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Full text of "Practical Astronomy"

TEXT CROSS WITHIN 
THE BOOK ONLY 



ro 



LU< OU 158109 m 



OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY 

Call No. %*/ /*? fa / X Accession No r 
Author 



This book should be returned on or before the date lasvfnarked below. 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 



P. S. MICHIE AND F. S. IIARLOW 

Lat Prnffssor of Philosophy 1st Lieut. 1st A rtillery U. S. A. 

if. S. M. A. 



THIRD EDITION REVISED 

TJIJKD THOUSAND 



NEW YORK 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC. 
LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED 



COPYRIGHT, 1893, 

BY 
P. S. MIC1IIE AND F. S. JTARLOW. 



PRESS OF 

BRAUNWORTH & CO. 

BOOKBINDERS /NO PRINTERS 

BROOKLYN. N. V. 



PREFACE. 



THIS volume, both in respect to matter and arrangement, is 
designed especially for the use of the cadets of the U. 8. Military 
Academy, as a supplement to the course in General Astronomy at 
present taught them from the text-book of Professor C. A. Young. 
It is therefore limited to that branch of Practical Astronomy which 
relates to Field Work, and more particularly to those subjects which 
are not discussed at sufficient length for practical work in Professor 
Young's volume. It is believed, however, that it will find a use- 
ful application in the hands of officers of the Army, who may be 
called upon to conduct such explorations and surveys for military 
purposes as the War Department may from time to time direct. 

The more usual methods of determining Time, Latitude, and 
Longitude, on Land, are explained, and the requisite reduction 
formulas are deduced and explained. In addition, there is given a 
short explanation of the principles relating to the Construction of 
Ephemerides, to the Figure of the Earth, the determination of 
Azimuths, and the projection of Solar Eclipses. 

The instruments described are those used by the cadets in the 
Field and Permanent Observatories of the Military Academy dur- 
ing the summer encampment. 

The principal sources of information from which the matter in 
this volume has been derived are the published Eeports of the 
United States Lake, Coast, and Northern Boundary Surveys; the 
publications of the Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy, and the 
works of Briinnow and Chauvenet. 

U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY, 
WEST POINT, N. Y., October, 1893. 

iii 



CONTENTS. 



EPIIEMEUIS. 

PAGE 

American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac ................... ....... r 1 



of the Sun. 

Deduction of Formulas for Computation of the Sun's Tables ............ 2 

Table of Epochs ................................................... 6 

Table of Longitude of Perjgee ........................... . ............ 5 

Table of Equations of the Center ...................................... 5 

Perturbations in Longitude ; Aberration ............................... 6 

Ephemeris of the Sun .............................................. 6 

Earth's Radius Vector ................................................ 6 

Sun's Horizontal Parallax ............................................ 7 

Sun's Apparent Semi-dinmetcr ........................................ 7 

Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude ............................... 7 

Equation of Time ....................... . ........................... 9 

JSphemeris of the Moon. 

Elements of the Lunar Orbit ......................................... 10 

Ephemeris of the Moon .............................................. 12 

Ephemeris of a Planet. 13 

INTERPOLATION. 15 

THE TRANSIT. 

Description of the Transit Instrument .................................. 17 

The Reticle .......................................................... 19 

The Eye-piece and Setting Circles .................................... 20 

Adjustments of the Transit. 

1. To Place the Wires in the Principal Focus of the Objective ........... 21 

2. To Level the Axis ................................................. 21 

8. To Place the Wires at Right Angles to the Rotation Axis ............ 28 

y 



VI CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

4. To Place the Middle Wire in the Line of Collimation 23 

6. To Place the Line of Collimation in the Meridian 28 

INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 

1. The Value of One Division of the R. A. Micrometer Head 24 

2. The Equatorial Intervals 27 

3. The Reduction to the Middle Wire 28 

4. The Value of One Division of the Level 29 

6. Inequality of the Pivots 30 

EQUATION OF THE TKANSIT IN THE MERIDIAN. 

1. The Effect of an Error in Azimuth on the Time of Passage of the 

Middle Wire 35 

2. The Effect of an Inclination of the Axis on the Time of Passage of 

the Middle Wire 34 

3. The Effect of an Error in Collimatiou on the Time of J?AKsugc of the 

Middle Wire 84 

Determination, of Instrumental Errors. 

1. To Determine the Level Error 37 

2. To Determine the Collimation Error ' 37 

3. To Determine the Azimuth Error 39 

REFRACTION TABLES 40 

TIME. 

Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Intervals 43 

Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Time 44 

Example Solved 46 

To FIND TIIK TIME BY ABTUONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 

I. Time by Meridian Transits. 
1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece by the Meridian 

Transit of a Star (Form 1 , Appendix) 47 

* To Find the Same by the Meridian Transit of the Sun 48 

2d Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by a Merid- 
ian Transit of the Sun (Form 2) 49 

* To Find the Same by a Meridian Transit of a Star 50 

THE SEXTANT. 

Description of the Sextant 50 

How to Measure an Angle with the Sextant 54 

Adjustments of tlie Sextant. 

1. To Make the Index-glass Perpendicular to the Frame 56 

2. To Make the Horizon-glass Perpendicular to the Frame 56 



CONTENTS. TU 

PAGK 

8. To Make the Axis of the Telescope Parallel to the Frame 56 

4. To Make the Mirrors Parallel, when the Reading is Zero 57 

Emors of the Sextant. 

Index Error 57 

Eccentricity '. 58 

The Astronomical Triangle , 58 

11. Time by Single Altitudes. 

1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece hy a Single Alti- 
tude of a Star (Form 3) 59 

4- The Correction to be. Applied to the Mean of the Altitudes. . 60 

To Ascertain what Stars are Suitable for this Method 63 

Sd Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by a Single 

Altitude of the Sun's Limb (Form 4) 64 

///. Time by Equal Altitudes. 

1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece by Equal Alti- 
tudes of a Star (Form 5) 66 

2d Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by Equal Alti- 
tudes of the Sun's Limb (Form 6) 67 

4 Correction for Refraction 68 

4* Equation of Equal Alt itudes 69 

Time of Sunrise or Sunset ' 70 

Duration of Twilight 70 

LATITUDE. 

Form and Dimensions of the Earth 72 

The Eccentricity of the Meridian 74 

The Equatorial and Polar Radii 74 

The Radius of Curvature of the Meridian at the Observer's Station 75 

The Length of a Degree of Latitude 75 

The Length of a Degree Perpendicular to the Meridian 75 

The Length of a Degree of Longitude 76 

The Length of the Earth's Rudius at any Point 76 

The Reduction of Latitude 77 

Latitude Problems. 

1st Method. By Circumpoltvrs. . . 78 

2d Method. By Meridian Altitudes or Zenith Distances 78 

3d Method. By Circum-meridian Altitudes 79 

Formula for Reduction to the Meridian 79 

Method of Making and Reducing Observations 80 

Hour Angle and Correction for Clock Rate 81 

By Circum-meridian Altitudes of the Sun's Limb (Form 7). . 83 

By Circum-meridian Altitudes of a Star (Form 8) 84 



TOl CONTENTS. 

PAQB 

Notes on this Method. 

1. Ephemeris Star Preferable to Sun 84 

2. Advantage of Combining the Kesults from Two Stars 84 

3. Advantage of Selecting Stars Distant from Zenith 84 

4. Reduction of Mean Solar to Sidereal Intervals 86 

5. To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian. 87 

THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 

Description of the Zenith Telescope 00 

The Attached Level and Declination Micrometer 91 

4th Method. By Opposite and Nearly Equal Meridian Zenith Distances. 

Captain Tulcott's Method (Form 9) 96 

Conditions for Selecting a Pair of Stars 97 

Preliminary Computations , . . . 97 

Adjustment of Zenith Telescope 98 

Observations 99 

Reduction of Observations 99 

1. Reduction from Mean Declination to Apparent Declination of 

the Date 99 

2. The Micrometer and Level Corrections 100 

8. The Refraction Correction 102 

4. The Correction for Observations off the Meridian 103 

fr To Determine the Reduction for an Instrument in the Meridian. . . 105 

Hh To Determine the Probabb Error of the Final Result 106 

5th Method. By Polaris off the Meridian (Form 10) 109 

6th Method. By Equal Altitudes of Two Stars (Form 11) 114 

LONGITUDE. 

1st Method. By Portable Chronometers 118 

2d Method. By the Electric Telegraph (Form 12) 121 

Reduction of the Time Observations (Form 120) 125 

fr Personal Equation 127 

4* Application of Weights and Probable Error of Result 128 

8d Method. By Lunar Culminations 132 

Observations and Reductions , 135 

Equation of Transit Instrument Applicable to this Method. .. 137 

4th Method. By Lunar Distances 140 

1. Correction for Moon's Augmented Semi-diameter 141 

2. Correction for Refraction 142 

3. Correction for Earth's Oblatcness 142 

Explanation of this Method 142 

Observations , 148 

fr To Find Augmentation of Moon's Semi-diameter 149 

fr To Deduce the Law of Refractive Distortion 150 

* To Deduce the Parallax for the Point R. 151 

jh To Determine the Correction for Earth's Oblateness 151 



CONTENTS. IX 
OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDE. 

PAOB 

1. By Signals 158 

2. By Eclipses and Occupations 158 

8. By Jupite r's Satellites 158 

a. From their Eclipses 158 

b. From their Occupations 153 

c. From their Transits over Jupiter's Disc 154 

d. From the Transit of their Shadows * 154 

Application to Explorations and Surveys 154 

TIME OF OPPOSITION OR CONJUNCTION. 156 

TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE. 157 
AZIMUTH. 

Definitions 158 

The Astronomical Theodolite or Altazimuth 159 

Classification of Azimuths 160 

Selection of Stars 160 

Measurement of Angles with Altazimuth 162 

Observations and Preliminary Computations 164 

REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS. 165 

fr 1. Diurnal Aberration in Azimuth 166 

2. To Reduce an Azimuth observed shortly before or after the Time 

of Elongation, to its Value at Elongation 167 

DECLINATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 168 

SUN-DIALS. 168 

Values of Equation of Time to be added to Sun-Dial Time 178 

SOLAR ECLIPSE. 

Solar Ecliptic Limits 174 

PROJECTION OF A SOLAR ECLIPSE. 

1. To find the Radius of the Shadow on any Plane Perpendicular to the 

Axis of the Shadow 176 

2. To find the Distance of the Observer at a given time from the Axis of 

the Shadow 178 

8. To find the Time of Beginning or Ending of the Eclipse at the Place 

of Observation 180 

4. The Position Angle of the Point of Contact 182 

5. The necessary Equations for Computation arranged in order for the 

Solution of the Problem 182 

TABLES. 185 

FORMS. 208 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



EPHEMERIS. 

Ephemeris. The numerical values of the coordinates of the 
principal celestial bodies, together with the elements of position of 
the circles of reference, are recorded for given equidistant instants 
of time in an Astronomical Ephemeris. 

The "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac" is pub- 
lished by the United States Government, generally three years in 
advance of the year of its title, and comprises three parts, viz. : 

Part I. Ephemeris for the Meridian of Greenwich, which gives 
the heliocentric and geocentric positions of the major planets, the 
ephemeris of the sun, and other fundamental astronomical data for 
equidistant intervals of mean Greenwich time. 

Part II. Ephemeris for the Meridian of Washington, which 
gives the ephemerides of certain fixed stars, sun, moon, and major 
planets, for transit over the meridian of Washington, and also the 
mean places of the fixed stars, with the data for their reduction. 

Part 111. Phenomena, which contains prediction of phenomena 
to be observed, with data for their computation. 

EPHEMEEIS OF THE BUN. 

To construct the ephemeris of the sun it is necessary to com- 
pute its tables : these are 

1. The table of Epochs. 

2. The table of Longitudes of Perigee. 

3. The table of Equations of the Center, and its corrections. 

4. The table of the Equations of the Equinoxes in Longitude. 



2 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

In Mechanics* it was shown that the Earth's undisturbed orbit 
is an ellipse, having one of its foci at the sun's center, and that the 
earth's angular velocity is 



its radius vector, 



r== a (i - o ....... 

1 + e cos 0* v ' 



its constant double sectoral area, 

li = 4///a(l e a ); (615) 

and its periodic time, 

r = 2 7t\/-, = (616) 

r x w v ' 

In these expressions 0' is the angle made by the earth's radius 
vector with any assumed right line drawn through the sun's center, 
that included between the radius vector and the line of apsides 
estimated from perihelion, and n is the mean motion of the earth 
in its orbit. 

From (551), (615) and (616), we have 



(W 

at 



- /X (1 + g cos ^>) g _ (1 + g cos <9) 8 

" " "" tt " 1 " : 



- /X 

" V o 8 



and therefore 

n rf < = (1 - e*)* (1 + e cos #r rf ^. (2) 

Since e varies but little from 0.01678 (see Art. 185, Young f), we 
may omit all terms containing the third and higher powers of e in 
the development of the second member of the preceding equation. 

* Micliie's Mechanics, 4th Edition. 
f Young's General Astronomy. 



Then after substituting 



BPHEMEN8. 



for cos* 0, we have 



ft c? tf = d 6' - 2 e cos 0d + e a cos 2 0d (2 6) + etc. (3) 
Integrating we have 

n t + 0= 8' - 26 sin 8 + f e a sin 2 + etc. (4) 

The earth's orbit is, however, not entirely undisturbed. Due to 
the perturbating action of other bodies of the solar system the earth 
is never exactly in the place which it would occupy in an undis- 
turbed orbit. Moreover the line of apsides has a direct motion, i.e., 
in the direction in which longitudes are measured, of about 11".7 
per annum, and the vernal equinox an irregular retrograde motion 
whose mean value is about 50".2 per annum. 

Therefore (Fig. 1), let the line from which 0' is estimated be 




that drawn through the sun and the position of the mean vernal . 
equinox V at some fixed instant, called the epoch. Then when 
6 is zero, #' will be the longitude of perihelion, estimated from this 
point. Let this be denoted by l p , and the time of perihelion pas- 
sage by t p \ then from (4) we have, 



4 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Subtracting from (4) we have 

n (t - y = & - 1 9 - 2 e sin + J e a sin 2 0, (6) 

which since 

B'-l p =0 ]7) 

reduces to 

w (* - y = (#' - y - 2 esin (0' - y H- f 0'sin2 (0' - y . (8) 
Transposing /,, , we have 
n (J _ y + /, = k = 61' - 2 sin (0' - y + f e' sin 2(0'- y , (9) 

in which l m is tho longitude of the mean place of the earth at the 
time t, referred to the same origin. 

Let L be the longitude of the earth's mean place at the epoch, 
also referred to the same origin, and 7 T any interval of time before 
or after this epoch. Then will 



T, (10) 

and we have 

L + uT = 0'-2e sin (V - y + * <? sin 2 (V - y . (11) 

To find the values of the four unknown quantities, L, n, e, and 
l p , take four observations of K. A. and declination at different times, 
and having reduced the declination to its geocentric value by cor- 
recting for refraction and parallax, find the corresponding longi- 
tudes (Art. 180, Young). 

Each longitude is necessarily referred to the true equinox of its 

own date. Reduce each to the mean equinox of the epoch by cor- 

recting for aberration, nutation, precession, and perturbations, add 

180, and the results will be the longitudes of the true place of the 

earth referred to a common point the mean equinox of the epoch. 

They will therefore be the values of 0' corresponding to the 
values of 7' in the following equations, the solution of which will 
give L, n, e, and 1 P . 

L H- n 7\ = fl/ - 2 e sin (0/ 



,= O: - 2 esin (0/ - 




EPUEMERI8. 

The value of n derived from these equations is evidently the 
earth's mean motion from a fixed point. 

Its mean motion from the moving mean vernal equinox (or 
mean motion in longitude) is evidently given by 

360 



" ~~ 360 - 50. "2" 

These observations repeated at different times will determine 
the changes that take place in w, f, and l p ; from the last two the 
variations in the eccentricity and the rate of motion of perihelion 
can be found. 

Having in this manner found the elements of the earth's place 
and motion, the corresponding mean longitude of the sun at any 
instant can be obtained by adding to that of the earth 180. 
L + n' T+ 180 will then give for any instant the mean longi- 
tude of the sun's mean place. The difference between the longi- 
tudes of the sun's true and mean places at any instant is the 
Equation of the Center for that instant. 

From the preceding elements let it be required to construct the 
Tables of the Sun. 

1. The Table of Epochs. Take mean midnight, December 31 
January 1, 1890, as the epoch. To the mean longitude of the sun's 
mean place at that epoch, add the product of the sun's njean motion 
n', by the number of mean solar days after the epoch, subtracting 
360 when this sum is greater than 360. Thede longitudes with 
their corresponding times being tabulated, form the table of epochs, 
from which the mean longitude of the mean place of the sun can 
be found by inspection for any day, hour, minute or second. 

2. The Table of Longitudes of Perigee. The longitude of peri- 
helion increased by 180 is the corresponding longitude of perigee. 
Hence the former being found, and its rate of change determined, 
the addition of 180 to each longitude of perihelion will give the 
longitude of perigee, and these values being tabulated form the 
table of longitudes of perigee. 

3. The Table of Equations of the Center. The difference be- 
tween the true and mean anomalies at any instant, given by the 
first of Eqs. (G50), Mechanics, 



nt 2e sin nt + {Vsin 2ntf + etc., (13) 



6 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

is called the Equation of the Center, and is known when n and 
are known; t being the time since perihelion passage. 

Assuming e to be constant and causing n t to vary from to 
360, the resulting values of the second member of the equation 
will form a table of the equations of the center. The errors in these 
values arise from the small variations in the values of e ; these 
errors can be found by substituting in the second member of the 
above equation the actual values of e at the time, and the differences 
being talulated will give a table by which the equations of the 
center may be corrected from time to time. 

4. Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude. Due to physical 
causes, the pole of the equator completes a revolution about the 
pole of the ecliptic in about 26,000 years. The plane of the equator 
conforming to this motion of the pole, its intersection with the 
plane of the ecliptic, called the line of the equinoxes, turns with a 
retrograde motion of about 50".2 per annum about the sun as a 
fixed point. 

This motion is not however, perfectly uniform. The true pole 
describes once in 19 years around the moving mean place above re- 
ferred to, a small ellipse, whose transverse axis directed toward the 
pole of the ecliptic is 18".f> in angular measure, and whose conju- 
gate axis is 13".74. The corresponding irregularity in the motion 
of the line of the equinoxes causes a slight oscillation of the true 
on either side of the moving mean equinox. Both are on the eclip- 
tic; and their distance apart at any time is called the Equation of 
the Equinoxes in Longitude, its projection on the equator the 
Equation of the Equinoxe* in Right Ascension, and. the intersection 
of the declination circle which projects the mean equinox with the 
equator, the Reduced Place of ike Mean Equinox. The maximum 
value of the Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude is 

13".74 

~ sin 23 28' = 17".25. 
a 

To illustrate, P, in Fig. 2, is the pole of the equator, VE the 
ecliptic, VM the equator, V the true, V the mean, and V" the re- 
duced place of the mean vernal equinox. VV is the equation of 
the equinoxes in longitude, and VV" in Right Ascension. 

The equation of the equinoxes in longitude is a function of the 



BPHEMBWS. 7 

longitude of the moon's node, the longitude of the sun, and the 
obliquity of the ecliptic. Separate tables are constructed for this 




Fio.S. 



correction, in which the arguments for entering thorn are the 
obliquity and longitude of the moon 9 ft node, and the obliquity and 
the longitude of the sun; the sum of the two corrections is the value 
of the equation of the equinoxes in longitude at the corresponding 
times. 

The Perturbations in Longitude of the earth arising from the 
attractions of the planets (especially Venus and Jupiter), are the 
same for the sun; these are computed by the methods indicated in 
Physical Astronomy, (see Art. 174, Mechanics,) and then tabulated. 
The Sun's Aberration is taken to be constant, amounting to 
20' '.25 and is included in the table of epochs. 

Ephemeris of the Sun. The above tables having been computed, 
we proceed as follows : 

1. From the table of epochs take out the mean longitude of the 
sun's mean place corresponding to the exact instant considered. 

2. From the table of longitudes of perigee take the mean longi- 
tude of perigee; the difference between this and the mean longi- 
tude of the sun's mean place is the mean anomaly. 

3. With the mean anomaly as an argument find the correspond- 
ing value of the equation of the center from its table, and add it 



8 PRACTICAL ASTKONOMY. 

with its proper sign to the mean longitude of the sun's mean place; 
the result will be the mean longitude of the sun's true place; hence 
the 

Sun's true longitude = Mean longitude of sun's mean place 
:b Equation of center Perturbations in longitude Corrections 
to pass from the mean equinox of date to true equinox of date. 
These latter corrections are due to Nutation and constitute the 
Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude. 

4. Having the true longitude of the sun and the obliquity of the 
ecliptic, the corresponding Eight Ascension and Declination of the 
sun can be computed for the same instant by the method explained 
in Art. 180, Astronomy. 

5. Earth's Radius Vector. Substituting the values of e and n t, 
in the second of Eqs. (650), Mechanics, will give the values of the 
distance of the sun from the earth in terms of the mean distance 
a: thus 

(e* 
1 e cos n t + (1 cos 2 n t) 

30 s \ 

-- zr ( cos 3 M tf cos w tf )+ etc. ] . (14) 

o / 

6. The Sun's Horizontal Parallax. From astronomical observa- 
tions the value of a (and hence of r) is found in terms of the earth's 
equatorial radius, p e . (Young, Chapters XIII and XVI.) 

The sun's equatorial horizontal parallax, P, at any time is then 
given by 



GJ being the number of seconds in a radian = 206264".8, and r being 
expressed as just stated. 

At any place where the earth's radius in terms of the equatorial 

radius is p, we shall have for the horizontal parallax = p P. 

7. The Sun's Apparent Semi-Diameter. Knowing P, measure- 
ments of the sun's angular semi-diameter will give its linear semi- 
diameter s' in terms of p e . Its angular semi-diameter s for any 
day is then given by 

s = Ps' (16) 



EP1IEMEU1S. 9 

9. Equation of Time. If, at the instant when the true sun's 
mean place coincides with the mean equinox, an imaginary point 
should leave the reduced place of the mean equinox and travel with 
uniform motion on the celestial equator, returning to its starting- 
point at the instant the true sun's mean place next again coincides 
with the mean equinox, such a point is called a Mean Sun. Time 
measured by the hour angles of this point is called Mean Solar 
Time. The angle included between the declination circles passing 
through the centre of the true sun and this point at any instant is 
called the Equation of Time for that instant; its value, at any in- 
stant, added algebraically to mean or apparent solar time will give 
the other. As the apparent time can be found by direct observa- 
tion the equation of time is usually employed as a correction to pass 
from apparent to mean solar time. Thus in Fig. 2, PM is the me- 
ridian, 8 the true sun, #' its mean place, ti" the mean sun, Vti'" 
the true K. A. of the true sun, V"ft" the mean K. A. of the mean 
sun = V'S r = sun's mean longitude, angle MPti'" or arc J/A"" 
apparent solar time, MS" mean solar time, and 8" 8'" the Equation 
of Time = Ftf'"- (V"8" + VV"). 

Hence we have for the Equation of Time, 

= True sun's true "Right Ascension 
(sun's mean longitude+ equation of equinoxes in R. A.). (17) 

The mean sun (S") moving Jn the equator and used in connec- 
tion with time, must not be confused with the mean sun (#') before 
referred to, moving in the ecliptic. 

10. Referring to tlie American Ephemeris, we see that Page I 
of each mouth contains the Sun's Apparent R. A., Declination, 
Semi-diameter, Sidereal time of semi-diameter passing the me- 
ridian, at Greenwich apparent noon, together with the values for 
their respective hourly changes; the latter being computed from 
the values of their differential co-efficients. Prom these we can 
find the corresponding data for any other meridian. Page II con- 
tains similar data for the epoch of Greenwich mean moon, and in 
addition the sidereal time or R. A. of the mean sun. Page III con- 
tains the sun's true longitude and latitude, the logarithm of the 
earth's radius vector and the mean time of sidereal noon. The 



10 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

obliquity, precession, and sun's mean horizontal parallax for fche 
year, are found on page 278 of the Ephemeris. All these consti- 
tute an Ephemeris of the Sun. 

From the hourly changes the elements for any meridian can be 
readily computed. 

THE EPHEMEKIS OF THE MOON. 

The Ephemeris of the Moon consists of tables giving the Moon's 
Right Ascension and Declination for every hour of Greenwich 
mean time, witi the changes for each minute; the Apparent 
Semi-diameter, Horizontal Parallax, Time of upper transit on the 
Greenwich Meridian, and Moon's Age. In order to compute these, 
it is first necessary to find the True Longitude of the Moon, its 
True Latitude, the Longitude of the Moon's Node, the Inclination 
of the Moon's Orbit to the Ecliptic, and the Longitude of Perigee. 

1. The Elements of the Lunar Orbit. Let Z>6 Y be the intersection 
of the celestial sphere by the plane of the lunar orbit ; VB the 




FIG. 8. 



ecliptic, and VA the equinoctial; V the mean vernal equinox, N 
the ascending node, P the Perigee, all relating to some assumed 
epoch. Also let M l , M 9 , M^ , M 4 , be the geocentric places of the 
moon's center at the four times, t l 9 1 a y t 8 , tf 4 . These places are 



EPHEMERI8. 11 

obtained as in case of the sun by observed Right Ascensions and 
Declinations, corrected for refraction, semi-diameter, parallax, and 
perturbations, then converted into the corresponding latitudes and 
longitudes, and finally referred to the mean equinox of the epoch, 
by correcting for aberration, nutation, and precession. 
Eeferring to the figure, assume the following notation: 

v = VN, the longitude of the node; 
i 2s CNB,tliQ inclination of the orbit; 
l t = F O l , the longitude of J/, ; 
J a = F0 a , the longitude of J/ a ; 
Aj= M 1 0, , the latitude of J/,; 
A a =: Jf a O a , the latitude of Jf a ; 
v t = F^JVT+ JVJ^ , the orbit longitude of Jf,; 
p = F^J^^- N E P y the orbit longitude of perigee; 
= PE M^ v l p, the true anomaly of J/,; 
= eccentricity of orbit; 
m = mean motion of moon in its orbit; 
t l = time since epoch for J/, ; 
L = mean orbit longitude at epoch. 

To find v and t, we have from the right-angled spherical tri- 
angles M l N 0, and M, t N O a , 

sin (?, v) = cot ?' tan A a f . 

sin ( 2 v) ~^cot i tan A, i ^ ' 

and by division, 

BJn(?,-y) _ tan^, 

Bin(/ t -xj""tanA ' liy ^ 

Adding unity to both members, reducing, then subtracting each 
member from unity, again reducing, and finally dividing one result 
by the other, we obtain 

sin (Z a v) + sin (/, r) ___ tan A 3 + tan A, 

sin (/, - r) - sin (/T 11 ^) ~" tan A. -tan A/ ^ ' 

01 by reduction formulas, page 4 (Book of Formulas), 



12 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

from which v can be found; i is found from either of equations 
(18), when v is known. 

To find Z, w, e, and /?, we proceed as in the determination of 
the table of epochs in the case of the sun, using a similar equation, 
thus: 

L + 771 y, = v l 2 e sin (v l p), 



L + m TI = i> 4 2 e sin (v 4 ^) 
in which 

. _. tan (L r) 

v , = v + tan ' - v -i-^ (23) 

1 cos& ' v ' 

and similar values for v a , # 3 , and # 4 . 

To find the ecliptic longitude of perigee V 0, represented by p l , 
we have from the right-angled triangle ^V P 0, 

tan NO tan (p v) . cos f, (24) 

from which 

p l = v + tan' 1 (tan (p r) . cos &'). (25) 

Similarly the mean ecliptic longitude of the moon, L l , at the epoch is 
L l = v + tan" 1 (tan (i - ^) . cos i). (26) 

To find the sidereal period, s, we have 

360 



In which s is the length of the sidereal period in mean solar days. 

2. The Ephemeris of the Moon. The motion of the moon is much 
more irregular and complicated than the apparent motion of the 
sun, owing mainly to the disturbing action of this latter body. But 
this and other perturbations have been computed and tabulated, 
and from these tables, including those of the node and inclination, 
the places of the moon in her orbit are found in ihe same way as 
those of the sun in the ecliptic. The mean orbit longitude of the 
moon and of her perigee are first found and corrected; their dift'er 
ence gives her mean anomaly, opposite to which in the appropriate 
table is found the equation of the center, and this being applied 



EPHEMERIS. 13 

with its proper sign to the mean orbit longitude gives the true orbit 
longitude, after reduction to true equinox of date. 

The Eight Ascension and Declination of the Moon can now be 
computed for any instant of time, thus : subtract the longitude of 
the node from the orbit longitude of the moon, and we have the 
moon's angular distance from her node, represented in the figure by 
NM V . This, with the inclination i, will give us the moon's latitude 
and the angular distance N 0^ the latter added to the longitude 
of the node will give the moon's longitude FO,. The latitude, 
longitude, and obliquity of the ecliptic suffice to compute the right 
ascension and declination. The radius vector, equatorial horizontal 
parallax, apparent diameter, etc., are computed as in the case of 
the sun. 

THE EPHEMERIS OF A PLANET. 

From the tables of a planet its true orbit longitude as seen from 
the sun is found, as in the case of the moon as seen from the earth. 
The heliocentric longitude and latitude, and the radius vector are 
found from the heliocentric orbit longitude, heliocentric longitude 
of the node, and inclination, in the same way as the geocentric 
elements of the moon arc found from similar data in the lunar orbit. 

To pass from heliocentric to geocentric coordinates, let P, Fig. 4, 
be the planet's center, E that of the earth, S that of the sun, and 




FIG. 4. 



the projection of P on the plane of the ecliptic. 8 F and E F 
are drawn to the vernal equinox; then let 



14 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

r = E S, be the earth's radius vector; 

r' =: S P, be the planet's radius vector; 

A. = V S 0, be the heliocentric longitude of planet; 

A' = VE 0, be the geocentric longitude of planet; 

6 = P S 0, be the heliocentric latitude of planet; 

0' = P E 0, be the geocentric latitude of planet ; v 

S = OS E, be the commutation; 

= $ E, be the heliocentric parallax; 

J7 = $.# 0, be the elongation; 

j = V E S, be the longitude of the sun; 

r"= 7?P, be the distance of planet from the earth. 

To find the geocentric longitude, 

S0 = r' cos 0, (28) 

VS T = VHS = 360 - Jy, (29) 

S = 180 - (360 -L)-\ = L- 180 - A, (30) 

from which S is known. 

In the plane triangle E S, we have 



r'cos0+r:r'cos 0- r :: tan j (#+ 0): tani(#- 0). (31) 
8+ + E=18Q, (32) 



) = 90-, (33) 
hence 

tan * (^ - 0) = cot i 5 r ', C S % 7 r , (34) 

v 7 r cos + r v 7 

and placing 

, r 9 cos # /0 ^ v 

tanp = - , (35) 

we have 

tan i (# - 0) = cot i ^ J~ ^-J = cot J 5 tan (p - 45) (36) 



r" - r' - sin 
r 



INTERPOLATION. 15 

therefore E and are known : and we have 

X' = E - (360 - ) = E + L - 360. (37) 

To find the geocentric latitude, we have 

P = EO tan 0' = 8 tan (38) 

4-rt (1 """" JT' /^ """"" * Ct? IO/ I 

tan \j jb (j sin o 
whence 

an = an -^^ (40) 

To find /", we have 

E = r" cos 0', 
50 = r' COB ft 

In the triangle ^ 5 0, we have 

r" cos 0' : r 9 cos :: sin S : sin J?, 



whence 



With these data we can readily find the right ascension, decli- 
nation, horizontal parallax, and apparent diameter as in the case of 
the sun and moon. 

INTERPOLATION. 

Interpolation. Whenever the differences of the quantities re- 
corded in the Ephemeris tables are directly proportional to the dif- 
ferences of the corresponding times, simple interpolation will enable 
us to find the numerical value of the quantity in question. When 
this is not the case, the value is determined by the " method of in- 
terpolation by differences/' Bessers form of this formula, usually 
employed, is 



16 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



2.3.4 



4 ' 



(48) 



In this formula, .F n is the value of the function to be deter- 
mined; F, the ephemcris value from which we set out; d^d^d^, 
etc., are the terms of the successive orders of differences, deter- 
mined as explained below; n is the fractional value of the time 
interval, in terms of the constant interval taken as unity corre- 
sponding to which the values of the function F are computed and 
recorded in the tables. To use this formula, draw a horizontal 
line below the value of /"from which we set out, and one above 
the next consecutive value taken from the ephemeris. These lines 
are to enclose the values of the odd differences d l , d 3 , d 6 , etc. The 
values of the even differences d y , rZ 4 , d Q , etc., being each the mean 
of two numbers, one above and one below in their respective col- 
umns, are then inserted in their proper places. The following ex- 
ample is given to illustrate the application of Bessel's formula. 

Find the distance of the moon's center from Regulus at 9 P.M. 
West Point mean time March 24th, 1891. 

The longitude of West Point is 4.93 hrs. west of Greenwich; 
hence the Greenwich time corresponding to 9 P.M. West Point 
mean time is 13.93 hrs. Eeferring to pages 54 and 55 American 
Ephemeris we take out the following data, namely: 



A 
March 24. 


F 


*i 


<*, 


*. 


d< 


G h 


27 01' 24" 


1 28' 9" 






9 b 
12 h 


28 29' 33" 
29 57" 53" 


1 28' 20" 


+ 11" 

+ 12" 


+ 1" 


-2" 


13 1 .93 


30 54' 47".31 


1 28' 32" 


(+ 11".5) 


-1" 


1" 


15 h 


31 26' 25" 


1 28' 43" 


+ 11" 


-1" 





18 h 


32 55' 8" 


1 28' 53" 


+ 10" 






21 h 


34 24' 1" 











THE TRANSIT. 19' 

Whence, substituting in the formula, we have 

F=29 57' 53" + 0.643 (1 28' 32") + 0.643 ( -^j 1 ) (H".5) 

+ (0.643) } ( - 0.357) (0.143) (- 1"). 
= 29 57' 53" + 56' 55".616 - 1".32 + 0".01, 
= 30 54' 47".31 the required distance. 

Instruments. The principal instruments used in field astronom- 
ical work are the Transit, Sextant, Zenith Telescope, and Altazi- 
muth or Astronomical Theodolite. A short description of each 
instrument will be given in connection with the first problem in- 
volving its use. But since much relating to the transit is appli- 
cable also to the zenith telescope and altazimuth, that instrument 
will be explained first. 

THE TRANSIT. 

The Transit is an instrument usually mounted in the meridian, 
and employed in connection with a chronometer for observing the 
meridian passage of a celestial body. Since the K. A. of a body is 
equal to the sidereal time at the instant of its meridian passage, or 
is equal to the chronometer time plus its error (a = T + E), it is 
seen that by noting T 9 E will be given when tx is known, and con- 
versely a will be given when E is known. The very accurate 
determination of E is the chief iusq of the transit in field work. 

The instrument consists essentially of a telescope mounted upon 
and at right angles to an axis of such shape as to prevent easy 
flexure. The ends of this axis called the pivots, are usually of 
hard bell metal or polished steel, and should be portions of the 
same right cylinder with a circular base. They rest upon Y's, 
which in turn are supported by the metal frame or stand. At one 
end of the axis there is a screw by which its Y may be slightly 
raised or lowered in order that the axis may be made horizontal. 
At the other end of the axis is another screw by which its Y may 
be moved backward or forward, in order that the telescope may be 
placed in the meridian. The telescope is provided with an achro- 
matic object glass, at the principal focus of which is a wire frame 
carrying an odd number of parallel vertical wires as symmetrically 
disposed as possible with reference to the middle; also two horizon- 
tal wires near to each other, between which the image of the point 



18 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 







TUB TRANSIT. 



19 



observed should always be placed. This system of wires is viewed 
by a positive or Ramsden's eye-piece, which can be moved bodily 
in a horizontal direction to a position directly opposite any wire, 
thus practically enlarging the field of direct view. The wires are 
rendered visible in the daytime by the diffuse light of day, but at 
night artificial illumination is required. This is effected by passing 
light from a small lamp along the length of the perforated axis, 



FIG. 6. 

whence it is thrown toward 'the eye by a small reflector placed at 
the junction of the axis and the telescope tube, thus producing the 
effect of "a bright field and dark wires." 

The right line passing through the optical center oC the object 
glass intersecting and at right angles to the axis of rotation of the 
instrument, is called the "line of collimation." 

The wire frame should be so placed that this line will pass mid- 
way between the two horizontal wires, and intersect the middle 
vertical wire; which latter should also be at right angles to the axis 
of rotation of the instrument. 

These conditions being fulfilled, it is manifest that if the axis 
be placed in a true east and west line, and be made exactly level, 
the line joining any point of the middle wire and the optical center 
of the objective will, as the instrument is turned on its pivots, 
trace on the celestial sphere the true meridian; and the sidereal 
time when any body appears on the middle wire, will, if correctly 
estimated, be the value of T required in the equation, 



<*= T+JS. 



20 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The improbability of estimating T with precision leads to the 
use of more than one wire, although the advantage of increasing the 
number beyond five is, according to Bessel, very slight. If the 
wires are grouped in perfect symmetry with reference to the mid- 
dle, evidently the mean of the times when a star, as it passes across 
the field of view, is bisected by each wire will give a more trust- 
worthy time of meridian passage than if a single wire be used. 
Even if they are not grouped in perfect symmetry, the same will be 
true, after applying a correction deduced from the " Equatorial 
Intervals " to be explained hereafter. Every transit instrument is 
provided with a level, a diagonal eye-piece, one or more setting 
circles, and usually with a R. A. micrometer. In the case of field 
transits a striding level is generally used. Its feet are provided 
with Y^s which are placed on the pivots of the instrument. Before 
using, it should be put in adjustment according to the principles 
explained in connection with surveying instruments. 

The diagonal eye-piece facilitates the observation of stars near 
the aenith by reflecting the rays at right angles after they pass the 
wires. 

The setting circles are firmly attached to the telescope tube and 
are read by an index arm carrying a vernier, to which is also attached 
a small level. They may be arranged to point out the position of 
a star either by its declination or its meridian altitude. In the 
latter case, the altitude is computed by the formula 

Mer. Alt. Dec. + Co-Latitude, 
for stars south of the zenith, and by 

Mer. Alt. = Latitude Polar Distance, 

for stars north of the zenith, the upper sign being used for stars 
above the pole. In any case having determined the " setting," place 
the index arm to mark it, and turn the instrument on its pivots 
until the bubble plays. The star will appear to pass through the 
field from west to east, except in case of sub-polars, which move 
from east to west. An equatorial star passes through the field with 
considerable velocity, only 40 to GO seconds being required for its 
passage, the apparent path being a right line. For other stars the 



THE TRANSIT. 21 

time required is greater, and the patli becomes more curved, until 
as we approach the polo several minutes are required, and the cur- 
vature becomes very apparent. 

These facts are of importance in determining when and where 
tf look or the star. 

The curvature of path must be considered in determining the 
" Equatorial Intervals." The eye-piece should be moved horizon- 
tally,, keeping pace with the star, presenting the latter always in 
the middle of the field of view. 

The uses of the E. A. micrometer will be explained hereafter. 

ADJUSTMENTS OF THE TKANSiT. 

From the above it is manifest that, assuming the objective to 
be properly adjusted, there are live adjustments to be made before 
the instrument is ready for use. 

1. To Place the Wires in the Principal Focus of the Objective. 
Push in or draw out the eye-piece till the wires are seen with perfect 
distinctness, using an eye-piece of high power. Direct the telescope 
to a small well-defined terrestrial object, not nearer than two or 
three miles. Now if the wires are not in the focus of the objective, 
the object will appear to move with reference to the wire as the eye 
is moved from side to side. 

The wire frame must then be carried slightly toward or from 
tne objective until this parallax is corrected. 

After the instrument has been placed in the meridian, and the 
horizontal wire made truly horizontal, as explained in the following 
adjustments, let an equatorial star run along the wire, and if it does 
not remain accurately bisected while the eye is moved up and down, 
the wires are not exactly in the principal focus. Other stars must 
then be used until the parallax is removed. The wires are then at 
the common focus of the objective and eye-piece. 

2. To Level the Axis. The striding level is usually graduated 
from the center toward each end. 

The pivots are assumed to be equal. 

If when its Y's are applied to the transit pivots, the axis of the 
tubo is parallel to the axis of the pivots * (i.e., if the level be in 

* The axis of the tube is of course a circular arc of long radius. Strictly 
/speaking, it is the chord of this arc which, when the level is perfectly adjusted, 
will be parallel to the axis of the pivots. 



22 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

perfect adjustment), and if w and e denote the readings of the west 
and east ends of the bubble respectively, then 



w e 



denote the reading of the middle of the bubble, and will there- 
fore measure the inclination of the axis of the pivots in level divi- 
sions. But the accurate adjustment of the level is never to be as- 
sumed. If the axis of the level be inclined to the axis of the pivots 
by such an amount as to increase the west reading and therefore 
diminish the east reading by x divisions, then w and e still denoting 
the actual readings, we shall have for the true inclination of the 
axis of the pivots, 

w e 2x 



Upon reversing the level, the west and east readings will be as much 
too small and too largo respectively as they were too largo and too 
small before reversal; therefore w' and e' denoting the actual read- 
ings, we shall have for the true inclination this second value, 



The mean of these two values, 



(w - + ( w ' - "') ( w 

, or 



is expressed only in actual level roadi; gs and is free from x, the un- 
known effect of maladjustment of level. 

TIence to level the axis Take direct and reverse readings with 
the level, altering the inclination of the axis till the sum of the 
west equals the sum of the east readings. 

Tf the level be graduated from end to end, a similar discussion 
will show the level error to be 



THE,^TBAN8IT. 23 

3. To Place the Wires at Right Angles to the Rotation Axis. 
Bisect a very distant small terrestrial object by the middle wire, 
and tbe axis being level, note whether the bisection remains perfect 
from end to end of tbe wire as the telescope is alternately elevated 
and depressed. If not, rotate the box carrying the wire frame, 
until the above condition is fulfilled. ' "*"" 

The side wires are parallel and the horizontal wires perpendicu- 
lar, to the middle wire. 

After the instrument has been finally placed in the meridian, 
this adjustment must be verified by noting whether an equatorial 
star will remain accurately bisected by the horizontal wire during 
its passage through the field. 

4. To Place the Middle Wire in the Line of Collimation. Bisect 
the same distant object as before. Lift the telescope carefully from 
the Y's and replace it with the axis reversed. If the object is still 
perfectly biseetod the coll i matin n adjustment is complete. Tf not, 
move the wire frame laterally by the proper screws over an estimated 
half of the distance required to reproduce bisection. If the half 
distance has been correctly estimated, the middle wire is now in the 
line of collimation. Uepeatthc operation from the beginning until 
the condition is fulfilled. 

If a proper terrestrial point can not bo obtained, the cross-wires 
in an ordinary surveyor's transit or theodolite? adjusted to stellar 
focus, will answer quite as well. If two theodolites are placed, one 
north and the other south of our transit, pointing toward and 
accurately adjusted on each other, the reversal of the axis ubovo 
referred to may be avoided. 

In all these cases, the R. A. micrometer is of groat convenience 
for measuring the distance whoso half is to bo taken. 

The parts of the instrument are now in adjustment among them- 
selves. It remains to adjust the instrument as a whole with refer- 
ence to the celestial sphere; i.e., to so place the instrument that 
when turned on its pivots, the line of collimation shall trace the 
true meridian. 

5. To Place the Line of Collimation in the Meridian. This is 
most easily e flee ted by the aid of a sidereal chronometer whose error 
is known. The instrument is first placed as nearly in the proper 
position as can be estimated, and its supporting frame turned in 



24 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

azimuth until the telescope can be pointed at a slow moving star at 
about the time of its meridian passage. 

Now level the axis carefully, set the telescope to the meridian 
altitude of a circum-polar star whose place is given in the Ephem- 
eris, and bring the middle vertical wire upon this star a short time 
before its meridian passage. Hold the wire upon the moving star 
by turning the screw which moves one of the'Y's in azimuth, until 
the chronometer corrected for its error indicates a time equal to the 
star's K. A. for the date. The transit is now very approximately in 
the meridian, although the adjustment should be tested by other stars. 

Since the observations to be made with the transit will be for 
the purpose of an accurate determination of the chronometer error, 
this latter will usually be known only approximately. It may how- 
ever be found with sufficient accuracy for making the adjustment 
by noting that since all vertical circles intersect at the zenith, the 
time of a zenith star's passage over the middle wire will be, its time 
of passage over the meridian even though the transit be not in the 
meridian. The difference between the chronometer time of this 
event and the star's R. A. will therefore be the clock error. 

In the absence of a zenith star, two circurn -zenith stars, at op- 
posite and nearly equal zenith distances, will give vfilues of the clock 
error differing about equally and in opposite directions from its true 
value. 

Alternating observations on circum-polar and circum-zenith 
stars will now give the required adjustment with two or three 
trials. 

As a final test, the values of the chronometer error determined 
from stars which cross the meridian at widely separated points 
should be practically identical. 

INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 

These must be determined before the instrument can be used, 
and are five in number. The transit is supposed to be in good 
adjustment. 

1. The Value in Time of One Division of the E. A. Micrometer 
Head. The micrometer head, which is usually divided into 100 
equal parts, carries a movable wire which is always parallel to the 
fixed vertical wires of the transit, and as nearly as possible in their 



INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 



25 



plane. As it moves across the field of view it apparently coincides 
with each of them in succession. 

If 8 denote the angular distance, measured from the optical 
center of the objective, between two positions of the micrometer 
wire, one of which coincides with the middle wire or the meridian 

of the instrument, then = i will be the interval of time required 
JL.) 

for a star exactly on the celestial equator to pass from one position 
to the other; since it is only such stars whose diurnal path is a 
great circle, and since also intervals of time are measured by arcs 
of a great circle the equator. 

With a star exactly on the equator, the process of finding the 
value of one division of the R. A. micrometer head would therefore 
consist in noting the time required for the star to pass from one 
position of the wire to the other; the quotient of which by the 
number of turns or divisions through which the head has been 
moved would give the value of one turn or division. 

In the absence of such a star we must select one whoso declina- 
tion, d, is not zero. The interval of time required for such a star 
to pass from one position to the other will be given by the equation 

sin / = sin i sec 6\ (43) 

To prove this, let A B in Figure 7, which represents the sphere 
projected on the plane of the horizon, be the meridian, P the pole, 

A 




E Q R the equator, S the place of the star, M Z the first position 
of the wire, and P F, coinciding with the meridian, the second. 



26 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Through 8 pass an arc of a great circle, KS, perpendicular to 
A B. This arc will be equal to Q L, and will therefore, from what 
precedes, be denoted by #. 

Hence, in the right-angled triangle S P K, we have 



(44) 

^ ' 



_ 

cos 6 



But P is the hour angle of the star at 8, and s is the hour angle of 
an equatorial star at an equal angular distance from the meridian, 
i.e., at L. 

Hence denoting the time equivalent of the former by /, and of 
the latter by i as before, we have 

sin / = sin i sec tf, 
and therefore 

sin i = sin /cos d. (a) 

From this equation we may compute i, d being taken from the 
Ephemeris, and /, which is directly observed, being the sidereal 
time required for the star to pass from /S r to the meridian. 

After which, if R denote the value of a revolution or division 
of the micrometer head, and N the number of revolutions or divi- 
sions corresponding to /, we have for the value in time 



If the star be not within 10 of the pole we may write 

i = /cos tf, (c) 

and 



thus avoiding the " Correction for Curvature " involved in the 
trigonometric functions. 

By examining the equations 

sin i sin / cos tf , and i = / cos 6, (45) 



INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 27 

it is seen that for the accurate determination of i, it is better to use 
stars near the pole, since errors in the observed values of / will 
then be multiplied by the cosine of an angle near 90. 

