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Full text of "Practical builder, or, Workman's general assistant, shewing the most approved and easy methods for drawing and working the whole or separate part of any building ... rules of carpentry ... the proportion of the five orders ... with plans and elevations of gentlemens and farm-houses, yards, barns,"

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4fi5&. 19-7-2 

LOT # U^ (o._ 

Wiiiujj, Cook. 



O R 


Shewing the moll approved and eafy Methods for drawing and 
working the whole or feparate Part of any BUILDING, as 

The Ufe of the Tramel for Groins, Angle - Brackets, Niches, &c. 
Semi-circular Arches on Flewing Jambs, the preparing and making their SOFFITS; 


To find the Length and Backing of Hips, ftrait or curved j Trusses for Roofs, 
Domes, &c. TrufTmg of Girders, Sections of Floors, &c. 

The Proportion of the Five Orders, in- their general and particular Parts, Gluing of Columns, 
Stair-Cases with their ramp and tiviji Rails, fixing the Carriages, Newels, &c. 

Frontifpieces, Chimney-Pieces, Ceilings, Cornices, Architraves, &c. in the newel! Tafte. 

With Plans and Elevations of Gentlemens and Farm-Houfes, Yards, Barns, Esfc. 

By WILLIAM PAIN, Architect and Joiner. 
Engraved on Eighty-three PLATES. 

LONDON: Printed for I. TAYLOR, at the BIBLE and CROWN, in 

Holborn, near Cu ynory-Lane, 



n 4 -a 

AUG 2 5 1961 



COnfidering the Number of Books on the Theory and Practice of 
Architecture already publifhed, any further Effort to illuftrate and 
familiarize this most noble Art, may feem fuperfluous and unneceffary; 
in me efpecially, who, by two former Publications, endeavoured to ad- 
vance the young Practitioner in the Knowledge of his Profeffion. 


But as Art is improving, greater Experience enables to difcern the truly 
ufeful, and thereby to confirm or reject former Methods. 

The very great Revolution (as I may fay) which of late has fo generally 
prevailed in the Stile of Architecture, efpecially in the decorative and or- 
namental Department, will evince the Neceflity and eminent Utility of this 
Publication. That Tafte (fo confpicuous in our modern Buildings) which 
is vainly fought in any other practical Treatife, the Workman will here 
find illuftrated in a great Variety of ufeful and elegant Examples. 

The Deficiencies and confined Plans of thofe Books now ufed by Work- 
men, is another Inducement to collect together in one View, the moft eafy 
and certain Rules to carry on the Building Art. Thefe are the Refult of Ex- 
perience, and by the Author long ufed in conducting Bufmefs, who now 
offers the Public a general practical Treatife, wherein his great Care has been 
plainly and faithfully to anfwer the Purpofe of the manual Artificer : It is 
not meant to inftruct the profened Artift, but to furnifh the Ignorant, the 
Uninflructed, with fuch a comprehenfive Syftem of Practice, as may lay 
a Foundation for their Improvement, and thereby enable them to execute 
with Eafe and Precifion, the various Branches of the Profeffion. 




NICHES, Elipfis, raifing 

21 — 


the Tramel, and 
make ditto, &c. 

Plan and Section of Groins, 
veneering Niches, &c. 

Circular Arches in a circular 

Wall, circle Arches, Soffits, cifV 

Groins, Angle Brackets, Cir- 
cular and flewing Soffits 

Sections of Floors, Truffing 
Roofs in Ledgment, Girders, 
length and backing of Hips, 
ftrait and curved Truffes for 
Roofs, Domes, &c. 

Mouldings, Ballafters, &c. 

Inter Columnations 

Proportions of the Orders, Pe- 
deftals, &c. 

Tufcan Frontifpiece, Bafe, Ca- 
pital and Entablature 

Doric ditto 

Ditto Entablature at lirge 

Ionic Frontifpiece, Bafe, Ca- 
pital and Entablature 

Ditto Entablature at large 
]8 Modern Ionic Capitals and Vo- 
lute at large 

19 Gluing up ditto 

20 Antique Ionic Capital 

5 to 9 

] 1 



3 7 


2 3 


2 5 



28 . 

29 to 34 

35 &36 
37 t0 4 8 



5 1 

52 to 58 

59 t0 61 

62 to 65 
66 to Ji 

74 to 83 

Corinthian Pedeftal and Bafe 
at large 

Corinthian Capital and com- 
pofed ditto 

Ditto Entablature 

Antique Compofite Capital. 

