvantage, however, we must 
set off the vast increase in the support and encouragement 
accorded to artists, and therefore the increase in the number 
of persons trained to art pursuits ; also the modern demand 
for copies of good originals affords the producer means of 
recouping himself for his outlay on the latter. 

With respect, however, to pottery and porcelain, one can 
scarcely contrast the modern period with the ancient, as most 
of the finest European ceramic specimens only date back to a 
relatively recent period — for majolica the fifteenth and sixteenth 
centuries, for porcelain the eighteenth. Furthermore, in con- 
sidering the matter, we have to compare the productions of our 
own time with those of a period when potteries were the play- 
things of sovereigns, and not commercial undertakings carried on 
for profit. 

When the collector looks about him, even though his investi- 
gation goes no further than the shop windows of one of our 


fashionable London streets, and compares the inferior wares 
exhibited with specimens of early Sevres, Dresden, or Oriental 
porcelain, he is apt to exclaim at the sad degeneration of ceramic 
art. But before passing sentence he must consider two things. 
First, he must carefully separate art from manufacture ; for 
though the bad copy offends the critical eye of the connoisseur, 
surely it is better that the public, if it must have ornament cheaply 
provided, should have something to educate it in the direction 
of the good original, rather than something without prece- 
dent as well as without merit. Secondly, it must be recollected 
that " the survival of the fittest " is an axiom in Art as it is in 
science, and that as the best is preserved to us from former ages, 
so posterity will judge of our nineteenth-century art, not by its 
worst specimens, but by its best, even though some of these now 
pass with their merit unacknowledged. 

It will be seen by reference to the list of different factories 
(Chapter Vll.), that, with a very moderate number of exceptions, 
decline and fall followed rise and progress in a compara- 
tively short space of time, because the limited production was 
insufficient to support the heavy expenses attending the manage- 
ment. Some few factories have with varying vicissitudes con- 
tinued from their foundation to the present time ; the following are 
the chief: Dresden, founded 1709: Sevres, 1745; Worcester, 
175 1 ; Berlin, 1751. The ranks of the fallen have been re- 
cruited by an army of potters who started some years after- 
wards : our English Wedgwood commencing business in 1759, 
Spode in 1784, and Minton in 1793. A revival of the old 
Capo di Monte works has been effected by the Marquis Ginori 
at his establishment near Florence ; the Copenhagen factory, 
too, was resuscitated in 1772, and made a State concern in 
1775. The small Bavarian factory at Nymphenburg is still 
carried on, and here and there fresh factories of porcelain have 
been established. The increase in the manufacture of pottery as 
distinct from porcelain is on a very much more extensive scale. 

The first-named of the old factories, the Royal Saxony or 
Meissen manufactory, has held its own to the present time. 
Its chief fault is ultra-conservatism in its management, too rigid 
an adherence to the old models and designs, and a general 
want of vigour in breaking fresh ground. 

To the modern German school is due the revival of over- 
decorated Vienna china. When the State or Royal factory 
ceased in 1864, its plant was sold, and some of the employes 


Specimen of modern work, a vase in the Italian style, 
by the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company. 


started works of their own. At first the better traditions of the 
old factory were maintained, but the anxiety for profit, and tiie 
endeavour to meet a demand for cheapness, led these men and 
their successors to produce tawdry copies of the vases and ser- 
vices of better times. Therefore " modern Vienna " has become 
a byword for over-decorated, richly gilded, and generally badly 
painted china. 

Unfortunately, too, we have to place to the account of modern 
German manufacturers some of the worst forgeries and imitations 
of old Dresden, of old Worcester, and of other kinds of porcelains 
which are in request. (See notes in Chapter VI. on " Counterfeit 

In some cases new factories have been started in the place 
of extinct ones, and although the present productions are of 
a meretricious character, generally resembling inferior modern 
Dresden, they use the same mark as that of their more worthy and 
painstaking predecessors. The group of hard paste porcelain 
factories which towards the end of the eighteenth century grew 
up in the forest district of Thuringia have gradually abandoned the 
production of the higher description of goods, and the surviving 
concerns make large quantities of china for table use, and some 
specimens are marked in imitation of older and more sought 
after fabriqitcs. (See also notes on "Misleading Marks" in 
Chapter VI.) 

The Berlin factory produces a great many presentation speci- 
mens, in which the representation of Imperial portraits is a pro- 
minent form of decoration. It also makes a large quantity of 
high-class porcelain for table services. 

The Sevres manufactory lives somewhat upon its past re- 
putation ; and though the forms and ground colours are very 
good, the delicacy of the old pate iendre is wanting, and the paint- 
ing of the subjects shows a great falling off from the days of 
Madame de Pompadour. 

Until recently one was able to purchase at the Sevres manu- 
factory specimens of recent productions, but some few years ago 
the Government came to the conclusion that as a State concern 
under a Republican form of government it should not enter 
into competition with private enterprise, and the sale of Sevres 
porcelain was accordingly prohibited. Specimens are now pre- 
sented to individuals in recognition of some public service. 

To the modern French school of ceramic art belong the fac- 
tories of M. Pillevuyt {ci-v.), of M. Deck, of Limoges, now owned 


by Haviland & Co., and many others, including that factory of 
excellent ceramic statuary or " biscuit" of " Maison Gille," whence 
come life-size figures of Love and Folly, and statuettes of the 
different models of Venus, which may often be seen in some of 
the best of our London china houses. There are also in the 
neighbourhood of Fontainebleau several china-makers, amongst 
others the successors of Jacob Petit, who established a factory at 
Belleville in 1790. In the close vicinity of Paris, too, are many 
makers and decorators. The majority of these produce imitations 
of either the Sevres or Dresden models, and the quality is good, 
bad, or indifferent, according to the class of demand catered for. 

The manufacture of faience of an ornamental kind is carried 
on in France upon an enormous scale. There are a great many 
small makers who produce imitations of the old Delft, and also of 
the early faiences of Rouen, Moustiers, Marseilles, and kindred 
wares. Several of these are alluded to in the notices of different 
factories in Chapter VIL In a notice, too, of the modern 
French china, one must not forget various minor fabriqucs, 
where the soft paste of Tournay is decorated after the manner 
of the old Sevres. The best of these wares approach in 
softness of glaze and brilliancy of colour the veritable pate 
tendrc which they imitate. Of the colours thus revived, those 
imitating the pomnie voie and gros bleu are the best, while the 
imitation of the beautiful rose du Barry is the least successful. The 
enrichment of these pieces by jewelling is very clever, and is 
better in effect than that of our English manufactures. These 
firms of porcelain decorators affect the double L of Sevres as a 
mark, and use in lieu of a date-mark the initial of their own name. 
(See also notice under "Counterfeit Marks," Chapter VI.) 

Of the modern Italian school of ceramics, perhaps the chief 
is the large manufactory of the Marquis Ginori, whose artistic 
majolica is particularly good, the shapes being graceful, the decora- 
tion of a high class, and, in some of the best pieces, very finely 
finished. The lustred or iridescent majolica of the sixteenth cen- 
tury has been successfully reproduced, and in fact some of the 
pieces have been palmed off by unscrupulous dealers as original 
specimens. As to the porcelain, the sharpness of the bas-relief 
is inferior to that of the old Capo di Monte, and the colouring 
is more crude, but the shapes are excellent, and the peculiar kind 
of twisted handles {iutrecciato) very pretty (see CAPO Dl MONTE). 

The majolica manufacturers of Bologna, of Faenza, Imola, 
Le Nove, and Cubbio {(j-v.), and some others, are making, with 


considerable success, reproducticjns of the Urbino of the Re- 
naissance period, and at the Italian Exhibition held in London 
in 1888, when the author acted as one of the jurors of this class 
of ceramics, there were in the faience exhibits some excellent 
reproductions of Le Nove pottery. At Valencia and Seville manu- 
factories exist, not of a high order, but showing some skill in the 
reproduction of " Alcazar " and " Alhambra " tiles, and decorative 
pottery. In Portugal the painting of pottery pictures, mostly for 
the embellishment of churches, is carried on ; and a notice of 
modern foreign ceramics would be incomplete without mention of 
the factories of Copenhagen, the products of which are familiar to 
every observer of shop-windows in the metropolis. In the repro- 
duction of Thorwaldsen's models and bas-reliefs in terra-cotta 
the Danish potters are very clever, and the chief of these manu- 
factories is under State management (see Copenhagen). 

In modern ceramics England has made greater progress 
than any other country during the past forty or fifty years, 
since the impetus given to art industry by the great Exhibition 
of 1851. 

The notices of factories in Chapter VII. will give the dales and 
some particulars of the progress of our great national works, 
Minton, Worcester, Copeland, and Doulton ; and an examination 
of the official catalogues of International Exhibitions since 1831, 
and of official trade returns published during the last twenty or 
thirty years, will emphasise in a marked degree the enormous 
increase in this country of the manufacture of pottery and 

The adoption by the Worcester and Minton factories, particu- 
larly by the former management, of the pate stir pate process of 
decoration has been, in the writer's opinion, one of the most 
successful improvements to be noticed. It gives to the speci- 
men much of the beautiful appearance of a cameo, an effect 
which is increased by the polish given to the lower stratum, 
forming the groundwork of the subject, which is in slight relief. 

This process, inspired, it is said, by a Chinese porcelain vase 
in the Sevres Museum, was introduced at Minton's by Louis Marc 
Solon, who had previously worked at the Sevres factory ; but at 
the outbreak of the Franco-German War in 1870 he left France 
and joined Minton's staff. He found this parian body especially 
adapted to his pate sitr pate decoration, and from 1870 until his 
retirement from Minton's in 1904 he has continued to produce 
beautiful vases and plaques decorated in this manner. His 



conceptions are original and full of poetry and charm. The 
white cameo-like effect is particularly successful when used as a 
slight relief to the celadon green grounds. There is a pair of his 
vases in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and Mr. Herbert Eccles 



Copy of old Sevres Vase " Duplessis," the pair being en suite with the Vaisseaii 
a Mai. The groundwork is a production of the ccleljrated " pommeverle" of the 
old Sevres in its finest period. 

of Neath has formed a collection of his work from the earliest to 

his latest endeavour, and many of his specimens are of re- 

JAt markable beauty. Early Minton pieces of Solon's work 

'•^^^ from 1870 to 1873 bear his monogram I^.M.S., and later 

ones are incised or painted L. Solon. The monogram mark will 

also be found in the list of Sevres decorators {(/.v.). 



Within the last twenty-five or thirty years Mintons have made 
an ex-ceilent reproduction of the vicux pate tnidre (see MiNTON), 


Copy of the old Sevres I'aisseaii <) 3/iz/. One of the original pieces is in the collection 
of his late Majesty, King Edward X'll., another was possessed by the late Baron Ferdinand 
de Rothschild, and there is a set in the Wallace collection. Copies have been made by 
Mintons, both for Messrs. Morllock & Goode, the originals being lent for the purpose. 

due to the late Mr. C. M. Campbell's enterprise, and the turquoise 
blue which this paste is capable of taking is nearly equal to the 
colour it is meant to imitate. 



The reproductions of the famous S^ivres ganiif/nrs de cheiiiiiie'es 
— the Vaisseau a Mat and Candelabra formed of elephant heads — - 
which are illustrated on pp. 42, 43, are good examples of their kind. 

It not infrequently happens that some of Minton's work bears 


Vase, Ijy Miss Hannah Barlow. The 
ground of the body of the vase is in the 
natural colour of the clay, the animals 
being scratched on the surface and colour 
rubbed in. This colouring is done under 
the artist's direclion. 

A Jug, by Mr. (leorge Tinuorth. 
The design drawn with a sharp instru- 
ment which forms a burr on either 
edge, and thus keeps the various 
colours inore sharply defined. The 
" dotting" process done afterwards. 

the mark of the firms for whom the order was executed, such as 
Mortlock's, Goode's, or Daniell's, in addition to the "Globe " and 
the word " MiXTONS." 

Of Copeland's ceramic statuary or " Parian," of Wedgwood's 
jasper and Queen's ware, and their recently revived manufacture 
of porcelain, there is mention elsewhere. 

Among English potters who in niodcin times have made 
great strides in the development of the artistic departments of 
their productions is the eminent lirm of the Doultons of Lambeth. 



The moulded terra-cotta ornament which this firm has produced 

has, from its suitabihty to our English climate and atmosphere, 

made its distinct mark in the architectural enrichment of our 

buildings. The effective fascia 

of Heath's hat establishment in 

Oxford Street is, perhaps, one 

of the most striking instances of 

this kind of ornament. Their 

pottery in revival of the old 

German stoneware, and their 

different kinds of faience, are 

duly noticed under LAMBETH 

in Chapter VII. 

To the leading houses just 
named may be added the new 
Derby Porcelain Factory (see 
Derby), established some years 
ago, the Coalport China Com- 
pany, and many other firms in 
Staffordshire, including Maw & 
Son for majolica, Jones & Co. 
for a kind of pale sur pate 
decoration, the Watcombe Co. 
for terra-cotta, and numerous 
minor manufacturers, too nu- 
merous to mention. 

There are two firms of much 
smaller proportions than the 
above, that in a review of 
modern English pottery deserve 
mention — Mr. de Morgan for 
his lustred pottery, and the 
Brothers Martin for their ex- 
cellent " Martin " ware. (See 
notices in Chapter VII.) 

The Irish factory at Belleek, 
which did some excellent work 

fifty years ago, and was well patronised by our Royal Family, 
has made a reputation for the shell-like character of its pro- 

In the enormous district of North Staffordshire, comprising 
some ten square miles of potteries, all sorts and kinds of ornamental 

Specimen of Belleek. 
Ice Pail made for H.M. the late King 
Edward VII. when Prince of Wales. 


and useful pottery and porcelain of more or less excellence arc 
produced, but a great many do not come within the scheme and 
purpose of this book. Many of them reflect, in forms and de- 
coration, the passing fashion or fancy of the day, and, generally 
speaking, aim at effect and cheapness rather than higher qualities. 
Of a great number of these Staffordshire firms the reader will 
find some notice in the large edition of Chaffers' Marks and 

A most interesting collection of specimens of modern English 
porcelain is on view at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

One great feature of our modern English school, recently 
developed, is that of plaque painting, the large and moderately 
level surface giving ample scope to the artist. Many of these 
are excellent specimens of ceramic art, and vie with the water- 
colour drawing for a space on the wall ; framed as a picture, or 
forming the centre-piece of some etagere, they take an important 
part in mural decoration. 

In forming a collection of porcelain it wt)uld be worth the 
collector's trouble and attention to add a few specimens of such 
modern productions of the different factories as demonstrate the 
best points of modern work. This would be done most success- 
fully by making a careful selection from exhibition pieces, which 
are the tours dc force of the various manufactories. 

A passing allusion to the recent progress of ceramics in the 
United States may be made in this chapter, although the manu- 
facture of both pottery or earthenware and of porcelain is no 
novelty in America. Mr. Chaffers quotes from a newspaper of so 
long ago as 1766, that a gold medal was presented in that year by 
the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and 
Commerce, to a Mr. Sannic! Bowcn for his useful observations in 
China and industrious application of them in Georgia. 

We know, too, from Josiah Wedgwood's correspondence that 
he at one time feared that the native manufacture of ware similar 
to that which he was exporting to the States would injure his 
trade, and in the earlier history of our English factories of Bow, 
Chelsea, and Plymouth, suitable clays were imported from South 
Carolina, Georgia, and Florida. The prohibitive duties imposed 
by the United States Government upon foreign (lottery, fostered 
an industry for which the materials were abundant, and as the 
services of some of our I^vnglish potters were obtained, factories 
were established in several American States. 

Richard Champion, the founder of the famous Bristol factory, 


emigrated in 1784, and died nine years afterwards in the new 

The oldest American pottery, which is still a prosperons and 
extensive business, is that of Hews & Co., in Nortii Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, which was established so long ago as 1765. Our 
English readers who are interested in this' branch of the subject 
will lind information as to the early American potteries in a 
book recently published entitled China Collecliiig in yUncrica, by 
Alice Morse Earle. 

It is, however, with the modern productions that we are 
concerned in this chapter, and from specimens which have been 
submitted to the author, these would seem to be, generally 
speaking, imitations of some of the French decorative pottery, or 
of models imported from Staffordshire and Worcester. When the 
author was at the latter place about ten years ago, he was in- 
formed that several of the workmen had been induced by the 
prospect of higher wages to leave the Worcester works and obtain 
employment at one of the American factories, wliere they repro- 
duce the kind of ware most in demand by the American buyer. 
In the International Exhibition of Philadelphia in 1876, there 
were several exhibits of native ceramics, including terra-cotta and 
stoneware. In the World's Fair at Chicago in 1893, a mark 
was put on some modern Worcester porcelain which will in time 
to come puzzle the expert — the letter C underneath the usual trade 
mark. This denotes china made for the last great Exhibition at 

The modern work of China and Japan is chiefly the pro- 
duction of an enormous quantity of ornamental ware for the 
European market. Most of this is made at a wonderfully 
small cost, and is effective and cheap, so cheap that one is 
astounded that skilled labour can be employed for so small a 
remuneration. In some cases, as for instance the pottery made 
in self-colour, such as sang dc bceuf, turquoise, brown, and other 
colours, it approaches the older specimens. Some of the " blue 
and white " will pass muster with the old pieces, and the author 
has often seen modern imitations of the old green enamelled 
or faniille vcrte description which required more than a cursory 
glance to determine their age ; but, as a general rule, the modern 
Chinese and Japanese pottery and porcelain are valuable only 
from a furnishing and decorating point of view. 

The craze for things Japanese, which set in some twenty years 
ago, has had no little influence upon the taste in our own English 


ceramics. Many of the designs executed at the Royal Worcester 
Works bear witness of this. 

A quotation from one of Mr. Gladstone's speeches, at the 
opening of a museum, conveys, in the excellent language of 
which he was so eminent a master, a suggestion which bears 
admirably upon this branch of our subject, namely, that more 
individual interest must be taken in modern work if it is to 
compare at all favourably with the work of those extinct 
factories whose specimens we now prize so highly. 

" I apprehend you will agree with me that, in all the visible 
and material objects that are produced to meet the wants and 
tastes of man, there are two things to look to : one is utility, 
and the other is beauty. Well now, utility of course includes 
strength, accuracy of form, convenience, and so forth. 1 do 
not enter into detail. I only want to remind you that, besides 
the utility of these objects which are made to meet our common 
wants of every possible description, there is an important con- 
sideration in their beauty, which also divides itself into various 
branches, on which I need not dwell in detail — beauty of form, 
beauty of colour, and beauty of proportion. ... I am going 
to give an opinion which, from my sense of duty and from a 
long experience in public life — which has placed me very much 
in relation to the great industries of the country — has been 
originally suggested and long ago formed in my mind, namely, 
that an Englishman is a marvellous man in business produc- 
tion when he is put under pressure, but, if he is not put under 
pressure, he is apt to grow relaxed and careless, and is satis- 
fied if he can produce things that will sell. He has not 
got as much as he ought to have of the love of excellence 
for its own sake. Now, there are those who will say it 
is a very visionary idea to promote a love of excellence for 
its own sake, but I hold it is not visionary at all ; for, de- 
pend upon it, every excellence that is real, whether it relates 
to utility or beauty, has got its price, its value in the market. 
. . . When we come to touch upon what is material — painting, 
sculpture, and architecture — in this country, there is no de- 
ficiency in the English people in their sense of beauty. What 
there is — what there has been — seems to be some deficiency 
in the quality or habit which connects the sense of beauty 
with the production of works of utility. Now, these two things 
are quite distinct. In the oldest times of human history, 
among the Greeks there was no separation whatever — no gap 


wliatever — between the idea of beauty and the idea of utility. 
Wh;itever the Greek produced in ancient days, he made as 
useful as he could, and, at the same time, accordingly it lay 
with him to make it as beautiful as he could. ... If we take 
porcelain, a similar improvement has taken place. Anybody 
who is familiar with tea, coffee, and dinner services of forty 
or fifty years ago, supposing he had been asleep during those 
fifty years, and that he awoke to-day and went to the best 
shops and repositories to observe the character of the manu- 
factures that are offered for sale, he would think he had passed 
into another world, so entirely different are they, and so far 
superior to what was produced in the time of one generation, 
and especially two generations back. . . . We want to carry 
this work of improvement to such a condition that it shall 
not depend upon the spirit of enterprise of this or that master, 
of this or that workshop or factory, — we want to get it into 
the mind, and brain, and heart, and feeling of the working- 
men. That is what we want. . . . There are difficulties in 
the way, and one very great difficulty I cannot deny ; yet the 
difficulty arises from what is now absolutely inseparable from 
the system of modern production, namely, the division of 
labour, which confines a workman to some one, perhaps a 
comparatively trifling, portion of the manipulation of the thing 
he produces, and naturally diminishes his interest in it as a 
whole. I do not deny that that is a difficulty. We are told 
that it takes I don't know how many people to make a pin ; 
and, probably, the man who has to shape the head of the pin 
does not care much about the goodness, neatness, and efficiency 
of the pin as a whole. I can understand that this is an 
obstacle and a difficulty, but, at the same time, it is a diffi- 
culty which can be overcome, and there is no reason why we 
should extinguish the feeling 1 now describe. Labour is not 
always so divided as it is in this. In many of the great in- 
dustries there is plenty of room for this appreciation of beauty. 
A great many people — for instance, those who are engaged in 
moulding earthenware — are concerned directly in that which 
must be beautiful or the reverse. We must not expect too 
much ; we must not look for miracles, but what we may 
reasonably look for is progress — progress in the adoption of 
principles recommended, not merely by theory, or by some 
apparently plausible grounds of reason, but by the surest in- 
vestigation we can make, as well by the surest testimony of 



long experience, which show that to unite all forms of beauty, 
all varied qualities of beauty, with different characteristics that 
make up utility in industrial productions, is the true way to the 
success of our national enterprise and commerce." 

It seems fitting to end this chapter with some notes upon 
the latest endeavour of English potters, as exemplified at the 
Brussels Universal Exhibition of 1910. This branch of industry 
showed to great advantage, and was the pride of the British 
section. The Royal Worcester Porcelain Company was unrepre- 
sented, but with that exception nearly all the leading manufacturers 
provided representative exhibits. Mintons, Josiah Wedgwood and 
Sons, and Doulton showed that they had maintained their high 
standard of excellence. The work of Couldon (the successors of 
Brown, Westhead, More & Co.), the Crown Staffordshire Porce- 
lain Co., George L. Ashworth & Sons of Hanley, and other firms 
proved that a marked progress in the manufacture of ornamental 
and domestic china had been made ; but the surprise of the 
Exhibition was the great advance in quality of artistic pottery 
made in England, as evidenced by the beautiful exhibits of 
Bernard Moore of Stoke-on-Trent, W. Hovvson Taylor of 
Smethick near Birmingham, the Pilkington Tile and Pottery 
Company of Manchester, the Ashby Potters' Guild of Burton- 
on-Trent, W. L. Baron of Barnstaple, James Mackintyre of 
Burslem, Lovatt of Langley near Nottingham, and others. 
One cannot praise too highly the exhibits of some of these 
potters, and collectors who include specimens of modern work 
should certainly secure examples. We particularly recommend 
the tlambe pottery of Bernard Moore, the " Ruskin "ware of 
W. Howson Taylor, and the " I.ancastrian " pottery made by 
Pilkington's under the direction of Mr. William Burton, who 
has contributed so much to the literature of Ceramics. These 
wares are all well potted, made of good body, and the reproduc- 
tion of so many of the old flambe colours and glazes of K'ang- 
hsi porcelain, with the introduction of iris tints and colour ex- 
pressions new to the Art, indicate a Renaissance of the potter's 
art in F^nglaiid. 

Booth's " Silicon china " is too clever an imitation of the 
old apple-green Worcester to elicit more than a modified word 
of praise from an admirer of the genuine article. William Henry 
Goss's armorial decoration of miniature articles of porcelain is 



a well-known specialitc, the useful stone china shown by the 
Haiiley potters was satisfactory, and on the whole.* one could 
not but feel that the Ceramic branch of Industrial Art in England 
is more than maintaining its position in the competition of 

A down Derby cup, cover, and saucer. 


IDint0 anti Caution0 to Collectors 

HE following hints and cautions to collectors 
of old china are offered with much diffi- 
dence and some hesitation, because the 
author is well aware that many who consult 
these pages are well able to judge for them- 
selves in what form, and to what extent, 
they prefer to gratify their hobby, without 
any such assistance as he is able to offer. 
On the other hand, he is encouraged by 
the quantity of complimentary letters and verbal thanks which he 
has received from some of those who have acted upon the sugges- 
tions which, in a chapter under the same heading, appeared in 
the small handbook first published over twenty years ago. This 
chapter has therefore been somewhat extended and amplified for 
the guidance of those only who require such assistance. 

For mill i^ a Collection. 

To begin with, let us for a moment define what we mean by 
forming a collection of old china. It is not the purchase of a 
great number of expensive specimens ; it does not necessarily 
mean the expenditure of a large sum of money. As a general 
rule, noteworthy collections have been those carefully, gradually, 
and patiently formed, by men of comparatively small means. 

To colled in the sense that we mean, every specimen should 
be purchased systematically, and should ho. an example of some 
particular vicissitude or change in the procedure of the factory 
ox fahriqHc of which the specimen is the jiroduct ; or one which 
can be identified as the work of an individual artist known to 
have been employed at such factory. What are sometimes aptly 
called " link " specimens are precious in the eyes of the genuine 


collector, not for their beauty or for their intrinsic value, but 
because they assist him to complete his series of specimens, show- 
ing the progress from the first attempt, through phases of im- 
provement, to the summit of success ; he perhaps adds to these 
one or two later pieces showing retrogression and decadence. 

Let us give an example by taking as an illustration the 
collection of old Dresden china. In such a collection there 
should be (i) some specimens of the early red polished ware made 
by Buttger about 1709, then his partly gilded and more orna- 
mented ware, and that glazed by chemically prepared flux, as an 
improvement upon the earlier pieces polished by the lathe. (2) 
Sparsely decorated pieces of white china, gilt by the goldsmith's 
process, and with flowers or figures copied from pieces of Oriental 
porcelain, and having the first mark of a caduceus or rod of 
yEsculapius. (3) Then some of the specimens very difficult but still 
possible to find, of similar decoration as to style, i.e. Oriental, but 
having ground colours, maroon, yellow, blue or mauve, and marked 
with the A.K., the monogram of the king-elector Augustus II. 
of Saxony. (4) Some portions of those early services with 
quaintly formed tea-pots and Chinese-shaped cups and saucers, 
having the marks K.P.F., K.P.M., and similar letters, all of 
which will be found in the marks under the notice of Dresden 
in Chapter VII. A reference to that notice will save reitera- 
tion here. Specimens of old Saxony (Meissen) porcelain figures, 
groups, services, vases, and other varieties, should be collected, 
so as to show a sequence of the different periods of the factory, 
from the early times which we have just alluded to, through 
those of Joachim Handler, Acier Heroldt, The Kings Period, 
Marcolini, and so on to some modern representative specimens. 
This series should demonstrate the differences of treatment which 
successive directors of the factory have left as a record of the 
periods of their work. 

The famous collection of old Dresden china formed by the 
Hon. W. F. B. Massey Mainwaring, which was in May 1899 
sold to Mr. King for a very large sum, contains specimens of the 
different periods alluded to ; but it also contains a great many 
important and valuable examples of each period, whereas it would 
be possible to select from such a collection all the specimens 
necessary to form an excellent representative collection, for perhaps 
less than a tenth part of the sum at which Mr. Mainwaring's china 
was valued. 

These remarks will apply to all other factories. 


Public Collections in Museums. 

The collections in our different museums are excellent for refer- 
ence purposes, and although it is aggravating to be obliged in 
many instances to be content with looking at the specimens 
through the glass sides of cases, without handling them, still a 
great deal may be learnt from the systematic study of these 
public exhibits. 

There should be some method employed in looking at speci- 
mens in a museum, and if the reader wishes to get the full benefit 
of such an object-lesson, let him go there with the fixed deter- 
mination of studying one particular kind of specimen at each visit, 
and not be beguiled into a general walk through, and a cursory 
consideration of the whole. 

If he be a student of the different kinds of majolica, there is 
the Salting collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum ; there 
is also the national collection of the same ware arranged in 
different cases of the same museum ; there are others in the 
British Museum, and the late Drury Fortnum's recent bequest to 
the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. If majolica is to be studied, 
and its different characteristics noted, one must not allow the 
many other charming and interesting objects to distract the 

The best school for the study of specimens of the various 
Continental factories is undoubtedly the " Franks " collection at 
present exhibited in some six or seven glass cases in the gallery of 
the Bethnal Green Museum, but which is to be removed to the 
British Museum when the alterations and enlargements of that 
institution are completed. Sir A. W. Franks has prepared an 
admirable descriptive catalogue of this valuable collection, which 
is sold at the Museum for the price of a shilling, and equipped 
with this, the amateur will be able to learn a great deal by careful 
reference and attention. 

For Continental porcelain the amateur should also carefully 
study the cases of specimens in the Ceramic gallery of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, where the labels are fairly descriptive ; 
though it seems a great pity that, while the authorities have taken 
the pains to give particulars of sizes and subjects, they should 
omit in so many instances the name of the factory to which the 
example belongs. No doubt the gold lettering referring to the 
contents, which is placed outside the case, is intended to guide 
the visitor, but this is too vague ; and it is to be hoped that in 


any future arrangement either the articles will be iabeiled with 
the name of tiie factory, or only specimens of the one factory to 
which any particular glass case has been hypothecated will be 
placed therein. Such a description as "French pdtc leudrc" is 
far too vague for the ordinary amateur. The expert can, of 
course, see that the contents include specimens of Chantilly, 
Meneyy, Sceaux-Penthievre, and St. Cloud, but there is no label 
to tell him which factory the different pieces represent. A 
similar criticism is suggested by the case which is lettered 
" Bristol, Plymouth and Longton Hall." 

The recent presentation of a collection of soft paste porcelain, 
by Mr. Fitzhenry, has materially added to the value of this 
Museum from the point of view of the collector of old porcelain. 

The amateur who desires to acquire knowledge about the earlier 
English china factories will find in the large and valuable col- 
lection bequeathed many years ago by Lady Charlotte Schreiber 
a wide field of education, and many examples contained in these 
cases will be found to bear the characteristics of the diiTerent 
factories which have been noticed in the seventh chapter of this 
book. If the reader has a natural aptitude for the subject and 
is quick and intelligent, he will soon learn to recognise many of 
the " points," which he will find therein noted. 

Besides the Schreiber collection of English china and Battersea 
enamels, there are some other bequests and loans which are 
interesting, and the miscellaneous assemblages of old English 
pottery which our museum authorities have purchased from time 
to time contain many examples of the work of Ralph and Enoch 
Wood and other Staffordshire eighteenth-century potters, besides 
many pieces of Bristol Delft, " Toft " or slip-decorated ware, 
some excellent salt glaze, and a great many other examples very 
useful for reference. 

In the previous edition of this book, the Geological Museum 
in Jermyn Street, which was seldom visited, was recommended 
for the small but instructive collection of English pottery and 
porcelain which it contained, but this has now been removed 
to the larger institution at South Kensington. 

There is still, however, on sale in Jermyn Street a catalogue of 
the collection which contains much useful information. 

The collection of English pottery and porcelain in the British 
Museum has been recently rearranged to great advantage ; the 
labels are full and descriptive, and have in a great many cases 
facsimiles of the marks which the specimens bear. No collector 


should omit to carefully study this excellent collection, which con- 
tains not only valuable and important pieces such as the famous 
"Foundling" vases, and others of great price, but — what is infinitely 
more instructive — a great number of experimental and " link " 
specimens which will serve as object-lessons, illustrating and 
emphasising many of the remarks made on English ceramic 
factories in Chapter VII. The greater part of this national 
possession was the gift of the late curator. Sir Wollaston Franks, 
a man of very wide knowledge and keen enthusiasm, and his 
generosity has been supplemented by many other gifts and 
bequests. The trustees have also published a useful guide, 
written by Mr. R. L. Hobson, which gives much information 
about the different factories, and, as it is sold in the Museum at 
the modest price of one shilling and is fully illustrated, the collector 
should add it to his reference library. 

Then we have in the Jones bequest (Victoria and Albert 
Museum) charming specimens of the more valuable kinds of 
Sevres and Chelsea, and the Wallace bequest at Hertford House 
must be a constant source of pleasure for those who delight in 
the beautiful colours of the finest Sevres porcelain, in which this 
collection is very rich. At Windsor Castle, too, may be seen the 
famous Sevres dessert service made for Louis XVI., and purchased 
by George IV., and a great many specimen vases of the best 
quality and finest periods of this celebrated factory. There are 
also in his Majesty's possession a great many other fine specimens 
from other factories. The Earl of Hare wood's fine collection of 
Sevres porcelain is also shown to the public, and the visitor to 
Harrogate should not neglect the opportunity of seeing this inter- 
esting old Yorkshire residence. 

P'or those who would pay particular attention to Oriental 
porcelain there is the representative collection purchased by our 
Government and now in the Victoria and Albert Museum, also 
that formed by Sir Wollaston Franks in the British Museum. 
The truly magnificent collection of Mr. George Salting, bequeathed 
to the South Kensington Institution and now rearranged and 
classified, is of the highest importance. The same generous 
enthusiast has also left us the finest examples of fifteenth and 
sixteenth century Italian majolica, and also of Persian and 
Rhodian faience which deserve most careful attention. 

If the collector of English china should go so far as Worcester, 
he will be amply repaid by a careful study of the collection of 
"link" specimens formed by the late Mr. R. W. Hinns, F.S.A., in 


the museum attached to the Royal Worcester Porcelain Works ; 
while at Cardiff he will find an excellent collection of representa- 
tive pieces of Swansea and Nantgarw, formed by the valuable 
assistance of Mr. Drane. Many of our provincial museums 
contain small but valuable collections of English pottery ; some 
of these have been especially alluded to in the notices on factories 
in Chapter VII. 

Many of our well-known private collectors are only too pleased 
to afford the bona fide amateur the pleasure of seeing their collec- 
tions, and it has been the writer's pleasure and privilege upon many 
occasions to give a letter of introduction from one collector to 
another with the result of mutual enjoyment and instruction. 


The intending collector should ventilate the subject by con- 
versation with those of his acquaintance who also have a taste 
for collecting ; he should compare the specimens he sees with any 
information that these pages may have afforded him, and, where 
he can do so, ascertain the prices that have been given for 

If he has the leisure, he should stroll into Christie's Rooms, 
in King Street, St. James's, to Robinson & Fisher's in the same 
street, to Fosters' in Pall Mall, Philips Son & Neale's in Bond 
Street, or Sotheby's in Wellington Street, Strand, or Knight Frank 
and Rutley's, and watch a sale there of some collection to be 
dispersed, after having carefully viewed the same the day before, 
and made some notes on the catalogue of guesses as to the 
prices which in his opinion are likely to be realised by any 
pieces he may have examined. These figures will be corrected 
at the sale, and much information and some amusement will be 
gained. The rooms of these firms of auctioneers are recom- 
mended, because here the amateur is safe from the annoyance 
of touting commission-agents ; and, moreover, the articles are 
clean and well arranged, the attendants civil, and the catalogues 
tolerably accurate. The best of specimens find their way at 
some time or other under Christie's hammer, and the collector 
can examine them in their spacious rooms in a way which is 
not possible in a museum. 

Personal purchases at auction sales are not recommended for 
several reasons : one buys under a certain amount of excitement 
and in haste, very often to repent at leisure ; being dis- 
appointed by not getting a specimen which would have been 


useful in the collection, one is led to bid for, and probably buj', 
others which are not prudent purchases. Better far to note who 
it is that buys the coveted lot, and if he be a dealer, make terms 
with him for a moderate profit, or ask him to procure, as 
occasion offers, another similar specimen. The writer knows 
many collections, good, bad, and indifferent, and in those which 
he would select as being examples of well-formed and satisfactory 
collections, specimens have rarely been purchased directly under 
the hammer, but have been bought deliberately and quietly from 
the dealer. Another great advantage of purchasing from the 
dealer is that exchanges of unsatisfactory specimens can be 
arranged, whereas a sale bargain cannot as a rule be altered with- 
out loss and trouble. If, however, the collector prefers to make 
his selections from goods offered at auction, he should seek the 
advice and assistance of a reliable dealer^ — the reader may rest 
assured that there are many such — -who will inspect the collection 
with him on the view day, assist him to make his choice, and advise 
as to value. The usual commission charged is five per cent, of the 
amount of the purchase money, which includes clearance and 
delivery, unless the articles are bulky or packing is necessary. It 
is advisable always to employ the same dealer, and under no con- 
sideration to be induced to vary one's patronage by giving 
commissions one day to one man and another day to another. 
The reason for this should be obvious ; in the first place, if the 
dealer feels that he possesses his client's confidence he will respect 
and not abuse it, and will give much valuable advice ; but 
being subject to human frailties, it is only natural that he will 
feel aggrieved if he sees a rival bidding for a client in whom, 
rightly or wrongly, he feels he has a kind of vested interest, and 
he may by a few competitive bids considerably increase the cost 
of the desired specimens. 

Again, if the business be given, so far as circumstances permit, 
to the same man, he will be patient when, as must frequently 
happen, his attendance at a sale on his client's behalf results 
either in a trifling commission or none at all, in consequence of 
the prices ruling so high that his limits are exceeded. There are 
of course auctions and auctions, and a dealer of good reputation 
who is accustomed to the sale-room will be in a position to 
warn his client against those which for some good reasons are 
better avoided. 


Guaranteed Invoices. 

As judj^ment is almost unconsciously acquireci, the collector 
should venture into the show-rooms of a respectable dealer, to 
whom he has been recommended by a reliable " old stager," and, 
as all the best dealers are men of intelligence, he will gain much 
information in conversation with him about the, objects offered 
for sale. Cash payments are advised, with the object of securing 
any advantage for ready money ; and in each case, however 
trifling, the buyer should insist on a proper description being written 
on the invoice, the law of warranty being that verbal descriptions 
can often be denied and set aside, while the written one, if 
founded on an error or a deception, entitles the aggrieved buyer 
to recovery of the price paid. This invoice forms a kind of 
guarantee, and is one that no honest tradesman will object to 
giving. The safeguard is a very simple one and easily taken ; 
and, moreover, if the collector cares to enter in a hook kept for 
the purpose the description and cost of each specimen acquired 
(an excellent plan), such an invoice will form a useful reference. 
Subsequently, if the collection grows, and he should make a 
catalogue of his specimens, this book will save him a great deal 
of trouble. The precaution of having a descriptive invoice is 
very often neglected, and in more than half the cases of decep- 
tion and consequent disappointment, in which the writer has 
been consulted, the money could have been recovered without 
legal process by its adoption. 


Standard of Excellence. 

In acquiring a collection it is necessary to have some standard 
of excellence, below which no specimen should be purchased, 
whatever the bargain, unless in very exceptional cases ; as, for in- 
stance, in the case of a particularly rare mark. In such instances 
the quality of decoration of the specimen may not warrant its 
purchase, but its low price will allow of an ultimate " weeding " 
should a better specimen be secured. Except in such cases as 
these, it is one of the greatest mistakes that a young collector 
can make, to buy second and third rate pieces because they are 
cheap. In the same way, but also subject to similar exceptions, 
imperfect and restored specimens should be avoided. 

However small the collection, let it be good and perfect as far 
as it goes. By the prudent expenditure of a sum that can be 


spared each year, not only will the collection be gradually in- 
creased, but a fairly profitable investment, in a pecuniary sense, 
will be secured. 

A dealer's stock of old porcelain, say of _^ 10,000 value, will 
consist of specimens good, bad, and indifferent, to meet the 
requirements of his varied customers— the buyer who is fond of 
show and effect, the one with a passion for bargains, and the care- 
ful collector. Now, if the latter were from time to time to pick 
out the best specimens, and keep them in his cabinets, adding 
again and again, with taste and judgment, until he had spent 
the same amount as that at which we have (^exempli gratia) 
valued our dealer's stock, his collection would, if brought 
to the hammer, be one much more valuable, because compara- 
tively complete of its kind. Moreover, as the dealer would have 
parted with his best pieces as he bought them, while the collector 
would have held them, waiting until worthy companions offered 
themselves, it must be seen at a glance how the judicious amateur 
can afford the dealer's profit, and still have many advantages. 

To buy successfully, then, every specimen acquired should be 
examined as to the quality of its paste, modelling, shape, colour, 
and special characteristics as a specimen of its particular factory. 
The points in judging decoration are the drawing of the figures 
if a subject, the natural effect of flowers or fruit, or the " dis- 
tance " and softness of a landscape, and the " tone " and solidity 
of the gilding — in fact, the work should be examined and judged 
in much the same fashion as any other article that one is ac- 
customed to buy upon its merits. Then, if the result of this 
examination be satisfactory, the question of price is the important 
consideration, and this, of course, is a matter that must be left 
to be arranged between buyer and seller, only with the caution 
that the price should not tempt one to the acquisition of a speci- 
men not desirable on its merits. 

To write a list of rules and regulations to be observed in 
making selections, with a view to detecting fraud, and securing 
only the genuine specimens, is simply impossible, and an attempt 
to do so would confuse and mislead. Individual taste is most 
essential, and unless the amateur have this, he will hardly acquire 

The interest, however, that we take in any favourite pursuit 
brings us in contact with kindred spirits, and it is by con- 
versing on our hobbies, and by taking every opportunity of 
seeing collections and making comparisons, that a judgment 


may be formed. By constant observation and practice the 
amateur will soon be well acquainted with the different 
characteristics of each factory, he will be able to name this or 
that specimen without reference to the mark, just as an expert 
can recognise the touch and style of a certain master in a paint- 
ing, without seeing the signature. 

One word here as to judgment of quality. The fact is, that 
the knowledge of ceramics requisite for a collector is not nearly 
so technical as is generally supposed. That which is true of a 
fine picture, a bronze, or a cabinet, is also true of a china figure, 
a vase, or a cup and saucer. Spirited modelling, telling colour, 
and that indescribable something that may be termed "character," 
are the points that make the merit apparent. 

Common Errors. 

It seems almost unnecessary to point out puerile and Hagrant 
errors, but one is frequently reminded that they not uncom- 
monly occur. This is not a chapter of personal reminiscences, 
and the author has no desire to inflict them upon the patient 
reader, but the curious questions that are sometimes asked by 
discursive correspondents and thoughtless inquirers are amusing 
enough for recital. 

Not long ago some executors of an old lady consulted the 
author upon the value of an " Elizabethan " vase, which was 
highly esteemed by the late owner and her friends. After a long 
journey into Gloucestershire this turned out to be a cream-coloured 
Leeds ivare basket dish of very slight value, and, as the notice of the 
Leeds factory will mention, only about a hundred years old. So 
convinced, however, were members of the family of the authen- 
ticity of this "Tudor" relic that, at the sale by auction of the 
old lady's effects, this basket-shaped dish, worth a few shillings, 
realised fifty guineas, and received the honour of a special 
paragraph in the local newspaper. 

At a sale by auction not long ago a bowl of Le Nove faience 
marked " Nove " with a star, was soberly described by the local 
auctioneer as a rare specimen of Hove (Brighton) porcelain. 

At Christie's one day a set of Eveutail [i.e. " fan-shaped ") Sevres 
vases was sold for a large price, some 6000 guineas. They 
were, with other articles of Sevres china, under that heading in 
the catalogue, but the words " Sevres " was not repeated before the 
description of each article. A gentleman, who shall be nameless. 


but who was one of our legislators, asked the writer why Eventail 
china was so valuable, and if he had any specimens of that factory ? 
Then one is constantly asked to say to which factory the " Bee- 
hive " mark belongs, the inquirer having looked at the Austrian 
shield on a piece of Vienna china upside doivu. 

Again, how often does one hear the owner of a piece of 
Dresden, of the Marcolini, or perhaps Heroldt period, positively 
aftirm the said specimen to have been " family property " for at 
least two hundred years, and his astonishment almost amounts to 
incredulity, when he is informed that the Dresden factory was 
not established before 1709, and that the piece in question was 
made some fifty or sixty years later ! 

Again, one is shown a piece marked with the A.R., and 
gravely informed that it is the monogram of Augustus Rex, for 
whose private use it was made " ever so many years ago " ; whereas 
the mark in question, though certainly used for a very few pieces 
by the Royal works, is very rarely found, but has been adopted 
as the regular trading-mark of a china manufactory in the hands 
of a private firm, which has a warehouse in Dresden, and until 
prevented by recent legislation, already alluded to in another 
chapter, turned out several thousand specimens annually with this 

At the risk of repetition one may add here what has already 
been indicated in the notice on the Dresden factory in Chapter 
VII., that the genuine A.R. mark is never found upon china 
decorated with Watteau or Wouvermann figures, but only upon 
the very early and rare specimens, the decoration of which is 
copied from the old Chinese porcelain, that is, either painted with 
some flowers of an Oriental character, or with a subject from a 
Chinese original. 

It may be as well to mention, while the subject of deceptive 
marks is being noticed, that the registration by the Royal manu- 
factory, some years ago, of their fabriqiie marks has consider- 
ably reduced the number of forgeries ; and now, many of the 
French and some English factories, that formerly used the 
crossed swords, are reduced either to a shuffling mark that only 
the most careless could mistake, or else to an altogether distinct 

The " Merchandise Marks Act " has also been of great benefit 
in limiting the amount of fraudulently marked china, as under 
the present administration of the law it is a criminal act to expose 
for sale any china bearing a forged mark. This Act of Farlia- 


ment only applies to such marks as have been registered as trade 
marks, and therefore does not protect the amateur from a great 
many forgeries. It has only been applied, so far as the author 
knows, to the cases of forgeries of Dresden and Worcester china. 

The French are also exceedingly clever in their imitation of 
fine old Oriental, and in some cases a judge may be quite puzzled, 
especially if the pieces are surrounded by circumstances that 
seem to give them a good character, say a position on the 
mantelpiece of an old country farmhouse, or an apparently 
fortunate discovery in some hole and corner of a dealer's shop 
covered with dust that seems in itself a symbol of antiquity. The 
principal differences are the lack of brilliancy in colour, and of a 
peculiar tint of the ^' pate," both of which are distinctive of genuine 
old Oriental. 

In the case of specimens of a kind which are in particular 
demand by collectors, such as the ruby-backed plates of the 
Yung-cheng period, the author has seen French imitations so 
skilfully decorated that without handling and carefully examining 
the paste, it is really impossible to detect the imitation. These 
plates, when genuine, are worth about _^20 to £t,o each, and 
therefore the forger can afford to expend a good deal in the 
minute attention to detail. 

There are also some extremely clever imitations of fine 
Oriental made in Hungary, and unfortunately the Chinese potters 
themselves are busily engaged in reproducing their best kinds and 
periods of old porcelain and forging the old marks. 

The imitations also of Palissy and Henri II. ware are very 
common and of two sorts : the one so thick and clumsy as to 
deceive no careful buyer, and the other very fine and light in its 
character and requiring much caution to detect. 

In making purchases of pieces where colour is one of the prin- 
cipal features, as in the case of old Sevres, the collector is cautioned 
against buying by gaslight. To the modelling of a figure or the 
shape of a vase, the artificial light is immaterial, but the turquoise, 
which should be delicate and beautiful, if of the veritable pate 
tendre, may turn out in the morning to have owed its apparent 
merit to the quality of the light. 

Spurious Lowestoft. 

The market has been flooded with French china, decorated 
with coats of arms, and with the kind of flower painting which 


has become associated in the pubHc mind with " Lowestoft." If 
the reader will refer to the notice of that factory, he will see that 
the vast majority of so-called Lowestoft, when it is old china, is 
really Chinese, and the kind of productions now referred to are 
really more in imitation of this " Oriental Lowestoft " than of the 
real Lowestoft, which would probably not be sufhciently decorative 
to appeal to the novice. It is, however, so absurd to see these 
Paris imitations of Chinese m.ugs, plates, bowls and cups and 
saucers, painted with large roses and having crests and coats of 
arms labelled " Lowestoft," that this caution has been thought 

Detecting Restorations. 

The writer has found the best method of testing restorations 
to be that of just touching any of the suspected portions with the 
edge of a coin. The china will always give a certain ring though 
tapped quite gently, but the same touch upon the composition 
returns a dead wooden sound. 

This test, of course, will not apply to those restorations which 
have been made in real porcelain, but upon a careful examination 
of suspected places with a magnifying glass, one can discover the 
texture of the paint where the join has been effected. The test 
of smell is also a useful one. As a rule, when the restoration is 
concealed by freshly used paint, one can detect the same by 
smelling, and when the work has been done a sufficiently long 
time for the smell to have disappeared, the white lead with which 
white paint must be mixed will have commenced to discolour. 
When selecting a specimen of rarity and great age, and one of 
such a fragile character as a group of several figures, slight and 
reasonable restorations must be expected and pardoned. It is 
almost impossible to obtain absolutely intact groups and figures 
when the limbs and fingers are in exposed positions, but still one 
likes to know how much of the specimen has been restored, and 
then it can be decided whether it is desiiable or not to add it to 
the collection. 

Old Sevres and i/s liiiilalions. 

Without doubt, one of the most dillicult lessons to learn is to 
detect the difference between the beautiful and valuable soft paste, 
or pate tcndre, of old Sevres, and the pale dure of more recent manu- 
facture. After the production of the pale temire was discontinued, 


on account of the superior durability of hard paste, the art of 
making it was lost. Old pdtc leiidre is beautifully white (to 
examine the paste, undecorated portions of the specimen should 
be scrutinised), and has a surface something like that of a cream 
cheese, — a soft, impressionable appearance. The colour, too, 
and painting appear part and parcel of the " body," and not 
added superficially, as the appearance of the hard paste suggests. 
The colouring is thus beautifully soft, and blended with the 
" body," while the vitreous, glassy effect of hard paste is absent. 

The soft paste now made in Tournay and decorated in Paris, 
which bears the Sevres marks, and is generally known as Sevres, 
though sometimes excellent in decoration, and having some of 
the characteristics described, lacks the beautiful whiteness of the 
old china, the paste being of a greyish hue. The turquoise 
colour of this kind of imitation of old Sevres is of a much greener 
tint than the real turquoise, which can only be produced on soft 
paste. The dark blue or gros bleu of modern productions is 
much more successful. 

Unless the collector has had considerable experience he should 
be very suspicious of Sevres china if the specimen be one of 
any importance. So rare are vases of really old Sevres china 
that it is almost safe to say that one could name the majority 
of collections in which they are to be found ; and therefore when 
one hears of a fine old Sevres vase of gros bleu, turquoise, or rose 
dii Barry ground, and painted in subjects, which is in the market 
without an undoubted pedigree, it is in all probability one of 
the class just alluded to. 

The same may be said of all those services painted in por- 
traits of Court beauties of the time of Louis XV. and Louis XVI. 
The only genuine portrait pieces which exist are those which are 
in the collections of a few wealthy families, and are of great value. 

Imitations of old Sevres china which were made by Mintons 
about fifty years ago, and decorated with great skill and care by a 
Quaker artist named Randall, are much more difficult to detect 
than the modern French china just alluded to ; and some of the 
best Coalport imitations of both Sevres and Chelsea are also 
" puzzles," even for the initiated. Therefore, as a general rule, 
the amateur should only buy Sevres from a dealer of experience 
and reputation, until his eye and touch have been proved. 

For a further notice of this Randall and his work, refer- 
ence should be made to the notice on the Madeley factory 
(Chapter VII.). 



Redecorated China. 

With high prices for richly-decorated specimens of old china, 
there must necessarily come, in obedience to the law of supply 
and demand, imitations of all kinds. Some of these have been 
pointed out in this chapter, but there is another kind of pitfall for 
the young collector, against which he should be warned. 

A great many sparsely-decorated pieces of china of different 
factories have been enriched by obliterating by means of powerful 
acids the little fiower or sprig which formed its very simple 
ornamentation, and making the specimen one of richly-coloured 
ground with panels or medallions of subjects. In such a case 
the paste and the mark on the bottom of the piece will be left 
untouched, and therefore the young collector must examine the 
decoration carefully. 

In redecorated Sevres china, the ground colours will be more 
opaque-looking, with the exception of the " rose du Barry " colour, 
in which the genuine ground colour is opaque. The name " rose 
du Barry " is used here because that is the common term in 
England. It should be called Rose Pompadour, as the author has 
fully explained in the notice on Sevres in Chapter VII. There 
will also be found some signs of retiring in the little black spots 
caused by " sputtering " in the second firing. Dresden groups, 
which were originally either white, or decorated with very little 
colour, have been repainted in this way. Oriental china has been 
redecorated to a very large extent, but the redecorating will be 
apparent on a careful examination, the enamel colours being less 
like enamel and more like paint than upon a perfectly genuine 
piece. One can very often see the traces here and there of the 
original decoration. 

Repairing Broken China. 

Perhaps a hint upon repairing breakages may not be out of 
place. A simple fracture is easily repaired, and the trouble, risk, 
and expense of sending the specimen away to tlic professional 
restorer can be avoided. 

After the fracture be sure that the edges of the broken china 
are not chipped or grated. Then carefully wash the parts in hot 
water with some common soda to remove all traces of dirt. In 
using seccotine or fish glue bear in mind that only the minutest 


quantity is necessary, as the closer the edges are united the 
stronger will be the join, and care should also be taken to see 
that the two surfaces articulate, and present a perfectly level 
surface where the join has been made. 

IVashing Old China. 

Many lady collectors prefer to wash their own specimens of 
old china rather than trust them to a servant. Perhaps the 
writer may offer one or two suggestions. On a large table beside 
two bowls filled with warm water, the one for washing containing 
a little common soda (a lump the size of a walnut to a pint of 
water), there should be laid a soft cloth for the china to stand on 
when washed. It is dangerous to stand a delicate piece on a 
marble slab, and the thick, soft cloth will absorb the moisture from 
a figure or group. A common painter's brush is the best for 
washing china groups and figures, which should be taken hold of 
deliberately by grasping a solid part, such as the base or body 
of the piece. Accidents generally happen through taking hold of 
a specimen nervously and pressing some delicate, exposed, or 
fragile part. After being well rinsed in clean water in the second 
bowl these more fragile specimens will dry by themselves. 

When specimens are worn and scratched, an immense im- 
provement in appearance will be effected by the judicious use of 
a little extra soda in the water, and then sponging the surface. 
Of course this does not remove the scratches, but it takes away the 
dirt and discoloration. 


Sometimes one buys specimens on a journey, and the writer 
knows from experience the advantage of being able to pack 
delicate specimens so that they will travel safely. If hay or moss 
be used it should be first passed through the fingers and all 
lumps or hard pieces removed. Plates and saucers, after being 
papered up, should be placed in the box edgeivays and not flat. 
Groups and figures should have a first protection by the twisting 
of soft paper round the projecting arms, legs or foliage, then 
made into a package with cotton wool, hay, or moss, and then 
these separate packages should be placed in the box and some 
hay or moss wedged tightly between each of them. When the 
box is unpacked, cut and do not pull the string which has been 



used to tie up the packages. Pass the hay through the fingers 
to see that no covers or small pieces are left in the packing. 

In the short chapter upon imitations and counterfeit marks 
which follows, there is unavoidably some reiteration of the re- 
marks made here, but at the risk of this it seemed a plan more 
convenient to the reader to give some of these marks and notes 
thereon under a separate heading. 

In these few hints the reader has been assumed to have no 
knowledge whatever of the subject, and therefore the more 
initiated will doubtless have found much that is tedious ; but 
every one having a regard for the potter's Art will forgive this, 
in the effort of the writer to assist the young collector, and 
prevent some of those disappointments which so often deter him 
from following up a fascinating pursuit. 

Sauce-boat of Bow porcelain, blue decoration (Victoria and Albert Museum). 


^ome Counterfeit anD a3i0leaDing C^arkiS 

T has been thought that a few notes on 
counterfeit marks would be of some interest 
to collectors. Now the works of imitators 
vary considerably. There are, in the first 
place, a great many specimens of different 
factories, which, having been made " to 
order " as a " match " for services of 
other factories, have had placed on them, 
ill-advisedly perhaps, but without any 
intention to deceive, the mark of the fabrique of the service so 
augmented or recruited. This is frequently seen in the Coal- 
port imitations of Sevres and Dresden, more rarely in some 
Derby imitations of Chelsea and Worcester. Occasionally one 
had seen the Carl Theodor mark upon a basin or tea-pot obviously 
of Derby or Worcester manufacture, and the well-known mark 
of the crossed swords of Dresden was copied so frequently 
by the early potters of Worcester, Derby, and Bristol, that the 
swords are now generally accepted as one of the marks of these 

Then there are the marks of certain small makers who placed 
on their products some device indicating their proprietorship, and 
as they were but little known, their work after a time came to 
be bought and sold as that of some factory to the ware of which 
it was similar. There is a curious instance of this 
which, so far as the author knows, has never been 
published. Services and figures, bearing the curious 
initial F in the margin, were really made and decor- 
ated by one Frankenheim, the father of a dealer who 
died about twenty-five years ago. These specimens 
are now so generally accepted everywhere as having been made 
at Fiirstenburg that the mark has not been removed from those 

of that factory in another portion of this work. 



Some of the earlier marks of M. Samson, of the Rue Beranger, 
Paris, which were discontinued many years ago in favour of 
others, have also acquired quite a respectable reputation. One 
of these is reproduced in the margin, and is generally passed 
off as one of the numerous monograms of Paul 
ly Hannong of Strasbourg. It is found on groups 

^ / f" and figures of a well-glazed faience, and as the 

V 2^ pieces are generally well modelled and coloured, 
^y and are not the exact imitations of any par- 
ticular model, they are now often found in ex- 
cellent company, and are described in the catalogues of eminent 
auctioneers as " old French faience." This same arch-imitator, 
M. Samson, has been responsible for more forgeries of good 
marks than any other single maker known to the author. 
Besides clever copies of the most valuable descriptions of 
Oriental enamelled porcelain, he has made "Dresden," "Chel- 
sea," " Crown Derby," " Worcester," " Hochst," and imitations 
of almost every factory the marks of which have been in 
sufficient demand to create a sale for his wares. It is use- 
less to give a list of the marks, because, as he has copied 
the genuine ones, they all appear under the regular headings in 
Chapter VII. 

This applies, of course, to all other copies which bear the 
counterfeit marks of the factories imitated, and one may note 
here an ingenious device of some of the German makers. A 
paper label, printed " Made in Germany," is securely gummed 
over the counterfeit mark to prevent trouble in the Custom 
House. This fact was mentioned in evidence a short time ago 
in a case at the Marlborough Street Police Court, in which the 
author was an expert witness. 

Amongst Samson's earlier and more careful works (he has been 
dead now for many years, and the work of imitation is carried on by 
his descendants) were some original figures of considerable merit. 
The mark which he placed on these, although a 
colourable imitation of the Dresden mark, had a 
distinguishable initial letter, and a bar across the 
swords not seen in the genuine Meissen mark. It 
is given in the margin. One of the most success- 
ful of his productions is a set of figures represent- 
ing the twelve months, cleverly modelled, and delicately coloured, 
and but for the fact of their being known by the cognoscenti to 
be of recent manufacture, they would have been highly esteemed. 


As it was, sets were sold for several times their cost when they 
were first placed on the market. 

It is difficult to give any rules and signs by which such imi- 
tations as Samson's may be detected. Nothing but a careful study 
of the peculiarities of paste, glaze, and details of gilding and 
decoration can gradually transform an amateur into an " expert," 
but there are some transparent errors which may be pointed out 
and easily detected. 

The gold anchor of Chelsea is never found on genuine early 
specimens of Chelsea, but only on those more highly decorated 
specimens made after richer ornamentation by gilding was intro- 
duced. Now as, owing to what has been written, there is an 
impression that the gold anchor denotes the best quality of 
Chelsea, one sees Samson's " gold anchor " on the imitations 
of pieces wiiich would have had a small red anchor or probably 
no sign but the three rather dirty-looking unglazed patches 
(caused by the tripod on which they were baked). His Wor- 
cester imitations are glossy-looking and the gilding is very in- 
ferior, besides being markedly different in paste and glaze from 
the genuine old Worcester. 

In order to meet a demand on the part of a certain class of 
dealers, he has placed the Crown Derby mark on figures the model 
of which was never known at Duesbury's factory, as well as on the 
" Falstaffs," the " Seasons," and other well-known Derby models. 
Generally speaking, the present imitations of the Samson firm are 
inferior to those made some twenty years ago. Perhaps his 
greatest success of recent years is his imitation of Battersea 
enamel ; these enamels require careful examination by an expert, 
but they can be detected by several little signs which the initiated 
alone understand. 

Another Parisian firm which makes some rather 
clever figures, decorated in the style of old Crown 
Derby, is that of Bell & Block, whose mark, the 
firm's monogram under a crown, is made some- 
what in the style of the real Crown Derby mark. 

Among the marks of a French maker of imitations, as yet not 
identified by the writer, are thtjse in 
the margin ; they occur on rather 
ambitious figures and groups, some- 
times on figures in costumes of the 
Vandyke period, and sometimes on 
figures ornamented with lacework. They are not copies of 

dy V 


any particular fabrique, but the specimens are generally palmed 
off upon the unwary as old Dresden. 

Amongst other imitations of old Dresden marks is that of the 
monogram of Augustus Rex, Elector of Saxony, and founder of the 
celebrated Meissen factory. This mark, as in the 
margin, was adopted some forty years ago by the 
firm of " Wolfsohn," in the town of Dresden, as a 
trade mark, and for some thirty-five years the royal 
factory took no steps to interfere with this manu- 
facturer. About twenty years ago, however, a 
lengthy lawsuit was commenced to prevent the Dresden house using 
as a trade mark the monogram of Augustus Rex, the defence being 
that although the State factory had used the monogram on some of 
its earliest specimens, the mark had not been made 
a regular trade sign, and therefore was open to 
_ appropriation. Ultimately the State factory gained 
X^ the day, and since then the Dresden house has 

II altered its mark to that in the margin. Its ware is 

very often sold as genuine old Dresden to inno- 
cent beginners, but to others it passes under the euphonious title 
of " Crown Dresden." 

This kind of china is useful for decorative purposes, 
but has no value in a collector's eyes, although some of the 
pieces which are made on the lines of the real old Dresden are 
sufficiently well executed to deceive the less experienced collector. 
Another of these private Dresden firms was that of Meyers, 
afterwards " Meyers und Sohn," which ceased to exist many 
years ago. They used to purchase the Meissen porcelain 
undecorated, and sold in the white, on account of some slight 
defect either in the glaze or the firing, and have it painted by 
their own workmen. They also had a mark of 
their own, which, like that of Samson described 
above, was similar to the Meissen mark, with the 
difference that the initial letter M between the hilts 
of the swords denoted its origin. Several really 
good specimens of this class of Dresden have been 
sold during the last few years for very substantial 
sums. This is due to the fact that a younger generation of dealers 
is unacquainted with the facts now published, and as time and 
atmosphere have given some patina to work excellent of its kind, 
and as the groundwork in many cases is genuine old Meissen 
porcelain, it is very difficult to distinguish the modern from the old. 


Another producer of so-called " Crown Dresden," named 
Haniaan, has a factory in Dresden. His mark, as 
given in the margin, differs slightly from the one 
given above, in that he has adopted a crown of 
another kind. The style of the china ("inferior 'Tv^^Sl^e- 
Dresden ") is much the same. 

Wissman is another Dresden fabricant, who 
has adopted and registered the mark in the 
margin, the W in the shield being his initial. 


The " Dresden " groups and figures made by the present firm 
of Thieme are likely to deceive the careless amateur. 
His mark is a colourable imitation of the Meissen 
mark, the T between the sword-hilts being the initial 
of the founder of the firm, who was known to the 
author nearly thirty years ago. The productions of 
this firm have not improved of late years. 

The mark occurs on an imitation Dresden Basket ^. 

with pierced sides, flowers in relief and Cupids y/7\\ 
painted inside, but the maker is not yet identified. 

The reader will probably remember some litigation in 1909 
which aroused a good deal of public interest — the object of which 
was to recover large sums of money, amounting to over ^50,000, 
which had been obtained by certain dealers in payment for several 
groups of so-called " old Dresden " china. Very high prices, from 
^500 to ^1200, were paid for figures and groups of the design 
and colourings known as the "Joachim Kiindler " period, when 
the famous crinoline and harlequin costumes distinguished the 
figures — the kind of specimen known to have a special attraction 
for connoisseurs. These groups had been manufactured at the 
factory of Potschappel in Saxony, and were imitations of the 
models made at Meissen during the best period of that celebrated 
factory. The colourings of the decorations had been carefully 
studied, so as to reproduce the effect of the genuine old groups. 

Professor Brinckmann and the author gave evidence at con- 
siderable length, and the Professor produced white groups which 
he had actually purchased at Potschappel, to prove to Judge and 
Jury our contention that these specimens were spurious Dresden. 
In the case that was actually tried, the verdict was for the 
full amount claimed, and in the others the defendant dealers 
paid large sums of money in settlement. 


These cases are referred to here to show that the collector who 
has not had considerable experience in judging old Meissen, or 
Dresden as it is more generally termed, is likely to be deceived 
by the Potschappel imitations. 

The mark given in the margin, if not a counterfeit mark, is 

undoubtedly a very misleading one. The old factory of Franken- 

thal, with its mark CT under a crown, the initials of 

the Elector of Bavaria, Carl Theodor, has been long 

extinct. The present government of Bavaria, having 

^fp^ the legal right to use this mark, have transferred that 

\J right to their factory at Nymphenburg, and it is now 

used on white and coloured groups and figures. The 

productions are very inferior to those of the real old P'rankenthal. 

Similar remarks apply to the modern productions of a 

y manufacturer named Greiner, of Rudol- 

stadt, who, as great - grandson of the 
original Gotthelf Greiner of old Thurin- 
gian fame, now uses marks (hayforks) 
which are colourable imitations of those 
used a hundred years ago by his ancestor. 
These modern productions consist of the 
cheapest kind of china in the Dresden 
style ; sometimes the lower mark in the 
margin is impressed, the others are gener- 
(impressed.) ally iu bluc. 

The mark in the margin has been placed upon a gre^t 
number of groups and figures made either in Paris or at one of 
the German factories. These are of no quality to 
^^^^ deceive a collector who is acquainted with the ap- 
'?2S)'^ pearance of the real Ludwigsburg porcelain of the 
Op mark of which it is a forgery. The china of these 
imitations is white and hard-looking, the colouring 
harsh and crude, but the general effect might appeal as "pretty" 
to the eye unaccustomed to old china. (See notice on " Lud- 

'' . '^ Another mark used by Greiner is the one in 

- ^^ the margm. 

(t;<;iici:illy ill red.) 



In Silesia there are some factories of orna- 
mental china, but their productions are scarcely 
ambitious enough to deceive the most careless 
collector. One of the marks adopted is, however, 

Some of the imitations of Dresden china 
made at Coburg are very poor in quality, 
and the marks given in the margin, which 
occur in blue, red, and gold, are not 

Both these marks are found on bad imitations 
of Dresden china. The first is of course supposed to 
be the crossed swords, but on reference to the notice 
on "Dresden" (Chap. VII.) the difference will be 
observed. The second is found on similar ware. 
The china is probably made in some of the cheaper 
and inferior German factories. 

Another Coburg maker named Miiller has 
adopted and registered a more ambitious mark. 
It is generally rather indistinct, and is here re- 
produced as accurately as possible. 

The mark in the margin is particularly mis- 
leading owing to the word Meissen being pro- 
minent ; the china on which the mark occurs is 
a cheap and meretricious imitation of Dresden 
{Meissen) porcelain. 

Imitations of Capo di Monte are made both in France and 
Germany. The decoration is generally in relief, to comply with 

ine pupuiar noLion mat au real v^apo ai ivionxe cinna '%\l t ^ 

is ornamented in this manner. There, however, ^"^^tir 
the resemblance ends, for the imitations (other >\ / 

than the modern reproductions made at Florence, I \/ 

and already noticed under the heading of Capo * 

DI Monte) are quite unlike any of the original work which 
the author has ever seen. As already stated, old Capo di Monte 
is scarcely ever marked, and the mark which is copied by the 
imitators belongs to a later period of the factory. Moreover, 


the crown is very carelessly drawn on the French and German 
imitations, and is like the device given in the margin. Tankards, 
vases, ewers, and centre pieces for the dessert table are the 
favourite forms of this very undesirable kind of china. 

The list of misleading marks given above is by no means 
exhaustive, but they are those which have come under the author's 

Some of the makers and decorators of china, the pedigree of 
which is not quite satisfactory, have, as has been shown, produced 
excellent work, and specimens made by some of the firms alluded 
to will be found in the cabinets of most collectors. 

There are, however, some imitations of different kinds of 
china, which are absolute rubbish. These are the more recently 
imported French and German manufactures. Thanks to recent 
legislation, it is now a criminal, and not as formerly only a civil 
offence, to deal in goods bearing fictitious marks, and under the 
powers conferred upon magistrates by the Merchandise Marks Act, 
already referred to, the police can be empowered by warrant to 
seize any such china when offered for sale. Some reported cases 
in which pieces of " Coburg " china were sold as " Dresden " will 
probably be within the recollection of many readers. This class 
of very inferior ornamental china finds a sale chiefly at some 
of our fashionable seaside holiday resorts. 

In one of these cases tried recently before Mr. de Rutzen at 
Great Marlborough Street, when the author was called as expert 
witness on behalf of the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company who 
were the plaintiffs, a most ingenious defence was set up. The 
managing director of the Worcester Company had admitted in 
cross-examination that the earlier marks of his factory during the 
" Dr. Wall " period had included the square mark (Mandarin Seal), 
the crossed swords (Dresden), and some Oriental hieroglyphics 
which had been copied from Chinese or Japanese models, at the 
same time as the decoration of such pieces was imitated. The 
defendants' counsel then endeavoured to point out to the magis- 
trate that the real culprits in the case were the plaintiffs' pre- 
decessors, who had copied the different Oriental and Dresden 
marks without permission. The author's evidence on this point, 
and the magistrate's common sense, however, disposed of this 
ad captauditm argument, and his decision in this case was that with 
which most sensible people would agree — that the vicious imita- 
tions are those which are made for the purpose of fraud. 

The highly decorated imitations of old Sevres are only 


misleading to the beginner, but as they bear the marks of the 
finest quahty specimens of Sevres' best period, they demand some 

The mark in the margin, with the letter between the two 
reversed L's, which in real Sevres (see notice on 
Sevres) should indicate the date of its manufacture 
(1753 to 1777 being represented by the letters 
from A to Z), appears on these productions. The 
paste is very inferior to tiiat of real Sevres, and the 
ground colours are poor. Under " Hints and 
Cautions " the reader has been warned against these specious 
imitations. As a matter of fact, these letters in this particular 
kind of china, while doing the deceiver's part in masquerading 
as a date letter, do also stand in many cases for the initial letter 
of the decorator who embellished the white china. Thus C, which 
to the uninitiated would indicate the year 1755, is actually the 
initial letter of Caille, a well-known decorator of this imitation 
Sevres of some twenty or thirty years ago. L is that of Lehou- 
jour. B. B., which ought to stand for 1779, being the second 
year of the double letter period, is the double initial mark 
of Bareau et Bareau, a firm known to the author some twenty 
years ago. 

The Sevres mark of the reversed L in cypher with the letter 
M in the centre (which, if the mark were genuine, would indicate 
the year 1765) was also put on much of the earlier Minton china 
which, as we have seen in the previous chapter, was decorated 
by Randall in the manner of old Sevres. 

In concluding these notes on counterfeit and misleading marks, 
the author thinks it fair to point out that while some of them are 
placed upon china with the intention of perpetrating a fraud, 
others are sold by the manufacturer in all good faith, but they 
are used far too frequently by some of the smaller dealers in 
order to deceive inexperienced customers. On the other hand, 
in a great many cases the purchaser of such goods deserves but 
little sympathy, because he buys china with the counterfeit marks, 
at a price which he thinks is far below the market value, and 
is only too eager to take advantage of what he considers to be 
the inexperience or error of the vendor. 

While these pages were in the press the author was remon- 
strating one day with the member of a firm of high standing in 
the upholstery and general furnishing business, for allowing such 
sham china to be on sale in one of his departments, and he made 


a defensive reply which serves to show that the " Iamb " is some- 
times no better than the " wolf." He said in effect : " We do 
not sell this china for Dresden, Chelsea, or Worcester ; but as 
our customers buy articles for presents, they are anxious that the 
marks of these factories shall be on the china, so that their friends 
to whom such pieces are given may place a higher value upon 
them." This was certainly an entirely novel point of view, and 
one can only hope that it is not as fully justified as this gentleman 
seemed to think. 

Value of the Mark. 

In the author's opinion, an erroneous, or at any rate, an 
exaggerated value is placed upon the mark. This should be a con- 
firiiiatioi! of all other points of evidence, rather than the evidence itself 
of a specimen being genuine. Let the reader remember that the 
mark is the easiest part of the forgery to imitate ; let him therefore 
first be satisfied that the specimen has the desirable qualities of a 
genuine example of any particular fabriquc — paste, glaze, form, 
colour, in a word character — and then if it bear the mark which 
confirms the other evidence of its being a genuine specimen, so 
much the better. 

^^ »• »iK» ■ ».,». ^ »k 

* * '' 

Figure of a Cat, Karly slip decorated ware in Mr. Frank Falkner's 
Collection (Uublin Museimi). 


H %!jott account of t\)z Different Ceramic jTactoric0 


For tlic use of many of l!ic blocks used to illustrate this section of the book the 
author is iiulebted to the courtesy of the proprietor and publishers of Chaffer^ 
" Marks ami MonosTrantsT 


HE kind of majolica which is known as 
" Abruzzi ware " is not the production of 
any particular fabrique, but the term is 
generally applied to specimens which it is 
difficult to assign to any of the more dis- 
tinguished Italian potteries. The province 
of Naples was among the first, if not the 
very first, to produce majolica. Specimens, 
and fragments of specimens, of as early a 
time as the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries have been dis- 
covered during excavations. The invention of Luca della Robbia 
was apparently adopted in Castelli, a hamlet in the Abruzzi 
district, and in Pisa and Pesaro. 

The kind of majolica, however, which is now known as 
" Abruzzi ware " is the more modern production of a number 
of unimportant potteries near Naples. It is decorative, but not 
by any means the best kind of majolica, and generally may be 
said to have the appearance of inferior Urbino ware, the pre- 
vailing colours being yellow and green, the subjects either mytho- 
logical or scriptural, scrolls, cupids, or grotesques. See also 


One of the oldest names in the Staffordshire Potteries is that 
of Adams. There have been at least twelve representatives of 
the name in direct and indirect descent, who have been manu- 


facturers of Pottery, and several of them have been famous 
for their productions in this branch of Industrial Art. William 
Adams was described as a potter of Burslem in some Chancery 
proceedings in 1617, and his father appears to have owned a 
pottery in 1568. The foundation of the present firm dates from 
1657, when John Adams built the Brick House Potteries, Tunstall, 
which a century or so afterwards were let to Josiah Wedgwood 
for a term of ten years during the minority of the young Adams 
who was then the heir. 

William Adams of Greengates (i 745-1 805) was the maker of 
jasper ware similar to Wedgwood's, and unmarked specimens are 
mistaken for the work of the more celebrated potter. His vases, 
plaques, scent bottles, jardinieres, cameos, and particularly the 
drum-shaped pedestals which he made for mounting as lamps, 
are excellent in quality and finish. The colour affected was 
generally blue with white relief, but he also made tea sets and 
vases in red and black ware of Etruscan form and character, and 
a black Egyptian ware like Wedgwood's basaltes. A hard stone 
china called " Imperial Stone ware" with sage green ground and 
classical figures in relief was also made by this firm. A fine 
plaque by Adams of jasper ware was sold a few years ago at 
Christie's for £171- The present proprietors of the works con- 
tinue to produce good pottery ; their specialities are : 1, Adams 
Jasper ; 2, Egyptian Black ; 3, Grecian Red ; 4, Vitreous Stone 
ware ; 5, Etruscan ware ; 6, Royal Ivory. 

ESTABLD i6s7 "^^^ mark of the old ware is ADAMS im- 

„ pressed in the clay, but for many years a mark 

TUNSTALL ^, • , • ,-„ ■ u ^ a I a 

which IS still in use has been adopted. 



This factory, established by the Count d'Aranda, is said 
to have been the only one in Spain where porcelain was made, 
with the exception of Buen Retiro (<j.v.). A fine faience 
was also made at the same works. The principal pieces were 
plaques, some of them very fine, both in faience and porcelain, 
with good paintings of figures in Spanish costumes on a fine 



brilliant white ground. The mark is A, in brownish red, black 
or gold, and some specimens have the same letter 

scratched in the paste. The porcelain, however, is 
frequently unmarked. Mr. Charles Borradaile had a 
cream-pot, painted in the style of old Sevres, which 
has the A in gold. Major Martin A. S. Hume had, 
until his collection was dispersed, four two-handled 
cups with covers, with the mark both painted and in- 
cised, and a soup-plate of very good quality with the 
mark in gold only. The general character of the 
porcelain is that of the early Doccia. Of the enamelled 
earthenware produced here. Major Hume had also a 
fine and interesting plaque, measuring 23 by 17 inches, 
painted in allegorical style as a trophy, in honour of 
Charles III., who died in 1788. The date of this specimen can 
therefore be fixed approximately. Major Hume's great-grand- 
father was an officer in this king's service, and several pieces in 


Plaque of Alcora faience, Spanish'peasants befure"a fountain, 
formerly in the Reynolds collection. 

his collection were taken by him at the sacking of the palace of 
Godoy (Prince of the Peace) in 1808. The plaque is partly in 
relief, and is marked boldly in red with the letter A. The forma- 
tion of this letter varies on different specimens ; it is generally 
in red, but occasionally occurs in gold. 



ALT-ROLHAU, near Carlsbad 

A. Nowotny made both pottery and porcelain here, the latter 
a hard paste. 

Mark : A. N. impressed, and sometimes the name in full, 
" Nowotny." 

See Bohemia. 



M. Nathusius has recently established a 
factory here for hard-paste porcelain. 
Mark stamped in blue. 


The manufacture of porcelain in Holland was first started 
at Weesp, near Amsterdam, in 1764, by Count von Gronsveldt, 
with the assistance of some runaway workmen from Saxony. He 
produced some fine hard-paste porcelain, but owing to the great 
expense of the establishment, and the disproportionate returns, 
partly occasioned by the growing importation of Oriental porce- 
lain, the Count's means were exhausted, and the effects of the 
factory were sold off in 1771. In 1772, however, the Protestant 
pastor of Oude Loosdrecht, named De Moll, re-opened the manu- 
factory at Loosdrecht, midway between Amsterdam and Utrecht, 
where it was carried on with considerable success until his death 
in 1782. The works were continued at Loosdrecht by De Moll's 
partners until 1784, when they removed to Amstel. 

The characteristics of this fahrique are : hard paste and a 
tine white body, with decorations generally of landscapes and 
country scenes, or single figures of Dutch peasants. Other speci- 
mens fiave gilt borders, and light blue flowers between green 
leaves. The earliest mark is a W. for " Weesp," and the crossed 
swords, probably in imitation of Dresden. The letters M. O. L. 
stand for " Manufacteur Oude Loosdrecht," with a probable refer- 
ence also to the name of the pastor, De Moll. At Amstel the 
marks were the initial A, and the word "Amstel" in full. All 
these marks were painted, but we also occasionally find the 
M. O. L. scratched in the paste. 



The late Sir A. W. Franks considered that tiie mark " W. — 
J : Haag" was that of the WaWcndori /a/iri/jm: The mark A. D. 
was used after the removal to Oude Amstel in 1784, the initials 
being those of the director, a German named Daenber. These 
works were closed about the end of the century when a new 


J' nana/ 






factory was started at Niewer Amstel under the name of George 
Dommer & Co. The mark then used was the word " Amstel " 
in full. Though supported by the King of Holland, who granted 
a large annual subsidy, the enterprise did not flourish, and the 
manufacture ceased in 18 10. 

About the same time a fresh company was started in Amster- 



dam itself, under the style of A. La Fond & Co., but was not 
of long duration. The mark was the name of the firm. The 
accompanying marks of the Batavian lion are also attributed by 
M. Jacquemart to the Amsterdam fabrique ; they are generally 
painted in blue. This lion is also found with the initials A. D. 
(the initials of Daenber), the director of the works at Oude Amstel, 
as mentioned above. 

AMSTERDAM (see Amstel). ' 

Faience of fine white enamel (chiefly table and tea services, 
but also including groups of birds, statuettes, vases, &c.) was 
made at Overtoom, near Amsterdam, in 1754. The manufac- 
tory was removed to Weesp in 1764 by Count von Grons- 
veldt. No mark is known, that of the Crowing Cock, which 
was formerly attributed by some authorities to Amsterdam, 
being now more correctly placed as the mark of the Arnheim 
fabrique {q.v.). 

Anatolia (see Rhodes, also Turkey). 


A small factory was established at Paris (Rue de Bondyj about 
1785-92, by Dihl and Guerhard, under the protection of the Count 
d'Artois. The productions were called porcelaine d'Atigouleme- 
Little is known of the factory, and specimens are rare. 

The paste is hard. The following marks are found painted or 
stencilled in red : — 




J '' OPr^ 


^'^Jm- ^^ 


Paris. Rue tie Bondy, 17S0. 
' D'Angouleme." Dihl li Guerhard. 



Sometimes the mark is stencilled in red like j^ j^jor j^^ j^^^, 

a Paris. 

the inscription in the margin — 

In a case by itself in the pottery gallery of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum is a vase of this factory ; it stands on a pedestal 
formed of three lions, and is about 7 feet high, including the 
pedestal. This vase, which is decorated with a battle subject, 
most beautifully painted en grisaille, is one of the most magnificent 
specimens of tine porcelain that could be desired. 

A rose-water jug and basin of this factory, charmingly 
decorated in medallion and floral designs, which originally 
belonged to Queen Marie Antoinette, was in the possession of the 
late Mrs. Wilfrid Ashley. 

The marks " Dihl " and " Guerhard et Dihl " are also found. 

A fabriqne known as that of the Duchesse d'Angouleme was 
carried on in the Boulevard St. Antoine, Paris, by Dagoty and 
Honor6 about 181 2. See under Paris. 

Faience was made in or near Angouleme in 1784, the firm 
being Veuve Sazarac, Desrocher, et Fils. A piece in the museum 
at Limoges is marked "A Angouleme de la Fabrique de 
Madame V. S. D. et F. 28 Aout, 1784." 

ANSPACH, Bavaria. 

A hard-paste porcelain is said to have been made here as 
early as 1718, but this is probably much too early a date. Dr. 
Brinckmann and Mr. Stegmann place the commencement of 
porcelain making at 1760, and Sir A. W. Franks agrees. In 1764 
the manufactory was removed from the site of the old faience 
factory to the Margrave's Schloss at Bruchberg, but it never 





achieved a really high rank. There are several specimens in the 
Franks collection. The productions are principally table-ware. 
The general characteristics of Anspach porcelain are those of 
Amstel or Fiirstenburg. The marks are generally painted in blue 
under the glaze, and consist of a spread eagle, or a shield charged 
with a bend dexter, with or without the initial A, and sometimes 
of A by itself. 

Faience was also made here. 

APREY, NEAR Langres (Haute-Marne). 

A fabriqiie of faience of some excellence was established here 
about 1750 by the Baron d'Aprey. Subsequent proprietors were 
Olivier, Vilhoeut (about 1780), and more recently M. Louis Gerard. 
The decoration consists chiefly of flowers and birds, in red, rose- 
colour, and green, and much resembles the early Strasbourg ware 
(q-v.), but it is without the black or dark-coloured outline usually 
found on faience. 

The marks are AP or " Aprey " in full, generally preceded by 
a potter's or painter's initial. The marks are sometimes painted 
and sometimes stamped. 


c . aOxt 


APT, Vaucluse, France. 

Faience was made here about 1750, and from that time to 
the present day. The ware mostly imitates 
marbles of various kinds. Of the few marks 
known, one is that of Veuve Arnoux (who had 
the works in 1802), taken from a vase at South 
Kensington, impressed. Pieces marked " R " have been attributed 
to M. Reynard, who made pottery at Apt in 1830. 

Broth-ba^iii nr I'l-iiellu and Cuvcr, of Apl Faience (Coll. Pascal). 




There were two factories of faience here in the hitter part of 
the eighteenth or early part of tiie nineteenth century. Marks, 
both impressed : 

A. D. Vander Waert. 

B. Laramens & Co. 


simply, have 


Pieces of hard-paste porcelain marked " A 
been attributed by M. Jacqueniart to Arnheira 
rather than to Amstel {q-v-)- Porcelain was 
certainly made here about 1772, but not 
for long. 

There was also a factory of faience here, 
which produced pieces of some merit. The 
mark of a cock, previously attributed to Amster- 
dam, has lately, on the authority of the late "^ 
Sir A. W. Franks and other experts, been claimed for Arnhcim. 

ARRAS, Pas-de-Calais. 

k fabriqiie of soft-paste porcelain was established here before 
1782 by the Demoiselles Deleneur, under the patronage of M. de 
Calonne, Intendant of Flanders and Artois. The 
works only lasted a few years, being closed in 1786. 
The ware was similar to that of Tournay (q.v.), being 
made in rivalry to the productions of that factory. 
The porcelain was excellent, both in quality and 
decoration, some of it being quite equal to old Sevres; 
pieces with gold enrichments on a deep blue ground are very 
similar to old Vincennes (q.v.). 

Portions of services of this description, when offered for sale, 
realise prices equal to those of the best Sevres. 

Four cups and saucers, a sucrier, and a plate were sold at 


the sale of the Hawkins collection at Christie's in 1904 for 
about ;^300 — two of the cups and saucers are now in the 

Cup and Saucer of the service sold at the Hawkins sale, May 1904. 
In Mr. Herbert Young's collection. 

collection of Mr. Herbert Young, and the sucrier is in that of 
Mrs. Burns. 

The mark is painted under the glaze, generally in blue, but 
sometimes in other colours. 

Arita (see Japan). 


In some remarks upon our eighteenth-century English 
potters in Chapter HI. mention has been made of the rather 
questionable methods by which John Astbury obtained the secrets 
of Elers. After leaving his employers he started some works 
of his own at Shelton in the Staffordshire pottery district, where 
he not only produced a red ware similar to that of Elers but 
subsequently made successful e.xperiments with various clays, 
the pottery wliich we now recognise as Astbury ware showing 
considerable variety in colour and design. He also used an 
excellent lead glaze, and by various argillaceous washes produced 
some charming decorative effects. The famous " Portobello " 
bowl in the British Museum, made to commemorate the victory 
of Admiral Vernon in 1739, is one of his best pieces, but there 
are many other good specimens in the same collection. Figures 
were also made by him, and the "Grenadier" in the same Museum 
attributed to him is a quaint specimen. Ornamental effects 


lirodiiced by superimposed clays of different colours and in 
relief, also by " marbling " and by graffito process, the whole 
well glazed, are distinctive of his ware. Astbury died in 1743 
and was succeeded by his son Thomas, who became a notable 
potter, and some works at Lane Delph were started by him as 
early as 1725. Cream ware which afterwards became a speciality 
of Josiah Wedgwood, was made first by Thomas Astbury ; clouded 
and tortoise-shell ware, which we generally associate with the work 
of another famous potter, Thomas Wheildon (q.v.), was also made 
by the younger Astbur)'. One occasionally sees pieces marked 
ASTBURY ; these may be attributed to the son, as the father 
is not known to have adopted any mark. Astbury ware was 
made up to 1780. The name ASTBURY always appears with 
the letters stamped separately, and therefore slightly irregular ; 
specimens bearing the name impressed with a single stamp should 
be viewed with suspicion. 


Faience was made here in the sixteenth century, and up to 
about 1780. In Chajfers there is a list of potters in the 
Vaucluse Department from 1500 to 17 15. Most of the known 
pieces are jugs, vases, and the like, and are generally unmarked. 
They are principally noted for their fine metallic glaze, resem- 
bling bronze or tortoise-shell. 

There are two good specimens from the Soulages Collection 
at South Kensington. 

Avon, near Fontainebleau (see Fontainebleau). 

A factory of hard-paste porcelain was 
established here in 1753, under the patronage 
of the reigning Margrave, by a widow named 
Sperl, who carried it on with considerable suc- 
cess by the aid of workmen from Hochst {q.v.) 
until 1778. Subsequently the works were the 
property of a man named Pfalzer, who be- 
came insolvent, after which ihe fabriqiic ceased. 
The buildings were bought by a taniier, one 
Meyer, who turned them into an inn, known 
as the " Grim Winkel." 



The mark consists of two axe-heads, facing each other, gener- 
ahy painted in gold, but sometimes in neutral tint. Occasionally 
one axe-head only is found. 

Pottery was also made here about the end of the last century. 


A hard-paste porcelain was manufactured here. The late Sir 
A. W. F"ranks had a milk-pot painted in bistre camaieu with 
flowers outlined in gold, resembling Dresden. Mark : the name 
of the place painted. 


Pottery was made here in the sixteenth and early seven- 
teenth centuries. The fabriquc, however, was not of much im- 
portance, and little is known about it until the following century. 
The researches of Sir W. R. Drake {Notes on Venetian Ceramics) 
have supplied some very interesting details concerning the history 
of the factory subsequent to 1728.^ About that time it appears 
that there were several makers of majolica at Bassano ; the 
names of Manardi and Giovanni Antonio Caffo are mentioned, 
as well as Giovanni Battista Antonibon of Nove. In 1753 
Giovanni Mario Salmazzo started a new factory in opposition 
to the one at Nove. Antonibon claimed to have a monopoly 
of the manufacture of majolica throughout the Venetian domi- 
nions ; but in 1756, on Salmazzo's petition, the Senate de- 
cided that no such rights existed. Salmazzo continued his 
works for many years, and pieces marked " G. S." may be 
attributed to him. 

Antonibon's successor was a potter named Giovanni Baroni. 
A beautiful vase, which was formerly in the author's posses- 
sion, is inscribed Fabe Baroni Nove, and dated 1802. It is 
evidently a presentation piece, and probably the chef d'mivrc 
of ihQ fabriquc. The subjects are Alexander and the family of 
Darius, and a classical subject after Le Brun. It was for many 
years in the collection of Mr. C. W. Reynol(,ls. This fine vase, 
including its pedestal, is 2 feet 5 inches high. The author knows 
of two smaller vases of much less importance, but in the same 

' For further particulars see Chaffers' Marks and Aloiio^^raiiir, 13th ed., edited by F. 
Litchfield, 1912. 



The marks given below are those of the brothers Antonio 
and Bartolomeo Terchi, who flourished in the seventeenth 

-A\nt on>o>D 07V 


■K-r ^"-^ 


Giovanni Battista, Antonio Bdii 
or Antonibon. 

CD i\^iCLr\u 


Crlo^tAlctrcoTxi Tamjc^^c^Sv 

NovE. Marconi, painter. 

B°Ter c ^1 




k fabriqne of hard-paste porcelain was estab- 
lished here in 18 10 by M. Joachim Langlois, 
formerly director of the works at Valognes {q.v.). 
M. F. Gosse became proprietor in 1849. 

Marks of M. Gosse, both from specimens in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 





Marks : 


These marks are upon some good speci- 
mens of Bayreuth faience in the Hamburg 
Museum, and are quoted from Professor 
Brinckmann's official catalogue. 

A hard-paste porcelain was made here as 
early as 1744. The pieces are well painted, 
mostly with landscapes. The following marks 
are found, the first being from the collection 
of Sir H. B. Martin, the other two from the 
P'ranks collection, all painted. 

Brown stoneware was made here in the 
sixteenth century ; a bottle in the Sigmaringen 
Museum is dated 1524. A fine faience of 
excellent design and workmanship was subse- 
quently manufactured. The decoration of this 
is usually in blue cauia'ieu. 





The celebrated faience of Beauvais is hardly likely, from its 
rarity, to come into the hands of the ordinary collector. Only sixty- 
five pieces are known to exist, and the prices obtained for these, on 
the rare occasions when they come into the market, are increasing 
by leaps and bounds. We may mention that the generic term, 
" Henri H. Ware," formerly applied to this and similar /a^r/y/z^s, is 
now discarded by M. Edmond Bonnaffe (who has made a special 
study of the subject), in favour of " Saint Porchaire " {q.v-). 

BELLEEK, Ireland. . 

These works were founded in 1857 
by Mr. David M'Birney of Dublin, on 
the recommendation of Mr. Armstrong, 
a well-known architect, who had made 
some satisfactory experiments with local 
felspar and china-clay. 

The peculiarity of this china is its 



lustre, resembling the polished, slightly iridescent surface inside 
a mother-of-pearl shell. The designs are mostly of a marine 
character, sea-shells and plants, corals, dolphins, sea-horses, and 

Specimen of Belleek. 
Grounds Basin. Part of a Service made for Oueen Victoria. 

the like, and occasionally tritons, mermaids, &c. The manufactory 
is still carried on. 

Mark generally printed in colour, but sometimes stamped. 

Bellevue (see Cadborough). 

Bellevue Pottery (see Hull). 

BENTLEY WARE (see Wedgwood). 
Bentley, sometime partner with Wedgwood. 


This manufactory was established in 1751 by W. Gasper 
Wegely, a merchant who had purchased the secret of making 
porcelain from some Hochst workmen, who, as will be seen 
in the notice of this latter factory, had obtained possession 
of Ringler's papers, and sold them to some wealthy persons 
desirous of embarking in the manufacture of porcelain. After 
1 76 1 it was under the management of a celebrated banker named 



Gotkowski, but became a royal manufactory under the immediate 
patronage of Frederick the Great, who, during his short occu- 
pation of Dresden, transferred a quantity of the clay, together 
with modellers and painters, from Meissen to Berlin. As 
Dresden was at this time suffering greatly from the Seven Years' 
War which ended in 1763, the productions of Berlin came into 
considerable repute. Marryat mentions that Frederick the Great 
would not allow the Jews to marry until they had purchased 
a service at the royal manufactory. 

The paste is hard, and the drawing of the figures, especially 
those of a classical type of the best periods, very delicate and 
fine ; there is also a chasteness and neatness about the decoration 
of specimens of those times, while the later productions are coarse 
in modelling, and are not refined or delicate in colour. At the 
present time, useful ordinary china is made in much greater 
quantities than pieces of an artistic character, and the factory 
is not improving. That the management is, however, capable of 
occasionally turning out fine specimens, we have ample evidence 
in the magnificent biscuit wine-cooler presented to the Victoria 
and Albert Museum by the Prussian Government, and now on 
view in the new pottery gallery of the Museum, together with 
some other choice specimens of this factory, both old and new. 




This W is similar to the same letter used as a mark of 
Wallendorf porcelain, but on the Berlin specimens we generally 
find this W accompanied by impressed numbers, which helps us 
to distinguish them from the Wallendorf. 






The mark of the earliest specimens is a W (Wegely) ; but 
when it became a royal manufactory the sceptre was adopted, 
and this mark was sometimes ac- 
companied by the letters K. P. M. 
(Konigliche Porzellan Manufac- 
tur), also the imperial <^lobe and 
cross, and the eagle, printed in a 
reddish brown colour ; this more 
often occurs on the modern pro- 
ductions. The mark of Q is 
sometimes found upon specimens 
made during the proprietorship 
of Gotkowski (176 1-3), and this 
mark should not be confounded 
with the marks of Gera or Gotha. 
The specimens of the earlier 
work of this factory and of the 
Wegely and Gotkowski periods, 
which are in the Franks collection, should be carefully inspected. 
The sceptre of the earlier and better period is thinner than the 
one more lately adopted, and these marks are always in blue. 
One or two specimens have been seen by the author with the 
sceptre stamped in the paste (colourless). 

Bingham, Potter, Castle Hedingham, Essex (see Hedingham). 

Milk-pot ul liecliii Porcelain. 


In the northern district of Bohemia, at the end of the nine- 
teenth century, there was a considerable development of the 
manufacture of hard-paste porcelain and of stoneware, and in the 
list of notices of the different factories in this chapter, several of 
these, including Schlaggenwald, Elbogen, Pirkenhammer, Prague, 
Teinitz, Altrothau will be found, but there are some others, such 
as Geissshiibel, Klasterle, Chodau, Tannowa, Klum, Dalwitz, which 
have been omitted. 

