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Edited by 


American Journal of Veterinary Medicine 




B. F. KAUPP, M. Sc, D. V. S. 

Commissioner of Health, 
Spartanburg, S. C. 



,}x ^. 

X- V 




D. M. Campbell 


No. 2 

Edited by D. M. CAMPBELL, D. V. S. 



B. F. I^UPP, M. Sc, D. V. S. 

Gpmmissioxer of Health, Spartaxbubg, South Caboli>'a; 
Author 'of "Aximal Parasites axd Parasitic Diseases"; 
formerly professor of pathology, di\^siox of veter- 
INARY Medicixe, Colorado Agricultural College, akd 
Pathologist to the Colorado Agricultural Station; 
FORMERLY Professor of Parasitology, Kansas City 
Veterinary College, and Director of the Anat- 
omy Laboratory; formerly Veterin.ary Inspec- 
tor. Bureau of Animal Industry, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture; Chairman 
of Committee on Diseases of the 
American Veterinary Associa- 
tion, 1911, etc., etc. 



Succe>^s is Dot lucJ:, nor pull, nor a 
soft snap, liut flic longest, steadiest, 
hardest task one ever undertook. 


This book is written to fill a demand from 
Veterinary students, students in Poultrj' Hus- 
bandry courses at our Agricultural Colleges, for 
Veterinary practitioners and for others interested 
in the scientific treatment of poultry diseases. 

An etfort has been made to make the language 
so plain that all can comprehend the subject- 
matter, which is a summary of thoughts from 
experimental research in the Laboratory of 
Pathology of the author and of many other in- 

For the purpose of simplification, the synonyms 
are given for the various names of diseases. Then 
follow, in order, the cause, or causes, the symp- 
toms, the conditions found upon postmortem ex- 
amination, and lastly the treatment for each 

The author is under very great obligations to 
Dr. D. M. Campbell, Editor of the American 
JouEXAL OF Veterinary Medicixe, for editing and 
arranging his laboratory notes on this subject 
into a related whole, as here presented, and for 
the section on Sanitation and some other portions. 

B. F. K. 

Spartanburg, S. C, February, 1914. 



Anatomy 15 

Review of the Anatomy of the Hen. 

Sanitation 19 


External Parasites 35 

Lice of Birds — Lice of Chickens — Lice of Turkeys — 
Lice of Ducks — Lice of Geese — Lice of Pigeons— Life 
History of Lice — Effects of Louse Infestation — Dealing 
With Louse Infestation — Scabies in Birds — Scaly Legs 
— Sarcoptes Mutans — Air Sac Disease — Cytodites 
Nudus — Chigger Infestation — Trombidium Holoseri — 
ceum — Dermanyssus Gallinse — Fleas Affecting Birds — • 
Pulex Avium — Tick Infestation — Argus Miniatus — 
The Bedbug of Poultry — Acanthia Inodora — Fungi Af- 
fecting Birds — Thrush — Tinea Favosa — Pneumomyco- 


Internal Parasites 59 

Important Round AVorms — Ascaris Inflexa — Heter- 
akis Papillosa — Spiroptera Hamulosa — Syngamus 
Trachealis — Unimportant Round Worms — Heterakis 
Differens — Heterakis Compressa — Trichosomum — Het- 
erakis Maculosa — Tape Worms — Taenia Infundibuli- 
formis — Davainea Tetragona — Thorn-Headed Worms — 
Other Taenia — Echinorynchus Polymorphus — Flukes. 


Disease of the Digestive Tract 73 

Obstruction of the Beak — Stomatitis — Crop Bound — 
Tympany of the Crop — Gangrene of the Crop — Catarrh 
of the Crop — Depraved Appetite — Fowl Cholera — 
Blackhead — Diarrhea — White Diarrhea — Blastomyco- 
sis of the Pigeon — Coccidiosis of Wild Ducks — Arseni- 
cal Poisoning — Ptomain Poisoning — Corn Cockle Poi- 
soning — Salt Poisoning — Cloacitis. 





Apopk'ctiforni Septiceuiia of Chickens and Pigeons 
— Septicemia of G<'ese — Fowl Typhoid — Thrombosis — 
Spirochetosis — Pericarditis — Endocarditis — Rupture 
of the Heart and Large Blood Vessels. 



Going Light — Tuberculosis. 


DiSE.VSES OF THE LlVlilt 123 

Fatty Degeneration — Fatty Infiltration — Rupture of 
the Liver — Congestion of the Liver — Inflammation of 
the Liver. 



Prolapse or Eversion of the Oviduct — Obstruction of 
the Oviduct — Eggs Broken in Oviduct — Prolapse of the 
Cloaca — Rupture of the Oviduct — Abnormal Eggs. 


Tl-.AFOKS 135 

Hematoma — Multiple Tumors of the Ovary — Cystic 
Ovary — Sarcoma — Adenoma — Lymphosarcoma — Epi- 


Diseases of the Respikatouy Passages 139 

Obstruction of the Trachea — Colds — Bronchitis — 
Congestion of the Lungs — Pneumonia — Pneumomy- 
cosis — Aspergillosis — Swell Head in Young Turkeys — 
Chicken Pox — Roup — Conjunctivitis. 


Diseases of the Legs and Feet. 157 

Leg Weakness — Abscess of the Feet — Bumble Foot. 


Diseases of the Braix 161 

Vertigo — Hemorrhage of the Brain. 



Bacteria of the Intestinal Tract of Chickens........ 163 


The Egg 165 

Animal Parasites — Bacteria of Eggs. 



The X-Ray — The Pubic Bone ' Examination — The 
Trap Nest. 

Malformations 175 

Fractures — Wounds — Anesthesia 179 



1. Visceral Anatomy of the Hen 14 

2. Menopon Biseriatum (large hen louse) 36 

3. Menopon Pallidum (small hen louse) 36 

4. Goniocotes Hologaster (chicken louse) 37 

5. Lipeurus Infuscatus (chicken louse) 37 

6. Goniodes Stylifer (turkey louse) 37 

7. Lipeurus Baculus (pigeon louse) ■ 38 

8. Ova of the Goniodes Stylifer (louse egg) 38 

9. A Convenient and Inexpensive Spray Pump 42 

10. Sarcoptes Mutans Variety Gallinae (scaly leg mite). 44 

11. Scaly Legs (Scabies) 45 

12. Cytodites Nudus (air sac mite) 49 

13. Trombidium Holosericeum (chicken chigger) 49 

14. Dermanyssus Gallinse (chicken mite) 51 

15. Pulex Avium (chicken flea) 51 

16. - Argas Miniatus (the chicken tick) 54 

17. Acanthia Inodora (chicken bug) 54 

18. Ascaris Inflexa (large round worm) 61 

19. Heterakis Papillosa, male and female 61 

20. Heterakis Papillosa, head magnified 61 

21. Heterakis Papillosa, caudal extremity of male 63 

22. Spiroptera Hamulosa (gizzard worm) 63 

23. Syngamus Trachealis (gapeworms) 64 

24. Teenia Infundibuliformis (a tapeworm of chickens). 69 

25. Nodular Taeniasis (tapeworm disease) 70 

26. Blood Smear Showing B. Avisepticus 80 

27. Enterohepatitis 86 

28. Cloudy Swelling Due to Enterohepatitis 87 

29. Section Showing Enterohepatitis 88 

30. Blood Smear from Case of Enterohepatitis of a 

turkey 89 

31. Section of Kidney from a Turkey Dead of Entero- 

hepatitis 89 

32. Cecum (blind gut) Enterohepatitis Showing Ulcer.. 90 

33. Hemorrhagic Enteritis; Intestines of a Hen 93 

34. Section through Cecum of a Case of Coccidian White 

Diarrhea 97 

35. Higher Magnification of Above 97 

36. Blastomycosis in a Pigeon 99 




37. Pulmonary Coccidiosis 100 

38. Intestinal Coccidiosis 100 

39. Thrombosis in a Hen 110 

40. Spirocheta Gallinarum Ill 

41. Spirochetosis in a Hen Ill 

42. Tuberculosis of the Liver and Spleen 119 

43. Hematoma of Ovary 135 

44. Multiple Tumors of the Ovary 137 

45. Obstruction of the Trachea 140 

46. Chicken Pox 148 

47. Roup, Showing Bulging Below the Eye 151 

48. Diphtheric Roup 152 

49. Skiagraph of the Head and Neck 155 

50. Thorn Abscess 158 

51. Skiagraph of a Laying Hen 170 

52. Skiagraph of a Normal Hen 171 

53. Trap Nest 172 

54. Trap Nest 173 

55. Monster Chick 176 

56. Polymelus 177 

" j/i 

Plate I. 


Visceral Anatomy of the 


Digestive and Genito-Urinary Tracts 


1. Beek. 2. Tongue. 3. Pharynx (throat) 
through which the food passes to the esophagus 
(gullett) 4. 5. The crop, a storehouse or granary 
where the food accumulates during feeding. 6. 
Second portion of the esophagus, through which 
the food passes from the crop into 7, the proven- 

A part of the abdominal organs are laid over 
to the left, so that the proventriculus or true stom- 
ach, lies over the liver. The second portion of the 
esophagus empties into the proventriculus, or true 
stomach, in whose walls are found secreting glands 
similar to those of the stomach of higher animals. 

The food, after being soaked in this secretion, 
passes into the gizzard, 8, a muscular organ, where 
the grain and other coarse particles are ground by 
the contractions of its muscular walls and the grit 
which it contains. From the gizzard, the food 
passes into the duodenum, 9. 10 represents the 
deep (duodenal) or the first portion of the small 
intestines, between the folds of which is located 
the pancreas, 25, which pours its digestive secre- 
tion into the small intestines. 11 represents the 
floating portion of the small intestines supported 
by the mesentery (web-like membrane) 19, which 



also shows the distribution of the blood vessels in 
their course to that part. 12 represents the ceca, 
or two blind guts, the blind extremities indicated at 
13. These empty into tlie remainder of the in- 
testine at 14. 15 represents the rectum, or 
straight gut, which is joined by the egg sac, 23, 
at 17, forming the cloaca or common pouch, 16. 

At 20, the ureter from the kidney, 21, empties 
the secretion from that gland into the rectum. 
The cloaca discharges its contents, feces, urine, 
and eggs, through the anus, 18, into the external 
world. The right ovary perishes as the hen de- 
velops, so that only one ovar}^ the left, 22, re- 
mains. The egg canal, 23, lias a muscular wall 
for the purpose of forcing the egg along as it 
develops; it is also provided with glands which 
aid in the formation of the albumin, egg shell, 
etc. This sac, at its anterior end, receives the ovum 
(yolk) from the ovary as soon as it is mature. 

The liver, 26, which has been turned back, is 
crossed by the proventriculus, 7. The gall-bladder 
is shown at 27, where the bile (liver secretion) 
is stored up till active digestion begins in the 
small intestine, into which it is then discharged. 
The spleen, a blood-forming organ, is indicated 
at 28. 

Organs of Respiration 

The nostrils are shown at 29 ; air passes from 
this point through the nasal passage, indicated by 
Lhe dotted line, and enters the pharynx through the 
opening (posterior nares) at 33. 32. Turbinated 
bone of the right nasal chamber. 30. Frontal sinus. 
31. Maxillary (infraorbital) sinus, analogous to 
the same in the higher animals. 

The air passes through the pharynx, 3, into the 


larynx, 35, tlirougli the opening (glottis) 34. From 
the larynx the air passes through the trachea 
(windpipe) 36. At 37 there is a flattened portion, 
the false larynx, provided with vocal cord-like 
structures — the organ of sound. Just below this 
point is the bifurcation (branching) of the trachea, 
one branch going to each lung. 38. Left lung. 

Organs of Circulation 

The heart, 39, is illustrated pulled down, to bring 
it into view. 40. Main artery (aorta) leading 
from the heart. 42. Carotid artery, a branch of 
the aorta, supplying the neck and head. 41. Left 
brachial artery, a branch of the aorta, supplying 
blood to the left wing. 



Where any considerable number of birds are 
brought together on limited grounds, disease is 
certain to appear among them sooner or later. 
The greater the number of birds kept on any given 
area, other things being equal, the sooner disease 
will appear, the more rapidly will it spread, and 
the greater will be the loss from it. 

All intelligently directed measures to prevent or 
delay the appearanc of disease in a flock, all sane 
measures to limit its spread and encompass its 
eradication, constitute sanitation. Measures, the 
purpose of which are to cure the sick birds or re- 
lieve their suffering, come under the head of 
therapeutics or therapy. 

On farms of considerable size, where attention 
is given chiefly to general crops, and but few fowls 
are kept on a practically unlimited range, the loss 
from disease may be small, where indifferent or 
even bad sanitation prevails; but in intensive 
poultry plants, where the number of birds is 
large for the size of the range, there can be no 
continued exemption from devastating epiorni- 
thics, if reasonable sanitation is not enforced. Any 
attempt to operate such a plant in insanitary 
buildings and yards, or under conditions that do 
not permit of sanitation, while it may succeed for 
a time, will result in loss oftener than otherwise 
and, in the end, must inevitably fail. 



Site for Poultry Plant 

A rolling, or eveu steep, i)lot of ground is dv- 
siral)le for tlie location of the poultry houses and 
the runs for the fowls. Good drainage is a neees- 
sary requirement, and must be provided for arti- 
fieially if the location is such that natural drain- 
age is not perfect. 

The surface of the poultry yard must be free 
from uneveness so that water will not collect in 
little pools. 

The poultry runs and buildings should have a 
free exposure to sunlight, though some shade 
must be provided for protection during excessively 
hot sunnuer days. 

The soil should contain a goodly proportion of 
sand. It is very desirable that it be of such a 
nature that the runs will not readily become 
muddy during wet weather, and such that they 
will dry very quickly after rains. 

Buildings and Runs 

It is not within the province of this work to dis- 
cuss plans for the construction of poultry houses 
and poultry yards. Those desiring information 
on this subject may secure detailed directions from 
several agricultural experiment station bulletins 
(Bulletin No. 215, Wisconsin Agricultural Station, 
Madison ; Bulletin No. 26G, Michigan Agricultural 
Experiment Station, Lansing; Bulletin No. 107, 
Missouri Agricultural Experiment Station, Colum- 
bia; Bulletin No. 244, New Jersey Agricultural 
Station, New Brunswick, etc.). 

The arrangement of the poultry house should 
admit the sunlight freely to all parts of the build- 
ing, provide plentiful ventilation without per- 
mitting a draught to blow directly upon the roosts, 


and enable the building to be easily and thoroughly 

Sunlight is one of the most powerful of disin- 
fectants, even a parasiticide for certain young par- 
asites, and is necessary to the health and con- 
tentment of the fowls. It has the advantage also 
of revealing filth in the building which might 
otherwise escape the eye of the attendant, and re- 
main to breed disease in the flock. 

Ventilation should be definitely provided for in 
the construction by ventilators and the proper 
arrangement of doors, windows and other open- 
ings and not left to cracks in the walls and to 
chance openings. Cracks in the walls are an abom- 
ination and ever present protection to, and nursery 
for external parasites, and a harbor in which 
disease germs may weather the application of dis- 

The interior of the poultry house should be 
whitewashed after a thorough cleaning and disin- 
fecting, twice, or better, four times a year. White- 
wash is desirable because of its clean appearance, 
its cheapness, and the ease of its application (use 
a spray pump), because of the antiseptic value 
of the lime, and because of its high reflection of 

The roosts should, of course, be removable to 
permit of cleaning, and should come near to the 
floor so that heavy birds may not be injured in 
jumping off of them. Like the walls, they should 
be free from cracks and whitewashed two to four 
times yearly. During the hot season, the roosts 
should be wet with kerosene once a week. This 
will aid very materially in keeping mites and lice 
from the fowls. Dropping pans placed under the 
roosts are a convenience worth while, for sanitary 


The floor of poultry lioiises should be of con- 
crete ; it should be filled in until it is several inches 
to a foot higher than the surface of the ground 
surrounding the building; immediately beneath 
the concrete there should be a layer of cinders 
or very coarse gravel, six or eight inches thick. 
A floor so constructed will not absorb dampnes?. 
from below. It is lasting, and is easily cleaned 
and disinfected. 

An open shed facing the south, where the birds 
can enjoy scratching and dust throughout the 
year, is a great aid in maintaing the health and 
productiveness of the flock. 

Portable houses and runs, that can be moved 
from place to place, furnish fresh soil, a change 
of food, abundant insects, etc., and possess many 
advantages of sanitation. 

The poultry yards or runs should furnish, at 
least, 100 square feet or better, 150 square feet 
of space for each bird; as stated previously, 
the runs should be well drained and free from 
puddles of mud and water. 


Fowls require water in abundance at all times 
for the best production of eggs (which are sixty 
per cent water) and flesh (which is sixty to 
eighty per cent water) and to avoid great suffer- 
ing during hot weather. 

The water should be clean, supplied fresh every 
day, and in vessels so arranged that the birds 
cannot get into them and thus contaminate it with 
the filth from the yards which adheres to their 
feet. As is shown under the discussions of the 
various infectious diseases and parasitisms, these 
are spread in most cases, not by direct contagion 


between the sick and the well birds, but, indirectly, 
through the medium of the soil and roosts on which 
the birds live, the food that they eat, and the 
water that they drink. 

The vessels containing the drinking water 
should, under normal conditions, be thoroughly 
cleaned and disinfected daily in hot weather, and 
once a week the remainder of the year. When 
disease is present in the flock, the vessels for 
drinking water should be cleaned daily, regard- 
less of the season, and this practice should be con- 
tinued for several days after all symptoms of the 
disease have ceased to appear in the flock. Vessels 
containing water for small chicks should be 
cleaned daily. 

The cleaning is mainly a matter of thorough 
washing; the disinfection of drinking vessels can 
best be accomplished with a five per cent solution 
(in water) of carbolic acid. 

Chickens tolerate certain antiseptics internally 
very well and do not resent the taste of them in 
drinking water to the extent that other animals 
do, and it is a wise policy to use antiseptics in the 
drinking water whenever an infectious disease is 
present on the premises or when the purity of the 
water is under suspicion. 

The most desirable antiseptic to use in the drink- 
ing water is potassium permanganate. Place a 
quantity of the crystals in a large bottle or jar 
and fill with water; of this solution use sufficient 
in the drinking water to give it a slight color 
which will remain for some hours. More water 
can be added to the stock solution from time to 
time, as needed, care being taken to keep an ex- 
cess of the permanganate crystals always in the 
bottom of the jar. 


Pure carbolic acid may be used in tbe drinking 
water wiili good effect during the presence of 
contagion, or to insure the purity of the water. 
Add a sufficient quantity to make a one-half of 
one per cent solution (five teaspoonfuls to the gal- 
lon). Do not use the permanganate and the car- 
bolic acid at the same time. 

Under many conditions, particularly when en- 
teric diseases are present in the flock, mercuric 
chloride (corrosive sublimate, bichloride of mer 
cury, per chloride of mercury) is a valuable anti- 
septic for the drinking water. Employ it in 
solutions of 1 to 5,000 to 1 to 10,000 (from three- 
fourths to one and one-half grains to the gallon). 

Both mercuric chloride and carbolic acid are 
very poisonous and must be handled with great 
care. On this account, the comparatively harm- 
less potassium permanganate should be used, or 
chinosol, which is equally harmless, may be used 
in a solution of 1 to 2,000 (two tablets to the gallon 
of drinking water). 


The removal of parasites and disease germs or 
their destruction is termed disinfection. Because 
of the ability of these organisms to multiply, from 
a single individual or a single pair, at an astonish- 
ing rate and speedily reinfect the premises, it is 
obvious that to be of any value the disinfecting 
must be thoroughly done. 

The first step in any disinfection is the re- 
moval of oil visible filth. A small lump of manure 
behind a nest box or a single grain of dirt in a 
crack in the floor or on the roosts may furnish 
the hiding place from which will emerge the par- 
asites or germs to reinfest the whole building, and 


spread disease anew among the flock, thus undoing 
the whol6 of the disinfection. 

Disinfection of Buildings.— The first operation in 
disinfecting a poultry house, therefore, is the 
thorough removal of all manure, trash and litter. 
If the roosts and nests are removed from the 
building, they must be cleaned and disinfected be- 
fore they are returned ; if left in the building dur- 
ing the disinfection, they must be as thoroughly 
cleaned as the remainder of the building, and the 
disinfectant used must be applied to them as care- 
fully as to other parts of the building. 

The floor and roosts should next be scraped, and 
they and the walls and ceiling carefully and vigor- 
ously swept. All parts of the interior of the build- 
ing must then be thoroughly scrubbed with water, 
to which lye has been added, and a broom or stiff 
brush and then flushed out, using plenty of water. 
The building is then ready for the use of the dis- 

There are three different classes of agents that 
may be successfully used in disinfection. The dis- 
infectant may be applied in gaseous form, as a 
liquid, or heat msij be utilized. 

A gas may be used in disinfecting only when 
the building can be closed tightly enough to pre- 
vent its ready escape. This excludes the great 
majority of poultry houses ; but in such as it can 
be employed, all doors, windows and other open- 
ings must be tightly closed and kept closed for 
several hours. After disinfecting a building with 
gas the interior should be whitewashed, as directed 
under the use of liquid disinfectants. 

Of the gases that may be used, only three need 
to be considered here — hydrocyanic acid, formal- 
dehyde and sulphur dioxide. 


Hydrocyanic acid gas is extremely poisonous, 
a single breath of it sometimes sufficing to kill a 
man. It possesses the advantage of requiring but 
a few minutes to effectively disinfect a building 
and of killing all living organisms in it, bacteria, 
molds, parasites and even roaches and other ver- 
min, and rodents. It will also destroy the eggs of 
parasites. It is extremely dangerous, however, 
except in professional hands, and its use must not 
be attempted by the poultryman. 

Excluding hydrocyanic acid on account of the 
hazard attending its use, formaldehyde is the 
gaseous disinfectant of choice. It may be secured 
in a forty per cent watery solution known as for- 
malin, from which the gas may be readily gen- 

After hermetically sealing all openings into the 
building except one door, place in an earthen or 
metal vessel two quarts of formalin for each 1,000 
cubic feet of space in the building, place this 
vessel in a much larger one and set on the floor, 
then empty into the formalin one-half pound of 
potassium permanganate for each quart of forma- 
lin and retreat from the building at once and close 
the door. 

The tem])erature of the room, during the dis- 
infection, sliould be above 50 dog. F., and the more 
it is above this temperature, the better. Moisture 
in the air is an aid in this sort of disinfection; 
it may be secured by sprinkling the floor just be- 
fore starting the generation of the gas. The build- 
ing should be kept closed six to twenty-four hours. 
It must be thoroughly aired before the fowls are 
permitted to reenter it. 

Such disinfection may not destroy rats and 
mice, or the larger parasites and their eggs. 


For disinfecting with sulphur fumes, the ordi- 
nary commercial flowers of sulphur should be used. 
It must be burned in the building to generate sul- 
phur dioxide, which is effective in disinfection only 
in the presence of water vapor; therefore some 
means for providing the necessary moisture in 
the building must be provided. This may be ac- 
complished by spraying the walls and ceiling until 
they are dripping, just before beginning the disin- 
fecting, or by boiling a large vessel of water in 
the building during the generation of the sulphur 

Fire is required to generate the sulphur fumes 
and care must be taken not to endanger the build- 
ing with it. A large iron vessel partly filled with 
live coals may be used ; set it on the floor, or if the 
floor be of combustible material, on several bricks 
laid on the floor, and pour onto the live coals two 
pounds of sulphur for each 1,000 cubic feet of 
space in the building. Care should be taken to as- 
certain that the sulphur actually begins to burn. 

The building should remain hermetically sealed 
for from twelve to twenty-four hours and then 
be thoroughly aired before the fowls are admitted. 

Compared with hydrocyanic acid and formalde- 
liyde, sulphur dioxide is a feeble disinfectant, but 
effective work may be done with it by a thorough, 
careful application, and attention to all details. 

The disinfection of the drinking water and 
drinking fountains is discussed fully under 
' ' Water Supply. " (See page 22. ) 

Disinfectants that can be applied in liquid form 
are best suited for disinfecting the ordinary 
poultry house. It requires longer to apply them 
than it does to prepare for disinfection by gas, 
and germs and parasites protected in crevices and 


in decayed surfaces of wooden walls cannot be 
reached, as by the gaseous disinfectants. Fowls 
need not be shut out of the building for several 
hours, as is the case when the gas is used. This 
is often a considerable advantage. Furthermore, 
the germs and parasites hidden in the walls and 
roosts and buried in the decayed surface of wooden 
buildings can in a great measure be covered up 
and rendered harmless by the use of whitewash, 
which should always be a part of the cloaning-up 
and disinfecting of a poultry house. 

Liquid disinfectants are best applied with the 
spray puni]i, and all the force possible should be 
used in throwing the spray on the walls. In this 
way it will reach all parts of an uneven surface 
better than when applied with a brush, and much 
time will also be saved in its application. 

Disinfectants will act more vigorously when ap- 
plied hot, and solutions should always be at least 
warm when they reach the surfaces to be disin- 
fected. A copious quantity should be used. The 
solution may cost but a fraction of a cent, or at 
most a few cents a gallon, and it is a poor policy 
to economize by using an insufficient amount. 
Every part of the surface of the interior of the 
Iniilding should be thoroughly wet and completely 
covered with solution when disinfection is com- 
pleted; great care must be observed that no part 
is skipped. 

Mercuric chloride is one of the most powerful 
disinfectants, but it is intensely poisonous and 
must be used with caution. No puddles of the 
solution should be left from which the birds may 
drink when they come into the l)uilding, and tab- 
lets of this disinfectant must on no account be 
left where children can get them or where their 


elders may mistake them for sometliing else, e. g., 
a headache remedy. 

For disinfecting buildings the mercuric chloride 
should be applied in a solution of one to five hun- 
dred (one ounce to four gallons of water) and four 
times as much common salt (one ounce to the 
gallon) should be used with it. The solution 
should be applied as hot as can be handled with a 
spray pump. After the surface is dry it is a good 
precautionary measure to apply the disinfectant 
a second time and to follow as directed hereto- 
fore with the spray of whitewash, covering the in- 
terior, walls, ceilings, roosts, nests and floors. 
The ordinary whitewash is very satisfactory for 
this purpose; ''government" whitewash may be 
preferable, but as the interior should be white- 
washed at frequent intervals, there is no particu- 
lar advantage in having a whitewash of great 
lasting qualities. 

Theie are a great number of disinfectants that 
may be used in solution for disinfecting poultry 
liouses, but certainly none are superior to the 
coal tar disinfectants. Formalin, for example, is 
exceedingly irritating to the eyes and respiratory 
passages of the one doing the spraying. Potassium 
permanganate needs to be applied in almost sat- 
urated solution to be effective, and thus becomes 
expensive. A solution of copper sulphate is not 
fatal to all parasites. Crude petroleum leaves tlie 
building unsightly and the odor persists unduly 
long, and so it is with many others. 

Of the coal tar disinfectants, crude carbolic acid 
perhaps stands at the head on account of its low 
cost, however, it is quite variable in composition. 
It should be used in five per cent solution, and 


may be mixed with the whitewash and applied at 
the same time; thus saving one operation. Use 
two pounds of the crude carbolic acid to each five 
gallons of the whitewash. Cresol, another of the 
coal tar products, gives satisfactory results in 
two per cent solution (one pint to six gallons of 
water). Pure carbolic acid is rather too ex- 
pensive for this sort of disinfection ; if used, a five 
per cent solution (one pint to two and one-half 
gallons of water) should be employed. Kreso 
and Kreso dip (Parke, Davis & Co., Detroit) ; 
Zenoleum (Zenner Disinfectant Co., Detroit) ; 
Liquor Cresolus Compositus (U. S. P.) ; Creolin 
(Pearson) ; and many other disinfectants may be 
substituted for the crude carbolic acid. 

Heat is one of the most reliable of disinfectants. 
It may be utilized in poultry house disinfection 
in the form of a flame from a gasoline blow torch. 
Every portion of the walls, ceiling, floor, roosts, 
nests, boxes, etc., must be carefully flamed. 

This method, although tedious, is effective. Used 
with ordinary care, it is devoid of danger to the 
oi:)erator or building. 

Disinfection of Yards.— A complete disinfection of 
j)oultry yards and runs, that is, a destructicui of all 
the disease germs and parasites with which it 
may be contaminated by an infected flock, is 
scarcely possible by the ordinary means employed 
in poultry house disinfection. Fortunately it is 
seldom necessary. 