CompofiteCap & Entablature 

Planceers of Corners 

Gluing of Columns 


Frontifpieces with their Enta- 
blatures, Moulding, &c. 

Open Pediments and raking 

Chimney- Pieces with their 
Moulding and Ornaments 

Mouldings for Pictures and 
Glafs frames 

Ornaments for Frizes, Pillaf 
ters, &c. 

Cornices for Doors, Chim- 
nies, &c. 

Bales, Sub-bafcs, Architraves- 

Cornices for Door- Caps, Chim- 
ney-Caps, Rooms, &c. 

Ceilings, Frets, Guiloches, &c. 


Gentlemens Houfes, Green- 
houfes, Hot-houfes, Stab- 
ling, Farm-houfes, &c. 

A T 'A B L E for the Cutting of Timber for Building. 
Bearing Poft. Beams or Ties. 

If 8 Feet 

— 16 

9 Inch, fquare 

10 by 9 

11 12 

14 — 15 
16 — 18 

Girder's Bearing. 

If 10 Feet 

— 14 

— 16 

— 18 

— 20 

— 24 

— 3° 

10 by 9 In. 
ii — 10 
12 — 11 

12 — 13 

13 — 14 
1$ — . 14 

15 — 16 

16 — 18 

Binding Joifts. 

6 Feet 



6 by 4 

7 — 4 

8 - 4 


Bridging Joifts. 

Whofe Bearing fhould not exceed 5 Feet, 
and Scantling not lefs than 6 by 4. 

Common Joift. 



6 Feet 

6 by 3 


9 — 3 



1 2 Feet 






7 by 8 

8 - 9 

9 — 10 
10 — 11 

12 — 11 

13 — 12 

Small Rafters. 



8 Feet 

5 by 3 


7 — 3 


8 -4 

I Principal Rafters. 


Length Bot m . Top. Thick. 

o From 12 to 16 Feet 8 -r- 6 — 5 

V From 16 to 20 9 — 7 — 6 

£■ From 23 to 24 10 — 8 — 7 

X From 24 to 30 12 — 10 — 9 


Purlins from 8 

by 5 


.9 b )' 






Raifing Plates 
jo by 8. 



by 5 






Ground-fills the fame as Raifine PLares. 


To face PLATE I. 

Figure A and B are rlbb'd Niches for Plaiftering. 

TH E Plan a is a Semi-Elipfis on the tranfverfe Diameter, which is drawn with a 
Tramel as reprefented in the Plan, which is to be made with a Grove at 
Right Angles as in the Figure ; two Pieces to be morticed to flip on the Rod, and one 
fixed at the End for a Pencil, &c. fix one of the Pieces equal-to half the Conjugate 
Diameter, and the other to half the Tranfverfe Diameter, and moving the Rod with the 
Pins in the Groves, the Pencil will defcribe the Semi-Elipfis. 

To draw the Elipfis c to any given Length and Breadth, take half the Conjugate 
Diameter a h and fet it on the Tranfverfe Diameter d c divide c a into three equal Parts, 
and make c e equal to one of thofe Parts, and with the Radius f/bifedt g g. So the 
Points ef and g g are the Centres for drawing the Elipfis to any Length and Breadth. 

To draw the Elipfis d with a Line, take half the Tranfverfe Diameter b a and fet it 
from c on the Conjugate Diameter to d on the Tranfverfe Diameter, and to e on ditto, 
then e d are the Points to be fixed for the Line to go round, which will defcribe the E- 
lipfis with the Point /. 

To glue the Head of a Nich as Figure e t cut the Arch Part of the Board or Stave to 
the Thicknefs of a Veneer, and bend it on a Templet, and back it to the Curve, it may 
be jointed the fame as a Column, 6cc. 

To defcribe a Polygon to a given Side from five to eight Sides, make a Radius of the 
given Side for the Pentagon, divide the Arch into five Parts, turn one down on the 
Line which is the Centre, to defcribe a Circle which will contain the Side five Times. 

For a Hexagon, the Radius of the Side is the Centre. 

The Heptagon into feven Parts and turn one up. 

The Octagon into four and turn one up* 

To raife a Perpendicular at the End or Middle of a Line. Defcribe the Arch c d, 
and with the Radius a c make e f, which bifecTt at b> gives the Perpendicular to a. 