Some services made at Schlaggenwald and at Pirkenhammer 
were carefully painted, and one has seen specimens of the Prague 
factory that are above the ordinary, but there is nothing really 
exceptional in the product of any of these minor Bohemian 
factories. Collectors of marks, however, occasionally acquire 
specimens with a fabrique mark which they are unable to trace 


in any of their Guide-books, and for the satisfaction of these, the 
author has at considerable pains given in the latest edition of 
Chaffers, 191 2, a large number of the marks on the porcelain, 
earthenware and stoneware produced at the above-named potteries. 
For the information respecting this group of factories the author 
is indebted to Herr Deneken, curator of the Kaiser Wilhelm 
Museum at Crefeld, Germany, who sent him a pamphlet on the 
subject compiled by Dr. Pazaurek (1905). 


BOISSETTE, Seine-et-Marne. 

In 1777 Jacques Vermonet and his son started a 
small factory here ; good work was turned out. Mr. 
H. E. B. Harrison has some specimens in his collec- 
tion. The fabrique only lasted a short time. Mark : a 
cursive B. 

BOLOGNA, Italy. 

A manufactory of artistic majolica was established here in 
1849 by Angel Minghetti, and through his perseverance and 
knowledge soon attained a high state of perfection in the repro- 
duction of the old ware, especially that of Luca della Robbia, 
in the shape of colossal busts, allegorical figures, and Madonnas, 
also medallions, ornamented with fruits and flowers. Particular 
attention has also been given to the imitation of the old Urbino 
majolica, following the styles of the great masters of this school, 
and some very fine pieces have also been made in the Raflael- 
esque ware. One of the largest vases ever produced, measuring 
no less than seven feet six inches in height, was made at this factory, 
and besides many other important specimens the entire decorations 
of Prince Simonetti's saloon in his villa near Orsino, and that 
of the Duke de Montpensier's gallery in his palace of St. Jelmo 
at Seville, were made at Bologna. Very little appears to have 
been known of this factory, and the mark has never yet been in- 
cluded in any work on the subject. It is due to Signor Caldesi's 
kindness that the writer has been able to supply the above in- 

' )N^< ' 

Mark: the director's monogram. 




Authorities differ as to the date of the foundation of a 
porcelain factory here. According to our most recent informa- 
tion it was about 1784. The date of a pair of vases in the 
Sevres Museum is given as 1780-90. The general character- 
istics are those of other hard-paste French factories, such as 

Porcelain of fine quality is still made here. The mark con- 
sists of the monogram of " A. V.," and is similar to that which 
is attributed to Vaux (q.v.). 


Demniin gives this marl; without the lines 
enclosing the word " Bordeaux." 

Faience has also been made here from the 
early part of the last century. The work of 
Messrs. Latens & Rateau, established in 1829, 
bears the mark given in the margin. 

BoTTGER Ware (see Dresden). 




BOULOGNE, Pas-de-Calais. 

A manufactory, of but short duration, was started here some 
years ago by M. Haffringue. A fine porcelain of 
excellent body was made. Much of the decoration 
was in high relief, particularly well modelled. The 
late Lady Charlotte Schreiber possessed a tea service, 
with medallions of cupids and trophies, and also some biscidt 
plaques with the ornament in high relief. Mark: a square tablet 
in relief. 


A small atelier where Messrs. Jacques & Julien made soft 
porcelain in 1773. The fine, delicate, soft paste of this factory 
is identical with that of Mene^y, and the collection of soft-paste 
porcelain recently given by Mr. Fitzhenry to the Victoria and 



Museum should be carefully studied. It contains good specimens 
of all of this group of F"rench pale iendrc factories. 

Jacques & Julien removed hither on the expiration of their lease 
at M^ne^y {q-v.), where their mark was " D. V." Mr. Borradaile 
had a cup and saucer, the former marked " D. V." and the 
latter " B. R." These appear to belong to one another, and 
were probably made just at the time of the removal. Marks: 


B la R 


Pottery was also made here bv the same firm, and the 
manufacture is still carried on. Marks : 

B la R 



BOVEY TRACEY, Devonshire. 

Pottery was made here for some time prior to 1836, by 
Messrs. Honeychurch, and was imtil recently manufactured by 
Mr. Divett. 


The manufacture of porcelain appears to have commenced 
at Stratford-Ie-Bow, commonly called Bow, Middlesex, by the 
grant of a patent in 1744 to P2dward Heylyn and Thomas Frye ; 
the specification, as given verbatim on p. 112 of Mr. Jewitt's 
work, is very interesting, the invention being thus particularised : 
" A new methotl of manufacturing a certain material whereby a 
ware might be made of the same nature and kind, and equal to, 
if not exceeding in goodness and beauty, china and porcelain 
ware, imported from abroad." And the recipe is also given with 
full directions for burning, glazing, and the method of preventing 

Thomas Frye appears to have been an artist of considerable 
merit, also a mezzotint engraver, and was assiduous in his 

BOW 99 

attention to the works nntil his death in 1762. About 1750, the 
factory was acquired by Messrs. Wetherby & Crowtlier. It is 
probably on account of the imitation of Oriental china that the 
works were styled " New Canton " — the title that appears in the 
inscription on some of the earliest specimens. 

In 1757 a West End branch was opened in or near Spring 
Gardens, but it does not appear to have been a financial success, 
and in the same year there was a sale by public auction of some 
of the productions of the factory. Wetherby, one of the partners, 
died in 1762, and Crowther, the survivor, was bankrupt in the 
following year. Mr. Burton, in his History and Description of 
English Porcelain, mentions that John Crowther "of the Bow 
china works " had a warehouse in St. Paul's Churchyard from 
1770 to 1775, and thinks that this man was a relative of the bank- 
rupt, and carried on the business in a smaller way until the whole 
plant was acquired by Duesbury in 1776. 

There are some plates in existence, one in the British Museum 
and another in Mrs. A. R. Macdonald's collection, decorated in 
blue underglaze, and inscribed " Mr. Robert Crowther, Stockport, 
Cheshire, 1770," and these may have been made for a member of 
the family of the John Crowther who was at the time continuing 
the business. 

When Duesbury purchased the moulds and plant, they were 
removed to Derby, for at this time he held the Chelsea and Derby 
Works, besides one or two minor potteries. Messrs. Bell and 
Black's match manufactory marks the site of the old Bow Works, 
which were discontinued shortly after Duesbury's purchase. 

The paste of Bow is of different kinds, that of which the 
groups and figures is generally composed being of a soft artificial 
porcelain similar to Chelsea, but coarser, heavier, and more 
vitreous in appearance. Some of the earlier cups and saucers 
and the vases covered with encrusted plumes belong to this class 
of soft paste. A much harder paste was also made at Bow, 
sometimes white and sometimes having a blue-grey tint with a 
thick glaze. The decoration of some of the china was by means 
of transfer in outline filled in with colour, which being applied in 
enamel pigments, gives it an Oriental effect often in keeping with 
the rendering of a Chinese subject. Occasionally one sees pieces 
decorated with etching, a process also in use at Chelsea, Bristol, 
and some other factories. The colours of the dresses for the 
figures are somewhat more vivid than those of Chelsea. The 
white pieces, with simple Chinese designs, are very excellent, and 

100 BOW 

here it may be observed that the earher specimens are, Hke those 
of other factories, decorated with imitations or adaptations of 
Oriental designs, among which the red dragon, and the sprig 
of " primus " in reUef, are prevalent. The basket pattern, with 
flowers in relief, where the trellis crossed, was also executed 
to a large extent. The trade of the factory increased from 
/6,C73 in 1750 to -^"11,229 in 1755- This latfer sum at prices 
now current would only represent some eleven hundred articles 
at an average of ;^io, but would represent an enormous output 
when we bear in mind that the average price of a china article 
made at the Bow factory in 1755 was from 2s. to 3s. Mr. 
Bemrose in his Bo'a>, Cliclsca, and Longton Hall, has reproduced 
in facsimile the sale sheets, in which such items as " a pair of 
dancers, 3s." occur in numerous instances, while such sums as 12s. 
or I ^s. are exceptionally high. In the British Museum is a very 
interesting specimen of the Bow factory — a bowl, with a memorial 
affixed, stating it to be the handiwork of Thomas Craft in 1760, 
by whom the said document is signed and dated 1790. 

The Bow figures and groups are not infrequently attributed 
to Chelsea and Worcester on account of the similarity of the 
marks, the anchor and the cresent. The pieces made at Bow 
may often be identified by the presence of a square or triangular 
hole at the back, made for the purpose of fixing metal arms to 
form candlesticks. These holes are not found on figures made 
at Chelsea, but they are sometimes on Bristol figures, therefore 
their occurrence may, with this reservation, be taken as a sign 
of the Bow factory. A further reference to the controversy as 
to some figures recently classed as Bow which are now considered 
to have been made at Worcester, will be found under the notice 
of the latter factory. 

Some of the most skilfully modelled Bow figures are those 
attributed to the modelling of John Bacon, K.A., who, after being 
as a lad apprenticed to a china manufacturer named Crispe, of 
Lambeth, rose to some fame as a sculptor, became a Royal 
Academician, and modelled several figures for the Bow manu- 
factory. His mark, a small capital " B," is impressed in the paste 
of some of his figures, but this mark may be easily overlooked. 
There is a pair of figures of Cooks so marked in Captain Thistle- 
thwayte's collection. Some other well-known lignres made at 
Bow were the set of four seasons, Flora, Marquis of Granby, 
Genera! Wolfe, Mars and Venus, harlcc]uin in different costumes, 
dancers and (lower-sellers, and figures with bagpipes in pairs, 



Soup Tiiiecn ol Kow porcelnin, wiDtc, wilh [nunus lilos'iiiiii in relief 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). 

boys mounted on goats, and some portrait figures of actors. 
Some of the white figures formerly considered to be Bow are now 


Bow Tea-pot with two spouts, formerly in the collection of Mr. D. W. Macdonaki. 

I02 BOW 

attributed to Chelsea, and the well-known little " Bee " milk-jug 
which authorities formerly assigned to Bow is also credited to the 
sister factory. The Bow figures generally have bases with four 
prolonged scrolls which form feet, raising the figure three-quarters 
of an inch or more from the ground, and on these feet, and on 
the scroll base from which they spring, there are generally some 
blue and red lines in the decoration, and it may be added that 
there is an absence of gold on the earlier pieces. 

Collectors should carefully study the Schreiber collection in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum for some of the peculiarities of 
Bow, the crude and vivid colouring, the " blob " of red in the 
cheeks of the figures instead of the more careful stippling used 
at Chelsea, and the blue, red, and pink-mauve colourings which 
are characteristic in these figures, as distinct from those of 
Chelsea or Bristol, with which they are likely to be confounded. 

Some recent information with regard to Bow and Worcester 
has enabled us to transfer many specimens to the latter factory, 
which were formerly ascribed to Bow. A mark which appears on 
some figures having the appearance of a monogram "T. F." used 
to be considered as the initials of Thomas Frye, the manager of 
Bow factory, but this theory is now given up in favour of the 
view that it is the mark representing jade, copied from the old 
Chinese porcelain. Some six specimens which are in the British 
Museum, consisting of three dishes, a tea-pot and two sauce- 
boats, having raised moulded borders and delicate blue under 
glaze decoration, have been recently transferred by the Museum 
authorities from Bow to Worcester. Analytical experiments have 
proved that the body or paste of these specimens contain steatite, 
an ingredient which was never used at Bow, but is known to have 
been part of the composition of the old Worcester paste. There 
are, however, instances in which workmen's marks having the 
appearance of Frye's monogram occur upon figures which are 
undoubtedly of Bow manufacture, and sometimes this monogram 
is found in conjunction with recognised Bow marks. 

Really line Bow figures realise prices quite equal to those of 
Chelsea, and they are much more difficult to find, but, generally 
speaking and excepting the finest specimens. Bow might almost be 
classed as coarse Chelsea. At the sale in May 1899 of the collec- 
tion of English china formed by Mr. MacLaren, a very important 
pair of Bow figures realised ;^400. This is probably the highest 
price yet recorded, but we have no doubt would be exceeded if a 
sufficiently important specimen should be offered for sale. 

r^ — 


O ri 

^ 1 

O — 



The following marks are either incised or roughly painted in red, 
and occasionally the mark is in two colours, red and blue : — 




J o > 

This mark is on a pair of 
vases formerly in Mr. Louis 
Huth's collection. This is 
the only instance of it known 
to the author. 

This mark of a G in blue is 
identified as Bow by a similar 
specimen in the Victoria and 
.\lbert Ajuseum which bears an 
"arrow'' Bow mark. It is on 
a sauceboat in Mr. Broderip's 

A Bow mark which occurs 
on a pint muy. 1 he mark 
is under the handle and is in 
blue with gilding over it. In 
Mr. Broderip's collection. 

^ BT 

T ^ )^ Y % % \<s 

Bow. Monograms of Thomas Frye and of Tebo, and also some workmen s marks. 



There is considerable difference of opinion among experts as 
to the proper attribution of some of these workmen's marks. In 
those of this character included in the Worcester marks, there 
are several which the writer has seen on specimens which are in 
his opinion of Bow origin, and many of these are claimed by Mr. 
Hobson for Worcester in his new book. Perhaps the solution of 
the difficulty may be found in the suggestion that some of these 
craftsmen worked at both factories, and also at Lowestoft. 

The marks occur generally upon specimens of little value, 
such as portions of tea sets, with painted blue decoration of a 
rough character. 

Mr. Broderip, of Weston-super-Mare, has many of them which 
he agrees with the writer were made at Bow. 

The crescent mark was used at Bow, though rarely. The 
author had a pair of candlesticks, with figures representing the 
seasons, the one marked with the crescent and the other with the 
swords. These were formerly in Mr. F. J. Thompson's collection, 
and are now in that of Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins, and are 
considered to be Worcester and not Bow. Some marks are also 
common to both Bow and Worcester, notably the crossed arrows 
and circle, and the anchor. As several models of figures were 
copied by both the Bow and Chelsea factories from each other, 
tiiere is often some difficulty in determining the correct factory 
when there is no mark. 

Upon a figure in Turkish costume standing on a scroll base, in 
the collection of Mrs. A. R. Macdonald, is the mark of the crescent, 
in blue, accompanied by the anchor and dagger in gold ; this is 
very unusual. A small pair of figures of a boy and girl in the 
same collection bear the anchor and dagger in red, accompanied 
l)y the dagger and a dot in blue, thus — 

^^ r^ 

The letter /^^ in blue, which is found on some pieces of 

Longton Hall, also occius in conjunction with the ordinary Bow 
anchor mark in red on two figures known to the author (see 
notice on Longton Hall). One of these, a flower-seller, is in 
Mr. H. Manfield's collection, and the other, a large figure of 
Flora, in that of Lady Hughes. 

The impressed mark "To" is probably that of Tebo, a well- 


known modeller, who also worked for Champion of Bristol, at 
Bow, for Wedgwood at Etruria, and also it is believed occasion- 
ally at Worcester. 

This mark, which is very similar to one vised at 
Worcester, occurs on a pair of candlesticks formerly ^^^« 
in Mr. D. W. Macdonald's collection, together with ^r»^S» 
the anchor and dagger. 

BRADWELL, Staffordshire. 

The famous brothers, David and John Philip Elers, 
established their works here about 1690. They were the first 
potters in England to use the salt glaze. By carefully refining 
and sifting the local clays, they produced vast improvements on 
the rough earthenware previously made in the district. These 
early English potters are best known by their red ware, which 
is generally described as Elers Ware. This is of a fine brick- 
red, generally in imitation of the Japanese as regards design, 
with well-defined moulded ornaments in relief which were 
produced by pressing the paste before firing in a well-cut steel 
mould. The ornament was generally the tea plant or prunus con- 
ventionalised, but other patterns were sometimes used. The body 
is closely mixed, and so hard and dense that it will polish if rubbed 
hardly, a test that more loosely mixed paste would not respond to. 
The principal products of their factory were tea sets, and one finds 
these most carefully potted, the details of ornament such as a leaf 
or mask under the spout of a tea-pot or jug carefully finished by 
hand, and the lids of the tea-pots accurately fitted. Black ware 
similar to the Basalt ware afterwards produced by Josiah 
Wedgwood was also made by Elers. Few pieces are marked, 
and from the great similarity to the Chinese red ware which they 
copied so closely, it is difficult to identify. The seal mark, too, which 
Elers placed upon much of this ware is not unlike an Oriental 
mark. Mr. Marc Louis Solon has many specimens in his 
collection, and the reader will find Elers well represented at the 
British Museum. (See also Astbury Ware.) 

Mark on a red, Elers Ware, silver-mounted coffee-pot in fg] 
the collection of Mrs. A. R. Macdonald. 

Brampton, near Chesterfield (see Nottingham). 



The Comte de Lauraguais appears to have been a scientist 
and member of the French Academy in 1758, and to have been 
successful, after experiments made with the assistance 
of a chemist named Guettard, from materials which 
he found at Alen^on, in producing a hard-paste 
porcelain of good quality. As far as is known, he 
did not establish a factory on commercial lines, but 
worked as an amateur, and presented his productions to his friends. 
In MM. de Chavagnac et de GroUier's valuable Hisloire there 
are many particulars of this ceramic venture. The mark v^'as 

o^ej \^ 


the monogram of tlie Count, and on some pieces tiiis is accom- 
panied by a date, 1764 or 1768, engraved in the paste in cursive 


An inferior kind of porcelain is said to have been produced 
here from 1713 to 1729, or thereabouts, under the direction of 
a workman named Kempe, who ran away from Meissen (see 

Breitenbach (see Grosbreitenbach). 


A factory of enamelled earthenware was established in 
Paris about 1550, by F'rantpois Briot, in opposition to Bernard 
Palissy. Francois Briot was a goldsmith first and a potter after- 
wards, and careful consideration of his work will demon- 
strate this ; for his designs, from their delicacy and minute 
details, are better adapted for production in silver or gold than in 


clay. The author had a very characteristic ewer of this fabriqiic, 
which is now in the collection of Mr. Siegfried Rosenblum. The 
material of which the specimens are made is a kind of tcrre de pipe 
of poor quality, but the enamel with which it is glazed is remark- 
ably hard and metallic in appearance. Few specimens are 
known, and these are mostly ornamental salvers, or ewers. One 
of the best specimens is a salver in the Salting collection. 
Briot's ware is noted for its fine vitreous enamel and brilliant 
colours, at first sight suggesting enamel on metal rather than 

Marks : F. B., or sometimes F. alone, stamped 
in the clay, but specimens are generally unmarked, 
and the amateur must be guided by the characteristics 
noted above rather than by any mark. 


Bristol Delft. — Pottery was made in or near Bristol at a very 
early date, but we have no means of differentiating early specimens 
from those of other old English ware of a similar character. From 
the hrst part of the eighteenth century, until the enormous and 
rapid growth of the Staffordshire potteries stifled the trade, there 
appear to have been several firms which made " Bristol Delft," as 
it has been generally termed. The best known of these was that of 
Richard Frank, whose works were in " Redcliffe Backs." He was 
also the proprietor of a copper lustre pottery factory at Brisling- 
ton, and appears to have been a man of great energy and to have 
done a large business. In old documents he is described as a 
" gallipot maker." 

The earliest dated specimen attributed to him is a plate with 

. . . B D 

initials S. M., also one T x H, and Chaffers states that specimens 
1703 1716 

dated 1711, 1721, 1735, and 1753 were destroyed in the hre 
which consumed the Alexandra Palace. These later dates 
belong to the time of Frank's son Thomas, who was in partner- 
ship with, and succeeded his, father. The plate painted " Nugent 
1754" was made by Frank for Nugent, who was the candidate at 
an election. The latest dated specimen known is a plate with 

initials , which is just previous to the decline of the 




The enamel of the ware is hard and upon a well-made 

earthenware body, its decora- 
tions being in greyish-blue. 
Compared with Lambeth 
Delft it is rather clumsy. A 
peculiarity of the decorations 
found on some specimenswas 
produced by a process called 
Bianco sopra Bianco, which 
rendered part of the design 
in a white opaque enamel. 
A pale greenish-blue tint was 
also used in the enamel of 
this Bristol Delft, which gives 
a pleasing contrast to the 
remainder of the floral or 
other patterns in greyish- 
blue. Specimens are in the 
British Museum and also in that of Uverpool. 

E Michael Edkins worked for the Franks, and has 

left it on record that the brushes used for decorating 
this Delft ware were made by the painters them- 
selves, from hairs plucked from the nostrils and eye- 
\j^/^f^ 'ids of cattle. This Edkins left the firm some time 
' / Ovy after 1761 and became a coach painter and subse- 
quently an actor ; other workers were a family 
named Hope and a man named Patience. 

Edkins' Plate, formerly belonging to Mr. Owen. 


Inscription on 
Bristol Delft. 

Bristol Election Plate 1754. 

Another Delft potter at Bristol w^as a man named Joseph 
Flower, of No. 2 The Quay ; he afterwards moved to 3 Corn Street, 



Bristol Delft I'hite made by Flower. 

and we know that he had a sign-board painted by Edkins with the 
words " Flower, Potter." His ware was thinner than that made 
by Frank, and had an excellent glaze. Jewitt describes and 
illustrates a plate which 
was part of a service made 
for a relative of his, and as 
recently as 1877 this was 
in the possession of a de- 
scendant of the original 
owner. We give an illus- 
tration of this specimen, 
together with its mark 
(Flower's initial), by the 
courtesy of Messrs. Virtue 
and Co. 

E.xcellent tiles of a 
decorative character were 
made quite early in the 
eighteenth century, some- 
times as single specimens and also as parts of tile pictures, but 
only because the subject is English, or by some initial or date, 
are we able to distinguish such as are of Bristol make from 
Dutch tiles of the same kind. Mr. Owen, whose 
book on Bristol pottery is the best authority, 
mentions one of these tiles painted with a dog 
which has on its collar "Bristol 1752," and in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum is another with 
a view of St. Mary Redcliffe Church. Among 
the later painters of tiles or roundels, the name 
of William Fifield occurs on specimens well 
painted in flower subjects, and on one of these 
in Major-General Astley Terry's collection is 
the word '' Bristol " impressed in a circle together with an 

Bristol Pottery. — The Bristol Pottery is a different and much 
later ware than the Delft, and is inferior in quality. A potter 
named Ring, who had married Richard Frank's daughter, and 
afterwards purchased the business, carried it on as " the Bristol 
Pottery." A half-pint mug which was in the author's possession 
some years ago had a view of Ring's Pottery and also of the Temple 
Church: it was dated 1802, and was made in commemoration 
of the Peace of Amiens. After Ring's death the business was 

Flower's mark. 



continued by his widow, and we know that it was in existence 
in 1817, possibly much later. The small mug illustrated was 
probably made at this pottery. 

Half-pint mugs, similar to the one 
illustrated, are also occasionally found 
with such inscriptions as identify them 
with the Bristol potteries. 

The small mug illustrated is marked 

Small Mug of Bristol Pottery " Bristol Pottery," and bears its date in the 

commemorative of the Peace 
of Paris, May 30, 1S15 : in 
Mrs.'A. Macdonald's collec- 

inscription on the face, " 1815." 


The manufacture of porcelain at Bristol was first started 
about 1750, but the venture was not a success. It was carried 

Tureen Cover and Stand of Uristol Porcelain, green laurel festoons and gilding 
(British Museum). 

on in quite a small way at some glass works known as Lowris 
House, the soap rock found at Lizard Point being one of the 
chief ingredients' in the composition of the paste. Chaffers has 
given an interesting quotation from the diary of a Dr. Pococke 
in which the following sentence occurs: "They make very 


beautiful white sauce-boats adorned witli reliefs of festoons, which 
sell for sixteen shillings a pair." These specimens are very rare, 
and two are mentioned below. Two other examples of this peculiar 
early Bristol porcelain are known: one is a plate dated 1753 
and having the initials "J. B." of John Biittain, and the second 
is a bowl decorated with the blacksmiths' arms, which is supposed 
to have been made for John Brittain's brother, who was an iron- 
monger by trade. This bears date 1762, which date, given by 
Mr. Downman in his English Pottery and Porcelain, is very 
important as showing that the " Lowris House " undertaking 
was in existence for some twelve years after its inception. 

This mark in raised letters occurs on an early moulded cream- 
boat in Mr. Borradaile's collection. Mr. Alfred ^^ 
Trapnell has a pair of white figures of fakirs with iLj'jj' j 
this mark Bristoll ; in the paste is scratched the 
date 1750, which, it will be seen, is considerably anterior to the 
time of Champion. In the Sheldon collection there is a 
specimen of this early Bristol china having the raised mark 
of " Bristol " spelt with one " I." 


The manufacture of porcelain at Bristol, apart from the above- 
mentioned undertaking, was founded by Richard Champion, a 
Bristol merchant and partner with William Cookworthy at 
Plymouth {q-v.). We do not know the exact time when works were 
started, but 1768 has been generally assumed to be the date. 
Two years earlier Champion had been making experiments with 
some clay from South Carolina, but these were unsuccessful, and 
it was in 1768 that funds to the extent of X7000 were provided 
by various capitalists towards the establishment of the works. In 
1770 the Plymouth works were transferred to Bristol, and the 
manufacture was carried on under the style of Champion & Co. at 
15 Castle Green. In 1774 Cookworthy retired from the firm, and 
Champion, with the aid of some capitalists, carried on for some 
years the manufacture of a fine hard-paste porcelain, much like 
the Oriental. With a view to increase his chances of recouping 
himself for the large sum paid to the patentee, he applied to 
Parliament for an extension of the monopoly, and obtained it 
in spite of the strenuous opposition of W^edgwood, on behalf 
of the Staffordshire potters, and others who used their influence 
in Parliament against him. The benefit gained, however, was 



barren, for the great expense and loss of time involved drained 
his resources, and the works were discontinued, the patent rights 
being sold to a company of Staffordshire potters in 1782. The 
clay of which the paste was composed was brought from Corn- 
wall, and was mixed with pulverised " growan stone," also from 
Cornwall, from the estate of Lord Camelford, who had assisted 
Cookworthy, the original patentee. 

A fine specimen is in the British Museum : a cup and saucer 
that formed part of a handsome tea-service made by Champion 
to Edmund Burke's order, for presentation to Mrs. Smith, in re- 




The Tea-pot uf the Burke Service, in Mr. Alfred Trapnell's collection. 

cognition of her own and her husband's warm support, during his 
contested elections, 1774. The service is decorated with delicate 
wreaths (a favourite ornament at the Bristol works), the coat of 
arms of the Smith family, and two S's entwined. Another remark- 
ably fine service, decorated with the arms of Burke, was presented 
to the successful M.P. by Champion. This service, which con- 
sisted of six pieces, was sold for ;^"565 at Messrs. Sotheby's in 
1 87 1. The value of this service has increased enormously since 
that time, and the tea-pot illustrated on this page, which 
some few years ago sold for ;42iOi was quite recently again put 
up at Christie's and realised ;^440. Some other celebrated 
Bristol services may be mentioned. One made for Sir Richard 
Smith is decorated with the letters " R. S." entwined. A set known 
as the " Plumer " service has thejinitial " P.," and another one is 


<5 i; " < 



^ ^ ^ 

;i J= — ■«>' 

— S 

^ : -^^ 



decorated with a crest of a bird which has_ been described as 
the Cornish Chough, although there is some doubt as to the 
correctness of this description. Mr. Alfred Trapnell has speci- 
mens of all these fine services, and in addition some pieces of the 
one which for some reason unknown to the writer has been 
termed the Gainsborough service, also two cups with initials 
B and C, probably those of two Bristol families for whom 
services were made. Laurel wreaths and festoons are some- 
times the only decoration of the services, and at others these 
wreaths are made to frame little cameo-like medallions, with 
very satisfactory effects. When landscapes are painted we find 
them very carefully executed. 

There are also specimens of some of the above-named sets 
in the British Museum, Victoria and Albert Museum, and in 
the Liverpool Museum (Mayer Coll.). Genuine specimens of 
any of these services realise large prices when by chance they 
are brought to the hammer. 

Figures and Vasrs. — The vases made by Champion were of 
considerable importance. We find some of them of hexagonal 
shape about 12 in. high and beautifully decorated ; this model 
'came originally from Plymouth, but the vases made there were 
of coarser paste than the Bristol ones. F"our fine examples of 
these vases are in the Trapnell collection and two are in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum. 

The figures made at Champion's factory are excellent, and 
among the models are the following. Four Quarters of the 
Globe (originally made at Plymouth), of which there is a set 
in South Kensington. The Four Seasons in two designs, one 
known as Classic, and the other as Rustic. Some of these liear 
the mark of the modeller Tebo already mentioned. Pairs of 
figures Milkmaid and Shepherd, Gardeners, Shakespeare and 
Milton, a portrait figure of Edmund Burke, one of Champion's 
daughter as a Vestal Virgin, and many other models charmingly 
rendered, full of life and animation, are all in great demand by 
collectors and realise very high prices. Birds on stumps are 
more rarely found ; the models of some of them are common to 
both Plymouth and Bristol. 

Biscuit Plaques A specialite of the Bristol factory was the 

manufacture of charming plaques, generally oval in shape, 
modelled in relief in white biscuit. Sometimes the subjects are 
delicately modelled flowers, others have coats of arms and 
portraits. One of these latter with a portrait in relief of 




Benjamin Franklin, is in the British Museum, and another, for 
which the owner paid ;^i5o, is in the Trapneli collection. 

Transfer decoration similar to that carried out at Worcester 
is occasionally found, but specimens are very scarce : the 
etching of flowers in black also occurs on some few examples. 
A cream-jug of this kind is in the Trapneli collection. 

A peculiarity of Bristol paste is its hard, vitreous appearance 
and its whiteness : a kind of " ribbing " can be noticed, as 
though in turning the vessel on the wheel, the marks of a slight 
irregularity of the lathe were left ; small black spots, too, are 
often seen in the paste. For further details of the Bristol 
factory, and illustrations of many of the best pieces, Mr. Hugh 
Owen's Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol should be 
consulted. The most usual mark is a plain cross in a slaty 
blue, but other marks are also found, including the numerals 
I and 2 in gold. These latter are said to be the marks of Henry 
Bone, who afterwards became famous as an enameller and 
painter of portraits and figure-subjects on copper. He was 
Champion's first apprentice, and the gold " i " is attributed on 
Owen's authority to him. William Stephens was his second 
apprentice, and the gilt " 2 " is considered by the same writer 
to be his mark. These gold numerals always occur on carefully- 
painted specimens. Occasionally we find both the cross and 
the crossed swords on the same specimen, and on the tea-pot 
of the " Smith " service in Mr. Trapnell's collection in addition 
to the cross is the letter A and " ist " in puce. 





The Rev. A. W. Oxford, in his preface to the catalogue 
of the Trapneli collection, has given us the results of his obser- 
vation of 1500 pieces of Bristol china, and they are of consider- 
able interest. A cross was found on 867 ; on 459 it was 
accompanied by a number ; on 288 there was no mark. The 
numerals range from i to 24, and doubtless refer to the 
decorators of the china. 

The following is a list of the numerals found in the above 


I i.^ 

named series of 459, all of which were also marked with the 
cross: — 

Numerals: i 2 3 5 6 7 8 g 10 1 1 12 13 

Specimens: 138 27 44 56 13 22 54 nil 14 10 6 nil 

Numerals : 14 
Specimens : 3 


19 20 21 
nil 2 9 





This mark, whicii is found impressed on 
many Bristol figures, is believed by Mr. Owen to 
denote the work of Tebo, a well-known modeller 
(see Bow). 

Shortly after the transfer of the works from 
Plymouth to Bristol, this combination of the 
two marks was used, and sometimes the Ply- 
mouth mark alone, either in gold or in red. 


A factory of faience was started here about 
a century ago by Henry Pulinx. The works 
are still carried on. Marks as in the margin. 


A factory of hard-paste porcelain was carried on here 
towards the end of the last century, by L. Crette, many of 
the pieces bearing his name or initials, painted or stencilled in 
red. Specimens are in the Franks collection. 

Marks, generally in blue, sometimes in red. The initials 
L. C. are those of L. Crette, and the monogram E. B. is that of 
a painter named Ebenstein, whose signature occurs in full upon 
a portion of a tea service in the Franks collection. There is 
little or nothing to distinguish Brussels porcelain as regards the 
quality of the paste from any of the French hard-paste factories. 




1/ Lt£ttedeJjiuxe.He,i 







Pottery was also made at Brussels. The following marks are 
given by Jannike and Chaffers ; and the latter quotes from The 
Journal of Commerce in 1761 that there was at least one factory of 
considerable importance where Delft or faience was made under 
the proprietorship of one Phillipe INIombaers. 








^ *S* M i 








Note. — Dr. Justus Brinckmann, the curator of the Hamburg 
Museum, is of opinion that the second mark, i.e. C.B. under a 
crown, given in the above group, is that of a German faience 
produced at Friedberg in Bavaria, and that the three marks of K 
with hayforks are also erroneously included with the Brussels 
marks. The letter K stands for Kiel, a painter who sometimes 
signed faience with his full name, J. G. Kiel, and date 1756. The 
factory was at a place called Abtsbessingen, near Sondershausen. 


This manufactory was established by Charles 111. (who be- 
came King of Spain on vacating the crown of Naples in 1759), 
at a country house much frequented by his Court, and called 
El Biicn Rcliro. As he brought with him his workmen and 
models from the Neapolitan factory, the Spanish productions 
bear much resemblance to those of Capo di Monte. Great 
secrecy was observed as to the processes used, and the King took 
the greatest personal interest in the work, assisting with his own 
hands in the production of some of the pieces. The productions 
were chiefly for royal use, or for presents to contemporary sove- 
reigns or favourites ; many thus preserved are singularly beautiful. 
On the accession of Charles IV. in 1789, the ware was for the 
first time sold to the public, and although the works still remained 












































'e/i ■£ 



under royal patr(jnage, they ceased to enjoy the close personal 
interest of the sovereign, as in the preceding reign. During the 
Peninsular War the works were destroyed by the French, the 
buildings turned into a fortification, and surrendered with two 
hundred cannon to the English, under the Duke of Wellington, 
on his entry into Madrid, August 14, 181 2. The building was 
subsequently blown up by Lord Hill when he evacuated 

Of soft paste, and a delicate white, susceptible of lustrous 
colouring, this china is more than usually transparent, and has 
altogether a shell-like appearance. Groups of fruit were favourite 
subjects for the decoration of services. Designs in relief 
were also executed in white, occasionally enriched by gilding. 
Some pieces, being representations of shells ornamented with 
coral, are exceptionally delicate. Figures are rare 
and generally well modelled. The author once (T\ 
possessed a pair representing October and Novem- vL/ 
ber, which were purchased in Malaga in 1889. 
These bear, in addition to the flciir-de-lis in blue, the impressed 
mark which is supposed to be that of Ochogaria, modeller and 
designer to the King. Mrs. Beresford Melville has some figures 
marked with the impressed fleur-de-lis. 

The marks are two C's interlaced, the royal cypher, and 
also the fleur-de-lis (the Bourbon crest), in blue, generally being 
somewhat indistinct ; but the character of the porcelain is un- 
mistakable, being like that of Capo di Monte only, which, how- 
ever, it excels in delicacy and in thinness of body. In the pottery 
gallery at the Victoria and Albert Museum is a magnificent vase 
of this factory, and also other specimens. The pair of Sceaux 
illustrated are excellent representative pieces. 

±\^ :5L 

O.F I. 

The monogram of the painter or modeller is sometimes added. 
Pottery was also made here. Mark : two C's interlaced, 
under a crown. 




The manufacture of common earthenware has been carried 
on here for about a century. Mr. Mitcliell, the present pro- 
prietor, has turned his attention to more artistic productions, with 
considerable success. The word " Cadbo7ough " was formerly 
scratched in the clay, but is now generally omitted. The ware 
is highly glazed, some of it being not unlike the common brown 
Rockingham ware. 

The very curious pieces known as " Sussex Pigs " were made 
here, and also at the Bellevue Pottery, near Rye. These are in 
the form of a pig, the body of which forms a jug, while the 
head lifts off and is used as a cup. These were in demand at 
country weddings, where each guest was expected to drink the 
health of the happy couple in a hogshead of beer. One of these, 
in the Baldwin collection, figures in Marryat's History of Pottery 
and Porcelain (3rd edit., p. 393). This popular model of the Pig 
has been reproduced, and specimens may still be obtained at this 
little pottery. 

CAEN, Calvados. 

A factory for the production of faience was started here about 
1798, but the manufacture was soon abandoned for that of porce- 
lain. The fabriqiic was given up about 1808. The ware was of 
hard paste, of excellent quality and decoration, resembling late 

Mark: the name Caen, generally stencilled. 

The manufacture was afterwards revived by M. Le Francois, 
who added his own name to the previous mark. 

Caffaggiolo (see Majolica). 

"^^^ CALDAS, Portugal. 

*^<^ Modern imitations of Palissy ware are made here. 

PORTUGAU '^'"'^' ■""'' "^ ''"''' '"'-"''''• 




Swansea, best known for its porcelain, was also the place of 
manufacture of the salt-glazed stoneware known as Cambrian. 
The manufacture was probably established about 1750, and 
was greatly improved by Mr. George Haynes between 1780 and 
1790. The firm subsequently became Haynes, Dillwyn & Co., 
and in 1802, on the retirement of Mr. Haynes, Mr. Dillwyn carried 
on the factory alone. The ware is well painted ; birds, butterflies, 
shells, &c., being the principal subjects of decoration. See also 
notices on Swansea, Nantgarw, and Coalport. 

Specimens marked Cambrian (cursive) are rare. Mr. Alexander 
Duncan of Penarth near Cardiff has two vases painted by Thomas 
Pardoe. One of these is included in the illustration of a group of 
Swansea porcelain and described in the notice of Swansea {'/.v.). 






Swansea. Established 1750: taken 

by G. Haynes, 1780; ceased 1820, 

and removed to Coalport. 

Canta Galli (see Florence). 


This factory, the notice of which, following that of Buen 
Retiro in alphabetical order, should precede it if arranged chrono- 
logically, was established close to Naples by Charles III. in 
1736. It has been suggested that his consort, Amelia of Saxony, 
may have brought the secret from Meissen to Naples ; but 
Marryat is probably right in giving the Queen credit only for 
the impetus she gave to ceramic art, and in considering the 
manufactory of native birth, and independent of those runaway 
Dresden workmen who carried to so many new factories the 
secrets of their former works. The character of the paste is 



quite different from that of the Meissen works ; the only thing 
in common is that which we find in all young ceramic factories — 
the Oriental style in the decoration of the first specimens, doubtless 
adopted with the idea of imitating the true Chinese porcelain. 

The King here, as afterwards in Spain, took the greatest per- 
sonal interest in the conduct and welfare of the manufactory, and, 

Ciroiip of the Peep-show, in the collection of Mrs. .\illuir R. Mactlonald. 

we are told, looked with favtnir upon those of his subjects who 
were customers at the royal warehouse. Marryat quotes from a 
letter to Lord St. Vincent from Lord Nelson : " A little circum- 
stance has also happened which does honour to the King of Naples 
and is not unpleasant to me. I went to view the magnificent 
maiuifactory of china. After admiring all the fine things suffi- 
cient to seduce the money from my pocket, I came to some busts 


in chiiKi of ;ill the family; these I immediately- ordered, 
and when I went to pay for them, I was informed that the King 
had directed whatever I chose should be delivered free of all 
cost — and it was handsome of the King." 

As we have seen in the notice of the Buen Retire factory, 
Charles III., on his vacation of the throne of Naples, took 
with him workmen and models, to found the new works. The 
NeapoHtan factory was, however, continued under the patronage 
of his son and successor F'erdinand, and with his assistance 
other factories were started by his subjects. The royal aid was ill 
requited by a conspiracy between some of those who had left the 
parent establishment, and others who were still on the original 
staff, to steal some of the gold and silver models, and other valuable 
articles. They, however, benefited but little from the new works — 
which soon languished and died from want of capital and energy. 
Revolutions are not conducive to the prosperity of ceramic 
factories, and during the troublous times that vexed Naples at the 
latter part of the eighteenth and commencement of the nineteenth 
century, the Capo di Monte establishment had a hard struggle. 
After languishing for some years, it became extinct in 1821, the 
requisition of part of the site for a hospital being the last straw 
to complete its breakdown. 

The productions of this celebrated manufactory are very 
beautiful, and, like the old Sevres, its soft paste has a charm of 
its own, derived from what one is tempted to term its " texture," 
which has a most delicate and soft appearance. Services were 
made in which each piece was decorated with a peasant in the 
costume of a different province, while underneath, in addition 
to the mark N surmounted by a crown, impressed or in blue, is 
written in a brownish-red colour the name of the province or the 
place of which a view is given on the specimen. 

Groups of shells were very favourite designs, and also mytho- 
logical subjects, executed in high or low relief, and tinted in 
colours on a white ground ; borders of swags of flowers were also 
prevalent. Some large presentation pieces — vases and plateaus 
— were made, chiefly as presents, while figures were, as in the 
Buen Retiro factory, more rare. 

One of the most charming specimens of old Capo di Monte is 
the little group (illustrated) of a Peep-show. The modelling and 
colouring are excellent. It was originally in Mr. G. H. Bohn's 
collection, and there was a note in Christie's catalogue of the Bohn 
sale, to the effect that this group had been in the possession of an 


Italian family connected with the Capo di Monte factory for nearly 
a hundred years. The author purchased it at the sale of Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber's Continental porcelain, and it is now in the 
possession of Mrs. Arthur Macdonald. 

^ This mark, together with an incised cross, occurs on 

f" a Capo di Monte figure of a dancer wearing a mask. 
In blue. j|.j jyj^g_ ^_ p_ Macdonald's collection. 

Old Capo di Monte is generally immarked, but the following 
marks occur upon some specimens. The earlier pieces bear no 

^r .4i? rv: KT ^^ 

^^ AL, ^ N 

Capo di Monte. Ci'na 1780. Mark on the services Mark fnind 

Rex Ferdinandus. referred to above. occasionally 

in gold. 

Some forty or fifty years ago the Marquis Ginori established 
a factory near the old site, for making reproductions, and as, in 
addition to his other fabriquc marks, he has also adopted one of 
the signs used at the original factory, that of the crowned N, 
collectors must beware of deception. The paste is, however, 
much more vitreous in appearance, and the tinting of the subjects 
in relief is less delicate and refined. The peculiar " stippling," 
too, of the old process is replaced by a quicker method of 
colouring, and the figure work is altogether more " waxy " and 
less carefully finished than in the old specimens. The majolica 
manufactured at the present time is, however, of good quality ; 
highly lustrous pigments, and bold, effective designs, executed on 
forms that are correctly adapted from the classic and antique, 
render the Marquis Ginori's factory near Florence of very high 
reputation. Besides the marks given below, the coronet surmount- 
ing a G is sometimes found on the more recent specimens. 



Impressed mark. Generally in l)lue, but 

sometimes incised. 

The manufactory is now carried on by Ricardo Ginori, and 
some excellent specimens were exhibited at the Turin 191 1 Exhibi- 
tion by him, receiving the Grand Prix in recognition of their merit. 


Carlsbad (see Pirkenhammer). 

Carl Theodok (see Fkax'Kenthal ,iik1 Lidwigsburg). 
Cassel (see Hesse-Cassel). 
Castel-Dlirante (see Majolica). 

CASTELLAN I, Torquato, Rome. 

In the last Paris Centenary International Exhibition there 
were some clever original groups and figures in Italian faience 
signed by this artist potter. 

Castelli, near Naples (see Majolica). 


A small pottery was started here some i 2 miles from Leeds 
about 1790, by David Dunderdale, who made a fine white stone- 
ware not unlike salt glaze in appearance, also a kind of cream- 
coloured earthenware like the Leeds ware, but inferior in quality. 
Imitations of Wedgwood's basallcs were also made here. The 
stoneware is similar to some of Turner's ware, and a favourite 
ornamentation is the use of thin blue lines and of medallions 
in relief. The author recently saw a set of three obelisks on 
pedestals of good Castleford Pottery in the possession of Messrs. 
Spink & Son, which had the oval relief cameo-like medallions on 
the pedestals, the obelisks themselves being painted with flowers. 
When specimens are marked they bear the initials of the firm, 
D. D. & Co., and the word CASTLEFORD, sometimes CASTLE- 

These works were closed in 1820, but afterwards came into 
the hands of Thomas Nicholson & Co., who used the mark of 
their initials, T. N. & Co., within a garter, which is surmounted by 
a crown. 

Only the better and more unusual class of specimens realise 
high prices. One can generally buy a tea-pot of the kind described 
above — that is cream-coloured stoneware with cameo medallions 
and blue lines — for about £2, los. to _^3, los. 



CAUGHLEY, near Broseley, Shropshire (also called 


A factory of earthenware was established here about 1751. 
In 1772 the business was acquired by Thomas Turner, wiio had 


1. Ju!4 painted in blue, "James Kennedy, 1778." 

2. Mug painted in blue, birds and fruit. 

3. I'late, blue Chinese landscape and figures. 

been employed at Worcester, and who, rebuilding the works, com- 
menced to manufacture porcelain. His paste was excellent — so 
good, in fact, that until lygo he supplied Chamberlains with large 
quantities of undecorated porcelain, to be painted at Worcester. 



Turner was the first potter in England to employ printing on 
an extensive scale, in the decoration of porcelain as distinct from 
pottery. He also invented a beautiful dark blue colour, which 
was largely used at Caughley. 

The mark on Turner's later productions is the word " Salo- 
pian " impressed in the paste ; and from this fact, and also because 
it was so called when Turner opened his " Salopian china ware- 
house " in Portugal Street Lincoln's Inn, in 1780, many collectors 
know the china by this name, and only give the title of " Caughley " 
to that which bears the Arabic numerals as marks. Domestic 
china was chiefly made, and the willow pattern in bright blue on a 
white ground was a favourite decoration ; but many services were 
made almost exactly like the sparsely decorated Worcester, and 
in the Trapnell collection there was a fine Worcester cup with a 
Salopian or Caughley saucer made to match : this is now in Mr. 
H. E. W. Hughes' collection. The late Major-General Astley 
Terry had a milk-pot of black basalt ware, exactly like Wedgwood, 
which bears the Salopian mark. A specimen cup in the possession 
of Messrs. Law, Foulsham & Cole bears the very unusual mark 
of a lion rampant under a crown. 

In 1799 John Rose & Co., the proprietors of the Coalport 
works, bought Mr. Turner's business, which they transferred to 
Coalport about 181 4 or 1815. Marks: 



Caughley. Thus. Turner. Estab''. 

1772. Willow pattern. 17S0. 

Died 1799. 


This mark in blue occasionally appears on 
specimens of Caughley porcelain, similar, in 
modelling and decoration, to early Worcester. 






This lined crescent differs from the " full " 
and " open " crescent of Worcester. 

Crescents accompanied by a face on the 
inner curve, and also by letters, which were 
formerly attributed to Worcester, are now 
assigned to Caughley. 

/ > 


I 26 


So s 

These Arabic numerals are marks altribuled to Caughley on the authority of Mr. R. W. 
Binns, who says that he has never seen them upon specimens which he can identify as 
Worcester. They were formerly attributed to the latter factory. 

The following additional marks are on some Caughley speci- 
mens in Mr. Edmund Broderip's collection, and do not appear 
to have been hitherto published : — 






CHANTILLY, Dept. Oise. 

This important French factory of soft-paste porcelain was 
one of a group founded by unfaithful artisans from the St. Cloud 
manufactory. One named Cirou is said to have carried the 
secret to Chantilly in 1725, under the patronage and support 
of Louis Henri, Prince of Conde, who ten years later (1735) 
granted him a concession for the manufacture of porcelain " in 
imitation of the Japanese." The factory appears to have flourished 
considerably, and the brothers Dubois, whose names occur in 
the history of porcelain-making at Vincennes, assisted in the 
management, leaving Chantilly about 1738 to go to Vincennes. 
Cirou died in 1751, and after this time the factory appears to 
have changed hands several times, until by an act of sale quoted 
by Cte. de Chavagnac it 
passed on 6th F"ebruary 
1792, into the hands of 
one Christopher Potter, 
descrilied as citizen of 

In the earlier period 
of manufacture an opaque 
glaze was used, and the 
forms and decoration show 
the Japanese influence: 
thus the flower-pots, tea-pots, and jugs have quaint Oriental 
animals, lizards and reptiles, for handles, while the decoration 
is slight and in the style now recognised as Kakiyemon. Knife- 
handles appear to have been a specialite of this time. In the 
later productions we have table services, and also figures with 
costumes of the latter half of the eighteenth century, and instead 
of the opaque-looking enamel, we find a clear lead glaze. There 
are several specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum, par- 
ticularly in the Fitzhenry collection recently presented. The 
factory closed at the commencement of the French Revolution. 
Its distinguishing mark was a hunter's horn, generally in blue, 
but sometimes in red, and also scratched in the paste. This 
horn occurs in a great variety of forms, and in the Histoire des 
manufactures franfaises dc porcelain, over thirty illustrations 
are given of the different marks appearing on specimens of Chan- 
tilly, all of which are supposed to represent the French horn. 

Tea-pot of Chantilly porcelain (early period). 


In the collection of soft-paste porcelain recently given to the 
Victoria and Albert Museum by Mr. Fitzhenry there are some 
costume figures made at this factory. These are very seldom 


j^ M. Pigory revived the manufacture on less artistic 

— ~ lines in 1803. 

(}^^ Mark used by M. Pigory. This letter P also occurs 

Chantilly. in various formations, 


The early history of this most celebrated of English china 
manufactories is involved in some obscurity. We know, how- 
ever, that a factory of glass had existed at Chelsea at a very early 
date ; and as a considerable quantity of pounded glass formed one 
of the component parts of the material used in the first attempts 
at porcelain manufacture, it may be assumed that the rage for 
porcelain which the importation of the Oriental china had caused, 
and which had received an impetus from the success of the factory 
established at Meissen, caused the chemists and others connected 
with the glass factory to turn their attention to experiments for 
the production of porcelain. The clay first used is said to have 
been brought in ships as ballast from China, but its exportation 
was prohibited when discovered. Mr. Jewitt attributes the com- 
mencement of the Chelsea works to John Dwight, who in 1684 
had been granted a patent for his manufactory at Fulham, he 
having claimed to have solved " the mystery of making transparent 

Under the reign of Queen Anne the factory does not appear to 
have flourished, but with the accession of the House of Hanover 
an impetus seems to have been given to it by the royal support 
and the employment of foreign artists. It can be readily under- 
stood that as other German princes, together with the King of 
Naples and princes and nobles of France, had ceramic factories 
under their protection, our English moiiarchs would also be 
anxious to add the fashionable pursuit of china-making to 4heir 

J c 

= (\ 





-s & 

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o — 

-^ T] 



amusements. The Chelsea factory was accordingly re-established 
about 1745, under the patronage of William, Duke of Cumberland, 
and Sir Everard Faukener, Postmaster-General. 

Nicholas Sprimont, a foreigner, and silversmith by trade, is 
generally considered to have been the first manager ; but according 
to Mr. Nightingale he was preceded by one Charles Gouyn, of 
whom, however, little is known. It was Sprimont who made the 
Chelsea works famous ; and under his management, from 1750 
until his retirement in 1768-69, the finest specimens were 
produced, and the factory in all respects reached the height of its 
prosperity. Horace Walpole, writing in 1763, mentions a present 
from the King and Queen to the Duke of Mecklenburg of a 
service costing _^i200. The pieces of this service were decorated 
with birds in the centre and panels of rich lustrous blue in the 
borders, and specimens command high prices when they are 
offered for sale, as much as -^35 a plate being realised at auction, 
with proportionately larger sums for the more important pieces. 
The general returns of the factory a few years previous to this date 
amounted to about ;^35oo per annum, and its staff consisted of a 
hundred men, and thirty boys in process of training. Mr. Jewitt 
gives some very interesting extracts from the work-books, showing 
the wages earned by those who worked at the Chelsea factory ; 
one of them is copied here : — 

" Boreman, chief painter, 5s. 3d. per day ; Jinks, Snowden, 
Barton, 3s. 6d. per day ; Gauron, 8s. yd. ; Roberts, 2s. 6d. ; 
Piggot, IS. gd., and is. 6d. Sunday, for taking care of the horse 
(used for turning the flint and clay mills); Thomas (turning the 
wheel for a thrower), is. 6d. ; Inglefield, is. 8d. per day." 

About 175 1, Sprimont issued the well-known "Case of 
the Undertaker of the Chelsea Porcelain." The case, which is 
fully quoted in Marryat's Glossary, was a protest against the 
importation of Dresden porcelain, which paid a duty of eight- 
pence a pound-weight, and was then only to be imported 
for private use, but which the " case " clearly showed to be 
imported largely for sale, a practice detrimental to the English 
manufactory. The protest, however, does not appear to have 
been successful. 

In 1764, the whole undertaking was advertised to be sold as 
a going concern, " as Mr. Sprimont, the sole possessor of this rare 
porcelane secret, is advised to the German Spaw." No sale was 
effected, apparently ; for in April 1769, a fresh advertisement ap- 
peared, announcing the sale of the plant, materials, and building, 



by order of the proprietor, who had recently "left off" the 

In 1770, the works were sold to Mr. William Duesbury, the 
proprietor of the Derby factory, and though he for a time carried 
on the two concerns jointly, the models and workmen were 
ultimately removed to the Derby works in 1784. From 1770, 
or, according to some authorities, from 1769 to 1784, when 
Duesbury carried on both factories, is known to collectors as the 
Chelsea-Derby period, and the marks are distinct, as will be seen 
at the end of this notice. 

The decoration of the early pieces of Chelsea china from 
1745, which is the first date that is known to be marked on 
any specimen, is either in the style of the Chinese or in that 
of early Dresden — sprays of flowers, leaves, insects, and butter- 
flies, in what has now become generally recognised as the 
" Kakiyemon " taste — whilst the moulded ornament of the article 
itself suggests the silversmith more than the potter. There is 
also an entire absence of gilding, and the cups, saucers, plates, 
and dishes have generally a brown edging which later on is re- 
placed by gilding. 

The figures which were first made have also little decoration 
besides small sprigs of flowers on the dresses, which are charac- 
teristic of the period, and it is not until Roubiliac's time that we 
find the gorgeous costumes and handsome gilding which make 
products of the second period of Chelsea so rich and decorative. 

The paste of the earlier specimens has a peculiarity that 
collectors have noticed. When held to the light several moon- 
shaped discs appear, which are more transparent than the 
remainder of the piece, and Mr. William Burton explains this 
by saying that in mixing the paste the Chelsea potters kept 
some of the "frit" coarse, that is, not powdered, in order to 
prevent the piece losing its shape in the firing — that is to say, 
those coarse pieces of " frit " stiftened the whole. Soon after 
Sprimont's acquisition of the works he seems to have made 
experiments with bone ash, and the composition of the paste 
was altered ; it is only in the very early specimens that we 
find that peculiar glassy paste, very white in colour, and having 
much the appearance of semi-opaque glass. 

Some of the first pieces produced at the Chelsea works were 
unmarked, but the sign generally adopted was an anchor in red 
or brown, and also on some pieces, though rarely, a small embossed 
medallion with the anchor in relief, either plain or coloured. Mrs. 


Figure of Britannia, the largest known figure specimen of Chelsea. 
In the collection of Mrs. Lionel Phillips. 


Arthur R. Macdonald has several specimens of this very early 
period with the medallion mark ; in some cases the anchor is 
coloured, either red or mauve, and sometimes the whole is white. 
Mr. H. Manfield has a pair of partridges, one of which has the 
medallion raised mark, while its companion bears a sketchy red 
anchor without medallion. The mark of Iwo anchors in gold, 
one inverted, was apparently reserved for the best pieces. The 
writer's experience goes to prove that the gold mark is not neces- 
sarily a sign of the highest quality, as has been stated by some 
experts, but the mark being added by the gilder who was the 
last to decorate the specimen, shows a method of marking which 
came into use after gilding became more common. 

The celebrated French sculptor, Louis Francois Roubiliac, 
was employed at Chelsea in Sprimont's time. Some of his figures 
have an R impressed in the paste, but many pieces, which are 
undoubtedly of his modelling, are unsigned. The figures and 
groups modelled liy Roubiliac are far more graceful than those 
of the ordinary Chelsea make ; as a rule they are very richly 
decorated in colours and gold, and marked with the gold anchor. 
Roubiliac worked in England for some seventeen or eighteen 
years previous to his death, w^hich occurred in 1762, so we can 
fix an approximate date for his work at Chelsea. Mrs. Lionel 
Phillips possesses a remarkable pair of figures of a Shepherd and 
Shepherdess, formerly in Dr. Mavor's collection. The same lady 
also possesses the extraordinary figure of Britannia mentioned in 
Chaffers as the largest figure in existence (it is 2 ft. 2 in. high). 
It was formerly in Mr. F. J. Thompson's collection. We give 
an illustration of this important figure. 

Three very important figures (see illustration), which are in 
Mr. Claude Watney's collection, bear the mark of Roubiliac. 

There is no doubt that this modeller was inspired by the 
pictures of Francois Boucher. The author recently saw two prints 
of this artist's pictures, " Vagreable Lecon " and " Le mouton favonri" 
which are without doubt the originals from which Roubiliac 
modelled the beautiful group, "The Music Lesson," which realised 
1750 guineas at Christie's in May 191 1, while the second-named 
subject is the original of another well-known group, " Shepherd 
and Shepherdess with Lamb." 

There appears on some of the figures bearing the impressed 
" R " of Roubiliac, and on others unsigned, but of similar date and 
character, the monogram "t3\/," the J being joined to the M. This 
is apparently a workman's or modeller's mark who did the actual 


work or " cutting up." Mr. Charles Gilbertson has several 
figures so marked. 

While these pages are in the press a pair of groups of two 
figures each, representing the Seasons, modelled by Roubiliac, 1 2 
inches high, were bought at Christie's by Mr. Amor for 950 guineas 
(see illustration), and the same dealer also secured the magnificent 
centre group 15^ inches high, "The Music Lesson," for the record 
price of 1750 guineas in a sale at Christie's on May 4, 19 11. 

Besides the ordinary Chelsea figures in arbours of foliage and 
flowers, and the services decorated with long-tailed exotic birds 
which are familiar to most collectors, there are some few special 
classes of Chelsea china, specimens of which the collector should 
take some pains to acquire. These are, however, difficult to find 
and expensive to purchase. 

I. The pieces having rich ground colours in claret or 
crimson lake, in pale green or turquoise blue, and in rich deep 
Vincennes blue. The latter are sometimes decorated with gold 
ornaments only, sometimes with panels of figures, birds, or flowers 
on white ground, and notable examples of them can be seen 
in the Lady Charlotte Schreiber collection in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum : the famous " Foundling " vase in the British 
Museum is also a striking example. In the Jones Bequest, Victoria 
and Albert Museum, there are some charming specimens of 
these pieces with rich ground colours. His Majesty the King 
has a very fine pair of vases of this description, with dark blue 
ground. Probably the most valuable set of Chelsea vases in 
existence is the extraordinary set of seven formerly in the collec- 
tion of the late Lord Burton, of which we are able to give an 
illustration. These have the rose-pink ground colour, are richly 
gilt, and superbly painted with mythological subjects after the 
manner of old Sevres. In 1900, a set of three vases of this 
ground colour, from the collection of Lord Metluien, was sold 
at Christie's for ^3000 ; but Lord Burton's vases are more than 
double the size of these, and their completeness as a set, and their 
fine condition, are remarkable. It would be hazardous to guess 
what sum such a set of vases would realise if offered for sale.' 

Since the first edition of this book was published the Victoria 
and Albert Museum has been enriched by the bequest of the late 
Miss Emily Thomson, of Dover, of a collection of china, which 
includes a fine service of this crimson lake ground, painted with 
figure subjects in panels. Some idea of the enormous increase in 

' These vases were sold in 1903, Imt tlieir present ownership cannot be stated. 

^>^;. .„.,. 


^ "^^^^ 









.^ ''^ 


-*^ ^"T^ 

IHPit^^^^m? ■I^'' ' 


3|g|^^|p - jWB^HSI^r ''■ . 











value of this kind of Chelsea china may be obtained by comparing 
its present vakie with the quotation from one of Mr. Nightingale's 
collections of Christie's Catalogues, where either this same service 
or a similar one is stated to have been sold by auction on 
February 14, 1770, for £42, is. The present value would be 
about ^^1500. In a sale of the Hawkins collection, May 1904, 
a tea-service of twelve cups and saucers, tea-pot, basin, sucrier 
and milk-pot, of the deep "blue de Vincennes" ground with 
decoration of gold birds, realised 810 guineas, and the crimson 
lake service is rarer and contains more specimens, besides which 
the style of its decoration is much more valuable. 

2. The tiny delicate Chelsea 
"Jlacons," or trinkets, toys, and 
etuis sometimes composed of 
single figures and sometimes of 
miniature groups, often bearing 
French mottoes, and not infre- 
quently mounted in gold, are 
also well worth the collector's 
attention. In the Schreiber, and 
also in the Franks collection 
(British Museum) there is a 
great number of these charming 
little ceramic toys. We give 
an illustration of several in 
Mrs. A. R. Macdonald's collec- 
tion. Such tiny little gems are 
much sought after, and at sales 
realise as much as -^"40 and 
_^5o apiece. 

3. The figures and groups 
which are especially recom- 
mended to the collector's at- 
tention are those which stand 
more or less alone, and are not embowered in the rather waxy 
Mayflower arbours, so characteristic of the commoner kind of 
Chelsea. Of the earlier periods some are very delicate and 
graceful, and more like Dresden of the best time, in their 
modelling ; while of the later period the charming figures which 
a little experience will enable the amateur to recognise as 
Roubiliac's handiwork, are the best. 

4. Models of birds and animals in early Chelsea are very 

A Chelsea Vase, one of Lord Burton's set of 

seven (see the two full-page illustrations). 



desirable acquisitions. Some of these are of life size, and others 
are so small that they belong to the class of miniature toys 
described above. Both the modelling and colouring of these 
specimens are excellent. Some of them are arranged as tureens. 
The rich collection of English Porcelain formed by the late Lady 
Charlotte Schreiber, and bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, contains a great many of the very best examples of 
Chelsea porcelain. Airs. Lionel Phillips, Mr. Charles Borradaile, 
Mrs. A. R. Macdonald, Mr. H. Manfield, M.P., Captain Thistle- 
thwayte. The Hon. Robert Ward, Lady Hughes, Mr. J. Ward 
Usher, Mr. John Cockshutt, and Mr. Fred Lowenadler, all have 
many excellent examples of the different kinds which are here 
noticed, and Mrs. Macdonald has many of the tiny y?rtco//s which 
were formerly in the well-known collection of the late Sir Julian 

The well-known " Bee " milk-jugs are 
also amongst the earliest specimens of 
Chelsea manufacture. (See illustration.) 
There are two different models of 
these, both of which can be seen in 
the British Museum. One of them 
bears the incised mark given below — 
namely, the triangle — accompanied by 
"Chelsea 1745." Another has the tri- 
angle only. There are also in the same 
collection other specimens of this en- 
tirely undecorated early Chelsea, groups 
of crawfish, jugs, a bust of the Duke of 
Cumberland, and a group of Britannia 
weeping over a medallion portrait of 
the Prince of W^ales, who died in 1751, 
and others. There is also a white group 
of Lovers which demands special atten- 
tion on account of the very rare mark which it bears. This 
is a trident and crown combined, and only two other instances 
of the mark are known to the author, and that is upon a tall 
cup with decoration of the tea plant in relief, the relief part 
tinted with colour, which is in the collection of Mr. Frank 
Hurllnitt of Flint, N. Wales ; and a simihu- specimen, but un- 
marked, is in the British Museum. There is also a cream-jug 
of strawberry leaf design in the Sheldon collection. The 
Chelsea painters also decorated a good deal of Chinese porce- 

Chelsca "Bee" Milk-jug. 




















O -T >, 



^ 5 c 

O S .2 





lain, and several specimens of this work are in one of the British 
Museum cases ; they are generally cups and saucers of the thick 
eggshell kind of china, and bear no mark. 

The impressed triangular mark was formerly attributed to 
Bow, but is now considered to belong to Chelsea, on the 
authority of the late Sir A. W. Franks and others ; with which 
opinion the author is in agreement. 

The earliest dated specimen of English porcelain is generally 
considered to be one with the triangle and the word Chelsea 
below it, accompanied by the date 1745. The most usual mark, 
however, is the anchor, as above mentioned ; the anchor in red 
is earlier, and occurs before the time when gilding was used to 
enrich the figures, and that in gold appears on the richer figures 
of Roubiliac's time. In many cases there is no mark whatever 
save three dirty-looking patches which were made by the tripod 
on which the piece was baked. These marks, where the base 
is glazed, often resemble raised blisters. The bases of Chelsea 
figures, as distinguished from those of Bow, are generally flat, 
and not raised on scroll feet as are those of the latter factory (see 
notice on Bow). 

This mark, a medallion in 
relief, is generally colourless, 
but sometimes the anchor is 
in red or mauve, the re- 
mainder of the medallion 
being white. 

Rare mark on Bee jug in the 
British Museum. 


Rare mark on group 
(Lovers) in llritish 

icisedmark. 1 ^vL-^ 

in gold.) 



Marks used during Chelsea-Derby 
I'eriod, 1769-1784. The anchor and 
letter D in gold occur separately upon 
a sucrier of hop trellis decoration in 
Mr. .\Ibert Amor's possession. 

Chelsea. Incised mark (very 
early). This mark, incised under 
the glaze, is evidently an imitation of 
some Oriental mark. It is *ery rare : 
only two specimens so marked are 
known to the author — namely, two 
octagonal cups in Mr. Frederick E. 
Thompson's collection. 



The discovery of the secrets of the manufacture of art 
pottery in China, dates as far back as 2678-2599 B.C., during the 
reign of the Emperor Hoang-ti, and, whether this date be specu- 
lative or accurate, it is doubtless of great antiquity. Very probably, 
like other nations, the Chinese acquired the processes gradually, 
and improvements upon improvements resulted in a certain de- 
gree of excellence while the world was yet young. Possibly this 
extraordinary people, prepared for a development of art by their 
high state of civilisation, took the more readily to ceramics owing 
to the scarcity of marble for the decoration of their buildings. 

Chinese pottery differs from any other in the density of its 
paste, and for this reason it has not infrequently been confounded 
with porcelain, though translucency, the special characteristic of 
porcelain, is absent. Some of the earlier productions are of a 
dull brownish-red colour. A kind of decoration peculiar to the 
Chinese potters, and adopted at an early date, was the crackle ; 
this is generally found of a brownish-grey, relieved by raised 
ornaments of a dark ferruginous colour, much resembling bronze. 
The handles of this type consist of kylins' heads, with movable rings 
placed inside the teeth ; circular ornaments are also found, some 
three or four upon a vase, at irregular intervals, about the size 
of a shilling piece, with seal-like impressions, while bands of the 
bronze-like paste surround the lips and bodies of the vases. The 
crackle appearance is produced by a very simple method, the 
body or pdtc being made more sensitive to heat and expansion 
than the coating or glaze ; little manipulation was required to 
cause the cracks all over the surface to be more or less frequent, 
and so form "crackle" of a larger or smaller pattern; black, 
and sometimes red colouring matter was then rubbed into the 
tiny cracks, to render this curious decoration more marked. 

Another notable style of ornamentation, which shows con- 
siderable knowledge of chemistry, is known as " flashed," or 
Jlnmbc. It has been supposed that the agate-like specimens thus 
produced were the result of mistakes or misfires, but there is 
little doubt that the Chinese, possessed of great skill in the potter's 
art, endeavoured to make specimens in imitation of many beautiful 
agates. It was well known that metallic .oxides were susceptible 
to the influence of oxygen. Hy bold manipulation in the furnace, 
with a strong current of air, the oxygen would combine with the 
metal in fusion ; the introduction of thick smoke would absorb 



the oxygen, and, by causing the destruction of the oxide, give the 
colour of the pure metal. To such an extent was this science of 
decoration perfected, that it was possible, entirely by this process, 

Chinese Celadon Crackle Vase, with ormolu mount (Jones Bequest, 
Victoria and Albert Museum). 

and without the aid of the pencil, to imitate a ripe fruit some- 
what resembling our peach, with its many varied and beautiful 


When porcelain was first made in China we know not. 
Various dates have been given, from 200 B.C. to A.D. 25, but 


it was probably much later. The Chinese reckon their periods 
of time by dynasties, and in the notes upon these different periods, 
which will be found in the following pages, the reader will find 
some assistance in attriliuting to the various dynasties and 
" families " many of the numerous and beautiful varieties of 
decoration which illustrate the wealth of colour and design 
handed down to us by these wonderful Ceramic artists of former 

In the British Museum there are some fine examples of 
Celadon china whicli should be carefully examined, and a dish 
with ornament in slight relief which was brought from Khartum, 
is labelled "Sung dynasty, 960-1279." This Celadon is the 
oldest of the best kind of Chinese porcelain. The beautiful and 
peculiar green colour of the glaze, was no doubt perfected after 
many trials, so as to imitate the colour and effect of the highly- 
prized jade of that tint. 

With regard to the date of the famous blue and white Chinese 
porcelain, we do not know what authority M. Jacquemart has for 
the story that in the year 954 a potter having petitioned Tchi- 
tsong to order a pattern, the Emperor replied, " For the future let 
the porcelain for the use of the palace, be of the blue, as the 
heavens appear after rain," but one may say of the story se tioii e 
veiv, e bene Irovato. 

The whole range of Chinese ceramics is so large and so full 
of interest, that it is difficult to condense a notice of it within 
the narrow limits of a book which deals with the whole subject 

The reader who is specially interested in Chinese porcelain 
is recommended to read the handbook published by the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, written by Dr. Bushell. It contains in 
an abridged form much of the information given in his larger 
work. This handbook is published at a popular price and is 
copiously illustrated. 

Chinese ceramics, too, are so bound up with the literature, the 
history, and the complicated mythology, for which this ancient 
people are remarkable, that it is difficult to treat of it without 
some reference to these influences. The sets of five and seven, 
the curious monsters that surmount covers and form handles 
of vases, the contorted dragons with four and five claws, are not 
wholly the creatures of the artist's fancy, but signs and symbols 
of religion and politics. Thus, the dragons with five and four 
claws, represent the imperial and the ordinary insignia respec- 



tivcly ; the kylin is an animal foretelling good luck ; and the 
sacred horse, immortal bird, and many another quaint device that 
has been passed over as a Chinese oddity by the uninitiated, has 
its own distinct significance. As with the devices, so with the 
forms, figures, and colours; thus the Ming dynasty adopted green 
as a distinctive livery, the Tai-thsing took the colour of the earth, 
yellow, while the Thang dynasty chose white. 

The plan of a vase, the observation of its angles, or the 
scheme of its decoration, should enlighten us upon its religious 
significance or the rank of the person who was allowed to make 
use of it. Vases were given both as presents and as rewards 
for good and noble deeds, and were highly valued. 

The production of exquisite specimens was pursued as an art, 
and received the greatest encouragement and court patronage. The 
height of excellence may be said to have been attained about 1465, 
which date would be included in the period of the Ming dynasty. 

All that we can attempt in this notice is to give a rough list 
of some of the different classes of Chinese porcelain now sought 
after by collectors, and briefly to observe some of their respective 

Plain Whitf: Chinese Porcelain. — Some of the most 
beautiful pieces of porcelain are those of the delicate texture and 
fine creamy glaze, which give the appearance of old soft paste. 
Their quaint forms, which have no decoration whatever, except 
ornaments in relief, or engraved designs which are only per- 
ceptible when held up to the light, are generally of an archaic 

These pieces, generally cups — oval octagonal, or irregular 
in form — are very highly prized in China. Sir A. W. Franks 
mentions that a Hong-Kong merchant, who wished to pay a 
handsome compliment to an English gentleman, presented him 
with one of these delicate little cups. There are also statuettes, 
generally of the goddess Kwan-yin or other Buddhist divinities, 
also of kylins, lions (the latter distinguished from the former by 
having claws instead of hoofs), cocks, hawks, a mythical horse, 
and other animals. 

Some of this white porcelain is of a very early date, though 
a good deal was made during the Ming dynasty. It is known 
in Paris as " hlanc de Chine!' In one of the show cases in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, where the Salting bequest has 
been arranged, the reader will see a number of specimens of 
blaiic de Chine, ranging in date from the earliest period at 


which it was produced down to the end of the Ch'ien Lung 
dynasty, 1795. 

Another kind of white Chinese porcelain is that whicli, though 
intended to be decorated, was for some reason left uncoloured ; 
many pieces of this kind have been sold to the European markets, 
and decorated in Holland and England. 

Blue and White. — The use of cobalt blue in the decoration 
of pottery had been in use by the Persians at a very early date, 
probably the tenth century, but it was not adopted by the Chinese 
potters until the Yuan dynasty (12 80-1 367), while the earliest 
specimens which are in our museums belong to the Ming dynasty. 
Cobalt blue was used both alone and in combination with other 
colours, throughout this period. Dr. Bushell has classified " blue 
and white " into three well-defined periods which can be dis- 
tinguished from the rest by the following peculiarities : — 

" I. The reign of Hsiian Te (1426—35) a pale grey-blue of 
pure tint called at the time ' Mohammedan blue.' 

"2. The reign of Chia Ching (1522-66) a dark, full-toned 
blue of marvellous depth and lustre. 

" 3. The joint reigns of Lung Ch'ing and Wan Li (1567— 1619) 
a gradually improving technique, especially in the use of cobalt 
as a ground wash, foreshadowing the greater triumphs of the 
K'ang Hsi epoch." 

Some of these blue and white pieces of the Ming time were 
mounted in silver and hall-marked during the reign of our Queen 
Elizabeth. A fine jug is in the Pierpoint Morgan collection, and 
there is a bottle in the Duke of Devonshire's possession at Hardwick 

The blue and white porcelain of the K'ang-Hsi period is 
of good quality. The density and the beauty of the blue 
colour have been dependent upon the quality of the supply of 
cobalt, and have varied considerably ; there are differences of 
opinion amongst collectors as to the comparative excellence of 
some of the tints. The blue should be brilliant and the ground- 
colour a peculiar white, which it is impossible to describe 
accurately, but which sets off to the greatest advantage the simple 
but highly effective design of which it is the background. One 
finds in "blue and white" every kind of decorative treatment — 
subjects, landscapes, Chinese games, battles, hunting scenes, also 
curious detached representations of various objects, which are 
generally termed "utensils" in catalogues, but which are really 
emblems of Chinese poetry and mythology. The latter include 


the pestle and mortar, the tly-brush, two coins, bundles of 
books, various scrolls, a vase placed close to an incense burner, 
a cylindrical brush-holder, an ink slab, and a vessel for holding 
water with which to moisten the ink slab. These and many more 
are all symbolic, some of romantic legend, some of luck, long- 
evity, riches, or some other desirable condition. Then there are 
the musical instruments, many of which are almost unknown to 
our Western ideas, the fabulous animals, the eight Buddhist signs, 
the " eight ordinary symbols," the emblems of the eight immortals, 
and so on, and the numbers five, seven, and eight, as already 
observed — all possessing some peculiar interest in Chmese literature 
and folk-lore. We find occasionally in the earlier pieces of 
"blue and white" a peculiar glaze which gives the specimen the 
appearance of soft paste. Some good examples will be seen in the 
Salting bequest. They are especially beautiful. 

Blue and white china was imported in large quantities into 
Holland, where it was an especial favourite, and it is from that 
country that we have chiefly imported the finest specimens which 
now adorn our collectors' cabinets. 

Until quite recently we were accustomed to see blue and 
white Chinese porcelain described as " old Nankin" and this descrip- 
tion one still finds in the catalogues of some auctioneers and 
collectors. So far as the author's information goes, there never 
was any porcelain factory at Nankin, although white china made 
at King-te-Chin, Fo-kien, and other Chinese factories is said to 
have been sent to Nankin to be decorated. The probable origin 
of the name " Nankin " being given to this kind of china, is that 
this was the port from which it was formerly shipped to Europe, 
and just as Oriental china was called " Indian " sixty or seventy 
years ago, because it was brought over by the East Indian Com- 
pany's ships, so " Nankin," as the known source, became the 
generally acknowledged title of the porcelain. 

Amongst the most sought after specimens of " blue and 
white" are those generally described as "hawthorn," though the 
design really represents the blossom of the prunns or wild plum, 
the detached sprigs of which, in brilliant cobalt blue, make one 
of the most effective forms of ceramic decoration that can be 

The most notable example of the auction value of a ginger 
jar of this decoration, was the famous one sold a few years ago in 
the Louis Huth collection, which realised £s^oo, and which is 
said to have been bought by Mr. Huth for £2^^. This was a 


price beyond reason, and one can illustrate this by referring to 
a precisely similar jar, in the Victoria and Albert Museum, which 
was purchased from the Orrock collection for ;£2 30. 

Flambe Porcelain. — The process employing what is called a 
reverberatory furnace was subsequently applied in the production 
of porcelain as in the manufacture of the " flashed " pottery 
already described. Some charming results were obtained in many 
of those beautiful self colours that collectors delight in ; amongst 
others, turquoise, sang de been/, liver colour, coral, lilac, peach 
bloom, crushed strawberry, orange, lemon, c^/ri an lait, brown, 
mustard yellow, dark blue, pale lavender, and bronze, "iron 
rust," with many other peculiar colours difficult to describe. 
There are a great many excellent specimens of this class of china 
in the British Museum. 

Famille Verte. — The Ming dynasty occupied a period of 
nearly 300 years from A.D. 1361 to 1643. It is within this period 
that the beautiful enamelled porcelain known as ^^ famille verte" 
was first produced. The prevailing colour is green, of different 
shades, sometimes with pale yellow in the panels, and occasionally 
with a portion of the decoration in blue under the glaze ; while 
the figures, subjects, dragons, baskets of flowers and various 
symbols, Buddhist and otherwise, are applied in pigments over the 
glaze, the piece being then retired at a temperature sufficiently 
low not to interfere with the primary decorations. These later 
decorations stand out in slight relief like enamel, from which 
peculiar characteristic it is frequently termed " old green enamel." 
A famille verte vase in the Salting collection is considered to be the 
finest in the world, and has been estimated at ^10,000. 

Powdered Blue. — The date of what is called " powdered 
blue" china is said to be the K'ang-Hsi period (1661— 1722); 
this variety is at the present time in very great demand among 
collectors. Its peculiar mottled ground is sometimes only re- 
lieved by gold pencillings, but in the most highly esteemed 
specimens there are irregularly shaped panels with some of the 
emblems, charms, symbols, or subjects before alluded to on a 
white reserve, which throws the panels into contrast with the 
powder blue ground-colour of the vase. If this ground-colour 
be not too dark, and not too liglit, and these emblems are in what 
has been already described as ^^ famille verte" decoration, then, 
provided the " form " of the specimen be good, we have a perfect 
piece of "powdered blue," which will command a very high price 
from the wealthy and fastidious collector. 



The peculiar ground-colour of this variety, known as 
" powdered blue," is obtained by blowing the powdered colour 
through gauze on to the wet white body, wliich is subsequently 
glazed and fired. 

Famille Noire. — The peculiarity of this decoration is that 

Fine Specimen of Old Powdered Blue Cliinese I'orcelain, witli panels of lilue decoration. 
In the collection of the Rev. Arthur Potts. 

if the brilliant black ground-colour be closely scrutinised, one can 
detect a coating of green above the black, which is singularly 
effective ; upon this the sprigs of the wild plum or cherry blossom 
in white, stand out with excellent results. Some idea of the high 
value placed upon a really fine specimen of the "famille noire " 
may be given by referring to Mr. George Salting's collection in 



the Victoria and Albert Museum, in which there is a square-shaped 
vase for which its former owner gave a thousand pounds, and this 
specimen would now probably realise more than three times that 
amount. The Salting collection contains several important vases 
with this rare and valuable decoration. 

Famille Rose. — Quite at the end of the K'ang-Hsi dynasty 

Chinese enamelled Porcelain V)\sh, /a//n//e rose. In the author's possession. 

we have the "famille n>s<' " decoration, so called from the prevalence 
of the rose or pink colour. The period generally ascribed to 
"famille rose," as also to the beautiful egg-shell porcelain, is the 
Yung-Cheng period (1723-35) and also the Ch'ien Lung (1736-95) 
which followed, although, as already observed, it actually com- 
menced towards the end of the preceding dynasty. A peculiarity 
attaching to one special class of the most highly prized egg-shell 

Chinese porcelaim 145 

china, which is termed "ruby backed," is the custom of placing 
this rich colour on the backs of the plates or saucers so decorated. 
The piece therefore has to be turned upside down to display 
the colour which so much enchances its value. 

In the class of " famille rose " is also generally included the 
china decorated with the peony, a very handsome bloom indi- 
genous to China ; and with this, as with the famille verte, one 
finds the decoration, either wholly or in part, slightly raised above 
the surface in enamel colours. 

Jesuit China. — Occasionally we find specimens of what is 
undoubtedly Chinese porcelain, the subjects of which are, how- 
ever, distinctly European. Some are representations of the 
Crucifixion or other Biblical scenes, and instead of being 
painted with a brush the decoration seems to have been drawn 
with a pencil or fine point. This is called " Jesuit china," 
because it is said to have been painted to the order of, and 
from designs supplied by, the Jesuit missionaries. 

About the same period as this " Jesuit " china one finds 
specimens, generally parts of tea services, decorated with European 
subjects, processions and ships, officials receiving deputations, and 
similar representations. These services were doubtless made for 
the Dutch market, or for private orders from Dutch patrons, at 
the time when the trade between Holland and the East was 
so largely carried on, before England had opened up the trade 
with China. 


A good deal of white porcelain has been from time to time 
imported into Europe, and there decorated. Much of the so- 
called "Lowestoft" is of this kind. 

There are also, in many public and private collections, speci- 
mens of Bow, Chelsea, and Worcester, which were undoubtedly 
sent from China in the white undecorated state, and painted in 
those factories. The tea-pot in the Schreiber collection painted by 
Robert Allen of Lowestoft, and signed by him, is an example of 
this description, and there are numerous others. Oriental china 
was also redecorated in France, Germany, Italy, and Holland. 

There is a description of Chinese known as " Clobbered," to 
which we must give a word of notice. When the duties on 
imported porcelain were, about seventy years ago, made higher 
for coloured, i.e. polychromatic, and lower for " blue and white," 



a quantity of the latter was imported into England from Holland, 
over-painted with dragons, monsters, foliage, and other orna- 
ment, and sold for decorated Oriental china. It is possible in 
many cases to detect some of the original blue decorations 
showing through the newer colours here and there. Clobbered 
china is of little value. 


We have now given a brief description of some of the different 
kinds of decoration of Chinese porcelain by the names under 
which they are known, such as fainillc verte, famille noire, faiiiillc 
rose, " blue and white," and " powdered blue " ; but as the classifi- 
cation recently adopted is that of dynasties, it may be useful to 
add a list of the more important of these, together with their 
dates. The notice of the methods of decoration which distin- 
guish the porcelain of these different periods must to some 
extent be a repetition of the information already given about the 
"families," but it will be seen that these overlap with the various 
dynastic periods, and moreover a better acquaintance with these 
periods will help the reader to understand how to attribute a 
specimen to its correct dynasty. 

Sui Dynasty (a.d. 581-617). 

The period when we first have direct evidence of the manu- 
facture of porcelain in China. Specimens are attributed with some 

Sung and Nan Sung Dynasties (960-1279) and 
Yuan Dynasty (1280-1367). 

Porcelain of these periods is of a thick, heavy type, generally 
Celadon green ; the forms are primitive and archaic, with entire 
absence of painted decoration. Single coloured glazes were used, 
and towards the end of the time souffle, flambe, and crackled porce- 
lain was made, also plain white. 

Ming Dynasty (1368-1643). 

This was the period of the greatest development of ceramic 
art in China. The porcelain itself is of more delicate substance 
than previously, and the v.uieties of decoration are numerous. 







They include the kylins and other monsters, the figures of Kuan-Ti, 
the god of War, of the goddess of Mercy (Kuan Yin), and of other 
deities and mythological personages, decorated with green, yellow, 
brown, blue, and purple glazes. Dishes, plates, and vases are orna- 
mented with designs formed of raised outlines forming cluisoits, 
filled in with coloured glazes. The " blue and white " of this 
period is of the bolder kind of decoration as regards foliage and 
figure work, and, as has been already stated, some of the earliest 
white porcelain belongs to this time. The decorations described 
on a previous page a^ famille verte commenced during this dynasty, 
and continued into the following one. A double blue line round 
the base of a vase or on the bottom of a dish is considered to be 
an indication of a piece being " Ming," but too much importance 
should not be given to this. 

A notable period coming within the Ming dynasty is the 
reign of Wan-li (1573— 16 19), when enamel colours above the 
glaze were first used, and this is probably the time of the earlier 
faniiUe verte. 

At the commencement of this dynasty, Hung Wu, its founder, 
rebuilt the imperial porcelain manufactory at Ching-te-chen in 
the province of Kiangsi, and from this time, according to Dr. 
Bushell, who is our best authority on the history of Chinese art, 
artistic work in porcelain became the monopoly of this factory, 
which has developed enormously until its furnaces number 
many thousands. Dr. Bushell adds that " all the older glazes 
of repute have been reproduced here in succession, and many 
newer methods of decoration have been invented, to be distributed 
from its kilns throughout China, and sent by its trade routes to 
all parts of the non-Chinese world. Many of the other factories 
have either disappeared altogether, or degenerated to provide a 
coarser ware for local consumption." 

K'ang-Hsi Dynasty (1661-1722). 

This is a highly important period of Chinese porcelain. The 
forms of vases are much more varied and more graceful than 
during the Ming period ; the continuation of the faiiiillc verte 
is carried to perfection ; the lustrous black ground of the 
famille noire already described is at its best, and the " blue and 
white " is more free in its decorative treatment. The " prunus " 
blossom and the wonderful blue ground known to collectors 
as "pulsating blue," with lines of division indicating cracked ice, 


are of this time. The beautiful flambe or flashed porcelain previ- 
ously described, and the best pieces of self-coloured porcelain, all 
belong to this period, which from a decorative point of view is 
certainly the best in Chinese history. Towards the end of the 
dynasty, the beautiful rose colour produced from gold, is intro- 
duced, and we tind chrysanthemums, peonies, and roses all pressed 
into the service of the ceramic artist and grouped and arranged 
in wonderfully artistic renderings. This is the commencement 
of the decorative manner already described as famillc rose. 
During this period we have etched patterns and embossed designs, 
openwork, or as it is termed, " reticulated " ornamentation, also the 
imitations of jade, marble, and precious stones, bronze, &c. &c., 
in fine glazes. 

Yung-Cheng Dynasty (1723-35). Ch'ien Lung 
Dynasty (1736-95). 

These two periods may be taken together, and they are the 
last of which the collector of o/d Chinese porcelain takes any 
account. Productions attributed to any time after this, although 
eftective for decoration, are scarcely collectors pieces. 

The " ruby-backed " form of decoration has already been 
mentioned, and belongs to the Yung-Cheng dynasty. The faiuiltc 
rose decorative treatment is continued and elaborated, becoming 
more intricate and minute ; the peony and the chrysanthemum, the 
sacred lily, the fungus, and many other typical ornaments,' are 
very much in evidence, and wonderful processions of figures and 
all sorts and kinds of subjects are introduced, together with 
carefully and sometimes over-laboured details of ornamentation 
in borders and in groundwork. The treatment becomes gradu- 
ally less broad and masterful, and towards the end of the dynasty 
tends to deterioration. During this period the influence of the 
western world is noticeable, and foreign designs and decorations 
are adopted. 

The Salting bequest, now rearranged in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, has given us an opportunity of studying some 
fine examples of the different periods noticed in these pages, and 
with the Museum Guide for reference the amateur should be able 
to learn to distinguish the peculiarities and characteristics of the 
workmanship of these extraordinary craftsmen and appreciate the 
beauties of Chinese porcelain. The other most notable collec- 
tions of Oriental china are those in tlie Metropolitan Museum 

noire (K'nng-Hsi dynasty). 

Victoria and Albert .Mtiseiim (Salting Bec|uest). 


of New York known as the Garland-Morgan collection, and that 
in the Louvre known as the Grandidier collection. 


The marks on Chinese pottery and porcelain are so numerous 
and complicated that a complete list of them, together with suffi- 
cient explanations to make them intelligible, is quite beyond the 
design or compass of this book. In the most recent edition of 
Chaffers, Chinese marks occupy no less than thirty pages, and 
for the purposes of this work it has been thought sufficient to 
reproduce from that book, by the courtesy of the publishers, only 
the main dynasty and period marks. Another reason for the 
omission of all other marks is that in many cases they are very 
misleading to any but the experienced collector, inasmuch as the 
Chinese potters themselves have, when reproducing an earlier 
specimen, carried their love of imitation so far as to add to the 
reproduction the mark upon the original specimen. 

SUNG DYNASTY, a.d. 960 to 1127. j^ 



■S ^S Kiug-te . 1004 ;,f[ ^ ^/">«^ • i°64 

' « • » 


Ming-tao .. 

1023 y^ -^ Yuan-fufig . 1068 


Chiug-yu . 

a a 


Cliia-yn . 



Pao-ytian . 

~ ■^ + Yuau-yii 

^^ ^ □ Thao-shwg 
^1023 ,.,(2. £ 

Z^ A/? Yuan-fu 




I-ho . 

t'i- r Chiius-ho 
2F^ rt(z Cheng-ho . 
^j^^ Ct] Chicn-clmng 

'^1 -»2i Tsiiiig-ning .] 

I lOI 

I lOI 



^^ E£.ii Ta-clman 

iS Jt 

Chiiip-kang . 

I 120 

NAN-SUNG DYNASTY, a.d. 1127 TO 1279. ^ _^ 


:^,% ^ Tnan-piug .\ 

^^^^ /K* Chen-tan 

i^ llql^ Shao-hsing . 

I I 27 

i \W Hal. 

ran » • 


P/^ J]^ 

Ljing-hsing .' 

Sr ^^ CIncn-tao 
'1^2 I^P Titn-Iisi 

1 163 


Vv I nx Pao-ching 

i% ife 


• i."^ ^1* 



1% A. ""'"^■ 



^'^ l&i Shao-hsi . I 190 ^L to Hsini-tini . 1265 

4P, ^'t^ ^^--^"' • ^-75 

1195 S J Ching-lan . 1277 

^ ^ '^i^^ Cheang-hsing 1278 

YUAN DYNASTY (Tartar), a.d. 1279 to 1368. j? 








• 1279 







• 1295 

£ X 



^^. XAi 



^ m 










Chi-shan . 




• 132 I 






C/n-yiiai! . 




-' ^ 

- ,t 

Chi-chcug . 

TA-MING DYNASTY, 1368 TO 1643. ^ ^B 


/■•-L jTT Ho/ii/g-zt'oii 

_^_ ^c Kiaii-wen 

.1^ ^fe YoutiP-lo 

'•^ [EE Houng-hc 

-f-r' tsa Siouen-te . 
'l' '^^ Tcliiug-tttiig 

^L. ^ Kine-tai . 


1368. Tai-tsou. 

1399. Chu-ty. 

1403. Tching-tsou. 

1425. Jin-tsoung. 

1426. Hiouan-tsoung. 
1436. Ying-tsoung. 
1450. King-tai. 



1457. Ying-tsoung. 

1465. Tchun-ti. 


Tieii-cliiiii . 



§U ia 


II m 

Tcliing-te . 

Kca-fsing . 



^ JW 

Wan-li . 






m ^/s 

Chun-tchi . 

^[ 2J^ Tsoung-kwatig 

^!iil~i ■XT Tscliao-ivoii 

/Tip JSj 

^ /g y>u,g-/y 


1488. Hiao-tsoung. 

1506. Wou-tsoung. 

1522. Chi-tsoung. 

1567. Mou-tsoung. 

1573. Chin-tsoung. 

1620. Kouang-tsoung. 

162 1. Tchy-ti. 

1628. Hoai-tsoung. 

1644. Chi-tsou. 



1646. Thang-wang. 

1647. Kouei-wang. 







Ticu-uiing . 

161 6. 



Ticn-tsuniig . 



7TT l/Liji 

TsoiiJig-te ... 

. 1636. 


^ let 

Kliaiig-hc ... 

(lie reigned 6l years.) 

. 1662. 


Vi ^ 

Yung-tching . 

• 17^3- 


^/T W?f Kicn-loitg . . . . 1736. Koa-tsoiing. 

-T- 4j ' "^ (He reigned 60 years.) 

^ ^ Kia-king .... 1796. Jm-tsoung. 

-j^g /|_^ Tao-kouaiig . . . 1821. Meen-ning. 


c^ Hkn-foug . . . . 1 85 1. 

^ t^ 7"««^-M/ . . . . 1862. 

3vj '^0 Kouaiig-shiu . . . 1875. 

The following explanation and diagram may assist the collector 
to decipher some of these curious hieroglyphics : — 

The date marks will generally be found to consist of either 
six or four characters, the first being the one in the right-hand 
top corner, the next the one below it, and the last the one in 
the left-hand bottom corner. The last two words are always 

nien-tchi, , nien (the upper character) meaning "period," and 



tchi (the lower one) meaning " made." The first two characters, if 



there are six, denote the dynasty ; the first of all +* , meaning 

" the great " ; the third and fourth characters signify the name 
of the period of each emperor. These characters may be 
placed in three columns of two marks or two columns of three, 

thus : — 



Ta-iiiing tcliiitg-hoa itieii-lchi. "In 
the reign of Tchun-ti, of the great Ming 
dynasty, in theTching-hoa period" (1465 
to 1487). 


the reign of Hiouan-tsung, of the 

Ta-iitiiig siom'u-tc nien-tchi. 

e HBf 

great Ming dynasty, in the Siouen- 
e period " (1426 to 1435). 













. . . These two words, nien-tchi, signifying a 

^~{~' rn'J number of years or a period {nien, " year " or 

-^^^ "period," and /c/ii, " made"), are found follow- 
ing the name of the distinguishing appellation assumed by the 
Emperor, denoting at once the Emperor and the period of his 

The collector of old Chinese pottery and porcelain should 
consult the new and thirteenth edition of Chaffers, in which Mr. 
C. L. Hobson has assisted the author in his revision, by a 
valuable contribution to this section of that work. 



[l'-;:'\ A factory of hard-paste porcelain was established 

^w5\ here in 1786 by M. Clement, but very little is known 

ti t^Sl about it, and specimens are rare. Mark as in the 

"^^JW margin. 

Pottery was also made here by H. Boulange et C'", whose 
marks are given by Chaffers : — 


L£ Rof 



Sir Nigel Gresley established a small porcelain factory at 
Gresley Hall, the country home of the Gresley family, in 1794, 
with the assistance of his friend, C. Bower Adderley, but although 
good workmen were employed it was not a commercial success, 
and passed from his ownership about 1800. Probably the manu- 
factory, such as it was, never had the advantage of the guidance 
of a business man, and was run as a hobby. A Mr. Brown, who 
bought Gresley Hall, informed Mr. Chaffers that his family re- 
tained the place until 1851, and that many dozens of "wastrels " 
were found, plates of fine transparent china, some with tree and 
bird decorations, which being imperfect had never been finished. 

Nothing much was known about this factory until a Mr. 
Walter Nadin, who was related to a former owner of a factory 
at Church Gresley, contributed an article to The Expert, and 
owing to the information thus published several specimens were 
identified. The Nadin who owned the factory in the year 
1800 was no more successful than Sir Nigel Gresley, and he 
sold it to a Mr. Burton of Linton, who discontinued further 
working in 1808. 

In appearance the china closely resembles Pinxton, which is 
inferior to Derby porcelain but of somewhat similar character. 
Very few specimens are marked, and even when they do bear 
CHURCH GRESLEY impressed on them the letters are so 
indistinct that it is difficult to decipher them, and therefore 
without doubt many examples of this factory are attributed to 

Mr. Albert Amor had a set of three plant-holders decorated 
with a trellis in yellow and gold, with panels of bouquets of 
flowers indifferently executed, on a coarse body. One of them 
was impressed with the mark, and is one of the very few marked 
pieces which has come under the author's observation. 

There was also a commoner description of ware made here 
and decorated with Cobalt blue. A mug of this kind is in the 
British Museum. 

Mark: CHURCH GRESLEY impressed. 


Faience was made here in the last century ; very little is 
known of the factory, and pieces are exceedingly rare. 




Marks ; 


S-ijatdcr 4756 


CLIGNANCOURT, Dept. de la Seine. 

