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Full text of "Practical agriculture"

SEcoNH r.opy, 

I6b9. 




."^ JUN6-1899 



LIBRARY OF CONGRESS. 

Chap..r?__.. Copyright No. 



Shelf__>.S 



.Ta 



UNITED STATES OF AMERICA. 




A corner in the orchard. A Lombard plum tree. Is it carrying too much fruit > 
What should be done ? (See page io6. ) 



PRACTICAL AGRICULTURE 



BY 

CHARLES C. JAMES, M. A. 

DEPUTY MINISTER OF AGRICULTURE FOR ONTARIO 

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OF CHEMISTY AT THE 
ONTARIO AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 



AMERICAN EDITION 
EDITED BY JOHN CRAIG 

PROFESSOR OF HORTICULTURE 
IN THE IOWA AGRICULTURAL COLLEGE 




NEW YORK 
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY 

1899 



1 



32420 



Copyright, 1899, 
By D. APPLETON AND COMPANY, 



Twoco»»iPs REcriveo, 



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%*■■ t: 



MAY 2 01899 



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PREFACE. 

The purpose of ihis book is to aid the reader and student 
in acquiring a knowledge of the scietice of agriculture as dis- 
tinct from the art of agriculture ; that is, a knowledge of the 
''why," rather than a knowledge of the " how." The science 
of agriculture may be said to consist of a mingling of chemistry, 
geology, botany, entomology, physiology, bacteriology, and 
other sciences, in as far as they have a bearing upon agri- 
culture. The aim has been to include but the first prin- 
ciples of these various sciences, and to show their application 
to the art of agriculture. In a field so wide, and with so 
limited a space at the author's disposal, this work claims to 
deal only with the simple first principles of agricultural science. 
It is hoped, however, that the beginning here made will lead 
to a further study of what is one of the most interesting and 
most profitable sciences — one that is at the present time 
making most wonderful advance. 

From his expeiience of several years teaching at the Ontario 
Agricultural College the author believes that the rational 
teaching of agriculture in Public and High Schools is not only 
possible, but would be exceedingly profitable. An intelligent 
understanding of the science underlying the art of agriculture 
will add much interest to what is otherwise hard work, and, as 
a natural consequence, the pleasure of such work may be 



IV PREFACE. 

greatly increased.. The agriculturists of this country in the 
future will work at a serious disadvantage if they do not have 
some knowledge of the very interesting science that underlies 
their work. The residents of our towns and cities also will 
find that some knowledge of the science of agriculture may be 
of use to them, and may increase the respect and consideration 
for the calling that contributes so largely to the general wealth 
and welfare of this country. 

To the many who have offered help and advice and to all 
who have in any way contributed to this work, sincere thanks 
are offered. 

The First Priiiciples of Agriculture^ by Dr. James Mills and 
Prof. Shaw will be found useful for reference, as some of the 
subjects herein dealt with are enlarged upon in that work. 

C. C. James. 

Department of Agriculture, 
Toronto, August ist, 1898. 



CONTENTS 



Part I. — The Plant. 

PAGE 

Chapter i. — The Seed i 

n.— The Young Plant .... 6 
HI. — The Plant and Water . . . .12 

IV. — The Plant and the Soil . . . 16 

V. — The Plant and the Air ... 20 

VI. — Structure and Growth of the Plant . 24 

VII. — Naming and Classification of Plants . 29 

Part II. — The Soil. 

Chap- viii. — Nature and Origin of the Soil . . 31 

" IX. — Tilling and Draining the Soil . . 37 

'• X. — Improving the Soil .... 42 

Part III. — The Crops of the Field. 

Chap. xi. — The Grasses 48 

" XII. — The Grain Crops or Cereals . . 52 
" XIII. — The Leguminous Plants . . -57 

'' XIV. — Root Crops and Tubers ... 62 

" XV. — Various other Crops .... 67 

" XVI. — Weeds 71 

" XVII. — Insects of the Field .... 74 

" XVIII. — The Diseases of Plants ... 88 

*' XIX. — Rotation of Crops • • • • 93 



CONTENTS. 



Part IV. — The Garden, Orchard and Vineyard. 

Chap. xx. — The Garden .... 
" XXI. — The Apple Orchard 

" XXII. — Other Orchard Trees 

" XXIII. — Insects of the Orchard 

" XXIV. — Diseases of the Orchard . 

" XXV. — The Vineyard .... 



PAGE 

97 
103 
107 
no 
116 
118 



Part V. — Live Stock and Dairying. 

Chap. xxvi. — Horses 

xxvii. — Cattle 
xxviii. — Sheep 

XXIX. — Swine 
xxx. — Poultry 

XXXI. — Milk . . . . 
XXXII.— The Products of Milk 
XXXIII. — The Structure of Animals 
XXXI v. — Foods of Animals 
XXXV. — Digestion and Uses of Foods 

Part VI. — Other Subjects. 

Chap. XXXVI. — Bees .... 

" XXXVII. — Birds . . . , 

" XXXVIII. — Forestry .... 
" XXXIX. — Roads .... 

" XL. — The Rural Home 



122 
127 

133 
136 

139 

143 
147 

155 
162 



171 

176 
181 
187 
193 



List of Trees 
List of Weeds 
Spraying Mixtures 



Appendix. 



196 

198 
200 



^^Agriculture is the oldest of the arts a?id the most recent 
of the scie7ices" 

" Perfect agriculture is the true foundatioft of trade and 
industry — it is the foundatiofi of the riches of States.'' 



PART I. 



C H AP T E R I. 



THE SEED. 



The Forming of Seed. — We scatter some oat-grains over 
the earth and then lightly cover them with the fme surface 
soil. The spring rain falls, and the air grows warmer. In 
a few days the green blades of the oat plants appear through 
the soil all over the field. If we pull up some of these 
green shoots we find that each one grows from a single 
seed, and each plant has a bunch of small hairy roots. 
If we look closely we may find the old husk, or the cover- 
ing, of the grain that we planted, but nothing more. What 
was once a seed has now become a plant with roots in 
the soil and stalk and leaf above the soil. Perhaps we may 
find some seeds that were buried too deeply and that have 
not sprouted. On through the summer the oat plants grow, 
tall and green ; soon the head branches out and blossoms • 
then the grain forms, first soft, soon becoming harder, and the 
plants lose their green color and turn brown and yellow. We 
cut down the plants and later on thresh them out, separating 
the grain from the straw. The roots or stubble left behind 
in the soil decay; they will not grow again. The straw also 
will not grow ; it is fed to the stock or used as litter. But 
the grain we may feed to the stock or we may use it again for 
growing another crop of oats next year. AVe began with the 
seed and the plant has given us seed again, just like the seed 
with which we started. The seed, then, is the beginning and 
the end of the oat plant, whose aim in growing appears to be 
to form seed that will produce other plants like itself. The 



2 AGRICULTURE. 

seed appears to be the most important part of this plant ; its 
Hfe passes on through the seed. We therefore begin our 
study of plants with the seed. 

Many other plants of the field, like the oat, sprout, grow, 
form seed and die in one season (Annuals). Some others, 
such as cariots and turnips, do not ibim seed unless left in 
the ground for a second season (Biennials). Then their roots 
and stalks die. There are others, such as fruit trees, nut- 
bearing trees, grape vines, that form seed year by year, but still 
keep on living (Perennials). 

Make a list of the plants of the farm and garden under these three 
classes : Annuals, Biennials and Perennials. 

Shape and Size of Seeds. — The seeds of the same kind of 
plants are very much alike in shape and size, but the seeds 
of oats, wheat, barley, corn, peas, beans, turnips, pumpkins, 
apples, red clover, and timothy all differ. So do the seeds of 
the grasses and of the weeds. Some are ball-shaped like peas, 
some are long and pointed like oats, some are flat like pump- 
kins, some are three-sided like buckwheat and beech nuts. 
And there are many other forms ; in fact, there is a different 
form for every different kind of seed. 

One seed may send up two or more stalks, but one stalk never grows 
from more than one reed. Find out how many grains of wheat there are 
on a single stalk ; how many seeds there are on a dandelion head, and 
how many grains of corn will be grown from one seed ol corn. 

Get a number of small glass bottles about two inches long. Collect the 
seeds of grains, of grasses, and of weeds. In the summer and fall gather 
these seeds from the growing plants, in the winter get them from the bins. 
Put these separately in the bottles, write the name of each kind on a piece 
of paper and fasten it on the bottle. You can in time get a collection 
of all the principal seeds that are to be found growing in your locality, and 
you can then study them. After a while you can write on each its botani- 
cal name also. 

The Structure of the Seed.— Wheat and oats are too small 
for us to take apart easily. Let us take a large seed such as a 
hickory nut. First the rough outer husk is taken off, then we 



THE SEED. 



come to the hard shell. If we crack this carefully we can take 
out " the meat " in one piece. We see that it is made up of 
two parts joined together at one end. Notice at which end 
of the shell the two parts are joined together. 

Now take another nut — an almond. 
We crack it ; the meat comes out in one 
compact piece. We place this in water 
for a couple of minutes and then we 
carefully rub off the coating. We find 
that the white almond will separate into Fig. i.-An Almond showing 
two parts that are joined together at one g-f i?1amrshSg''t1p 
end, very much as in the hickory nut. {^^-^ -jJJ InTuptTrSTnto 
We find also that there is a tiny tip ^^^™- 
between these two parts. The nut appears to be made up of 
two thick leaves joined to a very short stem. It is somewhat like 
a plant with a short stalk, having two big leaves, but no roots. 







ig. 2. — An Acorn cut 


Fig. 3.— A Horse-Chestnut 


Fig 4.— An 


Fig. 5- -A 


in two. 


cut in two showing seed 


Apple - 


Pumpkin- 




leaves and tip. 


Seed. 


Seed. 



We can examine the seeds of the acorn, the horse-chestnut, 
the apple, the pea, the bean, and the pumpkin, and we find 
them all made up or put together in much the same form. If 
we open up other seeds, however, we may find some that have 
only one seed-leaf, and some that have more than two. What 
do you find in the maple tree seed ? 

The Sprouting of the Seed. — When a seed begins to 
grow, it is said to sprout. Seeds do not begin to grow in the 
ground in winter, nor will they sprout in summer if they are 



4 AGRICULTURE. 

buried too deeply in the soil. We can easily cause seeds to 
sprout, and we can, at the same time, find out just when they 
will sprout. If we place some wheat grains in a dry dish and 
keep them dry, they will not sprout either in winter or sum- 
mer — it makes no difference whether they are cold or warm, 
they will not sprout so long as they are kept dry. We there- 
fore conclude that seeds require water or moisture in order to 
sprout. If this were not so we would have the grain sprouting 
in the bins and granaries. At the same time we notice how 
important it is to have all bins and granaries quite dry. 

Now let us take three deep dishes, such as soup plates. We 
get three pieces of flannel and cut them so that when once 
folded each piece will just about cover the bottom of the dish. 
We place about twenty grains of wheat in each between the 
folded flannel. We then moisten one plate and set it away in 
a cool place, and we keep the flannel moist all the time ; we 
moisten the second and set it in a warm place, in a sunny 
window, for instance, and we keep it moist ; we fill up the 
third and set it also beside it in the warm place, and we keep 
the f^dX^ filled with water. We can see what changes take 
place from day to day by lifting up the flannel. The grain 
kept cool does not sprout ; the grain kept covered with water 
so that the air does not reach it does not sprout, even though 
it is warm ; but the grain that is kept warm, that gets some air, 
and that has a little moisture soon sprouts and starts to grow. 
We now conclude that for seeds to sprout they must have 
'ivater^ heat and air, and if any one of these three be lacking, 
sprouting will not take place. 

By means of warm, moistened cloths we can tell whether the 
seed grain that we desire to sow is likely to sprout or not in 
the ground, and about how much is likely to grow. This is 
important, as seeds when they are old lose the power of sprout- 
ing. Some seeds lose their vitality or power of sprouting much 
sooner than others. Can you find out which these are ? 




How a young walnut gets out of its shell. Note 
the thick, fleshy tap root. Compare with Fig. 7. 
Where are the seed leaves ? 



Great oaks from little acorns 
grow." The young plant 
feeds on the " meat " in the 
acorn till the root is able to 
get nourishment from the 
soil; Look again at Fig. 2. 



THE SEED. 5 

Conclusions : — 

1. Seeds will not sprout unless they get some water or 

moisture. 

2. Seeds will not sprout when the ground is too cold. 

3. Seeds will not sprout when they are in undrained soil 

that is full of water, because they cannot get air. 

4. Seeds will not sprout when they are buried too deeply 

so that the air cannot reach them. 
The seed is the beginning of the plant, and with the plant, 
as with so many other things, it is of very great importance to 
have a good start. This means that we should have good liv- 
ing seed — seed that will grow, free from weed seeds. Then we 
must have a good, fine, level seed-bed, on a well-drained field, 
so that the seed can be sown evenly and covered properly. 
Moderate rains and bright sunshine will cause the seed to 
sprout, and the young plants will soon appear at the same time 
in all parts of the surface of the field. This brings us to the 
study of the young plant, which will form the next chapter. 

Describe the seeds of corn or maize, buckwheat, the turnip, the 
thistle, the dandeHon, the strawberry, the gooseberry, the pumpkin, the 
grape, the cherry, the apple, the maple, the elm, the basswood, the beech, 
the hickory. 

What is the effect of steeping seed just before it is sown? What kind 
of water should be used — hot, warm, or cold ? 

How are seeds distributed naturally? 

What kinds of seeds may be easily carried by water, by wind, by birds, 
by animals ? 

Why do we find willows along streams? 



AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER 11. 




Fig. 6. — A Bean showing tip of rootlet 
or radicle at r; also with parts separ- 
ated showing tip just starting to grow. 



THE YOUNG PLANT. 

We have learned that seeds 
will sprout when they have water, 
heat, and air. But there must 
not be too much water, for then 
they will simply becom.e soft and 
decay ; nor must there be too 
much heat, for then they will be 
dried up and killed. We have 
shown how they can be sprouted 
between layers of moist flannel or blotting paper. When sprouted 
in that way their growth can be watched day by day ; but this 
plan of sprouting seeds will not allow us to watch their growth 
to a very large size. If we wish to see them grow up into full- 
sized plants we must plant the seeds in soil. We can do so in 
a box of clean garden soil placed in a sunny window, or out of 
doors in warm weather. We may plant some peas, beans, or 
pumpkin seeds. Let us take a handful of bean seeds. As 
they are rather large in size we must cover them thoroughly 
with soil about an inch deep. At the same time we might put 
in a few seeds four, five or six inches deep, and also place 
three or four right on the surface, to observe the effect on them 
in contrast with those planted at the proper depth. We then 
water the soil slightly every day. 

After two days we carefully take up a couple of seeds to see 
what has taken place. Then we put them back carefully. In 
this way, day by day, we examine carefully a couple of the 
seeds until we find them starting to sprout. 



THE YOUNG PLANT. 



When they have once sprouted 
we can take up a plant every day 
to see what change is taking 
place. We should have enough 
plants growing so that we can 
throw away each little plant after 
we have examined it. First we 
find the. seeds becoming moist 
from the water in the soil, and 





Fig 8.— Seed Pea and young pea 
plant. 



Fig. 7. — Bean Seed ; also young plant 
on right, and, in the centre, a plant 
showing two seed leaves, also first 
pair of true leaves above. 

soon turning soft. The beans swell 
a little and soon break open the 
outer covering or husk. The two 
thick leaves of the seed separate a 
little and a few fine roots push out 
into the soil. The little tip between 
the seed leaves begins to grow 
larger and pushes up towards the air. 
The plant never makes a mistake ; 
the roots always grow out and 
down into the soil and the little tip 



AGRICULTURE. 



that forms the stalk always grows up into the air, whether the 
seed is lying upside down or not. The roots lengthen out and 
branch into a little bunch of fine fibres, and the stalk soon 
brings the two leaves above ground. Sometimes we can see 
the old husk of the seed still clinging to one of the seed leaves, 
which are generally quite smooth and simple in form. The 
stalk grows on higher and higher ; new leaves form ; little 
branches are thrown out ; leaves form on these ; and now we 
see the general form or make-up of the plant. By this time 
w^e observe that the two seed leaves have become thin and soon 
disappear. They appear to be of use only in the first few days 
of the sprouting of the seed and the early growth of the young 
plant. What is their use ? They are different in shape and 
size from the ordinary leaves of the plant. They are thick at 
first, and soon become thin and disappear. They are nothing 
else than little sacks of food stored up in the seed to feed the 
young plant until it forms roots and leaves and is able to get 
food for itself from the soil and the air. 

Parts of the Plant. — The roots spread out or go down 
through the soil ; the stalk grows up and branches out ; the 
leaves grow along the side and at the ends of the 
branches. These three parts — roots, stalk and 
branches, and leaves — are quite different in form 
and in color, and we may conclude that they 
also have different work to do in the life of the 
plant. 

We can easily study these three parts in larger 
plants. In the case of a carrot the root is thick 
and long and pushes itself straight down into the 
soil. We call such a root a tap root. But along 
this root we find a large number of fine, hairy-like 
Fi<T —Ta rootlets, to which the fine particles of soil cling 
root, as of a closcly. Thcsc are the feeders of the big root. 

carrot, show- " 

fefdingrooti ^^ ^^^ ^^^^ °^ ^ ^^*^^^ ^^ wheat or oats we have 



THE YOUNG PLANT. 




a mass of fine roots. We call such a root 
fibrous. In the case of large trees, we find 
large roots running off in all directions, 
many of them for long distances. If we 
take up a piece of tree root, we find the outer 
end covered with fresh, fine, hairy-like roots. 
These are the feeders of the big roots. 

How do roots grow? A man's arm is 
longer and larger than a boy's arm. How 
did it grow? Not simply by adding on at ^'J o?'7a^^^''°""°°'' 
the end, for in that case the man's arm would 
be merely the boy's arm with very long fingers. All parts of the 
arm must have grown at the same time. A root would find it 
very difficult to grow in that way through the soil. It adds on at 
the end or the tip. Sometimes a root has to go around a large 
stone ; a bend is formed in the root. How difficult it would 
be for the root if it had to keep pulling itself around that stone 
as it grew longer. Roots, of course, grow larger and thicker, 
pushing aside the soil and even rocks ; but 
they lengthen at the tips and take in the 
food from the soil through the fine, hairy 
rootlets, which are always found in largest 
numbers near the ends of the newly- 
formed roots. 

Two other things we notice, namely, the 
roots do not bear leaves and they are not 
green. They are generally light colored 
inside with a dark covering. They are 
also quite pliable — easily bent or twisted ; 
in fact they are made for working their 
way easily through the soil and around 
stones. Pull up a bunch of grass and 
observe how the roots cling to the fine soil. 
Also observe how crooked a tree root grows. 




FIs: 



— End of Root, rov- 
ered with fine, hairy, 
feeding rootlets. « is lip 
hardened for protection ; 
b is growing p;irt ; c is 
older part of root. The 
root pusbes the protecting 
cap on through soil, firm- 
ing new root at b, which 
soon changes to c. 



f 



lO 



AGRICULTURE. 



The stalk is compact and strong, built for holding up a 
heavy weight. When young the stalk and branches are green 
in color; as they grow older the color becomes darker and 
duller, and the soft, smooth skin changes to hard, rough bark. 
The stalk and branches are much stiffer than the roots ; if they 
were as pliable as the roots they would not be able to hold 
themselves up in the form that we see. Most plants, however, 
are pliable enough to yield to strong wind and thus avoid being 
broken. The last thing to be noticed here in regard to them 
is that what is called " the grain " goes along and not across 
the branch and stalk. We can split a piece of wood along its 
grain, but we have to saw or break it if we wish to divide it 
across the grain. What would be the effect of a strong wind 
upon plants, trees, forests, if the grain ran across instead of 
along the stalks, limbs, trunks, and branches ? 

The most noticeable points in connection with leaves are 
their shape, their number, and their color. The leaf is generally 
flat and very thin. Its outline or form varies with different 
kinds of plants. Contrast the thick, needle-shaped leaf of the 
pine and the thin, long, pointed blade of grass with the leaves 
of the oak, maple, basswood, and willow. 

Take a green maple leaf; draw its outline; trace the frame- 
work upon which it is formed. Then glue or paste it between 

two sheets of paper or cloth 
and dry carefully. Pull these 
two sheets apart and thereby 
split the leaf. We thus see 
that the leaf is a thin web 
stretched upon a framework of 
fine branches, and we observe 
that the branching of these 

Fig. 12.— Section of a Leaf. A, row of cells ., r .1 ^^ i^Af TTr,vi£.c. ir-. A\ff^r- 

to.ming skin on upper side; B, row of ribs of the Icat varics m ditlcr- 

cells next to skin ; D, next row of cells ; Vinrlc: nf IpavPS • further 

C, air spaces in leaf; E, inner portion of Cnt KmOS OI ICaVCS , mrincr, 

the leaf is very 







cells filled with sap; E, row of cells form- ^u^ |- 
ing under skin ot leaf showing mouths tndL 
or openings (stomata). 



though 



THE YOUNG PLANT. II 

thin, yet it is made up of different layers, two skins with softer 
layers between. 

Draw the leaves of all the different forest and shade trees found in 
your locality. 

The new leaves of spring and early summer are green; as 
summer advances they change in color somewhat, and in the 
fall the green turns to brown or yellow or red. The young 
shoots also are green in color at first, becoming duller and 
darker in color as they become older and stiffen But observe 
the many different shades of green in the leaves of different 
kinds of trees — even different kinds of maples show tints that 
slightly vary. Even the two sides of the same leaf are not of 
the same shade. This can be seen on a windy day when the 
wind blows the leaves over. 

What causes the green color ? Place a small piece of board 
on the green grass ; after a few days lift the board and observe 
that the grass under it has become paler in color, has been 
bleached out. Leave the board off and the grass will soon 
become green again. When potatoes start to grow in a dark 
cellar their sprouts are white, the tips grow towards the light, 
and if they reach direct sunlight they become green. We 
conclude from the above that the sunlight in some way or 
other is the cause of the green color in the leaves. (The 
name chlorophyll applied to the green-colored matter in the 
leaf, means " leaf green.") 

Why are the roots not green like the leaves ? 

Are evergreens of the same color in winter as in summer ? 

Why is the growth of trees less and less, or more stunted, as we go 
farther north ? 

When do evergreens shed their leaves ? 

Compare the cones of different evergreens. 

Where do we find the most evergreen trees, and why ? 
Where the most deciduous ? 



12 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER III. 



THE PLANT AND WATER. 

The Watkr of the Plant. — In a long season of drouth, 
the grass turns brown and withers, the leaves of the trees 
dry up, and shrubs and plants of all kinds droop and die. 
In the case of plants grown in the house, everyone knows that 
they must be watered regularly. When the rains are frequent, 
how the grass grows, and how all plant life becomes green and 
thrifty ! Nothing more need be said to prove that water is 
one of the most important foods for plants. Further, we 
find some water in all plants, some fruits being made up of over 
nine-tenths water. If any plant, or any part of a plant, such 
as a piece of root, a chunk of green wood, a bunch of green 
grass, or a handful of leaves, be placed in a warm oven, it will 
gradually become lighter in weight owing to its losing water or 
becoming drier. Even well-dried wood will lose a little water. 
If we were to take loo pounds of several substances, such as 
the following, and dry them out thoroughly, we would find that 
they would become lighter by the following amounts, that is, 
they would lose these amounts of water : 

Roots, carrots, turnips, etc , 85 to 95 pounds. 

Potatoes 75 »' 

Green pasture grass 80 " 

Timber wood 40 to 50 " 

Dried or cured hay 15 " 

Grains, such as wheat, oats, etc 10 to 15 " 

We can therefore say that roots contain from 85 to 95 per 
cent, of water, potatoes 75 per cent., etc. 



THE PLANT AND WATER. I3 

How Does the Water Get in?— We can answer this 
first question by carefully observing as follows : When 
house plants are watered, we do not pour the water on the 
leaves and branches, but on the soil that contains the roots. 
When the earth above the roots has been allowed to become 
too dry, the gardener sometimes sets the whole pot, earth and 
roots, in a pail of water until the soil has become thoroughly 
wet. Two pots of the same size and shape may be taken, one 
having a plant growing in the soil and the other containing 
only soil. Then place them side by side and water the soil in 
both with the same amount of water. It will be observed that 
the soil in which the plant is growing will become dry much 
more quickly than the soil having no plant. 

If we could examine the drains coming from under two fields 
having the same kind of soil, one having little or nothing grow- 
ing upon it and the other having a heavy crop, such as roots, 
corn or hay, we would see that much more water drains away 
from the bare field than from the field bearing a crop. 

Perhaps you have noticed a bulb or a slip from some rapidly- 
growing plant being started in a vase or glass bottle filled with 
water. If you take two glass bottles of the same size and fill 
both with water and place a growing plant slip in one, you will 
notice that the water in the one having the plant slip will dis- 
appear more rapidly than the water in the other bottle. Some- 
times it can be shown even more clearly by placing a few large 
white flowers, such as lilies or chrysanthemums, in water that 
has been colored red or blue. After a while some red or blue 
color will appear in the flowers. 

We conclude from the above that the water passes into the 
plant by way of the roots. 

How Does the Water Get Out ?— It is quite evident that 
there is not room in the plant to hold all that goes in. Wher- 
ever we cut into a living plant we find it damp and the cells 



14 AGRICULTURE. 

filled Up, SO that as water is constantly going in by way of the 
roots, it must be passing out by some way. 

When the soil becomes very dry and the plants, as we say, 
suffer from drouth, the first place where we observe the effect 
is in the leaves. These droop and wilt and lose their freshness, 
and soon after watering they become fresh-looking again. 

Let us take a clear bottle and wipe it out so as to have it 
perfectly clear, clean and dry on the inside. Then we carefully 
place it over the branch of a growing plant so as to have the 
bottle pretty well filled with leaves. We leave it there, fastened 
up securely, for a time ; after a while we observe a fine film on 
the inside of the bottle. When we take it off we notice that 
the bottle is damp on the inside, some water has been depos- 
ited upon it from the leaves. We observe the same kind of a 
film on a piece of looking-glass when we breathe upon it. In 
fact, we can take a piece of dry looking-glass and fasten it 
to a plant leaf and get a faint film of moisture from the leaf as 
from our breath. Further, if we try first the upper side of the 
leaf and then the under, we shall find that the moisture comes 
almost entirely from the under side. 

We conclude, then, that the water passes out by the leaves 
and principally from the under surface. If we had a microscope, 
that is an instrument for making small things appear large, we 
could examine the two sides of tl^e leaf of any plant, and then 
we would observe that on the under side there are a great 
many little mouths, or pores, or openings whereby the water 
can pass out, and that these are drawn up smaller as the air 
becomes drier so as to prevent too great loss of water. Each 
of these mouths or pores is called a " stoma," and when we 
speak of two or more we call them " stomata." 

We have called these mouths or pores ; they are openings 
through which the plant breathes, and they are generally on the 
under side of the leaf, several hundred or several thousand on 
every leaf. In the case of such a plant as the water lily, whose 



THE PLANT AND WATER. 



15 



large round leaves lie flat on the surface of the water, the 
stomata or mouths of the leaves 
are found to be on the upper 
side. Why has nature made this 
change ? 

Animals soon suffer from thirst, 
although they have some water 
in nearly every kind of food that 
they eat. But plants require 
water quite as much. There is 
nothing so important in connec- 
tion with plant growth as having 
a proper supply of water — not 
too much and not too little. 
When the rains come at the right 
time and in the right quantities, 
nearly every soil bears good Fig. is.-Under side of leaf. ^ shows 

■' ■' ^ the mouths or stomata with small 




crops ; where no rams fall we find 
a desert. 



hair on leaf at h. B is a section, 
showing stoma or mouth at s, the 
air space Is at a, and ^ is a guard 
cell which opens and closes the 
mouth or stoma. 



Conclusions : 

1. Water is found in all plants and in all parts of living 
plants at all seasons of the year. 

2. Water is necessary for the life and growth of plants. 

3. Water goes into the plants through the hairy rootlets at 
the tips of the fresh roots and passes out through the thousands 
of tiny mouths on the under side of the leaves. 

4. The mouths or breathing pores are called stomata. These 
open wider as the air becomes damp and partially close as the 
air becomes dry. 

Suggestive : — 

What gives rigidity and firmness to a geranium leaf? 

"Which contains oroportionateiy the more water, an apple leaf or an 
apple twig? 



l6 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER IV, 



THE PLANT AND THE SOIL. 

Tpie Power of Water to Dissolve Substances. — If 
we drop a little common salt into a glass of water, it will 
disappear from sight ; but if we taste the water we find that it 
is salty — the salt has been dissolved in the water. If we pour 
out the salty water into a saucer, and set it in a warm place, 
the water will gradually become less and less, and we shall 
soon see the white salt reappear as a fine white crust. We 
know now that salt is soluble in water. If we keep on adding 
salt to the water in the glass we shall find that after a while no 
more salt will be dissolved, but what we add will remain un- 
dissolved in the bottom of the glass. We conclude, therefore, 
that the water can dissolve a certain amount of salt and no 
more — that there is a limit to the power of the water to dissolve 
the salt. We can make the same trial or experiment with 
other substances, such as sugar, saltpetre, etc. 

But all substances are not soluble. If we place some sand 
in the glass of water it will not dissolve. If we stir up some 
road dust in a glass of clean water, the water will at once be- 
come dirty ; but after a while the dirt will settle and the water 
clear up. Sometimes when we examine salt by putting a little 
in water we find a small quantity of hard, gritty substance set- 
tling at the bottom undissolved — tnis is not salt, but an impurity 
in the salt. If there were any sand in the sugar it would not 
dissolve. A nail will not dissolve in the water, though it can 
be more or less dissolved if there is a little acid in the water. 
If we take a handful of hardwood ashes and stir them up in a 
bowl of water, a large portion will settle to the bottom undis- 



THE PLANT AND THE SOIL. 17 

solved, but the water will feel and taste soapy. There is 
evidently something soluble in wood ashes, and also some- 
thing insoluble. If we take coal ashes instead of wood 
ashes, we shall find that there is little or nothing soluble in the 
coal ashes. It is evident, therefore, that wood ashes contain 
much more soluble matter than coal ashes. This soluble 
matter is food for plants. If we take a piece of limestone and 
pour water upon.it we shall find that little or no change takes 
place ; but if we use a little weak acid (even vinegar will have 
some effect), we find that the limestone will dissolve. If, in- 
stead of limestone, we take freshly-burnt lime — quick-lime — 
we find that the water will take up some of the lime, as we can 
tell by tasting it. 

We conclude that some substances are quickly soluble in 
water, some slowly soluble, some insoluble, and that weak acids 
will have the effect af dissolving some substances, such as lime- 
stone and iron, that do not dissolve in water alone. 

Further, we find that water can dissolve only a certain 
quantity of any substance — that its power of dissolving is 
limited ; and when the water evaporates or passes off into the 
air, the substances, such as salt, sugar, and lime, that were 
dissolved in it, reappear as salt, sugar, and lime. 

If we pour milk through a fine strainer, the milk all passes 
through, and the dirt that was not dissolved remains behind. 
If we stir up some hardwood ashes in a glass of water and 
then pour it through a very fine strainer, we find the undis- 
solved ashes remain behind, and the water that passes through 
is soapy in taste. 

We conclude that the substances dissolved in the water go 
along with the water wherever it passes in the liquid form. 

Take a clean unglazed earthen flower pot ; stop up the hole in the 
bottom, fill it with water, and throw into the water a handful of salt. 
Allow the pot to stand undisturbed. After a while a deposit will appear 
on the outside of the pot. Taste it, it is salty. Explain. 



1 8 AGRICULTURE. 

How Mineral Food Gets into the Plant. — We have 
before learned that water goes into the plant through the 
roots and passes out by the leaves ; there must therefore 
be a movement of the water through the plant ; and we 
thus conclude that the water can carry along with it into 
the plant, and through it, some substances taken up in solu- 
tion from the soil, that is, that it will take into the plant 
whatever it finds in the soil that can be dissolved. This is not 
quite the case, for the roots appear to have the power, in large 
measure, of taking up the substances that the plant requires ; 
the roots have a certain amount of what may be called 
"■ selective " power. 

One thing more may be mentioned in connection with the 
taking in of food by the roots ; there is a small amount of 
weak acid found in the ends of the roots, so that wherever 
the fine, hairy rootlets come into contact with the soil they 
are helped by this weak acid to dissolve small quantities of 
material that the water alone, without this acid, could not take 
up. It is because of this that we frequently find the marks of 
plant roots on the face of hard rocks, showing where the roots 
by their acids have eaten out some of the rock. 

When we burn wood in the stove we have left what is called 
the ashes. If we burn up some straw, or grain, in fact any 
kind of a plant, we have left some ashes. This ash is earthy 
in nature. Sometimes it is called the " mineral matter " of the 
plant. It has all gone into the plant by way of the roots, dis- 
solved in the water of the soil. When this ash or mineral 
matter is taken apart and examined by a chemist, it is found 
to contain such substances as compounds of lime, soda, and 
potash. From loo pounds of plants taken, we get one to five 
pounds of ash or mineral matter; we therefore say, that the ash 
or mineral matter forms from one to five per cent, of the whole 
plant, and it has all come from the soil. 

The mineral matter of the soil, after being dissolved in the 



THE PLANT AND THE SOIL. TQ 

water of the soil, passes into the plant, is carried by the 
circulation of the sap to all parts, and is used in helping to 
build up the various parts of the plant. When matter gets into 
the plant in this way that is not required, some of it may be- 
come deposited in various parts of the plant, but much of it is 
carried to the outside of the leaf and of the bark, and left there 
as the water evaporates. In the case of some plants, more 
mineral matter is taken up from the soil than the sap can hold 
in solution, and some of the salts are found in a solid form in 
the little sacs or cells of which the plant is made up. These 
are often seen by a magnifying glass or microscope in the form 
of crystals either in the cells or in the walls of the cells. 
Conclusions : 

1. The water of the plant comes from the water of the soil, 
hence the importance of rains. 

2. All of the mineral or ash material of the plant comes from 
the soil, being carried into the plant in solution through the 
roots. 

3. The mineral matter is carried to all parts of the plant in 
the circulation of the sap. 

4. Some of the mineral matter that is not needed by the 
plant is given off from the outside of the leaves and through the 
bark. 

5. It is very important to have the mineral or ash material 
required by the plant in as soluble a form as possible in the 
soil, hence the importance of good cultivation and of proper 
fertilizing or manuring. 



20 AGRICULTUREo 



CHAPTER V. 



THE PLANT AND THE AIR. 

The Combustible Part of a Plant. — When we dry 
any plant thoroughly, we drive off the water that it contains ; 
when we burn up this dried portion, we have left the ash. 
But what about the portion that has been burned up ? What 
was it and where did it come from ? All plants contain fibre 
— woody fibre as we may now call it ; this has been burned 
up. Some plants, such as sugar beets, sugar cane, and corn, 
contain some sugar. Other plants, such as potatoes, contain a 
large quantity of starch. In burning, all the fibre, starch, and 
sugar are burned up. Then such seeds as flaxseed and cotton 
seed contain oil. There are other substances, also, that we 
should know. For instance, if we chew a few grains of wheat, 
we find after a short time a small quantity of a gummy sub- 
stance remaining in the mouth — it is called gluten. Then you 
all know that from many different fruits a beautiful clear sub- 
stance is got by boiling, known as jelly. Perhaps we have 
mentioned enough — fibre, starch, sugar, oil, gluten, jelly 
substances — all these and many others similar to them are 
found in plants. They do not pass off when the water evapor- 
ates, nor are they left behind in the ash. They are all con- 
sumed or burnt up when the plant is burned. 

What do they consist of ? In burning any plant slowly, the 
first thing that you notice is that the plant becomes black — 
charred ; and by very slowly burning it we can turn it into a 
black mass that we call charcoal, somewhat like coal in 
appearance. This black color is given to it because of the 
carbon which it contains. If we could put some of this 



THE PLANT AND THE AIR. 21 

charred plant into a strong iron vessel, having only one small 
open pipe leading from it, we would find that there were 
gases coming away that would burn with a flame ; and when 
you are further advanced in the study of chemistry you will 
be able to prove that these gases contain, besides carbon, 
another substance also, called hydrogen. 

In addition to these two, carbon and hydrogen, both of 
which will burn in the air, there are in the plant small quan- 
tities of nitrogen and sulphur and some oxygen. All of this 
cannot be proved by you at present, but you will now have to 
accept the statement that these parts of the plant that are 
burned up contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and 
sometimes sulphur in varying quantities. The chemist, for 
shortness, refers to them often simply by the first letters, thus : 
C H O N S. 

What the Plant Gets from the Air. — The next 
question is as to where these elements came from and when 
they got into the plant. If they came from the soil they must 
have been contained either in the water or in the salts or 
mineral matter carried in through the roots. Water is a 
compound of only two substances, hydrogen and oxygen. 
Two of them, then, may have come from the rains and soil 
water. The sulphur and the nitrogen may have come from 
the soil in part or in whole, for we sometimes find soluble com- 
pounds of sulphur m the soil, and also compounds of nitrogen. 
But the carbon which is found in such large quantity does 
not come from the water, nor from the mineral matter of the 
soil. There is only one other source, and that is the atmos- 
phere, or, as we say, the air. If the carbon comes from the air, 
we at once conclude that it gets into the plant through the leaves. 
And how wonderfully well supplied is every plant with leaves 
for taking m food from the air ! 

The air is a mixture of gases. Coal and charcoal are almost 
pure carbon, so that we think of carbon as being a solid. And 



2 2 AGRICULTURE. 

SO it is. But in the air there is a gas called carbonic acid gas. 
It is formed wherever carbon is burned. The carbon unites 
with the oxygen gas of the air and forms a compound, a gas, 
that is called carbonic acid gas. This is the source from which 
the plant gets its carbon. 

There is only a very small quantity of this carbonic acid gas 
in the air, but the plants have a large number of leaves and 
they are broad and thin, and the air is moving more or less all 
the time, so that the plant has no difficulty in getting all the 
carbon that it requires. The carbonic acid gas of the air goes 
in through the leaves ; the plant takes up the carbon for its 
own use and sets free the oxygen gas with which the carbon 
was united. Just here we might mention that all animals are 
constantly breathing out carbonic acid gas from their lungs, 
and that when too much of it is present the animals will be 
smothered. We feel the effect of it when shut up in a close 
room. Plants take up this carbonic acid gas, keep the carbon 
and set free the oxygen, so that plants are constantly purifying 
the air for animals, and animals are constantly producing car- 
bonic acid gas to feed the plants. Nature has in this way 
made plants and animals dependent upon each other. 

The starch of potatoes, the sugar of beets, the jelly of cur- 
rants and apples, the oil of flaxseed and the fibre of flax and 
of all parts of plants are made up entirely of the three elements 
— carbon, hydrogen and oxygen (C H and O). 

The plants get all the carbon from the air, and the hydrogen 
and oxygen can all be got from water, which, as we have said, 
is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen, so that starch, sugar, 
jelly, oil and fibre are made up by the plant from what comes 
from water and the air. When a farmer sells from his farm 
sugar or butter (oil) or fibre he is selling what in the first place 
came from the rain and the air, and thereby he does not rob 
the soil so much as when he seUs grain or hay, since these 
contain mineral or soil material. 



THE PLANT AND THE AIR. 23 

We have said that the quantity of carbonic acid gas in the 
air is very small ; there are only three parts in every ten thou- 
sand parts by volume. The air, or atmosphere, is made up 
almost entirely of nitrogen and oxygen, mixed together, not 
united, in the proportion of about four to one ; that is, in every 
one hundred volumes of air there are nearly eighty parts of 
nitrogen to a little over twenty parts of oxygen. In addition, 
there are very small quantities of other gases, such as ammonia, 
but we need not refer to these here. The facts now to be 
fixed in the memory are that the plant, through the leaf, does 
not take up the nitrogen and oxygen which are in such large 
quantities, but does take up carbon from the carbonic acid gas 
which exists in such small quantities, and from this carbon, 
along with the elements of water, it builds up the larger portion 
of its entire structure. How it does this is largely a mystery. 
Conclusions : 

1. Besides the water and the mineral matter of the plant, 
which come in through the roots, there are in plants large 
quantities of such substances as starch, sugar, oil, and gluten. 

2. All of these substances contain caibon. 

3. This carbon comes from the carbonic acid gas of the air. 

4. Animals breathe in oxygen and breathe out carbonic acid 
gas through their lungs ; plants take in carbonic acid gas and 
give off oxygen through their leaves. 



24 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER VI. 



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF THE PLANT 

The Sap. — All the water used by the plant enters through the 
roots, and along with it comes the material that we call the 
mineral matter, together with the nitrogen that the plants require. 
The stalks and branches form the frame work of the plant — its 
body, so to speak. The leaves give off the water taken in by 
the roots, and also take up carbon from the carbonic acid gas of 
the air. Now if the water goes in by the roots and out from the 
leaves it must 7nove through the plant — through the roots to the 
stalk, thence to the branches, and so on to the leaves. This 
water contains many substances in solution (sugar, salts, and 
other things) ; we call it sap, and the movement is called " the 
circulation of the sap." We have already referred to the fact 
that a limb will split lengthwise, not across. Sometimes, as in 
flax and in the inner bark of basswood, we can pull off long 
fine strings of fibre. These long fibres that run up and down, 
or lengthwise, are nothing else than strings of little cells, and 
in circulation the sap passes on through from one to the next. 

