TEXT CROSS WITHIN
THE BOOK ONLY
ro
LU< OU 158109 m
OSMANIA UNIVERSITY LIBRARY
Call No. %*/ /*? fa / X Accession No r
Author
This book should be returned on or before the date lasvfnarked below.
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
P. S. MICHIE AND F. S. IIARLOW
Lat Prnffssor of Philosophy 1st Lieut. 1st A rtillery U. S. A.
if. S. M. A.
THIRD EDITION REVISED
TJIJKD THOUSAND
NEW YORK
JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC.
LONDON: CHAPMAN & HALL, LIMITED
COPYRIGHT, 1893,
BY
P. S. MIC1IIE AND F. S. JTARLOW.
PRESS OF
BRAUNWORTH & CO.
BOOKBINDERS /NO PRINTERS
BROOKLYN. N. V.
PREFACE.
THIS volume, both in respect to matter and arrangement, is
designed especially for the use of the cadets of the U. 8. Military
Academy, as a supplement to the course in General Astronomy at
present taught them from the textbook of Professor C. A. Young.
It is therefore limited to that branch of Practical Astronomy which
relates to Field Work, and more particularly to those subjects which
are not discussed at sufficient length for practical work in Professor
Young's volume. It is believed, however, that it will find a use
ful application in the hands of officers of the Army, who may be
called upon to conduct such explorations and surveys for military
purposes as the War Department may from time to time direct.
The more usual methods of determining Time, Latitude, and
Longitude, on Land, are explained, and the requisite reduction
formulas are deduced and explained. In addition, there is given a
short explanation of the principles relating to the Construction of
Ephemerides, to the Figure of the Earth, the determination of
Azimuths, and the projection of Solar Eclipses.
The instruments described are those used by the cadets in the
Field and Permanent Observatories of the Military Academy dur
ing the summer encampment.
The principal sources of information from which the matter in
this volume has been derived are the published Eeports of the
United States Lake, Coast, and Northern Boundary Surveys; the
publications of the Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy, and the
works of Briinnow and Chauvenet.
U. S. MILITARY ACADEMY,
WEST POINT, N. Y., October, 1893.
iii
CONTENTS.
EPIIEMEUIS.
PAGE
American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac ................... ....... r 1
of the Sun.
Deduction of Formulas for Computation of the Sun's Tables ............ 2
Table of Epochs ................................................... 6
Table of Longitude of Perjgee ........................... . ............ 5
Table of Equations of the Center ...................................... 5
Perturbations in Longitude ; Aberration ............................... 6
Ephemeris of the Sun .............................................. 6
Earth's Radius Vector ................................................ 6
Sun's Horizontal Parallax ............................................ 7
Sun's Apparent Semidinmetcr ........................................ 7
Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude ............................... 7
Equation of Time ....................... . ........................... 9
JSphemeris of the Moon.
Elements of the Lunar Orbit ......................................... 10
Ephemeris of the Moon .............................................. 12
Ephemeris of a Planet. 13
INTERPOLATION. 15
THE TRANSIT.
Description of the Transit Instrument .................................. 17
The Reticle .......................................................... 19
The Eyepiece and Setting Circles .................................... 20
Adjustments of the Transit.
1. To Place the Wires in the Principal Focus of the Objective ........... 21
2. To Level the Axis ................................................. 21
8. To Place the Wires at Right Angles to the Rotation Axis ............ 28
y
VI CONTENTS.
PAGE
4. To Place the Middle Wire in the Line of Collimation 23
6. To Place the Line of Collimation in the Meridian 28
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS.
1. The Value of One Division of the R. A. Micrometer Head 24
2. The Equatorial Intervals 27
3. The Reduction to the Middle Wire 28
4. The Value of One Division of the Level 29
6. Inequality of the Pivots 30
EQUATION OF THE TKANSIT IN THE MERIDIAN.
1. The Effect of an Error in Azimuth on the Time of Passage of the
Middle Wire 35
2. The Effect of an Inclination of the Axis on the Time of Passage of
the Middle Wire 34
3. The Effect of an Error in Collimatiou on the Time of J?AKsugc of the
Middle Wire 84
Determination, of Instrumental Errors.
1. To Determine the Level Error 37
2. To Determine the Collimation Error ' 37
3. To Determine the Azimuth Error 39
REFRACTION TABLES 40
TIME.
Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Intervals 43
Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Time 44
Example Solved 46
To FIND TIIK TIME BY ABTUONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS.
I. Time by Meridian Transits.
1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece by the Meridian
Transit of a Star (Form 1 , Appendix) 47
* To Find the Same by the Meridian Transit of the Sun 48
2d Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by a Merid
ian Transit of the Sun (Form 2) 49
* To Find the Same by a Meridian Transit of a Star 50
THE SEXTANT.
Description of the Sextant 50
How to Measure an Angle with the Sextant 54
Adjustments of tlie Sextant.
1. To Make the Indexglass Perpendicular to the Frame 56
2. To Make the Horizonglass Perpendicular to the Frame 56
CONTENTS. TU
PAGK
8. To Make the Axis of the Telescope Parallel to the Frame 56
4. To Make the Mirrors Parallel, when the Reading is Zero 57
Emors of the Sextant.
Index Error 57
Eccentricity '. 58
The Astronomical Triangle , 58
11. Time by Single Altitudes.
1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece hy a Single Alti
tude of a Star (Form 3) 59
4 The Correction to be. Applied to the Mean of the Altitudes. . 60
To Ascertain what Stars are Suitable for this Method 63
Sd Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by a Single
Altitude of the Sun's Limb (Form 4) 64
///. Time by Equal Altitudes.
1st Method. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece by Equal Alti
tudes of a Star (Form 5) 66
2d Method. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by Equal Alti
tudes of the Sun's Limb (Form 6) 67
4 Correction for Refraction 68
4* Equation of Equal Alt itudes 69
Time of Sunrise or Sunset ' 70
Duration of Twilight 70
LATITUDE.
Form and Dimensions of the Earth 72
The Eccentricity of the Meridian 74
The Equatorial and Polar Radii 74
The Radius of Curvature of the Meridian at the Observer's Station 75
The Length of a Degree of Latitude 75
The Length of a Degree Perpendicular to the Meridian 75
The Length of a Degree of Longitude 76
The Length of the Earth's Rudius at any Point 76
The Reduction of Latitude 77
Latitude Problems.
1st Method. By Circumpoltvrs. . . 78
2d Method. By Meridian Altitudes or Zenith Distances 78
3d Method. By Circummeridian Altitudes 79
Formula for Reduction to the Meridian 79
Method of Making and Reducing Observations 80
Hour Angle and Correction for Clock Rate 81
By Circummeridian Altitudes of the Sun's Limb (Form 7). . 83
By Circummeridian Altitudes of a Star (Form 8) 84
TOl CONTENTS.
PAQB
Notes on this Method.
1. Ephemeris Star Preferable to Sun 84
2. Advantage of Combining the Kesults from Two Stars 84
3. Advantage of Selecting Stars Distant from Zenith 84
4. Reduction of Mean Solar to Sidereal Intervals 86
5. To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian. 87
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
Description of the Zenith Telescope 00
The Attached Level and Declination Micrometer 91
4th Method. By Opposite and Nearly Equal Meridian Zenith Distances.
Captain Tulcott's Method (Form 9) 96
Conditions for Selecting a Pair of Stars 97
Preliminary Computations , . . . 97
Adjustment of Zenith Telescope 98
Observations 99
Reduction of Observations 99
1. Reduction from Mean Declination to Apparent Declination of
the Date 99
2. The Micrometer and Level Corrections 100
8. The Refraction Correction 102
4. The Correction for Observations off the Meridian 103
fr To Determine the Reduction for an Instrument in the Meridian. . . 105
Hh To Determine the Probabb Error of the Final Result 106
5th Method. By Polaris off the Meridian (Form 10) 109
6th Method. By Equal Altitudes of Two Stars (Form 11) 114
LONGITUDE.
1st Method. By Portable Chronometers 118
2d Method. By the Electric Telegraph (Form 12) 121
Reduction of the Time Observations (Form 120) 125
fr Personal Equation 127
4* Application of Weights and Probable Error of Result 128
8d Method. By Lunar Culminations 132
Observations and Reductions , 135
Equation of Transit Instrument Applicable to this Method. .. 137
4th Method. By Lunar Distances 140
1. Correction for Moon's Augmented Semidiameter 141
2. Correction for Refraction 142
3. Correction for Earth's Oblatcness 142
Explanation of this Method 142
Observations , 148
fr To Find Augmentation of Moon's Semidiameter 149
fr To Deduce the Law of Refractive Distortion 150
* To Deduce the Parallax for the Point R. 151
jh To Determine the Correction for Earth's Oblateness 151
CONTENTS. IX
OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDE.
PAOB
1. By Signals 158
2. By Eclipses and Occupations 158
8. By Jupite r's Satellites 158
a. From their Eclipses 158
b. From their Occupations 153
c. From their Transits over Jupiter's Disc 154
d. From the Transit of their Shadows * 154
Application to Explorations and Surveys 154
TIME OF OPPOSITION OR CONJUNCTION. 156
TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE. 157
AZIMUTH.
Definitions 158
The Astronomical Theodolite or Altazimuth 159
Classification of Azimuths 160
Selection of Stars 160
Measurement of Angles with Altazimuth 162
Observations and Preliminary Computations 164
REDUCTION OF OBSERVATIONS. 165
fr 1. Diurnal Aberration in Azimuth 166
2. To Reduce an Azimuth observed shortly before or after the Time
of Elongation, to its Value at Elongation 167
DECLINATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE. 168
SUNDIALS. 168
Values of Equation of Time to be added to SunDial Time 178
SOLAR ECLIPSE.
Solar Ecliptic Limits 174
PROJECTION OF A SOLAR ECLIPSE.
1. To find the Radius of the Shadow on any Plane Perpendicular to the
Axis of the Shadow 176
2. To find the Distance of the Observer at a given time from the Axis of
the Shadow 178
8. To find the Time of Beginning or Ending of the Eclipse at the Place
of Observation 180
4. The Position Angle of the Point of Contact 182
5. The necessary Equations for Computation arranged in order for the
Solution of the Problem 182
TABLES. 185
FORMS. 208
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
EPHEMERIS.
Ephemeris. The numerical values of the coordinates of the
principal celestial bodies, together with the elements of position of
the circles of reference, are recorded for given equidistant instants
of time in an Astronomical Ephemeris.
The "American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac" is pub
lished by the United States Government, generally three years in
advance of the year of its title, and comprises three parts, viz. :
Part I. Ephemeris for the Meridian of Greenwich, which gives
the heliocentric and geocentric positions of the major planets, the
ephemeris of the sun, and other fundamental astronomical data for
equidistant intervals of mean Greenwich time.
Part II. Ephemeris for the Meridian of Washington, which
gives the ephemerides of certain fixed stars, sun, moon, and major
planets, for transit over the meridian of Washington, and also the
mean places of the fixed stars, with the data for their reduction.
Part 111. Phenomena, which contains prediction of phenomena
to be observed, with data for their computation.
EPHEMEEIS OF THE BUN.
To construct the ephemeris of the sun it is necessary to com
pute its tables : these are
1. The table of Epochs.
2. The table of Longitudes of Perigee.
3. The table of Equations of the Center, and its corrections.
4. The table of the Equations of the Equinoxes in Longitude.
2 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
In Mechanics* it was shown that the Earth's undisturbed orbit
is an ellipse, having one of its foci at the sun's center, and that the
earth's angular velocity is
its radius vector,
r== a (i  o .......
1 + e cos 0* v '
its constant double sectoral area,
li = 4///a(l e a ); (615)
and its periodic time,
r = 2 7t\/, = (616)
r x w v '
In these expressions 0' is the angle made by the earth's radius
vector with any assumed right line drawn through the sun's center,
that included between the radius vector and the line of apsides
estimated from perihelion, and n is the mean motion of the earth
in its orbit.
From (551), (615) and (616), we have
(W
at
 /X (1 + g cos ^>) g _ (1 + g cos <9) 8
" " "" tt " 1 " :
 /X
" V o 8
and therefore
n rf < = (1  e*)* (1 + e cos #r rf ^. (2)
Since e varies but little from 0.01678 (see Art. 185, Young f), we
may omit all terms containing the third and higher powers of e in
the development of the second member of the preceding equation.
* Micliie's Mechanics, 4th Edition.
f Young's General Astronomy.
Then after substituting
BPHEMEN8.
for cos* 0, we have
ft c? tf = d 6'  2 e cos 0d + e a cos 2 0d (2 6) + etc. (3)
Integrating we have
n t + 0= 8'  26 sin 8 + f e a sin 2 + etc. (4)
The earth's orbit is, however, not entirely undisturbed. Due to
the perturbating action of other bodies of the solar system the earth
is never exactly in the place which it would occupy in an undis
turbed orbit. Moreover the line of apsides has a direct motion, i.e.,
in the direction in which longitudes are measured, of about 11".7
per annum, and the vernal equinox an irregular retrograde motion
whose mean value is about 50".2 per annum.
Therefore (Fig. 1), let the line from which 0' is estimated be
that drawn through the sun and the position of the mean vernal .
equinox V at some fixed instant, called the epoch. Then when
6 is zero, #' will be the longitude of perihelion, estimated from this
point. Let this be denoted by l p , and the time of perihelion pas
sage by t p \ then from (4) we have,
4 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Subtracting from (4) we have
n (t  y = &  1 9  2 e sin + J e a sin 2 0, (6)
which since
B'l p =0 ]7)
reduces to
w (*  y = (#'  y  2 esin (0'  y H f 0'sin2 (0'  y . (8)
Transposing /,, , we have
n (J _ y + /, = k = 61'  2 sin (0'  y + f e' sin 2(0' y , (9)
in which l m is tho longitude of the mean place of the earth at the
time t, referred to the same origin.
Let L be the longitude of the earth's mean place at the epoch,
also referred to the same origin, and 7 T any interval of time before
or after this epoch. Then will
T, (10)
and we have
L + uT = 0'2e sin (V  y + * <? sin 2 (V  y . (11)
To find the values of the four unknown quantities, L, n, e, and
l p , take four observations of K. A. and declination at different times,
and having reduced the declination to its geocentric value by cor
recting for refraction and parallax, find the corresponding longi
tudes (Art. 180, Young).
Each longitude is necessarily referred to the true equinox of its
own date. Reduce each to the mean equinox of the epoch by cor
recting for aberration, nutation, precession, and perturbations, add
180, and the results will be the longitudes of the true place of the
earth referred to a common point the mean equinox of the epoch.
They will therefore be the values of 0' corresponding to the
values of 7' in the following equations, the solution of which will
give L, n, e, and 1 P .
L H n 7\ = fl/  2 e sin (0/
,= O:  2 esin (0/ 
EPUEMERI8.
The value of n derived from these equations is evidently the
earth's mean motion from a fixed point.
Its mean motion from the moving mean vernal equinox (or
mean motion in longitude) is evidently given by
360
" ~~ 360  50. "2"
These observations repeated at different times will determine
the changes that take place in w, f, and l p ; from the last two the
variations in the eccentricity and the rate of motion of perihelion
can be found.
Having in this manner found the elements of the earth's place
and motion, the corresponding mean longitude of the sun at any
instant can be obtained by adding to that of the earth 180.
L + n' T+ 180 will then give for any instant the mean longi
tude of the sun's mean place. The difference between the longi
tudes of the sun's true and mean places at any instant is the
Equation of the Center for that instant.
From the preceding elements let it be required to construct the
Tables of the Sun.
1. The Table of Epochs. Take mean midnight, December 31
January 1, 1890, as the epoch. To the mean longitude of the sun's
mean place at that epoch, add the product of the sun's njean motion
n', by the number of mean solar days after the epoch, subtracting
360 when this sum is greater than 360. Thede longitudes with
their corresponding times being tabulated, form the table of epochs,
from which the mean longitude of the mean place of the sun can
be found by inspection for any day, hour, minute or second.
2. The Table of Longitudes of Perigee. The longitude of peri
helion increased by 180 is the corresponding longitude of perigee.
Hence the former being found, and its rate of change determined,
the addition of 180 to each longitude of perihelion will give the
longitude of perigee, and these values being tabulated form the
table of longitudes of perigee.
3. The Table of Equations of the Center. The difference be
tween the true and mean anomalies at any instant, given by the
first of Eqs. (G50), Mechanics,
nt 2e sin nt + {Vsin 2ntf + etc., (13)
6 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
is called the Equation of the Center, and is known when n and
are known; t being the time since perihelion passage.
Assuming e to be constant and causing n t to vary from to
360, the resulting values of the second member of the equation
will form a table of the equations of the center. The errors in these
values arise from the small variations in the values of e ; these
errors can be found by substituting in the second member of the
above equation the actual values of e at the time, and the differences
being talulated will give a table by which the equations of the
center may be corrected from time to time.
4. Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude. Due to physical
causes, the pole of the equator completes a revolution about the
pole of the ecliptic in about 26,000 years. The plane of the equator
conforming to this motion of the pole, its intersection with the
plane of the ecliptic, called the line of the equinoxes, turns with a
retrograde motion of about 50".2 per annum about the sun as a
fixed point.
This motion is not however, perfectly uniform. The true pole
describes once in 19 years around the moving mean place above re
ferred to, a small ellipse, whose transverse axis directed toward the
pole of the ecliptic is 18".f> in angular measure, and whose conju
gate axis is 13".74. The corresponding irregularity in the motion
of the line of the equinoxes causes a slight oscillation of the true
on either side of the moving mean equinox. Both are on the eclip
tic; and their distance apart at any time is called the Equation of
the Equinoxes in Longitude, its projection on the equator the
Equation of the Equinoxe* in Right Ascension, and. the intersection
of the declination circle which projects the mean equinox with the
equator, the Reduced Place of ike Mean Equinox. The maximum
value of the Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude is
13".74
~ sin 23 28' = 17".25.
a
To illustrate, P, in Fig. 2, is the pole of the equator, VE the
ecliptic, VM the equator, V the true, V the mean, and V" the re
duced place of the mean vernal equinox. VV is the equation of
the equinoxes in longitude, and VV" in Right Ascension.
The equation of the equinoxes in longitude is a function of the
BPHEMBWS. 7
longitude of the moon's node, the longitude of the sun, and the
obliquity of the ecliptic. Separate tables are constructed for this
Fio.S.
correction, in which the arguments for entering thorn are the
obliquity and longitude of the moon 9 ft node, and the obliquity and
the longitude of the sun; the sum of the two corrections is the value
of the equation of the equinoxes in longitude at the corresponding
times.
The Perturbations in Longitude of the earth arising from the
attractions of the planets (especially Venus and Jupiter), are the
same for the sun; these are computed by the methods indicated in
Physical Astronomy, (see Art. 174, Mechanics,) and then tabulated.
The Sun's Aberration is taken to be constant, amounting to
20' '.25 and is included in the table of epochs.
Ephemeris of the Sun. The above tables having been computed,
we proceed as follows :
1. From the table of epochs take out the mean longitude of the
sun's mean place corresponding to the exact instant considered.
2. From the table of longitudes of perigee take the mean longi
tude of perigee; the difference between this and the mean longi
tude of the sun's mean place is the mean anomaly.
3. With the mean anomaly as an argument find the correspond
ing value of the equation of the center from its table, and add it
8 PRACTICAL ASTKONOMY.
with its proper sign to the mean longitude of the sun's mean place;
the result will be the mean longitude of the sun's true place; hence
the
Sun's true longitude = Mean longitude of sun's mean place
:b Equation of center Perturbations in longitude Corrections
to pass from the mean equinox of date to true equinox of date.
These latter corrections are due to Nutation and constitute the
Equation of the Equinoxes in Longitude.
4. Having the true longitude of the sun and the obliquity of the
ecliptic, the corresponding Eight Ascension and Declination of the
sun can be computed for the same instant by the method explained
in Art. 180, Astronomy.
5. Earth's Radius Vector. Substituting the values of e and n t,
in the second of Eqs. (650), Mechanics, will give the values of the
distance of the sun from the earth in terms of the mean distance
a: thus
(e*
1 e cos n t + (1 cos 2 n t)
30 s \
 zr ( cos 3 M tf cos w tf )+ etc. ] . (14)
o /
6. The Sun's Horizontal Parallax. From astronomical observa
tions the value of a (and hence of r) is found in terms of the earth's
equatorial radius, p e . (Young, Chapters XIII and XVI.)
The sun's equatorial horizontal parallax, P, at any time is then
given by
GJ being the number of seconds in a radian = 206264".8, and r being
expressed as just stated.
At any place where the earth's radius in terms of the equatorial
radius is p, we shall have for the horizontal parallax = p P.
7. The Sun's Apparent SemiDiameter. Knowing P, measure
ments of the sun's angular semidiameter will give its linear semi
diameter s' in terms of p e . Its angular semidiameter s for any
day is then given by
s = Ps' (16)
EP1IEMEU1S. 9
9. Equation of Time. If, at the instant when the true sun's
mean place coincides with the mean equinox, an imaginary point
should leave the reduced place of the mean equinox and travel with
uniform motion on the celestial equator, returning to its starting
point at the instant the true sun's mean place next again coincides
with the mean equinox, such a point is called a Mean Sun. Time
measured by the hour angles of this point is called Mean Solar
Time. The angle included between the declination circles passing
through the centre of the true sun and this point at any instant is
called the Equation of Time for that instant; its value, at any in
stant, added algebraically to mean or apparent solar time will give
the other. As the apparent time can be found by direct observa
tion the equation of time is usually employed as a correction to pass
from apparent to mean solar time. Thus in Fig. 2, PM is the me
ridian, 8 the true sun, #' its mean place, ti" the mean sun, Vti'"
the true K. A. of the true sun, V"ft" the mean K. A. of the mean
sun = V'S r = sun's mean longitude, angle MPti'" or arc J/A""
apparent solar time, MS" mean solar time, and 8" 8'" the Equation
of Time = Ftf'" (V"8" + VV").
Hence we have for the Equation of Time,
= True sun's true "Right Ascension
(sun's mean longitude+ equation of equinoxes in R. A.). (17)
The mean sun (S") moving Jn the equator and used in connec
tion with time, must not be confused with the mean sun (#') before
referred to, moving in the ecliptic.
10. Referring to tlie American Ephemeris, we see that Page I
of each mouth contains the Sun's Apparent R. A., Declination,
Semidiameter, Sidereal time of semidiameter passing the me
ridian, at Greenwich apparent noon, together with the values for
their respective hourly changes; the latter being computed from
the values of their differential coefficients. Prom these we can
find the corresponding data for any other meridian. Page II con
tains similar data for the epoch of Greenwich mean moon, and in
addition the sidereal time or R. A. of the mean sun. Page III con
tains the sun's true longitude and latitude, the logarithm of the
earth's radius vector and the mean time of sidereal noon. The
10 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
obliquity, precession, and sun's mean horizontal parallax for fche
year, are found on page 278 of the Ephemeris. All these consti
tute an Ephemeris of the Sun.
From the hourly changes the elements for any meridian can be
readily computed.
THE EPHEMEKIS OF THE MOON.
The Ephemeris of the Moon consists of tables giving the Moon's
Right Ascension and Declination for every hour of Greenwich
mean time, witi the changes for each minute; the Apparent
Semidiameter, Horizontal Parallax, Time of upper transit on the
Greenwich Meridian, and Moon's Age. In order to compute these,
it is first necessary to find the True Longitude of the Moon, its
True Latitude, the Longitude of the Moon's Node, the Inclination
of the Moon's Orbit to the Ecliptic, and the Longitude of Perigee.
1. The Elements of the Lunar Orbit. Let Z>6 Y be the intersection
of the celestial sphere by the plane of the lunar orbit ; VB the
FIG. 8.
ecliptic, and VA the equinoctial; V the mean vernal equinox, N
the ascending node, P the Perigee, all relating to some assumed
epoch. Also let M l , M 9 , M^ , M 4 , be the geocentric places of the
moon's center at the four times, t l 9 1 a y t 8 , tf 4 . These places are
EPHEMERI8. 11
obtained as in case of the sun by observed Right Ascensions and
Declinations, corrected for refraction, semidiameter, parallax, and
perturbations, then converted into the corresponding latitudes and
longitudes, and finally referred to the mean equinox of the epoch,
by correcting for aberration, nutation, and precession.
Eeferring to the figure, assume the following notation:
v = VN, the longitude of the node;
i 2s CNB,tliQ inclination of the orbit;
l t = F O l , the longitude of J/, ;
J a = F0 a , the longitude of J/ a ;
Aj= M 1 0, , the latitude of J/,;
A a =: Jf a O a , the latitude of Jf a ;
v t = F^JVT+ JVJ^ , the orbit longitude of Jf,;
p = F^J^^ N E P y the orbit longitude of perigee;
= PE M^ v l p, the true anomaly of J/,;
= eccentricity of orbit;
m = mean motion of moon in its orbit;
t l = time since epoch for J/, ;
L = mean orbit longitude at epoch.
To find v and t, we have from the rightangled spherical tri
angles M l N 0, and M, t N O a ,
sin (?, v) = cot ?' tan A a f .
sin ( 2 v) ~^cot i tan A, i ^ '
and by division,
BJn(?,y) _ tan^,
Bin(/ t xj""tanA ' liy ^
Adding unity to both members, reducing, then subtracting each
member from unity, again reducing, and finally dividing one result
by the other, we obtain
sin (Z a v) + sin (/, r) ___ tan A 3 + tan A,
sin (/,  r)  sin (/T 11 ^) ~" tan A. tan A/ ^ '
01 by reduction formulas, page 4 (Book of Formulas),
12 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
from which v can be found; i is found from either of equations
(18), when v is known.
To find Z, w, e, and /?, we proceed as in the determination of
the table of epochs in the case of the sun, using a similar equation,
thus:
L + 771 y, = v l 2 e sin (v l p),
L + m TI = i> 4 2 e sin (v 4 ^)
in which
. _. tan (L r)
v , = v + tan '  v i^ (23)
1 cos& ' v '
and similar values for v a , # 3 , and # 4 .
To find the ecliptic longitude of perigee V 0, represented by p l ,
we have from the rightangled triangle ^V P 0,
tan NO tan (p v) . cos f, (24)
from which
p l = v + tan' 1 (tan (p r) . cos &'). (25)
Similarly the mean ecliptic longitude of the moon, L l , at the epoch is
L l = v + tan" 1 (tan (i  ^) . cos i). (26)
To find the sidereal period, s, we have
360
In which s is the length of the sidereal period in mean solar days.
2. The Ephemeris of the Moon. The motion of the moon is much
more irregular and complicated than the apparent motion of the
sun, owing mainly to the disturbing action of this latter body. But
this and other perturbations have been computed and tabulated,
and from these tables, including those of the node and inclination,
the places of the moon in her orbit are found in ihe same way as
those of the sun in the ecliptic. The mean orbit longitude of the
moon and of her perigee are first found and corrected; their dift'er
ence gives her mean anomaly, opposite to which in the appropriate
table is found the equation of the center, and this being applied
EPHEMERIS. 13
with its proper sign to the mean orbit longitude gives the true orbit
longitude, after reduction to true equinox of date.
The Eight Ascension and Declination of the Moon can now be
computed for any instant of time, thus : subtract the longitude of
the node from the orbit longitude of the moon, and we have the
moon's angular distance from her node, represented in the figure by
NM V . This, with the inclination i, will give us the moon's latitude
and the angular distance N 0^ the latter added to the longitude
of the node will give the moon's longitude FO,. The latitude,
longitude, and obliquity of the ecliptic suffice to compute the right
ascension and declination. The radius vector, equatorial horizontal
parallax, apparent diameter, etc., are computed as in the case of
the sun.
THE EPHEMERIS OF A PLANET.
From the tables of a planet its true orbit longitude as seen from
the sun is found, as in the case of the moon as seen from the earth.
The heliocentric longitude and latitude, and the radius vector are
found from the heliocentric orbit longitude, heliocentric longitude
of the node, and inclination, in the same way as the geocentric
elements of the moon arc found from similar data in the lunar orbit.
To pass from heliocentric to geocentric coordinates, let P, Fig. 4,
be the planet's center, E that of the earth, S that of the sun, and
FIG. 4.
the projection of P on the plane of the ecliptic. 8 F and E F
are drawn to the vernal equinox; then let
14 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
r = E S, be the earth's radius vector;
r' =: S P, be the planet's radius vector;
A. = V S 0, be the heliocentric longitude of planet;
A' = VE 0, be the geocentric longitude of planet;
6 = P S 0, be the heliocentric latitude of planet;
0' = P E 0, be the geocentric latitude of planet ; v
S = OS E, be the commutation;
= $ E, be the heliocentric parallax;
J7 = $.# 0, be the elongation;
j = V E S, be the longitude of the sun;
r"= 7?P, be the distance of planet from the earth.
To find the geocentric longitude,
S0 = r' cos 0, (28)
VS T = VHS = 360  Jy, (29)
S = 180  (360 L)\ = L 180  A, (30)
from which S is known.
In the plane triangle E S, we have
r'cos0+r:r'cos 0 r :: tan j (#+ 0): tani(# 0). (31)
8+ + E=18Q, (32)
) = 90, (33)
hence
tan * (^  0) = cot i 5 r ', C S % 7 r , (34)
v 7 r cos + r v 7
and placing
, r 9 cos # /0 ^ v
tanp =  , (35)
we have
tan i (#  0) = cot i ^ J~ ^J = cot J 5 tan (p  45) (36)
r"  r'  sin
r
INTERPOLATION. 15
therefore E and are known : and we have
X' = E  (360  ) = E + L  360. (37)
To find the geocentric latitude, we have
P = EO tan 0' = 8 tan (38)
4rt (1 """" JT' /^ """"" * Ct? IO/ I
tan \j jb (j sin o
whence
an = an ^^ (40)
To find /", we have
E = r" cos 0',
50 = r' COB ft
In the triangle ^ 5 0, we have
r" cos 0' : r 9 cos :: sin S : sin J?,
whence
With these data we can readily find the right ascension, decli
nation, horizontal parallax, and apparent diameter as in the case of
the sun and moon.
INTERPOLATION.
Interpolation. Whenever the differences of the quantities re
corded in the Ephemeris tables are directly proportional to the dif
ferences of the corresponding times, simple interpolation will enable
us to find the numerical value of the quantity in question. When
this is not the case, the value is determined by the " method of in
terpolation by differences/' Bessers form of this formula, usually
employed, is
16
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
2.3.4
4 '
(48)
In this formula, .F n is the value of the function to be deter
mined; F, the ephemcris value from which we set out; d^d^d^,
etc., are the terms of the successive orders of differences, deter
mined as explained below; n is the fractional value of the time
interval, in terms of the constant interval taken as unity corre
sponding to which the values of the function F are computed and
recorded in the tables. To use this formula, draw a horizontal
line below the value of /"from which we set out, and one above
the next consecutive value taken from the ephemeris. These lines
are to enclose the values of the odd differences d l , d 3 , d 6 , etc. The
values of the even differences d y , rZ 4 , d Q , etc., being each the mean
of two numbers, one above and one below in their respective col
umns, are then inserted in their proper places. The following ex
ample is given to illustrate the application of Bessel's formula.
Find the distance of the moon's center from Regulus at 9 P.M.
West Point mean time March 24th, 1891.
The longitude of West Point is 4.93 hrs. west of Greenwich;
hence the Greenwich time corresponding to 9 P.M. West Point
mean time is 13.93 hrs. Eeferring to pages 54 and 55 American
Ephemeris we take out the following data, namely:
A
March 24.
F
*i
<*,
*.
d<
G h
27 01' 24"
1 28' 9"
9 b
12 h
28 29' 33"
29 57" 53"
1 28' 20"
+ 11"
+ 12"
+ 1"
2"
13 1 .93
30 54' 47".31
1 28' 32"
(+ 11".5)
1"
1"
15 h
31 26' 25"
1 28' 43"
+ 11"
1"
18 h
32 55' 8"
1 28' 53"
+ 10"
21 h
34 24' 1"
THE TRANSIT. 19'
Whence, substituting in the formula, we have
F=29 57' 53" + 0.643 (1 28' 32") + 0.643 ( ^j 1 ) (H".5)
+ (0.643) } (  0.357) (0.143) ( 1").
= 29 57' 53" + 56' 55".616  1".32 + 0".01,
= 30 54' 47".31 the required distance.
Instruments. The principal instruments used in field astronom
ical work are the Transit, Sextant, Zenith Telescope, and Altazi
muth or Astronomical Theodolite. A short description of each
instrument will be given in connection with the first problem in
volving its use. But since much relating to the transit is appli
cable also to the zenith telescope and altazimuth, that instrument
will be explained first.
THE TRANSIT.
The Transit is an instrument usually mounted in the meridian,
and employed in connection with a chronometer for observing the
meridian passage of a celestial body. Since the K. A. of a body is
equal to the sidereal time at the instant of its meridian passage, or
is equal to the chronometer time plus its error (a = T + E), it is
seen that by noting T 9 E will be given when tx is known, and con
versely a will be given when E is known. The very accurate
determination of E is the chief iusq of the transit in field work.
The instrument consists essentially of a telescope mounted upon
and at right angles to an axis of such shape as to prevent easy
flexure. The ends of this axis called the pivots, are usually of
hard bell metal or polished steel, and should be portions of the
same right cylinder with a circular base. They rest upon Y's,
which in turn are supported by the metal frame or stand. At one
end of the axis there is a screw by which its Y may be slightly
raised or lowered in order that the axis may be made horizontal.
At the other end of the axis is another screw by which its Y may
be moved backward or forward, in order that the telescope may be
placed in the meridian. The telescope is provided with an achro
matic object glass, at the principal focus of which is a wire frame
carrying an odd number of parallel vertical wires as symmetrically
disposed as possible with reference to the middle; also two horizon
tal wires near to each other, between which the image of the point
18
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
TUB TRANSIT.
19
observed should always be placed. This system of wires is viewed
by a positive or Ramsden's eyepiece, which can be moved bodily
in a horizontal direction to a position directly opposite any wire,
thus practically enlarging the field of direct view. The wires are
rendered visible in the daytime by the diffuse light of day, but at
night artificial illumination is required. This is effected by passing
light from a small lamp along the length of the perforated axis,
FIG. 6.
whence it is thrown toward 'the eye by a small reflector placed at
the junction of the axis and the telescope tube, thus producing the
effect of "a bright field and dark wires."
The right line passing through the optical center oC the object
glass intersecting and at right angles to the axis of rotation of the
instrument, is called the "line of collimation."
The wire frame should be so placed that this line will pass mid
way between the two horizontal wires, and intersect the middle
vertical wire; which latter should also be at right angles to the axis
of rotation of the instrument.
These conditions being fulfilled, it is manifest that if the axis
be placed in a true east and west line, and be made exactly level,
the line joining any point of the middle wire and the optical center
of the objective will, as the instrument is turned on its pivots,
trace on the celestial sphere the true meridian; and the sidereal
time when any body appears on the middle wire, will, if correctly
estimated, be the value of T required in the equation,
<*= T+JS.
20 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The improbability of estimating T with precision leads to the
use of more than one wire, although the advantage of increasing the
number beyond five is, according to Bessel, very slight. If the
wires are grouped in perfect symmetry with reference to the mid
dle, evidently the mean of the times when a star, as it passes across
the field of view, is bisected by each wire will give a more trust
worthy time of meridian passage than if a single wire be used.
Even if they are not grouped in perfect symmetry, the same will be
true, after applying a correction deduced from the " Equatorial
Intervals " to be explained hereafter. Every transit instrument is
provided with a level, a diagonal eyepiece, one or more setting
circles, and usually with a R. A. micrometer. In the case of field
transits a striding level is generally used. Its feet are provided
with Y^s which are placed on the pivots of the instrument. Before
using, it should be put in adjustment according to the principles
explained in connection with surveying instruments.
The diagonal eyepiece facilitates the observation of stars near
the aenith by reflecting the rays at right angles after they pass the
wires.
The setting circles are firmly attached to the telescope tube and
are read by an index arm carrying a vernier, to which is also attached
a small level. They may be arranged to point out the position of
a star either by its declination or its meridian altitude. In the
latter case, the altitude is computed by the formula
Mer. Alt. Dec. + CoLatitude,
for stars south of the zenith, and by
Mer. Alt. = Latitude Polar Distance,
for stars north of the zenith, the upper sign being used for stars
above the pole. In any case having determined the " setting," place
the index arm to mark it, and turn the instrument on its pivots
until the bubble plays. The star will appear to pass through the
field from west to east, except in case of subpolars, which move
from east to west. An equatorial star passes through the field with
considerable velocity, only 40 to GO seconds being required for its
passage, the apparent path being a right line. For other stars the
THE TRANSIT. 21
time required is greater, and the patli becomes more curved, until
as we approach the polo several minutes are required, and the cur
vature becomes very apparent.
These facts are of importance in determining when and where
tf look or the star.
The curvature of path must be considered in determining the
" Equatorial Intervals." The eyepiece should be moved horizon
tally,, keeping pace with the star, presenting the latter always in
the middle of the field of view.
The uses of the E. A. micrometer will be explained hereafter.
ADJUSTMENTS OF THE TKANSiT.
From the above it is manifest that, assuming the objective to
be properly adjusted, there are live adjustments to be made before
the instrument is ready for use.
1. To Place the Wires in the Principal Focus of the Objective.
Push in or draw out the eyepiece till the wires are seen with perfect
distinctness, using an eyepiece of high power. Direct the telescope
to a small welldefined terrestrial object, not nearer than two or
three miles. Now if the wires are not in the focus of the objective,
the object will appear to move with reference to the wire as the eye
is moved from side to side.
The wire frame must then be carried slightly toward or from
tne objective until this parallax is corrected.
After the instrument has been placed in the meridian, and the
horizontal wire made truly horizontal, as explained in the following
adjustments, let an equatorial star run along the wire, and if it does
not remain accurately bisected while the eye is moved up and down,
the wires are not exactly in the principal focus. Other stars must
then be used until the parallax is removed. The wires are then at
the common focus of the objective and eyepiece.
2. To Level the Axis. The striding level is usually graduated
from the center toward each end.
The pivots are assumed to be equal.
If when its Y's are applied to the transit pivots, the axis of the
tubo is parallel to the axis of the pivots * (i.e., if the level be in
* The axis of the tube is of course a circular arc of long radius. Strictly
/speaking, it is the chord of this arc which, when the level is perfectly adjusted,
will be parallel to the axis of the pivots.
22 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
perfect adjustment), and if w and e denote the readings of the west
and east ends of the bubble respectively, then
w e
denote the reading of the middle of the bubble, and will there
fore measure the inclination of the axis of the pivots in level divi
sions. But the accurate adjustment of the level is never to be as
sumed. If the axis of the level be inclined to the axis of the pivots
by such an amount as to increase the west reading and therefore
diminish the east reading by x divisions, then w and e still denoting
the actual readings, we shall have for the true inclination of the
axis of the pivots,
w e 2x
Upon reversing the level, the west and east readings will be as much
too small and too largo respectively as they were too largo and too
small before reversal; therefore w' and e' denoting the actual read
ings, we shall have for the true inclination this second value,
The mean of these two values,
(w  + ( w '  "') ( w
, or
is expressed only in actual level roadi; gs and is free from x, the un
known effect of maladjustment of level.
TIence to level the axis Take direct and reverse readings with
the level, altering the inclination of the axis till the sum of the
west equals the sum of the east readings.
Tf the level be graduated from end to end, a similar discussion
will show the level error to be
THE,^TBAN8IT. 23
3. To Place the Wires at Right Angles to the Rotation Axis.
Bisect a very distant small terrestrial object by the middle wire,
and tbe axis being level, note whether the bisection remains perfect
from end to end of tbe wire as the telescope is alternately elevated
and depressed. If not, rotate the box carrying the wire frame,
until the above condition is fulfilled. ' "*""
The side wires are parallel and the horizontal wires perpendicu
lar, to the middle wire.
After the instrument has been finally placed in the meridian,
this adjustment must be verified by noting whether an equatorial
star will remain accurately bisected by the horizontal wire during
its passage through the field.
4. To Place the Middle Wire in the Line of Collimation. Bisect
the same distant object as before. Lift the telescope carefully from
the Y's and replace it with the axis reversed. If the object is still
perfectly biseetod the coll i matin n adjustment is complete. Tf not,
move the wire frame laterally by the proper screws over an estimated
half of the distance required to reproduce bisection. If the half
distance has been correctly estimated, the middle wire is now in the
line of collimation. Uepeatthc operation from the beginning until
the condition is fulfilled.
If a proper terrestrial point can not bo obtained, the crosswires
in an ordinary surveyor's transit or theodolite? adjusted to stellar
focus, will answer quite as well. If two theodolites are placed, one
north and the other south of our transit, pointing toward and
accurately adjusted on each other, the reversal of the axis ubovo
referred to may be avoided.
In all these cases, the R. A. micrometer is of groat convenience
for measuring the distance whoso half is to bo taken.
The parts of the instrument are now in adjustment among them
selves. It remains to adjust the instrument as a whole with refer
ence to the celestial sphere; i.e., to so place the instrument that
when turned on its pivots, the line of collimation shall trace the
true meridian.
5. To Place the Line of Collimation in the Meridian. This is
most easily e flee ted by the aid of a sidereal chronometer whose error
is known. The instrument is first placed as nearly in the proper
position as can be estimated, and its supporting frame turned in
24 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
azimuth until the telescope can be pointed at a slow moving star at
about the time of its meridian passage.
Now level the axis carefully, set the telescope to the meridian
altitude of a circumpolar star whose place is given in the Ephem
eris, and bring the middle vertical wire upon this star a short time
before its meridian passage. Hold the wire upon the moving star
by turning the screw which moves one of the'Y's in azimuth, until
the chronometer corrected for its error indicates a time equal to the
star's K. A. for the date. The transit is now very approximately in
the meridian, although the adjustment should be tested by other stars.
Since the observations to be made with the transit will be for
the purpose of an accurate determination of the chronometer error,
this latter will usually be known only approximately. It may how
ever be found with sufficient accuracy for making the adjustment
by noting that since all vertical circles intersect at the zenith, the
time of a zenith star's passage over the middle wire will be, its time
of passage over the meridian even though the transit be not in the
meridian. The difference between the chronometer time of this
event and the star's R. A. will therefore be the clock error.
In the absence of a zenith star, two circurn zenith stars, at op
posite and nearly equal zenith distances, will give vfilues of the clock
error differing about equally and in opposite directions from its true
value.
Alternating observations on circumpolar and circumzenith
stars will now give the required adjustment with two or three
trials.
As a final test, the values of the chronometer error determined
from stars which cross the meridian at widely separated points
should be practically identical.
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS.
These must be determined before the instrument can be used,
and are five in number. The transit is supposed to be in good
adjustment.
1. The Value in Time of One Division of the E. A. Micrometer
Head. The micrometer head, which is usually divided into 100
equal parts, carries a movable wire which is always parallel to the
fixed vertical wires of the transit, and as nearly as possible in their
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS.
25
plane. As it moves across the field of view it apparently coincides
with each of them in succession.
If 8 denote the angular distance, measured from the optical
center of the objective, between two positions of the micrometer
wire, one of which coincides with the middle wire or the meridian
of the instrument, then = i will be the interval of time required
JL.)
for a star exactly on the celestial equator to pass from one position
to the other; since it is only such stars whose diurnal path is a
great circle, and since also intervals of time are measured by arcs
of a great circle the equator.
With a star exactly on the equator, the process of finding the
value of one division of the R. A. micrometer head would therefore
consist in noting the time required for the star to pass from one
position of the wire to the other; the quotient of which by the
number of turns or divisions through which the head has been
moved would give the value of one turn or division.