Therefore, to determine this constant, proceed as follows: 

Shortly before the time of culmination of some slow-moving 
(circum-polar) star set the instrument so that the star will pass 
through, the field. Set the micrometer head at some exact division, 
with the wire on the side of the field where the star is about to 
enter. Note the reading of the micrometer head, and record the 
time of passage of the star over the wire, using a sidereal chronom- 
eter whose rate is well determined. Set the -wire again a short 
distance ahead of the star, note the reading, and record the time of 
passage. In this manner "step" the screw throughout its entire 
length. Then, remembering that 1 is the sidereal interval (cor- 
rected for rate if appreciable) between any given passage and that 
obtained when the wire was nearest to the meridian or the center 
of the field of view, apply to each pair of observations equations 
(a) and (/>), or (c) and (d), according to the value of d. 

Where 6" is considerably less than 90 and equations (c) and (d) 
are used, the correction for curvature of path becomes very small, 
and the same necessity does not exist for comparing each observa- 
tion with the one made at the center of the field. 

No correction for difference of refractions betweqri any two 
positions of the star is required, since at its meridian passage the 
star is moving almost wholly in azimuth. 

In any case the adopted value of the constant should rest on 
many such determinations. 

Very convenient stars to use are a, tf, ft, Ursae Minoris. Their 
declinations are accurately given in the Ephemeris, the first two 
for every day, and the last one for every ten days. ' 

The first two require equations (a) and (b). 

The last one not necessarily so. 

2. The Equatorial Intervals. By the " Equatorial Interval " of 
a given wire is meant the interval of sidereal time required for a 
star on the celestial equator to pass from this wire to the middle 
wire, or vic6 versa. 

The method of determinating this constant for each wire is 
manifestly identical in principle with the process just described, 
omitting the application of equations (b) or (d), and remembering 



28 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

that /is the observed interval 'with a star whose declination is 6, 
and i is the required Equatorial Interval. 

Another method, which may either be used independently or as 
a verification, is to measure the intervals between the wires (in 
time) by the E. A. micrometer. The adopted constants should rest 
upon many determinations. 

3. The Reduction to the Middle Wire. The mean of the times 
of transit of a celestial body over the several wires of a transit in- 
strument is called the time of transit over the mean of the wires 
or the mean wire. The mean does not usually coincide with the 
middle wire, due to the improbability of grouping the wires in per- 
fect symmetry with reference to the middle. 

Since it is the middle wire which Las been placed in the merid- 
ian, it becomes necessary to determine the distance, in time, of the 
mean from the middle wire. Then, the mean of the times of tran- 
sit being corrected by this constant, we will have a very accurate 
determination of the time of transit over the meridian. Suppose 
the instrument to have seven wires, and to be in good adjustment. 
A star at its upper culmination will apparently move over these 
wires from west to east; therefore (with the instrument in a given 
position, say with " illumination cast ") let the wires be successively 
numbered from the west towards the east. 

Let a star whose declination is d pass through the field, and let 
/,,/,, # 3 , / 4 , / 6 , ^ , /,, be the accurate instants of passing the cor- 
responding wires; let i, , ?' , f, , 0, ?' B , i , i n , be the equatorial inter- 
vals from the middle wire. Then the. time of passing the mean 
wire is 

*.+*. + *, +<+*. + *. + /, , Ap . 

rj (46) 

The time of passing the middle wire is either 

t l + i, sec tf, a + t a sec tf , t 3 + i, sec d, t, , t % i h sec tf, i t sec tf, 

or 7 i, sec # 

(note the minus sign in the last three). Hence the most probable 
time of passing the middle wire is 

2 (t + i sec 6) *St , Si 

-^ = T~ + T" sec 



INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 29 

The difference between this and the time of passing the mean 
wire is evidently the second term, or 



*! gec 6 = & + S + -(*.+*. + *.) sec ,. (48) 

The equatorial value of this reduction (the desired constant) 
will then be 



and for any given star the actual reduction will be this value mul- 
tiplied by sec $. The adopted value of A i should rest upon many 
determinations. Its sign is evidently changed by reversing the axis 
of the instrument. 

Hence, to find the time of a star's passage over the middle wire, 
we have the rule: To the mean of the limes add A i sec 8, noting 
the signs of both factors. 

The Equatorial Intervals are also used for finding the time 
of passage over the mid die wire when actual observation on some of 
the wires has been prevented by clouds or other cause. Thus suppose 
observations have only been made on the second, third, and seventh 
wires. The most probable time of passing the middle wire is 

(t> + t f sec (?) + (t, + i, sec fl) +,(1 7 -^sectf) _ 2 1 ' 2 % 

3 "" T + T S6C ' 

t and i referring only to the wires used. 

4. Value of One Division of the Level. In practical astronomy 
the level is used not merely for testing and regulating the horizon- 
tality of a given line, but also for measuring either in arc or time 
those small residual inclinations to the horizontal which no process 
of mechanical adjustment can either eliminate or maintain at a 
constant value. 

Hence we must determine the value of one division of the strid- 
ing level of the transit; i.e. 9 the increment or decrement of incli- 
nation which will throw the bubble one division of the gradu ution. 

The best method of determining this quantity in case of a de- 
tached level is by use of the u Level-trier," which consists simply 
of a metal bar resting at one end on two firm supports, and at the 



30 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

other on a vertical screw. Then if d be the distance from, the screw 
to the middle of the line joining the two fixed supports^ and A the 
distance between two threads of the screw ^obtained by counting 
the number of threads to the inch), the inclination of the*1)ar to the 

horizon would be changed by , . ,-, due to one revolution of the 

(JL SHI -L 

screw , The level is then placed on the bar and the .nuniber n of 
divisiDns passed over by the bubble due to one turn (QjMSiVlsion) of 
the screw is noted. The value of one division of the level in angle 

is then - , .- ,7. The mean of several observations, using both 
nd&inl 

ends of the bubble, should be adopted. The value in time is 

---/-. ---- ^. If no level-trier is available, the level should be 
15 Mr/ HIII 1" 

placed on the body of the telescope connected with a vertical circle 
reading to second*: as for example the meridian circle of a fixed 
observatory. Move the instrument slowly by the tangent screw and 
note the number of level divisions corresponding to a change of 1" 
ill the reading of the circle, taking the means as before. By either 
method tlie level may be tested throughout its entire length. 

We have seen that the inclination of a line in le-rel divisions is 
(w+jo')~ ;(*_+_*'). hoil(JO if D denote tho congtant j us t found, 

the inclination of the line in arc will be 

( W + M') -(, + ,') A 

B - "- - -- 



the west end being higher if (w + w') > (e + e'), or when this ex- 
pression is positive. 

5. Inequality of the Pivots. The construction of the pivots 
being one of the most delicate operations in the manufacture of the 
whole instrument, their equality must never be assumed. 9 

In transit observations it is manifestly the axis of rotation (the 
Axis of the pivots) which should be made horizontal, or whose in- 
clination should be measured. If the pivots are unequal they may 
be regarded as portions of the same right cone; in which case it is 
evident that the striding level applied to the upper element might 
indicate horizontally when the axis was really inclined, and vice 



INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 



31 



versa. We must therefore correct our level indications by the effect 
of this " Inequality of Pivots." 

To'determinate this, let w x y z in Figure 8 represent the cone of 




FIG. 8. 



the pivots, u v being the axis. Let the inclination of the upper 
element wz be measured with the level, giving 



Lift the axis from the Y 9 s and turn it end for end. In this position 
ID' x y z' will represent the cone of the pivots. 

Measure as before the inclination of w' z', and denote it by B'* 
Then by inspection of the figure it is seen that B' - B is the angle 

B f B 

between the two positions of the upper element, - is the 

/v 

angle between the upper and lower elements of the cone, and 
jy _ ji 

--- = p is consequently the angle between the upper element 

and the axis u v* 



* B and B' are manifestly tho inclinations, in the two positions, which the 
upper element would have if the pivots were equal, minus twice the effect of 
the inequality: this effect being the angle subtended by the difference of tho 
radii, rr'. Of course if the pivots are unequal, the inclination obtained by 
applying the level Y'* to the pivots is not strictly that of 
the upper element; but if the angles of the transit and 
level y are equal (as is usually the case), it will evidently 
be, as before, the inclination which the upper element would 
have if the pivots were equal, minus twice the effect of 
the inequality: the effect in this case being 1 (Fig. H#, which 
represents a cross-section of the pivots and level Y) the 




FIG. 8a. 



r r 
angle subtended by -.--. Hence the algebraic differ* 

Sill -5 ft/ 



ence, B' B, will be four times the effect of the inequality, as before. 



32 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

r>/ r> 

This quantity, = p, is therefore the desired constant, and 

as the figure indicates, it is a correction to be added algebraically 
to the level determination of the unreversed instrument, or to be 
subtracted from that of the reversed instrument. 

Its value should rest upon many determinations. 

The inclination of the axis of a transit will hereafter be denoted 
by b, which is therefore either B + p, or /?' p, according as the 
instrument is direct or reversed* 

J* The cross-sections of the pivots should be perfect circles. 
Any departure from this form may be discovered and corrected as 
follows : 

With instrument direct, determine the value of B with the 
telescope placed successively at every 10 of altitude. Call the 
mean B . 

Then S B is the correction for irregularity of pivots /or the 
reading corresponding to B with instrument direct. Do the same 
with instrument reversed. Then BJ B will be the correction 

B ' B 

for irregularity with instrument reversed. 5 will be the cor- 

/ 4 

rection for inequality. Both corrections must be applied to obtain 
the true value of b. 



EQUATION OF THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE 
MERIDIAN. 

The transit, having been adjusted and the instrumental con- 
stants determined, is ready for use. Hitherto it has been assumed 
that an adjustment was perfect: that the middle wire had been 
placed exactly in the line of collimation, that the axis of rota- 
tion had been made exactly level, and that the line of collimation 
would trace with mathematical accuracy the true meridian. Mani- 
festly, however, this theoretical accuracy cannot be attained by 
mechanical means. It will therefore be proper, having performed 
each adjustment as accurately as possible, not to regard the out- 
standing small errors as zero, but to introduce them into a given 
problem as additional unknown quantities having an ascertainable 
effect on the result, and then to make independent determinations 



TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE MERIDIAN. S3 

of thoir value, or leave these values to be revealed by the observa- 
tions themselves. 

Any departure from perfect adjustment is positive when its 
effect is to make stars south of the zenith cross the middle wire 
earlier than they otherwise would. 

1. To Ascertain the Effect of an Error in Azimuth on the Time 
of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let a denote the horizontal angular 
deviation of the axis of rotation from a true east and west line, 
positive when the west pivot is south of the east pivot. (This should 
never exceed 15", and will usually be even less.) The line of col- 
limation will then, as the instrument is moved in altitude, describe 
a great circle of the celestial sphere intersecting the meridian in 
the zenith, and making with it the angle a (HZ A in Figure 9). 



H 




Fio. 9. 



Then from the ZP 8 triangle we have (8 being the position of a 
star when on the middle wire), 

sin P : sin a : : sin z : cos tf, 

or 

sin a sin z 
sin P = --- 5 
cos o 

If the star were exactly on the meridian, z would be equal to 
d. Being less than 15" therefrom, the change required in z 
to give $ is entirely negligible. Again P and a are exceed- 
ingly small angles. Hence we may write with great precision, ex- 
pressing a and P in time, 



J. (50) 

COS d v ' 



34 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

That is, if the instrument have an azimuth error in time, of a 
seconds, a star when passing the middle wire is distant from the 

true meridian a -^ ' seconds of time^and the recorded time 

cos 6 ' 

of transit must be corrected accordingly. 

2. To Ascertain the Effect of an Inclination of the Axis on the 
Time of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let b denote the angular 
deviation of the axis of rotation from the horizontal, positive when 
the west pivot is higher than the east. The line of collimation 
will then, as the instrument is moved in altitude, describe a great 
circle of the celestial sphere intersecting the meridian at the north 
and south points of the horizon, and making with it the angle b 
(ZHS, in Figure 10). 

z 




FIG. 10. 

Then from the triangle P IIS (8 being the position of a star 
when on the middle wire) 

sin P : sin b : : cos z : cos 6\ 
Or, as before, expressing b in time, 



COS O 



^ ' 



This is interpreted as in the preceding case. 

3. To Ascertain the Effect of an Error in Collimation on the Time 
of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let c denote the angular distance 
of the middle wire from the line of collirnation, positive when the 
wire is west of its proper position. The line of sight will then., as 
the instrument is moved in altitude, describe a small circle of the 
celestial sphere, east of the meridian and parallel to it. Through 
S, the place of the star, Fig. 11, pass the arc of a great circle, 8M 9 



TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE MERIDIAN. 35 

perpendicular to the meridian. This arc will be the measure of 
c. Then in the right-angled triangle P S M we have 

. D sin c 
sin P = - 



cos 6 ' 
Or, as before, expressing c in time, 

P = -^ = c sec S. (52) 

cos o v ' 

Hence when all these errors, a, b, and c, exist together, called re- 
spectively the azimuth, level, and collimation error, we have for the 
Equation of the Transit Instrument in the Meridian, 

= T + B + a sin ^ - *> + I cos <+ ~ *> + e sec *. (53) 

11 cos o ' cos d ' v ' 

In this equation a is the apparent R. A. of the star for the date, 
T is the clock tigie of transit over the middle wire, obtained from 
the time of transit over the mean wire by applying the " Reduction 




Fio. 11. 

to Middle Wire/' E is the chronometer error, positive when slow, 
negative when fast, the latitude, d the star's apparent declination 
for the date, and a, b, and c are expressed in time. 

When great precision is desired, for example in longitude work, 
the equation must be modified by the introduction of a small cor- 
rection for Diurnal Aberration, additive to a. The value of the 
correction is 0*.021 cos sec d. 

Hence the complete form of the above equation is 



36 PUACTIGAL A8THONOMY. 

Or, placing 

c' = c 0.021 cos 0, 

._r +J , + .*<*^ ) + J=! ? fl + '"* ,54, 

After an observation has been made we shall have in this equa- 
tion four unknown quantities, E, a, I, c', since is supposed to be 
known, and a and rf are found in the Epherneris. We may either 
determine a, />, and c independently, as will next be explained (in 
which case an observation on a single star will then give E), or 
leave all four to be determined by observation on at least four stars. 

The sign of c is changed by reversing the axis, since the middle 
wire is thus placed on the other side of the line of collimation. 

+fa This value, 8 .021 cos sec tf, which we will denote by E, 
may be deduced in an elementary manner as follows: Due to the 
earth's rotation on its axis, all celestial bodies are apparently dis- 
placed toward the east point of the horizon. If the body be on 
the meridian, this displacement is wholly in E. A. Hence the 
E. A. of the object as seen will not be a, but a -j- R. 

The direction of a ray of light received from a body on the 
meridian is at right angles to the direction of the observer's diurnal 
motion. Under this condition, the absolute amount of apparent 
displacement in seconds of a great circle may be written (Young, 
pa. 142), 

* 



Ftanl"' 

where u is the observer's velocity, and V that of light. If the ob- 
server be at the equator, we shall have 

20926062 X 2 n 
U = "5280^4 X 60 X 60 mileS P r SCC nd > 

where 20926062 is the number of feet in the earth's equatorial 
radius (Clarke). 

According to Newcomb and Michelson, 

F = 186330 miles per second. 



DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS. 31 

Hence 



_ _ _ _ _ 

5280 X 24 X 3600 X 186330 X tun 1" "~ 

This angular displacement in a great circle perpendicular to the 
meridian corresponds to 8 .021 if the star be on the equator, or to 
0?021 sec d if the star's declination be tf, since, as we have seen 
before, equal angular distances from the meridian correspond to 
hour angles varying with sec tf. 

If the observer be not on the equator, but at. latitude 0, his 
velocity will be diminished in the ratio of the radius of his circle of 
latitude to that of the equator: or regarding the earth as a sphere, 
in the ratio cos 0:1. 

Hence, for an observer in any latitude, with a star at any dec- 
lination, 

R = 8 .021 cos sec d. 

DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS. 

1. To Determine the Level Error b. This is found from the 
formula already deduced, viz. : 



(55) 
or 

according as the instrument is direct or reversed. D and p must 
be expressed in time, by dividing their values in arc by 15, thus 
giving b in time. 

2. To Determine the Collimation Error c. Turn the instrument 
to the horizon, select some well-defined distant point whose image 
is near the middle wire, measure the distance between them with 
the micrometer, making the distance positive when the middle 
wire is west of the image of the point. Reverse the axis, and meas- 
ure the new distance, with same rule as to sign. Subtract the 
second from the first, and one half the difference gives the colli- 
mation error in micrometer divisions for instrument direct. 



38 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

This multiplied by the value of one division in time, gives c 
in time. 

The rule will be eyident from an inspection of Fig. 12 (which 
is a horizontal projection), where w is the west, 
and e the east end of the axis, TfJtlie hori- 
zontal line of collimation, P the image of the 
Q point in the field of view, a the direct and b 
the reversed- position of the middle wire. E a 
> is equal to E b, and c is positive. 

b Instead of a terrestrial point we may use the 

FIG. 12. intersection of the cross hairs in the focus of 

a surveyor's transit adjusted to stellar focus, 
the two instruments facing each other. The intersection referred 
to will then be optically at an infinite distance, and its image will 
be found at the principal focus of our transit. 

It is sometimes necessary to determine c by independent stellar 
observations, in which case the following method is always employed : 
Point the telescope to a circumpolar star and note the times of its 
passage over as many wires as possible on one side of the middle 
wire, lie verse the axis. As the star moves out of the field of view, 
it will cross the same wires in reverse order, the times of passage 
being noted as before. 

By means of the Equatorial Intervals reduce each time to the 
middle wire, and let T and 7 T ' denote the mean of those before and 
after reversal, respectively. 

T and T' are therefore the times of passage of the same star 
over two different positions of the middle wire one as much to 
the east as the other was to the west of the true line of collimation. 
From their difference therefore we have double the collimation error, 
thus: 

For instrument direct, 



a = T+ E \ a sn - . jT. _L _. __ coBj 

cos 6 cos d cos 6 cos d 

For instrument reversed, 

r n(0-<?) ,COS(0~a) C Q-.Q31 



DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS. 39 

allowance being made for a change in level error due to a possible 
inequality of pivots, and c changing its sign by reversal of the in- 
strument. 

By subtraction and solution we have 

c = i(F-T) cos $ + i (b' - b) cos (0 - 3). (57) 

If the pivots arc equal and the instrument be undisturbed in 
level, the last term disappears and we have 

c = I (r - T) cos tf. (58) 

A slow-moving star must be used in order to give time for care- 
ful reversal. 

There are various other methods of finding both b and c y based 
principally upon observation of the wires and their images as seen 
by reflection from mercury. 

3. To Determine the Azimuth Error, a. Observe in the usual 
manner the time of transit, T, of a star of known declination. 
Then, b and c having been measured, let the corresponding correc- 

tions, b ^^ and c' sec d, be added to T, giving t. This is 
cos o 

called correcting the time for level and collimation. The equation 
of the instrument as applied to this star will now read 

sin (0 6) * ^ 

___4. (m) 



Similarly for another star, 



From which 



a (sin <f> cos <f> tan 6' sin + cos 0tan 3) = (a' a) -r (? t). 

- (' - g > - <*' ~ *> (59) 

a ~ cos (tan S - tan 6')' v ' 



40 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The value of the clock error does not enter. If however it be 
not constant, its rate, r, must be known, positive when losing, nega- 
tive when gaining. Then if E Q be the unknown error at some as- 
sumed instant T 9 , the errors at the two instants of observation will 
be E.+ (T-T,) r, and E.+ ( T' - T ) r. These should be substi- 
tuted for E in equations (m) and (n), and the known terms, ( T T 9 ) r 
and (T' T 9 ) r, be united to T and T' in forming t and V as are the 
corrections for level and collimation. The time is then said to be 
corrected for rate. By subtraction to obtain (59), E Q will disappear. 
Hence while the rate must be known, the error need not be. 

Examining the value of a, we see that the following conditions 
must be fulfilled in order to obtain an accurate determination. 

First, a and a' must be known exactly; therefore only Ephem- 
eris stars should be used. 

Again, if the rate of the clock be not well determined, the 
interval between the observations must be as small as possible in 
order that the correction for rate may affect a but slightly. There- 
fore if both stars are at upper culmination, they should bo nearly 
equal in R. A. Or, if one be above and the other below the pole, 
they should differ in R. A. by as nearly 12 hours as possible. 

Again the larger numerically the factor (tan S tan 6'), the less 
the effect of errors in /' /. Hence, if both stars are at upper 
culmination, one should be as near and the other as far from the 
pole as possible. Or, if one be at upper and one at lower culmina- 
tion, they should both be as near the pole as possible; the declina- 
tion of the lower star being then taken to be 90 -f- Polar Distance. 



From the preceding description of the Transit Instrument it 
will bo readily understood, that, if desired, the mean wire may be 
used as a datum instead of the middle, and the Equatorial Intervals 
be determined from it with the same facility as from the middle 
wire. Also, if in Eq. (53) T be the time of a star's transit over 
the mean wire, c will be the collimation error of this wire, and, 
together with E 9 a, and b, may be determined by the use of four 
stars as explained on page 36. It may also be determined by Eq. 
(57) or (58), if T and T' be computed for the mean instead of the 
middle wire. This use of the mean for the middle wire is frequent 
in field work, and possesses the advantage that all consideration of 
the " Reduction to the Middle Wire " may be then avoided. 



REFRACTION TABLES. 41 

REFRACTION TABLES. 

A ray of light passing from a celestial body to a point on the 
earth's surface, may be supposed to pass through successive spherical 
strata of the atmosphere, the densities of which continually increase 
toward the center. Under these circumstances, as has been previ- 
ously shown, the ray will be bent toward the normal, resulting in 
an apparent displacement of the body toward the zenith. 

It has also been previously shown that the actual amount of such 
displacement increases with the zenith distance, and with the 
density of the air, which latter depends on its pressure and tempera- 
ture. In order to facilitate the calculation of this displacement or 
refraction in any particular case, tables have been constructed con- 
containing certain functions of the zenith distance, temperature, 
and pressure, from which, with observed data as arguments, the re- 
fraction may be computed. 

Such tables are called Refraction Tables. Those of Bessel are 
the best and most usually employed. In these tables the adopted 
value of the refraction function is given by 

r = a ft y K tan z, 

in which r is the refraction; A, A, and a are quantities varying 
slowly with the zenith distance; ft is a factor depending on the 
pressure, and y upon the temperature of the air; z is the apparent 
zenith distance; ft therefore depends upon the reading of the ba- 
rometer, and y upon the reading of the thermometer. But since 
the actual height indicated by a barometer depends not only upon 
the pressure of the air, but upon the temperature of the mercury, 
ft is really composed of two factors B and T, the first of which de- 
pends upon the actual reading of the barometer, and T involves the 
correction due to the temperature of the mercury. 

Nearly all the collections of astronomical tables contain " Tables 
of Refraction/' from which may be found the various quantities in 
the equation 

r = a(B T) A 



The first portion of the table consists of three columns giving the 
values of A 9 A, and log at, with the apparent zenith distance z as 
the argument, 



42 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The second part contains B, with the height of the barometer 
as the argument. The third part gives the value of T with the 
reading of the attached thermometer as the argument, and the 
fourth part gives y with the reading of the external thermometer 
as the argument ; z is the observed zenith distance. A substitution 
of these quantities gives the refraction, which must then be added 
to z to give the true zenith distance. 

The attached thermometer gives the temperature of the mercury 
of the barometer. The external thermometer should be screened 
from the direct and reflected heat of the sun, but be so fully ex. 
posed as to give accurately the temperature of the external air. 

A similar table is sometimes given for passing from true to ap- 
parent zenith distances. The mode of using is exactly the same, 
subtracting the resulting refraction from the true zenith distance 
to obtain z. It is of use in "setting" instruments for observation. 

A " Table of Mean Eef ractions " is also given in nearly every 
collection, and contains the refractions for a temperature of 50 F., 
and 30 in. height of barometer, with apparent zenith distances or 
altitudes, as the argument, which may be used when a very precise 
result is not required. 

The above relates only to refraction in altitude. But a change 
in a star's place due to refraction will in the general case cause a 
change in its observed R. A. and Dec. In order to ascertain these 
two coordinates as affected by refraction at a given sidereal time T, 
we first compute the body's hour angle from P = T R. A., and 
then its true zenith distance (z) and parallactic angle (</>) frorn the 
astronomical triangle, knowing P, cp, arid 6". Then if r denote the 
refraction in altitude, found as just explained, the refraction in 
declination will be 

A tf = r cos i{>, 
and the refraction in R. A., 

r sin if> 

~~^o7T- 
TIME. 

The perfect uniformity with which the earth rotates on its axis 
makes its motion a standard regulator for all time-pieces. No clock 
or chronometer can run with perfect uniformity, an^ therefore the 
time indicated by them must ever be in error. To find these errors 
at any instant is the object of the time problems in Practical As- 
tronomy. 



TIME. 43 

Time is measured by the hour angle of some point or celestial 
body. If the point be the true Vernal Equinox its hour angle is 
true sidereal time. 

If the point be the mean Equinox, it is mean sidereal time; but 
since the greatest difference between true and mean sidereal time 
can never exceed 1.1.5 seconds in 19 years, astronomical clocks are 
run on true sidereal time. To pass from true to mean sidereal 
time, apply the correction known as the Equation of Equinoxes in 
Eight Ascension. 

If the point bo the Mean Sun its hour angle is mean solar time; 
all solar time pieces are run on mean solar time. 

If the point be the center of the True Sun, its hour angle is 
true or apparent solar time; to pass from true to mean solar time 
apply the correction known as the Equation of Time. 

Before proceeding to the time problems, it is necessary to deter- 
mine the relation existing between sidereal and mean solar intervals, 
and especially the relation existing between the sidereal and mean 
solar time at any instant. 

Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Intervals. The in- 
terval of time between two consecutive returns of the sun to the 
mean vernal equinox, called the mean tropical year, is according to 
Bessel 305.2423 mean solar days. Since, while the earth is rotating 
on its axis from west to east, the mean sun is moving uniformly in 
the same direction, the interval between two consecutive passages 

of the meridian over the mean sun will be 1 + times the 

OUD./VT-/V/W 

interval between two passages over the mean vernal equinox: for 
in one mean solar day the moan sun must advance .T77 r 



whole circuit from equinox to equinox, and each mean solar day 
must correspond to 1 +365-3433 P assa es of the moan vernal equi- 
nox. Hence 365.2422 mean solar days correspond to 366.2422 
sidereal days. 

Hence we have the relations, 

One mean solar day = |gg| = 1.00273791 sidereal days, 
= 24* 3 m 56 8 .555 sidereal time. 



44 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

365 2422 
One sidereal day = -~ '^ * = 0.99726957 mean solar days, 

t)UO./w4/w/v 

= 23 h 56 m 4 8 .091 mean solar time. 

The same relation manifestly exists between the corresponding 
hours, minutes, and seconds. Now since the sidereal unit is shorter 
than the mean solar in the ratio of 1 : 1.00273791, it follows that 
the number of these units in a given interval of time is to the 
number of mean solar units as 1.00273791 to 1. 

Hence the relations, 

Sidereal Interval - Mean Solar Interval X 1.00273791. 
Mean Solar Interval = Sidereal Interval X 0.99726957. 

Or, denoting these intervals respectively by I 9 and 7, 

I 9 = f+ 0.00273791 / 
T = /'- 0.00273043 /', 

Tables II and III, Appendix to the Ephemeris, give the values of 
the corrections 0.00273791 /and 0.00273043 1', for each second in 
the 24 hours. 

Again, since 24 sidereal hours equals 23 h 56 m 4 S .091 mean solar 
time, it follows that a mean solar clock loses 3 m 55 S .9()9 on a side- 
real clock in one sidereal day, or 9 S .8296 in one sidereal hour. 

Also, since 24 mean solar hours equals 24 h 3 m 56 S .555 sidereal 
time, it follows that a sidereal clock gains 3 m 56 8 .555 on a mean 
solar clock in one mean solar day, or 9 8 .8565 in one mean solar 
hour. 

These two facts may be thus expressed : 

(1) The hourly rate of a mean solar clock on sidereal time is 
+ 9 8 .8296. 

(2) The hourly rate of a sidereal clock on mean solar time is 
- 9 8 .8565. 

Prom (2) it is seen that the R. A. of the mean sun increases 
9*.8565 per hour, or in other words, the sidereal time of mean noon 
occurs 9 8 .8565 later for each hour of west longitude. 

These deductions are of importance in what follows. 

Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Time. That is, haying 
given either the sidereal or mean solar time at a certain instant, to 
find the other. 




TIME. 46 

Suppose first the sidereal time to be given and let the circle in 
Figure 13 represent the celestial 
equator, M being the point where it 
is intersected by the meridian, V the 
vernal equinox and # the place of 
the mean sun. 

Then MV~ the sidereal time at 
the instant, supposed to be known, 
M S = the mean solar time required, 
and VS = right ascension of mean 
sun. 

The mean solar time required is 
therefore equal to the given sidereal Fto. ^ 

time minus the R. A. of the mean sun at the instant. The calcu- 
lation of the R. A. of the mean sun at a given instant may bo 
avoided by the use of Tables II and III, Appendix to the Ephem- 
eris, as follows : 

At the preceding mean noon the mean sun's R A. was less than 
at the moment considered by an amount which may be represented 
I? 88*. 

At that time, therefore, the mean sun was at M, and the Vernal 
Equinox at a position V such that V M '= VS 1 '. Hence at the 
instant considered, tho sidereal time elapsed since the, preceding 
mean noon is MV MV. The tipe since mean noon having thus 
been found in sidereal units, the mean solar equivalent of this inter- 
val will necessarily be tho mean solar time at the instant consid- 
ered. Hence the rule: 

From the given sidereal time subtract the R. A. of the mean sun 
at the preceding mean noon. Convert the result into a mean solar 
interval by the Ephemer is Tables or the form ula 1=1' 0.00273043 /'. 
The result is the required mean solar time. 

To find the sidereal from the given mean time, this operation 
must obviously be performed in the inverse order, viz. : 

Convert the given mean solar time into a sidereal interval by 
the Ephemeris Tables or by the formula /' = /-}- 0.0027379L7. 
To the result add the R. A. of the mean sun at the preceding mean 
noon. The result is the required sidereal time. 

On Page II, Monthly Calendar of the Ephemeris, will be found 
the R..A. of the mean sun at the preceding Greenivich mean moon, 
To find this element for the local mean noon, multiply the hourly 



46 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

change 9 8 .8565 (heretofore deduced) by the longitude in hours, and 
add the result to the Ephemeris value. 

The ahove rules are not only of great use in astronomical calcu- 
lations, but they enable us to determine the error of either a side- 
real or mean time clock, knowing that of the other, by "the method 
of coincident beats." Suppose both clocks to beat seconds. Then 
from the relative rate heretofore deduced it is seen, that their beats 
will be coincident once in about 6 minutes. Note the seconds given 
by each clock when this occurs, and then supply the hours and 
minutes. Apply the known error to the mean solar for example; 
and the result will be the correct m. s. time. Find the correspond- 
ing sidereal time by the rule just given. The difference between 
this and the time given by the sidereal clock will be its error. 

EXAMPLE. 

At West Point, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1891, Longitude 4 h .93 west, the 
mean solar and sidereal clocks were compared at the instant of 
coincident beats, with the following result : 

Mean Solar, O h 46 29".00. 
Sidereal, 17 h - 15 m - 55-.00. 

The error of the mean solar was OM7 slow on Standard Time, 
which is itself 4 m 9".45 slow on local time. 

It is required to find the error of the sidereal clock. 

Indicated m. s. time o h 46 m 2 9 ".00 

Error on standard time 0.17 ' 

Reduction to local time 4 9.45 

Corrected m. s. time o _ 50 "^38. 62 

Reduction to sidereal interval 8.32 

Sidereal interval since mean noon 1T~^- 50 46.94 

R. A. of mean sun at Greenwich mean noon 16 24 27.25 

Correction = 9 8 .8565 X 4.93 48.59 

True sidereal time 17 16 2.78 

Clock indication , 17 15 55.00 

Error of sidereal clock +7.78 

Hence the sidereal clock was 7'.78 slow. 



TO FIND TUB TIMS BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 47 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVA- 
TIONS. 

This general problem usually presents itself as a question of de- 
termining the error of a time-piece at a given instant. The dilferent 
methods of obtaining this error may, as far as considered here, be 
grouped under three heads. 

/. Time by Meridian Transits. 
II. Time by Single Altitudes. 

III. Time by Equal Altitudes. 

The first is the method of precision when properly carried out 
with the transit instrument. The second and third, being usually 
carried out with the sextant, can only be relied upon as giving an 
approximate result more or less exact. 

I. TIME BY MERIDIAN TRANSITS. 

1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece by the Meridian 
Transit of a Star. (See Form 1.) The general statement of the 
problem is briefly this: since the time-piece, if correct, ought to in- 
dicate the R. A. of the star at the instant of cuhniuation, the dif- 
ference in time is the error required. The transit instrument being 
supposed to be approximately in the meridian, *>., to have been 
carefully adjusted, for the practical solution it is necessary to find 
by observation and computation' the quantities in the following 
equation (heretofore deduced) and solve it. 

a = T+E+aA + bB + c'C, (GO) 

in which A, 13, and O have for brevity been substituted for 

sin (<t> d) cos (0 6) , ~ ,. , _ , 

- ^.-~JL 9 __iz_ 1 9 an ci gee o, respectively. Then having 

measured a, b, and c\ computed A 9 B, and (7; observed T\ and 
taken a from the Ephemeris (a = the star's apparent R. A. for the 
date), the value of E follows from the solution of ths equation. 

In finding r l\ record to quarter seconds (or if possible to tenths 
of a second), the time of passage of each wire. Take the mean 
and apply the "Reduction to middle wire." T 9 corrected by 
a A + bB -\- c 9 C is evidently the chronometer time of the star's 
transit over the meridian. 



48 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Form 1 indicates the proper method of recording the observa- 
tions, it being arranged for five stars. Under the head of " Transit," 
record its number and the maker. The" Illumination" should be 
recorded as east or west, this showing whether the instrument is 
direct or reversed. 

The adopted value of E should be the mean of the results from 
several stars. Stars within the polar circle, or those whose declina- 
tion exceeds about 67, arc not used for time determinations, since 
the exact instant when a slow-moving star is bisected by a wire can- 
hot be judged with the greatest precision, and since also slight 
errors in measuring , />, and c will then be greatly magnified by A, 
By and 6 Y , all of which become co for d = 90. But by including 
hi the observing list two circum -polar stars upon one of which the 
instrument is reversed after half the wires are passed, both a and c 
may be found by Equations (57) and (59). I is found from level 
readings by Equation (55) or (56). 

If only a single star is available, it should be one given* in the 
Ephemeris, and which passes near the zenith (6 = 0), since at the 
zenith Aa disappears, and this is the only one of the three correc- 
tions which requires star observations for its determination. 

For very accurate work, such as is required in connection with 
the telegraphic determination of longitude, it is usual to employ at 
least ten stars for each determination of time, half the stars being 
observed with the instrument reversed; and of each half, two should 
be circum-polar and three equatorial stars. In this case, I is ordi- 
narily the only instrumental error actually measured (by level read- 
ings); each star then gives an equation of the form (GO), and E to- 
gether with a and c are found from a solution of the equations by 
Least Squares. 

These matters will be explained more fully hereafter. 

If the "lleduction to the Middle Wire" be not applied in com- 
puting T 9 c will be the collimation error of the mean wire. This 
fact is of general application whenever the Transit Instrument is 
used for determining Time. 

The clock rate is found from errors determined at different 
times. 

To find the error at a given instant, as for example at the middle 
of the time consumed in a series of observations extending over 
several hours, this rate should be applied as explained when treating 
of the azimuth error. 



TO FIND THE TUttt BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 49 

{* It may sometimes be desirable to find the error of a sidereal 
clock from a meridian transit of the sun, although in field work 
this would be exceptional. In such a case it may be assumed, with 
an error entirely negligible, that during the short time consumed in 
the observation the sun's motion is uniform, that the time required 
for the sun to pass from the mean to the middle wire, and from the 
middle wire to the meridian is the same as that for a star of the 
same declination. 

For example, the reduction to middle wire not exceeding 8 .5, 
the error committed by the second assumption could not exceed 

O a 00^74- 

"" r X sec (23 28') = 8 .0015. Hence that reduction may be 

-V 

computed as usual. 

Therefore, note the time of transit of each limb of the sun over 
each wire, and take the mean. Reduce to the middle wire as usual, 
and apply the correction a A -f- bR + c '@* The result is the clock 
time of culmination of the sun's center. The true sidereal time of 
this event, or the R. A. of the sun at apparent noon, is found on page 
1, Monthly Calendar, by interpolation. The difference gives E. 



2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by a Meridian 
Transit of the Sun. (See Form 2.) Apparent noon at any place is 
the instant of culmination of the sun's center at that place. This 
epoch may be expressed in three different times, viz.: " 

In apparent time, or 12 o'clock apparent time. 

In mean time, or 12 o'clock plus the equation of time. 

In clock time, or that indicated by a moan solar time-piece. 

At apparent noon a mean solar time-piece should therefore indi- 
cate 12 o'clock plus the equation of time at the instant. 

Therefore the general equation of the Transit Instrument be- 
comes for this case 



12 h + 6= T+E + aA +l>B + c'C, (61) 

e denoting the equation of time. 

Note the order and directions that follow: 

1. The mean of all the observed times is the chronometer time of 

transit of sun's center over the mean of the wires. 

2. The reduction to middle wire, as well as the three corrections, 

are found as in Form 1. By adding them to the above-men- 



60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

tioiied mean, we have the chronometer time of apparent noon. 
The declination of the sun, used in computing these corrections, 
is to be* taken from the Ephemeris, allowance being made for 
the observer's longitude. Use page 1, Monthly Calendar. 

3. The mean time of apparent noon is 12 hours- + e. In comput- 
ing e use page 1, Monthly Calendar, and make allowance for 
observer's longitude. The Ephemeris gives the sign of e. 

4k (Subtract the chronometer time of apparent 310011 from the mean 
time of apparent noon, and the remainder is the error of the 
chronometer: plus if slow, minus if fast. 

5. Time-pieces at West Point are run on 75th Meridian mean time, 
i.e. 4 m 9 8 .45 slower than local mean time. Hence in finding 
the error at West Point subtract 4 m 9 8 .45 from 12 h e, before 
proceeding with step No. 4. 



>J Should the necessity arise for finding the error of a mean 
solar time-piece by a meridian transit of a star, it may be done by 
the same methods, the reduction to the middle wire and corrections 
for instrumental errors being computed as usual, since the equa- 
torial value of the first, as before, being taken as not exceeding 8 .5, 

s 00273 
the greatest error thus produced cannot exceed t - sec 67 

/w 

= 8 .0035. Stars within the polar circle, or whose declination ex- 
ceeds about i>7 are not used for time determinations. 

Therefore having observed the c/0c&time of transit (corrected by 
a A + b H + c C), and having computed, as heretofore explained, 
the cor reef mean solar time of transit from the star's R. A., the dif- 
ference gives the clock error. 



THE SEXTANT. 

As problems under the second and third heads arising n field 
work are usually solved by aid of the sextant, a short description of 
that instrument and the manner of using it becomes necessary. 

The sextant is a hand reflecting instrument designed for the 
measurement of the angular distance between two objects. In its 
construction it embodies the following principle of Optics, viz.i 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 51 

When a ray of light is reflected successively by two plane mirrors, 
the angle 'between the first and last direction of the ray is twice the 
angle between the mirrors, provided the ray and its two reflections 
are all in the same plane perpendicular to both mirrors. For as- 
tronomical work the sextant is mainly used for measuring vertical 
angles, i.e., the altitude of some celestial body. In the measure- 
ment of Lunar Distances, however, the angle will usually be in- 
clined. 

The instrument consists essentially of a graduated circular arc, 
usually somewhat over 90 in extent, connected with its center by 
several radii and braced by cross pieces, forming what is known as 
the frame. Attached to the center of the arc is a movable index- 
arm provided with clamp and tangent screw, carrying at its outer 
end a vernier and microscope for reading the sextant arc. Attached 
to the index-arm at its center of motion, and therefore rotating with 
it, is a small mirror known as the index-glass, whose plane is per- 
pendicular to that of the frame. Perpendicular to the frame, at- 
tached thereto and therefore immovable, is a second small mirror, 
known as the horizon-glass. These two mirrors are so placed with 
reference to each other that when the index-arm vernier points to 
the zero of the arc, they shall be exactly parallel and facing each 
other. In this position a ray reflected by both mirrors will have its 
original direction unchanged. The horizon-glass is divided into 
two parts by a line parallel to the frame. The first part next the 
frame is a mirror, and is the horizon-glass proper. The outer 
part, consisting of unsilvered glass, is not a mirror. A small tele- 
scope screwing into a fixed ring, is held by the latter with its axis 
parallel to the frame and pointing to the horizon-glass. The dis- 
tance to the axis from the frame is so regulated that the objective 
will receive rays passing through the unsilvered, as well as rays 
reflected from the silvered, part of the horizon-glass. Since each 
portion of an objective forms as perfect an image as does the whole, 
the difference being only in degree of brightness of the image, it is 
manifest that by pointing the telescope at one object and placing 
another so that its reflected rays will be received by the objective, 
an image of each object may be seen in the field of view, each per- 
fect in detail, but less bright than if formed with the whole aper- 
ture of the objective. The relative brightness of the two images 
may be varied at will by simply moving the telescope bodily to or 



ft* 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 




TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 53 

from the frame, thus presenting more or less of the objective to the 
silvered part of the horizon-glass. For observation, they should bo 
equally bright. 

Excessive brightness, as in case of the sun, is reduced by two 
sets of oolored shades of different degrees of opacity, one set for the 
reflected, and one for the direct rays. These are supposed to bo 
of plane glass, but to eliminate any errors due to a possible pris- 
matic form, they admit of easy reversal. A disk containing a set 
of colored glasses is arranged to screw over the eye end of the tele- 
scope. This should be used when practicable, since any prismatic 
form in these glasses will affect both direct and reflected rays 
equally. 

Two parallel wires are placed in the focus of the objective, the 
middle point between which marks the center of the field of view. 
The line joining this point and the optical center of the objective 
is the axis of the telescope. It is this line which should be parallel 
with the frame of the instrument. 

Suppose now with the index-arm set at zero (in which case the 
mirrors are parallel), the telescope is accurately directed to some 
very distant point. Kays will pass through the unsilvered part of 
the horizon glass and form an image at the center of the field of 
view. Rays sensibly parallel to these will fall upon the index-glass, 
be reflected to the horizon-glass, and thence into parallelism with 
the original direction, since the angle between the mirrors is zero. 

These reflected rays being parallel to the direct rays, will be 
brought to the same focus, and there will bo presented at the mid- 
dle of the field of view, apparently one, in reality two, images of the 
point, accurately coinciding. 

Retaining the direct image at tho middle of the field, let the 
index-arm be moved forward, say 25. According to the principle 
of Optics cited, there will bo superimposed on the first image that 
of another point, separated from the first point by an angular dis- 
tance of 50. Accordingly in order to give the real value of an 
angle, the sextant graduations are marked double their true value. 

Also according to the same principle of Optics, it fo/lows that it 
the reading is 50 when the distance is 50, the ray from the second 
point and all its reflections must determine a plane perpendicular 
to both mirrors and hence parallel to the frame. If the instrument 
and index-arm be so moved as to produce coincidence of images on 



54 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

either side of the field, evidently the last direction of the ray is not 
parallel to the frame, the fundamental principle of the sextant is 
violated, and the position assumed by the index-arm to give this 
coincidence gives an incorrect value of the angle. The frame of 
the instrument must therefore always be held in the plane of the 
two points, which condition is fulfilled when coincidence of their 
images can be produced at the centre of the field. 

Hence, to measure an angle with a sextant: Direct the tele- 
scope to the fainter of the two objects and bring its image to the 
middle of the field. Retaining it in this position, rotate the instru- 
ment about the line of sight and move the index-arm slowly back 
and forth until accurate coincidence of the two images is produced 
at the middle of the field. Perfection of coincidence is produced 
by use of the tangent screw. 

In measuring altitudes (e.g. of the sun) at sea, it is sufficient to 
bring the reflected image tangent to the sea horizon, and correct 
the resulting altitude for dip. On land the natural horizon cannot 
be used for obvious reasons. Recourse is therefore had to an " arti- 
ficial horizon " consisting of a small vessel of mercury with its sur- 
face protected against wind, etc., by a glass roof. An observer 
placing himself in the plane of the " object " and the perpendicular 
to the artificial horizon, will by placing the eye at the proper angle 
see an image of the object reflected from the mercury. Since the 
angles of incidence and reflection are equal, this imago may be re- 
garded as another body at the distance of the object and at the same 
angular distance Mow the horizon as the real object is above it. 
The measurement of the angle between the two will therefore give 
the double altitude of the object. This measurement is accom- 
plished by regarding the image seen in the mercury as the " fainter 
of the two objects" mentioned in the foregoing rule, and then pro- 
ceeding as there indicated. 

If the body have a sensible diameter, as the sun, the altitude of 
the center is the quantity sought, since all data in the Ephemeris 
relating to the sun is given for its center. Nevertheless since it is 
easier to judge of the exact tangency of the two images than of 
their exact coincidence, it is the altitude of a limb which is always 
measured. This, corrected for refraction, semi-diameter, and par- 
allax, will give the true geocentric altitude of the center. 

The sextant being usually held in the hand and therefore 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65 

somewhat unstable, being also of small dimensions and graduated 
on the arc only to 10', a single measurement of an angle never 
suffices for any astronomical purpose. Altitudes are therefore 
always taken in "sets " and the corresponding times noted. There 
are two methods of taking these sets according as the body is mov- 
ing rapidly or slowly in altitude. The first case evidently applies 
to extra-meridian observations, and the second to circum-meridian 
and circum-polar observations. 

To explain the first case, suppose it were required to take a set 
of forenoon altitudes of the sun's upper limb. First it is to bo 
noted that the image in the horizon as viewed by the telescope, is 
erect; it having been inverted onco by the reflection and again by 
the telescope. The imago reflected from the mirrors is however 
inverted, and its lowest point corresponds to the upper limb of the 
sun. Now point the telescope to the mercury (having applied the 
proper shades), and place the upper limb of this image at the center 
of the field. By the rotation and movement of the index-arm be- 
fore described bring the image from the mirrors into the field 
above the other. Since the sun is rising, this image (inverted) will 
appear to be slowly falling in the field of view toward the other. 
Set the vernier at the nearest outward exact division of the limb, 
and note the instant when the two images are just tangent. Set 
the vernier at the next exact outward division of the limb (which 
operation separates the images), and note again the time when they 
come to tangency, which will be only a few seconds later. So pro- 
ceed until the set is complete. The altitudes are thus equidistant, 
involve no reading of the vernier, and while waiting for contact 
the instrument can be held steady by both hands. 

To take altitudes of the lower limb, allow the falling image to 
pass over the other and note the instants of separation. 

In the afternoon, the image here described as falling, is rising. 

In the second case, when the body is about to pass the meridian 
or is near the pole, it is moving so slowly in altitude that we can- 
not set the index-arm ahead by successive equal steps and wait for 
the body to reach that altitude. Moreover upon passing the 
meridian the motion in altitude is reversed. In this case we must 
therefore measure the altitudes of the selected limb in as quick 
succession as possible according to the ordinary method. 

The same principles apply in case of a star. 



66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The glass forming the roof of the horizon may be somewhat 
prismatic. The effect of this may be eliminated by taking another 
set with the roof reversed. 

ADJUSTMENTS OF THE SEXTANT. 

Hitherto it has been assumed that both mirrors were accurately 
perpendicular to the frame, that when they were parallel to each 
other the index-arm vernier reads zero, that the center of motion 
of the arm was the center of the graduated limb, and that the 
telescope axis was parallel to the frame. The mirrors and telescope 
are however not rigid in their connections, but each is susceptible 
of a slight motion to perfect the adjustment. AVell-known optical 
principles together with the preceding remarks render any expla- 
nation of these adjustments unnecessary. 