Frequently you see a hollow tree that is alive and thrifty • 
and when you cut across a large tree you notice that the sap is 
principally in the outer portion. The outer rings of wood are 
much wetter than the inner or heart wood. We conclude, 
then, that the sap moves principally up and down through the 
layers or fibres of the plant near the outside, just under the 
outer rough bark. The life of the body of the plant is then 
mainly near the outer bark. When we girdle a tree we are apt 
to kill it ; we can cut a small nick into it, we can tap it, or we 
may bruise a piece of the bark, and we do not kill it. Now 
you see the reason. 



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF THE PLANT. 25 

Work of the Leaves. — The circulation of the sap brings 
the water and material taken up from the soil to the leaf, 
where also is found the carbon taken up from the air. And 
it is in the green growing leaf that all this material is worked 
over into such forms as the plant can make use of. The leaves, 
we may say, are both the lungs of the plant and also the stom- 
ach. If fire burns the leaves of a tree, or some blight or 
disease attacks them, or insects devour them, the tree becomes 
weak and in many cases soon dies. 

We observe the vitality of any plant in the leaves ; and we 
should always try to keep the leaves fresh and free from attacks 
of all kinds. The greenhouse gardener carefully washes the 
leaves of his valuable plants, and the fruit-grower sprays his 
trees and bushes for this purpose. When the leaves have 
worked over all the food from the air and the soil (that is, 
digested it, as we digest food in the stomach), it is carried 
away in the sap to all parts of the plant — to make root in one 
place, more leaves in another, to increase the wood in the 
branches, to form buds, or blossoms, or fruit ; in fact to build 
up the plant in all its parts. How all this is done and no 
mistake is made — how leaves are formed in one place and 
roots in another, and buds in another, is, as we have said 
before, largely a mystery ; just as it is a mystery how hair 
is formed on your head, teeth in your mouth, and nails upon 
your fingers. 

We have another point to notice in regard to the leaves. 
Cut off several long switches or branches from a willow, a 
maple, an oak, a spruce, and currant bush. Observe how the 
leaves are placed. They are not attached by chance. In 
some cases two leaves grow out from the same part on 
opposite sides. They are said to be opposite. In others there 
is first one on one side and then the next above on the other 
side. They are said to be aliernate. Then, if you start with 
the first leaf and draw a line to the next, and then to the next, 



26 AGRICULTURE. 

and so on, you find that the line goes around the branch in a 
spiral direction. By closely observing all these different 
branches, you find that in all cases there is a certain definite 
order of arrangement. Further, you find that just as the leaves of 
any one kind of tree are nearly alike in outline, so they are all 
nearly alike as to their form of arrangement. Find out this 
mode or form of arrangement of leaves on the different trees 
and shrubs with which you are familiar. 

When the leaves have done their work they lose their bright 
green color, turning duller, sometimes brown or almost white, 
sometimes yellow, sometimes red and many-colored. In the 
case of one class of trees, such as maples, oaks, etc., they fall 
off the branches — such trees are called deciduous, to distinguish 
them from the evergreens. But even the evergreens become 
duller in the fall, and the new growth of the spring is of quite 
a different green from that of the old growth. 

The Buds. — The leaves do not grow into branches or 
flowers. The buds come every year (in the fall and in the 
spring) in the angles or " axils " of the leaves or at the ends 
of the branches, so that the arrangement of the leaves is also 
the arrangement of the buds. Some buds grow into branches 
and some into blossoms. When a bud grows at the end of 
the branch it, of course, by its growth lengthens the branch; 
when it comes on the side, by its growth it forms a side 
branch. When we " stop " a raspberry bush by pinching off 
the growth at the end, we cause the side buds and branches to 
grow out, and thereby make the plant become bushy. 

If you remove a bud formed in the fall, covered with 
a waxy substance to protect it in winter, or if you take a 
bud formed in spring or summer, and carefully open it, you 
find it is a compact mass of small leaves — it is a little branch 
compressed and packed away ; and the opening of the bud 
is nothing else than an unfolding of these leaves as they 



STRUCTURE AND GROWTH OF THE PLANT. 



27 




Fig. 14. — Parts of a Blossom, as follows : End of 
stalk or "receptacle" in centre; two leaves or sepa's 
of calyx on outside; then two leaves or petals of 
corolla ; then two stamens ; then two pistils. 



grow larger. The life of the tree starts the leaves growing, and 
the buds burst and open up, some to form leaves and branches 
and some to form blossoms. 

Blossoms. — Let us take a simple blossom like a yellow 
buttercup. First we find five small leaves arranged around 
the outside. These form 
what is called the calyx ^ 
and each of these five 
leaves is a sepal. Just 
above these are five 
leaves of bright yellow 
color forming XhQCorolIa, 
each of which is called 
a /^eial. Next inside the 
corolla are a number of 
little stems or fine stalks, 
with tiny balls on their tips covered with fine dust. These are 
called stamens, and the dust \^ pollen. Right in the centre are 
some more little growths called the pistils. This blossom, then, 
has four parts — calyx, corolla, stamens, and pistils. If we take 
a buttercup, we can easily examine the parts by pulHng them 
off one by one, beginning at the outside. 

Forming Seed or Fruit. — Vv^hat is the use of these four 
parts? The calyx and corolla are 
simply two rows of leaves, green 
and yellow, arranged around the 
two other parts to protect them. 
Observe their form in the closed 
bud. They guard the more valu- 
able portion, the pistils and 
stamens, and when their work is 

, ,, J cc i-r.! c. Fig. 15.— Stamen and Pistil. Stamen on 

done they drop oft. 1 he tine i^^ showing a, the stalk, and b, the 

1 , n r J.1- ^ head, covered with pollen dust. Pistil 

dust or pollen trom the stamens „„ right showing c, the stigma on 

1 4-U^ 4-^.^ ^f <-U^ ^;r.<-;i^ which the pollen falls; 3 the style, and 

drops on the top of the pistils. ^ ^^^^ ^^J^ containing the seeds, a. 





28 



AGRICULTURE. 




ig. 16.— Complete Plossom, 
having calyx, corolla, sta- 
mens, and pistils. 



Sometimes the wind blows it over ; 
sometimes the insects carry it on 
their bodies and legs. As soon as the 
pollen reaches the upper end of the 
pistils, growth starts within the pistil, 
beginning at the top (the stigma) and 
continuing down through the fine stem 
(the style) until it reaches the main 
inner part (the ovary). It is in this 

part of the blossom that the seed is formed. 

Figures 14 and 15, showing the different 

parts of a blossom taken apart, will help to 

understand what takes place. To form 

seed, then, the pollen from the stamens 

must reach the pistils. In some plants w^e 

have them side by side in the one blossom, 

in other plants some blossoms have only 

stamens and others only pistils. In this 

latter case the pollen must be carried by 

the wind, or by insects, such as bees, as 

they go from flower to flower. The seed %• ^7 --incomplete or 

i.i±v,jr &^ imperfect blossoms. The 

forms in the ovary of the blossom after the "ppe«- one has stamens, 

-' but no pistils (male 

pollen has fallen from the stamens upon blossom); the lower one 

^ ^ has pistils, but no sta- 

the pistils. mens (female blossom). 

Compare the flowers of the apple with those of the cherry, and the 

flowers of the pear with those of the plum. 




THE NAMING AND CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 



CHAPTER VII 



THE NAMING AND CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS. 

The many millions of human beings in the world may be 
arranged in classes or great famiHes. Sometimes the basis of 
classification is their color ; thus we have the white race, the 
black race, the red race, etc. The white race, also, may 
be divided in various ways. For instance, we speak of 
the English-speaking people, the French people, the German 
people, etc. The Indians are divided into tribes. These 
classifications are based on color, height, form of body, language, 
and certain habits or characteristics. In a similar manner it is 
advisable to arrange the great plant world into groups or 
classes — all those somewhat alike in one class, all others some- 
what alike in another class, and so on. To these various 
classes names must be given. These names are what we call 
the scientific or botanical names. They are not always much 
like our common names of plants. The common names may 
vary in different places, but the botanical names must be the 
same the world over. The botanical names are not so familiar 
to us as the common names, hence they appear to be very 
difTficult ; but in studying plants, in naming them, and in re- 
ferring to text books on botany, it is necessary to become 
more or less familiar with them. 

How are we to study a plant, to describe it, to know the 
plant referred to in any botanical work? How are we to 
identify any plant ? There are the four parts — the roots, the 
stem, the leaves and the blossoms. The leaves really include 
those parts which we call the blossoms or flowers, as these are 
made up of changed leaves ; but for the present we may say 



30 AGRICULTURE. 

that these are the four parts named. In studying or describing 
any plant, therefore, we find out the nature or make-up of its 
root, stem, leaves and blossom. In regard to the root, for 
instance, we observe whether it is tap-rooted or fibrous. We 
note the color and form of the stem. We observe the shape 
of the leaves and their arrangement on the branches. In the 
blossom we note the form, number and arrangement of the sepals 
or parts of the calyx, and of the petals or parts of the corolla; also 
the number, form and arrangement of the stamens and pistils. 

If we carefully observe a buttercup and a marsh-marigold we 
find that in the main they closely resemble each other, yet 
there are differences in their form and they grow in different 
locations. Meadow rue, columbine, anemone and hepatica 
also have a strong family resemblance to these two plants. 
These are all classed together in one great order or family 
known as the RammculacecE or crowfoot family. 

The wild mustard of our grain fields and the weeds shep- 
herd's purse and pennycress are classed in another order or 
family known as the Cruci/erce, so called because of the 
arrangement of the four petals forming a cross-like corolla. 

The blossoms of the field pea, sweet pea, bean, clover and 
locust tree are much alike. These are all classed in one family 
— the Leguminosce or legume family. 

Compare the blossoms and leaves of the apple, pear, plum, 
cherry, strawberry and hawthorn with the wild or single rose. 
They all belong to one family — the Rosacece or rose family. 

The carrot and the parsnip form a cluster of flowers in form 
called an umbel^ hence these belong to the family Umbelliferce. 

In many common plants we have the flowers in a dense or 
thick head like the blossom of a field daisy or of a sunflower. 
The thistles, burdocks, everlasting, golden rod, aster, yarrow, 
dandelion and lettuce are other members of the same family 
— the composite family, or Composifce. 



NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE SOILo 3I 



PART II 



CHAPTER VIIL 



NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE SOIL. 

All the plants grown upon the farm or in the garden grow 
in the soil; even those that appear to be growing in streams 
and marshes have their roots in the soil beneath the water. 
Sometimes we see plants grown in water only in the house or 
greenhouse, but most of those found there are grown in pots 
filled with soil. The plants found on the surface of rocks and 
on old rail fences are of a low, simple order. We may then 
conclude that most of the plants that we are now familiar with 
require soil, and we therefore shall study for a while the soil, 
its nature, its origin, and its improvement. 

Kinds of soil. — Sandy soil is made up principally of sand. 
If we take a handful of dry sand we find that it consists of 
small hard grains that are easily mixed together. If we 
moisten it, it will cling together and can be moulded into 
various forms, but when it dries the particles all fall 'apart 
into fine sand as before. Then there is clay of various colors, 
sometimes red, sometimes almost white, sometimes nearly 
blue. If we moisten it we can mould it, but when it dries 
it keeps its shape and becomes hard. We readily see the 
difference. When we walk over wet sandy soil and wet 
clayey soil, the former, when dry, readily rubs off our boots, 
the latter sticks. Sand is used for making moulds in the 
foundry and clay is used for making models by the artist ; the 



.■5 2 AGRICULTURE. 

former readily falls apart after being taken out of the boxes 
and can be used again, and the latter when moulded and 
worked keeps its shape as it dries. 

Make two sets of objects (such as balls, cubes, cups, vases or simple 
figures of small animals), one set from wet sand and one set from clay. 
Place them in the sun or near the stove and observe the effect of drying. 

We see that sand as it dries does not stick together, and clay 
as it dries does stick together and also sticks to other objects. 
We now understand how it is that wet clay is sticky ; it clings 
to the plow and the harrow and to the feet of the horses and 
is hard or heavy to work. Sandy soil is said to be light and 
clay soil to be heavy, not because of their weight, but be- 
cause the former is easily worked and the latter is harder to 
work. If we watch closely the drying out of the two sets of 
objects that we have moulded we shall observe further that the 
sand dries out more quickly than the clay; the latter holds on 
to the water longer. Clay soils are usually wet soils ; they are 
more apt to have water in them than sandy soils. 

The third class of soils is usually dark in color, from light 
brown to dense black, such as are found in the woods where 
leaves and branches have decayed, and in low pastures and 
swampy places. This soil is made up of the refuse of leaves, 
branches and roots of plants. Sometimes we can see pieces of 
half-decayed or rotten plants ; sometimes there are very slight 
traces of the original form of the plants. This soil has, how- 
ever, all come from former plants. We call such a soil a 
vegetable soil, and this dark colored loose material formed from 
the decay of vegetable matter is called humus. Notice how 
it differs from both sand and clay. It is light in weight and 
easily worked and it holds water readily. 

Place a handful of swamp muck or leaf mould (humus) on an iron fire- 
shovel and carefully set it upon the burning coals. It dries out, then burns 
away until only a small quantity of ash is left. Place some wet sand on 
the shovel and heat, and then a little wet clay. What is the result ? 



NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE SOIL. 33 

These, then, are the three principal parts of soils— sand, 
clay, and humus, but in many cases we find them mixed 
together or one above the other. If sand is the principal part 
of the soil we call it a sandy soil ; if clay, a clay soil, and if 
humus or muck, a vegetable soil. A loam soil contains a mix- 
ture of sand and clay with some humus, and such a soil is 
usually best fitted for growing most of the crops of the farm. 

Origin of the Soil. — We already know where the humus 
or vegetable matter has come from, and, as it was formerly 
parts of plants, we conclude at once that it must contain some 
material for feeding new plants. But where did the sand and 
the clay come from ? 

Perhaps you have never before asked that question, thinking 
that the clay and the sand were always in the field in that form. 
This, however, is not the case, although they may have been there 
for many years, perhaps for hundreds of years, perhaps for 
thousands. Why do we say that they have not been there 
for all time ? Well, if we go to the shore of a large lake we 
see fresh sand being washed up day by day by the waves. If 
we go to the banks and mouth of a large river, or even of a 
small stream, we see sand and clay and vegetable matter being 
washed down, carried away, and spread out to form new layers 
of soil. If we go to the face of a high rocky cliff we can see 
the great rocks being gradually broken down and changed 
into piles of coarse stone, and later into finer material, and still 
later into sand and clay. But if we can go to a range of 
mountains or high hills we shall see more clearly the change 
of great rocks into fine soil. 

Under our soil we find solid rock. In some places the rock 
is at the surface, and we can see it becoming weathered and 
rotten. The outer surface is softer than the interior. In other 
places the rock is just under the surface. In some places we 
have to go very deep to find the rock, but it is always there, to 
be found if we only go deep enough. All of our sand and 



34 



AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. i8 —Soil formed from rock underneath, a soil 
with grass growing in it ; h subsoil, coarser and 
more rocky ; c coarse, loose rock ; d rock in layers, 
cracked, d changes to c, c changes to b, and b to a. 



clay have come from these old rocks, sand from one kind of 
rock, white clay from another kind of rock, blue clay from 
another. The nature of the soil will therefore depend largely 

upon the nature of 
the rock from which 
it came. This sand 
or clay may have 
come from the break- 
ing up of the rocks 
that are to be found 
just under the soil ; in 
that case the soil is 
likely to be shal- 
low. But usually it 
has come from rocks 
at a distance, a long 
distance it may be, 
and has been carried to its present place by water and ice, and 
spread out over the old rocks. In this latter case the soil may 
be very deep and mixed. We can now explain why the soil 
m some places is quite different in its nature from the rocks 
under it, and why there is such a variety in the same locality 
and on the same farm. One field may be clayey, and across 
a stream we may find a sandy soil — they have come from 
different places, and have been washed down by the waters 
and spread out at quite different times. 

A step farther back can now be taken. We go to the hills 
— to the great piles of rock. We observe that the old rock is 
weathered. If we break off a piece, the fresh surface shows a 
different appearance from the old weathered surface ; it is 
generally harder. We can rub off some of the old weathered 
surface ; what we rub off is the weathered rock— fine sand or 
fine clay. We observe long cracks or crevices, some narrow 
and finC; some wide and deep. The rains find their way into 



NATURE AND ORIGIN OF THE SOIL. 



35 



these cracks and fill them up. Then winter comes on and the 
water in the cracks freezes. What will happen then ? Just 
what happens when the barrel of rain water freezes, or the 
down pipes on the house freeze solid, or the bottles of canned 
fruit in the cellar freeze. There will be a bursting. And even 
though the quantity of water is small, it must expand, the 
rocks must give to make room for it. The cracks are made 
larger, a little of the surface is broken away, or a huge shoulder 
of the rock is burst off. Gradually, 
year by year, the rocks are thus 
broken up by the frost, the atmos- 
phere wears them away, and the rains 
wash them down. The rocky cliffs 
are slowly broken down, and the 
ice, as it slowly moves down the 
sides of the mountain, scrapes and 
scratches off more and more. This 




SatZ b&aHng portion/ 



Fig. ig — Soil formed from hill rock at a distance, a is solid rock of a hill or mountain. 
Rock at c has been broken off by rain and frost and thrown down to foot of hill ; 
coarsest rock lies in heaps forming soilless portio i ; finer rock has been carried further 
down where some plants, as trees and grass, grow. Finest soil is being washed into 
the stream to be carr.ed away and spread out, farming layers of soil more or less level, 
on which crops are grown. 

material is washed away — the larger pieces but a short dis- 
tance, the smaller pieces further, and the finest sand and clay 
carried far away, to be dropped or spread out somewhere to 
make soil. Seeds are dropped by the birds or blown by the 
winds ; some plants sprout, grow, die and decay, and form a 



36 AGRICULTURE. 

little humus. More plants grow and more humus is formed, 
until out of the material that came from the hard tough rocks 
and the decay of roots and leaves a fine soil is formed, sandy 
in one place, clayey in another, and loamy in another. 

Conclusions : 

1. All our soils have come from the breaking down of rocky 
material and the decay of former plants. 

2. Soils may be classed as follows : Sandy, clay, loam, and 
vegetable or humus soils. 

3. The texture of the soil depends upon the amount of sand, 
clay, and humus mixed together forming it. 

4. The nature of the soil depends to a large extent upon the 
nature of the rocks out of which the sand and the clay have 
been formed. 

5. The rocks have oeen broken up by the action of the air, 
the freezing of the rain-water in the rocks, the grinding of ice, 
and the downrush of rains and streams. 

6. Some soils have been carried about from one place to 
another, and spread out by ice, snow, streams, and even to 
some extent by the wind. 

7. Some soils have been formed out of the rocks beneath 
them, and from the decay of plants growing upon them. 

8. Some soils, such as swamp soils, have been formed almost 
entirely from the decay of plants. 

Suggestive : — 

What class of plants are most useful in improving the soil, those with 
shallow growing roots or those having deep growing roots ? Have you 
observed any difference between the roots of clover and of timothy ? 



TILLING AND DRAINING THE SOIL. 37 



CHAPTER IX 



TILLING AND DRAINING THE SOIL. 

Weathering. — If we leave a piece of iron exposed to the 
damp air it soon becomes rusty; if we keep it in a dry place or 
put it under water so that the air cannot reach it, it will not 
become rusty so soon. Vegetables left in a damp cellar, or 
thrown out on the ground, soon decay. Pieces of wood, if left 
long enough, will rot and decay, first becoming brown- and 
later on crumbling to a fine, black substance, the same as the 
humus of the soil. Harder substances, such as bones, will in 
time decay and wear away. An old brick when picked up is 
found to have lost its sharp corners and edges and to have be- 
come smaller than when first made. As we examine object 
after object, we find that there are very few things that do not 
become changed through the effect of the air, dew, rain, frost, 
snow, and ice. In a previous chapter we have referred to the 
oxygen and the carbonic acid gas of the air. These are the 
two substances in the air that cause many of the changes — 
rotting the stumps, charring old leaves and roots and branches, 
wearing away the boulders in the field, and dissolving lime 
out of the rocks. 

If you thrust a stick into the coals it will catch fire and burn. 
Blow out the blaze and you have a charred stick. If you 
throw another stick of the same kind out on the ground, or 
bury it just under the soil, after many months it will be found 
to become brown and then almost black — it has become 
charred also, but it has taken a long time. The oxygen of the 
air has burnt up some of it in both cases. If we go to an old 



38 AGRICULTURE. 

limestone bridge where the rains beat upon it, we notice that 
where the water trickles down, some of the limestone has been 
washed out, and, in some places, long stone " icicles " have 
formed. The limestone has been dissolved out by the car- 
bonic acid in the water. Water in the soil contains some 
carbonic acid, and the air contains carbonic acid gas ; so that 
we have in this an explanation of the hollo\ving out of caves in 
limestone rocks, the breaking down of limestone cliffs, and 
the rapid changes that take place in limy soils. 

Effects of Draining. — We take up a handful of vegetable 
soil— swamp muck, for instance, or wood mold — it is easily 
ground up between the fingers ; there does not appear to be 
much rocky or sandy material in it. If we shake it up in a 
bottle of water, we find that the water becomes more or less 
brown in color ; some of the substance has dissolved, but only 
a little. In order to get this material into a soluble form, the 
air mjjst be allowed to work upon it. But the air cannot get 
into it unless it is drained. 

Take two tin cans or tight boxes ; fill one with wet muck from an un- 
drained, swampy field, and fill the other with dry leaf mold. Plant a few 
seeds of the same kind in each, and observe how much better the dry, 
well -aired leaf mold is for the growing of valuable farm plants than the wet 
swamp muck. 

Wet, swampy soil needs first to be drained and then to be 
well worked over, so that the air can get in through it to 
weather it. There is another reason for letting the air into the 
wet, swampy soil, and that is, it will sweeten it. Vegetable 
soils that are water-logged are sour, or acid ; and seeds will not 
sprout nor plants grow well in sour soils. The air contains 
some ammonia, and this, when it gets into the soil, changes it 
from a sour to what we may call a sweet soil — it takes the 
sourness out of it. If a little lime be scattered over the 
drained soil, this sweetening will be hastened. 

Then, again, wet, swampy soils are usually cold, because of 
the water that they contain. When we wish to cool a room on 



TILLING AND DRAINING THE SOIL. 39 

a hot day, we sprinkle the floor with water. As this water 
evaporates, or passes off into the air, the floor becomes cooler, 
and that cools the air above it. We may look upon a 
swampy field as a great room, the floor of which is the soil. 
If the soil is kept wet, the floor of this field will be kept cold. 
Water is not easily warmed up or heated. A dry soil, or a soil 
well drained, is warmed up by the sun more easily than a wet, 
undrained soil. 

If you place a cup (stoneware) of water, a cup of wet sand, and a cup of 
dry sand on the top of a warm stove, you will find that the dry sand be- 
comes hot much more rapidly than the wet sand, and the wet sand much 
more rapidly than the water. 

Again, if you wish to heat a pan of water, or to boil the 
kettle, you place it over the fire, not beside the stove, nor 
under the stove. The sun is the fire that heats up the soil and 
the water in it, and it is above, so that the effect of heating the 
water in the soil is very small. 

We have, then, three reasons why the presence of too much 
water in the soil keeps the soil cold. We must get the water 
out of the soil by drainage, so that we can thoroughly work 
the surface of the soil ; so that the air can get into the soil to 
sweeten it and help the decay of the humus ; and, also, so that 
the soil can become warmed up early in spring for the sprouting 
of seeds and the early growth of the plant. 

All that has been said here in regard to humus, or mucky 
soils, applies also to sandy, loam, and clay soils, except that 
sandy soils are not so much in need of special drainage 
— in most cases they drain themselves. The clay soils, when 
well drained, do not bake upon the surface as they dry out, 
and they are much more easily worked. The stickiness of 
clay can be somewhat overcome by the use of lime. 

If you shake up some clay in a bottle of water, and then throw in some 
finely- powdered lime, you will observe a peculiar effect upon the fine clay 
— it will become flaky or coagulated and the water will clear up. 

The thorough drainage of clay soils, then, is most important 



40 AGRICULTURE. 

to get the water out and to let the air in. Then thorough 
working should follow. The soil is plowed up in ridges in the 
field, every furrow straight and clean cut, glistening in the sun 
like metal in many places. But when the frost has torn it to 
pieces during the winter, we find a great improvement in the 
texture of it in the spring. The good effects of plowing 
and harrowing will not appear on most clay soils unless the 
land is first thoroughly drained. Drain the soil and let the air 
work for you, breaking up the coarse particles in winter and 
working over the particles in summer into soluble form for 
plant food. Perhaps you do not realize how much of the soil 
is still rocky, and needs to be worked over. 

Take a deep bottle of clear water, and drop a handful of soil into it ; 
shake it up a little, then take a small stick and slowly stir it. The heaviest 
pieces will settle at the bottom, the smaller above, and the lightest on top. 
Notice, now, how much coarse, stony material there is in this soil. 

Place a little sand, clay, or loam soil under a good magni- 
fying glass, such as is used for examining grain. The soil looks 
like a pile of small stones. And that is just what it is — a mix- 
ture of fine stones with vegetable matter or humus in it. These 
small pieces of stone came from the great masses of rock on 
the hillside. How did they come to be so broken up and 
worked over ? The air got at them, and the dews, and the 
rain, and the frost. Then if we open up the under-soil by 
under-drainage, and thoroughly open up the surface soil by 
tillage and cultivation, the air and the rain and the dew and 
the frost will go on working over these fine stony particles, 
forming soluble matter that can go in through the roots and 
feed the plant. 

Thorough drainage and thorough tillage— these are the two 
main points in improving all soils. They are even more im- 
portant than manuring. This word manure is the same as 
manoeuvre, which means to "work by hand;" the draining of 
the soil and the tilling are means of fertilizing or manuring. 



TILLING AND DRAINING THE SOIL. 4I 

Did you ever notice how large a plant the flower grower 
produces in a small pot of earth ? Examine the pot ; it is 
porous, and has a hole in the bottom. The soil is well-drained 
and the air can get in among the roots that have grown so 
thickly all around next to the pot — close to the places where 
the air can come in. 

Conclusions: — Plowing, digging, harrowing, and other means 
of tilling the surface soil have the following effects : — 

1. The coarse soil is broken into finer particles. 

2. The soil is mixed, rich and poor, fine and coarse. 

3. The air is allowed to get into the soil. 

4. Growing weeds are killed. Weed seeds are first started 
growing and then the young weed plants are killed. 

5. Insects and their eggs are disturbed and destroyed. 

6. Well-tilled soils do not suffer from drouth so much as 
uncultivated soils. 

Draining the soil has the following effects : — 

1. Standing water is taken out of the soil ; plants will not 
grow in stagnant water or in sour soils. 

2. Cold soils become warmer and can be planted early. 

3. The rains can go into the soil, instead of running over 
the soil and washing away the fine surface soil. 

4. The air can get into the sub-soil, and thus rapidly work 
it over into matter available for plants. 

5. The plants root deeper, thereby having more soil from 
which to get food, and a better chance to withstand drouth. 

How is water held in the soil ? 

What is free water ? Is the plant benefited by the presence of large 
quantities of free water ? The remedy is a good system of drainage. 

What is understood by capillary water ? 

What kinds of soils contain most water in this form ? 

What effect has deep plowing in the spring, followed by frequent shallow 
cultivation during summer, upon this source of water supply? 

What is the effect of an earth mulch, and how is it secured ? 



42 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER X, 



IMPROVING THE SOIL. 

" Feed the soil if you would have the soil feed you." 

Exhausting the Soil. — Sometimes we see a very heavy crop 
of corn, oats, barley or roots grown in the open field. In such 
cases we generally find that there is a good soil, well-drained, 
and that the season has been very favorable. As a rule, how- 
ever, we find much larger crops grown in the garden of the 
farmer, and still larger grown in the little plot of the market 
gardener. The flower grower, however, produces still heavier 
crops in his small pots and neat beds. If we observe closely 
we find that the amount of the crop, its size or weight, and its 
value, increase in proportion as the soil is well-drained, well- 
tilled, well-cleaned, and well-fertilized. If we neglect or decrease 
the draining and cultivating, the cleaning and the enriching, we 
know the crop will grow less year by year. When the trees 
were first cut down and the fields partially cleared large crops 
were grown ; the soil was new (virgin soil as we say); it contained 
a large amount of leaf mold that had been accumulating for 
centuries. On many iarms larger crops were once grown 
among the stumps than are now grown on the cleared field. 
Then the stumps were burned out, and the ashes, rich in potash 
and lime, further improved the soil. In some cases the fields 
have been well-drained and well-cultivated, and year by year 
the fields have been fertilized or manured. Such farms are 
still very productive. But we all know what are called run- 
down farms, that will not now produce heavy crops of grain 
or hay ; they were once the same as the first-class farms, they 
had the same start. Why the change ? Year after year hay and 



IMPROVING THE SOIL. 43 

grain were grown and taken away from the soil and nothing was 
put back. These crops took up the plant food out of the soil. 
The rich soil has become poor. If you put a thousand dollars in 
the bank and then begin to draw out a hundred dollars every 
year and put nothing in, you will one day use up all of your 
money — your bank account will become less and less, and you 
will become poor. So with the soil. There is a Hmited amount 
of plant food in the soil, and even though you drain and work 
it well, if year by year you take away from it and put nothing 
back your soil will in time become poor. Some soils are richer 
than others and therefore will not become run down so soon. 
Now let us consider the method of preventing good soils from 
becoming poor and of making poor soils richer. 
^ Fallowing the Soil. — In former years, before the great 
prairies were open to settlers, the farmers of Ontario and the 
Eastern States grew wheat as their principal market crop. Its 
price in many years was more than one dollar a bushel. The 
usual practice was to prepare the land for fall wheat by a bare 
falluiv. The soil was allowed to lie idle or unproductive for 
the whole or the greater part of the season preceding the 
sowing. It was plowed from time to time and harrowed. 
What benefit did that tilling bring ? The rains fell and washed 
down a little material out of the air. This will be seen if you 
contrast rain water with clear spring water — the former has 
been changed, something has been taken out of it by the soil, 
and something else given to it by the soil. The soil is bene- 
fited by rain water passing through it. Then some ammonia 
might get into the soil from the air. Nothing of a solid 
mineral nature, however, such as potash, or soda, or lime, or 
phosphates could get into the soil from the air, simply because 
they are not found in the air. But one thing could be done 
and that was done, namely, the air could get into and through 
the soil and help weather it and work it over into form avail- 
able for plant food. Bare fallow, then, does not increase the 



44 AGRICULTURE. 

material of the soil, it merely works over what is in the soil 
for feeding the plant ; it can not and does not prevent the soil 
from becoming worked out. Furthermore, there is the loss of 
one season's crop, and if the soil can be kept in good condition 
and a crop grown at the same time, all will admit that the latter 
should be done. In bare fallowing, however, the soil is more 
or less cleared from weeds when the fallowing is thoroughly 
done. But weeds can be cleared out by other means than 
the bare fallow. First of all a cultivated crop can be grown, 
such as corn or roots — the constant cultivating required during 
early growth will clear out the weeds. Or a crop can be put 
in that grows quickly and that covers the ground well, such as 
clover, buckwheat, etc. This smothers or checks the young 
weeds, and the green growth can be plowed under to decay 
and form humus. This practice is called green-manuriti,(i. 
In green-manuring there is less water lost by drainage than in 
bare fallowing and hence less loss of soluble plant food. In 
addition everything that the plant takes from the air is turned 
into the soil and the amount of humus is thereby increased. 
This latter result is very beneficial in loosening up heavy soils 
and in making light sandy soils more loamy. 

Fertilizing the Soil. — The plant gets some food out of 
the air through its green leaves ; the water comes from the 
rains that fall on the soil and pass in through the roots ; the 
mineral matter or ash comes only from the soil, passing into 
the plant through the roots along with the water. The air is 
free for all and is about the same everywhere. The rains and 
snows are largely beyond the control of man, except as 
affected by the cutting away or growing of trees, the drainage 
of the land, and its proper cultivation. But as for the soil food, 
the mineral substances, the ash compounds — these must be in 
the soil, and in such form that plants can take them up, or else 
no crop will be produced. This soil food is mainly compounds 
of nitrogen (nitrates, such as saltpetre or nitrate of potash); 



IMPROVING THE SOIL. 45 

compounds of phosphoric acid or phosphates, such as we find 
in bones; compounds of potash, such as we find in wood 
ashes; compounds of Hme, of iron, of magnesia, etc., etc. 
Now the point to be noted here is that the plant must 
have every one of these compounds, and growth will not take 
place if even only one be lacking. Nearly every soil contains 
lime ; it is a very common substance in rocks and soils, there- 
fore we do not need to supply that food. Magnesia and iron 
are quite common, and much of either is not required. When 
we feed the soil, or fertilize it, we have mainly to consider this 
— whether the soil needs nitrogen, phosphates, or potash. 
These are the three main constituents of fertilizers, and they 
largely fix the values of those that are applied. 

When we apply barnyard manure to a soil, we add a bulky 
fertilizer that, in addition to increasing the plant food, has an 
important effect upon the texture of the soil. For instance, 
light, sandy soils are apt to be poor in plant food, and to 
be too loose or porous — the rain runs through them. You 
notice that as the barnyard manure becomes older in the pile 
it becomes darker through changes that we call fermentation. 
This dark color is due to the changing of the straw or litter 
into hutnus ; and when this is applied to the light soil the tex- 
ture of the soil is improved, the sandy soil becomes more 
loamy. When applied to clay soil its sticky quality is more or 
less overcome, and the heavy clay changes towards a loose 
loam. One of the main benefits of applying barnyard manure 
to a soil, then, lies in its effect upon the texture or physical 
quality of the soil. This same effect is produced by green 
manuring, that is the plowing under of a green growing crop 
such as clover, tares, rye, or buckwheat 

The barnyard manure contains compounds of nitrogen, of 
potash, and also phosphates, so that in it we apply the different 
kinds of food that plants must get out of the soil. Barnyard 
manure is called a general or complete fertilizer. 



46 AGRICULTURE. 

Soils differ as to their composition ; some, such as mucky 
soils, may contain plenty of nitrogen but not enough phosphate 
or potash. In this case the use of a phosphate such as ground 
bone, or of potash such as wood ashes, would change a barren 
soil into a fertile soil. Such a soil as a light-colored clay may 
require nitrogen compounds to make it complete. 

Again, a soil may contain plenty of food, but it is locked up, 
it is unavailable ; that is, it is not soluble or in form ready to 
be taken up by the plants. If we drain and cultivate it so that 
the air can get in, these will in time be changed into soluble 
forms. But sometimes we can hurry up or assist in this work, 
as when we apply land plaster (sulphate of lime) to a soil 
bearing clover, salt to a root crop or to grain, and quicklime to 
to a heavy clay or to a fresh mucky soil. The plaster, salt, and 
lime are not direct foods, but they act upon the constituents of 
the soil, setting free potash and nitrogen compounds. 

Nitrification. — Wheat and other cereals take up their 
nitrogen from the soil in the form of nitrates. These are 
sometimes supplied in fertilizers in the form of nitrate of soda. 
Nitrate of potash, or saltpetre, is now too expensive to be so 
used. Humus contains nitrogen, and in its decay forms 
nitrates, especially nitrate of lime. The change from the 
insoluble forms of nitrogen in humus to the soluble nitrates is 
brought about by ferments. These are minute forms of plant 
life too small to be seen by the eye. Yeast that is used in 
fermenting dough is a ferment somewhat similar. In order to 
do their work, these tiny nitrate ferments in the soil require 
warmth, air, and moisture. Humus, of course, must be pre- 
sent. If the soil is sour, they will not work. Good drainage 
and tillage, therefore, assist. The fermentation of the manure 
pile in the barnyard is brought about by ferments. Green- 
manuring adds material for making nitrates, and barnyard 
manure adds not only humus but also the ferments. The 
making of nitrates in the soil is called nitrification. 



improving the soil. 47 

Conclusions : — 

1. All of our soils were once fresh, unworked, virgin soil. In 
many cases worn-out soils were once very rich ; they have been 
made poor by over-cropping and little fertilizing. 

2. Many soils have but a small amount of mineral food in a 
soluble or available form. 

3. Bare fallowing is for the purpose of working over the 
hard, rocky, insoluble portion of the soil into soluble form. 
This is done by frequent plowing and harrowing, thereby letting 
the air in. Weeds also are sprouted and afterwards killed. 

4. Green-manuring has the same effect, but prevents loss of 
food through drainage, and increases the humus of the soil. 

5. The three substances that are most deficient in the soil 
are nitrogen compounds, phosphates, and potash. 

6. The value of a fertilizer consists not only in the amount 
of these three substances, but also in their state of solubility. 

7. Nitrogen is found in nitrate of soda, sulphate of ammonia, 
dried blood, guano, fish refuse, etc.; phosphates in bone manures 
and rock phosphates ; potash in wood ashes and potash salts. 

8. Barnyard manure is a general fertilizer supplying all three 
constituents. Its value consists largely in its htwius. 

9. Quicklime, land plaster or gypsum, and salt are valuable 
as fertilizers, not because they contain plant food, but because 
they act upon the soil, setting free insoluble plant food. 

10. Draining, tilling, and airing the soil are necessary for 
the nitrification of humus, or the making of nitrates in the soil. 

Suggestive : — 

Moisture is necessary for the speedy decomposition of green crops when 
plowed under. Might a soil be injured for a while by turning under a 
crop of rye during a dry time ? 

We have seen that fertilizers must be dissolved before they can be taken 
up by the plant. What is the effect of pouring water over a pile of manure ? 

Does not this leachhig lessen the value of the manure ? Is it not desir- 
able, therefore, to prevent this loss by providing a cover for the manure 
pile? This liquid fertilizer is very valuable. 



48 AGRICULTURE. 

PART III. 
CHAPTER XI. 



THE GRASSES. 

Nature of Grasses. — If we carefully lift a slice of green 
growing sod, we find it is made up of a mat of grass plants. 
We pull these apart, and find that the roots are all fibrous. If 
we pull up a wheat plant, we find it also has a fibrous root. 
So has corn. So has timothy. Next take a stalk of timothy. 
It is round and smooth on the outside. Cut it open. It is full 
of narrow tubes running up and down. There are some hard 
joints in the stem. In the case of a wheat straw you find 
the stem hollow, except at these joints. Now observe the 
leaves of the green timothy. They are long and narrow in the 
blade. Pull this blade and you find that where it meets the 
stem it is wrapped around it, forming what is called the sheath. 
The sheath is split down one side and is attached to the stem 
at one of the joints. Further, notice the little growth on the 
leaf called a " ligule." The leaf then consists of three parts — 
the blade, the sheath, and the ligule. From the structure of 
the stem and the form of the leaf you can always tell a true 
grass from other plants, such as the sedges. 

By comparing the following plants you will observe that they 
have the same kind of stems and leaves, and therefore they are 
all members of the grass family (graminece): — the common 
grasses of the fields, such as timothy, orchard grass, June 
grass, fescue ; grain-producing crops such as wheat, oats, rye, 
barley, corn, millet ; sugar-producing crops such as sugar-cane 
and sorghum. 



THE GRASSES. 



49 




Fig. 20 — Timothy, also called Herds Grass, a typical hay grass. Figures on right show 
the blossoming. B is a. single spikelet taken from a head or spike. It shows the three 
stamens and the two stigmas of the pistil. In a blossoming head of timothy these 
stamens may be seen hanging loose. G is the ovary with two slender styles, /, and 
two feathered stigmas— the pistils of the blossom, i/^- is the matured or ripened spike- 
let with seed inside; K is the seed. 

When a grass plant grows tall and produces seed or grain 
large enough to use as food, we allow it to ripen its seed. We 
use the seed as grain and the leaf and stem we call straw. 

When a grass plant grows tall, but produces very small seed, 
we generally cut it down before it produces seed. We then 
call this hay. Such grasses are timothy, red-top, orchard grass * 
the fescues, the foxtails, brome grass, and rye grass. 



50 



AGRICULTURE. 



When a grass plant does not grow tall, but grows short and 
thick, we use such plants for pasture grasses. Such grasses 
are June grass and Canadian blue grass. 




Fig. 21.— Kentucky blue grass or June grass. A pasture and lawn grass. 

The best way to study the different grasses is to study them 
as they are growing ; you will then find out how many there 
are and how different they are in form of leaf and head, in 
color, and in their habits of growing. 

