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In 1 846 I published a Grammar of the Sanskrit language, 
which I entitled 'An elementary Grammar, arranged accord- 
ing to a new Theory.' This work is now out of i:»rint, and a 
new edition is required. The increasing experience which, 
during the subsequent ten years, I have derived from my 
duties as Sanskrit Professor at the East-India College, 
where every student without exception is compelled by 
statute to acquire this language, has led me to modify 
some of the views I expressed in my first Grammar respect- 
ing the Indian grammatical system. I have consequently 
felt myself called upon to re-write the book; and although 
I have seen no reason to depart materially from the 
arrangement originally adopted, yet I am confident that 
the present enlarged and more complete work will be 
found even better adapted than its predecessor to the 
practical wants of the European student. 

At the best, a grammar is regarded by an European as 
a necessary evil, only to be tolerated because unavoidable. 
Especially must it be so in the case of a language con- 
fessedly more copious, more elaborate and artificial, than 
any other language of the world, living or dead. The 
structure of such a language must of necessity be highly 
complex. To the native of Hindustan this complexity is a 
positive recommendation. He views in it an evidence and 
a pledge of the sacred and unapproachable character of the 
tongue which he venerates as divine. To him the study of 
its intricate grammar is an end, complete and satisfying in 

a 2 



itself. He wanders with delight in its perplexing mazes ; 
and values that grammar most which enters most minutely 
into an abstract analysis of the construction of the lan- 
guage, apart from its practical bearing on the literature or 
even on the formation of his own vernacular dialect. But 
the matter-of-fact temperament of an European, or at least 
of an Englishman, his peculiar mental organization, his 
hereditary and educational bias, are opposed to all such 
purely philosophical ideas of grammatical investigation. 
A Sanskrit grammar intended for his use must l^e plain, 
straightforward, practical ; not founded on the mere abstract 
theory of native grammarians, not moulded in servile con- 
formity to Indian authority, but constructed independently 
from an examination of the literature, and with direct 
reference to the influence exercised by Sanskrit on the 
spoken dialects of India and the cognate languages of 
Europe. To the English student, as a general rule, all 
grammatical study is a disagreeable necessity — a mere 
means to an end — a troublesome road that must be passed 
in order that the goal of a sound knowledge of a language 
may be attained. To meet his requirements the ground 
must be cleared of needless obstacles, its rough places 
made smooth, its crooked places straight, and the passage 
over it facilitated by simplicity and perspicuity of arrange- 
ment, by consistency and unity of design,, hy abundance of 
example and illustration, by synoptical tables, by copious 
indices, by the various artifices of typography. 

Before directing attention to the main features of the 
plan adopted in the present volume, and indicating the 
principal points in which it either differs from or conforms 
to the Indian system of grammatical tuition, I Avill endea- 
vour to explain briefly what that system is ; on what prin- 
ciples it is based; and in what relation it stands to the 

It might have been expected that in Sanskrit, as in 


other languages, gTammatical works should have l)een 
composed in direct subservience to the literature. But 
without going the length of affirming that the rules were 
anterior to the practice, or that grammarians in their ela- 
borate precepts aimed at inventing forms of speech which 
were not established by approved usage, certain it is that 
in India we have presented to us the curious phenomenon 
of a vast assemblage of purely grammatical treatises, the 
professed object of which is not so much to elucidate the 
existing literature, as to be studied for their own sake, or 
as ancillary to the study of the more abstruse work of the 
first great grammarian, Panini. We have, moreover, two 
distinct phases of literature ; the one, simple and natural — 
that is to say, composed independently of grammatical 
rules, though of course amenable to them ; the other, ela- 
borate, artificial, and professedly written to exemplify the 
theory of grammar. The literary compositions which pre- 
ceded the appearance of Panini's aphorisms, probably about 
the 2d century b. c, belong of course to the first of these 
phases. Such are the Vedas, the code of Manu, and the two 
epic poems of the Ramayana and Maha-bharata *. The 
Vedas, indeed, which are referred back to a period as early 
as the 1 2th or 1 3th century b. c, abound in obsolete and 
peculiar formations, mixed up with the more recent forms 
of grammar with so much irregularity as to lead to the 
inference, that the language at that time was too unsettled 
and variable to be brought under subjection to a system of 
strict grammatical rules ; while the simplicity of the style 
in the code of Manu and tlie two epic poems is a plain 
indication that a grammar founded on and intended to be 
a guide to the literature as it then existed, would have 

* That Panini was subsequent to the Maha-bharata may be conjectured fi-om 
the circumstance that in the chapter on patronymics the examples given in the 
Vaitikas or supplementary rules (probably nearly as ancient as the Sutras) seem 
to be taken fi-om the names of the chiefs and warriors of that poem. 


differed from the Paniniya Sutras as a straiolit road from 
a labyrinth. 

What then was the nature of Panini's extraordinary 
work, which caused so complete a revolution in the cha- 
racter of Sanskrit literary composition? It consisted of 
about four thousand Sutras or aphorisms, composed with 
the symbolic brevity of the most concise memoria technica. 
These were to the science of Sanskrit grammar what the 
seed is to the tree, the bud to the full-blown flower. They 
were the germ of that series of grammatical treatises 
w^hich, taking root in them, speedily germinated and rami- 
fied in all directions. Each aphorism, in itself more dark 
and mystic than the darkest and most mystical of oracles, 
was pregnant with an endless progeny of interpretations 
and commentaries, sometimes as obscure as the original. 
About one hundred and fifty grammarians and annotators 
followed in the footsteps of the great Father of Sanskrit 
grammar, and, ]n-ofessing to explain and illustrate his 
dicta, made the display of their own philological learning 
the paramount aim and purpose of their disquisitions. 

It cannot be wondered, when all the subtlety of the 
Indian intellect expended itself in this direction, that the 
science of Sanskrit grammar should have been refined and 
elaborated ])y the Hindus to a degree wholly unknown in 
the other languages of the world. The highly artificial 
writings of later times resulted from such an elaboration, 
and were closely interwoven with it ; and although much 
of the literature was still simple and natural, the greater 
part w^as affected by that passion for the display of philo- 
logical erudition which was derived from the works of 
Panini and his disciples. Poetry itself became partially 
inoculated with the mania. Great poets, like Kalidasa, 
who in the generality of their writings were remarkable 
for majestic simplicity and vigour, condescended in some 
of their works to humour the taste of the day by adopting 


a pedantic and obscnre style; while others, like Bhatti, 
wrote lon^- poems, either with the avowed object of exem- 
plifying grammar, or with the ill-concealed motive of exhi- 
biting their own familiarity with the niceties and subtleties 
of speech. 

Indeed it is to be regretted that the Pandits of India 
should have overlaid their system, possessing as it does 
undeniable excellencies, with a network of mysticism. Had 
they designed to keep the key of the knowledge of their 
language, and to shut the door against the vulgar, they 
could hardly have invented a method more perplexing and 
discouraging to beginners. Having required, as a prelimi- 
nary step, that the student shall pass a noviciate of ten 
years in the grammar alone, they have constructed a com- 
plicated machinery of signs, symbols, and indicatory letters, 
which may be Avell calculated to aid the memory of the 
initiated natives, but only serves to bcAvilder the English 
tyro. He has enough to do, in conquering the difficulties 
of a strange character, without puzzling himself at the 
very threshold in a labyrinth of symbols and abbreviations, 
and perplexing himself in his endeavour to understand a 
complicated cipher, with an equally complicated key to its 
interpretation. Even Colebrooke, the profoundest Sanskrit 
scholar of his day, imbued as he w^as with a predilection 
for every thing Indian, remarks on the eight lectures or 
chapters, wdiich, with four sections under each, comprise 
all the celebrated Paniniya Sutras, and constitute the basis 
of the Hindu grammatical system; — 'The outline of Pdnini's 
arrangement is simple, but numerous exceptions and fre- 
quent digressions have involved it in much seeming con- 
fusion. The first two lectures (the first section especially, 
which is in a manner the key of the whole grannnar) con- 
tain definitions ; in the three next are collected the affixes 
by which verbs and nouns are inflected. Those which 
appertain to verbs occupy the third lecture; the fourth 

viii PREFACE. 

and fifth contain such as are affixed to nouns. The remain- 
ing three lectures treat of the changes which roots and 
affixes undergo in special cases, or by general rules of 
orthography, and which are all effected by the addition or 
by the substitution of one or more elements. The apparent 
simplicity of the design vanishes in the perplexity of the 
structure. The endless pursuit of exceptions and limita- 
tions so disjoins the general precepts, that the reader can- 
not keep in view their intended connexion and mutual 
relation. He wanders in an intricate maze, and the clue 
of the labyrinth is continually slipping from his hand.' 
Again ; ' The studied brevity of the Paniniya Sutras ren- 
ders them in the highest degree obscure; even with the 
knowledge of the key to their interpretation, the student 
finds them ambiguous. In the application of them, when 
understood, he discovers many seeming contradictions; 
and, with every exertion of practised memory, he must 
experience the utmost difficulty in combining rules dis- 
persed in apparent confusion through different portions of 
P^nini's eight lectures.' 

That the reader may judge for himself of the almost 
incredible brevity and hopeless obscurity of these gram- 
matical aphorisms, it may be worth while here to furnish 
him with one or two examples. The closing Siitra at the 
end of the eighth lecture is as follows : ' ^ ^ « «.' Will it be 
believed that this is interpreted to mean, ' Let short a l)e 
held to have its organ of utterance contracted, now that 
we have reached the end of the work, in which it was 
necessary to regard it as being otherwise?' 

Another example, taken from the third section of the 
eighth lecture, may be useful as showing that grammatical 
theory is sometimes not strictly carried out in practice. 
The Siitra (VIII. 3. 3 1 ) is as follows : ' f^ w^ si tuk: This is 
interpreted to signify, that ' when -tt n comes at the end of 
a word, and ifi .s follows, the augment ir t may be inserted, 


and TT ^ may then be written in three ways, tlnis; ^^, >?, 
^^.' But if we examine the best MSS. and printed works 
throughout the whole compass of the literature, Ave shall 
find that in practice tt ^ are constantly left unchanged. 
The same may be said of r? it, which by another Sutra 
ought to pass into w- See rr. 5^, $6. a, pp. 30, 31, of this 

My aim has been, in the present work, to avoid the 
mysticism of Indian grammarians, without ignoring the 
best parts of their system, and without i-ejecting such of 
their technical symliols as I have found by experience to 
be really useful in assisting the memory. 

With reference to my first chapter, the student will 
doubtless be impatient of the space devoted to the expla- 
nation of the alphabet. Let him understand at the outset, 
that a minute and accurate adjustment of the mutual rela- 
tionship of letters is the very hinge of the whole subject of 
Sanskrit grammar. It is the point which distinguishes the 
grammar of this language from that of every other. In 
fact, Sanskrit, in its whole structure, is an elaborate pro- 
cess of combining letters according to prescribed rules. Its 
entire grammatical system, the regular formation of its 
nouns and verbs from crude roots, its theory of declension 
and conjugation, and the arrangement of its sentences, all 
turn on the reciprocal relationship and interchangeableness 
of letters, and the laws which regulate their euphonic com- 
bination. These laws, moreover, are the key to the influ- 
ence which this language has exercised on the study of 
comparative philology. Such being the case, it is scarcely 
possible for a Sanskrit grammar to be too full, luminous, 
and explicit in treating of the letters, their pi-onunciation, 
classification, and mutual affinities. 

With regard to the second chapter, which contains the 
rules of Sandhi or euphonic combination, I have endea- 
voured as far as possible to simplify a ])art of the grammar 



which is the great impediment to the progress of beginners. 
There can be little doubt that the necessity imposed on 
early students of conquering these rules at the commence- 
ment of the grammar, is the cause Avhy so many who 
address themselves energetically to the study of the lan- 
guage are compelled after the first onset to retire from the 
field dispirited, if not totally discomfited. The rules for the 
combination and permutation of letters form, as it were, 
a mountain of difficulty to be passed at the very begin- 
ning of the journey; and the learner cannot be convinced 
that, when once surmounted, the ground beyond may be 
more smooth than in other languages, the ingress to which 
is comparatively easy. My aim has ])een to facilitate the 
comprehension of these rules, not by omission or abbrevia- 
tion, but by a perspicuous method of arrangement, and by 
the exhibition of every Sanskrit word with its equivalent 
English letters. The student must understand that there 
are two distinct classes of rules of Sandhi, viz. those which 
affect the final or initial letters of complete words in a 
sentence, and those which relate to the euphonic junction 
of roots or crude bases with affixes and terminations. 
Many of the latter class come first into operation in the 
conjugation of the more difficult verbs. In order, there- 
fore, that the student may not be embarrassed with these 
rules, until they are required, the consideration of them is 
reserved to the middle of the volume. (See p. 124.) 

As to the chapter on Sanskrit roots and the formation 
of nominal bases, the place which it occupies before the 
chapter on declension, although unusual, scarcely calls for 
explanation ; depending as it does on the theory that nouns 
as well as verbs are derived from roots, and that the 
formation of a nominal base must precede the declension 
of a noun, just as the formation of a verbal base must be 
anterior to the conjugation of a verb. Consistency and 
clearness of arrangement certainly require that an enume- 


ration of the affixes by which the bases of nouns are 
formed should precede their inflection. Tlie early student, 
however, may satisfy himself hy a cursory observation of 
the eight classes under which these affixes are distributed. 
Some of the most uncommon, which are only applicable to 
single words, have been omitted. Moreover, in accordance 
with the practical character of the present Grammar, the 
servile and indicatory letters of Indian grammarians, under 
which the true affix is often concealed, if not altogether 
lost, have been discarded. For example, the adjective 
dhana-vat, ' rich,' is considered in the following pages to be 
formed by the affix vat, and not, as in native Grammars, 
by matup ; and the substantive bhoj-ana, ' food,' is consi- 
dered to be formed with the affix ana, and not, as in native 
Grammars, by Ij/uf. 

In my explanation of the inflection of the base of both 
nouns and verbs, I have, as before, treated both declension 
and conjugation as a process of Sandhi ; that is to say, 
junction of the crude base, as previously formed from the 
root, with the terminations. But in the present Grammar 
I have thought it expedient to lay more stress on the 
general scheme of terminations propounded by native 
grammarians; and in the application of this scheme to 
the base, I have referred more systematically to the rules 
of euphonic combination, as essential to a sound acquaint- 
ance with the principles of nominal and verbal inflection. 
On the other hand, I have in the present work deviated 
from the Indian system by retaining ^ .^ as a final in the 
declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs, for the prac- 
tical reason of its being more tangible and easy to appre- 
hend than the symlDol Visarga or h, which is imperceptible 
in pronunciation. (See the observations under changes of 
final s, pp. yi, 2)'^.) Even in native Grammars those termi- 
nations, the finals of which are afterwards changed to 
Visarga, are always regarded as originally ending in ^^ .^ ; 

1) 2 


and the subsequent resolution of .v into h, Avhen the termi- 
nation is connected with the base, is a source of confusion 
and uncertainty. Thus 6 is said to be the termination of 
the nominative case ; but the nominative of mfi^ agni, ' tire,' 
would according to the Indian system be written ^Ti-^w agnlli, 
which is scarcely distinguishable in pronunciation from the 
base agni. In the following pages, therefore, the nominative 
is given agids ; and the liability of agnis to become agnih 
and agnir is explained under the head of changes of final * 
(at p. ^'^). This plan (which is that of Professor Bopp) has 
also the advantage of exhibiting the resemblance between 
the system of inflection in Sanskrit and Latin and Greek. 

The difficulty experienced in comprehending the subject 
of Sanskrit conjugation has led me to give abundant exam- 
ples of verl)s conjugated at full. I have of course deviated 
from the Indian plan of placing the third person first. I 
have, moreover, deemed it advisable to exhibit the English 
equivalents of Sanskrit words in the principal examples 
under each declension and conjugation, knowing by expe- 
rience the thankfulness with which this aid is received by 
early students, not thoroughly familiar Avith the Deva- 
nagarl character. The numerous examples of verbs, pri- 
mitive and derivative, will be found to include all the 
most useful in the language. In previous Grammars it has 
been usual to follow the native method of giving only the 
3d pers. sing, of each tense, with an occasional indication 
of any peculiarities in the other persons. The present 
Grammar, on the other hand, exhibits the more difficult 
tenses of even/ verb in full, referring at the same time for 
the explanation of every peculiar formation to the rule, in 
the preceding pages, on which it depends. This is especially 
true of the 2d and 3d preterites, as these constitute the 
chief difficulty of the Sanskrit verb; and I have constantly 
found that even advanced students, if required to write 
out these tenses, will be guilty of inaccuracies, notwith- 


standing one or two of the persons may have been given 
for their gnidance. 

In the chapter on coniponnd words I liave again endea- 
voured, without ignoring the Indian arrangement, to dis- 
embarrass it of many elements of perplexity, and to treat 
the v/hole subject in a manner more in unison with 
European ideas. The explanations I have given rest on 
actual examples selected by myself from the Hitopadesa 
and other standard works in ordinary use. Indeed this 
chapter and that on syntax constitute perhaps the most 
original part of the present volume. In composing the 
syntax, the literature as it exists has been my only guide. 
All the examples are taken from classical authors, so as 
to serve the purpose- of an easy delectus, in w^hich the 
learner may exercise himself before passing to continuous 
translation. The deficiency of native Grammars on this 
important subject is only to be accounted for on the sup- 
position that their aim was to furnish an elaborate analysis 
of the philosophical structure of the language, rather than 
a practical guide to the study of the literature. 

The exercises in translation and parsing, in the last 
chapter of this volume, will, it is hoped, facilitate the early 
student's first effort at translation. Two fables from the 
Hitopadesa are given, as before, with a translation and 
grammatical analysis ; but I have thought fit to omit the 
story of Vedagarbha and the selections from Manu, which 
I appended to my first Grammar. The Sanskrit of the 
former is too modern and interspersed with Bengali idioms, 
while that of the latter is too advanced. I have therefore 
substituted for the one some easy sentences selected from 
classical sources; and for the other, a few simple fables 
from the Paiicha-tantra, the book from Avhich a great part 
of the Hitopadesa itself is drawn. Every word in these 
selections is explained either by notes at the foot of the page 
or by references to the preceding pages of the Grammar. 


The separation of words by the free use of the Virama, 
and the employment of a dot underneath to mark the 
division, whenever the blending of vowels or the associa- 
tion of crude bases in a compound make junction unavoid- 
able, may offend the eye of the Oriental scholar, if 
habituated to the Indian system of writing ; but the 
beginner can scarcely be expected to know which is the 
final and which the initial letter of words thus joined 
together. Why, therefore, refuse him a clue to guide him 
in his search for the word in the dictionary ? and why, by 
uniting those parts of a sentence which admit of separa- 
tion, superadd an unnecessary source of perplexity to the 
necessary difficulty, unknown in other languages, resulting 
from the blending of vowels and the composition of words? 
It may be quite true that, according to native authorities, 
the Virama ought only to be employed when no Sandhi 
takes place; and that, according to the strict interpreta- 
tion of the word Sandhi, actual contact ought to ensue 
whenever a law of euphony comes into operation. But 
does euphonic connexion necessarily imply contact? and 
may not words be mutually affected by euphonic laws, 
without being actually joined together? 

The system of uniting words which are really distinct 
may commend itself to the natives of Hindustan, as tending 
to reduce the labour of writing ; but in Europe, where 
abundant punctuation is deemed essential to facilitate 
reading, the absence of spaces must always be regarded 
as productive of unnecessary hindrance. The student has 
already sufficient obstacles to surmount in the Deva-nagari 
character and the rules for the permutation of letters. The 
changes required by these rules will cause no embarrass- 
ment, provided separation be permitted, in accordance with 
the European method. Thus the Latin scholar, if acquainted 
with the laws of permutation, would not be embarrassed 
by the sentence Uhy ad Diance venerir itav at sinistram 


(euphonically clianged from ubi ad Diana' veneris ito ad 
si?iistram); but he would, to say the least, be unnecessarily 
hindered if this permuted sentence were linked together 
into two words, thus — UhyaddiancB vencriritavatsinistram. 
Nor is it easy to understand why the slight spaces between 
the words in the first case should be deemed incompatible 
with the operation of euphonic laws. If such separation, 
therefore, is only to be effected in Sanskrit by extending 
the legitimate functions of the Virama, the facilities 
afforded by modern typography ought to leave us free to 
do so. The only cases in which it is undesirable to 
separate distinct words, acted on by SandJii, are when two 
vowels blend into one, and when final u and i are changed 
into their corresponding semivowels v and y. 

In regard to the general scope of the book, it remains to 
state that my aim has been to minister to the wants of 
the earliest as well as the more advanced student. I have 
therefore employed types of two different sizes. The larger 
attracts the eye to those parts of the subject to which the 
attention of the beginner may advantageously be confined. 
The smaller generally contains such matter as offers no 
claim to immediate consideration. 

Under the conviction that the study of Sanskrit ought 
to possess charms for the classical scholar, independently 
of its wonderful literature, I have taken pains to introduce 
in sm^all type the most striking comparisons between this 
language and Latin and Greek. I am bound to acknowledge 
that I have drawn nearly all the materials for this import- 
ant addition to the book from the English translation of 
Bopp's Comparative Grammar, by my friend and colleague 
Professor Eastwick. 

One point more remains to be noticed. The want of an 
Index was felt to be a serious defect in my first Grammar. 
This omission is now supplied. Two full Indices have been 
appended to the present work, the one English, and the 


other Sanskrit. The latter will enable the student to turn 
at once to any noun, verb, affix, idiom or peculiar forma- 
tion explained in the foregoing pages. 

In conclusion, I desire to take this opportunity of ex- 
pressing to the Delegates of the Oxford University Press 
my grateful and respectful sense of the advantages the 
volume derives from their favour and patronage* 

M. W. 

January 1857. 

* Not the least of these advantages has been the use of a press which, in 
its appointments and general efficiency, stands unrivalled. The judgment 
and accuracy with which the most intricate parts of my MS. have been 
printed, have excited a thankfulness in my mind, which those only can 
understand who know the toil of correcting the press, when much Oriental 
type is interspersed with the Eoman, and when a multitude of minute 
diacritical points, dots, and accents have to be employed to represent the 
Deva-nagari letters. If many errors are discovered in the following pages, 
they must be laid at my own door ; and I have nothing to urge in palliation, 
excepting that I have spared no pains to avoid inaccuracies, and that the 
work of one man, however careful and laborious, cannot be expected to be 
free from the imperfection incidental to all human performances. 



Introductory remarks xix 

Modifications of the Sanskrit alphabet xxv 

Chap. I. — Letters 1 

Pronunciation 7 

Classification 11 

Accentuation 14 

Method of writing 16 

Chap. II. — Sandhi or euphonic permutation of letters 19 

Sect. I. Changes of vowels 19 

Sect. II. Changes of consonants 26 

Chap. III. — Sanskrit roots, and the formation of nominal bases. . 39 

Formation of the base of nouns by affixes 44 

Chap. IV. — Declension of nouns. General observations 53 

Sect. I. Declension of nouns, whose bases end in vowels 60 

Sect. II. Declension of nouns, whose bases end in consonants 71 

Sect. III. Adjectives 86 

Sect. IV. Numerals 90 

Chap. V. — Pronouns 94 

Chap. VI. — Verbs. General observations 101 

Terminations 104 

Summary of the ten conjugations 110 

Formation of the base in the four conjugational tenses : 

Of verbs of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes 117 

Of verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 126 

Of verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes 1 32 

Formation of the base in the six non-conjugational tenses : 

Second preterite ; formation of the base 1 34 

First and second future ; formation of the base 140 

Third preterite; formation of the base 14G 

Benedictive ; formation of the base 1 52 

Conditional ; formation of the base 1 53 

Infinitive ; formation of the base 1 54 

Passive verbs ; formation of the base 154 

Causal verbs ; formation of the base 1 5H 

Desiderative verbs ; formation of the base 1 63 

Frequentative or intensive verbs; formation of the base 165 

Nominal verbs 1 68 

Participles 1 70 

Participial nouns of agency I H2 


xviii CONTENTS. 


Examples of verbs conjugated at full : 

Table of verbs of the ten conjugations conjugated at full 184 

Table of passive verbs conjugated at full 192 

Auxiliary verbs conjugated 197 

Verbs of the first class conjugated 198 

Verbs of the fourth class conjugated 212 

Verbs of the sixth class conjugated 217 

Verbs of the tenth class conjugated 223 

Verbs of the second class conjugated 227 

Verbs of the third class conjugated 235 

Verbs of the seventh class conjugated 239 

Verbs of the fifth class conjugated 244 

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated 249 

Verbs of the ninth class conjugated 252 

Passive verbs conjugated 258 

Causal verbs conjugated 260 

Desiderative verbs conjugated 262 

Frequentative or intensive verlis conjugated 264 

Chap. VII. — Indeclinable words. 

Adverbs •. 267 

Conjunctions 270 

Prepositions 271 

Interjections 273 

Chap. VIII. — Compound words. 

Sect. I. Compound nouns 273 

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds 276 

Dwandwa or aggregative compounds 278 

Karma-dharaya or descriptive compounds 281 

Dwigu or collective compounds 282 

Avyayi-bhava or indeclinable compounds 283 

Bahu-vrihi or relative compounds 283 

Complex compounds 288 

Sect. II. Compound verbs 292 

Sect. III. Compound adverbs 297 

Chap. IX. — Syntax 298 

Chap. X. — Exercises in translation and parsing 328 

Scheme of the more common Sanskrit metres 350 

English index 355 

Sanskrit index 358 

List of compound or conjunct consonants 367 


Sanskrit is the classical and learned language of the Hindus, in 
which all their literature is written, and which bears the same rela- 
tion to their vernacular dialects that Greek and Latin bear to the 
spoken dialects of Europe. It is one of the family called by 
modern philologists Arian* or Indo-European; that is to say, it 
is derived, in common with the languages of Europe, from that 
primeval but extinct type, once spoken by a tribe in Central Asia, 
partly pastoral, partly agricultural, who afterwards separated into 
distinct nationalities, migrating first southwards into Aryavarta or 
Upper India — the vast territory between the Himalaya and Vindhya 
mountains — and then northwards and westwards into Europe. 

In all probability Sanskrit approaches more nearly to this primi- 
tive type than any of its sister-tongues ; but, however this may be, 
comparative philology has proved beyond a doubt its community 
with Greek, Latin, Gothic, Lithuanian, Slavonic, Keltic f, and through 
some of these with Italian, French, Spanish, Portuguese, German, 
and our own mother-tongue. 

The word Sanskrit (^^^ Sanskrit a) is made up of the preposition 
sa?n {•^ = o■vl', con), 'together,' and the passive participle krita ("gFiT 
=factus), 'made,' an euphonic s being inserted (see 53. a. and 6. b. 
of the following Grammar). The compound means ' carefully con- 
structed,' 'symmetrically formed' [confectus, constructus). In this 

* More properly written Aryan, from the Sanskrit ^Tm drya, ' noble,' ' venera- 
ble,' respectable,' the name assumed by the race who immigrated into Northern 
India, thence called Arydvarta, 'the abode of the Aryans.' 

t Zand and old Persian might be added to the hst, although the reality of 
Zand as any thing more than the vehicle of the sacred writings called Zand- 
Avastd (affii'med by the Parsi priests of Persia and India to be the composition 
of their prophet Zoroaster) has been disputed. Comparative philologists also add 


sense it is opposed to Prakrit {Trmii prdkrita), 'common,' 'natural/ 
the name given to the vulgar dialects which gradually arose out of it, 
and from which most of the languages now spoken in Upper India 
are more or less directly derived. It is probable that Sanskrit, 
although a real language — once the living tongue of the Xryan or 
dominant races, and still the learned language of India, preserved in 
all its purity through the medium of an immense literature — was 
never spoken in its most perfect and systematized form by the mass 
of the people. For we may reasonably conjecture, that if the lan- 
guage of Addison differed from the vulgar and provincial English of 
his own day, and if the Latin of Cicero differed from the spoken 
dialect of the Roman plebeian, much more must the most polished 
and artificial of all languages have suffered corruption when it 
became the common speech of a vast community, whose separation 
from the educated classes was far more marked. To make this 
hypothesis clearer, it may be well to remind the reader, that, before 
the arrival of the Sanskrit-speaking immigrants, India was inhabited 
by a rude people, called ' barbarians' or ' outcastes' {Mlechchhas, 
Nishddas, Dasyus, &c.) by Sanskrit writers, but probably the descend- 
ants of various Scythian hordes who, at a remote period, entered 
India by way of Biluchistan* and the Indus. The more powerful and 
civilised of these aboriginal tribes appear to have retired before the 
Airyans into Southern India, and there to have retained their inde- 
pendence, and with their independence the individuality and essential 
structure of their vernacular dialects. But in Upper India the case 
was different. There, as the Aryan race increased in numbers and 
importance, their full and powerful language forced itself on the 
aborigines. The weak and scanty dialect of the latter could no 
more withstand a conflict with the vigorous Sanskrit, than a puny 
dwarf the aggression of a giant. Hence the aboriginal tongue gra- 
dually wasted away, until its identity became merged in the language 
of the Aryans ; leaving, however, a faint and skeleton-like impress of 
itself on the purer Sanskrit of the educated classes, and disintegrat- 
ing it into Prakrit, to serve the purposes of ordinary speech t' 

* The Brahiil, a dialect of Biluchistan, still preserves its Scythian character. 
t The cerebral letters in Sanskrit, and words containing cerebral letters, are 
probably the result of the contact of Sanskrit with the language of the Scythian 


Prakrit, then, was merely the natural process of change and cor- 
ruption which the refined Sanskrit underwent in adapting itself to 
the exigencies of a spoken dialect*. It was, in fact, the provincial 
Sanskrit of the mass of the community ; whilst Sanskrit, properly 
so called, became, as it is to this day, the language of the Brahmans 
and the accomplishment of the learned f. 

This provincial Sanskrit assumed of course different modifications, 
according to the circumstances of the district in which the corrup- 
tion took place ; and the various modifications of Prakrit are the 
intermediate links which connect Sanskrit with the dialects at pre- 
sent spoken by the natives of Hindustan. 

They have been analyzed and assorted by Vararuchi, the ancient 
grammarian, who was to Prakrit what Panini was to Sanskrit grammar. 
The most noticeable varieties were the Mdgadhi, spoken in Magadha 
or Bihar ; the Mahdrdshtri, spoken in a district stretching from 
Central to Western India ; and the Sauraseni, spoken on the banks 
of the Jamna, in the neighbourhood of the ancient Mathura J. These 
patois modifications of Sanskrit are employed as the language of 
the inferior characters in all the Hindu dramas which have come 

tribes : and a non-Sanskrit, or, as it may be called, a Scythian element, may be 
traced with the greatest clearness in the modern dialects of Hindustan. In all of 
these dialects there is a substratum of words, foreign to Sanskrit, which can only 
be referred to the aboriginal stock. See the last note at the bottom of p. xxii. 

* It would be interesting to trace the gradual transition of Sanskrit into Prakrit. 
In a book called the Lalita-vistara, the life and adventures of Buddha are nar- 
rated in pure Sanskrit. It is probably of no great antiquity, as the Buddhists 
themselves deny the existence of written authorities for 400 years after Buddha's 
death (about b. c. 543). But subjoined to the Sanskrit version are gdthds or 
songs, which repeat the story in a kind of mixed dialect, half Sanskrit, half 
Prakrit. They were probably rude ballads, which, though not written, were 
current among the people soon after Buddha's death. They contain Vaidik as 
well as more modern formations, interspersed with Prakrit corruptions (ex. gr. 
3T^f^ for 37OT, which is Vaidik; and VT:f^ for VTT^tI^, which is Prakrit), 
l)roving that the language was then in a transition state. 

t Tlie best proof of this is, that in the Hindu dramas aU the higher characters 
speak Sanskrit, whilst the inferior speak various forms of Prakrit. It is idle to 
suppose that Sanskrit would have been employed at all in dramatic composition, 
had it not been the spoken language of a section of the community. 

X Arrian (ch. VIII) describes the Suraseni as inhabiting the city of Methoras. 


down to us, some of which date as far back as the 2d century n. c, 
and the first of them is identical with Pali, the sacred language of the 
Ceylon Buddhists *. Out of them arose Hindi (termed Hindustani 
or Urdu, when mixed with Persian and Arabic words), Mardthi, 
and Gujardthi, the modern dialects spread widely over the country. 
To these may be added, BengdJi, the language of Bengal, which 
bears a closer resemblance to its parent, Sanskrit, than either of the 
three enumerated above ; Uriya, the dialect of Orissa, in the pro- 
vince of Cuttack ; Sindhi, that of Sindh ; Panjdbi, of the Panjab ; 
Kdsmirian, of Kas'mir ; and Nipdlese, of Nipal t- 

The four languages of Southern India, viz. i. Tamil J, 2. Telugu 
(the ^ndhra of Sanskrit writers) ^, 3. Kanarese (also called Kannadi 
or Karnataka), and 4. Malayalara (Malabar) 1|, although di'awing 
largely from Sanskrit for their literature, their scientific terms, their 
religion, their laws, and their social institutions, are proved to be 
distinct in their structure, and are referred, as might have been 
expected from the previous account of the aborigines, to the Scy- 
thian, or, as it is sometimes termed, the Tatar or Turanian type %. 

* Pali, which is identical wdth the Magadhi Prakrit, is the language in which 
the sacred books of the Buddhists of Ceylon are written. Buddhist missionaries 
fi'om Magadha carried their religion, and ultimately (after the decay of Buddhism 
in India) their language, into that island. Pah (meaning in Singhalese 'ancient') 
is the name which the priests of Ceylon gave to the language of the old country, 
whence they received their religion. 

t For an account of some of these dialects, see Prof. H. H. Wilson's very 
instructive Preface to his ' Glossary of Indian Terms.' 

X Often incorrectly written Tamul, and by earlier Europeans erroneously termed 
Malabar. The cerebral / at the end has rather the sound of rl. 

§ Sometimes called Gentoo by the Europeans of the last generation. 

II A fifth language is enumerated, viz. Tulu or Tulu\'a, which holds a middle 
position between Kanarese and Malayalam, but more nearly resembles the former. 
It is spoken by only 150,000 people. Added to this, there are four rude and uncul- 
tivated dialects spoken in various parts of Southern India, viz. the Tuda, Kota, 
Gond, and Ku or Khond ; all of which are affiliated with the Southern group. 

IT This is nevertheless consistent with the theory of a remote original affinity 
between these languages and Sanskrit and the other members of the Indo-European 
family. The various branches of the Scythian stock, which spread themselves in all 
directions westward, northward, and southward, must have radiated from a common 
centre with the Aryans, although the divergence of the latter took place at a much 


Sanskrit is written in various Indian characters, but the character 
which is peculiarly its own is the Nagari or Deva-nagari, i. e. that 
of ^ the divine, royal, or capital city.' The earliest form of this 
character cannot be traced back to a period anterior to the 3d 
century b. c.*; and the more modern, which is the most perfect, 
comprehensive, and philosophical of all known alphabets, is not 
traceable for several centuries after Christ. The first is the corrupt 
character of the various inscriptions which have been discovered on 
pillars and rocks throughout India, written in Magadhi Prakrit, spoken 
at the time of Alexander's invasion over a great part of Hindustan. 
These inscriptions are ascertained to be addresses from the Buddhist 
sovereigns of Magadha to the people, enjoining the practice of social 
virtues and reverence for the priests. They are mostly in the name 
of Piya-dasit (for Sanskrit Priya-dars'i), supposed to be an epithet of 
As'oka, who is known to have reigned at some period between the 2d 
and the 3d century B.C. by his being the grandson of Chandra-gupta, 
probably identical with Sandrakottus, described by Strabo as the 
most po\verful Raja, immediately succeeding Alexander's death. He 
was one of the kings of Magadha (Bihar), whose court was at Pali- 
bothra or Patali-putra (Patna), and who claimed the title of Samrats 
or universal monarchs ; not without reason, as their addresses are 
found in ■ these inscriptions at Delhi, and at Kuttack in the south, 
and again as far west as Gujarat, and again as far north as the 
Panjab. The imperfect form of Nagari which the corrupt character 
exhibits is incompatible with Sanskrit orthography. It may there- 
fore be conjectured that a more perfect alphabet existed, which bore 

later period. It is to be observed, that in the South -Indian dialects the Scythian 
element constitutes the bulk of the language. It may be compared to the warp, 
and the Sanskrit admixture to the woof. In the Northern dialects the gram- 
matical strvicture and many of the idioms and expressions are still Scythian, but 
the whole material and substance of the language is Sanskrit. See, on this subject, 
the able Introduction of the Rev. R. Caldwell to his ' Comparative Grammar of the 
Dravidian or South-Indian Languages,' lately published. 

* Mr. James Prinsep, whose table of modifications of the Sanskrit alphabet 
follows these Remarks, placed the earliest form, apparently on insufficient grounds, 
as far back as the 5th century b. c. 

t The regular Prakrit form would be Pia-dassi. Probably the spoken Prakrit 
of that period approached nearer to Sanskrit than the Prakrit of the plays. 


the same relation to the corrupt form that Sanskrit bore to Prakrit, 
Nor does it militate against this theory that the perfect character is 
not found in any ancient inscription, as it is well knoMn that the 
Brahmans, who alone spoke and understood the pure Sanskrit, and 
who alone would therefore need that character, never addressed the 
people, never proselytized, never sought political power, and never 
cared to emerge from the indolent apathy of a dignified retirement. 

A table of the various modifications of the Deva-nagari alphabet, 
both ancient and modern, from the date of the earliest inscriptions 
to the present time, follows this page. The perfection of the modern 
character, and the admirable manner in which it adapts itself to the 
elaborate and symmetrical structure of the Sanskrit language, will be 
apparent from the first chapter. 





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I. THE Deva-nagari character, in which the Sanskrit language 
is written, is adapted to the expression of almost every known 
gradation of sound; and every letter has a fixed and invariable 

There are fourteen vowels and thirty- three simple consonants. 
To these may be added the nasal symbol, called Anusivdra, and the 
symbol for a final aspirate, called Visarga (see No. 6). They are 
here exhibited in the dictionary order *. All the vowels, excepting 
a, have two forms ; the first is the initial, the second the medial or 


^ G, W T a, ^ fi, ^ h ^ ^ u, ^ ^it, '^ ^ n, ^ ^ /•/. 

