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Full text of "Practical dog training : or, Training vs. breaking"

WES 






JOHNA.SEAVERNS 



TUFTS UNIVERSITY LIBRARIES 



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Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicir 
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at 
Tufts University 
200 Westboro Road 



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FOREST ANO STREAM S ERIES, No. 2. 

PRACTICAL 

©OG f RAINING: 



It 

OR, 



Training vs, Breaking, 



S. T. HAMMOND, 

KENNEL, EDITOR OP "FOREST AND STREAM/' 



NEW YORK: 
FOREST AND STREAM PUBLISHING COMPANY, 

3 9 PARK ROW. 

1882. 
Copyright, 1882, Forest and Stream Publishing Co, 



NOTE. 

The system of dog training described in this book is a 
new one. Its fundamental principles were adopted by 
the writer thirty years ago ; the details of the method, 
as here given, have been developed and perfected by 
him during that time. His own success with it has 
encouraged the belief that its publication would be wel- 
comed by the thousands of Am- lean sportsmen who 
own and handle field dogs. This belief, it is a pleasure 
to say, has been confirmed by the marked favor accord- 
ed to the successive chapters as they appeared in the 
Forest and Stream, from which journal they a?e here 
reprinted. 

This system is humane and rational. It is also prac- 
tical and efficient. Dog training differs essentially from 
dog breaking, both in method and spirit, and also in 
what may be accepted as the test of all systems, namely: 
the results attained. 

The pages of this book contain no theories. They are 
a plain, simple record of the plan which has been tested 
by the writer in the field, year after year. He believes 
that the same plan may be followed by others with 
equal success. It is, therefore, with the fullest confi- 
dence in the merits of this system of Dog Training vs. 
Dog Breaking, that it L» submitted to the public. 

The story of "My Old Dog Trim " is added, because 
from his day the author dates his conversion to the 
belief that training is better than breaking. The sketch 
of "The One-Eyed Grouse of Maple Run" is also given, 
that the reader may have in it some of the "reasons for 
the faith that is in us," when we advise the introduction 
of the youngsters to the haunts of tins royal bird. 
These sketches are also given as illustrative of some of 
the pleasures enjoyed in the fie^d in the companionship 
of a well-trained dog. S. T. H. 

Forest and Stream Ofeice, March, 1882. 



TRAINING VS. BREAKING. 
Chapter I. 
"jSTEARLY all writers upon the subject of dog training ap- 
-L ^ pear to think that there is but one course to pursue. 
That all knowledge that is not beaten into a dog is worthless 
for all practical purposes, and that the whip, check-cord and 
spike-collar, with perhaps an occasional charge of shot or a 
vigorous dose of shoe leather, are absolutely necessary in 
order to perfect his education. 

It may appear presumptious for us to advocate a departure 
from the beaten path, but as we have had some little experience 
in the past thirty years, and as many sportsmen who should 
be good authority have seen our dogs at work, and have 
unanimously united in pr.iseof the manner in which they 
acquit themselves in the field, we have thought lhat per- 
haps a description of our method of training might prove in- 
teresting. It will be so at least to the new beginner. The 
main object that we have in view is the amelioration of the 
present condition of "man's best friend," and should the per- 
usal of these lines cause even but one to follow the coursa 
here marked out, we shall feel amply repaid for our labor. 

We have ever been possessed of a great love deep down in 
the heart for our canine pets, and this love is the main spring- 
that governs all our actions toward them. We do not wish 
to be understood as meaning that we never use the whip for 
we believe wiih the wise king of old that the rod should not 
be spared when it is needed. What we do mean is this : 
There is no dog worth the raising— we are speaking of point- 
ers and setters — tbat cannot and will not learn all that it is 
necessary for him to know without a single blow being struck 
or a single harsh word being spoken. We are very well 
aware that this humane course will entail a little more labor, 
end that a vast deal more patience is required than when de- 
pendence is placed upon the whip and boot-heel to enforce 



2 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

your commands, but the intelligent and cheerful manner in 
which your pet obeys your slightest word or motion will 
much more than compensate you for the extra time that you 
have devoted to hi3 education. There is nothing that so 
mars our enjoyment when in the field as to see the cringing 
form of a noble animal cowering in fear of a whipping, 
which nine time3 out of ten he does not deserve half so much 
as his master. 

We do not claim absolute perfection for our system nor that 
you can by adopting it invariably succeed in turning out a 
well trained, well behaved dog, for we know that with dogs 
as well as with men we often find one who for lack of brains 
will never amount to much, no matter what pains we take 
with him. 

In selecting a puppy there are many things to be taken in- 
to consideration. In the first place we must be sure that both 
&ire and dam are first class fi Id performers. This 
we consider of the utmost importance. They must also 
be possessed of endurance, and must be reasonably inte'li- 
gent. The more ancestors of this type that our pup can 
boast the better will he suit us. lie must also have life and 
ambition; indeed we care not how high strung he is, for al- 
though he may not submit to restraint quite so readily as 
his sleepy brother, yet when you once have him under sub- 
jection he will not only mind more quickly, but he will do 
his work better and much more of it. Of course he must be 
well formed, and we should like him to be of good color and 
coat, but these last are not indi? pensibie as we much prefer 
good performance to good looks. 

Having selected our pup, we will take him home when he 
i3 six to eight weeks old, and at once begin his education. 
Many writers will tell you that your dog should be much 
older before you begin to instil into his mind even the rudi- 
ments of knowledge. If you are going to pursue their sys- 
tem of instruction, we should advise you by ail means to put 
off the evil day as long as possible ; but if you are to follow 
our plan, begin at once ; not a moment is to be lost. In the 
first place you want to secure his affection and entire confi- 



FIRST LESSON 3. 3 

dence. This will be the fir3t lessor, and nothing more should 
be attempted until you have completely won his heart and 
taught him to place the utmost coafidence in you. At this 
tender age his mind is easily impressed, and will long retain 
the ideas now formed ; and it will take but a few days to 
teach him to love you with all his heart. If possible, give 
hirn a good roomy pen on the ground, with a warm, well- 
sheltered house or box in which to lie. Do not forgtt that 
he will be very lonesome for a few days, and therefore glad 
to see you often ; and you cannot better employ your time 
than ia paying him a visit every half hour for the first day or 
two. Always, when you go to see him, have a bit of some- 
thing for him to eat that he will relish. As you approach 
the pen you shoulcfinvariably blow upon your whistle the 
note that you intend to u?e to call him in. We sound a iocg 
nets for this purpose, beginning loud and gradually dying 
avray. This, with a short, f harp note to attract attenti n, is 
all the signal that we ever sout d upon the whistle ; the last we 
do not use until his education is further advanced. By asso- 
ciating this long note with something good to eat, it will soon 
become fixed in lis mind that when he hears it he must run 
to you as fast as he can. We much prefer to have t ^o pups, for 
it takes no more time to teach them both than it does to teach 
one, as they will learn from each oth( r ; and if one is in- 
clined to be dilatory we witholdkh reward, and he, seeing the 
oiher one enjoying his customary allowance while he is him- 
self deprived of his share, at once comprehends the true 
reason and will be on hand the next time. 

Do not fail to abundantly cares? him and speak kindly 
words, and never under any circumstances, no matter what 
t\\e provocation, alio v yourself to scold or strike him, as this 
is entirely at variance wi h our system, and is sure to result 
in tLe defeat of our plats. Should he ju np upon you with 
his dirty feet, or tear your clothes with his sharp teeth, do 
r.ot get angry and cuff him, but gently 3 et firmly pi ce him 
upon the ground or unclasp his jaws from your garments, 
consoling yourself with the thought that in a short time 30U 
will have him so well in hand that he will know better than 



4 TRAILING vs. BREAKING. 

to commit these faults. Be very gentle with him at all times; 
carefully study his disposition, and learn all of his ways that 
you may the more readily understand just how to manage 
him. You should be in perfect sympathy with him and 
humor all his whims and notions and endeavor to teach him 
that you truly love him. In a short time you will find 
that this love will be returned ten fold, and that he is ever 
anxiously watching for your coming, and never so happy as 
when in your presence and enjoying your caresses. 

After a few days you may begin to train him, but do not 
be in a hurry about it, as nothing is gained by haste. • Be 
very careful now, and do not ruin all by an undue haste ; go 
very slow, carefully feel your way, and, above all things, 
exercise an unwearied patience ; and if at any time you find 
the strain upon your nerves growing a little too tense, leave 
him at once and wait until you are perfectly calm before re- 
suming the lesson. 

There is one thing, of the utmost importance, that we wish 
to particularly impres3 upon your mind before we go any 
further. Do not allow yourself under any circumstances to 
speak to your pupil in anything but your ordinary tone of 
voice. There is nothing that is mere annoying when shoot- 
ing than to have a companion continually yelling at the top 
of his voice to his dog, and generally without any effect. 
Now, such yelling is worse than useless, f r if your dog is 
properly trained in the first place, he will readily mind your 
lightest word. For your own comfort, then, and for the 
pleasure of whoever may accompany you upon your shooting 
excursions, use nothing but gentle tones when you issue your 
commands. When this very disagreeable habit of shouting 
is once commenced, you will soon find that a still louder tone 
is demanded, and had you the lungs of a Stentor, it will not 
be long before your resources will be exhausted, and you will 
vainly sigh for thunder tones to voice your words of com- 
mand. 

The first thing that we endeavor to teach a pup, after we 
obtain his love and confidence, is to stop at the words To 
ho. This is a very important point, and comparatively 



FIRST LESSONS. 5 

easy to te^ch hiui. He should be very hungry when you 
commence these first lessons, as his eagerness for the focd 
will c mse him to pay you close attention ; and when he un- 
derstands that as soon as he performs his tisk his reward is 
sure, and that he cannot have it before, he will anxiously 
strive to do whatever you mny require of him. You should 
begin by givipg him a taste of a piece of meat, then secure 
a firm hold upon his collar, and place a small piece upon the 
ground in front of him. He will struggle with all his strength 
to get at it, but hold him steadily, and do not say a word 
until he becomes partially quiet ; then move his nose a little 
nearer, and, in your ordinary tone of voice, say To ho, 
with a falling accent upon Ihe last syllable. Do not repeat 
the words just yet, and when you do be very careful that 
your voice is not strained and' unnat'iral ; we always ac- 
company this word with the right hand raised warningly, for 
it may often happen that we wish our dog to come to a halt 
at some distance from us, and by accustoming him to the 
gesture he will soon learn to stop as far as he can see you. 
Most sportsmen use this signal to mak? their dogs charge, 
but as we shall show further on, when we come to it, the 
other plan is much better. After a few seconds the dog wil] 
become more quiet, and you can repeat the words. Now 
caret'uly watch him, and as soon as his attention is fixed upon 
the meat, and he looks at it steadily for a second, release 
your hold and c.uck to him as a signal that he can now have 
it. and at once praise and pet him, and give him to under- 
stand that he has done something wonderful, and that you 
are pleased with him. We should have stated before that, from 
the first, whenever you place his food before him you should 
always cluck to him, as he will thus learn the meaning of 
the sound, and undersand when he hears it that aH restraint 
is removed. 

After the first trial do not try him again until the next 
time that you feed him; for should you force him he may 
grow weary and fail to respond with that cheerfulness and 
alacrity that is so pleasing to see. You must be very care- 
ful that he does not get at the meat until you give him per- 



6 TRAILING vs. BREAKING. 

mission, for he must understand that you mean busmess 
every time, and that he cannot have it until he becomes per- 
fectly quiet and hears your signal. After a few lessons of 
this kind, if you have managed right, yon will be surprised 
to see the improvement that he will make and the zest with 
which he will enter into the spirit of it. You can soon leave 
him free, and he will readily point at the word ; and with 
proper care he will 30on learn to point when the meat is 
thrown to quite a distance from him. Of course you will 
understand that the distance must be increased very gradu- 
ally, and implicit obedience exacted every time. Should he 
move so much as one step after you give him the word, you 
must instantly place him as near as may be in his former 
position, at the same time repeating the word ; and this must 
be done gently yet firmly until he becomes steadfast. Too 
much importance cannot be attached to th ; s; indeed, it La 
the groundwork of our whole system ; and unltss you 
thoroughly instill into his mind the knowledge that you 
mean just what you sgy, and must be obeyed to the very 
letter, and that he cannot vary the fraction of an inch from 
the rule that you have laid down, it wi 1 not be of any use to 
continue further, for under our system — or any other — it will 
be utterly impossible to turn out a weil trained animal unless 
we strictly adhere to the above rub and exaco implicit obe- 
dience every time. 

After he once understands thit he must mind, your task 
is half accomplished, the rest is comparative 1 y easy, and 
you will indeed find it a labor of love to perfect his educa- 
tion. 

In giving these first lessons do not re novo him from hi3 
pen, as new surroundings will serve to distract his attenti n 
from the business on hand, and your task will be all the 
harder. Indeed it is much better to avoid all training ou - 
side the pen until your pupil is well established in whit you 
have taught him. Should it not bj convenient to have a pen 
for him, any good sized room or inclosure that he cannot get 
out of, will answer for training purposes. Do not allow any 
spectators in these first lessons, as you want his undivided 



FIRST LESSONS. 7 

attention. We know that there is great satisfaction in show- 
ing off the little fellow's accDraplishments to one's friends, 
but until you are quite sure that he will obey when strangers 
are near, it is much better to practice him alone than to have 
him go back on you before folks where you might feel a 
little delicacy about enf orcin * your commands. 



CHAPTER II. 

CANINE ACCOMPLISHMENTS. 

WHILE teaching our pup to charge, his other lesson 
must by no means be neglected, but plenty of prac- 
tice must be sandwiched in until he appears to thoroughly 
understand the meaning of To ho, and will readily stop at 
the word or upraised hand. When he is reasonably perfect 
in this, you can vary the lesson by placing the food upon 
your knee, as you sit by him, and bringing his nose very 
close to it, and after a while, as he improves, you can lay the 
morsel upon his nose and he will soon learn to hold perfectly 
still and retain any attitude that you may place him in. As 
he advances in knowledge, ycu should take a piece of meat 
of good size, that he cannot swallow, and carefully open his 
mouth — this you can do by clasping your hand around his 
muzzle and gently forcing the thumb and fingers between 
his jaws — and placing the piece therein, at the same time 
commanding him to To ho. Do not remove your hand from 
his jaws, but hold him lightly yet firmly ; for although the 
chances are in favor of his understanding what is wanted, 
and obeying readily, still it is necessary to retaia the grasp 
as we are not through with him yet ; and should the taste of 
the meat prove too tempting and he undertake to bolt it, 
you, having a good hold of him, can at once open his mouth 
and secure the meat. A3 soon as he comprehends what you 
require and remains perfectly quiet, gently force open his 
mouth and take the meat from him, at the same time telling 
him to " drop," and at once reward him with a piece of soni? 
other kind of meat, thus teaching him that he cannot eat the 
first piece, nor even mouth it, but must deliver it safe into 
your hand. We generally use a piece of tough, partly- 
cooked beef for the trial, and are very particular in our first 
lessons of this kind to reward him with a bit of liver or 
something entirely different from the large piece. The utility 
oi this lesson we will explain further on, only remarking 



THE CIIAIJW* 9 

here that we consider it of vital importance that our pupil 
should be thoroughly trained in this, for we think it to bo 
one of his most necessary lessons, and too much time cannot 
be expended in perfecting him in this branch of his educa- 
tion. He should become so perfect in this that he will take 
the smallest bit of meat in his mouth and hold it perfectly 
still, without the slightest movement of his jaws, and deliver 
it readily into your hand without reluctance. 

You should accustom him to the restraint of the chain 
very early in his career, f cr the longer you wait the harder 
will be the task ; he should be chained up two or three times 
each day, f ■ r a little while only at a time, taking care that 
he is perfectly quiet when you loose him. Should he be very 
restless and uneasy, you must soothe him with kind words 
and pet him until he b. comes quiet, and on no account un- 
fasten him until he ceases his struggles and remains calm for 
a little while, thus teaching him that howlings and smug- 
glings will not set him free. Bj very careful to see that he 
cannot break his collar nor slip it over his head, nor break 
his chain, for it is of the utmost imporiance that your lessons 
should be thorough, and that at no time should he get the 
idea into his head that there is any possible course except 
implicit cb: dience to your wishes. Great care must be taken 
at all times, in all his less ins, that he is not kept under 
restraint for too long a time, but the increase of time must 
be none the less sure, although ve?y gradual and almost im- 
perceptible. Much will dep nd up in his disposition in this, 
which, if you hwe carefully s' udied, you will be able to 
manage, so that he shall not b come disgusted and be an un- 
willing pupil. At the slightest indie ition that he is getting 
weary of instruction, you must let up a little and pro- 
ceed slower, but with such care and good judgment that 
he shall not mistrust the reason; and if you pursue the 
proper course and manage him rightly, you will be amply re- 
paid when he comes to maturity in witnessing the intelligent 
and cheerful manner in which he will obey your commands 
and submit to long- continued restraint without a murmur. 

We accustom our pup from the fir:t to the society of 



10 TRAILING vs. BREAKING. 

fowls, and if possible procure a brood of chickens for him 
to associate with. We grea'ly prefer game fowls for this 
purpose, for we think they are possessed of stronger scent, 
thus being more attractive to him, and making him all the 
more eager to investigate them, while the mother being much 
more brave in their defense than a common dunghill will at 
his first attempt to chase or worry them give him a lesson 
that he will never forget. Upon the occasion of his first in- 
troduction to them, do not allow him to mistrust that you 
have planned the interview, but let him accidentally come 
upon them while at play ; he may not chase, but the chances 
are that he will make a rush for them. Do not stir, but 
calmly say, To ho, and leave the rest to the old hen. 
Should he hear you and stop, you must caress and praiee 
him. Should he "point" them, do not encmrage, neither 
must you prevent him, but take no notice of it, for 
should he find that it was pleasing to you he might form 
habits that would not always prove satisfactory. On the 
other hand, should you discourage him he would perhaps 
think it was wrong to point, so that the best way is to 
leave him alone, and ltt him point to his heart's content, 
thankful that he has the instinct, and content to patiently 
await the proper time to so direct this wonderful gift that 
its display shall minister to your pleasure and afford you 
abuLdant enjoyment. 

There is one other point to which we wish to call your 
attention while we are upon the subject. If you have 
hunted much you have undoubtedly seen dogs that would 
point labbits and perhaps chase them. Now, that our pupil 
may not be guilty of such indiscretion, when old enough 
to take the field, we will proceed to so train him that he will 
never pay them the slightest attention. We always obtain, 
if possible, a pair or more of our common wild rabbits ; if 
these cannot be had the tame variety will answer. Then we 
build them a huch alongside the puppy's pen, with a hole 
communicating just large enough for them to pass through, 
that they may visit him at their pleasure and readily escape 
should he be too familiar, and our word for it you never 



POINTING FUR, 11 

need fear that your dog is pointing a rabbit. We once pur- 
chased for a song a magnificent dog, which was entirely 
worthless from this cause. Although he had an excellent 
nose, and was perfectly staunch, he would point every 
rabbit that came in his way, and would l 'draw" on their 
trail, and you could never make sure but he was leading 
you after one of these pests instead of a bird. We took 
him home and placed him in a l^rge yard, with several of 
his bob-tailed friends, and left him to his fate. He pointed 
them steadily all the afternoon, and refused to leave them to 
eat his supper. What he did during the night we cannot 
say, but when we visited him in the morning, although he 
was lying down, he wasftiU staunchly pointing, but appar- 
ently very tired. He did leave them long enough to eat lr's 
breakfast, but as soon as it was down he immediately re- 
sumed his work. This went on for nearly a week before he 
appeared to weaken, and before the cloie of the second 
week he evidently had had enough of it. We then took 
him into the fit Id, taking pains to go where rabbits were 
plenty, but not once did he pay them the slightest attention, 
nor was he ever known to notice them again. For the 
same reason we like to have cats about the house that our 
pup may become well acquainted with them before he com- 
mences hunting. 

We should have mentioned before that the pup should be 
let out of his pen for a good ran, at least twice a day, and 
if he will remain about the house and not stray away, we 
should much prefer to let him run all the time, for the more 
exercise that he gets the better will it be for his strength 
and endurance in the future, and the less he is confined the 
better will it be for his courage and confidence. 

While our pup is yet yourg he should be taught to love the 
sound of the gun. This can be easily accomplished if the 
proper course is pursued. In the fir^t place we take a couple 
of old tin pans, and while his attention is attracted by 
something that interests him we strike them together, lightly 
at first ; and if he appears to be afraid we are very careful not 
to add to his fright by a repetition of the noise anywhere 



12 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

near him, but take the pans to quite a distance from his pen 
and leave them, and wait awhile before trying again. When 
it is time to feed him we go to the pans, and while sounding 
our whist 1 e, as before described, to let him know that we are 
coming, we give a stroke just loud enough for him to hear 
plainly, and at once proceed to his pen and give him his 
feed. By pursuing tbis course for a few days, and gradually 
going a little closer every time, he will become accustomed 
to the sound, and learning that the noise is connected with 
our coming, and also his dinner, he soon gets used to it, and 
in a short time will stand the racket without flnching. When 
he has become so accustomed to the noise that he shows no 
signs of fear at quite a loud crash it is time to try him with 
the gun. In order to do this understand ingly you will re- 
quire an assistant. Let him take the gun loaded with a light 
charge of powder and stand at some little distance— say forty 
or fifty yards away — and be ready at your signal to fire. 
You will now enter his pen, and after he gets a little quiet 
call him to you and put a piece of meat before him and bid 
him To7io, at the same time raising your hand as a signal for 
the gun. Carefully watch him, and should he display any 
sign of fear the experiment must be repeated as with the 
pans. There is no need of your presence only to notice how 
he behaves, and you can dispense with your assistant, unless, 
as will probably be the case, he does not mind the report, 
when the gun can be brought nearer, and you can make 
another trial. Great care must be taken not to frighten him 
with too loud a discharge, nor should it be too close to him, 
until he gets used to it. By paying close attention to him 
when under fire, you can readily tell how far it will do to go, 
and by properly conducting your expsriment you can soon 
teach him to love the sound of the gun, even when fired over 
his head ; indeed we have cured in this way some of the 
worst cases of gun-shyness that we ever saw, Comparatively 
few dogs are gun-shy, and it is with these only that thoss 
precautions are necessary. After your pup has been care- 
fully accustomed to the noise do not lay the gun aside as 
soon as you have accomplished your object, but let him hear 



SOUND OF THE GUN 13 

the sound occasionally until his education is complete, taking 
good care that ths discharge of the gun is at once followed by 
something pleasing to him — his dinner, for instance — or let it 
be a prelude to giving him his lib: rty, thus giving him to un- 
derstand that the noise means something, and soon the noise, 
or even the sight of the gun, will cause him pleasurable emo- 
tions that he will never forget. 



w 



CHAPTER III. 