When it is remembered that the germs of nearly 
all diseases, and the eggs of nearly all internal 
parasites of poultry, are eliminated in the dejecta 
(feces) of affected birds, the danger from con 
laminated runs will be better appreciated, and 
with the i-ealization Hint each mature hen pro- 


(luces nearly one hundred pounds of manure per 
year, the importance of the yards as a factor in 
the spread of disease is seen to be very great. 

The problem of having clean (non-infected) 
yards for poultry can be solved only by a change 
of grounds from time to time. As mentioned here- 
tofore, the movable poultry house offers many 
sanitary advantages. Plowing or spading a yard, 
thus exposing surface layers of the soil to the dis- 
infecting action of the sunshine, and keeping the 
birds ol¥ it for a season, offers the most practical 
means of disinfecting it. 

Where the construction of the poultry buildings 
are such as preclude a change of location, the two 
yard system can in most cases be installed. It 
offers many advantages : while one yard is being 
used, the other may be plowed and a crop grown. 
This may be a crop upon which the birds may be 
turned for half an hour each evening to allow them 
a feed of green forage. 

In any system of yards where the area of the 
grounds is small for the number of birds, the j^ard 
should receive frequent attention at the hands of 
the cleaner. If the yard is grassed, and the grass 
is short, it should be swept weekly, gathering the 
manure in piles and carting it away, as street 
cleaners do. A yard that is bare of vegetation 
can be cleaned in the same way, even more easily 
and effectually. This will lengthen the "sanitary 
life" of a yard to many times its duration without 
such cleaning. 

Immediately surrounding the poultry house 
there should be a strip of gravel on which the 
birds may be fed, • and on which they will spend 
much of their time, to the very great saving in 
contamination of the yard. The feeding ground, 


of course, should be cleaned (usually by sweeping) 
frequently, and it may be thoroughly wet down 
with a disinfectant in case of a serious ontlu"eak 
of infectious disease. 

Disposal of Sick and Dead Birds 

A strict adherence to the rules of sanitation 
would require that the well birds be removed 
from the buildings and enclosures in which sick 
birds are found, or in which birds have died of 
disease, and that tiiey be not returned until after 
thorough disinfection of the building and grounds. 
Such a jDrocedure is not often practicable and the 
poultryman is left the alternative of removing 
the sick or dead birds from the flock to prevent 
as far as possible an extension of the infection. 

"Whenever an ailing bird is discovered in any 
flock it should be isolated immediately. Do not 
wait to discover what is the matter with it, 
whether it is an infectious disease or a disease at 
all, or to decide as to it's treatment. Remove it 
from the well birds first and decide upon further 
measures afterward. The same directions apply 
with equal force to the finding of dead birds 
among the well ones. Remove the carcass imme- 
diately and unless there is conclusive evidence 
that death was not due to disease, disiiifeet the 
place where it has lain. 

Sick birds should be placed l)y themselves, 
where they will not be molested by other birds 
or animals. They should be given as comfortable 
quarters as possible and be disturbed only for 
treatment. Unless the poultryman is very posi- 
tive that he knows what ails the sick bird, and 
what means should be taken to prevent others in 


the flock from acquiring the same disease, he will 
usually find it best to call a veterinarian and 
leave the matter with him, particularly is this 
true if there are a large number of birds on the 
premises or if the flock be one of high value, be- 
cause of pure breeding. 

Immediately after the removal of a dead bird 
from the flock the poultryman should satisfy him- 
self as to the cause of its death. If it is obviously 
due to accident or if it is due to some disease 
already recognized as present in the flock such 
action should be taken as the conditions seem to 
warrant, but if there is any doubt as to what has 
occasioned the death a careful autopsy should be 
held. Since a postmortem examination ordi- 
narily means very little to one without at least 
some fundamental training in pathology, the 
poultryman will ordinarily find it advantageous 
to take the dead bird to his veterinarian for ex- 
amination. This should be done immediately, be- 
fore the changes incident to decomposition have 
masked the lesions which disease may have 
produced, or before parasites that may have 
caused death have changed their location or es- 
caped from the body. 

Mode of Performing Autopsy.— Lay the bird on its 
back. With a sharp knife open the abdominal 
wall, commencing close to the anus, passing the 
knife forward between the ribs and breastbone 
to a point just back of the "wishbone" (clavicle). 
In like manner open the left side, being careful 
not to injure any of the organs in the cavities. 
Now grasp the sternum or breastbone, forcing it 
forward, and it will break so that it will be easy 
to remove it. This will lay the cavities open so 
that all organs can be observed, as illustrated and 

34 roULTRY i)isi-:.\si-:s 

named in Tlate 1, tu wiiicli rclcr for rurtluT de- 

The final disposal of carcasses of birds, 
whether dying from known or unknown causes 
should be carefully attended to. The habit of 
throwing dead birds onto the nearest manure pile 
or into an unoccupied field cannot be too severely 

Among many people there is a belief that if the 
])ody of a person that has died is not pro])erly 
})uried, the spirit of the departed will haunt its 
living relatives and if they do not heed its warn- 
ings, bring great disaster to them. If poultry- 
men entertained a similar belief regarding the 
disposal of dead birds it would save them much 
loss from disease and parasites among their 
flocks. The carcass of a bird that has died of an 
infectious disease or of a parasitism may be the 
means of infecting grounds and spreading dis- 
ease among the flock many months later, or por- 
tions of it may be carried to neighboring farms 
with disastrous results to neighboring flocks. 

The dead birds found in a flock should bo 
l)urned whether or not they have died of conta- 
gious disease, for even if they have died of some 
cause other than disease the chances are that 
they harbor intestinal parasites which are capa- 
ble of being spread from the carcass to live birds. 
Where time cannot be taken to ]n-oi»erly burn 
the dead birds they should be buried and buried 
deeply, so that they cannot be dug up by dogs, 
skunks or foxes, and so that worms may not 
carry infection from the carcass to the surface of 
the ground. 


External Parasites 

More than thirty species of external parasites 
infest birds ; their economic importance is very 
great; fowls heavily infested with any of them 
are nnprofitable and many of the kinds of ex- 
ternal parasites are so injurious as to kill the 
infested birds. 

It is necessary to know something of the life 
history of these parasites and their habits to in- 
telligently treat their parasitisms. This in- 
formation is given as briefly as possible in the 
following pages : 

The external parasites atfecting birds consist 
of lice, which infest all ages and breeds; scab 
parasites, producing scaly legs; the air sac mite, 
which is a modified scab parasite and infests the 
air sacs; the cliigger (chigoe or jigger) or red 
mite, a great pest in the hot summer months; a 
distinct bird flea; the chicJien hug, which in many 
respects resembles the common bedbug, and the 
ring ivorm. In all, seven different classes. 


This embraces a group of biting lice, their 
bodies are flat and their mouth parts are ar- 
ranged for biting and cutting. They live upon 
feathers, epidermis and secretions of the body of 
their host. As may be noted in Fig. 2, the mouth 
parts are located just back of the antennse and 
are not always visible. The antennsp or feelers 
consist of five articles or joints each. The thorax 
in some s]iecies is long and narrow, in others 




short and glolmlar. They are provided with 
three pair of legs which are attached to the 
thorax. The free extremity of tlie legs is pro- 
vided with two liooklets or claws which euablo 
them to hold on to their host. The body and legs 
may be covered with a greater or less quantity of 
hair or bristles. 

The lice of birds are placed under the follow- 
ing genera: Menopon, Goniodes, Goniocotes, 
Lipeurus, Docophorus and Nirmus. 

Fig. 2 Fig. 3 

Fig. 2. Menoi'on Biseriatum 

A, Head provided with mouth parts for biting, feelers 

(antenna;) and eyes. B, legs attached to the 

thorax. C, abdomen. 

Fig. 3. Menopon Pallidum 

A, Head. 13, thorax provided with three pairs of 

legs. C, abdomen with hairs. 

Lice of Chickens 

Menopon biseriatum (the large chicken louse). — This is 
the largest louse found upon chickens. It is about one-twelfth 
of an inch in length. It is light in color. Fig. 2 illustrates 
this louse much enlarged; the short mark at the right shows 
tj^e actual length of this louse. This parasite is common on 
the heads of young chickens. 

Menopon pallidum (the small chicken louse). — This louse 
Is illustrated in Fig. 3 and, as may be seen, is smaller than 
the M. biseriatum. In some parts of the country this louse 
is the more common of the two and is a source of considerable 
trouble. It may spread from chickens to other animals and 



Goniodes dissimillia.— This is a rather large louse and is 
apparently rare. The head is subquadrate, the thorax short 
and narrow and the abdomen large and globular. 

Goniocotes hologaster. — The head is nearly quadrate, the 
thorax narrow and the abdomen short and globular. Fig. 4 
illustrates this species. 

Lipeurus infuscatus. — This is another louse that may infest 
chickens. It has been studied in the author's laboratory and 
has also been reported by Osborn as occurring in Iowa. How- 
ever, it is not very common. Fig. 5 illustrates this louse. 

Lipeurus infuscatus. — This louse is long and slender. The 
front part of the head is rounded, the thorax a trifle narrower 
than the head and the abdomen is long and thin. 

Fig- 4 

Fig. 6 

Fig. S- 

Fig. 4. GoN'iocoTEs Holog.-vster 

A, Mouth parts. B, antennae. C, booklets on free extremity of leg. 

Fig. 5. Lipeurus Infuscatus 

A, Mouth parts. B, abdomen. Drawing to right of bead indicates actual 


Fig. 6. Goxiodes Stylifer 

A, Mouth parts. C, antennae (feelers). C, legs. Drawing to right of 

head indicates actual size. 

Lice of Turkeys 

Goniodes stylifer. — This is the common turkey louse. Its 
head is well rounded in front, rather square cut, with scallops 
behind; the thorax is narrow and the abdomen large and 
globular. Fig. 6 illustrates this louse. 

Lipeurus polytrapezius. — This is a long, slender louse, with 
two or three bristles extending from each segment of the 
abdomen. Its head is well rounded in front and the thorax 
is rather broad and long. 

Lice of Ducks 

Menopon obscurum. — The head is crescent-shaped in front 
and the abdomen has dark, lateral bands. It is dark fawn 

38 POULTRY l)ISl":.\Si:S 

Lipeurus squalidus. — The head is narrow and somewhat 
elongated in front. There are six hairs on the front part of 
the head. This louse is common in some localities. 

Lice of Geese 

Lipeurus jejunus. — A slender, pale, yellowish-white louse. 
It is probably universally distributed. 

Trinoton continuum.— This is a fairly large louse, covered 
with few hairs. It is common on geese. 

l"u; ;. I.ii'icrnrs I5.\c"i;.i's 

.\. Mouth |i;uts. I), antenn.-i.-. (", 1 iis. Drawitiir to rijtlit of liend iiulic.Tti.* 

actual size. 

I'lG. 8. Kggs or XiT OF THE (loNiooEs Stylifer (dreatlv Magnitied) 

.\, Kf-'g ccmeiittd to tlu- barhs of the featlier. 

Lice of Pigeons 

Lipeurus baculus. — This is the conuuou louse of the pigeon. 
It is long, slender, light-colored and the abdominal segments 
are provided with two or three hairs on each side. Fig. 7 
illustrates this parasite. 

Life History of Lice 

The females of lice are slightly larger than the males. 
They lay oval, white or whitish-yellow eggs (nits), and 
securely cement them to the barbs of the feathers. This Is 
illustrated in Fig. 8. When the eggs hatch they break open 
at the end or a small cap is lifted from the end, in much 
the manner that a chick escapes from the egg. The young 
have much the same shape as the adults and are ordinarily 
considerably lighter in color. The males are usually less 
numerous than the females. If conditions are favorable the 
eggs hatch in from ten days to three weeks, and the lice live 
for a considerable time, several months under favorable con- 


ditions. During their development they moult frequently, 
sometimes as often as ten times, becoming slightly darker 
with each molt. 

Lice breed with great rapidity; it has been com- 
puted tliat the ofthpring of a single pair would 
reach the enormous total of 125,000 individuals 
in the third generation, which may mature in 
eight weeks ! 

Effects of Louse Infestation 

Chicks hatched in the incu])ator are free from 
lice and stay so imtil placed with lousy hens or 
chicks, or in quarters infested by lice. Lice pro- 
duce mucli irritation. The effect of large num- 
bers upon birds is quite marked. The lousy birds 
scratch, pick at the feathers, show signs of being 
drowsy, may refuse to eat, and, in growing birds, 
the body development or growth is interfered 

Young chicks infested with lice often sit 
around, moping, with wings hanging down, and 
in a week or two may die. For this reason 
brooder chicks should thrive better, grow faster, 
and are freer from many ailments than chicks 
hatched by the hen. It has been said that a lousy 
bird will have more of a tendency to wallow in 
the dust than one not so infested. 

The effect upon older birds is not so severe 
as upon younger ones, but is noted in conditions 
of flesh and in the production of eggs. The irri- 
tation is sometimes so severe that hens desert 
their nests. Their combs may become dark or 
black. Birds unable to rest day or night, become 
emaciated and die. 

To tind the lice, part the feathers and the lice 
will be found running over the skin or base of 
the feathers. A favorite location for lice is under 


the wings where tlie temperature is warm ; but 
they may be found on any part of the body and 
at all seasons of tlic year, but are most common 
in the hottest months of the year, July and Au- 
gust. During these months conditions are more 
favorable for their propagation. 

Dealing with Louse Infestation 

A time-honored and very effective method of 
treating young chicks for lice is to grease the head 
and neck, under the wings and around vent. Blue 
ointment, lard and sulphur, salt and butter, and 
various other greases are used, but none is more 
effective than lard alone, which, although tedious 
to apply, is justified by the excellence of the re- 
sults obtained from its application. 

Older chickens may be either dusted with insect 
powder or dipped in a preparation for destroying 
the parasites as we dip larger animals. A dust- 
ing powder composed of equal parts of pyreth- 
rum and sulphur is an excellent one for ridding 
birds of lice ; tobacco dust, which may usually be 
secured at any tobacco factory, may be added 
to the combination and perhaps will increase its 
efficiency. This powder should also be sprinkled 
in the dusting places of the infested chickens. 
Dusting places should always be provided. 

An insect powder gun is needed for dusting 
the birds. This may be secured at almost any 
drug store. 

If it is the wish to dip the birds, prepare a five- 
per cent solution of creolin, or the same strength 
of either zenoleum or kreso dip. 

The Maine Agricultural Experiment Station 
gives the following directions for freeing birds 
from lice : 


When the treatment of individual birds for lice 
becomes necessary some kind of powder dusted 
into the feathers thoroughly, seems to be, on the 
whole, the most effective and advisable remedy. 
The powder used must be of such a nature, how- 
ever, that it will be effective. There are-so-called 
' ' lice powders ' ' on the market which are no more 
effective than an equal quantity of any inert pow- 
dered substance would be. It is not only a waste 
of money but of time as well to use such pow- 
ders. At the Maine Station no lice powder has 
been found that is so satisfactory as that origi- 
nally invented by Mr. R. C. Lawry, formerly of the 
poultry department of Cornell University. This 
powder (which can be made at a cost of five cents 
per pound) is described as follows by the Maine 
Station : 

In using any kind of lice powder on poultry, it should al- 
ways be remembered that a single application of it is not 
sufficient. When there are lice present on a bird there are 
always unhatched eggs of lice (nits) present, too. The 
proper procedure is to follow up a first application of powder 
with a second at an interval of four days to a week. If the 
birds are badly infested at the beginning, it may be necessary 
to make still a third application. 

The lice powder which the Station uses is made at a cost 
of only a few cents a pound, in the following way: 

Three parts of gasoline and one part of crude carbolic 
acid, 90-95 per cent strength, or, if the 90-95 per cent strength 
crude carbolic acid cannot be obtained, take three parts of 
gasoline and one part of cresol. 

Mix these together and add gradually, with stirring, enough 
plaster of paris to take up all the moisture. As a general rule 
it will take about four quarts of plaster of paris to one quart 
of the liquid. The exact amount, however, must be deter- 
mined by the condition of the powder in each case. The 
liquid and dry plaster should be thoroughly mixed and stirred 
so that the liquid will be uniformly distributed through the 
mass of plaster. When enough plaster has been added the 
resulting mixture should be a dry, pinkish-brown powder 
having a fairly strong carbolic odor and a rather less pro- 
nounced gasoline odor. Do not use more plaster in mixing 
than is necessary to blot up the liquid. 

This powder Is to be worked into the feathers of the birds 



affected with vermin. The bulk of the application should 
be in the fluff around the vent and on the lower side of 
the body and in the fluff under the wings. Its efficiency, 
which is greater than that of any other lice powder known 
to the writer, can be very easily demonstrated by anyone 
to his own satisfaction. Take a bird that is covered with 
lice and apply the powder in the manner just described. 
After a lapse of about a minute, shake the bird, loosening 
its feathers with the fingers at the same time, over a clean 

g^^:^.^^^^----^ ' " 


piece of paper. Dead and dying lice will drop on the paper 
in great numbers. Anyone who will try this experiment will 
have no further doubt of the wonderful efficiency and value 
of this powder. 

After frooing the flock from lice care should ))e 
exercised tliat a reinfestation is not brought about 
by the introduction of lousy birds. 

The lousy henhouse sliould be thoroughly and 
frequently cleansed and the walls whitewashed. 


The whitewash should contain in it, some para- 
siticide as carbolic acid five per cent, creolin five 
per cent or corrosive sublimate one part in one 
thousand. The roosts should be scrubbed with 
boiling water and after drying in the sun should 
be saturated with kerosene. The litter and straw 
should be removed from the nests and burned and 
one inch of air-slacked lime placed in the bottom 
of the nests before refilling them with straw. If 
the henhouse be tightly closed, doors, windows, 
cracks and all openings, and thoroughly fumi- 
gated with sulphur fumes and water vapor it will 
aid in destroying lice or other parasites that may 
be in the cracks and crevices, and difficult to 
reach with whitewash. Fig. 9 illustrates a cheap 
and convenient spray pump for applying the 
whitewash. With this some force is used which 
drives the parasite-destroying fluid into the 
cracks and crevices not possible to reach where 
it is applied with a brush. 


The acarids, or mites, as they are commonly 
called, are exceedingly common, widely dis- 
tributed and of great economic importance. 
They are eight-legged parasites, belong to the 
spider family and are so small as to be nearly or 
quite in^4sible to the unaided eye, though readily 
discernible with the aid of a hand lens of low 
magnif}dng power. 

There are numerous species of mites that in- 
fest birds. Some live on the feathers and scales 
of the skin, others bore into the skin and still 
others inhabit deeper portions of the body. 

There is one form of scabies called depluming 
scabies that is very rare, and so far as the author 



knows has not been reported in this country. It 
affects the body of both chickens and pigeons. 
The one on chickens is the Sarcoptes laevei va- 
riety galliuw and tlie one on pigeons is the Sar- 
coptes laevei variety columhcc. 

The ascarids parasitic for birds are placed un- 
der the following genera: sarcoptes, cytodites, 
trombidium and dermanyssus. Unlike the various 
genera of lice the scab parasites differ greatly in 
the effects wliicli they produce and therefore a 
separate discussion of each one will be given. 

Scaly Legs— Scabies of the Legs 

This condition is very common; it constitutes 
leg scabies, and is caused by a parasite called the 
Sarcoptes miitans variety galUnw. 

Sarcoptes Mutans 

Description. — This parasite is one of the same family of 
scab parasites that infest horses, cattle, hogs, sheep and cats. 
That particular branch of the family af- 
fecting chickens is distinguished by call- 
ing it "variety gallinae"; gallina? being a 
Latin word meaning "of the chicken." 
Owing to the small size of the parasite, it 
is often called a mite. Fig. 10 illustrates 
the parasite magnified 100 times; the 
actual size of the parasite is shown by the 
small dot in the square at the right side 
of the drawing. In the drawing it will 
be noted that the legs are short and 
strong and that its mouth parts are 
arranged for biting the skin. They sub- 
sist upon serum that exudes at the point 
of attack and forms scales or scabs (see 
Fig. 11). 

Life History.— The female lays her 
eggs under the scabs, where in about ten 
days they hatch, if conditions are favor- 
able. The larvae or young mites are 
provided with only three pairs of legs 
and are not provided with sexual organs. 
They pass through several molts and are finally developed 
into the adult stage, and at that time are provided with four 
pairs of legs, with genital organs and are sexually mature. 

iG. 10. Sarcoptes 
Mutans Variety 
A, Mouth parts. B, 
short, stubby legs. 
C, dot indicating 
actual size of para- 



The tearing off of the scabs favors the escape of the para- 
sites, which in warm weather may live in the filth, roosts, 
nests or other parts of the building for at least thirty days, 
and may in that time find their way upon other birds and 
infest them, causing in turn scaly legs on the new host. Thus 
birds become affected by being placed in infested quarters, or 
by having an infested bird placed in the same lot or enclosure 
as at poultry shows, should any of the birds there be infested. 

Symptoms. — This parasite attacks chickens, tur- 
keys and cage birds, bnt the writer has not ob- 
served it infesting 
dncks or geese. It al- 
ways attacks the un- 
feathered portion of 
the legs above the 
foot, and often the 
upper portion of the 
toes. The minute 
parasite crawls under 
the scales of the legs 
and there irritates 
the tissue by attack- 
ing it with its strong 
mouth parts. As a 
result of this irrita- 
tion a vesicle or small 
blister appears. The 

Fig. II. Scaly Legs (Scabies) 

A, Mass of scabs due to dried serum 

that exudes from injured part. B, 

scale of leg forced up and out of 

place by accumulation of dried serum. 

blister is practically 

microscopic in size 

and later ruptures. 

This small quantity 

of serum dries and forms a minute scale. These 

scales accumulate until later large scaly masses 

appear. Fig. 11 is a good illustration of this 


The parasites can be found as minute white 
specks in the serum between the scab and leg. 
Both legs are usually affected at the same time. 

46 IHIUI/IKN" I)1SI":AS1':S 

Itcliing is present and the birds may })ii'k at the 
affe^jted parts. Itcliiiijj: is more iuteuse at night. 
The birds may become weak, sto]) laying and even 
die from the effects of the irritation and loss of 

Treatment: Eradication. — The scabb}'' patches 
should l)e soaked with soai)y water till the scabs 
can be easily removed (this will take time, but in 
valname birds it will pay; if insufficient value to 
justify this expenditure of time and labor, kill 
the bird(ipid burn the affected parts, the legs and 
feet), .uter removal of all scabs possible, scrul) 
thoroughly with kerosene or kerosene emulsion, 
using a nail brush and taking pains to make cer- 
tain that the liquid reaches the deepest parts. 

Kerosene enndsioii is made as follows: Kero- 
sene (coal-oil) one-half gallon, common soap, two 
ounces, water, one quart. Dissolve the soa]) by 
boiling in the water, add this solution, boiling 
hot, to the kerosene and stir with an egg-beater, 
or otherwise violently agitate. When ready for 
use take one part of the emulsion and add to this 
nine parts of water. 

Lune-and-sulpliur r/i/;.— This well-known ])ara- 
siticide used warm and scrubbed thoroughly under 
'the scales is very effective. The lime and sulphur 
dip is made as follows : Unslacked lime, one-third 
of a pound, sulphur, one pound, w^ater, four gal- 
lons. This mixture should be boiled for two hours 
and the amount lost by evaporation made up by 
adding water. The lime acts as a solvent for the 
sulphur; the dissolved sulphur is a valual)le i)ara- 

Commercial Disinfectants. — Five per cent solu- 
tion (in water) of creolin, zenoleum, or kreso dip 


is also effective. These solutions should be used 

Premises. — For the eradication of scab para- 
sites from infested premises, follow the directions 
given for ridding premises of lice. (See page 40.) 

Air Sac Disease 

This is a very serious malady of birds that is 
fortunately rather rare in this country; it is ex- 
ceedingly difficult to eradicate once it has become 
established in a flock. It is due to a scab parasite 
called Cytodites nudus, synonyms for which are: 
cytoleichus sarcoptides, Cnemidocoptes mutans, 
and air-sac mite. 

Cytodites Nudus 

Description. — The body of this parasite is ovoid in shape, 
as illustrated in Fig. 12. It is whitish in color and is pro- 
vided with conical-shaped mouth parts, through which it sucks 
fluids from the parts infested. The legs are rather short, 
conical, and in both male and female all are provided with 
suckers, which aid in moving about and in holding on. The 
legs are composed of five articles (segments or joints) each. 
The larva has three pairs of legs and the adult four pairs. 

Life History. — The ovigerous female lays eggs, as a rule, 
but at times has been observed to deposit eggs ready to hatch 
and even young larvae. The larvae pass through changes 
similar to those of the scaly-leg mite by moulting several 
times, and finally reaching the adult or sexually developed 

S5miptoms. — The air sac mite inhabits the ab- 
dominal air sacs, the air spaces of bones, and the 
air cells (alveoli) of the lungs of chickens and 
pigeons. If only a few parasites are present no 
symptoms may be noticeable, but if they exist in 
large numbers their effects may be serious. The 
l)ird will become thin in flesh and even emaciated, 
will appear dull, stay apart from the others of the 
flock, and the comb will usually be pale in color. 
The wings will droop and there will be labored 


(heavy, difficult) breathing. Coughing may oc- 
cur and a rattling of mucus (rales) in the trachea 
or bronelii may often be lieard. 

Postmortem Appearances. — By a careful examina- 
tion of the infested air sacs or the bronchi and 
sacules of tlie lungs, the mites may be found ap- 
pearing as minute white specks, about the size of 
the scaly leg parasites. 

For the specimen from which the accompanying 
drawing (Fig. 12) was made, the author is in- 
debted to Dr. W. B. Mack, Reno, Nevada, who ob- 
tained it from a flock of birds examined in New 
York. Besides the white specks moving on the 
surfaces of the air sacs, whitish-yellow points, due 
to the irritation caused by the parasite, may be 
found. The bronchi may be congested. In severe 
cases inflammation or bronchitis, and even pneu- 
monia, may exist. 

The air-sac mite has also been reported as in- 
festing the liver, kidneys and other abdominal 
organs, in which cases they produce yellowish, 
pearl-like nodules or tubercles. 

An outbreak of this disease in Colorado was studied by 
the author during the spring of 1912, in which several birds 
in a flock of sixty became ill. They were dull and weak, 
with a partial loss of appetite and a tendency to crane their 
necks when they tried to swallow, became poor in flesh and 
after one to two or three weeks died. The comb, in most 
instances, turned black shortly before death. 

On autopsy there were found myriads of small, yellowish- 
white specks over the abdominal air sacs, lungs and trachea. 
These specks, when examined under the microscope, proved 
to be the air-sac mite (Cytodites nudus) as illustrated in 
Fig. 12. 

Treatment. — It is said that sulphur given with 
tlie feed will be absorbed and eliminated by the 
lungs in sufficient quantities to kill the parasites 
Ihat infest them, but this is doubtful. A better 
metliod of handling an outbreak of air-sac disease 



among birds of average value is to kill all the 
birds in an infested flock. None of them should 
be sold, as they may find their way into other 
flocks and infest them. It is a very serious disease 
and one of which it is difficult to rid the flock. 

Chigger (Jigger) or Red Mite Infestation 

There are two varieties of chiggers found in this 
country, one is the Trombidium holosericeum, the 
other the Dermanyssus gallince. 

Fig. 12 Fig. 13 

Fig. 12. Cytodites Nudus 
A, Rostrum. B, ambulacrum. C, pedicle of am- 
Fig. 13. Trombidium Holosericeum 
A, Mouth parts. B, palpi. C, booklets on free ex- 
tremity of the leg. D, uterus filled with eggs. 
Drawing to right indicates actual size. 

Trombidium Holosericeum 

This parasite is tlie common cliigger (jigger) or red mite 
of the henhouse. 

Description. — It is very small, as indicated by the mark 
by the side of Fig. 13. The body is oval in shape (shape 
of a hen egg) ; it is provided with four pairs of legs in the 
adult state and three pairs in the larval. The distal end of 
each leg is provided with two booklets or claws, with which 
it clings to objects and which enable it to crawl about. Its 
mouth parts are conical in shape, as illustrated in the draw- 
ing. (See Fig. 13.) 

Life History. — Mites lay their eggs in the cracks and 
crevices and filth of henhouses. If the temperature is warm 
the eggs hatch in a few days into the asexual, six-legged state. 
After passing through a few moults it arrives at the eight- 


legged, sexual or adult state. The parasite multiplies very 
fast in the warmer parts of the summer, July and August, 
when conditions are more favorable for their propagation. 