In the absence of such a star we must select one whoso declina
tion, d, is not zero. The interval of time required for such a star
to pass from one position to the other will be given by the equation
sin / = sin i sec 6\ (43)
To prove this, let A B in Figure 7, which represents the sphere
projected on the plane of the horizon, be the meridian, P the pole,
A
E Q R the equator, S the place of the star, M Z the first position
of the wire, and P F, coinciding with the meridian, the second.
26 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Through 8 pass an arc of a great circle, KS, perpendicular to
A B. This arc will be equal to Q L, and will therefore, from what
precedes, be denoted by #.
Hence, in the rightangled triangle S P K, we have
(44)
^ '
_
cos 6
But P is the hour angle of the star at 8, and s is the hour angle of
an equatorial star at an equal angular distance from the meridian,
i.e., at L.
Hence denoting the time equivalent of the former by /, and of
the latter by i as before, we have
sin / = sin i sec tf,
and therefore
sin i = sin /cos d. (a)
From this equation we may compute i, d being taken from the
Ephemeris, and /, which is directly observed, being the sidereal
time required for the star to pass from /S r to the meridian.
After which, if R denote the value of a revolution or division
of the micrometer head, and N the number of revolutions or divi
sions corresponding to /, we have for the value in time
If the star be not within 10 of the pole we may write
i = /cos tf, (c)
and
thus avoiding the " Correction for Curvature " involved in the
trigonometric functions.
By examining the equations
sin i sin / cos tf , and i = / cos 6, (45)
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 27
it is seen that for the accurate determination of i, it is better to use
stars near the pole, since errors in the observed values of / will
then be multiplied by the cosine of an angle near 90.
Therefore, to determine this constant, proceed as follows:
Shortly before the time of culmination of some slowmoving
(circumpolar) star set the instrument so that the star will pass
through, the field. Set the micrometer head at some exact division,
with the wire on the side of the field where the star is about to
enter. Note the reading of the micrometer head, and record the
time of passage of the star over the wire, using a sidereal chronom
eter whose rate is well determined. Set the wire again a short
distance ahead of the star, note the reading, and record the time of
passage. In this manner "step" the screw throughout its entire
length. Then, remembering that 1 is the sidereal interval (cor
rected for rate if appreciable) between any given passage and that
obtained when the wire was nearest to the meridian or the center
of the field of view, apply to each pair of observations equations
(a) and (/>), or (c) and (d), according to the value of d.
Where 6" is considerably less than 90 and equations (c) and (d)
are used, the correction for curvature of path becomes very small,
and the same necessity does not exist for comparing each observa
tion with the one made at the center of the field.
No correction for difference of refractions betweqri any two
positions of the star is required, since at its meridian passage the
star is moving almost wholly in azimuth.
In any case the adopted value of the constant should rest on
many such determinations.
Very convenient stars to use are a, tf, ft, Ursae Minoris. Their
declinations are accurately given in the Ephemeris, the first two
for every day, and the last one for every ten days. '
The first two require equations (a) and (b).
The last one not necessarily so.
2. The Equatorial Intervals. By the " Equatorial Interval " of
a given wire is meant the interval of sidereal time required for a
star on the celestial equator to pass from this wire to the middle
wire, or vic6 versa.
The method of determinating this constant for each wire is
manifestly identical in principle with the process just described,
omitting the application of equations (b) or (d), and remembering
28 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
that /is the observed interval 'with a star whose declination is 6,
and i is the required Equatorial Interval.
Another method, which may either be used independently or as
a verification, is to measure the intervals between the wires (in
time) by the E. A. micrometer. The adopted constants should rest
upon many determinations.
3. The Reduction to the Middle Wire. The mean of the times
of transit of a celestial body over the several wires of a transit in
strument is called the time of transit over the mean of the wires
or the mean wire. The mean does not usually coincide with the
middle wire, due to the improbability of grouping the wires in per
fect symmetry with reference to the middle.
Since it is the middle wire which Las been placed in the merid
ian, it becomes necessary to determine the distance, in time, of the
mean from the middle wire. Then, the mean of the times of tran
sit being corrected by this constant, we will have a very accurate
determination of the time of transit over the meridian. Suppose
the instrument to have seven wires, and to be in good adjustment.
A star at its upper culmination will apparently move over these
wires from west to east; therefore (with the instrument in a given
position, say with " illumination cast ") let the wires be successively
numbered from the west towards the east.
Let a star whose declination is d pass through the field, and let
/,,/,, # 3 , / 4 , / 6 , ^ , /,, be the accurate instants of passing the cor
responding wires; let i, , ?' , f, , 0, ?' B , i , i n , be the equatorial inter
vals from the middle wire. Then the. time of passing the mean
wire is
*.+*. + *, +<+*. + *. + /, , Ap .
rj (46)
The time of passing the middle wire is either
t l + i, sec tf, a + t a sec tf , t 3 + i, sec d, t, , t % i h sec tf, i t sec tf,
or 7 i, sec #
(note the minus sign in the last three). Hence the most probable
time of passing the middle wire is
2 (t + i sec 6) *St , Si
^ = T~ + T" sec
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS. 29
The difference between this and the time of passing the mean
wire is evidently the second term, or
*! gec 6 = & + S + (*.+*. + *.) sec ,. (48)
The equatorial value of this reduction (the desired constant)
will then be
and for any given star the actual reduction will be this value mul
tiplied by sec $. The adopted value of A i should rest upon many
determinations. Its sign is evidently changed by reversing the axis
of the instrument.
Hence, to find the time of a star's passage over the middle wire,
we have the rule: To the mean of the limes add A i sec 8, noting
the signs of both factors.
The Equatorial Intervals are also used for finding the time
of passage over the mid die wire when actual observation on some of
the wires has been prevented by clouds or other cause. Thus suppose
observations have only been made on the second, third, and seventh
wires. The most probable time of passing the middle wire is
(t> + t f sec (?) + (t, + i, sec fl) +,(1 7 ^sectf) _ 2 1 ' 2 %
3 "" T + T S6C '
t and i referring only to the wires used.
4. Value of One Division of the Level. In practical astronomy
the level is used not merely for testing and regulating the horizon
tality of a given line, but also for measuring either in arc or time
those small residual inclinations to the horizontal which no process
of mechanical adjustment can either eliminate or maintain at a
constant value.
Hence we must determine the value of one division of the strid
ing level of the transit; i.e. 9 the increment or decrement of incli
nation which will throw the bubble one division of the gradu ution.
The best method of determining this quantity in case of a de
tached level is by use of the u Leveltrier," which consists simply
of a metal bar resting at one end on two firm supports, and at the
30 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
other on a vertical screw. Then if d be the distance from, the screw
to the middle of the line joining the two fixed supports^ and A the
distance between two threads of the screw ^obtained by counting
the number of threads to the inch), the inclination of the*1)ar to the
horizon would be changed by , . ,, due to one revolution of the
(JL SHI L
screw , The level is then placed on the bar and the .nuniber n of
divisiDns passed over by the bubble due to one turn (QjMSiVlsion) of
the screw is noted. The value of one division of the level in angle
is then  , . ,7. The mean of several observations, using both
nd&inl
ends of the bubble, should be adopted. The value in time is
/.  ^. If no leveltrier is available, the level should be
15 Mr/ HIII 1"
placed on the body of the telescope connected with a vertical circle
reading to second*: as for example the meridian circle of a fixed
observatory. Move the instrument slowly by the tangent screw and
note the number of level divisions corresponding to a change of 1"
ill the reading of the circle, taking the means as before. By either
method tlie level may be tested throughout its entire length.
We have seen that the inclination of a line in lerel divisions is
(w+jo')~ ;(*_+_*'). hoil(JO if D denote tho congtant j us t found,
the inclination of the line in arc will be
( W + M') (, + ,') A
B  "  
the west end being higher if (w + w') > (e + e'), or when this ex
pression is positive.
5. Inequality of the Pivots. The construction of the pivots
being one of the most delicate operations in the manufacture of the
whole instrument, their equality must never be assumed. 9
In transit observations it is manifestly the axis of rotation (the
Axis of the pivots) which should be made horizontal, or whose in
clination should be measured. If the pivots are unequal they may
be regarded as portions of the same right cone; in which case it is
evident that the striding level applied to the upper element might
indicate horizontally when the axis was really inclined, and vice
INSTRUMENTAL CONSTANTS.
31
versa. We must therefore correct our level indications by the effect
of this " Inequality of Pivots."
To'determinate this, let w x y z in Figure 8 represent the cone of
FIG. 8.
the pivots, u v being the axis. Let the inclination of the upper
element wz be measured with the level, giving
Lift the axis from the Y 9 s and turn it end for end. In this position
ID' x y z' will represent the cone of the pivots.
Measure as before the inclination of w' z', and denote it by B'*
Then by inspection of the figure it is seen that B'  B is the angle
B f B
between the two positions of the upper element,  is the
/v
angle between the upper and lower elements of the cone, and
jy _ ji
 = p is consequently the angle between the upper element
and the axis u v*
* B and B' are manifestly tho inclinations, in the two positions, which the
upper element would have if the pivots were equal, minus twice the effect of
the inequality: this effect being the angle subtended by the difference of tho
radii, rr'. Of course if the pivots are unequal, the inclination obtained by
applying the level Y'* to the pivots is not strictly that of
the upper element; but if the angles of the transit and
level y are equal (as is usually the case), it will evidently
be, as before, the inclination which the upper element would
have if the pivots were equal, minus twice the effect of
the inequality: the effect in this case being 1 (Fig. H#, which
represents a crosssection of the pivots and level Y) the
FIG. 8a.
r r
angle subtended by .. Hence the algebraic differ*
Sill 5 ft/
ence, B' B, will be four times the effect of the inequality, as before.
32 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
r>/ r>
This quantity, = p, is therefore the desired constant, and
as the figure indicates, it is a correction to be added algebraically
to the level determination of the unreversed instrument, or to be
subtracted from that of the reversed instrument.
Its value should rest upon many determinations.
The inclination of the axis of a transit will hereafter be denoted
by b, which is therefore either B + p, or /?' p, according as the
instrument is direct or reversed*
J* The crosssections of the pivots should be perfect circles.
Any departure from this form may be discovered and corrected as
follows :
With instrument direct, determine the value of B with the
telescope placed successively at every 10 of altitude. Call the
mean B .
Then S B is the correction for irregularity of pivots /or the
reading corresponding to B with instrument direct. Do the same
with instrument reversed. Then BJ B will be the correction
B ' B
for irregularity with instrument reversed. 5 will be the cor
/ 4
rection for inequality. Both corrections must be applied to obtain
the true value of b.
EQUATION OF THE TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE
MERIDIAN.
The transit, having been adjusted and the instrumental con
stants determined, is ready for use. Hitherto it has been assumed
that an adjustment was perfect: that the middle wire had been
placed exactly in the line of collimation, that the axis of rota
tion had been made exactly level, and that the line of collimation
would trace with mathematical accuracy the true meridian. Mani
festly, however, this theoretical accuracy cannot be attained by
mechanical means. It will therefore be proper, having performed
each adjustment as accurately as possible, not to regard the out
standing small errors as zero, but to introduce them into a given
problem as additional unknown quantities having an ascertainable
effect on the result, and then to make independent determinations
TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE MERIDIAN. S3
of thoir value, or leave these values to be revealed by the observa
tions themselves.
Any departure from perfect adjustment is positive when its
effect is to make stars south of the zenith cross the middle wire
earlier than they otherwise would.
1. To Ascertain the Effect of an Error in Azimuth on the Time
of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let a denote the horizontal angular
deviation of the axis of rotation from a true east and west line,
positive when the west pivot is south of the east pivot. (This should
never exceed 15", and will usually be even less.) The line of col
limation will then, as the instrument is moved in altitude, describe
a great circle of the celestial sphere intersecting the meridian in
the zenith, and making with it the angle a (HZ A in Figure 9).
H
Fio. 9.
Then from the ZP 8 triangle we have (8 being the position of a
star when on the middle wire),
sin P : sin a : : sin z : cos tf,
or
sin a sin z
sin P =  5
cos o
If the star were exactly on the meridian, z would be equal to
d. Being less than 15" therefrom, the change required in z
to give $ is entirely negligible. Again P and a are exceed
ingly small angles. Hence we may write with great precision, ex
pressing a and P in time,
J. (50)
COS d v '
34 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
That is, if the instrument have an azimuth error in time, of a
seconds, a star when passing the middle wire is distant from the
true meridian a ^ ' seconds of time^and the recorded time
cos 6 '
of transit must be corrected accordingly.
2. To Ascertain the Effect of an Inclination of the Axis on the
Time of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let b denote the angular
deviation of the axis of rotation from the horizontal, positive when
the west pivot is higher than the east. The line of collimation
will then, as the instrument is moved in altitude, describe a great
circle of the celestial sphere intersecting the meridian at the north
and south points of the horizon, and making with it the angle b
(ZHS, in Figure 10).
z
FIG. 10.
Then from the triangle P IIS (8 being the position of a star
when on the middle wire)
sin P : sin b : : cos z : cos 6\
Or, as before, expressing b in time,
COS O
^ '
This is interpreted as in the preceding case.
3. To Ascertain the Effect of an Error in Collimation on the Time
of Passage of the Middle Wire. Let c denote the angular distance
of the middle wire from the line of collirnation, positive when the
wire is west of its proper position. The line of sight will then., as
the instrument is moved in altitude, describe a small circle of the
celestial sphere, east of the meridian and parallel to it. Through
S, the place of the star, Fig. 11, pass the arc of a great circle, 8M 9
TRANSIT INSTRUMENT IN THE MERIDIAN. 35
perpendicular to the meridian. This arc will be the measure of
c. Then in the rightangled triangle P S M we have
. D sin c
sin P = 
cos 6 '
Or, as before, expressing c in time,
P = ^ = c sec S. (52)
cos o v '
Hence when all these errors, a, b, and c, exist together, called re
spectively the azimuth, level, and collimation error, we have for the
Equation of the Transit Instrument in the Meridian,
= T + B + a sin ^  *> + I cos <+ ~ *> + e sec *. (53)
11 cos o ' cos d ' v '
In this equation a is the apparent R. A. of the star for the date,
T is the clock tigie of transit over the middle wire, obtained from
the time of transit over the mean wire by applying the " Reduction
Fio. 11.
to Middle Wire/' E is the chronometer error, positive when slow,
negative when fast, the latitude, d the star's apparent declination
for the date, and a, b, and c are expressed in time.
When great precision is desired, for example in longitude work,
the equation must be modified by the introduction of a small cor
rection for Diurnal Aberration, additive to a. The value of the
correction is 0*.021 cos sec d.
Hence the complete form of the above equation is
36 PUACTIGAL A8THONOMY.
Or, placing
c' = c 0.021 cos 0,
._r +J , + .*<*^ ) + J=! ? fl + '"* ,54,
After an observation has been made we shall have in this equa
tion four unknown quantities, E, a, I, c', since is supposed to be
known, and a and rf are found in the Epherneris. We may either
determine a, />, and c independently, as will next be explained (in
which case an observation on a single star will then give E), or
leave all four to be determined by observation on at least four stars.
The sign of c is changed by reversing the axis, since the middle
wire is thus placed on the other side of the line of collimation.
+fa This value, 8 .021 cos sec tf, which we will denote by E,
may be deduced in an elementary manner as follows: Due to the
earth's rotation on its axis, all celestial bodies are apparently dis
placed toward the east point of the horizon. If the body be on
the meridian, this displacement is wholly in E. A. Hence the
E. A. of the object as seen will not be a, but a j R.
The direction of a ray of light received from a body on the
meridian is at right angles to the direction of the observer's diurnal
motion. Under this condition, the absolute amount of apparent
displacement in seconds of a great circle may be written (Young,
pa. 142),
*
Ftanl"'
where u is the observer's velocity, and V that of light. If the ob
server be at the equator, we shall have
20926062 X 2 n
U = "5280^4 X 60 X 60 mileS P r SCC nd >
where 20926062 is the number of feet in the earth's equatorial
radius (Clarke).
According to Newcomb and Michelson,
F = 186330 miles per second.
DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS. 31
Hence
_ _ _ _ _
5280 X 24 X 3600 X 186330 X tun 1" "~
This angular displacement in a great circle perpendicular to the
meridian corresponds to 8 .021 if the star be on the equator, or to
0?021 sec d if the star's declination be tf, since, as we have seen
before, equal angular distances from the meridian correspond to
hour angles varying with sec tf.
If the observer be not on the equator, but at. latitude 0, his
velocity will be diminished in the ratio of the radius of his circle of
latitude to that of the equator: or regarding the earth as a sphere,
in the ratio cos 0:1.
Hence, for an observer in any latitude, with a star at any dec
lination,
R = 8 .021 cos sec d.
DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS.
1. To Determine the Level Error b. This is found from the
formula already deduced, viz. :
(55)
or
according as the instrument is direct or reversed. D and p must
be expressed in time, by dividing their values in arc by 15, thus
giving b in time.
2. To Determine the Collimation Error c. Turn the instrument
to the horizon, select some welldefined distant point whose image
is near the middle wire, measure the distance between them with
the micrometer, making the distance positive when the middle
wire is west of the image of the point. Reverse the axis, and meas
ure the new distance, with same rule as to sign. Subtract the
second from the first, and one half the difference gives the colli
mation error in micrometer divisions for instrument direct.
38 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
This multiplied by the value of one division in time, gives c
in time.
The rule will be eyident from an inspection of Fig. 12 (which
is a horizontal projection), where w is the west,
and e the east end of the axis, TfJtlie hori
zontal line of collimation, P the image of the
Q point in the field of view, a the direct and b
the reversed position of the middle wire. E a
> is equal to E b, and c is positive.
b Instead of a terrestrial point we may use the
FIG. 12. intersection of the cross hairs in the focus of
a surveyor's transit adjusted to stellar focus,
the two instruments facing each other. The intersection referred
to will then be optically at an infinite distance, and its image will
be found at the principal focus of our transit.
It is sometimes necessary to determine c by independent stellar
observations, in which case the following method is always employed :
Point the telescope to a circumpolar star and note the times of its
passage over as many wires as possible on one side of the middle
wire, lie verse the axis. As the star moves out of the field of view,
it will cross the same wires in reverse order, the times of passage
being noted as before.
By means of the Equatorial Intervals reduce each time to the
middle wire, and let T and 7 T ' denote the mean of those before and
after reversal, respectively.
T and T' are therefore the times of passage of the same star
over two different positions of the middle wire one as much to
the east as the other was to the west of the true line of collimation.
From their difference therefore we have double the collimation error,
thus:
For instrument direct,
a = T+ E \ a sn  . jT. _L _. __ coBj
cos 6 cos d cos 6 cos d
For instrument reversed,
r n(0<?) ,COS(0~a) C Q.Q31
DETERMINATION OF INSTRUMENTAL ERRORS. 39
allowance being made for a change in level error due to a possible
inequality of pivots, and c changing its sign by reversal of the in
strument.
By subtraction and solution we have
c = i(FT) cos $ + i (b'  b) cos (0  3). (57)
If the pivots arc equal and the instrument be undisturbed in
level, the last term disappears and we have
c = I (r  T) cos tf. (58)
A slowmoving star must be used in order to give time for care
ful reversal.
There are various other methods of finding both b and c y based
principally upon observation of the wires and their images as seen
by reflection from mercury.
3. To Determine the Azimuth Error, a. Observe in the usual
manner the time of transit, T, of a star of known declination.
Then, b and c having been measured, let the corresponding correc
tions, b ^^ and c' sec d, be added to T, giving t. This is
cos o
called correcting the time for level and collimation. The equation
of the instrument as applied to this star will now read
sin (0 6) * ^
___4. (m)
Similarly for another star,
From which
a (sin <f> cos <f> tan 6' sin + cos 0tan 3) = (a' a) r (? t).
 ('  g >  <*' ~ *> (59)
a ~ cos (tan S  tan 6')' v '
40 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The value of the clock error does not enter. If however it be
not constant, its rate, r, must be known, positive when losing, nega
tive when gaining. Then if E Q be the unknown error at some as
sumed instant T 9 , the errors at the two instants of observation will
be E.+ (TT,) r, and E.+ ( T'  T ) r. These should be substi
tuted for E in equations (m) and (n), and the known terms, ( T T 9 ) r
and (T' T 9 ) r, be united to T and T' in forming t and V as are the
corrections for level and collimation. The time is then said to be
corrected for rate. By subtraction to obtain (59), E Q will disappear.
Hence while the rate must be known, the error need not be.
Examining the value of a, we see that the following conditions
must be fulfilled in order to obtain an accurate determination.
First, a and a' must be known exactly; therefore only Ephem
eris stars should be used.
Again, if the rate of the clock be not well determined, the
interval between the observations must be as small as possible in
order that the correction for rate may affect a but slightly. There
fore if both stars are at upper culmination, they should bo nearly
equal in R. A. Or, if one be above and the other below the pole,
they should differ in R. A. by as nearly 12 hours as possible.
Again the larger numerically the factor (tan S tan 6'), the less
the effect of errors in /' /. Hence, if both stars are at upper
culmination, one should be as near and the other as far from the
pole as possible. Or, if one be at upper and one at lower culmina
tion, they should both be as near the pole as possible; the declina
tion of the lower star being then taken to be 90 f Polar Distance.
From the preceding description of the Transit Instrument it
will bo readily understood, that, if desired, the mean wire may be
used as a datum instead of the middle, and the Equatorial Intervals
be determined from it with the same facility as from the middle
wire. Also, if in Eq. (53) T be the time of a star's transit over
the mean wire, c will be the collimation error of this wire, and,
together with E 9 a, and b, may be determined by the use of four
stars as explained on page 36. It may also be determined by Eq.
(57) or (58), if T and T' be computed for the mean instead of the
middle wire. This use of the mean for the middle wire is frequent
in field work, and possesses the advantage that all consideration of
the " Reduction to the Middle Wire " may be then avoided.
REFRACTION TABLES. 41
REFRACTION TABLES.
A ray of light passing from a celestial body to a point on the
earth's surface, may be supposed to pass through successive spherical
strata of the atmosphere, the densities of which continually increase
toward the center. Under these circumstances, as has been previ
ously shown, the ray will be bent toward the normal, resulting in
an apparent displacement of the body toward the zenith.
It has also been previously shown that the actual amount of such
displacement increases with the zenith distance, and with the
density of the air, which latter depends on its pressure and tempera
ture. In order to facilitate the calculation of this displacement or
refraction in any particular case, tables have been constructed con
containing certain functions of the zenith distance, temperature,
and pressure, from which, with observed data as arguments, the re
fraction may be computed.
Such tables are called Refraction Tables. Those of Bessel are
the best and most usually employed. In these tables the adopted
value of the refraction function is given by
r = a ft y K tan z,
in which r is the refraction; A, A, and a are quantities varying
slowly with the zenith distance; ft is a factor depending on the
pressure, and y upon the temperature of the air; z is the apparent
zenith distance; ft therefore depends upon the reading of the ba
rometer, and y upon the reading of the thermometer. But since
the actual height indicated by a barometer depends not only upon
the pressure of the air, but upon the temperature of the mercury,
ft is really composed of two factors B and T, the first of which de
pends upon the actual reading of the barometer, and T involves the
correction due to the temperature of the mercury.
Nearly all the collections of astronomical tables contain " Tables
of Refraction/' from which may be found the various quantities in
the equation
r = a(B T) A
The first portion of the table consists of three columns giving the
values of A 9 A, and log at, with the apparent zenith distance z as
the argument,
42 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The second part contains B, with the height of the barometer
as the argument. The third part gives the value of T with the
reading of the attached thermometer as the argument, and the
fourth part gives y with the reading of the external thermometer
as the argument ; z is the observed zenith distance. A substitution
of these quantities gives the refraction, which must then be added
to z to give the true zenith distance.
The attached thermometer gives the temperature of the mercury
of the barometer. The external thermometer should be screened
from the direct and reflected heat of the sun, but be so fully ex.
posed as to give accurately the temperature of the external air.
A similar table is sometimes given for passing from true to ap
parent zenith distances. The mode of using is exactly the same,
subtracting the resulting refraction from the true zenith distance
to obtain z. It is of use in "setting" instruments for observation.
A " Table of Mean Eef ractions " is also given in nearly every
collection, and contains the refractions for a temperature of 50 F.,
and 30 in. height of barometer, with apparent zenith distances or
altitudes, as the argument, which may be used when a very precise
result is not required.
The above relates only to refraction in altitude. But a change
in a star's place due to refraction will in the general case cause a
change in its observed R. A. and Dec. In order to ascertain these
two coordinates as affected by refraction at a given sidereal time T,
we first compute the body's hour angle from P = T R. A., and
then its true zenith distance (z) and parallactic angle (</>) frorn the
astronomical triangle, knowing P, cp, arid 6". Then if r denote the
refraction in altitude, found as just explained, the refraction in
declination will be
A tf = r cos i{>,
and the refraction in R. A.,
r sin if>
~~^o7T
TIME.
The perfect uniformity with which the earth rotates on its axis
makes its motion a standard regulator for all timepieces. No clock
or chronometer can run with perfect uniformity, an^ therefore the
time indicated by them must ever be in error. To find these errors
at any instant is the object of the time problems in Practical As
tronomy.
TIME. 43
Time is measured by the hour angle of some point or celestial
body. If the point be the true Vernal Equinox its hour angle is
true sidereal time.
If the point be the mean Equinox, it is mean sidereal time; but
since the greatest difference between true and mean sidereal time
can never exceed 1.1.5 seconds in 19 years, astronomical clocks are
run on true sidereal time. To pass from true to mean sidereal
time, apply the correction known as the Equation of Equinoxes in
Eight Ascension.
If the point bo the Mean Sun its hour angle is mean solar time;
all solar time pieces are run on mean solar time.
If the point be the center of the True Sun, its hour angle is
true or apparent solar time; to pass from true to mean solar time
apply the correction known as the Equation of Time.
Before proceeding to the time problems, it is necessary to deter
mine the relation existing between sidereal and mean solar intervals,
and especially the relation existing between the sidereal and mean
solar time at any instant.
Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Intervals. The in
terval of time between two consecutive returns of the sun to the
mean vernal equinox, called the mean tropical year, is according to
Bessel 305.2423 mean solar days. Since, while the earth is rotating
on its axis from west to east, the mean sun is moving uniformly in
the same direction, the interval between two consecutive passages
of the meridian over the mean sun will be 1 + times the
OUD./VT/V/W
interval between two passages over the mean vernal equinox: for
in one mean solar day the moan sun must advance .T77 r
whole circuit from equinox to equinox, and each mean solar day
must correspond to 1 +3653433 P assa es of the moan vernal equi
nox. Hence 365.2422 mean solar days correspond to 366.2422
sidereal days.
Hence we have the relations,
One mean solar day = gg = 1.00273791 sidereal days,
= 24* 3 m 56 8 .555 sidereal time.
44 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
365 2422
One sidereal day = ~ '^ * = 0.99726957 mean solar days,
t)UO./w4/w/v
= 23 h 56 m 4 8 .091 mean solar time.
The same relation manifestly exists between the corresponding
hours, minutes, and seconds. Now since the sidereal unit is shorter
than the mean solar in the ratio of 1 : 1.00273791, it follows that
the number of these units in a given interval of time is to the
number of mean solar units as 1.00273791 to 1.
Hence the relations,
Sidereal Interval  Mean Solar Interval X 1.00273791.
Mean Solar Interval = Sidereal Interval X 0.99726957.
Or, denoting these intervals respectively by I 9 and 7,
I 9 = f+ 0.00273791 /
T = /' 0.00273043 /',
Tables II and III, Appendix to the Ephemeris, give the values of
the corrections 0.00273791 /and 0.00273043 1', for each second in
the 24 hours.
Again, since 24 sidereal hours equals 23 h 56 m 4 S .091 mean solar
time, it follows that a mean solar clock loses 3 m 55 S .9()9 on a side
real clock in one sidereal day, or 9 S .8296 in one sidereal hour.
Also, since 24 mean solar hours equals 24 h 3 m 56 S .555 sidereal
time, it follows that a sidereal clock gains 3 m 56 8 .555 on a mean
solar clock in one mean solar day, or 9 8 .8565 in one mean solar
hour.
These two facts may be thus expressed :
(1) The hourly rate of a mean solar clock on sidereal time is
+ 9 8 .8296.
(2) The hourly rate of a sidereal clock on mean solar time is
 9 8 .8565.
Prom (2) it is seen that the R. A. of the mean sun increases
9*.8565 per hour, or in other words, the sidereal time of mean noon
occurs 9 8 .8565 later for each hour of west longitude.
These deductions are of importance in what follows.
Relation between Sidereal and Mean Solar Time. That is, haying
given either the sidereal or mean solar time at a certain instant, to
find the other.
TIME. 46
Suppose first the sidereal time to be given and let the circle in
Figure 13 represent the celestial
equator, M being the point where it
is intersected by the meridian, V the
vernal equinox and # the place of
the mean sun.
Then MV~ the sidereal time at
the instant, supposed to be known,
M S = the mean solar time required,
and VS = right ascension of mean
sun.
The mean solar time required is
therefore equal to the given sidereal Fto. ^
time minus the R. A. of the mean sun at the instant. The calcu
lation of the R. A. of the mean sun at a given instant may bo
avoided by the use of Tables II and III, Appendix to the Ephem
eris, as follows :
At the preceding mean noon the mean sun's R A. was less than
at the moment considered by an amount which may be represented
I? 88*.
At that time, therefore, the mean sun was at M, and the Vernal
Equinox at a position V such that V M '= VS 1 '. Hence at the
instant considered, tho sidereal time elapsed since the, preceding
mean noon is MV MV. The tipe since mean noon having thus
been found in sidereal units, the mean solar equivalent of this inter
val will necessarily be tho mean solar time at the instant consid
ered. Hence the rule:
From the given sidereal time subtract the R. A. of the mean sun
at the preceding mean noon. Convert the result into a mean solar
interval by the Ephemer is Tables or the form ula 1=1' 0.00273043 /'.
The result is the required mean solar time.
To find the sidereal from the given mean time, this operation
must obviously be performed in the inverse order, viz. :
Convert the given mean solar time into a sidereal interval by
the Ephemeris Tables or by the formula /' = /} 0.0027379L7.
To the result add the R. A. of the mean sun at the preceding mean
noon. The result is the required sidereal time.
On Page II, Monthly Calendar of the Ephemeris, will be found
the R..A. of the mean sun at the preceding Greenivich mean moon,
To find this element for the local mean noon, multiply the hourly
46 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
change 9 8 .8565 (heretofore deduced) by the longitude in hours, and
add the result to the Ephemeris value.
The ahove rules are not only of great use in astronomical calcu
lations, but they enable us to determine the error of either a side
real or mean time clock, knowing that of the other, by "the method
of coincident beats." Suppose both clocks to beat seconds. Then
from the relative rate heretofore deduced it is seen, that their beats
will be coincident once in about 6 minutes. Note the seconds given
by each clock when this occurs, and then supply the hours and
minutes. Apply the known error to the mean solar for example;
and the result will be the correct m. s. time. Find the correspond
ing sidereal time by the rule just given. The difference between
this and the time given by the sidereal clock will be its error.
EXAMPLE.
At West Point, N. Y., Nov. 27, 1891, Longitude 4 h .93 west, the
mean solar and sidereal clocks were compared at the instant of
coincident beats, with the following result :
Mean Solar, O h 46 29".00.
Sidereal, 17 h  15 m  55.00.
The error of the mean solar was OM7 slow on Standard Time,
which is itself 4 m 9".45 slow on local time.
It is required to find the error of the sidereal clock.
Indicated m. s. time o h 46 m 2 9 ".00
Error on standard time 0.17 '
Reduction to local time 4 9.45
Corrected m. s. time o _ 50 "^38. 62
Reduction to sidereal interval 8.32
Sidereal interval since mean noon 1T~^ 50 46.94
R. A. of mean sun at Greenwich mean noon 16 24 27.25
Correction = 9 8 .8565 X 4.93 48.59
True sidereal time 17 16 2.78
Clock indication , 17 15 55.00
Error of sidereal clock +7.78
Hence the sidereal clock was 7'.78 slow.
TO FIND TUB TIMS BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 47
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVA
TIONS.
This general problem usually presents itself as a question of de
termining the error of a timepiece at a given instant. The dilferent
methods of obtaining this error may, as far as considered here, be
grouped under three heads.
/. Time by Meridian Transits.
II. Time by Single Altitudes.
III. Time by Equal Altitudes.
The first is the method of precision when properly carried out
with the transit instrument. The second and third, being usually
carried out with the sextant, can only be relied upon as giving an
approximate result more or less exact.
I. TIME BY MERIDIAN TRANSITS.
1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece by the Meridian
Transit of a Star. (See Form 1.) The general statement of the
problem is briefly this: since the timepiece, if correct, ought to in
dicate the R. A. of the star at the instant of cuhniuation, the dif
ference in time is the error required. The transit instrument being
supposed to be approximately in the meridian, *>., to have been
carefully adjusted, for the practical solution it is necessary to find
by observation and computation' the quantities in the following
equation (heretofore deduced) and solve it.
a = T+E+aA + bB + c'C, (GO)
in which A, 13, and O have for brevity been substituted for
sin (<t> d) cos (0 6) , ~ ,. , _ ,
 ^.~JL 9 __iz_ 1 9 an ci gee o, respectively. Then having
measured a, b, and c\ computed A 9 B, and (7; observed T\ and
taken a from the Ephemeris (a = the star's apparent R. A. for the
date), the value of E follows from the solution of ths equation.
In finding r l\ record to quarter seconds (or if possible to tenths
of a second), the time of passage of each wire. Take the mean
and apply the "Reduction to middle wire." T 9 corrected by
a A + bB \ c 9 C is evidently the chronometer time of the star's
transit over the meridian.
48 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Form 1 indicates the proper method of recording the observa
tions, it being arranged for five stars. Under the head of " Transit,"
record its number and the maker. The" Illumination" should be
recorded as east or west, this showing whether the instrument is
direct or reversed.
The adopted value of E should be the mean of the results from
several stars. Stars within the polar circle, or those whose declina
tion exceeds about 67, arc not used for time determinations, since
the exact instant when a slowmoving star is bisected by a wire can
hot be judged with the greatest precision, and since also slight
errors in measuring , />, and c will then be greatly magnified by A,
By and 6 Y , all of which become co for d = 90. But by including
hi the observing list two circum polar stars upon one of which the
instrument is reversed after half the wires are passed, both a and c
may be found by Equations (57) and (59). I is found from level
readings by Equation (55) or (56).
If only a single star is available, it should be one given* in the
Ephemeris, and which passes near the zenith (6 = 0), since at the
zenith Aa disappears, and this is the only one of the three correc
tions which requires star observations for its determination.
For very accurate work, such as is required in connection with
the telegraphic determination of longitude, it is usual to employ at
least ten stars for each determination of time, half the stars being
observed with the instrument reversed; and of each half, two should
be circumpolar and three equatorial stars. In this case, I is ordi
narily the only instrumental error actually measured (by level read
ings); each star then gives an equation of the form (GO), and E to
gether with a and c are found from a solution of the equations by
Least Squares.
These matters will be explained more fully hereafter.
If the "lleduction to the Middle Wire" be not applied in com
puting T 9 c will be the collimation error of the mean wire. This
fact is of general application whenever the Transit Instrument is
used for determining Time.
The clock rate is found from errors determined at different
times.
To find the error at a given instant, as for example at the middle
of the time consumed in a series of observations extending over
several hours, this rate should be applied as explained when treating
of the azimuth error.
TO FIND THE TUttt BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 49
{* It may sometimes be desirable to find the error of a sidereal
clock from a meridian transit of the sun, although in field work
this would be exceptional. In such a case it may be assumed, with
an error entirely negligible, that during the short time consumed in
the observation the sun's motion is uniform, that the time required
for the sun to pass from the mean to the middle wire, and from the
middle wire to the meridian is the same as that for a star of the
same declination.
For example, the reduction to middle wire not exceeding 8 .5,
the error committed by the second assumption could not exceed
O a 00^74
"" r X sec (23 28') = 8 .0015. Hence that reduction may be
V
computed as usual.
Therefore, note the time of transit of each limb of the sun over
each wire, and take the mean. Reduce to the middle wire as usual,
and apply the correction a A f bR + c '@* The result is the clock
time of culmination of the sun's center. The true sidereal time of
this event, or the R. A. of the sun at apparent noon, is found on page
1, Monthly Calendar, by interpolation. The difference gives E.
2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by a Meridian
Transit of the Sun. (See Form 2.) Apparent noon at any place is
the instant of culmination of the sun's center at that place. This
epoch may be expressed in three different times, viz.: "
In apparent time, or 12 o'clock apparent time.
In mean time, or 12 o'clock plus the equation of time.
In clock time, or that indicated by a moan solar timepiece.
At apparent noon a mean solar timepiece should therefore indi
cate 12 o'clock plus the equation of time at the instant.
Therefore the general equation of the Transit Instrument be
comes for this case
12 h + 6= T+E + aA +l>B + c'C, (61)
e denoting the equation of time.
Note the order and directions that follow:
1. The mean of all the observed times is the chronometer time of
transit of sun's center over the mean of the wires.
2. The reduction to middle wire, as well as the three corrections,
are found as in Form 1. By adding them to the abovemen
60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
tioiied mean, we have the chronometer time of apparent noon.
The declination of the sun, used in computing these corrections,
is to be* taken from the Ephemeris, allowance being made for
the observer's longitude. Use page 1, Monthly Calendar.
3. The mean time of apparent noon is 12 hours + e. In comput
ing e use page 1, Monthly Calendar, and make allowance for
observer's longitude. The Ephemeris gives the sign of e.
4k (Subtract the chronometer time of apparent 310011 from the mean
time of apparent noon, and the remainder is the error of the
chronometer: plus if slow, minus if fast.
5. Timepieces at West Point are run on 75th Meridian mean time,
i.e. 4 m 9 8 .45 slower than local mean time. Hence in finding
the error at West Point subtract 4 m 9 8 .45 from 12 h e, before
proceeding with step No. 4.
>J Should the necessity arise for finding the error of a mean
solar timepiece by a meridian transit of a star, it may be done by
the same methods, the reduction to the middle wire and corrections
for instrumental errors being computed as usual, since the equa
torial value of the first, as before, being taken as not exceeding 8 .5,
s 00273
the greatest error thus produced cannot exceed t  sec 67
/w
= 8 .0035. Stars within the polar circle, or whose declination ex
ceeds about i>7 are not used for time determinations.
Therefore having observed the c/0c&time of transit (corrected by
a A + b H + c C), and having computed, as heretofore explained,
the cor reef mean solar time of transit from the star's R. A., the dif
ference gives the clock error.
THE SEXTANT.
As problems under the second and third heads arising n field
work are usually solved by aid of the sextant, a short description of
that instrument and the manner of using it becomes necessary.
The sextant is a hand reflecting instrument designed for the
measurement of the angular distance between two objects. In its
construction it embodies the following principle of Optics, viz.i
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 51
When a ray of light is reflected successively by two plane mirrors,
the angle 'between the first and last direction of the ray is twice the
angle between the mirrors, provided the ray and its two reflections
are all in the same plane perpendicular to both mirrors. For as
tronomical work the sextant is mainly used for measuring vertical
angles, i.e., the altitude of some celestial body. In the measure
ment of Lunar Distances, however, the angle will usually be in
clined.
The instrument consists essentially of a graduated circular arc,
usually somewhat over 90 in extent, connected with its center by
several radii and braced by cross pieces, forming what is known as
the frame. Attached to the center of the arc is a movable index
arm provided with clamp and tangent screw, carrying at its outer
end a vernier and microscope for reading the sextant arc. Attached
to the indexarm at its center of motion, and therefore rotating with
it, is a small mirror known as the indexglass, whose plane is per
pendicular to that of the frame. Perpendicular to the frame, at
tached thereto and therefore immovable, is a second small mirror,
known as the horizonglass. These two mirrors are so placed with
reference to each other that when the indexarm vernier points to
the zero of the arc, they shall be exactly parallel and facing each
other. In this position a ray reflected by both mirrors will have its
original direction unchanged. The horizonglass is divided into
two parts by a line parallel to the frame. The first part next the
frame is a mirror, and is the horizonglass proper. The outer
part, consisting of unsilvered glass, is not a mirror. A small tele
scope screwing into a fixed ring, is held by the latter with its axis
parallel to the frame and pointing to the horizonglass. The dis
tance to the axis from the frame is so regulated that the objective
will receive rays passing through the unsilvered, as well as rays
reflected from the silvered, part of the horizonglass. Since each
portion of an objective forms as perfect an image as does the whole,
the difference being only in degree of brightness of the image, it is
manifest that by pointing the telescope at one object and placing
another so that its reflected rays will be received by the objective,
an image of each object may be seen in the field of view, each per
fect in detail, but less bright than if formed with the whole aper
ture of the objective. The relative brightness of the two images
may be varied at will by simply moving the telescope bodily to or
ft*
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 53
from the frame, thus presenting more or less of the objective to the
silvered part of the horizonglass. For observation, they should bo
equally bright.
Excessive brightness, as in case of the sun, is reduced by two
sets of oolored shades of different degrees of opacity, one set for the
reflected, and one for the direct rays. These are supposed to bo
of plane glass, but to eliminate any errors due to a possible pris
matic form, they admit of easy reversal. A disk containing a set
of colored glasses is arranged to screw over the eye end of the tele
scope. This should be used when practicable, since any prismatic
form in these glasses will affect both direct and reflected rays
equally.
Two parallel wires are placed in the focus of the objective, the
middle point between which marks the center of the field of view.
The line joining this point and the optical center of the objective
is the axis of the telescope. It is this line which should be parallel
with the frame of the instrument.
Suppose now with the indexarm set at zero (in which case the
mirrors are parallel), the telescope is accurately directed to some
very distant point. Kays will pass through the unsilvered part of
the horizon glass and form an image at the center of the field of
view. Rays sensibly parallel to these will fall upon the indexglass,
be reflected to the horizonglass, and thence into parallelism with
the original direction, since the angle between the mirrors is zero.
These reflected rays being parallel to the direct rays, will be
brought to the same focus, and there will bo presented at the mid
dle of the field of view, apparently one, in reality two, images of the
point, accurately coinciding.
Retaining the direct image at tho middle of the field, let the
indexarm be moved forward, say 25. According to the principle
of Optics cited, there will bo superimposed on the first image that
of another point, separated from the first point by an angular dis
tance of 50. Accordingly in order to give the real value of an
angle, the sextant graduations are marked double their true value.
Also according to the same principle of Optics, it fo/lows that it
the reading is 50 when the distance is 50, the ray from the second
point and all its reflections must determine a plane perpendicular
to both mirrors and hence parallel to the frame. If the instrument
and indexarm be so moved as to produce coincidence of images on
54 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
either side of the field, evidently the last direction of the ray is not
parallel to the frame, the fundamental principle of the sextant is
violated, and the position assumed by the indexarm to give this
coincidence gives an incorrect value of the angle. The frame of
the instrument must therefore always be held in the plane of the
two points, which condition is fulfilled when coincidence of their
images can be produced at the centre of the field.
Hence, to measure an angle with a sextant: Direct the tele
scope to the fainter of the two objects and bring its image to the
middle of the field. Retaining it in this position, rotate the instru
ment about the line of sight and move the indexarm slowly back
and forth until accurate coincidence of the two images is produced
at the middle of the field. Perfection of coincidence is produced
by use of the tangent screw.