1st. Adjustment: To make the index-glass perpendicular to the 
frame. 

Set the index near the middle of the arc ; remove the telescope 
and place the eye near the index-glass nearly in the plane of the 
frame. Observe at the right-hand edge of the glass whether the 
arc as seen directly and its reflected image form one continuous 
arc, which can only be the case when the glass is perpendicular. 
If not, tip the glass slightly by the proper screws until the above 
test is fulfilled. 

2d. Adjustment: To make the horizon-glass perpendicular to the 
frame. 

The first adjustment having been perfected, the second is tested 
by noting whether the two mirrors are parallel for some one position 
of the index-glass. If so, the horizon-glass must also be perpen- 
dicular to the frame. 

Point the telescope to a 3d or 4th magnitude star, or to a disbanfc 
terrestrial point, the plane of the frame being vertical. Move the 
index-arm slowly back and forth over the zero. This will cause 
the reflected image to pass through the field ; if it passes exactly 
over the direct image the two mirrors must be perpendicular to the 
frame. If it passes to one side, tip the horizon-glass by the proper 
screws until the test is fulfilled. 

3d. Adjustment : To make the axis of the telescope parallel to 
the frame. 

Turn the telescope until the wires before referred to are parallel 



TO FIND THE TIME BY 'ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 67 

to the frame. (An adjusting telescope in which the wires are well 
separated is to be preferred.) Select two objects which are at a 
considerable distance apart, as the sun and moon when distant 100 or 
more from each other. Point the telescope to the moon and bring 
the image of the sun tangent to it on one of the wires. Move the 
instrument till the images appear on the other wire. If the tangency 
still exists, the telescope is adjusted. Otherwise tip the ring hold- 
ing it, by means of the proper screws, till the test is fulfilled. 

4th. Adjustment: To make the mirrors parallel when the read- 
ing of the arc is zero. 

Set the index exactly at zero and point to the distant object 
described in the second adjustment. If the two images are exactly 
coincident, the adjustment is perfect. Otherwise turn the horizon- 
glass around an axis perpendicular to the frame, by the proper 
screws, until coincidence 1 is secured. The mirrors are now parallel. 

ERRORS OF THE SEXTANT. 

It should be remembered that to whatever division of the arc 
the index may point when the mirror* are parallel, this division is 
the temporary zero, and from it till angle readings must be reckoned. 
The fourth adjustment will not remain perfect; it is therefore 
easier to determine the temporary zero from time to time, note its 
distance and direction from the zero of the graduation, and apply 
the correction to all readings. The distance in arc of the tempo- 
rary from the fixed zero is called the " Index Error," positive if the 
temporary zero lie beyond the graduated arc, negative if on. To 
facilitate its measurement when positive, the. graduations arc car- 
ried 4 to 5 degrees to the right of the zero, constituting what is 
called the " extra arc." 

To measure the index-error, bring the mirrors to parallelism by 
producing a perfect coincidence of the direct and reflected images 
of a star or distant point; read the vernier, giving the result the 
proper sign. 

Another method specially applicable at sea* is as follows: 

Measure the horizontal diameter of the sun (so that the two 
limbs may not be affected by unequal refraction), first on the arc 
and then on the extra arc. Evidently one reading will exceed, and 
the other be less than the diameter, by the index-error. One half 



58 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY, 

the difference will then be the index error, positive if the larger 
reading be on the extra arc. 

As a verification, one fourth the sum should be the sun's semL 
diameter as given for the date in the Ephemeris. 

Another error which must be attended to with equal care is the 
" Eccentricity." This arises when the center of motion of the in- 
dex-arm is not coincident with the center of the graduated arc. 
The effect of such maladjustment is seen from Figure 15, a being 

the center of motion, and b that of 
the arc. When the arm is in the posi- 
tion ae in prolongation of the line 
joining the two centers, there is mani- 
festly no error in the reading. When 
at ad perpendicular to that line, there 
is an error cd. Between these two 
Flo 15 positions the error will be intermedi- 

ate in value. 

To determine this error, measure with a theodolite the angular 
distance between two distant points. Then take the mean of 
several measurements of the same angle with the sextant. The 
difference will be the effect of eccentricity for that reading of the 
sextant. This operation should be repeated at short angular inter- 
vals for the whole arc, and the results tabulated. 

Other methods may be adopted when the appliances of a fixed 
observatory are at hand. 




Nomenclature of the Astronomical Triangle. 

A = azimuth angle = angle at the zenith. 

P = hour angle = angle at the pole. 

= parallactic angle = angle at the body. 

90 = side from zenith to pole. 

90 tf = d = side from pole to body = polar distance. 

90 a = z = side from zenith to body = zenith distance. 

In which 

= latitude of place. 
tf = declination of body. 
a = altitude of body. 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 69 



II. TIME BY SINGLE ALTITUDES. 

1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece by a Single Altitude 
of a Star. (See Form 3.) The solution of this problem consists in 
finding the value of the hour angle Z P 8 in the astronomical tri- 
angle (see Fig. Iti), having given the three sides of the triangle, 
viz.: Z P, the complement of the latitude, /' 8 the polar distance 
of the star, and Z 8 its zenith distance. The latitude is sup- 
posed to be known, the polar distance d is taken from the 




E H 
FIG. 16. 

Ephemeris for the date, and the altitude a, the complement of the 
zenith distance, is measured by the sextant and artificial horizon. 
The measured altitude having been corrected for errors of the sex- 
tant and refraction, the above data substituted in the formula 



(>OS 



sin i P = y -~ ;._y^- y -^, 

z , cos sin a 



(62) 



will give the value of P, the star's hour angle, which divided by 15 
will give the hour angle in time. (The negative sign is to be used 
if the star be east of the meridian.) 

This plus the star's R. A. for the date will give the sidereal 
time, which by comparison with the chronometer time noted at the 
Instant of taking the altitude, will give the chronometer error. 

As heretofore stated, reliance is not to be placed upon a single 
measurement by so defective an instrument as the sextant. A set 
of observations, from 5 to 10, is therefore made by recording the 
times corresponding to successive changes of 10' in the star's 
double altitude. These altitudes will thus be equidistant and in- 
volve no measurement of seconds of arc. 



60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

In the computations it is usual to assume that the mean of the 
times corresponds to the mean of the altitudes, as shown on Form 
3, which implies that the star's motion in altitude is uniform. This 
in general is not true. Wo must therefore, to be as accurate as 
possible, either apply a correction to the mean of the times to 
obtain the time when the star was at the mean of the altitudes, or 
a correction to the mean of the altitudes to give the altitude at the 
mean of the times. Whether corrected or not, the means are used 
as a single observation. Also, since the refraction varies ununi- 
formly with the altitude, the refraction correspondii 3 to the mean 
of the altitudes requires, in strictness, a slight correction; although 
of much less importance than the first. These corrections may as 
a rule be omitted. Their deduction is given iu the following para- 
graph. 



*j To determine the correction to be applied to the mean of the 
altitudes or the mean of the times, the following deduction is ap- 
pended essentially as given by Chauvcnet. 

To find the change in altitude of a star in a given interval of 
time, having regard to second differences, let 



Then a + A a =f(P + A P). 

Expanding by Taylor's Theorem, 



da 



From the astronomical triangle, 

sin a = cos d sin + sin d cos cos P. 
cos a d a = sin d cos sin P d P. 

d a sin d cos sin P , . 

dP = -- cos a --- = - cos Bin A, J63) 

A being the azimuth. 

*** ^ 4 d A 

-cos0cosYl-. (64) 



TO FIND THE TIME BT ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 61 
Also from the astronomical triangle in a similar manner, 
d A cos f/* sin A 



d P sin P 



(65) 



being the parallactic angle. 
Whence 



, . , T1 , cos 0sin A cos A cos 
A a = cos sin ^1 A /' + - . 



. 

sin 



, 
- 7-i-. (66) 



Expressing A a and A P in seconds of arc and time respec- 
tively, we have, after reduction, 

A a, = cos sin ^4 (15 A JP) 

, cos sin A cos vi cos (15 A P) 3 . ,. , N 
+ -- - rin - p - r - i 3 - sin 1", (67) 

which gives the variation in altitude due to a lapse of A P seconds 
of time. 

The last term may bo written 

(15 A P)' 8 rin JAP 

' 2 - Bml " sinl" = ^ 

Values of 7/1 are given in tables under the head of Reduction to the 
Meridian. 

Placing also, for brevity, 

... 7 cos A cos 
5r = cos0sin^ fc = _ ri ._J., 

we have, 



A a = 

a more convenient expression of the same relation. 

Now let //, IF, //", etc., denote the altitudes (corrected for 
sextant errors), T, T', T", etc., the corresponding times, the 
mean of the altitudes, t 9 the mean of the times, and a/ the altitude 
corresponding to t , since this cannot be . It is now required to 
determine the relation between a/ and a in order that the whole 



62 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

set of observations may be resolved into one a single altitude 
taken at the mean of the times. 

The change H a/ required the time T t . 
The change //' #/ required the time T f t Q , 

etc. 

Therefore from the relation A a ~ 15 </ A P +# A M we 
have, denoting the different m's by in l9 w a , etc., 



km l9 ) 

km, J V ' 

etc. etc. 

If there were n observations, the mean gives. 



, 7 m. + w. + M, + etc. 7 ,__. 

a t a/ = A - - - = # k m . (69) 



Or 



The last term is therefore the desired correction to the mean of 
the altitudes in order that it may correspond to the mean of the 
times. 

It will however be more convenient to find such a correction as 
applied to the mean of the times will cause it to correspond to the 
mean of the altitudes. 

Let if denote the time corresponding to the mean of the alti- 
tudes. 

The change a a/ required the time tf t Q . Hence from 
the preceding, we have, since if t is very small, 



-'.) = - K - .') = - 9 km,. 



._. . , cos A cos . , 

Expressing k = - : ^- in known quantities, 
sin JL 



= s0 sn sn _ 

' v ' 



cos 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 68 



V = t, + ^cotP - - 

' 1 5 L_ cos a, cot a J w sm 1" v 7 

The refraction, r, belonging to the mean of the altitudes is cor- 
rected, if desired, by the quantity 

sin r 1_ ^ 2 sin a j (a n H) 
sin a a n sin 1" 

H denoting the different altitudes. 



It is important to ascertain what stars are suited to the solution 
of^jbhis problem. 

Differentiating the equation derived from the astronomical tri- 
angle (regarding a and P as variable), 

sin a = sin sin d -f cos cos 6 cos P, (73 ) 

and reducing by 

cos a sin P 



cos 6 sin 
we have 



cos sin 



(74) 
v ' 



Prom this it is seen that any error (d a) in the measured alti- 
tude will have the least effect on the computed hour angle when 
= 0, and A = 90. That is, the method is less exposed to error 
in low latitudes; but whatever the latitude, the star should be near 
the prime vertical. The worst position of the star is when on the 
meridian. 

Differentiating the same equation regarding and P as variable, 
reducing by 

cos a cos A = sin d cos cos d sin cos P. (75) 

and the same equation as before, we have 



(7G) 
x ' 



-.___ 
cos tan A 



64 PRACTIGAL ASTRONOMY. 

From this it is seen that any uncertainty as to the exact latitude 
will also have least effect when the star is near the prime vertical 
and the observer near the equator. 

Differentiating with reference to d and P, we have 



cos t) tan 



(77) 
v ' 



and it thus appears that an erroneous value of $ will also produce 
the least effect when the star is on the prime vertical, since from 
the equation 

. . cos . A 
sin w = - ^ sin A 
cos o 

sin $ and therefore tan ^ will be a maximum when sin A is also 
a maximum. 

From the three foregoing differential equations it is also seen 
that the effect of constant errors either in the measured altitude, 
the assumed latitude, or assumed declination, may be eliminated 
by combining the results from two stars, one east and one west of 
the meridian, and in as nearly corresponding positions as possible; 
since then the corresponding values of sin A, tan A, and tan tf> will 
be numerically nearly equal and of opposite signs. 

Hence the following general rule should be observed : In order 
to reduce to a minimum the effect of errors either in the observations 
or the assumed data, select a star which will cross the prime vertical 
at some distance from the zenith (6 < 0), and make the observations 
near that circle. As the latitude increases, greater accuracy in the 
observations and data is required in order to give a constant degree 
of precision in the results, tftars very near the horizon should be 
avoided on account of excessive and irregular refraction. The 
adopted value of the clock error should be the mean of the results 
from an east and a west star. 

In the computation, if great accuracy be not essential, mean re- 
fractions may be employed ; their values are given in tables. 

2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by a Single Alti- 
tude of the Sun's Limb. (See Form 4.) This problem does not 
differ in principle from the preceding. The observations are made 
on the sun's limb, and therefore in addition to refraction the cor- 



TO FIND THE TIME BT ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65 

rection for semi-diameter at the time of observation must be ap- 
plied. Also, since the sun has an appreciable parallax, and since 
also the Ephemeris data supposes the observer to be at the earth's 
center, the altitude must be further corrected for " parallax in alti- 
tude/' Parallax in altitude = Equatorial Horizontal Parallax X p 
X cos altitude, p being the ratio of the earth's radius at the equator 
to that at the place of observation. At West Point log p = 9.9993C8 
10. The Equatorial Parallax is given in the Ephemeris, page 
278. 

The gun's declination (or polar distance) which is given in the 
Ephemeris for certain instants of Greenwich time, varies quite rap- 
idly; and in order to determine this element at the instant of ob- 
servation we must know our longitude and the error of the chro- 
nometer, to obtain which is the object of the problem. In practice, 
however, the error will usually be known with sufficient accuracy 
to find approximately the time elapsed since Greenwich mean noon. 
With this assumed difference we find by interpolation in page II, 
Monthly Calendar, the declination for the instant. The same re- 
marks apply to the determination of the semi-diameter referred to 
above, and the Equation of Time below. 

With the data thus found, compute P (in time) as in the pre- 
ceding problem. 

Then if it be a morning observation, 

Apparent time 12 h P. 
If an afternoon observation, 

Apparent time = P. 

Apparent time Equation of Time = Mean Time. This com- 
pared witli the mean of the recorded times gives the chronometer 
error, and if this is found to differ very materially from the assumed 
error, the declination and possibly also the Semi-diameter and 
Equation of Time, must be redetermined, and the computation re- 
peated. The sun should be observed as near the prime vertical as 
is consistent with avoiding irregular refraction. 

In all cases where time is to be determined by altitudes of the 
sun, it is better to make a set of observations on each limb, and re- 



66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

duce each set separately. If a difference of personal error in esti- 
mating contact of images as compared with their separation exists, 
it will thus be discovered and in a great measure eliminated. 

III. TIME BY EQUAL ALTITUDES. 

1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Time-piece by Equal Altitudes 
of a Star. (See Form 5.) If the times when a star reaches equal 
altitudes on opposite sides of the meridian be noted, the " middle 
chronometer time" will be the time of transit, provided the chro- 
nometer has run uniformly. Hence we would have 

T 4- T 
' 



But if the refraction is different at the times of the two observa- 
tions, the true altitudes will be unequal when the observed are 
equal; which latter will consequently not correspond to equal hour 
angles. Manifestly therefore one of the chronometer times (e.g., 
the last), requires a correction equal to the hour angle correspond- 
ing to the change in true altitude, this change being the difference 
between the E. and W. refractions, and the middle chronometer 
time will require one half this correction. 

Hence we have in full (sec note at end of next problem), 

I (r e -^?; w ,)_co^ 
~ 



E being the chronometer error at time of meridian passage, a the 
star's apparent R. A., T e and T w the chronometer times of observa- 
tion, r e and r w the east and west refractions, and t one half the 
elapsed time between the observations. The above equation evi- 
dently applies even when the times have been noted by a mean 
solar chronometer, provided a be replaced by the computed mean 
time of meridian passage. 

Use an Ephemeris star and make the first set of observations as 
prescribed under " Time by Single Altitudes/' Then with the same 
sextant use the same altitudes in the second set, of course in the 
reverse order. 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 67 

From the ^preceding Equation it is seen that the actual altitudes 
are not required. Therefore unless the correction for refraction 
is to be applied, no record need be made of the sextant readings or 
errors. Also, under the same condition, the method is independent 
of errors in the assumed latitude or the star's declination. 

As before, the observations should be made as near the prime 
vertical as is consistent with avoiding irregular refraction. By 
selecting a star whose declination is but a little less than 0, it will 
be on the prime vertical near the zenith, and we can probably avoid 
tiie correction for refraction since the elapsed time will be small. 
The sextant and chronometer also will be but little liable to changes. 

If the eastern observations have been prevented by clouds or 
other cause, we may still take the western observations, and the 
eastern at the next prime vortical transit of the star; thus giving 
the chronometer error at time of star's lower meridian passage. 

2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Time-piece by Equal Alti- 
tudes of the Sun's Limb. (See Form 6.) The general principles 
involved and the methods of observation are the same as in the pre- 
ceding problem. But since the sun changes in declination between 
the times of the E. and W. observations, equal altitudes do not cor- 
respond to equal hour angles. For example, when the sun is mov- 
ing north, the morning will be less than the afternoon hour angle 
at the same altitude. Manifestly therefore the afternoon hour angle 
requires to be diminished by the change duo to the change of decli- 
nation, and the middle chronometer time by 7m// this amount, which 
is accomplished in practice by adding the correction with its sign 
changed. This correction is called the " Equation of Equal Alti- 
tudes." 

The middle chronometer time thus corrected gives the chro- 
nometer time of apparent noon. 12 h the Equation of time at 
Apparent Noon gives the mean time of apparent noon, and the dif- 
ference is the chronometer error on mean time at apparent noon. 

Hence in full 



s = 1S i . _ >* + c' + 1 ^ ~ r - ) -? a -, 

T ' 2 15 cos cos 6 sin t 



+ (A K tan + B A" tan *)"j . (80) 



68 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The last term in the bracket is the Equation of Equal Altitudes. 
For its deduction, see note at end of problem. 

A and B are taken from tables. K is the sun's hourly increase 
in declination at apparent noon, taken from the Ephemeris by inter- 
polation; d is the sun's declination at same time. 

If a sidereal chronometer had been used, the above equation 
would evidently still apply, substituting for 12 h e the sun's It. A. 
at apparent noon, and omitting G 1 ' in the parenthesis. 

For the application of this method to midnight, and effect of 
errors in data, see Note. 



>| Correction for Refraction. To deduce the correction for re- 
fraction employed in the two preceding problems, resume the dif- 
fcrential equation of the last note, 

j r COS a 7 / n \ 

dP - - - -. - da (numerically), 
cos cosd su\P x " 

which gives the change in hour angle (in arc) for a change in alti- 
tude of da. 

If the west refraction be less than the east, the sun will, in fall- 
ing, reach the altitude a too soon, and the west hour angle must be 
increased. Hence in this case the correction must be positive and 
additive, and in any case the correction with its proper sign in time 
will be obtained from the expression 

(r e jr^ cos a__ 
15 cos 0cos ~tf sintf' 

since r e r w is the change in altitude da, and tf, or one half the 
elapsed time, is practically P. 

For the middle chronometer time, we therefore have 

Cor. for Hot = I ^ "^-^ (81) 

" 15 cos cos 6 ' 



The equation reduced as in the preceding note, gives 

d P = Tf ~ rw (82) 

30 cos 0sin A' 



TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 60 

Since r r w may denote an error in altitude from any cause what- 
ever, it follows that the observations should be made near the prime 
vertical. 

Equation of Equal Altitudes. In order to deduce the Equation 
of Equal Altitudes, resume the equation 

sin a = sin sin tf + cos cos # cos P. 

Differentiate, regarding 6 and P as variable, and solving, we have 
7 D _ 8 * n cos ^ ~~ cos cos P g i n ^ 7 * 

(JL -L : ~~~ " ,~ w -- u O. 

cos cos o sm P * . 

/tan tan 



= -7>~; - 1 
\sin jP tan 

which gives the change in hour angle due to a change d d in decli- 
nation. 

Now if / denote half the elapsed time in hours, and 7f the hourly 
increase in the sun's d eel i nation at the middle instant (assumed to 
be apparent noon), wo will have 



Again assuming P to be the mean hour angle =: /, and d to be the 
declination at the middle instant (assumed to be apparent noon), we 
shall have for the change in hour angle in time due to the in- 
crease in declination 



-- 

sin / tan 



(84) 
v ' 



Since A'' denotes an increase In declination, the afternoon hour angle 
will be too large by the above quantity, and the middle chronometer 
time too large by half the same quantity. Hence in any case, the 
quantity to be added to the middle chronometer time to reduce it 
to chronometer time of apparent noon is 

K t tan K t tan d 
15 sin t 15 tan t 



70 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Making A = - j^, 5 - j^ wo have 

Eq. of Equal Altitudes = ^4 JTtan + /ftan *. (85) 

As in the preceding case, observations may be made in the 
afternoon and the following morning to obtain the chronometer 
error at midnight. Such a set may be regarded as A. M. and P. M. 
observations respectively made by a person at the other extremity 
6f the earth's diameter, and therefore in latitude 0. 

Hence for midnight the Eq. would be 

Kt tan <f> K t tan d 
T5~ sinT + ~l5~tan t * \ } 

Since t is always less than 12 h , its sine is always positive. Also 
tan t will be positive when t is less than 6 1 ', and negative when 
more. From which it is seen that we may use a single equation for 
both noon and midnight, viz. : 

A K tan + B K tan tf, 

by noting the following rule as to signs. 

For noon, A is always negative, for midnight positive. For 
noon or midnight B is positive when the elapsed time is less than 
12 h and negative when more. 

The effect of errors in and d is readily seen by a differentia- 
tion of the Equation. 



Time of Sunrise or Sunset. This problem is precisely similar to 
that of single altitudes, except that the altitude of the sun is known 
and therefore no observation is required. The zenith distance of 
the sun's center at the instant when its upper limb is on the hor- 
izon is assumed to be 90 50', which is made up of 90, plus 16' 
(the mean semi-diameter of the sun), plus 34' (the mean refraction 
at the horizon). The resulting hour angle replaces P in Form 4. 

Duration of Twilight. The zenith distance in this case is 108, 
as twilight is assumed to begin in the morning or end in the even- 



DURATION OF TWILIGHT. 71 

ing when the sun's center id 18 below the horizon. (See Art. 
130, Young.) 

From the solution of the Z P S triangle it can readily be shown 
that the time required for the sun to pass from the horizon to a 
zenith distance z is 



t = siu i= (87) 

15 f 2 cos a v ' 

in which i\> and <f>' (called the sun's parallactic angles) are the an- 
gles included between the declination and vertical circles through 
the sun's center for any zenith distance z, and for the horizon re- 
spectively, and is the observer's latitude. Making z equal to 108 
this becomes 



15 r ^ cos u 



v ' 



from which the duration of twilight for any latitude and any sea- 
son of the year can be found; the values of $ and fi' are given by 

sin sin d cos z . . 

cos ib = , v . , (89) 

r cos o sin z v ' 

and 

cos ?// 81U -^-- (90) 

' COS (} V ' 

When if} is equal to /// then t is a minimum, and we have, after 
replacing 1 cos 18 by 2 sin 8 9, 

/ = -ft sin- 1 (sin 9 sec 0), (91) 

from which the duration of the shortest twilight is found. Under 
the same condition we have from Eqs. (89) and (90), 

sin d = tan 9 sin 0; (92) 

from which the sun's declination at the time of shortest twilight at 
any latitude can be found, 



72 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



LATITUDE. 

Tho latitude of a place on the earth's surface is the declination 
of its zenith. The apparent zenith is the point in which the plumb- 
line, if produced, at the point of observation would pierce the celes- 
tial sphere. The central zenith is the point in which the radius of 
the earth, if produced, would pierce the celestial sphere. The lati- 
tude measured from the central zenith, is called the geocentric lati- 
tude, and that from the apparent zenith is called the astronomical 
latitude or simply the latitude. The difference between the lati- 
tude and the geocentric latitude is called the reduction of latitude. 

The direction of the plumb-line is affected by the local attrac- 
tion of mountain masses on the plumb-bob, or on account of tho 
unequal variations of density of the crust of the earth, at or near 
the locality of the station. The Astronomical latitude is deter- 
mined from the actual direction of the plumb-line, and therefore 
includes all abnormal deviations. Tho Geographical or Geodetic 
latitude is that which would result from considering the earth a 
perfect spheroid of revolution, without the abnormal deviations 
above referred to. 

Form and Dimensions of the Earth. Before proceeding to the 
latitude problems it is important to derive some necessary formulas 
from the form and dimensions of the earth. For this purpose, let 
us assume that the earth is an oblate spheroid aboat the polar axis. 




Fio. 17. 



Let E P' be a meridian section of the earth through the observ- 
er's place 0\ OP' the earth's axis; EQ the earth's equator aad 



LATITUDE. 73 

H H* the observer's horizon. Let P be the pole of the heavens; Z 
the apparent and Z 9 the central zenith ; the latitude and 0' the 
geocentric latitude. The equation of the observer's meridian re- 
ferred to its center and axes is 

a*y* + Vx* = <f1>\ (93) 

in which a and b are the equatorial and polar radius of the earth. 
The coordinates of being x* and y* ', we have the following ana- 
lytical conditions. 

For the tangent at 0, coincident with the horizon, from 

<fyy' + Vxx' = a*V- 9 (94) 

and the normal at 0, through the apparent zenith Z 9 from 

ay (x - x') - 6V (y - y') = 0. (95) 

J?rom Eq. (94), we have 

tan OA C = tan (90 - 0) = ^7} (90) 

whence 

i i a? / tan0 = fl i y'. (97) 

Substituting in 

aY a + &'z /2 = a'& a (98) 

and eliminating b by 



we have 

cos 



/ _ 

~ 



Vl - e' siix^' 
_ rt (1 e*)sin 



(100) 



Let s bo the length of any portion of the meridian; then for the 
elementary arc, its projection on the major axis x, is 

rfscos OA C=dssin 0= -tfz', (101) 



74 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

since x 9 is a decreasing function of the latitude. Differentiating 
the first of Eqs. (100), we have 



a ) sin 
' ----- - 

(1 - 6" Bill' 0)* 



7 f sn , 

dx' = a- ---- ' ----- -- - (102) 

- " ' * l ' 



Equating (101) and (103), we have 

ds = a -^-^ ; 1 T ~ 9 (103) 

(1 e a sm 2 0) J x ' 

and for any other latitude 0, , 

(1 < ~' c>t d (f) 
ds, a 2 ~f-^ -j . (104) 

Let d = 1, then dividing (103) by (104), we have 

ds (1 - e f siu 2 0,) 1 1 - I e 2 sin 2 0, , /lnpx 

_ = ^ _ _L^_ = ? , , ,-V nearly, (105) 

which, after solving with reference to e 2 , reduces to 

P* " ^^ t<? "~ f<? / _ /i run 

C> TT ~"i ~~~* ~>i i ~~7 ~ a j. I JLUU I 

3 5 sm ^ sm / v ' 

from which the value of the eccentricity of the meridian can be 
found when the measured lengths dx and ds, of any two portions 
of the meridian line, each 1 iu latitude, and the latitudes and 
0, of their middle points are known; for the earth, this has been 
found to be about 0.081G9G7. 

To find the equatorial sm&pohir radii, we have from Eq. (103) 
after making rf0 = 1, 

and from the property of the ellipse, 

l = aVl-f. (108) 



LATITUDE. 76 

To find the radius of curvature R at any point of the meridian. 
After substituting the values of dx, dy, and d'y, taken from Eqs. 
(100), in the general formula for radius of curvature, 



we have 

R-a If^j 3 ; (110) 

and hence the length of one degree of latitude at any latitude is, 
e _27rli_27ta 1 - 

* - "awr- ico (i i e * siu < 0)1 i m > 

To find the length of a degree on a section perpendicular to the 
, meridian at any latitude we proceed as follows: The radius p of 
the earth at the observer's place, is the minor axis, and the equa- 
torial radius a is the major axis of the elliptical section, cut out of 
the earth by a plane perpendicular to the meridian plane, passed 
through the center and the observer's place. 

Squaring and adding Eqs. (100) and extracting the square root, 
we have the radius of the earth at the observer's place; or 



= . t = 

1 e sin f 1 e" sin* v ' 

The square of the eccentricity of the section is 



a a 1 - e* sin 8 > 

which being substituted for e a in Eq. (Ill) after making = 90, 
gives 



76 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

To find the length of a degree of longitude at any latitude 0, 
we know, Eqs. (100), that the radius of the parallel is x* \ therefore 
we have 



cos 



_ ,_ 

~ 360 X ~ 360 



The value of the radius of the earth, at any latitude 0, is de- 
rived from Eq. (112) or, 



2 e * sin a + e 4 sin 8 

~ ^.. o ~. T~T "" 

1 6* sin 3 ' 

which, for logarithmic reduction, when a is made unity may be 
placed under the form 

log p = 9.9992747 + 0.0007271 cos 2 - 0.0000018 cos 4 0. (115) 
From the figure and Eqs. (100), we have 

, ,, a cos 

x = p cos = - r-_T --= 



. . ,, a (1 e a ) sin 

=. p gin 0' = ^_ - 

* ' 



Multiplying these equations by cos and sin respectively, adding 
and reducing we have 



cos (0 - 0') = ~ l/l - e 2 sin 8 0, (118) 



, , a cos 
cos $ 



and from (116), 

,. a, 

cos <b' = = t . 

a sin 8 
Whence by combination we have 



cos 0' cos (0 0') = - y cos 0; (120) 

P 



LATITUDE. 77 

and solving with reference to p we have 

/" = / 



cos 



which is capable of logarithmic computation. 

To find the reduction of latitude 0'. Since 0is the angle 
made by the normal with the axis of x we have 

dor 
tan^=-^, (122) 

and from the figure we have 

tan 0' = | (123) 

Differentiating the equation of the meridian section we have 

u V dx 

l=-*dT < 124 > 

Whence 

b* 

tan 0' = -, tan = (1 e') tan 0. (125) 

^ 

Developing into a" series, we have 

- 0' = g^i sin 2 - ^-^'sin 40 + etc. (126) 

But since e = 0.0816967 this reduces to 

0' = 690".65 sin 20- 1".16 sin 4 very nearly. (127) 

Latitude Problems. The general' problem of latitude consists 
in finding the side ZP in the ZP S triangle, any other three parts 
being given. 

Differentiating (73'), regarding first a and and next P and 
as variable, and reducing by (75) we obtain 

d = sec A d a, 
and 

d = tan A cos d P, 



78 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Whence observations for latitude should as a rule be maae upon a 
body at or near the time of its culmination. 

The following are the methods usually employed. 

1. By Circumpolars. This depends on the fact that the altitude 
of the pole is equal to the astronomical latitude of the place. Let 
a and of be the altitudes of a circumpolar star at upper and lower 
culmination "respectively, corrected for refraction and instrumental 
errors; d and d' the corresponding polar distances, and the lati- 
tude; then we have 

(/> = a-d, = ' + <?', = | (a + a') +%(d'-d). 

The change from d to d f is ordinarily so small in the interval 
(12 hours) between the observations as to be negligible; it is due 
solely to precession and nutation. This method is free from dec- 
lination errors, but subject to changes and errors in the refraction. 
It is therefore an independent method, and is the one used in fixed 
observatories where the observations can be made with great accu- 
racy even during daylight by the transit circle. With the sextant 
the method is applicable only in high latitudes during the winter 
so that both culminations occur during the night time. A star 
with a small polar distance is to be preferred, to avoid irregular re- 
fraction at the lower culmination. 

The sextant, however, is not well adapted to this method, since 
the least count of its vernier is usually 10", and at culmination 
only a single altitude can be measured, even if the instant of cul- 
mination be accurately noted by a chronometer. But if Polaris be 
the star chosen, a series of observations may be made during the 
five minutes immediately preceding and following culmination, and 
at no time during these ten minutes will the star's altitude differ 
from its meridian altitude by more than I'M. Errors within this 
limit would not be detected by even the best sextant observations, 
and the mean of tho measured altitudes will therefore be the me- 
ridian altitude with the usual precision. 

Even if a be regarded as too small when found in this manner^ 
a 9 will be too large by practically the same amount, and (a + a') 
will be correct. 

2. By Meridian Altitudes or Zenith Distances. This method de- 
pends on the fact that the astronomical latitude of a place is equal 



LATITUDE. 79 

to the declination of its zenith. If the star culminate between the 
pole and the zenith, then 



where Z^ is the meridian zenith distance of the star. If between 
the zenith and equator, then 



We have therefore only to measure z l , take d from the Ephemeris, 
and substitute in one of these equations. 

This method is a very exact one when the observations are made 
with an instrument, such as the transit circle, accurately adjusted 
to the meridian, and whose least count is small. It is subject to 
errors of both declination and refraction ; although the latter as 
well as any constant errors in the measured altitudes may be nearly 
eliminated, as is seen from the preceding equations, by combining 
the result with that from another star which culminates at about 
the same time at a nearly equal altitude on the opposite side of the 
zenith. 

For reasons stated above, the sextant is not well adapted to this 
method except at sea, where the highest accuracy is not requisite. 

3. By Circum-meridian Altitudes. If the altitude of a celestial 
body be measured within a few minutes of culmination, we may by 
noting the corresponding time very readily compute the difference 
between the measured altitude and the altitude which the body 
will have when it reaches the meridian. This difference is called 
the " Reduction to the Meridian/' and by addition to the observed 
will give the meridian altitude. If several altitudes bo measured 
and each be reduced to the meridian, we may evidently, by taking 
the mean of the results, obviate the inaccuracies incident to the 
use of the sextant in the last problem. 

These are called " Circum-meridian Altitudes," and their reduo* 
tion to the meridian is rendered very simple by the special formula 

__ cos cos d 2 sin 7 | P 

Or* tt -4- - -- - - ; - fi 

cos a, 4 sin 1" 

/cos cos 6\*. 2 sin 4 P . MOO* 

- - ------ ] tan a. : , -- J- . . . f (128) 

\ cos a t ) ' sm 1" ' >\ ' 

the deduction of which will be given hereafter. 



80 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

In this formula a is the true altitude, d the declination, and P 
the hour angle, all relating to the instant of observation; a t is the 
desired meridian altitude, and Hie second and third terms of the 
second member constitute the first two terms of the Reduction to 

o Q ; n a i /> o c^i 4 1 /-> 

the Meridian. Values of -. */ and " . */ are given in 

sin -L SHI 1 

tables with P as the argument. For small values of JP the series 
will converge rapidly, provided a t is not too large. 

Having the meridian altitude, the latitude follows as in the last 
method. 

Prom (128) it is seen that for computing a t we require (neg- 
lecting all consideration of P for the present) not only tf, but both 
a t and ; but as will appear later, approximate values will suffice. 
If an approximate value of be known, that of a t follows from 

a, = d + 90 - 0. (129) 

If not, one may be found as follows : In this method, double altitudes 
are taken in as quick succession as possible from a few minutes before 
until a few minutes sifter meridian passage. The greatest altitude 
measured will therefore, when corrected for refraction, semi-diameter, 
and parallax, be very near the meridian altitude, and its substitution 
in (129) will give a value of sufficiently accurate for the purpose. 

In order to fix upon a proper value of d to be used in (128) it 
is to be noted that if a star be the body observed, its declination is 
practically constant and may be taken at once from the Ephemeris 
for the date. In case of the sun, however, whoso declination is 
constantly varying, 6 must represent the declination at the moment 
of making the observation. But when several observations are 
taken in succession, the labor of computing a value of d for each 
may be avoided, as will be evident from an explanation of the 
manner of making the observations and reductions. 

The observations are made as just explained on a limb of the 
sun, viz. : Several double altitudes are taken as near together as 
possible, as many before, as after meridian passage, and the corre- 
sponding chronometer times noted. (Note the difference between 
this, and sextant observations for time.) 

Now if we suppose each observation to have been reduced to 
the meridian, after correcting for refraction, parallax and semi- 
diameter, we would have several equations of the form 

a, = a + Am Bn, 



LATITUDE. 81 



, . , j ,, , , , , ,2 sin 7 , 

in which m and n are the tabular values of , -1=, and - ~ ~- 5 

sm 1" sin 1" f 

aid ^4 and B the remaining factors of the corresponding terms in 
Equation (128). Any one of the equations will give for the lati- 
tude, 

= S + 90 - (a + A m -Bri). (130) 

In this equation, 6 is the declination at the time of observation, 
For, since the reduction to the meridian has been made with this 
value of d in obtaining A and B 9 a -+- A m B n is manifestly the 
meridian altitude of a body whose declination is constantly d. In 
fact, the reduction to the meridian by the formula given, can be 
computed only on the hypothesis of a constant declination. We 
are thus dealing with a fictitious sun, whose declination on the me- 
ridian differs from that of the true sun. But since declination and 
meridian altitude always preserve a constant difference (the colati- 
tude), we see that Equation (130) will give the correct value of 0, 
due to perfect balance in tho errors of 6 and (a + A in R n). 

The mean of all the equations duo to tho several observations 
will be 

= tf. + 90 - (a. + A ti m - J9 ^ ). (131) 

In this equation rf is the mean of the sun's declinatiohs at the 
times of making the observations;* and it is obvious that if this 
mean bo employed for the single computation of A and B^ , the 
error committed will be entirely negligible. We thus avoid a 
separate computation of these quantities for each observation. 

The result will moreover bo perfectly rigorous in practice if we 
use for rf the declination corresponding to the mean of the times; 
since in the 30 minutes covered by the observations the departure 
of the sun's declination from a uniform increase or decrease is 
negligible. We thus avoid the labor of computing more than a 
single value of 6. 

We have still to determine the value of P from the chronometer 
time of each observation, and in this determination it must bft 
borne in mind that P (in arc) is the angular distance of the true 
sun from the meridian at the instant of observation. 



82 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

There are two reasons why this distance (in time) cannot be 
given directly by a mean time chronometer. First, the chronom- 
eter will usually be gaining or losing, i.e., it will have a " rate." 
Secondly, a mean time chronometer, even when running without 
rate, indicates the angular motion of the mean sun, which may be 
'quite ditferent from that of the true sun, as shown by the continual 
change in the Equation of Time. 

We therefore proceed as follows: From Page I, Monthly Calen- 
dar of the Ephemeris (knowing the longitude), take out the Equa- 
tion of Time. Add this algebraically to 12 hours, apply the error 
of the chronometer, and the result will be the chronometer time 
of apparent noon. The difference between this and the chro- 
nometer time of each observation, gives the several values of P in 
time, each subject to the two corrections mentioned. To find tho 
correction for rate, let r represent the number of seconds gained or 
lost in 24 hours (a losing rate being positive for the same reason 
that an error slow is positive). Then if P' be the corrected hour 
angle, we will have 

P' : P :: 86400 : 86400 - r. [86400 = 60 X 60 X 24]. 
Or 

G400 



86400" - 



Or 

2sin a J P' 2sin' 



~~ 



_ _ ____ _ 

sin 1" ~~ sin L" \86400 - r ~~ siri 1" 

Hence we will also have 

A t j. . i \ 7 cos cos 8 2 sin 3 \ P 

A m (corrected for rate) = k - - ------- . - , ,7- <> 

v ' cos a t sin I" 

Hence if we compute A by the formula 



cos cos 



LATITUDE. 83 

we may employ the actual chronometer intervals and pay no fur* 
ther attention to the question of rate. 

From k = ( -- ..... ] , values of k are tabulated with the rate 

\ob40U /*/ 

as the argument. 

The second correction depends, as just stated, on the difference 
between the motions of the true and mean sun, while the former is 
passing from the point of observation to the meridian. In other 
words it depends on the change in the Equation of Timn in the 
same interval, or, which is the same thing, upon the rate (f an ac- 
curate mean solar chronometer on apparent time. 

If therefore wo let e represent the change in the Equ ition of 
Time for 24 hours (positive when the Equation of Time ic increas* 
ing algebraically), it is evident that r e will be tin rat) of the 
given chronometer on apparent time, and that the correction for 
this total rate may be computed as just explained for r, or taken 
from the same table, using r e as the argument instead of r alone. 

The operation of reducing the observations is then, in )rief, as 
follows. 

By CfMiim-HferMitni Altitudes of the Nun's Limb. Fo*n 7. 

Correct the mean of the double altitudes for eccentricity and in- 
dex error. Correct the resulting mean single altitude for refraction, 
semi-diameter, and parallax in altitude. Denote the result by a . 

From the Equation of Time (Page T, Monthly Calendar), longi- 
tude and chronometer error, find the chronometer time of apparent 
noon. 

Take the difference between this and each chronometer time < 
observation, denote the difference by F 9 and their mean by />,,. 

With each value of J', take from tables the corresponding 
values of m and n. Denote their respective means by m and n . 

From Page II, Monthly Calendar, take the sun's declination 
corresponding to the local apparent time P , and denote it by tf . 

If can bo assumed with considerable accuracy, determine the 
corresponding a t by a t 6\ -f 90 0. 

If not, take the greatest measured altitude, correct it for refrac- 
tion, etc., call it a t , and deduce from the above equation. 

From the rate of the chronometer and change in Equation of 
Time, (both for 24 hours,) take k from the table. 



84 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

With these values of /, 0, a t , and tf , compute 

A COS COS tf 7 , TJ ... 

-4 = . 2 i, and JJ 9 = J a tan a., 
cos , to/ 

The latitude then follows from 

= 6 + 90 - (<r. + Ajm. - ..). (132) 

By Circitrnr Meridian altitudes of a Star. Form 8. 

With a star observed with a sidereal chronometer, the observa- 
tions are the same, and the reduction is only modified by the fact 
that parallax, semi-diameter, equation of time and longitude do not 
enter, while the declination is constant. 

If the star lie between the zenith and pole, the formula becomes 

= (a g + A m. - Z? n ) - 90 + tf . (133) 

If below the pole, 

= (a. - Ajm. - B n ) + 90 - S . (134) 

1. An Ephemeris star is to be preferred to the sun, since the 
reduction is more simple, its declination is better known and con- 
stant, it presents itself as a point, which is of advantage in sextant 
observations, and we have a greater choice both in time and the 
place of the object to be observed. 

2. By comparing Eqs. (132) and (133) we see that constant 
errors in the measured altitudes, and in refraction, will be nearly 
eliminated by combining the results of two stars, one as much 
north as the other is south, of the zenith. 

Also from the principal term of the Keduction to the Meridian, 

cos cos S 2 sin a 4 P ., . ., , xl ... . . , 

- -- - . : -,7 , it is seen that the effect of an imperfect 
cos a t sin 1" r 

knowledge of the chronometer error, giving an incorrect valuB of 
P may be eliminated by taking another observation at about an 
equal altitude on the other side of the meridian ; since, P being 
very small, sin a \ P will be as much too large in one case as it will 
be too small in the other. 



LATITUDE. 85 

The double altitudes should therefore be taken at as nearly 
equal intervals of time and be as symmetrically arranged with refer- 
ence to the meridian, as practicable. 

3. By rewriting the assumed formula for the reduction, ex 
pressing the firstrierm as a function of and d only, and including 
the third term which has heretofore been omitted, we have (Form- 
ula 2, P. 4, Book of Formulas), 



and 



_ 1 . m ___ tan a < , t(l + 3tan'g,) 

tan tan 6 (tan tan d) 2 * (tan tan tf ) 8 ' 



. AM _ _ . 



tan a t , f (1 + 3 tan 9 , 

__ i _ A I _ f i_\ _ ' _ / 

~~ 



_ _ . _ _ . __ _ _ _ _ _ Q 

. tan tf - tan (tan 3 - tan 0) a ~*~ (tan tf - tan 0)" 
for south and north stars respectively. 



_L sil lHj? _2sin 4 P __ 2 sin 6 J P"| 
"" sinl' 7 ' n "'Bin"l / ^ f 5 ^ sinl" J* 



From these equations it is seen that if a star be selected which 
culminates at a considerable distance from the zenith, either north 
or south 9 the first factor of each term of this development is much 
smaller than in case of a star culminating near the zenith, either 
north or south. 

Since the third term has been entirely neglected in the previous 
discussion, it becomes desirable to select our star in such a manner 
that the omitted term (and hence all following it) shall be small; 
and this, as just seen, will occur when there is considerable differ- 
ence between the latitude and the star's declination in either direc- 
tion. It is also seen that an unfavorable position of the star near 
the zenith causing the first factor to be excessive may be counter- 
balanced by diminishing the hour angle P. 

From the above expression for the third term, knowing the ap- 
proximate latitude, we may readily find the hour angle of any given 
star, within which if the observation be confined, the value of the 



86 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

term will not exceed any desired limit say 0".01 or 1". Similarly 
for the second term. We thus ascertain how long before culmina- 
tion the observations may safely be begun when it is proposed to 
omit one or both terms in the reduction. 

For example in latitude 40 K, if we observe a star at declina- 
tion 0. the observation may be made at 20 ra from meridian passage 
and yet the third term amount only to .01", which would affect the 
resulting latitude by one linear foot. Or it may be made at 27 m 
from culmination, and the third term amount only to .1", affecting 
the resulting latitude by ten feet. 

A star at an equal altitude north of the zenith, declination 80 
(for combination with the preceding as recommended), may be 
observed at 48 and 02 minutes from culmination, with no larger 
errors. 

With other latitudes the figures will vary, but the principle re- 
mains the same. 

Hence the general rule : Select a star whose declination differs 
considerably from the latitude. This will give ample time for tak- 
ing a series of altitudes. As the declination of the selected star 
approaches the latitude, restrict the observations to a shorter time, 
greater care in this respect being necessary for south stars. Ar- 
range the observations as symmetrically with reference to the me- 
ridian as practicable, and use at least two stars on opposite sides 
of the zenith. 

4. Finally, if a mean solar chronometer be used with a star, the 

corrected m. s. intervals defined by the equation P 9 = P , . 

must evidently be reduced to sidereal intervals by multiplying by 
1.00272791 heretofore deduced. That is 



and the factor for rate will be k (1.0027379 1) 8 instead of L 

Similarly if a sidereal chronometer be used with the sun, iAe 
factor for rate will be k (0.99726957)' instead of k. 




LATITUDE. 87 

5. To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian. The difference 
between a circum-meridian and the meridian altitude of a body is 
called the " Reduction to the Meridian/' 

Its nature will be understood from Figure 18. 8 is the place 
of the star; S' the point where it 
crosses the meridian, (P # = P /S") ; 
and SS" the arc of a small circle 
of which Z, the zenith, is the pole, 
(Z 8" = Z 8). Z S' will therefore 
be the meridian zenith distance 
= Zf = 90-fl,; ZSorZS" will 
be the circum-meridian zenith dis- Fia 18> 

tance = z 90 a\ and if x denote the Reduction to the Meri- 
dian = S' $", we shall have 

a t a + x. (a) 

The several terms of Equation (128) after a therefore represent 
&; and it is required to deduce this value of x arranged, as is seen, 
ill a scries according to the ascending powers of sin 8 \ P, 

The equation heretofore deduced, viz. : 

cos z sin sin d + cos cos d 2 cos cos d sin a P, 

gives by reduction (since sin sin 6 + cos 0cos d =cos (0 d) 
= cos z t ), 

cos z t cos z 2 cos cos 6 sin 3 \ P = 0. ( J) 

Putting for convenience 2 cos cos $ = m, and sin* P = y, 
we have 

cos z t cos z m y = 0. (J') 

We also have 

a; = a, a, or 2 = x + z/ , (0) 

cos z cos # cos 2, sin z sin z t . 
Hence from (&') 

cos % t cos a: cos z t + sin 2; sin z t m y = 0. (d) 

Now let 

(e) 



88 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

be the undetermined development desired. From the relation ex- 
pressed by (d), we are to determine such constant values of A, B, 
and G y as will make the series, when convergent, true for all values 
of y. Therefore let the values of cos x and sin x derived from (e) 
be substituted in (d). The resulting equation will, from the con- 
dition imposed on (e), be an identical equation. 