Symptoms of Trombidium Infestation. — By means 
of its conical mouth parts, referred to above, it 
wounds the skin and sucks blood. The engorged 
parasite is blue to red in color, depending 
upon the quantity of blood taken into the digestive 
tract. During the summer of 1911 the author 
observed one infested flock of chickens in which 
the affected birds showed symptoms similar to 
birds infested with lice. They became unthrifty, 
ceased laying, sitting hens deserted their nests, 
all exhibited unkempt appearance of the feathers 
and many died. Many were found dead under the 
roosts of mornings. Examination of the nests, 
roosts and birds revealed millions of the parasites. 
This was in the month of August. 

Treatment: Eradication. — The same treatment as 
for lice will be found very effective. Absolute 
cleanliness, plenty of kerosene repeatedly applied 
to the roosts, air-slacked lime on the floors, and in 
the bottom of the nests. 

Dermanyssus Gallinae 

Description. — By referring to Fig. 14 it will be seen that 
the body of this parasite, commonly known as the mite 
chigger, differs from the Trombidium holosericeum in that 
it is ovopyriform in shape instead of oval. The diameter 
of the posterior third is greater than that of the anterior 
third. The abdomen and legs are provided with rather short 
bristles. Its mouth parts are conical in shape and arranged 
for injuring the skin and sucking blood. The color varies 
according to the amount of blood contained within the in- 
testinal tract, varying from yellow to a yellowish-red. The 
free extremity of the legs is provided with an apparatus 
which enables them to hold on or cling to objects and to move 
about rapidly. 

Life History.— The female, like the female of the preceding 
genus, lays her eggs in the cracks and crevices and filth of 
the floors and nests, where they hatch out in a few days, if 
the temperature be favorable. The young, six-legged asexual 



larva goes through several moults, finally maturing into the 
adult, sexual, eight-legged parasite. 

Symptoms of Dermanyssus Infestation. — This par- 
asite lives in the poultry houses and dove-cotes, 
hiding in the straw of nests, cracks and crevices of 
the roosts, and other places of concealment in the 
daytime. It is the most common and most injur- 
ious of mites and is present in every poultry house 
unless it is kept unusually clean. It comes out at 
night and makes its attack. Few of these parasites 

Fig. 14 Fig. IS 

Fig. 14. Derm.\nyssus Gallin^e 
A, Conical-shaped rostrum. B, palpus. 

Fig. 13. PuLEx Avium 
A, Antennse. B, stylette. C, hooklets on free extremity of leg. 

are to be found on the birds (chickens and pigeons) 
in the daytime, but at night they may be numerous. 
Birds so harassed at night cannot sleep or rest 
and soon become emaciated. The laying hens 
will leave their nests and even cease laying. Birds 
may be found dead under the roosts in the morn- 
ings from the attacks of these mites. 

These parasites may also attack horses and 
other animals kept close to the quarters of infested 
birds ; they cause irritation, the animal scratches. 


rubs, and inia])le to rest at nii^lit, becomes thin 
in flt'sli, and weak. 

Treatment. — The same as lias been outlined for 
lice and cliii^gers. (See pag'e 40.) 


But one genus and species of flea is parasitic 
upon the chickens. It is known, technically, as the 
Pulex avium. It is far more common in the south- 
ern half of the United States than it is in states 
further north. 

Pulex Avium 

Description.— This is the common chicken flea. It resembles 
to some extent the flea that infests dogs and man; however, 
a microscopic study shows it to be a distinct species. Fig. 15 
illustrates this parasite. It is provided with antennae or 
jointed feelers. In the larval state its mouth parts are ar- 
ranged for mastication and in the adult for wounding the 
skin and sucking blood. It is flattened laterally, the thorax 
being a trifle deeper than the head and is provided with three 
pair of legs, of which the posterior pair are longer than the 
others, giving the insect great power to jump. The free 
extremity of the legs is provided with two booklets or claws. 
In color the chicken flea is light to dark brown. 

Life History. The female lays about twenty brown, oval 

eggs in some dirty, dusty place, such as the floor, cracks, 
crevices or nests. These eggs hatch in a few days (six to 
twelve) if the temperature be warm, and from them come 
■ wormlike larva; composed of thirteen segments each. The 
mouth parts are arranged for mastication. The larval stage 
lasts about eleven days; they then pass through a pupa stage 
in a tough brown cocoon. The pupa stage lasts about four- 
teen days, when the six-legged adult flea emerges from the 

Chicken Flea Infestation 

Symptoms. — In an outbreak of flea infestation 
studied by the author during the summer of 1911, 
the presence of the fleas in the flock was first noted 
because of the insects attacking persons who en- 
tered the hen house. Investigation revealed the 
presence of fleas in large numbers. 

It is noteworthy in this outbreak that all the 


lice and chiggers disappeared from the flock, al- 
tliougli the chickens in this flock had been troubled 
l>y these parasites, more or less, during the three 
years preceding. Although fleas irritate the skin 
and suck blood, no noticeable etTect on these birds 
was noted by the owner. Perhaps, because it 
being summer, the birds were largely out doors 
and under favorable conditions as to health. 
Symptoms similar to those produced by lice have 
been recorded in other cases. 

Treatment : Eradication. — Dipping the hens in 
any of the following solutions, five per cent creo- 
lin, five per cent kreso dip, or five per cent zeno- 
leum, is effective in ridding the birds of fleas and 
preventing their reinfestation for a short time. 
A dusting powder, used as directed under the dis- 
cussion of lice, may also be employed with suc- 
cess. Do not neglect to stop reinfestation by 
treating the premises the same as directed for 
lice (See page 40.) 


The chicken tick is the Argas miniatus. It is 
not common in the United States, although it does 
occur in some of the southern states and in Mex- 

Argas Miniatus 

Description. — The body is flat and thin. It has an over- 
reaching dorsal surface that hides the mouth parts. The 
mouth parts are provided with mandibles, which have hook- 
like denticles at the free extremity and a hypostome provided 
with six rows of irregularly-arranged, toothlike denticles. 
With this apparatus it holds on to its host. By the side of 
this apparatus there is, on either side, a palpus, an articulated, 
fingerlike structure taking the place of antennae as found in 
the insect parasites. This tick is a blood sucker. The en- 
gorged female is nearly one-half inch long. Fig. 16 is a 
drawing of a full-grown female, taken from a hen in south- 
ern Texas. 


Life History. — The engorged female drops to the ground, 
from the hen, and finding a hiding place under some objert, 
lays her eggs, which, if the weather be warm, hatch in a 
few days into the six-legged, asexual state. Upon gaining 
access to chickens it begins to draw blood and molts, finally 
reaching the eight-legged, sexual state. It is now ready to 
again reproduce. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — Large numbers of 
ticks cause trouble similar to that caused by num- 
erous lice. The parasite, being a blood-sucker, 
robs the host of considerable blood and causes ir- 
ritation. The birds do not thrive, sitting hens 
leave their nests, laying hens cease laying, young 

-/ 'm 

jff^ \_.„.,,.i«lll ■IIIIM,,,,, J ^ 

'■* V ' „y 

Fig. i6. Argas Miniatus Fig. 17. Acanthia Inodora 

birds make ])iit little growth. Badly infested 
birds may die. 

Treatment. — Combat the parasite with sanitary 
measures, as outlined for the prevention of lice, 
lice. (See page 40.) 


The chicken bug or dove cote bug is known as 
the Acanthia inodora. It is often found around 
unclean roosts and dove cotes. It is closely allied 
to the bedbug, from which it requires a micro- 
scopic study to differentiate it. 


Acanthia Inodora 

Description. — Fig. 17 illustrates a spcciuicu obtained fi\;in 
an infestation in Colorado. It will be noted that it is pro- 
vided with long antenna^, which possess long joints or articles. 
Its head is rather narrow and it has prominent eyes. The 
thorax is crescent-shaped on the anterior border and is much 
wider than the head. It is provided with three pairs of legs. 
Its abdomen, like the abdomen of the louse, is segmented 
and is practically destitute of hair. 

Life History. — The Acanthia inodora lays its eggs in the 
filth, where they soon hatch, if the weather be warm, and 
rapidly develop to the adult state. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — This bug is quite a 
pest in Mexico and some parts of the southern 
United States. At times they are found in great 
numbers swarming over the roosts and nests, 
specking the eggs with their excrement, attacking 
the hosts at night and sucking their blood. The 
conditions, as a result, are the same as is the case 
in any other form of infestation by external par- 

Treatment. — Similar to the preceding. The 
chicken bug is at times a formidable foe, even in- 
vading dwellings and proving more troublesome 
than the common bedbug {Cimex lectularia). They 
begin to appear about the middle of April, and at 
times it is necessary to keep the chickens entirely 
out of doors. 

The bugs may live for many months on the filth 
about a dove cote or henhouse and the disinfection 
must be most thorough to eradicate them. 


Three harmful fungi affect chickens. One kind 
affects the mouth, another the skin and the third 
the lungs. They are more or less common in this 


Thrush— Aphtha — Sore Mouth 

This is a condition affecting tlie mouth and is 
due to a low-grade fungus called the Oidium al- 
bicans (saccharoniyccs albicans). Tliis consists 
of hyi^lia) (fine tliread-like processes) which in 
some instances show well marked chains of cells. 
It reproduces bj' forming round or ovoid spores. 

Symptoms. — Eberth has reported a case in a 
bird that was emaciated and died in convulsions. 
On the inner lining or mucous membrane of the 
first portion of the esophagus whitish to brown- 
ish yellow deposits adliering to the mucous sur- 
face were observed. These were found to be 
composed of the spores and filaments of this 
fungus. It has also been reported as occurring 
in turkeys. 

Treatment. — If the patches can be seen it is best 
to cauterize the area with stick of lunar caustic 
(moulded nitrate of silver). Intestinal antisep- 
tics are also indicated such as are given in otlier 
intestinal disorders as fowl cholera. (See page 

Tinea Favosa— Honey-Comb Ringworm 

This malady is due to another low-grade fun- 
gus, the Achorion schoenleinii. The fungus some- 
what resembles the Oidium albicans appearing in 
hyphge or threads and reproducing by spore 

Symptoms. — This disease has been called favus, 
baldness and white comb. It is a disease that is 
highly contagious and attacks the comb, face and 
neck. If not treated, but allowed to spread and 
go on uninterrupted, it may later extend to tlie 

The disease first appears on the comb or face 


as whitish or light-gray, small, roundish patches, 
which vary from the size of a millet seed to a 
half-inch in diameter. Later these patches may 
coalesce and form large areas. 

The diseased area is covered with a scale which 
may be depressed in the center and turned up at 
the edges, giving it a cup-like shape. In the 
course of four to six weeks the crusts may be 
one-fourth inch in thickness. 

The feathers become dry, erect, brittle and 
break off at the surface, leaving large denuded 
areas. A disagreeable odor is given off by the 
diseased areas which has been likened to that of 
mouldy cheese. As the disease progresses the 
bird loses its appetite, becomes gradually ema- 
ciated, weakens and finally dies. 

Treatment. — In the early stage this disease 
yields to treatment readily. The crusts should be 
soaked with soapy water containing a five per 
cent solution of creolin, liquor cresolis, kreso dip, 
carbolic acid, or similar antiseptic. The fluid 
should find its way to every part affected. The 
premises should be disinfected as for lice or other 

Pneumomycosis— Aspergillosis 

The third fungus disease affecting birds is usu- 
ally due to the Aspergillus fumigatus, an organ- 
ism similar to the common green molds. It 
affects the lungs and is discussed under "Diseases 
of the Organs of Respiration." (See page 145.) 


Internal Parasites 

Parasites infesting the intestinal canal of fowls 
are harbored by most fowls, and serions infesta- 
tions by these parasites are by no means rare. 
These parasites are commonly spoken of as worms. 
Other internal parasites, such as gapeworm and 
air-sac mite, while not so common as the intestinal 
worms, are by no means unknown, and have the 
same possibilities of serious infestation. 

Intestinal parasites in small numbers infest all 
fowls without doing perceptible harm, but there 
is always the possibility that conditions for their 
propagation may become so favorable as to turn 
the mildest infestation into a devastating para- 
sitism. Indeed, this very thing has occurred num- 
berless times, and not a few flocks have been en- 
tirely destroyed by it. The death of any bird from 
the effects of internal parasites should be looked 
upon with apprehension. 

Internal parasites may be classed under four 
orders, as follows : Nematodes, or round worms ; 
Cestodes, or flat, ribbon-shaped segmented worms ; 
Acanthocephala, or thorn-headed worms; and the 
Trematoda, or the flat leaf-like worms, called 


These are the commonest of internal parasites ; 
they may be found in the ceca of nearly all fowls, 
and usually in other portions of the bowel. When 
numerous they may seriously interfere with di- 
gestion and lessen nutrition, and by their irrita- 



tion of the intestine cause a stubborn diarrhea. 
Rarely they become so plentiful in the intestine 
as to wholly obstruct it. 

The round worms include four important in- 
ternal parasites of birds; the large, round, in- 
testinal worm ; the small, round intestinal worm ; 
the gizzard worm; and the gapeworm, besides a 
number of rare, or for other reasons, unimportant 
worms, all of which will be described in turn. 

Ascaris Inflexa 

This parasite, sometimes called the Heterakis 
persp'iciUinn, is commonly known as the large, 
round worm. It is very common, having been 
found by the author in twenty-four out of eighty- 
seven autopsies. 

Description. — This intestinal parasite is round in sliape and 
wliitisli-yellow to wliite in color, varying from one to two 
inclies in lengtli. Tliere are two sexes, male and female, the 
female being considerably the larger. Fig. 18 shows the 
actual size of the male and the female specimens from which 
this drawing was made. Some few specimens are much larger 
than the ones shown. 

Life History. — The Ascaris inflexa reproduce by laying 
eggs, microscopic in size, which pass out to the ground with 
the feces. Other birds become infested by drinking or eat- 
ing food contaminated or soiled with the excrements of in- 
fested birds. In this way one infested bird introduced into 
the flock may spread the disease to all the other birds in 
the flock. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — Tliese parasites harm 
the liost by ingesting food during its digestion 
by the host, thus robbing it to a certain extent. 
A few worms may produce no noticeable effect 
upon the health of the bird, but if present in large 
numbers they cause serious trouble. It has been 
found that the poison or excremontitious (waste) 
matter given off by these and other intestinal 
worms is absorbed and has a deleterious consti- 



tiitional effect, similar to that of like infestations 
by parasites in the larger animals and in man. 

At times the worms are found in large masses, 
partially obstructing the bowel, causing constipa- 
tion, and possibly irritation sufficient to set up in- 
flammation. There may be a loss of appetite, 
unthrifty condition, unkempt appearance of plum- 
age, dullness, languor and drooping wings, ema- 
ciation, loss of color from the comb and mucous 
membranes followed hv death in a few weeks. 

Fig. 1 8 Fig. 19 Fig. 20 

Fig. 18. Asc.\Ris Inflex.\ (natural size) 

A, Female. B, male. 

Fig. 19. Heterakis P.^pillosa (natural size) 

A, Female. B, male. 

Fig. 20. Heter-\kis Papillosa, He.\d Extremity (magnified) 

A, Mouth parts. B, esophagus. 

By careful examination of the contents of the 
digestive tract of the birds killed for food pur- 
poses the poultry raiser may keep informed as 
to whether this form of parasitism is present in 
his flock. If these worms are present in members 
of the flock close observation will occasionally dis- 
cover them passed in the feces. 

Treatment. — It is necessary to keep the yard and 
henhouse clean, lime scattered on the floor and 
about the yard, and the water for the birds kept 
in a clean fountain and the food in clean troughs, 
made for the purpose, and disinfected daily, and 


so constnicU'd that birds cannot step into them. 
If at all possible, birds should be moved upon new 
ground. The parasite eggs in the droppings re- 
n]j,)ved from tlie henhouse may be destroyed by 
mixing the manure with unslaked lime. 

Tlie birds may be given one teaspoonful of tur 
]jentine followed by a tablespoonful of olive oil. 
If the crop is full the dose of turpentine should 
be doubled. Five to ten grain doses of areca nut 
is a good treatment. The areca nut can be mixed 
with soft feed and fed from a clean trough; it 
acts as a cathartic as well as a parasiticide. One 
grain doses of thymol is an excellent treatment 
for round worms. Two grains of santonin for 
eacli bird is likewise an effective treatment. 

Heterakis Papillosa 

This is another very common worm and is usu- 
ally found in the cecum or blind gut. The author 
has found it present in about fifty per cent of the 
adult birds autopsied in his investigation work 
among poultry during the past four years. It is 
spoken of as the small round worm by poultry- 

Description. — This worm is much smaller tlian the Ascaris 
inflcxa, being only about one-fourth to one-half inch long. 
It is white in color. Fig. 19 illustrates the male and female, 
natural size. Fig. 20 illustrates the head parts, magnified 
several times, and Fig. 21 the caudal or posterior end of 
the male, magnified several diameters. 

Life History.— So far as known the life history is the same 
as that of the Ascaris inflcxa. While the latter infests the 
small intestines as stated above, this one is found principally 
in the ceca or blind gut. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — AVhen p r e s e n t in 
large numbers the small round intestinal worm 
of chickens {Jleteralis papUlosa) produces con- 
siderable irritation and results in an unthrifty 



coiiditioii of the affected bird. It robs the host 
of nutrients, as does the Ascaris. 

Treatment.— Sanitary measures for the preven- 
tion and eradication of this parasitism and direc- 

FiG. 21. Heterakis Papillosa, Tail Extremity (greatly magnified) 
A, Spiculse. B, preanal sucker. C, papilla. 

tions for its treatment are the same as for Ascaris 
inflexa. (See page 61.) 

Spiroptera Hamulosa 

This is the gizzard worm of chickens. Speci- 
mens have been sent to the author's laboratory 
from Missouri only. 

Description. — The male measures about one-half inch in 
length and the female about three-quarters of an inch. Fig. 
22 illustrates the worms, natural size. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — The economic signifi- 
cance of this parasitism is due chiefly to the loss 
of weight and the stunted growth 
which it causes. The affected 
birds become anemic, emaciated, 
extremely lazy and have a raven- 
ous appetite. The worms pro- 
duce nodules in the walls of the 
gizzard. The birds become in- 
fested from eating food contaminated or soiled 
with the excrement of infested birds or by taking 




22. Spiroi'tera 
(natural size) 
A, male. B, female. 


in Youug, immature worms tliroiigh soiled food 
and water. 

Treatment. — 'IMie treatment is difficult owing to 
the fact that they are imhedded in tumefactions 
in the walls of the gizzard. Give turpentine and 
olive oil as directed for the treatment of Ascaris 
infiexa infestations. The treatment should be re- 
peated three or four times at intervals of one 

Syngamus Trachealis 

This parasite is sometimes called tlie Scleros- 
toma syngamus, and popularly the forked worn\ 
or gapeworm. There is another worm slightly 
larger than this one that infests the bronchi and 
trachea of ducks, swans and geese. It is called 
the Syngamus hronchialis. 

Description. — The male is very much smaller than the 

female, upon which it exists as a parasite. Fig. 23 illustrates 

■ these worms in copulation as they are 

I always found. A, illustrates a section of 

' mucous membrane. B, the male, which, 

it will be noted, is much thinner than the 

female and scarcely one-fourth inch long; 

and C, the female, about one inch in 

length. The mouth parts are surrounded 

by a capsular arrangement by which it 

holds firmly to the mucous membrane of 

the trachea or bronchi (windpipe). The 

mouth parts are provided with chitinous 

Fic. 23. Syngamus teeth, with which they wound the mucous 

Trachealis membrane; from this wound they suck 

(natural size) blood. 

^' ^"rtrache?"'" Life History.-The female produces 

B, male. C, female. eggs which escape from her body only 
after she is expelled from the host and 
her body decomposed. The embryos thus escaping from the 
decomposing and disintegrating female are taken up by earth 
worms. Thus, chicks drinking contaminated water, or eat- 
ing these infested earth worms, in turn, become infested; 
or if the chick should pick up an expelled female containing 
the mature eggs, the embryos would be liberated in the 
stomach of the chick, in which case they migrate to the 
air sacs and air passages and grow to maturity. 


Symptoms of Infestation. — Wild as well as tame 
birds (chickens, turkeys, pheasants, partridges, 
pea-fowl, magpies, black storks, starlings, crows, 
parrots, swifts, woodpeckers and martins all have 
been reported as having become infested) are 
susceptible to gapeworm infestation. 

The poultryman's trouble is usually with young 
chicks and turkeys. The small, immature gape- 
worms or eggs containing the embryos find their 
way to the intestinal tract of the young bird as 
described above, and from the intestine they mi- 
grate to the trachea (wind pipe) and its branches 
and attach themselves, where, by growing in size, 
they gradually obstruct the passage of air to the 
lungs. As a result, the bird finds breathing dif- 
ficult and after a while gasps for breath, extending 
its head high into the air, finally becoming as- 
phyxiated. Usually a lump may be found by 
feeling along the trachea, if the worms be lodged 
in that part of the trachea, which is palpable. 
A definite diagnosis may always be made upon 
autopsy by the presence or absence of the worms 
in the trachea, where, if present, they will be found 
in pairs attached to the mucous membrane. 

Prevention.— Hatch the eggs in an incubator. Do 
not allow the chicks to run out in wet grass, where 
they may find earth worms or contaminated water. 
Feed only in containers which are constructed for 
the purpose and kept clean. 

Treatment. — By grasping the bird in the left 
hand and forcing its mouth open a doubled horse 
hair may be run down the trachea and by twisting 
and again withdrawing, the worms may usually 
be dislodged. Gentle pressure over the region of 
the mass may so injure the worms as to cause 
them to loosen their hold and be expelled by the 


bird during the coughing which this causes. Care 
must be exercised lest the trachea be injured. A 
feather from which all barbs except the tip have 
been removed may be dipped in turpentine, forced 
down the trachea, and when the tip has passed 
the mass of worms it may be twisted as it is with- 
drawn. This usually results in their removal. By 
referring to Plate 1, No. 34, the location of the 
opening of the trachea through the larynx may be 


There are other round worms that may infest 
the intestinal tract, but which have not come un- 
der the observation of the author. They are not 
common, or important, to the poultry industry. 
The list follows : 

Heterakis DiSerens 

This is a slightly larger species than the Heterakis papu- 
losa. Its mouth has no apparent lips; the pharyngeal bulb 
is distinct; there are two unequal spicula. It is found in 
the posterior portion of the intestines of chickens. 

Heterakis Compressa 

This is a round worm of about the size of the Ascaris 
inflexa. The tail ends in a sharp mucro. It is found In 
the small Intestines of chickens. 


Several species of this genus have been reported from 
various parts of the world, but have not been observed by 
the author in this country. They are shaped something like 
the old-fashioned blacksnake whip. They are blood suckers, 
and in the adult stage live in the small intestine. 

Heterakis Maculosa 

A round, white worm found in inte.slinal vesicles of the 
pigeon. The female is about three-fourths of an inch and 
the female about one inch long. At times this worm is a 


serious menace to the flock, killing many birds. The symp- 
toms are similar to those produced in chickens by round 

TAPEWORMS. (Flat Segmented Worms.) 

Tapeworms inhabit tlio intestinal tracts of all 
species of birds, animals and man. More than 
thirty different species of tapeworms have been 
recorded in poultry. 

Tapeworms differ from round worms, in that 
they have no complete digestive tract, are flat and 
segmented and have no distinct sex; that is, the 
male and the female are combined in a single in- 
dividual (hermaphrodite). The tapeworms all 
live in the intestinal tract, in their adult stage, 
and absorb, through their integument, nutrients, 
taken in and digested by their host ; thus they rob 
their host of food nutrients. The species studied 
in the author's laboratory are from chickens. The 
worm is divided into a head, neck and body. The 
head is provided with four suckers and in some 
species a circular row of booklets. The neck in 
some species is long, in others short, but always 
unsegmented. The body is composed of segments. 
These segments grow from the neck. At first they 
are short and narrow, but become longer and 
wider as the distance from the head increases. 
At varying distances from the head the segments 
become mature, that is, fully developed sexually, 
and ready to propagate. Each segment is really 
a separate animal and is a hermaphrodite, that is, 
provided with both male and female generative 
organs. Each segment impregnates itself, after 
which the eggs are developed. As soon as the 
segment is filled with fully developed or mature 
eggs, the segment detaches itself, passes out with 


the feces and falls to the gruiuKl. Tlius, at times, 
we may find in the excrement of an infested bird 
the segments, white in color and possessing the 
power of movement; that is, it contracts and ex- 
pands, showing it to be alive. This is especially 
noticeable if the segments be placed in water. 
Before it is detached each segment absorbs its 
own nutrients through its integument. This nutri- 
ent consists of the food eaten and digested by its 
host as alluded to above. New segments are con- 
stantly developed by the head of the tapeworm, 
growing down, becoming ripe, i. e., filled with ma- 
ture eggs, and detached; if not interfered with, 
this process goes on almost indefinitely. 

Upon disintegration of the segments shed from 
the worm, and passed out with the feces, the eggs 
become scattered. The life history of the worm 
from this state is not well understood. It prob- 
ably has an intermediate host, by which the eggs 
are taken up, and within which they pass through 
a cystic stage and form embryos, which reach the 
intestine of the bird, become attached and develop 
to the adult stage. 

The larva consists of a head with its fixation 
apparatus, namely, the suckers and booklets, if 
such be present in the adult, and a neck. Having 
attached itself to the mucous membrane of the in- 
testines, it now absorbs digested food and begins 
to develop segments, which in a few weeks begin 
again to Jbe shed at intervals, containing fully de- 
veloped eggs, which number several hundred in 
each segment. Under proper conditions, each ogs; 
is capable of producing a single tapeworm as 


Taenia Infundibuliformis— ^Tapeworm 

This worm is sometimes called the Choanotwnia 
infundihulwn and also the Drepanidotwnia in- 

Description. — This worm varies in length from one and 
one-half to three inches. Fig. 24 illustrates a mature worm. 
Its head is oval, the neck short and the segments shorter 
than wide. The head is provided with four sucker-discs 
and a crown of from sixteen to twenty hooklets, which can- 
not be seen except by microscopic examination. The anterior 
border of the segments is a trifle shorter than the posterior 
border, giving the border of the worm a serrated aspect. 
The male and the female genital pores irregularly alternate. 

Life History. — The eggs passing out to the ground are 
taken up by the intermediate host, which, according to Grassi, 
is the earth worm. Rovelli claims to have found the larval 
or cystic stage in the house-fly. 

Symptoms of Infestation. — If a bird be infested 
by large numbers of tapeworms it is robbed of 
much food, as related above, and 
it becomes unthriftj', shows an 
mikempt appearance of the 
feathers and possibly a loss of 
flesh. As a result of the irrita- 
tion produced by these parasites 
there is a loss of appetite, de- 
rangement of digestion, catarrhal ^^^ ^^ ^^^^^ j^. 
condition of the bowel and ^"(naturaYS'' 
loss in egg production. Birds a. Head. 

n , ' n n 2, segmented body. 

live to SIX months oi age may 
harbor adult tapeworms. This tapeworm often 
causes the death of the infested bird. In the later 
stages of infestation the bird appears dull and a 
complete loss of appetite is noted. 

Treatment. — Give thirty grains of epsom salt 
dissolved in warm water ; follow with two or three 
teaspoonfuls of turpentine. A few teaspoonfuls 
of a decoction of pumpkin seeds usually rids the 



l»ir(l of tapeworms. This shoiikl l)o followed liv 

a licapiiii^ toaspoonfnl of epsom salt or a tablo 

spoonful of olive oil. Powdered areca nut is also 


the digestive tract of worms 

Tlivuiol in one grain doses is said to rid 

Davainea Tetragona 

This is the parasite that causes nodular ta^nia- 
sis (nodular tapeworm disease). It has been 
observed and reported as occurring in some of the 

eastern states and cans- 



Fig. 25. Nodular T.en-iasis 
(tapeworm disease) 
A, Section of intestine of chicken 
(natural size). B, nodules (nat- 
ural size). 

ing quite a loss to poul- 
try raisers. 

Fig. 25 illustrates the 
nodules as they are 
found and about natur- 
al in size. This is from 
a drawing of the outer 
(serous) surface of an 
intestine, which pre- 
sents a nodular appear- 
ance that might be mis- 
taken for tuberculosis. 
The mucous (inner) surface of the intestine is 
similarly elevated, and protruding from the 
nodule into the itnestine may be seen a portion 
of some of the worm. In later stages these 
nodules may show ulcerations on the mucous 
surface. There may be seen in these nodules a 
greenish-yellow necrotic material. A secondary 
invasion, with pus germs, may take place, in which 
case pus will be present. Before the nodules are 
formed these worms maj' be seen between the villi. 
The occurrence of this tapeworm in the intes- 
tine is similar to the tapeworm described above 
[Twiiia iufuiidibnliformis). 