In measuring altitudes (e.g. of the sun) at sea, it is sufficient to
bring the reflected image tangent to the sea horizon, and correct
the resulting altitude for dip. On land the natural horizon cannot
be used for obvious reasons. Recourse is therefore had to an " arti
ficial horizon " consisting of a small vessel of mercury with its sur
face protected against wind, etc., by a glass roof. An observer
placing himself in the plane of the " object " and the perpendicular
to the artificial horizon, will by placing the eye at the proper angle
see an image of the object reflected from the mercury. Since the
angles of incidence and reflection are equal, this imago may be re
garded as another body at the distance of the object and at the same
angular distance Mow the horizon as the real object is above it.
The measurement of the angle between the two will therefore give
the double altitude of the object. This measurement is accom
plished by regarding the image seen in the mercury as the " fainter
of the two objects" mentioned in the foregoing rule, and then pro
ceeding as there indicated.
If the body have a sensible diameter, as the sun, the altitude of
the center is the quantity sought, since all data in the Ephemeris
relating to the sun is given for its center. Nevertheless since it is
easier to judge of the exact tangency of the two images than of
their exact coincidence, it is the altitude of a limb which is always
measured. This, corrected for refraction, semidiameter, and par
allax, will give the true geocentric altitude of the center.
The sextant being usually held in the hand and therefore
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65
somewhat unstable, being also of small dimensions and graduated
on the arc only to 10', a single measurement of an angle never
suffices for any astronomical purpose. Altitudes are therefore
always taken in "sets " and the corresponding times noted. There
are two methods of taking these sets according as the body is mov
ing rapidly or slowly in altitude. The first case evidently applies
to extrameridian observations, and the second to circummeridian
and circumpolar observations.
To explain the first case, suppose it were required to take a set
of forenoon altitudes of the sun's upper limb. First it is to bo
noted that the image in the horizon as viewed by the telescope, is
erect; it having been inverted onco by the reflection and again by
the telescope. The imago reflected from the mirrors is however
inverted, and its lowest point corresponds to the upper limb of the
sun. Now point the telescope to the mercury (having applied the
proper shades), and place the upper limb of this image at the center
of the field. By the rotation and movement of the indexarm be
fore described bring the image from the mirrors into the field
above the other. Since the sun is rising, this image (inverted) will
appear to be slowly falling in the field of view toward the other.
Set the vernier at the nearest outward exact division of the limb,
and note the instant when the two images are just tangent. Set
the vernier at the next exact outward division of the limb (which
operation separates the images), and note again the time when they
come to tangency, which will be only a few seconds later. So pro
ceed until the set is complete. The altitudes are thus equidistant,
involve no reading of the vernier, and while waiting for contact
the instrument can be held steady by both hands.
To take altitudes of the lower limb, allow the falling image to
pass over the other and note the instants of separation.
In the afternoon, the image here described as falling, is rising.
In the second case, when the body is about to pass the meridian
or is near the pole, it is moving so slowly in altitude that we can
not set the indexarm ahead by successive equal steps and wait for
the body to reach that altitude. Moreover upon passing the
meridian the motion in altitude is reversed. In this case we must
therefore measure the altitudes of the selected limb in as quick
succession as possible according to the ordinary method.
The same principles apply in case of a star.
66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The glass forming the roof of the horizon may be somewhat
prismatic. The effect of this may be eliminated by taking another
set with the roof reversed.
ADJUSTMENTS OF THE SEXTANT.
Hitherto it has been assumed that both mirrors were accurately
perpendicular to the frame, that when they were parallel to each
other the indexarm vernier reads zero, that the center of motion
of the arm was the center of the graduated limb, and that the
telescope axis was parallel to the frame. The mirrors and telescope
are however not rigid in their connections, but each is susceptible
of a slight motion to perfect the adjustment. AVellknown optical
principles together with the preceding remarks render any expla
nation of these adjustments unnecessary.
1st. Adjustment: To make the indexglass perpendicular to the
frame.
Set the index near the middle of the arc ; remove the telescope
and place the eye near the indexglass nearly in the plane of the
frame. Observe at the righthand edge of the glass whether the
arc as seen directly and its reflected image form one continuous
arc, which can only be the case when the glass is perpendicular.
If not, tip the glass slightly by the proper screws until the above
test is fulfilled.
2d. Adjustment: To make the horizonglass perpendicular to the
frame.
The first adjustment having been perfected, the second is tested
by noting whether the two mirrors are parallel for some one position
of the indexglass. If so, the horizonglass must also be perpen
dicular to the frame.
Point the telescope to a 3d or 4th magnitude star, or to a disbanfc
terrestrial point, the plane of the frame being vertical. Move the
indexarm slowly back and forth over the zero. This will cause
the reflected image to pass through the field ; if it passes exactly
over the direct image the two mirrors must be perpendicular to the
frame. If it passes to one side, tip the horizonglass by the proper
screws until the test is fulfilled.
3d. Adjustment : To make the axis of the telescope parallel to
the frame.
Turn the telescope until the wires before referred to are parallel
TO FIND THE TIME BY 'ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 67
to the frame. (An adjusting telescope in which the wires are well
separated is to be preferred.) Select two objects which are at a
considerable distance apart, as the sun and moon when distant 100 or
more from each other. Point the telescope to the moon and bring
the image of the sun tangent to it on one of the wires. Move the
instrument till the images appear on the other wire. If the tangency
still exists, the telescope is adjusted. Otherwise tip the ring hold
ing it, by means of the proper screws, till the test is fulfilled.
4th. Adjustment: To make the mirrors parallel when the read
ing of the arc is zero.
Set the index exactly at zero and point to the distant object
described in the second adjustment. If the two images are exactly
coincident, the adjustment is perfect. Otherwise turn the horizon
glass around an axis perpendicular to the frame, by the proper
screws, until coincidence 1 is secured. The mirrors are now parallel.
ERRORS OF THE SEXTANT.
It should be remembered that to whatever division of the arc
the index may point when the mirror* are parallel, this division is
the temporary zero, and from it till angle readings must be reckoned.
The fourth adjustment will not remain perfect; it is therefore
easier to determine the temporary zero from time to time, note its
distance and direction from the zero of the graduation, and apply
the correction to all readings. The distance in arc of the tempo
rary from the fixed zero is called the " Index Error," positive if the
temporary zero lie beyond the graduated arc, negative if on. To
facilitate its measurement when positive, the. graduations arc car
ried 4 to 5 degrees to the right of the zero, constituting what is
called the " extra arc."
To measure the indexerror, bring the mirrors to parallelism by
producing a perfect coincidence of the direct and reflected images
of a star or distant point; read the vernier, giving the result the
proper sign.
Another method specially applicable at sea* is as follows:
Measure the horizontal diameter of the sun (so that the two
limbs may not be affected by unequal refraction), first on the arc
and then on the extra arc. Evidently one reading will exceed, and
the other be less than the diameter, by the indexerror. One half
58 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY,
the difference will then be the index error, positive if the larger
reading be on the extra arc.
As a verification, one fourth the sum should be the sun's semL
diameter as given for the date in the Ephemeris.
Another error which must be attended to with equal care is the
" Eccentricity." This arises when the center of motion of the in
dexarm is not coincident with the center of the graduated arc.
The effect of such maladjustment is seen from Figure 15, a being
the center of motion, and b that of
the arc. When the arm is in the posi
tion ae in prolongation of the line
joining the two centers, there is mani
festly no error in the reading. When
at ad perpendicular to that line, there
is an error cd. Between these two
Flo 15 positions the error will be intermedi
ate in value.
To determine this error, measure with a theodolite the angular
distance between two distant points. Then take the mean of
several measurements of the same angle with the sextant. The
difference will be the effect of eccentricity for that reading of the
sextant. This operation should be repeated at short angular inter
vals for the whole arc, and the results tabulated.
Other methods may be adopted when the appliances of a fixed
observatory are at hand.
Nomenclature of the Astronomical Triangle.
A = azimuth angle = angle at the zenith.
P = hour angle = angle at the pole.
= parallactic angle = angle at the body.
90 = side from zenith to pole.
90 tf = d = side from pole to body = polar distance.
90 a = z = side from zenith to body = zenith distance.
In which
= latitude of place.
tf = declination of body.
a = altitude of body.
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 69
II. TIME BY SINGLE ALTITUDES.
1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece by a Single Altitude
of a Star. (See Form 3.) The solution of this problem consists in
finding the value of the hour angle Z P 8 in the astronomical tri
angle (see Fig. Iti), having given the three sides of the triangle,
viz.: Z P, the complement of the latitude, /' 8 the polar distance
of the star, and Z 8 its zenith distance. The latitude is sup
posed to be known, the polar distance d is taken from the
E H
FIG. 16.
Ephemeris for the date, and the altitude a, the complement of the
zenith distance, is measured by the sextant and artificial horizon.
The measured altitude having been corrected for errors of the sex
tant and refraction, the above data substituted in the formula
(>OS
sin i P = y ~ ;._y^ y ^,
z , cos sin a
(62)
will give the value of P, the star's hour angle, which divided by 15
will give the hour angle in time. (The negative sign is to be used
if the star be east of the meridian.)
This plus the star's R. A. for the date will give the sidereal
time, which by comparison with the chronometer time noted at the
Instant of taking the altitude, will give the chronometer error.
As heretofore stated, reliance is not to be placed upon a single
measurement by so defective an instrument as the sextant. A set
of observations, from 5 to 10, is therefore made by recording the
times corresponding to successive changes of 10' in the star's
double altitude. These altitudes will thus be equidistant and in
volve no measurement of seconds of arc.
60 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
In the computations it is usual to assume that the mean of the
times corresponds to the mean of the altitudes, as shown on Form
3, which implies that the star's motion in altitude is uniform. This
in general is not true. Wo must therefore, to be as accurate as
possible, either apply a correction to the mean of the times to
obtain the time when the star was at the mean of the altitudes, or
a correction to the mean of the altitudes to give the altitude at the
mean of the times. Whether corrected or not, the means are used
as a single observation. Also, since the refraction varies ununi
formly with the altitude, the refraction correspondii 3 to the mean
of the altitudes requires, in strictness, a slight correction; although
of much less importance than the first. These corrections may as
a rule be omitted. Their deduction is given iu the following para
graph.
*j To determine the correction to be applied to the mean of the
altitudes or the mean of the times, the following deduction is ap
pended essentially as given by Chauvcnet.
To find the change in altitude of a star in a given interval of
time, having regard to second differences, let
Then a + A a =f(P + A P).
Expanding by Taylor's Theorem,
da
From the astronomical triangle,
sin a = cos d sin + sin d cos cos P.
cos a d a = sin d cos sin P d P.
d a sin d cos sin P , .
dP =  cos a  =  cos Bin A, J63)
A being the azimuth.
*** ^ 4 d A
cos0cosYl. (64)
TO FIND THE TIME BT ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 61
Also from the astronomical triangle in a similar manner,
d A cos f/* sin A
d P sin P
(65)
being the parallactic angle.
Whence
, . , T1 , cos 0sin A cos A cos
A a = cos sin ^1 A /' +  .
.
sin
,
 7i. (66)
Expressing A a and A P in seconds of arc and time respec
tively, we have, after reduction,
A a, = cos sin ^4 (15 A JP)
, cos sin A cos vi cos (15 A P) 3 . ,. , N
+   rin  p  r  i 3  sin 1", (67)
which gives the variation in altitude due to a lapse of A P seconds
of time.
The last term may bo written
(15 A P)' 8 rin JAP
' 2  Bml " sinl" = ^
Values of 7/1 are given in tables under the head of Reduction to the
Meridian.
Placing also, for brevity,
... 7 cos A cos
5r = cos0sin^ fc = _ ri ._J.,
we have,
A a =
a more convenient expression of the same relation.
Now let //, IF, //", etc., denote the altitudes (corrected for
sextant errors), T, T', T", etc., the corresponding times, the
mean of the altitudes, t 9 the mean of the times, and a/ the altitude
corresponding to t , since this cannot be . It is now required to
determine the relation between a/ and a in order that the whole
62 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
set of observations may be resolved into one a single altitude
taken at the mean of the times.
The change H a/ required the time T t .
The change //' #/ required the time T f t Q ,
etc.
Therefore from the relation A a ~ 15 </ A P +# A M we
have, denoting the different m's by in l9 w a , etc.,
km l9 )
km, J V '
etc. etc.
If there were n observations, the mean gives.
, 7 m. + w. + M, + etc. 7 ,__.
a t a/ = A    = # k m . (69)
Or
The last term is therefore the desired correction to the mean of
the altitudes in order that it may correspond to the mean of the
times.
It will however be more convenient to find such a correction as
applied to the mean of the times will cause it to correspond to the
mean of the altitudes.
Let if denote the time corresponding to the mean of the alti
tudes.
The change a a/ required the time tf t Q . Hence from
the preceding, we have, since if t is very small,
'.) =  K  .') =  9 km,.
._. . , cos A cos . ,
Expressing k =  : ^ in known quantities,
sin JL
= s0 sn sn _
' v '
cos
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 68
V = t, + ^cotP  
' 1 5 L_ cos a, cot a J w sm 1" v 7
The refraction, r, belonging to the mean of the altitudes is cor
rected, if desired, by the quantity
sin r 1_ ^ 2 sin a j (a n H)
sin a a n sin 1"
H denoting the different altitudes.
It is important to ascertain what stars are suited to the solution
of^jbhis problem.
Differentiating the equation derived from the astronomical tri
angle (regarding a and P as variable),
sin a = sin sin d f cos cos 6 cos P, (73 )
and reducing by
cos a sin P
cos 6 sin
we have
cos sin
(74)
v '
Prom this it is seen that any error (d a) in the measured alti
tude will have the least effect on the computed hour angle when
= 0, and A = 90. That is, the method is less exposed to error
in low latitudes; but whatever the latitude, the star should be near
the prime vertical. The worst position of the star is when on the
meridian.
Differentiating the same equation regarding and P as variable,
reducing by
cos a cos A = sin d cos cos d sin cos P. (75)
and the same equation as before, we have
(7G)
x '
.___
cos tan A
64 PRACTIGAL ASTRONOMY.
From this it is seen that any uncertainty as to the exact latitude
will also have least effect when the star is near the prime vertical
and the observer near the equator.
Differentiating with reference to d and P, we have
cos t) tan
(77)
v '
and it thus appears that an erroneous value of $ will also produce
the least effect when the star is on the prime vertical, since from
the equation
. . cos . A
sin w =  ^ sin A
cos o
sin $ and therefore tan ^ will be a maximum when sin A is also
a maximum.
From the three foregoing differential equations it is also seen
that the effect of constant errors either in the measured altitude,
the assumed latitude, or assumed declination, may be eliminated
by combining the results from two stars, one east and one west of
the meridian, and in as nearly corresponding positions as possible;
since then the corresponding values of sin A, tan A, and tan tf> will
be numerically nearly equal and of opposite signs.
Hence the following general rule should be observed : In order
to reduce to a minimum the effect of errors either in the observations
or the assumed data, select a star which will cross the prime vertical
at some distance from the zenith (6 < 0), and make the observations
near that circle. As the latitude increases, greater accuracy in the
observations and data is required in order to give a constant degree
of precision in the results, tftars very near the horizon should be
avoided on account of excessive and irregular refraction. The
adopted value of the clock error should be the mean of the results
from an east and a west star.
In the computation, if great accuracy be not essential, mean re
fractions may be employed ; their values are given in tables.
2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by a Single Alti
tude of the Sun's Limb. (See Form 4.) This problem does not
differ in principle from the preceding. The observations are made
on the sun's limb, and therefore in addition to refraction the cor
TO FIND THE TIME BT ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 65
rection for semidiameter at the time of observation must be ap
plied. Also, since the sun has an appreciable parallax, and since
also the Ephemeris data supposes the observer to be at the earth's
center, the altitude must be further corrected for " parallax in alti
tude/' Parallax in altitude = Equatorial Horizontal Parallax X p
X cos altitude, p being the ratio of the earth's radius at the equator
to that at the place of observation. At West Point log p = 9.9993C8
10. The Equatorial Parallax is given in the Ephemeris, page
278.
The gun's declination (or polar distance) which is given in the
Ephemeris for certain instants of Greenwich time, varies quite rap
idly; and in order to determine this element at the instant of ob
servation we must know our longitude and the error of the chro
nometer, to obtain which is the object of the problem. In practice,
however, the error will usually be known with sufficient accuracy
to find approximately the time elapsed since Greenwich mean noon.
With this assumed difference we find by interpolation in page II,
Monthly Calendar, the declination for the instant. The same re
marks apply to the determination of the semidiameter referred to
above, and the Equation of Time below.
With the data thus found, compute P (in time) as in the pre
ceding problem.
Then if it be a morning observation,
Apparent time 12 h P.
If an afternoon observation,
Apparent time = P.
Apparent time Equation of Time = Mean Time. This com
pared witli the mean of the recorded times gives the chronometer
error, and if this is found to differ very materially from the assumed
error, the declination and possibly also the Semidiameter and
Equation of Time, must be redetermined, and the computation re
peated. The sun should be observed as near the prime vertical as
is consistent with avoiding irregular refraction.
In all cases where time is to be determined by altitudes of the
sun, it is better to make a set of observations on each limb, and re
66 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
duce each set separately. If a difference of personal error in esti
mating contact of images as compared with their separation exists,
it will thus be discovered and in a great measure eliminated.
III. TIME BY EQUAL ALTITUDES.
1. To Find the Error of a Sidereal Timepiece by Equal Altitudes
of a Star. (See Form 5.) If the times when a star reaches equal
altitudes on opposite sides of the meridian be noted, the " middle
chronometer time" will be the time of transit, provided the chro
nometer has run uniformly. Hence we would have
T 4 T
'
But if the refraction is different at the times of the two observa
tions, the true altitudes will be unequal when the observed are
equal; which latter will consequently not correspond to equal hour
angles. Manifestly therefore one of the chronometer times (e.g.,
the last), requires a correction equal to the hour angle correspond
ing to the change in true altitude, this change being the difference
between the E. and W. refractions, and the middle chronometer
time will require one half this correction.
Hence we have in full (sec note at end of next problem),
I (r e ^?; w ,)_co^
~
E being the chronometer error at time of meridian passage, a the
star's apparent R. A., T e and T w the chronometer times of observa
tion, r e and r w the east and west refractions, and t one half the
elapsed time between the observations. The above equation evi
dently applies even when the times have been noted by a mean
solar chronometer, provided a be replaced by the computed mean
time of meridian passage.
Use an Ephemeris star and make the first set of observations as
prescribed under " Time by Single Altitudes/' Then with the same
sextant use the same altitudes in the second set, of course in the
reverse order.
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 67
From the ^preceding Equation it is seen that the actual altitudes
are not required. Therefore unless the correction for refraction
is to be applied, no record need be made of the sextant readings or
errors. Also, under the same condition, the method is independent
of errors in the assumed latitude or the star's declination.
As before, the observations should be made as near the prime
vertical as is consistent with avoiding irregular refraction. By
selecting a star whose declination is but a little less than 0, it will
be on the prime vertical near the zenith, and we can probably avoid
tiie correction for refraction since the elapsed time will be small.
The sextant and chronometer also will be but little liable to changes.
If the eastern observations have been prevented by clouds or
other cause, we may still take the western observations, and the
eastern at the next prime vortical transit of the star; thus giving
the chronometer error at time of star's lower meridian passage.
2. To Find the Error of a Mean Solar Timepiece by Equal Alti
tudes of the Sun's Limb. (See Form 6.) The general principles
involved and the methods of observation are the same as in the pre
ceding problem. But since the sun changes in declination between
the times of the E. and W. observations, equal altitudes do not cor
respond to equal hour angles. For example, when the sun is mov
ing north, the morning will be less than the afternoon hour angle
at the same altitude. Manifestly therefore the afternoon hour angle
requires to be diminished by the change duo to the change of decli
nation, and the middle chronometer time by 7m// this amount, which
is accomplished in practice by adding the correction with its sign
changed. This correction is called the " Equation of Equal Alti
tudes."
The middle chronometer time thus corrected gives the chro
nometer time of apparent noon. 12 h the Equation of time at
Apparent Noon gives the mean time of apparent noon, and the dif
ference is the chronometer error on mean time at apparent noon.
Hence in full
s = 1S i . _ >* + c' + 1 ^ ~ r  ) ? a ,
T ' 2 15 cos cos 6 sin t
+ (A K tan + B A" tan *)"j . (80)
68 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The last term in the bracket is the Equation of Equal Altitudes.
For its deduction, see note at end of problem.
A and B are taken from tables. K is the sun's hourly increase
in declination at apparent noon, taken from the Ephemeris by inter
polation; d is the sun's declination at same time.
If a sidereal chronometer had been used, the above equation
would evidently still apply, substituting for 12 h e the sun's It. A.
at apparent noon, and omitting G 1 ' in the parenthesis.
For the application of this method to midnight, and effect of
errors in data, see Note.
> Correction for Refraction. To deduce the correction for re
fraction employed in the two preceding problems, resume the dif
fcrential equation of the last note,
j r COS a 7 / n \
dP    .  da (numerically),
cos cosd su\P x "
which gives the change in hour angle (in arc) for a change in alti
tude of da.
If the west refraction be less than the east, the sun will, in fall
ing, reach the altitude a too soon, and the west hour angle must be
increased. Hence in this case the correction must be positive and
additive, and in any case the correction with its proper sign in time
will be obtained from the expression
(r e jr^ cos a__
15 cos 0cos ~tf sintf'
since r e r w is the change in altitude da, and tf, or one half the
elapsed time, is practically P.
For the middle chronometer time, we therefore have
Cor. for Hot = I ^ "^^ (81)
" 15 cos cos 6 '
The equation reduced as in the preceding note, gives
d P = Tf ~ rw (82)
30 cos 0sin A'
TO FIND THE TIME BY ASTRONOMICAL OBSERVATIONS. 60
Since r r w may denote an error in altitude from any cause what
ever, it follows that the observations should be made near the prime
vertical.
Equation of Equal Altitudes. In order to deduce the Equation
of Equal Altitudes, resume the equation
sin a = sin sin tf + cos cos # cos P.
Differentiate, regarding 6 and P as variable, and solving, we have
7 D _ 8 * n cos ^ ~~ cos cos P g i n ^ 7 *
(JL L : ~~~ " ,~ w  u O.
cos cos o sm P * .
/tan tan
= 7>~;  1
\sin jP tan
which gives the change in hour angle due to a change d d in decli
nation.
Now if / denote half the elapsed time in hours, and 7f the hourly
increase in the sun's d eel i nation at the middle instant (assumed to
be apparent noon), wo will have
Again assuming P to be the mean hour angle =: /, and d to be the
declination at the middle instant (assumed to be apparent noon), we
shall have for the change in hour angle in time due to the in
crease in declination

sin / tan
(84)
v '
Since A'' denotes an increase In declination, the afternoon hour angle
will be too large by the above quantity, and the middle chronometer
time too large by half the same quantity. Hence in any case, the
quantity to be added to the middle chronometer time to reduce it
to chronometer time of apparent noon is
K t tan K t tan d
15 sin t 15 tan t
70 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Making A =  j^, 5  j^ wo have
Eq. of Equal Altitudes = ^4 JTtan + /ftan *. (85)
As in the preceding case, observations may be made in the
afternoon and the following morning to obtain the chronometer
error at midnight. Such a set may be regarded as A. M. and P. M.
observations respectively made by a person at the other extremity
6f the earth's diameter, and therefore in latitude 0.
Hence for midnight the Eq. would be
Kt tan <f> K t tan d
T5~ sinT + ~l5~tan t * \ }
Since t is always less than 12 h , its sine is always positive. Also
tan t will be positive when t is less than 6 1 ', and negative when
more. From which it is seen that we may use a single equation for
both noon and midnight, viz. :
A K tan + B K tan tf,
by noting the following rule as to signs.
For noon, A is always negative, for midnight positive. For
noon or midnight B is positive when the elapsed time is less than
12 h and negative when more.
The effect of errors in and d is readily seen by a differentia
tion of the Equation.
Time of Sunrise or Sunset. This problem is precisely similar to
that of single altitudes, except that the altitude of the sun is known
and therefore no observation is required. The zenith distance of
the sun's center at the instant when its upper limb is on the hor
izon is assumed to be 90 50', which is made up of 90, plus 16'
(the mean semidiameter of the sun), plus 34' (the mean refraction
at the horizon). The resulting hour angle replaces P in Form 4.
Duration of Twilight. The zenith distance in this case is 108,
as twilight is assumed to begin in the morning or end in the even
DURATION OF TWILIGHT. 71
ing when the sun's center id 18 below the horizon. (See Art.
130, Young.)
From the solution of the Z P S triangle it can readily be shown
that the time required for the sun to pass from the horizon to a
zenith distance z is
t = siu i= (87)
15 f 2 cos a v '
in which i\> and <f>' (called the sun's parallactic angles) are the an
gles included between the declination and vertical circles through
the sun's center for any zenith distance z, and for the horizon re
spectively, and is the observer's latitude. Making z equal to 108
this becomes
15 r ^ cos u
v '
from which the duration of twilight for any latitude and any sea
son of the year can be found; the values of $ and fi' are given by
sin sin d cos z . .
cos ib = , v . , (89)
r cos o sin z v '
and
cos ?// 81U ^ (90)
' COS (} V '
When if} is equal to /// then t is a minimum, and we have, after
replacing 1 cos 18 by 2 sin 8 9,
/ = ft sin 1 (sin 9 sec 0), (91)
from which the duration of the shortest twilight is found. Under
the same condition we have from Eqs. (89) and (90),
sin d = tan 9 sin 0; (92)
from which the sun's declination at the time of shortest twilight at
any latitude can be found,
72
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
LATITUDE.
Tho latitude of a place on the earth's surface is the declination
of its zenith. The apparent zenith is the point in which the plumb
line, if produced, at the point of observation would pierce the celes
tial sphere. The central zenith is the point in which the radius of
the earth, if produced, would pierce the celestial sphere. The lati
tude measured from the central zenith, is called the geocentric lati
tude, and that from the apparent zenith is called the astronomical
latitude or simply the latitude. The difference between the lati
tude and the geocentric latitude is called the reduction of latitude.
The direction of the plumbline is affected by the local attrac
tion of mountain masses on the plumbbob, or on account of tho
unequal variations of density of the crust of the earth, at or near
the locality of the station. The Astronomical latitude is deter
mined from the actual direction of the plumbline, and therefore
includes all abnormal deviations. Tho Geographical or Geodetic
latitude is that which would result from considering the earth a
perfect spheroid of revolution, without the abnormal deviations
above referred to.
Form and Dimensions of the Earth. Before proceeding to the
latitude problems it is important to derive some necessary formulas
from the form and dimensions of the earth. For this purpose, let
us assume that the earth is an oblate spheroid aboat the polar axis.
Fio. 17.
Let E P' be a meridian section of the earth through the observ
er's place 0\ OP' the earth's axis; EQ the earth's equator aad
LATITUDE. 73
H H* the observer's horizon. Let P be the pole of the heavens; Z
the apparent and Z 9 the central zenith ; the latitude and 0' the
geocentric latitude. The equation of the observer's meridian re
ferred to its center and axes is
a*y* + Vx* = <f1>\ (93)
in which a and b are the equatorial and polar radius of the earth.
The coordinates of being x* and y* ', we have the following ana
lytical conditions.
For the tangent at 0, coincident with the horizon, from
<fyy' + Vxx' = a*V 9 (94)
and the normal at 0, through the apparent zenith Z 9 from
ay (x  x')  6V (y  y') = 0. (95)
J?rom Eq. (94), we have
tan OA C = tan (90  0) = ^7} (90)
whence
i i a? / tan0 = fl i y'. (97)
Substituting in
aY a + &'z /2 = a'& a (98)
and eliminating b by
we have
cos
/ _
~
Vl  e' siix^'
_ rt (1 e*)sin
(100)
Let s bo the length of any portion of the meridian; then for the
elementary arc, its projection on the major axis x, is
rfscos OA C=dssin 0= tfz', (101)
74 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
since x 9 is a decreasing function of the latitude. Differentiating
the first of Eqs. (100), we have
a ) sin
'  
(1  6" Bill' 0)*
7 f sn ,
dx' = a  '    (102)
 " ' * l '
Equating (101) and (103), we have
ds = a ^^ ; 1 T ~ 9 (103)
(1 e a sm 2 0) J x '
and for any other latitude 0, ,
(1 < ~' c>t d (f)
ds, a 2 ~f^ j . (104)
Let d = 1, then dividing (103) by (104), we have
ds (1  e f siu 2 0,) 1 1  I e 2 sin 2 0, , /lnpx
_ = ^ _ _L^_ = ? , , ,V nearly, (105)
which, after solving with reference to e 2 , reduces to
P* " ^^ t<? "~ f<? / _ /i run
C> TT ~"i ~~~* ~>i i ~~7 ~ a j. I JLUU I
3 5 sm ^ sm / v '
from which the value of the eccentricity of the meridian can be
found when the measured lengths dx and ds, of any two portions
of the meridian line, each 1 iu latitude, and the latitudes and
0, of their middle points are known; for the earth, this has been
found to be about 0.081G9G7.
To find the equatorial sm&pohir radii, we have from Eq. (103)
after making rf0 = 1,
and from the property of the ellipse,
l = aVlf. (108)
LATITUDE. 76
To find the radius of curvature R at any point of the meridian.
After substituting the values of dx, dy, and d'y, taken from Eqs.
(100), in the general formula for radius of curvature,
we have
Ra If^j 3 ; (110)
and hence the length of one degree of latitude at any latitude is,
e _27rli_27ta 1 
*  "awr ico (i i e * siu < 0)1 i m >
To find the length of a degree on a section perpendicular to the
, meridian at any latitude we proceed as follows: The radius p of
the earth at the observer's place, is the minor axis, and the equa
torial radius a is the major axis of the elliptical section, cut out of
the earth by a plane perpendicular to the meridian plane, passed
through the center and the observer's place.
Squaring and adding Eqs. (100) and extracting the square root,
we have the radius of the earth at the observer's place; or
= . t =
1 e sin f 1 e" sin* v '
The square of the eccentricity of the section is
a a 1  e* sin 8 >
which being substituted for e a in Eq. (Ill) after making = 90,
gives
76 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
To find the length of a degree of longitude at any latitude 0,
we know, Eqs. (100), that the radius of the parallel is x* \ therefore
we have
cos
_ ,_
~ 360 X ~ 360
The value of the radius of the earth, at any latitude 0, is de
rived from Eq. (112) or,
2 e * sin a + e 4 sin 8
~ ^.. o ~. T~T ""
1 6* sin 3 '
which, for logarithmic reduction, when a is made unity may be
placed under the form
log p = 9.9992747 + 0.0007271 cos 2  0.0000018 cos 4 0. (115)
From the figure and Eqs. (100), we have
, ,, a cos
x = p cos =  r_T =
. . ,, a (1 e a ) sin
=. p gin 0' = ^_ 
* '
Multiplying these equations by cos and sin respectively, adding
and reducing we have
cos (0  0') = ~ l/l  e 2 sin 8 0, (118)
, , a cos
cos $
and from (116),
,. a,
cos <b' = = t .
a sin 8
Whence by combination we have
cos 0' cos (0 0') =  y cos 0; (120)
P
LATITUDE. 77
and solving with reference to p we have
/" = /
cos
which is capable of logarithmic computation.
To find the reduction of latitude 0'. Since 0is the angle
made by the normal with the axis of x we have
dor
tan^=^, (122)
and from the figure we have
tan 0' =  (123)
Differentiating the equation of the meridian section we have
u V dx
l=*dT < 124 >
Whence
b*
tan 0' = , tan = (1 e') tan 0. (125)
^
Developing into a" series, we have
 0' = g^i sin 2  ^^'sin 40 + etc. (126)
But since e = 0.0816967 this reduces to
0' = 690".65 sin 20 1".16 sin 4 very nearly. (127)
Latitude Problems. The general' problem of latitude consists
in finding the side ZP in the ZP S triangle, any other three parts
being given.
Differentiating (73'), regarding first a and and next P and
as variable, and reducing by (75) we obtain
d = sec A d a,
and
d = tan A cos d P,
78 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Whence observations for latitude should as a rule be maae upon a
body at or near the time of its culmination.
The following are the methods usually employed.
1. By Circumpolars. This depends on the fact that the altitude
of the pole is equal to the astronomical latitude of the place. Let
a and of be the altitudes of a circumpolar star at upper and lower
culmination "respectively, corrected for refraction and instrumental
errors; d and d' the corresponding polar distances, and the lati
tude; then we have
(/> = ad, = ' + <?', =  (a + a') +%(d'd).
The change from d to d f is ordinarily so small in the interval
(12 hours) between the observations as to be negligible; it is due
solely to precession and nutation. This method is free from dec
lination errors, but subject to changes and errors in the refraction.
It is therefore an independent method, and is the one used in fixed
observatories where the observations can be made with great accu
racy even during daylight by the transit circle. With the sextant
the method is applicable only in high latitudes during the winter
so that both culminations occur during the night time. A star
with a small polar distance is to be preferred, to avoid irregular re
fraction at the lower culmination.
The sextant, however, is not well adapted to this method, since
the least count of its vernier is usually 10", and at culmination
only a single altitude can be measured, even if the instant of cul
mination be accurately noted by a chronometer. But if Polaris be
the star chosen, a series of observations may be made during the
five minutes immediately preceding and following culmination, and
at no time during these ten minutes will the star's altitude differ
from its meridian altitude by more than I'M. Errors within this
limit would not be detected by even the best sextant observations,
and the mean of tho measured altitudes will therefore be the me
ridian altitude with the usual precision.
Even if a be regarded as too small when found in this manner^
a 9 will be too large by practically the same amount, and (a + a')
will be correct.
2. By Meridian Altitudes or Zenith Distances. This method de
pends on the fact that the astronomical latitude of a place is equal
LATITUDE. 79
to the declination of its zenith. If the star culminate between the
pole and the zenith, then
where Z^ is the meridian zenith distance of the star. If between
the zenith and equator, then
We have therefore only to measure z l , take d from the Ephemeris,
and substitute in one of these equations.
This method is a very exact one when the observations are made
with an instrument, such as the transit circle, accurately adjusted
to the meridian, and whose least count is small. It is subject to
errors of both declination and refraction ; although the latter as
well as any constant errors in the measured altitudes may be nearly
eliminated, as is seen from the preceding equations, by combining
the result with that from another star which culminates at about
the same time at a nearly equal altitude on the opposite side of the
zenith.
For reasons stated above, the sextant is not well adapted to this
method except at sea, where the highest accuracy is not requisite.
3. By Circummeridian Altitudes. If the altitude of a celestial
body be measured within a few minutes of culmination, we may by
noting the corresponding time very readily compute the difference
between the measured altitude and the altitude which the body
will have when it reaches the meridian. This difference is called
the " Reduction to the Meridian/' and by addition to the observed
will give the meridian altitude. If several altitudes bo measured
and each be reduced to the meridian, we may evidently, by taking
the mean of the results, obviate the inaccuracies incident to the
use of the sextant in the last problem.
These are called " Circummeridian Altitudes," and their reduo*
tion to the meridian is rendered very simple by the special formula
__ cos cos d 2 sin 7  P
Or* tt 4     ;  fi
cos a, 4 sin 1"
/cos cos 6\*. 2 sin 4 P . MOO*
   ] tan a. : ,  J . . . f (128)
\ cos a t ) ' sm 1" ' >\ '
the deduction of which will be given hereafter.
80 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
In this formula a is the true altitude, d the declination, and P
the hour angle, all relating to the instant of observation; a t is the
desired meridian altitude, and Hie second and third terms of the
second member constitute the first two terms of the Reduction to
o Q ; n a i /> o c^i 4 1 />
the Meridian. Values of . */ and " . */ are given in
sin L SHI 1
tables with P as the argument. For small values of JP the series
will converge rapidly, provided a t is not too large.
Having the meridian altitude, the latitude follows as in the last
method.
Prom (128) it is seen that for computing a t we require (neg
lecting all consideration of P for the present) not only tf, but both
a t and ; but as will appear later, approximate values will suffice.
If an approximate value of be known, that of a t follows from
a, = d + 90  0. (129)
If not, one may be found as follows : In this method, double altitudes
are taken in as quick succession as possible from a few minutes before
until a few minutes sifter meridian passage. The greatest altitude
measured will therefore, when corrected for refraction, semidiameter,
and parallax, be very near the meridian altitude, and its substitution
in (129) will give a value of sufficiently accurate for the purpose.
In order to fix upon a proper value of d to be used in (128) it
is to be noted that if a star be the body observed, its declination is
practically constant and may be taken at once from the Ephemeris
for the date. In case of the sun, however, whoso declination is
constantly varying, 6 must represent the declination at the moment
of making the observation. But when several observations are
taken in succession, the labor of computing a value of d for each
may be avoided, as will be evident from an explanation of the
manner of making the observations and reductions.
The observations are made as just explained on a limb of the
sun, viz. : Several double altitudes are taken as near together as
possible, as many before, as after meridian passage, and the corre
sponding chronometer times noted. (Note the difference between
this, and sextant observations for time.)
Now if we suppose each observation to have been reduced to
the meridian, after correcting for refraction, parallax and semi
diameter, we would have several equations of the form
a, = a + Am Bn,
LATITUDE. 81
, . , j ,, , , , , ,2 sin 7 ,
in which m and n are the tabular values of , 1=, and  ~ ~ 5
sm 1" sin 1" f
aid ^4 and B the remaining factors of the corresponding terms in
Equation (128). Any one of the equations will give for the lati
tude,
= S + 90  (a + A m Bri). (130)
In this equation, 6 is the declination at the time of observation,
For, since the reduction to the meridian has been made with this
value of d in obtaining A and B 9 a + A m B n is manifestly the
meridian altitude of a body whose declination is constantly d. In
fact, the reduction to the meridian by the formula given, can be
computed only on the hypothesis of a constant declination. We
are thus dealing with a fictitious sun, whose declination on the me
ridian differs from that of the true sun. But since declination and
meridian altitude always preserve a constant difference (the colati
tude), we see that Equation (130) will give the correct value of 0,
due to perfect balance in tho errors of 6 and (a + A in R n).
The mean of all the equations duo to tho several observations
will be
= tf. + 90  (a. + A ti m  J9 ^ ). (131)
In this equation rf is the mean of the sun's declinatiohs at the
times of making the observations;* and it is obvious that if this
mean bo employed for the single computation of A and B^ , the
error committed will be entirely negligible. We thus avoid a
separate computation of these quantities for each observation.
The result will moreover bo perfectly rigorous in practice if we
use for rf the declination corresponding to the mean of the times;
since in the 30 minutes covered by the observations the departure
of the sun's declination from a uniform increase or decrease is
negligible. We thus avoid the labor of computing more than a
single value of 6.
We have still to determine the value of P from the chronometer
time of each observation, and in this determination it must bft
borne in mind that P (in arc) is the angular distance of the true
sun from the meridian at the instant of observation.
82 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
There are two reasons why this distance (in time) cannot be
given directly by a mean time chronometer. First, the chronom
eter will usually be gaining or losing, i.e., it will have a " rate."
Secondly, a mean time chronometer, even when running without
rate, indicates the angular motion of the mean sun, which may be
'quite ditferent from that of the true sun, as shown by the continual
change in the Equation of Time.
We therefore proceed as follows: From Page I, Monthly Calen
dar of the Ephemeris (knowing the longitude), take out the Equa
tion of Time. Add this algebraically to 12 hours, apply the error
of the chronometer, and the result will be the chronometer time
of apparent noon. The difference between this and the chro
nometer time of each observation, gives the several values of P in
time, each subject to the two corrections mentioned. To find tho
correction for rate, let r represent the number of seconds gained or
lost in 24 hours (a losing rate being positive for the same reason
that an error slow is positive). Then if P' be the corrected hour
angle, we will have
P' : P :: 86400 : 86400  r. [86400 = 60 X 60 X 24].
Or
G400
86400" 
Or
2sin a J P' 2sin'
~~
_ _ ____ _
sin 1" ~~ sin L" \86400  r ~~ siri 1"
Hence we will also have
A t j. . i \ 7 cos cos 8 2 sin 3 \ P
A m (corrected for rate) = k    .  , ,7 <>
v ' cos a t sin I"
Hence if we compute A by the formula
cos cos
LATITUDE. 83
we may employ the actual chronometer intervals and pay no fur*
ther attention to the question of rate.
From k = (  ..... ] , values of k are tabulated with the rate
\ob40U /*/
as the argument.
The second correction depends, as just stated, on the difference
between the motions of the true and mean sun, while the former is
passing from the point of observation to the meridian. In other
words it depends on the change in the Equation of Timn in the
same interval, or, which is the same thing, upon the rate (f an ac
curate mean solar chronometer on apparent time.
If therefore wo let e represent the change in the Equ ition of
Time for 24 hours (positive when the Equation of Time ic increas*
ing algebraically), it is evident that r e will be tin rat) of the
given chronometer on apparent time, and that the correction for
this total rate may be computed as just explained for r, or taken
from the same table, using r e as the argument instead of r alone.
The operation of reducing the observations is then, in )rief, as
follows.
By CfMiimHferMitni Altitudes of the Nun's Limb. Fo*n 7.
Correct the mean of the double altitudes for eccentricity and in
dex error. Correct the resulting mean single altitude for refraction,
semidiameter, and parallax in altitude. Denote the result by a .
From the Equation of Time (Page T, Monthly Calendar), longi
tude and chronometer error, find the chronometer time of apparent
noon.
Take the difference between this and each chronometer time <
observation, denote the difference by F 9 and their mean by />,,.
With each value of J', take from tables the corresponding
values of m and n. Denote their respective means by m and n .
From Page II, Monthly Calendar, take the sun's declination
corresponding to the local apparent time P , and denote it by tf .
If can bo assumed with considerable accuracy, determine the
corresponding a t by a t 6\ f 90 0.
If not, take the greatest measured altitude, correct it for refrac
tion, etc., call it a t , and deduce from the above equation.
From the rate of the chronometer and change in Equation of
Time, (both for 24 hours,) take k from the table.
84 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
With these values of /, 0, a t , and tf , compute
A COS COS tf 7 , TJ ...
4 = . 2 i, and JJ 9 = J a tan a.,
cos , to/
The latitude then follows from
= 6 + 90  (<r. + Ajm.  ..). (132)
By Circitrnr Meridian altitudes of a Star. Form 8.
With a star observed with a sidereal chronometer, the observa
tions are the same, and the reduction is only modified by the fact
that parallax, semidiameter, equation of time and longitude do not
enter, while the declination is constant.
If the star lie between the zenith and pole, the formula becomes
= (a g + A m.  Z? n )  90 + tf . (133)
If below the pole,
= (a.  Ajm.  B n ) + 90  S . (134)
1. An Ephemeris star is to be preferred to the sun, since the
reduction is more simple, its declination is better known and con
stant, it presents itself as a point, which is of advantage in sextant
observations, and we have a greater choice both in time and the
place of the object to be observed.
2. By comparing Eqs. (132) and (133) we see that constant
errors in the measured altitudes, and in refraction, will be nearly
eliminated by combining the results of two stars, one as much
north as the other is south, of the zenith.
Also from the principal term of the Keduction to the Meridian,
cos cos S 2 sin a 4 P ., . ., , xl ... . . ,
   . : ,7 , it is seen that the effect of an imperfect
cos a t sin 1" r
knowledge of the chronometer error, giving an incorrect valuB of
P may be eliminated by taking another observation at about an
equal altitude on the other side of the meridian ; since, P being
very small, sin a \ P will be as much too large in one case as it will
be too small in the other.
