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Full text of "A practical grammar of the ancient Gaelic or, language of the Isle of Man, usually called Manks. Edited, together with an introd. by William Gill"

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A PRACTICAL GRAMMAR 



OF THE 



ANTIENT GAELIC, 




ragt rf t|e |sk nf 




USUALLY CALLED 



M A N K S. 



158 



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BY THE REV. JOHN KELLY, LLD., 

VICAR OF ARDLEIGH, AND RECTOR OF COPFORD, 
IN THE COUNTY OF ESSEX. 



EDITED, TOGETHER 

WITH AN INTRODUCTION, LIFE OF DR. KELLY, AND NOTES, 



& 



REV. WILLIAM GULL, /^ b ^ 

VTCAR OF MA LEW. ** >^ Ifl > 

U' cl 



DOUGLAS, ISLE OF MAN: 

PRINTED FOR THE MANX SOCIETY. 
MDCCCLIX. 

FACSIMILE EEPRINT FOE BERNARD QUARITCH, 15 PICCADILLY, LONDON. 

1870. 



1810 



EDITOE'S INTRODUCTION. 



Manx Grammar, like tlie language itself, was fast 
hastening to decay. The original and only edition had 
become extremely scarce; insomuch that a copy could with 
difficulty be found from which to re-edit the work. At this 
crisis The Manx Society opportunely intervened for its preserva- 
tion. The Society was formed in 1858, " for the publication of 
National Documents of the Isle of Man." Among the first 
works to which it turned its attention was Dr. Kelly's Manx 
Grammar, which it deemed deserving of a place among its early 
publications. In the restoration of this book, the Society 
acknowledges its obligations to a lady, a warm friend of the Island 
and a relative of the deceased author, for the generous donation 
of half the cost of the impression. 

Besides the Grammar, Dr. Kelly had prepared two works of 
great labour, and, in a philological point of view, great value, 
a Manx and English Dictionary, and a Triglot Dictionary of 
Manx, Gaelic, and Irish, based upon English. These works are 
still lying in manuscript, but complete, and ready for the press. 



iv EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. 

The Society considers the publication of these too heavy an 
undertaking for its present funds ; but it is not without hope 
that it may at some future, perhaps not distant, time be able to 
aid in giving them to the world, and that the present publication 
may open the way to such a result. 

This reprint of the Grammar is an accurate transcript of the 
original work, with corrections only of errors of the press and of 
some obvious inaccuracies of the pen. The old plan of making 
an English Grammar was to reduce the structure of the language 
to a rigid conformity to Latin and Greek, in the number and 
names of cases, and of moods and tenses. In Manx the same 
thing was thought imperative. The modern rule is, to have just 
as many cases, and as many moods and tenses, as there are actual 
variations of the words, without the admission of prepositions or 
of auxiliary verbs. To this rule the laws of grammar seem to 
require the Manx, as well as the English, to be conformed. As, 
however, the adoption of such a principle in the present instance 
would involve the rearrangement, to a considerable extent, of 
the Grammar, it is thought advisable not to attempt the change, 
but to give the work in its original integrity. Dr. Kelly's 
Grammar thus presented, especially viewed as an original pro- 
duction, unaided by any pre- existent grammar, cannot fail to 
strike the intelligent reader as reflecting the highest credit on 
the author's industry and ingenuity. 

The object of this reprint is not to uphold the Manx as a 
spoken language, that were a hopeless attempt, were the end 
ever so desirable ; but to afford some assistance to the student of 
this interesting branch of the ancient Celtic, and to obtain for it, 
when its lifetime is gone by, a place among the records of the 



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. v 

dead languages of Europe. The decline of the spoken Manx, 
within the memory of the present generation, has been marked. 
The language is no longer heard in our courts of law, either from 
the bench or the bar, and seldom from the witness-box. The 
courts are indeed still fenced in Manx, according to ancient tra- 
ditionary form ; and the Island laws are still promulgated in 
that language on the Tynwald Mount, where the last lingering 
accents of the Graelic in Man once the language of Europe, the 
universal language of the British Isles will probably be heard. 
In our churches the language was used by many of the present 
generation of clergy three Sundays in the month. It was after- 
wards restricted to every other Sunday ; and is now entirely dis- 
continued in most of the churches. In the schools throughout 
the Island the Manx has ceased to be taught ; and the introduc- 
tion of the Government system of education has done much to 
displace the language. It is rarely now heard in conversation, 
except among the peasantry. It is a doomed language, an ice- 
berg floating into southern latitudes. 

Let it not, however, be thought that its end is immediate. 
Among the peasantry it still retains a strong hold. It is the 
language of their affections and their choice, the language to 
which they habitually resort in their communications with each 
other. And no wonder ; for it is the language which they find 
most congenial to their habits of thought and feeling. In Eng- 
lish, even where they have a fair knowledge of the tongue, they 
speak with hesitation and under restraint. In Manx they are 
fluent, and at ease. There is little probability, therefore, of their 
soon forgetting their cJiengcy-ny-mayrey (mother-tongue). 
A language thus dear to the peasantry from its innate adap- 



vi EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. 

tation to their use, possesses at the same time no small recom- 
mendations to the attention of the philologist and antiquary, 
and especially of those whose office it is to instruct the people in 
morals and religion. A few of its distinctive qualities may be 
here noticed. 

The language is peculiarly forcible and expressive, as far as 
the range of its vocabulary extends. For the purposes of devo- 
tion it is especially adapted.* There is a solemnity and sim- 
plicity in the Manx Liturgy of which the intelligent worshipper 
cannot but feel conscious. In the Manx Scriptures the idiom of 
the language seems to bear a strong affinity to that of the 
originals, especially of the Old Testament, 

The poetical capabilities of the language are beautifully ex- 
hibited in many of the effusions of the native muse. The follow- 
ing fugitive production of the pen of a late native clergyman 
(the Kev. T. Stephen), which appeared many years ago in an 
Island newspaper, and is now (at the time of writing this Intro- 
duction) probably lost to every person but the Editor, will bear 
comparison, for pathos and idiomatic beauty, with any passage 
that can be produced from English poetry : 

" As ere ta gloyr, agh aalid ennym vie, 
Ennym I ta myr y ghall ta sheidey shaghey ? 
Shoh moylley'n pobble, my she moylley shen. 
Son ere ta'n pobble, agh yurnaag anreaghit, 
Earroo neuchinjagh, ta son jannoo mooar 
Jeh nheeghyn eddrym nagh vel toilchin scansh, 
As coontey cadjin reddyn ta feeu arrym ? 
Ta'd moylley as ta'd ooashlagh shen nagh nhione daue j 
As shen ta'd gloyragh jiu, ta'd jiooldey mairagh; 

* An eminent Scotch nobleman is said to have expressed himself thus: "If I 
wish to speak on philosophy, I employ the Greek language. If I utter commands, the 
Latin is best to express them. If I make love, I speak in French. But if I address my 
Maker, I have recourse to the Gaelic." 






EDITOR S INTRODUCTION. Vll 



Cha 'soc eer quoi, agh eer myr tad'yr leeidit ;' 
Fer er fer elley geiyrt, myr guoiee trooid doarlish. 
As cre'n cooilleen t'ayns soiagh vooar nyn Iheid ? 
Dy veaghey er nyn ennal, goo yn sleih ! 
Marvanee Iheaystagh, myr y gheay neuhiggyr ! 
Quoi echey ta resoon veagh blakey lurgh oc ? 
Lioroo dy ve Iheamysit te moylley." 

Literal translation : 

" And what is glory, but the radiance of a name, 
A name ! which, as a vapour, blows unheeded by ? 
This is the people's praise, if praise it be. 
For what is the people ? An entangled skein, 
A fickle mob, who greatly prize 
Things vain and worthless ; 
While they contemn what merits veneration, 
They praise and they esteem the things they know not. 
And whom they praise to-day, they blame to-morrow ; 
They know not whom, but just as they are led ; 
One following another, as geese through a gap. 
And what advantage is in the esteem of such ? 
To live upon their breath, the people's praise ! 
Poor wavering mortals, as the wind inconstant ! 
Their blame is commendation." 

The language abounds in strong figurative expressions. Of 
this the lines above quoted afford an illustration. The following 
are additional examples : 

Cassa/n - ny - greiney. 
The footpath of the sun (the zodiac). 

Goll twoaie. 
The going north (the rainbow, which always appears in or towards the north). 

Feallagh ny firrinys. 
The people of the truth (the perfect). 

Cre-erbee feh dy ycmnoo, te clieet lesh. 
Whatsoever he doeth, it comes with him (prospers). 

Ny cur dty aigney Ihieu. 

Not give thy mind with them (consent not). 

S/ictss er dty cliione Tiene. 

Stand on thy head own (rely on your own understanding). 

Buitchoorys er Tiene. 

Slaughtering on him - self (on his own account). 

Goll slieese ny lhargagli, 
Going down the declivity (failing). 



viii EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. 

S'mie Ihiam shen dy-jarroo. 

Very good to me is that indeed (very pleasing to me). 
Shooyl ny thieyn. 
Going on the houses (begging). 

Ta'n ushtey cloie. 
The water is playing (boiling). 

Bock Yuan fannee. 

The horse of John the flayer (one Juan, who flayed his horse, and took to his stick- 
walking stick). 

Craue - beg ~ 'sy - chleeau. 

A bone little in the breast (remorse). 

Lhiam - Ihiat. 
With me, withthee (an inconstant person). 

Chengey Ihiam, chengey Ihiat. 
Tongue with me, tongue with thec (blowing hot and cold). 

In proverbial lore the Manx language has its traditionary 
stores. The figures which give point and beauty to its proverbs 
are, as in all primitive languages, taken from nature. The fol- 
io vving will serve as specimens of its popular sayings : 

Keeayl chionnit yn cheeayl share, 
Wit bought is the wit best, 

Mannagh vel ee Icionnit ro gheyr. 
If it be not bought too dear. 

Ta cree dooie ny share na Tcione croutagh. 
Is a heart kindly better than a head crafty. 

Tra ta un dooinney boght cooney lesh dooinney boght elley, ta> Jee hene garaghtee. 
When one man poor helps man poor another, God himself laughs 
(for delight). 

Tra hig yn laa Mg yn coyrle lesh. 
When come the day will come its counsel with it. 

Clagh ny Ullagh ayns Icione dty hie vooar. 

A church stone be in the head of thy house great (thy punishment be that of the 
man who commits sacrilege). 

Ta'n aghaue veg shuyr da'n^aghaue vooar. 
Is the hemlock little sister to the hemlock big (a small sin is akin to a great one). 

Laik Ihiat ve marish y chioltane ; agh ta'n eamagh ayd eamagh 

Thou wouldest fain be numbered with the flock; but is bleat thy the bleat 

ny goair. 
of the goat. 



IX 

Ta ynsagh coamrey stoamey yn dooinney berchagh; as te berchys yn 
Is learning the attire comely of the man rich; and it is the riches of the 
dooinney boght. 
man poor. 

Cronk ghlassfoddey voym ; loam loam tra roshym eh. 

The hill green far away ; bare bare when I reach it. (" Distance lends en- 
chantment to the view." CAMPBELL'S Pleasures of Hope.) 

Myr s'doo yn feeagh yiow eh sheshey. 
However black the raven, will find he a mate. 

Eshin nagh gow risk briw erbee, feh deyrey eh hene. 

He who will not take with (not allow) judge any, he does condemn him- self. 

Caghlaa obbyr aaish. 
Change of work is rest. 

Easht lesh dagh cleaysh, eisht jean briwyns. 
Listen with each ear, then do judgment. 

Yn loam leigh loam aggair. 
Summum jus sumnia injuria. 

Shegin goaill ny eairkyn marish y cheh. 
You must take the horns with the hide. (Job ii. 10.) 

In the study of the language,, the antiquary will find scope 
for the exercise of his ingenuity in tracing the origin and signi- 
fication of many of the proper nouns and peculiar expressions. 
To suggest a few hints in this direction : 

Gaelic, Gailck, Gaelgagh, evidently indicate the affinity of the language and the 
race to the old Celtic, or Keltic. " The Galic," says Mr. Shaw, in his Galic Dic- 
tionary, "is the language of Japhet, spoken before the Deluge, and probably the 
speech of Paradise." 

Bretnee, or Brethnee, the Welsh, the old British ; from breclc, brith, spotted 
(Latin, the Picts). 

Sasonee, or Saxonee, the English, the Anglo-Saxons. 
Albin, Nolbin, Albinee, Alpinee, the Scotch (Albania). 
Erinee, the Irish. 
Frangee, the French, Franks. 

Keeil, a church ; probably from Tteyll, a grove ; the Druids' grove being turned into 
a Christian church. 

Laa-Boayldyn or Baaltine, May-day, when the inhabitants burn fires on the moun- 
tains ; the day of Baal's fire, or of the sun, from chenan, the sun, or chen or teinne 
(Scotch), the fire of the sun, which our ancestors worshipped as the medium of 
adoration of the Supreme Being. (See Kelly's Dictionary, BaaUine.) 
Dru'i, a charmer, a druid. Hence, dpvs, an oak. 
Druiaglitagh, an enchanter. (Jer. xxvii. 9.) 



Cloagey-druiagh, a druidical cloak, supposed to confer on the person wearing it 
the power of healing, prophesying, and becoming invisible. 

Malew, the name of a parish in Man ; from Hoyl-Loup, or Hoylley-Lupus, in 
honour of Lupus, the church being dedicated to St. Lupus. 

Ballakeeil-Woirrey, the estate of Mary's Church. 

S'nioal, the name of the highest mountain in Man. (Cornish, niull, a cloud ; 
Scotch, neull, a cloud.) 

Padjer, prayer. (Latin, pater, Italian, padre, Cornish, padar, the Lord's Prayer 
a going to the Father.) 

AgglisTi, the church. (Greek, o:A?7<ria.) 

Saggyrt, a priest. (Latin, sacerdos.) 

Corp as annym, body and soul. (Latin, corpus et animus.) 

Oirr ny marrey, the sea-coast. (Latin, ora warn.) 

Airh as argid, gold and silver. (Latin, aurum et argentum.) 

Ennym, a name. (Greek, ovo/ia.) 

Paitchey, a child. (Greek, tratq .) 

Keayrd, a trade. (Greek, icepdoQ, gain.) 

MesJitey, drunk. (Greek, /uorog, full.) 

JBooa, a cow. (Greek, /3oao>, to bellow.) 

Fer, a man. (Lat. wr.) 

Colmane, a drove. (Lat. columba.) 

Arroo, corn. (Lat. arc, to plough.) 

Sollys, light. (Lat. sol, the sun.) 

Peccagh, a person. (Lat. peccator, a sinner.) 

Phadeyr, a prophet. (Gr. 0au>, to speak.) 

Dooys, give me. (Gr. oai, a giving.) 



The habits of the people may be traced in many of the terms 
and peculiar expressions of their tongue : 

Staa, a band of three men making a hedge together two of them cutting the sod r 
and one lifting. 

Fer feayree, one above the number wanted at work, to cool while the others are 
working. 

Oie mooie as oie elley sthie. 
A night out and night another in, 

Oik son cdbbil agh son kirree mie. 
Bad for horses but for sheep good. 

Oashyryn-voynnee, stockings without soles, strapped under the foot, used without 
shoes. 

Cooillee, the withdrawing-room ; from cooill, a corner, as being but a corner of 
the great house (yn ihie wooctr) to which it is joined. 

Carrane, a raw-hide sandal. 

Chiollagh, the floor- hearth- on which the turf or log was burned. 



XI 

As in Scotland and Ireland, so in the Isle of Man, the 
patronymic is in common use : 

Mannanan - mac - y Lheirr. 

Mannanan, the son of Lheirr (an ancient necromancer). 

Dick Quayll Vessey. 

Dick, the son of Quayle the son of Bess (which Bess was no doubt a notable in her 
day, as Dick is in his). 

Men are also designated from their domain : 

Veih-hen, to Ballacliarnane Wooar cheet. 
See, Ballucarnane the Great comes. 

Or from their degree of society : 

Tan Donaghey ny ghooinney ooasle 
The Donaghey is a man honourable. 

i Or from some quality pertaining to them : 

Iltiam Dhone, Swarthy William. 
Juan Gorrym, Purple John. 

Among the idiomatic forms which render the language de- 
serving of attention may be enumerated the following : 
The article has a plural number : 

Yn Uoar. Ny Uoaryn 
The book. The books. 

The adjective follows the noun (its natural and proper place), 
except drogh, evil, and shenn, old, which go before the noun : 

Yn dooinney mie. Ben aalin. 

The man good. A woman fair. 

The adjective has a plural form : 

Red leg. Reddyn beggey. 
A thing little. Things little. 

MagJier glass. Magheryn glassey. 
A field green. Fields green. 

Nouns have an emphatic form : 



Dty obbyr hene. Dty d 

Thy work own. Thy work (emphatic) own. 



XII 

Pronouns have an emphatic form : 

Mee, mish Oo, wss. Eh, esliyn. Ee, ish. 

I, I (emphatic). Thou, thou. He. he. She. she. 

Gow rish. Gow risliyn. 

Acknowledge him. Acknowledge him (emphatic). 

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions : 

Orrym. ; ort ; Ihiam ; lliiat ; lesh ; ecJiey ; Twggey ; huggeysyn. 
Upon me; upon thee; with me; withthee; with him; at him; to him; tohim(emph.) 

The initial letters of a word adapt themselves to the final 
letters of the preceding word, for euphony : 

Bea veayn (not ~bea beayri). Dty Tiie (not dty thie)\ 

Life long. Thy house. 

Billy dy vea (not lea). Aym pene (not hene). 

Tree of life. At my self. 

Nouns have a dual number when the numeral daa is used : 

Un hooil. Daa hooil. Tree sooillyn. 
One eye. Two eyes. Three eyes. 

The spelling of the Manx tongue had remained unsettled till 
1772, when the Manx Bible was first printed. That translation 
has been since recognised as the standard of orthography. ' ( The 
Celtic language," observes the writer of an anonymous manu- 
script among Dr. Kelly's papers, " everywhere losing ground, 
had degenerated in Man in a ratio proportionate to its narrow 
territory, and the increased intercourse of its inhabitants with 
Britain. In the Manx dialect many terms were lost, many 
Anglicisms adopted, many corruptions introduced. The trans- 
lators had now an opportunity to apply the remedy. By due 
attention to the orthography and structure of the language, the 
connexion between roots and compounds might have been pre- 
served, and its original energy and purity restored. But the 
translators did not consult the structure of the language. By 



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. xiii 

adjusting the orthography to pronunciation, roots are wholly 
lost. ... It must, however, be allowed, agreeably to the 
argument of a learned friend of mine, who was one of the com- 
mittee of correction and publication, that had not the words been 
written as they are pronounced, the body of the people must 
" have continued uninstructed. The Irish orthography would 
have presented insurmountable difficulties ; it would have been 
to the multitude an unknown tongue." 

The translators, therefore, adopted the wise alternative. They 
regarded the utility of their work rather than the elucidation of 
the language ; and accordingly took the spoken sound as their 
rule of orthography.* 

Upon a review of these notices of the language, it is presumed 
the reader who is capable of appreciating its qualities will be 
disposed to concur in the following eulogy upon the language, 
which is quoted from the introduction to the Manx Dictionary, 
by the late Archibald Cregeen, a native Manxman of great 
sagacity and judgment : 

" In concluding my observations and remarks, I cannot but admire the construction, 
texture, and beauty of the Manks language, and how the words initially change their 
cases, moods, tenses, degrees, &c. It appears like a piece of exquisite network, inter- 
woven together in a masterly manner, and framed by the hand of a most skilful work- 
man, equal to the composition of the most learned, and not the production of chance. 



* There is one marked peculiarity which distinguishes the grammar of the Manx 
from that of other dialects of the Celtic language. The orthography or spelling of the 
Irish and the Scottish Gaelic is constructed on the principle of preserving the deriva- 
tion of the words ; and therefore the spelling often differs from the pronunciation. 
The Manx spelling, on the other hand, is based on phonography. The words are 
written as they are pronounced. The etymology of the words is often obscured and 
hidden by this system of spelling ; but the spoken sound is preserved. Consequently, 
the Manx orthography will hand down to posterity the sounds of the spoken language 
better than the Irish and Scottish modes of spelling. The orthography of these 
dialects will preserve the etymology ; while that of the Manx will hand down to 
future generations the phonography of a Celtic dialect. REV. W. MACKENZIE. 



XIV 

The depth of meaning that abounds in many of the words must be conspicuous to 
every person versed in the language." 

At the risk of exceeding the reasonable bounds of an Intro- 
duction, the Editor ventures here to introduce some notices of 
Manx literature and of the Manx people, which he is glad to be 
able to quote from a living authority of note. The author of 
The Bible in Spain, &c., in his advertisement of a book pro- 
posed to be published by him under the title of Bayr Jiargey, 
containing the narrative of his wanderings in the Isle of Man, 
in quest of Manx literature, thus writes : 

" The Manx have a literature, a native vernacular Gaelic literature. This fact 
has been frequently denied, but it is now established beyond the possibility of doubt. 
Some time ago a gentleman went to Man with the express purpose of discovering 
whether the Manx had a literature or not. He possessed a slight knowledge of 
Manx, and was tolerably well acquainted with the Irish and Scotch Gaelic. The 
Manx tongue, it will be necessary to observe, is called Gailk, and is closely connected 
with the vernacular speech of the Highlands, and also with that of Ireland, bearing 
a closer resemblance to the former than the latter. It has, however, certain peculiarities; 
amongst others, it has a dual number. The gentleman in question visited every 
part of the island on foot, and was a great deal amongst the peasantry of the mountain 
districts, whose confidence he contrived to win. He was not slow in discovering 
that they possessed a literature of their own, entirely manuscript. This literature 
consists of ballads on sacred subjects, which are called carvals, a corruption of the 
English word carol. It was formerly the custom in the Isle of Man for young people 
who thought themselves endowed with the poetic gift to compose carols some time 
before Christmas, and to recite them in the parish churches. Those pieces which 
were approved of by the clergy were subsequently chanted by their authors through 
their immediate neighbourhoods, both before and after the holy festival. Many of 
these songs have been handed down by writing to the present time. Some of them 
possess considerable merit, and a printed collection of them would be a curious addition 
to the literature of Europe. . . The carvals are preserved in uncouth- looking, 
smoke-stained volumes, in low farm-houses and cottages situated in mountain gills 
and glens. They constitute the genuine literature of Elian Vannin. ... Of the 
carval books the gentleman procured two, though not without considerable difficulty, 
the peasantry not being at all willing in general to part with their volumes. He says 
that in the whole world there is not a more honest, more kindly race than the 
genuine Manx. Towards strangers they exercise unbounded hospitality, without 
the slightest idea of receiving any compensation. ... It seems that the Manx 
language is falling fast into disuse; and it is probable that within sixty years it will 
have ceased to exist as a spoken language. . . . The Manx may occasionally 
prove of great use to the antiquary and philologist ; some knowledge of it is indis- 
pensable for understanding some of the inscriptions on the runic stones." 



XV 

In a letter from this author, the Editor is favoured with the 
following remarks, which deserve to be appended to the fore- 
going extracts : 

" The carvals are all in manuscript. There is, however, a small, but not uninter- 
esting, poetic Manx literature existing in print, though not easily procurable. First 
of all, there is the grand historic ballad, in which the fortunes of the various races 
and families, which have at different times held the island, are narrated. Then 
there is the noble ballad concerning the death of Brown William, and the vengeance 
inflicted by God on his murderers and their progeny. Then there is the ballad of 
Molley Charane, the miser, a humorous and satirical piece of great poignancy ; 
and the one of a similar character, and very little inferior to it in any respect, called 
Kirree fo Sniaghtey ; or, the Sheep beneath the Snow. These four are the most 
remarkable compositions in the printed vernacular literature of Man : though there 
are other pieces of considerable merit, for example, a little piece commencing with 
" Ushag beg my," and two or three elegies on drowned seamen. Besides original, 
the Manx language contains translated poetry. There is the Phargys Caillit of a 
rector of Marown, who flourished about the commencement of the present century; 
which is, however, not a translation of the whole of Paradise Lost, as the name 
would seem to imply, but consists of translations of particular parts of Paradise Lost 
into Manx rhyme, neatly and smoothly done, but with very little vigour, and not 
much fidelity. Then there is the Lioar dy Hymnyn, or Book of Hymns, from 
Wesley, Watts, and others, by George Killey, of Kirk Onchan ; which is done in 
a manner which shews that the poor Methodist, who, singular enough, was parish 
clerk, possessed powers of versification of the very highest order." 

The only other topic to which the Editor would now advert is 
the learning of the language. Though he is not prepared to 
recommend the study of Manx to the general reader, on account 
of the merits of the language, or for the stores of literature which 
it contains.; he would yet strongly impress upon those whose 
sphere of duty lies, or is to lie, among the peasantry, the im- 
portance of possessing a knowledge of the tongue with which 
the country people are most conversant. The younger clergy 
and candidates for the ministry, especially, should feel it im- 
perative upon them to possess this qualification for intercourse 
with the people. If a knowledge of the language is no longer 
necessary for the ministrations of the Church,, it is very import- 
ant for the efficient discharge of the work of pastoral visitation. 



xvi EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION. 