A small factory was established here by Deruelle, who obtained 
the patronage of "Monsieur," afterwards Louis XVIIL, and 
marked his productions with the cypher M under a crown. 
Another mark was a windmill, and sometimes Deruelle used his 
cypher imperfectly stencilled in red. There is very little to 
distinguish the specimens of this manufactory from many other 
French hard-paste fabriqucs. 

Cl.lGNAN'COURT. Established 1775. 


Louis Stanislas Xavier. Monsieur 
Comte de Provence. 





M. Moitte, who succeeded Deruelle, used his name as a 


COALBROOK DALE (known also as Coalport).. 

Tliis factory, founded by the enterprising firm of Jolin Rose 
and Co. between 1780 and 1790, absorbed the Swansea manu- 
factory in 1820, that of Nantgarw in 1828, and that of Caughley 
in 1799. 

The productions of Coalport vary exceedingly, from very 
highly finished and carefully decorated specimens in the manner 
of old Sevres, to rather poor imitations of Dresden china vases 
and cups and saucers, of the time when encrusted flowers were 
the fashion. Imitations of Chelsea and Worcester were also 
made here. Some of the finest pieces of Coalport have, from 
their close resemblance to Sevres china, been passed off as 
such ; and a good story was told to the author by the late Mr. 
Cock, Q.C., who was a personal friend of Mr. Pugh, a recent 
proprietor of the factory, which illustrates this. Mr. Pugh, 
when in London, purchased what he considered to be a good 
specimen of old Sevres for some ;^"6oo, and showed it to 
his foreman at the works, with the remark that they must 
endeavour to obtain a closer resemblance with regard to certain 
details. The foreman listened, and then dryly observed, that 
inasmuch as the " model " vase was one of their oivn make some 
years since, he did not think that there should be much difficulty 
in matching it. 

It is by no means infrequent to find that a service of old 
Sevres has been supplemented, or the losses by breakage made 
good, by pieces of Coalport ; and the uninitiated are surprised 
sometimes, when at Christie's a dozen real Sevres plates are sold 
for some ;^5o or ;^6o, while the next lot, a dozen of the same 
pattern, realise only £-^ or ^4. 

Really good specimens of this factory, not in exact 
imitation of other factories, but of good colour and de- 
sign, and bearing the legitimate mark (the best is the mono- 
gram CBD in gold), are much appreciated, and command a 
fair price. Several specimens are in the Victoria and Albert 

At Mr. Rose's death in 1841, he was succeeded by his 
nephew, and subsequently by Mr. William Pugh. 


Marks : — 





Mark used afler the Swansea, Nantgarw, 
and Caughley Works were purchased. 

Tlie letter S, scratched in the paste, was sometimes used after 
tlic purchase of the Caughley factory {q.v.). 

Within the last few years a company, entitled the " Coalport 
China Company," has been formed to carry on the works, and 
the mark now in use is an imperial crown, with the words 
ENGLAND and COALPORT, the former above, and the latter 
below the crown. The company's chief productions are table 
services and good domestic ware. 

OR Gres de Flandres. 

Gres de Flandres, or Gres Flamand, is the general term by 
which we recognise the jugs, pots, and tankards of hard stoneware 
of many different forms and decorations, the composition of 
which, to use a homely but apposite illustration, closely resembles 
that of the common stoneware ginger-beer bottle of to-day. The 
forms are quaint and good, the ground colour of the ware is 
very similar in colour to the paler kind of ginger-beer bottle 
already mentioned, and the decoration is as a rule effective 
and very artistic ; and although in a general way the specimens 
bear a strong family likeness to one another, very seldom are any 
two pieces identical. An incised or moulded pattern is cut in 
the paste when soft, afterwards this is picked out in colours, gener- 
ally a deep lustrous blue and a purple, and then covered by a 







With Coat of Arms, and inscriplion ; 






good salt glaze. Many of these pots are mounted with hinged 
covers of pewter, and their decorative effect, on an old oak 
cabinet or dresser, is very satisfactory. 

They were first imported from Cologne in the sixteenth cen- 
tury, and in one of the Lansdowne MSS. mention is made that in 
the year 1581 "the potts made at Culiein, called drinking potts," 
were first imported into England by Garrett Tynes of Aken 
(Aix-la-Chapelle), who had previously supplied the Low Coun- 
tries. In Chaffers there are also quotations from the petition 
of a merchant named William Simpson, addressed to Queen Eliza- 
beth, for the sole privilege of importing these " drinking stone 
pottes " into England. It was about this time that the manufacture 
of stoneware jugs called " Bellarmines," already mentioned in the 
chapter on " Medicxval and Renaissance," was commenced in 

It will of course be remembered that in speaking of Flanders 
of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, a very large country 
is alluded to ; it practically included Holland and a part of Ger- 
many, or what was generally known as the Low Countries. The 
stoneware which we are now considering was made at many 
other places besides Cologne — Raeren, a town in the old duchy 
of Limburg, Siegburg, opposite Bonn on the Rhine, Verviers, 
Namur, Coblentz and its neighbourhood, besides other towns. 
So far as we know, the industry commenced at Cologne, and 
became common in a great many parts of the Netherlands, where 
the necessary clays and the requisite artistic skill were to be 
found. Many of these old German stoneware pots, as we are 
now more inclined to call them, are of a brownish shade, in 
shape resembling an enlarged " Bellarmine " with the mask of a 
bearded man on the neck, and a coat of arms on the body ; 
others are of " Cannette " funnel shaped like the one illustrated, 
with some heraldic device or coat of arms, and a motto or legend 
in old German or Flemish. 

A valuable monograph on German stoneware from the pen 
of Otto von Falke was recently published, giving particulars of 
many of the makers of these interesting tankards, and this 
information the author has condensed into some notes in the 
thirteenth edition of Chaffers, where the initials with which many 
specimens are marked are explained and attributed. 

There is an excellent representative collection of this old 
German stoneware or Gres de Flandres in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum and also in the British Museum. These latter were 


mostly collected by the famous antiquary Ralph Bernal, and the 
following dates are given on the labels : — 

SiEGBURG from early fifteenth century to 1632. 

Raeren, best period 15 60-1 6 19. 

Cologne, 1550. 

Frechen, from 1550. 

Hohr-Grenzhausen (Nassau), best period 16 14 to end of 
eighteenth century. 

COPELAND (see Spode). 


The first attempts to found a porcelain factory at Copenhagen 
are shrouded in mystery. W. C. H. Wylde says that they took 
place as early as 1730 or soon after, and that in 1756, upon the 
discovery of suitable kaolin in the island of Bornholm, a factory 
was started under the direction of Mehlhorn, a modeller from 
Meissen, but we have no further definite information until we hear 
that in 1759 or 1760 a Frenchman named Louis Fournier was 
making a soft paste porcelain at Copenhagen and that his efforts 
continued for some few years. Franks says that this undertaking 
ceased in 1768. Wylde puts the cessation four years earlier. 
In either case the factory was very short lived, and therefore 
specimens are necessarily scarce, and, on account of their high 
quality, very valuable. The paste is good, the painting generally 
in landscapes, excellent, and the china has generally the appear- 
ance of Dresden of the best period. Some specimens are in the 
F^ranks collection at Bethnal Green, and Mr. H. E. B. Harrison 
has the oval eciielle of a fine service enriched with a beautiful pink 
colour. These are all marked with the initial F and figure 5, 
the mark in the case of the service being in gold under the spouts 
of Coffee and Milk pot. This is said to stand for Frederick V., 
who was King of Denmark at this time, and probably the service 
was made for him. 

The present Copenhagen factory (hard paste) was established 
in 1772 by a chemist named Miiller ; some good painters were 
engaged, and very creditable work was turned out, landscapes and 
flower painting being the usual decoration of the table services 
and vases. Groups and figures well modelled but somewhat 
wanting in gracefulness were also made, and the mark was 
adopted of three wavy lines in blue, denoting the three belts of 


se;i wiiich divide the islands of Zealand and Fiinen from Jutland. 
An open Maltese cross is also believed to have been used. It was 
found on some specimens included in the sale at Marlborough 
House, of china belonging to the Queen Dowager of Denmark. 
This second venture was not a commercial success, and in 

Cabaret of Copenhagen (hard paste) China, formerly in the Walker-Joy collection. 

1775 the Government took over the factory ; since which date 
it has been carried on as a State concern. A speciality of the 
factory has been the production in bisadl of the groups, statuettes, 
and busts of famous persons after Thorvvaldsen, the Danish 
National Sculptor ; also copies of Dresden flower painted services 
and the blue and white table ware made in such great quantities 
at Meissen. 



During the last twenty-five or thirty years, under the direction 
of Professor Arnold Krog, a " new art " school of design has ob- 
tained favour and is now flourishing. The factory has a retail 
depot in Bond Street where both kinds of productions, those in 
the new art style, as well as reproductions of old models, may be 

Bing and Grondahl. 

In 1853 another porcelain factory was started by Grondahl, 
who had been an employe at the Royal Works, and Bing a 
stationer who provided the capital. Under the style and title of 
Bing and Grondahl this undertaking is still carried on and has 
been represented at recent International E.xhibitions. 

Their productions are of the " new art " school ; the designs 
are original and well executed. But they do not appeal to 
amateurs other than those who affect modern productions. 

+ + 


B & G 

Bing nnci Grondhal, 1S53. 

Mark in gold of the soft paste china by Fournier. 

Faience was also made at Copenhagen in the last century, 
but little is known about it. 

CouRTiLLE (see Paris). 


CREIL, Dept. Oise. 

A manufactory of a fine faience, pos- 
sessing some of the qualities of porcelain was 
founded here at the end of the eighteenth 
centiu-y. It was generally white, and printed 

with historical subjects. The mark was 

■^SARIS j<? stamped in the paste, and also stencilled. 





Nothing appears to have been known about this factory until 
MM. de Chavagnac and de Grollier, the authors of the " Hisfoire 


des Manufactures Fran<;aise de Porcelain" nccideiitally discovered 
in a curiosity shop in Paris three little specimens, two of which 
were marked with the word Crcpy (incised) and the third with 
the abbreviation C. P. Upon research they found in the Archives 
of Paris records of a factory established in 1762 at Crepy-en- 
Valois by a potter from Mene^y, together with sale books and 
papers referring to the products of ihe factory, which must have 
been considerable both in respect of domestic and of artistic soft 
paste porcelain ; among them are mentioned snuff boxes, artificial 
flowers, various small birds in colours, salt-cellais in white and 
colours, and many other articles. There is a memorandum of 
a sale on the 15th of January 1765 to a M. Randour of a large 
white group of three figures on a terrace, and a great many other 
groups and figures. There are also other records of sales down 
to the iith of December 1766 which are full of interest to col- 
lectors of soft paste porcelain. It must be obvious that many 
unmarked specimens, which have lieen attributed to Menec^y, 
should be credited to Crepy. The factory appears to have ceased 
to exist about 1770. 


Crc^^ c,|: 

Incised. Incised. 

Dagoty (see Paris). 
Dalwitz see (Bohemia). 
Damascus (see Rhodian). 


This mark is referred to by Herr Jannike as 
found upon faience that was made here. 

Darmstadt (see Hesse-Darmstadt). 
Darte (see Paris). 




The manufactory established in 1773 at Longport, near 
Burslem, passed into the hands of a Mr. Davenport in 1793, and 
remained for many years in the possession of members of this 
family, until 1876, when the works were closed. They manu- 
factured porcelain of good quality, earthenware or stone china, 
and also glass. 

Porcelain was made by Davenports from about 1794 to 1887, 
and it is on record that the firm were honoured by an order to 
manufacture a coronation service at the time of William IV. 's 
accession to the throne. The ware or stone china was similar to 
Mason's ironstone ware, and octagonal-shaped jugs of this char- 
acter must have been made in enormous quantities to judge from 
the numbers still to be found. 

The marks used were the words " Davenport " and " Longport," 
variously arranged, with or without an anchor. These marks are 
generally stencilled in colour. A later mark on fine china was a 
capital D, impressed. 








o^ i2 °* 



The old Dutch town of Delft, between The Hague and 
Rotterdam, belonging to a nation which, at one time, was the 
only European Power to whom the Japanese allowed an entrance 
into their ports, availed itself of its large importation of Eastern 
porcelain to attempt copies thereof. These resulted in a product 
known as Delft, which, though an earthenware in substance, has 
yet nuich of the feeling and character of Oriental porcelain, and, 
in the fine colour (the Oriental blue) and the peculiar bluish-white 
of the ground of some of the best specimens, is very closely 
assimilated to its original models. Like the term majolica. 


"delft" is often carelessly applied to all sorts of glazed earthen- 

Delft, when found genuine either of the blue and white or the 
polychromatic variety, is much sought after especially by French 
and German amateurs. Sets more or less complete of five jars 
and beakers copied from Oriental designs, dishes and plates, and 
curious figures of Dutchmen sitting astride a barrel, are occasion- 
ally to be seen, and these realise high prices, but the extremely 
clever imitations made in Paris deter amateurs from purchasing 
unless they can be reasonably sure that the articles offered are 
really genuine. The old marks are copied, and only experienced 
collectors and dealers can detect the shams. As a rule these 
latter are clumsier and heavier than the original old Delft ware, 
and the colouring is not so artistic. There are a few good speci- 
mens of polychromatic Delft in the Salting collection (see also 
Chapter VI.). 

Modern JVork. — Faience, chiefly in blue and white, is still made 
at Delft by Thoovt and Labouchere. The mark is the name of 
the firm, impressed, and sometimes the device given below. The 
vast majority of so-called " Old Delft " is, however, produced in 

Mark of factory at Delft, Thoovt and 


The number of Delft marks is very large, but the four pages 
given here are representative. In Chaffers there is a list of Delft 
potters, with their dates from 1614 to 1813; the majority of 
the marks given are potters' signatures, initials, or devices. This 
work, and also M. Havard's great book, Histoire de la Fayence de Delft, 
should be referred to by collectors especially interested in Delft. 



K n j \pw -^ 

Jacobos Pynacker, 


Getrii Kam, 1674. 


« 6 1-0 VO- ^T_£— 

A t 

Ai) J.ins van dtr 
Meei. 1671 

dc Roos. 

Jail vm der Laen. 

L K 

Lucas van KcsscI, 1675. 

Amcrcnaie ran KcsscI, 

Johannes van der 
Wal, 1691. 

(g ^.^ 


Jan van dftr Buergeo, 

Adnan Pynackei. IO90. 


Pieter PouUsse. 1 690. 


Th. Witsenburgh. 1690. 
de wilte Star. 


9:Y^ sc/t.c 

Jacobus Kool. 

Dirck van Schic, 1679. 

Job. Groeii, 1683. 



dc Roos. 


iJirck van dct Kest 

ill' liiinl. 

C. Witsenburg, 1696. 

Renic Hey, 1697. 
Willem Kool. 1697 


Joh. Knotter. 1698. 

c . v.s- 

Com. van Scbagen. 169,; 

C U 

Corn, van der Kloot. 
Jan V. d. Buergen, 1O95 

L \^ 

Lucas van Dale, loiij 


dc blompot. 



p. Verbt 

p. Verborg, 1759. 

"^^ Q- KJeynoven. 1680 

P- Vcrburg. C ^ 

C P^ 

1 7^. 4- 

J. Penniaf 

Hi \ 

n & G. de Koning 


A. Kruisweg, 1759. 

P 5^ P 

Joh. Pennis, 1759. 



S M. //;2.r £^ 

I VH ^ 

1728. ^ 

J. Verhagen, 1759. ^ 

ManiD Gouda, 1675 

I. Veihacen, Wtb. 


Kcmelis van Dy ck, 

/ TV 

J. T. Deitra. 



Job. Gaal. 


M. Boender. 1713. 
L. van Amsterdarr 








Ary Brouwer, 1 699. 


Job. tnji 


*'- *! Even' — ' Suier V^an dw Even. 


V ^ ^ ^.y ij_S} 

M-VB ^ 

i7f7 4- 

ir<^o ^r)(; i-DP 

Z>A^ ijy^ J 60S' 

^ ^' J/ .4ZB 


^ H- D 


/t- D e^-^a2):S?. j^ 

Jll77=f4- 2 





Lambert Sandenis, 1764 

Dk Drik Klokkhn 
W Van der Does, 1764. 



Dk Roos 
D Van der Does, 17G4 

W? A/R>R 

W Vander Briel. 


Df Paauw 1651 


W V.3 

dt twe Wildemanns 
W. Van Beek. 1764. 


O _ 


De MRTAAfE Pot. 1680 

Paris Claude R«v*rend. 

Riv^rend ? 

De I.ampkt Kan- 
G. Brouwer. 1764. 

de dubbelde Schenkkann 
T. Spaandonck, ■1-764. 

Jnhanoes Mesch, i6go. 



De Wittk Ster 
A. Kiell, 1764 


De Vhrguldp Booi 
1 den Appel, 1764. 

S. P. Roerder? 

De Witle Ster. 


Keyser and Pynakei 1680 
Jans Kuylick, 1680 



A modern firm of potters was established at the Sands End 
Works, Fulham, in 1888, by Mr. William de Morgan 
and Mr. Halsey Ricardo, an architect. The productions 
are principally lustre-ware in imitation of Hispano- 
Moresque, and pottery in the Persian and Dutch styles, 
and as such they are both artistic and successful. 
Marks : The name and address of the firm, and the 

device given in the margin. 

Mr. de Morgan relinquished potting about 1898 and has since 

become a successful novelist. 


It is not known when the manufactory of pottery first 
commenced at Derby, but it was before 1750, when Messrs. 
John & Christopher Heath were the proprietors of the Derby 
Pot Works. This firm became bankrupt in 1780, and the 
stock was sold. The Derby Porcelain W^orks were started in i 751 
by William Duesbury of Longton, Staffordshire. It is said that 
he learned the secret of china-making from a Frenchman named 
Andrew Planche, who had for some time resided in Saxony, and 
who settled in Derby about 1745. Mr. Jewitt quotes from a 
draft deed of partnership in his possession, made between William 
Duesbury, an enamelier, John Heath, gentleman, and Andrew 
Planche, "china maker," dated ist January 1756, and suggests 
that as the partnership-deed draft was never duly executed, and 
as Planche's name does not occur in any future papers, he was 
by some means or other turned out of the concern after all the 
information he could give, had been obtained. Heath appears to 
have been the capitalist, and Duesbury to have found the ability 
and energy necessary to make the business a profitable and 
successful one. 

The site of the manufactory was in Nottingham Road, since 
built over by the Midland Railway Co., and under Duesbury's 
management the "output" of the factory would appear to have 
grown rapidly. In 1763 a consignment of goods sent to London 
for sale, consisted of 41 cases of china, and realised the sum of 
;^666, 17s. 6d. We give the contents of some of these cases, 
and it is interesting to compare the prices with those given at the 
present lime for pieces similar to those named. 



Wiin lUsaiit Handles. 
Jom:s l{r.i.iri;>T, 
Victoria ami Ai.ukki' Muski'M. 

3 u 

< i< 
o -c :: 

►J 2 " 

^ - =. 



Box No. 41 coiitained- 

8 large Flower Jars . 

3 large Inkstands . . . 
I small do. . . . 

4 large Britannias . . . 
6 second sized Hussars . 











4 large Pigeons 
12 small Rabbits 
12 Chickens 
16 small Baskets 

at 7s. 

„ 2S. 
„ 2S. 

„ 2s. 6d. 

No. 31 — 

4 large Quarters 
4 Sbakespeares . 

at 40s. 
„ 42s. 

6 Miltons at 42s. 

24 Bucks on Pedestals . . ,, 2s. 6d. 

In 1769 Duesbury purchased the whole stock and plant of 
the Chelsea factory, which was sold off in that year, after the 
proprietor, M. Nicholas Sprimont, had advertised the concern 
for sale in 1764 and again in 1769. (See Chelsea.) 

There appears to have been some dispute afterwards, re- 
specting certain articles which the vendor contended should not 
have been included in the sale. 

For some fifteen years Duesbury carried on the two factories, 
and this is the period known as " Chelsea-Derby," the marks of 
which are given below. It was during this time that some of the 
best china was produced. The models of both factories seem to 
have been interchanged, and therefore we find occasionally a 
well-known Chelsea model with the kind of decoration more 
generally ascribed to Derby. The beautiful ground colour of 
crimson-lake was introduced during this period, and also a very 
refined and delicate form of decoration known as " gold stripes," 
generally relieved with round or oval medallions of beautifully 
painted pastoral or mythological subjects on one side of a vase, 
and landscapes on the reverse. (See full-page illustration of set 
of five vases and ewers.) 

The productions of the Chelsea-Derby factories were disposed 
of by periodical auctions, and in a useful work of reference,^ 
which Mr. Nightingale has contributed to the collector's library, 
one can see in the reprints of Mr. Christie's catalogues the de- 
scriptions and prices realised at this time. These prices now 
would be represented ajiproximately by substituting pounds for 
the amount in shillings for which they were sold at the time of 
their production at the factory. 

About this date, 1 773-1 785, Mr. Duesliury had a London 
house in Bedford Street, Covent Garden, and the business appears 
to have been conducted in a very able manner, considerable assist- 

^ '' Coiiiril'itlioii to the History of Early English Porielaifufrofn contemporary sources,'''' 
by J. C. Nightingale. 



ance being rendered in the management by the eldest son of 
the proprietor, who became partner a few months before his 
father's death in 1786. The younger Duesbury seems to have 
apphed himself very closely to the improvement of the manu- 
facture, and to have received considerable support from Royalty 
and the Court, models being lent by the Duke of Newcastle and 
Lady Spencer, and sketches by Lord Lonsdale. Those table 
services which are now so well known for their decoration of 
landscapes in medallions, may be assigned to this date. Mr. Kean, 

Cup, Cover, and Saucer of Crown Derby, blue and gold border 
(British Museum). 

sometime partner in the firm, managed the business for a short 
time after Mr. Duesbury's death in 1796. 

Kean married Duesbury's widow in 1798 and continued the 
directorship of the factory until his stepson, grandson of the 
original William Duesbury, took on the management. 

In 18 1 5 the premises were leased to Robert Bloor, formerly 
clerk to Mr. Duesbury, and tliough by the sale of many indiffer- 
ently-finished specimens he became rapidly rich, the decline of 
the Derby manufactory may be traced from his assumption of the 
management. The London house at this time was 34 Old Bond 
Street, where Mr. Courteney sold the productions consigned from 

Mr. Bloor died in 1849; the stock-in-trade was sold to 



Mr. Samuel Boyle of Fenton, and the buildings were pulled 

The business seems to a certain extent to have been continued 
by Messrs. Locker & Co., but at different premises. They were 
in turn succeeded by Messrs. Stevenson, Sharp & Co., in 1859. 
Mrs. A. R. Macdonald has a cup and saucer with a landscape, 
partly painted and partly printed, marked with Stevenson's name. 

Old Crown Derby Dwarfs (in the collection of Mrs. A. K. Macdonald). The colouring 
and details of the decoration of these quaint Derby figures varies considerably. 
Colonel Pownall made a collection of some twenty-seven different varieties, which 
were sold at Christie's in 1909 and realised over pf 500. 

and a three-masted ship stamped in the paste. The firm after- 
wards became Stevenson & Hancock, and on the death of Mr. 
Stevenson in 1866, Mr. Sampson Hancock became the sole pro- 
prietor, and his successor still continues to produce Crown Derby 
china upon the old lines. His table services are fairly good 
reproductions of some of the old patterns, and the work is care- 
fully executed. As the letters S. H. in the adopted mark serve 
as well for Sampson Hancock as for Stevenson & Hancock, it 
has not been altered. It is of interest to note that the present 


Mr, Hancock's great-great-grandfather was the original Mr. 
Duesbury's apprentice. 

The paste of the old Crown Derby porcelain is fine, white, 
and soft, and many of the landscapes and flower-pieces are ad- 
mirably painted. The finest of the latter are by the hand of 
William Billingsley, the pupil of Zachariah Bowman, who was 
one of the best landscape and flower artists of the Worcester 
factory. The beautiful biscuit, of Derby, is worthy of special 
notice, and some admirably modelled figures are in existence, 
rivalling in many respects the biscuit of Sevres. 

Indeed it is only fair to say of the very best specimens of old 
Crown Derby, and of the finest Chelsea-Derby, that both as 
regards paste and decoration one may compare them in every 
way to good Sevres china. As, however, in distinct contrast to 
Sevres, a good deal of Crown Derby china was made for sale, 
and therefore quickly and imperfectly finished, it must be em- 
phatically pointed out that the above comparison is only intended 
to apply to the finest specimens of vases and services, which were 
probably made as orders from the art patrons of the time, who 
were prepared to pay for the best workmanship of which the 
factory was capable. 

A distinctive feature in the decoration of the tea and coffee 
services is a beautiful transparent full blue, generally used as a 
border, relieved by gilding ; the cups were often fluted. 

Specimens with medallions of landscapes or figure subjects, 
on plain self-coloured grounds, are much appreciated. The 
colours are mostly lilac, pale and dark blue, pink, green, and, 
rarest and most beautiful of all, canary yellow. 

As regards the colour of the marks, they occur in red, blue, 
and puce. A general impression prevails that the puce mark 
indicates the best specimens. We do not know that there is any 
ground for this, but certainly the puce mark is found on some of 
the best. The Chelsea-Derby period from 1769 to 1784, when 
Duesbury owned both factories, has been noticed under Chi-:lsea 


A joint-stock company was formed in 1875, having a capital 
of some £6'j,ooo, to carry on upon a large scale the old industry 
of Derby. Mr. Edward Philips, formerly of the Worcester factory, 
was managing director, Mr. W. R. Ingram, sculptor, was modeller, 
and the shareholders were mostly local gentlemen. A factory was 



built upon the site of the old workhouse, and under the title of 
The Crown Derby Porcelain Co., business upon a considerable 
scale was commenced, the mark of D in reversed cyphers sur- 
mounted by a crown being adopted. 

In 1890 the Company obtained permission to use the prefix 
" Royal," and the mark was thereupon slightly altered. 

The productions of this Company are very decorative, but 
little attempt is made to copy the old models. 

Since the first edition of this book was published, Mr. William 
Burton's valuable History and Description of English Porcelain 
has appeared and should be consulted. Professor Church's 
English Porcelain, Mr. Bemrose's, Bow-Chelsea and Derby Porce- 
lain, and the useful guide-book to the British Museum collection 
by Mr. R. L. Hobson should be referred to. Mr. John Haslem's 
book also contains many useful references ; he was employed at 
the factory, and his book gives the original prices at which the 
different groups and figures were sold at the works. Many of 
these have a number scratched in the paste, and by this, and the 
description given by Haslem, they can be easily identified. Many 
Derby groups and figures bear no other mark save this number, 
and in some cases the "first," "second," or "third" size are also 
incised. The late Major-General Astley Terry had a biscuit group 
of Mazeppa which is incised with the words "G. Cocker, Derby." 

The following marks are arranged chronologically so far as 
possible : — 

(Generally scratched in the paste.) 


The above marks, intended to represent a four-legged stool. 


are evidenth' the copies of a Chinese mark which is given by 
Chaffers. It occurs very rarely, and on specimens of early date. 




Crown Derby. 

Derev. Karly mark. 


c/i^v X 






1 )ui;sbuiy i\: Kean. 



Blook. T'eriuil : 
181510 1839. 







On transfer printed ware. Occurs upon 
a specimen in the Worcester Porce- 
lain Works Museum. 


Dkrhv. Stevenson 
& Co. in 1859. 



Both marUs generally stcnciUerl in red. 






Imitation of a Sevres 
mark found on Derby 
of "Bloor" period. 

Mark of New Crown Derby 
Manufactory (1.S75). 


I'resent mark of Crown Derliy Factory, 
adopted 1 890. 

DESVRE (Pas-de-Calais). 

Somewhat coarsely painted pottery was made 
here in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. 
The name of the place was used as the mark, and 
sometimes the letters D.P. for Dupre Poulaine, who 
carried on the factory up to 1732. 

DiHL (see Angouleme). 

Dijon (see Premieres). 



A factory, known as the Bishop of Worms' 
Faience Factory, was established here before 1774, 
to which Herr Ernst Zais attributes this mark : 

The manufacture ceased in 1788. 

DiRUTA (see Majolica). 


In 1735 ^^^ Marquis Carlo Ginori commenced the manufac- 
ture of porcelain at the Villa Doccia, near Florence ; the fabrirjiie 
has been continued by his successors up to the present day. 

The present proprietorship of the Ginori manufactory is 
vested in a limited company, " Richard Ginori," employing a 
great number of hands. In the International Exhibition of 
Turin 191 1, this company had an important exhibit of very 



highly finished porcelain which received the Grand Prix. The 
author, who was a member of the jury of awards, was informed 
by the manager that the gold mark, " Richard Ginori," was only 
placed on the specimens actually decorated at their own works, 
which are situated about six miles from Elorence. 

The earlier productions of Doccia are well worth acquiring. 
Collectors who are acquainted with the characteiistics of old 
Venetian china will find many points of similarity between the 
two styles. The decoration is generally on a white ground with 
landscapes in medallions, Italian peasants, views of towns and 
buildings, or single figures. A favourite style of decoration is 
to paint the centre landscape or subject in a reddish-pink colour, 
while a broad band of deep blue relieves the border. Doccia 
china is generally found in parts of table services, vases very 
rarely, and figures or groups still more seldom. 

In 1 82 1, when the works at Capo di Monte were discon- 
tinued, a large quantity of moulds were acquired for the Doccia 
factory. Since that time the output has consisted principally of 
copies of Capo di Monte china, including the marks, many of 
the pieces being wonderfully good imitations. Excellent copies 
of si.xteenth-century majolica are also made here. The mark on 
the earlier specimens is generally a star, adopted from the arms 
of Ginori ; this mark is almost identical with one of the Nove 
marks, and it is well-nigh impossible to distinguish between them. 
A great deal of Doccia is unmarked. 

pr) * # ^ 

l':stablislu-(l 17,15. 


will. Century. 




^^ N.S. 

.will. Cinluiy. 


Doe and Rogers were painters for Chamberlains of Worcester ; 
their names are occasionally found either together or separately 
on specimens, of course referring only to the decoration (see 

DRICSDEN \'ASK (kaki.v I'Kkiod). 

^'ellllw ground with panol of Chinese deconilion, ninrked A. U., ihe Monogram 

of Augustus Rkx, circa 1720. 

Ill ilie collection of Mr. Hakhy. 


DON POTTERY (near Doncaster). 

These works were established about 1790 by John Green, a 
partner in the Leeds factory (q.v.). 

His ware was very similar to that made DON POFFERY. 

at Leeds. After various changes in the • 

firm, the factory was bought in 1834 by GREEN. 

Mr. Samuel Barker, by whose descen- DON POTTERY, 

dants it is still carried on. The mark 

used since 1834 is a demi-lion rampant A u-ip 

holding a flag, inscribed DON, and under- ^a*^ J, 

neath, POTTEI-iY ; and sometimes the 
name BARKER, and an eagle displayed 

on a ducal coronet. Estalilishcd 1790, hy J. Gicon ; 

in 1S07 Clark joined. 


Herr Jiinnike {" Grniulriss dcr Kciaiiiik") gives the following 
mark as that of Kock & Fischer, faience manufacturers, , 
of Dornheim. Doubtless many pieces have been sold for iA» 
Dresden, the mark of which it closely resembles. ti ici* 

DouLTON Ware (see Lambeth). 

DRESDEN, Saxony. 

The credit of what may be justly termed the second inven- 
tion of the manufacture of hard porcelain belongs to Sa.\(jny. 
It is true thnt the I-*ortuguese merchants had, as early as the 
si.\teenth century, introduced Chinese porcelain very generally into 
Europe, but the mode of its production was quite unknown. 
The process was discovered by John Bottger, an apothecary's 
assistant at Berlin, who, being suspected of alchemy, had fled 
to Saxony to elude persecution. His secret being deemed of 
importance by the King-Elector, a manufactory was established at 
Meissen in 1709, where, after a number of experiments had been 
made, the desired porcelain was at last produced. In the British 
Museum some specimens of Bottger ware are labelled 1706. 
These earlier specimens — now very rare, and called after their 
producer — were of a dark red colour, something like jasper, 
and were only ornamented by the gilders or silversmiths of 
that time ; and as a suitable glaze by the enamelling process 



had not then been adopted, the pohshed surface was obtained 
by means of the lathe. The Franks collection contains several 
good specimens of Bottger ware, with both gold and silver 
decorations. A fine white earth was discovered later from which 
the first really fine porcelain was manufactured. Augustus the 

DKKSUEN FIGURES. (Acier's modcllini,'. 
(In the colleclion of Mr. 11. Manficlci, M.l'.) 

Strong, Elector of Saxony, who has been termed the " King of 
China Maniacs ! " took the greatest personal interest in this novel 
art, and to his royal support we are indebted for many of the 
finest old specimens that now adorn the gallery at Dresden, or 
are to he found in some of our best private collections. 

It is a historical fact that Augustus Rex presented William I. 



of Prussia with some dragoons, completely equipped, in return 
for twenty-two enormous vases, still to be seen in the royal col- 
lection at Dresden. Bottger, the first director, died at the early 
age of thirty-seven, and he was, in 1722, succeeded in office by 
Horoldt or Herold, who introduced into the decoration the intricate 
gilded borders and medallions in the Chinese style, by which that 
period is known. To this time belong those charming services 
decorated first with Chinese subjects, and afterwards with seaports 
marked with the letters K.P.F., K.P.M. {" Koniglichcn Porzellan 
Fabrik or Mamifaclur "). The produc- 
tions of Horoldt's time are also dis- 
tinguished by the size of the swords 
(the mark of fabrujuc) which are 
smaller, and connected by the hilts. 

It was previous to 1740 that 
the beautiful ground colours, canary 
yellow, apple green, lilac, marone or 
claret colour were introduced, and 
we find these accompanied by care- 
fully painted subjects in miniature, 
with elaborate lace-work framings 
of fine gilding. Vases, table services, 
and various dainty cabinet specimens 
of this period of the factory must 
always command the admiration of 
the collector. The ground-colours 
are generally painted on the under 
side of cups and saucers, as in the 
case of the old Chinese ruby-backed 
plates ; doubtless the idea was copied 
from the Oriental designs. 

Occasionally one finds gilders' marks, either numerals or 
initials in gold, on these early pieces, which bear no other mark, 
and at others they accompany the K.P.M. or K.P.F. 

In 1731, Joachim Kiindler, a sculptor of great merit, super- 
intended the modelling, and introduced wreaths, bouquets of 
flowers, chandeliers, vases and animals. 

Kiindler also began a colossal statue of Augustus II., but 
had only completed the head, when the works were stopped by 
the war, during which, in 1745, Frederick the Great attacked 
Dresden ; many pieces were seized and sold, and the electoral 
archives plundered. In 1759, too, the manufactory was again 

I'litpmirri \';ise. Old Dresden Porce- 
lain (coll. Duke de Martina). 


a severe sufferer from military pillage, Meissen being the battle- 
field between tlie Austrians and the Prussians. 

Dresden figures during the time of Kiindler, and also during 
the King's period, were made for mounting in ormolu, as was 
the fashion of the time. Clocks and candelabra of ormolu with 
scroll feet and china flowers, have a Dresden group, figure, bird, 
or animal, as embellishment. As in such cases the base of the 
figure would be hidden by the mount, the mark on pieces 
intended for mounting, will be found at the back of the figures, 
near the base. Figures of this kind are invariably of good 
quality. Groups of Amorini representing quarters and seasons, 
allegorical figures in sets, and some fine portrait groups of 
contemporaneous celebrities, are among the best of his productions. 
The famous groups and figures representing Countess Kosel, 
Count Briihl, and Augustus II. are excellent examples. 

Belonging to this class of figine work, are the famous crinoline 
groups and harlequin figures, which within the last few years 
have so much increased in value. There is a further reference to 
this particular kind of group at the end of this notice. 

The harlequins, quaint, luunorous, strong in modelling, and 
forceful in colouring, belong to the same category. Some thirty 
years ago the writer assisted the late General Randolph to form a 
collection of these figures, which then cost from _^'io to ^{"20 each. 
At the sale of his collection in 1901 these figures realised three 
or four times their cost to the General, and several of them are 
now in the valuable collection of harlequins formed by Mr. 
Francis Baer, and the illustration opposite is from one of 

Handler's work is marked liy bold and vigorous modelling, 
and has been termed baroque as distinguished from the rococo, 
which was contemporaneous with the last forty years of his career, 
and which continued after his death in 1775. This rococo 
style was affected by a French sculptor named Francois Acier, 
and there is said to have been so much friction between the two 
eminent artists that it was arranged that each of them should 
select one-half of the designs for the new models. 

The work of Acier is distinguished from that of Kandler as 
being less bold and more delicate and dainty. His subjects 
include Arcadian shepherds, musicians, mendicants, Cupids in 
various costumes, with scroll bases of a lighter character than 
those of Kandler, and reproducing the prevalent I^ouis Quinze 
taste in decorative modelling. The series of tigures known as 



tlic "Cries of Paris" ;incl tliL' monkey orchcstr.i, are amon,^ tlie 
recognised Acier models. 

Acier retired on a pension in 1799, and towards tiie end of 
his career the style of decoration had altered from the rococo 
scrolls of Louis Quinze taste, to the more severe lines of the Louis 
Seize period. This change is reflected in the altered models 

Dresden H:iiiei]uin in Mr. Francis Haer's colleclion, reprinted from the Coti/ioisscw/r. 

of the Meissen factory, and instead of scroll bases of groups and 
figures, we have round or square pedestals ornamented with 
beads or festoons. The shapes of the vases, too, are now of 
classic form instead of rococo — and the decorations, which in the 
earlier time consisted of landscapes after Vernet, Boucher, and 
Watteau, are now varied by wreaths, medallions framed in laurel 
garlands, festoons, and classic emblems. This transition is 
occasionally exemplified in the mounting of a Kiindler figure or 
group, on a base of late Louis Seize design. The services of this 



time are still painted in subjects taken from the pictures of 
Watteau, Boucher, Nicholas Berchem, and contemporary artists, 
and the ground colours, instead of being plain as formerly, are 

Dresden Tankard wiih embossed silver mount, decorated with medallion portrait 
of Handel. Date e. 1759, in Mr. Herbert Young's collection. 

variegated with a pattern in some cases resembling the salmon 
scale familiar to us in the Worcester decoration. Cups and 
saucers are quatrcfoil shaped, and the coffee and tea-pots are 
" lobed " to match. Birds were a popular form of decoration, 

































w £ 


made fashionable, it is said, by tlie publication about this time 
(1778) of Buffon's Natural llisUny. The ordinary table services, 
painted with flowcis, fruits, aiul biids, were linished with an 
ornamental basket pattern border pressed in a mould. 

Dates are rarely found on old Dresden cliina, but one 
occasionally finds pieces or services which were made for certain 
exalted persons, and these give us an approximate date. The 
tankard (p. 184), which has a medallion portrait of Handel, is an 
example of this class, and has been selected for illustration. The 
great composer was a native of Saxony, and died 13th April, 
1759, when doubtless this piece was made in commemoration. 
The allegorical figures of Music, which support the medallions, 
are in quaint Oriental costumes, which, but for the portrait giving 
us a date, would have caused one to appropriate the piece to a 
period some twenty years earlier. It is in tlie collection of 
Mr. Herbert Young. These dated specimens are valuable in 
determining the various kinds of decoration employed, show- 
ing the changes of style, and in the Franks collection so fre- 
quently referred to in these pages, there are no fewer than fourteen 
dated examples. Dr. Brinckmann in his work on this factory has 
quoted an interesting price list which was issued in 1765 giving 
the names of the various patterns produced at Meissen. 

Upon the restoration of peace, Deitrich, a native painter of 
some eminence, was employed, but from this time the concern 
was unable to pay its expenses, and became a heavy drain on 
the King's private means. The period which followed was under 
his Majesty's immediate directorship, and is known as the King's 
period (1778); it is indicated by a dot between the hilts of the 
swords, from which mark it has also acquired the cognomen of 
" Saxe au point," and specimens produced at this time are 
generally of good quality. 

The Marcolini period, so called from the directorship of Count 
Marcolini, which commenced in 1774 and lasted until 1814, is 
indicated by a star between the sword hilts, and very frequently a 
numeral, generally " 4," in blue. The decoration of this time is 
very rich, the deep gros bleu, or bleu de rot, being much used as a 
ground-colour, while groups of mythological figures and landscapes- 
are very carefully painted. 

In addition to the productions of the periods of the directorates 
alluded to, the porcelain was sometimes sold by the factory 
in the white, and decorated by private firms and individuals. 
There is in existence a small number of specimens, chiefly parts 



of a tea-service decorated by one Baron Busch, who is said to have 
invented a method of engraving the porcelain with a diamond and 
then rubbing in a black colouring matter which gives the effect of 
fine etching. Tiie Duke of Brunswick possessed a service of this 

Dresden Vase, lilue encrusted tlowers, wicli Watteau subject on gold 
ground, mounted in richly chased gilt bronze (Jones Bequest, 
Victoria and Albert Museum). 

work wiiicli was valued at ^'10,000. Single specimen cups and 
saucers are to be found in private collections. Tfiere is one in 
the Franks collection, and another in that of Mr. Ciiarles Borradaile. 
Another painter in black on Dresden porcelain was Preussler, 
of Bresiau, and a cup and saucer attributed to him is now in the 
Britisii Museum ; it was formerly in Dr. Fortnum's collection. 



Coming to :i imicli Liter period, within the last fifty years a 
great quantity of Meissen poicphiin was decorated in the town of 
Dresden, by firms whose names are now almost forgotten, but 
who, twenty or thirty years ago, did an extensive trade in 
decorating Meissen china, generally imparting to it the effect 
of an earlier period of decoration. Many such pieces now come 
into the market, and puzzle those who are not intimately ac- 
quainted with the peculiarities of the genuine old Meissen decora- 
tion of the more desirable periods. 

The present directors still manufacture from the old models 
and occasionally add new ones. The more highly finished speci- 
mens take rank with other modern productions of the highest 
standards, but the general output of the factory has fallen out of 
favour on account of the excessive 
colouring and high glaze, which do not 
please the fastidious taste of the collector, 
while those who buy china simply for 
ornament are satisfied with the cheaper 
imitations made in Paris, and at Pots- 
chappel, Coburg, and other German 

These imitations have marks very 
similar to the Meissen fabriqne marks, 
and until lately no steps were taken by 
the royal factory to check this injury to 
its trade and reputation. During the 
last few years, however, their trade 
marks have been strictly protected, and there have been several 
prosecutions under the " Merchandise Marks Act," which has 
rendered the selling of china with forged marks a serious offence. 

At the present time really fine old Meissen china is exceedingly 
rare, and the prices realised are very high. The finest private 
collection, second only to that in the Japan Palace of Dresden, is 
the one formed by the late Hon. W. F. B. Massey Mainwaring, 
and for many years exhibited at the Bethnal Green Museum. 
This collection v/as purchased by Mr. King, a South African 
millionaire, for the large sum of ^30,000. 

As regards the prices of single specimens, the highest are 
given for groups of figures in masquerade or fancy costume, 
particularly for those which are termed "crinoline" groups. 
These fascinating specimens generally consist of a lady dressed 
in the farthingale or hooped skirt, which was fashionable in 

Milk-pot of Dresden Porcelain. 


the seventeenth century, attended by a negro page, and not in- 
frequently holding a toy pug-dog, and a fan, while one or more 
lovers in gorgeous raiment, including brilliantly coloured knee- 
breeches, pay court to her. 

In the sale of Lord de Grey's collection in 1902, a group 
of this kind realised ;^io5o, and since then groups of this descrip- 
tion when perfectly genuine, have fully maintained this value. 

For groups of this kind to bring such exceptionally high 
prices, all the colouring must be original, that is of the same 
period as the china itself. Owing to the high value of the pro- 
ductions of this early period of the old Meissen ware, not only 
are modern imitations made to impose on inexperienced collectors, 
but old groups of poor and insipid colouring, or " in the white," 
have been redecorated with the bright crimsons, yellows, blacks, 
and other strong colours for which the finest groups are remark- 
able. A special reference to the imitations of these valuable groups 
will be found in the chapter on *' Hints and Cautions." 


Impicssed marks of Bollijei- 

DiuisDiiN (Meissen). 

.Augustus Kcx, 1709-1726. This ni.irk is 

iheoiigiii.Tl monogram of .\uguslus Rex. 

Dresden. Wand of .-Rsciilapius. 
Established c. 1712. Porcelain for sale, 


Used 1716-1720. 

?7 S>^uav.>/i /^.^^j; 




Impressed mark found on Dresden Bisittit 
of the Marcolini time. 

The iiiiiial letters of Meissner Porzellan 


Very scarce mark, 

the monogram of 

Frederick Augustus. 





• v> 

This mark was used on a service made for 

the Countess Kosel 

the King's favourite. 

wh j was disgraced 

in 17 I 3 and died in 



The meaning in I-'nghsh of these letters is 
" Tile King's Court Confectioner, War- 
saw." One of his Majesty's palaces was 
in Warsaw, and a service marked with 
these letters was made for use there. 

Konigliche I'orzellan JIanufactur 


These two initial letters are on some vases 
also bearing the crossed swords in the 
Royal collection at Windsor Caslle. 

This mark occurs on some small Dresden 
cups and saucers, copied from Japanese 
models, one of the saucers of the set being 
evidently of Japan porcelain, the rest of 
them Dresden. They are in the collection 
of the Rev. Armstrong Hall. 

C ..F he raid 
invl; rt_4eca ,cLmeL(sf 


Herold's period, 1722-31 


King's period, 1770. 



Maicolini period, 1774-1S14. 

Mark used since the " Marcolini '' period, 
and at the present time, and generally 
accompanied by a number scratcheti cur- 
sively on the paste. The number is for 
reference in the factory l)ooks. 

Special Marks on Spcrifiuiis in the celebrated Collection of China in the Japanese 
Palace at Dresden. 

Collectors will have observed upon some early specimens of Dresden and also on some 
pieces of Oriental porcelain certain letters and numbers, not fahri;ue marks, but scratched 
in the paste by a diamond point such as N = 25 or N = Z 96. These were special marks 
which corresponded with the Inventory of the Royal Collection, and are said to have been 
used to prevent the courtiers from abstracting specimens from the Palace. Sir A. W. 
Franks in his comments on the copy of this inventory, which was dated 1779, mentions 
that it consisted of five volumes, and was compiled from documents of an earlier date. As 
the collection increased duplicate specimens were sold to make room for others, and these 
sales will account for the specimens, bearing these otherwise mysterious marks, which from 
time to time come into the market. 

NoTIi. — Much misapprehension has arisen respecting the nick or cut in the paste across 
the mark (swords). One such cut signifies that the white china was sold as white, and 
therefore has been coloured in some outside atelier. In some cases, however, this after- 
colouring is exceedingly clever, and gives the specimen the appearance of a genuine old piece. 

Either one or more such " nicks," not across the swords but above or below them, signi- 
fies some defect in the piece, but these defects are sometimes so slight as to cause little or 
no difiference in the value of the article so marked. 

The best known of the private fiinis in Dresden, as dis- 
tinguished from the Royal or State factory, were Wolfsohn and 
Meyers. The former adopted some fifty or 
fjf^ sixty years ago as a fabrique mark the monogram 

LXj of the Royal founder of the Meissen factory, as 

/T\ ''1 t'l^ margin, and this is sometimes used to de- 
^^ VvD eeive inexperienced collectors, and induce them 
to purchase the comparatively modern imitation, 
bearing the mark in the margin, for the veritable "Augustus 
Rex " early pieces, which are very scarce and valuable. 

This monogram of Augustus Rex should be carefully compared 
with that on page i88, which is the one marked on the early 
specimens of the real Meissen. 

Some few years ago the Royal factory obtained 
a decision in the German law courts prohibiting 
the use of this mark, and the (irm then adopted 
'jrtr' another mark, the letter D, or the word " Dresden," 
11 surmounted by a crown — sometimes called Crown 

'^ Dresden. 




Samson of 
were otiier 

Another mark which we sometimes find upon Dresden china 
of some thirty or forty years ago, is that in the margin, used 
by Meyers, the second manufacturer alhided to, 
the initial letter M being that of his name, and 
the bar across the swords indicating a difference 
from the Royal Meissen Factory. Another mark, 
very similar to this, is that with the letter S 
between the hilts. This is nn early mark of M 
Paris, the famous maker of imitations. There 
makers and decorators of " Dresden," one being 
a man named Thieme, who adopted his initial 
letter as a mark, but many of his productions 
bore also, or instead of, an imitation more or less 
exact of the crossed swords. (See also Chapter VI.) 

The mark in the margin is given by Chaffers 
as that on some modern Dresden sceaux in the late Lord 
Cadogan's collection. The crossed swords mark of Meissen is 
also found on the work of other factories, notably of Worcester 
and of Derby. Some of the Tluiringian factories, Limburg and 
Closter Veilsdorf, also used the mark for a short time, and we 
know that it was discontinued after a strong protest from the 
Saxony authorities. While the Worcester and Derby specimens 
with this mark are easily identified, these German pieces have much 
more in common with old Meissen, and are likely to be mistaken. 



Captain Henry Delamain appears to have 
established a factory of earthenware here, 
some time prior to 1753. It is not known 
what mark he used. A considerable quantity 
of table ware, much resembling Leeds ware, 
is marked with a harp and crown, and the 
name Dublin. Donovan, whose name some- 
times occurs, was not a manufacturer, but 
he decorated all sorts of pottery, and used his 
own name, as well as imitating various marks. 

Uncertain. About 1760 



1790. Donovan, a 
decorator only. 




Herr Jannike gives the following as the mark 
of A. Saeltzei", a maker of faience at Eisenacli. 

ELBOGEN, Bohemia. 

A factory was estabHshed here in 18 15 by 
M. Haidinger, but little is known of it and speci- 
mens are very rare. Hard paste. Mark, an 
arm holding a sword, impressed in the paste. 
(See Bohemia) 

Elers Wake (see Bradwell). 



Herr Jiinnike gives the following 
'All/J£y mark for pottery made here. 


Enamelled faience was made here in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries. Some pieces are marked with the word 
" Epernay " in raised letters. 

Essex Pottery (see also Hedixuham). 

ESTE, NEAR Padua. 

Faience and porcelain were both made here from the middle 
of the last century down to a recent date. Several firms appear 
to have had works in the locality. The following marks are 
known : — 


WTII. Century. 

ESTE+ 1783 + 


D. B. are the initials of Domenico Brnnello ; G. V. of Girolamo 
Kranchini. The name of Fabris also occurs. 

Lady C. Schreiber's Journals mention the purchase of a 



pair of fine figures of tliis factory of llie Virgin and St. Jolm, both 
marked ESTE, and one of them with date 1783, the mark being 
stamped in the paste. They are now in Lady Bessboroiigh's 

ETIOLLES, Dept. Seine et Oise. 

A small factory, established by Jean-Baptiste Monier in 
1766, near Corbeil, where both soft and hard paste porcelain 
were made. The mark is composed of letters, MP., joined 
together, and sometimes the word Etiolles in full. The speci- 
mens of this factory are very similar to those of many other 
French fabriques of hard-paste porcelain. It is sought after chiefly 
for its rarity. 

The monogram MP. stands for Monier et Pelleve, the former 
being the founder, and the hitter associated with him. 


A service of i\\is fabriqiie, dated 1770 and marked "Etiolles, 
Pelleve," was purchased by Mr. Samuel Litchfield (the author's 
father) some thirty-five years ago. After many changes of owner- 
ship, the various pieces were sold separately, and they now 
occasionally come into the market. The mark is scratched in 
the paste very lightly, and being without colour, is easily over- 
looked. A specimen of this service is in the Franks collection. 

Fabriano (see Majolica). 


The majolica of Faenza produced at the end of the fifteenth 
century is perhaps the most highly prized of all the beautiful 
ceramic productions of the best period of art in Italy, and its 
characteristics and peculiarities deserve most careful attention 
and examination by the collector. Generally speaking, the pig- 
ments selected are blue and yellow, the ornament sometimes 
being in blue on yellow ground, and sometimes the reverse. Per- 
haps the most famous specimen is the beautiful plate with 
grotesque figures, masks, Cupids, trophies of arms, and a satyr 
playing on a pipe, with the motto Aiixilliinii mc:nn de Domino, and 




date 1508, for which M. Adolphe de Rothschild paid ;f920 at the 
Fountaine sale in 1884. 

Mr. George Salting collected some famous specimens, which 
are included in his bequest to the nation, amongst others being 
the Baluster-shaped vase with decoration in blue and deep orange 
colours, for which he paid ^^iioo. 

Some of the best pieces of Faenza majolica are those which 
are attributed to the handiwork of one Pirote or Pirota, and his 
mark, which is sometimes the inscription " Fato in Faenza in 
Casa Pirota," and sometimes a curious device, is very highly 
appreciated by collectors. 

The marks in all their different forms are given fully in 
Chaffers, but are not reproduced here, partly from lack of 
space, and partly because it is almost impossible to find a genuine 
specimen for sale except when a celebrated collection is dispersed. 
Under the notice on Majolica (i/.i'.), there will be found a few re- 
presentative marks and inscriptions of Faenza as of other Italian 
majolicas of the time. 

The magnificent collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
formed by Mr. George Salting, should be very carefully studied 
by the amateur who wishes to add genuine pieces of Faenza to 
his cabinet. The large edition of Chaffers, and Dr. Drury Fort- 
num's Majolica, should be consulted. 

A revival of the art of making artistic majolica took place 
here in 1850, when Professor Farini, having purchased part of 
the collection of the Museum Passelini, which was dispersed at 
this time, established a factory, where, owing to his skill and energy, 
the productions attained considerable excellence. At his death 
in 1863 he was succeeded by his son Ludovicus, and in 1871 a 
partial change in the proprietorship took place. The old models 
and decoration are successfully reproduced, and are of high merit. 
The marks were an anchor and the word FAENZA, A. FARINI & 
Co., altered in 1878 to the device of two triangles intersecting 
each other and the letter F. 




FENTON, Stakkok'dsiiire. 

This is a large district wher«e pottery lias buen made from very 
early times, and in the eighteenth century there were several 
factories. The most notable of these were those of Thomas 
Whieldon (at one time in partneiship with Wedgwood), John 
Barker, Robert Garren, and Thomas Green. The last nametl also 
made porcelain. A modern factory of encaustic tiles, majolica, 
&c., was started here by Mr. Robert Minton Taylor, under the style 
of the Fenton Stone Works. (See also WiiiiiLUON and Mason.) 

Marks : the names of the various makers. 

Thomas Heath, whose daughter was married to Felix Pratt, had 
a pottery at Fenton as early, it is said, as 1710, and Shaw mentions 
one of his plates as "the earlier kind of white ware with blue 
painting." Palmer of Hanley, and Neale, who both copied 
Wedgwood ware, married daughters of Thomas Heath. 

The Pottery of Feli.x Pratt, which from 1775 to about 1810 
produced excellent ware, marked with the name PRATT and 
known as " Pratt's ware," was in this district, his works being built 
on the site of Thomas Heath's pottery. So many pieces are un- 
marked that they are generally vaguely described as " Stafford- 
shire pottery," but they have some peculiarities which enable us 
to distinguish them. His jugs have an ornament in rehef round 
the bases and also on the upper parts ; busts of Admirals Nelson, 
Jarvis, Duncan, and other contemporary celebrities are found 
modelled on these jugs, and a tea-pot in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum has an equestrian portrait of the Duke of York. The 
ware is cream coloured with a bluish glaze. Pratt's descendants 
still carry on the business. 

Some other potters who carried on work in the district, and 
of whom Chaffers gives more particulars, were Phillips, Matthews, 
John Adams, and a firm named Elkin, Knight, & Bridgvvood ; 
Joseph Myatt, who made ware in the style of Wedgwood, had 
works at Foley near this place. He was one of the devotees of 
Wesleyanism, and it is said that John Wesley preached to a con- 
gregation from his parlour window. Of Miles Mason and his 
successors we have given more particulars in the notice under 

Specimens of eighteenth-century English pottery are occasion- 
ally found bearing the names of various potters given above. At 
the present time the Crown Staffordshire Porcelain Company carry 
on a large business in domestic and artistic china at the Minerva 
Works, Fenton. 


FERRYBRIDGE, near Knottingley, Yorkshire. 

Some works were established about 1792 by Tonilinson & Co. 
Shortly afterwards, on taking into partnership Ralph Wedgwood 
(son of Thomas, Josiah's partner), they made very inferior 
imitations of Josiali's jasper and other wares, using the mark 
" Wedgwood & Co." The works have since changed hands 
several times. The name " Ferrybridge " was sometimes used 
as a mark. 

Feuillet (see Paris). 


There are two claimants to the honour of the first production 
of soft-paste porcelain in Europe, their claims being founded 
upon the authority of two letters written from Venice, one letter 
mentioning that as early as 1470 porcelain had been made by a 
potter named Maestro Antonio, the writer sending with the letter, 
a bowl said to be a specimen of the new achievement. The 
second letter is of a later date, 17th May 15 19, and the writer, 
an ambassador, in sending to his master, Alfonso d'Este 1., a 
present of an ecuelle, attributes the invention to a potter named 
Leonardo Peringer. 

No specimens of fhis alleged early Venetian porcelain are 
known to any collector, and therefore we have no trustworthy 
evidence as to the manufacture of real porcelain, before the date of 
1574. Dr. Foresi of Florence in 1857 accidentally found a speci- 
men of Florentine soft-paste porcelain, and after considerable 
research discovered documents which enabled him to associate 
the porcelain bottle of his " find " with the records of \he fabriqiie 
which produced it. Mr. C. H. Wylde, in his Continental China, 
has given us a translation from one of these olhcial documents 
which is of great interest. " Towards the end of the sixteenth 
century the princes of the House of Medici made experiments in 
P'lorence in porcelain, in imitation of that of China. There are 
still some persons who possess examples ; they bear on the 
reverse the mark of the dome of the Cathedral, with the letter F. 
to designate the Grand Duke Francis I. as the author of the enter- 
prise. It is also believed that it was continued under Cosimo 11., 
nephew of Francis 1., a theory based on a diary of the Court 


[Diario di cortc), in which one reads the record of a solemn fete 
given at the Pitti Pahice in 161 3. It is stated in this record that 
tickets were made of square form of a material called royal porce- 
lain {porcelana regia), on which were delineated the arms with 
the pellets, and a scimitar on the reverse ; these tickets were 
intended to be given to foreign nobles and other gentlemen." 

Dr. Foresi was fortun.ite enough to secure ten specimens, three 
of which he sold to the South Kensington Museum, where they are 
still to be seen. The famous bottle which was the learned doctor's 
first trouvaille is now in the Louvre. 

In 1896, a charming little ewer, only six inches high, of this 
very rare fabriqiic, and with the most simple decoration in blue 
on a white ground, realised the very high price of ;^304, los. 
This is now in the collection of Mr. George Salting, bequeathed to 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

The paste or body of this rare and delicate porcelain is soft 
and creamy, and the decoration, which is generally in shaded blues, 
is particularly appropriate, the designs being Italian renderings of 
Eastern motifs. Specimens are exceedingly rare, according to 
Drury Fortnum, only forty being known to exist. 

The mark of a dome, representing the Cathedral of Florence, 
has sometimes the letter F beneath it : this may stand for Florence, 
or, as suggested in the translation given above, for the name of 
the Grand Duke Francis. A very interesting specimen bowl, now 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum, which was purchased at the 
sale of the Willett collection a few years ago for sixty-eight guineas, 
is marked with a date 1638 and the letters G.G.P.F., but whether 
this is actually from the Florence soft-paste china factory is not 
certain, since it has been generally considered that the enterprise 
ended after the death of Francisco I. in 1587. 

The other marks given are on the authority of Dr. Foresi. 
The Victoria and Albert Museum has recently been enriched by 
the addition of seven specimens from this fabrique included in 
Mr. Fitzhenry's collection of soft-paste china. 



fMI (Ml 

WI. Cenlvuy. Arms of Ihc Medici. 

XVI. Century. A lion's paw holding a tablet. 



A modern factory of fdience, of a piuL-ly 
decorative character, known as CANTA GALLI, 
has been carried on for some twenty or thirty 
years at Florence, and has for its mark a 
crowing cock very sketchily drawn. 

This factory is of considerable importance, 
and produces excellent reproductions of old 
Urbino majolica, lustred Gubbio ware, and Delia Rolibia. In the 
Pitti Palace, Florence, there are some good medallions of this 
latter description over the doorways on the staircase. A great 
part of the ware made is purely of a decorative character, but the 
more ambitious specimens have great merit. 


(^ At FLORSHEIM, on the Main. 

■• The mark in the margin is attributed to Christoph 

1^ Mackenhauer, a maker of faience at Florsheim at 

the latter part of the eighteenth and the beginning 
T* y A JH '>i the nineteenth century. 


A manufactory was established at Belleville in 1790 by Jacob 
Petit, and the earlier pieces were carefully painted ; 
but as of late the proprietor has copied the Dresden 
models and style of decoration, and in order to com- 
pete in price has considerably lowered his standard 



of excellence, the productions of this manufactory are not much 
sought after, save by dealers who may buy them to sell as 
Dresden ; some of the white figures are, however, very graceful. 
The mark is in blue, and, until a recent registration of trade 
marks hindered it, the cross swords of Saxony were also added. 
The present manufactory is in the Rue Paradis Poissonniere, Paris. 

At Avon, near Fontainebleau, there was a considerable manu- 
facture of faience as early as 1608. The productions seem to 
have been mostly small figures, and other pieces in imitation of 
Palissy ware. A great deal of the commoner imitations of Dresden 
china have been made at several factories near Fontainebleau ; 
and until the recent stringent prosecutions under the Trades 
Marks Acts proved that the offering for sale of pieces of china 
bearing forged marks, was a criminal offence, this kind of china, 
bearing a colourable imitation of the Dresden mark, was largely 
imported into England. 

M. Jacquemart gives these marks : — 

^<^ m.c 

XVII. Century. 

This is a modern mark of MM. Godebski & Cie : 


Avon les I'"ontaineliIeau. 

FoRLi (see Majolica). 

FRANKENTHAL (Palatinate, now Bavaria). 
Carl Theodore. 

A manufactory of hard-paste porcelain was established at 
Frankenthal in 1754 by Paul Hannong, formerly a potter of Stras- 
bourg. The invention of porcelain-making appears to have been 
his own, and he tried to sell it to the factory at Sevres. The 
negotiations came to nothing, and the decree forbidding the manu- 
facture of porcelain in France, except at Sevres, compelled Hannong 
to carry his invention elsewhere. Ringler, who had left Hochst 
(q-v.) in disgust at the discovery of his papers and piracy of 
his secret, appears to have become director of the new works, and 


good porcelain was made until his death in 1761, when the Elector- 
Palatine, Carl Theodore, rescued the factory from collapse and 
purchased the plant, and his Christian names became the title of 
the factory. He was a zealous patron of the fine arts, and raised 
the tone of Frankenthal ceramics, until the decline of the factory 
was brought about owing to his becoming Elector of Bavaria 
(1798) and withdrawing his personal interest. 

Paul Hannong died soon after the factory was started, and 
was succeeded by his son, Joseph Adam Hannong, whose mono- 
gram will be found below, as one of the marks on the best period 
of Frankenthal porcelain. A potter named Feylner became 
director in 1775, and is credited with improvements in the paste 
or body, and also with the production of a beautiful underglaze 
blue ground-colour. 

During the best period, 1765-1778, when first-class artists 
were employed, some very fine specimens were produced ; these 
are rare, and are now eagerly sought after by collectors. 

The productions of the Frankenthal factory certainly rank 
among the best examples of German porcelain. The charming 
lightness and elegance of their figure work is much appreciated, 
and during the last few years the price realised by auction for 
them has increased fourfold. The paste is not nearly so white 
or hard looking as the Meissen, and the colouring is simpler, 
but they excel in the " spirit " and character of the figures. 

The tea and coffee services and vases are as a rule finely 
painted in flowers, landscapes, and subjects on white ground, but 
in a few instances coloured grounds have been employed with great 
success. The author once possessed a pair of ice-pails or 
sceaux, with Cupids, and the crimson-lake ground-colour which 
we find on the best Chelsea. Rich dark blue as a ground-colour 
was used, and sometimes the gilding of special specimens was in 
two shades of gold. 

A characteristic of this factory is the painting en grisaille, also 
in a reddish-brown, of the subjects, and of these the drawing 
and shading are excellent. In the loan collection at the Victoria 
and Albert Museiun are some very characteristic specimens of 
the different styles of decoration executed at this factory. 
Frankenthal and Ludwigsburg are often confounded, being very 
similar in every respect. Frankenthal and Carl Theodore are 
synonymous terms. 

The earlier mark was a lion rampant, the crest of the Palati- 
nate. The monograms of Paul Hannong, and afterwards that of 





his son, Joseph Adam, are often found accompanying tiiis mark. 
When it became a Gcjvernment establishment, the mark used was 
the Elector's monogram surmounted by his ciown. 

The factory was never a commercial success, and during the 
war with France, when Frankenthal was besieged in 1795, tlie 
climax of misfortunes arrived, and the concern was sold by 
auction, but was not finally closed until 1800. 

In Chapter VI. the reader will find some useful information 
respecting the imitations of old Frankenthal which are now 
being made at Nymphenburg. 

Crest used from 1755 to 1761. 


J. A. Haiinung. 

Mark of Carl Theodore, 1761. 

A ma 
a specimen 

rk v"^ lias been attributed to Ringler, and occurs on 

Fin the Franks collection. 

This impressed mark, the monogram of Paul ,». . —, 
Hannong, is next the rampant lion on a figure in the \W O 
collection of Mrs. A. R. Macdonald. It is doubtful 
whether it is Strasbourg or Frankenthal. 


A frog mug is a drinking mug, with a small model of a 
frog fixed to the bottom inside. They were made at Leeds, 
Sunderland, Nottingham, and other English potteries. 


FULDA, Hesse. 

A porcelain manufactory was established in the city of Fulda 
by Rin«ler's workmen in 1763, under the immediate protec- 
tion of Arnandus, Prince-Bishop of Fulda, and carried on in a 
building adjoining the episcopal palace, the clay being found 
in the district of Hohe Khin, and the fuel supplied from the 
beechwood forests in the vicinity. The expenses, which were 
very heavy, were borne by the Bishop, and some excellent 
specimens in vases, figures, groups, and services were pro- 
duced. The factory was discontinued in 1780 on account of 
its great expense, and the mod-els, &c., sold by public auction. 
Hard paste. Mark, two F's interlaced under a crown, signifying 
Fiirstlich Fuldaisch (belonging to the Prince of Fulda), also a cross 
(the arms of Fulda). Both marks are in blue under the glaze. 

In paste and decoration the porcelain of Fulda resembles that 
of Hochst in many respects. Landscape, bird, and figure sub- 
jects are carefully painted. 



The honour of the first discovery of porcelain-making in 
England is claimed for Fulham. John Dwight, a man of con- 
siderable learning, obtained a patent in 1671 from Charles II. 
for the manufacture of "transparent porcellane." His ware, 
however, was not a true porcelain, but only a semi-trunslucent 
earthenware. He also made some excellent imitations of the 
German grey stoneware which, up to his time, had been largely 
imported from Cologne. Fulham stoneware was not confined to 
articles of domestic use, but statuettes, busts, and fancy figures 
were also produced. In the \'ictoria and Albert Museum is a 
beautiful half-length figure of a dead child, inscribed, ^' Lydia 
Diviglit, dyd March 3, 1673," which was purchased at the sale of a 
collection of Dwight's stoneware in 1873 for the sum of ;^I30. 

The bust of Prince Rupert, of which an illustration is given, 
that of Mrs. Pepys, wife of the great diarist, and tiie statuette of 
Meleager in the British Museum, are also excellent specimens of 
Dwight's Fulham stoneware, and there are several other examples 
in the same Museum. As regards the stoneware jugs and pots, it 


Pair of figures of peasants. 

Fuimeily in ilie collection of Mr. Charles Dickins. 

Ftom Chaffers' " Keramic Gallery." 



is in some cases difficult to decide between tlie claims of Fiilliain 
and some of the German factories. One has to be guided by the 
character of the decoration, the nationality of the coat of arms 
or device, and the language of the motto or legend, if there be 

liusl of I'rince Kujiert in Fulham stoneware (Biiusli Museum). 

one, since the composition and appearance are so similar. The 
actual body of the ware is not unlike that of the modern ginger- 
beer stone bottle. Some of this old Fulham ware was a rich 
brown colour with salt glaze, and the decorations of tankards 
and jugs, often in relief, represented hunting scenes, busts of 



celebrities and many humorous incidents. Hogarth's " Midnight 
Conversation " was a popular subject, and one has seen figures 
of beefeaters and queer-looking hounds, together with a bust 
of Queen Anne, the latter being, however, on jugs or tankards 
of much later date than the time of that monarch. Mr. Robert 
Drane has two of these tankards with the lower part discoloured 
from being placed on the fire to heat the " spiced ale "which was 

a favourite beverage, 
and he has also the 
original wooden stand 
which was used to pre- 
vent injury to the table. 
Some of the early Fulham 
ware was mottled, and the 
mottlings of this now 
much sought after variety 
are varied, one particular 
kind being described as 
" tiger's skin." When 
these are mounted in 
silver of the period they 
are very valuable. 

The most sensational 
price ever paid for a 
specimen of Fulhamware 
was realised when the 
famous West Mailing Jug 
was sold at Christie's in 
1903 for the enormous 
sum of 1450 guineas. 
The body of this jug 
was mottled in shades of 
purple, orange, and green, and tlie silver-gilt mount bore the 
London hall-mark of 1581. 

From the illustration it will be seen that the mount was a 
fine piece of old work, and, of course, the greater part of the 
sale price must be credited to this, but it gives us the approxi- 
mate date of the jug, which was for more than two hundred 
years the property of the parish of West Mailing, and was sold 
by order of the cluirchwardens to provide funds for church 

Another illustration of one of these Fulham ware jugs with a 

The West Elizabethan Juc, J581. 
From a photograph ; by permission of Messrs. 
Crichton Brothers. 



silver mount is given, on account of an incident which connects 

it with this book and its author. A reader of Pottery and 

Porcelain wiio had but Httle previous icnowledge of the subject 

saw in a village shop the jug which is here illustrated, and 

tliinidng from its appearance that it resembled one whicli she had 

read about and seen illustrated on page 

23, she purchased it for 4s. 6d. and 

then brought it to the author for his 

opinion and valuation. The specimen 

was a fine piece of the old Fulham 

mottled ware, and the silver mounts 

bore on the foot, the rim, and also the 

hinged cover the hall-mark of 1560. 

As a result of the interview the jug 

was sent to Christie's, and in May 1910 

realised £2^,0. 

After D wight's death the pottery 
was carried on by his daughter-in-law 
in partnership with a man named 
VVarland ; they were, however, unsuc- 
cessful, and became bankrupt in 1746. 
Margaret's daughter Lydia married first 
Thomas Warland, afterwards William 
White, and he and his descendants 
carried on the works until 1862, when 
Messrs. Macintosh & Clements became 

the proprietors. In 1864 this firm was succeeded by Mr. C. T. C. 
Bailey, who greatly improved and enlarged the manufactory. 
It is now carried on by a limited company. 

There are several excellent specimens of old Fulham ware in 
the British Museum, and Mr. L. Solon has a famous private 

In 1888 Mr. William de Morgan opened a factory here (see 
De Morgan). 


A modern factory of faience has been es- 
tablished here by W, Zsolnay ; the ware is well 
decorated with floral scrolls. Mark as in the 
margin. The exhibit of this pottery at the last 
International Exhibition in Turin (191 1) showed 
some improvement on previous work. 

Fulham W.iru Mouleii Jug, pur- 
chased for 45. 6ci., sold for ^250. 



FURSTENBURG, Brunswick. 

The establishment of a porcelain manufactory at Fi'irstenburg 
■was due to Charles William Ferdinand, Duke of Brunswick, 
who in 1737 married Augusta, daughter of Frederick, Prince 
of Wales, and granddaughter of George II. Being desirous of 
becoming the proprietor of some ceramic works, he induced a 
Hochst workman, one Bengraf, to leave his employment and take 
the superintendence of a furnace. His master Gelz, however, 
learning his intention, obtained an electoral commission to force 
Bengraf to impart his secret knowledge of the various processes 
to him before leaving, and on Bengraf's refusal to do this he was 
placed under arrest and kept without food until the terms were 
complied with, when he was released, and went to Fiirstenburg 
in 1750 to found a manufactory. He died very shortly after 
its commencement, and the enterprise was taken up with 
much skill and spirit by Baron Von Lang, whose knowledge 
of chemistry enabled him to carry on the works with success. 
The paste is hard, and the character of the ware is somewhat like 
that of Meissen, but coarser. 

A great many table services were produced, and about 1770 
considerable improvements were effected, and some good artists 
employed. A specialite of the factory was the production in 
excellent biscuit, of busts, and cameo portrait medallions, and also 
of pictures with frames of rococo design, all in porcelain. The 
biscuit portraits are by Rombrich, Schubert, Lutlau, and 
Desoches. The death of the Duke of Brunswick in 1780 caused 
a reduction in the establishment, but the works were continued 
under his successors, and a Frenchman named Gersverot was 
manager. In 1807, when the duchy of Brunswick was amalga- 
mated with the new kingdom of Westphalia, under Jerome 
Bonaparte, the fortunes of the Fiirstenburg factory were revived 
for a time. After Jerome's departure in 18 13 the factory passed 
through various vicissitudes, and eventually in 1888 was formed 
into a limited company. Some of the old models are still 
used, and are palmed off sometimes on the unwary collector 
as old Fiirstenburg, but they are badly fuiished and indif- 
ferently painted. The mark is the cypher F, in blue under the 





Several repre- 

The first of these marks is somewhat uncertain, thont^li 
usually attributed to this factory. The mark in 
the margin has been attributed to Hesse-Cassel, 
but as it has been found on pieces marked with 
the letter F, as above, it is now considered 
probable that it really belongs to Fiirstenburg. 
sentative examples of tliis factory are in the Franks collection. 
They illustrate the whiteness of the paste and some peculiarities 
of decoration. 

Geneva (see Nyon). 


Majolica was made here as early as 154S ; it was not un- 
like that made at Savona. All the following marks are attributed 
to Genoa, but most of them are somewhat uncertain. 

XVIII. Century. 

XVII. Century. 

XVIII. Century. 

A 6 



XVIII. Century. 

XVIII. Century. 




This is one of the group of some twelve porcelain factories 
in the forest district of Thuringia, about which we had little 
reliable information until the publication recently of a work, 
Altthitringer Porzcllan, issued under the authority of the 
Leipzig Museum. It is there stated that the factory at Gera was 
started in 1780 by a faience maker named Johann Gottlob 
Ehwaldt, together with a collaborator named Gottbrecht. 

For a short time the factory was amalgamated with that of 
Volkstedt, but later the Gera concern appears to have been 
owned by two members of the Greiner family. The factory 
is still a going concern. A characteristic of Gera porcelain 
is the imitation of grained woods, and as a relief, a landscape 
painted in an oblong panel, like a little picture, appears to have 
been thrown on the surface. The paste is hard, and very similar 
to those of the kindred factories, Volkstedt, Kloster Veilsdorf, 
Gotha and others. (See Thuringia.) 

The productions were chiefly table services. 

Mark: an upright script G, in blue under the glaze, 
^^ which it will be observed has a peculiar hook in the 
Kl upper part distinguishing it from the G of Gotha. 
^f Sometimes the name Gera is used in full. Speci- 

C/ mens are in the Franks collection (Bethnal Green 


GIEN, France. 

A factory of majolica was started here about 1864. Some 
of the imitations of early pieces of Raffaelesque ware are worth 

The following marks are stencilled in colour on the ware : — 

C! e o f f 1 o i 

GiNORi (see Capo di Monte). 



GOGGINGEN, Bavaria. 

A factory of faience was established here Qo^C/tfi^erv 
about 1750. Chaffers mentions a specimen, HS" 

painted with arabesques in blue, having this mark, xviii. Century. 
and he also states that its general characteristics are those of 
Moustiers faience. 

Gombroon Ware (see Persia). 

GOTHA, Saxe-Coburg. 

This is the oldest of the Thuringian group, having been started 
some years before either of the others, by a court official named 
Rotberg ; one of the marks used by the factory was R-g, the 
first and last letters of his name. There is an interesting cor- 
respondence, published in a German monograph on the Thuringian 
factories already referred to, in which Rotberg endeavoured to 
induce a potter named Paul to break his engagement at Fiirsten- 
burg and join him. This was in 1758. 

In 1 81 3 a man named Henneberg, formerly valet to Prince 
August of Gotha, became the proprietor of the factory, and was 
followed by his sons and grandsons, until 1881, when a firm 
named Simson Brothers became the owners. 

The paste is hard, and similar in many respects to that of other 
German factories, but whiter and somewhat better than other Thu- 
ringian pastes. Table services were largely made, and the favourite 
forms of jugs and coffee-pots were classic in type, and decorated 
with portrait medallions ornamented with festoons of drapery and 
flowers — the portraits being sometimes modelled in relief. 

Besides the R-g referred to above, and the marks given below, 
which are generally in blue but occasionally in red, some speci- 
mens have the R impressed. The garter with a cock and word 
Gotha is the mark of the modern productions. 

There are specimens in the Franks collection. 






GOULT, Fkaxce. 
Herr Jannike gives these marks for faience 
made here. The works existed from 1740 to 
about 1805. 

Herr Jiiiinike gives this mark as that of a 
modern factory of faience estalilished here by A. 

Grafenthal (see Thuringia). 


The stock and utensils of the Frankenthal factory (q.v.) were 
purchased in 1850 by M. Von Recum, and transferred to his 
Thuringian estabhshment. The works were recently carried 
on by Franz Bartolo, whose mark is his two initials. 


Gkes de Flandres (see Cologne). 


A small porcelain manufactory was established about 1705 at 
Gresley Hall, formerly the seat of Sir Nigel Gresley. Chaffers 
quotes a letter from a Mr. W. Brown, whose grandfather purchased 
Gresley Hall from the Gresleys, and says that there were found 
" many dozens of Wastrels, plates of fine transparent china, white, 
with a deep blue tree with birds ; they were all said to be im- 
perfect or they would have received a second colour in gold." 

From some specimens formerly in the Jerrayn Street Museum, 
which are said to be of Church Gresley manufacture, the author 
thinks that some of the rather doubtful pieces of china having 
the appearance of Crown Derby, but unmarked, may be attributed 
to this factory. Specimens are generally immarked, but the 
exceptions have "%'hurch Presley " scratched in the paste, often so 
indistinctly that it may easily escape notice. 

GROSBREITENBACH (Hesse-Darmstadt). 
An miim]i()rtant factory was established here in 1770 by 
Gotthelf Greiner, who was also the director of other cerannc 
works — namely, Limbach, Kloster Veilsdorf, and Volkstedt, all be- 
longing to the Thuringian group. 


2 11 

The character of all these factories is similar, and the mark 
of three of them the same (a trefoil), hence some confusion. 
Greiner died in 1797, and left his porcelain works to his sons, 
who, however, do not appear to have inherited their father's taste 
or energy. Cups and saucers of ail these factories are found with 
prettily painted landscapes (hard paste). The mark, a trefoil, is 
generally painted somewhat sketchiiy in a brownish colour. 




Gubbio is one of the many places in the Duchy of Urbino 
where majolica was made in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries ; 
but it is pre-eminently important on account of its connection 
with Maestro Giorgio Andreoli, whose name is so well known, and 
whose works are eagerly sought after by collectors. These are 
famous, not only for bold and masterly drawing, but for the peculiar 
lustrous pigments that he used. The many marks form a study in 
themselves. A few examples of his eccentric signatures, whicli 
occur upon specimens in public and private collections, are given. 
His first signed work was dated 1519, and his last 1541. He 
appears to have worked at Castel Durante and other factories 
besides Gubbio ; but as he was established here, it is with this 
factory that his name has been identified. An interesting col- 
lection of his marks will be found in Chaffers' later editions 
of Marks and Monograms, edited by the author since 1897. 
They occupy nearly eleven pages, and the collector who is 
ambitious enough to wish to possess genuine specimens of Gubbio 
would do well to consult this work, and also Dr. Drury Fortnum's 
Majolica, where particulars of the best known collections are 
given. He should also study carefully the specimens in the Victoria 
and Albert and British Museums, and in making purchases should 
select a dealer of first-class reputation. Imitations are very clever, 
and the genuine article is very difficult to meet with. 

Giorgio's most famous plate is the one painted with the 
Three Graces, signed and dated 1525. Mr. Fountaine, of Narford 
Hall, gave 400 guineas for this specimen, and at the sale of his 
collection in 1884, Mr. Beckett Denison bought it for £^66, 10s., 
and again at his death it was sold in 1885, when the Victoria and 



Albert Museum purchased it for £^^0, 19s. 6d. It would have 
realised a still higher price only Mr. George Salting, who was 
competing, left oft' bidding in favour of the Museum agent. There 
are some really wonderful plates of this majolica in the Salting 
bequest, and two of the best are those with subjects, " The 
Allegory of Envy " and " Lovers in a Landscape." 

A revival of the old majolica manufacture has recently taken 
place at Gubbio, and several specimens are in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum Pottery Gallery. (See also notice on Majolica.) 



(For other signatures of M. Giorgio, see notice on Majolica.) 

GirsmrsBER^ gustafsberg. 

Decorated earthenware was made here 
from about 1820 to i860. 


A factory of both hard and soft- 
paste porcelain was established here 
about 1775 by Lynker, sometimes 
spelt Leichner, a German potter, and 
during its short existence some care- 
fully decorated specimens, chiefly tea 
services, were produced. The general 
characteristics are similar to those 
of Amstel, but the painting is in 
some cases much finer, and the glaze 
is so full that at a first glance it 
gives one the impression of soft 
paste. It is said that white soft- 
paste china was purchased from 
Tournay, decorated by the Hague 
painters, and marked with the stork, 
and some specimens examined by 
the author tend to confirm this 

\ asc of 'Ihe lla"uc cliina. 



opinion. Specimens are rare because so few pieces were produced, 
as owing to political events and its inability to compete with 
rival establishments, the factory was closed about 171^5. The 
mark is a stork, generally standing on one leg, with a lish in its 
mouth, in blue, grey, or gold. 

Part of a fine service, painted in birds and having a beautiful 
rich bleu dc roi decoration, is on loan to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum from Mr. J. G. Joicey. 

Haldensleben (see Alt Haldensleben). 

HANAU, Holland. 

Faience was made here in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, but very little is known about it. Marks; the name 
" Hanau," the initial " H," and the initials " V.A.," of Von 
Alphen, the proprietor at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

HANLEY, Staffordshire. 

The district around Hanley, in Staffordshire, appears to have 
been noted for pottery as early as the seventeenth century. 
Chaffers mentions the factory of Joseph Glass, who produced a 
kind of slip-decorated ware in 17 10, and he quotes a four-handled 
tyg of this ware formerly in the Staniforth collection, which has 
the name in full, 3|O0ep|) (01908, ^.F.}^.(0.^., painted round 
its body. 

It was at Hanley that the well-known " Voyez " jugs and 
vases were produced. These are in earthenware, with foliage 
and subjects in rather high relief, and signed J. Voyez. Chaffers 
describes a high vase of black basalees, with a sculptured medal- 
lion representing Prometheus attacked by a vulture ; this has the 
signature "J. Voyez, sculpebat, 1769," while its square plinth is 
signed " H. Palmer, Hanley, Staffordshire." 

For some further information about Voyez, the notice on 
Staffordshire should be referred to, also separate notice of Voyez. 



Elijah Mayer began business in Hanley in 1770, and made 
good ware in imitation of Wedgwood. Some of his productions 
are marked "Joseph Mayer & Co., Hanky." 

In a notice of JNIeigh there will be found a further reference 
to this district, where the Old Hall works, which at one time 
belonged to a man named Whitehead, were taken over about 
1780 by Job Meigh. 

Some good printed ware was also made by Johnson, and 
Major-General Astley Terry has a mug marked Johnson, 
Hanley, Stone china. 

A great many other potters had works near Hanley, and it is 
still a busy centre for the manufacture of modern earthenware. 
Chaffers' Marks and Monograms, 13th edition, should be 
referred to for particulars of many of these old Staffordshire 

Ilarburt; Jug, painted inllandscape by 

Johan Schaper. 

(Victoria and Albert .Museum.) 

HARBURG, Hanover. 

It was forinerly believed that a 
factory of faience existed here in the 
seventeenth century, of which Johan 
Schaper was the proprietor. His 
paintings are characterised by their 
excellent finish. The specimen 
illustrated is in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, 
name or initials. 

In reference 
the author has a note during the 
revision of this book from Dr. Jus- 
tus Brinckmann of the Hamburg 
Museum, to the effect that there 
never was a fadoiy at Harburg, but 
that Schaper was born there and that 
he painted on faience, but not at 
Harburg. It is, of course, possible 
that the jug illustrated was made 
elsewhere and only painted and 
signed by Schaper. 

Marks : Schaper's 
to this specimen 

Haviland & Co. (see Limoges). 

Heath Pottery (see Fenton, also Lane Delph). 



No notice whatever has been taken of this ware in any of the 
books on EngHsh pottery. The author's notice was directed to 
it by Mr. Edward Sheldon of Manchester, who wrote to him 
about a specimen bearing tlie mark of a castle gate, which he was 
unable to identify. The famous Essex Jug, of which an illustra- 
tion is given by consent of Mr. Arthur Wright the curator, is in 
the Corporation Museum of Colchester, and by Mr. Wright the 
author was put into communication with Mr. Miller Christy, who 
edited the industrial section of the Victoria County History of 
Essex. It is from this source that the following particulars are 
taken. Edward Bingham, born in 1829, was the son of a 
Lambeth potter who had settled at Gestingthorpe, and while 
chiefly employed in making plain pottery, also modelled puzzle 
jugs and toy cuckoos, which cried " Cuckoo ! " when blown into ; 
he also made garden vases. In 1837 the family migrated to 
Hedingham in Essex, and there the son Edward assisted his father, 
and at the age of ten years showed his innate love of design by 
modelling flowers, leaves, snakes, and other natural history subjects. 
After spending some time away from home assisting an uncle 
who was teacher to the deaf and dumb, at a Rugby college, young 
Bingham returned to Castle Hedingham and assisted his father in 
his business of plain potting. He seems, however, to have been 
ambitious of producing artistic work, and after many experiments 
and failures he obtained commissions from some influential 
persons. Sir A. W. Franks and others interested themselves in 
his wares. Commercial success, however, did not come quickly, 
and we hear of him setting up a school in 1859 and obtaining 
twenty-nine pupils. All his spare time was occupied in modelling, 
and after some six or seven years he gave up school-keeping to 
return to his beloved potting. In 1864 he was employing five or 
six lads as assistants, and with models and books lent to him by 
friends and neighbours he produced many quaint jugs, vases, and 
drinking cups. The peculiar greys, blues, greens, and warm 
browns, that distinguished his Hedingham ware became known, 
and in 1885, his most productive year, he had no less than 
thirteen kilns burning. An exhibition of his ware at the Home 
Art and Industries Exhibition, Albert Hall, in 1894, attracted con- 
siderable attention. 

With the exhaustion of the native clay, he had to bring the 



material from Devonshire, and the character of his ware altered. 
He made over the business to his son in 1899, and it was sold 
two years later to Hexter, Humpherson & Co., of Newton Abbot, 
Devonshire. It was called the " Essex Art Pottery," and Bingham 
was its manager. The new venture was unsuccessful, and the 
works were closed in 1905. 

The old pottery made at Castle Hedingham by Edward 

The Essux Jui;, by E. liliii^haiii, Castle Iledin^ham, Essex, 

9I in. high, in the Colchester Museum. 

Ffom a Photo. l>y ^iK. Arthur Wright, Curator. 

Bingham is now rare, and may become valuable. The " Essex 
Jug" in the Colchester Museum is ornamented with various 
medalHons illustrating the history of the county (the revolt of 
Boadicea, the Dunmoor Flitch ceremony, and the arms of Essex 
county families). This design was repeated, and there are 
probably specimens extant which their owners have been unable 
to identify correctly. The jug has incised underneath " E. Bing- 
ham Castle, Hedingham, No. 3 ; Trial piece for the Essex Jug." 




Stoneware of good quality was made here towards the end 
of the eighteentli century. Mark, impressed : Helsinberg. 

Henri H. Ware (see Saint Porchaire). 

Herculaneum (see Liverpool). 

HEREND, Hungary. 

Porcelain was made here towards the end of the eighteenth 
century, but little is known either of the factory or its produc- 
tions. The marks used were the name " Herend," either im- 
pressed or incised, and the arms of Hungary, as below. 

A china manufactory was established here by Moritz Fischer 
in 1839, and was lately carried on by his son Samuel. The 
speciality of the productions is the imitation of old Sevres 
and Oriental porcelains, and the finest specimens are so closely 
copied as to deceive any but the most experienced collector. 
The execution, both in gilding and painting, is very good, and 
it seems a great pity that so much talent has been applied to 
furnish specimens, which, in the hands of unscrupulous dealers, 
are the means of deception and fraud. 

The earlier marks of the Herend /rt^r/^/wc were the arms of 
Hungary, but on the counterfeit pieces the marks of various 
factories were forged. M. F. of course stands for Moritz Fischer. 




A factory of the usual kind of German hard-paste porcelain 
was established here about 1766 as a development of a faience 
manufactory which had been in existence for nearly a century 
and had carried on an extensive business. A potter named Paul, 
who had previously been manager at the Fulda factory, was 


engaged, and in 1769 the Cassel pottery under his direction was 
producing tea, coffee, and other table services at moderate prices. 

A characteristic of this china is a ribbing, by way of ornamen- 
tation, and the decoration is generally slight, sometimes painted 
in blue with detached sprigs of flowers. 

The factory never achieved great success, and owing to the 
competition with local earthenware, was closed in 1788. A 
running horse impressed, which was formerly attributed by 
Chaffers to this factory, is now considered to be one of the older 
Fiirstenburg marks. 

Herr Jiinnike gives the letters H. C. with a lion rampant as 
a mark used on porcelain made here in the eighteenth century. 


"^^ M. Jacquemart attributes this mark to porcelain 

I \_J made at a place called Kelsterbach. 

Eslab. 1756. 

_ _ HILDESHEIM, Hanover. 

■■■ \\ A small factory of hard-paste porcelain, of which 

Q_^qJ little is known ; established about 1760. 


Comparatively little was known of Hispano-Moresco pottery 
as a separate class, until Baron Davillier wrote a pamphlet entitled 
Histoire des Faiences Hispano-Morcsques a Reflets Meialliqties, Paris, 
1 861, and such specimens as were in our museums and private 
collections were mixed with those of Italian majolica. 

As the title Hispano-Moresco suggests, the decoration is the 
result of Moorish influence on the ceramic art of Spain, and is the 
successor of the much earlier Arabic pottery which dates from about 
the eighth century, whereas the earliest known specimen of the class 
of decorative pottery wliich we call Hispano-Moresco dates from 
the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century. 

Tlic ground-colour is a pale buff, and the particular feature 
of the decoration, is the ornament in lustred pigment, of a rich 
iridescent brown colour, sometimes relieved witli blue, which is 
highly effective. One of the finest specimens is a large two- 
handled vase, of which an illustration has been given in Chapter II. ; 



it is said to have been made at Malaga, and was formerly in 
the Soulages collection, but is now in the Victoria and Albert 

The art of decorating pottery in metallic lustre colours was 
probably derived from Persia, and may have been introduced into 
Spain by her Saracen invaders. The process is similar to that 
which has already been described in the notice of Italian lustred 
majolica. A considerable quantity of this ware was made in the 
south of Spain, notably at Malaga, for Italian patrons, and dishes 
dating from the latter part of the fifteenth century are found 
decorated with the arms of some of the old Florentine families. 

Those which one generally sees date from the sixteenth century ; 
many have portions of Arabic texts incorporated into their decora- 
tion. They are generally unmarked, but the marks given below 
occur on some specimens. 

Those dishes, which have patches of blue colour introduced 
into the decoration, are generally ascribed to the sixteenth 
century, and at the end of this century the art seems to have 
declined and disappeared for a time. 

Many fine specimens, generally in the form of deep round 
dishes, are in the famous collection of Mr. Du Cane Godman, 
and there are several in the collection bequeathed by Mr. George 
Salting to the Victoria and Albert Museum. There are also some 
fine examples in the British Museum (Henderson collection). 

Within the last few years, owing to the high prices which 
have been given for good specimens of this ware, there has been 
a revival of its manufacture in different parts of Spain, but the 
modern productions are very inferior, and are lacking in the vigour 
and brilliancy of the old fifteenth and sixteenth century pieces. 

Some further notes on this class of pottery will be found in 
Chapter II. 

XVI. Century. 
(111° Sigf. Cardinal D'Este In Roma/ 

XVI. Century. 



Marks on Fifteenth and Sixteenth Century Hispano-Moresco dishes. 

HiZEN Ware (see Japan). 
HocHST ( see Mayence). 


Herr Jiinnike gives this mark for the modern 
faience made by Horn Freres. 

HOXTER, Old Duchy of Brunswick, Germany. 

A small porcelain factory was started here by a flower painter 
named Zieseler about 1770, but in consequence of an agreement 
with the Duke of Brunswick, who was interested in the Fiir- 
stenburg factory, the works were discontinued. Subsequently 
a potter named Paul Becker established himself here, and 
succeeded in producing some finely painted services. Chaffers 
states that Becker was one of those who obtained the secret 
of porcelain-making from Ringler. The mark is the name 


Salt-glaze earthenware was made 
here in the eighteenth century. Chaffers 
gives these marks. 



HULL, Yorkshire. 

Mr. William Bell established a pottery here about 1820, 
which he called the Belle Vue Pottery. The output was prin- 
cipally cream-coloured, printed, and painted earthenware of the 
cheaper kinds ; marked specimens are rare. 



Marked Tea-pot, transfer decoration, in the 
collection of Mr. Thos. Eoynton, F.S.A. 

HUNSLET, NEAR Leeds, Yorkshire. 

It is doubtful if pottery was made here, though the in- 
scription "Richard Craven, Hunslet, October i8th, 1815. W. 
Houlden," occurs on a piece in the Hon. R. G. Molyneux's 

ILMENAU (Thuringia). 

This was one of the Thuringian group, but quite a minor 
concern, started by a potter named Grabners, who had formerly 
worked at Grosbreitenbach. The Duke of Weimar granted him 
a concession in 1777, but he appears to have been in continual 
difficulties, and in 1786 Gotthelf Greiner became proprietor, 
and was succeeded on his retirement by Christian Nonne, whose 
name has been mentioned in connection with the Volkstedt 

The speciality of the Ilmenau works was the production of 
small plaques in imitation of Wedgwood's jasper ware. 


Specimens are marked 


I d& 

and sometimes with two letters, N and R, being the initials of 
Nonne and his son-in-law, a man named Rosch. 

Herr Jiinnike gives this mark for modern 
pottery made here. 

iMAKi (see Japan). 

I MO LA, Italy. 

M. Jacquemart throws some doubt upon the existence of a 
factory here, but the author is indebted to Mr. Leonida Caldesi, an 
Italian gentleman, for the following particulars. Since the middle 
of the eighteenth century a manufactory of majolica was in exist- 
ence at Imola, but it was not until 1 83 i that it became the property 
of Sante Brucci, under whose direction it progressed in importance, 
and was noted for the elegance of the forms of its productions and 
the beauty of the glaze used. In 1861 the gold medal was awarded 
to it at the Florence Exhibition, and it then assumed the title of 
" Ceramic Co-operative Society," the first of the kind formed in 
Italy. The mark is 

" Sante Brucci." 


A small factory was established in 1760 by Joseph Shore 
from Worcester, and the works were at Railshead Creek close 
to the ferry. There were some fifteen to twenty hand painters 
employed, and the chief of these, Richard Goulding, married his 
employer's daughter, and he and his son William carried on 


the factory after Shore's death. The manufacture of porcelain 
ceased about 1800, but the stock remained until 1830, when it 
was sold by auction. 

" Welsh ware " was made here in 1825. Chaffers mentions a 
specimen of Isleworth pottery marked Wm. Goulding, June 20, 

Mrs. Arthur Macdonald has an octagonal tea-pot of red ware, 
something like Elers ware, of Oriental decoration in relief, which 
is impressed SHORE AND Co. 

JACKFIELD, Shropshire. 