Nasal symbol, * n or m. Symbol for the final aspirate, * h. 


yj-tUA- Gutturals, ^ k '^ kh 'H ff '^ gh ^ w- 

Palatals, "^ ch ^ chh ^ j ^ jh ^ n 

jJ^*"' Cerebrals, Z t 'Z th ^ d "^ dh TJl n 

Dentals, H t ^ th ^d ^ dh ^ n 

"'Labials, X[^ '^sph '^ b ^ bh "H m 

Semivowels, ^y T^?* c5/^v 

Sibilants, "ST s '^ sh '^ s 

Aspirate, ^ h 

The compound or conjunct consonants (see No. 5) may be mul- 
tiplied to the extent of four or five hundred. The most common 

* The character 3o ^^ is not given, as being peculiar to the Vedas. See 16. a. 


are given here ; a fuller list will be found at the end of the volume ; 
and some varieties in a different type are exhibited at the end of the 
Table of Modifications, opposite to page i. 

■^ kk, ■% kt, ^ or -gi kr, ^i kl, ^ kiv, ^ ksh, ^ khy, r^ gn, tj p% ^ ffl, 
TT ghr, ^ ?ik, ^ n-ff, ^ chch, ^ chchh, ^ chy, i^ jj, sT jii, W jto, 
^ nch, ^^ nchh, ^ nj, ^ tt, ^ ty, ^ </^, ^ dy, W nt, ^ w/A, ;^ ml, 
•m m, m ny, w tt, T^ «^, ^ tn, w tm, m ty, -^ or ^ ^r, m tw, w ts, 
^ Mz^, ^ dg, ^ </c?A, ^ 6?6A, ^ f/?w, ?r c^y, -5 dr, ir ^<<', «I ^/«y, ^ dhw, 
^ w^, ^ nd, ^ /wi^ ^ wy, Tl jw^, "bj ^y, n pr, ?t jo/^, ^ 67, ^ bd, sn by, 
S br, «T bhy, m bhr, wr mbh, ^ mwi, wj my, 5- m/, zg yy, -^ rk, 
^ rm, •^ Ijj, w //, ^ t"?/, ^ tJr, ^ scA, ^ sy, ^ sr, ^ sZ, "^ sw, -? sht, 
¥ shth, w shn, xq ^/^y, ^ sk, -m skh, ^ st, ^ ^^A, ^ ;?/?, W .9m, 
"m sy, H 5r, ^ sw, w 55, ^ Am, ?T Ay, ^ /</, ^ kty, if, ktr, 'fi /:/«;, 
^xrr kshn, -^ ksJmi, ^ kshy, raj ^?^^/, t«i ^^Ay, ajf ^f^y, ^ w-/:^, |jj nky, 
^SR chchhy, t^ chchhr, ^ w«??/, 1^ ^5w, W tmy, ^ Zry, W /^y, tT ttr, 
^ ^^M'j ^ ddy, ^ rf</A?/, ?i c?($>Ay, -jQ dry, nir w/2/, *^ niby, "f rrfr, t§ ;•?/?/, 
t rwv, ^ 5A/r, ^ sthn, TW 5^7/, ^ 5//-, 7^ tsny, «ir nZ?'y, ?# rtsy, 
r^ rtsny. 


Observe — In reading the following pages for the first time, it is 
recommended that the attention be confined to the large type. 

2. The short vowel ^ « is never written unless it begin a word, 
because it is supposed to be inherent in every consonant. Thus, 
ak is written WoF, but ka is written ^ ; so that in such words as 
^!?T^ kanaka, WIX nagara, &c., no vowel has to be written. The 
mark \ under the k of ^oF, called Virama (see No. 9), indicates a 
consonantal stop, that is, the absence of any vowel, inherent or 
otherwise, after the consonant. 

a. The other vowels, if written after a consonant, take the place of 
the inherent a. They assume two forms, according as they are initial 
or not initial. Thus, ik is written ^, but ki is VvTitten fcfi. 

b. Observe here, that the short vowel i, when not initial, is always 
written before the letter after which it is pronounced. Hence, in 
writing the English word sir, the letters in Sanskrit would be arranged 
thus, isr ftiT. 

c. The only assignable reason for this peculiarity is, that the top of the non- 
initial f ?■, if written in its right place, might occasionally interfere with a subsequent 


■letter, especially with the letter r, as the first member of a conjunct consonant. 
This will be evident to any one who tries in writing the word kirk in Sanskrit to 
retain the i in its ju'oper place. 

3. The long vowels T d and '\ /, not initial, take their proper place 
after a consonant. The vowels u, u, ri, ri, Iri, not initial, are written 
under the consonants after which they are prononnced ; as, "^ ku, 
-m hi, cfr kri, w krL ofr klri; excepting when u or u follows ?: r, in which 
case the method of writing is peculiar ; thus, «^ ru, W ru. 

a. The vowels ri, ri, Iri and Iri are peculiar to Sanskrit. See No. 1 i.e. 
15 Iri occurs in only one word, viz. oirxy ' to niake.^ The long "^ Iri 
is not found in any word in the language, and is useless excepting 
as contributing to the completeness of the alphabet. 

b. The vowels e and ai, not initial, are written above the consonants 
after which they are pronounced ; thus, ^ ke, "ti kai. The vowels 
€ and au (which are formed by placing "" and ^ over T ft), like T ft, 
take their proper place after their consonants ; thus, ?Pt ko, "^t kau. 


4. The consonants have only one form, whether initial or not 
initial. And here note this peculiarity in the form of t!ie Deva- 
nagari letters. In every consonant, excepting those of the cerebral 
class, and in some of the initial vowels, there is a perpendicular 
stroke ; and in all the consonants without exception, as well as in all 
the initial vowels, there is a horizontal line at the top of the letter. 
In two of the letters, v clh and i? bh, this horizontal line is broken ; 
and in writing rapidly, the student should form the perpendicular line 
first, then the other parts of the letter, and lastly the horizontal line. 
The natives, however, sometimes form the horizontal line first. 


5. Every consonant is supposed to have the vowel "^ a inherent 
in it, so that it is never necessary to write this vowel, excepting at 
the beginning of a word. Hence when any simple consonants stand 
alone in any word, the short vowel ^ a must always be pronounced 
after them ; but when they appear in conjunction with any other 
vowel, this other vowel of course takes the place of short ^ a. Thus 
such a word as ohc^MdilT would be pronounced kaldnataycU where 
long ^ ft being written after / and y takes the place of the inlierent 
vowel. But supposing that instead of kaldnatayd the word had to 

B % 

4 LETTER??. 

be pronounced kidntyd, how are we to know that kl and nty have 
to be uttered without the intervention of any vowel ? This occasions 
the necessity for compound consonants. Kl and nty must then be 
combined together; thus, ^, t?i, and the word is written ^TWT. 
And here we have illustrated the two methods of compounding con- 
sonants ; viz. 1st, by writing them one above the other; 2dly, by 
placing them side by side, omitting in all, except the last, the per- 
pendicular line which lies to the right. Observe, however, that some 
letters change their form entirely when combined with other conso- 
nants. Thus T, when it is the first letter of a compound consonant, 
is written above the compound in the form of a semicircle, as in the 
word o!R kurma; and when the last, is written below in the form of 
a small stroke, as in the word '?^m kramena. So again in T^ * ksha 
and sT f jiia the simple elements ofi -q and tT >t are hardly traceable. 
In some compounds the simple letters slightly change their form ; 
as, "^i kl becomes ^ in tjj scha ; ^ d with Tf y becomes ir dya ; 7[ d 
with \i dh becomes if ddha; ^ d with >? bh becomes ^ dbha; if t -with 
T r becomes -^ tra or ^ ti^a; oS k with TT t becomes -^ kta. Most of 
the other compound consonants are readily resolvable into their 
component parts. The student should direct his first attention to 
the compound consonants given in the list opposite to page i. He 
should afterwards study the list at the end of the book. 

Observe — Two aspirated letters never occur in the same com- 
pound. When an aspirated letter has to be doubled, the first is 
expressed by the unaspirated letter of the same species. 


6. The Sanskrit alphabet possesses certain symbols and indicatory 
marks. Of these the most usefid are the nasal symbol Anustvdra 
and the symbol for a final aspirate called Visarga. 

Anusivdra, ' after-sound,^ (called so because it is always the final 
or closing nasal sound of a syllable, and can never be used like a 
consonant or any nasal letter to begin a syllable,) is denoted by a 
dot placed over the horizontal line of a letter. It is a weaker and 

* Sometimes formed thus gJ, and pronounced ky in Bengali. In Greek and Latin 

it always passes into q and x. Compare ^T^, dexter, ^e^iog. 

t This compound is sometimes pronounced (/ya or nya, though it will be more 
convenient to represent it by its proper equivalent ,/««. 


thicker nasal than the five consonantal nasals. Although it is pro- 
perly the nasal of the semivowels, sibilants, and h, and is then expres- 
sible by the English n, yet it is ordinarily used as a short substitute 
for any of the five nasals, ^ n-, "^ it, iri n, i^ «, and ^ m, when no 
vowel intervenes between these letters and a following consonant. 
Thus the five English words ink, inch, intrust, ant, imp, which illus- 
trate the five nasal sounds, might either be written ^, ?^, ^?T?W^, 
^I»?r, ^^, or with Anuswara ^, ^^, ^7^, "^rfff, ^t^. It is most 
conveniently used as a substitute for the i{^m which is the original final 
of accusative cases singular, nominative cases neuter, and some inde- 
clinable words * ; (thus ^ enam, ' him,' for 1J^; ^T^ ddnam, ' a 
gift,' for '^'^\•, ^ sam, ' with,' for teh^; 'i^\^ iddnim, ' now ;') pass- 
ing, however, again into J^ m when followed by a vowel ; (as, ^i »T'^ 
^TTTftfrr ddnam dpnoti, ^ he receives a gift ;') and passing optionally 
into '3?, >T, TTT, "^ or H when followed by consonants of the guttural, 
palatal, cerebral, dental, and labial classes respectively ; (as, ffR ^ifrfTT 
or ^Tf-^ q^lftT ^ he gives a gift,' ^^ or "^J^^ ' flight.') Hence it 
appears, that as the final of a complete word it may generally be 
represented by the English m. 

a. It is never admitted as a substitute for a final "T n when originally the final 
of a word, (as in accusative cases plural, in the locative cases of pronominals, in 
the 3d pers. plur. and present participles of verbs,) unless the next word begin 
with t or ch, when by the laws of euphony a sibilant is interposed before the initial 
/ or ch. See 53 and 54. 

b. It must never be forgotten that it is peculiarly the nasal of the aspirate 'f h, 
the semivowels "^ y,Xr,'f^ 1,"^ v, and the three sibilants ^ s, "^ sh, ^ s; and it 
must always take the place of any other nasal that has to precede these letters in 
the same wordf. Thus the preposition TS^^sam and the participle ^TrT smrita, when 
united in one word, are written ^T^TT; T^sam and ^TT hdra, ^TT; ^H^sam and 
TTT rdffa, ^UT ; but in each of these cases the Anuswara takes the sound of the 
nasal of the class to which the following letter belongs. ITius ^TPJTT is sounded as 
if written ^«^ ^RrT ; *i^K as if written ^ ^TT ; «rtm as if written TT^ 'WTT . 
In these cases Anuswara not being the final of a complete word will be most con- 
veniently transliterated by the English n. 

7. Another nasal symbol called Chandra-vindn (lunar mark) or Anundsika, wTitten 

* Prof. Bopp objects to this practice ; but by Panini (VIII. 3, 23) a final '^ w is 
convertible to Anuswara before any consonant. See Bopp's Comparative Grammar, 
Eastwick's translation, p. 7, note. 

t '?r^T'5T, ' an universal monarch,' is the only word that violates this rule. The 
word TITWI'^, 'just,' is compounded of Tu^ and 'H""^. 


over ci letter thus ~, is sometimes employed. It is rather the sign of the nasality of 
the letter over which it is written, than the representative of any actual nasal sound. 
Thus in the rules of combination, when final »T n assimilates with 75 /, the mark "^ 
placed over I, though not pronounced, indicates the nasal origin of the (5. It is a 
kind of silent Anuswara. 

8. The s}Tnbol Visarga^ ' rejection,' (called so because often re- 
jected,) usually written thus :, but more properly in the form of two 
small circles ° , is used to represent a weaker aspiration than the 
letter f h, and that at the end of a word. It expresses an euphonic 
transition of final ^5 and ^r into a kind of imperceptible breathing. 
But this symbol, although never the representative of ^ h, but rather 
of a weak and almost imperceptible final aspirate, which, under cer- 
tain circumstances, takes the place of final s and r, may nevertheless 
be conveniently transliterated by the English h at the end of a word, 
and that without danger of being confounded with ^, which can 
never occur as a final letter. At the same time it should be borne 
in mind that Visarga is less than h, and is in fact no consonant, but 
only a symbol for s and r whenever the usual consonantal sound of 
these letters is deadened at the end of a sentence or through the 
influence of a A-, jo or 5 commencing the next word. Observe, how- 
ever, that all those inflections of nouns and persons of verbs, which 
as standing separate from other words are by some made to end in 
Visarga, may most conveniently be allowed to retain their final ^ s; 
only bearing in mind that this s is liable at the end of a sentence, or 
when followed by certain consonants, to pass into an imperceptible 
breathing, as in the French les or the English isle, viscount; in all 
which cases it might be expressed by Visarga, thus 75: &c. So 
again, in French infinitives, such as aller, the final r is silent ; and 
in many English words, such as bar, tar, the sound of r is very 
indistinct ; and these also might be written in Sanskrit with 
Visarga, ^^:, wt: &c. 

a. An Ardha-visarga, ' half-visarga,' or modification of the symbol Visarga, in 
the form of two semicircles r-, is sometimes employed before k, kh and p, ph. 
Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called Jihvd-miUiya, and the 
organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue. Before p and ph its 
proper name is Upadhmdmya, and its organ of utterance is then the lips. 

The following are other marks : 

9. The Virdnw or ' stop,' placed under a consonant (thus 'SF k). 


indicates the absence of the inherent ^ a, by help of which the con- 
sonant is pronounced. 

10. The mark s, sometimes called Ardhdkdra, ' half the letter a/ 
placed between two words, denotes the elision of an initial ^ a after 
^ e or ^ final preceding. It corresponds to our apostrophe. 
Thus, wsfij te 'pi for ^ '^^ te api. 

a. Tlie half pause I is a stop or mark of punctuation, usually jilaced at the end 
of the first line of a couplet or stanza. 

b. The whole pause II is placed at the end of a couplet, and corresponds to 
a full stop. 

c. The mark of repetition o indicates that a word or sentence has to be repeated. 


11. The vowels in Sanskrit are pronounced for the most part as 
in Italian or French, though occasional words in English may exem- 
plify their sound. 

a. Since ^ a is inherent in every consonant, the student should 
be careful to acquire the correct pronunciation of this letter. There 
are many words in English which afford examples of its sound, 
such as vocal, cedar, zebra, organ. But in English the vowel u in 
such words as fun, bun, sun, frequently represents this obscure sound 
of a ; and even the other vowels may occasionally be pronounced 
with this sound, as in her, sir, son. 

b. The long vowel ^r « is pronounced as a in the English last,, 
bard, cart ; ^ i as the i in /^iw, sin ; \i ixs. the { in marine ; "3" u as 
the u in push ; "3! ?* as the m in rude. 

c. The vowel ^ ri, peculiar to Sanskrit, is pronounced as the ri 
in merrily, where the i of ri is less perceptible than in the syllable 
ri, composed of the consonant r and the vowel z *. "^ ri is pro- 
nounced as the ri in chagrin, being hardly distinguishable from the 
syllable Tf ; ^ e as the e in prey ; ^ o as in so ; ^ ai as ai in aisle ; 
"m au as au in the German baum or as ou in the English our. "^ Iri 
and "^ Iri do not differ in sound from the letter c9 I with the vowels 
ri and ri annexed, but the vowel c5 Iri only occurs in one vvord, viz. 

* There does not, however, seem to be much difference practically between the 
pronunciation of the vowel ri and the syllable K ri, though grammarians assert 
that the i of the vowel is less distinctly cnvmciated. 


■^F^ kb'ip, ' to make ;' and its long form is not found in any ^^ ord in 
the language. As to the Vaidik ^^ Ira, see i6. u. 

d. Hence it appears that every simple vowel in Sanskrit has a 
short and a long form, and that each vowel has one invariable 
sound ; so that the beginner can never be in doubt what pronuncia- 
tion to give it, as in English, or whether to pronounce, it long or 
short, as in Latin. 

e. Note, however, that Sanskrit possesses no short e and o in opposition to the 
long diphthongal sounds of e and o. 

/.In comparing Sanskrit words with Greek and Latin, it will be found that the 
Sanskrit ^ a usually answers to the Greek ; sometimes to e (especially in voca- 
tive cases) ; and rarely to a. In Latin, the Sanskrit ^ a is represented by u as 
well as by a, e, and o. Again, the Sanskrit '^T d is generally replaced by the 
Greek f} or a, rarely by a long alpha. In Latin it is represented by long a or even 
by long e. See Bopp's Comparative Grammar, Eastwick's translation, p. 4 &c. 

g. Although for all practical purposes it is sufficient to regard vowels as either 
short or long, it should be borne in mind that native grammarians give eighteen 
different modifications of each of the vowels a, i, u, ri, and twelve of Iri, which are 
thus explained : — Each of the first four vowels is supposed to have three prosodial 
lengths, a short (hraswa), a long {dirgha), and a prolated (pluta); the long being 
equal to two, and the prolated to three short vowels. Each of these three modifi- 
cations may be uttered with a high tone, or a low tone, or a tone between high 
and low ; or in other words, may have the acute, or the grave, or the circumflex 
accent. This gives nine modifications to a, i, u, ri; and each of these again may 
be regarded either as nasal or non-nasal, according as it is pronounced with the 
nose and mouth, or with the mouth alone. Hence result eighteen varieties of every 
vowel, excepting Iri, e, ai, o, au, which have only twelve, because the first does not 
possess the long and the last four have not the short prosodial time. 


In the first arrangement of the alphabet most of the consonants 
are distributed under the five heads of gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, 
dentals, and labials, according to the organ principally employed in 
pronouncing them, whether the throat, the palate, the top of the 
palate, the teeth, or the lips. This classification of letters is more 
fully explained at No. 18. 

12. «fi ka, T\ (/a, ^ cha^ "^ja, W ta, ^ da, tj pa, ^ ba. These con- 
sonants are pronounced as in English, but tj has always the sound 
of g in ffun, give, never of g in gin. Observe ; 'g cha is a simple 
consonantal sound, and not an aspirate : it is pronounced as ch in 


church, and is a modification or softening of ka, just as ja is of ga, 
the organ of utterance being in the palate, a little in advance of the 
throat. Hence, in Sanskrit and its cognate languages, the palatals eh 
andy are often exchanged with the gutturals k and g. See note, p. 13. 
Observe, that "^d often passes into 6 in (ireek, 

13. ^ kha, Ti gha, "^ chha, m. jha, -^ tha, vi dha, ifi ^;/i«, vr bha. 
These are the aspirated forms of the preceding consonants. In 
pronouncing them the sound of h must be distinctly added to the 
unaspirated consonantal sound. Thus ^ is pronounced like kh in 
ink-horn, not like the Greek ;^ ; "^i as th in ant-hill, not as in think; 
Tfi as ph in uphill, not as in physic. When, however, they are rapidly 
enunciated they are hardly distinguishable from their respective 
unaspirated equivalents. 

a. The Sanskrit "^ th generally becomes t in Greek, and Vf dh becomes B, while 
"S[ chh generally passes into <TK. Again, Sanskrit >T bh generally passes into ^ 
and/, or sometimes in Latin into b. 

b. With a view to the comparison of Sanskrit words with Greek and Latin, it is 
important to remember that the aspirates of the different classes are easily inter- 
changeable in different languages ; thus dh and bh in Sanskrit may become / (or ph ) 
in Latin ; gh in Sanskrit may become 6 in Greek &c. 

14. 7 ta, z tha, ■? da, 2" dha. The sound of these cerebral letters 
is in practice hardly to be distinguished from the sound of the 
con*esponding dental consonants. Properly, however, the cerebrals 
should be uttered with a duller and deeper intonation, produced by 
turning back the tip of the tongue towards the palate, or top of 
the head {cerebrum). Thus a Hindu would distinguish the pro- 
nunciation of the t and d in the English words trust and drip from 
that of the same letters in the words tun and din. He would write 
the former with the cerebral t and d, 7W, fr^; and the latter with 
the dental, ^'JT, f^«^. 

a. In Bengal the cerebral ■? da and ^ dha have nearly the sound of a dull r. 
Thus T^?T<7t viddlah, ' a cat,' is pronounced virdlah. In all corruptions of 
Sanskrit (especially in Prakrit) the cerebral letters often take the place of dentals. 
In Sanskrit the cerebrals are rarely found at the beginning of words. 

15. T na, >? na, w ria, ^ na, H ma. Each of the five classes of 
consonants in Sanskrit has its own nasal sound, represented by a 
separate nasal letter. In English and most other languages the 
same fivefold division of nasal sounds might be made, though we 
have only one nasal letter to express the guttural, palatal, cerebral, 


and dental nasal sounds. The truth is, that in all languages the 
nasal letters take their sound from the organ employed in uttering 
the consonant that follows them. Thus in English it will be found 
that guttural, palatal, cerebral, dental, and labial nasals are followed 
by consonants of the same classes, as in ink, sing, inch, intrust, ant, 
imp. If such words existed in Sanskrit, the distinction of nasal 
sounds would be represented by distinct letters ; thus, ^f-, ftT|p, 
^^, ^W^, ^TFf^, ^«^. Compare 6. 

a. The guttural nasal T is rarely found by itself at the end of a word in 
Sanskrit, never at the beginning. In the nominative cases HT"^, Mr*<s« &c. it 
probably has the sound of ng in sing, where the sound of ^r is almost imperceptible. 
The palatal >T is only found in conjunction with palatal consonants, as in ^ iich, 
^ hj, ^ chii, and ^ jii. This last may be pronounced like ny, or like yn in the 
French campagne. In Bengal, however, it always has the sound of gy .• thus TT^ 
is pronounced rdgyd. The cerebral nasal W n is found at the beginning of words 
and before vowels, as weU as in conjunction with cerebral consonants. It is then 
pronounced, as the other cerebrals, by turning the tip of the tongue towards the 
palate. The dental and labial nasals »T na and ^ ma are pronounced with the same 
organs as the class of letters to which they belong. [See 21.] 

16. ^ ya, X. ra, <5 la, ^ va, are pronounced as in English. Their 
relationship to the vowels i, ri, Iri, u, respectively, should never be 
forgotten. See No. 22. a. When ^ ?; is the last member of a con- 
junct consonant it is pronounced like w, as iTT dwdra ; but not 
after /-, as ^^ sarva. 

a. The character ^^ Ira is pecuhar to the Vedas. It is a form of the semivowel 
<5 /, and represents a liquid sound formed by curving back the tongue against the 
roof of the mouth. 

b. The semivowels are so soft and vowel-like in their nature that they readily 
flow into each other. Hence I and r are sometimes exchangeable. 

17. ■jfT sa, ^ sha, ^^ sa, ^ ha. Of these, ^ sa is a palatal sibilant, 
and is pronounced as an aspirated s. ^ sha is a cerebral, and is a 
more strongly aspirated sibilant, but its pronunciation is hardly to 
be distinguished from that of the palatal. The dental ^ sa is pro- 
nounced as the common English s. The same three sibilants exist 
in English, though represented by one character, as in the words 
sure, session, sun. f ha is pronounced as in English, and is guttural. 

a. The guttural origin of f ha is proved by its passing into k at the end of 
Sanskrit words, and into %, k, and e, in Greek and Latin; as, ^^, Kap^ia, cor. 

b. Note that ^ sa, although a palatal, might be called half a guttural. It is 
certainly guttural in its origin, as all the palatals are. This is well illustrated by 



its constant transition into K and c in Greek and Latin words. Compare ^T^ 
baKpv, Wg equus, '^'^ kvcov. It is moreover interchanged with "^ k in Sanskrit 


1 8. In the first arrangement of the alphabet all the consonants, 
excepting the semivowels, sibilants, and h, were distributed under 
the five heads of gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials. 
We are now to show that all the forty-seven letters, vowels, semi- 
vowels, and consonants, may be referred to one or other of these 
five grand classes, according to the organ principally concerned in 
their pronunciation, whether the throat, the palate, the top of the 
palate, the teeth, or the lips. 

a. We are, moreover, to point out that all the letters may be 
regarded according to another principle of division, and may be all 
arranged under the head of either hard or soft, according as the 
effort of utterance is attended with expansion (vivdra), or contraction 
{samvdra), of the throat. 

b. The following tables exhibit this twofold classification, the com- 
prehension of which is of the utmost importance to the study of 
Sanskrit grammar. 







"^a Wf a 

■Sfika -^kha T\ga T( gha 

T' na 

?• ha 


•^i %i ^e ^ai 

^cha -^ckha^ja W^jha 

>T iia 

^ //« 



^ri ^ri 

Z ta ztha ["Sda -^dha 

m na 

T ra 



•^Iri T^lri 

Kta -^tha \-?^da xtdha 

■JT na 


T( sa 


^w ■35 M Wto "mau 

•qpa TRpha \'^ba v{bha 

H ma 

^ va 

The first two consonants in each of the above five classes and the 
sibilants are hard ; all the other letters are soft, as in the following 
table : 



Gutturals,^ ^fl* ^ kha* 


•^a W{d T\ya* T(gha^ 

^na\'^ ha 

Palatals, ^cha* •^chha'^ 


^i ^f T^t' ^ai Uja^ wjha^ 

>{ h(i TJiya 

Cerebrals, 7 ?« * Ztha* 

^sha 1 

•^ri -^n rsda* sdha* 

ITT II a T, ra 

Dentals, w /«* ^ //m* 

"^ sa 

-^Iri -^Iri \ ^ da* V dha* rf 7ia r5 la \ 

Labials, "qjoa* x^pha* 

''^u "gsM wto ^«MJ^d«* >TM«*|Hma|^vaj 

C 2 


c. Observe, that although Tle,^ ai, are more conveniently connected 
with the palatal class, and ^ o, ^ au, with the labial, these letters 
are really diphthongal, being made up of a + i, d + i, a + u, a + u, 
respectively. Their first element is therefore guttural. 

d. Note also, that it is most important to observe which hard letters 
have kindred soft letters, and vice versa. The kindred hard and soft are 
those in the same line marked with a star in the above table ; thus 
g, gh, are the corresponding soft letters to k, kh; j, jh, to ch., chh, 
and so with the others. 

In order that the foregoing classification may be clearly under- 
stood, it is necessary to remind the student of the proper meaning 
of the term vowel and consonant, and of the relationship which the 
nasals, semivowels, and sibilants, bear to the other letters. 

19. A vowel is defined to be a vocal emission of breath from the 
lungs, modified and modulated, but not interrupted by the play of 
one or other of five organs, viz. the throat, the palate, the tongue, 
the teeth, or the hps*. 

a. Hence ^ a, 3^ i, T v, "^ ri, 75 Iri, with their respective long 
forms, are simple vowels, belonging to the guttural, palatal, labial, 
cerebral, and dental classes respectively, according to the organ 
principally concerned in their modulation. But ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0, 
Wr an, are diphthongal or compound vowels, as explained above 
at 18. f.t So that e and ai are half guttural, half palatal ; and au 
half guttural, half labial. 

b. The vowels are of course considered to be soft letters. 

20. A consonant is not the modulation, but the actual stoppage, 
of the vocal stream of breath by one or other of the five organs, and 
cannot be enunciated excepting in conjunction with a vowel. 

a. All the consonants, therefore, are arranged under the five heads 
of gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials, according to the 
organ concerned in stopping the vocal sound. 

b. Again, the first two consonants in each of the five classes, and 
the sibilants, are called hard or surd, because the vocal stream is 

* See Proposals for a Missionary Alphabet, by Prof. Max Miiller. 

t If the two vowels a and i are pronounced rapidly they naturally form the 
sound e pronounced as in prey, or as a and i in sail; and so with the other 
diphthongs. The sound of ai in aisle may readily be resolved into « and i, and 

the sound oi' nn in oi'f into a and u. 


abruptly and completely interrupted, and no murmuring sound 
{aghosha) allowed to escape : w hile all the other letters are called 
soft or sonant, because the vocal sound is less suddenly and com- 
pletely arrested, the effect of stopping it being attended with a low- 
murmur {ghosha). 

c. Observe, that the palatal stop is only a modification of the guttural, the 
point of contact being moved a little more forward from the throat towards the 
palate*. The cerebral (murdhanya) stop is a modification of the dental, the dif- 
ference being, that whereas in the dental consonantal sound the tip of the tongue 
is brought into direct contact with the teeth ; in the cerebral it is first curled back, 
so as to strike the dome of the palate, thus producing a more obtuse sound. 

d. The name cerebral is retained in deference to established usage. Perhaps a 
more significant translation of murdhanya would be supernal. The head or brain 
is certainly not the organ of enunciation of any letter. Murdhan here denotes the 
upper part of the palate. But the inaccuracy involved in the word cerebral 
hardly justifies the substitution of supernal. 

21. A nasal or narisonant letter is a soft letter, in the utterance 
of which the vocal stream of breath incompletely arrested, as in all 
soft letters, is forced through the nose instead of the lips. As the 
soft letters are of five kinds, according to the organ which interrupts 
the vocal breathing, so the nasal letters are five, guttural, palatal, 
cerebral, dental, and labial. See 15. 

22. The semivowels y, r, I, v (called antahstha because in the 
first arrangement of the alphabet they stand hetv)een the other con- 
sonants and the sibilants) are formed by a vocal breathing, which is 
only half interrupted, the several organs being only slightly touched 
by the tongue. They are, therefore, soft or sonant consonants, 
approaching nearly to the character of vowels ; in fact, half vowels, 
half consonants. 

a. Each class of soft letters (excepting the guttural) has its own 
corresponding semivowel to which it is related. Thus the palatal 
soft letters \h% i, ^ e, ^ ai, »T J, have t( y for their kindred semi- 
vowel. (Compare Sanskrit yuvan with \jASAn juvenis &c.) Similarly 

* The relationship of the palatal to the guttural letters is proved by their fre- 
quent interchangeableness in Sanskrit and in other languages. See 176, and com- 
pare church with kirk, Sanskrit chatwdr with Latin quatuor, Sanskrit cha with 
Latin que and Greek xat, Sanskrit ^aww. with English knee, Greek yovv, Latin genu. 
Prof. Miiller proposes to represent the palatals ^ and '3f by )t and g in Italics. 


T r is the kindred semivowel of the cerebral soft letters ^ ri, ^ r?, 
and "S d ; 75 / of the dentals "^ Iri, c^ /ri, and ^ d*; and ^ ?; of "g' m, 
"31 w, "3?^ 0, ^ au, and "^ <5». The guttural soft letters have no semi- 
vowel in Sanskrit, unless the aspirate ^ A be so regarded. 

23. The sibilants or hissing sounds (called winds by the native 
grammarians) are hard letters, which, nevertheless, strictly speaking, 
have something the character of vowels. The organs of speech in 
uttering them, although not closed, are more contracted than in 
vowels, and the vocal stream of breath in passing through the teeth 
experiences a friction which causes sibilation. 

a. Sanskrit does not recognise any guttural sibilation, though the palatal sibilant 
is really half a guttural. See 17. a. The aspirate 1^ h might perhaps be regarded 
as a guttural /a/MS or wind without sibilating sound. The labial sibilation denoted 
by the letter/, and the soft sibilation denoted by z, are unknown in Sanskrit. 


24. Accentuation in Sanskrit is confined to the Vedas. In common pronuncia- 
tion the tone or intonation of vowels in all Sanskrit words is equal. This general 
monotonous intonation is called by Panini eka-sruti, the one level, as it were, of 
pronunciation. But in the Vaidik hymns a rise and fall of the voice seems to have 
been recognised f. Hence arose the three tones or accents. First, the low tone, 
common to all vowels in ordinary speech. This tone is marked by the grave 
accent, and a syllable thus uttered is said to be anuddtta (unacute, grave). Next, 
the high tone, produced by the sudden raising of the voice. This tone is marked 
by the acute accent, and is described by grammarians as the result of employing 
in the enunciation of the vowel what they call the upper half of the organ of 
utterance, whether the throat, palate, teeth, or lips. A syllable thus uttered is 
said to be nddtta (acutely accented). Lastly, the mixed tone, a tone half high, 
half low, which is thus produced. In pronouncing the syllable immediately fol- 
lowing the high-toned syllable, the voice, unable to lower itself abruptly to the 
level of the low intonation, passes into a tone partly high, partly low. A syllable 
uttered with this mixed intonation is said to be swarita, or marked with a com- 
bination of the acute and grave accent, commonly called the circumflex accent. 

Practically, therefore, there are only three tones or accents recognised in Sanskrit, 
the anuddtta, the ^iddtta, and the swarita. 

* That H Zis a dental, and kindred to ^ d, is proved by its interchangeableness 
with d in cognate languages. Thus lacryma, Oa.Kpv/J.a,. Compare also ql"'T with 

t According to Professor Bopp, accentuation in the Vedas has nothing to do 
with chanting. l)ut is etvmological, like the (ireek accent. 


25. Nevertheless, there is yet another tone noticed by Panini, and called by him 
sannatara or unuduttatara, i. e. more grave than the common grave intonation. 
It is thus explained : the exertion of the voice required to produce the acute or 
high tone (uddtta) is so great that in order to attain the proper pitch the voice is 
obliged to lower the tone of the preceding syllable as much below the ordinary 
low intonation as the syllable that bears the uddtta is raised above it. Conse- 
quently the syllable preceding another that bears the acute accent, and which is 
originally pronounced with the grave tone (anuddtta), becomes more than grave 
(anuddttatara) *. 

* The three accents are thus marked in the Rig-veda. 

A small horizontal stroke under a syllable marks the anuddtta or low tone ; and 
in the Pada, if it extend under all the syllables of the same word, it indicates that 
the whole word is amiddtta unaccented or pronounced in the low tone (thus 'WR':). 
But in the Sanhita, where the distinction of anuddttatara is admitted, the stroke 
under a syllable is always the mark of the anuddttatara, never of the anuddtta, the 
mere absence of accent not being marked at all. 

When a syllable having the horizontal mark underneath is followed by one 
bearing no mark, the latter is considered to be uddtta, acutely accented ; and when 
followed by two syllables, bearing no mark, both are considered to be uddtta. 

The swarita or circumflex accent is denoted by a small perpendicular stroke 
above the syllable. Thus in the word '^^t the syllable ^ is anuddttatara, "^ is 
uddtta, and T is swarita. 

AU the syllables (in a single word or sentence) which follow a syllable bearing 
the swarita are supposed to be anuddtta unaccented or pronounced in the same 
tone, until the horizontal stroke, or anuddttatara mark under a syllable, appears 
again. In fact, the anuddttatara mark is the beginning of a series of three 
accents, of which the swarita is the end ; and the appearance of this mark pre- 
pares the reader for the occurrence of an uddtta immediately following, and of a 
swarita. The latter, however, may sometimes be retarded by a new uddtta sylla- 
ble, which shows that the accents have nothing to do with chanting. Nevertheless 
a swarita mark does not necessarily imply an anuddttatara mark preceding, as in 
the word -^jftT^J at the beginning of a Hne, where the swarita merely shows that 
the first syllable is uddtta. Again, in the Pada, where each word stands separately, 
there may be no swarita following an uddtta, as M«jT I 'STTfT. It must also be 
borne in mind that frequently where a swarita is immediately followed by an 
uddtta syllable, the swarita becomes changed to anuddttatara .- thus in ff^TT "TiTtni 
the swarita of 'T becomes so changed, because of the uddtta foUo^nng. 

With regard to the swarita mark, it may either indicate a dependent swarita, 
produced by an uddtta immediately preceding, or an indejiendent, i. e. either a 
swarita as such, or a swarita produced by the suppression of a syllable bearing the 
uddtta, as in Tn-'^ contracted from W^^, where the middle syllable is properly 
uddtta. In the latter case, if the syllable bearing the swarita is long, and another 



26. According to Hindu grammarians every syllable ought to 
end in a vowel *, and every final consonant ought to be attracted 
to the beginning of the next syllable ; so that where a word ends in 
a consonant, that consonant ought to be pronounced with the initial 
letter of the next word. Hence in some Sanskrit MSS. all the 
syllables are separated by slight spaces, and in others all the words 
are joined together without any separation. Thus the two words 
i^nfl )^ Usn dsid rdjd would in some books be written ^TT^'^T'sn 
and in others '^nfhjTWT. In Sanskrit works printed in Europe, the 
common practice is to separate only those words the final or initial 
letter of w^hich are not acted on by the rules of combination. In 
such books dsid rdjd would be written together, yTT«1^»rr, because 
the final i^ is the result of an euphonic change from "rr, caused by 
the following T r. There seems, however, but little reason for con- 
sidering the mere spaces left between the words of a sentence to be 
incompatible with the operation of euphonic laws ; especially as the 
absence of such spaces must always cause more or less impediment 
even to the fluent reader. Therefore in many books recently 
printed in Europe, every uncompounded word capable of separation 
by the use of the Virama is separated. Thus piiur dhanam ddaddti 
is written fxiwi: VR\ ^TT^^fir, and not ftrw^^TJTT^^fw. The only cases 
in which separation is undesirable, are where the final vowel of one 
word blends with the initial vowel of the next into one long similar 
or dissimilar vowel, and where final u and i are changed into their 
corresponding semivowels v and y. 

The following words and passages in the Sanskrit and English 
character, are given that the Student, before proceeding further in 
the Grammar, may exercise himself in reading the letters and in 

word follows beginning with an uddtfa, then that syllable and aU preceding sylla- 
bles in the same word receive the anuddttatara mark, and the figure ^ is inserted 
to carry the swarita, having also the anuddttatara mark beneath; thus HV^^W. 
If the syllable bearing the independent swarita be short, then the figure '^ carries 
the swarita, with an anuddttatara rmder it ; thus "iiTTTi^. 

* Unless it end in Anuswara or Visarga k, which in theory are the only conso- 
nantal sounds allowed to close a syllable. That Anuswara is not a full consonant 
is proved by the fact that it does not impede the operation of rule 70. 


transliteration ; that is to say, in turning Sanskrit letters into the 
English equivalents, and nice versa. 

