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Urban Planning 

A/ A 


THIS book has two distinctly practical objects. 
Ability to distinguish the various principal styles 
of architecture, and to know something of these styles, 
should be a part of the education and culture of every 
well-informed man and woman. 

The aim of Part I, A Practical Guide to Styles, is to 
give, as part of a liberal education, a thorough working 
knowledge of architecture and architectural styles, so 
far as is necessary for the use of the general reader, 
and to give it in so succinct and practical a way that it 
may easily be assimilated. 

Part II, A Practical Guide to Building, adds to the 
above knowledge information of a more practical kind 
for those who are about to have erected for them houses 
or other buildings, either in the city or the country, at 
either large or small expense, or who may be connected 
in any way with Advisory Boards for the erection of 
buildings of a more public character. 

The chapter on arrangements with architect and 
contractors treats of a subject never before presented 
to the lay reader in a direct manner, and a glance at the 
Table of Contents will show how helpful this portion 
of the work will prove. 

In presenting a practical book on architecture a 
distinct responsibility devolves upon the author a 
responsibility which can be discharged only to the 
extent to which it may be possible to dispel certain 
popular illusions which have always clung to the sub- 
ject, to divide and separate architecture into its several 
proper phases, and to set forth salient and essential 


points in a manner at once clear, accurate and 

In this task the author feels that the opportunity is 
as great as the responsibility, and that in the following 
pages it may be possible permanently to remove the 
subject of architecture as a whole from its present 
classification as a subject technical and place it in its 
true position as a subject of general and intimate con- 
tact with the every-day life of all of us. 

Architecture is a comprehensive subject, but should 
not fairly be considered a complex one. That it has 
often appeared to be involved in complexity and tech- 
nicality is due to the fact that few critics or expositors 
have divided the subject into its logical parts for 
separate consideration. 

Architecture involves history, design, construction 
and practice, which main divisions suggest logical sub- 
divisions. The present volume is not designed to be a 
history of architecture, nor is it a treatise on any one of 
the main aspects of the subject in general. It repre- 
sents, rather, a careful effort to co-relate the essentials 
in a clear and concise manner, in order that the subject 
of architecture may become, as it should, a part of any 
liberal education, and may cease to be regarded as a 
1 i technical ' ' subject. 

In the preparation of this work the author has en- 
deavoured to give to each consideration of the subject 
its proper emphasis with regard to each other consider- 
ation, in order to develop a complete and serviceable 
exposition of the whole. The subject of architecture in 
general is of broad interest to everyone. To those who 
contemplate building, and who will consequently be 
called upon to exercise their judgment in the question 
of architectural design, the subject is of direct interest. 


The logical study of architecture, for either class, 
must begin with some acquaintance with the develop- 
ment of architecture, of historic types and forms, then 
with architectural design, in which forms are employed 
to create these types. Here will cease the study of 
architecture as a historic development, and there will 
have been acquired a practical familiarity with types 
of building, styles, and the architectural forms charac- 
teristic of these styles. 

With this practical familiarity as a preliminary 
equipment, benefit then may be had from due considera- 
tion of the practical side of the subject the selection 
of site, study of local conditions, natures of materials 
and the functions of the architect. This dual presenta- 
tion of the subject forms the author's plan for the 
present work. 

The author wishes to acknowledge with gratitude 
the kind co-operation of the following architects and 
others who have generously extended courtesy in the 
matter of illustrations : 

To the architectural profession is due the present 
degree of merit attained by the architecture of this 
country, for the American architect has been forced to 
deal with conditions more difficult and more complex 
than have confronted the architects of other lands and 
other times. 

It would be difficult to overstate the further impetus 
to architectural ideals and practice which would be 
given by a more general, popular appreciation and 
understanding of the subject, and any effort to develop 
this understanding so that it will benefit architecture 
and public alike must call for the most serious and 
sincere effort of any writer in the field of architecture. 

In addition to an expression of indebtedness to all 


those architects whose works have contributed to the 
illustration of this book, the author wishes to acknowl- 
edge with gratitude assistance or permission connected 
with certain illustrations. These acknowledgments 
include Messrs. H. D. Eberlein, W. T. E. Price, Julian 
Buckly, H. W. Frohne, Braun & Company, and the 
Architectural Record. In the matter of text, the 
author 's thanks are due to The Churchman for courte- 
ous permission to quote the major portion of the 
author's " Symbolism in Architecture," and to Arts 
and Decoration for courteous permission to paraphrase 
certain portions of the author's contributions thereto, 
relative to "The English Point of View in Architec- 
ture," "Building in Brick," and " The Inherent Quali- 
ties of Building Materials. ' ' 







The Nature of Architecture and its Place as Part of a Liberal 
Education. The Value and Benefit of Architectural Appre- 
ciation. Architecture not a Technical Subject. Some Fun- 
damentals of Architecture. Understanding of Modern 
Architecture Dependent upon Acquaintance with Past 
Historic Styles. 


The Growth of the Great Architectural Styles. The Archi- 
tecture of Egypt, of Assyia, of Greece, of Rome. Byzan- 
tine and Romanesque Architecture. 


Gothic Architecture and Renaissance Architecture. A 
Study of the Differing Expressions of those Two Great Styles 
in Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, England and Germany. 


A Study of the Immortal Qualities of Classic Architecture. 
Its Manifestations in Several "Classic" Revivals. The 
Important Place of Classic Architecture in the Design of 
Public Buildings. The School of the Beaux-Arts, its Teach- 
ings and its Wide Influence. 


The "Romanesque Revival" in America. The Place of 
Romanesque Styles in the Architecture of To-day. Gothic 
Derivations, Ecclesiastical, Collegiate, Military and Secu- 
lar in America. 


The Importance, Causes and Meaning of English Influences 
on American Architecture. The Anglo-American Country- 
House. The Adaptability of English Collegiate Architec- 


Architectural Types Adapted from Italy, France and 
Spain. The Italian Villa in America. The Important Place 
of Italian Renaissance Architecture. French Influences in 
Chateaux, Modern City Houses and Hotels. Little Appre- 
ciated Architectural Legacy from Spain. 




American Types Characteristic of New England, The 
Middle Atlantic States, and The South. Creole and 
Spanish Colonial Architecture. "Secessionist" Work in 
the Middle West, the "Craftsman Idea" and Some Com- 
ments on the Bungalow. 


New Styles Applied to Familiar Uses, and Old Styles 
Applied to New Uses. "L'Art Nouveau," The "Secession- 
ists" and "Modernists." The City House, The Office 
Building, The Loft Building, The Modern Hotel, the Apart- 
ment House and the Great Railroad Terminal. 


TECT 225 

Style from Viewpoints of Relation to Site, Material, Gen- 
eral Appropriateness, etc. Local Materials and Local Labour 
Conditions. Foresight and Advice. Choosing an Architect. 


Building is a Business Transaction. How to Consult the 
Architect. The Nature of the Architect's Services. What 
Architect and Client should each Rightly Expect from the 
Other. Basis of Charges, Supervision, "Extras," etc. 
Architectural Drawings and Specifications. 


Consideration of Physical and ^Esthetic Properties of Build- 
ing Materials. Natures, Suitability, Comparative Costs, 
etc., of Building Materials. The Importance of Texture. 
Associated Suitability of Materials and Styles. 


Different Kinds of Plans. Importance of a Definite Method 
of Procedure in Developing Both Plans and Details. Notes 
on Windows, Doors, Chimneys, Stairways, etc. Wood- 
work, Interior Trim and Finish, Hardware, Lighting and 
Plumbing Fixtures, etc. The Best Manner in which to 
Insure the Fulfilment of Requirements. 


Great Tangley Manor, Surrey, England Frontispiece 

From an Original Water-colour Painting by Anna Richards 



I. Egyptian Bell Capital Column, Egyptian Stalk Column, Doric 

Order (Modern), Ionic Order (Modern), Corinthian Order 

(Modern), Tuscan Order (Modern), Composite Order (Modern). 

II. Principal Parts of a Classic Entablature, Rusticated Masonry, 

Quoins, Rock-Faced Masonry. 

III. Common Architectural Motifs of Classic Origin (Greek Key. 
Fret, Anthemion, Egg-and-Dart, Leaf-and-Dart, Wave ana 

IV. Marquise, Cartouches (French and Italian), Spandrils, Pediments 
(Curved, Angular, Cyma, Broken), Balusters. 

V. Palladian Entrance, Palladian Window, Corbels, Console, Finial, 

Dormer Window in Mansard Roof, Fanlight. 

VI. Linenfold Panel, Greek Acanthus, Spiral Volute, Pilaster 
Capitals, Modillion and Dentils, Lantern, Console Keystone, 
Renaissance Arabesque, Lunette. 

VII. Attributes, Renaissance and Roman Uses of Arch and Columns, 
Caryatid Figure, Terminal Caryatid, Terminal Figure, Spindles. 



The Towers of the Chateau of Langeais 16 

A Typical American Dwelling of the Style Erroneously Called "Queen 

Anne" 16 

"Monticello," The Virginia Home of Thomas Jefferson 17 

The Woolworth Building, seen through the 'Arcade of the New York 

Municipal Building 18 

Two Details of the Cleveland Post Office and Federal Building 19 

A Greek Doric Temple at Segesta, Sicily 34 

The Caryatid Porch of the Greek (Ionic), Erechtheum, Athens 34 

The Corinthian Temple of Jupiter Stator, Athens 35 

The Arch of Constantine, Rome 35 

The Cathedral of St. Mark, Venice 38 

Detail: Cloister of St. Paul-beyond-the-walls, Rome 38 

Typical Byzantine Columns, Capitals and Carving 39 

The Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 48 

A Typical Gothic Detail 48 

Rose Window of the'Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 49 

Recessed Doorway of the''Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 49 

Nave, interior; Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 50 

Transept, interior; Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 50 

Gothic Chimeras of the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris 51 

Gothic Gargoyles of the Cathedral of N6tre Dame, Paris, France 51 

Durham Cathedral from the River, Durham, England 52 


Westminster Abbey, London, England 52 

Gateway, St. John's College, Cambridge, England 53 

Gateway, Trinity College, Cambridge, England 53 

Doorway of "La Psalette," Tours, France 56 

Tower of "La Psalette," Tours, France 56 

Doorway of Chateau of Langeais, France 57 

Courtyard of the Maison de Tristan I'Hermite, Tours, France 57 

The Town Hall, Bruges, Belgium 58 

The Church at Malines, Belgium 58 

The Cathedral of Toledo, Spain 59 

The Puerta del Sol, Toledo, Spain 59 

The Palace of the Doges, Venice, Italy 60 

The Palazzo della CaD'Oro, Venice, Italy 60 

Courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese, Rome, Italy 61 

Colonnade of the Vatican, Rome, Italy 61 

The Church of S. Maria della Salute, Venice, Italy 62 

Doorway of the Library of the Cathedral of Sienna, Italy 63 

The Entrance of Whitehall, London, England 68 

St. Paul's Cathedral, London, England 68 

Classic Derivations in Modern American Bank Buildings (Two 

Examples) 74 

The New, York City Post Office 75 

The New Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass 75 

A Water Temple at Sunol, California 76 

A Tea-House of Classic Design, on a Long Island (N. Y.) Country 

Estate 76 

The Marble Arch, Hyde Park, London, England 77 

The Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Mass 77 

The Cour de Marbre, Palace of Versailles, France 78 

Colonnade of the Louvre, Paris, France 78 

The Central Pediment of the Louvre, Paris, France 79 

The Petit Trianon, Versailles, France 79 

The "Orangerie," Bois du Boulogne, Paris, France 80 

The Chateau de Bagatelle, Bois du Boulogne, Paris, France 80 

A French Classic Shop, New York City 81 

A French Classic Publishing Building, New York City 81 

Colonnade Row (La Grange Terrace), New York City 88 

A Georgian Porch Detail (Modern), New Haven, Conn 89 

A "Classic Revival" Porch, Baltimore, Md 89 

Details from the Grand Palais des Champs Elysdes, Paris, France 

(Two views) 102 

A Fifth Avenue Shop Front, in the Modern French (Beaux-Arts) Style 103 
A New York City House Front in the Modern French (Beaux-Arts) 

Style 104 

Engaged Columns of the Main Fagade of the New York Public Library 105 
A Modern Church of Romanesque Derivation, Madison Square 

Presbyterian Church, New York City 106 

Trinity Church, Boston, Massachusetts 106 

Drawing for the Porch of the Cathedral of Baltimore, Md 114 

St. Thomas' Church, New York City 115 

Gothic Arched Entrance to Quadrangle, Graduate School, Princeton 

University 122 

Grotesques in the Gothic Manner 123 

Rib-vaulted Vestibule, in the Gothic Style, Graduate School, Princeton 

University 123 


The Provost's Tower, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia 124 

Chapel of the Military Academy at West Point 125 

The Woolworth Building, New York City 126 

Details of the Woolworth Building, New York City (Four Views) 127 

An American Country House of English Derivation 132 

Detail: Garden Front of an English-derived American Country House 133 
Detail : Terrace and Sun-Dial, an English-derived American Country 

House 134 

Tudor Derivation in an American Country House 135 

Old Half-Timber City Houses, Holborn, London 136 

Half-timber Dormitory Building, Princeton, N. J 136 

Heale House, Salisbury, England 137 

An English Country House, Walton on Thames 140 

English Derivation in an American Country House 141 

American Country House of Composite Origin 141 

Two Modern English Derivations in American Country Houses 142 

Two English Derivations in Pennsylvania 14b 

A Typical English " Neighbourhood" Development 146 

A Typical English Suburban House 146 

Two Modern English Suburban Houses in Brick 147 

Private Library Building, New York City 158 

Detail: Private Library Building, New York City 159 

Italian Renaissance Derivation in a Fifth Avenue Shop Front, New 

York City 160 

The Public Library of Boston, Massachusetts 160 

Italian Renaissance Derivation in the Loggia of a Modern American 

House 160 

Italian Renaissance Derivation in a New York City Shop Front 161 

A New York City Shop Front, with Sgraffito Decoration 161 

Triple Arched Loggia (Italian Renaissance Derivation) in a New York 

City Shop Front 161 

Sgraffito Decoration (Italian Renaissance Derivation) in a New York 

City Shop Front 161 

An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, General View . . 164 
An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, a Terrace Court- 
yard 165 

An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, from a Loggia 166 

An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, Wall Fountain 167 

An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, Court 167 

An Italian Derivation in an American Country House, Pool and 

Pavilion 168 

An Italian Villa Derivation, Front View 168 

Patio at Pan-American Union Building, Washington, D. C 168 

An Italian Villa Derivation, Garden Front 169 

The Chateau de Langeais, France 169 

Spanish-Italian Patio of a Modern American Residence in California. 170 

Typical Spanish Buildings, Spain 170 

Spanish Renaissance Derivation in Window Treatment in California. 171 

Spanish Renaissance Details in an Office Building, Chicago, Illinois. . 171 
An Early New England Dwelling of Gambrel Roof Type, Hadlyme, 

Connecticut 174 

A Typical Dutch Colonial Dwelling, at Hackensack, New Jersey. . . . 174 

A Georgian Colonial Pediment Porch, with Palladian Window Above. . 175 
A Georgian Derivation in the Porch of a Modern American Residence, 

German town, Pa 175 


" Wynnestay," an Early Colonial Residence near Philadelphia 188 

A Local Modern Derivation of the Early Pennsylvania Type of Colo- 
nial Residence 188 

"Mt. Pleasant and its Dependencies," Philadelphia 188 

"Cliveden," Philadelphia 188 

Country House at Valley Forge, Pa., Derived from Early Local Proto- 
types 189 

Country House of Local "Ledge Stone," at German town, Pa 189 

The State House, "Independence Hall," Philadelphia 189 

A Modern American Country House Derived from the Southern Type 

of Plantation Dwelling 190 

"Whitehall," Anne Arundel County, Maryland 192 

"The White House," Washington, D. C 192 

Two Examples of the Creole Plantation Villa, New Orleans, Louisiana 193 

San Gabriel Mission, California 194 

Country House of Spanish Derivation, Sierra Madre, California 194 

Four Views of a Modern Residence of Spanish Derivation, Typical of 

California 195 

A Typical Recent American "Seaside Villa" of no Stylistic Derivation 196 
A Typical Recent American Suburban Dwelling of the "Picturesque" 

Type 196 

Two Modern American Country House Developments 197 

The Style of the "American Secessionist" seen in a City Residence in 

Grand Rapids, Michigan 198 

An Example of the "Craftsman" Type of Country Dwelling 198 

Japanese Influence in the California Bungalow 199 

A Typical "Bungalow" of Native Redwood, California 199 

Characteristic Design of School of the Austrian or Viennese "Secession " 204 

The "Art Nouveau," in a Parisian Shop-front 204 

Flemish Renaissance City Houses on the Rue Flamande, Bruges, 

Belgium. . . 208 

Flemish Renaissance Derivation in a Modern New York City 

Residence 208 

Two Modern American City Residences, Typical of the Newer Devel- 
opments 209 

The Metropolitan Life Insurance Building, New York City 212 

The Equitable Life Insurance Building, New York City 212 

The Hotel Vanderbilt, New York City 213 

The Pennsylvania Railroad Station, New York City 220 

The Grand Central Railroad Station, New York City 220 


Successful Design for a Level Site 228 

Successful Design for a Hillside Site 228 

A Modern Country House Essentially American 229 

AlSmall Cottage of Native Derivation 229 

Simplicity and Charm in a Small English Cottage (2 views) 238 

Two Typical Modern English "Detached Houses" 239 

An Architect's Preliminary Drawing for a Country House 244 

The Country House as Actually Executed 244 

A Preliminary Drawing for a Small Village Library 266 

Reproduction (Reduced) of a J^-Inch Working Drawing of a House 

Elevation 266 

Reproduction (Reduced) of a J^-Inch Working Drawing of a House 

Floor-Plan 266 


Reproduction (Actual Size) of a Portion of a J^-Inch Working Draw- 
ing of a House Elevation 267 

Reproduction (Actual Size) of a Portion of a ^-Inch Working Draw- 
ing of a House Floor-Plan 267 

Reproduction (Actual Size) of a Portion of a 1 H-Inch Scale Detail of 

Tile Eaves 267 

Reproduction (Actual Size) of a Portion of a Full-size Working Draw- 
ing of the Top of a Wainscot 268 

An Architect's Projet for a National Memorial Monument 272 

The Possibilities of Building Materials seen in an American Country 

House near Chicago 276 

Two Instances of the Decorative Importance of Texture 277 

Use of Local Materials in Two Typical Modern American Dwellings 

of Moderate Cost 278 

An American Expression of the Modern English Country House 279 

The Same House in Local Stone and Half-timber Construction 279 

Good Relation of Design and Materials in a Large Country House 

near Philadelphia 294 

The Expression of Texture in Building Materials 295 

The Use of Stucco as an Exterior Finish 295 

A Modern American Country House of Actual Half-Timber Construc- 
tion 298 

Two Details of Door and Window Treatments 318 

Two Typical Examples of the Modern English Country House 319 

Modern American Real-Estate Houses 324 

A Row of Houses in the "Model Village" of Letchworth, England. . . 324 
The Application of Architecture to Utilitarian Buildings in a California 

Power-house (two views) 325 



Regardless of the extent to which any special subject 
may be treated for general reading, there must always be 
certain terms of a more or less technical nature, an under- 
standing of which is essential even on the part of the 
general reader. 

It is the intention, therefore, of the following seven 
pages to illustrate certain of the most common architec- 
tural terms. It is obvious that, in limited compass, it 
would be impossible to illustrate all special architectural 
terms, nor would it be necessary for the purpose of this 
book to do so. 

This brief " Illustrated Terminology," then, is designed 
to acquaint the reader with the names of certain com- 
monly seen architectural features, familiarity with which 
should be regarded as a part of everyone's education. 

In some cases the reader will be enabled to learn the 
architectural name for an often-noticed feature will 
learn, for example, that the wall-space between two arches 
is called a " spandril." In other cases the reader will be 
enabled to identify some architectural feature the name 
but not the nature of which is known will learn for ex- 
ample, by consulting the "Illustrated Terminology," 
what is a " pediment." 



(Modern Version.) 


(Modern Version.) 


(Modern Version.) 


(or "Roman Doric.") 

(Modern Version.) 


(Modern Version.) 

cm A 



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(Also called 
Leaf and Tongue.) 





(With Cartouche.) 




(Space within Pediment 
called the Tympanum.) 

(With Flame Finial.) 









(Italian Renaissance.) 





(From Corinthian Capital.) 

(From Ionic Capital.) 

(With Greek Fret.) 

(Successive ages have developed a 

great variety of capitals, though all 

are based on the original Classic 


CWith Dentils Above.; 


(The other stones in the arch are 


(With Egg and Dar 

- ^ 



J It 











(After the Italian 






TO attempt to define architecture, or art, is to fall 
into the danger of dealing in catch-phrases. Few 
definitions are safe, and the best of them are more clever 
than accurate. Architecture has been called ' ' the art of 
building beautifully ' ' which, perhaps, is as valuable as 
most epigrammatic definitions. The attempt has been 
made from the time of Vitruvius, and an early English 
writer, paraphrasing that classic authority, states that 
"Well-building hath three conditions: Commodity, 
Firmness and Delight." Perhaps it would be hard to 
find any terse characterisation so accurately applicable 
to all architecture that a building should be appro- 
priate to its use, strongly built, and pleasing to look 
upon. This interesting statement, however, could not 
be called, exactly, a definition of architecture, although 
it gives us a reasonably clear idea of the aim and 
purpose of architecture. 

Taking any one of these three essentials alone as 
the aim of architecture, the world would have been, and 



would be to-day, a heavy loser. Conceive first the 
aspect of architecture if "Commodity" or the intended 
use of the building had been always its sole governing 
architectural factor. Grain elevators and factories are 
built primarily with a view to use, and include also the 
second essential of "Firmness," but ignore the third. 

The third, however, the building which has been so 
beautifully designed that it is a "Delight," would be 
but a short-lived one if it were not firmly built, and a 
useless one if it served no purpose. 

We must think of architecture, then, regardless of 
its divisions into domestic, monumental or ecclesiastical 
buildings, as a perfect co-relation of the three essentials 
of suitability, strength and beauty. In certain types of 
building one of these considerations, or two, may some- 
what overbalance each of the three may not hold 
equal importance. Generally speaking, however, archi- 
tecture must take cognisance of all, and by keeping the 
three essentials constantly in mind in our individual 
consideration of any given building, we will establish 
from the outset a certain basis of universal application, 
regardless of "style" or any other detail. We will ask 
ourselves: "What kind of a building is this? What 
was its purpose? Does its design express this pur- 
pose ? Is it well-built, or is its construction cheap and 
dishonest? Is it pleasing in its form and detail?" 
These are basic considerations of significance, entirely 
independent of whether it be designed in the style of the 
Italian Eenaissance or Modern French ; whether we are 
looking at a church or a theatre. 

It is an interesting circumstance that this country 
affords an opportunity to study adaptations in many 
cases excellent adaptations of the architectural styles 
of all countries and all periods. Architecturally, as 



Above and behind our most intimate architecture, as well as our more imposing 
buildings, looms the great background of architectural precedent and historic 
origin, full of an interest which should make itself felt to every intelligently 
observant person 


well as racially, America has been the melting-pot. 
There has been no one style, because in this country we 
are not one people, but many and there has been no 
typical American architecture, as a noted architect re- 
cently pointed out, because we have no typical climate 
in America, no typical landscape or no typical civilisa- 
tion. This, however, is a question of ' l style, ' ' to pursue 
which further at this point would be to depart from 
broad generalities. 

At the outset it seems a part of this work to point 
out forcibly the importance of some degree of general 
understanding and appreciation of the broad principles 
of architecture. Many of us seldom come in contact 
with paintings, or sculpture, or other fine arts. We are 
not obliged to listen to music or to follow the drama. 
If we go out-doors, however, we cannot fail to see 
buildings everywhere buildings good, bad and indif- 
ferent. Some are important, all are interesting in 
some particular. The unfortunate thing is that so 
many people see only buildings, and have never trained 
themselves to see architecture. The aspect of buildings, 
quite apart from any individual interests of the pros- 
pective builder, is so inseparably a part of our daily 
lives that it would seem highly desirable to develop at 
least a high-school course on the appreciation of archi- 
tecture. Architecture is not a " special" subject it is 
a universal subject confronting us at every turn. 

There was a time when a knowledge of architecture, 
together with the ' ' Classics, ' ' formed an important part 
of the education of a gentleman. The stately and class- 
ical dignity of many of the fine old manor houses of 
the South was due more to the architectural education 
of their owners than to the taste of the master-builders. 
Thomas Jefferson made the actual drawings for 



' * Monticello, ' ' as well as for the buildings of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia. He was not an architect, but archi- 
tecture had been part of his education. To-day there 
are few men who, between business and social activities, 
would have time to draw the plans for their houses, 
even if they had the ability. The architect is better 
equipped for this work ; but an architectural education, 
no matter how slight, would assure intelligent and effec- 
tive understanding of the architect's work. To most 
people the architect's work is far more mysterious and 
incomprehensible than that of the lawyer or the doctor, 
while it should by all rights be readily and intelligently 

It is assumed that anyone about to build becomes, 
perforce, interested in architecture, but by reason of a 
late interest, and no personal basis of "architectural con- 
viction, he is obliged either to make a hasty and half- 
considered survey of the subject, or to accept the varied 
and usually conflicting architectural advices of his 
friends, many of whom are no better equipped in this 
direction than he. His very ignorance makes him sus- 
picious that the architect may design for him a building 
which he will not like, whereas, had he any appreciation 
or understanding of architecture, he would be under no 

In addition to the prospective builder, there is the 
much larger class comprised of those who probably 
never will build for themselves, or be called upon to 
exercise any architectural knowledge in so direct a man- 
ner. To these, however, no less than to the prospective 
builder, architecture should be an open book. Their 
walks abroad would become of abundant and varied 
interest, and every building would hold a story which 
they had never before been able to read. 

Photograph by .liiliun Buckly 


The great tower of the Woolworth Building, carried out in a free modernised rendering of 
Gothic architecture, is seen through the Classic-Renaissance colonnade of the New York 
Municipal Building, while a glimpse is also visible of the old Eighteenth Century Franco- 
Anglo-Classic New York City Hall 

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1 O I 


Nor should allusion be omitted to the citizen who 
is called upon, as a member of a board, to pass judg- 
ment on the design of an important public building. 
It is unfortunate if a private house be bungled calami- 
tous in the case of a library or a city hall. In this con- 
nection we are impressed by the importance of archi- 
tectural education as a civic obligation, as a duty to the 
community. Public money is being spent yearly 
throughout the country for the erection of important 
public buildings, yet architecturally, the public has 
never seen the buildings. It is by no means to be recom- 
mended, however, that public opinions on architecture 
be set up to overthrow professional opinions on archi- 
tecture, excepting in the case of an incompetent l 'politi- 
cal" architect. It is rather the contention that public 
appreciation of architecture will result in securing bet- 
ter results through an understanding of what the 
architect is trying to do. The board may insist upon 
ruining the appearance of an important building in 
order to save a few thousand dollars, or may vote down 
the architect's project for a splendid monumental 
approach. If the members of the board, and the people 
themselves, wore architecturally educated, the neces- 
sary funds would be forthcoming through public 
subscription. To appreciate the possibilities of a noble 
architectural idea is to desire its execution. In the 
second part of this book there will be attempted an 
introduction to that interesting, but unknown indi- 
vidual, the Architect. 

To understand architecture has been supposed to 
be a "gift," an implication of some peculiar talent or 
taste. This, however, may readily be proved an erro- 
neous idea, for although architecture is no less an art 
than painting or music, it is different in certain salient 


particulars. A masterpiece of painting or of music is 
the result of inspiration a masterpiece of architecture 
is the result of evolution. To understand painting or 
music is to understand their underlying inspiration 
to understand architecture one need but understand the 
stages of architectural evolution which produced a 
given example. Nor should understanding be confused 
with enjoyment. Most receptive natures find enjoy- 
ment in art, in music, in architecture, in nature, in all 
that surrounds them; but their enjoyment is a thing 
of the senses, in which understanding plays no part. 
Knowledge raises their understanding to the level of 
intelligent appreciation. 

To see in all architecture a product of evolution, is 
to possess at once the key to its study. Obviously the 
art of building, at first more a necessity than an art, 
has from the dawn of civilisation been very closely 
linked with the development of the human race, and 
has, in a measure, influenced the people who created 
it. In this connection between human and architec- 
tural evolution there is more than a mere sentimental 
coincidence. Different kinds of civilisation, character- 
ised by different religious and social developments all 
produced different architectural manifestations, some- 
times new, often evolved from earlier forms. The pros- 
perity of kingdoms, their days of degeneracy, and their 
downfall are mirrored by contemporary architectural 
monuments as vividly as in the words of contemporary 
historians. Being a work of the hand of man, archi- 
tecture has always reflected the mind of man and in 
this alone should lie much of its interest. 

No architecture of the past, perhaps, has been so 
little expressive as our own architecture of to-day, 
unless future ages are to read in it the commentary that 


* ' at this time ' ' artistic ideas and ideals were in a transi- 
tional stage, the study and adaptation of earlier styles 
of other lands characterised North American architec- 
ture, and in the security of employing recognised and 
meritorious types, we had no desire to experiment, or 
to evolve originalia. 

A good many architectural critics have bitterly 
assailed the times because the American nation, since 
its earlier days, has created no characteristic architec- 
tural style. There are, however, two sides to this 

Looking back over the evolution of architectural 
styles, it will be found that new styles arose only when 
old ones were out-worn, when conditions made them 
obsolete, or when some new social or religious change 
logically dictated new architectural forms. No new 
style was founded without reason, and solely because 
of a desire for novelty. In no case has any good come 
of an effort to be original solely for the sake of orig- 
inality. The "Art Nouveau" was an illustration of 
this an effort to evolve new forms for the sole purpose 
of breaking what certain restless spirits believed to be 
the monotony of existing artistic ideas. And the "Art 
Nouveau" movement is now remembered as an epi- 
demic of ephemeral madness, leaving after it no trace 
or influence. It died because it had no reason ever 
to have been created, and because, in itself, it was not 
logical or legitimate. 

That the last century, almost, in this country has 
seen the development of no striking "national" archi- 
tecture is not surprising, and should not be distressing. 
In architecture, above all other arts, it is the part of 
wisdom to proceed slowly, and to be very sure of each 
step. Sincere adaptations of old or ancient styles are 


much to be preferred if the alternative is a meaningless 
style evolved only as a tour de force an attempt to 
prove an originality which does not exist. If this coun- 
try is destined to produce a " style," recognisable as 
such, nothing could prevent it our legacies of past 
styles from other lands would be as straws in the 
current. It has been so always. 

Nor can our present adaptations of many styles be 
construed as a contradiction to the idea of architectural 
evolution. It is a far more natural condition that many 
styles prevail in equal favour, than that one style should 
be paramount in this country at the present time. 

The present age is one of travel and of education 
of photography and of illustration. And human nature 
is accountable for the selective proclivity. Every one of 
us instinctively cherishes some personal ideal of a 
country-house, for example, be it an Italian villa, 
an English manor, or a French chateau. That ideal 
would not be sacrificed for the sake of conformity to 
some " national" style of architecture. We would 
still take pages out of the picture-book of all past 

Italian villas are not, necessarily, consistent in their 
architectural style because the Italians were architec- 
turally consistent. The men who built them, and for 
whom they were built, knew of no other type. They 
were not distracted by a variety of other, and perhaps 
equally pleasing, ideas, and consequently, by following 
the prevalent style, there was evolved a distinctive type. 

As proof of the effect which the selective proclivity 
of the individual may have upon architectural design, 
consider the architecture of England. In the matter 
of style there was not so much conservatism or consis- 
tency as has been supposed. Once the landed gentry 


began to travel, new architectural ideas came in. The 
Italian garden was admired, and many Italian gardens 
were laid out on English estates. The Englishman 
preferred his own kind of house, so he did not adapt 
the Italian villa. Many Italian painters, decorators 
and artisans, however, were brought over to create 
interiors and works of art to gratify the "classic" 
tastes which had arisen as a result of travel. Contact 
with the Far East created a mania for "the Chinese 
taste," mostly evidenced in Chippendale's furniture, 
but nevertheless potently in favour in many other di- 
rections and certainly a style as alien to English tra- 
ditions as could be conceived. Later came the Brothers 
Adam, imprinting the architecture and furniture of 
their time with a classicism which was not to wear off 
until the late Georgian period. 

The more intercourse of ideas, the more travel, the 
more familiarity with varied styles, certainly the less 
will be the likelihood of the development of any one 
essentially new style. And because the intelligent and 
practical study of the architecture of this country to- 
day must be largely a study of adaptations, it is essen- 
tial to be able to trace derivations with accuracy and 
ease. It would be impossible to acquire any understand- 
ing or appreciation of the architecture of this country 
to-day without a practical familiarity with the great 
architectural styles of Europe. 

With this in view, the following two chapters are 
designed to outline concisely the evolution of historic 
architecture, with special reference to the character- 
istics of the styles, discussed consecutively, and with 
as great a degree of brevity as is consistent with 
adequate presentation. 

Before proceeding, however, to traverse the ages 


from the time of the Egyptian temple-builders up to the 
present day, a few absolute fundamentals of design 
should be comprehended by the reader in order that it 
may be seen to what extent the architects of the historic 
styles succeeded in realising their intentions. 

It would be an easy matter, in this direction, to 
plunge the reader into a maze of technicalities, whereas 
a real grasp of four great essentials of architectural 
design may be said to comprehend all lesser points. If 
these four essentials have been rationally realised in 
a given building, it is safe to assume that the building 
is worthy of the name of "architecture." 

The design of a building, regardless of its " style" 
or its function or uses, should be expressive and appro- 
priate, and the designer should have demonstrated in 
his finished building his grasp of the architectural 
essential of scale and the pictorial essential of light- 

Briefly considering these four essentials a building 
defeats its own design if, while seemingly a tall and 
upright building, this effect is destroyed by strong 
horizontal lines. The result is a distressing optical and 
mental confusion on the part of the beholder an inevi- 
table doubt as to whether or not the architect had been 
perfectly certain in his own mind as to what he was 
trying to express. The tall, upright building should 
express its height, with an introduction of horizontal 
members so subsidiary to the vertical as to serve only 
to break the monotony. A long, low building should 
contain no conspicuous elements in its design which 
will detract from its horizontality. In short, any build- 
ing should immediately and unequivocally express the 
intention of its designer, should be a building massive 
and dignified, light and graceful, tall and upright, or low 


and spreading, or of any other type. If we are assailed 
by any doubt or conjecture in so important an aspect of 
the building, we may well expect to find further serious 
evidences of inept design. 

On the score of appropriateness, there is, perhaps, 
little to say which would not be obvious. The design of 
a building, irrespective of its style, should be expressive 
of the purpose or nature of the building, and hence 
appropriate. A little millinery shop should not look 
like a bank building. Appropriateness inevitably in- 
volves style, because certain styles are peculiarly suited 
to the expression of certain ideas. Classic styles are 
dignified, modern French styles are festive, Italian 
styles are refined and graceful and so on through the 
pages of architecture. The able architect is the archi- 
tect who can unerringly select for the design of a given 
building the style which will most clearly and effec- 
tively express the intent of that building. 

"Scale" is a word seldom met with outside the 
architectural draughting room, or outside the conver- 
sation of designers, and this is unfortunate, because 
the term is not a "technical" one, and errors in scale 
are more common than errors of any other kind be the 
question involved one of architecture, furniture design, 
or even the selection of a picture frame. 

In plain diction, ' ' scale ' ' involves the relationship of 
parts, whether well or ill related. If a window, for 
example, is of exactly the right proportions for a wall- 
space which it occupies, the architect says it is "in 
scale." If, however, this window is too large or too 
small, he says it is " out of scale. ' ' A f agade may be 
admirably designed, and in every way pleasing, with 
the exception of one fatal defect: the cornice, for in- 
stance, may be "out of scale" may be overpoweringly 


heavy, or may be insignificant and inadequate in rela- 
tion, or in ' ' scale ' ' with the rest of the design. A single 
moulding, a single bracket may be ' * out of scale, ' ' mar- 
ring the whole design. No member of a building is too 
large or too small to escape the necessity of " scale." 
An entire wing or a tower may be ' * out of scale, " or a 
single feature (apparently) so unimportant as the key- 
stone over a window. It is apparent, then, that an 
architect's success as measured by his works must 
depend very largely on his eye for " scale" which 
might be called, perhaps, his eye for relative pro- 

It will be conceded at once that effects of light and 
shade must play an important part in the design of a 
building, and cognate with it, the handling of voids 
and solids. Architecturally, the "voids" in a design 
are all windows and door openings, loggias or arcades ; 
the "solids," all of the building which is not "void." 
Skilful balance of void and solid is an essential in 
architectural design, as will be apparent in one 's obser- 
vation of any building, studied with this in mind. Light 
and shade must also be skilfully manipulated, and mis- 
takes most often occur through too much study of a 
building ' ' on paper, " as a composition of lines, without 
sufficient visualisation of the effect of the executed work. 
Every projection from the face of a building casts a 
definite shadow, and the effect of these shadows is as 
much a part of the whole design as the detail of a 
moulding or the interpretation of a classic order. 

From the foregoing observations on expression, 
appropriateness, scale and light-and-shadow, it must 
be apparent that the able architect needs much mental 
equipment in addition to his knowledge of historic styles 
or his familiarity with structural problems. It should 


be noticed, moreover, that the more masterfully an 
architect handles these essentials of design the less 
appreciation he receives from the lay critic, for the 
reason that perfection in such matters as scale, for 
instance, so rests the eye as to attract no attention and 
elicit no praise. The trained architectural observer, 
however, will find much to delight him in his conscious 
appreciation of these niceties. 

To proceed further in a consideration of the prin- 
ciples of architectural design would be inconsistent with 
the purposes of the present work, no matter how inter- 
esting in itself, and a necessarily brief study will now 
be directed through the evolution of those great historic 
styles whose present-day manifestations we see around 
us on every hand. 



IN order to acquire a practical familiarity with the 
architecture which surrounds us to-day, and to be 
practically familiar with its forms, it is obviously neces- 
sary to acquire some general knowledge of the evolution 
of architecture through the ages and in the several 
countries of Europe. 

It is customary and, indeed, quite proper, to com- 
mence a study of the history of architecture with its 
beginnings in Egypt, although architectural evolution 
has left no vestige of actual Egyptian detail in modern 

The recognisable characteristics of architecture 
manifest themselves in three principal directions: in 
the structural character of the building (column con- 
struction, arch construction or otherwise) ; in its gen- 
eral mass, or form (tall and vertical, or low-spreading 
and horizontal) and in its detail (in the kind of archi- 
tectural mouldings or ornaments peculiar to each type 
or nationality). 

There are, again, three broad divisions in which to 
consider types of buildings : religious, secular public 
and secular private buildings. It is essential to con- 
sider, instinctively, in which class a given building 
belongs, because much of the confusion which exists in 
the consideration of architecture arises from vague 
classification, or none at all. And classification should 



always be the basis of comparison, and comparison is 
the royal road to intelligent and practical comprehen- 
sion. The importance of these broad divisions, which 
must come to make themselves felt instinctively, will 
become increasingly apparent as study progresses. 

Commencing with the architecture of Egypt, it will 
be realised subsequently what a complex architectural 
fabric wag gradually built up upon an essentially simple 

For the purpose of this book the following history 
of architectural evolution will be presented in the most 
concise form possible, with the intention of enlarging 
upon certain phases of it in subsequent chapters. 


The type of Elgyptian building which played its part 
in later architectural evolution was not the secular 
building, either public or private, but the religious 
building in this case, the temple. 

The Egyptian dwelling was, for the most part, a 
very modest affair, and very perishable, both actually 
and stylistically. Not only are there no examples pre- 
served in the condition of the Roman villas of Pompeii 
and Herculaneum, but the Egyptian residence appears 
to have had little if any influence upon the later evolu- 
tion of the private house. Some idea of its form has 
been preserved in elaborate contemporary wall-paint- 
ings and bas-reliefs, but since its influence on architec- 
tural design did not extend beyond the days of the 
Pharaohs, it is more profitable to consider the religious, 
or temple, architecture of ancient Egypt. 

Essentially, Egyptian architecture was a stone 
architecture, and structurally it was an architecture 
based on the column and lintel (a lintel being any 


horizontal member resting upon two vertical members). 

Although the arch was known to the Egyptians, 
their builders appear to have regarded it as a mean and 
ignoble substitute for the enormous stones which they 
used to span the distances between their columns. For 
the most part, it would seem that the Egyptians gauged 
the merit of their buildings by the size of the stones 
which they employed. Although they built many of 
their greater columns, such as those in the great hall 
at Karnak, of huge cylindrical drums, they thought 
highly of monolithic columns, hewn from one piece of 
stone. Theirs was an architecture of sublime propor- 
tions, of massive forms and simple lines. 

Their columns were far heavier than those later 
developed by the Greeks, and the forms of the capitals 
or heads of the columns, were inspired by such local 
flora as palm-leaves and lotus flowers. 

Egyptian architecture is powerfully illustrative of 
the influences which social and natural conditions exert 
upon architectural character. Being essentially a relig- 
ious country, actually ruled by the priests, the principal 
form of building was the temple, and being essentially 
a treeless country, the principal building material was 
stone. The Egyptians, of course, understood the 
manufacture and use of bricks, but with their basic 
passion for building for eternity, their crude bricks 
doubtless seemed to be perishable, and certainly not so 
noble as their enormous stone members, so brick played 
no such part in Egyptian architecture as it later played 
in the buildings of the Assyrians. 

Indicative of the Egyptian architectural ideal of 
"eternity," there are the rock-cut temples, hewn from 
stone mountain sides, and the usual tomb, which, when 
not buried beneath the artificial mountain of a pyramid, 


was cut into the solid rock of the Theban Hills. Thus 
it is to be inferred that the Egyptians preferred per- 
manency even to the impressive majesty of fine archi- 
tecture. They were content to rest in a hidden cham- 
ber far in the heart of the living rock, rather than in 
an ornate mausoleum. 

All Egyptian architectural and monumental re- 
mains testify to this predeliction the Sphinx, hewn 
from the solid rock, the monolithic obelisks, the great 
rock-cut temple of Rameses II at Abu-Simbel, the 
colossal statues and massive pylons all these are char- 
acterised by a strength and immobility which have 
defied the centuries and the waves of destructive inva- 
sion which have swept over Egypt. 

Yet, for all its qualities of massive form, Egyptian 
architecture was not sombre, and Egyptian architects 
and artists evolved many decorative forms from lotus, 
palm and papyrus which were essentially graceful and 
delicate. Nor was the architecture of Egypt by any 
means devoid of colour. The pictorial bas-relief carv- 
ings, the inscriptions and decorative details of the tem- 
ples and tombs were richly, even garishly, painted in 
many and bright colours. The erosion of sand and time 
has dimmed these where they have been exposed, but 
in the shelter of many tombs and rock-hewn sanctuaries 
the colours are to be found as intense and vivid as 
though they had but recently come from the brush of 
the painter. 

The transitional step from Egyptian to Greek 
architecture is generally given as existing in a rock-cut 
temple at Beni-Hassan, often called the ' ' Proto-Doric 
Temple," because the form of the columns bears a 
striking similarity to the Greek Doric column, the first 
pf the great Greek "orders," Of the architectural 


legacy of Egypt to Greece, more may be appreciated in 
connection with the consideration of Greek archi- 


The architecture of ancient Assyria differed quite 
distinctly from that of Egypt, and its characteristics, 
like those of Egyptian architecture, were the direct 
outcome of social and natural conditions. 

Secular architecture was more prominent, notably 
in the magnificent palaces of the kings, and, being a 
race less religious and less dominated by the priesthood, 
temples were far less conspicuous. And being a coun- 
try devoid, for the most part, of building stone as well 
as timber, but abounding in clay, Assyria naturally 
developed a brick architecture instead of a stone archi- 
tecture. Structurally, since the brick is a small struc- 
tural unit, the great lintel construction of the Egyptians 
was not possible, so the arch was used considerably, 
both in its true form, and in some other forms. Roof- 
ing was often accomplished by the use of wood, though 
there is considerable dispute on this question among 
archaeologists, and several theories maintaining that 
textiles were largely used. 

Of Assyrian buildings only the walls and floors 
remain, but the area of many of the great rooms could 
have been spanned only by timbers, on which, perhaps, 
there was devised a covering of lighter wood, then 
thatch and clay. 

Most versions of the form of Assyrian buildings are 
conjectural, though it is known with certainty that the 
palaces and temples were of vast size, and were impres- 
sively elevated on a series of great terraces, approached 
by broad nights of steps. And whatever particulars 
of Assyrian architecture are conjectural, it is certain 


that the Assyrians were the first to realise and develop 
the possibilities of brick, both structurally and decora- 
tively. Such portions of their important buildings as 
were conspicuously exposed were faced with glazed 
bricks of gorgeous and beautiful colours, or with tiles, 
often forming elaborate and highly decorative repre- 
sentations of legendary deities, monsters and heroes. 

Subsequent architecture borrowed little from the 
Assyrians certainly that of Greece had nothing in 
common with it. The Assyrians borrowed but little 
from Egypt, by reason of the differing characteristics 
of the two countries, racially and socially, as well as in 
the nature of building materials available. 

Architecturally, however, the Assyrians were, with- 
out dispute, the pioneers in demonstrating the possi- 
bilities of brick as a building material a material 
which, ever since, has been a distinct factor in archi- 
tectural evolution and expression of other races in 
other lands. 


Most architectural histories are enlivened by the 
disputes of archaeological authorities on questions of 
origin. Although many of these disputes are of great 
interest, the present outline sketch of architectural 
evolution will not allow of such digressions. The study 
of Greek architecture, however, usually begins with the 
two great conflicting theories regarding the origin of its 
form. One contention is that the Greeks borrowed 
their column and lintel construction, as well as the form 
of their first Doric column, from Egypt. The other 
contention is that the Greeks, advancing in skill and 
ambition, simply translated into stone the forms of 
their own earlier wooden buildings. There is much to 



support both theories. Undoubtedly there is a simi- 
larity between early Greek architectural forms and 
Egyptian, but with no less doubt there is a distinct 
analogy in the Greek temple to what we may imagine 
was a similar and primitive Greek building of wood. 

For the present it is more important to crystallise 
a clear impression of what, in the main, constituted 
Greek architecture, than to inquire into its origin. 

An understanding of Greek architecture is the first 
really important step in acquiring a practical under- 
standing of the architecture of the present day, as well 
as of many earlier periods. To understand Greek 
architecture is to understand the real meaning of the 
several manifestations of the ''Classic Revival," and 
the frequent architectural allusion to the " Classic 

The importance of Greek architecture in subsequent 
evolution cannot be over-stated. Greek architecture is, 
fundamentally, the basis of all modern architecture, in 
that from it sprang the architecture of Rome, and from 
that later, the architecture of the Renaissance, which 
permanently supplanted the Gothic idea. 

In Greek architecture, furthermore, it is possible, 
for the first time, to perceive the origin of a multitude 
of architectural forms with which we are daily sur- 
rounded to-day mouldings, ornamented motifs and 
the immortal * * Greek orders ' ' themselves forms which 
have come down to the present day, while those of 
ancient Egypt and Assyria did not live beyond the 
confines of their lands, or after the downfall of their 

The Greeks evolved the "Classic Ideal" in architec- 
ture, an ideal of such purity and nobility and perfection 
that it has constituted the standard through the ages, 


The columns here are heavy and spaced closely together. The flutings of the columns, 
as well as mouldings of pediment and cornice, would have been carved "in place," 
had the work been completed 

(Temple at Segesta, Sicily) 

Hy penniwion nf lirium & Co., New York and Paris 

Classic architecture, with the development of the Ionic order, began to take forms of 

permanent and eternal beauty 
(The Caryatid Porch of the Erechtheum, Athens) 

A Roman temple built at Athens by a Greek 


(Temple of the Olympian Zeus, also called Jupiler 
Stater, Athens) 

By permission ,,( liruiin A Co., New York 


The use of column and arch, the employment of sculpture and inscription 
as an adjunct to architecture the entire composition as a whole is essen- 
tially Roman 

(The Arch of Constantine, Rome) 


and is to-day the fundamental of architectural design. 

Greek architecture, elementally, is a column-and- 
lintel architecture, highly developed as time went on 
from the severest Doric orders to the most ornate 
Corinthian orders. 

The three orders, Doric, Ionic and Corinthian, are 
readily recognisable and easily to be distinguished ( see 
" Architectural Terminology, Illustrated"). 

Regardless of the forms assumed by Greek archi- 
tectural elements in later times, it is important to 
remember their origin. Greek forms reappeared in the 
period of the Renaissance, and again in the period of 
the Classic Revival in the Eighteenth Century, and the 
same forms constitute to-day the most important part 
of our architectural details. To possess a clear vision 
of Greek forms is to simplify the study of architecture 
and to pave the way for a subsequent recognition of 
other forms and other architectural ideals which came 
into being during later periods and in other lands. 

The most notable type of Greek building was the 
temple, although the private dwellings of wealthy indi- 
viduals claimed far more of the attention of architects 
and sculptors than was the case in Egypt. 

Greek architecture was essentially an architecture 
of stone, and its character, subsequently to the Doric 
style, was marked by the refined application of graceful 
carving and co-relation of monumental statuary. 

Much of the eternal excellence of Greek architecture 
lies in the perfection of its proportions, as well as in 
the refinement of its detail, which, to date, have not 
been improved upon. 

It is important to remember that Greek architecture 
forms the inspiration and often the direct source of the 


design of virtually all the large public buildings of 
to-day. No style has been found better suited for the 
expression of dignity, stability and permanent beauty 
of form. The debt of architecture to the genius of 
ancient Greece can never be discharged, and this 
becomes increasingly apparent as study proceeds. 

Greek temple plans were of several kinds, but the 
differentiation of these comes into the province of a 
far more detailed consideration than it is intended to 
present. Nor can this kind of knowledge of Greek 
architecture be said to have a direct bearing upon its 
more superficial aspects. It is more important, in a 
general survey, to recognise thoroughly the importance 
and meaning of the great and immortal * * Classic Ideal ' ' 
the purity of form and the perfection of proportion 
which were the essentials of Greek architecture. And 
these basic essentials found their highest expression 
in the Greek temple. 

The most important feature of the Greek private 
residence was its planning about an open central court, 
called an atrium a type of plan still adhered to in 
warm countries, and encountered later in but slightly 
variant forms, notably the Spanish patio. 


The architects of Rome took Greek architecture 
and elaborated it, introducing in addition, and highly 
developing, the use of the arch. 

The old Greek Doric order did not appeal to the 
sophisticated Romans, to whom it doubtless appeared 
too severe and too primitive. Their corresponding 
form was the Roman Doric column, also called Tuscan 
(see " Architectural Terminology, Illustrated ") . They 


made but little use of the Ionic, but appropriated and 
highly embellished the Corinthian. 

Most characteristic of the Roman development of 
architecture was the combined use of column and arch, 
later a favourite theme for the architects of the Italian 

Roman carving and ornamentation was rarely so 
refined or pure as similar work of the Greeks, but was 
usually more decorative. The Romans were lovers of 
inscriptions, and, in their architecture, began to pay 
more attention to secular buildings, both public and 
private, than had previously been accorded them. Pub- 
lic works, such as aqueducts and bridges, became archi- 
tectural monuments, as well as theatres, baths, and 
triumphal arches, while the private residences, or villas, 
became luxurious and elaborate to a degree, and were 
filled with paintings, statuary, bronzes and other works 
of art, including Greek antiquities. 

Architecture was fast coming into a closer relation- 
ship with the people, ceasing to occupy its earlier posi- 
tion of exclusive consecration to the gods. 

There were Roman temples, to be sure, but there 
were an even greater number of Roman secular build- 
ings which have played as important a part in the subse- 
quent development of architecture as the earlier monu- 
ments of Greece. 

It must be remembered, however, that the architec- 
ture of Greece preceded and inspired the architecture 
of Rome, so that virtually all Roman forms were, to a 
greater or less degree, derivations from Greek forms. 
It will be important to remember, later, that the inspira- 
tion of the architecture of the Italian Renaissance 
came from Roman, not Grecian, remains, and that the 
Romans secularised the temple architecture of Greece. 



Before the final downfall and dismemberment of 
the Roman Empire in the year 455 of the Christian 
Era, with all the elaborate civilisation it had developed, 
there grew up two types of church architecture which 
struggled on through the Dark Ages, sustained by the 
warmth of religious enthusiasm, and, in their way, 
keeping the lamp of architecture burning until times 
more propitious for its further development. 

These two styles are known as Byzantine and 
Romanesque the first of which, reaching a high 
development in itself, led to nothing else, and the second 
of which, by reason of its vital structural merits, grew 
directly into the great Gothic style, which was to com- 
pletely fill the architectural stage until the coming of 
the Renaissance in Italy in the year 1400. 

At this point in architectural history it may be 
illuminating to tabulate a few dates for reference in 
following the course of architectural development from 
the fall of Rome to the end of the Renaissance in Italy : 


End of the Roman Empire, 455 A.D. 

Early Christian Period, from Emperor Constantine 
of Byzantium to Gregory I, Bishop of Rome, 300-604 A.D. 

In the Byzantine Empire (the eastern division of 
the Roman Empire), Emperor Constantine changed the 
name of Byzantium to Constantinople ("City of Con- 
stantine"), and adopted Christianity in 338 A.D. 

In 527 A.D. the Byzantine Emperor Justinian began 
a twenty-year war, which finally drove the Goths and 
Huns from Italy, and strengthened the Eastern Empire 
of Rome. In 751 A.D. Rome became independent, in the 
form of the first Papal States. At this time the Italian 

The use of arches and short columns is essentially Byzantine, a.s also the rich decorations 

in fresco and mosaic 
(The Cathedral of St. Mark, Venice) 


Architecture enriched with a Byzantine treatment of mosaic. The carvinic and the diversity 
of the columns also show marked Byzantine characteristics 
(Cloister arches of St. Paul-Beyond-t he- Walls, Rome) 



Lombards conquered the greater part of the Byzantine 

The Byzantine Empire finally fell at the hands of 
Mohammed II, and Constantinople became the Moslem 
capital in 1453, half a century after the beginning of the 
period of the Renaissance in Italy. 

From 900 to 1200 Italy was to some extent the battle- 
field of ambitious European nations, suffering many 
invasions and constant unrest. 

From 1200 to 1400 such Italian cities as Venice, 
Genoa, and Florence grew steadily in prosperity and 
power, mostly through commerce. 

There was no national Italian government at this 
time, the balance of power being diplomatically 
adjusted by five united parts : the Duchy of Milan, the 
two nominal "republics" of Venice, the Papal States 
(centred at Rome) and the Kingdom of Naples. 

The dates of the great periods of the Italian Renais- 
sance are given as follows : 

Early Renaissance, Florentine. . . . 1400-1600 

Milanese 1400-1600 

Venetian 1490-1600 

Roman 1444-1643 

High Renaissance 1500-1540 

Late Renaissance 1540-1643 

The years and periods covered by the foregoing 
dates, from the fall of Rome to the close of the Italian 
Renaissance, saw greater developments in architecture 
than any subsequent span of time. Great as were these 
developments, however, it is necessary here to deal with 
them in the briefest possible manner, pointing out such 
salient points as will later prove an aid in distinguish- 
ing the architectural derivations of to-day. 


Byzantine and Romanesque architecture flourished 
at about the same time, and were preceded by what is 
known as "Early Christian" architecture in Rome. 
As the Christians, at the beginning of the Christian 
Era, were neither rich nor powerful, their architectural 
efforts were, of necessity, restricted. 

It was at this time that the idea of a "temple," or 
abode of deity, gave place to the idea of a "church," 
or place of worship for the devout. The temple, while 
a shrine, had been regarded more as a divine abode. 
The people came to offer prayer to their god in the 
temple. In the church, the devout assembled to make 
prayer, and an Invisible God came to them. 

Gradually the architectural efforts of the early 
Christians began to assume certain definite forms: 
"Romanesque" in Italy proper, or the "Western 
Empire of Rome," and "Byzantine" in Byzantium 
(Constantinople), the "Eastern Empire of Rome." 

Byzantine architecture was at its height under the 
Emperor Constantine, when he removed the capital 
from Rome to Constantinople, and the term covers not 
only the buildings actually erected in the Byzantine 
Empire at this time, but several important contem- 
porary buildings in Italy. 

Most notable of all Byzantine architectural monu- 
ments is the Church of St. Mark, in Venice. It was 
largely built from 1061-1071 A.D., with additions of 
columns and marble mosaics, between 1100-1350. 

The second great monument of Byzantine architec- 
ture is the Church of Ste. Sophia, in Constantinople, 
so long now a Mohammedan Mosque. Ste. Sophia is 
of earlier date than St. Mark, having been built by the 
Byzantine Emperor Justinian in 532-537 A.D. 


Both buildings, however, illustrate the most salient 
characteristics of Byzantine architecture. 

The principal structural difference between Byzan- 
tine and Romanesque architecture is that the first devel- 
oped the dome, while the second developed the vault. 
Byzantine architecture stopped at the dome Roman- 
esque architecture grew into the elaborate vaulting 
systems of the Gothic style. 

The architectural "orders" of the Romans gave 
place to different forms in works of the Byzantine 
builders. Byzantine buildings were mostly of brick, 
embellished with mosaic, and depending for large effect 
on the dome ; for detailed effect on colour. Arches were 
used structurally, springing from a different sort of 
column than those of the Greeks or Romans. The 
Byzantine column was usually short, and often placed 
in pairs, and the capitals were basket-shaped, effecting 
a transition from the arch to the cylindrical shaft of 
the column. These capitals were intricately carved, 
in a richly decorative manner, with conventional folia- 
tion or grotesque heads and animal forms. 

In place of the mouldings and carvings of the Classic 
architects, the exteriors of Byzantine churches were 
diversified by horizontal bands of vari-coloured brick, 
as well as by the interest afforded by successive 
recessed arches. 

Statuary formed no feature of this architecture, 
since the early Christians allowed nothing so reminis- 
cent of pagan religions and pagan deities, or "idols" 
to be a part of their creed. 

The art of mosaic work, both in coloured marbles 
and mosaic glass, reached its height in Byzantine 

Church plans were usually in the form of a Greek 


cross, with the dome covering the central part. In 
comparison with Romanesque and, later, Gothic church 
plans, those of the Byzantine churches were square and 

The dome, essentially an Eastern, or Asiatic form, 
has naturally come to be regarded as characteristic of 
Saracenic or Moorish architecture, with which, indeed, 
Byzantine has much in common. 

Romanesque architecture was practised not only in 
churches erected in Italy, but spread through France 
and Germany as well. In certain details it was in- 
fluenced to a considerable extent by Byzantine feeling, 
while structurally it was essentially different. 

Instead of the dome construction of the Byzantine 
architects, the Romanesque church builders addressed 
all their efforts to the development of the vault as a 
method of roofing their efforts culminating in the 
Gothic style of the Thirteenth Century. 

The Romanesque church plan assumed much of the 
character of the later church and cathedral plans, con- 
sisting of a long central nave, flanked by narrower 
side-aisles, the nave terminating in the sanctuary and 
altar the apse of the later cathedral plan. In order 
to support the heavy tile roof of the Romanesque 
church, it was necessary to develop masonry vaulting 
to a degree never before attempted, and ' ' rib-vaulting, ' ' 
the basis of Gothic architecture, was evolved. 

By way of definition, a plain vault, or "barrel" 
vault, is nothing more than a continuous arch a roof- 
ing in the form of an inverted half -cylinder, supporting 
its own weight, as well as any superincumbent weight, 
on the principle of the arch (Fig. 1). 

When two plain vaults intersect (Fig. 2), their 



self-sustaining or supporting power is not impaired, 
and a new line is formed by the intersection ("AB," 
Fig. 2). This intersection is known as the "groin" 
of the vault, and the building of intersecting vaults was 
practised extensively by the Eomans. 

The later Eomanesque builders, however, went a 
step further. They discovered that the only struct- 
urally essential members of the intersecting vaults 
were the groins, or stones forming the intersection. 
These, they found, would stand alone, independently 

1 FIQUEE 2. 


of the rest of the vault, so that lighter stones or brick 
might be used to fill in. 

It is easy to see how this discovery led to the 
development of "rib-vaulting" (Fig. 3), in which the 
bones of the construction, so to speak, were the groins 
of intersecting vaults the vaults themselves becoming 
of secondary significance and of importance chiefly to 
effect a symmetrical and "finished" interior. 

On this evolution of Romanesque architecture, the 
discovery of the structural sufficiency of vaulting ribs, 
rests the whole principle of Gothic architecture, for the 
intersection of vaults varying in height naturally 
brought about the discovery of the pointed arch. 

About these two structural facts the genius of 


Gothic architecture wove an intricate fantasy of forms 
and details, differing one from another in the same 
building, and with varying interpretation in the several 
countries of Europe where Gothic architecture took 


Types of Building: Temples, Pyramid tombs, rock-cut tombs and rock- 
cut temples. Private dwellings of perishable and impermanent sort. 

Construction: Column and lintel, columns either of one colossal stone, 
or built of drums or blocks. 

Materials : Stone ; brick was known, but little used. 

Detail: Carved. In low incised relief, usually highly coloured. 

Surface decoration. Stucco was often used, as it formed a satis- 
factory ground for painting. 

Motifs. Conventionalised renderings of Deities, scenes from 
royal and private life, hieroglyphic inscriptions and decorative 
forms based chiefly on the lotus and the papyrus. 


Types of Building: Temples and palaces. 

Construction: Brick-built walls, occasional use of the arch, though 

seldom as a structural aid. Methods of roofing buildings largely 


Materials: Brick and tile. 
Detail: Carved detail. Use of carved bas relief in isolated instances. 

Stone was scarce, and used sparingly. 

Surface decoration. The Assyrians were the first to demonstrate 

the great decorative possibilities of glazed tiles and glazed brick. 
Motifs. Conventionalised renderings of Deities, scenes from 

decorative forms. 


Types of Building: Temples, open-air theatres, mausoleums and private 

Construction: Column and lintel. Roofs usually of slabs of stone. 

Column and lintel construction carried to the point of perfection. 


Material: Stone, usually native marble. 

Detail: Carved. Bas relief (low relief) figures, architectural statuary, 
both detached and in pediments, etc. Capitals of columns carved in 
the forms of the orders. Mouldings, both plain and carved, were 
carried to a point of perfection. 

Surface decoration. Many temples were made gorgeous by col- 
oured decoration. Stucco was little favoured. 

Motifs. Deities, myths and heroic figures. Decorative plant 
forms highly conventionalised. Evolution of " Greek Fret," or 
" Key " ornament, " egg-and-dart " and other Classic motifs. 


Types of Building: Temples, theatres, amphitheatres, baths, palaces, 
legislative buildings, mausoleums, private residences and villas, 
bridges, aqueducts and viaducts. 

Construction : General use of the arch, often with non-structural ac- 
companiment of the columns. Some reversion to Greek column and 
lintel construction. 

Materials: Stone and brick. Ornamental marbles became popular, and 
bronze was frequently used for the fashioning of architectural 

Detail: Carved. Greek architectural forms largely used and exten- 
sively modified. Decorative inscriptions much in favour. Architec- 
tural sculpture in high relief, and many detached statues. 

Surface decoration. Fresco painting came into conspicuous use, 
especially for the decoration of private villas, as found at Pompeii 
and elsewhere. 

Motifs. Deities, myths, personal exploits of generals and em- 
perors. Essentials of the decorative art of Greece generally 


Types of Building: Early Christian churches, or basilicas, mausoleums. 

Construction: Usually domical; a great dome springing from the walls. 
Arches used extensively. 

Materials: Stone, brick, tiles, mosaics. 

Detail: Carved. Crude but decorative forms, many of them fore- 
runners of later Gothic forms. Foliated column capitals. Twisted 
columns. All columns short and usually in pairs or fours. 


Surface decoration. A little crude fresco painting. The glory of 
Byzantine architecture was its rich mosaic work. 

Motifs. Most forms purely decorative. Attempts at human, 
animal or plant forme mostly primitive and unskilled. 


Types of Building: Early Christian churches. 

Construction: Roofs either supported on heavy timber trusses, or on 
intersecting vaults. Romanesque intersecting vaults the origin of 
the Gothic rib-vaulted construction. Arches used extensively. 

Material: Brick, preeminently. 

Detail: Carved. Most Romanesque detail is found in foliated column 
capitals and in decorative treatment of the faces of successive re- 
cessed arches. 

Surface decoration. Ornamental brick -work. 
Motifs. Decorative, conventionalised plant forms. 




TO dismiss in a few paragraphs a subject so ex- 
tensive, so diversified, so elaborate and so rich 
in interest, is at once a task and a necessity. It is 
to be said, however, that many of the "literary," or 
symbolic, qualities of Gothic architecture which must 
be passed over in this chapter will find opportunity for 
mention in the fifth chapter. 