Pottery was made here certainly as early as 1 560, and probably 
much earlier. A considerable number of specimens bearing dates 
from 1634 to 1 78 1 are known. Jackheld pottery has a red body 
with a thick and rather lustrous black glaze, and is generally 
found in portions of tea-services, the tea-pot being of what is 
known as the " goose form," a favourite shape of the period. 
Some of these black pieces are decorated with a pattern in silver. 
About 1780, Mr. John Rose and Mr. Blakeway purchased the 
works, which were closed soon afterwards, and the plant, &c., 
removed to Coalport (q.v.). 


Until Japan was opened up to European civilisation about 
forty years ago, but little was known of the country, its art, or 
its manufactures. The extraordinary exclusiveness which pre- 
vailed after the expulsion of the Spaniards and Portuguese at 
the end of the sixteenth century made it almost impossible to 
carry on any intercourse with the Japanese. About the year 
1637 a decree was made law which imposed the death penalty 
on any Japanese who returned from visiting a foreign country ; 
no native was allowed to leave the country, nor was any one per- 
mitted to purchase goods from a foreigner, and this exclusiveness 
lasted until about 1859, when the famous visit to the country of 
Lord Elgin and Commander Perry resulted in certain ports being 
thrown open to foreign trade. Then followed the revolution in 
Japan in 1868, and since then we have seen a change so marked 
in the enterprise and ambition of this intelligent and industrious 
people, so as to make one astonished that within such a compara- 
tively recent period so little was revealed to the outside world 
of the inner economy of Jajian. 

224 JAPAN 

It is uncertain when pottery was first made in Japan. The 
date given by Dr. Hoffmann of Ltyden, of 27 B.C., when the 
Coreans are said to have founded a colony and started a pottery, 
is probably fabulous, and we know but little of any pottery or 
porcelain previous to that which the Dutch imported somewhere 
about the beginning of the sixteenth century. These enterprising 
pioneers of trade with the East, obtained a footing on an island 
near the port of Nagasaki, and carried on a trade in secret with 
the Japanese, and a great deal of the old pottery and porcelain that 
comes to us was first sent to Holland. This probably accounts 
for the curious fact that the fine old Japanese china, now so much 
valued by collectors, has so little of the character which one 
would expect to find in the products of a country so independent 
of Western civilisation. 

Another singular fact about this old Japanese pottery and 
porcelain, is that there is no place in a Japanese house where such 
vases as were made could be placed ; such articles as the well-known 
sets of Japanese vases and beakers would be quite out of place in a 
native interior. Pairs of vases or of figures would be contrary 
to Japanese taste, which prefers eccentricity to symmetry. 

It is therefore certain that the Japanese potters worked for 
export to China, where pottery and porcelain have always been 
valued, and to Holland, where it had a considerable European 
market. Japanese china was also exported to Portugal, then 
under the influence of the Dutch. 

The collection of Japanese ceramics made with the assistance 
of our Government, and arranged in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum, is very instructive as to the different periods of manu- 
facture ; and in an admirable little brochure upon this collec- 
tion, with descriptions and illustrations of the specimens, the 
late Sir WoUaston Franks has placed information within the 
reach of every one who may wish to consult its pages on this 
subject. The Salting bequest contains some good specimens of 
old Japan porcelain. 

The Corean invasion, whenever it took place, is said to have 
started the industry, but except in some of the forms of vessels 
which we still find in the straw-coloured pottery known as Satsuma, 
the Corean influence does not seem to have been permanent. 

The real influence came from China, and is attributed to one 
Gorodayu Shonsui, of Ise, who returned from a visit to China in 
1513 and settled in the province of Hizen. His first productions 
were made from Chinese models and decorated in blue colour 



only. Gradually factories seem to have increased and multi- 
plied, for in 1799 we hear that there were eighteen in this pro- 
vince in the neighbourhood of Imari, and it is from these factories 
that most of what we now term "old Japan" was produced. 
Besides Imari, some of the principal Japanese porcelain factories 
were at Kioto, Kishiu, Kutana, Kiyomidzu, and Hizen. There are 

Round Dish of old Japan. In the author's possession. 

specimens from all of these factories in the British Museum, 
besides others which were decorated at Tokio although made 

The ancient pottery, which dates from a very early time, is 
similar to other Eastern pottery of the archaic period. 

The china which we collect now as " old Japan " is very hard 
indeed as to paste, the ground has a bluish tint, and the 
decoration is striking and effective. The conventionalised 
chrysanthemum, which is the imperial crest, and other heraldic 


226 JAPAN 

badges of the Mikado's family, are often found, and the scheme 
of decoration generally consisted of a number of panels filled with 
foliage of the peony and chrysanthemum, the prevailing colours 
of which are deep blue, Indian red, and gold. Figure subjects are 
not common on this kind of china, but one finds representations of 
flying cranes (the crane was an emblem of longevity), the phoenix, 
which to some extent occupies the place of the Chinese dragon 
in representing imperial dignity, and the Kirin (not to be con- 
founded with the Chinese Kylin), a monster with the body and 
hoofs of a deer, the tail of a bull, and a horn on his forehead. 
There is also a curious lion, and a sacred tortoise. The fishes 
are drawn with great skill, especially a kind of bream, and a 
carp, which is usually represented as leaping a cascade. One 
also finds quaint representations of horses, buffaloes, dogs, and 
stags, but ordinary landscapes rarely occur. 

The egg-shell china of Japan is of a much later date, and has 
only been produced during the last fifty or sixty years. The 
decoration of this later period of Japanese china is, on some kinds, 
a very impoverished reproduction of that on the older ware, but 
on the egg-shell china it is generally the representation of a 
number of figures in native costumes, and one also finds landscapes 
in which the famous and only mountain of Japan, " Fujiyama," 
is generally to be seen. 

Besides the ware of the Hizen factories, of which there are six 
different varieties, there are some fifty or more different kinds of 
Japanese porcelain which will be found represented in the South 
Kensington collection, and alluded to in the little handbook already 
mentioned. In all of these, however, the collector of old china 
has but a slight interest. The real old Japan, which has been 
here slightly described, is of the chief interest. The marks are 
numerous, but, like those of China, they cannot be relied upon, for 
on the older kinds there is, as a rule, either no mark at all, or a leaf, 
generally painted in blue. On the more recent productions one 
finds characters indicating the places where the specimen was 
made, or the mark of the potter. On much of the Japanese 
porcelain exported to Europe, copies of Chinese date marks 
were placed. The reader is referred to Chaffers' Marks and Mono- 
grams for a list of the numerous marks and symbols used by 
the Japanese potters. 

Satsuma. — The buff-coloured pottery of quaint forms, with 
decorations in gold and colour, which we recognise as Satsuma 
ware is remarkable, because this kind of pottery alone seems to 



have retained some of the more ancient forms introduced by the 
old Corean potters. The curious tripod incense-burner, which one 
sees occasionally, illustrates a type of this Oriental-shaped vessel, 
and it is singular that with the exception of the Satsuma ware, 
the old school of potters founded by the Coreans, does not seem 
to have materially infiuenced Japanese ceramics, which, as we 
have seen, copied either Chinese forms or those in demand by 
the Portuguese and Dutch traders. Since Satsuma ware became 
somewhat fashionable, quantities of rather gaudily decorated pro- 
ductions have been manufactured to supply the demand, but the 
only specimens worth collecting are those made anterior to this 
revival. The decoration of these early pieces is very minute 
and careful ; the faces and details of the costumes of the figures 
will bear close examination under a magnifying glass. 


This place is mentioned by Dr. Justus Brinckmann in a letter 
to the author, as the locality of a faience factory where a potter 
named Kirch worked previous to 1765, when he migrated to 
Kellinghusen. Specimens of several of these rather obscure 
German fabriqiics are to be found in . 

the Hamburg Museum, and information jl U T C ^ 

respecting them is given in the catalogue 
compiled by the learned Curator (Dr. 
Brinckmann), to whom the author is indebted for many valuable 
notes. The mark in the margin is given by Jiinnike, and a modern 
factory is said to be in existence here. 



Another German factory, also of 
faience. Marks as in the margin are 
given by Chaffers, and the latest edition 
of this work contains additional informa- 
tion of the different potters who worked 
here from 1765 to 1840. 




Kelsterbach (see Hesse-Darmstadt). 




Chaffers mentions a factory of faience at Kiel, on the shores 

of the Baltic, under the direction of Jean 

'~\f~^ { Buchwald, who had formerly been a 

dXiel/ master potter at Marieberg, and he de- 

^jic(riiy\"at<i.3)irectn: scrilies certain specimens as signed and 

^, /^w , dated from 1767 to 1770. The mark 

^bv:Jeik(untrf.U. g;^,^,^ j„ t,^g margin is on a punch-bowl 

Kiel. Circa 1770. in the form of a bishop's mitre, decorated 

with a painted subject of ladies and 
gentlemen seated at a table drinking " bishop " out of a bowl of 
similar form. This important specimen, which was formerly in 
the Reynolds collection, is now in the Hamburg Museum, which 
also contains several other examples. The name of this painter, 
Abraham Leihamer, occurs in conjunction with that of Buchwald, 
on some other faience, which was made at Stockelsdorf and 
Eckernforde, but neither of these latter factories ever attained the 
importance of the one at Kiel. In general appearance the ware 
made at Kiel resembles the Marieberg ware, and specimens are 
known which have the word " Kiel " accompanied by other initials 
besides those of Leihamer and Buchwald. Dr. Justus Brinckmann 
mentions that the initial T., which is on one of the Hamburg 
Museum examples, is that of a painter named Johann Samuel 
Friedrich Taenich, who worked here from 1764 to 1768, and 
occasionally signed specimens with his name in full. The latest 
(thirteenth) edition of Chaffers contains several marks of this 
fabriquc, and should be consulted by the collector who is specially 
interested in German faience. 

Klosterle, Bohemi.a (see Bohemia). 


This is one of the Thuringian group of porcelain factories, 
and has hitherto been confounded with that of Volkstedt. Some 
misunderstanding has also arisen from the variation in spelling 
of the first word of the name, the mark C. V. apparently being 
not applicable to Kloster Veilsdorf. The explanation is that the 
older German spelling was Closter. The factory was founded 
in 1765 by Prince Eugen von Hilburghausen, but later two sons 



of Gotthelf Greiner became proprietors, and a member of the 
Greiner family owned it in 1823. - 

Table services, groups, and figures similar to and indeed almost 
identical with those made at Limbach and at Volkstedt were pro- 
duced, and the general characteristics of the paste, glaze, and 
appearance of specimens from the three factories are the same. 
A great many pieces were unmarked. 

In addition to the marks given below, the trefoil in a very 
rough and indistinct form was sometimes used. This trefoil 
in various forms and colours is common to several of the 

Thuringian factories. 

■■■ ^"XV 


Modern German faience, made by J. C. Frede. 


KORZEC, Poland. 
A porcelain factory was established here about the beginning 



EsL^blished 1S03, 
by Merault. 

of the nineteenth century, Merault, from Sevres, being the first 


director. The china (hard paste) is of excellent quality and 
decoration, and many pieces might easily be mistaken for the later 
hard paste Sevres china. 



This mark is attributed to faience made here, on the authority 
of M. Jacquemart. 


Laforcst en laforest, savoy. 

Savoy 6 M. Jacquemart gives this mark, but nothing 


is known of the factory. 

LAKIN & POOLE, Hanley. 

This firm, which was established about 1770, and appears 
to have ceased before 1786, made excellent imitations of Wedg- 
wood's basalt-ware, Queen's ware, &c. The mark used was the 
name of the firm impressed. (See also Hanley.) 


Professor Church has devoted a good deal of research to find- 
ing out when the early faience which we recognise as " Lambeth " 
was first made, and in his hand-book entitled English Earthen- 
ware, he gives us some interesting facts. He quotes from a 
patent which was granted in 1676 to a Dutchman, John Ariens 
Van Hamme, for the "art of makeinge tiles and porcelain 
and other earthenwares, after the way practised in Holland." 
This potter settled in Lambeth. There seems to be no record of 
a pottery at Lambeth previous to this, but we know of several 
specimens of what we believe to be Lambeth faience which bear 
dates anterior to Van Hamme's work. The peculiarities of this 
old Lambeth faience are quaint forms, and a buiJ body or paste 
with a thick opaque white enamel on which is painted in blue the 



decoration. Wine bottles, large dishes, posset pots, puzzle jugs, 
and pill slabs are the specimens, which are best known to us. 
There were formerly two specimens of these pill slabs in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, which bear the arms of the 
Apothecaries' Company. Professor Church gives a list of some 
twenty-three wine vessels that he is acquainted with, the earliest 
date of which is one inscribed " Whit wine 1641," in the Schreiber 
collection, and the latest "Claret 1663." The author purchased 
several many years ago, at the sale of the Edkins collection — 
one of them was inscribed 
" Sack " with a date ; and there 
are others in the collections of 
Mr. tlenry Willett, in that of 
the late Sir A. W. Franks in the 
British Museum, the Norwich 
Museum, the Mechanics' Insti- 
tute, Hanley, and others. On 
many specimens of Lambeth 
faience there are initials as well 
as dates, and sometimes a coat 
of arms. Major-General Astley 
Terry had a complete set of 
plates, all of one date, " 1734," 
and the verse " What is a merrie 
man," &c., and there is a similar 
set in the British Museum. 
While these pages are being pre- 
pared for the press (191 1) a set 
of six of these plates with the 
legends above were sold at 
Christie's for 68 guineas from 
Sir John Evans' collection. Mr. 

Robert Drane of Cardiff has a similar set of plates, but of octagon 
shape instead of round. 

Besides these pieces made for use, there are in existence 
some large dishes with elaborate designs in colours, on a white 
ground of stanniferous enamel, which are ascribed to Lambeth. 
A very fine specimen of this kind is the dish decorated with 
Jacob's Dream, dated 1660, which is in the British Museum, and 
another is the dish which was in the Willett collection, painted 
with the Temptation of Eve. Fine Lambeth faience of this 
quality is very rare, and generally resembles the old "delft" or 

Wine Bcittle of Lambeth Faience (Victoria 
and Albert Museum). 


Dutch faience, from which it can only be distinguished by 
certain details of treatment in its decoration, which may be 
recognised as English rather than foreign. About the middle 
of the eighteenth century, there appears to have been a " delft " 
pottery at Lambeth, established by a Mr. Griffith, but there is 
nothing by which we can identify any of his work. Collectors 
who are especially interested in old Lambeth faience should con- 
sult Mr. John Eliot Hodgkin's valuable work on Early Eng/is/i 
Pottery, Named, Dated, and Described. (See notice on WiNCANTON 


In 1818 Mr. John Doulton established a stoneware manu- 
factory at Vauxhall, and with Mr. Watts as partner, the business 
was afterwards removed to High Street, Lambeth. Since the 
1851 Exhibition, great strides have been made in the develop- 
ment of the artistic branches of their manufactures ; and the 
ornamental buildings on the south side of the Thames Em- 
bankment, just above St. Thomas's Hospital, contain comfort- 
able studios, where a great many lady artists are constantly 
employed painting original designs on the different vases ; for 
their education and reference, there is a library, and also a 
museum attached. 

The artistic pottery may be divided into three classes, each 
bearing a special mark (see marks i, 2, 3), namely, Doulton 
Ware, Lambeth Faience, and Impasto. 

The processes employed to produce the first-named well- 
known stoneware are very simple. The vessel after leaving the 
wheel is handed to the artist, who with a pointed instrument 
scratches in the soft surface of the clay an original design ; 
the " pattern " so delineated is then coloured some neutral 
tint that will harmonise with the ground colour ; any such 
ornament as the often seen "beaded" veins is added, the whole 
being coated with a saline glaze, and stamped with a die, which 
always bears the year of its production, and so hinders the 
possibility of fraud. The piece is then placed in the kiln, and 
so only receives one firing, instead of the three to which porcelain 
is subjected. 

The appearance of Doulton ware is very like the old Gris de 
Flaudres, of which its production is really a revival. 

Tlie title " Lambeth Faience " has lieen given to those pieces 



which are hand-painted, the designs being mostly floral, though 
a few of the lady artists are singularly clever in rendering land- 
scapes (original sketches) on the slabs of white biscuit prepared 
for them ; the faience therefore differs in this respect from the 
Doulton ivarc, from the fact that it requires more than one firing. 
The glaze of this class, too, differs somewhat, giving a duller 
polish to the surface. 

The decoration of the " hnpaslo " consists in a bold application 


An ide.ll head ; specimen of paintiii" 
uver the "laze. 

Doulton Ware Jug, designed and 
executed by Mr. F. Butler, a deaf and 
dumb young man. 

of coloured clays, more or less thickened, to the surface, and this 
leaves the design in slight relief, and is very effective. An in- 
genious manipulation, too, of these argillaceous pigments, varying 
as they do in consistency, heightens the artistic effect by securing 
here and there an opaque or translucent enamel, according to the 
desire of the designer. 

The present firm is styled Henry Doulton «& Co., Limited, 
the business having been in i8q9 turned into a Joint Stock 
Company, owing to the death of Sir Henry Doulton. In 
addition to the artistic portion of their business, they are the 
largest manufacturers of pipes and pottery for all sorts of 



sanitary and domestic purposes. They also manufacture earthen- 
ware in slabs and tiles, which are decorated by hand-painting, 
both under and above the glaze ; one peculiarity of their manu- 
facture is that they do not print their designs, and so, rarely, if 
ever, repeat the pattern of even the most ordinary and inex- 
pensive articles. 

f-H 1875 !^) 

Specimens of Doulton ware, decorated by Mr. F. A. Butler 
and Miss Hannah Barlow, were formerly in the Museum of 
Practical Geology. 

In addition to the marks already given, the following are used 
for different kinds of ware : — 



a slater's 





Many additional artists' marks are given in the more recent 
large edition of Chaffers, and also special marks of some different 
kinds of ware introduced during the last few years. 

Doulton's Lambeth School of Art has the credit of having 
produced one of the most talented plastic artists of modern times. 
George Tinworth is well known for his skilful rendering, in terra- 
cotta higli relief, of Scriptiue subjects. 



Besides the great firm of Doultons there are other firms in Lam- 
beth who have from time to time made more or less ornamental 
stoneware, and now and again one finds quaint bottles or jugs of 
a stoneware, similar to that of which the ordinary ginger-beer 
bottle is made, but in such forms as render them of sufficient 
interest for collectors to add them to their catalogues. Some of 
these are signed J. Thursfield, Fore St., Lambeth, J. Stiff, High St., 
Lambeth ; and precisely similar specimens, varying only in subject, 
are signed Belper & Denby, Bourne Potteries, Derbyshire, and 
J. Oldfield & Co., Chesterfield. These stoneware bottles were 
made for gin or cordials, and are in the form of caricatures of 
William IV., Pitt, Lord Brougham, the Duke of Wellington, 
or other celebrities, and have incised such words as " The Re- 
form Cordial." They were sometimes made specially for some 
well-known public-house of the time, and used probably as ad- 
vertisements to present to customers. They are rudely moulded, 
and have little merit, but collectors are sometimes puzzled when 
they find such pieces without special marks or names. Major- 
General Astley Terry has made quite a collection of such pieces. 

LANE DELPH, Staffordshire. 

This place is not far from Fenton, in the Potteries, and 
here earthenware was made at least 
as early as 17 10, by Thomas Heath. miles 

The names of other manufacturers 
of pottery and porcelain here were 

Edwards, Philips, Matthews, Adams, 

Prince, Samuel Spode, Charles 

Bourne; Elkin, Knight & Co.; M.Mason. 

Myatt, and William Greatbatch. MASONS' 

The Masons are the best-known CAMBRIAN-ARGIL 

firm. Their so-called " Iron Stone 

China " and " Cambrian-Argil " were very successful, being well 

made and decorated. They also made porcelain, mostly decorated 

in imitation of the Chinese. Large vases and other pieces of very 

handsome decorative effect were also occasionally made by 

Mason & Co. (See also Mason & Co.) 



LANE END, Staffordshire. 

At this place, which is now known as Longton, there have 
been many factories, both of pottery and porcelain, some of which 
are still in existence. 

The following are the principal ones : — 

Aynslcy, John. Established to- 
wards the end of the nineteenth 
century, the business is still carried 
on ; plain and painted earthenware 
and lustre ware. 

Bailey & Batkin. Early nine- 
teenth century : patentees of lustre 

Mayor & Newbold, who succeeded 
Thomas & Joseph Johnson, established 
in the nineteenth century ; porcelain 
of good quality. 

Harhy, T. About 1809; earthen- 
ware, both painted and decorated 
with transfer. 

Cyplcs. 1786; imitations of 
Wedgwood ware. 

Lane End. 

Bailey & Batkin. 

May'. & Neivb''. 
JL ^ J^. 


J-€(/ne cm^c/ . 

Hilditch & Son. About 1830 ; 
china manufacturers ; afterwards 
Hilditch & Hopwood. 

Plant, Benjamin. About 1 790 ; 
white glazed earthenware and lustre 

Turner. Originally Bankcs & Turner, established about 1756, 
at Stoke. Turner removed to Lane End in 1762 ; he made various 

kinds of earthenware, and imitated 
TURNER. Wedgwood's productions with very 

great success. Many of his jasper 
and l)asalt pieces, indeed, are considered equal to Wedgwood's. 


The blue ground of his jasper ware was of a different tint 
from that of Wedgwood's, ver^ brilliant, but a greener blue, 
and as a rule the relief cameo-work in his medallions, is not 
so sharp as on those of the best Wedgwood. 

His most successful effort was the celebrated cane-coloured 
stoneware, which is peculiarly light, and charmingly finished with 
classical subjects in relief. He obtained the satisfactory body 
of this ware from a native clay which burned itself into this 
light cane colour, and from it he made bulb pots, wine coolers, 
jugs, services, dishes, and inkstands. There are several excellent 
specimens in the Liverpool Museum (Mayer collection) and also 
at South Kensington. 

The firm was afterwards Turner & Abbo/t : after Turner's 
death in 1786 the works were carried on by his sons, and were 
finally closed in 1803. 

Chchnan & Wooley. About 1795, this firm invented a ware called 
Pearl Ware, a sort of biscuit, of beautiful pp atjt waRF 
quality and great durability. 

A very handsome bust of Admiral Lord Duncan, marked as 
above and dated 1798, is known to the author. 

Note. — A more complete list of these eighteenth-century Staf- 
fordshire potters and notice of their work and marks will be found 
in the latest edition of Chaffers, revised by the author in 191 1. 

Langres (see Aprey). 


This mark is attributed by Herr Jannike to 
J. Briqueville, a potter established here about 1743. 


LA SEINIE, Haute Vienne, France. 


A porcelain factory was established in 1774, in the Chateau 
of La Seinie near St. Yriex-la-Perche, and M. de 
Chavagnac gives us some information as to the 
concessions which were sought by its founders, 
never achieved much success, and it is probable that 
the specimens we see marked as in the margin were 
made at La Seinie but decorated elsewhere. The 
factory changed hands about the time of the First 
Empire, and passed into the ownership of a Paris firm. In the 


Franks collection is a cup, painted with a landscape in the style 
of Hochst (see Mayence). Mr. H. E. B. Harrison also has a 

LA TOUR D'AIGUES, Avignon, France. 

A factory of faience was started here before 1773 ; it ceased 

in 1793. Some of the pieces were 
inscribed " Fait a la Tour dAigues." 
Porcelain was also made here. 

Lauraguais (see Brancas-Lauraguais). 


We have no sufficient evidence to show when pottery was 
first made at Leeds, though it may be affirmed with certainty 
that, at a very early date, the beds of white clay existing in its 
neighbourhood were used for the purposes of the potter's art. 
The year 1760, however, is the first reliable date we have for the 
establishment of a factory which afterwards grew to be a large 
concern. The firm was Humble, Green & Co., with varying 
partnerships, the firm in 1783 being styled Hartley, Greens & Co., 
their speciality being the cream-coloured ware. The business 
is still in existence, doing a large export trade. 

The earlier specimens were of a character similar to Wedg- 
wood's Queen's ware (see WedGWOOD), but of a yellower tint, 
and of the basket pattern ; this pattern was used in thin trays 
and fruit-baskets, and was well suited to this kind of pottery. 
Many of the designs also are very similar to Wedgwood's, and this 
suggests a strong probability that his patterns were laid under 
contribution. Basket-pattern dishes, table centre-pieces, figures, 
candelabra, candlesticks, and shaped fruit-dishes were largely 
produced by Hartley, Greens & Co., the best period of work being 
from about 1780 to 1790. Some of the old candlesticks are 
particularly chaste and pure in design — the rams' heads and 
wreaths of the Adams & Flaxman's time being very prevalent, and 
the reliefs sharp and clear. The business appears to have 
deteriorated about 1820, and after being thrown into the Court of 
Chancery, was taken over by Samuel Wright & Co. and carried on 
by them for a few years. After 1832 we find the concern being 
conducted by the Leeds Pottery Company, and later, in 1850, the 



proprietors were Warburton, Britten & Co., afterwards Richard 
Britton & Sons. Besides the cre'am ware similar to Wedgwood's 
" Queen's ware " already mentioned, we find in Leeds pottery 
made at the end of the eighteenth century, several other descrip- 
tions, some of which it is impossible to be sure of correctly attri- 
buting unless they aie marked. Among these are black basalts, 
like Wedgwood's, willow-pattern printed ware, figures and 

Leeds Ware Dish, cream coloured (formerly in the Jermyn Street Museum) 

occasionally groups closely resembling the Staffordshire produc- 
tions, but nearly always well modelled ; marbled and agate ware 
similar to Whieldon's, and some other varieties. Specimens of old 
Leeds ware are not expensive, and the better ones are desirable 
from an artistic point of view. The glaze of the best period of 
the factory was very fine, but, being produced by a preparation 
containing a large amount of arsenic, was very injurious to the 
workmen. This poisonous method has long been discontinued. 
Printing by transfer was introduced between 1780 and 1790, and 
occasionally some lustrous pigments were used, but these lustre- 



ware specimens are very rare. The following marks are generally 
impressed. The City Art Gallery at Leeds contains a good 
collection of the local pottery, and also a great many of the 
bas-relief moulds formerly in use at the factory. 


Leeds Pottery. 

Hartley, Greens, & Co. 











Mrs. A. R. Macdonald has a small plate of the cream-coloured 
■AW f< ^ Leeds ware, with transfer decoration marked in 
^^^*=^ black. 

Lefebvre, Potter (see Paris). 

LE MONTET, Saone et Loire, France. 

A modern manufactory of white stone- 
ware. Specimens were exhibited at recent 
Paris Exhibitions. 

Le Nove (see Bassano). 

LENZBURG, Switzerland. 

This mark is assigned to the pottery made 

X'"^^ here, on the authority of Sir Henry Angst, 
, J^ Brilisii Consul in Ziirich, and a well-known 
collector of Swiss ceramics. 



LILLE, Dept. du Nord. 

A manufactory is said to liave been established here as 
early as 171 1, by Barthelemy Dorez, and Pierre Pelissier, his 
nephew ; and Mr. Chaffers tells us that a concession was granted 
to them, giving some privileges. The specimens produced appear 
to have been so much like those of the St. Cloud factory, both 
in the soft paste and peculiar decoration, that the identity of 
this factory has been confused. The undertaking ceased about 

The marks given below, generally in blue, are, on the authority 
of Cte. de Chavagnac et Mis de Grollier, the initials being those of 
Lille, Dorez, and the monogram that of the brothers Francois and 
Barth61emy Dorez, or else of Franyois Boussement, who is also 
believed to have made porcelain at Lille. Specimens which can 
be identified as true Lille soft porcelain are extremely rare, and 
generally consist of small toilet pots or little cups. 

Later, however, in 1784—85, a porcelain factory (hard paste) 
was established by Sieur Lepene, in which the Minister, M. de 
Calonne, took an active mterest. Lepene obtained a patent for 
the use of coal in the firing process, and this is said to have been 
the first introduction of coal as fuel into France. The factory, 
however, had a short life, as it changed hands in 1792, and was 
soon afterwards closed. 

The mark, a crowned dolphin, is an especially rare one, on 
account of the few specimens turned out by the factory. It is 
generally either painted or stencilled in red. 

The mark in the margin is used on 

modern porcelain made here. 

Jact pa.r 




Pottery was made at Lille in the seventeenth century by 
Jacques Feburier and Jean Bossu ; and later by Boussemart, 
Dorez, and Pelissier. There were several other factories, but 
those mentioned are the mo?t important. These are all marks 
used by Boussemart — 



LIMBACH, Saxe-Meiningen. 

This factory, the most important of the Thuringian group, was 
one of five which were under the direction of Gotthelf Greiner, 
who enjoyed the patronage and protection of Duke Anthony 
Ulrich. The works at Limbach were established in 176 1, and 
became so prosperous that Greiner purchased the manufactories 
of Grosbreitenbach and subsequently of Volkstedt and Kloster 
Veilsdorf. Excellent figure work was turned out at this factory ; 
the modelling is rather stiff, but the decoration is carefully 
executed, and figures and groups of soldiers, peasants, musicians, 
and others, are very correctly costumed and finished. In the 
Weimar Museum are two figures made at Limbach measuring 
nearly 3 feet in height, which was a very unusual production 
for a china factory in the eighteenth century. A painter named 
Heinrich Elias Dressel worked at Limbach, and specimens are 
known which bear H. D. and D., his initials. The earlier mark 
is the L. B. united in different forms of monogram, and the 
crossed swords were used until a threat of legal proceedings from 
the Saxon Government caused the abandonment of the mark for 

c ^ 



m en g 
o c 



a trefoil, which one finds in several forms and colours. Until 
recently there has been some confusion with this factory and a 
supposed porcelain factory at Luxembourg {(/.v.). 


)k K- 







X ^ 


Mr. H. E. B. Harrison has a pair of costume figures which 
are marked with a different combination of the two letters L. B., 
the B. being low down on the stroke of the L. 

LIMOGES, Haute Vienne, France. 

Porcelain was first made at Limoges in 1773 by the brothers 
Grellet, in conjunction with MM. Massie and Fournenat ; the 
factory was purchased by the Government as a branch of the 
Sevres works in 1784, but was resold four years afterwards. 

The mark C. D. was used in accordance with an Order of 
Council in 1773 ; the mark G. R. et C'" is earlier. 

M. de Chavagnac mentions specimens marked S£imcge,Sj '■Jlanu- 



facture roi/allo de S£imoges/' and " iPorcelaine, de Limoges/' also 
the fleur-de-lys. 

G R et C 

Established 1773. Grellet. 




Other marks of early date. Circa 1773, 
ceased 178S. 

These works were discontinued in 1788. Other factories 
were started (for a Hst of which see Chaffers), but Httle is known 
of them or their marks. An exception, however, must be made in 
favour of ihe fabriqiie of Haviland & Co. 

In 1840, David Haviland, of New York, purchased a small 
atelier at Limoges, and since then a considerable trade has been 
gradually built up by him, especially for export to America. The 
speciality of the firm, however, is the manufacture of a coarse but 
artistic pottery, decorated in a quaint and original manner, 
sometimes with figures in Spanish costumes, or slightly draped, and 
sometimes with a vigorous and bold application of argillaceous 
pigments to the surface, that bears a slight relief. It is worthy of 
remark, too, that some of the pieces when decorated are signed 
and numbered by the artist, who undertakes to make no dupli- 
cates, so that the number will serve to show the approximate 
date of the specimen, and is also a kind of guarantee of its being 
unique in its way. The mark of the manufacture is Haviland 
& Co., impressed in the soft clay, in addition to the painter's sign. 

At the present time excellent porcelain is made at Limoges, 
chiefly table-ware, large quantities of which are sold in this country. 
It is one of the most important of modern F"rench factories. 

tmOQfe^ <f 




Pottery was made by M. Massif 
and his partners in the eighteenth 
century, prior to the connnencement 
of porcelain manufacture. 



A pottery was carried on here 'from 1839 to 1840 by William 
Chambers for about fourteen years, more as a hobby than for 
profit. The ware is not unlike the Staffordshire potters' work, 
some being blue and white, and some having colouring more in 
the style of Mason's ironstone. After Chambers the works were 
carried on by Coombs and Holland from 1853 to 1856, and later 
by W. T. Holland to 1868, and since then by Holland and Guest. 

The marks are sometimes impressed South Wales Pottery, 
in a circle, or the initial letters S. W. P. ; also ware is marked 
with the name W. Chambers, which occurs in a circle inside 
that with " South Wales Pottery." The modern work is of a 
cheap and decorative character. 

Previous to Mr. Chambers' time, about 1838, a Mr. Bryant, 
who had formerly worked at the Glamorgan Potteries, became 
manager of the Llanelly works, and Mr. Eccles of Neath, to 
whom the author is indebted for these particulars of a hitherto 
unnoticed pottery, had a book which contained the old contracts 
with the Llanelly workmen. The book has since been presented 
to the Swansea Museum liy Mr. Eccles. 


The mark of J. Pougat, a modern 
maker of earthenware. - 

LISBON -'—^ 

The royal factory here makes a great variety of earthenware. 
The marks in the margin are given by Chaffers as those on speci- 
mens presented to the Sevres Museum in 

different colours, green, brown, and black. 

1833. The same authority mentions a fac- IT A f^ I ^ *• 
tory at Cintra of statuettes with a glaze of I -^ -^^ >J i ^^^ 

, , . XLK. Century. 

but he gives no mark. There is also a 

maker of modern Palissy ware at a place called Caldas in Portugal. 
Porcelain was also made here in the last century, and oval 
medallion portraits in imitation of Wedgwood's blue and white 
jasper ware. Specimens are in the Schreiber and Franks 


Pottery was made here in the sixteenth century, and 
also at Manerbe, a place in the vicinity. Herr Jiinnike 
and Dr. Graesse give this mark. 





There was a group of potteries at Liverpool early in the 
eighteenth century, some more successful than others, but pro- 
ducing a similar kind of white or cream-coloured ware, much 
akin to Leeds ware or the kind of pottery made by Wedgwood 
and known as Queen's ware (see Wedgwood). Alderman Shaw 
and Seth Pennington were two of the best-known makers of 

Bowl of Liverpool Dellt (British Museum). 

punch-bowls, and as it was the fashion in those days to drink 
success to a voyage in that convivial concoction, we frequently 
find Liverpool ware bowls decorated in the inside with a portrait 
of the ship and sometimes a date and inscription. The earliest 
dated specimen ascribed to Liverpool is the oblong slab in the 
Liverpool Museum, with a view of the village of Great Crosby, 
bearing date 1716. 

In the Hanley Museum is preserved an important bowl, 
inscribed " Success to the Africa Trade," of which we give an 



illustration. It measures 20-| inches diameter and is 9 inches 
high, and was painted by John Robinson, who after he removed 
from Liverpool to Staffordshire, presented it to the Mechanics' 
Institute. It bears a label, with an inscription, which is interesting 
as connected with Seth Pennington. "John Robinson, a pot 
painter, served his time at Pennington's in Shaw's Brow, and 
there painted this Bowl." 

Mr. William Burton, whose work on English Pottery was pub- 

Liverpool Ware Bowl painted by John Robertson (Hanley Museum) 

lished while this book was under revision for the second edition 
(May 1904), gives many illustrations of bowls and tiles of this ware, 
and Mr. Joseph Mayer's History of the Art of Potlciy in Liverpool, 
published in 1855, is a useful work of reference. The work of 
Richard Chaffers, which has already been mentioned in Chapter III., 
commenced in 1752 and continued until his death in 1765, and 
he appears to have made in Liverpool different kinds of porce- 
lain (as distinct from pottery) of an experimental character. 

The next potter of note was John Sadler, an engraver, who 



invented the process of transfer-printing on pottery and porce- 
lain in 17=52. He is said to have discovered tiie art accidentally 
by noticing that some children, to whom he had given several 
spoiled impressions of his engraved plates, applied them to 
broken pieces of pottery and secured a transfer. Sadler com- 
municated the idea to Guy Green, and the two entered into 
partnership, and applied for a patent to protect the invention ; 
the intention of patenting was, however, never carried out. The 
process soon became common to other factories, although in many 
cases, notably in that of Wedgwood, the undecorated ware was 
sent to Sadler & Green to print. Pieces are very rarely marked, 
but some of the tiles, i which are frequently decorated with copies 
of engravings from Bc/i's Bri/ish Theatre (1776), portrait figures 
of actors and actresses, scenes from ^sop's Fables and from plays, 
bear the signature " J. Sadler, Liverpool," and in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum is a tea-pot with a portrait of Wesley, signed 
"Green, Liverpool." The best collection of Liverpool ware was 
in the Liverpool Museum, and good specimens may be seen in 
the Schreiber collection. 


The Herculaneum Pottery was established by Richard 
Abbey about 1790. The works, after passing through various 
hands, were closed in 1841. Several other kinds of pottery were 
made here. There are some specimens in the British Museum. 


Kstublislied 1760. 






V — = — ^^ 

^ ' — - 







' Mr. llobson's Calalogue of English I'oUery in the British Museum, recently published, 
contains a long list of the subjects of these Liverpool tiles. 



Ceased 1S36. 


Established about 17 10. 




The name :in(l initials of Pennini,'t(in 
sometimes are found on Imwls decorated by 
him. Mis favourite subjeels were ships, and 
sucli mottoes as ".Success to the Moiinioulh, 
1750," remind us of an old custom ol a punch- 
bowl in lionour of the occasion of a new 

P *• 

Established 1760. 

17 6g. 

Established 1752. 

In 1756 he obtained .Soap Rock from 

Cornwall; died 1765. 


Faience was made here in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. Unless marked it has nothing to distinguish it from 
other Italian faiences. 


Loffi lY^^ 



LONGPORT, Staffordshire. 

Like most of the towns in the Potteries, Longport had, and 
has, many factories, both of earthenware and porcelain. 

One of the earliest known was that of Mr. Phillips, which 

was started about 1760. He made stoneware, plttt t jpc 

salt glaze, and cream ware. The firm con- , r^^rr-r.i^n^- 
J -1 Q A lilt LONGPORT. 

tmued until 1829, and possibly later. 

Another eighteenth-century firm was that of 

Messrs. John & George Rogers. They made D 

various glazed and cream-coloured wares, and l^ 

also imitated several of Wedgwood's specialities, 

but not very successfully. Their mark was the ROGERS 



name Rogers, stamped in the clay. On their ironstone china 
they added the chemical symbol for iron, as shown above. 

The best-known firm in this district has been treated separately 
(see Davenport). 

LONGTON HALL, Staffordshire. 

One of the earliest successful experimenters in the manufacture 
of porcelain was William Littler. He and Aaron Wedgwood, 
, y- Y/" his brother-in-law, started business about 

S^y '^W ^.-/\/ 1752; their output consisted principally of 
table services, punch-bowls, leaf-shaped des- 
sert dishes and plates, &c. The mark, which 
[has been identified by Mr. Nightingale, is 
probably intended for two L's crossed, one 
reversed, standing for Littler, Longton Hall. 
The first three shown in the margin are from specimens in the 
Franks collection ; the fourth is from the Countess of Hopetoun's, 
and the fifth from the Schreiber collection in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. In the British Museum there is a cup and 
saucer, with a bird on a sprig in a white-shaped panel, which has 
for mark a " J " in blue. 

As a rule the decoration of Longton Hall china resembles 
that of the earlier Bow and Chelsea productions, but a peculiarity 
is the singular blue colour which we find as a ground-colour in 
the vases, and in the figures the peculiar scroll ornament on the 
bases, while encrusted flowers are of a larger size than one finds 
in either Chelsea or Bow. From the scarcity of Longton Hall 
compared with Chelsea, Bow, and Derby porcelain, the prices are 
higher than its artistic merit would sometimes seem to warrant, 
but occasionally we find exceptional specimens that are equal in 
qualify to the best Worcester, while possessing peculiar character- 
istics that enable us at once to identify them with the Longton 
Hall factory, although, as is frequently the case, they bear no mark. 
The illustration in the text is of one of a pair of vases of the 
ordinary quality of Longton Hall, rather coarsely moulded and 
effectively though somewhat carelessly painted. The two full- 
page illustiations are of vases of the finer quality. The pair 
painted in figures on one side, and birds on the other, have 
a rather darker tilue ground colour than is usual with this 
factory. The set of five illustrated are among the finest 
specimens of their kind, and they were amongst the most valu- 


u i; 


V, V 



able and rare vases in Mr. Alfred Trapnell's carefully formed 
collection, which was dispersed under Christie's hammer in 
July 1899. 

The factory is believed to have been carried on in the old- 
fashioned country house where Littler lived (" Longton Hall "), 
and when this undertaking came to an end, Littler became 
manager to Baddeley & Fletcher of Shelton : he lived to an 
old age and died in extreme poverty. Messrs. Rhead, in their 

Longton Hall Vase, scrolls and flowers (Professor Church's collection). 

work on Staffordshire Potters, quote an interesting label attached 
to a tea-pot which is in the Hanley Museum. It was given by 
William Fletcher to Enoch Wood, and the writing is that of the 
latter as follows : " 1807 (date). He informs me, he remembers 
it being made by Mr. William Littler at Longton near Stoke about 
53 years ago, say in the year 1754, and it has never been out of 
his possession during that time and is highly valued." 

A singular mark given in the margin is on the two smaller 
vases, and in default of any other explanation of this initial the 
author is inclined to agree with other experts in thinking that it 


is the initial letter of the artist who painted them. A fine pair of 
large beakers, also from Mr. Trapnell's collection, 

A have a similar mark, but the letter A ditfers slightly 
in form. 
This same letter A is also occasionally seen on 
Bow figures. The author knows of one with this 
mark in Lady Hughes' collection, and another in that of Mr. H. 
Manfield, from which it would appear that this artist, who worked 
at Longton Hall, was also for some time employed at Bow. 

In this connection, too, one may record the existence of four 

plates painted by the same hand with the peculiar e.xotic birds 

of paradise made at four different factories, Longton Hall, Bow, 

Bristol, and Worcester. The Bristol plate is in Mr. Trapnell's 

collection, and the other three in that of Mr. Robert Drane of 

Cardiff. These specimens are evidence of the migratory habits of 

the craftsmen who worked at some of the old English factories. 

A mug with blue decoration in the collection of Mr. Thomas 

Boynton, F.S.A., has a curious mark like the one in 

1 1 \ f the margin, which Mr. Boynton reads Littler, Longton 

^T Hall. 

In the same collection there is a shaped dish with 
vine leaves bearing a mark in imitation of Chinese writing similar 
to one we find on old Chinese porcelain. 

Perhaps the largest pair of Longton Hall vases are those at 

Burghley House, which measure nearly i foot 8 inches 

C in height, and which, until the author's visit in 1910, 

T" had been catalogued as Chelsea. 

I The very unusual mark of an anchor in brown, is 

^ I P on the figure of an actor in Mr. Harman Young's col- 

^^•'^ lection, and was formerly in Mr. Bemrose's collection. 

LOOSDRECHT (see Amstel). 


A small manufactory was established close to Lowestoft by 
Mr. Hewlin Luson, of Gunton Hall, who, being interested in the 
manufacture of china, and having discovered on his estate a 
quantity of white earth, that appeared likely to repay experiment, 
sent a sample to be analysed, and on receipt of a satisfactory 
report, engaged workmen from London and erected a kiln and 

756. We have Gillingwater's 

- *", 

c^ -S .2 







1— < 






1— < 


p— 1 



















authority for the fact that, owing to the jealousy of the London 
manufacturers, his workmen were bribed to spoil his productions, 
and the first step in ceramic art at Lowestoft was seriously 
jeopardised by this ungenerous trick ; but the attempt was again 
made in the following year, and the new firm of potters. Walker, 
Browne, Aldred, & Richman, succeeded in establishing a fact(jry 
of considerable importance. This fact is testified by Gillingwater, 
who wrote his History of Loivestoft in 1790. 

On account of the considerable trade between the eastern 
coast and Holland, it is more than probable that the first Dutch 
importations, both of the native delft and of the Oriental porcelain, 
gave the impetus to, and furnished the models for, porcelain 
making at Lowestoft ; and there is a certain amount of Oriental 
character about some of the Lowestoft pottery and porcelain 
which confirms this view. 

Porcelain does not appear to have been made at Lowestoft 
previous to 1762, and dated specimens are extant bearing that and 
subsequent dates. 

Mr. Jewitt tells us that Robert Browne, one of the partners 
of the firm that succeeded Mr. Luson, visited the Bow or 
Chelsea factory disguised as a workman, and was engaged. He 
bribed the warehouseman to conceal him in an empty hogshead, 
that he might be present when one of the principals mixed the 
ingredients for the paste, a process which was, of course, a 
much valued secret, and he returned, after a short absence, to 
his Lowestoft factory with much valuable information gained by 
means of this device. 

The Lowestoft works were closed in 1803-1804, owing, 
it is said, partly to the severe competition of the Staffordshire 
potters and partly to trade losses, one of which was due to the 
seizure by Napoleon, in Holland, of several thousand pounds 
worth of their merchandise. The difficulty of transport of coal 
and sand had also caused the company to work at a disadvan- 
tage, compared with other factories. 

The best-known collection of Lowestoft china was that formed 
by Mr. William Rix Seago, a gentleman living in the neighbour- 
hood, who, many years ago, purchased from Robert Browne, the 
great-grandson of one of the original partners of the factory 
already alluded to, a number of specimens which had descended 
to him. A sale of Mr. Seago's collection took place in 1873, but 
some hundred and sixty specimens were reserved and bought 
in, and a few years since these were purchased by Mr. Frederick 



Arthur Crisp, of Denmark Hill, together with an affidavit, duly 
attested by the said Robert Browne, that he had identified these 
specimens as those which were formerly in his father's possession. 
The paste and decoration of many of these pieces were very unlike 
what we had been accustomed to recognise as Lowestoft, and have 
much more the appearance of old Bow or Worcester. The 
initials and dates of the persons for whom the services or pieces 
were made, and such representations of local buildings as that of 
Lowestoft Church, together with the circumstances under which Mr. 
Seago acquired them, lead us to think that about the time 1762— 
1790 the Lowestoft potters must have copied the decoration of 
the earlier Bow and Worcester specimens. The Robert Browne 
Ink-pot, a quaint nine-sided little vessel with blue and white 
decoration, and the initials R. B. and date " 1762," is a peculiar 
instance of this ; and it is a very interesting relic from the fact 
of its always having been known as Robert Browne's ink-pot. 
Of these little Lowestoft ink-pots, of which the reader can form 
an opinion from the illustration which, by Mr. Crisp's courtesy, 
we are able to give, there are some seven or eight known to the 
author. One was in the Jermyn Street Museum, and has upon 
it "A present from Lowestoft" ; six are in Mr. Crisp's collection, 
two of which have a similar inscription, and one has underneath 
the initials S. A. of Samuel Aldred, father of one of the founders, 
Obed Aldred, and the date Sept. 26, 1762, and another is the 
Robert Browne Ink-pot already mentioned, which will be found 
on the right of our full-page illustration. Other specimens 
have the initials and dates of persons known to have lived in 
the neighbourhood of Lowestoft. These dates run from 1762 
to 1799, three or four years before the break-up of the factory. 
Several mugs are known on which is inscribed " A present from 
Lowestoft," and Mr. Louis Huth had a small trinket-stand with 
the arms of Yarmouth, and the inscription " A trifle from Yar- 

A speciality of the Lowestoft factory was the manufacture of 
birthday plates or medallions. These are circular discs of about 
two inches in diameter, the obverse inscribed with the name and 
date of the birth of the person for whom the " plate " was made, 
such as "John Gaul, born April 22, 1793 "; the reverse of the 
disc was decorated with a flower. Three of these interesting 
little ceramic souvenirs are illustrated in colours in Mr. W. W. R. 
Spelman's Loivcsio/t China. 

With regard to Lowestoft china there has always been con- 


siderable difference of opinion. The late Sir Wollaston Franks 
considered that what is termed- " Lowestoft " is really Oriental 
porcelain decorated in England, and Professor Chiuxh, in his 
work on English Ceramics, omits mention of Lowestoft altogether ; 
while Mr. Chaffers has, we think, attributed to it an importance 
which it does not merit. In the later editions of Chaffers, the 
author has given at some length his views upon this difference of 
opinion. It is more than probable that the greater part of what 
we call armorial china — that is, china decorated with crests and 
monograms, and coats of arms of English families — was made to 
order in China, from sketches sent out from this country towards 
the end of the eighteenth century, and many such services were 
ordered by officers of the English East India Company ; this 
view is confirmed by letters and documents which are in existence 
showing that the china was originally brought to this country 
from the East. In other cases Oriental china, undecorated, has 
been painted and refired both in Holland and in England. Mr. 
Chaffers repudiates this idea on behalf of the Lowestoft factory, 
but it was certainly done elsewhere. 

In forming an opinion as to the genuineness of Lowestoft 
china we must be guided by two or three points. The Lowestoft 
paste is soft, and not hard as is the Chinese. The better class of 
work resembles that of Worcester, while the common ware has the 
appearance of inferior Bow of the soft paste description. Some 
pieces are thick and opaque, others are very translucent. The 
glaze has a blue tinge and has run into crevices, and we find as a 
rule that it has run over the bottoms of pieces such as jugs, tea- 
pots and bowls, covering the rims and flanges. These rims on 
the bottoms show crude and unskilful potting, in the majority of 
cases being misshapen. There are, however, some exceptions to 
this in the case of the better finished specimens. The character 
of the decorations, too, will help us to decide as to whether a 
piece be Lowestoft or not. 

Three full-page illustrations are given which should assist the 
reader to form an idea as to the appearance of genuine Lowestoft 
china ; one of these is that of five specimens with names and 
dates, in Mr. Crisp's collection ; the second is that of three tea-pots, 
reproduced in facsiuiik as to colour, from Mr. Spelman's book ; 
while the third is from a group of the kind of Oriental china which 
we have mentioned above as being erroneously described as 
Lowestoft — so much so, that one has frequently heard the expres- 
sion " Lowestoft Oriental " to designate this kind of ware, in which 



the colouring and kind of decoration are more of a European 
than Eastern character. There are, however, some specimens 
which occasionally baffle the most experienced judge. One can 
say " It is certainly not Oriental ; we believe it to be English, and 
it is perhaps Lowestoft." Some of these pieces difficult to 
identify are those of poor quality " blue and white," bad copies 
of the Worcester of similar description, painted with " Worcester " 
blue flowers on white ground, and many of them bearing a crescent 
mark. They are neither Worcester, nor Caughley, nor any other 
English factory which can be identified with certainty, and one is 
inclined to adopt the suggestion which has been made, that these 
were Lowestoft imitations of Worcester made for export to 
Holland. The author well remembers the quantities of this kind 
of china, then considered to be inferior Worcester, which was 
sold at Jones & Benham's auction rooms in the " seventies," 
imported from Holland with Dutch marqueterie furniture, and 
it is quite possible that this may have been part of the " several 
thousand pounds worth of merchandise" which ChafTers mentions 
as being seized by Napoleon in Holland, a disaster which was one 
of the causes of the break-up of the Lowestoft factory. 

Those who have the means of really judging of pastes and 
compositions of porcelain agree in the main with the author's 
views on Lowestoft, and Mr. William Burton, whose valuable 
work on English china was published in 1902, while confirming 
these in all material respects, adds some facts of interest. "The 
firm of Robert Browne & Co. set up in 1770 a warehouse in 
London known as the ' Lowestoft China Warehouse ' at 4 Great 
St. Thomas the Apostle, Queen Street, Cheapside, where they 
seem to have carried on the production of a common artificial 
porcelain, apparently composed of pipeclay and glass, until the 
growing competition of the cheaper bone porcelain made in 
Staffordshire, crippled their trade, and caused the partners, who 
were advanced in years, to abandon the undertaking." Mr. Burton 
goes on to say, " Fortunately, we have quite a number of pieces 
bearing names, dates, and inscriptions which prove the nature 
and style of the real Lowestoft production." 

The Lowestoft factory was comparatively unimportant, as we 
know from the remains of the old buildings, and also from recent 
excavations which have brought to light some moulds of consider- 
able value for identifying some of the specimens which have 
hitherto been ascribed to Worcester. Mr. F. A. Crisp, in whose 
possession some of these relics are, has presented plaster casts of 


them to the British Museum, where they occupy a small table 
case in the English china room. The British Museum collection 
also includes a saucer dish of powder blue with panels of views 
of Lowestoft Church, the Beacon, &c., which is very similar in 
decoration to some early Worcester in the Chinese style, except 
that the local views and some other points of difference from the 
Worcester china, decide the origin of that and some other 
Worcester-like pieces. Some of the mugs in the Museum have 
inscriptions and dates 1780 and 1781, and the tea-pot which 
was formerly in Mr. Merton Thorn's collection has been identi- 
fied by some of the moulds alluded to above ; it is dated 1761 
and inscribed L H. It will be observed that this date is one 
year previous to that generally accepted as the commencement 
of china-making at Lowestoft. 

Since the excavations made in 1902, fresh diggings in the 
neighbourhood during the following year, resulted in the finding 
of more Lowestoft relics, including knife handles, arms of figures, 
birthday tablets, and other pieces, which were purchased by 
Mr. A. Merrington Smith, of Lowestoft. Part of the trouvaille, 
consisting of portions of moulds, fragments of china such as 
handles, covers, chipped and broken saucers, cups, sauceboats, 
milk-pots, tea-pots and other articles, several of them bearing marks 
such as the crescent, crossed swords, and numerals, passed into 
the possession of Mr. W. W. R. Spelman of Norwich, to whom 
we are all much indebted for his research and contribution to 
our knowledge of the factory. He published a book entitled 
Lowestoft China in 1905, and the illustrations of this volume 
include some excellent facsimile coloured plates of authenticated 
specimens and numerous reproductions of photographs taken 
on the site of the excavations. These show the buildings of the 
factory, the moulds, and many portions of decorations such as 
fragments of borders of cups and saucers, a well-painted dragon 
design, and much invaluable evidence of identification. Mr. 
Spelman is firmly convinced that only soft-paste porcelain was 
produced at the Lowestoft factory, and he has produced some 
proof of this by publishing the chemical analysis of a lump of 
china clay mixed ready for use, which was found among the 
debris. He considers that the finding of two " biscuit " arms of 
figures resembling those of the well-known Chelsea " boys " 
establishes the fact of their having made figures, and he includes 
in his illustrations many figures which he attributes to Lowestoft. 
These figures in modelling and colouring resemble Stafford- 




shire pottery, but they are of porcelain, i.e. translucent and not 
opaque, as are the Staffordshire ware figures. To the author the 
evidence of figure-making at Lowestoft is not quite conclusive, 
and the translucent figures referred to may belong to some 
other factories. Mr. Spelman formed a considerable collection 
of Lowestoft which is now in the possession of Mrs. Colman of 
Norwich, and the author has not had an opportunity of inspecting 
the figures in this collection. Mr. Edmund Francis Broderip of 
Weston-super-Mare has collected a great many specimens of 

Lowestoft Ii^rrel-shnped Tea-pot in the collection oi Mr. E. F. Broderip. 

this interesting factory, including several marked with numbers 
from 1 to 60, and some of these marks arc reproduced in fac- 
simile at the end of this notice. Mr. Spelman mentions that 
the highest number he had found on Lowestoft was 52. Mr. 
Broderip's specimens are chiefly portions of table services such 
as tea-pots, milk-pots, tea caddies, jugs, cups and saucers, leaf- 
formed trays, bowls, and mugs. Tiie decoration is very in- 
differently done in blue, on the rather bluish-white ground which 
we find given by the Lowestoft glaze, and which, as before 
mentioned, is similar to (he soft paste Bow or Worcester of the 
same time. That articles of very superior quality and finish were 
also produced at Lowestoft we have ample evidence not only 

O 3 

C — 








in the good specimens illustrated and described in Spelman's 
hook, from which we have borrowed one of the most represen- 
tative, but also from examples in many public and private collec- 


'« ^vx</i Adam 111 J oinU', 
^f^ 10 abide, the ic^obttW 0\^ 

§»A^ ^"'C. JVC lncvc-.i^^"^i' 

map I ■'■"-, '■■ ^ 

H. Jenkins Lowestoft. 

Lowestoft Coffee-pot in the collection of Mr. J. U. Vallop. 

tions. The barrel-shaped tea-pot, with flowers well painted and 
partly modelled in slight relief, which is illustrated from Mr. 
Broderip's collection, is a good example. 

The coffee-pot illustrated is a piece of much interest, and was 
in the collection of Mr. J. U. Yallop, of the Bridge, Lowestoft ; 




and while the second edition of this work was in the press the 
author received from Mr. Yallop some notes on specimens re- 
cently found as the result of excavations on the site of the old 
factory, and on those purchased from families of long residence 
in the neighbourhood. These notes confirm the author's opinion, 
already expressed, with regard to the crude and simple form of 
the decoration and also of the rather rough and unfinished char- 
acter of the porcelain itself. He mentions, that as regards numerals 
found on specimens, they run from i to 31, the latter being the 

highest that he has seen. The 
initials found are the following : 
H. S. R. Z. W. R.P., and are 
supposed to stand for Hughes, 
Stevenson, Redgrave (Z and W 
unknown), and Richard Philips. 
The latter name, Philips, occurs 
in full under the handle of a mug. 
The numbers are generally un- 
derneath, inside the rim of a 
piece. The dates on specimens 
run from 1760 to 1796. A ser- 
vice, bearing a crescent mark, 
and having for decoration blue 
zigzag compartments of roughly 
^^ painted salmon scale, alternated 

Y ^V ^ with white, which, on account of 

''^ Mm-^^i^ ^'^'^ mark, had been attributed to 

Caughley or Worcester, is now 
attributed to Lowestoft, owing to 
portions of cups and saucers 
having been fouiul in the ex- 
cavations already alluded to. 
Mr. Brodcrip has the coffee-pot (illustrated), and Mr. Crisp has a 
great many pieces of this service. 

Other marks, which are probably those of workmen employed 
at the factory, closely resemble those of the workmen's marks 
found on similar blue and white Worcester specimens. Indeed 
the character of the real Lowestoft, and that of the cruder pieces 
of early blue and white Worcester or Caughley, are so alike that 
it must be impossible to avoid confusion among the products of 
these three factories in collections. 

A Oask, which bears the name of John Hutcher with dale 1790, 

Coffee-pot of Lowestoft service, blue spiral 
decoration marked with crescent. Mr. 
K. F. Broderip's collection. 



is illustrated ; the name has been identified in the register of the 
parish church of St. Margaret's, Lowestoft. 

These specimens are, however, entirely different from the two 
kinds of china which have hitherto obtained a general recognition 
as Lowestoft. One of these is the Oriental porcelain with Eng- 
lish and foreign coats of arms, which has already been alluded to, 
and the other is the so-called " Lowes- 
toft " china made in Paris and largely 

The work of Robert Allen in con- workmen's marks on Lowestoft speci- 

nection with Lowestoft china deserves mens in Mr. Vaiiup's collection, 
special mention. Mr. Spelman tells 
us that he joined the factory in 
1757 at twelve years of age and 
subsequently became manager. 
When the business closed he took 
a shop in the High Street, where 
he set up a gloss kiln and painted 
and fired china articles which he 
procured from Rockingham and 
other places. That he also de- 
corated Oriental china we know 
from the tea-pot painted with 
the Crucifi.xion signed " Robert 
Allen," which is in the Schreiber 
collection. He also painted gra- 
tuitously the east window in St. 
Margaret's Church. The Rev. 

,17 ,, ,1 u T i a Lowcslutl Mask in Mr. \allops 

W. W. Hallam, an old Lowestoft collection. 

resident, to whom the author is 

indebted for information about Allen and other Lowestoft painters, 

has a plate of his decoration bearing his initials and date, 1832, 

on the back. Allen died in 1835 at the age of ninety-one. 

Mr. Hallam adds that for some years after the factory had 
closed such articles as ink-pots and mugs bearing the inscription 
" A trifie from Lowestoft" were sold at a shop in Crown Street, 
which was then called Bell Lane ; but whether Allen had any 
pecuniary interest in this shop, he does not know. Spelman says 
that he carried on the business of stationer and china dealer, 
but the address is not the same. 

Marks. — With regard to the marks on Lowestoft china, the 
author agrees with Mr. Spelman and with others who have 



devoted special attention to this factory, that there was no re- 
cognised fabriqiic mark. The crescent, the crossed swords, and 
the numerals from i to 60 appear on many specimens. These 
numerals are as a rule very badly formed, and occur in many 
cases inside the rim at the bottom of the article. During the 
excavations there were found some pieces bearing imitations of 
Oriental marks in Chinese characters, such as one finds occasion- 
ally on Worcester china. The following are taken from speci- 
mens in various private collections, including those of Mr. E. 
Broderip and Mr. E. Sheldon, also from Mr. Spelman's book : — 

This mark is claimed by dif- 
ferent authorities as that of 
Lowestoft and of Bow. 

'^^> V 

% iy 



These numerals are gene- , This crescent is found 
rally inside the rim at i both open and closed, 
bottom of specimen. j 

/ f 







(This mark is also claimed 
for Longton Hall.) 

Said to be the mark 
of Robert Allen. 

1 -^ 



Ringler established a porcelain manufactory at Ludvvigsburg in 
1758, under the patronage of Charles Eugene, the reigning Duke; 
but, owing to the site being unwisely chosen, the clay and fuel 
had to be brought great distances, and the enterprise was carried 
on under difficulties and at pecuniary loss. 

Specimens of this factory are remarkable for beauty of 
modelling in groups and figures, and also for fine paintings on 
services. The paste is, however, of a rather coarse and greyish 



appearance. It is as often called Kronenburg as Ludvvigsburg, 
which fact Marryat explains by -telling us that the town where 
the factory existed was known by either name. 

Some of the best single figures and groups produced at this 
factory were designed by J. C. W. Beyer of Gotha and Franz 
Aston Pustelli, and the several specimens which are in the Franks 
collection should be carefully examined, so that the amateur may 
appreciate the peculiarities of the genuine old Ludwigsburg 
modelling, finish, and colouring, and avoid the imitations which 
have lately been put on the market. Good specimens, especially 
the groups and figures of this factory, have enormously increased 
in value of late years. Pairs of small figures of peasants some 
5 or 6 inches high, which ten years ago brought -^10 or £12, are 
now realising ^^25 or £2,0. 

The earlier mark was the C in reversed cyphers, but later 
surmounted by the ducal crown. 

The letters under the crown were changed to T. R. in 1806 
and to W. R. in 1818. 

Occasionally the arms of Wiirtemberg, three stag horns, 
were used as a mark, with or without the letter L ; and at a later 
period, a single horn. 






^ X. 


LUNEVILLE, Meurthe, France. 

Faience was made here by Jacques Chambrette in 1732. In 
1778, the works were sold to Messrs. Keller & y 9- r 

Gu^rin, and are still carried on by the de- , ttimVvIT T F 
scendants of the former. The earlier ware 
resembled that of Nevers and Strasbourg (tj.v.). Chambrette 
also made porcelain. 

A small porcelain factory was established at Luneville by a 
sculptor, Paul Louis Cyffle, in 1769, when he obtained a royalty 


for fifteen years, and produced some superior vessels of a material 
known as terre de Lorraine. By means of a subsequent improve- 
ment he produced a pate more suitable for statues and groups, 
and some of these have been preserved, such as the statue of 




Stanislas, in the Imperial Library of Nancy. The mark is his 
surname and " a Luneville " stamped underneath, but it is very 
rarely found. Pieces marked " TERRE DE LORRAINE " were also 
made here, the name being a compliment to Cyffle's patron, 
Stanislas, Duke of Lorraine. There appears to be some con- 
fusion between this factory and that of Niderviller, the same 
modellers having signed specimens at both places. After the 
sale of the Luneville factory in 1780 the models and plant 
became the property of Niderviller. 

Lupo, Monte (see Majolica). 


A good deal of attention has been paid during the past few 
years to the lustred pottery of the eighteenth-century English 

In the remarks about Hispano-Moresco lustred ware, and also 
in the notices on some of the early Italian majolica which was 
painted in lustred pigment, it has been shown that this kind of 
decoration has always been in favour ; it may, however, be noted 
that the English potters used lustred colours as a ground, rather 
than to heighten the effect of a decoration as did the makers of 
the older majolica. 

English lustred pottery consists of four or five kinds — silver, 
gold, copper, steel, and resist lustre. The first four are wares 
coloured in such a way as to represent the metals named. The 
last is decorated with a pattern in lustre (generally silver), which 
has tiie appearance of being stencilled on a plain white ground. 
The process in this case was to treat with a chemical wash that 
part of the surface which was to remain white, so that the 
solution into which the article was dipped would only " take " 


upon the portions intended to be decorated. The result is a 
very pleasing decorative eiTect. 

A potter named Richard Erank of Brislington, who was 
connected with the early stages of the manufacture of Bristol 
delft, is said to have been the first to produce copper lustre, and 
Dr. Simeon Shaw in Chcuiistry of Pottery mentions as early 
" lustrers " John Hancock, John Gardner and William Hennys. 
The same authority states that in 1810 Peter Warburton took 
out a patent for his " new invented method of decorating china, 
porcelain, earthenware, and glass, with native pure or adulterated 
gold, silver, platinum or other metals, fluxed or lowered with 
lead or any other substance, which invention leaves the metals 
after being burnt in their metallic state." This patent protected 
his process for fourteen years, and therefore we are probably 
correct in assuming that most of the lustred pottery which was 
produced in Staffordshire, Liverpool, Sunderland, Longton, 
Swansea, and other places, was of a date subsequent to the lapse 
of Warburton's patent. 

The silver lustred tea and coffee sets so closely resemble 
either the silver or the old Sheflield plated services of the period 
that, without handling, they may be readily mistaken for them. 
They were probably made with this intention, since before the 
invention of the cheap process of electro-plating, silver or 
Sheflield plated goods would be too expensive for ordinary use. 
On copper lustre one often finds part of the decoration in 
bright blue flowers and foliage, while the lower part of the jugs 
are ribbed ; sometimes the copper lustre is confined to bands. 

One finds in some of the old Staffordshire pottery groups 
and figures made by the Woods and their contemporaries, a line 
of copper lustre round the base. 

Josiah Wedgwood made gold and silver lustred ware; he was 
one of the first potters to adopt this form of decoration, which 
he also varied by marbling some of his ware with a pale pink or 
purple lustre. 

The specimens of English lustred ware which remain to us 
are jugs, parts of tea services, cups, bowls and plates, and some- 
times dessert services. The recent demand for, and advance in 
price of, genuine old pottery thus decorated, has resulted in the 
manufacture of modern ware in the same style. Collectors will 
find these modern productions rougher to the touch than the old 
pottery, which seems worn and smooth. (See also New Hall 
and Neale & Co.) 



A factory was started by the brothers Boch at this place, 
where it is said that porcelain was made as well as pottery ; but 
this is very doubtful. In Sir A. W. Franks' catalogue of 
Continental porcelain he adds a note of interrogation under 
this entry, and in the best and most recent work on French 
porcelain by MM. de Chavagnac and de Grollier there is no 
mention of a porcelain factory here. The fine set of four figures 
representing "The Seasons," illustrated in Chaffers' Kerainic 
Gallery, and described as " Luxembourg porcelain," are without 
doubt " Limbach," and the mark L. B., which has been attributed 
by Chaffers and other authorities to Luxembourg, 
should be ascribed to Limbach (q.v.). 

The mark given in the margin is that of the 
modern productions of Messrs. Boch, who are pro- 
prietors of the present Luxembourg factory. 

jKHyoAT LYONS, France. 

fJjS Faience was made here from the sixteenth 

century, and probably earlier. Very little is known 
T-YO.^ of it. 

MADELEY, Salop. 

We are indebted to Mr. William Burton for the notice of this 
factory, which had no mark, and the productions of which have 
been generally sold as old Sevres. Mention has already been 
made of an artist named Randall, who decorated some of 
Mintons' earlier work in the manner of Sevres china, and the 
author was unaware that he had established a factory of his own 
until the publication of Mr. Burton's book. Thomas Martin 
Randall was the founder of a small factory at Madeley, near 
Coalport, between 1830 and 1840, and made a glassy porcelain 
with some success. He had been apprenticed at the Caughley 
works, and went to Derby about 1790, where he appears to have 
made the acquaintance of Billingsley, whose adventurous career 
somewhat resembled his own. Subsequently, he worked at Pinxton, 
and then he, with another Pinxton painter, established a small 
business in London for the decoration of porcelain. 

it was to this firm of Robbins & Randall that Mortlock 
sent his white Nantgarw china to be decorated, and when, owing 


to the purchase of the Nantgarw works and removal to Co.ilport 
by Mr. Rose, the supply of white china failed, some of the 
London dealers bought the sparsely decorated Sevres china and 
sent it to Randall for " glorification " and enrichment. This 
profitable but illicit "faking" of Sfevres china was rendered more 
easy by reason of the sale, in 18 13, of the entire stock of un- 
decorated Sevres china, from the factory, and a very considerable 
trade in this redecorated Sevres was carried on. About 1840 
Randall appears to have given up his Madeley venture and 
removed to Staffordshire, where he continued his redecorating 
and firing, though he ceased to manufacture. Randall lived to 
be a centenarian, and his daughter, Mrs. Brightling of Carshalton, 
has some vases painted in bird subjects signed by him and dated 
when he was upwards of seventy years old. 

Madrid (see Buen Retiro). 


In the chapter on " Mediasval and Renaissance " some refer- 
ence has been made to the products of Gubbio, and especially 
to those charming specimens which were decorated by the 
master-hand of Giorgio Andreoli. Some general reference 
has also been made to the group of ateliers or bottcgas in the 
different towns of Italy, where work of this kind was carried on 
by individual artist potters, and their assistants or pupils, under 
the patronage of the petty sovereigns who were its rulers 
when Italy was a collection of small states and dukedoms. The 
ceramic specimens of this time, i.e. dating from the later half of 
the fifteenth century, are now termed in a general way " old 
majolica," but to those amateurs and dealers who have made 
a special study of the different characteristics of each special 
fabriqite, they are known as Gubbio, Faenza, Caffaggiolo, Siena, 
Urbino, Castel-Durante, or Pesaro, according to some peculi- 
arity of colour or design in the decoration. The names here 
given by no means exhaust the list of places where majolica 
was made, but they are the most important. Abruzzio, Castelli, 
Diruta, Fabriano, Forli, Monte Lupo, Naples, Padua, Palermo, 
Pisa, Ravenna, Rimini, San Quirico, Verona, Venice — all had 
their bottegas, and specimens are extant which bear either in 
the decoration or in some such mark as " fatto in Fabriano " 
evidence of the place of production. 

A separate notice of each of these numerous small potteries 



or fabriqiics is not within the compass of the present work, 
and, moreover, the marks which are found on the few 
genuine specimens which from time to time come into the 
market, are rather of the nature of artists' signatures, 
monograms, or place-names generally written roughly with the 
brush, than fabriquc marks such as we find on Dresden or 

Gubbio Plate, liy M. Giorgio, circ. 1520, arms of the Brancaleoni family, border of 
grotesques (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

Sevres china. For full information on this subject, the reader 
is recommended to refer to Chaffers' large edition of Marks and 
Monograms, or to Dr. Drury Fortnum's Majolica, an excellent 
work which deserves careful study by the amateur. In many 
cases, when there is no distinctive mark or special feature in 
the decoration, it becomes exceedingly difficult, nay, almost 
impossible, to assign the specimen with any certainty to its 
particular fabriquc, for not only do the different makes closely 
resemble one another, but from the fact that ware made at one 

One ofa pair of Vases from ibe Zsdiillc colleclion. 



place was sometimes sent to another to receive a particular 
kind of decoration, and also that some of the artists migrated 
from one Italian city to another, the identities of the different 

Caffaggiolo Pitcher, wilh the arms of the Medici family and other decoration. 

wares have become confused. Our best authorities differ, and 
one finds such alternate descriptions as " Caffaggiolo or Faenza," 
" Faenza or Castel-Durante " appended to specimens about which 
experts find it impossible to be quite certain. 

The inexperienced collector should be very cautious in 



purchasing specimens of these highly prized old fabriques without 
ample guarantee that they are genuine. Nearly all the existing 
examples are known and described in various catalogues of our 
museums and famous private collections, and it is only when 
celebrated collections are dispersed, as at the famous Narford 
Hall or Fountaine sale in 1893, or the Spitzer sale in 1895, that 
one gets the opportunity of acquiring really fine pieces of old 

Caffaggiolo Plate, circ. 1515-20, decorated with the interior of a painter's studio 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). 

majolica. Mr. George Salting's collection, in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, abounds in beautiful examples of all the best 
fabriques. Dr. Drury Fortnum's collection, presented to the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, is very rich, and both the 
British and Victoria and Albert Museums contain many famous 
specimens which should be carefully examined if the reader 
would form a judgment on this most interesting class of ceramics. 
Probably the highest price ever realised at auction for a majolica 
specimen was that of ;^2o8o, given by Mr. George Salting at the 
sale of the Spitzer collection in Paris for the Caffaggiolo plate 

Fahriqiie Urbino (Cir. 1550). 



decorated with figures of Judith ;uid an attendant, the latter 
holding the severed head of Holofernes. We give a coloured 
illustration of this remarkable specimen. 

While these pages are under revision for a third edition (191 i ) 
this price has been almost equalled by that given by Mr. 
Durlacher (;£^205o) for a Siena plate of the fifteenth century pur- 
chased at the sale of the Launa collection in Berlin. 

A few notes on some of the special features of the most 
imporiant /abrtqiics may be of interest. Gubbio was noted for its 
famous lustred majolica, the beautiful gold and ruby metallic 
colours being produced by a process which was a highly prized 
secret. Plates and vases made at Pesaro, Urbino, and Castel- 
Durante were sent to Gubbio to receive additional decoration in 
these lustred pigments. This lustred decoration was also in use 
to some extent, but with much less success, at Diruta. 

The majolica of Urbino is considered to have been at its best 
about 1530-40, and to have maintained its excellence for about 
thirty years. It was during this period that Francesco Xanto 
and Orazio Fontana worked here, and there are specimens in 
Mr. George Salting's collection bearing the signatures of these 
artists. We also give a coloured illustration of a fine vase which 
was in the Spitzer collection. 

The style of decoration is that known as " Raffaelesque," 
with scrolls and grotesque ornament forming a kind of ground- 
work, while medallions of Cupids or of mythological or his- 
torical subjects occupy the centres, or prominent positions in the 
scheme of decoration of the vase or plate. The colourings are 
generally a deep orange and blue, and although highly decorative, 
the ware lacks the force and expression of the earlier work pro- 
duced at the Casa Pirota in Faenza, or of Caffaggiolo. Siena, or 

The beautiful majolica of Caffaggiolo is distinguished by one or 
two peculiarities. The words " Semper" and " Glovis" occur some- 
what frequently, and are generally found on a label or tablet 
forming part of the decoration ; also the letters S. P. Q. R., and 
S. P. Q. F., which signified Sriia/ns Populusqne Roinanus, or 
Scnaitis Populusqne Florcutinus. The word "Semper" was the 
adopted motto of Pietro di Medici in 1470, and " G/oots " was 
a device favoured by Guiliano in 15 16. The drawing and 
colouring in Caffaggiolo ware are both spirited and vigorous, and 
in general characteristics it is similar to that of Faenza, Forli, 
and Siena. The glaze is white and even, and a favourite pigment 


was a deep lustrous blue, as dark as lapis-Iazuli, laid on with a 
brush, the marks of which are apparent. 

Specimens are frequently unmarked, but a favourite mono- 
gram S. P., also a trident and the inscription " in Caffagiolo," are 
found. The word is variously spelt as " Caffagiulo," " Chaffag- 
giolo," " Cafagiol," " Caff aggiolo." 

Signature of Nicola da Ui'1)ino. 



\ Pesaro Mark. Mark on a specimen of Baldasara. 


7 6 oCc IS" d, 

Maestro Giorgio (Gubliio). 



GuuiJIO. M" I'rcslino. 

iy\. dix^loy mono 
^ VicSlvo prefttno 



The above are some of the 
various signatures of Maestro 
Giorgio (Gubbio). 







M" Prestino. 


M° Prestino. 













I r 



Fahrique CaFFAGGIOLO, 

In the Salting Com.kci ion, 

Victoria and Amikkt Miisku.m. 



" FraU deli n a 
''fate in Monte.' 

In 1110 nit t j--^/ 

Monte Lupo. 

Malaga (see Hispano-Moresco). 

Manerbe (see Lisieux). 

Makie Antoinette (see Paris Rue, Thirou). 


The factory here, at which both pottery and porcelain were 
made, was commenced in 1758 under the patronage of the King, 
Adolphe Frederick, by the royal dentist, Jean E. L. Ehrenreich. 
The works were closed in 1789. The faience was of good quality, 
with a clear white glaze. The pieces manufactured were mostly 



table ware, but statuettes were also made. The author once had 
a pair of reclining figures forming boxes ; the figures were clad 
in the peasa'nt costumes of the country. 




XVIII. Century. Slen, Director. 




— (I ^ 

1764. Ehrenreich, Director. 
Frantzen, painter. 


The mark is somewhat complicated. There are the arms 
of Sweden, three crowns; MB., generally in a monogram, for 
Marieberg ; the initial of the Director, as E. for Ehrenreich, B. 
for Pierre Berthevin, S. for Henri Sten, &c. ; and the initial 
of the artist, as F. for Frantzen, a decorator of some note ; and 
sometimes a date. 


EslalW- 1770. Frantzen, 



Sten, Director. Chra 17S0. 

sll u/ 


^ ">^ 


The porcelain, as distinguished from the laience, which was 
made here, was French in style, no doubt owing to the employ- 
ment of French artists and workmen. The marks were similar to 



tliose on the pottery, but the date was generally omitted. Tlie 
statuettes, candelabra, and similar pieces are mostly marked 
with the letters MB scratched in the clay. (See specimens in 
the Victoria and Albert Miisenni, and the Franks collection.) 


A hard-paste porcelain factory was established at Marseilles, 
by Joseph Gaspard Robert, about 1776, and Mr. Chaffers quotes 
an order for a service from England, which shows that the fac- 
tory was renowned at this time. The works ceased at the time 
of the French Revolution (1793)- 

The quality of the paste is only moderate, and not highly 
translucent, with a glaze which is somewhat unequal, and slightly 
grey in tint. It has more the appearance of fine pottery than of 
porcelain ; this is probably due to the fact that Robert was 
better known for his faience than for his porcelain. The mark is 
the initial or monogram of the potter. 




XVIII. Century. 

As early as 1607-10, Marseilles was noted for its manufac- 
ture of faience, and it became an important centre for this industry. 
There is little or nothing to distinguish the faience of Marseilles 
from that of Rouen, Strasbourg, or other French factories of the 
same kind of ware. The best-known maker was the Widow 
Perrin, and her mark, V.P., is given below. It is often placed 
on modern French imitations. Antoine Bonnefoy was one of the 
last of the faience makers in Marseilles. The decoration is nearly 
always in flowers ; but in the Sevres Museum are some specimens 



painted in birds, fruit, and fish, in green shaded with black, and 
these are marked " Robert a Marseille." The tlenr-de-lis and 
also the initials C.S. are said to mark the productions of a faiencier 
named Savy. There are still potteries in the neighbourhood. 


The following marks are given by Chaffers as attributed to 
various Marseilles potters : — 


Antoine Bonnefoy. 

Uf/ \P\^ 

Veuve Perrin. 

All marks of Veuve Perrin. 




J. Robert. XVIII. Century. 




The excellent stoneware produced by the firm of Martin 
Brothers deserves to be better known than it appears to be. 
'I'he designs, whether classical or grotesque, are always artistic 


and full of individualily ; while their custom of never repeating 
any piece exactly, makes each specimen unique. Martin stone- 
ware is a glazed ware varied in character, self coloured, with 
incised ornament, black and white, "sgraffiato" decoration, and 
some of it is similar to Doulton's impasto ware. The factory is 
at Southall, and there is a shop for retail purchasers in Brownlow 
Street, Holborn. The mark is the name of the firm, " Martin 
Brothers, London and Southall," scratched in the paste. 

MARZY, NEAR Nevers, France. 

M. Tite Henri Ristori commenced 'TT 

the manufacture of high-class faience here J/ *■ y^ ■ 

in 1850. First-class medal, Paris Exhi- ^Jbdtl^r /(fi^V^J 

bition, 1856. Specimens at South Ken- '/SSS' 

MASON & Co., Lane Delph, Staffordshire. 

This factory was established in the eighteenth century by 
Miles Mason, and afterwards continued by others of the family 
under the style of Mason & Co. 

A shop in Fenchurch Street was opened by Miles Mason 
in 1780 for the sale of East Indian china ware, but the business 
came to an end on account of the heavy duties imposed about 
this time. Further knowledge of his career is given us in a lengthy 
advertisement which appeared in the Mnniing Herald of October i, 
1804, in which he sets forth that he has now established a 
manufactory at Lane Delph near Newcastle-under-Lyme where 
" he can turn out china superior to Indian Nankin, and that 
in order to combat the prejudice against these English copies, 
he is prepared to match any parts of services for the nobility 
and gentry, trusting that if these efforts are successful he may 
be favoured with further patronage and so he hopes to rival the 
productions of foreign nations." He adds that his name will be 
stamped on the bottom of large pieces to prevent deception. 

The ware which he produced, is generally in the character 
of old Oriental porcelain, the colouring being in reds and blues, 
and a great deal of it printed. Some of the more expensive 
services are enriched with gilding, but no one need refer to the 
mark to distinguish his ware from real old Chinese porcelain. 

After the death of Miles, the business was carried on by his 



two sons ; the one named Charles James took the leading part, 
and it was under his management that those large important 
vases some 3 feet in height which are occasionally to be found, 
were produced. He also made some highly decorative chimney- 
pieces in Mason's ironstone ware. In 1857 the business passed 
into other hands, and at the present time Messrs. George Ashworth 
and Brothers of Hanley are the proprietors, and turn out excellent 
ware, chiefly for table use. 

The fine ewer illustrated is a most unusual specimen, and 

Kwer of Mason's Ironstone china, foimcrly in the collection at Pryor's Bank, Fulham. 

shows what e.xcellent work Mason & Co. were capable of produc- 
ing. Their ordinary productions were table services of a very 
hard, durable body, decorated in blue and red, sometimes in the 
character of Oriental china. A service which was once in the 
author's possession was decorated with a rich lustrous blue, with 
gilding, and would have passed for the best Spode. Of all the 
ironstone china ware, Mason's is undoubtedly the best (see 
Lane Delph). 

The marks on Mason's Ware have varied dining the long 
history of the business. 

The earliest pieces were stamped Miles Mason in the clay. 



From 1800 to 1805 a cartouclic was printed on the ware 
with C. J. Mason, Lane Delph, and in 1805 the words Kenton 
Stone Works were also printed as a mark. 

From 18 13 to the present time Mason's Patent Iron- 
stone China surmounted by a crown has been used, and we 
also tind occasionally the name of the particular pattern or 
design printed on the ware, thus Mason's Camhrian Argil. 

MAYENCE, Nassau. 

Geltz of Frankfort commenced to make faience at Hochst, 
near Mayence, under the patronage of the Archbishop, towards 
the beginning of the eighteenth century. The productions 
were of excellent quality. The mark is a wheel of six spokes 
(sometimes five), the arms of the see ; the wheel is occasionally 
surmounted by a crown, and at times has the name or initial of 
the artist. 


j^ ^ 


G the initial of Geltz. 



Possibly the initial of 
Melchior, an artist. 

Geltz was induced by one of his workmen, named Bengraf, 
to turn his attention to the manufacture of porcelain. The 
first experiments failed, but having induced Ringler, a workman 
from the Vienna manufactory, to assist him, in 1740 they suc- 
ceeded in producing good porcelain ; and from this time, under 
Ringler's management, the factory commenced to thrive. The 
secret recipe of porcelain- making was contained in some papers 
that Ringler was known to have always about him ; and one day 
his fellow-workmen, having made him intoxicated, obtained these, 
and it is due to this trick that so many porcelain factories sprang 


up in different parts of Germany, for not only did Ringler leave 
the works in disgust, and take his knowledge elsewhere, but the 
dishonest holders of his papers sold the secret to any one who 
would pay them a handsome douceur. 

Under Emmerick Joseph, Elector of Mayence, the factory 
became a state establishment, and the services of a celebrated 
modellei', J. B. Melchior, were engaged ; and as no expense was 
spared in the management, it is to this period that the finest speci- 
mens of the Hochst or Mayence factory may be attributed. The 
spirited modelling and delicate colouring of the groups are ex- 
cellent ; the peculiar violet-red colour, for which some of the 
pieces are famous, is said to have been lost to ceramic art with 
the death of a painter. 

The clay is said to have been brought from Limoges, and the 
greatest secrecy was observed in the different processes. The 
paste is hard, but fine and white ; and some of the modelling is, 
as Marryat observes, unrivalled. 

After Melchior left the factory the works deteriorated very 
considerably. Under the directorship of Reiss, his successor, 
peculiar large-headed figures were produced. When the French 
invaded the country in 1794 the manufactory was broken up, and 
the stock and plant sold by auction. 

The marks on the porcelain were the same as those 
used for the pottery, and were painted in blue, red, or gold. ' 
Pieces marked with " M," Melchior's cypher, are very rare and 

One finds occasionally figures marked with the initials of 
Joseph Schneider, one of their noted modellers. The groups and 
figures of this factory have appreciated in value enormously 
within the last few years, and in 1909, at the sale of Sir Walter 
Gilbey's collection, two miniature groups less than three inches 
in height realised 350 guineas. 

Biscuit was also made at Hochst, but was unmarked. 

After the factory was closed the models and some of the 
plant were removed to Damm, near Aschaffenburg, and a 



-As '4- !'■ 

^^!^jf jl 

- '^■flHPw '^^^^^^^ 

HJHHHjk ^^^w'^^^^H 

B^ ^^^^aj^^^^^^^l 







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^ .. 


considerable trade was carried on, but the work was 
very inferior — indeed the material is only pottery 
and not porcelain, and the colouring and linish are 
crude. The mark is the letter D beneath the 
wheel as given in the margin. 

Specimens in the Franks collection are worth attention. 



In the potting district of Hanley there were many potters 
who established themselves in the latter part of the eighteenth 
century. Elijah Mayer commenced business in 1770 and died 
in 1 81 3. He made a good cream ware, and also an 
imitation of Wedgwood's black basaltes. His son Joseph 
succeeded him in the business, and the firm was subsequently 
T. J. & J. Mayer. The best of the ware is that which occasionally 
we find stamped E. MAYER. (See also Hanley.) 

Medici Porcelain (see Florence). 

Meigh & Son (see Old Hall). 

Meissen (see Dresden). 

Melun (see Vaux). 

MENE^Y, ViLLEROY (Dept. Seine et Oise). 

This manufactory was founded by F'ranfois Barbin in 1735, 
under the protection, and on the estate, of the Due de Villeroy. 
About 1748 the directorate passed to Messrs. Jacques & Julien, 
who continued the works until 1773, when ___.^- 

they were removed to Bourg la Reine {q.v.). • J-J^ • 

The earlier specimens are remarkable for the beauty of the soft 
paste, and the decoration is generally floral and very simple. 

Mene^y is one of a group of factories, including those of 
Sceau.x Penthievre, St. Cloud, Chantilly (the notices of which may 
be referred to), whose productions, with the exception of those of 
Chantilly, were comparatively few but excellent in quality ; and, 
as the work was done to satisfy the critical fancy of the artistic 
proprietors, there was no inducement to make great quantities of 
inferior articles for sale at remunerative prices. Indeed, from these 
undertakings the commercial principle seems to have been entirely 
absent — they were the hobbies of rich amateurs. Nothing can 
be daintier or more charming than the little flacons and toys of 
Meneyy porcelain, generally consisting of tiny Cupids or shepherds 



Milk-pot of Menefy Porcelain. 

and shepherdesses, with bouquets or baskets of flowers, and having 
not infrequently a scroll bearing a French motto or legend. It 

was no doubt these little gems of the 
potter's craftsmanship which were copied 
at the Chelsea works, and so similar are 
some of the smaller pieces of both 
factories that it is not unusual to see a 
description of a flacon in a catalogue as 
"either Chelsea or M6ne9y." Mr. J. 
H. Fitzhenry has made a valuable col- 
lection of Menegy, and kindred soft- 
paste French porcelain, which he has 
recently presented to the Victoria and 
Albert Museum, and the Franks collec- 
tion contains several excellent pieces. 
Amateurs should carefully study these, 
and, if they collect Continental porcelain, should lose no oppor- 
tunity of acquiring specimens. They are rare and difficult to 
procure at moderate prices. The mark is scratched in the 
paste, but specimens are frequently unmarked. 

In Cte. de Chavagnac's Histoirc des manufactures Fran- 
daises de porcelauic a great many variations of the D. V. are 
given, including one with an imperfect coronet above the letters, 
another with the letters combined in a cursive monogram, and 
also the letters C. P. R. L. X. in addition to the D. V. In one 
case the full name, " de Villeroy," of the patron is scratched in 
the paste. The same authority mentions the manufacture of groups 
and figures in biscuit, and these we have occasionally seen ; they 
are charmingly modelled, but the body of the paste is not so white 
as that of Sevres. Refer also to notice on Crepy-EN-Valois. 

METTLACH, Rhenish Prussia. 

Herr Jiinnike gives the following marks as those of MM. 
Villeroy & Boch, modern manufacturers of gres stoneware : — 




There was a pottery here in 1848, but for how lonf» previ- 
ously is not known. The marked specimens which the author 
has seen are generally printed with an English land- -ir^ 

scape, and the border of the plate or dish is embossed ^^qN^ 
like a picture-frame. Chaffers mentions an earthen- t-^- ' 
ware dish with a Biblical quotation, " Job 14, 10," 
which was purchased at the pottery in 1848, and 
he also gives the mark in the margin. Major-General Astley 
Terry had a tureen with the words " Middlesborough Pottery " 
round an anchor impressed, and a small specimen with a similar 
mark is in the Swansea Art Gallery (Glynn Vivian bequest). 

MILAN, Italy. 

Faience was made here by various potters in the eighteenth 
and nineteenth centuries. The following marks are given by 
Chaffers : — 


Pasquale Rubati 


^r weekly 

XXIII. CeiiUiry. 

XX'III. Century. 

J. Richard. XIX. Century. 


Porcelain is said to have been made here late in the seventeenth 
century, but nothing is known of it. A modern firm, " Manu- 
facture Nationale de J. Richard & Cie.," makes both porcelain 
and faience of high quality ; their headquarters are at Milan, but 
the factory will be found noticed under the heads of Doccia and 
Ginori, q.v. 

MINDEN (Westphalia). 

Faience was made here in the eighteenth century, 

Cand the letter M is sometimes found upon specimens, 
but more frequently the mark is three crescents, which 
C occur in the coat of arms of the Hanstein family to 

g^ whom the factory belonged. There is little to distinguish 
W Alinden faience from other German ware of the same 
^ kind. 


The productions of this eminent firm are so well known, 
and the improvements made in their manufactures have been 
so rapid, so recent, and so prominently before the world, 
that only a few facts and dates are needed to complete the 
information that everybody must possess. The works were 
founded at Stoke-on-Trent in 1793 by Thomas Minton, and 
have been considerably enlarged from time to time as the re- 
putation and business of the firm have increased. Thomas 
Minton was a clever engraver, and was at one time in the 
employ of Josiah Spode. In 1840 he formed one of a small 
commitee of potters who bought a tract of country, in Corn- 
wall, abounding in clay and felspar, and at considerable pains 
succeeded in establishing a scheme for supplying with the requisite 
materials the different manufactories interested. In 1828 the 
manufacture of the now celebrated encaustic tiles was introduced 
by Herbert Minton (their first employment being for the smoking- 
room and lobbies of the House of Commons, the then new Palace 
of Westminster); the manufacture of majolica was added in 1850. 

In 1868 HoUins, hitherto a partner, separated from Campbell, 
Mr. Colin Minton Campbell, the late head of Mintons, and formerly 
M.P. for North Staffordshire, continuing the china and earthen- 
ware works, and taking into partnership Thomas and Herbert 
Minton, great-grandsons of the founder. 

Mr. Campbell devoted himself to raising the prestige of the 
firm, and spared no expense nor effort to secure the most capable 


artists ; and during his directorship, which lasted from 1858 until 
1885, Mintons, in addition to their ordinary productions, made 
some chefs d'auvres which were in many instances signed by the 
painters. When the private collection of Mr. Campbell was 
sold at Christie's in 1902, many of these fine examples of 
English ceramic work, mostly in the character of old Sevres, 
realised good prices. Amongst the names of the different 
decorators which were given in the Sale Catalogue were the 
following : — - 

L. BiRKS, panels of Cupids. 

C. Toft, branches of flowers in the Chinese taste. 

Wyse, decoration in the style of Urbino. 

'A. BiRKS, pupil of L. M. Solon, Cupids in white on a pink field. 
' F. Rhead, pupil of L. M. Solon (he left Mintons in liji)), pd/c sur pate 

A. Green, landscapes and flowers. 

Delpayrat, Cupids in white on dark background. 

HOLLINS, figures and trophies in white on a brown ground. 

R. PiLSBUSY, sprays of roses and camellias in colours on a pink ground. 

BOULLEMIER, panels of Cupids on Rose du Barry ground. 

Mason, figures and flowers in white on olive-green ground. 

Richards, vases bamboo design, Japanese style. 

Leroi, birds en grisaille. 

Cooper, Rafifaelesque ornaments. 

KlRBY, style of majolica. 

Wright, iris and aquatic plants. * 

MOssiLL, lilies on pale green ground. 

FOSKER, figures and chrysanthemuins. 

For modelling, the services of the eminent sculptors Carrier- 
Belleuse, Emile de Jeanest, and Protat were secured. In 
addition to these Mr. Burton, in his History and Description of 
English Porcelain, mentions Thomas Allen as being the most skilful 
of English painters on porcelain, and also an artist named Jahn. 

The fine work of Louis Marc Solon, and \\\s pate sur pate process 
is well known, and some of the best of this was produced during 
Mr. Campbell's management. Among the signed pieces in the 
collection already noticed were some pieces by Solon, and also 
by his son. This charming process of decorating porcelain was 
introduced by M. Solon in 1870, and is more fully described in 
Chapter IV. Mr. Herbert Eccles of Neath has made a collection 
of Solon's works, from the earliest specimens produced in Paris 
and signed with his monogram and also " Miles," to the year of 
his retirement from Mintons in 1904, and has also some few 
plaques produced since that time. 

^ Specimens signed A.B. and f'.R. of Mintons Porcelain are probably by these artists. 

288 ' MINTONS 

M. Leon Arnoux succeeded Mr. Campbell, and under his 
highly capable management the firm of Mintons continued their 
best traditions. 

In 1875 the tile works carried on by Mr. Robert Minton 
Taylor, a former partner in the firm of Minton, Hollins & Co., 
were purchased by Mr. Campbell, who erected a manufactory at 
Stoke, where the encaustic tile business is carried on under the 
title of the Campbell Brick and Tile Co. 

True porcelain was not made here before 1821, though a semi- 
translucent ware had been produced some twenty years earlier, 
but the most marked improvement, dating from our 1851 Exhibi- 
tion, took place under the directorship of Campbell and Arnoux. 
The paste is soft and white like that of all the best English china, 
which has peculiarities of its own that will be easily noticed by 
comparison with others. A new body of special softness and 
whiteness was introduced about thirty-five or forty years ago, and 
on this are paintings of great merit in the style of old Sevres, 
the ground colours being particularly good, and the gilding equal 
to that of Sevres. This description of china is impressed with 
the mark 


the two brackets embracing " Minton " forming the letter C 
reversed, and reading " Colin Minton Campbell." 

In addition to these marks the impressed mark MINTON 
AND BAYLE was in use from 1836 to 1848, and from 1845 to 
1861 earthenware was marked B.B. NEW STONE. There 
was also a special pattern service made by this firm about 
the time of Lord Amherst's appointment as Governor-General 
of India, in 1823, and this had the words S^m/iertif^ Jupan, Stone 
China printed on a scroll. 

The more recent mark is the globe with MiNTONS printed 
across its centre and surmounted by a crown, and another 
mark of the globe and Mintons with the words STOKE 

The firm have also a system of marking their special pieces 
with a symbol indicating the year of production, commencing 
with the year 1842 with an asterisk down to 1900 with a 
duck having the figure 5 on its body. After 1900 the numerals 
I, 2 d scij. are inside a circle. These marks are not pub- 
lished by the firm, but some of their customers have lists for 



reference, and the one given below is due to the courtesy of 
a friend. 