CHARGE ! 

E will take it for granted that, after a week cr two of 
daily practice, our pupil has so far advanced in his 
education as to be reaonably proficient in his performance 
at To 7io, and we will now take another step and try him 
with something new, and endeavor to teach him ihe meaning 
of the word charge. As this word is in constant use among 
sportsmen the world over, we always teach our dogs its 
meaning; but for our own use we greatly prefer a low 
breathed Sh! It is just as effective and far more quiet, es- 
pecially when you take your dog into company, f jr instead 
of attracting the attention of every one in the room by 
commanding him to charge, you ca i give him this signal, 
and scarcely one even of thoss nea- est you v* ill notice it. 
We have used this for more than twen'y years, and can 
heartily recommend it. Most persons tiain their dogs to 
charge at the upraised hand. We do not quite like this, and 
have never adopted the custom, for it very seldom occurs 
that you wish your dog to dr. p at, any great distance from 
you, but should you from any cause ^ ish your dog to remain 
quiet when he is at a distance, how much better it is to teach 
him to come to a fall stop at the raising cf your hand, and 
remain upon his feet when he can see you and be ready to 
obey your next signal. Even at the discharge of the gun or 
rise of the bird, we greatly [ refer that the dog, instead of 
charging, should instantly step and stand up, where he can 
readily see what i i going on. Thtre are many arguments in 
favor of this course that we will not mention until we get 
further on. 

We will now take our pupil in hand and see if we can 
teach him to "charge." Plac j one band upon his shoulders 
and neck and the other upon his hips, and gently, yet 
firmly, force him to a recumbent position, at the same time 
repeat the word c/carge, prefaced with the low sh—. Do not 



CHARGE! 15 

forget to u^e only your natural t"ne, at the same time the 
word must be spoki n in a decided way that cannot be mis- 
taken for entreaty instead of command. This word must 
not be spoken more than once, and given with a falliDg in- 
flection ; keep him in po-ition un'.il he ceases struggling and 
his muscles relax. After a second or two, if he remains 
quiet, lemove your hands and allow him to get up. By 
using the words " hold up "or " get up " in this connection 
he will soon learn their meaniDg ; but do not do this until he 
appeais to understand what you w nt of him, and on no 
account, no ma'.ter how long the struggle continues, should 
ycu repeat the word, nor let up on him o.e particle, for 
everything depends on first impressions, and as soou. as your 
pupil finds that his struggles to escape avail him nothing, and 
that relentless a^ fate you are bound to conquer and accom- 
plish your purpose, he will at each successive lesson be more 
willing to yield. To this persistent pains' aking acd un- 
wearied perseverance in sticking to our point until our object 
is accomplished do we owe much of our success in training. 

We must again repeat that all this time you must keep 
perfectly cool, and must suffer no sign to escape ycu of anger 
or impatience ; for if you cannot control your temper you 
are not the one to train a dog, and had better resort to the 
breaking process at once. 

Great care should be taken to place the pup in a natural 
position. When you force him down see that his hind legs 
are scmarely under his body and his fore-legs advanced well 
in front, with tbe head resting between or upon th< m, and 
always insist upon this position. 

In the first few lessons it is not necessary to keep him in 
position more than a second or two, but be very careful thit 
he understands tl at you are to be the judg^ of the prop* r 
time when he may get up. As he grows older the time can 
be very gradually extended, according to his disposition. 
Should he bo very nervous and excitable, great care must be 
had that he d es not get heart-broken with unnecessary and 
long continued res'raint. 

Do not expect that he will at ence become perfect in any. 



16 TRAINING vs. B RE A KING. 

thing that you may teach him, but possess your soul in pa- 
tience and allow and encou-age him to act out his puppy 
ways and to play and frolic to.hi3 heart's content, always ex- 
cepting, of course, the few moments that } on devote to his 
lessons. Above all thing •, ca efu^y refrain from anything 
i hat looks like restraint in your ordinary intercourse with 
him, and endeavor to instill into his mind that you are his 
loving f dend, and that nothing suits you better than to see 
him thoroughly enjoy liimself. We have found by experi- 
ence that dogs are very much like men in some respects. 
They both are possessed of a superabundance of steam that 
must have vent somehow, end it is much better to get rid of 
the surplus while your pupil is of too tender an age to work 
any serious harm, than tobott'e it up for escape in thefutuie, 
when added years and knowledge are very pro e t ) turn the 
current into dangerous channels. How much better it is to 
a^low your boy to ch iS'j the gaudy butterfly and to encour- 
age him to renewed efforts and ltt him leara forhim^e f, 
that even if he is successful in securing the object of his de 
sire, that the chase is futile and will not pay for bruised 
and tired limbs and soiled and torn clothes — how much bet- 
ter this than to keep him unwill ng at your side, with his 
young heart almost burs' ing to essay the trial and sowing 
the s^ed that in a few years will ripen and cause him a~, the 
first opportune moment to break, not for butterflies now, 
but in a wild cha-e for forbidden pleasures that the res'rain's 
of hisch'ldhoDd make doubly dear. Do not think t at we 
are moralizing ; we are only illustrating. Therefore, when 
your pupil gives chase to the " butterflies of youth," do not 
check Li n, hut r.ther urge him on, that he may the sooner 
discover the fallacy of th*3 pursuit. In the meantime consob 
yourself with the thought that be is working off his surplus 
steam and will all the sooner settle ('own to the real duties of 
life and do you no discredit by w.ld escapades in his mature 
5 ears. 

There is one thing that we consider of paramount impor- 
tance— our pup must staunchly point when he is from six to 
ten weeks old. If he will not do this naturally and of hi3 



CHARGE! 17 

own free will, quickly dispose of hirn to some one who is not 
so particular, and try again. Although his breeding may be 
of the best and the chances in favor of his pointing in the 
future, still there are so many elements of chance in raising 
up dogs that we should strive to eliminate at least all of the 
doubtful ones. We have yet to see the dog that would make 
a gamy point at ihis tender age who would not fulfill the 
promise in his riper years; while "the woods are full of 
them" that, having passed their youth without displaying 
this, "heaven born gift "still make no sign. It is not 
necessary that he should be tried on game birds -al- 
though this is desirable— but any bird will answer the 
purpose; a fowl or chicken will *b first-rate, or 
almost anything that will attract *his attention so that 
he makes a staunch point. Do not force this upon him, but 
merely give him a chance to discover the bird or chicken 
himself, and if he has this instinct implanted within him you 
may depetd upon his showing it. Many pups who will 
s'aunchly point at this age uny, perhaps, a few weeks or 
months liter, show no sign; give yourself no uneasiness on 
this account, for you know that the instinct is there and, al- 
though it may be dornant f r a while, you can res'; secure 
thai it will return in proper season. 

Do not forget d ;ring all your lessons, and while at play 
with him, to pet and fondle him ; but do not allow him to 
jump upon you at any time. Whenever he does this you 
should at once firmly remove Lim and he will soon learn that 
this will not do. You should also talk to him— not baby 
talk — but use intelligent, rational language, just such as you 
would use in talking to a ten year old boy, and you will be 
surprised to see how soon he will understand your conversa- 
tion. We are well aware that many persons will ridicule 
this, and will claim that a dog should be taught just as little as 
will answer to make him understand his duties while in the 
field, and that what they term " fancy training " is a positive 
injury to his usefu'ness. We have no sympathy with these 
views, for nearly all of the pleasure derived from our shoot- 
ing trips is in witnessing the iutelTgent manner in which our 



18 TRAILING vs. BREAKING. 

pets perform their duties, and well satisfied are we that t • e 
more varied their accomplishments and the more developed 
their reasoning faculties, the more enjoyment will they afford. 
That many writers of renown disagree with us upon this 
point is true ; and formerly, while perusing the finished pro 
duutions of their able pens, we have be?n haunted by linger- 
ing doubts that after all perhaps they were right and that our 
system was open to serious objections ; but after a tramp 
over the stubble or through the covert with these same writ- 
ers, and witnessing the delight with which they g^zed upon 
the performance of our dogs, and listening to the lavish en- 
comiums which t'.ey bestowed upon their good behavior, wc 
have been confirmed in the faith that our system i3 not radi- 
cally wrong, to siy the least. Many sportsmen whom we 
have met in the field insist upon c mgratulating us upon the 
wonderful good luck that we have had in obtaining such in- 
telligent animal3. That they are intelligent is plain to be 
seen ; that they are naturally more so than thousands of 
others we cannot believe, for we have had considerable ex- 
perience wi'h many strains of both pointers and setters. Of 
pointers wo have owned the "gazelle eyed," satin-coated, 
light weight be-ulies, and many of the different s rains and 
crosses up to the lumbering Spaniard; a*:d of seters we have 
cultivated the "wid Irishman," as well as h's more staid 
English and Scotch brothers, together with many animals of 
our grand o d native stock, and Lave ever found them all en- 
dowed with faculties that needed but proper training to 
develop them into intelligent companions as well as first class 
"killing" dogs. 

We will now re 'urn to our pupil, whom we have given 
quite a rest — and continue our lessons, ever remembering th t 
we must "hasten slowly," and not over-burden his youthful 
days with ca-c and sorrow by too fr quent or long continu d 
restraint. Unless he is very dull and stupid, or inclined to 
be refractory, or worse than all, sulky, a vtry short time is 
sufficient to give him all the instruction and practice needed, 
indeed the shorter the time occupied in his lessons at this 
tender age the better, provided you succe.d in obtaining an 
intelligent obedience to your commands. 



CHARGE! 10 

You should be pretty well acquainted with his disposition 
by this time, and be able 1o form an opinion as to whether it 
will pay to keep him or try again. We are very loth to ex- 
pend much time with a dull or stupid one, and a sour or 
sulky disposition we abominate, and dispose of such as soon 
as may be. We are best suited when a pup is full of life 
and shows that he has a will of bis own, We care not if he 
be headstrong, even willful, s > that he is full of life and ac- 
tion, for we have ever found that these high-strung animals 
are not only possessed of great. r intelligence than their les; 
sensitive companions, but as a rule tbey are more killing 
dogs, to say nothing of the greater pleasure that they afford 
by their superior style of going. Should his temperament 
appear to be what you desire, thankfully proceed with your 
pleasurable task. 

You must be careful when you commence his lesson that 
you do not cross him by beginning when he has something 
of importance upon his mind that will distract his attention 
from the business on hand ; if he is busy with a bone, or 
engaged at play or his mind appears to be preoccupied, leave 
him quietly alone until he is disengaged, and then go on with 
the lesson; by pursuing this course you will secure his un- 
divided attention, and not only save time, but much wear 
and tear of your stock of patience, it will be time enough 
to teach him that he must leave his bone or cease his play at 
your command when he is a little older and a little further 
advanced in his educa ion ; at the sa ne time should you un- 
thinkingly order Lim to do anything while he is engaged, 
you must see to it that the order is obeyed at all hazards, for 
it will n< ver do to play fast-and-loose with him, nor to allow 
him to get the idea into his head that he can ever have his 
own way, when you desire the contrary. After you have 
taught him to charge readily without the aii of your hand to 
force him down, you can gradually increase your distance 
from him when you give the order ; and if you are very 
careful to make him instantly obey you, and do not allow him 
to take even a single step after the command is given, he 
will soon obey the order as far as he ca i hear your voice. 



CHAPTER IV. 

THE WHISTLE AGAIN! 

TTTHEN our pupil has become so well established in the 
* * knowledge of what is required of him that he will, 
when at quite a distance from you, instantly stop at the 
signal of the upraised hand and retain his position until given 
permission to move, we will advance him another step, and 
teach him the meaning of that other sound of the whisUe, 
that we have mentioned as being used to attract his atten- 
tion. We always use frr this purpose two very short, quick 
toots, with the second one following the first instantly. As 
the meaning of this signal is entirely different from the one that 
he has become accustomed to, so should the sound be also so 
different that he can never mistake the one from the other, 
n~r for an instant be in doubt as to what is required of him 
when he hears the sound of the whistle. 

As much depends upon first impressions, we will take good 
c^re that we start right, and that we let him hear the first 
sound of this signal at an opportune moment, and as we 
wish to tear h him that this sound is only to attract his at- 
tention, we will be very careful that he is not looking to- 
ward us, but wait until he is at some little distance from us, 
and looking the other way. At the same time care must be 
taken that he is not particularly engaged about anything 
that would tend to dis'ract his mind. At just the right 
time you should sound the signal in a short, sharp, quick way, 
but only loud enough for him to hear distinctly, and he will 
at once look around to learn what this means. At the in- 
stant he casts his eye in your direction, raise your hand as a 
signal for him to To ho. Be very sure that your hand is raised 
at the proper time, for, as we have remarked before, first im- 
presssions are very important, particularly in thisles«on, and 
he should instantly see and obey your signal, thus learning — 
if this course is always pursued — that the two short blasts 
mean no'hing in themselve?, and are only a warning to call 



Ill E ON! 21 

his attention to something of importance that you wish him 
to do. 

You will find it necessary to vary this or he will come to 
associate this signal with your command of To ho, and at 
once stop when he hears it. Now we wish to train him so 
thoroughly in this that, when we come, a little later, to 
teach him to quarter his ground, he wiU not slacken his 
speed at the sound, but merely turn his head in your direc- 
tion, and quick as a flash obey whatever signal you may 
give him ; therefore, when you repeat this lesson, instead of 
raising your hand for him to stop, command him to charge. 
Of course you will see tb at he is near enough to hear you 
plainly. Perhaps it will be as well at the next trial to sound 
the long note as soon as he looks around, and call him in, 
not forgetting to abundantly caress and praise him when he 
performs his task in a pleasing manner. We think it a very 
good plan to always have in our pocket something good for 
him to eat, and when he minds this long note and comes in 
quickly, we reward him with a bit of something substantial 
as well as with fine words. This system of rewards must 
not be carried too far nor practiced too often, but used oc- 
casionally when he performs his duties in a satisfactory 
manner ; especially when he comes in at ihe sound of the 
whistle quickly and cheerfully, a little piece of meat will at 
least have no tendency to slacken his speed when next he 
hears this signal. This instantaneous, almost electric obedi- 
ence and cheerful alacrity is most pleasing to witness, espe- 
cially when hunting in company with others whose dogs 
may not be quite up to the standard in this respect. There- 
fore no pains should be spared to so perfect our pupil in 
this, so that when we come to practical work in the field his 
actions shall cause us no disquiet nor reflect discredit upon 
our skill as his teacher. 

There is one word more that our pupil should early become 
accustomed to, and it wiU be well to introduce its use almost 
at the beginning. This is the word On. You can use this 
word alone or, as many prefer, you can say Go on or Hie on. 
Either or all are well enough, and your pup will learn the 



22 TRAINING vs. BREAKING 

meaning just as quickly even should you indiscriminately 
use all thi\ e, as it is the word on every time, and even if 
you should paraphrase it, as a well known sportsman is in 
the habit of doing, and order you dog to Git on, it will make 
no difference. 

Let us charge you once more to he sure and issue all your 
commands in a decided manner, and always in your ordinary 
tone of voice; and do not fail to deliver each one with a 
falling inflection, for we never yet saw the man who issued 
his orders with a rising inflection but was sadly bothered to 
have them obeyed. By using this word, or any of the above 
variations, when you cluck to him to take his food, he will 
soon understand its meaning if the word instantly follows 
the cluck. Probably he will get the two mixed at first, but 
as you practice him at To 7io, he will soon learn what it means ; 
for as he improves in this and becomes steady, he should be 
taught to point at gradually increased distances, and the 
word On should be U3ed to move him up ; and in a short 
time, if this is properly managed, he will carefully and 
steadily "draw ; ' on a piece of meat for a long distance. 
Great care must be had that you do not confuse him by 
seemingly contradictory orders, for he now thinks that your 
cluck and On mean one and the same thirg, and in order to 
ttach him the diff rence you must omit the cluck when you 
wish him to a Ivance, and omit the On when you wish him to 
eat the morsel before him. This can be readily accompli -hed 
by placing the meat four or five feet from him, and after he 
has pointed it a short time tell him to Go on, and when he 
is close to it make him To Iw once more ; an I then cluck to 
him as a signal that he may have it. We always partially 
omit the On after the cluck, as soon as he appears to under- 
stand its meaning, only using it enough to keep him from for- 
getting it, and as soon as we begin to teach him the diff ere nc 3 
we are very careful not to use either one in place of the 
other, until he has the lesson well learned and appears to 
thoroughly understand both signals, when we can safely mix 
them again ; for oftentimes when shooting we may wish to 
m <ve him on, especially when trailing ruffed grouse when 



COMING TO HEEL. 23 

the capture of the bird depends upon our absolute silence, 
at least so far as words are concerned ; therefore he should 
be taught to advance at the sound of the cluck as well as 
the word On. 

When well accustomed to the restraint of the chain, he 
should be taught to come to heel and quhtly walk by your 
side. We greatly prefer that our dog should keep this p ~si- 
tion with his head j ust opposite our legs, where wc can see him 
without turning around, ins' ead of having him behind us. 
In order to teach him this, quickly and well, you should procure 
a stick, about two feet long and an inch in diameter, and 
fasten a snap at one end of it. This you can easily accom- 
plish with the aid of a bit of leather. Now spring the snap 
into the ring in his collar and take a little walk with him. 
We generally manage a few of these first lessons at his usual 
meal time by placing his dish of food at the proper distance 
before we take him in hand. He should know nothing of 
his dinner until you lead him to it. When all is ready lake 
a firm hold of your end of the stick and walk along at your 
usual gait, coaxing him to follow. Be sure and have the 
stick at the right angle to keep him just where you intend 
to have him go. After one or two steps, and when you have 
got him well under way, you must say Hed to him, and re- 
peat the word once or twic3 as you walk along. You can- 
not expect that his behavior will be entirely faultlesss upon 
the first trial, but no matter how he takes it, lead him 
straight to his dinner and at once unfasten him and let 
him eat. After a few lessons of this kind, he will 
become perfectly reconciled, and you can gradually ex- 
tend your walk and occasionally omit giving his food 
at the end, and he will soon learn to keep his place 
without the aid of the stick. Then you can ex f end 
your walks, taking care to be very gradual in the increase 
of time, and to be very sure that he implicitly obeys you and 
does not leave his place for even so much as a second's time, 
until you bid him go on. If this lesson is thoroughly— now do 
not smile at my frequent ropetition of this word, for it is a 
word that we are very fond of, and one that we wish to 



24 



TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 



thoroughly impress upon your mind as being of the greatest 
importance in perfecting our pupil in his education— if this 
lesson is thoroughly learned, you will be spared much trouble 
and worry in the future. Should you have occasion to walk 
the streets, you will not be obliged to whistle at every turn, 
and perhaps to wait and search for your dog, but you wlil 
know just where he is and what he is doing. Then how 
much better is it, when you come to the practical application 
of the knowledge, which you have been to so much trouble 
to impart, and take your d^g into the field, to have him 
quietly retain his position by your side instead of rushing 
wildly around at his own sweet will, and compelling you to 
shout yourself hoarse and to unstring your nerves in a con- 
tinual struggle to keep him within bounds, thus placing you 
at a double disadvantage, for the continual noise not only 
frightens the bird*, causing them to rise out of shot, but the 
constant worry of mind and strain upon the nerves is a very 
prolific source of unsteadiness in shooting. 

Do not neglect giving your pupil plenty of prac ice at all 
his lessons, as well as the one just commenced ; not weary- 
ing nor long continued practice, but just enough to keep 
him well up to his work. If you have a spare moment give 
him a little turn at To ho, ever aiming at perfection ; and be 
sure to see that he does his work well, and never allow him 
to perform his task in a careless or slovenly manner. You 
should also practice him at Charge, until he will not only 
obey the order readily, but retain his position in a perfec ly 
quiet manner until you shall bid him Hold up. 

He should be made to Chirge when you are out walking 
with him; and taught to remain quiet, while you walk 
around ; and in a short time you can go quite a distance, 
even out of his sight, and he will patiently await your return. 
Your orders should be given at unexpected times, when he 
i3 not looking for them. By this course you wiil teach him 
to be always ready to obey, no matter when nor where he 
may hear the signal. He should also be taught to hold his 
position at To ho, while you walk around and a w ay from 
him ; for it frequently happens, when trailing birds, that you 



STIZANGEJIS. 2~> 

wish to go round to avoid a rnud hole or brier patch, and if 
your dog has been well trained in thi?, by witnessing one in- 
telligent performance of this p easing accomplishment, you 
will be more than repaid for all labor expended in teaching 
it to him. 