To he turned into English letters. 

^^, w^, ^^, ^^, m^, T^, ^■^, t^, t?:, 
fT^R, "^H, f^xi, ^^, %, ^if, igH, fe^, mi, 

Tm, rm, n, ^^g, ^-q, ^^T^FT, '=^^, fw, fe^, 

^, ift^T, ^^, f^^T, ^:, ^^, €t^, ftl^, m^:, 
Vrf:, ^?:, ^Ic^, %^, -qft^T^, "^^^.^ "^^^*' "^^^^ 
YT*, ^^^,, ^f^^'^, ^frr, ^:, \i5, \^^, T, 

To be turned into Sanskrit letters. 
Ada, asa, ali, ddi, dkhu, dgas, it'i, isah, ihd, uddra, upanishad, 
tiparodha, urn, usha, rishi, eka, kakud, katu, koshah, gaura, ghata, 
chaitya, chet, chhalam, jetri, jhiri, tagara, damara, dhdla, nama, 
tatas, tathd, trina, tushdra, deha, daitya, dhavala, nanu, nayanam, 
niddnam, pitri, bhauma, bheshajam, niariis, mahat, yuga, rush, rudhis, 
laulia, vivekas, satam, shodasan, sukhin, kridaya, tatra, adya, buddhi, 
arka, kratu, ansa, an-ka, an-ga, ahchala, afijuna, kantha, anda, anta, 
manda, sampurna. 

Tlie following story has the Sanskrit and English letters 

asti hasthidpvre r'lldso ndma rajakah tasya garda- 

HtsfTTHTT^Tl^^. ^-^Ht H^^ ^H^W I 1\^\ ^^ 

bho 'tibhdravdhandd dvrbalo mumurshur abhavat tatas tena 


rajakendsaii vydghracharmand prachhudydranyasamipe sasyakshetre 
mochitah tato durdd avalokya vydghrabuddhyd kshetrapa- 

fayaJi sativarain paid y ante atha kendpi sasyarakshakena dhusara- 
kambalakritatanutrdnena dhanuhkdndam sajjikritydvanatakdyena 

ekdnte sthitam tatas tarn cha dure drishtwd gardabhah pushtdngo 
gardabhiyamlti matwd sabdam kurvdnas tadabhhmikham dhdvitah 

tatas tenn sasyarakshakena gardabho ^yamit'i jhdttvd lilayaiva 

^Tmf^H: II 


The followrng story is to be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

Asti sriparvatamadhye brahmapurdkhyam nagaram. Tatra saila- 
sikhare ghantdkarno ndma rdkshasah prativasatit'i janapravddah sru- 
yate. Ekadd ghantdm dddya paldyamdnah kaschich chauro vydghrena 
vydpdditah. Tatpdnipatitd ghantd vdnaraih prdptd. Te vdnards tdm 
ghantdm anukshanam vddayanti. Tato nagarajanair manushyah khd- 
dito drishtah pratikshanani ghantdrdvascha sriiyate. Anantaram 
ghantdkarnah kiqnto manushydn khddati ghantdm cha vddayati ittju- 
ktwd jandh sarve nagardt paldyitdh. Tat ah kardlayd ndma kuttinyd 
vimrisya markatd ghantdm vddayanti swayam vijndya rdjd vijndpitah. 
Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshayah kriyate taddham enam ghantdkarnam 
sddhaydmi. Tato rdjhd tnshtena tasyai dhanam dattam. Kuttinyd 
cha mandalam kritwd tatra ganesddigauravam darsayitwd swayam 
vdnarapriyaphaldnydddya vanam pravisya phaldnydkirndni. Tato 
ghantdm parityajya vdnardh phaldsaktd bahhiivuh. Kuttini cha 
ghnntdm gnriUird vagaram dgatd sakalalokapiijyd 'bhavat. 

Observe, that ni at the end of a word may most conveniently be transliterated 


by the symbol Anuswara, and vice versa; thus, brahmapurdkhyam nagaram 
"9'SrM<,i<?q 'TTT. Strictly, however, the first of these Anuswaras, being influenced 
by the following n, is equivalent in sound to n, and the two words might have been 
written brahmapurdkhyan nagaram "3^y<n?M*^ 1'K. Similarly, pratikshanam 
before ghantdrdvas is written Tjfn «j*!.l , though equivalent in sound to hPhbj*!!^? 
in consequence of the following "^ . 



We are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic 
changes of letters. Thus rego makes, in the perfect, not reg^i, but 
reksi {rex'i), the soft g being changed to the hard k before the hard .?. 
Similarly, veho becomes veksi {vexi). In many words a final conso- 
nant assimilates with an initial ; thus aw with yvcofir] becomes 
(Tvyyvwixt] ; ev with XdfiTroD, eXXdjULTroo. Suppressus is written for 
.subpressus ; appellatus for adpellatus ; immensus for inmensiis ; af- 
finitas for adfinitas ; colloquium for conloquium ; irrogo for inrogo. 
These laws for the euphonic junction of letters are applied through- 
out the whole range of Sanskrit grammar ; and that, too, not only 
in uniting different parts of one word, but in combining words in 
the same sentence. Thus, if the sentence " Rara avis in lerris" were 
Sanskrit, it would require, by the laws of Sandhi or combination, to 
be written Rardvir ins terrih ; and might even be joined together 
thus, Rardvirinsterrih. The learner must not be discouraged if he 
is unable to understand all the laws of combination at first. He is 
recommended, after reading those that are printed in large typo, to 
pass at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs. 
To attempt to commit to memory a number of rules, the use of 
which is not fully seen till he comes to read and construct sentences^ 
must only lead to a loss of time and patience. 


27. Nevertheless, there are some changes of letters which come 

into immediate application in the formation and declension of nouns, 

and the conjugation of verbs ; and amongst these, the changes of 

vowels called Guna and Vriddhi should be impressed on the memory, 

I) :; 


before another step is taken in the study of the Grammar. When 
the vowels ^ i and ^ i are changed to ^ e, this is called the Guna 
change, or qualification ; when i and / are changed to IT ai, this is 
called the Vriddhi change, or increase *. Similarly, "^r u and "35 u 
are often changed to their Guna '^ o, and Vriddhi wr au ; "^ ri and 
■^ ri to their Guna ^T ar, and Vriddhi ^rfT cir ; and ^ a, though it 
have no corresponding Guna change, has a Vriddhi substitute in 
^T a. 

28. Let the student, therefore, never forget the following rules. 
There is no Guna substitute for ^ a, but wr a is the Vriddhi sub- 
stitute for ^ a ; ^ e is the Guna, and ^ ai the Vriddhi, for ^ i and 
\ { ; ^r is the Guna, and ^ au the Vriddhi, for "g^ u and "gi u ; 
'SHT ar is the Guna, and ^IT dr the Vriddhi, for "^ ri and '^ ri ; 
^3To5 al is the Guna, and ^t?5 dl the Vriddhi, for 75 Iri and 0!^ Iri. 
Moreover, ^ ai is the Vriddhi of the Guna ^ e, and ^ au the 
Vriddhi of the Guna ^ 0. 

a. Observe — It \vill be convenient in describing the change of a vowel to its 
Guna substitute, to speak of that vowel as gunated; and in the case of the Vriddhi 
change, to speak of it as vriddhied. 

h. In the conjugation of verbs the vowels of roots cannot be gunated or 
vriddhied, if they are followed by double consonants, i. e. if they are long by 
position ; nor can a vowel long by nature be so changed, unless it be final. The 
vowel "5? a is of course incapable of Guna. 

29. Again, let him bear in mind that the Guna sounds ^ e, "^ 0, 
and ^IT: ar, are diphthongal, that is, composed of two simple vowel 
sounds. Thus, i? e is made up of ^ a and ^ i ; ^ of tJT a and 
■g" M ; Wt: ar of ^ a and "^ ri ; so that a final ^ a will naturally 
coalesce with an initial ^ i into ^ e ; with an initial "^^ m into wf ; 
with an initial "^ri into ^tt, ar. Compare 18. c. 

a. Similarly, the Vriddhi diphthong ^ ai is made up of a and i ; 
and ^ au of a and u. Hence, a with e will blend into ai (for 
e = a + i and a + a + i will equal d + i or ai). Similarly, a will 
blend with "^ into "m au. Compare 18. c. 

b. Since the sound ai is composed of « and i, it may be asked, How is it that 
long a as well as shoi-t a blends with i into e (see 32), and not into ai ? In answer 
to this. Professor Bopp (Comparative Grammar, p. 2) maintains that a long vowel 

* '^^ 0^''V'"^ ^" Sanskrit means ' quality,' and '^% vriddhi, ' increase.' It will 
be convenient to Anglicise these words, and write Guna, Vriddhi. 


at the end of a word naturally shortens itself before an initial vowel. His opinion 
is, that the very meaning of Guna is the prefixing of short a, and the very meaning 
of Vriddhi, the prefixing of long d, to a simple vowel. He therefore holds that 
the Guna of i is originally a i, though the two simple vowels blend afterwards 
into p. Similarly, the original Guna of u is a u, blending afterwards into o; the 
original Guna of n is a ri, blending into ar. 

c. Hence it appears, that, since the Sanskrit a answers to the Greek e or o 
(see 11./.), the practice of gunating vowels is not peculiar to Sanskrit alone. 
The Sanskrit irf*T emi, ' I go,' which in the plural becomes '^'^^imas, is originally 
a i mi, corresponding to the Greek et[xi and tfJiev. Similarly in Greek, the root 
(pvy {e<pvyov) is in the present (pevyw. Compare also the Sanskrit veda (vaida), 
' he knows,' with Greek oiha ; and compare XeXoma, perfect of A;7r, with the 
Sanskrit 2d preterite. 

30. Again, let him never forget that Tiy is the kindred semivowel 
of ^ i, t {, ;? e, and ^ ai; "^ v of "g" w, "g; li, wt 0, and "^ au; T r of 
^ ri and "^ n ; and c5 / of of Iri and "^ Iri. So that i, i, e, ai, at 
the end of words, when the next begins with a vowel, may often 
pass into y, y, ay, ay, respectively; ti, u, o, au, into v, v, av, dv; and 
ri, ri, into r. [NB. Iri is not found as a final.] 

In order to impress the above rules on the mind, the substance 
of them is embodied in the following table : 

Simple vowels, 

« or a 

i or i 

u or u 

ri or n 

Iri or Iri 

Guna substitute. 




Vriddhi substitute, 






Simple vowels, 

i or { 

u or u 

ri or ri 

Iri or Iri 

Semivowel substitute, 









Guna resolved. 

a + i 


a +u 


With semivowel substitute, 







Vriddhi resolved, 

d + i 

d + u 

With semivowel substitute, 




The succeeding rules will now explain themselves. 

31. If a word ends in ^ a or 'STT a, when the similar vowels '?? a 
or ^TT a follow, then the final and initial vowel blend into one long 
similar vowel : thus 

^ + ^^ na + asti becomes tTrftiT ndsti, ' there is not.' 
ift^ + ^5FfT jivd + anta = iftTRT jivdnta, * the end of life.' 
a. The same rule apphes to the other vowels, ^ z, T m, "^ ri, short 
or long : thus 

^rfv + fT5R adhi + ikvara becomes '^nfhgr adhiswara, * the supreme 

■^ + Tf^r? ritu + utsava = ^ji|rH^ ritiitsava, ' the festival of the 

fjltf + ^f^ pitri + riddhih = fiTW% pitriddhi, ' the father's pros- 

32. If a word ends in ^ a or ^TT fl, when the dissimilar vowels 
? i, "T M, ^ ri, short or long, follow, then a or a blends with i or / 
into ^ e; with u or li into ^0*; with ri or ri into ^3n: ar: thus 

"TTT + f^ar parama + iswara becomes xniJTvgR: parameswara, ' the 

mighty lord.' 
■fi^ + Tq^^ hita + vpadesa = f^TTtxi?^ hitopadesa, ' friendly in- 
^T^ -I- "5^ gangd + udaka = T^^ gangodaka, * Ganges water.' 
■?r^ + '^3' ^av« + riddhi = TT^^ tavarddhi, ' thy growth.' 
Similarly, "fT^ + "^S^T fava + lrikdra becomes TT'^R^T tavalkdra, ' thy letter Iri.' 

33. If a word ends in ^^ a or >!rr d, when the dissimilar vowels 
^ p, ^ 0, ^ ai, or ^ aw, follow, then a or d blends with e into ai ; 
with «i also into ai; with o into au; with am also into au: thus 

iR + ^fVfT joara + edhita becomes >ftfv?T paraidhita, ' nourished by 

f^m + 5?^ rirfya + eva = f^^ vidyaiva, ' knowledge indeed.' 
^ + F^^ rfera + aiswarya = ^^vj^ devaimmrya, ' divine majesty.' 
^^ + ^»T^^ «/pa + ojas = ^^im^ alpaujas, ' little energy.' 
Tl^T + ^ftri gangd + ogha = ^T^'^ gangaugha, ' the torrent of the 


* The blending of a and i into the sound e. is recognised in English in such 
words as sail, nail, &c. ; and the blending of a and u into the sound is exemplified 
bv the French fnufr, haiime, &c. 


l|T + ^^^V jwara + aushadha = Ijn^V jwaraushadfia, ' fever-medi- 

34. If a word ends in ^ i, '3' u, -^ ri, short or long, when any 
dissimilar vowel follows, the former letters pass into their kindred 
semivowels; viz. i or i into y*; 7/ or li into v*; ri or ri into r: thus 

"^(f^ + '^(^ (igni + astra becomes 'SP";!?^ agnyastra*, ' firearms.' 
Trfir + 7^T^ prati + uvdcha = Tri'5^r^ pratyuvdcha, ' he spoke in 

■3 + ^TTt' tu + iddnim = fi^TTl" twiddnim*, ' but now.' 
jTr?j + 'STT'T^ ma7/-i + dnanda = HTc^Hrd mdtrdnanda, ' the mother's 


35. If a word ends in 1? e or 'sfr 0, when the next begins with ^ a, 
then e and remain unchanged, and the initial ^a is cut off: thus 

^ + '^■^ te + apt becomes ^sfq te 'pi, ' they indeed !' [See 10.] 
7T^ + ^f^ grihe + asti = JT?sf;5r grihe 'sti, ' he is in the house.' 
^> + ^fq so -f api = ^sft( so 'pi, ' he indeed !' 
flft -h 'srffJT hato + asmi = ?rrtsffR hato 'smi, ' I am undone !' 
^6. If a word ends in !»■ e or ^ 0, when the next begins with any 
other vowel except ^ a, then e is changed to ay, and to av ; and 
if both the words are complete words, the y of ay, and more rarely 
the V of av, may be dropped, leaving the a uninfluenced by the 
following vowel : thus 

W + ^(min: te + dgatdh becomes tt'TTitwt: taydgatdh, and then 

TT ^TTJTTTT: ta dgatdh, ' they have come.' 
Similarly, f^wfj + ^ inshno + iha becomes f^wf^ vishnavilia, and then 
f%^ ?|^ vishna iha, ' O Vishnu, here !' 

a. But if ^ e and -sfft o be the finals of roots or nominal bases, 
and these have to be joined with the initial vowels of terminations, 
affixes, &c., even though the initial vowel be "^ a or ^ <:- or '^ 0, 
then final e must still be changed to ay, and final to av, and both 
y and v must be retained : thus 

^j^^f^je +ati becomes i^ii jayati, ' he conquersf.' 

* So in English we pronounce a word like million as if wTitten millyon ; and we 
write evangelist for euangelist. 

t In English we respect this law in writing, though not in pronouncing such 
words as saying, playing, &e. 


^TT^ 4- ^ agne + e = 'HHM agnaye, ' to fire.' 

H^ + '3Tf(T bho + uti = >T^ffr bhavati ' he is/ 

^ + f^^T go + iswara = TT^hsR gaviswara, ' owner of kine/ 

jft 4- ^oRH ^0 + o/:«5 = TTTfoW gavokas, ' the abode of cattle.' 

37. If a word ends in ^ ai or ^ au, when any vowel, similar or 
dissimilar, follows, ai is changed to ay, and au to dv : thus 

qr^ + wftj kasmai + c^i becomes ^fjrnrftl kasmoyapi, ' to any one 

"t + ^t rfli + ah =■ TJ^\ rdyah, ' riches/ 

^ + ^ c?Gf/fl!M + annam = ^"RW daddvannam, ' he gave food.' 
"^ -f ^ nau + au=: »TT'^ ndvau, ' two ships.' 

a. If both the words be complete words, the y and v are occasionally dropped, 
but not so usually as in the case of e at 36 : thus ^WT ^l\\<\ kasmd apt for 
^WT^^ kasmdyapi, and <^(^l ^I^ e?ac?a annam for qr^iq^i daddvannam. 

38. There are some exceptions {pragrihya) to the above rules. The most notice- 
able is that of nominative and accusative cases dual, ending in i, u, or e. These 
are never acted on by following vowels : thus, 

?^ VUl hari etau, ' these two Haris.' 

T%XnT^^*Tt vishmi imau, ''these two Vishnus.' 

^nr FfT sute ete, ' these two daughters.' 

The same applies to '^W ami, nom. pi. m. of the pronoun ^1^^ . 

a. A vocative case in 0, when followed by the particle ifi, may remain unchanged, 
as T^CnT ■^uT vishno iti, or may follo\\' 36. 

b. Particles, when simple vowels, and ''^ d and '^ 0, as the finals of interjections, 
remain unchanged, as ^TT ^ d eram, ' Ah, indeed ! ' "'BT^ ^»5" aho indra, ' Ho, 

c. The ^ o of m go, ' a cow,' may become ^^ ava in certain cases, as 
m + ^f^ go+indra becomes 'l<^»5 gavendra, ' lord of kine.' 

The following table exhibits all the combinations of vow els at one 
view. Supposing a word to end in 11, and the next word to begin 
with au, the student must carry his eye down the first column 
(headed " final vowels") till he comes to u, and then along the top 
horizontal line of " initial vowels," till he comes to au. At the 
junction of the perpendicular column under au and the horizontal 
line beginning ??, will be the required combination, viz. v au. 




3 O 

re ^ 
-. < 
3 i^ 

22. erg 



















a f^ 

















a V, 










a a 

















as Ss 










a a 
























a a 








«S ^'S 










a a 

















S 8 









a a 

















Ss Ss 









a a 


















•;:i. -2. 








a a 
















•^ .^j 









a a 

















t^ fto 










a a 

















a a 













a a 

















o o 










a a 


















a a 










s s 









39. Before proceeding to the combination of consonants, let the 
letters be again regarded as divided into two grand classes of Hard 
and Soft, as explained at 20. b. 



k kh 







ch chh 








€ ai 

t th 








t th 








p ph 









Note — In the following rules it may generally be observed, that 
final consonants have a tendency to adapt themselves to initial, 
rather than initial to final, 


40. If two hard or two soft consonants come together, one at the 
end and the other at the beginning of a word or affix, there is 
generally no change ; and similarly, if a soft consonant ends a word, 
when a vowel follows : thus, 

f^^lT in^^^ vidyut prakdsate, ' the lightning shines/ 
^^ f^^wfw kumud vikasati, ' the lotus blossoms/ 
■^■^^ Wt^nsflT drisad adhogachchhati, ' the rock descends/ 
fWrT + J( vidyut + su = f^iiWi vidyutsu, ' in lightnings.^ 

a. Observe, however, that the unaspirated form of a final letter is substituted 
for the aspirated, as f^^f(3T^+ "^fw chitralikh + Icaroti becomes f^^frJW 
■^TuT cJiifralik karoti. 

41. If any hard letter ends a word, root, or crude base, when any 
soft initial letter follows, the hard (unless affected by some special 
rule) is changed to its own unaspirated soft : thus 

^■^ 4- ^^ vdk + devi becomes TP^'^ vdgdevi, ' the goddess of elo- 

^T^ 4- 1;^ vdk + isa = ^tj^^ vdgisa, ' the lord of speech.' 

f^cffe^^+fe^nr chitralikh + likhati = f^-^c^TT^ frST^ chitralig 
likhati, ' the painter paints/ 

■f^ + Vf^ vit + bhava = f%^>T^ vidbhava, ' generated by filth/ 


a. There is an option allowed before nasals ; that is, when any 
nasal begins the next word, the final of the last word is usually 
(though not necessarily) changed to the nasal of its own class : thus 

^ToSr + T^ vdk + 7naya becomes TT^"?? van-may a, ' full of words/ 
f^ + MT^ vif + 7naya = f^m'^ vinmaya, ' full of filth/ 
"t^ + TT^ tat -\- mdtra = HT^T^ tanmdtra, ' that element/ 
mr + %^ tat + netram = WRf %^ tan 7ietram, ' that eye/ 
^n^+ Wc5 ap + tniUam = '^n*TH ammulam, ' water and roots/ 

b. Rule 41 applies to terminations of nouns or verbs beginning with consonants, 
but not to terminations beginning with vowels. In the latter case, the final hard 
consonant is supposed to attract the initial vowel, and thus, losing its character of 
a final letter, is not made soft: thus 'M\<^ + f^'^vdk+bhis becomes '^Tn>7H vugbhis, 
' by words;' but '^1^+'^ vdch+d becomes '^T^T vdchu, 'by a speech;' not 
^T^TT vdjd. f%Wrc5W + '^ chitralikh+su is f^^feoT'T chitraliksu, ' in painters;' 
but f%^f5'^+ ^T chitralikh+d remains f^^c>55?T chitralikhd, ' by a painter/ 

c. Of course, rule 41 does not apply to final sibilants, as they have no cor- 
responding soft letters. The rules for sibilants are given at 61. 

42. If a soft letter ends a word, root, or crude base, when any 
hard initial letter follows, the soft is changed to its own unaspirated 
hard : thus 

ofr^ + Tgwfn" kumud + phullafi becomes -^^-^^T^fi^ ku?nut phidlati, 

' the lotus blossoms/ 
^fpfvr -f Tj^liim" samidh +pradipyate = ^fiTtT H^'It^^ samit pradipyate, 
' the fuel is ignited/ 

Note — Similarly in Latin, a soft guttural or labial often passes into a hard before 
s and t: thus reg-\-si becomes recsi {rexi), scrib + si becomes scripsi. 

a. The same may take place at the end of a sentence or before a pause, as 
^j^lTn 'SfiWf[^phuHati kumut. 

b. Soft letters, which have no corresponding hard, such as the nasals, semi- 
vowels, and "^h, are changed by special rules. 

c. If the final be an aspirated soft letter, and belongs to a root whose initial is 
T ^, ^ rf, or W b, then the aspirate, which is suppressed in the final, is transferred 
back to the initial letter of the root; as '^V -f '^iTtf fT budh + karoti becomes >T7T 
ofi^fff bhitt karoti, 'he who knows acts;' ^'tI-t-7T"5ff dadh + tas becomes 'TW^^ 
dhattas, ' they two place ;' and see 306. a, 299. a. 

Note — Greek recognises a similar principle in Gpi^, r^iyrx;^ T/Sex^, ^/'f'^^S &c. 
4.^. The following consonants arc not alln^\-ed to remain uncliangcMl at the end 
E 2 


of words *, under any circumstances : that is to say, they undergo modifications, 
even at the end of a sentence ; and when they are combined with the initial letters 
of succeeding words, or with the initial consonants of affixes, these modifications 
must take place before rules 41 and 42 are applied, ist, A conjunct consonant of 
any kind; 2d, an aspirated consonant; 3d, the aspirate "^ hj 4th, the palatal 
letters '^cA, "S^c/tA, ^^j, ^jh (when originally palatal, and not the result of the 
euphonic changes of final If t and ^ rf at 47) ; 5th, the sibilants '^Ts and 11 sA. 

a. With regard to i, when a word ends in a single or conjunct consonant, and 
a termination to be affixed consists of a single consonant, then, to avoid the con- 
currence of silent consonants at the end of a word, the first only of the conjunct 
consonants is allowed to remain, and the termination is dropped : thus ''^T^ + ^ 
charant-\-s leaves ^T*Tc/«araH, going;' 'ii^^ + ^ aved-\-s leaves "^^ avet or 
W^ aved. So in Latin, mulsi is written for mulg-sij sparsi for sparg-si, &c. 

b. With regard to 2, the unaspirated form is substituted for the aspirated. 

c. With regard to 3, a final '^ h (which is of very rare occurrence) is usually 
changed either to "^ A; or 7 ^ See 17. a. 

d. With regard to 4, palatals, as being derived from gutturals (see 20. c), 
generally revert to their originals; i. e. final "^ ch and ^jh are usually changed to 
■^ (see 12), but "9( cJih may become "Z t ; l{j becomes "H g, but sometimes Z t or 

e. With regard to 5, final ^^s and "^ sh usually pass into either W A: or T ^ 
(See 17. b.) 

The above changes must hold good, whatever may be the initial letter of a 
following word; but rules 41 and 42 must be afterwards applied. They also hold 
good before all terminations or affixes beginning with strong consonants; but 
before vowels (except the affix a at 80. I.) and weak consonants (i. e. nasals and 
semivowels) the finals remain unchanged. See 41. b, and vdch at 176. 

44. The special rules for the changes of consonants are very 
numerous, but since few words in Sanskrit end in any other con- 
sonants than TT t and ^ d, the nasals «T n and J^ m, the dental 
sibilant ^ s, and the semivowel T r, it will be sufficient for all 
practical purposes to notice these special rules under four heads ; 
ist, the changes of final TT and ^; 2dly, the changes of the nasals ; 
3dly, the changes of final ^; 4thly, the changes of final ^. 


45. By the general rule (41), final TT ^ becomes ^ d before soft con- 
sonants, and before all vowels (as tt^tt + '^rfTT marut + vdti becomes 
5T^?f ^f(T marud vdti, ' the wind blows') . 

* Excepting in roots, standing by themselves, or, if used as nouns, before 
terminations beginning with A-nwels. 


a. There is an exception in the case of viclyut -\-vat, m&kmg vidyutwat, 'pos- 
sessed of lightning.' 

46. And final ^d becomes i[^t before hard consonants (as "^;^ + 
H f r fiT drisad + patati becomes "^^Tii^ trafw drisat patati, ' the stone 
falls^). See 42. 

47. And final K t or "^ d becomes tt n before all nasals, See 41. a. 
But final i[^t o\' "^d before initial ^ ch, "Sf j, c^ I, -^ s, and ^ h, 
undergoes special changes : thus — 

Final 7^ t or ? d before ^ ch, "ST jj, c^ 1- 

48. If W ^ or (T c? ends a word, when an initial ^ ch, 1{J, or H I, 
follows, then Tf t or f[ d assimilates with these letters : thus 

inrnr+ ryt>TTW + '^ bhmjdt + lobhdt + cha becomes >Tmi^ "FJWr^ ^ 

bhaydl lobhdch cha, ' from fear and avarice/ 
KZ 4 Tfl^4 tad +jivanam = IHT »TT^«t taj jivanam, ' that life/ 

a. A final 7^^ or "^ d also assimilates with a following "2^ chh, ^jh, but as, by 
43.6, an aspirate is not allowed at the end of a word, the combination will be ch chh, 
j jh. They also assimilate with the cerebral letters 7 ?, "J d: thus fr7r^+ "3i»T tat+ 
dinam becomes TT'^ '^t^ tad dinam. 

b. Observe — When "5 chh is the original initial letter of a word, and a previous 
word ends in a short vowel (or even a long vowel), then IT ^, changeable to '^ch by 
48. a, may be inserted : thus f^ + "Sf^ vi+chheda may be written fi-oar^ vichchheda. 

Final 1^ t or ^ d before ^ s'. 

49. If TT ^ or ^ c? ends a word, when an initial ^ s follows, then 
T^^ or ^ c? is changed to "^^ch, and the initial ^ s is usually changed 
to -3 chh : thus TTW + "^TTT tat + srutwd becomes TT^ "^j^ tach 
chhrutwd, ' having heard that/ 

Final i^^ t or ^ d before \ h. 

50. If W ^ ends a word, when initial ^ h follows, the final ir Ms 
changed to ? c? (by 41), and the initial ^ A to V dh : thus 7(7^ 4- '^rfw 
tat 4 harati becomes 7Trr iRfir (or 7T^T:f7T) tad dharati, ' he seizes that/ 

51. By a similar rule, and on the same principle, are written words ending in 
■?F k, followed by initial "^h; thus ^T^ 4 ^Tfw vdk + harati becomes ^PT -mfif 
vdg gharati, ' speech captivates.' Similarly, roots ending in Z t, followed by a 
termination beginning with IT /; ; thus 1^7 + T? dwif-\-hi becomes f^Tfe dwu^hi. 


Changes of final "J^n. 

52. If the letter ^w, preceded by a short vowel, ends a word, 
when the next begins with any vowel, the n is doubled : thus 

^Tifn=(^+ ^3 dsan + atra becomes ^re^ ^^ dsann atra, ' they were 

■frftR'5^ + ^?rT^ tasniin + udydne = irftR^ ^^T^ tasminn udydne, ' in 

that garden/ 
e^^,' If "^w ends a word, when an initial Ht,'^ ch, or z t, follows, 
a sibilant is inserted between the final and initial letter, according 
to the class of the initial letter ; and the »^ n then passes into 
Anuswara by 6. b : thus 

^9?"JT + lT^T't asmin + taddge becomes ^1t9T^¥PT or 'STftiT^ "K^Vt 

as7nins taddge, ' in this pool/ 
'^^\'^ + f^TT kasmin + chit = ^ftjTft5rr kasminschit *, ' in a certain 

5FrfT«^+ Z^". mahdn + tankah — JTf TF|;; mahdnshtan-kah,'- b, large axe/ 

a. A similar euphonic s is inserted between the prepositions sam, ava, pari, 
prati, and certain words which begin with k, as ^'^K sanskdra, V^K^^TK. pari- 
shkdra, irftT^aFT^ pratishkdra, &c. (see 70) ; just as in Latin, between the preposi- 
tions ab and ob, and c, q, and p. 

b. *T K at the end of a root, or incomplete word, is. not amenable to this rule : 
thus ?'«^+ fk han+ti is "^ftf hanti, ' he kills.' The word TT^'m^ jjramn (nom. of 
prasdm) is also an exception ; as, IT^Tf^Tf mfiT * the peaceful man spreads.' 

54. Rule 53 describes the only cases in which «^w, when originally the final of a 
word, can pass into Anuswara : thus, combinations like rrT«T 'TT'n'nT or ITT'^^^TnT 
can never be written ITT 'SrnTlfw, "flT ^TTiT. 

55. If "Tre ends a word, when the next begins with '^ s, then both *T ?i and ^ s 
may remain unchanged or be combined in either of the two following ways : i st, 
the final '5^n. may be changed to >T ri; thus 'R'5T«^-|- ^« mahdn -\- surah may be 
written JTfT>T 'STT: ' a great hero :' 2dly, the 'Jfl s may be changed to "S^ chh ; thus 
5R^T>T "^:. 

56. If "T ra ends a word, when the next begins with c? /, the n assimilates with 
the I, and the mark '■^ is placed over the preceding vowel : thus ''7''^«^+ c^HlTct 
pakshdn+lundti becomes "H^T^TfTT or tr^^ ^TfTfrT ' he cUps the wings.' See 7. 
Similarly, €V with Xafxira becomes (.XXafXTTW ; and con with ligo, colligo. 

* The same holds good before "?[ chh, and before ^ th, 7 th ; but the two latter 
arc never likclv to occur.. 


(I. Final «^/), before ^ j or ^jk, is sometimes (but very rarely) \vTitten in the 

palatal form >T; and before '^ d, "S dh, in the cerebral form W. 

57. "^ n as the final of crude bases is rejected before terminations and affixes 

beginninjr ^\'ith consonants : thus 

V'nT5T + f»nT dhanin-\-bhis becomes 'fPtTftT'^ dhanibhis, ' by rich people.' 

^"^^4" r^ (///a?^^■« + ^^^•a='V^f^TR dhanitwa, ' the state of being rich.' 

fl. As the final of a root it is rejected before those terminations beginning with 

consonants (excepting nasals and semivowels), which have no symbol indicative of 

Guna. (See 307 and 318.) 

b. Also, when the word ending in rT m is the first (or any but the last) member 

of a compound word, even though the next member of the compound begins with 

a vowel : thus 

vTsT^ -{- '^^'T rfijan + purusha becomes TT^tM^"^ rdja-purusha, 'the king's 

^TW«T-|- 2^ rdjan -f Indra ^TJ^{!^ rdjendra, ' the chief of kings.' 
^TTii7"«T + '^% swdinln + arthara = *s l*-M% swdmyartham, 'on account of the 

Change of t\ n, not final, to ts n. 

58. If -^ n {not final) follows any one of the three cerebral letters, 
"^ ri, X r, Tif sh, in the same ivord, then rf 71 must be changed to the 
cerebral in n, even though cfi k, i] g,xs p, sf b, (or their aspirates,) ^ /«, 
"^ I/, "^ V, or ^ m, intervene. Thus the nora. plur. of ^te^ "^^3lT ^ a 
withered flower,' is ^E=?rrfe xj-LTjififT sushkdni pushpdni (not ^TEwf^ 
"^Eqifft). Similarly, the accus. case of "^^r);^ brahnahan, ' a brahman 
slayer,' is srwtrirr ; the imperative of fj^iJ kship, ' to throw,' is 
fgjxjTf'CT ; the nom. plur. of ^r(^ varman, ^ armour,' is «RTfTrr ; the 
instrum. sing, of JT^T mriga, ' a deer,' is tttru. But the intervention 
of a dental, or cerebral consonant, or of any palatal except y, or of 
any letter whatever (excepting a nasal, a semivowel, or ^ h) if con- 
junct with the nasal, prevents the operation of this rule. Thus 
the instrum. case of ^m?5 srigdla, ' a jackal,' is "STtttH'T; the nom. 
plur. of "^tT vartman, * a word,' is "^rf^ ; and in further illustra- 
tion of the same law, may be taken "HW^ sarjana, ' abandoning;' 
■^It?? h'idana, ' playing ;' inTftfrr prdpnoti, ' he obtains ;' TTsTT rdjnd, 
' by a king.' But ^rgj is sometimes written W^^. 

Changes of final 37 m. 

59. If JT tn ends a word or root, when any consonant follows, then 
H m may pass into Anuswara, or may optionally, before those con- 
sonants which have a corresponding nasal, be changed to this nasal : 


thus Ti^rw -f" 'TTTR griham -\-jugdma is written either tj^ imT'T or ^^ 
WITH 'he went home :^ so also sam-{-dina becomes either ^ifhr or 
^4!/]H ' flight ;' sam -\- chaya, either ^^tj or IT^R ' collection ;' sam -}- 
nydsa, either A^nm or ^RiTTTr 'abandonment;^ gam-\-td, either ifrTT 
or TRTT. But although JT m may in these cases pass into Anuswara, 
the latter must always take the sound of the nasal to which it may 
optionally be changed. 

60. When the next word begins with a vowel, then jt m must 
always be written : thus ni^iTnnfiT or tt^ji^ ^rrmfw griham dydti, ' he 
comes home.* 


61. Nearly every nominative case, and many other cases of nouns, 
in Sanskrit, besides many inflections of verbs, end in ^*, which is 
changeable to ^ s, and is liable to be represented by : Visarga (i. e, 
the symbol for a final aspirate), or to pass into t; r, or to be liquefied 
into T u, or to be dropped altogether, according to the nature of the 
initial letter following*. At every step these changes will meet the 
eye : therefore let the student master the following five rules, before 
he attempts to read a single sentence of the most elementary San- 
skrit work. 

Observe — The following rules are designated by Indian grammarians, " rules 
for the changes of Visarga." This exaltation of a mere symbol to the place of the 
letter which it represents, tends, however, to embarrass the subject unnecessarily, 
and imparts to Visarga itself a nature so Protean, that the student is continually 
foiled in his effort to apprehend a character which is liable to become now s, now r, 
now M, now y, now to be dropped, and now to return to its original form. It 
seems a simpler and preferable course (the result being in the end equivalent) to 
start from the tangible character ^s, which Visarga, under certain circumstances, 
represents ; or, in other words, to regard Visarga as no letter at all, but a mere 
symbol for final ^s, and, as we shall afterwards see at 71, for final '^ r, when 
these letters are pronounced with an imperceptible aspiration (compare rule 8), 
as they are always pronounced before ^ k, '^ p, "^ s, "^ s, and at the end of a 

* The interchangeableness of s with r and h is not unknown in other languages. 
Thus the Latin Jlos becomes in the genitive Jioris ; genus becomes generis .- and 
many other Latin words, such as labor, robur, were originally written either labor 
or labos, robur or robus. Again, the initial aspirate in many Greek words passes 
in Latin into sj as, ef , sex, &c. 


First Rule. — JVheti does final ^ s remain unchanged, or become 
•^ s, 'Br sh ? 

62. Before "n" /, ^ ch, and z {, respectively. Before TT t, and its 
aspirate, it remains unchanged. Before 'g ch, and its aspirate, it 
passes into the paLital sibilant "^I s. Similarly, before Z t, and its 
aspirate, it passes into the cerebral sibilant "R sh. But this latter 
change can rarely occur, as very few words in Sanskrit begin with 
Z t or z th. 

a. In some books final F^s is allowed to remain unchanged before 
'^ s, and to assimilate with initial ^ s. 

Second Rule. — When does final ^ s pass into Visarga (:) ? 
6'^. Before efi A:, "qjo, and their aspirates, and before the sibilants 
•^ s, ^ s. 

a. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a sentence. 

b. Observe — When a word stands by itself, final s properly passes into Visarga; 
and this is why, in native grammars, the terminations of nouns and verbs, which 
appear first in the tabular scheme, as ending in s, are made to end in Visarga, 
when they appear again in declension and conjugation. In the following pages, 
however, s will be preserved as a final, in declension and conjugation, for two 
reasons : ist, because it is more tangible, and easy to apprehend, than a symbol 
which is imperceptible in pronunciation : 2dly, because it enables the classical 
student to keep in view the resemblance between Sanskrit and Greek and Latin 

Third Rule. — When does final tt s blend tvith a preceding ^ a 
into the voivel ^ o ? 
64. When preceded by short ^ a, before all soft consonants, it is 
treated as if liquefied into T «*, and blends with the a into Wt 0. 
a. Similarly, before short ^ a, which a is then cut off. 

Fourth Rule. — When does final ^^s become ^r? 
6^. When preceded by any other vowel but ^ a or ^T a, and 
before all soft letters, consonants or vowels. 