Treatment.— The treatment should ))e the same 
as for the Tcenia wfnndihiiliforuiis (which see), 
or mix with the feed one teaspoonfnl of powdered 
pomegranate root bark for every fifty adult birds. 

Other Taeniae 

Two or three other species of tapeworms closely 
resembling these in their gross appearance have 
l)een described, but judging from the records they 
do not appear to be common. Tapeworms are 
also found in the intestinal tract of ducks and 
other birds. 


The third class of worms listed belong to the 
order Acanthocephala. The body is cylindrical, 
but they are not provided with a complete diges- 
tive tract, as are the nematodes, or round worms. 
They have transverse markings, and, like the tape- 
worms, live by absorbing, through their integu- 
ment, nutrients eaten and digested by their hosts, 
thus robbing them to a certain extent. Further 
more, when present in great numbers, these para- 
sites cause digestive derangements and emacia- 
tion of their hosts. They are provided with a 
globe-shaped proboscis, armed with booklets, 
which they embed in the mucous lining of the in- 
testines ; thus attached by their heads, their bod- 
ies float in the intestinal contents. 

Echinorynchus Polymorphus 

This is one of the three species of this genus 
that live in the intestines of the duck. It is also 
found in the goose. 

Description. The Echinorynchus polymorphus varies in 

length from one-fourth to one inch. The body is orange-red 


in color. It has a neck-like construction, just back of the 
hooked, globe-shaped proboscis. Its proboscis is provided 
with eight or nine rows of booklets. 

Life History. — This worm reproduces by laying eggs. The 
intermediate host is certain fish, as the shrimp and cray 
fish. Ducks become infested by eating fish infested by the 
larval or cystic form. This parasite is probably rare in the 
United States. 

FLUKES (Trematodes) 

The remaining group of worms which inhabit 
the intestinal tract of birds belong to the order 
of Trematodes and are commonly known as flukes. 

The flukes of birds are harbored for the most 
part in the intestinal tract. If we are to judge 
from reports, these worms are exceedingly rare 
in this country. 

Notocotyle Verrucosum 

Perhaps the most common of the flukes is the 
Notocotyle verrucosum. Its body is white or red- 
dish white and from one-twelfth to one-fourth of 
an inch long. Its body is an oblong oval in shape, 
narrow in front and rounded behind. It is found 
in the intestines, principally the cecum or blind 
gut of chickens and ducks. 

No serious results have been atti'il)uted to tlie 
flukes of poultry, altliough it is well known that 
they cause serious maladies in other animals. 
There have been three or four other similar worms 
described which closelv resemble this one. 



Diseases of the Digestive 

Birds are not subject to the manifold ills of the 
digestive system that prevail in higher animals 
and man, at least the list of digestive ailments 
which we recognize in birds are not so numerous 
as they are in higher animals. Beginning with the 
anterior portion of the digestive canal, tlie mouth, 
we find its part in digestion relatively unimpor- 
tant compared to that of the same organ in mam- 
mals, and its ailments correspondingly fewer and 
less important. 

The food is not masticated in the mouth as in 
higher animals, but is swallowed whole, passing 
into the crop, where it is softened by the action 
of the fluids secreted by that organ and perhaps 
also by the action of bacteria swallowed with it. 
After maceration in the crop is accomplished, the 
food passes into the proventriculus (stomach), 
where the processes of digestion are carried still 
further by the secretions (juices) of that organ. 
The thoroughly soaked and softened food is next 
received into the gizzard and ground (with the 
pebbles — grit — always present in that organ) to 
a paste by the action of its strong muscular walls. 

From the gizzard the food passes into the small 
intestine, where digestion is carried on much as 
it is in other domestic animals, by the action of 
the secretions of the intestine, liver and pancreas. 

Domestication has affected the feeding habits 
of birds much as it has the feeding habits of 



liorses. In llic wild state birds, like horses, oat 
most of t]ie time, Init they secure their provender 
but slowh\ Under domestication they are fed 
nutritious, highly concentrated food in a readily 
accessible form, two or three times daily, and are 
required to exercise but slightly to get it. Fre- 
quent disturbances of digestion, largely due in one 
way or another to engorgement, is the result. 

Obstruction of the Beak 

This condition is very race. Cases have been 
noted in which an object, such as a sunflower-seed, 
has become wedged between the rami (branches) 
of the inferior maxilla (lower portion of the beak), 
and serious trouble has resulted from this pres 
sure ; for example, paralysis of the tongue, inabil- 
ity to eat, starvation and death. 

A bird with obstruction of the beak will shake 
its head and scratch at its beak. Upon noticing 
such symptoms in a fowl the caretaker should ex- 
amine its mouth and remove tlio obstruction, 


Among poultrymen one often liears of ''pip" as 
a disease of fowls, particiflarly of chickens. It is 
one of those luimes like "hollow horn" or ''loss 
of cud," in cattle, which signifies no specific dis- 
ease or condition, ])ut merely a sym|)toin of some 
ailment, real or fancied. 

In some of the respiratory diseases, particu- 
larly in roup and ])()x, the nostrils may be closed 
by an exudate and the birds compelled to breathe 
through the mouth, and if, as is usually the case, 
the bird has an abnormally high temperature 
(fever) at the same time there is a tendency for 
the mouth to become verv drv and the mucous 


membrane may crack and bleed. Owing to its dry- 
ness, the epithelium of the tongue may not exfoli- 
ate normally, and, being retained, may form a 
transparent "beak or horn" on the end of the 
tongue. This dryness of the mouth and the re- 
sultant changes are what is known as pip. 

Treatment. — In such cases the treatment con- 
sists in the first place of measures directed at the 
primary cause; that is, the condition which i^ 
producing the dryness of the mouth. The hard- 
ening and drying of the membranes of the mouth 
may be relieved by the application, several times 
daily, of a mixture of equal parts of glycerin and 

If cracks and ulcers have formed they should 
be bathed in a solution- of potassium chlorate and 
water, twenty grains of the former to the ounce 
of the latter. This is best accomplished by dip- 
ping the bird's beak into a vessel containing this 
solution five or six times and repeating every hour 
or two. If pus has formed in the ulcers, they may 
well be cleaned with a few drops of hydrogen per- 
oxide before the potassium chlorate solution is 

Stomatitis— Sore Mouth 

The ulcerative form of sore mouth, due to fungi 
(molds), has been described under external para- 
sites. (See thrush, aphtha, page 56.) Quite fre- 
quently in cases of avian diphtheria or roup we 
find diphtheric patches in the mouth and over the 
tongue, as illustrated in Fig. 48. This is described 
under respiratory diseases. (See page 151.) 

Simple catarrhal inflammation of the mouth is 
not common. It may be caused by some irritants, 
or by bacterial (germ) invasion of an injured 
pari. *l ,1 


Treatment. — A saturated solution of boric acid 
should be used for bathing the affected parts. If 
ulcers are present they should first be cleansed 
with full-strength hydrogen peroxide. 

Impaction of the Crop— Crop Bound 

Obstruction of the crop is generally due to 
swallowing bodies that cannot pass readily from 
the crop through the second portion of the esopha- 
gus to the stomach and gizzard, that is, to an ob- 
struction of the second portion of the esophagus. 
Hog bristles, small feathers, straw, etc., are usu- 
ally the cause of the obstruction. Of the cases 
examined in the author's laboratory some have 
been due to each of the agents named. Two in- 
cubator-hatched and brooder-raised chicks, just 
beginning to feather, were given potato parings, 
after which they died. There was found, in each 
crop, a potato paring, extending from the crop 
through the second portion of the esophagus into 
the stomach. 

By referring to Plate I these organs and their 
relations can be seen. 

A second cause of impaction of the crop is due 
to low vitality of the bird; as a result of acute 
disease, e. g., cholera, or from improper nourish- 
ment the thin muscular walls of the crop may be- 
come paralyzed or so weakened as to be unable 
to force its contents onward into the proventricu- 

Treatment. — Surgical interference is the only 
treatment for this condition likely to be effective. 
Having diagnosed the case, it is not difficult to 
clip away the feathers, clean up the surface with 
mild antiseptics and with a sharp knife open the 
crop and remove the obstruction. The crop and 


the skiu should then be sutured, and the bird al- 
lowed only soft food for a week. 

"Where the obstruction is due to a weakened con- 
dition of the walls of the proventiculus, its con- 
tents may sometimes be forced back through the 
gullet and out of the mouth by careful manipula- 
tion with the hands. 

Tympany of the Crop (Gaseous Crop) 

This is due to a gas-forming germ, which sets 
up putrefaction of the contents of the crop. It is 
usually accompanied by an inflammation (catarrh) 
of the crop which interferes with its normal func- 
tion. Birds have been noted to have at times 
enormously distended crops, which, upon exam- 
ination, proved to be filled with gas. Usually 
these crops contain very little feed. This condi- 
tion often affects young chicks as well as older 

Treatment. — Give intestinal antiseptics, such as 
one part of carbolic acid to two hundred parts of 
water, or murcuric chloride (corrosive sublimate), 
one part to ten thousand parts of water, or sul- 
phocarbolates compound. 

Immediate temporary relief may be given by 
liberating the gas through an aspirating needle 
or a small canula. The crop may then be irri- 
gated, through the canula, with a mild antiseptic 
solution. Follow with two teaspoonfuls of castor 
oil and feed sparingly on easily digested food. 

Enlarged Crop 

The crop may sometimes become very much en- 
larged, slack and pendulous. This condition is 
mainly due to injudicious feeding. 

Pendulant crop causes little inconvenience to 

78 POULTRY D1S1':AS1':S 

the bird aud is incurable except by resection of a 
portion of its wall. This operation is simple and 
easily performed. 

Gangrene of the Crop 

This condition has been observed several times 
l)y the author. It resulted fatally to the birds af- 
fected in all the cases studied. Upon opening the 
croj) a very offensive odor is noted, the mucous 
lining will be found in a necrotic state (sloughing) 
and appear as a dark, sometimes a greenish, case 
ous mass. 

Treatment. — In the earlier stages there may be 
given, in the feed or water, salol, subnitrate of 
bismuth or sulphocarbolates compound. If the 
condition becomes prevalent in a flock, the runs, 
yards and henhouses should be thoroughly disin- 
fected or the birds completely changed to new 
grounds, and in any case given clean food and 
drink. The sick should be separated from the 
well birds and the dead should be burned. 

Catarrh of the Crop 

Irregular feeding, a distended crop and irritat- 
ing and indigesible feed, such as feathers, putrid 
meat and irritant chemicals, may be mentioned as 
causes of this condition, which is essentially a 
more or less chronic inflammation of the mucous 
membrane, lining the crop. If the crop be over- 
distended the strain on the muscles may be so 
great that paralysis results. In these cases there 
is noted a crop filled with a pulpy, soft, more or 
less gaseous mass. 

Treatment. — If the crop be distended with a 
dough-like mass, grasp the bird by the legs, hold- 
ing the head downward, gently press out the mass, 


then by introducing water tlirougli the mouth and 
then forcing it out as before, the crop, in this way, 
may be washed out. 

Give bland substances, such as gruel and mild 
antiseptics, such as salol, subnitrate of bismuth 
or sulphocarbolates compound. 

Depraved Appetite 

This may be duo to a disease of the digestive 
organs or it may be a vice learned from others. 
Hens learn to eat eggs by finding them broken or 
be seeing an egg-eating hen and copying as a 
cribbing horse acquires the habit from his mate, or 
as one hog may learn to eat chickens from seeing 
another eating one. 

Feather eating (plucking) is another habit 
that may be acquired from mimicry. Obstruction 
of the gizzard, lack of grit, insufficient or unsuit- 
able food and catarrh of the crop are factors of 
greater or less importance in causing a depaved 
appetite. Kill the bird; the habit cannot be 

Chicken Cholera— Fowl Cholera 

Fowl cholera is caused by a germ {Bacillus 
avisepticiis), and is a blood-poisoning (septice- 
mia). The germ is rather short, plump, and 
stains at the poles or ends deeper than the mid- 
dle, with aqueous fuchsin, hence it is called a 
polar-staining bacillus. Fig. 26 shows the germ, 
magnified 1,000 times. This drawing was made 
from a blood smear from an outbreak among tur- 
keys and chickens, which was one of several out- 
breaks that have been studied in the author's 
laboratory. The large objects are various kinds 



of blood cells. One of these, a white-blood cell 
(phagocyte), has taken up one of the germs. 

Mode of Spread. — Birds often contract this dis- 
ease from others at shows, and when taken back 
home infest the remainder of the flock and the 
premises, or a bird recently purchased from an 
infected flock, or eggs from an infected flock, 
or chicks recently hatched in infected sur- 
roundings, or infected droppings carried on 
the feet of men and animals, from hen- 
houses where the disease exists, or carried by 

streams or irrigation 
ditch water, dried and 
carried by the wind as 
dust, or carried l)y wild 
birds, may be the means 
of introducing this dis- 
ease among healthy 
birds. Even insects 
have l)een known to 
carry the conlagion 
Buzzards arc connuou 
carriers of this disease. 
The germ of fowl 
cholera retains its power to produce disease for 
weeks, and even months, about premises where it 
has occurred, unless they be thoroughly disin- 
fected. The germs have been kept in test tubes, 
experimentally, for two years and still ])roved to 
be virulent, that is, still capable of ]iroducing dis- 
ease. It resists, for a long time, both drying and 
zero weather. 

Cholera maj^ affect chickens, turkeys, ducks, 
geese, pigeons and many wild birds. The period 
of incubation (the time elapsing from tlie entrance 
of ihe germs into the body of the l)ii"(1 until the 

Fig. 26. Blood Smear from Case 
OF Cholera 

Sliowing red blood cells, tlironi- 
bocytes, monoiuiclear leucocytes, 
poIyniori)hoiuicIcar iicuti-ophilcs 
and many of the polar staininjr 
Rerms (Bacillus ar'iscf^licits) of 
the disease. 


appearance of the first symptoms of the disease) 
is given as from twelve to forty-eight hours. 

In our experimental work, in which the virus 
(germ) was introduced into the peritoneal cavity 
this period was six to twelve hours ; when the 
virus was given by the mouth it required twenty- 
four to thirty-six hours to produce the disease. 
The birds died twelve to seventy-two hours later. 

Symptoms. — The onset of this disease may be 
so sudden that its signs pass unobserved, and 
finding the dead birds in the nests or under the 
roosts may be the first notice that the owner has of 
the existence of disease in his flock; or the birds 
may have fowl cholera in a more chronic form 
and live for six to seven days. 

In the protracted cases there is noted loss of 
appetite, great prostration, staring feathers; the 
bird mopes or sits around with tail and head down, 
giving so-called ''ball" appearance, the comb is 
dark, the gait swaying, and there is trembling, 
convulsions, thirst, and severe diarrhea, with pas- 
sages of a greenish-yellow color. There is high 
fever and the bird rapidly becomes emaciated. 

The percentage of loss in the flock, if |not 
treated, is very great. The disease spreads rap- 
idly through a flock. Pure-bred birds are more 
susceptible than scrubs. In an outbreak of cholera 
among ducks, studied in the author's laboratory, 
the disease progressed very slowly. Only one 
to five or six ducks died in the course of a week 
in the flock of 500. 

Postmortem Findings.— Upon opening the abdom- 
inal cavity one will first note that the liver is 
greatly enlarged, very dark in color and tears 
easily (inflammation, congestion and cloudy swell- 
ing) ; we have found livers that weighed as mucli 


as 120 grams, or three times tlie normal weight. 
The intestines are congested and contain a frothy 
material, dark in color. There is an occasional 
hemorrhage in the lining (mucosa) of the in 
testines. The spleen may be enlarged and its 
contents soft. Small hemorrhages (petechia) may 
be found in the heart, its coverings and other 
parts. The kidneys are dark, enlarged and soft 
(active and passive congestion and cloudy swell- 
ing). The blood does not coagulate readily and 
is found, upon microscopic examination, to be 
teeming with the germs causing the disease (Bacil- 
lus avisepticus). 

Case Report on Fowl Cholera 

A dead duck was sent to the laboratory from the outbreak 
referred to above. The anatomical lesions found in the carcass 
were as follows: Hemorrhagic areas in heart and epicardium; 
inflammation and congestion of the ceca, and congestion of 
the other portions of the intestines; the liver enlarged, 
weighing eighty grams, and very dark in color. 

Two glycerin agar slants were inoculated from the heart 
blood and from the liver. Stained smears from the heart 
blood showed the typical i)olar-staining BaciUus avisepticus. 
Pure cultures were obtained from the inoculated tubes. A 
pullet weighing two pounds was given an intraperitoneal in- 
jection of the twenty-four-hour agar-slant growth. Twenty- 
four hours later she appeared sick, showing ruffled feathers, 
loss of appetite, dullness, head and tail down and temperature 
108.2 degrees F. 

An examination of the blood revealed the following: Hema- 
globin, 90 per cent; erythrocytes, 2,520,000; leucocytes, 6,000 
(hypoleukocytosis), thrombocytes, 184,000. The differential 
count showed: eosinophiles, 37 per cent; neutrophiles, 2 per 
cent; lymphocytes, small, 52 per cent, large, 5 per cent; 
mononuclear lymphocytes, 4 per cent; mast cells, none. 

This bird died at the end of sixty hours. At the autopsy 
there was noted a fibrinous peritonitis; some petechia on 
mucous membranes; the liver enlarged, dark and weighing 
seventy-two grams (thirty-five grams is the normal weight 
for a bird of the size of this one). From the blood the germ 
was isolated in pure culture as before. 

[Ward found in experimental cases of fowl cholera there 
was a destruction of red blood cells and in some an increase 
of white blood cells (leukocytes).] 


In describing this outbreak among ducks the owner wrote 
in part, as follows: 

"Regarding the success I have had in tlie treatment of 
cholera among the ducks with the sulpho-carbolates of sodium, 
calcium, zinc and copper, I will, as best I can, give you an 
idea as to how the results and the conditions under which 
we liad to work." 

"To begin with we had a large number (about 500) to 
handle and had to send away for the tablets, which delayed 
us in beginning the treatment of the disease, and of course, 
conditions were pretty bad when we did get started. 

"Next we ran into a long stretch of cold weather, the feed 
froze up nearly as soon as we put it out in the troughs 
if it was moistened and the drug mixed with it, same thing 
happened with the water, so we were sure that the ducks 
were not getting enough of the sulphocarbolates. However, 
the death rate dropped down about one-fourth in two weeks. 
As soon as the weather warmed up several snows fell at 
intervals of about a week, so that the pens were wet and it 
was hard to disinfect them and difficult to keep the ducks 
from drinking the water that stood about in the pens. In 
this way they avoided getting the drug that was dissolved in 
the water in their drinking fountains. We finally got around 
that by sprinkling the yards heavily with some coal-tar dip, 
so that the ducks would not drink this water, but would go 
to the fountains. This was made rather expensive for the 
water from the outside would run into the pens and soon 
dilute the dip already out so that the ducks would soon 
be drinking this water again. This meant more dip, and the 
cost of the dip was soon an important item. A considerable 
quantity of the sulphocarbolates used under these conditions 
was wasted, for when the feed or water would freeze we 
had to chop it out of the troughs and thus lose some. The 
cost of w^hat we used amounted to seven cents per duck. 

"If we let up using the drug the ducks would begin dying 
again, but I do not think it had a fair trial during the first 
part of the treatment. As soon as the weather got better 
the death-rate was lowered, and now I believe we have the 
disease under control. Under favorable conditions I believe 
this means of controlling cholera would work very nicely. 
That it will render a flock immune for any length of time I 
rather doubt. I gave my chickens a three weeks' round 
of the treatment and for a month now they have been all 
right, but this morning I noticed a few of them acting as 
if they were in the cholera business again. I fed a few of 
them some 'medicated charcoal' that a poultry-food firm puts 
out and this seemed to check the disease and put them back 
in good condition. This checks the diarrhea they have within 
a day or so and they soon get well." 

Treatment: Eradication. — The germs are found in 
the discharge from the bowel and are caried ou 


tlie feet into feed and water lioiij^lis, or are picked 
up from the ground with tlie feedstuff. Birds 
should be fed out of troughs frequently disinfected 
with a five per cent solution of carbolic acid, and 
the water they drink should be similarly guarded. 
Sick birds should be immediately removed from 
the flock and tlie dead ones cremated. The hen- 
house and nests should be cleaned thoroughly 
each day and sprayed with whitewash to which 
sufficient crude carbolic acid has been added to 
make it five per cent of the whole, or creso, zeno- 
leum or creolin should be used, of the same 

A type of spray pump convenient for applying 
this whitewash is shown in Fig. 9. The hen- 
house may also be disinfected with formaldehyde, 
as follows: Close tightly all doors, windows, 
cracks and other openings, and for each 1,000 
square feet of space in the building, use twenty 
ounces formalin (forty per cent formaldehyde) 
and sixteen ounces permanganate of potash. Place 
these two materials in a vessel and place in the 
middle of the room and leave for several hours. 
The yard should be cleaned every day. If the 
yard be small it may l)e disinfected by covering 
it with straw and burning the straw. 

For the birds intestinal antiseptics are indi- 
cated; the sulphocarbolates compound* lias given 
us b}^ far the best results. Other intestinal anti- 
septics are hydrochloric acid, one teaspoonful to 
each quart of water, one per cent of copperas and 
potassium permanganate. 

The following is an account of three of the tests which the 
author made of the 30-grain sulphocarbolates compound tab- 

"One flock consisted of sixty birds. Several were sick at 

♦Manufactured by the Abbott Alkaloidal Co., Chicago. 


the time treatment was commenced, and four had died. The 
discharge from the bowels was of a greenish-yellow color, 
somewhat simulating fowl cholera. One tablet was dissolved 
in a pint of water, and this fluid mixed with bran and corn 
chop. The mixture was then fed in clean troughs. In this 
way each bird got approximately one-half grain. This was 
repeated night and morning. No additional birds became 
sick; only two of the sick died; and the rest recovered. 

"Another flock consisted of 175 baby chicks. As soon as 
these birds were taken from the incubator they were fed 
the unhatched eggs that had been cooked and chopped. This 
mixture was reported to possess an offensive odor. The birds 
began dying, with symptoms of diarrhea, white, pasty vent; 
weakness, dullness, droopy wings, etc.; one-half the flock 
died before treatment was commenced. One-half tablet was 
dissolved in warm water and the bread saturated with it. 
The birds immediately quit dying. 

"Still another flock consisted of 200 birds, including a few 
turkeys. Cholera had appeared on the premises the fall be- 
fore. The outbreak was studied in the field and in the labora- 
tory. The cholera germ (Bacillus avisepticus) was isolated. 
In the last outbreak, fourteen birds had died and several 
were sick. Treatment similar to that described above was 
used. Water, containing the sulphocarbolates was kept con- 
stantly before them. No more birds were taken sick and no 
more died after the sixth day." 

Vaccination with a vaccine made from the 
germs producing the disease, has given excellent 

Scholbe states a serum has been prepared, but 
that it renders immunity only for about two weeks. 

Entero-Hepatitis (Blackhead) 

This is essentially a disease of turkeys, among 
the young of which it is quickly fatal. It has 
practically annihilated the turkey-raising industry 
in sections where it was formerly profitable and 
carried on extensively. Although the turkey is 
more susceptible to blackhead than any other bird, 
serious losses among chickens sometimes occur. 

Cause. — This disease is claimed by Dr. Theo. 
Smith, formerly of the Bureau of Animal Indus- 
try, to be due to a protozoon (Ameha meleagridis) 



inicroscoi)it' in size, which is roiiiKl in the diseased 
areas in tlie eeea (blind pouclies) and liver of af- 
I'ected birds, which are chiefly turkeys and rarely 
chickens. Others attribute the disease to a coc- 

Mode of Spread. — As will be seen later, the pro- 
tozoon escapes from ulcers in the ceca and passes 

out with the fees. 
Food or water con- 
taminated with the 
excrements carry 
the disease germ 
to other birds. 
Chronic cases (car- 
riers) in older 
turkeys or chick- 
ens may keep the 
premises infected 
for a long time. 
These germs en- 
tei'ing the liver 
and the mucous 
membrane lining 
the ceca, cause in- 
flammation and de- 
F.G. .7. enterohepatitis in a turkev o-eneration. Usu- 

A, Yellowish-white necrotic areas. llus " 

liver weighed 452 grams, nearly ^Uv tllG CGCa bC- 

one pound. *' ■ a , j n , 

come mrected first 
and later the liver is imadcd and inflammation of 
its structure ensues. 

Postmortem Findings.— Upon first opening the abdominal 
cavity one's attention is attracted by the enlarged liver with 
areas of dead tissue (caseation necrosis). Fig. 27 shows a 
liver about three-fourths natural size, weighing nearly one 

The ceca (blind pouches; see Plate I, No. 12), one or both, 
are noted to be enlarged, the enlargement is usually a short 
distance from the point. Upon opening the ceca, ulcers and 
areas of dead tissue (caseation necrosis) are observed in 


the mucous lining. There will also be noted a straw-colored 
fluid (edema, dropsy) in the loose tissue about the heart. 

Fig. 28, taken from an area in the edge of the necrotic 
portion marked B. in Fig. 27, illustrates the condition. A 
illustrates the liver cells as they are first affected (cloudy 
swelling) ; B, the cells farther along in the disease process 
in which it may be noted that the nucleus has disappeared 
and the cell is disintegrating (necrosis) ; C, the congested 
vessels (passive congestion) ; D, white blood cells (eosino- 
philes) referred to above. There may also be noted in these 
areas giant cells. 



Fig. 28. Cloudy Swelling Due to Enterohepatitis 
This is a Section from "B" in Fig. 27 (magnified 900 

A, Liver cells (cloudy swelling). B, liver cells under- 
going disintegration, necrosis. C, congested blood 
vessel. D, white blood cells, eosinophiles abundant 
in this disease. E, protozoa causing the disease. 

Fig. 29 illustrates a giant cell. E, protozoa causing the 
disease. A like microscopic examination of sections from 
the kidneys indicates that poisonous products have been taken 
up by the blood, for in these sections we find degenerative 
changes (congestion, cloudy swelling and focal necrosis). 

Fig. 30 shows a microscopic field from a blood smear from 
a turkey affected by entero-hepatitis with the disease. It 
will be noted that there is an intense eosinophilia. Fig. 31 
shows a field from a portion of the kidney, in a state of 
cloudy swelling and focal necrosis — evidence of absorbed poi- 
sonous substance. Fig. 32 shows one of the ceca with a small 
ulceration caused by the protozoa. 

Symptoms, — Entero-liepatitis is most common in 
turkeys between the ages of one month and one 


year, altliongli I have seen the disease in birds that 
were much older. Several ontl)reaks liave been 
studied in this Uiboratory, Only one case was 
found in the hen. It has been reported in the pea- 

Fig. 29. Section of the Liver (from a Case of Blackhead) 
a, Protozoa causing the disease, b, a giant cell. 

The symptoms are not manifest till the disease 
has progressed to a considerable extent. The bird 
is first noticed to be dull, later the wings and tail 
may droop; the feathers become ruffled and the 
bird sits around much of the time ; diarrhea super- 
venes, the discharge being of a greenish-yellow 


color; there is a loss 
of appetite; the bird 
grows gradually 
weaker and usually 
dies in from three to 
ten days after the 
first symptoms of the 
disease become no- 
ticeable. In the cases 
that run longer the 
bird becomes emaci- 
ated. A blood exami- 
nation shows eosino- 
philia to be present, 
he head may or may 
not turn purple. From the cases in which the 
head turns purjDle the disease gets its name — 

Report of a Case of Blackhead 

Of eleven turkeys of the flock, six had died. One of the 

Fig. 30. Blood Smear (from a Case 
of Blackhead) 

Showing intense eosinophilia. a, Red 
blood cells. b, eosinophiles. c, 
thrombocytes. d, lymphocytes. e, 
mononuclear leucocytes. 