To let fall a Perpendicular from a given Point to a Bafe Line. Figure G; let a be 
the. Point given to fall to the Bafe Line b c, draw a right Line from a at pleafure to meet 
the Bafe Line as at c, more or lefs ; divide the Line c a into two Parts, and draw the 
Semi-Circle a b c, and where the Circle cuts the Bafe Line at b, which is at Right 
Angles with a, which was to be done. 

f V('cA&>,<:/c(t/</o//o,t C /><fr/}tc/<> ,y 


-d2ramel to JiOx a Sapnad err Tint ^-irch 

<//((// t/t/ecixon (>/ 0>'<>t t/o * ////cc M//</ t i 

/<•//<.> 8k. 

Plate II 

__ i. 

Fier. F, is apian ofJVt'eh to he 
fineered H, is the fineerfh'-ecch 
outatlenafitfromfArchlk '' 
~F, if y plan which y rdacs arc 
traced frcmw/uch is plain 
to Inspect, hut the more 
parts it is divided into the 

truer the Round, the plan is 

in J parts but in practice it may be 
irvto is parts or more at pit. s'ure . 

-Fu/.A,isaT/an of a Cellar Ground Cn~& k C are die Sections- which 
shew he w the htp is traced to ma/ee the Anale strcierht every plan 
D asidE, are the eoverina or face of the Groins stretched our from 
which a mould may bo made to mafce the hip orAnalo streiahtif [5_ 
the Rihs C, O.are set first k hoarded in the mouldmnstbe tahen /romE , but if 
Che Arches in Sect&nB, be set first the mould must be taken from D . 

Aio.H. is an + fitfi standhia on FieHine ihmihs in a Straight Ha/1 
and supposed to be a far *.4rch at Stone or Mriei . 
fliriae theFaund o/'tne ^Jrch in as many Tartr as are toiaves 
fr tatap/eat the ^-b'ch and drop them to the WaMZirte. then 

Z>r<m- than cross me WaS. fizrahe/itith the Ja/nhs. and 
that shotrs funr much isto be Cictt of the Face of each 
t curse. 

Plate 111. 

on tf l/n:u/ar fl a// . 

Jiff. A. it a Gratlar Wa/lntiA 
has a Door or Window that 
stands Fietiauj. Because thejhmhs 
do not stand at Jliaht ^Znales 
irit/i the Jtiame/rr of 'the ti/r/c, as 1 , 
inJ'/auJf r /mdthe tiavcZihe 
of the j'offit. in this Case drmv tne 
find Line orSase Zinc of the 
^4rck. e.pazjlight ^Jnales jiith 
the Jamhs o.h to touch tne^frch 
of the IVaS at a . atid Siaide the 
j4rt& into eanal ' lattr and drop' 
tJiem to thellaf/ then ta&ert' 
tfe /Distances. h\p. 
kc\ and p-itt diem enthe./rcfi 
jftw/ulout. Gives the edge 
ofthie Jo/ft. 

To face PLATE IV. 

Figure A is a Plan to be Groin'd. 

"j A I V I D E the Bafe Line a of the given Rib into equal Parts, and 
that of d into the fame Number of Parts, and draw Lines to the 
Arch Line of a, and likewife in d at pleafure; then take i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 
6, &c. from a, and transfer them to d, as 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, &c. and 
thro' the Point 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 ; trace the Arch Line over d, and fo for the 
Reft, as is plain to Infpection. The Angle Bracket is done in the fame 

To defcribe a Circular Soffit in a Circular Wall, as in B. Draw the 
Cord Line of the Arch, or Bafe Line fo called, to touch the Arch of the 
Wall, then draw the Semi-Circle and divide the Round of it in a Number 
of equal Parts as here into 9, but the more Parts the truer the Work, 
and draw them to the Arch of the Wall, then ftretch out the Arch Line at 
Length as in e , and transfer the Parts that are between the Wall and Bafe 
Line, as 1, 2, 3,4, 5, 6, &c. to e, which gives the Edge of the Soffit 
or Pannel. 

To defcribe a Circular Soffit in a ftrait Wall on flewing Jambs. Con- 
tinue the flewing of the Wall till it meets at b, then fet the Compafles at 
b, and draw two Arches to the Thicknefs of the Wall, then put on the 
Girt of the Soffit c d, which gives the Length of the Soffit and Edge of ditto. 

Plate W. 




-V/ / 


-\^ j 

LttrcCeK) isccwtt) Stc. 

/■/<<.: V. 

77u 'Dovetail to nave onelruA anJ Quarter \ 

. Dnvi an eadi <fule tfu .Beam* ^^^ 

27i£ Girder to be (m & cmelneh Camber in aoToot ice. nat>rit/Lrta7u&n<7 tba are ta beTnwjji 

77u-2ru/i to be of^Zhy Oa/: about 4 jru/uit fatyeTronl'/a&r at&elZndf irJIeetzn^s . 