Much time is spent in learning two or three of the dead lan- 
guages ; why may not some pains be taken to master a living 
language, the knowledge of which would open to the minister a 
more easy access to the understandings of many of his flock, and 
recommend him to the hearts of all ? Bishop Bedell learned the 
Irish language when upwards of sixty years of age, " in order," 
says his biographer, " that he might personally carry forward 
the good work of conversion" among his people ; ' ' and although 
he did not converse in that tongue, he was able to read, write, 
and translate it. The first Irish grammar that ever was com- 
posed was written by him/' Bishop Hildesley also is related to 
have been " very fond of the language of the Island over which 
he presided ; and not only used to read part of the service, but 
always dismissed the congregation with the Blessing in Manks. 
He frequently expressed a wish to be assisted in learning it, ' and 
this/ says Dr. Kelly, ' was my primary inducement for drawing 
up a Manks Grammar, and for composing a Dictionary also of 
that tongue, for the use of his Lordship and others ;' which was 
in a great degree of forwardness at the time of his death." 
Bishop Short, in later days, though decidedly opposed to the 
continuance of the language, yet was so convinced of the im- 
portance of an acquaintance with it, for present purposes, that 
he instituted prizes at King William's College for proficiency in 
Manx. 

In learning the language, the Editor would by no means 
recommend an application to the Grammar in the first instance. 
That would be found a perplexing and disheartening process. 
Let the student rather betake himself to some living Manx- 
speaking native, if he is fortunate enough to have such an advan- 



XV11 

tage within reach, and learn the rudiments of the language, as 
a child learns its first vocables, from the living voice. Let him 
also, with the same assistance, read the Manx Bible side by side 
with the English, or one of Bishop Wilson's books, as, e.g., his 
Principles and Duties of Christianity, with Manx and English in 
parallel columns ; and when he has acquired some knowledge in 
this way, then he will find the benefit of the Grammar in 
reducing what may have appeared to him arbitrary changes of 
words to method and order. 

WILLIAM GILL, 
October, 1859. Vicar of Malew. 



LIFE OF DR. KELLY. 



TT is to be lamented that, in common with many other men 
who have raised themselves to distinction by their works, 
but little is known of the personal history of Dr. Kelly. This 
volume, however, would be very incomplete if it did not contain 
some biographical notice of the learned author. The following 
brief account of him is drawn up from such materials as are 
extant, collected with much zeal and industry by Paul Bridson, 
Esq., of Douglas, a member of the Council, and Honorary Secre- 
tary of The Manx Society. 

JOHN KELLY, the author of the Manx Grammar, was the son 
of William Kelly, wine-cooper, and Alice Kewley, his wife. He 
was born at Algare, or, as he himself writes it, Aal-caer, in 
Baldwin, in the parish of Braddan, Isle of Man, in 1750. After 
receiving the first rudiments of his education in the Douglas 
Grammar School, under the Rev. Philip Moore, chaplain and 
schoolmaster, of Douglas, and afterwards rector of Kirk Bride, 
he entered St. John's College, Cambridge. He took Holy Orders 
in the year 1776. His first ministerial appointment was to the 

charge of the Scotch Episcopal Church in the town of Ayr, 

B 2 



XX LIFE OF DR. KELLY. 

which he held for three years. In 1 779 he engaged as tutor to 
the Marquis of Huntley, last Duke of Gordon. At that time 
the Duke of Gordon had been stationed at Ayr with his regiment 
(AberdeenshireFencibles),andhadinthis way become acquainted 
with Mr. Kelly. In 1791 Mr. Kelly was appointed vicar of 
Ardleigh, near Colchester. He proceeded LL.D. at Cambridge 
in 1799 ; and became rector of Copford, not far from Ardleigh, 
in 1800. 

Dr. Kelly is best known as the author of the Manks Grammar, 
and the reviser of the Manx translation of the Scriptures. He 
also published the life of his wife's grandfather, John Dollond, 
F.R.S., the inventor of the achromatic telescope ; and two ser- 
mons preached on public occasions, one of which is printed here- 
with as a specimen of his pulpit powers, and of the liberal and 
enlightened views which led him to labour so earnestly for the 
improvement of his native country and its literature. 

While yet a student at the Douglas Grammar School, the 
aptitude which he displayed for learning, and his knowledge of 
the vernacular language of the Isle of Man, marked him out for 
important service in furthering the translation of the Holy 
Scriptures into Manx, a work in which his worthy preceptor had 
so large a share. It would appear that at the age of sixteen he 
entered on the arduous task of revision assigned to him ; and for 
the space of eight years was incessantly employed in that under- 
taking. He transcribed the whole version, from Genesis to 
Revelation, superintended the impression, and corrected the 
proof-sheets, as well as examined and corrected subsequent 
editions of the New Testament. In an autograph letter of the 
Eev. P. Moore's to the Christian Knowledge Society, in May, 






LIFE OF DR. KELLY. XXI 



1772, in the editor's possession, the following mention is made 
of Mr. Kelly, in connection with an account of the work : " I 
have, by the blessing of God, finished the revisions of the last 
tome of our Manx Bible. I say revisions, because it has had 
two, literatim et verbatim, with all the severity and attention of a 
critical reviewer : first, the several portions as translated by our 
clergy ; next, the fair copy for the press, collating and comparing 
every sentence with all possible care and fidelity. Since the death 
of my learned friend and fellow-labourer, the Rev. Mr. Curphy, 
the whole of this second volume has devolved on myself, with 
the assistance of a very ingenious young man, my amanuensis, 
trained up to the work, and now ready to embark for White- 
haven with his fair transcript of the second tome, to attend the 
printing and correct the press." 

In Butler's Memoirs of Bishop Hildesley (page 231) we have 
the following record: "In October, 1772, not many weeks 
previous to Bishop Hildesley's decease, the Society (for Pro- 
moting Christian Knowledge) read a letter from his lordship, 
expressing the hope that some handsome gratuity might be 
thought of for Mr. John Kelly, a young gentleman, native of 
the Isle of Man, ' who has been/ says the good prelate, ' a 
most assiduous and useful assistant to Mr. Moore, in transcribing 
fair the whole translation of the Manks Bible for the press ; of 
which he had been likewise a most indefatigable corrector, and 
for which he has hitherto received no emolument.' His lordship 
further hoped that the Society would the rather consider Mr. Kelly 
in an especial manner, as Mr. Moore had generously declined to 
accept anything for his pains. The Society, upon this, very 
much to their honour, referred the business entirely to his lord- 



XX1 1 LIFE OP DR. KELLY. 

ship, only requesting him to make Mr. Kelly a suitable acknow- 
ledgment, and rather to exceed than fall short of a due liberality." 

Out of this work of revision the Manx Grammar took its rise, 
as appears by the following note in Dr. Kelly's handwriting, in 
a rough draught of the Grammar : ' ' N.B. I began to correct, 
revise, and transcribe the translation of the Manks Bible in June, 
1766 ; and at that time began to collect and form the rules of 
this Grammar for my assistance, having no printed or written 
documents to instruct me, except the four Gospels." 

While the Manx Scriptures were in preparation for the press, 
a disaster occurred which threatened greatly to retard the good 
work. It is thus relatedby Dr. Kelly himself (Bishop Hildesley's 
Life, page 230) : "The Pentateuch was nearly ready for the 
press; and we arrived at Whitehaven, where the work was 
printed, on the 13th of April, 1770. On our next return from 
the Island to Whitehaven, the 19th of March, 1771, charged 
with another portion, from Deuteronomy to Job inclusive, we 
were shipwrecked in a storm. With no small difficulty and 
danger, the manuscript was preserved, by holding it above the 
water for the space of five hours ; and this was almost the only 
article saved." " His lordship," says the Bishop's biographer, 
:e and the Rev. Philip Moore, whenever the subject afterwards 
came into conversation, were jocularly pleased to compare the 
corrector to Caesar, who, during the sea-fight at Alexandria, is 
said to have saved his Commentaries by holding them in one hand, 
and swimming with the other." 

While thus engaged upon the Manx translation and the Manx 
Grammar, a work of a still more arduous nature occurred to Dr. 
Kelly, viz., the composition of two copious Dictionaries the 



LIFE OP DR. KELLY. XX111 

one, Manx and English; the other, a triglot of Manx, Gaelic, 
and Irish, based upon English. Nothing daunted at the magni- 
tude of the undertaking, ho entered upon it with zeal, and pur- 
sued it with untiring perseverance to the end of his days. Both 
these works are still lying in manuscript, but complete, and 
ready for the press. 

The printing of the Triglot, more properly Polyglot, had 
actually commenced in 1807, and had proceeded as far as the 
letter L, when a fire broke out in the printing-office, that of 
Nichols and Son, Eed Lion-passage, Fleet-street, London, and 
destroyed the whole impression, except one or two copies. The 
manuscript was happily preserved. "We of the present day have 
perhaps no cause to regret the accident, as it afforded opportunity 
to the indefatigable author to go on, as he did to the end of his 
life, enlarging and correcting his work, and leaving us his latest 
emendations. 

A writer in the Nona's Herald, of Feb. 2, 1859, speaking of 
the Triglot, says " It consists of four columns in each page. 
The first contains the English word ; the second, the Manx ; the 
third, the Irish ; and the fourth, the Scottish Gaelic. It is the 
only attempt ever made to publish a complete triglot comparison 
of the three branches of the Celtic language. If another column 
were added for the Welsh, the dictionary would be more perfect 
and national, exhibiting atone view the four great living branches 
of the language of the Gael or Cwmry, the original inhabitants 
of the British Isles. Surely, the publication of such a work as 
this ought to be encouraged. The Isle of Man, as the central 
island, and the ancient seat of Celtic religion, literature, and 
laws, may be expected to take the lead ; and Dr. Kelly's Manx 
Dictionary may be the basis of the work. But, Irish, Gaelic, 



XXIV LIFE OF DR. KELLY. 

and Welch scholars ought to unite in the undertaking, and 
render each their own column as perfect as possible." 

In the Manx Sun y of July 24, 1858, the following announce- 
ment appeared, which deserves to be transferred to this Memoir, 
as a tribute to the memory of Dr. Kelly, and at the same time 
as commemorating a generous act of his surviving relative : 
<f We have been informed that Mrs. Gordon Kelly, widow of the 
late Gordon William Kelly, Esq., recorder of Colchester, only 
son of the well-known Dr. Kelly, a native of this Island, has 
transmitted to the Venerable the Archdeacon of this diocese, the 
sum of 1000, for the purpose of founding at our Insular College 
an exhibition to the Universities from that institution, open to 
all competitors ; and another sum of 100, the interest of which 
Mrs. Kelly wishes to be given annually as a Manx Prize. The 
Rev. Dr. Kelly was an old alumnus of the Douglas Grammar 
School, where he was a very favourite pupil of the Rev. Philip 
Moore ; and afterwards took a large share in the general revision 
of the translation of the Manx Scriptures." 

Copy of inscription on -a tablet lately set up in the pariah 
church of Braddan, Isle of Man ; 

Ju dlmcrg of 

THE REV. JOHN KELLY, LL.D., 

OP ALGAER, IN THIS PARISH, 

VICAR OF ARDLEIGH, RECTOR OF COPFORD, 

AND ONE OF HIS MAJESTY'S JUSTICES OF THE PEACE, 

JN THE COUNTY OP ESSEX; WHO DIEJD 12TH NOV., 1809, 

IN THE GOTH YEAR OF HIS AGE. 



LIFE OF DR. KELLY. XXV 

LOUISA, 

WIDOW OF DR. KELLY, ELDEST DAUGHTER OF 

PETER DOLLOND, ESQ., OF ST. PAULAS CHURCHYARD, LONDON, 

DIED 18TH OF APRIL, 1844, IN THE 84TH YEAR OF HER AGE. 

GORDON WILLIAM KELLY, 

THEIR ONLY CHILD, DIED 4TH APRIL, 1858, 
IN THE 73RD YEAR OF HIS AGE. 



EELIGIOUS, MORAL, AND POLITICAL ADVANTAGES OF 
INSTRUCTING THE POOR. 



A SERMON, 



PREACHED BEFORE THE GOVERNORS OF THE CHARITY SCHOOL, 
ON SUNDAY, 15TH JULY, 1798. 

IN ST. JAMES'S CHUKCH, COLCHESTER. 



B Y THE REV. JOHN KELLY, LL.D., 

Of St. John's College, Cambridge, and Vicar of Ardleigh, Essex. 



PUBLISHED AT THE REQUEST OF THE GOVERNORS, AND FOR THE BENEFIT OF 

TUB CHARITY. 



A SERMON.* 



For the poor shall never cease out of the land ; therefore, I com- 
mand thee, saying, Thou shalt open thine hand wide unto thy brother, 
to thy poor, and to thy needy in thy land. DEUT. xv. 11. 

TO the superficial observer of the Divine laws, it may appear 
unaccountable that the Almighty, in His intended partition 
of ,the land of Canaan among the twelve tribes of Israel, should 
not have adjusted the portion of each individual, and guarded 
against the alienation and abuse of property in such a manner 
as to have precluded the necessity of appealing to the humanity 
of man to remedy and supply the inadequacy of the benevolence 
of God; but that, at the instant He was introducing them to a 
good land " a land flowing with milk and honey,"f Ee should 
pronounce the severe sentence, that ' ' the poor should never cease 
out of the land." 

A small degree of attention to the dispensations of God and 
the nature of man, will remove this difficulty. To produce a 
perfect state, or perfect men, was not in the contemplation of the 
Deity. His laws under the Jewish economy were for the most 
part general ; they placed before the children of Israel blessing^ 
and cursing, good and evil ; they restrained not absolutely the 
human will, but in every instance left man a moral agent. It 

[* The above is the sermon referred to in the Biography, pnge xx.] t Exodus iii. 8. 



XXX A SERMON. 

might as reasonably be demanded, Why the law, written by the 
finger of God, and promulgated from Mount Sinai " out of the 
midst of the fire, of the cloud, and of the thick darkness,"* did 
not produce the effect of restraining the people from the commis- 
sion of SIN, as that the Divine partition of the land should long 
prevent individuals from becoming poor. ' f Thus shall God be 
justified in His ways, and clear when He is judged."f And 
if within the narrow limits of Judea, and under the Divine theo- 
cracy, no particular rules were devised sufficient to secure to 
individuals their respective portions for ever, we are prepared to 
receive these truths : that the same law applies to mankind in 
general ; that their wants are a condition of their being ; and 
that, although the Almighty had " blessed the earth that it 
brought forth abundantly," J yet made He no certain provision 
against particular instances of want and distress, whether they 
should arise from natural or moral evil. 

But, notwithstanding He permits both these kinds of evil to 
exist in the world, yet ' ' can we not charge the Lord with folly ;" 
for we may perceive that natural evil is rather incidental than 
necessary ; that it is nowhere systematical, but produced ; that 
it is the effect of causes, which in themselves are generally good; 
and that moral evil arises principally from the free-agency of 
man, which, instead of constituting the excellence of his nature, 
when perverted, misapplied, and abused, becomes its disgrace, 
and enables him to choose the evil and to refuse the good. And 
in like manner, although the benevolent Father of the universe 
should suffer misery to obscure His works, and that " the poor 
should never cease out of the land/' though He has made no 
immediate, no appropriate provision for them, yet ' ' left He not 
Himself without witness in the world ;"|| for He has planted 
in the breast of man a powerful advocate, to plead the cause 
t( the cause of him who has no helper,"^]" and formed his heart of 
such exquisite materials, that while he is engaged in communi- 
cating happiness to others he most effectually increases his own. 
* Deut. v. 22. f P S - & 4 - J Gen - * $ Job * 22 - II Acts x *v. 1 7. ^ Ps. Ixxii. 12. 



A SERMON. XXXI 

As there is therefore no evil without its remedy, as the 
quantity of happiness in human life exceeds the sum of misery, 
" shall the thing formed say to him who formed it, Why hast 
thou made me thus ?"* And if we inquire further, we may dis- 
cover, by the ultimate advantage resulting to society, that this 
apparent and individual evil is a real and general blessing. 

There is no creature accompanied into life with so much in- 
firmity and so many necessities as man ; and this arises from his 
becoming the inhabitant of every climate. Were his existence, 
like that of other creatures, confined to one particular soil and 
sky, he too might ' ' take no thought for the morrow, and neither 
sow, nor reap, nor toil, nor spin."f But, as an inhabitant of the 
universe, every species of labour, art, and science, every exertion 
of his reason, and every energy of his mind, are requisite to 
obviate the evils of his condition : protection from the elements, 
clothing for his body, and food to sustain life, are absolutely 
necessary to his existence. But in the progress of acquiring 
these he acquires not only the necessaries for his being, but pro- 
duces those articles which constitute his well-being and the dig- 
nity of his nature ; for, reasoning on his wants, he lays the very 
foundation of society ; and, having removed distress, he proceeds 
to acquire comforts ; having subdued the pressures of the body, 
he cultivates the powers of his mind ; having overcome the evils, 
he studies the elegancies of life ; and, by a sure and certain 
gradation, improves his condition, until, from the rudest begin- 
nings, he rises to the summit of human perfection. 

Thus, labour is coeval with the necessities of man, and like 
them, to be considered rather as a condition of his being, than 
an evil appendant to it ; and the curse that " in the sweat of his 
face man should eat his bread,"! in this point of view loses all 
its malignity, "for the earth is full of the goodness of the Lord," 
" as the waters cover the sea ;" \\ " He bringeth good out of evil ; 
He turneth all things to good."1T 

* Rom. ix. 20. | Matt. vi. 26, 28, 34. * Gen. iii. 19. 

Ps. xxxiii. 5. |i Is. xi. 9. ^ Rom. viii. 28. 



XXX11 A SERMON. 

If labour is thus natural and necessary to man, and the origin 
of all separate property, inequality of condition, arising from 
moral or natural causes, will necessarily take place in the forma- 
tion of every society ; and the necessities of one man will be 
greater than those of another ; " there will be high and low, rich 
and poor, one with another."* And though this law of provi- 
dence may, at first sight, appear to be " a sore evil under 
the sun"t to individuals, yet, from this principle, and from this 
circumstance of the mutual convenience and reciprocal depend- 
ence of the various denominations of men in society upon one 
another, are produced general good and universal happiness. 

Under this conviction, the poor man should be resigned to his 
lot, and, far from accusing Heaven for the hardships or difficul- 
ties he endures, should make the best use of those means with 
which he is endowed to remove them. Under this impression, 
likewise, ' ' the man who is at ease in his possessions" should 
contemplate his elevation with gratitude, and reflect that the 
same hand which humbled his poor brother might have depressed 
him also. They should consider well their respective situations, 
and meet each other's expectations in such a manner that, in the 
event of a change of places, they should only have to pray that, 
" as they had done to others, even so it should be done unto 
them."J And if ever this rule of universal justice, with respect 
to the inferior orders of spciety, was attended to, if ever the 
condition of the poor was rendered capable of comfort, it is so 
at this period, and in this country, where the humane and mild 
disposition of the law unites with the kind and tender genius of 
the people, who, as they excel the rest of mankind in every other 
virtue, excel them yet more in the practice of that Divine charity 
which was brought to light by the Gospel of Christ \ for not 
only a public and legal provision is established throughout the 
kingdom for the maintenance of the poor, but the private bounty 
of individuals has instituted various means, in aid of the popular 
establishments, to correct the inequalities and alleviate the dis- 

* Ts. x:ix. 2. f Eccl. v. 13. J Matt, vii. 12. 



A SERMON. XXXlll 

tresses which may and must always increase in proportion to the 
extent, and to the prosperity also, of every community ; and, not 
content to limit their attention to their corporeal wants, they 
extend their care to their mental and spiritual concerns " to 
the poor in spirit ; to the blind in the truth and knowledge of the 
Gospel ; to the ignorant, and those who are gone out of the way ; 
to teach them the way, the truth, and the life."* And such in 
particular is the nature of that institution which I am now called 
upon to recommend to your patronage and protection, and to 
exhort you " not to faint in this labour of love, nor be weary 
of well-doing."f 

I have known but one wretched philosopher J who ever at- 
tempted to prove that institutions for the instruction of the poor 
were injurious to the community ; for that education (he reasoned) 
rendered the poor, who were designed by nature to discharge the 
meanest offices, superior to the duties of their situation. How a 
man could thus abuse his feelings ! But as charitable institu- 
tions are among the blessed fruits of Christianity, and unknown 
to the world before its introduction, it is no wonder that an 
enemy to revelation and Christianity itself should dare to deny 
the utility of its best institutions. He might as well have argued 
that the poor should not be fed, because they might prove too 
strong for the great to keep them in subjection, as that learning 
would make them too wise to labour. The abuse of a blessing is 
no argument against the use of ifc ; and experience shews that 
learning is a friend to industry, especially that useful learning 
which is generally taught and usually acquired at v charity- 
schools. But, whatever objections may be made to the more 
public and greater hospitals and schools, they apply not to our 
present charity. 

The mode of education which you have chosen for these poor 
children, and your manner of assisting their wants, must be con- 
sidered as an excellent auxiliary, at least, to those more public, 
and extensive foundations, and, in some respects, attended with 

* Mat', v. 3. t Gal. iii. 13. t Mamlcville. 

C 



XXXIV A SERMON. 

advantages which are not to be found in them. There, the child 
is taken away from his parents and his friends, and fed, clothed, 
and taught, without any care, thought, or industry of his own ; 
where his filial and domestic affections have not their natural 
objects to exercise themselves upon ; the child is estranged from 
his parent, and the parent deprived of all interest in the acts and 
conduct of his child : whereas, according to this excellent in- 
stitution, the sweet sympathies of natural affection are daily 
cherished, and the moral principle more certainly preserved ; 
habits of industry are gradually acquired by the child, and the 
influence of imitation operates powerfully on his mind ; and as 
he beholds, in the labour of his parents, the source and means of 
their general subsistence, he naturally applies to the same cause 
to produce the same effect. 

Such is the advantage of the children of the poor being 
domesticated, and not altogether separated from their families. 
And the governors of this charity should not lament that they 
can only instruct, clothe, and apprentice these poor ; it is, per- 
haps, all that is left for them to do ; it is certainly what is most 
beneficial for the children to receive. In the present improved 
state of arts and manufactures, strength alone is not sufficient 
for the artist, the manufacturer, or even the peasant in the fields; 
a certain quantity of education furnishes them with the means of 
accomplishing many objects, to which mere strength and ignor- 
ance would be unequal. And when we look into society, and 
observe the men who succeed best in their several occupations, 
we find that they generally come from those parts of the king- 
dom where institutions of this kind have been the longest estab- 
lished ; nay, manufactures themselves, and that ingenuity which 
can invent or improve them, seem to be peculiar to them also, 
where useful instruction is almost gratuitously imparted to the 
body of the people. 

From the loom and the plough, I would turn your attention 
to other essential points. In the navy, the army, the counting 
house, and the garden, who are the men whose humble labours 



A SEEMON. XXXV 

are attended with, the greatest benefit to themselves, their em- 
ployers, and the public ? Those who have been taught the ele- 
ments of navigation ; those who hold " the pen of the ready 
writer/'* who can calculate and survey: and all these men will 
be found, on inquiry, to derive their origin from the same coun- 
try, and owe their excellence to the same means. The most 
menial servant in a man's house is the more valuable for a little 
knowledge ; whereas an ignorant person is generally crafty, sus- 
picious, and idle. The very circumstance of not having been 
subject to the restraints attending the first years of instruction 
renders him restless and irksome under every degree of control ; 
and, as a great modern divine and philosopher expresses himself, 
". To send an uneducated child into the world is injurious to the 
rest of mankind ; it is little better than to turn out a mad dog 
or a wild beast into the streets. "f No children, whether of the 
rich or poor, should ever be able to remember a time when they 
have had nothing to do. 

I have advanced thus much in support of this institution, so 
far as it concerns the male children ; but when I reflect that 
females also are partakers of its benefits, " my heart glows within 
me," and I am convinced that no man, who possesses those 
qualities which render him estimable in society, will hesitate to 
grant to the weaker sex every advantage possessed by the other, 
and every protection which their defenceless state may require. 

For if the cultivation of the moral principle, if a knowledge 
of religious duty,- if instruction in useful learning, be necessary 
all, they are surely so to them. They are, by nature, weak 
and exposed to temptation ; and a careful attention to the im- 
provement of their minds can alone enable them to resist those 
allurements to which they are subject ; and, by resisting them, 
everything which is dear to man, everything that unites and 
preserves society together, is alone preserved. For the poor man 
requires the same proofs of fidelity, the same security for his 
honour and his property, with the greatest. These poor girls will 

* Ps. xlv. 1. f Tjiley. Moral Philosophy. 

c -2 



XXXVI A SERMON. 

have their duties to perform in the interesting situations of wives 
and mothers, and upon their conduct the happiness of their re- 
spective families must depend ; by their virtuous lives, the virtue 
of the community be preserved ; and from the decent behaviour 
of this humble class of persons together, the very character of the 
nation be deduced. 