* That is, it is first changed to r, as at 65, and r is then liquefied into a vowel ; 
just as / is often changed to u in French. The plural of animal is animaux, not 



a. Unless ^ r itself be the soft letter following, in which case, to 
avoid the conjunction of two r's, final ^ s is dropped, and the vowel 
preceding it (if short) is lengthened. 

Fifth Rule. — When is final ^s dropped? 

66. When preceded by short ^ a, before any other vowel except 
short ^ a *. NB. The ^ a, which then becomes final, opens on the 
initial vowel without coalition t- 

a. When preceded by long '5IT a, before any soft letter, consonant 
or vowel. NB. If the initial letter be a vowel, the ^rr d, w hich then 
becomes final, opens on it without coahtion. 

b. When preceded by any other vowel but ^ a or ^ a, before 
the letter r, as noticed at 65. a. 

c. Observe — Although it simphfies the subject to speak of final s as dropped in 
these cases, yet, according to native grammarians, it would be more correct to say 
that final s first passes into Visarga, which is then dropped : otherwise the term 
Visarga is without meaning. Indian grammarians, however, hold that Visarga 
undergoes another change before it is dropped, viz. to yj and that this y is rejected 
in accordance with 36, 37. 

The above five rules are illustrated in the following table, in 
which the nominative cases ^R^ naras, 'a man;' tttttt nards, 'men;' 
ffc;^ haris, ' the god Vishnu;' fcg^ ripus, ' an enemy;' and '^t^^naus, 
' a ship' — are joined with the verbs karoti, ' he does ;' kurvanti, 
' they do ;' khanati, ' he digs ;' khananti, '^ they dig ;' pachati, ' he 
cooks ;' pachanti, ' they cook ;' sarati, ' he goes ;' sochati, ' he 
grieves;' tarati, 'he crosses;' charafi, 'he moves;' gachchhati, 
'he goes;' jayati, 'he conquers;' rakshati, 'he preserves;' atti, 
'he eats;' adanti, 'they eat;' eti, 'he goes;' dydti, 'he comes;' 
edhate, ' he prospers.' 

* That is, it blends with a into o, as in 64; and becoming av before any vowel 
but a, the ?' is rejected by 36. Indian grammarians hold that final s or Visarga 
here becomes y, which would also be rejected by 36. This, however, seems rather 
to apply to 66. a. 

t This is one of the three cases in which a hiatus of two vowels is admissible in 
Sanskrit. The three cases are, i . when final s is rejected from as or as {66); 2. when 
a complete word, ending in e, is followed by any other vowel but a (see 36) ; 
3. when the dual terminations l^ 7', "35 ?/, IJ e, are followed by vowels (see 38). 




K^ s- -e 


a ^ 

§- S ^ 5 

§- 3 


































3 3 M 3^ 3^ 

F 2 


6"]. There is one common exception to 62,63, 64: ^HT sas, * he/ and 
Tl^K^eshas, 'this,^ the nominative cases of the pronouns TT^ tad and ;jlT^ 
etad (320, 223), drop the final s before any consonant, hard or soft; as, 
^ sfirVfrT sa karoti, ' he does;' ^^ ir^lf sa yachchhati, ' he goes;' TTR TT'^fTT 
esha pacliati, ' this man cooks.' But rules 64. «, 66 and 63. c, are 
observed: thus, 'iffsfq so 'pi, ' he also ;' ^ ini: sa eshah, '• he himself.' 
Sometimes sa may blend with a following vowel, as %q: for ^ ij^: . 

A remarkable agreement is observable here in the Greek for Of. Compare 
also the Latin qui for quis, and ille, iste, ipse, for i7/ms, istus, ipsus. Bopp considers 
that the reason why sa dispenses with the termination s is, that this termination is 
itself derived from the pronoun sa. 

a. There is an option allowed when an initial sibilant is compounded with 
another hard consonant. In that case, the preceding final s may be dropped ; as, 
■^K *3i«t^rd hari skandati, ' Hari goes.' 

b. A rare exception to the first rule occurs, when an initial H t \& compounded 
with a sibilant. In that case, the preceding final s becomes Visarga ; as, ^r;J "RT^ 
37^ I In harih tsarum grihndti, ' Hari grasps the hilt of his sword.' 

68. The preceding rules are most frequently applicable to ^s, as the final of the 
cases of nouns and inflections of verbs ; but they come equally into operation in 
substantives or adjectives, whose base or crude form ends in "^^as, H^is, and "^^ms; 
thus, by 64, ^■CT?T^+ ^^"3" chakshus+ikshate becomes ^'^T ^^^^ chakshur ikshate, 
'the eye sees;' and '^'^^_^-\-f>!{TX^chukshus-\-bhisz^'^'^'*^^chakshurbhis, 'by 
eyes.' Similarly, by 65, 'T»T^+ ti H 1 fn manas -\-junuti =:'T»n »^HinT mano jdndti, 
' the mind knows;' and ^'^'^ + f*W 77lanas-{-bkis=^Wtf*^ ma7iobhis, ' by minds.' 
a. Observe — All nouns ending in X'l,** ^"^^ '3'^ws may be regarded as ending 
in 3^'^ ish and "^W ush, which is the form they necessarily assume in declension 
before the terminations beginning with vowels (see 70, and compare 41. b) : thus 
^■^^ + "^T chakshus + a becomes -"^t^Ml chakshushd, ' by the eye ;' but before 
consonants they must be treated as ending in the dental sibilant. See 165. 

69. '^s at the end of the first member of a compound word, before hard letters 
of the guttural or labial classes ('^k,^ p, or their aspirates), may follow 63, or 
is more usually retained, passing sometimes into "^ sh, according to 70 : thus 
rtltf^ + '^ tejas + kara becomes either WIT^^ or ft»i;«tii, ' causing light ;' 
TJfH^ + "^TT prddus + krita becomes HTH'Boir'iT prddushkrita, ' made manifest ;' 
f^^+ tlfk divas + pati = f^^^^rfrT ' the lord of day.' 

a. Again, in opposition to 64 and 65, a final ^^s is usually retained before 
affixes beginning with "^ v and f{ m, passing sometimes into ^ sh, according to 70 : 
thus ■fTrTF + fViT tejas+vin becomes riiiff^JTf frjaswin, ' full of hght ;' WHT + ^ 
bhds+vara=^Tr^T bhdswara, 'radiant;' and ^f%W^+ m[^archis + ?»a<=^P^^iff 
archishmaf, ' possessing flame.' 

70. ^s, not final, passes into ffsh when preceded by any other vowel 
but ^fl or W[d; also when preceded by the semivowel Tir, or by cF /:. 


thus ^afM + ^ agni + su becomes ''HPhv agnishu, ^ in fires ;' oirct 4- ftr 
karo + si= ofiTtf^ karoshi, ' thou doest ;' f^>T^ + ftr bibhar + si — f^- 
m§ bibharshi, ' thou bearest ;' ^TcF + ^ t"a^ +su = "^^ vdkshu, ' in 
words.' See 69. and 69. a. 

a. An intervening Anuswara or Visarga does not prevent the operation of this 
rule : thus, "^T^f^, ^^f^, f f%:^, '^^'^' 


71. Most of the changes of final T^r are the same as those of 
final ^ s. 

a. Thus, by 63, TnTTT^ + «fiTH prdtar + kdla becomes TTTrTt'^iTc^ prdtahkdla, ' the 
time of morning ; ' and HTflT; + WT^ prdtar -\- sndna = TTTTTt^PT prdtahsndna, 
' morning ablution.' But r as the final of a root, or as a radical letter, remains 
unchanged before a sibilant: thus, '^ + ^ = ^ (No. 70); f^>T^ + "ftr = f^>rf|. 

h. By 62, TTTcr^ + 1^ prdtar -\~fu becomes VM^^prdtastu; and VJW^ + "^prdtar 
-\- cha =■ Hlrt^d prdtas'cha. 

Note, that the transition of r into s before t is exemplified in Latin by gestum 
from (/ero, ustum from ?iro, &c. On the other hand, r in the middle of words is 
preserved before t in Sanskrit, as in kartum, &c. 

c. By 65, fJTT + T^ nir+ukta remains f^fT^^ nirtikta, ' described ;' "RT; + ^'^ 
nir-\-daya remains f»T^^ nirdaya, 'without pity;' and f«T^ + T^ nir + rasa is 
»/l<« nirasa, ' without flavour.' 

d. After the analogy of 65. a, final ar before initial r drops its own r, and 
lengthens the preceding aj as "^^ -f T^fff putiar + rakshati becomes ^11 T^uT 
/)Mna rakshati, ' again he preserves.' 

e. But in opposition to 64 and 66, final 'src cw, unlike W^^ as, 
remains unchanged before any soft letter (consonant or vowel) : thus 
imTT + WT^ prdtar + dsa remains irraTT'^T prdtardsa, ' morning meal ;' 
THTT + ^nfir punar + ydti remains ^^ ^nftr punar ydti, ' again he goes.' 

72. T,r at the end of the first member of a compound, before "^ k, '^ p, and 
their aspirates, may either become Visarga, by 63, or more usually follows 69, and 
passes into ^^s, which is Uable to become '^sh by 70 : thus f?r^ + TRic5 nir+phala 
becomes fHUfit^ nishphala, 'without fruit.' In the case of 5^ + ^ dur+kha, 
Ht^ is more common than 5^^' 

73. T r may optionally double any consonant, except ■? h, that immediately 
follows it : thus f?IT + ^ nir + day a may be written frf^^ nirddaya. 

The following table exhibits the more common combinations of 
consonants at one view. Observe, that in the top fine of initial 
letters the aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is an 
universal rule, that whatever change takes place before any conso- 
nant, the same holds good before its aspirate. 



IT » 


w »> 

tj ^ 

P- a, 
IT s 

K -^ 
Pr ^ 



< o 









rS t i 



^- ^- :« 













■k 1 «§ 












.1: ^ Ǥ 












a, a. 







s s 











•2 § =§ 






^2 ^1 eg 










"« -ii 

:^ 1 4 




^« 6 

^B ^B 



B B 


o *^ 

s -^ 








Before treating of Sanskrit nouns, it will be advisable to point 
out in what respect the peculiar system adopted in their formation 
requires an arrangement of the subject diiferent from that to which 
we are accustomed in other languages. 

74. In Sanskrit nouns (including substantives, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and numerals) there is this great peculiarity, that every one 
of them has two distinct states prior to the formation of the nomi- 
native case; viz. ist, a root; 2dly, coming directly from the root, 
a state which is sometimes called tJie crude form ; that is to say, 
a state antecedent to inflection, and anterior to any of the cases, 
even the nominative. This form of the noun is more properly 
termed the nominal base, or the inflective base of the noun ; that is, 
the changed form of the root, which serves as the basis on which the 
system of cases is constructed. In the first place, then, let us inquire 
what is the root ? 

There are in Sanskrit about two thousand elementary sounds, out 
of which, as out of so many blocks, are carved and fashioned, not only 
all the nouns, but all the verbs which exist in the language. 

a. Though the root may be compared to a rough block, or to the raw material, 
out of which nouns and verbs are constructed, yet the student must understand 
that in the dialect of the Vedas, and even in modern classical Sanskrit, roots are 
not unfrequently used by themselves as substantives and adjectives, and are very 
commonly so used at the end of compounds. See 84, 87, and 173. 

b. Every one of these roots or primary sounds conveys some 
simple idea, which appears under different modifications in the 
derivatives from it. Thus — to mention a few of the most common 
— the root f^■^ kship conveys the idea of ' throwing ;' -^ kri, of 
' doing,' ' making ;' wt kri, of ' buying ;' ^ hri, of ' seizing,' '■ taking ;' 
'^yuj, 'joining;' ^H«5, ^i^?;n7, 'being;' ^bhii, 'becoming;' ift'^ 
jiv, 'living;' T=ft r*/, 'leading;' f^ ji, 'conquering;' Jji^ffam, m yd, 
■^T char, •gi'T kram, ^z. ij sri, T^^xf^ skand, ' going ;' ^ vad, W^ vach, 


■^ bru, ' speaking ;' ^ budh, "^ jncl, ' knowing ;' "H^ dris, ' seeing ;' 
^w/i, ^^«w, ' wishing;' ^ 7wri, ' dying ;' ^ c^o, ^ giving ;' ipijjan, 
' producing;' >n dhd, ' placing;' "^ ad, w^^ bhuj, V{^ bhaksh, ' eating;' 
trr pd, ' drinking ;' tj^^ pack, ' cooking ;' ^ han, ' killing ;' Tnr pat, 
* falling;' -^^vas, 'dwelling;' f^ vis, 'entering;' mj sthd, 'stand- 
ing;' y^ sru, 'hearing;' t^ spris, 'touching;' fjlVsidh, WIV fidd/i, 
'accomphshing;' w^^kup, -^krudh, 'being angry;' f% cAi, ' collect- 
ing;' in ^^r«, ' smelHng ;' ^in ^%«, * relating ;' 1T5I «gs, ' perishing ;' 
mm tyaj, x^ rah, ' quitting ;' fV^ divish, ' hating ;' f^T^ nind, ' blam- 
ing;' -J f/m, ' running ;' ^dyut, -^^dip, vn bhd, 3M swM, 'shining;' 
\pu, ' purifying ;' ir^ prachchh, ' asking ;' 'stt^ dp, c5>T labh, ' ob- 
taining ;' ^ stu, ^^ sans, ' praising ;' mr^ yat, ' striving ;' tth yam, 
' restraining ;' ^ sak, ' being able ;' irxr tap, ' heating ;' ^f dah, 
'burning;' H^mwcA, ' liberating ;' ^ ??iM7/, ' being foolish ;' "^ yudb, 
' fighting ;' ;^| ruh, ' growing ;' f ^ has, ' laughing ;' ^tf sivap, 
' sleeping ;' ^ hrish, ■Jf^ nand, ^Tr[ hldd, ' being glad ;' W\ snd, 
' bathing ;' TH rabh, ' beginning ;' ^t: swar, ' sounding ;' ^T?r sah, -^ 
vah, ' bearing ;' w smri, ' remembering ;' ^ir^ arch, ' honouring.' 

c. Observe, that it will be convenient, in the following pages, to express the 
idea contained in the root by prefixing to it the infinitive sign to. But the student 
must not suppose that the sound kship denotes any thing more than the mere idea 
of throwng;' nor must he imagine that in deriving nouns from it, we are 
deriving them from the infinitive, or from any part of the verb, but rather from a 
simple original sound, which is the common source of both nouns and verbs. 

75, A cursory glance at the above list of common roots will serve 
to shew that there are two particulars in which they all agree. 
Every one of them is monosyllabic, and every one of them contains 
a single vowel, and no more. In other respects they offer consider- 
able diversity. Some consist of a single vowel only ; some begin 
with one or two consonants, and end in a vowel, but none end in 
either ^ a or ^ au ; some begin with a vowel, and end in one 
or two consonants * ; and some begin and end with one or two 

* Rule 43, which requires that if a word ends m a conjunct consonant, the last 
member shall be rejected, is not applicable to roots, unless they are used as 
complete words in a sentence. Nevertheless, in the case of roots ending in a 
consonant, preceded by a nasal, the latter is often euphonicaUy dropped, as 
^^ becomes ^. 


consonants *", inclosing a medial vowel ; so that a root may some- 
times consist of only one letter, as ? i, ' to go f and sometimes ol" 
five, as ^i^ skand, ' to move ;' 11'^ prachchh, ' to ask.' 

a. There are a few polysyllabic words recognised as roots, but tliey are generally 
the result of the accidental conjunction of a preposition with a monosyllabic root ; 
that is to say, the preposition has been so constantly used in conjunction with the 
root, that it has at length come to be regarded as part of the root : thus in 
the roots tifiM*^ san-grdm, ' to fight,' and W^>ft^ avadhtr, ' to despise,' the pre- 
positions '^ sam and ^"H ava have combined with the root in this manner. A few 
other polysyllabic roots are the result of a reduplication of the radical syllable ; 
(as, <;U.ji daridrd, 'to be poor;' "Wf^ jdgri, 'to be awake;' ■«|ohlH chakds, 'to 
shine;' T^ vevi, 'to go,' ' pervade;') and a few are derived from nouns; as, 
"*HT^ ' to play,' from <^*iW kumdra, ' a boy.' 

b. Roots beginning with "^ n and ^ s are liable, according to 58 and 70, to be 
changed to W m and '^ sh. Hence these roots are invariably exhibited in Native 
Grammars as beginning with TJT and '^, because the Indian system requires that 
in exhibiting any general type of a class of words, that form should be taken 
which may occur even under the rarest circumstances. But in this Grammar, 
roots of which the initials are «T n and ^ s will be exhibited as beginning with 
these letters, by reason of their more frequent occurrence. 

c. Indian grammarians attach certain symbolical letters and syllables (called 
anuhandhas or ' appendages') to particular roots to indicate peculiarities in their 
conjugation. Thus the letter ^ i, placed after a root, marks the insertion of a 
nasal ; as in the root nid, which could be written f^\f^ nidi, to shew that in con- 
jugation «T re is inserted (pres. ninddmi, &c.). Similarly, ?X ir marks two forms 
of the 3d preterite ; thus suchir shews that such may make either asochisham or 
asucham in that tense. So also, ^ au indicates a root which rejects the inserted 
i (see 391); ^0 marks the substitution of na for ta in the pass, participle; 
3 u, the optional insertion of i in the indeclinable participle ; "35 w, the optional 
insertion of i in the two futures, &c. 

76. The learner is recommended to study attentively the com- 
monest of these roots, or elementary sounds, as given at 74. b. 
He may rest assured, that by pausing for a time at the root, his 
progress afterwards will be more rapid, when he ascends to the 
branches which spring from it. For it must never be forgotten, 
that every word in Sanskrit, whether substantive, adjective, verb, or 
adverb, stands in close filial relationship to some radical sound. In 
fact, every root is a common bond of union for a large family of 
words, which might otherwise appear unconnected ; and words 

* One root, '^Sn^^schyut, ' to drop,' begins with three consonants. 


which, when viewed apart from the root, are isolated symbols, 
demanding a separate eifort of memory for each separate idea which 
they express, fasten themselves readily on the mind when regarded 
as so many parts of one original idea, so many branches of a 
common stock. 

Thus, to take any one of the foregoing roots — as, for example, budh, 'to 
know' — we shall find that from it may be drawn out with great regularity, ist, a 
set of simple substantives ; 2dly, of simple adjectives ; 3dly, of simple verbs : 
thus, hodha or bodkana, 'knowledge;' buddhi, 'intellect;' bodhaka, 'an informer;' 
bauddha, 'a Buddhist;' budha, 'wise;' buddhimat, 'intellectual;' and the follow- 
ing verbs, bodhati, ' he knows ;' budhyate, ' it is known;' bodhayati, ' he informs;' 
bubhutsafe or bubodhishati, ' he wishes to know ;' bobudhyate, ' he knows well.' 
And the simple idea contained in the root may be endlessly extended by the pre- 
fixing of prepositions ; as, prabodha, ' vigilance ;' prabiidkyate, ' he awakes.' 

77. In the next place we are to inquire what is the base or crude 
form of the noun. The student should understand, at the outset, 
the meaning and use of this form. It is an intermediate state 
between the root and nominative case, the naked form of the noun, 
which serves as the basis on which to construct its eight cases, 
beginning with the nominative. In a Greek or Latin dictionary 
we look for the noun under the nominative case, but in Sanskrit we 
look for it under its crude state. Thus, hodha, bodhana, tat, 
panchan, bhavat, are the crude bases under which the nominative 
cases bodhas, bodhanam, sas, paiicha, bhavdn, are to be sought. And 
here it may be observed, that the base of a noun is no mere gram- 
matical invention. It is, perhaps, more practically useful than the 
cases derived from it. It is that form of the noun which is always 
used in the formation of compound words, and in this respect may 
be regarded as the most general of cases. And since every Sanskrit 
sentence contains more compound words than simple, it may with 
truth be said, that the crude base is the form under which the noun 
most usually appears. 

We may conceive it quite possible that Greek and Latin grammarians might 
have proceeded on a similar plan, and that they might have supposed a root Ae-y, 
from which was drawn out the nouns ^e^i?, Ke^iKog, XeKTOg, KaraXoyrj, eAAo- 
yog^ and the verbs Aeyo), KuraXeyw, eXXoyeu: so also, a root scrib, from which 
was derived the nouns script io, scriptum, scriptor, scrijjtura; and the verbs scribo, 
perscribo, ascribo : or a root nau, fi-om which would come nauta, navis, nauticus, 
)iavalis, navigo, &c. Again, they might have supposed a crude base to each of 


these nouns, as well as a root ; as, for instance, Aef/ and KeqiKO of Ae^/f and 
XeQtKog, and navi of navis ; and they might have required the student to look for 
Xiqig under Ae^;, Aeyw under Aey, navis under navi, and navigo under nau. 
Further than this, they might have shewn that the base was the form used in 
the formation of compound words, as in \eqiKoypa(pog, naviger. But Greek and 
Latin are too uncertain in their construction to admit of such an analysis being 
completely carried out. 

78. It will be perceived from the foregoing remarks that the 
consideration of Sanskrit nouns must divide itself into two heads : 
ist, the formation of the base; 2dly, the inflection or declension of 
the base ; that is, the adaptation of the base or modified root to a 
common scheme of case-terminations. 

a. In fact, it will appear in the sequel, that the same system applies both to 
nouns and verbs. As in verbs (see 248) the formation of a verbal base from a 
root precedes the subject of verbal inflection or conjugation, so in nouns it is 
necessary to the clear elucidation of the subject that the method of forming the 
nominal base from the root should be explained antecedently to declension. 

b. Indeed, it must be remembered that nouns, substantive and 
adjective, in Sanskrit are classified into separate declensions, accord- 
ing to the finals of their bases, not according to the finals of their 
cases ; and it becomes essential to determine the form of the final 
syllable of the nominal base before the various declensions can be 

79. The bases of nouns, substantive and adjective, are formed 
either by adding certain affi.xes to the root, the vowel of which is 
liable, at the same time, to be gunated or vriddhied (see 28. a) ; or 
by adding certain afiixes to the bases of nouns already formed. 
When, however, the root itself is used as a noun, no affix is 
required, but the root is then also the base. Hence it follows that 
the final syllable of nominal bases will end in almost any letter of 
the alphabet. Those bases, however, that end in vowels may be 
conveniently separated under four classes, each class containing 
masc, fem., and neuter nouns ; the ist ending in ^ a, "m a, and 
^ e; the 2d in ^i; the 3d in ^ u ; and the 4th in "% ri. Those 
that end in consonants may also be arranged under four classes; the 
1st, 2d, and 3d, ending in fst or ^ </, "^«, '^^s, respectively (compare 
44) ; and the 4th comprising all other final consonants. 

a. It will be afterwards shewn, that the first class of nouns, comj)ri.'5ing bases in 
a, d, and i, is by far the most numerous and important. See 109. 

G 2 


Bearing in mind, therefore, that Sanskrit declension consists in 
building up a system of cases on a base, by attaching the case- 
terminations to that base — bearing in mind, moreover, that the whole 
distinction of declensions depends on the distribution of the bases 
of nouns under eight classes, according to their final syllables — we 
are now to explain more precisely, under each of these classes, the 
method of forming the nominal inflective base by regular derivation 
from the root. 

Observe — It is not intended that the student should dwell long 
on the following pages printed in small type. He is recommended 
to read them over rapidly, and to note carefully the final letters of 
the base under each of the eight classes. 

Observe, moreover, that although all the bases of Sanskrit nouns, 
without exception, are derived from roots, there are many in which 
the connection between the noun and its source, either in sense or 
form, is not very obvious *. The following rules have reference 
only to those bases whose formation proceeds on clear and intelli- 
gible principles. 


80. First Class. — Comprising Masculitie and Neuter bases in ^ a ; 
Feminine m ^ a and \ i. 

Formed by adding to roots — 

I. ^ a, forming, ist (nom. -as), after Vriddhi of medial a of a root, and Guna 
of any other vowel, a large class of masculine substantives ; as, from the root div, 

to sport,' deva, a deity.' If a root ends in ch or _;', these letters are changed to 
k and g respectively ; as, from pack, ' to cook,' pdka, ' cooking ;' from yuj, ' to 
join,' yoga, 'joining.' See 43. d. 

II. "^ a, forming, 2dly (nom. masc. -as, fern, -a, neut. -am), after Guna of a 
final, and sometimes Guna of a medial vowel, nouns of agency and adjectives ; 
as, from plu, to swim,' plava, ' what swims ;' from srip, ' to creep,' sarpa, ' what 
creeps.' See 580. Adjectives of this form generally occur at the end of com- 
pounds; as, onw-f/oTOff, ' foe-taming ;' bhayan-kara, ' fea.r-causmg.' Compare cor- 
responding formations in Greek and Latin; as, l7r7ro-^afi.Oi, veri-dicus, grandi- 
loquus, omni-vorus, &c. When ^ ei; and ^^ "^vg are prefixed to these adjectives, 

* Thus punisha, ' a man,' is said to come from pur, ' to precede ;' srigdla, ' a 
jackal,' from srij, ' to create.' 


they are susceptible of a passive sense, both in Sanskrit and Greek ; as, «<*< 
' easy to be done ;' JT^BT; ' hard to be done,' &c. Similarly, iixpopog, ivicpopog, 

^ViTOfXOg, &C. 

III. "^ a, forming, 3dly (nom. -as, -a, -am), adjectives; as, from subh, ' to shine,' 
subha, ' beautiful.' Sometimes there is great change of the root ; as in siva, ' pro- 
pitious,' from "^ft SI, ' to sleep ;' sundara, ' beautiful,' from "ff dri, to respect :' 
and sometimes the feminine may be formed in t; as, simdari. There are very few 
adjectives formed with this affix. 

IV. Wofi aka (nom. -akas, -akd or -ikd, -akam), after Vriddhi of a final vowel or 
medial a, and Guna of any other vowel. StiU more common than a to form 
adjectives and nouns of agency (see 582. b) ; as, from tap, 'to burn,' tdpaka, ' in- 
flammatory;' from kri, 'to do,' kdraka, a doer.' Observe, -«M is generally taken 
for the feminine of the adjectives, and -ikd for the feminine of the agents ; as, 
tdpaka, kdrikd. Compare Greek forms like <f>vXaKog. 

V. ^TtT ana (nom. -anam), after Guna of the root, forming, ist, a large class of 
neuter substantives; as, from m, 'to guide,' nayana, 'the eye,' 'guidance;' from 
da, ' to give,' ddna, ' a gift ;' from drip, to make proud,' darpana, ' a mirror.' 
Compare analogous Greek formations in avo ; as, opyavov, opeTravov, &c. 

W^ ana, forming, 2dly (nom. -anas, -and, -anam), nouns of agency (see 582. c) 
and adjectives; as, from nrit, 'to dance,' nartana, 'a dancer;' from subh, 'to 
shine,' sobhana, ' bright.' Compare Greek forms hke iKavog, &c. The feminine 
of the agents is sometimes in -ant. 

VI. rfwa. Afewabstract nouns are formed with wa; as, yo/wa,' sacrifice,' from ?/«;; 
yatna, ' effort,' from yat; swapna, ' sleep,' from swap. Compare VTTVOg, somnus. 

VII. W tra (nom. -tram), after Guna of the root ; as, from jm, ' to drink,' pdtra, 
'a vessel;' from "^ sru, 'to hear,' srotra, 'the organ of hearing.' This affix is 
used to form neuter nouns denoting some instrument or organ, and corresponds 
to the Latin trum in aratrum, plectrum, &c.; and the Greek rpov, 6pov in ViTrrpov, 
/SixKTpov, ^dSpov, &c. 

VIII. There are other uncommon aifijces to roots to form adjectives and a few 
substantives in ^a (nom. -as, -d, -am) ; as, T ra, 75 la, vtc) ala, ^IT ara, '^X vara, 
JTT mara, ^19 ila, ^ ira, TT! ura, T55 ula, T ma, '^ va, W tra, ^TRi dka, TiX. era, 
Tofi uka, "3ioIi uka, «fi ka. The following are examples of nouns formed with these 
affixes: dipra, 'shining' (compare Greek formations like ka[J.7r-pog, &c.; and 
Latin ^M-rws, &c.); chandra,' the moon;' s'ukla, white;' cAo^a/a, ' fickle ;' tarala, 
'trembUng' (compare Greek forms like ipoyj-akoq, Tpcui-ikoq; and Latin trem- 
ulus, &c.) ; vatara, ' unsteady' (compare Greek forms like (pavepog, &c.) ; jitwara, 
' victorious ;' ghasmara, ' voracious ;' anila, ' wind ;' pathila, ' a traveller' (compare 
Latin forms hke agilis, &c.); chhidira, 'an axe;' bhidura, 'brittle;' harshula, 'a 
lover;' bhima, 'terrible;' gharma, m., heat;' yugma, n., 'a pair;' dhuma, m., 
' smoke' (compare forms like Bv-fxog, avefx-og, fumus, animus, &c.) ; aswa, m., ' a 
horse' (equus); chitra, 'variegated;' jalpdka, 'talkative' (compare forms hke 
Inr/uacs, loquac. and (f)evaKg for (f)€va,Kog) ; patera, ' moving ;' varshuka, ' rainy ;' 


jdgaruka, watchful' (added especially to frequentative or reduplicate forms ; as, 
from vdvad, 'to speak often;' vdvaduka, 'loquacious'); sushka, 'dry' (from smsA, 
to dry.' Compare Latin siccus). 

Formed by adding to the bases of nouns — 

IX. r«r twa (nom. -hvam), forming neuter abstract substantives from any noun 
in the language ; as, fi-om purusha, ' a man,' purushatwa, ' manliness.' In adding 
this affix to bases ending in nasals, the nasal is rejected ; as, from dhanin, ' rich,' 
dhanitwa, ' the state of being rich.' (See 57.) 

X. '^ ya, forming, ist (nom. -yam), neuter abstract substantives aud a few col- 
lectives, the first syllable of the noun taking Vriddhi; as, from ^^? suhrid, ' a 
friend,' ^T^ST saukridya, 'friendship.' When the base ends in a vowel, this vowel 
is rejected before ya is affixed ; as, from vichitra, ' various,' vaickifrya, ' variety.' 

XI. tr ya, forming, 2dly (nom. -yas, -yd, -yam), adjectives expressing some 
relationship to the noun ; as, from dhana, ' wealth,' dhanya, ' wealthy.' Some- 
times Vriddhi takes place ; as, from soma, ' the moon,' saumya, ' lunar.' In this 
case the fem. is -yi. Compare Greek adjectives in log, and Latin in ius. 

XII. '3T a (nom. -as, -i, -am), after Vriddhi of the first syllable of the noun, form- 
ing innumerable adjectives expressing some relationship to the noun. When the 
base ends in a, no further affix is required, and the only change is the Vriddhi of 
the first syllable; as, from purusha, 'a man,' ''it^^ paurusha, 'manly;' from 
Vasishtha, Vdsishtha, ' a descendant of Vasishtha.' When in a or i, this a or i 
must be rejected ; as, from sikatd, ' sand,' saikata, ' sandy.' When in u, this u is 
gunated, and becomes av before this and the three following affixes ; as, fi-om 
Vishnu, 'the god Vishnu,' Vaishnava, ' a worshipper of Vishnu;' from ddru, 'wood,' 
ddrava, wooden;' from manu, mdnava, ' a descendant of Manu.' When the initial 
letter of a word is compounded with v or y, these latter are resolved into uv and 
iy, which are vriddhied ; as, <Hl<^< sauvara, ' relating to sound,' from swara, ' a 
note ;' ^'iTW vaiydghra, ' relating to a tiger,' from vydxjhra, ' a tiger.' Observe — 
This applies to the two next affixes also. 

Sometimes the neuter form of these adjectives is taken as an abstract substantive ; 
thus, nominative case, paurusham, ' manliness ;' saisavam, ' childhood,' from sisu, 
* a child ;' or, as a collective ; thus, kshaitram, ' fields,' collectively, from kshetra. 
Observe — This applies to the two next affixes also. 

XIII. 1^ ika (nom. -ikas, -iki, -ikam), after Vriddhi of the first syllable of the 
noun, forming numerous adjectives. Before this affix is added, the final vowel of 
the base must be rejected ; as, from dharma, ' religion,' dhdrm.ika, ' religious ;' 
from t^enu, 'a flute,' vainavika, 'a flute-player;' from W^^swas, 'to-morrow,' 
^1 1 «1 Ttd <* sauvastika, ' relating to to-morrow.' Compare Latin forms like bellicus, 
nauticus, &c.; and Greek TToXef/.iKog, &c. 

XIV. ^^ eya (nom. -eyas, -eyi, -eyam), after Vriddhi of the first syllable of the 
noun, forming many adjectives. The final vowel of the base must be rejected ; as, 
(rom purusha, 'a man,' paurusheya, 'manly;' from agni, fire,' ngneya, fiery.' 
Compare forms like XeovTeiof. Aeovreoc; and Latin igneus, &c. 


XV. ^ tyn (noin. -lyas, -tyd, -lyam), without any change of the noun, except 
the rejection of final a; as, from parvata, ' a mountain,' parvafiya, ' mountainous.' 
Sometimes there is Vriddhi; as, from sukha, 'pleasure,' saukhiya, 'pleasurable.' 
When the final of the base remains, k is prefixed to this and the last affix ; as, 
from para, another,' parakiya, ' belonging to another.' 

XVI. There ai'e other uncommon affixes to nouns forming adjectives in ^ a 
(nom. -as, -a, -am); such as ma, ina, vala, tana; forming, from grama, ' a village,' 
gramma, ' rustic;' from ratha, ' a chariot' (Lat. rota), rathina, ' having a chariot ;' 
from sikhd, a crest,' sikhdvala, ' crested ;' from swas, ' to-morrow,' swastana, 
' future.' This last answers to the Latin timis, and has reference to time. Com- 
pare crastinus, &c. 

XVII. "^ ka (nom. -kas, -kd, -kam), added to words to form adjectives and col- 
lective nouns, or to express depreciation : thvis, madhuka, ' sweet,' from madkti, 

honey;' aswaka, ' a hack,' from aswa, ' a horse.' It is often redundant. 

XVIII. W^ maya (nom. -mayas, -mayi, -mayam), added to words to denote 
' made of,' ' full of;' as, from loha, ' iron,' lohamaya, ' made of iron;' from tejas, 
' light,' tejomaya, ' full of light.' 

XIX. WT tara {nom. -taras, -tard, -taram), imtama {nom. -tamas, -tamd, -tamam), 
^ ishta (nom. -ishtas, -ishtd, -ishtam), added to adjectives to express the degrees 
of comparison. See 191, 192. 

XX. ^U daghia (nom. -daghnas, -daghm, -daghnam), ^^TO dwayasa {-dwayasas, 
-dwayasi, -dwayasam), and ^T^ mdtra {-mdtras, -matri, -mdtram), added to words 
to denote measure' or height;' as, ^awM-rfa^AwawiyaZaTO, 'water up to the knees.' 

XXI. ^^^ desiya (nom. -desiyas, -desiyd, -desiyam) and eR^ kalpa (nom. 
-kalpas, -kalpa, -kalpam), added to words to denote ' similitude,' but with some 
inferiority; as, kavi-kalpa or kavi-desiya, 'a sort of poet:' or denoting 'nearly,' 
about ;' as, mrita-kalpa, nearly dead ;' vitisati-varsha-desiya, ' about twenty years 
of age.' 

a. Observe — The affixes IT ta and 1[iT ita (nom. -tas, -td, -tarn), forming innu- 
merable passive participles — as, jita, ' conquered,' from ji, ' to conquer,' &c. — fall 
under the first class of bases. See 530. 

b. So also many other participles formed with mdna, ana, tavya, aniya, ya, &c. 
See 526, 527, 568. 

c. ^ ita is said to be added to nouns to form adjectives ; as, phalita, ' fruitful,' 
from, phala, fruit ;' but these may be regarded as passive participles from nominal 
verbs. See 551. 

By adding to roots — 

XXII. W[ d (nom. -a), with no change of the root, forming feminine substan- 
tives ; as, from jiv, 'to Xwe,'' jiva, ' life ;' from ^"W sprih, ' to desire,' ^"^T sprilid, 
' desire.' Compare Greek formations hke (pofia, (f>vyv] ; and Latin fuga, &c. 
Occasionally there is Guna ; as in lekhd, a line,' from likh, ' to write ;' jard, ' old 
age,' from jri, ' to grow old.' This affix is frequently added to the desiderative 
form of a root; as, from pipds, 'to desire to drink,' jnpdsd, 'thirst;' and rarely 


to the frequentative or intensive ; as, from loluy, ' to cut much,' loliiyd, ' cutting 

A few abstract nouns are formed with rfT nd; as, trishnd, 'thirst,' from Irish: 
compare Greek nouns in vyj. 

By adding to the bases of nouns — 

XXIII. WT td (nom. -td), forming feminine abstract substantives; as, from 
purusha, ' a man,' purushatd, ' manhness.' This affix may be added to any noun 
in the language, and corresponds to the Latin tas in celeritas, &c.; and the Greek 
ri^g in KOiKOTYig, TTkaTvrrjg (^^iTT). 

Also forming collectives ; as, "^"^^^^WT ' a number of relations,' from "^'^ ' a 

XXIV. ^ trd (nom. -trd), forming a few substantives, derived from neuters in 
tra (see VII), and like them denoting 'the instrument' or 'means;' as, ^'^T ' a 
tooth,' 'the instrument of biting,' from dans, 'to bite;' Midi 'provisions,' 'the 
means of going,' from yd, ' to go.' 

XXV. '^ { (nom. -i), forming a large class of feminine substantives, usually 
derived from mascuhnes in a, by changing a to i; as, from nada, ' a river,' fem. 
nadi ; from putra, ' a son,' fem. putri ; from nartaka, ' a dancer,' fem. nartaki. 
An affix dm is used to denote ' the wife of;' as, from Indra, ^*^[*sji\ (58) ' the wife 
of Indra.' Compare the Greek aiva in 6eaiva, &c. 

XXVI. '^ t (nom. -i), forming, 2dly, the feminine of nouns of agency, like ^Tff 
ddtri, ' a giver' (129. b), and kdrin, ' a doer' (160). 