Fig. 31. Section of a Kidney 

From a turkey that had died of blackhead. a, Cloudy 

swelling. b, area of focal necrosis. 

turkeys was brought to the laboratory for further study. 
The turkey's head was purple; there was a loss of appetite; 



. 32. Cecim Showing Ulceration 
From a case of entcro-hepatitis (blackhead) 
in a turkey, 
a, Ulceration, c, blind cnj of cecum. 

a diarrhea was present and the discharge was yellowish-green 
in color. A blood study showed the following: Hemoglobin, 
73 per cent; erythrocytes, 2,000,000; leukocytes, 73,000. Dif- 
ferential count: cosinophiies, SO per cent; neutrophiles, 1 

l)er cent; lymphocytes, 
H per cent; mononu- 
lears, 1 per cent; mast 
cells, 1 per cent. The 
bird died and an autopsy 
was held. The following 
is a summary of the 

Necrotic areas in the 
liver measuring up to 
four centimeters (abort 
one and one-half inches, 
in diameter and of a 
yellowish-green color. 
Weight of the liver, '^'^2 

Ulceration of one ce- 
cum, four cm. (about 
one and three-fourths 
inches) from the cecal 
end and extending three cm. in length. The outer surfaces 
of the ceca showed yellowish-green coloration. There was 
edema in the pericardial region. 

Treatment.— Thorough cleaning of henhouse and 
yard, followed hy earefnl disinfection; care as to 
feeding and watering, and intestinal antiseptics 
are indicated as recommended for fowl cholera. 
Tlie following tablets gave the best results in our 
exi^eriments : 

Sodium sulphocarbolate 1 part 

Calcium sulphocarbolate 1 part 

Zinc sulphocarbolate 2 ])arts 

Dissolve one tablet in each quart of water. This 
solution can ho giNcn ms drink or used to mix soft 

Report of an Outbreak of Entero-Hepatatis 

Treated With Sulphocarbolates 


The owner of a flock of turkeys in which a number were 
affected with blackhead reported to the author on the use 
of the sulphocarbolates compound, as follows: 


"Some of these turkeys were too sick to eat. In these 
cases a small piece of the tablet, one-half the size of a sweet 
pea, was dissolved and given twice a day. Nearly all of the 
birds so treated recovered." 

From work done in this laboratory and from the foregoing 
report and similar reports from other sources, the author 
is led to believe that a bird may recover if properly medi- 
cated, even after some degree of damage is done to the liver 
by the disease. 

Diarrhea— Enteritis— Dysentery 

The most devastating form of diarrhea in 
poultry is an infectious disease due to a bacterium 
and to a protozoon, and commonly called ''white 
diarrhea." It affects chiefly chicks less than three 
weeks old and will be discussed under a special 
head. Under this head I shall discuss those bowel 
ailments not due to any one specific germ. 

A condition of mild diarrhea is chronic in many 
fowls throughout life. In these cases there are no 
symptoms of the disease other than the softness 
or fluid condition of the feces. Though this con- 
dition is probably due to a mild form of indi- 
gestion and the birds may not thrive or fatten or 
lay as well as those not so affected, the condition is 
not serious and ordinarily the poultr^Tiian pays 
no attention to it. 

It is when the soft, pasty or liquid excrement has 
an offensive odor, and adheres to the feathers 
about the vent, staining them yellowish, greenish 
or brownish, that the matter becomes serious and 
interferes with the health of the bird. Young 
stock are much more susceptible to diarrhea from 
unfavorable conditions, of which the commonest 
are improper food and exposure to cold, than are 
adult birds. 

When this reaction to external influences (cold) 
or when the irritation from indigestible matter 
within the intestine becomes sever enough to set 


up an inflammation of the mucous lining of the 
small intestines, it is termed enteritis, and when it 
extends to the large intestines it is called dysen- 
tery. In both conditions there is an increased 
tliirst, loss of appetite, high fever and fluid dis- 
cliarge, and in the latter the discharges are 
streaked witli blood. 

Cause. — Mouldy, putrid, or too stimulating food, 
drinking water which contains mucli organic mat- 
ter, and lience is filthy and putrid, and exposure 
to certain unfavorable atmospheric conditions are 
(•ontril)uting factors, as is also the injection of 
irritant substances, such as lye, paint, spray-mix- 
tures, unslaked lime, etc. 

Along with diarrhea due to these causes may be 
mentioned a like condition sometimes caused by 
the presence in the intestinal tract of certain spe- 
cies of worms and of irritating foods. Exposure 
in damp coops, cold rains, or draughts often result 
in digestive derangements of this nature. A bird, 
during moulting, has poor protection against in- 
clement weather, from lack of feathers, and re- 
(juires more care than at other times. 

Symptoms. — The plumage loses its smooth, well- 
kept appearance; the bird is depressed and not 
inclined to move about as much as usual; there 
may be loss of appetite ; the crop is full ; digestion 
is slow; the cloaca is inflamed (red) and sensitive 
(irritated); the evacuations from the bowels are 
frecpient, the discharges being fluid, offensive and 
varying in color from whitish-yellow to greenish. 
In later stages the evacuations are quite spas- 
modic and forcefully ejected (squirting) and the 
fluff and feathers near the vent are soiled with 
feces, ^rhe affected bird gradually become-^ 
weakei- and there is a rise in tempoi'jitiire. It. may 


eat little or nothing; thirst is extreme in some 
cases. The bird may die in two or three days or 
it may live for two or three weeks. 

Postmortem Findings. — In fatal cases the most 
noticeable alterations are in the intestinal tract 
and the liver. Upon 
opening the small 
intestines, areas of 
inflammation are 
noted, and occa- 
sionally a small 
hemorrhage is 
found. Microscopic 
e X a m i n ation of 
stained se c t i o n s 
from the vital or- 
gans (liver, kid- 
ney, etc.) reveals 
r etr ogress ive 
changes ; cloudy 
swelling being most 
marked. Fig. 33 
illustrates one of 
these cases. 

Treatment — Grive 
the same treatment as that given for blackhead 
in turkeys and for fowl cholera. (See pages 90 
and 83.) 

White Diarrhea 

The loss to American poultry raisers from white 
diarrhea is greater than from anything else, per- 
haps greater than from all other infectious dis- 
eases combined. It strikes at the root of the 
poultry industry; no one can successfully conduct 
the business if he is unable to roar a reasonable 
number of chicks annuallv. 




Hemorrhagic Enteritis in 
Small hemorrhages (natural size). 


Without treatmeut the resulting mortality, when 
white diarrhea has secured a foothold in a poultry 
plant, is extremely high, often reaching ninety 
per cent of the season's hatch.* The loss from 
white diarrhea in dollars and cents is enormous, 
almost beyond calculation. It is widespread 
throughout the United States and causes the loss 
of perhaps ten per cent of all the chicks hatched 
in this country. By proper measures the disease 
is fairly easily preventable and a large number 
of the affected chicks will recover under proper 

Causes. — There are two forms of white diar- 
rhea, due to two distinct causes. A bacillary form 
due to the Bacterium pullorum, a rather short, 
plump, rodshaped germ with rounded ends; and 
a protozoal form due to the Coccidium tenellum. 
I have isolated the germ causing the disease from 
the liver, spleen, kidneys and other organs of 
chicks dead of the bacillary form of the disease, 
and in the coccidian form from the ulcers of the 
cecum and the intestines. 

Symptoms : Bacillary Form. — In young chicks 
there is drooping wings, ruffled feathers, sleepy 
appearance, huddled together, little or no appetite, 
abdominal yolk not properly absorbing; whitish 
or whitish-brown frothy discharge from bowel 
which adheres more or less to the vent fluff; eyes 
closed part of the time and apparently no interest 
in life. ''Peeping" much of the time, the ap- 
pearance in many is stilty, abdomen prominent be- 
hind. In these cases after death one finds the yolk 
unabsorbed or only partially so. The intestines 
are more or less full. Late fall, wiiiltM- or earl>' 

•A diet of sour milk is said (o rcdiico tlio loss Iroin white (li;ii- 
rhca fifty per cent, but as the treatment here outlined will reduoo 
it ninety per cent, the sour milk treatment is not worth considering. 


fipriiig hatched chicks are freer from the disease 
than summer hatched. This may be explained 
by the fact that hens with diseased ovaries grad- 
ually become poorer layers as the disease pro- 
cesses advance, and hence, only lay in late spring 
or early summer, when nature intends repro- 
duction of birds. Finally the hen may cease 

Symptoms : Coccidian Form.— The symptoms, as I 
have seen them, are similar to those of the 
bacillary form, excepting, as a rule, the heavy 
death rate takes place later. 

Mode of Spread : Bacillary Form.-Ovaries of lay- 
ing hens, diseased, but still functionating, may be 
infected by the germ. The germ can be isolated, 
particularly from the yolk, of at least some of the 
eggs formed in such an ovary. The chicks from 
infected eggs, as a result, have the disease more 
or less developed when they are hatched, as con- 
ditions which favor hatching also favor the multi- 
plication of the germs to an extent that toxins 
(poisons) have already been produced in the 
young in sufficient quantity for the disease to at 
least manifest itself in a few hours after hatch- 
ing, although ordinarily they do not begin to die 
until they are about a week old. 

The whitish, frothy, pasty bowel discharge, 
jtnore or less sticky and having a tendency to 
''paste up the vent," from these chicks is laden 
with the germs, and others of the flock soon be- 
come infected from contaminated food picked up 
from the ground. In the former case, chicks may 
begin to die soon after hatching, in the latter, in 
from three to four days, a few dying each day. 

The death rate is high, reaching in many cases 
as much as seventy-five per cent or more. Those 


that recover are stunted and do not make satis- 
factory growth. The greatest loss is from the first 
few days to, in some cases, two or three weeks. 
It is probable that the carriers are chicks that have 
recovered, but which still carry the organism ( es- 
pecially in the ovary) as the Imman typhoid car- 
riers carry the germs of typhoid fever, in tlie in- 
fected kidneys and in bowel ulcers. These "car- 
riers," having established an immunity, do not 
themselves succumb to the disease, and they raiM'ly 
show any outward symptoms of it. 

Insanitary conditions, spoiled feed, dirty, stag- 
nant water, improperly ventilated incubators, 
brooders and building, or badly regulated heat, 
are factors in weakening the physical condition 
of chicks and favor ravages of diseases. 

Coccidian Form. — The mode of spread of this 
form is at present ijroblematical. It is possible 
that a chronic type of coccidiosis occurs in some 
birds and thus perpetuates and diseminates the 

Postmortem Findings: Bacillary Form. — The liver in gen- 
eral is usually pale, showing areas of congestion (active and 
passive congestion and cloudy swelling). The yolk only par- 
tially absorbed, congestion of the intestines may or may not 
be present. Kidneys normal in size, but show congestion 
and cloudy swelling. Carcass more or less pale and emaciated 
and anemic. 

Coccidian Form. — Upon postmortem examination the con- 
ditions are found to be similar to those in the bacillary form, 
except there will be noted more or less congestion of the in- 
testinal mucosa (lining), and ulcers in the Intestines, prin- 
cipally the ceca. The ceca appear to contain considerable 
ingesta, and to be interfered with functionally. 

Fig. 34 shows a transverse section through an ulcerated 
area. In these areas we find cloudy swelling, followed by 
necrosis (retrogressive changes and death of the cells). The 
remains of the dead cells forms a cheesy mass (caseation 
necrosis). It will be noted in this drawing that only rem- 
nants of a few of the glands normally present are yet intact, 
the remainder of the mucous membrane and in places the 


submucous layers are invaded by the germ (protozoon). In 
Fig. 35 the section B has been magnified 900 times. 

As explained under the cut, all stages of the coccidium 
tenellum are observed in a mass of dying and disintegrating 
cells — the remains of the diseased mucous lining of the bowel. 
Repeated examinations have been made of healthy chicks 
killed for the purpose, and chicks dying from other causes, 
and thus far no case has shown these conditions. 

Treatment. — The most of our experimental work 
with various remedies has been with the coccidian 

Fig. 34 Fig. 35 

Fig. 34. Section Through Cecum (Magnified loo times) 
From a chick that had died of coccidian white diarrhea. A, Muscular 
layer. B, remnant of gland. C, degenerated disintegrating mass. 
There is complete destruction of the mucous membrane. 

Fig. 35. Section "B" in Fig. 34 (magnified 900 times) 
Shows various stages of the coccidium tenellum. A, Oocyst. B, Sporo- 
blast, first stage. C, sporozoit, first stage. D, schizont. nierozoites 
within, surrounded by a disintegrating cell mass. E, polymorphonu- 
clear leukocyte. 

form. In one outbreak, referred to above, 80 per 
cent of the first hatch of 2,000 chicks had died. 
We began trying to improve sanitary conditions, 
and administered various dilutions of permangan- 
ate of i3otash, copperas and carbolic acid. The 
loss was unaffected. By this time the writer had 
examined many dozen birds in his laboratory, and 
in about fifty per cent of the cases, the Bacterium 


pullorum was isolated from the heart, blood, livei, 
spleen and kidneys, and in every case the coc- 
cidian ulcers, described above, were observed. 

These chicks began dying in numbers at about 
ten days of age, very few had died before that 
time, and from this period to the end of the third 
week the great loss occurred. After this time but 
few died, but those having the disease in light 
form were stunted and did not make satisfactory 
growth. AVith this data now before me, I now 
began on another line of treatment. 

During the past ten years I have used, to a 
greater or less extent, dilutions of mercuric chlor- 
ide (corrosive sublimate) as an intestinal anti- 
septic in chickens. This was used, in this outbreak, 
in a solution of 1 : 10,000, with sulphocarbolates 
of zinc, sodium and calcium. The latter had not 
given the satisfactory results when used alono 
that it had in treatment of diarrhea in colts and 

Jones (Cornell) has shown that a solution of 
1 : 1,000 (one-tenth of one per cent) bichloride of 
mercury, will kill the B. pullorum in thirty sec- 
onds; a one per cent carbolic acid solution re- 
quires five minutes in which to kill this germ ; one 
per cent creolin requires five minutes; three and 
one-third per cent lactic acid kills it in five min- 
utes, and five per cent carbolic acid kills it in 
thirty seconds. Mercuric chloride is therefore 
fifty times as effective against this germ as is 
carbolic acid. 

Instructions were given for the incubators (con- 
taining also the nursery trays) to be tightly closed 
and fumigated with formaldehyde gas, as recom- 
mended under chicken cholera, before filling with 


After the chicks were hatched they were not to 
receive any feed for forty-eight to seventy-two 
hours, as the yolk contained in their abdominal 
cavity will furnish food for that length of time, 
and an engorgement of the intestines might im- 
pinge on this part and interfere with its absorp- 
tion by pressing on the absorbing vessels. 

The following solution was to be kept before 
them from the time of hatching to four weeks of 
age, and then given twice a week for the next few 
weeks: Zinc sulphocarbolate, fifteen grains, sod- 
ium and calcium sulphocarbolate, of each seven 
and one-half grains, bichloride of mercury, six 
grains, and citric acid, three grains. This quan- 
tity was dissolved in a gallon of water. The re- 
sult was that eighty per cent of the next hatch 
was saved. 

Blastomycosis of the Pigeon 

There is a condition in pigeons in which there 
is a nodular mass in the upper portion of the 
esophagus, due to 
a kind of yeast-like 
germ. It is termed 
blastomycosis, and 
is well illustrated 
in Fig. 37. The 
squabs become af- 
fected early, and as 
the diseased or tu- 
mor-like area be- 
comes larger, the 
bird is unable to 
eat or swallow. The 
loss m some breed- fic_ 36. blastomycosis in a pigeon 

ing establishments ^' Necrosing mass^_containing yeast-like 



is considerable. The disease area manifests 
itself as a lump in the throat or neck, which is 
easily felt. 

Treatment. — It will be necessary to keep the 
premises thoroughly clean, constantly disinfected, 

washed with an 
a n t i s eptic. The 
trays after each 
batch of squabs 
need to be cleaned 
and disinfected, as, 
in fact, does the 
entire building. 

Some good re- 
sults have been ob- 
tained by treating 
these squabs early 
with a solution of 
s u 1 p hocarbolates 
compound. Also 
other antiseptics 
recommended for 
chicken cholera. In 
squabs it will be 
necessary to use a medicine dropper and in- 
ject the solution into the mouth several times a 
day. If the disease has progressed very far. it 
is best to kill the squab and cremate it. 

Coccidiosis in Wild Ducks 

Two wild ducks (mallards) were sent to the 
laboratory by the game warden of Colorado dur- 
ing the fall of 1910, with the history that they 
had been found dead on a reservoir, and that the 
wild ducks were dying in large number^. A care- 
ful autopsy was held on these birds. There were 


Fig. 37. Fig- 38. 

S'/. PuLMON.\RY Coccidiosis in 


A, Xodules in lung caused by the coc- 

cidium (natural size). 

Fig. 38. Intestinal Coccidiosis in a 


E, Ulcers caused by the coccidium 

(natural size). 


small iH'arl-liko nodules throughout the lung of 
one of tlio ducks, as shown in Fig. 37. Both 
showed ulcerations of the mucous membrane of the 
intestinal tract. These ulcerations were numer- 
ous, as many as eight or ten in each bird, and 
extended the entire length of the intestines. Fig. 
38 illustrates this condition. Upon microscopic 
examination of these lesions, as well as of the lung 
nodules, coccidia were noted which resembled the 
Coccidium tcncUum, one of the specific causes of 
white diarrhea in chicks. 

Other Diseases of the Intestinal Tract 

Arsenical Poisoning.— Arsenical poisoning ma>' 
occur from the birds drinking spray mixtures con- 
taining paris green or other arsenical compounds, 
from eating rat poison, etc. Cases have been 
brought to our attention where birds had been 
poisoned by eating grasshoppers. The grass- 
hoppers had been given arsenic in bran, and the 
birds, devouring large numbers of them, became 
ill, and many of them died. 

Symptoms. — Loss of appetite, black comb, dull- 
ness, sitting, moping and unsteady gait, increasing 
weakness, and death. Judging from the effect of 
poisonous doses of arsenic on higher animals, the 
poisoned birds must have been in considerable 
pain, but they did not show it ; birds do not man- 
ifest pain as animals do. 

Autopsy. — The liver was normal, except that it 
was a trifle dark in color. There were no notice- 
able changes in the other abdominal organs, ex- 
cept the intestinal tract. Upon opening the in- 
testines there were noted patches of hemorrhage 
and areas of congestion and inflammation. 

Treatment. — This is scarcelv worth while. De- 


niiilcent drinks, as water in whicli slippery elm 
bark has been soaked, or even milk, are indicated, 
after a fnll dose of castor oil. 

Salt Poisoning. — Poisoning among chickens and 
turkeys from eating common salt or drinking 
brine is quite common and the losses from it are 
large. It may occur from eating salt pork, or fish, 
or from drinking the l)rine left from freezing ice 
cream, and in many other ways. The symptoms 
and treatment vary but little from arsenical and 
other poisons. 

Dr. Geo. H. Glover, Colorado, reports a case in which a 
lady in baking a cake made a mistake and used common 
table salt instead of sugar. After the cake was baked and 
the mistake discovered the young housewife concluded to 
feed it to her nice flock of chickens, consisting of twenty- 
three hens and one rooster. All the birds except the rooster 

It has been deterniined tliat twenty-live grains of 
salt per pound of live weight is sullicient to pro- 
duce death in birds. 

Other Mineral Poisons. — SnJt peter ]>oisoning. 
from eating fertilizer; phosphorus poisoning, from 
eating rat i^oison, lead and zUie poisoning, from 
eating paint, and copper poisoning, from drinking 
bordeaux mixture, have been described; all are 

Ptomain Poisoning. — Limber neck is one of those 
convenient generic terms which poultrymen some- 
times apply to an.y ailment in which the bird is too- 
sick to hold up its head. It is a very prominent 
symptom in all forms of ptomain poisoning. 

Cause. — Ptomain poisoning may be due to eating 
any kind of food in which putrefaction has set in, 
but is usually the result of eating decaying meat 
or fish. 

Because of the more favorable conditions for 
the rapid putrefaction of meat in very hot weather, 


ptomain poisoning occurs chiefly in mid- summer, 
and on farms were the fowls have an extended 
range, including patches of high weeds that ef- 
fectually conceal dead animals from the care- 
taker, until the loss of a large portion of the flock 
compels cutting weeds and a diligent search for 
the carcass. 

The beginning of ptomain poisoning in a flock 
is usually something like this: During very hot 
weather a bird dies in the tall weeds, it may be 
from disease or from violence, and in three or 
four days its carcass is filled with maggots and 
in an advanced stage of decomposition; it is 
found by the other birds and devoured, with the 
consequent death of many of them, some of them 
dying in out of the way places and remaining un- 
discovered by the keeper, and in turn poisoning 
others, and so on. 

Oftentimes the keeper is responsible for the be- 
ginning of the trouble by thoughtlessly throwing 
some small animal which he has killed (opossum, 
weasel, rat, etc.) where the fowls find it. If the 
weather conditions are favorable to rapid de- 
composition, i3tomain poisoning in the flock will 
result and the '^ vermin" dead will destroy more 
birds than ten of its kind would destrov during 

Maggots are usually found in the crops of birds 
dying from eating putrid flesh, and if the poultry- 
man holds autopsies on the dead birds, he is quite 
apt to conclude that the maggots have killed them. 
Such is not the case. 

Report of a Case of Ptomain Poisoning 

In one flock there were twenty-four hens. A can of spoiled 
corn that had been left sitting in the basement, in a glass 
container, with top removed, was given to the birds at 11 


o'clock and at C o'clock five wore dead. At 2 p. m. next 
day thirteen were dead, with three more showing symptoms 
of poisoning. A flock of sin:ili chicks, with the old hen, as 
well as three setting hens that had not eaten any of the corn, 
were not in any way affected. There was no visible evidence 
of great pain and there were no spasms. The birds had at 
first an unsteady gait with inco-ordinate movement. Prostra- 
tion was rapid. They lay on the ground in a relaxed con- 
dition with head and neck curled over towards the breast, 
but not rigid. AVhenever a bird was disturbed it struggled. 
The comb turned black. In some cases diarrhea appeared, 
■with occasionally a small amount of blood. Death occurred 
in a few hours. 

At postmortem the crop and gizzard contained some corn 
of a sour odor. The only tissue change noted was a con- 
gestion of the intestines and of the liver, kidneys (active 
and passive congestion and cloudy swelling). 

Treatment. — Grive a tablespoonfiil of castor oil 
and one-fiftli .urain closes of sulphate of strycli- 
nino, tlio latter every four to six hours. 

Experiments have been conducted to determine 
the exact dosage of strychnine for an average- 
sized hen. It has been found that the dose should 
be from one-sixth to one-fifth of a grain 3 times 
a day. The author has given one grain repeat- 
edly without ill effect, but when given in solution 
and on an empty crop it killed the bird. 

Corn Cockle Poisoning. — Chickens eating large 
quantities of corn cockle, in ground form, incor- 
porated in their feed in the form of mash, have 
l)een poisoned. 

The seed contains a poison, sapotoxin, which 
causes a severe inflammation of the entire digest- 
ive tract, including the cvo]i. Great prostration 
and death follow. 


Symptoms. — The anus became red (inflamed), 
protruded, and later ulcerated. Antiseptics were 
applied and injected into the cloaca with the view 
of destroying the germs causing the trouble, but 


tlic bird died. Upon autopsy it was found that 
acute inflammation had extended the entire length 
of the rectum. See Plate I for this portion of the 
anatomy. The latter condition would be called a 

Treatment. — In these cases apply a solution of 
sulphocarbolates compound, five per cent carbol- 
ized vaseline, or a solution of five per cent carbolic 
acid in warm water. The solutions may be in- 
jected with a syringe and the ointment applied 
with the finger. 

'■ 1 -'^n^ / 




Blood Diseases 

Under blood diseases come tlie septicemias, as 
apoplectiform septicemia, septicemia of geese, ty- 
phoid of fowls, and spirochetosis, all caused by 
germs which live and multiply in the blood stream. 

Apoplectiform Septicemia in Chickens 
and Pigeons 

This disease is due to the Streptococcus gallin- 
arum, which grows in long or short chains. It 
can be readily grown upon artificial media and 
does not liquefy gelatin. Experimental inocula- 
tions with this organism killed the following ani- 
mals : chickens, mice, rabbits and swine. It does 
not kill guinea pigs or dogs. The germ multiplies 
in the blood. 

Symptoms. — Apoplectiform septicemia is rapid 
in its progress. The bird shows great prostra- 
tion, feathers ruffled, loss of appetite, and the con- 
dition rapidly terminates in death. Often birds 
die in from twelve to twenty-four hours after the 
first symptoms appear. Birds in which no symp- 
toms of the disease had been noticed may be 
found dead under the roosts. This disease often 
causes great loss to pigeon fanciers. 

Postmortem Findings. — The spleen is enlarged, 
dark and soft; focal necrosis is noted in the kid- 
neys, spleen and liver. Cloudy swelling also oc- 
curs preceding this state. Pneumonia may be 
present. The germs can be isolated in pure cul- 
ture from any of the organs named. 



Treatment.— Observe the rules of sanitation, as 
directed for chicken cholera. (Page 83.) If pos- 
sible, separate the well birds from the sick. Vac- 
cination with a vaccine made from the streptococ- 
cus gallinarum has given good results. Sulpho- 
carbolates compound may be tried, as outlined in 
the article on chicken cholera referred to above. 

Septicemia of Geese 

This disease has been described as being caused 
by a germ which closely resembles the polar stain- 
ing germ of chicken cholera. It multiplies in the 

Symptoms. — Geese are often found dead without 
having been noted to have been ill. The majority 
die very quickly, that is within two or three hours 
after first symptoms appear. Occasionally a bird 
may live for several days and finally die. 

Postmortem Findings. — Small pinpoint hemor- 
rhages may be noted, especially in the mucous lin- 
ing of the intestines. Usually the digestive tract 
contains feed in all stages of digestion, indicating 
that the disease is very rapid in its onset. Con- 
siderable mucus may be found in the mouth and 
throat. Inflannnation ma}'' be noted in the liver, 
pericardium (heart sac), spleen and kidneys. 

Treatment. — Sanitary measures the same as 
those given for chicken cholera. (See page 83.) 

Fowl Typhoid. Infectious Leukemia 

This is due to a short, plump germ with rounded 
ends. It is called the Bacterium sanguinarium, 
and is easily isolated from birds dead of the dis- 
ease. It reproduces the disease in inoculated 
birds, multiplying in the blood. 


Symptoms. — Anemic or blauclied appearance of 
the mucous membrane of the head, with a dull 
appearance and great prostration, usually ending 
in death in about four days, is characteristic of 
this disease. In some cases the affected bird may 
live three to four weeks. Moore reports a decrease 
in red blood cells and an increase in white blood 
cells, the latter principally the polymorphonU' 
lear leukocytes. 

Postmortem Findings. — The liver is enlarged 
and mottled with grayish patches, due to areas of 
leukocytic invasion. The germ can be isolated 
from the internal organs. The kidney shows con- 
gestion, which may be recognized by the minute 
red lines. The intestines may be congested. The 
spleen usually appears normal in size and color. 
The red blood cells gradually diminish and a 
leukocytosis (an increase of the white blood cells) 

Treatment.— Prompt isolation of the well from 
the sick birds and sanitary measures as given for 
fowl cholera (see page 83) should be observed. 


A bird was sent to the laboratory with the his- 
tory that it had been sick for several weeks. 
There was a partial loss of appetite, finally com- 
plete loss ; the bird showed weakness and a gradual 
emaciation. The hen died in about two weeks 
after coming to the laboratory. 

At autopsy there was noted great emaciation. 
All organs appeared normal except the circulatory 
system. There was thrombosis (complete 
plugging) of the right brachial artery (artery to 
right wing) and the same of the large vessel to 
the liver, as well as of the iliac and femoral arterv 



ol' tlie left side (artery to left leg). Upon luiero- 
pcopic examination they were found to be white 
thrombi. Fig. 39 illustrates this condition. It 
]nay bo seen tliat ilie blood vessels are quite dis- 
tenderl by tlie ))lood fibrin. 


This is a blood disease (septicemia) due to a 
spiral-like microscoi'jic germ which is supposed to 

be carried from 
bird to bird by 
means of the 
chicken tick; illus- 
trated in Fig. 16. 
Fig. 40 shows a 
drawing of the 
g e r m. It is the 
Spirocheta gallin- 
arum; the slide 
from which this 
drawing was made 
was kindly sent 
to the author by 
Dr. Balfour of 
Khartoum, Sudan, 

This disease was 
first recognized in Brazil; it is found in Africa 
and Europe. A disease occurs in the southern 
part of the United States, where the chicken tick 
is abundant, that presents symptoms similar to 
those of spirochetosis; so far as the author 
knows, no definite work has been done to deter- 
mine the true cause of it. 