Many dogs will pay no attention to strangers, and appear 
to care for no one except their masters. Should your pup 
be inclined to notice others, and give you any trouble in this 
respect, you can very easily teach him better, by having some 
one call the dog to him, and give him a few light cuts with a 
switch ; and by changing your assistant every time, and ad- 
ministerirg two or three doses of this, he will give you no 
futther trouble. If your assistants will fondle him a little 
before administering the switch, the pup will all the sooner 
find out that it is better to have nothing to do with o'he:s 
than yourself, and will not bother you later by running to 
every one who may notice him. 



CHAPTER V. 

QUARTERING. 

WHAT is more pleasing to the eye of the sportsman 
than the evolutions of a well-trained dog as he 
systematically quarters his ground ? With what satisfaction 
and pleasure we gaze upon his graceful motions as with head 
high in air he gallops across the wind, ever turning at the 
signal or the promptings of his own good judgment, and 
crossing just in front covers the whole ground ! Pardonable, 
indeed, is the pride of the sportsman who possesses such an 
animal, for well we know how rare it is to see this per- 
formance in perfection. 

Many dogs seem to possess a sort of instinct for this, and 
without any special training will quarter their ground very 
fairly ; while others appear to have no inherent sense of the 
matter, but will beat straight ahead in whatever direction 
they are started, and neither turn to the right nor left, nor 
stop until they find scent, or are recalled by the whistle. 
Should your pup prove to be of the former class, thank your 
lucky stars for the kindly fortune ; but relax not your efforts 
to so train him that his performance shall be faultless. On 
the other hand, should he display no aptitude for this, do not 
despair, for with proper training he can be taught to acquit 
himself very fairly, so well, in fact, that his performances will 
compare favorably with those of a large majority of other 
dots that he may meet in the fie-d. 

Before commencing his lessons in quartGricg our pupil 
should fully understand the meaning of the word " Oft," and 
readily move forward on hearing it. He will also have ac- 
quired some knowledge of the meanicg of the motion of your 
hand as indicating the direction that you wish him to take 
from the practice that you have given him at " To 7io." For 
when you have thrown the piece of meat for him to point, 
he has noticed that this motion is invariably in the direction 
that he saw the meat thrown, and as he is possessed of 



QUARTERING. 27 

reasoning faculties of no mean order, he has figured it all out 
and has arrived at correct conclusions in the matter, and yon 
will find upon trial that he will readily start in the dirccti m 
you wish him to take at the first wave of your hand. 

AVhile instructing him in this branch of h r s education we 
may as well improve the opportunity to get his head in the 
air where it beloDgs, for when we get in the field with him 
we shall find this accomplishment to be very desirable ; in- 
deed, I always adopt ths plan from the first in his praclice 
at " To ho" unless he is naturally high-headed ; and even then 
it can do no harm. You must be sure that he is well ad- 
vanced in the lessons already taught before you attempt to 
teach him this. Then when he is very huDgry take him into 
a large yard, or still better into some open field where you 
will be free from interruption by any one, and having pro- 
vided yourself with two kinds of meat (as mentioned in his 
first lesson at " To ho") and also wi h two or three sticks 
about two feet long and as thick a3 your finger and sharpened 
at each end, you are ready to commence operations. You 
should always enter the field from the leeward side as in 
actual hunting ; and after making your pupil cha-ge, you 
Will walk away from him about twenty yards. Do 
not go direc ly up wind but diagonally acro:S ; thus, 
if the wind is west you will go to the northwest or south- 
west, as you may prefer; and after impaling a piecj 
of meat upon the end of one of the sticks, set the other 
end in the ground just firm enough to remain in position. 
I think that it is better to set it in a bunch of grass or low 
bushes, that it may be hid from his sight, as it is time to 
teach him that he must depend upon his nose. If there arc 
no bushes handy you can easily carry with you a few leafy 
twigs, or if in winter a few pine boughs, and stick down 
one or two in front to hide it from view. In this way place 
one or two more pieces at some little distance from the firs': 
one and a^so from each other, taking care to put them so 
that you can work up wind toward them, and be sure that 
you do not forget their location. 

Now return to your pupil and praise and pet him for his 



28 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

good behavior in remaining quiet, and reward him with a bi; of 
the same kind of meat that is on the stick. After he Lr.s eaten 
it, and is intently watching for more, take another piece of 
the same kind and let him smell of it ; and then make be- 
lieve throw it in the direction that you wish him to go, which 
should be at an angle from the meat upon the stick ; thus, if 
the stick is northwest from you, make the motion toward 
the north, which will take him across the wind and also bring 
him nt ar enough to the meat to smell it when he gets opposite it. 
Carefully watch him and the very instant that he strikes the 
scent you must make him To 7io; then walk up to him and 
praise and pat him, but make him hold his position while 
you advance and pick up the stick and take the meat there- 
from and put it in your pocket, taking good care that he Lai 
a good view of the whole performance. Now abundantly 
reward him with praise and give him a piece of the other 
kind of meat to eat. 

After a few moments' rest you can proceed to look for 
the next piece in the same manner, and if he shows no sign 
of weariness you can continue to the third. Beyond this I 
do not think it advisable to go at the fir:t lesion, nor even so 
far if he shows the least sign of having had enough of it. 
Indeed, in all his lessons and practice it is much better to stop 
far short of satiety than to weary and perhaps disgust him 
with too lorg continued application. Your own good judg- 
ment will generally tell you when to stop, and you will find 
that five minutes', or even one minute's practice, that leaves 
your pupil in a happy frame of mind induced by the bestowal 
of ycur well merited praise i^ much better than an hour's 
that finds you both f3gged out and disheartened by the fail- 
ure to accomplish satisfactory results. We have learned by 
experience tbat the shorter the tims devoted to his lessen^ 
the better, provided that he is prdctloed erery day, several 
times if you like, and a satisfactory performance of his task 
obtained. 

After a few lessons of this kind, if he goes through the per- 
formance in a satisfactory manner, you can venture a little 
further and try him with a turn by making the motion in the 



QUAltTEUINO. 29 

wrciig direction. Be very easy and go careful now, for much 
depends upon startirg ri^hf. When all is ready wave your 
hand in just the opposite direction from the one that you 
have been accustomed to, and when he has taken two or 
three sti ides, sound the two short notes with your whistle, 
and at the instant he turns his head toward you, wave your 
hand in the other direction and proceed as in former lessons. 
Should he be loth to turn, you must use good judgment and 
get him used to it without getting him discouraged ; per- 
haps by making him To Jio when he refuses to turn, and then 
serding him in the new direction you will get safely over the 
difficulty. But it is seldom that you will have any trouble 
if you have puisued a proper course in his earlier lessons and 
thoroughly instilled into his mind that he must obey. We 
have been often surprised lo eee how readily our pup would 
at the first trial turn and take tbe direction indicated, th- 8 
showing that our efforts to make him feel confidence in us 
and that he could implicitly trust us, were crowned with 
success, and t h at instinctively as it were he oheye d the motion 
of our hand, although thinking that tlie meat was in the 
opposite direciion. 

After you once get this first turn accomplished the rest is 
comparatively easy, but do not hurry him as nothing is 
gained, and much may be lost by undue haste ; and you will 
find that if you drill him in this until he is reasonably per- 
fect before going any further, that when you come to try 
him with the second turn, he will all the more readily com- 
prehend and obey. If at the successive steps in these lessons 
you are through with each one before attempting the next, 
you are sure to find your reward for your patient labor in the 
great satisfaction that you will experience when you cast him 
loose among the birds and witnes3 the practical illustration 
of your wisdom and success as a teacher that he will be sure 
to afford you. 

It is better to confine his beat to quite narrow limits at first, 
as this will keep him near you and make it easier for you to 
check him at once, should his performance Le faulty. Three 
or four strides will generally be found sufficient, and in some 



30 TRAINING m. BREAKING. 

case-] even less will be found enough, and occasionally we 
may have a pupil whose natural attitude for this may be in- 
dulged from the first and a s'ili wider range allowed him; 
but in either case the range shou-d be circumscribed until he 
appears to understand what is required, and to readily and 
cheerfully obey your signals and the different motions of 
your hand. This very important accomplishment cannot be 
taught in a week or a month, indeed you will do very well if 
you succeed in obtaining fair work out of him in a year ; not 
but long before this time he will beat his ground in a warmer 
that will cause even old sportsmen to pronounce him a prod- 
igy, but as we are striving for perfection, we will not be 
satisfied with a mediocre performance, but continue persever- 
ingly to practice our pupil until he will not only regularly 
quarter his ground in front of us and instantly obey each 
signal, but will wheel of his own accord when he reaches a 
a proper distance or com-?s to fence, hedge, or stream that he 
should not cross. This knowledge that he must not cross a 
fence or hedge without orders is 01 great importance and 
easily imparted by working him along a fence after he has 
learned to beat his ground and turn at the signal. He will, 
after a few lessons, understand what you desire and readily 
keep within bounds. Should he at any time transgress and 
go through or over the fence, care must be taken that he re- 
turns at once, and at the precise spot where he went through. 
This is of great importance, for if he is allowed to return at 
any other point the chances are that he will fail to realize that 
he has done wrong ; but if you insist on his returning at the 
exact place, he will at once understand that something is 
wrong and will be more careful in the future. 

While our pup is yet young he should become accustomed 
to the water ; most young dogs will take to it readily ; but 
should he appear to have any fear of it he must be handled 
with care and gradually made acquainted with it in such a 
manner as shall not frighten him. When he has acquired 
some little knowledge and you begin to take him out for a 
walk witli you, you should visit with him some small stream 
or shallow pond and sit down on the bank and give him time 



QUARTERING 31 

to get acquainted with it. If he shows no inclination to wet 
his feet you will find it a very good plan to hold a piece of 
meat over the water where it is but an inch or two deep, and 
where he cannot get it without putting his feet in it. By 
carefully working him in this way he will soon learn that it 
will not hurt him ; and in a short time he will fearlessly 
wade across the shallow stream with you and soon, if the 
right course is pursued, he will venture anywhere. You 
should never throw him in no matter how much you may feel 
disposed to do so, but rather let him find out for himself that 
water will not hurt him, and he will soon lose all fear. 



CHAPTER VI. 

KETKIEVING. 

EETRIEVING is an accomplishment that nearly ail sports- 
men place a high value upoD, and even its opponents gen- 
erally become quick converts to the practice as sxmasthey are 
fortunate enough to own a dog that is well-trained in this 
almost indispensable branch of canine education. We have 
often been amused at the sudden change in the mind of 
some of these out-spoken adversaries of the practice upon 
their acquisition of a really good retriever. How quickly their 
fears that it will make him unsteady vanish ; how soon their 
oeUef that it will ruin his nose takes flight, and henceforth 
the system has no stronger advocate until they get another 
worthless animal. We do cot propose to argue the question 
here as to whether retrieving is detrimental to the dog or 
not, but will, iustead, state that it is our firm belief that if 
our dog is properly trained in the first place, and kept up to 
his work as he should be, no possible harm can accrue either 
to his nose or steadiness; and that in no single instance 
where evil results have ensued was it the fault of the practice 
or the dog, but entirely the fault of the man ; for the dog is 
ccrtamly not to blame for breaking shot and chasing the 
wing broken bird when his master sets the example. Neither 
should he be blamed for repeating the indiscretion. Here we 
can see that the check cord and spiked collar could be used 
to very great advantage, but we should by no means test its 
efficacy upon the neck of the dumb animal. 

We will now resume our lessons, reserving further remarks 
upon this very important subject until we come to actual 
work in the field. We do not think it advisable to commence 
teaching our pup to retrieve until he has shed his puppy 
teeth, and his permanent set are pretty well grown ; for until 
this time his mouth is generally more or less inflamed, and 
his first teeth are sharp as needles ; and we may not hope to 



liETlUEVlAC,. 33 

succeed in achieving that dainty, delicate mouth— that is so 
indispensable to the good retriever — as certainly as we shall 
if we wait until his gums are hardened and he has become 
somewhat accus'omed to his new teeth. He will also have 
acquired all tLe more expei ience with the added days, and 
will all the more readily understand what you require. Wf> 
shell now derive no little benefit from our so-called " fancy 
{raining." In fact, should our pupil possess no natural taste 
for retrieving, we shall find it almost indispensable ; and 
should he prove never so hard-headed and never so tnrd- 
mouthed, we may rest assured that with the help of this 
same fancy training we shall be able to bring him safely 
through, and that no doubting fears will disturb our mind 
when we send him for his first bird. 

Our pupil should be well up in all his lessons by this time, 
and so perfect at To ho that he will not only " draw" on a 
piece of meat one step at a time, but he must be also so well 
trained that when you cluck to him as a signal that he may 
eat it, he will, after taking it in his mouth instantly, at your 
command of To ho, hold it perfectly still and deliver it into 
your hand without any hesitancy. If this has been thoroughly 
taught him, one-half your task in teaching him to retrieve 
is accomplished, and you will find it an easy matter to com- 
plete his education ; for you will have no trouble in inducing 
him to take a single step toward you when he has the piece 
of meat in his mouth ; and by using great care that you do 
not tax his patience too much by an undue haste to perfect 
him too soon, he will, in a short time, readily take two or 
three steps, and with proper care and good judgment on your 
part he will soon learn to readily bring you the smallest bit 
of meat from across the yard, and to deliver it into your hand 
intact. 

\\ e must again caution you to go very slow, and to be 
satisfied with a very little progress. In this lesson especial 
care murt be had that each succesive step is well and 
thoroughly learned before proceeding any further. Thus, when 
you have succeeded in getting him to take a step or two 
toward you, do not try him at a longer distance until he has 



34 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

had considerable prac'ice at this, and will readily come iLe 
step or two at the word '* bring; " or you can use the word 
"fetch " if you prefer, but do not use more than one of them, 
at least until your pupil is further advanced. Of course 
you will have taught him to ome to you when called, long 
before this, and by prefacing your call with the word bring, 
or fetch, it will not be long before he will understand its 
meaning ; but until he does understand it and comes readily 
at, the word you should not increase the distance. 

There is a great difference in dogs in learning this ; some 
of them will give you scarcely any trouble and from the first 
appear to know just what you want and take delight in 
bringing my thing you may throw for them; while others 
seem to b3 stupid and will never bring anything of their own 
accord. The first is a natural retriever and will be easily 
taught, and also easily spoiled. The last, although harder to 
teach, will make nearly as good a retriever as the former if 
the proper course is pursued. We very much dislike that a 
pup should retrieve before his mouth is all right and his per- 
manent teeth well grown ; for this propensity, if indulged 
before this time is very apt to give you a hard-mouthed dog. 
Hence, for this reason, we never encourage a pup to bring 
anything while at play. In fact he should never for a 
moment be allowed to think that he i3 ^c play while under 
instruction in any of his lessons, for there is nothing that is 
so conducive to bad behavior and disobedience as this. 
Therefore, make him realize that when you require him to do 
anything you mean work and not play. 

Do not forget that he must never be allowed to eat the 
piece of meat that he has held in his mouth or brought to 
you, but that he must be rewarded with something different. 
This is a very important point, and you will find it very use- 
ful in perfecting th? delicate mouth that we all admire so 
much. You must also insist upon instant obedience to your 
command to drop. This can be obtained at the outset by 
practice with your hand, clasping his muzzle as we have be- 
fore described, and this must be resorted to should he show 
the slightest inclination to hesitate or roll the morsel around 



BETMEVINQ. 35 

•q his mouth ; for we are aiming at perfection and nrist be 
satisfied with nothiog short. 

When our pupil has become sd proficient in th's that he 
will pick up a piece of meat and bring it a few steps and de- 
liver it safe into your hand, you should take a piece of clo;h 
and loosely wrap up the meat inside of it, and commence as 
in the first place by putting it in his mouth and proceeding as 
in your first lesson at this. He will probacy understand 
what is required and very soon perform as well with this as 
he did with the bare meat ; but should he not like this, you 
must proceed with the same painstaking perseverance that 
we have endeavored t ) impress upon your mind as being of 
the utmost importance, until your end is attained. You will 
find that a piece of old cotton cloth that is clean and about as 
large as your two hands will answer admirably. You should 
let him see you wrap it around the meat, that he may the 
more readily understand your object, and if he gives you any 
trouble you must be very careful that you do not try to force 
him too fast. Perhap3 you will find it expedient to leave the 
meat partially exposed until he understands what is wanted. 
Or you can merely tie a shred of the cloth to it for a while, 
and very gradually increase the amount until you have it en- 
tirely covered. Your knowledge of his disposition will aid 
your judgment in so timing his lessons and in so conducting 
any new experiments that he shall not become disgusted nor 
sulky, thus givicg you no end of trouble. Your aim should 
be to so handle him that his lessons shall prove a source of 
enjoyment, and he be ever anxious to receive your instruc- 
tions. This you can easily accomplish by a proper system of 
rewards when he does well, and by lavishing upon him un- 
stinted caresses and praise when giving his lessons. To 
bring about this result you may find it advantageous to be 
charry of your caresses at other times and to reserve your 
words of praise for your hours of practice : but this will be 
necessary only in extreme cases. 

When our dog brings in his birds in the faultless manner 
that we have been at so much trouble to teach him, we shall 
want to see him deliver them into our hand in the same fault- 



36 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

less style. And to secure that end ve will teach him to come 
with his captive directly in front of us and to sit on his 
haunches with his head well up and quietly await our 
pleasure. Proceed to do this by calling h ; ni up in front of 
you, and placing one hand upon his hipsandthe other under 
his chin, gently, yet firmly, force his hind parts down while 
you hold up his head, at the same time telling him to " sit." 
This will be enough for the first lesson, and by continuing 
in this manner he will soon sit at the word, and then you 
can give him the order every time that he brings the piece of 
meat, taking care that he sits directly in front of you every 
time and remains quiet for a second or two before delivering 
it ; and in a short time he will become so accustomed to this 
that he will do it of his own accord. We prefer that our 
dog should bring his birds in the good old-fashioned way, by 
taking them well into his mou'h. This becomes a necessity 
when the bird is only wing-broken, and to our mind it is far 
more preferable at all times. Especially is it so when among 
close lying birds ; for with the bird in his mouth, back away 
from his nose, he will not be nearly so apt to flush game that 
may be in his path. Still we have trained dogs to fetch the 
bird by one wing, which is easily done by taking half a 
dozen of the stiff wiug feathers of any game bird, or if those 
cannot be had, those of a fowl will answer. These should 
be braded together and then sewed in p'.a33 with stout pack 
thread. T his braiding and sewing is to give him a Irkl 
with his teeth so that he will not be obliged to grip them, thus 
giving him a hard mouth. This should be regularly used 
after he has learned to bring his piece of meat. Perhaps it 
would be well to tie a bit of meat to it at first, and, when he 
will bring it readily, a small stone that will weigh two or 
three ounces should be attached to it, and as he improves 
you can gradually add to the we ; ght until it approaches the 
weight of the bird, say nearly half pound. Care should ba 
taken to make the feathers fast to the stone so that they will 
not come apart. We do not recommend this style, but as 
many think that it is quite an accomplishment, we give our 
method, which has proved successful. Should you wish to 



RETRIEVING. 37 

adopt th's coiirs-j you should confine your practice entirely 
to this bunch of feathers, and when he brings it readily you 
should vary the performance by attaching different ar- 
ticles instead of the stone— your knife, for instance, or a 
bunch of keys or a bit of wood, and by always making him 
bring by taking the feathers in his mouth, he will readily 
learn to bring his birds in the same manner if you show him 
how with a few of his first ones by placing the wing in his 
mouth, or perhaps the mere showing him the wing will be 
sufficient. 

Should you decide for the old-fashioned way, you should 
procure a soft ball. We have found a ball of lampwicking 
to be the best possible thing that could be devised— it is soft 
and just about the right size. Th's shou'd be stitched 
through and through, so that it will not unravel, and after 
he brings his bit of meat in good shape you can try him wiih 
this. You will find that the best plan to pursue is to com- 
mence at the beginning, and place it in his mouth as you did 
the first piece of meat, and to pursue the same course by 
asking only one or two steps, until he gets accu-tomed to it. 
And be sure and do not try to accomplish too much at once, 
but go no faster t' an your pupil's progress will warrant. 
When you think that it will answer to order him to pick it 
up and bring it to you, watch him very closely, and if there 
is going to be any troubls, and he does not seem inclined to 
pick it up readily, you must instantly go to him and place it 
in his mouth, and be content to let him brirg it this way for 
this time, and wait until he is very hungry, and then try 
him by tying a piece of meat to the ball, and he will soon 
li arn what is required tnd give no further trou' le. When he 
brings his ball re dily, you should procure some feathers— 
from the body of a game bird if possible, but those of a 
fowl will do very wel!— and cemmence by sewirg two cr 
three of them en the ball; and as he becomes accustomed to 
them you should add more uatil the surface is entirely 
covered. This will accustom him to feathers, and he will 
not refuse to take a bird in his mouth as we have known 
some dogs to do that were really good retrievers. We should 



38 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

not advise you to require your pupil to bring anything 
except bits of meat and this ball ; until he does this in gocd 
form and appears to fully understand what you require. 
Then you should gradually accustom him to bring other 
articles — a half sheet of newspaper crumpled into a bail 
the s"ze of your fist is a good thing to practice him on, 
always remembering to commence with anything new, by 
first carefully placing it in his mouth and requiring him to 
bring it but a step or two the first time. This may seem 
needless to you, but you will find it necessary with some 
dogs, and wc have evr r found that the best results have been 
obtained by strictly following this course, no matter how in- 
telligent our pupil may be, nor how willing to bring anyming 
that you may wish him to* 



CHAPTER VI.— Continued. 