XXVII. \{ (nom. -i), forming, 3dly, the feminine of many adjectives; as of 
tami, 'thin' (118. a), of dhanavat, 'rich,' and dhtmat, 'wise' (140. b); of dhanin, 
'rich' (160), and of comparative degrees like haliyas (167). Observe — The femi- 
nine of some adjectives formed with the affixes a, ya, ika, and cya (XI. XII. XIII. 
XIV), and of some adjectives like sundara, ' beautiful,' is also formed with i. 

XXVIII. A few roots standing by themselves as substantives, or with preposi- 
tions prefixed, or at the end of compounds, may come under this class ; as, bM, 

fear,' djt'id, 'an order,' from ^TT 'to know;' sendm, 'a general,' from send, 'an 
army,' and ni, ' to lead,' &c. It will be more convenient, however, to consider the 
declension of monosyllabic nouns in i' under the 2d class. See 123. 

81. Second Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in \\. 
Formed by adding to roots — 

I. \i, forming, ist (nom. -is), a few masculine substantives; as, agni, 'fire,' 
from an-k, 'to mark;' kavi, 'a poet,' from ku, 'to sound;' ahi, 'a snake' (^X'S", 
unguis), from anh, 'to move;' dhtvani, 'sound,' from dhwan ; peshi, a thunder- 
bolt,' from pesh, 'to crush,' &c. "When this affix is added to the root dhd, 'to 
place,' ' to hold,' d is dropped, and various prepositions are pi-efixed ; as in sandhi, 
vidhi, nidhi, &c. 

Also a few feminine nouns ; as, krishi, ' ploughing,' from krish j lipi, ' writing,' 
from Up, &c. Compare Greek forms like %«/?'?, Ikirti, fxyjvig (»T^^). 


II. ^t, forming, adly (nom. -i), one or two neuter substantives; as, from vri, 
'to surround,' vdri, 'water;' from aksh, 'to perA-ade,' akski, 'an eye' {oculus, 


III. ^j, forming, 3dly (nom. -is, -is, -i), a few adjectives ; as, from such, ' to be 
pure,' snchi, 'pure;' from budh, 'to know,' bodhi, 'wise.' 

IV. fH mi (nom. -mis), forming a few nouns; as, bhihni, f., ' the earth,' from bhii, 
' to be' [humus) ; rasmi, m., ' a ray,' &c. 

V. fk ti (nom. -tis), forming abstract substantives feminine. This affix bears 
a great analogy to the passive participle at 531. The same changes of the root 
are required before it as before this participle ; and, in fact, provided the passive 
participle does not insert i, this substantive may always be formed from it, by 
changing ta into ti. But if i is inserted before ta, no such substantive can be 
formed * : thus, from vach, ' to speak,' ukta, ' spoken,' ukti, ' speech ;' from man, 
' to imagine,' mata, ' imagined,' m,ati, ' the mind ;' from da, ' to give,' datta, ' given,' 
datti, ' a gift.' And when na is substituted for ta of the passive participle, ni is 
substituted for ti; as, from glai, ' to be weary,' gldna, ' wearied,' gldni, ' weariness;' 
from lu, ' to cut,' Una, ' cut,' luni, ' cutting :' but not always ; as, from ^l^' to fill,' 
purna, ' full,' purtti, ' fulness.' This affix corresponds to the tio of the Latin, 
added in the same way to passive participles ; as, actus, actio ; junctus, junctio 
(yuktis). Greek exhibits analogous forms in ^evgi$, TrtUTig, ooaig. 

A few masculine nouns are formed with ti; as, yati, ' a sage,' from yam, ' to 
restrain;' jiidti, 'a relation,' homjhd; pati, 'a husband' [ior pdti), from pd. 

Formed by adding to the bases of a few nouns ending in a — 

VI. ^i (nom. -is), after Vriddhi of the first syUable, and after rejection of the 
final vowel. This affix forms a few patronymics ; as, fft^lrfnT daushyanti, ' the son 
of Dushyanta,' from ^«M»ft dushyanta. 

82. Third Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in "g- u. 
Formed bv adding to roots — 

I. "3"m, forming, ist (nom. -us), substantives of the mascuUne, and one or two 
of the feminine gender; as, from bandh, 'to bind,' bandhu, m., 'a kinsman;' 
from kri, 'to do,' kdru, m., 'an artificer;' from bhid, 'to cleave,' bhidu, m., 'a 
thunderbolt ;' from tan, ' to stretch,' tanu, f., ' the body.' 

II. "3" u, forming, 2dly (nom. -u), one or two neuter substantives ; as, ddru, 
' wood,' from dn, 'to cleave' {^opv) ; madhu, ' honey' {[J^eOv), &c. 

III. ■3" «, forming, 3dly (nom. -us, -us or vi, -u), sometimes with change of the 
root, a few adjectives ; as, from swad, ' to taste,' swddu, ' sweet' {'/jov) ; from ta^i, 
' to stretch,' tanu, ' thin' (compare ram) ; from langh, ' to spring,' laghu, ' light' 
{Ikayy); from prath, 'to extend,' /^rif Am, 'broad' {iiXarv). This affix is often 
added to desiderative roots to form adjectives ; as, from piims, ' to desire to drink,' 
pipdsu, ' thirsty;' from fafiftf^W ' to desire to live,' ftTrftf^ ' desirous of living.' 

* Nevertheless, ^T^tflT from 'j^rf occurs, though not given in the Dictionarj'. 



Latin has added an i to all adjectives formed with n in the cognate languages ; 
as, tenuis from tanus; gravis (for gariiis) from gurus. It has, however, substan- 
tives in u; as, currus, acus, &c. 

IV. '^ nu (nom. -nus, -nus, -nu), forming adjectives and substantives ; as, from 
tras, 'to fear,' trasnu, 'timid;' from bhd, 'to shine,' bhdnu, m., 'the sun;' from 
(Ike, to drink,' dkenu, f., ' a cow;' from su, ' to bear,' siimi, m., ' a son.' (Compare 
Greek forms like Xiyvv^.) 

V. '^W ishm (nom. -ishnus, -ishnus, -islinu), with Guna of the root, forming 
adjectives ; as, from kshi, ' to perish,' kshayishnu, ' perishing.' 

VI. There are many other affixes to roots, forming nouns in « (nom. -us, -us, -«); 
as, ^ ru, IT nu, ?Jiirt dht, W snu, '^^T^ dm, ^(9" itnu, TT tu, ^"^ athu, ^ yu. The 
following nouns afford examples of these affixes : bhtru, ' timid ;' asru, n., ' a tear' 
(for dasru, from dans, 'to bite,' compare OaKpv, lacryma); saydlu, 'sleepy;' 
sthdsnu, firm;' sardru, ' noxious;' gadayitnu, ' loquacious;' jantu, m., ' an animal;' 
gantu, m., 'a traveller;' vepathu, m., 'trembling;' manyu, m., 'wrath' (^€VOf) ; 
and mrityu, m. f., ' death.' 

There are a few nouns in long li, which may conveniently be placed under this 
class. They consist chiefly of roots standing by themselves as substantives, or at 
the end of compounds : thus, >T^ f. ' the earth,' *s*(*^ m. ' the self-existent,' &c. 
See 125. a, 126. b. 

83. Fourth Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in ^ri. 
Formed by adding to roots — 

I. "^ tri, forming, ist (nom. -td, -tri, -tri), nouns of agency of three genders, 
the same change of the root being required which takes place in the first future, 
and the same euphonic changes of t (see 386 and 581): thus, from kship, 'to 
throw,' ksheptri, 'a thrower;' from dd, 'to give,' ddtri, 'a giver;' from "^^I'to 
know,' Wt'S boddhri, 'a knower;' from ^|r 'to bear,' ^ffe' 'patient.' This cor- 
responds to the Latin affix tor, and the Greek rvjo : compare dator, OOTrjo. 

II. 1^ tri, forming, 2dly (nom. -td), nouns of relationship, masculine and femi- 
nine ; as, pitri, ' a father,' mdtri, ' a mother.' 

84. Fifth Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in tt t 
and J[ d. 

Formed by adding to roots — 

I. T^^ (nom. -t, in all genders), if the root ends in a short vowel: forming nouns 
of agency, substantives and adjectives, of three genders ; as, from kri, ' to do,' 
krit, a doer;' from ji, ' to conquer,' jit, ' a conqueror.' This class of nouns are 
never used, except as the last member of a compound : thus, karmakrif, ' a doer 
of work.' 

Roots already ending in / or d, taken to form adjectives or nouns of agency, fall 
under this class; as, from vid, 'to know,' dharmavid, 'one who knows his duty;' 


from 1^ ' to eat,' "Si^l^ " an eater of flesh.' There are also a few nouns falling 
under this class, formed by prefixing prepositions to roots ending in < or rf or a 
short vowel ; as, from vid, ' to know,' ^Jf^ f. ' an agreement ;' from ^^[^dijut, ' to 
shine,' vidyut, ' lightning ;' from pad, ' to go,' sampad, ' success.' So also, ^rn7fT^ 
' battle,' from ^ ' to go ;' T<lf^^ ' a theological work,' from ^^ sad. 

One or two roots ending in 7^ or ^ may stand by themselves as substantives : 
thus, ^ mud, f., ' joy ;' f^'r^c/uY, f., ' the mind.' 

The practice of using roots at the end of compounds prevails also in Greek and 
Latin; as in %ep-n\\/ {-vl(3), (Sov-ttXyjI (-TrA^y), &c., arti-fex {-fie), carni-fex 
{-fie), jircB-ses {-sid), &c. And there is a very remarkable agreement between 
Sanskrit and Latin in the practice of adding t to roots ending in short vowels : 
thus, com-it {comes), ' a goer with ;' equ-it (eques), ' a goer on horseback ;' al-it 
{ales), ' a goer with wings ;' super-stit {superstes), ' a stander by,' &c. Greek adds 
a similar t to roots with a long final vowel; as, a-yvu>T, a-izTwr, &c. (See 
Bopp's Comparative Grammar, Eastwick, 1293.) 

IL T^^t (nom. -it, in all genders), after Guna of the root, forming a few sub- 
stantives and adjectives; as, from TS sri, 'to flow,' '^fljf^sarif, f., ' a stream;' from 
^ ' to seize,' liTfT ' green,' ' Vishnu.' 

in. There are a few other nouns in W / and ^ d, of uncertain derivation; as, 
H^TT ra. ' the wind,' ^R!^ f. ' autumn,' "^^^ f- ' a stone,' W^ n. ' a lotus.' 

By adding to the base of nouns — 

L Wt^^vat (nom. -van, -vati, -vat), if the base ends in a or d*, forming innu- 
merable adjectives ; as, from dhana, ' wealth,' dhanavat, ' possessed of wealth.' 
This and the next affix are universally apphcable, and are of the utmost utility to 
form adjectives of possession. Sometimes vat is added to bases in s and t; as in 
in{Wt[^t€Jaswat (compare 69. a) and vidyutioat (see 45). Compare Greek forms in 
ezf, evr; as, "/apiei^, yapievT, ^UKpvoeig, ^aKpvoevT, &c. 

H. m[^mat (nom. -man, -matt, -mat), if the base ends in i, i, or u, to form 
adjectives like the preceding; as, from dhi, ' wisdom,' dhimat, ' wise ;' from ansa, 
' a ray,' ansumat, radiant.' 

85. Sixth Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in ^R an 
and l^^in. 

Formed by adding to roots — 
L '^PT an (nom. -a), forming a few masculine nouns ; as, rdjan, ' a king,' from 
raj, ' to be glorious ;' takshan, ' a carpenter,' from taksh, ' to cleave ;' ukshan, ' a 
bull' (compare English oxen), from uksh, ' to impregnate ;' snehan, ' a friend,' from 
snih, ' to love,' &c. Greek and Latin have similar formations in wv, &v, tjv, av, 
on and inj as, reKTOV = W^'^T {reKTCOv), eiKOV {-kccv), homin {homo), &c. 

* Vat is not often found added to feminine bases. It occurs, however, occa- 
sionally ; as, efiPfTT^lT ' having a wife,' f^^RT^' crested.' 

H 2 


II. W*{^man (nom. -ma), after Guna of the root, forming neuter substantives; 
as, from kri, ' to do,' karman, ' a deed.' This affix corresponds to the Latin mmi, 
in regimen, agmen, stamen, &c. ; and to the Greek /xa)V, in {XVi^fxav, TX.rjy.CiiV, &c. : 
but adjectives in man, like '^IT'^ ' prosperous,' are very rare in Sanskrit. A few 
nouns in man are masculine; as, dtman, ' soul' (nom. -md); ^TT*^ the hot season ;' 
yi'+jrj ' fire ;' ■CTPlT'JT ' sin ;' '^t^'^ ' a border ;' '^TJT ' a loom.' 

III. T?T ?•«« (nom. -vd, -rd, -va), forming a few substantives and adjectives; as, 
"H^'TT ' seeing,' ' a looker,' from dris, ' to see.' 

By adding to roots or to the base of nouns — 
W . ~^^ linan (nom. -imd), forming masculine abstract substantives. If the 
noun ends in a or w, these vowels are rejected ; as, from kdla, ' black,' kdliman, 
' blackness ;' from laghu, ' light,' laghiman, ' lightness ;' from mridu, ' soft,' 
mradiman, &c. If it ends in a consonant, this consonant, with its preceding 
vowel, is rejected ; as, from mahat, ' great,' mahiman, ' greatness.' A medial ri 
before a simple consonant is changed to ra, but not before a double consonant ; 
as, from onuii ' black,' wfdHT'T ' blackness.' A final ri is gunated ; as, sariman 
fi'om srij stariman from stri (compare stramen); hariman, 'time,' from hri, &c. 
Iman is generally added to adjectives, and the same changes take place before it, 
that take place before the affixes lyas and ishtha (see 192): thus, gariman, preman, 
drdghiman, bhuman, prathiman, &c. 

By adding to roots — 

V. '^'T in (nom. -i, -ini, -i), after Vriddhi of a final vowel and medial a, and 
Guna of any other medial vowel, forming nouns of agency of three genders (see 
582. b); as, from kri, 'to do,' kdrin, ' a doer.' Compare Greek and Latin forma- 
tions in ov and nn; as, t^ktov {-Kxav), edon (edo), &c. 

By adding to the base of nouns — 

VI. '^ in (nom. -/, -ini, -i), forming innumerable adjectives of possession. The 
final of a base is rejected before this aflRx ; as, from dhana, ' wealth,' dhanin, 
' wealthy ;' from mdld, ' a garland,' mdlin, ' garlanded ;' from vrihi, ' rice,' vrihin, 
' having rice.' Compare Greek and Latin formations in av and on; as, yvaS-uv, 
' having cheeks ;' nasoii {naso), ' having a nose.' 

VII. f^^^vin (nom. -vi, -vim, -vi), if the base ends in a or as, forming a few 
adjectives ; as, from medhd, ' intellect,' medhdmn, ' intellectual ;' from tejas, ' splen- 
dour,' fejaswin, ' splendid.' Compare 69. a. 

86. Seventh Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in 
W?T as, ^ is, and T^^ us. 

Formed by adding to roots — 
I. '^F ris (nom. -as), after Guna, forming a great many neuter substantives; as, 
from man, ' to think,' manas, ' the mind ;' from sri, ' to go,' saras, ' water.' It 
also forms one or two masculine and feminine nouns; as, i^edhas, m., Brahma;' 


chandramas, m., ' the moon;' apsaras, f., ' a nymph ;' nshas, f., ' the dawn,' from 
ush, ' to glow :' but in these the nominative is long (-«.s-). 

II. 3(^JS or "^^^us (nom. -is, -us). In place of as, the neuter affixes is or us 
are occasionally added; as, from hu, 'to offer,' havis, 'ghee;' from chaksh, 'to 
speak,' chakshus, ' the eye.' See 68. a. With as compare the Latin es in nubes 
(«T*TH ?ja6/i«*'), sedes (W^^sadas), &c. ; but especially the us and ur of words hke 
genus, scelus, robur. Compare also the Greek formations 7ra5-0f, €0-0$, [Xev-Oi, 
i/zeD^-os-, &c. 

87. Eighth Class. — Masculine, Feminine, and Neuter bases in any 

Consonant, except IT t and r^ d, v^ n, TT s. 

Formed by using roots as adjectives, substantives, or nouns of agency — 

Any root may be used to form an adjective or a noun of agency, provided it be 
the last member of a compound word : thus, from ^cir ' to be able,' sarvasak, 
omnipotent.' Those roots which end in t or d, or in a short vowel, having t 
afiLxed, have been already noticed as faUing under the fifth class. This eighth 
class is intended to comprise aU other roots, ending in any consonant; as, W^^bhuj 
(nom. bhuk) ; TT5T raj (nom. TXZ) ; TflW (nom. THZ) ; WV (nom. >Jf^) ; ^ (nom. 
"^^IT) ; HTT (nom. gts) ; f^^(nom. dyaiis) ; ^^ (nom. sprik) ; V^ (nom. "R?) ; 
fc5^ (nom. f<^) ; |['? (nom. Y^)' 'f'T^'^^(nom. pipak). There are also one or 
two other nouns derived from roots falling under this class; as, TTHJI'T ' thirsty ' 
(nom. ^U!l«h) ; "^ff^iT ' a priest' (nom. ^PrBioh) ; ^Ws^n. ' blood' (nom. '^^^) ; 
and a few substantives foi-med by prefixing prepositions to roots ; as, ^T*T''J f. 
'fuel' (nom. ^^TTT^), from the root ^■'^' to kindle' (see 43 and 75, with note). 

A few roots standing by themselves as substantives may fall under this class : 
thus, "JV f. ' battle' (nom. "^TT) ; "^VI f. ' hunger' (nom. ■^) ; ^T"^^ f. ' speech' 
(nom. Ml«f»), from vach, ' to speak,' the medial a being lengthened. Greek and 
Latin use a few monosyllabic roots in the same manner; as, 01^ [ott], (f)Xo^ 
{(f)\oy), &c.; and Latin vox (voc), lex (leg), dux (due). 




88. Having explained how the base of nouns is generally formed, 
we have now to shew how it is inflected. 

As, in the last chapter, nouns, substantive and adjective, were 
arranged under eight classes, according to the final of their bases 


(the first four classes comprising- those ending in vowels, the last 
four those ending in consonants), so it will be the object of the 
present chapter to exhibit their declension or inflection under the 
same eight classes. Moreover, as every class comprised adjectives 
as well as substantives, so it is intended that the declension of a 
masculine, feminine, and neuter substantive, exhibited under each, 
shall serve as the model for the declension of masculine, feminine, 
and neuter adjectives coming under the same class. 

89. The learner will have already gathered that the noun has 
three genders, and that the gender is, in many cases, determinable 
from the termination of the base. Thus, all bases in a, i, and those 
formed with the affix ti (No. 81. V), are feminine: nearly all nouns 
whose crudes end in ana, twa, ya, tra (see under 80), as, is, us (86), 
and inan (85. II), are neuter; all in iman (85. IV) are masculine; 
but those in a, i, u, and ri, are not reducible to rule. The nomina- 
tive case is, however, in the first of these instances a guide to the 
gender ; as, devas, ' a deity,' is masculine ; but ddnam, ' a gift,' 
neuter. And in other cases the meaning of the word ; as, pitri, ' a 
father,' is masculine ; and mdtri, ' a mother,' feminine. 

90. In Sanskrit, all the relations between the words in a sentence 
are expressed by inflections. A great many prepositions exist in the 
language, but they are rarely used alone in government with any 
case, their chief use being as prefixes to verbs and nouns. The 
dearth of such useful syntactical auxiliaries leads to the necessity 
for eight cases, which are regularly built upon the base. These 
are called, i. nominative; 2. accusative; 3. instrumental; 4. dative; 
5. ablative ; 6. genitive ; 7. locative ; 8. vocative *. Of these, the 
third and seventh are new to the classical student. The instru- 
mental denotes generally the instrument by which a thing is done ; 
as, tena kritam, ' done by him.' The locative generally refers to 
the place or time in Avhich any thing is done ; as, Ayodhydydm, ' in 
Ayodhyd;' purvakdle, ' in former time ;' bhumau, ' on the ground f.' 
Hence it follows that the ablative is restricted to the sense from. 

* These cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus N. will 
denote nominative ; L, instrumental. 

t Both these cases are used to denote various other relations. See the Chapter 
on Syntax. 


and cannot be used, as in Latin and Greek, to express by, with, in, 
at, on, &c. 

91. According to the Indian system of teaching, each of these 
eight cases has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural ; and to 
each belongs a termination which is considered to be peculiarly its 
own, serving alike for masculine, feminine, and neuter nouns. 
Again, according to the native system, some of the terminations 
may be combined with memorial letters to aid pronunciation or 
assist the memory. Thus the proper termination of the nominative 
singular is ^ s (expressible by Visarga before k, p, and the sibilants, 
or at the end of a sentence, see 61,) ; but the memorial termination 
is TT su, the letter u being only memorial. Similarly, the termina- 
tion of the nominative plural is jas, the j being memorial. The 
two schemes of termination, with and without the memorial letters, 
are here exhibited. The first is given in small type, as being of no 
importance excepting as subservient to the second. 

TerminatioTis with memorial letters. 





. '^ SU 

■^ an 



^ am 

W\Z auf 




wit bhydm 



T n.e 

wrr bhydm 

WW bhyas 


tFh n-asi 

vqf bhydm 

WRT bhyas 



^IcT OS 

^1 dm 


fr n-i 

^^ OS 


Terminations without memorial letters. 






^ au 

^^^ as 


^ am 

— au 

— as 


^n a 

WTT bhydm 



^ € 

— bhydm 




— bhydm 

— bhyas 


— as 


"m dm 





92. Observe — The vocative is not given in the above general 
scheme, as it is held to be only another aspect of the nominative, 
and always coincides with the nom. in the dual and plural. In the 
singular it is often identical with the base, and has no termination. 



a. Observe also — The terminations beginning with vowels will 
often be called voiv el-terminations ; those beginning with consonants, 
including the nom. sing., will be called consonantal-terminations. 

Similarly, those cases which take the vowel-terminations will some- 
times be called voivel-cases ; and those which take the consonantal, 

93. Having propounded the above scheme, which for convenience 
will be called the memorial scheme of terminations, as the general 
type of the several case-affixes in the three numbers, Indian gram- 
marians proceed to adapt them to every noun, substantive and 
adjective, in the language, as well as to pronouns, numerals, and 
participles, whether masculine, feminine, or neuter. In fact, their 
theory is, that there is but one declension in Sanskrit, and that the 
base of a noun being given, and the regular case-terminations being 
given, the base is to be joined to those terminations according to 
the usual rules for the combination of final and initial letters, as 
in the following examples of the two bases, ^T nau, f., ' a ship^ {navi, 
vav), and ^frTT harit, m. f., ' green.' 



Nom. voc. "JTT^ naus 
nau + s 


■JTTTr ndvau 

nau + au. See 37. 


tTRIT ndvas 
nau + as. 37. 

Ace. ■JTR' ndvam 

nau -^ am. 37. 

— ndvau 

— ndvas 

Inst. iTT^ ndva 

nau + a. 37. 

■^vqr nauhhydm 
nau + bhydm 

^fir^^ naubhis 
nau + bhis 

Dat. "^1% nave 

nau + e. 37. 

— naubhydm 

vfr«W^ naubhyas 
nau + bhyas 

Abl. -iTT^ ndvas 

nau + as. 37. 

— naubhydm 

— naubhyas 

Gen. qvcc^ ndvas 

nau -\- as. 37. 

iTTTf^ ndvos 
nau + OS. 37. 

HI'm ndvdm 
nau + am. 37. 

Loc. rrrf^ ndvi 

nau+i. 37. 

— ndvos 

•^^ naushu 
nau -f su. 70. 





Nom, voc. •^fr?^ harit 

harit + s. 86643.0. 


•^ITT haritau 
harit + au. 41. i. 


^ft:TTTff haritas 
harit + as. 41. b. 

Ace. fftiT harit am 

harit -\- am. 41. b. 

— haritau 

— haritas 

Inst. ^fiiTT harita 

harit + a. 41 . b. 

f ft.^t haridbhydm 
harit + bhydm.4.i. 

^fT;fk^ haridbhis 
harit + bhis. 41. 

Dat. ■^frw harit e 

harit + e. 41. b. 

— haridbhydm 

^ftSHT haridbhyas 
harit + bhyas. 41. 

Abl. ^ftlT^^ haritas 
harit -\-as.41.b. 

— haridbhydm 

— haridbhyas 

Gen. — haritas 

•^ft^^^ haritos 
harit + os. 41. b. 

ffTTit haritdm 
harit + am. 41. i5i. 

Loc. ^ft;fw hariti 

harit + i. 41. b. 

— haritos 

^fTrP haritsu 
harit + su. 40. 

96. Unfortunately, however, it happens, that of nouns whose 
bases end in vowels, ^ 7iau, ' a ship/ is nearly the only one that 
admits of this regular junction of the base with the case-endings ; 
and, although nouns whose bases end in consonants are numerous, 
and are generally declined as regularly as harit, yet they are nume- 
rically insignificant, compared with nouns in «, d, i, i, u, and ri, 
whose declension requires frequent changes in the final of the 
base, and various modifications, or even substitutions, in the 

97. Thus in the first class of nouns ending in a (which will be 
found to comprise more nouns than all the other seven classes 
together; compare 80 with 81 — 87), not only is the final a of the 
base liable to be lengthened and changed to e, but also the termina- 
tion ina is substituted for d, the proper termination of the instru- 
mental sing. masc. ; ya for e of the dative ; t for as of the ablative ; 
sya for as of the genitive ; n for as of the accus. plural ; ais for bhis 
of the instrum. plural. And in many other nouns particular changes 
and substitutions are required, some of which are determined by 
the gender. 


The annexed table exhibits synoptically the terminations, with 
tlie most usual substitutions, throughout all the classes of nouns. 
Those substitutions marked * are mostly restricted to nouns ending 
in f/, and are therefore especially noticeable. 


X. TT (m. f.), JT * (n.) ^7 (m.f.), t (n.) ^ (m. f.), ^ (n.) 

Ac. ^ (m. f.), JT * (m. f. n.) ^ (m.f.), f (n.) ^TT,'ff (m.f.),7r*(m.),?(n.) 

I. ^^n (m. f. n.), ^Tf * (m. n.) «it (m. f. n.) fv{W (m.f.n.), ^tt* (m.n.) 

D. XJ (m. f. n.), -Ji * (m. n.) vqf (m. f. n.) vnv. (m. f. n.) 

Ab.'sm (m.f.n.), ■?T^(m.f.), ^^* (m.n.) vqr (m. f. n.) «iT? (m. f. n.) 

G. ^^(m.f.n.),^^(m.f.),^*(m.n.) ^T^r (m. f. n.) ^ (m. f. n.) 

L. 'S^ (m. f. n.), ^^it * (f.) »J?TIT (m. f. n.) ^ (m. f. n.) 

a. Comparing the above terminations with those of Latin and Greek, we may- 
remark that s enters into the nom. sing, masc, and m or n into the neuter, in all 
three languages. In regard to the Sanskrit dual au, the original termination was 
a, as found in the Vedas ; and a equals the Greek a, <c, and e. In nom. pi. masc. 
the s appears in many Latin and Greek words. In ace. sing., Sanskrit agrees 
with Latin, and frequently with Greek, as the Sanskrit m may be euphonically 
changed to n (v), if influenced by a dental following (see note to page i8). In the 
ace. pi. s appears in all three languages; and when the Sanskrit ends in n, as in 
the first class of nouns, this 7i is probably for ns, since a preceding a is lengthened 
to compensate for the rejection of s. In inst. pi. bhis is preserved in the Latin 
vobis, vobis, and the Greek (f>i{v) for (pig {vav-(f)iv = naubhis). The ais which 
belongs to Sanskrit nouns in a is probably a contraction of dbhis, since in the 
Vedas aswebkis for aswdbhis is found for aswais, and vrikebhis for vrlkais. The 
dat. pi. bhyas answers to the Latin bus. In the gen. sing, all three languages 
have preserved the s (ndvas, navis, vafog for vvjog); and in the gen. pi. dm is 
equivalent to the Greek av, and the Latin mn {'^^ = iro^av, pedum). In loc. 
sing, the Sanskrit i is preserved in the dative of Greek and Latin words (fJTf5I = 
vvKTi — Compare the expression ryj avTY/ vvkti — 'JTTf% = mflri). In loc. pi. 
su answers to the Greek cri ("^it^ = vavai ). Sanskrit bases in a prefix i to su; 
so that vrikaishii (29. b) = XvKOicri. The voc. sing, in Greek is generally identical 
with the base, and the voc. dual and pi. with the nom., as in Sanskrit : thus Xoye 
is the voc. sing, of Xoyog, Tpirjpeg of Tpivjpvjg, yapiiv of yapidig, ^a(7ikev of 
pao-tkevg, &c. See Bopji's Comparative Grammar, YjAstwick, passim. 

98. In the following pages no attempt will be made to bring 
back all nouns to the general scheme of terminations by a detailed 
explanation of changes and substitutions in every case. But under 
every one of the eight classes a model noun for the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter, serving for adjectives as well as substantives, 


will be declined at full ; and under every case of every noun the 
method of joining the final letter of the base -with the ])ropcr termi- 
nations will be indicated in English letters. 

99. The student must, however, understand, that the division 
into eight classes, which here follows, is not meant to imply the 
existence of eight separate declensions in the sense understood by 
the classical scholar, but is rather intended to shew, that the final 
letters of the inflective bases of nouns may be arranged under four 
general heads for vowels, and four for consonants ; and that all 
Sanskrit nouns, whatever may be the final of their bases, are capa- 
ble of adaptation to one common scheme of nearly similar case- 

a. In the same manner it will appear in the sequel, that the ten classes into 
which verbs are divided do not imply ten different conjugations, but rather ten 
different ways of adapting the bases of verbs to one common scheme of tense- 
terminations. There is no reason why the same system of generalisation should 
not have been carried out in Latin and Greek, had the inflection of nouns and 
verbs in these languages been built \ipon roots and crude bases. 

100. The classical scholar may, if he please, satisfy his own ideas of declension, 
by regarding masculine and neuter nouns in a, like siva of the first class, as his 
1st declension; feminine nouns in a and i, like sivd and nadi of the first class, as 
his 2d declension ; masculine and feminine noims in i and u, like havi, mati, 
bhdnu, and dhenu, of the second and third classes, as his 3d declension ; and all 
the remaining nouns, including the neuters of those in i and ?/, and all those 
contained in the last five classes, as his 4th declension. These four declensions 
may be traced in regular order in the following pages, and will be denoted by the 
capital letters A at 103 ; B at 105 ; C at 1 10 ; D at 1 14. 

101. Observe, that in declining the model nouns, under every 
inflection, the crude base with the sign + , and after it the termina- 
tion, will be exhibited in English letters. Moreover, the number of 
the rule of Sandhi which must come into operation in joining the 
final of the base with the initial of the termination will generally be 
indicated. For it is most important to remember, that the formation 
of every case in a Sanskrit noun supposes the application of a rule 
of Sandhi or ' junction ;' and that the very meaning of declension 
is the junction of the final syllable of the crude base with the 

I02. Not unft-equently, however, m some of the cases, the original final of the 
base is changed to its (juna or Vriddhi efpiivalent (see 27), or to some other 

1 a 


letter (see 4.3. b. c. d. e), before the termination is affixed; and not unfrequently 
the original termination of the scheme is changed for some other termination, as 
indicated at 97. 

In order, therefore, that the student, without forgetting the original final of the 
crude base, or the original termination of the memorial scheme, may at the same 
time observe, ist, whether in any particular instances the final of the base under- 
goes any or what modification — adly, whether the original termination sufPers any 
change — it will be desirable that, whenever in exceptional cases the final vowel of 
the base is to be gunated or vriddhied, or otherwise changed, this changed form of 
the base be exhibited in place of the original form : thus, at 103, under the geni- 
tive dual sivayos, sive + os denotes, that before the base siva is joined to the 
termination os, the final letter a is to be changed to e; and the number indicates 
the rule of Sandhi which must come into operation in joining sive and os together. 
Similarly, whenever the original termination has to be modified, it will be desira- 
ble that the termination be exhibited in its altered form : thus, at 103, under the 
accus. sing., siva + m denotes, that the base is to be joined with m, substituted for 
the original termination am. See the table, page 58. 




Masculine and neuter' bases in ^ a ; feminine bases in W[ a. and ^ i. 

Note, that this class comprises by far the greater number of nouns, substantive 
and adjective, in the language. It answers to a common class of Latin and Greek 
words in us and 0$, urn and ov, a and a; such as lupus, \vKOi ( = Sans, vrlkas, 
nom. of vrika); domtm, ^wpov; terra, y^^a, ( =>nrr); and to adjectives like hontis, 
ayaSog, &c. 

103. (A) Masculine bases in a, declined like %^ siva, m., ' the god 
S'iva/ or as an adjective, ' prosperous.' 

The final of the base is lengthened in D. Ab. sing., I. D. Ab. du., G. pi. ; and 
changed to e in G. L. du., D. Ab. L. pi. : n is euphonically affixed to the final 
in G. pi. 


■ftfl"^ sivau 


[s/ra + .v 

siva + an. See 33. 

siva -\- as. See 31 

r fsT^ stram 
Ac. i ,. 


— Sivati 


sivd+n. 31. 

{ %^»T Sivena 

f^^T^n kivdbhyam 


[sipa-\-ina. 32. 

sivd-\- hhyiim 

siim + ais. 33. 



{f^J^m Stvdya 


f^vqf kvdbhydm 


f^R«nfT kivebhyas 


j fsr^J^sivdt 
Ab.'i , 

siva+t. 31. 

^ I iit^m ^ivasya 


— sivdbhydm 

— sivebhyas 


sive+os. 36. 

r^l'ir^ sivdndm 


[siva+i. 32. 

— sivayos 

f^^ siveshu 

sive+su. 70. 

^ ff^siva 

f\m sivau 

I s'iva (s dropped). 92. 

£im+au. 33. 

siva+as. 31. 

104. Neuter bases in a, declined like f^'^ Siva, n., ' prosperous.* 
The final of the base is lengthened and assumes n in N. Ac.V. pi. 

[ f^ sivam f^ sive f^r^Tf*T sivdtii 

N.Ac. <. ,. , ,. , . 

\_siva^m. 97. siva^i. 32. swan-\-i 

The vocative is f^ siva, f^ sive, f^nTf*T sivdni ; all the other 
cases are like the mascuHne. 

105, (B) Feminine bases in d, declined like f^RI sivd, f., * the wife 
of S'iva,' or as an adjective, ' prosperous.' 

The final of the base is changed to e before I. sing., N. G. L. V. du.; and to dyd 
before D. Ab. G. L. sing. ; and assumes re in G. pi. 

J f^ITT sivd 

\sivd {s rejected) 

{f^RT sivdm 
sivd -\- am. 31. 

{%^TTT sivayd 
sive-\-d. 36. 

r %"Tr^ sivdyai 

' \sivdyd+e. 33. 

{ftnrnn^ sivdyds 
sivaya + s. 31. 
— sivdyds 

f^ sive 

sive [au rejected) 
— sive 

sivd-\-as. 31. 
— sivds 

f^^vitt sivdbhydm 

sivd+ bhydm 
— sivdbhydm 

f^TTrf>TH^ sivdbhis 
sivd-\- bhis 

f^RT«nT sivdbhyas 
sivd+ bhyas 
sivdbhydm — sivdl 

(%^TXlt sivdydm 
sway a -{-am. 31. 

\sim+i. 32. 

f^T^TT sivayos 
sive -\- OS. 36. 
— Sivayos 

f^ sive 

sive {au rejected) 

f^TiTT sivdndm 
f^oTT^ sivdsu 
f^prnfT siims 
sivd-\-as. 31. 



io6. Feminine bases in ^, declined like ff^ nadi, f., ' a river.' 

The final of the base becomes y before the vowel-terminations, by 34; is changed 
to yd in D. Ab. G. sing. ; is shortened in V. sing. ; and assumes n in G. pi. 




{Tfjft nadi 
nadi [s rejected) 



^i{^ nadyd 

nadi + d. 34. 

Tra' nadyai 

adyd-^e. 33. 

nadyd+as. 31. 

— nadyds 


■Jral" nadyau 
nadt + au. 34. 

— nadyau 

■^«lt nadibhydm 

nadl-{- hhydm 

— nadibhydm 

— nadibhydm 


nadi -\- as. 34. 

■JT^tfir^ nadibhis 
nudi-\- bhis 

»T^twnT nadibhyas 


— nadibhyas 


;»rat nadydm 

L nadi 

'!j^1;^nadyos "^^^j nadindm 

nadi-\-os. 34. nadin-\-dm. 

— nadyos "J?^^ nadishu 

nad{-{-dm. 34. nndi-\-su. 70. 

nadi iRit nadyau "JTU^ nadyas 

(final shortened) nadi+au. 34. nud{-\-as. 34. 

The classical student will recognise in the terminations of siva and wac/i' many 
resemblances to the terminations of nouns in Latin and Greek, remembering that 
the Sanskrit a corresponds to the Latin u and the Greek ; the Sanskrit m to the 
Latin m and the Greek V ; the Sanskrit a or i to the Latin a and the Greek 'Jy 
or a, or in the gen. plur. cy ; the Sanskrit bh or bhy to the Latin b. See 11./, 
and 97. a. 

107. In accordance with 58, such words as f^mriga, m.,'a deer;' ''^'^^ purusha, 
m., ' a man ;' >T'niT bhdryd, f., ' a wife ;' «jim4j kumdrt, f., ' a girl ' — must be written, 
in the inst. sing. m. and the gen. pi. m. f., with the cerebral ^w.- thus, J^'toT mrigena, 
^^^Rff, «j*lli(li, "^^Jtlt, ^rnrrot, ■^JnTHnt. when « is final, as in the ace. pi. m., 
it remains unchanged. 

a. Observe, monosyllabic nouns in ^ i, like "^ ' fortune.' vft ' fear,' &c., vary 
from nadt in the manner explained at 123. 

b. Observe also, that feminine nouns in "^i li are declined analogously to nadi, 
excepting in the nom. sing., where s is not rejected. See 125. 