Blossoming of Grasses. — There is one other point to study 
in grasses, and that is their blossoming. The blossoming of 
the corn plant will be referred to in the next chapter. The 
blossoms of wheat and oats are much like those of timothy, 
shown in fig. 20. The grass blossoms, generally, are very 
small and are not very bright in color, we are therefore likely 
\o overlook them ; but every grass plant blossoms before it 
forms seed. If we allow the timothy to stand too long before 



THE GRASSES. 51 

cutting it becomes woody ; but dusty hay is caused by 
the pollen from the blossoms on the head. Notice, also, that 
all the blossoms on the timothy head do not come out at the 




Fig. 22.— Illustration showing how some plants reproduce by creeping 
roots. I, new plant just coming up ; 2, plant before blossoming ; 3, old 
plant forming seed. June grass and couch grass spread in this way. 

same time. Some are a little later than others. Because of 
this we sometimes hear it said that it blossoms twice, but this 
is not the case. Grasses for hay are generally cut just after 
blossoming, or just as the seeds begin to form. 

Clover and buckwheat are not true grasses. Why not ? 

Why are foxtail and red-top so called ? 

Which grasses have branched tops and which spikes ? 

What is meant by " seeding-down "? When is this done. Why does 
not the grass outgrow the grain ? 

Explain why grasses, such as June grass, arc so common. Why do not 
wheat and corn spread ? 



52 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XII 



THE GRAIN CROPS OR CEREALS. 

The principal grain crops of the farm are wheat, oats, barley, 
rye, corn, buckwheat, and millet, and to these we shall briefly 
refer. It must be remembered that these crops also may be, 
and frequently are, cut green and fed to stock before the grain 
is formed, especially rye, corn and millet. Other crops also 
are used for soiling, such as clover, peas, and tares or vetches. 

While the plant is growing it takes in food from the air and 
the soil. It keeps on increasing in size until in full bloom. Then 
the seed begins to form from the blossom, and all the material 
that goes to form the seed is taken up out of the leaf, stem, 
and root, where it has been stored up. During all this time of 
seed-forming, very little plant food comes in through the root, 
so that when the seed is fully formed, the leaves and stalk and 
root are not so rich or nutritious as they were at the time of 
blossoming. From this you will see why it is that straw is not 
so rich a food as hay. 

Wheat. — Wheat is sometimes classed according to its color, 
red and white ; sometimes according to its grain, hard and 
soft; sometimes according to its chaff, beaided and bald; 
sometimes according to the time it is sown, fall or winter, and 
spring. We use these four methods in describing any 
variety of wheat. Where the first wheat came from we 
do not know ; but wheat taken from one climate to another 
and from one kind of soil to another will change in size, form, 
and general appearance, so that we need not expect to find the 
same variety of wheat always appearing exactly as described. 



THE GRAIN CROPS OR CEREALS. 53 

This we should remember, that wheat, like every other kind of 
grain, must be carefully selected if we wish to keep it improved. 
We can even change a winter variety to a spring by sowing 
gradually earlier year by year; and we can change a spring 
variety to a fall variety by sowing gradually later year by year. 
Get a head of bearded wheat ; take it to pieces, and observe the long 
beards, what they are and how attached. Compare with the beards of a 
barley head. Are the beards on the grain ? 

The grain of wheat is made up of several parts, the three 
principal parts being — first the outer skin or the bran coatings, 
second the white flour portion, and third the little yellow germ 
at one end. This germ is the living part of the grain, the flour 
is the food stored up for feeding it in its early growth, and the 
bran is the covering or cloak. If we grind up the whole 
grain we get whole-wheat flour. By the old stone milling pro- 
cess the bran alone was separated from the rest. By the new 
process the grain is divided mainly into three parts, namely the 
bran, the white flour, and the bluish or greyish germ flour. 

Place several grains of wheat in your mouth and chew them. 
Gradually you separate and swallow part of the wheat — that is 
the starch ; you will have left in your mouth a gummy sub- 
stance— that is the gluten. The gluten is the richest part of 
the flour ; it is what gives it its strength. 

Rye. — In some countries of Europe rye takes the same 
place that wheat does in America, it is the great flour-produc- 
ing crop. As with wheat it is sown both in the fall and 
in the spring. It is very hardy and can be grown even on very 
poor soils. With us it is sometimes sown in the fall to be cut 
early in the summer as a soiling crop. The grain is longer 
than that of wheat and its flour is quite dark. 

Oats. — The oat plant furnishes a most important food for man 
as well as for horses and other animals. Oats are generally classed 
according to their color. The head is branched and the grains 
are covered with a coarse loose husk, hence its light weight. 



54 AGRICULTURE. 

This grain will grow in poorer soil than wheat and much 
further north. It is a rather hearty and gross feeder and 
produces very large crops on rich soil. 

Barley. — This grain is classed as two-rowed, four-rowed 
and six-rowed, according to the number of rows of kernels in 
the head. The two-rowed requires a longer season of growth 
than the six-rowed, which is one of the most rapidly growing 
and maturing grains that we have. Barley is used as a food 
for stock, and also for the making of malt out of which beer is 
brewed. Its value for malting depends upon the soil and 
climate. It must be of bright color, well filled, and all ripened 
so that it will sprout evenly in malting. 

Corn or Maize. — In Great Britain the name corn is applied 
to either wheat or any bread-producing cereal, in North America 
it means Indian corn or Maize. The distinction is made of 
sweet corn which is used for food by man, and common corn, 
which again is divided into flint and dent. Flint corn has a 
hard flinty kernel, and dent has the indented form on the tip 
of the grain. The roots are long and therefore the plant feeds 
quite deeply and requires a soil of deep cultivation. It has 
long heavy leaves and thick stalks, not hollow like the previous 
grains, but more or less filled. It bears heavy ears and pro- 
duces large quantities of food per acre. We at once conclude 
that it takes much more food from the soil than the others, that it 
is a heavy feeder and requires heavy manuring. When well 
cultivated, it is a good cleaning crop. 

The blossoming of the corn is worth noticing. Fine silky 
threads may be seen hanging from the end of the green ear, all 
attached to the cob — these are the "styles," the female portion 
of the blossom. At the top of the stalk is " the tassel " which 
carries the stamens or male portion of the blossom. The pollen 
from these falls down upon the pistils of the ear and there 
completes the blossoming. If different varieties of corn are 
planted near together the pollen from the tassels of one variety 



THE GRAIN CROPS OR CEREALS. 55 

may be carried by the wind or by insects to the silky pistils of 
another, and thus produce the peculiar kernels that are some- 
times seen on ears of corn. In growing corn for seed, there- 
fore, it is necessary to grow each kind by itself, far from any 
other variety. 

There are various ways of growing corn. It may be sown 
broadcast, when the plants grow close together and cover the 
entire soil. In this case the plants do not have sunlight upon 
the lower leaves and the stalks, and as a result the plants do 
not mature, and production of ears is prevented. The crop 
consists entirely of leaf and stalk, and is cut and used just as 
we cut and use timothy hay. The effect of the lack of sun- 
light is seen also in the pale yellow color of the under leaves. 
The stalks and the leaves are quite watery, and the amount 
of food per acre is less than is got by the other methods. If 
ears are desired the corn must be sown in rows or in hills far 
apart; the taller the corn the farther apart must be the drills or 
hills. A method adopted by many western corn-raisers is that 
known as " listing." The corn is grown in furrows, which are 
gradually filled in as the corn grows higher. Just above the 
surface of the soil a ring of suckers shoots out from near the 
joint or node, and as the earth comes up to them these take 
root. In this way the corn becomes deep rooted, is held firmly 
in place and is able to withstand drouth. 

A great deal of valuable information can be learned by care- 
fully watching the growth of different kinds of corn in the field. 
From what part of the stalk do the ears grow ? What is the 
effect of cutting off part of the tassels ? What is the effect 
of cutting off all the tassels ? What is the effect of re- 
moving the smaller ears and leaving only the larger ? What 
is the effect of cutting away all the corn for about eight feet on 
every side of a single hill or stand ? 

Sugar Cane. — This plant, like corn, has a stalk whose tubes 
arc filled with a juice rich in sugar. New plants are started 



56 AGRICULTURE. 

from " cuttings." Its stalks grow from one to two inches thick 
and from eight to twenty feet high. It is cut before flowering 
and the juice pressed out. This juice is evaporated and a 
dark brown sugar remains, from which the white sugar is got 
by "refining." 

Sorghum. — This has pithy stalks like maize and sugar cane. 
There are several varieties of it, one, Indian Millet or doorha, 
is grown extensively in Eastern countries for its grain for bread 
making ; another is grown for its sugar or syrup, also as food 
for stock ; and still another (broom corn) for its tassels, out of 
which the whisks of brooms are made. The broom-corn tops 
are cut off while still slightly green and are dried in dark 
buildings, where they partially bleach out. 

These three members of the grass family, maize, sugar cane 
and sorghum, are then distinguished from the other grasses, in 
having their stalks filled, and all contain a considerable quantity 
of sugar in their juices. Sugar cane grows only in very warm 
climates, sorghum is found farther north, and maize, although 
originating in Mexico or Central America, will, in some of its 
varieties, mature its grains much farther north. 

Rice. — This is the great bread food of China and Japan, 
and is best grown in lands that are mild in climate and are 
capable of irrigation. The land is prepared as for grain. The 
rice is sown in drills and covered with about two inches of soil. 
Then the water is let on to a depth of 1 2 to 18 inches. After 
standing for four to six days it is drawn off and the plants 
allowed to get a good start ; water is again let in for a time and 
then drawn off before harvesting. The growing of rice upon wet 
soils gives us the explanation for the scriptural teaching* "Cast 
thy bread upon the waters, for thou shalt find it after many 
days." (Eccl. xi. i.) 



THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. 



57 



CHAPTER XIII 



THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. 

Nature of Legumes. — Plants such as wheat and barley 
were formerly cut with a sickle ; the pods of such as peas and 
beans were gathered by hand ; hence the latter were known as 
legumes^ from the Latin lego^ "I gather.'^ All plants resembling 
peas and beans in their botanical nature were called the legum- 
inous plants. They were also called pulse because, as some 
say, of their being pulled or plucked. The ' most striking 
resemblance is in the blossom. The seeds are formed in pods 




Fig. 23. — I'lossom of a legume as of 
pea, bean, or flowering locust tree. 

Fig. 24.— Blossom of legume taken 
apart, showing five leaves of corolla. 
Upper lar^e leaf is the " standard," 
the two lower the "keel," the two 
side the "wings." The pistils and 
stamens are enclosed in the keel 
leaves. 




Fig. 24. 



or legumes of different shapes in different plants. In some of 
the members of the leguminous family, the blossoms and pods 
are too small for us to observe readily their resemblance to 
those of the pea and bean ; but a careful study of the roots, 
leaves, and blossoms of the following plants will soon prove 
that they are all quite alike. They are all legumes with which 
we should be familiar. 
5 



■;8 



AGRICULTURE. 



Leguminous Family {Leguminosce). 
Common pea. Common red clover, 

Common string bean, White or Dutch clover, 

Lima bean, Alsike or Swedish clover. 

Horse or Windsor bean, Crimson or scarlet clover. 

Common vetch or tare, Mammoth red clover. 

Common lentil. Lucerne or alfalfa. 

Lupines, Peanut or ground nut. 

From this list of plants we see that the family is large and 
important. In addition there are many weeds belonging to 
this same family. To speak of clovers as being grasses is bot- 

anically incorrect, since in 
form or shape and in mode 
of growth they are entirely 
different. The most notice- 
able difference is in the 
shape of blossoms. The 
leaves also are different in 
shape and in arrangement. 
Contrast a plant of clover 
with a plant of timothy or 
wheat. The stalks also are 
different, and the roots are 
quite different. Pull up a 
large red clover or pea plant, 
and also a wheat plant, and 
contrast their roots. Which is the more fibrous and matted? The 
clovers send their roots deeper into the soil. Observe, also, the 
little knots, or balls, or tubercles on the clover roots. These 
tubercles play a very important part in the nourishment of the 
leguminous plants. They are filled with many little living 
parasites, something like yeast cells, that grow and feed upon 
the free nitrogen of the air, from it forming compounds that 
help to nourish the plants. Now we have already mentioned 




Fig. 25.— Root of a legume showing knots 
or nodules or tubercles. 



THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. 59 

that whe.at, for instance, will readily feed upon nitrogen in the 
form of nitrates ; but if we apply nitrates to clover no effect is 
produced. The wheat cannot take up the free nitrogen of 
the air, but the clover can, through these root tubercles. 
Sometimes clover does not grow well ; and when pulled up 
very few, if any, of these little tubercles are found upon the 
roots. If, however, some soil in which clover has been growing 
well, or the washing from such soil, is applied to the weak 
clover, the plants soon begin to thrive and the tubercles are 
seen growing upon the roots. These tubercles possess the 
power of taking up free nitrogen from the air in the soil. If 
we can get leguminous plants to grow in a poor soil and then 
turn them under, they will decay and produce humus rich in 
nitrogen that will give rise to nitrates (by nitrification) for the 
benefit of the wheat or other grain crop that comes after. The 
seeds from all leguminous plants are very rich. Then we can 
state the following as the valuable points in connection with 
leguminous plants : — 

1. They have many leaves and are good for fodder. 

2. Their seeds are very rich in food material. 

3. Their roots are generally long, therefore deep feeders. 

4. They take up free nitrogen from the air, and are therefore 
easier on the soil than are cereals or toot crops. 

Peas are generally grown for the seed, which is very 
rich in nitrogen and in oil. The many varieties grown for 
man and stock are classed as garden peas and field peas. The 
straw is richer than that of the grain crops. When grown to 
be cut green for soiling, peas are generally sown with oats. 

Beans are grown in this country for the seed, planted 
in hills, as a garden crop, or as a field crop with good 
garden cultivation. Some of the varieties, as the horse bean, 
require a fairly mild climate. Some are short and bushy, 
others are tall climbers. Examine their means of climbing. 



6o AGRICULTURE. 

Vetches or Tares have smaller pods and seeds than peas, 
and are grown for soiling along with oats. The stiff stalks of 
the oats help to support the slender vines of the tares. 

Common Red Clover is also known as broad leaf clover 
or trefoil. The peculiar light spot on the leaves and the 
closeness of the upper leaves to the head are to be noted. It 
grows to two feet in height, and the roots penetrate the soil 
deeply. While in some localities it is a perennial, in 
most temperate regions it is a biennial. Its form and 
mode of growth adapt it for hay rather than for pasture. It 
ripens about the same time as orchard grass and about two 
weeks earlier than timothy. It should be cut before the heads 
become very brown ; if left too late its leaves, which form a 
large part of it, become brittle and drop off in handling. After 
being cut once the plants rapidly grow up again, giving a second 
crop, the aftermath or rowen. The depth to which its roots go 
depends greatly upon the state of the soil ; therefore the soil 
should be well drained. When the sod is turned over, large 
quantities of humus, rich in nitrogen, are left near the surface 
for the wheat or other grain crop following. A variety of red 
clover is known as mammoth clover. 

White or Dutch Clover is a low growing plant, with 
creeping stems and white blossoms It is very hardy and apt 
to crowd or smother out other plants. It is one of the most 
frequent plants in pasture fields, and is especially valuable for 
sheep and cattle. It is usually sown with grass seeds in 
permanent pasture mixtures. 

Alsike or Swedish Clover is a perennial with pink 
blossoms, growing about two feet high. It thrives in cool 
climates. It does not give such heavy yields as red clover, 
but is specially adapted for hay fields that are to be kept for 
several years. It is sometimes sown along with other seeds for 
pastures. 




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THE LEGUMINOUS PLANTS. 6l 

Crimson or Scarlet Clover grows further south than the 
others, has a long scarlet head and makes an early rapid growth 
even on poor land. It is a hay plant. In some places it is 
used as a "catch crop," that is it is grown on land after the 
removal of grain crops, for a light forage crop or to be plowed 
under as a green manure. 

Lupines include a number of little shrubby plants 
that bear very showy flowers. The plants are apt to be too 
woody for forage, but sheep readily eat them. Their principal 
use in this country is for plowing under as green manure, since 
being leguminous they gather nitrogen from the air. The most 
common are white, yellow, and blue lupines. 

Lucerne or Alfalfa is a plant resembling clover in its 
growth. It is not strictly a clover, although sometimes called 
Spanish clover. It is difficult to start upon land, but once well 
started it is long continued, being a deep-rooted perennial. It 
has a smaller leaf than clover and a purple head, more open. 
It is somewhat bushy and sends its roots as deep into the soil 
as the water level will allow. For this reason it resists drouth. 
It must be cut early or it will produce a very coarse woody 
hay. In mild climates it may be cut for hay several times 
during the year. 

The Peanut is an annual, growling in warm climates on 
light soil. Other names for the plant are earth-nut, ground-nut, 
goober. Though not a nut its pod is somewhat like a nut and 
it belongs to the pea family. The seeds are very oily, giving 
an oil used for soap making. 



62 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XIV 



ROOT CROPS AND TUBERS. 

Nature and Growth of Roots. — If we place some seed 
of the turnip or beet in the ground in early summer, we find a 
plant sprouting up that has broad thick leaves. The root is 
tapering, sometimes quite long, and has fine rootlets growing 
on the sides. Towards the end of the season the leaves wither, 
change color, and die. When we pull up the root we find a 
thick mass of juicy substance that is relished much by 
animals. This turnip or beet root has not finished its life- 
work as a plant, since it has not yet produced any seed or any 
new plants like itself. If we leave it in the ground, or if we 
take good care of it through the winter so as to keep it cool 
and unbruised, and plant it in the early summer, it will begin 
to grow again. A new growth will appear above the soil, a 
stalk will be formed and seed be produced of the same kind as 
that which we sowed in the first place. If we again pull up 
the plant, we find the thick fleshy root has become very thin 
and fibrous, and is of no use as food for stock. We conclude 
that these plants are biennials ; that during the first season 
they store up large quantities of food in their root, and that 
this food in the root nourishes the plant during the second 
season. Since they have a whole season to gather food, we 
find that the weight per acre greatly exceeds that of many crops 
that are annuals, and they take a large quantity of material out 
of the soil. These plants are heavy feeders. By keeping the 
soil well cultivated we destroy the weeds, keep the soil 
moist, and help the action of the roots. The roots are very 
watery and contain large quantities of the substances that are 



ROOT CROPS AND TUBERS. 



63 



first formed in plants, namely sugar and starch. The materials 
that are taken from the soil through the roots, and that which 
passes in from the air, are worked over in the green leaves, so 
that while green we would expect to find a considerable quan- 
tity of mineral or soil material in the leaves. Any green leaves 
that are cut from the roots when they are pulled, therefore, 
should be left on the soil where the roots grew, so as to help 
keep up the richness of the soil. The roots keep on growing 
during the fall until the weather becomes very cold, therefore 
they have a good chance 
to benefit by the nitrates 
that are formed during 
the latter part of summer. 
They have the advantage 
of spring-sown grain 
crops in this regard. 
Since root crops are such 
heavy feeders, and since 
the ground should be 
kept thoroughly cultivat- 
ed during their growth, 
they are generally used 
as the crop to which the 
largest quantity of barn- 
yard manure is applied. 
In addition to heavy 
manuring, another very 
important necessity is 
thorough cultivation of 
the soil before the sowing of the seed. The root is thick and 
compact ; it has to push down and out on all sides. If it can- 
not go straight down it will twist about or push itself partly out 
of the ground. For well shapen and perfect roots, then, we 
must have a well-tilled and well-drained soil. 




Fig. 26. — Sugar beet on left grown in good 
soil, well drained and well cultivated ; beet on 
right grown in rough soil. 



64 AGRICULTURE. 

The Turnip belongs to what is known as the mustard 
family {Cruciferce). The principal members of this family are 
the turnip, the radish, the cabbage, rape, cultivated mustard, 
horseradish ; the weeds, wild mustard or charlock, shepherd's 
purse, and wild flax ; the flowers, stocks and candy tuft. The 
flowers of all these plants have 4 petals spread out in the 
shape of a cross — hence the name, cruciferce. 

The Carrot is a plant whose varieties differ greatly in 
shape, size, and color. Celery and the parsnip belong to the 
same family. The blossom resembles the stays of an um- 
brella ; hence the name — umbellifercE — applied to this family. 
The shape of the root, differing from that of the turnip, 
suggests that the plant goes deep and therefore requires a 
soil loose and open and deeply cultivated. 

The Beet belongs to still another family, the goose- 
foot family. The original of this root was a wild plant of 
Southern Europe. Gradually it has been improved, the root has 
been enlarged and the composition changed, until now we have 
several very valuable plants whose roots are widely used. The 
mangel-wurzel or mangel is one variety, grown for stock feed- 
ing. The sugar beet is another, grown for its sugar. Mangels 
when grown on rich, well-cultivated soils produce enormous 
yields per acre. They may be kept stored for late feeding. 

The sugar beet is a good example of what can be done by 
way of improving plants. In its wild state the beet had very 
little sugar that could be extracted. By cultivation it was found 
that the quantity of sugar increased. Suppose we take a field 
of common white beets and select the most perfectly shaped 
roots of about i ^ or 2 pounds each, and plant them and 
then select the best seed from these and sow this seed. We 
pick out the best beets from that crop. Then by testing small 
pieces of the roots we find out which have the largest amount 
of sugar, and plant them. We keep on in this way for several 
years ; we find that at last we get seed that will produce beets 



ROOT CROPS AND TUBERS. 65 

that are clear-skinned, nicely tapering, having a large amount 
of sugar and a small amount of ash material. We could thus 
develop beets good for sugar making, whose nature it is 
to produce sugar. In this way the sugar beets have been 
developed, and in this way the seedsmen are still producing 
improved seed. To grow good sugar beets the soil must be 
well-drained and well-tilled, the plants must be grown closer 
together than when grown for feeding stock, and the roots must 
be kept well covered, since the sugar is stored in the part 
under the soil. Any green collar on the beets will, like the 
green leaf, have too much mineral matter. The beets are taken 
to the factory, cleaned, pulped fine, the juice extracted, and 
the sugar obtained from it by evaporation. Sugar, like 
butter, is made up from carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, which 
come from the air and the rain ; so that if the leaves are left 
in the soil, and the pulp taken back and fed on the farm there 
is little or nothing lost from the soil. 

The Potato is here included among the roots, and yet we 
all know it is quite different in form and growth from the 
beet and the carrot. We do not sow seeds, but potatoes 
or parts of potatoes ; the method of growth under ground 
is peculiar ; and the branching tops and blossoms are quite 
different from those of the roots. If we examine a potato 
tuber we find upon it many eyes or buds. If we place the 
potato in a warm damp room these buds grow out into green 
stems. We can even cut it into many pieces and still 
the eyes will send out stems. We do not cut up roots for 
planting ; we sow their seed. If we pull up a hill of young 
potatoes we find what appear to be two sets of roots, one having 
little balls upon them, the other none. Trace those that carry 
the little potatoes back to the stem and you find that they are 
really branches of the stem, whereas the others are the true 
roots. Then we conclude that the potatoes grow on under- 
ground stems, that they are really swellings of the stem and the 



66 



AGRICULTURE. 




eyes are buds ; so that 
what we plant are cut- 
tings of the underground 
stems of the plants. 
Observe the arrange- 
ment of the eyes in the 
potato. Rightly, then, 
we speak of the potatoes 
as being tubers not roots. 
Jerusalem artichokes 
also are tubers. 

If you cut open a 
potato you find it filled 
with a starchy substance 
generally white in color. 
If you cut up fine a sugar 
beet and place it in a 
coarse towel you can 
wring the juice out of it quite easily, you cannot easily do so 
with potatoes. You conclude that potatoes have less water 
and more dry matter or food in them than have the roots. 
If you evaporate the juice from potatoes you find little or no 
sugar. Then we conclude that roots have large quantities of 
sugar and water in their make-up, but potatoes have less water 
and quite a large amount of starch. 

The potato, the tomato, and tobacco belong to the family 
known as Solanacece. The sweet potato is the root of a plant 
grown in very warm climates, and belongs to the family Con- 
volvulacece^ as do the morning glory and dodder. 

New varieties of potatoes may be got by sowing the seed 
and selecting the best tubers so grown, planting these and 
selecting the best grown from them, and so continuing. 



Fig. 27. — Potato plant, showing B the true roots ; 
C, the underground stems; W, the tubers, which 
are swollen or enlarged parts of the stems. The 
eyes in the potato tubers, therefore, are buds. 



VARIOUS OTHER CROPS. 67 



CHAPTER XV. 



VARIOUS OTHER CROPS. 

Buckwheat produces seeds or grains which resemble in 
shape small beech-nuts, hence the name beech-wheat or buck- 
wheat. The second part of the word would suggest that it is 
a kind of wheat or a member of the grass family. This is not 
the case, as the leaves and flowers prove. It belongs to the 
family known as the pofygonacece, to which also belong rhubarb, 
the docks or sorrels, and knot grass. Its roots are quite short 
and it feeds largely on the air. It will grow even on very poor 
soils, where it is sometimes plowed under as green manure. 
Its peculiar blossom is noticeable in its color and odor, and is 
much sought by bees for its nectar. The grain is used for flour 
and also for feeding in moderate quantities to stock. Buck- 
wheat flour is not so rich in nitrogen as that of wheat, and the 
straw has more fibre than the straw of the graminece or true 
grasses. 

The Sunflower is an annual, growing very high on tough 
stalks with a large showy head filled with seeds. These seeds 
are rich in oil and nitrogerf compounds. The oil forms nearly 
one-fifth of the dried seed, and is extracted for various uses. 
The seeds are used also for feeding stock. Why is the plant 
called the sunflower ? The sunflower is a fine example of the 
large family known as the composite, which have many flowers 
in a single head. The thistle, ragweed, goldenrod, aster, daisy, 
yarrow, chrysanthemum, marigold, salsify, dandelion, lettuce, 
and sunflower are all members of this family. Compare the 
heads of any of these before and after seed formation. 



68 AGRICULTURE. 

Rape has already been referred to as being closely related to 
the turnip and cabbage. Its leaf resembles that of the turnip, 
but its root is much smaller and its top much larger. It grows 
to a height of from one to three feet. Some varieties are 
annuals and some are biennials. It is grown both for its seed, 
which contains a large quantity of valuable oil — rapeseed oil — 
and also for its tops, which are used in pasturing and in soiling. 
When used for soiling or pasturing, the biennial is sown in 
drills and cultivated. 

Flax is an annual with slender stems about two feet in 
length and bearing bluish flowers. The seed is known as 
flaxseed or linseed. The word linseed is from the botanical 
name lijtum, which is also found in linen, the cloth made from 
the flax fibre. It is grown both for its seeds and for its fibre. 
The seeds contain a very large amount of oil (linseed oil), which 
is very valuable for paints and other purposes ; also a large 
amount of nitrogenous compounds, and of ash material. When 
the oil is removed the bye-product forms one of the richest 
foods used for stock-feeding. When the plant is grown for 
fibre it may be pulled at any time after blossoming. The fibre 
is obtained from the stalks. We have before referred to the 
cell-structure of plants. When we cut across a piece of wood 
we cut across its cell tubes ; when we cut lengthwise along 
the wood we cut these tubes from one another. The grain, as 
w^e say, runs along the stem or limb. In some plants these 
cells are strung together in threads'and are very tough so that 
they will hold together. The cells in the bark or bast are 
generally longer and tougher than those in the w^ood, and are 
known as bast cells or bast fibres. The inner bark of bass 
wood (or bast-wood) is quite tough because of these. These 
bast cells in the flax are very fine and very tough, and, there- 
fore, make fine fibre. The best fibre is got from flax that has 
not ripened its seed-vessels or bolls. Why ? Generally, how- 
ever, the plant is allowed to ripen its seeds. The plants are 



VARIOUS OTHER CROPS. 69 

pulled by hand, dried, and tied in bundles. The seed is 
separated by what is known as " rippling " or combing out. 
Then the straw is partly rotted, either on the grass or by 
steeping in vats of water. This process rots the coarse woody 
part of the stem, and separates the fine fibre from it. It is 
then dried and "scutched," either by hand or by machine. 
This process of scutching simply rubs or beats away the loose 
woody parts from the long fibres. The fibre is now ready for 
use, to be made into twine or thread or linen cloth. To grow 
good crops of flax, rich, clean, well-drained, well-cultivated soil 
is needed. It requires a moist climate, moderately warm. The 
plant is very rich in nitrogen, potash, and phosphoric acid, and 
therefore we may conclude that it takes a good deal of nourish- 
ment out of the soil ; but these constituents are found almost 
wholly in the seed and straw and not in the fibre, so that if the 
straw is returned to the soil, and the seed fed on the farm, 
there will be little loss in growing flax for the sale of fibre only. 

The Hop is a member of the nettle family. It is a perennial 
plant. It is started by cuttings, in hills about six feet apart. 
The plants are not woody enough to support themselves, and 
therefore climb up to the air and sunshine by twining. The 
hop blossoms are picked by hand when just ripe (a condition 
learned only by experience), and dried in a kiln or drying 
house (called an oast house in Kent, England), when they are 
packed and sold for use in brewing. The value of the hop is 
greatly influenced by the climate. Hop vines always twine in 
the same direction — to the right. Bindweed and morning glory 
twine to the left. How do the grape vine and Virginia creeper 
climb and support themselves ? How do peas and tares ? 

We have already learned that the two important parts of a 
blossom are the pistils and stamens, that perfect blossoms 
have both, but that in some plants there are blossoms having 
pistils but no stamens ; and in other plants there are blossoms 
having stamens but no pistils. The former blossoms are 



70 AGRICULTURE. 

called pistillate blossoms, and the latter staminate. Only the 
pistillate blossoms form seed. In some cases pistillate and 
staminate blossoms grow on the same plant, as in cucumber 
vines. These are said to be monoecious plants. In other cases 
the pistillate and the staminate blossoms grow on different 
plants. These plants are said to be dioecious. The hop plant 
is dioecious. In setting out a hop-yard, therefore, it is necessary 
to have here and there some plants that produce staminate 
blossoms, to supply pollen for the pistillate. 

Tobacco is an annual, grown only in w^arm climates, but 
much farther north than cotton, being grown in the milder 
parts of Quebec and Ontario. It is grown for its long, broad 
leaves. In the use of tobacco we observe three things; first, 
it burns readily; second, it gives a very large amount of ash; 
third, it has a peculiar effect upon the smoker. It burns 
readily because, in addition to its woody or fibrous matter, it 
contains large quantities of potash, which readily unites with the 
oxygen of the air. Its ash forms from 15 to 20 per cent, of the 
entire plant. Its effects upon the human system are due to a 
compound known as nicotine, similar to theine in tea and caffeine 
in coffee. In their pure condition these "alkaloids " as they 
are called, are poisons. 

From the following statement it will be seen that tobacco is 
very hard upon the soil, and requires very rich fertilizing. 
An acre of tobacco will yield about 1,500 pounds of tobacco 
leaf. The whole crop will contain about 70 pounds of nitro- 
gen, 15 pounds of phosphoric acid (in phosphates), and 150 
pounds of potash — 235 pounds in all. An acre of wheat, 
yielding 20 bushels of grain, will contain 40 pounds of nitro- 
gen, 15 pounds of phosphoric acid, and 18 pounds of potash 
— 73 pounds in all. An acre of meadow hay, yielding 2 tons, 
will contain about 56 pounds of nitrogen, 14 pounds of phos- 
phoric acid, and 60 pounds of potash— 130 pounds in all. 



WEEDS. 7 1 



CHAPTER XVI. 



WEEDS. 
*' A weed is a plant in the wrong place." 

Weeds are Plants. — White clover is frequently sown with 
grass seeds on lawns, yet a few plants in a fine lawn of June 
grass would be considered weeds. Tares are grown as a 
fodder crop ; in a wheat field we call them weeds. Ox-eye 
daisies and goldenrod in a flower garden are fine plants, but in 
pastures or hay fields they are w^eeds. A weed is a plant just 
as much as wheat, corn, or clover. It has all the parts of 
plants, grows Uke other plants, and forms new plants. But it 
is a plant that we do not want ; it is a plant out of its place, 
or, rather, it is a plant in the wrong place. 

Objections to Weeds. — We might say that weeds are 
objected to because, whether valuable or not in other places 
or at other times, they are not what we are working for. 
If a man engaged in moulding plow^shares should find one- 
half of his work turning out to be large cannon balls he would 
consider his work, to that extent, a failure, because his business 
is to make plowshares, not cannon balls. So if a farmer finds 
his work resulting half in grain or hay, half in weeds, his work 
is a failure to that extent. But w^e must have particulars. 

I St. Weeds require some labor, w^hether we permit them to 
grow or try to destroy them. Sometimes our labor helps the 
weeds to grow more rapidly, just because we do not under- 
stand their nature. Weeds mean w^ork. 

2nd. Weeds, through their roots, take up food from the soil. 
Our most valuable plants do not take very much out of the 
soil ; on the average not more than one-twentieth of their 



72 AGRICULTURE. 

total weight. Usually, however, there is not very much food 
just ready for the plants to take up. If there are weeds growing 
with the crops there will be less food for the latter. Some of 
the weeds are heavy feeders. 

3rd. Many weeds have broad, spreading leaves which cover 
over the tender young plants of our crops, and by shutting off 
the sunlight smother them out. This may be seen best in a 
pasture or on a lawn (dandelions and plantains for example). 

4th. Weeds draw moisture from the soil through the roots 
and give it off through the leaves; weeds help to dry up the soil. 

5th. Weeds are feeding and breeding grounds for insects and 
they assist in the spread of many crop diseases. 

6th. Frequently weeds are poisonous to stock, they taint the 
milk, or they destroy wool. 

7th. Weeds offend the eye and degrade the taste for farming. 

Because of these facts every weed should be considered an 
intruder, a thief, and a murderer of other crops, and every 
farmer should try to keep his soil as clean as possible. To 
succeed it will be necessary to know as far as possible the 
nature and the mode of growth of the weeds. 

Nature of Weeds. — Wild mustard, lamb's quarters, shep- 
herd's purse, and wild oats form seed the first season ; the 
plants then die and the seeds are ready to sprout the next 
season. Such weeds are anmmls. They generally have fibrous 
roots and produce a large number of seeds. The seeds in 
many cases are oily and are covered with hard coatings ; they 
are able to sprout after lying in the ground a long time, even for 
many years. Thus the seeds may be plowed under deep and 
the next year the field may appear clean. After a couple of 
years they are brought up by plowing and cultivation, and once 
more the field will appear weedy and dirty. If the weeds are 
cut off before the seeds form they will be destroyed, for they 
cannot survive or reproduce unless seeds are formed. 



WEEDS, 73 

The wild carrot, the wild parsnip, teasel, burdock, blue weed, 
and mullein grow Hke our common garden roots — they do 
not form their seed until the second season. They are bien- 
nials^ and are usually tap-rooted. It will not do in their case 
simply to cut off the tops the first year, for they will spring up 
again. Continued cutting off of the top, or, better still, the 
complete removal of the root, will be found necessary with such. 

The ox-eye daisy, plantain, sorrel, and dandelion live on 
from year to year ; they are perennials, and, therefore, most 
diflficult of all to get rid of. Some of the perennials, such as 
the Canada thistle, couch grass, toad flax, milk weed, perennial 
sow thistle, yarrow, and bindweed are creeping in their roots, 
that is, they spread by the root, and therefore are among the 
worst weeds, and, because of this, they are most difficult to 
completely remove, and require most thorough treatment. It 
is important, therefore, to know the nature of weeds, as to 
whether they are annuals, biennials, or perennials, and as to 
whether they are creeping perennials. 

Naming of Weeds. — The weeds are classified like other 
plants. Frequently lists of weeds are given, having their 
common names and also long scientific names, difficult to 
spell and difficult to pronounce. Why is it necessary to 
have long scientific names for weeds when common names 
are easily pronounced, are easily understood, and are so 
suggestive? Take an example. Teasel, water thistle, tall 
thistle, Indian thistle, English thistle, and Fuller's card are 
all local names for one weed. All do not know it by the 
same name, but as dipsacus sylvestris every botanist in any part 
of the world would know it or would be able to find it in 
scientific books. Blue weed, blue thistle, blue stem are 
various names in different places for the same weed. Stick 
seed, stick weed, stick tights are different weeds, although 
somewhat similar in name; and stick weed, in fact, is applied 
to different weeds in different places. 



74 * AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XVII 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 

Grasshoppers. — We shall first refer to an insect that attacks 
nearly all the plants of the field— the grasshopper. You 
catch one of these insects in the hayfield or the pasture 
and carefully observe its form. First of all you count its 
legs — there are six, three on each side. By comparing with 
other insects you notice that all except spiders have the same 
number. You observe that its legs are jointed and that its very 
long hind legs are well suited to jumping or hopping. Then 




Fig. 28. — A Grasshopper. 

you notice that its body is put together in parts or sections. So 
are those of other insects— hence the name "in-sect." It has 
also two long curved feelers sticking out in front of its head 
(each is called an antenna and the two are called antennae). 
Then observe the two large eyes and the mouth fitted for biting 
or cutting through the leaf and the stalk of the grass. The 
outside of the body is hard and the inside soft— a dead, dried- 
up grasshopper has the form of a live one. A horse or a 
cow has its bones within and the soft flesh outside, but the 
insect has its bony part, so to speak, on the outside. 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 75 

Next we must learn something of its mode of increasing — its 
life-history. Grasshoppers are male and female and the latter 
lays the eggs. Sometimes she does this in soft wood but 
generally in the ground, in the fall of the year, after the damage 
to crops has been done. The female makes a hole in the 
ground, in which she lays a number of tiny eggs. These are 
covered with a sticky substance which causes them to hang 
together Hke a pod. The nest or hole is then covered over 
and there they remain unseen through the winter. In the 
warm spring they hatch out and thousands and millions of 
young grasshoppers appear. Their appearance in large numbers 
is thus explained. They have no wings, but they can spring 
about, and they have vigorous appetites. Later on their wings 
appear, and now they are able to fly. They have done much 
damage where they were hatched and now they can fly away 
long distances, eating up and cutting down grass and hay and 
grain. Later on the females deposit their eggs, to be hatched 
out the next year. And so they continue year by year. Some- 
times severe weather destroys their eggs or the young insects. 
Other insects may eat them up. Tiny forms of life (parasites) 
prey upon them. Diseases of various kinds destroy them. 
Knowing their mode of life, their Hfe-history, the farmer can 
check them. For instance, when a field becomes infested with 
them, it can be ploughed up in the fall and their nests of eggs 
destroyed. A change or a rotation of crops is advisable. 

Insects are arranged in orders. The principal basis of this 
classification is the form or structure of the wings. The grass- 
hoppers are " straight-winged." Crickets and cockroaches 
belong to the same order. Entomology is the science of 
insects, as Botany is the science of plants. The Entomologist 
sometimes uses the word orihoptera when stating the order 
to which grasshoppers belong. 

Moths and Cutworms. — In gardens and fields we often 
find the plants being cut off, but can see no insect or other 



76 AGRICULTURE. 

animal at work. If, however, we turn up the soil we find some 
dull-colored, greasy-looking caterpillars of almost the same 
color as the soil. On the top of the ring or section next 
to the head is a smooth shield; the head is smooth and shiny; 
there are some bristles along the side ; and, when disturbed, 
the worm curls up. This is a cutworm ; rather, this is one 
of the cutworms, for there are very many different kinds. 
They stay in the ground during the day and come out at night to 
eat off the leaves and stalks. These cutworms have been hatched 
from little eggs in the spring, summer, or fall. The cutworms, 
or caterpillars as they may be called, are quite small when first 
hatched, but they are heavy feeders and grow gradually to the 
size shown in figure 29, and by their feeding they do 
great damage in garden and field. When they have become 
full grown they burrow into the soil several inches and 
become a hard, deadlike mass similar to that shown 
in figure 29. This is what is known as the pupa of the 
insect. For several weeks, perhaps all through the winter, they 
remain asleep in this condition. Then another change takes 
place, the hard shell of the pupa cracks and there comes forth 
a moth with wings and legs and feelers, looking entirely 
different from the caterpillar or the pupa. These moths 
are the perfect insects ; they are dull in color and are 
very active at night. They lay eggs which hatch into cater- 
pillars, and the caterpillars go to sleep in the pupa form 
to again come forth as perfect moths. In most cases the eggs 
are laid in the fall, and the young caterpillars, less than half an 
inch long, lie in the ground quiet all winter. In the spring 
they attack the young crops and do most damage. About July 
they are full grown ; then they go into the pupa state and 
come out moths in August. If the fields become weedy and 
there is much vegetation on the land in the fall the moths have 
a fine place for laying their eggs, and there is plenty of food for 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 



77 



the young caterpillars. Therefore the thorough cleaning of the 
land after harvest is one means of checking them. 

The army worm also is the caterpillar of a moth, and is so 
called from its occasional appearance in immense numbers, 
when they devour nearly every particle of plant food in the 



CHRYSALIS 




A\0TH 



ARMY fWORM 




Fig. 29. — Army worm, pupa of same, and moth into which it changes. The 
eggs are seen along the leaf. This is a cutworm. 



course of their march. Then we have other moths, the larvae 
of which live upon the fibre of clothing, clothes moths. All 
these are similar in form and in their changes, and all are very 
destructive. 