IS 4 J 

1 } 

184 5 

< > 






• • 


















































/a 9 J 

















The majolica is bold in character, and has been used in some 
very striking designs, amongst which the great fountain, which 
was purchased by the Crystal Palace Company at the 1862 
International Exhibition, is not the least notable. A specialite 
of Mintons was the reproduction of the celebrated and highly 
prized Saint Porchaire pottery, and this majolica also reflects 
the influence of Delia Robbia and of Palissy. Further reference 
to Mintons will be found in Chapters III. and IV. 



Earlier Mark. 

Used 1868. 



MoNTAiGNON (see Nevers). 
Monte Lupo (see Majolica). 
Moorish (see Hispaxo-Moresco). 
Morgan (see de Morgan). 


A small pottery was established at Mortlake in the latter part 
of the eighteenth century by a man named Saunders, of whom 
little is known. Another potter, named Joseph Kishere, made here 
some brown salt-glaze pottery which he ornamented with figures 
in low relief, and Major-General Astley Terry had a specimen 


The pottery has little merit, but collectors of marks like to 
identify specimens of some of these m\nor /trbi-iqiics. 

MOSCOW, Russia. 

An Englishman named Gardner started a porcelain factory 
at Twer in 1787. The mark was generally his name in full, in 

Russian characters. This mark is on a 
P/VP/V up p^ milk-pot formerly in Mr. E. W. Craigie's 

collection. The letter G in blue, on 
statuettes and groups, is also attributed 
to him. 

Another factory here was founded in 
1830 by A. Popove, whose monogram 
or name is ihe fabrique mark. The paste 
is hard, and its customers seem to have 
been mostly limited to the Russian Court. A tea service of this 
factory is at Knole, Sevenoaks. 




Cf)!"* Another porcelain factory was that of M. 

Gulena. The letters at the top of the mark 
JXM/IHA "' ^'i'^ margin stand for " Fabrica Gospodina." 



MOUSTIERS, Basses-Alpes. 

The manufacture of artistic pottery or faience here, appears to 
have been carried on at a group of ateliers, and not at one sole 
fabrique, as is mostly the case. M. Jacquemart gives much 
interesting information as to a family of potters named Clerissy, 
who, like the Delia Robbias, worked in succession from 1686 

Barber's dish of Moustiers faience (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

until 1850, one of the sons or nephews of the founder being 
created Baron, or Seigneur de Trevans, in 1743, by Louis XIV. 
Three different manufactories existed in Moustiers in 1745, eight 
in 1756, eleven in 1789, and five only in 1799. The styles of 
decoration vary considerably, and the expert has the greatest 
difficulty in assigning some unmarked specimens. 

efiei Cleriffy 

Established 1698. 








J^ t)c 





XVIII. Century. 
Marks of Olery with painter's initials. 

MCA \yi6l^ 

«5orliua Zcy, 

MiGUe( \liiax 




Various Potters, XVII. ami XVIII. 

^/^o u<t*g^ ^:;>^ 


j-errat Trum^tie/ro 








'J '/lion a Moustiers. 

Antoi>ie GiiicJiani, 
de Moustiers, 1763, 
c=i6-' " Ic \o X'^ 

Guichard, potter. XVIII. Century. Other Moustiers Potters. 

The following potters' signatures are given by Herr Jannike. 


■j^sf J i -BL^/ 



kit F ^ :ri ^* jx, £ i^q- 





Munich (see Nymphenburg). 
Namur (see Ardennes). 
Nankin (see China). 

NANTES, Loire-Inferieure, France. 
A small factory of porcelain was established here in 1780 by 
Jacques Fourmy, Pierre Auguste de Roslaing deNivas, and Nicholas 
Fdurnerat de la Chapelle. The mark, if any, is unknown. 

NANTGARW, Glamorganshire, Wales. 

The histories of the factories of Nantgarw and of Swansea are 
intimately connected on account of Billingsley's work and influence 
at both places, and the porcelain produced during the period of 
that influence is almost identical. There is, therefore, naturally 
some confusion in the minds of collectors, which we will en- 
deavour to remove by a very simple statement of facts. 

When William Billingsley and his son-in-law, Samuel Walker, 
left the Worcester works in 18 11, and by so doing broke their 
agreement with their employers, they settled in the village of 



Nantgarw, and built some small kilns for the manufacture of 
soft-paste porcelain. Want of capital prevented the venture from 
going far beyond the experimental stage, and they applied to 
Government for a grant to aid them. Mr. Dillvvyn was in conse- 
quence instructed by the Board of Trade to investigate and report; 
and he was so favourably impressed with the beautiful paste 
produced by these potters, that he built larger kilns at Swansea, 
where a china factory already existed, and Billingsley (or Beeley, 
as he then called himself) and Walker removed to the new works. 

In the notice on Swansea, we have pointed out that, upon 
being acquainted with the breach of contract of his new employes 
or prot^g^s with the Worcester firm of Flight & Barr, he severed 
the connection, and they then returned to Nantgarw and en- 
deavoured to continue business upon the old lines. This was in 
1817, and after they had struggled on for two years, Mr. Rose of 
the Coalport works made an arrangement to secure their services 
for his factory. 

Previous to this Mr. W. Weston Young, who had been employed 
at the Swansea works, appears to have joined Beeley, or Billings- 
ley, and Walker, in the petition to the Government for pecuniary 
assistance. When they left Nantgarw for Coalport he appears to 
have purchased the plant left behind, and to have continued the 
works with the assistance of Thomas Pardoe, a skilful painter on 
china, formerly of Bristol. 

Beeley is said to have pretended to sell his secret to Young, 
but he did not do so, and the porcelain made by Young and 
Pardoe was harder than that of Beeley's production. The 
renewed attempt was a financial failure, and the factory was 
again closed in 1822, 

The porcelain made at Nantgarw by Beeley is almost identi- 
cal with that made at Swansea from the same recipe ; it has a 
brilliant white body, a tine transparency, and a beautiful clear 
glaze. The paste made afterwards by Young was of a harder 
and more vitreous appearance, and is not so highly valued by 
fastidious collectors. 

The painting of flower subjects is most artistic and skilful, 
pink briar roses being a favourite subject, on both vases and 
services, while a delicate, small green trefoil ornament often 
decorates the border of plates. Birds, and very rarely landscapes, 
were also painted, but nearly all the more ambitious and ornate 
pieces of Nantgarw were sent to London in the "white," and 
there decorated by different painters and gilders. 




■5 w 

.. a- 



The late Duke of Cambridge possessed several table services 
of Nantgarw and Swansea china, which after his deatli were sold 
at Christie's, in May 1904, and realised good prices. 

At recent sales the values of good Nantgarw, particularly 
of such specimens as are believed to have been decorated at 
Nantgarw by Billingsley, have risen enormously, as much as _^20 
and ^25 being given for a plate with flower painting only. 

Mr. Alexander Duncan, Mr. Eccles of Neath, and The 
Macintosh have good representative collections of Nantgarw. 

The mark is NANTGARW impressed, and sometimes the 
letters C.W., for " china works," underneath. Collectors who 
make a speciality of Nantgarw china are recommended to consult 
a recently published work, entitled The Ceramics of Swansea and 
Nantgarw, by W. Turner. The Cardiff Museum should also be 
visited. (See also notice on Swansea.) 

Naples (see Capo di Monte, also Majolica). 

Nast (see Paris). 


A firm of potters of this name was in existence at Hanley 
about 1778-87, and made some very clever imitations of Wedg- 
wood's jasper ware. Neale also made 
ware something like the agate ware of 
Wedgwood, but with a surface more re- 
sembling polished granite, sometimes with 
cameo medallions and charminglymoulded 
wreaths or festoons of husks. There is a 
vase of this kind in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. Many unmarked specimens of 
Neale & Co. are attributed to Wedgwood. 
There are some good specimens in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum and also in 
the British Museum. The mark is im- 
pressed, but many specimens are un- 
marked. The Toby " Fillpot " illustrated 
is a marked specimen of Neale & Co., 
and is in Mr. Frank Falkner's collection 
on loan to the Dublin Museum. 

Palmer, who had commenced business 
in Hanley after quarrelling with Wedg- 
wood, was for a time in partnership with Neale, and a story is 
told that Palmer's wife, who by the way was a daughter of Heath, 

Toliy " Fillpot.' 



the well-known potter, visited Wedgwood's show-rooms in London 
to purchase models for the purpose of copying them, and it is said 
that they forged the mark of their great rival. Besides the mark 
given below, both Palmer and Neale had a circle impressed on some 
of their ware with their name and that of the town " Hanley " in 
Roman capitals within the circle. A potter named Robert Wilson 
was also a partner with Neale in 1778, and continued the business 
after his death, when he is said to have improved his body and 
to have produced some copies of Wedgwood's Portland vase, also 
some good Toby Fillpots and silver lustre ware. After Wilson's 
death the works were carried on by his brother and his sons, and 
in 1820 the business was owned by Philips & Bagster, but 
eventually passed into the hands of Ridgway & Co., who are still 
large potters in this district, and have other branches. The mark 
of " Ridgway " in several varied forms occurs on a great many 
specimens of good Staffordshire ware. 

Neale & Co. 

Neudech (see Nymphenbukg). 


The following marks are found upon various modern imita- 
tions of ancient majolica made here. 


But little is known of a porcelain factory here ; it is barely 
mentioned by Brongniart as existing in 1844 under the manage- 
ment of MM. Neppel & Bennot. Several manufactories of faience, 
some of which were of considerable importance, had been in 
existence during the seventeenth century and later. 

Chaffers quotes from the best French authority, M. Broc de 
Segange, the following classification of the different kinds of 
Nevers faience, which may be of use in determining the approxi- 



mate date of specimens by tlieir character and decoration. 
M. de Segange was director of the Nevers Museum in 1863, and 
in his book, La Faience et les Faienciers de Nevers, has practically 
exhausted the subject. 

1st Epoch, 1600 to 1660. 

2nd Epoch, 1650 to 1750, 
1630 to 1700, 
1640 to 1789. 

3rd Epoch, 1700 to 17CS9, 
1730 to 1789 

4th Epoch, 1770 to 1789. 

5th Epoch, 1789. 

Tradition italienne. 
Goftt chinois ct japonais. 
Gout persan. 
(".out franco-nivernais. 
Tradition dc Rouen. 
Tradition de Moustiers. 
Goiit de Saxe. 
Decadence de I'art. 

Specimens of Nevers are difficult to identify, owing to the 
similarity of their characteristics to those of the Rouen and other 
similar faiences. The following are the best-known marks, but 
there are several others, chiefly potters' and artists' signatures, 
quoted by Chaffers, who has also given a great deal of detailed 
information respecting some of the many potters of Nevers. 

Vase of Neveis iaiL-nce, Persian 
style of decoratiun (Victoria 
and Albert Museum). 

Ewer of Nevers faience (Victoria 
and Albert Museum). 



Witliin tlie kibt twenty-five years or so 
a revival of the manufacture of faience has 
been brought about at Nevers by one Mon- 
taignon, who has adopted as his mark a 
rebus of his name " Montaignon," the tie 
(taignon) being coloured green, and the 
letters, sometimes " Mon " and sometimes 
" Montaignon " in full, being in black. He 
has copied to some extent the old designs 
and colourings. 


Pottery of a coarse but effective decorative character was 
made by several potters in the neighbourhood of Newcastle, and 
also at Sunderland from about 1777 to 1825. Professor Church 
mentions the names of Sewell, Donkin & Co., Fell & Co., and 
St. Anthony. Chaffers also gives Moore & Co., and the " Sheriff 
Hill Pottery." In general character specimens resemble Stafford- 
shire pottery, but are less carefully finished and more highly 
coloured. The " frog " mugs already mentioned as made at 
Leeds, were also made at the Newcastle potteries, and a 
peculiarity of this ware is to be noticed in a band or border of 
pink lustre colour. Mugs, generally of cylinder form, we find 
decorated by "transfer" process with verses, a ship and 
inscription, or a legend commemorative of some historical or 
political event. Statuettes and busts of celebrities were also 
made here, and Professor Church is of opinion that the crude 
"marbling" of the bases of these pieces identifies them with 
Newcastle rather than with the Staffordshire potters. 

Imitations of Wedgwood's cream-coloured ware were also 
made in considerable quantities at Newcastle, and some of these 
bear the name of Wedgwood spelt " Wedgewood." As a general 
rule Newcastle pottery is unmarked, but Chaffers mentions the 
mark of " Newcastle," and sometimes the names of the potters 
mentioned above are found. 


NEW HALL, Shelton, Staffordshire. 

The manufacture of porcelain was commenced here about 1782 
by a firm consisting for the most part of local potters. The 
best known of the partners are Samuel Hollins, Anthony Keeling, 
and John Turner (see Lane End). The 
firm purchased the patent rights of 
William Cookworthy's inventions (see 
Plymouth) from the then owner 
Richard Champion, who, it is stated, 
superintended the manufacture for some 

time at Tunstall before the works were Established by Whilehead, nna 

removed to New Hall. In 18 10, Peter ]^^°- TaUen by Champion's 

' Company ni 1782, ceased 1825. 

Warburton, son of Jacob Warburton, 

one of the original partners, invented and patented the process 
of metallic decoration now generally known as " lustre ware." 
The mark used by this company is shown in the margin, but a 
great many pieces are unmarked. 

Mr. Burton mentions a vase in the British Museum (K 1 8) 
which is impressed Worburlon, but his productions are scarcely 
ever marked, and are generally attributed to Wedgwood. 

After various changes the works 
were acquired in 1842 by Messrs. HACKWOOD & CO. 
Hackwood & Company. 

This firm in 1856 gave place to 
Messrs. Cookson & Harding; and in C. & H. late 

1862 Messrs. W. & J. Haixling were HACKWOOD. 

the proprietors. 

The names of the makers are impressed, as in the margin. 

Several pieces of "New Hall" are in the ceramic gallery of 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

NIDERVILLER (Dept. de la Meurthe), near Strasburg. 

A small factory of hard-paste porcelain was established here in 
1760 by Jean Louis, Baron de Beyerle, Councillor and Treasurer 
to the King, and Director of the Strasburg Mint. With the 
assistance of Paul Louis Cyffle, of the Luneville factory, a cele- 
brated modeller, and of some workmen imported from Sa.xony, 
he was successful in producing some fine specimens. About 1780 
the factory passed into the hands of General the Count de Custine, 
whose director, M. Lanfrey, bestowed considerable care and 
energy upon the improvement of the works. General de Custine, 



however, was one of the numerous victims of the IxepubHc, and 
on his execution his estate was forfeited. Lanfrey became the 
proprietor of the factory by purchase in 1802, and continued so 
until his death in 1827. The /abritjite h3.s since been discontinued 
owing to its unsuccessful competition with the other factories. 

The earliest mark consisted of the letters B and N (for 
Beyerle, Niderviller), in a monogram. 

m ^' M 

This mark may stand for Beyeric and Custine. 

Cystine's mark was two C's interlaced, with or without a 
count's coronet. The monogram CN and the simple initial N 
also belong to this period of the factory. 


This mark may be distin- 
guished from that of 
Ludwigsburg by the 
shape of the crown. 





Laiifrey's mark was his monogram, F.C.L., generally sten- 
cilled in blue. The name of the town in full is perhaps also 
referalile to him. 


Stamped in relief. 



Faience was made at the works under all the proprietors 
above mentioned. 

Niderviller was, and is, chiefly famous for its statuettes, which 
were modelled by Charles Sauvade from Luneville {q.v.). MM. 
de Chavagnac et de Grollier mention some groups and statuettes 
incised with the name '^opns/inii, also Terre DE I.ORRAINE, which 
they attribute to Niderviller. There is some confusion between 
this factory and that of Luneville owing to the purchase of 
Cyffle's models by Niderviller in 1780, and the same modellers 
and artists worked at both places. 

The marks used on the faience were similar to those on the 


Beyerle, established 1760. 




Custine. XVIII. Cenlury. 


Custine. XVIII. Century. 

The last five are given by Herr Jilnnike. 

NIMES, Card, France. 

Very little is known of the pottery made here. Various jugs, 
plates, and similar specimens, painted with figures of peasants, 
&c., are attributed to this fabrique ; they are very p r p 
similar to the work of Moustiers, Marseilles, and 
other French potteries. One specimen in the Sevres Museum, 
made by MM. Plautier, Boncoirant et Compagnie, is marked 
with the initials of the firm given in the margin. 



NOTTINGHAM Pottery and Stoneware. 

A hard brown stoneware was made at more than one pottery 
in the neighbourhood of Nottingham, certainly as early as 1700, 
and there must have been a considerable trade in beer and cider 
mugs for use in the public-houses of the time. The above date 
appears on a stoneware posset-pot, the flowers on the lower part 

Posset-pot, Nutliiighain ware. 

having their stalks incised and the leaves perforated. It is in- 
scribed as under : — 

U'amnel Watlcinscn, Jtajor "l j. ,/, ,,■ 7 
rr 1 I- ai,-r /■ ■ \ Of Jvottinqkmn. 

aarali, his "U/tje, Major ess j -^ •' 


(see illustration). Another jug with an early date, 171 2, is de- 
scribed by Mr. Eliot Hodgkin, and has a legend : — 

" ^ohn ymithj J-un''.j of &aysferd near Jiottmffham.'^ 

There are specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum of brown 
stoneware mugs with hunting subjects in relief, also with curious 
dotted designs, and one of them has a bust of Queen Anne be- 
tween two beefeaters, also in relief. Couplets from old songs are 


written underneath, and various dates, legends, and initials arc 
inscribed. This brown ware is not unlike the common ginj^er- 
beer bottle in texture and composition ; but its surface is smooth, 
and there is a lustre in its brown glaze. Puzzle jugs were 
also made in the Nottingham district. 

Similar stoneware was made at Brampton near Chesterfield 
and at other potteries in this district, but the ware made here 
was not so well potted as the Nottingham work. 

NOVE (see Bassano). 


Nuremberg is said to have been the pioneer in the manu- 
facture of majolica in Germany. An artist named Veit Hirsch- 
vogel, who had travelled in Italy, and seen the works of Luca 
della Robbia, seems to have carried back his experience, and 
produced in his native town some fine specimens of dark copper- 
green earthenware, with subjects in relief. Some of these were 
large tiles used for the ware stoves then in vogue, and there are 
also still extant mantelpieces with very fine bas-reliefs, which are 
attributed to him, and for which high prices have been given. 
The finest specimen of this class is still in its original position in 
the Chateau of Salzburg. Hirschvogel died in 1525. 

The Victoria and Albert Museum has a fine criiche, or pitcher, 
with figures of Adam and Eve enamelled in different colours, and 
also two or three of the large earthenware stoves, exhibited in the 
new pottery gallery. Early pieces are rarely marked. 

From the sixteenth century to the present day there have 
been many potters at Nuremberg. Most of them used their 
names or initials as marks: e.g. Hans Kraut (1578), Strobel 
(1730), J. A. Marx (1735), G. Kosdenbusch (1741), Stebner 
(1 771), and others. Some pieces are marked NB, which letters 
stand for Nuremberg. 

A3: ^B ^'' 

The modern factory of J. von Schwartz uses this 
mark : 




A manufactory of porcelain was attempted here, and at Neu- 
dech on the Au, in 1747, by a potter named Niedermayer, but it 
does not appear to have flourished until 1756, when Ringler, 
from whom so many factories received technical assistance, was 
sent for, and succeeded in organising it as an establishment 
under the protection of Maximilian Joseph, Elector of Bavaria. 
In 1758 the works were altogether removed to Nymphenburg. 

The first director was a man named Hartel, who had learnt 
some of the secret processes of glazing from Ringler, and under 
his management the factory achieved considerable success, for 
in 1766 some 300 hands were employed. The output, however, 
must have been altogether beyond the demand, for in 177 1 the 
staff only numbered about 30. 

After the death of Carl Theodor, who had succeeded Maxi- 
milian Joseph as Elector of Bavaria, the Frankenthal factory 
was closed, and many of the modellers and painters removed 
to Nymphenburg. Among those was Melchior, whose work 
had materially enhanced the reputation of the Hochst factory, and 
he was doubtless a great acquisition. The best of the Nymphen- 
burg productions are some charming miniature figures with 
a glaze which gives them the appearance of soft paste ; they 
have an exquisite grace and finish, in which respects they are 
second to no other ceramic productions. During the past 
few years such specimens have greatly increased in favour with 
both foreign and English collectors, and very high prices are 
realised when they are offered for sale. The landscapes which form 
the chief decoration of some of the best table services are very care- 
fully painted. There are several good representative specimens 
of this factory in the Franks collection. 

Some of the earlier pieces were very beautifully painted 
by Heintzmann. Figures and groups and vases of this factory 
are excellently modelled and delicately coloured, and are 
similar to those of the Frankenthal factory. As the mark is some- 
times a very small shield and is almost always impressed, and 
this somewhat indistinctly, specimens are apt to be passed over 
as unmarked. The marks are found both impressed in the 
paste and also under the glaze in blue. There is some confusion 
with regard to the ^-shaped shield. This has been generally 
considered to be a mark of Nymphenburg ; but according to 
some of the best German authorities this was a Frankenthal 





mark. As a shield of Bavaria it may have been used by both 

The factory, which is still in existence, a short distance from 
Munich, can be seen by visitors to the Bavarian capital. Its 
present productions, however, are very inferior to the old 
work, although many of the original models are reproduced. 
At the recent International Exhibition at Brussels (19 10) the 
factory had an important exhibit. Further reference to some 
of the modern productions of the Nymphenburg factory will be 
found in Chapter VI. {q.v.). 






t ' \/ ' ■m 

Impressed marks, tlie ^ is claimed liy recent writers for FiankeiUhal. 






D. 17. r^ 

The most usual mark is the shield of Bavaria, generally 
impressed. The letters which accompany the shield are incised 
or written in gold. The following occur on some specimens in 
the Franks collection : — 


These additional Nymphenburg marks are given on the 
authority of Professor Hofmann of the Munich Museum. They 
are impressed or incised. 

® f s 


NYON, Switzerland (Lake of Geneva). 

A small manufactory was established here towards the end 
of the eighteenth century by a French flower-painter named 
Maubree, who had left the royal works at Sevres. The paste 
is of good quality, and paintings generally floral, carefully exe- 
cuted, and the general character of the productions of this factory 
is that of hard-paste Sevres. The mark is a fish in blue. 


Pieces are also marked with the initial G. or the word 
" Geneve," either with or without the fish, and as there was 
no porcelain factory at Geneva, this mark is said by Mr. Chaffers 
to be that of the Genevese painters who decorated the Nyon 
china. Chaffers also mentions a cup and saucer signed " Gide 
1789," Gide having been the director of the factory for a time. 
Mr. C. H. Wylde thinks that there was a second porcelain factory 
at Nyon, but nothing appears to be known of such an one, and the 
theory is probably due to the existence of two marks, one with, 
the other without the fish. Specimens are in the Franks collection. 

OiRON Faience (see Saint Porchaire). 

OLD HALL WORKS, Hanley, Staffordshire. 
Messrs. Meigh & Sons occupied these works from about 
1780 ; the firm has recently been turned into a company under 
the style of "The Old Hall Earthenware Company, Limited." 
In the early part of the nineteenth century, earthenware figures 
and other ornamental pieces of considerable merit were made 
by this firm from the designs of J. B. Giarnielli. 

IVIEIGH ^^'■' -1°^ Meigh, junior, a member of the firm, 
was the inventor of a new glaze made without 
lead, for which he received the Society of Arts gold medal in 
1823. The mark is an impressed stamp, as in the margin. 

OPORTO, Vista Allegre. 

A factory was established here about 1790, directed by M. 

Pinto Basto, and a specimen cup and saucer, 

turquoise, with while and gold flowers, is now in 

the Victoria and Albert Museum. The paste is 

Y /X hard, and the mark VA, sometimes surmounted 

by a crown. 
A manufactory still exists at Vista Allegre. 




In 1753 a manufactory was established here under the pro- 
tection of the Duke of Penthievre, the director being first 
Giirault Daraubert, and later Henoist le Brun, architect of the 
city of Orleans. Both these directors placed their 
initials underneath the Orleans "label" which formed 
the /(//«•/(/«(? mark. Le Brun was director from 1808 
to 181 1. A fleur-de-lis is also found under the 
label on some pieces. Herr Jannike gives this mark 
as in use from 1790 to 1800. Soft paste was first made, 
but, following the fashion of other French factories, this was 
discontinued for the more durable but less beautiful hard paste. 

The general description of Orleans porcelain is similar to that 
of the later hard-paste Sevres made about 1800, and unless marked, 
specimens will be readily taken for the latter. The ground 
colour is nearly always white, and the decoration carefully 
painted, but sparse, consisting of detached rosebuds, or a ribbon 
trellis with roses, sometimes of a medallion with landscape or 





These are supposed to be the initials of Benoist 
Le Brun, :8oS-ii. 

Earthenware figures and statuettes were also made 
here, marked as in the margin. There are two white 
figures of Cupids in the Art Gallery of Swansea (Glynn 
Vivian bequest) bearing this mark. 

XVIII. Century. 

OvERTOOM (see Amsterdam). 

Padua (see Majolica). 

Palissy (Bernard), (see Chapter II.), also Saintes. 

Palmer (see Neale & Co.). 


Towards the end of the eighteenth century several small fac- 
tories of porcelain were established in Paris. and its neighbourhood, 
and were carried on with varying success. Some of these were 

3o8 PARIS 

known by the names of the patrons under whose protection they 
flourished, or by the name of the street in which they were estab- 
hshed, or in other cases by the names of the potters or artists who 
commenced business in small ateliers which sometimes developed 
into a fabriqiic, or factory, of some note. The life of several of 
these small businesses lasted just as long as the individual taste, 
energy, or means of the proprietor, artist, or potter were devoted 
to its encouragement, and in many cases was not of long 
duration. Others never achieved any results of note, and have 
been lost sight of. As a rule the little fabriqiic has become known 
to us owing to the survival of articles de luxe of special designs 
ordered by some wealthy patron, and worthy of the collector's 
attention. For this reason some marks are given here that other- 
wise would have little or no interest for the collector. 

With regard to paste, form, and general style of decoration 
they are all similar ; the paste is hard and like that of the later 
Sevres china, the forms are those which we recognise as of the 
" Empire " time or that which just preceded it, and the decora- 
tion is in the style of the late Sevres already alluded to. 

For the convenience of the reader short notices of the majority 
of these " Paris " fabriqucs are arranged here alphabetically to follow 
these remarks, which apply to them all. Some of them are 
noticed under separate heads, and a cross reference to them will 
be found for the reader's convenience. 


This mark is considered to represent the initials of Henri 
Chanou, who formerly worked in the Sevres factory and after- 
wards established a small /rt/^;7<7?/c in Paris. Established 1784. 
The mark is stencilled in red. Hard paste, in the style of late 





The widow of Pierre Chicanneau (see St. ClouD) 

started a factory of porcelain in 1722, which was 

carried on after her death by other members of the 

family until about 1762. The mark: CM with a 


cross under, 
maiden name. 

PARIS 309 

The M probably stands for Moreaii, tlie widow's 

PARIS: COURTILLE (RuE Fontaine au Roi) 

This factory was established in 
1773 by Jean Baptiste Locre, whose 
partner, one Russinger, was director 
throughout the Revolution. One of 
the finest specimens of ceramic art 
produced by this factory was a life- 
size bust of La Comtesse du Barry, 
valued at that time at 3000 francs 

The fabriqiie was of hard paste, 
and the mark in blue, two torches 
crossed. This should not be mistaken for the Dresden crossed 

Cream-jug of De la Courtille porce- 
lain (Victoria and Albert Museum). 



A subsequent mark resembles the heraldic charge, known as a 
lance-rest. The factory was afterwards carried on by the firm of 
Pouyat & Russinger, who used their names or initials as their 
mark ; by Pouyat alone, about 1800 ; and by A. Deltuf 

' De la Courtille," 1773, by 
Russinger & Locre. 




"De la Courtille." 


Established towards the end of the last century by P. H. 
Dagoty. He styled his ware " L'Imperatrice." The mark is 
generally stencilled in red. Dagoty subsequently combined with 
the firm of Honore {q.v.') about 1812, under the patronage of the 
Duchesse d'Angouleme. Another member of the family, R. F. 
Dagoty, had a factory in the Rue St. Honore, date unknown. 




ie S^.M.l^Lmpeiratricc 

a Paris. 

Boulevard Poissionniere, 1780. 

M'"' de MADAME 


Dagoty E. Honore, 




A small factory of hard-paste porcelain was established in 
the Rue de Popincourt in 1796 ; and there are some richly 
coloured and well-gilt plates still extant, marked with the potter's 
name, " Darte," stencilled in red. 

Mr. H. E. B. Harrison possesses a cup and saucer marked 


Theodore Deck established a factory of artistic faience in 
the Rue Halevy in 1859, and since that time his works at each 
international exhibition have shown considerable progress and 
gained distinction. The first copies of the famous Alhambra 

TOvase were made by this firm ; and at the Paris 
Exhibition, 1878, some remarkably fine plates were 
shown by him. Our Art Department has purchased 
XIX. Century, some of his fccent specimens, and they may be 
seen at the Victoria and Albert Museum. The process of de- 
coration is somewhat similar to the old Henri Deux ware, or 
Saint Porchaire, as it is now generally called, and consists of the 
incrustation of different coloured clays ; it is very effective, the 
designs being mostly of an Eastern character. 

Paris, Dihl (see Angouleme). 


A factory of hard-paste porcelain was 
started about 1773 by Vincent Dubois. 
,. , c, A , • ,„, Maik, two headless airows crossed, gener- 

I'auliouri; St. Antoinc, 177 ;. ' ' => 


Riie'clc la Ri>quetle. " ally in blue. 

PARIS 311 

Paris, Due d'Orleans (see Paris : Pont-aux-Choux). 


A richly decorated porcelain in imitation of Sevres. The 
mark also is similar to that of Sevres, but has a capital F in the 
middle of the reversed L's. Other marks are used, as shown, 
and are generally in gold, but sometimes in black. This work 
was carried on at No 20 Rue de la Paix. 


PARIS: GUY & HOUSEL (Rue Thirou). 

MM. Guy & House! succeeded to the 
fabrique of " Porcelaine de la Reine " (see 
Paris : Lebceuf). M. Housel was sole pro- 
prietor from 1799 to 1804. 

Occasionally we find very richly decorated 
specimens bearing this mark. A pair of semi- 
circular Jardinieres, formerly in Mr. Walker Joy's collection, had 
flowers very carefully painted in richly ornamented trellis-work, 
equal in every way to the best kind of hard-paste Sevres of the 
same time. 

Rue Thirou 

a Pciris. 

Rue Thirou Porcelaine de la Reine, Gasnault coUectii 


Established by F. M. Honor6 about 1785 ; subsequently 
amalgamated with Dagoty {q-v.). 



Hard paste; established in 1774 by Jean Joseph Lassia. 


Ruo <lc Keiiilly, 1774. 



In 1778, Andr6 Marie Lebceuf commenced the manufac- 
ture of a hard-paste porcelain, which he called " Porcelaine de 

la Reine," Marie Antoinette being 

AA///f his patroness. The productions 

T'OLI' were of great excellence, some of 

C/ wcV.v) the pieces being equal to Sevres. 

It is almost impossible to avoid 
confusion between the porcelain 
made and decorated by Lebceuf, 
and that made at the Angouleme factory (17.^.). Queen Marie 
Antoinette is said to have been the patroness of both, and Mr. 
Chaffers has assigned to the Lebceuf factory the variously formed 
initial ^ surmounted by a crown, which the author has given to 
the Angouleme factory. The letter P^ without a crown is also 
supposed to have been used by Lebceuf, and a monogram of 
M. A. for Marie Antoinette with an S below. The marks are 
generally stencilled in red. 

Rue Thirou " Dc la Reine" 
(Antoinette), 1 778, by A. M. Lebceuf. 

Specimen Plate, Cupids playing, on tjold 
ground, marked in gold l.cfcbz'rr a 


Chaffers mentions a potter 
of this name as having an estab- 
lishment in Rue Amelot. The 
author had a hnely painted pair 
of plates with Cupids playing 
games, on richly gilt ground, 
and the mark Lcfebvrc a Paris 
written in gold. 

PARIS 313 

Paris, L'Imperatrice (see Paris : Dagoty). 


Hard paste ; established 1773 ; the letters in the 
margin, generally stamped or stencilled, stand for M A P 
" Morelle a Paris." 


A potter of this name purchased a manufactory of china in 
the Rue de Popincourt, Paris, 1783, and adopted his name, 
stencilled in red, as his fabrique mark. The paste is hard and 
like most other Parisian porcelain, and the favourite decoration 
seems to have been small sprigs of flowers on a white ground. 

Paris, Petit (see Fontainebleau). 

N. . . 



The manufactory owned by this lirm is, according to Chaffers, 
the largest in France, employing about 1500 workmen. Their 
ornamental specimens are of a very high character, and vary 
considerably in style. The finest specimen seen by the writer 
is a large bottle purchased by the V^ictoria and Albert Museum 
from their exhibit in Paris in 1878. It is of dark lustrous green, 
and the effect produced by the varying shades of the colour is 
very good. The mark is the name of the firm. 


This factory was started in 1784 by Louis Honore de la 
Marre de Villars. The mark used was J. M. In 1786 the 
fabrique changed hands, and came under the patronage of Louis 
Philippe, Due d'Orleans, and the mark used thereafter was his 
monogram L. P., combined in various ways. After the Duke's 
death in 1793, the factory was known as the " Fabrique de Pont- 





This mark most probably belongs to the same factory. 

The monogram of Outrequin de Montarcy, cina 1786. 


Th'xs, fabrique of hard paste, said to be the oldest in Paris, was 
started in 1769 by Charles Philippe, Comte d'Artois, under the 
direction of Pierre Antoine Hannong, or Hanung, of Strasbourg. 

A small tcte-a-tcte service with this mark was formerly in the 
author's possession. 


Rue Faubour;; St. Denis. 


Paris, Porcelaine dk la Reine (see Lebceuf). 


In 1789, Charles Potter, an Englishman, established a factory 
of hard-paste china. He called his ware " Prince of Wales' 




Riie dc Cnissol, 1789. 


Rue dc Crussol. 



A maker and decorator of French porcelain and faience of 
this name, merits special mention here, while numerous other 
Parisian firms are unnoticed, because some of his figures are 
remarkably original and clever. His mark, as given 
here, is frequently used by unscrupulous dealers to 
deceive amateurs, and his productions are sold as 
"old Dresden." 

Samson also makes exceedingly clever imitations 
of all the rarer and more precious descriptions of 
Oriental porcelain, and many have been deceived by his pro- 
ductions. The mark given here was that used upon the 
" Dresden " specimens, but he imitates more or less successfully 
not only specimens of Crown Derby, Bow, Chelsea and many 
of the Continental fabriqiies, but also copies their marks. His 
manufactory is probably responsible for more disappointments on 
the part of young collectors than any other half-dozen makers of 
spurious china grouped together. See also notes on this manu- 
facturer in Chapter VI. 


This name, written in small cursive characters in red and puce, 
is to be found on some excellent white and gold dessert services, 
and on some well-painted plates with richly gilt borders. It is 
doubtful whether the firm were porcelain makers or only dealers. 

Pavia (see Majolica). 

Pennington, potter (see Liverpool). 


In a little volume published by the South Kensington 
authorities, and entitled Persian Art, Major Murdoch Smith, 
R.E., gives much useful information which his official position in 
Persia has enabled him to acquire. He tells us that ceramic art 
has existed from a very early date in Persia, and in his illustrated 
description of the collection in the Victoria and Albert Museum, he 
divides Persian ceramics into seven different classes. A pecu- 
liarity which he notices, and which is observable in many 
specimens, is that the pottery was almost always made for 
use, and though the rice dishes, bowls, and jars are highly 
decorative, they were not meant merely for ornament. 



Both Jacquemart and Chaffers doubt the existence of porcelain 

of Persian manufacture ; but some 
bowls in the Henderson collec- 
tion now arranged in the British 
Museum, leave little doubt that 
porcelain of a high quality was 
known there, though whether it 
was really native to Persia is 
doubtful ; it is more probable 
that it was a special class of ware 
imported from China, and that it 
obtained its name of " Gombroon 
ware " from the fact of its coming 
through that port of the Persian 

Narghili-stand of Persian porcelain, green ^" J^Cquemart's philosophical 

ground, with shaped panels (collection Study of the Subject, he traces 
of M. Dutuit, Rouen). 

Ewer of Persian porcelain, polychi 

lion (Coll. 

each style of decoration to a religious source, different sects 
departing more or less from the proscribed law of representations 
of men and animals, a kind of decoration forbidden by the original 
canons laid down by Zoroaster. The modern productions of 
Persian factories are very poor, the time of highest excellence 


k 13TH-16TH Century. 





having been during the reign of Shall Abbas, 1 555- 1628, who 
appears to have been the Grand Monarqiie of Persia, and to have 
decorated his palace at Ispahan with national pottery. Several 
specimens of this, the Renaissance period of Persian art, are in- 
cluded in the Salting bequest in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

In the Henderson collection, before alluded to, there will be 
found some most interesting specimens of the twelfth, thirteenth, 
fourteenth, and sixteenth centuries, and the collection also in- 
cludes many pieces of Damascus and Rhodian ware, tlie latter 
being rightly classed, according to Jacquemait, with Persian cera- 
mics ; his suggestion being, that the manufacture of artistic pottery 
at Rhodes was brought about by the capture of a vessel contain- 
ing Persian potters, material, and moulds, which fell into the hands 
of the famous Rhodian knights, who had joined the Christians in 
the war against the Mussulmans. 

The decoration of Persian ware is generally floral, carnations 
and hyacinths being favourite subjects ; the cypress, too, is fre- 
quently introduced in ornament. The colouring is very artistic 
and striking, the pigments having somewhat the appearance of 
vitreous enamels. Some of the tiles in the Henderson collection 
are ornamented with texts from the Koran in high relief. Of tiie 
illustrations given, that of the Ewer and Narghili-stand are of the 
earlier Persian work, and that of the tile, with equestrian figure, 
of the later period. Some fresh information respecting Persian 
pottery will be found in the thirteenth edition of Chaffers, 
contributed by Mr. C. L. Hobson, who assisted the author in 
revising and editing that portion of the work. 




These marks are mostly given on the authority of Dr. 
Fortnum {Catalogue of the Victoria and Albert Museum, pp. 12, 
13). The principal collections of Persian faience in this country 
are those of Mr. Du Cane Godman, the late Sir A. Wollaston 

IVisiaii Wall Tile, decoralion in slight relief, XVII. century (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

Pranks, Dr. Fortnum, Mr. George Salting (whose collection is 
now part of our national treasures at South Kensington), and 
the Henderson collection at the British Museum. 

Pesaro (see Majolica). 

Petersburg (see St. Petersburg). 



PINXTON, East Derbyshire. 

The establishment of a cliina factory liere was due to John 
Coke, Esq., an ancestor of Colonel Talbot Coke, who, during a 
residence at Dresden, had acquired a taste for artistic pottery, and 
finding upon his family estate some suitable clay, secured the 
services of Billingsley, the celebrated flower-painter of Derby. 
BiUingsley possessed a recipe for porcelain-making, and a small 
factory was started in 1796, which produced some fine pieces, 
similar to the Derby porcelain, and as a rule having no mark. 
The pieces decorated with views of different country seats in 
medallions, on canary ground, are often mistaken for unmarked 

Pinxton Ice-pail (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

Derby china, but may generally be ascribed to the Pinxton factory 
when the paste is greyer and coarser in texture than that of Derby. 

A disagreement between Coke and Billingsley took place about 
1 800-1 802, and the latter left afterwards to work at the Worcester 
factory, and subsequently assisted at those of Nantgarw and 
Swansea (see notices of these factories). Mr. Coke continued the 
works at Pinxton with other help, but without any great success, 
and they were closed in 181 8. 

Mr. Jewitt quotes an interesting fact respecting this factory. 
Payment to the workmen was made in china tokens, having the 
sum represented stated on the round fiat piece of china ; this 
china-money passed current in and about Pinxton, and was 
known as " Mr. Coke's coin." 


Specimens of Pinxton are generally unmarked, but when they 
are, the cursive P given below is that most frequently found, and 
the formation of the letter varies. Specimens occur with the 
word " Pinxton " in full, and there is at least one dessert service 
known to the author with landscapes in medallions on each piece, 
having the mark in puce given below of a crescent and star. 



PIRKENHAMMER, near Carlsbad. 

Factory of hard-paste porcelain, founded in 1802. The 
earlier marks are unknown. Christian Fischer became the pro- 
prietor in 1 81 8, and used his initials as a mark. The firm 
afterwards became Fischer & Reichambach, when the mark was 
changed to F. & R. (see Bohemia). 

C.F. F&R 

Christian Fischer. 


Fischer & Reichambach. 

Pisa (see Majolica). 


William Cookworthy, like Bottger, the first of European 
porcelain-makers, was a chemist's apprentice. He had acquired 
a thorough knowledge of his business in London, and started 
on his own account in Nutt Street, Plymouth ; and in a 
letter, dated 1745, to a friend and customer, he first mentions 
the importation of both the kaolin and petuntse, necessary for 
the manufacture of porcelain, from Virginia. After this he seems 
to have taken up the matter thoroughly, and to have made in- 
vestigations in many parts of Cornwall in search of the elements 
necessary for the making of china. These efforts were successful 
in 1754-55, when he discovered at Boconnoc, the family seat of 
Lord Camelford, both a white plastic clay, and a kind of moor 
stone, or granite, which, if pulverised, would form the vitreous 
property required. The proprietor, Lord Camelford, took the 
matter up con amore, and assisted Cookworthy with funds and 
interest. A patent was taken out in 1768, and the Plymouth 



manufactory — the first English factory to make china from nalive 
materials — came prominently before the public. Cookworthy's 
chemical knowledge was of great assistance in the manufacture 
of colours, and he was the first to produce the cobalt blue 
direct from the ore. Advancing years, and the great expense 
incurred in making continual experiments for perfecting his in- 
vention, prevented the concern being conducted on remunerative 
principles, and after removing to Bristol Cookworthy sold his 
patent rights and plant to a cousin, Richard Champion, in lyyq 
(see Bristol). 

The paste is hard, and some of the white pieces have a beautiful 

Sweetmeat-stand of Plymouth porcelain, white shell work. 

glaze something like polished ivory, only of a milky white, instead 
of yellow. Groups of shells, with limpets, cockles, and escallops, 
were very favourite patterns ; shells arranged in tiers, for oysters, 
it is supposed, and smaller ones for pickle-stands, both in blue 
and white, and natural colours, are also to be found. 

Birds and flowers were painted on some of the cups and 
saucers and vases, by a clever French artist named Soqui whom 
Cookworthy engaged from the Sevres manufactory, and Henry 
Bone, a native of Plymouth, one of Cookworthy's apprentices, 
is credited with the painting of the exotic birds in favour at the 
Worcester factory. 

Some of the figures made at Plymouth are cast from the 
same moulds as those of Bristol. This is the case with some 
of the models representing the quarters of the globe. Mr. W. 




Cree, of Edinburgh, has a very important set of three of these 
figures, which were formerly in Mr. F. J. Thompson's collection, 
and Mr. Alfred Trapnell has a complete set of four. 

Poland (see Korzec). 

These marks are generally in red. 



PORTOBELLO, Midlothian, Scotland. 

Some little confusion about Portobello pottery seems liable 
to arise, since " Portobello ware " is mentioned in Mr, William 
Burton's work on English Pottery as having 
been made in Staffordshire to commemorate 
the taking of Portobello in Spain by Admiral 
Vernon in 1739. There are many pieces of 
pottery in existence connected by some legend 
with this historical event, but the Portobello 
ware to which attention is called in this notice 
was made at a group of potteries which 
thrived at Portobello for some time, from 
about the end of the eighteenth century 
until 1845—54. In the Annals of Diiddingston and Portobello, 
by William Baird, there are accounts of several makers, with 
illustrations of pieces identified with their work, and judging 
from these it must be exceedingly difficult to separate them from 
ordinary Staffordshire pottery of the same time. Mr. Baird 
quotes the Florentine Lion, with a paw on a ball, a watch-case 
in the form of a miniature clock, with fis'ure of Britannia sur- 




mounted by a crown, also a group of a cow with calf, as Kath- 
bone's ware, Portobello, about 1820. 

Chaffers mentions the work of Scott Brothers as marked with 
the name Scott, and a monogram as in the margin. 

There has been some revival of late years, in the shape of 
work of an effective decorative character, generally in green and 
red colours, at potteries in this district ; it is on sale in the shops 
of Edinburgh. 

Portugal (see Caldas). 


Specimens of faience with a good glaze, generally decorated 
with peasant figures and landscapes, have been occasionally seen 
by the author, with an impressed mark " PRAG." . . 

There is a modern porcelain factory carried on ] IS. ^ C» 
by MM. Kriegel & Co. (see Bohemia). I PRAG 

Pratt's Ware (see Fenton). 


The manufacture of faience was started here by a brickmaker 
named Lavalle. The works are still carried on by his descendants. 

0S3 Z-^- , r (/ - 


I I Lavalle. .\IX. ^Century. 


Glazed stoneware and faience, of recent date, in the style of 
old Rouen ware, is made here by La Hubaudicre & Co. The 
marks are as follows : — ■ 



A pottery is said to have existed here, long before the time of 
the present firm, but little is known of it. 

Raeren Stoneware (see Cologne). 

Ratisbon (see Regensburg). 

RAUENSTEIN, Saxe-Meiningen. 

This small factory of hard-paste porcelain was one of the least 
of the Thuringian group, and save for collectors of marks there is 
Httle of interest concerning it. Only table-ware was produced. 
The marks given below are found in different colours, blue, red, 
and purple, the R-n being the one most often seen. Sometimes 
dots and sometimes dashes separate the two letters. It was estab- 
lished by a member of the Greiner family about 1780, and is 
still a going concern. In sequence the marks may be taken as 
follows: first the R, then the R-n, and after 1800 the two 
crossed hooks accompanied by the R— n. 





* 71- 

Ravenna (see Majolica). 

REGENSBURG, Ratisbon. 

Mr. J. A. Schwcrdtner has a porcelain factory here. In the 
last century, earthenware of various kinds and " Gres " stoneware 
were also made here. 

Heine, Porcelaine de la (see Angouleme and Paris: 


This mark is given by Herr Jannike for the 
faience made here by F. Hildebrandt. 



The pottery of Rhodes, Damascus, and Anatolia belongs to 
the Turkish school. M. Jacquemart relates a story, the truth of 
which has been questioned by so eminent an authority as the late 
Dr. Fortnum, of the capture by the Knights of Rhodes, during an 
expedition against the Mussulmans at the time of the Crusades, 
of a vessel which was carrying from Iran a cargo of fine pottery, 
and also a number of potters who understood the mystery of its 
production. A pottery was thereupon established in the Isle of 
Rhodes, from which, he contends, the examples in the JMusee 
Cluny were produced. 

We have no means of establishing or refuting this romantic 
but rather doubtful theory of the origin of Rhodian pottery, but 
we can readily recognise as a distinct class of decoiative ware 
that which is known as Rhodian. It is of ct)arse body with a 
thick glaze, the decoration being, as a rule, sprays of flowers, 
generally carnations, with spiky leaves spreading over the surface 
of the plate, jug, or tile, and sometimes the stems of these sprays 
fastened together. A brownish-red colour is a favourite pigment, 
laid on so thickly as to stand out from the white ground in slight 
relief. Sometimes geometrical patterns are employed, as in one 
of the plates illustrated. Green is also a favourite colour. The 
borders of such plates are generally decorated in black designs. 

Anatolian ware is, in decorative treatment, similar to Rhodian, 
but the paste is whiter, the glaze less thick, and the plates and 
small round dishes which we have seen, are generally less clumsy. 

A place named Kutakia in Anatolia is credited with being the 
source of this kind of pottery. Some good specimens are in 
the Salting bequest. 

Rhodian pottery is every effective, and groups of four or five 
plates or round dishes, make an excellent mural decoration, where 
the style of the room is of the period harmonising with this kind 
of decoration — that is, from the fourteenth to the sixteenth 
century. The best collections of Rhodian pottery are those of 
Mr. George Salting in the Victoria and Albert Museum, Mr. F. 
Du Cane Godman, F.R.S., Dr. Fortnum, lately bequeathed to the 
Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, and the Henderson collection in 
the British Museum. We are enabled to give a faithful repre- 
sentation in facsimile of a fine Rhodian ewer in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. 


The South Kensington authorities, in their recent arrangement 
of this class of pottery in the Salting bequest, have abandoned 
the title " Rhodian," by which we have known this description of 
ware for so many years, on the ground that the proofs of Rhodes 
being its proper source are unsatisfactory, and the glass cases 
which contain this portion of the Salting collection are labelled 
" Turkish and Syrian ware." They do not, however, assign any 
particular province or district of the Turkish Empire as the 
actual place of production, and therefore we may perhaps still be 
permitted to entitle this notice "Rhodian" until there is more 
definite information available. 

The writer of the Salting catalogue says there is a distinction 
to be made between the pottery called " Rhodian " and that of 
Damascus, in the use of two different pigments. The brilliant 
scarlet found in the floral decorations of plates, jugs, and tiles 
indicates " Rhodian " work, whereas the use of purple produced 
from manganese, points to the ware being made at Damascus. 

At the present time the pottery at Algiers is making good 
copies, both as to form and colour, of this old Turkish or Rhodian 
pottery. They are inferior in many respects to the old ware, but 
are highly decorative. These productions are marked £4lger. 


The firm of Ridgways at Shelton, Staffordshire, has been noted 
for good work for upwards of a century. Job Ridgway, the 
founder, was one of Josiah Wedgwood's apprentices, started on 
his own account in 1794, and built the works known as Cauldon 
Place in 1802. Later the firm was John Ridgway & Co., and 
absorbed several of the businesses of other Staffordshire potters, 
including those of Elijah Mayer, Palmer & Wilson (see Neale), 
Meigh & Johnson, Toft & May, and G. & T. Taylor, the com- 
bination trading under the title of Ridgway, Morley, Wear & Co. 
Collectors who affect those covers of paste pots ornamented 
with landscapes and subjects in coloured transfer, will be in- 
terested to learn that the making of these was one of Ridgway's 
specialities, about 1840-50. The firm also made a good class of 
earthenware with a semi-translucent body similar in many re- 
spects to Mason's ironstone china. John Ridgway was appointed 
potter to her Majesty Queen Victoria. In 1855 Messrs. Brown, 
Westhcad, Moore & Co. took over and still carry on the business, 
which has a good reputation for high-class domestic ware, and 

turkish, generally known as 

Rhodlan Faience. 

Jug 15TH-16TH Cenh-rn. 








received the Grand Prix at the Brussels International ICxliiliition, 

The mark of RIDGWAYS occurs in various forms, and some- 
times the initials J. W. R. with such words as Stone China, 
India Temple Stone China, and sometimes a crown sur- 
mounting an oval containing the initials J. K. (see also Neale & 

Rochei.le (see La Rochelle). 


In the year 1745 a manufactory of pottery was established 
at Swinton, near Rotherham, in Yorkshire, on the Marquis of 
Rockingham's estate. Various kinds of earthenware and stone- 
ware were made, but the principal output was that of chocolate- 
brown tea and coffee services, &c., commonly known as " Rock- 
ingham ware." 

One of a pair of richly decorated Rockingham flower-pots formerly 
in the author's possession. 

The factory passed through several hands, until in 1807 it 
was carried on by Messrs. Brameld. A portion of the original 
works is now occupied by one of their former employes, Mr. 
Baguley. The manufactory was specially celebrated for its 
tea-pots, which were said to have the valuable quality of ex- 
tracting the full flavour of the tea. In 1823 the mark of a 
griffin was adopted, it being the Rockingham crest, but the words 
Rockingham and Brameld are also found, the latter sometimes 
in a blue-coloured cartouche. 


A considerable quantity of the table ware was made for 
Messrs. Mortlock of Oxford Street, and stamped with their 
name. Excellent porcelain services and figures were also made 
here, generally carefully painted in flowers on a fine clear white 
ground ; as a rule figures are unmarked. 


i/locJiinqJiamrfori^ . 

There is a remarkable Rockingham vase, over 3 feet high, in 
the Ceramic Gallery of the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Rome (see Majolica). 

RORSTRAND, near Stockholm. 

A company was started in 1726, under State patronage, for 
the manufacture of earthenware of various kinds. 

The general characteristics of all the old Swedish potteries 
are similar. As in the first instance the art seems to have been 
imported from Delft, such early specimens as are in the Museum of 
Stockholm have the appearance of the older Delft ware. This 
first period lasted from 1726 to 1759. 

The second period may be said to have commenced with the 
adoption of the stanniferous glaze, an enamel composed with 
oxide of tin, in 1760, and to have lasted for about twenty years. 
During this later period, faience in the style of old Strasbourg and 
Moustiers was produced, although on some pieces one finds the 
decoration influenced by local colour, such as the costumes of 
Swedish peasants. 

The faience made at Rorstrand, at Marieberg, at Stralsund 
(which formerly belonged to Sweden, but was afterwards annexed 
by Prussia), and at Kiel, is all so alike that without a distinctive 
mark they cannot be distinguished. Wedgwood ware was also 
imitated by these factories. 

In the large edition of Chaffers, more detailed information as 
to these Swedish factories will be found. 



Established 1726. 

Jiar^huLm -^ij^i 

D. Hillberg, painter. 






A. Fahlstrom, painter. 

The early marks consisted of S. or 
St., for Stockholm, or " Stockholm " in 
full, generally with the date, and initials 
of the painter or master-potter. After 
the foundation of the rival factory at 
Marieberg, which is also in the neighbour- 
hood of Stockholm (see Mariebekg), the 
word Rorstrand, sometimes abbreviated, 
was substituted for that of Stockholm. 
For a short time about 1759 both words 
were used. 


/2 ^ 

ROUEN (Dept. Seine-Inferieure). 

A manufactory of artistic pottery was flourishing here in the 
sixteenth century, and will be found noticed in Chapter II. as one 

.Shoe of Rouen faience, bhie and wliite decoration. 



of the principal ceramic factories that existed in France when 
the wave of art rolled thither from Italy. When Louis XIV., 
straitened for money to carry on his wars, sent his plate to the 
mint, he had a service of Rouen faience made for his use, and 
this was marked with the fleur-de-lis. This was in 17 13, but 
there are in existence beautiful specimens marked with a date 
as early as 1542. Two of the most remarkable were formerly 

Ilelniet-sh.iped Ewer of Rouen faience. 

at Orleans House, Twickenham. They were pictures composed 
of 238 tiles joined together and framed, and painted in repre- 
sentations of Mucins Scasvola, and of Curtius jumping into the 

There are extant in the Sevres Museum and elsewhere 
beautiful specimens of this ware, and in the bust of Flora on a 
high pedestal, which was presented by the late Duke of Hamilton, 
our Victoria and Albert Museum possesses one of the best. 



Jaidinicie or Sceau of Rouen faience (Victoria and All)ert Museum). 

The marks of the fabriqnc are very numerous, and many 
would appear to be only painters' marks. A great many of 
these will be found in tiie large edition of ChafTers' Marks and 




XVIII. Century. 

Porcelain. — The manufacture of soft-paste porcelain at Rouen 
is attributed to Louis Poterat, whose family had been connected 
with the making of earthenware for many years, and there are in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum some plates of Rouen faience 
decorated with the arms of the Poterat family, who were lords or 
seigneurs of the district. 

The date generally attributed to the first achievement in the 
way of porcelain, by Louis Poterat, is about 1673, and if so it was 
the first so far as France is concerned, the Medici porcelain of 
Florence being a few years earlier. 


Specimens of this Rouen porcelain are extremely rare — the 
only piece known to the author is the charming tall cup in the 
Fitzhenry collection recently presented to the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. It is unmarked. The mark of A. P. with a star, which 
is the mark attributed to this factory, has not been identified. 
The factory is believed to have closed in 1696 owing to the 
successful rivalry of the St. Cloud factory. 

RUDOLSTADT (see Volkstedt). 

The mark of a hayfork single and crossed with another, was 
formerly considered to be the mark of Rudolstadt. On the 
authority of Graul and Kurzvvelly's work on Thuringian factories 
this is now assigned to Volkstedt, and it would appear that there 
was no factory actually at Rudolstadt, but that the name was 
given because this place was the seat of the government of the 
Principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt. 

Rue Thirou (see Paris). 

Russia (see Moscow, and St. Petersburg). 

Rye, Sussex (see Cadborough). 


A manufactory of faience was founded here about 1740, 
which belonged to M. Fauquez, the re-founder of the works at 
Valenciennes (q-v.). The manufacture was continued up to the 
time of the Revolution, when it was for a time abandoned, and 
Fauquez was forced to emigrate. The fabriquc was subsequently 
revived, and was in active work in 1807. The mark is said by 
Dr. Lejeal to be an imitation of that on old Sevres, but the re- 
semblance is more apparent than real. The cypher consists of 
the interlaced initials of Fauquez and his wife, a sister of Lamon- 
inary of Valenciennes. The first one also contains the letter A, 
for St. Amand, while the second has the letters S. A. at the sides. 
Other marks attributed to this fabriquc. by various French and 
German authorities will be found in the eighth and subsequent 
editions of Chaffers' Marks and Monograms, revised by the author 
of this work. 

The manufacture of soft-paste porcelain was tirst attempted 
in 1 77 1 by Fauquez, who having sought permission was re- 



fused by the Government on the ground that St. Amand was 
a free town. However, he appears to have persevered in his 
enterprise, and to have made a soft paste similar but somewhat 
inferior to that of Sevres until 1778, when owing to the rivahy 
of the Tournay factory he ceased his efforts and reverted to his 
business of faience manufacture. Specimens of tlie Fauquez period 
of porcelain are seldom seen, and one has to be content with 

In 1800 the proprietorship of the factory passed to a M. 
Maximilien de Bettignies, who was in 1815 succeeded by his 
son and afterwards by his grandson. As late as 1873 members 
of this family were directors, and in 1894 there was a manager 
named Miquet. This porcelain attained a medal at the 1851 
London Exhibition. The porcelain made since 1800 is similar 
to that of Tournay, and has been largely used for purposes of 
re-decoration, passing as genuine old Sfevres. It should not 
deceive an experienced collector, because the paste is not so good 
in quality, nor so white as that of Sevres ; it is, however, soft, 
and those who have decorated it have copied the style and 
colourings of original Sevres specimens. 

The marks are similar to those on the faience, and it will be 
seen that one of these is a colourable imitation of a Sevres mark. 

The fabrique marks used during the later period are the 
monogram S.A. in blue and a seal in relief with the letters S.A. 


St. Cenis (see Sinceny). 

ST. CLOUD, France. 

A factory of both faience and porcelain was established here 
in 1690, by the Chicanneau family. The mark was "St. C," 
and after 1722 the initial "T" underneath, as in that year Henri 




Trou, 1/22. 

true porcelain. 

Blue and while salt-cellar of 
St. Cloud porcelain. 

Trou became director. The claim of St. Cloud to have first 
produced soft-paste porcelain in Europe is challenged by Florence 
and Rouen, but it was undoubtedly the parent of the 
celebrated Sevres manufactory. 

Louis XIV. had become especially desirous of 
»-T— « having a national porcelain factory, and had already 
1 granted royal letters and concessions to many specialists 

who claimed to have discovered the secret of making 
Chicanneau introduced this invention about 
1695, and his fabriqiie mark was a sun. 
At his death, which happened about 
1700, the works were conducted by 
his widow and children, to whom he 
had imparted his secret. Owing to a 
second marriage of the widow, dis- 
agreements ensued in the family, which 
separated, one branch of it opening a 
rival establishment. 
The St. Cloud factory was burned down in 1773 by an incen- 
diary, and not being rebuilt, for want of funds, the manufactory 

The paste of St. Cloud porcelain is similar to that of Mene9y 
but somewhat thicker and clumsier, and not as free from 
spluttering in the firing. The decoration is generally quite 
simple, such as sprigs of flowers in the style known as " Kaki- 
yemon," and the colouring mostly blue, but sometimes red on 
creamy-white ground. There are several specimens in the 
F"ranks collection, and the Victoria and Albert Museum has 
recently been enriched by several good pieces included in the 
collection of soft-paste porcelain at first lent but since presented 
to the nation by Mr. Fitzhenry. Of the marks given below, the 
earliest is the "St. C." without the letter " T," then the "Sun," 
which was used from 1696 to 1722, afterwards the "St. C." 
with the initial letter for Trou. The fleur-de-lis is also an 
earlv mark. 

These marks of the "sun " occur in endless variety, more or less roughly drawn. 







Trull, 1730-1762. 

Tlie following additional marks are given on the autliority 

of MM. de Chavagnac et de Grollicr: — 

• S c 



T <Ib B S S. 

f 'S- £E *? /^ £. A 

.C. ^ ^ >t J)- ^ 7 -D j f* f 


Porcelain has been made here under imperial patronage since 
1744 ; the paste and style of decoration is said to have been 
founded on that of Dresden, but specimens known to the author 
have more resemblance to Berlin china than to Dresden. A 
tea service at Knole, Sevenoaks, is of fine quality porcelain, 
white, with only gilding as a decoration. Lady Sackville has a 
very curious drinking-cup formed of a female head with lustre 
decoration, which is certainly of Russian, and either of Petersburg 
or Moscow manufacture. The mark is generally the initial of 
the reigning Czar or Czarina, surmounted by an imperial crown. 
There are several specimens in the Victoria and Albert Museum, 
and also in the Franks collection at present in the Bethnal Green 
Museum. Some of the figures in the costumes of Russian 
peasants are of much interest. 

Established 1774. 

<; s 

Cypher of Catherine II. 





Initials of Empress Catherine 

II., 1762-1796. Paul 

Korneloffe, maker. 


Emperor Alexander I., 


Initial of Emperor Paul, 1706-1S01. 

Emperor Nicholas, 1825-1855. 

Emperor Alexander II., 


Korneloffe Brothers. 
Established 1827. 

S. T. Kuznetsoff. 

(Zaboda means works 

or manufactory.) 

Pottery was probably made here in the last century, but 
we have no particulars of it. 


In the chapter on Medi;eval and Renaissance pottery some 
observations have been made upon this peculiar faience, the 
most valuable and delicate of ceramic gems. There are, so far as 
we know, now in existence si.\ty-five specimens of this coveted 
fahriqiic, and in the larger edition of Chaffers' Marks ami Mono- 
grams, a table is given showing the number of specimens in 
France, England, and Russia, and also the different collections 
through which several of tlie specimens have passed during the 



last few years, together witli a list of the prices realised. Our 
Victoria and Albert Museum has no less than six good specimens, 
which were acquired at prices which are very low compared with 
those realised at recent sales. They are lent by Mr. Pierpont 
Morgan. These six pieces cost _^2430, 
whereas at the sale (in June 1 899) of the col- 
lection of M. Stein, the famous Paris expert, 
two specimens — a bibcron or ewer, and a 
salt-cellar — realised the enormous sums of 
^2000 and ;^8oo respectively. The Salting 
bequest includes a fine tazza of this rare 
faience ; it is ornamented with the interlaced 
crescents of Diane de Poitiers ; it cost its 
late owner ^1500. This brings the number 
on view to seven. 

Saint Porchaire is the recent name 
which, on the authority of M. Edouard 
Bonnaffe, has been adopted. It was formerly 
known as Henri Deux or Oiron ware. There 
is no fabrique mark, and the quaint devices 
given in Chaffers' Marks and Monograms are 
heraldic ornaments and part of the decora- 
tion. These decorations are in the true 
Renaissance character of the time of Fran- 
cois Premier and Henri II. The date of the ware given by 
Chaffers is 1520-50, and those collectors who can afford to 
purchase costly specimens of Saint Porchaire faience would do 
well to consult the table of specimens in his work referred to 
above. Unless a specimen can be traced as one of these sixty- 
five, it should have an independent pedigree which will stand the 
test of verification. 

Saint Porchaire Candlestick 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). 

SAINTES, France. 

This place, near Rochelle, was the scene of the struggles, 
the failures, and finally of the success, of the world-renowned 
Bernard Palissy, and here he produced those curious dishes, 
plates, and vases which have rendered him so famous. This 
remarkable man was born, about 15 10, at La Chapelle Biron, 
a small village between the Lot and Dordogne in Perigord. Of 
poor parentage, he seems to have had a natural thirst for know- 
ledge, to which want of means was but a slender barrier, for he 



found time to visit the chief provinces of France and Flanders. He 
married in 1539, and settled in Saintes as a glass painter and land 
measurer, and some years later, happening to observe a beautiful 
cup of enamelled pottery, he seems to have been seized with an 
enthusiastic desire to become a potter, and henceforth to have had 
no other end in life but to discover the secret of a fine enamel. 
Beyond a knowledge of glass manufacture he possessed no other 
technical information, and therefore set about his task under con- 
siderable difficulties. Experiment after experiment only resulted 
in disappointment, and the whole of his savings and the principal 
part of his scanty earnings were devoted to the object he had so 
enthusiastically set his mind on attaining. The complaints of his 
wife, and distress of his home, could not deter him from the keen 
pursuit of what appeared to all his friends and neighbours a hope- 
less task, and at length, after discharging his last workman for 
want of money to pay wages, and parting with every marketable 
chattel he possessed, he actually burned the floor boards of his 
house in a last attempt to make a successful firing. For sixteen 
long years victory was denied to this zealous potter, but, tardy as 
it was, it came at last, and Palissy had the delight of removing 
from his kiln, a comparatively perfect specimen of the enamelled 
earthenware with which his name has been identified. The sub- 
jects he elected to illustrate are well known : reptiles of every 
variety, in high relief and of wonderful fidelity to nature, were 
the strong points of his decoration, though figures and flowers 
were occasionally introduced. His fame soon spread, and ob- 
tained for him the patronage of Henri II. of France, who gave 
him liberal commissions and protection. In religion, as in art, 
Palissy was earnest and conscientious ; having embraced Pro- 
testant principles, he was proscribed by the edict of the Parlia- 
ment of Bordeaux in 1562, and, notwithstanding the personal 
influence of the Due de Montpensier, was arrested, and his work- 
shop destroyed. The King claimed him as a special servant in 
order to save his life, and subsequently he only escaped the 
massacre of St. Bartholomew by court protection. At the age of 
eighty, however, he was again arrested and confined in the Bastille, 
and, after again and again refusing to sacrifice his religious prin- 
ciples, though once, it is said, personally urged to do so by the 
King (Henri III.), he lingered on in prison until 1589, when he 
died, a martyr, like so many others of his time, to the Protestant 
faith. That he was a naturalist as well as a potter, his excellent 
representations of reptiles and insects can leave no doubt, and 


it is worthy of remark, that these natural objects are, without 
exception, national; his celebrated Marguerite daisy ornament 
was in all probability adopted out of compliment to his Protestant 
protectress, Marguerite of Navarre. 

Palissy had many imitators and pupils, and the manufacture 
of Palissy ware was continued until the time of Henri IV. A 
plate, with a family group of this monarch and his children, is 
in the Louvre, and has been repeatedly copied. 

Palissy ware bears no mark. Genuine specimens can be dis- 
tinguished from imitations, by the lightness and elegance of their 
make, combined with the crispness of finish, and the excellence of 
the modelling. The imitations are heavy and lumpy. The Musee 
du Louvre is very rich in specimens of good Palissy ware, and there 
are some good examples in the British Museum. It will be within 
the recollection of some of our readers that when, about fifteen 
years ago, the sale of the Narford Hall collection took place, and 
the Government grant was not available to add representative 
specimens to our national collection, a syndicate of amateurs and 
dealers was formed to guarantee a sufficient sum of money to 
purchase some Palissy, Majolica, and Limoges enamel, from this 
magnificent collection. A good selection was made and was 
afterwards taken over by the Government. 

MM. Delange and Borneau's illustrated volume, LCEuvres de 
Bernard Palissy, should be consulted by those who take special 
interest in Palissy ware. 

Saintes, in addition to being famous as 
the scene of Palissy's work, seems to have |-j ^ 

had other potteries. M. Jacquemart men- ' • ' 

tions those of Grouzat, Deioye, and Rochez, t . M r^ 

and both he and Chatters mention a hunt- *i.) 

ing-flask decorated with roses and tulips, ^ SA.\.Y\feS 
having on one side, within a wreath, the 1 r cc o 

name of the owner, and on the other an 
inscription of which the above is a copy. 

Salopian (see Caughley and Coalport). 


The following story is told as to the discovery of the salt-glaze 
process. Some brine boiled over and ran down the sides of a 
common brown earthen pot ; this pot becoming red-hot, the 


brine formed a glaze when cool and dry. Professor Church, 
however, has demolished this little romance, by showing that the 
common earthen pot could not have withstood the high tempera- 
ture necessary to bring about the chemical action capable of 
achieving such a result. More probably the famous potters, the 
brothers Elers, brought the secret to England with them about 
1688, and it soon became known and put in practice in Burslem, 
which was the chief centre for this kind of ware. 

The chief peculiarity about true salt-glaze ware is, that owing 
to the high temperature, which, as we have just noticed, is neces- 
sary in its manufacture, the body of the ware must be of a com- 
position to stand this heat without softening ; such a body, when 
fired to secure the glaze, becomes partially vitrified, and the result 
is stoneware. Professor Church has noted, in his English Earthen- 
ware, that when microscopically e.xamined, stoneware shows a texture 
similar to true porcelain, as distinct from earthenware or pottery. 

Some of the Continental potteries, notably those of Germany, 
in or near Cologne, and in Bavaria, also those of Belgium, or 
Flanders, as the country which now includes Belgium was then 
called, produced the salt-glazed stoneware at a very early period, 
it has been said as early as the twelfth century (see notice under 

There are some specimens in existence which bear the arms 
of Amsterdam and of other towns, and of families in the Low 
Countries, with dates of the latter part of the sixteenth century. 
During the reign of Queen Elizabeth there was a petition from 
one William Simpson, merchant, praying for the sole right of 
importing the brown salt-glazed stoneware jugs which in those 
days were so common. 

The most popularly known of these jugs were those which 
were narrow in the neck and wide in the belly, having a bearded 
mask roughly moulded in the neck, called Bellarmines, after a 
certain Cardinal Robert Bellarmine, who lived 1 542-1621, and 
was hated by the Protestants of his day for his fierce opposition 
to the reformed religion. Brown stoneware jugs of different 
capacities were in common use in Queen Elizabeth's time, to 
serve ale to customers in the alehouses of the period, and a great 
many have been discovered at different timts in the excavations 
made in and near London and also in the provinces. 

To this class of salt-glazed stoneware belong those charmmg 
mottled brown jugs with cylindrical necks which when they have 
silver mounts of the time of Queen Elizabeth, are now so highly 


prized by collectors. There are six of these in tiie Victoria and 
Albert Museum (one of them will he found illustrated in Chapter 
II.), the dates of which from the Hall marks on the silver mounts 
run from 1560 to 1600: but we do not know that the jugs 
themselves are of English manufacture. It is probable that some 
were imported. 

In England, the honour of first making stoneware of this 
kind is claimed for John Dwight, who obtained a patent in 1671 
for his "mystery of transparent earthenware." The fine stone- 
ware which he produced at Fulham, and of which we have 
such excellent specimens preserved to us in the British and 
Victoria and Albert Museums, was not exactly " porcelain," but a 
material which Professor Church has happily christened a " por- 
cellaneous " stoneware. 

The coming to England of John Philip and David Elers, and 
the foundation by them of potteries in Staffordshire, have already 
been referred to ; and although it is very difficult to attribute 
with certainty some of the specimens of the peculiar red ware, 
made in imitation of its Chinese prototype, to these potters, still 
some specimens which in all probability were their work are to be 
seen. Professor Church is of opinion that they produced this 
red ware for about twenty years, from 1692 to 17 10. The 
business does not seem to have flourished, and the Elers 
brothers abandoned their works in Staffordshire about 1710 
or 17 I 2. 

Their methods and recipes, particularly that for the salt-glaze 
process, were adopted by others, and early in the eighteenth 
century Staffordshire became the chief centre of salt-glazed 
earthenware. One of the immediate successors of the Elers 
was a potter named John Astbury, who by shamming lunacy, 
gained admission to the works, and afterwards started a pottery 
of his own, which in his son's time attained considerable popu- 
larity. Many of the Astbury pieces are well worth collecting ; they 
vary in colour, red, buff, cream, and sometimes brown occurring, 
and a design being in many cases impressed by means of a mould. 
The relief or embossed appearance attained thereby is very success- 
ful, the pattern being sharp and well defined. The cream ware 
which Astbury first produced was adopted and improved upon by 
Wedgwood, and an enormous business was developed. There 
are several good specimens of this ware in the British Museum, 


Fine Cabinet Specimens of Salt-glaze. 

The best pieces of salt-glaze ware, made from about 
1720 to 1760, are among the daintiest products of the potter's 

It was during this period, from about 1740 to 1760, that 
the decorative effect of this ware was vastly improved by the 
introduction of colours painted in enamel and being in very 
slight relief to the surface. Specimens of this time, and especially 
those decorated with interesting portraits in colour, now bring 
very high prices, ^25 and ^^30 being readily give at auction 
for the tea-pot with portrait of King of Prussia. Chinese subjects, 
birds and flowers one also finds very successfully rendered in 
the enamel colouring on the cream or pale buff ground. After 
1760 there is some decadence, and the more ordinary salt-glaze 
cream-coloured ware, of which we see specimens in the form 
of basket-shaped dishes ornamented with a pattern pressed from 
a mould, are of the later date, that is from about 1760 to 1800. 

Professor Church, who is probably the best authority on salt- 
glaze, and whose knowledge as a chemist enables him to deter- 
mine the operation of cause and effect in composition of body and 
of glaze, says that it may almost take rank as porcelain, and that 
had a little more alkali entered into its composition it would be 
veritable hard porcelain. 

Some of the tea-pots, sauce-boats, and pickle-stands are so deli- 
cate, so thin and light, that it is a positive pleasure to handle them, 
and they are, as a rule, admirably potted ; the lid of a tea-pot will 
fit with a nicety which is unusual with any but the most carefully 
finished articles. In appearance the surface is something like 
that of a cuttlefish or the dried rind of an orange, with similar 
little depressions, and when one is fortunate enough to find speci- 
mens which are picked out with colours, they are particularly 
brilliant and effective, and able to hold their own with the best 
porcelain. The self-coloured pieces are usually either of a 
cream or very pale drab, but sometimes they are found in green, 
buff, red or brown, and the design is impressed by means of a 

The glaze is like the surface of an egg, and, where colour is 
introduced, there is either a portrait medallion or a quaint figure- 
subject in bright enamel pigments, which stand out well against 
the buff or cream-coloured ground. 

The sauce-boat illustrated is an excellent specimen of its 









































































■ ^ 



































kind; under the spout is the date 1772 and initials. It is in 
the collection of Mr. Herbert Young. There is an 
excellent little collection of this thin, delicate salt- "|P "F 
glaze ware in the ceramic gallery of the Victoria -*'*-■' 
and Albert Museum and also in the Hritish Museum, where 
the specimens are better arranged and have more instructive 

M. Solon, in his work Tlie Art of the Old Eni^lish Potter, has 

Coloured Salt-glaze Sauce-boat with shell ornament in ruby in relief, and 
landscapes in a panel formed by a raised green moulding. Date 1772, 
and initials P. F. under the spout. In the collection of Mr. Herbert 

reproduced some fine examples of this English earthenware ; and 
the perusal of this work, also that of Professor Church on 
English Earthemvare, and " Notes on Salt-glaze " in the large 
edition of Chaffers are recommended to those who would make 
a careful study of the many peculiarities of this interesting ware. 
Its development during the later part of the seventeenth century 
has been traced in these pages, but the subject will repay a much 
more thorough investigation. 

Salt-glase Figures. 

The figures which we recognise as of this fine salt-glaze ware 
are generally of small size, somewhat archaic in appearance, 
and are original designs, with the exception of some models 



showing Chinese inspiration, such as the sacred hawks in the 
British Museum, or the Oriental figures in the Schreiber collection 
(Victoria and Albert Museum), and occasionally from the classic 
antique, such as the Boy extracting a Thorn. As a rule they 
are of the peculiar putty-coloured material with the egg-shell 
glaze, and show the " pitted " surface which has been compared 
to dried orange skin, but we generally find that the glaze 
has given them a smoother appearance. The use of different 
coloured clays gives the specimens so treated a polychromatic 

Fine Salt-glaze dish. In the collection of Mr. F. R. Shackletim. 

effect, and very rarely the surface is enamelled in colours. No 
marked example of a salt-glazed figure of this, the " cabinet 
specimen " type, is known. Mr. Frank Faulkner, of Bovvdon, 
Cheshire, has some good figures of this kind in his well-known 

The manufacture of ordinary useful salt-glazed ware is now 
carried on in this country to an enormous extent, common 
kitchen ware, drain pipes, and sanitary appliances being glazed 
by the chemical application of common salt, which is now 
scientifically applied while the ware is being fired. (See also 
notice at end of " DouLTON, Lambeth Wark.") 

Samson (see Paris). 






■ r -T; 

^ 5 
o S 

< -> 

H -£ 




A factory of considerable importance at the present day 
is that of Messrs. Utzchneider & Co., estabhshed about 1770. 
Porcelain (soft paste), biscuit figures, and stoneware of an artistic 
character are made. 


Satsuma (see Japan). 
Savona (see Majolica). 
Saxony see (Dresden). 

Recent Mark. 


A small factory was established by one Jacques Chapelle, 
near Paris, about 1750, and a few years later came under the 
protection of the Due de Penthievre, Lord High Admiral. 

Jardiniere of Sceaux faience. 


The productions are soft paste, and very similar to those of 
Menegy, for which unmarked specimens might be easily mistaken. 
As the Sevres manufactory flourished, the best workmen and 
artists were attracted thither, and the date of the death of its 
ducal patron, 1794, was probably that of the close of this factory, 
though the manufacture of soft paste had previously ceased. The 
mark, like that of Menec^y, is engraved in the paste. 

The anchor mark was assumed out of compliment to the 



Glut, 1775. 


SX- ^^ 

An excellent faience, much resembling that of Strasburg 
{q.v.), was also made here. It is probable that the manu- 
facture of it ceased about the same time as that of the porcelain. 



Some curious table-services of stannifer- 
ous enamelled earthenware were made here 
in the eighteenth century ; each piece was 
made to represent a joint of meat or a 
vegetable. These marks are given by Herr 


With the exception of the Vienna factory, this is said to have 
been the oldest in Austria. The paste is hard, and the subjects 
are sometimes finely painted. The mark is an S. It was estab- 
lished about 1800 (see Bohemia). 



Some pieces are marked " Leppert und Haas," the names 
of proprietors. The factory appears to have passed through 
various hands, and a great many marks of these firms have been 
given in the latest (13th) edition of Chalmers' Marks. 




Herr Jiinike gives this ni;uk for (aiencc 
made here. 

Seinie (see La Seinie). 
Sept-Fontaines (see Luxembourg). 


SEVILLE, Spain. 

M. Jacquemart is of opinion that some 
of the majolica hitherto attributed to 
Savona (see Majolica) was really made at 
Seville. As has been already pointed out, 
the precise place of manufacture of much 
of the early majolica will probably always 
be a matter of uncertainty, and a discus- 
sion of the question, though interesting, is 
hardly within the scope of this work. Modem. xi.\. Century. 

Dr. Drury Fortnum mentions that to Niculoso Francesco of 
Seville, Spain is indebted for two of the finest monuments of 
ceramic art, namely, the altar front and dossale in the chapel 
erected by Ferdinand and Isabella in the Alcazar at Seville, and 
the rich facpade to the door of the Church of Santa Paula in a 
suburb of that city. 

Towards the end of the nineteenth century, the firm of 
Pickman & Co. carried on the manu- 
facture of what is called " opaque 
china " with some success. Imita- 
tions of Moorish tiles and other 

pottery are still made in considerable ^ J?^ Z' (SEyij^ 
quantities. Some of these are marked 
" Sevilla." 

There is also a considerable manufactory of Seville pottery of 
quaint artistic forms, and rude but effective decoration, in blues 
and yellows, carried on at the present day in the town of Seville, 
but there is no fabriqne mark. 


In our notice of Vincennes we have already shown that 
the history of this most important ceramic manufactory, some of 
the productions of which have within the last few years realised 



such enormous prices, commenced with the manufacture of soft- 
paste porcelain at Vincennes. The secret was carried to this place 
from Chantilly by two brothers, named Dubois, and upon their 

Sevres Vase, green ground (Jones Beciuest, Victoria and Albert Museum). 

offering to sell their information to the French Government, every 
facility was afforded them, and a laboratory was furnisiied by the 
Intendant of Finance in the Chateau of Vincennes. After three 
years' trial, they were expelled on account of irregularities and 
intemperance. One of their workmen, however, Gravant by name. 




Portions of the service wliich originally comprised 744 pieces, and was made for the 
Empress Catherine of Russia at a cost of ;{^i3,5oo. The decoration is extremely beautiful, 
bands of turquoise with paintings in medallions of the initial E (Ekaterina), and the 
numeral 11. Eleven pieces of this service were formerly in the collection of Mr. Goode. 



an intelligent man, had gained much useful information, which he 
sold to the Intendant. 

In 1745 a company was formed by Charles Adam, a sculptor, 
and certain privileges were granted. Eight years afterwards, 
however, these privileges were extended, and the King (Louis 
XV.) took an active interest in the venture, paying one-third of 
the expenses, and allowing the company to use the title of 
" Manufacture Royale de Porcelaine de France." The two L's 
in reversed cyphers became the regular mark, and the letters of 

Sevres hisatit Group of ChililrL'n (Jones Bequest, Victoria and Albert Museum). 

the alphabet placed between them formed the distinguishing date- 
mark, the year 1753, denoted by A, commencing this new 
starting-point in the factory's history. The rest of the alphabet 
denoted successive years, until (omitting W) Z was reached in 1777. 
The double-letter period then commenced, A A standing for 
1778, and so on until P P denoted 1793, when this system of 
marking was discontinued and the initials of the Republic (R F 
for Repubiique Frani;aise) were used for ;i short time. Other 
changes in the mark were used after 1800 which will be shown 
in the table at the end of this notice. Upon many specimens 
of old Sevres china, in addition to the double "L" and enclosed 



letter indicating tiie date, there is also another letter or device. 
This is the signature of the decorator or gilder. A list of these 
signatures will be found following these remarks. 

From the King's partnership dated the prosperity of the 
factory, and in 1756 the buildings at Vincennes having become 


Portions of a famous dessert service made originally for Louis XVI., and afterwards 
purchased by George IV., and placed in the green drawing-room of Windsor Caslle. The 
medallions ot mythological subjects are the work of Legay, Philippine, Dodin, and Asselin. 
The whole service was, about twenty years ago, assessed at £ 1 00,000, and would now be worth 
considerably more. The specimens illustrated were formerly in the collection of Mr. Goode. 

too cramped for the operations, the company built a large and 
suitable edifice at Sevres, where a site had been purchased from 
the Marquise de Pompadour. 

In 1760 Louis XV. purchased the establishment from the 



company, and appointed M. Boileau director, at a salary of 2000 
louis, with a competent staff of the best men to assist him in each 

Lyre-form Clock of Sevres china, dark blue (Jones Bequest, 
Victoria and Albert Museum). 

department of the operations, the royal grant to the manufactory 
being 96,000 francs. Duplessis, goldsmith to the King, composed 



the models for the vases, and Daguerre, Boizot, Falconet, Pajou, 
Clodion were all employed at various times as modellers. 
Bachelier superintended the decoration, and in his directions to 
the painters drew upon the best examples of suitable subjects 
which were at his command. As proof of the King's personal 
interest in the enterprise, he allowed exhibitions of the productions 
to be held at the Palace of Versailles, and it was a sure road to 
royal favour for a courtier to become a liberal purchaser at 
these sales, at which his Majesty personally presided. 

The oldest colour is the beautiful bleu tie rot. In 1752 Hellot 
discovered the charming blue ground colour obtained from 
copper, known as bleu turquoise, and in 1757 the pink known as 
Rose Pompadour, or du Barry was used ; about the same time other 
chemical experiments resulted in the violet pensce, jaune claire et 
jotiquille, verte-pomme et vcrt-pre, combinations which, in harmony 
with that most delicate composition forming the pate teudre, render 
the pieces so produced the most beautiful that can be imagined 
or desired. 

The names of some other decorations occur in various cata- 
logues and inventories ; thus the ail de prcdix, the well-known 
partridge eye-pattern, vert sable, rose tendrc, or riche, vert rehaussc 
d'or and others, rouge de fer, a brilliant red, carmine, pourpre, bleu 
turque, a greyish-blue not to be confounded with turquoise blue, 
and bleu lapis, a veined blue representing lapis-lazuli. 

These ground colours are sometimes used in combination on 
the same piece, the bleu de roi with the verte-pomme, or the Rose 
Pompadour, or Rose du Barry, with an interlaced scroll of green. 
There is a pair of small square-sided pedestals in existence, which, 
when the author last saw them, were in the collection of Mr. 
Samuelson, and which were decorated in four colours, rose, green, 
bleu de roi, and turquoise, one colour on each side. These tiny 
ceramic gems, only some three inches high, were valued at ^5000, 
and are probably unique, as the difficulty in firing different 
colours, which need special temperatures, must have been almost 
insuperable. A dejeuner service of the Rose du Barry and green 
colours in combination, was sold in the Hawkins sale at Christie's, 
May 1904, for about ^'1200. 

Madame de Pompadour, whose Court influence was supreme 
for twenty years, gave the factory every encouragement ; and 
doubtless, it is to her artistic taste and her extravagance, that the 
Sevres porcelain of the best period owes much of its fame. 

With respect to the beautiful and delicate salmon-pink, so 



highly prized by collectors, it is singular that the name by which 
it has been generally known in England should be Rose du Barry, 
seeing that Madame du Barry was not born until 1746, one year 
after the time at which her predecessor in the King's affections 
had become his mistress. Madame de Pompadour was born in 
1721, " reigned " from 1745, and died in 1764. It is evident, 
therefore, that Madame du Barry can have had no influence on 
the productions of Sevres until long after the discovery and use 
of the beautiful rose colour. The labels in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum bear the alternative description, Rose du Barry or 
Pompadour. From the author's experience and observation it 
would appear that there are two rose colours, one of these having 
a little blue in its composition and being termed by some 
collectors " Pompadour pink," to distinguish it from the true 
Rose du Barry. According to the latest authority on Sevres, 
MM. Chavagnac and de Grollier's Histoire des Manufactures 
Frauraiscs de Porcclainc, Madame du Barry gave no title to 
any colour, and Rose Pompadour is the correct title of the beautiful 
ground colour, which every collector admires and which only the 
wealthy can possess. It is, as already stated, a salmon-pink with 
a tinge of yellow in its composition, which gives the pink the 
peculiar tint familiar to gardeners as the colour of the bloom of 
the azalea Mollis, and it is distinct from the other colours applied 
to Sevres porcelain, in that it has an opaque instead of a trans- 
parent appearance. The highest prices are always commanded by 
genuine examples in which this delicate ground colour predomin- 
ates, and in the Hawkins sale at Christie's in 1904 a single cup 
and saucer sold for 200 guineas. Vases or other important speci- 
mens realise sums running to thousands of pounds. It is recorded 
that Xhrouet, the artist who actually produced the colour, was paid 
160 francs as a reward for his achievement. 

In reference to the influence on Sevres of these two royal 
favourites, it may be observed that whereas the interests of 
Madame de Pompadour in the factory were commercial as well 
as artistic, Madame du Barry had no financial concern in it, and 
was only interested in the production of beautiful objects. 
Although, as already mentioned, no particular colour or model 
appears to have been named after her, many orders were executed 
for her, and many presents were ordered for her by the King, and 
there is at least one celebrated service decorated with her mono- 
gram. The Queen, too, although living outside the inner circle of 
the Court, was interested in the factory, as were the Dauphin and 


Mounted in Ormolu. 

Jovrs Kkouest, 

lA AND Albbrt Museum 



Marie Antoinette, who came to France as his bride in 1770. The 
latter already knew something of the manufacture of porcelain 
owing to the patronage of the Vienna factory by the Austrian 
Court, and became an enthusiastic supporter of Sevres. 

Vases, services, garnitures de chcmince were made as presents to 
reigning sovereigns and rewards to ambassadors, and orders on 
a liberal scale were also received from such personages. It is 
obvious, then, that the Sevres factory has a pre-eminence over all 
rivals in the magnificence of its productions, and important speci- 
mens can only be acquired by wealthy collectors. The 
amateur of moderate means must be content with cups and 
saucers, sucriers, tea-pots, or such other modest portions of valuable 

Besides the costly and richly decorated services and vases, 
there were also made large quantities of the best kind of soft- 
paste porcelain, decorated in a simple and unassuming manner, 
for use in the chateaux and houses of the nobility. Detached 
sprigs of flowers with a double blue line, or a horseshoe-shaped 
scroll and flowers, the " hop trellis " pattern, a " chintz " pattern, 
and many others too numerous to mention, are all examples of 
the refined and cultivated style of ornamentation favoured by this 
celebrated factory. The charming white of the soft-paste ground 
enhances the value of the decoration, however simple, and the 
gilding, whether slight or rich, is invariably skilfully and carefully 

Beautiful, however, as were the productions of the royal 
works, the desire to equal the Saxons in their hard paste, and 
also to imitate the durability and utility of the Chinese and 
Japanese porcelains, were the cause of continued researches, 
until in 1761 Pierre Antoine Hannong, youngest son of the 
Frankenthal potter, sold the secret of hard-paste porcelain to 
the Sevres manufactory ; with its adoption, the ability to make 
the more delicate pd/e tendre would appear to have vanished. The 
necessary kaolin was accidentally discovered in large quantities 
near Limoges, by the wife of a poor surgeon, who had noticed a 
white unctuous earth, which she thought might be used as a 
substitute for soap ; this, on analysis, proved to be the desideratum 
for hard-paste porcelain, and so revolutionised porcelain-making 
in France. 

The direction passed at M. Boileau's death in 1773 to Parent, 
and in 1779 to Regnier, who, however, was imprisoned. A com- 
mission, appointed by the National Convention, then administered 


the affairs of the factor)' until M. Alexandre Brongniart, to whom 
ceramics owe so much, was appointed by the First Consul in 
1800, and remained director for nearly fifty years. He founded 
the Museum of Ceramic Productions, with the approval and 
assistance of Napoleon the First. 

The finest period was, however, that from 1753 to 1769, 
when the pate tendre was in its perfection, the more durable and 
later process preventing that beautiful "blending" of body and 
decoration, which is so eminently artistic. 

A peculiarity of the earhest productions of the factory at Vin- 
cennes, which, as we have seen, was afterwards amalgamated with 
the Sevres factory, deserves to be noted. In the beautiful rich 
dark bhie ground colour, one observes a blotchy or splashed effect, 
owing to the colour being unequally applied to the surface of the 
china with a brush. Afterwards, at Sevres, this process was im- 
proved by putting on the colour in the form of a powder which 
vitrified and spread more equally over the surface. Tlie effect 
of the old Bleu de Vincennes is, however, excellent, and is now 
very highly prized by collectors. This effect was also successfully 
imitated at the Chelsea works by M. Sprimont, and is to be 
found on some of the richest specimens of Chelsea. These pieces 
of Vincennes are, as a rule, very sparsely painted, and depend for 
their decorative eff'ect, upon the beautiful blue colour and the rich 
massive gilding which generally accompanies it. 

His Majesty the King has at Windsor Castle and also at 
Buckingham Palace a very fine collection of Sevres porcelain, 
which the writer has had the privilege of examining, and compar- 
ing with the inventory books kept at the Castle, in which every 
specimen is accurately described. In Chaffers' large edition 
several quotations of interest will be found which were taken 
from these books, and one of our illustrations represents portions 
of a famous service, valued at ^^ 10 0,0 00, which is in the Green 
Drawing-room at Windsor Castle. Another illustration represents 
one other famous service of old Sevres which was made in the 
year 1778 for the Empress Catherine II. of Russia. Its original 
cost was about ;£i 3,500 for the 744 pieces of which it consisted. 
Its value to-day may be imagined from the fact that when a 
single plate is offered for sale, the average price realised under 
the hammer is about ;^i 50 ; and at the Octavius Coope sale (May 
1910) the pair of ice-pails illustrated on page 349 realised ^2700. 
Its decoration is the initial of Ekaterina and the numeral II., 
and the beautiful turquoise ground colour with small medallions 



of a chocolate brown. Another famous service, which was made 
for the Cardinal Prince de Rohan and is decorated with his 
monogram, is in the possession of M. Leopold de Rothschild, 
who also owns a set of the finest "jewelled" Sevres known to 
the author. 

The late Baron Ferdinand de Rothschild had also a very 
valuable collection of Sevres china, as have other members of 
this wealthy family, both in England and on the Continent, 
and the collections of the Duke of Buccleuch, Lord Hillingdon, 
and Mr. David Currie are famous. The latter has several cases 
of specimens on loan at the Victoria and Albert Museum. 
Amongst the collections which can be seen by the public, those 
which contain some of the finest specimens are the Jones collec- 
tion in the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the famous Richard 
Wallace collection bequeathed by the late Lady Wallace, exhibited 
at Hertford House, Manchester Square. This collection was 
originally formed by Lord Hertford, and by him left to Sir Richard 
Wallace. Hare wood House, halfway between Harrogate and 
Leeds, contains some beautiful Sevres, and is open to the public 
one day a week. 

There are also in the pottery galleries of the Victoria and 
Albert Museum a great many specimens of less note and value, 
but of great beauty, and also a small collection of specimens of 
present-day manufacture, which were presented to this country 
by the French Minister of Industry some years ago. Mr. David 
Currie's old Sevres in this museum and that of Mr. J. G. Joicey 
are also worth studying. 

When the writer was revising the eighth edition of Chaffers' 
Marks and Monograms he took considerable pains to complete 
the list of date marks and decorators' signs on specimens of Sevres 
porcelain, and this list he has been allowed to use for the present 
work by the courtesy of the proprietor and publisher of Chaffers. 

There is in the same work much information of a more de- 
tailed character about this very important ceramic factory, and 
the reader is referred to it for additional notes on Sevres porce- 
lain. In revising the present edition of Pottery and Porcelain 
for the press, advantage has been taken of the more recently 
published authority, Histoirc dcs Manufactures Franfaises de 
Porcelainc by Cte. de Chavagnac et Mis de GroUier, to add 
a number of the more recent of the Sevres marks from 1871 
to 1904. 




Early Marks, "Vincennes." 

First date mark, 1753. 

Examples of 1770 and 1771, with unknown 
emblems of painters. 

The double L mark is sometimes very freely 
rendered as above. This mark is upon a 
plate of good soft paste, and with slight but 
careful decoration in detached bouquets and 
a blue line, in the collection of Mr. Herbert 
W. Hughes. 


By which the exact date of any piece may be ascertained. It differs from that 
before given by M. Brongniart in the addition of the letter J for 1762, and the 
JJ for 1787, which is now altered on the authority of the late M. Riocreux of 
the Sevres Museum. 

A (Vincennes). 1753 
B ( ditto ). 1754 
C ( ditto ). 1755 
D removed to -Sevres 1756 

E 1757 

F 1758 




















* The comet of 1769 furnished the Administration of the time with 
the idea of transmitting the recollection of the event by their pro- 
ductions. This comet was sometimes substituted for the ordinary 



S 1771 

T 1772 

U 1773 

V 1774 

X 1775 

Y 1776 

Z 1777 

AA 177S 

BB . 
CC . 
EE . 
FF . 
GG . 

1779 JJ 



LL . 





.... 1787 

.... 1788 

.... 1789 

.... 1790 

.... 1791 

.... 1792 

to July i7tli 1793 

Note. — These letters are not always placed within the cipher, but occasionally outside, 
when the interlaced L's are too contracted to receive them ; or if double letters, one on each 
side. It may also be observed that the date letters are sometimes capitals and sometimes 

In the Histoire dcs Maiiiifactiircs Fran(atses dc Porcelain, by MM. 
de Chavagnac et de Grollier^ an interesting otftcial letter is fully 
quoted, in which M. Garat, the Minister of Interior, under date 
July 17, 1793, informed M. Regnier, the director of the Sevres 
factory, that inasmuch as the mark of the double L was the em- 
blem of royalty, it was desirable to obliterate any such souvenirs, 
and the mark was to be altered with as little delay as possible. 
The actual date of the King's execution was January 21, 1793. 
Although on some rare occasions the double letter was used after 
this year, and the letters QS^ and RR have appeared in several 
books, we may take it that this 17th July was the date when the 
old double L and date letters disappeared officially, and the new 
order of things came into existence, as the following table of signs 
will explain : — 

Year IX (iSoi) 

ndicated by 


X (1802) 



XI (1S03) 



„ XII (1804) 



„ XIII(i8o5) 



„ XIV (1806) 






.... 10 

(onze) o.z. 