But if the advantage to be derived from communicating to 
them wisdom, particularly that " wisdom which cometh from 
above, and maketh them wise unto salvation/'* may not be con- 
sidered by some as producing a good equal to the expense, reflect 
ye upon the innumerable evils which are by these means avoided, 
and which would naturally flow from ignorance, which would 
destroy all the happiness of the lower orders, and corrupt the 
higher. Let the good, therefore, to be acquired, and the evil to 
be avoided, determine your conduct. And stop not here, but in 
life follow up the good work which you have here begun ; and 
carefully reserve for them such employments and such labour as 
may be suited to their sex. 

It has become, most unaccountably, the prevailing fashion to 
employ the labour of men where women would serve with more 
propriety, with more delicacy, and more effect. There is scarcely 
a province, either in trade or husbandry, where men, fitted for 
more hardy employments, have not obtruded themselves. It 
rests with you, within your respective circles, to reform and 
remedy these evils, to prevent such a detrimental interference, 
and secure for the helpless females constant employment. For 
be assured that, next to ignorance, idleness is most fatal to them; 
and sorry am I to observe that in this county women are not 
sufficiently employed, particularly in the inexhaustible labours of 
the field ; for there is scarcely a part in husbandry in which they 
are not capable of assisting : whereas, to glean, and not to earn 
their bread, is their only annual occupation, an occupation that 
tends to sow the seeds of corruption, if not of dishonesty, in their 
own and their children's hearts ; and the fatal consequence is, 

* James iii. 17 ; 2 Tim. iii. 15. 



A SERMON. XXXvfi 

that they become of less value in the eyes and minds of their 
husbands : whereas, when they partake and divide nearly their 
labours, they become more necessaiy to one another, and their 
affections and esteem will bear some proportion to their respective 
usefulness in promoting their common comfort ; for, an equality 
of uesfulness is the stronger cement of conjugal affection. 

There is a gradation in the scale of society, from the barbarous 
state to the most refined and luxurious ; and though this grada- 
tion is influenced in some measure by climate, we may easily 
observe that wherever women are not permitted to divide and 
partake of the common labour, that this exemption proceeds, not 
from tenderness or compassion for their sex, but from contempt 
and the unworthy idea that they are sent into the world to serve 
only the pleasures and appetites of man. 

If now the education which you enable these children of both 
sexes to acquire tends to render them more useful servants and 
more moral characters, infinitely superior are those advantages 
which they shall derive from this and similar institutions in their 
capacity of citizens and Christians ; for if a man shall serve his 
masters upon earth with more fidelity, because he is instructed 
that ( ' his and their Master is in heaven, and that He has com- 
manded him to be obedient, and not with eye-service, as men- 
pleasers, but as the servant of Christ, doing the will of God from 
the heart/'* shall he not also, when he is instructed to be " sub- 
ject to every ordinance of man for the Lord's sake ; to the king, 
as supreme, and to governors, as to those who are sent by Him,"f 
submit to civil subordination and respect the laws ? 

And when we behold the convulsed state of Europe, and the 
desire of change which has manifested itself in several countries, 
nay, even in our own, there appears to be no natural barrier 
against this overflowing torrent, except in the mass of the people 
possessing well-informed and enlightened minds, in understand- 
ing the excellence of the constitution of their country, the value 
of their liberties, and the goodness of their laws.. There ^^;il 

* Eph. v. 6. | 1 Peter ii. 15. 



XXXV111 A SERMON. 

no danger of an innovation while we can appeal to the good- 
sense of the people. The great body of the people is always 
influenced by opinion ; and as that opinion may or may not be 
right,, an ignorant people will, in the hands of designing men, be 
made the instruments of irremediable mischief : whereas the con- 
stitution of our country challenges investigation, and the better 
we understand it, and the more we examine it, the more it must 
excite our admiration, attachment, and zeal. Ignorance alone 
can be its enemy ; and the best guard to our established govern- 
ment, both in Church and State, and their true security, will 
arise from instructing the poor, and from preventing those vices 
and melancholy distresses which ignorance brings in its train ; 
for " the destruction of the poor is their poverty."* 

But if we add to all these considerations the advantages to be 
derived to individuals and the public, from the mode of religious 
instruction intended more particularly to be communicated by 
this institution, the utility of it will be placed in the most con- 
vincing light ; for if ignorance be an enemy to labour, to the 
arts, and to regular government, this is but a temporary evil, 
and of short duration, affecting only this world, and ' ' the things 
of the world ;" but that evil which affects the soul, and is of 
eternal duration, demands our most serious attention; and, as 
St. James has pronounced, " Let them know, that he who con- 
verteth a sinner from the error of his way, shall save a soul 
from death :" and we then most effectually remedy those in- 
equalities and evils which the Almighty permits to exist among 
mankind when we become to the poor as the providence of God ; 
when we attend not only to their temporal wants, but administer 
to them the spiritual manna ; when, like the Saviour of mankind, 
" we go about doing good ;"f f r He divested himself of His 
superior nature, and assumed the human ; He appeared upon 
earth in the garb of a servant, that He might teach the poor 
contentment, and the great humility. He came indeed to teach 
His kingdom to the poor, and to hold out to them, in a more 

* Prov. x. 15. t-Actsx. 38. 



A SERMON. XXXIX 

especial manner, the prospects of a future state, where the in- 
equalities of this life should be remedied ; and to assure them 
that " theirs was the kingdom of heaven/'* But these are bene- 
fits which we cannot bestow upon them, unless we prepare their 
minds by useful learning ; for the illiterate person is incapable of 
understanding or receiving some of the most important truths of 
Christianity ; and in that very essential point, the exercise of 
public social-worship, instead of his mind being warmed by de- 
votion and elevated to God by a sympathetic union with the 
body of the congregation in prayer, praise, and thanksgiving, 
' ' he will be unto him that speaketh a barbarian, and he that 
speaketh shall be a barbarian unto him."f Let not the governors, 
therefore, let not the contributors to this institution, " faint in 
their work, but proceed from strength to strength,"! as in no 
other possible manner can they do so much good at so small an 
expense ; for eighty children are instructed by this plan and in 
this manner for a sum which, by any other mode of application, 
would be scarcely sufficient to educate ten. 

Thus, every motive which can influence human action comes 
in aid of the application which I am now making to you in 
behalf of these children ; and having, I hope, convinced your 
understanding, let no selfish consideration prevent your benevo- 
lence. Think how fortunate you are who have to give, and how 
miserable they must be without your aid ; think of the goodness 
of that God who made them and made you ; think of the mercy 
of that Christ who shed His blood to redeem them as well as to 
redeem you ; think of your respective conditions in the world, 
and see the great demand there is upon your gratitude ! If your 
contribution should deduct something from your property, it will 
amply repay you by the thrilling pleasures which it will com- 
municate to your bosom. Other expenses may indeed shew you 
pleasure ; they may promise it, but they will not give it ; they 
will not leave it in your heart ; they may satiate, indeed, but 
they will not satisfy ; while inexhaustible and inexpressible ift 

* Matt. v. 3. t 1 Cor. xiv, 1 1, J Ps. Ixxxiv. 7, 



xl A SERMON. 

that deliglit which, arises from being the authors of good to the 
necessitous ! 

Observe the simplicity of those children, and let pity move 
your feelings ! Observe their supplicating innocence ! Oh, save 
their innocence, and let God-like charity melt your souls ! 

When I behold the respectableness of this congregation, and 
that approving earnestness depicted on every countenance, I per- 
ceive the cause of the poor to have prevailed. ' ' May much peace 
and happiness rest upon the head and heart of every one of 
you !"* And, as " the poor shall never cease out of your land, I 
command you, saying, Ye shall open your hand wide unto your 
brethren, to your poor, and to the needy in your land ;" and rest 
assured that, though you ' ' cast your bread upon the waters, you 
shall find it after many days ;"f " you shall eat the labour of 
your hands, and see the goodness of the Lord in the land of the 
lMng;*?l but if no in the land of the living, doubtless you 
shall hereafter; for I have the authority of God himself to de- 
clare that in that great and solemn day, when you and all the 
nations of the earth shall stand before the tribunal of Christ, to 
give an account of the things done in the body, the charity 
which you shall bestow this day shall cover a multitude of sins, 
and it shall, "like the blood of Jesus/ 5 plead for you, until 
you shall hear from Him the joyful sound, " Inasmuch as you 
have done it unto one of the -least of these My brethren, you have 
done it unto Me : well done, good and faithful servants, enter ye 
into the joy of your Lord."|| 

* Sterne. f Eccl. xi. 1. $ Ps. cxxviii. 2; xxvii. 15. 

1 Peter iv. 7, 8. || Matt. xxv. 21, 40. 



THE DEDICATION. 



TO THE MOST NOBLE 

GEOKGE, MARQUIS OF HTJNTLEY, 

&c., &c., &c. 



"11 /TY LORD, Popular favour, in different countries, arises 
from different causes ; and rare must be the felicity of 
that man who has acquired universal admiration. Your Lord- 
ship's humanity in Ireland, amidst the cruelties of civil war, is 
recorded in history ; the courage which you displayed on the 
plains of Lincelles, and the wounds which you received on the 
sand-banks of Holland, have rendered you dear to England ; 
whilst a sociable disposition, a love of your native country, an 
attachment to your people, their customs, and their language, 
have made you the pride and boast of Scotland. 

An author desirous of selecting a patron for the ancient Celtic, 
whether distinguished by the appellation of Welsh, Scots, Irish, 
or Manks Gaelic, would certainly choose the most popular noble- 
man in His Majesty's. dominions. How fortunate, therefore, is 
it for me, restricted as I am in my choice, that such a nobleman 
should be your Lordship, over whose youth I have watched with 
anxious solicitude, and wliose mind I have endeavoured to adorn 



THE DEDICATION. 

with every good, every honourable principle ! With an honest 
pride, therefore, I place this work under your Lordship's protec- 
tion. 

The present Grammar, and a Gaelic Dictionary, which has 
been for many years in the hands of his Grace the Duke of 
Atholl, were composed, in the year 1766, for the instruction of 
that great and pious prelate, the Eev.Dr. Hildesley, Lord Bishop 
of Sodor and Mann ; and were likewise intended to assist and 
direct my fellow-labourers and myself in that arduous and im- 
portant work, the translation of the Manks Bible. "Why the 
Grammar has not been sent sooner to the press, and the occasion 
of its appearance at this moment, are circumstances well known 
to your Lordship ; and I hope the time is not far distant when 
I shall again solicit your Lordship's favour for the Dictionary of 
a people who alone in the great revolutions of ages have pre- 
served the government, the laws, the monuments, and the lan- 
guage of the ancient Druids. 

In the meantime, I have the honour to be, with the most 
sincere esteem and affection. 

Your Lordship's most obliged 

And faithful servant, 
Ardleigh, Nov. 22, 1803. JOHN KELLY. 



A SSAMMAE OF THE MAMS LANGUAGE, 



CHAPTER I. 

OF THE LETTEES* 

The Capital Letters. 
ABCCH*DEFGHIJKLMNOPPHQBSTUVWY. 

Small Letters, 
a b cchdefghijklmnopphqrstuvwy. 

The Alphabet consists of seventeen single and two double con- 
sonants, and seven vowels, viz., a> e, i, o } u, w, y. 

Of the consonants fourteen are mutable, viz., b } c } cli t d,f, g,j, 
k> m > P, ph, 2> <s, t. 

The immu tables are ?, n, r, which always retain their sound 
and alter not. 

The j, ~k, and q consonants are properly no Hanks letters ; yet, 
as we have no single characters of our own to express their 
sounds, we have adopted those of the Eoman alphabet, and 
instead of di, according to the Irish, and si, according to the 
Welsh, we use^; as Jee, God; Juan, John Ir. Dia, &c. The 

* This letter does not originally belong to our alphabet ; but, like the Welsh 
is a modern corruption oft; as, instead of teas, heat, we say cUiass. 



A GRAMMAR OF 



sound of c we often express by k ; as, instead of done, we read 

Itione, a head. For cw in cwaiyl, we use q ; as, quaiyi, a court. 
The diphthongs, or union of two vowels, are- twenty-three, 

and the triphthongs fourteen. 

DIPHTHONGS. 

Diphthongs. Examples. Diphthongs. Examples- 

ae . . . . aeg iu . . . . giu 

ai . . . . baih iw . . . . briwwyp 

au . . . . craue iy . . . . siyr 

aw . . . . aw oa . . . . oastys 

ay . . . . cray oe . . oe 

ea . . . . fea oi . . . . stroider 

ei . . . . leigh ou . . . . fou 

eo . . . . feoh ow . . . . grow 

eu . . . . jeushan ui . . . . guilleij 

ew . . . . hew wa . . . . bwane 

ie . . . . crie wi . . . . bwilleen* 

io 

Triphthongs. Examples. Triphthongs Examples, 

aie . . . . traie ieu . . . . scrieu 

aue . . . . raue iou . . . . Mou 

eau . . . . ceau iwe . . . . cliwe 

eie . . . . spreie oie . . . . oie 

eoi . . . . creoi oue . . . . roue 

eue . . . . re%e uiy . . . . guiy 

iau . . . . niau woa . . . . Iwoalley^ 

Sciopius and Carisius have remarked that a syllable may bo 
formed of two or three vowels ; as, aquae ; yet Quintilian will not 
allow that three vowels can be united in one syllable. But & 
syllable of three vowels, nay of four, as rieau, &c., is easy and 
natural to the Manks and Irish, as also to many other branches 
of the great Celtic language. But, contrary to the spirit of that 
language, and to the disguising of many of the roots, we have 
admitted into our orthography unnecessary and superfluous 
double vowels ; such as oo, ee,'&G. 



bio 

TRIPHTHONGS. 
Examples. Triphthongs 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



CHAPTER II. 

OP THE PRONUNCIATION OP THE MANKS LETTERS. 

A is ranked among the broad vowels ; and in ancient manu- 
scripts, a, o, and u, are written indifferently one for the other ; as 
clagli* or cloglrf, a stone goan or goun, scarce ; thus, among the 
Latins, forreus is written for farreus, &c. It is pronounced as a 
English in man, pan, lad, bad ; as, sap, lab, bab ; and when cir- 
cumflexed, as in dame, pale, ale ; as mdroo. 

B is a labial letter, and pronounced as b English ; as, bare, 
boayl. 

. preserves a strong sound in its unaspirated state, equal to 
the Greek Kappa, or the English k, or as c in can ; as, cam, cab, 
cappan. It never usurps the pronunciation of s, as in cistern, 
city, cedar. 

Ch has a soft sound j as in chingys, chiass, chaghter ; like ch in 
English, in cherry, charcoal. 

D is pronounced as d English ; as doal, dowin. ~D and / are 
found in ancient manuscripts written indifferently one for the 
other ; as y diunid, or y diunit, the profound. 

j&is reckoned a small vowel; but is sometimes long, sometimes 
short, and thus answers to the Greek Epsilon and Eta. When 
it is acuted, it is pronounced as e English in men ; as ben, slien, 
ren; circumflexed, as ea in fear; as menu. 

F is called a weak consonant ; because when aspirated it loses 
all its force : as fer-ynsee, a teacher, e er-ynsee, his teacher. It 
corresponds in many cases with the Latin v ; as for, a man, Lat. 

* Xorthside pronunciation. f Southside pronunciation. 



4 A GRAMMAR OF 

vir ; feeyn, wine, Lat. vinum ; foclie, a word, Lat. vocalis ; and 
is pronounced as / English ; as faase, foays. 

G is a heavy consonant ; and pronounced as the Greek Gamma, 
or as g English in gain, get, go ; as gamman, goaill, garrisli. It 
has no soft sound, as in the English gentle. 

H is pronounced as h in the English hand, hind. Note. Some- 
would rather call this an auxiliary than a letter, because it serves- 
only to aspirate the foregoing consonants ; as ch, pli, th, or the 
following vowels, as ha, he ; and in nouns of the feminine gender 
beginning with a vowel, though not always written, is always 
strongly expressed > as e eddin, her face, pronounced as if written 
e heddin. 

I is one of the small vowels, and pronounced as i English in 
pin ; as sMllish, shimmey, shid. 

L is a letter which admits of no aspiration . When it begins- 
a feminine noun it is pronounced liquid and double, though 
written single, as e lane, her hand, pronounced el laue or e llaue. 

M is naturally one of the strong consonants, but is often, 
changed into its soft v. It is pronounced as m English. 

N as n English. It is never aspirated nor eclipsed ; and is 
called a light consonant. It is often doubled, to give the 
stronger sound. In nouns plural, and feminines, n is pronounced 
like gn in seigneur ; thus, e niart, her strength, is pronounced en 
niart ; nyn yannoo, our doings ; nyn nyannoo. 

is a broad vowel. When acuted, it is pronounced as o in 
gone ; thus, cron, son ; when circumflexed, as o in bone ; thus, 
oney. And thus it answers to the Greek Omicron and Omega. 

P is a hard consonant, and pronounced as p English. 

PJi as the Greek Phi ; or pli English, in philosophy, physic > 
as phadeyr, pfiaal. 

R is a light consonant, and pronounced as r English ; as maroo, 
sarey ; but when an initial, it is always aspirated as the Greek 
Rho, as if it were written rh, and is pronounced double (rr) , like- 
I and n in feminine and plural nouns. 

S as s in the English savour, sens-e ; as snggyrt, sollan ; and is 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 5 

called the queen of consonants, because it is subject to no change, 
like the Greek Sigma, suce pot estatis liter a, except it be followed 
by a vowel, or of the feminine gender, and then it suffers a 
change, vid. Chap. III. 

T is a hard consonant, naturally commutable with the letter d 
(as has been already observed) . It has been much abused and 
corrupted in modern manuscripts, &c., and ch often substituted 
in its place, entirely destroying the Celtic root ; as chengey, a 
tongue, for teanga, Irish ; chiarn, a lord, for tiearn, Irish ; cum 
multis aliis. 

U is one of the three broad vowels, and used indifferently for 
a and o ; as goll, or gall, or goul, a fork or ray. 

F is not properly a radical consonant, but only a secondary 
mute ; however, we have some words which begin with v as a 
radical, therefore it is admitted as such ; as vaidyn, a while ago, 
varrey misJi, I warrant, voalley, a wall. 

W is pronounced as oo, as in boot ; as bwoaillj wardoon, warp, 
warree. 

Y is pronounced as u in the English turn, hunt ; or as i in 
bird, third ; as spyrryd, ymmyrchagJi. Alone, as forming the 
article y, it has the sound of e in the English met. 



A GRAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER III. 

CONCERNING THE VARIATION OF INITIAL LETTERS IN MANKS ; OR 
THE PRONUNCIATION OF SECONDARY MUTES. 

IN the Manks are no redundant consonants as in the Irish ; 
these non-radicals are thought to clog the language, and render 
it disagreeable in use, and difficult to acquire a knowledge of. 

Some of these mutable consonants become other consonants, 
which may, therefore, be called secondary or auxiliary mutes. 

The force of the pronunciation of secondary or auxiliary mutes 
(as they are called) is so different from that of the primary or 
radical, that they are expressed by different letters in the Manks, 
as is commonly done in other languages, except the Irish, where 
only the aspirate Ji is added ; from whence arises often the diffi- 
culty of finding the etymology in ours, where that usage pre- 
vails, and the reason why the Irish language has been so well 
preserved. 

Such words as begin with mutable consonants, viz., b, c, ch, d, 
f> QJ j> k, m } PJ ph, q_, t, in their primary use, change these their 
radical initial letters as occasion requires, and according to the 
effect which the words preceding have on them, as follows : 

Words primarily beginning with b have three initials, viz., b, 
V) m ; as bea veayn, long life, e vea, his life, nyn mea, our, your, 
their life. So the Greek Bharrhon is written by the Latins 
Yarro ; Birgilius, Virgilius ; biote, vita (in Manks, bea or vea) . 

Words beginning with c have three initials, viz., c, ch, g ; as 
carrey, a friend ; e charrey, his friend ; nyn garrey, our, your, or 
their friend. 

Words beginning with cli have also three initials, viz., cli, h,j ; 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. I 

as chiarn pooaral, a powerful lord ; e hiarn, his lord ; nyn jiarn, 
our, &c., lord. 

Words beginning with d have two initials, viz., d and gh ; as 
dooinney mie, a good man ; e ghooinney, his man. 

Words beginning with /have three initials, viz.,/, v, and the 
first vowel or consonant in the word, casting away or making 
the/ quiescent ; as foays, advantage ; e oays, his advantage ; nyn- 
voays, their, &c., advantage. 

Words beginning with g have two initials, viz., g and gli ; as 
goo mie, a good report ; e ghoo, his report. 

Words beginning with^ have two initials, viz., j and y ; as 
Jee ooilley-niartal, Almighty God; e yee, his god. 

Words beginning with It, like c, have three initials, viz., k, cJi, 
g ; as kiunid aalin, a serene calm ; e chiunid, his calmness ; nyn 
giunid, our, &c., calmness. 

Words beginning with m have two initials, viz., m and v ; as 
moyrn vooaralagh, haughty pride ; e voyrn vooaralagh, his haughty 
pride. 

Words beginning with p have three initials, viz., p,ph, b ; as 
padjer jeean, earnest prayer; e phadjer, his prayer; nyn badjer, 
our, &c., prayer. 

Words beginning with ph have three initials, viz., ph } v, and 
the first vowel or consonant of the word, the ph being eclipsed 
or made quiescent ; as phreeney vooar, a large pin ; e reeney, his 
pin ; nyn vreeney, our pin : phaal heyrragh, a sheep-pen ; e aal, his 
pen ; nyn vaal, our pen. 

Words beginning with q have three, viz., q, wh 3 g ; as quing 
hrome, a heavy yoke ; e wJiing, his yoke ; nyn guing, their yoke. 
Words beginning with s have three, viz., s, h, t ; if the first 
letter s be followed by a vowel, or if the word be of the feminine 
gender it has two ; ' as _sooill vie, a good eye ; e hooill, his eye ; 
y tooillftloB eye; slingan vooar, a big shoulder, y tlingan the 
shoulder ; otherwise the initial remains unchanged ; as sporran, a 
purse ; e sporran, his purse. 

Words beginning with t have three initials ; viz., t, h, dh ; as 

D 2 



8 A GRAMMAR OP 

taggloo ard, high discourse ; e haggloOj his discourse ; nyn 
dhaggloo, our discourse. 

The variation of the initial letters is always regular and con- 
stant betwixt letters of the same organ of pronunciation ; for a 
labial letter is never changed to a dental, nor a dental to 
a labialj &c. 

Adverbs, being formed of adjectives, become such for the most 
part by putting dy in apposition to the adjectives, without effect- 
ing any change in their mutable initial consonants ; as mie (adjec- 
tive) good; dy mie (adverb) well; boght (adj.) poor; dy boght 
(adv.) poorly; gennal (adj.) merry; dy gennal (adv.) merrily. 
"Whereas the preposition dy, of; or dy, the sign of the infinitive 
mood ; or dy, to, (a contraction of gys) always change the mut- 
able initials ; thus, in traagh, pobble, goaill, bailey ; as rybbag dy 
hraaghy a wisp of hay ; earroo dy phobble, a multitude of people ; 
dy ghoaill coyrle, to take counsel ; goll dy valley, going home. 

Initial vowels are also capable of occasional changes, by taking 
the aspirate h before them after the genitive article ny ; as ayns 
diunid ny hushtaghyn, in the depth of the waters. Besides, in 
pronunciation, the last consonant of the preceding word is trans- 
ferred to the following vowel ; thus yn oo, the egg ; yn arragh, 
the spring ; yn agh the horse, are pronounced as if they were 
yn noo, yn niarragh, yn niagh. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



CHAPTER IV. 



The Parts of the Manks tongue are nine. 



Article, 
Noun, 
Pronoun, 
Verb, 



Adverb, 
Conjunction, 

declined. Preposition, ^ undeclined. 
Interjection, 



Participle, 

OF THE ARTICLES. 

The Articles* are two, y and yn, the, and are declined in the 
following manner : 

Singular. Plural. 

Norn. Y or yn, masc. and fern. N. Ny, masc. and fern. 
Gen. T or yn, masc, ny, fern. G. Ny. 
Dat. Da 'n, D. Da ny, 

Ace. Y or yn, A. Ny, 

Voc. Y or o, V. Y or a, 

Abl. 6r?/w. A. Gyn, 

Y is placed before words beginning with consonants; as y 
dooiney, the man, y ven, the woman. 

Yn is used before words beginning with vowels, whether radi- 
cal or in construction ; as yn oural, the sacrifice, sJioh boteil yn 
ooill millish, this is the bottle of sweet oil. But it is often sub- 
stituted in the place of the article y even before consonants, 
especially when a person or thing is particularised. 

When the articles, ny, na, &c., and verbs substantive, ta, va, 
~bee } and some of the irregulars, nee. Me, &c., precede in construc- 
tion, though the word following begins with a consonant, yn is 

* Properly, there is but one article, y, which becomes yn before a vowel, and ny 
in the plural ; and there are but two cases, the nominative and the genitive, the 
dative being a contraction of da yn, and the ablative being a simple preposition, gyn? 
without. ED. 