Gothic architecture is remarkable in that it is dually 
a structural architecture and a decorative architecture, 
with both of these essential aspects existent in equal 
proportions. The most important single thing to 
remember in considering Gothic architecture is that it 
may be closely likened to an organic growth. Its 
development was as natural and as consistent as the 
growth of a tree, rising up, putting forth branches, 
and these, in turn, putting forth leaves. 

In a few paragraphs, let us endeavour to summarise 
the evolution of the Gothic church or cathedral, from 
its beginning in the vaulting achievements of the late 
Romanesque builders. 

The typical plan took the form of a great cross, 
with three short arms and one long arm. The entrance 
w^as at the end of the long arm, and gave directly into 
the great central nave, flanked by side-aisles. The 
arms of the cross formed the transept, and a great 


tower rose at its intersection with the nave, or there 
were twin towers rising above the entrance front. The 
remaining arm of the cross was the apse, or sanctuary. 
There were other types of plan, but the cross was 
the most usual. 

Architecturally, the plan was carried out with an 
intricate diversity of which only Gothic architecture 
could be capable. The walls of the nave, above the 
lower side-aisles, were carried on columns and pointed 
arches; the side-aisles, also arched and vaulted, were 
supported, outside, by buttresses to take the lateral 
thrust. Above these, on the exterior, rose flying but- 
tresses to take the thrust of the nave arches, and every- 
where there was opportunity for pinnacles, turrets, 
grotesques, gargoyles, niches with images of saints, 
and all the profusion of Gothic detail. Within, the 
building was lofty and mysterious, richly and dimly 
lighted by tall, pointed windows fitted with stained 
glass perhaps a magnificent rose window at the near 
end of the nave. Everywhere, too, carved niches and 
holy images, intricate carving, dull colour in poly- 
chrome or textiles. 

Gothic architecture is often nicknamed ''perpen- 
dicular architecture, ' ' which is reasonably descriptive, 
inasmuch as the horizontal entablature, with its frieze 
and cornice, forms no part of the Gothic idea, wherein 
all members mount ever upward, climbing one upon the 
other in one magnificent expression of altitude. Col- 
umns, arches, vaults, windows, pinnacles, buttresses, 
towers all point upward even the details of tracery 
and the niches for images point upward. 

It is this sense of upward motion, reaching often to 
the height of the sublime, which has made Gothic archi- 
tecture essentially the architecture of the church, ren- 


PhotogtupU by Levy 


This side view shows the Gothic system of buttress and flying buttress, as well as the fleche, 

or small spire, at the intersection of nave and transept 

(Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris) 


The "upward motion" of the composition ischaracteristic. The flame-like leaf carvings are 
in the "flamboyant" vein, and there is also to be seen the typical Gothic introduction of 
grotesque heads and animal forms 


dering, as it does, a remarkable expression of spiritual 
nobility in architectural terms. This aspect of Gothic 
architecture will be dealt with in another chapter. 

Some details of Gothic architecture were the natural 
outgrowth of its structural development, others were 
the outgrowth of sheer fantasy and sculptural imag- 
ination on the part of the builders. Structurally, the 
springing of many arches from one point of support 
developed new forms for columns and capitals the 
shaft often a group of clustered columns, the capital 
designed for each varying condition, to accommodate 
the arches which were to spring from it. Tall, pointed 
windows were the obvious complement of tall, pointed 

Any arch construction must physically provide for 
the "thrust" of the arch, which takes the form of an 
outward and downward force, composed of the forces 
of weight in the materials and thrust from the arch 
itself. Arches in sequence naturally neutralise their 
respective thrusts, so that there is only superincumbent 
weight to be reckoned with, but the arch which abuts 
against a wall necessarily exerts a pressure against 
that wall which would tend to force it outward. To 
meet this force, the Gothic builders devised the exterior 
buttress, heavily built of stone, and slanting outward 
toward the ground, in exactly the same manner and for 
the same reason that one would brace a heavy piece of 
timber against a barn which stood in danger of 

The wall buttresses took care of the lateral thrusts 
of the arches vaulting the side aisles, but the higher 
arches, vaulting the central nave, called for additional 
buttresses. These, resting on the lower buttresses and 
giving them additional stability, were in turn weighted 



down with pinnacles of stone. To save unnecessary 
weight in themselves, these "flying buttresses*' were 
simply skeleton braces of masonry, artfully devised to 
exactly counteract, by their weight and direction, the 
thrusts of the lateral arches of the nave within. 

Gothic fantasy evolved the intricate tracery, the 
elaborate canopies of stone, seemingly light as textile, 
and, most characteristic and most fantastic of all, 
Gothic architecture evolved the grotesque. The gro- 
tesque is not to be confused with the gargoyle, or taken 
as synonymous with it. The gargoyles were all gro- 
tesques, but grotesques were not all gargoyles. Strictly 
speaking, the gargoyle was a stone water-spout, pro- 
jecting some distance beyond the wall of the edifice, 
and designed to drain the roofs in such a manner that 
the water would not run down the sides of the masonry 
and into the joints. 

Grotesques in Gothic architecture are legion, and 
are generally taken as one of its most quaint and unex- 
pected charms. Human forms and faces, animals, birds 
and reptiles, as well as purely imaginary demons, 
dragons and griffons (these last three called "chi- 
meras") were handled in grotesque technique and in- 
troduced in countless ways. Entangled in the stone 
traceries, or in the intricate carvings of a capital, 
strange faces leered forth, sometimes sinister, some- 
times jovial. Contorted animals writhed in stone, or, 
seemingly escaped from the carved details, peered 
strangely over the parapets, far above the mediaeval 
city which lay below the cathedral. 

Sonic of the most notable, as well as the most weird 
and bizarre, grotesques of Gothic architecture gar- 
goyles, as well as animals and chimeras in stone 

Photograph by Xeurdein & Cie 

"Chimeras, " or grotesques, carved in the stones of the parapet 

Photograph by Neurdein & Cie 

Grotesque gargoyles, or water-spouts, carved in stone 


(Details from the Cathedral of Notre Dame, Paris) 


disport themselves on the parapets of the Cathedral of 
Notre Dame de Paris creatures far removed from any 
conceivable religious concept, unless they were devised 
to depict evil spirits, exorcised by the priests in the 
church below, and condemned to remain transfixed in 
stone forever, high up on the parapets of the roof, in 
all winds and weathers. Indeed creatures of a mediaeval 
nightmare, the chimeras of the Notre Dame epitomise 
fully that important phase of Gothic architecture which 
is fantastic, unknowable, unexplainable and apparently 
more in the realm of demonology than theology. 

A quotation from Fletcher's " History of Archi- 
tecture ' ' might be regarded as an interesting and pict- 
uresque conclusion: "In the thirteenth, fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries the Gothic masons carried to the 
utmost the use of stone as a building material, heaping 
it up in towers that rose on open archways through the 
lofty roofs of the naves and transepts, and tapered 
away in shell-like spires embroidered in all the fret- 
work of lace-like tracery. They hung it aloft in ponder- 
ous vaults treated by art to seem the gossamer web of 
nature, scarce capable of bearing the stalactite pen- 
dants in which the fancy of the fifteenth century found 
its expression, and eventually pushing their practice to 
the furthest boundaries, they cut the granular stone 
to the thinnest of fibrous wood or iron, and revelled 
in tricks of construction and marvels of workmanship. ' ' 

It remains, before considering the architecture of 
the Renaissance, in Italy and more Northern Europe, to 
mention paragraphically the more important types of 
Gothic architecture which became characteristic of 
England, France, Germany, Belgium, Holland, Italy 
and Spain. 


In England the fullest development of Gothic archi- 
tecture was preceded by a style generally called 
Norman or Norman Gothic. Strictly speaking, this 
Norman architecture, brought to England by the Nor- 
man conquerers, was an offshoot of Byzantine and 
Komanesque, especially in its decorative details, and is 
not accepted as a Gothic style by some authorities. 

In mass the Norman churches were heavy and splen- 
didly expressive of stability and strength, often as 
much like fortresses as places of worship. The square 
tower, without a spire, was characteristic, arches were 
round, not pointed, and there was none of the profusion 
of tracery and carving of later English Gothic. One 
of the most familiar Norman cathedrals of England is 
Durham, rising majestically up above the river. There 
are many earlier Norman buildings in England, many 
castles and monasteries, but it is safe to regard the 
Cathedral of Durham as typical of the style. 

The greatest difficulty in attempting a brief survey 
of Gothic churches and cathedrals is met with in the 
fact that few, by reason of many and involved changes 
and additions over periods of years, reveal the plan 
or intention of the original builders, or any phase of 
Gothic architecture characteristic of any one time. 
Generalities, therefore, are necessary in the present 

Following the Norman churches of England came 
the style known as "Early English" in which the 
pointed arch and fully developed Gothic rib-vaulting 
became a permanent part of the structural character 
(Thirteenth Century). The next development was 
"Decorated Gothic" (Fourteenth Century) in which 
the system of rib-vaulting became more elaborate and 
in which decorative detail began to play a greater part. 


Of the " decorated " style, Westminster Abbey, in Lon- 
don, is regarded as a good example, disregarding its 
earlier and later portions. The Fifteenth Century 
development of the Gothic architecture in England is 
generally called the "Perpendicular" style. 

Among vaulting developments of this phase of 
English Gothic architecture, a notable one was the 
"fan-vaulting" in which a great number of vault-ribs, 
springing upward and outward from each column, like 
the ribs of a fan, met similar groups of diverging ribs 
from other columns, forming a vault of remarkable 
richness and diversity. The builders also discovered 
that pendent masses of stone could be hung from the 
centres of these vaults, and, carefully jointed to stay 
in place, could be carved in the form of delicate drop- 
ornaments. This, perhaps, may be reckoned the high- 
est and most brilliant development of stonemasonry 
the world has ever seen. Fan- vaulting is found only in 
English buildings, while the carved pendent from the 
centres of vaults appears in some French Gothic 

A distinctly English Gothic form, and a conspicuous 
characteristic of the secular and domestic architecture 
of the Tudor period, was the flat-pointed arch, usually 
called the "Tudor Arch," and by draughtsmen, the 
"five-centred arch." 

Certain other mediaeval English architectural devel- 
opments are of importance in anticipation of later study 
of English country houses and modern derivations. 

Previously to the Tudor period important dwell- 
ings were, for the most part, in the nature of castles, 
built with thought of siege and defense in view of the 
unsettled conditions of government and society. While 
the English country house first began to assume its 


peculiarly charming form in Elizabethan times, in the 
dawn of the English Renaissance, it had its inception 
in Tudor times. 

The great common hall, where the lord and his 
retainers ate and drank, was the most important feature 
of the earlier medieval English castles and moated 
manor-houses, but these gradually gave way to the 
desire for greater privacy. The "great hall," a sur- 
vival of the feudal system, remained for some time 
a part of the English country house, even after its func- 
tion as the assembly room and eating room of the family 
and retainers had ceased. These large rooms were 
usually roofed by means of various forms of sturdy 
oak trusses, often carved; the walls were hung with 
tapestries, trophies of the chase and armour ; the floors 
were strewn with rushes, and the head of the house sat 
at meals on a raised dais at one end, overlooking all 
those of humbler estate who sat below. 

When the increasing power of the king made family 
wars among the barons of less frequent occurrence, and 
the invention of gun-powder made the moat and other 
defenses of most fortified manors practically useless, 
methods of planning and construction changed. In 
plan, the Sixteenth Century, or Tudor house was built 
about a square court, often in the form of several semi- 
detached buildings. The entrance to the court was 
through a massive,' tunnel-like arched drive-way, 
usually under a low tower or gate house. The manor 
Compton Wynyates is typical of this pre-Elizabethan 
form of English country house. 

The architectural style called "Tudor" is to be 
applied to buildings under the reigns of Henry VII, 
Henry VIII, Edward VI, and Mary. It was a transi- 
tional period, in which Gothic habits of design were 


being gradually superseded by innovations of Italian 
Renaissance origin. Following the Tudor style came 
the Elizabethan and Jacobean styles, both to be prop- 
erly considered under their designation of "English 
Renaissance," which eventually developed into the 
Anglo-Classic, or Later Renaissance of the Eighteenth 

The production of glass in marketable quantities 
caused leaded windows to take the place of unglazed, 
fortress-like loopholes, and brick and ''half-timber" 
construction became popular. 

"Half-timber" construction consists of nothing 
more elaborate than the actual timber frame-work of 
the building left exposed to view, and the spaces be- 
tween the timbers filled, or "nogged," with brick-work. 
The brick-work was sometimes covered over with 
stucco, and sometimes left uncovered, in which case 
the bricks were often arranged in patterns suggested 
by the shapes of the spaces filled. The timbers were 
heavy and broad, and their natural structural disposi- 
tion, with corner braces, possessed a great deal of 
decorative interest, unconsciously created in the first 
half -timber buildings, and consciously elaborated and 
developed in later examples. Nearly all city houses 
were of this type, the best examples remaining to-day 
in Chester, a few in London and in certain isolated 
buildings such as the Harvard House at Stratford-on- 
Avon. Often some of the exposed timbers were elab- 
orately carved, as well as the verge-boards of the eaves. 

Another conspicuously important English Gothic 
development, and one which has served as the inspira- 
tion for much modern work, was the Collegiate or 
Scholastic Gothic architecture of the Tudor period. 
This was distinctly different in its character from 


ecclesiastical Gothic architecture, in spite of many 
points of detail in common. 

The more salient features of the English Collegiate 
Gothic style are the octagonal tower (usually in pairs), 
the "Tudor" or flat-pointed arch, the pinnacles, battle- 
ments, niches and tracery parapets. The octagonal 
towers were usually terminated with battlements or 
with a lead turret. The detail, for the most part, was 
fine in scale, and applied with considerable restraint 
and a remarkable sense for decorative effect. The 
"Collegiate Gothic" of England should really be 
regarded as a Tudor style, by reason of many elements 
of Early Eenaissance design which appeared in it. 
It is to be regarded as a style excelled by no other for 
the architectural expression of a school or a college. 

While the ecclesiastical, domestic and collegiate 
types of English Gothic architecture had much in com- 
mon in many matters of detail, each type is distinct 
in itself, as well as distinctly English. 

In France the Gothic expression in architecture 
adhered to the main characteristics of the style, and the 
French were the builders of many of the most splendid 
Gothic churches and cathedrals in existence. Chartres, 
Rheims, Amiens, Notre Dame and Sainte Chapelle in 
Paris these are names synonymous with the finest 
achievements of Gothic architecture. Even more fre- 
quently than in examples of English Gothic, the French 
Gothic ran to spires, pinnacles and tracery, and in the 
treatment of Gothic detail developed a distinctive style 
called " flamboyant," from the flame-like "motion" 
of the ever-mounting crockets and foliation. Another 
feature peculiar to the French Gothic churches and 
cathedrals, as well as the Belgian, is the fleche, a finely 


tapered spire constructed of timber with intricately 
elaborate lead covering. The fleche was usually placed 
over the intersection of nave and transept, and was 
not visible from a close view of the entrance front. 

Gothic architecture in France has been divided into 
three kinds, roughly assignable, respectively to the 
Thirteenth, Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries, and 
designated Gothique, Rayonnant (''radiating," from 
the wheel-spoke disposition of the ribs in the great 
rose windows) and Flamboyant (flame-like). 

There are many exceptionally fine Gothic secular 
buildings in France, notably the "House of Jacques 
Cceur ' ' in Bourges, and the Palais de Justice, in Rouen. 
Houses of half- timber construction were also character- 
istic of the period, as in England, and a few chateaux, 
such as the Chateaux de Blois and Langeais, date from 
Gothic times. 

When the Renaissance first began to affect French 
architecture, there resulted a mingling of forms which 
would be confusing if it were not so obvious. The 
French retained many Gothic forms in their Renais- 
sance buildings longer than any other nation, so that 
many transitional buildings, such as "La Psalette" in 
Tours, will be found to frankly mingle Classic pilasters, 
Italian balustrades, and other Renaissance details with 
buttresses, flamboyant crockets, grotesques, gargoyles, 
Gothic window mouldings, and other forms essentially 
Gothic. In many of these French "transitional" 
buildings it would be difficult to say whether the spirit 
of Gothic or Renaissance architecture predominates. 
Furthermore, at 'Blois, and in the cases of many of 
the other great chateaux, subsequent additions were 
made throughout the Renaissance period, and some of 
these additions have been of such extent and impor- 


tance that the buildings have been architecturally 
classed as "Renaissance" rather than "Gothic." 

Belgium and Holland, collectively the "Nether- 
lands," lying between France and Germany, naturally 
absorbed many architectural traits from both, besides 
developing much that was characteristically Flemish. 

The Gothic architecture of Belgium was more 
closely akin to that of France ; Holland Gothic to that 
of Germany. 

Before the devastating invasion of Belgium in the 
War of 1914, Louvain, Ypres, Malines, and many other 
towns and cities, were rich in Gothic buildings of 
exceptional charm and interest. 

Belgian Gothic architecture was developed, for the 
most part, along lines of delicate finesse and detail. 
There was a tendency, also, toward distinctly pict- 
uresque masses and unusual compositions, as in the 
clock tower of the Town Hall of Bruges. 

As a study in perpendicular "motion" in Gothic 
architecture, and mounting buttresses, the tower of the 
church at Malines was a beautiful example. This 
church followed the French type in that it had a fleche 
at the intersection of nave and transept. 

Both Belgium and Holland developed secular 
Gothic architecture to a high degree in town halls, 
trade halls, guild halls and private city houses. These 
were characterised by qualities incomparably pict- 
uresque quaint and interesting in mass and mar- 
velously intricate in the details of their carving. 

In Germany, Gothic architecture was a borrowed 
style, but was developed to a high degree of perfection 
and nobility in such cathedrals as Cologne, Batisbon, 


I'hotngnipli liy Th. van den Heuvrl 


A belfry typical of the picturesque variations in 

'Low Country" Gothic buildings 

(The Town Hall, Bruges) 

Photograph l.y N.-unlcin A ('!< 


A delicate yet expressive piece of Gothic design remarkable for its "perpen- 
dicular" emphasis 
(The Church at Malines destroyed in the War of 1914) 


Frankfurt, Strassburg, Freiburg, Ulm and Regensburg. 
The Gothic style was not indigenous in Germany, but 
in spite of the fact that borrowed architectural styles 
do not often develop much individuality, the German 
builders attained many architectural masterpieces in 
this French style. Their contribution in the way of 
departure from precedent was the development of the 
Gothic style in brick. As in Belgium and Holland, 
Gothic architecture in Germany was distinguished by 
its picturesque secular buildings in brick, stone, half- 
timber and all these materials combined. 

In Spain, as might be supposed, the expression of 
the Gothic style was quite different from its expression 
in other parts of Europe. Two reasons for this dif- 
ference might be cited, out of many. Spanish builders, 
by reason of the comparative isolation of Spain behind 
the barrier of the Pyrennees, had little opportunity to 
study or observe the great Gothic edifices of France, 
which so dominantly influenced Gothic developments 
in England, the Netherlands and Germany. There 
was, too, the ever-present influence of the Moors, to 
which may be ascribed the Spanish fancy for surface 
decoration, intricate ornamentation, and ornamentation 
without reference to construction or constructive lines. 

Moorish influence was most pronounced in the entire 
southern portion of Spain, notably in Toledo, and, even 
after Christian supremacy was established, many 
Moorish workmen were employed in the building of 
churches, by reason of their great skill and ability. 

The greatest Gothic monument of Spain is gener- 
ally conceded to be the Cathedral of Burgos, in the 
northern part of Spain, though the Cathedral of Toledo 
is not only a remarkably fine example in itself, but dis- 


tinctly characteristic of the more peculiar of the 
Spanish Gothic traits. 

The most conspicuous difference in Spanish Gothic 
from the essentially perpendicular Gothic of other 
European countries lies in the frequent introduction 
of horizontal lines, formed by bold projections, casting 
marked horizontal shadows, or by traceried galleries 
or ornamental courses. This introduction of the hori- 
zontal is apparent in the tower of the Toledo cathedral. 

As in France, the period in Spanish architecture 
representing the transition from Gothic to Renaissance 
forms produced many buildings of the most peculiar 
architectural interest the two styles rendered addi- 
tionally picturesque by the subtle infusion of Moorish 
feeling and much that was purely Spanish. 

In Italy a full development of the Gothic style was 
checked by certain of those influences and conditions 
which so potently mould the course of architecture. 
Technically, the ability and ingenuity of Italian archi- 
tects and artisans was more than equal to the task of 
mastering the intricacies of Gothic construction and 
design, but on Italian soil there was always the great, 
overshadowing, ever-dominant Classic influence of 
Roman architecture, later to blossom so luxuriantly 
in the works of the Renaissance. Romanesque and 
Byzantine influences were also to be reckoned with. 
In Europe, these styles were transplanted from Italy, 
and Gothic was a native growth : in Italy the reverse 
condition existed, and the Italians were surrounded not 
only by a profusion of edifices of Romanesque and 
Byzantine design, but by the immortal remains of 
ancient Rome itself. 

Many features, then, entirely strange to the Gothic 


A characteristic Italian rendering of Gothic architecture, rich in the cok 
surface decoration later seen in Renaissance architecture 
(The Palace of the Doges, Venice) 

An architectural composition, full of detail and colour, recalling the Byzantine style, yet 
with many points which forecast the later architecture of the Renaissance 

(The Palazzo della Ca 'd 'Oro, Venice) 

(Courtyard of the Farne.=e Palace, in Rome) 

Classic laws of "order" made the work of the great Renaissance architects of Italy a prece- 
dent for all time 
(Portion of the Vatican Colonnade, Piazza di S. Pietro, Rome) 


architecture of Northern Europe are characteristic of 
the Gothic architecture of Italy. The profusion of rich 
marbles made it natural to perpetuate the Byzantine 
decorative element, in mosaics and wall-panels of con- 
trasting marbles, while the prevalence of brick as a 
building material in many parts of Italy made it natural 
to perpetuate the Romanesque characteristic of hori- 
zontal bands of different kinds of brick. Round arches 
and Byzantine capitals and ornaments were as plentiful 
in Italy as Gothic pointed arches and Gothic traceries. 
Thick walls and small windows were necessary as a 
protection from the sun and heat of Italy, so that the 
elaborate windows of French and English Gothic 
churches were not a part of the Italian development 
of the style, and this further encouraged the decorative 
treatment of wall-spaces. 

The absence of snow made unnecessary the sharply 
pointed roofs of Northern Europe, so that the slightly 
pitched tile roof of the Romanesque buildings remained 
in favour. There was a good deal of colour in the Gothic 
architecture of Italy, and less elaboration of stone as 
a building material. 

Of all Italian Gothic buildings in the perpendicular 
or pointed style, none is so impressive or so important 
as the Cathedral of Milan, with its countless spires 
and lace-like detail. No other building in Italy, per- 
haps, is so essentially Gothic, in the true manner of its 
style and rendering. 

In secular architecture the master-builders of 
Florence and Venice designed a great many rich and 
highly decorative facades in a distinctly Italian inter- 
pretation of Gothic forms, notably (in the latter city) 
such buildings as the Palace of the Doges and the 
famous Palazzo della Ca'd'Oro. 


Despite many beautiful and interesting Gothic 
monuments in Italy, one does not associate the style 
with the country or with its people. The architectural 
and artistic expression seemingly the most thoroughly 
and peculiarly Italian is the style of the Renaissance, 
which, throughout the period of Gothic architecture, 
was here and there, in inconspicuous details, gradually 
taking form and substance. 


Based on Classic forms, but inspired by the genius 
of the most remarkable epoch in the world's history, 
Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture 
and left a wealth of precedent which succeeding cen- 
turies of adaptation have not exhausted. 

The real spirit of Renaissance architecture is not 
easy to define in a few paragraphs, because much of 
its inception and growth was inseparably bound up 
with that remarkable movement which is known as the 
11 Revival of Learning." Historically the period of 
the Renaissance which began in Italy in about 1400, 
at the dawn of the Fifteenth Century, was the period of 
transition from the Dark Ages to the Modern Age, 
and in the span of the Renaissance from 1400 to about 
1643, the world witnessed many momentous discoveries 
and inventions. 

The Dark Ages, or the Mediaeval Period, had been 
one of narrow and bigoted theology, with ignorance 
prevalent among the masses, and a certain degree of 
rather crude scholarship confined to the churchmen. 
It was the age of feudalism, when all men were virtually 
slaves or chattels of their lords, and the lords them- 
selves were in awe of the power of the Church. It is 
remarkable that a period of such constraint and pre- 



(St. Maria clella Salute, Venice) 


(Library of the Cathedral of Sienna) 


vailing ignorance could have evolved any fabric so 
remarkable, so complex or so brilliantly ingenious as 
the fabric of Gothic architecture. 

In a different way, however, the architecture of the 
Eenaissance was even more brilliant, and more expres- 
sive. Gothic architecture expressed the ecclesiasticism 
of one period Renaissance architecture expressed the 
humanism of another period. Gothic architecture was 
sombre, aloof from human life, a thing consecrated to 
the Church. Renaissance architecture was spirited, 
closely allied to human life, a thing developed from 
human interests. 

Renaissance architecture was a part of the intense 
interest in the glories of the past arts of Greece and 
Rome, an interest which embraced literature, philoso- 
phy, pagan mythology and all the remains of the won- 
derful past civilisation of the world. The impetus of 
enthusiasm swept aside the warnings of the Church, 
the dictum that all things pertaining to ancient Greece 
or Rome were pagan and unholy. Long enthralled by 
the absolutism of the Church, liberated minds actually 
welcomed arts and philosophies which were pagan and 

In architecture, Gothic forms were immediately 
abandoned for Roman forms, and with these forms as 
a basis and an inspiration, the architectural genius of 
the Renaissance developed a style of new and vital 

Such architects as Bartolommeo, Alberti, Brunel- 
leschi, Palladio, Peruzzi and 'Bramante immortalised 
their names by the brilliancy of their architecture. 
The period was one of prosperity in Italy, especially in 
such important centres as Florence, Milan, Rome and 
Venice. Great patrons of art came to light in the 


heads of the powerful families of merchant-princes and 
Italian nobles such as the Medici, the Strozzi, the 
Davanzati, and many others. The Church, also, realis- 
ing that the Renaissance was a movement too powerful 
to resist, took its place in the front rank as a patron of 
art, architecture and the revival of literature. 

Church, state and people were in a closer relation- 
ship to one another than at any previous period in the 
world's history. Men of humhle origin became great 
as painters, sculptors, architects or writers : the period 
was one of intense intellectual and creative effort. 

To this may be ascribed the richness and imagina- 
tion displayed in Renaissance architecture: its refine- 
ment of proportion and studied balance were the result 
of Classic inspiration. 

The wealth of the powerful families prompted the 
erection of stately palaces in the cities and luxurious 
villas in the country buildings which have been the 
inspiration and study of succeeding generations of 

This brief sketch of the period, with its slight sug- 
gestion of the impelling spirit, may help in the interpre- 
tation of Renaissance architecture in Italy. In the 
countries of Northern Europe, which gradually received 
the impetus of the great movement, the developments 
were logical composites of Italian forms handled by 
other hands and blended with other national traits. 

In Italy the Renaissance architects used column and 
arch extensively, built splendid domes, such as those of 
Ste. Maria della Salute and St. Peter's, and showed 
great fancy for surface decorations and the use of 
diverse materials. Construction played a subsidiary 
part to design, as is evidenced by such frank expedients 
as the introduction of light iron tie-rods between the 


supports of arches and vaults, to take the thrust which 
could not be met in the design. 

Two characteristic methods of surface decoration 
other than carving or mosaic were highly developed in 
the period of the Renaissance methods which to-day 
are virtually lost arts : Fresco and Sgraffito. 

The Frescoes of the Italian Renaissance called for 
the utmost skill of the painter-draughtsmen who exe- 
cuted them. Specially mixed pigments were rapidly 
applied while the plaster was still wet, so that, upon 
its hardening, the decoration became a part of the 
actual material. Frescoes were often applied in exte- 
rior decoration, in lunettes, spandrils of arches, panels 
or on entire fagades, and were extensively used in 
church interiors and ceilings. The example of Michael 
Angelo 's ceiling of the Sistine Chapel is a conspicuous 
and well-known one. 

The art of Sgraffito also demanded the utmost dex- 
terity in its execution, being carried out while the stucco 
or plaster finish of the wall was in the process of har- 
dening. Briefly, it consisted of laying a ground-coat 
of plaster, darkened to a gray-black by the mixture of 
burnt paper, or brown by the mixture of Sienna. Upon 
the hardening of this coat, a finish-coat of stucco or 
plaster was applied, and on this the workman quickly 
transferred his ornament, cutting and scraping it out 
so that the dark under-coat showed through and it was 
necessary to do this before the finish-coat hardened. 

Both processes are extremely decorative, but require 
exceptional skill in their execution, and a uniformly 
temperate climate like that of Italy for their preser- 
vation when applied to exteriors. 

Typical Italian Renaissance architectural composi- 
tions are those of column and arch or pilaster and arch, 



Roman entablature, elaborate pediment and general 
profusion of ornamental detail. The so-called "ara- 
besque" decoration of the Renaissance pilaster is one 
of the most characteristic single details of the style. 
Another Renaissance design of frequent recurrence is 
the statuary niche, with the upper portion in the form 
of a shell. 

No type of architecture compares with that of the 
Italian Renaissance as so remarkably combining rich- 
ness and profusion with dignity and restraint. Singled 
out from the multitudinous characteristics of this com- 
plex style, with its seemingly infinite variety of mani- 
festations, perhaps the two most salient features are 
surety of proportion and intelligent application of 

By far the greater number of buildings of the Italian 
Renaissance have long been models of virtually perfect 
proportions and perfect scale and Renaissance orna- 
ment constitutes an encyclopaedia which is still the guide 
and inspiration of designers in every civilised country 
of the world. 

So powerful is the import of the Italian Renaissance 
that, itself a re-birth of Classic ideas and ideals, its 
re-discovery in the Eighteenth Century caused a second 
"Classic Revival" a movement which, redundancy 
notwithstanding, might be called a re-Renaissance. 
The tribute is, basically, to be laid before the Classic 
architecture of Greece and Rome, which furnished the 
inspiration of the Renaissance itself. 

It was natural that Italy became the point of pil- 
grimage for all eager painters, architects and scholars, 
who flocked to learn and assimilate what they could 
from the works of the Italian masters. And so the 
message of the Renaissance was carried to France, to 


the Netherlands, to Germany, to Spain, and lastly to 

In France, architecturally, the style of " Francis I," 
or "Frangois Premier," is the best-known and most 
conspicuous manifestation of the Italian Renaissance 
a blending of native mediaeval forms with native inter- 
pretations of Italian forms. Many magnificent cha- 
teaux were built at this time, their most striking and 
native feature being the sharp, pointed roof on the 
round tower. Such roofs, in more temperate Italy, 
were unnecessary, and the Italian roof was nearly flat 
and constructed of tile, with wide, overhanging eaves. 

The architecture of France, although it underwent 
marked changes in the period of the Eenaissance, was 
more definitely stamped by Classic forms in the Eigh- 
teenth Century Classic Revival. 

In the Netherlands, Renaissance architecture was 
developed in a richly elaborate manner, evidenced no 
less in the furniture designs of the period than in the 
buildings. Italian forms found great favour, and the 
most popular Flemish development was that of the half- 
human and half-decorative pilaster, tapering toward 
the base, and terminated by a Flemish-Classic human 
torso, male or female, usually treated as a caryatid, 
supporting an elaborate entablature. 

In Germany, Renaissance architecture found less 
favour, Italian forms seemed less understood or less 
welcome than in the Latin countries, and the develop- 
ment was to a great extent similar to that in Holland 
and Belgium. 

In Spain the architecture of the Italian Renaissance, 
strangely and richly blended with traces of Moorish 
influence, and some echo of the Gothic forms, formed 
the basis of a peculiarly interesting and complex type. 


In England the Eenaissance found its highest ex- 
pression in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, so that the 
term " Elizabethan," when applied to a country house, 
is synonymous with the term ''English Eenaissance." 
The more important buildings of this period in Eng- 
land were distinctly formal and dignified, with little of 
the spontaneous diversity of the Italian Renaissance. 
Italian forms, however, constituted the basis of design, 
and deeply influenced all subsequent English architec- 
ture. The English Renaissance development of great- 
est interest to-day, by reason of its importance in the 
evolution of the modern country-house, was the Eliza- 
bethan manor. The country free from internal wars, 
the government powerful and protective, the element 
of defence became increasingly less in evidence. The 
houses became more livable, more comfortable and 
"modern" in character. Increased facilities for the 
manufacture of glass brought about the design of 
beautiful leaded windows. The interiors were rich in 
carved woodwork, and floor coverings came into use. 
The Elizabethan, or English Renaissance country- 
house, as will be shown later, was an important step 
in the development of the country-house of to-day. 

There is often some danger of confusing Tudor, 
Elizabethan and Jacobean country houses, for the 
reason that the development through these three 
periods was so continuous and so consistent. 

In the Tudor period, beginning with the reign of 
Henry VII (1485-1509), the Gothic style became, as 
it were, domesticated, less ecclesiastical. The flat 
pointed arch was the characteristic. In the reign of 
Henry VIII (1509-1547), while many Tudor traits 
adhered to English architecture and furniture, some 
advance influences of Renaissance (Elizabethan) forms 
began to appear. 


The station of the Royal Horse-Guards, at the entrance of Whitehall, in London, is typical 
of the Enelish Renaissance expression of monumental architecture 


St. Paul's Cathedral, in London, designed by Sir Christopher Wren, typifies the entire character 
of the English conception of the architecture of Renaissance Italy. (The lower portion is 
hidden by buildings in the foreground) 


The reign of Elizabeth, from 1559 to 1603 (when 
the Jacobean period began) saw the height of the 
Renaissance in England, and prepared the way for 
further development in the succeeding period. 

The Jacobean period, covering the years from 1603 
to 1688, saw a more thorough assimilation of Italian 
forms and ideas, together with the beginnings of French 

The stage was then occupied from 1688 to 1702 by 
the Dutch-English sovereigns, William and Mary and 
Queen Anne, during whose reigns influences from 
Holland were strong. 

The most notable monument of Renaissance archi- 
tecture in England is St. Paul's Cathedral in London, 
commenced under the reign of James I (1603-1625), 
by the great architect of the Jacobean period, Sir 
Christopher Wren. St. Paul's Cathedral may be 
regarded as typical of the English conception of Renais- 
sance architecture, as well as typical of much con- 
temporary work of lesser magnitude. 

A contemporary architect of equal influence on his 
times was Inigo Jones, who designed a great many of 
those small city churches which furnished the inspira- 
tion for the designers of our Early American churches. 

St. Paul's Cathedral was not completed until after 
t'he Jacobean period, in the reign of Queen Anne (1702- 
1714), and its architect, Wren, lived until 1723, dying 
during the reign of the first George. 

The final development in England, partly a belated 
echo of the Renaissance, took place during the Georgian 
period, from 1714 to 1830, manifesting itself in what is 
called the Eighteenth Century Classic Revival, which 
will be dealt with in the chapter following. 

The period of the Renaissance in Italy was a period 


too brilliant intellectually, and too unstable socially 
and politically, to last indefinitely. It is remarkable, 
indeed, that it lasted over two centuries. It must 
always be remembered that those two centuries left to 
the world of art and architecture a priceless legacy of 
unsurpassed works of genius. 

The decadence of Renaissance art is to be seen in 
the Rococo or Baroque development of the last three 
quarters of the Seventeenth Century. Ornament was 
developed to an extravagant and tastelessly dispropor- 
tionate degree architectural forms were distorted and 
perverted in a thousand fantastic and impossible 
vagaries. Structural principles were ignored, and 
decoration was the main feature, not the embellishment 
of 'Baroque buildings. 

It has been the habit of most architectural critics 
to sweepingly condemn all Baroque architecture, but 
such condemnation is neither intelligent nor merited. 
Granted that the style may be proved fundamentally 
illogical on many scores, it evolved many forms of per- 
manent beauty and value, and was, if nothing else, an 
essentially decorative style, later developed along more 
rational lines in some phases of the French style of 
Louis XV. Despite the usual dismissal, then, of the 
Baroque or Rococo style as a mere architectural curi- 
osity, entirely decadent, and even artistically immoral, 
it will be found more valuable to place it as a distinct 
expression of a peculiar idea, and an undeniably inter- 
esting page in the sequence of the architectural styles 
of the past. 

This chapter, together with the preceding chapter, 
has been designed, in a necessarily brief manner, to 
trace and define the evolution of architecture from its 
ancient forms in Egypt and Assyria, through the 


immortal architecture of Greece, the imperial architec- 
ture of Rome and the Byzantine and Romanesque 
styles. Classic forms, temporarily forgotten in the mar- 
velous and intricate development of Gothic architecture 
through the Twelfth, Thirteenth and Fourteenth Cen- 
turies, once more came to light in the Italian Renais- 
sance, were re-born with strength and vitality sufficient 
to displace Gothic architecture, and potently mould the 
character of all architecture up to the present day. 

The following chapter will outline the further course 
of the " Classic Ideal," through the "Revival" of the 
Eighteenth Century, in France, in England and in this 
country, and will define its undiminished force in the 
architecture of to-day. Subsequent chapters, dealing 
primarily with modern buildings, will point out their 
several derivations from those styles which have been 
briefly outlined up to this point. 



Types of Building: Notably churches and cathedrals. (See division by 

In England. Cathedrals and churches, chapels, country and city 
residences. The English "half-timber" houses originated in Gothic 
times. The English " Collegiate " style was a transition from Gothic 
to Renaissance architecture. 

In France. Cathedrals, churches and chapels. Early chateaux, 
city buildings. 

In Belgium and Holland. Cathedrals, churches and chapels, 
town halls and guild halls. City buildings of all types. 

In Kpain. Cathedrals, churches and chapels. As in Italy, the 
Gothic style never attained such popularity as the succeeding style 
of the Renaissance. 

In Italy. Cathedrals and churches. City palaces and houses. 
The Gothic style in Italy was not enthusiastically adopted, nor of 
importance comparable with the style of the Renaissance. 
Construction: Vaulted. Entire fabric of Gothic architecture developed 
from ribs of masonry. 


Materials: Stone. In Germany, a Gothic architecture of brick was 

Detail; Carved. Leaf motifs, called " foliation," niches, images of 
saints, grotesques, gargoyles and " chimeras," pinnacles, pierced 
stone traceries. 

Surface decorations. In many examples, " polychrome," or paint- 
ing and gilding, was practised. Mosaics used occasionally. Greatest 
decorative effects were obtained by use of stained glass. 

Types of Building: 

In Italy. Cathedrals and churches, tombs, palaces, city residences, 
country villas and architectural gardens, pavilions and casinos. 

In France. Churches; chateaux; city buildings of all types. 

In Belgium and Holland. City buildings of all types. 

In Germany. The Renaissance style never became nationalised, 
and had no great vogue. Seen mostly in city buildings. 

In Spain. Cathedrals and churches; city buildings of all types. 

In England. Cathedrals and churches; city buildings of all 
types; English country houses (Elizabethan and Jacobean). 
Construction: As in modern times, many types of construction were 
followed: vaults were often employed, also heavy-beamed ceilings. 
Gothic vaulting was not favoured, and many structural facts were 
ignored, especially in the brilliant designs of the great Italian 
architects. Compositions of column and arch were popular. . 
Materials: To the Renaissance architect all materials existed as media 
for architectural expression. Great diversity. Stone, brick, terra- 
cotta, rare marbles all were materia of design. 

Detail: Carved; mouldings, friezes, columns, capitals, pilasters and all 
other members frequently carved with richness and profusion, but 
remarkable restraint in design. 

Surface decoration. Modelled stucco, mosaics: fresco buono 
(veritable fresco painting) and sgraffito. 

Motifs. Decorations all derived from Classic Greek and Roman 
sources, essentially " modernised " and given new life, variety and 
meaning by the vitalising spirit of the Renaissance. 





IN tracing the course of the Classic Ideal, and in 
recognising its recurrence in the most important 
of modern buildings, one is impelled to inquire : What, 
exactly, is the Classic Ideal? 

The answer is a simple one, yet fraught with great 
significance in architecture. The Classic Ideal is the 
Ideal of Order. It is because Classic architecture was 
based on the idea of order that it was characterised by 
purity, and its order and purity, being immortal quali- 
ties, have caused Classic architecture not only to live, 
but to stand to-day as the rational basis of the archi- 
tectural design of all time. 

Gothic architecture was ingenious a magnificent 
and beautiful experiment. Classic architecture was not 
experimental its principles were as sound as Euclid 
in their day, and have lost none of that soundness in 
the centuries which have passed. 

In the architecture of the Renaissance there were 
many paradoxes, even shams, much earnestness, but a 
minor amount of the experimental quality of Gothic 
architecture. There was, however, enough of Classic 
order in Renaissance architecture to give it some degree 



of the immortal qualities of the Classic and make it a 
potent factor in the architecture of to-day. 

The three "Orders," or types of Greek columns, 
comprised later in the Roman "Five Orders," were 
symbols of Classic architecture, details of a much larger 
whole. And these "Orders" are architecturally fine 
not because Vignola, or "precedent" or the schools 
say they are fine, but because they were conceived in 
logic and executed in terms of purity of form. 

The Greek relationship of column to entablature is a 
standard because it is logical and because the 
members are relatively complementary not because 
the arrangement is ' * Greek. ' ' The merit of the Classic 
column and entablature rests in the fact that the column 
is (both structurally and apparently) adequate to sup- 
port the entablature which rests upon it, and the entab- 
lature is of adequate weight to explain the girth of the 
column. A perfect balance exists. 

Before proceeding further, it seems advisable to 
present a brief outline of the logical growth of the 
Classic column. 

The first Greek order, the Doric, was massive and 
heavy, the columns placed closely together, and seem- 
ing (as well as being) more massive than necessary to 
support the entablature. The refinement of a base had 
not been thought of. Logical design, meaning a rela- 
tion of form to structure, however, was apparent in 
the Doric capital. The shaft of the column was cylin- 
drical, the beam resting upon it was rectilinear. It was 
necessary to effect a transition. It was also necessary 
to effect a transition from the vertical line of the column 
to the horizontal line of the architrave, or beam, which 
rested upon it. Hence the "abacus," the circular, 
"bowl-shaped member surmounting the shaft. 


McKim, ftiead dt W lute, Architects Photograph by Julian Buckly 

Buildings of the type called "monumental" are best rendered in terms of Classic dignity 
(The New York City Post-office) 

Shepley, Kutan & Coolidge, Architects 

Classic precedent is apparent in virtually all large buildings where dignity is a requisite 
(New building for the Harvard Law School, Cambridge, Mass.) 


The beauty-loving Greeks, however, were not long 
content with the heavy, often clumsy proportions of the 
Doric order. Their first effort toward lightening it 
appeared in the vertical fluting of the shaft. To add 
a little "detail" they designed a few rings, or " annu- 
lets, ' ' immediately below the abacus. 

The next evolution was the Ionic capital, its spiral 
''volutes" derived from Asia Minor and used in con- 
junction with an almost concealed abacus. With the 
development of the Ionic order, it was found that the 
great girth of the Doric column was not necessary, and 
consequently the shaft was lightened and its verticality 
emphasised by delicate fluting. 

The final development came in the Corinthian order, 
in which the design of the capital effected a perfect 
transition from shaft to entablature, from the vertical 
to the horizontal, and from round to square. It will 
be seen upon study of the Corinthian capital how this 
transition was achieved. First, the necking indicated 
the height of the clear shaft, without actually terminat- 
ing it abruptly. The lines of the shaft continue upward 
through the foliation, gradually springing outward in 
the volutes which support the abacus. This abacus, in 
the form of a square with concave sides, performs the 
dual function of fitting the shape of the capital and 
conforming with the architrave which rests on it. The 
spread of the Corinthian capital immediately below the 
abacus gives the additional impression of the weight 
of the superimposed entablature, while any sense of 
too great weight is counteracted by the lightness and 
grace of the detail of leaves. 

It can never be gainsaid that the Corinthian capital 
is a masterpiece of design, being both expressive of its 
function and beautiful in its form. 


With the evolution of the Greek column, there natu- 
rally took place a corresponding evolution of the entab- 
lature, both in its proportions and its decoration. 

The Greek Doric entablature (as exemplified in the 
Parthenon) consisted of a plain architrave, a frieze 
divided into triglyphs and metopes and a cornice, which 
was split to run upward into the great pediment. 

The proportions of the Greek Ionic closely followed 
those of the Doric, but the frieze was a continuous 
band, allowing of a continuous decoration of bas-relief 
figures. The heavy appearance of the architrave was 
remarkably lightened by the expedient of splitting it 
up into three horizontal divisions, the upper two 
slightly overlapping the lower, and a fine decorated 
moulding marking the division from the frieze. The 
cornice member, also, was decoratively elaborated to 
some extent, introducing (in later examples) the dentils 
and modillions of the Corinthian cornice. 

The Corinthian entablature is a model of skilful and 
adequate proportions and aptly applied decoration. 
The architrave and frieze remained as in the Ionic 
form, but the cornice, the last, or "finishing" member 
of the building, was elaborated to form a crown, and 
logically terminate the entire composition. It was 
required to effect " interest'* in diversified shadows, 
so the "dentil" course was made a part of the Corin- 
thian cornice, and the various mouldings were deco- 
rated. Greater projection was required, in order to 
cast a strong shadow at the top of the building, but it 
was evident that a plain "overhang" of stone, far 
beyond the face of the frieze, would seem as though 
likely to topple down, no matter how securely it might 
actually be anchored into the masonry of the entabla- 
ture. To correct this illusion, the "modillions" were 


\Villis Polk, Architect 


This use of a Classic order is illustrative also of the Classic derivations 

often seen in memorial monuments, garden temples and mausoleums 

(Water Temple, Sunol, California) 

Trowbridge & Acki-rnian, Architects 


This small building, in the garden of a large American country place on Long Island, 
presents an interesting study in dual derivation. It is excellently in character with 
the Renaissance architecture of England, which the English borrowed from Italy 


(The "Marble Arch" entrance to Hyde Park, London, England) 

Kichunl Morris Hunt, Architect 



(The Fogg Museum of Art, Cambridge, Massachusetts) 


introduced light, graceful brackets, spaced at inter- 
vals, and seeming to take care of the overhang of the 
uppermost portion of the cornice. An additional ingeni- 
ous expedient was the treatment of the underside of the 
overhang, in the spaces between the modillions, with 
sunken panels, or " coffers," the intention being to 
cause the projecting slabs both to be and seem lighter. 

These were the "Three Orders." The famous 
"Five Orders" of Vignola added two developments, 
the Tuscan, or Roman Doric, and the Composite, or 
Roman Ionic. Neither will be seen to embody new 
principles they are variations. The Roman Doric 
order (later exceedingly popular in the Renaissance, 
together with the Corinthian) was a refinement of the 
Greek Doric, with slighter girth and the addition of a 
base. The Composite was, in effect, a combination of 
the Greek Ionic volute and a decorated Doric abacus, 
differing from Greek Ionic mainly in that the volutes 
sprang out in a cornerwise, or diagonal direction, in- 
stead of lying parallel with the lines of the architrave. 

The Romans did not use the three original Greek 
orders exactly as they found them, but made many 
minor changes in proportions, and treated both column 
and entablature with far more ornateness than charac- 
terised Greek architecture. The most characteristic 
Roman development, later enthusiastically adopted by 
the Renaissance builders, was the arch placed between 
two columns, in a manner illustrated by the treatment 
of the great Colosseum, and seen in most of the Roman 
triumphal arches. Pilasters corresponding with all 
three of the Greek Orders and all five of the Roman 
Orders, were developed in conformity with the columns, 
and were greatly favoured as purely decorative features 
by the Renaissance architects. 


These are the barest elements of the "Classic 
Orders," and in previous chapters we have seen them 
buried in the fall of Borne, then a fickle attempt to 
perpetuate them, even while departing from them in 
the Romanesque and Byzantine architecture which led 
to the development of the Gothic style. Classic forms, 
then, for three centuries, were forgotten, but were 
re-born came to light again for three glorious cen- 
turies in the period of the Renaissance. Then, for 
nearly a century, Classic forms were misused, even if 
not entirely forgotten, in the vagaries of the Baroque 
and Rococo styles. 

In the latter part of the Eighteenth Century, a 
reaction from the extravagance of Baroque was inevi- 
table. And the reaction took the form of the Classic 
Revival in France and in England. Some feeling of 
this revival manifested itself in this country even as 
late as the first two decades of the Nineteenth Century. 
And while there is at the present period no feeling 
in design so sweeping or general as to be called a 
" Classic Revival," Classic derivations are everywhere 
apparent, and almost invariably in such monumental 
buildings as are desired to express qualities of dignity 
and permanency, such as capitols, post offices, libraries, 
museums, banks, and the larger railroad stations. 


Observation of the Classic Revival is best begun 
in France with a momentary survey of the progress of 
architecture immediately preceding the period of 
Louis XVI. 

The reign of Louis XIV came to a close in 1714 and 
the architecture of the period, as well as that of the 
preceding period, was pompous, elaborate, grandiose. 

Photograph liy Neurdeiu A: <'if 


(The "Court de Marbre," at Versailles) 

Photograph l>.v Neurdeiu A ('it- 


(Perspective of the Colonnade of the Louvre, Paris) 


(A detail of the Louvre, Pfris) 

(Petit Trianon, Versailles) 


Buildings of the time show a conflict between Renais- 
sance order in design and 'Baroque extravagance, and 
all carried out in what was called (most appropriately) 
"The Grand Manner." 

The succeeding period, that of Louis XV, is often 
called the " Rococo" period, because the "rock-and- 
shell" style reached its height at this time. "Louis 
Quinze work is practically synonymous with Rococo, the 
fanciful rock-and-shell curves that, like some fungous 
growth, invaded all branches of decorative art with 
amazing recklessness and rapidity." The characteris- 
tics of the period \vere distinct in their nature, though 
elaborate and various in form. Curved lines and intri- 
cate foliation appeared in all designs, and lack of sym- 
metry was considered a desirable achievement. Impor- 
tation of many works of art from China at this time 
added Oriental fantasies to the already fantastic 
Baroque-Rococo style, which grew increasingly ex- 
travagant throughout the reign of Louis XV. Much 
decorative work of the period is by no means without 
merit, but the style was too frivolous to effect any 
permanently great architectural expression. 

Despite the intense interest in the Rococo style, its 
very extravagance finally became so wearisome and 
distracting that the reaction of the Classic Revival set 
in with the reign of Louis XVI (1774-1793), and Classic 
forms became increasingly popular until the close of 
the "Empire" period, in 1814. 

Despite the uncertain character of "style" through 
the reigns of Louis XIII, Louis XIV, and Louis XV, 
such buildings as the palace at Versailles, and the 
Louvre in Paris were being planned and commenced, 
the Classic dignity of many portions of Versailles is 
to be attributed to J. H. Mansart, the master-architect 


of Louis XIV, who vastly enlarged the palace. The 
name of Mansart is preserved to-day in the French type 
of roof which we call, in this country, the "mansard" 
roof. In the works of Mansart, such as his additions 
to Versailles and the Second Church of the Invalides, 
there was much of the Classicism which became the 
national architecture of the period of Louis XVI, after 
the Louis XV Rococo fallacy had lived its butterfly 
span of life. Mansart 's conception of Classic forms, 
as well as those of his contemporaries and immediate 
predecessors, dealt with a heavier Classicism than that 
of Louis XVI an imposing and dignified style, its 
admirable qualities of proportion and alignment of 
parts playing an important part in the later develop- 
ment of French architecture. 

The Classic elements of the architecture of this 
period, however, owed their inspiration not directly to 
Classic sources, but to the architecture of the Renais- 
sance. The periods of Louis XIII and Louis XIV did 
not constitute a period of Classic Revival, but rather 
a continuation of the impulses of the Renaissance 
almost a re-Renaissance, in which Classic forms were 
struggling to shake off the vagaries of the Baroque 

The real French Classic Revival took place under 
Louis XVI, and in this period the architects and de- 
signers were impelled by a dual Classic inspiration 
the Classicism of the Renaissance, strengthened by the 
direct influence of the great archaeological discoveries 
made at that time in Greece and Rome, and especially 
in the buried ruins of Pompeii and Herculaneum. The 
stimulus caused by these discoveries can be likened only 
to the boundless enthusiasm evoked from the pioneers 
of the Italian Renaissance in 1400, when they first be- 

Mali-nit, Photographer 

(The "Orangerie," in the Bois de Boulogne, Paris) 

holograph by Ncunlciii & Cic 


H'hc Chateau <!p Bagatelle, in the Bois de Boulogne, Purist 

Warren & Wetmore, Architects 

There is apparent here the nicety of alignment in composition, as well as the restraint in the modelling 

and application of detail characteristic of the best French Classic architecture 

(A Jeweller's shop on Fifth Avenue, New York) 


Delano & Aldrich, Architects 



Traits of the style are apparent in the finial urns, the use of carved cloth "drapes "and the use of a 

lyre as a "musical attribute." General severity of profile and flatness of relief are also characteristic 

(Premises of a New York City Music Publisher) 


came aware of the possibilities lying dormant in the so 
long neglected treasure-house of antiquity. 

The Classic Revival as reflected in the architecture 
and other arts of the period of Louis XVI showed a 
complete reversion from Baroque and Rococo forms, 
and developed, in what is known as the "Formal, 
Phase ' ' of Louis XVI, a style of the utmost refinement 
and urbanity. Wall surfaces were kept flat, mouldings 
and cornices had slight projections and were finely 
modelled. Ornamental sculpture was treated in flat 
relief, and usually confined to a panel or medallion. 
Elliptical window openings, with garlands hanging 
down on each side, as well as elliptical medallions, were 
very popular, and another architectural character- 
istic was the frequent introduction of " attributes ' ' 
for decorative purposes. These ' ' attributes ' ' consisted 
of admirably designed groupings, in low relief, of ob- 
jects symbolically associated with the building such as 
antique tragic and some comic masques, lyres and other 
musical instruments for the facade of a theatre or con- 
cert hall (as at Amiens), palettes, paint-brushes and 
other paraphernalia for an art gallery. 

Earlier French characteristics of architectural com- 
position, called, even at this period, "academic," still 
governed the Classic Revival architects of the period 
of Louis XVI, and the great change was chiefly in 
matters of detail. 

While many forms were purely Classic, derived 
directly from ancient sources, there were many forms, 
also, of Italian Renaissance origin. 

Later French architecture, as formulated and 

taught by the great Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts, 

blended these two kinds of detail, developed a certain 

more "modern" feeling as well, and adhered strictly 



to the earlier French " academic" emphasis on sym- 
metrical and axial plans. Architecture as taught at the 
Ecole des Beaux Arts has had a wide influence on the 
architecture of many countries outside France, because 
of the fact that students from other countries spend 
periods of years in study there, assimilating the style 
and the habits of architectural thought which produce 
what is called "Beaux Arts Architecture." This type 
of design and detail is of such great importance that 
it will be discussed more thoroughly directly following 
the history of the Eighteenth Century Classic Eevival. 

The architecture of no period subsequent to that of 
the ancient Greeks has developed along lines of such 
studied refinement as that of the period of Louis XVI 
the period which produced the Petit Trianon at 
Versailles, the Chateau de Bagatelle in the Bois de 
Boulogne, and so many other buildings describable only 
by the term "exquisite." 

The period of Louis XVI was followed, after the 
two-year "Beign of Terror" of the revolution, by the 
Directoire Period, which covered the years 1795 to 1804. 
Classicism was carried even further than under Louis 
XVI. It invaded the realm of women's dress, with the 
"Tunique a la Grecque," and with such Classic cos- 
tumes and coiffures as that of Mme. Becamier in the 
famous portrait by David, which shows, as well, the 
purely Classic furniture of the period. The "Alle- 
gorical" portrait was greatly in favour, as in the reign 
of Louis XVI when the ladies of the Court were por- 
trayed in Classic draperies, as "Diana" or "Hebe," or 
Greek nymphs of mythology. This was the period of 
tastes called "Neo-Grec" or "Neo-Classic." 

The decade of the Empire (1804-1814), following 
the period of the Directoire, saw, at the dawn of the 


Nineteenth Century, a taste for Classic and archaeo- 
logical forms amounting to a mania. Not content with 
inspiration from the remains of Greece and Rome, 
architects and designers revived Egyptian forms 
sphinxes and terminal figures, heads and other details. 
The Classicism of the Empire outdid, in profusion of 
archaeological forms, the Classicism of the very an- 
tiquity which formed its inspiration. Many details of 
the preceding schools of French architecture survived, 
notably the use of "attributes" as a decorative motif. 
Under such a warlike Emperor as Napoleon, these attri- 
butes were most often military, bristling with spears, 
and introducing not only Roman helmets and armour, 
but trappings of design current at the time. 

So complete was the leaning toward archaeological 
forms that much architecture of the Empire period is 
too extravagant to possess merit, even though nearly 
all Empire designs are interesting. The two great 
names of the period were Percier and Fontaine, who 
were no less noted for their furniture designs than for 
their architectural achievements. These two architects, 
indeed, are generally regarded as the creators and the 
foremost exponents of the Empire style. 

Despite its bombastic and grandiose qualities, its 
heaviness and its frequent lack of refinement, the 
Empire style seldom failed to achieve dignity, and many 
works of the period are of a high order of architectural 
excellence. Italian precedents were virtually ignored 
or forgotten in the enthusiasm over antique forms. 

Among the most interesting of all relics of the period 
in France are the apartments remodelled for Napoleon 
at Fontainebleau, Compiegne and Trianon, and the 
country-house, Malmaison, done for the Empress 
Josephine. Extreme as was its nature, many archi- 


tectural details of the Empire period have survived in 
the architecture of to-day. When any pronounced style 
is followed with such extravagance as the Empire style, 
however, to the exclusion of all other thought, it usually 
degenerates, or becomes so wearisome as to be sup- 
planted by a new style. Even the great architecture of 
the Italian Renaissance saw its decadence in the devel- 
opment of the 'Baroque. The Empire style was no 
exception, and after the presence of Napoleon was no 
longer felt in France, Neo- or Ultra-Classicism grad- 
ually died out, failing, in the absence of that first glow 
of enthusiasm which had aided its initial expression, 
to create works of sufficient stylistic spontaneity to 
possess lasting characteristics. 

The impetus of the Classic Eevival had swept away 
much of the official influence of the "Academic School" 
of architecture which had begun to exert national in- 
fluence prior to the period of Louis XVI, and with the 
decline of the Empire " archaeological " school, the Ecole 
Nationale des Beaux Arts began to take definite form, 
and to build up the prestige and the stylistic formulae 
which to this day characterise French architecture, and 
much of the architecture of the world. 


The Classic Revival in England commenced with 
the Georgian period (1714^1820), immediately follow- 
ing the Dutch influences of the reign of Queen Anne, 
and lasted, though waning somewhat in its Classicism 
toward the end, until the beginning of the Victorian 
era in 1837. 

The Eighteenth Century Classic Revival in England 
reached its height during the reigns of the Georges, 
notably in the works of the Brothers Adam (1760-1820), 


in the reign of George III. The Adams, however, were 
not the first architects to design in the ' ' Classic Taste. ' ' 

Following Sir Christopher Wren and Inigo Jones, 
the great English Renaissance architects of the Jaco- 
bean period, William Kent, who died in 1748, produced 
works which were more in the nature of a "Classic 
Revival" than of the style of the Renaissance. Kent's 
sources of inspiration, moreover, were directly re- 
ceived in Italy, and both Kent and a contemporary, 
Gibbs, produced many designs closely resembling the 
work of the later Empire period in France. 

No English architects, however, popularised Classic 
forms to so great an extent as the Adams, or so skilfully 
employed antique motifs in the creation of modern 
buildings and furniture. The Classic Taste became the 
height of fashion, and, guided by the Classic ideal of 
dignity, a permanent stamp was placed upon English 
architecture which, especially in city buildings, is its 
characteristic to-day. 

Classic ideas found extensive fashionable accept- 
ance expressed in the architectural and decorative 
paintings of Angelica Kauffmann, and in the ' ' allegori- 
cal" English portraits of the day. Parks and gardens 
conformed with the Classic trend of the period, with 
the frequent introduction of "garden temples" and 
Classic statuary. Sculptured busts in hemispherical 
niches were characteristic architectural features, and 
virtually all the more important buildings, whether 
ecclesiastical or secular, public or domestic, were of 
the "pediment and portico" type, with Classic columns. 
The period of the Classic Revival in England was a 
period of very earnest architectural effort, resulting 
in much work destined to exert a strong influence upon 
subsequent architecture on both sides of the Atlantic. 



With such widespread enthusiasm for Classic ideas 
in architecture in England, it is not at all surprising 
that this should have crossed the ocean to the American 
colonies, creating and moulding the style which should 
accurately be called " Georgian Colonial." The 
"American Classic Revival" was a distinctly different 
development, coming, as it did, largely from France, 
and at a considerably later date than the Georgian 
Classic influences. 

The Georgian Colonial architecture of America, an 
extensive study in itself, will come under more detailed 
consideration in the eighth chapter. It is important 
here to establish its connection with] the Georgian 
Classic Revival in England, and to recognise its dis- 
tinction from the later American Classic Revival. 

The Georgian Colonial types of American archi- 
tecture took different forms in the North and the South, 
especially in the treatment of dwellings. In the "North 
there is noticeable a great Georgian Classicism of detail, 
rather than of general form. New England doorways, 
windows and interior woodwork followed Classic for- 
mulae, rendering Palladian windows and Greek orders 
with an honest carpenter's technique. 

To differentiate the types of Georgian Colonial 
architecture in such New England towns as Salem, 
Newport and Boston; the varieties found in New York, 
Philadelphia and Baltimore ; those still further south 
this cannot be attempted in a cursory manner. 

That the inspiration of the Colonial and Early 
American builders came directly from England is clear 
in the following paragraphs by Mr. Glenn Brown, from 
a note on the doorways of Salem, Massachusetts. 

' l The best work in Salem covers three periods, from 


1745 to 1785 clearly showing the influence of the publi- 
cation (in England) of Batty Langley in 1740, a work 
extensively used in this country. The title of the work 
explains the character of its information: 'Country 
Builders' and Workmen's Treasury of Design, or the 
Art of Drawing and Working the Ornamental Parts of 

1 ' In the period from 1785 to 1810 the character of the 
work reflects the influence of James and Robert Adam, 
whose books on interior decoration were published in 
1783 and 1786. After 1800 we see the effect of Revett 
and Stuart's publications, which were issued in 1788 
and 1794-1816, as in this period Greek influence is 
clearly reflected. While our early builders made free 
use of these good publications, they were not simply 
copyists. They showed their individuality in design 
and their good taste in adaptation. ' ' 

There were, in addition to the works mentioned by 
Mr. Brown, many others of like character and varying 
degrees of architectural merit. Among the best known 
of these American Colonial inspirations was "The 
Country Builders' Assistant," filled with carpenters' 
details of Georgian doorways, window frames, cornices 
and interior woodwork. It is due to these books that 
Colonial and Early American architecture developed 
consistently and with a high general level of merit, over 
a large area and in a day when there were no architec- 
tural schools in this country, no great teachers as in 
France, and no ready means of European study for the 
aspiring architectural "apprentice." It is remarkable 
that by far the greater number of early American 
buildings were the work of carpenters, and were done 
from mere sketches, supplemented by details carefully 
transcribed from these precious English books. The 


result is a lasting tribute to the conscientious love for 
their work which must have inspired and guided these 
master-builders of Georgian Colonial times in America. 


The American Classic Revival, as distinct from the 
Georgian Classic inspiration, came about largely 
through the development of friendly relations with 
France and the distaste for things English during the 
War of 1812. So closely allied, indeed, is this American 
Classic Revival to the contemporary style of France, 
that it has often been called ' ' American Empire. ' ' The 
popularity of the Ultra-Classic left a number of inter- 
esting monuments in this country, of which, perhaps, 
the purest example is to be found in the remaining por- 
tion of ''La Grange Terrace," on Lafayette Street, 
directly below Astor Place in New York City, and 
opposite the old Astor Library. i ' La Grange Terrace, ' ' 
now called "Colonnade Row," was built in 1836, and 
comprised eight palatial city residences. So thor- 
oughly Classic is this relic of the "Revival," and so 
essentially typical of the style as it found expression 
in this country, that the stately old facade repays close 
study. Despite the demolition of one-half its original 
form, and the many indignities it has suffered since the 
time when it was the centre of New York fashionable 
life, it retains a quality of dignity which is its inheri- 
tance from Greece itself, from the immortal architec- 
ture which, in ruins, dominates the world to-day. 

At the street-line was a cast-iron fence, with Greek 
anthemions. The shallow porch was imposingly flanked 
by twin pedestals, on which stood cast-iron candelabra 
of pure Pompeian form. These approaches are spoken 
of in the past tense because a city regulation has 

Seth Gcer, Architect A Builder 



The large columns are replicas from the monument of Lysicrates in Athens, the entrance intro- 
ducing a pure Greek Doric column, with French Empire wreaths in the frieze, and iron 
candelabra and rail of Pompeian design 

(Colonnade Row, New York City, built in 1836) 


removed them as " sidewalk encroachments." The 
facade itself, which still remains nearly intact, is of 
admirable proportions in the relation of base, colon- 
nade and entablature. The base, after the manner of 
contemporary French buildings, is of "rusticated" 
stone-courses, the joints strongly emphasised, and the 
entrance is flanked by pure Greek Doric columns, set-in 
and surmounted by an abbreviated entablature deco- 
rated with five wreaths of pure French Empire style. 