LATITUDE. 85
The double altitudes should therefore be taken at as nearly
equal intervals of time and be as symmetrically arranged with refer
ence to the meridian, as practicable.
3. By rewriting the assumed formula for the reduction, ex
pressing the firstrierm as a function of and d only, and including
the third term which has heretofore been omitted, we have (Form
ula 2, P. 4, Book of Formulas),
and
_ 1 . m ___ tan a < , t(l + 3tan'g,)
tan tan 6 (tan tan d) 2 * (tan tan tf ) 8 '
. AM _ _ .
tan a t , f (1 + 3 tan 9 ,
__ i _ A I _ f i_\ _ ' _ /
~~
_ _ . _ _ . __ _ _ _ _ _ Q
. tan tf  tan (tan 3  tan 0) a ~*~ (tan tf  tan 0)"
for south and north stars respectively.
_L sil lHj? _2sin 4 P __ 2 sin 6 J P"
"" sinl' 7 ' n "'Bin"l / ^ f 5 ^ sinl" J*
From these equations it is seen that if a star be selected which
culminates at a considerable distance from the zenith, either north
or south 9 the first factor of each term of this development is much
smaller than in case of a star culminating near the zenith, either
north or south.
Since the third term has been entirely neglected in the previous
discussion, it becomes desirable to select our star in such a manner
that the omitted term (and hence all following it) shall be small;
and this, as just seen, will occur when there is considerable differ
ence between the latitude and the star's declination in either direc
tion. It is also seen that an unfavorable position of the star near
the zenith causing the first factor to be excessive may be counter
balanced by diminishing the hour angle P.
From the above expression for the third term, knowing the ap
proximate latitude, we may readily find the hour angle of any given
star, within which if the observation be confined, the value of the
86 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
term will not exceed any desired limit say 0".01 or 1". Similarly
for the second term. We thus ascertain how long before culmina
tion the observations may safely be begun when it is proposed to
omit one or both terms in the reduction.
For example in latitude 40 K, if we observe a star at declina
tion 0. the observation may be made at 20 ra from meridian passage
and yet the third term amount only to .01", which would affect the
resulting latitude by one linear foot. Or it may be made at 27 m
from culmination, and the third term amount only to .1", affecting
the resulting latitude by ten feet.
A star at an equal altitude north of the zenith, declination 80
(for combination with the preceding as recommended), may be
observed at 48 and 02 minutes from culmination, with no larger
errors.
With other latitudes the figures will vary, but the principle re
mains the same.
Hence the general rule : Select a star whose declination differs
considerably from the latitude. This will give ample time for tak
ing a series of altitudes. As the declination of the selected star
approaches the latitude, restrict the observations to a shorter time,
greater care in this respect being necessary for south stars. Ar
range the observations as symmetrically with reference to the me
ridian as practicable, and use at least two stars on opposite sides
of the zenith.
4. Finally, if a mean solar chronometer be used with a star, the
corrected m. s. intervals defined by the equation P 9 = P , .
must evidently be reduced to sidereal intervals by multiplying by
1.00272791 heretofore deduced. That is
and the factor for rate will be k (1.0027379 1) 8 instead of L
Similarly if a sidereal chronometer be used with the sun, iAe
factor for rate will be k (0.99726957)' instead of k.
LATITUDE. 87
5. To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian. The difference
between a circummeridian and the meridian altitude of a body is
called the " Reduction to the Meridian/'
Its nature will be understood from Figure 18. 8 is the place
of the star; S' the point where it
crosses the meridian, (P # = P /S") ;
and SS" the arc of a small circle
of which Z, the zenith, is the pole,
(Z 8" = Z 8). Z S' will therefore
be the meridian zenith distance
= Zf = 90fl,; ZSorZS" will
be the circummeridian zenith dis Fia 18>
tance = z 90 a\ and if x denote the Reduction to the Meri
dian = S' $", we shall have
a t a + x. (a)
The several terms of Equation (128) after a therefore represent
&; and it is required to deduce this value of x arranged, as is seen,
ill a scries according to the ascending powers of sin 8 \ P,
The equation heretofore deduced, viz. :
cos z sin sin d + cos cos d 2 cos cos d sin a P,
gives by reduction (since sin sin 6 + cos 0cos d =cos (0 d)
= cos z t ),
cos z t cos z 2 cos cos 6 sin 3 \ P = 0. ( J)
Putting for convenience 2 cos cos $ = m, and sin* P = y,
we have
cos z t cos z m y = 0. (J')
We also have
a; = a, a, or 2 = x + z/ , (0)
cos z cos # cos 2, sin z sin z t .
Hence from (&')
cos % t cos a: cos z t + sin 2; sin z t m y = 0. (d)
Now let
(e)
88 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
be the undetermined development desired. From the relation ex
pressed by (d), we are to determine such constant values of A, B,
and G y as will make the series, when convergent, true for all values
of y. Therefore let the values of cos x and sin x derived from (e)
be substituted in (d). The resulting equation will, from the con
dition imposed on (e), be an identical equation.
To find cos x and sin x for this substitution, we have from cal
culus,
# a
cos x = 1 ) etc.,
x
sin x = x + etc.,
and from (0),
cos x = 1  (AY + 2AJ3y' + etc.),
sin x = A y + B if + Cy*  J AY  etc.
Substituting in (d),
cos z t cos z t + A* cos 2, y 2 + ^ 5 cos z t y 3 f sin 2, A y
+ sin z,By*\ sin z, G Y # 3 sin z t A*y* m y = 0.
Collecting the terms,
A i A* ( A B cos z
sin z.A ) , ( 4./1 cos z. )
* \ nl j , 1 * * f /i/ 1
 ,
OS Z. ) , \ . . ' I 3
f y + { + sm z i Q c y = '
m^. \ J ' / ' . ' I3 I J
' J J sm ^ 4 1 ;
From the principles of identical equations
A f\ 4 %
sm z, A m = 0. A =  
sin % t
\ m? cos z t . T> 1 m a cot .
~ . J f ^ sin z. 0. 7^ = ra ^
2 sin 3 z, ' ' 2 sin' ^
1 m* cot" s 1 w 1 . n n 1 m 3 ^ . , 2 v
^r r~ a ^ + TT , sm ^. = 0. (7 ~  . = (1 + 3 cot" 2;,).
2 sm a z t 6 sin 8 ^ ' 6 sin 8 z / /;
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 89
Therefore
cos cos d n . , 1 /cos cos d \* _ . . 1 _
x = 2 sm a P I tan a, 2 sin 4 P
cos a t 2 \ cos a t I ' 2
. 2 /COS COS <T\ 3 , , , x e , r,
j. I J (1 + 3 tan 2 a.) 2 sin 6 ^ P.
' 3 \ cos a 4 I N
Reducing the terms of the series from radians to seconds of arc,
we have for the value of a t ,
_ cos cos tf 2 sin a  P /cos cos tf\ 8 , 2 sin 4 I P
tt * tt ~T"  , .. ~~~ i j i)an ctj i . .
' cos a, sm 1 " \ cos a, I ' sm 1"
1 /cos cos 8 y /t , t __, , sin' ^ P _^
o /. i/
3 \ cos a i I v ' y sm 1
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
This instrument, being employed in the next latitude problem,
will now be briefly described, and the manner of determining its
constants explained. Its use, as will be seen, is limited to field
work, and it therefore forms no essential part of the equipment of
a permanent observatory.
The instrument consists of a telescope like that of the transit,
mounted at one end of a horizontal axis, counterpoised by a weight
at the other. The telescope turns freely in altitude about this axis,
which is in turn supported by a conical vertical column rising from
the centre of a horizontal graduated circle, the circle resting on a
small frame consisting of three legs whose feet are levelling screws.
The horizontal axis with the telescope attached turns freely in
azimuth about the vertical column, the amount of such motion
being indicated by a vernier sweeping over the horizontal circle.
By this motion the instrument is placed in tbe meridian.
The setting circle is similar to the one described in connection
with the transit. It is rigidly attached to the body of the telescope,
and reads to single minutes of zenith distance. The attached level,
connected with the movable vernier arm of the setting circle, being
intended to measure as well as to indicate differences of inclina
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
91
tion, is of considerable delicacy. The instrument is provided with
ekmp and tangent screws for both motions, also the usual adjusting
screws.
The field of view presents the appearance shown in Figure 20;
sometimes however the number of
vertical wires is increased so that
the instrument may if necessary be
used as a transit. The wires are
all fixed except i k, which can be
moved up or down parallel to it
self, and is called the declination
micrometer wire. The combscale
f g is so cut that one turn of the
micrometer head carries the wire
i k exactly from one tooth to the
next, thus recording the number
of whole revolutions between two
positions of the wire. Hundred ths of a revolution are shown on the
micromotor head by a fixed index. These are called divisions.
(Arrangements for illuminating the wires arc the same as with the
transit.)
Therefore it is seen that if, when the instrument is adjusted to
the meridian, two stars cross the middle wire at different times and
in different places, but yet within the same field of view, we may
find the difference of their meridian zenith distances by bisecting
each in succession by the Movable at the instant of its passing the
Middle wire, noting the difference of micrometer readings, and
multiplying the result by the value in arc of one division of the
micrometer head : or if the attached level shows the telescope to
have altered its angle of elevation between the observations, thus
apparently displacing the second star in the field of view, we may
still correct the micrometer reading provided we know the value in
arc of one division of the level.
It is therefore necessary to determine for each instrument these
two constants.
The Attached Level and Declination Micrometer of the Zenith
Telescope. Since the level is neither detached, nor attached to a
circle reading to seconds, neither of the modes of finding the level
constant given in connection with the transit, is available. The
92 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
same is true of the micrometer constant, since the micrometer wire
is now parallel, not perpendicular, to the apparent path of a star at
its meridian passage. With the zenith telescope the usual method
of finding these two constants is to find the value of a division of
the level in terms of a revolution of the 'micrometer head. Then
after finding the latter (which involves the former) we may find
the actual value of a division of the level in seconds of arc, as will
now be explained. The formulas come at once from the astronom
ical triangle, remembering that ,c the time of a star's elongation
the triangle is rightangled : (*/> = 90).
Direct the telescope to a small, welldefined, distant, terrestrial
object, and set the level so that the two ends of the bubble will give
different readings. Bisect the object with the micrometer wire,
note the reading, also that of each end of the bubble. Move the
telescope and level together by the tangent screw until the bubble
plays near the other end of the tube. Again bisect the mark by the
micrometer wire and note all three readings as before. The mean
of the number of divisions passed over by the two ends of the bub
ble is then the number of divisions passed over by the bubble. The
difference of the micrometer readings is the run of the micrometer.
Dividing the second by the first, we have the value of a division of
the level in terms of a revolution of the micrometer. Take a mean
of several determinations and denote it by d.
We can now find the value of one division of the micrometer;
For reasons stated when treating of the K. A. micrometer, we use a
circumpolar star, and at the instant that its path is perpendicular
to the wire in question. This requires us to take the star at its
elongation. Manifestly the same principles apply to the two cases,
since the principal difference is that the star and wire have each
been apparently shifted 90; the motion of the star with reference
to the wire not having changed. Some changes in detail are how
ever necessary. In the first place, since the motion of the star is
almost wholly in altitude, we cannot as before neglect differences in
refraction between two transits. Again, since the pressure of the
hand in working the micrometer head is in a direction to cause a
possible disturbance of the instrument even though firmly clamped,
we must read the level at every transit, and if any change has oc
curred, correct the micrometer readings accordingly.
As a preliminary, we must determine the time of elongation
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 93
(in order to know when to begin our observations), and the setting
of the instrument, i.e., the azimuth and zenith distance of the star
at the time of elongation. The hour angle is found from
cos P = cot d tan 0,
from which the sidereal time of elongation is given by
T = aP Q E, (135)
in which is the star's apparent R. A. for the instant, arid E is the
error of the chronometer. The plus sign is used for western and
the minus for eastern elongations.
The azimuth is given by
A> ( 13G )
COS v '
and the zenith distance by
sin \p . orv\
cos z . ? . (137)
sin 6 x J
Set the instrument in accordance with these coordinates 20 or
30 minutes before the time of elongation, and as soon as the star
enters the field, shift the telescope if necessary so that it will pass
nearly through the center.
The observations are now conducted in exactly the same man
ner as for the K. A. micrometer, with the addition that each end of
the level bubble is read in connection with each transit.
Then, as before, each observation is compared with the one
made nearest the time of elongation, T , the interval of time
being computed from either
sin i = sin /cos 6, (137J)
or
i = /cos d,
according to the declination of the star. After which we have in
arc (neglecting for the present differences of refraction and level),
94 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
M being the number of micrometer revolutions or divisions be
tween the two positions of the star, and R f the value of one revolu
tion or division.
But if the reading of the level is different at the two observa
tions, manifestly M must be corrected accordingly.
For instance, if the level shows that between the two observa
tions the telescope had moved with the stcr in its diurnal path,
then evidently the micrometer will indicate only a part of the
angular distance between the two positions qf the star, and the
level correction must be added to the micrometer interval. Con
versely, if the telescope has moved against the motion of the star.
This level correction is found as follows : if d is the value of one
division of the level in terms of a revolution of the micrometer,
and L the number of divisions which the level has shifted, then
Ld will be the value (in micrometer revolutions) of the correction
to bo applied to M. The method of finding d has already been
explained.
Hence the value of R' becomes,
" ~ M Ld'
Since, however, refraction affects the two positions of the star un
equally, it is seen that M L d is only the difference of apparent*
zenith distances (i.e., the instrumental difference), while 15 i being
derived directly from the time interval, is the difference of trice
zenith distances. If therefore 15 / be corrected by the difference
of refraction, the numerator Will denote the difference of apparent
zenith distance in arc, and the denominator this same difference in
micrometer revolutions.
Denote by A r the difference of refraction in seconds for 1' of
zenith distance at 2 ; then for 15 i" it may be taken as fa 15 id r,
which is the desired correction. The above formula therefore be
comes, denoting the true value of a revolution by R 9
 = ^_
M L d 60 v '
A r is taken from refraction tables.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 95
The adopted value of R should be a mean of the results from
all the observatipns.
Having now found R, the value in arc of one division of the
level is evidently
D = R d, (139)
since d is the value in micrometer revolutions. Both constants are
therefore determined.
One of the most convenient and accurate modes of employing
formula (138) in practice, is as follows : Suppose the star to be
approaching eastern elongation, and the micrometer readings to
increase as the zenith distance decreases. Let Z Q , M Q , and L be
the zenith distance, micrometer, and level readings at elongation
(all unknown), and Z', M', and L' the corresponding quantities at
the time of any one of the recorded transits. Then remembering
that in (138), 15 i is the true difference of zenith distance!
= Z' Z , M= M Q M', L = L Q L' 9 and reserving the correc^
tion for refraction to be applied finally, we have
Z'Z Q = (M  J/') R + ( L Q  //) R d.
Similarly for another transit,
Z" Z Q = (M Q  J/") R + (L.  Z") R d.,
Subtracting and solving,
^ }
Then Z Z Q having been computed for each transit by
these differences may be taken by pairs for substitution in (140), in
any manner desired. For example, if forty transits have been re
corded, it is usual to pair the first difference with the twentyfirst,
the second with the twentysecond, etc., when if the successive
micrometer readings have been equidistant, the divisors will be
equal, save for the slight level correction. We thus obtain twenty
determinations of R, the mean of which should be corrected for
/? A T
refraction as shown in (138), viz.: by subtracting .
96 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The preceding method of finding these two constants of the
zenith telescope is regarded as the best; but provision is made in
the construction of the instrument for turning the box containing
the wire frame thlcugh an angle of 90. AVhen this is done, the
declination micrometer becomes virtually a K. A. micrometer, and
the value of a revolution may be found as described for that mi
crometer, and then the. box revolved back to its proper place and
clamped. In this case however the result must be in arc. The
level constant must be found as just described.
4. Latitude by Opposite and nearly equal Meridian Zenith Dis
tances. Talcott's Method. See Form 9.
This method depends upon the principle that the astronomical
latitude of a place is equal to the declination of the zenith.
Let z n and z g represent the observed meridian zenith distances
of two stars, the first north and the second south of the zenith ;
r n arid r s the corresponding refractions; and $ n and d a their ap
parent declinations. Then, denoting the latitude,
0=*. + *. + r., (141)
= #n  *n  r n . (142)
From which
%a %n , ^n ^n / A v\
+ +~ (U3) 
Since refraction is a direct function of the zenith distance, this
equation shows that any constant error in the adopted refraction
will bo nearly or wholly eliminated if we select two stars which
culminate at very nearly the same zenith distance, and provided
also that the time between their meridian transits is so short that
the refractive power of the atmosphere cannot be changed appre
ciably in the mean time.
Again, since absolute zenith distances are not required, but only
their difference, if the stars are so nearly equal in altitude that a
telescope directed at one, will, upon being turned around a vertical
axis 180 in azimuth, present the other in its field of view, then
manifestly the difference of their zenith distances may be measured
directly by the declination micrometer, and the use of a graduated
circle (with its errors of graduation, eccentricity, etc.) be entirely
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 97
dispensed with, except for the purpose of a rough finder. The in
strument used in this connection is called a u Zenith Telescope."
Its construction, and application to the end in view, are best learned
from an examination of the instrument itself.
Again, since errors in the decimations will affect the resulting
latitude directly, we should be very careful to employ only the ap
parent declinations for the date.
The following conditions should therefore be fulfilled in select
ing the stars of a pair :
1st. They should culminate not more than 20, or at most 25,
from the zenith.
2d. They should not differ in zenith distance by more than
15', and for very accurate work, by not more than 10'. The field
of view of the telescope is about 30'. The limit assigned prevents
observations too near the edge of the field, and lessens the effect of
an error in the adopted value of a turn of the micrometer head.
This limit also requires a very approximate knowledge of the lati
tude, which may be found with the sextant, or by measuring the
meridian zenith distance of a star by the zenith telescope itself.
3d. They should differ in K. A. by not less than one minute
of time, to allow for reading the level and micrometer, and by not
more than fifteen or twenty minutes, to avoid changes in either the
instrument or the atmosphere.
Since the Ephemoris stars, whose apparent declinations are
given with great accuracy for every ten days, are comparatively few
in number, it becomes necessary, in order to fulfil the above con
ditions, to resort to the more extended star catalogues.
But since in these works only the stars' wean places are given,
and those for the epoch of the catalogue (which fact involves re
duction to apparent places for the date), and moreover since these
mean places have often been inexactly determined, it becomes de
sirable to rest our determination of latitude on the observation of
more than one pair. For example, on the " Wheeler Survey," west
of the 100th meridian, the latitude of a primary station was re
quired to be determined by not less than 35 separate and distinct
pairs of stars, these observations being distributed over five nights.
Preliminary Computations. We should therefore form a list of
all stars not less than 7th magnitude which culminate not more
than 25 from the zenith and within the limits of time over which
98 PRACTICAL AST110NOMY.
we propose to extend our observations, arrange them in the ordei
of the.r R. A., and from this list select our pairs in accordance
with the above conditions, taking care that the time between the
pairs is sufficient to permit the reading of the level and micrometer,
and setting the instrument for the next pair; say at least two
minutes.
A " Programme " must then be prepared for use at the instru
ment, containing the stars arranged in pairs, with the designation
and magnitude of each for recognition when more than one star is
in the field; their R. A., to know when to make ready for the
observation; their declinations, from which are computed their
approximate zenith distances; a statement whether the star is to bo
found north or south of the zenith, and finally the " sotting " of the
instrument for the pair, which is always the mean of the two
zenith distances.
The declinations here used, being simply for the purpose of so
pointing the instrument that the star shall appear in the field,
may be mean declinations for the beginning of the year, which are
found with facility as hereafter indicated. Similarly for the R. A.
For this Programme, see Form 9.
Adjustment of Instrument. The Instrument must next be pre
pared for use. The column is made vertical by the levelling
screws, and the adjustment tested by noting whether the striding
level placed on the horizontal axis will preserve its reading during
a revolution of the instrument 3f>() in azimuth. The horizon tality
of the latter axis is secured by its own adjusting screws, and tested
by the level in the usual way. The focus and vertically of the
wires are adjusted as explained for the transit. The collimation
error should, as far as is mechanically possible, be reduced to zero.
This may be accomplished (fjtprosiiHft/elt/ by the ordinary reversals
upon a terrestrial point distant not less tlv.m 5 or G miles (to
reduce the parallax caused by the distance of the telescope from
the vertical column); or very perfectly by two collimating tele
scopes, as explained for the transit. The instrument is adjusted to
the meridian as explained for the transit. Whei* this is perfected,
one of the movable stops on the horizontal circle is moved up against
one side of the clamp which controls the motion in azimuth, and there
fixed by its own clampscrew. The telescope is then turned 180
around the vertical column and again adjusted to the meridian by
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 99
a circumpolar star; the other stop is then placed against the other
side of the clamp, and fixed. The instrument can now be turned
exactly 180 in azimuth, bringing up against the stops when in the
meridian.
Observations. The circle being set to the mean of the zenith
distances of the two stars of a pair, the bubble of the attached level
is brought as nearly as possible to the middle of its tube, and when
the first star of the pair arrives on the middle transit wire (the in
strument being in the meridian) it is bisected by the declination mi
crometer wire, tho sidereal time noted, and the micrometer and level
read. The telescope is then turned 180 in azimuth, the clamp
bringing up against its stop. The same observations and records
are now made for the second star. The instrument is then reset for
the next pair, and so on. * The time record is not necessary unless
it be found that the instrument has departed from the meridian, or
unless observation on the middle wire has been prevented by
clouds, and it becomes desirable to observe on a side wire rather
than lose the star. In these cases the hour angle is necessary to
obtain the "reduction to the meridian/'
The observations are recorded on Form 9 a. In the column of
remarks should be noted any failure to observe on middle wire,
weather, and any circumstance which might affect the reliability of
the observations.
Reduction of Observations. By referring to Eq. (143) the gen
eral nature of the reduction will be evident. The principal term
in the value of is d n f 8 8 , which, as before stated, must be found
for the date. Since z s z n has been measured entirely by the mi
crometer and level, this term involves two corrections to 8 n + d t ;
r a r n involves another, and the very exceptional case of observa
tion on a side wire involves another.
1st. The reduction from mean declination of the epoch of the
catalogue to apparent declination of the date. Let us take the
case of the B. A. C. (British Association Catalogue).
The star's mean place is first brought up to the beginning of
the current year*by the formula
100 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
In which d" = mean north polar distance as giren in catalogue,
p' = annual precession in N. P. distance, s' = secular variation in
same, /*' = annual propdr motion in N. P. distance (all given in
catalogue for each star), y = number of years from epoch of c&ta
logue to beginning of current year, and d' n = the mean N. P. dis
tance at the latter instant. To this, the corrections for precession,
proper motion, nutation, and aberration, since the beginning of the
year, are applied by the formula
d = d'" + TV' + Ac' + Bd' + Ca'  DV,
in which r = fractional part of year already elapsM at date, given
011 pp. 285292, Epliemeris; A, B, G, D, are the Besselian Star
Numbers, given on pp. 281284 Ephomcris for each day; ', //, c',
d', are star constants, whose logarithms are given in the catalogue;
and d = star's apparent N. P. distance at date. Then d = 00 d.
The quantities a', b', c' 9 d' 9 are not strictly constant; indeed
many of their values have changed perceptibly since 1850, the
epoch of B. A. 0. If it be desired to obviate this slight error, it
may be done by recomputing them by formulas derived from
Physical Astronomy, or, in part, by using a later catalogue. In
this connection a work prepared under the "Wheeler Survey/'
entitled "Catalogue of Mean Declinations of 2018 Stars, Jan. 1,
1875," will be found most convenient, embracing stars between 10
and 70 N". Dec., and therefore applicable to the whole area of the
IT. S. exclusive of Alaska.
With this catalogue, the reductions are made directly in decli
nation, not N". P. distance, and by the formulas,
d=d' + rp' + Aa' + BV + Gc' + Dd',
in which everything relates to declination.
Exactly analogous formulas hold for reduction in "R. A.
ft. [^ R
2d. The micrometer and level corrections to J! ~ ,
vz.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 101
Let us suppose that, with the telescope set at a given inclina
tion, the micrometer readings are greater as the body viewed is
nearer the zenith ; and in the first instance, that the inclination as
shown by the attached level is not changed when the instrument is
turned 180 in azimuth.
Then ~~r^ will be given wholly by the micrometer, and be
/v
. , m s m n m n m a . , . n
either * R, or  R, in which w a and m* are the mi
^ /w
crometer readings on the south and north stars respectively, and R
the value in arc of a division of the micrometer head. Since the
readings increase as the zenith distance decreases, it is manifest
vtii tn
that  4  " R is the one of the two expressions which will repre
iy _ ty
sent *  with its proper sign.
But as a rule the upright column will not be truly vertical, and
therefore the inclination of the optical axis of the telescope will
change slightly due to the necessary revolution between the obser
vations of the stars of a pair, the fact being indicated by a different
reading of the level. In this case, the difference of micrometer read
ings will not be strictly the difference of zenith distance as before,
but will be that difference the amount the telescope has moved.
The micrometer readings therefore require correction before they
z z
can give ,* . Since it is immaterial which star of the pair is
/v
observed first, let us suppose it to be the southern, and let l n arid l t
be the readings of the ends of the bubble. Then  will be the
&
reading of the level, it being graduated from the center toward
each end. Now if, on turning to the north, the level shows that
the angle of elevation of the telescope has increased, the microme
ter reading on the northern star will be too small, by just the
amount corresponding to the motion of the telescope in altitude;
and this whether the star be higher or lower than the southern
star. Consequently m n must be increased to compensate* If V n
and V 9 be the reading of the present north and south ends of the
102 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
V V
bubble, then the bubble reading will be 2= * , the change of
A
level, in level divisions, will be
+ , and in arc + ^ ~ <* + ** D.
Since, upon turning to the north, the angle of elevation of the tele
scope was supposed to increase,.this quantity is positive; and being
the angular change of elevation, it is the correction to be applied
to m n .
If the telescope diminished its elevation on being turned to the
north, it would be necessary to diminish m n by the same amount.
But in this case the above correction is obviously negative, and the
result will be obtained by still adding it algebraically.
The correction to will be half the above amount; hence in
fy
all cases we have the rule. Subtract the sum of the south readings
from the sum of the north. Onefourth the difference multiplied
by the value of oce division of the level, will be the level correction.
The true difference of observed zenith distances of the two stars,
is therefore
p ffl*. , (In + I'n)  fc+A) n
K  5  1   V.
"
3d. The correction for refraction, or  2   w . Since the stars
/&
are at so small and so nearly equal zenith distances, differences of
actual refractions will be practically equal to differences of mean
refractions (Bar. 30 in., F. 50), which latter may therefore be substi
dr
tuted for r a r n . If r denote the change in mean refraction for a
az
difference of 1' in zenith distance, then for z a z n (expressed in
z ~ z dr
seconds) it will t )e ~j^r jl y ^ ence we ma y
r 9 r n _ z a  z n dr^
2 ~* 60 dn
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE.
103
To determine ,, we have for the equation of mean refraction
dz l
Young, p. 64),
Differentiating,
r = a tan z.
dr , . .. ,v tf sin 1'
T (for 1') =  t ,
^ v ' cos 8 z
a being taken from refraction tables, and z representing the mean
of the zenith distances of the pair. The following table of values
:)f  is given, in which we may interpolate at pleasure.
dz
z
dr
dz
0.0168"
5
0.0160"
10
0.0173"
15
0.0180"
20
0.0190"
25
0.0205"
z* z.
The principal term in ,  is   R. Hence we may write
m n
r 6(T
* dr
'~dz'
and the correction for refraction will have the same sign as the
micrometer correction.
Hence the rule: Multiply the micrometer correction in minutes
dr
by the tabular value of y , and add the result algebraically to tho
u/z
other corrections.
4th. The correction to the zenith distance when the observation
has not been made in the meridian; i.e., when not made on the
middle vertical wire.
This will be an exceptional correction, but one which must oc
casionally be made.
104 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
If a piano bo passed through the middle horizontal wire and the
optical centre of the objective, it will cut from the celestial sphere
a great circle; and the zenith distance of a star anywhere on this
circle will, as measured by this fixed position of the instrument, be
the inclination of the plane to the vertical.
Therefore, if the zenith distance of a star between the zenith
and equinoctial le measured ly an instrument which moves only
in the meridian 9 i& will have its greatest value when on the me
ridian. For a star which crosses any other part of the meridian,
the ordinary rule as to relative magnitude applies.
But whatever the position of the star, the numerical value of
this " reduction to the meridian," due to an observation on a side
wire, is different from that heretofore discussed, where the instru
ment was in the vertical plane of the star; being in this case
J (15 P)* sin 1" sin 2 tf ; P being the hour angle. For the deduc
tion of this expression, see *%* following. For a star below the equi
noctial or below the pole sin 2 6 would be negative; hence from the
rule as to relative magnitudes above given, it is seen that if in using
the zenith telescope, a star south of the zenith be observed on a side
wire, the above correction must be added algebraically to the ob
served to obtain the meridian zenith distance; and north of the
zenith it must be subtracted algebraically.
By inspecting the term** ~* n , we see that in any case one half
this reduction, or
i (15 PY sin 1" sin 2 S = [6.1347] P a sin 2 tf,
is to be added to the deduced latitude, or to the sum of the other
corrections in order to obtain the latitude. The hour angle P in
seconds of time is known from P = t f E a, t being the chro
nometer time of observation, E the error, and a the star's K. A.
We therefore have the following complete formula for the latitude
 R * , D . .
22 4
(144)
^ + [61347] f sin 2 tf. + [6.1347] P" sin 2 *.
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 106
For the reduction see Form 9. The results of all the pairs may
be discussed by Least Squares.
This method, although extremely simple in theory, involves
considerable labor. It has however been employed almost exclus
ively on the Coast and other important Government surveys, with
results which compare favorably with those obtained by the first
class instruments of a fixed observatory.
 To Determine the Reduction to the Meridian for an Instru
ment in the Meridian. Let S Fig. 21 be the place of the star when
on a side wire. Then CSS" will be
the projection of the great circle cut
from the celestial sphere by the plane
of the middle horizontal wire and the
optical center of the objective, Z S"
will be the recorded zenith distance
= z'. Let 8 S' be an arc of the star's
diurnal path, preserving always the Fia 21
same distance from the equator.
Then Z S' will be tho true meridian zenith distance = z, , and
E S' = d. Represent E S" by d'.
The Reduction to the Meridian, 8' S", being denoted by x, we
have
z,=z' + x, and tf = 3'  x. ' (a)
Let it now be required to develop x into a series arranged according
to the ascending powers of sin 9 P, as before.
The triangle PSS", right angled at S", gives
tan 6 = cos P tan <*' = tan 6' 2 tan d' sin 3 1 P. (b)
Replacing for brevity sin* P by y,
tan S = tan d'  2 y tan tf', (c)
tan d = tan (6' 2) = a , n , ^7^
1 ~r~ tan o tan *c
= tan 6' 2 y tan #%
tan tf' tan x = tan tf' 2 y tan *' + tan 2 d' tana;
2 y tan a d' tan $. (d)
106 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Let
a? = ^y + J9y f +eto. (e)
be the undetermined development desired. If the value of tan x
derived from this equation be substituted in (d), the resulting
equation will be identical.
From Trigonometry,
x 3
tan # = # +  + etc.,
o
and from this and (e),
 tan x = Ay{fiy* + etc.
Substituting in (d), and transposing,
Ay+By*Z y tan tf'+tan 2 d' (Ay+y*)2 tan 9 d'(Ay+By*)y=Q.
From the principles of identical equations,
^  2 tan d' + A tan q tf' = 0.
A 2 tan tf' sin tf' , .
4 = r yf, = 2  ^7 cos' 5' = sin 2 d'.
1 + tau a <r cos o'
B + B tan 3 6' 2 A tan 2 tf' = 0. = 2 sin' 6' sin 2 <?'.
Therefore, expressing x in seconds of arc, from (e),
sin 2 tf f Ssin 4 j P sin 2 d' sin a tf '
7 '
' 7
 sinT 7 sin
Omitting the last term as insensible, expressing P in seconds of
time, and remembering that since P is very small,
sin 2  = f^) 8 si' !"> we have a; = J (15 P) 2 sin 1" sin 2 tf'.
In computing this term, d rntiy be substituted for <?'.
J* To Determine the Probable Error of the Final Result.
From equation (143) it is seen that the probable error of a lati
tude deduced from a single pair of stars will be composed of two
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 107
parts : 1st, the probable error of the half sum of the declinations
derived from the catalogue used; 3d, the probable error of the half
difference of the measured zenith distances, which may be called
the error of observation.
Consider first a single pair of stars observed once. Let 11^ de
note the probable error of the deduced latitude, R' that of the half
sum of the declinations, and R" that of observation, all unknown
as yet. Then, Johnson,* Art. 89,
R, = VTr 4 R m , (a)
and for this pair observed n times, i.e., on n nights,
(ft)
If now we employ m different pairs,
* "~*
(c)
v '
in which n 9 denotes, as before, the total number of observations.
It may be observed at this point, that as shown by (c), if a skilled
observer bo provided with a catalogue not of the first order of ex
cellence, (R f large, R" small), it is better to employ many pairs,
rather than repeat observations on a few pairs; thus augmenting
both m and n, instead of n alone.
To determine R", form the differences between the mean of all
the latitudes resulting from the first pair and the separate latitudes
from that pair.
The residuals denoted by v 9 9 v t ", ?>/", etc., will manifestly be
free from any effect of error in the half sum of the declinations
employed. Do the same with the results from each of the other
pairs, giving v/, v a "  v/, v,"  etc.,
Then, Johnson, Art. 138,
R" = 0.6745 V =~. (d)
n' m v '
* Joliuson's Theory of Errors and Method of Least Squares," 1890.
108 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The value of R" should not exceed about 0".8, and cannot be
expected to fall below 0".3. On the Coast Survey, its value has
usually been slightly less than 0".5.
To determine II' 9 we have from (6)
7?" a
B>* = R?* t (e)
in which it must be remembered that R t is the probable error of
the latitude as deduced from a single pair of stars observed n times.
Select several (m f ) pairs, which are observed on an equal number
of nights in order that the results from each pair may be of equal
weight. Then, as before, form the differences between the mean
of the n results for each pair and the mean of these m' means.
Then the mean value of R t will be, Johnson, Art. 73,
R t = 0.6745
i/ "'
v m > _ r
Substituting this value of R t together with that of n in (e), we
have R', and the probable error of the final result is given by (c),
as before seen.
If R' be determined from a great number of stars taken from a
single catalogue, it may be considered as constant for that cata
logue. With the one employed on the Lake Survey, R' usually fell
between 0".53 and 0".60.
If it be desired to combine the mean results from each pair ac
cording to their weights in order to obtain the weighted mean
latitude, we have from (b), (since the weight of an. observation is
proportional to the reciprocal of the square of the probable error,)
_ n
P "~ nlt' n + W*
p denoting the weight of the mean result from a pair observed n
times.
The weighted mean latitude will be, Johnson, Art. 66,
THE ZENITH TELESCOPE. 109
with a probable error, Johnson, Art. 72,
R = 0.6745
J 2(P') .
Y (m  1) i'/
The errors which give rise to R' are those pertaining to the
catalogue or catalogues used.
Those giving rise to R" are due to various causes, viz. : imper
fect bisection of one or both stars due to personal bias or unsteadi
ness of the stars, anomalous refraction, errors in determining the
value of a division of the micrometer and level, changes in temper
ature affecting the instrument between the two observations of a
pair, etc.
If any of the residuals (v) are unusually large, they should bo
examined by Peirce's Criterion bofore rejection.
Finally it must be remembered that in this, as in all other
methods here given, the final result (supposed free from error) is
the astronomical latitude, and will differ from the geodetic or geo
graphical latitude by any abnormal deflection of the plumbline
which may exist at the station.
5. Latitude by Polaris off the Meridian. See Form 10. This
method depends upon the fact that the astronomical latitude of a
place is equal to the altitude of the elevated pole.
This latter is obtained by measuring the altitude of Polaris at a
given instant, and from the data thus obtained, together with the
star's polar distance, passing to the altitude of the pole.
To explain this transformation :
Let P = star's hour angle, measured from the upper meridian.
a = altitude of star at instant P, corrected for refraction.
d = polar distance of star at instant P.
= latitude of place. 
Then from the Z P 8 triangle we have
sin a = sin cos d f cos sin d cos P. (145)
This equation which applies to any star may be solved directly;
but with a circumpolar star it is much simpler to take advantage
of its small polar distance, and obtain a development of in terms
110 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of the ascending powers of d, in which we may neglect those terms
which can be shown to be unimportant.
Now if we let x the difference in altitude between Polaris at
the time of observation and the pole, we shall have
= (a #), sin = sin (a x), cos = cos (a #),
and from (145),
1 = cos x (cos d + sin d cot a cos P) ( .
sin x (cos d cot a sin d cos P). * '
Moreover, it is evident that if we can obtain the development of
x in terms of the ascending powers of d y we will have the develop
ment of in the same terms, from a x.
This is the end to be attained. Therefore let
x = A d + B d* + Cd 3 + etc., (147)
be the undetermined development desired, in which A, B, C, etc.,
are to have such constant values, that the series, when it is con
vergent, shall give the true value of x, whatever may be the value
of d.
It is manifest, then, that if this assumed value of x be substi
tuted in (146), the resulting equation must be satisfied by every
value of d which renders (147) convergent; that is, the resulting
equation must be identical; otherwise (147) could not be true.
With a view, therefore, to this substitution, let it be noted that
by the Calculus we have
t X * , X * L / X
cos a? = 1  + gj etc., (m)
X* X*
sinx=x  +  etc., (n)
and hence from (147),
cos x = 1  ^  A B d* + etc., (148)
sin x = A d + B d 9 + c  ~ tf 3 + etc. (149)
LATITUDE ST POLABI8.
Ill
Also,
and
cos d  1  +  etc.,
d' d"

(150)
(151)
Now d is a very small angle; at present about 1 16', or 0.0221
Indians; x can never be greater than d, and in the general case
\vill be less. Under these circumstances the above series becomes
very convergent, and the sum of a few terms will represent with
great accuracy the sum of the series. It is for this reason that the
problem under discussion is applicable only to close circurnpolar
stars, and therefore we take advantage of the small polardistance
of Polaris,
Substituting (148), (149), (150), and (151), in (146), we have,
rejecting terms involving the 4th and higher powers of d y
A cot a
+ B cos P
cos P cot a
6
A* cos P cot ft
^1^
A cos P
1? cot a
cos P cot a'
A*
d'+ 
2
^4 cot a
1 <
~2
This equation being identical, the algebraic sum of the coeffi
cients of each power of d must be separately equal to zero.
Hence we have by solution,
A = cos P.
sin a P .
B = 5 tan a.
cos P sin 2 P
112 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Therefore, from (147),
x dcosP id'sin'Ptan a + $ d* cos P sin' P.
From (m) and (w), (150) and (151), it is seen that # and d are
expressed in radians. Expressing them in seconds of arc,
x d cosPi d* sin 8 P tan a sin 1"+ d 3 cos JP sin'P sin 7 1", etc.,
which is the required development.
Therefore,
= a d cos P + J d* sin 1" sin a P tan a
 J d' sin 2 1" cos P sin 9 /> [ etc. (152)
The last three terms are in seconds.
Hence we have the general rule:
Take a series of altitudes of Polaris at any convenient time.
Note the corresponding instants by a chronometer, preferably
sidereal, whose error is well determined. Correct each observed
altitude for instrumental errors and refraction. Determine each
hour angle by P = sidereal time R. A.
Take from the Ephemcris the star's polar distance at the time,
being careful to use pp. 302313, where also the R. A. required
above will be found.
Substitute each set of values in Equation (152), and reduce each
set separately. The mean of the resulting values of is the one
adopted. See Form 10.
As before stated, the method is applicable only to close circum
polar stars. Polaris is selected since it is the nearest bright star to
the pole, a fact which is of importance in sextant observations.
On the last page of the Ephemeris are given tabular values of
the correction x. They are however only approximate; and the
complete solution, as given above, consumes but very little more
time.
This is a very convenient method of determining latitude; our
only restriction being that, with a sextant, the observations must
be made at night. With the " Altazimuth " instrument, the ob
servations may be made for some time before dark.
LATITUDE BY POLARIS. 113
The last term in (152) is very small. In order to ascertain
whether it is of any practical value, let us determine its maximum
numerical value. Denoting the term by z, and its constant factors
by c, we have
z = c cos P sin a P.
Eeplacing sin* P by 1 cos 2 P, and differentiating twice, we have,
after reduction,
~, = 2 c sin P  3 c sin 3 P.
dP
~ = 2 ecosP  9 esin' PcosP.
To obtain the maximum,
2 c sin P  3 c sin 3 P = 0.
From the roots of this we have
sin P = 0, sin P = + V f , sin P =  VJ,
the last two of which correspond to equal numerical maxima.
Hence the maximum value of the term is given when sm 3 P = J,
or when z = d* sin 9 1"  /f For d = 1 16', this gives * = 0".29
The maximum error committed by the omission of this term
will therefore be about 0".3. Evidently its retention when the
observations have been made with a sextant would be superfluous.
* With sin P + /# we may have cosP= >/, and similarly for
sinP = l/i". By substituting in the second differential coefficient we see
that I/T with + 4/^ correspond to equal maxima, while i/f with /
correspond to equal minima. With sin P = 0, we may have cos P = 1 , the
former of which corresponds to a minimum and the latter to an equal maxi
mum; viz., zero. Hence zero is a lesser and not the greatest maximum value
of z ; the latter, with which only we are concerned, being, from fl5'2), d 3 sin 4
Fig. 22 gives the curve of values of z with P as the abscissae, showing
the inferior maximum at P=180, and the greatest maxima (numerical) at
about 55, 125, 235 C , and 305.
114 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The value of log sin 1", not given in ordinary tables, is
4.685557510.
S90 125 180 235
FIG. 22.
Any mistake as to the value of P will manifestly produce its
greatest effect when the star is moving wholly in altitude. Hence
if the chronometer error be not well determined, the times of
elongation are the least advantageous for observation.
Since cos (360 P) = cos P 9 we may measure P from the up
per meridian to 180 [neither direction.
6. Latitude by Equal Altitudes of Two Stars. See Form 11.
By this method the latitude is found from the declinations and hour
angles of two stars; the hour angles being subject to the condition
that they shall correspond to equal altitudes of the stars.
Let and #' = the correct sidereal times of the observations.
a and a' = the apparent right ascensions of the stars.
d and 6' the apparent declinations of the stars.
P and P' = the apparent hour angles of the stars.
a = the common altitude.
= the required latitude.
P and P' are given from
P 6 a P' fl' /v'
L I/ "~ * CC JL I/ '"" UL
From the Z P S triangle we have
sin a = sin sin 6 + cos cos tf cos P.
sin a = sin sin d f f cos cos $' QOS P'.
Subtracting the first from the second and dividing by cos 0,
tan (sin d' sin $) = cos d cos P cos 6' cos P'. (153)
The value of tan might be derived at once from this equa
tion, since it is the only unknown quantity entering it. The form
LATITUDE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES. 116
is, however, unsuited to logarithmic computation. In order to ob
tain a more convenient form, observe that the second member may
be written
/ cos 6 cos P cos $' cos P'\ /cos d cos P cos 6' cos P'\
\ 2 2 1 + \ 2 8 J'
Adding to the first parenthesis
/ cos 6 cos P' cs 6' cos
' cos P\
Z ']'
and subtracting the same from the second, we have, after factoring,
tan (sin d' sin 6) = \ (cos d cos 6') (cos P + cos P')
+ I (cos d + cos d') (cos P  cos P').