Besides the egg we have, in most insects, the three forms or 
states, namely : the caterpillar, or larva ; the pupa, or resting 
state; and the perfect insect, or imago. All moths, butterflies, 
bees, beetles, and flies pass through these same three states — 
thus we see that the insects differ from other animals both in 
their general form or appearance, and also in their method of 
growth or course of life. In the case of grasshoppers and 
some bugs there is no pupa or resting state. 



78 



AGRICULTURE. 



Butterflies. — We frequently find mistakes made in the use 
of the words moths and butterflies. Both have scaly-wings as 
we see when we catch them and find the fine powder from the 
wings sticking to our fingers. This powder under a magnifying 
glass appears like scales of different shapes and colors. There 
may be several hundred thousand of these tiny scales on a single 
wing. However, there are differences in the two insects ; the 




Fig. 



30.— Cabbage butterfly. The caterpillar above on the left; the chrysalis below 
on the left. 



moths usually fly about at night and the butterflies in daytime. 
Then if we examine the feelers or antennce we see that those of 
the moths are usually feathered, while those of the butterflies 
are more or less thread-like and knobbed at the end. We can 
readily observe the changes in the common butterflies. The 
eggs are laid on the leaves of trees. Little, crawling, bristly 
caterpillars are hatched from these eggs. They grow in size, 
and it is only while in this larval state that that they are 
destructive. The caterpillars do injury principally to the plants 
of the garden, orchard, and forest. The pupa of a butterfly 
is called a chrysalis. It is usually rough and angular, 
whereas that of a moth is smooth and oval and often cov- 
ered with a silky cocoon. From the chrysalis later on 
there comes forth a beautiful butterfly. 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 



79 



Beetles are so common that nearly every person is familiar 
with their appearance. Some are very small; those found in this 
country are usually not larger than the 
figure shown here. In some foreign 
countries, however, they are found four 
to six inches long. Observe the three 
sections of the beetle. There are two pairs 
of wings, the upper pair quite hard or 
horny, covering the pair of filmy wings 
beneath. These sheath -wings are pecul- 
iar to the beetles. How many legs 
have they ? Where are they attached to 
the insect ? Find the eyes and observe 
the shape of the mouth and feelers or 
horns. The beetles go through much the same changes observed 
in moths. In the case of the beetles, however, the larval 
form is known as a grub. The white grubs found in the soil 
are the larvae of large brown beetles. 




Fig. 31.— A ground beetle, 
ona of the "sheath 
winged " insects, very 
destructive to cutworms. 







tig. 32.— Lady-bird beetles, or "lady-bugs." The straight lines represent the average 
natural length. These beetles are very destructive to plant lice. 

Among the beetles we have a large number of very des- 
tructive insects. There is, for instance, the potato beetle 
which does so much damage to the potato plant by eating 
the leaves. See fig. 33. The hard-shelled beetle lays her 
orange-colored eggs on the under side of a leaf. These 
eggs hatch into the soft-skinned larvae which eat the 
leaves. The larvae change to pupae and these to the full- 
grown winged insects. Since the larvae feed on the leaves a 
simple remedy is to sprinkle some poison (Paris green) on 
the leaves just before they begin to feed, or to destroy the 



8o 



AGRICULTURE. 



eggs before these hatch. Why does the eating off of the 
leaves above ground injure the plant in producing tubers under 
ground ? 




^ 




Fig. 33.— Colorado beetle or "potato bug." a, eggs on underside of leaf ; b, larva that 
eats the leaves ; c, pupa ; d, imago or perfect insect ; e, wing-cover ; /, leg. 

The turnip flea-beetle is sometimes wrongly called "the turnip 
fly." Our illustration shows the shape of the beetle and the 
larva much larger than life. The little 
black beetles pass the winter under any 
rubbish or clods of earth, and in the 
spring seek out some weeds near by that 
belong to the same family as the turnip, 
such as mustaid and shepherd's purse. 

As soon as the young turnips appear above ground they 
do great damage by eating holes in the leaves. One of the 
remedies appears to be the keeping of the ground clean of 
rubbish and the destruction of all weeds, especially wild mustard 
or charlock, false flax, shepherd's purse, pepper-grass, etc. The 
beetles lay their eggs on the roots of the turnip. In a few 
days the larvae or grubs hatch out and feed upon the roots. 



Fig. 34. 



-The turnip flea- 
beetle. 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 



8i 



When full-grown they enter the pupa state in the ground and 
emerge full-grown beetles. There may be several broods in a 
season. By having the ground in good condition before the 
seed is sown the young plants grow rapidly and soon get the 
start of the beetles. 

The weevils also belong to the same order as the beetles, 
and are most injurious to grain crops. The pea-weevil may be 
taken. Its eggs are laid on the outside of the young pod. 
The larva hatches and eats its way through the pod and into 
one of the peas, where it lives upon the substance of the pea. 
The change to the pupa takes place in the pea. Sometimes 
these beetles come out in the fall, but in most cases they stay 
inside the peas until spring. They do great damage to the 
peas by destroying the germ. All grain weevils may be killed 
by placing in the bins some poisonous substance that will 
readily evaporate, such as carbon bisulphide. The bins are 
shut tight and the beetles are killed by the fumes. If 
the peas are kept over until 
two years old the beetles will 
mature and die in the bins the 
first year, and the seed then 
sown the second year will be 
entirely free from the pest. 
These beetles do not lay their 
eggs, or oviposit, on dry peas. 
Any seeds of which the germs 
have been eaten by the grubs 
will, of course, not sprout. 



Fig. 35- — Pea-weevil or " pea bug," life size. 
A, the mature beetle, enlarged ; B, the 
larva or grub, enlarged ; larva life size. 




AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 36.— Currant sawflies ; grub or larva on the 
right. The perfect insects have yellow bodies. 
The eggs are laid along the ribs on the backs 
of the leaves. 




m^ 



Fig. Z7' — Larvae of currant-worm, green, dotted 
with black spots. 



Transparent-Winged 
Insects. — This order 
includes ants, bees, 
wasps, hornets, and 
sawflies. The scientific 
name for this order is 
hyi?ienoptera. The study 
of an ant hill will be 
found very interesting. 
We need not look for 
any in a well-cultivated 
field. No warning need 
be given that in the study 
o f bees, wasps, and 
hornets great care must 
be used. As for saw- 
flies, illustrations given 
in figs. 36 and 37 will 
serve to make their 
acquaintance — to "iden- 
tify" them. They are 
called sawflies because 
they are able to cut or 
saw into leaves with their 
abdomen in order to 
make nests for their 
eggs. The stems of 
wheat are sometimes 
cut off by sawflies, and 
the galls in oaks are 
produced by gall-flies 
which also belong to the 
order of transparent- 
winged insects. 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 83 

Bugs — All bugs are insects but all insects are not bugs. 
When we speak of bugs we mean such insects as the many kinds 
of plant lice. Aphis (plural, aphides) is another name for a 
plant-louse. This order of insects is known as the half-winged 
{hemiptera). Some have only two wings and some have four. 
We find plant lice quite common on many house plants 
and garden plants. Orchard trees, cabbages, hops and 
many other plants are much infested by lice, some very small, 
some large enough to be easily studied. There are some also 




Fig. 38. — Plant lice, half-winged insects. Cross lines and small figure 
show natural size. 

that do much damage to grain, especially wheat, barley, 
oats, and rye. The plant louse or aphis is generally green 
or black, sometimes yellow ; in fact if we observe closely 
and frequently we shall come to the conclusion that the 
color of the aphis is not unlike the color of the leaf, stalk or 
head that it feeds upon. We notice also that the leaves of 
plants upon which the aphides are found in large numbers soon 
curl over and become sickly. If we examine a large plant louse 
we find that it has a strong beak about one-third the length of 
its body, so that it is well fitted to pierce through the skin of 
plants and to suck the sap. They live on liquid food. An- 
other thing we observe in regard to them is that the lice are 
found in large numbers, and they multiply very rapidly. Some 
lice feed largely upon other insects, and are therefore bene- 
ficial. 



84 



AGRICULTURE. 




Kig. 39. — Caterpillar covered with 
parasites. 



In the case of house plants, garden plants and orchard trees 
we can wash and spray with solutions that destroy the lice, but 
with lice that injure the grain such means are not yet practi- 
cable. Why then do not the lice multiply so as to eat up 
everything in the fields? Simply because there are other insects 
that keep them in check. There are some tiny flies that 
attack the lice and lay their eggs 
right in the bodies of the lice. 
These parasites soon kill the lice. 
Other insects are destroyed in 
the same way, such as cater- 
pillars and grasshoppers. If 
we carefully examine the leaves of trees or other plants 
infested with lice we may find some of the beautiful little 
lady-beetles and their larvae feeding upon the lice. Another 
enemy of lice is the aphis-lion, the larva of a lace-wing fly. 

Flies — If you examine a common house-fly or a mosquito, 
you observe that it has only two wings. Here then we have 
another order, that of the "two-winged" flies, known as diptera. 
The Hessian fly, the wheat midge, the many flies of root plants, 
mosquitoes, fleas, and many of the flies that annoy stock — all 
have two wings only and belong to this order. 

The Hessian fly appears in spring as 
a small winged insect with long legs. 
The female lays about twenty eggs in 
the fold or crease of the leaf of the 
young wheat plant. After a few days the 
larvae hatch and get down between the 
stem and leaf-sheath. Here they feed 
on the plant and weaken it so that 
the heavy head soon after topples over 
and the grain is destroyed. The eggs 
Fig. 40— The Hessian fly, a may be laid either in the spring or in 

two-winged insect. , r n -.tt, it • 1 

the early fall. When the latter is the 




INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 



85 



case the young insects generally pass through the winter in 
the pupa state, known as the "the flax-seed" condition, 
because the pupa case is like a flax-seed. Any such found in 
wheat screenings should of course be burned, and where found 
in the field the stubble should be cut and burned. The 
principal remedy for the Hessian fly then is to completely 
burn all material containing the young insects and to change 
from wheat to a cultivated crop, as roots or corn: The Hessian 
fly attacks wheat, barley, and rye. 

The Clover-Seed Midge lays its eggs in the young clover- 
heads where the larvae or orange-colored mr^.ggots hatch out 
and do much damage. Then they fall to the ground and com- 
plete their changes, appearing as full-grown insects towards the 

latter part of summer, ready to 
do damage again to the second 
crop of clover. Where the 
midge is doing much damage 
it is evident that the pasturing 
off of the first crop of clover 
will tend to destroy the larvae. 
The first crop also may be cut 
early, when in full bloom, be- 
fore the first brood of maggots 
develop. A regular rotation 
of crops tends to keep in 
check these and many other 
injurious insects. 

Conclusions : 

1. Insects are so-called because they are made up of sec- 
tions. There are three main parts, the head, the thorax or 
trunk, and the abdomen. The thorax and abdomen are also 
made up of sections (see illustrations). 

2. The legs and wings of the adult or perfect insect are all 
attached.to the thorax. 




Fig. 41. — Midge and larva. 



86 AGRICULTURE. 

3. The adult Insect usually has two large, compound eyes, 
that is, eyes made up of many parts. The antennae, or 
" feelers," are attached to the head. Some persons think that 
insects hear by means of their antennae. 

4. Insects breathe, not through the mouth, but through small 
holes or openings along their sides. These are called " spir- 
acles " and are connected with air tubes passing through the 
body. 

5. As a rule insects pass through three forms after coming 
from the eggs, known as : first, the larva (caterpillars, grubs, 
slugs, maggots, etc.) ; second, the pupa (called chrysalis and 
nymph in certain forms) ; and third, the imago or perfect or 
adult insect (butterflies, moths, beetles, flies, etc.). 

6. Insects are kept in check by nature in various ways. They 
destroy one another; for instance, the lady-bird beetle, the 
ground-beetle, the tiger-beetle, the aphis-lion prey upon other 
insects. Toads and lizards devour large quantities of insects. 
Many birds feed upon insects almost entirely, and are hence 
called " insectivorous birds." 

7. Insects lay eggs when in the imago or perfect form, but the 
damage to plants is done principally when in the larval form. 
The imago or adult insect is full grown when it comes from 
the pupa. 

8. Insects injure plants either by biting and eating the 
foliage and other living parts, or by sucking their sap. Biting 
insects, such as cutworms and grubs, may be destroyed by 
placing poison (Paris green, etc.) on the plants. Sucking 
insects, such as plant-lice, are destroyed by dusting the plants 
with insect powder or by spraying them with an emulsion of 
kerosene and soap — thereby closing up the breathing holes of 
the insects. 

9. Where the insects of field crops cannot be destroyed by 
spraying, the best practice is to keep the fields and fence 
corners clean and free from weeds and rubbish, to thoroughly till 



INSECTS OF THE FIELD. 87 

the ground, to adopt a good system of rotation of crops, and 
to keep the seed grain clean. 

10. Insects are arranged according to their wings. The 
following are some of the orders : 

1. Nerve-winged or neuroptera dragon flies and may-flies. 

2. Straight-winged or orthoptera grasshoppers and crickets. 

3. Half- winged or hemiptera bugs and plant-lice. 

4. Sheath- winged or coleoptera beetles. 

5. Scaly- winged or lepldoptera butterflies and moths. 

6. Two- winged or Diptera house-flies and mosquitoes. 

7. Transparent- winged or hymenoptera . . .bees, wasps, sawflies and ants. 

Note. — The scientific names for the above orders of insects are accented 
on the second syllable before the last, thus : neu-rop-tera, or-thop tera, etc. 
These words are derived from the Greek word J>ief'OH, which means a wing. 



8S AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XVIII 



THE DISEASES OF PLANTS. 

Effects of Disease. — House plants, especially those with 
large leaves, often become covered with small dark spots which 
gradually become larger and make holes in the leaves, which 
soon die. We can see the same on the leaves of the apple tree, 
the pear tree, and can also find them on the leaves of the shade 
trees. This spotting of the leaves is a disease. We can find 
similar diseases on the leaves and stalks of grain. 

When plants become diseased, they lose some of their 
vitality, as we say, and we need not look for much fruit or 
grain. It is therefore of importance that disease among plants 
be prevented, just as we try to prevent sickness of animals, 
or of ourselves. 

Again, in addition to the disease attacking the leaf, the 
branch, the stalk, or the root, it may attack the fruit. You 
have seen the brown and black spots or scabs on the apple and 
the pear ; you have seen the ear of corn all overgrown with smut, 
and the heads of wheat and other grams covered with a dirty 
growth ; you have seen the potatoes affected by the "scab" 
and the "rot." All of these are cases of disease. Whenever 
the plant is diseased in any part the fruit or the seed 
will be found to be either small and of a poor shape or 
else entirely useless. Scabby apples, smutty corn, and 
potatoes affected with the "rot" are not salable, they are of no 
use, in fact they are harmful. Why are they harmful ? In the 
first place, such food is not wholesome. Further, we know 
that very often one animal will take disease from another — 
scarlet fever, diphtheria, small-pox, and even influenza, ora "cold" 



THE DISEASES OF PLANTS. 89 

will pass from one person to another. It is so with the diseases 
of plants. If potato " rot" gets a start it will go from potato to 
potato until all are affected. 

If we allow smut to stay in the corn field it will spread. If 
a cherry or plum tree has black-knot the disease will soon at- 
tack the other trees until all are killed or nearly killed, and no 
good fruit results. This point, therefore, we should firmly fix 
in our minds, that whenever disease appears upon a plant we 
should first of all try to prevent it from spreading by destroying 
the diseased part, or, if necessary, the whole plant. And there 
is only one effective way of destroying disease in plants, and 
that is by burning. It will not do to cut off a black-knot limb 
from a cherry tree and throw it in the fence corner or on the 
brush heap. The disease will spread from the cut off branch. 
It should be burned up. So with the peach tree affected by 
"the yellows." Once the disease has started it is useless to try 
to cure it or to remedy it. The diseased tree or plant or the 
diseased part should be destroyed. But we can prevent it from 
spreading, if we take action in time. Substances and methods 
used for preventing the spread of the disease are called "pre- 
ventives." 

Nature of Disease. — If we begin with a giant oak or 
white pine and arrange the plants known to us in order of size 
down to the smallest grass plant, only a couple of inches high, 
or the still smaller moss, we shall take in a great many plants, 
but not all. There are very many others still smaller and 
much simpler in their form and mode of growth. Perhaps 
you have observed the greyish lichen growing on the old 
fence rails or on the side of a boulder. It is not much thicker 
perhaps than this paper and yet it is a kind of plant — it is 
one of the lower orders of plants. Then you have seen the 
blue mold or fungus on the side of a cheese, it also is a low form 
of plant life. The smut growing in the ear of corn, the 
rot of the potato, the rust of wheat, and the other forms of 
7 



90 



AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 42. — A diseased leaf. The minute plant causing 
disease is growing in a leaf and is throwing off ripe 
spores (seeds), which will settle on other leaves, 
and thus cause the spread of the disease. A 
ragged hole will remain in the leaf, usually brown 
in color on the margin 



disease in vegetation are all minute plants. These lower forms of 

plants live in and upon the higher plants, taking the food 

out of the plants and 

thereby checking 

their growth and even 

killing them. Where 

did they come from ? 

The field crops grow 

from seeds, and when 

they are ripe, they 

produce other seeds 

that will again grow. 

Now these small 

plants, these disease 

plants, grow from tiny seeds generally called "spores," and 

when they mature they form other spores which will be carried 

about by the wind, settle on other plants, start growing there, 

and thus spread themselves. A small dark speck appears on 

the leaf of a house plant -the spore has started to grow. The 

speck grows to a large spot, it soon becomes darker, then the 

whole spot or scab breaks open — the spores are ripe and fall 

off or are blown away, and the life of this disease plant begins 

again on another leaf or on another plant. Why did we not 

see the spores at first ? Simply because they were too small, 

they can be seen only by a magnifying glass or a microscope— 

hence these plants are sometimes called microscopic plants. 

Prevention of Disease. — If we could destroy these spores 
we would, of course, prevent the growth of the disease plants. 
In addition, therefore, to destroying all plants and parts of 
plants known to be diseased, we should use preventives when- 
ever w^e think the disease is likely to be started. The leaves 
and stalks of house plants are washed from time to time in 
order to clean them from dust and also to wipe off disease 
spores. One of the principal substances used for killing these 



THE DISEASES OF PLANTS. 



91 



spores In the case of trees and shrubs is bluestone (also known 
as sulphate of copper). When the fruit grower sprays his trees 
to check disease on the branches or leaves or fruit he uses a 
solution of bluestone. Sometimes he makes a mixture of Paris 
green and bluestone, the Paris green being to kill all insects 
that eat the leaves, and the bluestone to destroy the spores or 





Fig. 43.— Two forms of minute plants growing in leaves and in fruit 
of plants, causing disease of plants. Very much enlarged. 

seeds of disease. There are so many different forms of disease 
(rusts, smuts, mildews, blights, etc.) that we have not space to 
mention them. But we shall here give only the simplest modes 
■of preventing disease. Smut, in growing wheat, generally comes 
from wheat that has grown in fields where smut existed the year 
before, that is, the wheat when sown had the spores of smut 
already in the grain. The disease then can be prevented by 
destroying the spores in the seed that is sown. Make a solution 
of one pound of bluestone or copper sulphate in twenty-four 
gallons of water. Soak the grain to be sown in this solution for 
from twelve to sixteen hours. Then the seed may be dipped in 
lime water for five minutes. After being thus treated it may be 
sown and no smut will appear. Sometimes the spores of smut 



92 AGRICULTURE. 

on the seed wheat are killed by dipping it into hot water shortly 
before sowing, but the bluestone treatment is preferred. 

The potato tubers are sometimes found to be covered with a 
rough scurf. On cutting the potato it will be found to be affect- 
ed also under the skin. This roughness is the result of a 
disease called the potato scab. If scabby potatoes are planted 
the tubers produced from them will be scabby, and if clean 
potatoes are planted in the ground where scabby potatoes were 
lately grown, the new crop will likely be scabby. The best rule 
to follow, then, is to plant only perfectly clean potatoes in ground 
where no scabby potatoes were previously grown. Some success 
has been had from rolling scabby potatoes in sulphur before 
planting, but it is much more satisfactory to destroy the scabby 
potatoes and plant only clean tubers in clean ground. 

The rot or blight of potatoes is quite a different disease, 
produced by a different fungus. Different names for this 
disease are rot, blight, and downy mildew. It is also called 
" late blight," because there is a somewhat similar disease that 
attacks the plants earlier in the season called "early blight." 
The potato leaves show brown spots. These spread rapidly, 
especially if the weather is warm and moist. The under sides 
of the leaves soon become covered with a light colored growth ; 
these are the spores or seeds growing on tiny threads. The 
spores appear to fall to the ground and by rains are washed 
through until they reach the tubers, to which they at once 
attach themselves and then begin their growth. Then the rot 
ing of the potato begins. 

It is thought by some that the disease in some way reaches 
the tubers by way of the stem. It may be that the disease is 
transmitted from the leaves to the tubers in both ways. To 
prevent the spread of this disease the growing plants are sprayed 
or sprinkled with a solution of bluestone (sulphate of copper). 
The disease is sometimes called ^.jungus (plural, /z^w^/), hence 
the preventive is called d. fungicide. 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 93 



CHAPTER XIX 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 

Importance of Rotation. — If we get a large yield of any 
crop from a certain field, should we not grow the same crop 
year after year ? This is done, for instance, on the rich prairie 
soils, where wheat has been grown year after year upon the 
same soil. In former times this was done also on our soils 
when they were new and rich. But what has been the result ? 
The soils of many farms have run down and good crops are 
got only by heavy manuring. In the best farmed countries of 
Europe, where, after the experience of hundreds of years, 
larger yields of wheat and other crops are obtained than 
we get in Canada, it has been found advisable to change the 
crops grown from year to year. The experience of Europe and 
of Canada both prove that the best farmers succeed in crop 
growing only by rotating or changing their crops. 

Reasons for Rotation. — i. The different crops, as we have 
seen, are all made up of the same elements, and take up 
food from the soil ; but they do not all take up soil food 
of the same amount or in the same form. Thus the potato, 
tobacco, and fruit trees require a great deal of potash ; 
the grain crops take up more phosphates. The crops differ 
in their feeding just as animals differ. The dog does not 
eat just what the cat does, nor the horse just what the pig 
does. If cattle and sheep are pastured together, the sheep 
will pick out certain weeds and grasses, and the cattle may 
prefer others. Wheat, for instance, requires nitrates as one 



94 AGRICULTURE. 

of its most important foods, and if we grow wheat year after 
year we may soon exhaust the nitrates available; but if we grow 
wheat one year and some other crop the next, the second 
crop may be able to feed well and flourish upon food left by the 
wheat. 

2. The plants have different methods or powers of getting 
the same kind of food. Thus clover or peas will get nitrogen 
by means of the little knots or tubercles (page 57) upon their 
roots, whereas wheat has not this power to take up free nitrogen. 
A clover crop will need more nitrogen than a crop of wheat, 
and yet, because of the root tubercles, we do not apply nitrates 
to a clover crop, but nitrates may be applied to wheat with 
good results. 

3. The plants have different kinds of roots. Those of barley 
are very short, those of wheat longer, those of red clover and 
lucerne still longer. A deep-rooted crop feeds lower down than 
a shallow-rooted crop. If, then, we grow clover this year and 
wheat the next, we grow these crops, to a great extent, in 
two different soils. We use surface soil for one and under-soil 
or sub-soil for the other. By changing from a shallow-rooting 
crop to a deep-rooting, or from a deep-rooting to a shallow- 
rooting, we, as it were, change the soil from year to year. This 
is one of the most important points to observe in rotating crops. 

4. By rotating crops we change the treatment of the same 
soil, since we do not treat the soil exactly alike in preparing it 
for different crops. Some crops, also, are cultivated and others 
are not. We thus give the weeds different treatment. The 
weeds differ as do the crops — there are annuals, biennials and 
perennials ; there are long-rooted and shallow-rooted ; there are 
early seeding and late seeding weeds. The same treatment 
year after year may be just the right treatment to encourage 
certain weeds to grow and spread. The growing of wheat 
year after year in the west is causing the spread of some very 
noxious vy-eeds. By changing the crops, and therefore the treat- 



ROTATION OF CROPS. 95 

ment of the soil, we do not give the weeds so good a chance to 
rob the crops and infest the fields. 

5. The insects also make their homes on certain crops and 
in the ground. By rotating the crops we disturb the insects 
and help to keep them in check. If we remove the food of 
the insects, bury them or their eggs deep in the soil, or turn 
them up to the frost we are helping to destroy them. 

6. Some crops mature early in the year, as fall wheat and 
barley ;. others late in the fall, as corn and roots. Some are in 
the ground but a short time, others for a long time, and so 
they have different lengths of time for feeding. It is often 
helpful to have a long-feeding crop followed by a short-feeding 
crop, as in the case of roots followed by barley. 

We may then sum up by saying that crops differ : 

As to the kind of food which they take up ; 

As to the amount of different foods which they take up ; 

As to the length of their feeding roots ; 

As to the length of time that they are feeding ; 

As to the treatment we give them (cultivated or not) ; 

As to the weeds that associate with them ; 

As to the insects that infest them ; 
For these and other reasons the best farmers always pay 
careful attention to the proper rotation of their crops. 

Samples of Rotation. — Let us take what is called a four- 
year or four-course rotation — turnips, barley, clover, wheat. 
The first crop requires thorough cultivation and gives a chance 
to manure heavily for the entire course. Turnips are bi- 
ennials, and therefore long-growing, feeding until late in the 
year. Then comes a shallow-rooted, quick-growing crop of 
an entirely different nature. The clover at once follows barley 
and sends its roots deep. It feeds upon the free nitrogen 
of the air in the soil through its root tubercles, and when 
plowed in leaves a large quantity of material in the roots and 
stubble to make food for the wheat. The manure applied with 



g6 AGRICULTURE. 

the roots has by this time been well worked over. Last comes 
the wheat with roots of medium length, feeding in the fad 
and spring and coming to maturity in the summer of the 
fourth year. A variety of crops for the farmer's use is at the 
same time obtained. 

Here are some other rotations that may be examined : 

1. Wheat I. Barley i. Wheat i. Barley 

2. Hay 2. Hay 2. Hay 2. Hay 

3. Hay 3. Pasture 3. Pasture 3. Oats 

4. Pasture 4. Corn 4. Pasture 4. Peas 

5. Oats 5. Oats 5. Oats 5. Corn 

6. Peas 6. Peas 6. Peas 

7. Roots 7. Corn 

The system, of course, must be suited to the soil, the kind 
of farming adopted, and the circumstances of the farmer. 
Rotations may have to be changed from time to time, but, if 
the principles upon which rotations are based are well 
understood, there will be no difficulty in making changes, and 
in forming rotations suitable to the needs and conditions of the 
farm. The four-course rotation may be taken as a basis, and 
changes made to lengthen it ; thus corn may be put in place 
of roots, and barley may be seeded to clover and timothy, and 
a year or two of hay and pasture, or both, may be had before 
returning to a cereal crop. If the soil is the farmer's capital, 
then growing the same crop year after year leaves part of the 
capital idle. Rotating the crops causes all of the capital to do 
its share in turn in producing income, and, it may be, in 
increasing the amount of capital. 



THE GARDEN. 



97 



PART IV. 



CHAPTER XX. 



THE GARDEN. 

" A small garden well-kept will produce more than a large garden neglected." 

Selection of Garden Plot. — The garden plot should be 
near the house, and at one side rather than in front of the 
house. A neat, dry walk should lead to it. A loamy 
soil, well drained, and well manured will be suited to the 
crops required. If it is long and narrow in shape rather than 
square, much of the cultivation may be done by horse help. 
A wind-break or shelter-belt of spruce or other trees will add 
to the appearance as well as to the value of the garden. 

Garden Crops. — In every farmer's garden there may be 
grown the following crops : 



Beets, Rhubarb, 

Carrots, Tomatoes, 

Potatoes, Celery, 

Parsnips, Egg-plant, 

Radishes, Lettuce, 

Cabbages, Peas, 

Cauliflowers, Beans, 

Sweet Corn, Horse-radish, 

Onions, Cucumbers, 

Asparagus, Pumpkins, 

Salsify, Melons, 

Much that has been said about field crops, their mode of 
growth, and their enemies, both insects and diseases, will ap- 



Strawberries, 

Raspberries, 

Currants, 

Gooseberries, 

Spinach, 

Sweet Marjoram, 

Thyme, 

Sage, 

Summer Savory, 

Parsley, 

Garden Mint. 



98 AGRICULTURE. 

ply to the crops of the garden. More may be learned by 
working among the plants growing in the garden, and at the 
same time using your eyes. 

What parts of the following plants do we use as food? Common rad- 
ishes, horse radish, cabbage, cauliflower, lettuce, celery, artichokes, 
onions, asparagus, potatoes, rhubarb, and spinach. 

Explain the bleaching out of celery by banking up. Will the stalks 
bleach out if grown on the level close together ? 

What is the difference between top-onions, potato onions and onion sets? 

Is lettuce an annual or a biennial ? 

Classify the crops given above as annuals, biennials and perennials. 

Are all the blossoms on a cucumber vine alike? Which produce fruit? 
Is the cucumber plant monoecious or dioecious? See page 70. 

The Strawberry. — If you pull off the petals of a rose 
blossom you find the stalk on which it grew is somewhat 
enlarged at the end. This little swollen end is called the 
"receptacle." In the case of the strawberry which we eat, we 
see a large number of small hard grains in little pits on the 
surface of the soft, fleshy fruit. If the hard grains were large 
enough we could open them, and see that each one is a little 
seed. The part we find so pleasant to eat, then, is not the 
seed. What is it? By examining 
the stalks bearing green berries as 
well as those bearing ripe berries, 
we observe that it is the swollen end 
of the stem, that is the receptacle. 
If a ripe berry is cut in two, the 
seeds will be found to be connected 
with the stalk. The strawberry 
plant is a member of the rose family 
Fig. 44-A strawberry plant {rosacec^) to which bclong a large 
properly set out. numbcr of our commou fruit-bearing 

plants, as well as some other common plants, such as the plum, 
the cherry, the strawberry, the raspberry, the blackberry, the 
wild rose, the hawthorn, the pear, the apple, the quince. 




THE GARDEN. 



99 




Compare the leaves and blossoms of the strawberry, the apple, and the 
wild rose ; also the fruit of the hawthorn, the wild rose, and the mountain 
ash. Observe how the leaves are arranged on the branches. At what 
place do the blossoms appear ? How many petals in every blossom ? 

In a patch of wild strawberries you find that the plants 
spread in all directions, that the fruit is small in size and small 
in quantity in comparison with the large amount of leaves and 
runners. Most of the plant food 
is being used up in forming 
runners and leaves. If we wish 
fruit large in size and large in 
quantity we must plant improved 
varieties in rows at least three 
feet apart, and we must keep 
the space between the rows clean of weeds and runners. 

The strawberry is a perennial, but as the plants have been 
developed by cultivation and selection they tend to go back to 
their original habit of producing small berries. Therefore it is 
best to grow fruit only on young plants. The plants send out 
runners which take root and form new plants, and the best 
berries are on these new plants. The old plants soon becom.e 
of little value. Therefore the beds must be renewed. 

If you examine the blossoms of many kinds or varieties of 
strawberries you will find that those of some are perfect, that 



Fig. 45 



A strawberry plant repro- 
ducing by a '"runner." 





Fig. 46 — A perfect strawberry 
blossom having both pistils 
and stamens. 



Fig. 47. — An imperfect straw- 
berry blossom having pistils, 
but not stamens. 



is, they have both pistils and stamens (fig. 46) ; these will of 
themselves produce fruit. The blossoms of others, however, 



lOO AGRICULTURE. 

are imperfect, they have pistils but no stamens (fig. 47) ; these 
will not form fruit, unless pollen from perfect blossoms is 
brought to them by the wind or by insects. Some of the best 
producing varieties of strawberries have imperfect blossoms ; 
they are pistillate varieties and if we wish them to produce 
good crops we must plant alongside of them some plants of 
varieties bearing perfect blossoms. This is very important and 
should be well understood. In some of the varieties of fruit 
trees also, the blossoms are either imperfect or else able to 
fertilize themselves only with difficulty, and the planting of 
varieties whose blossoms produce an abundance of pollen is of 
great help. 

Raspberries. — When you pull off a strawberry, part of the 
stem comes with it ; but when you pull off a raspberry, it comes 
away freely from the stem, leaving a pointed end. This is 
because the receptacle or end of the stem is the fleshy part of 
the strawberry, whereas the raspberry is a collection of soft 
fruits distinct from the receptacle. In the case of the straw- 
berry, we eat the end of the swollen stalk ; in the case of the 
raspberry, we eat a cluster of fruits like small cherries. 

The roots of raspberries are perennial and the canes are 
biennial. Thus, canes grow up one year, bear fruit the second 
year, and then die. Therefore, in pruning the bushes we cut 
away all the canes as soon as they are done fruiting, and save 
the new canes for next year's fruiting. 

The bushes are increased or propagated by suckers or by 
the tips. The suckers, which grow up from the roots, are 
removed by cutting away below the soil and then set out as 
new plants. The tips of the canes are bent over and buried 
in earth, when they take root. The red varieties are propagated 
by means of suckers or root cuttings ; the black-cap and purple 
cane varieties by the tips. 







O _ 



1^ 



™ 



I 



THE GARDEN. 



lOI 




Fig. 48.— A gooseberry, 
showing seeds, S, at- 
attached to skin at P. 




Gooseberries. — Our garden varieties have been developed 
from natives of Europe and of America. 
Fig. 48 shows a fruit cut across containing 
the seeds, which are fastened to the skin 
by little threads. The form is similar to 
that of a grape. New bushes or plants 
are produced by layers and cuttings. In 
layering, a branch is bent over, a little 
notch cut in the under side where it will 
be under ground, then bent down and covered with soil 
leaving the tip above ground. After a 
little, roots will appear near the notch, 
and later on the branch may be cut 
from the bush and a new plant will 
thus be started. In using cuttings, 
good thrifty stems or branches about 
six inches long are cut in the fall or 
early in spring and set out with the top 
bud just above ground. These are 
covered for the winter. The next 
year they form good roots, and the 
following year may be set out in rows. 
To prevent suckers, the buds below ground are rubbed off. 

Seedlings of all the berries may be obtained by rubbing up 
the ripe fruits with sand to separate the seeds and pulp. The 
sandy seed is sown on the surface of a finely worked bed, well 
enriched with decayed manure. The soil is kept shaded and 
v/et with a fine spray. The plants are afterwards pricked out 
in another bed with more room and allowed to fruit to test. 

Currants. — These are grown very much as we grow goose- 
berries. Most of our varieties belong to three classes : 

I. The Flowering Currant, which is grown as an ornamental 
shrub. Its sweet-scented yellow flowers appear early in the 
spring. The fruit is black and of decided flavor or taste. By 



Fig. 49 —Reproducing plants 
by layering. A is branch 
bent over and buried, held 
down by stake B. New 
shoots C start up, which are 
then cut off from parent 
plant at D. 



102 AGRICULTURE. 

cultivation, it may be used in the future as a fruit producer. 

2. Tlie Black Currant, which came from Europe. The 
fruit is black, and has a peculiar odor. 

3. The Red Currant, with berries red and white. 
Enemies of Garden Crops. — In connection with field 

crops we referred to the enemies under two heads — insects 
and diseases. These enemies are also to be found in the gar- 
den, and, as garden crops are relatively more valuable than 
field crops, they should be watched very closely. Many of the 
field insects will be found in the garden, especially the many 
small insects called by the general name "flies," which, of 
course, are quite different from our house flies. Then there are 
caterpillars of many sizes and colors, some of which closely 
resemble or " imitate " in color the plants on which they feed. 
A very common enemy is the cutworm. Frequent cultivation 
and the turning up of the soil will bring them to light. The 
birds will pick them up. Diseases are the second-class of 
enemies, which appear in so many forms, variously named rust, 
leaf blight, anthracnose, mildew. Strawberries, for example, 
are greatly injured in producing fruit because of leaf-blight. 
Spraying with sulphate of copper (Bordeaux mixture) before 
the fruit begins to enlarge will check it. In the diseases of 
currants, gooseberries, etc., the same may be used. Full 
instructions as to what to use and how to apply the various 
preventives may be got in the bulletins of the various Depart- 
ments of Agriculture. All that need be said here is that thrifty 
plants grown in well-tilled soil, kept clean from weeds and 
rubbish, and properly fertilized, are least likely to be attacked 
by disease. 

Earthworms. — These must not be confusea with cut- 
worms, wireworms, and other insects that destroy crops. 
Earthworms play a very important part in working over soil 
and in producing fine mold. Their effect may be noticed 
especially in lawns. They come to the surface at night and 
after rains, bringing up soil from beneath. 



thp: apple orchard. 



103 



CHAPTER XXI. 



THE APPLE ORCHARD. 



The Apple. — Let us take a 
fair-sized apple of good shape, cut 
it through as shown in fig. 50. 
We see that the stem is con- 
nected with the core, and beyond a. 
it at C are the small ends of what 
appear to be leaves. These are 
the ends of the calyx leaves. The 
core is the seed box ; it is made 
up of hard, tough, fibrous ma- ^'g- ,5' 




Section of a fully formed 
/4, seeds in seed- t ox or core, 




terial, E, in which are the seeds, ^; <^. the calyx ena ; y, the pulp. 
A. If you cut another apple 
across the core you see the five 
seed boxes. The apple, then, is 
firmly attached to the branches 
by the stem which is closely con- 
nected with the core. The part 
i\ outside of the core, is made 

r ,1 1 J i. J a.L Ei?. 51. Section of an apple blossom, 

up of the enlarged stem and the showing how the apple begins to form! 
lower and thicker portion of the calyx leaves which have 
closed over the seed forming portion of the blossom (the 
ovary), and have become thick and juicy. What we eat, then, 
is really the leaf portion of the blossom, united with the 
swollen stem. Cut a thin slice across the apple and hold it 
up to the light — you will observe five parts somewhat resem- 
bling the blossom of the apple. Frequently the five tips of 
the leaves at C are easily observed. The relation of the 
apple to the blossom is now known. 



104 AGRICULTURE. 

Seedlings. — If we plant some apple seeds, plants will 
spring up that, after a few years, will become trees and bear 
fruit. These trees are known as " seedlings." But, what at 
first appears strange, they are not likely to bear apples similar 
to the apple from which we took the seeds ; in fact, the apples 
may be of little use. And why so ? Because the apple, in its 
wild or native form, has a small, rather poor fruit, and the 
many varieties have been produced by careful cultivation and 
selection. In this way varieties are obtained that are different 
in their hardiness and different in shape, size, color, and flavor. 
As is the case with other plants, while we develop them for 
producing fine fruit they frequently become more tender in 
stem and roots, and, therefore, the nurseryman has to use great 
skill in producing plants that are both hardy and productive of 
good fruit. If we grow apples from seeds only, the hardy 
seedlings will grow to a producing age. In this way we can 
obtain trees with hardy roots, stems, and buds. If, now, we 
can use these roots and stems for our trees, and at the same 
time cause them to produce highly-flavored fruit, we shall get 
trees such as we desire. This may be done by grafting. 

Grafting. — The hardy stem and root is called the stock. 
The part to be grafted on to the stock is called a scion. The 
nurseryman selects the young seedlings and cuts small 
branches as scions from the trees of improved varieties such 
as he wishes to produce. The scions are cut in the late fall 
after the leaves have fallen, or in early spring before the buds 
start to open. At that time the branch is dormant or asleep. 
The grafting is done, as root-grafting or as top-grafting, before 
the growth starts in the spring. In root-grafting, the stock and 
scion may be cut across as shown in Fig. 52. This is called 
whip or tongue-grafting, and is the method of cutting when 
both are of same size. When the stock is large and the scion 
small, the latter is cut wedge-shaped, and the former is split so 
as to take in the little wedge end, as in Fig. 53. The scion is 



THE APPLE ORCHARD. 



^05 



placed in the stock and the cuts are all covered with grafting 
wax, which is composed of a mixture of tallow or linseed oil, 



£/ 



?ji'i-ii 



Fie. 52. — Whip or tongue-graft- 
in i on root. Used also in the 
case of small stocks. 



Fig- 53-— Grafting in cleft or split 
limb. Used in the case of large 
limbs. In very large limbs two 
scions are inserted on opposite 
sides of the cleft. 



beeswax, and resin (about i, 2, 4 parts by weight of each). A 
very important point is to have the layer just underneath the 
bark (the cambium layer) of both stock and scion exactly 
opposite or against each other. Why is this important ? The 
living part of a trunk or branch lies between the sapwood and 
the bark ; it is the thin layer of moist woody fibre just under- 
neath the bark. If we bring the living layer of the stock and 
the hving layer of the scion together, the sap from the one will 
flow into the other, and the root and stem will continue to 
nourish the new branch. The nature of the fruit depends 
upon the kind of branch. 