108. When a feminine noun ending in d is taken to form the last member "of a 
compound adjective, it is declined like sirni for the masculine and neuter. Thus, 
taking the feminine noun vidyd, ' learning ;' whence may be formed the compound 
alpavidyd, ' little learning.' When this is used as a compound adjective, it becomes, 
in the nom. masc. fern, and neut., alpavidyas, alpavidyd, alpavidyam, ' possessed of 
little learning.' On the same principle, a masculine noun takes the feminine and 


neuter terminations, when forming the last member of a compoiuul adjective ; 
and a neuter noun, the mascuUne and feminine. 

a. When roots ending in ci, such as pa, 'to drink' or 'to preserve,' are taken 
for the last member of compound words, they form their neuter like the neuter of 
sivaj and for their mascuUne and feminine assume the memorial terminations 
regularly, rejecting, however, the final of the base in the Ac. pi. and remaining 
vowel-cases: thus, '^TTTT soma-pd, 'a drinker of Soma juice;' N. -"^T^, -Tft, 

-tn^; Ac. -tit, -■^, -TT^^; i. --qr, -m^i, &c.; d. -^, &c. 

b. ^1^1 hclhd, a Gandharlja,' assumes the terminations regularly throughout : 
thus, D. sing. '?TT. See p^;^. 

c. The voc. c. of v<gi ambd, ' a mother,' is ^ST^ amha. 

d. l\njard, ' decay,' forms some of its cases from jaras, at 171. 

109. To convince the student of the absohite necessity of studying 
the declension of this first class of nouns, he is recommended to 
turn back to rule 80. He will there find given, under twenty-eight 
heads, the most usual forms of nouns, substantive and adjective, 
which follow this declension. All the masculine and neuter sub- 
stantives in this list are declined like siva, and all the feminine 
either like sivd or nadi. Again, all the adjectives in this list follow 
the same three examples for their three genders. Again, according 
to Siva masc. and neut., and sivd fern., are declined all present 
participles (see 526, 527, 528) ; all passive past participles, Mhich 
are the most common and useful of verbal derivatives (see 530) ; all 
future passive participles (see 568) ; all participles of the second 
future (see 578) ; many ordinals, like prathama (208). Lastly, 
according to nadi feminine, are also declined the feminines of innu- 
merable adjectives, see 80. XIII. XIV ; the feminines of active 
participles, like kntavat {^^'^, and 140. a) ; the feminines of partici- 
ples of the 2d preterite, like vividwas (see 554 and 168) ; the femi- 
nines of many ordinals, like chaturtha (209). 


Observe, that the declension of the 2d and 3d classes of nouns 
(see 81 and 82) is exhibited together, that their analogy may be 
more readily perceived. 

2d class — Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in \i. 

3d class — Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in "g"?/. 

Note, that the 2d class answers to Latin and Greek words like ignis, turris, irokig, 
iriTTig, mare, fJifXi; and the ^d, to words like r/radus, (Borpvg, r]^vg, fxeSv. 



110. (C) Masculine bases m \i and g" n, declined like »!tO^ agni, 
m. (ignis), ' fire,' and vn^ bhdnu, m., ' the sun/ 

The final of the base is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. du., Ac. G. pi.; dropped in L. sing.; and assumes n in I. sing., G. pi. 



^T?ft agtii 

agm [au rejected) 

agne-\-as. 36. 

[ ^^rfriT agnim 

Ac. \ 


— agni 

■flfj^wit agnibhydm 




r^fj^HT agnind 


^ [^i^r^agnaye 
\agne-\-e. 36. 

— agnibhydm 


r ^!r^^ agues 

■ \agne^s 

G. { - ""'"' 

— agnibhydm 

— agnibhyas 

ngni+os. 34. 


[ agn {i dropped) + au 
^, \^^T^agne 

yagne (s rejected) 

— agnyos 

■^rr^ agni 

agm {au rejected) 

^fjHf agnishu 

agni+su. 70. 


agne + as. 36. 


[ hhdnu-\-s 

m"^ bhdnu 

bhdm'i {au rejected) 

bhdno -\- as. 36. 

\ HT^ bhdnum 

Ac. i ,, 7 

— bhdnu 

m^JT bhdniin 

bhdnu+ n 

J «T^5^ bhdnund 


m^«?t bhdnubhydm 


m^H^ bhdnubhis 

bhdnu -\-bhis 

J irr^n" bhdnave 

[bhdno + e. 36. 

— bhdnubhydm 

>ff'5T«rPr bhdnubhyas 

bhdnu + bhyas 

r Hr4l^ bhdnos 

Ab. i ,, , ^ 

— bhdnubhydm 

— bhdnubhyas 

J — bhdnos 


m'^rFfT bhdnundm 

bhdnu -\- OS. 34. 



I hkdn{u dropped) + au 

— bhdmvos 

HT"^ bhdnushu 

bhdnu+su. 70. 

J wr^ bhdno 
[ bhdno (s rejected) 

vrr^ bhdnu 

bhdnu (au rejected) 

bhdno-\-as. 36. 



112. Feminine bases in ^l and "W u, declined like fifij /nail, f., 
* the mind,' and V^ dhenu, f., ' a milch cow/ 

The final of the base is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pL ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. du., Ac. G. pi. ; dropped in L. sing, (unless the termination be ^^T) ; and 
assumes n in the G. pi. 

J Tfinr matis 


^■^ mati 


mati{au rejected) 

mate +08. 36. 

JtTtt matim 
Ac. \ 

jnaii + m 

— mati 


mati + s 

I ^7l\ matyd 
\mati+d. 34. 

TRfrT«n matibhydm 




J JT7R mataye * 
mate-\-e. 36. 

— matibhydm 

jTfw«J^ matibhyas 

" i^w^ mates * 


— matibhydm 

— matibhyas 

r — mates*- 
G.| ^ 


JTHf^ matindm 

mati+os. 34. 

matin -\- dm 

1 ?r^ matau * 

[ mat [i dropped) + au 

— matyos 

f{flC^ niatishu 

mati + su. 70. 

J »?^ m^ate 

[ mate {s dropped) 

Wfft mati 


matt (au rejected) 

mate+as. 36. 

\ dhenu '\-s 



dhemi {au rejected ) 

dheno-\-as. 36. 

vr^ dhenum 

dhenu -\-m 

— dhenu 



1 \r^T dhenwd 

\dhenu-\-d. 34. 

V^«lt dhenuhhydm 


dhenu + bhydm 

dhenu + bhis 

[f//(e?J0 + e. 36. 

— dhenubhydm 


dhenu + bhy as 



— dhenubhydm 

— dheriubhyas 

J — dhenos f 


>J^T dhenu nam 

u + os. 34. 

(ihemin + dm 

1 W dhenau f 

[ rf^ere (w dropped ) + av 

— dhenwos 

V^^ dhenushu 

dhenu-\-su. 70. 

[ dheno {s dropped) 


V^"^^ dhenavas 

dhenu {au rejected) 

dheno + as. 36. 

* TheD.may alsobe?T?rma/!/ffi; theAb.andG.JTWT^ma/'j/f/s; the L.^HQI ynafydm. 
t The D. may also be V^ dhe7iwai; the Ab. and G. '^'^\\dhenivdss and the 
L. V^^ dhenwdm. 



114. (D) Neuter bases in ^i and "g* m, declined like Tffr vdri, n., 
' water' (Lat. mare, Greek l^pw? for 'l^pi); and vp^ madhu, n., ' honey* 

The final of the base assumes n before the vowel-terminations, and is lengthened 
in N. Ac. pi. 



^rrfwf vdrini 

•^xtifm vdrini 

vdri (5 rejected) 

vdrin+{. See 58. 

vdrm+i. See 58. 


" — vdri 

— vdrini 

— vdrini 



Trft«lT vdribhydm 

^rftf^nr variMi* 

[vdrin + d 




"^jfm vdrine 

— vdribhydm 


vdrin -\- e 

— vdribhydm 


— vdribhyas 



[ vdrin -(- as 


— vdrin as 


^rthut vdrindm 

vdrin -\- os 

vdrin -\- dm 



— vdrinos 

■^Tf-L^ vdrishu 

vdrin -\- i 

vdri+su. 70. 


J ^ft vdri or ^ vdre 

Trfr^'^ vdrini 

^rr^firi vdrini 

I vdri or vdre. 92. 

vdrin -f- i 

vdrin + i 


' JTV madhu 

JTwft madhuni 

j?^rf«T madhuni 

madhu {s rejected) 


madhun + i 

f — madhu 

— madhuni 

— madhuni 


{H'Urn madhund 
{f{yi^ madhune 

{iTwiTr^ madhunas 
madhun + as 




iJTVfiT madhuni 
madhun +i 

Tfyntn madMibhydm ijnfivR^madhubhis 

madhu-\-bhydm madhu -\-bhis 

— madhubhydm n;^>iip^^madhubhyas 
madhu -\-bhy as 

— madhubhydm 

jtvtVh madhunos 

madhun -\- OS 
— madhunos 

JHV madhu or wi^madho fT^^ madhuni 

I madhu or madho. 92. madhun + i 

— madhubhyas 

jqTJrn madhundm 

madhun -{-dm 
JTvr^ madhushu 
madhu-\-su. 70. 
vc>sf^ madhuni 

madhiin-\-i ' 


ii6. The declension of neuter nouns in i and u follows the analogy of nouns in 
tre. Hence, vdri serves also as the model for the neuters of adjectives and nouns 
of agency in in, like dhanin and kdrin (159); and the neuters of nouns of agency 
in ri, like ddtri, and nouns of relationship like nidtri (130). 

117. Although there are not many substantives declined like agni and vdri (81), 
yet nouns like mati are numerous (81. V). Moreover, adjectives like suchi, and 
compound adjectives ending in i, are declined like agni in the masc. ; like mati in 
the fem. ; and like vdri in the neuter. 

118. Again, although there are but few substantives declined hke dhenu and 
madhu, yet it is important to study their declension, as well as that of the masc. 
noun bhdnu; for all simple adjectives like tatiu, and all hke pipdsu (82), and all 
other simple adjectives in w, and all compound adjectives ending in u, are dechned 
like bhdnu in the masc; dhenu in the fem.; and madhu in the neut. 

a. Many adjectives in u, however, either optionally or necessarily foUow the 
declension of nadi in the fem. ; as, tanu, ' thin,' makes its nom. fem. either tamis 
or tanwi; T^, 'tender,' makes nom. f. mridwi: and some optionally lengthen the 
u in the feminine ; as, bhiru, ' timid,' makes fem. Ht^ or *ft^5 dechnable like 
nouns in M, 125. 

119. When feminine nouns ending in i and u are taken to form the last member 
of a compound adjective, they must be declined like agni in the masc, and vdri in 
the neut. Thus the compound adjective alpamati, ' narrow-minded,' in the ace 
plur. masc. would be alpamatin; fem. alpamatis; neut. alpamatini. The same holds 
good if a masc. or neut. noun be taken to form the last member of a compound. 

a. Although adjectives in i and u are declined like vdri and madhu for the 
neuter, yet in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., and in the G. L. du., they may optionally 
follow the masculine form : thus the adjectives suchi and tanu \vill be, in the 
D. sing, neut., 'STf^n or SM^I, TT'^T'T or Tf'T^ ; and so with the other cases. 

120. There are some useful irregular novins in \i, dechned as follows : '^'ST m. 
'a friend:' N. ^^T, ^^T^, i?^■^^; Ac. ^Wf^, •^W^■^^, ^^\; I. '^WT, 
^rftjrWTT, &c; D. •5T^, &c. ; Ab. '?^^^, &c.; G. ^^^, ITWt^^, &c.; L. '5UafT, 
&c.; V. '^TO, &c. In some cases it assumes the memorial terminations at 91 
more regularly than agni. 

121. "T'fir m. 'a master,' 'lord' {iroaig), when not used in a compoimd word, 
follows sakhi in I. D. Ab. G. L. sing, (thus, L 'RTn, D. V^, Ab. G. '^'^'^^ ; in the 
other cases, agni. But this word is generally found at the end of a compound, 
and then follows agni throughout (thus, if^flTTfT ' by the lord of the earth'). 

122. A few neuter nouns, '^f'OT n. ' a bone' (oVreov), wf^ n. ' an eye' {oculus, 
OKOi), "^fsfzt n. ' a thigh,' ^f>T n. ' ghee,' drop their final i in some of their cases, 
and are declined in those cases as if they were derived from obsolete forms in an; 
such as ^IW?^, &c. (compare 14S) : thus, N. Ac. ^rf^, 'i<ftfJI»fl, -y^lPd ; 

I. 'siwrr, ^rf^«it, &c.; D. ^m^, &c.; Ab. -ii^nw, &c.; G. '^^^nr^^, 

'-W(JiJHl«, 'H^HT ; L. ■^rwf^ or "iSTFjf^, 'H^«ilF, ^rftsi^ . 

Hence, according to 58, "^^ akshi will make in L sing. >ae<m ; in D. ^TBrr, t^r. 
K Z 


123. There are a few useful monosyllabic M-ords in long '^i primitively feminine, 
(i. e. not derived from masculine substantives, see nadi and putrt at 80. XXV, and 
not the feminine forms of adjectives or participles, 80. XII. &c.,) whose declension 
may conveniently be noticed here. Those in long '^ i vary from the declension of 
*T5[T (106) by retaining ^ in the nom., and changing the final to iy before the 
vowel-terminations: thus, "^ f.' prosperity:' N.V. '^sft^ , "f^T^T, f^^^ ', Ac. f^''T, 

f^^, f?Tii^^; I. f^irr, -^tw^r, -^tf*?^^; d. f^ or f^, ^«it, ^"^vq^; 

Ab. fiJTinT or P^tll^, ^vqt, "^^I^; G. f^RTT or ftnTT^^, f^Jfq^, f^!P\\ or 

'^fhijf ; L. f^^ or f^t5f , ftr-qt^^, ^t^. 

a. Similarly are declined Ht f. ' fear,' "^ f. ' shame,' and >ft f. ' understanding.' 

b. AVhen these words occur at the end of compound adjectives, the first inflec- 
tion only of the two exhibited above, in the D. Ab. G. and L. cases sing., and 
G. plur., is admissible both for m. and f. : thus, N. TTT*?^^ m. f., ' fearless,' is 
^TfTT*?^' only in D. sing. The compounds shorten the final t for the neut. gender, 
and follow the declension of vdri (114), but only optionally in the I. D. Ab. G. and 
L. cases: thus, N. Ac. 'TTTfk ; I. iTfrfwirr or TTTrfH^T *, D, TTlffiT^ or TrTfiT^. 

c. "^^ f., ' a woman,' is like "^, but follows '^T^ in the nom.; and makes i[^ as 
well as f^^ in the Ac. sing. ; ^^as well as fip^lfl^in the Ac. plur. V. 1^. 

124. There are a few primitively feminine words not monosyllabic, such as 
^^T, ■fT^T, Tl'Uj which, like "'Sft, take s in the nom. sing., but in other respects 
follow ^1" : thus, nom. c5'^fllT^, o5^^1 , l^W^^- When, however, they occur 
at the end of compovmds (as, WTWH^ft m. f. ' deprived of fortune'), they may 
optionally be declined as masculines in the D. Ab. G. and L. cases : thus, 
D. -H^T?f ; Ab. G. -H^^RJ^; L. -c5f^HI, &c. The neviter of such compounds 
follows the rule for TjTfl^T'j 123. b. 

125. Feminine nouns ending in long "35 u are declined analogously to feminine 
nouns ending in \z, i. e. like »T^'V, excepting in the N. sing., where s is retained. 
■^iM is changed to v, wherever \i is changed to y (see 34) : thus, TV ' a wife :' 

N. "qvF, Ts^, Tssm ; Ac. "qv, Ts^T, "^TY^^^; i. -^seh, tw^' ^TYf^^Ti;; D. '^r^; 

Ab.G.'^SEnTT^; L.'^Sgf; V.T^. Similarly, '^Hf.' a host;' "sg^f.' a mother-in-law.' 

a. Again, monosyllabic words in u primitively feminine are declined analogously 
to W' f. (no); li being changed to uv, wherever / is changed to iy : thus, *|^ f . 
' the earth :' N.V. i^lT, >T^, >T^; Ac. H^, »f^, >T^TT; I. >fn, &c. Similarly. 
H bhrri, f., ' the eyebrow' {0(f)pvg) ; N.V. HjfT, >T^T, >R^, &c. 

b. And the same rule holds good with regard to such words at the end of 
compounds; see 123. b .- thus, '^m. f. 'having beautiful eyebrows :' N.V. sing. 
^1|F; Ac. ''g^; I. '^^pr; D. W^, &c. Similarly, the neuter will be N. Ac. 

-p^; T. ^H^ or -^wni, &c. 

126. \Mien a root like "jft. ' to lead,' comes at the end of a compound, it 
assumes the memorial tei-minations at 91 more regularly than ""T^j though like 
■♦RT it takes ^" for the termination of loc. sing. : thus, ^r?TT»ft m. ' one who leads an 
army," " a general :" N. IRT'^ftTT, ^T'^T, TnTRnT; .Ac, TnTT"^- Sec. ; 1. HHMl. 



W^flvqt, &c. ; D. HHT-^J, &c. ; Ab. flHMM,, &c. ; G. *<HM*4, --^"hT, -^ ; 
L. ^HT-yi, &c. ; V. «HH1f^, &c. 

a. In the same way are declined 4|l*i<li^ ' the chief of a village,' "SToJ^ft ' a water- 
drinker,' &c., for both m. and f. The neuter shortens the vowel for the N. Ac. 
sing., and follows vdri (114); but in the I. D. Ab. G. L. sing., G. L. du., G. pi., 
it may optionally agree with the m. and f. 

b. Similarly, roots hke "T 'to purify,' in a compound like N.V. *?(rtM*i^'a sweeper;' 
Ac. '■Wc'JH, &c. The L. case, however, is ^75f^. In the same manner, '^'f^ 
' twice-born :' N. "3^^; Ac. '^^i &c. 

c. ^ZfTiT, m. f. ' self-existent,' follows the declension of *J^' the earth,' 125. a. 


Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in ^ ri. 

Note, that this class answers to Latin and Greek words like pater, TiaT-^p, OOTrjp, 
&c. ; the vowel ri being equivalent to ar. 

127. Masculine bases in ri, declined like ^TiT ddtri, m., ' a giver/ 
and ftTrT piti'i, m., ' a father.' The former is the model of nouns of 
agency (83) ; the latter, of nouns of relationship. 

In nouns of agency hke ddtri the final ri is vriddhied (28), and in nouns of 
relationship hke pitri (excepting naptri, ' a grandson') gunated, in N. sing. du. pi., 
Ac. sing. du. ; but the r of dr and ar is dropped in N. sing., and to compensate 
in the last case a is lengthened. In both nouns of agency and relationship the 
final ri is gunated in L.V. sing., and very anomalously changed to u in Ab. G. sing. 
In Ac. G. pi. it is lengthened, and assumes n in G. pi. 

It is remarkable, that ddtdram, ddtdras, &c., bear the same relation to pitaram, 
pitaras, &c., that '^OTT^pa, '^OTVjpef, ^orripi, &c., bear to Trarepa, -narlpeg, Trarept, 
&c. Compare also the Latin datoris from dator with patris from pater. 

^irr^ ddtdrau ^mx^^ddtdras [Sortipe';) 

ddtdr -\- au ddtdr -\-as 

— ddtdr au ^rl^ ddtrin 

ddtri -y-n 
T^Ttpi^J ddtribhydm ^jt^^l^^ddtribhis 


[ ddtd (s rejected) 

['^Trrt ddtdram 


I. \ 

^^ ddtrd 

\ddtri-\-d. 34. 

ddtri -{-bhy dm 

ddtri +bhis 

^ {-^-[^ddtre 
\ddtri-\-e. 34. 

— ddtribhydm 


ddtri + bhyas 

Ab J^^v^^«^''-^ 

— ddtribhydm 

— ddtribhyas 

J • — ddtus 


ddtri -^ OS. 34. 

^TrnnT ddtnndm 

ddfnn -\- dm 







{^Trffc ddtari 


[ ddtar 

pita {s rejected) 

{fiTitt pita7'am 
pitar -f am 

pitri + d. 34. 

pifri + e. 34. 
pitu + s 
— pitus 


^T^^^ ddtros ^T'^ ddtrishu 

ddtri + os. 34. ddtri + su. 70. 

^WTTT ddtdrau ^inx^ ddtdras 

ddtdr + aw ddtdr -\- as 

fmru pitarau frjitT^^piiaras {Trarepe^) 

pilar + an pitar -)- as 

■ — pitarau f^;rr\pitrin 

pitri -\- n 

ftltpmj pitribhydm ft:^^iT^^pitribhis 

pitri + bhydm pitri -\- bhis 

— pitribhydm fci;w>>^^^pitribhyas 

pitri + bhyas 

— pitribhyas 

[pitar + 

— pitribhydm 


pitri -\- OS. 34. 

— pitros 



pit r in -\- dm 


pitri -\-su. 70. 


{fm^Tpitar fmmpitarau 

pitar pitar + au pitar + as 

Observe — Pitri seems to be corrupted from pdtri,' a, protector' (;>«', 'to protect'). 
The cognate languages have preserved the root in irajYip, pater, ' father,' &c. 
The Latin Jupiter, however, is literally Dyu-pitar (^-f^TTlT), 'father of heaven.' 
Prof. Bopp considers that nouns like pitri &c. are really from a base pitar. 

a. Observe — »r5| naptri, ' a grandson *,' although a noun of relationship, is 
declined like ^TiJ ddtri, requiring the final to be vriddhied in the same cases. 

b. There are a few nouns, which neither express relationship nor agency, falling 
under this class. «J nri, m., 'a man,' is declined like pitri (N. «TT nd, Ac. "JTT, 
I. '^, D. ■%, Ab. G. "^IT, &c.), but usually makes *TTrrt nrindm in the gen. plur. 

c. m^, ' a jackal,' takes some of its inflections fi-om a form WfF : thus, N. Wl"?T, 
-FTTT, -^RW; Ac.-m,-'?T^,-F^or-F?r; I. -"^ or -ITT, -|«n, &c. ; D.-^or 
-^, &c.; Ab. -|Tr^or -'?t^^, &c.; G. -f^^or -fl^, -fm^ov -J\\, -F^ff ; L. -^ft: 
or -?l, &c. ; V. -■g^ or -ft. 

129. Feminine bases in "^ri belong only to nouns of relationship, 
like mdtri, ' a mother^ (from md, ' to create/ ^ the producer') ; and 
their declension only differs from pitri, * a father/ in the ace. plur.. 

* Derived from na and pitri, 

family but the father. 

not the father;' as if any member of the 


which takes the termination s instead of n : thus, jtttt^ . Compare 
the Greek fxrjTrip, /UTirepa, voc. fx^JTep. 

a. '^^ swasri, ' a sister,' however, follows ^Tff ddtri; but the Ac. pi. is still ^RHT. 
The lengthening of the penultimate is probably caused by the loss of the t from 
tri, preserved in the English sister. So soror for sostor. 

b. The feminine base of nouns of agency is formed by adding ^ i 
to the final -^ ri : thus, ^TW + f^, ^T^ ddtri, f., ' sl giver ;^ and 
'5Fi^ + ^, ofilft f. *a doer/ See 80. XIX. Their declension follows 
nadi at 106. 

130. Neuter bases in "^ ri belong only to nouns of relationship or of agency, 
when used at the end of compound adjectives, such as 'R[^^JTT'g' divya-mdtri, 
agreeing with "WcS, i. e. ' a family having a divine mother,' or fW^'t^ ' having two 
mothers' (compare 6i[xr]Tap). They foUow the declension of vdri at 114: thus, 
N. Ac. »TTff, Hlrfillt, TTTTfilT ; ^TW, ^TWIDt, ^Tfff^. 

131. Before passing to the declension of nouns ending in consonants, it will be 
necessary to notice a few monosyllabic nouns, whose bases end in $, ^, and ^T, 
not sufficiently numerous to form a separate class. They are thus declined : 

132. T rai, m. f., 'substance,' ' wealth' (Lat. res) : N. voc. "^'Pff , Xmi, Ti^^^i 
Ac. TJ^, &c.; I. XJTU, TTVqt, TTfw (reiMs); D. TT^, &c. ; Ab. TT-q^^, &c.; 

G. ■n^, TT^>H, XJ■^^; l. i^ftr, &c. 

133. m c/o, m. f., ' a cow' or ' ox' {bos, /3oDf ) : N. voc. 'ft^, TT'^, ^'^W^; 
Ac. Tif , 3TT^, irm ; I. IT^, ^«n, TftfiTff ;, &c.; Ab.Tfm^, &c.; G. Tft^, 
'|cu«, ^=rt; L. tN" [bovi), ^TTt^, ^^' Compare ^t with yyjV, go meaning 
also ' the earth.' 

134. in nau, f., a ship' (cf. navis, vavg), is declined at 94, being the most 
regular of all nouns. With the N. pi. ndvas, compare naves, vaeg \vrje.g). The 
gen. vrjog for vaog or vafog z= ndvas. 

a. These nouns may occur at the end of compounds ; as, "^"^^ ' rich,' TTm 
' near a cow,' «j^«li ' having many ships.' In that case the neuter is ^?ft) ^^^» 
and ^J^; of which the inst. cases will be ^jfOTT or «r^TTTTT, <JR'J«11 or TIR^, 
<!|^^«11 or ^|^«nTr ; and so with the other vowel-cases : but "^T^^ becomes oJ^M 
before all consonantal-cases, except the nom. sing. 




135. Observe — The first four classes of nouns, whose declension 
has just been considered, comprise many more substantives than 
adjectives. On the other hand, the last four classes, though com- 



prehending a few substantives, consist chiefly of adjectives, partici- 
ples, or roots used as adjectives at the end of compound words. 
All the nouns under these remaining classes take the memorial 
terminations at 91 with perfect regularity. 

a. In the anomalies the ace. pi., and in neuter anomalies the inst. sing., is gene- 
rally the guide to the form assumed before the remaining vowel-terminations. 


Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in IT t and ? d. 

This class answers to Latin words like comes (from a base comit), eques (from a 
base eqidt), ferens (from ferent) ; and to Greek words like 'Xf^-p^'S (from a base 
yapiT), Kepai (from Kepar), yjxp'mg (from yapLevT). 

136. Masculine and feminine bases in K t, declined like "^fij^harii, 
m. f., ' green' (declined at p. 57) ; and ^rfrw f. ' a river.' 

Observe — The nom. case sing, is properly harits, but s is rejected by 43. a. 
The same applies to all nouns ending in consonants. It is remarkable, that Latin 
and Greek, when the final consonant of the base refuses to combine with the s of 
the nom., prefer rejecting the base-final : thus, %a/"f for "yapng, comes (comis) 
for comits. But in these langviages the final of the base often combines with the s 
of the nominative; as in lex (for leks), (f>Xoq (for (pkoKg). 






_ sarit+s (s rejected. 43.0.) 

^Ct:^ saritau 


sarit+au. 41. b. 

sarit-\-as. 41. 6. 


Isarit + am. 41. 6. 

— saritau 

— saritas 

■^rfTT saritd 


sarit-\-bhydm. 41. 

^ffftrfk^ saridbhis 

sarit + bhis. 41. 

J ^fcw sarite 

— saridbhydni 

^T15^ saridbhyas 

_sarit + e 

snrit + bJryas 


— saridbhydm 

— saridbhyas 

[sarit + as 

— saritas 


^iTrlt saritam 



1 wfrfw sarih 

— saritos 

^flrW saritsu 


sarit+su. 40. 

137, Neuter bases in 7T t, declined like ffrff harit, n., ' green.' 

These only differ from the masculine and feminine in the N. du. pL, Ac. sing. 
<iu. and pL, the usual neuter terminations ^ i, \ i (see 97), being required. 



and an euphonic n being inserted before the final of the I)ase in N. Ac. pi. : 

N. Ac. fftjT harit, ^rfrrft hariti, ffT:f^ harinti ; I. 'jrfTirr haritd, 
^frsit haridbhydm, &c. 

138. Masculine and feminine bases in ^ d, like >mf^ dharma-vidy 
m. f., ' knowing one^s duty' — a compound composed of the substan- 
tive dharma, ^ duty/ and the root vid, ' knowing/ See 84. 1 . 


nd -f as 
— -vidau — -vidas 

{-f^ -vit -f^ -vidau -f=r^^ 

-vid + s. 42, 43. a. -L'id+au -vid-\ 




-f^ -vidd 


Ab. i ' 

f^^ -vidas 

vid -\- as 


-f^?5t -vidbhydm -ikfsT^-vidbhis 
-vid -\- bhyum - vid + bhis 

— -vidbhydm -f^^^ -vidbhyas 


— -vidbhydm — -vidbhyas 

-f^H -vidos -f^t -viddm 

-vid -\- OS -vid + dm 

■f^ -vidi — -vidos -f^W -vitsu 

■vid-\-i -vid + su. 42. 

139. Neuter bases in ff d, declined like >mf^ dharma-vid, n., 
* knowing one's duty.' 

These differ from the mascuhne and feminine forms in the same cases, and in 
the same manner, as neuter bases in TT /; see 137 : thus, 

N. Ac. >mf^^, v^f^'>, >mf^. 
a. So also, oF^ n. 'a lotus:' N. Ac. "^hw, WHrf^, "^^f^; I. '^^^, &c. 
Observe — x\ll the nouns whose formation is explained at 84. I. 
II. III. follow the declension of ^fnT and 'tmf^. 

140. Possessive adjectives formed with the affixes TrT vat and 
»T1T mat, like V'i^fT dhanavat, ' rich/ and ifNir dhimat, ' wise/ are 
declined like harit for the masculine ; but in the Nom. Voc. sing, 
du. pi., Ac. sing, du., n is inserted before the final of the base, and 
the preceding a is lengthened in N. sing. 

J V^T^"?!^ dhanavdn VH^iU dhanavantau 


\dhanavdnt + s. 43. ff. dhanavant -\- au 

dhanavantam — dhanavantau 

t -\- urn 


VH^ff^ dhanavantas 

dhanavant + us 
V^ITiT^ dhanavatas 

dliunurat -f as 


The remaining- cases follow ^fciT; thus, I. ^R^TTT, &c. ; but the 
vocative singular is VrPHT dhanavmi. 

a. In the same manner are declined active past participles of the form WiT^TT; 
thus, N. ■^?r=rT'?r, ^ff^'frT, "^TT^^^, &c. similarly, >fhRW'wise:' N. Vlnii , 

yftw^, iftjnjTH; Ac. vh^tt, ^fhTTffr, vfhfTTW, &c. 

b. The feminine bases of adjectives like ^»l=Cri^ and VTT?^, and ]mrticij)les like 
^W^TT, are formed by adding %{ to the masculine base; thus, V »1 ^ ell , ViHlTT, 
■^TTTrft : declined after "^ at io6 ; thus, Nom. >R'^?ft, VT^H (tTl , ^HT^T^, &c. 

c. The neuter is declined like the neuter of harit : thus, N. Ac. VH'«JK^, VTTift, 

141. Present participles like ■R^fTjoac^ff/, ' cooking' (524), are dechned after 
dhanavat (140), excepting in the N. sing., where a is not lengthened before n: 
thus, N. sing. ''7^«T pachan (for pachants or pachans), and not Tr^T«T pachdn .- 
N. du. pi. ■tp^T, tj^^ia"^^; Ac. "T'^nT, xi^qTjn, TJ^IT^^; I. 'T^tH, Sec. Compare 
the declension of Latin participles like f evens, ferentis, ferentem, &c. 

a. Observe, however, that all reduplicated verbs, such as verbs of the 3d con- 
jugation — all verbs from polysyllabic roots (75. «) — and some few other verbs, 
such as 'ST'^'to eat,' ^T^'to rule' — which reject the nasal in the 3d pi. of the 
Parasmai-pada, reject it also in the declension of the pres. participle. Hence the 
pres. participle of such verbs is declined like harit, the N. case being identical with 
the base : thus, from da, ' to give,' 3d conj., N. sing. du. pi. dadat, dadatau, 
dadatas; Ac. dadatam, &c. : from bhri, 'to bear,' 3d conj., N. sing. du. pi. bibkrat, 
bibhratau, bibhratas. So also, jdgrat {from jdgri), sdsat (from sds). The rejection 
of the nasal is doubtless owing to the encumbrance of the syllable of reduplication. 

b. In present participles derived from verbs of the ist, 4th, and loth conjuga- 
tions, a nasal is inserted for the feminine base : thus, tl-q»fll from "'J^j ist conj. 
(declined like nadi at 106) ; and this nasal is carried through all the inflections, 
not merely, as in the masculine, through the first five. So ^T'^Mftl from div, 4th 
conj. ; and ^T^'m from chur, loth conj. In the 6th conj., and some few verbs 
of the 8th and 9th, the insertion of the nasal is optional. The same conjugations 
also insert a nasal in the dual neuter : thus, "T^, 'T^nft, M-«tr»rt. 

c. The other conjugations, viz. the 2d, 3d, 5th, 7th, 8th, and most verbs of the 
9th, follow 140. b. c, and insert no nasal for the feminine and neuter; although all 
but the 3d assume a nasal in the first five inflections of the masculine : thus, adat 
(from ad, 2d conj.); N. masc. adan, adantau, adantasj fern, adati: juhwat (from 
/jM, 3d conj.) ; "S. msisc. juhwat, juhwatau,juhwatas; tem. juhwatz : rundhat {from, 
rudh, 7th conj.) ; N. masc. rundhan, rundhantau, rundhantas ; fem. rundhati. But 
kurvat (from kiH, 8th conj.) makes either kurvatt or kurvanti. 

142. The adjective T^IT, ' great,' is properly a pres. part, from the root mah, to 
increase ;' but, unlike present participles, it lengthens the a of at before n in the 
N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. : thus, N. TfT^ , TfptTt , T^rfHT^; Ac. T^^, 
fT^JJ^, T'^TT^^; I- *7frrr, &c. ; Y. ^'W^i &c. : N. fem. ^Tfrft, &c., see 140. a. b: 
N. neut. T^TT, TfTft, »T^nT. 


a. '^T'l, m. f. n. ' great,' "^W^ m. f. n. ' moving,' and ''pTrT m. f. ' a deer,' follow 
the declension of pres. part. : thus, N. ^^"T? <=i ? fll , T^nTR, &c. The feminine 
is ^^rfl, &c. 

143. When the present participle of IJ, ' to be,' is used as an honorific pronoun, 
it follows %«i«tn (at 140), making the a of at long in the N. sing. : thus, H^^T«^ 
'your honour,' and not >TT5T. The vocative is HT?1^. As a present participle it 
follows the declension of M-McT, at 141. The feminine of the pronoun is *?'«{ ill . 

144. *4<*ifV ' the liver' [yjTrap, jecur), and '^T'^H' ordure,' both neuter nouns, are 
declined in some of their cases as if their bases were M**!^ and 151^*^: thus, 
N. V. ''T^, T^r^, '^^ftf ; Ac. 'T^, "ST^Tft, ^'^f?jT or "T^f^ ; I. "T^rTT or ^T^fT, 
*1<*«t or ^qraivqi, ^^fk^or l^ifk^; D. '^^'^ or '^'^, &e. 

145. 'TT^j ' a foot,' at the end of compounds is contracted into ''1^ before the 
Ac. pi. and remaining vowel-terminations : thus, Ac. pi. '^"T^''^? from ^'TT^, ' having 
beautiful feet.' 

Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in w^ an and ^j^in. 
Note, that this class answers to Latin and Greek words like sermo (for sermon), 
homo (for homin), '^aifj.wv (for '^aifxov). 

146. Masculine and feminine bases in ^^^an, declined like '•JHW^T 
dtnian, m. f., ' soul/ ' self ;' ^TW^ yajwan, va., ' a sacriticer / rfST^ 
rdjan, m., ' a king ;' and xjt^"^ pivan, m. f., ' fat.' 

If an be preceded by m or « (w), at the end of a conjunct consonant, as in 
dtman, yajwan, the a of an is retained before all the terminations : but if an be 
preceded by any other consonant, whether conjunct or not, than m or v, or e^en 
by m or r if not conjunct, as in rdjan and pivan, the a of an is dropped in the 
Ac. plur. and before aU the other roweZ-terminations, and the remaining n is 
compounded with the preceding consonant. All masc. and fem. nouns, without 
exception, ending in an, lengthen the a in the N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing, du.; and 
drop the n before aU the consonantal-terminations (see 57). 

Observe — Latin follows Sanskrit in suppressing the n in the N. masc. and fem., 
but not in neut. : thus homo is the N. of the base homin, the stronger vowel 
being substituted for i, just as i is substituted for i in Sanskrit ; but nomen is the 

N. of the neuter base nomin. 
47- ^ 

f ^IrWI dimd ^irMlrii dtmdnau wnfrr^'^^dtmdnas 

a7ma(wandsrejected.43.a,57.) dtmdn-j-au dtmdn + as 

I "Wlfnif dtmdnam — dtmdnau ^irHHTi dtmanas 

Ac. i , , , ^ 

L atman + am utman + as 

J "^JJfriTf dtmand "mxfl^ dtmabhydm wnfif»'\dtmabliis 

Idtman + d dtma{ndropped.^'])-\-bhydm f//mff (/i dropped. 57) + ''^/"•^ 

^rrw% dtmane — dtmabhydm "^Trf^^^dtmabhyas 

ntman -\- e dtmain dropped. 57) -(- hliijns 

L 3 







J ?H I rH A\dtma7ias "W^jfVi^h dtmabhydm W[W^>^^^dtmabhyas 

I dtman -f as 

litina [n dropped.57) + bhydm dtma {n dropped.57) 4- bhyas 

— dtmanas ^i\\tH*\\'^dtmanos 

dtman -\- os 

— dtmanos 


f^rrwftr dtmani — 

dtman + i 

{■•HlrH^ dtman ^TTWRt 
dtman {s rejected) dtmdn -j- 1 

^n\rHt\\ dtmanam 

dtman -\- dm 

?NTcWW dtmasu 

dtma {n dropped. 57) -\-su 

wrrf^^^^ dtmdnas 

dtmdn + as 

148. Similarly may be declined ttT'T'^ pdpman, m., ' sin ;' T^R^ 
ushmmi, m., ' the hot season ;' ^W?r sushman, m., ' fire ;' ^Hf^ yajwan, 
m., * a sacrificer :' N. Tm\> 'HfT^, ^nfFTH ; Ac. injR, tnjFH, i^r^; 
I. *1"3JH1, &c. 