Like the French city house, the street level is re- 
garded in the nature of a basement the stately draw- 
ing rooms are on the premier etage, or first flight. 
The lofty ceilings of these great rooms on the premier 
etage are expressed externally by the height of the win- 
dows, at the heads of which appear, again, the French 
Empire wreaths. This embellishment, furthermore, 
distinguishes the premier etage in importance from the 
story above it. The walls of the base are sufficiently 
thick to allow of a narrow gallery and the placement 
of the tall columns directly 011 it with a cast-iron rail 
running across the front. 

The columns, each built of five drums of solid stone, 
are superb in proportion, the detail of the capitals 
being a direct replica of the Greek Corinthian monu- 
ment of Lysicrates in Athens. The cornice is of pure 
Classic composition, and was originally crowned by a 
continuous cresting of Greek anthemions. The char- 
acter of this facade has been considered here in detail, 
because it illustrates so admirably the very spirit of 
the Classic Revival, not only as expressed by American 
builders, but also typical of much work of the French 

Following the Classic Revival in America, taste in 
architecture and taste in general relapsed into the 


banalities and stupidities of the mid- Victorian period, 
from which it was not to emerge until the early 


Eeturning to England, the Classic Ideal in architec- 
ture is found, about 1815, to be competing with a pseudo- 
Gothic revival, and with a spirit of restlessness and 
eclecticism which resulted in an architectural chaos. 
Fortunately the imprint of Classicism had been so 
strong, continuing through the reign of George III 
(1820), that the most important fundamentals of archi- 
tecture were securely implanted. 

The height of the Classic, or Greek Revival in Eng- 
land, shortly before its decline, was signalised by 
several important architectural publications which 
profoundly moved popular taste as well as architec- 
tural thought. In 1762 "Antiquities of Athens/' by 
Stuart and Eevett appeared; in 1764, Robert Adam's 
"Spalato"; in 1831, Inwood's "Erechtheion"all 
works which had the effect of creating an intense 
admiration for pure Greek forms, independently of 
French or Italian interpretations. 

With the decline of the Classic Revival in England, 
the study of English architecture, excepting in the prov- 
ince of the country house, becomes a matter too involved 
for any but the architect or the critic, and the conflict 
of styles and tendencies resulted in such diversified 
effort that no significant influences emanated from the 
British Isles throughout the Victorian era. 

It is only important to allude to the Gothic Revival 
which was inspired by the writings of Ruskin in 1851, 
as well as by the writings of many earlier and con- 
temporary architects and critics who held similar 


views. Lacking real motive power, the rather ineffec- 
tual interest in Gothic architecture failed to produce 
any great works (since it was not an expression of the 
times), yet occupied architectural thought in England 
sufficiently to retard and almost stop the further 
development of Classic architecture. 

The attempted Gothic Eevival of Ruskin in Eng- 
land is interesting to the architectural " observer" 
in this country chiefly because it was the impulse for 
the fantastic "carpenter's" Gothic which left so many 
forlorn, hybrid traces in the form of "Gothic- 
American" country houses. The type is familiar, and 
many have wondered, perhaps, how these architectural 
curiosities "happened" wooden houses which were 
nothing better than parodies of the "Gothic Style" 
which they aspired to "express" in pointed windows 
and sharply pointed roofs, from which hung jig-sawed 
wooden "tracery" and drop-ornaments. "Gothic" 
details, too "fine" (supposedly) to be entrusted to the 
carpenter, were done in very crudely executed iron 
castings, often, like the wooden sculpture, "sanded" 
to represent stone. The style is an interesting one for 
several reasons, although, architecturally, it is "impos- 
sible" and indefensible. It is interesting because so 
many examples remain in and about the more prosper- 
ous cities and towns of the United States, as far West 
as Michigan, and because it so forcefully illustrates 
the futility of an artificial rendering of an artificial 
"revival," neither rendering nor revival half under- 
stood, and the nature and expressiveness of style and 
material wilfully or blindly ignored. Carpenters and 
contractors who carried out buildings in this style may 
have been ingenious, but certainly were not intelligent. 

This "Gothic" aberration, combined with an ex- 


tremely poor and ill-considered bourgeois French 
architecture of the "eighties," made American archi- 
tecture of that period "an imitation of something, 
which, even if genuine, would be undesirable." It is 
to this period that we owe the sorrowfully familiar 
"brownstone front" type of city house, and the country 
"mansion" which was an enormous box in shape, with 
an ungraceful rendering of the steep Mansard roof, 
the whole crowned with a strange protuberance like a 
conning-tower, entirely without purpose in itself, or 
relation to the building. Builders of a more sprightly 
and enterprising turn of mind erected, for their wealthy 
clients, or (in this case) victims >a strange version of 
the Swiss Chalet, many examples of which still exist, 
modestly retired behind the tall trees of their grounds. 
The Classic Ideal was forgotten, no other style was 
understood, or appreciated, and any one possessing an 
architectural consciousness must, at this time, have 
despaired of the future of American architecture. 


Early in the Nineteenth Century 'Berlin and Munich 
were centres of a powerful Classic Revival, but the 
German rendering of Classic forms showed more vigor 
than finesse, and more archaeological exactitude than 
feeling. Many important buildings of considerable 
magnitude and entirely Classic character, in both Ger- 
many and Austria, such as the Parliament Buildings 
of Berlin and Vienna, testify to the influence once 
exerted on Teutonic architecture by Classicism. It is 
strange, however, that these, and other buildings of 
both prior and subsequent date, fail to express any real 
or absolute architectural conviction on the part of their 
designers. The Classic Ideal was a "study," not an 


inspiration there was not the spontaneity or entlmsi-x^ 
asm in the Eevival which was so marked in France, 
and so much more evident even in less-demonstrative 
England. It had been the same with the German ren- 
derings of Renaissance and Gothic architecture the 
Germans were students always, and failed to really 
identify outside architectural styles with their national 
scheme of creative effort. 

No past style was so characteristic of the country 
as the essentially modern style, which, remotely based 
on certain Classic forms, shows likeness to no works of 
any other land, and seems to express, for the most part, 
a certain kind of "bigness" which is the attribute of 
arrogance rather than nobility. This thought has been 
admirably expressed in a comment on "Kultur in 
Architecture" by Mr. Guy Study, in "The Nation:" 

" ... There are, it is true, two schools of art 
in Germany, the academic and the modern. The aca- 
demic, which still clings to the precious heritage of the 
past, is a school formed of men who draw their inspira- 
tion from the sixteenth and eighteenth centuries and 
who still speak the same beautiful language of the art 
of Nuremberg and Rottenburg, but whose influence 
unfortunately is negligible 

"It is, however, the modern school that expresses the 
real culture of Germany. Animated by the restless 
impulse that has moved Germany in her ambition for 
world power, such men as Bruno Schmidtz and Kauf- 
mann have succeeded, by working with astonishing 
and even audacious originality, in giving the nation a 
new; style of architecture which seems to have been 
accepted as the national expression. The great wave 
of unrest which has swept over Germany has so 
engulfed the nation that a complete upheaval in art has 


taken place ; the very foundations of the past have been 
erased, and we find a strange new art, with touches of 
the mysticism of the East and possessing much daring 
cleverness, imagination, and a strong artistic quality. 
In it there is unquestionably the evidence of power and 
of a great restless vital force ; indeed, it is the expres- 
sion of an arrogant, conceited people whose ideals are 
foreign to either the Latin or Anglo-Saxon race. But 
is it art with that eternal quality that has marked the 
great epochs of the past? Do we find in modern Ger- 
man architecture that spirit of truth, that quiet, natural 
expression of an enduring power which is the uncon- 
scious possession of true greatness? These attributes 
are felt among the columns of Karnak, upon the Acrop- 
olis, and in the Forum; but what is felt before such 
gigantic monstrosities as the Bismarck or the Leipzig 
monument, whose sole claim upon us is their over- 
powering bulk! . . ." 


Eeturning to France at a time when architecture in 
England and America, and (for that matter) in France 
itself, was in a state more " chaotic" than " transi- 
tional," there could be perceived to be growing up a 
gigantic influence. This influence, condemned on 
several scores by many critics, was destined to play 
a tremendous dual part in modern architecture a part 
which no intelligent observer can ignore or belittle. 
It was destined, first, to raise the scattered remains of 
architectural tradition, Classic and Renaissance, from 
out of the quicksands of decadence into which they had 
strayed, and, welding Classic and Renaissance into a 
definite composite, powerfully and rationally mould 
the architectural thought of the civilised world. 


This great influence was the French Ecole Nationale 
des Beaux Arts, and the style of its architecture can be 
called neither Classic (though based on many Classic 
fundamentals) nor Renaissance (though characterised 
by many Renaissance forms) but " Beaux Arts," a 
type of architectural design of distinct characteristics. 

Because the teachings of the Beaux Arts have placed 
upon all modern architecture a permanent stamp, it is 
important to possess a distinct grasp of the Beaux 
Arts idea. The following exposition and a study of the 
illustrations will enable the architectural observer to 
perceive wherein Classic forms play an important part, 
and wherein Renaissance forms play an important part, 
and will be able, as well, to discern not only the 'Beaux 
Arts blending of these two elements, but also the addi- 
tional traits, devices and inventions peculiar to the 
school itself. 

Beaux Arts architecture is the result not only of a 
school of thought, but also of certain kind of study. 
A conception of this is essential at the outset. The 
students are required to develop their " pro jets" or 
drawings for imaginary buildings, from the plan, and 
the plan must, in all cases be symmetrical and laid out 
on axes. Axis in a plan is the centre-line of any of the 
important masses of the building. There may be sev- 
eral axes two of main importance and any number of 
subsidiary axes. The two principal axes are those run- 
ning the length of the building and the depth of the 
building. With these as a starting point, perfect sym- 
metry must result. 

Observation of any large building, such as the New 
York Public Library, will disclose the entire theory of 
planning on axis, and a grasp of the theory will show 
that such axial planning possesses the merit of reason 


and logic, and guarantees a well-studied relationship 
not only of the parts of the building itself, but of all its 
approaches, as well as adjacent buildings. 

The central axis, for example, of the front of the 
building, will be devised to centre on the avenue leading 
toward it, so that the building will bear a studied rela- 
tion to its site. This axis will also dictate the layout of 
the immediate approaches or terraces, the disposition 
of rows of trees or avenues of statuary. A fountain, 
or a large group of statuary, would be placed directly 
on this central axis or would be duplicated for place- 
ment on each side. Minor exterior features would be 
balanced on the minor axes of the f agade, and the result 
would naturally be one of absolute symmetry. 

It may be said that symmetry is virtually an essen- 
tial of all large buildings, architecturally termed 
"monumental" buildings, and for this reason, modern 
architecture owes much to the Beaux Arts insistence 
on axial plans. It must not be supposed that this pro- 
cedure in planning was originated in the ateliers of 
the Beaux Arts. Greek, and even Egyptian, architec- 
ture was based on ideas of symmetry, and the plan of 
the Eoman Baths of Caracalla was a typical "Beaux 
Arts ' ' plan, with a perfectly articulated system of axes 
and subsidiary axes. 

The great French school, however, deserves the 
distinction of having made symmetry an absolute archi- 
tectural law and the essential requirement of a building 
in the first stages of its development. 

The Beaux Arts has its critics and opponents, and 
one of the principal faults to which they point in the 
Beaux Arts teachings is this insistence on symmetry. 
The contention is that this insistence breeds an "arti- 
ficial" or "paper" architecture, that, for the sake of 


symmetry rather than for expression of the require- 
ments of the building, a Beaux Arts architect must 
needs add, for example, an entire wing, or devise an 
unnecessary "East Court" to balance a necessary 
"West Court" in the plan. This criticism is valid up 
to a certain point, but it is an interesting fact that the 
most violent opponents of Beaux Arts architecture have 
never offered a suggestion for any better or more logi- 
cal manner of planning large buildings. It is true that 
axial planning may result in an unnecessary and arti- 
ficial development of a building, but it is equally true 
that an able graduate of the Beaux Arts is capable of 
producing a symmetrical plan which is also a logical 
and economical one. Whatever offences may have 
been committed by Beaux Arts architectural formulae, 
the fact must remain that architecture in general is 
incalculably the gainer in the great majority of cases. 
At a time when architectural chaos reigned, the great 
Ecole stepped in and constituted itself the Law, and 
established a code of rules in design which have, ever 
since, beneficially guided the main elements of archi- 
tectural design. 

No architecture, no art, no philosophy or religion 
which is bigoted, and which aspires to domination and 
absolutism is a desirable one. A school of architecture 
should be a fountain-head of inspiration, a court of 
resort on matters of form and procedure, and may, by 
reason of the merit of its teachings, widely and per- 
manently mould the thought of many countries, whither 
return the students to practise who have come to learn. 

It cannot fairly be said that the school of the Beaux 
Arts has sought to dominate. Its aim has been, rather, 
to inspire and direct, and to implant in the minds of its 
students an impression of the importance of symmetry. 



Beaux Arts detail, of which we shall speak pres- 
ently, may often be forgotten, or replaced by forms 
more appropriate to other countries, but the theory of 
Beaux Arts planning is basic, and underlies the whole 
structure of architecture. It is a later expression of 
the Classic Greek ideal of order. 

Having developed a symmetrical plan, the student 
perceives, in designing from it the elevation or 
facade of his building, that this, of necessity, is also 
symmetrical, and that all the important masses are so 
related as to balance each other in a manner at once 
agreeable and logical. Excellent American examples 
of the Beaux Arts type of f agade for monumental build- 
ings are to be seen in New York in such buildings as the 
Public Library, the Metropolitan Museum, the Customs 
House, the new Post Office and the Pennsylvania Rail- 
road station (the last named, however, bearing no 
relation in style to Beaux Arts architecture). 

Combined with fundamental ideas of Classic order 
and symmetry, the Beaux Arts school developed, as 
well, a certain distinct French quality of gaiety and, at 
times, even frivolity. The style, for this reason, has 
always seemed admirably suitable for exposition build- 
ings, casinos, music-halls, theatres and similar build- 
ings. A peculiar fault of Beaux Arts architecture has 
frequently been that of counteracting the dignity of 
general conception and composition by the introduction 
of distinctly frivolous detail, so that banks, courthouses 
or other buildings in which the expression of dignity 
is essential, have avoided the style, as an unsafe archi- 
tectural medium. This frivolity of detail, at once an 
attractive and detractive feature of Beaux Arts archi- 
tecture, has given the hostile critics another weapon, 
and one of which they have amply availed themselves. 


In detail there will be found, in the Beaux Arts 
school, an admirable insistence on adherence to Classic 
proportions for columns and entablatures, and insis- 
tence, as well, on such devices as accentuating the base 
of a building by ''rusticating" the stone courses, and 
accentuating the central part of the building by a 
massing of extravagant detail to create architectural 
"interest." Beyond a few such strict rules as these, 
however, great license in detail has characterised nearly 
all Beaux Arts architects, often to the serious detri- 
ment of their works. Together with many extravagant 
forms, however, there were developed also many forms 
of permanent architectural merit. 

In style, 'Beaux Arts detail drew its inspiration from 
Classic sources, from Renaissance forms, and from cer- 
tain forms characteristic of the Classic Revival of 
Louis XVI, and of designers in earlier reigns. A 
certain gay exuberance and cursive freedom are appa- 
rent. Mouldings and all other profiles are very ' ' full. ' y 
Flat curves and low relief are by no means frequent, 
and on every fagade there is a profusion of cartouches, 
consoles, garlands, elaborate key-blocks, lions' heads, 
and, often, naturalistic ornament. Mixed with these 
may be such forms as the chaste Greek fret ornament, 
elliptical windows and the refined "guilloche" orna- 
ment of Louis XVI, and Classic pediments. 

This feature however the pediment, especially as 
employed on dormer windows, usually takes sinuous 
forms, and balustrades or roof lines are a favourite 
location for sculptured urns, often with a conventional 

Ornamental iron work, in the form of grilles and 
railings, is conspicuous in the Beaux Arts fagade, and 
this is designed in the most cursive and flowing charac- 


ter possible. Another characteristic metal embellish- 
ment on which French designers of this school have 
lavished a wealth of fertile ingenuity and graceful 
detail is the marquise, or iron-and-glass hood projecting 
over a doorway as a rain-shelter on entering. 

Architectural sculpture of the Beaux Arts school 
departed from earlier conceptions of conventionality, 
and became naturalistic to a degree. The nude gained 
favour in pediment and spandril treatments, as well as 
in placements more detached from the actual design. 
The- fountain figures flanking the central portico of the 
New York Public Library illustrate this modern French 
concept of architectural sculpture, and are, for that 
reason, perfectly in keeping with the distinctly ''Beaux 
Arts" character of the building. 

Although the School has taught the importance of 
"scale" among its fundamental precepts, many Beaux 
Arts students seem to have disregarded it, and exag- 
gerated scale in detail has marred many buildings of 
this style which might otherwise have possessed distinct 

We find then, on summarising, that Beaux Arts 
architecture begins with the symmetrical plan, laid out 
on axes, carries this plan out in the elevation, and, 
while adhering to logical proportions of mass, allows 
too great freedom in detail. This detail, while derived 
from sources Classic, Italian and Louis XVI, usually 
lacks Classic chastity, Italian romance or Louis XVI 
refinement, yet possesses certain positive architectural 
qualities eminently appropriate for certain types of 

The type, for example, is not so well suited to the 
narrow fagade of a city residence as the style of the 
Italian Renaissance. On a large fagade, the exagger- 


ated peculiarities of Beaux Arts detail are not so appar- 
ent, and are overlooked in the magnitude of the larger 
aspects of a monumental building. Nearly all city 
house facades, however, in a thorough rendering of the 
Beaux Arts style, resemble portions of some larger 
building, sliced off and crowded into a city lot. This 
is a fault in scale, and, perhaps, one of the greatest 
faults to be found with the style. 

Many leading American architects have studied at 
the great Ecole Nationale des Beaux Arts in Paris, and 
have brought back with them the most important parts 
of its teachings. In most cases, they have made far 
more use of the larger precepts of planning and com- 
position than of the detail. In the work of certain 
firms and individuals a distinct process of architectural 
procedure has been apparent in a close observation 
of their works. Directly upon their return from the 
school, and their commencement of practice, they de- 
signed buildings which were entirely French and 
entirely ' ' Beaux Arts ' ' in every detail. Gradually the 
detail was modified or abandoned, and in some cases 
the entire outward aspect of Beaux Arts architecture 
disappeared, leaving only the great deeply-instilled 
principles of "order," while the "style" changed 
entirely to Italian or Georgian English character. 

That American architects who have studied in Paris 
are convinced of the real benefits which they derived 
from the School, is evidenced by their foundation of 
the American Society of Beaux Arts Architects, who 
meet periodically to renew in reminiscence the pic- 
turesque side of their younger "atelier" days in the 
Latin Quarter, and award scholarships and prizes for 
student "pro jets" submitted by ambitious architec- 
tural draughtsmen from many parts of the country. 


Many features of the Beaux Arts idea of teaching 
form the frame-work of our college courses in archi- 
tecture, and in such instances as the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology and Harvard, French grad- 
uates of the Beaux Arts moulded the entire system 
of thought and instruction. M. Despradelle, so long 
the great leading spirit of Technology, has been dead 
several years; M. Duquesne of Harvard directs the 
teaching in Cambridge to-day. 

Evidences of Beaux Arts teaching are widely and 
prominently distributed, and many buildings which, at 
first glance, might be thought of directly Classic deriva- 
tion will be found inseparably to combine, as well, the 
ever-recurrent and pervasive influence of the Beaux 
Arts, which is conspicuous, too, in South America, in 
the more important buildings of Buenos Aires and 
Mexico City. 

The illustrations show examples which have been 
chosen by reason of their direct expression of Beaux 
Arts traits. 

The two details of the Grand Palais des Champs- 
Elysees, in Paris, depict admirably certain traits of 
detail, illustrating the fantasy and disproportionate 
scale so often met with, as well as a typical introduc- 
tion of naturalistic sculpture. The "motif* from the 
main faade shows, again, this fondness for naturalis- 
tic, rather than Classic sculpture, as well as the profuse 
mingling of divers details of divers origins. The ellip- 
tical medallion, with garlands, is reminiscent of Louis 
XVI, though more florid, the grotesque masque recall- 
ing, if anything, the Italian Renaissance. Further in- 
spiration from the Italian Renaissance is apparent in 
the background, yet the whole is typically a product of 
the Beaux Arts the Modern School of French Archi- 

s * 


? 2 

re pO 


s-. H M 


c S, X "^ 
" x K o 

SB S3 

<5 FW 
2-S xX 

3^ X 

S-~ 2 

Mayiiicke & Frank, Architects 

The entire treatment, both in general design and in every detail, is essentially 
in the style called "Modern French" 


lecture. The building from which these interesting de- 
tails are taken the Grand Palais des Champs-Elysees 
was built at the time of the Exposition Universelle, in 
1900, and is the work of several collaborating architects. 

In this country three thoroughly illustrative exam- 
ples are shown. The first, the New York Public 
Library, designed by a firm of American architects of 
which both members were Beaux Arts students, is an 
excellent example of the symmetrical faade of the 
monumental type of building, developed from an axial 
plan. The entire feeling of this building, in plan, 
composition and detail, is distinctly of Beaux Arts 
character, and, perhaps, might be called an example of 
the better influence of the modern French School. The 
second, a jeweller's shop (now a parfumerie) on Fifth 
Avenue, New York City, is unequalled as a " con- 
densed" epitome of Modern French architecture, 
comprising as it does, in such small compass, so many 
salient Beaux Arts features. 

Over the entrance flares a metal and glass marquise, 
of freedom almost suggesting the contours of an " Art 
Nouveau" creation. The balcony above, with its sin- 
uous iron rail, is supported on console brackets thor- 
oughly "Beaux Arts," and the centre is marked by the 
inevitable "cartouche." The characteristic curved 
pediment springs from two elongated consoles, and 
above the window is the elliptical medallion so favoured 
under Louis XVI, though rendered in the modern vein. 
The treatment behind the pediment, as well as the finial 
urns on pedestals, shows the same rendering of architec- 
tural forms of Louis XVI origin, but the entire facade 
is thoroughly and entirely "Modern French" in its 
design, and "Beaux Arts" in its detail. As an indi- 
cation of the frequent use of Greek forms in this school 


of design, combined with forms of the utmost modern- 
ity, note should be made of the "egg-and-dart" orna- 
ment in the pediment moulding. 

The third example comprises in the design of a 
broad city house facade in New York a profusion of 
Beaux Arts details, and affords a fair idea of the more 
undesirable features and qualities of the style. It is 
true that this facade, despite its many offences against 
the canons of Classic architecture, gives a certain super- 
ficial impression of "smartness" and urbanity. In 
the florid supports beneath the balcony over the door, 
there is evidence of the occasional reversion of Modern 
French architecture to Louis XV Eococo, while the 
balcony rail immediately above it makes use of the 
refined "guilloche" motif of Louis XVI. Elsewhere 
are to be discerned traces of Italian and French Renais- 
sance forms, while the device of breaking the third- 
story window up into the entablature is illustrative of 
that fatal license which destroys the merit of many 
otherwise excellent works of Beaux Arts origin or 
inspiration. It will be observed that the' "French 
manner" has been followed in the exterior expression 
of the importance of the rooms on the " premier etage," 
and the rusticated, almost severe base of the building, 
which blossoms into exuberant festivity above the 
street level story. 

From the foregoing observations on the merits and 
defects of Beaux Arts architecture, and from a study 
of the illustrations presented in this connection, it will 
be possible to discern in many American buildings the 
important part which the great school has played on 
this side of the Atlantic, and to more understandingly 
appreciate the opposition which has been offered to 


A facade which illustrates the merits as well as the faults of modern French architecture, and 
shows, as well, a great variety of typical architectural forms and Beaux-Arts devices 

Carrere & Hustings, Architects 



Columns partly built into a wall, as here, are called "engaged columns" 

(The New York Public Library) 


Modern French architecture by the exponents of pure 
Italian styles. 

It was said in a previous paragraph that, excepting 
in the works of the Classic Revival or " American 
Empire, ' ' Classic derivations unmixed with Beaux Arts 
influences, are rarely met with in American architec- 
ture. This, in a measure, is true, though designs of 
direct Classic inspiration are usually met with in bank 
buildings, certain libraries and art museums, and in 
such mausoleums as Grant's Tomb in New York City. 

Classic inspiration, it is true, underlies nearly all 
the monumental buildings in this country, whether the 
actual rendering follows the character of the Modern 
French School, or the Renaissance Italian School. 

The Classic Ideal in architecture, and Classic forms, 
have endured many architectural developments, but 
through the Renaissance, through the Classic Revival 
and through the Modern French or 'Beaux Arts School, 
have always proved to possess qualities greater and 
more potent than the stylistic movements which have 
sought to adopt or re-mould them. 

And it is safe to predict that Classic forms, through 
future cycles of architectural evolution, will retain their 
immortal qualities when other architectural forms have 
been forgotten, and that "Classic Derivations" will 
be apparent in the architecture of successive future 
centuries for the genius of the ancient Greeks has lost 
none of its significance in the centuries which have 
passed since the golden age of Hellenism. 

The design of the following chapter is to aid in 
discerning what part in American architecture has been 
played by the Byzantine and Romanesque styles, and 
by that remarkable fabric of the Middle Ages, called 
the Gothic style, 




TO group American architectural derivations of 
Byzantine, Romanesque and Gothic styles, is to 
establish a triology which might be said to be logical 
only in that these historic types have played but a 
partial role in the stylistic expression of architecture 
in America. 

A brief consideration of the Byzantine and Roman- 
esque styles will recall a past phase of architectural 
inspiration in this country, but a phase which left a 
great many important monuments, destined to endure 
for a long time to come buildings both ecclesiastical 
and secular. And in ecclesiastical architecture, the 
Byzantine and Romanesque styles are distinctly to be 
reckoned with to-day as an important factor in the 
inspiration of our church architects. 

A brief consideration of the Gothic derivations and 
adaptations in American architecture will outline the 
very important part played by that great mediaeval 
style in ecclesiastical architecture, as well as the lesser 
part it has played in some secular types of building. 

The acquaintance formed with Byzantine architec- 
ture in the second chapter of this book will recall that 
it was a style developed by the early Christians, con- 
siderably after the fall of Rome (with the temporary 


McKim, M i-iid & White, Architects 

A brink church in New York City, the dome of tile, the pediment 
figures of terra-cotta, and the shafts of the Roman Corinthian 
columns of granite 

H. H. Kiclmnlson, Architect 

Trinity Church, in Hosum, Massachusetts, marked a turning point in the architectural thought 

of the country 


oblivion of Classic architecture) and considerably 
before the development of the Gothic style. It will be 
remembered that Byzantine architecture was charac- 
terised by the round arch springing from short, clus- 
tered columns, that the arches, as well as the basket- 
shaped capitals of the columns, were treated with 
carving which was of a curiously primitive, but highly 
decorative character. Mosaic decoration was largely 
used, and the dome, not the vault, was the covering of 
important structures, such as Ste. Sophia in Constanti- 
nople, and St. Mark's in Venice. 

It will be remembered, further, that Romanesque 
architecture, developing the vault system of roofing, 
led directly to the great Gothic style. Romanesque 
architecture, at its best, was by way of being a hybrid 
style, a transitional style, and a style never fully devel- 
oped. It was a style of uneven merit, different parts 
of -the same building often seeming architecturally 
meagre, ill-studied, barren and stupid, and others, 
at the same time, architecturally rich, intricate, colour- 
ful and interesting. 

In considering the development in American archi- 
tecture which has been called the " Romanesque Re- 
vival," one must accept the designation as embracing 
Byzantine derivations as well, and the ''Revival," it is 
safe to say, might well have permanently and per- 
vasively moulded the character of architectural design 
in this country, had not a "Renaissance Revival" 
supplanted it, as will be seen later. 

Let us consider the status of " style" in American 
architecture about 1870. If ' * style ' ' it could be called, 
we should be loth, in any event, to call it "American." 
The influence of the "Classic Revival" of the dawn of 
that century had died out even before 1836, when 


"Colonnade Row" was built in New York City, and 
inspiration came, for the most part, from the most 
debased and bourgeois type of contemporary French 
architecture, or from misguided, unintelligent follow- 
ers of Ruskin. The first inspiration created such 
monuments of architectural stupidity and vulgarity 
as the "brownstone front" type of city residence, dis- 
mally familiar to anyone who has traversed the side 
streets of New York, Brooklyn, or other similar East- 
ern cities. It created, also, those great country and 
suburban houses usually alluded to as "mansions" 
great square boxes, with a hideously mishandled man- 
sard roof and a "tower" or "cupola," which, with the 
whole horrible ensemble, was regarded as an index of 
wealth and social status. 

The Gothic effort, as we have seen in the third 
chapter, produced architectural aberrations no less dis- 
mal, and even more architecturally illogical and struct- 
urally dishonest. The country was in dire need of 
some great architectural revelation some great archi- 
tectural light. Ruskin 's "Seven Lamps of Architec- 
ture ' ' conspicuously failed to shed even a faint glimmer 
of light in the Cimmerian darkness in which every hope 
of clear or intelligent architectural vision seemed to 
be plunged. 

The light which appeared at this juncture came in 
the person of one of the greatest American architects 
H. H. Richardson, great because his architectural vision 
was clear and intelligent, his architectural intention 
definite and sincere, his architectural reasoning sound 
and enlightened. 

The great Romanesque Revival which he led became 
first conspicuous with the publication of his perspective 
drawing of the splendid tower of Trinity Church in 


Boston, which appeared in ' * The New York Sketch Book 
of Architecture ' ' in 1874. The church may be considered 
as the first monument of the Romanesque Revival, 
and it stands to-day as an expression of American 
architectural ability of the highest order. It is true 
that the decade from 1880 to 1890 witnessed the erection 
of a great many important buildings of architectural 
inconsistency, not to say architectural insanity, equalled 
by the structures of no other country or no other period, 
although the Romanesque idea held its place as a 
guiding light. 

One architect, no matter how great, could not at 
once mould the architectural thought of so great a 
country, and the really remarkable thing is that 
"Richardsonian Romanesque" (as it soon came to be 
called) exerted such a widespread influence. Richard- 
son demonstrated that the style might successfully be 
handled as a medium for the design of churches, rail- 
road stations, business buildings, educational buildings 
and private houses in city and country. He had many 
imitators and copiers, but a far greater number of 
sincere and admiring followers, who welcomed the great 
Romanesque Revival as the dawn of a new and hopeful 
architectural era. 

The late Montgomery Schuyler, architectural critic, 
writing even in 1891, saw an assimilated and "revised" 
Romanesque as the future ' ' American Style ' ' of archi- 
tecture, which, indeed, it then bid fair to become. 
Mr. Schuyler 's contentions, his analysis of the style, 
were admirably well founded, for he saw possibilities 
in a Romanesque Revival for the reason that Roman- 
esque was never a "finished" style, in the sense that 
the Classic or Gothic styles were finished. Gothic 
architecture supplanted Romanesque architecture 


before the latter had reached its complete stylistic 
development, so that no " perfect examples" exist to 
represent Eomanesque architecture, as the Parthenon 
represents Classic, or the great French cathedrals 
represent Gothic. It seemed, then, as though we might 
take Eomanesque architecture at the point where it was 
interrupted, and, revitalising it, develop it into a Nine- 
teenth Century American style. Mr. Schuyler wrote 
(in 1891) : 

"It will be seen . . . that Romanesque archi- 
tecture, in the Norman, the German and the Provencal 
phases of it, constitutes an architectural language that 
is applicable to all our needs, for there is no mode of 
building, from the ecclesiastical to the domestic, in 
which we have not already successful examples to show, 
and in which we may not hope for still more signal suc- 
cesses in the future. It has not been conventionalised 
or formalised so as no longer to be expressive, but is 
still free and flexible, and it affords ample opportunity 
for a designer to manifest his scholarship and his indi- 
viduality, if he have any. So much cannot be said of 
any previous style that has come so near to establishing 
itself. It is to be hoped that our designers may be 
content to develop its resources and not be tempted to 
abandon it, as so many promising beginnings have been 
abandoned in the history of modern architecture, 
through an unlucky or disastrous caprice. ' ' 

The critic's estimate of the destiny of the Roman- 
esque Revival in America is peculiarly interesting, and 
bears evidence of the futility of architectural prophe- 
cies. Mr. Schuyler did not reckon on the impact of two 
other, and evidently more powerful, architectural in- 
fluences which made their effect apparent within so few 
years after this piece of writing the great Renaissance 


Revival, championed by McKim, Mead and White, and 
the great French- Classic influence emanating from the 
Ecole des 'Beaux Arts in Paris. 

Perhaps the greatest legacy of Richardson to Ameri- 
can architecture was his demonstration of the fact that 
architectural sanity in this country lies only in a sin- 
cere, intelligent and scholarly adherence to a worthy 
historic style, be that style what it may. Richardson 
taught the architects of his time, as well as the dis- 
criminating public, that architectural precedent is 
safer, and more productive of desirable results, than 
architectural experiment. 

And in doing this, he left behind him a splendid 
record of architectural achievement in the buildings 
which he designed. Conspicuous among these are 
Trinity Church in Boston, Sever Hall and Austin 
Hall in Cambridge, the Pittsburgh Court House, the 
Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce and a great many 
permanently pleasing residences and railroad stations, 
especially through the New England States. 

While the works of many of Richardson's followers 
were admirably sincere and were perfectly legitimate 
expressions of a dominant architectural idea, the works 
of most of those who imitated him merely as an oppor- 
tune expedient were ill-studied, and not only worthless 
in themselves, but tended to discredit the real and 
higher aims of the Romanesque Revival. 

The architectural observer will recognise the build- 
ings of this interesting period in American architecture 
because buildings of the Richardsonian Revival bear an 
unmistakable stamp. Usually of stone, their propor- 
tions are massive and often heavy. The cavernous en- 
trances are spanned by great semi-circular arches, and 
the composition is usually dominated by a sturdy tower 


with pointed roof. The carved detail may vary in the 
merit with which the Byzantine or Romanesque render- 
ing of the acanthus leaf, or grotesque heads, may be 
carried out. In masonry, thd stones were each hewn 
with the rough, chipped treatment which classifies such 
masonry as "rock-faced." 

In the Richardson Romanesque buildings of brick, 
we often find that the bricks have been moulded to 
resemble " rock-faced" stone, and, as in Sever Hall at 
Harvard University, there is an abundance of specially 
moulded brick for cornices, string-courses, mullions 
and other details, with foliated capitals in unglazed 

The decline of Byzantine and Romanesque ideas as 
the dominating trend of architectural thought in this 
country, and the rise of the Latin derivations, Italian 
and French, is the logical subject for another chapter. 
It remains only to point out to what extent we have 
still to reckon with Romanesque derivations in 
America, before passing on to the study of our modern 
Gothic derivations in this chapter. 

Although the Romanesque Revival of 1871-1891 was 
not destined to mould the entire subsequent character 
of American architecture, the style possesses such 
admirable qualities for expression in ecclesiastical 
architecture that it has been the inspiration of a great 
many distinctly successful church buildings, and will, 
without doubt, continue always to occupy a prominent 
place, in this capacity, of importance nearly equal to 
that of the Gothic style. 

To cite a few examples which are conspicuous not 
only for their scholarly yet imaginative rendering of 
the Byzantine and Romanesque style but for their 
architectural merit regardless of this consideration, 


the observer may profitably study several churches in 
New York and its vicinity. Particular attention is 
directed toward the Madison Square Presbyterian 
Church, under the shadow of the great Metropolitan 
tower, and to the chapel of Columbia University. 
Another admirable derivation is seen in the Church 
of St. Joseph at Babylon, Long Island, and again, to 
transport ourselves in a moment to the Pacific Coast, 
in the First Church of Christ Scientist, in Los Angeles, 

In that the 'Byzantine and Romanesque churches of 
the early Christians in Rome represented the ideals of 
a distinctly simple kind of religious thought, adapta- 
tions of Byzantine and Romanesque styles may come 
to be regarded as an architectural expression peculiarly 
suitable for the church edifices of the more radical 
Protestant sects, while the Gothic style effects an archi- 
tectural expression ranging through various degrees 
of Episcopal "high church" to the Roman church itself, 

Romanesque architecture was once considered pecul- 
iarly adaptable for the design of modern office build- 
ings, but the development of this essentially American 
type has grown further and further away from any 
Romanesque possibilities of treatment. When walls 
were of stone, and the floors of steel beams, and tho 
height of the building not more than eight or ten 
stories, the style was adaptable. It became impossible, 
however, when the structure of the building was entirely 
of steel, and the proportion of voids (window openings) 
overbalanced, in relation, the solids (wall spaces). 
Romanesque architecture was of a massive, heavy char- 
acter, and, from its nature, could not be made to con- 
form with this skeleton steel frame, or to soar upward 
to twenty, twenty-five, thirty, forty stories or more. 


And for the private house the style became "old 
fashioned," newer adaptations were in vogue, and 
despite their marked architectural interest, the old 
Kichardsonian Romanesque country houses seemed 
dark, dismal and ''heavy" beside newer creations 
adapted from Italian villas and French chateaux, or in 
variations of English styles. 

The Gothic style, however, survived the distaste 
which it created in the so-called " Gothic Revival" 
immediately preceding the Romanesque Revival, and 
established itself as a permanent inspiration and source 
of derivation for various types of American buildings. 
Thus we find in the current architecture of this country 
Gothic derivations which may be called, for conveni- 
ence, "Ecclesiastical," "Collegiate," "Military," and 
"Commercial" the designations referring in part to 
the several varying renderings of the style, and in part 
to the types of building in which these renderings 

It is natural that by far the greatest part of Gothic 
inspiration and Gothic derivation in American archi- 
tecture is to be found in church and cathedral buildings 
and while the greater proportion of these lack the true 
spirit of the Gothic style, the meritorious minority 
offers a peculiarly interesting field for observation and 

The explanation of the failure of the greater pro- 
portion of our Gothic churches lies in the circumstance 
that their architects have failed to consider the organic 
nature of Gothic architecture, have failed to recognise 
its similarity to a tree. A tree grows out of a seed, 
putting forth branches as it conies into its growth, and 
these put forth leaves. Different varieties of trees 
have different ways of growing, each way characteristic 

Tram, Goodlmr * Ferguson, Architects *'r>m u diawiiiK by Hertmni G. Uoudhuu 


Two salient points should be noted here the remarkable "upward motion," and the excel- 
lent relation of detail to mass 
(Porch of the proposed Baltimore Cathedral 1 ! 


Crain, Goodhue A: Ferguson, Architects Photograph by Julian Buckly 


A fine rendering of the massive irregularity which characterises a certain type of Gothic design 
(St. Thomas' Church, New York City) 


of a species, and some, like wind-bent cedars by the open 
seashore, may take on forms which seem curious and 
grotesque, although the result of special conditions. 

And so a Gothic church of the Thirteenth or Four- 
teenth Century grew, organically, gaining size and 
branching out in chapels or cloisters in various direc- 
tions as the growth progressed, each addition springing 
naturally and spontaneously from the main stem of 
the Gothic idea. The Gothic church itself, its massive 
buttresses rising to take the thrust of the side-aisle 
arches, and flying buttresses springing upward above 
these to take the thrust of the great nave arches, was 
like an organic growth, its many members created by 
structural necessities exactly as a branch has greatest 
girth next the trunk to take the greater strain at this 

It is doubtful if anyone but a Japanese artist would 
attempt to construct an actual copy of a tree but if 
such an interesting hypothetical undertaking were to 
be tried, no one engaged in it would dream that any 
structural or organic features of the "design" of the 
tree could be improved upon, or that a pine bough would 
look well growing from a maple tree. Eegardless of 
its appearance, the designer would at least feel that the 
introduction of the pine branch would destroy the 
botanical resemblance of his work to a maple tree. 

It is a curious fact, however, that very few archi- 
tects, in relation to the great numbers who have essayed 
Gothic adaptations, indulge their thoughts in such a 
profitable simile. The result is that they have pro- 
duced illogical (and hence unconvincing) Gothic edi- 
fices buildings adorned with buttresses which abut 
no arches, with wings not related to any natural expres- 
sion of the growth of the building in fine a hybrid 


structure. They have copied Gothic forms without 
understanding or experiencing Gothic feeling. 

And here it is important to point out the reason why 
Gothic architecture is a peculiarly exacting style to 
adapt to-day, as compared with Classic or Renaissance 
architecture. The very life of Gothic architecture is 
dependent upon the degree of real and understanding 
feeling which has entered into its contrivance, irre- 
spective of the comparatively superficial forms which 
are the material media of its expression. In Classic 
or Renaissance architecture, on the other hand, the 
importance of certain material forms outweighs the 
degree of feeling necessary to intelligently manipulate 
and render these forms. In this way, to design in 
the Gothic style is a very different matter from design- 
ing with the Gothic style. The first kind of design has 
produced a number of remarkable latter-day expres- 
sions of Gothic architecture : the second has produced 
a far greater number of misexpressions of Gothic 

Certain carefully considered thoughts on the sym- 
bolic values of the Gothic style in the expressive design 
of church edifices appeared in a paper contributed by 
the writer to "The Churchman" magazine of March 
21, 1914, entitled * ' Symbolism in Modern Church Archi- 
tecture, ' ' here quoted : 

"It is doubtful if sufficient emphasis has ever been 
made of the fact that architecture, of all the arts, is 
the most expressive vehicle for symbolism. Possibly 
the reason for this lack of recognition of the symbolic 
values of architecture lies in the fact that very few 
architects have appreciated it. When the training and 
practice of the average architect of to-day is taken into 
consideration, this is not so greatly to be wondered at, 


for in the first instance he has become versed, by neces- 
sity, in material forms, and in the second finds himself, 
at the outset of his practice, one of the world's workers 
in an age of which the aesthetic or spiritual ideals rarely 
rise above literal materialism at their highest level, 
even when they stop short of absolute commercialism 
at their lowest level. 

"Broadly defining symbolism, before proceeding 
with its expression in current architectural achieve- 
ments, it may be said that there are two kinds. First 
one is impelled, by instinct, to think of literal symbols, 
which are of comparatively little importance to adorn 
a shrine of St. Matthias with the axe, or of St. Paul 
with a sword to carve about a doorway the winged 
man, the winged lion, the winged ox and the eagle of the 
four evangelists. 

' ' This, to be sure, is one sort of symbolism, but the 
sort which requires only erudition to master, and into a 
knowledge of which art enters not at all. Perhaps 
many of our ecclesiastical edifices do not show enough 
of this sort of symbolism, but it is not upon such con- 
siderations that their significance to-day or for pos- 
terity will depend. 

"The fundamentally important symbolism to be 
desired in church architecture is of a broader kind, and 
involves a basic understanding of the difference be- 
tween the spiritual and the material. Many architects 
have gone about their work in designing a church by 
assembling in their minds only a collection of material 
forms, and this they have generally done to such an 
extent that there has been left no room for the con- 
sideration of things spiritual. 

* ' Obviously no other type of building calls into play 
the necessity for expression of the spiritual as opposed 


to the material in architectural design to so great a 
degree as the church edifice, and it is therefore the more 
to be deplored that so few latter-day architects have 
failed to grasp the futility of seeking such architectural 
expression by means of form without feeling. 

"A meaningless assemblage of pointed arches, 
crockets, Gothic tracery and stained glass windows, 
which are architectural forms, or tools, will not produce 
a well-designed church edifice with true architectural 
meaning any more than a meaningless assemblage of 
words, which are also forms, or tools, will produce a 
piece of literature with true literary value. In none of 
the arts can expression signify anything of consequence 
unless the tools of that art have been directed by 
thought, which is the spiritual element, to the end that 
the finished fabric will express thought. No painting 
was great by technique alone, no literary masterpiece 
by virtue of the words contained in it ; or any architec- 
tural monument solely by reason of the accuracy in 
the material form of its several parts. There is a 
careful stupidity which believes accuracy to be art, 
and even accepting architecture in its real meaning as 
an art, believes that careful adherence to material 
forms will bring the required expression of an idea. 
One architect may conscientiously develop an architec- 
tural project from some work of the past, and entirely 
fail to produce in execution a design even creditable. 
Another, governed by exactly the same inspiration, may 
produce a masterpiece. The more deeply the student 
goes into the study of architecture as a fine art, the 
more baffled he is likely to become, until he realises 
the parts actually played by the material and the spir- 
itual. Gradually there become apparent certain large 
architectural truths, and suddenly it is very clear why 


some architectural achievements are great and lasting 
and others are trivial and transient. Forms alone can- 
not be assembled to produce the highest architectural 
expression unless there is brought to such an assem- 
blage that quality known as art. 

''As a corollary to the last, it must be brought out 
with emphasis that art is above all an abstract entity, 
of a nature entirely spiritual and not at all material. 

' ''But what of form? What part, if any, does it take 
in the production of a work of art? Certainly it is to 
be taken into consideration, but not before the much 
more important broad understanding of the opposed 
values of the spiritual and the material. And this 
discussion must proceed to a logical and accepted con- 
clusion before it is possible to discuss symbolism in 
architecture, for the reason that the expression of 
symbolism is only to be found in a work of art. It is 
therefore necessary, in orderly succession, to take 
cognizance of the fact that architecture is an art, to 
appreciate the meaning of art as an abstract entity, and 
to reach the obvious conclusion that only such archi- 
tecture as is conceived in the highest tenets of true 
art is capable of becoming a vehicle for symbolism. 

"The question of the place of material 'form' is 
worthy of a brief discussion, in which the most salient 
point to be made is its relative importance in compari- 
son with other considerations. In speaking specifically 
of architecture, added testimony toward establishing 
the truth about "form" is to be had in stating that 
one speaks not only of architecture, but of art in its 
several manifestations ; for in the creation of a master- 
piece, the painter has his technique, the writer his words, 
and the architect his architectural forms. These things 
are common, in the intent of their use, to all the arts, 


but we should never lose sight of the basic truth that 
these are nothing but tools. One does not become a 
carpenter by virtue of slinging a tool bag over his 
shoulder, or a great writer by virtue of mastering the 

1 'Great architects have been only those men who 
have acquired a knowledge of material forms, remem- 
bering the while that these were but tools, and who have 
regarded the use or manipulation of these forms not 
as the end of their endeavour but only as a part of the 
means. And the other part of the means necessary to 
the end or attainment of architectural expression, they 
will have realised to be that essentially spiritual quality 
which is called art, or that essentially artistic quality 
which is called spiritualism. 

' l It is, then, only in such an example of architecture 
as may be regarded as a work of art that we may expect 
to find an expression of symbolism, and in consideration 
of the tremendous spiritual idea which it is required to 
bring out in church architecture, it is not altogether 
surprising that such symbolism is lacking in most of 
the modern church edifices of this country. 

' ' There is required symbolic expression of a fabric 
of ideas of such magnitude that nothing short of the 
highest degree of architectural imagination can even 
conceive it, or the highest degree of architectural abil- 
ity achieve it. There are to be expressed ideas as broad 
and deep and far-reaching as religion itself, some ideas 
of mystery, some intent to create by architectural 
means a sense of awe and to stimulate those thoughts in 
the human mind which are the most noble and the most 
superhuman ideals at once exalting and humbling. 
This is the symbolism which is the first architectural 
essential in the design of a church, obviously of far 


greater importance than such symbolism as might be 
called ecclesiastical heraldry, the attributes of saints 
and the insignia of material theology. 

' l And because the master builders of the great Euro- 
pean cathedrals achieved a tangible expression of the 
real symbolism of church architecture, an expression 
the vitality of which has not been impaired, but rather 
heightened, by time, many latter-day architects have 
been so limited in vision and understanding as to imag- 
ine that by copying the forms which they saw in the 
works of these master church-builders they must 
achieve the desired result. 

"An appreciation of such architectural truths as 
have been thus far set forth here will go far toward 
understanding not only the failure in architectural 
significance of much of our church design, but the reason, 
for the lasting values of such examples as would seem to 
have resulted from such an appreciation. ' ' 

From these thoughts it will be apparent that archi- 
tectural sincerity and architectural understanding are 
essential in designing any worthy adaptation of the 
Gothic style, and from this view-point it will not be 
difficult to discern, in any effort to determine the merits 
of a church building, not only its degree of success or 
failure in stylistic rendering, but the real architectural 
reasons underlying either. 

American architecture affords a smaller number of 
examples of Gothic derivations in scholastic or colle- 
giate buildings than in ecclesiastical buildings, yet 
offers occasion for a few comments in this connection. 

In the use of the Gothic style in the buildings of a 
school or a college, the greatest success attending the 
effort will be found to come from the extent to which 
the finished design is unecclesiastical, yet expressive 


of Gothic Mediaevalism. Nor is the performance of this 
feat of design a whit more easy than it sounds. Vir- 
tually every Gothic form is characteristic, through 
association, with church edifices, and only an exception- 
ally skilful architectural contrivance of these forms will 
result in anything but a compromise a building which 
suggests neither a well-designed church nor an expres- 
sively designed educational building. 

Success in the undertaking, however, amply repays 
the architectural effort involved, and proclaims the 
architectural ability of the designer, if one were to cite 
only such conspicuous instances as the impressive group 
of buildings for the College of the City of New York, or 
the scholarly group of buildings for the Graduate Col- 
lege of Princeton University. The most adaptable and 
the most expressive Gothic derivation for scholastic 
and collegiate architecture will be found in the transi- 
tional style which combines Tudor Gothic forms, and 
Early English Renaissance forms the style of the 
collegiate architecture of Oxford and Cambridge. 

American adaptations of this style have been car- 
ried out with conspicuous success at Princeton Univer- 
sity, the University of Pennsylvania, Bryn Mawr Col- 
lege and St. Louis University, as well as in many 
buildings for private and public schools throughout 
the country. Few European derivations have been 
more felicitously employed by American architects than 
this " transitional" English style as applied to edu- 
cational buildings, and although such derivations might 
more properly be considered in connection with our 
architectural debt to England, there is a sufficient 
Gothic element to allow of this brief reminder. 

In speaking of * ' Military Gothic, ' ' one speaks, per- 
haps, of a version of the style exemplified in but one 

Cram, (icxxlliue Jt Ferguson, Architects. (R. A. r.) 

There is apparent here a mingling of ecclesiastical and scholastic Gothic. The shields are English 
in character, the "flames" along the arch are "flamboyant" French. Grotesques have been 
used as corbels, and to terminate the outer moulding of the arch 


An illustration of the symbolic possibilities of the Gothic grotesque 

Cram, Guodhu <fc Ferguson, Architect!*. (K. A. C.) 


Gothic derivation handled in a manner at once scholarly and free 

(The Graduate School of Princeton University) 


group of American buildings yet this group repre- 
sents such a splendid and remarkable architectural 
achievement that its significance could not be over- 
looked in the works of any period or any nationality. 

In this specific sense, the term "Military Gothic" 
is to be regarded as applying to the buildings of the 
United States Military Academy at West Point, on the 
Hudson Eiver in a more general sense it is to be 
regarded as applying to the massive, rugged, fortress- 
like type of Gothic architecture called Norman Gothic. 
A paragraphic study of the buildings at West Point 
will serve to make clear the architectural qualities to be 
understood by the term ' ' Military Gothic, ' ' so that any 
less specific considerations may be regarded as 

It is apparent that the idea of military architecture 
immediately conveys some thought of a fortress or a 
castle, of a place to be defended. From time imme- 
morial man has availed himself of nature 's aid in build- 
ing any kind of defense by selecting as a site some 
inaccessible crag like Tintagel, some natural eminence 
which must offer to an enemy as great a difficulty of 
approach as possible. One does not conceive of a for- 
tress built on a plain, or in a valley. And so, regardless 
of any actual necessity, or even contingency of military 
defense, our thoughts of a military edifice picture first 
a considerable natural height as the location for such 
a building. 

In this particular of mental association, the site of 
the group at West Point is at once logical and appro- 
priate, the massive buildings crowning the steep bank 
of the Hudson Eiver with an impressive bulk of sturdy 
masonry. Whereas Ecclesiastical Gothic architecture 
is at its best in the achievement of delicate lightness 


and attenuation, Military Gothic is obviously at its best 
in the achievement of tremendous weight and conden- 
sation of form. In this architectural quality the build- 
ings at West Point are manifestly successful. They 
are, furthermore, of significant interest to the student 
as a group-study as well as an individual building 
study, for the work was won in competition largely 
because it was so apparent, even to a committee of un- 
architectural judges, that here was a tremendous and 
expressive architectural idea, a dominant architectural 
purpose in the vision of the designers. In this, inci- 
dentally, lies the difference between a mere building 
and a work of architecture the first lacking purpose, 
and consequently failing in expression ; the second being 
the result of a definite and intelligent architectural 

These observations on Gothic derivations in Ameri- 
can architecture may be concluded by a few comments 
on "Commercial Gothic," and on the difficulty 
of creating, or re-creating in this country a "Domestic 
Gothic. ' ' The term ' * Commercial Gothic ' ' is, from the 
very natures of the commercial idea and the Gothic 
idea, a paradoxical term, yet one which most aptly 
applies to certain of our architectural essays. Much 
architecture, indeed, is paradoxical in theory, not only 
in this country but in certain historic periods in Europe, 
and it is this fact which, to some extent, makes such a 
term as "Commercial Gothic" an apt and accurate 
one, in fact, while it may well be criticised as a para- 
doxical one on paper. 

It is to be submitted, however, that the variance 
between ideas suggested by "Commercial" and ideas 
suggested by "Gothic" is a variance rather in the 
realm of thought than between the actual architectural 

Cope & Stewardsou, Architect! 

The buildings of the old Colleges of Oxford and Cambridge in England show the transition 
from Gothic to Renaissance feeling. The peculiar dignity and charm of this style have been 
admirably rendered here 

(The Provost's Tower, University of Pennsylvania) 

Cram, Goodhue & Ferguson, Architects 


A rugged and imposing version of the great ecclesiastical style 
(The Chapel of the West Point Military Academy) 

Photograph by Julian Buckly 


requirements of our modern office buildings and the 
degree to which the Gothic style may be applied to 
them. A Gothic " derivation, " however, is the most 
that may be claimed, for the reason that a steel building 
structurally dispenses with the Gothic essentials of 
vaulting, pointed arches and buttresses. Structurally 
a modern steel building possesses no point in common 
with any Gothic building. Superficially, however, a 
striking affinity becomes apparent at once. 

The modern steel building is "perpendicular" in 
form; it springs from a far smaller ground area than 
any Gothic church, and towers to greater heights. The 
perpendicular " movement" of its lines is essential, and 
for this the Gothic style offers a direct external expres- 
sion. Furthermore, by reason of the comparative 
slenderness of the steel skeleton, and the desirability 
of devising well-lighted offices, a predominant propor- 
tion of void to solid is called for in the design. Here, 
again, the Gothic style offers an architectural solution, 
with its tall, slender, vertical members, and its absence 
of solid wall spaces. The Gothic style is adaptable 
for the external, or superficial, expression of the modern 
steel building for exactly the same reasons that the 
Eomanesque style, considered earlier, proved not to be 

Thus, despite the absolute incompatibility of the 
purposes and ideas of a modern office building and the 
purposes and ideas of a Gothic church, and despite the 
obvious structural differences existing between them, 
there is, nevertheless, an adequate sanction for Gothic 
derivations in the modern tall buildings of to-day. 

It is not intended to imply that the Gothic style 
offers the only solution of the problem, and others 
are alluded to in the ninth chapter. It is intended 


rather to bring out the thought that there is nothing 
stylistically illogical or unpermissible in the employ- 
ment of Gothic derivations in matters of form. 

The difference in purpose and idea existing between 
the prototype and its modern derivation is, after all, 
chiefly a difference which might be called "literary," 
or "mental." Instinctively the mind is disturbed by 
thoughts of a bank of swift elevators, rushing busy 
stock-brokers up and down the towers of Notre Dame 
Cathedral, or of high mass being chanted in the corri- 
dor of an office building on lower Broadway in New 
York. Dismissing these purely associative thoughts, 
it is possible to form some impartial architectural 
conclusion. It is true that associative thoughts should 
be reckoned as a powerful factor in architectural design 
yet, if the Gothic builders of the Middle Ages had 
been confronted with the necessity of erecting towering 
office buildings, would they not have made the most 
of their "perpendicular" style? Since we admittedly 
borrow architectural styles, may we not, with propriety, 
borrow those most adaptable to given kinds of 
buildings I 

Modern architectural adaptations of the Gothic style 
for commercial buildings have been attended by con- 
spicuous success in a number of instances, such as the 
Trinity 'Building, the United States Eealty Building, 
the Times Building, numerous tall apartment houses 
in New York City, and, towering above all of these, 
both in actual size and in the success of its Gothic deri- 
vation the great "Woolworth Building. 

It may truthfully be said that a pause to study this 
will repay the student or lay observer of architecture 
in several ways. There is apparent, first, a great archi- 
tectural intention in this building. The magnitude and 

Case Gilbert, Architect Photograph l.y H. Tebl.s 


(The Woolworth Building, New York City) 

Caw Gilbert, Architect 

Detail of "canopy" at twenty-seventh story Detail of flying buttress at forty-second story 
Detail of windows and gargoyle at twenty- Detail of roof and parapet at twenty-eighth 
seventh story story 



dignity, even the nobility, of this intention has raised it 
far above the highest plane usually attained by the 
* ' commercial, ' ' and has created an edifice which entirely 
merits the characterisation of a visiting Englishman 
"a Cathedral of Commerce. " In this respect, then, 
the Woolworth Building is to be regarded as an archi- 
tectural achievement of the higher order. 

In the matter of its execution, a clear idea of its 
architectural significance will come from a considera- 
tion of certain elements in its design elements of mass, 
light and shade, material, scale, and stylistic derivation. 

Taking these elements in succession, it may be said 
that the mass is successfully handled a matter of vital 
importance in a structure of such colossal size. The 
tower bears a seemly and logical relationship to the 
body of the building, whether viewed from the front or 
the rear, and it diminishes in girth at the right height 
above the roof. The abutting gables at the base of the 
tower effect an agreeable transition from the roof of 
the sub-structure gables which, small as they appear 
in relation to the entire building, are equal in size to the 
average city shop or house-front. In the manipulation 
of light and shade, the designer displayed rare archi- 
tectural ingenuity by utilising the ''canopy" motif 
at three levels of the structure, and these serve, by the 
shadow they cast, to effect three horizontal divisions 
without any conflict with the perpendicular "move- 
ment" of the whole design. Anything resembling a 
cornice could not possibly be introduced in a Gothic 
design, under any pretext, yet it was necessary to break, 
in some way, the monotony and even ocular displeasure 
which would have resulted from sheer perpendiculars 
of such tremendous height. 

In the matter of material, a skilful architectural 


' ' translation ' ' was necessary. Gothic architecture was 
essentially an architecture of stone, in the matter of 
exteriors, whereas the Woolworth Building, above the 
third story, is of glazed terra-cotta. Forms, then, which 
were created from a solid material by hammer and 
chisel, were contrived here from a plastic material by 
means of modelling. That so essential a difference in 
material and method of production could be so honestly 
and successfully overcome is a significant point not 
only in architectural ' ' derivation, ' ' but in architectural 
* ' translation. ' ' 

Perhaps no architectural consideration involved in 
the study of the Woolworth Building brings out so im- 
portant an element of design as the consideration of the 
scale of its detail. Nor could a more graphic illustra- 
tion of the importance of scale in architecture be 

The details of the Woolworth Building are to be 
seen from two widely different stations from the 
street, where they are elevated several hundred feet in 
the air, and at close range, from the several galleries 
such as the gallery at the forty-second story. It was 
necessary, then, to contrive forms which should bear 
a relation as scholarly as possible with historic prec- 
edent, and to contrive these forms with such subtlety 
that they would have telling effect from the street, far 
below, and at the same time would not appear crude 
and monstrous when seen at their own level. 

To design "in scale," as understood in this con- 
nection, is not merely to magnify, merely to increase 
diameters and thicknesses. Such a process would result 
only in the creation of the architecture of a nightmare. 
Suffice it to say that the process here was one of con- 
summate subtlety, practised under peculiarly exacting 


conditions. The scale of the cornice of a five-story 
building is a matter meriting no less attention, or a 
matter no less involved in the success of the archi- 
tectural design, but the problem is by no means so 

In the matter of stylistic derivation the Woolworth 
Building is conspicuously successful. Essentially 
characteristic Gothic forms have been used, and in a 
manner which declares they have been frankly used 
for their "pictorial" rather than their structural 
values. No structural need of a steel building (unless 
wind-bracing) is served by a flying buttress, yet their 
introduction at the forty-second story is at once grace- 
ful and effective. The picturesque interest of Gothic 
detail was given expression by the use of gargoyles 
and grotesque animal forms, far up among the traceried 
heights of the great building invisible from the street 
level below, but irresistibly interesting in chance 
glimpses from windows or galleries. The quaint archi- 
tectural pleasantry of the grotesque has been used, also, 
in the detailing of the lobby, where sculptured stone 
corbels under the ceiling beams will preserve for pos- 
terity admirable caricature portraits of the owner, the 
architect, the master-builder and others prominently 
identified with the erection of this remarkable building. 

Detailed consideration has been indulged in with 
reference to the Woolworth Building for the reason 
that, besides being one of the most noteworthy of Amer- 
ican buildings, its design (in both intention and form) 
illustrates many architectural points of peculiar value 
to the lay student. 

It remains now to comment briefly on the difficulty 
of expressing modern domesticity in the Gothic style, 
especially in the exterior aspect of a dwelling. Several 


intangible, yet potent, factors militate against its ac- 
ceptance, one, perhaps, a distasteful recollection of the 
dismal and stupid monstrosities of the inept Euskinian 
"Gothic Eevival," another, the constant associative 
mental connection of Gothic forms with ecclesiastical 

Some residential interiors of Gothic design have 
been conspicuously interesting and successful, a few 
clubs have been agreeably rendered in the Gothic style 
but these are exceptions. Lack of familiar precedent 
has had its effect on associative thought. The fine 
Mediaeval Gothic residence (excepting in a few cities) 
was the castle. There was no well-to-do ' ' middle class, ' ' 
and the dwelling of the serf or peasant was a rude 
affair, by no means attractive as a basis for derivation. 
Social conditions were too widely dissimilar from those 
of to-day : manners, customs and modes of living bore 
no less variance, so that, from the architectural point 
of view, numerous vast and costly "Mediaeval Deriva- 
tions" in the way of Twentieth Century American 
"castles" have been lacking in expression, even when 
they have possessed a certain quasi-romantic or even 
picturesque interest. The chasm between the Middle 
Ages in Europe and the present day in America is too 
wide to bridge with an architectural derivation. 

The idea of the church has remained sufficiently 
similar, as also the idea of a fortress implied in "Mili- 
tary Gothic. ' ' The fact that commercial architecture is 
impersonal, holding no analogy with the past, and 
claiming no intimate contact with our individual lives 
in the present, makes Gothic derivations in form 

The dwelling, however, has undergone too many 
changes, has moulded itself, and been moulded, too 


closely to our personal desires, preferences, needs and 
uses to revert in type to its primitive Mediaeval form. 
This truth will become increasingly apparent upon 
consideration, and in the subsequent study of English 
country houses and Italian villas, which, from their 
more developed nature, offer a more direct opportunity 
for derivative architectural expression. 

The following chapter is designed to outline the 
evolution of the English country house, from its earlier 
forms to the modern type, with correlated American 




NO person in the least familiar with, the develop- 
ment of architecture in this country can fail to 
accord to England its great share in the trend of our 
architectural thought. 

English derivations are, perhaps, most conspicuous 
in our domestic country architecture, and to a lesser 
degree in some other types of building. The expression 
of Renaissance architecture, which became established 
in England under the Georges, and which was trans- 
planted to this country as "Georgian Colonial" is more 
fully dealt with in a subsequent chapter on "American 

Our present observations are directed more closely 
to the English country house, early and modern, and to 
its influence on our own country house architecture. 
The preceding chapter laid emphasis on the English 
derivation of that "transitional" style of blended 
Gothic and Renaissance forms called "Collegiate" 
architecture. English monumental buildings have 
influenced American architects but little, largely be- 
cause of the stronger counter-influence of the Beaux 
Arts school in France. 

It is by no means unnatural that we have turned 
toward England for inspiration in designing the 
country house, and there are at least two strong 
unarchitectural reasons for this. 


Trowbridge & Acker nan, Architects 

A forceful and remarkably accurate rendering of the domestic architecture of the English 

(A residence at Glen Cove, Long Island) 


It must not be forgotten that our family ties with 
the English people are very strong we are of the 
Anglo-Saxon race, and even the constant admixture of 
other strains has not materially modified the dominant 
characteristics of our English forefathers. Things 
English could never be " alien " to us, nor can we ever 
be " alien" to the English people. 