Tr u/j L I'artifom 

■ ; . - . - 

A'ote.^JSI'ioors that toe nwre 
zAan a Jvot in. Dyth 
fhaubJ be Uridged 

nz2n.tkree<7oij6rin ttteinOroal benvem the Jtitu&njj fra7na ' buo oie 
Gi> -ders tfosame trar ivM£m/&ia^ s <^^Ja£r£r but notso De&> at ditto 
as a.b.c. %**: ■ 

Tfase jorToff&ors 

not to demote tnan a 


Curb JLoof. 


To face PLATE VI. 

Figure A* Plan and Ledgment of a Roof, fhewing how to 
find the Length and Backing of Hips, Valley, &c. 

* | "*0 find the Length, take the Bafe Line of the Hips ab, be, and 
j[ be, and fet them on the Bafe Line of the principal Rafters, as 
b a, b c, b e, and draw Lines from the Top of the Rafter to a c e, which 
is the Length of each Hip. Or the Length may be found by fetting up 
"the Perpendicular from the Bafe Line of the Hips, as b g, and draw the 
Line g a, is the Length of the Hip. To Back the Hip, lay down the 
Thicknefs of the Hip at the Angle of the Plan, as H, and draw Lines to 
range the Plates, will fhew how much Wood is to come off in the Backing ; 
that is, the Mould mull be a Piece of Wood as thick as the intended 
Hip, and cut it to the Splay or Pitch of the Hip at the Foot, fetting it 
on the Angle of the Plate in the Direction of the Hip, mark it under by 
the Side of the Plate ; gives the true Backing in any Cafe required. A 
"very lure and fafe Way for the Backing. 

Figure B is the Plan of an M Roof, with Hip and Valley 

in Ledgment, &c. 

Note, The Back of the Hip is found another Way, as in the Plan A. 
by drawing a Line at Right Angles, crofs the Bafe Line of the 
Hip, as r d g, or on any Part of the Bafe Line, and fet one Foot 
of the Compafs at d, and extend to the nearefl Part of the Hip 
g a, and turn it on the Bafe Line, as at r, then draw the Lines 
from the Point r to g r, on the Edge of the Plate, which is the 
Backing of the Hip required. This will do in any Cafe, fquare 
or bevel. 

<■ //tUI (>/ /«/<//// f /I t o/t/uwAj 



c D$'i*e c/yf A/-,/// 

I S/'///. k:> /< v ■ /// >><>/.> . 

r/,,r, vi i 


Plate VU1. 

4 3 2 

TAe manner af/rndaia tne Zenadi and Sacking or* (itrve Zme flips in ant Case required . 
Suppose the Potation. /Van £>e Zfocf3 u7tA the tunareversa R . 07- the tancaz/e Car the 
tanaea'D. in the Plan. Divide tAe Bare Zme of the pwm J?3 info anr mtmAa- ofeaua/Jarts tind 
drtnr Zintv /hwi those pans on tAe Ztase Zine ta tAe &ze£ 0f~tAeZfafier,ap. id. ef' a A . i/£, /m. and 
off tAe others as jz, 2%, 3 3. and so on.TAm tAe -Base Zme o?~tAe Zhps mnsr 3b dunded mm the same 
numher of Parts and Law Swrrt up at Pleasure as ke flam tAe JBase Zme of 'tAeZAps, then 
take tAe several ' SewAts of* tAe amen JiiAj and set tAem on theZhp Zmes. tAen ^iw tAem threap A $afe 
fcmtir tAat in'// aive die Gave or £dffe of the flip and the same /or off tAe others 
and for tAe Jtae/dns? ay^ tAe said flips tAerr is a Plan <f the ZBp at die ^4nple ofthe Z¥an K.nAieA 
sherrs Aoji' Tiweh Jfood is to fie Gdt tnf ' auh side oftAeJhp. Z/ivuie tAe Z > erpmdiadar fletpAt ofthe 
Sips attv am number of etpuat Farts . and dnat Zdus IfoaBd m'tA tAe JfaseZmer of the flip .Then fait 
tAe Z)istanee from tAe f/an of the 2hp to tAe Sale of the Plan A. as 1 2 and put tAem an the 
ZBps,asi2,7 2, &¥•. nhieh gives fte true Haefana in arp Case napdred .IVete when me parts are 
Set en at Mot&m, and Top of the flip the HJeuul may be shifted and markJd which she-u-s the 
Tt^ood ev come aff*. 