To find cos x and sin x for this substitution, we have from cal- 
culus, 

# a 
cos x = 1 -)- etc., 



x 
sin x = x + etc., 

and from (0), 

cos x = 1 - (AY + 2AJ3y' + etc.), 

sin x = A y + B if + Cy* - -J- AY - etc. 
Substituting in (d), 

cos z t cos z t + A* cos 2, y 2 + ^ 5 cos z t y 3 -f sin 2, A y 
+ sin z,By*-\- sin z, G Y # 3 sin z t A*y* m y = 0. 



Collecting the terms, 

A i A* ( A B cos z 

sin z.A ) , ( 4./1 cos z. ) 

* \ nl j , 1 * * f /i/- 1 



- , 

OS Z. ) , \ . . ' I 3 

f- y + { + sm z i Q c y = ' 

m^. \ J ' / ' . ' I3 I J 
' J -J- sm ^ -4 1 ; 



From the principles of identical equations 

A f\ 4 % 

sm z, A m = 0. A = - - 
sin % t 

\ m? cos z t . T> 1 m a cot . 

~ . J -f ^ sin z. 0. 7^ = r-a ^ 

2 sin 3 z, ' ' 2 sin' ^ 

1 m* cot" s 1 w 1 . n n 1 m 3 ^ . , 2 v 
^r- r~- a ^ + TT , sm ^. = 0. (7 ~ - -. = (1 + 3 cot" 2;,). 

2 sm a z t 6 sin 8 ^ ' 6 sin 8 z / /; 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 89 

Therefore 

cos cos d n . , 1 /cos cos d \* _ . . 1 _ 

x = 2 sm a -P I tan a, 2 sin 4 -P 

cos a t 2 \ cos a t I ' 2 

. 2 /COS COS <T\ 3 , , , x e , r, 

j. I J (1 + 3 tan 2 a.) 2 sin 6 ^ P. 

' 3 \ cos a 4 I N 

Reducing the terms of the series from radians to seconds of arc, 
we have for the value of a t , 

_ cos cos tf 2 sin a |- P /cos cos tf\ 8 , 2 sin 4 I P 

tt * tt ~T" --- , .. ~~~ i j i)an ctj i . . 

' cos a, sm 1 " \ cos a, I ' sm 1" 

1 /cos cos 8 y /t , t __, , sin' ^ P _^ 



o /. i/ 

3 \ cos a i I v ' y sm 1 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 

This instrument, being employed in the next latitude problem, 
will now be briefly described, and the manner of determining its 
constants explained. Its use, as will be seen, is limited to field 
work, and it therefore forms no essential part of the equipment of 
a permanent observatory. 

The instrument consists of a telescope like that of the transit, 
mounted at one end of a horizontal axis, counterpoised by a weight 
at the other. The telescope turns freely in altitude about this axis, 
which is in turn supported by a conical vertical column rising from 
the centre of a horizontal graduated circle, the circle resting on a 
small frame consisting of three legs whose feet are levelling screws. 

The horizontal axis with the telescope attached turns freely in 
azimuth about the vertical column, the amount of such motion 
being indicated by a vernier sweeping over the horizontal circle. 
By this motion the instrument is placed in tbe meridian. 

The setting circle is similar to the one described in connection 
with the transit. It is rigidly attached to the body of the telescope, 
and reads to single minutes of zenith distance. The attached level, 
connected with the movable vernier arm of the setting circle, being 
intended to measure as well as to indicate differences of inclina- 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 







THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 



91 




tion, is of considerable delicacy. The instrument is provided with 
ekmp and tangent screws for both motions, also the usual adjusting 
screws. 

The field of view presents the appearance shown in Figure 20; 
sometimes however the number of 
vertical wires is increased so that 
the instrument may if necessary be 
used as a transit. The wires are 
all fixed except i k, which can be 
moved up or down parallel to it- 
self, and is called the declination 
micrometer wire. The comb-scale 
f g is so cut that one turn of the 
micrometer head carries the wire 
i k exactly from one tooth to the 
next, thus recording the number 
of whole revolutions between two 
positions of the wire. Hundred ths of a revolution are shown on the 
micromotor head by a fixed index. These are called divisions. 
(Arrangements for illuminating the wires arc the same as with the 
transit.) 

Therefore it is seen that if, when the instrument is adjusted to 
the meridian, two stars cross the middle wire at different times and 
in different places, but yet -within the same field of view, we may 
find the difference of their meridian zenith distances by bisecting 
each in succession by the Movable- at the instant of its passing the 
Middle wire, noting the difference of micrometer readings, and 
multiplying the result by the value in arc of one division of the 
micrometer head : or if the attached level shows the telescope to 
have altered its angle of elevation between the observations, thus 
apparently displacing the second star in the field of view, we may 
still correct the micrometer reading provided we know the value in 
arc of one division of the level. 

It is therefore necessary to determine for each instrument these 
two constants. 

The Attached Level and Declination Micrometer of the Zenith 
Telescope. Since the level is neither detached, nor attached to a 
circle reading to seconds, neither of the modes of finding the level 
constant given in connection with the transit, is available. The 



92 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

same is true of the micrometer constant, since the micrometer wire 
is now parallel, not perpendicular, to the apparent path of a star at 
its meridian passage. With the zenith telescope the usual method 
of finding these two constants is to find the value of a division of 
the level in terms of a revolution of the 'micrometer head. Then 
after finding the latter (which involves the former) we may find 
the actual value of a division of the level in seconds of arc, as will 
now be explained. The formulas come at once from the astronom- 
ical triangle, remembering that ,c the time of a star's elongation 
the triangle is right-angled : (*/> = 90). 

Direct the telescope to a small, well-defined, distant, terrestrial 
object, and set the level so that the two ends of the bubble will give 
different readings. Bisect the object with the micrometer wire, 
note the reading, also that of each end of the bubble. Move the 
telescope and level together by the tangent screw until the bubble 
plays near the other end of the tube. Again bisect the mark by the 
micrometer wire and note all three readings as before. The mean 
of the number of divisions passed over by the two ends of the bub- 
ble is then the number of divisions passed over by the bubble. The 
difference of the micrometer readings is the run of the micrometer. 
Dividing the second by the first, we have the value of a division of 
the level in terms of a revolution of the micrometer. Take a mean 
of several determinations and denote it by d. 

We can now find the value of one division of the micrometer; 
For reasons stated when treating of the K. A. micrometer, we use a 
circumpolar star, and at the instant that its path is perpendicular 
to the wire in question. This requires us to take the star at its 
elongation. Manifestly the same principles apply to the two cases, 
since the principal difference is that the star and wire have each 
been apparently shifted 90; the motion of the star with reference 
to the wire not having changed. Some changes in detail are how- 
ever necessary. In the first place, since the motion of the star is 
almost wholly in altitude, we cannot as before neglect differences in 
refraction between two transits. Again, since the pressure of the 
hand in working the micrometer head is in a direction to cause a 
possible disturbance of the instrument even though firmly clamped, 
we must read the level at every transit, and if any change has oc- 
curred, correct the micrometer readings accordingly. 

As a preliminary, we must determine the time of elongation 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 93 

(in order to know when to begin our observations), and the setting 
of the instrument, i.e., the azimuth and zenith distance of the star 
at the time of elongation. The hour angle is found from 

cos P = cot d tan 0, 
from which the sidereal time of elongation is given by 

T = aP Q -E, (135) 

in which is the star's apparent R. A. for the instant, arid E is the 
error of the chronometer. The plus sign is used for western and 
the minus for eastern elongations. 
The azimuth is given by 



A> ( 13G ) 

COS v ' 

and the zenith distance by 

sin \p . orv\ 

cos z . ? . (137) 

sin 6 x J 

Set the instrument in accordance with these coordinates 20 or 
30 minutes before the time of elongation, and as soon as the star 
enters the field, shift the telescope if necessary so that it will pass 
nearly through the center. 

The observations are now conducted in exactly the same man- 
ner as for the K. A. micrometer, with the addition that each end of 
the level bubble is read in connection with each transit. 

Then, as before, each observation is compared with the one 
made nearest the time of elongation, T , the interval of time 
being computed from either 

sin i = sin /cos 6, (137J) 

or 

i = /cos d, 

according to the declination of the star. After which we have in 
arc (neglecting for the present differences of refraction and level), 



94 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

M being the number of micrometer revolutions or divisions be- 
tween the two positions of the star, and R f the value of one revolu- 
tion or division. 

But if the reading of the level is different at the two observa- 
tions, manifestly M must be corrected accordingly. 

For instance, if the level shows that between the two observa- 
tions the telescope had moved with the stcr in its diurnal path, 
then evidently the micrometer will indicate only a part of the 
angular distance between the two positions qf the star, and the 
level correction must be added to the micrometer interval. Con- 
versely, if the telescope has moved against the motion of the star. 
This level correction is found as follows : if d is the value of one 
division of the level in terms of a revolution of the micrometer, 
and L the number of divisions which the level has shifted, then 
Ld will be the value (in micrometer revolutions) of the correction 
to bo applied to M. The method of finding d has already been 
explained. 

Hence the value of R' becomes, 



" ~ M Ld' 

Since, however, refraction affects the two positions of the star un- 
equally, it is seen that M L d is only the difference of apparent* 
zenith distances (i.e., the instrumental difference), while 15 i being 
derived directly from the time interval, is the difference of trice 
zenith distances. If therefore 15 / be corrected by the difference 
of refraction, the numerator Will denote the difference of apparent 
zenith distance in arc, and the denominator this same difference in 
micrometer revolutions. 

Denote by A r the difference of refraction in seconds for 1' of 
zenith distance at 2 ; then for 15 i" it may be taken as -fa 15 id r, 
which is the desired correction. The above formula therefore be- 
comes, denoting the true value of a revolution by R 9 



- = ^_ 

M L d 60 v ' 

A r is taken from refraction tables. 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 95 

The adopted value of R should be a mean of the results from 
all the observatipns. 

Having now found R, the value in arc of one division of the 
level is evidently 

D = R d, (139) 

since d is the value in micrometer revolutions. Both constants are 
therefore determined. 

One of the most convenient and accurate modes of employing 
formula (138) in practice, is as follows : Suppose the star to be 
approaching eastern elongation, and the micrometer readings to 
increase as the zenith distance decreases. Let Z Q , M Q , and L be 
the zenith distance, micrometer, and level readings at elongation 
(all unknown), and Z', M', and L' the corresponding quantities at 
the time of any one of the recorded transits. Then remembering 
that in (138), 15 i is the true difference of zenith distance! 
= Z' Z , M= M Q M', L = L Q L' 9 and reserving the correc^ 
tion for refraction to be applied finally, we have 



Z'-Z Q = (M - J/') R + ( L Q - //) R d. 
Similarly for another transit, 

Z" -Z Q = (M Q - J/") R + (L. - Z") R d., 

Subtracting and solving, 



^ } 



Then Z Z Q having been computed for each transit by 
these differences may be taken by pairs for substitution in (140), in 
any manner desired. For example, if forty transits have been re- 
corded, it is usual to pair the first difference with the twenty-first, 
the second with the twenty-second, etc., when if the successive 
micrometer readings have been equidistant, the divisors will be 
equal, save for the slight level correction. We thus obtain twenty 
determinations of R, the mean of which should be corrected for 

/? A T 

refraction as shown in (138), viz.: by subtracting . 



96 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The preceding method of finding these two constants of the 
zenith telescope is regarded as the best; but provision is made in 
the construction of the instrument for turning the box containing 
the wire frame thlcugh an angle of 90. AVhen this is done, the 
declination micrometer becomes virtually a K. A. micrometer, and 
the value of a revolution may be found as described for that mi- 
crometer, and then the. box revolved back to its proper place and 
clamped. In this case however the result must be in arc. The 
level constant must be found as just described. 

4. Latitude by Opposite and nearly equal Meridian Zenith Dis- 
tances. Talcott's Method. See Form 9. 

This method depends upon the principle that the astronomical 
latitude of a place is equal to the declination of the zenith. 

Let z n and z g represent the observed meridian zenith distances 
of two stars, the first north and the second south of the zenith ; 
r n arid r s the corresponding refractions; and $ n and d a their ap- 
parent declinations. Then, denoting the latitude, 

0=*. + *. + r., (141) 

= #n - *n - r n . (142) 

From which 

%a %n , ^n ^n /- A v\ 

+-- +~- (U3) - 



Since refraction is a direct function of the zenith distance, this 
equation shows that any constant error in the adopted refraction 
will bo nearly or wholly eliminated if we select two stars which 
culminate at very nearly the same zenith distance, and provided 
also that the time between their meridian transits is so short that 
the refractive power of the atmosphere cannot be changed appre- 
ciably in the mean time. 

Again, since absolute zenith distances are not required, but only 
their difference, if the stars are so nearly equal in altitude that a 
telescope directed at one, will, upon being turned around a vertical 
axis 180 in azimuth, present the other in its field of view, then 
manifestly the difference of their zenith distances may be measured 
directly by the declination micrometer, and the use of a graduated 
circle (with its errors of graduation, eccentricity, etc.) be entirely 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 97 

dispensed with, except for the purpose of a rough finder. The in- 
strument used in this connection is called a u Zenith Telescope." 
Its construction, and application to the end in view, are best learned 
from an examination of the instrument itself. 

Again, since errors in the decimations will affect the resulting 
latitude directly, we should be very careful to employ only the ap- 
parent declinations for the date. 

The following conditions should therefore be fulfilled in select- 
ing the stars of a pair : 

1st. They should culminate not more than 20, or at most 25, 
from the zenith. 

2d. They should not differ in zenith distance by more than 
15', and for very accurate work, by not more than 10'. The field 
of view of the telescope is about 30'. The limit assigned prevents 
observations too near the edge of the field, and lessens the effect of 
an error in the adopted value of a turn of the micrometer head. 
This limit also requires a very approximate knowledge of the lati- 
tude, which may be found with the sextant, or by measuring the 
meridian zenith distance of a star by the zenith telescope itself. 

3d. They should differ in K. A. by not less than one minute 
of time, to allow for reading the level and micrometer, and by not 
more than fifteen or twenty minutes, to avoid changes in either the 
instrument or the atmosphere. 

Since the Ephemoris stars, whose apparent declinations are 
given with great accuracy for every ten days, are comparatively few 
in number, it becomes necessary, in order to fulfil the above con- 
ditions, to resort to the more extended star catalogues. 

But since in these works only the stars' wean places are given, 
and those for the epoch of the catalogue (which fact involves re- 
duction to apparent places for the date), and moreover since these 
mean places have often been inexactly determined, it becomes de- 
sirable to rest our determination of latitude on the observation of 
more than one pair. For example, on the " Wheeler Survey," west 
of the 100th meridian, the latitude of a primary station was re- 
quired to be determined by not less than 35 separate and distinct 
pairs of stars, these observations being distributed over five nights. 
Preliminary Computations. We should therefore form a list of 
all stars not less than 7th magnitude which culminate not more 
than 25 from the zenith and within the limits of time over which 



98 PRACTICAL AST110NOMY. 

we propose to extend our observations, arrange them in the ordei 
of the.r R. A., and from this list select our pairs in accordance 
with the above conditions, taking care that the time between the 
pairs is sufficient to permit the reading of the level and micrometer, 
and setting the instrument for the next pair; say at least two 
minutes. 

A " Programme " must then be prepared for use at the instru- 
ment, containing the stars arranged in pairs, with the designation 
and magnitude of each for recognition when more than one star is 
in the field; their R. A., to know when to make ready for the 
observation; their declinations, from which are computed their 
approximate zenith distances; a statement whether the star is to bo 
found north or south of the zenith, and finally the " sotting " of the 
instrument for the pair, which is always the mean of the two 
zenith distances. 

The declinations here used, being simply for the purpose of so 
pointing the instrument that the star shall appear in the field, 
may be mean declinations for the beginning of the year, which are 
found with facility as hereafter indicated. Similarly for the R. A. 
For this Programme, see Form 9. 

Adjustment of Instrument. The Instrument must next be pre- 
pared for use. The column is made vertical by the levelling 
screws, and the adjustment tested by noting whether the striding 
level placed on the horizontal axis will preserve its reading during 
a revolution of the instrument 3f>() in azimuth. The horizon tality 
of the latter axis is secured by its own adjusting screws, and tested 
by the level in the usual way. The focus and vertically of the 
wires are adjusted as explained for the transit. The collimation 
error should, as far as is mechanically possible, be reduced to zero. 
This may be accomplished (fjtprosiiHft/elt/ by the ordinary reversals 
upon a terrestrial point distant not less tlv.m 5 or G miles (to 
reduce the parallax caused by the distance of the telescope from 
the vertical column); or very perfectly by two collimating tele- 
scopes, as explained for the transit. The instrument is adjusted to 
the meridian as explained for the transit. Whei* this is perfected, 
one of the movable stops on the horizontal circle is moved up against 
one side of the clamp which controls the motion in azimuth, and there 
fixed by its own clamp-screw. The telescope is then turned 180 
around the vertical column and again adjusted to the meridian by 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 99 

a circum-polar star; the other stop is then placed against the other 
side of the clamp, and fixed. The instrument can now be turned 
exactly 180 in azimuth, bringing up against the stops when in the 
meridian. 

Observations. The circle being set to the mean of the zenith 
distances of the two stars of a pair, the bubble of the attached level 
is brought as nearly as possible to the middle of its tube, and when 
the first star of the pair arrives on the middle transit wire (the in- 
strument being in the meridian) it is bisected by the declination mi- 
crometer wire, tho sidereal time noted, and the micrometer and level 
read. The telescope is then turned 180 in azimuth, the clamp 
bringing up against its stop. The same observations and records 
are now made for the second star. The instrument is then reset for 
the next pair, and so on. * The time record is not necessary unless 
it be found that the instrument has departed from the meridian, or 
unless observation on the middle wire has been prevented by 
clouds, and it becomes desirable to observe on a side wire rather 
than lose the star. In these cases the hour angle is necessary to 
obtain the "reduction to the meridian/' 

The observations are recorded on Form 9 a. In the column of 
remarks should be noted any failure to observe on middle wire, 
weather, and any circumstance which might affect the reliability of 
the observations. 

Reduction of Observations. By referring to Eq. (143) the gen- 
eral nature of the reduction will be evident. The principal term 
in the value of is d n -f 8 8 , which, as before stated, must be found 
for the date. Since z s z n has been measured entirely by the mi- 
crometer and level, this term involves two corrections to 8 n + d t ; 
r a r n involves another, and the very exceptional case of observa- 
tion on a side wire involves another. 

1st. The reduction from mean declination of the epoch of the 
catalogue to apparent declination of the date. Let us take the 
case of the B. A. C. (British Association Catalogue). 

The star's mean place is first brought up to the beginning of 
the current year*by the formula 



100 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

In which d" = mean north polar distance as giren in catalogue, 
p' = annual precession in N. P. distance, s' = secular variation in 
same, /*' = annual propdr motion in N. P. distance (all given in 
catalogue for each star), y = number of years from epoch of c&ta- 
logue to beginning of current year, and d' n = the mean N. P. dis- 
tance at the latter instant. To this, the corrections for precession, 
proper motion, nutation, and aberration, since the beginning of the 
year, are applied by the formula 

d = d'" + TV' + Ac' + Bd' + Ca' - DV, 

in which r = fractional part of year already elapsM at date, given 
011 pp. 285-292, Epliemeris; A, B, G, D, are the Besselian Star 
Numbers, given on pp. 281-284 Ephomcris for each day; ', //, c', 
d', are star constants, whose logarithms are given in the catalogue; 
and d = star's apparent N. P. distance at date. Then d = 00 d. 

The quantities a', b', c' 9 d' 9 are not strictly constant; indeed 
many of their values have changed perceptibly since 1850, the 
epoch of B. A. 0. If it be desired to obviate this slight error, it 
may be done by recomputing them by formulas derived from 
Physical Astronomy, or, in part, by using a later catalogue. In 
this connection a work prepared under the "Wheeler Survey/' 
entitled "Catalogue of Mean Declinations of 2018 Stars, Jan. 1, 
1875," will be found most convenient, embracing stars between 10 
and 70 N". Dec., and therefore applicable to the whole area of the 
IT. S. exclusive of Alaska. 

With this catalogue, the reductions are made directly in decli- 
nation, not N". P. distance, and by -the formulas, 



d=d' + rp' + Aa' + BV + Gc' + Dd', 

in which everything relates to declination. 

Exactly analogous formulas hold for reduction in "R. A. 

ft. [^ R 

2d. The micrometer and level corrections to J! ~ -, 



vz. 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 101 

Let us suppose that, with the telescope set at a given inclina- 
tion, the micrometer readings are greater as the body viewed is 
nearer the zenith ; and in the first instance, that the inclination as 
shown by the attached level is not changed when the instrument is 
turned 180 in azimuth. 

Then ~~r^- will be given wholly by the micrometer, and be 

/v 

. , m s m n m n m a . , . n 
either * R, or - R, in which w a and m* are the mi- 

^ /w 

crometer readings on the south and north stars respectively, and R 
the value in arc of a division of the micrometer head. Since the 
readings increase as the zenith distance decreases, it is manifest 

vtii tn 
that - 4 - " R is the one of the two expressions which will repre- 

iy _ ty 

sent -* - with its proper sign. 

But as a rule the upright column will not be truly vertical, and 
therefore the inclination of the optical axis of the telescope will 
change slightly due to the necessary revolution between the obser- 
vations of the stars of a pair, the fact being indicated by a different 
reading of the level. In this case, the difference of micrometer read- 
ings will not be strictly the difference of zenith distance as before, 
but will be that difference the amount the telescope has moved. 
The micrometer readings therefore require correction before they 

z z 
can give -,* -. Since it is immaterial which star of the pair is 

/v 

observed first, let us suppose it to be the southern, and let l n arid l t 

be the readings of the ends of the bubble. Then - will be the 

& 

reading of the level, it being graduated from the center toward 
each end. Now if, on turning to the north, the level shows that 
the angle of elevation of the telescope has increased, the microme- 
ter reading on the northern star will be too small, by just the 
amount corresponding to the motion of the telescope in altitude; 
and this whether the star be higher or lower than the southern 
star. Consequently m n must be increased to compensate* If V n 
and V 9 be the reading of the present north and south ends of the 



102 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

V V 
bubble, then the bubble reading will be -2= * , the change of 

A 

level, in level divisions, will be 

+ , and in arc + ^ ~ <* + ** D. 



Since, upon turning to the north, the angle of elevation of the tele- 
scope was supposed to increase,.this quantity is positive; and being 
the angular change of elevation, it is the correction to be applied 
to m n . 

If the telescope diminished its elevation on being turned to the 
north, it would be necessary to diminish m n by the same amount. 
But in this case the above correction is obviously negative, and the 
result will be obtained by still adding it algebraically. 

The correction to--- will be half the above amount; hence in 

fy 

all cases we have the rule. Subtract the sum of the south readings 
from the sum of the north. One-fourth the difference multiplied 
by the value of oce division of the level, will be the level correction. 
The true difference of observed zenith distances of the two stars, 
is therefore 

p ffl-*. , (In + I'n) - fc+A) n 
K - 5 -- 1 -- ---- V. 



"- 

3d. The correction for refraction, or - 2 -- - w . Since the stars 

/& 

are at so small and so nearly equal zenith distances, differences of 
actual refractions will be practically equal to differences of mean 
refractions (Bar. 30 in., F. 50), which latter may therefore be substi- 

dr 

tuted for r a r n . If -r denote the change in mean refraction for a 
az 

difference of 1' in zenith distance, then for z a z n (expressed in 

z ~ z dr 
seconds) it will t )e ~-j^r jl y ^ ence we ma y 



r 9 -r n _ z a - z n dr^ 
2 ~* 60 dn 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 



103 



To determine -,-, we have for the equation of mean refraction 

dz l 

Young, p. 64), 
Differentiating, 



r = a tan z. 



dr , . .. ,v tf sin 1' 
-T- (for 1') = - t , 
^ v ' cos 8 z 

a being taken from refraction tables, and z representing the mean 
of the zenith distances of the pair. The following table of values 

:)f - is given, in which we may interpolate at pleasure. 
dz 



z 


dr 
dz 





0.0168" 


5 


0.0160" 


10 


0.0173" 


15 


0.0180" 


20 


0.0190" 


25 


0.0205" 



z* z. 



The principal term in --, - is - - R. Hence we may write 



m n 
r 6(T 



* dr 

'~dz' 



and the correction for refraction will have the same sign as the 
micrometer correction. 

Hence the rule: Multiply the micrometer correction in minutes 

dr 

by the tabular value of -y , and add the result algebraically to tho 
u/z 

other corrections. 

4th. The correction to the zenith distance when the observation 
has not been made in the meridian; i.e., when not made on the 
middle vertical wire. 

This will be an exceptional correction, but one which must oc- 
casionally be made. 



104 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

If a piano bo passed through the middle horizontal wire and the 
optical centre of the objective, it will cut from the celestial sphere 
a great circle; and the zenith distance of a star anywhere on this 
circle will, as measured by this fixed position of the instrument, be 
the inclination of the plane to the vertical. 

Therefore, if the zenith distance of a star between the zenith 
and equinoctial le measured ly an instrument which moves only 
in the meridian 9 i& will have its greatest value when on the me- 
ridian. For a star which crosses any other part of the meridian, 
the ordinary rule as to relative magnitude applies. 

But whatever the position of the star, the numerical value of 
this " reduction to the meridian," due to an observation on a side 
wire, is different from that heretofore discussed, where the instru- 
ment was in the vertical plane of the star; being in this case 
J (15 P)* sin 1" sin 2 tf ; P being the hour angle. For the deduc- 
tion of this expression, see *%* following. For a star below the equi- 
noctial or below the pole sin 2 6 would be negative; hence from the 
rule as to relative magnitudes above given, it is seen that if in using 
the zenith telescope, a star south of the zenith be observed on a side 
wire, the above correction must be added algebraically to the ob- 
served to obtain the meridian zenith distance; and north of the 
zenith it must be subtracted algebraically. 

By inspecting the term** ~* n , we see that in any case one half 
this reduction, or 

i (15 PY sin 1" sin 2 S = [6.1347] P a sin 2 tf, 

is to be added to the deduced latitude, or to the sum of the other 
corrections in order to obtain the latitude. The hour angle P in 
seconds of time is known from P = t -f- E a, t being the chro- 
nometer time of observation, E the error, and a the star's K. A. 
We therefore have the following complete formula for the latitude 



| R -* , D . -. 

22 4 

(144) 

^ + [6-1347] f sin 2 tf. + [6.1347] P" sin 2 *. 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 106 

For the reduction see Form 9. The results of all the pairs may 
be discussed by Least Squares. 

This method, although extremely simple in theory, involves 
considerable labor. It has however been employed almost exclus- 
ively on the Coast and other important Government surveys, with 
results which compare favorably with those obtained by the first- 
class instruments of a fixed observatory. 




| To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian for an Instru- 
ment in the Meridian. Let S Fig. 21 be the place of the star when 
on a side wire. Then CSS" will be 
the projection of the great circle cut 
from the celestial sphere by the plane 
of the middle horizontal wire and the 
optical center of the objective, Z S" 
will be the recorded zenith distance 
= z'. Let 8 S' be an arc of the star's 
diurnal path, preserving always the Fia 21 

same distance from the equator. 

Then Z S' will be tho true meridian zenith distance = z, , and 
E S' = d. Represent E S" by d'. 

The Reduction to the Meridian, 8' S", being denoted by x, we 
have 

z,=z' + x, and tf = 3' - x. ' (a) 

Let it now be required to develop x into a series arranged according 
to the ascending powers of sin 9 P, as before. 
The triangle PSS", right angled at S", gives 

tan 6 = cos P tan <*' = tan 6' 2 tan d' sin 3 1 P. (b) 

Replacing for brevity sin* P by y, 

tan S = tan d' - 2 y tan tf', (c) 

tan d = tan (6' 2) = a , n , ^7^ 
1 ~r~ tan o tan *c 

= tan 6' 2 y tan #% 
tan tf' tan x = tan tf' 2 y tan *' + tan 2 d' tana; 

2 y tan a d' tan $. (d) 



106 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Let 

a? = ^y + J9y f +eto. (e) 

be the undetermined development desired. If the value of tan x 
derived from this equation be substituted in (d), the resulting 
equation will be identical. 
From Trigonometry, 

x 3 

tan # = # + -- + etc., 
o 

and from this and (e), 

- tan x = Ay-{-fiy* + etc. 

Substituting in (d), and transposing, 

Ay+By*-Z y tan tf'+tan 2 d' (Ay+y*)-2 tan 9 d'(Ay+By*)y=Q. 
From the principles of identical equations, 

^ - 2 tan d' + A tan q tf' = 0. 

A 2 tan tf' sin tf' , . 

-4 = r y-f, = 2 ---- ^7 cos' 5' = sin 2 d'. 
1 + tau a <r cos o' 

B + B tan 3 6' -2 A tan 2 tf' = 0. = 2 sin' 6' sin 2 <?'. 
Therefore, expressing x in seconds of arc, from (e), 

sin 2 tf f Ssin 4 j- P sin 2 d' sin a tf ' 
7 ' 



' 7 



- sinT 7 sin 

Omitting the last term as insensible, expressing P in seconds of 
time, and remembering that since P is very small, 

sin 2 - = f^) 8 si' !"> we have a; = J (15 P) 2 sin 1" sin 2 tf'. 
In computing this term, d rntiy be substituted for <?'. 



J* To Determine the Probable Error of the Final Result. 
From equation (143) it is seen that the probable error of a lati- 
tude deduced from a single pair of stars will be composed of two 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 107 

parts : 1st, the probable error of the half sum of the declinations 
derived from the catalogue used; 3d, the probable error of the half 
difference of the measured zenith distances, which may be called 
the error of observation. 

Consider first a single pair of stars observed once. Let 11^ de- 
note the probable error of the deduced latitude, R' that of the half 
sum of the declinations, and R" that of observation, all unknown 
as yet. Then, Johnson,* Art. 89, 



R, = VTr 4- R m , (a) 

and for this pair observed n times, i.e., on n nights, 

(ft) 

If now we employ m different pairs, 

* "~* 

(c) 

v ' 

in which n 9 denotes, as before, the total number of observations. 

It may be observed at this point, that as shown by (c), if a skilled 
observer bo provided with a catalogue not of the first order of ex- 
cellence, (R f large, R" small), it is better to employ many pairs, 
rather than repeat observations on a few pairs; thus augmenting 
both m and n, instead of n alone. 

To determine R", form the differences between the mean of all 
the latitudes resulting from the first pair and the separate latitudes 
from that pair. 

The residuals denoted by v 9 9 v t ", ?>/", etc., will manifestly be 
free from any effect of error in the half sum of the -declinations 
employed. Do the same with the results from each of the other 
pairs, giving v/, v a " ---- v/, v," ---- etc., 

Then, Johnson, Art. 138, 



R" = 0.6745 V -=-~. (d) 

n' m v ' 



* Joliuson's Theory of Errors and Method of Least Squares," 1890. 



108 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The value of R" should not exceed about 0".8, and cannot be 
expected to fall below 0".3. On the Coast Survey, its value has 
usually been slightly less than 0".5. 

To determine II' 9 we have from (6) 

7?" a 
B>* = R?-*- t (e) 

in which it must be remembered that R t is the probable error of 
the latitude as deduced from a single pair of stars observed n times. 

Select several (m f ) pairs, which are observed on an equal number 
of nights in order that the results from each pair may be of equal 
weight. Then, as before, form the differences between the mean 
of the n results for each pair and the mean of these m' means. 

Then the mean value of R t will be, Johnson, Art. 73, 



R t = 0.6745 



i/ "'- 

v m > _ r 



Substituting this value of R t together with that of n in (e), we 
have R', and the probable error of the final result is given by (c), 
as before seen. 

If R' be determined from a great number of stars taken from a 
single catalogue, it may be considered as constant for that cata- 
logue. With the one employed on the Lake Survey, R' usually fell 
between 0".53 and 0".60. 

If it be desired to combine the mean results from each pair ac- 
cording to their weights in order to obtain the weighted mean 
latitude, we have from (b), (since the weight of an. observation is 
proportional to the reciprocal of the square of the probable error,) 

_ n 

P "~ nlt' n + W* 

p denoting the weight of the mean result from a pair observed n 
times. 

The weighted mean latitude will be, Johnson, Art. 66, 



THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 109 

with a probable error, Johnson, Art. 72, 

R = 0.6745 



J 2(P') . 
Y (m - 1) i'/ 



The errors which give rise to R' are those pertaining to the 
catalogue or catalogues used. 

Those giving rise to R" are due to various causes, viz. : imper- 
fect bisection of one or both stars due to personal bias or unsteadi- 
ness of the stars, anomalous refraction, errors in determining the 
value of a division of the micrometer and level, changes in temper- 
ature affecting the instrument between the two observations of a 
pair, etc. 

If any of the residuals (v) are unusually large, they should bo 
examined by Peirce's Criterion bofore rejection. 

Finally it must be remembered that in this, as in all other 
methods here given, the final result (supposed free from error) is 
the astronomical latitude, and will differ from the geodetic or geo- 
graphical latitude by any abnormal deflection of the plumb-line 
which may exist at the station. 



5. Latitude by Polaris off the Meridian. See Form 10. This 
method depends upon the fact that the astronomical latitude of a 
place is equal to the altitude of the elevated pole. 

This latter is obtained by measuring the altitude of Polaris at a 
given instant, and from the data thus obtained, together with the 
star's polar distance, passing to the altitude of the pole. 

To explain this transformation : 

Let P = star's hour angle, measured from the upper meridian. 
a = altitude of star at instant P, corrected for refraction. 
d = polar distance of star at instant P. 
= latitude of place. - 
Then from the Z P 8 triangle we have 

sin a = sin cos d -f- cos sin d cos P. (145) 

This equation which applies to any star may be solved directly; 
but with a circum-polar star it is much simpler to take advantage 
of its small polar distance, and obtain a development of in terms 



110 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

of the ascending powers of d, in which we may neglect those terms 
which can be shown to be unimportant. 

Now if we let x the difference in altitude between Polaris at 
the time of observation and the pole, we shall have 

= (a #), sin = sin (a x), cos = cos (a #), 
and from (145), 

1 = cos x (cos d + sin d cot a cos P) ( . 

sin x (cos d cot a sin d cos P). * ' 

Moreover, it is evident that if we can obtain the development of 
x in terms of the ascending powers of d y we will have the develop- 
ment of in the same terms, from a x. 

This is the end to be attained. Therefore let 

x = A d + B d* + Cd 3 + etc., (147) 

be the undetermined development desired, in which A, B, C, etc., 
are to have such constant values, that the series, when it is con- 
vergent, shall give the true value of x, whatever may be the value 
of d. 

It is manifest, then, that if this assumed value of x be substi- 
tuted in (146), the resulting equation must be satisfied by every 
value of d which renders (147) convergent; that is, the resulting 
equation must be identical; otherwise (147) could not be true. 

With a view, therefore, to this substitution, let it be noted that 
by the Calculus we have 

t X * , X * L / X 

cos a? = 1 - + gj etc., (m) 

X* X* 

sinx=x- - + - etc., (n) 

and hence from (147), 

cos x = 1 - ^- - A B d* + etc., (148) 



sin x = A d + B d 9 + c - -~ tf 3 + etc. (149) 



LATITUDE ST POLABI8. 



Ill 



Also, 



and 



cos d - 1 - + - etc., 



d' d" 
- 



(150) 
(151) 



Now d is a very small angle; at present about 1 16', or 0.0221 
Indians; x can never be greater than d, and in the general case 
\vill be less. Under these circumstances the above series becomes 
very convergent, and the sum of a few terms will represent with 
great accuracy the sum of the series. It is for this reason that the 
problem under discussion is applicable only to close circurn-polar 
stars, and therefore we take advantage of the small polar-distance 
of Polaris, 

Substituting (148), (149), (150), and (151), in (146), we have, 
rejecting terms involving the 4th and higher powers of d y 

A cot a 



+ B cos P 

cos P cot a 
6 

A* cos P cot ft 
-^1^ 



A cos P 




1? cot a 




cos P cot a' 


A* 


d'+ - 




2 




^4 cot a 


1 < 




~2 





This equation being identical, the algebraic sum of the coeffi- 
cients of each power of d must be separately equal to zero. 
Hence we have by solution, 

A = cos P. 

sin a P . 
B = -5 tan a. 



cos P sin 2 P 



112 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Therefore, from (147), 

x dcosP id'sin'Ptan a + $ d* cos P sin' P. 

From (m) and (w), (150) and (151), it is seen that # and d are 
expressed in radians. Expressing them in seconds of arc, 

x d cosP-i d* sin 8 P tan a sin 1"+ d 3 cos JP sin'P sin 7 1", etc., 

which is the required development. 
Therefore, 

= a d cos P + J- d* sin 1" sin a P tan a 

- J d' sin 2 1" cos P sin 9 /> [- etc. (152) 

The last three terms are in seconds. 

Hence we have the general rule: 

Take a series of altitudes of Polaris at any convenient time. 
Note the corresponding instants by a chronometer, preferably 
sidereal, whose error is well determined. Correct each observed 
altitude for instrumental errors and refraction. Determine each 
hour angle by P = sidereal time R. A. 

Take from the Ephemcris the star's polar distance at the time, 
being careful to use pp. 302-313, where also the R. A. required 
above will be found. 

Substitute each set of values in Equation (152), and reduce each 
set separately. The mean of the resulting values of is the one 
adopted. See Form 10. 

As before stated, the method is applicable only to close circum- 
polar stars. Polaris is selected since it is the nearest bright star to 
the pole, a fact which is of importance in sextant observations. 

On the last page of the Ephemeris are given tabular values of 
the correction x. They are however only approximate; and the 
complete solution, as given above, consumes but very little more 
time. 

This is a very convenient method of determining latitude; our 
only restriction being that, with a sextant, the observations must 
be made at night. With the " Altazimuth " instrument, the ob- 
servations may be made for some time before dark. 



LATITUDE BY POLARIS. 113 

The last term in (152) is very small. In order to ascertain 
whether it is of any practical value, let us determine its maximum 
numerical value. Denoting the term by z, and its constant factors 
by c, we have 

z = c cos P sin a P. 

Eeplacing sin* P by 1 cos 2 P, and differentiating twice, we have, 
after reduction, 

~, = 2 c sin P - 3 c sin 3 P. 
dP 

~ = 2 ecosP - 9 esin' PcosP. 

To obtain the maximum, 

2 c sin P - 3 c sin 3 P = 0. 
From the roots of this we have 

sin P = 0, sin P = + V f , sin P = - VJ, 

the last two of which correspond to equal numerical maxima. 
Hence the maximum value of the term is given when sm 3 P = J, 
or when z = d* sin 9 1" | /f For d = 1 16', this gives * = 0".29- 
The maximum error committed by the omission of this term 
will therefore be about 0".3. Evidently its retention when the 
observations have been made with a sextant would be superfluous. 



* With sin P + |/# we may have cosP= >/, and similarly for 
sinP = l/i". By substituting in the second differential coefficient we see 
that I/T with + 4/^ correspond to equal maxima, while i/f with |/ 
correspond to equal minima. With sin P = 0, we may have cos P = 1 , the 
former of which corresponds to a minimum and the latter to an equal maxi- 
mum; viz., zero. Hence zero is a lesser and not the greatest maximum value 
of z ; the latter, with which only we are concerned, being, from fl5'2), d 3 sin 4 



Fig. 22 gives the curve of values of z with P as the abscissae, showing 
the inferior maximum at P=180, and the greatest maxima (numerical) at 
about 55, 125, 235 C , and 305. 



114 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The value of log sin 1", not given in ordinary tables, is 
4.6855575-10. 

S90 125 180 235 

FIG. 22. 

Any mistake as to the value of P will manifestly produce its 
greatest effect when the star is moving wholly in altitude. Hence 
if the chronometer error be not well determined, the times of 
elongation are the least advantageous for observation. 

Since cos (360 P) = cos P 9 we may measure P from the up- 
per meridian to 180 [neither direction. 

6. Latitude by Equal Altitudes of Two Stars. See Form 11. 
By this method the latitude is found from the declinations and hour 
angles of two stars; the hour angles being subject to the condition 
that they shall correspond to equal altitudes of the stars. 
Let and #' = the correct sidereal times of the observations. 

a and a' = the apparent right ascensions of the stars. 

d and 6' the apparent declinations of the stars. 
P and P' = the apparent hour angles of the stars. 

a = the common altitude. 

= the required latitude. 

P and P' are given from 

P 6 a P' fl' /v' 

L I/ "~ * CC JL I/ '"" UL 

From the Z P S triangle we have 

sin a = sin sin 6 + cos cos tf cos P. 
sin a = sin sin d f -f- cos cos $' QOS P'. 

Subtracting the first from the second and dividing by cos 0, 
tan (sin d' sin $) = cos d cos P cos 6' cos P'. (153) 

The value of tan might be derived at once from this equa- 
tion, since it is the only unknown quantity entering it. The form 



LATITUDE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES. 116 

is, however, unsuited to logarithmic computation. In order to ob- 
tain a more convenient form, observe that the second member may 
be written 

/ cos 6 cos P cos $' cos P'\ /cos d cos P cos 6' cos P'\ 
\ 2 2 1 + \ 2 8 J' 

Adding to the first parenthesis 

/ cos 6 cos P' cs 6' cos 



' cos P\ 
Z ']' 



and subtracting the same from the second, we have, after factoring, 

tan (sin d' sin 6) = \ (cos d cos 6') (cos P + cos P') 
+ I (cos d + cos d') (cos P - cos P'). 

Solving with reference to tan 0, and reducing by Formulas 16, 17, 
and 18, Page 4, Book of Formulas, 



tan = tan I (d' + d) cos (P' + P) cos J (P' - P) 
+ cot (d' - d) sin 4 (P' + P) sin (P' - P). 



(154) 



The solution may be made even more simple by the use of two 
auxiliary quantities, m and M 9 such that 

m cos M = cos I (P' - P) tan ) (*' + d). (155) 

m sin M = sin J (P' - P) cot J (' - d) (156) 

Then 

tan = m cos [ ( P' + P) - J/]. (157) 

Equations (155) and (156) give m and J/, and (157) gives 0, all 
in the simplest manner. 

For example, to find M, divide (156) by (155), and we obtain 

tan M = tan (P' - P) cot (d' - tf) co 



This admits of easy logarithmic solution. 

The value of m follows from either (155) or (156), and that of 
from (157), both by logarithms. 



116 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.* 

The value of a does not enter; hence the resulting latitude will 
be entirely free from instrumental errors, those of graduation, ec- 
centricity, and index error, and its accuracy will depend only upon 
the skill of the observer, and the accuracy of our assumed chronom. 
eter error and rate. Ephemeris stars should be chosen if possible, for 
the sake of accuracy in declinations, and their K. A. should permit 
the observations to be made with so short an interval that the re- 
fractive power of the atmosphere can not have changed materially 
in the mean time. The value of refraction is not required; it is 
only necessary that it remain practically constant. 

Differentiating (153) with reference to 0, /% and P', solving, 
reducing by 

cos 6' sin P 9 cos a sin A', 
and 

sin d' = sin sin a -\- cos cos a cos A', 

we have, since a is the same for both stars, 

7 , r sin A' 7 -. , sin A 7 _ 

d = cos r . d P 9 cos d P y 

cos A cos A cos A cos A 

from which it is seen that any error in the time or in the assumed 
chronometer correction will have least effect on the resulting latitude 
when the two stars reach the common altitude at about equal dis- 
tances north and south of the prime-vertical, the nearer to the 
meridian the better. 

When several observations with the sextant are taken in succes- 
sion on each star, it is better to reduce separately the pair corre- 
sponding to each altitude. 

LONGITUDE. 

The difference of Astronomical Longitude between two places is 
the spherical angle at the celestial pole included between their re- 
spective meridians. By the principles of Spherical Geometry, the 
measure of this angle is the arc of the equinoctial intercepted by its 
sides; or it is the same portion of 360 that this arc is of the whole 
great circle. 

But since the rotation of the earth upon its axis is perfectly 
uniform, the time occupied by a star on the equinoctial in passing 



LONGITUDE. 117 

from one meridian to another, is the same portion of the time re- 
quired for a complete circuit that the angle between the meridians 
is of 360, or, that the intercepted arc is of the whole great circle. 
Moreover, all stars whatever their position occupy equal times in 
passing from one meridian to another due to the fact that all points 
on a given meridian have a constant angular velocity. 

The same facts apply also to the case of a body which, like the 
mean sun, has a proper motion, provided that motion be uniform 
and in the plane of, or parallel to, the equinoctial. 

Hence it is that Longitude is usually expressed in time; and in 
stating the difference of longitude between two places in time, it is 
immaterial whether we employ sidereal or mean solar time : for the 
number of mean solar time units required for the mean sun to pass 
from one meridian to another, is exactly equal to the number of 
sidereal time units required for a star to pass between the meridians. 

The astronomical problem of longitude consists, therefore, in 
determining the difference of local times, either sidereal or mean 
solar, which exist on two meridians at the same absolute instant. 

Since there is no natural origin of longitudes or circle of refer- 
ence as there is in case of latitude, one may be chosen arbitrarily, 
and which is then called the " first " or " prime meridian." Differ- 
ent nations have made different selections: but the one most com- 
monly used throughout the world is the upper meridian of Green- 
wich, England, although in the United States frequent reference is 
made to the meridian of Washington. 

The astronomical may differ slightly from the geodetic or geo- 
graphical longitude, for reasons given under the head of latitude. 

In the following pages, only the former is referred to; it i$ 
usually found from the difference of time existing on the two 
meridians at the instant of occurrence of some event, either celes- 
tial or terrestrial. Up to about the year 1500 A.D., the only method 
available was the observation of Lunar Eclipses. But with the 
publication of Ephemcrides and the introduction of improved 
astronomical instruments, other and better methods have superseded 
this one, of which the two most accurate and most generally used 
are the " Method by Portable Chronometers," and the " Method by 
Electric Telegraph." Longitude may also be found from " Lunar 
Culminations " and " Lunar Distances," in cases when other modes 
are not available. 



118 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

1. By Portable Chronometers. Let A and B denote the two sta- 
tions the difference of whose longitude is required. Let the chron- 
ometer error (E) be accurately determined for the chronometer time 
T, at one of the stations, say A ; also its daily rate (r). 

Transport the chronometer to B, and let its error (E f ) on local 
time be there accurately determined for the chronometer time T. 
Let i denote the interval in chronometer days between 2 T and T f . 

Then, if r has remained constant during the journey, the true 
local time at A corresponding to the chronometer time T' will be, 
T' + E+ir. 

The true time at B at the same instant is, T' + E 9 . 

Their difference = difference of Longitude is 

K^E+ir-E'. (158) 

Thus the difference of Longitude is expressed as the difference 
between the simultaneous errors of the same chronometer upon the 
local times of the two meridians, and the absolute indications of 
the chronometer do not enter except in so far as they may be re- 
quired in determining i. 

The rule as to signs of E and r, heretofore given, must be ob- 
served. If the result be positive, the second station is west of the 
first; if negative, east. 

This method is used almost exclusively at sea, except in voyages 
of several weeks, the chronometer error on Greenwich time, and its 
rate, being well determined at a port whose longitude is known. 
Time observations are then made with a sextant whenever desired 
during the voyage, and the longitude found as above. The same 
plan may evidently be followed in expeditions on land, although ex- 
treme accuracy cannot be obtained since a chronometer's " travel- 
ing 1 ' rate " is seldom exactly the same as when at rest. 

In the above discussion, the rate was found only at the initial 
station. If the rate be determined again upon reaching the final 

station, and be found to have changed to r', then it will be better to 

r \ r * 

employ in the above equation - instead of r. To redetermine 

& 

the longitude of any intermediate station in accordance with this 

r' r 
additional data, we have x = : = daily change in rate; and 



LONGITUDE. 119 

the accumulated error at any station, reached n days after leaving A 9 
would be E + Ir -f #^J n 9 the quantity in parenthesis being the 

rate at the middle instant. 

The above method is slightly inaccurate, since we have assumed 
that the chronometer rate as determined at one of the extreme 
stations (or both, if we apply the correction just explained), is its 
rate while en route. This is not as a rule strictly correct. 