It is equally important to remember that the 
English may be said to have invented the very idea 
of "country life," and to have enriched the idea in a 
way unlike any other European nation. Our own best 
ideas in connection with country life, indeed, are based 
on good English precedent and it is hard to conceive 
of any amount of evolution which could un-Anglicise 
us in this hereditary conception. 

The English, then, having originated the idea of 
"country life," as we understand it to-day, naturally 
developed a suitable kind of country dwelling, the his- 
tory of which is essential to the proper understanding 
of its characteristics and the proper appreciation of 
its peculiar charm. And since the English idea of 
country life is the idea on which our own country life is 
based, the development of domestic architecture is best 
followed in the English country house. The idea of 
country life in Italy and in France has always differed 
considerably from the English idea, and consequently 
from the American idea. German country life, and the 
large German country houses, after the Mediaeval 
castles were antiquated, were largely patterned after 
the French, if one were to cite only such conspicuous 
examples as the castle and gardens of "Sans Souci" 
(the name itself being French) devised by Frederick 
the Great, or the vast estate of Prince Piickler von 
Muskau, in Silesia. 


The English country house, however, has been a 
continuous and logical growth, from its earliest times 
to the present, and many of its salient features have 
been incorporated in the American country house. The 
English evolution has gone successively through the 
' ' Keep, " the " Hall ' ' and the ' ' Manor, ' ' until it reached 
its present form, the "country house," and its changes 
have all been in the direction of attaining greater com- 
fort, greater privacy and greater attraction. 

The "Keep" was a fortress-like affair of feudal 
times. Its walls were thick and had a few small, 
unglazed windows. It was surrounded by no gracious 
gardens, but a deep moat and a drawbridge isolated 
it from visit or attack. Here, from motives of protec- 
tion rather than sociability, the lord's retainers dwelt 
with him in this dungeon-like abode. There were pri- 
vate rooms for the lord and his lady, but these were 
sparsely and uncomfortably furnished. Life in the 
"Keep" centred in the "great hall" (the prototype 
of our modern "living-room") and this great common 
assembly and eating-room gave the name to the type 
of English dwelling immediately succeeding it the 

The "Hall," a name preserved in such places as 
Hardwick Hall, Haddon Hall, Moreton Hall and the 
like, was a more seemly dwelling than the forbidding 
' ' Keep, ' ' and became the type of country house imme- 
'diately preceding the Elizabethan development. Com- 
fort and elegance became more apparent considerations 
than defense, and some attempts were made at archi- 
tectural gardening. In later Jacobean country seats, 
at the time when all English architects turned their eyes 
toward Eenaissance Italy, and when England was filled 
with Italian designers and workmen, the formal type of 

Trowbrldge A Ackenimn. Architects 


True to its English Renaissance derivation, the balustrades are distinctly Italian, while the pro- 
file of the roof, the use of materials and the introduction of metal casement windows are purely 

(A residence at Glen Cove, Long Island) 

Boring & Tilton, Architects 



The style which marked the transitional stage, in England, from Gothic to Renaissance architec- 
ture, lends itself admirably to the rendering of picturesque yet imposing country houses. The 
flat, pointed arches, the "battlements" and the use of brick and stone are characteristics 


Italian garden, with terraces, grottos, fountains, stat- 
uary and " temples," placed its permanent stamp on 
English garden design. 

By the end of the Sixteenth Century the gloom and 
much of the primitive austerity of the "Keep" had 
quite disappeared. The only surviving feature was the 
' ' great hall, ' ' but this, too, was rapidly changing. Its 
walls were treated with oak panelling, its barrack-like 
barrenness was relieved by tapestries, banners, tro- 
phies of the chase and discarded family armour, as well 
as rich and decorative family portraits. Furniture, 
too, ever developing in variety, comfort and appear- 
ance, contributed toward creating an environment con- 
stantly more livable. 

Throughout the Tudor period the ' ' Hall ' ' was grad- 
ually changing into the "Manor" of Elizabethan and 
Jacobean times. Great Tudor country places such as 
Button Place, Moreton Old Hall, Hengrave Hall and 
Longleat House were stamping a new character on 
English domestic architecture. Many of the houses 
of this time, such as Longleat, were continued later, 
with subsequent additions. The Elizabethan garden 
front of Great Tangley Manor (Frontispiece) conceals, 
behind its pleasant aspect, an early Norman Keep, quite 
built about with later changes, and the original moat, 
spanned by charming garden bridges, has been treated 
as "ornamental water," with aquatic plants. 

Under Elizabeth, England became more prosperous 
and more internally peaceful than at any earlier time, 
so that the Tudor evolution of the country house went 
on unchecked, and, stimulated by sudden fortunes made 
by prominent families in foreign trade and maritime 
adventure, became almost modern in its appearance. 
Some great houses of Elizabeth's time are Hardwick 


Hall, Holdenby, Bramhall, Knole, Montacute House, 
Wollaton and Westwood. And, as in the instance of 
Great Tangley Manor, many earlier dwellings were 
brought up to date with extensive renovations and 

Even at this time there became apparent one of the 
English country house characteristics which remains 
to-day as a no less conspicuous and peculiar charm 
the use of local and varied building materials. Most 
of the great houses were of local stone, with heavy slate 
roofs, lead flashings and rain-leaders and leaded case- 
ment windows. Where stone was scarce, brick was 
used, sometimes with the corners and window and door 
openings of stone. In some counties, notably Kent, 
Surrey and Sussex, half-timbered construction was a 
favourite Elizabethan type. In many cases stone, brick 
and half -timber were all used in the same house, per- 
haps at different times, and this diversity of colour and 
texture, as well as the varied natures of successive 
additions, developed an essentially picturesque type of 
domestic architecture which even the formal classic 
edifices of the Georgian period did not supplant, and 
which is the keynote of the domestic architecture of 
England to-day. 

Early Jacobean manors continued along Eliza- 
bethan forms, with the note of the Italian Renaissance 
becoming increasingly conspicuous, especially in gar- 
den design. The Civil War, with its brief gloom of 
Cromwellian Puritanism, interrupted, but did not check 
the consecutive development of the English country 
house, and the period saw the erection of such famous 
and historic mansions as Hatfield House, Audley End, 
Thorpe Hall, Coombe Abbey and Raynham Park. It 
was the period of Inigo Jones and Sir Christopher 


(Old houses in Hoi born, London) 

ixh '. <;iMoi>lcfve, An hitrct 
The decorative value of half-timber work is one of its most important features to-day 
(Dormitory building at Princeton, N. J.) 


Wren, both eager exponents of the Italian Renais- 
sance, and both responsible for the marked change 
which was coming over the English country house. 

Before entering into a discussion of the chilling 
change which "the Classic Taste" wrought in the Eng- 
lish country house, it would be well to note in review 
some characteristic details which are to be associated 
with dwellings in Gothic, Tudor, Elizabethan and 
Jacobean (Stuart) times. 

In late Gothic and Tudor houses, doors developed 
from the barn-like battened type to heavily framed 
doors, those of Tudor times usually pointed to conform 
with the ' ' Tudor arched ' ' openings in which they were 
hung. Bare stone walls were hung with tapestries, or 
the coarse-woven "arras," which, however, was no 
longer used in place of doors between rooms. Panelled 
wainscots were frequent, carved with Gothic tracery, 
or with the familiar and decorative ' * linenf old ' ' motif. 
The ceilings of large rooms showed the heavy open tim- 
ber trusses which supported the roof, and these trusses 
were often elaborately carved. 

The Elizabethan period, really to be regarded as 
"English Eenaissance, " was as much a transitional 
period, in some respects, as the Tudor. It has been 
characterised as bearing the same relation to fully 
developed English Renaissance as the French style of 
Frangois Premier bears to fully developed French 

Thus many Elizabethan houses are found to retain 
such Gothic features as towers and battlements, but- 
tresses and many Gothic mouldings, while introducing 
square-headed windows instead of pointed Gothic win- 
dows, gable ends, oriel windows and large bay windows, 
all in leaded glass, with sash of the casement type. 


The "linenfold" panel of Gothic and Tudor times 
continued in popularity, though Gothic tracery motifs 
disappeared from domestic architecture. 

Half-timbered work reached a high stage of develop- 
ment in Elizabethan houses, both in country and city. 
One illustration shows a characteristic "row" in old 
Holborn, in London. It must be remembered, however, 
that half-timber work originated in Gothic times, 
though few examples of such early date remain to-day, 
especially in England. 

The interior of the Elizabethan house began to 
assume many characteristics of the house of modern 
times. There was the * ' great hall, ' ' and, in such exam- 
ples as Haddon and Hardwick, the "long gallery." 
The staircase was made a highly decorative architec- 
tural feature, with elaborately carved hand-rails and 
newel-posts, the latter usually carved in the form of an 
heraldic animal. The staircase, as a feature, had been 
largely overlooked until the Sixteenth Century, but 
from the Elizabethan period onward never again sank 
into architectural insignificance. 

The great, cavernous fire-places, with overhanging 
hood, of Gothic type, gave place to smaller fire-places 
with elaborately carved, and often polychrome treat- 
ment of the over-mantel a blazoned coat of arms usu- 
ally forming the central motif. In subsequent evolu- 
tion the over-mantel carving gave place to the over- 
mantel painting, with carving surrounding and framing 
it, as in the works of Grinling Gibbons. 

Elizabethan ceilings were of figured plaster, in inter- 
laced geometrical patterns, carried out with consider- 
able freedom, and this type held in favour until the end 
of the Seventeenth Century. Panelled ceilings were then 
introduced, and these in turn gave place to the alle- 


gorically painted and the low-relief plaster ceilings 
of Classic character which came with the Eighteenth 
Century Classic revival. 

During the Elizabethan period, floor coverings and 
furniture upholstery became important elements of 
interior comfort, and, through the Jacobean period and 
onward, became increasingly more plentiful and more 
like similar decorative embellishments of to-day. 

Panelled interiors were at their best in the houses 
of Elizabethan and Jacobean times, and the latter 
period carried to more luxurious and "modern" de- 
velopments the domestic interior improvements of the 
former period. 

The exteriors of Jacobean country houses were 
enlivened by elaborate bay windows, as well as by large 
groups of mullioned windows (the "mullion" of a win- 
dow being the member dividing one opening from 
another : the member dividing one pane of glass from 
another, in a wooden sash, is a "muntin"). 

Dormer windows with gable ends, often fanciful in 
contour, diversified Jacobean roof lines, and differed 
from later dormers in that they were essentially a part 
of the wall, rather than a part of the main roof. The 
entrances of Jacobean houses were architecturally elab- 
orated with Italianesque columns or pilasters and a 
profusion of carving, often heraldic, while gable ends, 
especially in brick buildings, assumed much of the 
diversity and picturesque shape of the gables of the 
Holland Dutch Eenaissance type. 

An Italian detail notably characteristic of Jacobean 
architecture was the semi-grotesque terminal figure, 
frequently used as a pilaster, and grotesque forms often 
appeared in the form of finials. The typical Jacobean 
finial, however, as characteristic as it was alien to 


many other details of the style, was the small, stunted 
obelisk, which was commonly placed on the posts of 
garden terrace balustrades, on gate posts and on the 

Intricate carving, both in stone and wood, was char- 
acteristic of the period, and this detail was carried out 
after Italian patterns and designs, though with the 
spirit- of Elizabethan and earlier English execution. 
Many interesting and quaint forms were the result, all 
contributing to the achievement of that peculiar pictu- 
resque richness of the Jacobean style. 

'But at the close of the Jacobean period, a compara- 
tively artificial fashion for formality began to make 
itself apparent in the dwellings of the reign of William 
and Mary and Queen Anne, forecasting the Classic 
Kevival of the Georgian Period. Houses of the two 
Dutch reigns, however, maintained a certain element of 
homelike atmosphere which was soon to vanish in the 
works of the Georgian Classicists. 

The Jacobean manor was still more picturesque than 
formal, but the Georgian house was more formal than 
picturesque. Wren died in 1723, during the reign of 
George I, and the architects of the reigns of the two 
succeeding Georges were Gibbs, Kent, and the Adam 

The fashion was for things Italian, then for the 
works of the Georgian Classic Revival, and whatever 
was attained in the new mode of scholarly and academic 
niceties of design and detail was more than lost in the 
passing of the picturesque informality of the Tudor, 
Elizabethan and Jacobean houses. Many titled gentle- 
men were architectural " amateurs" and had much to 
do with the design and garden layouts of their own 
places. Such a scholar and an amateur was the Earl of 

Albru & LJndeberg, Architects 


While embodying many elements characteristically English, there is expression here 

of a certain native directness of handling 

Albro <fc Lindeberg, Architects 


The general effect of this house is that of an enlarged English cottage, while the element 
of Classicism appears in the Doric columns, and of Italian derivation in the pergola treat- 
ment of the entrances. The effect of a thatched roof is contrived by an ingenious use 
of wooden shingles 


Burlington, who published a portfolio of drawings by 
Palladio, called the " Antiquities of Borne." This 
work, with other similar contemporary publications, 
was but fuel for the furnace of general enthusiasm over 
Classic art and architecture, and the Earl was lam- 
pooned with one of those gentle but terrific satires of 
Pope, who addressed him in his characteristic vein : 

" You show us Rome was glorious, not profuse, 
And pompous buildings once were things of use. 
Yet shall, my lord, your just, your noble rules 
Fill half the land with imitating fools; 
Who random drawings from your sheets shall take, 
And of one beauty many blunders make; 
Load some vain church with old theatric state, 
Turn arcs of triumph to a garden gate. 

Shall call the winds through long arcades to roar. 
Proud to catch cold at a Venetian door." 

The Anglo-Classic country house showed radical 
changes in its plan as compared to earlier English 
dwellings. The plans were formal and symmetrical, 
developed in correspondingly formal and symmetrical 
elevations. Classic pediments and colonnaded porti- 
coes gave an air of dignity to the houses, and in doing 
so deprived them of their earlier atmosphere of domes- 
ticity. Interesting and irregular roof-lines disap- 
peared, and the sky-line became hard and formal, with 
tall, straight chimneys and Classic finial urns. 

In Jacobean and Elizabethan houses, dormer win- 
dows were a portion of the wall of the house, pictu- 
resquely carried up through the eaves of the roof, but 
the Anglo-Classic dormer window became entirely a 
part of the roof. Systematic and calculated spacings 
of windows are a part of formal designing, but are not 
productive of informally artistic effects. In the Classic 


school of design, "picturesque accidents" are 

Within, most houses of the period did not belie the 
impression of frigid stateliness conveyed by their exte- 
riors. Kooms were high and imposing, with chaste 
ceilings in low relief plaster patterns by the Brothers 
Adam, or formal fresco paintings by Italian decorators. 
The settings were admirable for the delicate Classic 
furniture of the Adams, Sheraton and Hepplewhite, and 
it is not remarkable that fashion embraced as a relief 
from so much dignity the quaint fantasies of Chippen- 
dale's " Chinese Taste" in furniture and decoration. 
Gone were the mellow, home-like oak-rooms of Eliza- 
bethan and Stuart times, as well as the more formal, 
but still human, interiors of the period of William and 
Mary and Queen Anne. 

The Anglo-Classic style of the Georgian Period was 
better rendered as a domestic style by the American 
colonists, and while it offers many admirable architec- 
tural features, its ultra-formality seems in need of 
radical modification for any uses other than the expres- 
sion desired in a dwelling designed to be the setting for 
large and elaborate formal receptions and impersonal 
entertainment. Georgian Classic architecture has not 
enough points of contact with our life of to-day to make 
it a popular style for the country house, except it be 
Georgian Classic humanised and brought nearer to us 
in the works of the American Colonial builders. 

It is to be said, however, that the formal city resi- 
dence or the fashionable club or exclusive shop may 
find great architectural inspiration in the pure Geor- 
gian style, which possesses exactly that degree of 
dignity, impersonality and urbanity most desired in 
buildings of this sort. 

II. T. I,in<lcl>erg, Architect (Albro & Lindeberg) 

The low picturesque roof line is essentially characteristic of modern English domestic archi- 
tecture, while the introduction of the formal Italian Palladian entrance is a daring but 
effective stroke of individuality in design 


A reflection of an artificial taste in its own time, the 
style can be but doubly artificial if inappropriately 
employed in this country to-day. 

Strong Classic influences remained in force until 
the end of the Eighteenth Century, and appeared even 
at the beginning of the Nineteenth Century, when a 
period of architectural chaos began, out of which 
loomed such architectural mistakes as the Ruskinian 
Gothic Revival and such architectural fantasies as the 
efforts of Charles Eastlake. 

Mention has been made elsewhere of Mr. Ruskin's 
unsuccessful attempt to illumine architectural gloom 
with the "Seven Lamps of Architecture." The inept 
monuments of the period still exist, on both sides of the 
Atlantic, to bear testimony to the unwisdom of any 
arbitrary attempt to popularise an architectural style. 
Of Eastlake less is known, and of the two he was, per- 
haps, more sincere than Ruskin, and had a more lively 
vision. Eastlake 's vision was the creation of a style of 
architecture and furniture which was to be, if nothing 
else, picturesque, and based on no stylistic precedent. 
Eastlake 's mistake lay in ignoring the fact that the 
picturesque, in architecture or any other art, happens. 
It is not the result of deliberate intention, and becomes 
bizarre or even actually unpleasant in direct proportion 
to the amount of conscious effort which has gone into its 

Eastlake published a book in 1870, and for a time 
his " style" found expression in hundreds of small 
houses in England and America. Many of these we 
still have with us, mute testimonials to an unenlightened 
groping for the ' * artistic. ' ' There were pointed gables ; 
there were queer windows of " bull's-eye" glass delib- 
erately differing in kind and size, scattered here and 


there in the walls ; there were galaxies of turned spin- 
dles, explosions of sunflowers and rosettes, and riots of 
jig-saw traceries dripping from the eaves. -Decent 
carpenter work was scalloped, perforated and scroll- 
sawed, and the interiors, in a few survivals of to-day, 
seem aesthetic curiosities indeed, restlessly decorated 
with obviously European-Oriental motifs, and embel- 
lished with fans, peacock feathers and ' * vases. ' ' With- 
out apparent or sufficient reason, glazed tiles of gay 
colours were built into wooden houses, and gable ends 
were embellished with weird mosaics of broken glass, 
shells and pebbles imbedded in stucco. 

At its best the Eastlake style was, undeniably, pic- 
turesque, and helped to make possible the later accept- 
ance of a more legitimately picturesque style. 

At its worst the Eastlake style was one of the most 
fantastic and nonsensical parodies on structural and 
architectural effort that the world has ever seen. 

With the rise of William Morris and his school, 
about 1858, a new era dawned in England in the realm 
of thought on arts and crafts. While Morris himself 
was an artist and a craftsman, and essayed no con- 
spicuous works in architecture, his tremendous signifi- 
cance lies in the fact that he taught people to think 
honestly about things artistic, and to appreciate sin- 
cerity in artistic effort. Such absurdities as the hybrid 
manifestations of the Eastlakian school became intoler- 
able, and the new creed demanded honest construction, 
expressive construction, and appropriate ornament in 
all things. Morris, Eossetti, 'Burne Jones, Walter 
Crane, F. Madox Brown, and a few others, set about 
making honest designs, and the new spirit immediately 
made itself felt in contemporary architecture. 

Webb and Shaw were the forerunners of such great 


modern English architects as Voysey, Lutyens, Bidlake, 
Baillie-Scott, E. Norman Shaw, Dawber and a host of 
others. And these are the architects of the modern 
English country house, which attempted in its style no 
arbitrary revival of any historic type, but rather an 
informal and essentially picturesque composite of all 
that was most charming in the earlier works of Tudor, 
Elizabethan and Jacobean times, blended, adapted and 
modernised to express modern tastes and requirements. 

The modern English country house owes its charac- 
teristic charm to several facts in its composition. 

It is historic, in that it has borrowed chimneys, 
leaded casements, bits of half -timber work and the like 
from the time-hallowed Keeps and Manor Houses of its 
own land, built by the forefathers of the present 

It is indigenous, because its materials as well as its 
design belong to the land. The modern English archi- 
tects have advisedly returned to the admirable practice 
of making the most of local materials, and have also 
realised the endless possibilities of texture and colour 
in different materials, and the picturesque possibilities 
of mingling many different materials in the same house. 

It is picturesque because it expresses inherited his- 
toric forms in terms of local and varied materials, and 
is successfully picturesque because this element has not 
been nervously striven for in the design. 

It is expressive, because its whole conception is 
based on a natural understanding of the informality 
and domesticity of English country life. 

It should be apparent that any fabric so plainly an 

outgrowth of its own soil, and so entirely an expression 

of the national traits and tastes which called it into 

being, must be a difficult one to successfully transplant 



or to adapt in another land and to express and meet 
other tastes and requirements. 

It is a fact, however, that successful American ex- 
pressions of the English type of country house are 
numerous. And such expressions are at their best when 
they achieve some measure of the American ideas and 
requirements of their architects and owners, blended 
with their English inspiration. No literal copy can be 
said to possess architectural merit other than as a study 
in exactitude and accuracy. Nor can a copy possess 
any architectural significance for the reason that archi- 
tectural design must, above all else, be expressive and 
a copy can express nothing but lack of expression. 

The English country house is to be regarded as a 
world-wide inspiration chiefly for the reason that it 
expresses the country house essential of domesticity in 
architectural terms more potently than any other type 
or nationality of dwelling, with the possible exception 
of the Early American type. The French chateau seems 
the setting for a comparatively artificial and formal 
kind of life ; the Italian villa is, perhaps, more romantic 
and more genuine, but it is no less formal and cere- 
monial; the Spanish hacienda is a dwelling, but, unless 
greatly modified, an alien abode with which we have no 
racial affinity. 

This essential quality of domesticity, this uncon- 
scious bond which most of us feel with the homes of 
our ancestors, the homes of our own people, should 
exonerate our architects from any charge of Anglo- 
mania or of stylistic plagiarism. To forbid our archi- 
tects to adapt the English type of country house would 
be nearly as unreasonable as to forbid landscape 
painters to use green in painting trees, or to suggest 
that we devise a new speech. The English style is the 


These three houses form part of a typical English "neighbourhood" development 


The element of picturesque domesticity is the most conspicuous characteristic of the 
modern English dwelling 


happy medium, whether for the large or the small coun- 
try house, and is likely to remain so for some time to 

The art of architectural adaptation is becoming 
yearly better understood and more intelligently prac- 
tised. Styles are being assimilated and worthily 
expressed instead of half-understood and ignorantly 

Certain architects have become attracted to certain 
styles, and the sympathy and interest which they have 
brought to the task of adaptation has produced results 
of unquestionable merit. 

It is doubtful if one could illustrate a more splendid 
monument of English derivation in an American coun- 
try dwelling than the great stone house at Glen Cove, 
by Trowbridge and Ackerman. Other American archi- 
tects who have attained remarkable success in English 
derivations are Wilson Eyre, Grosvenor Atterbury, 
Stevenson and Wheeler, John Russell Pope, Mellor and 
Meigs, and, notably, H. T. Lindeberg. Mr. Linde- 
berg's country houses, of which several are illustrated, 
are remarkable in that they show such strong dual 
expression English and American. They typify 
clean-cut, straightforward and intelligent adaptation 
at its best. Such derivations are expressive of sound 
and well-advised architectural conviction, rather than 
(as some critics would haveua believe) hesitating archi- 
tectural imitation. 

It is true that vary few American adaptations of the 
modern English country house attain such free render- 
ing of the picturesque as tht work of British architects, 
and the reason is to be found rather in temperamental 
differences than in architectural differences. One has 
often heard it deplored that we lack, in America, the 


picturesque local materials which contribute so largely 
to the charm of the modern English country house. To 
attempt so superficial an answer to account for the 
difference, however, is beside the point. There are, in 
America, a wealth and variety of interesting building 
materials, both natural and manufactured, if one were 
to cite only the ever-interesting Chestnut Hill ledge- 
stone, near Philadelphia, so effectively used by the 
architects of that vicinity. 

It is true that the 'British architect may employ a 
variety of slates and tiles and stones which we lack 
but even supposing our architects (speaking of the 
average) could avail themselves of these materials, 
there would still be a conspicuous difference in the 
finished house. 

For this, the client is accountable. The average 
American, as compared to the Englishman, is strangely 
self-conscious about things of intimate personal rela- 
tion. He will rear ''skyscraper" office buildings and 
hotels that amaze the whole world ; he will launch archi- 
tectural and engineering projects of colossal magni- 
tude, and carry them through with brilliant success. 
But when the matter of his own house comes under his 
consideration, he becomes astonishingly timid and un- 
imaginative. He has deep misgivings about a house 
which will be different from those of his neighbours. 
He and his wife, perhaps, have both travelled in Eng- 
land and admired the English country house. It is, 
in fact, their ideal but they are afraid that their 
friends, or even passersby who are entire strangers, 
will laugh at the odd windows and unusual chimneys, 
and will call " queer" that which was intended to be 

Eeal appreciation of the picturesque, on its own 


merits, is, after all, a cultivated appreciation, and this 
fact, coupled with an inborn timidity where outside 
opinion is concerned, lies at the bottom of the differ- 
ences between the modern English country house and 
its American adaptation. 

Before departing from the statement of this charge 
of ''architectural timidity" on the part of the average 
American client, the writer would like to paraphrase 
at large a few comments which he made in a magazine 
essay called "The English Point of View in Archi- 
tecture "(written for "Arts and Decoration"}, in order 
to make the matter more specific and point a moral. 

In the practice of architecture this fearless and 
splendidly self-assured English point of view has made 
possible the evolution of a type of country house the 
like of which, if our present personal timidity and self- 
consciousness endure, will never become prevalent in 

It must always be remembered that American archi- 
tects, as a class, are not entirely responsible for the 
finished aspect of the average country house, inasmuch 
as they are very often coerced at every turn by the 
requirements, restrictions and interdictions imposed 
upon them by their clients and, worst of all, by the 
indirectly delivered "advice" and opinions of their 
clients' officious friends. 

Let us take a modern English country house which 
is typical, and a house which a couple of prospective 
home builders have decided is, beyond peradventure, 
the ' * ideal of their dreams. ' ' It has a quaint, rambling 
plan, well adapted for future enlargement, with a wing 
thrown out, perhaps, at a slanting angle from the house. 
The roof line is varied and diverse, following the inte- 
rior planning of the house here low, there high, with 


an infinity of varied pitch and unexpected angle, differ- 
ing with every visual slant of the observer. The win- 
dows and chimneys are of the same unexpected sort, 
and are picturesque because they occur only where the 
needs of the rooms inside dictate their placement. As 
the house is designed first from the inside, its exterior 
naturally shows unexpected features which are impos- 
sible to create externally, for superficial effect. As 
another picturesque detail, the windows are of the 
casement type, with small leaded panes a type of 
window admired by the average American home builder 
almost as much as it is shunned. Everywhere in the 
English house are quaint and charming surprises a 
vertical sundial let into the wall; a low, hooded door 
giving on a flagged terrace, a hand-wrought lead or 
copper leader-head for the rain pipe, or a riot of odd 
little windows in a cluster. 

All these things contribute to the general impression 
that the house is more than a mere house, and must be 
the home of a person of individual tastes and an appre- 
ciation for the picturesque. 

Inside, the house is pervaded by the same feeling. 
There are inglenooks, window-seats and quaint stair- 
ways, and at some unexpected place, a great oaken 
beam may run across a room, or overhead in a passage. 
The house is a thing of continual charm of a charm 
so diverse that the dweller beneath its roof never grows 
tired, and his guest may stay a week without discover- 
ing every nook and corner. 

Now for the average American client, who goes to 
his architect (whom he has probably selected with 
much misgiving and trepidation), showing, with an air 
of apparent finality, a picture of this house, which, with 
a few very inconsequential changes, embodies every 


wish of himself and his wife. The architect is de- 
lighted, and welcomes this client as a man after his 
own fancy. With as much dispatch as possible he 
prepares the first set of drawings, which delineate a 
house as nearly as possible patterned after the client's 
beau ideal. 

The sketches presented, the prospective builder may 
admire them greatly and may even (at this early stage) 
congratulate the architect upon the success with which 
he has rendered the English idea of a country house. 
He takes the drawings to show to his wife and friends, 
thus unknowingly bidding farewell to his chances of 
ultimately attaining the house which would have archi- 
tecturally reflected his actual and honest tastes. 

His friends that ubiquitous and omniscient jury 
which nearly every American elects to pass on matters 
wherein he might much better be his own law tell him 
many things which they feel he ought to be warned 
against. The roof is "queer" "far too eccentric," 
"the architect must be crazy," the plan is "imprac- 
tical." A few of these sapient advices effectively dis- 
pose of the interesting roof, and the builder makes a 
note to direct his architect to substitute a roof exactly 
like the roof of a neighbouring house. So it goes with 
the quaint windows and picturesque chimneys. His wife 
has always had romantic associations with casement 
windows, but one of her friends (whose knowledge is 
superior to that of the architect) tells her that they 
are draughty, hard to clean and easily forced by burg- 
lars. Consequently the ordinary type of American 
"double-hung" window is installed a window no less 
draughty, no less difficult to clean and more easily 
forced open than any other type. Another friend is 
convinced that the chimneys will not draw. This he 


imputes to the fact that they are designed, externally, 
along picturesque lines and the builder makes a note 
to have the architect change to ordinary chimneys. 

All the remaining features which first stimulated 
his admiration for the original house are eliminated, 
one by one, by his assiduous friends, who are deter- 
mined that he shall not be disappointed in his house. 
In the interior, he has become convinced that varying 
floor-levels will not be practical, and that the great 
oak beam across the hall, with a quaint carved motto 
of welcome, will "look queer," and might better be of 
concealed iron. 

With these few changes, which seem to him quite 
trivial, he returns to the architect with what is left of 
the original scheme, and explains. If the architect has 
built many country houses, he remains patiently silent, 
and takes notes. 

The work proceeds (if the client has not been effec- 
tually discouraged by his friends from the whole idea 
of building) , and the house is erected. The client feels 
a little disappointed as he visits the building from time 
to time, but trusts that the finished house will be to his 
liking; doubtless it will, he reassures himself, remem- 
bering the volume of excellent "practical" advice he 
has had from his friends. 

It is finished, and he is aware of a keen disappoint- 
ment. He is even likely to wave the original drawing 
in the face of the architect, asking why the original 
idea was not carried out as agreed in the first con- 
ference. The architect may point out, in a mild way, 
that every salient feature in the original drawings was 
ordered changed in the finals, to something safe, con- 
servative and commonplace. The two are seldom 
good friends after this interview, and the owner of the 


house lives in it unhappily ever afterward, deriving 
what satisfaction he may from telling his friends what 
a stupid idiot he was unfortunate enough to employ 
for an architect. His friends, on the other hand, who 
are actually more than half responsible for the unhappy 
house, find an equal degree of gratification in consoling 
the owner with thoughts of how much worse it might 
have been bungled if it had been left entirely to the 
architect. "The moral which is plain is easily for- 
mulated in the statement that if we consistently adhered 
to our honest personal desires, and consulted rather 
than coerced our architects, we might look forward 
to the attainment of a country house comparable in 
aesthetic and picturesque values with the works of the 
English architects. ' ' 

In some respects the American architect has devel- 
oped a more practical dwelling, especially in the plan. 
The American country house usually contains more 
large rooms, and these better lighted, than an English 
country house of corresponding type. And in such 
matters as heating and plumbing the American house 
is more livable and more efficient. Many English coun- 
try houses, charming to look upon from the outside, 
betray in their plans an undue tendency to waste space 
with unnecessary corridors and passages, and to sacri- 
fice large rooms to a great number of small rooms. 

English plans, however, offer a number of very 
excellent points, at least two of which have been used 
with conspicuous success and credit by American archi- 
tects. These two points are the "garden front" and 
the "office" the latter, as will be seen, finding use 
only on the large estate. The idea of a " garden front, * ' 
however, may be developed attractively in the house of 
moderate size, or even the cottage. 


For some time the American householder devoted 
most of his thought to the impression which his dwelling 
would create when viewed from the front, either as one 
drove up to it, or passed along the road. The front, 
then, to be distinguished now as the ' ' entrance front, ' ' 
was made imposing and "architectural," with the ser- 
vice wing hidden at the rear, and usually quite dis- 
figuring the aspect of the house from that direction. 

The English, for the most part, have long been 
fond of living in their gardens, which were sheltered 
from the curious gaze of the public by being laid out at 
the rear of the house. Much of the life of the English 
place is in the garden, where tea is often served, and 
where the family gathers, after dinner, on the garden 
terrace, or enjoys an after-breakfast walk. The "gar- 
den front," then, or the aspect of the house from the 
rear, assumes to the English architect and owner an 
importance equal to that of the "entrance front," or 
perhaps even a greater importance. The service wing, 
then, containing the kitchen and laundry, was extended 
to one side and concealed, to some extent, by the plant- 
ing of trees, so that both front and rear of the house 
both, in fact, fronts might be architecturally treated. 
In some cases, both English houses and American 
adaptations, the entrance front has been sacrificed to 
the garden front, so that the latter presents a beautiful 
symmetry, while the former must, of necessity, be 
broken by the service wing. Several examples appear 
among the illustrations. 

It would obviously be absurd to design a house 
with an attractive "garden front" if there were no 
garden from which to view it, but when the plans 
anticipate a garden, the American architect owes much 
to the British architect in the matter of beautifying 


the rear elevation. And if the desire to develop a 
"garden front" leads to a desire to develop, also, a 
really livable garden, so much the better for the evolu- 
tion of the American country house in general. 

The l ' office ' ' which is included in the plans of most 
of the larger English country houses is a room on the 
first floor provided for the purpose of dealing with 
coachmen, chauffeurs, gardeners and other employees 
of a large estate. Here wages are paid, accounts kept, 
complaints heard, and all the business of the place 
transacted apart from the rest of the house, for the 
' l office ' ' is provided with its own outer door and vesti- 
bule, so that there is no need for the employees invad- 
ing the master's private library or study. 

The living room, of course, is developed from the 
early English country house, and was welcomed in this 
country as more than a mere substitute for the formal 
"parlours" of the more dismal period of American 
architecture. The importance of the "great hall" in 
the historic English country houses was taken up 
earlier in this chapter, and the importance of its direct 
descendant, the American "living room," is too much 
a part of our daily lives to require any discussion here. 

Before closing the tale of our architectural debt to 
England, a few comments should be made upon the 
great successes attained by the modern English archi- 
tects in "community" or "neighbourhood" planning, 
as compared with most American efforts in that 

The English "neighbourhood" groups of houses, 
analogous to our American " real estate developments," 
show tw r o highly desirable traits which we would do 
well to emulate: unity and diversity, skilfully com- 
bined. The entire architectural character of the 


English "group" of cottages is consistent and unified, 
while each individual cottage shows picturesque differ- 
ences from its neighbours, thus defeating the monotony 
of the "rows" of identical (and usually individually 
abominable) dwellings put up by the speculative 

It will be shown in the second part of this book that 
architectural merit is a most significant asset to houses 
built by a real-estate operator an asset so tangible 
that it should not need to be urged in the cause of 
"better architecture" when it may be practically 
pointed out to be a conservative investment. 

American architecture owes much to English archi- 
tecture, but in no types of building to such a degree 
as in the country house and the school or college build- 
ing. Of these, the country house must assume the 
greater part of the debt, because it has been a model 
and an inspiration to us more than an architectural 
model characterised by peculiarly picturesque elements 
of domesticity. The English house is a symbol an 
expression in architectural terms of a certain concep- 
tion of country life which the American has long shared, 
instinctively, with the Englishman. It is a question 
of racial affinity, or even identity, rather than a mere 
architectural fashion. It is natural and obvious that, 
with certain superficial modifications dictated by 
national traits and "many inventions," we should feel 
most at home in houses patterned after those of our 




LLTIN derivations in American architecture, mean- 
ing all that have come to us from Italy and 
France and Spain, are of peculiar importance in 
the cultivation of an appreciative familiarity with 
architectural forms and types. And if the thought of 
Italian derivations calls most vividly to mind the Amer- 
ican adaptation of the Italian villa, it should be remem- 
bered that this derivation is of comparatively less 
importance than Italian influences in other types of 

That so little has come to us from Spain is remark- 
able, and should be taken rather as a lack of apprecia- 
tion on the part of the architect than as an evidence of 
ir eagre or unavailable material in Spain. 

In an earlier chapter it was shown how the archi- 
tecture of the Italian Renaissance, based on a revival 
of Classic forms, emerged from the involved maze of 
Mediaeval Gothic architecture, and some analysis of the 
nature of Renaissance architecture, in Italy and in 
other European countries, was also presented. 

The architectural style of the Renaissance is a -flex- 
ible style a style which lends itself to fluent archi- 
tectural expression in many types of building. It is a 
style characterised by nicety of proportion in its larger 



members, and by nicety of scale in its detail. Renais- 
sance mouldings, especially the Italian, are refined and 
delicate. Severe compositions of arch and column or 
arch and pilaster may be relieved and humanised by 
conventional ornament, or by decorations in fresco or 
sgraffito. The architecture evolved by the Renaissance 
Italian masters is so well studied, as architecture, that 
it is suitable in many adaptations, ranging through 
churches, theatres, libraries, museums, clubs and im- 
portant city buildings, besides offering an inexhaustible 
mine of inspiration for country villas and for garden 
architecture. Of the Italian villa and its garden, as 
well as the American adaptation thereof, more will be 
said later. 

No study of the influence of the architecture of the 
Italian Renaissance in America could be either complete 
or intelligent without familiarity with the works of 
the great architectural firm of McKim, Mead & White. 
These architects believed in Italian architecture as 
sincerely as H. H. Richardson believed in 'Byzantine 
and Romanesque architecture. The work of McKim, 
Mead & White, indeed, and of the many younger archi- 
tects who were trained in that draughting room, placed 
an ineradicable stamp on American architecture, from 
1894 onward, and effected, as well, a revival of the 
Italian style which has dictated the design of many of 
the country's most notable buildings. 

One member of the firm, Stanford White, was a 
master of detail, a connoisseur of the finest points of 
architectural ornament and decoration. The small 
marble library in New York, housing the private col- 
lection of the late J. P. Morgan, is unanimously 
accorded a place among the best ten, if not the best 
five, American achievements in architecture. 


McKim, Meatl & White, Architects 


This Palladian entrance loggia is peculiarly illustrative of the graceful architectural 

adaptability of the style of the Italian Renaissance 

(Private library of the late J. P. Morgan) 


To say that this building, or the great Public 
Library in Boston, is a masterpiece of American archi- 
tecture is, in the matter of style, a little misleading. 
They are Italian, rendered by American architects, as 
are most of the works of McKim, Mead & White. Few 
modern architects have approached in attainment the 
genius of this firm in interpreting to-day, with real 
finesse and understanding, the spirit of Italian Kenais- 
sance architecture. Little, if any, of the influence of the 
French Ecole des Beaux Arts was apparent in the 
works of McKim, Mead & White, even in the early days 
of the firm. Their mission was, rather, to carry on 
the torch from the hands of Bramante, Peruzzi, Brunel- 
leschi, and the other old Italian masters. 

The Morgan library affords a unique example for a 
study of an historic style in a pure adaptation. The 
entrance, formed by an open loggia, is characteristically 
Italian. The composition of central arch and tall side- 
spaces, called a "Palladian" composition (whether of 
window, door or opening) is faultlessly proportioned. 
The name is derived from Palladio, the great Italian 
Eenaissance architect who made this his favourite mo- 
tif. The niches, both on the f agade and within the loggia, 
are no less characteristic of the style, and the balusters 
are of a perfect Italian form. Few buildings in this 
country combine such harmonious general proportions 
with such exquisite detail in ornament and mouldings. 
To study the Morgan library thoroughly, and to come 
to intelligently appreciate its infinite architectural 
niceties, is to discover the real essence of Italian archi- 
tecture at its best, and as directly as it is possible to do 
without visiting Italy. The two illustrations, showing 
the street elevation of the building and a detail of the 
loggia, will repay a careful study, and serve to impress 


upon anyone a more vital and lasting comprehension 
of the architecture of the Italian Renaissance than any 
quantity of words. 

Another member of the firm of McKim, Mead & 
White Charles Follen McKim was as great a master 
of large architectural conceptions as Stanford White 
was a master of detail. To his ability the country 
owes the noble conception of the Pennsylvania Railroad 
Terminal in New York City one of the most splendid 
architectural monuments of America, or of the world. 
Patterned, in a general way, after the Roman Baths of 
Caracalla, designed in the vein of the Italian Renais- 
sance, vastly magnified and wonderfully engineered, 
this great railroad terminal must stand for all time as 
an illustration of the immortal power of architecture 
to express any human idea of magnitude and dignity. 
And stylistically, it must stand as an illustration that 
the style of the Italian Renaissance does not necessarily 
imply or enforce a technique so minute and so exquisite 
as the rendering of the Morgan Library. So flexible 
is the style that a master may apply it with success to 
a jewel casket or a railroad terminal. To catalogue 
the architectural attainments of the firm of McKim, 
Mead & White would necessitate much space and 
involve much special study suffice it to say that no one 
firm has exerted so profound or so sweeping an in- 
fluence on American architecture, or held so high the 
lamp of good taste. New York City, especially, is the 
richer by their actual works, and the country at large 
by their sincere and splendid influence. 

The style of the Italian Renaissance is peculiarly 
suited to city architecture by reason of the nicety of its 
proportions and that quality mentioned before its 
flexibility. A serene dignity may be expressed in such 

McKim, Mead A White, Architects 

(Premises of The Gorharn Company') 

Mi-Kim, Mead & White, Architects 



The church in the background is in a style which might be called "Florentine Gothic" 
(The Public Library, Boston, Massachusetts) 

Hill & Stout, Architects 


A loggia of Italian Renaissance design, characteristically embellished with fresco decorations 

Harry Allan Jacobs, Architect 


The arcaded loggia above the street level is an architectural feature 
essentially of the Italian Renaissance 

Currere & Hastings, Architects 



This method of surface decoration was an invention and attainment of the craftsmen- 
architects of the Italian Renaissance 

Harry Allan Jacobs, Architect Carrere & Hastinps Architects 

The first, though proclaimed "Italian" by the triple-arched loggia, shows Eighteenth 
Century French feeling in the " musical attribute" panels at the fifth story. The second, 
with facade in sgraffito decoration, is more nearly in tune with the work of the Italian 


New York buildings as the University or the Century 
Clubs, or the shops of Tiffany and Gorham. A more 
ornate dignity may appear in such a building as the 
bank building, originally for the Knickerbocker Trust 
Company on Fifth Avenue, or a degree of humanism 
almost approaching frivolity may appear in such a 
cheerful fagade as the sgraffito shop front shown in one 
of the illustrations. Another shop, of Italian deriva- 
tion in design, rears a delicate faade of white marble, 
effectively lightened by an open, triple-arched loggia, 
and similar treatments form a happy solution for the 
narrow-lot problem of city house design. 

It must be apparent, from the foregoing remarks, 
and from a study not only of the buildings illustrated in 
this chapter, but of the buildings with which we are all 
familiar, that the style of the Italian Renaissance is 
one peculiarly adaptable to the successful solution of a 
variety of architectural problems problems not only 
of site or type of building, but problems involving the 
proper expression of such unarchitectural qualities as 
dignity and distinction. It would be difficult to contrive 
a short arcade of greater combined dignity and richness 
than the triple arched street front of the Gorham shop, 
in New York City, shown in one of the illustrations. In 
the style of the Italian Renaissance, the media for this 
kind of expression are inexhaustible, and a study of 
their range and infinite possibilities would form an 
exhaustive architectural study in itself. 

In the consideration of Italian derivations in the 
form of the country villa, we are confronted by some- 
what of an architectural paradox, in that we have 
adapted, and even welcomed, a type of country house 
intended to form the setting for American country life, 
when the original, the villa of the Italian noble of the 


Renaissance, formed the setting for a very different 
kind of country life. It has been a case in which archi- 
tectural form, alone, has been borrowed, and this, with 
certain added elements of romance (more literary than 
architectural) has been developed, with really extra- 
ordinary success, into a modern American dwelling. 
The American adaptation of the Italian villa satisfies 
us not because its prototype was in any way expressive 
of American tastes or American modes of life, either 
as a reflection or a criterion, but rather because it is a 
beautiful thing to look at beautiful with the same 
classic purity as the Parthenon, though far more linked 
with the human life of to-day. The Venus of Milo 
appeals to us not because it typifies the woman of 
to-day, but because it deifies woman of all time, typify- 
ing woman, the goddess, as an idea rather than a per- 
sonality. The appeal is literary, romantic and aesthetic. 
Queen Elizabeth appeals to us as an actual woman, 
just as the English country house appeals to us as 
an actual house. The Italian villa is more in the realm 
of the ideal and it has been the task of the modern 
architect to make it real and habitable, which he has 
done with conspicuous success. 

Let us look back at some of the great and famous 
villas of Renaissance Italy, and at the country life for 
which they formed the setting, for in this way we may 
best come to see clearly wherein the Italian villa par- 
takes, in our American adaptation, of qualities both 
appropriate and alien. 

In one respect the Italian villa of the Renaissance 
was a logical and real expression of a purpose which 
most modern country houses hold in common with it it 
was a retreat. Wearied by the endless intrigues and 
the nervous strain of city life in the great palazzi of 


Florence or Rome, the nobles, with their families and 
friends and servants, found it most enjoyable to repair 
to the cool loggias, the quiet terraces, and wonderful 
gardens of their villas, to rest and read poetry. The 
American family of to-day, no less wearied by endless 
social activities and business cares, must find the same 
rest and the same pleasure in an environment created 
to resemble the country retreat of the old Italian nobles. 

The anachronism exists in the difference between 
the effete and indolent idea of country life which charac- 
terised the Renaissance Italian noble, and the whole- 
some and vigorous idea of country life which should 
characterise the modern American country gentleman. 
The Italian entertained with formal ceremony, his 
power was almost equal to that of a feudal lord. He 
engaged in no active sports or energetic outdoor life, 
and too often brought with him the spies and poisoners 
and parasitic friends whom he should have left behind 
him in the city. Villa life in Renaissance Italy was 
not, by all we have heard, very wholesome, or in any 
way a desirable sort of thing on which to pattern our 
own country life of to-day. Our architects took the 
stage settings, and, modifying them to some extent, 
let us devise and enact new dramas in place of the old. 

This, perhaps, brings the most clear understanding 
of the propriety of the American villa of Italian deriva- 
tion it is a stage setting, and one in which we have 
come to feel at home because of its inherent beauty and 
charm, and in spite of its associations of a life and a 
period entirely different from our own. Renaissance 
depravity, mellowed by time, is further cloaked by the 
kindly mantle of "romance," so that we find much his- 
toric association of real charm, where old, forgotten 
family histories could tell (if we lifted the mantle of 


romance) of much sordid intrigue, blighted hope and 
a kind of life entirely different either from what most 
of us suppose, or from what we conceive to be the 
modern American ideal. 

Of all American architects who have essayed the 
Italian villa, adapted, the master is Charles A. Platt, 
who has combined with a rare degree of architectural 
skill and surety an equally rare degree of imagination, 
sympathy and real artistic feeling. The result of these 
abilities has been apparent in his work. He has re- 
tained the charm, the romance, and the peculiar archi- 
tectural chastity of the Renaissance Italian villa, and 
has given his rendering, at the same time, and in a man- 
ner at once subtle and forceful, something of a modern 
vigour of expression and a modern note of appro- 
priateness. Other American architects have attained 
conspicuous success in the designing of Italian villa 
derivations, but Mr. Platt is the accredited master, and 
his works will rank always as monuments of remark- 
able architectural sincerity in intelligent adaptation. 

It should be obvious that the Italian villa, from its 
nature, is inappropriate in a cold northern climate, yet, 
though the greater part of the United States is, during 
several months of the year, a country of most unpleas- 
ant climate, the villa of Italian type is built as a retreat 
for the warm months, and as such, it comes well within 
the pale of suitability. Southern California and the 
southern states are to be regarded as the more obvious 
habitat of houses of the Italian villa type, as well as 
of the Spanish type. 

The superficial characteristics of the Italian villa 
are readily recognisable, and reasonably familiar : low- 
pitched roof of corrugated tile, stucco walls, occasional 
iron balconies, arcaded loggias, garden terraces, and 


often a patio, which is the salient feature, also, of the 
Spanish house. 

The Italian garden is inseparable from the house, 
and, being of a distinctly architectural nature, is closely 
tied to it both in plan and in general character. The 
picturesque possibilities of the Italian garden cannot 
be overstated or unduly admired, and those of the great 
villas of the Eenaissance have formed, and will always 
form, the greater part of our inspiration in garden 
design. We have seen what a deep and lasting impres- 
sion the garden art of Italy made upon England, where 
elaborate and beautiful schemes were laid out thor- 
oughly and frankly in the Italian manner, about Jaco- 
bean and Georgian country houses. 

The Italian type of garden, though it is what is 
known as a "formal garden," possesses so many ele- 
ments of the picturesque that its formality is its least 
conspicuous characteristic. The greatest skill was 
shown in the disposition of terraces, pools, fountains, 
grottos, garden statuary, and pavilions, as well as 
an inimitable artistry in the design of all these garden 

It is conceivable that many people have decided upon 
the Italian villa type as their building inspiration 
because they are completely fascinated by the Italian 
type of garden which must form a part of the plan. 

The Italian garden owes its permanent value and 
its real significance to the fact that it came as an intelli- 
gent solution of the problem which exists in any attempt 
to blend architecture with nature. The Italian garden 
is the connecting link, its subtly devised planting bind- 
ing it to the surrounding hillsides or groves, its ter- 
races, walks and detached casinos and pavilions bind- 
ing it to the villa. A garden entirely architectural 


merely spreads the architecture of the house or villa 
outward to some inevitably sharp line of demarcation 
where the planting of nature begins. 'A garden entirely 
informal leads natural planting and natural contours 
directly up to an equally sharp line of demarcation in 
the architecture of the house. 

Returning to more general consideration of Renais- 
sance Italian derivations, in American architecture, it 
must be remembered that these play a more important 
part than any other European style, excepting always 
the Classic bases of architectural design, from which, 
indeed, the architecture of the Renaissance itself was 
wholly derived. The Greeks gave to architecture its 
eternal fundamentals of the orders, the mouldings, the 
entablatures and the general proportions which were 
subsequently further developed by the Romans, and 
humanised and embellished by the Renaissance Italians, 
to be revived once more in our own age as an architec- 
tural language peculiarly adapted to the best expression 
of a wide range of architectural problems. 

We have drawn certain comparisons between the 
spirit of "country life" as conceived by the Renais- 
sance Italian villa owner, and the modern American 
gentleman. To understand the artificial status of the 
adapted French chateau, similar comparisons are 

French country life, notably in the Eighteenth Cen- 
tury, was a very formal affair, consisting, indeed, of 
urban social entertainments and life being merely 
transplanted from city to country. Hunting was more 
of a ceremony than a sport. It is a significant fact, 
in this connection, to remind ourselves that the French 
had not even a word in their language to convey the 
idea, and borrowed, with a prefixed definite article 

Churles A. Platt, Architect 

Looking from the loggia and across the terrace of an American country house which is in 
perfect character with its Italian prototype. (The iron tie-rods, relieving the thrust of 
the urches, illustrate a frequent expedient of Italian Renaissance architecture) 


"le sport," conscientiously endeavouring to emulate 
their more outdoor-loving English neighbours across 
the channel. 

Versailles and the several charming " play-houses " 
of Marie Antoinette are admirably illustrative of the 
spirit of French country life. To the gardens and the 
" make-believe" farm buildings of Little Trianon, 
repaired the charming Marie and her coterie of friends 
to play at being milkmaids and shepherdesses, attired 
in "appropriate" costumes of silks and satins. Here 
was the keynote of that charming and naive artificiality 
which is architecturally expressed in the country houses 
of the French nobility. 

Some of the smaller chateaux should offer con- 
siderable suggestion to the American architect who is 
engaged in designing a semi-formal country house, and 
the chateau style may be regarded as reasonably 
appropriate for a magnificent house at such a fashion- 
able place as Newport, where elaborate and formal 
entertainments are in order, and where the avowed 
intention is to recall the splendour, the lavishness, the 
luxury, and the grand manner of the court of 
Louis XVI. 

The case is again a case of theatrical scenery, con- 
trived with due consideration for the kind of life to be 
enacted by the owners. A large American country 
house of the chateau type may be an architectural 
expression absolutely appropriate or absolutely inap- 
propriate according entirely to the kind of life it is 
intended to set off. "'Biltmore," the Vanderbilt coun- 
try place in North Carolina, and "Ochre Court," or 
the house of J. Nicholas Brown, at Newport, are excel- 
lent examples of American adaptations of the French 
chateau as commendable for their architectural man- 


ner as for their suitability to the kind of " country 
life" enjoyed by their owners. 

Other American families of social prominence have 
elected to have their "country houses" done in the 
manner of Louis XVI, recalling the Trianons at Ver- 
sailles such well-known Newport houses, for example, 
as "the Marble Palace" and "Rosecliff." 

A French style once very popular but now by no 
means in favor, was the style of Francis First, tran- 
sitional from Gothic to Renaissance. This, in fact, is 
the original chateau style, with round towers, capped 
by conical roofs, almost like steeples a style undenia- 
bly picturesque, yet equally undeniably inappropriate 
as an architectural medium of expression for American 
tastes or American life. 

As the influence of the Eenaissance style supplanted 
the Gothic, and was in turn supplanted by the Classic, 
the French chateau became increasingly more re- 
strained, though no less artificial. Chateau architec- 
ture has a certain dignity, a certain impressive air of 
nobility and of ' * smartness ' ' which has its appropriate 
applications and its own merits. The style, however, 
can never be expected to become a part of American 

Of French influences in city and public buildings 
much was said in the fourth chapter, outlining the 
trend of French design from the time of Louis XIV, 
through the classic revival of Louis XVI, and the 
present manifestations of Beaux Arts teachings. 

It will be apparent from a study of that portion of 
the text, with its illustrations, that French city archi- 
tecture plays a conspicuous and agreeable part in the 
design of many of our city buildings. All French 
styles from that of Louis XIV through the Beaux Arts, 

Albro & LiMd,l,cr K , ArchiU,-ts l'l,,,to S rn,.h by Julian Burkl, 

Skilful architects have adapted Italian architecture and at the same time have retained 

its charm 

Albro & Lindeberg, Architects 


The low pitch of the roof, the treatment of the chimneys, and of the hooded doorway, 

proclaim the Italian origin of this dwelling 

Albert Kelsey & Paul P. Crt-t, Architects 

An effective and successful introduction of the Spanish patio, or garden courtyard, with 

a fountain, in an American monumental building 

(The Pan-American Union, Washington, D. C.) 


or Modern French style, have been extensively utilised 
in the design of many of the largest American hotels, 
as will be seen in the ninth chapter, and the style of 
Louis XVI has furnished the inspiration for many 
chaste and suitable city houses and shop fronts. 

The frivolity of the more extreme type of French 
architecture is excellently suited to the design of 
theatres and restaurants, where it is desired to offer a 
festive environment to the patrons, and to effect a 
brilliant architectural background for gay gatherings. 
The inevitable reaction from too much frivolous hotel 
architecture will be pointed out in the ninth chapter. 

The debt of American architecture to the archi- 
tecture of France is stated in the paragraphs devoted 
to the great Ecole des Beaux Arts in the fourth chap- 
ter, and the foregoing comments are designed to point 
out the necessarily artificial position of French 
architecture as related to the American country house. 

It was remarked above that the architecture of 
America has availed itself but little of Spanish deriva- 
tions. It is true that Renaissance Spain produced no 
such master-architects as Italy, yet the native genius 
of the race, its art strangely enriched by the legacy of 
the Moors, evolved many architectural forms well 
worthy of adaptation and further development in this 

Spanish architecture possesses certain distinctive 
features, in both plan and detail. In plan, whether 
of residence or public building, the patio, or open inner 
courtyard, is a marked characteristic. In detail the 
use of wrought iron work for balconies, railings and 
grilles is equally characteristic. There is, too, the low- 
pitched tile roof, as found in Italy, the same preva- 


lence of stucco wall sufaces, but no such frequent use 
of loggias and terraces. 

Most Spanish houses, as well as those in the old 
Spanish colonies, whether in town or country, were 
built somewhat after the manner of private fortresses, 
as though no man trusted his fellow, or felt secure in 
the community in which he dwelt. The outer walls 
were heavy and forbidding, with but few windows, and 
these small, high and protected by iron grilles. The 
street door was a massive, iron-studded affair, with 
huge bolts and ponderous locks a barrier against any- 
thing but actual siege. Whatever gentler aspect of 
domestic architecture existed was lavished on the patio 
or inner court, which was often gay with flowers, and 
cooled by a fountain in the centre. Into galleries 
around the patio opened the chambers of the house, 
those of the master usually occupying the first floor 
above the ground, while the servants dwelt below, 
and performed the domestic duties of the household 
in the court itself. 

Many Spanish patios are beautiful with flowers and 
fountains, and quaintly devised galleries and arcades, 
but by far the greater number resemble a sort of 
indoor barnyard, where cattle, horses and poultry were 
kept secure within the main outer door over night. 
One must suppose that Spain, at the time when this 
characteristic type was evolved, was a country of 
thieves and brigands. The tradition of the protected 
patio, with plainly apparent need, is to be seen in the 
earlier haciendas and ranch houses of the Southwest 
United States and of South America. In the event of 
attack by Indians or brigands, outbuildings could read- 
ily be burned, live-stock taken and great loss sustained, 
whereas the inner court plan made it possible for the 

\Viilis 1'olk, 

Windows at the second story of a modern Californian residence 



Coloured terra-cotta details of a Chicago office building, designed in a rich 
commingling of the styles of both Spanish and Italian Renaissance 


unprotected householder in outlying districts, to offer 
only four forbidding walls and a stout door to the 

To-day, however, when no need exists for such pro- 
tection of property, the patio offers an architectural 
opportunity of peculiar charm, especially in the private 
residence. This opportunity is being yearly recog- 
nised with greater zest by the architects of our Pacific 
coast, as well as many in the South and East. In a 
country dwelling situated in the prevailing warm 
climates of the Southern Pacific coast, or the states 
of the far South, the patio may well be made a spot of 
engaging beauty and of real significance in the daily 
lives of the occupants. The shadows cast by the sur- 
rounding walls will render the patio cool at most hours 
of the day, and its restricted area will make possible 
the contrivance of a very intimate kind of gardening, 
as well as the selection of many attractive and interest- 
ing types of informal and semi-outdoor furniture. 

In public buildings the patio usually takes the 
form of a courtyard, serving, in the plan of the build- 
ing, to afford lighting to the inner rooms. The archi- 
tectural possibilities of the patio, however, are often 
lost sight of in its purely utilitarian function as a light- 
shaft, which is unfortunate by reason of the numerous 
attractive courtyard treatments which may be effected. 

The patio of the Boston Public Library is really an 
Italian courtyard, flanked by cloister-like loggias, and 
with a pool in the centre of a grass plot. A truly 
Spanish, or Spanish-American, patio is one of the 
most conspicuously attractive and appropriate features 
of the Pan-American Union 'Building in- Washington, 
D. C. Here the architects devised an open space, rich 
with tropical verdure, flanked by open stairways and 


balconies, and with a great Aztec fountain playing in 
the centre of a tiled floor, wherein appear strange and 
interesting figures of ancient South American mythol- 
ogy. The patio, however, has been strangely neglected 
in American architecture, and its Italian counterpart, 
the courtyard has fared little better, although our 
eyes have been turned more to Italy for architectural 
inspiration than to Spain. 

Spanish architecture, as well as that of Italy, is 
peculiarly adaptable to construction with hollow tile 
and stucco, and with the increasing popularity of these 
materials the spread of both these Latin derivations 
has widened. 

The Italian villa or the Spanish casa can never 
occupy a place in our architectural thought entirely 
comparable with the English country house, because, 
as a race, we are not of Latin extraction, but Anglo- 
Saxon. Our esteem for these types, as well as for the 
French chateau, will be based very largely upon liter- 
ary association. and upon superficial aesthetic attraction 
they will be esteemed and accepted because they 
bring foreign elements into our life not because they 
are, ancestrally, a part of our life. 



DESPITE the continued pronouncement of writers 
and critics and architects who bewail the fact 
that there is no "national style," no truly " American" 
architecture, the fact remains that there exist not one 
type, but several types peculiar to this country. And 
these types, considered as divided by what naturalists 
would call their "habitat," should afford a rich source 
of inspiration to our architects throughout the country. 

It is important at the outset to correct the loose and 
often misleading term "Colonial," and to divide early 
American buildings a little more accurately, with some 
proper chronological distinction. This division may 
be made to a great extent irrespective of locality, and 
a consideration of the types of native American archi- 
tecture characteristic of North, South, East and West 
may then be better understood. 

It is a common matter to hear any American build- 
ing, of date prior to the Civil War, designated 
"Colonial," which would be as absurd as it is inaccu- 
rate, if people were to give the question even a 
moment's thought. 

The evolution of native American architecture, 
from its necessarily primitive beginnings, through its 
more highly developed manifestations, is a consecutive 
one, and would afford a peculiarly interesting oppor- 
tunity to study the history of the American people if 



a study so detailed could properly be included in a 
review so broad and extensive as the present book, 
wherein may be pointed out only the more salient and 
important points. 

The broad distinction between ' ' Colonial Architec- 
ture" and "Georgian" (or "Georgian Colonial") 
architecture is that the first is essentially native and 
necessarily primitive, while the second is essentially 
imported and, by reason of greater national pros- 
perity and development, far more sophisticated and 

Early Colonial architecture reflected very accu- 
rately the various home-country influences of the set- 
tlers English, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh, French, or 
German who erected buildings in different parts of the 
original thirteen colonies, while Georgian Colonial 
architecture tended toward effecting a certain uni- 
formity, at least in detail, and toward effecting, as well, 
great modifications of the previously distinctive archi- 
tectural modes of the varied nationalities. 

The architecture of Post-Colonial America, and of 
the Classic Revival is distinct from earlier styles, as 
will be seen by a brief survey of Early and Georgian 
Colonial architecture. 

The clearest and most useful manner in which to 
study this chapter of architecture would seem to be 
the study by general locality, the divisions being both 
architectural and geographical. We have to consider, 
then, the architectural types prevalent in the Early 
and Georgian Colonial periods in New England, in 
the settlements of New York and adjacent portions 
of New Jersey, in Pennsylvania, Delaware and the 
southwest portion of New Jersey, and in the Southern 

A typical early American Colonial house at Hadlyme, Connecticut 


A typical Dutch Colonial house, the Terhune homestead, at Hackensack, New Jersey 
(The dormer windows in the roof are a later addition) 


The architecture of the French and Spanish Creoles 
in Louisiana, and of the early Spanish missionaries in 
the Southwest and on the Pacific Coast these are 
varieties as separate from the architecture of the thir- 
teen colonies as they are interesting in themselves, and 
will be taken up in due course. 

In New England the rigorous climate, as well as 
the yearly demolition which goes inevitably in the wake 
of "progress, ' ' have left but few examples of the homes 
of the earliest colonists, and for this reason we are 
too likely to picture the New England type of Colonial 
house as the type which was evolved in Georgian Colo- 
nial times, and of which a wealth of examples may be 
seen to-day. 

The earliest New England houses were strange and 
interesting off-shoots of contemporary houses in Eng- 
land, modified, it is true, by local necessities and 

One of their most conspicuous characteristics was 
sturdy construction. The corner posts of the frame 
were often twelve and fourteen inches square, heavily 
braced, and held together with tenons and dowels, or 
wooden pegs. It has been discovered that many of 
these very early New England houses were actually of 
English half-timber construction, concealed behind a 
purely superficial mask of clapboards. The heavy 
frames were filled in with stone and mortar sometimes 
with brick, the interior surfaces finished with rough, 
hand-made laths and plaster, the exterior sheathed 
with clapboards. 

An interesting feature of direct English tradition 
was the overhang of the second story, as well as the 
small diamond-paned casement windows which are to 
be seen in the earliest examples. New England houses 


with gambrel roofs nearly all belong to the earlier 
period of New England Colonial architecture. 

As the country grew more prosperous, the architec- 
ture of the colonists developed correspondingly. More 
ships plied the perilous route between the Old and the 
New World, and brought with them an ever-increasing 
number of skilled artisans, trained in the more sophisti- 
cated forms which characterised the architecture of 
Georgian England. 

The New England houses were still severe and 
Puritanical in their exterior aspect, save for the en- 
trance which became more and more elaborate. Classic 
columns or pilasters flanked the door, supporting a 
curved or pointed pediment, or a delicately moulded 
entablature. Beneath the pediment there was often a 
graceful fan-light, with wooden or leaded divisions. 
The usual exterior treatment was a complete sheathing 
of white-painted clapboards, shutters painted green 
and the whole four-square house roofed with a low- 
pitched shingle roof. There were other types, of 
course, the most common being the barn-roofed type, 
with plain gable-end and the utmost simplicity marking 
the whole exterior. The more pretentious of the larger 
New England houses were often embellished with imi- 
tation " quoins," or corner stones, fashioned in wood 
and intended to distinguish the house of some prosper- 
ous merchant prince from those of more humble 

An interesting peculiarity of the New England 
house is the oft-met-with disparity between exterior 
and interior a house which would appear, from the 
road, to be a farmstead of the most humble kind may 
disclose within the most rich and intricate carved wood- 
work and panelling. 