To face F LATE IX. 
Truffes for the Domes of Churches, S£?c* 
Is a Trufs for a Dome, with a Lanthorn or Cupola at the Top,. 

to give Light. B. the Plan ; the Kirb or Plate to be in two* 
Thickneffes, which is likewife beft for the Ribs, and for the Kirb on 
which the Cupola ftands. The Curve of the Dome A. is a Semi-circle,. 
or will ferve for a Semi-elipfis. The Moulds f and c in the Plan B,. 
cut the Sweep of the Purlines ; and the Moulds b a and c d are for 
the Top and Bottom of the Purlines. C. is a Cone or Lanthorn to light 
a Stair- Cafe, &c. the horizontal Bars mull be fquared in the fame Man- 
ner as the Purlines in A. The Mould for cutting or fquaring the Pur- 
lines, is like the bottom Mould f in B. fo that if the Purlines be cut to< 
the Thicknefs required as in the Section A, and alfo to the Mould/, then 
a is the Mould for the Bottom and b for the Top, as appears by the Lines 
let fall to the Plan B from the Purlines g and h ; then C in the Plan is the 
Top and d the bottom Mould. / is the fweep Mould for the Top of the 
Purline h. By this Rule the Purlines may be fquared, which completes 
the Work. If the Plan B, the Ribs and Purlines are in Size and Number, 
as the Cone C, it will do for a Lanthorn or Light to a Stair-Cafe, &c 
the Manner of fquaring the Ribs and Crofs Bars is the fame as the Dome.. 

r/r/f /.)(.> wrtne Icm/D <>/ {////7r//<jSc. 


/(<>///<'////</.>, 1 /<)<////.>//'((</&) fyt 

Plate X. 

i L__ 

Plate XI 

Thtfe. XH 

{cjzh/tian Chrler* 

L Sji 


J^erxc Order 



^F 7 

Tujam. Older 



ftmic Pedestal 

i_ »G 

.. 7^ 


** i 



,st*l r 











i a 


* ^ 





Tuscan Jfafesta/ 


<** i 





/'.'./, MIL 

A Scale of one Module ■ 

J 10 . ixi 20 4° 

JJirulc tAc jiven Module iruojepar/ir ami one of ' tfuwc purer ina J gives l/w J/rnures . 



Mate XIV. 

m 7.', 

* libit a m 

?r r i part ; iroot tn 
07-? Dumicterj 

- - -SFaC fi Indies or 0/)iamelav of die Column. -• 
rfyt S Alter orfDianuter, oftAe Chiunri- - - 



i.ifp'ji '.'?<-%rs 

The Deru* fiuje , Cap and Entablature 

riale W- 

' 1 l /VA'AA'AA 


c^heuvt <rf tint ,y, ,///>/ en t 

■ it/ --lit/UK' . 


M ! 



T /WWV\ ]t 

Plate JOJ. 

tifest gJnck&p ergDiametfrsofiAetbbimfi 

.,..**»~ r ,—- , T .-, 


fy/u~ , Jn/tc r'/t/a//t7////'t- wU&fiar&of oie /t><//ms?/f aS^/a/*,/?. 



Plate XIX. 

TAe Jjcdr of the Cap with 
du .. Jloiddzkffs worked 
before dielzornj- are 
Glued on . 

iDianieter' 30 mznutes 



Plate JGC. 

Flare MI. 

Place XXU. 

jo mmiit&r 


s-i — i -• t-H--- — 

'P'.f'i \6} 4 ^ 20' 4 j *%. 


~- -^ 



\ J 

<• 1 





& i 







.■iuu/i .Base a Date. 


S ic za 30 

The Jj-fpor/ienj 0/ 't'cmpesue TntaMaOire are 
ihe jasile as the Ce/i/uhiaet . 

K /j/lv</,-i>i ( '(>)u/i, ( >.j;> ('<t/u/<i/ ,r//,/ S ///<t/-/<i(trt<- ; % TltUeXXV. 

may he lured wicA the Attif Base 

Plate XXVI. 

J%an&er ofzfe Gmnzftia7i Girmce atan£aZB7urf single ■ Tlarweer- oftfielom'c Grrnice or cut /:.>7,v //,?/. ///,//• 


(//t/rttttr o/ (am 

Plate XXVII, 


This tohmm MmmiAit fiom one third o/'the Neiaht. 