(douze) d.z. 

(trieze) t.z. 

(quatorze) q.z. 

(quinze) q.n. 

(seize) s.z. 

(dix sept) d.s. 

From this date the year is expressed by the last two figures 

only — thus, 18 for 1818, &c., with the letter S thus, 

and this mark is nearly always stencilled in a green CsTq^ 
colour. Sometimes there is a supplementary mark 
giving the year when the specimen was decorated or gilt, thus, 
DORE A Sevres. These marks are in use at the present time. 




1792 TO 1S04. 

O evre$ 



e. vvbjA. 

1792 to 1799. 


I So I to 1S04. 

1804 to 1814. 

cLe Sevres . 

NAroi.EON. 1804(01809. Always 
in red. 


Napoleon. 1810101814. Generally 
printed in red. 


1814 TO 1S48. 

I.ouis XVIII. 1814101824. Generally in 
blue ; the number under the word Sevres 
indicates the year, last two figures only 
being used. 

Charles X. 1824 to 1S2S. The numbers 
underneath ihe word Sevres stand for 
1S24, 1S25, 1S27 ; nearly always in blue. 



Charles X. 1829 and 1830. Generally in 
blue ; used on pieces only gilt. 

"<?■ 3Q 

Charles X. 1830. Generally in blue ; 
used on the decorated pieces. 

< evres 

Generally in blue. 

Louis Philippe. 1831101834. In gold 
or in blue. 

Louis Philippe. 1834. Generally 
in blue. 

On services for the Palaces. Other marks 
indicated other chateaux, as P'ontaine- 
bleau, St. Cloud, Dreux, &c. , &c. 




Louis riiilippe. 1845 to 1848. Generally 
printed in green. 

CS.4 8.:) 

After 1803, tlii.s mark in green was used for 
white porcelain, the 48 representing the 
year, and so on up to the present time, 
only the last two cyphers of the year 
being used. 

1848 to 1S51. 

The S stands for Sevres, and 51 for 1851. 



1852 TO 1872. 

Generally in red. 

Napoleon III. From 1852. .Sometimes 
the words Dore a Sevres or Decore a 
Sevres are added on each side of the N. 



This mark in green used for white pieces, 
when scratched it denotes issue undeco- 



1 87 1 to 1904. 

1S71. Mark printed in red. 

1S72 to 1899. Mark printed in red. 

18S0 to 1889. Mark printed in red. 

1890 to 1904. Mark printed in red 
without date. 

1888 to 1891. Mark stamped in relief, 
a potter. 


1S60 to 1899. Mark impressed on biscuil. 

1900 to 1904. Mark 
in green to indicate 

1900 to 1904. Mark 
impressed on biscuit. 

1900 to 1902. Mark 
in red to indicate 
year of decoration. 

1900 to 1902. Mark 
in red to indicate 
year of gilding. 

1900. Mark used for large decorated 

Mark in red to indicate year of decoration. 

Mark in red to indicate year of gilding. 

189S to 1904. Marks used for specimens m.ide for presentation to ministers, 
ambassadors, or legations. 






FROM 1753 TO 1800. 


Names of Painters. 

Aloncle . . 


Anteaume . . 


Armand, Pierre 
Louis Philippe 


ASSELIN . . , 

1 ^ 

AUBERT . . . 


Bailly . . . 


Barre . . . 

— . 

Bardet . . . 


Barrat . . . 


Baudouin . . 

Becquet . . 

Subjects and Dates. 

Birds, flowers, and em- 
blems. Born 1734, en- 
tered 1758, and class. 

Landscapes and animals. 
Born 1727, entered 


Birds, flowers, &c. En- 
tered 1746, worked at 
home after 1785. 

Portraits, miniatures. En- 
tered 1764. 

Flowers. Entered 1754- 

Flowers. Born 1720, en- 
tered 1745, left 1793. 

Detached bouquets. Be- 
fore 1800. 

Flowers. Born 1732, en- 
tered 1 75 1. 

Garlands, bouquets. En- 
tered 1769, ist class. 

Ornaments, friezes. Born 
1724, entered 1750, gil- 
der 2nd class. 

Flowers. Born 17 14. 




Names of Paintas. 

Bertrand . . . 

Subjects and Dates. 

Detached bouquets. 1750 
to 1800. 


BiNET .... 

Gilding. Born 1735, pain- 
ter 1755, gilder 1759. 

Detached bouquets. Born 
1 73 1, entered 1750. 

cj e 

BiNET, M'''"=, ncc 
Sophie Chanou 

Garlands, bouquets. 


Boucher . . . 

Flowers, wreaths. Born 
1725, entered 1754. 


BouCHET, Jean 

Landscapes, animals, and 
painter in gold (1793). 
Born 1720, entered 1757. 


Boucot .... 

Birds and flowers. 


BOUCOT, P. . . . 


Flowers, garlands, and ara- 
besques. 1 785-1791. 



Flowers, landscapes. 1800- 


BouiLLAT, Rachel, 
jyjdme maqueret 

Detached bouquets. 



Detached bouquets. En- 
tered 1779, ist class 


Boulanger, juil. . 

Children, rustic subjects. 




Sculptor. 1773-1774. 


Brachard . . . 

Modeller. Entered 1754 
1780 sculptor, 2nd 


BULIDON . . . 

Detached bouquets. 2nd 
class. 1763-1792. 

mi -MB 

BUNEL, M'''"=, ncc 
BUTEUX, Manon 

Detached bouquets. 




Natncs of Painters. 


BUTEUX, sen. . . 

(0 a. 

BUTEUX, apprentice 


BuTEUX, eld. son . 

BUTEUX, yr. son . 


Capelle .... 


Caruin .... 


Carrier or Carrie 




Caton . . . 

c^" y>. 

Catrice . . . 


Chabry . . . 


Chanou, Sophie, 

M'^""= BiNET 


Chanou, Jean Bap 



Chapuis, sen. . 


Chapuis, jun. . 


Chauvaux, sen. 

.Siihjcrls and Dates. 

Cupids, flowers, emblems, 
&c., en camaieu. Born 
17 2 1, entered 1759. 

Entered 1779- 

Detached bouquets, &c. 
1760, 2nd class. 

Pastorals, children, &c. 
Entered 1759, and class. 

Various friezes. Born 1722, 
entered 1749. 

Detached bouquets. En- 
tered 1749, chief painter, 

Flowers. Born 1734, en- 
tered 1752. 

Landscapes, hunting sub- 
jects, birds, &c. En- 
tered 1771. 

Pastorals, children, por- 
traits. Born 1727, 
worked 1747-1793. 

Detached bouquets and 
flowers. Before 1800. 

Miniatures, pastorals. 


Garlands, bouquets. 

Entered 1779, pensioned 

Flowers, birds. 1756. 

Detached bouquets. 

Gilding. Born 1731, 
worked 175 2-1793, ist 






Names of Painlcrs. 

Chauvaux, jun. 
Chevalier . . 
Choisy, De . . 

^\ Chulot . 

C .772, . or C^iy COMMELIN 


Subjects and Dales. 

Gilding and bouquets. 

Flowers, bouquets. Born 

1729, entered 1755. 

Flowers, arabesques. Born 
1748, worked 1770- 

Emblems, flowers, and ara- 
besques. 1755-1793. 

Garlands, bouquets. 1765— 

Flowers, bouquets. 1755- 


CoTEAU of Geneva was one of the artists who decorated Khe jewelkii Sevres; he was an 
cnameller, and his lieautiful enamelled borders are much prized. 


Couturier . . . 

Gilding. About 1783. 



Chinese subjects, flowers, 
gilding. Worked 1780- 

S " K!. 

DODIN .... 

Figures, various subjects, 
portraits. Born 1734, 
entered before 1754. 


Drand .... 

Chinese subjects, gilding. 
Formerly at Chantilly. 
About 1761. 


Dubois .... 

Flowers and garlands. 



Flowers, friezes, &c. 


Durosey, Soph., 

jyjdme NoUAILHER 

Detached bouquets about 


DUSOLLE . . . 

Detached bouquets. Before 




D T. 


Knincs of Pain/ers. Subjects ami Dates. 

DUTANDA . . . Bouquets, garlands. 1773- 


Evans .... Birds, butterflies, and land- 
scapes. Born 1733, 
worked 1752-1793. 

Falconet . . . Head of School of Sculp- 
ture, 1757-1766 ; died 

Fernex, Jean Bap- Modeller and sculptor, 
tiste de 1756. 








Fritsch . 

i-^ -cj^-^ 





Genest . 


Genin . 


Gerard . 


-Jit v^/O Gerard, Madame, 
. ' b nee Vautrin 

Arabesques, birds, butter- 
flies. 1764— 1780. 

Emblems, miniatures. 

Born 1735) worked 

Gilding. 1753. 

Flowers, bouquets. Before 

Figures, children. 1763— 


Flowers, arabesques, &c. 
1776-1793, 3rd class. 

Landscapes, animals. 


Figures, &c. 175 2-1780. 

Figures, genre subjects. 
Entered 1756, left 1758. 

Pastorals, miniatures. En- 
tered 1771, pensioned 

Flowers. About 1792. 





Names of Painters. 
GiRARD . . . 




cy^ -^^ Grison . . 

^ '^. Henrion 

>" Hericourt . 

W or ^^ "'^''™ • ■ 





^» JUBIN . . . 

• ^jv Leandre 
Z' J§ Le Bel, sen. 

o O 

Subjects and Dates. 

Arabesques, Chinese sub- 
jects. 1771-1825. 

Birds. Born 1736, entered 

Garlands, bouquets. En- 
tered 1769. 

Gilding. Entered 1749. 

Garlands, bouquets. En- 
tered 1768. 

Garlands, bouquets. Born 
1740, gilder 1755. 

Figures, subjects, &c. Be- 
fore 1800. 

Flowers. Born 1725, en- 
tered 1747. 

Flowers. Before 1800. 

Detached bouquets. Be- 
fore 1800. 

Gilding. Before 1800. 

Bouquets, medallions, em- 
blems. Entered 1758. 

Pastoral subjects. Before 

P'igures and flowers. 

Garlands, bouquets. En- 
tered 1765, gilder 1793. 




Names of Painters. 

Subjects and Dates. 

XJv or X^\-k 

Lecot .... 

Chinese subjects and birds. 
Entered 1763, gilder 


Ledoux .... 

Landscapes and birds. 

Formerly at Chantilly. 

Born i7'5S> entered 


'^J^ or- ij\7 

Le Guay, Etienne- 

Gilding. Entered 1749, 
gilder 1751. 


Le Guay, Pierre- 

Miniatures, children, tro- 


phies, Chinese subjects. 

Entered 1772 or 1774. 


Le Riche, Joseph . 

Noted sculptor. Born 1739, 
worked 1780. 

Ti 1762 or 'E 

Le Tourneur . . 

Sculptor. 1762. 

LTli^ or LT 

Le Troune 

Sculptor. Entered 1753. 


Leve, pere . . . 

Flowers, birds, and ara- 

besques. Born 1731, en- 

tered 1754, gilder 1793. 


LEvfi, Felix . . 

Flowers, Chinese subjects. 
Before 1800. 


LlANCE .... 

Sculptor. Entered 1769. 


MaQUERET, M''"^'=, me 

Flowers. Before 1800. 

Rachel Bouillat 


Massy .... 

Flowers and emblems. En- 
tered 1779. 

f " s 

Merault, sen. . 

Various friezes. Entered 



Merault, jun. . . 

Bouquets, garlands, worked 
17S9-1780, gilder. 

2 A 





Names of Painters. 
MiCAUD . . . . 

Stibjec/s and Dates. 

Flowers, bouquets, medal- 
lions, birds, and animals, 
ist class. Entered 1757. 

nm ..M. 

Michel . . . . 

Detached bouquets. Be- 
fore 1800. 


MOIRON .... 

Flowers, bouquets. 1790- 



Flowers, bouquets. Born 
1724, worked 1754- 

^ " ji 

MORIN .... 

Marine and military sub- 
jects. Born 1733, worked 


MUTEL .... 

Landscapes. Born 1736, 
entered 1754. 


NlQUET .... 

Detached bouquets. En- 
tered 1764. 


Noel .... 

Flowers, ornaments. Born 

1735. worked 1755- 


iie'e Sophie Du- 
ROSEY .... 

Flowers. Worked 1780. 


Pajou .... 

Figures. Entered 1750. 


Parpette, Philippe 

Flowers. Born 1738, en- 
tered 1755. 1st class. 


Parpette, M"= 

Flowers, garlands. .Before 


Perrottix . . . 

Sculptor. Entered 1760. 


Petit \ . . . 

Flowers. Born 1724, 
worked 1756. 


Pfeiffer . . . 

Detached bouquets. 
Worked 1793. 





Names of Painters. 

Philippine the elder 

.Subjects and Dates. 

Children, genre subjects. 
Entered 1779. 

;& ' .- /• 

Pierre, sen. . . 

Flowers, bouquets. Before 

Pr ' ^^ 

Pierre, jun. . . 

Bouquets, garhinds. En- 
tered 1760. ist class. 


PiTHOU, sen. . . 

Portraits, historical sub- 
jects. 1772-1793. 


PiTHOU, jun. . . 

Figures, ornaments, flowers. 

a " i 


Detached bouquets. En- 
tered 1777. 


Prevost . . . 

Gilding. Entered 1754, 
gilder 1759. ist class. 


Detached bouquets. Be- 
fore 1800. 


ROCHER .... 

Figures. Born 1729, 
entered 1758. 


ROSSET .... 

Landscapes. Born 1735, 
worked 1759-1793- 


ROUSSEL. . . . 

Detached bouquets. Be- 
fore 1800. 



Birds, landscapes, ist class. 
About 1785. 

s sjo. 

SiNSSON, pere . . 

Flowers. Entered 1795. 


SiNSSON .... 

Flowers, groups, and gar- 
lands. Entered 1773, at 
Secaux 1771 ; very good. 

• • • ^ J 

••• or i"* 

Sioux .... 

Bouquets, garlands. Born 
1716, entered 1752. 

Sioux, jun. . . . 

Flowers and garlands, eii 
camaieu. Entered 1752. 




Names of Painteis. 

Tabary . . . 

Subjects and Dates. 

Birds, &c. Born 1711, en- 
tered 1754. 

• • • 
• • • • 


>T-^ + or 

Taillaxdier . 


Tardi . . . 

Taunay . . . 

Theodore . 
Thevenet, sen. 

Thevenet, jun. 

Vande .... 

Vautrin, afterwards 
Madame Gerard 
Vavasseur . . . 

ViEILLARD . . . 

Vincent .... 
Xrowet . . . 


Bouquets, garlands. Born 
i737> worked 1753— 

Bouquets, garlands. Born 

1736, entered 1755. 
Bouquets, garlands. Born 

1733, entered 1757. 
Enameller and painter. 
Inventor of ground 
colours, one of the early 
Vincennes artists. About 

Gilding. Before 1800. 
Flowers, medallions, groups. 

Born i7o8,enteredi74i. 
Ornaments, friezes. Born 

1737, entered 1752. 
Gilding, flowers. Born 

1727, gilder 1755. 
Bouquets, friezes. About 

Arabesques. Born 1731, 

entered 1753. 

Emblems, ornaments. Born 
1718, entered 1752, good. 

Gilding. 1752 1790. 

Landscapes, and inventor 
of Rose du Barri ground 
colour. Born 1736, en- 
tered 1750. 

Landscapes, birds. Born 
1713, entered 1750. 


Marks of Painters on Sevres porcelain hilherlo not identified. 

A description of the specimens on which these marks have 
been found is given in the large edition of Chaffers. 

T" "TT or T h ^ Unknown. Cupids, &c. Before 1800. 

i.N. "^^ v:i 

Y' ^3 GI D 

LATE PERIOD, 1800 TO about 1900. 


Names of Painters. 


Time of Work. 


Andre, Jules . 




Apoil . . . 

Figures, subjects, 



Apoil, M<^"'= . 




Archelais . 




AvissE, Saul 





Figure subjects 

Previous to 






Barbin, F. . 




Barre . . 

Flowers. Chief of 





Oi. r: 

Names of Paintej 




Belet, Adolphe Ornament 

Time of Work. 

After 1800 

Belet, Emile . Flowers and birds Previous to 


Belet, Louis . Ornaments After 1800 

Beranger, A. . Figures 1810-46 

Bienville, H. Ornaments 1 877-1904 




Bocquet . 


Bonnuit . 

Gilder and de- 1849-80 

Ornaments. Mo- 1878-1901 
deller and de- 




BouLLEMEiRjA. Gilding 


BouLLEMiER, Gilding 

Brecy, Paul . Ornament 


After 1798 


Previous to 






i3 tu nee. /J 

Names of Painlcrs. Subjects. 

Brunet-Roc- Figure subject 
QUES, Antoine 


Time of Work. 


BuTEUX, ap- 


About 1779 


Cabau . . . 




Capronnier . 


About 1 8 14 


Celos, Jules F. 


sur pate) 





Charpentier . 

Gilding and decora- 



Charrin, M"= 

Figures, subjects, 

After 1800 


Constant . . 




Constantin . 





Previous to 


Dammouse . . 

Figures and 
ments {pate 





David, Alex. . Decorations, also 1850-82 

Davignon . . Landscapes and 1807-12 

Delafosse . Figures 1805-15 



Desperais . . Ornaments 








Names of Painters. 

Develly, C. 


. Landscapes and 

Time of Work. 


Devicq . . 

Figure subjects 



DiDIER . . 




DOAT . . . 




Drouet . . 

Flowers and gilding 

About 1800 


Drouet, Emile 


Figures and deco- 




Figures, subjects, 



Durosey . . 

Gilding ; chief of 



Eaubonne, d' . 


About 1904 




Faraguet, M''"' 


= Figures, subjects, 




Flowers and orna- 
ments {pale sur 



Fontaine . 






1878- 1904 


Fragonard . Figures, i^w,;v, &c. 1847-69 





Names of Painters. 

P'roment, Ell- 


Figure subjects 

Time of Work. 



Ganeaii, jun. . 


After 1800 


Gebleux, Gus- 




Gely . . 




Georget . 

Figures, portraits 




Figures {pate stir 



GoDDii, A. J. 

Gilder, decorator, 
and enameller in 



GODIN . . . 




GOUPIL . . . 






About 1872 




About 1870 



Gilding, decorations 



Huard . . . 




Humbert . . 


About 1862 


Jardel . . . 





Ai„,.:, n- 

Renaissance orna- 



Marks. Names of Painters. Subjects. Time of Work. 

Lambert . . Flowers and oina- 1864-90 


Langlace . . Landscapes 1807-44 

Laxglois, Landscapes 1847-72 

Michael N. 

Tf Lassere . . Decorator 1896- 1904 

»^ Latache . . Gilding 1870-79 





IB".- WE 

Le Bel, Nicho- Landscapes About 1823 

las I 

T Legay . . . Ornaments (/>fl/c s«r 1866-84 
**^* pate) 

Leger . . . Decorator 1902-4 

Legrand . . Gilding 1780-1800 

Le Guay, Et. Figures, portraits 17 80- 1840 

Leroy, Eugene Gilding 1864-88 

LiGUE, Denis . Decorator 1881-1904 

Lucas, Charles Decorator and 1877-1904 

Martinet . . 






Chas. E. 

Maussion, M"' 




Mkrigot, F. . Flowers and deco- 1848-84 





O. Clj 




Names of Painters. Subjecls. 

Meyer, Alfred Figures, &c. 



MiLET, Optat . Decorations on fai- 
ence and paste 

MiMART . , . Decorator 

{MOREAU . . Gilding 
MOREAU, son 
MORIN . . . Gilder 

MORIOT . . . Figures, &c. 

MORIOT, M'"'" . Figure subjects 

OuiNT, Charles Decorator 

Paillet, Fer- Figures and orna- 
nand ments 

Parpette, M"' Flowers 
Peluche . . Decorator 



Flowers and orna- 


Pline . . . Painter and gilder 
PORCHON . . Ornament 


Time of Work. 






After 1800 





After 1800 




Names of Painters. 


Time of Work. 








About 1902 

TD or ^I> Regnier, Jo- Figure subjects 1836-70 

seph Ferdi- 

LD Regnier, Hya- Figures, &c. 1825-63 


Rejoux, Emile Decorations 1862-90 

Renard, Emile Decorations 1846-82 


^'/f^-H- Renard, Henri Landscape About 1881 


Richard, Emile Flowers 1867- 1900 

"pl 13 Richard, Eu- Flowers 1838-72 

Richard, Decorations 1833-78 


njL Q Richard, Nic- Decorations 1830-70 

r'*''^* holas Joseph 

T T? Richard, Leon Painter 1902-4 

-1^ or ^ Richard, Paul Gilding 1849-81 

T3 RIOCREUX, Isi- Landscapes, 1847-49 

■l^Jc- dore country scenes 

|^„ RiocREUX, D6- Flowers 1807-72 

t) wA. sir6-Denis 



Names of Painters. Subjects. Time of Work. 


ROBEKT, Pierre Landscapes 181^-32 


Robert, M''™ Flowers and land- After 1800 


Robert, Jean Landscapes 1806 43 


Roger, Thomas Modeller of orna- About 1862 
J. ments 

M ■ 

ROUSSEL . . Figures 1842-72 



Sandoz, Sculptor 1881-1904 




ScHiLT, Fran- Figures and por- 1847-80 
(jois P. A. traits 

ScHiLT, Louis Flowers 


SiEFFERT, Figures and gc7ire 1882-88 

Louis E. subjects 

SiMARD, Painter 

Eugene A. 

SiNSSON, Flowers 



1 795- I ^"^45 

Solon, Louis Figures and orna- 1862-70 
Marc ^ ments 

Left in 1870 to join Mintons. 

SWEBACH . . Landscapes and 1803 14 

Tracer, Jules . Flowers, birds, 1867-70 

ancient style 

1 Louis Marc Solon executed work for the " trade " in Paris before he joined the Sevres factory, 
and this "outside" work is signed MILES, a word made up of his initials. 






Navies of Painters. Subjects, 

Tracer, Henri Painter 
Tracer, Louis Painter 

Time of Work. 


Tristan, Eti- Painter and gilder 1837-82 

enne Joseph 

Troyon . . . Ornaraentsandgild- 1802-17 


Ulrich . . 

. Painter 



ViCNOT . . 

. Ornaments 




. Flowers 




Apprentice gi 



Shelton (see 

New Hall). 

SHERZHEIM, Wurtemberc. 

A faience factory was established in this village, which is close 
^. to Elhvangen in Wiirtemberg, in 1752, by Johann 

T'r *r "^ Baptist Bux, and the arrow-like mark represents the 
-^— \''' three leaves of the box shrub (Rux in German). 

There are specimens in the Hamburg Museum, wliich is rich in 

examples of these minor German fabriques. 

SiENA (see Majolica). 

Sitzerode (see Kloster Weilsdorf). 

Slip-decorated Ware (see Toft Ware). 

SouTHALL (see Martin Ware). 

Spain (see notes on Hispano - Moresco Pottery in 
Chapter II.). 




Josiah Spode was born in 1733, and after serving an ap- 
prenticeship to Thomas Whieldon, sometime partner of Josiah 
Wedgwood (see Wedgwood), started in business on his own 
account. He introduced transfer-printing into Stoke in 1784, 
and used the process largely in producing the old " willow 
pattern," and other Oriental designs. He copied many of 
Wedgwood's designs, including his jasper ware, also the "cane 
ware" of Turner and the patterns of other contemporary 
potters. He died in 1797, and was succeeded by his son, who 


Classical-form Vase. 

Classical-form Ewer. 

commenced to make porcelain, in addition to pottery, in 1800. 
Five years later he invented an opaque porcelain, or ironstone 
china, a production with which his name has become identified. 
William Copeland afterwards became a partner in the firm, 
having previously been its London agent. Under his manage- 
ment a very large business was carried on in the metropolis at 
a warehouse in Fore Street, Cripplegate, and subsequently in 
Bond Street. William Copeland's son, afterwards Lord Mayor 
of London in 1835-36, purchased the whole concern in 1833, 
In 1843 the firm was Copeland & Garrett. In 1867 Mr. 
Copeland took into partnership his four sons. The London 
House (Bond Street) was given up by Messrs. Copeland in 1881, 



and a depot for the wholesale trade opened in Charterhouse 
Street, E.G. 

The manufactures of the present firm may be divided into 
six classes: porcelain, ceramic statuary, ivory, majolica, ironstone, 
and earthenware. 

The porcelain is soft, beautifully white, and has what is 
technically described as "a fine body and excellent glaze." The 

Specimen of Co]3cIand*s Parian or Ceramic Statuary. 

best is that modelled after the Sevres pale tendre of the early 
period. In some specimens, when more than usual care has 
been bestowed upon the finish of the gilding, the similarity to 
Sevres is very great, an effect assisted by the softness of the 
paste ; the jewelling, however, is not so lustrous. 

With regard to ceramic statuary, the composition of clays 
now commonly known as Parian was originated at Copeland's 
manufactory, being the invention of a Mr. liattam. Like Josiah 



Wedgwood, who neglected to patent his celebrated Queen's ware, 
Messrs. Copeland & Garrett acted in a similarly unselfish or 
careless manner, and the manufacture of this peculiar kind of 
porcelain was speedily followed by other firms. At the close 
of an art exhibition at South Kensington in 1871 a lively con- 
troversy arose, which we believe was 
ultimately decided in Copeland's 
favour. Mr. Gibson, R.A., who has 
designed raanyof the subjects carried 
out in this " porcelain statuary," 
declared this material to be second 
only to marble for reproducing the 
sculptor's idea ; and on account of its 
lustrous transparency it is considered 
by some people to be superior to its 
more opaque cousin " biscuit." 

A speciality of Copeland & 
Garrett's time was the manufacture 
of dolls' services ; some of these are 
charming little miniature sets, and 
in great favour with collectors. 
These specimens are so small that the mark is generally omitted. 

The fine earthenware called "ivory" is very agreeable both 
to sight and touch, resembling Wedgwood's " Queen's ware " in 
many respects, though more closely akin to porcelain ; greater 
durability is also claimed for it. 

Copeland's manufactures are now largely used for mural 
decoration of all kinds ; the drawing and finish of the tiles, of 
which sometimes as many as fifty are required for a single panel, 
show great merit. 

Earthenware is also manufactured very largely both for home 
and export trade. 

Specimen Plate of Copeland China, 
jewelled and turquoise ground, with 
finely painted landscape; in the col- 
lection of Mr. Charles Hardy. 




The word " Spode" is fre- 
quently written in red 
in cursive letters. 




{Mark used 1847-56. 


Present mark. 
2 B 



The different kinds of pottery produced at several fabriques 
in Staffordshire have been noticed under their respective headings, 
but there remains a type of Staffordshire pottery, specimens of 
which are generally unmarked, and which it is difficult to assign 
to any particular potter, except where there are models which 
can be identified with others marked by the makers. In Stafford- 
shire Pots and Potters the brothers Rhead have given a fairly 
complete list of those Staffordshire potters who are known to 
have made figures, Toby jugs, and groups, and the following is 
taken from their book : — 

Ralph Wood (father and son), Enoch Wood, Aaron 
Wood, J. Wedgwood, Whieldon, Voyez, J. Neale & Co., 
Lakin & Poole, Wood & Caldwell, Turner & Co., Walton, 
R. Wilson, Bott & Co., J. Lockett, Barker, Sutton & Till, 
Edge & Garrett, J. Dale. 

The names printed in capitals are well known, and there are 
notices of their work in the alphabetical list of makers in this 
chapter. Two of the best collections of old Staffordshire signed 
figures are probably those of Mr. Frank Falkner of Hillside, 
Bowdon, Cheshire, and Dr. Sidebotham, which until two or three 
years ago were on loan at the Salford Museum, Peel Park, but 
which are now in the Dublin National Museum. 

For further information about many of these old Stafford- 
shire potters the reader is recommended to refer to Messrs. 
Rhead's book mentioned above. 

The groups and figures made by these potters, quaint in 
subject and generally excellent in colouring, form a type of 
ceramic treatment which we now recognise as " Staffordshire 
Pottery," and many collectors make very effective groupings 
of them. The subjects selected are frequently Biblical, such as 
the Four Evangelists, Elijah and the Ravens, or are of a humorous 
character like the Tithe Pig and many others. "Toby" beer- 
jugs of quaint characters were also a speciality of the eighteenth- 
century Staffordshire potters. Cows, sheep, deer, and dogs 
are also cleverly represented in a rough but effective manner. 



The well-known group of "The Vicar and Moses" is by 
Ralph Wood, and " The Parson and Clerk," illustrated below, is 
attributed by Professor Church to his son, Aaron Wood. Both 
specimens are in the Victoria and Albert Museum. In some cases 
the subjects chosen, such as the " Tithe Pig " group, are earthen- 
ware imitations of Chelsea models. One of the best and most 

Stafifordshirc J^^ttcry Group ol I'.iison anci C I' ik (Victoria anil Albrr Museum). 

important of the Staffordshire figures is one 20 inches high 
representing Fortitude, and the author formerly possessed one 
of a lady standing at a tripod which was over 24 inches high, 
probably one of the largest ever made. Mr. E. Sheldon, Mr. H. 
Manfield, M.P., and Mrs. A. R. Macdonald, have good private 
collections of Staffordshire pottery, and there are a great many 
specimens in the British, and Victoria and Albert Museums, and 


also in many provincial museums, among others those of Liver- 
pool, Northampton, Nottingham, Taunton, Birmingham, the 
Wedgwood Institute, Stoke-on-Trent, Burslem, and a great 
many more. As some of the collections are lent by local 
collectors, they are not all permanent exhibits. When marked, 
specimens bear the names of some of the potters enumerated 
above. The work of J. Voyez is perhaps better recognised by 
his jugs and plaques than by groups and figures. The jugs are 
modelled in very high relief, and one in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum is signed and dated 1788. Voyez was at one time in 
the service of Josiah Wedgwood, but subsequently he worked 
for Palmer of Hanky. In 1773 he issued a catalogue of 
" Intaglios and Cameos after the most esteemed antiques, made 
by J. Voyez, Sculptor," and this pamphlet is now deposited in the 
Birmingham collection in the Old Library, Union Street. 

John Walton of Burslem, whose name occurs on the previous 
page, deserves special notice. He made a great quantity of rustic 
figures, also sheep and cows in bowers of foliage, the figures of 
the four evangelists, and others. His work is crude but the 
colouring is effective. A peculiarity of Walton's figures is that 
one finds the names of the characters represented, stamped in 
relief, such as " Gardener," " Luke," " Falstaffe," while his name 
WALTON occurs in a scroll, Walton commenced business in 
1790; his name appears in a directory of 182 1, and he discontinued 
manufacturing about 1839. 

Some confusion has been caused by there having been so 
many potters named Wood, more than one of them bearing the 
same Christian name, and a few words of explanation seem neces- 
sary. Ralph and Aaron Wood were the two sons of a miller of 
Burslem, and both worked as potters. The former made the 
rustic figures which have already been alluded to. Aaron was a 
modeller, and made moulds for other potters. He had two sons, 
William and Enoch. The elder was apprenticed to Josiah 
Wedgwood, and was so successful that at the end of his articles 
by a special arrangement he continued his service as a modeller 
at Etruria. Enoch the younger son, was apprentice to Henry 
Palmer of Hanley, and subsequently set up in business at Burslem 
as a maker of cream-coloured, black basalt, and jasper wares, and 
of portrait busts which have become famous. Two favourite 
subjects were the Rev. George Whitfield and the Rev. John Wesley, 
and in the collection of Mr. Percy Fitzgerald, dispersed a few 
years ago, there were two of these, each signed at the back with 


the name of tht- subject, date of death, and the words " Enoch 
Wood, Sculp. Burslera." The two dates of the decease of these 
worthy pastors, 1770 and 1791, give us the time when Enoch 
Wood was doing some of his best work. Mr. WilHam Burton 
says that Enoch Wood was in partnership for some time with 
his cousin Ralph, who was, of course, the son of the maker of 
"The Vicar and Moses" and other humorous groups, and he 
quotes from a directory of 1786 where both names are entered 
as of Burslem. Ralph Wood the elder was born in 1716 and 
died in 1772 ; among other models attributed to him are the 
Haymakers, Sportsman and Bagpiper, " Old Age " represented by 
a beggar leaning on stick and crutch (see full page illustration), 
some Toby Fillpots, figure of Charity on a rocky base uncoloured, 
and Hudibras on horseback. When his figures are marked they 
are impressed R. WOOD, as distinguished from the mark of his 
son, which is Ra Wood, Burslem. 

The Falkner collection of pottery figures already mentioned 
contains a great many specimens marked by their makers, and 
amongst these the following may be noted as of especial interest 
since they help us to identify unmarked figures with makers : — 

Vicar and Moses, stamped Ra Wood, Burslem. This proves 
that the son made this group as well as his father. 

Bust of Shakespeare stamped Wedgwood. 

Figure of a lion, right paw resting on globe, stamped Wedg- 
wood. This model was made by several other potters. 

Eight figures of chessmen, jasper ware, stamped WedGWOOD. 

Figure of St. Sebastian stamped Enoch Wood. 

Pair of Tritons as Candlesticks, stamped Wood and Cald- 

Group of St. George and Dragon, stamped Wood and Cald- 

Figure of Britannia seated on a rocky base, helmet, breast- 
plate, and shield silver lustred, stamped Wood and Caldwell, 

Figure of Quia as Falstaff, stamped WOOD AND Caldwell. 

Bust of the Duke of Wellington, stamped WOOD and Cald- 

Bust of the Rev. George Whitfield, companion to the Bust, 
of Wesley, marked ENOCH WOOD, sculp. Burslem. 

Figure of a lion in white on solid blue jasper base, impressed 
Enoch Wood, sculpsit. 

Female figure, classical design, hands upraised, holding water 


vase as a candleholder, mounted on round plinth, black basaltes, 
impressed Turner. 

Satyr head, mask cup, black basalte, impressed Turner. 

Group of figures round trunk of a tree formed as jug, inscribed 
J. VOYEZ 1788. 

Figure of a sheep, lamb in foreground. Scroll at back im- 
pressed Walton. 

Figure of a girl standing on an irregular base, dove in hand, 
marked on a raised riband Walton. 

Pair of figures, boy and girl, each holding a basket of fruit, 
standing on irregular bases. Same mark. 

Pair of figures, boy embracing dog, girl embracing lamb, tree 
background, irregular bases. Same mark. 

Toby jug, old man seated holding on his knee with both hands 
jug of foaming ale. Copied from Ralph Wood Model. Same mark. 

Figure of lion couchant, crowned, tree background. Same 

Royal Arms of George III., with supporters decorated in 
heraldic colours. Same mark. 

Two figures of a girl with watering can, tree background. 
Same mark. 

Group of boy standing, with dog at foot, girl seated with a 
lamb in her lap, three sheep below, tree background. Same mark. 

Pair of figures of gardeners, lettered in front " Gardeners," 
impressed Salt. 

Figure of a girl standing on irregular base embracing a lamb, 
tree background, lettered in front " Shepherdess," impressed Salt. 

Pair of figures, sheep and ram, with Iamb in foreground, on 
rocky bases, tree background. Scroll at back impressed Salt. 

Figure of a boy, lettered in front " Fire." Same mark. 

Note. — This potter was Ralph Salt, who worked at Hanley from 1812 to 1S40, and was 
a maker of somewhat inferior Staffordshire pottery cottage figures. His work is of similar 
quality to that of Walton. He died in 1S46, and was succeeded by his son, Charles Salt. 

Figure of Diana, partly draped, left hand holding bow, standing 
on square pedestal, height 5 inches, impressed mark Neale and Co. 

Toby jug, old man seated holding foaming jug of ale. 
Same mark. 

Figure of a boy, partly draped, holding basket of flowers 
strongly coloured, height 5^^ inches, raised tablet at back impressed 
Edge and Grocott. 

Figure of a boy with nest in left hand and bird in right, 
height G^ inches. Same mark. 



These makers are included in Rlieads' list, but these figures 
are the only ones known to the author as marked with their name. 

Group, the Assassination of Marat by Charlotte Corday, mark 
impressed under the base Lakin and Poole. 

The group has an inscription with COKDii (sic) ; and the date 
of the tragedy, 1793, probably gives us that of this group. 

Figure of a girl supporting creel with left hand, and holding 
up skirt, in which are two fish, with her right hand, front lettered 
"Water," height 6 J inches, impressed at back, J. Dale, Burslem. 

Bust of Wesley on panelled pedestal. Same mark. 

Bust of William Clowes in black coat, impressed on a white 
tablet in front " William Clowes, Primitive Methodist Preacher," 
marked at back in transfer B.S. and T., Burslem. 

Note. — This is the mark of Barker, Sutton and Till mentioned in the Rheads' list. 

James Caldwell was taken into partnership in 1790, and the 
firm was Wood & Caldwell until 181 8. In that year Enoch 
purchased the Caldwell interest, and 
afterwards, having taken his three sons 
into partnership, the business was 
carried on as Enoch Wood & Sons, 
and there are specimens stamped with 
this title and the word " Burslem," 
together with a device like a spread 
eagle and a shield. 

Enoch Wood died in 1840 at the 
advanced age of eighty-three, and the 
business was closed six years later. 

A collection of specimens of his 
own and his partners' work was made 
by Enoch Wood, and Mr. Burton 
mentions that he sent 182 of the best 
examples to the King of Saxony in 
1835, and these are still preserved in 
the Dresden Museum. It is unfor- 
tunate that the Enoch Wood collec- 
tion was not catalogued and kept in- 
tact, but at his death it was dispersed 
by sale, and the specimens in our 
museums are chiefly from this source. 

In addition to Wesley and Whitfield, some of the other por- 
traits attributed to Wood, or Wood & Caldwell, are the figure 

Bust of Wesley by Enoch Wood 
(signed), in Mr. Frank Falkner's 


of Falstaff and the busts of Alexander I. of Russia, Napoleon and 
Wellington, Nelson, Duncannon, the Duke of York, and other 
celebrities of the time. 

Mythological personages and allegorical figures were also 
represented, and the author once had two figures of Newton and 
Chaucer signed " E. Wood." 

Two other potters who made rustic figures were Hall and 
I. Dale. These two names are stamped on two figures of 
peasants in the collection of Major-General Astley Terry. 

To the younger Ralph Wood Mr. Burton attributes the busts 
of Milton, Handel, and Washington. Some of these bear the 
signature impressed " Ra Wood," and although in some technical 
details they are better than the work of his father, they lack the 
bucolic humour which render the Tithe group and similar subjects 
fascinating to the collector of this characteristic English pottery. 

A full account of all these potters and their works will be 
found in Chaffers' Marks and Monograms, 13th edition. 

There is a marked difference between the older and better 
quality of these Staffordshire figures and the ones which have 
been more recently made, which the collector should be careful 
to note. The coloured pigments which decorate the older pottery 
figures. Tobies and groups are transparent, while the modern 
colours are opaque. The modelling and figure-work generally of 
the work which was produced from about 1740 to 1780 is also 
superior to that which was made later. 


Herr Jiinnike gives these marks for faience made here. 
Buchwald was the director, while Leihamer was either the painter 
or the potter. 

In the Hamburg Museum there are several specimens of this 
faience marked with an abbreviation of the name of the place, 

STOCKHOLM (see Rorstrand). 




A factory was established here about 1730 for the manu- 
facture of faience. Some of the early directors are said to have 
come from Rorstrand and Marieberg, notably Ehrenreich, whose 
initial is frequently found as part of the mark. The curious 
device of three radiating lines under a crown is derived from 
the arms of the town (see also notices on Makieberg and 



Strasbourg is of particular interest to the collector of old 
porcelain, because it was the cradle of hard porcelain, so far as 
France was concerned, and Charles Francis Hannong, who was 
born in 1669, is considered to have been the first manufacturer. 
He had started faience works in 1709, but subsequently, with 
the assistance of a runaway workman from Meissen, turned his 
pottery works into a porcelain factory, which after his death in 
1739 was carried on by his sons. Paul Antoine Hannong 
became sole owner in 1738, and with the assistance of Ringler, 
also one of the Meissen potters in its early days, attained con- 
siderable success. 

When the Vincennes factory enjoyed royal protection, 
Hannong was prohibited from rivalry, and retired to Frankenthal, 
while his son still continued the manufacture of earthenware 
at Strasbourg. 

The few specimens that exist of Strasbourg porcelain are 
very difficult to identify unless marked. It is hard paste, and the 
marks are always impressed or incised. The impressed H is 



Basket-form Dish of Strasbourg faience. 

1 ouuUuii ill hlKLsiHiuii^ KucncL- (\ icluiiu and Albeit Museum). 



generally accompanied by certain letters and numbers which 
signify as under : — 

V for vase, F for figure, G for group, VC for plates, C or 
CC for cups. 

The following marks are attributed to this fahriqiic by various 
experts, but some are doubtful : — 

H I ?1 1 @ 
















Hannong also made faience here, the manufacture of which 
was continued by his descendants until 1780. The above marks 
are the initials of the different members of the family. 

The following additional marks on porcelain only, are given 
on the authority of MM. de Chavagnac et de Grollier : — 




\J l-j c n it i> "c 





There were several potteries established near Sunderland, the 
earliest about 1775, and the most recent about the first quarter 
of the nineteenth century. There is very little to distinguish 
this pottery from that of Staffordshire, save that it is less carefully 
finished. The jugs and half pint, and pint cylindrical mugs which 
we see with ships and quaint legends or verses upon them, are 
generally recognised as Sunderland pottery, or that made at 
Newcastle-on-Tyne (see also Newcastle). Sometimes a pinkish 
lustre colour has been introduced into the decoration. If speci- 
mens are marked, it is with the name of the potters, such as 
" Dixon & Co., " " Phillips & Co.," " Dawson," " Sewell & 
DoNKiN," " Fell," " Fell, Newcastle." 

Sussex (see Rye). 


There appears to have been a pottery at Swansea, established 
in the year 1768, and this was extended under the direction of a 
Mr. Haynes in 1790 and its title changed to "The Cambrian 
Pottery." Mr. L. W. Dillwyn purchased these works in 1802. 
In the notice of the Nantgarw factory we have mentioned how 
upon seeing at those works some beautiful specimens of white 
porcelain, having a granulated fracture v'hich he described as 
similar to " fine lump sugar," he made inquiries respecting its 

This Nantgarw porcelain was being made by Billingsley, who 
had left the Worcester works without leave, assisted by Walker, 
who had also worked there and had married Billingsley's daughter. 
These men persuaded Mr. Dillwyn that the disasters in the kilns 
which attended so many of their experiments were due to the 
consequences of their small capital and limited plant, and Mr. 
Dillwyn was induced to build some china works at Swansea, where 
they could continue their experiments in the manufacture of this 
beautiful transparent body, with brilliant glaze, of which he had 
seen specimens. This change had not been made long, and the 
experiments seemed like succeeding, when Mr. Dillwyn received 
legal notice from Messrs. Flight & Barr of Worcester, that the 
two men Billingsley, alias Bailey or Beeley, and Walker, who were 
in his employ, were breaking their contract with the Worcester 
firm. Mr. Dillwyn dispensed with their services, and they left 



O 3 




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pi = ^ 

y 4> 

Q. O 
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& ~ 



Swansea and returned to Nantgarw in 1817, where, after a brief 
attempt at carrying on business on their own account, they failed. 
Mr. Dillwyn still continued to make china, but the true secret 
possessed by Beeley was wanting, and he was not successful, 
and in the Cambrian of March 14, 1818, appeared an advertise- 
ment of the dissolution of his partnership with the Bevingtons, 
who had assisted him at the works. 

The manufacture of porcelain was continued at Swansea after 
this ; indeed Mr. Drane, who has paid a great deal of close atten- 
tion to Swansea and Nantgarw china, states that the greater part 
of Swansea china which one finds 
now, is subsequent to the year 

The quality of porcelain pro- 
duced at Swansea varies consider- 
ably. There is first of all that 
made before Beeley's assistance was 
obtained, then that which, as al- 
ready pointed out in the notice of 
the Nantgarw factory, is practically 
the same, and is the most beautiful 
of all English " bodies " or pastes, 
and again there is the production of 
the factory after Beeley's departure. 

A peculiarity of some of this 
later porcelain is, that by trans- 
mitted light, it displays a pale sea-green tint, and therefore has 
been termed by collectors the " duck-egg green body." 

Swansea porcelain was mostly decorated at the works, and 
the flower subjects by Beeley are skilfully painted and most 
artistic. Other artists were Pollard and Morris, pupils of his, 
Baxter for subjects and landscapes, Colclough for birds, Beddow 
for landscapes, and Weston Young for flowers ; but the latter 
are generally stiff and mechanical, probably being copied from 
botanical book illustrations. 

Mr. Alexander Duncan has supplied the author with photo- 
graphs of some specimens in his collection, representative of the 
work of these different painters, and Mr. Drane has kindly 
written a description of these, xvhich is here quoted, so that the 
reader may, if he wishes, become acquainted with some of the 
various styles of work executed at Swansea. 

"The full-page illustration shows ten objects arranged in two 

Swiinsca diffee-can (Victoria and 
Albert Museum). 


stages. On the upper stage is a cup after the manner of Wedgwood, 
a ivare covered tureen on stem painted by Young in his botanical 
style, an oviform vase without cover painted by Thomas Pardoe, 
with a very effective group of flowers on a dark blue ground. 
This was made before 1814, and is marked 'Cambrian.' In the 
same collection there is a companion vase, painted by the same 
artist but showing progress in finish and drawing, while the gold 
' marblings ' on the blue ground are a great improvement in the 
appearance of the vase (see also Cambrian). Between these 
three objects are, to the left of the tureen, a very elegant little 
ewer in its saucer exquisitely painted by Pollard, and on the 
right of the tureen is a spill vase painted by Pollard with the wild 
strawberry in his characteristic manner. On the lower stage, 
beginning on the left, is a cabinet cup and saucer of fine Swansea 
porcelain delicately painted, with a Cupid, by Baxter ; next to 
this is a plate of Beeley's Swansea body made in a Nantganv 
mould, with an embossed pattern on its border. In its centre is 
a group of garden flowers by Pollard ; and next is a two-handled 
vase of elegant form, in its saucer, painted by Pollard with wild 
flowers in a dift'erent style of his work. On the right of this vase 
is a Nantgarvv plate with a wreath of flowers occupying the whole 
of its bevelled edge, the centre being left blank. On the right of 
this is a Nantgarw cup and saucer painted by Billingsley. Here 
are represented all the chief painters, except Morris, on Nantgarw 
china and on Swansea china and ware, and the specimens of their 
work are so selected and represented that, by using a magnifying 
glass, some of the painters can be identified by their peculiarities." 
Landscape subjects are attributed to a painter named 
Beddow, but they are of inferior execution. It is difficult to 
know what particular subjects one can ascribe to Baxter : we 
know that he published a book of drawings of Greek and antique 
figures in outline, but many other subjects have been found, 
signed by him, and he is said to have painted the landscapes on a 
fine service in the possession of Mr. Herbert Eccles of Neath. 
Mr. Robert Drane possesses a rather poorly painted plate of 
Chamberlain's Worcester signed and dated 1809, when he must 
have been quite young. Besides these recognised Swansea artists 
a great many pieces were decorated by amateur painters who 
bought or had given to them the china specimens in the white, 
painted them with flower subjects, and then had them fired. Some 
of those are signed " Elinor Bassett," a lady friend of Dillwyn's 
who is known to have painted several pieces. 




The usual marks are " SWANSEA " printed in red letters or 
impressed in the paste, and a trident in red, the two marks occurring 
on some specimens. Mr. Turner, in his work already alluded to, 
gives other marks which he has seen on some specimens in the 
cabinets of local collectors, and in the Cardif? Museum, where, 
during the last twenty years, a large collection has been made, 
chiefly owing to the enthusiasm of Mr. Drane, a local amateur, 
who was given carte blanche hy the Committee to make purchases for 

Specimens of Swansea Porcelain, showing the forms of the ordinary domestic ware. 
In the collection of Mr. Alexander Duncan. 

the Museum of such specimens as would serve to complete the col- 
lection. Mr. Alexander Duncan of Penarth, Mr. Graham Vivian, 
Mr. Herbert Eccles of Neath, and other local residents, have 
good private collections. The different marks seem to have been 
applied without rule or method, and Mr. Herbert W. Hughes 
possesses a service which has several of the marks. It may be 
observed that the trident mark is supposed to indicate a paste 
which was considered by its makers to be an improvement upon 
the softer kind which preceded it. This improvement, however, 
is from a manufacturer's point of view, and not from that of a 



collector. It is more gritty on the surface, and if held up to a 
strong light will give one the effect of sodden snow. On the 
coarser qualities the light is less translucent, and there is a smoky 
tint observable in the paste. Amongst the marks are those of 
" Dilhvyn & Co.," Swansea,^ in black, red, yellow, green, and 
puce ; Bevington & Co., Swansea. 

The collector of Swansea and Nantgarw must be upon his 
guard against a particular form of imposition which it is difficult 
to detect. After the factory was discontinued some of the painters 
being settled in Swansea continued their means of livelihood by 
purchasing undecorated china from Coalport or some other factory 
and painting the same with flower subjects, and then having the 
pieces fired and finished. In such cases one finds the true work 
of a Swansea artist and a fairly white china as a background, but 
the paste must be closely studied, and a knowledge of the peculiar 
moulds of plates and of cups and saucers and vases in use at 
Swansea, will help us to determine the origin of the china. 






Marks on Swansea China, impressed or painted, generally in red. 



(In green) on saucer. 



(In red) on cup. 

These two marks are on cup and saucer of the very finest Swansea china ; 
painted by Baxter. 

Some of the very best Swansea china is marked in script letters 
(mostly in red, but also in other colours) after the style of the 
two marks given above. 


In red on tea-service and 
several plates. 

Mark in red. 


Impressed mark (very small 
type) on china plate. 



Several specimens of good Swansea are marked in printed red 


letters after the style given 


Impressed on fine china plate 
painted with flowers. 


Impressed on very large china dinner 
dish painted in (lowers. 

The marks with single and double trident are later but not 

The following additional marks are taken from The Ceramics of 
Swansea and Nantgariv, by W. Turner, but they occur on Swansea 
pottery only and not upon the porcelain. The mark " Dillwyn's 
Etruscan ware " occurs on the black and red copies of the Greek 
and Roman vases, such as are in the British Museum. They are 
only of interest as being connected with Swansea ceramics. This 
ware was made about 1845. 







ftt'^AK, e 

fO (l-nfMlJ. 1 

^^'^'^^"^ <S.,^ 


Bgsr <ioorv 



Faience was made in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries 
at several places in Switzerland, hut they are not of much interest 
to the collector. Some further details will be found in Chatters' 
Marks and Monograms, thirteenth edition, revised by the author. 

For Swiss porcelain, see Nyon, Thoune, and Zurich. 

2 c 


Syrian Ware (see Turkey). 


This was the most celebrated fabriquc of faience in Spain. 
It was noted as early as 1560, and reached its zenith in the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Since that time it has 
gradually declined. Various kinds of ware were made, some 
similar to Delft, others of a peculiar light greenish glaze ; others 
again are described as good imitations of Oriental china, esteemed 
everywhere for the qualities of colouring and glaze. No marks 
are known. 

Taxnowa, Bohemia (see Bohemia). 

TEINITZ, Bohemia. 

A modern factory of high-class faience is 
carried on here by a potter named Welby. The 
designs and colouring are good, and the gilding 
excellent (see Bohemia). 


Tettau, an unimportant factory of the Thuringian group, and 
only of interest because the mark, a cursive T, has been hitherto 

, unplaced on account of lack of information. Pro- 

^ / fessor Hoffman in his Catalogue of the Munich 

^^-^ ' Museum mentions a marked specimen in that collec- 
tion, and Sir Augustus Franks gives it cautiously as probably one 
of the Thuringian factories. 

Thirou, Rue (see Paris). 

Thoovt and Labouchere (see Delft). 


-^ There was here a fabrique of ware in the 

n j/vlC- ^*y'^ '^^ *'^^ "'"^^ Sgraffiato or incised ware of 
Q/Zi^x*/ ^^ which mention has been made in Chapter H. 
Specimens marked as in the margin are 
in the collection of Mr. Henry Grahame of 
the ylberdecn Free Press. 



In the forest district of Thurin«i;i, about a dozen factories 
of more or less importance, came into existence during the latter 
part of the eighteenth century, and several of them still continue 
to produce a large output, which supplies many German cities 
with domestic porcelain of fair quality, besides that which is 

The collector is concerned only with the specimens of earlier 
times, when ware of considerable artistic merit was manufactured, 
especially costumed groups and figures, which tiiough lacking the 
grace and elegance of the best Meissen or Frankenthal modelling, 
possess characteristics which render them well worthy of acquisi- 

Very little was known of the history of these factories imtil 
in 1909 an important work entitled Alt Thiiriiigcr Porzellan, 
by MM. Graul and Kurzwelly, was published. From the infor- 
mation thus available, the author is now able to correct many 
previous errors, to give a list of this group of factories in 
chronological order, and also to inform the reader of some of 
their individual characteristics, which will be found in the several 
notices on them in this chapter. 

The cardinal distinction between these Thuringian factories 
and many other continental porcelain works, is that the former are 
as a rule conducted by merchants and potters, who have made the 
best of the materials at hand, and developed their business on com- 
mercial lines. The manufacture of the more artistic productions 
having resulted in loss, and that of the more ordinary domestic 
ware in profit, the former was gradually discontinued, while the 
making of table ware developed into a considerable trade. 

Such factories as Fiirstenburg, Fulda, Frankenthal, Hochst, 
and a host of others of similar character, to say nothing of the im- 
portant factories of Sevres and Meissen, were established as the pet 
hobby of some reigning King, Grand Duke, Prince, or nobleman, 
and after succeeding so long as they were subsidised, gradually 
faded away because they were not run upon a commercial basis. 
The charming specimens of Menecy or Hochst, of Chantilly 
or of Frankenthal, are rightly prized by the collector because the 
conditions favourable to the production of such delightful ceramic 
bijou.x will probably never recur. 

The leading spirit in the enterprise which commenced at 
Gotha and afterwards spread to Volkstedt, Veilsdorf, Limbach, 


and the other places where porcelain was made in this Thuringian 
district, was Gotthelf Greiner, who was assisted by a chemist 
named Mackeleid. Greiner was originally a glassblower, but de- 
veloped into a potter, and he and his sons and grandsons gradu- 
ally acquired a dominant interest in the majority of these factories. 
He was born in 1732, and the period of his chief activity would 
appear to be from about 1760 until his death at an advanced 

The following are the Thuringian porcelain factories : 
I, Volkstedt; 2, Kloster-Veilsdorf ; 3, Gotha ; 4, Wallendorf ; 5, 
Gera ; 6, Limbach ; 7, Ilmenau ; 8, Grosbreitenbach ; 9, Rauen- 
stein. Some smaller efforts were made at Katzhiitte, Tettau, and 
Schney, but only in the case of Tettau did they survive the initial 
stages. See separate notices of the above in their alphabetical order in 
this chapter. 


One of the earliest of the known Staffordshire potters who 

flourished in the latter half of the seventeenth century was Thomas 

V . TiTrhQ.T' r?fTn Toft. Ralph Toft was another suc- 

THOMiiO JjOI 37 cessf ul potter about the same period. 

BAtPHIWOr-rHGl? '^*''' '''^'^ '^^' decorated in slip, 
• and belongs to a class of early Eng- 

'°' lish pottery, called " slip-decorated 

ware." It was made in Staffordshire in Kent (see Wrotham), 
and also in Cheshire and Derbyshire ; the earliest known dated 
specimen being 16 12 and the latest 1710, both pieces of 
Wrotham make. 

The best reference work on this characteristic old English 
ware known to the writer is one entitled Examples of Early 
English Pottery Named, Dated, and Described, by John Eliot 
Hodgkin, F.S.A., and Edith Hodgkin, which was published a few 
years ago ; from its text we quote the following description of 
slip-decorated ware : — 

" The material of the body of this ware was usually a coarse 
reddish clay, on which, when formed by the wheel or otherwise, 
slip, a thin, creamy mixture of clay and water, was allowed to 
trickle through a tube by the workman, who thus produced 
according to his fancy, quaint figures, conventional designs, 
borders, medallions, inscriptions, names or dates. A glaze, 
usually composed of sulphuret of lead, often mixed with man- 
ganese, was then applied before, firing, and this gave to the body 


and to the slip, of whatever colour, the ricii yellow tone and 
transparency, which adds so much to the charm of the ware. 
The vessels decorated with slip comprise tyj^s, posset-pots, cups, 
plates, jugs, dishes, candlesticks, and cradles intended for gifts." 

The two best-known Staffordshire makers of this ware were 
the two brothers Toft ; another was Thomas Sans, a circular 
dish by whom, dated 1650, is mentioned by Mr. Shaw in his 
History of Staffordshire. A curious dish which Mr. Hodgkin 
describes is thus inscribed, "Thomas Toft, Tinker's Clough, I 
made it 166-," the last hgure being obliterated. 

In the British Museum there are excellent examples, chiefly 
dishes, bearing the name " Thomas Toft," but without a date. 

A dish in the Willett collection, signed Kalph Toft, is dated 
1676. Other makers of this ware are quoted both by Mr. 
Hodgkin and by Professor Church in his excellent work, Eng- 
lish Earthenware, but the Tofts are the best known. 

Named and dated specimens were in Mr. Eliot Hodgkin's 
collection which was dispersed by auction some years ago ; 
also in General Pitt-Rivers' private museum near Salisbury, and 
in the museums of Salford, Youlgrave, and Derbyshire, besides 
those quoted above. An illustration of a dish of Toft ware will be 
found on page 26. 

These Toft ware dishes are crude and primitive, but they 
mark a distinct chapter in the history of English potting, and 
when undoubtedly genuine are highly appreciated, as much as 
^100 being given for an authenticated and signed specimen. There 
are many imitations, and collectors must exercise great caution. 
A careful examination of the dishes in the British Museum is 
strongly recommended. 

Mr. Solon's work on this subject, and the latest edition of 
Chaffers, should also be consulted. 

The brothers Rhead in their very interesting work, Stafford- 
shire Pots and Potters, have given us a list in chronological 
order of these old makers of slip ware, which is as follows : — 

Thomas Toft 1660, Ralph Toft 1676, James Johnson 1691, 
Robert Shaw 1692, T. Johnson 1694, William Chaterly 1696, 
George Taylor 1700, W. Rich 1702, John Wright 1707, William 
Wright 1707, Ralph Simpson 17 10, Joseph Glass 17 10, William 
Talor 17 ID, Thomas Sans i 710, William Sans 1710, JobHew 17 10. 

Some figures were also made by these potters, and the 
Arquebusier on horseback belonging to Mrs. William Salting 
in the Bethnal Green Museum is an excellent specimen ; others 


are in the Hanley Museum. They are generally made of buff- 
coloured clay, and are decorated with lines, dots, or drops of white 
slip. The elder Astbury and Thomas Whieldon also made figures 
of this description a little later than the last date in the above list 
(see notices under AsTBURY and Whieldon). 

Tour D'Aigues (see La Tour D'Aigues). 


A small and unimportant factory generally overlooked by 
writers on ceramics was established at Torksey, which is about 
twelve miles from Lincoln, on the banks of the river Trent, and 
from being a town of some little importance about a hundred 
years ago, has dwindled to a straggling village. The factory is 
of interest because of its connection with William Billingsley, 
who in 1805 described himself as "of Brampton in the parish 
of Torksey, china manufacturer." 

Dr. William O'Neill of Lincoln, an enthusiastic collector of 
old china, wrote an article upon the subject which he has been 
good enough to send to the author, and from the result of per- 
sonal inquiries made on the spot it would appear that Billingsley 
leased a house on a farm in the township of Brampton, about 
three-quarters of a mile from Torksey ; the house is still called 
" Pottery House," and the farm attached to it " Pottery House 
Farm." The date given by Dr. O'Neill is 1803, and Billingsley 
is said to have been assisted by his son-in-law, George Walker. 
Billingsley was born in 1758, apprenticed to Derby in 1774, left 
these works after twenty years' service, and then helped Mr. John 
Coke to establish the Pinxton factory. In 1801 he was directing 
the manufacture of china at Mansfield, and then in 1803 crossed 
the Trent, and was at Torksey until 1808, when from lack of 
financial support he failed, and left the place to take employment 
with Messrs. Flight & Barr of Worcester. The rest of his con- 
stantly changing career is recounted in the notice of the Nantgarw 
and Swansea factories, where he was subsequently employed. 

The character of Torksey china is very similar to that of 
Pinxton, or rather, it is like a coarse kind of Derby, generally 
painted in landscapes, with descriptions or titles underneath the 
specimens. Parts of services are found, and sometimes cups or 
mugs which have been made for children, with their names 
painted thereon. No particular /(;/;;-/i7»e mark seems to have been 
adopted, but Dr. O'Neill mentions a service painted with views 


of Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire, bearing a colourable imita- 
tion of the Dresden mark, the crossed swords, the two daggers 
meeting at the points, and having besides a nondescript hiero- 
glyphic something between a W and the figure 3. 


A manufactory of soft-paste porcelain was established here in 
1750 by a concessionaire named Francois Carpentier, who sold 
it to a merchant named Peterinck in 1751, and in the ten years 
1752-62 its staff increased to upwards of two hundred work- 
men. Peterinck, although he lacked technical experience, was 
an enthusiastic potter, and obtained from the Empress of 
Austria, under whose dominion Belgium was at this time, a con- 
cession giving him the exclusive privilege of manufacturing 
porcelain in the Netherlands for thirty years. The title of Im- 
perial and Royal to the factory was also granted, and he was 
assisted by the Government with capital for the undertaking. 
For some years subsequent to 1770 the factory prospered, but 
within some twenty years from that date, through various causes, 
a period of decline set in, culminating in a disastrous iii-e, which 
destroyed a great part of the buildings and their contents. After 
Peterinck's death at a very advanced age, the enterprise languished, 
and was purchased in 1S15 by Henri de Bettignies, the son of 
the man who, as has been mentioned, owned the factory of St. 
Amand-les-Eaux. The productions of the best period of Tournay 
are some fine table services, of which there is one in the King's 
possession at Windsor Castle, and another in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum lent by Mr. J. G. Joicey. Both these services 
are part of the famous one which was originally made for Philippe, 
due d'Orleans. These have the famous hleii de roi decoration, 
with good paintings of birds, and are supposed to be the work of 
an artist named Mayer, who was employed about 17S0. Vases 
and services in the style of the Meissen and also of the Sevre. 
factory were made, and the border of bleu de ro/with good gilding 
and paintings of landscapes, birds, and flowers comes out into 
good relief against the soft creamy ground colour of the porcelain. 

After 1800 a decoration in the style of the Empire came into 

The paste or body of this porcelain, though soft as opposed 
to hard paste, is coarse when compared with the fine pate teiidre 
of Sevres, and its texture is less translucent. Its productions 



have been used for subsequent decoration after the style of the old 
Sevres. The marks are as below, but pieces are often un- 
marked. Sometimes two of the marks will be found on one 



The two following marks are also attributed to Tournay ; they 
occur on a fine service in his Majesty's collection at Windsor 

Castle : — 



The marks on the pottery made here are as follows : — 

6 >><• 



TREVISO, Italy. 

Towards the end of the eighteenth century the brothers Guiseppe 
and Andrea P'ontebasso established a factory 
Cj'./\...r.r. of soft-paste porcelain here. The marks are 
/T~~ • G. A. V. F. (standing for Guiseppe Andrea Fratclli 

Fontcbasso) and the name of the town. Some- 
times the initials G. A. are omitted, and occasionally a date is 
added. More rarely the names are written in full. 

In the British Museum there is a Treviso cup and saucer 
marked T. R. 


TUNSTALL POTTERY (see also Adams). 

In the notice on Mr. Adams' imitations of Wedgwood's jasper 
ware, Tunstall has already been alluded to. Chaffers mentions 
several other potters who had works here, and made light earthen- 
ware of the kind known generally as " Leeds ware." Some of 
these pieces are stamped G. E. BOWERS, Tunstall Potteries, 
Child, also A. & E. Keeling. There is in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum a large dish dated 1757, with the name of Enoch Booth, 
who had a pottery at Tunstall. 


Faience is said to have been made in Turin during the six- 
teenth and seventeenth centuries, but as very few specimens appear 
to have been marked, one cannot distinguish them from other 
Italian ware of a similar character. Chaffers mentions a fniltiera 
in the Reynold's collection as marked " Falta in Torina a di \2 
Sctebre iS77>" ^"'^ ''• '^''ge dish in the collection of the Marquis 
d'Azeglio inscribed on the back of the rim, " Fabrica Reale di Torina 
1737," with a monogram which looks like a combination of G. T. 
The same authority mentions another plateau with the potter or 
decorator's signature " Gratapaglia Fc Taiir" (see also notice under 


Both the Turkish and Syrian pottery are closely related to 
Persian ware, and the amateur should study the specimens of all 
three classes of this Eastern pottery in the Salting bequest. The 
decoration is generally of a floral character painted 
in bright colours under a clear siliceous glaze, the tS^ 
ground being white or tinted. The South Kensington I * » 

authorities now describe as Turkish the ware generally ^^^ 
known as Rhodian, q.v. But little appears to be ff 
known of Turkish porcelain. Some pieces, marked V^ 
with a crescent, are, however, attributed to the 
ceramic factories of Turkey, as their decoration determines their 
Eastern origin. The marks in the margin have been attributed 
to Turkish porcelain. 



This potter was originally in partnership with a Mr. R. Bankes 
of Stoke, but the partnership was dissolved and Turner started 
on his own account in 1762 in Lane End, where he appears to 
have manufactured a great variety of ware, including statuettes 
and busts (see Staffordshire Pottery). There is now in the 
Edinburgh Museum a remarkable punch bowl with a capacity of 
22 gallons, modelled by Wassey who worked for Turner, and this 
was considered quite a tour dc force at the time. Turner was asso- 
ciated with Josiah Wedgwood in the working of some Cornwall 
clay pits, and Chaffers mentions a controversy between them and 
Champion regarding the renewal of his patent, which they suc- 
ceeded in getting limited to the production of transparent ware, 
leaving it open to other potters to make opaque ware from this 
Cornish clay. 

John Turner made imitations of Wedgwood and copied his 
cream ware, and also his jasper, but the blue ground colour 
was never equal to that of Wedgwood. The ware by which his 
reputation has been established is that known as " cane ware," 
well potted and carefully finished productions of buff tint, as 
the name suggests, in which the relief patterns are sharply 
defined. He manufactured largely for export to the Low 
Countries. Some of his plates were decorated at Delft, where 
he had a depot. Not a few collections possess curious plates 
decorated with Biblical subjects, such as the Prodigal Son, crude 
in drawing and in colour (red prevailing) having inscriptions in 
Dutch. These are of Turner's manufacture, and are occasionally 
marked with his name impressed. There is one in the Cardiff 
Museum presented by Mr. Robert Drane. Turner died in 1786. 

The mark is TURNER impressed, but a great deal of his 
ware was unmarked (see also Lane End and New Hall). 

Urbino (see Majolica). 


In the notice of St. Amand-les-Eaux it has been said that 
Fauquez was unsuccessful in obtaining the Government con- 
cession for porcelain making in 1771, but that he continued 
his enterprise until 1778, when the competition of Tournay 
drove him out of the field. In 1785 he sought and obtained a 



special authority to make porcelain at Valenciennes, and appointed 
as manager a man named Vaunier, who had formerly been 
employed at Lille. The brother-in-law of Fauquez, named 
Lamoninary, also assisted him. Some specimens bear the mono- 
gram F. L. v., which probably stand for Kauquez, Lamoninary, 

The concession was granted for ten years, and contained a 
clause compelling him to use coal for his furnaces. Fauquez 
and Vaunier appear to have left the works, and Lamoninary 
emigrated in 1795. The factory was ordered by Government to 
be sold as the property of an emigrant, but it was apparently 
worthless. In 1800 Lamoninary returned and attempted to 
re-establish himself, but he was unsuccessful, and the plant was 
sold in 1810. 

The porcelain of Valenciennes is not remarkable for quality ; 
it is similar to the hard paste of Vincennes, and one has seen 
dishes and cups and saucers painted with landscapes and battle 
scenes in a pink colour. 

Some biscuit groups representing various subjects, modelled 
by a sculptor of merit named Verboeckhoven but called Fickaer, 
are the more noteworthy, and of these the group representing 
the Descent from the Cross is the most important one known to 
us. Refer to St. Amand-les-Eaux. 

M I ^ 

Faience was made here during the greater part of tlie last 
century by various members of the family of Dorez, who came 
originally from Lille. The undermentioned marks are attributed 
by different authorities. 




VAUX NEAR Melun, France. 

There seems to be some doubt about the existence of a porcelain 

factory here. Permission to manufacture was appHed for in 1769 

by the proprietors of the hard-paste Vincennes factory, but it is 

uncertain whether this was actually granted. There must always 

be confusion about the mark in the margin, which 

/C\ is identical with that attributed by the best authorities 

to Bordeaux. Such specimens as are claimed for 

Vaux are similar in every respect to those of Bordeaux or any of 

the other hard-paste French factories. 


According to two letters dated as early as April 1470 and 
May 1 5 19, quoted by Mr. C. H. Wylde in Continental China, porce- 
lain was made at Venice, firstly by one Antuonio and secondly 
by Jacopo Tebaldo, but beyond the existence of these interesting 
documents describing the achievement of success, we have no 
other evidence, and for practical purposes must begin the history 
of Venetian porcelain in the eighteenth century, 

A manufactory of both hard and soft-paste porcelain was 
established in Venice by Francesco Vezzi, with the help of some 
workmen who had left the Meissen factory, as early as 1720—25. 
The ware produced was of a very high class, both in paste and 
decoration, so that unmarked pieces are often mistaken for 
Dresden of the earliest period. 

One sometimes finds tea and coffee services of Venetian china 
in leather-covered boxes, decorated with the arms of noble families 
of Venice ; these were part of the dowers of Venetian ladies on 
their marriage. A service of this kind, decorated with the arms of 
the Scmiticoli family, the leather case bearing the same device 
as the china, was purchased by the author at the sale of the 



Cavendish-Bentinck collection. Sometimes one finds the cups of 
Venetian, and the saucers of Dresden porcelain, and vice versa. TJie 
decoration of cups and saucers is mostly in quaint Oriental style, 
with a somewhat plentiful use of a peculiar red in the colouring. 

In 1758 some Dresden potters named Hewelke obtained 
permission of the Senate to make porcelain. Little is known of 
their productions, which ceased in 1763. Their mark is said to 
have been a V for Venice. 

In 1765, a potter named Cozzi succeeded in obtaining con- 
cessions from the State, and produced specimens in consider- 
able quantity, and of great artistic merit. His white glazed 
groups and figures are very fine, and, in the author's opinion, 
worth much more than their present market value, as compared 
with the respective prices and merits of specimens from other 
e.xtinct factories. This white china is unmarked. There were 
several fine specimens in the collection of the late Lady Char- 
lotte Schreiber, which were purchased by the author at her death. 
Several of these are now in the possession of Lord Rosebery. 

The usual mark of Venetian porcelain of this period (1765- 
1812) was an anchor, generally painted in red, which is often 
accompanied by initials, presumably those of the painters. A 
mark more rarely found is V% Ven", or some other contraction 
for Venezia, generally painted in either red or blue, and not 
infrequently ornamented with flourishes and grotesques. See 
also Majolica. 

This mark belongs to the earlier period of Vezzi mentioned 
above. Some of the specimens of old 

Venetian porcelain in the Franks coUec- Veil • A.G.'JT'ZO. 
tion are decorated with the arms of > 1 1 

.\n early mark. 

Popes and Doges which give us the 

approximate dates of their manufacture, and these should be 

noted by the collector. 


en "^ 




Marks of the \'ezzi period. Established 
1723, ceased circa 1 7 50. 

Joclouico (yrtolanjL Uenetb 
(Uninse.ntlLiJM'ri'ca. aC 
c/orcecana, in I/enetia 

Co 22 1 

)j. Qv turv <vto 
JoJe. vazz I 



Giovanni Marconi. 


This anchor is generally in red. 



This factory was established in 1718, after many previous 
experiments, by a Dutchman named Claude Innocent du Pas- 
quier, who had obtained from the Emperor Charles VI. an 
exclusive privilege for twenty-five years. The more practical 
part was conducted by a potter named Stenzel, who is said to have 
been a runaway workman from the Meissen manufactory. It 
was a private enterprise, and was not successful. The factory 
reached its greatest prosperity after it became the property of 
the Empire in 1744. and was under the special patronage of 
the young Empress, Maria Theresa, Du Pasquier still remaining 
director at a salary of 1500 florins a year. Figures and groups 
appear to have been modelled about this time, and the sub- 
jects for vases, plateaus, and cups and saucers, were taken 
from pictures by Boucher, Watteau, Lancret, and Angelica 
Kauffmann. With the Court influence to support it, the staff of 



workmen was increased from 40 in 1750 to 320 in 1780, the 
successive directors being Maierhoffer, de Grunbiihel, Joseph 
Wolf, and Kessler. 

In 1785 Baron de Sorgenthal was appointed to the director- 
ship, and his spirited management had a very marked effect upon 
the productions of the manufactory, and the period of richly 
painted and heavily gilt ornamentation commenced, which has 
been termed the "Sorgenthal" period. A clever chemist, one 
Leithner, was engaged to prepare special colours, and to improve 
the gilding ; and it is certainly due to his efforts that the famous 
" rothbrun " was so effective, and the massive relief gilding 
applied to the porcelain, made capable of so much minute siuface 
chasing and intricate design. The paintings, too, about this time, 
and until 1820, were excellent, the colouring being wondeifuUy 
brilliant, and the subjects mostly taken from Angelica Kauff- 
mann's, Rubens', or Lancret's pictures. From the year 1784 it 
was the custom to stamp the date of its production on each 
specimen, in addition to the ordinary fahriqite mark. This was 
done by omitting the first two numerals until the 1800 was 
reached, when the year was stamped in full, except the first 
numeral — thus 1796 would be shown by 96 being impressed 
in the paste, 1806 by the figures 806. Baron Leithner was 
director in 1844, and after his retirement the manufactory 
declined, until, becoming a burden to the State, it was discon- 
tinued in 1864, and the plant sold by public auction, the books 
and manuscripts being placed in the Imperial Museum. After 
the break-up of the State establishment, a number of the work- 
men and artists, formerly employed there, set up small ateliers 
on their own account, and continued to produce specimens 
similar in character to those of the extinct factory. Some of the 
modern paintings are very artistic and show great finish ; the 
gilding is sometimes very good. 

These private firms vary very considerably in degrees 
of merit, and of late years an over-decorated, cheaper, 
and more tawdry description of Vienna china has been placed 
on the market. This would seem to have damaged the sale of 
the better class of modern Vienna, and now only the really old 
specimens are in any request. Imitations of Vienna china bear- 
ing a forged mark have also been made by some Dresden firms 
(see notes in Chapter VI.). 

The mark, a shield of the arms of Austria, is generally in 
blue, under the glaze, but sometimes impressed in the paste. 


Specimens made previous to 1744 were not marked with the 
shield but with various signatures, and sometimes the word 
Vienne or Viennoe and a date. A sumptuous monograph on 
this factory entitled Geschichte der K. K. Wiener Porzellan 
MauHfaclur, by J. Folnesics and D. E. W. Braun, was 
published in 1907, and gives the names of all the chief artists 
with facsimiles of their signatures, and also numerous variations 
of the shield mark. There are many specimens in the Franks 
collection representing the different periods of the factory. 

© S 



The history of porcelain-making at Vincennes has much 
interest for the collector. It was the most important of the soft- 
paste factories, and apart from the excellence of the china 
produced it is celebrated as being the parent of the great Royal 
Sevres factory. 

The notice of Chantilly (p. 127) mentions two brothers named 
Dubois who left that factory in 1738. They brought the secrets 
of porcelain-making to Vincennes, and with the assistance of 
M. Orry de Fulvi, Councillor of State and Minister of Finance, 
started a factory in the vicinity of the royal chateau. The 
Dubois were intemperate, and the same reason which caused 
them to leave Chantilly led to their dismissal in 1741 from 
Vincennes. An assistant named Gravaut, who had also come 
from Chantilly, managed to learn their secrets during their fits of 
drunkenness, and persuaded M. de Fulvi to entrust the work to 
him. Further assistance was obtained from Chantilly workers, 
and Charles Adam was appointed director. In 1745 a special 
royal concession was granted to Charles Adam for the manu- 
facture of porcelain "de meme qualite que celles qui se font en 
Saxe." By this concession many privileges were granted to 
Adam, and on the strength of it a company was formed with a 
capital of 90,300 livres. Very stringent measures were taken to 
prohibit any of the skilled craftsmen from leaving the factory 


for rival establishments in other countries, and to prevent 
strangers from acquiring any of tlie secrets by bribing the 
employes. The King's jeweller and modeller Uuplessis, his 
Majesty's enameller Mathieu, Hellot a noted chemist, and a man 
named Hults, known for his good taste, were all pressed into 
service, and the factory entered on a period of prosperity. 

In 1753 the King issued an edict conveying a fresh concession 
to Adam, granting him the exclusive privilege of porcelain- 
making in France, exempting the employes from military 
service, and sanctioning his use of the royal cypher (the L's 
interlaced) which had already been adopted as a mark. 

It was in this year that the first letter of the alphabet, placed 
within the interlaced Us, was employed to indicate the date of 
manufacture ; previous to this time we sometimes find a dot, 
or less frequently, a rosette, in the space afterwards used for 
the letters of the alphabet. In 1756 occurred the removal of the 
works from the chateau of Vincennes, to new buildings at Sevres, 
where, fostered by the protection and personal interest of the 
King, the undertaking became the royal porcelain factory of 

The well-known mark of the double interlaced I^'s having the 
letters A, B, C within them, is therefore that of the Vincennes 
factory for the years 1753,' 1754. I755» while that which has the 
D and following letters is the mark of Sevres. 

The products of Vincennes from 1745 until 1756, when the 
factory was merged in that of Sevres, are highly prized by 

The paste is beautifully soft, and to use a technical expression 
" fat," and the decoration is eminently satisfactory. The rich 
blue or b/eii dc roi has a cloudy, unequal appearance, due to the 
fact that the pigment was applied with a brush ; at Sevres it was 
appHed as a powder, and then fluxed or vitrified in the kiln. The 
decoration of the earlier pieces was chiefly copied from Chinese 
designs, and sometimes executed entirely in gold, such subjects 
as birds of Paradise, or exotic pheasants, being carefully rendered 
in that material or in colour. A little later Cupids and children 
playing, after Boucher, were represented, and these were painted 
en caiiiaicH in blue and occasionally in red. A speciality of the 
Vincennes factory was the manufacture of artificial flowers, the 
use of which about 1750 became a craze in Paris ; it is said that 
the King gave an order for these ceramic toys to the huge 
amount of -^32,000 for the decoration of the chateau of 

2 D 



Madame Pompadour and of other palaces. The royal favourite is 
said to have planned a surprise fete at the chateau of Belleville 
for Louis XV. in a garden arranged with these artificial flowers, 
scented with perfumes. 

Specimens of soft-paste Vincennes will be found wherever 
there are collections of old Sevres, and several of these are 
referred to in the notice on the latter factory. 



Early marks, "Vincennes." 

First date mark, 1753. 

Hani-paslc Vincennes. 

The manufacture of hard-paste porcelain at Vincennes has a 
record quite distinct from that of the manufacture of soft-paste 
porcelain at the same place. Pierre Antoine Hannong, the well- 
known Strasbourg potter, obtained consent to occupy the vacated 
buildings of the soft-paste factory at the ch.ateau of Vincennes 
for a factory of hard-paste china, and letters patent were granted 
to a nominee of his in 1767 for a term of twenty years, the conces- 
sion including the right to manufacture faience. We do not know 
much about the conduct or productions of this undertaking, but 
apparently it came to an end in 1770, and the factory was then 
purchased by a man named Seguin, who under the protection of 
the Due de Chartres was permitted to use the title of " Royal 
factory of Vincennes," and adopted a heraldic label as a mark. 
There is nothing except this mark to distinguish this hard-paste 
Vincennes china from the ordinary porcelain of similar quality 
common to many French factories. 

fi^L \\\X HI H 5? 

Established by Han- *^ 

I nong and Le Maire. I | | 

The H. L. stands for ilannong and Ix-maire, who was asso- 
ciated with him. 

Marks on iiard-paste Vincennes under proprietorship of 



S(:-guin, being the monogram of the Due de Chartres. This hibel 
is similar to one of the mari^s said to be used on hard-paste 
Orleans porcelain [q-v.). 

Louis riiilippe, 17S3. 


VINOVO, Turin. 

We are indebted to Sir A. W. Franks for information re- 
specting the earlier history of porcelain-making at this place. 
According to his notice of the fahriquc it was in 1776 that G. V. 
Brodel, who had been unsuccessful at Vische, started a porcelain 
factory in the royal castle at Vinovo near Turin. He was assisted 
by Pierre Antoine Hannong, one of the famous family of Stras- 
bourg potters, but the enterprise was not successful and came to 
an end about 1778 or 1780. It was resumed by a Doctor Vittore 
Amades Gioanetti, who carried on the factory for a time : he 
died in 1815. The porcelain is of a peculiar composition, con- 
taining a considerable quantity of silicate of magnesia, and is of 
the kind termed by Brongniart a "hybrid" paste. The author 
has seen some excellent figures of this make which, being marked 
with a X) have been erroneously classed as Bristol. The paste is 
entirely different, and is more like very late hard-paste Sevres, 
though not so white. Specimens are scarce, and the mark is 
found in blue or dark grey, gold, and black. Mr. Chaffers, in 
The Keramic Gallery, illustrates an ecuelle cover stand, decor- 
ated with the arms of Savoy in gold, and with the full mark 
below the cross of Savoy. V stands for Vineuf or Vinovo, and 
D. G. are said to be the initials of Gioanetti. 

A specimen of similar decoration once belonged to the writer, 
and is now in Mr. Borradaile's collection. 

The mark of a cross stands for Turin, a plain cross on a shield 
being the heraldic device of the city. In the Franks collection 
there is a cup decorated with the arms of the King of Sardinia, 
bearing this mark. 

In the British Museum there is a cup and saucer of this fac- 
tory, from the collection of Mr. Fitzhenry, signed " Carassus pinxit." 

Baron Davillier mentions a specimen with the Vinovo mark 



in black, and Marryat says that he has seen examples with the 
Dresden mark. 








The marks on faience made here were the same as on the 

Vista Allegre (see Oporto). 


This was one of the most important of the Thuringian group 
of minor porcelain factories, and although started a few years 
after that of Gotha, it was the first to obtain the State concession 
or privilege which was in those days a necessity. A chemist 
named Mackeleid obtained the concession in 1760, and Johann 
Greiner co-operated with him and managed the works. As the 
reader will see in the notice of Gera, this rather enterprising but 
apparently not too scrupulous potter made a secret purchase of 
the Gera works unknown to his partner, and some friction en- 
sued. For a time the factories of Volkstedt and Gera were 

A great many groups and figures were made at Volkstedt, and 
charmingly decorated as to costumes. Among the favourite sub- 
jects v/ere musicians, mythological personages, actors, soldiers, and 
carefully painted figures depicting the peasant life and costumes 
of the period and locality. As so many of the old Volkstedt 
specimens are unmarked, they are frequently attributed to other 
factories. Table services were also made, and generally decorated 
with skilfully painted fruits and flowers. 

The marks of Volkstedt were the hayfork, sometimes alone 
and sometimes crossed. This factory is often confounded with 
l^udolstadt, and the hayfork mark is given in many books as that 
of Rudolstadt. The valuable work on Thuringian factories by 
Graul and Kurzwelly, already quoted from, does not mention any 



china factory at Kudolstadt, which appears to have been the seat 
of government of the principality of Schvvazbiirg-Rudoistadt 
(see also notice of Thuringia). 



Giovanni Volpato, who is best known to tlie world of art as a 
celebrated engraver, was also a potter, and is said to have worked 
both in Venice and Rome. He produced white glazed earthen- 
ware of fine qnality, and Chaffers mentions that in 1790 he 
employed some twenty modellers. Volpato died in 1803, and 
although the works were carried on by Guiseppe his son, and 
afterwards by his widow, who married the chief modeller, they 
ceased in 1831 owing to the successful competition of other 
potteries. Early specimens are marked G. Volpato Roma, but 
sometimes one finds G. V. impressed or scratched in the paste. 

There is a pair of vases with snake handles painted with 
grotesques on a white ground, in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford, 
marked in full as above. The author has seen bas-relief plaques 
with classic subjects, and copies of some of Canova's statues 
and groups, very carefully executed. Chaffers says that Volpato 
introduced the manufacture of hard-paste biscuit china into Rome. 


A celebrated modeller of figure subjects, employed by Ralph 
Wood, Wedgwood, Neale, Adams and other potters. Fine ex- 
amples of his carving in ivory are in the Holborne Museum, Bath. 
Jugs with groups of figures around a trunk of a tree formed as a 
jug are inscribed "J. Voyez " and dated about 1788 (see also 
Staffordshire Pottery). 


An unimportant factory of the Thuringian group was estab- 
lished at Wallendorf in 1762 by a potter named Hammann, who 
had made experiments in china-making at Katzhiitte, when further 
efforts were forbidden. 



Two members of the Greiner family joined him, and a small 
company was formed in 1 764. The factory passed through different 
ownerships, and in 1897 was worked by a limited company. 

The paste is hard ; the products were chiefly table services, 
which are generally decorated with simple blue patterns and a 
ribbed surface of the cup or bowl. The mark of W is interlaced, 
and should not be confounded with the W of Wegely of Berlin 
fame. A more cursive W was also used on some specimens, and 
a mark which is an imitation of the Marcolini period of Dresden 
(crossed swords with a star between the hilts) was also in use 
until it was discontinued upon a vigorous protest from Saxony, 

^x/ 4> 



Josiah Wedgwood, who may justly be termed the greatest 
of English potters, was born at Burslem in July 1730, and 
came of a good old Staffordshire family dating back to the latter 
part of the fourteenth century. A Gilbert Wedgwood was work- 
ing at Burslem in the seventeenth century, and in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum there is a green glazed Puzzle Jug made by 
a grandson of his, John Wedgwood, signed and dated 169 1. 

Josiah was apprenticed to his elder brother, Thomas, in 
November 1744, and served his time with 
credit, and after ten years occupied in dif- 
ferent ventures, including a short partner- 
ship with Thomas Whieldon, he settled at 
Burslem, as a potter on his own account, 
in 1759, at a place known as Churchyard 
Works, and afterwards at Ivy House. 

Having, by dint of patient experiment, 
succeeded in perfecting a cream-coloured 
ware with a beautifully soft glaze and of 
light creamy texture, he presented the first 
specimen, a caudle and breakfast set, to 
Queen Charlotte on the occasion of her 
This was a most advantageous, as well 
The Queen gave an order for a complete 

Cup of Wedgwood's blue and 
white Jasper ware. 

accouchement in 1762. 

as loyal, presentation. 

dinner service, with an appointment as Queen's potter, and the 



ware was styled, by permission, the gueeii's ware. The King 
also patronised Wedgwood with considerable orders, and his 
cream-coloured ware became the fashion. 

The decoration of this cream-coloured ware by means of 

Lamp of BlaLk Wedgwood (Basaltes) ware {Victoria and Albert Museum). 

printing under the glaze was introduced in 1772, and a remark- 
able example of this description is the celebrated service which 
was manufactured for the Empress Catherine of Russia, having 
views of different noblemen's seats in purple, bordered with a 
gadroon edge. ^'3000 was paid for this service, which comprised 
952 pieces. The decorative work alone is said to have cost Wedg- 



wood ^2900, and he paid for prints, books, and the preparation 
of the plates ^2400, so that he lost heavily by executing the order. 
Unlike most potters of his time, Wedgwood took no pains to 
register his invention under a patent, and therefore the manu- 
facture of similar ware sprang up in a great number of factories, 
and was made in vast quantities, both for home use and export, 

Copy of Portland or Barberini Vase, by Josiah \Yedgwood 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). 

thus adding to the trade of the country. By-and-by, Wedgwood 
took as partner Thomas Wedgwood, a relation, for some time 
foreman in the Queen's ware department, and was thus at more 
liberty to prosecute experiments on fresh lines, notably those 
leading to the production of his celebrated "jasper ware" in 


The chi'f d'auvrc of this beautiful ware was the reproduction 

of the celebrated Barberini or Portland vase. At the auction 



at which the Duchess of Portland's fine collection of works of art 
was disposed of in 1786, Wedgwood bid as high as ^^looo for the 

Wedgwood Vase of blue and white Jasper ware (\'ictoria and Albert Museum). 

coveted treasure, which he desired as a model for reproduction in 
his jasper ware. The Duke of Portland, however, agreed that 
if Wedgwood would no longer oppose his bidding he should 



have the vase for the purpose required, and accordingly it was 
linocked down to the Duke at ^1029. The first fifty copies were 
subscribed for at ^^"50 each ; those which are still in existence 
are good specimens of Wedgwood's skill, and the price realised 

at Christie's generally runs from ;£i6o 
to ;^i8o, but an exceptionally good 
specimen in the collection of the late 
Dr. Lumsden Propert was sold in 1902 
for ;4399' The singular sharpness of 
the subjects in relief of these speci- 
mens was caused by their being recut 
by a lapidary after leaving the mould ; 
they are therefore far superior to the 
copies now turned out by the present 
firm of Wedgwood. The first copies of 
the Portland vase were of black ground, 
polished like onyx, to imitate the 
original, with the relief in pure white. 
These fifty copies were distinguished 
by having the niunbers from i to 50 
scratched in the paste, and the vase 
(illustrated on p. 424) in the Victoria 
and Albert Museum is numbered. 

The celebrated Etruria works were 
opened by Josiah Wedgwood in 1769, 
and as he had the year before taken 
into partnership (in the ornamental 
department) Thomas Bentley, a merchant of Liverpool, who had 
acted as agent in that city, the first specimens produced in the 
new works were appropriately " thrown " by the great Josiah in 
person, his partner turning the wheel. These were a set of three 
vases of Etruscan form, bearing a commemorative inscription. 

Bentley 's partnership continued until his death in 1780, and 
during these twelve years many of the pieces were marked 
" Wedgwood & Bentley." 

The engagement of Flaxman by Wedgwood has given a 
distinctive character to his productions. The majority of fine 
pieces were cast from his models, and many of his beautiful 
cameo-like classic plaques have never been surpassed. It is 
worth remarking that this famous sculptor at one time worked 
for the moderate sum of about one guinea a day. 

A great many of the very small jasper ware cameo 

Wedgwood blue and while Jasper 
ware Vase. 


medallions, beads, and tiny pieces of this gem-like finished work 
were made for the jewellers of the time to mount in gold for 
ladies' wear, and these, with the fine portrait medallions of celeb- 
rities of Wedgwood's period, are much prized by collectors. 

Besides Flaxman, Wedgwood employed several Italian sculp- 
tors and modellers, amongst others Angelini, Dalmazzoni, and 
Pacetti, to copy from the gems in the Vatican collection at Rome, 
bas-reliefs of such mythological subjects as we are familiar with 
on the plaques and vases of jasper ware, which are in every col- 
lection of " Wedgwood." 

A man named Hackwood is known to have been Wedgwood's 
chief modeller for the portrait medallions of poets, statesmen, and 
celebrities, and also to have done a great deal of other useful 
work. He was evidently a clever man with a touch of genius. 

Some of the earlier pieces of jasper were made of the same 
colour all through, but subsequently Wedgwood invented a 
"jasper dip" which economised the expenditure of cobalt, by 
only using the colouring matter for the surface of the " ground." 
The subject to be reproduced as a bas-relief was cut into a 
mould like an " intaglio," and then the soft white paste was 
pressed so that every crevice of this mould was filled. When 
this was extracted it was placed on the " ground " of light or 
dark blue, black, green, lavender or yellow, to which it was 
made fast by moistening with water, and the piece thus mounted 
was then baked. Some of these pieces of jasper have not only 
the ground colour with white relief, but have a third or even a 
fourth colour introduced. 

The different kinds of pastes and ware made by Wedgwood 
may be taken approximately in the following chronological 

From 1759 shaded ware, in imitation of agate and also of 
other polychromatic glazes, in fact, pottery much of the same 
class as he had learned to make with his former partner, Whieldon, 
and which we are familiar with as Whieldon ware. 

From 1762, as an approximate date, we may trace the 
manufacture of his celebrated cream-coloured or Queen's 
ware already mentioned. This was improved about 1765 by 
the invention of a superior glaze known as " Greatbatch's 
china glaze." 

Mr. William Burton thinks that this ware was sent by 
Wedgwood to the works of Mrs. Warburton at Hotlane to receive 
decoration by the process of enamel colouring, which was then 


a novel method, and that later he had this kind of work done 
at Chelsea by trade enamellers who worked for him, and after- 
wards by men in his own service. The ware was also sent to 
Liverpool to be printed by Sadler and Green's new method of 
transfer printing. 

The black basalt was produced in 1766, but it was not 
until much later that he made the finest specimens of this ware. 
The famous "Wine" and "Water" ewers were modelled by 
Flaxman in 1775, and a bill, quoted by Chaffers, which Wedg- 
wood paid the famous sculptor for his work included the payment 
for these vases. Black basalt ware, or " Basaltes of Egyptian," 
as it was called, had such a hard body that it was capable of being 
polished on the lapidary's wheel like an ordinary stone, and it is 
to this process that we can attribute the finely-finished surface on 
the best pieces. 

The ware, called mortar ware, cane-coloured or " bamboo," 
black and black with red, in imitation of the old Greek and Italo- 
Greek vases, were also specialities of this great potter, besides 
which he made busts in different sizes of the famous men of his 
time and also of the classic periods of Greece and Rome. Mr. 
Burton mentions also a " bronze encaustic " decoration on a black 
body, but as the powder used was only made to adhere by the 
use of size, this has by repeated cleanings disappeared save in 
the case of a few specimens. 

Later, towards the end of his successful career and after 
repeated experiments, he produced the famous jasper ware which 
has already been described. 

Josiah Wedgwood died in January 1795, having honourably 
acquired a considerable fortune ; and the works have since been 
ably conducted, though on more commercial principles, by 
members of the family, many of the old moulds being in daily use. 
Many new designs have been added, the services of such eminent 
modellers as C. Toft, and of such draughtsmen as Emile 
Lessore, having been secured. The chief difference between the 
modern and old, is a deficiency in sharpness of outline, and a 
roughness of texture in the ground of the former, that is noticed 
by connoisseurs. 

The paste is not, strictly speaking, porcelain, but it is of so 
close a texture as to be very nearly allied, and some of the finer 
wares will break, showing a vitreous-like surface, which almost 
entitles them to be called porcelain. True porcelain was for a 
short time made at Etruria, but at the commencement of the 



last century, owing to the large orders that inundated the 
firm after the conclusion of peace, and consequent revival of 
export business, its manufacture was suspended, and was only 
recommenced in 1879. 

It is quite impossible to do anything like justice to the 
work of Josiah Wedgwood in such a brief notice as is convenient 
here. There are many excellent works dealing with the 
subject which the collector who takes an interest in Wedgwood 
should consult. Miss Meteyard's Life of Josiah Wedgwood 

Portrait Bust of Josiah Wedgwoocl. 

gives numerous interesting details. Professor Church's Josiah 
Wedgwood, Master Potter, is excellent reading. Mr. William 
Burton's new work on English Earth.emvare contains a very 
good condensed notice, and some very excellent coloured plates 
of his different kinds of ware. Mr. F". Rathbone's beautiful 
folio, Old Jl'edgwood, is a sumptuous monograph on this 
subject, and will convey to the reader some wonderful representa- 
tions in facsimile with much original information. Chaffers' 
Marks and Mniiograiiis has also a much fuUei' notice of Wedg- 
wood than can be given here. 