The writer is familiar, in detail, with the old Robin- 
son house in the Narragansett portion of Rhode Island, 
as well as other very early New England houses in that 
vicinity. The Robinson house presents an exterior of 
the utmost simplicity, and were its interior beauties not 
locally famous, the architectural explorer would pass 
by without suspicion of the beautiful panelled rooms, 
carved pilasters, Dutch-tiled fire-places and twist- 
carved balusters within. Even the entrance of this 
once famous old mansion is simple to the verge of actual 
poverty in its appearance. 

New England houses will all be found to have been 
designed with an idea of conservation of heat, which 
caused the chimneys to be placed always in the centre 
of the house, instead of on an outer wall as was usually 
the case in houses in the middle and southern colonies. 

This same necessity of conservation of heat made 
the spacious entrance hall of the Southern houses a 
feature seldom met with in New England. Stairs to 
the upper portions of the house were most often steep, 
ladder-like affairs, built in between two walls, especially 
in the humbler homes. The larger house, with many 
fireplaces, often made more conspicuous architectural 
efforts in the development of the hall and the hall 

When it is remembered that the early American 
architecture of New England might in itself be made 
the subject of a lengthy and interesting book, it is appar- 
ent that much must be left unsaid, and that in the 
present chapter it is possible to give a picture with only 
the most salient high-lights. 

Late Georgian architecture in New England saw two 
famous early American architects : Samuel Mclntyre, 
of Salem, and Charles Bulfinch, of Boston; the former 


noted for his influence on residential architecture, the 
second for his achievements in the design of public 

Mclntyre, really a master-carpenter and builder, 
endowed with exceptional taste and appreciation of 
contemporary Georgian architecture, infused in the 
architecture of his time in New England a strong note 
of the Classicism of the Adam Brothers. In his work, 
comprising, notably, the old gateways, doorways and 
mantelpieces of Salem, Massachusetts, are to be seen 
the urns, the medallions, the scalloped fans and flat 
sunbursts of pure Adam inspiration, treated, all, with 
a little more virility, a little more weight than charac- 
terised their Adam prototypes. It is the New England 
architecture of Samuel Mclntyre which constitutes, in 
the minds of most people, their conception of 
" Colonial" architecture. In reality, Mclntyre 's work 
was entirely Georgian, a transplanted style, locally 
associated with a certain part of New England. 

The work of Charles Bulfinch lay mostly in the 
design of public buildings, of which the original Massa- 
chusetts State Capitol, on historic 'Beacon Hill in Bos- 
ton, is perhaps the most famous. Bulfinch designed in 
a vein essentially Classic, and governed by sound aca- 
demic principles in planning and composition. His 
ideal was dignity, and his influence on the younger 
architects of his time was an excellent one, making for 
Classic bases of architectural thought. 

A characteristic New England structure is the 
white-painted wooden church, whose quaint steeple 
gleams among so many grey-roofed seaport towns and 
so many elm-shaded streets of villages from Maine to 
Connecticut. Here, again, is a type of direct English 
derivation, based, in a naive and often primitive man- 


ner, on the works of Sir Christopher Wren in England. 
Most of the towers of these New England churches, 
with the addition of a shingled steeple, are of the 
general character of the beautiful tower of the old 
State House, "Independence Hall," in Philadelphia. 
The towers rose over the entrance front of the church, 
ascending in a series of diminishing boxes until the 
steeple was reached, this sometimes springing from a 
delicately designed "lantern." Many of the early 
wooden churches of New England were beautifully 
designed, the tower of Trinity Church, in Newport, 
Rhode Island, being conceded to be one of the finest 

All the early American churches of this type were 
of earlier date than those strange and incongruous 
monuments of clumsy carpentry, called by Mr. Cram, 
with acid cleverness, ' ' Grasco-Baptist. " "It cannot be 
mistaken: front porticos ... of four-foot Classi- 
cal columns made of seven-eighths inch pine stock, 
neatly nailed together and painted white, echoing like 
a drum to the incautious kick of the heel; slab sides, 
covered with clapboards, green blinds to the round- 
topped windows, and a little bit of a brick chim- 
ney sticking up at the stern, where once, in happier 
days, stood the little cote that housed the Sanctus 

Disregarding these blundering examples of mis- 
understood l i Classicism, ' ' church builders in small and 
historic New England villages would do well to remem- 
ber that their most appropriate and proper house of 
prayer should be designed along the lines of that which 
was so sincerely built by their forefathers better 
designed, perhaps, more refined detail by a trained 
architect, more refined lines to the delicate, tapering 


wooden tower, yet in the essential element of style, an 
" Early American Church." 

Few small parishes can afford a good Gothic church, 
and if a Gothic church be not a good one, the congre- 
gation would do well to hold services in the fields. 
Nothing is more pathetic or repellent, speaking both 
humanly and architecturally, than to behold a small 
country church which is a vainglorious and pretentious 
sham in its architectural expression having departed 
arrogantly from the humble place of worship of a more 
sincere and devout generation, yet obviously not within 
thinking distance from the more sophisticated church 
it is stupidly aping. There is, in such futile pretense, 
an attempted glorification of a purse-proud parish, and 
no glorification whatever of Deity. 

A New England architectural manner which has 
come to be regarded as an actual " style" is the 
so-called ''Harvard" type, the name derived from the 
earliest buildings erected for the old University in 
Cambridge, Massachusetts. 

These buildings were of brick, very simply handled, 
and accent given by white door and window trim and 
white cornice. In general character, the old Harvard 
buildings were, of course, English, with certain inter- 
esting Colonial inflections. It is from "Harvard" 
architecture that the architects of modern times (Stan- 
ford White the first) revived the use of occasional 
burnt bricks to relieve the monotony of large uniform 
expanses of wall. In burning bricks, the ends of a cer- 
tain number must be exposed to the fires in the kiln, 
and become discolored in various shades of blue, grey 
and purple, up to black. At the time when the first 
buildings at Harvard University were erected, brick 
was too scarce a material to allow of discarding those 


with burnt ends, so these were built into the walls at 
random with the other bricks. The effect was, naturally, 
an interesting one, and is to be regarded as the origin 
of the present excellent variety of harmoniously colored 
bricks, to be considered in greater detail in Part II. 

When brick became more plentiful, bricklayers very 
stupidly threw out all the burnt bricks, using them only 
in the construction of drains, or of wall foundations 
beneath the level of the ground. A long period fol- 
lowed in which the bricklayer's ideal and aim was to 
lay up a wall of absolutely uniform jointing, devoid of 
any suggestion of " color" or "interest" or "texture." 

It was left for the architects of our own time to 
discover that much of the charm of the brickwork in 
the old Harvard buildings came from the * ' accidental ' ' 
diversity effected by the recurrence of burnt brick- 
ends. This led to a new interest in color and texture 
in brick, as well as to a realisation of the possibilities 
of forming patterns in brickwork, and bricks with burnt 
ends soon became highly sought, and specified, instead 
of rejected as inferior. 

The "Harvard" style has been very successfully 
developed in designs for clubs, schools, city-houses and 
many other types of building in which the desired archi- 
tectural expression was one of dignity, simplicity and 

Having studied this necessarily brief review of the 
architecture of New England Colonial and Georgian 
Colonial let us discover, if possible, what may be its 
message to the architect or the home builder of to-day. 
It is this: 

New England architecture of Colonial times affords 
a wealth of suggestion and an admirable basis of design 
for New England buildings of to-day. No type of 


architecture could be more unsuitable or more alien 
as a style for any building in the far West or the South. 

New England is one of the oldest settled localities 
in this country, and in most townships there exist to-day 
a large number of historic homes and old wooden 
churches of earlier days. Let the prospective builder, 
therefore, bear this in mind, as well as the committee 
member who is vested with the responsibility of choos- 
ing an architect or voting on plans for a new church 
or library building. 

In comparison with Europe we are poor in architec- 
tural traditions and in social and local traditions. Let 
us, therefore, guard jealously, and even build up those 
which we have. If we live in a quaint, old New England 
township, where unpretentious white-painted houses 
gleam among the trunks of old wayside shade elms and 
lilac hedges, let us oppose by every means in our power 
the intrusion of any architectural style alien to the 
locality. "We need not even follow local precedent to 
the extent of foregoing our- ideals in the house we are 
building. We may modernise and modify, yet erect a 
building true to type and pleasantly harmonising with 
the older houses of the neighbourhood. A skilful archi- 
tect can introduce sleeping porches and verandas 
and certainly every interior convenience, yet remain 
happily within the pale of consistency. Do not ask 
him to design a stucco house with Spanish mission tile 
roof in a peaceful little hamlet in the Berkshires. The 
offence would be one against good taste as well as 
against architectural propriety. 

The New England type of house, either Early or 
Georgian Colonial, holds ample possibility of architec- 
tural development into a charming, seemly, comfort- 


able, homelike and entirely desirable house for the 
New England home builder of to-day. 

South of the southernmost of the New England 
states, Connecticut, there are apparent in certain parts 
of New York State, and New Jersey, traces of another 
type of early American house the type known as 
" Dutch Colonial." 

These old farm houses, which hold much of interest- 
ing suggestion to the architect of to-day, are to be 
found on Long Island, on Staten Island (old Dutch 
" Staaten"}, on both banks of Hudson, northward from 
New York City, and even up the Mohawk Valley. 

The most familiar of the superficial characteristics 
of the Dutch Colonial house is the roof-line a low, 
graceful sweep, differing entirely from the steep, often 
harsh gambrel roofs of early New England houses. In 
the Dutch Colonial gambrel roof the "shoulder" is near 
the ridge-pole, and the longer sweep is downward from 
the shoulder to the eaves, while the "shoulder" of the 
New England gambrel is usually nearer the eaves than 
the ridge-pole, which makes the upper slope a slight 
pitch and the lower slope, from shoulder to eaves, a 
steep pitch, sometimes nearly vertical. 

The original Dutch Colonial house was a modest 
affair, usually small in size, and made to accommodate 
growing families by the addition of successive wings. 
The typical early Dutch Colonial house plan placed all 
the rooms on the ground floor and utilised the space 
under the low roof for storage. As the type developed, 
the houses were built with a half-story under the roof, 
lighted and ventilated (most inadequately) by means 
of small windows at the level of the floor. A few 
houses, it is true, were built with full second story, 
though the type as a type connotes a low building, set 


close to the ground and rendered essentially pictu- 
resque by the low, graceful contour of its roof and the 
diversity of building materials used in its construction. 

The natural building material of the Dutch, if we 
look across to Holland, would be brick, but in this new 
country brick was most difficult to obtain, although its 
manufacture was encouraged by the governments of all 
the colonies. One is often shown early American brick- 
work in which the bricks are pointed out as having been 
brought over from Holland by the first Dutch settlers. 
Some of this brick, no doubt, was actually imported, 
often as ballast, but by far the greater quantity was 
made on this side of the Atlantic, and is taken for 
Holland brick because Holland dimensions were used in 
its manufacture. 

Failing to obtain brick, the Dutch Colonial builder 
made ready use of local stone, either carefully squared 
and dressed, or laid up in rubble masonry. 

Some Dutch Colonial houses were built entirely of 
wood, though comparatively few of these have survived 
the years. The interesting peculiarity of these houses, 
however, lies in the fact that all four walls may be of 
different construction. The gable ends were usually 
of stone, as well as the front, which was most often 
treated with a coat- of stucco. The rear might be of 
wood, or walls of brick, stone and wood might be used 
in the same house. In studying the Dutch Colonial 
house it is often difficult to determine whether or not 
the front porch, formed by an additional projection of 
the eaves, is an addition subsequent to the house itself 
or of coincident construction. Houses with and with- 
out porches are both met with equal frequency. The 
porch, however, so conspicuous by its absence through- 
out New England in all early houses, is peculiar to the 


Dutch, and forms the origin of this essentially Amer- 
ican feature. 

We have no European prototype for the porch, even 
in the Italian loggia, and as our journey of architectural 
observation extends southward we will perceive early 
American porches more nearly resembling those of the 
present American dwelling than even the Dutch type. 
Attention is directed especially to the two old New 
Orleans Creole plantation villas illustrated. Two in- 
teresting minor details of the Dutch Colonial house, 
both widely employed to-day, are the Dutch door and 
the saw-cut wooden shutters. The Dutch door is famil- 
iar to all cut horizontally through its centre so that 
the upper half may be thrown open to admit light and 
air, while the lower remains, closed to prevent the 
ingress of straying poultry, or the egress of would-be 
straying children. The solid shutters, with apertures 
sawed in the forms of hearts, crescent moons and other 
devices, have been recognised to-day as an inexpensive 
yet very attractive detail for many a modern cottage. 

As the architecture of Colonial America became 
(more developed along Classic lines, with Georgian 
Adam detail spread through the work of such men as 
Mclntyre and through the agency of a few good books 
of designs, many charming mantelpieces and door- 
ways began to grace the previously rather primitive 
Dutch farm house. Classic forms, however, were ren- 
dered with an interesting freedom and individuality- 
were used, for the most part as suggestions rather than 
working models, so that the architect of to-day may 
find much of interest, well worth his study. As might 
be expected from the hands of a people who delighted, 
in Holland, in a free use of bright colours in architec- 
ture and furniture, we find many interiors, unlike the 


prevalent chaste white of New England, carried out in 
various shades of blue and olive green. 

In considering the adaptability of the Dutch Colo- 
nial style for present-day uses, certain striking facts 
should be apparent. Designed to fulfil the primitive 
needs of very unpretentious settlers, mostly farmers, 
the Dutch Colonial house copied as it stands would 
leave much to be desired would, indeed, fail to come 
up to the requirements of even the moderate cottage 
of to-day. 

In point of style, however, the Dutch Colonial house 
should find even wider acceptance in its native locality 
than is at present accorded it, especially for the small 
and comparatively inexpensive cottage or suburban 
home. It possesses a local historic appropriateness 
which, in itself, is an invaluable asset, and its pictu- 
resque lines, peculiarly expressive of domesticity, are 
such that a house of diminutive size or of ample propor- 
tions may be designed with due regard for stylistic 
propriety. In no flight of architectural misconception, 
however, could the Dutch Colonial type of house be 
used as a model for a stately and pretentious mansion. 

Several American architects have attained conspic- 
uous success in the rendering of small and medium- 
sized dwellings in style of the Dutch Colonial farm 
house, making, with as much grace as possible, such 
modifications and additions as have been found neces- 
sary. Chief among these has been the addition of dor- 
mer windows (never seen in the original Dutch farm 
house) to give light and height to the upstairs rooms. 
In many cases the profile of these dormer windows, 
especially if designed to effect head-room on the second 
floor, destroys the proper Dutch contour of the gambrel 
roof, yet a general effect of simplicity, and even such 


minor details as quaint Dutch hardware, a Dutch door 
and Dutch shutters may proclaim the source of 

Immediately south of that territory near Manhattan 
Island where the Dutch Colonial style left its influence 
on American architecture, there is found another type 
a type necessarily complex by reason of the varied 
nationalities represented by the early colonists. To 
western and southern New Jersey, to Pennsylvania and 
to Delaware came English, Welsh, Swedes and Ger- 
mans. The first predominated in numbers and in- 
fluence, but in certain localities there were communities 
entirely distinct in their observance of language, social 
and religious customs of their home countries. To-day 
such names as 'Bryn Mawr, Cynwyd and Bryn Athyn, 
bespeak the original seats of Welsh colonists. Ger- 
mantown, now a part of Philadelphia, but originally an 
all-German settlement, bespeaks the early Teuton colo- 
nist, and the Swedes have left such monuments as Gloria 
Dei, or ' ' Old Swedes ' ' Church, plainly Scandinavian in 
many points of its design, and the imprint of native arts 
and Swedish names in many parts of Philadelphia and 
its vicinity. 

It is not strange that these varied nationalities 
should have left equally varied architectural legacies, 
since each observed, to some extent, the traditions of 
the home country. The study of these national traits, 
however, sometimes clearly defined, sometimes blended 
or modified, would involve a detailed study unfortu- 
nately out of proportion to the present review. 

The writer can hope only to point out certain salient 
characteristics which mark the "Pennsylvania type" 
of dwelling as it may be regarded to-day as an inspira- 
tion for modern architects. 


Staunch and skilful stone building was a Welsh 
tradition, so that even the earliest houses are found to 
constitute admirable models for the workmen of to-day. 
In early times, brick was not so plentiful as it became 
later, while the local ledge stone, especially such as is 
still quarried at Chestnut Hill, near Philadelphia, pre- 
sented itself as the most available permanent building 

An early Pennsylvania house of the Welsh type is 
to be seen in " Wynnestay," which forms the subject of 
one of the illustrations. Salient characteristics are to 
be cited as a general sturdiness of aspect, an honest kind 
of simplicity admirably echoed in many works of the 
Philadelphia architects of to-day. The stone-masonry 
is worthy of special study, and such details as the solid 
wooden shutters and the quaint hoods over the doors 
must be remembered as characteristic. 

There was a certain local resemblance traceable in 
the earlier farm houses of Pennsylvania, lower New 
Jersey and Delaware a resemblance which is to be 
noted even in the homes of colonists of varying 

While the exterior walls of many of these houses, 
fitted with white-painted window frames, were left in 
the natural stone, some were roughly stuccoed, in the 
manner called ''roughcast" by English architects, and 
whitewashed. This interestingly primitive device has 
been very successfully employed by several of the 
present-day local architects in their admirable modern 
renderings of the historic type of the vicinity. As 
wealth and sophistication took the place of comparative 
poverty and Quaker simplicity in Penn's colony, the 
architecture lost much of its original charm. On honest 
rough-stone houses were grafted pompous Georgian 

From "The Colonial Houses of Philadelphia," Eberlein and Lippincott 


A Colonial Pennsylvania dwelling built in 1689 
(" Wynnestay, " near Philadelphia} 

Charles Barton Keen. Architect 

A modern Pennsylvania dwelling, maintaining in its design the sterling qualities of its prototype 


From "Colonial Architecture for Those About to Build," Wise & Beidleruan 

Mount Pleasant and Dependencies, Philadelphia 

From "Colonial Architecture for Those About to Build," Wise & Ht'idleman 

"Cliveden," Germantown, Pa. 


More pretentious than the dwellings of the early colonists, the Georgian mansions of Pennsylvania 
showed evidences of Classic design and architectural pomp 

Duliriiift, Okie & Xicgk-r, Architects 

The dwelling of Revolutionary days in America furnishes precedent for a type of house 
unlike any European type 

Dub ring, Okie & /iegler, Architects 

Early American dwellings in Pennsylvania have afforded a happy inspiration for local 



Photograph by Ph. B. Wallace 

A committee of three Philadelphia gentlemen was responsible for this remarkably beautiful 
building. It embodies all the salient characteristics of the best Georgian architecture of 

(The State House- "Independence Hall," Philadelphia) 


doorways and Classic details thrust themselves, often 
ill-advisedly, upon modest farm dwellings. The 
Georgian period, of course, saw the erection of many 
fine and stately mansions of high architectural merit, 
but the most charming architectural legacy of Penn- 
sylvania, as the local architects have interpreted it, is 
the Early Colonial type, shown in several of the 

The environs of Philadelphia are to be congratu- 
lated upon the good taste of the group of architects who 
have consistently followed native local precedent in the 
design of suburban and country homes. This proce- 
dure has not only assured the continuity of a worthy 
and appropriate type of dwelling, but has made for an 
agreeable effect of architectural consistency so dis- 
tressingly absent in most parts of America. A drive 
through the beautiful suburbs of Philadelphia will 
impress the observer with the thought that here has 
been evidenced a respect for the continuity of archi- 
tectural development. The houses, it is plain, have 
been modernised, which, indeed, it is proper they should 
be. The needs and requirements of modern country 
life have been given expression in a delightful local 
architectural dialect. 

Mention should be made here of the Anglo-Penn- 
sylvanian type a picturesque architecture which is 
most notably expressed in the always interesting works 
of Wilson Eyre, and in much of the work of younger 
architects who have been inspired by him. In this style 
we find forms distinctly English, honestly rendered in 
local materials and in local idioms of expression, some- 
times blended with the Native Colonial type. That the 
result is entirely pleasing is doubtless due to the pre- 


dominant Anglo-Saxon strain which is still strong in 

Further south, in Maryland, in Virginia and in the 
Carolinas, the type changes. The most popular mental 
picture of the Southern mansion, however, is a picture 
of the later type rather than the earlier and less-known 
plantation dwelling. 

The first colonists, though mostly people of 
"quality," were tremendously handicapped by lack of 
facilities. Labour and materials were both painfully 
scarce, so that the original manor, or ' * big house ' ' which 
stood on the site of the splendid establishment of later 
years, was often far from magnificent. Building stone 
is scarce in the South, and the first colonists had little 
or no brick. Their dwellings, then, made little pre- 
tence to magnificence, and attained, at best, a certain 
element of dignity which was a reflection of the people 
who built them. 

Later, as more ships plied the ocean and more 
skilled labourers, either free or indentured, found their 
way to the new country, it became possible for the now 
wealthy plantation owners to erect mansions more befit- 
ting their estate. Brick became more plentiful, so that 
there were built stately mansions of the type of ' 'White- 
hall," in Maryland, or "Westover," the seat of the 
Byrds in Virginia. 

An appreciation and understanding of "The Classic 
Taste ' ' in architecture, the Georgian vogue of England, 
became a part of the education of a gentleman, so that 
the chaste dignity of the ancient Greek temple lived 
again in the stately colonnaded " porticos " of the 
Southern mansions. This Classic strain was often car- 
ried to an extreme during the later "Kevival" as in 
such examples as "Andalusia" on the Delaware (a 



perfect peristylar Greek Doric temple, surrounding 
a dwelling house) and continued in favour for some 
time after the Revolutionary War, as evidenced by 
Thomas Jefferson's design for his own home, "Monti- 
cello," and for the buildings of the University of 

In comparing the later Colonial architecture of the 
South with that of other parts of the country, it must 
be remembered that it was the architecture, for the most 
part, of people of considerable culture, means, refine- 
ment, leisure and classical education. Slaves worked 
the plantations, and the master dwelt in a sort of patri- 
archal magnificence, not unlike a feudal lord, though 
more like a prosperous English squire. The difference 
lay in the fact that the planter's broad acres were made 
productive by slaves instead of by tenants. 

The life of the planter and of his family was natu- 
rally one of considerable ease and of palpable dignity, 
so that it is not surprising to find a reflection of such 
a mode of life in his dwelling. 

The study of Colonial and Post-Colonial architec- 
ture in the South, however, like the detailed study of the 
architecture of any portion of America, may readily 
and interestingly form the subject of an extensive book 
in itself. 

We can do little more than place it, here, in its 
relation to other early architectural expressions in 
America, and point out the role which it may properly 
play in its use as a model for the architect of to-day. 
By all means the Southern plantation manor of the 
Georgian Colonial period, as well as certain modifi- 
cations of its later development under the Classic Re- 
vival, may be regarded as a suitable model for the 
pountry residence of any American gentleman of to-day. 


Through historic association, however, we think of the 
Southern plantation manor only in connection with a 
considerable estate, where an imposing gateway, a 
gate lodge and the other evidences of a grand establish- 
ment proclaim the owner a person of wealth and 

American architects of to-day have designed many 
admirable country houses after the style of the great 
Southern manors to enumerate them, indeed, would 
occupy several pages. The style should be remembered 
as an excellently appropriate native expression for the 
stately mansion which is to grace an extensive country 
estate. In its essentials, it is Georgian, a purely 
English style, but its use by the great land-owning 
colonists of our Southern states has placed upon it an 
ineradicable stamp of American nationalism. 

In New Orleans, Louisiana, there exists a type of 
Colonial architecture as little known as it is interesting 
the architecture of the French Creole planters. 

A correction of a popular misconception of the term 
"Creole" might here be in place. The name belonged 
first to those families descended from the early French 
settlers, and came later to include certain Spanish fami- 
lies as well. The designation "Creole" implied the 
highest social distinction, and was used (contrary to 
current supposition) to apply only to those families 
which were entirely without admixture of coloured 

These Creole families were, in most cases, French 
people of fine family, some of them titled Huguenots, 
living in exile under assumed names. Others were 
political exiles, and many a quaint old plantation villa, 
screened behind semi-tropical verdure at the head of a 
bayou, concealed treasures in rare French furniture, 

From "Colonial Mansions of Maryland iin<l Delaware," John Martin Hammond 

The finest development of American Colonial architecture in the South was along Classic Georgian 

("Whitehall," Anne Arundel County, Maryland) 

Photograph by Julian Hiirkly 



Through its successive alterations, this example of the "pediment-and-portioo" type has 

remained true to its expression of the formal phase of early American Classic design 

(The White House, Washington, D. C.) 


Photographs l>y Aymer Kmlmry II 


Influences both French and Spanish in the far South combined to develop a type of dwelling 
peculiar to Louisiana the "Plantation Villas" of New Orleans and its vicinitv 


glassware and silver, taken overseas by the fugitives to 
grace their retreats in the strange New World. 

As in the English colonies of "The Virginias" and 
"The Carolinas," the plantations (mostly cotton) were 
worked by negro slaves, and as New Orleans was, from 
its earliest days, a busy port, its inhabitants became 
prosperous in trade. 

The Creole plantation villa, as it was called, was 
built in much the same manner as the plantation villas 
of the West Indies. The actual house, as dwelt in by 
the master and his family, was raised a story above 
the ground, to avoid malarial dampness at night, while 
the ground-level floor contained the kitchens and the 
unattractive quarters of the house servants, many of 
whom, also, dwelt in cabins with the plantation hands. 

The picturesque aspect of these old French Colonial 
villas lay largely in their low lines and in the treatment 
of the premier etage porch or gallery, with its slender 
turned posts and simple railings. Some of these old 
New Orleans houses show Spanish influence in the pres- 
ence of an entirely Spanish patio. Built to meet the 
tastes and requirements of a people and a life now 
almost vanished, this quaint architecture of our most 
Southern (and once most picturesque) city may still 
afford some interesting flashes of inspiration for the 
architect of to-day, who has hitherto regarded it, per- 
haps, as an historical curiosity rather than a document 
of American architecture containing many dormant 

In studying native American types of architecture, 
especially in the light of modern adaptations of the 
work of our colonists, we must not forget that, at a very 
early date Spanish missionaries were braving the dan- 
gers of the Far West to carry Christianity to the 


Indians of the Pacific Coast, as the French Missionary 
Pere Marquette, had preached and taught it up and 
down the Mississippi valley. The great Spanish mis- 
sionary-martyr, Fra Junipero, with his faithful fol- 
lowers, left behind them a great many buildings which 
possess for us to-day a strong significance, now being 
appreciated by the architects of the Pacific Coast. 

Mission architecture, for the most part, needs con- 
siderable modification for use to-day, because those 
early monks and missionaries who reared the pictu- 
resque buildings for their churches and monasteries 
were sadly handicapped in building facilities. Vir- 
tually all the work had to be performed by their own 
hands, with but little assistance from their new con- 
verts, so that it was necessarily crude. There is, how- 
ever, a distinct element of architectural sincerity per se, 
quite dissociated from the romantic interest naturally 
associated with the early missions. There were beauti- 
ful proportions, charming cloisters and, in general, a 
marked degree of appropriateness in these buildings. 
Some brick was used in their construction, and a little 
stone. Adobe, the natural local clay, was a material 
ready to hand and easily worked. Wood was little 
used, and nearly always with quaintly crude carpentry. 
Wall surfaces were plain, and roofs were of the corru- 
gated tile familiar in Spain. It is a little remarkable 
that the early Spanish missions are not more widely 
proclaimed as one of our most picturesque and avail- 
able types of American architecture. Spanish- Ameri- 
can, perhaps, yet essentially appropriate to that local- 
ity, as inspiration for the architects of our entire 
Pacific Coast and Southwest. 

Pacific Coast architects have availed themselves of 
this peculiarly interesting local type to some extent, 


Outer wall of San Gabriel Mission, Los Angeles, California (1780). The architecture of the 
Spanish Missions possessed many traits both like and unlike that of Spain, and the "Mission" 
style has profoundly influenced modern architectural design on the Pacific Coast 

Robert I>. Farquahar, Architect 


The modern California!! house has been developed along lines of stylistic appropriateness 

Irving J. Gill, Architect 


A type of dwelling derived from the Spanish and Spanish Colonial hacienda, with severe 
exterior, iron-grilled windows and an inner garden court, or polio. "Mission" simplicity 

is also apparent 

(A residence at Los Angeles, California) 


blending with it many elements more directly derived 
from Spain and from Italy, and have also developed 
a distinctive type in which a strong Japanese influence 
is apparent, especially in the handling of exposed 
woodwork. Much interesting work is yearly added to 
the residential architecture of the Pacific Coast, from 
San Diego to Seattle, and the danger most to be feared, 
as in other parts of the country, is the danger of a lack 
of architectural unity. In American architecture, 
caprice is constantly militating against consistency, 
especially in the matter of local styles. Consistency 
need not mean monotony, for there are endless and 
interesting variations to be played upon every archi- 
tectural theme to which we have fallen heir. 

Most public buildings of the Pacific Coast, as well 
as banks, theatres, and the like, show few local traits 
differing conspicuously from similar buildings in other 
parts of the United States local peculiarities, mostly 
very interesting and promising, seem confined to domes- 
tic architecture. 

Before taking up three distinctly modern and dis- 
tinctly non-stylistic types of American architecture, this 
review should briefly bring the story of American 
architecture up to date, bridging the time between the 
period of clean-cut native colonial types, and our pres- 
ent period of varied derivations. 

Following the early Colonial period, came the Post- 
Colonial, running through the early part of the newly- 
established nation, and extending as far as the time of 
the Classic Eevival, of which more was said in the 
fourth chapter. This was in 1812, when national feel- 
ings aroused over the war with England at that time, 
caused us to turn for foreign inspiration toward 
France, Hence the American " Empire" style ultra- 


classicism in architecture and furniture, Greek temples 
and Pompeian details on every hand. 

What was worthy in design as a result of this 
imported Classic taste, such monuments as Colonnade 
Eow, old "La Grange Terrace" in New York, was soon 
lost to sight in the years of architectural chaos which 
followed. Early Victorianism, Euskinian "Gothic," 
Eastlakian fantasies, debased bourgeois French archi- 
tecture and pseudo-Swiss chalets reared themselves in 
a mad nightmare of architectural insanity. In 1883 
the Philadelphia Centennial "finally revealed us as, 
architecturally speaking, the most savage of nations," 
and from this time on some glimmerings of architec- 
tural conscience began to make themselves felt. The 
so-called "Queen Anne" style, actually based on the 
French chateau type, if on anything, was a sincere effort 
toward creating a type of house which should be both 
pleasing and picturesque. Let us not heap too much 
derision upon its unnecessary towers, its queer windows 
and generally artificial expression of picturesque 
values. The designers of that time, no less than East- 
lake himself, did not realise that the picturesque is not 
a thing of design that it "happens," and if the result 
of a calculated intention, it cannot be truly picturesque. 

The effects of the ' ' Queen Anne ' ' style, however, as 
well as the effects of Eastlake 's mad outbursts of sun- 
flowers, spindles and rosettes, lasted well into the 
'90s, and are to be felt even in such admirable pieces 
of design as McKim, Mead & White 's Newport Casino, 
and other buildings of the same period. 

A leaven was working, however. H. H. Richardson 
had clarified the architectural outlook of his time by 
his own splendid vision of the Romanesque or Byzan- 
tine Revival. By the opening of the World's Fair at 


A typical American "seaside villa," developed from no historic style, European or native, 
and purely a "natural growth" 



In many American country-houses, from 1890 to date, interesting effects have been obtained 
by quite unorthodox uses of European architectural motifs. The- result, sometimes pleasing 
and sometimes bizarre, constitutes no architectural "style," either native or derived 

D. Knickerbacker Boyd, Architect 


irican ideas in country-house planning, rendered in local materials, have developed 
ral types too remotely associated with English prototypes to be called "derivations" 

Mellor & Meigs, Architects 

Design to meet modern American requirements, and design in local materials, have resulted 
in the creation of distinct national types 



Chicago in 1893 the country was ready for a change, 
ready to see the light and accept new architectural 
ideas. There sprang up in Chicago the marvellous 
" White City," a thing of Classic beauty, yet of a 
classicism which was recognised as bearing a message 
to modernity. 

The architects of the World's Fair, notably McKim, 
Mead & White, became the leaders of architectural 
thought and effort in America, and the present era of 
adaptations and derivations commenced. From that 
time to the present the pages of European architecture 
have been the pages of an open and oft-consulted book, 
as must be graphically apparent in a glance through 
our illustrations. In the course of evolution, there was 
a certain amount of opposition on the part of many 
architects who felt that a menace to freedom lay in the 
direction of importing architectural styles in toto, and 
there appeared, for this reason, many buildings pecul- 
iarly American, and evidently expressive of a kind of 
esthetic revolt. 

On one page appears a typical American ' ' sea-side 
cottage," built, perhaps, in 1896 or thereabout, as also 
the interestingly (and even pleasingly) conglomerate 
country house shown below it. Certain architectural 
ideas, such as an expression (usually counterfeit) of 
English half -timber work, were brazenly thrown in with 
a fieldstone chimney of the most informal sort, and a 
Spanish tile roof Spanish in tile only, and anything 
else in profile. Much work of this period, possibly 
by reason of the very element of recklessness and de- 
fiance in the intention of the architects, attained values 
of a peculiarly pleasing kind of spontaneity which finds 
no counterpart in many better studied country and sea- 
side houses of to-day. Newport, in Rhode Island, is 


rich in houses of this kind, as also Bar Harbor in Maine, 
"the north shore," above Boston, and many other fash- 
ionable summer localities. 

The deliberately "picturesque" house is seldom 
attempted to-day perhaps it has succumbed to the 
critics' not always merited ridicule. We adhere very 
strictly to adapted European styles, or to modern devel- 
opments of early American types excepting in three 
directions, and these three only in the field of domestic 
architecture. Owning no allegiance to precedent or 
style, we find Secessionist architecture, "Craftsman" 
architecture, and the "bungalow," which is very sel- 
dom a bungalow at all. 

The Middle West, usually regarded as designating, 
specifically, Chicago and its vicinity, has developed 
several strange, interesting types of architecture which 
might well be regarded as the works of a group of men 
who should be called the " American Secessionists." 

Mr. Cram, in an address on "Style in American 
Architecture," paragraphs them as follows: 

"The Secessionist one might sometimes call him 
Post-Impressionist, Cubist, even is the latest element 
to be introduced, and in some ways he is the most inter- 
esting. Unlike his confreres in Germany, Spain and 
Scandinavia, he shows himself little except in minor 
domestic work for at heart we are a conservative race, 
whatever individuals may be but here he is stimulat- 
ing. His habitat seems to be Chicago and the Pacific 
Coast, his governing conviction a strongly developed 
enmity to archaeological forms of any kind. Some of 
the little houses of the Middle West are striking, quite 
novel, and inordinately clever; some of the work on 
the Pacific Coast, particularly around Pasadena, is 
exquisite, no less. Personally, I do not believe it is 

1'rank Lloy<l Wright, Architect 

Notably in the Middle West, there have appeared many houses which express an endeavour 
to depart entirely from historic styles and forms 


The use of local materials, unadorned and frankly employed, is the "Craftsman" creed 

an honest and unaffected mode of living is here expressed in architectural terms 

(Home of Gustav Stickley) 



Many of the most pleasing of California:* cottages and bungalows are inspired 
by characteristics distinctly Japanese 



A typical Pacific Coast "Bungalow" is seen through an entrance pergola of 
natural redwood trunks. The bungalow itself is constructed inside and out of 
this native wood 


possible wholly to sever one's self from the past, its 
forms and expression ; and it certainly would be unde- 
sirable. On the other hand, the astute archeology of 
some of our best modern work, whether Classic or 
Gothic, is stupefying and leads nowhere. Out of the 
interplay of these two tendencies much of value may 

An illustration will convey an idea of the charac- 
ter of this architecture of the American Secessionists 
a house designed by the greatest exponent of the style, 
Frank Lloyd Wright, whose work has profoundly in- 
fluenced many younger architects of the Middle West. 

Some more general comments on the aim and intent 
of the Secessionist idea, as well as a paragraphic survey 
of the "Art Nouveau" movement are reserved for 
introduction in the concluding chapter of this portion 
of the book. 

In "Craftsman" architecture we find a very direct 
and simple expression of a very direct and simple 
idea. The "Craftsman idea," indeed, might better be 
called a "creed" the creed of the simple life. The 
style is one which, were its origin traced, would lead 
directly back to William Morris a style, or a point of 
view, which decries all adherence to forms which recall 
the arts of foreign lands or other ages. Its exponents 
maintain that whatever may be lost in historic associa- 
tion is gained in freedom from constraining precedent, 
and in actual establishment of a contact with nature 
itself. It is the architecture of "the simple life." 

Nor need it be supposed that "Craftsman" archi- 
tecture is necessarily a thing austere and ascetic. The 
creed is framed to include, necessarily, all furniture, 
rugs, draperies and other fitments of the home, as well 
as the colour scheme, both inside and out. 


Subdued colours of nature are specified as most 
expressive of perfect and reposeful simplicity, and the 
element of the primitive, especially in textile textures, 
is considered desirable. Tones are plain flat wall sur- 
faces, flat stencil decorations, often symbolic, things of 
beaten copper or dull faience dull values of browns, 
greens, tans, greys and blues. Most commendable of 
all, the "Craftsman" creed includes honesty of con- 
struction and a frank, unashamed expression of con- 
struction a tenet inherited direct from the earlier 
crusade of William Morris. 

A part of the ' ' Craftsman" idea coincident with it 
and similarly related to the Morris movement, is the 
"Mission" scheme of architecture, concerned mostly 
with interior design. The "Mission Style," so far as 
it can be called such, originated from two simple, 
"straight-line" chairs, rush-seated, designed by a 
Pacific Coast architect for a small Californian parish 
church. In that the Mission idea advocated our rejec- 
tion of all art related to historic "periods," its aim was 
identical with the aim of the "Craftsman" idea, while 
the latter exerted, and still exerts, a widespread in- 
fluence over the design and fashioning of textiles, 
ceramics, jewelry and things other than architecture 
and furniture. 

Its definite place in the mosaic of American archi- 
tecture has yet to be won by the l ' Craftsman ' ' style, for 
it is a current style. We are able to perceive that it 
has been accorded wide and intelligent appreciation, 
and so far as it sincerely lives up to the creed upon 
which it is founded, it is not only "safe" but right to 
accord to it a proper amount of serious appreciation. 

In discussing the bungalow as seen in America, there 
is some danger of discussing a thing which does not 


actually exist, excepting in rare instances. The real 
and only " bungalow" is the one-story dwelling of the 
Anglo-East Indian, and since this type is peculiar to 
India, we will, perhaps, do well to forget the absent 
similarity in type suggested by the identity in name, 
and look at the American bungalow as a distinct type, 
unlike any other form of dwelling, and quite often 
unlike itself. The American bungalow, in other words, 
exists in many varieties of small cottage, virtually all 
of which are unlike the type from which we take the 
name. Webster defines it: "A lightly built, usually 
thatched or tiled, house or cottage of a single story, 
usually surrounded by a veranda" a definition accu- 
rate enough as far as it goes. The bungalow of to-day 
may be of fieldstone, of hollow tile and stucco, of all 
frame construction, or even of brick, and its roof may 
be of Spanish tile or of shingles. 

If one is invited by a friend to visit him in his 
"bungalow" at the seaside, one has little, if any, defi- 
nite idea of what manner of dwelling he may see, from 
a "portable house" to a substantial two-story cottage. 
Often a low-sweeping roof, giving a low appearance to 
a cottage, will cause the owner to describe his villa as a 
"bungalow." Nearly all American "bungalows" are 
a story and a half in height that is, a full story on the 
main floor, and provision by means of dormer windows, 
for two or more small sleeping rooms under the roof. 

A veranda is usually a prominent feature of this type 
of dwelling, and since it is not a bungalow after the 
Anglo-Indian fashion, or a cottage of the English 
" week-end " type, it would seem that a new designa- 
tion were needed. " Bungalow," however, is likely to 
adhere, and may do as well as anything, despite the 
flexibility, and usually the inaccuracy, of its application. 


The bungalow is a distinctly popular type of mod- 
erate and low-cost dwelling on the Pacific Coast, where 
architects have developed it into a thoroughly charming 
and livable affair, and it is essayed to-day, with varying 
degrees of success, in nearly every part of the country. 

The bungalow is appreciated, in a popular way, 
more extensively than it is understood, and if architects 
and prospective builders will take it a little more seri- 
ously, and develop it into a miniature all-year-round 
house (a role it very frequently fills to-day), there may 
be evolved a highly desirable and essentially American 
type of dwelling, bearing no similarity whatever to the 
tropical affair from which its name has come, nor yet 
to any other architectural type in any other country. 

At this point, having presented in a necessarily brief 
form, an analytical guide to those architectural styles 
and types which possess definite form, and which may 
be subjected to definite classification, it is no less impor- 
tant to direct a little critical attention toward certain 
phases of our subject which might be called "Architec- 
tural Addenda. " 

In point of style, comment will be made upon that 
strange movement called "L'Art Nouveau," and upon 
the Secessionist (now "Modernist") movement of 
Austria and Germany. 

It will prove interesting, as well, to direct obser- 
vation toward the results which have come from the 
application of certain old architectural styles to new 
architectural types to the modern city house and shop 
front, the tall office building, the loft building, the vast 
modern American hotel and railway terminal. In 
* ' many inventions ' ' to fulfil new and unexpected duties, 
the art of Architecture has splendidly lived up to its 



NO study of stylistic expressions in architecture 
would be complete without some acquaintance 
with certain schools of design which exist outside the 
pale of the historic periods. It is the purpose of this 
chapter, therefore, to discuss certain "new" styles, 
and certain new applications of old styles which have 
been added to the history of architectural development 
in modern times. 

One of the first secessions from historic precedent in 
design appeared about 1896 in the form of a movement 
which was known as "L'Art Nouveau." This new art, 
originating, as its name would indicate, in France, 
threw design in general into convulsions which, at the 
time, seemed likely to entirely transform all previous 
ideas of Classic or academic design in architecture and 
furniture. L'Art Nouveau, furthermore, assumed, 
temporarily, an absolute dominance of feeling in the 
design of jewellry, ceramics, bookbinding and other 
crafts, as well as in the graphic arts. 

The style, however, could not last beyond the first 
bloom of its novelty, because it was illogical and basic- 
ally unsound. It sought to mould form to accommo- 
date decoration, instead of accommodating decoration 
to form. In two respects, it was a highly naturalistic 
sort of art, employing as motifs plant forms, and render- 



ing these in a naturalistic manner. "L'Art Nouveau" 
was a style of flowing and sinuous lines, often graceful, 
but too frequently bizarre and ' ' forced, ' ' and although 
naturalistic, it was also highly artificial, in that the 
natural forms employed were forced into illogical uses. 

It is true that no previous school of design had pro- 
duced works in any way similar to the creations of the 
"art nouveau" enthusiasts, even though there might 
be traced an accidental similarity in some free Gothic 
renderings of leaves or fruit. The style reached its 
height in France and found its most ready outside 
acceptance in Belgium, being too ' ' French" for the Ger- 
mans and too "emotional" for the English. It was 
copied, in America, solely by reason of its novelty, and 
without any understanding whatever of the intention 
of its French creators. 

As a style, "L'Art Nouveau" comes to us to-day 
sometimes as a sort of joke, and nearly always as a mis- 
guided and ephemeral fantasy. This, perhaps, is not 
altogether fair, because, with all its faults, "L'Art 
Nouveau" had some occasional flashes of real inspira- 
tion. If it had done nothing more, it awakened an 
appreciation of graceful form, and of the inexhaustible 
possibilities of deriving decorative motifs from plant 
forms. One of the illustrations shows a Parisian shop 
front the style, perhaps, exemplified at its best, for 
of all buildings, a hat shop, or a candy shop, or a small 
theatre, may permissably indulge in architectural friv- 
olity. One cannot imagine a courthouse or a post-office 
designed along "art nouveau" lines, but one can read- 
ily think of instances in which the style might be 
acceptable and pleasing. To-day, however, it is to all 
intents and purposes a "dead" style, excepting in the 
imprint which it left on the previously Classic archi- 


This example is taken from a drawing by 
the "Wiener Werkstetten" 

A Parisian shop front thoroughly characteristic of the style 


tecture of the Beaux Arts. For it was from the brief 
but intense enthusiasm over the "new art" that French 
architects received the idea of rendering in a naturalis- 
tic vein much of their ornamental detail, as well as their 
tendency to give many architectural forms a certain 
sinuosity and often a certain frivolity. 

As early as 1870 a few restless Austrian designers 
were experimenting in strange furniture and architec- 
ture dangerously like that of the "art nouveau." 
Gradually, however, their efforts began to take a defi- 
nite form, and in the late '90 's the "Viennese Seces- 
sion" became an actual 'school of design the forerun- 
ner of the ' ' Modernist ' ' school of to-day. The secession- 
ists, as their name would imply, rebelled against what 
they regarded as the slavish copying of archaeological 
forms, and sought new means of expression. Their art, 
perhaps, might be considered to some extent as a creed, 
or a declaration. 

While it was a creed based on simplicity, it was a 
weird and strange kind of simplicity, very unlike that 
of William Morris, and very difficult to compare with 
any other art movement of any other land or period. 
The secessionists were as nearly "original" as it is 
possible to be, and their works suggest but remotely 
certain elusive elements of things Japanese and Egyp- 
tian. Secessionist architecture is a very different kind 
from "art nouveau" architecture; in the first, decora- 
tion is regarded as an accessory to design as a whole, 
while in the second, the whole design was regarded 
(quite illogically) as subordinate to its decoration. 
Radical as much secessionist work may seem, it is, in 
reality, distinctly conservative, for decoration is used 
both sparingly and cleverly, with due appreciation of 
the fact that its value is most emphatic when it is made 


an incident rather than an end in itself. Secessionist 
architecture is characterised by broad, plain wall sur- 
faces, an absence of mouldings and of all Classic or 
historic forms, either architectural or decorative, and 
by a close association of furniture, fabrics and other 
accessories. The consistency of the modern Austrian 
and German secessionist efforts is largely due to the 
fact that one designer creates not only the house, but its 
furniture and its entire scheme of interior decoration, 
as well, perhaps, as the layout of the gardens sur- 
rounding it. 

Such procedure is highly desirable, assuming that 
the designer is sufficiently capable and versatile to carry 
out the entire scheme the typical " Secessionist" villa, 
indeed, could hardly be achieved in any other way. 

As in the case of any "extreme" or radical style, 
of any style of which the acceptance amounts to a creed, 
it is essential that one believes sincerely in it as such. 
The acceptance of any style merely because it is a 
"fad," or because it seems to be "the latest thing," 
is doubly deplorable, in that style and individual are 
both debased. 

The Secessionist movement of Austria profoundly 
influenced modern architecture, interior decoration and 
furniture design in Germany, producing many works of 
significance not entirely measurable at the present time. 

In France, the Secessionist movement found its 
expression in the "Modernist" school of architects and 
decorators. There is apparent here the same avoid- 
ance of Classic or historic forms, the same effort toward 
effecting broad, plain wall surfaces and strikingly 
"original" forms. The French Modernists, in addi- 
tion, have given a strange exotic flavour to much of their 
work by the introduction of certain Oriental devices, 


especially as derived from Persian architecture. Many 
"Modernist" costumes, turban head-dresses, Oriental 
perfume bottles and Persian textile motifs bear evi- 
dence of this interesting influence. 

As might be supposed, America saw a counterpart 
(on a small scale, however), of the Secession, and is 
enjoying to-day many reflected scintillations of the 
French ''Modernist" movement, also on a small scale. 
We have not, as yet, an American * ' Modernist ' ' archi- 
tecture to reckon with, though we have a good bit of 
11 Modernist" interior decoration and furniture. 

The great American Secessionist in architecture is 
Frank Lloyd Wright, of Chicago, whose work, as noted 
in the latter part of the preceding chapter, has exten- 
sively influenced many contemporary architects of the 
Middle West. The exact place of this school of archi- 
tectural design has yet to be determined, and its real 
worth, both present and ultimate, must depend entirely 
upon the sincerity of both architect and client. 

There is much in the best of the American Secession- 
ist architecture which is pleasing and refreshing, while 
ill-studied examples show much which is too strange 
and "forced" to possess valid reason for existence. 
Design which is by way of being a departure from aca- 
demic precedent, or the guidance of historic forms, is 
work for the master designer. No amateur should ven- 
ture to attempt it, and no mere copy of work which has 
resulted from another's sincere conviction or personal 
ingenuity can ever possess a recognisable degree of 
merit or permanency. 

Let us now turn to certain current architectural 
manifestations in America wherein old historic styles 
have been used as media of design for distinctly new 
types of building, and determine, if possible, how well 


this has been done, and with what degree of stylistic 

We have, in the larger American cities, certain 
highly specialised architectural problems, of which it 
may be germane here to present a few remarks on the 
modern city house, the tall office building (once called 
the "skyscraper"), the loft building, the gigantic 
modern hotel, the apartment house, and the great mod- 
ern railroad terminal. 

The metropolitan city house, at the outset, presents 
a variety of problems to the architect, many of which 
are not strictly architectural. He is doubly hedged 
about with the natural limitations of the site, and with 
the multitudinous "restrictions " of city building codes. 

The "architecture" of the exterior, indeed, is fin- 
ished when the design of the street facade is finished, 
and the interiors of the rooms within may be carried 
out in any range of "period" styles dictated by the 
whim of the client. An interior decorator, indeed, may 
be called in here to work with the architect, or to exe- 
cute certain rooms independently. 

Of the working relationship of architect and decora- 
tor, and the clients' responsibility in this connection, 
more will be said in the second part of this book. 

The trend of architectural development in most of 
the larger cities would seem to dictate certain styles as 
more appropriate and in better taste than others. 
There are strong recommendations, for example, 
toward designing the facade in a modified Italian 
Renaissance vein, a modified Modern French, or a 
direct Louis XVI style, or in the manner called the 
"Harvard" type, of brick, with white stone trim and 
occasional ironwork. Surprisingly little use has been 
made of the Holland Dutch type, of which a remark- 

Photograph by Tli. van den Hcnvel Little A O'Connor, Architects 


Houses on the Rue Flamande, Bruges, typical 
of the city architecture of both Holland and 


An American adaptation of the early city 
architecture of the "Low Countries." This 
house, in New York City, is of brick, with 
decorative details in brightly coloured faience. 
The stepped gable is characteristic 


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ably able rendering is seen in one of the illustrations, 
showing a New York City residence. Fire-laws have 
excluded the picturesque half -timber city fagade which 
lends so much charm to Chester, in England, and to 
many old Flemish, French and German streets. It is 
true that a half-timber "effect" could be obtained by 
an ingenious use (or misuse) of fire-proof materials, 
but the result would be palpably artificial, and conse- 
quently undesirable. At one time city houses were 
popularly designed in a Romanesque manner, in 
various strange attempts contemporaneously called 
''Gothic," and in more successful adaptations of the 
French Gothic-Renaissance transitional style of 
Francis First. We will not speak of the entirely 
odious "brownstone front," now mercifully disappear- 
ing in rows under the hands of wreckers it was an 
entirely base copy (if it could even be called a copy) 
of an entirely debased kind of bourgeois poor taste 
which existed in France in the early '80 's, and a repe- 
tition of its like, on either side of the Atlantic, is 
fortunately impossible to-day, or even in the future. 

In its actual planning, as a complete organism, the 
modern city house is a complex affair, and an architec- 
tural problem calling for the highest order of ability 
and ingenuity on the part of the architect. Rooms 
must be provided as adequately as the restricted site 
will allow, with light and ventilation, servants' quar- 
ters and kitchen skilfully incorporated, a service en- 
trance devised, and a number of such convenient 
innovations as self-operated elevators, dumb-waiters, 
laundry chutes and, of course, the plumbing and heating 

With all these details, only in part suggested here, 
the architect is now called upon to effect, as well, some 



sense of "spaciousness" perhaps in a city house 
occupying a twenty-five foot lot. The greatest evolu- 
tion in city house planning took place with the abolish- 
ment of the high entrance " stoop" and the narrow hall 
within. The basement entrance plan, with the front 
wall of the house on or near the building line, enabled 
the architect to design something in the nature of a 
foyer or lobby, sometimes of an almost monumental or 
imposing nature, and occupying the whole width of the 
lot. Some architects, too, by ingenious economy of 
space in other parts of the house, have designed great 
two-story living-rooms or salons, of considerable 
length, and as wide as the lot (exclusive of the party- 
wall thickness) a device most desirable in the neces- 
sarily cramped and "shut-in" confines of the usual city 

Much yet remains in the evolution of the city house 
especially in connection with the architectural reclama- 
tion of back-yards, roofs, and low-extensions. There 
are unrealised possibilities, too ; in the introductions of 
patios or small garden court-yards, either at the ground 
level, or sunk in the roof. The "solarium" or sun- 
parlor has added an attractive retreat off the dining- 
room of many a city house of recent design, but more 
still remains to be done to create, even under architec- 
turally unfavourable conditions, more livable and 
attractive urban dwellings. 

One speaks, here, not of the city mansion, which 
is an opportunity rather than a problem, but of the 
average and even the small city house, for of these are 
most of our residential streets made up. 

The problem of designing the tall office building 
has been variously met, and often with conspicuous 
success. From the point of view of design, there is 


required a seemly and well-considered architectural 
casing, or disguise, for a steel frame, the whole pre- 
senting a maximum of voids, or window openings, to a 
minimum of solids or wall surfaces. 

The skilful manner in which the great Woolworth 
building was treated forms the subject of a carefully 
detailed discussion in the fifth chapter. Obviously no 
historic precedent can be followed in the treatment of 
a building of size more vast than the greatest European 
cathedral. Historic styles have been used as motifs 
rather than models, so that we have the Metropolitan 
Tower, in New York City, done in the guise of an 
Italian Renaissance campanile, enormously magnified, 
or we see an Italian arcade or a Classic Colonnade 
crowning a building so tall that one can scarce discern 
the order of the columns. 

In most tall office buildings, architectural effort in 
design is usually confined to the first few stories above 
the street level, and to the upper two or three stories 
which crown the building. The intervening mass of 
wall, perforated by countless windows, is usually of 
uniform design, which is an expedient both logical and 
desirable. If architectural detail, or "interest," were 
spread evenly over the vast bulk of such a colossal 
building as the Equitable Insurance Building, in New 
York City, the effect would be both optically and men- 
tally distressing. The building would seem ' * restless ' * 
because the eye would fail to focus itself naturally at 
any level, and many important values of dignity, and of 
something almost approaching sublimity (apparent in 
some of the larger commercial buildings), would be lost. 
It is natural that many liberties must be taken with 
historic styles to fit them agreeably and urbanely to 
such a structure as the modern office building and a 


high average of merit has been struck through the 
ingenuity and adaptability which American architects 
have shown in their designs for this essentially Ameri- 
can type of building. 

Even the lay observer should not fail to appreciate 
what it means -to design a cornice, for example, or a 
colonnade in scale to be seen elevated forty or fifty 
stories in the air. The architect can contrive this 
detail only on paper and in his head. It may look very 
different in its execution and placement at a great eleva- 
tion, and if we stop to consider the exacting and really 
tremendous nature of the problem, we must come to 
realise that an architect deserves more credit for the 
successful design of a tall building than for the success- 
ful design of a beautiful country house. The country 
house, perhaps, could not be more agreeable to look 
upon, while the great office building, if only by reason 
of its bulk, could easily have been a vast and grievous 
architectural affliction, and is not, even at its best, so 
humanly appealing as the country house. 

Another modern American architectural problem, 
in some respects a problem more exacting than the tall 
office building, exists in the "loft building." Here is 
a structure intended for purposes entirely utilitarian, 
a city building perhaps twenty stories in height, de- 
signed to house on each floor some manufacturing 
industry or some commercial organisation. Two fac- 
tors have militated against the attainment of a high 
degree of architectural merit in the loft building 
speedy erection and economy in expenditure yet the 
architect has often produced an edifice by no means 
despicable, or to be dismissed as unworthy of the atten- 
tion of the architectural observer. The loft building 
cannot be made a thing of beauty, but good design, 

=3=233 c=S=========== 

re, Arthitect.- 


A typical hotel building of the modern American type a gigantic fire-proof struct- 
ure equipped with every practical convenience, and detailed and furnished in the 
Eighteenth Century English style of the Brothers Adam 


within the inevitable limitations presented, may keep it 
from being a thing of absolute banality. Unlike the 
tall office building, the loft building is one of many on 
a street, and may be lighted only from front and rear, 
with possible additional light from a shaft designed to 
the purpose. Consequently, any architectural "char- 
acter " which is attempted in the design can be apparent 
only in the front elevation, or street fagade. Usually 
the entrance to the building and its crowning story 
are architecturally treated, the intervening stories 
being entirely given over to necessary window space. 
If no adjacent buildings of comparable height exist, the 
loft building perforce must rear two great blank side 
walls, towering far above the rows of three- and four- 
story buildings below it. Ordinarily these blank walls 
remain for years, adorned only with large painted signs 
proclaiming the names and businesses of the tenants of 
the several floors, though in many notable instances the 
architect has made this vast wall surface strangely 
interesting by devising upon it titanic designs formed 
by the use of two different-coloured bricks. In a few 
years a loft building of equal height may occupy both 
sites adjoining, but in the interval previous to their 
erection, these gigantic brick patterns loom up as an 
interesting and commendable expedient. 

No visitor to a large American city, especially a 
visitor to New York, could fail to be impressed by the 
modern hotel edifices, even though their towering 
structures may fail, through familiarity or feigned 
indifference, to impress the metropolitan individual 
who passes daily under their great shadows, or eats 
frequently in their gilded dining-rooms. 

The modern American hotel, besides being a mar- 
vellous organism as a hotel, presents several unusually 


interesting angles for amateur architectural study, both 
inside and out. 

As an organism, indeed a microcosm, we see con- 
joined under one vast roof a combination of devices 
human, mechanical and aesthetic, all planned to effect 
pleasure and comfort to the guest. Since the present 
consideration must deal entirely with the architectural 
aspect of the great metropolitan hotel, we must per- 
force dismiss its many other interesting features. 

American hotel architecture emerged from absolute 
banality at about the time of the general architectural 
awakening of the country, and after the erection of the 
Waldorf in New York City, the prevalent "hotel style" 
followed suit, taking the form of a composite adaptation 
of the French styles of Louis XIV, Louis XV and 
Louis XVI. Structures were reared more enormous in 
bulk than the greatest French palaces or chateaux, and 
hotel interiors were made magnificent and sumptuous 
to a superlative degree by the use of ornamental mar- 
bles, mirrors and gilt. 

The adaptation of this "magnificent" style for the 
large hotel has been severely but not intelligently criti- 
cised by many, on the ground that it is vulgar and 
ostentatious. It should be remembered, however, that 
the large city hotel is a building with a definite inten- 
tion it is intended to attract, impress and, if possible, 
flatter the travelling public. It cannot be denied that 
regal French architecture attracts and speaks in a 
universal language to all beholders, symbolising opu- 
lence, richness and a certain kind of social distinction. 
It has a splendid self-assurance, even if it may be said 
to lack repose. And for these same reasons it is im- 
pressive. Hotel managers were quick to appreciate the 
fact that architecture is one of the most theatrical of 


the arts that a certain impression may be more readily 
received, even though unconsciously, by a greater num- 
ber of people through the architectural guise of the 
building than through any other means. Thus, the 
great marble lobbies, the gilded dining-rooms, the vistas 
of mirrors and palms in the modern hotel are but theat- 
rical scenery, devised by the manager to make his 
venture a success, and the people eating, promenading 
or dancing in this intentionally gorgeous environment 
are the unconscious actors. 

To eat in a richly decorated Louis XIV dining-room, 
although one may care not at all for the style in itself, 
is to receive unconsciously some small reflex sensation 
of "the grand manner." Call the feeling by whatever 
other name he will, the average person is flattered by 
the environment he treads in the footsteps of great 
shadowy royal personages and courtiers of the past, 
and cannot escape a distinct impression of elation or 

For these reasons, which are psychological rather 
than architectural, these French styles which were 
elected to make up an elaborate composite which might 
be called ' ' hotel architecture, ' ' are to be regarded as an 
excellent choice for their purpose. Hotel architecture, 
to be sure, is superficial, yet this is natural when it is 
considered that its appeal must be instantaneous, and 
keyed to attract and please a great variety of people, 
averaging a not very high degree of architectural 

Further evidence of the desire to please on the part 
of the hotel management is to be seen in the diversity 
of styles often found in the interior decoration of a 
single hotel, as well as in the "special" rooms which 
are constantly offered to meet the continuous public 


demand for " novelty." One will find a Louis XIV 
dining-room, a ' ' Marie Antoinette ' ' tea-room, a ball- 
room resplendent in Louis XV rococo, and an ''Old 
Nuremberg " rathskeller, or grill-room downstairs. 
Greater diversity may be offered in the form of an 
" Egyptian Room" or a " Pompeian Room" yet the 
charge of " inconsistency" must fall flat when it is 
remembered that these things are devised to entertain, 
just as a varied musical program is devised to enter- 
tain. Very often these special rooms have been carried 
out with the highest degree of architectural ingenuity, 
and, taken separately for what they are worth, may 
offer much interesting study to the lay observer, if he 
will look about him between the dinner courses. 

A great many vast hotels, not only in New York, but 
in Philadelphia, Chicago and other cities, were designed 
mainly in French styles, until a new element entered 
the field of hotel design. And, to instance forcibly the 
ever-present close relation between architecture and 
human thought, this element came in as a reaction 
against the prevalence of the hotel ideal of "magnifi- 
cence." There was substituted a new ideal for hotel 
architecture an ideal of restraint, combined with an 
expression of that refined correctness which the English 
call "smartness." 

Architecturally, the great hotels of the French type 
had achieved prodigies of design. Such hotels as the 
Plaza, in New York, and the Bellevue-Stratford, in 
Philadelphia, reared vastly magnified chateau roofs 
high above all surrounding buildings. Again, as in the 
tall office structure, historic styles were used as motifs 
rather than models. The architect endeavoured to 
approach his problem as it would have been approached 


by the Eighteenth Century French architect, had he 
been required to design a similar structure. 

For the architectural expression of restraint in hotel 
design, however, a remarkable choice of style was 
made, and the firm of Warren and Wetmore achieved 
a brilliant success in their adaptation. Previously to 
the erection of the hotels Ritz-Carlton and Vanderbilt 
in New York City (the first of the new type), it would 
have been difficult for us to conceive of the delicate, 
minute Eighteenth Century English style of the 
'Brothers Adam applied to an enormous hotel edifice. 
The Adams for the most part were designers of furni- 
ture and of chaste interiors they were not distin- 
guished as the authors of large projects. 

It was desired, however, in the newest hotels, to 
carry out Adam interiors. A revival of Adam furni- 
ture and decorations had become the fashionable vogue, 
and it was surmised that hotel interiors in the Adam 
style would be immensely popular. The conflict be- 
tween the classic dignity of the Adam style within, 
and the diversified French type of hotel without, could 
not be thought of, so a seeming architectural impossi- 
bility was essayed an adaptation of the Adam style to 
the exterior design of buildings more vast in their 
proportions than all the four brothers together could 
have conceived. 

That this remarkable tour de force was successfully 
achieved is evidenced in the great Hotel Vanderbilt in 
New York City, a brilliant example of adapted archi- 
tectural style. The exterior, in brick of ' ' Adam grey, ' ' 
trimmed with cream-coloured terra-cotta details, is an 
admirable introduction to the quiet interiors within 
but few of the many who daily enjoy themselves in this 
great New York hotel stop to reflect that it is a remark- 


able architectural achievement, studied as an adapta- 
tion of an historic style for the rendering of an essen- 
tially modern type of building. Some other large 
hotels have been designed in free adaptations of Ital- 
ian Renaissance architecture, while within, the visitor 
may study modern American versions of many other 
styles of various periods and various lands. 

In few other types of building have architects drawn 
diverse inspiration with such spontaneity or freedom 
as in the modern hotel, and it is a great mistake to sup- 
pose that these remarkable edifices are of a nature too 
" superficial" to afford a volume of peculiarly interest- 
ing material for study. 