The manner of Ghezng up tahanns $-• Dumnirhinq them 
This ioiuom /Jimims/uv /rem thcjietfom to the lop 

!I7utl tbha/ms are /luted dpide die Hound or thnaonfirence inco poparts give three to aflute 
andone to afi&t. 

/>mcaush the Stapes of die iblumris on the Faces he/ore thep are Glued together, ch£r 
is a oerr safe and jure war for making the tbtumn. 

JI7wn /Hosiers a/v Mded tiiriae the Breadth, orJMamaer into ?apar£r give one to a 
f'idel a/ id th/ee to a Flute. 

\sinJvotrt$ for*. Y?e///./ ,\,r . 

Plate xxvnr 









* i?" 



■I 1 




1 a 





§■ is 


" ^^m^m^z 

/ J /«*3XZX. 

Entablature for DoorslKndcws ice. 
arith all the-Mcaniref figured f . f&rDuetice atltnye. 








3./: 2. era f. i in 

< //vw/V. >/ifrrr.J fbr~2)€Wi 

Plate XXXI. 

"i',ir</J/,t /w_/(W ( </.>,:> . 


Ph'itffi under 

An-Atiiii\'t' <vid 

Grew ids. 


Plan XXXIV. 








1 SS 


1 ) 









% rz 












/brDews, Jfrndmrj ir. 





; - O 





; j - (-, 





5 k 


§ ^\ — 

1 ^ 

S f ] 


^ 2'z\ 

1 3 \ 

! 3 ' 2 





6*{/ifA&r % err? inches m/c jo /tarts 

Plate XXXVI. 

Uajfofa Confound open TedwierU 

(fk&n ^/ca/m€n£ 

77te Gwutnutum rfftthrig and /teturnd 
MauUint/.c,uiJ'aunurtti trie uppa ' J'art Jig. A . 
return J Jtrpauiailar an J /A* loner /art nturru 
Squared trie Aid af'trie JU&rrient. trie terriers 
are atJiufrit Cruller M& tAefieneetum tall 
Jjv/a&iur aMe, a 6, i a &• fa ■ 

Plate JXWI. I 


6 r 











' ** 1 





It /////in i 

(////////<■// /J'/<-cr /// /Vtr __/',>//<■ 
Ort&er ///r ('///>//>/<//// re af/,r >/?<■ 
)L ( o//i//<\te^ < <r/i . 

1'Uite JQ&m. 

r7s/ u> {////// neu i //cr<\) at/// often /i't/im-erU, 

or/t'cfare-/rarneii ornarnefitiu//. 


?^J'&ua9ta fir (////// /ir/s<t «vM Cot^a/Z/r './///f //•<:>. 

Plate XL. 

Plato XH. 



Bffi.' i I191H 


4tn " Sin. 



W\^. \ ' ?\K >X% K 






! ' i 


Flatt XLUI. 

Plate JLJY. 









A >h> 

Gmiia/pra (7a'mnev 

FUa, ,\/,i 

4 ^ Jncfies cr^. into ziparcs 



Plate XLVJT. 





J 1 

v ; 

4- er 4'i injji&r into 2 i/raitr 

I cr ft 3fpartr 

» '/i/ni/d/'iiaj fvi^J^H>K<n<j {//a/j or &tc£ua<e/*j6'a0?tiej 







_ ■ ■ 


: • |8Mfli;ite^-i!J. l .l!lillMJil ' ^ 

-v. J 

Plat< LI, 

( /'/■///rci /<>/- (////// //ey ( a/ut^/ ' <>r>/',i or 1 7 //////>// v 8pc< 

Flate LH. 

a JncA&r y i trU<? jfffafKr 

L fipt— 

J'/.u, JJ1I. 

tjJhsAfj 4 into 


< c / 8> ^/ff/'-i^itu/vrSnomtut. 

Flat* LV. 

' /ia.jr.J <& J///' rn.ifj for &icnmu). 

Flaw LYl 




^-frckU/urer /o?~J)ocrj- Jr/sutvws iecal large. 

/?</// f/vr /'<;> for— J (><>/:> / 1 / //s/<>/r,i <%> 

Piatt LIX. 

36 parts 

3 z part? 

Plate LX. 

J 8 parts 

?Uu LX1. 





\ 7*4 





y/,> '' 7 JT^ ",'/{/*> /P> • ( )'( Yf /!</.>. 

tyW^o c t t/iu'/w/i<i 

TlaU LX1V. 


i r 

<■ V>r<6. 