Pruning. — The leaves and new branches are formed before 
the fruit, so that, if the tree is inclined to become very branchy, 
most of the food may be used up in producing new wood, and 
very little will be left for fruit. Therefore, in many varieties, 
pruning is very important. The proper time is to begin with 



lo6 AGRICULTURE. 

the tree as soon as set out, and to prevent the growth of too 
many limbs by cutting off limbs when small shoots and by 
rubbing off buds that are not required. Limbs growing too 
long may be "stopped"; that is, pinched off at the end. The 
thinning out of fruit will, for the same reason, have the effect 
of producing larger fruit. 

Feeding the Trees. — -Three crops are produced yearly in 
the orchard — new leaves, new branches, new fruit. The tree 
needs food for all three. It is necessary to have the land 
drained so that the roots can go deep into the soil. Then the 
surface soil must be kept well cultivated about the young 
trees, that the moisture may be saved and the air get into the 
soil. But, in addition, food must be supplied, not merely to 
the young tree, but also to the old tree as long as it is expected 
to bear a crop. Wood ashes are the mineral or soil matter of 
the trunks and branches of trees, therefore we may conclude 
that wood ashes are an excellent food for fruit trees of all 
kinds. Wood ashes contain lime, potash and some phosphates. 
If any other manures are applied they should be such as fine 
bones, which contain phosphates and lime. Potash and phos- 
phate manures are the proper food for vines and trees produc- 
ing fruit. The proper place to apply such is, not close around 
the trunk, but beneath the ends of the branches. Why ? 

Suggestive : — 

If we plant the seed of a northern spy apple, may we expect that the 
tree thus produced will also bear northern spy? How are new varieties 
produced? What might be done with a seedling apple tree that bears poor 
truit in order to make it a useful tree? In peach-growing, is it best to 
have a large number of small peaches or a smaller number of large peaches ? 
Good orchardists now thin their peaches and plums. Why ? 

Did you ever notice how a wound made by cutting off a branch of a tree 
heals? If a stub six inches long is left it dies back, rots, and finally falls 
away, leaving a hole in the tree trunk. If cut close new wood grows over 
the wound until, in time, it is entirely covered. In pruning, then, cut close 
to the main branch or tree trunk. 

Remember that the tree itself is a crop, taking its food from the orchard 
soil. It is bad pract'ce, therefore, to raise other crops such as grain or 
roots between the trees. This may occasionally be done with good tillage 
and good manuring, but more often the trees are s;arved as a result. 



OTHER ORCHARD TREES. I07 



CHAPTER XXII. 



OTHER ORCHARD TREES. 

The Pear. — We have already staled that the apple, the 
pear, and the quince belong to the rose family. The form of 
their fruit with seed in a hard box or core shows their resem- 
blance. Our different varieties of pears have all been derived 
from the common pear of Europe by cultivation and selection. 
These fruits all change somewhat with soil, climate, and treat- 
ment. According to the size of the tree we class pears as 
''standards" and "dwarfs." The standards are formed by 
grafting or budding from the improved varieties on to seedlings 
as stocks. The pear trees that are purchased for an orchard 
are therefore first grown from pear seed and then grafted or 
budded. Transplanting in the nursery induces a greater growth 
of fibrous roots than if the trees were kept growing in one 
place. So that better results are sure to follow from getting 
trees that have been well cared for, even if t'hey cost more 
money. When trees are transplanted some of the top is pruned 
off and the trees are cut back. Why ? In transplanting some 
of the roots are likely to be damaged, and all are not likely to 
start work at once ; therefore the old top would be too large in 
proportion to the amount of feeding roots. 

The dwarf pear trees are produced by budding on the 
quince as a stock. The quince will not take the buds of all 
varieties of pears, so that it is sometimes necessary to " double 
work " them. This is done by budding on the quince with 
any pear bud that will take, and then afterwards budding on 
this pear stock with the buds of the varieties desired. 



io8 



AGRICULTURE. 




Budding is a means of increasing very many kinds of fruits. 
We have, under the apple, referred to the fact that the hving 
part of the tree is on the outside, just under the rough bark. 

If a living bud is taken from 
' one tree, by neatly cutting it 
out with a little of the wood 
beneath, it may be made to 
grow if at once placed in con- 
tact with the similar living 
part of another tree. This is 
done by making a slit up and 
down and one across the bark, 
T-shaped. This cut is opened 
and the bud placed in and the 
bark lapped over it. The cut 
and bud in place are then 
Fig. 54. Budding. carefully tied up. It will be 

seen that budding must be done when the bark is loose or 
will slip, that is in midsummer. In the following spring the 
old growth above the bud must be cut off, and buds are rub- 
bed off below so as to send all the sap into the new branch. 

The Plum. — We now come to the stone-fruits— the plum, 
the peach, and the cherry. They differ from the pear and 
apple group, but they belong to the large rose family. Exam- 
ine their blossoms. We have in America several wild varieties 
of plums, from which some of our hardier varieties are derived. 
From the European plum come our highly flavoured plums. 
As a rule they are not so hardy as the natives. A third class 
of plums is derived from Japanese varieties. The plum is 
propagated by budding and grafting. For northern climates 
the stock used should be seedlings or the native wild plum. In 
milder climates the peach is used quite extensively as a stock. 
The Peach tree is not known here in a wild state ; it 
has come from Asia and is closely related to the almond. 




OTHER ORCHARD TREES. XO9 

The nectarine is quite similar with fruit of a smooth skin. 
Observe the blossom as to shape and color. In some vari- 
eties the stone clings to the pulp ; in others it separates readily 
— hence the terms " cling-stone " and 
"free-stone." The peach ripens only 
in a mild climate and requires a warm 
soil, that is, a light soil that readily 
drains and absorbs heat. As the peach 
trees mature or come into blossom 
earlier than apples, they are sometimes 
set out in young apple orchards. A 
few crops of peaches can thus be picked '^' ^^' '°"^ '^""' ^ ^^^^ * 
before the apples come into bearing. When the apple trees 
become nearly full grown and begin to bear fair crops the 
peach trees are removed. The peach trees are increased by 
budding on stocks of seedUng peaches or on plums. Why 
would you expect peach buds to take on plums and not on 
pears or apples ? What is the edible part of the peach ? The 
true fruit or seed is inside of the stone. Crack one open and 
compare with an almond nut. You may taste it, but do not 
eat it. If you take a thick leaf you can peel off the skin on 
the upper side and also the skin on the under side. Between 
these two is the soft cell matter. The calyx leaves fold over 
the inner part of the blossom, enclosing the seed, the inner side 
of the leaves hardening to form the stone, and the outer part 
forming the skin ; the soft material between forms the part of 
the peach that we eat. 

The Cherry. — This tree is sometimes grown as an orna- 
mental tree ; sometimes for its wood, which has a beautiful 
grain and takes a fine polish ; but generally for its fruit. There 
are very many varieties of cherries growing wild in America 
known by various names — dwarf cherry, bird cheiry, choke 
cherry, wild red cherry, etc. Most of our garden varieties are 
derived from two European varieties. 



no 



AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXIII 



INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



The Borer. — This is a beetle that does much damage to 
the trunks of trees. It is about half an inch long, of a shining 
greenish-black color. It lays its eggs in summer in the rough 
bark near the ground or near the crotches of large limbs. From 
these eggs come the larvje, which, when full-grown, are nearly an 
inch long. As soon as hatched they begin to bore into the tree, 
where they remain one or two years. From the larva state they 
pass into the pupa state, and from this the beetle again comes 
forth. If many of these bore through 
the under bark and into the living 
wood they must injure a tree just as if 
it were girdled. What is to be done? 
We can dig out the borers and kill 
them, but already much damage 
will have been done. We can keep 
the rough bark scraped off with a 
dull hoe, so that there will be no 
convenient cracks and holes in which 
to place the eggs. We can also give 
the trunks of the trees a good coat- 
ing of whale-oil soap, then soft soap 
or whitewash in the spring and early summer. As the bark 
on young trees is soft and the young trees are most easily 
injured we should look out for borers in young orchards. 
The Oyster-Shell Bark Louse. — On the bark of the 
apple tree are frequently seen little patches that appear like 




Fig. 56.— The flat-headed borer— 
«, the larva, b the pupa, d the 
perfect beetle. It injures many 
kinds of trees. 



INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. Ill 

rough bark. If you pry them up with your penknife you find 




Fig- 57. — Bark covered with larvae of oyster-shell bark lice. 

that they are not rough bark, but scales. What are these little 
scales or shells ? As the weather becomes warmer little white 
insects come out from under these shells, and for a couple 01 
days the bark swarms with life. Then they settle down, get 
their tiny beaks into the soft bark, and suck the sap of the 
tree. At the end of summer we find the scales with a nest ot 
eggs underneath. Protected by the scale, the eggs remam 
until next summer, when out again come the tiny insects to 
live upon the sap of the tree. Spray with kerosene emulsion. 
The Aphis. — These are to be found on all of our fruit trees. 
They are noticed as green bugs less than one-tenth of an inch 
long. They suck the sap out of the leaves and green bark, and 
are sometimes found on the roots. The eggs are laid in the 
fall in the cracks of the bark, and in the next summer we are 
surprised at the large number of green wingless lice that appear 
as if by magic and do so much damage in a short time (see 
page 83). Keep the bark clean and spray the trees in the 
spring, as soon as the insects appear, with kerosene emulsion, a 
diluted mixture of soft-soap and coal-oil. We have stated before, 
page 79, that lady-beetles are very destructive to plant lice. 
Different kinds of plant lice are found on the apple, cherry, 
peach, currant, cabbage, strawberry roots and in grain. Since 
they increase so very rapidly, spraying should be done as soon 
as the lice appear. House plants may be washed with whaJe- 
oil soap or tobacco water. 



112 



AGRICULTURE. 



Caterpillars. — We already know that there are many 
kinds of caterpillars, and that they are larvae hatched from 




Fig. 58. — The tent caterpillar, a and b are caterpillars on 
the web, <r is a mass of eggs, d is the cocopn containing 
the chrysalis or pupa. The female moth is above. 

the eggs of moths and butterflies. Tent caterpillars live in 
nests and strip the trees of their leaves. Any nests seen on 
the trees or bushes should be carefully removed and burned 
whenever observed. These caterpillars come out of their nests 



INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



113 



two or three times a day to feed. Therefore we should be care- 
ful to see that they are all at home before the nests are re- 
moved. Spraying with Paris green will help to destroy all leaf- 
eating caterpillars. 

The Codling Moth. — Codling is an old word for a cook- 
ing apple. We know what a moth is (see pages 77 and 78). 
We have seen an apple with a dark worm hole in it, and we 
have cut the apple open and have found the little white worm 
inside. Now for its history. In our illustration, fig. 59, g is 
the moth about half an 
inch across the wings. 
The fore wings are grey, 
the hind wings light 
brown. As moths fly at 
night we are, perhaps, 
not so well acquainted 
with it as with the white 
larva. The female moth 
lays her eggs upon the 
little apple as it stands 
up-right. The larvae 
that hatch, usually enter 
at the blossom end, 
and bore to the core 
and feed upon it. Since 
the core is a continua- 
tion of the stem, the latter weakens and the wormy apples 
are the first to fall. After a while the larva eats its way out 
and falls to the ground. Generally it crawls to the trunk 
of the tree and after a little spins a cocoon from which in 
about two weeks the moth appears and begins the laying of 
eggs. Many of the larvae of this second brood are taken to 
the cellar in the apples. To destroy them is important. All 
wormy windfalls should be gathered up at once and fed to the 




Fig. 59. — The codling moth, a is the bur- 
row ; d, the entrance hole ; e, the larva ; 
d, the pupa ; /,' moth at rest ; £-, moth 
with wings spread ; A, head of larva ; z, 
cocoon containing pupa. 



114 



AGRICULTURE. 




pigs. The trees are sprayed with Paris green while the tiny 
apples are still turned upwards. If we spray the trees earlier 
for other insects we must be careful not to spray while in full 
bloom, since then we may poison the bees that are gathering 
honey and helping to fertilize the blossoms by carrying pollen 
from one blossom to another. Further, we may injure the 
blossoms and at that time the codling moth has not yet laid 
her eggs. 

The Pear Tree Slug. — The perfect insect is a very 
black saw-fly, with four wings of the form shown in fig. 36. 
The female is about one-fifth of an inch long, the male a little 

shorter. Points to be 
noted are the nature 
of the wings and the 
color of the legs. 
Little cuts are made 
Fig. 60.— The pear tree slug. in the leaf in which 

the eggs are laid about June. From these the slugs are 
hatched, which are from one-half to two-thirds of an inch long, 
slimy, dark green in color. At once they begin to eat the 
leaves. The slugs change their skins four or five times, and in 
about a month they crawl or fall to the ground and change to 
the pupa state. After two weeks more these change to flies, 
which are ready to lay eggs to hatch a second brood early in 
August. After doing damage a second time the larvae enter 
the ground for the winter. In the spring the flies appear, 
again ready for destruction. I'he slugs are to be looked for 
on pear and on cherry trees in June and again in August. 

The Plum Curculio. — The perfect insect is known as a 
weevil or snout beetle. It is dark in color, and about one- 
fifth of an inch in length. During winter it remains hidden 
under rubbish. It comes out in the spring and does great 
damage as the young fruit is setting. It punches a little hole 
in the fruit with its snout, lays an egg, and then makes 



INSECTS OF THE ORCHARD. 



"5 



a moon-shaped cut in the skin near the hole. If this cut were 

not made, what would happen to the young larva as the fruit 

grew in size ? One beetle will 

lay from fifty to i oo eggs. A 

sort of gum forms around the 

hole. The stem of the fruit 

soon weakens, and it drops to 

the ground with the larva in it. 

The larva then comes out and 

burrows into the ground. In 

about a month the full-grown 

beetle appears. Some fight 

the curculio by jarring the trees 

day after day, early or late, 

catching the insects in a sheet, and then throwing them into 

water covered with kerosene. Paris green is used in spraying. 

It is applied several times after the blossoms have fallen. 

Other Insects. — New insects are constantly appearing, 
being brought in from other countries in fruit and nursery 
stock. When first introduced, these insects increase very 
rapidly, since their natural enemies are not always brought 
with them at the same time. Sometimes they come later on. 




Fig. 6i. — The plum-tree curculio. a, the 
larva; b, the puna: c, the beetle; d, 
curculio, natural size, on young plum. 





Fig. 62.— Bud moth. The larva feeds 
upon young buds of fruit trees. 



Fig. 63. — Canker worm, a, b, and c are 
eg2;s ; ^ is a mass of eggs ; / is larva 
dark brown in color. Larva; can drop 
from tree by silk thread. They attack 
apple, plum, and cherry trees. 



Il6 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 



DISEASES OF THE ORCHARD. 

"An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure." 

Forms of Disease. — The leaves and green twigs of all the 
orchard trees are affected by diseases which are variously 
named leaf blight, leaf curl, yellows, etc. On the branches of 
plums and cherries we have black-knot. On the fruit we have 
diseases called the spot, the scab, rust, etc. We know that 
diseased fruit, such as spotted apples, is, as a rule, 
stunted in size and distorted in shape, and is not so salable as 
well-formed, clean fruit. Diseased fruit, also, will not keep so 
long as perfect fruit. We do not, perhaps, realize that trees 
whose roots, branches, or leaves are affected with disease will 
not produce as large crops as perfectly sound trees. It is 
especially important that the leaves be kept clean and thrifty. 

Prevention of Disease. — The first thing to be noted is 
that all old fruit trees or bushes that are not bearing good crops 
should be destroyed. When a tree becomes unfruitful it will 
be neglected and then diseases as well as insects will find a 
home in it. Even if at some distance from other trees, all 
such should be cut down and burned, since the spores of these 
diseases are very light and are carried long distances by the 
wind and by insects. In the case of black-knot upon plums 
or cherries, there is only one course to follow — cut it off and 
burn it. It will not do simply to cut it off and throw it on the 
waste heap ; the spores will ripen there and spread to the other 
trees. If affected twigs and limbs are cut off as soon as the 
first signs of disease appear, we shall do much to stop the 
spread of the disease. It may even be found to pay to cut 



DISEASES OF THE ORCHARD. 



117 



down a whole tree, since it may save the entire orchard. We 
must consider every one of these Httle knots, spots, or bhghts 
as breeders and spreaders of disease. 

If a tree was diseased last year the spores will be left upon 
the branches and on the trunk. By spraying before the buds 





J.M &<* 



Fig. 65. — Section of a diseasad plum leaf, spores 
bein i thrown off. a Spores very much enlarged- 
See Figs. 42 and 43. 



Fig. 64. — Disease in a plum 
leaf. 

open we prevent the spread of the early growing spores. The 
spraying must be repeated several times, as various diseases 
start to grow at different times. As a rule the best fruit-growers 
combine their spraying for insects and for diseases — thus they 
make a mixture of bluestone and of Paris green, the former to 
kill the disease spores, and the latter to poison some of the 
insects. One warning must be repeated, that is, not to spray 
with poison while any tree is in full bloom, since at that time 
the blossoms may be injured, and insects, such as bees, may 
be killed that are carrying pollen from the stamens to the 
pistils, thereby assisting in the fertilization of the blossoms. 



Il8 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXV. 



THE VINEYARD. 

The Vine Family. — The Virginia Creeper and the different 
varieties of the grape vine together form what is known as the 
vine family {vitacecE). These are woody plants climbing by 
tendrils. The leaves are set one after another (alternate). 
The flowers are small, greenish, in a cluster or bunch. The 
tendrils and flowers are opposite the leaves. The Virginia 
creeper has its leaflets in fives, and is thereby distinguished 
from poison ivy, which has its leaflets in threes. A bunch of 
blossoms like that of the Virginia creeper is called a cyine^ 
that like the grape is called a thyrsus. Notice the form of the 
tendrils of the V. creeper and how they attach themselves to 
wires and flat surfaces. Are those of the grape similar ? 

Varieties of Grapes. — The grapes grown under glass or 
in hot-houses in this country are quite different from those 
grown out of doors. They are of different flavor, and the 
former are thinner in the skin. Our hot-house grapes are 
European varieties. In the woods we find several varieties of 
grapes growing wild, with long climbing branches, bearing 
bunches of small fruit quite sour or acid. The principal wild 
varieties are known as the Northern Fox, the Summer grape, 
the white or Frost grape, and the Muscadine or Southern 
Fox. Our out-of-door cultivated varieties have been got 
by selections from these wild varieties, also by crossing 
them with the European, and by chance seedlings from all 
varieties. Most of our edible grapes have been got from 
crosses on the Northern Fox, and most of our wine grapes 
from crosses on the Frost grape. 



THE VINEYARD. II9 

Treatment of Vines. — The soil for planting should be 
deep, rich, and thoroughly drained. Two-year-old vines should 
be set out, and after the first year only mineral fertilizers, such 
as ashes and bones, should be applied unless the soil is poor. 
If the winters are severe the vines are laid down in the fall 
and covered. One of the most important points in connec- 
tion with grape growing is the pruning. If left alone the vine 
will naturally produce an abundance of stem, branches, and 
leaves. If properly pruned the food taken in by the roots 
and the leaves goes to the formation of fruit. The vines may 
be trellised in various ways, depending upon the climate. In 
mild climates where the vines are left up all winter they may 
be trained high and spread up fan-shaped. In colder regions 
one of the best methods is to lead one branch to the right 
and another to the left about a foot above the ground, and 
then train branches from these up across the wires. When 
pruned off in the fall, they can be easily laid down and cov- 
ered. The method of pruning is easily learned from practice 
with an expert. The method depends upon this rule : " The 
fruit forms upon shoots that grow this year from eyes that 
were formed on the wood that grew last year." All branches 
growing too long should be pinched at the end or " stopped," 
so. as to cause hardy wood to form. 

Grape-vines are increased in number by cuttings, layering, 
and grafting. The cuttings are made of the last season's 
growth, and are buried two buds deep in the ground. In lay- 
ering, a branch is turned down and buried, when it takes root. 
In grafting the method is somewhat similar to that of tree 
grafting, but the scion is inserted close to or below the surface 
of the ground. 

We have stated before that many of our best varieties are 
crosses of the fox grape. To understand this we must examine 
the blossom of the vine. The blossoms are small and some- 
what difficult to study. They are of peculiar shape. The 



I20 



AGRICULTURE. 



petals of the blossoms form a sort of cap which covers the 
pistils and stamens. As the flowers begin to open, the petals 
loosen below but remain connected above. In this they differ 
from the blossoms of the Virginia creeper. When these petals 
begin to open the pollen flies off from the stamens and falls 
upon the pistils, and then, if the pistils are ready for it, the 
fruit will begin to form. In some of the varieties, either the 
pollen is not well formed and distributed, or the pistils are not 
ready for it, and then fruit does not form. As a consequence 
we see bunches of small, imperfect fruit. When such varieties 
are grown alone little fruit may be expected. 

What is the grape tliat we eat? We throw away the seeds and skin and 
eat the pulp. Cut a grape across and observe its structure. Cut another 
lengthwise jo as to get a thia section ; hold this up to the light and 
observe how the seeds are placed and how they ate attached to the skin 
near the one end. What are raisins? 

Insect Enemies of the Grape. — Among the insects is 




Fig. 66. — Grape-vine flea-beetle, a, beetle; b, larva; r, larvae and beetles on foliage; 
dy injury to buds ; a and b much enlarged, rest natural size. 



THE VINEYARD. 



121 



the grape-vine flea-beetle which lays its eggs on the underside 
of the leaves. Small brownish larvae are hatched, which eat 
the leaves, then drop to the ground and change to the pupa 
form, from which in about three weeks the perfect beetle 
emerges. The beetles may be collected by hand, and the 
vines dusted with powder or sprayed. We also give here one 
of the leai-rollers which are found on so many vines and trees. 




Fig. 67.— Grape-vine leaf roller, a, male moth; l>, female; c, larva; d, head and 
thoracic segment of same, enlarged ; ^, pupa ; _/, tip of pupa, enlarged ; ^, grape 
leaf folded by larva. 

This grape-vine leaf-roller eats the leaves. The adult is 
a dark-colored moth with two white spots on each of the 
two hind wings. The larva rolls up a leaf and stitches it 
together, as shown in figure 67. Poison by spraying with 
Paris green in water, applied in early spring. 

The principal diseases of the grape are mildew and black 
rot, which are prevented by spraying. 
Suggestive : — 

Grape leaves are suitable objects to draw in outline. Notice the woolly- 
leaved Roger's varieties (the southern Fox grape) and also the ihin 
smooth-leaved kind like Clinton— the northern type. 

^^ hat is the best aspect for a grape-vineyard ? 
9 



122 AGRICULTURE. 



PART V. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 



HORSES. 

Origin of Horses — These animals are not natives of 
America. The Indians had no horses before the white-man 
came— they went afoot or by canoe. The wild horses of 
America are the offspring of escaped animals. Geologists 
have found traces of small animals, supposed to be the ances- 
tors of the horse, in some parts of America, but these had all 
disappeared long before Europeans arrived four centuries ago. 
Horses, as we know them, were originally used in warfare. At 
present we have many kinds of horses, but all have doubtless 
come from the same stock or kind. When the wild animal 
was first tamed or domesticated, we do not know. Climate 
and food, which varied in different countries, and the uses to 
which horses were put, gradually produced some changes in form 
and appearance. Animals that showed the qualities desired 
' — such as size, color, form, strength, and fleetness — were care- 
fully treated, and thus there were developed in different 
countries horses of different breeds. :5ome desired horses for 
heavy work, animals of heavy body, stout limbs, and strong 
muscles. Others desired horses for speed, animals of lighter 
frame, smaller bone, and sound lungs. 

Kinds of Horses. — Two classes of horses have resulted. 
We shall mention here only four breeds of each class. These 
have become fixed or definite in their characteristics. The 



HORSES. 123 

only way in which to become familiar with these different 
breeds is by observing the living animals. 
Heavy horses : 

1. The Clydesdale, from the valley of the Clyde in Scotland. 

2. The Shire, of the East-central shires of England. 

3. The Suffolk Punch, from the Eastern counties of England. 

4. The Percheron or Norman, of Northern France. 
Light horses : 

1. The Hackney, of Yorkshire and Eastern England. 

2. The Cleveland Bay, from Yorkshire, England. 

3. The Standard-bred, of the United States, a trotter. 

4. The Thoroughbred, or running horse of England. 

The Legs and Feet. — These are of most importance in 
a horse — "no foot, no horse" is true of it as of no other 
animal. The feet are constantly striking upon hard earth or 
stone. Why can a horse bear the strain of so much hard 
pounding upon its feet and legs ? The parts are being con- 
stantly reformed ; life is repairing them all the time. The dif- 
ferent parts are put together with what we may call cushions. 
Then the parts of the hind legs are not joined in a straight 
line, and the front legs are not straight as the feet strike the 
ground. Step from a chair, keeping the leg stepped on 
perfectly stiff. Notice how the jar goes straight up through 
the knee to the body. When we jump we bend the knees. 

Shoeing the Horse.— But the shape of the legs and the 
bending of the knees do not save the hoof from all wear and 
tear. If the shank and foot of a dead horse can be got, it 
will be an interesting study to take it apart and see the 
arrangement of the different parts. The wall of the hoof is 
what we see as the foot stands on the ground. It consists of 
toe, quarters, and heel. The wall turns in at the heel, forming 
the bars. Within the bars is the frog. Of what use is the 
frog ? Should it be much cut down in shoeing ? The varnish 



124 



AGRICULTURE. 




Fig. 68. 



The External Parts of the Horse. 



I. Face. 


24. Forearm. 


2. Forehead. 


25. Knee, 


3. Ears. 


26. Canon or shank. 


4. Muzzle. 


27. Fetlock joint. 


5. Cheek or fowl. 


28. Pastern. 


6. Poll. 


29. Coronet. 


7. Throat. 


30. Foot. 


8. Aarotid. 


31. Ergot and fetlock. 


Q. Neck. 


32. Haunch. 


10. Crest. 


33- Thigh. 


II. Jugular Channel or Furrow. 


34. Stifle. 


12. Breast. 


35. Buttock. 


13. Withers. 


36. Leg. 


14. Back. 


37. Hock. 


15. Ribs. 


38. Canon or shank. 


16. Girth. 


39. Fetlock joint. 


17. Loins. 


40. Ergot and fetlock. 


18. Croup. 


41. Pastern. 


19. Dock. 


42. Coronet. 


20. Flank. 


43. Foot. 


21. Belly. 


44. Lower thigh. 


22. Point of shoulder. 


45. Point of hock. 


23. Elbow. 





HORSES. 



125 



on the hoof is formed by nature to keep the water out on 
damp ground, and to keep the hoof from drying up and 
cracking on dry ground. Should the blacksmith rasp off this 
varnish if it is the natural protection to keep the hoof sound ? 
Great care must be taken in shoeing young horses while their 
hoofs are growing larger. On sod, turf, or dirt, it would not 
be necessary for a horse to be shod, as the hoof is hard, and 
formed by nature for running over the natural soil and grass. 
But we cause the horses to work on hard stone roads and 
pavements, and therefore we fit them with shoes that are 
harder than their natural hoofs. The hoof is of the same 
material as our finger-nails — we may 
call the hoof a large, thick toe-nail. 
The foot is the middle toe, the 
other four having disappeared. We 
can cut and pare the hoof and drive 
nails into it, therefore, without caus- 
ing any pain. If we cut the nail 
too deeply, we come to a very 
sensitive part of the finger. So with 
the hoof; under it and within it is 
a very sensitive part of the foot. It 
we cut into it or drive nails into it, 
we cause great pain to the horse, and 
lameness and suffering follow. The 
horse, therefore, should always be 
shod by a good farrier or shoer. 
When you walk on your toes, or 
in a pair of boots too high in the heel or too tight, you soon 
tire out. If good shoes of proper form and weight are so 
important to us in walking, the proper fitting of shoes of the 
right weight and size is quite as important to the horse. This 
is another reason for always having the work done by a good 
workman. 




Fig 69 — The horse's foot : A is the 
pastern, B the lower pastern, C the 
navicular, and D the coffin bone ; 
E is the wall of the hoof, to which 
the shoe is nailed. 



126 AGRICULTURE. 

Food of Horses. — The horse has a small stomach, and 
does heavy work, therefore we must remember that strong food 
and pure water should be given in moderate quantities, and at 
frequent intervals. The stomach when empty weighs from 
three to four pounds, and it will hold three to three and a half 
gallons. Horses are not built for coarse, bulky fodder. Nature 
and experience prove that such food as good hay and oats are 
well adapted to horses that have to work hard either in 
driving or in drawing. Overfeeding of ourselves makes us 
heavy and lazy, and causes indigestion. We should be careful 
to give the horse just enough to eat for its needs, and no more. 

Care of Horses. — Grooming to a horse is the same as 
washing to ourselves — it keeps the pores of the skin clean and 
gives a good appearance to the horse. Since it does all of its 
work on its feet, the health of the feet and legs is of the greatest 
importance ; therefore great care is taken in providing a proper 
floor for the stable. We do not rest or sleep well in a foul 
atmosphere ; the horse stable should be kept clean and neat. 
We do not rest well on too hard a bed, neither does the horse. 
We do not thrive well when exposed to cold winds or heavy 
rains, neither does a horse. When we come in from hard 
work and are in a perspiration, we do not sit or stand in a 
draught ; the horse is just as likely to catch cold. 

What is meant by the height of a horse ? In what terms is it stated ? 

When a horse walks, in what order does it lift its feet ? Describe the 
actions of the feet and legs in trotting, pacing, cantering, and in galloping. 

When a horse rise?, which feet are raised first? Why does sitting on a 
horse's head prevent its rising ? Would such action prevent a cow ? 

Is it natural for a horse to reach up and pull down its food, such as 
dusty hay ? 



CATTLE. 127 



CHAPTER XXVIL 



CATTLE. 

Breeds of Cattle. — Cattle formerly included all the live 
stock of the farm ; we now apply the term only to bovine 
cattle or neat cattle. They are descended from wild animals, 
some of which are still found in the wild condition. As 
horses were at first used for warfare, cattle were largely used 
for work. We have now two uses for cattle — producing beef 
and producing milk. There are very many different breeds in 
these two classes, but we may give the four leading breeds of 
each class in this country as follows : 

Beef breeds : 

1. The Shorthorn, or Durham, originated in Durham 
County, England, over 100 years ago from Teeswater cattle. 
There are some dairy families also among shorthorns. 

2. The Hereford, originated in Herefordshire, England, over 
150 years ago. 

3. The Galloway, a breed of black polled cattle or "doddies," 
from Southern Scotland. 

4. The Aberdeen-Angus, from Aberdeenshire, Scotland. 
Dairy breeds : 

1. The Jersey, from the Island of Jersey. 

2. The Guernsey, from the Island of Guernsey. 

3. The Ayrshire, from Ayrshire, Scotland. 

4. The Holstein, or Holstein-Friesian. 

In figure 70 we give the outlines of a beef animal. We shall 
now refer to a few of these parts. 



128 



AGRICULTURE. 




Fig 


70.— The External Parts of a Beef Animal. 


I. Mouth. 


17. Shoulder Point. 


33- 


Plates. 


2. Nostrils. 


18. Shoulder Vein. 


34- 


Rumps. 


3- Lips. 


19. Elbows. 


35- 


Hips. 


4. Muzzle. 


20. Arm. 


36. 


Thighs. 


5. Kace. 


21. Knees. 


37- 


Hocks. 


6 Eyes. 


22. Shanks. 


38- 


Hind Leg. 


7 Cheeks. 


23. Hoofs. 


39- 


Brisket. 


8. Jaws. 


24. Crops. 


40. 


Bosom . 


Q. Korehead. 


25. Fore Flank. 


41. 


Chest. 


10. Poll. 


26. Kore Ribs. 


42. 


Loin 


II. Horns. 


27. Mid Rihs. 


43- 


Hooks. 


12. Ears. 


28. Hinder Ribs. 


44. 


Purse. 


13. Neck 


29. Barrel. 


45- 


Twist. 


14. Throat. 


30. Belly. 


46. 


Pin Bones. 


IS D-wlap. 


31. Spine. 


47- 


Tail Head. 


16. Shoulders. 


32. Flank. 


48. 


Tail. 



CATTLE. 129 

Horns and Hoofs. — The horns of cattle were intended 
by nature for defence.- In the domestic animal they are not 
required, hence breeders have aimed at reducing or removing 
them. The "Longhorn" breed was once a favorite; it has 
given place to the " Shorthorn." In some breeds the horns 
have disappeared. These are called ''polled" cattle, as the 
Polled-Angus and the Red Polls. The bone of an animal is 
largely made up of mineral matter (phosphate of lime), with 
some oily and gluey substances. Horns and hoofs are quite 
different from and independent of the bones. When burned, 
a piece of horn or of hoof will give off a very disagreeable 
odor. So will hair. The horns, hoofs, and hair are all nitro- 
genous in their nature. Since the horn is closely connected 
with a very sensitive part of the animal's head, when dehorning 
is practised, the horn should be cut off quickly and neatly. 
The horse's hoof is in one piece ; the feet of cattle are cloven. 
Is there any advantage to the cattle in this ? Which kind of 
foot is better adapted to climbing, and which to level travel ? 
Do all cloven-footed animals chew the cud ? 

The Mouth. — When full-grown, we have three kinds of 
teeth. The front teeth are for biting, and are called the 
incisors ; the back teeth are broad and double-rooted, formed 
for grinding, known as the molars ; between these are longer 
teeth called the canines. If you examine the teeth of an ox, 
you find no upper incisors and no canines. There are eight 
lower incisors, and six upper and six lower molars on each side, 
making thirty-two in all, as follows : 

Incisors - Canines — Molars ——. 
8 0-0 6-6 

This arrangement applies to cattle, sheep, goats, and deer, 

though sometimes canines occur. How would you represent, as 

above, the teeth of a boy and of a full-grown man ? How those of 

a horse ? The molars of a horse are larger and broader than 

those of a cow. A horse bites the grass with the incisors, 



I30 



AGRICULTURE. 



and by a nod of the head cuts it away. A cow wraps her tongue 
around the long, coarse grass, pulls it into her mouth, closes 
the incisors and upper gum upon it, and by a movement of the 
head tears it away. The horse is therefore able to take the 
fine grass, and to crop the pasture more closely than the cow. 

The Stomach. — Sheep and cattle are ruminants — they chew 
the cud. See Fig. 71. a represents the gullet connecting the 
stomach and mouth through which the food passes into the 
stomach, and / the beginning of the intestine through which 

the food passes out of the 
stomach. There are four sacs all 
joined ; b is the first or largest 
stomach (the rumen, or paunch); 
c is the second (reticulum) ; 
d the third (omasum) ; e the 
fourth (abomasum). When a 
cow takes in coarse food, it passes 
into the first or largest stomach 
until the cow is done eating. 
Then the cow stops taking in 
food and begins to digest it. 
Fig. 71.— The four stomachs of a cow. After soaking or Steeping some 
time in the large stomach, it gradually comes back through the 
gullet to the mouth, to be chewed over and over until it becomes 
more liquid-like. Then it flows back and passes right on into 
the smaller stomachs, and thence into the intestines. If liquid 
food is taken, as in the case of calves, the food passes right on 
into the third and fourth stomachs. The four stomachs of the 
cow therefore enable her to take in a large quantity of food, 
and to digest very coarse fodder. The chewing of the cud 
enables her to do without the complete set of teeth so neces- 
sary in the case of horses. The single stomach of a horse 
holds about 3 gallons, the four stomachs of a cow from 60 to 
70 gallons. 




CATTLE. 



31 



Dairy Cattle. — Figure 72 shows the general form of a 
good dairy cow, an animal in which the end desired is to give 
as large an amount as possible of rich milk at the least cost 
for food. Contrast the outlines of this animal with the one 
shown in figure 70. As a rule, the large dairy herds are corn- 




Fig. 72. — Parts of a model dairy cow. 

posed of grade cows ; these are the offspring of pure-bred sires 
and common dams. There is an old saying, " The sire is half 
the herd." This is illustrated in the following table of the 
offspring of a pure-bred sire and of a common (scrub) sire : 



Pure-bred sire. 
Common cows or dams. 

1. Grades, one-half pure. 

2. Three-quarters pure. 

3. Seven-eighths pure. 



Common (scrub) sire. 
Pure-bred cows or dams. 

1. Grades, one-half pure. 

2. One-quarter pure. 

3. One-eighth pure (scrub). 



This statement means that in the first case we start with a 
herd of common cows and a pure-bred sire. The first genera- 
tion of calves will all be grades, one-half pure-bred. The 
calves of these and the pure-bred sire will all be three-quarters 
pure-bred, and their calves will be seven-eighths pure-bred. 



AGRICULTURE. 



If, however, we were to start a herd with pure-bred cows and 
a common sire, the third race or generation would be only one- 
eighth pure-bred. The continued use of a pure-bred sire will 
in a few years bring the herd to the level of the sire. 

Beef. — As we have got most of our farm animals from 
the British Isles, the names applied to them have come 
from the same source. The living animals we call oxen, cows, 
calves, sheep, swine, but the meat from these same animals we 
call beef, veal, mutton, pork. Why these 
two sets of names ? In early times the 
living animals w^ere tended by the Saxon 
hind, and the meat was eaten by the 
Norman lord or baron. Thus the names 
for the living animals are Saxon names, 
and the names for the meats are Norman. 
But what is the meat ? It is made up 
of fat and lean meat. The lean meat is 
of the same composition as muscle ; in 
fact, it is fine, tender, muscle fibre. Now 
we can easily understand why the differ- 
ent parts of a quarter of beef are not 
Fig. 73._A side of Beef, equally valuablc. In some parts the fibre 
Le^. 2. Round. 3. Mouse is coarscr, morc Hkc musclc as we gener- 
buuick" 4 Veiny piece, ^jj^ ^^^^ -^ ^^ ^^^ Understand why 

the neck is tough, and why the meat of 
the hind quarter, for instance, is tougher 
towards the smaller or lower part or 
shank. In finding the tenderest cut of the 
carcass, we look for that place where there is plenty of flesh 
and litde work to be done, that is, where the muscles are least 
developed by hard work ; this, by reference to Fig. 73, we 
locate between parts 5 and 8. 




eM 



5. Sirloin. 6. Rump. 7. 
Thick flank. 8. Porterhouse 
(including tenderloin). g. 
Thin flank. 10. P'orerib. 
II. Brisket 12. Middle rib. 
13. Shoulder. 14. Chuck 
rib. 15 Shin 16. Clod. 
17. Neck, or sticking-piece. 



SHEEP. 133 



CHAPTER XXVIII 




SHEEP. 

"The foot of the Sheep bringeth wealth." 

Nature of Sheep. — Our domestic sheep are so harmless- 
that we are not at first thought Hkely to see in them the 
descendants of wild animals. Their shyness, their flocking to- 
gether and following a leader, and their natural inclination to 
climb hills and even knolls, recall the characteristics of their 
ancestors, the wild sheep of the mountains. 
They are more closely allied to our cattle 
than to other farm stock. Like the cattle 
they are cloven-footed, have four stomachs, 
and chew the cud. Cattle are more in- 
clined to the wet bottomland and the 
water courses, sheep to the dry uplands. 

/"« ^x.1 ^ J vi 1 • J 1 VI Fig. 74.— What breed is it? 

Cattle are coated with hair and sheep with 
wool. The sheep is one of man's earliest farm chattels, provid- 
ing him with both meat and clothing, and is of very great 
usefulness in helping maintain the fertility of the soil. 

Wool. — -Hair and wool contain nitrogen, as you may prove 
by burning — ammonia being given off. Burn a piece of cotton 
thread and notice the result. The wool of the sheep is for its 
protection, and therefore the length and thickness of the wool 
vary with the climate of the countries in which the sheep are 
living. The same is true of the hair of cattle, as we see in the 
case of the shaggy covering of the Highland breed of cattle. 
Horses exposed to the winter weather grow a coarse coat. 
Food also affects the quality of the wool. If the food is not 
uniform the wool will become irregular and be of poor quality 



134 AGRICULTURE. 

No Other farm animal is so much affected by its surroundings' 
as the sheep. As a consequence we find so many different 
varieties, and for this reason we must be careful to choose the 
variety that is most Hkely to do well in the conditions of the 
farm on which they are desired to be grown — such as situation, 
climate, etc. Why is wool warm ? Because it is fine and 
open and holds so much air in its fibres, and this air prevents 
the heat of the body from going off; as we say it is a poor 
conductor of heat. It is not because it keeps out cold, but 
because it keeps in the heat of the body. If you wrap a 
piece of ice in a loose thick woollen cloth it will prevent the 
ice from melting rapidly. Why? Because the heat outside 
does not pass through or get in. Double windows in a house 
are a protection, not because of the glass in the panes, but 
because of the air between the two windows. So the hollow 
space in the wall of a silo keeps in the heat of the ensilage, 
and thus prevents it from freezing. A covering of loose snow 
protects the wheat for the same reason. Now that we under- 
stand that wool keeps the sheep warm while it is on the sheep's 
back, we ask why wool can be made into yarn and cloth. If 
you look at a fibre of wool under a magnifying glass you will 
see that it is made up of sections, that there are little joints or 
scales on the wool and when several fibres are twisted together 
these little scales catch into one another and the fibres thus 
hold together tightly — the wool, as we say, "felts" well. There 
comes from the skin of the sheep a soapy substance called the 
" yolk," which covers the inner wool and helps to shed the 
rain. It prevents the wool from felting on the sheep's body. 
When the fleece is washed this is washed out and the fleece 
becomes much lighter. Sheep are by nature fitted to stand 
cold, but not wet weather — they should always have dry quarters. 
Breeds of Sheep. — Sheep of various breeds are found in 
Britain, from the marsh lands of Kent to the mountains of 
Wales and Scotland. They have adapted themselves in time 



SHEEP. 