Solving with reference to tan 0, and reducing by Formulas 16, 17,
and 18, Page 4, Book of Formulas,
tan = tan I (d' + d) cos (P' + P) cos J (P'  P)
+ cot (d'  d) sin 4 (P' + P) sin (P'  P).
(154)
The solution may be made even more simple by the use of two
auxiliary quantities, m and M 9 such that
m cos M = cos I (P'  P) tan ) (*' + d). (155)
m sin M = sin J (P'  P) cot J ('  d) (156)
Then
tan = m cos [ ( P' + P)  J/]. (157)
Equations (155) and (156) give m and J/, and (157) gives 0, all
in the simplest manner.
For example, to find M, divide (156) by (155), and we obtain
tan M = tan (P'  P) cot (d'  tf) co
This admits of easy logarithmic solution.
The value of m follows from either (155) or (156), and that of
from (157), both by logarithms.
116 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.*
The value of a does not enter; hence the resulting latitude will
be entirely free from instrumental errors, those of graduation, ec
centricity, and index error, and its accuracy will depend only upon
the skill of the observer, and the accuracy of our assumed chronom.
eter error and rate. Ephemeris stars should be chosen if possible, for
the sake of accuracy in declinations, and their K. A. should permit
the observations to be made with so short an interval that the re
fractive power of the atmosphere can not have changed materially
in the mean time. The value of refraction is not required; it is
only necessary that it remain practically constant.
Differentiating (153) with reference to 0, /% and P', solving,
reducing by
cos 6' sin P 9 cos a sin A',
and
sin d' = sin sin a \ cos cos a cos A',
we have, since a is the same for both stars,
7 , r sin A' 7 . , sin A 7 _
d = cos r . d P 9 cos d P y
cos A cos A cos A cos A
from which it is seen that any error in the time or in the assumed
chronometer correction will have least effect on the resulting latitude
when the two stars reach the common altitude at about equal dis
tances north and south of the primevertical, the nearer to the
meridian the better.
When several observations with the sextant are taken in succes
sion on each star, it is better to reduce separately the pair corre
sponding to each altitude.
LONGITUDE.
The difference of Astronomical Longitude between two places is
the spherical angle at the celestial pole included between their re
spective meridians. By the principles of Spherical Geometry, the
measure of this angle is the arc of the equinoctial intercepted by its
sides; or it is the same portion of 360 that this arc is of the whole
great circle.
But since the rotation of the earth upon its axis is perfectly
uniform, the time occupied by a star on the equinoctial in passing
LONGITUDE. 117
from one meridian to another, is the same portion of the time re
quired for a complete circuit that the angle between the meridians
is of 360, or, that the intercepted arc is of the whole great circle.
Moreover, all stars whatever their position occupy equal times in
passing from one meridian to another due to the fact that all points
on a given meridian have a constant angular velocity.
The same facts apply also to the case of a body which, like the
mean sun, has a proper motion, provided that motion be uniform
and in the plane of, or parallel to, the equinoctial.
Hence it is that Longitude is usually expressed in time; and in
stating the difference of longitude between two places in time, it is
immaterial whether we employ sidereal or mean solar time : for the
number of mean solar time units required for the mean sun to pass
from one meridian to another, is exactly equal to the number of
sidereal time units required for a star to pass between the meridians.
The astronomical problem of longitude consists, therefore, in
determining the difference of local times, either sidereal or mean
solar, which exist on two meridians at the same absolute instant.
Since there is no natural origin of longitudes or circle of refer
ence as there is in case of latitude, one may be chosen arbitrarily,
and which is then called the " first " or " prime meridian." Differ
ent nations have made different selections: but the one most com
monly used throughout the world is the upper meridian of Green
wich, England, although in the United States frequent reference is
made to the meridian of Washington.
The astronomical may differ slightly from the geodetic or geo
graphical longitude, for reasons given under the head of latitude.
In the following pages, only the former is referred to; it i$
usually found from the difference of time existing on the two
meridians at the instant of occurrence of some event, either celes
tial or terrestrial. Up to about the year 1500 A.D., the only method
available was the observation of Lunar Eclipses. But with the
publication of Ephemcrides and the introduction of improved
astronomical instruments, other and better methods have superseded
this one, of which the two most accurate and most generally used
are the " Method by Portable Chronometers," and the " Method by
Electric Telegraph." Longitude may also be found from " Lunar
Culminations " and " Lunar Distances," in cases when other modes
are not available.
118 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
1. By Portable Chronometers. Let A and B denote the two sta
tions the difference of whose longitude is required. Let the chron
ometer error (E) be accurately determined for the chronometer time
T, at one of the stations, say A ; also its daily rate (r).
Transport the chronometer to B, and let its error (E f ) on local
time be there accurately determined for the chronometer time T.
Let i denote the interval in chronometer days between 2 T and T f .
Then, if r has remained constant during the journey, the true
local time at A corresponding to the chronometer time T' will be,
T' + E+ir.
The true time at B at the same instant is, T' + E 9 .
Their difference = difference of Longitude is
K^E+irE'. (158)
Thus the difference of Longitude is expressed as the difference
between the simultaneous errors of the same chronometer upon the
local times of the two meridians, and the absolute indications of
the chronometer do not enter except in so far as they may be re
quired in determining i.
The rule as to signs of E and r, heretofore given, must be ob
served. If the result be positive, the second station is west of the
first; if negative, east.
This method is used almost exclusively at sea, except in voyages
of several weeks, the chronometer error on Greenwich time, and its
rate, being well determined at a port whose longitude is known.
Time observations are then made with a sextant whenever desired
during the voyage, and the longitude found as above. The same
plan may evidently be followed in expeditions on land, although ex
treme accuracy cannot be obtained since a chronometer's " travel
ing 1 ' rate " is seldom exactly the same as when at rest.
In the above discussion, the rate was found only at the initial
station. If the rate be determined again upon reaching the final
station, and be found to have changed to r', then it will be better to
r \ r *
employ in the above equation  instead of r. To redetermine
&
the longitude of any intermediate station in accordance with this
r' r
additional data, we have x = : = daily change in rate; and
LONGITUDE. 119
the accumulated error at any station, reached n days after leaving A 9
would be E + Ir f #^J n 9 the quantity in parenthesis being the
rate at the middle instant.
The above method is slightly inaccurate, since we have assumed
that the chronometer rate as determined at one of the extreme
stations (or both, if we apply the correction just explained), is its
rate while en route. This is not as a rule strictly correct.
Therefore, when the difference of longitude between two places
is required to be found with great precision, " Chronometric Expe
ditions" between the points are organized and conducted in such a
manner as to determine this traveling rate.
As before,
let E = chron. error on local time at A at chron. time T.
That is, the error on local time is dotorminod at the first station for
the time of departure, then at the second station for the time of ar
rival; again at the second station for the time of departure, and
finally at the first station for the time of arrival.
Then the entire change of error is E 999 E. ,But of this
E' 9 E 9 accumulated while the chronometer was at rest at the
second station. The entire time consumed was T"'T. But of
this T ff T 9 was not spent in traveling. Therefore, the traveling
rate, if it be assumed to be constant, will be
f (T tt9 _ T\ _ (T 99 _ T 9 \
This, then, is the rate to be employed in Eq. (158) instead of the
stationary rate there used.
If the rate has not been constant, but, as is often the case, uni
formly increasing or decreasing, the above value of r is the average
rate for the whole traveling time of the two trips, whereas for use
in Eq. (158), we require the average rate during the trip from A to
B. This latter average will give & perfectly correct result provided
the rate change uniformly. If the rate has been increasing, then r
120 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
in Eq. (159) will be too large numerically, by some quantity as x.
Hence Eq. (158) becomes
\ = H + i(rx)E' 9 (160)
in which r is found by (159). In order to eliminate x, let the
chronometer be transported from B to A, and return; i.e., taire B
instead of A as the initial point of a second journey. This is best
accomplished by utilizing the return trip of the journey A B A, as
the first trip of the journey B A B.
Then the new average rate r 9 having been found as before, it
will, if the trips and the interval of rest have been practically equal
to those of the first journey, exceed the value required, by the same
quantity, x 9 due to the uniformity in the rate's change. Hence for
this journey Eq. (158) becomes,
A = E'"  [t (r'  a) + E"]. (161)
In the mean of (160) and (161), x disappears, giving,
Hence, if our time observations arc accurate, and the traveling
rate constant, the difference of longitude between A and B may be
determined by transporting the chronometer from A to B, and re
turn. Or, if the rate be uniformly increasing or decreasing, the
difference of longitude will be found by transporting the chro
nometer from A to B, and return, then back tc B\ thus making
three trips for the complete determination.
In a complete " Chronometric Expedition/' however, many
chronometers, sometimes 60 or 70, are used, to guard against acci
dental errors; and they are transported to and fro many times. As
an example, in one determination of the longitude of Cambridge,
Mass., with reference to Greenwich, 44 chronometers were employed
and during the progress of the whole expedition, more than 400
exchanges of chronometers were made.
They are rated by comparison with the standard observatory
clocks at each station, which are in turn regulated by very elabo
rately reduced observations on, as near as possible, the same stars.
LONGITUDE. . 121
Conducted as above described, " Chronomctric Expeditions M
give exceedingly accurate results, especially if corrections be made
for changes in temperature during the journeys.
2. Longitude by the Electric Telegraph. See Form 12. This
method consists, in outline, in comparing the times which exist
simultaneously on two meridians, by moans of telegraphic signals.
These signals are simply momentary " breaks " in the electric cir
cuit connecting the stations, the instants of sending and receiving
which are registered upon a chronograph at each station. Each
chronograph is in circuit with a chronometer winch, by breaking
the circuit at regular intervals, gives a time scale upon the chrono
graph sheet, from which the instants of sending and receiving are
read off with great precision.
Suppose a signal to be made at the eastern station (A) at the
time T by the clock at A, which signal is registered at the western
station (B) at the time T' by the clock at JJ.
Then if E and E ' are the respective clock errors, each on its
own local time; and if the signals were recorded instantly at B,
then the difference of longitude would bo (T + E)  (T ' + E').
But it has been found in practice that there is always a loss of time
in transmitting electric signals. Therefore in the above expression
( T' + E') does not correspond to the instant of sending the signal,
but to a somewhat later instant. It is therefore too largo, the entire
expression is too small, and must be corrected by just the loss of
time referred to. This is usually termed the " .Retardation of Sig
nals;" and if it bo denoted by x, the true, difference of longitude
will be (T+JS)  (T' + E') +x = A/ + x = A. But x is un
known, and must therefore be eliminated.
In order to do this, let a signal be sent from the wen/em station
at the time T" which is recorded at the eastern at the time 7""i
Then if E" and E 1 " are the new clock errors, the true difference
of longitude will be
(T'" + E'")  (T" + E"}  x = V  x = A.
By addition, x disappears, and if A denote the longitude, we will
have
A' + A"
/t
122
PRACTICAL ASTMONOMY.
Or, in full, assuming that the errors do not change in the interval
between signals,
 T")
T', 7", and T 7 "' are given by the chronograph sheets;
E' must be determined with extreme accuracy, since incor
rect values will affect the resulting longitude directly.
Having established telegraphic communications between the
two observatories (field or permanent), usually by a simple loop in
an existing line, preliminaries as to number of signals, time of
sending them, intervals, calls, precedence in sending, etc., are
settled. At about nightfall messages are exchanged as to the suita
bility of the night for observations at the two stations. If suitable
at both, each observer makes a scries of star observations with the
transit to find his chronometer error. The electric apparatus for
this purpose, consisting of two or three galvanic cells, a breakcir
cuit key, chronograph, and breakcircuit chronometer, is arranged
as shown in Eig. 23, the chronometer being placed in a separate
FIG. 23.
circuit with a single cell, connected with the principal circuit by a
relay, to avoid the effects of too strong a current on its mechanism.
The chronometer breaks the circuit A, releasing the armature of the
chronometer relay, which therefore breaks circuit B at b. This re
leases the armature of the chronograph magnet to which is attached
a pen, thus registering on the chronograph the beats of the chro
nometer. Circuit B may also be broken with the observing key,
thus recording the transits of stars also on the chronograph. At
least ten welldetermined Ephemeris stars should be used three
equatorial and tv/o circumpolar for each position of the transit.
LONGITUDE.
123
Then as the time agreed upon for the exchange of signals ap
proaches, the local circuit should be connected as shown in Pig. 24,
C, chronometer relay;
Jf, chronograph magnet;
JC, observing key;
Fio. 24.
S, sounder;
, L, main line;
K', breakcircuit key;
J), relay;
#, galvanometer;
7i', rheostat.
by a relay to the main line, which is worked by its own permanent
batteries, and in which there is also a breakcircuit key. The con
nections are the same at both stations. By this arrangement it is
seen that each chronograph will receive the timerecord of its own
chronometer; and also the record of any signals sent over the main
line in either direction.
Neither chronograph receives the record of the other's chro
nometer. Thou at the time agreed upon, warning is sent by the
station having precedence, and the signals follow according to any
prearranged system. Notice being given of their completion, the
second station signals in the same manner.
As an example of a system, let the breakcircuit key in the main
line be pressed for 2 or 3 seconds once in about ten seconds, but
at irregular intervals: this being continued for five minutes will
give 31 arbitrary signals from each station.
Each chronometer sheet when marked with the date, one or
more references to actual chronometer time, and the error of
chronometer, as soon as found, will, in connection with the sheet
from the other station, afford the obvious means of finding all the
quantities in Eq. (163) from which the longitude is computed.
The sheets may be compared by telegraph, if desired.
The work of a single night is then completed by transit observa
tions upon at least ten more stars under the same conditions as
124
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
before, the entire series of twenty being so reduced as to give the
chronometer error at the middle of the interval occupied in ex
changing signals. The mode of making this reduction will be
explained hereafter.
The preceding is called the method by " Arbitrary Signals," and
is the one now usually ^mployed. Sometimes however the method
by " Chronometer Signals " is used, which will be readily unfler
stood by reference to Fig. 25, the connections being the same at
both stations.
. 4
0,0,=
FIG. 25.
In this case it is seen that each chronometer, although in local
Circuit, graduates each chronograph, upon which we therefore have
a direct comparison of the two timepieces.
This method is subject to the inconvenience and possible inac
curacies in reading which may occur due to a close but not perfect
coincidence in beats, unless special precautions are taken.
The arrangement of the galvanometer and rheostat, as shown in
both figures (taken from the Coast Survey Report for 1880), in
sures the equality of the currents passing through the relays at the
two stations, which point should be ascertained by exchange of
telegraphic messages; therefore after the relays are properly ad
justed they will be demagnetized by the signals with equal rapidity,
and constant errors in this respect be avoided.
The final adopted value of the longitude should depend upon
the results of at least five or six nights; outstanding errors in the
electrical apparatus being nearly eliminated by an exchange between
the two stations when the work is half completed.
" Longitude by the Electric Telegraph " had its origin in the
LONGITUDE. 125
TL S. Coast Survey, and has since been employed considerably in
Europe. As at first employed it consisted virtually in telegraphing
to a western, the instant of a fixed star's culmination at an eastern
station ; and afterwards, telegraphing to the eastern, at the instant
of the same star's culmination at the western station.
In connection with Talcott's Method for Latitude, it has been
used extensively in important Government Surveys, taking prece
dence, whenever available, over all other methods.
Reduction of the Time Observations. See Form 12^. These
observations, as just stated, are in two groups ; one before, and one
after the exchange of signals or comparison of chronometers. From
them is to be obtained the chronometer error at the epoch of ex
change or comparison, which is assumed to be the middle of the
interval consumed in the exchange; this latter being about 12
minutes.
Let us resume the equation of the Transit Instrument approxi
mately in the meridian,
a= T+E+aA + tB + C (c  .021 cos 0), (164)
and let T Q denote the epoch, or the known chronometer time to
which the observations are to be reduced. Let us suppose also,
that of the three instrumental errors, a, b, and c, only b has been
determined, this being found directly by reading the level for every
star. The rate of the chronometer, r, is supposed to be known
approximately, and it is to be borne in mind that E is the error at
the time T. Then in the above equation E, a, and c are un
known.
Now if we denote the error at the epoch by J$ Q , we shall have
,<
fi = E (T  T)r. (165)
And if E\ denote an assumed approximate value of E Q , and e be
the unknown error committed by this assumption, we shall have,
E = E\+e(T, T)r. (166)
From which, Eq. (164) becomes
e + Aa + Cc + T  .021 cos C +E' ,  ( T.  T) r + Bl  a = 0,
126 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
in which everything is known save e (the correction to be applied
to the assumed chronometer error at the epoch), a, and c,
Aa is called the correction for azimuth.
Cc " " " " collimation. *
.021 cos " " " " diurnal aberration.
(T T)r " " " rate.
ffl " " " level.
Collecting the known terms, transposing them to the $3d mem
ber, and denoting the sum by n, we have
e + Aa\Cc = n. (167)
Each one of the twenty stars furnishes an Equation of Condition
of this form, from which, by the principles of Least Squares, we
form the three " Normal Equations,"
2 (G) e + 2 (A 0) a + 2 (<7) c = 2 (On),
^ (A) e + 2 (A*) a + S (A O ) c = 2 (A ri),
2 (1) e+ 2 (A) a + 2 (0) c = S (ri),
from a solution of which we find a, c, and the correction, e, to bo
applied to the assumed chronometer error at the epoch.
If either c or a be known, say c, by methods given under "The
Transit Instrument/' then the correction for collimation for each
star, Cc, should be transferred to the 2d member and included in n.
We then have only the two " Normal Equations,"
(A) c+2 (A*) a=2(A n),
from which to find e and .
It is to be remembered that the middle ten stars have been ob
served with the instrument reversed, and that such reversal changes
the sign of c, and therefore of the term Co. Hence in forming the
"Equations of Condition" for those stars, care should be taken to
introduce this change by reversing the sign of O. The sign of c as
LONGITUDE. 127
found from the " Normal Equations " will then belong to the col
limation error c of the unreversed instrument.
Also, since reversing the instrument almost invariably changes
0, it is better to write a! for a in the corresponding " Equations of
Condition," and treat a' as another unknown quantity. We will
thus have four " Normal Equations " instead of three, and derive
from them two values of the azimuth error, one for each position
of the instrument.
Sometimes, and perhaps with even greater accuracy, the solution
is modified as follows :
Independent determination of a and c are made, as explained
heretofore, by the use of three stars.
Adopting these, each star gives a value of the chronometer error
as per Form 1. The mean result compared with the similar mean
of preceding and following nights, gives the rate. The principle of
Least Squares is then applied (correcting also for rate) in the man
ner just detailed, to obtain the corrections to be applied to these
values of , c, and the mean chronometer error. With these cor
rected values of a and <?, new values of the chronometer errors are
found by direct solution (Form 1), the mean of which is adopted.
 Personal Equation. From (163) it is seen that although
errors in E and E' affect the deduced longitude directly, the effect
will disappear if they are equally in error.
Practical observers acquire as a rule certain fixed habits of ob
servation whereby the transits of stars are recorded habitually
slightly too early or too late, thus affecting the deduced clock error
correspondingly.
The difference between the result obtained by any observer and
the true value is called his Absolute Personal Equation, and that
between the results of two different observers their Relative Per
sonal Equation. In Longitude work this latter should always be
determined and applied to one of the clock errors, thus giving
values of E and E ' as though determined by a single observer, and
causing them if in error at all, to be as nearly equally so as possible.
To determine this Relative Personal Equation, the two observers
should, both before and after the longitude work, meet and compare
as follows: one notes the transits of a star over half the wires of
the instrument, and the other the transits over the remaining half.
Each time of transit is then reduced to the middle wire by the
128 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Equatorial Intervals, and the difference between their respective
means will be a value of their relative personal equation. The
adopted value should depend upon twenty or thirty stars, and the
work be distributed over three or four nights.
Personal equation is not a constant quantity, and should be re
determined from time to time. On the Coast Survey it is largely
eliminated by causing the observers to change places upon comple
tion of half the observations for difference of longitude between the
stations.
Application of Weights and Probable Error of Final Result.
The probable error of an observed star transit may be divided for
practical purposes into two parts: the first, duo to errors (apart
from personal equation) iri estimating the exact instants of the
star's passage over the wires, unsteadiness of star, etc., is called the
observational error; the second, called the culmination error, is due
to abnormal atmospheric displacement of star, in exact determina
tion of instrumental errors, anomalies and irregularities in the clock
rate, etc. Evidently the first is the only part of the probable error
which may be diminished by increasing the number of wires. It
may be determined for each observer as follows:
Having made several (m) determinations of the Equatorial In
tervals as before explained, let each be compared with its known
value, giving for the probable error of a single determination
(Johnson, Art. 72),
ft = 0.6745 V^. (a)
Since these intervals depend upon observed transits over two wires,
we have for the probable error of an observed transit of an equato
rial star over a single wire (Johnson, Art. 87),
For any other star this will manifestly be
ff"sectf,
LONGITUDE. 129
and for N wires the probable error of the mean will be
R"
For the smaller instruments of the Coast Survey R" = 8 .08 about.
To determine the culmination error, R' y for an equatorial star,
let R denote the combined effect of both errors; then
(c)
R may be found by comparing several (m) determinations of a
star's K. A. (all reduced to the same equinox) with their mean,
using the same formula as before. Multiplying the value thus
found by cos tf, we have the probable error for an equatorial star.
The mean result from many stars should be the adopted value of ft.
For the smaller instruments of the Coast Survey R = 8 .06
about.
Substituting in (c), making N= 15,
R' = 8 .056.
For any other star this will evidently be R' sec S. Hence for the
probable error of the transit of an equatorial star over JV, or the
full number of wires,
and for any lees number of wires,
' (0.056)'.
130 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Since the weights of observations are proportional to reciprocals of
squares of probable errors, we have for the weight of an observation
on n wires (that on the full number being taken as unity),
n n
Again, from what precedes it is seen that the total probable error
(It) of the transit of an equatorial star will become R sec d for any
other. Hence different stars will have weights inversely as see" d.
In practice, however, slightly different relations have been found to
answer better. For the instruments above referred to, the formula
1.6
* = 1.0+65^
has been adopted.
The report of the Chief of Engineers for 1873 gives
Therefore if each Equation of Condition in the Ecduction of the
Time Observations be multiplied by the corresponding value of Vp
(Johnson, Art. 126), it will be weighted for missel wires.
In the same way, if multiplied by Vp' it will be weighted for
declination. It is, however, unusual to weight for declination when
The normal equations having been formed from the weighted
equations of condition in the usual manner, their solution will give
the chronometer error and its weight, p e . (Johnson, Arts. 132, 133.)
The probable error of a single observation is then found by the
formula, (Johnson Art. 138),
r = 8 .6745y , (i)
f m q* v '
LONGITUDE. 131
where the residuals, v, are formed from the m weighted equations
of condition, and q is the number of normal equations.
The probable error of the chronometer correction as determined
by a single night's work will then be
Similarly we obtain p/for the weight of the chronometer correction
at the other station, and the weight to be assigned to the resulting
longitude, from the relation between weights and probable errors,
will be
The weighted mean longitude as the result of m' nights' work will
then be
with a probable error
/ "5? Y<n ij a \
()
Circumstances must, however, decide as to the relative weights to be
assigned to' the results of different nights. If the observations have
been conducted on a uniform system, it will perhaps be better to
give them all equal weight.
3. Longitude by Lunar Culminations. The moon has a rapid
motion in Right Ascension. If, therefore, we can find the local
times existing 011 two meridians, when the moon had a certain
11. A., their difference of longitude becomes known from this differ
ence of times.
Determine the local sidereal time of transit or R. A. of the
moon's bright limb, and denote it by a t .
From pp. 385392, Ephemeris, take out the R. A. of the center
at the nearest Washington culmination. This the Sidereal Time
132 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of semidiameter crossing the meridian, according as the east or west
limb is bright, taken from same page, will give the E. A. of the
bright limb, at its culmination at Washington. Denote this by ar w .
Now if an approximate longitude be not known, which will
seldom be the case, one maybe established as follows: Let v =
moon's change in 11. A. for one' hour of longitude, taken from same
page of Ephemeris. Then upon the supposition that this is uni
form, we will have
 Ti Tt a i ^W
v : 1 : : ct t # w : L, or L = ,
L' being the approximate longitude from Washington, whose
longitude from Greenwich is accurately known. With this value
of L 9 take from the Ephemeris a new value of v corresponding to
the midlongitude L', and determine as before a closer approxi
mate longitude, L". If we are within two hours 01 Washington
in longitude, L" will be sufficiently close for the purposes to which
we are to apply it. If farther away, make one or two more approx
imations, and call the final result L ap .
L ap will be true within a very few seconds of time even if the
observing station be in Alaska, situated 6 hours from Washington,
and even if the observations be made when the moon's irregularities
in R. A. are most marked.
With the approximate longitude (and this is one of the uses to
be made of this quantity, before referred to), we may now find the
sidereal time required for moon's semidiameter to cross the merid
ian of the place of observation by simple interpolation to 2d or 3d
differences in the proper column of the same page of the Ephemeris.
Denote this by T t .
The greatest change in the time required for semidiameter to
cross the meridian, due to a change of one hour in longitude, is
about 0.13 80fi . Hence, even if we could possibly have made an error
of 10 minutes in our determination of L^ p , the value of TI can only
involve an error of about .02 8ec when at its maximum. This would
involve a maximum error of about 0.5 8ec in the resulting longitude.
a t TI = a c will then be the B. A. of the moon's center at the
instant of transit of the center.
On Pages V to XII of the Monthly Calendar are found the
LONGITUDE. 133
R. A. of the moon's center for each hour of Greenwich mean time.
The problem now is to find at what instant (T g ) of Greenwich time
the moon's center had the E. A. determined by our observation.
This may be solved by an inverse interpolation; i.e., instead of
interpolating a R. A. corresponding to a given time not in the
table, we are to interpolate a time to a given R. A. not in the table;
and in this interpolation the use of second differences will be quite
sufficient.
Therefore let T and T + 1 be the two Greenwich hours be
tween which a 9 occurs.
Let S a be the increase of moon's R. A. in one minute of mean
time, at T . This is given on the same page.
Let d' a be the increase of d a in one hour. Found from same
column by subtracting adjacent values of d a.
Let # be the R. A. given in the Epbcmeris at T 9 .
Then using second differences, wo have
In this equation T g T is expressed in seconds; everything is
known but it, and its value may be found by a solution of the
quadratic. The result added to r l\ gives T g , or the Greenwich mean
time at which the moon's center bad CY O for jts R. A. Convert this
into Greenwich sidereal time, call the result a g , and our longitude
is known from
A = or, ct 9 . (169)
The preceding is the method to be followed where there is but
a single station.
Imperfections in the Lunar Tables from which the Ephemeris
is computed, render the tabular R. A. liable to slight errors. There
fore from Equation (168) our values of T g and hence a g may be
incorrect from this cause, giving from Equation (169) an incorrect
longitude.
Differences between two tabular values are, however, nearly cor
rect.
Hence it is more accurate to have corresponding observations
134 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
of the moon's transit on the same clay taken at a station whose
longitude is known.
Its longitude, found as above, will be
and the difference of longitude between the two stations,
inaccuracies of the Bphcmeris being nearly eliminated in the differ
ence (<Y/ a a }.
No method of determining longitude by Lunar Culminations is
sufficiently accurate for a fixed observatory. It may however be
used in surveys and expeditious where telegraphic connection with
a known meridian can not be secured. Even with the appliances
of a fixed observatory, the mean of several determinations is some
times subsequently found to be in error by from 4 to 6 seconds of
time (Madras Observatory). Dependence should not therefore be
placed upon a single observation, but the operation should be re
peated upon each limb as many times as may soem desirable. The
longitude derived from any determination may bo employed as the
approximate longitude required in any subsequent determination.
Before proceeding to any details as to the observations and re
ductions, it is well to note the effect of errors in either, upon our
result. The main outline of the problem consists in determining
the moon's R. A. at a certain instant, and then ascertaining from
the Ephemcris the Greenwich time of the same instant. Both the
moon's R. A. and the instant are denoted, at the place of observa
tion, by <r c = MI T t . a l depends very largely upon accuracy of
observation and reduction. T l depends upon interpolation with an
approximate, longitude. As shown before, no error of assumed longi
tude that could ever occur in practice, would have any appreciable
effect on T t . If the interpolation be properly performed, T t can
involve only very slight errors. But whatever they may be, they
enter with full effect in a< , and when the final operation is per
formed to determine the corresponding Greenwich time, an inspec
tion of the tables will show that any error in a e is increased from
LONGITUDE. 136
to 30 times in the resulting longitude. In this way, as before
shown, an error of .02" in T t is amplified into .5 s in the result.
Errors in a l affect cx a , and therefore the result, in the same
manner; hence we see that considerable care is necessary in both
observation and reduction. At the very best, the result is liable to
be in error from 1 to 3 seconds. In latitude of West Point, 1
second of time = 1142 feet in longitude.
Observations and Reductions. The transit instrument is sup
posed to be pretty accurately adjusted to the meridian, and the
outstanding small errors , b, and c, measured. The rate of the
sidereal chronometer is also supposed to be known.
Note the chronometer time of transit of the moon's bright limb
over each wire of the instrument. In this case, as with a star, the
time of culmination is found by reducing the observations to the
middle wire and then correcting for the three instrumental errors.
Sec Form 1. But in case of the moon these reductions and correc
tions take a somewhat modified form due to the two facts that the
moon has a proper motion in E. A., and also a very sensible parallax
in E. A. when on a side wire. Hence (see note following) we have
^ y ^ '/
 F instead of  sec tf', for the reduction to the middle wire,
and ( 'I a + B b + Cc') F?m $' instead of A a + Jtb+ Cc, for the
instrumental correction; and the Equation of the Transit Instru
ment as applied to this case becomes,
*, = V ^ V+ E + (A a + B b + C c') 2? cos $'. (170)
In this equation 2 T is the sum of the observed times, n the num
ber of wires used, 2 i the sum of their equatorial intervals, d' the
moon's declination as seen, i.e., as affected by parallax, and
TJ ri / A/ t\n * 60.1643
F = [1  p sm n cos (0  *)] sec * 
p being the earth's radius at place of observation in terms of the
equatorial radius, n the moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, 0'
the geocentric latitude, (ftci) as already stated, and 6 the moon's
geocentric declination. These quantities must be found before the
136 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
reduction can be made. The mode of finding p and 0' has already
been explained. To find n y 8, and (d a), note in addition to the
transit of the moon's limb that of one or more stars at about the
same altitude, and which culminate within a few minutes of the
moon. The difference between the times of passing the middle
wire applied to the star's E. A. will give an approximate value of
<x t , from which an approximate longitude is determined as before
explained. With this, TT may be taken from page IV, and d and
(d a) from pp. V to XII, Monthly Calendar. F thus becomes
known. Evidently
6' = d p Trsin (0' 6)
with sufficient accuracy, and the computation of a l can now be
made.
One of the greatest inaccuracies to bo apprehended is a failure
to determine a very exact value of E for the instant of transit.
This quantity may be eliminated, or very nearly so, as follows :
If two or more fundamental stars, those whose places have been
established with the highest degree of accuracy, be selected so that
the mean of the times of their transits shall be very closely the time
of transit of the moon's limb, then the mean of their equations will
be, corresponding to a mean star,
S V 2 i,
a a  hr n 8eo rv a r f c ; \ )
Subtracting from Eq. (170), since E and E B denote errors at
almost the same instant, we have
(172)
in which E has disappeared.
If E and E a differ, their difference will be simply the change of
error in, for example, ten minutes, which can be accurately allowed
for by the chronometer's wellestablished rate. Moreover, if the
stars be selected so that their declinations differ but slightly from
LONGITUDE. 137
that of the moon, it is evident that the last terms of Eqs. (170) and
(171) will be nearly the same, and that their difference in Eq. (172)
will be a minimum. See expressions for A, B 9 and G Y , in connection
with Form 1.
By this method, therefore, theE. A. of the moon's limb, ot^ is,
from Eq. (172), made to depend very largely upon the K. A. of
fundamental stars; instrumental and clock errors being reduced to
a minimum of effect.
The stars should be selected from the Ephemeris in accordance
with the above conditions, and observed in connection with the
moon.
4 To deduce Equation (170).
In the Equation of the Transit instrument, tho quantities
 sec d (embraced in T 7 ), and (Aa + Bb + GV) denote respect
ively the times required for a star whoso declination is S to pass
from tho mean to the middle wire and from the middle wire to the
meridian. In the case of the moon these intervals (or hourangles)
require modification, both on account of parallax and proper motion.
The Ephemeris values of E. A. and Declination are given for
an observer at the earth's center; but on account of our proximity
to the moon, an observer on the surface always sees that body dis
placed in a vertical circle, which results in a displacement or paral
lax both in declination and (unless the body be on the meridian)
E. A. Hence it is that when the moon's limb appears tangent to
a side wire as at M' , Pig. 26, it is in reality at M. Therefore the
Fio. 26.
apparent hourangle ZPM' requires a correction to reduce it to
the true hourangle Z P M 9 and the result is to be further modified
138 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
due to the moon's own motion in 11. A. The following is based on
the method given by Chaiivenet.
To deduce the relation between the true and apparent hour
angles, let them be represented respectively by P and P', the cor
responding zenith distances by z and z', and the declinations by d
and d', Z being the geocentric zenith.
Then
sin P : sin A : : sin z : cos #,
sin P' : sin A : : sin z' : cos S ',
sin P t sin z cos d
' ' " ' '
sin P' ' " sin z' ' cos d"
. ^ fl , sin z cos 6'
sin P = sin P . > ST.
sin z' cos o
Or, since P and P' are very small when the limb is on a side wire,
we have, expressing them both in seconds,
p _ p , sin z cos ft 9
P is the time which the limb with an hourangle P 9 would require
to reach the meridian if the moon had no proper motion. The
actual interval is greater than P on account of the moon's contin
ual motion eastward or increase in 11. A., resulting in a retardation
of its apparent diurnal motion.
To determine this, the Ephemeris gives at intervals of one hour
the moon's motion in seconds of R. A. in one mean solar minute
= 6 a. One m. s. minute = GO X 1.0027:38 = 00.1643 sidereal
seconds. Hence in one sidereal second the moon moves ~ 
00.1643
seconds eastward, and therefore its apparent diurnal motion west
ward is only 1 ~ in the same interval. In other words,
00. 1
this is the apparent rate of the moon in diurnal motion at the in
LONGITUDE. 139
stant considered. Denote it by R. Then the time required to
traverse the true hour angle P (or the apparent, P'), will be
p, sin z cos d' 1
sin z' cos 6 "If
When the limb is on the mean of the wires, the apparent hour
angle, P', from the middle wire becomes sec $' (since d' not d is
n \ * >
the declination of the point as observed), and when on the middle
wire P' becomes [a sin (0 6') + b cos (0 6') + c'\ sec 6'.
Hence to pass from the mean of the wires to the meridian re
quires
sec
8 ' + [a sin (0  ') + b cos (0  ') + c'\ sec tf'l
^ sin 2! cos tf ' 1 2 i sin . .
x SE7 5S7 5 = IT > + (Aa
1 1
f^L BCC 8 j; = ^ the Equation of the Transit instru
sin z JL\>
ment as applied to the moon, becomes, designating the E. A. of the
limb by a t9
i = ^^ + E + l F + (Aa + b+ Cc') FGOS d'. (170)
For purposes of computation the value of Fmay bo simplified
by expressing . , in terms of quantities given in the Ephemeris.
Let TT = moon's equatorial horizontal parallax, p the parallax in
altitude, and ,p as heretofore.
140 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Then
sin z __ sin (z 9 p) __ sin z' cos p cos 2' sinjp __
sin 2;' ~~ sin z' sin^' "
cos ^? cos z 9 p sin TT ;
since sinj? = p sin TT sin z 9 .
Expanding cos z 9 = cos (z + JP)> placing sin a jo = and cos s =
cos (0' (^), we have
sin z . . . .
: 7 = 1 p sm ^r cos (c> o )
sin z' vr /
and
JPrs [1 p sin TT cos (0' <?)] sec d p.
Evidently we may also write,
<?' = d p TT sin (0' tf).
4. longitude by Lunar Distances. On pp. XIII to XVIII of the
Monthly Calendar in the Ephemeris arc found the true or geocen
tric distances of the moon's center from certain fixed stars, planets,
and the sun's center, at intervals of 3 hours Greenwich mean time.
If then an observer on any other meridian determine by observation
one of these distances, and note the local mean time at the instant,
he can by interpolation determine the Greenwich mean time when
the moon had this distance, and hence the longitude from the
difference of times.
The planets employed are Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn, and
the fixed stars, known as the 9 lunardistance stars, are a Arietis
(Hamal), a Tauri (Aldebaran), /? Geminorum (Pollux), a Lonis
(Regulus), of Virginis (Spica), a Scorpii (Antares), a Aquilse
(Altair), a Piscis Australis (Fomalhaut), and a Pegasi (Markab).
Prom this list the object is so selected that the observed distance
shall not be much less than 45, although a less distance may be
used if necessary.
The distance observed is that of the moon's bright limb from a
star, from the estimated center of a planet, or from the nearest
LONGITUDE. 141
limb of the sun. If the sextant telescope be sufficiently powerful
to give a welldefined disc, we may measure to the nearest limb of
the planet, and treat the observation as in the case of the sun.
Thus in Fig. 27, letting Z represent the observer's zenith, and C"
Fia. 27.
and G" the observed places of the sun and moon respectively, the
distance measured is #' M', from limb to limb.
The effect of refraction is to make an object appear too high, and
that of parallax, too low. In the case of the sun the former out
weighs the latter. In the case of the moon the reverse is true.
Hence the true or geocentric places of the two bodies would be
represented relatively by 8 and M y and the distance S M, from
center to center, is the one desired.
The outline of the method is as follows:
Having measured the distance S f M', and corrected it for the
two semidiameters; and having also measured the altitudes of the
two lower limbs and corrected them for the respective semidiame
ters, we have in the triangle ZC' 0" the three sides given, from
which we find the angle at Z. Then having corrected the observed
altitudes for refraction, semidiameter and parallax, we have in the
triangle Z S M, two sides and the included angle Z, to compute the
opposite side 8 M.
Before proceeding to the more definite solution, three points
should be noticed.
1st. The semidiameter of the moon as seen from the surface of
the earth is greater than it would appear if measured from the
center of the earth, due to its less distance. Hence C" M' is an
142 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
" augmented semidiameter" and must be treated accordingly. The
augmentation in case of the sun is insignificant.
2d. Since refraction increases with the zenith distance, the re
fraction for the center of the sun or moon will be greater than that
for the upper limb, and that of the lower limb will be greater than
/ d that of the center. The apparent distance
of the limbs is therefore diminished, and the
whole disc, instead of being circular, presents
an oval figure, whose vertical diameter is the
least, and horizontal diameter the greatest,
as shown in Fig. 28. Therefore if c d denote
the direction of the measured distance, the
assumed semidiameter, cf, will be in excess
by the amount e /, and must be corrected
accordingly. This correction becomes of
FIG. 28. importance if the altitude of either sun or
moon be less than 50 at the moment of observation.
3d. Since the vertical line at the station does not in general
pass through the earth's center, but intersects the axis at a point
R. (see Fig. 17), it is most convenient to reduce our observations at
first to the point R, regarding the earth as a sphere with R as a
radius, and then to apply the small correction due to the distance
C R, in order to pass to the true or geocentric quantities.
In the following explanation, the body whose distance from the
moon is measured is taken to be the sun. The result will then
apply equally to a planet if its limb be considered; if its center be
considered, the expression for its semidiameter becomes aero. If
the body be a fixed star, the expressions for its semidiameter and
parallax become zero.
Let A" = measured altitude of moon's lower limb, corrected for
sextant errors.
H" = measured altitude of sun's lower limb, also corrected.
d n = measured distance between moon's bright limb and
nearest limb of sun, also corrected.
T = local mean solar time at instant of measuring e?".
L' = an assumed approximate longitude.
= latitude.
Note the readings of the barometer and of the attached and ex
ternal thermometers.
LONGITUDE. 148
With T and Z', take from the Ephemeris the following quan
tities :
s = geocentric semidiameter of moon.
n = equatorial horizontal parallax of moon.
d = geocentric declination.
S = semidiameter of sun.
D = geocentric declination of sun.
P = equatorial horizontal parallax of sun.
The first two are obtained from page IV, monthly calendar, or
pages 385 to 393 Ephemeris.
The third from pages V to XII, monthly calendar, or pages 385
to 393 Ephemeris.
The fourth and fifth from page I, monthly calendar, or from
pages 377 to 385 Ephemeris.
The sixth from page 278 Ephemeris.
We must now correct d" for both semidiameters, augmented in
case of the moon. Therefore with li" + 8 and ,v as arguments, enter
the proper table and take out the amount of augmentation. In the
absence of tables this may be computed by the formula,
Augmentation = k s* sin (h" + s) + $ k* s* + $ h* s 3 sin a (h" + s);
in which log k = 5.25020 10, and s is expressed in seconds. (For
deduction of this series see Note 1.)
Add this correction to s and we have s' = moon's semidiameter
as seen from point of observation.
We now have (neglecting the distortion of discs), the following
values of the observed quantities reduced to the centers of the ob
served bodies, viz. :
Using these quantities we may now find the correction due to
distortion of discs (or refractive distortion), as follows: From
tables of mean refraction take out the refractions corresponding to
the altitude (h' + s') of the upper limb, to that (// s') of the
lower, and that (h') of the center. The difference between the
latter and each of the other two gives very nearly the contraction
of the upper and lower semidiarneters of the moon. This may be
repeated once if the refractions are very great due to a small alti~
144 PRACTICAL ASTROMOMT.
tude. The mean of the two is the contraction of the vertical
semidiameter due to refraction. Denote it by A s, and the same
quantity in case of the sun by A S.
These quantities are represented by a I in Fig. 28, and from them
we are to find ef, or the distortion in the direction of d n '. This is
found to vary very nearly as cos" q, q being the angle which d"
makes with the vertical. (See Note 2.)
The values of q, or Q in case of the sun, will be found from the
three sides of the triangle Z C' C 1 ', Fig. 27. Their values, page 6,
Book of Formulas, will be, if m = (d'+ h' + H').
cos m sin (m II') . . ~ cos m sin (m h 9 )
sin' J0 =   r , n L 9 sin 2 1 Q = r ~TT m
* sin d' cos h 9 sin d cos H 9
And the refractive distortions will be, from the above,
A R cos 2 0, and A S cos 2 Q.
<
Hence the fully corrected values of the measured quantities are
d 9 = d" + (*'  A s cos 2 0) + (tf  A 8 cos 2 #),
// = U" + s'  A.?, //' = H" + S  A S.
We now have the distance (d'), between the centers and the
altitudes of the centers (h 9 and H'), as these quantities would have
been had we been able to measure them directly. We must now
ascertain what they would have been had we measured them at the
center of the earth; or, as 1 a first step, had we measured them at the
point R.
This is necessary, because the earth not being a perfect sphere,
the transference of an observer to the center would not displace a
body (apparently) toward the astronomical, but toward the geocen
tric zenith, and the angle at Z, Fig. 27, would no longer be com
mon to the two triangles. But by regarding the earth as a sphere
with radius R, Fig. 17, the two zeniths will coincide, and the
reduction therefore be easily made. Afterward a correction is to be
applied due to a transference of the observer from R to C.