FlaA- LXV. 


Plate LXVIi. 

fJeVtULtm. of^a Bracket Jiaas 
m out Zoiej . 


To face PLATE LXIX. 

To draw the Plan and Scroll of a twift Rail for a Stair-Cafe. 

RAW a Circle equal to the Breadth of two Steps, and divide it into 
eight Parts, then draw a Circle round the Centre five Inches Diameter, 
2,3, then draw the Line e,f, and fet one Foot of the Compafs at e, 
and draw the Arch Line 7, o, which muft be divided into eight Parts, and 
draw Lines from e, thro' each eighth Part to the Line 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, &c. 
then fet the Compafs in the Centre of the Scroll, and draw the dotted Lines 
from 1 on the Scale to 1 on the Edge of the Rail, and fro m 2 to 2 on the 
Edge of the Rail, and fo for all the Reft to each eighth Part of the Circle, 
which gives the outer Edge of the Rail. 

To find the Centre for drawing each eighth Part, fet one Foot of the 
Compafs in the Centre of the Scroll, and take the Diftance to /, with the 
fame Radius ; fet the Foot at e, and make a Mark at c, and with the fame 
Radius fet one Foot at 1 on the Edge of the Rail, and bifect the former 
Stroke at c, which is the Centre for the firft eighth Part, then take from 
the Centre of the Scroll to 1 on the Scale, and fet one Foot at 1 on the 
Edge of the Rail, make a Mark in the Eye and move^the Compafs to 2 on 
on the Edge of the Rail, and bifecl: the former Stroke, that is the Centre 
for the fecond eighth Part, and fo on for all the Reft. The Centre for the 
Front of Rifer and Nofing of Step are the black Dots, one fifth Part from 
the Rail to the Nofing of the Step without the other Centre ; the Pieces 
which make the twift Part of the Rail are d, e, b, on the raking Mould 
the Twift begins at a on the Edge of the Rail, and Ends at three on ditto, 
the remaining Part is level ; the lower Part of the Scroll from 2 is cut out 
of a Parallel Piece, as reprefented by g on the Newei, &c. 


// l/li/l. 


Malt LXff. 

Plan LXM. 


7'mc Items fm- Starr (ases. 

To (stop ig> tMr Band Rail in the Ch-m/ar 
maAv a Thny/et to theJ'/an as ad> and a 
&se and Tiead cfthe Stips oti the 7'emp/e, 
irifltjire t/ie /a/ana of the , theAam 
traced br the interseetion of 'Jtiakt ZineJ 
' 'as c.d. 

U'Y<»iA i/tt'ttCotto/if ( ttttt/tt r<\ f >,;,/. //„,r FlaXUM, 

To be lighted by a Denis or Cone Lanthom at the top>,ifplace*lin the middle of 
a BuildinaTfon the outside map be lighted by Windows in the (Vail at each landing ■ 

To make the Sand-rail make a Templet or Cylinder Co the .wil hole or ojren o/'ihe 
Rail, , dnw die arati '.tk rise o/'eae/i Step on die Cylinder, arid d/at will oivc the /idltna 
of' the Rail which is to be aleirod in thicknc/s bent round die Cylinder, then the 
Rail will come off ready squared, this is a very sure way to make the Rod . 

rial, lxxf. 


Y VT| 


Iffl " tv 

Plau LSm. 

t' //(!/( <///(/(/<!"////<>// o/ a //(////('///////It (yfsuMe. 

Pleat LXXVfL 

r/'/a// 3 t f/rrrf//>// of a {/r//nr///<7/t.> Jfof/.)r . 

-_-■_—„„ mdk^ in — — ..i — .- — ~ — —i -m-«mLi«. »n-m-»namiiJitallMOmjiiiJ«BUm glMnil 

I ^ ■■ ■ B I 




F/,it<- LXXK 

dm, pin. 


Place LXHS. 





T/vo I*lans,£lcPiitum<f and Setfum*r far Stoves &r Hat tfeu/es 
fbrJ$n&f,J?7ei 2hes, Sirmr&ertTJ' &t\ 

Thed&n and Jecturn A if for /hut Trees 

7heJuzn h,/er fines , th&T/eny m tAisTlm run one- over- another as mm' &e seen in in* 

ifecuen. There are Tire TYac&r at eaeh* £nd and a ffiu%' a/t round . 

T%& ITews in theTVanK, /tun en the ifurface and are sznp/e TZen-.f. 

TheFnmtfiwf and End? tda/s, as the £/eratum of the T&m A. 