135 



CO a great variety of soil and climate, and in selecting sheep for 
a farm it is well to get the breed suited to the situation. The 
following is a table of the principal British breeds : 

Mountain Breeds. Upland or Hill Breeds. 

Welsh, Dorset, 

Cheviot, Southdown, 

Highland. Suffolk, 

Lowland Breeds. Hampshire, 

Cotswold, Shropshire, 

Leicester, Oxford. 

Lincoln, 
Romney Marsh. 
The lowland breeds are long-wooled and the upland breeds 
short-vvooled. The lowland breeds are larger than the uplands. 
The upland breeds are the best mutton breeds. Short wool 
from 3 to 4 inches long is sometimes called carding wool, and 
longer wool, from 7 to 8 inches long, combing wool. 

The principal breeds of this country may be arranged as 
follows, according to the texture of their wool : 
Fine-wooled : — Merino ; 

Medium-wooled : — Southdown, Shropshire, Hampshire, Ox- 
ford Down, Cheviot, Horned Dorset ; 

Coarse-ivooled : — Leicester, Lincoln, Cotswold. 
Is the wool on all parts of a sheep's body of the same texture ? 
Are all long wools coarse, and all short wools fine ? 
From what parts of Europe have the above breeds of sheep come ? 
At what time of the year does shearing take place ? 
Are goats covered with wool or with hair ? 
What kinds of cloths are made from wool ? 
Why is flannel cloth warmer than cotton ? 
What is shoddy ? 



136 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXIX. 



SWINE. 

Nature of Swine. — The wild hog is still found in many 

parts of the world. Even in Europe there are districts where 

wild boars are hunted. From the many kinds of wild hogs our 

domestic breeds have been derived. In the wild condition 

the animal is very active, and well able to protect itself by its 

tusks and teeth. The improving of the wild animal has 

changed the form, and made an animal that is quite compact 

and fleshy, and less active. There is less bone in the hog than 

in sheep or cattle, as one may see from the following statement, 

which gives the number of pounds of water, fleshy substance, 

fat, and ash or bony matter in every 100 pounds of a fat ox, a 

fat sheep, and a fat pig : 

Fat Ox. Fat Sheep. Fat Pig. 
lb. lb. lb. 

Water 48 4^ 43 

Fleshy matter 15 13 11 

Fat 32 38 44 

Ash (bony part) 5 3 2 

Thus it will be seen that a fat pig has more fat and less bone 
in proportion to its weight than a fat ox or a fat sheep. 

Growth.— Although the hog has cloven hoofs, it does not 
ruminate or chew its cud as do the cow and the sheep. 
Therefore, we may conclude at once that it does not digest its 
food in the same way as they do. It has only one stomach. 
And yet we find that the hog grows in weight more rapidly. 
How do we explain this ? There are three things to be con- 
sidered : First, the kind of food which the animal eats ; 
second, the means which the animal has of digesting its food ; 
and, third, what the food, after being digested, is used for. 



SWINE. 137 

First, as to the food eaten. Pigs are able to eat a greater 
variety of foods than cattle or sheep. The wild hog lives on 
grass, roots, nuts, etc. Our domestic hogs are generally fed the 
richest kinds of food — peas, corn, wheat, skim milk, flesh meal, 
etc. Pigs will greedily devour the richest rations day after 
day of which most other animals would soon become tired. 

Second, as to the power of digesting food. As we have 
stated before, the animal digests and takes up its food through 
the stomach and intestines. The pig has a small stomach, but 
a very long intestine. The following table gives an idea of 
the weight of the stomach and intestines in proportion to the 
whole body, and also the weight of the four quarters : 

Cattle. Sheep. Swine. 

Per cent. Per cent. Per cent. 

Stomach 4^ 2^2 i\ 

Intestines..... 2 23^ 4 

Four quarters 47/^ 45 73 

Thus it will be seen that in cattle the stomach is over twice 
the intestines in weight, in sheep about equal, whereas in 
swine the intestines are over three times the weight of the 
stomach. We conclude that swine have small stomachs, and 
can take only a small amount of food at a time, but, because 
of their very long intestines, they are able to digest the food 
much more thoroughly— that is, they feed frequently and 
digest their food thoroughly. 

Third, as to the use made of the food digested. They are 
not so active as sheep or cattle ; they are generally more shut 
in, and therefore they do not use up as much of their food 
through exercise. English experiments prove that, out of 
every 100 pounds of digested food, catde use 23 pounds, 
sheep 26, and swine 43, for making increase in their bodies. 

When, further, we remember that swine increase in number 
so much more rapidly than cattle or sheep, we can understand 
why the keeping of swine is so profitable a part of farm work. 
10 



138 



AGRICULTURE. 



Breeds of Swine. — Every country has its own peculiar 
breeds of swine. In England there are, besides many others, 
the following : The Large White, the Small White, and the 
Middle breeds (so named according to their size and color) ; 
also the Black Suffolk or Essex, the Berkshires, the Dorsets, 
and the Tamworths. In America there have been developed 
breeds known as the Chester White (Pennsylvania), the Poland 
China (Ohio), and the Duroc or Jersey Red (New Jersey). The 
Yorkshires and Improved Yorkshires of America are derived 
from the Large White swine of England. 

Feeding of Swine. — In producing pork and bacon, three 

things are to be noted : 
Selection of the right kind 
of swine ; feeding the best 
kind of food ; housing the 
animals in suitable quarters. 
In producing swine for 
bacon and hams that are 
required for city consump- 
tion, hogs of medium size, 
that produce lean meat and 
fat in proper proportion, are 
the best. Foods such as 
the bye-products of milk, 
peas, wheat, and barley, will 
produce more lean meat and 
less fat than corn. The hog 
is sometimes considered a 
dirty animal. For this the 
owner is as much respon- 
sible as the animal. Clean 
housing and good care will pay with swine as much as with 
other animals. 




Fig. 75.— Two sides of pork, showing method 

of cutting up. 
^ Streaky quarter. 9 Loin. 

2 Rib quartet. 10 Fillet. 

3 Middle quarter. 11 Shou'der. 

4 Hams " 12 Prime streaky. 

5 End of neck. 13 Thin " 

6 Middle of neck. 14 Flank. 

7 Thick back and sides. 15 Middle of gammon. 

8 Prime back and ribs. 16 Knuckle of gammon. 

17 Fore end. 



POULTRY. 139 



CHAPTER XXX 



POULTRY. 

Origin. — In addition to the common poultry of the farm, 
we have turkeys, geese, ducks ; also guinea-fowls, pea-fowls and 
pheasants. These are all closely related to various kinds of 
wild fowls and some of them are very similar to these wild 
fowls in appearance. In our common fowls there are very 
many varieties of breeds, from the small bantams to the large 
brahmas, differing in size, in shape, and in the color and form 
of feather or plumage. It is believed that all have been derived 
from one original source, a wild breed of fowl. Many consider 
that the common Jungle Fowl of India is the source from 
which have come all the varieties. This fowl is somewhat like 
the Black-breasted Red Game, and is still found in India. 
Others think a wild fowl now no longer found is the ancestor. 
How have our breeds been formed ? Just as new breeds are 
now being formed. Suppose we take a flock of fowls and observe 
them from year to year, as they increase in number. We shall 
get some chickens that, as they grow, show differences in form, 
size and color. Even if they are all one variety, here and there 
one will appear having some slight difference from the others. 
We select two or three that have a new coloring in their 
feathers that we desire to continue. Those selected are differ- 
ent from the others, but similar to one another. We place 
them by themselves and allow them to breed. The chickens 
that we raise from them will probably have the same peculiar 
kind of feathers. We select those that are most alike and 
breed from them. After a few years we may be able to raise 
a number of fowls that are quite similar in appearance to one 



I40 



AGRICULTURE. 



another, out quite different from the original flock, and whose 
chickens will resemble the parent fowls. Thus a new variety 
or breed will be obtained. Or we may take birds from two 
different kinds of fowls and cross them. By carefully selecting 
only those that have the peculiarities that we desire to preserve, 
we shall soon get a new breed which may be improved in size 
and shape by selecting only the best, male and female, to breed 
from. Thus the Plymouth Rocks have been obtained by 
crossing American Dominiques with Cochins. It is very 
important to note that the fowls are so readily changed in form 






^ 


^= 


^?^*< 


^^^^r^22 




'—-'—. 




^r^^ 




Fig 


76.- 


-Part! 


5 of a Fowl. 


I Comb. 








12 Main tail feathers. 


2 Face. 








13 Wing-bow. 


3 Wattle. 








14 Winej coverts forming the "bar. 


4 Earlobe. 








15 vSecondaries. 


5 Hackle. 








;6 Primaries, or flight feathers. 


6 IJreast. 








.7 Point of breast bone. 


7 Back. 








i3 Thighs. 


8 Saddle. 








19 Hocks. 


9 Saddle feathers. 








20 Legs or shanks. 


lo Sickles. 








21 Spur. 


II Tail coverts. 








22 Toes or claws. 



POULTRY. 141 

and feathers. Breeds that are so readily changed will soon run 
out unless care is constantly taken to improve them, by weed- 
ing out the poorest and keeping the best with care. 

The Parts of a Fowl. — Since all have the same origin 
we may expect that they will all have some characteristics in 
common. The general form is the same. Fig. 76 gives us 
the names of the various parts. 

Varieties. — In some varieties, such as the Cochins, the 
Langshans, and the Brahmas, the feathers extend down the 
outside of the legs or shanks. From this fact we sometimes 
have the fowls divided into the two classes, the smooth-legged 
and the feather-legged. The different breeds are further sub- 
divided according to the color of their plumage ; thus we have 
Dark Brahmas and Light Brahmas ; also Black, Buff, White 
and Partridge Cochins. Another mode of classing fowls is 
into laying varieties and sitting varieties. Sometimes they are 
classed according to the country or region from which they 
have been derived, as Asiatics, Mediterraneans, Americans. 

Characteristics. — Common fowls have four toes, three in 
front and one to the rear. They are not web-footed, there- 
fore we conclude they are fitted by nature for hard dry soil. 
What is the use of the web foot in ducks and geese ? The 
toes have sharp strong nails for scratching. From this we 
notice that they should be supplied with a dry run where they 
can scratch and exercise themselves and their young broods. 
Fowls take their young to seek for food and birds bring food 
to their young in the nest. They need plenty of sunlight, as we 
may conclude from watching chickens basking in the sunshine. 
How do fowls drink water ? Have they teeth ? What is the 
use of the crop in fowls ? 

As to food we have only to remember what the fowls 
require food for to conclude that they need plenty of rich food. 
They are constantly growing feathers which are rich in nitro- 
gen, their flesh is principally lean meat, their eggs are what we 



142 AGRICULTURE. 

call "strong meat." For their good health they need also 
some green food. The shells of their eggs are largely com- 
posed of lime, therefore we must give them mineral matter, 
especially when more or less shut in and when the ground is 
covered with snow. They are fitted by nature for picking out 
the richest food, such as insects and small seeds. 

The health of the fowls depends greatly upon having a 
variety of clean food to eat, clean water to drink, clean places 
in which to roost and nest. The fowls keep their coats and 
skins clean of insects by dusting, as do many other animals. 

Because of the rich food, such as grains and insects, 
which fowls feed upon, we may expect the droppings to be 
rich in fertilizing material. The richest manure made upon 
the farm is that from fowls. It should be carefully saved and 
used where it will do most good. The use of gypsum or sifted 
coal ashes about the hennery, especially under the perches, 
(not common lime or wood ashes) will keep the buildings 
clean and sweet. In washing the buildings with lime or other 
disinfectant, the orchard spray pump may be used. 

Eggs. — A good flock of laying hens should lay on the 
average ten dozen eggs each. The egg consists of the shell, 
which is porous, the lining or membrane, the " white " or 
albumen, and the yolk. 

Can you give any reason for some birds' eggs being nearly spherical in 
shape, and others oval like hens' eggs ? 

In which end is the air chamber of an egi^ ? 

Why is a stale egg lighter than a fresh egg ? 

What is meant by " candling " eggs ? 

Why is the shell porous ? 

Why does the setting hen turn the eggs under her ? 

What is an incubator ? 

How long does it take to hatch a chick from an egg ? 

Why does a " moulting " hen not lay eggs ? 

What are the principal methods of preserving eggs ? 

Which is the better test of a laying hen ? The number of eggs laid, or 
the total weight of eggs laid ? 



MILK. 143 



CHAPTER XXXI 



MILK. 

Milk. — Nature provides as a food for the young calf the 
milk of the mother cow. For a short time after the birth of 
the calf this product is called "colostrum." In a few days, 
however, the cow gives in her udder milk such as we use. 
The giving of milk is to a great extent an acquired habit. In 
the case of breeds raised for beef only, as in the case of 
Herefords, the quantity of milk given is not large. Where, 
however, the aim has been to produce dairy cows the continued 
practice of milking has gradually increased the flow of milk. 
The knowledge of this is important. For instance, if we begin 
by milking a cow, say for only six months, and then allow her 
to go dry, she will of herself be inclined to go dry thereafter 
at about the end of six months. If we do not thoroughly milk 
out a cow at first, she will gradually drop off in her flow. It is 
of importance, then, to thoroughly milk out the cows, especially 
as the strippings are the richest portion of the milk. Anything 
that irritates or disturbs a cow will cause her to " hold up " 
and to produce a poorer milk. The cow as a milk-producing 
animal, it must be remembered, is very much what her owner 
makes her, and she will give many of her qualities to her calf. 

If we place some milk in a tall, narrow glass, and allow it to 
stand for a while, there will gradually rise to the top a thick 
substance, sometimes yellowish in color, which we call cream 
When this cream is churned, we get from it butter, which is 
an oily substance. Carefully remove the cream, and allow the 
other portion of the milk, the skim-milk, to stand for some 
time until it thoroughly sours; we shall find that a curdy 



144 AGRICULTURE. 

substance separates and leaves a bluish water behind. The 
cream or butter, then, is an oil or fat which is mixed through 
the milk, and from the fact that it comes to the top we conclude 
that it is lighter than the skim-milk. It is not dissolved in the 
water of the milk as sugar is dissolved in water, but is simply 
mixed with it or distributed through it in very fine particles ; 
in fact, we can put it back into the skim-milk if we pour the 
two together from one vessel into another before the milk 

sours. It is in the form of 
i ^ what is called an "emulsion." 

When fresh milk is run through 
a cream separator, the heavy 
skim-milk is thrown away from 
the lighter fat or cream. This 
could not be done if the fat were 
i^ dissolved in it. Milk, then, 
contains water and fat or oil — 
butter-fat, as it is called. Now 

Fig. 77.— Milk, showing the fat globules take SOmC skim-milk and slight- 
floating in it. , -J. \ J.-U- r 

ly warm it. A thm scum forms 
upon it. This scum is composed principally of a/dumen, a 
nitrogen compound similar to the white of egg, which becomes 
white and nsoluble by heating or cooking. It forms but a 
small portion of the milk. If, however, we put a few drops of 
rennet or vinegar into the skim-milk, a curdling at once takes 
place, and a considerable quantity of material is thrown out of 
solution and floats about as a curdy or cheesy mass; this 
is the casein of the milk, also a nitrogen compound. Then 
we have at least two nitrogen compounds in milk — the 
albumen, which is curdled by heat, and the casein, which is 
curdled by acids. The latter is in much larger quantity than 
the former, and both are in solution in the water of the milk. 
We can readily prove that these two contain nitrogen, and 
differ therein from the fat. Take some pure butter and burn 



MILK. 145 

it on the end of an old knife, then burn some casein curd or 
cheese, and notice the strong ammonia smell from the latter. 
If, now, we pour off the clean water from the curd, and carefully 
evaporate the water in a saucer placed over the steam of a 
kettle or in a slow oven, we shall get a white substance that 
tastes sweet but gritty ; it is the sugar of the milk, called milk- 
sugar or lactose. Finally, if we carefully dry out a little dish 
of milk and burn it thoroughly, we shall have left a small 
quantity of ash or mineral matter. Milk, therefore, consists ot 
water, having particles of butter-fat floating in it undissolved, 
and having in solution casein and albumen, milk-sugar, and 
ash. The composition may be stated as follows : 

Water, from 80 to 90 averaging 87.0 per cent. 

Fat, from 2 to 10 ....... . . " 4.0 " 

Casein or cheesy substance . . " 3.0 " 

Albumen " 0.5 *' 

Sugar or lactose " 4.8 " 

Ash or mineral matter " 0.7 " 

A pitcher of warm water gives off vapor into the air, but a 
pitcher of ice water will have vapor settle up its sides from the 
air. So it is with milk. Milk is warm when first milked and 
we can smell the odor, the cow odor, as it passes off into the 
air ; but it soon begins to cool down and vapors of the air 
will settle upon its surface as upon the cold pitcher. If, there- 
fore, we leave a pail of milk standing in the stable, or near any 
food that has a bad smell, it will take up foul air that can after- 
wards be tasted in the milk, the butter and the cheese. As 
soon as milking is done the milk should at once be taken to 
a clean milk-house or cellar. But bad odors and tastes can be 
given from the food. Thus turnips, bad ensilage, cabbage, 
rape and weeds of many kinds will affect the milk. All such 
should be kept from the animal. Here we see a strong argu- 
ment for keeping pastures clean. Every trace of musty food 
such as mouldy ensilage or rotting roots should be kept from 



146 



AGRICULTURE. 



the COWS. The mangers should be kept sweet. No more food 
should be given than the cows will eat up clean, otherwise 
the feeding boxes may become stale. The best way to get 
good flavored milk is to feed only such foods as will give a 
good flavor. A plentiful supply of salt always within reach 
will improve the digestion, increase the eating power, keep the 
system in good condition, and increase the flow of milk. 




Fig. 78. — The udder, left s'de, with skin removed, a is an artery wi'h branches c, d, 
and e carrying blood to different parts; (^ is a vein with branches g, h, a.n(\ o ; I is a 
lymphatic gland; m is the milk vein; t is a nerve, of which u is a branch and .r is a 
continuation. Beneath and connected with the above parts is a milk gland, the outlets 
of which are through these two teats. In the upper part of each of the teats is a small 
milk cistern. On the opposite side of the udder is a second gland having outlets through 
the two right teats. Out of the blood brought to the udder through the arteries, th<i 
cells ne.xt to the glands are formed These cells are gradually changed into milk, which 
fills the glands and the milk cisterns, and passes off through the nipple of the teats. 



PRODUCTS OF MILK. I47 



CHAPTER XXXII. 



PRODUCTS OF MILK. 

Cream. — The cream is formed by the particles or globules 
of fat which, because they are lighter than water, rise to the 
surface. These globules are very small— it would take about 
2,000 of the largest of them placed side by side to make an 
inch. To see them, they must be examined under a powerful 
microscope. Some of them are smaller than others. The 
larger they are, the more rapidly they will rise, and the more 
quickly and thoroughly the milk will cream. Milk with large 
fat globules is therefore adapted to butter-making ; that with 
small fat globules is well adapted to cheese-making. These fat 
globules are not transparent ; therefore instruments are some- 
times used to determine the quantity of fat in milk by 
determining how much water must be added before the milk 
can be clearly seen through. Such instruments are called 
" lactoscopes." 

The separating of the cream from the milk is done either by 
placing the milk in pans or cans, and allowing the cream to 
rise of itself, because it is lighter than the water ; or by running 
it through a machine called a "separator." This consists 
mainly of a steel bowl, which is caused to revolve at a very 
high rate of speed. The water, being heavier, flies to the 
outside next to the bowl, and flows off by one spout, and the 
cream is left behind in the inner part of the bowl, and flows 
off by another spout. In order to allow the water and cream 
to separate more easily, the milk is warmed slightly before it is 
run into the bowl. The cream by this process is separated in 



148 AGRICULTURE. 

a fresh, sweet condition, whereas by the "cream-setting" 
process it may be more or less soured or ripened. 

The richness of milk in cream varies greatly with the different 
breeds, the different animals of the same breed, the period of 
milking, and the portion of the milk taken. The strippings or 
last portions of the milk are richer in cream than the tore-milk 
or first portion milked, as the water comes away from the 
udder in larger portions at first, and the fat appears to be set 
free in the udder by the process of milking. Ordinarily cream 
will contain from 55 to 65 per cent, of water, 25 to 40 per 
cent, of fat, and some sugar and casein. If the milk sours 
during creaming, so as to cause the casein to curdle, more 
casein will be carried along with the fat. Therefore, the milk 
should be kept cool in creaming by the setting process. In 
creaming milk, the purpose should be to remove the butter-fat 
as thoroughly as possible, in as sweet a condition as possible, 
and with as Httle water as possible. 

Skim-milk. — This is the milk that has been skimmed of its 
cream, or from which the fat has been removed by. the separ- 
ator. If we could talce all of the fat, and only the fat, we 
would still have left in the skim-milk the water, casein and 
albumen, sugar, and ash. The skim-milk would contain a 
large amount of very important food compounds, viz.: casein 
and albumen, which can make muscle and flesh, or form fat, 
or be burned up to produce heat ; sugar, which can be used 
for producing heat ; and ash of the best kind for making bone. 
Thus we see that skim-milk is a most important food, only the 
fat is lacking to make it a perfect food for young animals. We 
can replace this fat that has been removed in the cream by 
mixing with it a small quantity of some oily food, such as a 
little boiled linseed. If, then, we take away the milk from the 
young calf for making butter, we can give it back to it by 
adding linseed or some rich meal to the warm skim-milk, and 
thus imitate the natural cow's milk. When the cream is 



PRODUCTS OF MILK. 



149 



removed by the separator, the skim-milk is still quite sweet, 
but when we allow the milk to rise in shallow pans, or even in 
deep cans, the milk may become a little soured, unless we 
keep ice or cool water around it. When liquids become sour 
it is because of the forming of what we call an acid, like the 
acid of vinegar. The acid that is formed in milk when it first 
sours is called lactic acid (from the latin word lac^ meaning 
"milk"). This lactic acid is formed from the sugar of the 
milk or the lactose. Since the sugar is very soluble, any water 
that goes off in the cream will contain lactose, so that lactic 
acid w^ill form also in cream. This acid at once acts upon the 
casein, changing it from a soluble substance to an insoluble 
substance ; therefore, as soon as acid begins to form, the milk 
will begin to curdle. This lactic acid is not nearly so valuable 
for food as the sugar from which it is formed ; therefore, sweet 
skim-milk and sweet whey are ahvays more valuable for feeding 

than sour milk or sour 
whey, and care should 
be taken to keep them 
as sweet as possible. 
But why does milk sour? 
What causes the sweet 
sugar to change to the 

Fig. /g.-Veast plant, magnified. gQ^. ^^.j^J p YoU knOW 

that yeast causes bread to "work" or to ferment. The yeast is 
a mass of little plants, each plant very simple and very small. 
These plants feed upon the substances in the dough, changing 
them and making new compounds, some of which are gases. 
These gases push out in all directions, and make little air-holes 
all through the bread, causing it to be light, as we say. Now, 
yeast is only one kind of these minute little plants. They are 
found everyw^here floating about in the air by millions, too 
small to be seen. Some of them, we have already stated, 
grow in Httle knots or balls on the roots of clover and peas. 




I50 



AGRICULTURE. 




Some of them are acting constantly in the soil, changing some 
of the humus into nitrates for the roots of plants. Some of 
them gather on cheese and form blue-mold. Some of them 
get into the refuse barrels and cause decay of the pieces of 
food thrown therein. Some of them drop into the cider or 
wine and make vinegar. There are very many kinds, each 
kind working in its own way. They 
can be recognized only by a very power- 
ful microscope. One kind, that is 
very common, drops into the milk 
and changes the sugar into lactic 
acid. Supposing that we do not 

Fig. 80.— One of the ferments ?„ .. ,,, 

of milk, magnified. clcan out a milk pail or a milk 

can thoroughly, what will happen? Many of these litde 
ferments, or bacteria, as they are called, will settle on the sides 
and get into the cracks, and just as soon as milk is placed in 
the vessel they will begin to act upon the milk, causing it to 
sour rapidly, or to produce substances that have a nasty taste 
or an unpleasant odor. If there is any trace of milk left in 
the can after the milk is poured out, they rush down upon it 
and begin to feed and increase in number. Any dirty places 
about the floor, or table, or walls, will also cause them to greatly 
increase. Tainted milk is not pleasant to drink, it makes poor 
butter and poor cheese ; so that for success in dairying every- 
thing must be kept clean, very clean — the cows, the food, the 
stables, the pails, the utensils, the milk house, and the dairy 
workers. One of the great reasons for using ice and cold 
spring water to keep the milk, cream, and butter sweet is 
because these little ferments cannot do harm in very cold 
places. They do their work only when they are kept moder- 
ately warm. Science, then, teaches us that in dairying it pays 
to be clean. In addition to ferments which may get in from 
the outside it is thought that there are minute forms of life some- 
what similar to these ferments, which are contained in the 



PRODUCTS OF MILK. T51 

milk itself. These work changes in the milk and milk pro- 
ducts when the conditions are favorable. 

Butter. — We have referred to the use of the separator for 
obtaining sweet cream from the fresh, warm milk. A machine 
made on a similar plan is capable of so throwing the particles 
of fat together that they come out, not in the form of cream, 
but of fine butter. This machins- is called an "extractor." 
The butter made from it will, of course, be sweet cream butter. 
Ordinarily, however, the cream is obtained either by the 
separator, by setting in shallow pans, or by setting in deep 
cans placed in ice water. Then the cream is allowed to ripen. 
This ripening is caused by some of the little ferments that 
were referred to before. These get in from the air, or they 
may be placed there by taking a little cream from some that 
has already ripened, just as we may take some dough that has 
already worked and place in a fresh lot of dough to start it 
working. At once these ferments begin work, and produce 
changes that give a new taste or flavor and a new odor to the 
cream. If we allow the cream to stand too long, or in a foul 
atmosphere, some ferments will get in that will produce 
unpleasant taste and foul odors. These little ferments, then, 
help us in our work, or they can spoil our work. We must, 
therefore, learn the methods which will give us the best 
ferments to assist us and keep out the bad ferments that will 
hinder us. If the milk or the cream is first warmed for a few 
minutes the ferments in the milk will be killed — the milk will 
be "pasteurized," as we say. Then the right kind of ferment 
is added, and the ripening of the cream takes place. By this 
method the making of butter is under the perfect control of 
the dairyman, and butter of uniform quality is produced. 

The cream, well-ripened, is placed in the churn, and the 
action of the churn throws the little particles of fat together, 
until soon we have them gathered into little masses ; the butter 
begins to come in little grains ; these grains gather into large 



152 AGRICULTURE. 

lumps, and soon the buttermilk can be drawn off. The buttev 
is washed in the churn with cold water, and then turned out 
and worked and salted. The buttermilk contains some lactic 
acid and casein, both of which, if left in the butter, would be 
further acted upon by ferments, and disagreeable compounds 
would be formed ; therefore, the buttermilk is carefully drawn 
off, the washing is thoroughly done, and the working of the 
butter drives off the last traces or almost the last traces. The 
working of the butter, then, is to take out the rest of the 
buttermilk, but it must be done carefully, so as not to break 
the tiny grains of the butter and rub them into an oily mass. 
Then the salting — what is it for ? Salt, we know, preserves 
food. It attracts moisture, the moisture of the buttermilk, and 
it prevents the ferments from going on with their work. By 
all this process we have got rid of nearly all the casein, sugar, 
and ash ; we have still some of the water ; and we should have 
all, or nearly all, the butter-fat that was in the milk. Any 
sugar, or acid, or casein that is left, will in time be likely to 
set the ferments at work and make the butter rancid or stale. 

Buttermilk. — Since cream varies so much, according to 
the system of getting the cream, the buttermilk will vary a 
great deal in composition and value. It should contain very 
little fat if the churning has been properly done, less than one 
per cent. It will contain a little ash, quite an amount of 
lactic acid, and some casein. The casein will vary with the 
system of creaming. As a food, it should be used as soon 
after churning as possible, before further fermenting is set up. 

Cheese. — In making butter, we try to take all the butter-fat, 
and only the butter-fat, out of the milk ; in making cheese, we 
try to take all the casein and the fat out of the milk. If we 
were simply to take the casein out of skim-milk, we would get 
what is called a skim-milk cheese, or a skim-cheese. Usually, 
however, whole milk is used, and a great many different kinds 
of cheese may be made. The milk of goats and of ewes is 



PRODUCTS OF MILK. 153 

sometimes used, but the cheese of this country is made ahnost 
entirely from cows' milk. Formerly, the cheese was made in 
the private dairies, but now principally in factories, to which 
the milk is drawn. The cheese usually made here in the 
factories is what is known as Cheddar cheese. It is more 
properly called American Cheddar, or Canadian Cheddar. 

The fat, as we already know, is simply floating in the milk 
in fine particles, but the casein is held in solution. To get it 
out of the milk it must be changed to an insoluble form. 
Rennet is the substance used for this purpose. This is an 
extract obtained from calves' stomachs. If a little rennet is 
dropped into a glass of milk, the casein will at once begin to 
appear as a flaky, curdy substance with the fat entangled in it, 
and the water may be poured off, leaving behind the casein 
and fat. In the factory, the milk is strained and run into large 
vats that have a larger vessel or jacket around them for holding 
water or steam. By means of this jacket the milk can be 
cooled or warmed, as the maker desires. The rennet is added, 
and at once curdling begins ; the proper heat is obtained by 
hot water or steam, and the curdy milk begins to "ripen." 
Gradually, by working, the flakes or grains of curd increase in 
size, and when the proper time comes the water is run off. 
This water or whey carries away the sugar of the milk and 
most of the ash material ; little or none of the fat should float 
away on it if the cheese-making has been properly done. The 
curd is heaped up and allowed to drain, when it appears as a 
crumbled mass. Son>e salt is added and mixed with it ; then 
it is run through the mill, and is ready for putting up in pack- 
ages. These packages are pressed out and bandages are put 
on them, when they are taken to the curing room. The curing 
of the cheese is a very important part of the making. The 
room is kept at a warm temperature, and various ferments 
work in the cheese, causing changes that add much to the 
flavor and tood value of the cheese. The fresh, or "green," 
II 



154 AGRICULTURE. 

cheese is not nearly so tasty or so digestible as the matured or 
well-ripened cheese. If the cheese is allowed to remain 
exposed to the air it will mold, and its value will be greatly 
decreased. Its rich flavor depends largely upon the cream of 
the milk and the changes that take place both in the ripening 
in the vat and in the after-ripening in the curing-room. 

Whey. — If we remember that the whey contains the sugar 
of the milk, most of the ash, and some of the albumen, and 
casein, and fat, we shall conclude that it contains some food 
of value. But this value depends upon its being used while 
"sweet," before it sours, for then its sugar changes to lactic 
acid, which is not of much value. As a food, it is specially 
adapted to the feeding of pigs. One of the greatest difficulties 
about cheese factories arises from the souring of whey. As 
before stated, success depends upon keeping the factory, the 
factory yard, and the milk cans absolutely clean. 

We may sum up the various dairy products as containing 
the following : 

Whole milk contains water, fat, casein, albumen, sugar, ash ; 

Skim-milk contains water, casein, albumen, sugar, ash ; 

Butter contains water and fat principally ; 

Cheese contains water, fat, casein ; 

Whey contains water, sugar, ash, some albumen. 

The average composition is about as follows in every one 

hundred pounds : 

Casein and 
Water. Fat. Albumen. Sugar. A.sh. 

Whole milk. .. 87.0 4.0 3.5 4.8 0.7 

Skim-milk 90.0 0.5 3.0 5.0 0.7 

Butter lo.o 86.5 i.o 0.5 2.0 

Cheese 35.0 33.0 28.0 0.0 4.0 

Whey 93.0 0.3 1.0 5.0 0.7 



THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMALS. 155 



CHAPTER XXXIII 



THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMALS. 

Plants and Animals. — What is the difference between a 
plant and an animal ? It is sometimes very difficult to deter- 
mine whether some of the lower forms of living matter are 
plants or animals. In the higher forms the distinction is easily 
made by us. What is the difference ? A horse requires air, 
water, and food. So does a tree. The horse takes in oxygen 
from the air and breathes out carbonic acid gas ; the tree takes 
in carbonic acid gas and gives out oxygen. The horse can 
move about at will to seek food ; the tree remains fixed, and 
the food comes or is brought to it. The horse feeds upon 
plants— organized food; the plant feeds upon crude material, 
such as mineral compounds — unorganized food. The plant, 
therefore, is built up from the simple substances in the air, soil, 
and water. The animal builds itself up largely by feeding 
upon the material formed by the plants. This distinction, 
however, does not hold in the case of all plants and a.11 animals. 
Can you state any exceptions to the above ? 

Bones. — These are the framework or foundation. They 
largely make the general form of the animal. The bones of a 
young animal are pliable, but they become more rigid as the 
animal grows older. They are the support of the animal, but 
to enable the animal to move, they are in parts joined together. 
Notice how every bone is suited to its place. The skull covers 
the top and back of the head, thereby protecting the brain. 
The ribs, front and back, protect the heart and lungs. Why 
are they not closely joined together, as the bones of the skull ? 
The bones are suited in size and length to the uses required 



156 AGRICULTURE. 

of the various parts of the body, as may be seen in the bones 
of the arm and the fingers. The bones are composed of 
mineral material, phosphate of lime being the principal con- 
stituent. In structure, they are more or less porous or cellular. 

Muscles. — The bones are ingeniously joined together in 
many places, but to hold them together and to move them 
muscles are required. In some places these are large and 
tough, in others they are smaller and more tender. The lean 
part of an animal's body is a mass of fine muscle fibres. Feel 
their movement on the inside of the wrist while closing the 
fist. Grasp your upper right arm, then move the lower right 
arm up and down. We observe that the muscles that do the 
most work are the strongest and largest. These muscles are 
in all parts of the body, crossing and overlapping. By con- 
tracting and expanding them the animal moves the bones, and 
therefore the part of the body containing the bones. Around 
them and over them we sometimes find layers of fat which act 
as a sort of packing. 

The Organs. — In addition to the ordinary muscles, there 
are the tongue, the throat, the stomach, the heart, the lungs, 
the liver, the kidneys, the intestines, etc. These are different 
in shape and different in their uses, but all are very much like 
the muscles and tendons in composition — they may be called 
structures of muscles formed together into certain definite 
shapes, so as to do certain definite work. The skin, the hair, 
the wool, the hoofs, and the horns, that is, the outer parts of 
an animal, are also made up of the same kind of material as 
the flesh and muscle. 

Blood. — "The blood is the life." It flows through all 
parts of the body, and it is out of it that all the various parts 
— bone, muscle, organs, lean flesh, fat — are formed. When we 
examine blood under a microscope we find that it somewhat 
resembles milk, as shown in figure 77, page 144. First of all, 
there is the liquid part, which is called pin^ma. In this pla3n:a 



THE STRUCTURE OF ANIMALS. 157 

are floating a large number of small disc-shaped particles, 
which are called corpuscles. Most of these are red, and thereby 
give a red color to the blood. Some are white corpuscles. It 
is by means of these corpuscles that much of the material is 
carried through the system. For instance, in the lungs they 
take up a load of oxygen and carry it to all parts of the body 
and bring back a load of carbonic acid gas to be breathed 
out from the lungs. In the plasma is contained much of the 
material that goes to build up bone and flesh. We have seen 
that when the albumen of milk or white of egg is heated it 
becomes insoluble, or is clotted. When acids are added to 
milk, the casein becomes clotted. In plasma there ,s a smrilar 
nitrogenous substance, fibrin, which is clotted by the action of 
the air When blood flows from a cut, therefore, the clotted 
fibrin and the corpuscles that are entangled in it form a cover- 
ing for the wound-otherwise the animal would bleed to death 
When a clot forms inside of the body, circulation stops at that 
point, and death frequently results. In a man the blood forms 
about one-thirteenth of his entire weight. 

CONCLUS.ON.-Apart from the water of the body, the various 
digestive liquids and agents, and the blood, we have then, 
three classes of compounds in the animal body-the bones; 
the fat; and the muscles, the various organs, lean flesh hair, 
hoofs, and horns. The bones, as we have already stated are 
largely made up of ash or mineral matter; the fat contains 
three chemical elements -carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; the 
third, or muscle class, is made up of five elements-carbon 
hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur. To show in what 
proportion these are contained in an animal's body, we give 
one example. The body of a half-fat ox, after the removal of 
the stomach and intestines, will contain in every loo pounds 
the following : Water, 56 pounds ; flesh and muscle material, 
18 pounds; fat. 21 pounds; bone material, 5 pounds. 



158 



AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXXIV. 



FOODS OF ANIMALS. 

Uses of Foods. — First of all, an animal requires food to 
build up its body — to form bone, flesh, muscle, organs, skin, 
hair, wool, fat, etc. The material for all these must be con- 
tained in its food or the water it drinks. In the next place, it 
requires food, or fuel, to keep it warm, to supply heat to the 
body. Then it requires food to keep it alive — a horse shut up 
in the stable without food for a single day will suffer. This 
food is necessary to replace the waste constantly taking place. 
The body is constantly changing, and requires food to renew 
it, whether the animal is working or standing still, whether 
sleeping or awake. In the fourth place, work demands food. 
An engine at work demands a supply of energy — this comes 
from the burning of the fuel under the boiler. A horse 
moving about or doing work requires food to supply energy. 
These four demands are made upon the food which is daily 
given to an animal, and the food given should be chosen so as 
to supply these demands. We have on page 159 a table of the 
composition of the principal foods given to animals. This 
table is simply for reference, and is given in order to get a 
general idea of the great difference in the various foods used. 

Water. — We see that green grass, roots, and fodder corn 
all have a large quantity of water — from 75 to over 90 per 
cent, (that is, pounds per hundred) — whereas hay, straw and 
grain have only from 12 to 16 per cent. Young plants that 
are cut while still green are therefore succulent foods and are 
eaten by animals in large quantities. As plants grow older 
and mature, the amount of water that they contain gradually 
decreases. 



foods of animals. 
Composition of Foods. 



159 



Milk, whole 

Milk, skimmed 

Linseed 

Oil Cake (old process) 
Oil Cake (new process) 

Oatmeal 

Cottonseed Meal . . . 



Pasture grass 

Meadow Hay, average , 
Red Clover, average . 

Wheat Straw 

Oat Straw 

Pea Straw 

Corn Stalks 



Wheat..., 
Barley . . . . 

Oats 

Corn 

Peas 

Pran 

Middlings 



Mangels . . . 
Turnips. . . . 
Carrots . . . . 
Potatoes . . . 
Corn Silage. 



87 
90 
12 

9 
10 



65 
13 
15 
10 
10 
10 
40 

TI 
II 
II 
II 
I I 
12 
12 

90 
90 
90 
80 
80 



'o '53 
.B o 



3-5 
3-8 
21 

30 
34 

15 
40 

4 

6 

12 

3-5 
4.0 
7.0 
4.0 

12 

I 2.-5 
12 

10 

20 
15 
15 

1-5 
I 

I 
2 
2 









rt 




b£ 


, ; 


P 





cn 




73 











a 


j:^ 


[^ 







rt 








c/} 


4.0 


4.8 


0-5 


5-0 


36.0 


19-5 


lO.O 


36 


3-0 


39 


7.0 


67 


13-0 


26 



I.O 

2-5 

3-0 
1-3 

2-3 

2-5 

1.0 

2 
2 

5 

5-5 

2.0 

4 
4 

0.2 
0.2 
0.4 
0.1 
I 



18 
45 
39 
43 
42 

35-5 
33-^ 

73-0 

69-5 

60.0 

70.0 

53 

54 

61 

6.3 

6.8 

6.6 

17.9 

10. o 



o 
o 



8.0 

9 
o 
I 
6 



9 
29 

25 
38 

37 
40 
20 

2 
3 
9 
2 
12 
9 
5 

I 
I 

I 



l6o AGRICULTURE. 

Albuminoids. — Compounds like albumen or white of egg, 
the casein of milk, the gluten of wheat, and the fiibiin of meat, 
are known as albmnmoids ox protein. They are all compounds 
containing nitrogen, and are the flesh-forming substances of 
food. They are very low in roots, a little larger in grass, still 
larger in hay ; so that we see that they increase as plants ma- 
ture. They are very low in straw, but quite large in grain. 
Why is this ? As the wheat, oats, and other plants are grow- 
ing they take up food from the air and soil and, until blossom- 
ing time, all their food is contained in the leaves, stalks, and 
roots. After blossoming the seeds form, and material that has 
been stored in the stalk and leaves is used to build up the 
seed. In most plants very little valuable food is taken into 
the plant through the roots after the time of blossoming. The 
leaves continue taking in carbon and the roots water, and 
therefore starch and sugar continue to increase, but the other 
substances are about all in the plant by the time of full bloom. 
Out of the leaf and stalk the most valuable materials are then 
carried into the seed ; thus we find the nitrogenous com- 
pound, the fats or oils, and the most valuable ash compounds, 
especially the phosphates, stored up in the seed or grain, and 
not in the straw. 