A distinctly modern and distinctly American type 
of building is the large apartment house and here may 
be said to exist an architectural opportunity by no 
means fully realised to date. There have been some 
admirably designed apartment houses, it is true, but 
by far the greater number suffer from commercialism, 
both inside and out. There has been an unfortunate 
tendency, still prevalent, to concentrate a great deal of 
the expenditure and architectural effort in effecting an 
imposing entrance and an impressive hallway, these 
features carried out with an air of opulence and even 
magnificence which give a false impression of the actual 
building itself. This effort to create a fine impression 
at first sight is obviously nothing more than a lure for 
new tenants and an excuse for maintaining high rentals, 
when the actual apartments themselves are meanly 
planned and poorly built. The apartment house has 
suffered much from this palpable deceit and it is rather 
surprising that even the average prospective tenant 
will not look more closely at the quality of the floors in 
the suite of rooms he is to rent, or at the carpentry 


of the woodwork and disregard as immaterial the pre- 
tentious display of marble, plate-glass and gilded 
plasterwork in the downstairs hall. 

Despite its many architectural drawbacks, however, 
the apartment house has improved considerably in 
recent years. There are better plans, more practical 
conveniences and far better design in such details as 
mantel-pieces, wainscotings and the like, even in the 
apartment of moderate rental. 

Eeal architectural ability is apparent in the design 
of some of the great apartment houses of high rental, as 
well as in many which are co-operatively owned by the 
tenants. A promising departure was marked by the 
11 duplex" apartment, in which a sense of spaciousness 
was effected by devising for each apartment a large 
two-story living room, like a studio. The other rooms 
of the apartment, instead of being inconveniently 
arranged on one floor, are disposed on two floors, with 
private connecting stairway, so that each duplex unit 
is, in fact, a miniature house in itself. 

The study of the apartment house problem and its 
many different solutions might well form the subject of 
exhaustive consideration, but no more can be done 
here than to suggest the great benefits which might 
result from a greater prevalence of co-operative build- 
ing, and to remind both landlords and speculative 
builders that the alluring front door to the apartment 
house is becoming constantly of less significance. A 
handsome entrance is very well if it is a true indication 
of the architectural quality of the entire building, but 
if it is nothing more than a lure, it is a poor investment. 
It may attract new tenants especially the young and 
inexperienced, but it will not cause them to renew their 


leases if the actual rooms in which they live are incon- 
veniently planned and meanly built. 

In building an apartment house, which from its 
nature, must be a profitable investment, cheap plans 
will be found a poor economy. Hotel managers realise 
that their building, above all else, must please the 
public, and they go to architects of recognised high 
ability. In any type of building designed to rent, archi- 
tectural appeal and architectural merit should be prac- 
tical considerations of great importance. Of the ' ' real 
estate development ' ' more will be said in a subsequent 

Among architectural types which are essentially 
modern, the great railroad terminal is a peculiarly 
interesting one, and has been a problem to which Ameri- 
can architects have devoted considerable study. 

It is doubtful if any similar building in any country 
possesses the architectural significance of the terminal 
of the Pennsylvania Eailroad in New York City. The 
stately colonnade, the vast interiors, achieve a quality 
of nobility in architectural conception which ranks with 
the greatest masterpieces of European architecture. 
Architecture here fills a dual function, in a building 
laid out in such colossal proportions that passenger 
congestion is impossible, while its splendid magnitude 
impresses every traveller with a sense of the prestige 
and the grand scale of the railroad to which he is 
entrusting himself. A building of this character is 
a long departure from the dingy and oppressive ''train 
shed" of earlier times. A building of the character of 
the Pennsylvania terminal is more than a building it 
is a symbol, perhaps as much a monument, in this 
respect, as the Pyramids of Egypt. 

The New York City terminal of the Grand Central 


McKiui, Mend A \\liiit-, AivlntiTt- Photograph copyright by Underwood & Underwood 


An exceptional example of an architectural expression of dignity 

(The Pennsylvania Railroad Terminal Station, New York City) 

Warren * Wetniore. Architects Photograph copyright l>y Underwood A Underwood 



This facade affords material for a comparison of the respective architectural expressiveness of 

the modern French school of design as opposed to the strict Classic school of design 

(The Grand Central Railroad Terminal Station, New York City) 


railroad is interesting from other viewpoints as an 
example of the modern unity of architecture with com- 
plex problems of engineering. 

The fagade of this great station proclaims at once 
the Ecole des Beaux Arts a symmetrical composition, 
Classic yet not Classic, and embellished with detail 
which is entirely French. Characteristic of suchmodern 
French architecture is the marked disregard for care- 
ful proportions, shown in the greatly out-of-scale alle- 
gorical figures over the central broken pediment. This 
alone would destroy the dignity of the whole an excel- 
lent comparison, indeed, being afforded in a study of 
this Grand Central terminal and the Pennsylvania ter- 
minal Beaux Arts freedom versus Classic restraint. 
Both are symmetrical fagades, both are buildings de- 
signed for the same purpose, yet their respective archi- 
tectural manners make them buildings of widely 
divergent character. 

The most interesting aspect of the Grand Central 
terminal is the complexity of its planning, necessitated 
by the fact that it is entered by the tracks of two very 
busy railroads, as well as by the Interborough Subway. 
There are, consequently, several different track-levels, 
with their several concourses, waiting-rooms and ticket 
offices. As a practical consideration the architects pro- 
vided that clearly readable legends be lettered at every 
point where the traveller might need direction, while 
further confusion is saved by the introduction, wher- 
ever possible, of ramps instead of stairways. On a 
ramp, which is a long, gently sloping runway, or plat- 
form, a crowd can move far more quickly than on a 
stairway, and it is possible, also, to run for a train 
up or down a ramp. It is probable that ramps will 
take the place of stairways in many of the public build- 


ings of the future in buildings of which even such 
remarkable structures as these two great railroad ter- 
minals are but forerunners. 

We live in an age of ' ' many inventions ' ' new struc- 
tural devices and systems appear yearly and make pos- 
sible the erection of buildings which were unthought of 
in the past. Obviously no one but an architect may be 
familiar with these technical innovations, but the lay 
observer who has become acquainted with architectural 
styles, together with some elemental principles of 
design, cannot but find much to interest him in the new 
architectural achievements which yearly add credit to 
the profession in America. 






IN connection with building, more, perhaps, than 
in any other connection, is there deep significance 
in the familiarly trite saying: "A little knowledge is 
a dangerous thing. " To be accurate, indeed, the ill- 
arranged ideas of most prospective builders cannot 
even be regarded as ' ' knowledge. ' ' If they knew, much 
disappointment might be saved it is rather that they 
think they know either enough to build without any 
architect, or to set themselves above the architect they 
actually engage to do the work. "A little knowledge" 
is dangerous because it is usually ignorance in disguise, 
and ignorance which will not be helped. Complete and 
honest ignorance frankly calls in the aid of the profes- 
sional man. 

It is the aim and intention of the following chapters 
to point out, in a building project, in what respects 
individual discretion may be employed to advantage, 
and in what respects professional opinion had best be 
followed. Certain things are matters of opinion, 
others are matters of fact. Even in the first group the 
architect's opinion is usually to be regarded as better 
based than an uniformed lay opinion, while in the sec- 
ond group, the absolute futility of argument should be 

15 225 


The points taken up in the following chapters will 
be arranged in the sequence dictated by the usual 
procedure in building a house, and each step will be 
dealt with in a practical manner. The practising archi- 
tect is distressed to find that much of the so-called 
''advice" to persons about to build is arbitrary, erro- 
neous or misleading, so that he is obliged to devote 
considerable effort and time toward disillusioning his 
client and establishing a ground of common sense and 
clear vision. Of this, more will be said in subsequent 
observations on the relation of architect and client. 

The usual private building operation does not call 
in the architect until certain very important things have 
been decided. The site of the house, for instance, is 
often pre-determined by the ownership of a piece of 
land. The architect might well be called in to suggest 
the best architectural location for the house, but very 
frequently he is not consulted on this question, or on the 
question of what style is to be followed in the design. 
These things are usually the architect's starting point, 
though in many cases it would have been well for the 
client to be professionally advised from the start. An 
architect's opinion as to what kind of a house would 
be best suited to a given site might be well worth hear- 
ing, and might result in a better solution of the problem. 

Varying sites call for different ways of locating the 
house, and here, at the outset, is a case in which any- 
thing resembling a fixed rule might easily be very 
dangerous to follow. 

It is of the greatest importance to give careful con- 
sideration to the points of the compass and to prevailing 
local winds, and to consider these as factors in the 
design of the house from its inception. If the site is 
a remote one, far from " improvements," the questions 


of lighting, water-supply and sewage disposal should 
be at least considered before there is detailed thought 
of " style." Although " style " is to the lay observer 
the most conspicuous of the architect's performances, 
it is relatively less exacting from the architect 's point 
of view than many of the more technical problems he is 
required to solve. 

If an architect has been selected at this stage, and 
has visited the site, and the location of the house, as 
exactly as possible, has been determined, it is well for 
a number of good photographs to be taken, or, in the 
case of a large and important house, an accurate topo- 
graphical survey made and drawn. In this way the 
architect may study the different grades or slopes which 
will govern certain parts of his design for the house. 

The ideal procedure is to use the topographical sur- 
vey as data for the construction of an accurately 
proportioned clay model of the site. On this model 
it is possible to lay out driveways and approaches, and 
even to block in the house itself, in miniature, in its 
exact relation to the place it is to occupy. The study of 
an architectural project by means of a model is of the 
greatest value to architect and client alike. To the first 
is given a more comprehensive and definite vision of 
the problem, and to the second is given a presentation 
of the architect's conception of the relationship of 
house to site more vivid and understandable than he 
could possibly obtain from any number of drawings. 

It is well to mention here that the topographical 
survey of the site, being a civil engineer's or surveyor's 
work, is not a part of the architect's work, and is paid 
for separately, either through the architect, or direct 
to the surveyor. It is to be regarded as a means for 
arriving most directly at the required result the estab- 


lishment of the exact relation of house to site, as well 
as the disposition of drives, approaches, terraces, out- 
buildings, etc. 

The construction of the model is usually undertaken 
by the architect, or under his direction, and a separate 
charge should rightly be expected for it, since it in- 
volves a considerable amount of special work. 

It should be apparent without great emphasis that 
the location, of placement, of the house on its site is 
extremely important. Many well-designed houses have 
given an appearance of unpleasing awkwardness solely 
because of the fact that they have been poorly placed 
with relation to the natural features of their sites. On 
the other hand, many houses of low cost and of little 
architectural pretension have seemed peculiarly agree- 
able because, on observation, it will be seen that 
every advantage has been taken of elevation, grades, 
approaches and background. 

Architecturally, as well as naturally, the most pleas- 
ing building is the building which is in the most graceful 
harmony with its site, and the prospective builder may 
often do well and wisely to banish from his mind some 
preconceived idea he may have had, if the execution of 
this idea would result in an unharmonious relationship 
of house and site. 

The question of site is often involved in the question 
of style, any formal type of building calling for a level 
site, while the rugged hill-side site is best suited by 
an informal or picturesque type of building. Style, 
when all is said, must always be a matter of personal 
predilection. To say that no formal house should be 
placed in rustic surroundings is to ignore the ultra- 
formal French hunting-lodges and chateaux which are 
often discovered in densely wooded tracts. The 

Mellor* Meigs, Architects 



A harmonious relationship between the house and its level site has been effected by the 
horizontal lines of the garden walls 


Successive additions to this charming hillside cottape have made it, with the 
aid of informal stone steps and terraces, a part of the steep site it occupies 

W. (i. Kautoul, Architect 

Early New England houses, as well as those of the first Dutch settlers, have 
combined in furnishing the precedent 


Albro <fe liindctierg, Architects 


The inspiration here came directly from the early Dutch farm-houses to be found in the 
portion of New York State in which this cottage was built 


chateau, it is true, is usually blended with its wood- 
land surroundings, like the Italian villa, by means of 
formal gardening. It would seem that the house, from 
the point of view of style, is best considered in the light 
of an architectural background or setting for the people 
who are to occupy it. If one intends to live and enter- 
tain in the country in a formal and rather elaborate 
manner (whether or not this is to be regarded as 
desirable), certainly the picturesque and informal house 
would not be the most effective setting. If, on the other 
hand, one's idea of country life is of the simple and 
unaffected kind, most characteristically English and 
American, a formal French chateau would prove a 
miserable disappointment, and architectural success 
would depend, rather, upon an architectural rendering 
of comfortable informality in terms of the picturesque. 

And so for every prospective builder, from the indi- 
vidual of ultra-formal tastes to the ultra-simple "next- 
to-nature ' ' enthusiast, there is a suitable type of dwell- 
ing which will reflect his tastes through the medium of 
an appropriate architectural setting. No fixed rule is 
possible the essential of suitability is too flexible and 
too much a matter of the individual case. It is pos- 
sible, however, to submit a few generalities which might 
be borne in mind, either in those cases where the pros- 
pective builder has no predilection for a specific style, 
or where it might be highly desirable for him to change 
his mind. 

One may contemplate building in a certain locality 
which possesses a marked architectural " character" 
for example, a small New England village. Here, as 
one drives down the old elm-shaded "main street," 
there may be seen houses which all conform to a certain 
type. They are simple, wooden houses, usually of white 


clapboards, with green blinds, and the intrusion of 
a distinctly alien type of house can only be regarded 
(locally, as well as in the abstract) as an offence against 
architectural harmony and against good taste. Con- 
sider, in this light, the erection in such a locality, of 
a Spanish mission house, with stucco walls and a bright 
red-tiled roof, and outrageous as such an architectural 
faux pas may seem, it is no worse in any way than many 
which have accosted the writer 's eye. It is safe to say 
that the newcomers would have earned the general dis- 
approbation of the natives for miles around, long be- 
fore they actually moved into their new and inappro- 
priate premises. 

The isolated house may be designed to conform with 
any stylistic whim, but in an instance where there are 
adjacent houses of some degree of architectural con- 
formity "bad taste" rather than "individuality" is 
expressed by the intrusion of a building which is out 
of keeping. In an earlier chapter this point was 
brought out in connection with the choice of style for 
an American village church. 

No local style is so mean or so devoid of possibilities 
that architectural ingenuity may not develop a thor- 
oughly satisfactory rendering in which that style is the 
main theme. 

As in the case of a well-designed house appearing to 
fatal disadvantage by reason of its failure in relation to 
its natural site, many well-designed houses (well- 
designed in themselves) create only a sensation of acute 
displeasure when they are seen in a locality in which 
they do not belong. 

Having observed, then, that architectural style 
should often be governed by natural site and by local 
architectural prototypes, we now find that styles should 


often be influenced by the nature of local building 

As an obvious generality it is safe to say that no 
materials are more suitable to a given locality than 
those which are found in that locality, and in this con- 
nection we will soon find that this has a distinct bearing 
on economy. 

It will be found that local building materials have 
influenced local architectural styles, to a minor degree, 
or conspicuously, and so we find both material and 
style, interlinked each with the other, forming a dual 
alliance to resent the intrusion of the building which 
is transplanted from some alien locality. 

Usually, and in a perfectly natural way, local mate- 
rials are best adapted to local styles, because they have 
been a factor in the development of those styles. Spe- 
cific types of building, those types associated with 
certain specific periods and countries, demand a ren- 
dering in certain materials, as will be more fully dis- 
cussed in a following chapter. If such materials are 
entirely alien to the locality in which it is proposed to 
erect the building, the prospective builder will do well 
to recast his ideas and endeavour to arrive at some 
type which will prove more suitable. 

In New England, for the most part, grey, weathered 
fieldstone is abundant. Skies are often grey, the earth 
is grey the entire landscape is a harmony of low tones. 
Consider, then, on a grey New England coast, a house 
of red brick, starting up from the ground like a con- 
flagration, or a white stucco ''Mission" house, a spot 
on the landscape as glaring as a newspaper carelessly 
thrown on a green lawn. Such extreme cases, and 
many less conspicuously outrageous, should convince 
the intelligent and thoughtful builder that even a deep- 


rooted predilection for some unsuitable type of building 
had best be discarded, even with temporary regret, in 
favour of a building which will be appropriate, and will 
possess, in addition to its architectural merits, the last- 
ing merits of logical choice and decent good taste. 

Up to this point, the prospective builder may have 
sought no professional advice. He has bought or other- 
wise acquired his real estate, he has formulated in his 
mind, either vaguely or definitely, some ideas of the 
location or placement of his house on its site, and he 
may have some ideas, as well, regarding architectural 
style and the materials of which he will build. With 
his wife, he may even have outlined on paper some 
" plans," embodying his wishes and intentions as to the 
interior arrangement of his new abode. 

Some wit who was obviously a consummate master 
of words once said that * ' The man who is his own law- 
yer has a fool for a client. ' ' Disregarding exceptional 
instances, the same is peculiarly true if one substitute 
another profession, and state that ' * The man who is his 
own architect has a fool for a client. ' ' 

Before giving consideration to the different ways 
in which the architect is usually, or is best, sought by 
the prospective builder, it might be well to point out 
a few of the more serious reasons why it is both unde- 
sirable and unwise to attempt any consequential build- 
ing project without competent professional advice. 
Reasons for this will become increasingly apparent as 
this and the subsequent chapters proceed. 

The prospective builder will find himself handi- 
capped throughout by a general ignorance of details, 
and will be daily confronted by problems on which he 
had not reckoned. If his time be valuable, he will 
find that he has spent far more in his own time than he 


would have been called upon to spend on his architect's 
commission, and, if economy had been his motive in 
being his own architect, he would indeed find he had 
* * a fool for a client. ' ' 

Lacking specific knowledge of different makes, quali- 
ties and grades of lumber, brick, plumbing fixtures, 
lighting fixtures and hardware, he will find himself 
entirely at the mercy of the contractor, who will be his 
only advisor. 

Furthermore, his friends, as soon as they learn he is 
about to build, will heap upon him a mass of gratuitous 
' ' advice, ' ' and as most of their warnings or recommen- 
dations will be found to be conflicting, he will have no 
one to authoritatively reconcile or appraise the various 
things he will have been told. 

With no working drawings, great difficulty will be 
encountered when the contractor or builder comes to 
* ' take quantities ' ' in order to procure the materials, and 
again, when these have been procured the unfortunate 
amateur will have no knowledge or experience to guide 
him in the matter of passing upon their quality, or upon 
the quality of the workmanship. Nor, with any defi- 
nite and binding specifications, will he have any means 
of enforcing the use of certain specific materials or 
fixtures which he wishes used in the work. 

Throughout the progress of the work he will con- 
stantly be asked questions by the contractor, and most 
of these he will naturally be unable to answer intelli- 
gently, if at all. On the whole, he will come to realise, 
before he is through, that the architect (with whose 
actual offices he had not been familiar) is something 
more than a man who "makes blue-prints." 

Before employing an architect, however, there are 
several questions which the prospective builder may 


properly look into. We will assume that he has deter- 
mined, with some degree of certainty, the location of his 
house, the general style in which he wishes it built, 
and the materials of which it is to be constructed. He 
will have determined, also, the amount he expects to 
spend on the project, and he is ready to consider the 
actual plan, or arrangement of rooms. Here he will 
do well not to attempt to be too specific, because his 
architect will later show him many economies and 
savings, not only in space and convenience, but in dol- 
lars and cents. Few amateur planners, for instance, 
remember that plumbing fixtures, from cellar to garret, 
should be kept as nearly as possible in vertical align- 
ment, to save unnecessary feet of pipe. Nor does the 
amateur planner usually think of heating, or of avoid- 
ing rooms and halls which will be difficult or expensive 
to keep warm. Owing to lack of experience in visualis- 
ing several floors of a house at once, the amateur finds 
it difficult to arrange the several floor plans consistently 
and economically. Impossible stairways are a common 
feature of amateur plans the architect lays out a well- 
studied disposition of the first floor and plots the 
second floor over it, on tracing paper, so that lines of 
plumbing coincide, bearing partitions come into vertical 
alignment, and stairways practically reach from one 
floor to another. 

Therefore, the general idea of the plan may be 
sketched out, but it is well to remember that no matter 
how clever it seems to be, it will be vastly improved 
and will be made practical as well as ideal after the 
architect has studied it a little. 

Before consulting the architect, the prospective 
builder might well equip himself with a little infor- 
mation regarding local conditions in the locality in 


which he is to build, unless he expects to engage an 
architect who has already erected a number of houses 
in that locality. 

By "local conditions" are understood such matters 
as local labour and local facilities for obtaining mate- 
rials. If labour must be brought from a distance, to an 
isolated site, greater cost is to be anticipated than if 
there are local stone-masons, bricklayers, carpenters 
and plasterers competent to perform the work. A few 
inquiries in any neighbourhood will readily acquaint 
the prospective builder with this important item in his 
project. The cost of the house will also be governed 
by the nearness or remoteness of lumber-yards, brick- 
yards, sash-and-blind mills, planing mills and a rail- 
road siding or freight depot. 

Many people make the mistake of regarding these 
points as of minor importance, and as a result are 
puzzled, disappointed and sometimes (unfortunately) 
suspicious when they find that their house, in all 
respects similar to one clipped from a popular maga- 
zine and said to cost $12,000, proves to cost $18,000. 
The house shown in the magazine may have been built 
under generally favouring conditions of availability of 
labour and material, but this very important factor in 
its cost may not have been mentioned in the captivating 
legend printed beneath the picture. 

Little, if anything, has been written concerning 
unprofessional advice, those warnings and recommen- 
dations mentioned before, and always generously forth- 
coming from various sources. These " advices" have 
ruined many a fair building project which might have 
gone smilingly forward to happy completion, and have 
hampered and annoyed the architect more than words 
can express, nullifying many of his best efforts, and 


setting at naught many of his most valuable recommen- 
dations. Unprofessional advice most often takes the 
form of a warning one will be advised not to install 
casement windows because they leak, and it will be 
found upon investigation that the man who has issued 
this pronunciamento does so because, unfortunately, 
he has had a poorly designed casement window. And 
so it is with all building materials and equipment 
different people have had unfortunate experiences be- 
cause of poor or unskilled workmanship, and have has- 
tened to misplace the blame, with greater vehemence 
than intelligence. Virtually all materials and devices 
used in building are susceptible to perfectly satisfac- 
tory use and application under competent direction, just 
as all may be made to appear defective or undesirable 
by misuse or misconstruction. A can of paint, properly 
mixed, may give years of splendid service under hard 
climatic conditions : the same can of paint, mixed for 
use by a stupid or incompetent painter, may flake or 
crack in six months. The example is intended to show 
how little real value should be attached to unprofes- 
sional opinions in matters related to building. No man 
is infallible, but it should be reasonably apparent that 
an architect is a more competent authority than a 
banker or a doctor on the wearing qualities of a 
weather-paint or the formula for foundation concrete. 

Occasion will arise in the following chapter to com- 
ment further on the fallacy of paying serious attention 
to unprofessional advice. 

It is well, by all means, for the prospective builder 
to consider all the preliminaries, such as the choice of 
site, the style of the house and the general disposition 
of the floor plans, with his wife, rather than to bring her 
into the consultation after the architect has begun his 


work. The two who are to live in the house should be 
in perfect agreement upon its essentials before a third 
party is called in to discuss the details. In building, 
the result of which is permanent, and expensive to alter, 
it should certainly be apparent to all that common sense 
and economy are served by as much foresight as pos- 
sible. Virtually all the features of a house which prove 
"unfortunate" after it is built might have been entirely 
eliminated by a little thought at the beginning. The 
mere question of which side to hinge a door can readily 
be determined on the plans an instance coming to mind 
wherein the mistress of the proposed house went over 
the plans very carefully, and imagined herself going 
about from room to room, opening the various doors. 
She followed, also, the course of the maid answering the 
front door, and assured herself that the communication 
v?as efficient and convenient. She imagined herself a 
guest, and studied the relation of the guest rooms to 
the bath-room, and, in short, "inspected" the house be- 
fore its first foundation stone was laid. Such considera- 
tion of house plans is practical, efficient and highly 
desirable, and is entirely different from biased insist- 
ence on some arbitrary and ill-advised idea. No archi- 
tect will resent or ignore intelligent or reasonable 
criticism and discussion of his plans it should be re- 
membered that he is, primarily, bent upon pleasing his 
client, rather than upon devising a house to suit himself. 
If he insists upon any point, it is usually in his client's 
best interests a satisfied client is an architect's best 
advertisement, and almost his only advertisement. 

Mentally equipped, then, with some idea of the un- 
importance and lack of weight to be accredited to 
unprofessional advices, and with some idea of the man- 
ner in which he will consult with his architect, the 


prospective builder is ready to select his architect a 
quest upon which he usually embarks with profound 
ignorance and dark misgivings. 

In general, he should know that the architect is a 
human being, like himself, and is a professional man, 
like his doctor or his lawyer, with a dash of the artist 
thrown in. It is deeply unfortunate, both for the pros- 
pective builder and the architect, that there exist such 
strange and entirely unfounded ideas about the archi- 
tectural profession. Few people even realise that it 
is a profession, with a code of ethics and a standard of 
procedure as definite as the profession of law or medi- 
cine. Of the nature of the architectural profession, 
however, more will be said in the following chapter. 

There are many ways of selecting an architect, and 
the most natural way will usually prove the best. The 
prospective builder may be personally acquainted with 
an architect and with his work the selection here would 
be obvious. An architect may be highly recommended 
by a friend for whom he has built a house. If no such 
personal point of contact exists, the prospective builder 
will do well to follow closely the current periodicals 
which deal specially with the popular side of building. 
Here he will see many houses of many types, and he may 
be right in inferring that an architect who has designed 
a house which attracts him, or which closely resembles 
the house he has in mind, will be a wise choice for him. 
Another good basis for choice may lie in the observa- 
tion of a number of houses in the locality in which it 
is proposed to build. The architect who has built the 
greater number of these will usually prove a safe and 
expedient choice because he is well known, is thoroughly 
familiar with all local building conditions, and has 
trained the local contractor and artisans to work in 


Harry Parker and Raymond I'liwin. Architcrt- 


Modern English domestic architecture should teach us much in such details as windows 

and doors, as well as in such charming ideas as this miniature entrance court 


unison with him, and to perform work strictly in accord- 
ance with his specifications and directions. 

If the prospective builder is a believer in extremely 
cautious procedure, he may do well to carefully inspect 
some house built by the architect he is considering en- 
gaging, and may carry caution further by interviewing 
a previous client, and by investigating the architect's 
standing in the same way he would investigate the 
standing of any business man. 

Mention might be made here of the American 
Institute of Architects, a national organization which 
was founded for the purpose of standardising the prac- 
tice of architecture and enforcing the strict observance 
of certain professional ethics. The Institute has 
Chapters in all of the larger cities of the United States, 
and members are admitted only when recognised to 
be of eligible ability and integrity. Members must 
observe all the regulations and the ' ' Canon of Ethics ' ' 
laid down by the Institute, or forfeit their membership. 
In the choice of an Institute architect, therefore, it is 
apparent that a prospective builder has, at the outset, 
a certain guarantee regarding the questions about 
which he may have been most apprehensive, and he has, 
as well, an organisation to which he may appeal any 
procedure which may seem seriously unprofessional or 

It must not be supposed, however, that there are no 
able or reliable architects who are not members of the 
American Institute, for they exist in great numbers 
everywhere architects comparable in every respect 
with Institute members of long standing. 

In most cases where architects practise their pro- 
fession in partnership, it will be found that one member 
of the firm is a " practical ' ' man, attending to the super- 


vision and specifications, while the other member is 
the ' ' designer, ' ' a man with keen artistic instincts. In 
a firm of three architects, the third is often found to 
be an executive, or a man of marked business ability. 

Many architects practising! alone, however, take care 
of all three phases of their profession, as well as other 
aspects of which the client is not even aware. Of his 
varied and interesting functions, however, more will 
be said in the following chapter. All architects of large 
practice, whether working in partnership or alone, find 
it necessary to have in their employ highly able special- 
ists in different branches of the work superin- 
tendents, specification writers and structural experts, 
in addition to a staff of draughtsmen, directed by a 
man upon whom devolves a great weight of responsi- 
bility and detail the head-draughtsman. 

Having emerged from the mists of misgiving and 
uncertainty, and finally selected an architect, the pros- 
pective builder now becomes a ' ' client, ' ' and is in a way 
to see his visionary abode definitely put on paper, later 
to arise before his eyes in all its solidity and perma- 
nence of masonry and carpentry. The venture is finally 
launched, and the following chapter will deal with the 
business relationship which has been created by the 
architect's engagement, and with the proper observ- 
ances which should exist on both sides. 

Before entering upon this important topic, however, 
the writer feels that the present chapter would be in- 
complete without some advice upon the selection of an 
architect for building projects other than dwellings 
for such projects as civic buildings, schools, hospitals, 
clubs and churches. Here the choice of an architect 
will result from the decision of a committee or the 
award in a competition. A word about competitions. 


An architectural competition, intelligently conducted, 
will secure for a given building fairly and conclusively, 
a design as nearly as possible the best: unintelligently 
conducted an architectural competition is the most stu- 
pid procedure conceivable. 

The American Institute of Architects has devoted 
a great deal of study to the subject of architectural 
competitions, in an effort to standardise the procedure 
of committees and municipalities, and to secure the best 
possible results in the erection of important buildings. 
The results of this study, in the form of a set of " rules 
governing competitions" to be observed by Institute 
members, was printed in brochure form, and is readily 
obtainable by writing to the Secretary of the American 
Institute of Architects, Washington, D. C. 

Nearly all the important public buildings of this 
country are the result of competitions, and in most cases 
a number of the more prominent firms have been invited 
to submit drawings, according to a program of require- 
ments drawn up by a committee. An invited competitor 
is usually nominally remunerated for his work, whether 
or not successful. 

In the important civic building, then, such as a 
library, museum or city hall, the municipal committee 
in charge of the project will do well to avail itself of 
the carefully studied procedure outlined by the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects. 

In the matter of making awards, many mistakes 
have been made by placing the power of award in the 
hands of a lay jury a proceeding which ought to 
appear as absurd as it actually is. There should be at 
least one competent architect on the jury of award, 
for it will prove absolutely essential for some informed 
person to explain the drawings to the lay members 



before any intelligent conclusion as to respective merit 
can be reached. 

This is true, also, of the formation of committees 
and juries in connection with clubs and churches. The 
board may consist of several citizens who are entirely 
unfamiliar with architecture, and there may be one man 
who has travelled extensively and seen many build- 
ings but there should always be an architect, pref- 
erably called from some distant city. With no per- 
sonal professional interest in the project, the services 
of such an architect would prove invaluable, and the 
committee would be assured of competent and unpreju- 
diced advice well worth the amount of the fee and ex- 
penses which would be voted to him. 

If the scale of a building project a small church, 
for example did not warrant the weighty and expen- 
sive procedure of an architectural competition, the 
members of the committee in whose hands the under- 
taking was placed, would do well to study as many files 
of the leading architectural periodicals as they may 
obtain, as well as books on architecture, and might, if 
still in doubt, write to the American Institute of Archi- 
tects, as a perfectly unprejudiced authority, for rec- 
ommendations of architects whose works would par- 
ticularly fit them to carry out the project in hand. 

Architects who are ' ' specialists ' ' in certain types of 
buildings notably school buildings, and hospitals, 
banks and hotels, will be found to possess certain recom- 
mendations for selection to carry out the type of build- 
ing in which they have specialised, in that their experi- 
ence has taught them many valuable details. 

Only in recent years have real-estate operators come 
to realise the importance of securing competent archi- 
tectural services in the planning of groups of "ready 


made" houses. Careful architectural supervision will 
insure a consistency in the general aspect of a given 
real-estate development, as well as an attractive charac- 
ter to the individual houses. In some more notable 
instances architects and landscape architects have been 
called in to work together toward the creation of a 
really attractive living environment, so that already 
there are several tracts which should be models to all 
who are planning the building development of any large 
piece of real estate. The significant fact is that the 
more intelligent real-estate operators now realise that 
the increased initial expense involved in securing com- 
petent architectural service is not money wasted, but 
money invested, in that there are created far higher 
rental and selling values than would otherwise exist. 
" Neighbourhood planning," " garden cities," and 
"model villages" have, for some time, been common 
architectural achievements in England and on the Con- 
tinent, and the unlimited possibilities for this practical 
application of " architecture " to "building" are but at 
the dawn of their realisation in this country. 

Eeverting again to the individual who is about to 
build for himself a dwelling, the following chapter will 
take up the relationship between this individual (now 
a "client') and the architect whom he has selected to 
carry out the work. 



SHORTLY before the close of the preceding chapter 
the prospective builder was followed through vari- 
ous means of selecting an architect, having done which, 
and called for the initial consultation, he has graduated 
from the status of a ' 'prospective builder, ' ' and become 
a client. 

Perhaps no one thing is more important for the 
client to remember throughout the building of his house 
than the fact that, after engaging an architect, he has 
entered upon a business relationship, and that the more 
businesslike this relationship is kept, the better for both 
parties. The building of a house, even a small house, 
calls for the expenditure of too much money on the one 
hand and too much skilled professional work on the 
other to be regarded as a mere "transaction between 
friends. " It is not intended by this to imply that either 
architect or client should be cold or suspicious in their 
dealings with each other the better friends they are 
throughout, the better for all concerned, and if all has 
gone as it should, they will be the best of friends after- 
ward. If the architect has been asked to dinner, has 
met the client's family and friends, he is in a better 
position to add those intimate personal touches to the 
house which make it a true expression of the owner's 


From a drawing by K. K. Newman, Architect 



These two illustrations show the remarkable accuracy of vision possessed by the architect, who 
produced the preliminary sketch before one stone of the actual house was laid 


individuality. It should be remembered, however, that 
social and business relations with the architect should 
be kept strictly separate the architect himself would 
rather have it so, and far prefers to receive instructions 
in writing, in a businesslike manner, than over the 
dinner-table, where no record exists of what has been 
said. Some houses, it is true, have been happily and 
successfully built in a delightfully hap-hazard and in- 
formal way, with little if any of the businesslike 
elements entering the transaction but this has been 
because of a natural affinity and congeniality of tastes 
and confidence on the part of both architect and client, 
rather than because it is in any way a safe or recom- 
mendable method of procedure in general. 

Eeturning to the average case, it might well be re- 
iterated that much of the success and smoothness of 
the whole building project will depend upon the client, 
fully realising, before his first visit to the architect's 
office, or his first proposal to the architect he has 
selected, that he is about to enter a business relation. 

It is a strange and inexplicable circumstance that so 
many business men, punctilious to a degree in their 
every day business dealings, and in the enforcement of 
system and routine in their own offices, are flagrantly 
unbusinesslike in their dealings with the architect. 

To engage an architect to draw plans and give 
skilled supervision, especially for a small house, is 
not to do him a personal favour, for which he should be 
humbly grateful throughout the whole progress of the 
building. In this connection, figures, perhaps, give a 
more lucid demonstration than words. The percentage 
basis of charges will be dealt with presently suffice it 
to say that the architect is receiving his ten per cent, 
commission on a house estimated to cost $10,000.00 


(more often he receives seven per cent.) his fee, then, 
on the ten per cent, basis is $1000.00, which, however, 
he does not net, but must allow a certain proportion for 
"overhead expense" (his office rent, etc.) and a certain 
amount for the expense he has been at to produce the 
drawings (draughtsmen's salaries, etc.). It will be 
seen from this that he is fortunate if he is able to clear 
half the total amount of his commission, and it must 
at once become apparent, even to a client who is not, 
himself, a business man, how many houses, averaging 
in cost $10,000.00 this architect must build if he is to 
make even a fair income. 

It should become equally apparent to the client about 
how much of the architect 's time he should reasonably 
be expected to devote to one $10,000.00 house. The 
client who is building a small and very inexpensive 
house even a "bungalow client" is, unfortunately 
usually the most unreasonable. In all probability this 
building venture is his first expenditure of any con- 
siderable sum of money, and he is bound to receive his 
money's worth. He conceives of himself somewhat 
in the light of a "captain of industry," and pictures a 
large staff of labourers living from his expenditure on 
the house, himself, too, in the light of a patron of the 
arts, grandly giving the commission to build his $8000 
venture to some grateful architect. In work of this 
calibre, were the truth known, the architect quite often 
considers himself fortunate to produce the drawings 
at cost, and may have accepted the commission only 
because he could not refuse it, or because he had need 
to keep one or two of his draughtsmen busy through a 
dull period. The small-house client with enlarged ideas 
of his importance would do well to go (unwittingly) to 
one of the more prominent country-house architects 


who make it a practice not to undertake any work for 
a house estimated to cost less than $50,000. He 
would, no doubt, acquire his first lesson in the im- 
portance of l ' scale. ' ' 

There are many architects, however, who specialise 
in small-house work, and whose practice is of sufficient 
volume to be profitable. 

The client, then, enters upon his first consultation 
with due recognition of the fact that he is embarking 
in a business transaction and with due recognition of 
the fact that the architect has, of necessity, other work 
on hand, so that a fair and just proportion (not all) 
of his time will be devoted to the new project. 

In the first consultation it is highly advisable for 
the client to be as explicit and as complete in his outline 
of the proposed house as it is possible, without technical 
knowledge, for him to be. Beginning with a statement 
of the amount of money he is prepared to spend, the 
client will do well to show the architect whatever 
sketches or plans he may have evolved, or whatever 
photographs or clippings from magazines he may have 
regarded as suggesting the kind of house he desires. 
From these documents the architect will be enabled to 
form, at the start, a fair idea of the nature of the proj- 
ect upon which he is being engaged, and much time will 
be saved in the architect's preparation of preliminary 
sketches which do not meet with the client's wishes. 
In this connection, however, it is well to remember that 
one should never ask an architect to copy another 
house exactly, no matter how closely one may wish him 
to follow it. No architect of standing would consent 
to such procedure, on ethical grounds, and any archi- 
tect would regard such a request as a distinct reflection 
upon his creative ability. The writer is familiar with 


a case in which such a request was made, and flatly 
refused by the architect. The client, nothing daunted, 
went to the contractor who had built the house he wished 
copied, and, using the original plans, in blue-print form, 
still in the contractor's possession, had an inferior 
duplicate erected a grave reflection upon the con- 
tractor's integrity and an outrageous affront to the 
architectural profession and to every tenet of common 

In the first consultation with the architect the client 
should give his fullest confidence, withholding nothing 
which the architect should know in order to proceed 
intelligently and efficiently with the work. The proce- 
dure here should be regarded as in no wise different 
from a consultation in which a client is acquainting a 
lawyer with the circumstances which the lawyer will 
require in preparing his brief. If the client entertains 
any doubt regarding the architect's ability or his quali- 
fications for carrying out the work in hand, he should 
satisfy these doubts before proceeding any further, for 
certain complications and friction will arise later if the 
project is commenced with any mistrust on the part of 
the client. If the client is a naturally "canny" indi- 
vidual, let him make sure of his architect first, rather 
than heap recriminations upon him later for a lack of 
harmony, which, after all, may be due only to the 
client's "difficult" personality, or his oversight in 
neglecting to select an architect who will be reasonably 
certain to please him. 

The client should remember, throughout the course 
of the work, that he is paying a fixed and standard fee 
for certain fixed and standard professional services 
(often receiving more than the architect is called upon 
in the contract, to perform) and that the more wisely 


lie avails himself of these services, the better value he 
is receiving for his money. The futility and folly should 
be apparent in those cases (unfortunately frequent) 
where the client, biassed by some outside ill-advised 
notion, attempts to set his fantastic imaginings above 
the architect's absolute professional knowledge. Law- 
yers' clients and doctors' patients, both dealing with 
men who are no more or no less professional men than 
the architect, seem to show better judgment and pro- 
ceed as though they realised that they had sought out 
men better informed on these special subjects than 
they, to advise them and to perform certain profes- 
sional services for them. 

In telling the architect all that is possible in the 
first consultation, it is well for the client to remember 
that, unless otherwise instructed, the architect will 
assume that all such items as doors, windows, hardware 
and so forth are to be " stock," by which is understood 
such as are obtainable ready-made on the market. This 
applies, also, to brick and to materials in general. All 
"stock" building materials are of standard cost, fluctu- 
ating only with large and nation-wide fluctuations in 
manufacturing or raw material costs. 

If, however, the client has in mind certain "special" 
items, such as casement windows of unusual type, 
extra high-grade hardware or lighting fixtures, or 
some special high-priced face-brick or floor tile, he 
should acquaint the architect with these things at the 
outset, before the contractor has been asked to bid on 
the plans and specifications. The specifications (of 
which more later) will itemise all such special material 
or equipment, preferably by actual name, in order to 
avoid any substitution on the contractor's part. 

The client will find that the architect has a full col- 


lection of catalogues, and often a ' ' museum ' ' of samples 
of various bricks, tiles and the like, and can readily 
obtain samples of any building product which the client 
may wish to examine. From these actual materials, 
it will be possible for the client to ascertain exactly 
what his required * ' specials ' ' will cost, and much later 
distress will be saved. 

In the matter of definitely determining in advance 
exactly what the client wishes, the writer has considered 
the advantage which would come from the preparation 
of a standard printed blank, consisting of a series of 
questions regarding a proposed house, beginning with 
the foundations and comprising every detail of finished 
equipment. Many of these questions the client would 
be unable to answer, but in each case the architect could 
recommend certain products or equipment which his ex- 
perience had proved desirable, in point of economy or 
any other consideration, and could illustrate his point 
by means of samples or catalogue illustrations. Such 
an initial agreement of ideas on the part of both would 
greatly facilitate the writing of accurate specifications 
at the first draft, and would save many inconvenient 
and sometimes expensive changes later. Through lack 
of familiarity with the appearance of much that is to 
be built into his house, the client is often disappointed 
and dissatisfied with certain details, all of which might 
well have been avoided if a knowledge had been acquired 
at the start. Much detail, however, can safely be left 
to the architect, if the client reposes in him the proper 
amount of confidence. 

Reverting to the importance of acquainting the 
architect, at the very beginning, with all ' ' special ' ' and 
extra-expensive items desired by the client, it should be 
borne in mind that this will eliminate, or at least lessen 


the list of ' ' extras ' ' which often run the cost of a house 
far beyond the client's intention. No one detail of 
practice, perhaps, has caused more unfortunate friction 
between architect and client than this matter of 
' ' extras, ' ' which is the more to be deplored in that no 
misunderstanding should be necessary. 

Quite often a client remembers, after the house is 
half completed, that he had intended, for example, to 
have copper rain gutters instead of painted tin. He 
promptly telephones the architect to make the change, 
and the architect, making this note, mentions the fact 
that the copper gutters, costing about four times as 
much as the painted tin gutters allowed for in the 
specifications, will naturally appear as an " extra." 
The client answers that he is aware of this, but to order 
the copper gutters, then promptly forgets the whole 
conversation until he is confronted with a considerable 
extra charge for this and several other similar items, 
added or changed after the estimate on the whole house 
was prepared. There usually ensues a grievous scene, 
doubly grievous because totally unnecessary. The 
client may (and often does) maintain that the extra 
should go in for the estimated cost, on the ground that 
he had always intended from the start to have, for 
example, copper gutters instead of painted tin. The 
fact that he neglected to mention this rather expensive 
preference to the architect, either before or after the 
specifications were drawn up, carries no weight with 
him, although, as was mentioned before, he may be a 
business man in every other relation than that with the 
architect. Quite often he will accept the charge with 
exceeding ill-grace, grumbling words to the effect 
that he had always heard this was the way with archi- 
tects they say they will build a house to cost a certain 


sum of money, then you find it costs half again as much 
because of the load of ' ' extras ' ' they put on. 

No architect of any experience or standing, it should 
be remembered, will of his own accord, and without 
authorisation from the client, make any change what- 
ever in the specifications for the house. The writer is 
familiar with one excellent method of procedure de- 
signed by a New York firm of architects to eliminate 
all confusion and recrimination in regard to extras. 
They insisted that any instructions whatsoever involv- 
ing any extra labour, material or equipment not stipu- 
lated in the specifications or shown in the drawings must 
be ordered by the client in writing, and made it clear 
that no such extras would be performed, purchased or 
installed without such written instructions. In this way, 
argument was forestalled and friction avoided, and 
the procedure is to be recommended not only to archi- 
tects but to clients. It is a curious thing that so many 
business men give casual instructions to their archi- 
tects, either while going through the building or over 
the telephone, and an unfortunate thing that many 
architects carry out such instructions without any 
written order. A man who would not dream of follow- 
ing up a written order for eight carloads of wheat with 
a telephone message to increase it to twelve, is, 
strangely enough, quite capable of telephoning his 
architect to make some expensive change or substitu- 
tion on his house without any following written con- 
firmation of the order. 

Allusion has been made to the estimate, to specifi- 
cations and to drawings, and these important points, as 
well as architect's supervision and dealings with the 
contractor, now come under consideration. 

There are several methods of estimating, and of 


these the only one which is to be regarded as an approxi- 
mation of cost is the estimate presented with the pre- 
liminary sketches. Even this, however, if based on 
exact initial data, and given by an architect who has had 
considerable experience in building the type of house 
under consideration, will often come within a hundred 
dollars of the actual cost of the house, completed. 

The preliminary estimate, however, should not be 
regarded as final " local conditions" spoken of in the 
chapter preceding may influence it considerably, one 
way or the other. The most reliable preliminary, as 
well as the most reliable final estimate, is that of a local 
contractor, who bases his figures on the definite speci- 
fications and working drawings of the architect. There 
should be no deflection from this, and any increase in 
cost due to "extras" should be duly expected and 
accepted as discussed in the preceding paragraphs. 

Let it be supposed that the preliminary drawings, 
consisting of a perspective sketch, complete outline 
plans and the four ' ; elevations ' ' or direct views of the 
four sides of the house, have been agreed upon and 
changed to conform entirely with the client's views. 
These preliminary drawings will have been taken, per- 
haps, to the building site, and will have been discussed 
by such members of the client's family and such of 
his friends as he has called in to aid his judgment. To 
save expensive changes in the later drawings, it is 
highly desirable for the client to make every change and 
suggestion he can possibly think of at this stage. These 
drawings are usually in pencil, and are to be regarded 
as tentative sketches a basis for discussion. 

When these, the "preliminaries" are finally pro- 
nounced ' ' final, ' ' the architect is ready to proceed with 
the specifications and the working drawings, and the 


client is asked (if lie has not been asked earlier) to sign 
the "Standard Form of Agreement Between Owner 
and Architect. ' ' * This document, which is seldom seen 
by a prospective builder until it is presented to him to 
sign, contains a very clear exposition of the various 
services which the architect is required to perform, and 
is therefore printed here in full, as an important part of 
this chapter. 


Article 1. The Architect's Services. The Architect's professional 
services consist of the necessary conferences, the preparation of prelimi- 
nary studies, working drawings, specifications, large scale and full size 
detail drawings; the drafting of forms of proposals and contracts; 
the issuance of certificates of payment; the keeping of accounts, the 
general administration of the business and supervision of the work. 

2. The Architect's Fee. The fee payable by the Owner to the 
Architect for the performance of the above services is the percentage 
hereinbefore defined as the basic rate, computed upon the cost of the 
work in respect of which such services have been performed, subject, 
however, to any modifications growing out of these Conditions of 

3. Reimbursements. The Owner is to reimburse the Architect the 
costs of transportation and, living incurred by him and his assistants 
while travelling in discharge of duties connected with the work, and 
the costs of the services of heating, ventilating, mechanical, and elec- 
trical engineers. 

4. Extra Services and Special Ca$es. If after a definite scheme 
has been approved, the Owner makes a decision which, for its proper 
execution, involves extra services and expense for changes in or addi- 
tions to the drawings, specifications or other documents; or if a con- 
tract be let by cost of labor and material plus a percentage or fixed 
sum; or if the services of the Architect are rendered for work contem- 
plated but not executed; or if the Architect is put to labor or expense 
by delays caused by the Owner or a contractor, or by the delinquency or 
insolvency of either, he shall be equitably paid for such extra service 
and expense. 

The basic rate as hereinbefore defined is to be used when all of 
the work is let under one contract. Should the Owner determine to 

'Copyright, 1916, by the American Institute of Architects. 


have certain portions of the work executed under separate contracts, 
as the Architect's burden of service, expense and responsibility ia 
thereby increased, the rate in connection with such portions of the 
work shall be four per cent greater than the basic rate. Should the 
Owner determine to have substantially the entire work executed under 
separate contracts, then such higher rate shall apply to the entire work. 
In any event, however, the basic rate shall, without increase, apply 
to contracts for any portions of the work on which the Owner reimburses 
the Engineer's fees to the Architect, and to the cost of articles not de- 
signed by the Architect but purchased under his direction. 

Should the work or any part of it be abandoned or suspended or 
should the Owner vary the amount of any contract by accepting a 
credit for the omission or modification of any work covered by it, 
the Architect is to be paid in accordance with the terms of this Agree- 
ment for the proportion of his service rendered on account of it up to 
the time of such abandonment, suspension or acceptance. 

No deduction shall be made from the Architect's fee on account of 
penalty, liquidated damages, or other sums withheld from payments to 

5. Payments. Payments to the Architect on his fee are due as 
his work progresses in the following order: upon completion of the 
preliminary studies, twenty per cent of the entire fee; upon completion 
of specifications and general working drawings (exclusive of details), 
forty per cent additional of the entire fee, the remainder being due 
from time to time in proportion to the amount of service rendered. 
Payments to the Architect, other than those on his fee, and all reim- 
bursements of costs fall due from time to time as his work is done 
or as costs are incurred. Until contracts are signed charges are to 
be based upon a reasonable estimated cost of the work and; payments 
received are on account of the entire fee. 

6. The Oioner's Decisions. The Owner shall give thorough con- 
sideration to all sketches, drawings, specifications, proposals, con- 
tracts, and other documents laid before him by the Architect and, when- 
ever prompt action is necessary, he shall inform the Architect of hia 
decisions in such reasonable time as not to delay the work of the 
Architect nor to prevent him from giving drawings or instructions to 
contractors in due season. 

7. Survey, Borings, and Tests. The Owner shall furnish the Archi- 
tect with a complete and accurate survey of the building site, giving 
the grades and lines of streets, pavements, and adjoining properties; 
the rights, restrictions, easements, boundaries, and contours of the 
building site, and full information as to sewer, water, gas, and electrical 
service. The Owner is to pay for borings or tests pits and for chemical, 
mechanical, or other tests when required. 


8. Supervision of the Work. The Architect will endeavor to guard 
the Owner against defects and deficiencies in the work of contractors, 
but he does not guarantee the performance of their contracts. The 
supervision of an architect is to be distinguished from the continuous 
personal superintendence to be obtained by the employment of a clerk- 

When authorized by the Owner, a clerk-of-the-works acceptable to 
both Owner and Architect shall be engaged by the Architect at a 
salary satisfactory to the Owner and paid by the Owner, upon pres- 
entation of the Architect's monthly certificates. 

9. Preliminary Estimates. When requested to do so, the Archi- 
tect will make or procure preliminary estimates on the cost of the 
work and he will endeavor to keep the actual cost of the work as low 
as may be consistent with the purpose of the building and with proper 
workmanship and material, but no estimate made before the com- 
pletion of working drawings and specifications can be regarded as 
other than an approximation. 

10. Definition of the Cost of the Work. The words " the cost of 
the work " as used in Article 2 hereof are ordinarily to be interpreted 
as meaning the total of the contract sums incurred for the execution of 
the work, not including Architect's and Engineer's fees, or the salary 
of the clerk-of-the-works, but in certain rare cases, e. g., when labor 
or material is furnished by the Owner below its market cost or when 
old materials are re-used, the cost of the work is to be interpreted as 
the cost of all materials and labor necessary to complete the work, as 
such cost would have been if all materials had been new and if all 
labor had been fully paid at market prices current when the work was 
ordered, plus contractor's profits and expenses. 

11. Ownership of Documents. Drawings and specifications as in- 
struments of service are the property of the Architect whether the work 
for which they are made be executed or not. 

12. Successors and Assignment. The Owner and the Architect, each 
binds himself, his successors, executors, administrators, and assigns to 
the other party to this agreement, and to the successors, executors, 
administrators, and assigns of such other party in respect of all the 
covenants of this Agreement. 

The Architect shall have the right to join with him in the per- 
formance of this agreement, any architect or architects with whom he 
may in good faith enter into general partnership relations. In case 
of the death or disability of one or more partners, the rights and 
duties of the Architect, if a firm, shall devolve upon the remaining 
partner or partners or upon such firm as may be established by him or 
them, and he, they or it shall be recognized as the " successor " of 
the Architect, and so on until the service covered by the agreement has 


been performed. The Owner shall have the same rights, but in his 
case no limitation as to the vocation of those admitted to partnership 
is imposed. 

Except as above, neither the Owner nor the Architect shall assign, 
sublet or transfer his interest in this agreement without the written con- 
sent of the other. 

13. Arbitration. All questions in dispvte under this Agreement 
shall be submitted to arbitration at the choice of either party. The 
general procedure shall conform to the laws of the State in which the 
work is to be erected, and wherever permitted by law the decision of 
the arbitrators may be filed in court to carry it into effect. 

The parties may agree upon one arbitrator; otherwise there shall 
be three, one named in writing by each party and the third chosen 
by these two arbitrators, or if they fail to select a third within ten 
days he shall be chosen by the presiding officer of the Bar Association 
nearest to the location of the work. Should the party demanding 
arbitration fail to name an arbitrator within ten days of his demand, 
his right to arbitration shall lapse. Should the other party fail to 
choose an arbitrator within the said ten days, then such presiding 
officer shall appoint such arbitrator. Should either party refuse or 
neglect to supply the arbitrators with any papers or information 
demanded in writing, the arbitrators are empowered by both parties to 
proceed ex parte. 

If there be one arbitrator his decision shall be binding; if three, 
the decision of any two shall be binding and such decision shall be a 
condition precedent to any right of legal action. The arbitrators shall fix 
their own compensation, unless otherwise provided by agreement, and 
shall assess the costs and charges of the arbitration upon either or 
both parties. The award of the arbitrators must be in writing and, 
if in writing, shall not be open to objection on account of the form 
of the proceedings or the award. 

The Owner and the Architect hereby agree to the full performance 
of the covenants contained herein. 

IN WITNESS WHEREOF they have hereunto set their hands and 
seals, the day and year first above written. 

Certain percentages have been standardised as mini- 
mums which the architect should accept, and these, in 
all cases, are not included in the estimate, which is 
understood to represent the total cost in labour, mate- 
rials and equipment required to erect a given building 
in full accordance with specifications and drawings pre- 


pared for that building. No travelling expenses for the 
architect or his superintendent are included in the per- 
centage commission, as these might well consume an 
undue proportion at no profit whatever to the architect, 
who is giving his time as well, in accordance with the 

The minimum percentage required by the American 
Institute of Architects to be charged by Institute mem- 
bers for general residential work is 6 per cent., while 
factories, loft-buildings, city buildings of any type, and 
alterations, in city or country, are usually undertaken 
at 10 per cent, of the estimated cost of the work. 

Advice regarding supervision is a little difficult to 
give in definite terms, because circumstances vary. If 
a building is being erected by a reliable contractor, 
with whom the architect has had previous satisfactory 
dealings, less supervision is necessary than in a case 
in which the architect does not feel it to be entirely 
safe to entrust too many delicate details to a contractor 
with whose work he is unfamiliar. Also, simple 
11 standard" types of building require comparatively 
little supervision on the part of the architect, because 
there is little which can "go wrong," and travelling 
expenses (if any) to the work, might well prove an 
unnecessary addition to the total cost. 

There are buildings, however, which call for minute, 
careful and almost constant supervision on the part of 
the architect especially as the work progresses and 
the finished portions are being carried out. For such 
work the architect may well be justified in asking more 
than the minimum commission, and the client should 
rightly expect to pay it. He is requiring something a 
little better, or a great deal better, than the ordinary, 
and should be prepared to pay a little more for it, just 


as he would in any transaction other than an architec- 
tural one. A man who has an important law matter on 
hand, or an important operation, will seek a lawyer or a 
surgeon of high standing and high reputation, and will 
realise, in so doing, that he will be asked to pay a 
larger fee. This he should reckon upon beforehand, and 
take fully into advisement with himself. 

It is very difficult for the average client to be able to 
determine, intelligently and fairly, whether or not the 
architect is giving work in progress a sufficient amount 
of personal supervision. The architect, often openly 
accused of neglect, is in reality saving his client a 
volume of unnecessary charge for travelling expense, 
and, if he is in all other respects an architect of integrity 
and reliability, it is safe to assume that he is the best 
judge of the amount of supervision the work will re- 
quire. After all, it should be remembered that the 
architect's reputation is at stake, not only in the design 
of the house, for which he is directly responsible, but 
for the contractor's part of the work, for which he is 
indirectly responsible. It stands to reason, therefore, 
that the architect will not wittingly allow a contractor 
to erect a monument which will reflect upon his profes- 
sional ability, and much of the client's apprehension 
regarding insufficient supervision may well be allayed 
by this reflection. 

Before entering into a more or less detailed con- 
sideration of the drawings and specifications, it may 
be well to ascertain exactly what relation the contractor 
bears to the whole building transaction, and what rela- 
tion he bears to the client. 

In usual procedure, the architect invites two, three 
or more contractors to tender estimates, or bids, on a 
proposed building, these bids to be based on absolutely 


uniform data given to each bidder in the form of dupli- 
cate specifications and duplicate blue-prints. The 
client may know nothing of these contractors usually 
they are contractors of good local reputation in the 
vicinity in which the building is to be erected, or with 
whom the architect has had previous satisfactory 

When the bids have been received, sealed, they are 
formally opened, perhaps in the presence of the client. 
In the case of important public buildings, in which large 
expenditures of money are involved, it is obvious that 
the greatest formality and impartiality be observed, and 
that no bidder be aware of any of his competitors' esti- 
mates before all the sealed bids have been handed in. 
The degree of formality to be observed in the bids for a 
private house may well be left to the discretion of 
architect and client. 

Several bids, then, are placed before the client, who, 
if wise, will accept the estimate recommended by the 
architect, who is in a far better position to judge of the 
ability and integrity of the competing contractors than 
is the client. By no means should the client feel im- 
pelled to accept the lowest bid, for reasons which should 
be obvious. 

If one bid is far lower than all others, it is safe to 
assume several things which are detrimental to that 
bidder. It may be that he is an inexperienced and 
impractical man, who has figured "low" on everything 
through lack of familiarity with costs, or an undue 
'desire to secure the work. Or, in some cases, a very 
low bid is put in by an unscrupulous contractor who, 
also unduly desirous of securing the work, is figuring 
his profit through the fraudulent substitution of infe- 
rior materials, or the employment of cheap labour, or 


both. And, in any building, cheap and poor workman- 
ship is dear at any price. The client, therefore, should 
not be surprised if the architect pays little or no atten- 
tion to the very low bids, but weighs the merits of the 
medium, or the medium high bid. 

A cautious contractor, who is figuring on carrying 
out the architect's specifications to the letter, and on 
employing only the most skilled labour, will naturally 
tender a fairly high, perhaps a very high bid, and if the 
client can afford it, he may do well to accept it in prefer- 
ence even to the medium low bid. He is building, per- 
haps, but once, and will find years of satisfaction in a 
well-built house. In any case, the architect again, is 
the client's best advisor. He may point to one bid and 
recommend it in preference to all others, because he 
knows from past dealings that the contractor who sub- 
mitted it is thoroughly reliable, and will turn over a 
perfectly satisfactory house, honestly and carefully 

The relationship between owner and contractor is 
purely a business one, and is concluded (excepting 
for payments as the work progresses) when both parties 
have signed the " Standard Form of Agreement Be- 
tween Owner and Contractor" a form carefully pre- 
pared, like the Standard Owner-Architect agreement, 
by the American Institute of Architects. Under no 
circumstances, however, should a client go out "on the 
job" and give direct instructions to the contractor, or 
to any of his foremen or superintendents. At most, he 
may mention certain things which he wishes the con- 
tractor to take up with the architect, though even this is 
unwise and is much better not done. 

If the client sees any work which he considers not in 
accordance with the specifications, or sees anything 


which he wishes altered or done differently, let him 
make notes on it, and take these up with the architect. 
Instructions to the contractor, given over the architect 's 
head, and without the architect's knowledge, are a 
reflection on his ability and a grievous confusion to all 
concerned. The contractor himself would far rather 
receive his instructions direct from the architect, and 
from no one else, because it is the architect to whom he 
is directly responsible. Only in a most serious case, 
and one in which the client is very sure of his knowledge, 
is it well for him to order work stopped on all or any 
part of the building until the architect can appear on the 
scene. Usually this procedure is only officious inter- 
ference, seriously hampering the work, and greatly 
annoying and affronting the architect, because in most 
cases the client lacks the professional knowledge which 
would command the contractor's respect, or would 
insure intelligent interference with the work. There 
will always be, however, the officious botanist who will 
tell a veteran bricklayer how brick should be layed, or 
the successful doctor who will tell a veteran carpenter 
how a plank should be ripped. If these (possibly) well- 
meaning individuals realised that they appear to skilled 
workmen as ridiculous as they imagine they appear 
wise, they would, perhaps, confine their advices to such 
subjects as they were more versed in. 

Regarding material or workmanship which is to be 
condemned, and ordered removed and replaced, the 
architect is the final word, as is duly set forth in the 
agreement with the contractor, and in the written gen- 
eral provisions of the specifications, which, with the 
drawings, constitute a most important and binding 
part of the agreement. Any architect will be glad to 
afford a client the opportunity to read carefully some 


previous set of specifications, in which he may perceive 
to what minute details of workmanship, materials and 
equipment the contractor is bound. Every part of the 
work is specified to be done in a "thoroughly work- 
manlike manner," and a preceding clause states that all 
workmanship is subject to approval or condemnation 
by the architect. The specifications may even state 
exactly how many nails shall be driven in the cross- 
bridging under the floors a carefully written specifi- 
cation, indeed, leaving no loophole whatever for careless 
or unconscientious execution on the part of the con- 
tractor or his workmen. 

In many cases there are sub-contracts, which it is 
best to have let directly by the architect. A "general 
contractor" bidding on the average dwelling, usually 
includes in his estimate the entire work excavation, 
masonry, carpentry, plastering and painting, while 
heating, plumbing and electric wiring contracts are 
usually let separately by the architect, his selection of 
a sub-contractor being determined on estimates based 
on special sets of duplicate specifications and drawings, 
as in the case of the general contract. If the general 
contractor is letting the sub-contracts, a clause in the 
general specifications stipulates that the architect has 
the power to reject any or all bids so received, should 
he have reason to believe that any of the sub-contractors 
was undesirable. Occasionally the architect dispenses 
with the general contractor, and sub-lets direct all con- 
tracts, from the excavation work to the last finished 
coat of paint, though this procedure is not usual. The 
profit of the general contractor is saved, but it is ob- 
viously necessary to the architect to appoint a super- 
intendent, and to give the work much closer attention 
than would be the case if a reliable general contractor 


were responsible for the work of all the sub-contractors. 

A client who undertakes to sublet contracts himself 
is ^storing up untold trouble for himself and his archi- 
tect, and is, in fact, in the same class with the man who, 
being his own lawyer, ' l has a fool for a client. ' ' 

It has been shown, in speaking of the contractor, in 
what manner the specification acts as a detailed con- 
tract. It is, in fact, one of the most important instru- 
ments in the whole transaction, and if skilfully and 
comprehensively written, will insure the building of a 
house in exact conformity with the plans and intentions 
of both owner and architect. 

The specifications commence with certain general 
provisions, stating the authority which will be exercised 
by the architect throughout the progress of the work, 
and stipulating the quality of workmanship which will 
be required. The body of the document will be divided 
according to the several divisions of the work, into sec- 
tions dealing in detail with excavation, masonry, car- 
1 penter work, plastering, painting and so forth, specify- 
ing not only what materials shall be used, but in what 
manner. It is well to specify materials and equipment 
by actual trade names and numbers, making assurance 
doubly sure by requiring conformity with a sample "to 
be furnished by the architect. ' ' Thus, a certain brick 
should be specified by name, and all such equipment as 
plumbing and lighting fixtures, steam radiators and 
hardware should be specified by catalogue number. In 
this way it will be seen that there is virtually no possi- 
bility of mistake or fraudulent substitution. 

With regard to the architect's recommendation of 
certain makes or qualities of material or equipment, a 
correction should be made here of a serious miscon- 
ception of the architect's function which is sometimes 


encountered. There are people who suppose that an 
architect, either openly or surreptitiously, receives com- 
missions from manufacturers for the recommendation 
and subsequent use of materials or equipment. Noth- 
ing could be more erroneous, or a more unfounded 
reflection on a high-standing profession. The archi- 
tect is only a professional advisor. His recommen- 
dations are entirely impartial, and of an entirely 
professional character, his only remuneration in the 
entire work being represented by his percentage com- 
mission on the estimated cost of the entire building. 
The drawings required in the erection of a building 
will vary in number and complexity according to the 
nature of the building, but will consist, in general, for 
all buildings, of : 

1. The preliminary drawings. 

2. The working drawings. 

a. The i/4-inch scale plans and elevations. 

b. The %-inch (or l^-inch) scale details. 

c. The full-size details. 