10 A GRAMMAR OE 

used ; but the y is cut off by apostrophe, because of the preceding 
vowel ; as bee 'n doonniey mie maynrey, the good man shall be 
happy ; ta 'n drogh-ghoonniey mollaghtagh, the wicked man is 
cursed ; ta } n chenndeeaght ny screeney na 'n aegid. After other 
words ending with a vowel, and the following word beginning 
with a consonant, yn, not y } is always used ; as ayns thie yn ree, 
(not thie 3 n ree) in the king's house ; t } eh gerjaghey yn poblle, (not 
gerjaghey'npobblej, he comforts the people. In these and the 
like cases, to apostrophize the yn is reckoned highly barbarous. 
The article yn before all nouns beginning with a vowel trans- 
fers, in pronunciation, the final n to the following vowel ; as yn 
agh, the horse, which is pronounced as if written yn nagh : yn 
ollagTij the cattle, pronounced yn nollagh. 

EC is a participial article of the present tense, er of the preter, 
and er-chee of the future ; as, cc scrieu, writing ; er scrieu, having 
written ; er-chee scrieUj about to write. 



THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 11 



CHAPTER V. 

OF THE NOUN. 

And first, of its Cases. 

In Manks there are six Cases, though originally we seem to 
have used but three, viz., the Nominative, Genitive, and Dative. 
When the article y or yn is placed before a substantive of the 
Nominative Case, beginning with a mutable consonant, if the 
Noun be of the feminine gender, the initial consonant must be 
either aspirated, mortified, or changed into its soft : as ben, a 
woman, yn ven ; keyrrey, a sheep, yn cheyrrey ; feill, flesh, yn eill. 
But if the Noun be of the masculine gender, the initial consonant 
remains in its own nature ; as yn dooinney, the man ; yn coo, the 
greyhound ; yn feiyr, the noise. 

When the article y or yn is placed before a Noun beginning 
with a consonant, if the Noun be of the feminine gender, the 
article is changed into ny in the Genitive Case singular ; but if 
the Noun be of the masculine gender, the mutable consonant 
is changed into its soft or aspirated, and the article y or yn 
remains; as 

Masculine. 

Nom. Guilley, a boy. Nom. Coo, a greyhound,. 

Gen. Yn ghuillcy, of a boy. Gen. Yn choo. 

Feminine. 

Nom. Sen, a woman, Nom. Booa, a cow. 

Gen. Ny mrieh, of a woman. Gen. Ny baa> t 
Nom. KiarJc, a hen, Nom. Cass, a foot. 

Gen. Ny giarlc. Gen. Ny coshey. 

Nouns of the feminine gender, beginning with a vowel, change 

' 



12 A GRAMMAR OF 

yn into ny in the genitive singular, and require h for their initial 
in the same case ; as, 

Awin, a river, 

Broogh ny hawin, the brink of the river. 
Nom. Eanin, a precipice, 
Beinn ny heanin, the summit of the precipice. 
As to the Cases of the Plural Number, there is but one termi- 
nation throughout ; so that they are only distinguished by the 
articles set before them, or in their construction, varying their 
initial letters, if mutable, answerable to their dependence on the 
preceding words ; as Plural. 

Nom. Ny boghtyn, the poor, 
Gen. Ny moghtyn, of the poor, 
Dat. Da ny boghtyn, to the poor, 
Ace. Ny boghtyn, the poor, 
Voc. Y or voghtyn, poor, 
Abl. Gyn voghtyn, without poor. 

The initial of the Genitive Case plural suffers always, when 
the genitive article ny is used, as if the possessive nyn were put 
in apposition, q. v. ; as 

Plural. 

Nom. Ny boghtyn. 

Gen. (BannaghtJ ny moghtyn, the blessing of the poor. 
Nom. Ny thieyn, the houses. 

Gen. (FerJ ny dhieyn, a man of the houses, i.e., a beggar. 
The vocative article is more frequently understood than ex- 
pressed in both numbers, except the English thou be used in the 
singular; as, maghj y voddee, Out, thou dog; and in the plural, 
except ye be expressed, which is generally translated by shiuish, 
ye, yourselves; as, ye friends, or friends, chaarjyn, or shiuish 
chaarjyn. 



THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 13 



CHAPTER VI. 

OP THE NUMBERS. 

Manks nouns have ordinarily but two Numbers, the Singular 
and the Plural. 

We seem also to use the dual, when daa, two, or both, may be 
compounded with a substantive : as, daa ghooinney, two men ; 
daa chass, two feet ; daa hie, two houses, daa ven, two women, 
literally, two woman, &c. 

Substantives compounded, or put in apposition with numerals, 
in the first and second number of every score, instead of the 
plural, use the singular number ; as, un hooill, one eye ; daa 
hooill, two eyes ; three sooillyn, three eyes ; feed sooill, twenty 
eyes ; un hooill as feed, one-and-twenty eyes ; da-eed sooill, forty 
eyes ; three-feed sooill, sixty eyes, &c.* The word laa, a day, 
when put after a numeral, may be used throughout in the singu- 
lar number : thus un laa, daa laa, three, Jciare, queig, &c., laa. 

Some substantives want the singular number : as, cloan, chil- 
dren; maase, cattle; sleih, people, &c. Others want the plural : 
as, arran, bread ; jough, drink ; sollan, salt ; eeym, butter ; feill, 
flesh ; fuill, blood ; bainney, milk ; niart, strength ; fort, ability ; 
keayney, weeping ; trimshey, sorrow ; and the like. 

And the names of metals : as, airh, gold ; argid, silver ; prasli, 
brass ; yiarn, iron ; stainney, tin, &c. ; and all proper names. 

* The Manks count by scores. The score, yn feed has no plural termination. 
Every noun numbered by the score is in the singular form ; as a score man, two 
score man, three score man. ED. 



14 A GRAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER VII. 

OF THE FORMING OF PLURALS IN A NOUN SUBSTANTIVE. 

The Plurals of Substantives are formed of their singulars in 
three ways. 

First, by adding only a syllable to the termination of the 
singular : as, awin, a river, plural awinyn ; cassan, a foot-path, 
plural cassanyn. 

Secondly, by changing only the vowels or diphthongs of mono- 
syllables into other vowels or diphthongs : as, -mac, a son, pi. 
wee; fer } a man, pi. fir ; beeal, a mouth, pi. belli; mair, a finger, 
pi. meir ; or by changing the vowels and diphthongs of the ultima 
and penultima of polysyllables into other vowels or diphthongs ; 
as, keeill, a church, pi. Idaulteenyn. 

Thirdly, by changing the vowel or diphthongs of the singular 
and adding to the termination too ; as, raantagh, a bondsman, pi. 
raanteenyn ; claddagh, a lake, pi. claddeeyn ; ble'in, pi. bleeantyn. 

But here it is necessary to know the various syllables usually 
added to, or diphthongs changed in, the singulars of substantives, 
to render them, plurals ; which are these that follow : 

Yn is the most common termination of all ; as, glioon, a knee, 
pi. glioonyn ; laue, a hand, pi. laueyn ; cass, a foot, pi. cassyn.* 

The singular termination agli is always changed into eej as, 
berchagh, a rich man, pi. berchee ; kimmagh, a criminal, pi. kirn- 
mee; claasagh, a harp, pi. claasee* 

* The old English or Saxon plural ended in en as house, liousen ; liose, hosen ; eye, 
cyen ; shoe, slioon. Hence also, sowen, now swine ; coiven, now kine ; oxen ; men ; 
women; children. I&D. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 15 

Nouns, whose singular number ends in ey, make their plural 
by changing cy into agh, and adding the particle yn to the ter- 
mination ; as, chengey, a tongue, pi. chengaghyn ; caggey, a war, 
pi. caggaghyn ; except dooinney, a man, pi. deiney.* 

Some monosyllables ending in r make their plurals by taking 
aghyn; as, pooar, power, pi. pooaraghyn; gloyr, glory, pi. 
gloyraghyn. 

A in monosyllables is changed for the most part into e ; as, 
mac, a son, pi. mec; mair, a finger, pi. meir ; so also tarroo, a 
bull, pi. terroo ; marroo, the dead, pi. merroo ; not terriu, merriu, 
as some erroneously hold. 

E is changed into i ; as> fer, a man, pi. jfo-. 

in monosyllables is changed into the diphthongs ui; as, molt, 
a mutton, pi. muilt ; bolg, a belly, pi. builg ; bock, a horse, pi. 
buicJc; poyll, a puddle, pi. puill; stoyl, a stool, pi. stuill; cront, 
a knot, pi. cruint. 

Other exceptions are bttWey, a town, pi. baljyn ; Ulley, a tree, pi. Uljyn ; 
lunney, a sheaf, pi. bunneeyn ; carrey, a frieod, pi. caarjyn ; paitchey, a child, pi. 
%>aifoJiyn. ED. 



16 A GEAMMAE OF 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE GENDEES OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

Although the primitive and proper use of genders be only to 
distinguish one sex from another, yet the Manks, like the 
Greeks, Latins, French, Irish, &c., observe that distinction even 
in inanimate things, among which there is neither male nor 
female ; so that there is not one noun in Manks but what is 
either masculine, feminine, or common.* 

There are twof ways to know the gender of a noun. 

The first, by its signification. 

The second, by its termination, 

The proper names of men, winds, months ; also qualities, good 
or bad ; metals ; and the infinite mood of verbs, when used 
substantively, are known by their signification to be of the mas- 
culine gender. 

Words ending in oo, ey, ed, er, are masculine by their termi- 
nation; a,sjannoo, an action; jalloo, an image; goo, a report ; bain- 
ney, milk ; phreeney, a pin ; eggey, a web ; dooinney, a man ; red, 
a thing ; bred, a prick ; gred, a heat ; dunver, a murderer ; 
eeasyder, a borrower ; ynseyder, an instructor. 

Words ending in oge } age, or ag, are feminines by their termi- 
nations ; as, rollage, a star ; burdoge, a shrimp ; cuinniag, a mull. 

* There is no such anomaly as a neuter gender. CREGEEN. 

f As there are no determined rules to know the genders of substantives inanimate, 
I have been very exact in setting down the gender of every noun in my Dictionary; 
for adjectives being to express the quality f the substantives, follow their genders, 
by becoming either masculine or feminine; which is effected by a change in the 
initials of the adjectives. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 17 

The names of women, countries, rivers, cities, also appella- 
tives of trees and stones ; are of the feminine gender ; so are 
nouns ending in ee joined to an adjective feminine, whether of 
the singular or plural number ; as, peccee, sinners ; peccee hreih, 
miserable sinners ; moddey joogh, a greedy dog, masculine, pi. 
moddee yooghj feminine : so are the singulars cree, shee, &c. 

Words that are common to both sexes, as, chagliter, a messen- 
ger ; sharvaant, a servant ; paitchey, a child, are of the common 
or two genders. 

When the article y or yn is placed before a noun beginning 
with s, if t be substituted in the place of s y so that the s be 
eclipsed and loseth its sound ; then that noun is of the feminine 
gender; as 

Sooill) an eye. Yn tauin. 

Yn tooill, the eye. Soalt, a barn. 

Sauin, Hallowing-tide. Yn toalt, the barn. 

But if the noun admits not of , then it is of the masculine 
gender. 

When the article yn is placed before a noun beginning with a 
consonant, and the said article is changed into ny in the genitive 
case singular, that noun is of the feminine gender ; but when 
the article yn remains in the genitive singular, then the noun is 
of the masculine gender ; as 

Nom. Yn fer, the man, Nom. Yn ver, the woman, 
Gen. Yn er, of the man. Gen. Ny mrieh, of the woman. 

But in finding out the proper gender of the substantive given, 
provided the substantive begin with one or other of the mutable 
consonants, the most certain rule is : 

A word beginning with any of the mutable consonants, if, 
upon putting the article y or yn before it, its initial consonant 
doth naturally change into its soft ; as, cooish, a cause, yn chooisli, 
the cause ; grian, the sun, yn ghrian, the sun ; moyrn, pride, yn 
voyrn, the pride; miljid, sweetness, yn viljid: the sweetness: such 
words are infallibly of the feminine gender. But if the initial 
consonant change not thereupon, we may justly conclude such 



18 A GRAMMAR OP 

words to be of the masculine gender ; as, goo, fame, y goo f the 
fame ; Iteayn, sea, yn keayn, the sea ; corp, a body, yn corp, the 
body ; cappan, a cup, yn cappan, the cup. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 19 



CHAPTER IX. 

OF THE DECLENSIONS. 
There are Five Declensions. 

FIEST DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the First Declension are such as form their plural 
by adding the particle yn to the termination of the nominative 
singular; as 

Of the Feminine Gender : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Sooill, an eye, or y tooill, N. Ny sooillyn, the eyes, 

the eye, 

Gen. Ny sooilley, of an eye, G. Ny sooillyn, of the eyes, 
Dat.* Da'n tooill, to the eye, D. Da ny sooillyn, to the eyes, 
Ace. Yn tooill, the eye, A. Ny sooillyn, the eyes, 

Voc. Y or Jwoill, eye, V. Y or hooillyn, eyes, 

Abl. Gyn hooill, without an eye. A. Gyn sooillyn, without eyes. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Cass, a foot, N. Cassyn, feet, 

Gen. Ny coshey, of the foot, G. Ny gassyn, of the feet, 
Dat. Da'n chass, to the foot, D. Da ny cassyn, to the feet, 
Ace. Yn chass, the foot, A. Ny cassyn, the feet, 

Voc. Y chass, foot, V. Y chassyn, feet, 

Abl. Gyn chass, without a foot. A. Gyn chassyn, without feet, 

* The Dative case of all nouns is the same as the Accusative, with the pre- 
position da prefixed. It might therefore be expunged; and the word in the Dative 
be said to be in the Accusative, governed by the preposition da. The Pronouns 
have a distinct Dative. ED. 



20 A GRAMMAR OP 

Of the Masculine Gender. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Thie, a house, N. Thieyn, houses, 

Gen. Yn thie, of the house, G. Ny dhieyn, of the houses, 
Dat. Da'n thie, to the house, D. Da ny thieyn, to the houses, 
Ace. Yn thie, the house, A. Ny thieyn, the houses, 

Voc. Y or hie, house, V. Y hieyn, houses, 

Abl. Gyn thie, Without a house. A. G-yn thieyn, without houses. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Baase, death, N. Baaseyn, deaths, 

Gen. Yn vanish, of death, G. Ny maaseyn, of deaths, 

Dat. Da'n baase, to the death, ~D.Danyl>aaseyn, to the deaths, 
Ace. Yn baase, the death, A. Ny baaseyn, the deaths, 

Voc. Y vaase, death, Y. Y vaaseyn, deaths, 

Abl. Gyn vaase, without death. A. Gyn vaaseyn, without, &c. 
Some nouns of this declension transpose their final consonants 
in the genitive singular, and in the plural number ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Bannish, a wedding, N. Ny banshyn, the weddings, 

Gen. Ny banshey, of a wedding, G. Ny manshyn, of, &c. 
Dat. Da'n vannish, to the wed- D. Da ny banshyn, to, &c. 

ding, 

Ace. Yn vannish, the wedding, A. Ny banshyn, the, &c. 
Yoc. Y vannish, wedding^ V. Y vanshyn, weddings, 
Abl. Gyn vannish, without a A. Gyn vanshyn, without, &c. 

wedding. 

Nouns ending in er, or, id, ys, are of this declension ; and these 
nouns feminine : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Ooig, a pit, N. Ny ooigyn, pits, 

Gen. Ny hooigey, of, &c. G. Ny hooigyn, of pits. 

Nom. Greg, a rock, N. Greggyn, rocks, 

Gen. Ny creggey, of a rock. G. Ny creggyn, of rocks. 
Nom. Kiark, a hen, N. Kiarkyn, of hens, 

Gen. Ny giarlt, of the hen. G. Ny giarkyn, of hens. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



21 



And toin, gen. ny toaney ; crosh, an accident, gen. ny groshey ; 
muir, the sea, gen. ny marrey ; muc, a pig, gen. ny muigey, &c. 

SECOND DECLENSION. 

Nouns of the Second Declension are such as admit of no change 
in the termination of the singular number ; and the plural is 
formed by adding aghyn to the final consonant ; and, if the noun 
ends in a voweL the vowel is cast away, except it be a monosyl- 
lable, and then the vowel remains: as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Gag gey (masc.) war, N. Cagg aghyn, wars, 
Gen. Yn chaggey, of the war, G. Ny gaggaghyn, of the wars, 
Dat. Da'n caggey, to the war, D. Dany caggaghyn,tothewars, 
Ace. Yn caggey, the war. A. Ny caggaghyn, the wars, 

Voc. Y chaggey, war, V. Y chagg aghyn, wars, 

Abl. Gyn chaggey, without j&c. A. GynchaggaghynyVfifhoutj&c. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Oloyr (fern.), glory, N. Gloyraghyn, glories, 
Gen. Ny ghloyr, of the glory, G. Ny gloyraghyn, of, &c. 
Dat. Da'n ghloyr , to the glory, D. Da ny gloyraghyn, to, &c. 
Ace. Yn ghloyr, the glory, A. Ny gloyraghyn 9 the glories, 
Voc. Y ghloyr, glory, V. Y gloyraghyn, glories, 

Abl. Gyn ghloyr, without, &c. A. Gyn gloyraghyn, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Cruinney, a globe, N. Cmdnnaghyn, globes, 

Gen. Ny cndnney, of a globe. G. Ny gruinnagliyn, of, &c. 

Of this declension are the following nouns :-*-cree, a heart ; ree,- 
a king ; coirrey, a furnace ; chengey, a tongue ; pooar, power ; 
obbyr, work ; peccah, sin, &c. 

THIRD DECLENSION. 

The Third Declension containeth nouns changeable in the cases 
of the singular number, and which form their plurals as the 
second declension. 



22 A GRAMMAK OF 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Tn sourey, summer, N. Souraghyn, summers, 
Gen. Yn touree, of summer, G. Ny souraghyn, of summers, 
Dat. Da'n tourey, to the, &c. D. Da ny souraghyn, to, &c. 
Ace. Yn tourey, the summer, A. Ny souraghyn, the, &c. 
Voc. Y houree, summer, Y. Y houraghyn, 0, &c. 
Abl. Gyn houreyj without, &c. A. Gyn souraghyn, without, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Moir, a mother, N. Moiraghyn, mothers, 

Gen. Ny mayrey, of a mother, G. Ny moiraghyn, of, &c. 
Dat. Da'n voir, to the mother, D. Da ny moiraghyn, to, &c. 
Ace. Yn voir, the mother. A. Ny moiraghyn, the, &c. 
Yoc. Y voir, mother, V. Y voiraghyn, 0, &c. 

Abl. Gyn voir, without, &c. A. Gyn voiraghyn, without, &c. 

Of this declension are 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Braar, a brother, N. Braaraghyn, brothers, 

Gen. Y vraarey, of a brother, G. Ny mraaraghyn, of, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Shuyr, a sister, N. Shuyraghyn, sisters, 

Gen. Ny shayrey, of a sister. G. Ny shuyraghyn, of sisters. 

In the same manner are declined geurey, winter, gen. y gheuree, 
of winter ; clieer, a countiy, gen. ny cheerey, of a country, &c. 

Of this declension are nouns wanting the singular number, also 
nouns of multitude singular, and are regularly declined ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Feill, flesh, 1ST. Cloan, children, 

Gen. Ny foalley, of the flesh, G. Ny glienney, of children, 
Dat. Da'n eill, to the flesh, D. Da'n chloan, to the children, 
Ace. Yn eill, the flesh, A. Yn chloan, the children, 

Voc. eill, flesh, Y. Y chloan, children, 

Abl. Gyn eill, without flesh. A. Gyn chloan, without, &c. 

Note here that clown, maase, sleih (vide Of the Numbers, Chap. 
VI.), 'Which apparently seem plural nouns, are only nouns of 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 23 

multitude singular, and declined with a singular article; for, we 
never say ta ny maase cheet, but ta'n maase cheet, the cattle comes; 
ta'n sleih chaglym, the people assembles, not ta ny sleih chaglym. 

THE FOUETH DECLENSION. 

Nouns of this declension ending in agh in the singular change 
agk into ee in the plural, and add the particle yn ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Cagliagh, a boundary, N. Cagleeyn, boundaries, 
Gen. Yn chagliagh) of the, &c. G. Ny gagleeyn, of the, &c. 
Dat. Da 9 ncagliaghjtotln.e,&c. D. Da ny cagleeyn, to the, &c. 
Ace. Yn cagliagh, the, &c. A. Ny cagleeyn, the, &c. 
Voc. Ychagliagh,Q boundary, V. Y chagleeyn, 0, &c. 
Abl. Gk/nchagliaghjWithontf&c. A. Gyn cagleeyn, without, &c. 

Of this declension are claddagh, &c. 

Some nouns of this declension, to avoid the hiatus, receive the 
consonant n ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Raantaghj a bail, N. Raanteenyn, bails, 

Gen. Yn raantagh, of a bail. G. Ny raanteenyn, of the bails. 

Some nouns of this declension, ending in vowels in the singu- 
lar number, form their plural by adding nyn to the termination ; 
as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Cliwe, a sword, N. Cliwenyn, swords, 

Gen. Yn chUwe> of a sword. G. Ny gliwenyn, of the, &c. 
So are jaghee, tythe ; briw, a judge, &c., declined. 
Some nouns of this declension form their plurals from the geni- 
tive singular, and transpose the final consonant ; as- 
Singular. Plural. 
Nom. Annym, a soul, N. Anmeenyn, souls, 
Gen. Ny hanmey, of the soul. G . Ny hanme&nyn, of the souls. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Keeill, a church, N. Kialteenyn, churches, 

Gen. Ny ltillagli,of the church* G. Ny giaUeenyn } of the, &c 



24 A GRAMMAR OF 

And some, instead of n, admit of / in their plural ; as, moainee, 
a turbary ; Iheeanee, a meadow ; Hem, &c. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Blein, a year, N. Bleeantyn, years, 

Gen. Ny bleeaney, of a year. G. Ny mleeantyn, of the years. 

FIFTH DECLENSION. 

A, o, u, being broad vowels, are used promiscuously in general, 
but in monosyllable nouns the plural number follows the genitive 
singular, as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Z)oam,afist or hand (shut), N. Duirn, hands, 
Gen. Ny duirn, of a fist, G. Ny ghuim, of hands, 

Dat. Da'n doarn, to the hand, D. Dy ny duirn, to the hands, 
Ace. Yn doarnj the hand, A. Ny duirn, the hands, 
Yoc. Y ghoarn, O hand, V. Y ghuirn, hands, 

Abl. Gyn doarn, without, &c. A. Gyn duirn, without hands. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Gr on, a mast, N. Ny cruin, masts, 

Gen. Y chruin, of the mast, G. Ny gruin, of the masts, 
Dat. Da'n chron, to the mast, D. Dy ny cruin, to the masts, 
Ace. Yn chron, the mast, A. Ny cruin, the masts, 
Voc. Y chron, mast, V. Y chruin, masts, 

Abl. Gyn chron, without a mast. Y. Gyn cruin, without, &c. 

Singular. PluraL 

Nom. Kione, a head, N. Ny king, heady, 

Gen. Y ching, of a head. G. Ny ging, of the heads. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Booa, a cow, N. Ny baa, cows, 

Gen. Ny baa, of the cow. G. Ny maa, of the cows. 

Some monosyllables of this declension follow not their geni- 
tive, but change a into e ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nora. Mac, a son, N. Ny mec, sons, 

Gen. Yn vac, of a son. G. Ny mec t of the sons. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



25 



Some change e into i, as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Per, a man, N. Fir, men, 

Gen. Yn er, of the man. G. Ny vir, of the men. 

0, in monosyllables, is changed into the diphthong ui, as 
Nom. Bolg, a belly, N. Ny builg, bellies, 

Gen. Yn volg, of a belly. G. Ny muilg, of bellies. 

In this manner are declined molt, stoyl, cront, &c., &c. 

Some polysyllable nouns also form the plural from the genitive 
case singular, and are of the fifth declension ; as, 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Kellagh, a cock, N. Ny kellee, cocks, 

Gen. Y chellee, of the cock, G. Ny gellee, of the cocks, 
Dat. Da'n Jcellagh, to the cock, D. Da ny kellee, to the cocks, 
Ace. Yn Jcellagh, the cock, A. Ny hellee, the cocks, 
Voc. Y choUagh, cock, V. Y chellee, cocks, 

Abl. Gyn chellagh, without, &c. A. Gyn Jtellee, .without cocks. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Guiy, a goose, N. Ny guoee, the geese, 

Gen. Ny guoee , of a goose. G. Ny ghuoee, of the geese. 

Nom. Moddey, a dog, N. Ny moddee, dogs, 

Gen. Y voddee, of a dog. G. Ny moddee, of dogs. 

Keyrrey, a sheep, &c., are of this declension, and thus declined : 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Keyrrey, a sheep, N. Ny Mrree, sheep, 

Gen. Ny geyrragh, of a sheep, G. Ny girree, of the sheep, 
Dat. Da'n cheyrrey , to the sheep, D. Da ny Mrree, to, &c. 
Ace. Yn cheyrrey, the sheep, A. Ny kirree, the sheep, 
Voc. Y cheyrrey, sheep, V. Y chirree, sheep, 
Abl. Gyn cheyrrey, without, &c. A. Gyn Jcirree, without, &c. 