Spirochetosis is most common among chickens, 
but also infects geese, ducks, pigeons and spar- 

Fig. 39. Thrombosis in a Hen 

A, Pelvis bone, central portion. B, muscle 

of thigh. C, blood vessel containing 

a white thrombus. 






Symptoms. — There is noted a dullness, loss of 
appetite, rapid emaciation ; the head and tail are 
down, and the bird 
stands around in cor- 
ners or on the roost, 
with its eyes closed. 
Fig. 41 shows a photo- 
graph of a typical 
case. Note the attitude 
of head, tail and 

Another form of sep- 
ticemia in chickens is 
caused by a comma- 
shaped germ, the 
Spirillum Met chin iJcovi or Vibrio Metchinikovi. 

The symptoms are similar to those of fowl chol- 
era, except that there is no, or at most but slight. 

Fig. 40. Spirocheta Gallinarum 
This drawing, made from a blood 
smear, shows red blood cells 
Coval), thrombocytes and leu- 
kocytes (round) and spirochetes 
(corkscrew-like) . 

Fig. 41. Acute Spirochetosis (after Balfour) 

elevation of the temperature. Diarrhea is con 
stantly present. Inflammation of the bowel and 
enlarged liver (hepatitis) is noted. The disease 


lias not l)een reported in this coiiiitiy. It may 
exist unrocoii'iiizod. 


Tliis is an inflammation of tlic pericardium or 
lieart sac; there is usually an effusion about the 
heart, and it is often spoken of as dropsy of the 
heart sac or dropsy of the heart. It is, of course, 
not strictly a blood disease, but it is often asso- 
ciated with diseases of the blood and of the lungs, 
as a complication; further than this its cause is 
not known, Init may result from exposure to cold 
and dampness. 

Symptoms. — A diagnosis of pericarditis cannot 
ordinarily be made during the life of the bird, but 
is easily demonstrated on autopsy. Tumultous 
heart action, extreme exhaustion on exercise, and 
difficulty of breathing are symptoms observable 
during life. 

Treatment. — Treatment is unsatisfactory; nu- 
merous cases occurring in the same flock should 
lead to the enforcement of better hygienic condi- 
tions, especially to better protection from cold 
and dampness. 


This is an inflammation of tiie lining membrane 
of the lieart, usually affecting the valves also. 
Nothing is known of its cause, but it is of not in- 
frequent occurrence during the course of certain 
diseases of the blood. It cannot be diagnosed dur- 
ing life, and therefore cannot be treated. From 
what we know of tlie cause of endocarditis in man 
and animals, we should exi»e(*t exposure to cold 
and dampness to be a factor in the cause of this 
disease, and as such to be avoided. 


Rupture of the Heart and Large Blood 

Internal hemorrhage (bleeding) due to rupture 
of the heart or large blood vessels is common 
in overfed fowls. It may be caused by any excite- 
ment or overexertion in such birds. It is described 
in this section because affecting organs of circu- 

Symptoms. — There is a sudden blanching of the 
comb and mucous membranes followed by great 
weakness, coma and death. No treatment is prac- 


Constitutional Diseases 

Under this head we class "going light" and 

Both cause considerable loss to the poultry- 
man. There is much doubt as to whether the for- 
mer should be classed as a disease ; certainly this 
term as usually applied refers merely to a symp- 
tom of a disease (often tuberculosis or enteritis) 
or condition in which there is a progressive loss 
in the weight of the bird. 

Going Light (Asthen) 

Those who look upon going light as a specific 
disease consider it as one that affects chickens and 
pigeons. It may affect old or young birds. It is 
called going light because the bird becomes grad- 
ually lighter until emaciated. It is a disease that 
is found in all parts of the United States. A germ 
called the Bacterium asthene has been isolated 
by one investigator from the intestines of sick 
birds. It corresponds with the Bacillus coli com- 
munis always present in the intestinal tract of 

The affected birds have a good appetite -, in fact, 
at times a ravenous one. The loss of flesh is con- 
tinuous for a few weeks, when the bird dies. 

In eleven cases of going light examined by the 
pathological laboratory of the United States 
Bureau of Animal Industry three were found to be 
infected by the Bacillus enteritiditis. This germ 
is dangerous to man. It affects cattle and has re- 


116 POUI/|■k^■ Disi: Asi-:s 

suited fatally lo those pci-soiis catintc iTifcctccl 

Postmortem Findings.— rsiially oji autopsy all 
origans apjK'ai- iioiiiial so far as gross appearaiic*' 
goes, but extreuie einaciatiou as desoribed above 
is noted. 

The following is the result of a blood study in 
these cases : 

Report of Asthen Cases 

Two outbreaks have been investigated by the author. One 
in a flock of Rhode Island Reds, in which flock there 
were about two hundred birds which should have weighed 
about two pounds each. The disease affected a gradually 
increasing number. The feed consisted of grain, insects picked 
up from the fields, and plenty of green grass. As it was 
irrigation time, the birds had access to the irrigating ditches. 
The henhouse and yard were kept clean. It was advised 
to change the run and continue giving a variety of good 
green feed and grain with a good supply of water. The 
disease finally disappeared from the flock. All efforts at the 
laboratory to isolate any germ which might have been the 
cause of the disease were unsuccessful. 

The second flock was from eggs that had been produced 
by birds in which roup had appeared the preceding winter. 
Five birds about four months old were sent to the laboratory 
for study with the following history: The birds had good 
hygienic surroundings, were moved from place to place, given 
fresh water and good quality of feed, with plenty of green 
stuff, but without success; the birds not only did not thrive, 
but continued to lose flesh and finally died, notwithstanding 
that most of them had a ravenous appetite. 

Chick No. 3. — Hemoglobin, 65 per cent; erythrocytes, 2,920,- 
000. Leukocytes, 28,000. Differential count: Polymorphonu- 
clear neutrophiles, 39 per cent; eosinophiles, 30 per cent; 
lymphocytes, 29 per cent; mast cells, 2 per cent. 

Chick No. 4. — Hemoglobin, 65 per cent; erythrocytes, 2,600,- 
000; leukocytes, 14,000. Differential count: Eosinophiles, 
31 per cent; mononuclears, 8 per cent; lymphocytes, 60 per 
cent; basophiles, 1 per cent. 

Chick No. 5. — Hemoglobin, 75 per cent; leukocytes, 34,000; 
erythrocytes, 3,000,000. Differential count: Polymorphonu- 
clears neutrophiles, 4 per cent; eosinophiles, .'»0 per cent; baso- 
philes, 3 per cent; mononuclears, 4 per cent; lymphocytes, 
39 per cent. 

Chick No. 6. — This bird was about four months old, stunted 
in growth, "going light." and had contracted roup from an- 
other bird. The blood study shows the following: Hemo- 


globin, 60 per cent; leukocytes, 16',000; erythrocytes, 3,600,- 
000; thrombocytes, 436,000. Differential count: Eosinophiles, 
3 per cent; mononuclears. 4 per cent; lyraphtocytcs, 89 per 
cent; mast cells, 4 per cent. 

All efforts to isolate germs from the liver, spleen, kidneys 
and heart-blood were unsuccessful. 

More study must be done on this disease to determine the 
true cause, before rational treatment can be outlined. 

Treatment. — The birds should receive one-fourth 
to one grain ferrous sulphate once a day in soft 
feed. The prognosis is not hopeful. 

With our present knowledge we will look to 
sanitary surroundings for the control of this con- 
dition—clean coops and yards, good feed and 
water. A tablespoonful of powdered ginger to 
each dozen hens may be given once or twice a day 
in soft feed. 


This is a disease of great importance to the 
poultryman, not only on account of its destructive- 
ness to his flock, but also on account of its relation 
to the health of himself and family; for while 
fowls are not very likely to contract tuberculosis 
from domestic animals or from man, yet fowls 
that have the disease are a serious menace to the 
other animals on the farm as well as to the poul- 
tr^nnan and his family. 

Cause. — The Bacillus tuberculosis, which was 
discovered by Koch in 1882, is the cause of this 
disease. There are four jn-incipal types of this 
organism. The one most commonly infecting man 
is designated as the human type. The one pecu- 
liar to cattle is designated as the bovine type, and 
the one peculiar to fowls the avian type; and 
there is still another type of the tubercle bacillus 
which affects fish and other cold-blooded animals. 

While there are some differences in the shape 


of tlic! organisms grown for considerable time in 
the various animals and some differences (bio- 
chemically) wlion grown in artificial media after 
isolation, yet the type peculiar to any of the warm- 
blooded animals will grow in any of the other 
warm-blooded animals, that is, the types are in- 
terchangeable, which means that the bovine type 
may cause tuberculosis in man and the human type 
may cause tuberculosis in birds, etc. Most auth- 
ors consider that while the chicken has consider- 
able resistance to the human type, it will and does 
become infected with this type. 

It has been found that a large percentage of 
hogs fed swill from houses where tuberculous per 
sons have expectorated into it, become tubercul- 
ous, and when slaughtered, there is a considerable 
loss from condemnation of those badly affected. 

Tuberculosis among chickens is rare in some 
portions, and is very common in other localities in 
the United States. Although it is widespread 
throughout the United States and Canada, it was 
first reported in this country in 1900 and received 
but slight attention until 1903. It also occurs in 
turkeys, pigeons and pheasants, and two cases 
in wild geese were reported at the Ontario Agri- 
cultural College. The loss from this disease seems 
to be increasing. 

Mode of Spread,— In the progress of tuberculo 
sis of chickens at times there is noted a diarrhea. 
In these cases there are found tubercular ulcers 
of the mucous lining of the intestinal tract. In 
these cases the spread is very rapid through the 
flock, as birds are continually picking feed from 
the ground and floors wliere contamination is sure 
to have taken place. 


If scraps be fed to wliicli tuberculous sputum 
has found its way or if the birds are allowed to 
devour parts of an animal dead of the disease, 
there is a liability of their contracting tubercu- 

There is also a possibility that birds, by fol- 
lowing tuberculous cattle, may l)ecome infected, 
as do hogs. It has been argued tliat tlie temper- 
ature of the bird is so high (105° F. to 107° F.) 

A B 

Fig. 42. Tuberculosis in a Hen 
A, Spleen showing miliary tubercules. 
B, liver showing miliary tubercules. 

that it furnishes an unfavorable field for the hu- 
man and bovine types of germs, which thrive at 
temperatures close to 98° and 101° F., respective- 
ly. It has, however, been found that these germs 
soon adjust themselves to such changes in tem- 
perature and to a certain degree to differences in 

One case, a hen, was sent to the laboratory with the history 
of having had access to the sputum of a person afflicted with 
tuberculosis. Upon autopsy small pearl-like nodules were 
found throughout' the liver (See Fig. 42), in the lung sub- 
stance and over the serous lining covering the intestines and 


abdominal cavity. A microscopic exaniination of the lesions 
revealed the bacillus of tuberculosis. It more closely re- 
sembled the Iniman than the avain type. 

Symptoms. — An absoliito diagnosis cainu)! Ix; 
mack' diiriiii;' lifo, as the symptoms olisorved are 
common to many conditions, especially in the early 
stages when there are no positive external symp- 
toms by which it can be recognized. The bird be- 
comes emaciated. The rapidity of emaciation, like 
in other animals, depends on the progress of the 
disease; that is, the susceptibility of the bird, as 
well as the degree of infection. 

The comb appears pale, the bird becomes dull 
and sleepy, has "no life." If the joints become 
affected there will be lameness in case the affec- 
tion is in the legs and swollen joints, and often in 
affection of the skin and visible mucous mem- 
branes is noted there is ulceration (sores). This 
latter condition has been noted especially in par- 
rots. These skin areas are made up of a cheesy 
material (caseation necrosis), which is covered by 
a thick, rather hard, crust, whitish in color. At 
times it is noted that these crusts become rather 
horny in nature. 

The red blood cells in a tiiberculous fowl may 
be greatly reduced (as low as 1,000,000), and the 
hemoglobin as low as thirty-five per cent. Wliite 
blood cells are slightly increased. 

Postmortem Findings.— Owing to the fact that 
most birds are infected with tuberculosis through 
contaminated food, we find most of the lesions in 
the abdominal organs. Of these the liver is most 
often diseased. Next in frequency comes the 
spleen and the serous lining of the cavity, as stat- 
ed in report above. 

As indicated above, the ni'eas may a]>])ear as 


pearly, giayisli-wliite nodules varying in size from 
a piu-liead to a pea, or even larger. In these 
larger nodnles there will be noted a cheesy mass 
which, as the lesions become older, they become 
impregnated with calcium (lime) and then cut 
like gritty material. In healed tubercles there 
may be a solid calcareous (stony) mass. Usually 
the diseased organs are enlarged. Fig. 42 illus- 
trates a liver and spleen studded with pearly 
tubercles of pin-head size. This liver was from 
a hen afflicted with tuberculosis. 

Upon opening the intestine of a tuberculous 
bird there may be noted ulcers, usualh^ small in 
size, and a thickening of the wall. The abdom- 
inal lymph glands (kernels) are tuberculous. At 
times these show small tubercles from the size 
of a pin-head to larger, at other times a cheesy 
mass (caseation necrosis), and in still older areas 
an infiltration with lime salts.' Small tubercles 
may also be found in the lungs and other adja- 
cent tissue. 

Like in the higher animals, the bones become 
tuberculous, there is noted swelling tubercles and 
caseation; later calcification. 

Treatment.— Treatment of the affected bird is 
not to be thought of. As shown above, the germs 
of the disease are so often spread through the 
droppings that the only sure means of eradicat- 
ing the disease from a flock is to kill all the birds 
in the flock and if possible move the henhouse to 
a new location and have new runs. If this is not 
practicable, thoroughly disinfect with five per cent 
carbolic acid or five per cent creolin, all fences, 
feed troughs, watering tanks and buildings, as 
indicated under cholera. 

Birds from an infected flock should not be sold 


for breeding purposes, and the birds from such a 
flock that are killed for food should be inspected 
by a competent veterinarian, so that none may be 
used for food purposes that are diseased to such 
an extent as to render the food unfit for human 

All birds in a flock infected with tuberculosis 
that die should be cremated to prevent further 
spread of the disease from that source. All drop- 
pings and cleanings from the henhouse and runs 
should be disinfected with calcium chloride, a five 
per cent solution of carbolic acid or other reliable 
disinfectant before spreading on the fields. 


Diseases of the Liver 

Inflammation and necrosis of tlie liver as seen 
in many of the infections diseases have already 
been referred to under the discussions of these 
different diseases, as chicken cholera, blackhead, 
tuberculosis, etc. Aside from diseases of the liver 
due to infection, the commonest cause of ailments 
of this organ is improper feeding. It is with great 
difficulty that diseases of the liver can be recog- 
nized except upon postmortem examination. 
Treatment, as a rule, is useless. 

Fatty Degeneration 

This is a condition in which there is a disease 
process in the protoplasm of the liver cells, by 
which the normal secreting cells of the liver are 
to a greater or less extent replaced by fat cells. 
The liver is smaller than normal, unless fatty 
infiltration is also present ; it appears slightly yel- 
lowish, and when cut through the blade of the 
knife will have a greasy appearance, due to the 
fat that adhers to it. 

Symptoms. — Birds affected with fatty degenera 
tion of the liver show varied symptoms, but usu- 
ally they are dull, eat little and the comb turns 
dark to black. They gradually become thin in 
flesh and finally die. Usually the bird will live 
from two or three weeks to three months after 
the symptoms first appear. On autopsy all or- 
gans usually appear normal except the liver. 

Treatment. — Tliere is very little that can be done 


for this condition. Podophyllin in one-grain doses 
every three days may be given with some hope 
of relief. 

Fatty Infiltration 

Tliis condition may be a pliysiological or nor 
mal process until the accumnlation of fat occurs 
in such quantities as to interfere with the func- 
tion of the liver cells. 

The liver is one of the so-called storehouses of 
the body for fat. In it is stored a surplus until 
needed by the body for use (for combustion for 
the production of heat and energy). 

Overfed hens, or those closely housed and not 
forced to work, or fed too heavily on carbohy- 
drates (starchy feeds) store up much of the sur- 
l)lus nutrition in the liver as well as in other por- 
tions of the abdomen, especially in the mesentery 
and in the abdominal walls. 

In these cases, on autopsy, the liver will be found 
to be enlarged, ])rownish or grayish-brown in 
color (mottled), friable (tears easily), and when 
cut through appears ''greasy," much fat adhering 
to the knife blade. In these cases rupture of the 
liver often occurs when the hen is stepped upon 
by a large animal, is thrown or jumps a long dis- 
tance on liard ground or a concrete floor. Heavy 
hens with clipped wings are prone to this injury. 

In the liver, in which excessive fat is stored up, 
there is, after a while, an encroachment upon the 
]n-otoplasm to such an extent that the cells can- 
not ])rop('rly functionate and tlien deatli of the 
l>ii(l may occur. In these cases a microscopic ex 
aniination shows the nuclei of tlic cells to be 
pushed to one side, and the protoplasm atrophied 


aud disappearing. This is a pathological con- 
ditio n. 

Rupture of the Liver 

In cases where the liver is excessively congested 
with blood or is overly filled with fat, as men- 
tioned above, violence may result in rupture. 

One case that may be of interest came to the laboratory, 
and at autopsy was found to be ruptured, with considerable 
blood (hemorrhage) in the abdominal cavity (among the 
intestines). The rupture or tear was about three-quarters 
of an inch long and on the left lobe. The organ was double 
its normal size. Upon microscopic examination it was found 
to be congested and occasional small ruptures (hemorrhages) 
were found throughout the liver substance. 

This bird was in a yard with a horse and it is supposed 
to have been kicked or stepped upon, as the left side was 

Congestion of the Liver 

There are two kinds of congestion of the liver, 
active and passive. Active congestion precedes 
inflammation and is a state in which the capillar- 
ies, arterioles and arteries are engorged with 
blood. It is caused by local irritation. 

Passive congestion of the liver is usually due to 
a weak heart or a leaky valve between the two cav- 
ities of the right side. The blood backs up into 
the liver, and the central veins of the lobules and 
capillaries, between the columns of liver cells, be- 
come engorged. It gives the cut surface a pecu- 
liar yellowish mottled appearance called "nut- 
meg liver," from a fancied resemblance that it 
bears to the sectional surface of a nutmeg. 

Inflammation of the Liver 

Inflammation of the liver may be the result of 
absorption of poisonous products from the in- 
testines. These products (toxins) lodge in the 
liver, or the inflammation mav be due to infection 


(germs) as in chicken cholera. The irritation 
causes active congestion followed by a migration 
of groat numbers of polyiilorphonuclear leukocytes 
(white blood cells) and thrombocytes, constituting 
inflammation. The liver is enlarged, dark, and 
easily torn; it appears very full of blood. 

In manj^, and in fact most, of the contagious 
diseases /inflammation of the liver (hepatitis) 

The following case report will serve to illustrate these 

A valuable rooster was sent to the small animal ward of 
the Division of Veterinary Medicine of the Colorado Agri- 
cultural College for treatment. The bird had been sprinkled 
with some proprietary lice killer and had immediately taken 
ill. There was a loss of appetite and it had become weak in 
the legs and remained so till its death. Late in the course 
of the trouble the bird was not able to stand at all, but lay 
on its side. It became emaciated and lived only about three 
weeks after it was taken sick. 

On autopsy the liver was found to be enormously enlarged, 
weighing 176 grams (normal weight would have lieen about 
forty grams for a bird of that size). The surface had a 
grayish mottled appearance. Upon microscopic examination 
these pale gray, irregular areas proved to be liver areas 
packed with leukocytes (white blood cells) and thrombocytes 
— an aggravated case of hepatitis (inflammation). 

Another similar case was brought to the laboratory, except 
that it did not have the history of having been sprinkled 
with an insect powder. 


This is a disease of turkeys and to a less ex- 
tent of other birds, which extends from the in- 
testine to and involves the liver. It is discussed 
under diseases of the liver. (See page 85.) 

Unimportant Diseases 

Abscesses and tumors of the liver appear to be 
very rare in chickens and other fowl. Sarcomas 
and carcinomas (cancers) of this organ are usu- 
allv associated with similar tumors of the ovary. 


Jaundice is very rare, and appears to result from 
a loug-continned mild congestion of the liver. 

Cercomoniasis (s]H)tted liver) is a type of dis- 
ease of the liver due to infection {Monocercomo- 
nas fjaUiuaruni) that may be associated with 
severe diarrheas. 

Aspergillosis is a disease due to a fungus (Asper- 
gillus funiigatus, and sometimes other species). 
It commonly aft'ects the lungs (Pneumomycosis, 
which see), but may, and occasionally does, affect 
the liver. 


Disease of the Ovary and 

Prolapse or Eversion of the Oviduct 

This is a common ailment of laying hens. Over- 
feeding and aggravated constipation have been 
found associated with this condition. When the 
eggs are large and considerable straining takes 
place during their passage, and in inflammation 
of the mucous lining of the oviduct or egg canal 
prolapse or a protruding of the mucous membrane 
through the cloaca may be observed. In consti- 
pation, the bowels becoming gorged, and this in 
addition to the obstruction when the egg canal 
contains one or more developing eggs, and the 
ovary, being active, is larger and adds to the bulk, 
predisposes to prolapse. 

This condition is most often seen in hens that 
are heavy layers. It perhaps occurs most often in 
old hens. If the prolapsed or protrduing mucous 
membrane is allowed to extend through the anus, 
it soon becomes inflammed from exposure to the 
air and infection (germs). Later the parts may 
become ulcerated as a result of mechanical injur- 
ies or the attack of germs. 

Treatment.— Wash off the accumulated material 
on the vent feathers with clean, soapy, warm 
water. After cleansing the hands, replace the 
protruding mass, using on the fingers carbolized 
vaseline, three to five per cent strength. Keep 
the hens on a light diet for several days so that 



the parts may have a rest and the irritation caus- 
ing the trouble subside. It is best to give only soft 
feed and liquids. Give the hen a tablespoonful of 
olive oil and plenty of clean water. 

Obstruction of the Oviduct (Egg Bound) 

This is a connnon ailment of laying hens, per- 
haps the commonest of all discussed conditions of 
the oviduct. The poultry raiser calls it ^'egg 
bound," by which he means there is something in 
the oviduct which the bird cannot force out. 

The upper portion of the oviduct, or that part 
which receives the ovum (yolk) as soon as it is 
fully formed in the ovary and delivered, is lined 
with secreting cells. In this part the albumin 
which surrounds the yolk is formed. Further 
along the glands secrete the shell or calcium layer 
after forming around the mass a fibrous mem- 
brane or sac. It can be readily seen, for all this lo 
be brought about, means an abundant blood sup- 
ply. An inflammation of the egg duct (usually 
the result of infection from the digestive tract by 
way of the cloaca) means an arrest of function of 
these glands. There are other cells that secrete 
mucous which lubricates the passage way, and 
these, too, are arrested in their function. The 
result is a stoppage of the egg. 

Other causes are: Eggs of too large size, ex- 
Iiaustion of the bird and atony and paralysis of 
muscular walls of the oviduct and vagina, volvulus 
or twisting of the oviduct and stricture of the ovi- 
duct. Weakened muscles, the result of disease, im- 
proper nourislinient and overwork are contribut- 
ing factors. 

Symptoms. — The hen goes frequently to the nest 
and repeatedly makes expulsive efforts but can- 


not lay. If the obstruction is well aloug in the 
egg canal the egg may be felt as a hard object in 
the posterior part of the abdomen. In many cases 
the obstruction is so far up the oviduct it cannot 
be felt or seen and we must depend for diagnosis 
upon the action of the bird, which suffers acutely 
nnder these conditions. 

Treatment.— First be sure that the bird will not 
lay the egg unaided. Allow her to remain quiet 
and alone for a couple of hours ; she will often 
relieve herself unaided. If it is evident that 
the bird must be given help, wash tlie hand 
carefully with soap and water and lubricate the 
fingers with three to five per cent carbolized vase- 
line, which can be secured at any drug store, pass 
the fingers through the anus and cloaca into the 
egg canal and remove the egg. At times the egg 
is large and it may be necessary to break the shell 
in order to remove it. If the egg is broken, make 
sure that all parts of the shell are removed. By 
referring to Plate I the relations of these organs 
may be seen. 

After the removal of the egg give the hen a 
tablespoonful of olive or castor oil and place on 
a light feed for a few days. Eecovery usually 
occurs in the simple uncom.plicated cases which 
form the majority; in complicated cases death is 
often the result. 

Rupture of the Oviduct 

This is usually a complication of obstruction of 
the oviduct. It is frequently fatal in a very short 
time and in such cases can be diagnosed only upon 
postmortem examination. 

Cause.— Vigorous contraction of the muscular 
walls of the egg canal in expulsion efforts some- 


times results iu a rupture of the wall. When this 
occurs the usual sequel is peritonitis (inflamma- 
tion of the serous lining of the abdominal cavity) 
and the death of the bird. Disease processes 
sometimes so weaken the wall that it gives way 
under the stress of natural contraction. 

Symptoms. — The hon ceases to lay, the abdomen 
becomes larger and often one or more eggs can 
be felt by palpating the lower portion of the ab- 
domen. Often the hen is noted to sit up penguin- 
like-fashion, walking with tail and posterior por 
tion of the abdomen dragging the ground. There 
is nothing to do except to kill the bird. At au- 
topsy there will be found many yolks in the abdo- 
minal cavity, possibly one or more with shells 
and x^ossibly an inflammation of the lining of the 
cavity (peritoneum). 

Broken Eggs in Oviduct 

Eggs in tlie oviduct, as well as ova still unde- 
livered, are often found broken as a result of a 
kick of a large animal or of the hen being stepped 
upon. Death usually follows, if not immediately 
from the injury, which breaks the egg, after sev- 
eral days as a result of complicated obstruction 
of the oviduct resulting from the fibrous exudate 
thrown out about the broken yolk. 

AVe have also studied cases of ruptured ova due 
to heavy hens roosting on liigli roosts and by 
jumping upon the hard floor, causing rupture of 
the larger forming yolks or ova or of eggs in the 
egg canal. 

Prolapse of the Cloaca 

This may occur in heavy laying hens that roost 
on high perches and fly a long distance to the 


ground, and especially when the wings arc clipped. 
If these birds are allowed low roosts and put on a 
light diet they recover. Some of these conditions 
have been studied in the author's laboratory and 
the trouble overcome liy observing this rule. 

Abnormal Eggs 

Many different kinds of abnormal eggs are pro-, 
duced by fowls owing to various diseased or other 
abnormal conditions of the generative apparatus. 
Because of the rarity of their occurrence such 
eggs are of little importance to the practical poul- 
try raiser, but they possess much interest for the 
scientific investigator. 

Soft-shell Eggs. — This is a condition where eggs 
are laid without a sufficient amount of shell sub- 
stance covering the shell membrane. The com- 
monest cause is overfeeding, another cause is the 
lack of sufficient shell-making material in the feed; 
still another cause is fright, which may cause a 
premature detachment of the yolk. 

The cause should be remedied and the condition 
will disappear without further treatment. 

Yolkless Eggs. — These are small eggs, in which 
the albumen and shell is formed about a small por- 
tion of detached yolk, a minute piece of hardened 
albumen or a bit of coagulated blood instead of 
the normal yolk. 

Double and Triple Yolk Eggs. — These eggs with 
two yolks are common. They are caused by two 
yolks getting into the oviduct and being enclosed 
together in the albumen and shell. Three-yolked 
eggs, which are rare, have a similar origin. 

Bloodspecks, Blood Rings, Egg Inclusions. — These 
have little significance; particles of coagulated 
blood, due to hemorrhage when the ovum (yolk) 


is (lis(.'liai"^t'(l J'rom the oxary, arc most common, 
hut luuips of bacteria, worms, t'ccal matter, etc., 
have ])e<Mi fouiid. 

Bhjod clots may l)e found in either the yolk or 
white (albumen). 

If hemorrha,c:e occurs in the yolk, the clot has 
formed in tlie ovary before it was delivered into 
the oviduct. If tlie ch)t is in tlu» white it has oc 
curred in tlie U))i»er poi'tion of the oviduct. 



Tumors of various kinds affect birds, but are 
less common tlian in higher animal life. There is 

Fig. 43. Hematoma of Ovary ix a Hen (natural size) 
A, Diseased ova. E, sectioned surface of two of the blood tumors. 

almost no literature on the subject. The following 
reports from the author's laboratory are given 



J'or llicir iiilorcst, I'atlicr Hum tlicir utilitarian 

Hematoma, Blood Tumors 

Occassioually considerable liemoj-rliage takes 
place in the ova as tlioy are in process of forma- 
tion. These fail to find their way into the oviduct 
and become hematoma, or blood tumors. Fig. 43 
illnstrates one of these cases, natural size. The 
sectioned surfaces of two of the tmnors is shown. 