Therefore, when the difference of longitude between two places 
is required to be found with great precision, " Chronometric Expe- 
ditions" between the points are organized and conducted in such a 
manner as to determine this traveling rate. 

As before, 

let E = chron. error on local time at A at chron. time T. 



That is, the error on local time is dotorminod at the first station for 
the time of departure, then at the second station for the time of ar- 
rival; again at the second station for the time of departure, and 
finally at the first station for the time of arrival. 

Then the entire change of error is E 999 E. ,But of this 
E' 9 E 9 accumulated while the chronometer was at rest at the 
second station. The entire time consumed was T"'T. But of 
this T ff T 9 was not spent in traveling. Therefore, the traveling 
rate, if it be assumed to be constant, will be 



f (T tt9 _ T\ _ (T 99 _ T 9 \ 

This, then, is the rate to be employed in Eq. (158) instead of the 
stationary rate there used. 

If the rate has not been constant, but, as is often the case, uni- 
formly increasing or decreasing, the above value of r is the average 
rate for the whole traveling time of the two trips, whereas for use 
in Eq. (158), we require the average rate during the trip from A to 
B. This latter average will give & perfectly correct result provided 
the rate change uniformly. If the rate has been increasing, then r 



120 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

in Eq. (159) will be too large numerically, by some quantity as x. 
Hence Eq. (158) becomes 

\ = H + i(r-x)-E' 9 (160) 

in which r is found by (159). In order to eliminate x, let the 
chronometer be transported from B to A, and return; i.e., taire B 
instead of A as the initial point of a second journey. This is best 
accomplished by utilizing the return trip of the journey A B A, as 
the first trip of the journey B A B. 

Then the new average rate r 9 having been found as before, it 
will, if the trips and the interval of rest have been practically equal 
to those of the first journey, exceed the value required, by the same 
quantity, x 9 due to the uniformity in the rate's change. Hence for 
this journey Eq. (158) becomes, 

A = E'" - [t (r' - a) + E"]. (161) 

In the mean of (160) and (161), x disappears, giving, 



Hence, if our time observations arc accurate, and the traveling 
rate constant, the difference of longitude between A and B may be 
determined by transporting the chronometer from A to B, and re- 
turn. Or, if the rate be uniformly increasing or decreasing, the 
difference of longitude will be found by transporting the chro- 
nometer from A to B, and return, then back tc B\ thus making 
three trips for the complete determination. 

In a complete " Chronometric Expedition/' however, many 
chronometers, sometimes 60 or 70, are used, to guard against acci- 
dental errors; and they are transported to and fro many times. As 
an example, in one determination of the longitude of Cambridge, 
Mass., with reference to Greenwich, 44 chronometers were employed 
and during the progress of the whole expedition, more than 400 
exchanges of chronometers were made. 

They are rated by comparison with the standard observatory 
clocks at each station, which are in turn regulated by very elabo- 
rately reduced observations on, as near as possible, the same stars. 



LONGITUDE. . 121 

Conducted as above described, " Chronomctric Expeditions M 
give exceedingly accurate results, especially if corrections be made 
for changes in temperature during the journeys. 

2. Longitude by the Electric Telegraph. See Form 12. This 
method consists, in outline, in comparing the times which exist 
simultaneously on two meridians, by moans of telegraphic signals. 
These signals are simply momentary " breaks " in the electric cir- 
cuit connecting the stations, the instants of sending and receiving 
which are registered upon a chronograph at each station. Each 
chronograph is in circuit with a chronometer winch, by breaking 
the circuit at regular intervals, gives a time scale upon the chrono- 
graph sheet, from which the instants of sending and receiving are 
read off with great precision. 

Suppose a signal to be made at the eastern station (A) at the 
time T by the clock at A, which signal is registered at the western 
station (B) at the time T' by the clock at JJ. 

Then if E and E ' are the respective clock errors, each on its 
own local time; and if the signals were recorded instantly at B, 
then the difference of longitude would bo (T + E) - (T ' + E'). 
But it has been found in practice that there is always a loss of time 
in transmitting electric signals. Therefore in the above expression 
( T' + E') does not correspond to the instant of sending the signal, 
but to a somewhat later instant. It is therefore too largo, the entire 
expression is too small, and must be corrected by just the loss of 
time referred to. This is usually termed the " .Retardation of Sig- 
nals;" and if it bo denoted by x, the true, difference of longitude 
will be (T+JS) - (T' + E') +x = A/ + x = A. But x is un- 
known, and must therefore be eliminated. 

In order to do this, let a signal be sent from the wen/em station 
at the time T" which is recorded at the eastern at the time 7""i 
Then if E" and E 1 " are the new clock errors, the true difference 
of longitude will be 

(T'" + E'") - (T" + E"} - x = V - x = A. 

By addition, x disappears, and if A denote the longitude, we will 
have 

A' + A" 

/t 



122 



PRACTICAL ASTMONOMY. 



Or, in full, assuming that the errors do not change in the interval 
between signals, 



- T") 



T', 7", and T 7 "' are given by the chronograph sheets; 

E' must be determined with extreme accuracy, since incor- 
rect values will affect the resulting longitude directly. 

Having established telegraphic communications between the 
two observatories (field or permanent), usually by a simple loop in 
an existing line, preliminaries as to number of signals, time of 
sending them, intervals, calls, precedence in sending, etc., are 
settled. At about nightfall messages are exchanged as to the suita- 
bility of the night for observations at the two stations. If suitable 
at both, each observer makes a scries of star observations with the 
transit to find his chronometer error. The electric apparatus for 
this purpose, consisting of two or three galvanic cells, a break-cir- 
cuit key, chronograph, and break-circuit chronometer, is arranged 
as shown in Eig. 23, the chronometer being placed in a separate 




FIG. 23. 

circuit with a single cell, connected with the principal circuit by a 
relay, to avoid the effects of too strong a current on its mechanism. 
The chronometer breaks the circuit A, releasing the armature of the 
chronometer relay, which therefore breaks circuit B at b. This re- 
leases the armature of the chronograph magnet to which is attached 
a pen, thus registering on the chronograph the beats of the chro- 
nometer. Circuit B may also be broken with the observing key, 
thus recording the transits of stars also on the chronograph. At 
least ten well-determined Ephemeris stars should be used three 
equatorial and tv/o circumpolar for each position of the transit. 



LONGITUDE. 



123 



Then as the time agreed upon for the exchange of signals ap- 
proaches, the local circuit should be connected as shown in Pig. 24, 




C, chronometer relay; 
Jf, chronograph magnet; 
JC, observing key; 



Fio. 24. 
S, sounder; 
, L, main line; 
K', break-circuit key; 



J), relay; 

#, galvanometer; 

7i', rheostat. 



by a relay to the main line, which is worked by its own permanent 
batteries, and in which there is also a break-circuit key. The con- 
nections are the same at both stations. By this arrangement it is 
seen that each chronograph will receive the time-record of its own 
chronometer; and also the record of any signals sent over the main 
line in either direction. 

Neither chronograph receives the record of the other's chro- 
nometer. Thou at the time agreed upon, warning is sent by the 
station having precedence, and the signals follow according to any 
prearranged system. Notice being given of their completion, the 
second station signals in the same manner. 

As an example of a system, let the break-circuit key in the main 
line be pressed for 2 or 3 seconds once in about ten seconds, but 
at irregular intervals: this being continued for five minutes will 
give 31 arbitrary signals from each station. 

Each chronometer sheet when marked with the date, one or 
more references to actual chronometer time, and the error of 
chronometer, as soon as found, will, in connection with the sheet 
from the other station, afford the obvious means of finding all the 
quantities in Eq. (163) from which the longitude is computed. 
The sheets may be compared by telegraph, if desired. 

The work of a single night is then completed by transit observa- 
tions upon at least ten more stars under the same conditions as 



124 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



before, the entire series of twenty being so reduced as to give the 
chronometer error at the middle of the interval occupied in ex- 
changing signals. The mode of making this reduction will be 
explained hereafter. 

The preceding is called the method by " Arbitrary Signals," and 
is the one now usually ^mployed. Sometimes however the method 
by " Chronometer Signals " is used, which will be readily unfler- 
stood by reference to Fig. 25, the connections being the same at 
both stations. 



. 4 

0,0---,= 




FIG. 25. 

In this case it is seen that each chronometer, although in local 
Circuit, graduates each chronograph, upon which we therefore have 
a direct comparison of the two time-pieces. 

This method is subject to the inconvenience and possible inac- 
curacies in reading which may occur due to a close but not perfect 
coincidence in beats, unless special precautions are taken. 

The arrangement of the galvanometer and rheostat, as shown in 
both figures (taken from the Coast Survey Report for 1880), in- 
sures the equality of the currents passing through the relays at the 
two stations, which point should be ascertained by exchange of 
telegraphic messages; therefore after the relays are properly ad- 
justed they will be demagnetized by the signals with equal rapidity, 
and constant errors in this respect be avoided. 

The final adopted value of the longitude should depend upon 
the results of at least five or six nights; outstanding errors in the 
electrical apparatus being nearly eliminated by an exchange between 
the two stations when the work is half completed. 

" Longitude by the Electric Telegraph " had its origin in the 



LONGITUDE. 125 

TL S. Coast Survey, and has since been employed considerably in 
Europe. As at first employed it consisted virtually in telegraphing 
to a western, the instant of a fixed star's culmination at an eastern 
station ; and afterwards, telegraphing to the eastern, at the instant 
of the same star's culmination at the western station. 

In connection with Talcott's Method for Latitude, it has been 
used extensively in important Government Surveys, taking prece- 
dence, whenever available, over all other methods. 

Reduction of the Time Observations. See Form 12^.- These 
observations, as just stated, are in two groups ; one before, and one 
after the exchange of signals or comparison of chronometers. From 
them is to be obtained the chronometer error at the epoch of ex- 
change or comparison, which is assumed to be the middle of the 
interval consumed in the exchange; this latter being about 12 
minutes. 

Let us resume the equation of the Transit Instrument approxi- 
mately in the meridian, 



a= T+E+aA + tB + C (c - .021 cos 0), (164) 

and let T Q denote the epoch, or the known chronometer time to 
which the observations are to be reduced. Let us suppose also, 
that of the three instrumental errors, a, b, and c, only b has been 
determined, this being found directly by reading the level for every 
star. The rate of the chronometer, r, is supposed to be known 
approximately, and it is to be borne in mind that E is the error at 
the time T. Then in the above equation E, a, and c are un- 
known. 

Now if we denote the error at the epoch by J$ Q , we shall have 

,< 

fi = E -(T - T)r. (165) 

And if E\ denote an assumed approximate value of E Q , and e be 
the unknown error committed by this assumption, we shall have, 

E = E\+e-(T,- T)r. (166) 

From which, Eq. (164) becomes 
e + Aa + Cc + T - .021 cos C +E' , - ( T. - T) r + Bl - a = 0, 



126 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

in which everything is known save e (the correction to be applied 
to the assumed chronometer error at the epoch), a, and c, 

Aa is called the correction for azimuth. 
Cc " " " " collimation. * 

.021 cos " " " " diurnal aberration. 
(T -T)r " " " rate. 
ffl " " " level. 

Collecting the known terms, transposing them to the $3d mem- 
ber, and denoting the sum by n, we have 

e + Aa-\-Cc = n. (167) 

Each one of the twenty stars furnishes an Equation of Condition 
of this form, from which, by the principles of Least Squares, we 
form the three " Normal Equations," 

2 (G) e + 2 (A 0) a + 2 (<7) c = 2 (On), 
^ (A) e + 2 (A*) a + S (A O ) c = 2 (A ri), 
2 (1) e+ 2 (A) a + 2 (0) c = S (ri), 

from a solution of which we find a, c, and the correction, e, to bo 
applied to the assumed chronometer error at the epoch. 

If either c or a be known, say c, by methods given under "The 
Transit Instrument/' then the correction for collimation for each 
star, Cc, should be transferred to the 2d member and included in n. 
We then have only the two " Normal Equations," 



(A) c+2 (A*) a=2(A n), 



from which to find e and . 

It is to be remembered that the middle ten stars have been ob- 
served with the instrument reversed, and that such reversal changes 
the sign of c, and therefore of the term Co. Hence in forming the 
"Equations of Condition" for those stars, care should be taken to 
introduce this change by reversing the sign of O. The sign of c as 



LONGITUDE. 127 

found from the " Normal Equations " will then belong to the col- 
limation error c of the unreversed instrument. 

Also, since reversing the instrument almost invariably changes 
0, it is better to write a! for a in the corresponding " Equations of 
Condition," and treat a' as another unknown quantity. We will 
thus have four " Normal Equations " instead of three, and derive 
from them two values of the azimuth error, one for each position 
of the instrument. 

Sometimes, and perhaps with even greater accuracy, the solution 
is modified as follows : 

Independent determination of a and c are made, as explained 
heretofore, by the use of three stars. 

Adopting these, each star gives a value of the chronometer error 
as per Form 1. The mean result compared with the similar mean 
of preceding and following nights, gives the rate. The principle of 
Least Squares is then applied (correcting also for rate) in the man- 
ner just detailed, to obtain the corrections to be applied to these 
values of , c, and the mean chronometer error. With these cor- 
rected values of a and <?, new values of the chronometer errors are 
found by direct solution (Form 1), the mean of which is adopted. 

| Personal Equation. From (163) it is seen that although 
errors in E and E' affect the deduced longitude directly, the effect 
will disappear if they are equally in error. 

Practical observers acquire as a rule certain fixed habits of ob- 
servation whereby the transits of stars are recorded habitually 
slightly too early or too late, thus affecting the deduced clock error 
correspondingly. 

The difference between the result obtained by any observer and 
the true value is called his Absolute Personal Equation, and that 
between the results of two different observers their Relative Per- 
sonal Equation. In Longitude work this latter should always be 
determined and applied to one of the clock errors, thus giving 
values of E and E ' as though determined by a single observer, and 
causing them if in error at all, to be as nearly equally so as possible. 

To determine this Relative Personal Equation, the two observers 
should, both before and after the longitude work, meet and compare 
as follows: one notes the transits of a star over half the wires of 
the instrument, and the other the transits over the remaining half. 
Each time of transit is then reduced to the middle wire by the 



128 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Equatorial Intervals, and the difference between their respective 
means will be a value of their relative personal equation. The 
adopted value should depend upon twenty or thirty stars, and the 
work be distributed over three or four nights. 

Personal equation is not a constant quantity, and should be re- 
determined from time to time. On the Coast Survey it is largely 
eliminated by causing the observers to change places upon comple- 
tion of half the observations for difference of longitude between the 
stations. 

Application of Weights and Probable Error of Final Result. 
The probable error of an observed star transit may be divided for 
practical purposes into two parts: the first, duo to errors (apart 
from personal equation) iri estimating the exact instants of the 
star's passage over the wires, unsteadiness of star, etc., is called the 
observational error; the second, called the culmination error, is due 
to abnormal atmospheric displacement of star, in exact determina- 
tion of instrumental errors, anomalies and irregularities in the clock 
rate, etc. Evidently the first is the only part of the probable error 
which may be diminished by increasing the number of wires. It 
may be determined for each observer as follows: 

Having made several (m) determinations of the Equatorial In- 
tervals as before explained, let each be compared with its known 
value, giving for the probable error of a single determination 
(Johnson, Art. 72), 



ft = 0.6745 V^. (a) 

Since these intervals depend upon observed transits over two wires, 
we have for the probable error of an observed transit of an equato- 
rial star over a single wire (Johnson, Art. 87), 




For any other star this will manifestly be 

-ff"sectf, 



LONGITUDE. 129 

and for N wires the probable error of the mean will be 

R" 



For the smaller instruments of the Coast Survey R" = 8 .08 about. 
To determine the culmination error, R' y for an equatorial star, 
let R denote the combined effect of both errors; then 



(c) 



R may be found by comparing several (m) determinations of a 
star's K. A. (all reduced to the same equinox) with their mean, 
using the same formula as before. Multiplying the value thus 
found by cos tf, we have the probable error for an equatorial star. 
The mean result from many stars should be the adopted value of ft. 

For the smaller instruments of the Coast Survey R = 8 .06 
about. 

Substituting in (c), making N= 15, 

R' = 8 .056. 

For any other star this will evidently be R' sec S. Hence for the 
probable error of the transit of an equatorial star over JV, or the 
full number of wires, 



and for any lees number of wires, 

' (0-.056)'. 



130 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Since the weights of observations are proportional to reciprocals of 
squares of probable errors, we have for the weight of an observation 
on n wires (that on the full number being taken as unity), 






n n 



Again, from what precedes it is seen that the total probable error 
(It) of the transit of an equatorial star will become R sec d for any 
other. Hence different stars will have weights inversely as see" d. 
In practice, however, slightly different relations have been found to 
answer better. For the instruments above referred to, the formula 



1.6 
* = 1.0+65^ 

has been adopted. 

The report of the Chief of Engineers for 1873 gives 



Therefore if each Equation of Condition in the Ecduction of the 
Time Observations be multiplied by the corresponding value of Vp 
(Johnson, Art. 126), it will be weighted for missel wires. 

In the same way, if multiplied by Vp' it will be weighted for 
declination. It is, however, unusual to weight for declination when 



The normal equations having been formed from the weighted 
equations of condition in the usual manner, their solution will give 
the chronometer error and its weight, p e . (Johnson, Arts. 132, 133.) 

The probable error of a single observation is then found by the 
formula, (Johnson Art. 138), 



r = 8 .6745y -, (i) 

f m q* v ' 



LONGITUDE. 131 

where the residuals, v, are formed from the m weighted equations 
of condition, and q is the number of normal equations. 

The probable error of the chronometer correction as determined 
by a single night's work will then be 



Similarly we obtain p/for the weight of the chronometer correction 
at the other station, and the weight to be assigned to the resulting 
longitude, from the relation between weights and probable errors, 
will be 



The weighted mean longitude as the result of m' nights' work will 
then be 



with a probable error 

/ "5? Y<n ij a \ 

() 



Circumstances must, however, decide as to the relative weights to be 
assigned to' the results of different nights. If the observations have 
been conducted on a uniform system, it will perhaps be better to 
give them all equal weight. 

3. Longitude by Lunar Culminations. The moon has a rapid 
motion in Right Ascension. If, therefore, we can find the local 
times existing 011 two meridians, when the moon had a certain 
11. A., their difference of longitude becomes known from this differ- 
ence of times. 

Determine the local sidereal time of transit or R. A. of the 
moon's bright limb, and denote it by a t . 

From pp. 385-392, Ephemeris, take out the R. A. of the center 
at the nearest Washington culmination. This the Sidereal Time 



132 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

of semi-diameter crossing the meridian, according as the east or west 
limb is bright, taken from same page, will give the E. A. of the 
bright limb, at its culmination at Washington. Denote this by ar w . 
Now if an approximate longitude be not known, which will 
seldom be the case, one maybe established as follows: Let v = 
moon's change in 11. A. for one' hour of longitude, taken from same 
page of Ephemeris. Then upon the supposition that this is uni- 
form, we will have 

- Ti Tt a i ^W 

v : 1 : : ct t # w : L, or L = , 



L' being the approximate longitude from Washington, whose 
longitude from Greenwich is accurately known. With this value 
of L 9 take from the Ephemeris a new value of v corresponding to 
the mid-longitude L', and determine as before a closer approxi- 
mate longitude, L". If we are within two hours 01 Washington 
in longitude, L" will be sufficiently close for the purposes to which 
we are to apply it. If farther away, make one or two more approx- 
imations, and call the final result L ap . 

L ap will be true within a very few seconds of time even if the 
observing station be in Alaska, situated 6 hours from Washington, 
and even if the observations be made when the moon's irregularities 
in R. A. are most marked. 

With the approximate longitude (and this is one of the uses to 
be made of this quantity, before referred to), we may now find the 
sidereal time required for moon's semi-diameter to cross the merid- 
ian of the place of observation by simple interpolation to 2d or 3d 
differences in the proper column of the same page of the Ephemeris. 
Denote this by T t . 

The greatest change in the time required for semi-diameter to 
cross the meridian, due to a change of one hour in longitude, is 
about 0.13 80fi . Hence, even if we could possibly have made an error 
of 10 minutes in our determination of L^ p , the value of TI can only 
involve an error of about .02 8ec when at its maximum. This would 
involve a maximum error of about 0.5 8ec in the resulting longitude. 

a t TI = a c will then be the B. A. of the moon's center at the 
instant of transit of the center. 

On Pages V to XII of the Monthly Calendar are found the 



LONGITUDE. 133 

R. A. of the moon's center for each hour of Greenwich mean time. 
The problem now is to find at what instant (T g ) of Greenwich time 
the moon's center had the E. A. determined by our observation. 
This may be solved by an inverse interpolation; i.e., instead of 
interpolating a R. A. corresponding to a given time not in the 
table, we are to interpolate a time to a given R. A. not in the table; 
and in this interpolation the use of second differences will be quite 
sufficient. 

Therefore let T and T + 1 be the two Greenwich hours be- 
tween which a 9 occurs. 

Let S a be the increase of moon's R. A. in one minute of mean 
time, at T . This is given on the same page. 

Let d' a be the increase of d a in one hour. Found from same 
column by subtracting adjacent values of d a. 

Let # be the R. A. given in the Epbcmeris at T 9 . 

Then using second differences, wo have 



In this equation T g T is expressed in seconds; everything is 
known but it, and its value may be found by a solution of the 
quadratic. The result added to r l\ gives T g , or the Greenwich mean 
time at which the moon's center bad CY O for jts R. A. Convert this 
into Greenwich sidereal time, call the result a g , and our longitude 
is known from 

A = or, ct 9 . (169) 

The preceding is the method to be followed where there is but 
a single station. 

Imperfections in the Lunar Tables from which the Ephemeris 
is computed, render the tabular R. A. liable to slight errors. There- 
fore from Equation (168) our values of T g and hence a g may be 
incorrect from this cause, giving from Equation (169) an incorrect 
longitude. 

Differences between two tabular values are, however, nearly cor- 
rect. 

Hence it is more accurate to have corresponding observations 



134 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

of the moon's transit on the same clay taken at a station whose 
longitude is known. 

Its longitude, found as above, will be 



and the difference of longitude between the two stations, 



inaccuracies of the Bphcmeris being nearly eliminated in the differ- 
ence (<Y/ a a }. 

No method of determining longitude by Lunar Culminations is 
sufficiently accurate for a fixed observatory. It may however be 
used in surveys and expeditious where telegraphic connection with 
a known meridian can not be secured. Even with the appliances 
of a fixed observatory, the mean of several determinations is some- 
times subsequently found to be in error by from 4 to 6 seconds of 
time (Madras Observatory). Dependence should not therefore be 
placed upon a single observation, but the operation should be re- 
peated upon each limb as many times as may soem desirable. The 
longitude derived from any determination may bo employed as the 
approximate longitude required in any subsequent determination. 

Before proceeding to any details as to the observations and re- 
ductions, it is well to note the effect of errors in either, upon our 
result. The main outline of the problem consists in determining 
the moon's R. A. at a certain instant, and then ascertaining from 
the Ephemcris the Greenwich time of the same instant. Both the 
moon's R. A. and the instant are denoted, at the place of observa- 
tion, by <r c = MI T t . a l depends very largely upon accuracy of 
observation and reduction. T l depends upon interpolation with an 
approximate, longitude. As shown before, no error of assumed longi- 
tude that could ever occur in practice, would have any appreciable 
effect on T t . If the interpolation be properly performed, T t can 
involve only very slight errors. But whatever they may be, they 
enter with full effect in a< , and when the final operation is per- 
formed to determine the corresponding Greenwich time, an inspec- 
tion of the tables will show that any error in a e is increased from 



LONGITUDE. 136 

to 30 times in the resulting longitude. In this way, as before 
shown, an error of .02" in T t is amplified into .5 s in the result. 

Errors in a l affect cx a , and therefore the result, in the same 
manner; hence we see that considerable care is necessary in both 
observation and reduction. At the very best, the result is liable to 
be in error from 1 to 3 seconds. In latitude of West Point, 1 
second of time = 1142 feet in longitude. 

Observations and Reductions. The transit instrument is sup- 
posed to be pretty accurately adjusted to the meridian, and the 
outstanding small errors , b, and c, measured. The rate of the 
sidereal chronometer is also supposed to be known. 

Note the chronometer time of transit of the moon's bright limb 
over each wire of the instrument. In this case, as with a star, the 
time of culmination is found by reducing the observations to the 
middle wire and then correcting for the three instrumental errors. 
Sec Form 1. But in case of the moon these reductions and correc- 
tions take a somewhat modified form due to the two facts that the 
moon has a proper motion in E. A., and also a very sensible parallax 
in E. A. when on a side wire. Hence (see note following) we have 

^ y ^ '/ 

- F instead of - sec tf', for the reduction to the middle wire, 

and ( 'I a + B b + Cc') F?m $' instead of A a + Jtb+ Cc, for the 
instrumental correction; and the Equation of the Transit Instru- 
ment as applied to this case becomes, 

*, = V ^ V+ E + (A a + B b + C c') 2? cos $'. (170) 

In this equation 2 T is the sum of the observed times, n the num- 
ber of wires used, 2 i the sum of their equatorial intervals, d' the 
moon's declination as seen, i.e., as affected by parallax, and 

TJ ri / A/ t\n * 60.1643 

F = [1 - p sm n cos (0 - *)] sec * - 



p being the earth's radius at place of observation in terms of the 
equatorial radius, n the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, 0' 
the geocentric latitude, (ftci) as already stated, and 6 the moon's 
geocentric declination. These quantities must be found before the 



136 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

reduction can be made. The mode of finding p and 0' has already 
been explained. To find n y 8, and (d a), note in addition to the 
transit of the moon's limb that of one or more stars at about the 
same altitude, and which culminate within a few minutes of the 
moon. The difference between the times of passing the middle 
wire applied to the star's E. A. will give an approximate value of 
<x t , from which an approximate longitude is determined as before 
explained. With this, TT may be taken from page IV, and d and 
(d a) from pp. V to XII, Monthly Calendar. F thus becomes 
known. Evidently 

6' = d p Trsin (0' 6) 

with sufficient accuracy, and the computation of a l can now be 
made. 

One of the greatest inaccuracies to bo apprehended is a failure 
to determine a very exact value of E for the instant of transit. 
This quantity may be eliminated, or very nearly so, as follows : 

If two or more fundamental stars, those whose places have been 
established with the highest degree of accuracy, be selected so that 
the mean of the times of their transits shall be very closely the time 
of transit of the moon's limb, then the mean of their equations will 
be, corresponding to a mean star, 

S V 2 i, 

a a - h-r n 8eo -rv a -r -f- c ; \ ) 

Subtracting from Eq. (170), since E and E B denote errors at 
almost the same instant, we have 



(172) 



in which E has disappeared. 

If E and E a differ, their difference will be simply the change of 
error in, for example, ten minutes, which can be accurately allowed 
for by the chronometer's well-established rate. Moreover, if the 
stars be selected so that their declinations differ but slightly from 



LONGITUDE. 137 

that of the moon, it is evident that the last terms of Eqs. (170) and 
(171) will be nearly the same, and that their difference in Eq. (172) 
will be a minimum. See expressions for A, B 9 and G Y , in connection 
with Form 1. 

By this method, therefore, theE. A. of the moon's limb, ot^ is, 
from Eq. (172), made to depend very largely upon the K. A. of 
fundamental stars; instrumental and clock errors being reduced to 
a minimum of effect. 

The stars should be selected from the Ephemeris in accordance 
with the above conditions, and observed in connection with the 
moon. 

4 To deduce Equation (170). 

In the Equation of the Transit instrument, tho quantities 

- sec d (embraced in T 7 ), and (Aa + Bb + GV) denote respect- 
ively the times required for a star whoso declination is S to pass 
from tho mean to the middle wire and from the middle wire to the 
meridian. In the case of the moon these intervals (or hour-angles) 
require modification, both on account of parallax and proper motion. 
The Ephemeris values of E. A. and Declination are given for 
an observer at the earth's center; but on account of our proximity 
to the moon, an observer on the surface always sees that body dis- 
placed in a vertical circle, which results in a displacement or paral- 
lax both in declination and (unless the body be on the meridian) 
E. A. Hence it is that when the moon's limb appears tangent to 
a side wire as at M' , Pig. 26, it is in reality at M. Therefore the 




Fio. 26. 



apparent hour-angle ZPM' requires a correction to reduce it to 
the true hour-angle Z P M 9 and the result is to be further modified 



138 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

due to the moon's own motion in 11. A. The following is based on 
the method given by Chaiivenet. 

To deduce the relation between the true and apparent hour- 
angles, let them be represented respectively by P and P', the cor- 
responding zenith distances by z and z', and the declinations by d 
and d', Z being the geocentric zenith. 

Then 

sin P : sin A : : sin z : cos #, 
sin P' : sin A : : sin z' : cos S ', 

sin P t sin z cos d 

' ' " ' ' 



sin P' ' " sin z' ' cos d" 

. ^ fl , sin z cos 6' 

sin P = sin P -. > -ST. 
sin z' cos o 



Or, since P and P' are very small when the limb is on a side wire, 
we have, expressing them both in seconds, 

p _ p , sin z cos ft 9 



P is the time which the limb with an hour-angle P 9 would require 
to reach the meridian if the moon had no proper motion. The 
actual interval is greater than P on account of the moon's contin- 
ual motion eastward or increase in 11. A., resulting in a retardation 
of its apparent diurnal motion. 

To determine this, the Ephemeris gives at intervals of one hour 
the moon's motion in seconds of R. A. in one mean solar minute 
= 6 a. One m. s. minute = GO X 1.0027:38 = 00.1643 sidereal 

seconds. Hence in one sidereal second the moon moves ~ - 

00.1643 

seconds eastward, and therefore its apparent diurnal motion west- 

ward is only 1 ~ in the same interval. In other words, 

00. 1 



this is the apparent rate of the moon in diurnal motion at the in- 



LONGITUDE. 139 

stant considered. Denote it by R. Then the time required to 
traverse the true hour angle P (or the apparent, P'), will be 

p, sin z cos d' 1 
sin z' cos 6 "If 

When the limb is on the mean of the wires, the apparent hour 

angle, P', from the middle wire becomes sec $' (since d' not d is 

n \ * > 

the declination of the point as observed), and when on the middle 
wire P' becomes [a sin (0 6') + b cos (0 6') + c'\ sec 6'. 

Hence to pass from the mean of the wires to the meridian re- 
quires 



sec 



8 ' + [a sin (0 - ') + b cos (0 - ') + c'\ sec tf'l 



^ sin 2! cos tf ' 1 2 i sin . . 
x SE7 -5S7 5 = IT > + (Aa 



1 1 



-f^-L BCC 8 -j; = ^ the Equation of the Transit instru- 
sin z JL\> 

ment as applied to the moon, becomes, designating the E. A. of the 
limb by a t9 



i = ^-^ + E + l F + (Aa + b+ Cc') FGOS d'. (170) 



For purposes of computation the value of -Fmay bo simplified 
by expressing -. , in terms of quantities given in the Ephemeris. 

Let TT = moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, p the parallax in 
altitude, and ,p as heretofore. 



140 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Then 

sin z __ sin (z 9 p) __ sin z' cos p cos 2' sinjp __ 

sin 2;' ~~ sin z' sin^' " 

cos ^? cos z 9 p sin TT ; 
since sinj? = p sin TT sin z 9 . 

Expanding cos z 9 = cos (z + JP)> placing sin a jo = and cos s = 
cos (0' (^), we have 

sin z . . . . 

: 7 = 1 p sm ^r cos (c> o ) 
sin z' vr / 

and 

JPrs [1 p sin TT cos (0' <?)] sec d -p. 

Evidently we may also write, 

<?' = d p TT sin (0' tf). 



4. longitude by Lunar Distances. On pp. XIII to XVIII of the 
Monthly Calendar in the Ephemeris arc found the true or geocen- 
tric distances of the moon's center from certain fixed stars, planets, 
and the sun's center, at intervals of 3 hours Greenwich mean time. 
If then an observer on any other meridian determine by observation 
one of these distances, and note the local mean time at the instant, 
he can by interpolation determine the Greenwich mean time when 
the moon had this distance, and hence the longitude from the 
difference of times. 

The planets employed are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and 
the fixed stars, known as the 9 lunar-distance stars, are a Arietis 
(Hamal), a Tauri (Aldebaran), /? Geminorum (Pollux), a L-onis 
(Regulus), of Virginis (Spica), a Scorpii (Antares), a Aquilse 
(Altair), a Piscis Australis (Fomalhaut), and a Pegasi (Markab). 
Prom this list the object is so selected that the observed distance 
shall not be much less than 45, although a less distance may be 
used if necessary. 

The distance observed is that of the moon's bright limb from a 
star, from the estimated center of a planet, or from the nearest 



LONGITUDE. 141 

limb of the sun. If the sextant telescope be sufficiently powerful 
to give a well-defined disc, we may measure to the nearest limb of 
the planet, and treat the observation as in the case of the sun. 
Thus in Fig. 27, letting Z represent the observer's zenith, and C" 




Fia. 27. 



and G" the observed places of the sun and moon respectively, the 
distance measured is #' M', from limb to limb. 

The effect of refraction is to make an object appear too high, and 
that of parallax, too low. In the case of the sun the former out- 
weighs the latter. In the case of the moon the reverse is true. 
Hence the true or geocentric places of the two bodies would be 
represented relatively by 8 and M y and the distance S M, from 
center to center, is the one desired. 

The outline of the method is as follows: 

Having measured the distance S f M', and corrected it for the 
two semi-diameters; and having also measured the altitudes of the 
two lower limbs and corrected them for the respective semi-diame- 
ters, we have in the triangle ZC' 0" the three sides given, from 
which we find the angle at Z. Then having corrected the observed 
altitudes for refraction, semi-diameter and parallax, we have in the 
triangle Z S M, two sides and the included angle Z, to compute the 
opposite side 8 M. 

Before proceeding to the more definite solution, three points 
should be noticed. 

1st. The semi-diameter of the moon as seen from the surface of 
the earth is greater than it would appear if measured from the 
center of the earth, due to its less distance. Hence C" M' is an 




142 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

" augmented semi-diameter" and must be treated accordingly. The 
augmentation in case of the sun is insignificant. 

2d. Since refraction increases with the zenith distance, the re- 
fraction for the center of the sun or moon will be greater than that 
for the upper limb, and that of the lower limb will be greater than 
/ d that of the center. The apparent distance 
of the limbs is therefore diminished, and the 
whole disc, instead of being circular, presents 
an oval figure, whose vertical diameter is the 
least, and horizontal diameter the greatest, 
as shown in Fig. 28. Therefore if c d denote 
the direction of the measured distance, the 
assumed semi-diameter, cf, will be in excess 
by the amount e /, and must be corrected 
accordingly. This correction becomes of 
FIG. 28. importance if the altitude of either sun or 

moon be less than 50 at the moment of observation. 

3d. Since the vertical line at the station does not in general 
pass through the earth's center, but intersects the axis at a point 
R. (see Fig. 17), it is most convenient to reduce our observations at 
first to the point R, regarding the earth as a sphere with R as a 
radius, and then to apply the small correction due to the distance 
C R, in order to pass to the true or geocentric quantities. 

In the following explanation, the body whose distance from the 
moon is measured is taken to be the sun. The result will then 
apply equally to a planet if its limb be considered; if its center be 
considered, the expression for its semi-diameter becomes aero. If 
the body be a fixed star, the expressions for its semi-diameter and 
parallax become zero. 
Let A" = measured altitude of moon's lower limb, corrected for 

sextant errors. 

H" = measured altitude of sun's lower limb, also corrected. 
d n = measured distance between moon's bright limb and 

nearest limb of sun, also corrected. 
T = local mean solar time at instant of measuring e?". 
L' = an assumed approximate longitude. 
= latitude. 

Note the readings of the barometer and of the attached and ex- 
ternal thermometers. 



LONGITUDE. 148 

With T and Z', take from the Ephemeris the following quan- 
tities : 

s = geocentric semi-diameter of moon. 
n = equatorial horizontal parallax of moon. 
d = geocentric declination. 
S = semi-diameter of sun. 
D = geocentric declination of sun. 
P = equatorial horizontal parallax of sun. 
The first two are obtained from page IV, monthly calendar, or 
pages 385 to 393 Ephemeris. 

The third from pages V to XII, monthly calendar, or pages 385 
to 393 Ephemeris. 

The fourth and fifth from page I, monthly calendar, or from 
pages 377 to 385 Ephemeris. 

The sixth from page 278 Ephemeris. 

We must now correct d" for both semi-diameters, augmented in 
case of the moon. Therefore with li" + 8 and ,v as arguments, enter 
the proper table and take out the amount of augmentation. In the 
absence of tables this may be computed by the formula, 

Augmentation = k s* sin (h" + s) + $ k* s* + $ h* s 3 sin a (h" + s); 

in which log k = 5.25020 10, and s is expressed in seconds. (For 
deduction of this series see Note 1.) 

Add this correction to s and we have s' = moon's semi-diameter 
as seen from point of observation. 

We now have (neglecting the distortion of discs), the following 
values of the observed quantities reduced to the centers of the ob- 
served bodies, viz. : 



Using these quantities we may now find the correction due to 
distortion of discs (or refractive distortion), as follows: From 
tables of mean refraction take out the refractions corresponding to 
the altitude (h' + s') of the upper limb, to that (// s') of the 
lower, and that (h') of the center. The difference between the 
latter and each of the other two gives very nearly the contraction 
of the upper and lower semi-diarneters of the moon. This may be 
repeated once if the refractions are very great due to a small alti~ 



144 PRACTICAL ASTROMOMT. 

tude. The mean of the two is the contraction of the vertical 
semi-diameter due to refraction. Denote it by A s, and the same 
quantity in case of the sun by A S. 

These quantities are represented by a I in Fig. 28, and from them 
we are to find ef, or the distortion in the direction of d n '. This is 
found to vary very nearly as cos" q, q being the angle which d" 
makes with the vertical. (See Note 2.) 

The values of q, or Q in case of the sun, will be found from the 
three sides of the triangle Z C' C 1 ', Fig. 27. Their values, page 6, 
Book of Formulas, will be, if m = (d'+ h' + H'). 

cos m sin (m II') . . ~ cos m sin (m h 9 ) 

sin' J0 = - - r , n L 9 sin 2 1 Q = r- ~TT- m 

* sin d' cos h 9 sin d cos H 9 

And the refractive distortions will be, from the above, 

A R cos 2 0, and A S cos 2 Q. 
< 
Hence the fully corrected values of the measured quantities are 

d 9 = d" + (*' - A s cos 2 0) + (tf - A 8 cos 2 #), 
// = U" + s' - A.?, //' = H" + S - A S. 

We now have the distance (d'), between the centers and the 
altitudes of the centers (h 9 and H'), as these quantities would have 
been had we been able to measure them directly. We must now 
ascertain what they would have been had we measured them at the 
center of the earth; or, as 1 a first step, had we measured them at the 
point R. 

This is necessary, because the earth not being a perfect sphere, 
the transference of an observer to the center would not displace a 
body (apparently) toward the astronomical, but toward the geocen- 
tric zenith, and the angle at Z, Fig. 27, would no longer be com- 
mon to the two triangles. But by regarding the earth as a sphere 
with radius R, Fig. 17, the two zeniths will coincide, and the 
reduction therefore be easily made. Afterward a correction is to be 
applied due to a transference of the observer from R to C. 

Therefore let //,, h t , and d i9 be the values of H', h', and d 9 , 
when refeired to R, and let r t and r be the actual refractions for 



LONGITUDE. 



145 



H' and k'. It will be shown in Note 3 that n (the angle sub- 
tended by the equatorial radius at the distance of the moon) is to 

n t> the angle subtended by R, as a, the equatorial radius, is to -. 

Therefore n i the parallax at R, equals ~. On account of the greater 

distance of the sun, P will be practically the same for R as for O. 
Therefore, Art. 83, Young, 

h t = h' r + n t cos (h' r) 
II, = H'-r, + P cos (H 9 - r,) 
In order to find d s9 let S and Jf (Fig. 29) represent the places 




Pro. 29. 

of the sun and moon as seen from the point R without refraction, 
given by H,, /*,, and d t \ and 0' and C" the places as observed, 
(given by H', Ji f and d f ). 
Then in triangle Z C' C", 

cos d f sin h f sin H' ^ n , . _ _ 
cos Z = ^ , --, . Page 6, Book of Formulas. 



146 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 

From triangle Z 8 M, 

cos d, sin h. sin 77, ^ /. T> i j? T^ i 
cos Z = 2- ' , ---- ^77 - '. Page 6, Book of Formulas. 
cos A, cos 77, & ' 

Equating these two values of cos Z, adding unity to both mem- 
bers and reducing, 

cos d' + CQS (A' ~M?Q cos <lj + cos (/*, + II,) p 
cos 7^' cos 77' "~~ cos A, cos 77, ' to 

Make m = (A'+77'+d')> whence cos (A'4 //') =cos (2 wi-rf'). 
Substituting in the preceding equation, reducing the first member 
by formulas 4, page 4, 11, page 2, and 13, page 1, and the second 
member by formulas 9 and 10, page 2, we have 

cos m cos (m d') __ cos 2 ^ (A, + // y ) sin 2 ^ r7 y 
"~ cos A' cos 7/ ; ~" cos h t cos //^ 

Whence, 

Q i 7 i /? i rr\ COS///. COS 77 

sm a i ^ = cos a i (A, + H,) - --, cos m cos (m - <P). 



This may bo placed in a more convenient form by assuming 
cos A y cos 77", cos wi cos (m d') . , , _ 

, _ ' ____ i _____ -_>_ __ _ : ' = Hill ylf 

cos V cos yy oos a i (A, + 77,) 
Whence sin \ d t = cos (A, + 7T,) cos Jf. 

We now have the distance between the centers as it would have 
been without refraction, if measured from the point It. This is 
represented by the line S M. (Fig. 29.) 

The transference of the observer to the, center will, since this 
motion lies wholly in the plane P M R, have the effect of appar- 
ently diminishing the declination of the moon, causing it to appear 
at M', while the position of S will not be sensibly changed. 



LONGITUDE. 147 

It will be shown in Note 4 that the correction to be added to 
d t (SM)iogid(SM') is 

7t e* sin /sinD __ j^^X __ . /sinZ) sin# 

"" ~ 



__ 
\sm ^ tan^ "" \ 



e being the eccentricity of the meridian = 0.0816967. 

Hence we have finally, denoting the geocentric distance between 
centers by d, 

7 7 , . /sin D sin <5\ 

d U, + 7t I I r 7 

\siii d 4 tan d t ) 

This operation of finding d from the observed quantities is called 
" Clearing the Distance." 

It is now necessary to find the Greenwich mean time when the 
moon and sun were separated by the distance d. For this purpose 
enter the Ephemeris at the pages before referred to, and find there- 
in two distances between which d falls. Take out the nearer of 
these and the Greenwich hours at the head of the same column. 
Then if A denote the difference between the two distances, and A ' 
the difference between the nearer one and d, both in seconds, we 
shall have, using only first differences, for the correction, t, to be 
applied to the tabular time taken out, 

qh 

A:3 h ::A':* h .-.** = l A '. 

A 

3 h 
Or log P = log f- log A '. 

10S00 8 
Or in seconds, log t* log - -f log A '. 

10800 
The logarithms of are given in the columns headed " P. 

L. of Diff." (Proportional Logarithm of Difference.) Hence we 
have simply to add the common logarithm of A ' in seconds to the 
proportional logarithm of the table to obtain the common logarithm 
of the correction in seconds of time. 



148 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY 

To take account of second 4jfterences, take half the difference 
between the preceding and following proportional logarithms. 
With this and / as arguments enter table 1, Appendix to Ephem- 
eris, and take out the corresponding seconds, which are to be added 
to the time before found when the proportional logarithms are 
decreasing, and subtracted when they are increasing. 

Denote the final result by T g , and the difference of longitude 
by A. Then 

\=T - T. (173) 

The mode given above for clearing the distance is quite exact, 
but somewhat laborious. There are, however, several approximative 
solutions, readily understood from the foregoing, which may be 
employed where an accurate result is not required, and which may 
be found in any work on Navigation. 

The method by " Lunar Distances " is of great use in long voy- 
ages at soa or in expeditions by land, where no meridian instru- 
ments are available, and when the rate of the chronometers can no 
longer be relied upon. 

It is important to note that if Tin Eq. (173), denote the chro- 
nometer time of observation, instead of the true, local time, T g T 
will be the error of the chronometer on Greenwich time. In this 
way chronometers may bo " checked." If, however, T denote the 
true local time, obtained by applying the error on local time to the 
chronometer time, then the same equation gives the longitude. 

Observations. It is necessary that A", //", and d" should cor- 
respond to the same instant 7\ Hence observe the following order 
in making observations. Take an altitude of the sun's limb, then 
an altitude of the moon's limb, then the distance, carefully noting 
the time, then an altitude of the moon's limb, then an altitude of 
the sun's limb. A mean of the respective altitudes of the two limbs 
will give very nearly the altitudes at the instant of measuring the 
distance. 

For greater accuracy, several measurements of the distance may 
be made, and the mean adopted. Also, when possible, at least two 
stars should be used on opposite sides of the moon, for the purpose 
of eliminating instrumental errors. 

The accuracy of the result will depend upon the observer's skill 
with the sextant, and mode of reduction followed. 



LONGITUDE. 149 

I* 1. To Find Augmentation of Moon's Semi-diameter. In de- 
termining the augmentation of the moon's semi-diameter due to its 
altitude, the elliptic! ty of the earth is practically insensible. There- 
fore (Young, p. 62), denoting the altitude of the center (h" + s) 
by A', the parallax in altitude by p, and the augmented semi-diameter 

by*', 

, cos h' 



Augmentation = = ,'_,=, ( ^' -=L &'l\ 

' 



V 
By page 4, Book of Formulas, 

cos V cos (A' -f ?) 2 sin (A' + A' -f-^) sin ^?. 





7Ti t r sin (A' + 4-0) sin 4 w. 
(A' + />) v ' ^ ^/ 2 ^ 



o 

COS 

Expanding the sine and cosine of the sums, writing p for sin 
p, and unity for cos \ p, we have 

~~* cos A' p sin A' * 

p = TrcosA' (Young, p. 61). 

According to the Tables of the Moon, the relation between it 
and 8 is constant, such that 

n 3.6697 s. 

Hence p = 3.6697 s cos A'. 
Designating this numeral by &', 

c _k's* '(sin A' + i &' * cos 8 A^) 

l k' s sin A' 
By division, 

G = V s 9 sin A' + ^ A' 2 5 s + &' a s a sin" A' + etc. 



150 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Multiplying by sin 1" to reduce to seconds, 

G-ks* sin li' + \l? s 3 + \ s* sin 2 W + etc., (174) 

in which log Jc = 5.2502 10. 

j 2. To Deduce the Law of Refractive Distortion. In Fig. 28, 
let h' denote the altitude of the center, and li" that of any point of 
the limb, as/. Then the difference of mean refraction for c and/ 
will be (Young, p. 64), 

JF= a (cot A' -cot A"), (1) 

in which a is the constant 60".6. 

Denoting the angle a c/by q, and the semi-diameter by s 9 



(2) 

Prom Trigonometry, 

_ 1 tan A' tan (s cos q) 

tan h f -\- tan (s cos q) * 

Substituting in (1), and writing s cos q tan 1" for tan (s cos g), 
we have, 

Z7 _ / 5 cos <? ^ an 1" + s cos ? tan l /; tan 9 7A 
"" \ tan 2 li' + s cos <7 tan 1" tan A' / 

The last term in the denominator is insignificant compared with 
tan 9 li* \ hence 

F = a cosec 2 W s cos q tan 1", (3) 

which by (1) and (2) will be the difference between that ordinate 
of the ellipse and the circle which passes through/. 
Hence the line e/will be, 

Eefractive Distortion = a cosec 1 A' s tan 1" cos* q. 



LONGITUDE. 151 

If q = o, we have a 5 = contraction of vertical semi-diameter = 
As = a cosec 3 li' s tan 1". Hence finally, 

Kefractive Distortion = As cos' g'. 

| 3. To Deduce the Parallax for the Point K. 