Adjectives sometimes become substantives, and are of this 
declension : as, berchagh, a rich man ; Jcimmagh, a criminal , 
peccagh, a sinner, &c. PI. berchee, kimmee, peccee. 



A GRAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER X. 

OF A NOUN ADJECTIVE. 

AN Adjective is a word joined to a substantive, to express its 
quality. Therefore, Adjectives very properly follow their substan- 
tives in the Manks. 

Adjectives may be formed from the genitive case of the nouns 
they derive from : as, sourey, summer, G. y touree, of summer ; 
geurey, winter, G. y gheuree, of winter. Thus, earish houree, 
summer weather ; earish gheureej winter weather. 

The variation of Adjectives is two-fold ; of the gender and of 
the number. 

The variation of the gender is that by which masculines 
become feminines ; and this is effected by changing only the 
radical or initial consonant (if mutable) into its soft or secondary 
mute, as the following scheme will clearly elucidate. 

Masculine*. Feminine. 

Bing, shrill, 
Creeney, wise, 
Dunnalj brave, 
Genual , merry, 
Dooinney. { Jesh, proper, 
Kiart, just, 
Moyrnagh, proud, 
Paagh, thirsty, 
QuaagJij strange. 
The plurals of Adjectives are formed of singular masculines, 
without any change in their radical initials ; as, inneen vie, a 



Chreeney, 
Gliunnal, 
GTiennal, 
Sen. -{ Yesh, 
Chiart, 
Voyrnaghy 
Phaagh, 
Whaagh. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 27 

good girl, PI. inneenyn mie ; eddin ghennal, a merry countenance, 
PI. eddinyn gennal. 

When the substantive is not expressed but understood, the 
Adjectives often change their plural termination, or, in fact, 
become substantives ; as 

First, by adding only to the singular termination, which 
addition is generally ee ; as, fer niartal, a strong man, PI. ny 
niartallee, the strong (men). 

Secondly, by changing the singular termination agh into ee ; 
as, berchagh, rich, PL ny berchee, the rich : 

Or, thirdly, by adding another vowel to the ultimate vowel of 
the singular without any addition ; as, doal, blind, PL ny doail, 
the blind. 

Sometimes the vowel a of the singular number is in the plural 
changed into e ; as, marroo, dead, PL ny merroo, the dead. 

Yet here I must observe, contrary to the received opinion of 
several of my countrymen, whose judgment I much value and 
esteem, that we have plural adjectives adjectives of the plural 
number, that are distinguished from singulars by their termina- 
tion. The following examples will prove the best argument. 

Adjectives, whose singulars terminate in agh, in their plurals 
change agh into ee ; as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Fer ynsagh, a teacher, or N. Ny fir ynsee, teachers, or 
[teaching man, [teaching men,, 

Gen. Yner-ynsaghj of a teacher, &c. G. Ny vir-ynsee, 
Dat. Da'n, fer-ynsagli^, D. Da ny Jir-ynsee > 

Ace. Yn fer-ynsagh> A. Ny fir-ynsee, 

&c. V. ir-ynsee, 

A. Gyn fir-ynsee* 

Singular. Plural. 

Fer kialgagh, a crafty man-, Fir chialgee, 

Gen. Yn er kialgagh, G. Ny vir chialgee, 

Dat. Da'n fer Idalgagh,. D. Da ny fir chialgee^ 

&c. &c. 



28 A GRAMMAR OP 

Thie jaaghagh, a smoky house, Ny thieyn jaaghee, 
Gen. &c. G. Ny dhieyn jaaghee, 

&c. 

The most general termination of plural adjectives is ey, which 
is added to the final consonant : as 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Dooinney mooar, a great man, N. Deiney mooarey, 
Gen. Yn dooinney mooar, of a, &c. G. Ny gheiney mooarey, &c. 

Nom. Ben seyr, a rich woman, N. Mraane seyrey, 
Gen. Ny mrieh seyr, of a rich, &c. G. Ny mraane seyrey. 

Nom. Magher glass, a green field, N. Magheryn glassey, 
Gen. Ynvagherglass,of the green, &c.G. Ny magheryn, &c. 

Nom. Keyrrey vane, a white sheep, N. Kirree vaney, 
Gen. Ny geyragh vane. G. Ny girree vaney. 

Many adjectives want the plural number : as, mie, good ; sie, 
bad ; aalin, fair ; glen, pure ; crauee, holy ; cam, crooked ; and 
such like. 

Cardinal numbers have no plural when put in apposition or 
composition with their substantives, though their substantives 
at the same time may be either singulars or plurals : as, troor, 
three ; Tdwre, four, &c. ; and thie, an house ; three thieyn, kiare 
thieyn ; nor when set alone, or substantively, have they plurals ; 
as we say, ta'n chiare, the four, not ta ny Mare ; t a'n wheig, the 
five, not ta ny queig. 

Ordinals have no plural number. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 29 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES. 

In the Manks there are but two degrees of comparison, viz., 
the positive, or low degree ; and the superlative, or highest 
degree ; as, aalin, fair, s'aalin, fairest ; pos. yn fer graney, the 
ugly man; sup. ynfer s' graney, the ugliest man. But in this 
superlative is included the English comparative degree also ; as, 
s'aalin may be Englished, fairer; and s' graney, uglier. 

The superlative is formed of its positive by adding s' (a con- 
traction of the word smoo, more, or most,) to the initial of its 
singular masculines ; &s,pooaral, powerful; sup. s'pooaral, more, 
or most powerful. 

Between the comparatives, or words or persons compared, is 
commonly placed the comparative conjunction na, answering to 
the ante-comparative conjunction ny ; as, ta moddey bio ny share 
na lion marroo, a live dog is better than a dead lion. 

As the positive degree is a weak adjective, it undergoes those 
changes of gender that adjectives are subject to; but the super- 
lative alters not, but is always expressed in its singular masculine; 
as, yn ven ghennal, the merry woman ; sup. yn ven s'gennal, the 
merriest woman. 

Monosyllables that begin and end with a consonant have 
always the syllable ey added to them in the superlative degree ; 
as, pos. boght, poor ; sup. s'boghtey, poorest. 

Polysyllables ending in agh commonly change agh into ee ; as, 
pos. agglagh, horrid, sup. s'agglee, most horrid ; pos. kiaralagh, 
careful, sup. s'kiaralcc, most careful. 



30 A GRAMMAR OP 

Positives having oa and io change them into e ; as, mool? 
feeble, sup. s'melley, most feeble ; pos. chion, tight, sup. 
s'chenney, tightest : 

Having o and ia make i; as, trome, heavy, sup. s'trimmey,. 
heaviest ; gial, white, sup. s'gilley, whitest : 

Having au, make iu as roauyr, fat, sup. sfriwrey, fattest ^ 
liawyr, long, sup. s'liurty, longest. 

These following are anomalous, or irregular comparisons : 

Positive. Comp. and Sup. 

Mie, good, Share, better, or best. 

Oik, bad, Smessey, worse, or worst. 

Beg, or ~beggan, little, Sloo, less, or least. 
Mooar, great, S'moo, greater, or greatest. 

Ymmodee, many, S'lhee, more, or most. 

Faggys, near, S'niessey, nearer, or nearest. 

Lhean, broad, S'lhea, broader, or broadest. 

Aeg, young, S'aa, younger, or youngest. 

Foddey, far, distant,, S'odjey, farther, or farthest. 
Which variations run through alt the European languages, as 
depending on the Celtic ; and not from the caprice of custom, as 
Mr. Louth imagines. (See Eng. Or. p. 26.) 

The Manks language^besides the degrees of comparison already 
mentioned, has a sort of comparison which imports sometimes 
equality, sometimes admiration, and may be explained in English 
by as, so, how : as, cha aalin as eshyn, as fair as he ; s'mie Ihiam 
shen dyjarroo ! how pleasing is it to me ! s'banglaneagh y peccaghl' 
how prolific is man ! s'mooar Ihiam eh ! how I begrudge it ! It 
is formed of the positive, by prefixing the contraction s',, accord- 
ing to the rules of the superlative degree. 



THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 31 



CHAPTER XII. 
Or THE PRONOUNS. 

Of the Pronouns, some are Personal as, mee> I ; shin, we ; 
oo, thou ; shiu, ye ; eh, he or it ; ee, she ; ad, they ; or when any 
emphasis is expressed misli for mee, uss for oo t eshyn for eh, ish 
for ee. 

Some are Demonstratives as, shoh, this ; shen, that ; shid, that 
there, or yonder. 

Some are Relatives as, quoi, who ; ere, or que, what. 

Some are Possessives as, my, mine ; dty, thine ; e, his or hers. 

Some are Interrogatives as, quoi, who ; ere, or que, what 
(kys, or quis, how). 

Some are Derivatives as, mish, meehene ; uss, oohene; ish, 
eehene. 

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions as, orrym, upon 
me ; ort, upon thee ; er, upon him ; Ihiam, with me ; Ihiat, with 
thee ; lesh, with him ; &c., &c.* These are peculiar to our 
language, and are called pronominal participles ; by the assist- 
ance of which, and the auxiliary verb ta mee, to be, annexed to 
the substantive, all possessive parts of speech are expressed. (See 
Construction of Prepositions.) 

* The ingenious and learned author of the Essay on the Antiquity of the Irish 
Language, treating of these pronouns, has these words: "The Orientalist will find 
a suprising affinity between these cognomina and the Hebrew li, lo, lah, &c. olli, 
ollort, lionn, &c., the Persian aura, &c.; and they are certainly of the same root." 



32 A GRAMMAR OF 

1. OF THE PERSONAL PRONOUNS AND THEIR DERIVATIVES. 

Personal Pronouns are three mee, I ; oo, thou -, eh, he ; and 
ee, she ; and are thus declined : 

Mee, I. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Mee, I, N. Shin, main, or mayd, we, 

Gen. My, or aym, of me, G. Ain, of us, or our, 

Dat. Don, hym, rhym, to me, D. Dooin, hooin, rooin, to us, 
Ace. Mee, me, A. Shin, us, 

Yoc. (caret) V. 

Abl. Voym, from me. A. Vom, from us. 

Oo, thou. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Oo, thou, N. $/im, you, or ye, 

Gen. Dty, or ayd, of thee, or thine, G. Eu, of you, or your, 
Dat. Dhyt, rhyt, hood, to thee, D. Dm, hiu, riu, to you, 
Ace. Oo, thee, A. /STtm, you, 

Yoc. Oo, thou, Y. $/mt, you, 

Abl. Void, from thee. A. Veue, from you. 

M, he. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Eh, he, or it, N. Ad, they, 

Gen. E, or echey, of him or it, G. Oc, of them, 
Dat. Da, rish, huggey, to him or it, D. Dane, roo, hue, to them, 
Ace. Eh, him, or it, A. Ad, them, 

Yoc. (caret) Y. (caret) 

Abl. Voish, or veih, from him or it. A. Voue, from them. 

Ee, she. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nom. Ee, she, N. -4d, &c., like Eh. 

Gen. D, or eck, of her, or hers, 
Dat. J'ee, r'ee, huic, to her, 
Ace. Ee, her, 
Yoc. (caret) 
Abl. Voee, from her, 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 33 

Hene, self, or alone, expressing emphasis or apposition, may be 
added to the pronouns personal ; thus, mee-hene, I myself; and 
so throughout, except when it is added to aym, hym, rhym, voym, 
and then h is changed into p, as aympene, hympene, &c. 

Ish in the feminine, and eshyn in the masculine, are emphatical 
pronouns, and used in composition : as, ecksh, hers ; echeysyn, 
his, or of him. 

Mish, shinyn ; aym's, ainyn ; dooys, hym's ; dooinyn, hooinyn, 
&c.; uss, shiuish; ayd's, euish; dhyt's, rJiyt's, &c. ; eshyn,ish; 
echeysyn , ecksh ; dasyn, jeeish, &c., are used when particular per- 
sons or things are set in opposition to one another, or when 
property is signified : as, shoh yn Hoar ayms, cha nee yn Hoar 
ech( ysyn, this is my book, not his ; cur dooys eh, cha nee dasyn, 
give it to me, not to him. Otherwise it would be, cur dou eh, &c. 

2 . DEMONSTRATIVES. 

Shoh, shen, shid are common, undeclinable, and all of the third 
person : ere shoh ? what's this ? ere shen ? what's that ? ere shid ? 
what's yonder, or there ? 

3. RELATIVES, 

Quoiy who, ere, what, are common. Relatives are generally 
understood, and not expressed, in Manks. 

4. THE POSSESSIVE PRONOUNS. 

My, mine or my. 

My is of both genders ; and, when it comes before a vowel, y 
is cast away, and m j only expressed as, m'annym, my soul, for 
my annym. 

Dty, thine or thy. 

Dty is of both genders ; and by apostrophe dt 3 as, dt'ennal, 
thy breath, for dty ennal. 

E, his, her, or its. 

The gender of the possessive pronoun e is determined only by 
the initial letter of the following substantive ; aspirated after e 



34 A GRAMMAR OP 

masc., as e glioo, his word, e liooil, Ms eye ; but remaining un- 
altered after e fern., as e goo, her word, e sooil, her eye. It also 
doubles in expression the initial consonant of the following noun, 
when it comes before substantives beginning with Z, n, r. The 
same rule holds in the Spanish, Welsh, and Irish. 

Nyn, our, your, their, of ail genders, and the plural number, 
used indiscriminately with substantives of both numbers as 
nyn dliie, our house, pi. nyn dhieyn. 

5. INTERROGATIVES. 

Quoij who what man or person. 

Ore, what what thing. 

They are of all genders and numbers. 

They are not always interrogatives, but are sometimes in- 
definites, especially when attended with erbee, any : as quoi-erbee 
nee shoh, whosoever doth this ; quoi-erbee nee eh, whosoever doth 
it ; cree-erbee te } or rather t'eh } whatever it be. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 35 



CHAPTEB XIIL 
OP A VEEB. 

There ate four sorts of Verbs^ viz., the Active, and Passive, 
the Auxiliary, and Impersonal* 

The Manks Verbs are for the most part formed of substantives 
of the same signification with them : as, ynsagh, learning, fell 
'gynsagh, he learns; coayl, loss, t'eh coayl, he loses. 

They have properly but three Tenses the Present, Past, and 
Future j the rest are formed by the help of auxiliaries. 

THE FOEMING OF A EEGULAE VEEB ACTIVE. 

The Indicative Mood, present tense, is always formed of the 
participle of the present tense and the auxiliary verb ta mee } to be 
And indeed all the other tenses are frequently used in the parti- 
ciples only, particularly in discourse, joined with the auxiliary ta 

mee : as 

EEGULAE VEEBS. 
INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Ta mee coayl, I lose, or am losing, Ta shin coayl, we lose, or, &c* 
T'ou coayl, thou losest, or artlosing, Ta shiu coayl, ye lose, or, &c^ 
T'eh coayl, he loseth, or is losing, T'ad coayl, they lose, &c. 



36 A GRAMMAR OF 

Preterimperfed. 

Singular. Plural. 

Chaill mee, I did lose, Chaill shin, welost, or did lose, 

Chaill oo, thou lost, or didst lose, Chaill shiu, ye lost, or did lose, 
Chaill eh, lie lost. Chaill ad, they lost, &c. 

Or: 

Va mee coayl, I lost, or was losing, Va shin coayl, we were losing, 
F'o^cocM/Z,thoulost,orwastlosing, Va shiu coayl, ye were losing, 
V'eh coayl, he was losing. V'ad coayl, they were losing. 

This tense may be conjugated, by the help of the verb ren, 
from the irregular verb jannoo, to do, as 

Singular. Plural. 

Ren mee coayl, I lost, or did lose, Een shin coayl, we lost, &c. 
Ren oo coayl, thou didst lose, Ren shiu coayl, ye lost, &c. 
Ren eh coayl, he lost. Ren ad coayl, they lost, &c. 

Preterperfect. 

Singular. Plural. 

Ta mee er choayl, I have lost, Ta shiner choayl, wehave lost, 

T'ou er choayl, thou hast lost, Ta shiu er choayl, ye have lost, 
T'eh er choayl, he hath lost. T'ad er choayl, they have lost. 

Preterpluperfect. 

Va mee er choayl, I had lost, Va shin er choayl, wehadlost, 

V J ou er choayl, thou hadst lost, Va shiu er choayl, ye had lost, 
V'eh er choayl, he had lost. ' V 3 ad er choayl, they had lost. 

Future Tense. 

Cailleeym, I shall or will lose, Caillee mayd, or shin, we, &c. 
Caillee oo, thou shalt or wilt lose, Caillee shiu, ye, &c. 
Caillee eh, he shall or will lose. Caillee ad, they, &c. 

When a relative is either expressed or understood, the persona 
of the future tense terminate in ys, and the nominative case is 
always set before the verb : as, mish loayrys rish, I am he that 
will speak to him ; uss screeuys huggey, thou art he that shall 
write to him ; eshin chaillys, he who shall lose. 

If the verb begin with a mutable consonant, then shall it 
always be aspirated : as, yn fer chaillys, the man that shall lose ; 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 37 

yn ven vlicaunys,&c.,nydeiny ghuinnys, the men that shall wound. 
Which termination is common to both numbers. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Caill, lose thou. Caill-jee, lose ye. 

The third person of the Imperative Mood might, perhaps, be 
supplied from the future tense of the indicative : 

Caillee eh, let him lose. Galilee ad, let them lose. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

The Subjunctive Mood may be formed of auxiliaries and the 
verb compound foddym, to be able, without any change in the 
verb : as 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Foddym coayl, I may lose, Foddee shin, OTmaydcoayl,we, &c. 

FoddeeoocoayljihoumajQsij&c. Foddee shiu coayl, ye may lose, 
Foddee eh coayl, he may lose. Foddee ad coayl, they may lose. 

But this manner of formation is periphrastic ; and, as the 
present tense of the Subjunctive Mood is never used but after 
the adverbs dy and ny, that and if, like the French que, that, the 
following seems to be the original and truest mode of formation : 

Singular. Plural. 

Dy gaillyn, that I lose, Dygaillmayd,orshin,i}ia,kwe,&c. 

Dy gaill oo, that thou lose, Dy gaill shiu, that ye lose, 
Dy gaill eh, that he lose. Dy gaill ad, that they lose. 

Preterimperfect. 

Singular. Plural. 

Chaillin, I might, should, would, or Chaillagh shin, wemight, &c. 

could lose, 

Chaillagh oo, thou mightest, &c. Chaillagh shiu, ye might, &c. 
Chaillagh eh, he might, &c. Chaillagh ad, they might, &c. 

Periphrastical Formation. 

Yinnyn coayl, I might, &c., lose, Yinnagh shin coayl, we, &c. 
Yi7mao:/ioocoa^,thoumightest,&c. Yinnagh shiu coayl, ye, &c. 
Yinnagh eh coayl, he might, &c. Yinnagh ad coayl, they, &c. 



38 



A GRAMMAR OP 



This tense may be declined with. Ihisin, I should or ought, and 
cddin, I might, in the same manner. 

Preterperfect and Preterpluperfect. 

Singular. Plural. 

Veign er choayl, I had lost, or might Veagh shin er choayl, we, &c. 

have lost, 

Veagh ooerc/i0a^,thouhadstlost,&c. VeagJi shiu er choayl, ye, &c. 
VeagJi eh er choayl, he had lost, &c. Veagh ad er choayl ,they,&c. 

Future Tense. 

This tense is formed as the present tense regular of the sub- 
junctive mood. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

The Infinitive Mood is known commonly by the sign to, or by 
its following another verb in the same sentence without any 
nominative case between ; and, though the verb stand unvaried 
as to itself, yet doth it admit of three tenses, viz., the present, 
the preter, and preterpluperfect tenses : as 
Present. Dy choayl, to lose. 
Preter. T'ou gobbal dy vel mee er choayl eh, thou deniest that I 

have lost it. 
Preterpluperfect. Dob oo dy row mee er choayl, thou deniedst 

that I had lost. 

-PARTICIPLES. 

Participle Present. Coayl, losing. 

The Participles of the preter and future tenses are formed by 
prefixing the particle er, after, to the preter, and er-chee, about, 
to the future. 

Participle Preter. Er choayl, having lost. 

Future. Er-chee coayl, about to lose. 
Supine. Caillit, lost. 

The supines end in t or it, which form the participle of the 
passive voice, and which, with the auxiliary verb ta mee, to be, 
go through all the tenses : as, ta mee coayl (active), I lose ; ta 
meecaillit (passive), I am lost. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



89 



In the conjugation of verbs, a negative much alters the initials ; 
and, therefore, to every verb here conjugated the affirmatives and 
negatives follow. 

The negative to the indicative and subjunctive moods is cha, 
not ; and to the imperative, ny, not : as, cha gaillym, I will not 
lose ; ny caill, lose thou not ; cha gaillin, I would not lose. 
Interrogative. Chaill oo ? did you lose ? 

Nagh chaill oo ? did you not lose ? 
Affirmative. Chaill mee, I did lose. 
Negative. Cha chaill mee, I did not lose. 
Ny caill, lose not. 

Screen, to write, or writing. 

Prefer. , , 

Singular. Plural. 

Screeu-mee, I wrote, Screen shin, we wrote, 

Screen oo, thou didst write, Screen shiu, ye wrote, 
Screen eh, he wrote. Screen ad, they wrote. 

Future. 

Screeu-ym, I shall or will write, Screeuee shin, we shall, &c., write, 
Screeueeoo,iho\ishali,&c., write, Screeuee shiu,jQshall, &c., write, 
Screeuee eh, he shall, &c., write. Screeuee ad, they shall, &c., write. 



Screen , write thou. 



IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 

Screeu-jee, write ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Prefer. 

Screenin, I might or could write, Screeuagh shin, we might, &c. 
Screeuagh oo, thou mightest, &c. Screeuagh shiu, ye might, &c. 
Screeuagh eh, he might, &c. Screeuagh ad, they might, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy screen, to write. 
Supine. Screeut, written. 

i 2 



40 A GRAMMAR OF 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Screen, writing. 

Preter. Er-screeu, after writing, having written. 

Future. Er-chee screeu, about to write. 

Interrogative.- Screeu oo ? did you write ? 

Nagh screeu oo huggey ? did you not write to him ? 
Affirmative. Screeu mee, I did write. 

Screeuym, I will write. 
Negative. Cha screeu me, I did not write. 
Ny screeu, do not write. 

Giu 9 to drink, or drinking. 
Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Diu mee, I drank, Diu shin, we drank, 

Diu oo, thou drankest, Diu shiu, ye drank, 

Diu eh, he drank. Diu ad, they drank. 

Future. 

lu-ym, I shall or will drink, luee mayd, or shin, we shall, &c. 
luee oo, thou shalt or wilt drink, luee shiu, ye shall, &c. 
luee eh, he shall or will drink. luee ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

lu, drink thou. lu-jee, drink ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

luin, I might or could drink, luagh shin, we might, &c. 
luagh oo, thou mightest, &c. luagh shiu, ye might, &c. 
luagh eh, he might, &c. luagh ad, they might, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy iu, to drink. 
Supine. Tut, drunk. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 41 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present.- Giu, drinking. 
Prefer. Er n 3 iu, having drunk. 
Future. Er-chee giu, about to drink. 

Interrogative. Diu oo ? did you drink ? 

Nagh diu oo ? did you not drink ? 
Cre iuys oo ? what will you drink ? 
Affirmative. D'iu mee, I drank. 

lu-ym, I will drink. 

Negative. Cha diu mee, I did not drink. 
Cha n' iu-ym, I will not drink. 
Ny iu, drink not. 

Ginsh, to tell ; or, telling. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Dinsh mee, I told ; Dinsh shin, we told ; 

DinsJi oo, thou toldest ; Dinsh shin, ye told ; 

Dinsh eh, he told. Dinsh ad, they told. 

Future. 

Inshym, I shall, or, will tell ; Inshee mayd, we shall, or, &c. ; 
Inshee oo, thou shalt, or, wilt tell; Inshee shiu, ye shall, &c. 
Inshee eh, he shall, or, will tell. Inshee ad, they, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Insh, tell thou. Insh-jee, tell ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Inshin, I might, or, could tell ; Inshagh shin, we might, &c* 
Inshagh oo, thou mightest, &c Inshagh shiu, ye, &c. 
Inshagh eh, he might, or, &c. Inshagh ad, they, &c. 



44 A GRAMMAR OF 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. - Dy insh, to tell. 
Supine. Inshit, told. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Ginsh, telling. 
Preter. Er n' insh, having told. 
Future. Er-chee n 3 insh, about to tell. 

Interrogative. Quoi dinsh dhyt ? who told thee ? 

Nagh dinsh eh dhyt ? did he not tell thee ? 
Affirmative. Dinsh Juan dou, John told me. 
Negative. Cha dinsh eh dhyt, he did not tell thee. 
Cha n y inshym dhyt, I will not tell thee. 

Gimmeeaght, to go ; or, going to depart. 

Singular. Plural. 