Exciting- causes, like those that cause inflamma- 
tion and congestion, are present. A rupture of a 
small, congested vessel causes the clot. Ergot in 
small quantities should be given to combat the con- 

Multiple Tumors of the Ovary 

One of the connnonest of tumors consists of 
yolks, or ova, which have formed, but failed to 
enter the oviduct. Later these masses become 
hard and irregular in shape, yellowish in color, 
and consisting of dried (inspissated) yolks form- 
ing concentric layers. Fig. 44 illustrates one of 
these cases, natural size. 

Cystic Ovary 

C'ystomas, or cysts, are found at times in the 
ovaries. These cysts are apparently imperfectly 
developed ova varying in size, and contain a color- 
loss liquid. Thoy are attached to tlio ovarian mass 
by pedicles. 


Sarcomas are a type of malignant tumors; that 
is, they spread much in the manner as cancers 
(carcinoma). They are fatal in time. The flesh 
of birds affected with sarcoma should not be eaten. 

A case of sarcoma was studied by the writer, in 



Fig. 44. Multiple Tumors of Ovary in a Hen- (natural size) 
A, Ova that have undergone degeneration. Xote the pedicle-like 
structure joining to the ovarian mass. 


wliicli tlic iiniiors iiivoKcd llio oNury, intestines, 
peritoncnni (liiiin.u' of llic abdominal cavity) and 
tlie liver, ''riiese tumors vary in size, are whitisli- 
yellow. and soft wlien sectioned. 


An adenoma is a tumor that has some resem 
blanoe to a normal gland. It is made up of con- 
nective tissue and asini, or cavities, lined by col- 
umnar or cuboidal cells. One tumor of this type 
afl'ectiug tlie spleen of a hen was sent to the labora- 
tory. Tlu' s])leen was about twice normal size. 


This is a malignant ty])e of tumor. One case, 
affecting tlie heart of a chicken was sent to the 
laboratory. The heart was about normal size, 
and when cut showed small, roundish, clear areas. 
These proved to be small tumors Hint couu' un- 
der this heading. 


This is a type of cancer. One hen was brought 
to the laboratory with the history that she had a 
"growth" on the side of the head for several 
months. The tumor was flat and about one inch 
in diameter. A microscopic examination revealed 
it to be an epithelioma. 


Diseases of the Respiratory 

In the fall, winter and spring, tliese diseases are 
a sconrge to tlie poultry raiser, unless strict san- 
itation is observed. 

Obstruction of the Trachea 

This is uncommon, except as a result of gape- 
worm infestation. Fig. 45 illustrates a case that 
was sent to the laboratory with the statement that 
it had ''gapes." This bird would extend its 
head high into the air, gasping for breath as one 
whose trachea is obstructed by gapeworms ; it was 
weak and unable to stand squarely upon its feet. 
It was destroyed for examination. A piece of a 
grain of corn was found in the trachea, surrounded 
by an accumulation of mucus caused by the irrita- 
tion its presence in the trachea caused. The for- 
eign body and the accumulated mucus were ob- 
structing the passage of air to the lungs ; hence, the 

Catarrh, Colds 

Cause. — Sudden changes in the weather, cold, 
damp weather, roosting in draughts, and chilling 
by getting wet in cold rains is often a factor in the 
production of catarrh among birds. Such af- 
fections are more or less contagious, but bad san- 
itation plays an important part in their spread. 
Weak stock and poorly nourished birds are pre- 
disposed to this contagion. 



Symptoms. — The appetite may be somewhat dim- 
inished. The bird sneezes, throws its head and 
may expel some mucus. The discharge at first is 
watery and later becomes more or less thick 
(muco-purulent). Tlie eyes may show more or 
less inflammation (conjunctivitis) and the eyelids 

Fig. 45. Obstruction of the Trache.v 

A, Showing depression (drooping wings, inability to stand, etc.) from 

partial asphyxiation. B, same chicken shown in "A," just before death. 

may become adherent. The characteristic offens- 
ive order of roup is absent. 

Treatment. — The same treatment as outlined un- 
der roup (see page 153) has given us uniformly 
good results. 

The following report of one of the experiments 
by Mr. Coulton, under the direction of the author, 


illustrates the course and treatment of colds in 
birds : 

With the advent of cold weather, early last fall, a large 
number of our chickens contracted colds, which was ex- 
tremely discouraging, to say the least. We had over one 
hundred chickens, besides turkeys, and fully twenty-five per 
cent were affected at one time. In addition to the colds which 
affected the throat, nostrils and eyes, many were affected 
with canker in the mouth. The ordinary remedies, kerosene, 
roup cures, etc., were all used, with little effect. We finally 
secured from the drug store (at the suggestion of Doctor 
Kaupp) some sulphocarbolates compound tablets and used 
them, but the improvement was not very marked. Later 
tablets furnished by the Pathological Laboratory of the Colo- 
rado Agricultural College (sulphocarbolates compound, thirty 
grains, with six grains bichloride of mercury to the tablet) 
were tried. This was not only placed in the drinking water, 
but a solution was used in a syringe to wash out the nos- 
trils and mouth. This treatment was marvelously effective. 
It acted like a charm. The catarrhal condition continued, 
however, until the following treatment was used (also at 
the suggestion of Doctor Kaupp) : 

The nostrils were washed out with a twenty per cent solu- 
tion of common baking soda; then with peroxide of hydrogen, 
and finally, with the following preparation: Oil of eucalyp- 
tus, twenty drops; oil of thyme, one dram, and petrol oil, 
two ounces. A warm solution of the soda was always used 
and the other materials were warmed by setting the bottles 
in hot water. This treatment was also applied to the eyes, 
and the ulcers in the mouth were swabbed with it. The re- 
sults were remarkable. It was almost impossible to make a 
record of these cases, as a large portion of the flock were 
affected. Furthermore, it was impossible to give them all 
the daily treatment prescribed. Sometimes they would go 
several days without treatment. In mild cases, however, from 
two to three applications affected a cure. 

March 17th we found a young cockerel in a very roupy 
condition. He had been hatched late in the fall and had 
never been very vigorous. His eyes were swollen shut, 
nostrils discharging badly, and, with all, his was not a prom- 
ising case. We isolated him and gave him the regulation 
treatment, as described above. Notwithstanding that it 
stormed severely and he was not well feathered, the next day 
he was showing a decided improvement, and after three treat- 
ments, covering about five days, all evidence of the trouble 
had disappeared and to-day he is apparently in better con- 
dition than at any time during the winter. 

A day or two later we found two others belonging to the 
same brood in about the same condition and after one treat- 
ment there was evidence of improvement, but after a few 
days, not having been able to give them careful attention 


or regular treatment, they seemed to be worse, and we used 
the hatchet treatment. I am satisfied, however, from our 
experience, both with chickens and the turkeys, when taken 
in time and treated regularly, it is seldom necessary to lose 
one. We estimated that we saved ninety-five per cent of those 
affected, by this treatment. 


in SOUR' east's wu have noted eatarrli com- 
mencing in the head, principally the nasal cham- 
bers, extend down and involve the trachea (wind- 
pipe), and even to the bronchi (branches of the 
trachea leading to the Inng tissue). Sudden 
changes in the weather, dampness and roosting 
near a crack in tlie henhouse so that a cold wind 
blows upon them, or, in fact, in any draught, are 
the principal causes of bronchitis. 

Symptoms. — A rattling sound may be heard in 
the region of the trachea and bronchi (neck and 
anterior part of the thorax). The bird may be 
seen to gasp for air by extending the head up- 
ward. This is due to an accumulation of mucus 
in the air passages which partially closes them, 
thus preventing the bird from getting enough oxy- 
gen into its lungs. The affected bird coughs, and 
there may be dullness and partial loss of appetite. 

The condition may pass off in a few days, may 
respond to treatment, or may last for several 
weeks and end in recovery or in death. In the 
latter case there is marked emaciation; in the 
former the bird coughs up mucus for a long time, 
l)ut otherwise appears well. 

Treatment. — A tablespoonful of castor oil, to 
which 5 to 10 drops of turpentine have been added, 
and if catarrh be present, treatment as outlined 
under roup. Give one-grain doses quinine sul- 
])liate three times a day. Place the l)ird in warm, 
clean, comfortable quarters, free from draughts. 


Give plenty of clean water and soft feed (bread or 
middlings moistened witli milk), to which has 
been added 2 grains of black antimony for each 
bird. Feed twice daily. 

Congestion of the Lungs 

This is an engorgement of the blood vessels of 
the lungs. Congestion of the Inngs is quite apt 
to develop into pneumonia, of which it may be said 
to be the first stage. It has been observed in 
young birds and in birds during their moulting 
season, when they are poorly clad with feathers 
and exposed to inclement weather. 

Young chicks that are allowed to run out in the 
early morning and become wet with cold dew, and 
chicks allowed to become wet with the cold spring 
rains and become chilled, are likely to suffer from 
congestion of the lungs and pneumonia. 

A contraction of the blood vessels of the skin 
and periphera forces an abnormal amount of blood 
to the internal organs, and congestion is the re- 
sult. Improper feeding and lack of exercise are 
also contributing factors. Birds having this ail- 
ment will be noted to be sleepy and stupid, and to 
breathe rapidly. In some cases the breathing is 
difficult. The comb becomes bluish and the bird 
may die because it cannot get enough air into the 
lungs (asphyxiation). Upon postmortem exami- 
nation the lungs will be found engorged with blood. 

The pressure of the blood in the engorged blood 
vessels of the lungs may close the smaller air 
passages which they surround, or may burst their 
thin walls and fill the bronchi with blood. In 
either case rapid asphyxiation occurs. 

Treatment. — Congestion of the lungs runs an ex- 
ceedingly rapid course, terminating in recovery, 


pneumonia, or death. Treatment is impractical. 
The ailment slionld be prevented by good feedinic 
and adequate protection from cold or wet weather. 

Pneumonia — Inflammation of the Lungs 

Bronchitis, described in the foregoing, often 
lerminates in pneumonia (broncho-pneumonia). It 
has been the experience of the writer that broncho- 
pneumonia, following an attack of bronchitis, is 
the commonest form of the disease. 

The causes of pneumonia are the same as the 
causes of colds and bronchitis, except that the ex- 
posure is often more severe. There is also a typo 
of pneumonia mentioned under the discussion of 
internal parasites that is due to a mold — usually 
the Aspergillus fumigatus; the condition it pro- 
duces is teclmically known as aspergillosis. 

Symptoms. — There is an entire loss of appetite, 
with thirst and constipation. The bird stands 
with the head drawn in, drooping wings and ruf- 
fled feathers; breathing is rapid and painful, and 
there may or may not be coughing. There is usu- 
ally a discharge of thick, adhesive mucus from the 
nostrils; the eyes may be inflamed and water 
freely. The bird has every appearance of severe 

Treatment. — Except in the case of birds of un- 
usual value, treatment is wholly impractical, owing 
to the amount of care and nursing necessary and 
because of the doubtful outcome. 

If treatment is undertaken, the birds should be 
warmly housed and the best of ventilation main- 
tained. Sjiirits of camphor, 2 drops, and brandy. 
K) drops, should be given hourly in a teaspoonful 
of warm milk ; if the comb becomes dark, add digi 


talis, one drop of the fluid extract to the medi- 

Autopsy. Upon opening the bird that has died 

from penumonia, the affected part of the Imig 
will be found to be dark red, and when cut 
through it is liver-like in appearance and texture. 
Serum (yellowish fluid) and blood may exude 
from the surface. 

Pneumomycosis -Aspergillosis 

This disease is due to a fungus belonging to the 
genus aspergillus, an organism similar to the 
common green molds. The species that usually 
affects the lungs of birds is the Aspergillus 

Symptoms. — The affected birds are sluggish and 
stay apart from the remainder of the flock; they 
sit about on the roosts, or in some corner; are 
very weak, and later become unable to stand. 
There is a loss of appetite; the feathers have an 
unkempt appearance; the wings are drooping 
and the eyes partially closed. The respiration 
is accelerated and there is a rattling of mucus 
in the trachea and bronchi. Fever is present, and 
there is ordinarih' considerable thirst. The af- 
fected bird usually dies after a prolonged illness. 

Postmortem Appearance.— Wliitish or yellowish 
nodules, varying in size up to a pea, will be noted 
in the affected parts ; which may be the trachea, 
bronchi, lungs and the various air sacs. The 
fungus may grow upon the surface of the mucous 
membranes forming, at first, a feltlike whitish 
mass which takes on color according to the spe- 
cies of the fungus as it fruits (forms spores). 
This membranous material, to the naked eye, re- 
sembles a fibropurulent exudate. The obstruc- 


tion of the air sacs causes the difficult breathing 
and asphyxiation. 

Inflammation is evident in the diseased areas. 
Sections through these areas of disease show tlie 
mvcelia (thread-like brandies of the mold) and 
the characteristic fruit (spores). Focal necrosis, 
preceded by cloudy swelling, is noted in the kid- 
neys and other vital organs. A secondary in- 
vasion of pus-producing organisms may take 
place and on autopsy abscesses may be found in 
the liver, kidneys, spleen and other organs. 

Treatment. — This is a difficult problem. Placing 
the affected birds in a close box and smoking them 
with tar has been advocated. Efforts should be 
made to eradicate the disease from the premises 
by cleaning and disinfecting them as for rou]) and 
other infectious diseases. (See pages 24 and 153.) 

Swell-Head in Young Turkeys 

The most characteristic sjTnptoms of this ail- 
ment is swelling of certain parts of the head, 
especially in the region of the maxillary or in- 
fraorbital sinus, which becomes filled with a gela- 
tinous, colorless substance. (For location of tliis 
sinus see Plate I, No. 31.) 

These swellings may disappear in a few days or 
weeks or may remain for several months. In the 
latter instance the swelling may contain a cheesy 
material of foul odor, and in some cases cause 

Treatment. — Open the swollen part and allow 
the morbid collection to drain out. In addition, 
use the same treatment as outlined under roup. 
(See page 153.) 


Chickenpox— Contagious Epithelioma 

This disease affects chickens, turkeys, pigeons 
and geese. 

Cause. — Some investigators claim that it is due 
to an ultra-microscopic virus (germ) and that the 
same germ is also the cause of avian diphtheria, or 
roup. (An ultra-microscopic germ is one that will 
pass through the pores of porcelain filters and can- 
not be seen with the microscope or grown in visi- 
ble quantities upon culture media.) There are 
just as many investigators who are certain that 
their results show that the germ causing these 
(pox and roup) are not the same, and that the 
infection one time will not produce roup and at 
another chickenpox (contagious epithelioma). Our 
experiments do not lead us to the conclusion that 
they are the same disease; that is, caused by the 
same germ. 

In structure the nodules resemble an epithe- 
lioma, described under that heading in the section 
on tumors, and in that contagious chickenpox can 
be transmitted from an emulsion of the material 
of a pox nodule, by inoculating the face and comb 
of a healthy bird. 

It has been proven that a maceration of the 
scrapings from the pox in physiological salt solu- 
tion and injected subcutaneously, will render im- 
munity against further inoculation of the disease 
by sacrification and introduction of the virus in 
the face and comb. 

One investigator has claimed that chickenpox 
is due to a protozoon (an animal parasite micro- 
scopic in size), but other investigators have failed 
to find this organism. 

Symptoms. — The disease appears as small nod- 
ules, varying pin-point size up to the size of a pea. 



or oveu miidi larger. It may be accompanied l)y 
roup; in fact, we have studied both diseases in th" 
same flock, an occurrence wliicli is not uncommon. 
The question naturally arises, are both due to fil- 
terable viruses (germs so small that they pass 
through porcelain filters, and too small to be seen 
through a microscope), and are both present in 

Fic. 46. CiricKEN Vox 
A, Epithelial, tumor like iioilulcs. 1'., an ulcer. 

the same outbreak, or are both due to the same 
cause? At the present time there are conflicting 
reports by scientific men. Fig. 46 illustrates a 
case of this disease. 

One investigator has reported that immunity 
against chickenpox does not confer immunity to 

Haring and Kofoid have shown that there is a specific 
antibody developed in birds affected with chickenpox. By 


the use of the complementfixation method (a test similar to 
oue used in the diagnosis of glanders) the blood from the 
diseased fowl exhibited fixation of the complement not shown 
by normal fowl blood. Thus showing that it is a specific 
germ disease. The antigen was prepared both from the 
tumors on the head and from the liver of birds sick of the 

Treatment.— The same sanitary regulations 
s^honld be put into force as under fowl cholera. No 
birds should be sold from the flock while the dis- 
ease exists among them. Cleaning of yards and 
liouses and keeping them clean, as well as frequent 
disinfection, is essential. Antiseptics, as recom- 
mended under cholera, may be given in the feed 
and water. The head of the affected bird should 
l)e bathed in an antiseptic solution. 

Roup— Diphtheric Roup— Swelled Head 

The cause of this disease seems to be far from 
settled. European investigators liave claimed it 
due to an ultra-microscopic germ (one so small 
it cannot be seen under the microscope). With a 
view of determining whether or not the type exist- 
ing in Colorado is due to an ultra-microscopic or- 
ganism, two sick hens were secured for experi 

Report of Outbreak of Diphtheric Roup 

These birds had swollen eyes with an accumulation of 
catarrhal or inflammatory product in the maxillary sinus 
(cavity below and in front of the eye) and a discharge from 
the nostrils of an offensive odor characteristic of roup. There 
were also the characteristic yellowish-white diphtheric mem- 
branes in the mouth. Material from all the lesions of both 
birds was made into a suspension with physiological salt 
solution and filtered through a Pasteur filter calculated to 
take out all germs that can be seen by aid of the microscope 
or grown on artificial media. 

The fiuid that passed through this filter was used in in- 
oculating experimental birds. These birds were from flocks 
in which no roup had appeared. In all fifteen inoculations 
were made. Tubes of culture media were inoculated with the 


filtrate and incubated seventy-two hours and no growth of 
germs occurred on any of the tubes; (his shows that all visible 
germs were taken out. Smears of the filtrate were made 
and stained and an examination of these likewise gave nega- 
tive results. In none of tliese inoculations did roup appear. 
So far as this one experiment goes, it appears that our type 
of roup is not due to an ultramicroscoplc germ. This type 
of roup is quite contagious. 

Marx produced a yellowish-diptheritic membrane by inject- 
ing pox emulsion into the mucous membrane of the mouth 
and eye of a bird. 

The report of the United States Bureau of Animal Industry 
for 1910 an account of the isolation of the Bacillus necro- 
phorus from the ulcers in one outbreak (this Is the germ 
that causes necrotic stomatitis in hogs and sheep, gangerous 
dermatitis in horses, diphtheria in calves, and many other 
pathologic conditions in other animals), in another outbreak 
the Bacillus aviscpticiis (the germ of fowl cholera) was found, 
and in still another outbreak a coccidium appeared to be the 
cause. The Bacillus pijori/ancus has also been isolated by 
another investigator as has also a short, rod-shaped germ 
with rounded ends called the Bacillus cacosmtis. It would 
thus appear that several germs play a more or less im- 
portant part in the causation of roup. Other germs have 
been reported from time to time as having been associated 
with this disease, so that with the reports before us from 
scientific laboratories we cannot point, as yet, to any certain 
germ as the cause. 

Mode of Spread. — This disease is spread by birds 
introduced into a flock from infected premsies, and 
by exposure, as at poultry shows. A chronic type 
of the disease in one or more birds (carriers) in a 
flock may serve to infect others when they are 
weakened by predisposing causes, as by exposure 
to cold or dampness, or by roosting in a draught, 
or in badly ventilated buildings. 

Symptoms. — There are three forms of the dis- 
ease, that is, three forms of lesions. Any or all 
may be present in the same bird. 

1. The nasal type. — This t.vpe is characterized 
at first by a thin, watery discharge with an offens- 
ive odor characteristic of roup. Later the ca- 
tarrhal product becomes somewhat thicker (muco- 
purulent) and the nostrils become occluded (glued 



shut), aud quite frequently there is a bulging of 
the sinus (eavity) in front and below the eye. This 
is due to an accumulation of the inflammatory pro- 
ducts in this sinus. Fig. 47 illustrates this com- 
mon swelling. 

2. The diphtheric type. — This type affects the 
mouth. This often accompanies the nasal form. 
Fig. 48 illustrates these diphtheric ulcerations, 
which are vellowish or vello wish-white in color. 

Fir,. 47. Roup i.v A I 
A, Bulging of infraorbital or maxillary sinus. 

From these necrosing patches the disease receives 
its name, avian diphtheria. 

o. The ocular type. — In this form there is first 
noted an inflammation of the mucous membrane 
covering the anterior portion of the eyeball (con- 
junctivitis). As the disease progresses, the ca- 
tarrhal product accumulates as a watery, clot-like 
mass, whitish in color. The eyelids stick together 
and hold the material as it accmnulates, till the 
part bulges outward. 

There is noted sneezing, shaking the head, and 



expulsion of imic'us. Tlierc is a loss oL' a])p('tite, 
the bird appears weak, walks iinstoadily, and be- 
comes eniacitited rapidly. At, times brcntiiing is 
difficult, and tbere is often a diarrbea. 

Tliree stages tben follow: eatarrlial, cbaraeter 
ized by a mucus, or muco-purulent, discharge; the 
diphtheric, affecting the mouth and tliroat and 

Fig. 48. Diphtheric Kocp in a Chicken 

A, Tlie ycllowisli-whilc diphlluiic patches on upper surface of tongue 

and lower jaw (natural size). 

B, diphtheric patches on hard palate and upper jaw. 

characterized by the formation of a membrane on 
the surface which may be followed later by slough- 
ing (formation of a mass of dead tissue) ; and the 
conjunctival, affecting the eyes, and often causing 
a destruction of the eyeball. 

Postmortem Appearance— The toxin (poison) 
from the areas of disease is very destructive, as 


the rapid emaciation of the bird following a se- 
vere attack, shows. Upon examination of the 
membranes that have formed in the mouth, it will 
be fonnd that when they are removed there is 
left a raw, granular appearing surface. Upon 
microscopic examination, cellular infiltration is 
seen, with a destruction of cells of the mucous 
membrane underlying the diptheric patch. An ex- 
amination of the maxillary (suborbital) sinus (see 
Plate I, No. 31) will reveal it to be filled with a 
purulent material, which is often cheesy-like in 
consistency. The wall over this part is very thin 
and can be easily opened with a knife. 

A microscopic study of sections of the head, 
through the inflamed area (the mucous lining of 
tlie nasal passage) shows considerable thickening 
and an acute inflammation (invasion of poh/mor- 
phonuclear leiiJcoci/tes) ; at times the entire pas- 
sage is ''plugged" with the mucus. 

On examination of the eye and mucous mem- 
brane surrounding the anterior portion of the eye- 
ball, there may be seen a cloudy condition of the 
cornea, the anterior iDortion of the ball (keratitis). 
There is also an acute inflammation of the mucous 
membrane of the eye (acute conjunctivitis). 

In cases studied in this laboratory it has been 
found that the acute inflammation extends to the 
iris and ciliary muscles and their surrounding 

Treatment. — Correct any bad sanitation or hy- 
giene, which may be a predisposing cause. The 
henhouse should be well ventilated, but should al- 
low no draughts on the birds, and should be kept 
clean and free from dampness. It should be 
cleaned and disinfected daily with some of the 
mixtures heretofore described and recommended 


lor this pmpose. If llio bird is not a valuable 
one, kill and cremate it, the liead as well as the 

Medicinal treatment differs, with the location of 
the lesion. For the ulcers, or diptheric patches, 
in the month, nothing is better than burning with 
stick silver nitrate (lunar caustic). A solution 
cannot be used, as the fluid will run down and 
])nrn other parts of the mouth and throat. 

With the thumb and finger press open the 
eyelids and with clean absorbent cotton remove 
the white catarrhal material, then apply the same 
remedy as for injection into the nostrils. The 
following has given good results in our experi- 
mental work and with those to whom we have rec- 
ommended it: 

Wash out the nasal passage with a twenty per 
cent solution of sodium bicarbonate (common 
baking soda), using a medicine dropper or, better, 
a small syringe, as the material must be forced 
so as to pass through the nasal passage into the 
mouth (refer to Plate I, Nos. 29 to 33, and to Fig. 
50). Then inject, in like manner, peroxide of 
hydrogen. The soda dissolves and removes the 
mucus, and the peroxide of hydrogen cleans out 
the cavity. The parts should then be cleansed 
with essential oils, which may be applied directly 
to the inflamed mucous membranes. Inject a 
quantity of the following: 

Oil of thyme 1 dram 

Oil of eucalyptus 20 drops 

Oil of petrol 2 ounces 

In aggravated cases, repeat this treatment three 
times a day. Give an abundance of clean water 
and soft, easily digested feed. 



Fig. 49. Skiagraph of Head and Neck of Chicken 
A, Trachea. 15, esopliagus. C, vertebra. D, crop, filled with grains 
of wheat. E, infraorbital or maxillary sinus. F, frontal sinus. 
G, feathers. H, nostrils. I, eyes. J, musculature. 


Conjunctivitis: Inflammation of the Eye 

Most inflammations of the respiratory passages 
extend to and involve the eye structures also. 
These atiFectious of the eye have been described 
under catarrh, roup, etc. 

There are many causes of inflammation of the 
mucous membrane of the eye aside from the speci- 
fic germs heretofore mentioned. A chick was 
brought to the laboratory with one eye very much 
swollen. Upon examination, there was found a 
piece of straw about one-fourth of an inch in 
length lodged in the conjunctival sac. Upon re- 
moval of this piece of straw, and the application 
of a one-per-cent solution of zinc sulphate, the 
inflammation subsided in the course of a day or 

The number and variety of foreign bodies that 
may gain access to the eye structures and set up 
inflammation are numberless. In most cases their 
careful removal and washing the eye with a sat- 
urated solution of boracic acid or a solution of 
zinc sulphate and water, 1 to 100, is all the treat- 
ment that is required. 

Similar washes are indicated for conjunctivitis 
due to injuries, spurring, picking blows, etc. 


Diseases of the Legs and 


This is a condition in which the birds cannot 
bear their own weight, or have difficulty in doing 
so. It occnrs in yonng as well as in old birds. 
Knowledge as to the causes of leg weakness, 
so common at times in certain localities, is im- 
perfect. The conditions are being investigated, 
however, in several laboratories. 

Causes. — Improperly heated brooders, too much 
bottom heat, damp and badly ventilated houses, 
heavy cockerels, kept constantly on wooden floors, 
are among the conditions which bring about leg 
weakness. In some cases it is probably a rheu- 
matic condition, and there are some forms which 
no doubt are due to a lack of lime salts in the 
bones and other tissues. 

Symptoms.— At times this disease appears sud- 
denly, at other times it develops slowly. It may 
affect only one, or at most, a few birds, or it may 
affect many. There is unsteadiness in walking, 
and in badly affected cases the bird sits around 
much of the time. Finally it is unable to rise, and 
may even lie on its side. 

Treatment. — Give one sixth-grain doses of strych- 
nine sulphate, dissolved in water, three times a 
day; also two-grain doses of salicylate of soda in 
the same manner. Give one tablespoonful of cas- 
tor oil in severe cases in adult chickens. 




Have the quarters properly ventilated, clean, 
free from dam]iness, and supply the birds witli 
ft'ood feed and water. If the cause be a lack of 
lime salts (rachitis), milk and lime water should 
be given freely. 

Foot Abscesses 

This condition is not rare in fowls. Fig. 49 
shows an abscess due to a Russian thistle thorn 

having punctured the 
soft structures be- 
tween the toes. A in- 
dicates the opening, 
through which a 
cheesy pus was re- 
moved by the aid of 
a curette (pus scoop). 
No treatment other 
than liberation of the 
])us is ordinarily re- 

Bumble Foot 


condition is 
to the fore- 
Birds often 

,. ... , r e c e i V e a ''stone 

ric. 511. I HORN Abscess 
A, Opinins tlirouRli which chcc-y pus bruisc" On tllC SOft 
was libcralcd. , , p l^ i i 

structures or the bot- 
tom of the foot; a thick or cheesy pus accumu- 
lates, producing the condition known as bumble 
foot. The pus should be allowed to escape by 
opening tlie abscess and scraping it out. Place 
ilic l)ird in a clean, dry place, preferably on 
sti-aw, so as to keep dirt out of tlie sore; wash 
out witli a weak solution of carbolic acid. 