By making x == in Equation (95), and reducing by (108), (99) 
and (100), we have for the distance R (Fig. 17 or 29), 

a c* sin 



Vl - e* sin 3 
Denoting the distance R by y, the triangle ROC gives 

* . ,, ... ,, 

: y : : sin (0 0') : cos 0'. . 



a . , 
r 1 e sm' 

_ e 7 sin cos 0' 



~ sin (0 - 0') yr^"7sln r 0" 
Developing sin (0 0'), cancelling and applying (125), 




~~ 



Comparing with second part of (112) it is seen that the denom- 
inator is sensibly the value of p expressed in terms of a as unity. 
Hence 

a 



The angles at the moon subtended bv the two lines a and - 
h P 

will be proportional to those lines. Therefore 

a 
*:*,:::-. 



+fa 4. To Determine the Difference between a t and fl, due to a 
Transference of the Observer from R to C. 



152 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

By the previous note we have (Fig. 29), 

a e* sin 



RC = 



Vl e 2 sin 3 0* 



The perpendicular distance, C N, from the center to the line 
R My is, with an error entirely negligible, 

a e 1 sin cos d 
' Vr^*sm !l ~0" 

As before, the angle at the moon subtended by this line will be 

a e* sin cos d n __ n <? sin cos d 
Vl e a sin a ^ 4/1 6* sin" 

which is therefore the angular apparent displacement of the moon, 
represented by the arc M M' (Fig. 29). 

Denote it by m. Then, in the triangles P M' Ft and M M' S, 

__ cos d, cos w cos a? __ sin D sin # cos of 
~~" sin m sin / cos d 1 sin d 

Keducing, replacing cos m by unity, 
cos d t cos d 

/sin J9_ __ sin tf cos d\ 




= sin m 



:r 
\cos o 



cos 



y 



FIG. 30. 



From Fig. 30, it is seen that when 
d t and d are nearly equal, as in the 
present case, we may replace cos d f 
cos d by sin (d d^) sin d t . 

Therefore 



sin (d rf.) = sin m f 
v " \co 



sin /> 



Or 



k cos d sin ^ y cos (^ sin dj 

r)- (I??) 



\sin 



sin 
tan i 



OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDES. 153 



OTHER METHODS OP DETERMINING LONGITUDE. 

1st. If two stations are so near each other that a signal made at 
either, or at an intermediate point, can he observed at both, the 
time may be noted simultaneously by the chronometers at the two 
stations, and the difference of longitude thus deduced. An appli- 
cation of the same system, by means of a connected chain of signal 
stations, will give the difference of longitude between two remote 
stations. The signals are usually flashes of light either reflected 
sunlight or the electric light, passed through a suitable lens. 

2d. By noting the time of beginning or ending of a lunar or 
solar eclipse, or by occupations of stars by the moon. For these 
methods, see various Treatises on Astronomy. 

3d. By Jupiter's Satellites. a. From their eclipses. The 
Washington mean-times of the disappearance of each satellite in 
the shadow of the planet, and reappearance of the same, are accu- 
rately given in the Ephemeris, pp.453-473, accompanied by diagrams 
of configuration for convenience of reference. A full explanation 
of the diagrams is given on p. 44!). An observer who has noted one 
of these events, has only to take the difference between his own 
local time of observation and that given in the Ephemeris, to obtain 
his longitude. This method is defective, since a satellite has a sen- 
sible diameter and does not disappear or reappear instantaneously. 
The more powerful the telescope employed, the longer will it con- 
tinue to show the satellite after the first perceptible loss of light. 
These facts give rise to discrepancies between the results of differ- 
ent observers, and even between those of the same observer with 
different instruments. Both the disappearance and reappearance 
should therefore be noted by the same person with the same instru- 
ment, and a mean of the results adopted. The first satellite is to 
be preferred, as its eclipses occur more frequently and more sud- 
denly, although both disappearance and reappearance cannot be 
observed. 

6. From their occult at ions by the body of the planet. The times 
of disappearance and reappearance to the nearest Minute only y are 
given on same pages of the Ephemeris. Since the times are only 
approximate, they simply serve to enable two observers on different 



154 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

meridians to direct their attention to the phenomenon at the proper 
moment. A comparison of their times will then give their relative 
longitude. 

c. From their transits over Jupiter's disc. 

d. From the transits of their shadows over Jupiter's disc. The 
approximate times of ingress and egress, to be used as in case &, are 
given on same page,s of the Ephemeris, for cases c and d. 

Application to Explorations and Surveys. On explorations, arid 
reconnoissances for more exact surveys, the observer will usually be 
provided only with a chronometer, sextant, and artificial horizon, 
with probably the usual meteorological instruments. 

The chronometer should be carefully rated and have its error on 
the local time of some comparison meridian (e.g., that of Washing- 
ton) accurately determined for some given instant, so that, by ap- 
plying the rate, its error on the same local time may be found 
whenever desired. 

The sextant should have its eccentricity determined before 
starting, since this error often exceeds any ordinary index error, 
and cannot be eliminated by adjustment. 

The observer should be able to recognize by name several of the 
principal Ephemeris stars. To determine the coordinates of his 
station when they are entirely unknown, he should first find the 
chronometer error on his own local time, using preferably the 
method by " equal altitudes of a star," since, as has been seen, he 
will then be independent of any knowledge of the star's declination, 
his own time, latitude, longitude, or instrumental errors. 

Observations for latitude may be made at any convenient time 
by " circum-meridian altitudes " of a south and north star, or of a 
south star only, combined with " Polaris off the meridian," the 
reductions being made by aid of the chronometer error just re- 
ferred to. 

The method by " circumpolars " may also be used as a verifi- 
cation when applicable, the reduction being very simple. 

The longitude is known as soon as the chronometer error on 
local time is known, by comparing this with its known error on the 
local time of the comparison meridian. However large the rate of 
a chronometer, it should be nearly constant; but after some time 
spent in traveling, with possible exposure to extremes of tempera- 
ture, its indications of the comparison meridian time are rendered 



OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDES. 165 

somewhat uncertain by the accumulation of unknown errors, thus 
introducing the same uncertainties into our longitudes. In such 
cases the method by " lunar distances " will afford an approximate 
reestablishment of the chronometer error on the comparison merid- 
ian time, or a correction to an assumed approximate longitude. 

If it be impracticable to find the local time by equal altitudes as 
recommended, on account of clouds or the length of time involved, 
it may be found by " single altitudes " of an east and a west star 
(or of a single star when necessary, either east or west), an approxi- 
mate value of the latitude required in the computation being found 
from the best obtainable value of the meridian altitude of the star 
observed for latitude. With the error thus found the latitude is 
found as before, which, if it differs materially from the assumed 
approximate value, must be used in a recomputation of the time. 
From this the longitude follows as before. 

If the latitude be known or approximately so, as at a fixed sta- 
tion or when tracing a parallel of latitude, time and longitude will 
.be most expeditiously determined by "single altitudes." 

In certain classes of work it is necesstiry to obtain approximate 
coordinates by day, in which case of course the sun must be used in 
accordance with the same general principles as far as applicable. 

In all sextant work, except in methods by equal altitudes, its 
adjustments and errors must be carefully attended to. 

In extensive surveys and geodetic work, where very precise results 
are required, the methods employed are " Time by Meridian Tran- 
sits " with the reduction by Least Squares, Longitude by the Elec- 
tric Telegraph, and Latitude by the Zenith Telescope. The ob- 
serving-instrumcnts should be mounted on small masonry piers or 
wooden posts set about four feet in the earth and isolated from the 
surrounding surface by a narrow circular trench one or two feet 
deep. 

The exact location of an astronomical station is preserved, if de- 
sired (as when the station is one extremity of a base-line), by a 
cross on a copper bolt set in a block of stone embedded two or three 
feet below the surface, the exact location of which is recorded by 
suitable references to surrounding permanent objects. 

Often it is required to determine the coordinates of a point 
where it is impracticable to locate an astronomical station, as for 
example alight-house or a central and prominent building of a city. 



156 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

In such a case, having made the requisite observations at a suitable 
station in the vicinity, and having computed by (111) and (114) the 
length in feet of one second in latitude and longitude, measure the 
true bearing and distance of the point from the station, from which 
the coordinates of the former with respect to the latter are readily 
computed. 

In locating points at intervals on a line which coincides with a 
parallel of latitude, sextant observations for latitude which can bo 
quickly reduced will give, as just explained, the approximate dis- 
tance of the observer from the desired parallel, to the immediate 
vicinity of which he is thus enabled to proceed. At this point a 
complete scries of observations for latitude is made with the zenith 
telescope, and the resulting distance to the parallel carefully laid 
off due north or south. 

In this manner points about twenty miles apart were located on 
the 49th parallel between the U. S. and. the British Possessions. 

TIME OP CONJUNCTION OR OPPOSITION. 

Two celestial bodies are said to bo in conjunction when either 
their longitudes or their right ascensions are equal; and in opposition 
when they d iffer by 1 80. In the Ephemeris the conjunctions and op- 
positions of the moon or planets with respect to the sun refer to their 
longitudes. Conjunctions of the moon and planets or of the planets 
with each other refer to their right ascensions. In other cases, when 
used without qualification, the terms usually refer to longitudes. 

The longitudes of the principal bodies of the solar system (or 
the data from which they may be computed) are 'given in the 
Ephemeris for (usually) each Greenwich mean moon. To find the 
time of conjunction, determine by inspection of the tables the two 
dates between which the longitudes of the bodies become equal, and 
denote the earlier date by T. Take from the tables four consecutive 
longitudes for each body two next preceding and two next follow- 
ing the time of conjunction. Form for each the first and second 
differences, which give, from (42), 

T r i 7 , n * n -i 

L n = L -f nd, -j d^ (a) 

and 

Z n =i' + 7<+^pd/ (ft) 



TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE. 157 

in which L n is the unknown common longitude at conjunction, and 
n in the second member is the required fractional portion of the 
interval between the consecutive epochs of the tables. 
Subtracting and collecting the terms 



(c) 



from which n is found by solution; the corresponding portion of 
the constant tabular interval is then added to T, thus giving the 
Greenwich time of conjunction. The time on any meridian to the 
west of Greenwich is found by subtracting the longitude. The 
value of n should be carried to three places of decimals to obtain 
the time to the nearest minute. 

The method of finding the time of opposition is obvious from 
the above, noting that (c) becomes 



= 180 + L ' - T * 



Except when the moon is involved, the use of first differences will 
usually bo found sufficient. 

The times of conjunction and opposition in right ascension are 
found in accordance with the same principles. 

TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE. 

To determine the local mean solar time of a given body coming 
to the meridian, it is to be noted that this time (P) is simply the 
hour angle of the mean sun at that instant, and that this hour 
angle is, by the general formula, P = sidereal time E. A. of the 
mean sun. 

Now the sidereal time at the instant is equal to the R. A. of the 
body on meridian, and this is equal to its R. A. at the preceding 
Greenwich mean moon (rv) plus its increase of R. A. since that 
epoch, which is equal to m (/^ + A), A being- the longitude from 
Greenwich, and m the body's hourly increase in R. A. Or, sidereal 
time = a + m (P + A). 

Similarly we have, denoting the hourly increase of mean sun's 
R, A. by s, R, A. of mean sun = ot 9 + s (P + A). 



158 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Therefore by the preceding formula, 

P = [a + m (P + A)] - K+ , (P + A)]. 

Since m and 5 denote seconds of change per hour, A and P in 
the second member are expressed in hours, and m (P + A) and 
3 (P + A) as also a and a s in seconds; therefore P in the first 
member is expressed in seconds. To express it in hours, we have 



P = 



(P + A)] 



3600 
Solving/ we have 

P = ** ~~ (YS ~^~ ^ ( m """ g ) 
3600 - (m s) ' 

In this equation a and tf s are given directly in the Ephemeris, 
\ is supposed to be known, and ,<? is constant and equal to 9.8565 
seconds; m is obtained from the column adjacent to the one giving 
value of of, and should be "taken so that its value will denote the 
change at the middle instant between the Greenwich mean moon 
and the instant under discussion, viz., (P + A), as near as can be 
determined. 

For the moon, whose motion in R. A. is varied, and for an in- 
ferior planet, a second approximation may be necessary. If the 
planet have a retrograde motion, m becomes negative. If the body 
be a star, m becomes zero. 

If the sidereal time of culmination be required, the above 
formula holds, substituting for the mean sun the vernal equinox, 
whose R. A. and hourly motion in R. A. are zero. 

Hence, 



3600 - m 
For a star, P' = a. 

AZIMUTHS. 

Definitions. In surveys and geodetic operations it often becomes 
necessary to determine the "azimuth" of lines of the survey; i.e., 
the angle between the vertical plane of the line and the plane of the 
true meridian through one of its extremities; or, in other words, 
the true bearing of the line. 



AZIMUTHS. 



159 



For reasons given under the head of Latitude, the geodetic may 
differ slightly from the astronomical azimuth of a line. Only the 
latter will be referred to here, and it is manifestly the angle at the 
astronomical zenith included between two vertical circles, one coin- 
ciding with the astronomical meridian, and the plane of the other 
containing the line in question. 

Outline. In outline, the method consists in measuring with the 
" Altazimuth " or " Astronomical Theodolite " the horizontal angle 
which is included between the line and some celestial body whose 
R. A. and Decimation are well known. Then having ascertained 
by computation the true azimuth of the body at the instant of its 
bisection by the vertical wire, the sum of the two will be the true 
azimuth of the line. As will be shown later, the celestial bodies 
best adapted for the determination of azimuths are circumpolar 
stars. For this reason azimuths in surveys and geodetic work are 
usually reckoned from the North Point through the East to 360. 

Instruments. The " Astronomical Theodolite " is provided with 
both horizontal and vertical circles. In geodetic work the latter is 
used largely as a mere finder, 
but the former is often of 
great size usually from one 
to two feet in diameter, and 
very, accurately graduated 
throughout. For reading 
the circle, it is provided 
with several reading-micro- 
scopes fitted with microm- 
eters, in lieu of verniers; 
and in order that any angle 
may be measured with dif- 
ferent parts of the circle, 
the latter is susceptible of 
motion around the vertical 
axis of the instrument. 
Eccentricity and errors of 
graduation are thus in a 
measure eliminated. FIO. si. 

To mark the direction of the line at night a bull's-eye lantern 
in a small box firmly mounted on a post is ordinarily used ; the 




160 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

light being thrown through an aperture of such* size as to present 
about the same appearance as the star observed. To avoid refocus- 
ing for the star, the lantern should be distant not less than a mile. 
If it is impracticable to place the lantern exactly on the line whose 
azimuth is required it may be placed at any convenient point, its 
azimuth determined at night, and the angle between it and the line 
measured by day; the aperture being then covered symmetrically 
by a target of any approved pattern. For convenience in the 
following discussion the target will be supposed to be on the line. 

Classification of Azimuths. Azimuths of the line with refer- 
ence to the star are taken in " sets," the number of measurements 
of the angle in each set being dependent upon whether the final 
result is to be a primary or secondary azimuth. Primary azimuths 
are employed in determining the direction of certain lines con- 
nected with the fundamental or primary triangulation of a survey, 
and each set consists of from 4 to 6 measurements of the angle in 
each position of the instrument. The final result is required to 
depend upon several sets, with stars in different positions (generally 
not less than five, and often many more). The error of the chro- 
nometer (required in the reductions), together with its rate, are de- 
termined by very careful time observations with a transit. 

Secondary azimuths are employed in determining the direction 
of certain lines connected with the secondary or tertiary triangles 
of a survey. The number of measurements in a set is about one 
half or one third that in a set for a primary azimuth; the number 
of sets is also reduced, and the time observations are usually made 
with a sextant. The sun is used in connection with secondary 
azimuths only. 

Selection of Stars. The true azimuth of the star at the instant 
of measuring the horizontal angle between it and the line is ob- 
tained by a solution of the Astronomical Triangle. In order to 
make such a selection of stars that errors in the assumed data shall 
have a minimum eifect on the star's computed azimuth, we have 

tan A = ^r-~^ n -^ 75 (178) 

cos tan o sin cos P v ' 

Errors in the assumed values of F, 0, or tf will produce errors in 
the computed azimuth, those in 6 being for obvious reasons usually 
insignificant and least likely to occur. 



AZIMUTHS. 161 

Taking the reciprocal of (178), differentiating and reducing the 
first term of the resulting second member by 

cos a cos if} = sin cos S cos sin $ cos P, 
the second by 

sin a = sin sin # + cos cos 6* cos P, 
and the third tyy 

sin A : sin P : : cos d : cos a, 
we have 

, A cos d cos ?/> 7 _ . sin , - 

^ ^4 = r rf P + tan sm ^1 6? - d <J. 

cos a ^ cos a 

From this equation it is seen that if we select a close circumpolar 
star, any error (d P) in the dock correction or in the star's II. A., 
or any error (d 0) in the assumed latitude, will produce but slight 
effect on the computed azimuth, since cos d and sin A will each be 
very small. If in addition the star be at elongation (t/> = 90), the 
first mentioned error will produce no effect, while sin A, although 
at a maximum for the star, will still be very small. (In latitude of 
West Point the azimuth of Polaris does not exceed 1 40'.) At 
elongation the effect of errors (d d) in 6 will be a maximum, 
although insignificant if d bo taken from the Ephemeris. 

But if the star be observed at both east and west elongations, 
the effect of d d and d will disappear in the mean result, since 
the computed azimuth (reckoned from the north through the east to 
360), if erroneous, will be as much too large in one case as too 
small in the other. 

Circumpolar stars at their elongations (both) are most favorably 
situated, therefore, for the determination of azimuths; and since 
experience gives a decided preference to stars in these positions, 
other cases will not be considered, except to remark that the As- 
tronomical Triangle then ceases to be right angled. 

The stars a (Polaris), d, and A, Ursae Minoris, and 51 Cephei, 
are those almost exclusively used (although the latter two cannot 
be used with small instruments). Their places are given in a 



162 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

special table of the Ephemeris, pp. 302-13, for every day in the 
year, and they are so distributed around the pole that one or more 
will usually be available for observation at some convenient hour. 
Of these four, X Ursae Minoris is both the smallest and nearest to 
the pole. For the large instruments it therefore presents a finer 
and steadier object than any of the others. For the small instru- 
ments suitable stars may be selected from the Ephemeris. 

Measurements of Angles with Altazimuth. In order to under- 
stand the measurement of the difference of azimuth of two points 
at unequal altUudes,\Qi us suppose that the horizontal circle of the 
"Altazimuth" has its graduations increasing to the right (or like 
those of a watch-face), and that absolute azimuths are reckoned 
from the north point through the east to 360, the origin of the 
graduation being at the point 0, Figure 32. 

The angle N L will then be the absolute azimuth of the origin 




FIG. 32. 



of graduations = 0, and if tho instrument be in adjustment and 
A 8 and A i denote the absolute azimuths of the star and line respec- 
tively, we shall have 

A* = + R' \ in which R and 

angles L 8 and L L' respectively, and may be considered as the 
readings of the instrument when pointed upon the star and over 
the line. These equations will be somewhat modified if the instru- 
ment be not in perfect adjustment. This will usually be the case. 
Let us suppose that the end of the telescope axis to the observer's 
left is elevated so that the axis has an inclination of o seconds of arc. 
Then if the telescope be horizontal and pointing 11? the direction 



AZIMUTHS. 163 

L S, it will, when moved in altitude, sweep to the right of the star, 
and the whole instrument must be moved to the left to bring the 
line of collimation on the star. The reading of the instrument will 
thus be diminished to ;*, and we shall have the proper reading, 
R = r + a correction. The amount of this correction is readily 
seen, from the small right-angled spherical triangle involved (of 
which the required distance is the base), to be b cot z. In the same 
way it is seen from the principles explained under " Equatorial 
Intervals/' etc., that if the middle wire be to the left of the line of 
collimation by c seconds of arc, r must receive the correction 
c cosec z. Hence when both these errors exist together, we shall 
have, z' denoting the zenith distance of the target, 

A 8 = + r + I cot z + c cosec z, (179) 

AI = + r' + I' cot z 9 + c cosec ', (180) 

since c remains unchanged, while b is subject to changes. 
Subtracting, 

AI A 8 = (r' + V cot z') (r + b cot z) + c (cosec z' cosec z). 

Since by reversing the instrument the sign of c is changed, but 
not altered numerically, we may, if an equal number of readings in 
the two positions be taken, drop the last term as being eliminated 
in the mean result. With this understanding, the equation will be 

A l - A a = (r' + V cot z') -(r+b cot z). (181) 

which gives the azimuth of the line with reference to the star, 
free from all instrumental errors, b is positive when the left 
end is higher, and its value, heretofore explained, is obtained by 
direct and reversed readings of both ends of the bubble, and is 

- (w + w') (e + e') \,d being the value of one division in 

seconds of arc. For stars at, or very near, elongation, it is evident 
that cot z may be replaced by tan 0, without material error; c is 
positive when middle wire is to the left of its proper position. 

For very precise work the above result requires a small correc- 
tion for diurnal aberration, the effect of which is to displace (appar- 



164 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

ently) a star toward the east point. For stars at elongation, this 
correction is 0".311 cos A e . (See Note 1.) 

In using the reading-microscopes, care should be taken to correct 
for " error of runs." When a microscope is in perfect adjustment, 
a whole number of turns of the micrometer screw carries the wire 
exactly over the space between two consecutive graduations of the 
circle. Due to changes of temperature, etc., the distance between 
the micrometer and circle may change, thus altering the size of the 
image of a " space." The excess of a circle division over a whole 
number of turns is called the " Error of Runs." This error is de- 
termined by trial, and a proportional part applied to all readings of 
minutes and seconds made with the microscope. 

Observations and Preliminary Computations. The observations 
and the preliminary computations are as follows : The error and 
rate of the chronometer, error of runs of the micrometers, collima- 
tion error and latitude are supposed to have been obtained with 
considerable accuracy. The apparent R. A. and declination for the 
time of elongation of the star to be used must be taken from the 
Ephemeris, or, if not given there, reduced from the mean places 
given in the catalogue employed, as explained under Zenith 
Telescope. 

Then for the star's hour-angle at elongation, cos P e = - ^. 

tan o 

." azimuth " sin^ e = - C S f. 

COS 

" " et zenith distance at " cos# e = : s> 

sin o 

" " sidereal time " " T = a P f . 

" " chronometer " " " T = T E, 

a being the R. A., and E the chronometer error. 

The instrument is then placed accurately over the station and 
levelled, so that everything will be in readiness to begin observations 
at about 20 W before the time of elongation as above computed. In 
the actual measurement of the angle several different methods have 
been followed. First, five or six pointings are made on the target, 
and for each pointing, the circle and all the microscopes are read; 
also if the angle of elevation of the target differ sensibly from zero 
(as would not usually be the case with the base-line of a survey) 
readings of the level, both direct and reversed, are made. If the 



AZIMUTHS. 166 

target be on the same level as the instrument, cot z 9 will be zero, 
and the level correction will disappear. Then five or six pointings 
are made on the star, and in addition to the above readings the 
chronometer time of each bisection is noted. The instrument is 
then reversed to eliminate error of collimation, and the above 
operations repeated, beginning with the star. In the second method 
alternate readings are made on the mark and star, star and mark, 
until five or six measurements of the angle have been made, the 
chronometer being read at each bisection of the star; the circle, 
microscopes and level as before. The instrument is then reversed, 
and the same operations repeated in the reverse order. The middle 
of the time occupied by the whole set should correspond very nearly 
to the time of elongation. Similar observations are then made, on 
the same or following nights, on other stars, combining both eastern 
and western elongations, and using different parts of the horizontal 
circle for the measurement. 

Reduction of Observations. Since the observations on the star 
have been made at different times, and since these correspond to 
different though nearly equal azimuths, the first step in the reduc- 
tion is to ascertain what each reading on the star would have been 
had the observation been made exactly at elongation. For this 
purpose find the difference between the chronometer time of each 
observation and the chronometer time of elongation as computed, 
applying the rate if perceptible. Let the sidereal interval between 
these two epochs bo denoted by r seconds. Then the elongation 
reading of the star would have been 

actual reading the expression 112.5 r* sin 1" tan A e , 

which denote by 0. (See Note 2.) 

[The quantity 112.5 r* sin 1" is almost exactly equal to the 
tabulated values of "m" in the "Reduction to the Meridian/' and 
may if desired be taken directly from those tables.] With a 
circle graduated as assumed, this correction would manifestly be 
negative for a western, and positive for an eastern, elongation. 
Hence Eq. (181) becomes, 

A t - A e = (r f + V cot z') -(r + bcotz C). (182) 
Each pair of observations (on the line and star) with the telescope 



166 PRACTICAL ASTkONOMf. 

"direct " gives a value of A l A e . If n d be the number of such 



_ 

pairs, the mean will be - , to which if A e (positive for 

n d 

eastern, negative for western, elongations) be added as heretofore 

Ccos S \ 
sin A e = - 7 , we shall have the true bearing of the 
cos <p J J 

line for instrument " direct" 

Similarly, for instrument " reversed," we shall have 

2( A t - A.) 
~ 



from which by adding A e we obtain the true bearing of the line for 
instrument reversed. 

The mean of the two is the true bearing of the line as given by 
the star employed. 

[For the greatest precision, this must be corrected by adding 
fche diurnal aberration, 0".311 cos./!,,.] 

The adopted value of the azimuth of the line should rest upon 
AI least five such determinations. 




E 
Fio. 33. 



! 1. Diurnal Aberration in Azimuth. 

It has already been shown when treating of the transit instru- 
ment and in Art. 225 Young, that due to diurnal aberration all 
stars are apparently displaced toward the cast point of the horizon 
by 0".319 cos 0sin of a great circle, where is the angle made by 
the direction of a ray of light from the star with an east and west 
line (measured by S E, Fig. 33). 

To determine the effect of this small displacement on the 



AZIMUTHS. 167 

azimuth of a star, the right-angled triangle Z 8 M gives, denoting 
ZMbyb, 

. A cos 6 
sm A = 



SHI 2 

sin z cos A = sin sin J. 



Hence 



A cos cos A 
sm A = - 7.-^ --, 
sin sin 

, . cot # 

tan J = . - 7 . 

smd 

Differentiating 



cos A 7 
- dff. 



- . ~ -- -77-- 

sin b sin v sin sin z 

Substituting 0".319 cos sin 9 for d 6 (since is a decreasing 
function of A), 

j A 0".319cos^cos0 

$ ji. -- - -- . 
sin z 

Jj'or a close circurnpolar star at elongation 

cos = sin z, sensibly. 
Hence, 

^^4 = 0".319cos^l e . (183) 

^ 2. To Reduce an Azimuth Observed Shortly Before or After 
the Time of Elongation, to its Value at Elongation. 

If wo conceive the meridian to be revolved to the position of the 
declination circle passing through the point of elongation, evidently 
the arc of this circle intercepted between the vertical wire of the 
instrument and the point of elongation will have the same numeri- 
cal value as the " Reduction to the Meridian " deduced in connec- 
tion with the Zenith Telescope, viz. : 

i (15r) 8 sin 1" sin 3 d = 112.5 r a sin 1" sin d cos d. 



168 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

The angle at the zenith subtended by this arc, i.e., the correction 
to azimuth, is seen from the small right-angled triangle to be 



112.5 r> sin l"-.. (184) 

sm z e v ' 

Substituting cos d and sin d for sin d and cos d (d = polar dis- 
tance), making cos p = 1, and sin p = t&np (since the star is a close 
circumpolar), the last factor becomes 

*?5L1? = tan A* Hence tf = 112.5 r* sin I" tan J r 

sm 2 e 



DECLINATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 

The Declination of the Magnetic Needle may be found in ac- 
cordance with the same principles, regarding the magnetic meridian 
pointed out by the needle, as the line whose azimuth is to be found. 
Or, note the reading of the needle when the instrument carrying it 
is pointed accurately along a line whose true bearing or azimuth is 
known. Or, take the magnetic bearing of some known celestial 
body, and note the time T. Then P = T - a. This value of P 
in Eq. (178) gives the true azimuth, and the difference between 
this and the magnetic bearing gives the declination of the needle. 
Or, if tho time be not known, measure the altitude of the body and 
solve the Z P R triangle for A, knowing 0, dj and a. Then having 
noted the magnetic bearing of tho body at the instant of measuring 
the altitude, the difference is the declination of tho needle. 

One of the most accurate methods of laying out tho true merid- 
ian is by means of a Transit Instrument adjusted to the meridian, 
and whose instrumental errors a and c have been carefully deter- 
mined by star observations. 

SUN-DIALS. 

A sun-dial is a contrivance for indicating apparent solar time 
by means of the shadow of a wire or straight-edge cast on a properly 
graduated surface. The wire or straight-edge, called the style or 
gnomon, must be parallel to the earth's axis; i.e., it must be inclined 
to the horizontal by an angle equal to the latitude, and be in the 



SUN-DIALS. 



169 



meridian. The graduated surface, called the dial-face, is usually 
a plane, and made either of metal or smoothed stone. It may have 
any position with reference to the style (consistent with receiving 
its shadow throughout the day), although it is usually either hori- 
zontal or placed in the prime vertical. The two varieties are shown 
in Fig. a, the first being by far the more common. 




FIQ. a. 

The principle of the horizontal dial will be readily understood 
from an inspection of Fig. b. 

Let PP' be the axis of the celestial sphere, ^the zenith, A Q B 
the equinoctial, and A II B perpendicular to Z the plane of the 
dial face, the style extending from C in the direction of P. Then 
if a plane be passed through the style and the position of the sun, 
S, at any instant, it will cut from the celestial sphere the sun% 
hour-circle, and from the dial-face the line C IX, which is therefore 
the shadow of the style on the dial-face. The direction of this line 
is thus seen to be independent of the sun's declination (season of 
the year), and dependent only on his hour angle. Tf, therefore, we 
mark on the dial-face the various positions of this line correspond- 
ing to assumed hour angles which differ from each other by, for 



170 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



example, 3 45' or 15 minutes, instants of apparent solar time will 
be indicated by the arrival of the style's shadow at the correspond- 
ing line. This construction may be made as follows, noting that 




Fia. 6. 

the 12-o'clock line is the intersection of the dial-face with the 
vertical plane through the style. 

Suppose, for example, it were required to construct the 9-o*clock 
line. In the spherical triangle P IV TX right-angled at //' we 
have P H' = 0, and the angle at P = Z P 8 = 45, to determine 
the side H' IX '= #, given by the formula 

tan x = sin tan 45. 

Then with C as a center lay off an angle from CUT equal to the 
computed value of x, and draw the line IX. 
Generally, 

tan x = sin tan P 9 

P denoting the hour angle assumed. 

Values of x corresponding to intermediate values of P may be 
laid off with a pair of dividers. 

The dial-face may have any convenient form, circular, rectan- 
gular, or elliptical. The last is the best form (shown in Fig. ), 
since the axis can be so proportioned that the spaces along the edge 



SUN-D1AL8. 171 

will be nearly equal, thus greatly facilitating any subdivision. For 
the latitude of West Point, 11' should be about 2 times G A 
(Fig. a). If the plate be 18 or 20 inches long the subdivisions can 
be readily carried to minutes. 

Usually the style is n triangular-shaped piece of metal of a suf- 
ficient thickness to avoid deformation by accident say i or inch. 
In this case one edge will cast the shadow in the A.M., and the 
other in the P.M. Hence the graduations on either side of the 
12-o'clock line must be constructed using as a center the point 
where the shadow-casting edge pierces the plane of the dial-face. 
The plane of the style must be accurately perpendicular to the 
dial-face. 

Having been graduated, the sun-dial is mounted on a firm 
pedestal, accurately levelled by a spirit-level, and turned till the 
plane of the style is in the meridian. For an approximation we 
may use a pocket compass, the declination of the needle being 
known within moderate limits. By day the orientation may be 
effected by means of a watch whose error is known. Compute the 
watch time of apparent noon = 12-o'clock error + equation of 
time, and turn the dial slowly, keeping the shadow of style 011 the 
12-o'clock mark until the time computed. The levelling must be 
carefully attended to. If the watch error be not known, it may be 
found by means of a sextant. 

If no means of determining time are at hand, the dial may still 
be oriented by a determination of the meridian plane, either by 
day or night. At night advantage may be taken of the fact that 
Polaris and Ursae Majoris (the middle star in the tail of the 
Great Bear or handle of the Dipper) cross the meridian at almost 
exactly the same instant. Therefore if two plumb-lines be sus- 
pended from firm supports as nearly in the meridian as may be, one 
touching the style and the other a few feet to the south arranged 
for lateral shifting, we may by sliding the latter cover both stars by 
both lines at the moment of meridian passage. These lines then 
define the meridian plane, into which the style is easily turned. 
The polar distance of C being between 34 and 35, it is evident 
that for latitudes above about 40 the star must be observed at 
lower culmination, and for lower latitudes at the upper. 

By day the meridian plane may be determined as follows: Sus- 
pend a plumb-line over the south end of a perfectly level table or 



172 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 



other suitable surface. With the point A as a center describe an 
arc, CD. The shadow of a knot or bead at B will describe during 
the day a curve E F G D. Mark the points C and D where it 
crosses the arc before and after noon. A line from A bisecting the 
chord CD will then be in the meridian, and its extremities may be 
projected to the earfch by plumb-lines and the points marked. 
Stretch a fine cord fronnme point to the other, and note the instant 




FIG. c. 

when the shadow of the south plumb-line exactly coincides with 
that of the cord. This is evidently apparent noon; and if the dial 
be so turned that the shadow of the style falls on the 12-o'clock 
line at the same instant, it will be duly oriented. 

Evidently this method supposes the sun's declination to be con- 
stant; its change may, however, for this purpose be neglected, 
except for a month at about the time of the equinoxes. 

The meridian line may also be determined with a theodolite, as 
described in works on Surveying. 

The dial-face may if desired be graduated after orientation by 
noting where the shadow of the style falls at 1 hour, 2 hours, etc., 
from the time of apparent noon. 

The indications of all sun-dials must be corrected by the Equa- 
tion of Time in order to give local mean time. This correction is 
practically constant for the corresponding days of all years, and its 
value at suitable intervals may either be engraved on the dial-plate, 
or taken from the annexed table. 

Kefraction, varying with the sun's altitude, is evidently a source 



SOLAR ECLIPSE. 



173 



of error, although too small to require consideration in the present 
connection. 

The indications of a sun-dial with the solid style (Fig. a) will 
be one minute too great in the forenoon and one minute too small 
in the afternoon, since the shadow line will in each case be formed 
by the limb of the sun toward the meridian, and the sun requires 
about one minute to advance through an arc equal to its semi- 
diameter. 

A dial constructed for a given latitude may bo used without 
appreciable error in any latitude not differing therefrom by more 
than one third of a degree say 25 miles. 

Vertical dials are usually placed on the south fronts of buildings. 
Their construction is readily understood from what precedes, the 
graduations being computed by the formula 

tan x = cos tan P. 
EQUATION OF TIME TO BE ADDED TO SUN-DIAL TIME. 



Day. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


1 


+ 4 


+ 14"* 


+ 12 


+ 4 


3 m 


-2 


8 


7 


14 


11 


2 


-4 


-1 


16 


10 


14 


9 





4 





24 


12 


13 


6 


-2 


-3 


+3 


Day. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


1 


4-3 


+ 6 


O m . 


-10 


-16 


-10* 


8 


5 


5 


-2 


-12 


-16 


- 7 


16 


6 


4 


-5 


-14 


-15 


- 4 


24 


6 


2 


-8 


-15 


-13 






SOLAB ECLIPSE. 

A solar eclipse can only occur at conjunction that is, at new 
moon, and then only when the moon is near enough to the plane of 
the ecliptic to throw its shadow or penumbra upon the earth. The 
following discussion, abbreviated from that found in Chauvenet's 
Practical Astronomy, Vol. I, will suffice to give the student such a 



174 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

knowledge of the theory of eclipses as to enable him to project 
a solar eclipse, with the aid of the eclipse data found in the 
Ephemeris. 

Solar Ecliptic Limits. Let N 8 Fig. 34 be the Ecliptic, N M 




s s ( 

FIG. 34. 

the intersection of the plane of the moon's orbit with the celestial 

sphere, N the moon's node, S and M the sun's and moon's center 

at conjunction, and 8' and M' the same points at the instant of 

nearest angular distance of the moon from the sun. Assume the 

following notation, viz. : 

ft = 8 M, the moon's latitude at conjunction. 

i = SN M y the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic. 

\ = the quotient of the moon's mean hourly motion in longitude at 

conjunction, divided by that of the sun. 
A 8' M' 9 the least true distance. 
y = 8MS'. 

Considering N MS as a plane triangle, and drawing the perpen- 
dicular M' P from M ' to 8 N, we have 

S3' = (3 tan y. SP-hp tan y. 



- l) a tan 1 y + (1 - A tan f tan y) 1 ]. 

Differentiating the last equation and placing ( -r- = 0, we find A 
will be a minimum for 



" tai?? 



80LAR ECLIPSft. 176 

or 

J'=:/?'cosV, (186) 

when tan i 9 is placed equal to ^ - - tan i. 

A 1 

The least apparent distance of the sun's and moon's center as 
viewed from the surface of the earth maybe less than A by the 
difference of the horizontal parallaxes of the two bodies. Call this 
distance A', then 

J'=J- (re - P). 

"Now when A 9 is less than the sum of the apparent semi-diameters 
of the sun and moon there will be an eclipse; hence the condition 
is (denoting the semi-diameters of the moon and sun respectively 
by s f and s), 



or 

/? cos i 9 < n - P + s + *'. (187) 

To ascertain the probability of an eclipse, it is generally suffi- 
cient to substitute the mean values of the quantities in the above 
inequality. The extreme values, determined by observation are 



. j 5 20' 06" 
* | 4 57' 22" 


n \ 52' 50" 


5 8' 44" 
s J15M5" 


57' 11" 

- j 16' 46" 
8 \ 14' 24" 



j 9". 
( 8".7Q 



j 1^. 
\ 10. 



8".85 

10J89 

16' 1" 15' 35" 13. 5 

The mean value of sec i' 9 found from those of i and A,, is 1.00472 
and hence, 

(188) 
/?< (TT P + s + s') sec V = ft <(TC - P + s + s') (1 + 0.00472). 

The fractional part of the second member of the inequality 
varies between 20" and 30"; taking its mean 25", we have for aU 
but exceptional cases, 

(189) 



176 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

Substituting in this last form the greatest values of TT, s 9 and 
$', and the least value of P; and then the least values of zr, s, and 
s' t and the greatest value of P, we have 

/3 < 1 34' 27".3, 

and 

ft < 1 22' 50", 

respectively. 

If, therefore, the moon's latitude at conjunction he greater than 
1 34' 27".3 a solar eclipse is impossible; if less than 1 22' 50" it 
is certain; if between those values it is doubtful. To ascertain 
whether there will be one or not in the latter case, substitute the 
actual values of P, TT, s and ,s*' for the date, and if the inequality 
subsists there will be an eclipse, otherwise not. 



PBOJECTION OF A SOLAR ECLIPSE. 

1. To find the Radius of the Shadow on any Plane perpendicular 
to the Axis of the Shadow. 

In Fig. 35 let 3 and M be the centers of the sun and moon; V 
the vertex of the umbral or penumbral cone; F E i\\s fundamental 
plane through the earth's center perpendicular to the axis of the 
shadow ; and D the parallel plane through the observer's position. 
It is required to find the value of D at the beginning or ending 
of an eclipse. 

Take the earth's mean distance from the sun to be unity, and 



let E8 = r,fi M= r', M8 = r- r'. Place = = 0, and let k 

be the ratio of the earth's equatorial radius to the moon's radius 
= 0.27227. Then P being the sun's mean horizontal parallax, we 
have 

Earth's radius = sin P . 

Moon's radius = Jc sin P = 0.27227 sin P+ 

Sun's radius = sin s. 



BOLAR ECLIPSE. 



177 



8 being the apparent semi-diameter of the sun at mean distance 
From the figure we have 



(190) 




E F 



FIG. 35. 



in which the upper sign corresponds to the penumbral and the 
lower to the umbral cone. The numerator of the second member 
is constant, and since s 959".758, P = 8".85, we have 

log [sin s + Tc sin P Q ] = 7.6G88033 for exterior contact, 
log [sin s Tc sin P ] = 7.GGG6913 for interior contact. 
If the equatorial radius of the earth be taken as unity, we have 

Jc_ 
' sin/ 



178 



PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY t 



Whence the distance c of the vertex of the cone from the fun- 
damental plane is 



If I and L be radius of the shadow on the fundamental and on the 
observer's plane respectively, and C be their distance apart, we have 

I = ctan/ = 2tan/ * sec/. (192) 

L = (c - C) tan / = I C tan/. (193) 

To find the distance of the Observer at a given time from the 
Axis of the Shadow in terms of his Co-ordinates and those of 
the Moon's Center, referred to the Earth's Center as an Origin. 

Let 0, Figure 36, be the earth's center, and X Y the funda- 
mental plane. Take Z Y to be the plane of the declination circle 




Fia. 36. 

passing through the point Z in which the axis of the moon's shadow 
pierces the celestial sphere; X Z being perpendicular to the other 
two coordinate planes. Let M and 8 be the centers of the moon 
and sun, M r , S' 9 their geocentric places on the celestial sphere, M t 
their projections on the fundamental plane, and C, the projection 
of the observer's place on the same plane. Let P be the north 



SOLAR ECLIPSE. 179 

pole. The axis Z, being always parallel to the axis of the shadow, 
will pierce the celestial sphere in the same point, as S M. Assume 
the following notation : 

ot, tf, r = the K. A., Dec., and distance from the earth's center, 

respectively, of the moon's center. 

a' , d', r' = the corresponding coordinates of the sun's center. 
a, d, = the R. A. and Dec. of the point Z. 
x, y, z = the coordinates of the moon's center. 
9 77, = the coordinates of the observer's position. 
0, 0' = the latitude and reduced latitude respectively. 
A = the longitude of the observer's station west from 

Greenwich. 
p the earth's radius at the observer's station in terms of 

the earth's equatorial radius taken as unity. 
/*, = the Greenwich hour angle of the point Z. 

I* = the sidereal time at which the point Z has the R. A. a. 

A = the required distance of the place of observation from 

the axis of the shadow at the time //. 
From the conditions, we have 

K. A. of Z - a, 
R. A. of M'-a, 

R. A. of X = 90 + a, 
and therefore 

ZP M ' = a - a, and P M' = 00 - S. 



Through M t and G t draw M t N and C 4 N parallel to the axis of 
JTand Irrespectively; then M t G t JV = P Z M' = P, the position 
angle of the point of contact, and we have 

A sin P x 5, ) 

[ (194) 

A cos P = y 77. ) 



180 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

From the spherical triangles M' P X, M' P Y, and M f P Z, we 
have 

x = r cos M f JT = r cos 6 V sin (a a) \ 

y 7- cos M' Y r\ sin tf cos d cos tf sin d cos (tf a)] > (1 95) 

2 = r cos yl/' ^ = r [sin tf sin ^? + cos d cos d cos (<? a)]. J 

Similarly tlio coordinates of the place of observation arc 

= p cos 0' sin (;i a) 

ij p [sin 0' cos </ cos (// sin ^ cos (;< ) | 

J = /j [sin 0' sin ^ --( cos 0' cos r/ cos (/* #)]. 

The hour an^le (// ) oi* the point /, for the meridian of the 
observer can be found from 



in which //, is the hour angle of the point /f for the Greenwich 
meridian and A. is tbe longitude of the observer's meridian. 

The distance of the observer from the axis of the moon's shadow 
A^ =. G t M t can be found from the above formulas, 

since, A* (x )* + (y ~ 7 /Y- (107) 

3. To Find the Time of Beginning or Ending of the Eclipse at the 
Place of Observation. 

For the assumed Greenwich mean time of computation take 
from the Dosselian table of elements given in the Ephemeris for 
each eclipse the values of sin d, cos d, and /i,. The values of p cos 0' 
\ind p sin 0' are found on page 505, computed from the formulas, 

. , a cos, TT , 

p cos = , V -J--T = $ cos 

(198) 

, . sin V\ u" sin a sin 
m 0' = > = _ 



SOLAS ECLIPSE. 181 

The variations of 5 and ?/ in one minute of mean time are ob- 
tained by differentiating the lirst two of Eqs. (196), and give 

' = [1.63992] p cos 0' cos (ji, - A) <] 

rf = [7.63993 1 p cos 0' sin d sin (//, - A) Ml 99) 
= [7.63992] 5 Bin rf. J 

The variations of jc and # for one minute of mean time are 
represented by x', and //, and their logarithms are given in the 
lower table of the Ephemeris elements for the eclipse. Now, if the 
time chosen for computation be exactly the instant of beginning or 
ending of the eclipse, then A = L\ but as this is scarcely possible 
a correction r in minutes must be made to the assumed Ephemeris 
time T. 

We may then write, 

L sin r = x - c? + (x' - ') r, (200) 

L cos P = y - // -j- (y' - ;/') r. (201) 

Assume the auxiliary quantities m, M, n, N, given by the equa- 
tions, 

in sin J/ -x , 
m cos J/" // //, 
M sin ;V r = !-// - g', 

^i COS /V = 7/' ;/'. 
From these we have 

L sin (/ > - JV) = m sin (JA- JVT), 

(203) 

/: cos (/> - N) = wi (!os (/If j^) + ^ r. 

Hence putting //> = P JV 7 , we have 

. . w sin (]\f j\T) 
sin //; = ^ y , (204) 



182 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY. 

the lower sign of the second term in the second mcmher of the last 
equation corresponding to the time of beginning and the upper to 
the time of ending of the eclipse.* 

4. The Position Angle of the Point of Contact. The angle re- 

quired is P = N + $ for the end and P = N ?/' 180 
for the beginning of the eclipse. 

5. Wo now have all the equations, and the Ephemeris gives us the 

Besselian table of elements from which the circumstances of 
an eclipse can be computed at any place. These equations 
are here arranged in the order in which they would be used, 
and the student is referred to the type problem worked out 
in the Ephemeris as a guide. 

1. Constants for the given place, 

p sin 0' | Found from table page 505, Ephemeris, know- 
p cos 0' ) ing the observer's latitude. 

2. Coordinates of observer, referred to center of earth. 

= p cos 0' sin (/* a). 

if = p sin 0' cos d p cos 0' sin d cos (fJt a), 

= p sin 0' sin d + p cos 0' cos d cos (^i d). 

3. Variations of observer's coordinates in one minute of mean time, 

' = [7.63992] pcos 0'cos (//, - A). 
if = [7.G3992J , sin d. 

4. The values of m^ M 9 n and N, given by 

msin M = x , 
m cos M = y 77, 
w sin JV = x 9 ', 
?& cos jV" = T/' 7;'. 
* See page 506, Epliemeris. 



SOLAR ECLIPSE. 183 

5. The radius L of the shadow or penumbra on a plane passing 
through the observer, parallel to the fundamental plane, and 
at a distance C from it. 



6. The value of the angle $> 

. , wsin (M N) 
sin if> = ---- - - L 9 



7. The value of the time r in minutes 



n n 

8. The position angle P, from 



or 

P = N - ^ itJO. 



TABLES. 