RETRIEVING. 

SHOULD you desire that your dog become proficient in 
the fancy department of this accomplishment, there is no 
end to the tricks that you may teach him ; but until he is 
fairly proficient in bringing his bit of meat and bill, you 
should confine your prac ice stric!ly to these; for although 
he may understand you and readily bring anything that you 
may ask him to, you will find it the better way to go slow 
and sure, ever bearing in mind that anything that is worth 
your while to teach him, should be taught ia a thorough 
manner, that he may not forget it should it happen that he 
should go a few days without being call. d upon to perform 
it. 

We like our dog to carry, as well a9 to fete 11 , and deliver 
his bird to our companion who has shot it ; acd we wish him 
so well trained that he will carry any article and lay it down 
at the word ' 'drop'' in any place that we may designate. 
This he may be taught to do understanding^ if you pursue 
the proper course with him. To teach him this, you will re- 
quire an assistant, who should be one of vour own family, cr 
some one that the dog is well acquainted wi h. When you 
give the first lesson, your assistant should be a few feet from 
ycu. Calling your pupil to you, give him his ball and bid 
him "carry" it, at the same time motioning with your hand 
in 1he dircdicn that he is to go. Your assistant should not 
say a word, but should merely hold out his hand for the ball, 
and when the dog delivers it, i: e should praise and pet him a 
little, while you should make make much of him, and if he 
has performed the task in a pleasing manner, reward him 
with a bit of meat. After a few lessons of this kind, the dis- 
tance can be gradually increased and he will soon carry as 
far as he can see your assistant. If there is any difficulty in 
getting him started right, let your assistant take the ball and 



40 TRAINING vt. BREAKING. 

send him to you, until he understands what is wanted, which 
he will do after a few lessons. Of course, you have told him 
to "drop" every time that he delivers a ythingtoyou, and as 
he knows the meaning of the word, it will be an easy task to 
teach him to lay down his ball or bit of meat in any place 
that you may wish him to. In order that he may learn to 
do this in a proper manner and readily drop his burden at 
the word, and instantly leave it without regret and come to 
you, we will commence at the beginning and give him tin 
ord( r for the first time when he is close to us, and with our 
hand extended as if to take it. As soon as he opens his 
mouth the hand should be instantly removed and the article 
allowed to drop en the ground. At once praise and pet him 
and give him to understand that this i3 all right. On no ac- 
count must you pick up the article or he may be led to think 
that he should have" delivered it into your hand as usual, nor 
should you allow him to pick it up, but a 1 ; once cali him 
away and interest him with something else. This will be 
enough for the first lesson. This should be repeated until 
he appears to understand what is required, before you at- 
tempt to increase the distance. Your pupil must be made 
to understand that when he he irs the order to drop he must 
instantly lose his hold, and leaving the article, at once obey 
whatever signal you may give him. You should so teach 
him that when coming in with anything that you have or- 
dered him to bring he will at the word drop it and wheel at 
the motion of the hand in any direction that you may indi- 
cate. You will derive no little benefit from this accom- 
plishment should you ever get in a "hot corner " on a duck 
pass, and not only save yours?lf much worry, but also spare 
your dog much labor, by bidding him drop his dead bird and 
first secure the wounded one, which may make good its es- 
cape unless attended to at once. The same thing often oc- 
curs in quail shooting, and many birds a r e lost that might be 
brought to bag, did your d >g but understand this fancy 
training. 

The careful reader will readily understand that our so- 
called " fancy training" is in reality not s 3 useless as some 



RETRIEVING. 41 

would-be critics would have us believe ; but is a pa r t of our 
system -whereby we uot only bring out our pupil a "killing" 
dog but we make of him an intelligent companion andelevate 
him to our own sphere, as it were, and by the wonderful de- 
velopment of his reasoning faculties we not only greatly in- 
crease his capacity for intelligently entering into the enjoy- 
ment of the ever changing phases of our woodland sports, but 
we greatly add to our own pleasure in witnessing the mar- 
velous manifestations of reason and intelligence that he will 
display in his encounters with some wary patriarch of the 
forest, whose tricks and subterfuges will outvie the wily 
strategems of a Tallyrrnd. 

There are many things that you can readily teach your 
pupil after you once get him fairly started on the road, for 
the more you teach him and the mere pains you take with 
him the more readily will he understand what you wish. 
You must use great caution when you begin teaching him to 
bring anything that is new to him ; and be very sure that he 
will understand your orders before you issue them. This 
point is worthy your careful consideration and you should 
strive to make yourself perfectly understood at all times. 
This you can easily do by c'osely watching his disposition 
and the workings of his mind as he performs his tasks. ISome 
dogs are possessed of remarkable reasoning faculties and ap- 
pear intuitively to understand j ust what you wish, while others 
are slow to learn and require more time to develop their 
latent powers. From personal experience we are well satis- 
fied that the former requires to the full as much painstaking, 
-careful handling as the latter in order to perfect his educa- 
tion, and make of him a steady, reliable dog. Therefore, un- 
less you wish to see exemplified the truth of the old saying 
"quick L arned, quick forgotten," go slow, and be very sure 
that every step in etch lesson is well 1 arned before yon 
advance any further. You should never ask your dog to 
Iring anythingthat will tax his powers too severely, especially 
should this rule be observed until his education is complete. 
Your judgment will tell you better than to bid him bring 
the crowbar or a piece of custard pie ; you should likewise 



42 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

refrain from asking him to bring you anything that is hard 
or bulky, at least until he has arrived at miturity and is well 
established in all his lessons. Many good retrievers are 
ruined by allowing them to bring articles that they are 
obliged to grasp hard in order to hold on to. For this reason 
we never allow our dog to bring our knife nor anything of the 
kind, for just so sure as this is allowed just so sure will the 
dog acquire the habit of pinching his birds. 

We once own? d one of the best retrievers that we ever 
saw. In an evil hour we bade him carry into the house 
the earthen plate from wh : ch he had eaten his dinner. 
After this it became the regular thing for him to do at every 
meal, but alas that dainty, delicate mouth, which had been 
our pride and boast, was gone forever, and after this every bird 
that he brought that was not stone dead, would show the 
marks of his teeth. We are w^ell aware that there is a great 
difference in dogs in this respect, and that we occasionally 
see one that will bring anything that he can drag along and 
at the same time he will hardly ruffle a feather of a strug- 
gling bird ; but for fear that you may not possess such a para- 
gon we advise you to be very careful about trying any ex- 
periments that may ruin your dog, especially when there is 
no practical benefit to be derived that is at all commensurate 
with the risk that you run. Your hat and gloves and slip- 
pers, you can safely allow him to bring you, and it will take 
but little time to teach him this if you carefully follow the 
instructions that we have given. You can even teach him 
by constant practice to distinguish between them so that 
when you send him for either one he will make no mistake, 
but, understanding your order, bring the article you v^i;h. 
In order to teach him this you should first accustom him to 
bring each article and at the same time to take pains to teach 
him its name. Take, for instance, your hat, and after plac- 
ing it in his mouth, bid him "bring the hat," and be sure 
to use the same language every time that you practice him 
at this. The same course should be pursued with the gloves 
or any other article that you may wish. After he has had 
practice enough to bring readily the article des'red you can 



RETRIEVING. 43 

place several articles close together. Put your hat and gloves 
with his baH and other light articles, then order him to bring 
the hat, should he pick it up at the fiist trial, as he is very- 
likely to do, you must praise and pet him, and as you talk 
to him you should speak the word "hat "in order to im- 
press upon his memory the meaning of the word. Th's 
should be done in an intelligent manner, perhaps by saying 
he " is a good dog to bring the hat," just as you would talk 
to a boy. Should he pick up his ball, or any other article, 
at once tell him to i'drop," and repeat the order for the hat 
and do not allow him to bring you anything els?. After he 
brings the hat readily every time, you can change to some- 
thing else, your gloves for instance; but until he has learned 
the meaning of the words and brings the articles readily, do 
not place the hat near them, nor where he can see it, as it 
may confuse him. When he has become accustomed to the 
gloves you can place the hat with them and he will soon un- 
derstand which to bring. This course should be pursued 
with each article, and in a short time he will understand the 
meaning of the words ; and when you send him lor any ar- 
ticle that you have thus taught him the name of, he will 
seldom make a mistake. While teaching your pupil to re- 
trive, you should never allow yourself to become careless- 
nor let him do this work in a slovenly manner. Always in- 
sist upon a perfect performance of his task, f^r if he is once 
allowed to depart from the accustomed manner that you have 
taught bim he is sure to get the impression that this is right 
and pleasing to you, and you will have a harder task to set 
him right than you would to have kept him straight 
in the first place ; and worse than this, he will be 
be very liable to become confused and fail to understand 
just what you want; therefore, firmly insist upon implicit 
obedience to your ordesr, and never allow yourself to deviate 
one iota from the course that you have marked out. 

We have ever found that all intelligent dogs are very prone 
to look to their masters f _r guidance and instinctively to 
take their cue from them as to their behavior. You should 
take every advantage of this trait, and by cool and collected 



44 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

behavior, under all circumstances, strive to impart to youi 
pupil a steadiness that will ever be to you a source of pride. 

This trait is especially to be cultivated when trying to 
make a careful, tender-mouthed retriever. You should 
always handle with Ibe greatest care any article that you are 
teaching him to bring. There appears to be something in 
the careful manner in which you handle the object that is 
potent to impress upon his mind a corresponding carefulness 
in taking hold ( f it that is FOt apparent when V.ne object is 
roughly thrown upon the ground ; and we have frequently 
taken pains to go, and with ostentatious care lay the article 
down instead of throwing it, and have in this way succeeded 
in obtaining the best of results, especially when our dog was 
a little inclined to be rough or hard-mouthed. 

There is one rule that we have carefully observed for many 
years, and we can assure you that it is well worthy your con- 
sideration. We never allow a pup to retrieve a bird his fir3t 
season, until we have first handled it, and found that it was 
stone dead. You should allow him to point it for a short 
time and then daintily pick it up ; and, after smoothing out 
the feathers very carefully, lay it down in front of him, 
taking care that he can see your every motion. Now retread 
a few steps and very quietly bid him " bring dead ." By 
pursuing this course you will improve, not only his mouth, 
but his steadiness as well ; and also give him a chance to be- 
came acquainted with the difference in the scent between a 
live and a dead bird; and so render him less liable to make a 
mistake by pouncing upon a close-lying bird that chances to 
be near where he has marked the dead bird down. 

Having intimated in the first chapter that we are in favor 
of using the whip wlien it is needed, we will biiefly explain. 
As we have before suted we never use the whip until our 
pupil's education is complete, and there is no occasion to re- 
sort to it even then, unless our orders are willfully disobeyed. 
When we find that our pupil is willful, and deliberately re- 
fuses to perform his task, we seek occasion to give him a 
lesson that he will never forget. We are very careful to 
select an occasion for punishment when the order disobeyed 



IiETBIE VING. 45 

iscf a passive character, like To ho or Charge, as better re- 
sults are obtained than when the command is of an active 
nature. Provided with a heavy whip, we take the oppor- 
tunity when our pupil is very much engaged about something 
that will be pretty sure to cause him to disobey, and give 
him the order to Charge. If we are positive that lie plainly 
understands and willfully refuses to obey, we instantly take 
him by the collar in such a manner that he cannot bite nor 
breakaway, and repeating the order, strike him once with 
all our foice. Retaining our hold, we calmly wait without 
speaking, long enough to slowly count ten. We then repeat 
the order and blow simultaneously. This we continue until 
our judgment tells us that he has had enough. You may 
depend upon it that a dozen blows thus administered will ac- 
complsh more in the way of reform than a hundrtd 
thrashings as generally inflicted, for your pupil not only 
knows why he is punished, but he has plenty of time between 
the strokes to reason it aU out, and he will surely come to the 
conclusion that you really want him to charge when you give 
the order ; and that the best thing that he can do is to in- 
stantly obey. Un'ess he is uncommonly stubborn you will 
fiiid that one or two such whipping? will last Lim his lifetime. 
Tou must be very careful to issue your commands in your 
ordinary tone of voice ; and on no account must you display 
the least sign of aoger or impa'ience ; and as soon as you are 
through with the punishment you must s;eak a few kindly 
words to him in order to let him understand that you are 
still his loving friend. As soon as he recovers a little, you 
should repeat your order, while he will at once obey, when 
you must pet and praise him without stint, thus indellibly 
impressing upon his mind that the way of the canine trans- 
gressor is hard and that obedience will bring a sure reward. 
We very much dislike to punish a dog ; but if this has to be 
done, we greatly prefer that the lesson should be given befrre 
we take him into the field, as the knowledge thus imparted 
may prevent the necessity of resorting to this extreme when 
among the biro's. 



CHAPTER VIL 

IN THE FISLD. 

IN the preceding chap'ers all of our work has been of a prc- 
•*- liminary character. Vv r e have expended much time and 
patience in order to perfect our pupil in the rudiments of the 
education that is so indispensable to that pride of the sports- 
man's heart, a good dog. Long ago we thought our pet was 
just about perfection in the performance of his duties and 
have anxi( usly awaited the coming of the crisp October days 
that we might pat to the test our hopes, and, by actual trial 
in the field, demonstrate how much of wisdom pertains to 
the course that we have pursued. Do we live amon^ the 
forest -crowned hills, the home of the lordly ruff d grouse ; 
long ago we have located several broods of these regal bird?, 
and as we have piid them an occasional visit, how our blood 
has warmed up, how our nerves have thrilled as we fondly 
dreamed of the sp^rt in etore for us when the falling kaf 
should proclaim that 

The hunter's glorious days have come, 

The best of all the year ; 
When through the woodland shades we roam 

With royal sport to cheer. 

Should our home be toward the setting sun on the broad 
prairie, whose vast expanse teems with numberless broods of 
the toothsome chicken, with ever-growing delight and satis- 
fjetien have we winessed from day to day the added 
strength of the whirring pinion, and with ever-increasing 
impatience at laggard time's slow flight have we awaited the 
dawn of the auspicious day that brings such weal h of joy to 
the spertsman's heart. Or, perchance, our hopes of happi- 
ness are turning to the pride of the stubbles, the gamy, beauti- 
ful quail. How eagerly have we beaten the feeding grounds, 
and as the merry bevy, with tumultous roar, have bur3t upon 
our sight, how have we, with throbbing pulse, watched the 
flitting wings, and cirefu'ly marked their flight as they 



Ilf THE FIELD. 47 

settled in the friendly cover or upon the distant hillside. 
What visions of lithe bounding forms suddenly transformed 
into living statues, mingled with flashing brown sprites, the 
cr^ek of the gun, and the cloud of fleecy feathers floating in 
air, have filled us with anticipated satisfaction, as we thought 
©f the pleasure in store for us when the early fiosts should 
call us forth to the field. Or do thoughts of that long -billed 
aristocrat of birds, "woodcock the magnificent," alone en- 
gage our thoughts. Well, we know their sure abiding place, 
and as we have paid them our devoir and seen them dart 
through the openings, and heard their querulous whistle, 
how have we thought that the sere and yellow leaf would 
soon be here to bring to us most royal sport. Do not look 
upon this as a digression, for we dearly love the pursuit of 
every one of these favorites; and we hope that you, dear 
reader, like ourseivee, will so train your dog that, no matter 
where your lines are cast, your pleasant sport Is sure. 

Our favorite sport since childhood has been the pursuit of 
that best of all game birds, the magniiicent ruffed grouse, 
and we have ever found, when our dog was anywhere near 
perfect in circumventing this most wily bird, that but few 
days, or perhaps hours, of practice were required to make 
him equally adept In the pursuit ol any of the others. Many 
writers pronounce this beautiful bird unfit to train a dog 
upon ; they rail against his subtle cunning, and are unstinted 
in condemning his swiftness of wing; and they will give you 
columns in disparagement of his preternatural wisdom, 
which they miscall wildness, and earnestly advise you to 
keep your young dog away from the ruffed grouse's haunts. 
Notwithstanding the evident sincerity of these writers, we 
must beg to differ from their views, and can only regret that 
their knowledge of the habits of this king of birds is not 
equal to their skill in framing sentences for his vilification. 

Having decided to give our pupil his first practical lessons 
with this most potent instructor as our co-worker, let us 
" hie away to the fields with eager dog and trusty gun," ana 
test the sport so long anticipated. Our pupil should be kept 
at heel until we reach the usual haunt of the birds, when he 



48 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

should be encouraged to go on. Let him go where he please^ 
taking care only to keep him within bounds and always 
under your eye, that you may see just what he is doing. Do 
not bother him with any orders, if you can possibly avoid it ; 
above all, do not make him beat each particular corner that 
you may think desirable, but rather allow him to take the 
lead and to have his own sweet wiii, content to follow him 
until he has gained some little insight and become some- 
what accustomed to the new life just op nicg before him. 
See with what eager pleasure he explores the h'dJen mys- 
teries of the covert, how his every graceful motion tells of 
joy ; how his sparkling eyes mirror his delight ; but look, 
and proudly feast your eyes upon the welcome sight, he has 
discovered that something is in the wind and the 
" heaven-born instinct " within has frozen him rigid as the 
rock by his side. Choke down that rising lump in your 
throat ; quiet the quick throbbing* of your heart ; and, 
while blessing your good fortune, be cool and collected, for 
never more need of cool, deliberate action than now. Your 
dearest foe is near, and faltering eye or trembling hand will 
insure his triumphant escape and cause you unwelcome dis- 
comfiture. Do not hurry, but, with deliberate haste, walk 
forward and force a rise ; calmly now, and, as though on 
parade and about to shoot at a chip tossed in air, cooly 
bring your gun into position, glance along the trusty bar- 
rels and, with " eye of faith and finger of instinct," "cut 
loose," and fortune grant your aim be true ! The chance s 
are greatly against your obtaining a clo:e shot at the first 
rise, unless among young and unsophisticated birds ; but 
shoot you must, nevertheless, even should the flashing form 
be far beyocd your reach or, as very often happens, entirely 
out of sight, for we have not done with him yet ; and mo fc 
potent is the Bound of gun and whistle of the hurtlicg lead 
to drive from his crafty brain the wisdom that causes him to 
shun our close acquaintance. Should your shot prove deadly 
and the conduct of your dpg be ali that you cou'd wish, with 
a loving pat and kindly words, lead your pet straight to 
your victim and as soon as his sensitive nose locates the 



JJV THE FIELD. 49 

bud, at orce pet and praise him without stint and talk to 
him as to an intelligent companion. After a few seconds 
you should pxk up the bird in a dainty manner, and while 
carefully smoothing out the fea'hers, allow the dog to snuff 
the grateful perfume, but on no account let him mouth it, 
ncr poke his nose among the feathers, thus teaching him 
that the greatest care must be taken that not a feather should 
be displaced. 

When your pup first shows sign that he has scent, do not 
on any account speak to him nor make any sign, but allow 
him to act his own pleasure. Should he go through the try- 
ing ordeai to your satisfaction, congratulate yourself that you 
are possessed of a wonder; should his earnest inclination 
overpower his innate sense of duty and cause him to become 
unsteady and flush the bird, you must at once call him in 
r>nd p'ace him as near as may be in the exact position that he 
occupied when he should have pointed, and commanding 
mm to io-ho, give him to understand that you are displeased 
with tne performance. If you have killed the bird, and can 
readily find it, you will add to the fores of this lesson if you 
oblige him to retain his position while you go and bring it 
to him, and as you hold it a foot or two from his nose, repeat 
your command of to-ho. This, you will find, will cause 
him to be more careful in the future. Should he become 
demoralized at the rise of the bird and give thase, do not 
despair, but calmly say to-h\ ami if he disregards the com- 
mand, let him go, and be thankful that he has ambition, con- 
soling yourself with the knowledge that in a fchort time you 
can eradicate the fault, while the virtue will remain and 
afford you great satisfaction in the future. When he returns 
you should at once replace him in the position from which he 
broke, and make him to-ho for a short time, while you talk 
to him about the enormity of the offence. It is not advis- 
able to shoot when he starts to chase, as, should you kil 1 , he 
may seize the bird and handle it too roughly for his future 
good. Neither does the sound of the gun exercise a stead y- 
ing influence upon his excited nerves. Above all else, do 
not fail to keep perfectly cool yourself under all circumstances, 



50 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

and to issue all your commands in your ordinary tone of 
vuice, f-.r there is nothing so conducive to unsteadiness in 
your dog as his knowledge of the fact that you are demoral- 
ized, and he is sure to become possessed of this knowledge 
almost before it is apparent to you. Therefore earnestly 
strive to retain your self- control, for without that you can 
never succeed in turning out a steady dog. 