Z7u>Wtdth of eaeA \ House is j fTtet the Zenith at ■ /feature /rv7n 40 tit $/>/feet. ornwn ' at pleasure . 

Plate LMK1 

./tits/ 3 //.■ra/ir/, ,y 'a i W^t - >tf,/yv/, , //«/■/<■, ,<' ,-. l'(ot<LXXML. 

'%// •: £ '/rttifton /# ■ tectum <v: or&£hUmrA&uM /,)« i //.>,, $aM&t&c, " 

BOOKS printed for and fold by LTJTLO R. 

I t ■ *HE Carpenter's Treafure ; a Collection of Defigns for Temples, with their Plans, Gates, 
Doors, Rails, and Bridges, in the Gothic Tafte ; with the Centres at large, for ftriking 
Gothic Curves and Mouldings j and fome Specimens of Rails, in the Chinefe Tafte : Forming a 
complete Syftem for rural Decorations. Neatly engraved on fixteen Plates, from the original 
Drawings of N. W A L L I S, Architea 2s. 6d. 

2. A Book of Ornaments in the Palmyrene Tafte, containing upwards of fixty new Defigns 
for Ceilings, Pannels, Pateras, and Mouldings : with the Raffle Leaves at large : By N. WA Jfe.- 
L I S, Architect, elegantly engraved on 1 2 Plates. 4s. 6d. fewed. 

3. The Compleat Modern Joiner, or a Collection of original Deligns in the prefent Tafte, for 
ChimneyPieces and Door-Cafes, with their Mouldings and Enrichments at large ; Frizes, Ta- 
blets, Ornaments for Pilafters, Bafes, Sub-bafes and Cornices for Rooms, &c. with a Table (hewing 
the Proportion of Chimnies, with their Entablatures, to Rooms of any Size. By N. WALLIS, 
Architect. 8s. fewed, bound 10s. 

Note, Both the above Books few'd in one, 12s. or 14s. bound. 

4. A new Book of Ornaments, defigned by T. L AW S, Carver. 2s. fewed. 

5. A new Book of Foliage, on ten Plates, for the Ufe of Learners, &c. By H. Gerrard. 2s. fd. 

6. The Gentleman and Tradefman's Compleat Afiiftant, or the whole Art of Mealuring and Ef- 
timating maoe Eafy ; containing the Names and Prices of all Artificers Work in general, re- 
lating to Building, viz. Bricklayers, Carpenters, Joiners, Carvers, Plaifterers, Painters, Pa- 
vio'urs, Smiths, C5V. 3s. 6d. fewed, 4s. 6d. bound. 

7. LANGLEY's Builder's Cheft-Book, or Key to the Five Orders of Architecture. Se- 
cond Edition, much improv'd. 3s. bound. 

8. Fourteen Vafes from the Antique. 2s. fewed. 

9. The Builder's Jewel. By B. LANGLEY. 4s. 6d. bound. 

10. The Builder's Director, or Bench-Mate ; on 184 Plates. 4*. bound. 

11. HOPPUS's Practical Meafurer, greatly enlarged and improved, 2S. 6d. bound. 

12. The Modern Gardener, or Universal Kallender ; containing monthly Directions for all the 
Operations of Gardening ; to be done either in the Kitchen, Fruit, Flower, or Pleafure Gardens : 
Illuftrated with 13 Plates, neatly engraved, of entire new Plans for Stoves, Green-houfes, &c. By 
JAMES MEADE R, late Gardener to the Earl of Chesterfield. 4s. fewed, 5s. bd. 

13. Tr>e Stove-Grate Maker's Afliftant, or a Treafury of Original and Faihionable Defigns, 
for Bath-S'oves, Penfylvania-Stoves, fingle and double Standard Grates, Frets, &c. By W. 
G L O S S O P, Stove-Grate Maker. Elegantly engraved on 24 Plates. 5s. fewed. 

14. The Plan and Elevation (on two large Sheets) of that grand Structure Mafra, near LiJ- 
bon, the Palace of the King of Portugal, Price 6s. 

j 5. A large Print of Shoreditch-Cbuvch. 3s. 

16. A Print of Greenwich Church, is. 

17. Health, an Efiay on its Nature, Value, Uncertainty, Prefervation and beft Improvement. 
By B. G R O S V E N O R, D. D. 2s. 6d. bound. 

18. Le Beau's Compendious French Teacher ; to which are added, thirty-eight Letters of Com- 
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of Epiftolatory Correfpondence. 2s. bound.