Dimmee mee, I went, or, did go ; Dimmee shin, we went ; 

Dimmee oo, thou wentest ; Dimmee shiu, ye went ; 

Dimmee eh, he went. Dimmee ad, they went. 

Future. 

Immeeym, I shall, or, will go ; Imme mayd, we shall, or, &c. 
Immee oo, thou shalt, &c. Immee shiu, ye shall, &c. 

Immee eh, he shall, &c. Immee ad, they shall, &c* 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Immee, go. Immee-je, go ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Immeein, I might, or, could go ; Immagh shin, we might, or,&c 
Immagh oo, thou, &c. Immagh shiu, ye might, &c. 

Immagh eh, he might, &c, Immagh ad, they might, &c. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE . 43 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. Dy immeeaght, to go. 
Supine. Immit, gone. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Gimmeeaght, going. 

Preter. Er n'immeeaght, having gone. 

Future. Er-chee gimmeeaght } about to go. 

Interrogative. Vel oo gimmeeaght ? are you going ? 
Nagh n'immee oo ? will you not go ? 
Affirmative. Ta mee gimmeeagh, I am going. 
Negative. Cha n' immeeym, I will not go. 
Cha n* immayd, we will not go. 

Kionnaghey, to buy; or, buying. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Chionnee mee,I bought, or did buy; Chionnee shin, we bought, &c. 
Chionnee oo, thou boughtest, &c. Chionnee shiu, ye bought, &c. 
Chionnee eh, he bought^ &c. Chionnee ad, they bought, &c. 

Future. 

Kionnee-ym, I shall, or did buy ; Kionnee mayd, we shall, &c. 
Kionnee oo, thou shalt, &c. Kionnee shiu, ye shall, &c. 

Kionnee eh, he shall, or will, &c. Kionnee ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Kionnee, buy. Kionnee-jee, buy ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Chionneein I might, or could buy ; Chionnagh shin,we might, &c. 
Chionnagh oo, thou mightest, &c. Chionnee shiu, ye, &c. 
Chionnagh eh, he, &c. Chionnagh ad, they, &c. 



44 A GRAMMAR OF 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 



Present. Dy chionnaghey, to buy. 
Supine. Kionnit, bought. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Kionnaghey, buying. 

Preter. JEr chionnaghey, having bought. 

Future. Er-chee kionnaghey, about to buy. 

Gymmyrkey, to bear, or carry, or behave. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Dymmyrk mee, I bore ; Dymmyrk shin, we bore ; 

Dymmyrk oo, thou borest ; Dymmyrk shiu, ye bore ; 

Dymmyrk eh, he bore. Dymmyrk ad, they bore. 

Future. 

Ymmyrfc-ym, I shall, or will bear; Ymmyrkee mayd, or shin, we,&c. 
Ymmyrkee oo, thou shalt, &c. Ymmyrkee shiu, they shall, &c. 
Ymmyrkee eh, he shall, &c. Ymmyrkee ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ymmyrk, bear. Ymmyrk-jee, bear ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Ymmyrkin, I might, or could bear; Ymmyrkagh shin, we might, &c. 
Ymmyrkagh, oo, thou, &c, Ymmyrkagh shiu, ye might, &c. 

Ymmyrkagh eh, he, &c. Ymmyrkagh ad, they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ymmyrkey, to bear. 
Sup inc. Ymm yrkit, borne. 






THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 45 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Gymmyrlcey, bearing. 

Preter. Er n* ymmyrkey, having borne. 

Future. Er-chee gymmyrkey, about to bear. 

Goaill, to take ; or, taking. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Ghow mee, I took, or did take ; GJww shin, we took ; 
Ghow oo, thou didst take ; Ghow shiu, ye took ; 

Ghow eh, he did take. Ghow ad, they took. 

Future. 

Gow-ym or goym, I shall, or, &c. ; Goweemayd, we shall, or will, &c. 
GWeeoo,thoushalt, or wilt take; Gowee shiu, ye shall, &c. 
Gowee eh, he shall, or will take ; Gowee ad, they, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Gow, take. Gow-jee, take ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Gho'in, I might, or could take ; Ghoghe mayd, or shin, we, &c. 
Ghoghe oo, thou mightest, &c. Ghoghe shiu, ye might, &c. 
Ghoghe eh, he might, &c. Ghoghe ad, they might, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ghoaill, to take. 
Supine. Goit, taken. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Goaill, taking. 

Preter. Er ghoaill, having taken. 

Future. Er-chee goaill, about to take. 



46 A GRAMMAR OP 

Many nouns, betokening the passions of the mind and body, 
are conjugated with the verb substantive ta mee, to be, put for 
have, as the verb sum for habeo in Latin. 

EXAMPLES. 

Fys, knowledge. 

Present. 

Singular. Plural. 

Tafys aym, 1 know, or I have knowledge ; Tafys ain, we know ; 
Tafys ayd, thou knowest, or, &c. Tafys eu, ye, &c. 

Tafys echey, he knows, &c. Tafys oc, they, &c. 

Preter. 

Vafys aym, I knew, &c. Vafys ain, we, &c. 

Vafys ayd, thou knewest, &c. Vafys eu, ye knew ; 
Vafys echey, he knew, &c. Vafys oc, they knew, &c. 

Future. 

Beefys aym, I will know ; Beefys ain, we shall, or will, &c. 

Beefys ayd, thou wilt know ; Beefys eu, ye shall, &c. 
Beefys echey, he will know. Beefys oc, they shall, &c. 

In'like manner. 
Graih, love. 

Present. 

Ta graih aym (er), I love (him) ; Ta graih ain, we love; 

Ta graih ayd, thou lovest ; Ta graih eu, ye love ; 

Ta graih eck, or echey, she or he loveth. Ta graih oc, they love. 

Preter. 

Va graih aym, I loved ; Va graih ain, we loved ; 

Va graih ayd, thou lovedst ; Va graih eu, ye loved ; 

Va graili echey, he loved. Va graih oc, they loved. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 47 

Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Bee graih aym, I will love, Bee graih aym, we will love, 

Bee graih ayd, thou wilt love, Bee graih ayd, ye will love, 
Bee graih echey, lie will love. Bee graih oc, they will love. 

This takes two participial pronouns : as, ta graih aym er, I love 
him ; ta graih echey orrym, he loves me. 

The adverb ersooyl, away, is used as a verb with the auxiliary 
ta mee, to be ; as 

Preter. 

Va mee ersooyl, I went, or was gone ; Va shyn ersooyl, we,&c. 
V'ou ersooyl, thou wentest, or wast gone; Va shiu ersooyl, ye, &c. 
V eh ersooyl, he went, or was gone. V'ad ersooyl, they, &c. 

Future. 

Bee 'm ersooyl, I will be gone ; Bee mayd ersooyl, we, &c. 
Bee oo ersooyl, thou wilt be gone ; Bee shiu ersooyl, ye, &c. 
Bee eh ersooyl, he will be gone. Be ad ersooyl, they, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Ersooyl, away, begone. Ersooyl-jee, be ye gone. 

OF RECIPROCAL VERBS. 

Reciprocal or Reflecting Verbs are common to this language 
as to the Hebrew, French, Irish, &c., and require two personal 
pronouns when the sense is turned by the auxiliary verb ta mee, 
to be ; which is the most elegant and pointed expression. Never- 
theless, the simple verb may be used alone, as in the following 
less 



Cadley, to sleep ; or, sleeping. 
Present* 
Singular. 

Ta mee my chadley, I sleep, or do sleep, or am sleeping ; or, ta 
mee cadley. 



48 A GEAMMAE OF 

T'ou dty chadley, thou sleepest, or art sleeping ; or, tfou cadley. 
T'eh ny chadley, he sleepeth, or sleeps ; or, t'eh cadley. 

Plural. 

Ta shin nyn gadley, or ta shin cadley, or ny chadley, we sleep. 
Ta shiu nyn gadley, or ta shiu cadley, or ny chadley, ye sleep. 
T'ad nyn gadley, or t'ad cadley, or ny chadley, they sleep. 

Preter. 

~Va mee my chadley, I was sleeping, or I slept ; or, chaddil mee 
V'ou dty, &c. 

Future. 

Bee'm my chadley, I will sleep, or be sleeping ; or, cadlym. 
See oo dty chadley, or, cadlee oo, thou shalt, or wilt sleep. 
See eh ny chadley, or, cadlee eh, he shall, or will sleep. 

Interrogative. Bow oo dty chadley ? were you asleep ? 

Vel oo dty chadley ? are you asleep ? 
Affirmative. Va mee my chadley, or chaddil mee, I slept. 

Ta cadley orrym, I am sleepy. 

Negative. Cha vel mee my chadley, I am not asleep. 
Cha chaddil mee, I did not sleep. 
Cha gadlym,' I will not sleep. 

Shassoo, to stand ; or, be standing. 

Ta mee my hassoo, or ta mee shassoo, I stand, or am standing. 
T'ou dty hassoo, or t'ou shassoo, thou standest, or art standing. 
T'eh ny hassoo, or t'eh shassoo, he standeth, or is standing. 

Plural. 

Ta shin nyn shassoo, or ny hassoo, or ta shin shassoo, we are 

standing, or do stand. 

Ta shiu nyn shassoo, or ny hassoo, or shassoo, ye stand, &c. 
T'ad nyn shassoo, or ny hassoo, or shassoo, they stand. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



49 



Preter. 

Singular. 

Va mee my hassoo, or hass mee, I stood, or was standing". 
V'ou dty hassoo, or hass oo, thou stoodest, &c. 
V'eh ny hassoo, or hass eh, he stood, &c. 

Plural. 
Va shin nyn shassoo, or ny hassoo, or hass shin, &c. 

Future. 
Singular. 

Bee'm my hassoo, or shassym, I will stand, &c. 
See oo dty hassoo, or shassee oo, thou wilt stand. 
Bee eh ny hassoo, or shassee eh, he will stand. 

Plural. 

Bee mayd nyn shassoo, or shassee mayd, we will stand. 

Bee shiu nyn shassoo, or shassee shiu, ye will stand. 

Bee ad nyn shassoo, or shassee ad, they shall or will stand, &c. 

Interrogative. Eow oo dty hassoo ? Were you standing ? 

Vel eh ny hassoo ? Is he standing ? 
Affirmative. Va mee my hassoo, I was standing. 

T'eh ny hassoo, he is standing. 

Negative. Gha row mee my hassoo, I was not standing. 
Cha vel eh ny hassoo, he is not standing. 
Cha shassym, I will not stand. 
Ny shass, stand not. 

MOEE EXAMPLES. 

Ta mee my hoie, I sit. 

Interrogative. Vel oo dty hoie ? Do you sit ? 
Affirmative. Ta mee my hoie, I sit. 
Negative. Cha vel mee my hoie, I do not sit. 

Ta mee er my ghoostey, I am awake. 



50 A GRAMMAR OF 

Interrogative. Vel oo er dty ghoostey ? Art thou awake? [&c. 

Affirmative. Va mee er my ghoostey, or ghooisht mee, I was awake, 

Negative. Cha bee'm er my ghoostey, or cha dooishtym, I will not, 

Ny bee er dty ghoostey, or ny dooisht, don't awake. [&c. 

Ta mee er my chosh, I am on foot. 

Interrogative. Vel oo er dty chosh ? Are you on foot ? 
Affirmative. Ta mee er my chosh, I am on foot. 
Negative. Cha vel mee er my chosh, I am not on foot. 
Ny lee er dty chosh, be not on foot. 

OF A VERB PASSIVE. 

In Manks there is no Passive Voice ; bnt in all parts of speech 
it is elegantly and expressively formed by the verb ta me, to 
be, and the supine active, or participle passive. 

The tenses are formed by the participle, which always ends in 
it or t, and serves throughout all the persons of both numbers 
with the verb substantive ta mee, to be. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular Plural. 

Ta mee caillit, I am lost, Ta shin caillit, we are lost, 

T'ou caillit, thou art lost, Ta shiu caillit, ye are lost, 

T'eh caillit, he is lost. T'ad caillit, they are lost. 

Preterimperfect. 

Va mee caillit, I was lost, Va shin caillit, we were lost, 

V'ou caillit , thou wast lost, Va shiu caillit, ye were lost, 

V J eh caillit, he was lost. V'ad caillit, they were lost. 

PreterperfecL 

Ta mee er ve caillit, I have been lost, Ta shin er ve caillit, we, &c. 
T'ou erve caillit, thou hast been, &c. Ta shiu er ve caillit, ye, &c. 
T'eh er ve caiUit, he has been lost. Tad er ve caillit, they, &c. 



I 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 

Fret erp luperfect. 

Va mee er ve caillit, I had been lost, Va shin er ve caillit, we had 

been lost, 

V'ouerve caillit, HioulL&dLst, been lost, Vashiu er ve caillit, ye, &c. 
V'eh er ve caillit, he had been lost, V'ad er ve caillit, they, &c. 

Future. 

Bee'm caillit, I shall or will be lost, Bee mayd caillit, we, &c. 
Bee oo caillit, thou shalt, &c. Bee sliiu caillit, ye, &c. 

Bee eli caillit, he shall, &c. Bee ad caillit, they, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Bee caillit, be thou lost. Bee-jee caillit, be ye lost. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Dy bee'm caillit, that I be (or may Dy lee maydcaillit,t1isit we, &c. 

or can be) lost, 

Dy bee oo caillit, that thou be lost, Dy bee shiu caillit, that ye, &c* 
Dy bee eh caillit, that he be lost. Dy bee ad caillit, that they, &c. 

Preter. 

Veign er ve caillit, I had been, or Veagh shin er ve caillit,we, &c. 

I might have been lost, 

Veagh oo er ve caillit, thou, &c. Veagh shiu er ve caillit, ye, &c. 

Veagh eh er ve caillit, he, &c. Veagh ad er ve caillit, they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ve caillit, to be lost. 
Participle. Caillit, lost. 

The preter and future tenses of the indicative mood are often 
very elegantly formed by the help of the irregular goll, to go : 
as 



52 A GEAMMAR OF 

Singular. Plural. 

Hie mee er coayl, I was lost, Hie shin er coayl,we werelost, 

Hie oo er coayl, thou wast lost, Hie shiu er coayl, ye were lost, 

Hie eh er coayl, he was lost. Hie ad er coayl, they werelost. 

Future. 

H'em er coayl, I will be lost, Hed, or hem mayd er coayl, we, &c. 
H'eu er coayl, thou wilt be lost, Hed shiu er coayl, ye, &c. 
Hed eh er coayl, he will be lost. Hed ad er coayl, they, &c. 

IMPERSONALS are such as have no persons, except the third 
person singular only : as, keearagh, to grow night ; cheeree eh, 
it grew night ; keeree eh, it will grow night. 

OP THE AUXILIARY VERBS. 

There are no Auxiliary or Helping Verbs in the dead tongues 
viz., the Greek, the Hebrew, and the Latin ; but in all the 
living tongues there are viz., the French, the Spanish, the 
Italian, the German, the Irish, &c., &c., except in the Portuguese. 

The principal auxiliary verb is ta mee, to be, or, I am, which 
is used on all occasions, as the verb sum in Latin, as the verb 
ttre or suis in French, and as taim in Irish ; all of the like signi- 
fication. 

The other auxiliaries'are vel mee, am I ; foddym, I am able ; 
saillym, I am willing ; which are personals. She (it is), which 
is often substituted for ta mee, and sheign (must), are used 
impersonally, and always joined to a substantive : as, she mish 
t'ayn, it is I ; sheign dhyt loayrt thou must speak. Vel mee is 
used in asking or denying : as, Vel mee er ghra eh, as nagh vel 
mee er chooilleeney eh ? Have I said it, and have I not per- 
formed it ? Cha vel, you have not. 

Row, was, is an auxiliary, and generally used in the past time, 
either to ask a question as, Row fer erbee dy my laccal ? Did any 
one want me ? or, was anybody wanting me ? or else denies : 
as Cha row, there did not, or was not. Sometimes it is added 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 53 

as an auxiliary to the auxiliary ta mee, as Va dooinney dy row, 
there was a man that was. It is also elegantly used, in suppli- 
cating or wishing, for the future tense Shee dy row mdrin ! 
May peace be with us ! 

VERB SUBSTANTIVE, OR AUXILIARY VERB. 
Ta mee, I am. 

INDICATIVE MOOD. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Ta mee, I am ; f ou, or ta oo, thou art ; t' eh, or ta eh, 

he or it is ; t'ee, she is. 
Plural. Ta shin, we are; ta shiu, ye are; t'ad, they are. 

Preterimperfect. 

Singular. Va mee, I was ; v'ou, thou wast ; v'eh he was; v'ee, 

she was. 
Plural. Va shin, we were ; va shiu, ye were ; v'ad, they were. 

Preterperfect. 

Singular. Ta mee er ve, I have been ; t'ou er ve, thou hast been ; 

t'eh er ve, he has been ; t'ee er ve, she has been. 
Plural. Ta shin er ve, we have been ; ta shiu er ve, ye have been ; 

t'ad er ve, they have been, 

Preterp luperfect. 

Singular. Va mee er ve, I had been ; v'ou er ve, thou hadst been ; 

v'eh er ve, he had been. 
Plural. Va shin er ve, we had been ; va shiu er ve, ye had been ; 

v'ad er ve, they had been. 

Future. 

Singular. Bee'm, I shall or will be ; bee oo, thou shalt or wilt 
be ; bee eh, he shall or will be ; bee ee, she shall or will be. 

Plural. Bee mayd, we shall or will be ; bee shiu, ye shall or will 
be ; bee ad, they shall or will be. 



54 A GRAMMAR OP 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Bee, be thou. Bee-jee, be ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD.. 

Singular. My vee'm, if I be ; my vees oo, if thou be ; my vees 

eh, if he be. 
Plural. My vees mayd, if we be ; my vees shiu, if ye be ; my vees 

ad, if they be. 

Preterimp erfect . 
Singular. Veign, I might or could be; veagh oo, thou mightest 

or couldst be ; veagh eh, he might or could be. 
Plural. Veagh shin, we might or could be ; veagh shiu, ye might 

or could be ; veagh ad, they might or could be. 

Prefer and Preterpluperfect. 

Singular. Veign er ve, I might have been, or had been ; veagh 
oo er ve, thou mightest have been, &c.; veagh eh er ve s he 
might have been, &c. 

Plural. Veagh shin er ve, we might have been ; veagh shiu er ve, 
ye might have been ; veagh ad er ve, they might have been. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ve, to be. Part. pr. Caret. Preter. Er ve, 
having been. Future. Er-chee ve, about to be. 

EXAMPLES. 

Ta mee Manninagh dooie, I am a true-born Manksman. 
Kys t'ou, or leys myr t'ou ? How do you do ? 
Ta mee er ve feer vie, I have been very well. 

EULE. 

When ta mee is put for the English verb have (as when sum 
in Latin is put for habeo), the pronoun must be put in the geni- 
tive case, as 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 55 

Cka vel lioar aym, I have no book. 
Ta argid ayd, you have money. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Foddym, I am able. 

Present Tense. 

Singular. Plural. 

Foddym, I am able, or I may, Foddee mayd, we are able, or may, 
Foddee oo, thou art able, or Foddee shiu, ye are able, or may, 

mayest, 
Foddee eh, he may, or is able. Foddee ad, they are able, or may. 

Preter. 

Oddin, I might, or was able, Oddagh shin, we were able, &c. 
Oddagh oo, thou mightest, or Oddagh shiu, ye were able, 

wast able, 
Oddagh eh, he might, or, &c. Oddagh ad, they were able, &c. 

The future tense is formed as the present ; except when my, if, 
is expressed, or the relative understood, as 
My oddym, if I can, or will be able, My oddys mayd, if we can,&c. 
My oddys oo, if thou canst, or wilt My oddys shiu, if ye can, &c. 

be able, 
My oddys eh,if he can, or will be able. My oddys ad, if they can, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Dy vod, to be able. 

AUXILIARY VERBS. 

Saillym, or Baillym, I am willing. 

Present. 

Saillym, I am willing, or have a mind, Saill mayd, we are willing, 
Sailt, thou art willing, &c. Sailliu, ye are willing, 

Saillish, he is willing, &c. Sailleu, they are willing. 

G 2 



56 A GRAMMAR OF 

Or, 

Singular. Plnral. 

Baillym, I am willing, or wish, Baill mayd, we are willing, 

Bailt, thou art willing, or wishest, Batilw, ye are willing, 

Baillish, he is willing, or wishes. Bailleu, they are willing. 

Preter. 

Baillin, I was willing, or could wish, Baillhien, we were willing, 
Bailt) thou wast willing, &c. Ba/illm, ye were willing, 

Baillish, he was willing, &c. Bailleu, they were willing. 

Baillin, I could wish, or, would to God that, is also expressed 
by the superlative adjective share, best, and the participial pro- 
noun : as, Bare Ihiam nagh beagh caggey erbee, I wish there was 
no war. 

Sheeu, it is worth, is an auxiliary impersonal : as, Sheeu eh 
argid, it is worth money ; cha beeu eh veg, it is good for nothing. 

Sloys, to dare, is also an impersonal, and governs a dative : 
as, Sloys dhyt goll ? Dare you go ? Cha bloys, I dare not. 

S'lhiass, it needs, or, it must, is an impersonal auxiliary, and 
governs a dative : as, S'lhiass dougoll ? Need I go ? Cha Ihiass 
dhyt, thou needest not. 

RULE. 

When an auxiliary vecb is joined to another, the auxiliary and 
pronoun go through all the variation of person and number; but 
the verb continues invariably in the third person. 

OP IRREGULAR VERBS. 

These Irregulars are by far the most difficult part of the 
language ; but that they are neither so many, nor the knowledge 
of them so difficult to be attained, as is generally represented, a 
very little attention to the following pages will sufficiently evince. 
These irregular verbs are 

Goll, to go. Jannoo, to do. 

Cheet, to come. Geddyn, to get. 

Coyrt, to give, to bear, or carry. Clashtyn, to hear. 



THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 57 

G-ra, to say. Fafcin, to see. 

Goaill, to take. 

Quere. Roshtyn, to reach, arrive. Imperf. Rainlt, arrived. 
Of the verb Goll, to go ; or, going. 

The indicative mood present tense of the irregulars is formed 
after the same manner as the regular verbs active viz., by the 
participle present and the verb substantive ta mee, to be : as, to, 
mee goll, I go ; t'ou goll, &c. 

Prefer. 
Singular. Plural. 

Hie mee, I went, Hie shin, we went, 

Hie oo, thou wentest, Hie shiu, ye went, 

Hie eh, he went. Hie ad, they went. 

Future. 

Hedym,or hem, I shall or will go, Hed mayd, or hemmayd, we, &c. 
Hed oo, thou shalt or wilt go, Hed shiu, ye shall or will go, 
Hed eh, he shall or will go. Hed ad, they shall or will go. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Gow, go. Hooin, let us go, 

Gow-jee, go ye. 

This is the only verb we can recollect that has in itself the 
first person plural of the imperative mood'. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

PreterimperfecL 

Raghin, I might or could go, Ragh shin, we might, &c. 

Eog/k0o,thoumightestorcouldst go, Ragh shiu, ye might, &c. 
Ragh eh, he might or could go. Ragh ad, they might, &c. 

Preter and Preterpluperfect. 

Dy jagh mee, that I went or had gone, Dy jagh shin, that we, &c. 
Dyjagh oo,that thou wentest, &c. Dy jagh shiu, that ye, &c. 
Dy jagh eh, that he went, &c. Dy jagh ad, that they, &c. 



58 A GRAMMAR OP 

Future. 

Dy jem, or dy jedym, that I go, Dy jed mayd, orjemmayd, that 

we go, 

Dyje'oo,ordyjedoo, that thou go, Dy jed shiu, that ye go, 
Dyjed eh, that he go, or shall go. Dy jed ad, that they go. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy gholl, to go. 
Supine (wanting). 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Goll, going. 

Preter. Er-n' gholl, having gone. 

Future. Er-chee goll, about to go. 

Cheetj to come. 

Preterimperfect . 

Singular. Plural. 

HainJc mee, I came, Hairik shin, we came, 

HainTc oo, thou earnest, Haink shiu, ye came, 

Haink eh, he came. Haink ad, they came. 

Preterperfect. 

Ta mee er jeet, I have. come, Ta shin er jeet, we have come, 
T'ou er jeet, thou hast come, Ta shiu er jeet, ye have come, 
T'eh er jeet, he hath come. T'ad er jeet, they have come. 

Pr e terp lup erfect . 

Va mee er jeet, I had come, Va shin er jeet, we had come, 
V'ou, &c. &c. 

Future. 

Higym, I shall or will coine, Hig mayd, we shall or will come, 
Hig oo, thou shalt or wilt come, Hig shiu, ye shall or will come, 
Hig eh f he shall or will come. Hig ad, they shall or will come. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 59 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Singular. Plural. 

Tar, come thou. Tar-jee, come ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Harrin, I might or could come, Harragh shin, we might, &c. 
Harragh oo, thou mightest, &c. Harragh shiu, ye might, &c. 
Harragh ehj he might, &c. Harragh ad, they might, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dyheet, to come. 
Supine, Cheet, come. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Cheet, coming* 
Preter. Er jeet, having come. 
Future. Er-cJiee cheet, about to come. 