Therefore let //,, h t , and d i9 be the values of H', h', and d 9 ,
when refeired to R, and let r t and r be the actual refractions for
LONGITUDE.
145
H' and k'. It will be shown in Note 3 that n (the angle sub
tended by the equatorial radius at the distance of the moon) is to
n t> the angle subtended by R, as a, the equatorial radius, is to .
Therefore n i the parallax at R, equals ~. On account of the greater
distance of the sun, P will be practically the same for R as for O.
Therefore, Art. 83, Young,
h t = h' r + n t cos (h' r)
II, = H'r, + P cos (H 9  r,)
In order to find d s9 let S and Jf (Fig. 29) represent the places
Pro. 29.
of the sun and moon as seen from the point R without refraction,
given by H,, /*,, and d t \ and 0' and C" the places as observed,
(given by H', Ji f and d f ).
Then in triangle Z C' C",
cos d f sin h f sin H' ^ n , . _ _
cos Z = ^ , , . Page 6, Book of Formulas.
146 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
From triangle Z 8 M,
cos d, sin h. sin 77, ^ /. T> i j? T^ i
cos Z = 2 ' ,  ^77  '. Page 6, Book of Formulas.
cos A, cos 77, & '
Equating these two values of cos Z, adding unity to both mem
bers and reducing,
cos d' + CQS (A' ~M?Q cos <lj + cos (/*, + II,) p
cos 7^' cos 77' "~~ cos A, cos 77, ' to
Make m = (A'+77'+d')> whence cos (A'4 //') =cos (2 wirf').
Substituting in the preceding equation, reducing the first member
by formulas 4, page 4, 11, page 2, and 13, page 1, and the second
member by formulas 9 and 10, page 2, we have
cos m cos (m d') __ cos 2 ^ (A, + // y ) sin 2 ^ r7 y
"~ cos A' cos 7/ ; ~" cos h t cos //^
Whence,
Q i 7 i /? i rr\ COS///. COS 77
sm a i ^ = cos a i (A, + H,)  , cos m cos (m  <P).
This may bo placed in a more convenient form by assuming
cos A y cos 77", cos wi cos (m d') . , , _
, _ ' ____ i _____ _>_ __ _ : ' = Hill ylf
cos V cos yy oos a i (A, + 77,)
Whence sin \ d t = cos (A, + 7T,) cos Jf.
We now have the distance between the centers as it would have
been without refraction, if measured from the point It. This is
represented by the line S M. (Fig. 29.)
The transference of the observer to the, center will, since this
motion lies wholly in the plane P M R, have the effect of appar
ently diminishing the declination of the moon, causing it to appear
at M', while the position of S will not be sensibly changed.
LONGITUDE. 147
It will be shown in Note 4 that the correction to be added to
d t (SM)iogid(SM') is
7t e* sin /sinD __ j^^X __ . /sinZ) sin#
"" ~
__
\sm ^ tan^ "" \
e being the eccentricity of the meridian = 0.0816967.
Hence we have finally, denoting the geocentric distance between
centers by d,
7 7 , . /sin D sin <5\
d U, + 7t I I r 7
\siii d 4 tan d t )
This operation of finding d from the observed quantities is called
" Clearing the Distance."
It is now necessary to find the Greenwich mean time when the
moon and sun were separated by the distance d. For this purpose
enter the Ephemeris at the pages before referred to, and find there
in two distances between which d falls. Take out the nearer of
these and the Greenwich hours at the head of the same column.
Then if A denote the difference between the two distances, and A '
the difference between the nearer one and d, both in seconds, we
shall have, using only first differences, for the correction, t, to be
applied to the tabular time taken out,
qh
A:3 h ::A':* h ..** = l A '.
A
3 h
Or log P = log f log A '.
10S00 8
Or in seconds, log t* log  f log A '.
10800
The logarithms of are given in the columns headed " P.
L. of Diff." (Proportional Logarithm of Difference.) Hence we
have simply to add the common logarithm of A ' in seconds to the
proportional logarithm of the table to obtain the common logarithm
of the correction in seconds of time.
148 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY
To take account of second 4jfterences, take half the difference
between the preceding and following proportional logarithms.
With this and / as arguments enter table 1, Appendix to Ephem
eris, and take out the corresponding seconds, which are to be added
to the time before found when the proportional logarithms are
decreasing, and subtracted when they are increasing.
Denote the final result by T g , and the difference of longitude
by A. Then
\=T  T. (173)
The mode given above for clearing the distance is quite exact,
but somewhat laborious. There are, however, several approximative
solutions, readily understood from the foregoing, which may be
employed where an accurate result is not required, and which may
be found in any work on Navigation.
The method by " Lunar Distances " is of great use in long voy
ages at soa or in expeditions by land, where no meridian instru
ments are available, and when the rate of the chronometers can no
longer be relied upon.
It is important to note that if Tin Eq. (173), denote the chro
nometer time of observation, instead of the true, local time, T g T
will be the error of the chronometer on Greenwich time. In this
way chronometers may bo " checked." If, however, T denote the
true local time, obtained by applying the error on local time to the
chronometer time, then the same equation gives the longitude.
Observations. It is necessary that A", //", and d" should cor
respond to the same instant 7\ Hence observe the following order
in making observations. Take an altitude of the sun's limb, then
an altitude of the moon's limb, then the distance, carefully noting
the time, then an altitude of the moon's limb, then an altitude of
the sun's limb. A mean of the respective altitudes of the two limbs
will give very nearly the altitudes at the instant of measuring the
distance.
For greater accuracy, several measurements of the distance may
be made, and the mean adopted. Also, when possible, at least two
stars should be used on opposite sides of the moon, for the purpose
of eliminating instrumental errors.
The accuracy of the result will depend upon the observer's skill
with the sextant, and mode of reduction followed.
LONGITUDE. 149
I* 1. To Find Augmentation of Moon's Semidiameter. In de
termining the augmentation of the moon's semidiameter due to its
altitude, the elliptic! ty of the earth is practically insensible. There
fore (Young, p. 62), denoting the altitude of the center (h" + s)
by A', the parallax in altitude by p, and the augmented semidiameter
by*',
, cos h'
Augmentation = = ,'_,=, ( ^' =L &'l\
'
V
By page 4, Book of Formulas,
cos V cos (A' f ?) 2 sin (A' + A' f^) sin ^?.
7Ti t r sin (A' + 40) sin 4 w.
(A' + />) v ' ^ ^/ 2 ^
o
COS
Expanding the sine and cosine of the sums, writing p for sin
p, and unity for cos \ p, we have
~~* cos A' p sin A' *
p = TrcosA' (Young, p. 61).
According to the Tables of the Moon, the relation between it
and 8 is constant, such that
n 3.6697 s.
Hence p = 3.6697 s cos A'.
Designating this numeral by &',
c _k's* '(sin A' + i &' * cos 8 A^)
l k' s sin A'
By division,
G = V s 9 sin A' + ^ A' 2 5 s + &' a s a sin" A' + etc.
150 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Multiplying by sin 1" to reduce to seconds,
Gks* sin li' + \l? s 3 + \ s* sin 2 W + etc., (174)
in which log Jc = 5.2502 10.
j 2. To Deduce the Law of Refractive Distortion. In Fig. 28,
let h' denote the altitude of the center, and li" that of any point of
the limb, as/. Then the difference of mean refraction for c and/
will be (Young, p. 64),
JF= a (cot A' cot A"), (1)
in which a is the constant 60".6.
Denoting the angle a c/by q, and the semidiameter by s 9
(2)
Prom Trigonometry,
_ 1 tan A' tan (s cos q)
tan h f \ tan (s cos q) *
Substituting in (1), and writing s cos q tan 1" for tan (s cos g),
we have,
Z7 _ / 5 cos <? ^ an 1" + s cos ? tan l /; tan 9 7A
"" \ tan 2 li' + s cos <7 tan 1" tan A' /
The last term in the denominator is insignificant compared with
tan 9 li* \ hence
F = a cosec 2 W s cos q tan 1", (3)
which by (1) and (2) will be the difference between that ordinate
of the ellipse and the circle which passes through/.
Hence the line e/will be,
Eefractive Distortion = a cosec 1 A' s tan 1" cos* q.
LONGITUDE. 151
If q = o, we have a 5 = contraction of vertical semidiameter =
As = a cosec 3 li' s tan 1". Hence finally,
Kefractive Distortion = As cos' g'.
 3. To Deduce the Parallax for the Point K.
By making x == in Equation (95), and reducing by (108), (99)
and (100), we have for the distance R (Fig. 17 or 29),
a c* sin
Vl  e* sin 3
Denoting the distance R by y, the triangle ROC gives
* . ,, ... ,,
: y : : sin (0 0') : cos 0'. .
a . ,
r 1 e sm'
_ e 7 sin cos 0'
~ sin (0  0') yr^"7sln r 0"
Developing sin (0 0'), cancelling and applying (125),
~~
Comparing with second part of (112) it is seen that the denom
inator is sensibly the value of p expressed in terms of a as unity.
Hence
a
The angles at the moon subtended bv the two lines a and 
h P
will be proportional to those lines. Therefore
a
*:*,:::.
+fa 4. To Determine the Difference between a t and fl, due to a
Transference of the Observer from R to C.
152 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
By the previous note we have (Fig. 29),
a e* sin
RC =
Vl e 2 sin 3 0*
The perpendicular distance, C N, from the center to the line
R My is, with an error entirely negligible,
a e 1 sin cos d
' Vr^*sm !l ~0"
As before, the angle at the moon subtended by this line will be
a e* sin cos d n __ n <? sin cos d
Vl e a sin a ^ 4/1 6* sin"
which is therefore the angular apparent displacement of the moon,
represented by the arc M M' (Fig. 29).
Denote it by m. Then, in the triangles P M' Ft and M M' S,
__ cos d, cos w cos a? __ sin D sin # cos of
~~" sin m sin / cos d 1 sin d
Keducing, replacing cos m by unity,
cos d t cos d
/sin J9_ __ sin tf cos d\
= sin m
:r
\cos o
cos
y
FIG. 30.
From Fig. 30, it is seen that when
d t and d are nearly equal, as in the
present case, we may replace cos d f
cos d by sin (d d^) sin d t .
Therefore
sin (d rf.) = sin m f
v " \co
sin />
Or
k cos d sin ^ y cos (^ sin dj
r) (I??)
\sin
sin
tan i
OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDES. 153
OTHER METHODS OP DETERMINING LONGITUDE.
1st. If two stations are so near each other that a signal made at
either, or at an intermediate point, can he observed at both, the
time may be noted simultaneously by the chronometers at the two
stations, and the difference of longitude thus deduced. An appli
cation of the same system, by means of a connected chain of signal
stations, will give the difference of longitude between two remote
stations. The signals are usually flashes of light either reflected
sunlight or the electric light, passed through a suitable lens.
2d. By noting the time of beginning or ending of a lunar or
solar eclipse, or by occupations of stars by the moon. For these
methods, see various Treatises on Astronomy.
3d. By Jupiter's Satellites. a. From their eclipses. The
Washington meantimes of the disappearance of each satellite in
the shadow of the planet, and reappearance of the same, are accu
rately given in the Ephemeris, pp.453473, accompanied by diagrams
of configuration for convenience of reference. A full explanation
of the diagrams is given on p. 44!). An observer who has noted one
of these events, has only to take the difference between his own
local time of observation and that given in the Ephemeris, to obtain
his longitude. This method is defective, since a satellite has a sen
sible diameter and does not disappear or reappear instantaneously.
The more powerful the telescope employed, the longer will it con
tinue to show the satellite after the first perceptible loss of light.
These facts give rise to discrepancies between the results of differ
ent observers, and even between those of the same observer with
different instruments. Both the disappearance and reappearance
should therefore be noted by the same person with the same instru
ment, and a mean of the results adopted. The first satellite is to
be preferred, as its eclipses occur more frequently and more sud
denly, although both disappearance and reappearance cannot be
observed.
6. From their occult at ions by the body of the planet. The times
of disappearance and reappearance to the nearest Minute only y are
given on same pages of the Ephemeris. Since the times are only
approximate, they simply serve to enable two observers on different
154 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
meridians to direct their attention to the phenomenon at the proper
moment. A comparison of their times will then give their relative
longitude.
c. From their transits over Jupiter's disc.
d. From the transits of their shadows over Jupiter's disc. The
approximate times of ingress and egress, to be used as in case &, are
given on same page,s of the Ephemeris, for cases c and d.
Application to Explorations and Surveys. On explorations, arid
reconnoissances for more exact surveys, the observer will usually be
provided only with a chronometer, sextant, and artificial horizon,
with probably the usual meteorological instruments.
The chronometer should be carefully rated and have its error on
the local time of some comparison meridian (e.g., that of Washing
ton) accurately determined for some given instant, so that, by ap
plying the rate, its error on the same local time may be found
whenever desired.
The sextant should have its eccentricity determined before
starting, since this error often exceeds any ordinary index error,
and cannot be eliminated by adjustment.
The observer should be able to recognize by name several of the
principal Ephemeris stars. To determine the coordinates of his
station when they are entirely unknown, he should first find the
chronometer error on his own local time, using preferably the
method by " equal altitudes of a star," since, as has been seen, he
will then be independent of any knowledge of the star's declination,
his own time, latitude, longitude, or instrumental errors.
Observations for latitude may be made at any convenient time
by " circummeridian altitudes " of a south and north star, or of a
south star only, combined with " Polaris off the meridian," the
reductions being made by aid of the chronometer error just re
ferred to.
The method by " circumpolars " may also be used as a verifi
cation when applicable, the reduction being very simple.
The longitude is known as soon as the chronometer error on
local time is known, by comparing this with its known error on the
local time of the comparison meridian. However large the rate of
a chronometer, it should be nearly constant; but after some time
spent in traveling, with possible exposure to extremes of tempera
ture, its indications of the comparison meridian time are rendered
OTHER METHODS OF DETERMINING LONGITUDES. 165
somewhat uncertain by the accumulation of unknown errors, thus
introducing the same uncertainties into our longitudes. In such
cases the method by " lunar distances " will afford an approximate
reestablishment of the chronometer error on the comparison merid
ian time, or a correction to an assumed approximate longitude.
If it be impracticable to find the local time by equal altitudes as
recommended, on account of clouds or the length of time involved,
it may be found by " single altitudes " of an east and a west star
(or of a single star when necessary, either east or west), an approxi
mate value of the latitude required in the computation being found
from the best obtainable value of the meridian altitude of the star
observed for latitude. With the error thus found the latitude is
found as before, which, if it differs materially from the assumed
approximate value, must be used in a recomputation of the time.
From this the longitude follows as before.
If the latitude be known or approximately so, as at a fixed sta
tion or when tracing a parallel of latitude, time and longitude will
.be most expeditiously determined by "single altitudes."
In certain classes of work it is necesstiry to obtain approximate
coordinates by day, in which case of course the sun must be used in
accordance with the same general principles as far as applicable.
In all sextant work, except in methods by equal altitudes, its
adjustments and errors must be carefully attended to.
In extensive surveys and geodetic work, where very precise results
are required, the methods employed are " Time by Meridian Tran
sits " with the reduction by Least Squares, Longitude by the Elec
tric Telegraph, and Latitude by the Zenith Telescope. The ob
servinginstrumcnts should be mounted on small masonry piers or
wooden posts set about four feet in the earth and isolated from the
surrounding surface by a narrow circular trench one or two feet
deep.
The exact location of an astronomical station is preserved, if de
sired (as when the station is one extremity of a baseline), by a
cross on a copper bolt set in a block of stone embedded two or three
feet below the surface, the exact location of which is recorded by
suitable references to surrounding permanent objects.
Often it is required to determine the coordinates of a point
where it is impracticable to locate an astronomical station, as for
example alighthouse or a central and prominent building of a city.
156 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
In such a case, having made the requisite observations at a suitable
station in the vicinity, and having computed by (111) and (114) the
length in feet of one second in latitude and longitude, measure the
true bearing and distance of the point from the station, from which
the coordinates of the former with respect to the latter are readily
computed.
In locating points at intervals on a line which coincides with a
parallel of latitude, sextant observations for latitude which can bo
quickly reduced will give, as just explained, the approximate dis
tance of the observer from the desired parallel, to the immediate
vicinity of which he is thus enabled to proceed. At this point a
complete scries of observations for latitude is made with the zenith
telescope, and the resulting distance to the parallel carefully laid
off due north or south.
In this manner points about twenty miles apart were located on
the 49th parallel between the U. S. and. the British Possessions.
TIME OP CONJUNCTION OR OPPOSITION.
Two celestial bodies are said to bo in conjunction when either
their longitudes or their right ascensions are equal; and in opposition
when they d iffer by 1 80. In the Ephemeris the conjunctions and op
positions of the moon or planets with respect to the sun refer to their
longitudes. Conjunctions of the moon and planets or of the planets
with each other refer to their right ascensions. In other cases, when
used without qualification, the terms usually refer to longitudes.
The longitudes of the principal bodies of the solar system (or
the data from which they may be computed) are 'given in the
Ephemeris for (usually) each Greenwich mean moon. To find the
time of conjunction, determine by inspection of the tables the two
dates between which the longitudes of the bodies become equal, and
denote the earlier date by T. Take from the tables four consecutive
longitudes for each body two next preceding and two next follow
ing the time of conjunction. Form for each the first and second
differences, which give, from (42),
T r i 7 , n * n i
L n = L f nd, j d^ (a)
and
Z n =i' + 7<+^pd/ (ft)
TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE. 157
in which L n is the unknown common longitude at conjunction, and
n in the second member is the required fractional portion of the
interval between the consecutive epochs of the tables.
Subtracting and collecting the terms
(c)
from which n is found by solution; the corresponding portion of
the constant tabular interval is then added to T, thus giving the
Greenwich time of conjunction. The time on any meridian to the
west of Greenwich is found by subtracting the longitude. The
value of n should be carried to three places of decimals to obtain
the time to the nearest minute.
The method of finding the time of opposition is obvious from
the above, noting that (c) becomes
= 180 + L '  T *
Except when the moon is involved, the use of first differences will
usually bo found sufficient.
The times of conjunction and opposition in right ascension are
found in accordance with the same principles.
TIME OF MERIDIAN PASSAGE.
To determine the local mean solar time of a given body coming
to the meridian, it is to be noted that this time (P) is simply the
hour angle of the mean sun at that instant, and that this hour
angle is, by the general formula, P = sidereal time E. A. of the
mean sun.
Now the sidereal time at the instant is equal to the R. A. of the
body on meridian, and this is equal to its R. A. at the preceding
Greenwich mean moon (rv) plus its increase of R. A. since that
epoch, which is equal to m (/^ + A), A being the longitude from
Greenwich, and m the body's hourly increase in R. A. Or, sidereal
time = a + m (P + A).
Similarly we have, denoting the hourly increase of mean sun's
R, A. by s, R, A. of mean sun = ot 9 + s (P + A).
158 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Therefore by the preceding formula,
P = [a + m (P + A)]  K+ , (P + A)].
Since m and 5 denote seconds of change per hour, A and P in
the second member are expressed in hours, and m (P + A) and
3 (P + A) as also a and a s in seconds; therefore P in the first
member is expressed in seconds. To express it in hours, we have
P =
(P + A)]
3600
Solving/ we have
P = ** ~~ (YS ~^~ ^ ( m """ g )
3600  (m s) '
In this equation a and tf s are given directly in the Ephemeris,
\ is supposed to be known, and ,<? is constant and equal to 9.8565
seconds; m is obtained from the column adjacent to the one giving
value of of, and should be "taken so that its value will denote the
change at the middle instant between the Greenwich mean moon
and the instant under discussion, viz., (P + A), as near as can be
determined.
For the moon, whose motion in R. A. is varied, and for an in
ferior planet, a second approximation may be necessary. If the
planet have a retrograde motion, m becomes negative. If the body
be a star, m becomes zero.
If the sidereal time of culmination be required, the above
formula holds, substituting for the mean sun the vernal equinox,
whose R. A. and hourly motion in R. A. are zero.
Hence,
3600  m
For a star, P' = a.
AZIMUTHS.
Definitions. In surveys and geodetic operations it often becomes
necessary to determine the "azimuth" of lines of the survey; i.e.,
the angle between the vertical plane of the line and the plane of the
true meridian through one of its extremities; or, in other words,
the true bearing of the line.
AZIMUTHS.
159
For reasons given under the head of Latitude, the geodetic may
differ slightly from the astronomical azimuth of a line. Only the
latter will be referred to here, and it is manifestly the angle at the
astronomical zenith included between two vertical circles, one coin
ciding with the astronomical meridian, and the plane of the other
containing the line in question.
Outline. In outline, the method consists in measuring with the
" Altazimuth " or " Astronomical Theodolite " the horizontal angle
which is included between the line and some celestial body whose
R. A. and Decimation are well known. Then having ascertained
by computation the true azimuth of the body at the instant of its
bisection by the vertical wire, the sum of the two will be the true
azimuth of the line. As will be shown later, the celestial bodies
best adapted for the determination of azimuths are circumpolar
stars. For this reason azimuths in surveys and geodetic work are
usually reckoned from the North Point through the East to 360.
Instruments. The " Astronomical Theodolite " is provided with
both horizontal and vertical circles. In geodetic work the latter is
used largely as a mere finder,
but the former is often of
great size usually from one
to two feet in diameter, and
very, accurately graduated
throughout. For reading
the circle, it is provided
with several readingmicro
scopes fitted with microm
eters, in lieu of verniers;
and in order that any angle
may be measured with dif
ferent parts of the circle,
the latter is susceptible of
motion around the vertical
axis of the instrument.
Eccentricity and errors of
graduation are thus in a
measure eliminated. FIO. si.
To mark the direction of the line at night a bull'seye lantern
in a small box firmly mounted on a post is ordinarily used ; the
160 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
light being thrown through an aperture of such* size as to present
about the same appearance as the star observed. To avoid refocus
ing for the star, the lantern should be distant not less than a mile.
If it is impracticable to place the lantern exactly on the line whose
azimuth is required it may be placed at any convenient point, its
azimuth determined at night, and the angle between it and the line
measured by day; the aperture being then covered symmetrically
by a target of any approved pattern. For convenience in the
following discussion the target will be supposed to be on the line.
Classification of Azimuths. Azimuths of the line with refer
ence to the star are taken in " sets," the number of measurements
of the angle in each set being dependent upon whether the final
result is to be a primary or secondary azimuth. Primary azimuths
are employed in determining the direction of certain lines con
nected with the fundamental or primary triangulation of a survey,
and each set consists of from 4 to 6 measurements of the angle in
each position of the instrument. The final result is required to
depend upon several sets, with stars in different positions (generally
not less than five, and often many more). The error of the chro
nometer (required in the reductions), together with its rate, are de
termined by very careful time observations with a transit.
Secondary azimuths are employed in determining the direction
of certain lines connected with the secondary or tertiary triangles
of a survey. The number of measurements in a set is about one
half or one third that in a set for a primary azimuth; the number
of sets is also reduced, and the time observations are usually made
with a sextant. The sun is used in connection with secondary
azimuths only.
Selection of Stars. The true azimuth of the star at the instant
of measuring the horizontal angle between it and the line is ob
tained by a solution of the Astronomical Triangle. In order to
make such a selection of stars that errors in the assumed data shall
have a minimum eifect on the star's computed azimuth, we have
tan A = ^r~^ n ^ 75 (178)
cos tan o sin cos P v '
Errors in the assumed values of F, 0, or tf will produce errors in
the computed azimuth, those in 6 being for obvious reasons usually
insignificant and least likely to occur.
AZIMUTHS. 161
Taking the reciprocal of (178), differentiating and reducing the
first term of the resulting second member by
cos a cos if} = sin cos S cos sin $ cos P,
the second by
sin a = sin sin # + cos cos 6* cos P,
and the third tyy
sin A : sin P : : cos d : cos a,
we have
, A cos d cos ?/> 7 _ . sin , 
^ ^4 = r rf P + tan sm ^1 6?  d <J.
cos a ^ cos a
From this equation it is seen that if we select a close circumpolar
star, any error (d P) in the dock correction or in the star's II. A.,
or any error (d 0) in the assumed latitude, will produce but slight
effect on the computed azimuth, since cos d and sin A will each be
very small. If in addition the star be at elongation (t/> = 90), the
first mentioned error will produce no effect, while sin A, although
at a maximum for the star, will still be very small. (In latitude of
West Point the azimuth of Polaris does not exceed 1 40'.) At
elongation the effect of errors (d d) in 6 will be a maximum,
although insignificant if d bo taken from the Ephemeris.
But if the star be observed at both east and west elongations,
the effect of d d and d will disappear in the mean result, since
the computed azimuth (reckoned from the north through the east to
360), if erroneous, will be as much too large in one case as too
small in the other.
Circumpolar stars at their elongations (both) are most favorably
situated, therefore, for the determination of azimuths; and since
experience gives a decided preference to stars in these positions,
other cases will not be considered, except to remark that the As
tronomical Triangle then ceases to be right angled.
The stars a (Polaris), d, and A, Ursae Minoris, and 51 Cephei,
are those almost exclusively used (although the latter two cannot
be used with small instruments). Their places are given in a
162 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
special table of the Ephemeris, pp. 30213, for every day in the
year, and they are so distributed around the pole that one or more
will usually be available for observation at some convenient hour.
Of these four, X Ursae Minoris is both the smallest and nearest to
the pole. For the large instruments it therefore presents a finer
and steadier object than any of the others. For the small instru
ments suitable stars may be selected from the Ephemeris.
Measurements of Angles with Altazimuth. In order to under
stand the measurement of the difference of azimuth of two points
at unequal altUudes,\Qi us suppose that the horizontal circle of the
"Altazimuth" has its graduations increasing to the right (or like
those of a watchface), and that absolute azimuths are reckoned
from the north point through the east to 360, the origin of the
graduation being at the point 0, Figure 32.
The angle N L will then be the absolute azimuth of the origin
FIG. 32.
of graduations = 0, and if tho instrument be in adjustment and
A 8 and A i denote the absolute azimuths of the star and line respec
tively, we shall have
A* = + R' \ in which R and
angles L 8 and L L' respectively, and may be considered as the
readings of the instrument when pointed upon the star and over
the line. These equations will be somewhat modified if the instru
ment be not in perfect adjustment. This will usually be the case.
Let us suppose that the end of the telescope axis to the observer's
left is elevated so that the axis has an inclination of o seconds of arc.
Then if the telescope be horizontal and pointing 11? the direction
AZIMUTHS. 163
L S, it will, when moved in altitude, sweep to the right of the star,
and the whole instrument must be moved to the left to bring the
line of collimation on the star. The reading of the instrument will
thus be diminished to ;*, and we shall have the proper reading,
R = r + a correction. The amount of this correction is readily
seen, from the small rightangled spherical triangle involved (of
which the required distance is the base), to be b cot z. In the same
way it is seen from the principles explained under " Equatorial
Intervals/' etc., that if the middle wire be to the left of the line of
collimation by c seconds of arc, r must receive the correction
c cosec z. Hence when both these errors exist together, we shall
have, z' denoting the zenith distance of the target,
A 8 = + r + I cot z + c cosec z, (179)
AI = + r' + I' cot z 9 + c cosec ', (180)
since c remains unchanged, while b is subject to changes.
Subtracting,
AI A 8 = (r' + V cot z') (r + b cot z) + c (cosec z' cosec z).
Since by reversing the instrument the sign of c is changed, but
not altered numerically, we may, if an equal number of readings in
the two positions be taken, drop the last term as being eliminated
in the mean result. With this understanding, the equation will be
A l  A a = (r' + V cot z') (r+b cot z). (181)
which gives the azimuth of the line with reference to the star,
free from all instrumental errors, b is positive when the left
end is higher, and its value, heretofore explained, is obtained by
direct and reversed readings of both ends of the bubble, and is
 (w + w') (e + e') \,d being the value of one division in
seconds of arc. For stars at, or very near, elongation, it is evident
that cot z may be replaced by tan 0, without material error; c is
positive when middle wire is to the left of its proper position.
For very precise work the above result requires a small correc
tion for diurnal aberration, the effect of which is to displace (appar
164 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
ently) a star toward the east point. For stars at elongation, this
correction is 0".311 cos A e . (See Note 1.)
In using the readingmicroscopes, care should be taken to correct
for " error of runs." When a microscope is in perfect adjustment,
a whole number of turns of the micrometer screw carries the wire
exactly over the space between two consecutive graduations of the
circle. Due to changes of temperature, etc., the distance between
the micrometer and circle may change, thus altering the size of the
image of a " space." The excess of a circle division over a whole
number of turns is called the " Error of Runs." This error is de
termined by trial, and a proportional part applied to all readings of
minutes and seconds made with the microscope.
Observations and Preliminary Computations. The observations
and the preliminary computations are as follows : The error and
rate of the chronometer, error of runs of the micrometers, collima
tion error and latitude are supposed to have been obtained with
considerable accuracy. The apparent R. A. and declination for the
time of elongation of the star to be used must be taken from the
Ephemeris, or, if not given there, reduced from the mean places
given in the catalogue employed, as explained under Zenith
Telescope.
Then for the star's hourangle at elongation, cos P e =  ^.
tan o
." azimuth " sin^ e =  C S f.
COS
" " et zenith distance at " cos# e = : s>
sin o
" " sidereal time " " T = a P f .
" " chronometer " " " T = T E,
a being the R. A., and E the chronometer error.
The instrument is then placed accurately over the station and
levelled, so that everything will be in readiness to begin observations
at about 20 W before the time of elongation as above computed. In
the actual measurement of the angle several different methods have
been followed. First, five or six pointings are made on the target,
and for each pointing, the circle and all the microscopes are read;
also if the angle of elevation of the target differ sensibly from zero
(as would not usually be the case with the baseline of a survey)
readings of the level, both direct and reversed, are made. If the
AZIMUTHS. 166
target be on the same level as the instrument, cot z 9 will be zero,
and the level correction will disappear. Then five or six pointings
are made on the star, and in addition to the above readings the
chronometer time of each bisection is noted. The instrument is
then reversed to eliminate error of collimation, and the above
operations repeated, beginning with the star. In the second method
alternate readings are made on the mark and star, star and mark,
until five or six measurements of the angle have been made, the
chronometer being read at each bisection of the star; the circle,
microscopes and level as before. The instrument is then reversed,
and the same operations repeated in the reverse order. The middle
of the time occupied by the whole set should correspond very nearly
to the time of elongation. Similar observations are then made, on
the same or following nights, on other stars, combining both eastern
and western elongations, and using different parts of the horizontal
circle for the measurement.
Reduction of Observations. Since the observations on the star
have been made at different times, and since these correspond to
different though nearly equal azimuths, the first step in the reduc
tion is to ascertain what each reading on the star would have been
had the observation been made exactly at elongation. For this
purpose find the difference between the chronometer time of each
observation and the chronometer time of elongation as computed,
applying the rate if perceptible. Let the sidereal interval between
these two epochs bo denoted by r seconds. Then the elongation
reading of the star would have been
actual reading the expression 112.5 r* sin 1" tan A e ,
which denote by 0. (See Note 2.)
[The quantity 112.5 r* sin 1" is almost exactly equal to the
tabulated values of "m" in the "Reduction to the Meridian/' and
may if desired be taken directly from those tables.] With a
circle graduated as assumed, this correction would manifestly be
negative for a western, and positive for an eastern, elongation.
Hence Eq. (181) becomes,
A t  A e = (r f + V cot z') (r + bcotz C). (182)
Each pair of observations (on the line and star) with the telescope
166 PRACTICAL ASTkONOMf.
"direct " gives a value of A l A e . If n d be the number of such
_
pairs, the mean will be  , to which if A e (positive for
n d
eastern, negative for western, elongations) be added as heretofore
Ccos S \
sin A e =  7 , we shall have the true bearing of the
cos <p J J
line for instrument " direct"
Similarly, for instrument " reversed," we shall have
2( A t  A.)
~
from which by adding A e we obtain the true bearing of the line for
instrument reversed.
The mean of the two is the true bearing of the line as given by
the star employed.
[For the greatest precision, this must be corrected by adding
fche diurnal aberration, 0".311 cos./!,,.]
The adopted value of the azimuth of the line should rest upon
AI least five such determinations.
E
Fio. 33.
! 1. Diurnal Aberration in Azimuth.
It has already been shown when treating of the transit instru
ment and in Art. 225 Young, that due to diurnal aberration all
stars are apparently displaced toward the cast point of the horizon
by 0".319 cos 0sin of a great circle, where is the angle made by
the direction of a ray of light from the star with an east and west
line (measured by S E, Fig. 33).
To determine the effect of this small displacement on the
AZIMUTHS. 167
azimuth of a star, the rightangled triangle Z 8 M gives, denoting
ZMbyb,
. A cos 6
sm A =
SHI 2
sin z cos A = sin sin J.
Hence
A cos cos A
sm A =  7.^ ,
sin sin
, . cot #
tan J = .  7 .
smd
Differentiating
cos A 7
 dff.
 . ~  77
sin b sin v sin sin z
Substituting 0".319 cos sin 9 for d 6 (since is a decreasing
function of A),
j A 0".319cos^cos0
$ ji.    .
sin z
Jj'or a close circurnpolar star at elongation
cos = sin z, sensibly.
Hence,
^^4 = 0".319cos^l e . (183)
^ 2. To Reduce an Azimuth Observed Shortly Before or After
the Time of Elongation, to its Value at Elongation.
If wo conceive the meridian to be revolved to the position of the
declination circle passing through the point of elongation, evidently
the arc of this circle intercepted between the vertical wire of the
instrument and the point of elongation will have the same numeri
cal value as the " Reduction to the Meridian " deduced in connec
tion with the Zenith Telescope, viz. :
i (15r) 8 sin 1" sin 3 d = 112.5 r a sin 1" sin d cos d.
168 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
The angle at the zenith subtended by this arc, i.e., the correction
to azimuth, is seen from the small rightangled triangle to be
112.5 r> sin l".. (184)
sm z e v '
Substituting cos d and sin d for sin d and cos d (d = polar dis
tance), making cos p = 1, and sin p = t&np (since the star is a close
circumpolar), the last factor becomes
*?5L1? = tan A* Hence tf = 112.5 r* sin I" tan J r
sm 2 e
DECLINATION OF THE MAGNETIC NEEDLE.
The Declination of the Magnetic Needle may be found in ac
cordance with the same principles, regarding the magnetic meridian
pointed out by the needle, as the line whose azimuth is to be found.
Or, note the reading of the needle when the instrument carrying it
is pointed accurately along a line whose true bearing or azimuth is
known. Or, take the magnetic bearing of some known celestial
body, and note the time T. Then P = T  a. This value of P
in Eq. (178) gives the true azimuth, and the difference between
this and the magnetic bearing gives the declination of the needle.
Or, if tho time be not known, measure the altitude of the body and
solve the Z P R triangle for A, knowing 0, dj and a. Then having
noted the magnetic bearing of tho body at the instant of measuring
the altitude, the difference is the declination of tho needle.
One of the most accurate methods of laying out tho true merid
ian is by means of a Transit Instrument adjusted to the meridian,
and whose instrumental errors a and c have been carefully deter
mined by star observations.
SUNDIALS.
A sundial is a contrivance for indicating apparent solar time
by means of the shadow of a wire or straightedge cast on a properly
graduated surface. The wire or straightedge, called the style or
gnomon, must be parallel to the earth's axis; i.e., it must be inclined
to the horizontal by an angle equal to the latitude, and be in the
SUNDIALS.
169
meridian. The graduated surface, called the dialface, is usually
a plane, and made either of metal or smoothed stone. It may have
any position with reference to the style (consistent with receiving
its shadow throughout the day), although it is usually either hori
zontal or placed in the prime vertical. The two varieties are shown
in Fig. a, the first being by far the more common.
FIQ. a.
The principle of the horizontal dial will be readily understood
from an inspection of Fig. b.
Let PP' be the axis of the celestial sphere, ^the zenith, A Q B
the equinoctial, and A II B perpendicular to Z the plane of the
dial face, the style extending from C in the direction of P. Then
if a plane be passed through the style and the position of the sun,
S, at any instant, it will cut from the celestial sphere the sun%
hourcircle, and from the dialface the line C IX, which is therefore
the shadow of the style on the dialface. The direction of this line
is thus seen to be independent of the sun's declination (season of
the year), and dependent only on his hour angle. Tf, therefore, we
mark on the dialface the various positions of this line correspond
ing to assumed hour angles which differ from each other by, for
170
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
example, 3 45' or 15 minutes, instants of apparent solar time will
be indicated by the arrival of the style's shadow at the correspond
ing line. This construction may be made as follows, noting that
Fia. 6.
the 12o'clock line is the intersection of the dialface with the
vertical plane through the style.
Suppose, for example, it were required to construct the 9o*clock
line. In the spherical triangle P IV TX rightangled at //' we
have P H' = 0, and the angle at P = Z P 8 = 45, to determine
the side H' IX '= #, given by the formula
tan x = sin tan 45.
Then with C as a center lay off an angle from CUT equal to the
computed value of x, and draw the line IX.
Generally,
tan x = sin tan P 9
P denoting the hour angle assumed.
Values of x corresponding to intermediate values of P may be
laid off with a pair of dividers.
The dialface may have any convenient form, circular, rectan
gular, or elliptical. The last is the best form (shown in Fig. ),
since the axis can be so proportioned that the spaces along the edge
SUND1AL8. 171
will be nearly equal, thus greatly facilitating any subdivision. For
the latitude of West Point, 11' should be about 2 times G A
(Fig. a). If the plate be 18 or 20 inches long the subdivisions can
be readily carried to minutes.
Usually the style is n triangularshaped piece of metal of a suf
ficient thickness to avoid deformation by accident say i or inch.
In this case one edge will cast the shadow in the A.M., and the
other in the P.M. Hence the graduations on either side of the
12o'clock line must be constructed using as a center the point
where the shadowcasting edge pierces the plane of the dialface.
The plane of the style must be accurately perpendicular to the
dialface.
Having been graduated, the sundial is mounted on a firm
pedestal, accurately levelled by a spiritlevel, and turned till the
plane of the style is in the meridian. For an approximation we
may use a pocket compass, the declination of the needle being
known within moderate limits. By day the orientation may be
effected by means of a watch whose error is known. Compute the
watch time of apparent noon = 12o'clock error + equation of
time, and turn the dial slowly, keeping the shadow of style 011 the
12o'clock mark until the time computed. The levelling must be
carefully attended to. If the watch error be not known, it may be
found by means of a sextant.
If no means of determining time are at hand, the dial may still
be oriented by a determination of the meridian plane, either by
day or night. At night advantage may be taken of the fact that
Polaris and Ursae Majoris (the middle star in the tail of the
Great Bear or handle of the Dipper) cross the meridian at almost
exactly the same instant. Therefore if two plumblines be sus
pended from firm supports as nearly in the meridian as may be, one
touching the style and the other a few feet to the south arranged
for lateral shifting, we may by sliding the latter cover both stars by
both lines at the moment of meridian passage. These lines then
define the meridian plane, into which the style is easily turned.
The polar distance of C being between 34 and 35, it is evident
that for latitudes above about 40 the star must be observed at
lower culmination, and for lower latitudes at the upper.
By day the meridian plane may be determined as follows: Sus
pend a plumbline over the south end of a perfectly level table or
172
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
other suitable surface. With the point A as a center describe an
arc, CD. The shadow of a knot or bead at B will describe during
the day a curve E F G D. Mark the points C and D where it
crosses the arc before and after noon. A line from A bisecting the
chord CD will then be in the meridian, and its extremities may be
projected to the earfch by plumblines and the points marked.
Stretch a fine cord fronnme point to the other, and note the instant
FIG. c.
when the shadow of the south plumbline exactly coincides with
that of the cord. This is evidently apparent noon; and if the dial
be so turned that the shadow of the style falls on the 12o'clock
line at the same instant, it will be duly oriented.
Evidently this method supposes the sun's declination to be con
stant; its change may, however, for this purpose be neglected,
except for a month at about the time of the equinoxes.
The meridian line may also be determined with a theodolite, as
described in works on Surveying.
The dialface may if desired be graduated after orientation by
noting where the shadow of the style falls at 1 hour, 2 hours, etc.,
from the time of apparent noon.
The indications of all sundials must be corrected by the Equa
tion of Time in order to give local mean time. This correction is
practically constant for the corresponding days of all years, and its
value at suitable intervals may either be engraved on the dialplate,
or taken from the annexed table.
Kefraction, varying with the sun's altitude, is evidently a source
SOLAR ECLIPSE.
173
of error, although too small to require consideration in the present
connection.
The indications of a sundial with the solid style (Fig. a) will
be one minute too great in the forenoon and one minute too small
in the afternoon, since the shadow line will in each case be formed
by the limb of the sun toward the meridian, and the sun requires
about one minute to advance through an arc equal to its semi
diameter.
A dial constructed for a given latitude may bo used without
appreciable error in any latitude not differing therefrom by more
than one third of a degree say 25 miles.
Vertical dials are usually placed on the south fronts of buildings.
Their construction is readily understood from what precedes, the
graduations being computed by the formula
tan x = cos tan P.
EQUATION OF TIME TO BE ADDED TO SUNDIAL TIME.
Day.
Jan.
Feb.
March.
April.
May.
June.
1
+ 4
+ 14"*
+ 12
+ 4
3 m
2
8
7
14
11
2
4
1
16
10
14
9
4
24
12
13
6
2
3
+3
Day.
July.
Aug.
Sept.
Oct.
Nov.
Dec.
1
43
+ 6
O m .
10
16
10*
8
5
5
2
12
16
 7
16
6
4
5
14
15
 4
24
6
2
8
15
13
SOLAB ECLIPSE.
A solar eclipse can only occur at conjunction that is, at new
moon, and then only when the moon is near enough to the plane of
the ecliptic to throw its shadow or penumbra upon the earth. The
following discussion, abbreviated from that found in Chauvenet's
Practical Astronomy, Vol. I, will suffice to give the student such a
174 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
knowledge of the theory of eclipses as to enable him to project
a solar eclipse, with the aid of the eclipse data found in the
Ephemeris.
Solar Ecliptic Limits. Let N 8 Fig. 34 be the Ecliptic, N M
s s (
FIG. 34.
the intersection of the plane of the moon's orbit with the celestial
sphere, N the moon's node, S and M the sun's and moon's center
at conjunction, and 8' and M' the same points at the instant of
nearest angular distance of the moon from the sun. Assume the
following notation, viz. :
ft = 8 M, the moon's latitude at conjunction.
i = SN M y the inclination of the moon's orbit to the ecliptic.
\ = the quotient of the moon's mean hourly motion in longitude at
conjunction, divided by that of the sun.
A 8' M' 9 the least true distance.
y = 8MS'.
Considering N MS as a plane triangle, and drawing the perpen
dicular M' P from M ' to 8 N, we have
S3' = (3 tan y. SPhp tan y.
 l) a tan 1 y + (1  A tan f tan y) 1 ].
Differentiating the last equation and placing ( r = 0, we find A
will be a minimum for
" tai??
80LAR ECLIPSft. 176
or
J'=:/?'cosV, (186)
when tan i 9 is placed equal to ^   tan i.
A 1
The least apparent distance of the sun's and moon's center as
viewed from the surface of the earth maybe less than A by the
difference of the horizontal parallaxes of the two bodies. Call this
distance A', then
J'=J (re  P).