So also, ^ssr^ adhwan, * a road ;' "^tET*^ driswan, * a looker' (85. IV). 

r*a;a TT»n^ rdjdnau 

and s rejected. 43. a,57 . ) rdjdn -\- au 

^ {xji^rdji 


fUsTTT rdjdnam 
rajan + am 

r-fl;Vt + a 


[ ro/Vt -|- e 

rdjdnas {reges) 

rdjdn -\- as 
rdjn + as 

TTsrfH^ rdjabhis 

rdja {n dropped.57) + bhydm rdja [n dropped. 57) + bhis 
^HsT^nT rdjabhyas 
rdja{n dropped.57) + bhyas 



— rajanau 

TT^T«rt rdjabhydm 
iropped.57) + 


{TT% rdjni * 

\ TUf^ rdjan 
y raj an. 92. 


rdjn + OS 

— rdjnos 


H^ rajnam 

rdjn -\- dm 

TX^ rdjasu 

rdja (re dropped. 57) +*m 

TT5!T^ rdjdnau 

rdjdn -\-au 

Compare the Latin rex, regem, reges, &c. 

rdjdn + as 

150. According to rdjan may be declined '<ftT«T /?«»««, m. f., 'fat:' N. ^'Ml, 
■'tNt^T, tftTRV : Ac. fftm^, cft^THT, 'qt^^ ; I. tftfr, &c. ^J^'^ m.' a border;' 
^»T*Tm. a loom' (85. I ). 

So also, ^"^^murddhan, m., 'the head,' makes in the inst. c. *[^; and fT"^«T 
m. ' a carpenter,' W^T (58) ; and o5ftW*T laghiman, m., ' lightness,' pjftl^. 

Or TT^f'T 


a. When a feminine base in ^ i is formed from words like TT»n^, it follows the 
same rule for the rejection of the a of an .■ thus, TT'^ rdjin, ' a queen.' 

151. There are no simple feminine nouns in anj but when masculine nouns are 
taken to form the last member of a compound adjective, they take a feminine and 
neuter form ; as in mahdtman, m. f. n., ' magnanimous.' The feminine form is 
declined precisely like the masculine, and the neuter follows the declension of 
neuter nouns, 152. 

a. But when rdjan is taken to form a compound of this kind, it is declined like 
siva (103); as, N. sing. m. mahdrdjasj Ac. mahdrdjam, &c. 

152. Neuter bases in ^»T aw, declined like '3R^'T 'an action/ and 
^Iflt^' a name' {nomen, oVo/xa*). The retention or rejection of a in 
an before the inst. c. sing, and remaining vowel-terminations, as well 
as optionally before the nom. ace. du., is determined by the same rule 
as in masculines (146) ; and the only difference between masculine and 
neuter nouns is in the nom. and ace. cases, sing., du., and pi. : thus, 

N.Ac, -^w^, ojwiD^, ofi^rfw; I.'SfWTiTT, &c.; D. oW^, &c., like '^rUH. 

N.Ac, -^rmf^, •?rT^t or ^TOrft, iTPTrfVT; I. ■?rT?rT, &c. ; D. -ijT^, &c., 
like rnnT. With ndmndm compare Latin nominum. 

153. So also the neuter nouns spT'T, ^I'T'^T, v<^*i»i, ^'^, ^W^j ^fT»^, 
"S^THT, follow the declension of karman; but «^T»?'(^, ^TPf"^, VW\, ^ft^HT, Tt^^ 
(for TtH'^ rohman, from ruh), HH"?^, that of ndman. 

154. When neuters in an compose the last member of compound adjectives, 
they may take the masc. or fem. form : thus, P^uy^lAHIHT ^TftlSTT: ' a Pandit 
named Vishnusarma.' 

155. There are a few anomalous nouns in an : '^•^ m. ' a dog' {canis, Kvcov) ; 
^«j*1 m. ' a youth ;' 'HR'T m. ' a name of Indra :' thus declined : 

N. Tgr, "w:^, ^sn^; Ac. t^tt^, ^^rnn, ^^^; i. ^^t, T5r«if, "'^ftrw^; 

D. '31%, &c. ; Ab. ^pT^^, &c. ; G. "SpT^^ (kwo^), W^^, ^pTT ; L. ^iflT, 3fpT^> 
"'Sf^. See 135. a. Fem. "Snfi, &c. (like 7iadt). 

N. •^, --^T^, -"^T^; Ac. -wni, -"^r^, y?rt; i. '^t, ^^s '"^h^^; 

D. '55^, &c. ; Ab. ■^TT^^, &c. ; G. fW^, 1^, '?^; L. ^, f^"^^^* ^^- See 
135. a. Fem. Tpft or "^Wift (like nadi). Neut. ^, ^Rt, ^TrP?T, &c. 

N. >niTr, -■^T^, -TT^; Ac. -TR, -'^T^, 'nflR^^; i. Ttft^T, »?Tnvqf , 
-■srfire; D. Jnft%, »r5R«n, &c. ; Ab. Hrfr^^, &c. ; G. ♦^^ii^, »nftiT^, 

JTTfjr[7; L. »Ttftf^, HTftrt^, »nn"^ . Fem. ♦l^TllT. 

The last may also be declined like a noim in vat. See 140. 

* Greek has a tendency to prefix vowels to words beginning with consonants in 
the cognate languages. Compare also nakha, ' nail,' ovv^; laghu, ' light,' eAap^y ; 
>J ' brow,' 0(bpv. 



156. '^^■^ n., ' a day,' takes its form, before the consonantal-terminations, 
from an obsolete base, ^STf^ ahas : thus, N. Ac. W^T^ (43. 0), ^^ or vt^rH, 
'^TfTf^; I. ^^T, '^T^vqf, W^>T?i;; D. ^5?^, '^I^Wf, ^^T?^^^; Ab. ^5?^^, &c.; 

G. ^^^, '^^'^j '^^ 5 L. '^rf^ or 'STff^, ^^t^, ^!rf :^. 

a. 'f^W»^ m., ' a day,' in those cases where the a of an is rejected, lengthens the i: 
thus, Ac. pi. ^t^^^; I. ^^T, &c. 

157. ■«i*M*i*l m. ' the sun,' '^•^ m. ' the sun,' and flS(5«T m. ' the murderer of 
a Brahman,' are analogous in not lengthening the a of an before the N. du. pi., 
Ac. sing. du. : thus, N. ^n§HT, ^n^TTTrft, ^fTq^nrRT; Ac. '^'^Hlj, ^H^WT, 
^S^q^tEfW; I. ■^TOTTrrr, &c. Similarly, N. "^[RT, &c.; but the ace. pi., and remain- 
ing vowel-terminations, may be optionally formed from a base "^■^: thus, Ac. pi. 
■^W^^ or ^^5^- Similarly, N. "a^T, "S^r^TJ^, &c. ; but in Ac. pi. "^STJI^; 
I. ssl^HI, W^«lt, &c. 

158. ^n"*T m. ' a horse,' or m. f. n. ' low,' * vile,' is declined like nouns in vat 
at 140, excepting in N. sing. : thus, N. "^Wl, ^T^nTT, W^nHT^; Ac. "^fW^ff, &c. 

159. Masculine bases in 2[tT in, declined like vftr"?? dhanin, m., 
' rich.' 

The i of in is lengthened in N. sing., and the n rejected before all the conso- 



{Vftt dhani vrr»T?fr dhaninau 

dhani{n and s rejected. 43. a,57.) dhanin + au 
{vFfR" dhaninam — dhaninau 

dhanin + am 
\^ft{m dhanind 
[ dhanin + a 

{vf*T% dhanine 
dhanin + e 
J vftnr^ dhaninas 
[ dhanin + as 
r — dhaninas 

vPhww^ dhaninas 

dhanin -(- as 
— dhaninas 

vfrfir^ dhanibhis 

dhani {n dropped. 57 ) -|- bhydm dhani [n dropped. 57) -f bhis 
\(fr{t^^ dhanibhyas 
dhani{n dropped. 57) -f- bhyas 

vf?r«n dhanibhydm 


— dhanibhydm 

— dhanibhydm 

L dhanin -\- i 

fvf*m[ dhanin 
dhanin. 92. 

■vrftTrft^ dhaninos 

dhanin + os 
— dhaninos 

vrf^RT dhaninam 

dhanin + dm 
vfrT"! dhanishu 
(^Afln2'(ra dropped. 57) + SM.70. 
vf;T«T^ dhaninas 

dhanin + as 

^^nft dhaninau 

dhanin -[-au 

Observe — A great many adjectives of the forms explained at 85. 
VI. VII. are declined like vf^r*? for the masculine : thus, iT*nfT«7 
medhdvin, 'intellectual;' N. WT^, -f^jft, -f^R^, &c. Also a vast 
number of nouns of agency, like ^^rrfT«T ' a doer,' at 85. V : thus, 
N. oBT<t, ■afirfr^ (58), ^i;?!!^, &c. 



1 60. The feminine base of such adjectives and nouns of agency 
is formed by adding ^ i to the masc. base ; as, from vf^TT , vf^?nft f. ; 
from ^rrfT"JT, '<*^Tj!fi f. ; deehned like nadi at 106 : thus, N. vfrpft, 
-■an, -"^W, &c. 

161. The neuter conforms in every respect to the declension of 
vdri at 114: thus, N. Ac. ■*rf»T, vf^^j V»frr^. 

162. 'Tf'ZI'^T m. ' a road,' ^"ftl'^T m. ' a churning-stick,' and '^>jftj"5^m. 'a name 
of Indra,' are remarkable as exhibiting both affixes, an and in, in the same word. 
They form their N. sing, from the bases tj^^^, JT^^ITT, ^>p^; their N. du. pi., 
Ac. sing, du., from the bases "'T'"?T'?(, T^'^^, "^*J^''^; their Ac. pi., and remaining 
vowel-terminations, from the bases TJ"^,??^, ^^'ST^: thus, N.T?'-*yi*^(i63),''I«-'qHl, 

TT^^TT^; Ac. •^r•^, vr^m^, "T^m^; I. "T^, ilf^T, -qftrfW^^; D. T?^, &c. 

The compound 'WTTf^TT , ' having a good road,' is similarly declined for the 
masc. ; the nom. fem. is WT'fi', -'SJJT, -Wff, like nadi at 106 ; the nom. neut. 

^^fti, -•^yft, --qr^Tf^, &c. 



Masculine, feininine, and neuter bases in ^r^as, ^^is, and T^us. 

Note, that this class answers to Greek and Latin words Hke TraSog, (J-evog, genus, 
scelus, &c. 

163. Masculine and feminine bases in ^nff as, declined like '^''^^ 
chandramas, m., ' the moon.' 

The a of us is lengthened in N. sing. 
'«i«t1HTTT chandramas ^r^-^ chandramasau ^^^iX^^chandramasas 

chandramas + uu chandramas -\- as 

— chandramasau — chandramasas 

cha)idramds(s rejected. 4^.a. 

f'^:^^'^ chandramasam 
chandramas 4- am 

{-^•tIHHT chandramasd 
chandramas + d 
r xjT^jq^ chandramase 
[ chandramas + e 

{^J^THH^ chandramasas 
chandramas -\- as 

, chandramasas 



^'^'ftwrf chandramobhydm '^7^f^-^chandra7nobhis 
chandramas -\-bhy dm. 65. chandramas -{-hhis. 65. 

— chandramobhydm "^F^^va^ chandramobhyas 

chandramas + bhyas. 65. 

— chandramobhydm — chandramobhyas 

f^^^wftr chandramasi 
chandramas -\- i 

I ^(^^\chandramas 
\chandramas. 92. 

^^T'^'T^H chandramasos 

chandramas -\- os 

— chandramasos 
^n^^l chandramasau 

chandramas -\- an 

•'(•^M^f chandramasdm 

chandramas + dm 
•^sp^l-^chandramahsu or -W 

chandramas -\- su. 62. a, 6^. 

^»5»ra^ chandramasas 

chandramas -\- as 


a. After the same manner is declined W^TT^ ajjsaras, f./a nymph.' 
164. Neuter bases in "WSas, decHned like wr^manaS) n./the mind' 
{fxevog, mens). 

These only differ from the masc. and fern, in the N. and Ac. The a of as is 

lengthened in the N. plur. instead of the N. sing. »T n is inserted before s in the 

N. plur. 

_T . ,^ [^7{^manas ^^t^manasi ^^f^ mandnsi 

N. Ac.V. < ^ , . 

mflH«s(s rejected. 43.0.) manas-{-i mandns + i 

I. T^nrr manasd, &c., like the masc. and fem. 

a. Observe — Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter like manas; but 
when these neuters are taken to form a compound adjective, they are dechnable 
also in the masculine and feminine like chandramas. Thus, when manas is taken 
to form the compound adjective mahdmanas, ' magnanimous,' it makes in the nom. 
(masc. and fem.) mahdmands, mahdmanasau, mahdmanasas. In the same way are 
formed sumanas, ' weU-intentioned,' durmanas, ' e\'il-minded' (nom. sumands, dur- 
mands, &c.) ; to which a remarkable analogy is presented by the Greek evfxevvji 
and ^va-jxev^i, m. f., making in neut. ezJ/xeveV, "^va-fxeve^, derived from {J.evog *. 

165. Neuter bases in ^^ts and T^^us (see 68. a) are declined analogously to 
*irm^manas at 164, i and u being substituted for a throughout; and therefore 
^ sh for ^ s (70), and Xr for ^ (64) : thus, "^f^^havis, n., ' ghee :' N. Ac.V. 

^f^^, ^f^iit, ■rrff^ ; I. ffw, ?rf^i^, ^f^fHii; D. -ff^^, ff^*^, ?f^»^^; 
Ab. f f^^, ?f^^, Tf^>^^^; G. ?f^TO, f f^tft^^, ^f^m ; L. ^^f^^, f f^^,, 
^:tj or -■&! . 

a. Similarly, ^"^^ chakshus, n., ' the eye :' N. Ac. V. "^"^^j "^"^^j ^^fi? ; 

I. ^mr, ^x^*^, ^"^f^^; D. '^m, ^^^f, '^mro; Ab. '^■^^, ^^^j 
^v^^; G. '^^j '^^^^^j '^^; L. ^f^, wsft^, ^:^ or --El. 

166. All nouns formed with the affixes is and its are neuter. There are two, 
however, in which the final sibilant is part of the root itself, and not of an affix ; 
viz. '^f^H aVJs, f.,'a blessing' (from the root ^TTT), and ^T^H m. f. ' an associate' 
(from "^^). These follow the analogy of masc. and fem. nouns in as (163) in the 
N. Ac. cases ; and, moreover, before the consonantal-terminations, where the final 
sibilant is changed to r, unlike nouns formed with is and us, they lengthen the i 
and u (compare nouns ending in r at 180): thus, N. '^T^ft^, -f^'RT, -P^JM^^; 
Ac. -f^^, -f^W\, -%'^; I. -%TErT, -^ib^f , -^f>T^, &c. Again, N. ^T^, 
-'^^, -'^^^j Ac. -"^"^^ &c. ; I. -W^, -^*^j &c. Nouns formed from desi- 
derative bases (497), such as nPTT^^ ' desirous of speaking,' are similarly declined. 
But desiderative nouns of the form ftT^T'E^, f^f^'ST^, reject the sibilant in the 
consonantal-cases, and are dechned in those cases as if ending in ^ and "^T , the 
finals of their roots. Compare 43. a. 

* Bopp's Comparati\e Grammar, § 146. 


a. Observe — When neuter nouns in is or us are taken for the last member of 
compound adjectives, they are dedinable in the masc. and fern, according to the 
analogy of chandramas at 163 : thus, ^ rn rt^'STW^ m. f. n., ' having lotus eyes,' 
makes N. masc. and fem. Tr^rt-qta+i, ■g7'Tc5^"2Tf f , "^'r^TpS^'^^^ ; and 3lf^^- 
f^TT m. f. n., 'having brilliant rays,' N. masc. and fem. SJP^JCt^hT, ^f^Ttf^^T, 

^f^frf^w, &c. 

b. ^H dos, m., ' an arm,' follows the declension of nouns in ?,s and us; but in 
Ac. pi., and remaining vowel-cases, optionally substitutes doshan for its base: thus, 
N. <fr^^, -•RT, -"R^^; Ac. -ti, --QT, --R^^or -W^^, I. ^>^T or ^Wl, <ft>^t, &c. 

167. Adjectives in the comparative degree formed with the affix v^^v^ lyas, 
m. f. n. ( 192 ), follow chandramas at 163, but the a of as is lengthened, and n inserted 
in N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. : thus, baliijas, ' more powerful,' makes N. "Hrtn*4l«ir 
(for baliydns, s rejected by 43. a), -llt^, -XTT^F^; Ac. -'^T^, -"^T^, -"^nT^; 
I. -xnrr, -ift^'ri', &c. ; v. -T^. Tlie fem. '^cS'hwl' follows muti at 106. The 
neut. '^^'^^ is like manas throughout. 

168. Participles of the 2d preterite, formed with vas, are similarly decUned in 
N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. But in Ac. pi., and remaining vowel-cases, vas 
becomes ush, and in the consonantal-cases vat ; so that there are three forms of 
the base, viz. in vans, ush, and vat* .- thus, "R'f^F (part, of 2d pret., from f^ 
'to know'): N. f^f^T^, f^^hu, f^f^^^^; Ac. f^fehf, f^f^TTraT, 
r^r^dMTT; I. -f^^^, i^^^mf, f^f^fg^^; D. f^f^^, &c. When this 
participle is formed with ivas instead of vas, the vowel i is usually rejected in the 
cases where vas becomes ush : thus, TTi'^'^^tfrom gam,' to go') : N. 'Srn'JT^T'^, &c. ; 
Ac. "5T0*i''4*l^5 affJU'^f^T, "P^"^^? &c. ; I . 'f^WT, &c. Similarly, tenivas (ft-om tan, 
' to stretch') : N. tenivdn, tenivdnsau, &c. ; Ac. tenivdnsam, tenivdnsau, tenushas, 
&c. But not when the i is part of the root : thus, f^f^^lfi'om f^), f^'Hw 
(from ■^), "^"f ^ (from W), make in the Ac. pi. f^-g^lT, fR^Tff, '^f*"^^^- 
The N. feminine of these participles is formed from ush; and the N. Ac. neutei-, 
sing., du., and plur., from vat, ush, and vas, respectively : thus, N. fem. f^f^^MT, 
&c., declined like nadi at 106. Similarly, from the root 'ff''? comes "J^^^ (com- 
pare reTV(f)Via). The neuter is N. f^i^W, -^^T', -ffftT. lliose formed with 
ivas do not retain i in the feminine : thus, tenivas; N. masc. fem. neut. tenivdn, 
tenusMf, tenivas. 

a. The root f^, ' to know,' has an irregular pres. part. 'R'i"^ vidivas, used 
commonly as an adjective ('learned'), and dechned exactly like f^fVf^^ above, 
leaving out the reduplicated vi. With reference to 308. a, it may be observed, 
that as a contracted 2d pret. of vid is used as a present tense, so a contracted 
participle of the 2d pret. is used as a present participle. 

* Vat is evidently connected with the Greek ot. Compare tutupvat (from tup) 
with TeTV(f)-{f)oT, and tutupvatsu with rerv(f)-o{T)(Ji. 

t There seems, however, much difference of opinion as to the rejection of i; and 
some grammarians make the feminine temjushi, and the I. masc. tenynshd. 



169. '^'^f m., ' a male,' forms N. sing. du. plur., Ac. sing, du., from '^'^^j ^'^^ 
Ac. pi., and remaining vowel-cases, from V^ ; and I. du., and remaining conso- 
nantal-cases, from ^3T : thus, N. "^TT^, "IJ^ITWr, "^TO^; Ac. ^flT?T, "WTHT, 

^^^; I. ^HT, ^*wTf, ■gf'i^^; D. 4%, &c. ; Ab. -5^, &c. ; G. ^im, ^^^^, 

^TTT ; L. ^ftr, ^>7T , 1^ ; V. -gJT^I &c. 

170. ■g'"^'5T^^m., ' a name of the planet Venus,' forms N. sing. ^^T^ from a base 
T^H"^ (147)- Similarly, "J^^^x ^- ' ^ name of Indra,' and ^TflTTT m. ' time.' 
The other cases are regular. <J^I«1*l^, however, may be optionally ■3'^»T«7 in the 

171. 'TT^, f. ' decay' {yy}pag), forms its consonantal-cases from a base ITTT ; 
thus, N. sing. jTTT ( 105) ; I. sing. du. Am\, aRT^TT, &c. 


Masculine, feminine, and neuter bases in any consonant, except W t 

and <f d, *T n, ^ s. 

Note, that examples of Latin and Greek nouns answering to this class are 
common. See 87. 

172. Observe — This class consists principally of roots used as 
nouns, either alone or at the end of compounds, or preceded by 
prepositions and adverbial prefixes. Roots ending in T^;^ ^ and ^ d, 
employed in this manner, are of common occurrence ; but their 
declension falls under the fifth class at 136. Roots ending in other 
consonants are not very frequently found, and the only difficulty in 
their declension arises from their combination with the consonantal- 
terminations. See 92. a. 

173. Whatever change, however, takes place in the nom. sing, 
is preserved before all the consonantal-terminations ; remembering 
only, that before such terminations the rules of Sandhi come into 

174. Before the vowel-terminations the final consonant of the 
root, whatever it may be, is always preserved (41. 6). If in one or 
two nouns there may be any peculiarity in the formation of the 
ace. pi., the same peculiarity runs through the remaining vowel- 
cases. The terminations themselves undergo no change, but the s 
of the nom. sing, is of course rejected by 43. a. There is but one 
form of declension for both masc. and fem. ; the neuter follows the 
analogy of other nouns ending in consonants at 137. 

175. Masculine and feminine bases in '3F k, ^^kh, ^^g, \gh, declined like 
^T^^T^ sarva-sak, m. f., ' omnipotent' (from sarva, ' all,' and "^T^ 'to be able'), 


and f^cTfe^ m. 'a painter' (from f^^ 'a painting,' and fo5I^ ' to write'). 
N.V. -■51^ (43.0), -•^T'SW (41.6), -■^T^; Ac.-'5T^,--5T^,-'5I'^^,; I.-'5I^,-"5F«lf 
(41), --^ifHi^^, &c. ; L. pi. -"^W^ (40) or -^■^ (70). N.V. -f?5^ (43. b, 43. a), 
-fc5^ (174), -fp5T^^; Ac. -■fe^, &c. ; I. -fc5^T, -fHTWlf (41), -"fef^^^, &c. ; 
L. pi. -M«*i^ (40). 

fl. The neuter is N.Ac.V.-'5nF,-'5T^,-'5rf^,&c.; -'fe^, -fp5^, -fc5Sf^, &c.: 
the rest like the masc. and fem. 

176. Masculine and feminine bases in "^^ch, ^ c/ik, ^T j, ^jh, declined like 
"m^ vdch, f.,' speech' (from T^ 'to speak'); ^W'^^^mdnsa-bhllj , m.f.,' flesh-eater' 
(from »n^ mdnsa, ' flesh,' and »pT ' to eat') ; TTT^ prdchh, m. f., ' an asker' (from 
■JT^ ' to ask'). A final '^cA is changed to "^ k, a final "^J to '^^g, a final "^ chh 
to Z t, before the consonantal-terminations (43. d, 92. a). Compare the declension 
of vdch with that of the Latin vox, and the Greek o^p or Ott for Fott. 

N. V. '^m (for vdl-s, 43. a; vox, oxp), "^T^ (oVe), '^^^ivocps, oireg) ; Ac. "^H 
(vocem), TT^, ^T^ iOTtag); I. TT^IT, TPW, WrfrH'^R; D. "^T^j ^F«IT, 
^TTTvq^; Ab. ^T^^, TF«JT, ^FW»^^; G. '^T^H, ^T^^, '^^t ; L. ^^ (oV/), 
Wr^hr, ^ToF^ or ^^• 

N. V. ->pF, ->jin, -*J^; Ac. ->nT, &c. ; i. -ws^, ->p«n, -h^^^, &c. 

N. V. WTT, irr^, TTT^; Ac. -RT^, &c.; I. UTifT, ITT^«IT, &c. ; L. pl.TTTT^. 
The last optionally substitutes '5T s for its final "S chh before the vowel-termina- 
tions : thus, N. du. TTT^ or HT^, &c. ''?lft§'^, ' a cloud,' is declined like ^T\. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. TTSF, '^T^t, "^f%, &c. ; >pF, >pft, >jf^, &c. ; VJZ, 

irrgft, iiif>"€F, &c. 

b. The root ^I^ akch, ' to go,' preceded by certain prepositions and adverbial 
prefixes, forms a few irregular nouns ; such as, IIT^' eastern ;' ^ST^^' southern ;' 
TlTr^ ' western ;' '^^^ ' northern;' ^THf^' going with,' ' fit,' ' proper ;' ftPT^ 
' going crookedly, as an animal ;' and a few others less common. These reject the 
nasal in the ace. pi. and remaining cases masculine. In nom. sing, the final 
^ ch being changed to W k, causes the preceding nasal to take the guttural form, 
and the cF is rejected by 43. a. In the ace. plur., and remaining vowel-cases, 
there is a further modification of the base in all, excejtting "HT^^ and ^TT^. 

N.V. masc. IHIF, HT^, TTT^; Ac. TTT^, TIT^^, Tn^; I. in^, W^>^, 
Hrf^TJr; D. ITT^, &c.; L. pi. W^. Similarly, ^^T^. 

N.V. inqr, \\A^\, THT^^^; Ac. tth^, TTTarar, inft^^; i. Wrft^, in?F«n, 

irmfHnT; D. inft^, &c. Similarly, "37^^ and "^IWT^, which make in ace. pi., 
and remaining vowel-cases, "3"5[t^^, *^*h1-m^^. But fTTM^ makes in ace. pi., &c.. 

The feminine, and the neut. dual of these nouns follow the analogy of the ace. pi. : 
thus, N. fem. TIT^ &c., ^5RT^ &c., UflNt &c., ^"Ht &c., ITfiHt &c., ?AV^ 
&c., declined hke ^t. The neuter is N. Ac.V. incff, IH^, mf^, kc. ; TIWW, 
TTTTN^, TriTf%, &c. 

M 2, 


c. ITT^, when it signifies ' worshipping,' retains the nasal throughout ; but ch 
is rejected before the consonantal-terminations, and the nasal then becomes 
guttural : thus, N. TTTT, TTT^, &c. ; Ac. TTR', &c. ; I. "RT^T, FR^, &c. 

d. "^^^ n., ' blood,' is regular : thus, N. Ac. '^^^, ^<|Tft, ^wf^, &c. ; but 
it may optionally take the ace. plur., inst. and dat. sing. ; and, according to some 
authorities, all its other inflexions from an obsolete base, WW^ asan: thus, Ac. pi. 
^wPy or ^5reTf5T ; I. sing. ^^»IT or ^^T, &c. 

e. Nouns formed with the roots ^'5T ' to worship,' TTIT ' to shine,' Jp^' to rub,' 
>5rT5T'to shine,' '^'T 'to wander,' ^sT 'to create,' change the final 'W to 7 or '^ 
before the consonantal-terminations (43. d). In some, however, the final option- 
ally becomes "^ k or ^T^.- thus, ^'^3? m. ' a worshipper of the gods' {'^'r{ becoming 
^) ; N. sing. ^7 or ^^^ : TT'T m. ' a ruler;' N. sing. TlZ, I. dual TT"^«lf : 
■RffpT ' a cleanser ;' N. sing. '"11t^7 : f^^JT'i^ m. f. ' splendid ;' N. sing. f^}T[Z : 
'TK'SfT'T m. ' a religious mendicant ;' N. sing. TTKdl? : TT'^'^'T ' the creator of 
the world ;' N. sing. f^TQ^? or f^'^^'^ . '^fr^'W m., ' a priest,' is regularly 

/. 'iH <^ 4t\ m., ' an inferior sacrificer,' lengthens the a of yaj in the N. sing, and 
in the vowel-cases, and forms the consonantal-cases from an obsolete base, ^Ttf^; 
N. sing. du. pi. "^^^^^j -XTfiH, -irr»T^; Ac. -"TT'st, &c. ; I. -'TrWr, -iftwn, &c. 

g. >rF3T or WrSl^, ' one who fries,' makes N.V. »J7, >TWr> ^^^^^5 '^^- *J^» &c. 
Similarly, "3^' one who cuts.' 

//. "^nf^ m. f., ' strong,' makes N.V. "55^, &c. ; Ac. "^mT, &c. ; I. *Trtl, "gp^, 
&c. The neuter is N. Ac. V. '^(^, "gi^in', "35^5^ unrjji. 

177. Masculine and feminine bases in "^th, "^^dh, declined like '^i^ m. f. ' one 
who teUs,' '^ f. ' battle.' The final aspirate is changed to its unaspirated form 
before the consonantal-terminations (43. b, 41), but not before the vowel (41. b). 
N.V. "^TT, W, "SfTSITT; Ac. ■^, &c.; I. -^t^T, ^B?lf, &c. N.V. ^TT, ^, -^V^^; 
Ac. '^V, &c. ; I. '5'^T, "^Sn, &c. In the case of a root hke '^>I m. f., ' one who 
knows,' the initial "^ b becomes H bh wherever the final V dh becomes t or d, by 
42. c- thus, N.V. >JW, W, W^', Ac. "^j &c. ; I. W, W^, &c. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. "^j W!ft, ^■^, &c. ; "^W, '^'^, "^f^, &c. 

178. Mascuhne and feminine bases in "^^p, "^ph, "^6, >T6A, declined like ^^ 
m. f. ' one who defends,' c5H m. f. 'one who obtains.' N.V. JVC{, ^Tqt, '''T^^j, 
Ac. rrq, &c. ; I. TTtiT, 77-^xtT, ^faJTW, &c. N.V. TJt^, 75>n, ?5HTff; Ac. rS^T, 
^•c. ; I. '?5HT,'p5^^, Hf^^,, &c. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. ^, ntft, nfwT, &c. ; pS^T, c5>ft, ?5f»?, &c. 

b. "^m f. 'Avater,' declined only in the plural, is irregular: thus, N.V. ^TTJ^; 
Ac. ^n:{^^; I.^S^^; D. Ab. ^^I^^^; G. 'SPH; L. ^^ro. 

179. Masculine and feminine bases in JI m, declined like '^I'T m. f. ' one who 
pacifies.' The final m becomes n before the consonantal-terminations : thus, N.V. 

^^, ^rm, ^[i^; Ac. '5i»t, &c. ; i. •^mr, ■^r^^rf, ^rftw^, &c. ; l. pi. "?t^. 


a. Similarly, 11^1^ m. f., ' quiet/ makes N. IT^T*^, -'^ITRt, -'^TWW ; Ac. TI^'R , 
&c. ; I. TT^rnTT, M^II»*Tr, &c. Compare 53. h. 

b. The neuter is N. Ac. V. T^T'^T, l^Pft, ^f^T, &c. ; H^rPT, -^Tift, -^TlfJT, &c. 

180. Masculine and feminine bases in '^ r, declined like ^T m. f. ' one who goes,' 
T^T^ f. ' speech.' If the vowel that precedes final r be i or u, it is lengthened 
before the consonantal-terminations (compare 166); and final r, being a radical 
letter, does not become Visarga before the s of the loc. pi. (71. a). N.V. '^T, ''^^j 
^^^^; Ac. ^, &c. ; I. ^^m, '^^f , ^P^H, &c. ; L. pi. "^. N.V. jftT, fTO, 
fhr:^^; Ac. fnt, &c. ; I. fJTTT, Tft^, jftfilTT, &c. ; L. pi. Tft|. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. "^j "^, '^fx, &c. ; Wh:, fjRt, flft, &c. 

b. There is one irregular noun ending in the semivowel '^ v, viz. f^=r f. ' the 
sky,' which makes its base ?IT in N. sing., and ST in the other consonantal-cases : 

thus, N.V. ?ihr^, f^m, f^H ; Ac. f^^ or ?rf, f^^, f^^; I. f^^, ^wrf, 
^firfT, &c. 

181. Masculine and feminine bases in "^T s and '^ sA, dechned like f%^ m. f. ' one 
who enters,' f^^ f. ' a quarter of the sky,' ff"^ m. f. ' one who hates,' JT? m. f. 
' one who endures.' N.V. f^ (43. e), P^^il , fTST'ff^; Ac. f^^T j &c. ; I. fq^ii , 
f^«iT, &c. N.V. f^ (43. e, 17. b), f<^^1, f^^^^; Ac. f^^, &c. ; I. f^, 

f^T«rf, &c. N.V. f^ (43. e), fk^, f^\, Ac. f^^, &c. ; I. fkm, fi"f«n, 

&c. N.V. ^(43. e), JpT,^TTTT^; Ac. ij^,&c. ; I. ^T, HJvqf, &c. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. f^,f^^,fTft[r,&c.; f^"^, f^^, f^fi^, &c.; ffT, 

fw^, fif^, &c. ; v^, ^, ■^^, &c. 

182. MascuUne and feminine bases in ■? h, declined like fc5'5 m. f. ' one who 
licks ;' J"^ m. f. ' one who milks.' In roots beginning ^vith ^ d, the final aspirate 
becomes "^ A: or '^ ^r (see 17. a), in other roots "Z^t or "S d, before the consonantal- 
terminations ; but in roots whose initial is d, the h, which disappears as a final, is 
transferred to the initial d, which becomes dh wherever final h becomes k or (/ 
(compare 42. c). N.V. fc^7 (43. c), fc5^, f<5^; Ac. f^'f , &c. ; I. fcyfT, 
fc=5W, &c. N.V. Y^, J^, J[^W^; Ac. ^t, &c. ; I. ^■^, VT«ri, vf^H, &c. 
But "5^ m. f., ' one who injures,' makes N. 'H^ or ■§? ; and ^"^ m. f., ' foohsh,' 
N. ^ or ^ . 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. feT, fw^, fc5f^, &c. ; V^, |?t, ff^, &c. 

b. 4liii\^ f., ' a particular kind of metre,' changes its final to k or g before the 
consonantal-terminations, hke roots beginning with d. N. "Tfiltl'^, '3'fw^, &c. 

c. '^T?', ' bearing' (from the root ^ ' to bear'), changes TT to "95 m in the ace. 
plur. and remaining vowel-cases, and before the ^ i of the fern. ; and if the word 
that precedes it in the compound ends in a or a, then a or a combines with li into 
^ au (instead of ^ 0, by 32) : thus, HK^T'? m. f. ' one who bears a burden :' 
N.V. masc. >TRTr7, >iK^I^ , >TTT^T^^^; Ac. >TR^^, >Tn^rT?T, >TTO^^; 
1. >Tmf T, mT^T«n, &c. N. fern. HTO^, &c. But ^^nfc?^, ' bearing rice,' 
makes in Ac. pi. &c. 3(i<^?^^- 


"^ m., Indra' (who is borne by white horses), may optionally retain "^J in 
Ac. plur. &c. ; and in consonantal-cases is declined as if the base were *yn««ti^: 
thus, N.V. ^^TT^m^, %rI^T#, i^ri^T?TT; Ac. ^^TTTW, '^W^T^, W^^ or W- 
^T|r^; I. "^^T^T or ^H«(l^l, "^TTwiT, ^Tfl^VfW^^, &c. 

d. ^nr^"^ m., ' an ox' (for ^nftTT^, from ^TTRr^* a cart,' and "^T? ' bearing'), 
forms the N.V. sing, from ^^ITrT ; and N. du. plur., Ac. sing, du., from ^«13l^ : 
thus, N. ^^fT^, W^TTT?^, ^SRTr^^ ", Ac. '^HTIT^, 'ilH^I^, ^Rpr^^; I. ^R- 
1^, ^^l^f, ^3R|f^H, &c. ; L. pi. -H^ ir^ ; V. "^Rf^- At the end of 
compounds this word makes fem. N. sing. "^•TTi^T ; neut. N.V. ^*isi^, ?MTid^l, 

e. »T5j ' binding,' ' tying,' at the end of compounds, changes the final to TT or ^, 
instead of 7 or ^ : thus, TtTTT?' f., 'a shoe,' makes N. ^MHil, ■3'^'JT?T, Tm»T^^^; 
Ac. OM|r|^, &c. ; I. ^MM^I, "3'm»T?lt, &c. Compare 306. b. 

183. Masculine and feminine bases in more than one final consonant, declined 
like T^TT m. f, ' one who leaps :' N.V. Tt^ (43. a), T^tTt, T57T^; Ac. '^^TT, &c. ; 

I. •g^m, ^^«n, &c. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac.V. '^pi^, ^c^ft, ^f^, &c. 

h. TVJM^ ' a cow-keeper,' makes N.V. *i\<.<sk or *\\<.i-, &c. 


184. The declension of substantives includes that of adjectives; 
and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under 
each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives 
falling under the same class. Simple adjectives, coming immediately 
from roots, and not derived from substantives, are not common. Such 
as do occur belong chiefly to the first, second, and third classes of 
nouns; 80, 81, 82. 

185. Adjectives /ormec?/rom substantives are very numerous, as 
may be seen by a reference to 80, 84, 85. They belong chiefly to 
the first, fifth, and sixth classes of nouns. 

186. Compound adjectives, whether formed by using roots or 
substantives at the end of compounds, are most abundant under 
every one of the eight classes. 

The following table exhibits examples of the most common kind 
of adjectives in the nom. case masc, fem., and neut., and indicates 
the class to which their declension is to be referred. 


187. Examples of simple adjectives. 


fftrtr^dear' ftl^* flTTT ftni 

1st CLASS. J ^>T' fortunate' ^>TO ^>7T ^ 

t^r;^ ' beautiful' 7?»^7Tff ^^T or ^'^^ ^g^t 

2d CLASS. jgjf%'pure' ^'^ ^^^^ ^J^ 

■qr^'pale' ^''f^^ ^'f^x ^'T?!! 

^V'good' ^T^v ;ETT>p^or^SEftio6. ^v 

^F, ' tender' HrfH JRflfV ^f 

>ft^' timid' vft^^ >ft^or>ft^i25. >ft^ 

3d CLASS. 

[88. Examples of adjectives formed from substantives. 


r VT^ ' human' JTRTO m"Jpft »TT«=R 

1st CLASS. "^ ^^ . , ;g, ^ ^ );^ . 