Of the preliminaries, mention was made earlier in 
this chapter. The perspective drawing will be in pencil, 
water-colour or pen-and-ink, and will consist of a pict- 
ure (sometimes, be it said, a trifle " idealised") of the 
proposed house. The preliminary plans may be a part 
of this drawing, blocked in in miniature merely to give 
an idea of the arrangement of the rooms. In some 
cases preliminary drawings will include ^-inch scale 
plans and elevations, the careful re-studying of which 
will save much changing of the subsequent "working 
drawings." English architects lavish an interesting 
amount of real artistic effort upon their preliminaries, 
often making charming colour-sketches of several dif- 
ferent aspects of the proposed house, as well as of 


many of the rooms. Exigencies of practice in this coun- 
try, however, combined with American impatience, 
make such elaboration of preliminaries rare indeed, 
the average American client would expect to see his 
house completed, or would be seeking another architect 
before the English preliminary drawings were finished. 

The first of the working drawings to be considered 
are the ^-inch scale drawings, so called because they 
are accurately laid out with 14 inch in the drawing 
equalling one foot in the actual building. Each quarter 
inch is regarded as being composed of twelve minute 
"inches," so that exact proportions may be shown in 
these drawings. The 14 -inch scale drawings include all 
the plans, from cellar to attic, as well as one or more 
sections through the building, and all four of its 
"elevations," or aspects as viewed from each of its 
four sides. These "elevations," the architect will 
explain, do not depict the house as it will actually 
appear, but as it must be laid out for the builder. 
Roofs, particularly, in working elevations, are difficult 
for many clients to comprehend but here, if he is at a 
loss, he may be assured that the architect is able to 
visualise the finished building. 

The working plans, perhaps, are more understand- 
able, and show all the walls, partitions, doors and win- 
dows, as well as outlets for lighting fixtures, location of 
kitchen and bath-room equipment, and all other essen- 
tials. In addition to the fact that these are accurately 
drawn at a scale of 14 inch equalling one foot, all these 
plans are minutely "figured" to avoid any danger of 
error. Different materials are "indicated" by differ- 
ent kinds of shading, and many notes regarding mate- 
rials, etc., may appear as well, supplementing the 

After the approval of the preliminary sketches, all four "elevations" of a building, as well 
as sections, are accurately drawn and figured to a J-inch scale 



The J-inch working drawings of all the floor plans contain all the principal dimensions, 
as well as much detailed information, supplementing the language of the specifications 

M AV^.ft C.H-V/-ETT 

T - PXIL I.M ( N \R-.V y K E TCME. 

Illustrating the frequent architectural practice of presenting a coloured perspec- 
tive tentative plan and a detail of some special feature combined in one drawing 


After the approval of the preliminary sketches, all plans and "elevations" 
are accurately laid out to scale and "figured," with J inch in the drawing 
equalling one actual foot in the proposed building 


These working drawings are usually done in black 
ink on semi-transparent linen tracing cloth, both be- 
cause the durability of this substance will sustain many 
erasures and changes, and because its transparency 
permits of a clear blue-print. Obviously, these orig- 
inal drawings, representing much time and study, must 
remain for safety in the architect's office, while the 
client, the contractor, the sub-contractors, and possibly 
a local building department will require copies. 

These copies are printed in exactly the same way 
that a photographic negative is printed, so that the 
black lines in the tracing print white, while the ground 
of the paper tones blue and produces a "blue-print." 
And whatever mischance or damage may befall a set 
of blue-prints "on the job," the original ink drawings 
on tracing cloth are safely filed in the architect 's office, 
easily to be reprinted in any number of sets of blue- 
prints which may be required. 

From the dimensions worked out and determined 
in the ^-inch scale drawings, there are developed the 
%-inch scale details, which show (at three times the size 
of the i/^-inch drawings, with ^4-inch equalling one 
foot) such details as mantel-pieces, stairways, panel- 
ling and the like. These scale details are sometimes 
drawn at a larger scale, in which 1^ inches equals one 
foot, especially if it is necessary to show any carving 
or elaborate woodwork. With these drawings, the 
work proceeds, and during its progress, the architect 
works out such full-size details as may be required. 
His obligation in this respect is rather vague in the. 
contract, but in practice an architect who has even a 
slight vestige of pride in his finished work, will of his 
own accord make all the full-size details which are 
necessary for the execution of the work according to his 


intentions. These drawings show mouldings, profiles 
and carving at actual size, and are often the most inter- 
esting drawings, from a draughtsman's point of view, 
which come from an architect's office. They are drawn 
on heavy brown paper, and though occasionally sent out 
"on the job," the careful architect prefers to have a 
draughtsman make tracings, so that the originals may 
remain in his office. 

Obviously the merit of a building, in point of detail, 
will depend very largely on the number of full-size 
detail drawings prepared by the architect, since these 
drawings are as nearly as he can arrive at actually 
executing the work with his own hands. 

It will readily be appreciated that the full-size de- 
tails for such a building as a public library or a state 
capitol must entail an enormous amount of work on the 
part of the architect a labour which the lay observer 
naturally has never paused to reflect upon, when he 
has gazed, even intelligently, upon some great elaborate 
faade or imposing interior. 

Such, in brief, is the architect's procedure, often 
viewed with fluctuations of interest, admiration, bewil- 
derment, misgiving or plain uncomprehension by the 
client. Some architects, perhaps, trained for years to 
"read" architectural drawings are a little impatient 
with clients who entirely fail to follow the carefully 
designed lines they see before them. Let them remem- 
ber, however, that these lines which they see are the 
result of many hours and many days of painstaking 
study and re-study backed by years of experience, and 
that their doctor does not outline the steps by which he 
has arrived at a diagnosis. This is professional work, 
to be thoroughly understood and appreciated only by 
a fellow-professional. 

j*ETi0N of 


It is customary for the architect to prepare full-size detail drawings for all work of special 
character, either exterior or interior 


Nor do the drawings show, to the lay inspection, 
the thought and study which have gone into the devising 
of an easy, comfortable staircase, or into adding eigh- 
teen inches to the width of an upstairs hall or working 
in an extra guest-room. These things are worked out 
over the draughting table, these and many other things, 
unseen and unappreciated because they only go to make 
the whole plan more convenient, the whole finished 
house a more agreeable abode. Some unfortunate feat- 
ure, however, is usually noticed at once, and enlarged 
upon, albeit it may have resulted from some insistence 
of the client upon a room-arrangement or disposition 
of the stairway which the architect had pled in vain 
to change. 

The foregoing paragraphs may seem to have ignored 
the incompetent architect to assume, in fact, that all 
architects are paragons of wisdom and ability, uni- 
versally abused and maltreated by a stupid and unap- 
preciative idiot designated a "client." It should go 
without saying, however, that there are incompetent 
architects, just as there are incompetent doctors and 
lawyers. They are to be avoided, and seldom come to 
one properly recommended, or accredited by previous 
good work. The selection of such should certainly be 
taken as a reflection upon the judgment of the client, 
or at least as occasion for commiserating him the 
professions they misrepresent should not be discred- 
ited. It is safe to say, at any rate, that the client who 
knows more about architecture or building than his 
architect is an individual so rare that he can find no 
place in a discussion so necessarily confined to the 
average as the present one he would make, indeed, 
an interesting character for a work of fiction. 

A word might be interposed here about a breach of 
business etiquette which is sometimes committed (often 


thoughtlessly) by a client in asking another architect 
his opinion of a set of plans, or of an unfinished house 
in the hands of his acting architect. 

No architect of professional standing, or with the 
slightest regard to professional ethics, would dream 
of expressing any opinion, any more than would a 
doctor or a lawyer, without cognisance and consent of 
the acting professional. This point is covered in the 
Canon of Ethics of the American Institute of Architects. 

Unless a certain amount of diplomacy and tact be 
exercised by the client, a little professional clash may 
arise between architect and interior decorator, and not 
entirely without cause. 

The architect recognises the fact that a landscape 
architect is a specialist with a distinct status, like a 
structural engineer, working with architects in profes- 
sional channels of a non-conflicting nature. The inte- 
rior decorator, however, the architect naturally regards 
as an interloper, especially if the decorator is commis- 
sioned to carry out important interiors calling for elab- 
orate panelling and the like. It is only natural that the 
architect should feel himself to be as good an authority 
as anyone on the treatment of interiors in a house which 
he has designed himself. He is willing enough for the 
decorator to select furniture, fabrics, tapestries and all 
decorative accessories, but his disappointment is often 
acute and genuine, and not at all mercenary, when he 
finds that all the most important and interesting inte- 
riors (for which he had definite architectural ideas) 
are taken out of his hands and out of his contract. 

The only procedure for the client who is desirous of 
a harmonious relation between architect and decorator 
is to tell the architect at the very start that certain 
rooms are to be carried out by a certain decorator. 
The architect, then, will make his plans accordingly, and 


expend no time or expense in studies or drawings of 
those rooms. He may secretly resent the implied supe- 
riority of the decorator (which may be real or imag- 
inary) but he will not feel as badly about the intrusion 
as though it were suddenly broken to him at an advanced 
stage of his work on the house. It should be remem- 
bered, too, that many architects have attained con- 
spicuous reputations as interior decorators, designing 
special furniture, selecting antiques, and proving them- 
selves connoisseurs of tapestries, and the like, all for 
their client 's benefit. 

With due appreciation of the points presented in 
this chapter, bearing upon the relationship between the 
architect and his client, it might safely be asserted that 
the reader, if a prospective builder, may be piloted over 
the shoals of indecision and misgiving, and may be 
enabled to steer a nice course between undue ignorance 
of his architect's work on the one hand, and undue sus- 
picion of his architect's ability and motives on the 
other hand. 

It remains only to mention a few points of procedure 
in the relationship of architects with large building un- 
dertakings. Here, at the outset, the relationship begins, 
proceeds and terminates strictly on a business basis. 
The client is a powerful business man, or is represented 
by a corporation, a municipality, a railroad or a build- 
ing committee. Here, if anything, the architect is put 
to it to outdo his client in business-like procedure. 
Every step of the work, from the publication of the com- 
petition program to the last payment to the selected 
architect goes forward with the utmost formality. 
Formality, indeed, in the form of endless meetings and 
conferences, often clogs the wheels of progress, and 
finds the architect impatiently awaiting the word of 
some great "board" to proceed with his part of the 


work. The issuance of invitations to bid on a State 
Capitol, for instance, is a serious matter, attended by 
great formality, and the acceptance of a bid no less so. 

The architect's work is large and complex in pro- 
portion to the size and complexity of the building he 
has been selected to design. 

The "preliminaries," in the case of the large com- 
petition, are usually called the "pro jet" drawings, in 
memory of student days in the ateliers of the Ecole des 
Beaux Arts in Paris, where each elaborate problem was 
a projet. These competition drawings are often unbe- 
lievably elaborate and enormously expensive for the 
architect to produce. Usually he is remunerated for 
the actual cost, though in most cases he expends con- 
siderably more than he receives, if unsuccessful. He is 
playing for big stakes, however, and makes an effort 

As stated in an earlier chapter, the subject of the 
proper conduct of large and important competitions has 
been given weighty and detailed consideration by the 
American Institute of Architects, and their conclusions 
are duly set forth in a special document issued by that 

His projet accepted, the architect must maintain a 
large staff of good draughtsmen to carry out the endless 
drawings required. He must have a competent super- 
intendent and other assistants in the work. 

As in a small country house, the work proceeds 
through the 14-inch scale drawings, to %- or 1^-inch 
details and sections, until the stage of full-size detail 
drawing is reached. 

Here, however, the full-size details of all carved 
work do not go to the workmen "on the job," but to 
a professional "architectural modeller," who prepares 
full-size models of all capitols, modillions, consoles and 

.1 -In l;r- 

cll Pope, Architect 

One of a set of remarkable drawings presented in competition 


ornamented mouldings and all other detail of like 
nature, and these full size models, after change and final 
approval by the architect, go to wood-carvers, stone- 
carvers and metal founders, together with the drawings, 
so that no mistakes may occur in execution. Owing to 
the importance of the work involved on a large building, 
the various sub-contractors, such as marble workers, 
wood-workers and bronze-casters, send reliable men of 
their own to take minute measurements of the building, 
as it progresses, so that they may be positive of the 
dimensions to which they are working the several parts 
entrusted to them, and which are being executed in 
different mills and stone yards miles from the build- 
ing itself. 

And it is a marvellous tribute to the painstaking 
accuracy of draughtsmen and artisans to see with what 
perfect exactitude various members of marble, wood, 
bronze and other materials, assembled from different 
shops, will fit together * ' on the job, ' ' each in its designed 

Here, too, in the carrying out of plans for a great 
building, it must be remembered that the architect is 
not simply a free-lance " designer," netting an enor- 
mous fee. He is under tremendous expense in getting 
out the drawings and providing adequate supervision, 
and as he is, in a sense, the steward of considerable 
expenditures, he must have an expert accountant to 
check bills, handle his pay-roll, and render to his client 
accurate and businesslike financial statements at any 
time he may be required. 

Notwithstanding which, there are many architects 
who would say that they could build a state capitol or a 
public library with far less personal harassment and 
annoyance than they would experience in building an 
$8000 cottage for a captious client. 



COMMON observation has acquainted us with the 
fact that there is quite a variety of building 
materials, but tie prospective builder is naturally at a 
loss to compare them one with another in a knowing 
manner. All building materials, he knows, have cer- 
tain physical, architectural and aesthetic properties, 
and in the choice of any one he knows there are involved 
certain economic considerations as well. 

The question of choice, happily, is not untram- 
meled, but is in fact actually limited. The greatest 
confusion, perhaps, results from ideas not clearly 
visualised, and satisfaction in the ultimate choice should 
be reasonably certain of attainment if the prospective 
builder saw each material, with its exact properties, 
unshrouded by the veil of complexity, mystery and 

It is the purpose of this chapter, then, to establish 
certain specific premises, and to tabulate materials 
(with types of construction involved) in a manner which 
shall be at once definite and clear. 

The following materials, involving differing methods 
of construction, will be dealt with in a necessarily brief 
manner, yet with a degree of lucidity which may aid the 
prospective builder in defining his ideas in this 



1. The frame house: Shingle-covered. 

2. The frame house: Clapboard-covered. 

3. The frame house: With stucco on wire-lath. 

4. The hollow tile house (stucco-covered). 
6. The brick house. 

6. The stone house (rough-dressed stone). 

7. The actual half-timber house. 

In discussing these several types of house, it may aid 
the end of clearness to show in tabulated form the more 
important aspects under which any material may well 
be considered. 

There are, in the first place, certain restrictions in 
choice, which we will tabulate. 


1. Restriction of inherent cost. 

2. Cost restriction due to locality: material locally unobtainable, and 

expensive to transport. 

3. Style restriction, due to unsuitability of a given material for the 

expression of style desired. 

The several considerations under which building 
materials tabulated are interdependent and closely in- 
terrelated, will be seen in the following table : 


( a. Character 

1. Physical properties of mate- 1 

-< b. Durability 

rials j . , , , .... 

I c. Adaptability 

2. Properties both physical and f a- Texture 

aesthetic | b. Colour 

( a. Stylistic suitability 

3 ^Esthetic or architectural prop- \ T J .,..,.. 

J b. Local suitability 

erties of materials j _, 

/ c. Expressiveness 

a. Inherent cost 

, 6. Comparative cost 

4. Economic properties of mate- J 

/ c. Local availability 

d. Workability, or structural cost 
c. Upkeep 


If the properties listed above be applied carefully 
and thoughtfully to any building project, it is safe to 
say that all essential conditions governing choice of 
material will have come under due consideration. With 
a view to keeping the study of materials as clear as 
possible, the above tables will be used as the basis of 
the detailed discussion in the following paragraphs. 

The types of construction, with associated material, 
listed in Table A, will be found to cover virtually all 
typical country residences, omitting reference to build- 
ings which call for much carved or dressed stone work, 
either in the entire fabric, or in a brick house with 
carved stone trim. Such houses, it is obvious, fall in 
the class of highly expensive work, and cannot safely 
be spoken of in terms of " averages. " 

The Table B will illustrate the fact that, since all 
materials are never equally available in any one place, 
and that since all materials are not suitable for the 
architectural expression of every style, a certain 
amount of selection in the matter is automatically per- 
formed for us by natural elimination. Initial cost, too, 
might well prove the decisive factor. 

After defining the several properties listed in 
Table C, it will be possible to apply this table, individ- 
ually, to each of the types of building enumerated in 
Table A, considering material and construction as 
dually inseparable. 


By character in a building material, it is intended 
to denote certain general properties to direct atten- 
tion to such questions as whether or not a given mate- 
rial is, or appears, heavy, massive, ponderous or clumsy 
for a given purpose; whether it is, or appears, light, 

Albro <fe Lindelierg, Architects 



It is interesting to observe the decorative quality of the brick .work, resulting from the use 
of special brick, laid up with wide white joints 


insecure, unstable. Decision here is a matter of archi- 
tectural taste and architectural judgment. 

Durability should require no definition, but is an 
important question to bear in mind with reference to 
selection. It is a consideration closely associated with 
that of upkeep, or maintenance, as an economic ques- 
tion. Adaptability is a property closely cognate with 
character, and is intended to direct thought toward the 
question of the suitability of a given material for use 
in a given design. In this connection it should be 
remembered that a skilful architect is capable of ren- 
dering the same set of plans, the same house, in fact, 
in entirely different materials. One of the illustrations 
shows two houses built from the same set of plans, one 
in rough-dressed ledge-stone, the other in rough-cast, 
or stucco, over stone. This same house could be ren- 
dered, with equal charm and propriety in brick or in 
half -timber construction, but not as agreeably in frame 
construction, especially if covered with clapboards. 


One of the most important, as well as the least 
appreciated, properties of any material is its texture, 
which is a property both physical, or inherent, and 
SBsthetic, or to be regarded as a factor in design and 
style. Not many years ago the textures of building 
materials were not only unappreciated, but were 
absurdly and unnecessarily disguised or simulated. At 
a dark period of American architecture, the good, hon- 
est, interesting texture of brick was disguised beneath 
a coat of paint. Wood and cast-iron were " sanded" 
to resemble stone, plaster was painted to resemble mar- 
ble and common woods were * ' grained ' ' to counterfeit 
finer woods. 


The importance of texture in building materials will 
become further apparent as this chapter proceeds. 

Colour in building materials is of importance equal 
to texture, and keen taste and judgment in this direc- 
tion may attain results which may make, of a small 
and inexpensive house, a true work of art. In the 
matter of colour, an architect " paints" a picture with 
building materials just as an artist paints a picture with 
pigments and the architect of artistic ability will 
consider the landscape as well as the house itself, and 
create a whole of true harmony. 


Stylistic suitability, as a consideration, is largely 
self-explanatory. Success has very seldom been at- 
tained in building a house of a given style in a material 
not characteristic of that style. Certain styles are defi- 
nitely associated with certain materials. Spanish and 
Italian houses are of stucco and tile, with incidental 
details of wrought iron work: French houses of the 
formal type are of cut stone and slate, or of brick 
and cut stone and so through many styles there will 
be found certain associated uses of material. In the 
subsequent detailed discussion of the types of building 
listed in Table A, lists will be given of the kinds of 
house which may properly be built in the materials and 
structural methods there enumerated. 

Local suitability, as emphasised elsewhere in this 
book, should always be a strong factor governing choice, 
and will be found to be inseparably bound up with other 
considerations, such as colour. Local materials, gener- 
ally speaking, are always to be preferred to those which 
are alien. A red brick house on a grey New England 
seacoast is unpleasantly conspicuous, and noticeably 

P. Knickerbocker l?i>vil. Arrliiteot 

Colloquial uses of building materials have developed and been developed by such informal 
traits in design as are to be noted in the two houses above 

Mellor & Meigs, Architects 

Mellor tt JIt'igs, Architects 



It is seldom that a building designed to be built in one material will look well if carried cut in 
another. In this ease, however, both types of material are suitable, so that the matter may be 
regarded as one of choice rather than rule 


"out of key" with its neighbouring houses and with the 
whole landscape. 

In expressiveness there are involved all considera- 
tions, aesthetic and architectural, and it is intended by 
this term to suggest the importance of giving proper 
thought to all the qualifications or properties of any 
material which might make it suitable or unsuitable 
as a choice for any given building. Expressiveness as 
an aesthetic property is closely cognate with adaptabil- 
ity as a physical property though the second might 
well exist without the full existence of the first. 


Under this head we find that the inherent cost of a 
given building material may be the factor dictating its 
choice or rejection. Common brick, for example, costs a 
certain amount of money per thousand in any locality- 
more in some localities than in others, but this cost per 
thousand may at once involve a house of greater expen- 
diture than is possible. Brick, then, will be out of 
the question. Local availability may combine with 
inherent cost to prohibit the selection of a given mate- 
rial. If not easily available in a given locality, a mate- 
rial, the inherent cost of which in another locality 
might be within the cost limit, might be beyond the cost 
limit. On the other hand, ready local availability might 
make possible the use of a material in spite of its 
inherent cost in a case, for example, where a material 
of less inherent cost would take on a considerable added 
cost (due to local scarcity) in transportation from a 
distant point. 

Workability or structural cost is best known by 
the architect. Here the cost question is one of labour 
rather than material, though the expense in labour is 
directly due to the use of a certain material. Thus 


the cost of erecting an actual half-timber house, with 
hewn frame and "nogged in" brickwork, far exceeds 
the cost of lumber or the brick regarded merely as 

In upkeep, as a cost consideration, are involved 
questions of permanence, low maintenance and imper- 
vity. If low maintenance is desired, the initial cost of 
the house is naturally greater, by reason of the inherent 
cost of the materials making for low maintenance, and 
the involved cost of labour incident to the use of such 
materials. To be impervious to weather, the walls of 
a house must be of brick or stone, its roof of tile or slate, 
the fittings (called " flashings") about the chimneys 
and at the junction of roofs, as well as all gutters, rain- 
pipes and the like, must be of lead (or at least of cop- 
per), and the windows should be leaded metal case- 
ments, set in leaded metal frames imbedded in the 
masonry. Here would be a structure no exposed part 
of which could possibly deteriorate in centuries, even 
of severe weather conditions. English houses so built 
many hundreds of years ago still have the same flash- 
ings, gutters, rain-pipes, and casement windows that 
were built into them. Such construction is naturally 
expensive, even subtracting from the initial cost the 
yearly item of maintenance saved over a long period 
of years, and at best, we must reconcile our minds to 
the inevitable fact that, in the house contemplated by 
the average prospective builder, and even in the house 
contemplated by the millionaire, there will be some 
materials and finishes which will require occasional 
replacement or constant protection. 

At this point we may apply Table C to Table A, with 
a view to comparing in detail the like types of con- 
struction enumerated in Table A by means of the 


understanding of the properties of materials (in gen- 
eral terms) which has been acquired by the above study 
of Table C. 

In this close discussion of the types involved in 
Table A, studied as subdivided in Table C, the item of 
comparative cost (appearing under economic proper- 
ties of materials) is best segregated from so broad a 
survey, and will therefore be given here as a separate 
topic. Its consideration at the beginning is logical, in 
that cost is one of the first questions involved in the 
building of a house. The figures given in Table D, 
however, can only be regarded as an approximation, 
having been worked out by an experienced practical 
contractor, for purposes of comparison. In this table, 
a unit of cost of $10,000 is taken as the basis of com- 
parison, and it is hypothetically assumed that the 
materials listed are of equal availability. This, it is 
obvious, can be no more than an assumption, and the 
following figures would be affected, one way or another, 
by local conditions, not only in the matter of material 
but also in the matter of labour. A levelling of these 
extraneous questions, however, is necessary in a com- 
parison which deals simply with the inherent cost of 
the material plus the labour involved in the type of 
construction called for by the use of that material. 


Cost of Per 

Type of Conotruction Outer Total Cent. 

Wall Increase 

1. Frame, shingle-covered $945 $10,000 

2. Frame, clapboard-covered 985 10,040 .004 

3. Frame, stucco on wire-lath... 1,171 10,226 .0226 

4. Hollow tile and stucco 1,626 10,681 .0681 

5. Brick (ordinary) 2,217 11,272 .1272 

6. Stone (rough-dressed) 2,991 12,046 .2046' 

7. Actual half-timber 3,491 12,546 .2546 


In assuming the $10,000 unit above, the assumption 
is that the outer wall is the only part of the house which 
is changed in the seven types tabulated that we are 
considering seven houses in which all the interior work, 
the floors, fireplaces, plumbing fixtures, lighting fix- 
tures, hardware, etc., are the same, so that the figures 
in the first column show the cost of the outer wall only. 
This method offers the most definite comparison of 
building costs. It will be seen at a glance, in this 
table, that the costs of a shingle house and a clapboard 
house are very nearly the same, and that there is not 
a great advance in the frame house which is covered 
with wire-lath and stucco. A marked advance, how- 
ever, appears with the hollow-tile house, the next two 
types continue to advance, until in the actual half- 
timber house we find that the original $10',000 house, 
identical in its interior construction and equipment, has 
increased in cost to $12,546, solely by reason of the 
material and labour represented by the outer walls. 

It must not for a moment be supposed that the 
figures in this table are to be regarded as of general 
application. Any definite figures on building costs must 
always be taken merely as a general guide, for anyone 
will readily appreciate the fact, for example, that the 
rough stone house, in certain localities, might cost less 
(by reason of ready availability of material), than a 
brick house in that locality, although the relation is 
exactly opposite in the table. In other words, the 
money saved on mason work in laying brick in a locality 
where brick must be transported from a great distance, 
might be more than taken up by the cost of that 

Ordinary building lumber is equally available in 
nearly every locality, and the labour involved in car- 


pentry is standardised, so that the figures dealing with 
the frame house may be taken as of wider exact appli- 
cation than the others. 

It will be well for the prospective builder to remem- 
ber, however, that increases will occur in the cost of the 
inside according to the character of the outer wall. A 
brick house, for example, will usually contain better 
interior trim and detail than the frame house, and be 
a more expensive proposition in every way. 

Having disposed of the cost consideration in the 
selection of a material, the discussion may now best 
proceed by noting the properties which appear in 
Table C as applied to each of these seven types of 

The frame house, in general, has much to commend 
it, as well as certain disadvantages. Chief among these 
is the fire hazard, though much may be done to mitigate 
this by the use of fire-resisting paints and chemical 
preparations which impregnate wood, making it almost 
non-combustible. The character of wood adapts it to 
the small house, partly because the small house is 
unpretentious and simple, and because it expresses this 
quality of the small house. 

In point of durability, wood need not be regarded 
as distinctly perishable excepting in comparison with 
stone or burnt clay building materials. Even in the 
rigorous climate of New England there are wooden 
houses which have withstood the heat and the storms of 
nearly three centuries, and which are still in excellently 
serviceable condition. It is not possible, here, to dis- 
cuss in detail the properties of each of the building 
woods, such as white pine, redwood, cypress and the 
other woods more generally used for exposed work. 
Here is detailed data with which the architect is more 


conversant, or with which the prospective builder may 
familiarise himself by reading or study of books from 
any library. Of these, perhaps the most comprehen- 
sive and concise is ' 'American Forest Trees, ' ' by Henry 
H. Gibson.* 

Wood is by all means an adaptable building mate- 
rial, being suited for both the structural and orna- 
mental parts of a building. It may readily be carved, 
run in mouldings or turned in columns, balusters and 
spindles, nor is the working of such parts an expensive 
operation, as compared with the working of stone. 

Of the texture of woods, little may be made use of in 
exterior work, on account of the necessary protective 
coat of paint. Semi-transparent creosote stains allow 
a certain amount of wood-texture to assert itself, and 
in addition to the more informal types of building, such 
as bungalows and cottages, the exposed timber-work in 
a half-timber house may be so treated. The same 
is true of colour. While the colour of an exterior wood 
is much to be reckoned upon in the design of a house, 
this colour is either that of some foreign substance, 
or the result of the action of weather, excepting in the 
case of the natural colour of California redwood. Thus, 
the "colour" of a wooden house may be white, with 
green blinds, because it has been so painted, and the 
shingled roof may be silver grey because it has been 
exposed for a certain length of time to the weather. 

Many attractive effects may be obtained by the use 
of shingle-stains, which not only add to the shingle some 
interesting colour, but also preserve it. A shingle roof, 
or wall, should never be stained after the shingles are 
laid, but each should be separately dipped in the stain. 

In point of stylistic suitability, wood construction 

* Published by the "Hardwood Record" Magazine, Chicago, 1913. 


will be found appropriate especially for houses in 
Colonial and Georgian Colonial styles. 

Dutch Colonial farm houses, too, as well as many 
of the large Southern manors and the Creole plan- 
tation villas, were built of wood. The architectural 
status of the bungalow is so uncertain that wood is 
quite as appropriate for its construction as many other 

The frame house, with stucco applied over wire-lath 
(a metal mesh nailed to the frame), may be designed 
along lines Spanish or Italian. The construction, of 
course, is an imitation of more stable forms, yet is per- 
missible on the score of economy. Many attractive cot- 
tages and small houses have utilised this method of 
construction, because a variety of harmonious colours 
may be mixed in the stucco, and if the design is not for 
a large and pretentious building, there is little to be 
said against it. The chief caution to be observed in the 
building of a frame house which is to be treated with 
wire lath and stucco is to be exercised in the architect's 
and contractor's supervision, to prevent the application 
of the stucco until after the framework of the house has 
thoroughly settled into place. If the frame settled or 
warped even a little (which all house frames do), it is 
obvious that the wire lath fastened to it would also settle 
or warp with it, inevitably cracking the comparatively 
thin coat of stucco. 

The question of local suitability has been enlarged 
upon in too many other parts of this book to require 
further mention here. It is tabulated in the list of 
essential considerations of building materials because 
of its importance when choice is being made. 

The property of ' ' expressiveness ' ' is closely cognate 
with the property of adaptability wood as a house 


material will always typify simplicity of the kind which 
characterised the homes of the first American colonists 
it will always be a fitting material to express the 
domestic intent of the cottage and the informality of the 
bungalow. For the "economical" properties of wood 
as a building material, the reader is referred to Table D 
its low cost being a result not only of comparatively 
low inherent cost, but of low labour cost in working it. 
Local availability will prove a pertinent cost factor, 
for while lumber may be obtained in nearly any locality, 
the mere cost of hauling from a lumber-yard to an 
isolated site may influence the total cost surprisingly. 

In the upkeep, or maintenance consideration, there 
lies, perhaps, the greatest factor tending toward the 
choice of more permanent materials. Wood must 
always be protected, and painting is not an inexpensive 
item. The frame house, coated with stucco on wire 
lath, has an advantage over the clapboard covered 
house, in that the side-walls require no painting. It is 
true that many historic old farmhouses have gone for 
years without being touched by a paint brush, and their 
yearly increasing greyness, embellished even by lichens 
and moss, has but added to their picturesque charm. 
It might be possible to invite the years and the elements 
to add to your house the honest appearance of old age, 
if its location were either remote, or along a roadside 
where every turn disclosed an ancient farmhouse. In 
a smartly kept suburb, however, it is to be feared that 
the adjacent property owners would prosaically fail to 
appreciate this natural process of " antiquing, " and 
would formally protest at the allowance of any dwell- 
ing so "shabby" in such an "improved and re- 
stricted" environment. 

With the hollow-tile house fourth on the list in 


Table D, there is to be considered a distinctly interest- 
ing type of construction, and one which lends itself with 
peculiar versatility to the rendering of both historic 
and essentially modern architectural styles. 

The unit of construction in a hollow-tile house is the 
tile, which is usually eight inches, and sometimes ten 
inches, in thickness, and corrugated in such a manner 
as to receive directly a coating of stucco on the outside 
of the house, and the application of the finished plaster 
on the inside. It is usually found best, however, not to 
plaster directly on the inside surface of a hollow tile 
wall, but to give this surface a heavy coating of bitu- 
minous water-proofing, with the inside plaster applied 
to wooden or metal lath on ' ' furring. " " Furring, ' ' in 
this case, designates two-by-four inch lumber or lighter 
stock, fastened to the tile wall in order to afford a nail- 
ing for the lath, and to place the inside plaster out of 
any danger of cracking or disintegrating on account of 
the inevitable capillary attraction of water from out- 
side, through the pores of the tile. 

The superficial physical character of hollow tile is, 
of course, never apparent, since it is but the base for a 
coating of stucco. For durability, including its fire- 
proof property, hollow tile is an excellent choice, nor is 
it by any means a material which is non-adaptable to 
many types of building. 

Types of building which may well be considered as 
logical and agreeable opportunities for the use of hollow 
tile and stucco range from the smallest bungalow to 
the largest country or seashore hotel. Renderings of 
the Spanish mission type, and of the Spanish or Italian 
villa type, are obviously a logical use for this construc- 
tion, and that modern adjunct the private garage is a 
particularly fitting building for the use of hollow tile. 


Beference to Table D will show us that hollow tile 
and stucco, while more expensive than stucco on wire 
lath, is far lower in cost than brick. 

In considering the brick house, there is considered 
"the house permanent." Brick will not burn, crack 
or decay, and by reason of the small size of the brick as 
a unit of design, it affords a remarkable medium for 
architectural expression. Brick-building as it is seen 
to-day is a thing of but few years ' growth, and is a wide 
departure from the misuse of brick which characterised 
the Victorian period. The bricklayer of 1880, and for 
more than a decade thereafter, was taught that the de- 
sideratum in a brick wall, above all else, was absolute 
uniformity of surface and suppression of the texture of 
the brick itself and of the joints between each brick. The 
most sought bricks were the smooth, pressed kind, and 
these were laid with almost invisible mortar joints, 
in effects which possessed no more character or interest 
than a piece of oil-cloth. It seemed that there was 
a total ignorance of the very important fact that the 
brick is a unit of interest in itself as well as in relation 
to an entire wall, and consequently there was no appre- 
ciation of the endless possibilities of colour, texture 
and pattern in brick work. 

If the builders of this period, however, had been no 
worse than merely stupid, and had confined the inept- 
ness of their efforts to mere monotony and unimagina- 
tiveness, one might overlook the surviving monuments 
to their stupidity. But they did a thing which was far 
worse : they painted brick work. The more conserva- 
tive used a rich red, unlike any honest brick, and this 
they embellished by picking out, with painful unifor- 
mity, imaginary joints entirely regardless of the real 
joints, in black or white paint. The more ambitious 


went further, and most of us have seen some of their 
masterpieces. They painted their brick work a dis- 
mal, sallow sort of yellow, with dark red joints (imag- 
inary) or, in still more gorgeous flights of fancy, used 
a weird and horrible green, unlike any colour in the 
world, and, according to taste, painted imaginary joints 
upon this, in black or white. 

This painting of brick work is here enlarged upon, 
because it is an admirable illustration of the absolute 
dishonesty and undesirability of denying the true text- 
ure of a building material. This is further apparent 
from the practices which painted brick work encour- 
aged. Builders saw that it was not even necessary to 
use brick to build a brick wall since the material in a 
real brick wall was entirely disguised by paint. A 
rubble wall, then, with a smooth coat of stucco or plas- 
ter, was often painted with a pattern of perfectly 
uniform " brick joints," and the writer has even seen 
examples of this kind of "brick work" in which the 
"bricks" were actually veined to resemble (one must 
suppose) marble. Architectural insanity could no fur- 
ther go and we had better follow the swing of the 
pendulum away from this negation of texture and 
structural properties toward the dawn of architectural 
appreciation and clearer vision of such things. 

The turning point came with an appreciation of the 
beauties of very old American brick work, specifically, 
of the interest and variety apparent in the first brick 
buildings of Harvard College, in Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts. A few discerning architects, studying these 
buildings, and some other early examples, noticed that 
there was a considerable range of colour and some 
natural effect of texture, as well as an often recurring 



note of interest and variety in the appearance of odd 
burnt or discoloured brick-ends here and there. 

In the days when these early buildings were erected, 
brick was scarce, and the mason could not afford to 
throw out all the bricks with burnt ends, the bricks 
which had been on the insides of the stacks in the 
baking kilns. Later these bricks with ends burnt pur- 
ple, black, dark blue or olive green were deliberately 
selected by the mason for use in drains, or in the foun- 
dation walls below grade. They were ' l inferior. ' ' 

With the dawn of the new era of brick-building, 
however, these same naturally burnt bricks were keenly 
sought by architects, and were at first known as "Har- 
vard ' ' bricks. Architects began to work out patterns in 
brick work, or to introduce burnt brick-ends at random 
in their work, and in the course of time it was noticed 
that a single brick might be more interesting than the 
whole wall. 

In other words, the brick became properly recog- 
nised as a unit in design, as it is actually a unit in con- 
struction, and with this recognition came the "raked 
joint. ' ' This kind of joint, formed by raking out a little 
mortar, allowed each brick to stand out a little, and 
immediately there was a new effect of texture in the 
whole wall. This came before the development of 
texture in the brick itself. 

A brick wall came to be desired, as it should be, 
because of its character and expression. It was redis- 
covered to be an honest building material, beautiful and 
adaptable as well, and endowed with qualities of per- 
manence, fire-resistance and stability. 

It was a natural thing, at this point in the evolution 
of brick-building, that the possibilities of the individual 
brick became further developed, and several discerning 


manufacturers began to produce beautifully coloured 
bricks, wherein all the hues were achieved in the burn- 
ing, and all were in tone with the softer and more 
harmonious colours of nature olive and sap greens, 
greys, browns, tans, purples, dull blues and oranges. 
There are now highly aesthetic "scales" of colour in 
bricks scales with which it is possible to effect the 
most subtle and pleasing schemes. A brick which is 
green because it is painted is a grievous affront to any 
decent person ; but a brick which is green through and 
through, because it is baked green is a very different 

But the difference is more than one of dishonesty 
and honesty, or surface deception and real material- 
bricks of to-day have in themselves, individual and 
interesting textures, as distinctive as the texture of a 
woven fabric, or the textures of different stones. 

Nor has the effort been confined to colour and 
texture special shapes, too, have been devised, longer 
and more flat than the standard ' < 2-4-8 ' ' brick, so that 
it is possible to effect strong expressions of the hori- 
zontal characteristic of brick courses. 

The prospective builder must remember, however, 
that these new and special bricks, of distinctive colour, 
texture and shape, are considerably more expensive per 
thousand than "ordinary" brick, so that the figure 
quoted for the fifth type of house in Table D must be 
taken as low for a house designed to be faced with 
"special" brick. 

Having pursued to this point a necessarily curtailed 
history of the evolution of brick work, it now remains 
to direct upon brick, as a building material, the sev- 
eral considerations listed in Table C. 

It is not necessary, perhaps, to elaborate greatly 


upon these various properties as applied to brick: as 
used to-day, brick has every opportunity to interest- 
ingly assert its character as a burnt-clay product ; its 
durability is an inherent quality, the same in ancient 
times, to-day and always; its adaptability is excep- 
tional, for effects of heavy mass, of delicate detail, and 
even of mere surface decoration may equally readily be 

Of texture and colour enough was said above to sug- 
gest to the prospective builder the present-day possi- 
bilities of brick in both these particulars. 

In point of stylistic suitability brick has certain 
limitations. It is, of course, a universal material for 
schools, hospitals, clubs and a wide variety of other 
types of large, permanent buildings, including armo- 
ries. It is the material above all others to use in a 
church of Eomanesque design. Certain types of 
English country house demand the use of brick, as well 
as certain types of early American house, either in 
town or country. "Independence Hall," in Philadel- 
phia, is a model for a style of city building in brick, 
stone and wood which, for its type, has never been 
improved upon. The French chateau, if not built 
entirely of dressed stone, was very often built of brick 
with dressed stone quoins, copings and trim, the brick 
portion usually handled with remarkable charm and 
interest. In the Italian villa, however, the flat stucco 
wall-surface was prevalent, despite the fact that 
Eenaissance architects showed marked ability and 
evident pleasure in the material in many of their city 
buildings. (McKim, Mead & White, in fact, ushered 
in their great American revival of Italian Renaissance 
architecture by designing several important city 
structures in the Italian manner of brick building.) 


Considering the aspect of local suitability, it must 
be remembered that brick is not always appropriate. 
This is especially true of most localities in New Eng- 
land, where brick has always been comparatively scarce 
and used for little else but chimneys. By reason of the 
presence of extensive local clayfields, Pennsylvania, 
New Jersey and Maryland make the natural habitat of 
the brick house, although, of course, there are many 
brickyards in many other parts of the country. 

Of the expressiveness of brick as a building mate- 
rial, enough was said in the foregoing sketch of the 
1 ' evolution of brick work ' ' to suggest the great range of 
expression which the intelligent appreciation and use 
of brick work lays open to the architect. 

The items of inherent cost and comparative cost 
may be deduced from Table D, and must be recognised 
as varying considerably in different localities. The 
prospective builder is again reminded, also, of the 
greater cost of ' ' special ' ' face-bricks, which a restricted 
total expenditure may confine to a little interior use as 
an excellent material for fireplaces. The item of local 
availability is closely linked with the cost considera- 
tions, or they with it, and it must be remembered that 
a brick house near Trenton, New Jersey, will * ' figure ' ' 
very differently from the same brick house at Marble- 
head, Massachusetts. 

A large part of the cost of a brick house, after the 
inherent cost of the material is figured, lies in the 
structural cost, due to the fact that brick, a small unit, 
builds up slowly (as compared with the large hollow tile 
units), and calls for skilled labour, especially where 
effects of unusual pattern or jointing are called for. 

In the upkeep, or maintenance consideration, lies 
one of the most conspicuous and undeniable recommen- 


dations of brick as a building material. Even if a poor 
mixture of mortar has been used (too much sand and 
too little cement), it would be over a generation before 
the joints required "pointing" on account of the disin- 
tegration of the mortar, and if a well-mixed cement 
mortar has been used, there is constructed a wall of 
splendid impervity and permanence. 

It is suggested here that the prospective builder 
direct a little conscious observation upon the examples 
of brick-building which he daily sees about him, noting 
the degree of success or interest attained (or the lack 
of either) in details of colour, texture, pattern and the 
like. Let him imagine some kind of brick work which 
attracts him, as applied to the house he is about to 
build, become aware of the reasons why the brick work 
of the 80 's appears so dismal and stupid let him be- 
come, in short, a competently intelligent amateur critic 
of brick work, so long as he does not cultivate a delusion 
that he knows more about it than an architect. It is 
impossible in limited compass to discuss and illustrate 
every type of brick work, which constitutes a study in 
itself, and the writer is convinced that it would be far 
more valuable for the reader to cultivate for himself 
as much personal discrimination as possible in the 

The discussion has now reached the sixth type of 
house listed in Table D the house of "rough-dressed" 
stone, by which is understood the house very often 
alluded to as " fieldstone. ' ' Fieldstone may, indeed, be 
the material, but this must be "dressed," or roughly 
squared up in order to effect a good wall. If not gath- 
ered from the fields, or from old walls, this stone may 
be locally quarried from a ledge, as in the case of the 
well-known "Chestnut Hill" stone, which has afforded 

H e 

Bullring, Okie & /iegler, Architects 


Ledge-stone, used for the walls of this house, has been "roughcast " with stucco 
and whitewashed 

H. T. Lindeberg, Architect 


Houses in several styles may be acceptably rendered in stucco notably those of 
Spanish or Italian origin, as well as such houses as the above, derived from the 
modern English type 


the Philadelphia architects such a thoroughly colloquial 
and charming building material. 

The use of stone from old walls is highly to be 
recommended, because much of it has been roughly 
dressed perhaps a century or more ago, so that the faces 
are weathered to a fine colour of grey. In any case a 
stone which will naturally split into comparatively thin 
pieces is desirable, because it will lay in even, horizon- 
tal courses, and may be laid up with very little mortar 
appearing in the joints. The abomination in rough 
stone-masonry is the wall of round cobble-stones, 
obviously calling for mortar as a necessity for the sta- 
bility of the wall, and forcing into an unnatural use a 
building material which could never have a natural 
use. The ideal rough stone wall, according to the 
technique of stone-masonry, is the ''dry-wall," or wall 
in which no mortar whatever has been used. While 
such a wall, of course, would not do for house construc- 
tion, it is possible and much to be desired for porch or 
pergola posts and for garden walls. The dry-wall, 
obviously, calls for a high degree of skill on the part 
of the mason, as well as for the local availability of a 
ledge-stone which will split to lay in flat courses. Any 
stone resembling slate will be found very adaptable in 
this respect. 

The desideratum, then, in the wall of rough-dressed 
stone, is the nearest possible approach, in appearance, 
to the dry-wall. 

The interesting expedient of using a great deal of 
mortar for the walls of a stone house, and giving the 
whole a coat of whitewash or white paint is a "special" 
type of rough-dressed stone work, intended to-day to 
recall the very early American colonial farm-houses 
which were treated in this manner. Here, however, 


are involved considerations of historical or antiquarian 
aspect, rather than structural. 

Further and more specific points in connection with 
the house of rough-dressed stone may be brought out by 
reference to its properties as listed in Table C. 

Of the physical properties of rough-dressed stone, 
little need be said. Its character is peculiarly interest- 
ing and naturally full of diversity and variety, and 
there need be no question as to its durability. Adapta- 
bility as applied to rough stone cannot be stated in a 
fixed rule because stones vary, geologically, according 
to locality, some proving far more adaptable than 
others, and a few proving actually impossible to use. 

In point of texture and colour, rough stone work has 
no competitor, for neither art nor science has so far 
improved upon Nature in these particulars. The skil- 
ful stone-mason will select the stones with thought of 
texture and colour constantly in his mind, and create 
a wall which will be a permanent delight and satis- 
faction to the eye, becoming increasingly beautiful and 
charming with age and growth of vines. 

When stylistic suitability is considered, there be- 
come apparent certain definite limitations for the use of 
rough-dressed stone as a building material. 

Primarily, it has proved in every respect an ideal 
material for the present day revivals of early American 
farm houses, notably in the vicinity of Philadelphia, 
and in general it is an admirable choice for the render- 
ing of any bungalow, cottage or house of the "pictur- 
esque" type. No material is better suited to the con- 
struction of any house in mountain or seashore 
surroundings, and, obviously, no material can possess 
stronger values of local suitability. 

Expressiveness in buildings of rough-dressed stone- 


work will depend largely upon the physical properties 
of the stone, and upon the technical skill possessed by 
the mason engaged to lay the walls. It will be found 
that few brick-layers are equal to the undertaking, 
which requires a great deal of experience, where the 
best results are desired, and the best course to pursue 
is to institute inquiries in the neighbourhood. In virtu- 
ally every locality where suitable building stone is to 
be found, a short search will disclose a local stone- 
mason, usually a "character," but nearly always a 
remarkably skilful artisan, and a man experienced 
through years of local "job work" in laying up just 
the kind of stone which exists in the locality to which 
he is native. Obviously such an artisan, although tech- 
nically untrained, will be found to lay up the best stone 
wall he is familiar with every peculiarity, possibility 
and restriction of the material he has so long been 
called upon to build into chimneys, foundations and 
sidewalls for the folk of the neighbourhood. He may be 
employed directly by the contractor. 

Confronted, now, by the cost consideration, both 
inherent and comparative, reference is again made to 
Table D, and the prospective builder will realise that 
the governing factor here will be item "c," or local 
availability. Cost, obviously, would be prohibitive if 
no suitable building stone existed near the site of the 
house, unless its use were restricted, perhaps, to a 
fireplace or a chimney. It should be remembered, how- 
ever, that rough stone is, of all materials, a local one, 
and a naturalistic one, and hence a poor choice for 
any building in a locality to which it is not native. 
The use of rough stone, in such a case, becomes an af- 
fectation instead of an expression of rugged sincerity 
and structural honesty. 


The working-cost of rough stone will be found to 
vary with the nature of the stone, and with the advan- 
tageousness of the bargain which can be struck with the 
aforementioned local stone-mason. In any case, the 
cost of handling and laying up rough stone, all other 
things being equal, exceeds that of brick. 

In upkeep, or maintainence, it is obvious that the 
stone house is a permanent and substantial affair a 
dwelling for all time. Many of the most ancient houses 
in this country are of rough-dressed stone a splendid 
building material in every instance where its use is 
to be regarded as logical and possible according to the 
considerations set forth in Table C. 

Our commentary on building materials has now 
reached the last, or seventh type listed in Table D the 
house of actual "half -timber" construction, and here 
we are considering a building which differs from others 
not in respect to the materials used, but rather in re- 
spect to the manner in which they are used. 

Before proceeding with a brief discussion of the 
actual half -timber house, it is necessary to speak of the 
house which is not of half-timber construction, although 
thoughtlessly so called. It has been apparent to archi- 
tects, for some years, that the purely decorative aspect 
of half -timber work could add greatly to the appearance 
of the small house, while its actual cost would render 
it prohibitive. The "patterns" characteristic of half- 
timber work, especially in the gable ends of houses, 
were appreciated as highly effective from the design 
point of view, and so the effect only was produced, by 
a perfectly out-and-out ' ' fake. ' ' There is, perhaps, no 
serious charge to be brought against the practice, so 
long as there exists no intent to deceive so long as the 
work is obviously a decorative makeshift, and not a 

1'pjohn it Conolile, Architects 


In the true half-timber house, the frame of the house is exposed, and the spaces between the timbers 

are filled in with brick work 


structural deception. One would prefer, of course, a 
real half-timber house, but reference to Table D will 
remind the prospective builder that he is considering 
the most expensive type of construction there listed. 
The "imitation" of half-timber work consists of apply- 
ing, on a stucco exterior wall-surface, thin boards 
(usually stained brown) arranged to represent the 
posts and braces which were developed to form natural 
and structural patterns in actual half-timber work. 
There is, for this reason, more palliation for the imita- 
tion "half -timber" house wherein mere superficial 
1 1 patterns ' ' are contrived, than for the imitation which 
attempts to represent structural members which do 
not exist. 

The real half-timber house is a thing of architectural 
merit and beauty for the reasons that it expresses in 
an entirely logical and perfectly frank manner, its con- 
struction, and because it affords an opportunity for 
marked diversity and interest not only in its materials, 
but in the manner in which these are used. 

In an earlier part of this book, some mention was 
made of this type of construction, but repetition may 
be pardoned in the present chapter. In the actual half- 
timber house, the wooden members forming what ap- 
pears to be a "pattern," (as in the garden front of 
Tangley Manor, shown in the frontispiece) are the 
actual framing timbers of the building exposed its 
posts, sills, studding and corner braces. The spaces 
between these structural members, in the actual half- 
timber house, are filled (or "nogged") with brick work, 
which is either arranged in interesting patterns, to 
show as brick, or more plainly built in, to be concealed 
with a coat of stucco. 

It is obvious that here exists at once an opportunity 


and a task an opportunity to show interesting texture 
in the wood-work, by means of rough-hewing it and 
leaving visible marks of the adze, as well as to show 
endless diversity in the brick "nogging," or subtle 
colour in the stucco coat. 

The carpentry involved, as well as the skilful 
masonry, are the items which mount up the cost, rather 
than the actual materials used. 

Oak, of course, is the best wood for the posts and 
braces, and in this item "inherent cost" is a factor, 
because heavy pieces are required, and pieces reason- 
ably free from defects of any kind. 

The half -timber house, considered under the several 
points listed in Table C, will be found to possess a high 
degree of desirability, with its chief drawback repre- 
sented by the cost considerations, inherent, compara- 
tive, and every other item of cost. 

Half -timber work possesses by all means, character, 
and the ancient buildings of England and the Continent 
testify to its durability. In point of adaptability, it 
should be self-evident that skilful artisanship, in this 
case real craftsmanship, can perform wonders of 
structural ingenuity. 

Half -timber work, like any other frank and sincere 
use of materials, will be found rich in values of texture 
and colour. 

The stylistic suitability of half -timber work is con- 
fined to derivations of the Elizabethan English country 
house, as well as the town houses of the period, though 
in the latter, modern city fire laws will either exclude 
the type or necessitate a fire-proof "effect" of half- 
timber work. Half-timber work was also largely used 
in the mediaeval buildings of France, Germany and the 
low countries, but American derivations of these are 


by way of being architectural curiosities, albeit the 
writer could cite several interesting examples. 

Local suitability, of course, would exclude the half- 
timber houses in America, but the same consideration 
would exclude many other types of buildings which we 
have thrown (with greater or less thought) into our 
architectural melting pot, and we will therefore ignore 
it in this instance. 

Certainly no type of construction, or no use of ma- 
terials, could possess greater or more directly obvious 
qualities of expressiveness. 

The first four items listed in Table C under "Eco- 
nomic Properties" have been discussed earlier the 
last, or maintenance consideration, may quickly be dis- 
missed by reference to the ancient half -timber buildings 
of Europe, as staunch and sound after centuries of exist- 
ence as in the time they were built. Oak does not 
decay in centuries, and the " Hogging" between the 
structural members is, of course, impervious and per- 
manent. The obvious accompaniments for the half- 
timber house are casement windows, the overhanging 
second story, the picturesque roof-line and quaint chim- 
neys. Taking it in toto, the half-timber house is an 
undertaking for the experienced, scholarly and imagi- 
native architect, and is a type of house which the pros- 
pective builder must expect only with the inevitable 
increase in cost, throughout, over a house of any of the 
six other kinds enumerated in Table D. 

In concluding this chapter, it remains only to offer 
a few observations on the mingling of two or more 
materials in one building a question upon which there 
has been an extraordinary diversity of opinion on the 
part of architects and amateurs alike. 


The most important general admonition, perhaps, 
is against the combined use of perishable and imperish- 
able materials in the same house, as in a structure with 
first story of stone, brick or hollow tile, and the second 
of frame construction. A fire-proof roof, of slate or 
tile, on a frame house should be palpably absurd, but 
instances exist. 

Broadly speaking, most combinations of impervious 
materials are permissible, notably: the hollow tile 
second story on a base story of brick or of rough- 
dressed stone. Rough-dressed stone and brick, used 
together, must be handled with a considerable degree 
of architectural ingenuity, of which striking examples 
may be seen from time to time, as well as lamentable 
failures. It was remarked in an earlier chapter that 
much of the charm of the modern English country 
house is due to a colloquial and idiomatic use of varied 
building materials, skilfully and informally blended to 
create charming and interesting effects. 

Variety, like originality, inevitably leads to archi- 
tectural disaster if it is made an end in itself, and 
pursued without real and sincere design. If a certain 
portion of a building seems, from its structural nature, 
to call for the use of a certain material, variety becomes 
a logical factor in the design otherwise it is as worth- 
less as any other architectural tour de force. 

It must be remembered that the foregoing observa- 
tions upon the properties and uses of certain commonly 
employed building materials are intended to apply only 
to exterior work. While many of the same considera- 
tions may be applied to interior work, it is obvious that 
there is greater latitude in every direction, within the 
house, so that a discussion would involve extensive 


reference to interior decoration, furniture and the like, 
properly to be taken up as a separate study.* 

It can only be observed that a certain degree of 
consistency should be apparent in the exterior and 
interior of any building. The house of architecturally 
pretentious or imposing exterior should not conceal 
mean interiors, nor should the humble cottage house 
within its walls disproportionately elaborate or mag- 
nificent interiors. Here one invades the realm of ' ' good 
taste ' ' in general, as well as of architectural propriety 
in particular, and the- best rules which could be formu- 
lated would not prove of as great value as an ounce 
of common sense. 

In the following chapter there will be considered 
several important aspects of the proposed house which 
may be regarded as existing irrespectively of the archi- 
tectural style in which it is designed, or of the materials 
which have been chosen as most appropriate for the 
rendering of that style. 

* " The Practical Book of Interior Decoration " is already in 
advanced preparation and will be issued in 1917. 




IT isi the purpose of this chapter to offer a few 
general suggestions to the prospective builder 
in matters relating to plan and detail suggestions 
designed to stimulate observation of houses seen, and 
study of houses which may attract attention through 
the pages of a magazine. And it should be kept in 
mind that these suggestions are not to be taken, neces- 
sarily, as recommendations, because nearly every house 
involves different problems and requirements. Hav- 
ing given thought to some of the following points, how- 
ever, the prospective builder will be better equipped 
to discuss them with his architect. Advice which is 
didactic and specific, especially in the design of a house, 
often defeats its own end. The prospective builder, 
having read somewhere that a certain point is essen- 
tial, fails to recognize the fact that, in his particular 
case, it may not only be unessential, but actually detri- 
mental. Having it, however, "on authority," he is 
inclined to doubt the ability or the integrity of the 
architect who advises against it. Considerable allusion 
has been made elsewhere in this book regarding the 
"advice" of one's friends. In this last chapter the 
writer, recalling many instances in which "friendly," 



but absolutely ignorant or prejudiced advice lias 
wrecked a building project, feels impelled to make this 
one last mention of it. It is the one most distressing 
factor which the architect has to contend with in the 
practice of his profession, and which the client has to 
contend with in formulating his ideas. 

Nor does the writer wish to commit the same offence 
of officiousness, and would far prefer that the prospec- 
tive builder regard the following paragraphs as 
"things to think about," and not as advice. The 
thoughtless " adviser" is apt to forget that what is one 
man's meat is another man's poison, and that the very 
suggestion which might vastly improve one house might 
entirely blight another. To the prospective builder, 
without experience or training, all advice is the same 
that of his friends and of the popular magazine articles. 
The mistake he usually makes is in failing to lay all 
his doubts and fears before his architect the man for 
whose trained professional opinions and guidance he 
is paying a fee. 

Certain features of plans exist irrespective of the 
style of the house, while certain other features are 
influenced by style or by some other factor. 

Proceeding on this fact, it might be stated that pro- 
vision for the individual's family needs will govern the 
plan in any case, be it large or small, regular or irregu- 
lar. Certain features which he personally desires will 
be provided for whether the style be English or Italian, 
the cost $10,000 or ten times that amount. 

Beyond this, however, the very basis of the plan 
may be dictated by the historic style of the house, or 
by the site it is to occupy. A house of formal, balanced 
design would ill-grace a rocky hill-top, even if it could . 
be practically carried out, whereas such a site should 


at once dictate a house of irregular and picturesque 
plan, in conformity with the irregular and picturesque 
exterior aspect it should present. 

While it is never advisable to " develop" a plan 
from an exterior, it is evident that certain types of 
exterior will, to some extent, govern the plan, and 
certain exterior features will need to be provided for 
within. The proper procedure is to develop plan and 
exterior coincidently, so that each logically expresses 
the other. Such development, carried out with perfect 
balance and harmony, is ' * architecture, ' ' and is the kind 
of dual designing which the architect's training has 
taught him to perform. The amateur's tendency is to 
visualise only the plan, or only the exterior, with the 
result that when plan and exterior come to be worked 
together, many features will be found incongruous, 
incompatible or inconsistent, and will need to be 
changed. The problem is not unlike that of the develop- 
ment of the successive floor-plans, which must not only 
be convenient and logical in themselves, but in relation 
with each other. 

The relationship of plan to style is more obvious, 
and even an amateur realises that a Southern manor, 
for example, which presents superficially a central 
colonnaded portico with two uniform wings on either 
side, must present within a plan possessing, funda- 
mentally, symmetry. A rambling English country 
house, on the other hand, expresses by its informality 
and irregularity the fact that its plan is full of unex- 
pected turns, with wings splaying off from the main 
house at angles, and with no system of axial balance 
or alignment. 

In this relationship, the prospective builder must 
remember that some degree of consistency should be 


observed if he wishes a picturesque and irregular 
exterior, he cannot expect, within, a symmetrical and 
axial plan : if his dreams have centred about a quaint, 
rambling plan, full of unexpected architectural vaga- 
ries, he must dismiss all thought of anything resem- 
bling a classic Georgian exterior. 

Governing the entire proposition of the plan, how- 
ever, should be the actual practical needs of the family 
which is to occupy it. And in order to secure the best 
results from the architect's work, the prospective 
builder should, at the outset, acquaint the architect 
with every detail of the family needs. A studio? a 
nursery or play-room? a music-room? a study or 
library? these requirements must form the basis of 
the plan, if the house is to be an abode of permanent 

The plan of the large house presents comparatively 
few difficulties. Its site is ample, the expenditure for 
its erection is ample, and the architect finds it a rela- 
tively simple matter to include due provision for his 
client's every need and requirement. 

The plan of the small house is a very different mat- 
ter, the problem resolving itself into a test of architec- 
tural ingenuity. The site may be restricted, the expen- 
diture undoubtedly is restricted the architect's task 
is to develop a pleasing, convenient and adequate abode 
in spite of these restrictions. 

It is safe to say that the usual mistake in the small 
house plan lies in lack of foresight, and the result is a 
cramped plan, made up of a number of small rooms. 
The plan of any small house which is intended as a 
permanent abode, should be definitely laid out with a 
view to future enlargement and addition. In this way 
it is possible to commence building operations with a 


smaller amount of capital than would otherwise be 
necessary, and to develop the house in a perfectly logical 
and natural way. It will express with charming direct- 
ness the growth of the family, and will possess for all 
time a degree of symbolism and meaning which could 
be attained in no other way. 

In any consideration of planning, due thought 
should be given to the kind of interior desired, as this 
may materially affect the shapes of some of the rooms, 
or the layout of the stair-hall. Consideration, too, 
should be given to the furniture, whether this is already 
in the owner 's possession or is to be selected after the 
house is built. 

If the first is the case, and the furniture is of good 
design, the furniture should govern the character of 
the interiors an appropriate architectural environ- 
ment should be created. If the second is the case, the 
character of the interiors should dictate the choice of 
the furniture and the furniture considered in relation 
to the architectural setting it is to occupy. As a prac- 
tical detail, dimensions of any large pieces of wall- 
furniture should be given the architect, so that he may 
provide proper places in the plans. This bit of fore- 
sight may save expensive alteration, or a distressing 
incongruity later. In point of style, a word to the 
architect on such a detail as either possessing, or desir- 
ing, a set of Chippendale dining-room furniture, for 
example, will insure the proper architectural setting. 
The relationship between architecture and furnishings 
should always be visualised as vividly as possible, for 
the greater the variance in style or character, the less 
harmony the house will possess. 

It should be remembered, in studying dimensions 
on the plans, that furniture will make all the rooms 


seem smaller, and some thought should be given, in 
each room, to the possibilities of furniture placement, 
and the effects which will result. An extra set of 
blueprints, indeed, might well be kept apart from the 
others, as a set of " furniture plans," the location of 
the principal pieces in each room being sketched in 
with yellow crayon. The scale of one-quarter of an 
inch to the foot (at which the plans are drawn) should 
be followed, so that the actual dimensions of wall spaces 
would be known in advance. A bureau, for example, 
four feet wide, would be sketched an inch wide on 
the plans. With these notations, fully worked out, a 
conference should be had with the architect, who may 
suggest some better placement of the furniture, or may, 
with this data before him, find it advisable to make 
a few slight alterations in the plans. How often a 
house has been built, and the lament has arisen: "But 
there is no place for our big sofa what a stupid archi- 
tect" and no thought was given to the fact that the 
architect had never been told that there existed a "big 
sofa." He has many abilities, but among them he is 
not a clairvoyant. 

Beyond the important question of considering the 
relationship of architecture to furniture, and vice versa, 
we are, perhaps, trespassing on the field of inte- 
rior decoration, which will form the subject of an entire 
book in itself, issued in the present series. 

Reverting to the provision in planning which should 
be made for individual needs, it is well to remember 
that herein lies an important difference between the 
"ready-made" house, and the house which is specially 
and intelligently designed. In the "ready-made" 
house, there will be no studio for the artist, no study 
for the writer, the doctor or the lawyer. There will 


be no nursery, or play-room, and no workshop for the 
man who finds his relaxation in craftsmanship or 

There is an interesting tendency at present to incor- 
porate the garage in the house itself, which, if skilfully 
compassed, is advantageous and convenient in the small 
suburban house on a small lot the owner, of course, 
his own chauffeur. The fire-hazard, however, should 
be thought of by all but the ultra-careful man. 

Among desirable plan features which might be 
listed as "reminders" are the following: rear or side 
entrance for the children, a downstairs wash-room or 
lavatory, ample coat-closet (preferably with a win- 
dow), back-stairs (or at least a stair which joins the 
main stair part of the way up), laundry chute, broom- 
closets (easily provided for) and above all, a large 
bath-room two of them, if possible. It is a curious 
thing that even in the modern house people have a 
notion that the bath-room may well occupy any small 
left-over space in the second-floor plan, whereas it 
should be regarded as one of the most important 
features of the second floor, and planned as a room, 
with ample windows and ample floor-space. 

Despite the time-honoured jokes at the expense of the 
architect, it is doubtful if his plans ever omitted closets. 
The woman usually looks at the " closet-room" in a 
plan before she considers any other feature but she 
should remember not to let her zeal and concern in this 
direction cause her to overlook other things which are 
quite as important. Whether or not as a result of the 
reiterated accusation of the feminine client anent 
closets, it is a fact that the architect of to-day is more 
likely than not to plan closets which are actually mag- 
nificent really large enough for dressing-rooms, and 


often provided with a small window. For purposes of 
air and light, the closet with a window is by all means 
an advance over the dark ''poke-hole," its contents 
lost in Egyptian darkness, and never ventilated. If 
it is not found possible to make the closets of more 
than usual size it is well to provide a small store-room. 
This is sometimes feasible when larger closets would 
largely disturb the plan. 