Jannoo, to do. 

Preterimperfect. 

Ren mee, I did, Ren mayd, we did, 

Ren oo, thou didst, Ren shiu, ye did, 

Ren eh, he did. Red ad, they did. 

Preterperfect. 

Ta mee ern'yannoo, I have done, Ta shin ern'yannoo,we}ia,ve done, 
T'ou ern'yannoo, thou hast done, Tashiuer n'yannoo, ye have done, 
T'eh er n'yannoo, he hath done. T'ad ern'yannoOjtheylcL&vQ done. 

Preterpluperfect. 

Va mee er n'yannoo, I had done,Vashin ern'yannoo, we had done, 
V'ou, &c. &c. 



60 A GRAMMAR -OF 

Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Nee'm, I shall or will do, Nee mayd, we shall or will do, 

Nee oo, thou shalt or wilt do, Nee shiu- ye shall or will do. 

Nee eh, he shall or will do. Nee ad, they shall or will do. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Jean, do thou. Jean-jee, do ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Yinnin, I might or could do, Yinnaghshin, we might or could do, 
Yinnagh oo, thou inightest, &c. Yinnagh shiu, ye might or coulddo, 
Yinnagh eh, he might, &c. Yinnagh ad, they might or, &c. 

The future tense of the indicative, when a question is asked, 
is Jean-ym ? Will I do ? Which is always answered by Nee'm, 
I will do. 

Jean-ym ? will I do ? Jean mayd ? will we do ? 

Jean oo ? wilt thou do ? Jean shiu ? will ye do ? 

Jean eh ? will he do ? Jean ad ? will they do ? 

But if the negative cha, not, be added, it asketh no question : 
as, Cha jeanym, I will not do. 

And the future tense of the subjunctive, having the adverb dy 
before it, asketh no question, and is thus conjugated : 

Dy jean-ym, that I will, or may, or Dy jean mayd, that we, &c. 

can do, 

Dy jean oo, that thou wilt do, Dy jean shiu, that ye, &c. 

Dy jean eh, that he will do. Dy jean ad, that they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy yannoo, to do. 
Supine. Jcant, done. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 61 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Jannoo, doing. 

Preter. Er n'yannoo, having done. 

Future. Er-chee jannoo, about to do. 

Interrogative. Ore nee'm ? what shall I do ? 

Ore yinnagh uss ? what would you do ? 
Jean oo screen huggey ? will you write to him ? 
Negative. Cha ren mee eh, I did not do it. 
Chajean-ym eh, I won't do it. 
Cha jinnin eh, I would not do it. 
Affirmative. Nee'm eh, I will do it. 

Ta mee jannoo eh, I am doing it. 

Feddyn, or Geddyn, to get. 
Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Hooar mee, I got, Hooar shin, we got, 

Hooar oo, thou didst get, Hooar shiu, ye got, 

Hooar eh, he got. Hooar ad, they got. 

Future. 

Yiow-ym, oryioym, I shall or will get, Yiow mayd, we shall, &c. 
Yiow oo, thou shalt or wilt get, Yiow shiu, ye shall, &c. 

Yiow eh, he shall or will get. Yiow ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPEKATIVE MOOD. 

Fow, get. Fow-jee, get ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Yio'in, or yioivin, I might or could get, Yioghshin, we might, &c. 
Yiogh oo, thou mightest, &c., get, Yiogh shiu, ye might, &c. 

Yiogh eh, he might or could get. Yiogh ad, they might, &c. 

With dy, that, it is formed thus : 



62 A GRAMMAR OF 

Singular. Plural. 

Dy vom,ordynowin,t}ia,tIcouldDy vogh, or nogh mayd, that we 

get, could get, 

Dy vogh,OTnogh oo, that thou, &c. Dy vogh,ornogh shiujfhat ye, &c. 
Dy vogh, or nogh eh, tliat he, &c. Dy vogh, or noghad, that they, &c. 

Future. 

Dy voym, or dy noym,tha,t I can get, Dy vow mayd, that we, &c. 
Dyvowoo, thatthoumayest, wilt get, Dy vow shiu, that ye, &c. 
Dy vow eh, that he may get. Dy vow ad, that they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy gheddyn, to get. 
Supine. Feddynit, gotten. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Geddyn, getting. 

Preter. Er gheddyn, having gotten. 

Future. -Er-chee geddyn, about to get. 

Interrogative. Dooar oo ? did you get ? 

Now-yet eh ? shall I get it ? 
Vogh ad eh ? would they get it ? 
Negative. Cha dooar mee eh, I did not get it. 
Cha now eh, thou shalt not get it. 
Affirmative. Hooar mee eh, I got it. 

Ta mee er n 9 gheddyn eh, I have got it. 

Cur, or Coyrt, to bear, carry, or bring. 

This verb is formed with the preposition lesh, with, changed 
into a pronoun ; but, when it signifies to give, it is formed with- 
out the pronoun ; as is also cur-myner, to behold. 

Preter. 

Hug mee Ihiam, I carried, or brought, Hug shin lhien,we carried, 
Hug oo Ihiat, thou carriedst, &c. Hug shiu Ihiu, ye carried, 
Hug eh lesh, he carried or brought. Hug ad Ihieu, they carried. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 63 

Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Ver-ym Ihiam, I will bring or carry, Ver mayd Ihien, we will, &c. 
Veroo lhiat,thou wilt : bring or carry, Ver shiu Ihiu, ye will, &c. 
Ver eh lesh, he will carry or bring. Ver ad lhieu y they will, &c. 

IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 

Cur Ihiat, bring, or carry. Cur-jee Ihiu, bring, or carry, ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Verrin Ihiam, I might or could bring, Verragh shin Ihien, we, &c. 
Verragh oo Ihiat, thou might est, &c. Verragh shiu Ihiu, ye, &c. 
Verragh eh lesh, he might, &c. Verragh ad Ihieu, they, &c. 

With dy, that, or cha, not, it is formed 

Dy derrin Ihiam, that I might or Dy derragh shin, that we, &c. 

could bring, 
Dy derragh oo Ihiat, that thou, &c. &c. 

Or, it may be formed of the preter tense of the irregular verb 
jannoo, to do, as : 

Yinnin Ihiam, I would bring Yinnagh shin Ihien, we, &c. 

Yinnagh oo Ihiat, thou wouldst bring, Yinnagh shiu Ihiu, ye, &c. 
Yinnagh eh lesh, he would bring. Yinnagh ad Ihieu, they, &c. 

Future. 

Dy derym Ihiam, that I bring, 
Dy der oo Ihiat, that thou bring. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy choyrt, to give. Dy choyrt lesh, to carry. 
Supine. Coyrt, given. Currit lesh, brought. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Coyrt, or cur, giving. 

Preter. Er choyrt, or er chur, having given. 

Future. Er-chee coyrt, or cur, about to give. 



64 A GRAMMAR OF 

Interrogative. .Dug oo Uiiat i/n Hoar ? did you bring the book ? 

Der oo ITiiat eh ? will you bring it? 
Negative. Cha der-ym Ihiam eh, I won't bring it. 

Cha derragh eh lesh eh } he would not bring it. 

Gra, to say. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Dooyrt mee, I said, Dooyrt shin, we said, 

Dooyrt oo, thou saidst, Dooyrt shiu, ye said, 

Dooyrt eh, he said. Dooyrt ad, they said. 

Future. 

Jir-ym, I shall or will say, Jir mayd, we shall or will say, 

Jir oo, thou shalt or wilt say, Jer shiu, ye shall or will say, 
Jir eh, he shall or will say. Jir ad, they shall or will say. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Abbyr, speak. Abbyr-jee, speak ye. 

Abbyr was in general use among the ancients as a regular 
verb, as appears from some MSS., and the now only cant word, 
'Nabbyr oo ? Did you speak ? for Anabbyr oo ? And here let me 
lament the loss our language sustains by the want of this inter- 
rogative article an ; for, in discourse or writing (except by a 
mark of interrogation, indeed), we cannot give the reader or the 
hearer, by order of the words, any idea of our request, whether 
it be a question or a positive assertion ; as, for instance, 

Ver oo Ihiat eh ? will you bring it ? 
Ver oo Ihiat eh, you will bring it ; 

whereas with the particle an, whether, your meaning would im- 
mediately appear ; and then it would run thus : 

An ver oo Ihiat eh ? will you bring it ? 



I 




THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 65 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Prefer. 

Singular. Plural. 

Yiarrin, I might, could, or would say, Yiarragh skin, we, &c. 

Yiarragh oo, thou mightest, &c. Yiarragh shiu, ye, &c. 

'Yiarragh eh, he might, &c., say. Yiarragh ad, they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ghra, to say. 
Supine. Grait, spoken. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Gra, saying. 
Preter. Er ghra, having said. 
Future. Er-chee gra, about to say. 

Interrogative. Ore 'nabbyr oo ? what did you say ? 

Dooyrt oo y Iheid ? did you say the like ? 
Negative. Cha dooyrt mee y Iheid, I did not say the like. 
Cha n'yiarrin eh, I would not say it. 

Goaillj to take. 

Preter. 

Glww mee, I took, Ghow shin, we took, 

Ghow oo, thou tookest, Ghow shiu, ye took, 

Ghoiv eh, he took. Ghow ad, they took. 

Future. 

Gow ym, or goym, I shall or will take, Gowee mayd, we shall, &c. 

Gowee oo, thou shalt or wilt take, Gowee shiu, ^e shall, &c. 

Gowee eh, he shall or will take. Gowee ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPEEATIVE MOOD. 

Gow, take thou. Gow-jee, take ye. 



66 A GRAMMAR OF 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Singular. Plural. 

Gho'in, or ghowin, I might or could take, Ghogh shin, we, &c. 
Ghogk oo, thou mightest, &c., take, Ghogh shiu, ye, &c. 
Ghogh eh, he might or could take. Ghogh ad, they, &c. 

Future. 

My ghoym, or ghow-ym, if I take, My ghoys mayd, if we take, 
My ghoys, -or ghowys oo, if thou take, My ghoys shiu, if ye take, 
My ghoys eh, if he take, or will take. My ghoys ad, if they take. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy ghoaill, to take. 
Supine. Goit, or gowit, taken. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Goaill, taking. 

Preter. Er n' ghoaill, having taken. 

Future. Er-chee goaill, about to take. 

Interrogative. Gogh oo eh ? would you take it ? 

Gow oo shen ? will you take that ? 
Negative. Cha gain eh, I would not take it. 
Cha goym eh, I will not take it. 

Clashtyn, to hear. 

Preter. 

Cheaylt mee, I hear, Cheayll shin, we heard, 

Cheayll oo, thou didst hear, Cheayll shiu, ye heard, 

Cheayll eh, he did hear. Cheayll ad, they heard. 

Or, 

Chluin mee, I heard, Chluin shin, we heard, 

Chluin oo, thou heardest, Chluin shiu, ye heard, 

Chluin eh, he heard. Chluin ad, they heard. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



67 



Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Cluinym, I shall or will hear, Cluinee mayd, we shall, &c. 

Cluinee oo, thou shalt or wilt hear, Cluinee shiu, ye shall, &c. 
Cluinee eh, he shall or will hear. Cluinee ad, they shall, &c. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Claslit, or cluin, hear thou. Clasht-jee, hear ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Preter. 

Chluinin, I might or could hear, Chluinagh shin, we, &c. 

Chluinagh oo, thou might' st, &c., hear, Chluinagh shiu, ye, &c. 
Chluinagh eh, he might or could hear. Chluinagh ad, they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy chlashtyn, to hear. 
Supine. Cluinit, heard. 

PAETICIPLES. 

Present. Clashtyn, hearing. 
Preter. Er clashtyn, having heard. 
Future. Er-chee clashtyn, about to hear. 

Interrogative. Cheayll oo ? did you hear ? 

Nagh geayll oo ? did you not hear ? 
Chluin oo ? did you hear ? 
Negative. Cha geayll, I heard not. 

Cha ghluinym, I won't hear. 

Cha gluinagh oo, you would not hear. 

Fakin, to see. 

Preter. 

Honnich mee, I saw, HonnicJc shin, we saw, 

Honnick oo, thou sawest or didst see, HonnicJc shiu, ye saw, 
Honnick eh, he saw. HonnicJc ad, they saw. 



68 A GRAMMAR OP 

Future. 

Singular. Plural. 

Heeym, I shall or will see, Hee mayd, we shall or will see, 

Hee 00) thou shalt or wilt see, Hee shiu, ye shall or will see, 
Hee eh, he shall or will see. Hee ad, they shall or will see. 

IMPERATIVE MOOD. 

Faik, see thou. Faik-jee, see ye. 

SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD. 

Heein, I might, could, would, or should see, Heeagh shin, we, &c. 
Heeagh. oo, thou mightest, &c., see, Heeagh sliiu, ye, &c. 

Heeagh eh, he might, &c., see. Heeagh ad, they, &c. 

Or, 

Dy vaikin, that I would, &c., see, Dy vaikagh shin, that we, &c. 
Dy vaikagh oo, that thou, &c. Dy vaikagh shiu, that ye, &c. 
Dy vaikagh eh, that he, &c. Dy vaikagh ad, that they, &c. 

INFINITIVE MOOD. 

Present. Dy akin, to see. 
Supine. Fakinit, seen, Qu. 

PARTICIPLES. 

Present. Fakin, seeing. 
Preter. Er vakin, having seen. 
Future. Er-chee fakin, about to see. 

Interrogative. Vaik oo eh ? did you see it ? 
N'aikin eh ? could I see it ? 

Negative. Cha vaik mee eh, I did not see it. 

Cha vaikagh oo eh, thou couldst not see it, 
Cha vaik-ym eh, I shall not see it. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. C9 



CHAPTER XIV. 

OF THE ADVEKB. 

Some Adverbs are expressed in one word, as nish, now, 
eisht, then ; some consist of a preposition and a noun, as dy-mie, 
well, er-y-gherrit, lately ; and all nouns adjective may be made 
adverbs by prefixing the articles dy and er as er-cooyl, behind, 
er-chea, in flight, dy oik, ill, dy bieau, quickly, &c., &c. Also, 
when the particle er is put before substantives it sometimes 
answers the English word for, as er-phing, for a penny; and 
sometimes changes them into adverbs, as er-aggle, lest, er-niart, 
forcibly. Adverbs are of several sorts. 

1. ADVEKBS OP TIME. 

Nish, now. Kinjagh, always. 

Clielleeragh, immediately, pre- Dy bragh, for ever. 

sently. Mennick, often. 

Er-y-chooyl, in a moment, di- An-vennick, seldom. 

rectly. Jiu, to-day. 

J^sm'sfr,bye-and-bye, just now. Jea, yesterday. 
Eoish, before. Arroo-y-jea, or cha row eh jea, 

Er-y-gherrit, lately. the day before yesterday. 

Vaidjyn, a while ago. Noght, to-night. 

Tamwylt, a while. Riyr, last night. 

Er-dy-henney, since. Arroo-y-riyr, or cha row ehriyr, 

Lurg, after. the night before last night. 

Lurg shoh, hereafter. Moghrey jea, yesterday morn. 

Jeih shoh, henceforth. Mairagh, to-morrow. 

Veih shoh, hence. Nuyr, the day after to-morrow. 

H' 



70 A GEAMMAE OP 

Ro'ic, before, or formerly. Cuin, when. 

Foddey, far. Keayrt elley, another time. 

Foddey er-dy-henney, long since, Dy beayn, perpetually. 

anciently. Dy bragh, eternally. 
Ayns-polt, in a second, instant. Dy bragh as dy bragh, for ever 
Dagh-laa, daily. and ever. 

Choud, while. Nish as reesht, now and then. 

Cre-choud, how long. Eisht, then. 
'Sytraatfayn, in the meanwhile. Er-dy, since. 

Foast, yet. Er-giyn, \ 

Anmagh, late. Erreish, J 

Ro-anmagh, too late. Keayrt dy row, once upon a time. 

Dy-traa } betimes. Keayrt ny ghaa, many a time. 

Moghey, early. Tra, when. 

Leah, early, soon. ArragJi, any more. 

Ro-voghey, too early. Rieau, ever. (Past.) 

Ro-leah, too soon. Rieau er-dy-lienncy } ever since. 

Reesht, again. Fy-yerrey, at last. 

Ass-y-noa, again, of a new. Choiee, never. 

2. ADVEEBS OF PLACE. 

here. Seose, up. 

, there. Frskyn, above, over. 

Sliid, yonder. Heese } below. 

Va shid I lo yonder ! SJieese, down. 

Myr sholi, this way. Neese } from below. 

Cheu-sthie, within. Harrish, over. [against. 

Clieu-mooie, without. Harrish y raad, opposite, over, 

C'raad, where. Fo, under. 

Neose seose, up and down. Roish, before. 

Raad ennagh, somewhere. CTieu echooyl, or cooyl, behind. 

Ooilley mygeayrt, ") , , Er-cooyl,OT er-gooyl, behind, last. 

Runt mygeayrt, ) GJieu-wass, or veealloo, before. 
Heose, up, above. Gfe-voish, or veih, from whence. 

Neose, down. Veih shoh, from hence. 






THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 71 



Veih shid, from thence. Neealloo, towards the surface or 
Faggys, er-gerrey, near, hard by. face as Myr urley neealloo 
Foddey, far. yn aer, as an eagle towards 

Veihfoddey, from far. heaven. 

Foddey jeh, far off. Er-jerrey, behind. 

Mooie, without , and magJi. Lurg, after. 
Sthie, within, and stiagh. 

3. ADVEEBS OP QUANTITY. 

Cre-woad, how much, how many. Cre wheesh, how much. 
Dy-liooar, enough. Ro, too much (used in composi- 

Rour, too much, too many. Faggys, almost. [tion). 

Lane, ~} Feerfaggys, very near. 

T7 7 i Much.many.agreat -^ 7 , 

Ymmodee, > J c JLty peesfiyn, by pieces. 

Palchey, J ^* DT/ sZa^e, wholly^ entirely. 



Ny smooj more. Whilleen, so many. 

JVi/ s?oo, less. Shimmey, many. 

Beggan, little. 8'coan, scarce. 

Beggan beg, very little. Bunnys, almost. 

Wlieesh, so much. Monney, much. 

4. ADVEKBS OF NUMBEE. 

Whilleen keayrt, so many times. Cre-woad Jceayrt, how many 

Uncheayrt, once, daacheayrt,&c. times. 

Keayrt ny ghaa, many times. Shimmey Jceayrt, many a time. 

5. ADVEEBS OP OEDEE. 

HosJiiaght, first. Ayns ordyr, in order. 

Reesht, again. Ayns fockle, in a word. 

*Sy nah ynnyd, secondly. Lhiattee ry Ihiattee, side by side. 

Ershyn ooilley, above all. Cooidjagh, together. 

Lurg ooilley, after all. Lurgycheilley, one after another. 

Ooilley dy lieragh, altogether, in Ry cheilley, to one another. 
order. Dy cheilley, together. 

H 2 



72 A GRAMMAR OF 

G. ADVERBS OF AFFIRMATION. 

Ta, yes, aye. Myr shen, so, thus. 

Lioar ta, yes indeed (by the Myr shen dy row, amen, so be it. 

book it is). Dy jarroo, indeed. 

Dy shicTcyr, indeed, surely. Gyn-dooyt, undoubtedly. 
Dy feer, in truth. She, yes. 

7. ADVERBS OF NEGATION, OR DENIAL. 



Ny, ^ Cha, not. 

Naglij >not, nor. S'cummey, no matter. 

Nar, J 

8. ADVERBS OF DOUBT. 



Foddee, perhaps. Foast, yet, nevertheless. 

Foddee y ve, it may be. Ny-yeih, yet, nevertheless, how- 

Feer UHy, very likely. ever. 

Er-aggle, lest. -Agh, hut. 

Trooid taghyrt, accidentally. My ta, though, however. 

9. ADVERBS OF INTERROGATION. 

An, whether. Cre veih, whence. 

Cre 'n-fa, why, wherefore. Kys, how. 

Cre } n-fa nagli, why not. Cre'n oyr, wherefore. 

Quoi, who. Cre-theihll, what in the world, 

Cre, what. whatsoever. 

Cre'd, for ere red, what. Cre-woad, how many. 

Cammah, why. Cre-woad share, what better. 

Caid, how long. C'raad, where. 

Cre choud, how far. 

10. ADVERBS TO GIVE REASON. 

-fdj er-yn-oyr, er-y-ehoontey, son-y-fa, slien-y-fa, because. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 73 

11. ADVEEBS OF COMPARISON. 

Myr, as, like. Smoo, more. 

Myr sliolij thus. Sloo, less. 

Myrgeddin, likewise. Na, than. 

Myrchaagh, in like manner. Ass-towse, exceedingly. 
CJia, equally as clia mie rishyn, 
as good as he. 

12. ADVEEBS OF SHEWING. 

Cur-my-ner ! behold ! Va shid ! or vaik shid ! see yon- 

Jeeagh ! lo ! Va shoh ! see here ! [der ! 

13. ADVEEBS OF CONFUSION. 

Bun-ry-skyn, topsy-turvey. Fud-y-cheilley, in confusion. 
Ermooin-y-cheilley, pell-mell. Er-shagliryn, astray. 

14. ADVEEBS OF SEPAEATION. 

Veih-my-cheilley, asunder. Er-sooyl, away. 

Ry~lhiattee, aside. 

15. ADVEEBS OF QUALITY. 

Adverbs of quality are made of adjectives and participles, by 
putting the preposition dy, of, before them in apposition, as 

Dy mie y well. Dy oik, badly. 

Dy creeney, wisely. Dy liastey, idly. 

Dy bwaagh, prettily. Dy mitchooragh, roguishly. 

And the like. 



74 A GEAMMAE OF 



CHAPTER XV. 
OF THE INTEEJECTION. 

Interjections are so called because they are thrown in between 
the parts of a sentence without making any alteration in it, and 
serve to express the sudden motions and transports of the soul. 

There are several sorts of interjections, such as 

1. OF JOY. Buy la! you Sir! or ya ! 

Ah ! oh ! woman ! and la ! Sir ! or 

Oh ! cre'n sport ! oh ! the sport ! man ! or fellow ! 
Ouwatta ! ho ! brave ! 

6. OF ADMIEATION. 
2. OF GEIEF AND PAIN. 

Cur-my-ner ! behold ! 

Ogh, or ugh ! oh ! Jeeagh ! see ! 

Ogh-cha-nee ! woe's me ! Va shid, or vaik shid ! see there ! 

Bastagh ! pity ! 
Smerg ! woe ! 7. OF AVEESION. 

3. TO ENCOUEAGE.^ Cugh ! nasty ! fie ! 

Hut, hut ! out upon you ! 

Erlongs ! forward ! Drogh ort ! deuce take you ! 

Er-dty-hoshiaght ! come on ! 

8. OF LAUGHTEE. 
4. TO WAEN. 

Hah, hah, hah ! ah, ah, ah ! 
Ass dt'aash ! softly ! 

Bee er dty hwoaie ! have a care ! 9. OF SILENCE. 

S'lioar! hold! 

Bee dty host ! silence ! 

5. TO CALL. Cumdtyhengey! holdyourpeace! 

Whush I hush ! 
Vuddee ya ! you woman ! 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 75 



CHAPTER XVI. 

OF THE CONJUNCTION. 

A Conjunction is a part of speech which serves to join and 
connect the several parts of a discourse. 

Conjunctions are divided into several orders, of which are 

1. CONJUNCTIONS COPULATIVE, OE TO JOIN. 

As, and (for which a single 's with Foast 3 yet, still. 

an apostrophe is used, especially Ny, not, nor. 

in poetry). lf?/rc/iaa#/i,likewise,moreover. 

Myrgeddin, also. Ny-sodjey, furthermore. 

2. DISJUNCTIVE, OE TO SEPAEATE. 

Ny', or. Chamoo, neither. 

Na, than. Ga, though, although. 

Edyr, whether. My ia, though. 

3. ADVEESATIVE, OE SHEWING CONTEAEIETY. 

Agh, but. Agh fuirree ort, yet, but still. 

Ny-yeih, nevertheless. Lurg ooilley, after all. 

Foasty yet. 

4 . CONDITIONAL. 

My, if. Mannagh, except, unless, if not. 

5. CAUSAL, OE GIVING EEASON OF WHAT IS SAID. 

Er-yn-oyr, because. Fr-y-fa, because. 

Ayns, or son wheesh as, for as much Son, for. 

Falcin dy, seeing that. [as. Dy, that, in order that. 

6 . INTEEEOGATI VE S . 

Vide of Adverbs. 



76 A GKAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER XVII. 

OF THE PREPOSITION. 

A Preposition is set before other parts of speech, to explain 
some particular circumstance, either in apposition, as cooyl y 
thammag, behind the bush ; or else in composition, as cooyl-chas- 
sey, to slander. 

THE PREPOSITIONS USED IN APPOSITION ARE THESE: 

Gys,to. Cour, or), 

towards. 
Jjurg, alter. (Jour, ) 

Roish, before. Mygeayrt, about. 

Marish, with. Cheu-mooie, except. 

Rish, to. Er, upon. 

EC, at. Bentyn, touching. 