"Now when A 9 is less than the sum of the apparent semidiameters
of the sun and moon there will be an eclipse; hence the condition
is (denoting the semidiameters of the moon and sun respectively
by s f and s),
or
/? cos i 9 < n  P + s + *'. (187)
To ascertain the probability of an eclipse, it is generally suffi
cient to substitute the mean values of the quantities in the above
inequality. The extreme values, determined by observation are
. j 5 20' 06"
*  4 57' 22"
n \ 52' 50"
5 8' 44"
s J15M5"
57' 11"
 j 16' 46"
8 \ 14' 24"
j 9".
( 8".7Q
j 1^.
\ 10.
8".85
10J89
16' 1" 15' 35" 13. 5
The mean value of sec i' 9 found from those of i and A,, is 1.00472
and hence,
(188)
/?< (TT P + s + s') sec V = ft <(TC  P + s + s') (1 + 0.00472).
The fractional part of the second member of the inequality
varies between 20" and 30"; taking its mean 25", we have for aU
but exceptional cases,
(189)
176 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
Substituting in this last form the greatest values of TT, s 9 and
$', and the least value of P; and then the least values of zr, s, and
s' t and the greatest value of P, we have
/3 < 1 34' 27".3,
and
ft < 1 22' 50",
respectively.
If, therefore, the moon's latitude at conjunction he greater than
1 34' 27".3 a solar eclipse is impossible; if less than 1 22' 50" it
is certain; if between those values it is doubtful. To ascertain
whether there will be one or not in the latter case, substitute the
actual values of P, TT, s and ,s*' for the date, and if the inequality
subsists there will be an eclipse, otherwise not.
PBOJECTION OF A SOLAR ECLIPSE.
1. To find the Radius of the Shadow on any Plane perpendicular
to the Axis of the Shadow.
In Fig. 35 let 3 and M be the centers of the sun and moon; V
the vertex of the umbral or penumbral cone; F E i\\s fundamental
plane through the earth's center perpendicular to the axis of the
shadow ; and D the parallel plane through the observer's position.
It is required to find the value of D at the beginning or ending
of an eclipse.
Take the earth's mean distance from the sun to be unity, and
let E8 = r,fi M= r', M8 = r r'. Place = = 0, and let k
be the ratio of the earth's equatorial radius to the moon's radius
= 0.27227. Then P being the sun's mean horizontal parallax, we
have
Earth's radius = sin P .
Moon's radius = Jc sin P = 0.27227 sin P+
Sun's radius = sin s.
BOLAR ECLIPSE.
177
8 being the apparent semidiameter of the sun at mean distance
From the figure we have
(190)
E F
FIG. 35.
in which the upper sign corresponds to the penumbral and the
lower to the umbral cone. The numerator of the second member
is constant, and since s 959".758, P = 8".85, we have
log [sin s + Tc sin P Q ] = 7.6G88033 for exterior contact,
log [sin s Tc sin P ] = 7.GGG6913 for interior contact.
If the equatorial radius of the earth be taken as unity, we have
Jc_
' sin/
178
PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY t
Whence the distance c of the vertex of the cone from the fun
damental plane is
If I and L be radius of the shadow on the fundamental and on the
observer's plane respectively, and C be their distance apart, we have
I = ctan/ = 2tan/ * sec/. (192)
L = (c  C) tan / = I C tan/. (193)
To find the distance of the Observer at a given time from the
Axis of the Shadow in terms of his Coordinates and those of
the Moon's Center, referred to the Earth's Center as an Origin.
Let 0, Figure 36, be the earth's center, and X Y the funda
mental plane. Take Z Y to be the plane of the declination circle
Fia. 36.
passing through the point Z in which the axis of the moon's shadow
pierces the celestial sphere; X Z being perpendicular to the other
two coordinate planes. Let M and 8 be the centers of the moon
and sun, M r , S' 9 their geocentric places on the celestial sphere, M t
their projections on the fundamental plane, and C, the projection
of the observer's place on the same plane. Let P be the north
SOLAR ECLIPSE. 179
pole. The axis Z, being always parallel to the axis of the shadow,
will pierce the celestial sphere in the same point, as S M. Assume
the following notation :
ot, tf, r = the K. A., Dec., and distance from the earth's center,
respectively, of the moon's center.
a' , d', r' = the corresponding coordinates of the sun's center.
a, d, = the R. A. and Dec. of the point Z.
x, y, z = the coordinates of the moon's center.
9 77, = the coordinates of the observer's position.
0, 0' = the latitude and reduced latitude respectively.
A = the longitude of the observer's station west from
Greenwich.
p the earth's radius at the observer's station in terms of
the earth's equatorial radius taken as unity.
/*, = the Greenwich hour angle of the point Z.
I* = the sidereal time at which the point Z has the R. A. a.
A = the required distance of the place of observation from
the axis of the shadow at the time //.
From the conditions, we have
K. A. of Z  a,
R. A. of M'a,
R. A. of X = 90 + a,
and therefore
ZP M ' = a  a, and P M' = 00  S.
Through M t and G t draw M t N and C 4 N parallel to the axis of
JTand Irrespectively; then M t G t JV = P Z M' = P, the position
angle of the point of contact, and we have
A sin P x 5, )
[ (194)
A cos P = y 77. )
180 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
From the spherical triangles M' P X, M' P Y, and M f P Z, we
have
x = r cos M f JT = r cos 6 V sin (a a) \
y 7 cos M' Y r\ sin tf cos d cos tf sin d cos (tf a)] > (1 95)
2 = r cos yl/' ^ = r [sin tf sin ^? + cos d cos d cos (<? a)]. J
Similarly tlio coordinates of the place of observation arc
= p cos 0' sin (;i a)
ij p [sin 0' cos </ cos (// sin ^ cos (;< ) 
J = /j [sin 0' sin ^ ( cos 0' cos r/ cos (/* #)].
The hour an^le (// ) oi* the point /, for the meridian of the
observer can be found from
in which //, is the hour angle of the point /f for the Greenwich
meridian and A. is tbe longitude of the observer's meridian.
The distance of the observer from the axis of the moon's shadow
A^ =. G t M t can be found from the above formulas,
since, A* (x )* + (y ~ 7 /Y (107)
3. To Find the Time of Beginning or Ending of the Eclipse at the
Place of Observation.
For the assumed Greenwich mean time of computation take
from the Dosselian table of elements given in the Ephemeris for
each eclipse the values of sin d, cos d, and /i,. The values of p cos 0'
\ind p sin 0' are found on page 505, computed from the formulas,
. , a cos, TT ,
p cos = , V JT = $ cos
(198)
, . sin V\ u" sin a sin
m 0' = > = _
SOLAS ECLIPSE. 181
The variations of 5 and ?/ in one minute of mean time are ob
tained by differentiating the lirst two of Eqs. (196), and give
' = [1.63992] p cos 0' cos (ji,  A) <]
rf = [7.63993 1 p cos 0' sin d sin (//,  A) Ml 99)
= [7.63992] 5 Bin rf. J
The variations of jc and # for one minute of mean time are
represented by x', and //, and their logarithms are given in the
lower table of the Ephemeris elements for the eclipse. Now, if the
time chosen for computation be exactly the instant of beginning or
ending of the eclipse, then A = L\ but as this is scarcely possible
a correction r in minutes must be made to the assumed Ephemeris
time T.
We may then write,
L sin r = x  c? + (x'  ') r, (200)
L cos P = y  // j (y'  ;/') r. (201)
Assume the auxiliary quantities m, M, n, N, given by the equa
tions,
in sin J/ x ,
m cos J/" // //,
M sin ;V r = !//  g',
^i COS /V = 7/' ;/'.
From these we have
L sin (/ >  JV) = m sin (JA JVT),
(203)
/: cos (/>  N) = wi (!os (/If j^) + ^ r.
Hence putting //> = P JV 7 , we have
. . w sin (]\f j\T)
sin //; = ^ y , (204)
182 PRACTICAL ASTRONOMY.
the lower sign of the second term in the second mcmher of the last
equation corresponding to the time of beginning and the upper to
the time of ending of the eclipse.*
4. The Position Angle of the Point of Contact. The angle re
quired is P = N + $ for the end and P = N ?/' 180
for the beginning of the eclipse.
5. Wo now have all the equations, and the Ephemeris gives us the
Besselian table of elements from which the circumstances of
an eclipse can be computed at any place. These equations
are here arranged in the order in which they would be used,
and the student is referred to the type problem worked out
in the Ephemeris as a guide.
1. Constants for the given place,
p sin 0'  Found from table page 505, Ephemeris, know
p cos 0' ) ing the observer's latitude.
2. Coordinates of observer, referred to center of earth.
= p cos 0' sin (/* a).
if = p sin 0' cos d p cos 0' sin d cos (fJt a),
= p sin 0' sin d + p cos 0' cos d cos (^i d).
3. Variations of observer's coordinates in one minute of mean time,
' = [7.63992] pcos 0'cos (//,  A).
if = [7.G3992J , sin d.
4. The values of m^ M 9 n and N, given by
msin M = x ,
m cos M = y 77,
w sin JV = x 9 ',
?& cos jV" = T/' 7;'.
* See page 506, Epliemeris.
SOLAR ECLIPSE. 183
5. The radius L of the shadow or penumbra on a plane passing
through the observer, parallel to the fundamental plane, and
at a distance C from it.
6. The value of the angle $>
. , wsin (M N)
sin if> =    L 9
7. The value of the time r in minutes
n n
8. The position angle P, from
or
P = N  ^ itJO.
TABLES.
<p
9> cp'
log p
<f>
<p<p>
log/o
I
i ii
/
i it
0.00
0.000 0000
35
10 48.25
9.999 5248
1
24.02
9.999 9996
10
49.63
5208
2
48.02
9982
20
50.98
5169
8
1 11.95
9961
30
52.31
5129
4
1 85.80
9930
40
53. G2
6089
5
1 50.54
9891
60
54.90
5049
6
2 23.13
9.899 9848
36
10 56.16
9.999 5009
7
2 46.54
9786
10
57.41
4969
8
8 9.76
9721
, 20
58.63
4929
8 82.74
9648
30
59.82
4888
10
8 55.47
9566
40
11 1.00
4848
11
4 17.93
9476
60
2.15
4807
12
4 40.06
0.999 9377
37
11 8.28
9.999 4767
13
6 1.85
9271
10
4.39
4726
14
5 23.28
9157
20
6.4T
4686
15
5 44.33
9035
80
6.54
4645
16
6 4.95
8905
40
7.68
4604
17
6 25.14
8768
50
8.59
4563
IS
6 44.86
9.999 8624
83
11 9.59
9.999 4522
19
7 4.09
8472
10
10.56
4481
20
7 22.80
8314
20
11.51
4440
21
7 40.99
8149
80
12.44
4399
22
7 58.61
7977
40
13.34
4858
23
8 15.66
7799
50
14.22
4317
24
8 82.10
9.999 7614
89
11 15.08
9.999 4276
25
8 47.93
7424
10
15.92
4234
20
9 3.12
7228
20
16.73
4198
27
9 17.65
7027
80
17.52
4152
28
9 31.50
6820
40
18.29
4110
29
9 44.66
6608
60
19.04
4069
30
9 57.12
9.999 6392
40
11 19.76
9.999 4027
10
9 59.12
6355
10
20.46
3985
20
10 1.11
6319
20
21.18
8944
80
8.07
6282
80
21.79
8902
40
6.02
6245
40
22.42
8860
CO
6.94
6208
60
23.02
8819
81
10 8.85
9.999 6171
41
11 23.61
9.999 8777
10
10.73
6134
10
24.17
8785
20
12.59
6096
20
24.70
8698
80
14.44
6059
80
25.22
8651
40
16.26
6021
40
26.71
8609
60
18.06
5984
50
26.18
8567
82
10 19.84
9.999 5946
42
11 26.62
9.999 8525
10
21.60
5908
10
27.04
8488
20
23.34
5870
20
27.44
8441
80
25.05
5832
eo
27.82
8399
40
26.75
5794
40
28.17
8357
60
28.43
5755
50
28.50
8315
88
10 30.08
9.999 5717
48
11 28.80
9.999 3278
10
81.71
5678
10
29.08
8280
20
83.32
5640
20
29.84
8188
80
84.91
6601
80
29.68
8146
40
86.48
5562
40
29.79
8104
60
88.03
6523
60
29.98
8062
84
10 89.55
9.999 5484
44
11 80.14
9.999 8019
10
41.06
6445
10
80.29
2977
20
42.54
6406
20
80.41
2985
80
44.00
5367
80
80.60
2892
40
45.44
6327
40
80.67
2850
60
46.86
62b8
60
80.62
2808
187
CD
II
Il
ls.
I !T
3
o
*
m
P
3.
188
3
cr
CO
E 5
II
a
o
<D
o
.2 a
CD
<p
<p~<p'
log p
<P
<P <p'
log ft
/
i it
1
/ if
45
11 30.95
9.999 2766
55
10 49.74
9.999 0275
10
80.65
2723
10
48.36
0235
20
80.63
2681
20
46.97
0193
80
80.58
2639
30
45.55
0155
40
80.51
2596
40
44.11
0116
50
80.42
2554
50
42.65
0076
46
11 80.81
9.999 2512
56
10 41.16
9.999 0037
10
80.17
2470
10
89.65
9.998 9993
20
30.01
2427
20
88.13
0958
80
29.82
2385
30
86.58
9919
40
29.61
2843
40
85.01
9880
50
29.38
2300
50
83.41
9841
47
11 29.12
9.999 2258
57
10 81.80
9.998 9803
10
28.85
2216
10
30.16
9764
20
28.54
2174
20
28.50
9725
80
28.22
2132
80
26.83
9686
40
27.87
2089
40
25.13
9648
50
27.50
2047
50
23.40
9610
48
11 27.10
9.999 2005
58
10 21.66
9.908 9571
10
26.69
1963
10
19.90
9533
20
26.24
1921
20
18.11
9495
80
25.78
1879
30
16.31
9457
40
25.29
1837
40
14.48
9419
50
24.78
1795
50
12.63
9383
49
10
20
80
40
50
11 24.24
23.69
23.11
22.50
21.87
21.22
9.999 1753
1711
1669
1627
1586
1644
59
10
20
80
40
60
10 10.77
8. 88
6.97
5.04
3.08
1.11
9.998 9344
9307
9269
9232
9195 ,
9158
50
11 20.25
9.999 1502
60
61
9 59.12
9 46.74
9.998 9121
8903
10
19.85
1460
62
9 33 65
8688
20
80
40
19.18
18.39
17.63
1419
1377
1335
63
64
65
9 19.85
9 5.36
8 50.21
1479
8275
8077
50
16.84
1294
66
8 34.40
9.998 7884
51
11 16.02
9.999 1252
67
8 17.97
7697
10
15.19
1211
68
8 0.92
7517
20
14.83
1170
69
7 43.29
7343
80
13.45
1128
70
7 25.08
7174
40
12.55
1087
71
7 6.33
7013
50
11.62
1046
72
6 47.06
9.998 6859
52
11 10.67
9.999 1005
73
6 27.28
6713
10
9.70
0963
74
6 7.03
6573
20
8.71
0922
75
5 48.33
6441
30
7.69
0881
76
5 25.20
6317
40
6.66
0840
77
5 3.67
6201
50
5.60
0800
78
4 41.77
i.998 6093
53
10
20
80
40
11 4.51
3.40
2.27
1.12
10 59.94
9.999 0759
0718
0677
0537
0596
79
80
81
2
83
4 19.53
8 56.96
8 34.10
8 10.98
2 47.63
5993
5901
6818
6743
6676
50
58.74
0556
84
2 24.07
9.908 5619
54
10 57.52
9.999 0515
85
86
2 0.33
1 86.44
5570
6530
10
20
56.28
55.02
0475
0435
87
88
1 12.43
48.34
6498
6476
80
40
63.73
52.43
0395
0355
89
24.18
6469
50
51.09
0315
DO
0.00
9.9985458
Apparent
Altitude.
Menu
Refraction.
Apparent
Altitude.
Mean
Refraction.
Apparent
Altitude.
Mean Re
fraction .
Apparent
Altitude.
Mean Re.
fraction.
9 80
5 85.1
/
14 80
/ H
8 41.6
t
20
tt
2 88.8
86 29
85
5 82.4
85
8 40.3
10
2 87.4
1
24 54
40
6 29.6
40
3 39.0
20
2 36.0
18 26
45
6 27.0
45
8 87.7
30
2 34.6
8
14 25
50
5 24.3
50
3 86.5
40
2 33.3
4
11 44
55
5 21.7
55
8 35.3
50
2 32.0
5
9 52.0
10
5 19.3
15
8 84.1
21
2 30.7
5
9 44.0
5
5 16.7
5
3 32.9
10
2 29.4
10
9 86.2
10
5 14.2
10
8 81.7
20
2 28.1
15
9 28. C
15
5 11.7
15
8 30.5
80
2 26.9
20
9 21.2
20
5 9.8
20
8 29.4
40
2 25.7
25
9 14.0
25
5 6.9
25
3 28.2
00
2 24.5
80
9 7.0
30
5 4.6
80
3 27.1
22
2 23.8
85
9 0.1
85
5 2.8
85
3 25.9
10
3 22.1
40
8 53.4
40
5 0.0
40
3 24.8
20
2 20.9
45
8 46.8
45
4 57.8
45
8 23.7
80
2 19.8
60
8 40.4
50
4 55.6
50
3 22.0
40
2 18.7
55
8 34.2
55
4 53.4
65
3 21.5
60
3 17.5
6
8 28.0
11
4 51.2
16
8 20.5
28
3 16.4
5
8 22.1
5
4 4'J.l
5
8 19.4
10
2 15.4
10
8 16.2
10
4 47.0
10
8 18.4
20
2 14.3
15
8 10.5
15
4 44.9
15
8 17.3
80
2 13.3
20
8 4.8
20
4 42.9
20
8 16.3
40
2 12.2
25
7 59.3
25
4 40.9
25
8 15.2
50
2 11.2
80
7 53.9
80
4 38.9
80
8 14.2
24
3 10.2
85
7 48.7
85
4 36.9
35
8 13.2
10
2 9.3
40
7 43.5
40
4 35.0
40
3 12 2
20
3 8.2
45
7 38.4
45
4 33.1
45
3 11.2
80
2 7.2
50
7 335
50
4 31.2
50
3 10.8
40
2 6.2
55
7 28.6
55
4 29.4
55
3 9.3
50
2 6.8
7
7 23.8
12
4 27.5
17
3 8.3
25
2 4.4
5
7 19.2
5
4 25.7
5
3 7.3
10
2 3.4
10
7 14.6
10
4 23.9
10
3 6.4
20
2 2.5
15
7 10.1
15
4 22.2
15
3 5.5
30
2 1.6
20
7 5.7
20
4 20.4
20
3 4.6
40
2 0.7
25
7 1.4
25
4 18.7
25
3 8.7
50
1 59.8
80
6 57.1
30
4 17.0
80
8 8.8
26
1 58.9
35
6 53.0
35
4 15.8
85
3 1.9
10
1 58.1
40
6 48.9
40
4 13.6
40
3 1.0
20
1 57.2
45
6 44.9
45
4 12.0
45
8 0.1
30
1 56.4
50
6 41.0
50
4 10.4
60
2 59.2
40
1 55.5
55
6 37.1
65
4 8.8
65
2 58.3
50
1 64.7
8
6 33.3
13
4 7.2
18
2 57.5
27
1 53.9
6
6 29.6
5
4 5.6
5
2 56.6
10
1 53.1
10
6 25.9
10
4 4.1
10
2 55.8
20
1 52.8
15
6 22.8
15
4 2.6
15
2 54.9
80
1 51.5
20
6 18.8
20
4 1.0
20
2 54.1
40
1 50.7
25
6 15.3
25
3 59.6
25
2 53.2
60
1 50.0
80
6 11.9
80
3 58.1
80
2 52.4
28
1 49.2
85
6 8.5
35
3 56.6
35
2 51.6
10
1 48.4
40
e 5.2
40
3 55.2
40
2 50.8
20
1 47.7
45
6 2.0
45
3 53.7
45
2 50.0
80
1 46.9
.*0
5 58.8
50
3 52.3
50
2 49.2
40
1 46.2
65
5 55.7
55
8 50.9
65
2 48.4
50
1 45.5
9
5 52.6
14
3 49.5
19
2 47.7
29
1 44.8
5
5 49.6
5
8 48.1
10
2 46.1
20
1 43.4
10
5 46.6
10
8 46.8
20
2 44.6
40
1 42.0
15
5 43.6
15
8 45.5
80
2 43.1
30
1 40.6
20
5 40.7
20
8 44.2
40
2 41.6
20
I 39.8
35
5 87.9
25
8 42.9
50
3 40.2
40
1 88.0
189
8
6*
190
c g
o 1
t5
Apparent
Altitude.
Mean
Refraction.
Apparent
Altltnde.
Mean
Refraction.
Apparent
Altitude,
Mean Be
fraction.
Apparent
Altitude.
Mean Re
fraction.
o i
t n
I
/ 11
e t
/ //
o I
/ //
81
86.7
41
1 7.0
51
47.2
61
82.3
20
85.5
20
1 6.2
20
46.6
62
31.0
40
84.2
40
5.4
40
46.1
63
29.7
83
88.0
42
4.7
58
45.5
64
28.4
20
81.8
20
8.9
20
45.0
65
27.2
40
80.7
40
8.2
40
44.4
66
25.9
88
29.5
48
2.4
58
43.9
67
24.7
20
28.4
20
1.7
20
48.4
68
23.6
40
1 27.8
40
1.0
40
42.8
69
22.4
84
1 26.2
44
0.8
54
42.8
70
21.2
20
1 25.1
20
59.6
20
41,8
71
20.1
40
1 24.1
40
58.9
40
41.3
72
18.9
85
1 23.1
45
58.2
55
40.8
73
17.8
20
1 22.0
20
57.6
20
40.8
74
16.7
40
1 21.0
40
56.9
40
89.8
76
15.6
86
1 20.1
46
56.2
56
89.8
76
14.5
20
1 19.1
20
55.6
20
88.8
77
13.5
40
1 18.2
40
55.0
40
88.3
78
12.4
87
1 17.2
47
54.8
57
37.8
79
11.3
20
1 16.8
20
58.7
20
87.8
80
10.8
40
1 15.4
40
58.1
40
86.9
81
9.2
88
1 14.5
48
52.5
58
86.4
82
8.2
20
1 18.6
20
51.9
20
85.9
88
7.2
40
1 12.7
40
51.2
40
85.5
84
6.1
80
1 11.9
49
50.6
59
35.0
85
5.1
20
1 11.0
20
50.0
20
34.5
86
4.1
40
1 10.2
40
49.4
40
84.1
87
8.1
40
1 9.4
50
48.9
60
83.6
88
2.0
20
1 8.6
20
48.8
20
88.2
89
o i.o
40
1 7.8
40
47.8
40
82.7
90
0.0
LJ
ffl
191
Zenith
dig.
tance.
Arg. app. zen.dist
Zenith
dis
tance.
Arg. app. zen.dift*
Log a.
A
A
Log a.
A
A
*
1
1.76156 fi
77
1.75229 o.
1.0026
1.0352
10
1.76154 r
10
1.75205 OK
1.0026
1.0268
20
1.76149 2
20
1.75180 OK
1.0027
1.0264
30
1.76139 X X
80
1.75155 ff.
1.0027
1.0273
35
1.76180 .?
40
1.75129 2
1.0028
1.0281
40
1.76119 Jj
50
1.76101 g
1.0029
1.0290
45
1.76104 
1.0018
78
1.75073 no
1.0030
1.0299
46
1.76100 t
1.0019
10
1.7.1043 oft
1.0030
1.0303
4?
1.76096 T
1.0019
20
1.75013 o
1.0081
1.0318
43
1.76092 5
1.0020
80
1.74931 J2
1.0032
1.0328
49
1.76037 ?
1.0021
40
,1.74947 X:
1.0033
1.0888
50
1.76082 g
1.0023
60
1.74912 gg
1.0034
1.0347
61
1.76077 ft
1.0025
79
1.74876 ft7
1.0035
1.0357
52
1.76071 5
1.0028
10
1.74839 2ft
1.0036
1.0367
53
1.76065 2
1.0027
20
1.74799 ;
1.0087
1.0377
64
1.76053 I
1.0029
80
1.74757 To
1.0038
1.0387
55
1.76050 g
1.0031
40
1.74714 T?
1.0039
1.0398
66
1.76042 g
1.0084
60
1.74670 JJ
1.0040
1.0409
57
1.7C033 1A
1.0037
80
1.74633 KA
1.0041
1.0420
68
1.76023 fr
1.0040
10
1.74573 Jo
1.0042
1.0481
69
1.76012 ff
1.0043
20
1.74521 *
.0048
1.0442
60
1,76001 fi
1.0046
80
1.74468 gj
.0045
1.0454
61
1.75988 }H
1.0049
40
1.74412 %
.0046
1.0466
62
1.75978 \l
1.0054
60
1.74352 [
.0047
1.0479
63
1.75957 1Q
1.0058
81
1.74288 fiK
.0049
1.0493
 64
1.75939 JS
1.0063
10
1.74223 XX
.0050
1.0508
65
1.75919 no
1.0068
20
1.74155 XX
.0053
1.0523
66
1.75897 OA
1.0075
80
1.74083 Li
.0054
1.0540
67
1.75871 oo
1.0083
' 40
1.74007 11
1.0056
1.0559
63
1.75843 *
1.0092
50
1.78928 gg
1.0058
1.0679
69
1.75809 oo
1.0101
80
1.78845 ftft
1.0060
1.0600
70
1.75771 2
1.0111
10
1.78757 XA
1.0062
1.0622
71
1,75726 2?
1.0124
20
1.73663 x2
1.0065
1.0646
73
1.75675 Xn
1.0139
80
1.73564 XJ
1.0067
1.0671
73
1.75615 So
1.0156
40
1.78459 Yo
1.0070
1.0697
74
1.75543
1.0175
50
1.78347 JJg
1.0073
1.0725
75
1.75457 1ft
1.0197
88
1.73229 tai
10075
1.0754
10
1.75441 {ft
1.0200
10
1.78105 }J?
1.0978
1,0784
20
1.75425 {2
1.0204
20
1.72974 *2a
1.0081
1.0815
80
1.75408 }l
1.0208
80
1.72832 jjf
1.0084
1.0846
40
1.75391 :A
1.0212
40
1.72681 J2i
1.0082
1.0879
60
1.76373 Jg
1.0216
50
1.72519
1.0098
1.0914
76
1.75355 10
1.0220
84
1.72846 1QA
1.0096
1.0951
10
1.75886 iX
1.0225
10
1.72160 fxX
1.0100
1.0992
20
1.75316 oV
1.0280
20
1.71961 i?
1.0105
1.1086
30
1.75295 01
1.0285
80
1.71749 Sf
1.0110
1.1082
40
1.75274 gi
1.0241
40
1.71522 ;%
1.0115
1.1180
60
1.75252 g
1.0246
50
1.71279 Jg
1.0121
1.1178
77
1.75229
1.0026
1.0253
85
1.71020
1.0127
1.1229
192
Factor depending upon Factor depending upon the external
the barometer. thermometer.
Eng. Inr
Log B. p.
Log y.
F.
Log y.
27.5
0.03191 ~
o
27.6
27.7
27.8
27.9
28.0
28.1
28.2
28.3
28.4
28.5
28.6
28 7
0.03033 9fl
0.02876 ~"~~
0.02720 JQ
0.02564 *
0.02409 *'
0.02254 i
0.02099 }J
0.01946 J*
0.01793 *g
0.01640 *7
0.01488 JJ
+ 0.06276
0.06181
0.06083
0.05985
0.05887
0.05790
0.05093
0.05596
0.05500
0.05403
0.05307
+ 35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
+ 0.01185
0.01098
0.01011
0.00924
0.00837
0.00750
0.00664
0.00578
0.00492
0.00406
0.00320
28.*8
28.9
29.0
29.1
29.2
29.3
29.4
29.5
29.6
29.7
29.8
29.9
30.0
80.1
80.2
30.3
30.4
30.5
30.6
30.7
80.8
80.9
81.0
o!oil85
0.01035 *
0.00885 '
0.00735 J
0.00586 J
0.00438 *
0.00290 %
0.00142 f
+0.00005 ""*
0.00151 . r
O.OU297 *i
0.00443 ~
0.00588 J
0.00733 *
0.00876 2
0.01020
0.01163 2
0.01306 2
0.01448 ~
0.01589 JV
0.01781 fj
0.01871 f~
+0.02012 JJ
0.05211
0.05115
0.05020
0.04924
0.04829
0.04734
0.04640
0.04545
0.04451
0.04357
0.04263
0.04169
0.04076
0.03982
0.03889
0.03796
0.03704
0.03611
0.03519
0.03427
0.03835
0.03243
0.08152
0.03060
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
0.00284
0.00149
+ 0.00064
0.00021
0.00106
0.00191
0.00275
0.00360
0.00444
0.00528
0.00612
0.00696
0.00780
0.00863
0.00946
0.01029
0.01112
0.01195
0.01278
0.01860
0.01443
0.01525
0.01607
0.01689
Factor depending *;ysa < a
0.02969
0.02878
70
71
0.01770
0.01852
th attached tfier *n
0.02787
72
0.01933
mometer. * &
0.02697
73
0.02015
F.
Loz T " 19
0.02606
74
0.02096
L g T ' 20
0.02516
75
0.02177
o
21
0.02426
76
0.02257
80
20
+ 0.00243 2S
0.00203 28
0.02336
0.02247
77
78
0.02338
0.02419
10
0*00164 ^*
0.02157
79
0.02499
o
n 00125 ^
0.02068
80
0.02579
10
y.VV/AiWV ft _
0.00086 26
0.01979
81
0.02659
+20
0.00047 ^
0.01890
82
0.02738
80
40
50
+0 00008 22
0.00031 *9
0. 00070
0.01801
0.01713
0.01624
83
84
85
0.02819
0.02898
0.02978
60
0.00109 ^
0.01536
86
0.03057
70
0.00148 ^
0.01448
87
0.03136
80
90
0.00186 5?
0.00225 "*
0.01360
0.01273
88
89
0.03216
0.03294
+ 100
0.00264 * 85
+0.01185
+ 90
0.03378
Log/* = log Bhlog T.
194
I
.2
a
at
E
J
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log.B.
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log.B.
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log.B.
h. m.
h. m.
h. m.
9.4059
9.4059
40
9.4065
9.4048
1 20
9.4081
9.4015
2
.4059
.4059
42
.4065
.4047
22
.4083
.4018
4
.4059
.4059
44
.4066
.4046
24
.4084
.4010
6
.4060
,4059
46
.4067
.4045
26
.4085
.4008
8
.4060
.4059
48
.4067
.4043
28
.4086
.4006
10
.4060
.4059
50
.4068
.4042
80
.4087
.4008
12
.4060
.40r8
52
.4069
.4041
32
.4089
.4001
14
.4060
.4058
54
.4069
.4039
84
.4090
.8998
16
.4060
.4058
56
.4070
.4038
86
.4091
.8995
18
.4061
.4057
58
.4071
.4036
88
.4093
.8993
20
.4061
.4057
1
.4072
.4034
40
.4094
.3990
22
.4061
.4056
2
.4073
.4033
42
.4095
.8987
24
.4061
.4055
4
.4074
.4031
44
.4097
.3984
26
.4062
.4055
6
.4074
.4029
46
.4098
.8981
28
.4062
.4054
8
.4075
.4027
48
.4100
.8978
80
.4062
.4053
10
.4076
.4025
60
.4101
.8975
82
.4063
.4052
12
.4077
.4028
52
.4108
.8972
84
.4063
.4051
14
.4078
.4021
64
.4104
.8969
36
.4064
.4050
16
.4079
.4019
56
.4106
.8965
88
9.4064
9.4049
1 18
9.4080
9.4017
1 68
9.4107
9.8962
1
$.
M
J a*
CO H
Elapsed
liiue.
Log. A.
Log. B.
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
h. m.
h. m.
h. m.
2
9.4109
9.8959
4
9.4260
9.8635
6
9.4515
9.8010
2
.4131
.8955
2
.4263
.8627
2
.4521
.2098
4
.4113
.3952
4
.4:466
.8620
4
.4526
.2982
6
.4114
.8948
6
.4270
.8612
6
.4581
.2968
8
.4116
.8944
8
.4273
.8604
8
.4536
.2964
10
.4118
.8941
10
.4277
.8509
10
.4542
.2940
12
.4120
.8937
12
.4280
:8688
12
.4547
.2925
14
.4121
.8933
14
.4284
.8580
14
.4552
.2911
16
.4123
.8929
16
.4288
.8572
16
.4558
.2896
18
.4125
.8925
18
.4291
.8564
18
.4563
.2881
80
.4127
.8921
20
.4295
.3555
20
.4569
.2866
22
.4129
.3917
22
.4299
.8547
22
.4574
.2850
24
.4131
.8913
24
.4302
.8538
24
.4580
2835
20
.4183
.8909
26
.4306
.8530
26
.4585
.2819
28
.4135
.3905
28
.4810
.8521
28
.4591
.2804
80
.4187
.8900
80
.4314
.8512
80
.4597
.2788
83
.413!)
.8896
32
.4317
.8503
82
.4602
.2772
84
.4141
.8892
84
.4821
.8494
84
.4608
.2766
86
.4144
.8887
86
.4325
.3485
86
.4614
.2789
88
.4146
.3882
38
.4329
.3476
88
.4620
.2723
40
.4148
.3878
40
.4333
.8467
40
.4625
.2706
42
.4150
.3873
42
.4837
.8457
42
.4631
.2689
44
.4152
.8868
44
.4341
.8448
44
.4687
.2672
46
.4155
.8863
40
. 4345
.8438
46
.4648
.2655
48
.4157
.3859
48
.4349
.3429
48
.4649
.2688
50
.4159
.3854
50
.4358
.8419
60
.4655
.2620
52
.4162
.3849
52
. 4357
.3409
52
.4661
.2602
54
.4164
.3843
54
.4301
.8399
54
.4667
.2584
56
.4167
.88:38
56
.436(1
.3389
66
.4678
.2566
2 58
.4169
.8833
4 68
.4370
.3379
6 58
.4679
.2548
*
.4172
.8828
5
.4374
.3369
7
.4685
.2530
2
.4174
.3822
2
.4378
.8858
2
.4691
.2511
4
.4177
.8817
4
.43K3
.3348
4
.4697
.2492
6
.4179
.8811
6
.4 08 7
.3337
6
.4704
.2473
8
.4182
.3806
8
.4391
.8827
8
.471(,
.2454
10
.4184
.3800
10
.4396
.8316
10
.4716
.2434
12
.4187
.3794
12
.4400
.8305
12
.4723
.2415
14
.4190
.3789
14
.4405
.3294
14
.4729
.2395
16
.4193
.3783
16
.1409
.8283
16
.4785
.2375
18
.4195
.3777
18
.4414
.3272
18
.4742
.2355
20
.4198
.3771
20
.4418
.8261
20
.4748
.2884
22
.4201
.3765
22
.4423
.8249
22
.4755
.2318
24
.4204
. 3759
24
.4427
.8238
24
.4761
.2292
26
.4207
.3752
26
.4432
.8226
26
.4768
.2271
28
.4209
.8746
28
.4437
.8214
28
.4774
.2250
80
.4212
.3740
30
'.4441
.8203
80
.4781
.2228
82
.4215
.3733
32
.4446
.8191
82
.4788
.2200
84
.4218
.8727
34
.4451
.3178
84
.4794
.2184
86
.4221
.3720
86
.4456
.8166
86
.4801
.2162
88
.4224
.3713
38
.4460
.8154
88
.4808
.2140
40
.4227
.3707
40
.4465
.8142
40
.4815
.2117
42
.4231
.3700
42
.4470
.3129
42
.4821
.2094
44
.4234
.3693
44
.4475
.8110
44
.4828
.2070
46
.4237
.8686
46
.4480
.8103
46
.4885
.2047
48
.4240
.8679
48
.4485
.8091
48
.4842
.2028
50
.4243
.8672
50
.4490
.8078
50
.4849
.1999
52
.4246
v .3665
52
.4494
.3064
52
.4856
.1974
64
.4250
.3657
64
.4500
.8051
64
.4868
.1950
56
.4253
.8650
66
.4505
.3038
66
.4870
.1925
8 58
9.4256
9.3643
5 58
9.4510
9.8024
7 58
9.4877
9.1900
196
r<
j? "
8 P
CL
P
190
TJ rf
g I
< I
w
ctf
bb
>
UJ
EJapud
T uuo.
Log. A.
Log. B.
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
Elupneri
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
A MI.
h. m.
h. in.
8
9.4884
9.1874
14
9.6841
9.0971
16
9.7895
9.4884
2
.4802
.1848
2
.6856
.1057
2
.7915
.4987
4
.4899
.1822
4
.6872
.1141
4
.7935
.4990
6
.4906
.1796
6
.6887
.1224
6
.7955
.5042
8
.4918
.1769
8
.6903
.1306
8
.7975
.5094
10
.4921
.1742
10
.6919
.1387
10
.7996
.5146
12
.4928
.1715
12
" .6934
.1468
12
.8016
,5197
14
.4935
.1687
14
.6950
.1547
14
.8087
.6248
1G
.4943
.1659
16
.6966
.1625
16
.8058
.6300
18
.4950
.1630
18
.6982
.1703
18
.8078
.5351
20
.4958
.1602
20
.6998
.1779
20
.8099
.5401
22
.4965
.1573
22
.7014
.1855
22
.8120
.6452
24
.4978
.1543
24
.7030
.1930
24
.8141
6502
26
.4980
.1513
26
.7047
.2004
26
.8162
.5553
28
.4988
.1483
28
.7063
.2078
28
.8184
.5603
30
.4996
.1453
30
.7079
.2150
80
.8205
.5653
82
.5003
.1422
32
.7096
.2222
82
.8227
.5702
34
.5011
.1390
34
.7112
.2293
84
.8248
.6752
30
.5019
.1359
86
.7129
.2364
86
.8270
.6801
38
.5027
.1327
38
.7146
.2434
88
.8292
.6850
40
.5035
.1294
40
.7162
.2503
40
.8314
.6900
42
.5042
.1261
42
.7179
.2571
42
.8336
.5948
44
.5050
.1228
44
.7196
.2639
44
.8358
.6997
46
.5058
.1194
46
.7213
.2706
46
.8380
.6046
48
.5066
.1159
48
.7230
.2773
48
.8402
.C094
60
.5074
.1125
60
.7247
.2839
50
.8425
.6143
52
.5082
.1089
52
.7264
.2905
52
.8447
.6191
54
.5091
.1054
54
.7281
.2970
54
.8470
.6239
56
.5099
.1017
56
.7299
.3034
66
.8493
.6287
8 58
.5107
.0981
14 68
.7316
.8098
16 58
.8516
.6335
9
.5115
.0943
15
.7333
.3162
17
.8539
.6383
2
.5123
.0996
2
.7351
.3225
2
. 8562
.6431
4
.5132
.0867
4
.7369
.3287
4
.8585
.6478
6
.5140
.0828
6
.7386
.3350
6
.8608
.6526
8
.5148
.0789
8
.7404
.8411
8
.8632
.6573
10
.5157
.0749
10
.7422
.8472
10
. 8655
.6621
12
.5165
.0708
12
.7440
.8533
12
.8679
.6668
14
.5174
.0667
14
.7458
.8593
14
.8703
.6715
16
.5182
.0625
16
.7476
.8653
16
.8727
.6762
18
.5191
.0583
18
.7494
.8713
18
.8751
.6809
20
.5199
.0540
20
.7512
.3772
20
.8775
. 6856
22
.5208
.0496
22
.7531
.3831
22
.8799
.6908
24
.5217
.0452
24
.7549
.3889
24
.8824
.6949
26
.5225
.0406
26
.7568
.8947
26
.8848
.6996
28
.5234
.0360
28
.7586
.4005
28
.8878
.7043
30
. 5243
.0314
30
.7005
.4062
80
.8898
.7089
82
.5252
.0266
32
.7924
.4119
32
.8923
.7136
84
.5261
.0218
84
.7642
.4175
34
.8948
.7182
36
.5269
.0169
86
.7661
.4232
86
.8978
.7228
88
.5278
.0119
88
.7680
.4288
88
.8999
.7275
40
.5287
.0069
40
.7699
.4343
40
.9024
.7321
42
.5296
.0017
42
.7718
.4399
42
.9050
.7367
44
.5305
8.9965
44
.7738
.4454
44
.9075
.7413
46
.5315
.9911
46
.7757
.4509
46
.9101
.7459
48
.5324
.9857
48
.7776
.4563
48
.9127
.7505
60
.5833
.9802
60
.7796
.4617
50
.9154
.7559
62
.5842
.9745
62
.7815
.4671
52
.9180
.75U8
54
.5851
.9688
64
.7836
.4725
54
.9206
.7644
56
.5361
.9630
56
.7855
.4778
56
.9283
.7690
9 58
9 . 5370
8.9570
15 58
9.7875
9.4881
17 58
9.9260
9.7736
Elapsed
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
lapped
Time.
og.A.
l+g. B.
Happed
Time.
Log. A.
Log. B.
h. m.
i. m.
h. 771.
19
9.9287
9.7782
.1249
0.0625
2
.4528
0.4872
2
.9314
.7827
2
.1290
.0676
2
.4601
.4466
4
.9341
.7878
4
.1830
.0727
4
.4680
.4540
6! .9368
.7919
6
.1871
.0779
6
.4761
.4626
8
.9396
.73<J5
8
.1412
.osao
8
.4842
.4711
10
.9424
.8011
10
.1454
.0882
10
.4926
.4799
12
.9451
.8057
12
.1496
.0935
12
.5010
.4889
14
.9479
.8103
14
.1538
.0987
14
.5097
.4980
16
.9508
.8149
16
.1581
.1040
16
.5184
.5072
18
.9536
.8196
18
.1623
.101)3
18
.6274
.6165
20
.9564
.8241
20
.1667
.1146
20
.5365
.5261
22 .9593
.8287
22
.1711
.1200
22
.5458
.5858
24 .9632
.8333
24
.1755
.1253
24
.5553
5457
26
.9651
.8379
26
.17l>9
.1308
26
.5649
.5557
28
.9680
.8425
28
.1844
.1362
28
.5748
.5660
80
.9709
.8471
30
.1881)
.1417
80
.5848
.5764
82
.9739
.8517
32
.1935
.1472
82
.5951
.5871
84
.976!)