<p 


9> cp' 


log p 


<f> 


<p<p> 


log/o 


I 


i ii 




/ 


i it 







0.00 


0.000 0000 


35 


10 48.25 


9.999 5248 


1 


24.02 


9.999 9996 


10 


49.63 


5208 


2 


48.02 


9982 


20 


50.98 


5169 


8 


1 11.95 


9961 


30 


52.31 


5129 


4 


1 85.80 


9930 


40 


53. G2 


6089 


5 


1 50.54 


9891 


60 


54.90 


5049 


6 


2 23.13 


9.899 9848 


36 


10 56.16 


9.999 5009 


7 


2 46.54 


9786 


10 


57.41 


4969 


8 


8 9.76 


9721 


, 20 


58.63 


4929 





8 82.74 


9648 


30 


59.82 


4888 


10 


8 55.47 


9566 


40 


11 1.00 


4848 


11 


4 17.93 


9476 


60 


2.15 


4807 


12 


4 40.06 


0.999 9377 


37 


11 8.28 


9.999 4767 


13 


6 1.85 


9271 


10 


4.39 


4726 


14 


5 23.28 


9157 


20 


6.4T 


4686 


15 


5 44.33 


9035 


80 


6.54 


4645 


16 


6 4.95 


8905 


40 


7.68 


4604 


17 


6 25.14 


8768 


50 


8.59 


4563 


IS 


6 44.86 


9.999 8624 


83 


11 9.59 


9.999 4522 


19 


7 4.09 


8472 


10 


10.56 


4481 


20 


7 22.80 


8314 


20 


11.51 


4440 


21 


7 40.99 


8149 


80 


12.44 


4399 


22 


7 58.61 


7977 


40 


13.34 


4858 


23 


8 15.66 


7799 


50 


14.22 


4317 


24 


8 82.10 


9.999 7614 


89 


11 15.08 


9.999 4276 


25 


8 47.93 


7424 


10 


15.92 


4234 


20 


9 3.12 


7228 


20 


16.73 


4198 


27 


9 17.65 


7027 


80 


17.52 


4152 


28 


9 31.50 


6820 


40 


18.29 


4110 


29 


9 44.66 


6608 


60 


19.04 


4069 


30 


9 57.12 


9.999 6392 


40 


11 19.76 


9.999 4027 


10 


9 59.12 


6355 


10 


20.46 


3985 


20 


10 1.11 


6319 


20 


21.18 


8944 


80 


8.07 


6282 


80 


21.79 


8902 


40 


6.02 


6245 


40 


22.42 


8860 


CO 


6.94 


6208 


60 


23.02 


8819 


81 


10 8.85 


9.999 6171 


41 


11 23.61 


9.999 8777 


10 


10.73 


6134 


10 


24.17 


8785 


20 


12.59 


6096 


20 


24.70 


8698 


80 


14.44 


6059 


80 


25.22 


8651 


40 


16.26 


6021 


40 


26.71 


8609 


60 


18.06 


5984 


50 


26.18 


8567 


82 


10 19.84 


9.999 5946 


42 


11 26.62 


9.999 8525 


10 


21.60 


5908 


10 


27.04 


8488 


20 


23.34 


5870 


20 


27.44 


8441 


80 


25.05 


5832 


eo 


27.82 


8399 


40 


26.75 


5794 


40 


28.17 


8357 


60 


28.43 


5755 


50 


28.50 


8315 


88 


10 30.08 


9.999 5717 


48 


11 28.80 


9.999 3278 


10 


81.71 


5678 


10 


29.08 


8280 


20 


83.32 


5640 


20 


29.84 


8188 


80 


84.91 


6601 


80 


29.68 


8146 


40 


86.48 


5562 


40 


29.79 


8104 


60 


88.03 


6523 


60 


29.98 


8062 


84 


10 89.55 


9.999 5484 


44 


11 80.14 


9.999 8019 


10 


41.06 


6445 


10 


80.29 


2977 


20 


42.54 


6406 


20 


80.41 


2985 


80 


44.00 


5367 


80 


80.60 


2892 


40 


45.44 


6327 


40 


80.67 


2850 


60 


46.86 


62b8 


60 


80.62 


2808 



187 



CD 



II 

Il- 
ls. 
I !T 



3 

o 

-* 

m 

P 
3. 



188 



3 



cr 

CO 



E 5 
II 





a 

o 



<D 

o 





.2 a 



CD 



<p 


<p~-<p' 


log p 


<P 


<P <p' 


log ft 


/ 


i it 




1 


/ if 




45 


11 30.95 


9.999 2766 


55 


10 49.74 


9.999 0275 


10 


80.65 


2723 


10 


48.36 


0235 


20 


80.63 


2681 


20 


46.97 


0193 


80 


80.58 


2639 


30 


45.55 


0155 


40 


80.51 


2596 


40 


44.11 


0116 


50 


80.42 


2554 


50 


42.65 


0076 


46 


11 80.81 


9.999 2512 


56 


10 41.16 


9.999 0037 


10 


80.17 


2470 


10 


89.65 


9.998 9993 


20 


30.01 


2427 


20 


88.13 


0958 


80 


29.82 


2385 


30 


86.58 


9919 


40 


29.61 


2843 


40 


85.01 


9880 


50 


29.38 


2300 


50 


83.41 


9841 


47 


11 29.12 


9.999 2258 


57 


10 81.80 


9.998 9803 


10 


28.85 


2216 


10 


30.16 


9764 


20 


28.54 


2174 


20 


28.50 


9725 


80 


28.22 


2132 


80 


26.83 


9686 


40 


27.87 


2089 


40 


25.13 


9648 


50 


27.50 


2047 


50 


23.40 


9610 


48 


11 27.10 


9.999 2005 


58 


10 21.66 


9.908 9571 


10 


26.69 


1963 


10 


19.90 


9533 


20 


26.24 


1921 


20 


18.11 


9495 


80 


25.78 


1879 


30 


16.31 


9457 


40 


25.29 


1837 


40 


14.48 


9419 


50 


24.78 


1795 


50 


12.63 


9383 


49 

10 
20 
80 
40 
50 


11 24.24 
23.69 
23.11 
22.50 
21.87 
21.22 


9.999 1753 
1711 
1669 
1627 
1586 
1644 


59 

10 
20 
80 
40 
60 


10 10.77 
8. 88 
6.97 
5.04 
3.08 
1.11 


9.998 9344 
9307 
9269 
9232 
9195 , 
9158 


50 


11 20.25 


9.999 1502 


60 
61 


9 59.12 
9 46.74 


9.998 9121 

8903 


10 


19.85 


1460 


62 


9 33 65 


8688 


20 
80 
40 


19.18 
18.39 
17.63 


1419 
1377 
1335 


63 
64 
65 


9 19.85 
9 5.36 
8 50.21 


1479 
8275 
8077 


50 


16.84 


1294 














66 


8 34.40 


9.998 7884 


51 


11 16.02 


9.999 1252 


67 


8 17.97 


7697 


10 


15.19 


1211 


68 


8 0.92 


7517 


20 


14.83 


1170 


69 


7 43.29 


7343 


80 


13.45 


1128 


70 


7 25.08 


7174 


40 


12.55 


1087 


71 


7 6.33 


7013 


50 


11.62 


1046 














72 


6 47.06 


9.998 6859 


52 


11 10.67 


9.999 1005 


73 


6 27.28 


6713 


10 


9.70 


0963 


74 


6 7.03 


6573 


20 


8.71 


0922 


75 


5 48.33 


6441 


30 


7.69 


0881 


76 


5 25.20 


6317 


40 


6.66 


0840 


77 


5 3.67 


6201 


50 


5.60 


0800 


78 


4 41.77 


i.998 6093 


53 

10 
20 
80 
40 


11 4.51 
3.40 
2.27 
1.12 
10 59.94 


9.999 0759 
0718 
0677 
0537 
0596 


79 

80 
81 
2 
83 


4 19.53 
8 56.96 
8 34.10 
8 10.98 
2 47.63 


5993 
5901 
6818 
6743 
6676 


50 


58.74 


0556 


84 


2 24.07 


9.908 5619 


54 


10 57.52 


9.999 0515 


85 
86 


2 0.33 
1 86.44 


5570 
6530 


10 
20 


56.28 
55.02 


0475 
0435 


87 
88 


1 12.43 
48.34 


6498 
6476 


80 

40 


63.73 
52.43 


0395 
0355 


89 


24.18 


6469 


50 


51.09 


0315 


DO 


0.00 


9.9985458 



Apparent 
Altitude. 


Menu 
Refraction. 


Apparent 
Altitude. 


Mean 
Refraction. 


Apparent 
Altitude. 


Mean Re- 
fraction . 


Apparent 
Altitude. 


Mean Re. 
fraction. 






9 80 


5 85.1 


/ 

14 80 


/ H 
8 41.6 


t 

20 


tt 
2 88.8 





86 29 


85 


5 82.4 


85 


8 40.3 


10 


2 87.4 


1 


24 54 


40 


6 29.6 


40 


3 39.0 


20 


2 36.0 





18 26 


45 


6 27.0 


45 


8 87.7 


30 


2 34.6 


8 


14 25 


50 


5 24.3 


50 


3 86.5 


40 


2 33.3 


4 


11 44 


55 


5 21.7 


55 


8 35.3 


50 


2 32.0 


5 


9 52.0 


10 


5 19.3 


15 


8 84.1 


21 


2 30.7 


5 


9 44.0 


5 


5 16.7 


5 


3 32.9 


10 


2 29.4 


10 


9 86.2 


10 


5 14.2 


10 


8 81.7 


20 


2 28.1 


15 


9 28. C 


15 


5 11.7 


15 


8 30.5 


80 


2 26.9 


20 


9 21.2 


20 


5 9.8 


20 


8 29.4 


40 


2 25.7 


25 


9 14.0 


25 


5 6.9 


25 


3 28.2 


00 


2 24.5 


80 


9 7.0 


30 


5 4.6 


80 


3 27.1 


22 


2 23.8 


85 


9 0.1 


85 


5 2.8 


85 


3 25.9 


10 


3 22.1 


40 


8 53.4 


40 


5 0.0 


40 


3 24.8 


20 


2 20.9 


45 


8 46.8 


45 


4 57.8 


45 


8 23.7 


80 


2 19.8 


60 


8 40.4 


50 


4 55.6 


50 


3 22.0 


40 


2 18.7 


55 


8 34.2 


55 


4 53.4 


65 


3 21.5 


60 


3 17.5 


6 


8 28.0 


11 


4 51.2 


16 


8 20.5 


28 


3 16.4 


5 


8 22.1 


5 


4 4'J.l 


5 


8 19.4 


10 


2 15.4 


10 


8 16.2 


10 


4 47.0 


10 


8 18.4 


20 


2 14.3 


15 


8 10.5 


15 


4 44.9 


15 


8 17.3 


80 


2 13.3 


20 


8 4.8 


20 


4 42.9 


20 


8 16.3 


40 


2 12.2 


25 


7 59.3 


25 


4 40.9 


25 


8 15.2 


50 


2 11.2 


80 


7 53.9 


80 


4 38.9 


80 


8 14.2 


24 


3 10.2 


85 


7 48.7 


85 


4 36.9 


35 


8 13.2 


10 


2 9.3 


40 


7 43.5 


40 


4 35.0 


40 


3 12 2 


20 


3 8.2 


45 


7 38.4 


45 


4 33.1 


45 


3 11.2 


80 


2 7.2 


50 


7 33-5 


50 


4 31.2 


50 


3 10.8 


40 


2 6.2 


55 


7 28.6 


55 


4 29.4 


55 


3 9.3 


50 


2 6.8 


7 


7 23.8 


12 


4 27.5 


17 


3 8.3 


25 


2 4.4 


5 


7 19.2 


5 


4 25.7 


5 


3 7.3 


10 


2 3.4 


10 


7 14.6 


10 


4 23.9 


10 


3 6.4 


20 


2 2.5 


15 


7 10.1 


15 


4 22.2 


15 


3 5.5 


30 


2 1.6 


20 


7 5.7 


20 


4 20.4 


20 


3 4.6 


40 


2 0.7 


25 


7 1.4 


25 


4 18.7 


25 


3 8.7 


50 


1 59.8 


80 


6 57.1 


30 


4 17.0 


80 


8 8.8 


26 


1 58.9 


35 


6 53.0 


35 


4 15.8 


85 


3 1.9 


10 


1 58.1 


40 


6 48.9 


40 


4 13.6 


40 


3 1.0 


20 


1 57.2 


45 


6 44.9 


45 


4 12.0 


45 


8 0.1 


30 


1 56.4 


50 


6 41.0 


50 


4 10.4 


60 


2 59.2 


40 


1 55.5 


55 


6 37.1 


65 


4 8.8 


65 


2 58.3 


50 


1 64.7 


8 


6 33.3 


13 


4 7.2 


18 


2 57.5 


27 


1 53.9 


6 


6 29.6 


5 


4 5.6 


5 


2 56.6 


10 


1 53.1 


10 


6 25.9 


10 


4 4.1 


10 


2 55.8 


20 


1 52.8 


15 


6 22.8 


15 


4 2.6 


15 


2 54.9 


80 


1 51.5 


20 


6 18.8 


20 


4 1.0 


20 


2 54.1 


40 


1 50.7 


25 


6 15.3 


25 


3 59.6 


25 


2 53.2 


60 


1 50.0 


80 


6 11.9 


80 


3 58.1 


80 


2 52.4 


28 


1 49.2 


85 


6 8.5 


35 


3 56.6 


35 


2 51.6 


10 


1 48.4 


40 


e 5.2 


40 


3 55.2 


40 


2 50.8 


20 


1 47.7 


45 


6 2.0 


45 


3 53.7 


45 


2 50.0 


80 


1 46.9 


.*0 


5 58.8 


50 


3 52.3 


50 


2 49.2 


40 


1 46.2 


65 


5 55.7 


55 


8 50.9 


65 


2 48.4 


50 


1 45.5 


9 


5 52.6 


14 


3 49.5 


19 


2 47.7 


29 


1 44.8 


5 


5 49.6 


5 


8 48.1 


10 


2 46.1 


20 


1 43.4 


10 


5 46.6 


10 


8 46.8 


20 


2 44.6 


40 


1 42.0 


15 


5 43.6 


15 


8 45.5 


80 


2 43.1 


30 


1 40.6 


20 


5 40.7 


20 


8 44.2 


40 


2 41.6 


20 


I 39.8 


35 


5 87.9 


25 


8 42.9 


50 


3 40.2 


40 


1 88.0 



189 



8 



6* 



190 



c g 
o 1 
t5 



Apparent 
Altitude. 


Mean 
Refraction. 


Apparent 
Altltnde. 


Mean 
Refraction. 


Apparent 
Altitude, 


Mean Be- 
fraction. 


Apparent 
Altitude. 


Mean Re- 
fraction. 


o i 


t n 


I 


/ 11 


e t 


/ // 


o I 


/ // 


81 


86.7 


41 


1 7.0 


51 


47.2 


61 


82.3 


20 


85.5 


20 


1 6.2 


20 


46.6 


62 


31.0 


40 


84.2 


40 


5.4 


40 


46.1 


63 


29.7 


83 


88.0 


42 


4.7 


58 


45.5 


64 


28.4 


20 


81.8 


20 


8.9 


20 


45.0 


65 


27.2 


40 


80.7 


40 


8.2 


40 


44.4 


66 


25.9 


88 


29.5 


48 


2.4 


58 


43.9 


67 


24.7 


20 


28.4 


20 


1.7 


20 


48.4 


68 


23.6 


40 


1 27.8 


40 


1.0 


40 


42.8 


69 


22.4 


84 


1 26.2 


44 


0.8 


54 


42.8 


70 


21.2 


20 


1 25.1 


20 


59.6 


20 


41,8 


71 


20.1 


40 


1 24.1 


40 


58.9 


40 


41.3 


72 


18.9 


85 


1 23.1 


45 


58.2 


55 


40.8 


73 


17.8 


20 


1 22.0 


20 


57.6 


20 


40.8 


74 


16.7 


40 


1 21.0 


40 


56.9 


40 


89.8 


76 


15.6 


86 


1 20.1 


46 


56.2 


56 


89.8 


76 


14.5 


20 


1 19.1 


20 


55.6 


20 


88.8 


77 


13.5 


40 


1 18.2 


40 


55.0 


40 


88.3 


78 


12.4 


87 


1 17.2 


47 


54.8 


57 


37.8 


79 


11.3 


20 


1 16.8 


20 


58.7 


20 


87.8 


80 


10.8 


40 


1 15.4 


40 


58.1 


40 


86.9 


81 


9.2 


88 


1 14.5 


48 


52.5 


58 


86.4 


82 


8.2 


20 


1 18.6 


20 


51.9 


20 


85.9 


88 


7.2 


40 


1 12.7 


40 


51.2 


40 


85.5 


84 


6.1 


80 


1 11.9 


49 


50.6 


59 


35.0 


85 


5.1 


20 


1 11.0 


20 


50.0 


20 


34.5 


86 


4.1 


40 


1 10.2 


40 


49.4 


40 


84.1 


87 


8.1 


40 


1 9.4 


50 


48.9 


60 


83.6 


88 


2.0 


20 


1 8.6 


20 


48.8 


20 


88.2 


89 


o i.o 


40 


1 7.8 


40 


47.8 


40 


82.7 


90 


0.0 



LJ 
ffl 



191 



Zenith 
dig. 

tance. 


Arg. app. zen.-dist 


Zenith 
dis- 
tance. 


Arg. app. zen.-dift* 


Log a. 


A 


A 


Log a. 


A 


A 


* 








1 











1.76156 fi 






77 


1.75229 o. 


1.0026 


1.0352 


10 


1.76154 r 






10 


1.75205 OK 


1.0026 


1.0268 


20 


1.76149 -2 






20 


1.75180 OK 


1.0027 


1.0264 


30 


1.76139 X X 






80 


1.75155 ff. 


1.0027 


1.0273 


35 


1.76180 .? 






40 


1.75129 2 


1.0028 


1.0281 


40 


1.76119 Jj 






50 


1.76101 g 


1.0029 


1.0290 


45 


1.76104 - 




1.0018 


78 


1.75073 no 


1.0030 


1.0299 


46 


1.76100 t 




1.0019 


10 


1.7.1043 oft 


1.0030 


1.0303 


4? 


1.76096 T 




1.0019 


20 


1.75013 o 


1.0081 


1.0318 


43 


1.76092 5 




1.0020 


80 


1.74931 J2 


1.0032 


1.0328 


49 


1.76037 ? 




1.0021 


40 


,1.74947 X: 


1.0033 


1.0888 


50 


1.76082 g 




1.0023 


60 


1.74912 gg 


1.0034 


1.0347 


61 


1.76077 ft 




1.0025 


79 


1.74876 ft7 


1.0035 


1.0357 


52 


1.76071 5 




1.0028 


10 


1.74839 2ft 


1.0036 


1.0367 


53 


1.76065 2 




1.0027 


20 


1.74799 ; 


1.0087 


1.0377 


64 


1.76053 I 




1.0029 


80 


1.74757 To 


1.0038 


1.0387 


55 


1.76050 g 




1.0031 


40 


1.74714 T? 


1.0039 


1.0398 


66 


1.76042 g 




1.0084 


60 


1.74670 JJ 


1.0040 


1.0409 


57 


1.7C033 1A 




1.0037 


80 


1.74633 KA 


1.0041 


1.0420 


68 


1.76023 fr 




1.0040 


10 


1.74573 Jo 


1.0042 


1.0481 


69 


1.76012 ff 




1.0043 


20 


1.74521 * 


.0048 


1.0442 


60 


1,76001 fi 




1.0046 


80 


1.74468 gj 


.0045 


1.0454 


61 


1.75988 }H 




1.0049 


40 


1.74412 % 


.0046 


1.0466 


62 


1.75978 \l 




1.0054 


60 


1.74352 [ 


.0047 


1.0479 


63 


1.75957 1Q 




1.0058 


81 


1.74288 fiK 


.0049 


1.0493 


- 64 


1.75939 JS 




1.0063 


10 


1.74223 XX 


.0050 


1.-0508 


65 


1.75919 no 




1.0068 


20 


1.74155 XX 


.0053 


1.0523 


66 


1.75897 OA 




1.0075 


80 


1.74083 Li 


.0054 


1.0540 


67 


1.75871 oo 




1.0083 


' 40 


1.74007 11 


1.0056 


1.0559 


63 


1.75843 * 




1.0092 


50 


1.78928 gg 


1.0058 


1.0679 


69 


1.75809 oo 




1.0101 


80 


1.78845 ftft 


1.0060 


1.0600 


70 


1.75771 2 




1.0111 


10 


1.78757 XA 


1.0062 


1.0622 


71 


1,75726 2? 




1.0124 


20 


1.73663 x2 


1.0065 


1.0646 


73 


1.75675 Xn 




1.0139 


80 


1.73564 -XJ 


1.0067 


1.0671 


73 


1.75615 So 




1.0156 


40 


1.78459 |Yo 


1.0070 


1.0697 


74 


1.75543 




1.0175 


50 


1.78347 JJg 


1.0073 


1.0725 


75 


1.75457 1ft 




1.0197 


88 


1.73229 tai 


10075 


1.0754 


10 


1.75441 {ft 




1.0200 


10 


1.78105 }J? 


1.0978 


1,0784 


20 


1.75425 {2 




1.0204 


20 


1.72974 *2a 


1.0081 


1.0815 


80 


1.75408 }l 




1.0208 


80 


1.72832 jjf 


1.0084 


1.0846 


40 


1.75391 :A 




1.0212 


40 


1.72681 J2i 


1.0082 


1.0879 


60 


1.76373 Jg 




1.0216 


50 


1.72519 


1.0098 


1.0914 


76 


1.75355 10 




1.0220 


84 


1.72846 1QA 


1.0096 


1.0951 


10 


1.75886 iX 




1.0225 


10 


1.72160 fxX 


1.0100 


1.0992 


20 


1.75316 oV 




1.0280 


20 


1.71961 i? 


1.0105 


1.1086 


30 


1.75295 01 




1.0285 


80 


1.71749 Sf 


1.0110 


1.1082 


40 


1.75274 gi 




1.0241 


40 


1.71522 ;% 


1.0115 


1.1180 


60 


1.75252 |g 




1.0246 


50 


1.71279 Jg 


1.0121 


1.1178 


77 


1.75229 


1.0026 


1.0253 


85 


1.71020 


1.0127 


1.1229 



192 



Factor depending upon Factor depending upon the external 


the barometer. thermometer. 


Eng. Inr 


Log B. p. 


Log y. 


F. 


Log y. 


27.5 


0.03191 ~ 




o 




27.6 

27.7 
27.8 
27.9 
28.0 
28.1 
28.2 
28.3 
28.4 
28.5 
28.6 
28 7 


0.03033 9fl 
0.02876 ~"~~ 
0.02720 JQ 
0.02564 * 
0.02409 *' 
0.02254 i 
0.02099 }J 
0.01946 J* 
0.01793 *g 
0.01640 *7 
0.01488 JJ 


+ 0.06276 
0.06181 
0.06083 
0.05985 
0.05887 
0.05790 
0.05093 
0.05596 
0.05500 
0.05403 
0.05307 


+ 35 
36 
37 

38 
39 
40 
41 
42 
43 
44 
45 


+ 0.01185 
0.01098 
0.01011 
0.00924 
0.00837 
0.00750 
0.00664 
0.00578 
0.00492 
0.00406 
0.00320 


28.*8 
28.9 
29.0 
29.1 
29.2 
29.3 
29.4 
29.5 
29.6 
29.7 
29.8 
29.9 
30.0 
80.1 
80.2 
30.3 
30.4 
30.5 
30.6 
30.7 
80.8 
80.9 
81.0 


o!oil85 
0.01035 * 
0.00885 ' 
0.00735 J 
0.00586 J 
0.00438 * 
0.00290 % 
0.00142 f 
+0.00005 ""* 
0.00151 . r 
O.OU297 *i 
0.00443 ~ 
0.00588 J 
0.00733 * 
0.00876 2 
0.01020 
0.01163 2 
0.01306 2 
0.01448 -~ 
0.01589 JV 
0.01781 fj 
0.01871 f~ 
+0.02012 JJ 


0.05211 
0.05115 
0.05020 
0.04924 
0.04829 
0.04734 
0.04640 
0.04545 
0.04451 
0.04357 
0.04263 
0.04169 
0.04076 
0.03982 
0.03889 
0.03796 
0.03704 
0.03611 
0.03519 
0.03427 
0.03835 
0.03243 
0.08152 
0.03060 


46 

47 
48 
49 
50 
51 
52 
53 
54 
55 
56 
57 
58 
59 
60 
61 
62 
63 
64 
65 
66 
67 
68 
69 


0.00284 
0.00149 
+ 0.00064 
0.00021 
0.00106 
0.00191 
0.00275 
0.00360 
0.00444 
0.00528 
0.00612 
0.00696 
0.00780 
0.00863 
0.00946 
0.01029 
0.01112 
0.01195 
0.01278 
0.01860 
0.01443 
0.01525 
0.01607 
0.01689 


Factor depending *;ysa < a 


0.02969 
0.02878 


70 
71 


0.01770 
0.01852 


th attached tfier- *n 


0.02787 


72 


0.01933 


mometer. * & 


0.02697 


73 


0.02015 


F. 


Loz T " 19 


0.02606 


74 


0.02096 




L g T ' 20 


0.02516 


75 


0.02177 


o 


21 


0.02426 


76 


0.02257 


80 
20 


+ 0.00243 2S 
0.00203 28 


0.02336 
0.02247 


77 
78 


0.02338 
0.02419 


10 


0*00164 ^* 


0.02157 


79 


0.02499 


o 


n 00125 ^ 


0.02068 


80 


0.02579 


10 


y.VV/AiWV ft _ 

0.00086 26 


0.01979 


81 


0.02659 


+20 


0.00047 ^ 


0.01890 


82 


0.02738 


80 
40 
50 


+0 00008 22 
0.00031 *9 
0. 00070 


0.01801 
0.01713 
0.01624 


83 

84 
85 


0.02819 
0.02898 
0.02978 


60 


0.00109 ^ 


0.01536 


86 


0.03057 


70 


0.00148 ^ 


0.01448 


87 


0.03136 


80 
90 


0.00186 5? 
0.00225 "* 


0.01360 
0.01273 


88 
89 


0.03216 
0.03294 


+ 100 


0.00264 -*- 85 


+0.01185 


+ 90 


0.03378 


Log/* = log B-hlog T. 



194 



I 

.2 



-a 



at 

E 



J 



Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log.B. 


Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log.B. 


Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log.B. 


h. m. 






h. m. 






h. m. 









9.4059 


9.4059 


40 


9.4065 


9.4048 


1 20 


9.4081 


9.4015 


2 


.4059 


.4059 


42 


.4065 


.4047 


22 


.4083 


.4018 


4 


.4059 


.4059 


44 


.4066 


.4046 


24 


.4084 


.4010 


6 


.4060 


,4059 


46 


.4067 


.4045 


26 


.4085 


.4008 


8 


.4060 


.4059 


48 


.4067 


.4043 


28 


.4086 


.4006 


10 


.4060 


.4059 


50 


.4068 


.4042 


80 


.4087 


.4008 


12 


.4060 


.40r8 


52 


.4069 


.4041 


32 


.4089 


.4001 


14 


.4060 


.4058 


54 


.4069 


.4039 


84 


.4090 


.8998 


16 


.4060 


.4058 


56 


.4070 


.4038 


86 


.4091 


.8995 


18 


.4061 


.4057 


58 


.4071 


.4036 


88 


.4093 


.8993 


20 


.4061 


.4057 


1 


.4072 


.4034 


40 


.4094 


.3990 


22 


.4061 


.4056 


2 


.4073 


.4033 


42 


.4095 


.8987 


24 


.4061 


.4055 


4 


.4074 


.4031 


44 


.4097 


.3984 


26 


.4062 


.4055 


6 


.4074 


.4029 


46 


.4098 


.8981 


28 


.4062 


.4054 


8 


.4075 


.4027 


48 


.4100 


.8978 


80 


.4062 


.4053 


10 


.4076 


.4025 


60 


.4101 


.8975 


82 


.4063 


.4052 


12 


.4077 


.4028 


52 


.4108 


.8972 


84 


.4063 


.4051 


14 


.4078 


.4021 


64 


.4104 


.8969 


36 


.4064 


.4050 


16 


.4079 


.4019 


56 


.4106 


.8965 


88 


9.4064 


9.4049 


1 18 


9.4080 


9.4017 


1 68 


9.4107 


9.8962 



1 

$. 



M 

-J a* 
CO H 



Elapsed 
liiue. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


h. m. 






h. m. 






h. m. 






2 


9.4109 


9.8959 


4 


9.4260 


9.8635 


6 


9.4515 


9.8010 


2 


.4131 


.8955 


2 


.4263 


.8627 


2 


.4521 


.2098 


4 


.4113 


.3952 


4 


.4:466 


.8620 


4 


.4526 


.2982 


6 


.4114 


.8948 


6 


.4270 


.8612 


6 


.4581 


.2968 


8 


.4116 


.8944 


8 


.4273 


.8604 


8 


.4536 


.2964 


10 


.4118 


.8941 


10 


.4277 


.8509 


10 


.4542 


.2940 


12 


.4120 


.8937 


12 


.4280 


:8688 


12 


.4547 


.2925 


14 


.4121 


.8933 


14 


.4284 


.8580 


14 


.4552 


.2911 


16 


.4123 


.8929 


16 


.4288 


.8572 


16 


.4558 


.2896 


18 


.4125 


.8925 


18 


.4291 


.8564 


18 


.4563 


.2881 


80 


.4127 


.8921 


20 


.4295 


.3555 


20 


.4569 


.2866 


22 


.4129 


.3917 


22 


.4299 


.8547 


22 


.4574 


.2850 


24 


.4131 


.8913 


24 


.4302 


.8538 


24 


.4580 


2835 


20 


.4183 


.8909 


26 


.4306 


.8530 


26 


.4585 


.2819 


28 


.4135 


.3905 


28 


.4810 


.8521 


28 


.4591 


.2804 


80 


.4187 


.8900 


80 


.4314 


.8512 


80 


.4597 


.2788 


83 


.413!) 


.8896 


32 


.4317 


.8503 


82 


.4602 


.2772 


84 


.4141 


.8892 


84 


.4821 


.8494 


84 


.4608 


.2766 


86 


.4144 


.8887 


86 


.4325 


.3485 


86 


.4614 


.2789 


88 


.4146 


.3882 


38 


.4329 


.3476 


88 


.4620 


.2723 


40 


.4148 


.3878 


40 


.4333 


.8467 


40 


.4625 


.2706 


42 


.4150 


.3873 


42 


.4837 


.8457 


42 


.4631 


.2689 


44 


.4152 


.8868 


44 


.4341 


.8448 


44 


.4687 


.2672 


46 


.4155 


.8863 


40 


. 4345 


.8438 


46 


.4648 


.2655 


48 


.4157 


.3859 


48 


.4349 


.3429 


48 


.4649 


.2688 


50 


.4159 


.3854 


50 


.4358 


.8419 


60 


.4655 


.2620 


52 


.4162 


.3849 


52 


. 4357 


.3409 


52 


.4661 


.2602 


54 


.4164 


.3843 


54 


.4301 


.8399 


54 


.4667 


.2584 


56 


.4167 


.88:38 


56 


.436(1 


.3389 


66 


.4678 


.2566 


2 58 


.4169 


.8833 


4 68 


.4370 


.3379 


6 58 


.4679 


.2548 


* 


.4172 


.8828 


5 


.4374 


.3369 


7 


.4685 


.2530 


2 


.4174 


.3822 


2 


.4378 


.8858 


2 


.4691 


.2511 


4 


.4177 


.8817 


4 


.43K3 


.3348 


4 


.4697 


.2492 


6 


.4179 


.8811 


6 


.4 08 7 


.3337 


6 


.4704 


.2473 


8 


.4182 


.3806 


8 


.4391 


.8827 


8 


.471(, 


.2454 


10 


.4184 


.3800 


10 


.4396 


.8316 


10 


.4716 


.2434 


12 


.4187 


.3794 


12 


.4400 


.8305 


12 


.4723 


.2415 


14 


.4190 


.3789 


14 


.4405 


.3294 


14 


.4729 


.2395 


16 


.4193 


.3783 


16 


.-1409 


.8283 


16 


.4785 


.2375 


18 


.4195 


.3777 


18 


.4414 


.3272 


18 


.4742 


.2355 


20 


.4198 


.3771 


20 


.4418 


.8261 


20 


.4748 


.2884 


22 


.4201 


.3765 


22 


.4423 


.8249 


22 


.4755 


.2318 


24 


.4204 


. 3759 


24 


.4427 


.8238 


24 


.4761 


.2292 


26 


.4207 


.3752 


26 


.4432 


.8226 


26 


.4768 


.2271 


28 


.4209 


.8746 


28 


.4437 


.8214 


28 


.4774 


.2250 


80 


.4212 


.3740 


30 


'.4441 


.8203 


80 


.4781 


.2228 


82 


.4215 


.3733 


32 


.4446 


.8191 


82 


.4788 


.2200 


84 


.4218 


.8727 


34 


.4451 


.3178 


84 


.4794 


.2184 


86 


.4221 


.3720 


86 


.4456 


.8166 


86 


.4801 


.2162 


88 


.4224 


.3713 


38 


.4460 


.8154 


88 


.4808 


.2140 


40 


.4227 


.3707 


40 


.4465 


.8142 


40 


.4815 


.2117 


42 


.4231 


.3700 


42 


.4470 


.3129 


42 


.4821 


.2094 


44 


.4234 


.3693 


44 


.4475 


.8110 


44 


.4828 


.2070 


46 


.4237 


.8686 


46 


.4480 


.8103 


46 


.4885 


.2047 


48 


.4240 


.8679 


48 


.4485 


.8091 


48 


.4842 


.2028 


50 


.4243 


.8672 


50 


.4490 


.8078 


50 


.4849 


.1999 


52 


.4246 


v .3665 


52 


.4494 


.3064 


52 


.4856 


.1974 


64 


.4250 


.3657 


64 


.4500 


.8051 


64 


.4868 


.1950 


56 


.4253 


.8650 


66 


.4505 


.3038 


66 


.4870 


.1925 


8 58 


9.4256 


9.3643 


5 58 


9.4510 


9.8024 


7 58 


9.4877 


9.1900 



196 



r< 



j? " 

8 P 



CL 
P 



190 



TJ rf 

g I 

< I 



w 



ctf 
bb 



> 

UJ 



EJapud 
T uuo. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


Elupneri 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


A MI. 






h. m. 






h. in. 






8 


9.4884 


9.1874 


14 


9.6841 


9.0971 


16 


9.7895 


-9.4884 


2 


.4802 


.1848 


2 


.6856 


.1057 


2 


.7915 


.4987 


4 


.4899 


.1822 


4 


.6872 


.1141 


4 


.7935 


.4990 


6 


.4906 


.1796 


6 


.6887 


.1224 


6 


.7955 


.5042 


8 


.4918 


.1769 


8 


.6903 


.1306 


8 


.7975 


.5094 


10 


.4921 


.1742 


10 


.6919 


.1387 


10 


.7996 


.5146 


12 


.4928 


.1715 


12 


" .6934 


.1468 


12 


.8016 


,5197 


14 


.4935 


.1687 


14 


.6950 


.1547 


14 


.8087 


.6248 


1G 


.4943 


.1659 


16 


.6966 


.1625 


16 


.8058 


.6300 


18 


.4950 


.1630 


18 


.6982 


.1703 


18 


.8078 


.5351 


20 


.4958 


.1602 


20 


.6998 


.1779 


20 


.8099 


.5401 


22 


.4965 


.1573 


22 


.7014 


.1855 


22 


.8120 


.6452 


24 


.4978 


.1543 


24 


.7030 


.1930 


24 


.8141 


6502 


26 


.4980 


.1513 


26 


.7047 


.2004 


26 


.8162 


.5553 


28 


.4988 


.1483 


28 


.7063 


.2078 


28 


.8184 


.5603 


30 


.4996 


.1453 


30 


.7079 


.2150 


80 


.8205 


.5653 


82 


.5003 


.1422 


32 


.7096 


.2222 


82 


.8227 


.5702 


34 


.5011 


.1390 


34 


.7112 


.2293 


84 


.8248 


.6752 


30 


.5019 


.1359 


86 


.7129 


.2364 


86 


.8270 


.6801 


38 


.5027 


.1327 


38 


.7146 


.2434 


88 


.8292 


.6850 


40 


.5035 


.1294 


40 


.7162 


.2503 


40 


.8314 


.6900 


42 


.5042 


.1261 


42 


.7179 


.2571 


42 


.8336 


.5948 


44 


.5050 


.1228 


44 


.7196 


.2639 


44 


.8358 


.6997 


46 


.5058 


.1194 


46 


.7213 


.2706 


46 


.8380 


.6046 


48 


.5066 


.1159 


48 


.7230 


.2773 


48 


.8402 


.C094 


60 


.5074 


.1125 


60 


.7247 


.2839 


50 


.8425 


.6143 


52 


.5082 


.1089 


52 


.7264 


.2905 


52 


.8447 


.6191 


54 


.5091 


.1054 


54 


.7281 


.2970 


54 


.8470 


.6239 


56 


.5099 


.1017 


56 


.7299 


.3034 


66 


.8493 


.6287 


8 58 


.5107 


.0981 


14 68 


.7316 


.8098 


16 58 


.8516 


.6335 


9 


.5115 


.0943 


15 


.7333 


.3162 


17 


.8539 


.6383 


2 


.5123 


.0996 


2 


.7351 


.3225 


2 


. 8562 


.6431 


4 


.5132 


.0867 


4 


.7369 


.3287 


4 


.8585 


.6478 


6 


.5140 


.0828 


6 


.7386 


.3350 


6 


.8608 


.6526 


8 


.5148 


.0789 


8 


.7404 


.8411 


8 


.8632 


.6573 


10 


.5157 


.0749 


10 


.7422 


.8472 


10 


. 8655 


.6621 


12 


.5165 


.0708 


12 


.7440 


.8533 


12 


.8679 


.6668 


14 


.5174 


.0667 


14 


.7458 


.8593 


14 


.8703 


.6715 


16 


.5182 


.0625 


16 


.7476 


.8653 


16 


.8727 


.6762 


18 


.5191 


.0583 


18 


.7494 


.8713 


18 


.8751 


.6809 


20 


.5199 


.0540 


20 


.7512 


.3772 


20 


.8775 


. 6856 


22 


.5208 


.0496 


22 


.7531 


.3831 


22 


.8799 


.6908 


24 


.5217 


.0452 


24 


.7549 


.3889 


24 


.8824 


.6949 


26 


.5225 


.0406 


26 


.7568 


.8947 


26 


.8848 


.6996 


28 


.5234 


.0360 


28 


.7586 


.4005 


28 


.8878 


.7043 


30 


. 5243 


.0314 


30 


.7005 


.4062 


80 


.8898 


.7089 


82 


.5252 


.0266 


32 


.7924 


.4119 


32 


.8923 


.7136 


84 


.5261 


.0218 


84 


.7642 


.4175 


34 


.8948 


.7182 


36 


.5269 


.0169 


86 


.7661 


.4232 


86 


.8978 


.7228 


88 


.5278 


.0119 


88 


.7680 


.4288 


88 


.8999 


.7275 


40 


.5287 


.0069 


40 


.7699 


.4343 


40 


.9024 


.7321 


42 


.5296 


.0017 


42 


.7718 


.4399 


42 


.9050 


.7367 


44 


.5305 


8.9965 


44 


.7738 


.4454 


44 


.9075 


.7413 


46 


.5315 


.9911 


46 


.7757 


.4509 


46 


.9101 


.7459 


48 


.5324 


.9857 


48 


.7776 


.4563 


48 


.9127 


.7505 


60 


.5833 


.9802 


60 


.7796 


.4617 


50 


.9154 


.7559 


62 


.5842 


.9745 


62 


.7815 


.4671 


52 


.9180 


.75U8 


54 


.5851 


.9688 


64 


.7836 


.4725 


54 


.9206 


.7644 


56 


.5361 


.9630 


56 


.7855 


.4778 


56 


.9283 


.7690 


9 58 


9 . 5370 


8.9570 


15 58 


9.7875 


-9.4881 


17 58 


9.9260 


9.7736 



Elapsed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


lapped 
Time. 


og.A. 


l+g. B. 


Happed 
Time. 


Log. A. 


Log. B. 


h. m. 






i. m. 






h. 771. 






19 


9.9287 


-9.7782 





.1249 


0.0625 


2 


.4528 


0.4872 


2 


.9314 


.7827 


2 


.1290 


.0676 


2 


.4601 


.4466 


4 


.9341 


.7878 


4 


.1830 


.0727 


4 


.4680 


.4540 


6! .9368 


.7919 


6 


.1871 


.0779 


6 


.4761 


.4626 


8 


.9396 


.73<J5 


8 


.1412 


.osao 


8 


.4842 


.4711 


10 


.9424 


.8011 


10 


.1454 


.0882 


10 


.4926 


.4799 


12 


.9451 


.8057 


12 


.1496 


.0935 


12 


.5010 


.4889 


14 


.9479 


.8103 


14 


.1538 


.0987 


14 


.5097 


.4980 


16 


.9508 


.8149 


16 


.1581 


.1040 


16 


.5184 


.5072 


18 


.9536 


.8196 


18 


.1623 


.101)3 


18 


.6274 


.6165 


20 


.9564 


.8241 


20 


.1667 


.1146 


20 


.5365 


.5261 


22 .9593 


.8287 


22 


.1711 


.1200 


22 


.5458 


.5858 


24 .9632 


.8333 


24 


.1755 


.1253 


24 


.5553 


5457 


26 


.9651 


.8379 


26 


.17l>9 


.1308 


26 


.5649 


.5557 


28 


.9680 


.8425 


28 


.1844 


.1362 


28 


.5748 


.5660 


80 


.9709 


.8471 


30 


.1881) 


.1417 


80 


.5848 


.5764 


82 


.9739 


.8517 


32 


.1935 


.1472 


82 


.5951 


.5871 


84 


.976!) 


.8563 


84 


.1981 


.1527 


84 


.6056 


.5979 


86 


.9798 


.8609 


86 


.2028 


.1582 


86 


.6164 


.6000 


88 


.9829 


.8655 


88 


.2075 


.1638 


88 


.6273 


.6204 


40 


.9859 


.8701 


40 


.2122 


.1695 


40 


.6380 


.6319 


42 


.9889 


.8748 


42 


.2170 


.1751 


42 


.6501 


.6488 


44 


.9920 


.8794 


44 


.2218 


.1808 


44 


.6619 


.6559 


46 


.9951 


.8840 


46 


.2267 


.1866 


40 


.6740 


.6684 


48 


9.9982 


.8887 


48 


.2316 


.1924 


48 


.6865 


.6811 


60 


0.0013 


.8933 


50 


. 2306 


.1982 


60 


.6993 


.6942 


62 


.0044 


.8980 


62 


.2416 


.2040 


52 


.7124 


.7076 


64 


.0076 


.9026 


54 


.2467 


.2099 


54 


. 7259 


.7214 


66 


.0108 


.9073 


56 


.2518 


.2159 


66 


.7398 


.7355 


IB 68 


.0140 


.9120 


20 58 


.2670 


.2219 


22 58 


.7541 


.7501 


19 


.0172 


.9167 


21 


.2623 


.2279 


28 


.7689 


.7652 


2 


.0204 


.9213 


2 


.2676 


.2339 


< 


.7842 


.7807 


4 


.0237 


.9260 


t 


.2729 


.2401 


i 


.8000 


.7967 


6 


.0X270 


.9307 


( 


.2783 


.2462 


( 


.8163 


.8133 


8 


.0303 


.9355 


8 


.2838 


.2524 


8 


.8333 


.8305 


10 


.0336 


.9402 


10 


.2893 


.2587 


10 


.8508 


.8483 


12 


.0370 


.9449 


12 


.2949 


.2650 


12 


.8691 


.8667 


14 


.0403 


.9497 


14 


.3005 


.2714 


14 


.8882 


.8860 


1C 


.0437 


.9544 


16 


.8063 


.2778 


16 


.9080 


.9060 


18 


.0472 


.9592 


18 


.8120 


.2843 


18 


.9288 


.9270 


20 


.0506 


.9640 


20 


.3179 


.2909 


20 


.9506 


.9489 


22 


.0541 


.9687 


22 


.8238 


.2975 


22 


.9784 


.9719 


24 


.0576 


.9735 


24 


.3298 


.8041 


24 


0.9975 


0.9961 


26 


.061 


.9784 


26 


.3359 


.8109 


26 


1.0228 


1.0210 


28 


.0646 


.983L 


28 


.3420 


.8177 


28 


.0497 


.0487 


80 


.0682 


.9880 


80 


.8482 


.8245 


80 


.0783 


.0774 


82 


.0718 


.9929 


32 


.854* 


.3315 


82 


.1089 


.1081 


84 


.0754 


9.9977 


34 


.8609 


.8385 


84 


.1416 


.1409 


86 


.0790 


0.0026 


8 


.3674 


.8456 


86 


.1770 


.1764 


86 


.082 


.0075 


3 


.3739 


.8527 


88 


.2154 


.2149 


4C 


.086 


.0124 


4 


.380 


.8599 


4 


.2573 


.2569 


42 


.090 


.0173 


4 


.387 


.8378 


4 


.803 


.3033 


44 


.093 


.0223 


4 


.894 


.8747 


4 


.8554 


.8553 


4( 


.097 


.027X, 


4 


.401 


.8822 


4 


.414 


.4138 


4 


.101 


,0322 


4 


.408 


.8897 


46 


.481 


.4814 


6C 


.105 


.0372 


6 


.415 


.3974 


6 


.6613 


.5612 


5* 


.109 


.0422 


5 


.422 


.4052 


6 


.658 


' .6587 


54 


.113 


.0473 


5 


.429 


.4130 


64 


.7844 


.7843 


fif 


.117 


.0523 


6 


.437 


.4210 


6 


1.961 


1.9010 


19 Cfc 


0.1208 


0.0574 


21 6 


0.4446 


0.4291 


28 6 


2.262 


2.2627 



197 



5 






II 



F 



p 





l m 


2 


go, 





5 m 


(Jm 


7 m 


8 


6 


ii 


// 


// 


it 


u 


u 


II 


II 


it 





0.00 


1.96 


7.85 


17.67 


81.42 


49.09 


70.68 


96.20 


125.65 


1 


0.00 


2.03 


7.98 


17.87 


81.68 


49.41 


71.07 


96.60 


126.17 


2 


0.00 


2.10 


8.12 


18.07 


81.94 


49.74 


71.47 


97.12 


126.70 


3 


0.00 


2.16 


8.25 


18.27 


32.20 


50.07 


71.86 


97.58 


127.22 


4 


0.01 


2.23 


8.39 


18.47 


32.47 


50.40 


172.26 


98.04 


127.75 


5 


0.01 


2.31 


8.52 


18. (T 


32.74 


50.73 


72.66 


98.50 


128.28 


(> 


0.02 


2.38 


8.66 


18.87 


83.01 


51.07 


73.06 


98.97 


128.81 


7 


0.02 


2.45 


8.80 


19.07 


83.27 


51.40 


78.46 


99.43 


129.84 


8 


0.03 


2.52 


8.94 


19.28 


33.54 


51.74 


73.86 


99.90 


129.87 





0.04 


2.60 


9.08 


19.48 


33.81 


52.07 


74.26 


100.37 


130.40 


10 


0.05 


2.67 


9.22 


10.69 


34.09 


62.41 


74.66 


100.84 


130.94 


11 


0.00 


2.75 


9.36 


19.90 


34.36 


52.75 


75.06 


101.31 


131.47 


12 


0.08 


2.83 


9.50 


20.11 


34.64 


53.09 


75.47 


101.78 


132.01 


13 


0.09 


2.91 


9.64 


20.32 


34.91 


53.43 


75.88 


102.25 


182.55 


14 


0.11 


2.99 


9.79 


20.53 


35.19 


53.77 


76.29 


102.72 


133.09 


15 


0.12 


3.07 


9.94 


20.74 


85.46 


54.11 


76.69 


103.20 


133.63 


10 


0.14 


3.15 


10.09 


20.95 


35.74 


54.46 


77.10 


103.67 


134.17 


17 


0.16 


8.23 


10.24 


21.16 


86.02 


54.80 


77.51 


104.15 


134.71 


18 


0.18 


3.32 


10.39 


21.38 


36.30 


55.15 


77,93 


104.63 


185.25 


U 


0.20 


3.40 


10.54 


21.60 


36.58 


65.50 


78.34 


105.10 


135.80 


20 


0.22 


8.49 


10.69 


21.82 


36.87 


55.84 


78.75 


105.58 


136.34 


21 


0.24 


3.58 


10.84 


22.03 


37.15 


56.19 


79.16 


106.06 


186.88 


ik> 


0.26 


3.67 


11.00 


22.25 


37.44 


56.55 


79.58 


106.55 


137.43 


5:5 


0.28 


3.76 


11.15 


22.47 


37.72 


56.90 


80.00 


107.03 


137.98 


24 


0.31 


8.85 


11.31 


22.70 


38.01 


57.25 


80.42 


107.51 


138.53 


25 


0.34 


8.94 


11.47 


22.92 


38.30 


67.60 


80.84 


107.99 


139.08 


20 


0.37 


4.03 


11.63 


23.14 


88.59 


57.96 


81.26 


108.48 


189.63 


27 


0.40 


4.12 


11.79 


23.37 


38.88 


58.32 


81.68 


108.97 


140.18 


2H 


0.43 


4.22 


11.95 


23.60 


39.17 


58.68 


82.10 


109.40 


140.74 


2i> 


0.46 


4.32 


12.11 


23.82 


39.46 


59.08 


82.52 


109.95 


141.29 


30 


0.49 


4.42 


12.27 


24.05 


89.76 


59.40 


82.95 


110.44 


141.85 


81 


0.52 


4.52 


12.43 


24.28 


40.05 


59.75 


83.38 


110.93 


142.40 


32 


0.56 


4.62 


12.60 


24.51 


40.35 


60.11 


83.81 


111.43 


142.96 


3 


0.59 


4.72 


12.76 


24.74 


40.05 


60.47 


84.23 


111.92 


143.53 


34 


0.63 


4.82 


12.93 


24.98 


40.95 


60.84 


84.66 


112.41 


144.08 


85 


0.67 


4.92 


18.10 


25.21 


41.25 


61.20 


85.09 


112.90 


144.64 


3tf 


0.71 


5.03 


13.27 


25.45 


41.55 


61.57 


85.52 


113.40 


145.20 


87 


0.75 


5.13 


13.44 


26-68 


41.85 


61.94 


85.95 


11390 


145.76 


8s 


0.79 


6.24 


13.62 


25.92 


42.15 


62.31 


86.39 


114.40 


146.33 


8!) 