For collections there are the public ones of the British, and 



Victoria and Albert Museums, the Mayer collection in the Liverpool 
Museum, and a great many beautiful examples collected by Mr. 
Hulme and given to the Wedgwood Institute at Burslem; of 
private collections that of Mr. Isaac Falcke is probably the 
largest and best. This was recently bequeathed to the nation, 
and can now be seen at the British Museum. Lord Tweedmouth 
had a magnificent collection which was made by his father ; this 
was recently purchased by Mr, William H. Lever, M.P., and is 
now suitably housed in a special room in that gentleman's 
beautiful Hampstead residence. This collection is peculiarly 
interesting because it includes many of the 
original models in wax, made by John Flax- 
man, R.A., for Wedgwood to reproduce in his 
jasper ware. 

The mark is the name WEDGWOOD 
impressed in the soft clay. Specimens pro- 
duced during the partnership of Wedgwood 
and Bentley are marked IVedgivood & Betitley 
sometimes thus, sometimes in a circle as in the 
margin, and one frequently finds a numeral 
also impressed under the names. The name 
IVedgwood occurs in capitals IVEDGIVOOD, 
lower case IVedgwood, occasionally, but rarely, 
accompanied by the word Etruria, also in caps 
Maik uf Wedtjwood ^nd lower case. 

and Bentley. 

Amateurs are warned agamst numerous 
imitations that bear additions to the name of Wedgwood, how- 
ever slight, such as " & Co." Pieces marked thus were never 
made at Etruria, and are not genuine. 

Some of the later ware decorated by Emile Lessore bears his 
name, generally painted in a dull red colour. 

Weesp (see Amstel). 


Thomas Whieldon is a potter who deserves more attention 
than has been generally given to his merits by writers on the 
subject. He appears to have risen from the lowest rank of 
industry entirely by his own exertions. He was in business in 
a small way as early as 1740 at Little Fenton, ;ind made knife 
handles in agate ware, which ware he subsecjuently improved and 
made a speciality, also tea- and colfec-pots in tortoiseshell ware. 



The career of this potter is peculiarly interestiiifj from the fact 
that so many men who afterwards became notable chiefs of the in- 

Coffee-pot of Whieklcin w;iie (\ ictoiia ami Allicit Museum). 

dustry were at one time or another his apprentices. Aaron Wood, 
famous afterwards for his groups and figures ; Josiah Spode, the 

Tea-pot of Agate ware (Victoria and Albert Museum). 

premier Enghsh porcelain manufacturer of his time, and founder of 
the present firm of Copelands ; William Greatbatch, of whose work 



the reader will find a full account in Chaffers, and some notices 
in other chapters in this book; J. Barker, Robert Garner, Uriah 
Sutton, all spent periods in his workshops to learn the trade 
of potting, and he himself became a partner of the great Josiah 
Wedgwood some time before 1759. He died in 1798 at a great 
age, after having made a considerable fortune. 

Whieldon ware is peculiarly light, and the articles attri- 

Twi) Hawks, early Whieldon School, in the coUeclion of Jlr. Frank Falkner. 

buted to him are generally well potted. The glaze is also 
excellent, highly transparent, and docs not " flake " away from 
the body, as it does in many of the figures of his Staffordshire 
rivals. The more sought after and distinctive specimens of the 
ware which now occupy the collector's attention, are the pieces, 
generally elegant little tea-pots or milk-jugs, plates, and other 
domestic pieces, known as " tortoiseshell ware," their colour- 
ing being brown or mollled in imitation of that material ; some- 
times pieces are shaded from brown to green, and one also finds 


tea-pots moulded and coloured to represent cauliflowers, melons, 
and pineapples. These have been termed his " garden " ware. 
Other varieties are known as clouded ware, agate ware, mottled, 
and black ware, the latter similar to that which we recognise more 
readily as Jackfield. He also made cradles, and figures of hunts- 
men, soldiers, and others representing various trades. His Toby 
jugs are of the best of this kind of ware, and some miniature or 
children's toys in pottery are attributed to him. Specimens of 
Whieldon ware have lately considerably risen in value. The pair 
of birds, one decorated in pale green and the other with brown 
glaze, which are illustrated are in Mr. Frank Falkner's collection, 
on loan to the Dublin Museum. 

WINCANTON, Somersetshire. 

A potter named Ireson, who formerly worked at Nuneaton, in 
Warwickshire, established at Wincanton, about 1720, a pottery 
which achieved considerable local reputation. 

Mr. W. P. Ivatts has supplied the author with numerous 
press cuttings from old newspapers and some interesting letters re- 
specting this pottery, which has been hitherto unnoticed in works 
upon ceramics, but which deserves the collector's attention. 

The peculiarities of Wincanton pottery are a pinkish under- 
glaze and an excellent Delft-like glaze, which resembles that of 
Lambeth faience. No doubt from the fact of this pottery being 
hitherto quite unrecognised, such pieces as have some English 
characteristics and are dated, have been assigned to Lambeth, 
while others which have nothing in their decoration to localise 
them have been generally classed as old Delft. 

Captain Herbert Terry possesses a remarkable pitcher 14 
inches high and i 2 inches diameter, of which an illustration is given 
on p. 434. Part of the ornamentation is in relief, and the rest, 
which is of a varied character, is in greyish-blue colour, including a 
battle scene, a general on horseback, tritons, and other figures ; it 
also has the signature and date, "Nathaniel Ireson, 1748." The 
monogram S I B is said to be the initials of Samuel Ireson Bewesy, 
or Busey, who was related to Ireson, and for whom this jug was 
made. Captain Terry has traced the possession of it back to some 
members of the family. Other pieces in the same collection 
have the woVd Wincanton and dates, varying from 1730 to 1740. 
There is also a bowl with purple-brown decoration, a cursive 
W underneath, and inside the legend, " Drink fair, don't swear." 

2 E 



Major-General Astley Terry has a bowl with the word and date, 
" Wincanton, 1738." 

These specimens were all purchased from inhabitants in the 

Important specimen of Wincanton put!- 

illection of Captain Herbert Terry. 

neighbourhood of the old works, and other fragments have been 
found by digging. 

Specimens are sometimes signed " G. Ciewitt," with date 1737. 
He was a potter in Ireson's employment. There are some 
specimens in the Taunton jMuseum. 

Wilson (Robert, also David), (see Neale t*t Co.). 


One of the smaller German faience fabriqiics 
mentioned by Herr Jannike. Very little is known 
of it. 



Wood, Aaron, Enoch, Ralph, potters (see Staffordshire 


The "Worcester Porcelain Company" was establislied in 1751 
on the initiative of Dr. Wall, a local practitioner of artistic tastes 
and high intellectual attainments. 

Portrait of Dr. Wall, the founder of the Worcester Miimifactory, 
from a woodcut kindly lent by Mr. K. W. Binns. 

Very early blue and white printed Worcester Cup 
(Victoria and Albert Museum). 




Tbtunj //ii/ka7(t 

oil tic ma nd /ut 

\\ .Qy(tf/icC/nna 

Specimens of China Tokens used about 1763, and termed by Mr. Binns 
" Curiosities of Currency." 

Old Worcester Coffce-pol (Dr. W.tU period), lilue salmon scale ground, ;ind figure 
subjects (formerly in the collection of Mr. 1). \V. Macdonakl). 



He was a clever practical chemist, interested in the growth of 
ceramic industry in this country, and had made many experiments 
in his laboratory before bringing their results before the local 
gentlemen who then formed the directors of his company. The 
mansion that had formerly been the residence of the Warmstrey 
family, the site now occupied by Dent's Glove Manufactory, was 
purchased for the operations, and these seem to have been 
commenced on a considerable scale and very soon were suc- 
cessful. The earlier productions were imitations of Chinese 
porcelain, and blue on white ground was the first attempted ; then 
the more brilliant colours and designs of the Japanese, and later, 
the salmon scale ground and rich decoration, which will be 
presently referred to more in detail. 

Transfer Printing. 

Transfer printing was effected by means of impressions from 
copper plates, transferred from paper to the china, and was 
formerly considered to have been invented by John Sadler, who 
secured a patent in 1756, and carried it to Worcester. 

Mr. William Burton has, however, given the credit of the first 
transfer printing to the Battersea enamel works, where he says 
contemporary accounts prove this process of decoration to have 
been made use of as early aS:i752— 53 by a clever Frenchman named 
Ravenet. Robert Hancock was his pupil, and worked under him 
at Battersea until, owing to the bankruptcy of the proprietor. Sir 
S. T. Jansen, in 1756, he migrated to Worcester and quickly found 
employment. The date 1757 on the well-known "King of 
Prussia" mug, which Carlyle has called "the apotheosis in china 
of Frederick H.," seems to bear out this contention. Other mugs, 
cups, and basins of this time and similar decoration, are those 
with portraits of the Marquis of Granby and Iving George II., 
the elder Pitt, with ships, emblems, and inscriptions. Mr. Dyson 
Perrins has a very unusual specimen in the form of a vase, 12 
inches high, with an equestrian portrait of George II. in coloured 
transfer, and a Cupid holding a cap of Liberty with the word 
" Liberty." This piece is signed " J^ , "Worcester" and also bears 
the sign \/'_ (for Holdship). Mr. Binns thought that it was one of 
a pair made for the King. A specimen mug of transfer decoration 
in the collection of Mr. Herbert Hughes of Dudley is signed " J. 
Sadler, Liverpool," and as the piece is undoubtedly of Worcester 
manufacture it would seem that some of this ware was sent- to 


Liverpool for decoration by Sadler's new process. Occasionally 
transfer decoration occurs in conjunction with enamelled or 
painted enrichment, as is the case with the hexagonal vase in the 

Worcester Vase of liuNagonal form, yellow ground, with decoration part transfer and 
part painted (Schreiber collection, Victoria and Albert Museum). 

Schreiber collection illustrated on this page, but the combina- 
tion is not artistically successful. 

The Schreiber collection is very rich in these early transfer 
specimens, and should be carefully studied by the Worcester 



The methods of printing by transfer process at Worcester were 
subsequently improved by carefully preparing the copper plate 
to be used. It was stippled with fine point, after designs from 
Bartolozzi, Cipriani, and other contemporary artists, then coated 
with linseed oil in such a way that only the oil remained in the 
impression made by the engraver, which was then transferred to 
the china. On these oil marks the requisite colour was " dusted," 
and after being carefully manipulated so that no superfluous 


Specimen of copper plate used at Worcester. 

colour remained, the china was placed in the kiln. This process 
was termed " Bat printing," because bats or blocks of glue were 
used as a means of transfer from the copper plates to the china, 
instead of the paper or linen used in the earlier method. 

Mr. Herbert W. Hughes of Dudley has a Worcester cup and 
saucer, in which an exotic bird is painted in colours as the centre 
ornament, while the other decoration is of the ordinary blue 
printing : this is a most uncommon combination. 

The most usual kind of transfer is that in which the subject 
is in black ink, on a plain white ground, but we fmd more rarely, 



" coloured " transfer in which other colours are used, the most 
favoured one being a kind of violet or puce tint. 

By the courtesy of Mr. Haywood, Secretary of the Royal 
Worcester Porcelain Company, we are enabled to reproduce 
impressions from two of the original copper plates used in the 
transfer printing of Worcester porcelain. From these it will be 
observed that the plates are engraved the " reverse " way, so that 
when the subject was transferred it appeared on the china in its 
correct form. 

As a general rule, transfer W^orcester bears no\7ix fabriquc 
mark, but occasionally the crossed swords occur on specimens. 

Robert Hancock was the most skilful engraver employed at 

Example of copper plate used at Worcester. 

the Worcester factory, and his signature, R. Hancock fecit, and 
sometimes the word "Worcester," is to be found on many ex- 
jt cellent specimens. Some confusion is caused by the 
*" '^ initials of a rival engraver, Richard Holdship, which are 
identical, but with the signature of Holdship we generally have a 
monogram and an anchor, the latter being a rebus on his name. 

There is a plate of transfer Worcester in the Schreiber col- 
lection in the Victoria and Albert Museum, which has both signa- 
tures, and Mr. Binns of the Worcester factory considered this to 
be a proof that Robert Hancock was the engraver of the copper 
plate, and that Holdship only executed the transfer or printing 

C .- '^ 

o „ 

tn St. S O 

.£ S'i S 

£ « A 



process. In tlie Museum of the Royal Worcester China Works 
there is a mug of transfer, the technique of which is inferior to 
the work of Hancock, signed with Holdship's monogram and tiie 
anchor, but the word ''Derby" instead of Worcester ; and as Mr. 
Llewellyn Jewitt has quoted an agreement between Mr. Duesbury 
of Derby and Holdship, it would seem that the specimen was one 
which Holdship had decorated when trying to introduce the pro- 
cess of transfer-printing at the Derby works. This specimen is 
the only one so marked which is known to the author. 

Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins and Major-General Aslley Terry 
have each a transfer specimen signed " Ross," and there is a cup 
and saucer mentioned in Cliaffcrs signed "J'. l/£uijlies fecil'' 
The signature of J. Sadler, Liverpool, has already been mentioned. 

With regard to the earlier painlcd blue Worcester, as dis- 
tinguished from the printed or transfer blue and white, we may 
notice that small and curious little marks in blue were sometimes 
used in addition to, and sometimes in the absence of, the ordinary 
fabrique marks of square seal or crescent ; these are called work- 
men's marks, and several of them will be found in the marks at 
the end of this notice. It is also interesting to observe that 
on painted blue and white specimens, where the crescent mark is 
used, it is an open or outlined crescent, instead of the solid one 
used on transfer or printed " blue and white." On a blue 
and white basket in Mr. Perrins' collection both the outlined 
and the solid or shaded crescent appear. 

Recent information, founded upon careful analysis of small 
portions of a specimen in Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins' collection, 
has caused the authorities of the British Museum to transfer 
six specimens of early blue and white china to Worcester which 
had hitherto been classed as Bow. They are interesting specimens, 
and should be carefully observed by the collector, and those who 
would desire fuller information on this subject are referred to 
Chaffers, 13th edition, edited by the author, in which the matter 
is discussed, or to Mr. R. L. Hobson's recently published sump- 
tuous monograph, Worcester Porcelain. 

In the analysed fragments the presence of steatite was dis- 
covered, and this, while used at Worcester, is known not to have 
been present in the Bow paste. Confirmation is also found in 
the existence of an old Worcester mould at the works correspond- 
ing with a sauce tureen dated 175 i, which is identical with the 
one from which a fragment was broken for analysis. Some of 
these specimens bear the mark in the margin which we have been 



accustomed to look upon as the monogram of Thomas Frye, 

-^.^__ founder of the Bow factory : they are now properly 

• ^ claimed for Worcester, and the mark is either the one 

I which in Chinese writing represents jade or else of an 

unidentified Worcester craftsman. 

Dr. Wall's Period. — The best period of the old Worcester china 
is that which is known as Dr. Wall's period, and the china richest 
in decoration was made from about 1768 to 1783. It was during 
this time that the famous blue salmon scale decoration was intro- 
duced, with panels of white ground, upon which were painted 
(i) figures, (2) exotic birds, and (3) flowers; and rarity and value 
is in the order in which the three kinds of decoration are named. 
Figure subjects are very scarce. The birds are brilliantly painted 
and finished with great care, and the gilding, which forms a scroll 
framework to the panels, gives the specimen a very rich effect. 
The flowers are also beautifully executed. We find vases, in pairs 
and sets of three and five, dessert, and tea and coffee services. 
Some groups of shells which were formerly attributed to Plymouth 
are now considered to have been made at Worcester, when the 
paste and the treatment of the painted flowers bear out this 

The question as to whether figures were made at the Wor- 
cester factory at this period is a vexed one. Until recently it was 
taken for granted that there were no figures, but lately an old 
diary ^ was published, in which a lady, who visited the works in 
177 1, noted the moulding of figures, and even the methods of manu- 
facture. There are undoubtedly some figures which it is difficult 
to class as Bow, because, although the decoration in general is 
similar to the work of that factory, there are certain details, such 
as the colour of a scroll or the flowers painted inside the shell, held 
by a costumed lady, which coincide with those on well-authenti- 
cated Worcester specimens ; in addition the paste makes us more 
inclined to assign them to Worcester than to Bow. Mr. Dyson 
Perrins has several of these debatable figures, and amongst tliem 
some are marked with the " crossed swords," a mark used at 
Worcester, but never, so far as the writer knows, at Bow. Mrs. 
A. R. Macdonald has also in her collection a group of Mars 
bearing the crossed swords mark, and a pair of seated figures of 
boy and girl with crescent mark ; these are probably of Worcester 
make. Mr. R. L. Hobson, in his valuable monograph, Worcester 

' In Chafters' .^fail-s and Monograms, I3ll> edition (edited by F. Litchfield), there is 
a full quotation from this diary, which was ])uljlishcd by Messrs. Longmans & Co. 


Porcelain, published in 1910, supports the view as to figures 
being made at Worcestei'. 

An episode in the history of tlie last period of the Worcester 
factory was the employment, about 1765, of some of the china 
painters from Chelsea. Mr. William Burton, in his chapter on 
" Worcester," quotes an advertisement which appeared in 1768 to 
the effect that the " Worcester proprietors have engaged the best 
painters from Chelsea, and they can execute orders in the highest 
taste and much cheaper than can be afforded by any painter in 
London." Mr. Binns was of opinion that one of the effects of Mr. 
Sprimont's illness and inability to give proper attention to busi- 
ness, was the migration of those painters from the Chelsea works. 

The fine coffee-pot, illustrated on page 436, is painted in the 
Chelsea manner, and so are all the figure-subjects of similar char- 
acter. To those who are well acquainted with the Chelsea models 
of Arcadian figures playing lutes, this class of subject-painting will 
be readily recognised as differing from the ordinary Worcester 
decoration, but it is only in the filling of the cartouche or panel that 
the Chelsea style prevails. The mould of the piece, the ground- 
work of rich salmon scale, and the shape of the panels, remain of 
the Worcester type : it is the subject-painting which we trace to 
the artists from Chelsea. This Chelsea school of decoration 
should not be confounded with the work of the outside artists, of 
which there is some notice on p. 448. 

Another characteristic decoration of this, the best time of the 
factory, was what is called the " powder blue " ground. This deep 
blue colour was imitated from the Oriental china, and the Wor- 
cester artists managed to obtain a charming effect. The ground 
colour is generally relieved with fan-shaped panels, on which are 
birds and flowers, while sometimes there is a round medallion, 
in the centre of which is a group of flowers, or a bird. 'J'his 
kind of Worcester is never marked. Other colours were a 
charming green, a yellow, and very rarely, a pink-salmon scale, 
and, still more scarce, a rich crimson-lake ground colour. 

As an indication of the rarity of this crimson-lake colour as a 
ground, the author only remembers having seen some half-a-dozen 
specimens. Mr. Drane of Cardiff has a good cup, and in the 
Dudley Macdonald collection these were four pieces — a basin, 
tray, and cup and saucer. These were once the property of the 
author's father, and were sold by him in 1850 with several other 
articles for ^30 to Mr. Robert Napier, the famous shipbuilder. 
Subsequently they were in the collection of Mr. Dudley Ward 


Macdonald, which was sold at Christie's in 1900, and were pur- 
chased by the author for ;^25o, subsequently passing into the 
collection of Mr. C. VV. Dyson Perrins. 

As some guide to the date when the beautiful canary-yellow 
ground colour was first used there are two specimens in Mr. 
Drane's collection which are of interest. One of these is a 
cylindrical mug contaijiing 2 J pints decorated with the yellow 
ground and a silhouette portrait of Dr. Wall with date 1759. 
This is probably a memorial piece made twenty years after the date 
of his marriage and also of his commencing practice, but it makes 
us cetiain that the yellow ground colour was in use previous to 
1759. A cup and saucer with the same yellow ground colour 
has every appearance of being some few years earlier than the 
mug, but it is not dated. 

A very beautiful dessert service, believed to be unique, of 
twenty-four plates, six baskets, and six dishes, decorated with 
flowers, but having this rare and beautiful crimson-lake introduced 
into the borders, was also purchased for _^ioi8 by the author at 
the sale of Sir Henry Hope Edwards' collection in 1901, and 
specimens are now in the collection of Mr. Perrins, Mr. Harry 
Manfield, Lady Hughes, Mr. Ralph Lambton, Mr. Neville 
Chamberlain, Mr. Herbert Hughes, Mr. R. D. Turner, Mr. Robert 
Drane, and some other amateurs, the service having been divided 
into cabinet specimens. When the green ground Worcester is 
marked, which it very seldom is, specimens bear the crossed 
swords and a dot between the hilts, an imitation of an old Dresden 
mark. Some of the best private collections of Worcester china 
are those of Mr. C. W. Dyson Perrins, Mr. John Cockshutt, 
Mr. Frank Lloyd, Mrs. Rhodes, and Mr. Ralph Lambton, who 
acquired some of the best specimens at the sale of Mr, Alfred 
Trapnell's collection in 1899. 

The paste of the Worcester china of Dr. Wall's period varies. 
The first made is of a dense character, and when held up to the 
light shows a slight greenish tint. Later soap-rock was used in the 
composition, which then became less dense and of a yellowish 
tint. The glaze is invariably level, and free from the blotchy 
appearance sometimes observed on early Chelsea and Bow speci- 
mens. A peculiarity, too, of the Worcester glaze is that in the 
great majority of specimens a shrinkage may be observed to 
have taken place just inside the bottom rim of the piece. If a 
finely-pointed lead pencil be drawn round the inside of this rim, it 
will make a black mark where there is this absence of glaze. With 



y, — 





very few exceptions every article made at the Worcester factory 
will be found to have been skilfully potted and carefully decorated. 
Flight &■ Ban- Period. — The management of the Worcester 
works received a severe blow by the death of the founder, Dr. 
Wall, in 1776, and in 1783 Mr. T. Flight, a merchant of Bread 
Street, City, purchased the whole concern for the sum of ^^3000 ; 
on his taking Barr into partnership, ten years later, the firm 

Specimen of Worcester of the Barr, Flight, & Barr period, lornicrly 
in the collection of Mr. D. W. Macdonald. 

became Flight & Barr, and many specimens are now to be found 
bearing the name in full, also the initials B. F. B. (Barr, Flight, 
and Barr) impressed in the paste or occasionally roughly scratched. 
Some excellent work was turned out by P'light & Barr ; great 
attention was paid to gilding and finish ; but fashion had altered, 
and the shapes were more like those which we now class as 
" Empire." King George III. and Queen Charlotte gave the works 
great encouragement, and the prefix " Royal " was adopted by per- 
mission. A famous dessert service made for the Duke of Clarence, 


afterwards William IV., in which the figure of Hope and an anchor 
are prominent features, dates from this time. John Pennington 
painted this service. Baxter was the most famous artist of this 
period, and painted subjects from Shakespeare, allegorical figures, 
and illustrations of poems and plays. Billingsley of Derby and 
Nantgarw fame also painted flower subjects. The London house 
for the sale of Worcester china in Flight & Barr's time was No. i 
Coventry Street. 

Joseph Flight died in 1829, after which Martin and George 
Barr, proprietors, used the marks of Flight, Barr, & Barr until 

The Chamberlains Period. — Robert Chamberlain, who had been 
an apprentice at the Worcester works, left them, and, with his 
brother Humphrey, started business in High Street, Worcester, 
and achieved considerable success — the wages in one year 
amounting to nearly ^5000, and the value of gold used in orna- 
mentation to about ;^90o. Lord Nelson visited the factory on 
August 2, 1802, and presentation services were ordered for him 
to be presented by the ladies of England. Nelson died before 
the completion of the order, but the breakfast service was finished, 
and as it long since passed out of the possession of the family, 
specimens are in the cabinets of the different Worcester collectors, 
and occasionally come into the market. 

Another of these Nelson services was that presented to him 
after the battle of Copenhagen, which bears the dates of his 
battles: "Nile," " Baltic," and " St. Vincent." Chamberlain also 
made services for King W^illiam IV., members of the royal 
family, and various high officers of State, and for the City Cor- 
porations ; specimen plates of these handsome services are to be 
seen in the Museum of the Royal Worcester Works. Mr. C. 
Wentworth Wass had an interesting collection of royal, historical, 
and armorial china, and this included several specimen plates 
of the services made by Chamberlain for royal and notable 
personages, amongst them some pieces of the famous " Nelson " 

The painting of figure subjects in Chamberlain's Worcester 
is very carefully executed, the gilding rich, and the finish alto- 
gether of high excellence, although of course the taste is quite 
different from that of the old " Dr. Wall " Worcester which we 
have already noticed. 

In the year 1840 the two firms of Flight & Barr and 
Chamberlains amalgamated, and the work was carried on until 




1847, when the partnership ceased, and for some five years 
Walter Chamberhiin and John and Frederick Lily continued the 

Messrs. Kerr & Binns were proprietors of the works from 
1852 until 1862, when the present company, entitled the Royal 
Worcester Porcelain Company, was foimed with Mr. Binns as 
managing director, and some influential local gentlemen as 


Pattern of Breakfast Service made fur H.R. H. Princess 
Charlotte on her Marriage. 

directors and shareholders. Mr. Binns retired in 1897, and has 
since died, and Mr. Evans, formerly secretary, is now managing 
director. Great improvements have been made in the buildings 
and plant, and the manufacture of modern Worcester is carried 
on upon a very large scale. The designs and decorations are, 
however, upon entirely different lines from the old style, and 
though excellent of their kind, scarcely interest the collector of 
old china. An illustration of modern Worcester is given in 
Chapter IV. 


Of the comparatively modern work done at Worcester, the 
beautiful enamel painting by Mr. Thomas Bott, which has been 
termed "Worcester Limoges," claims attention. This was in- 
troduced during the proprietorship of Messrs. Kerr & Binns, 
and specimens are in considerable demand by collectors. 

Grainger's IVorcestcr. — Another Worcester factory upon a 
small scale had also been established in 1800 by Mr. Thomas 
Grainger, a nephew of Humphrey Chamberlain, and the mark 
of Grainger's W^orcester, and of Grainger, Lee, & Co., is found 
upon china painted and finished much in the same style as 
Chamberlain's Worcester. This work was executed from 1800 
until 1846. 

In the year 1889 Grainger's old works were acquired by 
the present company and continued by them on the original site. 

Another firm which after a short existence was incoiporated 
with the Royal Worcester Porcelain Company, is that of James 
Hadley & Sons. James Hadley was principal modeller for many 
years at the old works, and left in 1896 to start manufacturing 
on his own account, with three of his sons, under the above title, 
but at his death in 1903 the Royal Porcelain Company acquired 
the business. Hadley's mark for the short term of his firm's 
existence was a monogram combining the letters J. H. & S. 
Their work never reached a high standard. 

Locke s Worceslcr. — In the year 1895 Edward Locke, who 
had for many years been employed at the Worcester works as 
modeller, set up for himself and made moulds similar to those 
of the parent factory. These were at first sold as Locke's 
Worcester. Later, owing to the suppression of the word Locke 
and the injury thus sustained by the Royal W^orcester works, 
the latter took legal action, and in the result Mr. Justice Byrne 
decided entirely in favoiu" of the original company. 

Worcester painted by Outside Artists. — Apart from the Wor- 
cester china decorated at the works, there appears to have been 
a certain number of pieces of china sold by the factory in the 
white and decorated by artists. In the collection of the late 
Baron Rothschild there was a remarkable set of vases painted 
by an artist named John Donaldson, and Mr. Dyson Perrins has 
also some magnificent specimens attributed to the same hand. 
Donaldson worked from 1765 to 1770, and some of his pieces 
are signed with his initials, J. D. 

Another famous artist, whose work has been but little known 
and appreciated, was one named O'Neale, and a remarkably 


fine set of tliree important vases in Mr. C. W. Dyson Pcrrins' 
collection, of which we give a full-page illustration, are signed 
by him (" O'Neale pinxi"). Another pair of vases in the same 
collection, with studius of /Eneas bearing Anchises, and of the 
Rape of Helen, signed by the same artist with the addition of the 
year 1769, gives us the date of these fine specimens, and the time 
when O'Neale worked. At the sale of Mr. J. E. Nightingale's 
collection (December 19 11) a coffee cup and saucer by this artist 
realised ^^33, 12s. 

In addition to the work of Donaldson and O'Neale, a "china 
and enamel painter" named John Giles, of Kentish Town, seems 
to have bought the Worcester china in the white, and to have 
decorated and re-fired it. In the Public Acivciiisrr of January 
28, 1768, appeared an announcement to the effect that J. Giles 
had opened a warehouse in Cockspur Street, London, where could 
be seen Worcester porcelain " curiously painted in the Dresden, 
Chelsea, and Chinese tastes." It is pretty evident that Giles 
carried on an extensive business, and the fact that he decorated 
his goods in styles different from those of the orthodox factory 
manner, accounts for the " puzzles " which occasionally tiu-n up 
to perplex the expert and collector. 

One effect of Giles' advertising his wares would seem to be 
the more energetic advertisement by the original factory of their 
employment of the Chelsea painters, which appeared about this 
time, and the reference to " any painter in London " without 
doubt alluded to this opposition. 

There is in the Sheldon collection a blue painted cup and saucer- 
with a blue crescent mark, supposed to have 
been decorated in colours and gilded by Giles. 
The cup and saucer are marked with a Chinese 
seal (differing on cup and saucer) in red, the 
blue crescent shoiviiig through the red seal on the 
cup, while on the saucer it is separate from 
the seal. Giles worked from about 1756 to 
1780, but during the last ten years the busi- 
ness was carried on by James Giles, probably 
a son of John. Giles became involved in 

J II u 1- Mark with crescent show- 

financial difficulties, and eventually sold his ing through the seal. 

stock and plant to Duesbury of Derby. 

Occasionally signatures are found of other artists who either 

were never employed at the works, or who had left the works, 

and having bought the white china, painted it and marked it 

2 F 



with their names. Of these, the work of C. C. Fogo, who painted 
landscapes and Chinese scenes, is much sought after by Wor- 
cester collectors. 

We may conclude this notice by observing that, since a 
previous edition of this book was published in 1900, the prices of 
Old Worcester porcelain have materially appreciated. At the 
Trapnell sale in July 1899 a fine vase painted by Donaldson 
realised £70;}, los., and a pair of tea-cups and saucers, salmon 
scale blue ground, with Watteau figures (very scarce), ;£i57, los. 

Group of specimens of various descriptions. 

At the sale of the late Mr. Gilbert's collection (May 1904) a 
single tea-cup was sold for £120; in December 191 1 a two- 
handled cup and saucer of this rare decoration (Watteau figures) 
brought ^223, I2S., and a dessert plate with panels of these same 
figures was sold at Christie's in November 191 1 for £147 • At 
some recent sales at Christie's, pairs of Worcester vases, of hexa- 
gonal form, about 15 inches high, with exotic birds and blue 
salmon scale decoration, have fetched as much as -^1600, while 
similar vases 12 inches high realised 950 guineas. Ordinary 
dessert plates, of similar decoration, which ten years ago brought 
;^I2, have sold for ^'30 each, while those with flowers in the 


Ice-pail with the Arms of Lord Nelson and the names of some of his victories. 
In the collection of Mr. F. A. Crisp, F.S..\. 


panels, instead of birds, have also doubled in price from about 
;^8 or £10 to -^'20 and ^25 when the specimens have been good 
in quality and brilliant in decoration. Specimens with the favourite 
" apple green " ground colour command an ever-increasing price. 
At the sale of Mr. J. E. Nightingale's collection (December 1911) 
an oviform vase of this ground colour with panels of birds, only 
8i inches high, sold for £2Jt,. 

The Worcester coffee-pot illustrated on page 436 cost Mr. 
Macdonald -^50 in 1889-90, and realised at the sale of his 
collection in 1901, £'i^Z- Some further reference to these prices 
of Worcester porcelain, will be found in the chapter on "Values 
and Prices." 

The reader who is especially interested in the collection of 
Old Worcester porcelain is recommended to consult the recently 
published monograph by Mr. R. L. Hobson, entitled JVotrcslcr 
Porcelain. It is sumptuously illustrated, and the latest edition 
of Chaffers' Marks and Monograms, revised by the author, will 
be found to contain a great deal of information about the history 
and productions of this important factory. 

Various Marks of Worcester Porcelain Factory during the 
Dr. JVall Period. 

^ :t5 I ^ ^ ® 9f, .-. A /? ^v 

"/ ^ ^ J:' cc c:^ 



^ 7^ \(/ H f 




The above are workmen's marks, sometimes used in addition 
to the ordinary /rt/^;/(7«c mark of square seal or crescent, generally 
on painted blue and white Worcester of the early period. 

In the notice on " Bow " following the illustration of several 
of these workmen's marks, the reader will find a note which 
should be referred to. The writer has seen the majority of these 
workmen's marks on specimens which he considers to have been 
made at Bow. ' It is possible that some of the workmen migrated 
from one factory to the other. The crescents with faces and 
letters are also claimed by some experts for Caughley. When such 
marks occur on very sparsely decorated blue and white specimens, 
it is very difficult to be positive in attributing correctly. 

C i w 




The square mark of which Ihcre arc other 



This mark is claimed 
for Derby. 


These "Dresden" marks occur in great 
variety on early Worcester speci mens. Some- 
times the crossed swords have the dot be- 
tween the hills, while the numbers between 
the points of the swords differ on various 


These marks of Oriental characters occur in 
great variety, being copies of old marks on 
Chinese porcelain of the Ming dynasty. 

All the marks given cm pp. 451-53 were in use previous to 17S0. 

Noie. — The crescent very rarely occurs in gold. It is found 
on a dessert service painted in fruits, with a charming border 
in gold and colours, which was in the collection of H.R.H. 
the Duke of Cambridge, sold at Christie's in June 1904. It is 
said that this gold crescent was put on services made for members 
of the royal family, and the fact of this one having been made 
for the Duchess of Gloucester, rather bears out this contention. 
Some of the plates of this service had, in addition to the gold 
crescent, a crescent impressed in the paste. The printed W 
is very rare, and is found as a rule on specimens of particu- 
larly fine quality. On exceptional pieces fwo marks, seal and 
crescent, are found, and also the seal mark in blue and crescent 
in red. A note as to these combined marks will be found on 
p. 449. 

The mark in the margin in blue is on the covers, and also on 
the bottom of one of the baskets of a pair of baskets, covers, and 
stands, with trellis pattern and flowers in relief — in Mr. ^ 
Dyson Perrins' collection. The companion basket is t\^ 
marked with the Chelsea anchor in red, a mark found v/ 
occasionally on pieces of undoubted Worcester make. 



R. Hancock, engraver, circa 1758, 

Worcester, ^rark of Richard Hold- 
ship, about 1758, on transfer ware. 

Monogram of John Donaldson, painter of 
Worcester China. See pp. 44S-9. 

Imitation of Sevres mark. 



This mark is given by Mr. R. W. Binns 
{A Ceiitiiiy of Pottivg, p. 346), as occurring 
on jugs belonging to the Corporation of 
Worcester. They are emblazoned with the 
city arms and dated 1757. The bowls also 
belonging to the Corporation, are of much 
later date (1792). 


Imitation of the Chantilly mark. 

These two marks are given by Mr. Hobson 
as occurring on Worcester. They are appar- 
ently copies of the Tournay and Fiirstenburg 

The marks as given above are rather exceptional than general, 
and occur upon few specimens. Curious marks (not given here) 
are also sometimes found on pieces of Worcester porcelain, the 
decoration of which is copied from " blue and white " Oriental 
china ; such marks are evidently careless imitations of those upon 
the specimens copied. The Chelsea anchor also occurs upon at 
least a dozen specimens known to the author. 





C^/) t^^i 






C.2 PW 

"< o 

■5 - a 



Used between 1793 and 1803. 

ESTER 45 c 


c^// muu / ^uu 





mau ^/jM 4 man 

Marks of the " Flight " and " Barr, Flight & Barr " period. Sometimes the 
initials B. F. B. are carelessly scratched in the paste. 



Worcester. Established i 7S6 ; 
joined with Barr 1840. 


Chamberlain & Co., 


Grainger Lee and Co. 


Worcester. Established 1801. 

^ Pi — I O 

o rG&c? \ 




Monogram of J. Hadley & Sons, 1896-1903. 
See p. 448. 


Later marks, Chamberlains, Grainger, and the present Royal 
Worcester Porcelain Company. 



Messrs. Kevr & Binns, 1X52 to 1862. 

Mark previous 
to 1862. 

Mark since 1S62. 

The "51" in the centre of each circle 
stands for 175I1 the first year that porcelain 
was made at Worcester. 


Potteries are said to have existed at or near Wrotham (pro- 
nounced Rootham), in Kent, in the early part of the seventeenth 
century. Specimens which can safely be ascribed to this early 
period are rare, and unless they bear upon them some indication 
of their origin, such as the word " Wrotham," there is little to 

A Posset-pot of Wrotham ware, from Professor Chiircli's English Earthenware. 

distinguish them from other brown ware decorated by the old 
"slip" process. They are generally " tygs," "posset cups," 
bowls, or dishes, and are similar to what is more generally known 
as " Toft " ware. (See also Toft.) 


According to Mr. J. Eliot Hodgkin, F.S.A., who wrote a 
fascinating work on early English dated pottery, the earliest 
dated specimen of Wrotham ware bears date 161 2 and the latest 
1710. The dates and also the designs, which generally consist of 
letters and similar ornament to that shown on the illustration 
above, is in yellow slip, sometimes with an incised pattern, on a 
ground of coarse reddish-brown pottery highly glazed. There 
are some good specimens in the British Museum, among them a 
dish with the initials I. E. W. E. and date 1699. The reader 
will find further particulars of several notable specimens in the 
latest (13th) edition of Chaffers, revised by the author. 


There seems little reason to doubt that the so-called "Yarmouth 
ware " was not made there. Various kinds of earthenware were 
procured from the makers, from Staffordshire or Leeds, some 
pieces bearing the marks of Staffordshire potters ; and these 
were decorated with fruit, flowers, and the like, by various members 
of a family named Absolon. The business seems to have lieen 
started by W. Absolon late in the last century. Their name is 
always painted. The arrow, which is not infrequently found ac- 
companying Absolon's mark, is no doubt that of the maker of 
the ware. 

A correspondent has called the author's attention to a speci- 
men of cream-coloured ware which he has seen, Ihat has the 
name "Wedgwood" impressed, and also the words "Absolon 
Yarm " painted. 



/f^c/mmtm ~^ 

ZELL, Austria. 

Pottery resembling in many respects Wedgwood's Queen's 
ware, or Leeds ware, was made here early in the nineteenth 
century. The mark is the word ZELL stamped. Herr Jiinnike 



gives these two marks as those of the modern factories of Haager, 
Hdrth & Co. and C. Schaaf, 1845. 

ZURICH, Switzerland. 

The exact date of the establishment of a porcelain factory 
here is unknown, but 1759 has been ascribed as a probable date, 
and a well-known specimen is in existence dated 1765. A cele- 
brated Swiss painter and poet, Salomon Gessner, took great 
personal interest in the success of this factory, and not only 
designed but painted many of the specimens. A German refugee 

named Sonnenschein modelled the figures, which it may be 
observed are generally clever and characteristic, and some of the 
best Zurich artists lent to the undertaking the support of their 
assistance and influence. The colour of the paste, which is hard, 
is a greyish-white, and the painting, generally in landscape, is 
finely executed. The mark under the glaze is of a dark blackish- 
blue, or of a soft light blue colour. Imitations, of which there are 
many, have white paste, carelessly finished decoration, and bright 
blue mark. These are made at German factories, and sold to 
travellers in Swiss towns, and collectors should beware of them. 
The factory declined and closed about the time of the French 
invasion, 1799, and specimens are very rare. Sir Henry Angst, a 
gentleman residing in Zurich and H.B.M. Consul, has made a very 
interesting collection of nearly 1000 specimens of this factory, 
which he has presented to the National Museum at Zurich, and it 
is to his kindness and enthusiasm that the author is indebted for 
much of the information contained in this notice. 

Pottery was also made at Zurich, and there are some speci- 
mens in the Sevres Museum which were presented by the director 
of the works. The mark was a 2 similar to that on Zurich porce- 
lain. Chaffers also gives this in combination with the letter B. 


Rhenish Bavaria. 

A hard-paste porcelain factory existed liere in the latter part 
of the nineteenth century, and a specimen in the Munich Museum 
is described by Professor Hofmann in his catalogue of that collec- 
tion. The mark given here was previously attributed 
erroneously to Strasbourg. Only table services of an 
ordinary character appear to have been made here, 
and it is surprising that it should have been thought 
worth while to pubhsh an expensive monograph on 
this factory, which was issued by the Leipzig press in 1907. Ac- 
cording to this authority the factory was founded in 1740, under 
the protection of Christian IV., Duke of Anhalt, and existed until 
his death in 1775. 


Design on the li.ick of the plate of a 
service made for Queen Victoria hy the 
Royal Worcester Porcelain Company. 


J13otc0 anil oBvplanationg 

OME of the terms used in tlie foregoing 
chapters, apart from their ordinary mean- 
ings, have others of a somewhat technical 
nature in connection with ceramics. There 
are also a few minor subjects, about which 
some information would have been offered, 
but for the fact that its insertion would 
have interfered with the form in which this 
work has been cast. 
An alphabetical arrangement of such terms, with a descriptive 
meaning attached, may be of use for reference. 

Aiiioriui. — An Italian term, often found in descriptions of 
ceramic decoration, signifying " Cupids." 

Amphora — The name of a vase used by the ancient Greeks 
for domestic purposes, and also for coffins ; when employed for the 
latter purpose, they were made in halves, and after the insertion 
of the remains, were re-joined. (See Ancient Pottery, pages 4, 5.) 

Antique. — This word denotes no particular date, but is gener- 
ally applied to those monuments of ancient Greek and Roman art 
that have been handed down to us. It is obviously incorrect to 
apply the term to porcelain which has been made within the last 
two hundred years, and yet we continually see in the catalogues 
of auctioneers, and of collectors and dealers, such expressions 
as "antique" Worcester china or "antique" Chelsea, and so on. 

Atelier. — Our word " studio " almost exactly expresses its 

Basaltes or Basalt black. — The term applied to a stoneware 
made by Josiah Wedgwood and imitated by the Leeds potters, 


by Spode, Turner and others. It is black throii<;liout, of ^reat 
density and hardness, and the name is taken from an Egyptian 
black rock called Basalt. 

Bat Piiii/ing.— This process is described in the notice of the 
Worcester factory, Chapter VII. 

Beaker. — The derivation of this word would show its reference 
to a drinking-ciip, as distinguished from a tankard, but the term 
is almost exclusively employed to designate a peculiar form of 
Chinese or Japanese vase, cylindrical except at its mouth, where 
it widens, like the large end of a trumpet. The "sets" of Chinese 
and Japanese vases generally consist of five — i.e. three jars and 
covers, and two " beakers." 

Bc'itilier. — A small vessel for holding holy water. Generally in 
the form of a saint or angel holding a shell. 

Biscuit. — This term is applied to unglazed porcelain. The 
appearance of biscuit china is aptly described by Chaffers as like 
a new clay tobacco-pipe without the least gloss upon it. It 
means literally twice cooked. Strictly speaking, the term "biscuit" 
can be applied to any unglazed ware, such as a common flower- 
pot, but the term is not used in this sense by collectors of, or 
dealers in, rare porcelains. By " biscuit " china we mean the 
pure white unglazed porcelain. Sevres biscuit is extremely fine, 
and Derby biscuit runs it very close. Some excellent biscuit china 
was also made at Meissen about the Marcolini period. There 
is a collection of different kinds of biscuit china at Knole 
House, Sevenoaks, formed long ago by the Duchess of Dorset. 
(See also Kilu.) 

Bistre. — A pigment of a warm brown colour of different tints, 
prepared from the soot of wood, that of the beech being preferred. 
Specimens of old Frankenthal and other German factories are 
found decorated " en bistre," 

Byzantine. — This style of decoration is the elaboration of 
Oriental detail, grafted upon classic forms, and was in vogue 
among the Romans, after the removal of their seat of empire to 


Cabaret. — The literal meaning of this P'rench word is an inn 
or public-house, but the term is used in connection with ceramics 
to describe a small dejeuner or h'le-a-lcte service, generally 
composed of a plateau (q.v.), one or two cups and saucers, 
and the other pieces of china forming the set. 

Calcareous Clay. — A clay which contains an unusual quantity 
of lime, used extensively for the body of Delft ware. 

Cania'i'eii. — Painting " en camaien " is understood to be executed 
in a single colour, varied only by the use of its different shades 
to heighten the effect. An old Sevres vase of rich^;o5 bleu ground, 
with a medallion painted " encama'ieu" on white ground, gives one 
of the best effects produced by that famous factory. 

Can. — A cup of cylindrical form ; this shape has been a 
favourite one for cups at the Sevres manufactory. 

Celadon. — This term was originally applied only to Oriental 
porcelain, of which the decoration was peculiar in having a pale 
sea-green colour mixed with the paste before firing, and so pro- 
ducing an effect perfectly distinguishable from that where the 
colours have been afterwards applied. The object was probably 
to imitate the jade of similar colour, a stone very much in favour 
with the Chinese. Latterly the French, and some of our English 
factories, have adopted this form of decoration, and such pieces 
are also called celadon. 

The name is said to have been derived from the hero of the 
popular novel L Aslrce, written by Honort!; d'Urfe in the seven- 
teenth century. The colour was supposed to have the peculiar 
faculty of detecting poison. It is the earliest colour produced by 
Chinese potters, and dates from the Sung dynasty, A.D. 960-1279. 

Ceramic. — Derived from the Greek word Kcranios, meaning 
clay, and therefore used in the designation of all articles made of 
that material. The work is spelt also Keramic, taking its deriva- 
tion direct from the Greek instead of through the French medium 

Cliiaro-uscuro. — A term used to describe the kind of painting 
which relates to light and shade. A specimen is said to be 
painted in chiaro-osciiro when different shades of only one colour 


are used. A good example of this class of painting is the set of 
twelve Delia Robbia plates representing the months, which are in 
the Victoria and Albert Museum. 

Clay. — (See Kaolin.) 

Clobbered. — This term is applied to china or earthenware 
which has been re-decorated, generally in blues, greens, reds, and 
gold, over the original more simple blue decoration, the article 
then having been re-fired. This kind of work was extensively 
done both in Holland and in England about sixty years ago. 
(See also notice on Chinese Porcelain, Chapter VII.) 

Colours. — These are applied to the unglazcd or glazed surface 
of the porcelain, according to the nature of the metallic oxide 
employed, some being unable to bear intense heat without volati- 
lising. The preparation is made liy the metallic oxide being 
ground down with fusible glasses, which, when applied to the 
porcelain and placed in the kiln, melt and adhere to the surface. 

Gold is applied in a state of amalgam, ground in turpentine, 
and afterwards burnished with agates. 

Blues are made from cobalt, the shades being varied by the 
addition of oxides of tin and zinc ; white, from arsenic and tin ; 
and so on. (See also Kiln.) 

It will be noticed that all colours applied to pottery or porce- 
lain arc mineral, not vegetable. 

'Crackle. — (See notice on Chinese Pottery.) 

Craze. — An appearar^ce somewhat resembling crackle, but 
produced by the china being withdrawn from the kiln before it 
has been allowed to cool, or by a defect in the firing. This 
appearance is not infrequent in pieces of old Chelsea and Crown 

Crouch ivarc. — This term was applied to the ware made early in 
the eighteenth century, from a whitish Derbyshire clay which 
before its adoption by potters had been used by glass-makers. 
As the potting industry progressed this Crouch clay was aban- 
doned for superior material found at Poole in Dorset, in Corn- 
wall, and other parts of England. Mr. W. Burton says that 
there is a greenish tint in this old Crouch ware caused by traces 
of chemical impurity left in the clay. 


Dealers. — The multiplication of shops, where old china is sold, 
that has taken place since the notice under this heading was 
originally written in 1878 is remarkable. Both in London and 
the provinces one finds everywhere an assortment of some kind of 
" old china " for sale, while most of our large stores have followed 
the fashion by adding a so-called "Antique Department." 

In a special chapter on " Hints and Cautions" the author 
has attempted to assist the amateur in his selection of a firm with 
whom to deal ; he will here only repeat the well-known legal 
maxim, Caveat cmplur. 

Seventy or eighty years ago the trade in the then modern 
artistic porcelain was very limited, and that in old china was con- 
fined to a few dealers, such as Baldock & Hitchcock of Hanway 
Street, or Hanway Yard, as it was then known ; Fogg & Isaacs of 
Kegent Street, Owen, and Town & Emanuel of Bond Street, with 
Bentley, Jarmin, and Forest, some of whose names a few very 
old collectors now living may recollect. Some ten years or so 
later, Samuel Litchfield (the writer's father), Samuel Willson, 
grandfather of the members of the present firm of Willson 
Brothers in Pall Mall, and one or two others commenced 
business, while the past twenty or thirty years have seen very 
numerous additions to the list. 

Until i860, when Government duty on foreign porcelain was 
abolished, the importation of artistic porcelain was carried on 
with great difficulty.^ The importer had to exhibit each con- 
signment for the inspection of custom-house officers, and if his 
own valuation was considered too low, a trade opinion would 
be taken, and the importation, divided into small lots suitable 
for private buyers, would be sold by auction, the importer only 
receiving a small profit upon the valuation he had given. 

Ardent tariff reformers are apt to forget the troubles of an 
importer, when the question of a tax has to be settled and the 
Custom House officers satisfied. 

The abolition of the East India Company's monopoly of 
Eastern trade in 1858 had also a great effect upon the traffic 
in foreign china, letting in quantities of Chinese porcelain, which 
had hitherto been rare and expensive, and gradually bringing 
about the special Eastern manufacture for the European markets. 
Previous to this, a considerable sale had been found for what 

' The duly on foreign porcelain was, vintil its reduction by Sir Roliert I'ecl, as mucl) as 
thirty per cent., but was then reduced to ten per cent., and ultimately removed by Mr. 
Gladstone in i860. 


was technically called " clobbered china," that is, blue and white 
Chinese porcelain, painted over in more attractive colours (accord- 
ing to the taste of the day), and re-iired, a process which the 
composition of Chinese porcelain renders possible. 

Some twenty or twenty-five of the London dealers have very 
large sums locked up in their stocks. It is a business that could 
not possibly be carried on successfully unless the dealer is 
possessed of a natural taste for the subject, and, in addition, 
adequate capital. Perhaps enthusiasm engenders a weakness for 
continual purchases that in many cases leads to an accumulation 
of stock so great that sales provide only a very moderate interest 
on the invested capital. 

Enamel. — A vitrilrable composition used for coating pottery, 
and applied to the glaze after firing. The term is also used to 
describe the kind of Oriental porcelain, in which the colour stands 
out in slight relief from the surface. Chinese porcelain known 
as "old green enamel" is valuable and rare. (See notice on 
Chinese Porcelain.) 

Fabriqiic. — The private establishment of a master potter of 
the Renaissance period, a meaning that the word " factory " or 
" pottery " fails to convey exactly. For want of a better word 
fabriqxte is frequently used as an alternative to " pottery " in a larger 
and more liberal sense than its real meaning warrants. 

Faience or Fayence. — The origin of the term is either the name 
of the town Faenza near Bologna, or of Fayence in France, 
where majolica was manufactured. Like the term " Delft," how- 
ever, it has come to designate all kinds of artistic pottery. 

Fictile. — The term applied to all ancient pottery, from the 
commonest products in clay to the highest form of the art. 
Ceramic has a very similar meaning. 

Flambe. — The term applied to pottery or porcelain which de- 
pends for its decorative effect, upon the cloudy or shaded and 
mottled colour of the glaze. The Chinese were the first to pro- 
duce these highly effective and telling bits of ceramic colour, but 
lately the processes have been adopted in France and England. 
Flambe, or, as it is sometimes called, "flashed" porcelain, when 
of the really old Ming period, is very valuable. This kind of 

2 G 


decoration has lately been revived by our modern English potters, 
among whom Bernard Moore, W. Howson Taylor, and William 
Burton as director of Pilkington's Pottery Co. may be specially 

Flux. — Glass in a fusible state containing lead or borax, and 
added to colouring metallic oxides to fuse them to the glaze in 
the process of enamelling. 

Fresco. — Painting al fresco is the execution of a design upon 
wet or fresh ground, and requires considerable skill, as it cannot 
be retouched or corrected. 

Frit. — An imperfectly vitrified mass, formed by the partial 
fusion of sand and fluxes, used in the composition of " soft " or 
artificial porcelain to give it transparence. The frit may be 
suitable or unsuitable for its purpose, and upon this the success 
of the potter will depend. Frit is also used in the glazes of 

Glaze. — The glaze for covering the biscuit (see Biscuit) is 
composed of elements similar to those of glass ; that for pottery 
is opaque, as made from lead or tin, and silex ; while that for 
common stoneware is produced by the decomposition of salt. 
The simplest and oldest form of glaze is a pure silicate of soda ; 
the addition of oxide of lead made the glaze more fusible, but 
less hard and durable. This has been termed a plumbiferous 
glaze, and was used at a very early date. Many other chemical 
mixtures have been adopted by different potters to obtain suit- 
able glazes for their ware. (See also notice on Salt-glaze 

Greybeard. — A name applied to a kind of stoneware drinking- 
jug, used in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, ornamented 
with a bearded face in relief on the upper part of the spout. 
(See also notes in Chapter II.) 

Grisaille. — Literally means " grey " ; a kind of painting by 
which solid bodies arc represented, the different tints of grey 
being employed to give the effect of relief. 

Ironstone China and IVare.—A very fine pottery closely resem- 


bling porcelain, made in England ; tlie best known is that wliicii 
bears the mark, " Mason's Ironstone China." 

Jasper Ware. — The name given to a specially prepared ware 
of Josiah Wedgwood's. (See Wkdgwoou, Chapter VII.) 

Kaolin. — Porcelain clay which, with felspar, unites to make 
the product known as porcelain. Kaolin is prepared for the 
potter's use by being subjected, on an inclined plane, to a constant 
fall of water which washes it into a trench, whence it is con- 
ducted to a series of " catchpits " that serve to relieve the matter 
of impurities. The clay is then allowed to settle in tanks or 
ponds, and the superfluous water withdrawn by drainage. The 
clay is then cut into pieces of nine inches to a foot square, and 
dried under sheltered huts, whence it is conveyed to the potteries. 
The finest clay in England is that procured from Cornwall. The 
clay used for pottery is found in Devonshire and Dorsetshire 
(Poole), and is of a coarser nature. (See also Petuntse.) 

Kiln. — Common pottery kilns are destitute of interior fittings, 
while those used for the better kinds have shelves and partitions 
to keep the pieces separate while firing. With porcelain kilns, 
however, the extra precaution is taken of using saggars or 
crucibles made of the strongest clay, to resist the action of the 
fire, and protect the pieces enclosed. The firing is perfected 
in three processes — the first, in which the piece is subjected to a 
,very high temperature, transforms the paste into a biscuit (see 
Biscuit), the second is the glazing process, and the third is that of 
fixing the colours by vitrification. (See also Glazing.) 

Kirin. — A mythical animal used in the decoration of Japanese 
pottery and porcelain. (See notice on Japan, page 223.) 

Knock-out. — This is a slang term for what is really a syndicate 
of dealers formed to purchase at public auctions upon terms ad- 
vantageous to themselves. The system is often inveighed against, 
and appears to be but little understood, the present instance 
probably being almost the only one in which an explanation has 
been published.^ 

The dealers who intend putting in their claim to the lot in 
question, abstain from competing, and it is knocked down to one 

' Since this note appeared in the original edition of Pottery and Poiie/aiii, published in 
1878, it has been quoted by many writers with and also without acknowledgment. 


of their number, generally the senior, if he is enabled to bid 
a higher price than any other purchaser present. They then 
adjourn to a convenient place and hold, as it were, a kind of 
private auction among themselves. 

Thus A., having bought Lot loo for £io, B., C, D., E. would 
offer an advance of say £2. A., however, thinking the article 
worth more, or perhaps having a special customer for it, would 
refuse this and make a further bid of ^"i. Any one of the number 
who still felt speculatively inclined could continue to advance until 
all his opponents retired, upon which he would pay them out their 
shares in money. Thus, for the sake of explanation, let us suppose 
that the utmost trade value of the lot was reached when A. 
virtually offered ;^i3. B., C, D., E. would now withdraw, upon 
which the advance of £2, in which they had all participated, 
would be divided into five portions of 8s. each, which A. would 
pay out, saving his own share, and so, with the payment of the 
^10 to the auctioneer, holding the lot at .£^11, 12s. instead 
of paying ;£i2, 12s., which he must have bid had he been 
opposed in the public sale by the four other dealers who required 
the lot. 

Before a final settlement of an important lot is made, there 
may be several successive " knock-outs " ; thus, supposing that 
twenty individuals composed the first or general syndicate, the 
greater number would probably retire and take their shares when 
a moderate advance was reached. Some six or seven would have 
a fresh " deal " after the others had retired, two or three of these 
would " go out " at a further advance, and the final " tussle " 
would then take place between A. and B., or A., B., and C, when 
the one who finally held the lot would pay out afresh the shares 
of his latest opponent or opponents. In many cases the game of 
" Knock-out " may be compared to that of " Poker." 

In some instances where articles of great value are sold, and 
members of the general public present at the sale are ignorant of 
their worth, considerable sums are "knocked out." 

That such combinations cause a heavy loss to the estates 
entitled to benefit by the proceeds of a sale, is evident, but it 
must be borne in mind that it is often the fault of an auctioneer 
whose knowledge of works of art is very deficient ; and his clients 
would be considerably benefited were he to seek the advice of 
a reliable expert, who, for a moderate fee, would give him an 
opinion or valuation of the goods he did not understand. The 
right of dealers to form a syndicate can scarcely be disputed, for 


they, instead of others in whom they arc not interested, gain the 
benefit of their judgment. The system, however, is a bad one, 
and has become further abused by the participation of dealers 
who are not bond fide purchasers, but join merely for the sake of 
taking out their " shares " in money, and in these cases the 
"knock-out" becomes a game of "bluffing," the result of which 
is that the bona fide purchaser has to pay away profits to a number 
of the trade who haunt the salerooms for the purpose of levying a 
species of blackmail. 

Kylin. — A Chinese monster, something between a lion and a 
dog, said to be an emblem of good fortune, and a favourite 
ornament on Chinese pottery and porcelain. 

Lustred Ware. — See notice on Majolica, also special notice 
on English Lustre Ware in Chapter VII. under Lustred Ware. 

Parian. — Differing only from biscuit by the employment of a 
felspar, that is fused at a lower temperature ; its invention was 
arrived at by experiments undertaken with a view to produce a 
peculiar kind of biscuit. The greatest care and skill are required 
in modelling figures and groups of this material, on account of the 
liquid state of the paste and the great amount (20 to 25 per cent.) 
,of shrinkage, which takes place in firing. (See also notice on 

Paste. — The body or paste is the amalgam of felspar and 
kaolin, that is, the material of which the potter forms his vessel 
as distinguished from the glaze. Thus one may say, " This has 
a good ' fat' body, but a poor thin glaze, or is made of poor body 
but has a good glaze." The paste may be hard or soft, or, to 
adopt the French terms, pdtc teudre or pale dure. It used to be 
said that hard paste could not be scratched or indented by a 
steel file, while soft paste was easily injured by any sharp instru- 
ment firmly pressed along its surface. The old Sevres factory, 
and also the group of small factories which were absorbed when 
the undertaking was made the royal factory of Louis XV., 
such as Mene^y, Sceaux Penthievre, St. Cloud, Chantilly, and the 
like, all made the soft or really artificial porcelain, while the 
Orientals, i.e. the Chinese and Japanese, also Dresden, Berlin, and 
the majority of European ceramic factories, made " hard " or true 


Within the past sixty years or so the manufacture of porcelain 
has been altered by the mixing of bone ash and other materials, so 
that different degrees of hardness and softness have been produced 
and one can no longer divide the paste or body of which china 
is made into the two classes of hard and soft. 

In Chapter III. on Porcelain the reader will find more 
explanatory notes on the difference between hard and soft paste. 

In the case of Sevres porcelain, soft paste was made up to 
the time of the Great Revolution, and then hard paste until the 
present time ; the terms tendre and di'irc are useful to dis- 
tinguish the two different kinds of manufacture. The chief 
artistic advantage of soft paste is that the colours sink in, so 
that the effect is softer and infinitely more delicate, while in the 
hard paste the decoration seems to remain entirely on the surface. 
(See also notice on Sevres Porcelain.) 

Pate siir pale. — The name given to a process in which a 
decoration was executed in slip (q.v-) while the piece was still 
unfired. Marc Louis Solon when employed by Mintons made 
this method a speciality. (See notice on MiNTONS.) 

Patina. — The incrustation which was formed, in the course 
of time, on antique medals or bronzes. It has been a vexed 
question lately, whether the surface of porcelain is, in process 
of time, subjected to some chemical action of the atmosphere, 
resulting in reduction of glaze, and also of a slight change in 
colour. The difficulty experienced in exactly imitating the bluish 
white of the old Nankin, and of peculiar tints of white in the 
grounds of other fabriques, has caused this question of patma to 
be raised respecting porcelain. 

Petuntse. — Known by its English name of felspar. It results 
from the disintegration of granite, and is used with kaolin (see 
Kaolin) to produce porcelain ; felspar differing from kaolin in this 
important feature, that it is fusible at great heat and melts in the 
furnace into a white milky glass. 

Photographv is now used as a decoration for porcelain. By 
means of a printing process, portraits may be easily transferred 
on to a cup or plate, and by some variations of colour, a pretty 
effect is produced. 


Plateau. — The china stand or tray used for a tea or coffee- 
service. In most of the old ceramic factories, we find a favourite 
form of service was the dejeuner, or letc-d-tele service, consistinj^ of 
milk and coffee or tea-pot, siicrier, two cups and saucers, and tiie 
" plateau." Many plateaus are very fine specimens, and appear 
to have scarcely been intended to be hidden liy the pieces they 
were made to hold. An effective way of usinj^ them for present 
decoration is to mount them on velvet shields, with the other 
pieces grouped around them on little brackets. 

Pottery. — The term applied to all ware that is distinguished 
from porcelain by being opaque and not translucent. Modern 
English pottery has lately been made so fine in texture, and 
finished so highly, with such a good glaze, that it approaches 
very closely to porcelain. The term " pottery," covers earthen- 
ware and stoneware. 

Printing. — Printing is now very largely applied to earthen- 
ware for domestic use, especially to the common sorts made in 
England. Its invention is of disputed authorship, but took place 
about the year 1757. The process was a simple one. Transfer 
papers engraved from copper plates were applied to the ware, 
the ink being mixed with linseed oil, which evaporated in the 
baking, and left the colour of which it was the vehicle, on the 

The famous "Frederick of Prussia" mugs and some of the 
Liverpool ware are the most notable examples of early English 
printing, the productions of the Creil factory, where the French 
adopted the process, belonging to a period some twenty years later. 
(See notice on Worcester.) 

Saggar. — A vessel of refractory material in which are enclosed 
articles of delicate pottery to protect them from injury by the 
flames in the kiln. (See Kiln.) 

Saniian Ware. — Strictly speaking, this should mean the 
ware manufactured in the island of Samos, but the term was used 
for some of the Roman pottery which was sufficiently good to 
be classed with it. The Samian potters were celebrated about 
900 B.C. (See also Chapter I., Ancient Pottery.) 

Seau, Sfeatix. — A French word meaning literally " pail " or 


" bucket " ; in ceramic art the term means an ice-pail, or 
similar vessel, generally used as a flower-pot. 

S/ip. — The liquid mixture of clay fluid reduced to the con- 
sistency of cream. In early attempts at fictile decoration what 
is now called the " slip " process was much used. The coarse 
clay vessel, when partly fired, was coated over with this clayish 
fluid, and then baked. (See Slip Decorated Ware.) 

Sgraffialo IVare. — See Chapter II. 

Spurs. — The peculiar marks, generally three in number, 
frequently found on Chelsea china, are made by the "spurs," 
which were little pieces of refractory clay used as supports to the 
article during the process of firing the glaze. The marks are 
left where the spurs are broken away. 

Stoiieivare. — Generally speaking, stoneware is a very hard kind 
of earthenware which, when fired, is sufficiently solid and homo- 
geneous to be impervious to liquids without glazing. There 
are, however, several kinds of glazed stoneware, the glaze being 
sometimes composed of lead but more commonly of salt. (See 
Salt-glaze Pottery, Chapter VII.) 

Tiles. — The earliest attempts at ceramic art included enamelled 
tiles, and specimens have been found in the ruins of Nineveh, 
Babylon, Persia, and Arabia. The fortress-palaces of the Moors 
contained abundant specimens of this kind of brilliant mural 
decoration. In our own time the manufacture of encaustic 
tiles has become a department of national trade (see MiNTOXS, 
&c., &c.). The old Dutch tiles, of which copies are now made 
in Holland, are very grotesque, the subjects being mostly scrip- 
tural, but so rough in finish, and with such primitive attempts 
at literal illustrations of texts, as really to form caricatures of 
the subjects they would represent. 

Tondiiu), pi. Tondiui. — A round plate with a flat rim and a 
sunken centre. The most celebrated toudini were those produced 
at Faenza in Italy, in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. The 
rim is generally decorated in grotesques and scrolls, while in the 
centre is a coat of arms or a single figure. (See also notice on 



Tyg. — A two-handled drinking-cup used in the seventeenth 
century for posset. Tygs are found in shp-decorated ware. (See 
notice of Wrotham.) 

Underglase. — Painting and also printing was executed on tlie 
bisniit body after preliminary firing, and previt)us to glazing. 
The process of underglaze printing was first practised at the 
Worcester factory about 1775—80. 


€)n Oaluciff anD Pricc0 

T was once said by a wit, " Tiiere are some 
people wlio know the price of everything 
and the vakie of nothing." Certainly price 
has often very httle relation to value. A 
very high price may represent good value, 
and a low price for rubbish may be far 
in excess of its value. Quotations from 
auctioneers' catalogues, unless they are of 
the same specimens sold at different dates, 
and therefore useful for comparison of change in fashion 
or demand, are not safe guides, since the omission of a slight 
detail in the description, is apt to suggest a misleading inference. 
Such quotations, however, possess some value, and are of interest 
to many collectors, and in the new edition of Chaffers the 
author has given a fairly representative price list from the sales 
of the past six years. For the purpose of this chapter it will be 
sufBcient to make remarks of a more general character on the 
values and tendency of prices. 

Collectors are now much better informed than they were 
formerly, and with the increase of wealth in England and in 
other countries, there has developed a demand for specimens of 
pottery or porcelain of high quality and undoubted authenticity, 
at prices which show an enormous advance on those of twenty 
or five-and-twenty years ago. 

Such grand specimens as the faniille verte vase in the Salting 
collection, which is said to have cost its late owner .^looo, 
would now probably realise more than ten times that amount. 
This high price would be partly accounted for by its merits, and 
partly by the interest of the public in a specimen from so cele- 
brated a collection. The Celadon vase, i6J inches high, which in 
the Octavius Coope sale (May 19 lo) brought the enormous price 
of _^47oo, is scarcely a criterion, since the fine quality of the old 


Louis Quinze bronze mounting must ;iccount for a proportion of 
this sum. It would be easy to quote instances of the payment of 
prices as remarkable for exceptional specimens of Sevres, Dresden, 
Chelsea, and other varieties of highly prized porcelain, but no useful 
purpose will be served by a detailed discussion of the sensational 
sums which wealthy collectors are willing to give for remarkable 
examples of great value. Few can afford to buy them, nor are 
moderate sized houses and cabinets quite suitable for the recep- 
tion of such royal guests as a black ground K'ang-hsi vase, a 
St. Porchaire tazza, a Caffaggiolo plate of ^2000 value, and 
other similar gros lots. Collectors of limited means must be 
content to admire such highly priced treasures in the show cases 
of our own and foreign museums, where the generosity of a 
Salting or a Pierpoint Morgan enables us to see them for 
nothing, just as we can admire the view of a country estate which 
we are never likely to possess. 

The suggestions put forward in this chapter with some diffi- 
dence, are intended for those amateurs whose pleasure it is to 
acquire, from time to time, specimens of the ceramic factories 
of the past, at prices which come within the possibilities of not 
unlimited resources. 

An indifferent specimen, whether it be a Chelsea figure, a 
Bow group, or a Dresden cup and saucer, does not increase in 
value in anything approaching the same ratio as a fine and really 
desirable example. Such a specimen as is suggested by the 
word " indifferent," if purchased twenty years ago, would now 
probably realise about the same amount as it cost then, unless it 
happened to form some link of interest in a methodically made 
collection, where it exemplified a particular kind of ware made 
at the factory of which it was a representative. 

Two instances which bear out this statement may be given. 
In the sale of Mr. Octavius Coope's collection (May 1910), there 
happened to be two lots which had formerly belonged to the 
writer. A set of charming figures of the Seasons in Derby- 
Chelsea porcelain, in exceptional condition, was bought at Christie's 
about fifteen years ago for 36 guineas, and a pair of figures repre- 
senting Shakespeare and Milton for 10 guineas. At the recent 
sale the latter only realised _^ii, os. 6d., because figures of this 
model are by no means uncommon and the quality was poor. 
The "Seasons" were eagerly competed for, and realised £g2, 8s. 
It is not intended by the above remarks to convey the idea 
that it is impossible for the collector to purchase satisfactory 


specimens for moderate sums ; on the contrary, it is quite possible, 
even in these days of high prices, to acquire by careful selection, 
and without lavish expenditure, examples of different factories 
which would satisfy a fastidious critic ; but the collector must be 
content with a iiiodcs/ specimen, good in quality and condition, 
and the best of Us particular class and kind. Personally the writer 
would prefer to give, say £6 or £'] for a well-tnodelled and well- 
coloured Staffordshire figure, rather than the same sum for an 
indifferent Chelsea figure, which if it were of the best quality 
should be worth £2^, but being what it is, neither worthily re- 
presents the factory of which it is an example, nor good value 
for money spent. 

In the chapter on " Hints and Cautions " something has been 
said about the " quality " of specimens, and unless the reader has, 
by a combination of intuition and experience, come to realise 
what this means, it is useless to consider the question of price 
and value. A Chelsea figure of Cupid some three inches high 
may be one of those waxy little images of a naked little boy 
embowered in encrusted flowers, crude and rough, the worst type 
of Chelsea, or it may be a charming statuette of Cupid in one of 
the many costumes in which that artistic little vagabond is wont 
to disguise himself, gracefully modelled, carefully finished, and 
decorated with effective colourings, a little Chelsea gem of Roubil- 
lac's time. Fifteen shillings would be a high price for the former ; 
the latter would be cheap, as current prices tend, for ^^lo or £12. 
A pair of little figures of high quality Chelsea, not quite 4 inches 
high, marked with the gold anchor, were sold at Christie's (April 
191 1) for 32 guineas. 

Surely a simple Sevres cup and saucer, of fine white soft 
paste, decorated with blue lines, and two or three detached 
blossoms exquisitely rendered, marked correctly with date-year 
and decorator's sign, is infinitely to be preferred at the price of 
£^ or -^"5 to some showy and unsatisfactory piece with ground 
colour of turquoise or poniiiic vertr, of doubtful decoration, which 
one buys as " a bargain " for the same amount, not because it is 
really admirable, but because of an impression that it is similar 
to a specimen which, one remembers, fetched 20 or 30 guineas 
at Christie's. 

A " Standard of Excellence," already insisted upon by the 
writer in " Hints and Cautions," must be set up by the amateur, 
and any candidate for the honour of admission to the "cabinet" 
must satisfy its conditions. The only way to obtain success and 


satisfaction in collecting — satisfaction not only of the ;esthetic 
sense but also of the desire for makin« a profitable investment — is 
to exercise restraint in avoiding the mediocre, and to display courage 
in giving what may seem a comparatively high price for a perfect 
albeit a modest specimen of its kind. It may sound paradoxical, 
but the writer's long experience leads him to believe that it is 
true, that the best collections, from an investment point of view, 
have been made by those who have kept their commercial instincts 
quite subordinate to their aesthetic sense when making their 
purchases. The records of many collections prove this, and the 
recently published diaries of Lady Charlotte Schreiber, read by 
the light of the present money value of the specimens which 
she bequeathed to the Victoria and Albert Museum, give a striking 
illustration of the fact that if the best examples available are 
acquired at the fair market price of the day, time and the in- 
creased scarcity and demand will work out a table of compound 
interest on the capital invested. 

To these explanatory hints may be added some notes on the 
tendency of prices for some of the different kinds of pottery and 
porcelain which have come under the writer's observation. 

Chinese Porcelain. — The different periods of the manufacture 
of Chinese porcelain are now better understood than formerly, 
and as specimens of Ming, K'ang-hsi, and Ch'ien Lung are now 
classified and recognised, prices are more in accordance with 
age and quality than they were a few years ago. The sensational 
prices of fine black ground faiuillc noire vases have already been 
alluded to, and such small specimens as a vase-shaped cup and 
saucer of this scarce decoration will readily sell for -^15 or ;^2 0. 
k fmnille verle bottle 18 inches high recently brought 220 guineas, 
while a complete set of live jars and beakers of this description 
produced ^2730. Specimens of Ch'ien Lung bring very good 
but not such high prices as those of the earlier dynasties, but it 
may be said generally that good Chinese porcelain is gradually 
rising in value. 

The best " blue and white " is in great demand, while poor 
quality specimens, whether "blue and white" or polychromatic, are 
bought rather for furnishing and decoration than for collections, 
and do not increase in value. 

Self-coloured Chinese bottles, vases, and bowls, also ihe /lambe 
ware of the same kind, when the forms and colours are good, 
bring high prices, especially for the rarer colours, A pair of crushed 


strawberry bottles 8 inches high were recently sold for ;^8o, and a 
rare piece, such as a fish or some unusual example of turquoise 
or jade green, would realise ;^ioo or more. The notice on 
Chinese porcelain in Chapter VII. includes descriptions of the 
different varieties. 

English Pottery. — The few undoubted examples of early " slip- 
decorated " ware, such as Toft dishes or Wrotham posset-pots, 
have risen in value enormously. A Toft dish which twenty years 
ago would have sold for ^15 or ;^20, will now bring from _^5o 
to ;£ioo, and a Wrotham dated piece which one could have 
bought in the eighties for £t-0, is now worth ^"40 or ;^5o. 
There was a representative example of this ware sold in the 
Willett sale (April 19 10), when the slip-decorated posset-pot by 
Richard Mier, inscribed with his name and date " 1708," realised 

;4'56, 14s. 

The best-known Staffordshire potters' work is now distinguished 
from the commoner and later ware, and good figures made by 
Ralph Wood, father and son, Enoch Wood, and other contem- 
porary potters whose work has been described in Chapter VII., 
bring double and treble the prices of fifteen or twenty years ago. 
Whieldon's figures are in greater demand, a pair of statuettes 
attributed to him, of mottled green and tortoiseshell decoration 
lOg inches high, realised at Christie's (Nov. 1910) £,2iT, i6s. In 
the same sale a good equestrian figure by Ralph Wood fetched 
^42, and a statuette of Sir Walter Raleigh £21. 

Whieldon's garden ware, such as the cauliflower pattern tea- 
pots, which could formerly be bought for 50s., now realise 7 or 8 
guineas, and the tortoiseshell plates command 30s. instead of a third 
of that sum, as was the case twenty years since. A poor specimen of 
Wedgwood, or a weak example of many other Staffordshire makers, 
remains without any particular market, unless it be that the mark 
is wanted by some collector who devotes his attention to complet- 
ing a list of English potters' signs. The better kind of English 
"salt glaze" has received special notice in Chapter VII. Prices 
have increased rapidly for this dainty ceramic work, and a tea-pot 
with coloured decoration and a portrait of the King of Prussia 
recently realised 50 guineas ; the writer remembers purchasing a 
similar one twenty years ago for 8 guineas. In the sale of Lady 
Bateman Scott's collection (February 1910) a fine jug of this 
salt glazed ware painted in coloured figures, with blue diapered 
border, realised the high price of £'j<^, 12s. One would certainly 


have been able to buy such a piece fifteen or twenty years ago for 
less than _£2o. 

Figures in salt glaze, particularly those enriched with colour, 
are very rare, and the price is always high. A little statuette of 
this kind, in Eastern costume with a blue coat and a turban, 
was sold in Lady Bateman Scott's collection for ;^"3i, los. 11 
was only 5I inches high. 

The prices of one or two other classes of English pottery may 

be briefly noticed. Lambeth Delft is now better understood and 

no longer confounded with Dutch faience, and the same may be 

said of the English faience made at Bristol and at Wincanton and 

some other places. The price obtained at the Sir John Evans 

sale (Feb. 191 1) for the set of plates, " What is a merrie man ? " has 

been noticed in Chapter VII., but the most important example of 

Lambeth which has been offered lately was the interesting oval 

dish in the same collection, which realised £6S, 5s. It was of 

Palissy design modelled with Venus and Cupid in relief, and 

decorated with the arms of the City of London and of the 

Embroiderers' Company. It also bore the initials R E and 

date 1661. 

A pair of mugs of Liverpool ware with portraits of George III. 
and Queen Charlotte, with the royal arms, signed " J. Sadler, Liver- 
pool," were sold in the Merton Thorns sale (P'eb. 19 10) for ■£■^2. 

Eiiglish Porcelain. — Speaking generally, it is the specimens of 
a decorative character which have increased in value. The fine 
Worcester china having a ground of dark blue salmon scale, apple 
green, powder blue, or the extremely rare pink scale is in great 
demand at ever-increasing prices. Plates with flower paintings in 
the panels and blue salmon scale ground, which twenty years ago 
sold for ^5, now bring ^15 and ;^2o, while those with exotic birds 
instead of flowers have risen in price from ^^8 and ^10 to ;^30. 
A pair of hexagonal vases of this kind of Worcester, with panels of 
birds 15 inches high, recently realised 900 guineas. The writer re- 
members buying a similar pair about fifteen years ago for ;^400. A 
single vase of this kind 13 j inches high with panels of Chinese 
figures realised ;£640 in the Firbank sale (1909). A fine dessert 
service of Worcester, with claret colouring in the borders of the 
plates and dishes, was bought by the author at the Hope-Edwards 
sale in 1901 for ^"1018, which gave an average of ^18 per plate. 
At recent sales single plates of this same service have fetched ;^30, 
and while many similar instances could be given, in no case can 


one quote a serious set-back in the value of really good decorative 
Worcester. Specimens of the later periods of the factory, such 
as the Flight & Barr, Chamberlain, Grainger and contemporary 
work, which when the author was a young man were considered 
to be too recent to interest the collector of old china, and which 
when offered for sale in the seventies realised trifling sums, are 
now in considerable demand, and bring substantial prices. A good 
Flight & Barr vase painted with a subject by Baxter some 8 inches 
high will sell for ^15 or ;^20, and a Chamberlain cup and saucer 
with coloured ground and good painting will fetch £'] to £'i-0. 
A vase of this make painted with a portrait of Mrs. Siddons as the 
Tragic Muse, dark blue ground and gilt, 20J inches high, was sold 
at Christie's (May 1909) for ;^68, 5s. 

Fine examples of Chelsea, Bow, Longton Hall, and Derby, 
when offered for sale, give us similar results, while the more 
ordinary kinds, as already mentioned, remain without material 
alteration in value. The pair of groups of Seasons of Chelsea, 
by Roubillac, which were sold at Christie's in February 191 1 for 
900 guineas, are similar to a pair bought by the author twelve 
years ago for ;£45o, while the enormous price of ;^i837, los. 
recently given by Mr. Amor for Lagrcable Lc<;on establishes a 
record for auction prices of Chelsea groups. (These specimens 
are described and illustrated in Chapter VII.) 

A few quotations from recent sales of specimens of English 
porcelain may be added. 

A pair of Chelsea square-shaped vases, pink ground, 13! in. 

high (Octavius Coope sale, May 1910) .... £\'ii>o o o 
A pair of vases, gold, lake, and tmquoise decoration, Lord 

Amherst's collection (sold 1908) 672 o o 

A pair of bottles, mottled blue ground, satyrs' heads, 

formerly at the J. Cheetham Cockshutt collection (sold 

1909) 126 5 o 

Pair of bowl-shaped cups, gold ground (Waller sale, 1910) 267 15 o 

Pair of pear-shaped vases, dark mottled blue ground, i6i in. 

high 1890 o o 

A fine group by Roubillac oi Lagrcable Le^on, \^\ in. high, 

sold May 4, 1910 1837 10 o 

In the case of Bow china we find the same tendency to give 
increasingly high prices for anything exceptional, and this was 
exemplified in the sale of an especially fine pair of figures of this 
make some 9 inches high which realised ^£86, as. in the Merton 
Thoms sale. They were unusually delicate for this rather 
clumsy and thick make of china. 


Bristol porcelain is keenly contested for by collectors on 
account of the few specimens which are offered. The Merton 
Thorns collection, sold in February 19 10, contained some good 
examples, and the prices showed considerable advance on former 
sales. The group of Venus and Adonis, illustrated by Jewitt, 
fetched ;^i89, and a pair of cups and saucers with simple green 
laurel festoons, which in the Edkins sale twenty years ago sold 
for ^10, realised 25 guineas. A remarkable instance of the 
increase in value of a specimen of Bristol may be given in the 
auction history of the tea-pot of the famous Burke service, of 
which the reader will see an illustration under the notice of 
Bristol in Chapter VII. 

In 1870 a Mrs. Nugent, who had inherited the service 
from Mrs. Burke's only child, sold the whole service, which 
included tea-pot, stand, milk-jug, saucers, and twenty-four cups 
with twelve saucers, for ;^535. Mr. Walker, a dealer of Bath, 
sold part of the service at Sotheby's in J 871, and the tea-pot 
was bought by Mr. VVareham for ;^i90 and resold by him for 
^210. It appeared at Christie's in June 1876 in the col- 
lection of Mr. W. Romaine Callender, M.P., was bought for 
;^2i5, 5s. by Mr. Rathbone, and was resold to a Manchester 
collector. In 1907 it was again sold at Christie's for ^^440, 
and afterwards purchased by Mr. Trapnell for ;^'5oo, and 
joins other parts of the same service in this exceptionally fine 

At the sale of the late Mr. F. E. Nightingale's collection in 
December 191 1, a tea-cup and saucer of this famous service 
realised £179 at Christie's. 

While these pages are being corrected for the press the author 
is informed that the Trapnell collection, comprising about 1200 
specimens of Bristol porcelain and pottery, and including examples 
of Bristol glass, has been sold cii bloc to Mr. Amor of St. James's 
Street. As this is the only collection in the world of so many 
representative examples of hard-paste English porcelain, it is to 
be hoped that either the whole, or at least a major portion of 
it, may be purchased by an Englishman and retained in this 

The following rare marks, which occur on some specimens in 
the Trapnell collection, should be included in those of the factory, 
next to those which have already been given in the notice on Bristol 
in Chapter VII. 

2 H 



The price of 4.53, iis. for a tine Longton Hall figure of 
a sportsman with dog and gun is an example of the extra value 
given to an unusual specimen. If this figure had been of Bow 
or Chelsea, it would proliably have realised less than half the 
amount, because although such an important figure is rare in 
Longton Hall, it would be more ordinary in the other two makes 
of china. 

Lowestoft china, freed from illusions by recent information, 
and now recognised as the work of a factory which did not pro- 
duce the numerous examples of Oriental china which were 
formerly attributed to its output, is still one of the coveted 
possessions of the collector, and when a specimen of undoubted 
genuineness is offered which has some character, such as the mug 
in the Merton Thoms collection, with view of seaport and light- 
house, a good price will be given. This specimen sold for 
;^75, I2S. A great many less important specimens in the 
collection brought sums ranging from 21s. to 20 guineas. 

It may be remarked in passing with regard to the Merton Thoms 
sale that better prices would have ruled generally if there had 
not been so many specimens of poor quality. Mr. Merton Thoms 
was a somewhat omnivorous buyer, and the result of the " water- 
ing " of a good collection is remarked upon here, to illustrate the 
author's views on injudicious purchases. Many other sales might be 
quoted to point to the same argument. If the collection be made 
with judgment, and indifferent examples, poor in quality, cracked 
and restored, can be avoided, the result of a sale when the time 
comes for realisation, will be much more satisfactory. 

A special demand has arisen within the past few years for Nant- 
garw and Swansea porcelain, some of the collectors being rich men 
who reside in the neighbourhood of Swansea and take an interest in 


the porcelain of this district. Genuine specimens of these factories 
are rare, and prices have lately risen enormously. Plates of pure 
white ground line soft paste (Nantgarw), with simple flower- 
painted decoration, which could have been bought ten or twelve 
years ago for ^5 or ^'6, now realise ;^25, and tiie demand increases, 
especially for those specimens which are believed to have been 
decorated at the factory, and not sold as white china to I>ondon 
and other places, and decorated there before being resold. 

The prices realised for specimens of some (.[uite unimportant 
English factories are out of all proportion to their merits, and are 
only justified by some special circumstance, sucli as an imusual 
mark or extreme rarity. An instance of this may be given in the 
recent sale of a flower-pot of Church Gresley cliina for /.'20, 
and similar examples could be multiplied. 

Continental Porcelain. — Those groups and figures of Dresden 
(Kandler period) and of the Frankenlhal, Ludwigsburg, and 
Hochst factoiies which have some "character" are continually 
advancing in favour, and prices are nearly ten times those of 
twenty years ago. It seems safe to predict that the demand for 
really clever groups from many of these factories where the 
modelling is good and the costumes distinctive, will increase. 
"Crinoline" groups and figures, and harlequin hgures have been 
the rage for the past fifteen years, and such a high price as 
_^iooo has been given more than once within the last two or 
three years for a Dresden group of this kind. 

Two or three references to recent sales will be sufficient. A 
pair of little P'rankenthal groups only 5 inches high, representing 
children playing with a dog and a monkey, was sold at Christie's 
in June 1910 for _^i57, los., and exactly the same price was 
realised by a group of this factory representing lovers on a scroll 
base with a lamb, only 6 inches high. A single figure of a peasant 
woman 9I inches high realised in the same rooms in March 191 1 
^50, 8s. 

The high price for. two miniature Hochst groups in the Gilbey 
sale has already been alluded to in the notice of that factory 
in Chapter VI 1. A group of this now fashionable china only 10 
inches high, brought ;^304, los. in the same sale. Another group 
of three boys with a dog 5 inches high, of less exceptional quality, 
brought ;^63. 

It may be observed that the remarkable increase m the prices 
of these German porcelains is partly due to the spirited compe- 


tition of German dealers and collectors. The rapid increase of 
wealth in Germany has brought about an exceptional demand 
in that country for all really first-class continental specimens, 
and when a good collection is offered at Christie's the Iiabiliic at 
once detects the presence of dealers who have come from Berlin, 
Dresden, Frankfort, and Munich to take part in the bidding. 

The ordinary specimen cup and saucer, without colour or any 
particular distinctive decoration, is not sought after save by col- 
lectors who wish to add to their marked specimens. 

The group of old soft-paste factories has received well-de- 
served attention from experienced collectors. These, fabriqties ^ve 
all described in Chapter VI 1., and many of their special character- 
istics noted. Prices art- increasing rapidly, and will probably do 
so for some time. Their quality is unmistakable, and when the 
decoration of this beautiful pdtc lendre is of the best character, 
it is difficult to over-estimate its attractions. In the same class 
may be ranged the productions of the early Naples factory and 
that of Buen Retire (Madrid). 

A pair of very curious Capo di Monte groups of Venus with 
Cupid, and of Leda and the Swan were sold at Christie's (Jan. 
19 10) for X336. A good Buen Retiro cup and saucer painted 
with fruit or flowers on a white ground may still be bought for 
;^8 or £10, and this is not more than 15 or 20 per cent, more 
than a similar specimen would have brought twenty years ago. 

Italian Majolica. — Fine specimens of the different fabriqucs of 
Italian fifteenth and sixteenth-century majolica are so seldom seen in 
tiie auction room, that comparison between present prices and those 
obtained formerly is difficult. The last opportunity for such 
comparison was at the sale of the Octavius Coope collection 
(May 1910), when values were fully maintained ; a good majolica 
tazza brought £2)3^^ ^nd three dishes of fair quality averaged 
about -f.200 each. Of Delia Robbia ware the fine statuette of 
Pomona sold at Christie's in March lyit for i^JJ was a good 
representative specimen. 

RIio(Ua>!, Persian, and Danmscns. — The same paucity of supply 
may be noticed in specimens of these faiences. The Waller, the 
Joseph Dixon, and the Sir John Evans' collections, sold in 19 10 
and 1 91 1, contained some good examples, and high prices were 
obtained. The written description of these is not of much value, 
for all depends upon flic line lustre and colour of the examples. 



Pa/issy IFare. — A fine group attributed to this master potter 
was in the Octavius Coope collection, and realised ;^2 20, los. 
It was a representation of Christ and the Woman of Samaria at 
the Well. 

These few pages of notes on values and prices should be read 
in connection with the " Hints and Cautions " in Chapter V., and 
reference should also be made lo the notices of the different 
factories contained in Chapter VII. 

A I'lymmith salt-celkir in tlie Tiapncll coUeclioii. 


The wide scope of this book necessarily involves curtailment of the space 
which can be given to notices of any particular ceramic factory, but the reader 
who is likely to become a serious collector, is recommended to consult the 
following works, where he will find much more detailed information. 

For English Pottery and Porcelain. 

Bemrose, William, " Bow, Chelsea, and Derby Porcelain." Illustrated. 
London, 189S. 

BiNNS, R. W., " A Century of Potting in the City of Worcester." Illustrated. 
London, 1877. 

Burton, William, F.C.S., "A History and Description of English Por- 
celain." Illustrated. London, 1902. '• A History and Description of 
English Earthenware and Stoneware." London, 1904. 

Church, A. H., " English Earthenware and Porcelain." Illustrated. London, 

Haslem, John, " The Old Derby China Factory." Illustrated. London, 


Hobson, R. L., "Worcester Porcelain." London, 1910. "Guide to the 
English Pottery and Porcelain in the British Museum." London, 1910. 

Nightingale, J- E., " Contributions towards the History of Early English 
Porcelain." Salisbury, 1881. 

Owen, Hugh, " Two Centuries of Ceramic Art in Bristol." Illustrated. 
Gloucester, 1873. 

Rathbone, F., "Old Wedgwood Folio, with 65 Plates in the Colours of the 
Originals." London, 1S95. 

Rhead, G. Wooliscroft, and F. A. Rhead, " Staffordshire Pots and 
Potters." Illustrated. London, 1906. 

Shaw, Dr. Simeon, "History of the Staffordshire Potteries." Hanley, 1829. 

Solon, M. L., "A Brief History of Old English Porcelain." Illustrated. 
London, 1900. "The Art of the Old English Potters." London, 1883. 

Spelman, W. W . R , " Lowestoft China." London, 1905. 

Turner, William, "The Ceramics of Swansea and Nantgarw." Illustrated. 
London, 1897. 

Oriental Porcelain . 

Bushell, Stephen W. (C.M.G., B.Sc, M.D.), "Chinese Art." 2 vols. 
London, 1906. 

Gullard, W. G., "Chinese Porcelain," with Notes by'!'. J. Larkin. 2 vols. 
London, 1902. 

Monkhouse, Cosmo, " Chinese Porcelain." Illustrated. London. 

General: IndiKiing English, Forcig)i, and Oriental. 

Chaffers, William, "Marks and Monograms on Pottery and Porcelain." 
Thirteenth Edition, revised and edited by Frederick Litchfield. London, 

HoRSON, R. L., " Porcelain of all Countries." London, 1906. 




French Faiences. 

Davilii".r, C. J., " Histoire des Faiences et Porcelaines de Moustiers, Mar- 
seille et autre fabriques Nationaies." Paris, 1863. 

French Porcelain. 

Chavagnac (Cte de) et de Grolliek (M'"), "Histoire des Manufactures 
Fran^aises de Porcelaine." Paris, 1906. 

Italian Majolica. 

FoRTNUM, C. Drury E., F.S.A., D.C.L., " Majolica." Clarendon Press, 

Continenlal Porcelain. 

Franks, A. W., " Catalogue of a Collection of Continental Porcelain." 
London, 1S96. 

Graul and Kurzwelly, " Altthuringer Porzellan." Leipzig, 1909. 

Wylde, C. H., "Continental China." London, 1907. 

American Pottery. 

Barher, E. a., " ALtrics of American Potters." Philadelphia, 1904. 

Earle, Alice Morse, " China (Collecting in America." Published in 
United States about 1907. 

German Stoneware. 
Falke, Otto Von, "Das Rheinische Steinzeug." Berlin, 1908. 


Page 13, Mezza-Majolica should be Mezzo- Majolica. 

18, de Medici should be di Medici. 

36, Dilwyn should he Dillwyn. 

39, Pillevuyt should be Pilliviiyt. 

50, Couldon should be Cauldon. 

89, Wheildon should be Whieldon. 

95, Altrothau should he Alt Rolau. 
Pages 130, 131, 135, Roubiliac should be Roubillac. 
Page 154, C. L. Hobson should he R. L. Hobson. 
,. 160, W. C. H. Wylde should be Mr. C. II. VVylde. 
,, 185, Deitrich slwuld he Dietrich. 
„ 210, 1705 should be 1795. 
,, 237, Chelman should be Chelliani. 
„ 241, Boussement should be Boiissemart. 
,, 256, Benham should be Bonhani. 
,, 2^7, Thorn .?/;w</a?fe Thorns. 
,, 281, Geltz should be Gelz. 

,, 406, George Walker should be Samuel Walker. 
,, 416, Gravaut should be Gravant. 



Note. — To enable the reader to identify an unknown mark, lliis index has been specially 
prepared : thus, supposing a specimen to be marked with a letter, a crown, an anchor, 
or any other device, by reference to this letter or device in the index the reader will be 
able to turn to a notice of the factory or maker where such a mark was used. 

Where a factory is mentioned more than once the reference to the principal account 
of il is placed first. Names of Collectors will be found under " Collections.'' 

A., 8i, 82, 84, 85, 86, 87, 104. 242, 252, 

312, 332, 335, 363, 373. 
A.B., 167, 188, 287, 373, 374. 

^.D.,83, 84, 375. 376. 

A.D.B., 168. 

A.D.W., 87. 

A.F.. 376. 

A. I., 166. 

A. J., 166. 

A.K., 167. 

A.L.. 378, 392. 

A.M., g6, 249, 379. 

A.N., 82. 

A.P., 86, 166, 167, 292, 332, 373. 

A.R., 53, 62, 188. 

imitation of, 62, 72. 

A.T.R., 179. 

A.V.. 97. 

A.V.K., 166. 

Msciilapius , wand of, 53, 18S. 

Anchors, 71, 97, 100, 103, 104, 105, 109, 
130, 131, 13s, 164, 176, 194, 212, 249, 
252, 296, 346, 365, 413, 414, 437, 440, 

453. 454- 
Antlers, 263, 332. 
Armorial bearings, 198, 217, 263, 281, 

286, 415. 
Arms, 192, 273. 

Arrows, 103, 104, 126, 240, 310, 453, 457. 
Axe-heads, 89, 371. 
Abbey, R., potter, 248. 
ABRUZZI, majolica, 79, 267. 
.\bsolon, W., artist, 457. 

Ac.\NTHUS, 3. 

AciER, Francois, sculptor, 5?, iSo, 182, 

Adam, C, sculptor, 350, 416, 417. 
Adam, J., potter, 80. 
AD.\MS ware, 79-80. 
Adams, J. & W., potters, 80, 195. 
Adams & Flaxman, potters, 23S. 

Adderley, Mr. B., 155. 

Alcazar, see Tiles. 

ALCORA, pottery and porcelain. 80-Si. 

Aldred, O. &. S., potters, 254. 

Algiers, pottery, 326. 

Alhamora, see Tiles and 

Allen, R., potter. 261. 

Allen, T., artist, 287. 

Aloncle, painter, 363. 

Alphen, von, potter, 175. 

ALT-ROLHAU, pottery and porcelain, 

ALT-HALDENSLEBEN, porcelain, 82. 
Amorini, explained, 460. 
.\mphora, explained, 460. 
AMSTEL, porcelain, 82-84, 87, 212. 
AMSTERDAM, pottery, 83, 84, 87. 
ANATOLIA, pottery, 24, 325 ; see 

Rhodes and Turkey. 
Andre, J., painter, 373. 
Andreoli, Georgio, potter. 17, 20. 2O7, 

Angelini, artist, 427. 
ANGOULEME, porcelain, 84, 97. 
Angouleme, Duchesse d', 85. 
Angst, Sir Henry, cited, 240, 45S. 
ANSPACH, porcelain, 85-S6. 
Antique, term explained, 460. 
Anteaume, painter. 363. 
Antonibon, G. B., potter, 90. 
.\ntonio, potter, 196. 
Apoil. painters, T,y},. 
APREY, pottery, 86. 
Aprey. B.aron d', potter, 86. 
APT, pottery, 86. 