Should your bird escape the first onslaught, let no common 
occurrence prevent you from immediately following him up. 
Do not undertake this in a half hearted manner, but put your 
whole soul into the work and rest not until you have again 
routed him. Give him a shot as he rises, and if he again es- 
capes be not discouraged, but with renewed efforts try him 
again, secure in the knowledge that, can you but find and 
keep him moving — although he may be the wisest and, con- 
sequently, the wildest grouse of them all— at last your 
reward is sure; at last, utterly demoralized by the relentless 
persistency of your pursuit, he has changed his tactics, and, 
qrietly crouching on the ground with f ear a ad trembling, 
waits for you to pass. Fatal mistake ! The keen-nosed dog, 
more eager at each successive defeat, again bee )mes statues- 
que aud unerringly indicates the bird's hiding place. Now is 
the supreme moment. With nerves of steel — hardened by 
the excitement of the long continued chase — you literally kick 
him from his retreat and cooly bring him down. What sat- 
isfaction is in ycur heart as you smooth his b.autif nl plum- 
age. What light is in your eye as you gaz 3 upon his plump 
form. What pride is yours a3 you complacantly view the 
noble prize so gallantly won. A glance at the speaking coun- 
tenance of your four-footed friend tells you that he, too, is 
happy ; and, our word for it, a few diys among these crafy 
birds will do more to develope the hunting sense of an intelli- 
gent animal than thrice the time devoted to the pursuit of any 
other game. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

IN THE FIELD. 

HOW rare it is to see a stric ly first-class dog. Good ones 
we may find in abundance ; but the paragon, who has 
no failings and all the virtues, is — although often heard of— 
seldom seen. Glancing bick thr >ugh the many years that 
we have ardently followed the delightful sports of the field 
we can call to mind but few among the many dogs that we 
have seen afield that come up to our standard of excellence, 
and those, almost without exception, received their early 
training amcng the ruffed grouse. There is something per- 
taining to the pursuit of these must canning birds that is po- 
tent to sharpen the wits and develop the intelligence of your 
dog that you will fail to find accompanying the pursuit of any 
other game. It is for this reason that we endeavor to give 
our dog his first lessons in the field upon this bird. We are 
well aware that more than one writer of renown strongly 
condemns this best of birds as tota'ly unfit to train a dog 
upon, taking the ground that they are so very difficult to 
bring to bag that the dog becomes discouraged. We know 
that the reverse of this is true, for we have given scores of 
youngsters their first tuition among these noble birds, and 
we have yet to see the one who showed the first indication of 
anything of the kind ; on the contrary, we have ever found 
that — after one or two successful encounters with these most 
wary birds— no matter how locg and unsuccessful the chase, 
our pupil's ardor was not checked in the least, but seemed to 
inc ease with each successive defeat. 

As we have before remarked, it is better that nothing be 
said to your dog upon his first introduction to game, at least 
so long as he does nothing wrong, as this is an entirely new 
experience to him, and should you bother him with orders he 
may become confused and fail to perform ne arly as well as 
he would if left entirely alone. Great care must be taken 



52 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

that he be not kept too long at work. We have ev. r found 
that the best results were obtained when we have taken our 
dog home after an hour or two, or even sooner, when his per- 
formance had been satisfactory. We have often taken him 
home at the end of a few minutes even, when everything had 
gone just right and we had by abundant praise and caresses 
impressed indellibly upon his mind that his behavior was 
pleasing to us, thus leaving him to ponder over the matter in 
a happy state of mmd that would cause him to look forward 
with eager anticipation to future enjoyment of other blissful 
hours among the birds, instead of going on and, possihly, be- 
ing obliged to take him off at a time when something of a 
disagreeable nature had occurred that would exert a depress- 
ing influence upon his susceptable mind and, perhaps, cause 
him to dread or, at least, to feel indifference about repeating 
the performance. After one or two outings, and he has be- 
come somewhat accustomed to the new experience, you 
can safely commence to teach him as to what he may and may 
not do; you can in a measure control his range and dictate a3 
to the direction that you wish him to take, using great care 
that you do not restrain him too much at first, bu^ very 
slowly and by easy step3 gradually teach him to look to 
you for guidance ; and if you pursue the proper course hi 
will soon obey your lightest word as readily as when taking 
his regular lessons at home. This result can be obtained in 
this manner much sooner and much bet'er than by trying 
tocon'rolhim and to make him do everything just right 
from the start, only bear in mind that when you do ordir 
him to do anything insist upon prompt obedienca every time. 
Among the first things that you should endeavor to instil 
into his mind is the knowledge that he must ' ' work to the 
gun." This can be very easily accomplished if you will pursue 
the proper course. In the first place, under no circumstan- 
ces should he be allowed to flush the birds. Not so much 
perhaps that it will make him uns'eady, for many dogs can 
be taught to flush their birds to order without detracting 
from their steadiness, but such a course we have ever found 
decidedly unsteadies the wary grouse and renders them less 



12? THE FIELD. 53 

liable 1 1 lie close than when they are walked up by the hunt- 
er. Th's is a'so the case, although in less degree, with the 
q'iail. With the woodcock we do not believe that it makes 
much difference, yet we would advise under all circumstan- 
ces, no matter how great the temptation, your dog be not 
allowed to flash his bird, for many really good dogs are 
ruined by this practice, besides, as a rule, the more kill- 
ing, as well as sportsmanlike way, is to walk up your 
bird. This practice you will fiud will soon make you a 
better shot than you can ever hope to be if you constantly 
keep in ihe openings and trust to the chances there to be 
obtained. Your dog will also improve much faster if you 
pursue this course, for he will instinctively realize that you 
are with him body and soul, and consequently he will 
put fo-th his best efforts and soon learn the graad secret of 
" working to the gun." This very valuable trait is rarely 
found in a dog unl< S3 the gun has first set the example by 
working to him. Ponder this well and try to realize what 
the thoughts of your dog must be when you leave him on his 
point and, sneaking off to one side, or perhaps to his rear 
cut of sight, bid him put up the bird which he knows full 
well by experience will fly into the cover instead of out. We 
rlwa} s require our dog while young to staunchly hold his 
point until ordered on. He will easily learn to do this if you 
steady him a few times and do not allow him to stir until 
you are beside him. This, if rightly managed, will prove a 
very killing trait, but unless the proper course is pursued 
your dog is apt to acquire the very bad habit c f making false 
pcints. Great good judgment is required to so conduct his 
training in this that it may prove a source of pleasure instead 
of disappointment. Your knowledge of his disposition will 
aid you in adopting the right course to accomplish the de- 
sired result. 

As soon as you observe that he has scent command him 
to To ho, and keep him on point until you are nearly beside 
him, when, without stopping, you must cluck to him to go 
on, accompanying the cluck with a wave of the hand, and 
walk ju3t behind him until he again stops. Should he be 



54 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

unwilling to move on at your first order, you must not stop, 
neither should you pass by him, but keep stepping, even if 
you have to put your feet in the same place, and again 
cluck, or perhaps you may hive to speak to him. Shou'd 
he still remain staunch, the chances are that the scent i-3 
strong, and that the game may be close by, in which case 
you should advance and flush the tird, and, if the conduct 
of your dog has been irreproachable, kill if you can, but 
on no account must you shoot unless his behavior has 
been all that you could wish ; for one of the most impor- 
tant lessons to impress upon his mind is that, ju : t so surely 
as he does not perform his put in a proper mariner, just 
so surely no birds will be the result. Do not forget, if hi3 
performance has been worthy, to pet and praise him, while, 
on the other hand, if no bird has been found, you should 
return behind him and order him on, and let him know that 
this is not the prop.r way, but that h? must move on until 
he is near the bird. This is rather a delicate matter, and 
often requires nice discrimination to determine just what to 
do, for there is not a second to be lost in deliberation, and 
instant action should be taken ; for if you hesitate your 
dog may become addicted to making false points or pot- 
tering, and, rather than this, it will be far better to score 
an occasional flush. Should he flush a bird by moving up, 
even if you have ordered him on, you must instantly check 
him, and bring him back to the place where he should have 
remained staunch, and keep him at To ho a short time, whil? 
you chide him for the offence. After a few lessons of this kind 
— perhaps, even, on the second occasion— you should order 
him on a little before you reach his side, and at each succeed- 
ing time you should do this still further away, until he will, 
at the motion of the hand, move on when you are at 
quite a distance from him. If he is possessed of a reason- 
able amount of intelligence, and you pursue the proper 
course, he will soon understand just what you wish, and 
always stop at the first indication of scent and look at 
you for the signal to go on, instead of following up the 
trail, perhaps out of your sight, and oftentimes causing 



IN THE FIELD. 55 

you no end of trouble to find him. He will also soon 
learn to move on of his own accord when the scent is not 
just to suit, provided he knows that you can see him and are 
comiDg his way. This accomplishment is invaluable whe:i 
shooting in thick covert, or beating the snipe meadows, 
while it can work no possible harm either on the prairie or 
stubble. Of course, we cannot give instructions that will 
cover every case, as there are so many different circum • 
stances connected with the events of a single day, and the 
dispositions of the different animals are also so widely dis- 
similar that it is impossible for us to give anything more 
than a general outline of the course to be pursued. We 
take it for granted that the reader of ordinary intelligence 
who ha3 followed us thus far has gained some idea of 
our system, and that his own good sense, coupled with 
the intimate knowledge that he must possess of the dispo- 
sition and intelligence of his pupil, will safely tide him 
over any minor difficulties that may occur. 



CHAPTER IX. 

WOKKING IN COMPANY. 

IN the previous chapters we have carefully refrained from 
saying anything about the great benefit to be derived 
from having a trained dog to assist you in perfecting your 
pupil in his lessons. We have purposely pursued this course 
in order to show the new beginner that he can safely reiy 
upon his own resources, and surely bring his pupil through 
all right, without any assistance. Nevertheless we have ever 
found that an old dog th .t is well trained and steady is of 
great importance in perfecting tie pupil in the rudiments as 
well as the higher branches of his education ; and we can- 
not forbear devoting a little space to the subject. In the 
first place our canine co-worker should be thoroughly 
trained and quick to obey ; he must also be very intelligent 
and and of a good disposition. You should let the two asso- 
ciate together from the first, and th:y will soon become at- 
tached to one another, unless the old dog i3 unusually surly. 
We do not recommend that the pup should receive any guid- 
ance from the old dog until he is sufficiently grounded in his 
lessons to understand what is required of him. Thus, In 
teaching him To Tio, after he will go through the perform- 
ance fairly, we take the old dog into the pen with him, and 
after they have had a little time at play we take the pup in 
our arms, and making sure that he sees all that is going on, 
we place two pieces of meat on the ground about two feet 
apart, and, calling up the old dog, make him, at the word 
To 7io, point one of the pieces. We then walk around a 
little, with the pup still in our arms, taking care that he can 
see the performance all the time. We then place the pup 
with his nose within a few inches of the second piece, anq 
telling him to To ho, make him wait a few seconds, and then 
cluck as a signal that they can each eat their piece. This 
has a wonderfully steadying effect upon the pup, especially 



WORKING IN COMPANY. m 

when you come to prolong the time a little, for he, seeing 
that the old dog is perfectly staunch and steady, will soon 
learn to emulate him. He will also acquire tho very import- 
ant habit of remaining steady when in the company of other 
dogs; this we consider of great importance, and under all 
circumstances we accustom the pup to doing his work in the 
presence of his companions, even if we have to impress the ser- 
vices of a curand chain him in one corner of the pen. If this 
latter course has to be adopted, it .is not necessary tint it 
should be commenced until our pupil is somewhat advanced 
in his education, as the only object in view is to accu3tom 
him to perform his duties in the presence of other dogs, an 1 
to lay the ground work of that steadiness when amon^ 
strangers that i3 so pleasing to see. So particular aro we iu 
this, that we invariably train our pup to point a piece of 
meat and stand perfectly staunch, while his companion takes 
the bit and e its it. This he will re idily learn to do if you 
immediately reward him with another piece. If he is well 
trained in this he will not annoy y^u by going to pieces 
should half a dozen dogs rush in upm the bird that he is 
poi: ling. 

After our pup is well acquainted with the old dog and 
has become accustomed to the chain, they should be coupled 
together for a short time each day until ho gets used to it. 
We shal find further on that this will be a great help to xm. 
The coupling chain should be short with two good swivels. 
Most persons make a mistake in having the coupl'ng chain 
too long. Four inches is plenty long enough when your 
dogs are anywhere near of a size, and you will generally find it 
long enough under any circumstances. Should tho o'd dog 
be very high headed the chain can easily be lengthened an 
inch or two. After they go well together and our pupil has 
learned the meaning of To ho and minds fairly, you will 
find that it will be of great benefit to him to practice him 
when coupled to the old dog, for the example of the latter will 
steady him, which is a matter of great importance, and 
once his mind is thoroughly impressed with the iJea that he 
must hold his position, even, when in' fear that his com- 



58 TRAINING vs. BREAKING. 

panion will secure the tempting morsal, it will be com- 
paratively easy to keep him up to his work. He will also 
learn to remain quiet at charge with much less trouble to 
you if coupled to the old dog. As he grows older and you. 
commence- to lengthen the time tha"; he must remain in th : s 
position, we should by all means recommend this course ; 
indeed we have found that the services of a well trained, 
steady dog are invaluabb all through until our pupil's educa- 
tion is complete. As we have before remarked the as- 
sistance of the old dog should never be called in requisition 
until cur pupil has been taught his lesson and is somewhat 
proficient in its performance, then he can understanding^ 
view tbe old dog as he performs the task, and if he is reason- 
ably intelligent he will soon learn to i.nitate his steadiness. 

We shall also find, if our pup is inclinad to work too close 
to us when quartering his ground, that the example of the 
old dog will soon cause him to increase his range. We much 
prefer that our pup should range freely of his own accord, 
but should he not quite please us in this, we coupb him to 
the old dog and practice them together until we obtain satis- 
factory results. Great caution must be observed in this and 
the lessons must not be too frequent nor too long continued, 
or our pupil will lose his independence and form the very bad 
habit of locking to his companion to cut out the work which 
will seriously detract from his usefulness in the field. 

As it is very desirable that our dog should possess a fair 
amount of speed, we should so conduct his exercise that 
when we come to cut him loose in the field he will not potter 
and poke, but at once strike a slashing gait and with head 
well up, take to his work like a veteran. Many dogs can 
never become fast, but if you have followed the instructions 
in selecting your pup that we have laid down, and have 
secured a well formed one with plenty of life and spirit, 
there will be no trouble in bringing him out a fairly speedy 
animal ; indeed, we have taken in hand old dogs that were 
decidedly slow, and in a few weeks, by judicious manage- 
ment, have succeeded in turning them out astonishingly fast. 
Of course, we cannot give instructions that will enable you 



WORKING JiV COMPANY. 50 

io infallibly produce a speedy animal, but if you will in- 
lelligently follow our plan, you can in most cases succeed in 
accomplishing your purpose. Do not forget, in your anxiety 
for speed, that a fast dog with a slow nose is nearly worth- 
less ; therefore, before you attempt to force the pace, you 
should thoroughly satisfy } 7 ourself that your pupil's olfactory 
organs are all right ; you can form a nearly correct opinion 
upon this point by carefully watclrng him while he is at play, 
and taking note of each time that he "winds" anything 
that attracts him, and paying close attention to Vzg distance 
he is from the object. This, though not an infa'lible test, 
will generally give you a very good idea of his powers. 
Should he appear to have a qn ; ck sensitive nose and you de- 
sire to quicken his gait, try the following plan, and our word 
for it, if you pursue the proper course, you will be astonished 
at the improvement he wiU show in a few lessons. When 
commencing these lessons you should select fcr exercise 
ground a large open field, and if the surface is undulating, it 
will be all the better, for when the old dog disappears over 
the knolls it will make the pup all the more eager to join him. 
When you arrive at the ground you should let the old dog go, 
and keep the pup close at heel until he gets quite impatient, 
taking great care not to overdo the matter by keeping him 
under restraint too long, nor on the other hand should you 
let him go until he is in the proper frarre of mind to put 
forth his best efforts when he hears the welcome signal. If 
you have acquired such knowledge of his disposition and 
temper as ycu should have done, you will be sure, by closely 
watching him, to hit upon just the right instant when his 
impatient feelings are at their greatest height to give him the 
word to go on. If this order is given in an eager tone, ac- 
companied with a quick step or two forward, you will find 
that your pupil will at once start with an eager rush and put 
forth his best efforts to catch the old dog. You should care- 
fully watch him, and as soon as he slacks his speed, call him 
in at once and keep him at heel until he is again impatient, 
when you can repeat the performance. If this course is 
understanding^ pursued, your pupil will soon learn that in 



60 TRAINING m. BREAKING. 

order to have his liberty lie must not potter, and he will in a 
short time astonish you vd h ir.s greatly improved gait. The 
speed of almost any dog can be improved in this way, but 
the brst results are obtained when your dog is possessed of a 
high s'rnrg nerv n u3 temperament. With such a one prop- 
erly handled marvelous improvement is sure to follow. 

You will also find that the example of the old dog will be 
productive of much pood, when ypu commence accustoming 
ycur pup to the sights and sounds of tbe street, you will be 
spared much trouble in way-wising him by coupling them 
together when taking a walk through th? streets, especially 
if you are in a city where each sight and sound is new to 
ycur pupil, for he will not only see that his companion is un- 
concerned and thereby acquire confidence, but he will soon 
icarn that he cannot bolt should anything strange occur, and 
in a short time he will become steady and behave like a 
veteran. 

Backing is an accomplishment that affords us much pleas- 
ure — in fact, one-half of our enjoyment, when shooting over 
a brace of dogs, is in witnessing the faultless performance of 
a well-trained animal, as he instantly honors the point of Lis 
companion. This accomplishment is inherent in many drgs, 
and is as natural to them as the instinct of pointing. Yet, 
there are many first-class animals who will not back a com- 
panion's point, but will work forward until they obtain the 
scent. This is always unpleasant, and often not only mars 
our enjoyment of the sport, but the practice is very apt to 
unsteady the other dog, especially when the dog that should 
back thrusts his nose a little ahead, which he is very prone 
to do. The dog that will remain perfectly steady and 
ttaunch while his companion repeatedly practices this, i?, in- 
deed, a treasure, and worthy fairer treatment. That your 
dog will not be the one to commit so serious a fault you 
can rest assured, if you have carefully followed our instruc- 
tions in his early training and will intelligently handle him 
when he first goes into the field with a companion. As we 
have often remarked, first impressions play a very important 
part in the future behavior of your d^g, therefore you 



WORKING JN COMPANY. Q\_ 

should be very careful that nothing occurs that -will give him 
any wrong ideas. The first time that you take him out with 
another dog, they should be well acquainted, if possible, or 
at least have time to play together until they become some- 
what used to each other. You should be accompanied by a 
friend, who should have the care of the other dog, while you 
keep your pupil close to heel until the other dog fiuds and 
comes to a point. Be very careful now, and as soon as your 
dog catches sigLt of him, raise your hand and bid him To ho* 
and on no account must you stir so much as a finger, but re- 
main perfectly quiet and staunch, as though you were also 
backing, until your companion has flushed the bird. Your 
example will have much to do in perfecting hh steadiness, 
and you will fir,d that after a few lessons of this kind — even 
should he po?sess no natural inclination to back— he will 
understand what is required, and instantly back of his own 
accord as soon as he catches sigkt of a companion's point. 



CHAPTER X. 

CONCLUSION. 

WE have given in the preceding chapters, as well as we 
were able, the outlines of the course that for more than 
a quarter of a century we have successfully pursued in pre- 
paring our dogs for lives of usefulness, and we believe, yes, 
we know, that if any one — we care not how wedded he may 
be to the force system — will but give our method a fair trial, 
henceforth the whip and check cord will form no part of his 
kennel appurtenacces, for not alone does our system exercise 
an ennobling influence upon our pupil, thu3 making him 
much better qualified to become our companion, but the 
better, finer feelings of our own nature are not blunted and 
brutalized by the cruel associations necessarily present when 
the lash is applied to the shrinking form, nor is our enjoy- 
ment of the pleasures of the field marred by constantly 
recurring struggles with the sharer of our sport, who should 
be our obedient as well as loving friend. As the Hon. 
George Ashmun once remarked to us : " The humane system 
and the force system both accomplish the result of bringing 
man and dog toward the same plane, the one by elevating 
the brute, the other by lowering the humane creature." 

In all our lessons we have endeavored to impress upon the 
reader the great importance of carefully studying the dispo- 
sition of his pupil in order that he might intelligently apply 
their teachings. We have also tried to show the paramount 
necessity of a very cautious advance at each successive step. 
Yet so very important a matter do we deem this that we can- 
not forbear again calling your attention to it, and again 
cautioning you to use the utmost care in all your lessons, 
and to so manage tbat your dog shall not become over- 
trained, for this, although quite common, is a very serious 
fault, and one that will require a long time to overcome, if, 
indeed, you can ever quite eradicate it ; and in order to 
secure that cheerful, willing obedience that is so desirable, it 
will be far better that you should devote plenty of time to 



CONCLUSION. G3 

the proper development of your pupil tb an by undue haste to 
bring him out only partially trained or cowed and dis- 
heartened by a too close or too long continued drilling at 
tasks that should be his delight instead of dread. In perfect- 
ing our pupil in his work in the field, great care must be 
taken that he always peforms his task in a faultless manner, 
and no thought of present enjoyment should allow you for 
an instant to relax tl. at constant surveillance and watchful 
cire that you have bestowed upon him while practicing him 
at home. There is no more prolific cause of the unsteadiness 
and disobedience exhibited by so many of the dogs we meet 
as the overlooking of the little faults that scarcely appear 
worth noticing. As we have before reina:ked, anything 
that is worth the doing is worth doing well, and in no'hing is 
this more apparent than in the education of your dog. We 
don't mean by this that you should be constantly nagging 
him and breaking his heart with an incessant repitition of 
commands, but that when you do give an order you should 
see to it that it is at once obeyed, and to the very letter. 