0.83 


5.84 


13.79 


26.16 


42.45 


62.68 


86.82 


114.90 


146.89 


40 


0.87 


6.45 


1306 


20.40 


42.76 


63.05 


87.26 


115.40 


147.46 


41 


0.91 


5.56 


14.13 


26.64 


43.06 


63.42 


87.70 


115.90 


148.03 


12 


0.96 


6.67 


14.31 


26.88 


43.37 


63.79 


88.14 


116.40 


148.60 


I* 


1.01 


6.78 


14.49 


27.12 


43.68 


64.16 


88.57 


116.90 


149.17 


41 


1.06 


6.90 


14.67 


27.37 


48.99 


64.54 


89.01 


117.41 


149.74 


45 


1.10 


6.01 


14.85 


27.61 


44.30 


64.91 


89.45 


117.92 


150.31 


40 


1.15 


6.13 


15.03 


27.86 


44.61 


65.29 


89.89 


118.43 


150.88 


f7 


1.20 


6.24 


15.21 


28.10 


44.92 


65.67 


90.33 


118.94 


151.45 


is 


1.20 


6.36 


15.89 


28.85 


45.24 


66.05 


90.78 


119.45 


152.03 


4U 


1.81 


6.48 


15.57 


28.60 


45.55 


66.43 


91.23 


119.96 


152.61 


$0 


1.88 


6.60 


15.76 


28.85 


45.87 


66.81 


91.68 


120.47 


153.19 


51 


1.42 


6.72 


15.95 


29.10 


46.18 


67.19 


92.12 


120.9H 


153.77 


52 


1.48 


6.84 


16.14 


29.36 


46.50 


67.58 


92.57 


121.49 


154.85 


58 


1.58 


6.96 


16.32 


29.61 


46.82 


07.96 


98.02 


122.01 


154.98 


54 


1.59 


7.09 


16.51 


29.86 


47.14 


68.35 


98.47 


122.58 


165.51 


55 


.65 


7.21 


16.70 


80. 12 


47.46 


68.78 


93.92 


128.03 


1R6.09 


50 


.71 


7.34 


16.89 


80.38 


47.79 


69.12 


94.88 


128.57 


156.67 


57 


.77 


7.46 


17.08 


80.64 


48.11 


69.61 


94.83 


124.09 


157.25 


58 


.88 


7.60 


17.28 


80.90 


48.48 


69.90 


95.29 


124.61 


167.84 


59 


.89 


7.72 


17.47 


31.16 


48.76 


70.29 


96.74 


125,18 


158.48 



JP 


9" 


10- 


II- 


12- 


13- 


14- 


15- 


1C- 





159.02 


ii 
190.32 


n 
237.54 


282.68 


331.74 


n 
884.74 


441.63 


502.46 


1 


159.61 


190.97 


238.20 


283.47 


332.59 


385.05 


442.02 


508.60 


2 


160.20 


197.03 


238.98 


284.20 


333.44 


880.50 


443.00 


504.55 


a 


160.80 


198.28 


239.70 


285.04 


834.29 


887.48 


444.58 


505.60 




161.89 


198.94 


240.42 


285.83 


835.15 


388.40 


445.50 


506.65 


5 


161.98 


199.60 


241.14 


286.62 


336.00 


389.32 


446.55 


507.70 





162.58 


200.26 


241.87 


287.41 


330.86 


890.24 


447.54 


508.76 


7 


163.17 


200.92 


242.60 


288.20 


337.72 


391.16 


448.53 


509.81 


8 


163.77 


201.59 


243.33 


289.00 


338.58 


392.09 


449.51 


510.86 





164.37 


202.25 


244.00 


289.79 


339.44 


393.01 


450.50 


511.92 


10 


164.97 


202.92 


244.79 


290.58 


340.30 


393.94 


451.50 


512.98 


11 


165.57 


203.58 


245.52 


291.38 


341.16 


394.80 


452.49 


514.03 


12 


166.17 


204.25 


240.25 


292.18 


342.02 


395.79 


453.48 


515.09 


13 


166.77 


204.92 


240.98 


292.98 


842.88 


890.72 


454.48 


516.15 


14 


167.37 


205.59 


247.72 


293.78 


343.75 


397.05 


455.47 


517.21 


15 


167.97 


200.20 


248.45 


294.58 


344.62 


398.58 


456.47 


518.27 


10 


168.58 


200.93 


249.19 


295.88 


345.49 


399.52 


457.47 


519.34 


17 


169.19 


207.60 


249.93 


296.18 


840.80 


400.45 


458.47 


520.40 


18 


169.80 


208.27 


250.07 


296.99 


847.23 


401.38 


459.47 


521.47 


10 


170.41 


208.94 


251.41 


297.79 


348.10 


402.32 


400.47 


522.53 


20 


171.02 


209.62 


252.15 


298.60 


348.97 


403.20 


461.47 


528.60 


21 


171.63 


210.30 


252.89 


299.40 


349.84 


404.20 


462.48 


624.67 


22 


172.24 


210.98 


253.03 


300.21 


850.71 


405.14 


463.48 


525.74 


23 


172.85 


211.66 


254.37 


301.02 


351.58 


400.08 


404.48 


526.81 


24 


173.47 


212.34 


255.12 


301.83 


352.40 


407.02 


405.49 


527.89 


25 


174.08 


213.02 


255.87 


302.64 


353.84 


407.90 


406.50 


528.96 


2 


174.70 


213.70 


250.02 


303.40 


354.22 


408.90 


467.51 


530.03 


27 


175.32 


214.38 


257.37 


304.27 


355.10 


409.84 


468.52 


531.11 


28 


175.94 


215.07 


258.12 


305.09 


855.98 


410.79 


409.53 


582.18 


2!) 


170.50 


215.75 


258.87 


305.90 


350.86 


411.73 


470.54 


533.26 


30 


177.18 


216.44 


259.02 


300.72 


357.74 


412.08 


471.55 


534.33 


3i 


177.80 


217.12 


200.37 


307.54 


358.62 


413.G3 


472.57 


585.41 


32 


178.43 


217.81 


201.12 


308.80 


350.51 


414.59 


473.58 


536.50 


33 


179.05 


218.50 


201.88 


809.18 


3(50.39 


415.54 


474.00 


537.58 


34 


179.08 


219.19 


202.04 


310.00 


3(51.28 


410.49 


475.02 


538.07 


35 


180.30 


219.88 


263.39 


310.82 


302.17 


417.44 


470.04 


539.75 


30 


180.93 


220.58 


204.15 


311.65 


3(58.07 


418.40 


477.05 


540.83 


37 


181.50 


221,27 


204.91 


312.47 


8(53.90 


419.35 


478.07 


541.91 


38 


182.19 


221.97 


205.08 


313.80 


364.85 


420.81 


479.70 


543.00 


39 


182.82 


222.66 


200.44 


314.12 


365.75 


421.27 


480.72 


544.09 


40 


183.46 


223.36 


207.20 


314.95 


366.04 


422.23 


481.74 


545.18 


41 


184.09 


224.00 


207.90 


315.78 


307.58 


423.19 


482.77 


540.27 


42 


184.72 


224.70 


208.73 


310 01 


308.42 


424.15 


483.79 


547.30 


43 


185.35 


225.40 


2091.49 


317.44 


8(59.31 


425.11 


484.82 


548.45 


44 


185.99 


220.10 


270.20 


318.27 


370.21 


420.07 


485.85 


549.55 


45 


186.63 


220.80 


271.02 


319.10 


371.11 


427.04 


480.88 


550.64 




187.27 


227.57 


271.79 


319.94 


372.01 


428.01 


487.91 


551.73 


47* 


187.91 


228.27 


272.50 


320.78 


372.91 


428.97 


488.94 


552.83 


48 


188.55 


228.98 


273.34 


321.02 


373.82 


429.93 


489. 97 


558.93 


40 


189.19 


229.68 


274.11 


322.45 


374.72 


430.90 


491.01 


555.03 


50 


189.83 


230.39 


274.88 


323.29 


375.62 


431.87 


492.05 


556.13 


51 


190.47 


231.10 


275.05 


324.13 


370.52 


432.84 


493.08 


557.24 


52 


191.12 


231.81 


276.43 


324.97 


877.43 


433.82 


494.12 


658.34 


53 


191.76 


232.52 


277.20 


325.81 


378.34 


434.79 


495.15 


559.44 


54 


192.41 


233.24 


277.98 


320.06 


379.20 


435.70 


490.19 


500.65 


55 


193.06 


233.95 


278.76 


327.50 


380.17 


436.73 


497.23 


561.65 


50 


193.71 


234.67 


279.55 


328.35 


381.08 


437.71 


498.28 


562.76 


57 


194.36 


235.88 


280.33 


829.19 


381.99 


488.69 


499.32 


563.87 


58 


195.01 


286.10 


281.12 


330.04 


382.90 


439.67 


500.87 


564.98 


59 


195.66 


286.82 


281.90 


330.89 


883.82 


440,65 


501.41 


566.08 



199 



03 

m 

< 



ID 

CD 

Q- 



IT 

CD 



CD 

-j 

51 
" 



200 



c 
o 

I 

T5 
4) 
CC 



CO 



p 


17- 


18- 


19 m 


20 m 


21- 


22 m 


2:;- 


24- 


25 





667.2 


635.9 


708.4 


784.9 


865.8 


949.6 


it 
1087.8 


1129.9 


1225.9 


1 


568.3 


637.0 


709.7 


786.2 


850.6 


951.0 


1039.8 


1IB1.4 


1227,6 


2 


569.4 


688.2 


710.9 


787.5 


868.0 


952.4 


1040.8 


1183.0 


1229.2 


8 


570.5 


689.4 


712.1 


788.8 


669.4 


950.8 


1042.3 


1134.6 


1230.8 


4 


571.6 


640.6 


713.4 


790.1 


870.8 


955.3 


1043.8 


1136.2 


1282.6 


5 


572.8 


641.7 


714.6 


791.4 


872.1 


956.7 


1045.3 


1137,8 


1284.1 


6 


578.9 


642.9 


715.9 


792.7 


873.5 


958.2 


1046.8 


1189.3 


1235.7 


7 


575.0 


644.1 


717.1 


794.0 


874.9 


95U.6 


1048.3 


1140.9 


1237.3 


8 


676.1 


645.8 


718.4 


795.4 


876.3 


961.1 


1049.8 


1142.5 


1289.0 


9 


577.2 


646.5 


719.6 


796.7 


877.6 


962.5 


1051.8 


1144.0 


1240.6 


10 


578.4 


647.7 


720.9 


798.0 


879.0 


963.9 


1052.8 


1145.6 


1242.8 


11 


579.5 


648.9 


722.1 


799.3 


8b0.4 


965.4 


1054.3 


1147.2 


1243.9 


12 


580.6 


650.0 


723.4 


800.7 


881.8 


966.9 


1055.9 


1148.8 


1245.6 


13 


681.7 


651.2 


724.6 


802.0 


883.2 


968.3 


1057.4 


1150.4 


1247.2 


14 


582.9 


652.4 


725.9 


808.3 


884.6 


9G9.8 


1058.9 


1152.0 


1248.9 


15 


584.0 


653.6 


727.2 


804.6 


886.0 


971.2 


1060.4 


1158.6 


1250.5 


16 


6851 


654.8 


728.4 


806.0 


887.4 


972.7 


1062.0 


1155.2 


1252.2 


17 


586.2 


656.0 


729.7 


807.3 


8b8.b 


974.1 


10G3.6 


1156.8 


1253.8 


18 


687.4 


657.2 


780.9 


808.6 


890.2 


975.5 


1065.0 


1158.3 


1255.5 


19 


588.5 


658.4 


782.2 


809.9 


891.6 


977.0 


1066.5 


1159.9 


1257.1 


20 


589.6 


6596 


783.5 


811.3 


893.0 


978.5 


1068.1 


1161.5 


1258.8 


21 


590.8 


660.8 


734.7 


812.6 


894.4 


979.9 


1009.6 


1163.1 


1260.5 


22 


591.9 


662.0 


736.0 


818.9 


895.8 


981.4 


1071.1 


1164.7 


1262.2 


23 


593.0 


663.2 


737.3 


815.2 


$97.2 


982.9 


1072.6 


1166.3 


1263.8 


24 


594.2 


664.4 


738.5 


816.6 


898.6 


984.4 


1074.2 


1167.9 


1265.5 


25 


595.8 


665.6 


789.8 


817.9 


900.0 


985.8 


1075.7 


1169.5 


1267.1 


26 


596.5 


666.8 


741.1 


819.2 


-901.4 


987.3 


1077.2 


1171.1 


1268.8 


27 


597.6 


6680 


742.8 


820.5 


90^.6 


988.8 


1078.7 


1172.7 


1270.5 


28 


598.7 


669.2 


748.6 


821.9 


904.2 


990.3 


1080.8 


1174.3 


1272.1 


29 


599.9 


670.4 


744.9 


828.2 


905.6 


991.8 


1081.8 


1175.9 


1273.7 


80 


601.0 


671.6 


746.2 


824.6 


907.0 


993.2 


1083.8 


1177.5 


1275.4 


31 


602.2 


672.8 


747.4 


825.9 


908.4 


994.7 


1084.8 


1179.1 


1277.1 


82 


603.8 


674.1 


748.7 


827.8 


909.8 


996.2 


1086.4 


1180.7 


1278.8 


88 


604.5 


675.3 


750.0 


828.6 


911.2 


997.6 


1087.9 


1182.8 


1280.4 


84 


605.6 


676.5 


751.8 


829.9 


912.6 


999.1 


1089.5 


1183.9 


1282.1 


85 


606.8 


677.7 


752.6 


881.2 


914.0 


1000.6 


1091.0 


1185.5 


1283.8 


36 


607.9 


678.9 


753.8 


832.6 


915.5 


1002.1 


1092.6 


1187.1 


1285.5 


87 


609.1 


680.1 


755.1 


833.9 


Ult>.9 


1003.5 


1094.1 


1188.7 


1287.1 


88 


610.2 


681 ."3 


756.4 


885.8 


918.3 


1005.0 


1095.7 


1190.3 


1288.8 


39 


611.4 


682.6 


757.7 


836.6 


919.7 


1006.5 


1097.2 


1191.9 


1290.5 


40 


612.5 


688.8 


759.0 


838.0 


921.1 


1008.0 


1098.8 


1193.5 


1292.2 


41 


613.7 


685.0 


760.2 


839.3 


922.5 


1009.4 


1100.3 


1195.1 


1293.8 


42 


614.8 


686.2 


761.5 


840.7 


923.9 


1010.9 


1101.9 


1196.7 


1295.5 


43 


616.0 


687.4 


762.8 


842.0 


925,3 


1012.4 


1108.4 


1198.3 


1297.2 


44 


617.2 


688.7 


764.1 


843.4 


92U.8 


1018.9 


1105.0 


1199.9 


1298.9 


45 


618.3 


689.9 


765.4 


844.7 


928.2 


1015.4 


1106.5 


1201.5 


1800.6 


46 


619.6 


691.1 


766.7 


846.1 


U2U.6 


1016.9 


1108.1 


1203.1 


1802.2 


47 


620.6 


692.4 


768.0 


847.6 


931.0 


1018.4 


1109.6 


1204.7 


1303.9 


48 


621.8 


693.6 


769.8 


848.9 


932.4 


1019.9 


1111.2 


1206.4 


1305.6 


49 


628.0 


694.8 


770.6 


860.2 


933.8 


1021-4 


1112.7 


1208.0 


1307.3 


50 


624.1 


696.0 


771.9 


851.6 


935.2 


1022.8 


1114.3 


4209:6 


1809.0 


51 


625.8 


697.8 


778.1 


852.9 


936.6 


1024.8 


1115.8 


1211.2 


1810.7 


52 


626.5 


698.5 


774.5 


854.8 


988.1 


1025.8 


1117.4 


1212.9 


1312.4 


58 


627.6 


699.7 


775.7 


855.7 


939.5 


1027.8 


1118.9 


1214.6 


1314.1 


54 


628.8 


701.0 


777.1 


857.1 


940.9 


1028.8 


1120.5 


1216.1 


1815.7 


55 


630.0 


702.2 


778.4 


858.4 


942.8 


1080.9 


1122.0 


1217.7 


1817.4 


56 


631.2 


703.6 


779.7 


869.8 


948.8 


1081.8 


1128.6 


1219.4 


1819.1 


57 


682.8 


704.7 


781.0 


861.1 


945.2 


1038.8 


1125.1 


1221.0 


1820.8 


58 


683.6 


706.9 


782.8 


862.6 


946.6 


1034.8 


1126.7 


1222.6 


1822.5 


59 


684.7 


707.1 


788.6 


868.9 


948.1 


1086.8 


1128.8 


1224.2 


1824.9 



!"V 


23" 


27- 


2*- 


21)"" 


,-s--^ 


For rato. 


8 


// 


n 


H 


it 


P 


H 


P 


n 


Rate. 


Log* 




825.9 


429.7 


537 5 


1649.0 














1 


327^6 


1431.4 


5u9.3 


16o0.9 


m * 


II 


m 8 


n 


8 




2 


329.3 


1433.2 


541.1 


16o2.8 





).00 


20 


1.49 


80 


.999 6985 


8 


331.0 


1434.9 


1542.9 


1654.7 


1 


J.OO 


10 


1.54 


29 


7085 


4 


332.7 


1436.7 


1544.8 


1656.6 


2 


0.00 


20 


1.60 


28 


7186 












8n 


) 00 


30 


1 .65 


27 


7286 


5 


334.4 


1488.5 


1546.6 


1658.5 


V 

4 


).00 


40 


I '.70 


26 


7387 


6 

7 
8 


1836.1 
1887.8 
1339.5 


1440.3 
1442.1 
1443.9 


1548.4 
1550.2 
1552.1 


1660.4 
1662.3 
1664.2 


6 
6 


o'.oi 

0.01 


50 
21 


1.76 
1.82 


25 

24 

no 


7487 
7588 | 


9 


1341.2 


1445.6 


1553.9 


1666.1 


7 


0.02 


10 


1.87 





|!r? 












8 


0.04 


20 


1.93 


22 


4 I bo 


10 


542.9 


1447.4 


1555.8 


1668.0 


9 


0.06 


30 


1.99 


21 


7889 


11 


1344.6 


1449.2 


1557.6 


1669.9 


10 


0.09 


40 


2.06 


20 


7990 


12 


1346.3 


1451.0 


1559.5 


1671.9 


11 


0.14 


50 


2.12 


19 


8090 


13 
14 


1348.0 
1349.7 


1452.8 
1454.5 


1561.3 
1563.2 


1673.8 
1675.7 


12 
10 


0.19 
0.20 


22? 
10 


3.19 


18 
17 


8191 
8291 


15 


1341.4 


1456.8 


1565.0 


1677.6 


20 


0.22 


20 


2! 32 


16 


8392 




1353.2 


1458.1 


1566.9 


1679.5 


80 


0.23 


80 


2.39 


15 


8492 


17 


1354.9 


1459.9 


1568.7 


1681.4 


40 


0.24 


40 


2.46 


14 


8593 


18 


1356.6 


1461.6 


1570.5 


1683.3 


50 


0.25 


50 


2.54 


13 


8593 


1!) 


1353.3 


1463.4 


1572.4 


1685.2 


13 


0.26 


S3 


2.61 


12 


8794 


20 
21 
22 
23 
21 


1860.1 
1361.8 
1363.5 
1305.3 
1367.0 


1465.2 
1466.9 
1468.7 
1470.5 
1472.3 


1574.8 
1576.1 
1578.0 
1579.8 
1581.7 


1687.2 
1689.1 
1691.0 
1692.9 
1694.8 


10 
20 
80 
40 

50 


0.28 
0.30 
0.31 
0.83 
0.34 


10 
20 
80 
40 
50 


2.69 

2.77 
2.85 
2.93 
3.01 


11 
10 

8 

7 


8894 

8995 
9095 
9196 
9296 












14 


86 


84 ( 


3.10 


6 


9397 


25 

27 

28 
29 


1368.7 
1370.4 
1372.1 
1373.9 
1376.6 


1474.1 
1475.9 

1477.7 
1479.5 
1481.3 


1583.5 
1585.3 
1587.2 
1589.1 
1590.9 


1696.7 
1698.6 
1700.5 
1702.5 
1704.4 


X* U 

10 
20 
80 
40 
50 


0'.88 
0.89 
0.41 
0.43 
0.45 


10 
20 
30 
40 
50 


8.18 
3.27 
3.36 
3.45 
3.55 


5 
4 
3 
2 
1 


9497 
9093 
9G98 
9799 
9.999 9399 


80 


1377.3 


1483.1 


1592.7 


1706.8 


15 


0.47 


35 


3.64 





0.000 0000 


31 


1379.0 


1484.9 


1594.6 


1708.2 


10 


0.49 


10 


3.74 




0101 


32 


1380.8 


1486.7 


1596.5 


1710.2 


2( 


0.52 


20 


3.84 


2 


0201 


33 


1382.5 


1488.5 


1598.3 


1712.1 


80 


0.54 


80 


3.94 


3 


0302 


31 


1384.2 


1490.8 


1600.2 


1714.0 


40 


0.56 


40 


4.05 


4 


0402 


35 


1385.9 


1492.1 


1602.1 


1715.9 


50 


0.59 


50 


4.15 


5 


0503 


30 


1387.7 


1493.9 


1604.0 


1717.9 


10 


0.61 


20 


4.26 


6 


0603 


87 


1389.4 


1495.7 


1605.9 


1719.8 


10 


0.64 


10 


4.37 


7 


0704 


88 


1391.2 


1497.5 


1607.7 


1721.7 


20 


0.67 


20 


4.48 


8 


0804 


39 


1392.9 


1499.3 


1609.6 


1723.6 


80 


0.69 


30 


4.6( 


9 


0905 












40 


0.72 


40 


4.72 






40 


1394.7 


1501.1 


1611.5 


1725.6 


50 


0.76 


50 




10 


1005 


41 
42 
43 
44 


1396.4 
1398.2 
1399.9 
1401.7 


1502.9 
1504.7 
1506.5 
1508.4 


1613/3 
1615.2 
1617.1 
1619.0 


1727.5 
1729.5 
1731.5 
1733.4 


17 C 

10 
2C 
8C 


0.78 
0.81 
0.84 
0.88 


27 

10 
2( 

80 


4.9( 
5.08 
5.2( 
5.33 


11 
12 
13 
14 


1106 
1206 
1807 
1407 


45 

40 


1403.4 
1405.2 


1510.2 
1512.0 


1620.8 
1622.7 


1735.3 
1787.2 


4C 
5C 


0.91 
0.95 


40 
50 


5.4f 
5.60 


15 
16 


1508 
1603 
1709 


47 

48 
49 


1406.9 
1408.7 
1410.4 


1513.8 
1515.6 
1517.4 


1624.6 
1626.5 
1628.3 


1739.2 
1741.2 
1743.1 


18 C 
1C 
2( 


0.98 
l.OX, 
1.06 


38 C 
1C 
2C 


5.78 

5.87 
>0.0 


18 
19 


1809 
1910 


50 
51 
52 


1412.2 
1413.9 
1415.7 


1519.2 
1521.0 
1522.9 


1630.2 
1632.1 
1634-0 


1745.1 
1747.0 
1749.0 


3( 
4( 
5( 


1.09 

1.1: 

1.18 


306.1o 
406.30 
506.44 


20 
21 
22 
28 


2010 
2111 
2211 
2312 


53 


1417.4 


1524.7 


1635.9 


1750.9 


19 ( 


1.22 


29 ( 


)6.5 


24 


2412 


54 


1419.2 


1526.5 


1637.7 


1752.8 


1( 


1.2( 


1( 


)6.7 


25 


2513 


55 

5( 
5 
58 


1420.9 
1422.7 
1424.4 
1426.2 


1528.3 
1530.2 
1532.0 
1583.8 


1639.6 
1641.5 
1643.8 
1645.2 


1754.8 
1756.8 
1758.7 
1760.7 


2( 
3( 
4( 
5< 


)l!3 
)1.4 
31.44 


2( 
8( 
4( 
<H 


)0.9 
)7.0 
)7.2 
)7.3 


26 
27 
28 
29 


2618 
2714 
2814 
2915 


59 


1427.9 


1535. 


1647.1 


1762. 


20 


01.4 


30 ( 


)7.5fti +KO 


0.000 8015 



201 



CO 

r 
m 



33 

(D 

a 

c 
o 

o' 

3 



IT 
CD 



n> 

-i 
a 
* 

3 



203 



> 

UJ 

" 



o> 

a 

3 



< 

4-* 

c 



Q- 
CL 



C 

a 
a 
o 



o 



- 

2 

E 

C3 

9 
"E 

a> 
CO 



c 
o 
o 



o 

c 
o 



<D 



Appar- 
ent 
Alti- 
tude. 




Horizontal Semi- Diameter. 


14 30 


15 


15 30 


16 


16 30 


17 




ft 


// 


ii 


// 


ii 


// t 





0.10 


0.12 


0.13 


0.14 


0.15 


0.17 


2 


0.58 


0.62 


0.66 


0.71 


0.76 


0.81 


4 


1.05 


1.12 


1.20 


1.28 


1.37 


1.46 


6 


1.51 


1.62 


1-74 


1.86 


1.98 


2.10 


8 


1.98 


2.12 


2.27 


2.42 


2.58 


2.75 


10 


2.44 


2.62 


2.80 


2.99 


3.18 


8.89 


12 


2.90 


3.11 


3.33 


3.56 


3.78 


4.02 


14 


3.36 


3.61 


3.86 


4.11 


4.37 


4.66 


16 


3.82 


4.10 


4.38 


4.67 


4.97 


5.28 


18 


4.28 


4.58 


4.89 


5.22 


5.50 


5.90 


20 


4.72 


5.06 


5.41 


5.76 


6.14 


6.52 


22 


5.16 


5.53 


5.91 


6.30 


6.71 


7.13 


24 


5.60 


5.99 


6.41 


6.83 


7.27 


7.72 


26 


6.03 


6.45 


6.90 


7.35 


7. 88 


8.31 


28 


6.45 


6.91 


7.38 


7.87 


8.37 


8.89 


30 


6.86 


7.35 


7.85 


8.87 


8.91 


9.46 


32 


7.27 


7.78 


8.32 


8.87 


9.44 


10.02 


34 


7.67 


8.21 


8.77 


9.85 


9.95 


10.57 


36 


8.0<> 


8.62 


9.22 


9.83 


10.46 


11.11 


38 


8.43 


9.03 


9.65 


10.29 


10.95 


11.63 


40 


8.80 


9.42 


10.07 


10.74 


11.43 


12.14 


42 


9.16 


9.80 


10.48 


11.17 


11.89 


12.63 


44 


9.51 


10.17 


10.88 


11 .60 


1 2 . 34 


18.11 


46 


9.84 


10.54 


11.26 


12.01 


12.78 


13.57 


48 


10.16 


10.88 


11.63 


12.40 


13.20 


14.02 


50 


10.48 


11.22 


11.99 


12.78 


13.60 


14.45 


52 


10.78 


11.54 


12.33 


13.15 


13.99 


14.86 


54 


11.07 


11.84 


12.65 


13.50 


14.36 


15.25 


56 


11.34 


12.14 


12.97 


13.83 


14.72 


15.63 


58 


11.60 


12.42 


13.27 


14.15 


15.05 


15.99 


60 


11 84 


12.68 


13.55 


14.44 


15.87 


16.83 


62 


12.07 


12.93 


13.81 


14.73 


15.67 


10.64 


64 


12.29 


13.16 


14.00 


14.99 


15.95 


16.94 


66 


12.49 


13.37 


14.29 


15.24 


16.21 


17.22 


68 


12.68 


13.58 


14.50 


15.46 


16.45 


17.47 


70 


12.85 


13.76 


14.70 


15.67 


16.67 


17.71 


72 


13.00 


13.92 


14.88 


15.86 


16.88 


17.92 


74 


13.14 


14.07 


15.04 


16.03 


17.06 


18.12 


76 


13.27 


14.21 


15.18 


16.18 


17.22 


18.29 


78 


13 38 


14.32 


16.80 


16.31 


17.36 


18.48 


80 


13.47 


14.42 


15.40 


16.42 


17.47 


18.56 


82 


13.54 


14.50 


15.49 


16.51 


17.57 


18.66 


84 


13.60 


14.56 


15.56 


16.59 


17.65 


18.74 


86 


13.64 


14.61 


15.60 


16.64 


17.70 


18.80 


88 


13.67 


14.68 


15.63 


16.67 


17.73 


18.83 


90 


13.67 


14.63 


15.64 


16.68 


17.74 


18.85 



FORMS. 



FORMS. 
FoilM No. 1. 



205 



ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIME-PIECE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT 

OF bTAB. 

Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Latitude, 41 23' 22'Ml. Chronometer No , by 



Date: 










Observer. 










Recorder. 










Transit. 










Illumination. 










Name of Star. 










( Direct. 
Level. { 
( Reversed. 


E. W. 
E. W. 


E. W. 
E. W. 


E. W. 
E. W. 


E. W. 
E. W. 


fj 


h m s 


h m s 


h m s 


h m s 


| IL 

s Iir - 

I^IV. 

v. 










i vi - 

H I VII. 










Sum. 










Mean. 
Red. to Mid. Wire. 










Chron. Time of Transit over Mid. ) 
Wire = T. ( 










Level Error = b. 










Level Correction = 6. 










Collirnation Error = c. 










Collimation Correction = Cc. 










Azimuth Error = a. 










Azimuth Correction = Aa, 










Chron. Time of Transit. 
App. R. A. of Star = a. 











Error of Chron. = E. 











206 



FORMS. 



FORM No. 2. 

ERROR OF MEAN-SOLAR TIME-PIECE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT 

OF SUN. 



Date. 

Latitude 41 23' 23".ll. 

Observer. 

Transit No By 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Longitude 4.93*. 

Recorder. 

Mean-Solar Chron. No By 



Chronometer Time of Transit of West Limb. Wire I 

" II 
" III 

44 IV 



Chronometer Time of Transit of East Limb. 



VI 

VII 

I 

II 

III 

IV 

V 

VI 

VII 



SUM. 
Chron. Time of Transit of Center over Mean of 

Wires - Mean. 
Reduction to Middle Wire. 

Level Error Level Correction. 

Col. " Col. 

Azimuth 4t Azimuth 4 * 

Chronom. Time of App. Noon. 

Apparent ' 4 " " "_ 

Eq. of Time. 

Mean Time of Apparent Noon. 

Error of Chronometer on Mean Solar Time at 

App. Noon. 



Ui fc 0.0 W 0.0* 



FOBM8. 

FORM No. 3. 



207 



ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIME-PIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE OF 
STAR. NAME.... 



Date. 

Observer. 

SexfantNo By 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Roc-order. 

Sidereal Chronom. No By. 



Observed Double Altitude. 



Chronom. Time. 



Mean 
Index Error. 

Eccentricity. 

Corrected Double Altitude. 

" Altitude =a e . 
* Refract ion r. 

Truo Altitude =a 

Latitude -$. 

N. Polar Dist. =& 

a 4 <b -\-d 

a. 



Sum 
1 Menn - t 

Barometer 
Att. Therniom 
Ext. " 
Refraction 



a. c. log cos 



** COS HI 

" sin (m - a) , 



P 

P in Timo 

Apparent R. A. of Star 
Sidereal Time - R. A. -f P , 
Mean of Chron. Times -<t 9 
Error of Chronometer 



* The correction to be added to this value of r, if desired (see Note 3, Text), ie 
8 sln^o" 2 ~n sii\\'~i~ L ~' A denotin ^ the di ^' r - Corrected altitudes, ri their mean, nnd 
n the number of observations. The values of " * '*" are taken from Tables (first 

converting a A into Its equivalent in time), as explained under " Latitude by Circum 
Meridian Altitudes." 

tThe correction to be added algebraically to this value of / if desired (see Note 3, 

Text) , 8 ,af te r compute P taarc , A [cotP _ -=^**-] S --^^. 
the diflf<rent chronometer times. The last factor is taken from Tables as before. 



208 



FORMS. 

FOEM No* 4 



ERROR OF MEAN-SOLAR TIME-PIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE 
OF SUN'S LIMB. 



Date. 

Observer. 

Sextant No By.. 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Recorder. 

M. S, Chronom. No By 



Observed Double Altitude. 



Chrouom. Time. 



h m s 



Mean " 

Index Error. 

Eccentricity. 



Sum 
tMean = 1 Q 



Barometer 

Att. Thermom. 
Corrected Double Altitude Tj, v4 . 4 . 

JiiXL. 

" Altitude = a Refraction 



*Ref raction = r. Longitude = 4.981 hours. 

Semi-diameter. Assumed Error of Chronom. = 

Apparent Altitude = a 1 Resulting Greenwich Time of Obs. : 



Parallax in Altitude, 
True Altitude = a. 
Latitude = <f>. 

N. Polar Dist. = d. 

< 

m - 

m a. 



. Log. Eq. Hor. Parallax 

" P. 

" cos a'. 

..41..23 / ..22 / Ml.. Parallax in Altitude. 



Dec. at Greenwich Mean Moon. 
Hourly Change X Greenwich Time 
Sun's Declination. 



a. c. log cos < 
" " sin d 
log. cos m 
* sin (m a) 
" sin a i P 
P 

Pin Time 
Apparent Time 
Equation of Time. 
Mean Time. 

Mean of Chron. Times = 
Error of Chronometer. 



* See foot-note to Form 3. 
t " " " " " " 

NOTE. For correct Ion of Semi-diameter due to difference of refraction between limb 
and center, see " Longitude by Lunar Distances. 11 



FORMS. 



FORM No. 5. 

ERROR OP SIDEREAL TIME-PIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OP 

A STAR. 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Observer 

SextantNo By 

Name of Star 



Latitude, 41 23' 22".ll = <fr. 

Recorder 

Sid. Chronom. No By 

App. Declination = 8 



Observations East. 
Observed Double Altitudes. 



Date. 



Chronometer Times. 
h m s 



1. 

II. 
HI. 



Barom. 

Att. Thermom. 
Ext. " 
1st Refraction 



Mean = 2a. . 



Sum . 



(Correct this for index error, if correction 1st Mean 

for refraction be taken into account.) 

Observations West. Date 

Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times. 

o i a h m 8 

I. Barom. 

n. Att. Thermom. 

HI. Ext. 

2d Refraction 

_ 1st " 

Mean = 2a Sum Difference 

(Same as above). 2d Mean Log Difference 

1st " Log- cos a 

a. c. log 30 

Elapsed Time. a. c. logcoscfr 

% Elapsed Time in arc = *. a. c. logcosfi 

a. c. log sin t 

Midd le Chronom 3ter Time. Log Correction 

Correction for Refraction. . Correction 

Chronom. Time of Transit. 

App. R. A. of Star. 

Error of Chronom. at Time of Transit 



208 



FORMS, 
FORM No. 4 



ERROR OF MEAN-SOLAR TIME-PIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE 
OF SUN'S LIMB. 



Date. 

Observer. 

Sextant No By 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Recorder. 

M. S. Chrouom. No By. 



Observed Double Altitude. 



Chronom. Time. 



h m 8 



Mean *' 

Index Error. 



Sum 
I- Mean = t Q 



Barometer 
Att. Thermom. 



Eccentricity. 

* ._ ,. A1t . A , 

Corrected Double Altitude ............ . 

" Altitude = a ..................... Refraction 



*Ref raction = r. 
Serai-diameter. 



Longitude = 4.931 hours. 
Assumed Error of Chronom. = 



Latitude = <. 

N. Polar Dist. = d. 



Apparent Altitude = a f Resulting Greenwich Time of Obs.= 

Parallax in Altitude. 

True Altitude = a. 



Log. Eq. Hor. Parallax 
" P- 



..41..23'..22",11.. Parallax in Altitude. 



Dec.' at Greenwich Mean Moon. 
Hourly Change x Greenwich Time 
Sun's Declination. 



a. c. log cos </> 
" " sind 
log. cos m 
44 sin (m - a) 
" sin 2 i P 
P 

P in Time 
Apparent Time 
Equat ion of Time. 
Mean Time. 

Mean of Chron. Times = 
Error of Chronometer, 



* See foot-note to Form 3. 
t " " " " " 

NOTB. For correction of Semi-diameter due to difference of refraction between limb 
and center, F,ee * Longitude by Lunar Distances." 



FORMS. 
FORM No. 5. 



ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIME-PIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OP 

A STAR. 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 

Observer 

Sextant No By 

Name of Star. 



Latitude, 41 23' 23'M1 * . 

Recorder 

Sid. Chronom. No By 

App. Declination = 8 



Observations East. 
Observed Double Altitudes. 

o I II 



Date. 



Chronometer Times. 
h m s 



I. 

II. 
III. 



Barorn. 

Att. Thermom. 

Ext. 

1st Refraction 



Sum . 



Mean = 2a 

(Correct this for index error, if correction 1st Mean 

for refraction be taken into account,) 

Observations West. Date 

Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times. 

0*0 h m s 

I. Barom. 

II. Att. Thermom. 

III. Ext. *' 

2d Refraction 

1st 

Mean *= 2a Sum Difference 

(Same as above). Sd Mean Log Difference 

1st " Log cos a 

a. c. log 30 

Elapsed Time. a. c. logcos^ 

^ Elapsed Time in arc = *. a. c. log cos B 

a. c. log sin t 

Midd le Chronom 3ter Time. Log Correction 

Correction for Refraction. . Correction 

Chronom. Time of Transit. 

App. R. A. of Star. 

Error of Chronom. at Time of Transit 



210 



FORMS. 



FOBM No. 6. 

ERROR OF MEAN-SOLAR TIME-PIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDE!* 
OP SUN'S LIMB. 

Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. <f> *. Latitude, 41 23' 22" 11. Longitude 4.931^, west. 

Observer Recorder 

Sextant No By M. S. Chronoin. No By 

Sun's App. Dec. at local App. Noon (or midnight) = 5= 

Hourly change in 6 at same time, = fc 

Observations East. Date 

Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times. 

o ' " h m s 

I. Barom. 

II. Att. Thermom 

m. Ext. " 

1st Refraction 

Mean = 2a Sum _____ _ 

(Correct this for index error, if correction ist Mean 

for refraction be taken into account). 

Observations West. Date 

Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times. 

9 t n h m s 

I, Barom. 

II. Att. Thermom. 

ra. Ext. " 

2d Refraction 

] 1st " _ 

Mean s= 2a Sum ...Difference 

(Same as above). 2d Mean.. Log Difference 

1st * Log cos a 

a c. lag 30 

Elapsed Time a. c. log cos < 

^5 Elapsed Time in arc = t . a. c. log cos S 

a. c. log sin t . . 

Middle Chronometer Time. ..... . Log Correction 

Correction for Refraction. Correction 

Equation of Equal Altitudes. ~T~ 

- - J Og A ........ 

Chronom. Time of App. Noon. ** k 

App. of Time at App. Noon. .... 12 h . . .0 . . .0 s . . . " tan # 

Eq. of Time at App. Noon. " 1st Part 

Mean Time of App. Noon. 1st Part 

Error of Chronometer at App. Noon Log B. 

tanfi 

" 2d Part. 

3d Part. 
1st Part -f 3d Part = Eq. of Equal Altitudes. - 



FORMS. 
F OBM No. 7. 



211 



LATITUDE BY CIRCUM-MERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF 
SUN'S ................ LIMB. 



Date ............ Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Longitude 4.93*. Assumed Lat. = = . 

Observer ............ Recorder , ....... Barora ........... Att. Th ...... Ext. Th. 

Sextant No ........ By ................ M. S. Chronometer, No ..... By ......... , 

Error of Chronometer = E = ................ Kate of Chronometer = T ~ ......... , 



Observed Double 
Altitudes. 

/ // 


Chronometer Times. 
h, m s 


App. Time of 
App. Noon 12 
Eq. of Time at 
App. Noon 


Hour Angles. 

111. 8. 


m. 

8. 


n. 


II.' 
m. 

IV. 
V. 
VI. 
VII. 
VIII. 
IX. 
X. 










Mean Time of 
App Noon > 


Chron. Error 


Chron. Time of 
App. Noon 


Sum. Log. Eq. Hor. Pu Sums. 
Mean . *' p 


P. 


"m " 


nV 


Eccentricity ** cos a* Means. 


Index Error. " Par in Alt 


( 






Cor.D. Alt " " " Eq. of Time at Po 



" S. 
Refraction 
Semi-diam. 
Par. in Alt. 
True Alt..=a -f- . 



Longitude 



. Sun's Dec. at 



Correspond'^ Greenwich Time . 



+ 90- 



> + 90 - a,. 



B n Q - 

Sum 



.90.. 



. Change in Eq. of Time in 24ft = e . 
Rate of Chronometer *' r. 
). r e. 

log k 



* sec a,_ 
4 A Q 



A^MQ 



A Q . 
** tan a/ 
" n 
" B n . 



* a is obtained by applying refraction and semi-diameter to Corrected Single Altitude. 
NOTE. For correction to Semi-diameter due to difference of refraction between limb 
and center, see Longitude by Lunar Distances. 



212 



FORMS. 
FORM No. 8. 



LATITUDE BY CIRCUM-MERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF (NAME OF 
STAR) 

Date Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Assumed Lat. = = 

Observer Recorder arom Att. Ther Ext. Then 

Sextant No By Sidereal Chronom. No By 

Error of Chronometer = E = Rate of Chronometer = r= 



Observed Double 
Altitudes. 

/ // 


Chronometer TImels. 
h. m. s. 




Hour Angles. 
m. s. 


m. 

s. 


n. 

8. 


I. 
II. 




App. R. A. of 
Star 








III. 




Chron. Error 








IV. 
V. 
VI. 




Chron.Timeof 
Transit 








vn. 

VIM. 
IX. 
X. 












Sum 




Suras. 














P 


W10 


ftn 






Means. 








IndftxTCrror. 













Cor. D. Alt Star's App. Declination = 5 

" S. " a, = -f 90-$. 

Refraction. 

True Alt.=sa -f- Rate of Chronometer in 24fc = e... 

^ O wi + log fc. 



= + 90 - a,. 



Sum - 
90 f 



.90..0 / .0..0".0. 



41 cos 5 . 
u sec a/ . 



A m 



Slog A 
" tan a, 



FORMS. 

FORM No. 9. 

PROGRAMME FOR ZENITH TELESCOPE. (LATITUDE.) 



213 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 



Approximate Latitude Observer. 



No. 


Catalogue and 
" No. 


Mag. 


Mean R. A. 


Mean Dec. 


Zenith 
Disc. 


,N. 
8. 


Setting. 


1. 
















2. 
















8. 
















4. 
















5. 
6. 
















7. 
















8. 
















9. 
















10. 

















Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. 
Telescope No 



FOBM No. 9a. 
OBSERVATIONS WITH ZENITH TELESCOPE. 

Observer 



Recorder ....... Sheet No. 

Chronometer Error ........ 



DATE. 


STAR. 


MICROMETER. 


LEVEL. 


CHRONOM. 


REMARKS 




Catalogue 
and Cata- 
logue No. 


N. 
S. 


m n & m a 


m n m 9 


In&l'n 


l a & I', 


(ln+l> n ) 

0-+J'.) 


Time. 























NOTB. Form No. 9 is for the observer's use. 
Form 9a is for the recorder's use. 

The records of the different nights at a given station are then collated, and the 
reductions made as per Form No. 96, which is for the computer's use. 



tomtit. 







g 












5>* 




o 









If 




5 
*. 
i< 




ex 




I 2 I 




H 

I* 




II 







i 




^i 

^a 





| 1 

en * 


1 


1 




|o 

51 

g 




H 5 
-5 fe 

g | 




Microra. 




Is 

li 

2 




H 

td 


NATION. 


0* 




frt U 

s 

a 




B 

td " 

^ H e 


i 
Q 


5 




u>J3 
p =5 

li 

8 




O U p 


HOUR 
ANGLE. 


OH' 








w C 

S ! 




4 4 

e ^ 




4 
t*? 


f .. 5 


C3 
pq o 

CO 

W 


1 


v* 9 

3 




8 " ^ e 




* f "^ 


O ^ 




3 




I 5? 

II 


I8 3 

5 a 
i n 


'8 ^ 

i ! 

P09 


METER. 


if 

i 
& 




1 
o 

u 


1 
1 1 1 


.Q 

O O 


i 


JO 




S h 


J MM 




s 


8 






1 


ri 




rim 






1 


O O 


I 


Catalogue 
and Cata- 
logue No. 






1 


1 




I 









Poms. 



o 

fc 



o 
PH 









O) 

s 

O 
PH 

PQ 






tt 



Si 

5 s e 






a 
i 



i! 

"i 

w C 

If 
sli 

sl"* 



FORM No. 11. 

LATITUDE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OF TWO STARS. 



Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Observer Recorder 

Date Sextant, No By 

Sid. Chronom. No By Error Rate 



Name 


Chron. 
Time 
of 


True 
Time 
of 


App. 


Hour 
Angle 


Hour 
Angle 


App. 
I)ec 


'- a 


a' + 


p>-p 


P* + P 


of the Star. 


Obser- 
vation. 


Obser- 
vation. 


R.A. 


in 
Time. 


in Arc. 
P&P 1 


a&a' 


2 


z 


2 


2 


1. 
2. 






















1. 
2. 






















1. 
2. 






















1. 
2 






















i. 
2. 






















T -p 












































S'-fi 
Log cot 






















t 6'-f 
Log cot "-J- 






















Log tan M 






















M 






















a. c. log cos M 






















P*-P 
Log cos 2 






















-r , *'+ 5 

Logtan -|- 






















Log 9>i 






















.p-l-p 






















2 






















M 






















JP '+ P , f 






















2 M 






















Log cos 
P '^ P Jlf 






















U M 






















Log m 






















Logtan ^ 






















4 






















Mean 























FORMS. 



217 



CM O 



1 



IV 

i 



i 
Jfe 



III 



218 



FORMS. 



3 
i 



I 



I 



o 

S 






! 



i 



3 



6 



!5 

IH 



I 

75