Bumble foot is usually caused by jumping from 
high roosts onto hard floors. The roost should be 
lowered, to obviate further trouble from this 


Hutyra and Marek describe a gout affecting the 
feet of birds. This condition is evidently rare. 


Diseases of the Brain 

Dizziness — Vertigo 

Affections of the brain are comparatively rare 
in birds. Vertigo has been known where the 
brain is congested, especially in very fat, pleth- 
oric birds. Excessive heat in hot snmmer weather ; 
absorption of poisonous substances (toxins) from 
the intestinal tract; irritation due to intestinal 
worms ; injury to the head, as by a blow, etc., are 
the chief causes of dizziness in birds. 

S5miptoms. — The bird throws its head upward, 
backward, and to one side. It may walk side- 
wise or backward, and have an unsteady walk — 
staggery. The bird may be drowsy, and even have 
epileptiform symptoms. 

Treatment. — Place the affected bird in cool, well 
ventilated, comfortable quarters, free from drafts, 
and give thirty grains of Epsom salt, dissolved 
in warm water. Give also two-grain doses stron 
tium bromide every hour. Thorough purging is 
one of the first essentials. 

In case of limber neck (due to eating rotten 
meat) and prostration, give one-fifth grain strych- 
nine three times a day. (See page 102.) 

Hemorrhage of the Brain 

This condition is technically called apoplexy. 
It may be due to over-straining, as in egg-laying, 
in very fat birds. Injury to the head and over- 
stimulating food are also causes. 



S5miptoms. — The heii may be found dead on the 
nest. The symptoms are of short duration: the 
attack comes on suddenly, as the hemorrhage soon 
presses on the brain structures so that the func- 
tion of that part stops and the animal is seen to 
stagger, fall, and die immediately. 

Postmortem Findings.— Upon opening the brain 
cavity and examining the brain, there will be 
found hemorrhages (clots) in the brain substance. 


Bacteria of the Intestinal 
Tract of Chickens 

The bacterial flora of the intestinal tract of birds 
has been receiving considerable study during re- 
cent years. The alimentary tract of man and ani- 
mals contains many millions of bacteria, of many 
varieties. Many of these are constantly present 
and constitute what is known as the normal in- 
testinal flora. In the newly-born child or animal 
the intestinal tract is sterile, that is, it contains 
no germs, but as soon as it partakes of food and 
water the intestines are seeded and ever after 
contain bacteria in large numbers. The same can 
be said of the chick. 

Some of these germs are not harmful, but give 
off ferments similar to the cells of the accessory 
glands of digestion; these ferments may aid in 
splitting up foodstuffs and in preparing it for 
absorption. Ferments of this kind have been 
called organized ferments, but we have now 
learned that such ferments do not in any way 
differ in action from those secreted by the stom- 
ach, pancreas or intestinal glands. It is their fer- 
ments, and not the germs themselves, that cause 
tlie splitting up of the food nutrients. 

Some of the bacteria are at times injurious, and 
often times pathogenic organisms (disease germs) 
gain access to the intestinal tract and may pro- 
duce disease, if the bird is susceptible. There 
are also, at times, protozoa present, especially 
those belonging to the coccidia group. 



The following germs have been found as normal 
inhabitants of the duodenum, or first portion of 
tlie intestines, of birds : 

Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus suhtilis, Bacillus 
rainosus, Bacillus sereiis, Bacillus asterosporus, 
Bacillus fusiformis, Bacillus coli communis, Strep- 
tococcus lacticus, Bacillus lactis aerogenes, Bacil- 
lus prodigiosus, Sarcina aurantiaca, Sarcina lutea, 
Sarcina ventriculus, Clathodrix asteroides, Micro- 
coccus rosettaceus, brown, white, and green molds, 
coral and white yeasts. Micrococcus roseus and 
Clamydoth rlr ferrugenes. 

In tlie third portion of the intestines, or ileum, 
may be foimd green and white molds, Cladothrix 
asteroides. Bacillus cloaca', Bacillus ramosus, Sar- 
cina lutea and Sarcina aurantiaca, Staphylococcus 
pyogenes idhus and citreus, Staphylococcus cereus 
alhus, BacUlus fuorescens liquefaciens, Micrococ- 
cus asterosporus, Streptococcus lacticus. Bacillus 
lactis (crogenes. Bacillus coli communis. Bacillus 
prodigiosus, Bacilh{s mesentericus, Bacillus cer- 
eus. Bacillus megatherium. Bacillus fusiformis, 
Bacillus stihtilis. 

Practically the same microorganisms are to bo 
found in the cecum. The same may be said of the 
cloaca, with possibly the addition of the Bacillus 
wrogenes capsulal us find Staphylococcus pyogenes 

It must be remembered that the intestinal flora 
is probably not the same for all birds, as different 
surroundings or environment, different sources of 
food, as well as different food and water, play a 
part in carrying germs to the intestinal tract. 


The Egg 


An average-sized lieu egg weighs about two 
ounces, of which eleven per cent is shell, thirty-two 
per cent yolk, and fifty-seven per cent white. The 
principal chemical constituents of the egg are as 
follows: Ash (mineral matter) nine per cent; fat 
(hydrocarbon) nine and three-tenths per cent; 
proteids (nitrogenous matter) eleven and nine- 
tentlis per cent ; and water, sixty-five and five- 
tenths per cent. 

Animal Parasites in Eggs 

Eeports have been made that worms have been 
found in eggs. The author has not had the good 
fortune to examine any of these worms for the 
purpose of classification, but it is probable that 
the Ascaris inflexa or Heferakis papiUosa and 
other round worms, normally inhabiting the in- 
testines, may find their way up the egg canal and 
be incori:»orated with the egg as it is formed. By 
referring to Plate I, it will be seen that a live 
worm, possessing power of movement as these 
worms do, passing into the cloaca (16) from the 
rectum (15) can pass up the egg canal (23) and 
thus be incorporated in the albumen of the egg, as 
it is formed around the yolk. These conditions 
are rare. 

Bacteria of Eggs 

Several investigators have, of recent years, de- 
voted much time to the investigation of the bac 



terial flora of eggs. It is needless to say that all 
understand that the spoiling of eggs is due to the 
mnltiplication of haeteria in them, when the egg 
is bronglit nndor ]no])er temperature. The cold 
storage of eggs liolds them nnder conditions un- 
favorable for tlie rapid growth of these bacteria. 
When eggs are kept cold the bacteria within them 
are in a more or less dormant state and hence by 
reason of this retardation of germ growth the 
eggs keep longer. 

Eggs can be successfully desiccated (dried) and 
such powdered product is on the market. The 
moisture in it is so reduced that germs do not 
grow and, like any other dried product, it keeps 
well. This desiccated product retains the quali- 
ties of the fresh egg for a long time. One pound 
represents about three and one-half pounds of raw 
egg or an amount obtained from thirty eggs. The 
egg contains considerable fat and because of this 
the dried ])roduet gradually undergoes a change 
at warm temperatures, much as butter does, 
finally giving off a rancid fishlike odor. 

It is not probable that the yolk or ovum be- 
comes infected while it is being formed in the 
ovary, unless the ovary, from which it deveIo]:»s, ))e 
diseased. It has been shown that birds that have 
had white diarrhea while chicks and recovered, 
grown to maturity, and commenced laying, have 
diseased ovaries, ovaries which harbor the Bac- 
terium piiUoriiw, the cause, or at least one of 
the causes, of white diarrhea, and this germ is 
incorporated within the yolk of the egg. Cliicks 
which hatch from such infected eggs develop white 
diarrhea soon after hatching. This is an import- 
ant means of spreading tliis disease and one be- 
fore which sanitation is powerless. 

THE EGG 167 

Ordinarily the internal organs, as the ovaries, 
kidneys, spleen, etc., are sterile unless diseased, 
as jnst stated. However, Conradi maintains that 
he has found bacteria in these supposedly' sterile 
organs in seventy-two cases out of one-hundred- 

The germs that have been alluded to under in- 
testinal flora of chickens can easily find their way 
into the cloaca and up the oviduct, as illustrated 
in Plate I. The yolk or o^nim when fully de- 
veloped in the ovary is delivered, in a similar 
manner, as in higher animal life, into the first 
portion of the oviduct (uterus), which at its free 
extremity is rather funnel shaped and is called 
the ostium infundibulum. This egg canal which 
can be likened to the uterus of higher animals is 
about eighteen to twenty inches long and is 
lined with tubular glands which secrete the al- 
bumen, and in the posterior portion the shell. 
This material is formed from foods carried by 
the blood, which is very abundant in these walls. 
As the egg traverses the cloaca in being passed 
out (layed) it is exposed to contamination by 
microorganisms which may be taken up into the 
o\'iduct with the male element (spermatozoa) 
after copulation. Bacteria are not so common 
in non-fertilized eggs as they are in fertilized 
eggs, a fact that supports this theory. 

Many of the organisms (germs) found in eggs 
are nonmotile, so that they must find their way up 
this canal by extension by growth or be carried 
mechanically. Among the bacteria that have 
been found in eggs are: Micrococcus nonlique- 
faciens, Staphylococcus pyogenes aureus and 
alhus, Bacillus prodigiosus. Bacillus violaceus, 
Bacillus putridis, Bacillus mesentericus, Bacillus 


fecalis alcaligenes, Bacillus putridus nonlique- 
faciens, Streptococci, Micrococcus leteus, Micro- 
coccus candicans, Micrococcus flarus tardigradus. 

The colon bacillus is ever present in the in- 
testinal tract of chickens and is fonnd on the outer 
shell, yet contamination of the egg* content by it 
does not occur. This has led some to tliink that 
there may be a substance present in the egg canal 
bactericidal for this germ and the matter is being 
investigated at present. 

Poppe claims that among those germs which find 
their way through the |)ores of tlie ^^g shell after 
it is layed is the Bacillus paratyphosis, the cause 
of paratyphoid in man. 


Isolation of Non-Layers 

The problem of isolation of non-laying hens, the 
hens that are not in the earning class, is a per- 
plexing problem to the poultryman. Books have 
been written and column after column published 
in the various poultry journals on this subject. 
Only a thought or two will be given here. 

There are three plausible methods : 1. The 
X-ray. 2, The public-bone examination, and 3, 
the trap nest plan. 

The X-Ray 

During the past three years the author has ex- 
perimented with several X-Ray machines, in an 
effort to determine whether such examinations 
are feasible. Fig. 51 shows a skiagraph of a 
laying hen. B shows the shadow of an egg fully 
developed and lying in the posterior portion of 
the oviduct. It is ready to l)e laid. A shows 
the active ovarj-. It is located just back of the 
ribs (thorax, see plate I). 

It is questionable whether the time required 
to become experienced enough to be proficient in 
such examination will pay, besides the X-Ray 
machine cannot be handled carelessly, as too much 
exposure of the hands and other parts of the body 
causes the so-called X-Ray skin disease. 

Pubic-Bone Examination 

Two small, slender, flat, narrow bones extend 
down backwards from the flat shell-like por- 
tion of the back (pelvis). These are the pubic 



bones of the cliicken and are attached by liga- 
ments to the other bones of the pelvis from which 
they extend. The exact location of these bones 
in a laying hen are illustrated in a skiagraph, Fig. 
52. By a little practice these bones can be located. 
In non-laying hens these bones are found close 
together, so that perliaps only one finger can be 
introduced between them. As the hen begins to 



^^^^^^^^^HT '^ 




■L — 

Fig. 51. Skiagraph of Posterior Part of Abdomen of a Hen 
A, Functionating (active) ovary. ]>, egg in posttrior pari of egg 
canal (fully developed). C, femur (thigh bone). D. tibia (U's bone). 

enter a laying period they become more widely 
separated, until instead of being only a finger's 
breadth apart, two, three and at times even four 
fingers can be forced between them. As the lay- 
ing period comes on the ligaments relax and allow 
the necessary separation to permit the passage of 
the egg. It will be noted, also by referring to 
Plate I, that the ovary lies against the ])a(^kbi)ne 



(vertebra) and just back of the ribs (thorax) ; 
that the tortuous oviduct or egg canal in which 
the egg develops lies close to the back. This 
means when a laying period is on more room is 
needed by the ovarian mass, as well as by the 
active oviduct. Consequently the adbominal or- 
gans settle more to the bottom of the cavity and 
the shape of the body of the bird changes. A 

Fig. 52. Skiagraph of Normal Hen 

A, Pubic bones. B, femur (pulled back). The distance between the 

pubic bones indicates whether or not the bird is laying. 

laying hen is a good feeder. Out early in the 
morning, late to go to roost, red comb, always 
hunting bugs and other food, singing, happily 
disposed and usually has a full crop. The non- 
layer does not brave the storm and rain, goes 
to the roost early, leaves it late in the morning, 
is a poor feeder and not happily disposed — a 
sort of drone. 



Trap Nest 

Fig. 53 illustrates the trap nest. The birds are 
placed in one yard, the nest arranged between 
the two and the rooster placed in the second. A 
hen going into the nest tilts tlie trap so that there 
is only one yard for her to go in after she is 
through laying and that is the one in which the 
rooster is found. After she leaves the next the 

Fig. 53. Trap Nest 
The hens are confined in one pen and the cockerel in another, sep- 
arated from the first by a small building, in wliich the nests arc 
placed. When a hen gets on the nest her weight causes the weight 
shown to rise and close the entrance. When she leaves the nest 
she goes through the exit, which is open while the nest is lowered, 
into the pen with the cockerel. Relieved of the weight of the hen, 
the nest rises, closing the exit and again opening the entrance to 
the building. 

weight on the trap again opens the nest to the 
first yard. A criticism has been raised that a hen 
goes on a nest often times when she does not want 
to lay and is a non-layer. Perhaps she does, but, 
notwithstanding, I have seen excellent results ob- 
tained by this method. 

Non-laying may be due to old age or disease 
of the ovary or other of the egg-developing or- 
gans, but is much oftener due to improper feeding 



or lack of exercise. Of course it is understood 
that hens normally have a longer or shorter pe- 
riod of rest between egg-laying seasons. 

Trap Nest That Stays in Order 

The Storrs Station (Connecticut) describes the 
trap nest, illustrated l)y the accompanying draw- 
ing, as *'one that stays in order." 

The upper figure in perspective shows five nests 
arranged side by side. By making the nests in 
a series considerable lumber is saved. Swinging 

Fig. 54 

doors (D) are fastened to a rod running the en- 
tire length of the box. Stops (F) prevent the 
doors from swinging outward. L is a lever 
pivoted to the partition (P) so that one arm is 
about five times as long as the other. The lower 
cross-section sketches show how the lever and 
door are arranged. 

To enter the nest the hen flies onto the walk 
(W) and crowds under the door (D) which is 
partly open. In so doing, she lifts the door 
slightly, and the long end of the lever (L) falls, 
being heavier than the short end. The door 


swings shut passing over the pivot and the shorter 
end of the lever. When the door is shut the 
lower end of the lover rests on the floor of the 
nest, and the short end acts as a stop on tlie in- 
side, preventing another hen from crowding into 
the nest. AVhen the egg is gathered tlie trap nest 
is set again by raising the long end of tlie lever 
and propping back the door. The two right-hand 
nests in the upper sketch show the position of 
the doors and levers before the hen enters. The 
other nests show the traps closed. 



Malformations among birds are occasionally 
observed. A complete discussion of the dozens 
of various forms of malformations that may be 
found cannot be given here for lack of space, but 
a few facts will be given. 

In higher animal life, including man, malforma- 
tions have been attributed to the following causes : 

External mechanical influences, such as falls, 
blows, or severe shock of any kind, by affecting 
the general health of the pregnant female, may 
have power to arrest, retard, or otherwise dis- 
turb the normal development of the embryo or 

If the above should hold true in the human or 
even animals, obviously it cannot do so for birds. 

The so-called spontaneous amputation, in utero, 
by a coil of the umbilical cord finding its way 
around a part of the fetus and causing pressure 
and amputation, cannot hold with chickens nor 
will acute and chronic placentitis, causing adhe- 
sions, hardly hold for birds. 

The percentage of malformations in the human 
family is one to three or four thousand births ; 
in the lower animals and birds the percentage is 
much smaller. 

During the formation of the fetus an arrest of 
development of the bud which forms the wing 
may result in a malformed wing ; the same can be 
said of any other part, as the leg, beak, etc. 

If the arrangement of the groups of cells 


during development does not follow the normal 
typo, tlien malformations, as atresia, imper- 
forate anus, or other natural openings may re- 
sult; abnormal position of viscera, a failure of 
the closure of the abdominal or thoracic plates 
may take place. 

The germ or embyro is first developed as a 
manifold membraneous expansion, the free mar- 

5* ' 

Fig. 55. Monster Chilk (.Uipygus tetiabrachiun) 

Showing two bodies, four legs, four wings and 

one head. 

gins of which incline towards each other, and 
eventually meet to form two cavities. A failure 
to meet results in malformation. Fusion of parts 
may also take place. 

Those malformations in which there are super- 
numerary parts or duplications of almost an en- 
tire body are sometimes called composite or com- 
l)ound malformations and monsters. 

Hermaphroditism is a complete duplication of both male 
and female genital organs; i. e:, a single individual possessing 



both male and female genital organs. Pseudo-herma- 
phrodltism isa condition in which the duplication is only 
partial. It is desirable that more scientific observations be 
made along these lines, in birds, and recorded. 

The double-yolked eggs, in cases where two ova have been 
delivered into the oviduct at the same time, and both being 
surrounded by albumen and finally one shell, have been sup- 
posed to produce double monsters, but there is a scientific 
record in which eighty such eggs were incubated (all from 
the domestic fowl) and in each separate twins were pro- 
duced, in some both males, in others females, and in others 
one of each sex. In one case out of the eighty one yolk 
developed a single 
chick and the other a 
double monster. 

Thompson made a 
study of a double em- 
bryo in the egg of a 
goose, which had been 
incubated five days. 
This study showed a 
double primitive trace 
is actually formed on a 
single b 1 a s t o d ermic 
membrane proceeding a 
single vitellus and vitel- 
line membrane. This 
same work has been 
corroborated by others 
so fortunate as to find 
these monstrosities in 
early stages of develop- 

Compound monsters 
proceed from single 
germs which have sub- 
s e q u e n tly undergone 
different degrees of 
dichrotomy. They are 

governed in their development by certain fixed and invariable 
laws among which are unity of sex, homologous fusion and 
bilateral symmetry. In each case there is single sexuality. 

The various forms of duplex development are determined 
by the extent to which the primitive trace is cleft, and also 
by the limitations of the dichotomy to the cephalic or caudal 
extremity of the neural axis. Either or both extremities may 
become bifid. The cephalic or head extremity may become 
bifid alone and a double head, or still further bifid and the 
posterior extremities single or the posterior extremity be- 
come bifid and the anterior single. 

Figs. 55 and 56 illustrates a duplication of the legs. The 
rudimentary legs are perfect, but not so well developed as the 
other two. This is polymelus. 

Fig. 56. Polymelus (natural size) 
A, The two supernumerary legs. 


Fractures Wounds — Anes- 


Fractures or broken bones among birds in the 
poultry yards are of rather common occurrence, 
especially where birds are allowed the run of the 
farm or ranch, as is the usual custom. 

Fractures of the legs below the thigh are easily 
set and with good results. The materials needed 
for this procedure are glue, a strip of muslin 
from one-fourth to one-half inch wide and from 
one to two feet in length, and in case of large 
birds, narrow strips of stiff pasteboard or small 
pieces of wood, as tooth picks or matches. 

"Warm the glue and smear a light coat of glue 
over the leg for some distance above and below 
the fracture (break in the bone), adjust the broken 
bone and apply one layer of tape, then a thin layer 
of glue, then tape and so on until sufficient has 
been applied to hold the broken parts firmly. In 
the case of large bones, as in adult birds, the 
splints should be placed in the glue between the 
layers of tape. Too much glue between the layers 
should be avoided, as it does not dry readily. 
Adhesive tape cut in narrow strips has given good 
results also. 

The repair of broken bones in birds takes place 
rapidly. In the course of two to three weeks, de- 
pending on the age of the bird and size of the 
bone, the cast may be removed. To do this, where 



glue has been used, wet until the cast has become 
thoroughly soaked witli warm water and remove. 
The adhesive tape can be easily removed from 
the leg. 


Birds possess a high immunity to pyogenic in- 
fection (the germs that ordinarily infect the 
wounds of animals) ; and wounds, whether acci- 
dental or surgical, unless very serious, heal with 
great rapidity. The degree of tolerance of in- 
fection that the peritoneum (lining of the ab- 
dominal cavity and covering of the abdominal 
organs) of birds possesses is probably not 
equalled by the peritoneum of any domestic ani- 
mal or of man. For example, birds rarely die 
from infection after caponizing. Death when it 
occurs as a result of this operation is ordinarily 
due to hemorrhage. Man and animals (except 
the dog) survive abominal operations only when 
made under aseptic precautions. 


Unlike tlieir reaction to infection, birds are far 
more liable to die from the effects of anesthetics 
than animals or man. The relatively large surface 
of the air cells of the lungs and of the air sacs, 
and the high temperature and active metabolism 
render them peculiarly susceptible to anesthetics 
and very liable to die from their use. 

R. Pearl and Frank M. Surface in an article 
in the Journal of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, volume 52, pp. 382 and 383, report satisfac- 
tory results in anesthetizing birds by the follow- 
ing method: 

Immediately before beginnning the administra- 
tion of the anesthetic a 1-200 grain atropine sul- 


pliate tablet is dissolved in 1 cc. of warm normal 
saline solution. The salt solution witli the dis- 
solved atropine is then injected subcutaneously 
in the axilla. Ether is used as the anesthetic. It 
is administered from a small improvised mask 
which admits of the condition of the comb being 
seen during the operation. Depending on how 
hard the ether is pushed, the bird is ready for 
operation in from fifteen to twenty minutes after 
the anesthesia is begun. 


Abnormal eggs, 133 

Acanthia Inodora, 54, 55 

Acanthocephala, 71 

Adenoma, 138 

Air sac disease, 47 

Ameba melegridis, 85 

Anatomy, digestive tract, 15 
genito-urinary, 15. 
organs of circulation, 17 
organs of respiration, 16 

Anesthesia, 180 

Aphtha, 56 

Apoplectiform septicemia, 107 

Appetite, depraved, 79 

Argas miniatus, 53 

Ascaris inflexa, 60 

Aspergillosis, 145 

Aspergillus fumigatus, 145 

Asthen, 113 

Autopsy, mode of perform- 
ing, 33 

Bacterium asthene, 113 
Bacillus avisepticus, 79 
Bacillus enteriditis, 113 
Bacteria of the intestinal 

tract of chickens, 163 
Bedbug of poultry, 54 
Blackhead, 85 

Blastomycosis, of pigeon, 99 
Blood diseases, 107 
Broken eggs in the oviduct, 

Bronchitis, 142 
Bumble foot, 158 

Cancer, 138 
Catarrh, 139 
Chickenpox, 147 
Chicken cholera, 79 
Chicken flea infestation, 52 
Chigger infestation, 49 
Choantaenia infundibuli- 
formis, 69 

Cholera, chicken — fowl, 79 

Cloaca, prolapse of, 132 

Cloacitis, 104 

Coccidiosis in wild ducks, 100 

Conjunctivitis, 156 

Colds, 139 

Congestion of the lungs, 143 

Constitutional diseases, 113 

Contagious epithelioma, 147 

Crop bound, 76 

Crop enlarged, 77 

Crop, gangrene of, 78 

Cystic ovary, 136 

Cytodites nudus, 47 

Davainea tetragona, 70 
Dead birds, disposal of, 32 
Depraved appetite, 79 
Dermanyssus gallinae, 50 
Diarrhea, 91 

white, 93 
Digestive tract, anatomy of, 15 

diseases of, 73 
Dipygus tetrabrachium, 176 
Diseases of the brain, 161 
Diseases of the legs and feet, 

Diseases of the liver, 123 
Diseases of the ovary and 

oviduct, 129 
Diseases of the respiratory 

passages, 139 
Disinfection, 24 

of buildings, 25 
Drepanidotaenia infundlbull- 

formis, 69 
Dizziness, 161 
Dysentery, 91 

EcHiNOBYNCHus polymorphus, 

Eggs, abnormal, 133 
Egg, animal parasites of, 165 
Egg, bacteria of, 165 



Egg bound, 130 
Egg, composition of, 165 
Endocarditis, 112 
Enlarged crop, 77 
Enteritis, '91 
Entero-hepatitis, 85 
Epithelioma, 138 

contagious, 147 
External parasites, 35 
Eye, inflammation of, 156 

Fleas, 52 

Flukes, 72 

Foot abscess, 158 

Fowl cholera, 79 

Fowl typhoid, 108 

Fractures, 179 

Fungi affecting birds, 55 

Gangrene of the crop, 78 
Gaseous crop, 77 
Going light, 113 
Gonioctes hologaster, 37 

eggs of, 38 

stylifer, 37 
Gout, 159 

Heabt disease, 112 
Heart, rupture of, 113 
Hematoma, 136 
Hemorrhage, Internal, 113 
Hemorrhage of the brain, 161 
Heterakis Compressa, 66 

differens, 66 

maculosa, 66 

papulosa, 61-62 

tail extremity, 63 
Heterakis perspicillum, 60 

Impaction of the crop, 76 
Infectious leukemia, 108 
Inflammation of the eye, 156 
Inflammation of the lungs, 144 
Internal hemorrhage, 113 
Internal parasites, 59 
Isolation of non-layers, 169 

Lice of birds, 35 
of chickens, 36 
of ducks, 37 
of geese, 38 
of pigeons, 38 
of turkeys, 37 

Llmberneck, 102 

Liver, congestion of, 125 

fatty degeneration of, 123 

fatty infiltration of, 124 

inflammation of, 125 

rupture of, 125 

unimportant diseases of, 
LIpeurus baculus, 38 
Lipeurus infuscatus, 37 
Louse infestation, effects of, 

treatment of, 40 
Lungs, congestion of, 143 

inflammation of, 144 
Lymphosarcoma, 138 

Malfobmations, 175 
Menopon biseriatum, 36 
pallidum, 36 

NoDULAB tapeworm disease, 70 
Notocotyle verrucosum, 72 

Obstruction of the beak, 74 
of the oviduct, 130 

Ovary, cystic, 136 
diseases of, 129 

Oviduct, diseases of, 129 
rupture of, 131 

Pebicabditis, 112 
Pip, 74 

Pneumonia, 144 
Pneumomycosis, 145 
Poisoning, arsenical, 101 

copper, 102 

lead, 102 

phosphorus, 102 

ptomain, 102 

salt, 102 

saltpeter, 102 

zinc, 102 
Polymelus, 177 
Prolapse of the cloaca, 132 
Ptomain poisoning, 102 
Public bone examination, 169 
Pulex avium, 51, 52 

Red mite infestation, 49 
Ringworm, honey-comb, 56 
Round worms, important, 59 
unimportant, 66 



Roup, 149 

diphtheric, 149 
Rupture of the heart, 113 

of the oivduct, 131 

Sanitation, 19 

Sianitary buildings and runs, 

site, 20 

water supply, 22 
Sarcoma, 136 
Sarcoptes mutans, 44 
Scabies, 43 

of the legs, 44 
Septicemia, apoplectiform, 107 
Septicemia of geese, 108 
Sick birds, disposal of, 32 
Sore mouth, 56, 75 
Splrocheta galllnarum, 110 
Spirochetosis, 110 
Spiroptera hamulosa, 63 
Spray pump, 42 
Stomatitis, 75 
Swelled head, 149 
Swell-head in young turkeys, 

Syngamus bronchialls, 64 

trachealis, 64 

Taenia Infundibullformis, 69 

Tapeworms, 67 

Thorn-headed worms, 71 

Thrombosis, 109 

Thrush, 56 

Tick infestation, 53 

Tinea favosa, 56 

Trap nest, 172 

that stays in order, 173 
Trematodes, 72 
Trichasomum, 66 
Trombidium holosericeum, 49 
Tuberculosis, 117 
Tumors, 135 

blood, 136 

malignant, 136 

of the ovary, 136 
Tympany of the crop, 77 

Vertigo, 161 

White diarrhea, 93 
Wounds, 180 

X-Ray, 169 

I ~ 

Veterinary Medicine Series 

Edited by D. M. Campbell, D. V. S. 

D. M. Campbell, D. V. S. 



B. F. Kaupp, M. Sc, D. V. S. 



D. M. Campbell, D. V. S. 



Dr. L. W. Fetzer 

In Preparation 


C. G. Saunders, V. S., B. V. Sc. 

In Preparation