Especially shculd he be restrained from manifesting any 
unsteadiness or uneasiness, when in the presence of crippled 
birds. This can only be accomplished by a faithful adher- 
ence upon your part to the rules that you have established to 
govern his conduct and by a religious setting of the example 
that you wish him to follow, as any excitement upon your part 
or undue haste to secure the bird is sure to be impressed 
upon his susceptible mind and cause you no end of trouble 
in the future. Better by far that you should lose a dozen 
1 irds than that your dog should become unsteady. 
AY hen it is possible, we always shoot a cripple before our 
young dog, and we have ever found that thi3 course, es- 
pecially when he could see the performance, exercised a 
steadying influence upon him, and also taught him to love 
and have confidence in the gun. After sufficient experience 
in the field, and when your dog appears to understand just 
what you require of him, he may safely be allowed to cap- 
ture the fluttering bird, with no fear that it will cause him to 
become ur steady or depart from the teachings of his early 



64 TllAINING vs. BREAKING. 

days, for the course that we have pursued has wonderfully- 
developed his reasoning faculties, and there will be no trouble 
in ea'ily teaching him to comprehend that when ordered to 
retrieve a cripple-1 bird, no license is thereby granted him to 
indiscrimately rush for every one that starts. When once 
we have our dog under the perfect control that it has been 
our aim to achieve, it is comparatively an ca^y matter to keep 
him up to his work, as our knowledge of his disposition and 
his knowledge of our method will render an occasional word 
all that will be required. 

Having brought teacher and pupil safely afield, we 
shall now regretfully take our leave of them, trusting that 
not entirely in vain have been our labors, and that some at 
least of the new recruits to the vast army of sportsmen may 
be induced to follow the course here marked out, and by their 
success encourage others to try our humane system of training. 
Upon carefully reviewing our very pleasant task, we are 
painfully impressed with its many shortcomings and imper- 
fections ; the most serious of these is the failure to express 
the ideas that we wish to convey in a satisfactory manner. 
Although to the best of our ability have we endeavored to 
impart the knowledge gained by a large experience, yet we 
feel that we have but crudely and imperfectly accomplished 
our purpose. There appears to be an indescribable, in- 
tangible something lacking which our pen is unable to portray 
There is a mysterious and subtle power, inherent in some 
and only gained by others with long experience, that enables 
its possessor to exact an instant and willing obedience from 
the lower animals by a single word or look that others cannot 
compel by vociferous commands or even by blows. We 
have always noticed that those who possessed this peculiar 
gift appeared intuitively, as it were, to understand the nature 
and disposition of the animals under their care, and that 
there was invariably an almost electrical and harmonious 
sympathy between them. Would that we could reveal the 
secret of this mysterious power ; then could we lay aside our 
pen with pride in the belief that we had laid at the feet of 
the sportsmen's shrine a worthy offering. 



THE ONE-EYED GROUSE OP MAPLE RUN. 
QOME years ago we penned the following article, which 
^-J we reproduce here in order to give our readers some 
idea of the pleasures and perils which so endear to 113 the 
pursuit of "that best of all game birds, the lordly Ruffed 
Grouse." 

First let me describe the locality where these incidents 
transpired, that you may the better understand some of the 
evolutions that I shall endeavor to explain. I feel entirely 
competent to give a description of the run, as even now, 
after the hpse of thirteen years, every rock, tree and shrub ; 
every bubbling spring, each turn and twist of the little brook, 
even to its every merry dim L le and minature cascade with 
its gleesome music, is so indelibly engraved upon the tablets 
cf my memory, that I have only to mount the wings of 
thought, and the entire scene in all its loveliness is before 
me. Here, at the extreme upper end, is a gigantic rock 
maple, whose leaves on this golden October day are gorge- 
ous in their bright array. Just at its foot a silvery spricg 
gushes forth, whose sparkling waters are quailed by many a 
weary one, as the well-worn path and smooth, white rock at 
its side attest. This fountain is the commencement of the 
little brook that I mentioned. For the first quarter mile of 
its course there is an occasional young maple, while upon 
each side, for four or five rods, beautiful ferns invite the 
shy woodcock to their grateful shade. For the next twenty 
yards, there is an abrupt fall of as many feet, whose steep 
sides are covered with an almost impenetrable growth of 
witch-hazel, which is now in bloom — notice the pleasing 
contrast between those sprays of lemon colored blossoms and 
the dark green of that hemlock that towers in a perfect cone, 
thirty feet above them — mark well this same hemlock — for 
under its umbrageous branches, a dastardly deed was at- 
tempted that recoiled upon the would-be perpetrator in a 
manner that afforded us heartfelt satisfaction. I will resume 



66 THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 

the tale farther on. At the foot of the fall, and for nearly 
a mile in length — by a quarter to ha^f a mile in breadth 
— the ground is nearly level and covered with a rank growth 
of alders, growing in bunches, a few feet apart, between 
them the grass is green the whole year round. This lovely 
spot is appropriately called "Woodcock's Delight." What 
thrilling emotions fill my heart as, in fancy, I gaze upon its 
many mazy aisles. It seems but yesterday that I, a happy 
youth, was rambling through these silent shades ; what de- 
licious, glorious hours were these, what blessed communings 
with the God of Nature, prized by me far more than the 
famous bags of woodcock and grouse that I nearly always ob- 
tain here. The scene remains the same ; but, alas ! my 
beautiful friend of the querulous whistle is gone, I fear for- 
ever, slain by the ruthless hand of him who should protect, 
instead of destroy. Slain by him who, disguised as a sports- 
niau, steals in mid-summer upon the callow brood, and mur- 
ders, ay ! murders every one ; murders the enfeebled and 
often sick mother-bird and her unfledged chicks. May the 
curse of all true sportsmen rest upon you ! The wrath of the 
hunter's God already abideth with you, for he suffers not his 
beautiful charges to roam in the places you have desecrated 
and laid waste. Excuse this digression, as my heart is 
broken with the utter desolation that abounds. Down a 
gradual descent of a few yards, covered with a dense growth 
of hazel, below the beautiful spot that I have just 
described, we come to a similar piecs of ground of some 
twenty acres in extent, that is fl >wed in winter and 
spring, to furnish motive power for a rickety old saw- 
mill. There are no trees nor brush, except a fringe of wil- 
lows a few yards in width entirely around the edge of the 
now dry pond. Below the mill a rocky gorge, grown 
up with hemlock, leads us down a descent for a hundred 
yards or more, when we come to a level open meadow, 
bordered upon one side by a splendid grove of magnificent 
white oats that covers full fifty acres. Across the meadows 
and two hundred yards away there is a tangled thicket of 
scrub-oak, overgrown with briers. At the lower side of 



THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 67 

both grove and thicket sunny knolls, partially covered with 
birches, trend obliquely down stream, mteting on the banks 
of the brook some five hundred yards below. From here to 
the river, about a mile away, there is a beautiful cover, 
nearly a mile in width, of alders and birches, with an occa- 
sional maple and walnut tree. This cover ends on the bank 
cf the river, in a narrow grove of immense hemlocks. Trust- 
ing that you will retain enough of my rather tedious descrip- 
tion to fo'.low us through our ardous and long-winded chase, 
we will shoulder our guns and start for Maple Run. But 
first allow me to introduce you to my companion — jld Tom 
Rood, as thorough a sportsman as it ha? ever fallen to my 
lot to encounter— a pei feet gentleman, a first-rate shot and 
well skilled in all that pertains to woodcraft. Tom is pos- 
sessed of an abundance of this world's goods, and spends 
most of his time in the forest, a9 his nut-brown phiz and 
wiry frame attest. When he is not shooting or fislrng he is 
abroad communing with nature. There is a vein of poetry 
and also a el'ght tinge of superstition in his make-up that, 
with his overflowing cheerfulness, make him one of the 
most entertaining companions that I have ever me:. Oar 
present trip originated with him, as he had the day before, 
while resting on the bank of the river, a 1 , the mouth of the 
brook, seen, to use his words, a "spectre partridge" (ruffed 
grouse). While lying at full length on the grass, this bird 
had flown across the river and alighted wilhin a few feet of 
him. As he looked up, at the slight noise she made, she 
walked up within two yard3 of his head. Examining her 
closely, he discovered that on the side toward him her eye 
was gone. Just as he had noticed this, she turned her head, 
and Tom solemnly averred that her good eye was as large 
as that of an ox ; and far more brilliant than ths purest 
diamond, her feathers were of a pale cream color, her ruff 
was light cherry, as was the band across her tail. Taking 
this in at a glance, and wishing to secure so unique a speci- 
men, he reached for his gun, when this spectre bird slowly 
sank into the ground, and Tom, awe-struck, left the uncanny 
spot and started for home. When nearly a hundred yards 



68 THE GROUSE OF MAPLE BUN. 

away, he heard a roar that caused him to look back, and 
there was the spirit, going like a streak, up the run. You t 
should have heard Tom tell the story, and have seen the 
weird look in his eyes as he described the scene. Always on 
hand when sport was to be had, I readily joined him, as, un- 
doubtedly, this was a wary old bird, that would show us some 
fun. "We soon arrived at the place where he had seen her last, and 
commenced a chase, the like of which I never expect to see again. 
We little thought, when we started the dogs, that beautiful 
morning, and gaily followed them, so full of life and hope, 
our exuberant spirits welling forth in lively joke and quick 
repartee, that evening's shade would find us a weary, used- 
up pair, wending our way homeward with halting step3, and 
no word of cheer to lighten the path. I will not anticipate, 
but try and be calm while I recount the story of our sorrows. 
Our dogs, Start and Stop, soon found a trail, and taking our 
usual places — Tom on their right flank and I on the left — we 
slowly moved on, up the run. The scent soon became hot, 
and the dogs refused to advance another step. We went 
ahead to raise the bird, and had gone some distance beyond 
the dogs, when, with a thunderous roar close to my ears, 
this spook of a bird rose behind me. I whirled around and 
catching my foot in something, down I went full length, and 
as it is my practice to shoot when a bird rises near enough, 
my gun went off just as I struck the ground, happily without 
doing any damage. "First knock-down for the spectre," 
cried Tom, who appeared to enjoy the sport even more than 
I did. As he had caught a glimpse of the bird, and was 
sure that it was the one we were looking for, we turned short 
to the left and followed on her course, which led toward the 
upper corner of the cover. The dogs soon struck her trail 
and worked it up nearly to the corner, and came to a full 
stop. Tom, being the nearest, went on the outside, and I 
walked toward him, expecting of course that one of us 
would get a sure shot. I could not raise the bird, and went 
back to the dogs, and at the word, they moved on up to the 
wall, and came to a point at a hole that led through to the 
other side. I got them over the wall, and they roaded 



THE GROUSE OF MAPLE HUN. 69 

her several rods in the open lot a few feet from the wall. I 
was in the cover opposite them, and was suddenly startled by 
aloud cry of "mark" from Tom, accompanied by a few 
forcible word?, expressive of his disgu3t. I heard no rise 
and went over to him to see what it all meant, when 
he expLined that the bird had risen some twenty rod 3 away 
without making thj slightest noise, and flown down en the 
outside as far as he could see. We were both of us beginning 
to get interested, and followed on in pretty good order, con- 
sidering that we had been outgeneraled at every turn. The 
dogs, after considerable work, found her trail in the open 
lot, and followed it some distance, when we saw her rise a 
long way ahead ; and swing to the left for a birch knoll that 
I have already described as leading up to a scrub oak and 
brier cover. She was not near enough for me to see very 
distinctly, but I could readily see that she was of a very 
light color. Sending Tom ahead to cut her off, should she 
attempt to make for the briers, I took the dogs and beat up 
the knoll, and soon had a beautiful point from Start that was 
handsomely backed by Stop. I knew by the eaier way old 
Start's jaws were quivering that the bird was close by, and, 
stepping in ahead of him, was disgusted at seeing nothing 
but an ordinary grouse flounder up and make off; but as the 
rulling passion was ever strong, I pocketed my chagrin, and 
drawing a bead on him, brought him down. At the report 
of the gun our one-eyed friend rose twenty rods away, and 
knowing that it was sure death to attempt the briers, flew 
across the open meadows and went fur the white oak grove, 
and I lost sight of her among the tops of the tallest trees. In 
vain we b: at the whole cover in that direction, we could 
get no trace of her. Concluding that she had "treed," we 
commenced thumping each tree in the vicinity where I had 
seen her last, and soon routed her. Sbe pitched down from 
the top of a tall tree like a rojket reversed, aud not until 
within two or three feet of the ground did she alter her 
course. She received our fire with a cool complacency that 
was not shared by us, and skimming along close to the 
ground across the meadow, we saw her swing into the hated 



70 THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 

brier cover. Ordinarily we did not beat this covr r, as it was 
not only terribly thick, but the briers were fearful. But we 
were after this bird, "with all that this implies," and did 
not stop to count the cost ; bu' , after taking a few moments' 
rest, and eating our lunch, boldly faced the music, and 
were soon forcirjg our way through the tangled mass. The 
dogs soon found her trail and commenced roading, and for 
more than au hour we followed this goblin bird before we 
could force her to rise, which she finally did quite unex- 
pectedly close by Tom, and just as he had stooped and was 
forcing his way through a particularly bad bunch of briers. 
He gamely struggled to an upright position and delivered his 
fire, but could not tell whether botk eyes were open or shut ; 
as, when he commenced to straighten up, a brier caught him 
just under his right eye, and plowed a ghastly furrow across 
hi3 face, and half cut off the lower portion of his ear. When 
I j ined him I could not forbear saying : 

"First blood for the spectre." 

A grim smile lit up one side of his face— the other side 
was covered with gore, and I was doubtful if he greeted my 
pleasantry with more than half a smile. As our bird had 
flown straight for the mouth of the rocky gully, we soon 
came to water, and after binding up our wounded as well as 
we could, we once more " returned to the charge." Toiling 
up the steep and 3lippery ascent, we flushed her from be- 
hind a rock, which she kept between her and us until well 
out of shot. Thinking that she would keep on as far as the 
hazel gully, we made a detour to avoid the terrible ascent, 
and skirted the edge until we came to the old mill, when, 
each taking a side of the pond and beating the fringe cf wil- 
lows, came together at the Ik ad of the pond. We hunted 
up the hazel gully, and over a large portion of alder cover, 
bringing to bag several grouse and woodcock, but saw no 
sign of our especial friend. On our return, we met a man 
who said that he had just started a white partridge from the 
wheel-pit of the old mill, and it had gone down the run. Al- 
though nearly night, with one accord, and without a word, 
we b:th wheeled and headed down the gorge. V/hen near 



THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 71 

the lower end the dogs came to a staunch point. Thinking 
that the bird would go for the briers again, I clambered up 
the side, and had just reached the t^p, when this fiendish 
bird, with a malignity of purpose that I have never seen 
equaled, started and flew straight for my head. Tom could 
not see me, but I saw him raise his gun and I threw myself 
flat on the ground, just in time to catch half a dozen pellets. 
I had supposed that he was shooting fine shot, but was now 
ready to make oath that each one was bigger than a pump- 
kin. The bird was unharmed, and flew directly over me. 
She did not see me until within four feet of my head, and I 
shall never forget the scared expression of that bird's coun- 
tenance. The tuft on her head rose rightup like the clown's 
hair in the pantomime, and, convulsively beating the air with 
her wings, she, knowing what to expect, cringed and 
quivered in mortal fear. Springing to my feet, I deliberately 
sighted her across the barrels and pulled the trigger. No re- 
port followed, and, upon examining for the cause, I found 
the main spring broken. I must confess that things looked 
a little shaky, and I was almost persuaded that we were, as 
Tom now insisted, pursuing a myth. It was now sunset, 
and, crest-fallen and weary, we turned our faces toward 
home. The only words spoken by either of us were a mu- 
tual good-night, when we parted at the fork of the road, 
tbat led to Tom's house. We even forgot that we had any 
birds, and omitted our usual quarrel, of each trying to make 
the other take the game. Sadly 1 traversed the short dis- 
tance home, and letting Start into the kitchen where I knew 
that he would be well cared for, I silently stob up to my 
room and went supperless to bed. 

I was up betimes the next morning, and after an early 
breakfast, shouldered my spare gun, whistled for Start, and 
took the road for Maple Run, firmly resolved to bring home 
that bird or perish in the attempt. When I came in sight of 
the fork of the road, there stood Tom leaning 0.1 Li3 gun 
waiting for me. " I knew that you would be here,'' said he, 
"although nothing was said about it, for the manner and 
tone which jou i ai 1 good night assured me that your heart 



72 THE HOUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 

was in the right place, and that you had enlisted for the 
war." We made straight for the oak grove, and crossed the 
meadow at the foot of the gorge, and climbing the bank to 
where I had last seen her, took her course and entered the 
briers. We found plenty of birds, and had killed several 
before we found the trail of cur slippery friend. At last the 
dog struck a trail that led straightaway for a long distance, 
and we rightly conjectured that we were now on the right 
track. With every nerve at its utmost tension, our guns 
tightly grasped, and eye and ear strained to catch the first 
signal of her presence, we carefully picked our way through 
the briers until we came within a few rods of the lower 
right hand corner. Leaving Tom with the dogs I retraced 
my steps a short distance, and noisless]y crawled to the 
edge, and taking a position twenty yards out in the open, 
silently advanced toward the corner, and had reached within 
fair gun-shot of it, and was congratulating myself that I had 
her sure, when, hearing a slight noise at my right, I turned, 
and, just out of shot, saw this confounded bird silent as a 
ghost, flitting away straight out into the open. I watched 
her a long distance and saw her alight on the top of a stone- 
wall. I called Tom and explained the situation to him, and 
was much amused to see the wild, half-scared expression of 
his eyes as he said : 

' ' We will stick to her as long as she has a feather left, but 
I know it is of no use, she will half kill us with her tom- 
foolery, and no ally vanish in a cloud of smoke." 
I added : "Or sink into the ground again." 
This shot had its desired effect, and, after a brief look at 
the situation, we decided that I should go so far around that, 
she could not see me, and get between her and the cover near 
the river that she would undoubtedly make for, while Tom 
was by a flank movement to send her to me, and after I hid" 
killed her we were going back into the briers, to attend to a 
number of birds that we had started there. I went around, 
and carefully keeping out of sight behind a favoring knoll, I 
reached the wall some three or four hundred yards below 
her, and crawling behind a rock, laid down and peered over 



TIIE GROUSE OF MARLE RUN. 73 

Ihe top of it, obtaining a g ^od view of ihe whole per- 
formance. Tom by this time had obtained an < ffing, arid 
was bearing down straight for her. When within a hundred 
yards of her, he commenced singing at the top of his voice, 
that well-known hymn : 

• " On Jordan's stormy banks I stand, 1 ' 

and, as the wind was right, I could distinguish every word, 
and was thoroughly enj .lying the music, as T >;n was gifted 
with a grand voice, when I saw him suddenly bring his gun 
to his shoulder, and then, with a half turn, he went down all 
in a heap. Knowing that the bird had started, I strained my 
eyes to get sight of her. I soon saw her just over the wall 
coming straight for me. Waiting until she was within shot, 
and, knowing that I had a dead sure thing on her this time, 
I sprang to my feet, and, facing the way she was g >ing, 
brought my gun to my shoulder and coolly waited until she 
should get past me. Glancing in her direction, I was thun- 
derstruck to find that sh i was nowhere to be seen. A strange 
unearthly feeling of awe crept over me, my hair commenced 
to rise, my knees knocked together and I felt that I was in- 
deed in the presence of something supernatural. This feeling 
lasted but a second or two, as, upon looking down the wall, 
I saw this phantom, a hundred yards away, rise from under 
its protecting shelter and disappear over the top of the al- 
ders. Feeling that I was deeply wronged, I sadly turned to- 
ward Tom for sympathy, and was surprised to see him sit- 
ting on the ground and beckoning for me to come to him. 
When I got there I found that he had sprained his ankle 
so badly that he was unable to stand. With shamefacedness 
and many expressions of heartfelt sorrow that he should have 
so far forgotten himself as to even think of so unsportsman- 
like an act, Tom confessed that the singing was to charm the 
bird so that he could get near enough to shoot her before she 
started. Just as he raised his gun to fire, one foot went in- 
to a hole and, said he, " I received the reward justly my 
due." 

As we were near the highway, I went over there and had 
to wait but a few minuses when a team came along. We took 



74 THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 

down the fences ani soon had Tom safe in the wagon. Al- 
though he was suffering excrutiating torture, I never 
saw him more cheerful. Joke and story came from his lips 
in a continual stream, and he kept us in a roar all the way 
home. We got him in the house and, after bathing his foot 
in hot water and seeing him comfortable, I turned to go, 
when he said : 

"I shall have to ride to-morrow and you had better come 
here and ride over with in?." 

Supposing that he was joking, I took my leave. The next 
morning I got an early start and went to his house to see how 
he was. I was greatly surprised to find his team at the door 
and to see him hobbing down the steps, using his gun as a 
cane, crying as he saw me : 

11 Come on ! I had a vision last night and feel that this day 
will witn< ss the humiliation of our ghostly friend, notwith- 
standing your superstitious belief in her invulnerability." 