In general, the plan should be studied to possess 
good circulation, good access from room to room, con- 
veniently located bath-rooms, no narrow or dark hall- 
ways and it should aim to make the most of vistas 
of the glimpse of one room which is to be had from 
another, or from the hall. This, of course, is most im- 
portant in the planning of the first floor, and will lead 
to a careful consideration of too abruptly mixing diifer- 
ent period styles. 

An "Adam reception room," a "Jacobean library" 
and a Georgian dining-room may all dwell, with other 
"period rooms" as well, beneath the ample roof of a 
palatial country house, but there is danger of a dis- 
tressing effect in such catholicity in the small house, 
which is at its best when it is consistent. 

An American innovation of increasing popularity 
is the "sleeping porch," and in its introduction the 
architect is usually called upon to exercise his keenest 
ingenuity in making the necessarily wide and unbroken 
openings a harmonious part of the exterior. Another 
innovation is the "solarium," or sun-parlor, which is 
sometimes nothing more than a glassed-in porch, opened 
to the air in summer, but is often made a distinct room 
in itself, permanently a "solarium," with a fireplace, 
and often an attractive semi-outdoor treatment of 
"treillage" on the walls, and tiles on the floor. 


Two other plan-features, however, have not been 
developed in the American dwelling to a fraction of 
their possibilities the patio and the terrace. 

The patio, of course, suggests a moderately large, 
or a very large house, though many comparatively 
small Californian houses have been built about three 
sides of a garden court, or entirely surrounding it. 
One can visualise attractive introduction of the patio, 
if reasonably small, covered with a glass roof in winter, 
and taking the place of the solarium. A patio invaria- 
bly makes for an interesting plan, and a plan in which 
virtually all the rooms may have lighting from both 
sides, as well as charming glimpses from the windows, 
especially if the patio boasts of a fountain or a pool, 
besides its floral embellishment. 

In speaking of the terrace as a neglected oppor- 
tunity, reference is not made to the large garden ter- 
race, but rather to the terrace which is really little more 
than an unroofed porch. If placed on the eastern side 
of the house, it will always be in the shade during the 
latter part of the afternoon, and if it is planned to 
adjoin the dining-room, tall French windows will invite 
an after-dinner stroll au plein air, or a pleasant retreat 
for after-dinner coffee. Porches are often omitted 
because the porch roof darkens the adjoining room 
within, although it might otherwise be very desirable 
to have greater provision for the enjoyment of a splen- 
did view, or a prospect of the garden. And the open 
terrace, even if it need be occupied while the sun is 
upon it, may be attractively and practically enlivened 
by two or three large umbrella-awning or canopy tables, 
with wicker or painted-wood chairs. 

It would not be possible to enumerate all the 
features of a set of house plans which might prove 


desirable or attractive, because conditions and prefer- 
ences are infinite in their variety. The foregoing 
paragraphs are intended, rather, to suggest a few of 
the more pleasing features of plans which are not appa- 
rent in "ready-made" or ill-designed houses, and to 
suggest as well, that many of these features may easily 
and inexpensively be incorporated in a set of plans 
while they are in a "formative" state. 

In the same manner, and with the same intention, a 
few notes on special details will now be presented. 

Eegarding architectural details, be it said in gen- 
eral that we are inclined, in America, to be too con- 
servative; we are inclined to look too much at our 
neighbours ' houses before we build for ourselves. Con- 
sistency is admirable, but the expression of a little 
individuality may save consistency from degenerating 
into monotony. In details both inside and out most 
American houses show very little imagination, and 
reflect no specific personality. The same is true of 
plans. It seems unfortunate that even the casual? 
passer-by should be able, from a glance at the average 
American house, to know exactly how the rooms within 
are arranged. The modern English dwelling is full of 
architectural surprises if anything, individuality and 
irregularity are carried to extremes which are some- 
times not entirely desirable. 

Reverting to our subject in hand, however, the pros- 
pective builder will avoid a certain amount of confusion 
if he remembers that there are two kinds of detail 
exterior and interior, and that both these details are 
again divided into two kinds details of design, and 
details of material. 

Good procedure in deciding upon certain details, if 
one be reasonably familiar with them through pictures 


or observation, is to make a list for exterior and inte- 
rior, and for design and material. It is obvious that 
ultimate choice in matters of detail will be governed by 
several conditions, such as style, cost, efficiency and 
the like, but it is well to seek some means by which 
one will not fall into the mistake and inevitable con- 
fusion of thinking, at the same time, of the design of 
a chimney and the hardware on a closet door. A simple 
system of listing may save the prospective builder from 
forgetting some very important detail, which, remem- 
bered at a later stage of the work, will necessarily 
be figured in as an ' ' extra. ' ' 

Let it be assumed that the style and material of the 
exterior have been finally settled upon, and that the 
prospective builder is relying upon his architect to see 
that all ordinary matters of construction are properly 
carried out. It is safe to say that no prospective 
builder (unless he has built before) possesses sufficient 
knowledge to make intelligent suggestions in such mat- 
ters as excavation, mason work, framing or finished 
carpentry. There are, however, a number of things he 
would like to take up with his architect for discussion, 
and for probable inclusion in the drawings and specifi- 
cations and these things the architect would be decid- 
edly glad to know at the start. It should always be 
remembered that the more an architect knows about his 
client's requirements and wishes, the better service he 
is able to render. 

It is suggested, therefore, that the prospective 
builder prepare two lists, each subdivided as indicated 
above, and that he embrace in these lists all those points 
upon which he wishes to obtain the architect's profes- 
sional opinion and advice. Some details he may find 
too expensive to come within his limited expenditure 


others he may be pleasantly surprised to find are not 
nearly so expensive as he had always supposed. 

The following lists cannot attempt to include every 
detail in which every prospective builder might be inter- 
ested it is intended merely to show the form in which 
such lists might well be prepared, and to offer as 
reminders certain details which are frequently over- 
looked until too late, in concern and attention directed 
upon the more general aspects of the house. These 
lists, then, may be curtailed or amplified by the pros- 
pective builder to fit his particular case their only 
fixed essential being their form, or division into details 
exterior and details interior, and each of these into 
details of design and details of material. 

The style of the house, its general material, and the 
disposition of the plan, as stated above, are assumed 
to have been decided upon before the preparation of 
these detail lists. It will be seen upon a survey of the 
following details that certain of them involve coincident 
consideration of design and material, one influencing 
the other. 


Moulded brick, terra-cotta, tiles. Exterior ornament: 
Ironwork. Plasterwork. 

Weather-vanes and sun-dials. Carving. 

Shutters. Chimneys and chimney pots. 

Windows: Gutters and rain-leaders. 

Bays, casements, and French Screens and awnings. 

windows. Walks. 

Porch, door-hood, etc. Terraces and courtyards. 

Front door and its hardware. Fountains and pools. 

Lanterns. Treillage and trellises. 
Potted bay-trees. Flower-boxes. 




Moulded brick, terra-cotta, tiles. Paint or stain for trim and side- 

Roof-tiles and slates. walls. 

Thatched roof effects. Gutters, flashings and leaders. 

Special face brick. Copings terra-cotta, stone, slate, 

Texture and color of stucco. tile. 

Paint or stain for trim and shut- Walks, terraces, courtyards, 

ters. Tile, brick, flag, cement. 

Before presenting a similar dual list of certain 
interior details of design and material, it might be of 
value to amplify the above list with a few brief 

Many exteriors may be given added interest by 
even slight departures in detail from the commonplace. 
Interesting effects have been obtained in brick and 
stucco houses by the use of moulded bricks for such 
details as the divisions between windows (mullions), 
or for window-sills and other horizontal courses. 
Moulded terra-cotta, also, either unglazed or with a 
1 'matt" surface, and red, white or polychrome in color, 
may often be happily introduced in panels, friezes, 
spandrils or lunettes, especially in the stucco house. 
Here great interest may be added, and the only caution 
is to concentrate any such embellishment in certain 
places rather than have it scattered confusingly about. 
Window-heads, for instance, may be enlivened by the 
introduction of coloured terra-cotta, or a gorgeous 
coloured frieze may well be placed up in the shadow of 
the overhanging eaves. In some instances, it may be 
permissible or even commendable to introduce cement 
casts of ornamental placques, cartouches or bas-reliefs 
in a wall of stucco,whether or not there is also a certain 
amount of brick work. Houses derived from Spanish 
or Italian types are the most appropriate for such 


Tiles are of several kinds, broadly divided into tiles 
structural and tiles decorative. Despite the division, 
each kind may partake of the uses of the other. The 
most familiar structural tile is the square red tile 
(called a "quarry tile," from the French carre, 
square). This tile is usually seen used as a flooring 
for terraces, court-yards, roof-gardens, sun-rooms and 
the like, though other effective uses have 'been evolved, 
such as quarry-tile window sills, or quarry-tiles inlaid 
in stucco walls to break the monotony of uniform 

Decorative tiles, of which a great many fascinating 
varieties are made to-day, may find an equal variety 
of equally fascinating uses in stucco houses. Spanish 
architecture, especially, is characterised by its exten- 
sive use of decorative tiles, which bespeak, in the build- 
ings of old Castile, one of the most conspicuous of the 
Moorish influences. 

Exterior iron work is to be considered as appro- 
priate only to houses of brick, stone or stucco. To 
place an iron railing on a wooden house is obviously 

Many peculiarly interesting effects may be obtained 
by the judicious introduction of iron work, at compara- 
tively small expense. Delicate iron railings and iron 
grilles form one of the most charming features of 
Spanish architecture, as well as of Italian architecture, 
though to a lesser extent. Brick Georgian architecture 
has also an associated type of iron work which adds 
remarkably to design in this style. 

Thought of weather-vanes and sun-dials (built ver- 
tically into a wall) suggest at once the English country 
house and it is by virtue of the introduction of such 
seemingly inconsequential " architectural incidents" 


that the English country house, both early and modern, 
attains much of that quality of the picturesque which 
we sometimes seek (in vain) to emulate. 

The design of shutters is of special importance in 
modern adaptations of any of the ' ' American Colonial ' ' 
types of dwelling. The earliest American houses had 
solid shutters for all their windows, for actual protec- 
tion against the Indians, and later, as a sort of surviv- 
ing custom or habit, only the first floor windows had 
solid shutters, while the upper windows had none, or 
lighter ones. Certain designs were used as patterns 
for the apertures cut in the solid shutters, and these 
varied according to locality and period. Notably there 
were half-moons, hearts, acorns, trees, shields, dia- 
monds, spades and clubs. In the simple house of local 
stone, or of white-painted clapboards, there is little 
opportunity for interesting detail, and charming effects 
have been obtained by the application of a little ingenu- 
ity and resource in the revival of these old shutters, 
with their quaint hinges, stops and latches. 

Of window design there is much to be said indeed 
the question is too important, as a whole, to class as a 
''detail." Bay-windows, however, may properly be 
regarded as details, as well as casement and French 
windows. In general, the grouping or massing of 
windows is to be recommended, on grounds of more 
pleasing appearance, exterior as well as interior. 
Three windows together, furthermore, seem to admit 
more light, and to create an impression of greater space 
in a room than the same three windows separated by 

The story of the casement window has been written 
in many magazine articles, and has become, after years 
of misunderstanding, a reasonably familiar one to the 


Duhriiig, Okie & /.ic-jrler. Architects 



Such details as the above are the result of imaginative design rather than extra expenditure 

Barry Parker and Raymond L'nwin. Architects 

No architects have excelled the English in the contrivance of dwellings designed in the vein 
of the picturesque. Irregular plans, correspondingly irregular roof-lines, and the prevalent 
use of casement windows are important contributory factors 


prospective builder. No one can deny that the case- 
ment window, whether of wood or metal, is by far the 
most picturesque of all windows. It is, in fact, one of 
the most important single details contributory to the 
charm of the English country house. Casement win- 
dows, perhaps, are a little more difficult to clean than 
double hung windows, but even this comparatively 
slight objection is overcome if each unit is kept within 
an eighteen-inch width limit. Not only for practical 
reasons, but in point of design it is far more desirable 
to mass a number of small casement units to fill a 
large window opening, than to attempt to make each 
casement awkwardly large and wide. 

The use and popularity of casement windows has 
been largely increased by the yearly improvement of 
casement hardware, and by the manufacture in Amer- 
ica of metal casements. Suffice it to say that no one of 
the objections commonly put forward against casement 
windows should be regarded as valid by anyone who 
really wishes to install them in a house. 

The introduction of French windows, which are, 
in fact, glass doors, will be found to add a noticeable 
degree of light and a sense of spaciousness to any 
room, besides affording convenient access to porches 
and terraces. French windows may be made perfectly 
secure by equipment with "Cremorne bolts," which 
operate from a knob or handle (placed as a door-knob) 
metal rods which lock into pockets in the sill and head 
of the window-opening. 

The porch, of course, should be very carefully con- 
sidered in detail, and the prospective builder cannot 
direct too much study or observation upon various 
kinds of porches and front doors in order to determine 
exactly what type he wishes. Certain styles of house 


naturally dictate, to some extent, the design of the 
porch, though even if this be the case, there is likely to 
be a certain amount of detail to determine. A Dutch 
door, cut horizontally in the centre, is more expensive 
to build than a solid door, and should be decided upon 
at once, if the house is of a style to render it suitable. 
Hardware is an important detail in connection with 
the front door, and should be given a careful study. 
Nor should the door-light be forgotten, whether it be 
some quaint wrought-iron lantern, or a simple electric 
bowl or globe to guide the visitor's steps at night. Few 
simple accessory details can contribute more to the 
effectiveness of an entrance than a pair of formal bay- 
trees, planted either in boxes or large terra-cotta jardin- 
ieres, while an alternative, especially appropriate to 
the entrance of any house of Latin derivation, is the 
placement of a pair of large Spanish or Italian water- 
jars, now reproduced in glazed terra-cotta. 

If a pergola is to be regarded as a part of the house, 
rather than of the garden, its detail should be taken 
up with the architect, because such items make expen- 
sive "extras," and might, with but little thought, be 
included in the first estimate. 

Exterior ornament plays no very great part in 
American domestic architecture, and certainly is not 
used in the manner of the English architects. Orna- 
ment merely for the sake of ornament, of course, is 
never desirable, and in any case it should be applied 
both sparingly and intelligently. Ornament for the 
sake of decoration may often add distinct interest to 
an exterior. A beam or bracket may be carved, or 
incident may be affected by the English device of orna- 
mental exterior plaster work. Surface ornament is 


often a feature of the ' 'modernist" houses of the Amer- 
ican Middle West, and often one of their most attractive 
details. Here, however, the motifs are intentionally 
unhistorical and unprecedented, while more conserva- 
tive possibilities are to be discovered through a study 
of modern English work. 

A very important detail of exterior design is the 
chimney, which may make or mar the whole exterior 
aspect. There are endless possibilities for picturesque 
proportion and detail, regardless of the material of 
the house itself. A chimney, to be sure, is a utilitarian 
feature which is nothing more than a smoke-stack, 
though this is no reason why its architectural treatment 
should be keyed down to the level of the commonplace. 
Every historic type of building has its characteristic 
type of chimney, and any chimney may be made highly 
interesting. The "chimney-pots," so familiar in all 
English buildings, are, from the practical point of view, 
intended to aid the drafts of each flue by narrowing 
the top aperture and lessening the chance of downward 
gusts of wind besides which they effect an agreeable 
termination to the otherwise blunt chimney-top. 

In considering gutters and rain-leaders, little 
expression of design has characterised these fittings 
of the American house as compared with those of 
England. Much interesting design was lavished on 
architectural metal work, especially in lead, in the 
English country house from late Tudor and Elizabethan 
times onward. The * * leader-head, ' ' where two or more 
gutters converged into one rain-pipe, were often very 
elaborately detailed with ornament, dates or heraldic 
devices. One reason, no doubt, which has discouraged 
great elaboration of leader-heads in our own country 


houses, is the fact that these are ordinarily made of 
zinc or painted tin, and are consequently not permanent 
like the heavy lead work of England. 

The prospective builder will find it well to devote 
a little consideration to the question of screens and 
awnings at an early stage of his house design, by this 
forethought avoiding later complications, and later 
introduction of equipment which will fail to conform 
harmoniously with the entire building. It is hardly 
necessary to say that every door and window in the 
house should be screened. 

Walks, terraces and court-yards might all be con- 
sidered together, both in questions of design and mate- 
rial. In such details as these the English country 
house usually excels the American country house. 
Even a short paved walk from a street entrance to the 
front door may be made a charming and interesting 
detail, if it has been studied and treated as a part of 
the house. 

Although fountains and pools may come more prop- 
erly under the head of garden design than under the 
architect's part of the work, the prospective builder 
will do well to consult the architect in this connection, 
for he will receive much excellent advice. If a pool or 
fountain be part of the design of a patio, or of a ter- 
race, it should be regarded as a part of the house 
design, and definitely referred to the architect. Most 
architects are the best judges of this kind of garden 
detail, and if a pool, for example, be included in the 
architect's design, it will naturally have a closer and 
more effective relation to the house than if it were 
carried out later by another designer. 

In the design of the stucco house, or of the white- 
painted clapboard house, treillage and trellises may be 


made a highly significant part of the scheme, adding 
detail, colour and interest to bare wall-surfaces, even 
before vines attain effective growth. Treillage, re- 
garded purely as a decorative device, has but very 
recently come to be properly appreciated in this coun- 
try, although the writer is familiar with a number of 
admirable examples, skilfully designed and very effec- 
tively employed. Many houses, too, have been quite 
transformed by flower-boxes, especially if these have 
been provided for trailing plants or vines, whose leaves 
and tendrils cover large wall spaces. Flower-boxes 
and curiously shaped jardinieres, intended for trailing 
plants, have formed a very conspicuous detail in the 
designs of many of the "modernist" houses of the 
Middle West and the Pacific Coast. 

The above paragraphs, taking up individually the 
several details listed as "Exterior Details of Design," 
are intended only to suggest in what manner the pros- 
pective builder may most effectively study the sub- 
sidiary parts of his house design. Rules, obviously, 
would be worse than useless in such matters, where 
the best procedure must always be dictated by personal 
fancy, stylistic suitability, cost limitation and the archi- 
tect 's advice, and a service is performed if only the 
prospective builder will feel impelled intelligently to 
notice and observe these and similar details in pictures 
and in houses with which he is familiar. 

Among exterior details of material, there will arise 
questions of choice relative to roof-tiles and roof-slates, 
moulded brick, terra-cotta and structural tiles. If a 
shingle roof is called for, the several types of fireproof 
asbestos shingles should be investigated or perhaps 
there may be a desire for a shingle roof devised in an 
effect of thatch. This, of course, will be found more 


expensive than a plain shingle roof, and should be so 
recognized at the start. 

One of the most important selections and decisions 
on exterior detail of material may be relative to the 
kind of "face-brick" to be used. The many varieties 
of special "texture" bricks, of special colours and 
shapes, are quoted at various prices per thousand, and 
the prospective builder will do well to familiarise him- 
self with them either as used in an actual house, or by 
comparison from samples in the architect's office. It 
might be remembered that the architect is always able, 
by virtue of his specifications, to require the contractor 
to lay up a small section of wall ' ' on approval, " to be 
passed on by himself and the owner to insure such spe- 
cific details as colour of mortar, and width and nature 
of mortar joints. The entire house, then, is specified 
to be built in strict accordance with this sample. 

The same is true of stucco, whether applied on a 
hollow tile wall or on a frame wall with wire lath. Here 
the detail question will be one of colour and of texture, 
which may be obtained to conform exactly with the 
owner's and architect's requirements, before it is 
applied to any part of the house itself. If any doubt or 
uncertainty exists in the prospective builder's mind, 
either as regards the effect he wishes, or the con- 
tractor's ability to produce a specific effect he has in 
mind, exact results are most certainly insured through 
this expedient of experiment and demonstration by 
means of a small section of "specimen" wall. 

In the house of brick, stone or stucco, the question 
of painting or staining arises only in connection with 
the trim and shutters, but as these are the only wooden 
details in the design, their colour should receive the 
most careful attention. If the roof is not of slate or 

Buliring, Okie ,t /icgler, Architects 


Agreeable appearance has been combined here with ingenious planning. Each building 
contains four houses under one roof 


English architects thanks to English property owners, have been several years ahead of Ameri- 
can architects in the design of model villages and suburban neighbourhood planning 

Willis Polk, Architect 



It is apparent here that such buildings as this power-house may be made edifices of distinct 
beauty as well as of practical utility 


tile, there will be the question of shingle stain, unless 
it is intended to let the shingles weather to silver grey, 
dark grey and finally to a colour nearly approaching 

The material for gutters, flashings and rain-leaders 
is a point for consideration at an early stage of the 
prospective builder's study of detail. Heavily painted 
tin is the least expensive, and also the least durable. 
Zinc, galvanised tin or galvanised iron possess more 
durability, at little greater cost. Copper is the ideal 
material, very expensive, but likely to last without 
replacement or repair, as long as the house. The use 
of heavy sheet lead for these necessary metal trimmings 
of every house, as in England, is exceedingly rare in this 
country. In Europe, entire roofs of lead -are often 
seen by all means an enduring material, though pro- 
hibitively expensive for all ordinary uses. 

If the house is of such a character that there are 
brick or stone gable ends, or walls which require coping, 
detail of material again comes up in the form of the 
several possibilities of terra-cotta, stone, slate and tile 
the choice usually dictated by style and by the mate- 
rials used in the house itself. 

Brick, tile, cement and irregular flag-stones offer 
themselves as materials for choice in the construction 
of walks or the paving of terraces and court-yards, and 
here again, the general character of the house may be 
a distinct factor in the selection, and this " detail of 
material" will be found very closely related to the 
question of design. 

After a tabulation and study of these, and many 
other details, both of design and of material as related 
to the exterior of the house, the prospective builder 
may consider himself ready to direct his attention to 


details of design and of material and equipment as 
related to the interior, and may prepare as a reminder, 
a list more or less as follows : 


Design Equipment 

Entrance vestibule. Hardware. 

Entrance hall. Lighting fixtures. 

Stairway. Plumbing fixtures. 

" Special rooms." Bath-room equipment. 

Fireplace and mantel-pieces. Kitchen and laundry equipment. 

Provision for furniture. Heating system. 

Glass doors and mirror doors. 
Types of door throughout. 
Special windows: leaded, etc. 

Figured plaster ceilings and 


Mantels: wood, tile, brick, stone. Pa'ints, stains, varnishes, waxes. 

Tile floors. For trim and floors. 

Natures and costs of woods. Plaster-paints, etc. 

For floors. Wall-paper. 

For finish. 

It might be said in general, speaking not only of 
materials and equipment of the interior, but of the 
exterior as well, that the prospective builder may 
acquire a wealth of data and illustration by writing to 
those manufacturers who advertise in the numerous 
popular magazines devoted to home-building and coun- 
try life. All manufacturers who so advertise have 
spent large sums of money in the preparation of what is 
known to the advertising world as "consumer litera- 
ture," or catalogues and booklets setting forth in 
detail, by illustration, descriptive matter, and testi- 
monial, the natures and merits of their products. 
"While all such matter is, of course, to be regarded as 


advertising, it contains a wealth of valuable infor- 
mation and instruction, offering, as well, data for 

And, having studied all such catalogues and booklets 
on various building materials and equipment, the pros- 
pective builder has at his service the benefit of the 
professional knowledge and actual experience of his 
architect, who will be able to advise and recommend 
which of the several details may be best or most eco- 
nomically incorporated in the specifications of the 

The entrance vestibule and entrance hall may, per- 
haps, have been duly studied in the plans, or left to be 
studied when the plans are drawn it is spoken of in 
this chapter as a "detail" because it may be intended 
to floor it with tile, or to devise some special arrange- 
ment of coat closet or lavatory in connection with it. 
The entrance hall, too, might be floored with tile, which 
has recently been used considerably for this purpose, 
and with admirable success. 

The stairway will usually prove to be the most diffi- 
cult problem for the amateur planner, and while no 
very great success will probably attend his efforts at 
making a drawing for it, it is at least well for him to 
have devoted some thought and observation to the 

"Special rooms," while not strictly to be classed 
among details, nevertheless involve special considera- 
tions and special equipment in the matter of hardware, 
lighting fixtures, mantel-pieces and the like. This is 
particularly true of "period" rooms, or of any room 
which departs from a "typical" character. 


It should be apparent that fireplaces and mantel- 
pieces are questions of detail upon which the pros- 
pective builder should have fairly definite ideas. The 
fireplace itself, consisting of the actual mason work, 
will involve considerations of width and depth, accord- 
ing to the kind of fuel which is likely to be used ; and its 
construction may or may not call for stock throats and 
ash-dumps of cast-iron. The architect, however, will 
be found to be fully informed on these points. The 
mantel-piece, which is the architectural frame for the 
fireplace, is to be dually considered as a question of 
design and material, each influencing the other to some 
extent, and the whole design being influenced to some 
degree by the general style or character of the house 
as well as of the room in which any given mantel-piece 
is to be constructed. 

At this point might come some consideration of the 
furniture either already owned, or to be acquired 
after the house is built, and while the study of placement 
may not be so accurately carried out as it can be on 
the working quarter-inch scale blueprints, it may at 
least take the form of a list, made up of the various 
rooms to be furnished, each listed separately. While 
furniture is being thus itemised, rugs might also- be 
thought of, as well as any large family portraits or 
important paintings, since proper provision may thus 
better be made in the working drawings. While the 
plans are being drawn, it is an easy matter to place 
two doors, for example, in such relationship with each 
other that there will be a perfectly proportioned space 
between them in which to hang a large painting. If 
the placement of the painting is an afterthought, the 
space will either be a permanently inharmonious setting 


for the painting, or its alteration to fit will necessitate 
troublesome changes on the drawings or expensive 
changes in the actual building. 

Pursuing the list of suggested details, the question 
of doors next engages the attention of the prospective 
builder, and it will be well to list the bed-room or bath- 
room doors which will be full mirror doors, and to know 
that these may be had, ready made, in stock sizes which 
are by no means expensive. The mirror door is an 
excellent adjunct for the small room especially, saving 
the space of a cheval glass, besides increasing the ap- 
parent size of the room. And no guest-room should be 
without a mirror door, even if the glass be placed on the 
inside of a closet door. 

Another type of mirror door is of familiar use in 
most modern hotels, bat by no means inappropriate for 
certain uses in a private dwelling the mirror door 
divided into small panes (the divisions called "mun- 
tins"). This type of mirror door may be very cleverly 
used in connection with clear glass doors which are also 
divided into small panes. Let us suppose a dining- 
room, where a pair of small-paned doors, of clear glass, 
separate the room from the hall, and other similar 
doors give upon a porch or sun-parlor. There are still 
other doors, to closets, perhaps, as well as the service 
door to the kitchen. Here mirrors may be used instead 
of clear glass, the similar detail of the small panes ef- 
fecting a harmonious door equipment for the whole 
room. This type of door is not to be had ready-made, 
but must be detailed by the architect, and, if not thought 
of in advance, would necessarily constitute an " extra." 
For the other doors throughout the house, a variety of 
excellently built " stock" or ready-made doors will be 


found the merit of their design increasing yearly, with 
the same advance which has marked all "stock" build- 
ing equipment, including furniture. 

While studying the question of doors, windows will 
also come under consideration, and thought should be 
given regarding which windows, if any, will be of a 
"special" nature as casement windows, French win- 
dows, or windows with leaded panes, or small diamond- 
shaped panes, or, in fact, any type of window which is a 
departure from the regular stock double-hung window, 
the product of the ' ' sash and blind factory. ' ' 

Wood panelling in any of the rooms, whether simple 
or elaborate, should obviously be included in the ' ' inte- 
rior detail ' ' list, and should be taken up with the archi- 
tect early in the plan-drawing and estimating for the 
house. While panelling is an interior detail involving 
greater expense than the plain plaster-finish, it is by no 
means so expensive as many prospective builders sup- 
pose, especially in small rooms and hallways. 

The English type of figured plaster ceiling has been 
increasing in popularity and use in this country, and, 
together with the figured plaster frieze, or a figured 
plaster beam-treatment, may prove an important and 
effective detail in certain rooms of the house. Some 
excellent figured plaster ceilings are obtainable in stock 
designs accurately based on fine historic models, while 
in other cases the architect will design a special ceiling 
to meet special requirements. 

With these, and other points of detail listed for dis- 
cussion with the architect, and for investigation of cost 
and practicality, the prospective builder may make his 
list of interior details of equipment. 

In the matter of hardware, he will find a remarkable 
variety of really good "stock" designs on the market, 


and these designs he will be able to study in elaborately 
illustrated catalogues which are supplied to architects, 
and he will be able in every case to secure samples on 
approval through his architect. Good hardware is not 
cheap, and cheap hardware is not good, so it is well for 
the prospective builder to make as liberal a "hardware 
appropriation" as possible. The lower grades of 
cheap hardware would be dear at any price, while ' ' high 
medium" and "high" grades of hardware may be re- 
garded in the light of an investment, giving a per- 
manent additional value to the house, besides giving 
far greater satisfaction in utility and appearance. 

The same facts are true of lighting fixtures, which, 
if poorly chosen, may mar the effect of an otherwise 
pleasing interior. And in the field of "stock" lighting 
fixtures, as well as of "stock" hardware, a great 
advance in meritorious design has been made in the 
last ten years, so that the consideration of "special" 
hardware or lighting fixture is exceedingly rarely met 

Plumbing fixtures are made in several grades, of 
which even the "lower medium" to-day are consider- 
ably better than the best of twenty years ago, and of 
which, however, the best grades to-day are not to be 
regarded as too good for installation in the house which 
is being built with ample expenditure. There is an 
excellent variety in the items now offered for bath-room 
equipment, and its importance in the comfort and con- 
venience of the home should make it a detail of prime 
importance in the planning of any house, whether large 
or small. Kitchen arid laundry equipment, whether or 
not entirely in the province of the architect, should 
have its place on the preliminary detail list, as it will 
involve a certain expenditure which should be approxi- 


mately established in advance. The aim of modern 
equipment for kitchen and laundry is toward the 
development of " household efficiency," and comprises 
a variety of electrical inventions, as well as labour- 
saving "kitchen cabinets" and the like, and artificial 
drying closets and other devices for the laundry all of 
which, if one be thorough in the compilation of detail 
lists, may well be investigated and duly listed. 

Last, but not least (and usually taken up very seri- 
ously with the architect), is the heating system, which 
cannot receive too much thought or careful attention, 
since it makes or destroys the comfort of the whole 
house. Special study, in this connection, should be 
given to exposures and to the heating of any rooms 
which seem likely to present difficulties rooms built 
over porches, or in wings where two or three of the 
walls are outside walls. Every room of this kind 
should be provided, if possible, with an ample open 
fireplace in addition to the general heating, and every 
possible precaution should be taken to avoid the 
"always cold" room which has so greatly distressed 
many a householder and, as well, many a guest be- 
neath his roof. 

It should be remembered, however, that it is always 
possible to encounter some abnormal condition, and that 
the best which can reasonably be expected of architect 
and builder is a thorough and conscientious considera- 
tion of every knowable point involved in specifying, 
laying out and installing the heating system. 

It will be found upon study and acquaintance that 
details of material are often inseparably involved with 
details of design, as was suggested in a foregoing para- 
graph relating to mantel-pieces, and the same is true 
of many other details as well. 


Floors, however, involve consideration of material 
rather than of design, and it will be well for the pros- 
pective builder to acquire this part of his information 
from the architect, who will be in a position to present 
samples and data on various woods. Not only are 
there several kinds of wood ordinarily used as material 
for floors, but each kind is marketed in varying grades, 
intended for use in different kinds of buildings. The 
architect's specification should be absolutely definite 
on this point, and the client should be given his choice, 
on cost and durability basis, of the kind of flooring he 
will buy. As in most questions of detail, specific advice 
is dangerous, and may well prove misleading. It should 
be remembered, however, that floors are an exceedingly 
important detail in any house, and are an unwise direc- 
tion in which to practise economy, if economy be 

Woods for general interior trim door and window 
frames, base-boards and the like form a subject for a 
special study in themselves. Distributors of such 
native American woods as cypress, red gum, pine, fir, 
California redwood, etc., have prepared interesting 
booklets for the prospective builder, wherein are set 
forth the various properties of the several woods com- 
monly used for interior finish their possibilities and 
limitations, as well as various ways in which they may 
be stained and finished to preserve the effect of the 
grain, or may prove suitable as a base for paint or 

Information derived from such sources will prove of 
great interest and value to the prospective builder, who 
has always his architect to whom to go as a court of 
last resort, if too much data has led to mental con- 
fusion in the matter of choice. In any case, the pros- 


pective builder should make himself reasonably famil- 
iar with the more commonly used native American 
woods, and be able to distinguish one from another, by 
sight and by personal preference. Each kind of wood 
has its individual set of recommendations, based on 
considerations of cost, availability, suitability, appear- 
ance and finishing possibilities, and all these should 
govern intelligent choice, whether independently, or in 
conference with the architect. 

Questions relating to paints, stains, varnishes and 
waxes will naturally arise in connection with the study 
of woods for interior finish and here several of the 
larger and more progressive manufacturers have devel- 
oped for prospective builders and architects a service 
which goes further than the mere preparation of printed 
matter. These manufacturers will send samples of 
any desired finish on any wood capable of receiving 
such a finish, and will even make up samples using 
pieces of the wood which will actually be used for the 
interior finish of a given house. Each sample is accom- 
panied by detailed instructions for its proper appli- 
cation by the painter, so that no room for uncertainty 
or possible disappointment is left. It should be 
obvious that such a method of determining wood fin- 
ishes throughout the house excels in value any amount 
of undirected general advice. Varying conditions call 
for varying finishes, so that it is as impossible as it 
would be futile to offer random advice. Modern tastes 
in wood finishing favour the aid of artifice to nature in 
bringing out the natural beauties of grain and some- 
times of texture, characteristic of different woods. In 
this connection, a paragraphic reminder of former igno- 
rance and bad taste is introduced allusion to a practice 


as indefensible as the once popular practice of painting 
brick work the old deception of painting wood-grains. 

We need not look far to find still in existence exam- 
ples of this once highly esteemed art of " graining," by 
which a dexterous painter (taught to excel in this par- 
ticular kind of artistic knavery) could, with a few skil- 
ful strokes, make your soft pine door as of strangely 
and wonderfully figured oak or Circassian walnut a 
thing of monstrosity and a crime forever. Encouraged 
by their success in this direction, the painters (often 
with misguided skill) fabricated rare marbles on plaster 
or wood, quarrying these from their paint-pails. But we 
must not blame them, for the "architects" of that time 
allowed them to do these horrible things, and, we are 
to suppose, even encouraged them. 

An interior finish of recent development is the 
so-called "plaster-paint," intended for use on "sand- 
finished" plaster walls where no wall-paper is to be 
hung. The finishes exist in many varieties, and in har- 
monious colours, and are finding wide acceptance in the 
interiors of the American homes of to-day. The pros- 
pective builder should decide which of his rooms, if any, 
are to be papered, and with what paper, and should 
make similar decisions regarding plaster-paints. All 
such questions duly studied and resolved at the begin- 
ning will increase the certainty of securing the com- 
pletely satisfactory house. 

The writer wishes to repeat an earlier statement 
that the questions of plan and detail briefly discussed 
or merely mentioned in the foregoing paragraphs are 
not to be taken as constituting a list in any sense com- 
prising every point of detail which will arise in the 
contemplation of every house. Such a list, obviously, 
would be both involved and dangerous. It has been 


the intention, rather, to outline a plan of systematic 
thought on the part of the prospective builder syste- 
matic thought designed to perform the valuable ser- 
vice of defining his ideas and directing his personal 
observation of detail in such a way as to eliminate as 
much oversight as possible, and to make for greater 
effectiveness in preliminary conferences with the 

Everyone about to build a house is confronted by a 
problem which is personal and individual, despite its 
conformity with certain rules and observances of com- 
mon or general application. 

The writer has always considered as distinctly 
' ' dangerous ' ' the greater part of the definite ' i advice ' ' 
usually offered to prospective builders, in books and 
magazine articles, for the reason that no latitude is 
allowed for special conditions which arise in the course 
of every building project. It should be regarded as of 
greater value to outline a method by which each pros- 
pective builder may do his own thinking, sharpen his 
own observation, widen and define his own knowledge, 
rather than to present him with a general dictum (pos- 
sibly applicable) which he is directed to follow blindly 
and without regard to specific individual conditions. 
An ounce of personal understanding and intelligent 
thought is worth a ton of arbitrary rule, and it is with 
this conviction in mind that every prospective builder 
should approach his problem. 

He should know when his own preference and judg- 
ment are his best guidance, and should know, by the 
exercise of what he has learned, when he had better 
turn toward experienced professional advice and 

It has been the consistent intention of this book to 


treat of the subject of architecture in a practical way 
to remove it from the realm of mystery and technicality, 
and to make it seem, in every respect, a vital and inter- 
esting part of the life of every one of us. A familiarity 
with architecture, even if it be slight, will open many 
doors of interest, and will enrich that intellectual equip- 
ment which is generally known as a liberal education. 
Whether or not any individual contemplates building, 
or assuming any responsible advisory connection with 
any building project, let him look upon architecture as 
an open book, its chapters stretching back into the past, 
its development being written in the present, and its 
future dependent upon the efforts of our architects, and 
upon an ever-increasing understanding and apprecia- 
tion on the part of the public. 

"Si monumentum requiris . . . circumspice." 


Abacus, 74, 75 

Adam, Brothers, R. and J., 22, 84, 

85, 87, 90, 140, 142, 178 
in modern hotel, 217 
Adaptability, of materials, 277 
of wood, 284 
of stucco, 285 
of rough-dressed stone, 296 
Advertising, of building products, 

32C, 327 
"Advice," misleading, 151, 153, 226, 

233, 235-236, 304-305, 336 
Alberti, 63 
American Architecture, Colonial, 

etc., 173, 202 
Amiens, Cathedral of, 56 
" Andalusia," 191 
Anglo-Pennsylvania, 189 
Anne, Queen, style, so-called, 69, 

84, 140 
Annulets, 75 

Apartment house, the, 218-220 
Apse, 42, 48 

Arch, 30, Roman use of, 37, 77; 
Byzantine, reoessed, 41; Assyr- 
ian, 44; Gothic pointed, 48; Nor- 
man, 52; Renaissance, use of, 64, 
65, 66 
Architect, the, 227; proceeding 

without, 232-233 
employment of, 233 
selection of, 239 
architectural partnerships, 239- 


selection of, for public build- 
ings, etc., 241 
" specialists," 242 
status of, and dealings with, 

244 et seq., 254 
time spent on work, 246-247 
legal forms of agreement with, 


Architect, the landscape, 270 
Architecture, definition of, 15-16; 
understanding of, 17-19; appre- 
ciation of, 19; evolution in, 20; 
expressive, 24 ; appropriate, 24 ; 
structure, detail, mass, 28; types 
of building, 28 

Architrave, 74-76 

"Art Nouveau," 21, 103, 199, 202, 

203-205, 206 
Assyria, architecture of, 32-33 

summary of architecture of, 44 
Atrium, 36 

Atterbury, Grosvenor, 147 
Attributes. 81, 83 
"Audley End," 136 
Austin Hall, 111 
Availability, local, 279 

of bricks, 293 

of rough stone, 297 
Awnings, 322 
Axis, 95, 97 


Bagatelle, Chateau de, 82 
Baillie-Scott, 145 
Bar Harbor, 199 
Baroque, 70, 78-81 
Bartolommeo, 63 
Bath-room, 310-311 

equipment, 331 
Bay-trees, formal. 320 
Beaux Arts, French Ecole Nationale 
des, 81, 82, 84 

outline of, 94-96 

teachings of, 96-98 

detail, 98-100 

influence of, 101-102' 

examples of, 102-105 

aims of, 97-111, 168-169 

fagade of Grand Central R. R. 

Terminal, 221 

Bellevue-Stratford, (see Hotel) 
Bidlake, 145 
Bids, 259-261, 272 
" Biltmore," 167 
Blois, Chateau de, 57 
Blue-prints, 267 
Boston Public Library, 159 

courtyard of, 171 
Bramante", 63, 159 
Bramhall." 136 
Brick, Egyptian, 30, 44 

Assyrian, 32-33 

Byzantine, use of, 46 

German Gothic, use of, 59 

in Romanesque, revival, 112 



Brick, English, domestic use of, 136 

"Harvard," 180-181, 289-290 

burnt, 180-181 

early American, 184, 290 

patterns on blank walls, 213 

" special," 291-293 

building in, 288-294 

painted, 288, 291 

pattern in, 290 

moulded, 316-322 

colour, 291, 292 

house of, cost, etc., 275, 281 

samples, 324 

face, 324 

texture, 290-292, 323 
Bruges, town hall, 58 
Brunelleschi, 63, 159 
Bryn Mawr College, 122 
Bulfinch, Charles, 177-178 
Bungalow, 198, 200-202 
Burgos, Cathedral of, 57 
Burlington, Earl of, 140-141 
Buttress, 48, 49, 137 

flying, 30, 48, 57, 129 
Byzantine, Architecture, etc., 38-44 

summary of architecture, 44 

conflict with Gothic in Italy, 61 

"Revival," 106-114 

Ca'd'Oro, Palazzo della, 61 

Cambridge, 122 

Campanile, 211 

Capitals, Byzantine, 41, 45; Gothic, 
49; Doric, 74; Ionic, 75; Corinth- 
ian, 75 

Caracalla, Baths of, 96, 160 

Carolinas, The, 190 

Cartouche, 99, 103 

Caryatid, Flemish Renaissance, 67 

Casa, 172 

Catalogues, etc., 326, 327; hard- 
ware, 331; woods, 333, 334 

Cathedral, typical plan, etc., 47; 
Durham, 52; Chartres, 56; 
Rheims, 56; Amiens, 56; N6tre 
Dame, 56 ; Burgos, 59 ; Toledo, 59 ; 
Milan, 101; St. Paul's, 69; St. 
Mark's, 107 

Ceilings, Tudor, 137; Elizabethan, 
138; Adam, 142; figured plaster, 
326, 330 

Centennial, Philadelphia, 196 

Century Club, 161 

Character, in materials, 275-277 

in brick, 292; in rough stone, 


Charges, 245-246, 248-249, 254, 257 
Chartres, Cathedral of, 56 
Chateaux, Blois, 57 ; Langeais, 57 
French Renaissance, 67 
de Bagatelle, 82 
adapted, 166; life, 166-167, 

172; in modern hotel, 216 
Chimeras, Gothic, 50, 51 
Chimney-pots, 321 
Chimneys, design of, 321 
Chinese, influence of, 23, 79, 142 
Church, early Christian, 40; St. 
Mark's, 40; Byzantine, 41, 
45 ; Gothic, 47 ; Norman, 52 
of Malines, 58 
S. Maria della Salute, 64 
Trinity (Newport), 179; Trin- 
ity (Boston), 109; Madison 
Square, 113; St. Joseph's, 

First, Christ Scientist, Los An- 
geles, 113; New England 
type, 179-180; early Ameri- 
can village, 179-180, 230; 
"Gloria Dei," 187 
Cincinnati Chamber of Commerce, 

City house, 208-210 

modern developments of, 209- 


Clap-boards, 176, 281, 285 
Classic ideal, origin of, 34, 36, 73- 


nature and meaning of, 73 
in England, 85 
Closets, 310, 311 
Collegiate Gothic (see Gothic) 
College of the City of New York, 

Colonial, Georgian, 173-183; Dutch, 


adaptability of Dutch, 186-187; 
Southern, 190-193; Spanish, 
193-195, 285, 318 

" Colonnade Row," 88-89, 108, 196 
Colosseum, 77 
Colour, Egyptian use of, 31 
Byzantine, 41 ; Greek, 45 
in Italian Gothic, 61 
in brickwork, 181, 290-292 



Colour, Dutch Colonial, 185 

in materials, 275, 278 

local, 278 

of wood, 284 
Columbia University, Chapel of, 

Columns, and lintel, 29 

Egyptian, 30, 44 

Greek, 33-35, 44-45, 74-78 

Roman, 36, 37 

Byzantine, 41, 45 

Gothic, 49 

Renaissance, G4, G5, 72 

Doric, 74 

Ionic, 75 

Corinthian, 75 

of wood, 284 
Competitions, 241-242 
Compiegne, 83 
Composite Order, 77 
" Compton Wyngates," 54 
Connecticut, 178 
Console, 99, 103 

Consultation, 247, 254, 248-250 
Contractor, 259-264 
" Coombe Abbey," 136 
Coping, 325 
Corinthian Order, 35; Roman, 37; 

Greek, 75-77 
Cornice, Doric, 76; Ionic, 76, 112; 

Corinthian, 76-77 
Cost, 256, 275 

comparative, of materials, 281- 

inherent, 279 

of brick, 293 

in building materials, 181 

of rough stone, 297 

of half-timber, 298 
Country-house, origin of, 53-55 

Elizabethan, 68, 135 

G'othic derivation, 130-131 

English type, 133 

Histoiry of the English, 134- 

Jacobean, 139-140 

Anglo-Classic, 141-142 

modern English, 144-155 

summary of English type, 156 

location, material, site, 225-243 

materials and construction, 

plans and details, 304-334 
Courtyards, 322, 325 
" Craftsman," 198-200 

Cremorne bolts, 319 

Creoles, French and Spanish, their 

architecture, 175, 185, 192-193, 

Customs House of New York, 98 

Davanzat, The, 64 

Dawber, 143 

Decoration, Egyptian, 31, 44 

Assyrian, 44 

Greek, 45 

Roman, 45 

Byzantine, 46 

Romanesque, 46 

Spanish Gothic, 59 

Gothic, 72 

Renaissance, 65, 72 

Fresco, 65 

Sgraffito, 65, 72, 158, 161 

" Secessionist," 205 
Decorator, 270-271 
Delaware, 174, 190 
Dentils, Ionic, 76 

Corinthian, 76 

Derivations, importance of study of, 
23, 28 

Classic, 73-105 

Byzantine, Romanesque and 
Gothic, 106-131 

English, early and modern, 132- 

modern English, 147-155 

Italian, French, Spanish, 157- 

Italian, 157-166 

French, 166-169 

Spanish, 169-172 

era of, 197 

scale, 267 

full-size, 267-268 
Despradellea, 102 
Details, exterior and interior, 313 

design and material, 313 

discussion of, with architect, 

exterior, design, list, 315 

exterior, material, list, 316 

interior design, list, 326 

interior material, list, 326 

interior equipment, list, 326 
Directoire, period of the, 82 
Doges, Palace .of, 61 
Dome, Byzantine, 41, 45 



Doors, Dutch, 185, 187, 320 

hardware, 320 

light, 320 

mirror, 129 
Doric, Order, 31, 33 

Roman, 36, 77 

Greek, 74, 75, 89 
Drawings, preliminary, 253, 265, 273 

working, 253, 265, 266-269 

required, 265, 266-269 

14 -inch scale, 266 

scale details, 267 

full-size details, 267-268 

ownership of, 256 
Drives, 228 
Dry wall, 295 
Duplex apartment, 219 
Duquesne, 102 
Durability, of materials, 277 

of frame house, 283 

of brick, 292 

of stone, 296 
Durham, Cathedral of, 52 
Dutch, Colonial, 183-187, 285 

doors, 185, 187, 320 

shutters, 185, 187, 318 

brick, 184 

interiors, 185, 186 

hardware, 187 

city house style, 208-209 


Eastlake, Charles, 143, 197 
Egypt, architecture of, 29-30 

summary of architecture of, 44 
French " Empire " revival, 83 
in modern hotel, 216 
Elevations, preliminary, 253 

%-inch scale, 266 
Elizabethan, 55, 68, 131, 135-138 
Empire, The, Period, French, 79, 82- 


American, 88-90, 195-196 
Enlargement, future, of plan, 307- 


Entrance, detail, etc., 327 
Entablature, Classic, 74-75; Doric, 
76; Ionic, 76; Corinthian, 76-77, 
104, 176 

Equitable Building, 211 
Estimates, 252-253, 256 
contractors, 259-261 
Ethics, professional, -247-248, 270 
canon of, American Institute of 
architects, 239, 270 

Evolution, in architecture, 20-21 
Expenses, architect's travelling, 254, 


Expression, 259 
Extras, 249-252, 254 
Eyre, Wilson, 147, 18.9 

Fan-light, 176 

Fee, architect's, 254, 257-258 

Fieldstone, 294 

Finial urns, 103 

obelisks, 140 
Fire-places, 328; Gothic, 138 

Elizabethan, 138 

details of, 328 
Flashings, 280, 325 
Fl&che, 280, 325 
Floors, 333 
Flutes, fluting, 74, 75 
Fontaine, 83 
" Fontainebleau," 83 
Fountains, 322 
Frame, house construction, 282-286 

ehingle covered, 225, 2&1 

clap-board covered, 275, 281 

stucco on wire lath, 275, 281, 

Francis First, style of, 67 

for city house, 209 
Fresco, decoration, 65, 72, 142, 158 
Frieze, Doric, 76; Ionic, 76 

terra-cotta, 316 

figured plaster, 326, 330 
"Full-size" (see Details) 
Furniture, consideration of, 309, 328 
Furring, 287 

Gables, half-timber, 298-325; Jaco- 
bean, 139 
Garage, 287, 310 
Garden, Italian, 23 

Anglo-Classic, 85 

Anglo-Italian, 134 

garden front, 153-154 

garden front of Tangley Manor, 

American derivation, 165-166 
Gargoyle, Gothic, 50, 51, 57, 72 

Woolworth, 129 
Georgian, Period, The, 69 

Colonial in America, 86-88, 84- 
88, 140-143, 173-182, 189, 285 
German, early colonists, 187 



German Gothic, 58, 59, 72 

Classic revival, 92-93 
Gibbons, Grinling, 138 
Gibbs, 85, 140 
" Gloria Dei " Church, 187 
Gorham, 161 
Gothic, 38; origins of, 43 

analysis and outline of, 47-G2, 

English, 52-56, 71 

Norman, 52 ; " decorated," 52 

" Perpendicular," 52 

"Collegiate" (Scholastic), 55, 
56, 61, 114, 121-122 

French, 56-58, 61 

Flamboyant, 56, 57 

crockets, 57 

Belgian, Flemish, 58, 61 

German, 58-59, 72 

Italian, 60-62 

Italian, secular, 61, 62 

compared with Classic, 23 

Victorian revival, 90, 91, 114, 

" carpenters," 91 

"military," 114, 122-124 

nature of, 114-116 

symbolism in, 116-121 

" commercial," 124-129 

English country house, 137 
Grain, of wood, 334 

imitation, 335 
Grand Palais des Champs-Elysees, 

102, 103 

Grant's Tomb, 105 
Greece, architecture of, 33-36 

summary of architecture of, 44- 


Groin, vaulting, 43 
Grotesque, Byzantine, 41; Gothic, 
50-51, 57, 72; modern French, 
102; Woolworth, 129 
Guilloche, 99, 103 
Gutters, 321, 325 


Hacienda, 170 

" 1 1 addon Hall," 134, 138 

Half-timber, Mediaeval, 55 

French Gothic, 57, 61 

Elizabethan, 137-138, 197, 209, 
275, 278, 301 

cost of, 281, 300 

imitation, 298-299 
"Hall," The, 134 

Hardware, Dutch, 187, 326, 320, 330- 


"Hardwick Hall," 134-135, 139 
Harvard, house, 54 

University, 102-112 

style, 180-181 

for city house, 208 

brickwork, 289-290 
" Hatfield House," 136 
Heating, 332 
" Holdenby," 136 
Holland, 184-185 

city architecture, 208-209 
Hotel, modern American, the 
Waldorf, 214 

theatrical qualities of, 214, 215 

" special rooms," 215 

Bellevue-Stratford, 210 

Kitz-Carlton, 217 

Vanderbilt, 217 
Hudson, 183 

" Independence Hall," 179 
Inscriptions, Roman use of, 37 

Egyptian, 44 

Institute of Architects, the Ameri- 
can, on competitions, 241 
for information, 242 
minimum charges, 258 
owner-architect agreement, offi- 
cial form, 254-257 
owner - contractor agreement, 

official form, 261 

Instructions, written, 245, 250-251 
Inwood, 90 

Ionic, Order, 35, 75, 76 
Iron-work, 317 

Jacobean, 55, 69, 136-141 
Japanese iniluence, 195, 205 
Jardinieres, terra-cotta, 320 

modernist, 323 
Jefferson, Thomas, 18, 191 
Jones, Inigo, 69, 80, 136 


Karnak, 30, 94 

Kauirmann, Angelica, 85 

"Keep," 134 

Kent, William, 85, 140 

Kitchen, equipment of, 331-332 

Knickerbocker Trust Building, 161 

"Knole," 136 



"La Grange Terrace," 88-89, 196 

Langeais, Chateau of, 57 

Langley, Batty, 87 

Lantern, 179 

Laundry, equipment of, 331-332 

Leaders, 321, 322, 325 

Lighting, 267 

fixtures, for front door, 320 

interior, 331 
Lindeberg, H. T., 147 
Linenfold, panelling, 137, 138 
Lintel, 29, 33, 35, 44, 45 
" Local conditions," 235, 253 
Location, 226 

Loft Buildings, 208, 212-213 
Loggia, 159, 161, 170, 171, 185 
Long Island, 183 
Louis XIV, 70, 79 

in modern hotel, 214 
Louis XV, 70, 79 

in modern hotel, 214 
Louis XVI, 70; formal phase, 81; 
details, outline and analysis 
of style, 81, 82, 96, 167-169 

in modern city house, 208 

in modern hotel, 214 
Louisiana, 175, 192 
Louvre, the, 79 
Lutyens, 145 
Lysicrates, monument of, replica, 89 


Mclntyre, Samuel, 177, 178, 185 
McKim, Charles Follen, 160 
McKim, Mead and White, 111, 158, 
159, 196, 292 


Madison Square Church, 113 

Maine, 178, 198 

Maintenance, 280 

of frame house, 286 

of brick hous*, 293 

of rough stucco house, 298 

of half-timber house, 301 

Malines, Church of, 58 

"Malmaison," 83 

Manor, 34 

Mansard roof, 80, 92 

Mansart, ,T. H., 79, 80 

Mantelpiece, 328 

Marquise, 100, 103 

Masque, 81, 102 

Material, restrictions in choice of, 

274, 275 

properties of, physical and aes- 
thetic, 275-278 

colour, 275, 278, 279 

local suitability, 231 

field-stone, 231 

properties of, 275 

character in, 276 

durability, 277 

adaptability, 277 

mingled, 301-302 
Medici, the, 64 
Mellor and Meigs, 147 
Metopes, 76 

Metropolitan Museum, 98 
Metropolitan Tower, 113, 211 
Middle West, 321, 322 
Milan, Cathedral of, 61 
Military Gothic (see Gothic) 
Mirror doors (see Doors) 
Mission, 194-195, 200, 230-231, 287 
Models, 227, 228, 272-273 
Modernist, 202, 321 
Modillions, Ionic, 76 

Corinthian, 76, 77 
Mohawk Valley, 183 
"Montacute House," 136 
" Monticello," 18, 191 
"Moreton Hall," 134 
Morgan Public Library, 158 
Morris, William, 144, 199, 200, 205 
Mosaic, Byzantine, 41, 45 
Moulding, Greek, 45 
Mullion, 112, 139 
Muntin, 139 


Napoleon, 83 
Nave, 42, 47 
Neo-Classic, 82 
Neo-Grec, 82 

New England, Georgian, 86; native 
types, 175-183; suitable style, 
field-stone, 231 
New Jersey, 174, 188 
New Orleans, 185, 192-193 
Newport, 167-168, 197; Casino, 198; 

Trinity Church, 179 
New York (State), 174 
New York Public Library, 98 
N6tre Dame de Paris, Cathedral of, 
grotesque, 51 ; cathedral, 56 



"Ochre Court," 167 
Office buildings, Romanesque, revi- 
val, 113 
Gothic derivations, 124-129, 

208, 211-212 

Orders, Classic, the three, 35; Ro- 
man, 36-37; 74, 77; Greek, 45, 
Oxford, 122 

Pacific Coast, 193-195, 198, 200 
Paint, 324 

plaster-paint, 335 
Palladian, 86 
Palladio, 63, 141, 159 
Pan-American Union Building, 171 
Panelling, 330 

" linen-fold," 137-138 
Patio, origin of, 36; Spanish, 169, 
170, 171 

of Pan-American Building, 171, 
172; Creole, 193 

possibilities of the, 312 
Payments, 255 
Pediment, 76, 85, 99, 100 

curved, 103, 176 
Pennsylvania, 174, 187-190 
Percentages, 257-258 
Percier, 83 
Pergola, 320 
Persian, inlluence on Modernists, 


Peruzzi, 63, 159 
Philadelphia, 179 

Pilasters, of " La Psalette," 57 ; 
Renaissance, 65-66, 72; Roman, 
77; Jacobean, 138, 176 
Pittsburgh Court House, 111 
Placement of furniture tfn plan, 

308, 309 

Plans, preliminary consideration, 

drawing of, 266, 305-313 

kinds of, 305, 306 

development of, 306 

relationship to style, 306 

practical needs, 307 

special requirements, 307 

large, 307 

small, 307 

relationship to furniture, 308s' 
309, 328 

Plans, " reminders," 310 

"special" rooms (period, etc.), 

311, 327 

Platt, Charles, A., 164 
Plumbing fixtures, 234, 331 
Pools, 322 
Porch, 184, 185 

sleeping, 311 

design of, 319 
Portico, 85, 190 
Post Colonial, 195 
Post-office (New York City), 98 
Princeton University, Graduate 

School of, 122 
Projet, Beaux-Arts, 95, 272 
" Psalette," La, 57 

Quarry tiles, 317 
Quoins, 176 

Railroad terminals, Pennsylvania, 
160, 208, 220, 221, 220-222 
Grand Central, 220-221 
Ramp, 221-222 
" Raynham Park," 136 
Real-estate houses, 155, 156, 242- 


Renaissance, 35, 37, 38 
English, 55 
dates, 39 
Florentine, Milanese, Venetian, 

Roman, 39 
"High," 39 
"Late," 39 

English, 55, 68-70, 136, 137 
outline and analysis, 62-71 
summary, 72 
origin and nature, 62-63 
expression, 63 
French, 67 

summary of, 72 
Flemish, 67 

summary of, 72 
German, 67 

summary of, 72 
Spanish, 67 

summary of, 72 
Italian, summary of, 72 
comparison with Classic, 73 
flexibility of, 157 



Renaissance, for modern city house, 

in modern hotel, 218 
Revett (and Stuart), *87, 90 
Revival, Classic, 34, 35, 69, 78 

in France, 78-84 

in England, 84-85 

in America, 86, 88-90 

decline of, in England, 90-92 

in Germany, 92-94 

under Louis XVI, 79-82, 105 

Georgian, 140-141 

Romanesque, 106-114 

nature of, Romanesque, 111 
Rheims, Cathedral of, 56 
Rhode Island, 179, 197 
Richardson, H. H., 104-114, 158 
Robinson House, 177 
Rock-faced (masonry) 
Rococo, 70, 78-81, 103 

in modern hotel, 216 
Roman (see Rome) 
Romanesque, architecture, etc., 38- 

summary of architecture of, 46 

influence on Gothic in Italy, 61 

revival, 106-114 

characteristics, 107 

Richardsonian, 109 

nature of revival, 111 

expression in modern church, 

city house, 209 

country house, 114 
Rome, architecture of, 36-38 

summary of architecture of, 45 
Roofs, tile, 67, 169, 194, 197 

gambrel, 176 

Dutch, 183 

Mansard, 80, 92 

shingle, 176 

chateau, on modern hotel, 216 

details of material, 323 
Rouen, Palais de Justice, 57 
"Roughcast," 188 
Ruskin, John, 90-91, 108, 196 
Rustication, 89, 99, 104 

Sainte Chapelle Church, 56 

Salem (Mass.), doorways of, 86, 87 

Samples, 249-250 

of brick and brickwork, 324 

Samples, of stucco, 324 

of paints, stains, varnishes, 334 
Scale, 24 

meaning of, 25, 100, 101 

in Woolworth Building, 128-129 

in tall building design, 212 

working drawings, 265-267 
Schuyler, Montgomery, 109-110 
Screens, 322 
Sculpture, architectural, Roman, 45 

modern French, 100 
Secessionist, American, 198, 199, 

202, 205-207 
Services, architect's, 254 
Sever Hall, 111, 112 
Sewage disposal, 227 
Sgraffito, decoration, 65, 72, 158, 


Shaw, Norman, 145 
Shingles, 275-281, 284 

stain, 325 
Shutters, 315, 318 
Site, 227-228, 230, 236, 253 
Solarium, 210, 311 
Spandril, 100 

Specifications, 233, 249, 261-265 
Stain, 324, 325, 334 
Staircase, Elizabethan, 138 

details of, 327 
Staten Island, 183 
Stevenson and Wheeler, 147 
Stone, rough-dressed, 275, 281, 294- 

Stonemasonry, early Pennsylvanian, 

188, 294-298 

Stuart (and Revett), 87, 90 
Stucco, Egyptian, 44, 170, 172 

on hollow tile, 275, 281, 285, 
287, 323 

samples of, 329 

Style, 17, 21-24, 227, 230-231, 236 
Sub-contracts, 263-264 
Suitability, local, 278, 286 

stylistic, 278 

of frame construction, 285 

of brick, 293 

of rough-dressed stone, 296 

of half -timber, 301 
Sun dial, 317 
Sun parlor (see Solarium) 
Supervision, by architect, 245-247, 

256, 258, 259 
Survey, 227, 255 



Symmetry, 96, 97 

" Swedes," Old (Gloria Dei Church), 


Swedish, early colonists, 187 
St. Joseph's Church, 113 
St. Louis University, 122 
Ste. Maria della Salute, Church of, 


St. Mark's, Church of, 40, 107 
St. Paul's Cathedral, 69 
St. Peter's, Basilica of, 64 
St. Sophia, Mosque of, 107 

Tangley Manor, Great, 136, 299 

Tapestries, 137 

Technology, Massachusetts Institute 

of, 102 
Temples, Egyptian, 29, 30, 44 

Assyrian, 44' 

rock-cut, 30 

Proto-Doric, Beni-Hassan, 31 

Greek, 35, 36 

Roman, 37, 40 

garden, 85 

Terraces, 228, 312, 322, 325 
Terra-cotta, 112, 128, 316 

jardinieres, etc., 320 

Woolworth Building, 127-128 
Texture, 275, 277, 278, 292, 296 
Thatch, shinglfe effects in, 323 
"Thorpe Hall/' 136 
Tiffany. 161 
Tile, Assyrian, 33, 44 

Byzantine, 45 

Roofs, 67, 169, 194, 323 

hollow, 172, 215, 281, 286-288 

flooring, 317, 327 

structural and decorative, 317 

"quarry," 317 

Spanish use of, 317 
Times Building, 126 
Toledo, Cathedral of, 59 
Transept, 47 
Trcillagc, 311, 322, 323 
Trianons, The, 82, 83 
Triglyphs, 76 
Trinity Building, 126 
Trinity Church (Boston), 109 
Trinity Church (Newport), 179 
Trowbridge and Ackerman, 147 

Trusses, 137 

Tudor, arch, the, 53, 56, 137 

country house, 54, 68, 134, 137 

collegiate architecture, 55, 56, 

collegiate derivation, 122 

ceilings, 136 

leader-heads, 321 
Tuscan, Order, 36, 77 


United States Realty Building, 126 
University Club, 161 
University of Virginia, 191 

Vanderbilt (see Hotel) 
Vault, vaulting, Romanesque, 41-43, 

rib, 42-43 

barrel, 42 

" gjoin," 43 

Gothic, 48 

English Gothic, 52 

fan-vaulting, 53, 62 

Renaissance, 72 
Veranda, 201 
Verge-boards, 54 
Versailles, 79, 167, 168 
Victorian Era, 84, 90 

Gothic revival, 90-91, 114, 143, 


Vignola, 74, 77 
Villa, Pompeian, 29 

Roman, 37 

Italian, 22, 161-166, 172, 221, 

Virginia, 190 

University of, 191 
Vitruvius, 15 
Volutes, spiral, 75 
Voysey, 145 


Wainscot, 137 
Waldorf, The (see Hotel) 
Walks, 322, 325 
Water supply, 227 
Weather-vanes, 317 



Welsh, early colonists, 187, 188 
West, Middle (Chicago), 198-199, 


Westminster Abbey, 53 
"Westover," 190 

West Point Military Academy, 123 
"Westwood," 136 
White, Stanford, 158, 180, 197 
"Whitehall," 190 
William and Mary, 69, 140 
Windows, casement, 136-137, 150- 

151, 175, 280, 318-319, 330 
oriel, 137 

Windows, bay, 137, 138 
dormer, .159 

"Wollaton," 136 

Woods, building, 283, 285 
for interior trim, 333 

Woolworth "Building, detailed analy- 
sis, 126, 211 

Working drawings (see Drawings) 

World's Fair of 1893, 196 

Wren, Sir Christopher, 69, 185, 136- 
137, 140, 179 

Wright, Frank Lloyd, 199, 207 

"Wynnestay," 188 


NA 2520 P93p 

L 005 861 348 

" 001243317