.8563
84
.1981
.1527
84
.6056
.5979
86
.9798
.8609
86
.2028
.1582
86
.6164
.6000
88
.9829
.8655
88
.2075
.1638
88
.6273
.6204
40
.9859
.8701
40
.2122
.1695
40
.6380
.6319
42
.9889
.8748
42
.2170
.1751
42
.6501
.6488
44
.9920
.8794
44
.2218
.1808
44
.6619
.6559
46
.9951
.8840
46
.2267
.1866
40
.6740
.6684
48
9.9982
.8887
48
.2316
.1924
48
.6865
.6811
60
0.0013
.8933
50
. 2306
.1982
60
.6993
.6942
62
.0044
.8980
62
.2416
.2040
52
.7124
.7076
64
.0076
.9026
54
.2467
.2099
54
. 7259
.7214
66
.0108
.9073
56
.2518
.2159
66
.7398
.7355
IB 68
.0140
.9120
20 58
.2670
.2219
22 58
.7541
.7501
19
.0172
.9167
21
.2623
.2279
28
.7689
.7652
2
.0204
.9213
2
.2676
.2339
<
.7842
.7807
4
.0237
.9260
t
.2729
.2401
i
.8000
.7967
6
.0X270
.9307
(
.2783
.2462
(
.8163
.8133
8
.0303
.9355
8
.2838
.2524
8
.8333
.8305
10
.0336
.9402
10
.2893
.2587
10
.8508
.8483
12
.0370
.9449
12
.2949
.2650
12
.8691
.8667
14
.0403
.9497
14
.3005
.2714
14
.8882
.8860
1C
.0437
.9544
16
.8063
.2778
16
.9080
.9060
18
.0472
.9592
18
.8120
.2843
18
.9288
.9270
20
.0506
.9640
20
.3179
.2909
20
.9506
.9489
22
.0541
.9687
22
.8238
.2975
22
.9784
.9719
24
.0576
.9735
24
.3298
.8041
24
0.9975
0.9961
26
.061
.9784
26
.3359
.8109
26
1.0228
1.0210
28
.0646
.983L
28
.3420
.8177
28
.0497
.0487
80
.0682
.9880
80
.8482
.8245
80
.0783
.0774
82
.0718
.9929
32
.854*
.3315
82
.1089
.1081
84
.0754
9.9977
34
.8609
.8385
84
.1416
.1409
86
.0790
0.0026
8
.3674
.8456
86
.1770
.1764
86
.082
.0075
3
.3739
.8527
88
.2154
.2149
4C
.086
.0124
4
.380
.8599
4
.2573
.2569
42
.090
.0173
4
.387
.8378
4
.803
.3033
44
.093
.0223
4
.894
.8747
4
.8554
.8553
4(
.097
.027X,
4
.401
.8822
4
.414
.4138
4
.101
,0322
4
.408
.8897
46
.481
.4814
6C
.105
.0372
6
.415
.3974
6
.6613
.5612
5*
.109
.0422
5
.422
.4052
6
.658
' .6587
54
.113
.0473
5
.429
.4130
64
.7844
.7843
fif
.117
.0523
6
.437
.4210
6
1.961
1.9010
19 Cfc
0.1208
0.0574
21 6
0.4446
0.4291
28 6
2.262
2.2627
197
5
II
F
p
l m
2
go,
5 m
(Jm
7 m
8
6
ii
//
//
it
u
u
II
II
it
0.00
1.96
7.85
17.67
81.42
49.09
70.68
96.20
125.65
1
0.00
2.03
7.98
17.87
81.68
49.41
71.07
96.60
126.17
2
0.00
2.10
8.12
18.07
81.94
49.74
71.47
97.12
126.70
3
0.00
2.16
8.25
18.27
32.20
50.07
71.86
97.58
127.22
4
0.01
2.23
8.39
18.47
32.47
50.40
172.26
98.04
127.75
5
0.01
2.31
8.52
18. (T
32.74
50.73
72.66
98.50
128.28
(>
0.02
2.38
8.66
18.87
83.01
51.07
73.06
98.97
128.81
7
0.02
2.45
8.80
19.07
83.27
51.40
78.46
99.43
129.84
8
0.03
2.52
8.94
19.28
33.54
51.74
73.86
99.90
129.87
0.04
2.60
9.08
19.48
33.81
52.07
74.26
100.37
130.40
10
0.05
2.67
9.22
10.69
34.09
62.41
74.66
100.84
130.94
11
0.00
2.75
9.36
19.90
34.36
52.75
75.06
101.31
131.47
12
0.08
2.83
9.50
20.11
34.64
53.09
75.47
101.78
132.01
13
0.09
2.91
9.64
20.32
34.91
53.43
75.88
102.25
182.55
14
0.11
2.99
9.79
20.53
35.19
53.77
76.29
102.72
133.09
15
0.12
3.07
9.94
20.74
85.46
54.11
76.69
103.20
133.63
10
0.14
3.15
10.09
20.95
35.74
54.46
77.10
103.67
134.17
17
0.16
8.23
10.24
21.16
86.02
54.80
77.51
104.15
134.71
18
0.18
3.32
10.39
21.38
36.30
55.15
77,93
104.63
185.25
U
0.20
3.40
10.54
21.60
36.58
65.50
78.34
105.10
135.80
20
0.22
8.49
10.69
21.82
36.87
55.84
78.75
105.58
136.34
21
0.24
3.58
10.84
22.03
37.15
56.19
79.16
106.06
186.88
ik>
0.26
3.67
11.00
22.25
37.44
56.55
79.58
106.55
137.43
5:5
0.28
3.76
11.15
22.47
37.72
56.90
80.00
107.03
137.98
24
0.31
8.85
11.31
22.70
38.01
57.25
80.42
107.51
138.53
25
0.34
8.94
11.47
22.92
38.30
67.60
80.84
107.99
139.08
20
0.37
4.03
11.63
23.14
88.59
57.96
81.26
108.48
189.63
27
0.40
4.12
11.79
23.37
38.88
58.32
81.68
108.97
140.18
2H
0.43
4.22
11.95
23.60
39.17
58.68
82.10
109.40
140.74
2i>
0.46
4.32
12.11
23.82
39.46
59.08
82.52
109.95
141.29
30
0.49
4.42
12.27
24.05
89.76
59.40
82.95
110.44
141.85
81
0.52
4.52
12.43
24.28
40.05
59.75
83.38
110.93
142.40
32
0.56
4.62
12.60
24.51
40.35
60.11
83.81
111.43
142.96
3
0.59
4.72
12.76
24.74
40.05
60.47
84.23
111.92
143.53
34
0.63
4.82
12.93
24.98
40.95
60.84
84.66
112.41
144.08
85
0.67
4.92
18.10
25.21
41.25
61.20
85.09
112.90
144.64
3tf
0.71
5.03
13.27
25.45
41.55
61.57
85.52
113.40
145.20
87
0.75
5.13
13.44
2668
41.85
61.94
85.95
11390
145.76
8s
0.79
6.24
13.62
25.92
42.15
62.31
86.39
114.40
146.33
8!)
0.83
5.84
13.79
26.16
42.45
62.68
86.82
114.90
146.89
40
0.87
6.45
1306
20.40
42.76
63.05
87.26
115.40
147.46
41
0.91
5.56
14.13
26.64
43.06
63.42
87.70
115.90
148.03
12
0.96
6.67
14.31
26.88
43.37
63.79
88.14
116.40
148.60
I*
1.01
6.78
14.49
27.12
43.68
64.16
88.57
116.90
149.17
41
1.06
6.90
14.67
27.37
48.99
64.54
89.01
117.41
149.74
45
1.10
6.01
14.85
27.61
44.30
64.91
89.45
117.92
150.31
40
1.15
6.13
15.03
27.86
44.61
65.29
89.89
118.43
150.88
f7
1.20
6.24
15.21
28.10
44.92
65.67
90.33
118.94
151.45
is
1.20
6.36
15.89
28.85
45.24
66.05
90.78
119.45
152.03
4U
1.81
6.48
15.57
28.60
45.55
66.43
91.23
119.96
152.61
$0
1.88
6.60
15.76
28.85
45.87
66.81
91.68
120.47
153.19
51
1.42
6.72
15.95
29.10
46.18
67.19
92.12
120.9H
153.77
52
1.48
6.84
16.14
29.36
46.50
67.58
92.57
121.49
154.85
58
1.58
6.96
16.32
29.61
46.82
07.96
98.02
122.01
154.98
54
1.59
7.09
16.51
29.86
47.14
68.35
98.47
122.58
165.51
55
.65
7.21
16.70
80. 12
47.46
68.78
93.92
128.03
1R6.09
50
.71
7.34
16.89
80.38
47.79
69.12
94.88
128.57
156.67
57
.77
7.46
17.08
80.64
48.11
69.61
94.83
124.09
157.25
58
.88
7.60
17.28
80.90
48.48
69.90
95.29
124.61
167.84
59
.89
7.72
17.47
31.16
48.76
70.29
96.74
125,18
158.48
JP
9"
10
II
12
13
14
15
1C
159.02
ii
190.32
n
237.54
282.68
331.74
n
884.74
441.63
502.46
1
159.61
190.97
238.20
283.47
332.59
385.05
442.02
508.60
2
160.20
197.03
238.98
284.20
333.44
880.50
443.00
504.55
a
160.80
198.28
239.70
285.04
834.29
887.48
444.58
505.60
161.89
198.94
240.42
285.83
835.15
388.40
445.50
506.65
5
161.98
199.60
241.14
286.62
336.00
389.32
446.55
507.70
162.58
200.26
241.87
287.41
330.86
890.24
447.54
508.76
7
163.17
200.92
242.60
288.20
337.72
391.16
448.53
509.81
8
163.77
201.59
243.33
289.00
338.58
392.09
449.51
510.86
164.37
202.25
244.00
289.79
339.44
393.01
450.50
511.92
10
164.97
202.92
244.79
290.58
340.30
393.94
451.50
512.98
11
165.57
203.58
245.52
291.38
341.16
394.80
452.49
514.03
12
166.17
204.25
240.25
292.18
342.02
395.79
453.48
515.09
13
166.77
204.92
240.98
292.98
842.88
890.72
454.48
516.15
14
167.37
205.59
247.72
293.78
343.75
397.05
455.47
517.21
15
167.97
200.20
248.45
294.58
344.62
398.58
456.47
518.27
10
168.58
200.93
249.19
295.88
345.49
399.52
457.47
519.34
17
169.19
207.60
249.93
296.18
840.80
400.45
458.47
520.40
18
169.80
208.27
250.07
296.99
847.23
401.38
459.47
521.47
10
170.41
208.94
251.41
297.79
348.10
402.32
400.47
522.53
20
171.02
209.62
252.15
298.60
348.97
403.20
461.47
528.60
21
171.63
210.30
252.89
299.40
349.84
404.20
462.48
624.67
22
172.24
210.98
253.03
300.21
850.71
405.14
463.48
525.74
23
172.85
211.66
254.37
301.02
351.58
400.08
404.48
526.81
24
173.47
212.34
255.12
301.83
352.40
407.02
405.49
527.89
25
174.08
213.02
255.87
302.64
353.84
407.90
406.50
528.96
2
174.70
213.70
250.02
303.40
354.22
408.90
467.51
530.03
27
175.32
214.38
257.37
304.27
355.10
409.84
468.52
531.11
28
175.94
215.07
258.12
305.09
855.98
410.79
409.53
582.18
2!)
170.50
215.75
258.87
305.90
350.86
411.73
470.54
533.26
30
177.18
216.44
259.02
300.72
357.74
412.08
471.55
534.33
3i
177.80
217.12
200.37
307.54
358.62
413.G3
472.57
585.41
32
178.43
217.81
201.12
308.80
350.51
414.59
473.58
536.50
33
179.05
218.50
201.88
809.18
3(50.39
415.54
474.00
537.58
34
179.08
219.19
202.04
310.00
3(51.28
410.49
475.02
538.07
35
180.30
219.88
263.39
310.82
302.17
417.44
470.04
539.75
30
180.93
220.58
204.15
311.65
3(58.07
418.40
477.05
540.83
37
181.50
221,27
204.91
312.47
8(53.90
419.35
478.07
541.91
38
182.19
221.97
205.08
313.80
364.85
420.81
479.70
543.00
39
182.82
222.66
200.44
314.12
365.75
421.27
480.72
544.09
40
183.46
223.36
207.20
314.95
366.04
422.23
481.74
545.18
41
184.09
224.00
207.90
315.78
307.58
423.19
482.77
540.27
42
184.72
224.70
208.73
310 01
308.42
424.15
483.79
547.30
43
185.35
225.40
2091.49
317.44
8(59.31
425.11
484.82
548.45
44
185.99
220.10
270.20
318.27
370.21
420.07
485.85
549.55
45
186.63
220.80
271.02
319.10
371.11
427.04
480.88
550.64
187.27
227.57
271.79
319.94
372.01
428.01
487.91
551.73
47*
187.91
228.27
272.50
320.78
372.91
428.97
488.94
552.83
48
188.55
228.98
273.34
321.02
373.82
429.93
489. 97
558.93
40
189.19
229.68
274.11
322.45
374.72
430.90
491.01
555.03
50
189.83
230.39
274.88
323.29
375.62
431.87
492.05
556.13
51
190.47
231.10
275.05
324.13
370.52
432.84
493.08
557.24
52
191.12
231.81
276.43
324.97
877.43
433.82
494.12
658.34
53
191.76
232.52
277.20
325.81
378.34
434.79
495.15
559.44
54
192.41
233.24
277.98
320.06
379.20
435.70
490.19
500.65
55
193.06
233.95
278.76
327.50
380.17
436.73
497.23
561.65
50
193.71
234.67
279.55
328.35
381.08
437.71
498.28
562.76
57
194.36
235.88
280.33
829.19
381.99
488.69
499.32
563.87
58
195.01
286.10
281.12
330.04
382.90
439.67
500.87
564.98
59
195.66
286.82
281.90
330.89
883.82
440,65
501.41
566.08
199
03
m
<
ID
CD
Q
IT
CD
CD
j
51
"
200
c
o
I
T5
4)
CC
CO
p
17
18
19 m
20 m
21
22 m
2:;
24
25
667.2
635.9
708.4
784.9
865.8
949.6
it
1087.8
1129.9
1225.9
1
568.3
637.0
709.7
786.2
850.6
951.0
1039.8
1IB1.4
1227,6
2
569.4
688.2
710.9
787.5
868.0
952.4
1040.8
1183.0
1229.2
8
570.5
689.4
712.1
788.8
669.4
950.8
1042.3
1134.6
1230.8
4
571.6
640.6
713.4
790.1
870.8
955.3
1043.8
1136.2
1282.6
5
572.8
641.7
714.6
791.4
872.1
956.7
1045.3
1137,8
1284.1
6
578.9
642.9
715.9
792.7
873.5
958.2
1046.8
1189.3
1235.7
7
575.0
644.1
717.1
794.0
874.9
95U.6
1048.3
1140.9
1237.3
8
676.1
645.8
718.4
795.4
876.3
961.1
1049.8
1142.5
1289.0
9
577.2
646.5
719.6
796.7
877.6
962.5
1051.8
1144.0
1240.6
10
578.4
647.7
720.9
798.0
879.0
963.9
1052.8
1145.6
1242.8
11
579.5
648.9
722.1
799.3
8b0.4
965.4
1054.3
1147.2
1243.9
12
580.6
650.0
723.4
800.7
881.8
966.9
1055.9
1148.8
1245.6
13
681.7
651.2
724.6
802.0
883.2
968.3
1057.4
1150.4
1247.2
14
582.9
652.4
725.9
808.3
884.6
9G9.8
1058.9
1152.0
1248.9
15
584.0
653.6
727.2
804.6
886.0
971.2
1060.4
1158.6
1250.5
16
6851
654.8
728.4
806.0
887.4
972.7
1062.0
1155.2
1252.2
17
586.2
656.0
729.7
807.3
8b8.b
974.1
10G3.6
1156.8
1253.8
18
687.4
657.2
780.9
808.6
890.2
975.5
1065.0
1158.3
1255.5
19
588.5
658.4
782.2
809.9
891.6
977.0
1066.5
1159.9
1257.1
20
589.6
6596
783.5
811.3
893.0
978.5
1068.1
1161.5
1258.8
21
590.8
660.8
734.7
812.6
894.4
979.9
1009.6
1163.1
1260.5
22
591.9
662.0
736.0
818.9
895.8
981.4
1071.1
1164.7
1262.2
23
593.0
663.2
737.3
815.2
$97.2
982.9
1072.6
1166.3
1263.8
24
594.2
664.4
738.5
816.6
898.6
984.4
1074.2
1167.9
1265.5
25
595.8
665.6
789.8
817.9
900.0
985.8
1075.7
1169.5
1267.1
26
596.5
666.8
741.1
819.2
901.4
987.3
1077.2
1171.1
1268.8
27
597.6
6680
742.8
820.5
90^.6
988.8
1078.7
1172.7
1270.5
28
598.7
669.2
748.6
821.9
904.2
990.3
1080.8
1174.3
1272.1
29
599.9
670.4
744.9
828.2
905.6
991.8
1081.8
1175.9
1273.7
80
601.0
671.6
746.2
824.6
907.0
993.2
1083.8
1177.5
1275.4
31
602.2
672.8
747.4
825.9
908.4
994.7
1084.8
1179.1
1277.1
82
603.8
674.1
748.7
827.8
909.8
996.2
1086.4
1180.7
1278.8
88
604.5
675.3
750.0
828.6
911.2
997.6
1087.9
1182.8
1280.4
84
605.6
676.5
751.8
829.9
912.6
999.1
1089.5
1183.9
1282.1
85
606.8
677.7
752.6
881.2
914.0
1000.6
1091.0
1185.5
1283.8
36
607.9
678.9
753.8
832.6
915.5
1002.1
1092.6
1187.1
1285.5
87
609.1
680.1
755.1
833.9
Ult>.9
1003.5
1094.1
1188.7
1287.1
88
610.2
681 ."3
756.4
885.8
918.3
1005.0
1095.7
1190.3
1288.8
39
611.4
682.6
757.7
836.6
919.7
1006.5
1097.2
1191.9
1290.5
40
612.5
688.8
759.0
838.0
921.1
1008.0
1098.8
1193.5
1292.2
41
613.7
685.0
760.2
839.3
922.5
1009.4
1100.3
1195.1
1293.8
42
614.8
686.2
761.5
840.7
923.9
1010.9
1101.9
1196.7
1295.5
43
616.0
687.4
762.8
842.0
925,3
1012.4
1108.4
1198.3
1297.2
44
617.2
688.7
764.1
843.4
92U.8
1018.9
1105.0
1199.9
1298.9
45
618.3
689.9
765.4
844.7
928.2
1015.4
1106.5
1201.5
1800.6
46
619.6
691.1
766.7
846.1
U2U.6
1016.9
1108.1
1203.1
1802.2
47
620.6
692.4
768.0
847.6
931.0
1018.4
1109.6
1204.7
1303.9
48
621.8
693.6
769.8
848.9
932.4
1019.9
1111.2
1206.4
1305.6
49
628.0
694.8
770.6
860.2
933.8
10214
1112.7
1208.0
1307.3
50
624.1
696.0
771.9
851.6
935.2
1022.8
1114.3
4209:6
1809.0
51
625.8
697.8
778.1
852.9
936.6
1024.8
1115.8
1211.2
1810.7
52
626.5
698.5
774.5
854.8
988.1
1025.8
1117.4
1212.9
1312.4
58
627.6
699.7
775.7
855.7
939.5
1027.8
1118.9
1214.6
1314.1
54
628.8
701.0
777.1
857.1
940.9
1028.8
1120.5
1216.1
1815.7
55
630.0
702.2
778.4
858.4
942.8
1080.9
1122.0
1217.7
1817.4
56
631.2
703.6
779.7
869.8
948.8
1081.8
1128.6
1219.4
1819.1
57
682.8
704.7
781.0
861.1
945.2
1038.8
1125.1
1221.0
1820.8
58
683.6
706.9
782.8
862.6
946.6
1034.8
1126.7
1222.6
1822.5
59
684.7
707.1
788.6
868.9
948.1
1086.8
1128.8
1224.2
1824.9
!"V
23"
27
2*
21)""
,s^
For rato.
8
//
n
H
it
P
H
P
n
Rate.
Log*
825.9
429.7
537 5
1649.0
1
327^6
1431.4
5u9.3
16o0.9
m *
II
m 8
n
8
2
329.3
1433.2
541.1
16o2.8
).00
20
1.49
80
.999 6985
8
331.0
1434.9
1542.9
1654.7
1
J.OO
10
1.54
29
7085
4
332.7
1436.7
1544.8
1656.6
2
0.00
20
1.60
28
7186
8n
) 00
30
1 .65
27
7286
5
334.4
1488.5
1546.6
1658.5
V
4
).00
40
I '.70
26
7387
6
7
8
1836.1
1887.8
1339.5
1440.3
1442.1
1443.9
1548.4
1550.2
1552.1
1660.4
1662.3
1664.2
6
6
o'.oi
0.01
50
21
1.76
1.82
25
24
no
7487
7588 
9
1341.2
1445.6
1553.9
1666.1
7
0.02
10
1.87
!r?
8
0.04
20
1.93
22
4 I bo
10
542.9
1447.4
1555.8
1668.0
9
0.06
30
1.99
21
7889
11
1344.6
1449.2
1557.6
1669.9
10
0.09
40
2.06
20
7990
12
1346.3
1451.0
1559.5
1671.9
11
0.14
50
2.12
19
8090
13
14
1348.0
1349.7
1452.8
1454.5
1561.3
1563.2
1673.8
1675.7
12
10
0.19
0.20
22?
10
3.19
18
17
8191
8291
15
1341.4
1456.8
1565.0
1677.6
20
0.22
20
2! 32
16
8392
1353.2
1458.1
1566.9
1679.5
80
0.23
80
2.39
15
8492
17
1354.9
1459.9
1568.7
1681.4
40
0.24
40
2.46
14
8593
18
1356.6
1461.6
1570.5
1683.3
50
0.25
50
2.54
13
8593
1!)
1353.3
1463.4
1572.4
1685.2
13
0.26
S3
2.61
12
8794
20
21
22
23
21
1860.1
1361.8
1363.5
1305.3
1367.0
1465.2
1466.9
1468.7
1470.5
1472.3
1574.8
1576.1
1578.0
1579.8
1581.7
1687.2
1689.1
1691.0
1692.9
1694.8
10
20
80
40
50
0.28
0.30
0.31
0.83
0.34
10
20
80
40
50
2.69
2.77
2.85
2.93
3.01
11
10
8
7
8894
8995
9095
9196
9296
14
86
84 (
3.10
6
9397
25
27
28
29
1368.7
1370.4
1372.1
1373.9
1376.6
1474.1
1475.9
1477.7
1479.5
1481.3
1583.5
1585.3
1587.2
1589.1
1590.9
1696.7
1698.6
1700.5
1702.5
1704.4
X* U
10
20
80
40
50
0'.88
0.89
0.41
0.43
0.45
10
20
30
40
50
8.18
3.27
3.36
3.45
3.55
5
4
3
2
1
9497
9093
9G98
9799
9.999 9399
80
1377.3
1483.1
1592.7
1706.8
15
0.47
35
3.64
0.000 0000
31
1379.0
1484.9
1594.6
1708.2
10
0.49
10
3.74
0101
32
1380.8
1486.7
1596.5
1710.2
2(
0.52
20
3.84
2
0201
33
1382.5
1488.5
1598.3
1712.1
80
0.54
80
3.94
3
0302
31
1384.2
1490.8
1600.2
1714.0
40
0.56
40
4.05
4
0402
35
1385.9
1492.1
1602.1
1715.9
50
0.59
50
4.15
5
0503
30
1387.7
1493.9
1604.0
1717.9
10
0.61
20
4.26
6
0603
87
1389.4
1495.7
1605.9
1719.8
10
0.64
10
4.37
7
0704
88
1391.2
1497.5
1607.7
1721.7
20
0.67
20
4.48
8
0804
39
1392.9
1499.3
1609.6
1723.6
80
0.69
30
4.6(
9
0905
40
0.72
40
4.72
40
1394.7
1501.1
1611.5
1725.6
50
0.76
50
10
1005
41
42
43
44
1396.4
1398.2
1399.9
1401.7
1502.9
1504.7
1506.5
1508.4
1613/3
1615.2
1617.1
1619.0
1727.5
1729.5
1731.5
1733.4
17 C
10
2C
8C
0.78
0.81
0.84
0.88
27
10
2(
80
4.9(
5.08
5.2(
5.33
11
12
13
14
1106
1206
1807
1407
45
40
1403.4
1405.2
1510.2
1512.0
1620.8
1622.7
1735.3
1787.2
4C
5C
0.91
0.95
40
50
5.4f
5.60
15
16
1508
1603
1709
47
48
49
1406.9
1408.7
1410.4
1513.8
1515.6
1517.4
1624.6
1626.5
1628.3
1739.2
1741.2
1743.1
18 C
1C
2(
0.98
l.OX,
1.06
38 C
1C
2C
5.78
5.87
>0.0
18
19
1809
1910
50
51
52
1412.2
1413.9
1415.7
1519.2
1521.0
1522.9
1630.2
1632.1
16340
1745.1
1747.0
1749.0
3(
4(
5(
1.09
1.1:
1.18
306.1o
406.30
506.44
20
21
22
28
2010
2111
2211
2312
53
1417.4
1524.7
1635.9
1750.9
19 (
1.22
29 (
)6.5
24
2412
54
1419.2
1526.5
1637.7
1752.8
1(
1.2(
1(
)6.7
25
2513
55
5(
5
58
1420.9
1422.7
1424.4
1426.2
1528.3
1530.2
1532.0
1583.8
1639.6
1641.5
1643.8
1645.2
1754.8
1756.8
1758.7
1760.7
2(
3(
4(
5<
)l!3
)1.4
31.44
2(
8(
4(
<H
)0.9
)7.0
)7.2
)7.3
26
27
28
29
2618
2714
2814
2915
59
1427.9
1535.
1647.1
1762.
20
01.4
30 (
)7.5fti +KO
0.000 8015
201
CO
r
m
33
(D
a
c
o
o'
3
IT
CD
n>
i
a
*
3
203
>
UJ
"
o>
a
3
<
4*
c
Q
CL
C
a
a
o
o

2
E
C3
9
"E
a>
CO
c
o
o
o
c
o
<D
Appar
ent
Alti
tude.
Horizontal Semi Diameter.
14 30
15
15 30
16
16 30
17
ft
//
ii
//
ii
// t
0.10
0.12
0.13
0.14
0.15
0.17
2
0.58
0.62
0.66
0.71
0.76
0.81
4
1.05
1.12
1.20
1.28
1.37
1.46
6
1.51
1.62
174
1.86
1.98
2.10
8
1.98
2.12
2.27
2.42
2.58
2.75
10
2.44
2.62
2.80
2.99
3.18
8.89
12
2.90
3.11
3.33
3.56
3.78
4.02
14
3.36
3.61
3.86
4.11
4.37
4.66
16
3.82
4.10
4.38
4.67
4.97
5.28
18
4.28
4.58
4.89
5.22
5.50
5.90
20
4.72
5.06
5.41
5.76
6.14
6.52
22
5.16
5.53
5.91
6.30
6.71
7.13
24
5.60
5.99
6.41
6.83
7.27
7.72
26
6.03
6.45
6.90
7.35
7. 88
8.31
28
6.45
6.91
7.38
7.87
8.37
8.89
30
6.86
7.35
7.85
8.87
8.91
9.46
32
7.27
7.78
8.32
8.87
9.44
10.02
34
7.67
8.21
8.77
9.85
9.95
10.57
36
8.0<>
8.62
9.22
9.83
10.46
11.11
38
8.43
9.03
9.65
10.29
10.95
11.63
40
8.80
9.42
10.07
10.74
11.43
12.14
42
9.16
9.80
10.48
11.17
11.89
12.63
44
9.51
10.17
10.88
11 .60
1 2 . 34
18.11
46
9.84
10.54
11.26
12.01
12.78
13.57
48
10.16
10.88
11.63
12.40
13.20
14.02
50
10.48
11.22
11.99
12.78
13.60
14.45
52
10.78
11.54
12.33
13.15
13.99
14.86
54
11.07
11.84
12.65
13.50
14.36
15.25
56
11.34
12.14
12.97
13.83
14.72
15.63
58
11.60
12.42
13.27
14.15
15.05
15.99
60
11 84
12.68
13.55
14.44
15.87
16.83
62
12.07
12.93
13.81
14.73
15.67
10.64
64
12.29
13.16
14.00
14.99
15.95
16.94
66
12.49
13.37
14.29
15.24
16.21
17.22
68
12.68
13.58
14.50
15.46
16.45
17.47
70
12.85
13.76
14.70
15.67
16.67
17.71
72
13.00
13.92
14.88
15.86
16.88
17.92
74
13.14
14.07
15.04
16.03
17.06
18.12
76
13.27
14.21
15.18
16.18
17.22
18.29
78
13 38
14.32
16.80
16.31
17.36
18.48
80
13.47
14.42
15.40
16.42
17.47
18.56
82
13.54
14.50
15.49
16.51
17.57
18.66
84
13.60
14.56
15.56
16.59
17.65
18.74
86
13.64
14.61
15.60
16.64
17.70
18.80
88
13.67
14.68
15.63
16.67
17.73
18.83
90
13.67
14.63
15.64
16.68
17.74
18.85
FORMS.
FORMS.
FoilM No. 1.
205
ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIMEPIECE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT
OF bTAB.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Latitude, 41 23' 22'Ml. Chronometer No , by
Date:
Observer.
Recorder.
Transit.
Illumination.
Name of Star.
( Direct.
Level. {
( Reversed.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
E. W.
fj
h m s
h m s
h m s
h m s
 IL
s Iir 
I^IV.
v.
i vi 
H I VII.
Sum.
Mean.
Red. to Mid. Wire.
Chron. Time of Transit over Mid. )
Wire = T. (
Level Error = b.
Level Correction = 6.
Collirnation Error = c.
Collimation Correction = Cc.
Azimuth Error = a.
Azimuth Correction = Aa,
Chron. Time of Transit.
App. R. A. of Star = a.
Error of Chron. = E.
206
FORMS.
FORM No. 2.
ERROR OF MEANSOLAR TIMEPIECE BY MERIDIAN TRANSIT
OF SUN.
Date.
Latitude 41 23' 23".ll.
Observer.
Transit No By
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Longitude 4.93*.
Recorder.
MeanSolar Chron. No By
Chronometer Time of Transit of West Limb. Wire I
" II
" III
44 IV
Chronometer Time of Transit of East Limb.
VI
VII
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
SUM.
Chron. Time of Transit of Center over Mean of
Wires  Mean.
Reduction to Middle Wire.
Level Error Level Correction.
Col. " Col.
Azimuth 4t Azimuth 4 *
Chronom. Time of App. Noon.
Apparent ' 4 " " "_
Eq. of Time.
Mean Time of Apparent Noon.
Error of Chronometer on Mean Solar Time at
App. Noon.
Ui fc 0.0 W 0.0*
FOBM8.
FORM No. 3.
207
ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIMEPIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE OF
STAR. NAME....
Date.
Observer.
SexfantNo By
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Rocorder.
Sidereal Chronom. No By.
Observed Double Altitude.
Chronom. Time.
Mean
Index Error.
Eccentricity.
Corrected Double Altitude.
" Altitude =a e .
* Refract ion r.
Truo Altitude =a
Latitude $.
N. Polar Dist. =&
a 4 <b \d
a.
Sum
1 Menn  t
Barometer
Att. Therniom
Ext. "
Refraction
a. c. log cos
** COS HI
" sin (m  a) ,
P
P in Timo
Apparent R. A. of Star
Sidereal Time  R. A. f P ,
Mean of Chron. Times <t 9
Error of Chronometer
* The correction to be added to this value of r, if desired (see Note 3, Text), ie
8 sln^o" 2 ~n sii\\'~i~ L ~' A denotin ^ the di ^' r  Corrected altitudes, ri their mean, nnd
n the number of observations. The values of " * '*" are taken from Tables (first
converting a A into Its equivalent in time), as explained under " Latitude by Circum
Meridian Altitudes."
tThe correction to be added algebraically to this value of / if desired (see Note 3,
Text) , 8 ,af te r compute P taarc , A [cotP _ =^**] S ^^.
the diflf<rent chronometer times. The last factor is taken from Tables as before.
208
FORMS.
FOEM No* 4
ERROR OF MEANSOLAR TIMEPIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE
OF SUN'S LIMB.
Date.
Observer.
Sextant No By..
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Recorder.
M. S, Chronom. No By
Observed Double Altitude.
Chrouom. Time.
h m s
Mean "
Index Error.
Eccentricity.
Sum
tMean = 1 Q
Barometer
Att. Thermom.
Corrected Double Altitude Tj, v4 . 4 .
JiiXL.
" Altitude = a Refraction
*Ref raction = r. Longitude = 4.981 hours.
Semidiameter. Assumed Error of Chronom. =
Apparent Altitude = a 1 Resulting Greenwich Time of Obs. :
Parallax in Altitude,
True Altitude = a.
Latitude = <f>.
N. Polar Dist. = d.
<
m 
m a.
. Log. Eq. Hor. Parallax
" P.
" cos a'.
..41..23 / ..22 / Ml.. Parallax in Altitude.
Dec. at Greenwich Mean Moon.
Hourly Change X Greenwich Time
Sun's Declination.
a. c. log cos <
" " sin d
log. cos m
* sin (m a)
" sin a i P
P
Pin Time
Apparent Time
Equation of Time.
Mean Time.
Mean of Chron. Times =
Error of Chronometer.
* See footnote to Form 3.
t " " " " " "
NOTE. For correct Ion of Semidiameter due to difference of refraction between limb
and center, see " Longitude by Lunar Distances. 11
FORMS.
FORM No. 5.
ERROR OP SIDEREAL TIMEPIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OP
A STAR.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Observer
SextantNo By
Name of Star
Latitude, 41 23' 22".ll = <fr.
Recorder
Sid. Chronom. No By
App. Declination = 8
Observations East.
Observed Double Altitudes.
Date.
Chronometer Times.
h m s
1.
II.
HI.
Barom.
Att. Thermom.
Ext. "
1st Refraction
Mean = 2a. .
Sum .
(Correct this for index error, if correction 1st Mean
for refraction be taken into account.)
Observations West. Date
Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times.
o i a h m 8
I. Barom.
n. Att. Thermom.
HI. Ext.
2d Refraction
_ 1st "
Mean = 2a Sum Difference
(Same as above). 2d Mean Log Difference
1st " Log cos a
a. c. log 30
Elapsed Time. a. c. logcoscfr
% Elapsed Time in arc = *. a. c. logcosfi
a. c. log sin t
Midd le Chronom 3ter Time. Log Correction
Correction for Refraction. . Correction
Chronom. Time of Transit.
App. R. A. of Star.
Error of Chronom. at Time of Transit
208
FORMS,
FORM No. 4
ERROR OF MEANSOLAR TIMEPIECE BY SINGLE ALTITUDE
OF SUN'S LIMB.
Date.
Observer.
Sextant No By
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Recorder.
M. S. Chrouom. No By.
Observed Double Altitude.
Chronom. Time.
h m 8
Mean *'
Index Error.
Sum
I Mean = t Q
Barometer
Att. Thermom.
Eccentricity.
* ._ ,. A1t . A ,
Corrected Double Altitude ............ .
" Altitude = a ..................... Refraction
*Ref raction = r.
Seraidiameter.
Longitude = 4.931 hours.
Assumed Error of Chronom. =
Latitude = <.
N. Polar Dist. = d.
Apparent Altitude = a f Resulting Greenwich Time of Obs.=
Parallax in Altitude.
True Altitude = a.
Log. Eq. Hor. Parallax
" P
..41..23'..22",11.. Parallax in Altitude.
Dec.' at Greenwich Mean Moon.
Hourly Change x Greenwich Time
Sun's Declination.
a. c. log cos </>
" " sind
log. cos m
44 sin (m  a)
" sin 2 i P
P
P in Time
Apparent Time
Equat ion of Time.
Mean Time.
Mean of Chron. Times =
Error of Chronometer,
* See footnote to Form 3.
t " " " " "
NOTB. For correction of Semidiameter due to difference of refraction between limb
and center, F,ee * Longitude by Lunar Distances."
FORMS.
FORM No. 5.
ERROR OF SIDEREAL TIMEPIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OP
A STAR.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Observer
Sextant No By
Name of Star.
Latitude, 41 23' 23'M1 * .
Recorder
Sid. Chronom. No By
App. Declination = 8
Observations East.
Observed Double Altitudes.
o I II
Date.
Chronometer Times.
h m s
I.
II.
III.
Barorn.
Att. Thermom.
Ext.
1st Refraction
Sum .
Mean = 2a
(Correct this for index error, if correction 1st Mean
for refraction be taken into account,)
Observations West. Date
Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times.
0*0 h m s
I. Barom.
II. Att. Thermom.
III. Ext. *'
2d Refraction
1st
Mean *= 2a Sum Difference
(Same as above). Sd Mean Log Difference
1st " Log cos a
a. c. log 30
Elapsed Time. a. c. logcos^
^ Elapsed Time in arc = *. a. c. log cos B
a. c. log sin t
Midd le Chronom 3ter Time. Log Correction
Correction for Refraction. . Correction
Chronom. Time of Transit.
App. R. A. of Star.
Error of Chronom. at Time of Transit
210
FORMS.
FOBM No. 6.
ERROR OF MEANSOLAR TIMEPIECE BY EQUAL ALTITUDE!*
OP SUN'S LIMB.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. <f> *. Latitude, 41 23' 22" 11. Longitude 4.931^, west.
Observer Recorder
Sextant No By M. S. Chronoin. No By
Sun's App. Dec. at local App. Noon (or midnight) = 5=
Hourly change in 6 at same time, = fc
Observations East. Date
Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times.
o ' " h m s
I. Barom.
II. Att. Thermom
m. Ext. "
1st Refraction
Mean = 2a Sum _____ _
(Correct this for index error, if correction ist Mean
for refraction be taken into account).
Observations West. Date
Observed Double Altitudes. Chronometer Times.
9 t n h m s
I, Barom.
II. Att. Thermom.
ra. Ext. "
2d Refraction
] 1st " _
Mean s= 2a Sum ...Difference
(Same as above). 2d Mean.. Log Difference
1st * Log cos a
a c. lag 30
Elapsed Time a. c. log cos <
^5 Elapsed Time in arc = t . a. c. log cos S
a. c. log sin t . .
Middle Chronometer Time. ..... . Log Correction
Correction for Refraction. Correction
Equation of Equal Altitudes. ~T~
  J Og A ........
Chronom. Time of App. Noon. ** k
App. of Time at App. Noon. .... 12 h . . .0 . . .0 s . . . " tan #
Eq. of Time at App. Noon. " 1st Part
Mean Time of App. Noon. 1st Part
Error of Chronometer at App. Noon Log B.
tanfi
" 2d Part.
3d Part.
1st Part f 3d Part = Eq. of Equal Altitudes. 
FORMS.
F OBM No. 7.
211
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF
SUN'S ................ LIMB.
Date ............ Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Longitude 4.93*. Assumed Lat. = = .
Observer ............ Recorder , ....... Barora ........... Att. Th ...... Ext. Th.
Sextant No ........ By ................ M. S. Chronometer, No ..... By ......... ,
Error of Chronometer = E = ................ Kate of Chronometer = T ~ ......... ,
Observed Double
Altitudes.
/ //
Chronometer Times.
h, m s
App. Time of
App. Noon 12
Eq. of Time at
App. Noon
Hour Angles.
111. 8.
m.
8.
n.
II.'
m.
IV.
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
IX.
X.
Mean Time of
App Noon >
Chron. Error
Chron. Time of
App. Noon
Sum. Log. Eq. Hor. Pu Sums.
Mean . *' p
P.
"m "
nV
Eccentricity ** cos a* Means.
Index Error. " Par in Alt
(
Cor.D. Alt " " " Eq. of Time at Po
" S.
Refraction
Semidiam.
Par. in Alt.
True Alt..=a f .
Longitude
. Sun's Dec. at
Correspond'^ Greenwich Time .
+ 90
> + 90  a,.
B n Q 
Sum
.90..
. Change in Eq. of Time in 24ft = e .
Rate of Chronometer *' r.
). r e.
log k
* sec a,_
4 A Q
A^MQ
A Q .
** tan a/
" n
" B n .
* a is obtained by applying refraction and semidiameter to Corrected Single Altitude.
NOTE. For correction to Semidiameter due to difference of refraction between limb
and center, see Longitude by Lunar Distances.
212
FORMS.
FORM No. 8.
LATITUDE BY CIRCUMMERIDIAN ALTITUDES OF (NAME OF
STAR)
Date Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Assumed Lat. = =
Observer Recorder arom Att. Ther Ext. Then
Sextant No By Sidereal Chronom. No By
Error of Chronometer = E = Rate of Chronometer = r=
Observed Double
Altitudes.
/ //
Chronometer TImels.
h. m. s.
Hour Angles.
m. s.
m.
s.
n.
8.
I.
II.
App. R. A. of
Star
III.
Chron. Error
IV.
V.
VI.
Chron.Timeof
Transit
vn.
VIM.
IX.
X.
Sum
Suras.
P
W10
ftn
Means.
IndftxTCrror.
Cor. D. Alt Star's App. Declination = 5
" S. " a, = f 90$.
Refraction.
True Alt.=sa f Rate of Chronometer in 24fc = e...
^ O wi + log fc.
= + 90  a,.
Sum 
90 f
.90..0 / .0..0".0.
41 cos 5 .
u sec a/ .
A m
Slog A
" tan a,
FORMS.
FORM No. 9.
PROGRAMME FOR ZENITH TELESCOPE. (LATITUDE.)
213
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Approximate Latitude Observer.
No.
Catalogue and
" No.
Mag.
Mean R. A.
Mean Dec.
Zenith
Disc.
,N.
8.
Setting.
1.
2.
8.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y.
Telescope No
FOBM No. 9a.
OBSERVATIONS WITH ZENITH TELESCOPE.
Observer
Recorder ....... Sheet No.
Chronometer Error ........
DATE.
STAR.
MICROMETER.
LEVEL.
CHRONOM.
REMARKS
Catalogue
and Cata
logue No.
N.
S.
m n & m a
m n m 9
In&l'n
l a & I',
(ln+l> n )
0+J'.)
Time.
NOTB. Form No. 9 is for the observer's use.
Form 9a is for the recorder's use.
The records of the different nights at a given station are then collated, and the
reductions made as per Form No. 96, which is for the computer's use.
tomtit.
g
5>*
o
If
5
*.
i<
ex
I 2 I
H
I*
II
i
^i
^a
 1
en *
1
1
o
51
g
H 5
5 fe
g 
Microra.
Is
li
2
H
td
NATION.
0*
frt U
s
a
B
td "
^ H e
i
Q
5
u>J3
p =5
li
8
O U p
HOUR
ANGLE.
OH'
w C
S !
4 4
e ^
4
t*?
f .. 5
C3
pq o
CO
W
1
v* 9
3
8 " ^ e
* f "^
O ^
3
I 5?
II
I8 3
5 a
i n
'8 ^
i !
P09
METER.
if
i
&
1
o
u
1
1 1 1
.Q
O O
i
JO
S h
J MM
s
8
1
ri
rim
1
O O
I
Catalogue
and Cata
logue No.
1
1
I
Poms.
o
fc
o
PH
O)
s
O
PH
PQ
tt
Si
5 s e
a
i
i!
"i
w C
If
sli
sl"*
FORM No. 11.
LATITUDE BY EQUAL ALTITUDES OF TWO STARS.
Station, WEST POINT, N. Y. Observer Recorder
Date Sextant, No By
Sid. Chronom. No By Error Rate
Name
Chron.
Time
of
True
Time
of
App.
Hour
Angle
Hour
Angle
App.
I)ec
' a
a' +
p>p
P* + P
of the Star.
Obser
vation.
Obser
vation.
R.A.
in
Time.
in Arc.
P&P 1
a&a'
2
z
2
2
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2.
1.
2
i.
2.
T p
S'fi
Log cot
t 6'f
Log cot "J
Log tan M
M
a. c. log cos M
P*P
Log cos 2
r , *'+ 5
Logtan 
Log 9>i
.plp
2
M
JP '+ P , f
2 M
Log cos
P '^ P Jlf
U M
Log m
Logtan ^
4
Mean
FORMS.
217
CM O
1
IV
i
i
Jfe
III
218
FORMS.
3
i
I
I
o
S
!
i
3
6
!5
IH
I
75