Noi, against, towards. Tessyn, across. 

Liorish, by. Magh, out of. 

Ayns, in, or into. Stiagh, in, into. 

Voish, ") c Erlongs, along. 

Veih, ) Foddey, far. 

Cooyl, behind. Er-gerrey, near. 

Fo, under. Faggys, near, nigh to. 

Erskyn, above. Choud's, till, to, even to, as long 

Son, for. as ; or choud as, as far as. 

Gyn, without. Er-coontey, because of. 

Fegooish, without. Ersooyl, from, away. 

Fud, among. Dy and gy, of gys, to. 

Mastey, amidst. Ass, out of. 

Cordail, according to, pursuant. Dy, of. 

Eddyr, between, or betwixt. Jeh, of, or concerning. 

Da, to. 
Some of them become adverbs. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 77 

OP PREPOSITIONS USED IN COMPOSITION. 

There are,besides real prepositions, certain consignificantparti- 
cles, which are turned into prepositions, and prefixed to words in 
such manner as to coalesce, and to become a part of them, as 

Aa generally implies a repeated action, as the Latin re, again 
as aa-chroOj to create again ; aa-vioghey, to revive ; aa-lhieeney, 
to replenish ; aa-smooinaghtyn, recollection. 

An signifies privation, or not, and has the force of the English 
un, or m Latin as an-chasherick, unholy, impious ; an-ghoo f in- 
famy; an-chreestee, infidel; an-leigh, partiality in law; an- 
shickyr, unstable; an-vennick, seldom. 

Go has the force of the Latin con and co as co-chruinnaght, 
an assembly ; co-eireyj a coheir ; co-ard, equally high ; co-beayn, 
co-eternal ; co-trome, equally poised. 

Lieh, half as lieh-varroo, half-dead ; lieh-valloo, half-dumb. 

Cooyl, behind as cooyl-chlea, an ambush. 

Lesh, with as lesh-y-cheilley, together with (and is com- 
pounded with pronouns). 

Fo } under &sfo-Jialloo, underground ; fo-lieau } under a moun- 
tain (and is compounded with pronouns) . 

Er, upon, is joined to nouns substantive, and gives them the 
force of nouns adjective as ben er-finnue, a mad or passionate 
woman (literally, a woman upon passion, or having passion) ; 
fer er-creau, a trembling man (literally, a man upon trembling), 
&c. ; and is compounded with pronouns. 

Gyn, without, denotes privation, or not as gyn-vyghin, un- 
merciful ; gyn-vioys, without life ; &c. 

Neu signifies privation, or not, in like manner, and is joined 
to nouns, verbs, or participles as neu-ghlen, unclean ; &c., &c. 

Am, bad as in am-vlass, a bad taste. 

Mee is also a privative preposition, and used in composition 
as mee-arrys, impenitence ; mee-ooashley, dishonour. 

A, not as aslaynt, sickness. 

Drogh, bad as drogh-ourys, suspicion ; drogh* yannoo, evil. 



78 A GRAMMAR OP 

Myn, little as myn-jaghee, small tythes ; myn-vooinjer, the 
little ones of a family. 

Peer, very asfeer-vie, very well. 
Lane, full as lane-vie, well, middling. 

Dy, of, or to, joined to nouns adjective, makes them become 

adverbs of quality as dy-mie, well ; &c. 

Roishj against, Ayns, in, 

Rish, to, VoisTi, from, or veih, 

Marish, with, Ersfcyn, above, 

Liorish, by, Fegooish, without, 

Mastey, among, Da, to, 

Jehj of, Ass, out of, 

are compounded with pronouns. 

OF THE POSTFIXES. 

Ey, postfixed to the nominative case of the primitive noun, 
forms a kind of adjective called a derivative as cass, a foot, 
eoshey, belonging to a foot ; bannish, a wedding, banshey, belong- 
ing to a wedding. 

Oil, like, postfixed to the termination of nouns, forms a com- 
parative adjective as from shawh, a hawk, shawkoil, hawk-like ; 
caggey, war, caggoil, warlike ; ayr, ayroil, like a father. 

Een, postfixed, forms a cjiroinutive noun as durn, a fist or 
hand, durneen. 

Al forms an augmentative adjective as niart, strength, niartal, 
strong ; pooar, power, pooaral, powerful. 

Agh, postfixed, forms also an augmentative adjective as nieu, 
poison, nieuagh, poisonous ', toyrt, a gift> toyrtagh, liberal ; kialg, 
deceit, kialgagh, deceitful. 

These compound adjectives, again, are formed into nouns as 
toyrtagh, liberal, toyrtyssagh, a donor ; shirveish,sGrvice, skirveish- 
agh, serviceable, or a server. 

The postfixes ee, er, eyv, ag, oor, form artificial nouns as, 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 79 

j a foot, coshee, a footman. Cadley, sleep, cadlag, a slug- 
Fee, weaving, feeder, a weaver. gard. 

Shelg, hunting, shelgeyr, ahunter. Preacheil,to pre&ch,preachoor, 
Greas, industry, greasag, an econo- a preacher, 
mist. 



80 A GRAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

THE SYNTAX. 
THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUBSTANTIVES. 

When two substantives come together belonging to divers 
things, the latter, if it be masculine, and the article y or yn pre- 
cede it, shall change its initial into its soft : as folt y ching, the 
hair of the head ; duillag y villey, the leaf of the tree : but words 
beginning with d, j, t, of the mutable consonants, are not subject 
to this change : as Tdone y jalloo, the head of the image ; mac y 
Jee, the son of the God ; ben y dooinney, the man's wife ; ben y 
thie, the woman of the house. 

When two substantives come together, if the latter be of the 
feminine gender, the article ny, not yn, is used in the genitive, 
and the mutable consonant remains unaspirated : as cass, a foot, 
yn chass, the foot, boyn ny coshey, the heel of the foot ; sooill, an 
eye, yn tooill, the eye, clagh ny sooilley, the apple of the eye. 

If the latter substantive be the proper name of a country, 
town, or place, without an article, the latter changeth its radical 
initial into its soft : as Elian Vannin, the Island of Mann ; mac 
Yee, the son of God; thie Ghavid, the house of David. 

Both substantives being common, the latter is determined by 
the gender of the former : as (fern.) slat hoost ; (fern ) clagh 
wyllin ; (fern.) feill vuc, swine's flesh; strom (masc.) muc, a 
swine's snout ; cloan (fern.) ghooinney, a man's children; mac 
(masc.) dooinney, a man's son ; ben ghuilley ; mac ben. But if 
the former substantive be of the plural number, then the latter 
is immediately subjoined with its radical initial : as slattyn soost, 
flails; claghyn mwillin, mill-stones. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 81 



CHAPTER XIX. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF SUBSTANTIVES AND ADJECTIVES. 

The substantive and adjective agree generally in gender, and 
sometimes too in number ; but an adjective singular is most fre- 
quently joined to a substantive plural ; as deiney berchagh, rich 
men. 

The place of the adjective in construction is after its substan- 
tive : as dooinney mie, a good man ; ben aalin, a fair woman ; 
mac ammyssagh, a dutiful son ; inneen ghraihagh, a lovely nymph. 
Except drogh and shenn. Giare and lhag are also sometimes 
placed before their substantives : yn ghiare-veinn, yn Ihag- 
ghooinney. 

When an adjective comes after a substantive singular of the 
masculine gender, it retains its radical initial ; as goo mie, a good 
report ; thie mooar, a large house ; tarroo puttagJi, a pushing bull; 
dooinney builtagh, a quarrelsome man. 

The adjective, after a substantive singular of the feminine 
gender, changeth its radical initial into its soft : ben vie, a good 
woman ; inneen waagh, a pretty girl ; cooish chluicaghj a crafty 
cause ; eddin ghennal, a merry countenance. 

When an adjective is placed before its substantive, the mutable 
initial of the substantive is changed into its soft, and the adjective 
must be of the masculine gender : as drogh-ghooinney, a bad man; 
drogh-yannoo, a bad action ; shenn ven, an old woman. 

All substantives plural, of what gender soever they be, will 
have adjectives after them beginning with their radical initials, 
and most frequently of the singular number : as deiney mie, good 
men ; inneenyn mie, good women ; eddinyn gennal, merry faces ; 
skeeallyn mie, good news ; deiney berchagh, rich men, not deiney 



82 A GEAMMAE OP 

berchee. Except in the vocative case plural, which always aspir- 
ates the initial of the following adjective : as chaarjyn ghraiagh. 

Adjectives of the superlative (or English comparative) degree 
are always set after their substantives when comparison is signi- 
fied, and make no change of the initial of the substantive whether 
it be masculine or feminine : as yn eddin s'gilley, the fairest face ; 
yn laue s'lajer, the strongest hand ; as ta'n ven ny s'thollee na e 
sheshey, the woman is stronger than her husband. But when 
the superlative is used to express admiration, it is usually placed 
before its substantive without making any change in the initials : 
as s'gial yn eddin ! how clean is the face ! s'lajer e laue ! strong 
is his hand ! s'thollee ta'n ven ! stout is the woman ! 

Rouyr, too much, is ever placed before its substantive, and 
makes no change of the initial: t'ou goaill rouyr bea, rouyrjannoo 
ort, you take too much trouble or plague upon yourself. And so 
is dy chooilley, every, ever placed before its substantive, and 
always makes the radical initial of its substantive change into its 
soft or secondary mute : as dy chooilley ghooinney, every man ; 
dy chooilley ven, every woman. 

Numerals are placed before their substantives, and make no 
change in their initials : as un dooinney, one man, three deiney, 
Jciare, queig, &c. 

Except c?a&,two,whichmakes the substantive following change 
its radical initial intoits soft jor secondary mute : as daa ghooinney, 
two men ; daa ven, two women ; daa phaitchey, two children. 
So un, one, before a feminine substantive : as un ven, one woman; 
un vooa, one cow ; un ghodee, a girl, or wench. 

Ordinals are placed before their substantives, and change their 
initials into their soft : as yn chied ven, the first woman ; yn nah 
ghooinney, the second man ; yn trass ghooinney, the third man, yn 
chiarroo, yn ivheiggoo, &c. Except words beginning with d, j, t, 
which suffer no change when joined to chied : as yn chied dooinney, 
the first man; yn chied towse, the first measure ; yn chied jough, 
the first drink. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 



83 



CHAPTER XX. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OF PEONOUNS. 

The pronoun relative is generally understood in Manks, as 
cheayll mee coraa nagh hoig mee, I heard a voice (that) I under- 
stood not ; ayns y vriwnys t'ou er harey, in the judgment (which) 
thou hast commanded. 

The pronouns possessive, aym's, mine, ayd's, thine, echey, his, 
and their plurals, are ever placed after their substantives ; the 
articles y or yn being put before their substantives, as yn thie 
aym's, my house ; yn cabbyl ayd's, thy horse ; yn thie echey, ain, 
eu, eck, oc. 

All the other possessive pronouns are placed before their re- 
spective substantives, the radical initial letter of their substan- 
tives being changed into its soft : as my ven, dty ven, e ven. Nyn, 
our, your, their, is always placed before its substantives, and before 
the verbs with which it is used in a reflective sense : as va shin er 
nyn livrey, we were (ourselves) delivered ; va shiu er nyn livrey, 
ye were (yourselves) delivered'. But as nyn changes the mutable 
consonants in a manner peculiar to itself, viz., into their liquids, 
I shall give it in all its variations : 
Bailey, a town, 



Cashtal, a castle, 
Cheer, a country, 
Dooghys, nature, 
Foays, advantage, 
Giastyllys, charity, 
Jee, God, 
Kione, a head, 
Pian, a pain, 
Phreeney, a pin, 
Qning, a yoke, 
Toilchinys, merit, 



- nyn, 



malley. 

gashtaL 

jeer. 

ghooghys. 

voays. 

ghiastyllys. 

Yee. 

gione. 

Man. 

vreeney. 

guing. 

doilchinys. 



The vowels and liquids suffer no change. 



84 A GRAMMAR OP 

Pronouns are compounded with prepositions, thus : 

Singular. Plural. 

Er, upon. Orrym, upon me; Orrin, upon us -,erriu, upon you; 
ort, upon thee; er, upon him; orroo, upon them, 
and urree, upon her. 

Da, to. Don, to me ; dliyt, to Dooin, to us; diu, to you; dcwe, 
thee ; d a, to him ; and dee, to them, 
or jee, to her. 

Risk, to. Rhym, to me; r/M/, Rooin, to us; rm, to you; roo, 
to thee ; risJi, to him ; ree, to them, 
to her. 

Marish, with. Marym, with Marin, with us; meriu, with 
me ; mayrt, with thee ; mo-- you ; maroo, with them, 
m/ij with him. 

Harrish } over. Harry m, over Harrin, over us ; harry stiu, over 

me; harry d, over thee; ftar- you; harrystoo, over them. 
Hs/i, over him ; harree, over 
her. 

Voish, from. Voym, from me ; Fom, from us ; vewe, from you; 
-yoic?, from thee ; voisA, from wwe, from them, 
him ; ^oee, from her. 

J^Oj under. Foym, underone; Foin, under us; f'eue, under 

foyd, under thee ; fo, under you ; foue, under them. 

him ; foee, under her. 

Liorish, by. Liorym, by me ; Liorin, by us ; lieriu, by you ; 

liortj by thee; liorish, by lioroo, by them. 

him ; lioree, by her. 

Ayns,m.Aynym,inme;aynyd, Aynin, in us; ayndiu y in you; 

in thee; ayn } in him ; aynjee, ayndoo, by them. 

in her. 

Lesh, with. Lhiam, with me ; Lhi&n, with us ; lhiu } with you; 

Ihiat, with thee ; lesli } with Ihieu, with them. 

him. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 85 

Singular. Plural. 

Roish, before. Roym, before Roin, before us ; reue, before 

me; royd, before thee; roish, you ; roue, before them. 

before him; roee, before her. 
Mastey, among. Masteymee; Mast'ain, among us ; mast'eu, 

mast'ayd ; mastfechey ; and among you ; mastfoc, among 

mast'eck. them. 

Jeh,of. Jee'm, ofme;jeed, of J'in, of us; j'iu, of you; j'eu, 

thee ; jeh, of him ; and fee, of them. 

of her. 
Ass, out of. ^Iss7/m,outofme; Ass shin, out of us ; assdiu, out 

assyd, outof thee; ass, outof of you ; assad, out of them. 

him ; assjee, out of her. 
~Erskyn, above. Ermyskyn,&- Er-nyn skyn, above us, you, 

boveme; erdtyskyn, above them. 

thee ; ere skyn, above him. 
.FegrooisT^without. M'egooish, 

without me; dt'egooislijny'- 

gooish. 

These pronouns are contracted thus : Ym, from mee or my, I 
and my ; yt, from dty, thy, and sometimes t is changed into d, 
as harry d, over thee, &c. ; in, from shin, we ; iu, from shiu, ye ; 
oo, from roo, them. 

The interrogative and its answer shall agree in case : as Quoi 
voish hainh eh? from whom did he come? Voym's, from me. 



86 A GKAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER XXI. 

OP THE CONSTEUCTION OF AETICLES. 

These articles restrain or determine the sense of the word they 
are put before to some particular, in the same manner as the de- 
finite article the in English ; but we have no article that answers 
the English a as Jiaink dooinney, a man came, liaink y dooinney, 
the man came ; yet, 

The reflective article ny is used in construction for the English 
article a, and before nouns of the masculine gender it always 
changes their radical initials into their soft or secondary mutes ; 
but nouns of the feminine gender retain their radical initials : as 
t'eh ny ghooinney mie, he is a good man ; fee ny ben vie, she is a 
good woman. 

When words of the masculine gender have an article set before 
them, their radical letters are not changed : as y dooinney, the 
man ; yn guilley, the boy. But if they be feminines, their initials 
are changed into their soft : as yn ven, the woman ; yn vooa, the 
cow. 

Proper names have not the articles set before them, because 
they do of themselves, individually or particularly, distinguish 
thethingsor persons of which one speaks. So likewise the names 
of countries, cities, rivers, &c., having no article set before them, 
except these four Yn Spainey, Spain ; yn Eank, Franoe ; yn 
Eaue, Rome ; yn thalloo Bretnagh, Wales ; also, N'erin, Ireland, 
and N'alpin, Scotland, have the adventitious n, or article yn, be- 
fore them. 

An article is not put before the former of two substantives 
when they betoken divers things. 



THE HANKS LANGUAGE. 87 



CHAPTER XXII. 

THE CONSTRUCTION OP VERBS. 

The nominative cases of verbs, whether placed before or after 
their verbs, preserve their radical initials : as dooyrt dooinney, a 
man said ; she dooinney dooyrt rhym, 'twas a man told me. 

Nouns come after verbs of filling with the preposition lesh, 
with : as t'eh IMeeney yn thie lesh boirey, he filleth the house with 
contention. 

.Verbs of abounding have ayns : as gaase ayns creenaghtj 
growing in wisdom ; bishagh ayns cooid, abounding with goods. 

Of agreeing and speaking to, have rish, to, or with : as choard 
mee rish, I agreed with him ; dooyrt mee rish, I said to him. 

Of accusing, have son, for : as t'eh plaiynt er son dunverys, he 
accuseth him of murder. 

Of arraying, have lesh, with : as coodagh lesh argid, covering 
with silver ; coamrit lesh purple, clothed in purple. 

Of asking and intreating, have jeh, of, and veigh, from : as 
hir mee veih'n dooinney my chair, I entreated the man for my 
right ; denee mee jeh'n dooinney, cre'n naight ? I asked the man, 
what news ? 

Of buying, have veih : as ta mee kionnaghey cooid veih'n mar- 
chan, I am buying goods from the merchant. 

Of calling upon, have er, upon : as deie mee er cooney, I called 
for help. 

Of communicating, have da } to, or gys, to : as hoilshee mee da, 
or gys my naboo, I signified to my neighbour. 



88 A "GRAMMAR OF 

Of defending and delivering, have veihj or voish : as limey mee 
veih oik, deliver me from evil ; coadee mee voish y noid, protect 
me from the enemy. 

Of waiting, have risk, to : as duirree mee risk sheshaght, I 
waited for company. 

Of hearkening, have risk : as deaisht mee risk choud's oddin, I 
listened to him as long as I could. 

Of loading, have lesh : as Ihieen ym eh lesh feeyn, I will fill 
him with wine ; laad mee eh lesh argid, I loaded him with silver. 

Of receiving, have voish, or veih : as hooar mee eh voi$h Lunnin, 
I received it from London. 

Of separating, have rish : as scarr mee risk my ven, I divorced 
my wife. 

When a question is asked in the present tense, the answer is 
made by the same tense of the same verb : as Vel oo goll thie? 
are you going home ? Ta mee goll. Or the answer may be made 
affirmatively by ta, yes, or I am ; and negatively by cha nel, or 
vel, no, or I am not, thou art not, he, &c., is not. 

If the question be in the preterperfect tense, the answer is 
made, if affirmative, by ren, or va ; if negative, by cha ren, or 
row; or otherwise by repeating the verb, if an affirmative answer; 
but if negative, by repeating the verb, and putting cha before it, 
as Nagh dooyrt y dooinney shen ? did not the man say so ? 
Dooyrt, or, negatively, cha dooyrt. 

When a question is asked in the future tense, the answer is 
made by the same tense, or by the future, nee'm, I will do : as 
Jed oo thie ? will you go home ? Hed-ym, I will go, or nee'm. 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 89 



CHAPTER XXIII. 

OP THE CONSTEUCTION OP ADVERBS. 

Peer, very, ro, too, or too much, are set in apposition with 
nouns adjective, and change their radical consonants into their 
soft : as dooinney feer vie, a very good man ; errey ro hrome, too 
heavy a burden. But words beginning with d, j, and , of the 
mutables, change not after the adverb feer : as feer doccaragh, 
very laborious ; feer jolly ssagh, very greedy ; feer tastagh, very 
observant. 

Dy, that, governs a subjunctive mood. 

Dy chooilley, every, changes the mutable initial consonant of 
nouns substantive, to which it is joined in apposition, as dy 
chooilley ghooinney, every man, &c. 

All the other adverbs, whether before verbs, substantives, or 
adjectives, suffer them to retain their radical initials. 



CHAPTER XXIV. 

OP THE INTERJECTIONS. 



All the interjections make the nouns following them change 
their initials into their soft or secondary mute : as Yee ! O 
God ! ghooinney I man ! But when verbs come after them 
they retain their radical initial : as cleiyfo ! supplant him ! 



90 A GRAMMAR OF 



CHAPTER XXV. 

OP THE CONSTRUCTION OP CONJUNCTIONS. 

Edyr, whether, or either, is answered by ny, or : as edyr eh ve 
dooinney ny ben, whether it be man or woman. 

As, and, ere, what, myr, also, &c., effect no change in the 
initials. 

Ny is often set before nouns adjective of the English compara- 
tive degree, that is, in Manks, when two subjects are im- 
mediately compared the one to the other, and is answered by na, 
than : as ta'n airh ny strimmey na'n argid, the gold is heavier 
than the silver. 



CHAPTER XXVI. 

OP THE CONSTRUCTION OP PREPOSITIONS. 
OP PREPOSITIONS USED IN APPOSITION. 

Prepositions used in apposition have always a radical initial 
after them : as marish dooinney, with man j lesh screeuyn, with a 
letter. 

When the articles y or yn, the> are joined to prepositions, the 
radical initials of the nouns which follow them are changed into 



THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 91 

their secondary mutes, or softs : as marish y ghuilley, with the 
boy ; risk y ven, to the woman ; lesh y ghrian, towards the sun. 
But nouns whose initials are the consonants d, j, and t, suffer no 
change : marish y dooinney, with the man ; cooyl y dorrys, behind 
the door ; lesh y jalloo, with the image ; gys y thie, to the house. 

Dy, of, or to, always aspirates, or changes into the secondary 
mute, the initial of the following mutable consonant : as goll dy 
valley, going home ; Tdone dy phrash, a head of brass ; dy ghoaill 
leagh, to take a fee. 

Prepositions are compounded with adverbs of place : as veih- 
heose, from above ; veih-heese, from beneath. They are also com- 
pounded with pronouns. (See the construction of pronouns.) 

OF PKEPOSITIONS USED IN COMPOSITION. 

Aa is compounded with nouns, verbs, and participles, and 
changes their mutable initials into their soft or secondary mutes : 
as aa-chroo eh dooinney , he re-created man ; aa-vioghee eh, he 
shall revive ; aa-chooinaghtyn, recollection. 

An is joined either to nouns, verbs, or participles, and changes 
their mutable initials into their secondary mutes : as t j an thie 
an-chasherick, the house is impure ; tf eh laadit lesh anghoo t he is 
loaded with infamy. 

Co and cooyl, before the mutable initial c, doth change it into 
its soft : as co-chorrym, equal ; co-chiart, even. Otherwise it re- 
taineth the radical initial : as co-trome, equally heavy; co-beayn, 
co-eternal ; co-Jee, equally God ; cooyl-chlea } an ambush ; cooyl- 
dorrys, behind the door. 

Fo, before s and tli, is used with the aspirate or secondary 
mute : asfo-halloo, under the ground -,fo-liedu, under the moun- 
tain ; instead of fo thalloo and fo slieau. 

Er is used with radical initials : as er-cannoo, wanton ; er-gliee, 
brimming ; er-finnue, passionate. Except when it is put for the 
English for, as er-phing, for a penny, where the aspirate is used. 
It is also used in composition with pronouns, as orrym, &c. (See^ 
the construction of pronouns.) 



92 A GRAMMAR OP THE MANKS LANGUAGE. 

Orrym and its derivatives are most commonly used to betoken 
the passions of the body : as ta'n chadley orrym, I am asleep, or 
am sleepy ; ta paays orrym, I am dry. 

Lieh changes the radical initials of the words it is compounded 
with into their secondary mutes : as ta'n dooinney lieh-varroo, 
the man is half dead; yn ven Ueh-valloo, the slow-speaking 
woman ; moddey lieh-ghooghys, a mongrel. 

Neu and mee signify privation, or not, and make the following 
consonant change into its secondary mute or aspirate : as neu- 
gJilen, unclean ; mee-viallagh, disobedient. 

Gyn is also a privative article, or article of the ablative case, 
and is sometimes joined to a soft or secondary mute : as gyn vioys, 
lifeless ; gyn-vyghin, merciless or without mercy. When we say 
gyn bioys, gyn myghin, and the like, gyn is set by itself, and myghin, 
bioys, &c., are put absolutely q.d., gyn, bioys ; gyn, myghin. 

Da, to, risk, to, marish, with, harrish, over, voish, from, fo, 
under, liorish, by, ayns, in, lesh, with, roish, before, mastey, 
among, jeJi, of, ass, out of, ersJcyn, above, fegooish, without, 
are all compounded with pronouns. (See the construction of 
pronouns.) 



LONDON : 
G. NORMAN AND SON, PRINTERS, MAIDEN LAXE, COVKNT GARDBKT. 






PB 
1811 

K4 

1870 



Kelly, John 

A practical grammar of the 
antient Gaelic 



PLEASE DO NOT REMOVE 
CARDS OR SLIPS FROM THIS POCKET 



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