Thinking that his grit was of the "real old sort," I helped 
him get in the wagon. We drove to the saw-mill, and, leav- . 
ing Tom in the wagon, wh f re he could command the ap- 
proaches, I took the dogs and started down the run. I had 
gone but a short distance when I met a man who said he had 
started a white partridge several times without getting a 
shct, and that she had gone up the run, and was probably in 
the big alder cover. I explair ed Iho situation to him, and, 
joining our forces, we prepared to move on the enemy's 
works once more. Goirg back to Tom, we sent him round 
to the lower end of the cov< r, whi'e we be it up the fringe of 
wirows and the hazel thicket. When Tom arrived at his 
post we heard him shout, and when we came up learned that 
he had started her close to the edge, aud that her course was 
still onward and upward. Sending Tom to the upper end 
beyond the big hemlock, to a knoll, where he c juld overlook 
the whole ground, we separated a few rods and beat up to- 
ward him. We had gone half way up before we found her 
trail. I soon heard her rise some d'stance ahead, and saw 
her as she came up over the alder?, make straight for the 
hemlock, and alight in its branches. A moment la* er our 



THE GROUSE OF MAPLE RUN. 75 

ears were saluted with the heavy report of a gun from under 
the tree, followed by a prolonged succession of unearthly 
shrieks and } r ells, that ma le my hair fairly ri*e. Knowing 
that some one was in serious trouble, we started upon a run 
to see what was the matter. I had gone bat a few steps 
when I caught a glimpse of a ghostly streak passing over- 
head. Throwing my gun well ahead of it, I pulled the 
trigger, and was overjoyed to he. r that welcome sound so 
dear to ihj sportsmin's heart — a gentle thud as she struck 
the groun I. With quickening pulse I listened to the convul- 
sive flu, ter with which our gallant spirit-bird gave up her 
ghost. I did not go back for her, but hastened in the direc- 
tion of those bl x)d- curdling yells that did not cease until we 
struggled through the thicket into the open space under the 
hemlock, where wc found an overgrown 1 jut of a boy hanging 
head downward on the slippery ledge, with one foot caught 
in a crevice of the rock. We released him unharmed, and 
went up the bank into the open where we found Tom hold- 
ing his sides and laughing like one possessed. As soon as 
we caxe to him he turned w th flashing eyes up3n the 
culprit, and, shaking his long, bony fiDger at him, exclaimed: 

"S rved you right — 3ho >t at a p:>or difen^eless partridge 
up a tree, will you ? The next time you c it sucii a cap3r I 
hope " 

"That you willf-prain your ankle," added I, to the evident 
discomfiture of Tom. 

At this j incture old Start mad^ his appearance with the 
bird in his m juth. When Tom saw her he exclaimed— and 
sticks to it to this day — that the dog caught her— and that 
none of us were smart enough to ruffl.3 a single o^e of her 
beautiful feathers. Shadow, 



MY OLD DOQ TRIM. 

IT is with mingled f , elings of pleasure and regret that I take 
up my pen to write the biography of my old dog Trim, 
alas! long since translated to the happy hunting grounds. 
Peace b j with him, and may his future be as pleasant as the 
days spent on earth. May he find in those spirit woodlands 
numberless ruffed grouse, and oltain for a companion some 
congenial human spirit to roam with him their grateful 
shade until I shall come. Then will his cup of happiness 
ever overflow, and the reward so well earned here be his. 

Trim was rather an ordinary looking-pointer, of the old 
Spanish type. His sire came from Cuba, and was said to be 
from stock that had been kept pure for more than a hundred 
years. He was so staunch that he was worthless for hunt- 
ing as the first scent of game that he struck would invariably 
freeze him stiff, and nothing could stir him except brute 
force. I have frequently flushed and killed the bird to his 
point, and after ga'hering it, and showing it to him and 
vainly trying to induce him to move on— he all the while 
perfectly rigid— I have taken him by the collar and dragged 
him many rods away, only to have him, invariably, as soon 
as I let go of him, rush back to where he found the scent, 
resume his point to stay there, unless f jrced away, so long 
as the least vestige of taint was in tho ar. I have known 
him to remain for hours, as I several times left him to his 
fate, and wou'd seldom see him until the next morning. I 
bred him to a very good-looking lemon and white bitch, very 
fast and a good fielder, but rather too delicite for rrugh 
work. The result was a fine litter of eight. I selected the 
subject of the sketch and christened him Trim. He was the 
best dog the world ever produced, and the best one that I 
ever saw. Hold on! I believe I have got that standard 
quotation a little mixed, but as it is gospel truth let it stand. 



MY OLD DOG TlilM. 7? 

I had no end of trouble with him in his early days, as he 
did rot take kindly to the course of instruction that I con- 
sidered indispensable to his future well doing; it was 
literally a course of sprouts to him. After many trials, and 
much tribulation, I succeeded in teaching him to retrieve- 
when he had & mind to. I had no trouble in teaching him 
to charge, as that appeared to be his forte. He was the most 
listless pup that I ever saw, and could discount the origins 1 
"lazy dog." I should have been utterly discouraged had I 
not seen him, when but nine weeks old, make several beauti- 
ful points on small birds ; and on rare occasions I had seen 
him let himself out in wonderful bursts of speed. I was 
hungering and thirsting for a dog that would point his game 
in the same beautiful gamey style, and get around in the 
same lively manner, and so was very patient with him, 
hoping, almost against hope, that he would sometimes brace 
up and repay me for my trouble. I kept him until he was 
nearly a year old, when my mother, who had suffered long 
but not always in silence, emphatically told me that she 
would stand it no longer; Trim must go. Following close 
upon this dictum was a long list of his sins of omission and 
commission, the former consisting mainly in omitting to get 
up from his favorite place before the fire when any one was 
coming, and this performance hid just ended, with herself 
as principal actress, in a wild whirl of dress goods and a sai 
mixing up of woman, dog and big arm chair. There was a 
light in her eye that I did not dare disregard ; therefore, the 
next morning, early, I took Trim about three miles from 
home, to a farmer friend— who had vainly asked me for him 
several times, as he was overrun with woodchucks, and 
thought that the dog would rid him of the pests. I left him 
with him upon conditions that he should use him well, and 
return him to me in the fall when I commenced hunting. 
He thankfully received him and promised to take the best of 
care of him, and return him safe. 

I must confess that my feelirgs on my homeward journey 
were far from agreeable. I had done a dishonorable act ; I 
had foisted upon my unsuspecting and guileless farmer friend 



78 MY OLD DOG TRIM. 

a worthless cur. How should 1 ever look him in the face 
again ! On account of this feeling, I did not go to see Trim, 
and it was more than a month before I saw the farmer. It 
was with conscious blushes and a deep feeling of abjection 
that I responded to his cheery, "How fare you?" and waa 
much surprised when he proceeded to laud Trim to the 
skies. "Why," said he, "I haven't fed him a mouthful 
since he has been there ; he catches a woodchuck every day, 
and sometimes two, and don't eat anything else." I took an 
early opportunity to pay Trim a visit, as, notwithstanding 
his many faults, I had a warm place in my heart for him. 
I shall never forget the human expression of his eyes as he 
looked up to me when I spoke his name. My eyes were full 
of tears, and I put my arm around his neck, and did not 
speak for some time, and was just thinking that the farmer 
and his wife would think thai I was foolish when he said : 
"Mary, I never saw such an expression in any eye, dumb 
or human, but once before in my life, and that was up uuder 
the big elm when I asked a certain little woman a certain 
little question, and she laid her head on my shoulder and 
looked just as that dog did ; I really believe he's got a soul, 
and I don't wonder that the boy sets such store by him." 
This was many, many years ago,' but the scene was 
impressed indelibly upon my memory, and oftentimes, with 
mental vision, I see that loving glance. 

At the urgent request of the farmer I let Trim remain 
with him until the middle of November, when I brought him 
home and took him out for a hunt. If possible he was 
lazier than ever, and I had hard work to keep him with me ; 
he would lie down and I could hardly start him. After a 
while he seemed to understand that it was either travel or 
trouble, and he followed at heel with a dogged look that did 
not augur very well for future usefulness. He paid not the 
slightest attention to the other dog, and when I killed a bird 
he took no notice of it whatever, and continued to act in this 
manner during several trips. One day when I saw him walk 
through a bevy of quails and the birds rose all around him, 
and he took no more notice of them than if they had been so 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 79 

many flies, I was utterly discouraged. On my way home 
I was thinking it over, and the more I thought the less I 
liked it, and I made up my mind that I would take him out 
the next day and shoot him. When I started out in the 
morning I told my father that I should leave Trim in the 
swamps unless he showed some signs. It was hard to make 
up my mind to this, but my patience was entirely exhausted, 
and I was heartbroken with his apathetic disposition. I 
hunted through the forenoon with fair success, and had eaten 
my lunch and was j ist ready to start when my other dop; 
came to a point, right in the path ; I walked in ahe.daid 
flushed a bevy of quails that fl 3 w straight down the cart- 
path, about thirty rods, and scattered in some low bruUi on 
the hillside. I followed and picked up several of them, 
when I happened to think that I had not seen Trim for some 
time; I whistled, but to no purpose, and started back ex- 
pecting to find him, asleep, where I had eaten lunch, but 
when I got into the path, and looked up it, I was never 
more astonished in my life than to see this brute of a Trim 
on a staunch point, where the bird3 first started from. My 
mind was in a perfect whirl ; I was completely dazed, and it 
was some little time before I stirred from my tracks. There 
was this dog, that had followed me around for two weeks 
with head and tail down, and had never in the whole time 
shown the least sign of intelligence, now wids awake, every 
hair bristling with excitement, his head well up, tail straight, 
and a magnificent sight as he stood in the open, ju3t at the 
top of rising ground, his form outlined upon the clear sky, 
his jaws quivering with excitement, and every angle and 
curve of his body expressing eager desire. Here at last was 
the fruition of my l?ng cherished wish for a dog that would 
make a stylish, gamey point. I walked up to him, and with 
many a loving pat and kind word endeavored to make him 
understand that I was in full s;mpathy with him, and that, 
thenceforth, I was his loviDg friend. It was laughable to see 
the other dog perform; although one of the best dogs to 
back that I ever owned, he wa3 undoubtedly so much sur- 
prised to see Trim point, that he for rot all about it, and with 



80 MY OLD DOG TRIM, 

a quizzical glance out cf the corner of his eye up to me, he 
walked up to him wagging his tail, and for half a minute 
looked at him with such a comical expression that I could 
not help laughing ; then he touched his nose to him as if to 
see if he were alive, and moved a step in front and suddenly 
frczo in his tracks. I had supposed, until now, tha 1 : Trim 
was pointing the old scent where the birds rose a half hour 
before, but knowing that the old dog would not do this, I 
began to think that there was more to the circus than ap- 
peared in the bills, so I stepped in, ahead, when up rose a 
quail that had been left. With a mental prayer that I might 
be loaded with straight powder I palled the trigger and had 
the satisfaction of seeing the bird tumble. More than pleased 
with the whole performance, I loaded up and ordered the old 
dog to fetch, when Trim, with a rush like the swoop of an 
eagle, fairly distanced him, and picking up the bird returned, 
at a two-forty gait, and laid it in my hand without ruffling a 
feather. To say that I was happy doe3 not express more 
than half of it ; I "w as nearly delirious with joy, and I fear 
that I cut some foolish capers and said many silly things. It 
was nearly an hour before I felt steady enough to continue 
my hunt. Somehow I did not expect to ever see him make 
another point, and was very agreeably surprised, when I 
ordered the old dog on, to see Trim take the gait of a race- 
horse and quarter his ground like a veteran. He soon struck 
scent, and made a another beautiful point; the old dog 
backed him this time without any misgiving ; I walked up 
to him and gave him a loving pat, when he moved on and I 
followed close to him -for a quarter of a mile, and such 
beautiful roading I never saw before ; he never showed the 
least doubt or hesitancy, but, with his head high in the air, 
followed the birds through brake and briar patch, and finally 
brought up at the edge of a small clump of bushes. After 
admiring his beautiful pose a moment I kicked the bnshes, 
when up rose a full bevy cf quails. I think that the excite- 
ment that I had gone through had unnerved me, as I did 
not harm a feather with either barrel. Taking a little time 
to recover my balance, I followed them up, and found them 



MT OLD BOG TRIM. 81 

among some scattered birches. Trim behaved beautifully, 
of his own accord he took the wind, and with head up, he 
would unerringly locate every bird. 

I had always considered the old dog as first rate, and he 
was a hard dog to beat, but he was just nowhere. Trim 
found all the birds and p Dinted them in grand style; his 
every movement was beautiful to see ; talk of the poetry of 
motion ; here it was exemplified. Every stride was a stanza, 
and every point that he made was a whole volume. It was 
with feelings of deep, heartfelt satisfaction that I wended 
my way home. I felt as though I was walking on air; I 
had visions of glorious -sport m the future ; henceforth I 
should feast my fill, and enjoy to the full that ecstatic feeling 
of almost perfect bliss that only he can know who has a per- 
fect dog. 

When I told my father in glowing language the result of 
Trim's last trial he did not entirely disbelieve me, as he knew 
that I always carried my little hatchet; but expressed a 
strong desire to go out wi.h me the next day and see this 
paragon, and judge for himself. The next morning we were 
early afoot and soon arrived at the covert. Giving Trim 
the word he was off like a shot ; we were in an alder run 
some fifty yards in width, with a broad ditch running the 
whole length ; Trim was covering the whole ground, leaping 
the di'ch at every turn. We had proceeded some distance, 
when, just as he rose to clear the ditch, he struck scent, and, 
as he had not fairly extended himself for the leap, in he went 
neck and heels. When we got there we could only see the 
top of his head and the end of his nose ; the rest of him had 
sunk in the mud with which the ditch was filled ; but he had 
not broken his point ; he was rigid as marble. After a little 
trouble I succeeded in getting across to where I could reach 
him, and, grasping his collar, I landed him on the bank and 
scraped the mud from him. He never moved a muscle, but, 
if anything, was more rigid than before. I stepped in to 
raise the bird, supposing that there must be one close by, 
when he carefully moved forward ; we had gone but a few 
steps before I noticed that his style was altogether different 



8'4 MY OLD DOG TRIM. 

from that of the day before ; then he was magnificent ; now 
he was glorious. Notwithstanding his bedraggled condition. 
he was a most beautiful sight and something wonderful to 
behold, as, with heal high in air, his eyes protruding from 
his head, his mou- h partly open and froth covering his lip3, 
he followed the trail as I have often imagined the lordly lion 
moves on his prey ; there was no noise and his every motion 
was perfect grace, and when, at last, he came to a stand and 
refused to advance another step we stood some time without 
speaking, drinking in with our eyes the wonderful picture. 
I broke the weird spell by advancing a few steps, when, with 
a mighty roar, up rose four or five ruffed grouse. Catching 
a glimpse of one that started to fly back, I whirled, and 
throwing my gun in his direction made a snap shot, and was 
rewarded by hearing that soul-satisfying thud as he struck 
the ground. Quickly loading, I bads Trim seek dead ; he 
was off like a flash, and soon returned with the bird. 1 
never saw a dumb brute express more pleasure than he; 
circling round me, with arched neck, he proudly carried the 
bird, and tried plainly to express his joy and to make me 
understand that this was his game. He was very loth to 
give up the bird, and after I had taken it he seemed so dis- 
appointed that I let him have it again, which pleased him 
very much, and he started off hunting with the bird in his 
mouth. We were very much amused to see him perform, 
and were greatly astonished to see him come to a point, still 
holding the bird in his mouth. Walking up to him he com- 
menced roadicg, and followed the b.rd more than a hundred 
yards and finally brought him to bay in a corner. As I 
walked in ahead, the bird rose and I succeeded in bringing 
him down. After loading I attempted to get the bird still in 
his mouth, but he did not want to give it up, and to see what 
he would do I ordered him to seek dead; he soon found 
it, and dropping the one he had he picked up the one just 
killed and brought it to me, and, before I had a chance to say 
a word, was off and brought me the other one and gave it up 
readily. We concluded that he thought that the first bird 
was some rare specimen, and tie only one that he w.uld 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 83 

ever see, and be was therefore not going to lose sight of it, 
but finding that the " woods were full of them" he thought 
that I had better carry it. These were the first ruffed grouse 
that he had seen and I made up my mind that, although he 
loved them so well, he would prove their deadly foe— a 
prediction, I am happy to say, that was abundantly verified 
on many occasions in after years. They were emphatically 
his game, and although he was a remarkable quail and wood- 
cock dog, and appeared to take great delight in their pursuit 
their was not that earnestness, that high and lofty style that 
took possession of him as soon as he struck the scent of hi3 
favorites. A very enthusiastic friend, who shot with me a 
great deal, used to say that if I would bring him a single 
hair, plucked from Trim when he was on a point, that he 
could tell me what bird was before him. 

There was an incident connected with this day's hunt that 
made a deep and lasting impression upon both of us ; it was 
an exhibition of intelligence such as we had never witnessed 
before. Upon our return we passed through the alder run, 
and, on account of better walking, kept on the bank of the 
ditch, with Trim close at heel ; when we arrived at the place 
where he fe ] l in, he stepped in front and looking up at us, 
with a waggish expression in his eye and a positive grin on 
his face, appeared to enjoy the remembrance of his mishap 
of the morning; we both laughed heartily, and I am sure 
that the d )g was laughing too. I am well aware that any- 
thing of this kind, when put on paper, loses a very large por- 
tion of its most interesting features ; it is utterly impossible 
to depict the eloquent expression of his eye, or the significant 
wag of his tail; the performances must have been seen to 
be fully appreciated. 

Trim's reasoning faculties were of a high order, and 1 
could give you hundreds of instances similar to the above, 
but for fear of being too prolix I will forbear ; this being the 
first time that he had displayed this wonderful faculty, it 
st r uck us as being something remarkable. The day was a 
glorious revelation to me ; I caught a glimpse of some of the 
possibilities of ruffed grouse hunting ; hitherto I had hunted 



84 MY OLD BOG TRIM. 

them, as almost every one does, in a haphazard manner, 
thanking the gods when I was lucky enough to bag one, and 
was not very particular how it was done, provided I got it. 
I liked the birds well enough but had always looked upon 
them as too wild and cunning for me, and had never spent 
much time upon them, devoting nearly all my time to wood- 
cock and quails ; but this day's sport had convinced me that 
there was a wealth of genuine, soul-satisfying sport in their 
pursuit that I had not dreamed of, and that no more royal 
game bird graced our forests, an opinion that has been 
strengthened year by year, and to-day I had rather take a 
good dog and follow up some old, wary cock grouse, even if 
I do not get him, than to bag a dozen woodcock or quails. 
Excuse this digression, as I am a little daft on the grouse 
question, and when I get a going do not know when to stop. 
There was one more revelation connected with this day that 
I caught a faint glimpse of that I must mention. I thought 
that I knew about all there was to be known about hunting, 
but before night I had the faintest suspicion of the fac!; that 
the dog knew more than I did about some things, and I had 
hunted but a few d3ys with him before every doubt up^n the 
subject was removed, and, ever after, when there was any 
conflict of opinion as to where the birds were, I let the dog 
have his own way. This was brought about by observing 
that when I was at fault in marking down a bird that Trim 
had ideas of his own upon the subject, which were generally 
coirect; he was ra-elyat fault, and was possessed of 'a re- 
markable faculty for locating a flashed bird. He appeared 
to know intuitively just where it would alight. In vain 
would I try to make him hunt closer the particular bit of 
cover where I had seen the bird go down, and, after several 
times tramping the spot out myself to no purpose, he would, 
nearly always, lead me straight to the bird. Once, I shall 
never forget, I tried to make him go back and work over a 
corner that we had just come through, feeling sure that I 
had marked the bird correctly, and that it wes lying close in 
there; he would not budge an inch, but looked back at me 
over his shoulder, slightly wagging hi3 tail, and tried to 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 85 

induce me to follow to the next corner, a few rods to the 
right. I was vexed at, what I then thought, his sullen 
humor, and, breaking a stick, gave him a beating. As soon 
as I let go of his collar he made a bolt for the next corner, 
and came to a point just at its edge, and turned back his head 
to see if I was coming. I followed mechanically, feeling very 
uncomfortable, and that somehow I had done wrong. When 
I came up with him he broke his point, and making a detour 
tog et the wind, he soon had the bird fast. I stepped in 
ahead, and as soon as the bird rose I knew that it was the 
one that I thought I had marked so correctiy, as I had shot 
at it and cut a feather or two from its wing, which 
caused it to make a peculiar whistling sound. At the first 
flutter of its wings, there was such a revulsion of feeling 
came over me as I wish never to experience again ; dropping 
my gun 1 rusbed back to the dog and throwing my arms 
around his neck tearfully promised him that never more 
would we have any misunderstanding. Trim appeared to 
realize what was passing in my mind; giving me a loving 
look, out of his wondrous, great brown eyts, he licked my 
face, something he had never done before. From this time 
forward we were in perfect accord, and I never allowed any 
doubt in my mind to influence me when he intimated to the 
contrary. As the season was far advanced I had but few 
more days' sport, but they were replete with a wonderful 
feeling of complete enjoyment, such as I had never ex- 
perienced befi re. 

Although Trim started off in such grand form he improved 
visibly every time we went out, and it was with deep regret 
that I hung up my gun at the close of the season. I was not 
aware how deep a hold my sporting proclivities had upon 
me, until I could no longer gratify them. So fascinating had- 
been the sport, enjoyed in the last few weeks, it was a long 
time before I could think or talk about anything else. 

Many moons waxed and waned, and still in my dreams the 
rear of the swift winged grouse, as they rose and burst 
through the tangled covert, only to be quickly brought down 
by my unerring aim, and the beautiful and unique position 



86 MY OLD BOG TRIM. 

of Trim, as like Nemesis he silently followed them to their 
fate, gave me great consolation and made life, duriDg the 
close seasoD, not quite unendurable. 