Fat. — For the reasons just given we must look for fat or oil 
principally in the grains. Some seeds, such as flaxseed, con- 
tain a very large amount of oil. 

Starch and Sugar. — These materials are very much alike 
in composition ; they are composed of three elements — 
carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Hydrogen and oxygen, we 
have learned before, are the two elements composing water. 
These two are found in starch and sugar in the same proportion 
as in water, but not as water, and therefore such compounds 
are sometimes called "carbo-hydrates." They are found in 
large quantities in all plants and parts of plants, forming as 



FOOD OF ANIMALS. l6l 

much as 70 per cent, of some kinds of straw. Notice that this 
class of compounds does not form one of the leading classes 
of constituents of the animal body. 

Fibre. — Woody fibre this is sometimes called. A young 
plant is easily bent and pulled to pieces ; it contains little 
fibre. As the plant grows older it becomes stiffer and tougher, 
because the fibre increases. Wood that we burn is nearly all 
fibre, and we know how tough and indigestible it is. There- 
fore, we conclude that a large amount of fibre makes a food 
less valuable. The fibre is formed from the starch and sugar 
by the addition of carbon. It forms the walls of the cells of 
plants, and therefore is sometimes called by the name " cellu- 
lose.' 

Ash. — The ash or mineral matter is found in all parts of 
the plant, but, as has been stated already, the most valuable 
ash is stored up in the seed or grain. The cell walls of the 
plant fill up with carbon and ash as the plant grows older, and 
therefore the sap cannot flow through so easily, the cells dry 
up gradually, and the plant becomes stiffer and tougher. 
References : — 

The teacher who wishes to study the subject matter of this chapter 
further may cjnsult " Feeds and Feeding," by Henry, " Cattle Feeding," 
by Armsby, 



l62 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXXV. 



DIGESTION AND USES OF FOOD. 

What is Digestion ? — -The food which the animai eats 
must pass into and become part of the blood before any use 
can be made of it. The fuel which keeps it warm or supplies 
energy to enable it to do work ; the compounds which go to 
the building up of bone, muscle, flesh, organs, wool, and all 
other parts of the body ; the material out of which milk is 
made — all these come from the blood. This material in the 
blood is made up from the food which the animal eats. The 
blood may be called a liquid flowing through the body con- 
taining the material in solution. But the solid portion of our 
food consists to a large extent of such substances as starch, 
sugar, fat or oil, nitrogenous compounds, such as the gluten of 
wheat, the white or albumen of egg, and the fibrin of meat. 
Of these sugar only is soluble. It is necessary, therefore, to 
change these insoluble parts of food into soluble forms so 
that they can pass into the blood. This changing them into 
soluble forms in the various organs of the animal's body is 
"digestion." The changes are brought about in the mouth, in 
the stomach, and in the intestines, and the agents that cause 
the changes are ferments somewhat similar to the minute forms 
of life already referred to in the curing of cheese, and nitrifi- 
cation in the soil (see pages 149 and 150.) 

There are three forms of compounds in the food to be 
digested— those similar to starch (the carbohydrates), the fats 
or oils, and the nitrogen compounds (the albuminoids). These 
we shall refer to as we follow the course of digestion. 



DIGESTION AND USES OF FOOD. 163 

The Course OF Digestion. — The food is first bitten off and 
taken into the mouth, where it is cut up and ground fine by 
the teeth. At the same time a Hquid called the saliva is set 
free from glands in the cheeks and under the tongue. This 
saliva not only moistens the food so that it can slip down the 
throat or gullet, but it also acts upon the starch, converting it 
into sugar, thus changing it from an insoluble to a soluble 
form. Thus digestion begins in the mouth. Thorough 
chewing of the food not only breaks up the food fine so that 
it can be acted upon by the juices of the body, but also helps 
to set free saliva and mix it with the food to digest the starch. 
When we remember that starch forms a very large portion of 
most of our vegetable foods, we see that thorough mastication 
the food is very necessary to good digestion, and "bolting" 
the food by man and many other animals a common cause of 
indigestion. 

The food passes from the mouth into the gullet, which is a 
tube formed of tough elastic rings that can contract and 
expand as required. Through the gullet it passes into the 
stomach. Here it comes in contact with the gastric juice^ 
which is a secretion of the stomach. The gastric juice acts 
principally upon the albuminoids, changing them into soluble 
forms. Some of the soluble and digested food here passes 
into the blood, but most of it goes on through into the intes- 
tines. Just below the stomach, and on the right side, is the 
liver, which builds up or secretes a liquid called bile. This bile 
flows into the intestines and acts upon the fat of the food, 
forming with it soluble compounds. Other secretions come in 
contact with the food, acting upon the albuminoids and starch 
to complete the digestion ; and through the walls of the in- 
testines the soluble foods now pass in large quantities into the 
blood. The rest of the food that cannot pass into the blood 
moves on and is expelled from the body, forming the solid 
excrement. The solid excrement therefore consists of the 



164 AGRICULTURE. 

insoluble portion of the food, that which could not be digested 
by the secretions of the mouth, stomach, and intestines, and 
any soluble matter that was unable to get into the blood be- 
cause of the animal bemg fed too rapidly or in too large 
quantity. Its value as a fertilizer will therefore depend upon 
what we feed and upon how we feed. It may be worth much 
or very little. 

At this point it will be worth turning back and reviewing 
what has been said about the four stomachs of the ruminants 
(cattle and sheep), the small single stomach of the horse and 
the pig, and the long intestines of the pig. 

Circulation of the Blood. — The next question is as to 
the movement of the blood through the body — the circulation 
of the blood. We start at the heart, which is the headquarters 
of the blood system, the pumping-station of the system. The 
heart is made up of muscles which expand and contract and 
thus give motion to the blood. When the heart stops beating, 
when it ceases to work, the animal life stops and death takes 
place. We can feel the beating of our heart. On the inside 
of the wrist we can feel the throbbing of our pulse. On the 
side of the head between the ear and the temple we can feel 
the same throbbing. Where do you find the pulse of a horse, 
and the pulse of a cow ? 

You have doubtless seen an ox heart; if not, try to get one 
and examine it. In shape it is like a large pear or egg. There 
are two divisions, one up and down and one across, dividing it 
into four compartments. The two smaller divisions in the 
upper or larger part are called the right and the left auricle^ 
and the two larger lower parts are called the right and the left 
ventricle. The different parts of the heart are connected with 
tubes that go to all parts of the body, and the four compart- 
ments are connected by valves. By the movement of the 
muscles of the heart the blood is driven along. How is its 
course directed or controlled ? Perhaps you have seen a mill- 



DIGESTION AND USES OF FOOD. 165 

race or a small canal with a swinging gate that will open in only 
one direction. When the water rushes against it one way it 
ODens the gate and passes on; if it rushes back it shuts the 
gate and thereby stops itself. So in the heart, the valves open 
only in one direction, and the tubes of the heart have valves 
that allow the blood to flow in only one direction. Thus by 
means of these automatic or self-closing little gates the course 
of the heart's blood is controlled and the circulation is always 
properly directed. 

Now let us very briefly follow the course of the blood, it 
comes from all parts of the body into the right auricle through 
two veins, whose valves open only towards the heart. The 
heart contracts and the blood flows into the right ventricle 
through the opening, whose valve opens only towards that 
ventricle. From the right ventricle it goes by an artery to the 
lungs, where it gets a supply of fresh oxygen from the air and 
where it gives up its load of carbonic acid gas to be breathed 
out into the atmosphere. Thus purified it comes back by the 
veins to the left auricle. Then it passes to the left ventricle. 
From the left ventricle it is forced out of the heart through 
the arteries and is carried to all parts of the body. These 
arteries divide and sub-divide until they become a network of 
flne tubes called the capillaries. These capillaries unitmg 
a-ain form the veins which carry the blood back again to the 
ri-ht auricle. Thus every beat of the heart sends fresh blood 
out to all parts of the body, and the old blood comes back to 
be purified before being sent out again through the arteries. 
The veins are the tubes that carry the old blood to the heart ; 
the arteries are the tubes that carry the fresh blood from the 
heart. We see, therefore, why the cutting of an artery is much 
more dangerous than the cutting of a vein. In cutting an 
artery we open up the flow direct from the heart-the sluice- 
gate is opened for the free flow of the blood. 

With the stomach, and especially with the intestines, are 



i66 



ACIilCULTURE. 



connected a large number of capillaries. Into these flow the 
dissolved portion of the blood. After passing through the liver 

system the material is carried 
in one of the veins to the heart 
(the right auricle). 

In Figure 80 we have a con- 
densed and modified illustration 
showing how the blood circulates 
through the body. The arrows 
show the direction of flow. The 
black channels are the veins, and 
the unshaded the arteries (ex- 
cept Nos. 10 and 12). i is 
the left side of heart; 2, the right 
side; 3, the aorta from the left 
ventricle ; 4, artery to abdomen ; 
5, capillaries; 6, vein from ab- 
domen ; 7, artery to head ; 8, ca- 
pillaries ; 9, vein from head ; 
10, artery from right ventricle to 
lungs; II, the lungs; 12, vein 
from lungs to left auricle; 13, ar- 
tery to intestines; 14, small in- 
testine ; 15, capillaries and veins 
from intestines carrying away 
digested food; 16, portal vein; 
17, artery to liver; 18, liver; 
19, vein from liver; 20, lacteals ; 
21, duct leading to vein going to 
the heart by which some ab- 
sorbed material is taken into 
circulation; 22, artery to the 
kidneys; 23, the kidneys; 24, vein 

Fig. 80 -The circulation of the ^^-q^-^ the kidnCyS. 

Llood in the body. ■' 




DIGESTION AND USES OF FOOD. 167 

Thus we have seen how the digested food gets into the 
blood, and how the blood is carried through all parts of the 
body. The next question is as to what is done with this 
blood. 

Uses of the Digested Food. — The animal must be kept 
warm, and therefore some food is required as fuel. The oxy- 
gen of the air comes in through the lungs and unites with the 
material in the blood, or with material such as fat formed from 
the blood. To keep warm, therefore, food and fresh air are 
necessary. Now you will understand why brisk walking, 
running, or working in fresh air, even in cold air, will cause 
you to become warm, especially if you have been well fed. It 
is like starting a fire with plenty of good dry fuel and opening 
the draughts. Then there is bone to be built up in one 
place, muscle in another, wool or hair in another. If the 
animal is growing, food is necessary ; even if it is not growing 
food is necessary, for the old parts are constantly wearing away 
and new parts being formed. If the cow is giving milk, the 
material of the milk must be formed out of the material in 
the blood. If the horse is doing hard work there must be 
material in the blood to replace the muscle that is being worn 
away, and also to be used up to produce the force or energy 
that we see resulting in work. 

The Waste Material. — In the burning up of food to 
produce warmth, in the using up of food to produce work, in 
the working over of material to form flesh, muscle, fat, bone, 
wool, or milk, there will, of course, be more or less waste or 
refuse material. How is this refuse material got rid of by the 
animal ? In three ways : by the lungs, by the skin, and by 
the kidneys. 

The Lungs. — Animals breathe in pure oxygen and breathe 
out carbonic acid gas and moisture. They should therefore 
be able to get pure air and not be compelled to breathe over 
again the air that has already come from their lungs, for it 



1 63 AGRICULTURE. 

contains some refuse of their bodies. If we shut up an animal 
in a close room it will smother. The animal must have fresh 
air. Proper ventilation is necessary for the good health of all 
animals. Exposure to cold draughts, however, must be care- 
fully avoided. 

The Skin. — The small capillaries come out close to the 
skin, which is filled with pores or tiny openings. We may say 
that animals breathe through their skin, and through the pores 
of the skin rid themselves of a large amount of used-up 
or refuse matter. We help the animal, therefore, by keeping 
its skin clean. When we curry or rub down a horse or a cow 
we do for it what we do for ourselves in taking a bath. A 
clean skin is necessary to the health of an animal. We should 
keep in mind that every pore is the outlet of a little drain 
whereby the refuse of an animal is carried out of its system. 
If these little drains are choked up sickness may follow ; if 
they are kept open the system is helped very much in its 
cleansing process. The regular and proper currying and 
brushing of a horse means more work from the horse ; the 
currying and brushing down of a cow means more milk. 
Cleanliness always pays. Science and practice are agreed upon 
this point. 

The Kidneys. — The blood in its circulation goes to all 
the organs of the body, building them up and supplying ma- 
terial for their various uses. All parts of the body are con- 
stantly changing ; some quite rapidly, as the brains ; some 
quite slowly, as the bones. The old portions that are being 
replaced have to be removed. We have just above stated 
that through the lungs and skin carbonic gas and water are 
constantly being thrown off. But there are many other sub- 
stances, such as the nitrogen compounds and the mineral com- 
pounds, which cannot escape by way of the lungs and skin. 
How are these got rid of? The kidneys, which in human 
beings lie below and behind the stomach, near the back, are 



DIGESTION AND USES OF FOOD. 1 69 

the organs that do this work, freeing the blood from these 
refuse compounds and passing them off in the hquid excre- 
ment or urine. This liquid excrement, then, is a solution of 
material that comes from the blood, muscle, bone, etc., of the 
body, and, therefore, we may conclude it will contain valuable 
fertilizing material, more valuable as a rule than the solid ex- 
crement. The liquid excrement consists of the dissolved 
waste of the blood, muscle, bone, and other parts of the body ; 
the solid excrement consists of the indigestible and undigested 
portion of the food. None of the waste nitrogen or mineral 
matter of the animal escapes from the body through the 
lungs, but all passes off through the kidneys. Hence the 
great importance of carefully saving, by litter or otherwise, all 
the liquid excrement for use as a fertilizer. When we sell 
grain, hay, straw, and roots, we take away from the soil of the 
farm all the nitrogen and mineral matter which they contain, 
we really sell part of the soil upon which these foods grew. 
When we feed these to stock and sell the animals or their 
products we sell but a small portion of these soil constituents ; 
by far the larger portion is found in the solid and liquid ex- 
crement. The economy of feeding stock upon the farm lies 
then in the saving of all the excrement, especially the liquid, 
and returning it to the soil upon which the plants originally 
grew, and from which we wish to derive more food. 

Conclusions. — The uses of food in the animal may now 
be stated briefly as follows : 

1. To produce heat to keep the body warm. 

2. To produce force or energy to enable work to be done. 

3. To replace the waste from all parts of the body. 

4. To increase the body in bone, muscle, flesh and fat. 

5. To produce milk, wool, etc. 

Every animal must be kept warm. Every animal does some 
work or uses up some energy even when standing still or lying 
down ; all parts of the body are constantly wearing away and 
12 



I JO AGRICULTURE. 

being reformed. Therefore, first of all, food must be given 
for these three purposes before any increase in fat or flesh 
takes place, before any hard work is done, or before products 
such as milk are obtained. It is only from the excess of food 
that the fourth and fifth uses can be supplied. When we 
wish an animal to work hard, to increase in flesh and fat, or to 
produce milk we must feed liberally. Poor feeding, there- 
fore, will give us no return at all beyond keeping the animal 
alive, but liberal feeding must be done where we wish to get 
some return. 

Care of Animals. — If we leave animals out exposed to 
rough weather we shall have to increase the food to supply 
heat; if animals are compelled to work hard to get their food 
or are restless and excited, they must use up more food. The 
proper housing and protection of animals will save food, and 
the keeping of them in quietness and comfort will also cause 
a saving. Thus we see that good care means a saving of food 
for the first two requirements mentioned before, and is quite 
as important as proper feeding ; in fact good care is one of the 
most important parts of good economical feeding. Good 
feeding implies the selection of the foods suitable for the 
wants of the different classes of animals, the preparing of the 
food in suitable and attractive forms, and the proper care of 
the animals during and after feeding. 



BEES. 



171 



PART VL 



CHAPTER XXXVI. 



BEES. 

Bees. — We can carefully observe a bee on a thistle top or a 
roadside flower. It will not harm us if we do not disturb it. 
There are two pairs of wings very thin, like a membrane, hence 
the bees are said to belong to the order of hynienoptera. When 
not flying, these wings fold in closely together; when flying, 
they spread out and the inner pair hook or hinge on the outer 
pair, so that the bee is able to carry a heavy load. Perhaps 
we can see the long tongue which it can thrust away down into 
the cup of the flower to take up the juice or nectar. This 
little tongue can be twisted about as 
an elephant twists its trunk, and it has 
a sort of brush on the end with w^hich 
the nectar is swept up. The nectar or 
sweet juice of the blossom is carried 
up into the mouth and from there it 
passes into a little sack called the 
honey-bag. 
full it goes 
honey. If 

under a magnifying glass we would notice that they are hairy 
and have some hollows along the side. What are these for? 
We have before learned that the blossoms of flowers produce 
pollen. Some of this pollen the bee needs for food, and the 
pollen is carried home in the hollows of its hind legs. Some 




Fig. 81. — A bee jrathering 
nectar from a blossom. 



When its honey-bag is 
home to store away this 
we could see its legs 



172 



AGRICULTURE. 



of the pollen will cling to other parts of the bee, and so, when 
it goes from one flower to another, it frequently carries this 
pollen to blossoms that have none of their own or that cannot 
use what they do have. The bees (and other insects also) in 
this way help to make plants fruitful, to fertilize them as we say. 
But there is another part of the bee that we shall find out be^ 
fore we desire to do so if we anger or disturb it, namely, the 
sting. It is found in the rear end of the abdomen, and con- 
sists of two long sharp lances. It can be pushed into one's 
hand but cannot easily be drawn out. When the bee cuts into the 
flesh it throws into the cut a drop of poison through the lances 
with which it pierces. It leaves the sting in our flesh, 
causes us pain because of the poison, and itself soon dies. We 
may then conclude that bees will not readily sting, but do so 
simply when disturbed and as a last resort in self-defence. 

The Hive. — We go to the hive and there we find perhaps 
20,000 of these honey gatherers, or "workers" as they are 
called. Inside, if we can look through a glass side, we see one 
larger bee surrounded by a dozen or so of the others. This is 





Fig. 82. Drone. Queen. Worker. 

the Queen or mother bee, whose duty it is to lay eggs. There 
is only one Queen. After once settling down as the mother 
of the hive she never goes out except when "swarming,'' 
but day after day lays eggs, as many as 2,000 in a single 
day. Then we observe some others that do no work, so far as 
we can see, they are the "drones." The family or swarm then 
will consist of one Queen bee, 20,000 or more workers, and 



BEES. 173 

500 to 1,000 drones. The Queen is the female or mother that 
lays the eggs, the workers are females that gather the nectar 
and do the work, and the drones are the males. 

The Comb.— Next we observe the comb. It is made up of 
hundreds of cells in which the honey is being packed, and in 
which young bees are being hatched. In shape they are six- 
sided. Why six-sided? If you draVv a lot of circles touching 
one another there will be some vacant spaces between. If you 
draw squares or triangles you can fit them closely together, but 
there will be sharp corners to fill in. Now if you draw a lot of 
regular six-sided figures you can fit them all together, there 
will be no vacant spaces, and no sharp corners. Cells of that 
shape will be strongly built. In fact you cannot improve on 
the shape of the cell which the bee makes. The comb is 
made up of wax, bees-wax we call it. The bees make this out 
of honey, but it takes some time, and therefore bee-keepers 
help the bees in their work by starting it for them. They 
make the beginnings or foundations of the combs for the bees. 
These foundations are put in, and when completed by the 
bees can be easily taken out separately. This is one reason 
why we get much more honey from our hives than we would 
from the wild hives of the bees where they have to be con- 
stantly making the whole cells for themselves. 

Some of the cells are used for storing honey and pollen, and 
some are used by the Queen bee for hatching out the young bees. 
The egg is laid in the cell by the Queen. Then the workers place 
beside it some jelly made up of honey and pollen to be used 
as food. In about three days the egg hatches and a Httle 
larva appears. This feeds and grows, and in about six days 
fills up the cell. Then the bees put a cover or lid of w^ax 
thread on the cell, the larva goes into the second or pupa 
stage (see page no) that we have noticed in connection with 
other insects, and in about twelve or fourteen days the perfect 
bee appears and comes out of the cell, a worker bee. The 



I 74 AGRICULTURE. 

cells in which the drone bees are hatched are a little larger 
and the time to form is a few days longer. When a queen 
bee is required a different process is needed. Perhaps the old 
Queen has died or is going away with a swarm to form a new 
home. A larger cell than either of the others is made, the 
egg is laid, and a special kind of food called " royal jelly " is 
placed within. In less time than before the young Queen bee 
appears. Thus it takes about i6 days for the Queen to be 
produced, 21 for a worker, and 24 for a drone. There are 
many things in regard to the production of these three classes 
of bees that cannot be explained. 

Honey. — The bees can gather honey only while the flowers 
are in bloom, therefore they work rapidly and store up large 
quantities for winter food. In an ordinary hive a colony of 
bees will put away from 50 to 100 lbs. The bee-keeper at 
the end of the season takes out part of this for his own use, 
leaving enough for the use of the bees until the next flowering 
season comes around. But what is the honey? The bee 
takes the nectar or juice out of the flower ; in its honey-bag 
some slight change probably takes place, and in the cell, before 
being capped over, more change occurs. But just how nectar 
becomes honey as we know it, cannot be fully explained. 

Bees gather honey from many different plants that blossom 
at different times of the year, and the honey varies in quality 
according to its source; thus we have clover honey, thistle 
honey, basswood honey, buckwheat honey, golden-rod honey, 
etc. In fruit blossoming we find the bees in large numbers in 
the orchard, and, as before stated, spraying with poisons, such 
as Paris green, should be discontinued while the trees are 
in full bloom. 

Kinds of Bees. — Just as we have common cattle and also 
pure-bred that have been improved by care, so we have different 
kinds or varieties of bees. They are generally named accord- 
ing to the country whence they come, as English, Italian, 



BEES. 



175 



Syrian, Cyprian, etc. These differ just as much as Shorthorns, 
Jerseys and Ayrshires. Some are quiet, others are very ill- 
tempered. In addition to our honey bees there are other 
kinds of bees, such as the humble-bee, whose tongue is long 
enough to get into the nectar of the red clover. We have 
here given only a very few of the simplest facts in regard to 
bees. There is no part of nature that will be found more 
interesting or more profitable than the study of the busy bees. 

Swarming. — In the fall of the year the wild bees complete 
their store of honey, packed away usually in a hollow tree. 
As the weather grows colder the bees go out less and less. 
Winter sets in and we find the bees all bunched together, 
clinging to one another in a half-asleep mass, a drowsy bunch 
that can be handled without any fear of stinging. On bright, 
warm days some of the bees may venture out for a while. In 
this dormant condition they eat but little. Spring comes on 
and the early flowers appear. The hive again becomes active 
and the hatching of the young brood begins. The old 
queen, with a part of the bees, starts off to seek a new 
home, leaving the old home for the new queen and her 
followers. Swarming takes place, the bees fly away in a cloud 
and settle in a tree probably. The bee-keeper is on the wa.tch, 
he follows them and shakes them down into his basket, and 
places them in an empty hive, where they soon take up their 
regular work of storing honey. 
Suggestive : — 

Should the fruit grower keep bees ? Why ? 

Name some useful honey-yielding plants. How does ** clover honey " 
differ from " buckwheat honey '"' ? 



1 76 AGRICULTURE. 



CHAPTER XXXVII 



BIRDS. 

" And the birds sang round him, o'er him 
' Do not shoot us, Hiawatha !' 
Sang the Opechee, the Robin, 
Sang the Bluebird, the Owaissa, 
' Do not shoot us, Hiawatha ! ' "—Longfellow. 

Migrations of Birds. — As winter goes and the warm spring 
begins, the buds show Hfe and the grass shoots up. Then we 
look for the return of the birds. They come back to us at first 
two by two, or in small flocks. Sometimes we see great flocks 
flying past, high over head, steering straight north for the 
regions where they may find food and nesting places. They 
went far south to escape the winter's snow and cold, and they 
come back to us to build their nests and rear their young. A 
few of the fliers may stay with us all winter long if they find 
their natural shelter, but most of them fly south in the fall and 
return in the spring. We look for their coming as we look for 
the spring, and we are never disappointed, though year by year 
we see many changes. Some birds are missed and new kinds 
are welcomed. The bluebirds, for instance, may disappear 
for a few years. We think they have been driven out or de- 
stroyed. If our eyes and ears are trained, however, we may 
see and hear them passing to new fields further north, flock 
after flock of thousands passing by overhead in the early 
morning. 

Uses of Birds. — Sometimes we think they do more harm 
than good, and we are apt to call them a nuisance. But how 
we would miss them! If their singing and chattering were 
completely silenced, we would soon wish for their return; and 



BIRDS. 177 

we would long for a sight of them in their varied form and 
coloring, even if they did not sing for us. Many of the wild 
birds, the game birds, of course, supply food for man, and their 
usefulness no one questions. But, apart from their singing and 
their beauty of form and color, of what use are the other birds 
— the robins, the bluebirds, the yellow-birds, the blackbirds, 
the woodpeckers, the blue jays, the meadow larks and the very 
many other birds of our gardens and fields? That depends on 
what they feed upon. 

Food of Birds. — Many birds are fond of fruit and will take 
some of the cherries and berries of the garden, others will help 
themselves in the grain field. This, however, does not prove 
that they are a nuisance and should be destroyed. As a rule 
the birds feed upon the food which is most readily got — weed 
seeds, fruits, or insects. If fruit is plentiful they will take some 
fruit, but if insects are about they will greedily pick them up 
and in quantities that will astonish us. Birds that feed upon 
insects are called "insectivorous." Most of our common birds 
are more or less insectivorous, and while they do some injury 
by robbing the fruit trees, berry-bushes and grain fields, they 
do far more good by devouring great quantities of insects that 
if allowed to live would inflict most serious injury. The only 
way that this can be proven by you is by carefully watching 
the birds as they go about through the garden, or as they carry 
food to their nestlings. On examining the stomachs of many 
birds that are supposed to be the most destructive to fruit, 
large quantities of destructive insects have been found. If the 
birds do take some fruit it must be remembered that as a rule 
they pay well for all they take. It may be set down as a safe 
rule that most of our birds do more good than harm, and our 
aim should be to encourage them, and not to destroy them. 
It has been estimated that one bird will devour or destroy 
about 2,400 insects in a year. Even the English sparrow, 
blackbird, and crow are known to destroy large numbers of 



lyS AGRICULTURE. 

insects. Birds of prey, such as the hawks and owls, destroy 
large numbers of field mice and other vermin that are very 
injurious to growing crops and stored grain. 

Protection of Birds. — There are some birds that appear 
to be very destructive. Some hawks are much dreaded because 
they kill young chickens ; the crow, blackbirds, or bronze grakles, 
are the bitter enemies of many of our common birds, and crows 
have few friends because they pull up the sprouting corn. 
They take the corn at that time because it is softened in the 
soil and can then be eaten by them. Even crows, however, 
feed largely on insects when insects are to be got. The Eng- 
lish sparrows, also, have made themselves very much of a 
nuisance because they nest about the houses and barns and 
steal oats from the field. Even these three kinds of birds 
make up for some of their badness by destroying insects. One 
of the most objectionable birds is the cow bird or cow black- 
bird, which is a parasite, that is it lays its eggs in the nests of 
birds smaller than itself. The true owners of the nest 
are pushed out by the intruder when hatched. What 
we need to learn, however, is that we should protect most 
of the birds rather than destroy them. Some try to en- 
courage the birds to nest by setting up small houses, placing 
empty boxes and cans in the trees, hanging pieces of twine and 
hair upon the fences and limbs. The general rule that we 
should follow is — leave the birds alone, do not molest or dis- 
turb them, keep away from their nests. They will soon learn 
that they can come and go in safety and build their nests and 
rear their young broods without fear, and year by year they 
will return to their old nesting-places and will repay us for 
their assurance of safety. The birds are the farmers' friends, 
but they must be treated as friends. 

How many birds can you name and describe? 

What birds frequent the fields, and what birds are found along the 
streams and small lakes ? 



BIRDS. 179 

Make a list of all the birds of your locality under these heads : — Those 
that make their nest in the grass ; those that nest about the house and 
barn; those that nest in the orchard trees; those that nest in the foliage of 
forest trees; those that seek a hollow in the tree. 

What birds of your locality rear two broods in one season ? 

Which are the best singers of your birds ? 

What is the difference between a bluebird and a bluejay ? Between a 
blackbird and a crow blackbird ? Between a wren and a greybird ? 
Between a cedar bird and a grosbeak ? Between a barn swallow and a 
field sparrow ? Between a robin and a Baltimore oriole ? 



*'It is well known that of the various groups of birds the majority live 
upon insects. Among the insect eaters are the fly catchers, warblers, 
woodpeckers, nuthatches, orioles, goat suckers, hummingbirds, tanagers, 
waxwings, gnatcatchers, kinglets, vireos, thrushes, wrens, titmice, cuckoos, 
swallows, shrikes, thrashers, creepers and bluebirds. 

*' It is not generally known, however, that the so-called seed-eaters 
feed their young lartjely upon insects, and eat a great many themselves; 
nor is it realized how much good they do by eating weed seeds. Professor 
F. E. L. Beal has calculated that the little tree sparrow in Iowa alone 
destroys 1,720,000 lbs. of noxious weed seeds every year. Moreover, in 
summer seed-eaters eat blueberries, huckleberries, strawberries and rasp- 
berries, and distribute their seeds unharmed over thousands of acres which 
would not otherwise support such growth. 

"After the examination of about forty birds, the only one actually 
sentenced to death is the English sparrow. Of all the accused hawks 
only three have been found guilty of the charges made against them— the 
goshawk, Cooper's, and the sharp -shinned— while the rest are numbered 
among the best friends of the fruit grower and farmer. Of the wood- 
peckers, the sap-sucker and redhead may be beneficial or injurious, 
according to circumstances, but the rest of the family are highly beneficial. 
To most of the remaining birds tried the evidence is decidedly creditable. 
The crow, crow blackbird and cedar bird are acquitted, as doing more 
good than h^rm; and it is proved that agriculturists owe especial protection 
and friendship to the phoebe, kingbird, catbird, swallow, brown thrasher, 
rose-breasted grosbeak, house wren, vireos, cuckoo, oriole, shore lark, 
loggerhead shrine and meadow lark." 

Florence A. Merriam, of Washington, D.C. 



i8o 



AGRICULTURE. 



** Within certain limits, birds feed upon the kind of food that is most 
accessible. Thus, as a rule, insectivorous birds eat the insects that are 
most easily obtained, provided they do not have some peculiarly disagree- 
able property. It is not probable that a bird habitually passes by one 
kind of insect to look for another which is more appetizing, and there 
seems little evidence in support of the theory that the selection of food is 
restricted to any particular species of insect, for it is evident that a bird 
eats those which, by its own method of seeking, are most easily obtained. 
Thus, a ground-feeding bird eats those it finds among the dead leaves and 
grass; a fly-catcher, watching for its prey from some vantage point, 
captures entirely different kinds; and the woodpecker and warbler, in the 
tree tops, select still others. It is thus apparent that a bird's diet is 
likely to be quite varied, and to differ at different seasons of the year. 

*'The practical value of birds in controlling insect pests should be 
more generally recognized. It may be an easy mattter to exterminate the 
birds in an orchard or grain field, but it is an extremely difficult one to 
control the insect pests. It is certain, too, that the value of our native 
sparrows as weed-destroyers is not appreciated. Weed seeds form an 
important item of the winter food of these birds, and it is impossible to 
estimate the immense numbers of noxious weeds which are thus annually 
destroyed. 

"If birds are protected and encouraged to nest about the farm and 
garden thy will do their share in destroying noxious insects and weeds, 
and a few hours spent in putting up boxes for bluebirds, martins and 
wrens will prove a good investment. Birds are protected by law in many 
states, but it remains for the agriculturists to see that the laws are faithfully 
observed." 

Prof. F. E. L. Beal, B.S., 

Asst. Ornithologist, Dept. of Agriculture, 

Washington, D.C. 






Build houses for the birds. Nesting boxes. 



FORESTRY. l8l 



CHAPTER XXXVIII 



FORESTRY. 



The Primeval Forest. — What was the appearance of 
North America four hundred years ago, when it was first 
discovered by Columbus and by Cabot ? Let us turn to a map 
of the continent. Along the west coast we have the great 
mountain ranges, beginning at Alaska and continuing south 
through Mexico. These were covered with thick forests, in 
some places the trees being of enormous size. A large portion 
of this great primeval forest still remains untouched, especially 
in British Columbia. Then notice the mountain ranges on 
the eastern side. As they cross into Canada they become 
lower, branching into two sections, the one going north-east 
through Labrador and the other north-west through Ontario or 
off towards Alaska. In between these two branches Hes 
Hudson's Bay. This whole eastern section was covered with 
a dense forest extending from Florida to the bleak lands of 
Labrador and away off north-west towards Alaska and the 
barren lands. It covered all of the Eastern States, the eastern 
provinces of Canada, all of Quebec and Ontario, and a part of 
the North-west Territories. Down through the central part of 
the continent stretched the prairies, treeless except on the hills 
here and there or along the rivers. 

Much of this original eastern forest has been cut away by 
settlers or killed by forest fires, but some still remains 
in the mountainous parts of the Eastern States and in the 
northern parts of Maine, New Brunswick, Quebec, and Ontario. 



l82 AGRICULTURE. 

Range of Forest Trees. — This great forest of eastern 
North America was composed of many varieties of trees, each 
variety growing where it thrived best. In some places they 
were mixed, as though scattered by mere chance ; usually, 
however, the different kinds were confined to certain districts 
where the conditions were favorable. Thus we here and there 
come upon a white pine belt ; in one place we find a forest of 
maples, in another oaks or elms. As climate and soil are the 
two things that largely control or determine forest growth, we 
may expect to find the various kinds of trees confined to 
certain limits. If we trace across the country a line marking 
the places up to which each kind of tree is found growing, 
but beyond which it will not grow in any very large numbers, 
we shall thereby get lines which mark what are known as the 
" northern limits " of these trees. These lines will not run 
east and west, nor will they be parallel in all places. The 
Atlantic and Pacific oceans and the inland lakes and Hudson's 
Bay have the effect of making them very irregular. 

The northern limits of the most common trees will be found 
to be about as follows: — Chestnut, black walnut, hickory, 
butternut, red cedar, white ash, beech, and basswood in 
southern Ontario ; somewhat further north, hemlock, red oak, 
sugar maple, yellow birch, red pine, and white pine ; still 
further north, white elm, black ash, balsam, poplar, and spruce. 

It must be noted that this order is not always followed, as 
both soil and climate have their influence, and the effect of 
fire has been to change the nature of the forests. As a rule 
evergreens will grow in colder climate than the trees that shed 
their leaves (deciduous), and of the latter the nut-bearing 
varieties are usually found in the milder climate. 

An interesting study is to find out the different trees growing 
in a locality, and to determine the nature of the soil in which 
they thrive; which, for instance, grow in low, damp places, 
and which in dry, gravelly soil, or on rocky hills. 



FORESTRY. 1 83 

Destruction of the Forest. — What has destroyed this 
great forest ? First of all, the settler had to clear the soil for 
his roads and for his fields of grain and of pasture. In early 
days of settlement two of the principal products of the farm 
were the logs and timber from the body of the trees and the 
ashes made from burning the top branches and small cuttings. 
To-day the cutting of lumber is removing year by year large 
quantities of trees, but the natural growth of young trees is 
more than sufficient to make up for this cutting, if properly 
carried on. The great agent of destruction to-day is fire. 
One forest fire will sweep away or destroy in a few weeks in 
summer or autumn far more than all the lumbermen remove. 
The fire burns rapidly because of the inflammable material, 
such as resin, in the evergreens. At the same time it destroys 
the young sprouting seedlings and the seeds also, which would 
otherwise soon start a new forest that in twenty- five or forty 
years would replace the old forest. 

Benefits of Forests. — Of what use are the forests? In 
the first place, they are a great protection against cold winds, 
modifying the climate as great wind-breaks. They also hold 
back the snows of winter, preventing spring freshets. When 
the country is laid bare of its trees, the creeks and streams are 
full in early spring and dry in midsummer. 

Although the trees give off enormous quantities of water 
through their leave's, yet they hold back or store up in the 
loose leaf mold larger amounts of water. The trees, therefore, 
hold back the snow, and later hold back the water, and thereby 
save the creeks from becoming dry. They also save the hills 
from being washed bare. The loss of soil washings by the 
creeks in spring is heavy. Every spring, therefore, should be 
shaded by trees at its source, and every stream, no matter how 
small, should be protected, not alone at its source in the high 
lands, but also along its course, by at least a fringe of trees. 



184 AGRICULTURE. 

In the next place, the forests are the home of birds and 
game, which are a source of supply of food and furs. 

Trees and forests also add to the fine appearance of a 
country, whether found along the streams and rivers or on the 
hill tops. Trees for all hilly country is a good rule to follow. 
It is there that the streams take their rise. Land there is of 
less value for grain crops. When we lay bare the hills we cut 
down the wind-breaks, we dry up the springs and streams, and 
we leave a poor soil, to be made poorer by the washing of the 
rains and the blowing of the winds. We should remember 
that the forest is a crop of the farm, and its nature should be 
considered as carefully as that of any other crop of the farm. 

The Forest as a Producer of Crops. — If the trees are 
a crop, how should that crop be harvested? We cut down all 
of a wheat crop at one time. If we are growing a crop of corn 
for green ears we do not pick all at once, but go over the field 
again and again, taking the ears that are full-grown and leaving 
the small ears to grow larger. If we were to cut down a whole 
forest or a wood, as we do a crop of wheat, we would have to 
wait many years for a new crop. But if we take out each year 
only the largest trees, and leave the others standing until they 
grow to full-size, we can harvest a crop of trees every year, and at 
the same time assist the smaller trees to grow more rapidly. 
The cutting down of trees, large and small alike, is wasteful; 
the proper cutting of trees, leaving the young forest to make 
growth, is alone worthy of the name of forestry. 

There is only one way in which to become acquainted with 
trees, and that is by studying the trees themselves as they are 
growing. In studying a tree the following points are to be 
noticed. First, as to whether it is an evergreen or whether it 
sheds its leaves (that is, deciduous) ; second, the general shape 
of the tree, whether it grows tall or spreads out, how it 
branches ; third, the form of its leaves ; fourth, the nature of 
its bark ; and, fifth, the nature and form of its seeds or nuts. 



FORESTRY. 1 85 

Contrast the cedar and the maple ; contrast the branching 
of the elm and of the beech ; contrast the leaves of the maple, 
of the oak, and of the ash ; contrast the bark of the hickory 
and of the birch ; contrast the seeds of the pine and of the 
basswood. 

The Forest Tree Nursery. — Every farm should, and 
every school might, have a small nursery, a plot fenced off so 
that cattle and pigs cannot get into it, and which should be as 
well tended as a flower garden. Here are the instructions of a 
forester, Sir Henri Joly, of Quebec :— " With a little attention, 
it is easy to tell when the seeds are ripe. Thus, toward the 
end of June and early in July the seeds of the elm and those 
of the plane are ripe; if you sow them at once, they will shoot 
up nearly a foot that same summer. The seeds of the maple, 
ash, oak, wild cherry, and walnut mature in the autumn ; it is 
better to sow them immediately than to keep them in the house 
all winter. Sow, let us say, maple seeds half an inch deep, 
and others, in proportion to their size, two or three inches for 
nuts. Sow thickly, and after the first year you can thin them 
by transplanting some. After four or five years you can plant 
your young trees where they are to remain. You should 
select cloudy or rainy weather in the spring. 

" In many cases you can even spare yourself the trouble of 
sowing. When the ground is favorable in July or August, 
along the ditches, the woods, the fences, in the moss, in damp 
places, in the neighborhood of fhe elms and the planes, you 
will find hundreds of little shoots which have sprung from the 
seeds fallen from the trees ; plant them in your nursery. 

"The seed of the pine is very difficult to gather. Early in 
the spring, in the pastures near the pines, you can pull up, 
when the soil is damp, as many little trees as you will wish to 
plant; for this kind it will be better to take the precaution to 
shelter them from the sun until they have taken root." 
13 



1 86 AGRICULTURE. 

From this nursery you can set out a row of maples or elms 
along the main road and the lane, taking care to keep them 
well apart, so that they will branch out and not shade the road 
too much ; you can also plant a wind-break for the house and 
the garden ; you can cover the hilly ground and protect all 
springs and water courses ; you can also plant a small clump 
in a corner of the pasture, being careful to protect it from the 
cattle till well grown ; you can locate a few trees near the 
house, but not too near. There will be no difficulty in finding 
a place for every tree, and, if properly cared for, every tree 
thus set out will add to the value of the farm or the home. 