Arabian pottery. 9, 11, 12, 13, 218. 
Archelais. painter, 373. 
ARDENNES, pottery. 87. 
Arita, see Japan. 
Armand. p. L.-P., painter, 363. 
Armstrong, Mr., architect, 36, 92. 
ARNHEIM, pottery and porcelain, 87, 




Arnoux, LfeoN, potter. 288. 

Arnoux, Veuve, potter, 86. 

ARRAS, porcelain, 87. 

ARTOIS, see Paris. 

Artois, Comte d', 84. 

AsHBY. Potters' Guild of, 50. 

AsHWORTH Bros., potters. 280. 

AsHWORTH, G. L., and Sons, potters, 50. 

Asia Minor, pottery of, 1. 

Asselin, artist. 363. 

Assyria, pottery of. i ; use of copper 

in. 2. 
ASTBURY ware, 88-89. 
Astbury, J. and T., potters. 34. 88. 89. 

341, 406. 
Atelier, term explained, 460. 
Aubert, painter, 363. 
Auction Rooms, 57. 
Auctions, 57-58, 467-469. 
Augustus Rex, 53. 62, y2, 188. 
AVIGNON, pottery, 89. 
AvissE, painter, 373. 
AVON, see Fontainebleau. 
Aynsley, John, potter, 236. 


B., 92, 96. 100. 103, 107, 114, 115, 116, 
154, 210, 276, 278, 314, 363, 364, 365, 

373. 374. 392,455- 
B.B., 71, 77, 199, 288. 
B.C., 300. 
B.D.. 363. 
B.F., 374. 
B.F.S.. 92. 168. 
B. &.G., 162. 
B.H., 92. 
B.K., 92. 
B.L.. 307. 
B.L.C., 87. 
B.N., 301. 364- 
B. &■ iV., 300. 
B.P., 167. 
B.P.T., 188. 
B.R., 98, 168. 
B.S.M., 107. 
B.V.. 116. 
B.Z., 458. 
Beacons, 207. 
Bells, 220. 
Birds. 236, 240. 248, 364 ; see Cocks, 

Eagles, and Storks. 
Bottles, 371. 
Bows and arrows, 103. 
Bugles, 127, 128, 454. 
Babylonia, bricks of, 2. 
Bachelier, decorator, 353. 
Bacon, John, R..\., 100. 
Baddeley & Fletcher, potters. 251. 
BADEN-BADIiN. porcelain. 89-90. 
Baguley, Isaac, potter. 327. 
Bailey, see Billingsley. 

Bailey-. C. T. C.. potter. 205. 

Bailey & B.\tkin. potters. 236. 

Bailly, painter, 363. 

B.'iiRD, Mr. \V.. cited. 322. 

Baker. Bevan & Irwin, potters. 401. 

B.\ldasara, 272 ; see Majolica. 

Baldisseroni. painter, 373. 

Baldock & Hitchcock, 464. 

Balearic Isles, 10. 

Ballanger, decorator, 373. 

Bankes & Turner, potters, 236, 410. 


porcelain, 90. 
Barbin, F.. potter. 273. 
B.ivrdet. painter. 363. 
Bareau & Bareau. potters, 77. 
Barker. John, potter. 195. 386, 432. 
Barker. Samuel, potter. 178. 
Barlow, Miss H., designer, 44, 234. 
Baron, W. L.. potter. 50. 
Baroni. G.. potter, 90. 
Barr. Flight & Barr. potters. 445. 
Barrat, painter, 363. 
Barre. painter. 363. 
BARRfe, painter. 373. painter. 374. 
Bartolo. potter, 210. 
Bartolozzi, artist, 439. 
Basalt, termed explained, 460 ; see 

BASSANO. pottery, 90, 40, 41, 61. 
Basset. Elinor, painter, 398. 
B.\STo, Pinto, potter, 306. 
Bat, see Printing. 
Battam. potter, 384. 
Batterse.\, sec En.\mels. 
Baudouin, painter. 363. 
Bavarian pottery, 340. 
Baxter. T.. artist, 397. 398. 400, 446. 
BAYEUX. porcelain. 91. 
BAYREUTH, pottery and porcelain, 92. 
Beads. 2. 

Beaker, explained, 461. 
BEAUVAIS, pottery. 92. 19. 
Becker. Paul, potter. 220. 
Becquet. painter. 363. 
Beddow, artist, 397, 398. 
" Bee," see Jugs. 
Beeley. see Billingsley. 
Belet, A. & E. & L., painters,' 374. 
Belgian pottery, 340. 
Bell, William, potter, 220. 
Bell & Block, potters, 71 
Bellarmines, 26, 159, 340. 
BELLEEK. porcelain. 92-93, 36, 45. 
BELLEVUE, pottery, see Hull. 
BELLEVUE, pottery, near Rye, see 

Belper & Denby, potters, 235. 
Bemrose. William, cited. 100, 175. 
Bengraf. potter, 206, 281. 
Benitier, explained, 461. 
Bentley ware, sec Wedgwood. 
Bentley. dealer. 464. 



Bentley, Til, potter, 34, 93, 426. 
B^RANGER, A., ])ainter, 374. 
BERLIN, porcelain, 93-95, 38, 335. 
Bernal, Ralph, antiquary, 160. 
Bernart, potter, 21. 
Berthevin, potter, 276. 
Bertrand, painter, 364. 
Bettignies, M. de, potter, 333, 407. 
Bevington & Co., potters, 397, 400. 
Bewesy (or BusEY), S. I., potter, 433. 
Beyer, J. W. C, artist, 263. 
BeyerlI, J. L., Baron de, potter, 299, 

Bianco sopra bianco, see Decoration. 
Bienfait, painter, 364. 
Bienville, H., painter, 374. 
Billingsley, \Villi.\m, artist, 174, 266, 

293, 294, 295, 396, 397, 398, 406, 446. 
Binet, painters, 364. 
BiNG & Grondahl, potters, 172. 
BINGHAM, see Hedingham. 
Bingham, E., potter, 95, 215, 216. 
BiNNS, Mr. R. W., 435 ; cited, 126, 436, 

437. 440, 443- 
Birch, Dr., cited, 2. 
Birks, a. & L., decorators, 2S7. 
Biscuit, explained, 461. 
Bistre, explained, 461. 
Blakeway, potter, 223. 
Bloor, potter, 172. 
Boch, Bros., potters, 266. 
Bocquet, decorator, 374. 
BOHEMIA, pottery and porcelain. 95-96. 
Boileau, M., potter, 352, 355. 
BOISSETTE, porcelain, 96. 
BoiTEL, gilder, 374. 
BoizEAU, artist, 353. 
BOLOGNA, pottery, 96, 17, 40. 
Bone, Henry, artist, 114, 321. 
BonnaffA, M. Edouard, cited, 22. 92, 

BoNNEFOY, Antoine, potter, 277. 
Bonnuit, decorator, 374. 
Booth, Enoch, potter, 409. 
Booths, potters, 50. 
BORDEAUX, pottery and porcelain, 97, 

BoRNEAU, M., cited, 17, 21 note. 
Bossu, J., potter, 242. 
BoTT, Th., artist, 448. 
BOTT, & Co., potters, 386. 
BOTTGER ware, see Dresden. 
BoTTGER, John, potter, 33, 53, 179, 180, 

181, 320. 
Boucher, painter, 364. 
Bouchier, Francois, artist, 131. 
BouCHET, painter, 364. 
BoucoT, painter, 364. 
BouiLLOT, painter, 364. 
Boulange et Cie., potters, 154. 
Boulanger, painters, 364. 
BouLLEMEiR, A., gilder, 374. 
Boullemier, decorators, 287, 374. 
BOULOGNE, porcelain, 97. 

Bourdois, sculptor, 364. 

BOURG LA REINE, porcelain, 97-98. 

Bourne,, potter, 235. 

BoussEMART, F., potter, 241, 242. 

BOVEY TRACEY, pottery, 98. 

BOW, porcelain, 98-105, 30, 36, 46, 68, 
250, 252. 253, 254, 255,^258, 442, 452. 

imitations of, 315. 

BowEN, Samuel, potter, 46 

Bowers, G. E., potter, 409. 

Bowman, Z., artist, 174. 

BoYLE, Samuel, potter, 173. 

Brachard, modeller, 364. 

BRADWELL, pottery, 105, 34. 

Brameld, potter, 327. 

BRAMPTON, pottery, see Notting- 


BRANDENBURG, porcelain, 106. 

Brecy, p., painter, 374. 

BREITENBACH, see (Irosbreiten- 


Brinckmann, Dr., cited, 73, 85, 92, ii6, 

i8q, 214, 227, 228. 
BRIOT, pottery, 106-107. 
Briot, Francois, potter, 22, 107. 
Briqueville, J., potter, 237. 
BRISTOL, delft, pottery, and porcelain, 

107-UI, 30, 36, 46, 55, 69, 99, 100, 

1 13, 252, 265, 294, 321. 
Britannia, figure of. 131. 
British pottery, ancient, 7,8. 
Brittain, John, potter, iii. 
Britton & Sons, potters, 239. 
Brodel, potter, 419. 
Brongniart, M. Alexandre, 356 ; 

cited, 3, 30, 296, 358, 419. 
Brown, Mr. W., cited, 210. 
Brown, Westhead, Moore & Co., 

potters, 50. 
Browne, R., potter, 253, 254, 256. 
BRUGES, pottery, 115. 
Brun, Benolst le, potter, 90, 241. 307. 
Brunello, potter, 192. 
BRUNET-RoguEs, A., painter, 375. 
BRUSSELS, pottery and porcelain, 1 15- 

Bryant, potter, 245. 
BucHWALD, Jean, potter, 22S. 
BUEN RETIRO, porcelain. 1 16-1 17, 80. 

BuLiDON, painter, 364. 
BuNEL, painter, 364. 
Burke, Edmund, china made for, 112, 

BURSLEM, pottery, 34, 340 ; see Staf- 
Burton, potter, 155. 
Burton, Mr. William. 50 ; cited, 99, 
130, 175, 247, 256, 266,' 287, 299, 322, 

389, 391, 427. 428, 429. 443- 
Busch, Baron, artist, 1S6. 
Bushell, Dr., 140, 147. 



Butcher, John. 260. 
BuTEux, painters, 365, 375. 
Butler, F. A., artist, 233, 234. 
Bux, J. B., potter, 382. 
Byzantine, term explained, 461. 

C, 77, 125, 263, 273, 284, 307, 365. 

C.A., 178,305. 

C.B., 92, 116. 

C.B.D.. 157, i;8. 

CMS.. 167. 

C.C., 117, 301, 374. 385- 

CD., 158, 243, 244, 376. 

C.F., 266, 320. 

C.G.. 240. 

C.H., 308, 365. 

c.r... 314. 

CM., 198, 308, 366. 

C.N.. 301. 

C.P., 116, 163, 314. 365, 374. 

C.S.. 277, 278. 

C.T., 69, 74, 201, 375. 

CV., 228-229. 

CV.K., 116. 

C.V.S., 166. 

C.W.. 295. 

Castles. 208, 238; see Towers. 

Churches, 197, 205. 

Cocks, 84, 198, 209, 222. 

Comets, 358. 

Compasses, 370. 

Crescents, :oo, 103, 104, 125, 126, 257, 

260, 262, 286, 305, 320, 369, 402, 409, 

420, 441. 449. 452. 453- 
Crosses, gs, 113. 115. 116, 122,161, 162, 

202, 207, 210, 219, 222, 245, 305, 308, 


Crowns and Coronets, y\, 72, 73, 74, 75, 
84, 91, 115, 116, 117, 122, 123, 125, 
134, 135, 156, 175, 176, 177, 190, 201, 
236, 240, 242, 249, 263, 276, 281, 300. 
306, 307, 312, 314, 327, 336, 385. 393. 
419, 454, 455. 

Cabau, painter, 375. 

Cabaret, explained, 462. 

CADBOROUGH, potterv. 118. 

CAEN, pottery, 118. 

CAFFAGIOLO, pottery. 17, 118, 267, 
269 ; see Majolica. 

" Caffagiolo plate." 270. 

Caffo. G. a., potter. 90. 

Caille, artist, 77. 

Calcareous, term explained, 462. 

CALDAS, pottery, 118, 245. 

Caldesi, M. Leo'nida, cited, 96, 222. 

Caldwell, J., potter, 391. 

Calonne, M. de. 87, 241. 

Camaieu, explained, 462. 

Cambrian-Argil. 235. 281. 

CAMBRIAN ware. 119. 

CAMBRIDGE, Mass., pottery, 47. 

C.\melford, Lord, 112. 

Campbell, C. M.. potter, 43, 286, 287, 

Can. explained, 462. 

" Cannette." 159. 

Canta Galli. see Florence. 

canton, new, see Bow. 

C.^PELLE. painter. 3O5. 

CAPO DI MONTE, porcelain. 1 19-122, 
38.40; imitations of, 75, 1 16, 117,178. 

Capronnier, gilder, 375. 

Car.\ssus, artist, 419. 

Cardin. painter. 365. 

Carl Theodor. mark of, 69, 74, 201 ; 
see Frankenthal and Ludwigshurg. 

CARLSBAD, see Pirkenhammer. 

CAROLINA, clay imported from. 46. 

C.ARRlfe (or Carrier), painter, 365. 

Carrier-Belleuse, artist, 287. 

CASSEL. see Hesse-Cassel. 

Castel. painter. 365. 

CASTEL DURANTE, pottery, 17, 18, 
211. 267. 269. 271 ; see Majolica. 

CASTELLANI. porcelain, 123. 

CASTELLI, majolica. 79, 267 ; see 

CASTLEFORD, pottery, 123. 

CASTOR, pottery, 7. 

Caton, painter, 365. 

Catrice, painter. 36?. 

CAUGHLEY, porcelain, 124-126, 36, 
36, 256, 260. 266. 452. 

Celadon, explained, 462 ; see Decora- 

Cauldon, potter, 50. 

Celadon Vase, see Vases. 

Ceramic, term explained, 462. 

Ceramus, mythical inventor of pot- 
tery. 3. 

Chaffers, Richard, potter, 35, 247. 

William, cited, 35, 46, 79, 89, 

go note, 96, 107, no, 1 16, 149, 154, 155, 
159, 191, 194, 195, 209, 210, 211, 213, 
214, 218, 220, 223, 226, 227, 228, 234, 
237, 241, 244, 245, 255, 256, 266, 268, 
277, 285, 296, 297. 298, 306, 312, 313, 
316, 317, 323, 328, 331, 332, 336, 'ii7, 

339. 343. 357. 373. 392. 40I, 405. 409. 
419, 421, 428, 429. 442 note, 451, 457, 

458. 474- 
Chamberlains. R. & H.. potters, 124, 

178, 39S, 446. 447. 448. 455. 
Chambers. William, potter. 263. 
Chambrette, Jacques, potter, 263. 
CHAMPION Bristol china, 1 1 i-ii 5. 
Champion, Richard, potter, 46, 105, in, 

299, 321. 
Chanon, Henri, potter, 308. 

J. B. & S., painters, 365. 

CHANTILLY, porcelain, 127-128, 55, 

348, 403. 
Chapelle. Jacques, potter, 345. 
Chapuis. painters. 365. 
Charpentier, artist, 375. 



Charpentier, potter, 21, 407. 
Charrin, Mile. F., artist, 375. 
Chaterley, William, potter, 405. 
CiiAUVAUx, gilders, 365, 366. 
CiiAVAGNAC ET DE Grollier, cited, io6, 
127, 162, 237, 241, 243, 266, 284, 301, 

354. 357. 395- 

CHELSEA, porcelain, 128-135, 30, 36, 
46, 56, 99, 100, 102, 104, 250, 253, 284, 
356, 428, 442, 443, 453 ; imitations of, 
59, 70, i?7 ; pottery, 39, 70, 157, 315. 

CHELSEA-DERBY, 130, 171, 174. 

Chetham & WooLEY, potters, 237. 

Chevalier, painter, 366. 

Chiaro-oscuro, explained, 462. 

CHICANNEAU, see Paris. 

Chicanneau, Pierre, potter, 308, 333, 


Child, potter, 409. 

CHINESE porcelain, 137-145, 29, 31, 
62 ; imitations of, 105, 120, 130, 181, 
341, 344, 417, 437 ; redecorated, 144- 
145, 134, 135; pottery, 136-137. 9; 
periods of dynasties, 146-154 ; value 

of, 477- 

CHODAU ware, 95. 

Choisy, de, painter, 366. 

CHOISY-LE-ROI, pottery and porce- 
lain, 154. 

Christian, potter, 248. 

Christie's, auction rooms of, 57, 88, 112, 
131, 157, 204, 205, 238, 251, 287, 353, 
354, 426, 450, 453, 476, 480, 481, 483, 
484; catalogues of, 121, 133, 171. 

Chulot, painter, 366. 

Church, Professor, cited, 175, 230, 231, 
255, 298, 340, 341, 342, 343, 387, 405, 

CHURCH GRESLEY, porcelain, 155 ; 
see Gresley. 

CiNTRA, 245. 

Cipriani, painter, 439. 

CiROO, potter, 127. 

Clay, see Kaolin. 

Clement, potter, 154. 

Clerissy Family, potters, 291. 

CLERMONT-FERRAND, pottery, 155- 


Clewitt, potter, 434. 

CLIGNANCOURT, porcelain, 156. 

" Clobbered," 145-146 ; term ex- 
plained, 463. 

Clodion, artist, 353. 

Closter Veilsdorf, see Kloster Veils- 


COALBROOK dale, porcelain, 157- 

158, 45, 65, 69, 125, 400. 
CoALPORT, see Coalbrook Dale. 
Coalport China Co., 158. 
coblentz, 159. 
CoBURG porcelain, 75, 76, 187. 
Coffins, ancient, 2. 
Coke, John, potter, 319, 406. 
CoLCLOUGH, artist, 397. 


H,M. the King, 56, 132, 356, 407, 

408 ; see Windsor Castle. 
H.M. Edward VIL, 43. 
H.M. George IV., 56, 351. 
H.M. pueen Victoria, 93, 459. 
H.M. William IV., 446. 
H.R.H. the Duke of Cambridge, 

Abcrcromby, Lord, 453. 
Amor, Mr. A., 132, 155, 481. 
Angst, Sir Henry, 458. 
Ashley, Mrs. Wilfred, 85. 
Azeglio, Marquis d', 409. 
Baer, Mr., 1S2. 
Baldwin, 118. 
Bemrose, Mr., 252. 
Bernal, Raljih, 160. 
Bessborough, Lady, 193. 
Binns, Mr., 56. 
Bohn, Mr. G. H., 121. 
Borradaile, Mr. Charles, 81, 1 1 1 , 1 34, 

186, 419. 
Boynton, Mr. Thomas, F'.S.A., 27, 

22 I , 2 s2 . 

Brightling, Mrs., 267. 

Broderip, Mr., 103, 104, 126, 258, 259. 

Brunswick, Duke of, 186. 
Buccleuch, Duke of, 357. 
Burns, Mrs., 88. 
Burton, Lord. 132, 133. 
Cadogan, Lord, 191. 
Calleiider, Mr. W. R., 481. 
Campbell, Mr. M. C, 287. 
Cavendish-Bentinck, 413. 
Chamberlain, Mr. N., 444. 
Church, Professor, 251. 
Cockshutt, Mr. J., 134, 444, 4S0. 
Colman, Mrs., 258. 
Coope, Octavius, 356, 474, 475, 483, 

Craigie, Mr. E. W., 290. 
Cree, Mr. W., 322. 
Crisp, Mr. F. A., 253, 254, 255, 256, 

Currie, Mr. David, 357. 
Denison, Mr. Beckett, 211. 
Devonshire, Duke of, 140. 
Dickson, Mr. J., 484. 
Drane, Mr. Robert, 204, 231, 252, 

398, 443, 444. 
Duncan, Mr. Ale.xander, 119, 295, 

397. 399- 
Durlacher, Mr., 271. 
Dutuit, M., 316. 

Eccles, Mr., 42, 287, 295, 398, 399. 
Edkins, 231, 451. 
Edwards, Sir H. E., 444. 
Evans, Sir J., 231, 484. 
Falcke, Mr. Isaac, 430. 
Falkner, Mr. Frank, 78, 295, 344, 

3S6. 389, 432. 433- 
Fitzgerald, Mr. Percy, 3S8. 



COLLECTIONS (continued) :— 

Fitzhenry, 55, 97, 127, 128, 197, 2S4, 
332. 334-, 419- 

Fortnum, 186, 270, 318, 325. 

Fountaine, see Narford Hall. 

Franks, Sir A. W., 54, 86, 90, 92, 95, 
115, 133, 160, 180, 185, 186, 193, 
201, 208, 231, 238, 245, 250, 263, 
266, 277, 283, 284, 303, 306. 3ii?, 
334. 335. 413. 416, 419. 

Garland-Morgan, 149. 

Gasnault, 311. 

Gilbert, Mr., 450. 

Gilbertson, Mr. Charles, 132. 

Gilbey, Sir W., 2S2, 483. 

Godman, Mr. Du Caine, 219, 318, 

Goode, Mr., 349, 351. 
Grahame. Mr. Henry, 402. 
Grandidier, 149. 
Grey, Lord de, 18S. 
Hall, Rev. A., 1S9. 
Hallam, Rev. \V. W., 261. 
Hamilton Palace, 22. 
Hardy, Mr. C, 3S5. 
Harewood, Earl of , ^6, 357. 
Harrison, Mr. H. E. B., 96. 160, 238, 

243. 3IO- 
Hawkins, 88, 133, 353, 354. 
Henderson, Mr., 9, 219, 316, 317, 

318, 325. 
Hillingdon. Lord, 357. 
Hope-Edwards, 444, 479. 
Hopetoun, Countess of, 250. 
Hughes, Lady, 104, 134, 252. 
Hughes, Mr. H. E. W., 125, 399, 437, 

439. 444- 
Hulme, Mr., 430. 
Hume, Major, 81. 
Hurlbult, Mr. Frank, 134. 
Huth, Mr. Louis, 103, 141, 25.^. 
Joicey, Mr., 357, 407. 
Jones, Mr., 56, 137, 348, 350, 352, 

King, Mr., 53, 187. 
Knole House, Sevenoaks, 335, 461. 
Law, Foulsham & Cole, Messrs., 

Lambton, Mr. R., 444. 
Launa, Berlin. 271. 
Lever, Mr. W. H., 430. 
Litchfield, Mr. S., 193. 
Lloyd, Mr. F., 444. 
Lowenadlcr, Mr. F., 134. 
Macdonald, Mrs. A. R., 99, 104, 105, 

no, 120, 122, 131, 133, 134, 173, 

201, 223, 240, 387, 436, 442. 
Macdonald, Mr. D. W., loi, 105, 443, 

444. 44.=;- 
Mackintosh, The, 295. 
Maclaren, 102. 
Manficid, Mr. H., 104, 131, 134, 180, 

252, 387, 444. 
Marllioro' House, 161. 

COLLECTIONS (con/hnied) :— 
Martin, Sir H. B., 92. 
Martina, Duke de, 181. 
Massey-Mainwaring, Mr. W. F. B., 

S3. 187. 
Mavor, Dr., 131. 
Melville, Mrs. Beresford, 117. 
Methuen, Lord, 132. 
Molyneux, the Hon. R. G., 221. 
Napier, Mr. R., 443. 
Narford Hall, 22, 194, 211, 270, 339. 
Nightingale, Mr. J. E., 449, 451. 
Orleans House, 330. 
Orrock, 142. 
Pascal, 86. 
Perrins, Mr. C. W. Dyson, 104, 437, 

441, 442. 444. 448. 449. 453- 
Phillips, Mr.?. Lionel, 131, 134. 
Pierpont Morgan, Mr., 140, ay, 475. 
Pitt-Rivers, General, 405. 
Potts, Rev. Arthur, 143. 
Propert. Dr. L.. 426. 
Pryor's Bank, Fulham. 2S0. 
Randolph, General, 182. 
Rathbone, Mr., 481. 
Reynolds, 81, 90, 228. 
Rhodes, Mrs.. 444. 
Rosebery, Lord, 413. 
Rosenblum, Mr. S., 107. 
Rothschild family, 22, 43, 194, 357. 

Sackville, Lady, 335. 
Salting, Mr. George, 21, 22, 54, 56, 

107. 139. 141. 142. 143. 144. 148. 
194, 197, 212, 219, 224, 270, 271, 
316, 318, 325, 337, 404, 474, 475. 

Salzburg, Castle of, 303. 

Samuelson. Mr., 353. 

Schreiber, Lady Charlotte, 25,55,97, 
102, 122, 132, 133, 134. 231, 245, 
248, 2i;o, 261, 344, 413, 438, 440, 

Scott, Lady B., 478, 479. 
Seago, Mr. Rix, 253. 
Sechran, 316. 
Shandon, 4. 

Sheldon, in, 134, 387, 499. 
Sidebotham, Dr., 386. 
Solon, Mr. L. M., 105, 205. 
Soulages, 11, 89, 219. 
Spelman, Mr. W. W. R., 257, 258. 
Spitzer, 22, 270, 271. 
Stein, I\L, 337. 
Strawberrv Hill, 27. 
Terry, Capt. H., 433, 434. 
Terry, Major-General Astley, 109, 

125, 175, 214, 231, 235, 290, 392, 

Thistlethwayte. Capt., 100, 134. 
Thompson, Mr. F. E., 135. 
Thompson, Mr. F. J., :o4, 131, 322. 
Thorns, Mr. Merton, 257, 479, 480. 

Thomson. Miss E., 132. 



COLLECTIONS {coiiliniied) :— 

Trapnell, Mr. Alfred, III, 112, 113, 
114, 125, 251, asa, 322, 444, 45b, 

Turner, Mr. R. D.. 444. 

Tweedmouth, Lord, 430. 

Usher, Mr. J. Ward, 134. 

Vivian, Mr. C, 399. 

Walker-Joy, 161, 311. 

Wallace, see Museums — Hertford 

Waller, 484. 

Ward, the Hon. Robert, 134. 

Wareham, 481. 

Wass, Mr. C. Wentworth, 446. 

Watney. Mr. Claude, 131. 

Willett, Mr. H., 197, 231, 405. 

Windsor Castle, 56, 189, 356, 407, 

Yallop, Mr. J. U., 259, 260. 

Young, Mr. Harman, 252. 

Mr. Herbert, 88, 184, 1S5, 343. 

Collections, formation of, 53. 

public, 54. 

Collectors, hints and cautions to, 52- 

COLOGNE, stoneware, 158-160, 25, 340. 
Colours, method of applying, 463. 
CoMMELiN, painter, 366. 
Commerce, Journal of, 116. 
Constant, gilder, 375. 
CoNSTANTiN, painter, 375. 
CooKSON & Harding, potters, 299. 
COOKWORTHY, WiLLIAM, potter, 35, III, 

299. 320, 321. 
Coombs A- Holland, potters, 245. 
Cooper, artist, 287. 
COPELAND, see Spode. 
Copeland & Co., potters, 36, 41, 44, 383. 
Copeland & Garrett, potters, 383, 384, 

COPENHAGEN, pottery and porcelain, 

160-162, 38, 41. 
Copper, use of, by ancients, 2. 
Cordova, Mosque of, 11. 
CoREAN porcelain, 226. 
Corn.aille, painter, 366. 
Cornwall, discovery of china clay in, 35, 

1 12. 
Counterfeit marks, 69-78. 
CouRSAjET, painter, 375. 


COURTILLE, porcelain, see Paris. 

CouTOURiER, gilder, 366. 

Cozzi, potter, 413. 

Crackle, explained, 463 ; see Decor.\- 


Craft, Thomas, potter, 100. 

Craven, Rich.ard, 221. 

Craze, explained, 463. 

CREH., pottery, 162. 

CREPY EN VALOLS, porcelain, 162-163. 

Crette, L., potter, 115. 

Crispe, potter, 100. 


Crouch ware, explained, 463. 
Crouzat, potter, 276. 
Crowther, potter, 99. 

CUSTINE, COMTE DE, potter, 299. 

CYFFLfe, Louis, potter, 263, 264, 299, 

Cyples, potter, 236. 
Cyprus, pottery of, i. 


D., 72, 126, 135, 164, 167, 168, 169, 175, 
176, 190, 241, 242, 273, 283, 335, 366, 

D.B., 192, 373. 

D-C. 375- 

D.D., 123. 

D.F., 375- 

D.G., 419, 420. 

D.H.. 375- 



DM.. 168. 

D.P., 177. 

D.R., 366. 

D.S.. 167. 

D.T.H.. 107. 

D.V.. 98, 284. 

D.V.K., 166. 

D.V.X.. 167. 

Daggers, 94, 103, 104, 105, 219, and see 

Dog, harp, and tower, 92. 

Dolphins, 241. 

Domes, 197. 

Daenber, potter, 83, 

DAGOTY, porcelain, see Paris. 

Dagoty & HoNOR^, potters, 85. 

P. H. & R. F., potters, 309. 

Daguerre, artist, 353. 

Dale, I. & J., potters, 386, 389, 391, 

Dalmazzoni, potter, 427. 
DALWITZ. 95 ; sec Bohemia. 
DAM.\SCUS, pottery, 24, 317, 325 ; 

see Rhodian. 
D.AMM. 282. 

Dammouse, painter, 375. 
Daniell, Messrs., 44. 
DANTZIG, pottery, 163. 
Daraubert, G., potter, 307. 
DARMST.ADT, sec Hesse-Darmstadt. 
DARTE, see Paris. 
Date Signs : — 

Mintons' 289. 

Sevres, 358-362. 

Vincennes, 417. 

Worcester, 451. 
DAVENPORT, pottery and porcelain, 

Davenport, potter, 36. 
David, painter, 375. 
D.wignon, painter, 375. 



Davillier. Baron, cited, ii, 12, 21S, 

Dawson, potter, 396. 
Dealers, i;8, 464-465. 
DECK, see Paris. 

D2CK, Theodore, potter, 12, 39, 310. 
Decoration, earliest form of, 2. 
Decor.\tioxs : — 

Bianco sopra bianco, 108. 

Bleu du roi (or gros bleu), 185, 213, 

407. 417- 
Blue, powdered, 142,443; \incennes, 

132. 133. 356. 

Crackle, 136. 

Famille noire, 143 ; rose, 144 ; 
verte, 142. 

Flambe, 136, 142. 

Gold stripes, 171. 

Grafftato (or Sgraffiato), 13, 14. 279. 

Lustre, 11, 18,40,45. 107, 219, 299 ; 
see Lustred w.\re. 

Madre perla, 11. 

Marguerite (Palissy), 21, 339. 

Raffaelesque, 18, 96, 208, 271. 

Reflet metallique, 11. 

Ruby-backed, 145, 181. 

Sevres, various. 353, 355, 35'5- 

Watteau, 62, 183. 450. 

Wouvermann, 62. 
Decor.^tors (various) : — 

of Mintons, 287. 

of Sevres, 363-3S2. 
Dejoye, potter, 339. 
De la Ch.apelle, potter, 293. 
Delafosse, painter, 375. 
Delmain, Henry, potter, 191. 
Del.-vnge & Borneau, mm., cited, 17, 

21 note, 339. 
Deleneur, potters, 87. 
DELFT, 164-169, 27, 28, 253, 328, 410 ; 
imitations of, 40, 231, 402. 

Bristol, 55, 107-109, 265. 

Lambeth. 108,232. 

DELLA ROBBIA ware, 13-17; imi- 
tations of, 96, 198, 289. 
Della Robbia,Luca, and others, 14, 15, 

16, 291, 303. 
Delpayrat, artist, 287. 
Deltof, a., potter, 309. 
Demaratus, potter, 6. 
Demmin, cited. 97. 
De Moll, potter, 82. 
DE MORGAN & CO., pottery. 170, 45, 

Denhy, potter, 235. 
Deneken, Herr, 96. 
DERBY, 170-177. 36,44. 

266; Crown-Derby, 173-177- 
Derichsweiler, painter, 375. 
Deruelle, potter, i 56. 
Desoches, 206. 
Desperais, painter, 375. 
DESVRE, pottery, 177. 

Dietrich, potter, 185. 
Dieu, painter, 366. 
DIHL, see Angouleme. 
DiHL & GuERH.\RD, potters, 84. 

Christopher, potter, 84. 

DIJON, see Premieres. 

DiLLWYN, L. W., potter, 36, 119, 294, 

396. 398, 401. 
DIRMSTEIN, pottery, 177. 
Diruta, 267 ; see M.\jolica. 
DiVETT, potter, 98. 
Dixon & Co., potters, 396. 
DOCCIA, porcelain, 177-178, 81. 
DoDiN, painter, 366. 
DoE & Rogers, artists, 178. 
DoMMER & Co., potters, 83. 
DON, pottery, 179. 
Donaldson. John, artist, 448, 449. 
Donovan, decorator, 191. 
Dorez, B., and family, potters, 241, 242, 

DORNHEIM, faience, 179. 
Doulton & Co., potters, 232-234, 41, 44, 

50, 279 ; see Lambeth. 
Downman, Mr., cited, iii. 
Drake, Sir W. R., cited, 90. 
Drane, Mr. Richard, ^7, 397. 
DRESDEN, porcelain, 1 79-191, 33, 38, 

53, 62, 66, 90, 335. 403 ; imitations 

of, 39, 40, 63, 69, 70, 73. 75. 76, 129. 

133. 157. 160, 407 ; redecorated, 69 ; 

Crown'Dresden (so-called). 72, 73, 190. 
Dressel, H. E. D., painter, 242. 
Drouet, painters, 376. 
Drury Fortnum, see Fortnum. 
DUBLIN, pottery, 191. 
DUBOIS, see Paris. 
Dubois, painter, 366. 

Fr^res, potters, 127, 348, 416. 

DucLUSEAU, Mme., painter, 376. 
Duesbury, William, & Son, potters, 36, 

71, 99, 130, 170, 171, 17?' '74. 441. 

Dunderdale, David, potter, 123. 
DuPLESSis, modeller, 42, 352, 417. 
Durosey, painters, 366, 376. 
DUSOLLE, 366. 
Dutand.\, painter, 367. 
DwiGHT, John, potter, 26, 34, 128, 202, 

205, 341. 


E., 175. 199. 

E.A.P., 373. 

E.B., 115, 116, 314. 

E.F.. m. 

E.L.. 378. 

E.R.. "380. 

Eagles, 86, 94. 95- 

Eyes, 229, 370. 

Earle, a. M., cited, 47. 

Eaubonne, decorator, 376. 



Ebenstein, painter, 115. 
EccLES, Mr., 245. 


Edge & Garrett, potters, 386. 

& Grocott, potters, 390. 

Edkins, potter, 108. 
Edw.'^rds, William, potter, 235. 
Egypt, pottery, 1,8; use of glass in, i. 
Ehrenreich, J. E. L., potter, 275, 276, 

Ehwaldt, G., potter, 208. 
EISENACH, pottery, 192, 95. 
ELBOGEN, porcelain, 192, 95. 
ELERS, ware, see Bradwell. 
Elers, David & Philip, potters. 25, 

34, 88, 105, 340, 341. 
Elkin, Knight & Bridgwood, potters, 

195. 235- 
Enamel, explained, 465. 
Enamels, Battersea, 55, 71, 437. 
ENGLEFONTAINE, pottery, 192. 
English pottery, modern, 41-46. 
Entrecolles, PfeRE d', cited, 32. 
EPERNAY, pottery, 192. 
Errors, common, 61. 
Escallier, Mme., painter, 376. 
ESSEX, see Hedingham. 
ESTE. pottery and porcelain, 192. 
ETIOLLES, porcelain, 193. 
Etruscan pottery, 5, 6. 
Evans, painter, 367. 

potter, 447. 

D. J., & Co., potters, 401. 

Eventail, see Vases. 

Albert Hall (1894), 215. 

Brussels Universal {19 10), 50, 305, 

Chicago (1983), 47. 

Florence (1861), 222. 

London (1851), 288, 333 ; (1862), 

289; (1871), 312; (Italian, 1SS8), 

Paris, various, 123, 240, 279. 
Philadelpliia (1876), 47. 
Turin (191 1). 177, 205. 


F., 69, 107, 160, 194, 196, 197, 201, 206, 
207, 229, 276, 278, 285, 291, 303, 335, 
367, 369, 454. 

F.A., 189. 

P.B., 107, 210, 241, 242, 292, 374. 

F.C., 285, 374. 

F.C.L., 300. 

F.F., 202. 

F.G., 377. 

F.L.B., 242. 

F.L.H.. iqS. 

F.L.V.. 411. 

F.N,, 222. 

F.R., 287 note. 

F. &■ R., 320. 

F.Z.. 367. 

7^.5, 162. 

Feet, 167. 

Fish, 207, 296, 306. 

Fleurs-dc-lys, 117, 122, 277, 278, 307, 

330, 334. 335. i?^- 

Forks, see Hayforks. 

Foxes, 381. 

FABRIANO, see Majolica. 

Fabrique, explained, 465. 

Fabris, potter, 192. 

FAENZ.'V, majolica, 193-194, 17, 40, 267, 
269, 271. 

Faience, see Fayence. 

Falconet, artist, 53, 367. 

Falke, Otto von, cited, 159. 

Falot, artist, 367. 

Fariki, a., & Co., potters, 194. 

Fauquez. potter, 330, 332, 410, 41 1. 

Fayence (or Faience), explainr-d, jis:. 

Feburier, J., potter, 242. 

Fell & Co., potters, 298, 396. 

FENTON, pottery, 195. 

Fernex, J. B. DE, painter, 367. 

FERRYBRIDGE, pottery, 196. 

FEUILLET, see Paris. 

Feylner, potter, 200. 

FiCK.^ER, sculptor, 41 1. 

Fictile, term explained, 465. 

FiFiELD, WiLLi.\M, painter, 109. 

Fischer, Christian, potter, 320. 

MoRiTZ & Samuel, potters, 217. 

Flamb^, explained, 465 ; see Decora- 

FLANDRES, see Cologne. 

Flaxman, John, artist, 426, 427, 428. 

Fletcher, potter, 251. 

Flight & Barr, potters, 294, 396, 406, 

FLORENCE, porcelain, 196-198, iS, 30. 
33. 331. 333 ; pottery, 14-17. 

Florida, clay imported from, 46. 

FLORSHEIM, potter>', 198. 

Flower, J., potter, 108, 109. 

Flux, explained, 466. 

Fogg & Isaacs, dealers, 464. 

Fogo, C. C, artist, 450. 

FoLNEsics & Braun, cited, 416. 

Fontaine, decorators, 367, 376. 

FONTAINEBLEAU, pottery and porce- 
lain, 198-199, 40. 

Fontana, O., artist, 271. 

Fontebasso Bros., potters, 408. 

FoNTELLi.\u, gilder, 367. 

Foresi, Dr., cited. 196-197. 

Forest, dealer, 464. 

Forgeries, 40, 62, 63. 

FoRLi, 17, 267, 270; sf« Majolica. 

Fortnum, Dr. Drury, cited, 2, 3, 10, i i, 
14, 54, 194, 197. 21 1, 268,317.325,347. 

FosKER, artist, 287. 

Fosters, auction-rooms of, 57. ■ 

Foundling, see Vases. 

2 I 



FouR]6, painter, 367. 

FouRMY, J., potter, 293. 

FouRNERAT, potter, 243. 

FouRNiER, decorator, 376. 

Louis, potter, 160. 

Fragonard, decorator, 376. 

Francesco. Maria, Duke, 19. 

Francesco. Niculoso, potter, 347. 

Franchini, potter, 192. 

Frank, Thomas & Richard, potters, 
107, 108, 109, 265. 

Frankenheim, pottery. 69. 

FRANKENTHAL, pottery and porce- 
lain, 199-201, 210, 304, 355, 393. 403 ; 
imitations of, 74. 

Franks. Sir A. W., 27, 54, 56, 215; 
cited, 83, 85, 87, 135, 139, 160, 190, 
224, 255, 402, 419. 

Frantzen, decorator, 276. 

Frechen, 160. 

Frede, J. C, potter. 229. 

Fresco, explained. 466. 

Frit, explained, 466. 

Fritsch, painter, 367. 

Frog mugs, 201. 

Froment, E.. painter, 367. 

Frye, Thomas, potter, 36, 98, 103, 442. 

FULDA, porcelain. 202, 217, 403. 

FULHAM, pottery, 202-205, 26, 341. 

Funeral urns, q, 7. 

FUNFKIRCHEN, pottery, 205. 

FimSTENBURG, porcelain. 206-207, 
69, 218, 403. 


G., 95, 102, 192, 20S, 209, 240, 262, 290, 

335. 3^7. 376. 
G.A.F.F., 40S. 
G.D.. 367. 
G.D.G., 168. 
G.D.K.. 167. 
G.F., 278. 
G.G., 377. 
G.G.P.F., 197. 
G.M., 369, 414. 
G.fl., 277, 381. 
G..'?. 6- Co., 243, 244. 
G.S., 90. 
G.T., 368, 409. 
G.V., 421. 
Garters, 123, 209. 
Gates, 215. 
Globes, 44, 95. 
Griffins, 327, 328. 
Ganeau, gilder, 377. 
Gardner, potter, 290. 

J., potter, 265. 

Garner, J., potter, 432. 
Garren, Rohert, potter, 195. 
Gebleux, painter, 377. 
GEisSHiiBEi,, 95. 
Gely, painter, 377. 

Gelz, potter, 206, 281. 
Genest, painter, 367. 
GENEVA, see Nyon. 
GENOA, majolica, 207. 
Georget, painter, 377. 
Georgia, porcelain, 46. 
GERA, porcelain, 208, 45, 404, 420. 
Gerard, painters, 367. 

Louis, potter, 86. 

Gessner, Salomon, artist, 458. 
Ghiberti, Lorenzo, sculptor, 14. 
Giarnielli, J. B., artist, 306. 
Gibson, Mr., artist, 385. 
GiDE, potter, 306. 
GIEN, pottery, 208. 
Giles, J. & J., artists, 449. 
Gillingwater, cited, 252, 253. 
GiNORi, Marquis of, 40, 122, 177, 178. 
GiNORi, Richard, & Co., potters, 177- 

GioANETTi, Dr., potter, 419. 
Gladstone, W. E., quoted, 48-50. 
Glass, use of, 1-2. 
Glass, Joseph, potter, 213, 405. 
GLAiiE, explained, 466. 
GoBERT, painter, 377. 
Godd6, a. J., painter, 377. 
GoDEESKi & Co., potters, 199. 
Godin, painter, 377. 
GOGGINGEN, pottery, 209. 
GOMBROON ware, 316; sec Persia., 
GoMERY, painter, 368. 
GooDE, Messrs., 43, 44. 
Goss, W. H.. potter, 50. 
GOSSE, F., potter, 91. 
GOTHA, SAXE-COBURG, porcelain. 

209, 95, 208, 403, 404. 
Gotkowski, potter, 94, 95. 
Gottbrecht, potter, 208. 
GouLDiNG & Son. potters, 222, 223. 
GOULT, potterj-, 210. 
GouPiL, painter, 377. 
GouYN, Charles, 129. 
Gr.\bners, potter, 221. 
Gr.^co-Roman pottery, 6. 
Graesse, Dr., cited, 245. 
GRAFENTHAL, see Thuringia. 
GRAFFENRODA. pottery, 210. 
Grahame, Mr. H., cited, 402. 
Grainger, Th., potter, 448, 455. 
Granada, pottery, 12, 13. 
Graul & KuRZWELLY, cited, 332, 403, 

Gravant, potter, 348, 416. 
Greatbatch. William, potter, 235, 431. 
Greek pottery, 3-5. 
Green, A., artist, 287 

Guy, potter, 35, 248. 

Thomas, potter, 195. 

Greiner, Gotthelf, and family, potters, 

74, 208, 210, 211, 221, 229, 242, 324, 

403. 420. 421. 
GREINSTADT, porcelain, 210. 
Grellet Fr^res, potters, 243. 



Gr^s de Flandrf.s (or Gr^s Flamand), 

232, 324 ; see Cologne. 
GRESLEY (CHURCH), porcelain. 210. 
Gresley, Sir N., 155. 
Greybeards, 25 ; explained, 466. 
Griffith, potter, 232. 
Grisaille, explained, 466. 
Grison, painter, 368. 
Gronsveldt, Count von, 82, 84. 
GROSBREITENBACH, porcelain, 210, 

242, 404. 
Groups, various (Staffs.), 389-391. 
Grouzat, potter, 339. 
Growanstone, use of, 112. 

GRiJNBtiHEL, M. DE, pottCr, 415. 

GUBBIO, pottery, 211-212, 17, 40, 267, 

271 ; imitations of, 198. 
GuETTARD, potter, 106. 
Guerhard & DiHL, potters, 85. 
GuiCHARD, potter, 293. 
GuiDOBALDO, Duke, 18. 
GuiLLEMAiN, painter, 377. 
GuLENA, potter, 290. 
GUSTAFSBERG, pottery, 212. 
GUY & HOUSEL, sec Paris. 
Guy & HouSEL, potters, 311. 


H.. 213, 260, 323, 329, 36S, i77. 393. 39S- 

H.B., 323. 

H.B. &■ Cie., 154. 

H.C., 210, 218, 368. 

H.D., 242. 

H.D.K.. 167. 

H.F.. 376. 

H.F.C.D., 97. 

H.L., 378, 418, 419. 

H.P., 97, 115, 371. 

H.R., 380. 

H.S.J. , 169. 

H.T.. 382. 

H.f/., 382. 

H.V.S., 168. 

Hands, 273. 

Harps, 92, 191. 

Hayforks, 74, 116, 332, 420, 421. 

Heads, 67, 207. 

Hearts, 249, 292, 367. 

Hooks, 324. 

Horns, see Antlers or Bugles. 

Horses, 207, 218. 

Houses, 363. 

Haag, J., potter, 83. 

Haager, Horth & Co., potters, 458. 

Hackwood & Co., potters, 299, 427. 

Hadley, J., & Sons, 448. 

Haffringue, potter, 97. 

HAGUE, porcelain, 212. 

HALDENSLEBEN, sec Althaldens- 


Hall, potter, 392. 

Hallam, Rev. \V. \V., cited, 261. 

Hallion, E. & F., decorators, 377. 

Hamaan, potter, 421. 

Hamme, J. A. VON, potter, 230. 

HANAU, pottery, 213. 

Hancock, Robert, engraver, 437, 440. 

John & Sampson, potters, 173, 265. 

HANI,EY, pottery, 213-214, 51. 
Hannong, Charles F., potter, 393. 

J- A., potter, 200, 201. 

Paul, potter, 70, 199, 200, 393, 

Pierre Antoine, potter, 314, 

355, 418, 419. 
HARBURG, pottery, 214. 
Harding, W. & J., potters, 299. 
Harley, T., potter, 236. 
Harrison, potter, 34. 
Hartel, potter, 304. 
H.artley, Greens & Co., potters, 238. 
Haslem, John, cited, 375. 
HAVILAND, see Limoges. 
Haviland & Co., potters, 40, 244. 
Haynes, George, potter, 1 19, 396. 
Haywood, Mr., 440. 
HEATH, see Fenton. 
Heath, J. & C, Messrs., 170, 295. 

Thomas, potter, 195, 235. 

HEDINGHAM ware, 215-216. 

Heintzmann, 304. 

HELi;NE de Hengest, 21. 

Hellot, chemist, 417. 

HELSINBERG. pottery, 217. 

Henderson, Mr., 9. 

Henneburg, potter, 209. 

Hennys, W., potter, 205. 

HENRI II. ware, see St. Porciiaire. 

Henrion, painter, 368. 

Herculaneum, see Liverpool. 

HEREND, porcelain, 217. 

Hericourt, painter, 368. 

Heroldt, potter, 53, 62, 181. 

HESSE-CASSEL, porcelain, 2 1 7-2 1 8, 207. 

HESSE-DARMSTADT, porcelain, 218. 

Hew, Job, potter, 405. 

Hewelke, Frederick, potter, 413. 

Hews & Co., potters, 47. 

Hexter, Humpherson & Co., potters, 

Heylyn, Edward, potter, 98. 
Hildebrandt. F., potter, 324. 
HILDESHEIM, porcelain, 218. 
HiLDiTCH & HopwooD, potters, 236. 
HiLKEN, painter, 368. 


HISPANO-MORESCO ware, 218-220, 

9. 10, II. 
HIZEN, porcelain, 225, 226 ; see Japan. 
HoBSON, Mr. R. L., cited, 56, 104, 154, 

175. 317. 441. 442. 451- 

HOCHST, 89, 93, 199, 206, 2S1, 282, 304, 

403 ; imitations of, 70, 238 ; sec 
HoDGKiN, Mr. J. E., cited, 232, 404, 405, 



Hoffmann, Dr., cited, 224, 402, 459. 


HoLDSHiP, Richard, engraver, 437, 440. 

Holland & Guest, potters, 245. 

HoLLiNS, artist, 286, 287. 

HoLLiNS, Samuel, potter, 299. 

HoNEYCHURCH, Messrs., 98. 

HONORli, see Paris. 

HoNORfe, F. M., potter, 85, 309, 311. 

Hope, potter, 108. 

HORNBERG, pottery, 220. 

Horn Fr^res, potters, 220. 

HoROLDT, see Heroldt. 

Houry, painter, 368. 

House! , potter, 311. 

HOVE, porcelain, 61. 

HOXTER, porcelain, 220. 

Hu.\RD. painter, 377. 

Hubaudiere, La. & Co., potters, 323. 

HUBERTSBERG, pottery, 220. 

Hughes, potter, 260. 

HULL, pottery, 221. 

Humbert, painter. 377. 

Humble, Green cS: Co., potters, 238. 

HuNY, painter, ^68. 

HUNSLET, pottery, 221. 


/., 221, 273. 
I.A.G., 245. 
I.A.H.. 30s. 
I.D.M., 169. 
I.D.P., 168. 
I.E.W.E.. 457. 
J.G.. 168. 
I.G.V., 168. 
I.H., 257. 
I.H.I.. 201. 
I.K., 166. 
I-N., 373. 

I-P: 335- 

I.P.S.. 266. 

I.R.H.P.. 116. 

I.T.D., 167. 

I.V.D.W., 166. 

I.V.H.. 167. 

ILMENAU, pottery. 221, 404. 

IMARL 225 ; see Japan. 

IMOLA, majolica, 222, 40. 

Imperatrice, Porcelaine de l' ; see 

Imperial stone ware, 8c. 

Incised ware, 13. 

Ingram, W. R., modeller, 174. 

Inkpot, Robert Browne, 254. 

Invoices, guaranteed, 59. 

Ireson, potter, 433, 434. 

Ironstone china, 235, 280, 383 ; ex- 
plained, 466-467. 

ISLEWORTH, pottery, 222-223. 

Italian pottery, 10, 13. 18, 56. 

Itai.o-Greek pottery, 6. 

Ivatts, Mr. W. P., cited, 433. 


/•. 250, 335. 368. 

J -A: 373- 

J.A.H., 201. 

J.B., III, 237. 

J.C, 365, 374. 

J.D., 448, 454. 

J.G., 167, 376. 

J.H., 368. 

J.H.B.S.. 448. 

J.L.. 166, 325. 

J.M.. 131. 

J.N., 366. 

J. P.. 198, 245. 

J.P.K., 166. 

J.R., 277, 278, 327. 

J.S.. 282, 298. 

J.T.. 372, 381. 

J.V.B.. 166. 

J.V.H.. 168. 

■jACKFIELD, pottery, 223, 433. 

Jacquemart, M., cited, 2, 3, 6, 14, 15, 
16, 19, 32, 33, 84, 87, 138, 199, 218', 222, 
230, 291, 316, 317, 325, 339, 347. 

Jacques & Julien, potters, 97, 98. 

Jahn, artist, 287. 

Jannike, Herr, cited, 116, 163, 179, 
192, 210, 218, 220, 222, 227, 237, 245, 
284, 301, 307, 324, 346, 347, 392, 434. 

Jansen, Sir S. T., potter, 437. 
JAPAN, pottery, 223-225 ; porcelain, 
225-227 ; modern productions of, 47, 
Jardel, decorator, 377. 
Jarmyn, dealer, 464. 
Jasper ware, explained, 467 ; see 

Je.\nest, Emile de. artist, 2S7. 
JEVER, pottery, 227. 
Jewish pottery, 8, 9. 
Jewitt, Llewellyn, cited, 3, 26, 98, 

109, 128, 129, 170, 253, 319, 441, 
Johnson, T. & J., potters, 214, 405. 
JoiCY, Mr. J. G., 213. 
Jones & Benham, auctioneers, 256. 
Jones & Co., potters, 45. 
JOYAU, painter, 368. 
Jubin, gilder, 368. 
JUGS :— 

Bee. 134. 

Essex, 215. 216. 

Puzzle, 303, 422. 

Toby, 3S7, 392. 

West Mailing, 204. 
Julienne, A. E.. ^77. 


K., 73, 116, 292, 303. 366. 
K.D.. 168. 
K.H.C.W.. 189. 



A'./., 116. 

K.L.. 168. 

K.P.F.. i;^, 181. 

K.P.M.. 53, 95, 181, 189. 

K.V.D., 167. 

K.V.K., 168. 

K.Z.. 116. 

Keys, 177. 

Kakiyemon, see Decorations. 

Kandler, Joachim, potter, 53, 73, 181, 

Kaolin, explained, 467. 

Kean, potter, 172. 

Keeling, A. & E., potters, 409. 

Keller & Guerin, potters, 263. 

KELLINGKUSEN, pottery, 227. 

KELSTERBACH, sec Hesse -Darm- 

Kerr & Binns, potters, 447, 448, 

Kessler, potter, 415. 

KIEL, pottery, 22, So, 228, 32S. 

Kilns, described, 467. 

KIOTO, pottery, 225. 

Kirby, 287. 

Kirch, potter, 227. 

KiRiN, explained. 467. 

KiSHERE, J., potter, 290. 

KISHIU, 225. 

KlYOMIDZU, 225. 

228-229, 20S, 230, 242, 403, 404. 

KLOSTERLE, 95 ; see Bohemia. 

KLUM, 99. 

Knight, Frank & Rutley, anctioneers, 

" Knock-out," explained, 467-469 

Kock & Fisher, potters, 179. 

KONIGSTEDTEN, pottery, 229. 

KORZEC, porcelain, 229. 

Kraut, Hans, potter, 303. 

Kriegel &. Co., potters, 323. 

Krog, Prof. Arnold, 162. 

KRONENBURG. see Ludwigsburg. 

Kutana. 225. 

KUNERSBERG, pottery, 230. 

Kylin, explained, 469. 

L., 77. 126, 241, 243, 273, 284, 366, 368, 

369, 411. 
L.B., 116, 240, 243, 266, 368, 378. 
L.C., 115, 374. 
L.D.. 376. 
L.F., 373. 
L.G., 369, 378. 
I..G.TI., 366. 
L.K., 166. 
L.L., 40, 77, 250, 303, 311, 312, 350, 358, 

363. 369. 407. 454- 
L.L.B., 156, 167, 177. 
L.L.H., 252. 

I..M.S., 42. 

L.P., 313, 419. 

L.R., 97, 368, 369, 380. 

L.S.. 237. 

L.S.X., 156. 

L.T., 189, 382. 

L.V., 411, 420, 

L.V.B., 166. 

Leaves, 167. 

Lines, 160, 162. 

Lions, 83, 84, 91, 125, 179, 200, 201, 

r.ACROix, Mr. Paul, cited, 14. 
La Fond & Co., potters, 84. 
LAFOREST, pottery, 230. 
Lakin & Poole, potters, 230, 386. 
Lambert, painter, 378. 
LAMBETH, Delft, 308, 232, 433 ; fai- 
ence, 230-232 ; pottery, 232-234 ; 

see DouLTON ; faience, see Doulton ; 

other stoneware, 235. 
Lammens & Co., potters, 87. 
Lamoninary, potter, 411 
Lancastrian pottery, 411. 
LANE DELPH, pottery and porcelain, 

235, 89. 
LANE END, pottery and porcelain, 

Lanfrey, F. C, 299, 300. 
Lang, Baron von, potter, 206. 
Langlac6, painter, 378. 
Langlois, painter, 378. 

Joachim, potter, 91. 

LONGRES, see Aprey. 

La Roche, painter, 368. 

LA ROCHELLE, po'ttery, 237. 

LA SEINIE, porcelain, 237. 

Lassere, decorator, 378. 

LASSIA, see Paris. 

Lassia, J. J., potter, 332. 

Latache, gilder, 378. 

Latens & Rateau, potters, 97. 

LA TOUR D'AIGUES, pottery and 

porcelain, 238. 
LAURAGUAIS, see Brancas. 
Lauraguais. Comte de, potter, 306. 
Lavalle, potter, 323. 
Leandre, painter, 368. 
Le Bel, painters, 368, ^7?.. 
Lebrun, Benoist, potter, 90, 241, 

Lecot, painter, 369 
Ledoux, painter, 369 
LEEDS, pottery, 238-240, 61, 179, 201, 

245, 409. 
LEFEBVRE, see Paris. 
Lefebvre, potter, 312. 
Le Fran(J0is, potter, iiS. 
Legay, painter, 378. 
LfeGER, decorator, 378. 
Legrand, gilder, 378. 
Le Guay, painters, 369, 378. 
Lehoujour, potter, 77. 
Leichner, potter, 212. 



Leihamer, potter, 228, 3Q2. 

Leithner, Baron, potter, 415. 

Legeal, Dr., cited, 332. 

Le Maire, potter, 418. 

LE MONTET, pottery, 240. 

LE NOVE, see Bassano. 

LENZBURG, pottery, 240. 

Leonardo, goldsmith, 14. 

LepSne, S.. potter, 241. 

Leppert & Haas, potters, 346. 

Le Riche, sculptor, 369. 

Leroi, artist, 2S7. 

Leroy, gilder, 378. 

Lessore, artist, 428, 430. 

Le Tourneur, sculptor, 369. 

Le Troune, sculptor, 369. 

Lev£, painters, 369. 

Liance, sculptor, 369. 

Lign6, decorator, 378. 

LILLE, pottery and porcelain, 241, 

Lily, J. & F., potters. 447. 
LIMBACH, porcelain, 241, 210, 229, 

266, 403, 404. 
LIMOGES, pottery and porcelain, 243, 

39. 85. 3.39- 
Link, specimens, 52, 56. 
LISBON, pottery and porcelain, 24s. 
LISIEUX, pottery, 245. 
Litchfield, Mr. S., 464. 
Littler, W.. potter, 250, 2';i, 2^2. 
LI\'ERPOOL, pottery, 246-249; 34. 
LL.VNELLY, pottery, 245. 
Locke, potter, 448. 
Locker & Co., potters, 173. 
LoCKETT, J., potter, 386. 
Locr6, J. B., potter, 309. 
LODI, porcelain, 249. 
LONGPORT, pottery and porcelain, 

249, 250. 
LONGTON, see Lane End. 
LONGTON HALL, porcelain, 250-252, 

55. 104. 265. 
LOOSDRECHT, porcelain, 82 ; see 

LOUISBURG, see Ludwigsburg. 
Lovatt. potter, 50. 
LOWESTOFT, porcelain, 252-262, 36, 

104 ; imitations, 63-64 ; Oriental (so- 
called), 255-256, 64; china (so- 

caUed), 261. 
Lucas, decorator, 378. 
LUDWIGSBURG, porcelain, 262-263, 

200 ; imitations of, 74. 
LUNEVILLE, pottery and porcelain, 

Lupo, Monte, 267 ; see Majolica. 
LusoN, Hewlin, potter, 252, 253. 
Lustred ware, 264-265. 
Lustred, term explained, 469 ; see 

LuTLAU, artist, 206. 
LUXEMBOURG, pottery and porcelain, 

243, 266. 

Lynker, potter, 232. 
LYONS, pottery, 266. 


^I-- 7S- 77- 15^. ipi' -49' 2S1, 282, 286, 

370, 379- 
iW./i.P., 313, 335. 
M.A.S., 312. 
M.B., 167, 276, 277, 364. 
M.C., 379. 
M.C.A., 292. 
M.F., 217. 
M.G., 212, 273. 
M.O.L., 82. 
M.P.. 169, 193. 
M.P.M.. 189. 
M.Q., 168. 
M.R.. 379. 
M.V.B.. 167, 168. 
M'BiRNEY, David, potter, 92. 
Macintosh & Clements, potters, 205. 
Mackeleid, chemist, 404, 420. 
Mackenhauer, C, potter, 198. 
Mackintyre, J., potter, so. 
MADELEY, pottery, 266^ 65. 
MADRID, see Buen Retxro. 
Maierhoffer, potter, 415. 
Maison Gille, statuary, 40. 
majolica, 267-275, 10-13, 56, 339. 
Majorca, 10. 

Malaga, ii, 13 ; see Hispano-Moresco. 
Manardi. potter, 90. 
MANERBE, pottery, tee LisiEux. 
Marcolini Dresden, 62. 185, 422. 
M.arcolini, potter, 53. 
Marie Antoinette, 85 ; see Paris, Rue 

MARIEBERG, pottery, and porcelain, 
275-277. 228, 328, 329, 393. 

Marks, counterfeit and misleading, 62, 
69 ; value of, 78. 

Marryat, cited, 3, 10, 94. iiS, 119. 120, 
129, 263, 282, 420. 

MARSEILLES, potterj^ and porcelain, 
277-278, 301 ; imitations of, 40. 

M.^RTIN ware, 278-279, 45. 

Martinet, painter, 37S. 

Marx, J. A., potter, 303. 

MARZY, pottery, 279. 

Mason, artist, 287. 

M.'VSON, pottery, 279-281. 

Mason & Co., potters, 195, 235, 245. 
279, 280. 281. 

Massey, modeller. 410. 

MASsife, potter, 243, 244. 

Massy, painter, 369. 

Mathieu, enameller, 417. 

Matthews, potter, 195, 235. 

Maubr6e, potter, 306. 

Maugendre, sculjitor, 378. 

Maussion, Mlle. de, painter, 378. 

Maw & Sons, potters, 45. 



MAYENCE, pottery and porcelain, 281- 

Mayer, artist, 407. 
Mayer, Elijah & Joseph, potters, 35, 

214, 247, 283. 
Mayor cS: Newbold, potters, 236. 
Medi.IiVal pottery, 10-28. 
MEDICI, porcelain, i8, 33 ; ':ee Fi.ou- 

Medici family, 14, 18, 196. 
Mehlhorn, potter, 160. 
Meigh & Sons, potters, 214, 306; sec 

Old Hall. 
MEISSEN, see Dresden. 
Melchior, J. B., artist, 282, 304. 
MELUN, see Vaux. 
MfeNE<jv, 283-284, 36, 55, gy, 98, 162, 

334. 403- 
MArault, painters, 369. 

potter, 229. 

Merchandise Marks Act, 62, 67, 

Merigot, painter, 378. 
Mesopotamia, 2. 
Mete YARD, cited, 429. 
METTLACH, pottery, 284. 
Meyer, painter, 379. 
Meyers, potters, 72, 190, 191. 
Mezzo-Majolica, 13. 
MiCAUD, decorators, 370, 379. 
Michel, painter, 370. 
MIDDLESBOROUGH, pottery, 285. 
MILAN, pottery. 285-286. 
MINDEN, porcelain, 286. 
MiNGHETTi, Angel, potter, 96. 
MiNTON, Thomas & Herbert, potters, 

30, 36. 38, 41, 43, 65, 266. 

HoLLiNs & Co., potters. 288. 

MINTONS, porcelain, 28(^280, 42, 43, 

44. SO, 77- 
MiQUET, potter, 3^:,. 
Mitchell, potter, 118. 
Modern pottery and porcelain, 37-51. 
Moiron. painter, 370. 
Moitte, potter, 156. 
Molle, de, potter. 82. 
Mongenot, painter, 370. 
MoMBAERS. Philip, potter, 116. 
Monier, potter, 193. 
Montaignon, potter, 290. 
MONTE LUPO. see Majolica. 
Moore, Bernard, potter, 50. 

& Co., potters, 298. 

Moorish pottery, 9, 10. 11, 12, 290, 347 ; 

see Hisp.^no-Moresco. 
Moreau, gilders, V9- 
MORELLE, see Paris. 
MoRELLE, potter, 313. 
Morin, painters, 370, 379. 
MoRiOT, painter, 379. 
Morris, artist, 397, 398. 
MORTLAKE, pottery, 290. 
MoRTLOCK & CO., dealers, 43, 44, 266, 


MOSCOW, porcelain, 290. 
MOUSTIERS, pottery, 291-293, 209, 

301 ; imitations of, 40, 328. 
MUGS :— 

Frog, 2QI, 298. 

King of Prussia, 437. 
MiiLLER, ])ottcr, 75, 160. 
MUNICH, see Nymphenburg. 

Ashmolean (O.xford), 54, 270, 325, 

Bath, 421. 

Bethnal Green, 54, 187, 208, 335, 

Birmingham, 388. 

Bologna, 6. 

British, 5, 6, 9, 18, 54, 55, 56, 88, 99, 
100, 102, 105, 108, 112, 113, 133, 
134, 138, 155, 159, 172, 179. 186, 
202, 203, 205, 211, 219, 225, 231, 
250, 257, 270, 277, 295, 316, 318, 
325. 341. 343. 344. 3^7. 40i. 405. 
408, 419, 429, 441, 457. 

Burghley House, 252. 

Burslem, 388, 430. 

Cardiff, 57, 295, 399, 410. 

Chmy, 325. 

Colchester, 215, 216. 

Crefeld, 96. 

Derbyshire, 405. 

Dresden, 187, 391. 

Dublin, 78, 295, 386, 433. 

Edinburgh. 410. 

Florence, 6. 

Hamburg, g2, iifi, 214, 227, 228, 

Hanley (Mechanics' Institute), 231, 
246, 247, 251, 406. 

Hertford House, 43, 56, 357. 

Leeds, 240. 

Leipzig, 208. 

Liverpool, 108, 113, 237, 246, 248, 
388, 430. 

Louvre, 6. 14, 15, 149, 197, 339. 

Miinich. 402, 458. 

Nancy (Imperial Library). 264. 

Naples, 6. 

New York. 149. 

Northampton, 388. 

Norwich, 231. 

Nottingham, 388. 

Passelini, 194. 

Practical Geology, of (late Jermyn 
Street), 55, 210, 234, 254. 

Salford. 386, 405. 

Sevres, 97, 245. 277, 301, 330, 458. 

Sigmaringen, 92. 

South Kensington, see Victoria and 

Stockholm, 328. 

Stoke-on-Trent (Wedgwood Insti- 
tute), 388. 

Svvansea, 245, 285, 307. 

Taunton, 388. 434. 



IIUSEUMS (continued) :— 

Vatican, 6. 

Victoria and Albert, 5, 11, 12, 15, 
16, 17, 18, 22, 23. 24, 25, 26, 27, 
41, 46, 54. 55, 56, 68, 8s, 89, 91, 
94, 97. lOI, 102, 103, 109, 113, 
117, 127, 128, 132, 137, 138, 139, 
142, 144, 148, 157, 159, 194, 19s, 

197, 200, 202, 211, 212. 213. 214, 

219, 224, 226, 231, 237, 248, 268, 

270, 277, 279, 284, 295, 297, 299, 

302, 303. 306, 313, 315, 316, 318, 

319. 325- 328, 330, 331, 334, 335, 
317. 341. 343. 344. 348. 350, 352, 
354. 387. 388. 394. 397. 407. 409. 
422, 423, 424, 430, 431. 435, 438, 
440. 477- 
Vienna, 415. 
Weimar, 242. 
Worcester 57. 441, 446. 
Youigrave. 405. 
Ziirich, 458. 
JMussiL, artist. 287. 
MuTEL, painter, 370. 
Myatt, J., potter, 195, 235. 


A'., 75, 121, 122, 175, 222, 273, 298, 301, 

333. if'i- 
N.B., 303. 
N.I., 116. 
N.L.H., 116. 
N.S., 178. 

Nadin, Mr. W'alter. 155. 
NAMUR. 159; ses Ardennes. 
Nankin porcelain (so-called), 141 ; see 

NANTES, porcelain, 293. 
NANTGARW, porcelain, 293-295, 30, 

36. 266, 319, 396, 397. 398, 400. 
NAPLES, 17, 79, 267 ; see Capo di 

Monte and Majolica. 
NAST, see Paris. 
Nast. potter, 313. 
Nathusias, potter, 82. 
NEALE, 295-296, 386, 421. 
Neale & Co., potters, 195, 295, 296. 
Neppel & Bennot, potters, 296. 
Netherlands, 159. 
NEUDACH, see Nymphemburg. 
NEUHALDENSLEBEN, majolica, 296. 
New Canton, 36, 99. 
NEVERS, potterv, 296-298, 263. 
NEWCASTLE-ON-TYNE, pottery, 298. 
NEWHALL, Shelton. porcelain, 299. 
Nicholson & Co., potters, 123. 
NIDERVILLER, pottery and jiorcelain, 

299-301, 264. 
Niedermayer, potter, 304. 
Nightingale, Mr. J. E., cited, 129, 132, 

171, 250. 

NIMES, pottery. 301. 
Niquet, painter, 370. 
Noel, painter, 370. 
Nonne. C. potter, 221, 222. 
NOTTINGHAM, pottery, 302-303, 27, 

Nonailher, Mme.. painter, 370. 
NOVE, see Bassano. 
NowoTNY, A., potter, 82. 
Nugent, potter, 107. 
NUREMBERG, pottery and porcelain, 

303, 25. 
NYMPHENBURG, porcelain, 304-305, 

38. 74- 
NYON. porcelain, 305. 


0., n6, 117, 274, 307, 371. 

O.A., 274. 

O.B., 98. 

O.L., 292. 

O.M.. 314. 

OcHOGARiA, modeller, 117. 

OIRON, pottery, 21, 22 ; see St. Por- 

OLD HALL (Hanley), pottery, 306. 

Oldfield & Co., potters, 235. 

Olliver. potter, 86. 

O'Neill, artist, 44S, 449. 

O'Neill. Dr., cited, 406. 

OPORTO, porcelain. 306. 

Oriental porcelain, 19, 27, 31. 32, 
66, 253 ; imitations of, 63, 99, 100. 
105, III, 120, 127, 217, 223, 280. 315, 
355, 402, 413, 443 ; marks, imitations 
of, 70, 102, 105, 135, 248, 252, 453; 
re-decorated, 66, 255. 

ORLEANS, pottery and porcelain, 307. 

OuiNT, C, decorator, 379. 

OVERTOOM, pottery, 84 ; see Amster- 

Owen, Hugh, cited, 109, 114. 115. 

Town & Emanuel, dealers, 


Oxford, Rev. A. W., cited, 114-115. 

P., I 12, 12 

8, 166, 167, 

249. 273. 




:>. 370 

. 37-^ 

. 379- 

P. A. 
























P.M. p.. 381. 

P.P., 285. 379. 

P.P., 381, 382. 

P.S.. 381. 

P.T., 370. 

P.V.B., 167. 

P.V.D.S.. 168. 

P.2., 459- 

Pacetti, artist, 427. 

Packing, directions for, 67-68. 

Padua, 267 ; see Majolica. 

Paillet, F., painter, 379. 

Pajou, artist, 353, 370. 

Palermo, 267 ; see Majolica. 

PALISSY ware, imitations of, 63, 245, 

289 ; see Saintes. 
Palissy, Bernard, potter, 19-21, 23, 

24, 206, 337-339. 
PALMER, see Neale & Co. 
Palmer, H., potter, 195, 295, 296, 388. 
Pardoe, Thomas, painter, 192, 294, 398. 
Parant, potter, 355. 
Parian, 44, 384 ; explained, 469. 
PARIS, various malccrs, 307-315. 

Cliicanneau, 308. 

Courtille, 309. 

Dagoty. 309. 

Darte, 310. 

Declc, 310. 

Ditil, see Angoulicme. 

Dubois, 310. 

Duo d'Orleans, see Pont aux Choux. 

Feuillet, 311. 

Guy & Housel (Rue Ttiiron). 311. 

Honore, 311. 

Lassia, 312. 

Leboeuf, 312. 

Lefebvre, 312. 

L'Imperatrice, see Dagoty. 

MouUe, 313. 

Nast, 313. 

Petit, see Fontaink.bleau. 

Pillivuyt, 313. 

Pont aux Ctioux, 313. 

Porcelaine d'Artois, 314. 

Porcelaine de la Reine, see Lebckuf. 

Potter, 314. 

Samson, 315. 

Schoelcher, 315. 
Parpette, painters, 370, 379. 
Pasquier, C. I. du, potter, 414. 
Passeri, cited, 10. 
Paste, explained, 469. 
" Pate sur p,\te," 41, 287 ; explained, 

Patience, potter, 108. 
Patin.4, explained, 470. 
Paul, potter, 209, 217. 
PAVIA, see Majolica. 
Pazaurek, Dr., cited, 96. 
Pearl ware, 237. 
P^lissier, p., potter, 241, 242. 
Pellev6, potter, 193. 
Peluche, artist, 379. 

Pennington, John, artist. 

Seth, potter, 246, 247, 446 ; see 

Peringkr, potter. 196. 
l^ERRiN. Veuve, potter, 277. 
Perkottin, sculptor, 370. 
PERSL\N, pottery, 315-318, 9, 24, 219, 

PESARO, pottery, 10, 17, 19, 79, 267, 

271 ; see Majolica. 
PfeT^RiNCK, potter, 407. 
PETIT, see Fontainebleau. 
Petit, painter, 370. 

Jacob, potter, 40. 

Petuntse, explained, 470. 
Pf.\lzer, potter, 89. 
Pfeiffer, painter, 370. 
Phillipine, painter, 371, 379. 
Philips, potter, 195, 235, 249. 

E., potter, 174. 

R., potter, 260. 

& Bagster, potters, 296. 

Son, Sc Ne.\le, auction-rooms of, 


& Co., potters, 396. 

Phcenician pottery, i. 

Photography, use of, 470. 

Pickman & Co., potters, 347. 

Pierre, painters, 371. 

Pigory, potter, 128. 

Pigs, Susse.x, 118 ; tithe, 3S6. 

PiLBUSY, artist, 287. 

Pilkington Tile & Pottery Co., 50. 

Pillivuyt & Co., potters, 39, 313 ; see 

PINXTON, porcelain, 319-320, 155, 266, 

PIRKENH.\MMER. porcelain, 320, 95. 
Pirot-a (or Pirote), potter, 194. 
PISA, 267, 17, 79 ; see Majolica. 
Pithou, painters, 371. 
Place, Francis, potter, 27. 
Planch^, Andrew, potter, 170. 
Plant, Benj.\min, potter, 236. 
Plateau, explained, 471. 
Plautier, Boncoirant & Co., potters, 

Peine, painter, 379. 
PLYMOUTH, porcelain, 320-322, 30, 

46. 55, III, 113. 115, 442. 
PococK, Dr., cited, no. 
POLAND, see Korzek. 
Pollard, artist, 397, 39S. 
Pont .•ku.x Choux, see P.\ris. 
PoPOVE, A., potter, 290. 
Porcelain, derivation of word, 29, 56 ; 

imitations of, 140 ; introduction of, 

into Europe, 18, 19, 29; modern, 37 ; 

varieties of, 30. 
Porchon, painter, 379. 
PORTOBELLO, pottery, 322-323. 88. 
PORTUGUESE pottery, 41 ; see Cal- 


Poter.\t, L., potter, 331. 



PoTSCHAPPEL. factory in,, 73-74, 187. 
Potter, Charles, potter, 314. 

Christopher, potter, 127. 

Pottery, explained, 471. 

PoL'GAT, J., 245. 

PourLLOT, painter, 371. 

PouLAiNE, Dupr6, potter, 177. 

PouPART, A., painter, 380. 

PouYAT, potter. 309. 

PRAGUE, pottery and porcelain, 323 

Pratt, Felix, potter, 195. 
PREMIERES, pottery, 323. 
Preussler, artist, 186. 
Provost, gilder, 371. 
Prinxe, potter, 235. 
Prince of Wales china, 314. 

Bat, explained, 439. 

Transfer, 35, 125, 239, 298, 437. 

Use of, explained,. 471. 
Protat, modeller, 287. 
PoGH, William, potter, 157. 
PuLiNX, Henry, potter, 115. 
PusTELLi, F. A., artist, 263. 


e.A-., 167. 

Queen's ware (Wedgwood), 34, 44. 230. 

238, 246, 385, 422, 457. 
pUENNOY, decorator, 380. 
QUIMPER, pottery, 323. 


R., 86, 131, 1C8, 209, 220, 260, 284, 314, 

335. 380- 
R.B., 364. 369. 
R.C.. 273. 
R.F., 122. 
R — g, 209. 
R.H.. 454- 
R.L.. 371. 
R — n, 324. 
R.P., 260. 
R.S., 112, 168. 
R.T.C.. 167. 
Roses. 158, 166. 

Raeren, 159. 160; iee Cologne. 
Raffaele, 81. 

Raffaelesque, see Decorations. 
Randall, artist. 65, 77, 266, 267. 
Rathbone, potter, 323. 

Mr. F., cited, 429. 

RATISBON, sec Regknsburo. 
RAUENSTEIN, jwrcdain, 324, 404. 
Raux, painter, 371. 
Ravenet, decorator, 437. 
R.WENNA, 17,267; sec Majolica. 
Recum, von, potter, 210. 
Redecoration, 66. 

Redgrave, potter, 260. 
REGENSBURG, potterv and porcelain, 

Regnier, painters, 380. 

potter, 355. 

Rejou.x, painter, 380. 

Renaissance, pottery and porcelain, 

Renard, painters, 380. 
Reparation, directions for, 66-67. 
Restorations, 64. 
Reynard, potter, 86. 
Rhead, Messrs., cited, 251, 386, 391, 405. 

F., artist, 287. 

RHEINSBERG, pottery. 324. 
RHODIAN pottery, 325-326, 24, 317, 

409 ; porcelain, 56. 
Ricardo, Halsey, potter, 170. 
Rich, W., potter, 205. 
Richard, painters, 380. 

J. ET Cie., potters, 285, 286. 

Richards, artist, 287. 

RIDGWAY & CO., potters, 326-327, 

RiEss, potter, 282. 
Rimini, majolica, 267, 17. 
Ring, potter, 109. 
Ringler, potter, 93, 199, 201, 202, 220, 

263, 281, 304. 393- 
RiocREux, M., cited, 3^8 

I. & D., artists," 380. 

RisTORi, T. H., potter, 279. 
RoBBiNS & Rand.ill. potters, 266. 
Robert, painters, 381. 

J. G., potter, 277. 

Robinson, Sir Charles, cited, 4. 

John, painter, 247. 

& Fisher, auction-rooms of, 

Rocher, painter, 373. 
Rochez, potter, 339. 
ROCKINGH.\M, potterv and porcelain, 

3^7. 328. 
Roger, painter, 381. 
Rogers. J. & C, potters, 249. 
ROMAN pottery, 5-7 ; see Majolica. 
RoMBRicii, artist, 206. 
RORSTR.\ND, pottery, 328-329, 393. 
ROSCH, pottery, 222. 
Rose & Co., potters, 125, 157, 223, 267, 

RosLAiNG, P. A. DE, potter, 237. 
RossET, painter, 371. 
RouBiLLAC, Louis Francois, sculptor, 

130, 131. 133. 135- 
KOUEN, pottery and porcelain, 329- 

332, 30, 277, 297, 334 ; imitations of. 

40 ; tiles, 19. 
RoussEL, painters, 371, 381. 
KUDOLDSTADT, porcelain, ^32. 420. 
Rue Thiron, see Paris. 
RusKiN pottery, 50. 
Russinger, potter, 309. 
RYE, see Cadborough. 




S., 70, 125, 726, 158, 260, 273, 276, 305, 

329. 333. 346, 369- 

S.A., 254, 332, 333. 

S.C, 364. 365. 

S.E., 168. 

S.F.Ii.. 320. 

S.H.. 173, 177, 371. 

S.I.B.. 433. 

S.L.. 116. 

S.M., 163, 167. 

S.N.C., 158. 

S.O.S., 126. 

S.P., 272, 346. 

S.P.Q.F., 271. 

S.P.Q.R.. 271. 

S.5., 381. 

S.H'., 381. 

5.M^.P., 245. 

St., 329. 

5/. C„ 333, 334, 335. 

Sceptres, 95. 

5ra(s, 76, 333, 441, 449, 452. 

Serpents, 323. 

Shields, 62, 73, 85, 86, 91, 167, 229, 303, 

304. 305. 322. 415. 416, 458. 
Stars, 91, 126, 166, 178, i88> ■?32, 364, 


Stools. 175. 

Storks, 213. 

Stms, 334, 367. 

Swords, see Daggers. 

Swords crossed, 69, 70, 72, 73, 75, 76, 82, 
94, 114, 125, 175, 188, 189, 190, 191, 
199, 242, 257, 407, 420, 422, 442, 

Sadler, John, potter, 34. 247, 248, 437, 

438, 44'i. 
Sadler & Green, potters, 428. 
Saggar, explained, 471. 
ST. AMAND-LES-EAUX, pottery and 

porcelain, 332, 407. 
St. Anthony, potter, 298. 
St. Cenis, see Sinceny. 
ST. CLOUD, pottery and porcelain, 3^- 

335. 30, 55. 137- 241- 
ST. PETERSBURG, pottery, 335-336. 
ST. PORCHAIRE, pottery, 336-337, 

21, 22, 92 ; imitations of, 6^, 289, 310. 
SAINTES, pottery, 337, 339. '19- 
Sales, see Collections. 
Salmazzo, G. M., potter, 90. 
SALOPIAN ware, see Caughley and 

Coalbrook Dale. 
Salt, R. & C, potters, 390. 
SALT-GLAZE ware, 339-344. 
Samian ware, 6 ; explained, 471. 
Samson, potter, 70-72, 315 ; see Paris. 
SAN QUIRICO, majolica, 267. 
Sandoz, sculptor, 381. 
Sans, T. & W., potters, 405. 
Sante Brucci, potter, 222. 
Saracen tiles, 24. 

SARREGUEMFNES, pottery and porce- 
lain, 345. 

SATSUMA, pottery, 226-227. 

Saunders, potter, 290. 

Savona, 207, 347 ; see Majolica. 

Savy, potter, 278. 

SAXONY, see Dresden. 

Sazarac, Dksrocher et Fils, potters, 85. 

SCEAUX I'ENTHlfcVRE, pottery and 
porcelain, 345-346, 55. 

Schaai-, C, potter, 4:8. 

Schaper, Johan, potter, 214. 

SCHERZHEIM, pottery, 382, 346. 

Schilt, painters, 381. 

SCHLAGGENWALD, porcelain, 346, 95. 

Schliemann, Dr., excavations of, 5. 

Schneider, A., potter, 210. 

ScHOELCHER, potter. 315 ; see Paris. 

Sc^ir.\dre, painter, 371. 

ScHREiBER, Lady Charlotte, loiirnals 
of, 192. 

Schubert, artist, 206. 

Schwartz, J. von, potter, 303. 

Schwerdtuer, J. A., potter, 124. 

SCHWERIN. pottery, 346. 

Scott Bros., potters, 323. 

Seau (or ScEAUX), explained, 471. 

Segange, M. Broc de, cited, 296, 297. 

Seguin, potter, 418. 

SEPT FONTAINES, see Luxembourg. 

SEVILLE, pottery, 347, 13, 41. 

SEVRES, porcelain, 347-382, 30. 32, 38, 
39, 41, 42, 43, 56, 61, 66, 87, 118, 121, 
243. 267, 306, 307, 308, 321, 334, 403. 
416, 417 ; imitations of, 40, 64-65, 69, 
76-77, 132, 157, 177, 217, 230, 266, 
267, 287, 311, 332, 333, 407, 408. 

Sewell, Donkin & Co.„ potters, 29S, 

Sgraffiato, see Decorations. 

Shaw, Dr., cited, 34. 265. 

Shaw, potter, 246. 

Sheldon, Mrs. E., 215. 

Sheriff Hill pottery. 298. 

Shonsui, Gorodayu, potter, 224. 

Shore, Joseph, potter, 222, 223. 

Sicilo-Arabian ware, 11, 12. 

Sieffert, painter, 381. 

Siegburg, 159, 160. 

SIENA, 267," 270 ; see Majolica. 

SILESIA, porcelain. 75. 

Silicon china (Booth's), 50. 

Simard, painter, 381. 

Simpson, Ralph, potter, 405. 

William, potter, 25, 159, 340. 

SiMSON Bros., potters, 209. 

Sinsson, painters, 371, 381. 

Sioux, painter, 371. 

SITZERODE, porcelain, see Kloster 

Slip, explained, 472 ; see Toft. 


Smith, Major Murdoch, 9, 315. 



Soap rock, 35, no, 444. 

Solon, M. Louis Mark, artist, 41, 42, 

287, 3.S1, 405. 
SoNNENSCHEiN, modeller, 458. 
SoQui, artist, 321. 

SoRGENTHAL, Baron de, potter, 415. 
SoTHEBY, auction-rooms of, 57, 112, 48. 
South Carolina, clay from, in. 
Southall, see Martin ware. 
SPAIN, see Hispano-Moresco. 
Sp.\nish pottery and porcelain, 10. 
Specimens, choice of. 60, 61, 476., Mr. W. \V. R., cited, 254, 255, 

258, 259, 261. 
Sperl, potter, 69. 
Spink & Son, potters, 123. 
SPODE, 383-386. 
Spode, Josiah, potter, ^6, 38, 286, 383, 


Samuel, potter, 235. 

Sprimont, Nicholas, potter, 129, 130, 

356. 443- 
Spurs, explained, 472. 
STAFFORDSHIRE, pottery, 386-392 ; 

imitations of, 47 ; various, 25, 27, 45- 

46, 258, 265, 298. 322. 
Stebner, potter, 303. 
Stegman, Mr., cited, 85. 
Sten, potter, 276. 
Stenzel, potter, 414. 
Stephens, William, potter, 114. 
Stevenson, Sharp & Co. (Hancock), 

173, 260. 
Stif, J., potter, 235. 
STOCKELSDORF, pottery, 392, 22S. 
STOCKHOLM, see. Rorstrand. 
Stoneware, explained, 472. 
STRALSUND, pottery. ^9S, 328. 
STRASBOURG, porcelain, 393-395. 86, 

263, 277, 32S. 
STR.\TFORD LE BOW, see Bow. 
Strobel, potter, ^03. 
SUNDERLAND, pottery, 396, 201, 265, 

SUSSEX, see Rye. 
Sutton, Uri.ah. potter, 433. 

& Till, potters, 386. 

SWANSEA, porcelain, 396-401, 36, 119, 

265, 293, 294, 319. 
SwEBACH, painter, ^Si. 
SWINTON, potterv, 327. 
SWITZERLAND, pottery. 401. 
SYRIAN ware, see Turkey. 


T.. 7i, 103, 115, 22S, 333, 364, 382, 402. 

T.B.. 335. 

T.D.. 310. 

T.F., 102, 103, 373. 

T.H.D., 310. 

T.L.. 369. 

T.N.. 123. 

T.O.. 103, 104, 115. 

T.R., 279, 408. 

Tablets, 198. 

Tie (Montaignon), 298. 

Torches, 309. 

Towers, see Castles and Beacons. 

Trees, 220, 364. 

Trefoils, 211, 222, 243. 

Triangles, 373, 134, 135, 194, 229, 305. 

Tridents, 134, 135, 272, 275, 400, 401. 
Tabary, painter, 372. 
Taenich, painter, 228. 
Taillandier, painter, 372. 
TALAVERA LA REYNA, pottery, 402. 
Talor, William, potter, 405. 
Tandart, painter, 372. 
Tannowa, 95 ; see Bohemia. 
Tardi. painter, 372. 
T.^UN.AY, painter, 372. 
Taylor, George, potter, 405. 

HowsoN, potter, 50. 

Robert Minton, potter, 19^. 

Tebo, modeller, 102, 104, 113, 115. 
TEINITZ, pottery, 402, 95. 
Terchi Bros., potters. 90. 
Terra-cotta, use of, 2. 
Terre de Lorraine, 264. 
TETTAU, 402, 404. 
Thebes, 2. 

Theodore, gilder, 372. 
Thevenet, painters, 372. 
Thieme, potter, 73, 191. 
Thoovt et LABOUCHiiRE, potters, 402. 
Thorw.aldsen, sculptor, 41, 161. 
THOUNE, pottery, 402. 
THURINGIA, porcelain, 403-404, 39, 

209, 242, 324, 402, 420, 421. 
Thursfield, J., potter, 235. 
Tiles, ancient and modern. 472. 

Alcazar, 41. 

Alhambra, 41. 

Bristol, 109. 

Copeland, 385. 

Moorish, 9, 11. 
Tin, use of, 2, 14, 19. 
Tinworth, George, modeller, 44, 234. 
TOFT, ware, 404-406, 27, 55, 456. 
Toft, C, modeller, 287, 428. 

Thomas & Ralph, potters, 409, 

TOKIO, 225. 

Tomlinson & Co., potters, 196. 
ToNDiNo, explained, 472. 
TORKSEY, pottery, 406-407. 
" Tortoiseshell " ware, 432. 
TOUR DAIGUES, see La Tour. 
TOURN.\Y, porcelain, 407-408, 40, 65, 

87. 333. 410. 
Town & Emanuel, dealers, 464. 
Trades Marks .\ct. 199. 
Tracer, painters, 38 1, 382. 



TREVISO, porcelain, 408. 

Tristan, painter, 382. 

Tron, Henri, ])otter, 334. 

Troyon, painter, 382. 

TUNSTALL, pottery, 409, 80. 

TURIN, pottery, 409, 17. 

TURKEY, pottery and porcelain, 409. 

TURNER ware, 410. 

Turner & Abbott, potters, 237. 

& Co., potters, 386, 390. 

John, potter, 36, 236, 299, 410. 

Thomas, potter, 123, 124, 125. 

W., cited, 295, 399, 401. 

Tygs, explained, 473. 

Tynes, Garrett, merchant, 159. 


U. &■ Cie., 345. 

U.D., 107. 

Underglaze, explained, 473. 

United States, 46. 

Upchurch pottery, 7. 

URBINO, pottery, 17, 18, 19, 41, 79, 

267, 271 ; 5ee Majolica. 
Ureino, Camillo da, potter, 32. 
Urns, funeral, 5, 7. 
Utzchneider & Co., potters, 345. 

v., 262, 413. 
Va, 413. 

V.A., 167, 213, 306. 
V.B.. 284, i7i. 
V. &• B., 284. 
V.D.. 372. 
V.E.. 167. 
Ven", 413, 414. 
V.F., 291. 
V.G., 382. 
V.I.. 168. 
V.P.. 277, 278. 
V.R., 201. 
Vt, 367, 372. 

VALENCIA, pottery, M, 41. 
VALENCIENNES, pottery, 410-411. 
Values and Prices, 474-484. 
Vand^;, painter, 372. 
Vander Waert, potter, 87. 

Alhambra, 12, 13, 31. 

Cfeladon, 31, 137, 474. 

Eventail, 61. 

Foundling. 56, 132. 
Vadcluse, potters, 89. 
Vaunier, potter, 411. 
Vautrin, painter, 327. 
VAUX, porcelain, 412, 97. 
\'ENICE, porcelain, 412-414, 33, 17S ; 

pottery, 267. 
Verboeckhoven, sculptor, 411. 
Vermonet, Jacques, potter, 96. 

VERONA, 267 ; see Majolica. 

Verviers, I 59. 

Vieillard, painter, 372. 

VIENNA, porcelain, 414-416. 

Vignot, painter, 382. 

ViLHiKUT, potter, 86. 

ViLLARs, L. II. i)E LA Marre de. potter, 

Villeroy & BocH, MM., 284. 
VINCENNES, pottery and porcelain', 

416-419, 30, 87, 127, 34S, 351, 356, 

i9i. 411- 

blue, see Decorations. 

Vincent, gilder, 372. 
VINOVO, porcelain, 419-420. 
VISTA ALLEGRE, see Oporto. 
VOLKSTEDT, porcelain, 420-42 1 , 208, 

210, 228, 229, 242, 332, 403, 404. 
VOYEZ, pottery, 421. 
Voyez, J., potter, 213, 386, 388. 


II'., 73, 82. 94, 95, 168, iSS, 240, 260, 262, 
346, 36X, 3S2, 407, 422, 433, 452, 454. 

W.B., 116. 

W.D.. 116, 16S, 169. 

W.H., 107. 

W.K., 167. 

W.R., 263. 

W.S., 210. 

W.V.D.B., 169. 

Wheels, 262, 281, 282, 283. 

Whips, 219, 220. 

Windmills, 156. 

Walker, Brown. Aldred & Rickman, 
potters, 253. 

Walker, Samuel (George), potter, 293. 
294, 396, 406. 

Wall, Dr., potter, 36, 76, 435. 436, 442, 
444, 446. 

WALLENDORF, porcelain, 42 i, 422, S3, 

Walpole, Horace, cited, 27, 129. 

Walter, painter, 382. 

Walton, J., potter, 386, 388, 390. 

Warburton, J. & P., potters, 265, 299. 

Britton & Sons, potters, 239. 

Mrs., 427. 

Warland, potter, 205. 

Washing china, directions for, 67. 

Watcombe Co., potters, 45. 

Watts, potter, 232. 

WEDGWOOD ware, 422-430, 80, 123, 
125, 195, 214, 248, 265, 295, 296, 299, 
341. 3S3. 385. 3S6, 388, 389, 421, 432 ; 
imitations of, 80, 123, 125, 195, 214, 
221, 230, 236, 238, 239, 24"5, 249, 295, 
298. 328, 398, 408, 410 ; basalt, in- 
vention of, 428 : jasper ware, inven- 
tion of, 424 ; Queen's ware, origin of 
name, 422-423 ; see Queen's. 



Wedgwood, Aaron, potter, 250. 
JosiAH, potter, 422-430, 34, 38, 

46, 80, 89, 105, III, 195, 196, 265, 421, 


Ralph, potter, 196. 

Thomas, potter, 196, 424. 

WEESP, see Amstel, 

Wegely, W. G., potter, 93, 95, 422. 

Welby, John, potter, 402. 

Werdinger, gilder, 382. 

West Malling, see Jugs. 

Wetherby & Crowther, potters, 99 

Wheel, potter's, 2. 

Whieldon, Thomas, potter, 430-433, 34, 

89, 195, 239, 383, 386, 406, 422, 427. 
White, William, 205. 
Whitehead, C. C, potter, 214. 
Willow pattern, 239, 383. 
WiLLSoN Bros., dealers, 464. 
WILSON, see Neale & Co. 
Wilson, Robert & David, potters, 296, 

WINCANTON, pottery, 433-434. 
Wissman, potter, ji. 
Wolf, Joseph, potter, 435. 
Wolfsohn, potter, 72, 190. 
WOOD, see Staffordshire. 
Wood. Ralph (father and son), Aaron, 

Enoch, William, potters, 55, 251, 

26i, 386, 387, 388, 389, 390, 39'2, 421, 


Wood & Caldwell, potters, 386, 389.391. 

WORCESTER, porcelain, 435-456, 35, 
36, 38, 41, 48, 50, 100, loi, 114, 124, 
250, 252, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 260, 
293, 319, 321, 396; imitations of, 39, 

47. 50, 69, 70, 71, 125, 256. 

Wright, Mr. A., 215, 216. 

artist, 287. 

J., potter, 405. 

S., potter, 238. 

WROTHAM, pottery, 456-457, 27, 

Wylde, Mr. C. H., cited, 160, 196, 

Wyse, decorator, 287. 


X., 253, 284, 368, 370, 419. 
Xanto, Francesco, artist, 271. 
Xhrouet, artist, 354, 372. 

Y., 364, 367, 373. 

Yallop, Mr. J. U., cited, 260. 

YARMOUTH ware, 457. 

York pottery, 27. 

Young, Weston, artist, 294, 397. 

Yung-Chang, imitations of, 63. 

Yvernel, painter, 372. 


Z., 260, 458. 
Zais, Ernst, cited, 177. 
ZELL, pottery, 457. 
ZiESELER, potter, 220. 
ZsoLN.'iY, W., potter, 205. 
ZURICH, porcelain, 458. 
ZWEIBRUCKEN, porcelain, 549. 


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