It was with happy feelings of glorious anticipation that 
my chosen friend and self, accompanied by Trim, sallied 
forth at early dawn on the first day of the open season. 
Would that I wielded the magic pen of a Herbert to describe 
to you the manifold beauties of that lovely morning, and to 
lead you, step by step, through wooded aisle and open glade, 
and to depict in glowing colors the many interesting scenes 
that were constantly transpiring ; and, more than all else, 
would I wish to impart to yon a portion of the joyful feel- 
ings that to us were a cjntinual feast ; but as my pen is only 
a feeble one, at best, I will leave all tirs to your imagination. 
Suffice it to say that Trim more than verified the encomiums 
that I had lavishly bestowed upon him, and converted my 
friend from the error of his ways, woodcock- ward, and made 
him a staunch and lifelong devotee at the shrine of the lordly 
grouse. 

There is no game bird in the world that so taxe3 the skill 
and patience of dog, and man, as a sly, old cock grouse; 
most fertile in cunning resources to eva le you and escap?, 
when, seemingly, you have him safe. In vain did they essay 
their most wily stratagems with Trim ; he was up to all 
their- maneuvers, and I could neirly always, tell what par- 
ticular irick a bird was going to try on U3 by paying close at- 
tention to the dog. Did it attempt to run and gain the 
vantage of distance, from which to rise well out of shot, like 
a whirlwind Trim was after it, and passing on one side of it, 
a few feet ahead, he would turn and point as staunch as a 
rock, with the sadly demoralized bird between us. lie 
would rarely fail in forcing the wildest of them to lie securely 
hid until, in numberless instances, I have literally kicked 
them from their hiding-place, so badly scared that the veriest 
tyro could easily have knocked them over as they floundered 
away in a straigit line, all the conceit, that they could twist 
and double, taken out of them. Did they endeavor to 
"swing round the circle 1 ' and get in our rear, and scare us 



MY OLD-JHx; TRIM. 87 

almost to death with their infernal clatter, as they rose from 
the path where we had just passed, secure in the knowledge 
that if they heard the whistle of the shot it would not be in 
their direction, it was generally their last swing, for this per- 
formance had fooled us several times, and appeared to vex 
Trim, and so soon as a curve in the trail led him to suspect 
the trick, his hair would rise, and he would back out from 
the trail and swing for them in a manner that they did not 
appear to understand. Circling at break neck speed, until 
he got the wind of the now confused bird, he would hold it 
fast and give me an easy shot. His wonderful reasoning 
powers, and the tact which he displayed, in adapting himself 
to the different moods of the birds, were very prolific in 
filling the bag. Were they wild and prone to rise at a long 
distance, he would make as much noise as a pair of unbroken 
steers, and thrash around in the brush in a manner that 
strangers to him would always ridicule ; but he knew what 
he was about, and approaching the bird in a serpentine 
course would get as close a3 he wished, and make his point, 
from which an avalanche could not stir him, and you could 
go home and get your dinner, with no fear but that you 
would find him there when you returned, aed the bird too. 
Were they shy and disposed to skulk and hide, no cat more 
stealthy than he ; with his head always high in air he 
would creep through the tangled thicket, never breaking a 
twig, nor turning a leaf, and if we did not get the bird it was 
not for the want of a fair shot. As an instance of his re- 
markable sagacity, I will relate an incident that was very 
pleasing to me, and that resulted in the capture of a most 
royal bird. It was just at the outlet of a large swamp, where 
there was a ditch about four feet wide, and as deep, that 
emptied into a small stream which it intersected at right 
argles ; along tbe bank of the stream was an alder thicket 
that extended up stream ten or twelve rods and then curved 
round and joined the swamp; near the mouth of the ditch 
was a favorite spot from which I had several times started 
a noble bird, which had always got away scot free ; it would 
manage to put the thicket between itself and myself, and fly 



88 MY OLD DOG TRIM. 

close to the ground until out of sho L . Bound to circumvent 
it, I took a friend and placing him on the bank of the creek, 
I took the inside, between the alders and ditch, and sent the 
dog in the thicket ; he soon struck the trail, and followed it 
down to the ditch; 1 took my stand about a rod from the 
ditch aud directed my companion to walk up to the dog and 
flush the bird, which he did, and the wiley old fellow, 
taking in the situation at a glance, dived for the ditch and 
flew so low that neither of us could see him. But he had 
played his list trick; there was a streak of dog and mud 
after hini that force I him t ) s'iow himself ; a sullen roar, a 
cloud of featbers, and the gaiant bird was beaten at his own 
game. Instead of standing perfectly still at the report of the 
gun, as he invariably did, Trim came directly to us, and, 
capering around us, plainly expressed his joy at the result ; 
then going for the bird, he brought it to my friend first, and, 
arching his neck, marched around him in triumph two or 
three times, and then brought it to me. This was the first 
and last time I ever knew him to chase. 

Trim wa3 abs lutely perfect in the field; there was no 
necessity to tell him where to go; he covered the whole 
ground, and, although a very fast and wide ranger, quartered 
his ground so close, and showed himself so often, that it was 
no trouble to keep track of him. At the faintest indication 
of scent he would come to a poiot and remain quiet until I 
came up to him, and when he had located his bird neither 
encouragement nor threats could move him an inch. At the 
rise of the bird, or report of the gun, he remained prfectly 
still in whatever position he happead to be, until ordered on. 
He was one of the best retrievers that I ever saw, both from 
land and water, never mouthing his birds, or ruffling a feather. 
I never knew him to bite a bird but once ; we were hunting 
a wide belt of timber when my companion, at some distance 
to my right, signalled a point ; I crossed over and, when 
nearly to him, flushed and shot a woodeck; at the report of 
the gun. a grouse rose before the dog and my friend dropped 
it close by the woodcock; both birds were only winged. 
Trim gathered the grouse first, when, comirg in, he stumbled 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 89 

over the woodcock, which he saw was trying to get away, 
he dropped ihe grouse and seized the woodcock, then seeing 
the grouse making off he changed again; after swapping 
three or four times he deliberately shut his jaw3 on the 
woodcock, and, laying him down, picked up the grouse, and 
bringing him in relumed and brought the woodcock and 
carried it straight to my friend, reasoning that he would not 
say a word, whereas, if he brought it to me, I might scold 
him for biting it. Hi 3 conduct was the more singular, as he 
was very jealous that I should have a'l the birds, and no one 
could coax him to give up a single one. He was an inde- 
fatigab'e worker and disliked to stop a moment, but would 
work from morning until nigh: ; it was hard work to keep 
him quiet when I sat down to rest or eat a lunch. One day 
we had tramped a long distance, and coming out on the 
sunny side of the woods we sat down and took a long rest ; 
when we got ready to start Trim was missing ; I called and 
whistled, but he did not come; casting my eyes across the 
open lot I saw him two hundred yards away, at the far edge, 
pointing directly toward us. When we came up to him he 
brok3 his point, and wheeling round in the opposite direction 
led us a quarter of a mile away and came to a point at the 
edge of a sluble field; moving on we soon flushed a nob'e 
bevy of quail. It wa3 plain to be seen that he had been thee 
before, as his footprints were visible on the soft ground ; he 
evidently reasoned that we would never find him, and, to let 
us know that he had found game, delibrately broke his point, 
and retracing his steps to where we cou'd see him, pointedly 
told us t ) come along. This peculiar trait sooa became 
habitual with him, and ever after we let him have his own 
way, knowing that if he found birds he wuuld show himself 
and cause us no trouble to look him up. I found this habit 
very useful the next season, as, owing to a severe cat on my 
ankle, I was incapacitated from walking very far. I would 
sit in the wagon and let him go, whiling away the moments, 
like the "lone fisherman," in '-glorious anticipation," keep- 
ing a sharp watch in every direction, and wondering at what 
point he would make his appearance. At game was very 



90 MY OLD BOG TRIM. 

plenty I was generally rewarded by seeing him come bound- 
ing into open, and, after a stride or two, strike an attitude, 
the memory of which, even now, after the lapse of nearly 
forty years, causes my heart to bound with del'ght, and sends 
the hot blood tingling to my fingers ends. When Trim made 
a point there was a magnetic, inspiriting sympathy, amongst 
all beholders, that I can compare to nothing excepting to the 
sensation of an electric shock, and I have yet to see the dog 
that will cause my hair to rise to the elevation it obtained 
when viewing his psrformances. I cannot better djscribe 
this feeling than to quote the language of a wood-chopping 
Irishman, near whom Trim came to point. When we came 
up the man had dropped his axe and stood looking at him 
with heaving chest, gaping mouth and wide open eye3. 
"Look at him!" he said; "did yees iver see the likes of 
that : howly Moses, how my hair riz up and the cowld chills 
run up my back when he tuck the scent ; if the howly 
virgin shud telL me there want twinty burds just forninst 
him, by my sow'l I'd belave the dog furst," 

As an instance of his wonderful power of fascination I 
cannot forbear relating a little incident that afforded us many 
days of first-rate sport. We were hunting close to the farm 
of a man who never allowed shooters to set foot on his prem- 
ises. Trim came to a point a few yards from the line, and 
as we came up to him we observed the mm leaning on the 
fence, looking on. " Hold on," said he, "I want to come 
over and see tha^ dog." We cordially invited him, and the 
old man became quite excited. "Why," said he, " I hain't 
been so woke up since my old stags runaway with the plow ; 
see that consarned dog's hair turn toward his head — it beats 
all creation !" We flushed and killed the bird and the old 
man was perfeclly delighted. Af ier telling us he came out 
to keep us off his land, he gave us a pressing invitation, 
which he did not have to repeat, to go over and hunt in his 
woods, and he would go with us as he wanted to see that 
dog perform some more. It is needless to say that we went, 
and not only had a go 3d time, but a good dinner, bMh of 
which were repeated on many subsequent occasions, for he 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 91 

urgently invited us to come again and to be sure and let him 
know so that he c mid go along and see the fun. 

After a few seasons Trim gained a wonderful knowledge 
of the habits of the game he hunted, particularly his favor- 
ite, the grouse. After be had taken two or three (urns in 
the cover he would almost unerringly, indicate by his man- 
ner, the presence or absence of game. Did he put on more 
steam, and hunt as though he expected to find game, you 
could take your oath that birds were near, or had been re- 
cently. On the other hand, did he slacken his pace, or ex- 
p ess indifference, you might as well strike for some other 
locality as he was rarely mistaken. I soon discovered that 
he used his eyes as well as his nose, and, by closely watch- 
ing him and profiting by his example, I soon became quite 
an adept in finding "sign3." The faintest indication of birds, 
where they had scratched among the leaves, the plainly-to- 
be-seen wallow holes, where they had dusted themselves, a 
stray feather, their droppings, or the partly eaten skunk cab- 
bage were to him a3 an open book that he literally read as he 
ran. Often have I seen him slow up and, glancing at the 
ground, throw his head in my direction and give me an ex- 
pressive glance, accompanied by just the faintest wag of the 
end of his tail ; then off again, at increased speed, he would 
seldom fail to soon find mere tangible proofs of the presence 
of birds. Upon examining these places I would find unmis- 
takable " L signs," and soon learned to see them unaided by 
him. It is but a few days since I caused an incredulous 
smile to overspread the countenance of a friend, with whom 
I was out shooting, by pronouncing the cover we were in to 
be the home of a covey of grouse. We had gone scarcely 
fifty yards, and he wa3 saying that he had hunted this cover 
for more than a dozen years and had never seen a grouse in 
it, when the dog came to a point and we flushed a splendid 
covey of ten or eleven birds, eight of wh : ch accompanied us 
home. It is a source of pleaaure to me, as well as a cause of 
wonder to my sporting friends, that I am thus able to predict 
the near presence of game. This is one souvenir, left me by old 
Trim, that helps to keer) him ever in grateful remembrance. 



93 MY OLD DOG TRIM. 

Nothing pleised Trim better than to get after a wiley old 
cock grouse. With what pertinacity he would stick to him ! 
It was then that he put forth his greatest efforts, growing 
more eager at every rise, until, at last, when we had tired 
the bird out, or scared him so that we could approach near 
enough for a shot, his hair would turn toward his head and 
he would seem to expand to twicj his U3ual size. At such 
times he would turn his head until he caught my eye, when he 
would give me a glance of exultation that there was no mis- 
taking. Ordinarily when I killed a bird, he would bring it 
in and lay it in my hand, with simply a wag of his tail ; but 
when we got one of those wise old birds he would always 
arch his neck and proudly walk around me once or t vice 
before delivering it, and had we extra hard work to circum- 
vent one he would accompany his triumphant march with a 
joyful whine, or, as a friend expressed it, ' 'Singing a pcean 
of victory." I shall never forget one famous chase after a 
magnificent old cock that led us a wild tramp upwards of four 
miles, straightaway, from the team, which we did not see 
again until after ten o'clock at night. We started him about 
two o'clock; he rose two hundred yards away, ont from one 
end of an alder run as we entered at the other. I caught a 
glimpse of him as he swung over the tree tops, and got hi3 
course, which led into heavy limber, where we followed him 
a long distance only to see him pitch down from the top of a 
tall tree. Thinking that he would not "treJ' again, I kept 
on ; Trim soon found his trai', but before we got within fifty 
yards he was off again. He pursied the same tactics several 
times until my " blood was up," and Trim was more inter- 
ested than I had ever seen him before ; he raged around like 
a mad bull, the froth flying from his lip3 and his eyesglaring 
like those of a scared cat. It was now ge'ting quite interest- 
ing, as it was nearly night ; I still followed on, thinking that 
we must 5be getting the old fellow's wind, a supposition 
whioh proved correct, for Trim soon came to a point, and 
showed by his actions that he was close on to him. Step- 
ping in front, great was my chagrin to hear this awful bird 
burst close to me, but on the other side of a bunch of laurel 



MY OLD DOG TRIM. 93 

that I could neither see through nor over ; I was mad, but 
nevertheless we went f t him again. His next flight was 
short and we soon fom d him in a bunch of laurel. Making 
up my mind that something must be done, I made a rusk for 
the bunch, and, as I went in, heard him densely chuckle at 
me, and then, with victorious clapping of wing, he was off ; 
but he lit'le knew with what momentum I had charged that 
"forlorn hope." I got through somehow and was in time to 
11 cut him down in his pride." How Trim's eye3 did sparkle, 
and how his tail did wiggle ! With what exultant feelings I 
proceeded to load, meanwhile, as was ray wont, talking to 
Trim and telling him what mighty Nimrods we were. When 
Trim went to bring it I soon saw that it was only winged, 
but I had no fear, as it was impossible for a woucded bird to 
get away from him. As he was gone longer than usual I 
started after him and was much surprised to meet him com- 
ing back with head and tail clear down, and without the 
bird : when he saw me he sullenly led the way to a ledge of 
rock under which the confounded bird had taken refuge, Fe- 
cure as though he were a thousand miles away. 

I will dravy the curtain here ; our woe was too sacred for 
profane eye3. It w s now sundown, and to avoid the track- 
less forest I concluded to skirt the edge, as, although a mile 
or two further, it would be easier. We had gone but a short 
distance when from under an old tree top out went as many 
as twenty grouse ; droping one right and left, I did not wait 
to load, but sent Trim after them. He brought them in, but 
so badly did he feel about losing that bird that the customary 
wag of his tail was entirely wanting, and he showed no dis- 
position to follow up the birds just started, but g'oomily fol- 
lowed c'ose bt heel. Not being very well acquainted with 
the ground, and as it was pitch dark, it took u3 four weary 
hours to get back to the team. Trim sulked all the way, and 
not even the memory of that beautiful double could dissipate 
the sadness from my mind. 

The next morning, taking a friend along, we drove near to 
the place where I had started so many birds. As soon as we 
stopped to hitch the horse Trim bolted for the ledge at the 



94 MY OLD BOG TRIM. 

top of his speed, and taking the trail of our wounded bird, 
■which had left its hiding placp, soon had it where tricks 
would not save its bacon, and bringing it to us, paraded 
around with it, whining with pleasure, and finally marched 
up to the horse and rearing up on his hind legs, held the bird 
fur him to smell; then bringing it to me he barked and 
crpercd until our sides ached laughing at his comical per- 
formances. He had never barked before on any such occa- 
sion, but he felt so good tbat he had got the best of this, the 
wildest bird that we ever saw, that ordinary language failed 
to express his feeling 3 , and several times through the day he 
would stop and look at us, a world of intelligence in his 
glance, and give two or three short barks, b\ which we, 
knowing that he was making remarks about his feat of the 
morning, would respond with words of praise which he ap- 
peared fully to understand. A year afterward, when in the 
vicinity of the ledge, he looked up in my face and used the 
same language, and I am confident from his maimer that he 
retained a lively recollection of the aflair. 

I could fill volumes witti interesting incidents connected 
with Trim's career, but I fear that already I have wearied the 
patience of the reader, and will s^y but a few words more. 
For rraLy, very many long years I have been anxiously 
seeking the counterpart of old Trim ; several times have I 
succeeded in finding something that came very near to him 
on some ore kind of game, bnt I have never seen the dog 
that could compare wi h him for all kinds of birds ; and for 
unflagging energy, combined with rare judgment, and, far 
more than all else, for speaking, almost human intelligence, 
he stands without a rival. 

Graceful ferns, mingled with somber hued mosses, gently 
wave over his siient lesting place; and, for more than a 
quarter of a century, as each golden Indian summer returns 
to us, loving hands have plucked from the graceful neck of 
the lordly grouse their beautiful plumes, and strewed his 
lowly bed with fitting tribute to the memory of him who 
loved them so well. Stiadow. 



w 



REARING PUPPIES. 

E receive many letters from different sections of the 
Country complaining of want of success in raising 
puppies. Nearly all of them state that the writers have 
taken great pains with the animals and given them the best 
of care, but in spite of their efforts they sicken and die and, 
in many instances, entire litters are lost. 

We have often thought that perhaps the great mortality 
complained of is owing in a great measure to this constant 
care and delicate nursing that anxious breeders bestow upon 
their pets. Who ever heard of a litter of mongrels that no 
one cared for meeting an untimely end ? This we believe to 
be the key note of the whole matter, and that in order to be 
a successful breeder you must banish all fear for the lives 
and health of the youngsters, and let them shirk for them- 
selves, and above all else give them no drugs or medicines of 
any description, for we are well s itisfied that ten puppies 
are killed by dosing where one is benefited, and that the sur- 
vivor is often ruined for long continued work by the injury 
thus wrought. 

Now, we do not wish this to be construed as meaning that 
we are opposed to giving medicine at all times, for we are 
well aware that properly administered, much suffering is 
alleviated, and many valuable lives are saved, but we do 
firmly believe that the ailments of puppy hood should be left 
entirely alone, and that nature, if untrammelled, will effect 
ten times the cures that can be accomplished by the use of 
drugs, especially as administered by the breeders throughout 
the country who have no practical knowledge of their deadly 
effects, nor of the proper time nor remedy to apply in a very 
large majority of cases that c^me before them, but anxious 
to do everything in their pov, er to save their darlings, and 



96 REARING PUPPIES. 

fearful that if something is not o> ne at once the little thing 
will die, they, wiih the best intentions in the world, pour 
down his throat some powerful drug that but too often is 
sure to cause the very result they fear, and then, forsooth, 
they wonder why it is that the good die so young, and C3n 
only account for the succ ss of their neighbor who raises 
c very one of a mongrel litter by the fallacious reasoning that 
the blue bloods are of a higher organization, and conse- 
quently more delicate and harder to rear. That this is not 
true in most cases can be easily demonstrated by following 
the advice here given, and giving your high-toned litter the 
same chance for life that your neighbor gives his mongrels. 
We are writing only concerning mature and healthy ani- 
mals, believing tint all who are otherwise should be relig- 
iously excluded from the breeding kennel. We have bred 
&< 2 s f° r niiny years, and have been uniformly successful, at 
least so far as bringing our puppies safely th ough their eirly 
days is concerned, and we have ace mplished this— or rather 
it has been accompl shed— without any trouble or care upon 
ourpait by simply leaving thf m alone and trusting to nature 
the entire charge of the : r welfare. True, we always gave 
the mother plenty of healthful food and exercise, and as soon 
a*3 the pups were a few da 1 s old removed them from their 
stall and made their bed upon the b ire ground, and there 
they had to stay until they were weaned. We were often 
ashamed of their dirty appearance, but never of their health. 
We never wash a puppy. We d > not believe that it is of any 
benefit to them, except in looks, and we believe it is often a 
source of trouble in that it induces a cold which may bring 
disease and death. Of course we keep them sheltered from 
cold and inclement weather, but at all times give them plenty 
of room on the ground, where they can dig in the dirt nnd 
get fresh earth to eat when they wish. A'ter wi auing, we 
accustom them to a diet of Indian or oa meal, well cooked 
and mixed with plenty of thick sour milk. This we have 
found to be the best possible thing to expel the worms that 
many times infest them. It is also the best regul tor of the 
bowels that we have ever tried, as by a little care in increas. 



REAMING PUPPIES. 97 

ing or dminishing the quantity it will always keep them just 
right. We frequently boil meat and use the broth for mak- 
ing their mush, and if the : r condition is not just to suit we 
give them an occassional meal of woll c >oked meat, and 
when their teeth begin to trouble them, we give them plenty 
of large bones, with a little meat on them, and never, under 
any circumstances — for their ordinary a : lments— do we give 
them a single dose of medicine, and, above all else, we never 
worry our minds with thoughts or fears that they will not 
live. 

We invite an expression of opinion upon this subject, and 
would like to see the question fully d"scu ; sed in our columns, 
for, among the many trials and drawbacks encountered by 
breeders, none is mire disheartening than to see the light 
fade from the eyes of their pets, as one by one they meet 
their untimely fate. 



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No. 34.-STRONG AND PUNGENT. 
No. 41.— IKIIIjD AND RICH. 

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Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at 
Tufts University 
200 Westboro Road 
North Grafton, MA 01 536