1. How many different kinds of maple, of oak, of birch, of cedar, of 
elm, of ash and of pine are found in your neighborhood? 

2. What is pulp? What trees are used for producing pulp? 

3. Which is more valuable, a pine from the open or one from a pine 
forest ? Why ? 

4. Why will a hollow tree live and a girdled tree die ? 

5. What causes the rings in a tree, and the grain in a board ? How can 
you tell a tree's age ? 

6. How is maple syrup made? When? Do any other trees give 
similar products ? 

7. What causes a knot in a pine board and a burl in an oak tree ? 

8. What is the effect on forest growth of allowing cattle to browse and 
range through the wood lot. 

9. What are the principal uses in manufacture of maple, ash, elm, 
birch, oak, hickory, basswood, black walnut, cedar, hemlock, spruce, and 
white pine ? 

10. Explain the difference between log, timber, and lumber ; board, 
plank, and deal ; straight-cut and quarter-cut ; selected, mill-run, and 
culls. How is lumber measured ? 




Cone of white pine. (One half natural size.) 



ROADS. 187 



CHAPTER XXXIX. 



ROADS. 

" A good road is one that is good in bad weather." 

Early Roads. — The Indians made their journeys by canoe 
routes and by trails. The former followed the winding streams 
and lakes, shortened in places by portages or "carries." The 
latter were narrow footpaths that wound in and out, up and 
down, following the easiest natural route. There was Uttle or 
no attempt at making or improving the road or path. Large 
stones and fallen trees were avoided, not removed, and a good 
surface to the path was got only by long use, not by any 
attempt at direct improvement. The condition of the roads 
is a fair test of civilization —the savages do not make roads. 

When the settlers first came into the forest to make their 
homes, the first thing required was a road by which to get in to 
and on to the lot. This road was made as quickly and as 
cheaply as possible. The trees were cleared away, making the 
"road allowance," some of the stumps were removed, and the 
road was thus used in its first stage. It was found, however, 
that such a road was impassable and useless in the spring and 
fall or during heavy rains, — it needed drainage. Then followed 
the next improvement, namely, the cuttmg of a ditch on each 
side, the dirt from which was thrown upon the road, thereby 
raising the centre a little above the sides. This second stage 
was a great improvement; the water drained off into the 
side ditches, and the roadway was kept fairly dry. The wheels 
of carts and the feet of horses and of oxen do not cut into the 
dry earth so easily as into the mud. Such a road as this we 
call a dirt or earth road. Many are still found, and they are 



hs 



AGRICULTURE. 



the only kind of road possible in certain places, but in order 
to be useful they must be kept well rounded up and well 
drained on the sides. The greatest enemy of all roads is water, 
whether it is water i?i the material of the road or on the surface 
of the road. The frost can do no damage unless there is water 
in the road. You know that water expands when it freezes, so 
that when a wet road freezes it heaves, and becomes broken 
up. This, then, is the first principle of road-making — keep it 
dry by open drains on the side, or by covered tile drains on 
the side, or by tile drains below the road. 

The next principle in road-making is to get a fairly hard 
surface. In early days the settlers sometimes cut down small 
trees, and, after trimming them, laid them side by side across 
the dirt road. By this means there was made a surface that 
was hard but a little rough. Such a road, from its ribbed 
nature, was called a "corduroy" road. Later on, when saw- 
mills became common, sawn-planks were sometimes laid down, 
forming a plank road. The object in both cases was to 
get a hard, level surface. A horse can pull but a light load 
through loose sand or deep miry mud ; he can draw much 
more on a hard, level road ; he can draw still more on a level 
steel track. Why is this so ? 

Gravel Roads. — Another way to harden the surface is to 
put hard, stony material upon it. First of all, good gravel 
may be used, and a coating of it laid along the roadway. You 
will at once ask as to whether loose gravel will not be difficult 
to drive through. So it is. Therefore we must get the gravel 
well packed together, and so a roller is used. After first 
rolling the dirt roadway, a layer of gravel is put on, and the 
heavy roller is again driven back and forth, every time crush- 
ing the gravel down a little, and packing it together a little 
more closely. This should be done scores of times if neces- 
sary. The number of times will, of course, depend upon the 
weight of the roller; a heavy 20-ton steam roller will not need 



ROADS. 



to be passed over the gravel as often as a 6-ton roller drawn 
by two teams of horses. Unless the gravel is rolled in this 
w^ay, it remains loose and soft when the fall rains come on, 
the wheels of wagons cut through it, and mix it with the mud 
beneath ; and so the gravel is wasted and the road is not nearly 
so good as it should* be. Then more gravel is put on and 
rolled again, and a nicely rounded or crowned surface is made 
which will shed the rain-water into the side ditches, and 
which is so hard and compact on the surface that the wheels 
will not cut through. 

But big open ditches on the side are unsightly ; they get 
choked up with weeds, and they are frequently dangerous to 
horses and travellers. They should be kept clean, of course, 
so that the water will not stand in them. But the better plan 
is to put down a covered tile drain On each side of the road, 
and leave only a shallow ditch above it. The grass will grow 
over this, and a neat roadside will result. 




Fig. 83. — A gravel road properly crowned, with side ditches and tile drains. 

In order to get a strong, tough surface, the gravel must be 
well packed together, that is, it must "bind." If we mix 
together in the road coarse gravel and fine hard stony material 
and soft fine dirt the road will soon become uneven. It is 
necessary, therefore, to have the gravel well screened ; then 
the coarser part should be spread on the roadway and well 
rolled, and the finer gravel spread upon it to form the surface. 
All soft material, such as sods and loose dirt, should be kept 



IQO AGRICULTURE. 

out of the gravel ; in short, the gravel should be as clean as 
possible; it should be screened, graded, and put on in layers, 
and should be well rolled. 

Stone Roads. — As a rule, gravel is more or less rounded, 
and therefore does not at first bind well. You know that a 
road could not be well made out of marbles. To bind well 
there must be sharp corners and rough sides on the pieces. 
So we find that broken stone will make a stronger and more 
durable road than will gravel. But we must remember the 
points already referred to, namely, the road must first of all be 
thoroughly drained, both underneath and on the sides ; the 
stone must be put down in courses, the largest below and the 
smallest on the surface, and every course must be thoroughly 




Fig. 84. — This is the kind of road that is made by placing loose stones 
on a dirt road without properly preparing the foundation— the 
stones sink through the mud beneath. 

rolled as it is laid. It is a mistake to leave the rolling until 
the road is all filled in. The dirt sub-soil should first be well 
rolled. In using broken stone care should be used in choos- 
ing a tough rock ; if the rock is soft it will soon be ground 
into dust. Tough limestone and the hard rock called trap 
are the best. Sandstone and most kinds of granite are too 
easily crumbled for use on roads for heavy travel. 

Now, as to the mode of building or laying a stone road. 
First of all, we may build the road of broken stones, none of 
which are over three inches in diameter, laying the stone in 
courses, and well packing it by rolling. In this way we make 



ROADS. 



191 



what is called a macadam road. It is so named after a Scottish 
engineer, John L. Macadam, who lived from 1756 to 1836, 
and who originated this method of making roads. 




Fig. 85.— A Macadam road. 

We may, however, begin the road by laying a foundation of 
flat stones from six to eight inches in thickness, then a layer 
of coarsely broken stone, another layer or course of more finely 
broken stone, and a thin coat of fine gravel or screenings on 
the surface — all well compacted by a heavy roller. This kind 
of road is called a Telford road, from the inventor, Thomas 
Telford, a Scottish engineer, who lived from 1757 to 1834. 




Fig. 86.— A Telford road. 

The legal width of a country road allowance is 66 feet. The 
?jsual travel on such a road does not require more than 24 
feet of this to be graded and crowned. In the centre of this 
graded portion the metalling (that is, the broken stone or 
gravel) is placed, having a width of 6 or 8 feet and a depth of 
9 to 12 inches, according to the number and weight of the 
vehicles which will pass over the road. As the country 
becomes more thickly populated, and the number of vehicles 



192 AGRICULTURE. 

using the road increases, it will be found necessary to make 
the metalled portion wider than 24 feet. 

Notes : — 

Broad tires should be used on heavy waggons and carts, as 
wheels with wide tires will not sink so readily in sand and dirt 
as wheels with narrow tires — in fact the wide-tired wheels have 
the same good effects as a roller on the surface of the road. 

The greatest enemy to good roads is water in the roadbed 
and water on the surface. Notice how a small hole on the sur- 
face of a road becomes larger soon after a rain. 

The best time to mend a road is just as soon as it needs 
mending. '' A stitch in time saves nine." 

The road surface should be nicely crowned, so as to 
shed the water to the side ditches; the side ditches should 
be kept clean and uniform, so that the water will run away 
and not stand in them; the road sides should be level and 
sloping towards the ditches, and should be covered with 
sod, all weeds, stumps and shrubs being cut out. 

The fences along the road should be kept neat and trim. If 
trees are planted along the roadside they should be far enough 
apart to allow the sunlight to keep the road dry. 

As a rule the roads are a sure index of the intelligence, 
enterprise, and prosperity of a farming community. Poor, 
cheap roads are a source of great expense to farmers. Good 
roads, well-kept, will enable the farmer to draw heavier loads 
in a shorter time, cause less wear and tear on vehicles, horses 
and harness, add much to the pleasure and satisfaction of living 
in the country, and increase the value of farm property. 

A good road brings a farmer nearer to his neighbors, nearer 
to market, nearer to school, and nearer to church. 



THE COUNTRY HOME. 1 93 



CHAPTER XL, 



THE COUNTRY HOME. 

A Fine Country Home. — In the older countnes of Europe 
most families of even moderate wealth endeavor to have two 
homes or residences, a city or town house and a country 
house. The greater pleasure, the more lasting recollections, 
are usually associated with the latter. When we clearly under- 
stand the nature and the surroundings of the rural homes, the 
country seats, of England, Scotland and Ireland, we do not 
wonder at the preference. With increased wealth, in the future 
a similar condition of affairs may, perhaps, result in this 
country, but the building up of pleasant, attractive country 
homes in this land need not be put off until the day of 
increased wealth shall make such possible to a few. Far better 
will it be for this country if every farmer's home can be made 
attractive and comfortable. Many men of the towns and 
cities, wearied and perplexed with the driving cares and the 
never-ending anxieties of their busy life, look forward longingly 
to a time when they can return to the country, for a part of the 
year at least, to enjoy the quiet, the comfort, and the health- 
fulness of a country home, even though it may be a very 
humble home. The young people of to-day will ere long be 
making homes for themselves ; in fact, even now they can do 
something towards making their homes more attractive, hence 
it is not out of place to make a brief study of what the ideal 
country home should be. Home life in the country, as in the 
town, is the most important factor in building up character. A 
nation's life is largely the combined home life of all the families 
that make up the nation. 



194 AGRICULTURE. 

The House. — The house depends for its attractiveness not 
upon what it is made of — stone, brick, wood, logs — but upon 
its form, its situation and its surroundings. In deciding 
upon the outHne of a house both plainness and too much 
variation and decoration should be avoided. It should, if 
possible, face towards the south, to see the first of spring and 
the last of autumn ; it should be near enough to the road to 
bring passing vehicles and traffic within range, and yet not 
right on or against the road. If possible, from the front there 
should be a pleasant outlook or landscape. It should stand 
on rising ground, so that there will be perfect drainage away 
from it, and no possibility of any drainage towards it. 

Having selected a good site, we begin with the house, and, 
of course, start with the cellar. This should extend under the 
whole house, otherwise some of the rooms may be damp at 
times. The cellar should be deep enough so that one can 
walk about in all parts of it erect ; it should have a concrete 
floor, and a well-laid drain from it to keep it dry. Have 
windows on all sides, so that the whole cellar can be kept well 
aired. If it can be arranged, have a root-cellar apart from the 
house, say in one corner of the garden. All this means a little 
extra expense, but damp, musty cellars and decaying roots 
result in sickness, sometimes in death, and the cost of a good 
cellar will be money well invested. 

The arrangement of the rooms in the house is a matter 
largely of choice. There should be a large kitchen, a pantry, 
a dining-room, and a parlor on the ground floor. There 
should be also a reading-room or library or study, in which 
will be found the best agricultural papers, and at least a small 
collection of the best agricultural books and reports. Two 
other things should be provided for, namely, one large bow 
window for house-plants and a grate for a log fire. The sleep- 
ing rooms may be on the second floor, and, in addition, there 
should be a store-room and a bath-room. 



THE COUNTRY HOME. 1 95 

So much for the inside. On the outside there should be a 
wide verandah with comfortable chairs. This will be found to 
be the summer living room. It should run the length of at 
least one side of the house, and, if the style of the house 
allow and the outlook be favorable, it should run around on a 
second side. Both sides will be used in different kinds of 
weather. Around the supports of the verandah there can be 
twined a climbing plant, Virginia creeper or ivy or honey- 
suckle or clematis or climbing rose. 

The Surroundings of the House. — Two great essentials 
to health are pure air and sunlight ; therefore, have plenty of 
windows, and keep all trees far enough away so that the 
windows will not be darkened. You wish a fine outlook from 
your verandah, therefore do not plant trees to hide the view. 
You should, or may have, a few trees along the main road and 
on either side of the winding driveway from the entrance-gate, 
but keep the front well open, so as to let in the fresh air and 
the sunlight, and so as to allow you to see out and away over 
the country. In the rear have a clump of spruce, to act as a 
wind-break against the cold north and north-west winds. On 
the side you may have a neatly-trimmed hedge of cedar, and 
here and there you may have a native shrub, but between your 
house and the road have a sloping lawn of green grass, clear 
of weeds, and well-trimmed. If the lawn is large enough you 
might have one or two shapely maples, but do not crowd out 
the grass or obstruct the view. And the flowers? On the 
side rather than in front, but choice and taste will settle where 
they are to go. Perhaps you can make a simple plan or sketch 
of a home such as we have briefly outlined. You will find 
that you will have to alter it to suit the general situation and 
lay-out of your farm, but, keeping in mind these simple 
principles as a guide, you can, if you will, make in time an 
ideal country home, which is one of the greatest blessings of 
any country. 



196 



AGRICULTURE. 



Suggestions to the Teacher : 

Are not the surroundings of the average country school bare and 
cheerless? (Fig. 88). May they not be improved by the planting of 
such native shrubs and flowers as might be picked up in a half- 
day's outing with the boys and girls? (Fig. 89). In this connection 
the teacher will do well to consult " Hints on Rural School 
Grounds," Bulletin No. 160, Cornell University Experiment Sta- 
tion, from which the accompanying cuts are taken. 



HoaeZ 




Fig. 87.— A "corner" schoolhouse and how the grounds may be arranged. 



THE COUNTRY HOME. 



197 











Fig. 88.— A country schoolhouse. 




Shrubbery," Figs. 21 and 22.) 



98 



AGRICULTURE. 



The leading thought in planting home grounds, but 
particularly school grounds, is to have a setting of green- 
sward for the central figure — the building — and then to 
frame this with an irregular border of trees, shrubs, and 
flowers, as shown in Fig. 90. 








^!^h/J^ 






Fig 90— A picture of which a schoolhouse is the central figure 




The border can always be added to or taken from with- 
out disturbing the arrangement. A hill of corn or a canna 
root may be inserted in the background with pleasing 
effect, while the foreground may be used for annual 
flowers. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 199 



APPENDIX. 



TREES AND SHRUBS. 
There are special botanical names for all trees and shrubs, 
just as there are for other plants, such as grasses and weeds. 
In the following table the scientific or botanical name is put 
in one column and the common name in the other. In every 
case two words are used— the first being a noun and the 
second an adjective; as picea, meaning "spruce," and alba^ 
meaning " white." In the same way, quercus meaning " oak," 
querciis alba is the botanical name of "white oak," and 
quercus rubra "red oak." 

Abies bahauiifera Balsam fir. 

Acer dasycarpwn Silver maple. [box elder. 

Acer negundo Ash-leaved or Manitoba maple or 

Acer Pennsylvanicujn Striped maple or moose wood. 

Acer rubrum Red or soft maple. 

Acer saccharinum Sugar or rock maple 

Acer spicatuni Mountain maple. 

Aesculus hippocastanum Horse chestnut. 

Betiiia lutea , Yellow birch. 

Betula lenta Black or cherry or sweet birch. 

Betttla nigra Red birch. 

Betula papyrifera Canoe or paper birch. 

Betula populifolia White or grey birch. 

Carpiniis Americaita Hornbeam or blue beech. 

Carya alba Shellbark hickory. 

Carya amara Bitter hickory. 

Carya microcarpa Small fruit hickory. 

Carya porcina Pignut. 

Carya tomentosa White-heart hickory. 

Castanea sativa Chestnut. 

Fagus sylvatica European beech. 



200 AGRICULTURE. 

Fagus fe7'i^g. nea American beech. 

Fraximis Americana White ash. 

Fraxinus ptibescens Red ash. 

Fraximis sambucifolia Black ash. 

Gyimtocladus Canadensis . . Coffee tree. 

Juglans cinerea Butternut. 

Jui^lans nigra Black walnut. 

/unipenis Virginiana Red cedar. 

Larix Americana Tamarack or American larch. 

Lii'iodendron tiilipifera Tulip tree. 

Ostrya Virginica Ironwood or hop hornbeam. 

Picea alba White spruce. 

Picea excelsa Norway spruce. 

Picea nigra . Black spruce. 

Pimis Banksiana Cypress or jack pine. 

Pinus mitis Yellow pine. 

Pinus resinosa Red or Norway pine. 

Pimis strobus White or Weymouth pine. 

Plata7ins occidentalis Buttonwood or sycamore. 

Populus balsamifera Balsam poplar or Balm of Gilead. 

Popuhis grandidentata Large toothed aspen. [poplar. 

Populus tremuloides American aspen or trembling-leaf 

Quercus alba White oak. 

Quercus coccinea Scarlet oak. 

Quercus prinus Rock chestnut oak. 

Quercus rubra Red oak. 

Quercus stellata Post oak. 

Quercus tinctoria Quercitron oak. 

Quercus macrocarpa Bur oak. 

Salix alba White willow. 

Salix vilellina Yellow willow. 

Sorbus Americana Mountain ash. 

Thuja occidentalis Arbor-vitae or white cedar. 

Tsuga Canadensis Hemlock. 

Tilia Americana Basswood or linden. 

Ulmus Aniericana American elm. 

Ulmus fulva Red or slippery elm. 

Ulmus racejnosa Cork or rock elm. 

Ulmus cafupestris European elm. 



WEEDS. 



WEEDS. 



Note. — A is for annual, B for biennial, and P for perennia' 



Common Name. I 
I 



Family or 
Order. 



Scientific Name. 



Buttercup P 

Cursed Buttercup. .A 
Tall Meadow rue. . .P 

False Flax A 

Shepherd's purse . .A 

Pepper wort A 

Pennycress A 

Wild mustard A 

Worm seed " .... A 

St. John's wort P 

Corn Cockle A 

Bladder Campion.. P 
Field Chickweed.. .P 

Bouncing Bet P 

Chickweed A 

Purslane A 

Mallow P 

Indian Mallow A 

Poison Sumach . . . . P 

Poison Ivy P 

Climbing Ivy P 

Rabbit-foot clover.. A 

Wild Tare P 

Black Medick A 

Sweet clover A 

Wild Carrot B 

Poison Hemlock. . .B 

Wild Parsnip B 

Evening Primrose. . B 

Willow herb P 

Teasel B 

Groundsel A 

Ragweed A 

Ox-eye Daisy P 

Yarrow P 

Tansy P 

Golden Rod P 

Cone-P'lower B 

Sow Thistle A 

Corn Thistle P 

Fireweed A 

Burdock B 

14 



Ranunculacese 
Crucifercc 



Hypericaceae 
Caryophyllaceos 



Portulacaceae 
Malvaceae. . . . 



Anacardiacese . 



Leguminosae , 



Umbelliferae 



Onagraceae 

Dipsacese . 
Compositae 



Ranunculus acris. 
Ranunculus sceleratus. 
Thalictrum polygamuin. 
Camelina sativa. 
Capsella Bursa-pastoris. 
Lepidium Virginicum. 
Thlaspi arvense. 
Brassica Sinapistrum. 
Erysimum cheiranthoides. 
Hypericum perforatum. 
Lychnis Githago. 
Silene inflata. 
Cerastium arvense. 
Saponaria officinalis. 
Stellaria media. 
Portulaca oleracea. 
Malva rotundifolia. 
Abutilon avicennae. 
Rhus venenata. 
Rhus toxicodendron. 
Rhus radicans. 
Trifolium arvense. 
Vicia Cracca. 
Medicago lupulina. 
Melilotus alba. 
Daucus carota. 
Conium maculatum. 
Pastinaca sativa. 
(Enothera biennis. 
Epilobium angustifolium. 
Dipsacus sylvestris. 
Senecio vulgaris. 
Ambrosia artemisiaefolia. 
Leucanthemum vulgare 
Achilloea millefolium. 
Tanacetum vulgare. 
Solidago Canadensis. 
Rudbeckia hirta. 
Sonchus oleraceus. 
Sonchus arvensis. 
Erechthilis hieracifolia. 
Arctium Lappa. 



/ 



202 



AGRICULTURE. 



Common Name. 


Family or 
Order. 


Scientific Name. 


Chicory 


.P 


Compositoe 


Cichorium Intybus. 


Dandelion 


P 


" 


Taraxacum officinale. 


Fleabane 


• A 


" 


Erigeron Canadense. 


Mayweed 


.A 


(( 


Anthemis Cotula. 


Canada Thistle . . 


• P 


" 


Cnicus arvensis. 


Bull Thistle 


B 


<< 


Cnicus lanceolatus. 


Bur Marigold 


P 


«< 


Bidens frondosa. 


Elecampane 


.P 


" 


Inula Helenium. 


Clot-bur 


.A 


u 


Xanthium Canadense. 


Mullein 


.B 


Scrophulariacese 


Verbascum Thapsus. 


INeckweed 


.A 


" 


Veronica peregrina. 


Toad Flax 


.P 


" 


Linaria vulgaris. 


Vervain 


• P 


VerbenacecE 


Verbena hastata. 


White Vervain. . . 


.P 


(1 


Verbena urticifolia. 


Motherwort 


.P 


Labiatae 


Leonurus Cardiaca. 


Catnip 


.P 


" 


Nepeta Cataria. 


Self Heal 


.P 


" 


Brunella vulgaris. 


Stickseed 


.B 


Borroginacese . . . 


Echinospermum Lappula. 


Hound's Tongue. 


.B 


" 


Cynoglossum officinale. 
Echium vulgare. 


Blueweed 


.B 


" 


Pigeonweed 


.A 


" 


Lithospermimi arvense. 


Thorn-Apple 


.A 


Solanaceae 


Datura Stramonium. 


Bindweed 


.P 


Convolvulacese . . 


Convolvulus arvensis. 


Dodder 


.A 


t( 


Cuscuta trifolii. 


Milkweed 


..P 


Asclepiadaceos . . 


Asclepias Cornnti. 


Plantain 


..P 


Plantaginacese . . 


Plantago major. 


Rib-grass 


..P 


" 


Plantago lanceolata. 


Lamb's Quarters. 


.A 


Chenopodiacese 


Chenopodium album. 


Strawberry Blite . 


.A 


'' 


Chenopodmm capitatum. 


Russian Thistle.. 


, A 


" 


Salsola kah 


Pigweed 


.A 


Amarantacese 


Amarantus retroflexus. 


Goosegrass 


.A 


Polygonacese. . . . 


Polygonum aviculare. 


Black Bindweed . . 


.A 


" 


Polygonum Convolvulus. 


Lady's Thumb . . . 


.A 


(< 


Polygonum Persicaria. 


Sorrel 


.P 


" 


Rumex Acetosella. 


Common Dock . . 


.P 


" 


Rumex crispus. 


Bittei Dock 


,P 


^ " 


Rumex obtusifolius. 


Smar tweed 


.A 


" 


Polygonum hydropiper. 


Nettle 


.P 


Urticacese 


Urtica gracilis. 


Wild Leek 


.P 


Liliacese 


Allium tricoceum. 


Chess 


.A 


Gramineae 


Bromus secalinus. 


Foxtail. . . 


.A 


" 


Setaria viridis. 


Barnyard Grass . . . 


.A 





Panicum Crus-galli, 


Witch Grass 


.A 


(< 


Panicum capillare. 


Wild Oat 


.A 


" 


Avena fatua. 


Couch Grass 


.P 


" 


Agropyrum repens. 



SPRAYING MIXTURES. 



SPRAYING MIXTURES. 



203 



The spraying of trees and bushes is done mainly for three purposes : 
I, to pievent and destroy the leaf-eaiing insects ; 2, to prevent an I 
destroy sucking insects ; 3, to prevent and destroy the germs of plant 
diseases. Poisons such as Paris Green (which is a compound of arsenic) 
are used for the first, kerosene (coal oil) emulsion for the second, anci 
copper sulphate for the third. Ai a rule the first and third are combined. 

Bordeaux Mixture. 

Copper sulphate (or bluestone) 4 pounds. 

Lime (fresh) 4 '• 

Water 40 gallons. 

Place the copper sulphate in a coarse bng and hang it in 5 gallons o' 
water. Slake the 1-me in 5 gallons of wa'er. Then mix the two and add 
the other 30 gallons of water. Use only woorlen vessels. Pans Green 
sohitionis made by stirring up I pound of I'aris Green in 203 to 300 gallons 
of water (200 for apple trees, 250 for plums, and 300 lor peaches), ad 1 
about 4 gallons of milk of lime. 

When the Paris Green and Bordeaux mixture are to be used together to 
check the insects and disease at the same time, make the Bordeaux 
mixture as above stated and add 4 oz. of Paris Green to ihe 40 gallons of 
Bordeaux mixture. 

Kerosene Emulsion. 

Hard soap yi pound, or soft soap, i quart. 

Boiling water (soft) I gallon. 

Coal oil 2 gallons. 

After dissolving the soap in the water, add the conl oil and stir well for 
5 to 10 minutes. When properly mixed, ic will adhere to glass without 
oiliness. A syringe or pump will aid much in this 'voik. In using, dilute 
with from 9 to 15 parts of water. Kerosene enmlsion miy be prepared 
with sour milk (i gallon) and coal oil (2 gallons), no soap being required. 
This latter will not keep long. 



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" We are loath to put down the two handsome volumes in which the source of such 
a gift as this has been republished. The type is so clear, the paper is so pleasant to 
the touch, the weight of each volume is so nicely adapted to the hand, and one turns 
page after page with exactly that quiet sense of ever new and ever old endeared de- 
light which comes through a witidow looking on the English countryside— the rooks 
cawing in a neighboring copse, the little village nestling sleepily amid the trees, trees 
so green that sometimes they seem to hover on the edge of black, and then again so 
green that they seem vivid with the flaunting bravery of spring." — N^w York 
Tribune. 

" Not only for the sigiiificance they lend to one of the masterpieces of English 
literature, but as a revelation of English rural life and scenes, are these pictures de- 
lightfully welcome. The edition is in every way creditable to the publishers." — 
Boston Beacon. 

" Rural England has many attractions for the lover of Nature, and no work, per- 
haps, has done its charms greater justice than Gilbert White's 'Natural History of 
Selborne.' "—Boston yournal. 

"This charming edition leaves really nothing to be desired." — Westminster 

Gazette. 

"This edition is beautifully illustrated and bound, and deserves to be welcomed by 
all naturalists and Nature lovers." — London Daily Chronicle. 

" Handsome and desirable in every respect. . . . Welcome to old and young." — 
New York Herald. 

"The charm of White's ' Selborne' is not d' finnbH But there is no other book of 
the past generations that will ever take the place with the field naturalists."— Zfa///. 
more Sun. 



New York : D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue. 



D. APPLETON & CO/S PUBLICATIONS. 

GEORGE H. ELLWANGER'S BOOKS. 

'J^HE GARDEN'S STORY; or, Pleasures and Trials 
-» of an Amateur Gardener. With Head and Tail Pieces by 
Rhead. i6mo. Cloth, extra, $1.50. 

"This dainty nugget of horticultural lore treats of the pk-asutes and trials of an 
amateur gardener. From the time wuen daffodils begin to peer and the ' secret of the 
year' comes in to mid-Uctober, Mr. Hlw anger provides an outline of hardy flower- 
gardening that can be carried on and worked upon by amateurs. ... A little chapter 
on ' Warm Weather Wisdom' is a presentment of the cream of English literature. 
Nor is the information of this floral calendar confined to the literary or theoretical 
sides. ' Piant thickly; it is easier and more profitable to raise flowers than weeds,' is a 
practical direction from the garden syllabus." — Philadelphia Fudlic Ledger. 

"One of the most charming books of the season. . . . This little volume, printed 
in excellent taste, is redolent of garden fragrance and garden wisdom. . . . It is in no 
sense a text-book, but it combines a vast deal of information with a great deal of out- 
of-door observation, and exceedingly pleasant and sympathetic writing about flowers 
and plants." — Christtan Union. 

" A dainty, learned, charming, and delightful book."— iV^w York Sun. 



T 



HE STORY OE MY HOUSE. With an Etched 
Frontispiece by Sidney L. Smith, and numerous Plead and Tail 
Pieces by W. C. Greenough. i6mo. Cloth, extra, $1.50. 

" An essay on tbe building of a house, with all its kaleidoscopic possibilities in the 
way of reform, :md its tantalizing successes befoie the fact, is always interesting ; and 
the author is not niggardly in the go d poirts he means 10 secure. It is but natural to 
follow these with a treatise on rugs full of Orientalism and enthusiasm ; on the literary 
den and the caller, welcome or otherwise; on the cabinets of porcelain, the rare edi- 
tions on the shelves, the briefly indicated details of the spoils of the chase in their 
proper place; on the greenhouse, with its curious climate and wonderful botany and 
odors, about which the author writes with unusual charm and precision ; on the dining- 
room and the dinner. . . . The book aims only to be agreeable; its literary flavor is 
pervasive, its sentiment kept well in hand." — Ne-iv 1 'ork Evening Post. 

" When the really perfect book of its class comes to a critic's 1 ands, all the words 
he has used to describe fairly satisfactory ones are inadequate for his new purpose, and 
he feels inrlined, as in this case, to stand aside and let the book speak for itself. In its 
own way, it would be hardly possible for this daintily iirinted volume to do better." — 
Art A viateur. 



I 



N GOLD AND SILVER. With Illustrations by 
W. Hamilton Gibson, A. B. Wenzell, and W. C. Greenough. 
i6mo. Cloth, $2.00. Also, limited Edition de luxe, on Japanese 
vellum, $5.00. 

Contents : The Golden Rug of Kermanshah ; Warders of the W^cods ; 
A Shadow upon the Pool ; The bilver Fox of Hunt's Hollow. 

"After spending a half hour with 'In Gold and Silver,' one recalls the old saying, 
'Precious things come in small parcels.' " — Christian Intelligencer. 

"One of the handsomest gift-books of the year." — Philadelphia Inquirer. 

" The whole book is eminently interesting, and emphatically deserving ol the very 
handsome and artistic setting it has received." — New i'orJi Tribune. 

D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue, New York. 



T 



D. APPLETON & CO.'S PUBLICATIONS. 



HE FARMER'S BOY. By Clifton Johnson, 
author of " The Country School in New England," etc. With 
64 Illustrations by the Author. 8vo. Cloth, $2.50. 

"One of the handsomest and most elaborate juvenile works lately published." — 
Philadelphia Item. 

" Mr. Johnson's style is almost rhythmical, and one lays down the book with the 
sensation of having read a poem and that saddest of all longings, the longing for 
vanished youth." — Bostnii Cojinnercial BiiUetiii. 

"As a trininph of the realistic photographer's art it deserves warm praise quite 
aside from its worth as a sterling book on the subjects its title indicates. ... It is a 
most praiseworthy book, and the more such that are published the better," — New York 
Mail ana Express. 

" The book is beautiful and amusing, well studied, well written, redolent of the 
wood, the field, and the stream, and full of those delightful reminders of a boy's 
country home wliich touch the heart."— AV7f' York Indepeiidcnt. 

"One of the finest books of the kind that have ever been put out." — Cleveland 
World. 

" A book on whose pages many a gray-haired man would dwell with retrospective 
enjoyment. " — St. Paitl Piotieer Press. 

" The illustrations are admirable, and the book will appeal to every one who has 
had a taste of life on a New England farm." — Boston Transcript. 



n^HE COUNTRY SCHOOL IN NEW ENG- 
■^ LAND. By Clifton Johnson. With 60 Illustrations from 

Photographs and Drawings made by the Author. Square 8vo. 

Cloth, gilt edges, $2.50. 

" An admirable undertaking, carried out in an admirable way. . . . Mr. Johnson's 
descriptions are vivid and lifelike and are full of humor, and the illustrations, mostly 
after photographs, give a solid effect of realism to the wiiole work, and are superbly 
reproduced. . . . 'I'he definitions at the close of this volume are very, very funny, and 
yet they are not stupid ; they are usually the result of deficient logic." — Bostofi Beacon. 

" A charmingly written account of the rural schools in this section of the country. 
It speaks of the old-fashioned school days of the early quarter of this century, of the 
mid-century schools, of the country school of to-day, and of how scholars think and 
write. The style is animated and picturesque. ... It is handsomely printed, and is 
interesting from its pretty cover to its very last page." — Boston Saturday Evening 
Gazette. 

"A unique piece of book-making that deserves to be popular. . . , Prettily and 
serviceably bound, and well illustrated." — Phe Chiirchman. 

" The readers who turn the lea< es of this handsome book will unite In saying the 
author has 'been there." It is no fancy sketch, but text and illustrations are both a 
reality. " — Chicago Inter-Ocean. 

" No one who is familiar with the little red schoolhouse can look at these pictures 
and read these chapters without having the mind lecall the boyhood experiences, and 
the memory Is pretty sure to be a pleasant one." — Chicago Times. 

" A superbly prepared volume, which by its reading matter and its beautiful illustra- 
tions, so natural and finished, pleasantly and profitably recalls memories and associations 
connected with the very foundations of our national greatness." — A''. Y. Observer. 



New York : D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue. 



D. APPLETON & CO.'S PUBLICATIONS. 

JN THE TRACK OF THE SUN : Readings from 
•*■ the Diary of a Globe Trotter. By Frederick Diodati 
Thompson. Profusely illustrated with Engravings from Pho- 
tographs and from Drawings by Plarry Fenn. Large 8vo. Cloth, 
gilt top, $6.co. 
" In very gorgeous iTOliday attire comes this large octavo volume, with its sumptu- 
ou<; full-page illustrations and its profusion of head and tail pieces. . . . The author's 
style is pleasant and easy, occasionally almost conversational, and it is impossible to 
follow him through the intricacies of his tour without acquiring a deal of information 
by the way." — PJiiladelpfiia Bullet hi. 

"One of the handsomest of this year's Christmas books. . . . The author has 
practically abandoned the grand tour in favor of regions less known. I here is not 
much of Europe in the volume, but a great deal about China, Japan, and the East. In 
this good judgment is shown. ... A truly elegant piece of bookmaking." — Phila- 
delphia Telegraph. 

" Mr. Thompson is an intelligent observer, who describes what he has seen with 
humor and point. . . . We know of no equally convenient and handsome publication 
illusirating a journey round the world." — The Outlook. 

" Few ' globe trotters ' have given their impressions of travel so comely a form as 
Mr. Thompson in this handsome illustrated volume." — Londoti Saturday Review. 

"As a piece of fine printing, binding, and illustration, Mr. Thompson's volume de- 
serves very high praise. The Appleton press has never done finer work. ... 1 he 
portrait of the Mohammedan sheik is one of the finest illustrations in recent books of 
travel. But the whole volume is a picture gallery which will especially commend itself 
to the large family of globe trotters, among whom Mr. Thompson deserves good 
standing for his .sensible comments and his excellent taste." — Literary World. 

OEMS OF NATURE. By William Cullen 
Bryant. Profusely illustrated by Paul de Longpr6. 8vo. 
Cloth, gilt, $4.00. 

" A very rich volume embellished with exquisite designs. . . . The publishers have 
been at great pains to make this volume what it is — one of the handsomest of the 
year." — Philadelphia Press. 

"The poems included in the collection are some of the choicest of Bryant's inspi- 
rations, the illustrations are lovely and sympathetic, and the entire make-up of the vol- 
ume is eminently artistic." — Philadelphia Telegraph. 

" There has probably been no more benutiful, and certainly no more fitting, presenta- 
tion of Bryant's selected woik than is offered in this volume. . . . Each poem is ac- 
companieri by special designs arranged with picturesque irregularity, and the volume 
is admirably printed. An excellent effect is secured by the use of a little lighter ink 
for the text." — The Outlook. 

"The artist is primarily a painter of flowers, and under his faithful and very pretty 
reproductions of these the poems are delicately wreathed." — Ne%v }'ork Times. 

"The poetry of William Cullen Bryant is distinguished beyond that of any other 
American poet by the fidelity with which Xature is depicted therein. . . . No one has 
caught the picturesque spirit of his text so successfully as Paid de Longpre in these 
Twems of Nature." — Richard Kenry Stoddard, /;/ the Book Buyer, 

"In beauty of print and binding and in its artistic illustrations the book is among 
the best specimens of the printer's art. The illustr-ations by Paul de Longpre tell the 
story of green fields and woods and mountains and singing birds without the aid of 
words. The book is artistically beautiful upon every page." — Chicago Inter-Ocean. 



P 



New York : D. APPLETON & CO., 72 Fifth Avenue. 



D. APPLETON AND COMPANY'S PUBLICATIONS. 

r^AMP-FIRES OF A NATURALIST. From the 

^ P'ield Notes of Lewis Lindsay Dyche, A. M., M. S., Professor 

of Zoology and Curator of Birds and Mammals in the Kansas 

State University. The Story of Fourteen Expeditions after 

North American Mammals. By Clarence E. Edwords. 

With numerous Illustrations. i2mo. Cloth, !igi.50. 

" It is not always that a professor of zoology is so enthusiastic a sportsman as Prof. 
Dyche. His hunting exploits are as varied as those of Gordon Cumming, for example, 
in South Africa. His grizzly bear is as dangerous as the lion, and his mountain steep 
and goats more difficult to stalk and shoot than any cieatures of the torrid zone. Evi- 
dently he came by his tastes as a hunter from lifelong experience."— A'^'w York 
Tribune. 

•'The book has no dull pages, and is often excitingly interesting, and fully in- 
structive as to the habits, haunts, and nature of wild beasts." — Chicago Jnter-Ocean. 

"There is abundance of interesting incident in addition to the scientific element, 
and the illustrations are numerous and highly graphic rs to the big game met by the 
hunters, and the hardships cheerfully undertaken." — Brvoklyn Eagle. 

" The narrative is simple and manly and full of the freedom of forests. . . . This 
record of his work ought to awaken the interest of the generations growing up, if only 
by the contrast of his active experience of the resources of Nature and of savage Hie 
with the background of culture and ihe environment of educational advantages that 
are being rapidly formed for the students of the United States. Prof. Dyche seems, 
fr)m this account of him, to have thought no personal hardship or exertion wasted in 
his attempt to collect facts, that the naturalist of the future n>ay be provided with com- 
plete and verified ideas as to species which will scon be extinct. This is good work — 
work that we need and that posterity will recognize with gratitude. The illustrations 
of the book are interesting, and the type is clear.'' — Aew York Times. 

"The adventures are simply told, but some of them are thrilling of necessity, how- 
ever modestly the narrator dojs his work. Prof. Dyche has had about as many ex- 
periences in the way of hunting for science as fall to the lot of the most fortunate, and 
this recountal of them is most interesting. The camps from which he worked ranged 
from the Lake of the Woods to Arizona, and northwest to British Columbia, and in 
every region he was successful in securing rare specimens for his museum." — Chicago 
Times. 

"The literary construction is refreshing. The reader is carried into the midst of 
the very scenes of which the author telLs, not by elaborateness of description, but by 
the directness and vivi Jness of every sentence. He is given no opportunity to abandon 
the comianions with which the book li;is provided him, for incident is made to follow 
incident with no intervening literary padding. In fact, the book is all action." — Kan- 
sas City Jouriial. 

" As an outdoor book of camping and hunting this book possesses a timely interest, 
but it also has the merit of scientific exactness in the descriptions of the habits, pecul- 
iarities, and haunts of wild animals." — Philadelphia Press. 

" But what is most important of all in a narrative of this kind— for it seems to us 
that 'Camp-Fires of a Naturalist' was written first of all for enteriainment — these notes 
neither have been ' dressed up ' and their accuracy thereby impaired, nor yet retai'ed in 
a dry and statistical manner. The book, in a word, is a plain narrative of adventures 
among the larger American animals."— Philadel/>hia Bulletin. 

"We recommend it most heartily to old and young alike, and suggest it as a beau- 
tiful souvenir volume for those who have .seen the wonderful display of mounted animals 
at the World's Fair." — Topeka Capital. 



D. APPLETON AND COMPANY. NEW YORK. 



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