L VT'ftr^ ' religious' VI !*(<*« VTTTW Vim* 

I ■^?5'^W 'strong' ^c5^T"?r -s|c«i<^rfl 106. "^c^^rt 

'iTH CLASS. 1 ^ ^ 

L ^JTi!" ' prosperous' "'jftTT"?? ^jfNlft 106. '^ftjl'fr 

6th CLASS, j ^%»T ' happy' W^ ^^^ 106. '^T^r 

189. Examples of compound adjectives. 


1st CLASS. <; ^ , ,, ^ V O 

'very learned 

2d CLASS. •{ ^';^ 7- , ^if » ^ X ^-^ o *• X o^ ^ ^ 


3D CLASS. ^^^^ '^^^^ ^'^^^^ ""^^^ 

4th class. s "* ' 
L'veiy li 

5th class. <^ ^ 

L ' all-co 

small bodied' 

veiy liberal' 


^Jr^TfTT ^rpi:^ 106. «| |<^ | ri 

* When it is remembered that a is equivalent in pronunciation to u, the three 
genders of this adjective mi^ht be written priyus, priyd, priyum; thus offering a 
perfect similarity to Latin adjectives in vs. 


6th class. , 


7thclass.^ . J -^ 1 r y 

deprived of sense 

JT'#?'T^ JT*AfMo!i j^^ro^ 

5th class.-' '"^ '^ '^ ^ 

[ ' piercin 

piercing the vitals' 

190. Examples of some other compound adjectives. 

^T^WTT 'a shell-blower' (108. a.) 1!^W^\ ^T^^^TT^ ^T^^ 

rfWt 'ruined' (123. i.) "itW^^^ »TF^^ ^T^f^ 

^c5'T 'a sweeper' (126. 6.) ^H''?^ 5a75"q^ "^[t^ 

f^^TT^ 'having a divine mother' (130.) f^^HTiTT "R^^wnn f^^JTTW 

-^ 'rich' (134. o.) ^I^T^^ '^'^T^ ^f^ 

^jft 'having many cattle' (134. a.) "^jnm "^^m^^ ^n 

«J|HI 'having many ships' (134. a.) cjrfHi*! ^f^^ "^f^ 

191. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways; ist, by 
adding to the base in; tara (nom. -taras, -tard, -taram, cf. Greek 
Tepo^) for the comparative ; and im tama (norn. -tamas, -tamd, 
-tamam, cf. Latin timus, Greek Taro?) for the superlative : thus, 
Tgrpi puny a, ' holy,' MiWri*. pimyatara, ' more holy,' '^^ rf J? pumjatama, 
* most holy/ declined like nouns of the first class at 103. So also, 
dhanavat, ' wealthy,' dhanavattara, ' more wealthy,' dhanavattama, 
' most wealthy.' A final "^ is rejected ; as, dhanin, ' rich,' dhanitara, 
' more rich,' dhanitama, ' most rich' (57). f^^, ' wise,' makes 
f%¥^T, f^'^T. Compare 168. a. 

192. 2dly, by adding ^^ iyas (nom. -iydn, -iyasi, -iyas, Greek 
loov, see declension at 167) for the comparative; and j^ ishfha (nom. 
'■ishthas, -ishfhd, -ishtham, declined at 103, cf. Greek la-ro^) for the 

a. Note, that while the base of the Sanskrit comparative affix strictly appears to 
end in n and s (iyans), the Greek has adhered to the n throughout (N. iyd)i=.iav, 
voc. iyan = tov); and the Latin has taken the s for its neuter {iyas = ius, neuter 
of ior; r being changed to s, which so frequently happens). Compare Sanskrit 
gariyas with gravius. 

193. In general, before iyas and ishtha, the base disburdens itself of a final 
vowel, or of the more weighty affixes in, vin, vat, mat .- thus, "^T(5«T ' strong,' 
«ic4l*l^.^'more strong' (declined at 167), "^fc^ff 'strongest' (dechned at 103); 
75^ 'light,' <^rifhnT ' lighter,' ojfvja 'lightest;' ^f^^ ' intelligent,' ^'Nt^ 
' more intelligent,' ^fVjl? ' most intelligent.' 


Comjiare ^if^iMl'T (N. of swddiyas) from swddu with vjotiov from yjhv ; and 

194. But besides the rejection of the final, the base often undergoes considerable 
change, as in Greek (compare e'^6iav, e'^Biarog, from ^yBpog) ; and its place is 
sometimes suppUed by a substitute (compare jSeXricov, (^ekTiarog, from ayaBog). 
The following is a list of the substitutes : 




■«i r»fl Oh antika, near' 

■JT^ Hfrfa 



W3T alpa, ' little' 

W!J: kana 



"3^ uru, large' 



<ir*jt [apiaTO] 

■^JIT Icrisa, ' thin' 

"^ krasa 



■ftpi kshipra, ' quick' 

'^^ kshepa 



W^ kshudra, ' small,' ' mean' 

"53^ kshoda 



^T^ ^rwrw, ' heavy' 

TR ffara 

i\(S^\{(jramus) ^ftS 

?pi tripra, ' satisfied ' 

WT /rflj9« 



^t( dirghu, ' long' 

■^"ni drdghu 



HT dura, ' distant' 

^■^ rfara 



"?^ dridha, ' firm' 

■^S" dradha 



^fV'J^^flTOnVia, 'excellent' 




Y%prithu, 'broad' 
H^l*M prasasya, ' good' 

TT^ pratha 
'■^* sra 

TTRT^ priya, ' dear' 

IT * pra 



^ bahu, ' much' 

^* i//« 


«l^.rt hahula, ' much' 

■^ 6aMAa 


>T5I bhrisa, ' excessive' 

W^ bhrasa 



^ mridu, ' soft' 

^ mr«c?« 



■■M«l|ri ywjjaji, young' 

XR' yava 



'^TC' vddha, ' firm,' ' thick' 

^nV sat/Aa 



^U vriddha, ' old ' 

^"^ varsha 

' .•^*jyd 

■^"•^ Kofi wnWara^ff, excellent' 

■^r^ vrinda 

fm< sthira, ' firm,' ' stable' 

•m stha 



Wc5 sthula, ' gross, ' bulky' 

'WH^ sthavu 



rt*ti<. sphira, ' turgid ' 

^ sp/ifl 



■g^ hraswa, ' short' 

1^^ hrasa 



* In the case of ^ and "R the final vowel is not rejected, but combines with tyas 
and ishtha agreeably to Sandhi. In -RTT and >J, yas is afiixed in place oi lyas. 



195. Sometimes, but very rarely, degrees of comparison may be formed from 
feminine bases ending in the vowels ^ i and "3! u, which may either be retained 
before tara and iuma, or be shortened : thus, from WiTT, ' a faithftil %vife,' «rtlrt<., 

^nftTm or ^jTiTT, ^fmnT. 

196. Tara and lama may sometimes be added to inseparable prepositions; as, 
^W ' up,' 3rK, ' higher,' T^TT ' highest.' Compare in Latin extimus, intimus, &c. 

a. They are sometimes added to pronominal bases (236), and to numerals (209, 

197. They may even be added, in conjunction with the syllable "^ am, to the 
inflexions of verl)S ; as, "ST^tHinrKl ' he talks more than he ought.' 



198. The cardinals are, ;»ofi i ; % 2; f^ 3; ^W^ 4; ^^^ 5; ^^ 6; 
^W^q;;; ^reirS; ^^^9; ^^"J^io; ^^ST^^ii; ^t^^^i2; ^ifr?^i3; 
^wf^ 14; t?^^^"?^ 15; ^^7^ 16; ^TR^^^ 17; ^5??^^^ 18; TT^^-TT 
or -gnrf^fTT 19; f^frT 20 ; TT^Bf^^frT 21; lTf¥^ffT 22; ^tftfwfw 23; 
^wf%frT 24; tf^f^^W 25; TTfi^lfw 26; ^?Tf#5TffT 27; ^JTFrf^^flT 28 ; 
^^r^^lfw or -giiTf^^TT 29 ; f^^ff 30 ; ^^f^W 3 1 ; Wlf^^lT 32 ; ^^^- 
^33; ^^^^t?^,34; i^#^35; ^f^ff36; ^TTTf^5nT37; ^i?Tf^- 
^ 38 ; iT^f^^TT or diH-qrcliR^Tr 39 ; ^i^ft^ 40 ; l^oh-MHlft^ 41 ; 

ff^^rrfTinr or iT'^r^ftw 42 ; f^'^^nf^ft^'R or ^q^F^fi^rrf 43 ; ^^- 

Hin^IlT 44 ; ■R^3f^r^fT5T7T 45 ; ^^-eJHUfr^Tf 46 ; **H^r=JlfT^ 47 ; ^TFT- 
^qj^rfrw or ^^TF^r^fr^W 48 ; Hcj^Hlft^tT or "3RTT^^7r 49 ; 1(^1 91 ri^ 50 ; 
C'ckM^I^ITT 51 ; fl'^^TSfTTi; or l"Ti7^T^rr 52 ; f^TT^^W or ^^'.IT^^TT 53 ; 

^•.tPiniTr 54; TT^T?^^55; ^^T^7r56; ^rfftr^^W57; '^TFxr^TsnT 

or '^rem^dli^lri^ 58 ; -^^tr^^TT or ^^^^fv 59 ; ^?s 60; W^f;^ 61 ; flTlf? 
or iT-^ 62; f^irfl or ^^T'.^fF* 6^; -^t^* 64; V[W^fs 6^; VZ^f? 66; 
"Wfnjfs 67 ; W^'Rfip or ■^TFrmF 68 ; TRtrf^ or ^iTniTjfw 69 ; ^TTtTtt 70 ; 
^oTOTrfw 7 1 ; %^TTrrw or n^rfffrT 72 ; fGrfrfffrT or gTTt^Tjrfw 73 ; ^tHufrf 
74 ; TI^WSrflT 75 ; ^TTT-afiT 76 ; ^TSnnTfw 77 ; -aBWHTri or -HgmMPd 78 ; 
^ ^^MPri or -giTTT^fffir 79; '5<qftf(T8o; ij cji i ^nT w 81; 3^ftfw82; ^31^^83; 
^WT^ftfTT 84 ; TI^^TT Ss ; ^^fw 86 ; HM\^{\Ca 87 ; ^T^fw 88 ; 
W^l^fird or ^airR^fff 89; ^T^ffT 90; TTodri^fir 91; fl^RffT or ^M^^Prt 92; 

* These may also be written ^TTEJTfe, -^ ^ U| Ps . In fact, rules 62. a. and 63. 
apply equally to initial ^ ; but '^ and "^fw, and their deri\'atives, are the only 
words beginning with '^ c\f'V likely to occur. 


fdH^T fr or ^ 4)H«4rri 93; ^^^7T94; tI^'5T^TT95; TniTTTw 96 ; T^TTrnfff 
97; ^^^T^flT or ^TfT^^ 98; ^^^-^W or *H5Iri 99; T^W n. or ^sjnjTW 11, 
100; w^ n. or ^ofi^H n. 1000. 

199. The numbers between 100 and 1000, and those above 1000, 
are usually expressed by compounding the adjective 'Sifv^ adhika, 
'■ more/ ' plus/ with the cardinal numbers : thus, 10 1 may be 
expressed by ir«fiTfVr«fi ^TT, i. e. ' a hundred plus one/ or more con- 
cisely ^^Tfvsfi^TTT, or even ^Wlfv^ . Similarly, STf^^I^ W or uf^l^i^H 
102; ^qf\lcfi ^W or ^PM c ti^Iri 103; fpf^ftnn^ 130; TT^in^fVj^iT or 
H l j^ f ri 150 ; f^^TT or |- ^^ N. du. neut. 200 ; tTfi^l?rfv^ifl''5TW 226 ; 
f^W or i^ ^nnfrr N. pi. neut. 300 ; ^tnftrCfftnif^^W 383 ; ^^'.^ 
or ^HlH. ^IrilfH N. pi. 400 ; TT^T^mfv^T^I^fT 485 ; TT^^W 500 ; 
mijci^jTMchM^^Iri 596 ; TT^^TT 600 ; WTWWfVr^fi^TW ^^^ '•> ^fHI^fT 700 ; 
^r?-5nr 800 ; A-A^XA 900 ; ^f^ or ^^mw n. or ^^T^jft 1000 ; HliiJIUM 
or M^SIdlfMsliM^H 1600 ; ■R^^wftj^^^^r^TrT 1 666. 

a. The ordinals are sometimes joined to the cardinals to express 1 1 1 and 
upwards : thus, TJcPH^^ ^ iii ; f^^ ^H 1020; f^ W 130, &c. 

h. Single words are used for the highest numbers : thus, '«<jrt n.'ten thousand;' 
(^ n. or c7^ f. ' a lac,' ' one hundred thousand;' f'T^ or U'^IT m. n. ' one 
milhon;' oftf? f. 'a krore,' 'ten millions;' W^ m. n. 'one hundred milhons;' 
JT^T'fcf m. n. ' one thousand millions ;' "T^ m. n. or '^T^ n. ' ten thousand 
milhons ;' TfTT^ m. n. ' one hundred thousand millions ;' ^^ m. n. ' a billion ;' 
JT^T^ m. n. or "^Tl- m. ' ten bilHons ;' 'SfT^ m.n. or ^^^ m.'a hundred billions;' 
JT^T^T^ ' a thousand billions ;' ^T^ m. or 'SFiT m. ' ten thousand billions ;' H^l- 
f l^T m. or 'TTT^ m. ' one hundred thousand million;' '^ n.' one milhon billion;' 
JT^nr»T n. ' ten million biUion;' ^^f^t f. ' one hundred million billion;' 'R^T^- 
n^llfl ' one thousand million billion.' 


200. ^cfi I, % 2 {duo, ^uo), f^ 3 {tres, rpehyTpia), ^^4 [quatuor), 
are declined in three genders. 

H^ eka, ' one' (singular only), follows the declension of prono- 
minals (see 237) : nom. m. ekas ; dat. m. ekasmai ; nom. f. ekd ; 
dat. f. ekasyai ; nom. n. ekam. It may take the affixes tara and 
tama : thus, ekatara, ' one of two / ekatama, ^ one of many / w hich 
also follow the declension of pronominals. 

201. fir dwi, 'two' (dual only), is declined as if the base were 
^ dwa : thus, N. Ac. V. m. ■^ dwau, f. n. |r dwe ; I. D. Ab. m. f. n. 
^Tvqt ; G. L. '^Tfr^^. 

N 2 


202. f^ tri, ' three' (plural only), is declined in the masculine 
like the plural of nouns whose bases end in ^ i at no, excepting in 
the gen.: thus, N.V. masc. W^^ Ac. ^^T ; I. f^ftr^; D. Ab, fgr«T^^; 
G. 'cftimif ; L. f^^ . The feminine forms its cases from a base "fir^ : 
thus, N. Ac. V. fem. fwH^^; I. fff^^^; D. Ab. fwHwn?^; G. Pri^^li ; 
L. ffT^^ . The N. Ac. neut. is ^ftir ; the rest as the masculine. 

203. ■^HT chatur, ' four' (plural only), is thus declined: N.V. masc. 
•sJHK^ {reTTape?, Tecrarape^) ; Ac. WT^; I- ^^THW ; D. Ab. '^v^; 
G. ^w?nT; L. ^ff|. N. Ac. V. fem. "^nm^; I. -^imfWH; D. Ab. ^^TT- 
^«nT ; G. ^riwini ; L, '^Tr^^ . N. Ac. V. neut. -^f^ft: ; the rest as 
the masculine. 

204. Xfw^panchan, ' five' (plural only), is the same for masc, fem., 
and neut. It is declined after the analogy of nouns in an (147), 
excepting in N. Ac. The gen. lengthens the penultimate : thus, 
N. Ac.V. -q^ (TreVre) ; I. tf^fiT^; D. Ab. tt^«I^ ; G. t?^^*; L. tt^. 
Similarly are declined, ^tht ' seven' {septem, eirra), iT^^ ' nine' 
{novem), ^^♦^ ' ten' {decern, SeKa), ijoRT^'^r^ ' eleven' {undecim), ^\^\\*\^ 
' twelve' [duodecim), and all other numerals ending in an, excepting 
•^re"?^ ' eight.' 

205. ■R'R shash, ' six,' and ^Tg^T ashtan, ' eight,' are the same for 
masc, fem., and neut., and are thus declined: N. AcV. viZ; I. 'RTfH^; 
D. Ab. xr5«t^ ; G. tniTf shaiindm; L. ti7^ . N. Ac.V. ^i? or ^r^ {octo, 
oKTw) ; I. '^reftr?!^ or ^3TFrf«^^; D. Ab. ^srewTO or wrrwm ; G. '^TFRT ; 
L. ^s^TT or '3T?T^ . 

206. All the remaining cardinal numbers, from "gifrf^^rRT ' nineteen' 
to ^TT ' a hundred,' and ^^ ' a thousand,' are declined in the singular 
only, and are the same whether joined with masculine, feminine, or 
neuter nouns*. Those ending in fff ti are declined hke the singular 
of the feminine noun nfff 7nati at 112 ; and those in i^;^^ are dechned 
hke the singular of -milf^sai'it at 136: thus, f^^IWT "5^% ' with twenty 
men ;' f^lTT "q^: ' with thirty men.' ^ ' a hundred' and TTpT ' a 
thousand' are neuter, and are declined like the neut. singular of 
f^ siva at 103 : thus, •^nt ftrin:^ ' a hundred ancestors ;' ^J'SfirfVoB^rf 

* Although these numerals, when joined with nouns, are declined in the singu- 
lar, yet when used alone as substantives, to express more than one hundred, or 
more than one thousand, they may take a dual or plural; as, isi^^inl ' two twenties ;' 
r^^lril 'two thirties;' f<^5IH^ 'many thirties;' ^Tff 'two hundred;' ^nTTm 
' hundreds ;' ^^W i Ril ' many thousands.' 


fVjTTT;ifT ' a hundred and one ancestors ;' ^HTrf f^^^fir^ ' with a thou- 
sand ancestors.' 

207. The adjective '3!»T 'less,' ' minus,' may be placed before a cardinal number, 
to denote one less than that number, W^ ' one' being either expressed or under- 
stood : thus, "^rTf^^rfiT or ^^t^f^^fff ' twenty minus one' or ' nineteen' (com- 
pare the Latin undeviginti, i. e. unus de viginti). And other cardinals, besides ^ToR 
' one,' are sometimes prefixed to "^HT, to denote that they are to be deducted from 
a following number ; as, M=5n»1 ■^TfT or M^l»l^ld ' a hundred less five' or ' ninety- 


208. The ordinals are, "P^PT ' first' * (compare Trpcoro^, primus) ; 
ffTfhr ' second' {Sevrepa) ; WItNt ' third' {tertia) ; dechned Uke pro- 
nominals at 237, or Uke siva at 103. 

209. ^W^ '^ fourth' t {reTapros:) ; v;^t{ ' fifth ;' xTff ' sixth ;' ^HTR 
* seventh' («e/?/wM<j?) ; •^r?^ ' eighth;' ^^i? ' ninth' («o?^Ms) ; ^^'^ tenth' 
{decimus) ; dechned hke siva at 103, 104, for the masc. and neut. ; 
and hke nadi at 106. for the feminine. In saptama and ashtama the 
superlative affix (196. a) may be recognised. 

210. The ordinals from ^eleventh' to ^twentieth' are formed from 
the cardinals by rejecting the final n : thus^ from ^oRT^»t ' eleven,' 
^oFT^ ' eleventh' (Nom. m. f. n. ^<*ic|^r«^, -^, -"^f, 103, 106, 104). 

211. ' Twentieth,' ' thirtieth,' ' fortieth,' and ' fiftieth,' are formed 
either by adding the superlative affix tama (196. a) to the cardinal, 
or by rejecting the final of the cardinal ; as, from f^^rfir ^ twenty,' 
N^rPifriH or f^^ ' twentieth' (Nom. m. f. n. -ifT^, -ift, -A ; -"^T^, -"5^, -^, 
103, 106, 104). Similarly, f^^lrlH or f^ * thirtieth,' &c. The 
intermediate ordinals are formed by prefixing the numeral, as in the 
cardinals : thus, ijofif^^finnT or T?^Iif^ ' twenty-first,' &c. 

a. Some grammarians admit a third form of ordinal, ending in in : thus, cf'ftfT'«T 
' tenth,' (jc h if^ n ^R ' eleventh,' f¥%^ ' twentieth,' f^f^"^ ' thirtieth,' ■^r^Tftf^'51^ 
' fortieth,' M'^sHf^R' fiftieth.' 

212. The other ordinals, from 'sixtieth' to 'ninetieth,' are formed 
by adding tama, or by changing ti to ta : thus, from wfe ' sixty,' 
vfsim or ^^ ' sixtieth;' from "^^ ' ninety,' H-^PridH or ^TTrT ' ninetieth.' 

* Other adjectives may be used to express ' first ;' as, WRH , -OT, -U ; ^nf^:, 
t ri'O^I? -"m, -^ ; '5'^tj -Wl f -^ — are also used for ' fourth.' 


213. ' Hundredth^ and ' thousandth^ are formed either by adding 
tama to ^p" and ^fH, or simply by converting these ordinals into 
adjectives, declinable in three genders: thus, ^Win? or ^ ' hundredth' 
(Nom. m. f. n. l^wim^^, -»lt, -^^, ^Tr?T, -ift, -t). Similarly, «^«riH*i^, 
-Trt, -H, or TtT^;, -#, -^, ' thousandth.' 

214. The aggregation of two or more numbers is expressed by modifications of 
the ordinal numbers : thus, IHT ' a duad,' ^'4 ' a triad,' ^ire^* ' the aggregate 
of four.' 

215. There are a few adverbial numerals; as, 'T'^Ir^' once,' f^r'T^' twice,' fW*^ 
'thrice,' '^^^'four times.' oFr^^ may be added to cardinal numbers, with a 
similar signification ; as, xj^^jf^^ ' five times.' The neuter of the ordinals may 
be used adverbially ; as, THTR ' in the first pla 





Numerical symbols. 

« M ^ j> t 







217. Pronouns have no crude base analogous to that of nouns; 
that is, no state distinct from all inflexion, serving as the basis on 
which all the cases are constructed. The reason of this may be, 
that the pronouns in Sanskrit, as in all languages, are so irregular 
and capricious in their formation, that no one base would be equally 
applicable to all the cases. Thus in the ist personal pronoun, the 
base of the nom. sing, would be ah, while that of the oblique cases 
sing, would be ma. In the 2d, the base of the sing, is practically 
twa, while that of the dual and plural is yu. The 3d would have 
sa for the base of the nom. sing., and la for the other cases. 

The question then arises. What form of the pronoun is to be used in the forma- 
tion of compound words ? In the pronouns of the first and second persons, the 
ablative cases, singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, the nominative and 
accusative cases singular neuter, are considered as expressive of the most general 
and comprehensive state of the i)ronoim. These cases, therefore, discharge the 
office of a crude base in resj)ect of compound words. 



Observe — In Sanskrit, as in other languages, to denote the general and indefi- 
nite character of the first two personal pronouns, no distinction of gender is 
admitted. For the same reason, the formation of the nom. case of pronouns is 
made to resemble the neuter, as the most general state. This may also be the 
reason why the 3d pronoun sa drops the s of the nom. case before all consonants. 

N. wi aham, ' V 
Ac. JTT mam or jtt md, ' me' 
I. wmmayd 
D. ^^^ mahyam or ^ me 
G. J7»T mama or ^ me 
L. T{fTi mayi 

N. ^ haam, ' thou' 
Ac. r?rt hvdm or "^ twd 
I. r^TTT tivayd 
D. ivi^ tubhyam or w te 
G. n^^ tava or w te 
L. f^ 

T^ mat or ^TWrT asmat, ' I.' 
wr^ dvdm, ' we two' T^ vayam, ^ we' 

— aram or ffTwaw/ us two' ^TOTT^c^^awor »nT%a*/us' 
^Tn«lt dvdbhydm ^TWrfWH asmdbhis 

— dvdbhydm or "^ nau W^U^ asmab hy am or i^nas 
^m'lf asmat 

^TWra asmdkam or rf^ nas 
^mi'JT asmdsu 

— dvdbhydm 
4Jrc(in« dvayos or 1^ wg?^ 

— dvayos 

r^ /«;«/ or TTTTir yushmat 
'^ yuvdm, ' you two' 
— yuvdm or '^ vam 
^■^T«n yuvdbhydm 


^ yuyam, ' you' or ' ye' 
TT^TPT yushmdn or ^i;a5 
<4^ir»T^^ yushmdbhis 

— yuvdbhydm or ^f ^?am ^tjiw? yushmabhyam or ^^t?a« 

— yuvdbhydm TnJTfT yushmat 
"^"^^yuvayos or '^ ra/M Y^n«fi yushmdkam or ^va* 

— yuvayos ^«*(t^ yushmdsu 



N. w^^sas, 
Ac. "ff ^am 
I. ^ ^ew« 
D. w^ tasmai 
Ab. HfHIH tasmdt 
G. WW ^«syffl 
L. irftRfT tasmin 

N. 'm 5a, ^ she' 
Ac. irt Mm 
I. Tnn My a 
D. fT^ tasyai 

TTW M# or TT^ /«<f, * he/ ^ that.' 


ift Mm, ^ they two' 

— tau 

"iTTWlf tdbhydm 

— tdbhydm 

— tdbhydm 

— M?/o* 

W M, ^ they' 

TtatTR tebhyas 
— tebhyas 
Jtm teshdm 
?N teshu 


W te 
— te 

WTwn tdbhydm 
— tdbhydm 

imT ids 
— tds 
fTrft^TfT tdbhis 
HTwrff tdbhyas 


Ab. ■ff^TTT tasyds Trr^rf tdbhydm ITTvinT tdbhyas 

G. — tasyds "iT^frtT tayos "irraf tdsdm 

L. TT^ tasydm — tayos irnT tdsu 

N. Ac. "fTfT tat, w ^e, irrfJT ^^^^i ; the rest like the mascuUne. 
Compare the Greek article with the above pronoun. 

a. The above pronoun tat is sometimes used emphatically with the other pronouns, 
like ille and ijjse: thus, ^5'^ ' UU ego;^ ff '^^ ' illi nos/ ^ r«r ' tile tu;' "ff IHI ' i7K 
vos;' ^ T^t ' z7?e ipse;' "fTrT TITW ' «W ipsmn.' 

221. There is a modification of the pronoun tat (rarely used), formed by insert- 
ing y: thus, N. ^^, Wt, W. 

a. Observe the resemblance of the Sanskrit personal pronouns to those of the dead 
and living cognate languages. Aham or ah is the Greek eyw (jEolic eyav), Latin 
ego, German ich, EngHsh ' I :' mam or md (the latter being the original form found 
in the Vedas) equals e^e, me ; mahyam = mihi j mayi i= mei .• the mat of the abl. 
sing, and of asmat, yushmat, corresponds to the Latin met in memet, nosmet, &c. : 
rayam or ra is the English ' we ;' asmdn:=us: nas=inosj twam=ztu/ thou;' twdm 
or twd=ite/;' tubhyam=:tibi ; twayi=ituij yuyam^tJfJ-€i^, 'English you;' 
vas = vos. The 3d personal pronoun corresponds to the Greek article : thus, tau 
= ra, tam = TOV; tdbhydm = TOiv, raiv ; tais = TOi$, Tolg, &c. 


222. The oblique cases of ^STTW?^ dtman, ' soul/ ' self ^ (declined at 
147) are used reflexively, in place of the three personal pronouns, 
like the Latin ipse. 

Thus, dtmdnam {me ipsum) andhdrena hanishydmi, ' I will kill myself by fasting ;' 
dtmdnam {te ipsum) mritavad darsaya, 'show thyself as if dead;' dtmdnam [se 
ipsum) nindati, ' he blames himself.' 

223. The third personal pronoun ffw tat, ^ he/ declined above at 
220, is constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify * that' or 
^ this ;' and by prefixing if e to it, another common pronoun is 
formed, more proximately demonstrative : thus, irwir etat or vi^ etad, 
' this.' Observe — ^The first t of etat may optionally be changed to n 
in the Ac. sing. du. pi., I. sing., G. du., in all three genders : thus, 

^ITTT etat or TTiT^ etad, '■ this.' 


N. ^^^^eshas. 70. W^etau Wit ete 

Ac. ^ etani or ;r^ enam — etau or ^«fT enau i^jn^etdn or vy{J'^endn 



I. "^k^ et en a or T^ft^enena "^yrv^ et dbhydm ^^m etais 

D. |Jd*^ etasmai — etdbhydm wiomvetebhyas 

Ah.^fimiiJ etasmdt — etdbhydm — etebhyas 

G. wir^ etasya Vir^Wetayos or jrrT^Ct^enayos "^v^ eteshdm 

Li. vyrfm'^^ etas)nin — etayos or ■ — enayos ^^eteshu 

The feminine is N. vyn eshd, ^ ete, ^A\\ etas ; Ac. iTfTf or itrt , 
^ff or 1^, lid re or IT^TTT; I. iTrnn or ^rniT, ^HT«TT, FTTrfinT; 

D. irw^, &c. 

The neuter is N. ^tttt, ttw, ^Wlf^; Ac. ^WW or ^rfrT, ^ or ^%, 

?nrrf«T or ij^nf^, &c. 

With the above pronoun compare the Latin iste, ista, istud .- etam = istum, 
etasya = istius, etat =: istud. 

224. There is another common demonstrative pronoun, of which 
^ idam, ' this/ the N. neuter, is considered to be the base (compare 
the Latin is, ea, id). The true base, however, might rather be said 
to be the vowel ^ i, which serves also as the source of certain pro- 
nominals, such as ^TfT, ^rf^i, ^"mr. See 234, 236, and 234. b. 


N. ^ ay am, ' this' 

^ imau, '^ these two' 

•^ ime, '^ these' 

Ac. ^ imam 

— imau 

^HH iman 

I. wk^ anena 

WP^ dbhydm 


D. ■^T^ asmai 

— dbhydm 

^^^^ ebhyas 

Ah. "^mil^asmat 

— dbhydm 

— ebhyas 

G. "^m asya 

-l^r\i^\■^^ anayos 

^ eshdm 

L. wPeR'T asmin 

— anayos 


■^^ eshu 

N. ^ iyam 

?JT ime 

^^^ imds 

Ac. i^JRT imdm 

— ime 

— imds 

I. ^nm anayd 

^TTwrf dbhydm 

^mf^ dbhis 

D. ^T^ asyai 

— dbhydm, 

^^rrvre dbhyas 

Ab. ^TRTHT asyds 

— dbhydm 

— dbhyas 

G. — asyds 

^^Tipfrtr anayos 

^■RTT dsdm 

L. ^5T^ asydm 

— anayos 


^TT^ dsu 

N. Ac. ^ idam 

^ ime 

•%f{\f^ imdni 

* This is an example of the old form for the instr. pi, of masculine nouns of the 
first class, preserved in the Vedas. 



225. There is another demonstrative pronoun (rarely used, excepting in nom. 
sing.), of which ^^, ' this' or ' that,' is taken as the base, though the true base 
is ^^ amii, and in N. sing. '^W asu. It is thus declined : Masc. N. '^TOT, ^HJ, 
■^ift; Ac. ^, ^H, 'ST^; I. W^, ^wri, Wfli^^; D. ^■^, ^«rf, 
^^nrt^m; Ab. WtyfTtT, ^^rJT«rf, 'STTftvq^ ; G.'^mTqj'^I^TTt^, ^fjlm; L. ^f^^, 
^tfrtT, ^mtw. Fern. N. '^^, ^, ^W^fT; Ac. "^^ ^, "^^^J I- '^WTT, 
^JT«IT, ^^wfiTO; D. ^W^, ^!mvqf, ^5m«r?T; Ab. ^i<Hmi^, &c. ; G. 'WHUJI^, 
?HHin*(, "'HflMT ; L. ^WOlt, ^"ifW, WT| . Neut. N. Ac. ^^» ^W, ^nTpff . 


226. The relative is formed by substituting zf y for the initial 
letter of the pronoun tat, at 220 : thus, 

TITT yat or xn? yad, ' Avho,' ' which.' 


N. xi?r yas "Jn yaii ^ ?/e, ' who' or ' which' 

Ac. ^^ yam — yau ti^V^ ydn 

I. xf^ yena "mwrf ydbhydm ^^ yais 

D. ■?!# yasmai — ydbhydm ^[Hfm^yebhyas 

Ab, tf^Tf^ yasmdt — ydbhydm — yebhyas 

G. ti^ yasya if"ift^ yayos ^t yeshdm 

Li. tif^rj yasmin — yo^yos t^ yeshu 

The feminine and neuter follow the fem. and neut. of tat, at 220. 

Fem. N. ijt yd, xi ye, itrt yds ; Ac. xjf yam, &c. &c. Neut. N. Ac. 

TTfT yat, ^ ye, xrrf^ ydni ; the rest like the masculine. 

With the above pronoun compare the Greek relative 0$, rj, ; the Sanskrit y 
being often represented in Greek words by the spiritus asper. 


227. The interrogative differs from the relative by substituting k 
instead of y for the initial letter of the pronoun tat, at 220 : thus, 
Masc. N. -sm^kas, ^ kau, ^ ke, ' who?' ' which?' ' what?' Ac. ofi kam, 
' whom ?' &c. Fem. N. "cfiT kd, % ke, ■^;\:^Jids, &c. The N. Ac. Neut. 
are foj kim, ^ ke, ^if^ kdni, not kat *, ke, kdni. Kim is also taken 
for the base, and occurs in a few compounds ; such as "ftwlr ' on 
what account?' ^why?' 

* Kat, however (= Latin quod), was the old foi-m, and is retained in a few words ; 
such as kachchit, ' perhaps ;' kadartha, ' useless' ('of what use ?') ; kadadhwan, * a 
bad road' (' what sort of a road ?'). 


a. The true base, however, is kaj and to this may he affixed ti, to form oRftT kati, 
' how man}' ?' (quot). The same affix is added to ta, the pro])er base of the third 
personal pronoun, to form fati, ' so many' {tot). The Latin cjuot and tot, which droj) 
the final i, take it aj?ain in composition ; as, quotidie, totidem, &c. 

228. The indeclinable affixes chit, api, and chana, affixed (in 
accordance with the rules of Sandhi) to the several cases of the 
interrogative pronouns, give them an indefinite signification ; as, 
efiftjiT kaschit, ' somebody,' ' some one,' ' any one,' ' a certain one:' 
thus declined : 


N. -sa^fSl^ kaschit. 62. ^[fwi[kauchit ^fq^TA•ec/^^// some persons' 

Accjif^rT ^a«c/«^. 59. — kauchit ^hf^^kdmchit. ^'^. 

T. ^^S^'mi kenachit «liim ! f^dTT kdbhydnchit '^sf^ifkaischit. 62. 

D. -^mf^Ttkasmaichit — kdbhydnchit w^ifff^lJ kebhyaschit 

Ab . ohw I Pd ri kasmdchchit — kdbhydnchit — kebhyaschit 

G. d^^^-^n kasyachit ejiiTtngrf kayoschit ojiM | P^dl ri^ keshdnchit 

L. ofifFrftjTT kasminschit — kayoschit ^"^f^TT keshuchit 

Similarly, Fern. Nom. oSTf^TT, ^f^ff, '^fiTftjTT ; Ac. oRrf^, &c. : and 
Neut. Nom. Ac. f^fif^w ' something,' ' any thing,' ^f%7T, ciirf?|f^, &c. 

229. So also by affixing ^f^T ; as, Masc. Nom. '^sfll (64. a) ' some one,' ' a 
certain one,' ■=fiT^,%sfxi (37, 35); Ac. cprfir, &c. ; I. ^)*nf»T, &c. (31); D.'^^T- 
TrflT, &c. (37) ; Ab. -^^RT^, &c. ; G. "SfiPlITfxr, &c. ; L. ■^fep^, &c. (52). 
Fem, Nom. cPlfxT, &c. ; Ac. cfiTTftl, &c. ; I. «!rmf'T, &c. &e. Neut. Nom. f^wftl 
' something,' ' any thing,' &c. The affix chana is rarely found, excepting in the 
Masc. Nom. oh'-a*! ' some one,' ' any one ;' and in the Neut. Nom. f<*'^H ' some- 

230. In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite : thus, from 
kati, ' how many ?' katichit, ' a few;' from kadd, ' when ?' kaddchit, ' at some time ;' 
from kotham, ' how ?' kathalichana, ' some how.' 


231. These are formed by affixing tya (80. XV) to those cases of the personal 
pronouns, ending in t, which are used for crude bases : thus, from TTT and 'ST^TT 
'I,' *?c(txr madiya (45), 'mine,' and ^W^i*< asmadiya, 'our;' from r^TT'thou,' 
r^^VlT twadiya, ' thine ;' from rf? ' he,' 'fT^T^ tadiya, ' his.' They are declined like 
nouns of the first class at 103. 

Observe, however, that the genitive case of the personal pronouns is more usually 
used for the possessive : thus, ITRT "^X ' his son ;' '^^ "^^t ' my daughter.' 

O 2 



232. ^ swa (suus) is used reflexively, in reference to all three 
persons, and may stand for ' my own' {mens), ' thy own' (tuus), ' his 
own/ ' our own,' &c. (compare acpo?, a-fprj^ crcpou). It often occupies 
the first place in a compound : thus, ^T^ JiTadPri ' he goes to his 
own house.' The gen. case of ''snTR'J^ at man at 147, or often the 
crude base, is used with the same signification ; as, ^^rnTrft ^^ or 
^lr«'1^ Jl^frt *. In modern Sanskrit, frfW nija is often used in 
place of ^ and ^rrw. ^ is declined like fat at 220 ; but the Ab. L. 
sing. masc. neut. and N. pi. masc. may follow siva at 103. 


233. iJWlf bhavaty ' your honour,' requiring the 3d person of the 
verb, is declined like dhanavat at 140 : thus, N. masc. >TTR bhavdn, 
>TWr bhavantau, ^^^7f^'^ bhavantas ; N. fem. >TTfft bhavati, H^?n 
bhavatijau, vnw^^bhavatyas, &c.; Voc. iT^fir (140. b). It is constantly 
used in place of the 2d personal pronoun : thus, >m*T 3]^ W^jf ' Let 
your honour go home' for ' Go thou home.' 


234. Modifications of the demonstrative, relative, and interrogative pronouns 
may take the affix "^tfvat to express ' quantity,' and the affix T^T drisa or "^^^drisf 
to express ' simihtude :' thus, ti[<in^ tdvat, *tn\m\^etdvat, ' so many,' 'so much' 
{tantiis); TU^li (quant us) 'as many,' 'as much' (dechned Uke dhanavat at 140); 
(11 ^^1 tddrim or ''TT'^^^ tddris, ' such like' {talis, TYjXiKOg) ; F?n"?^ etddrisa or 
^fW'^'^^etddris, ' hke this or that' (following siva, at 103, for the masc. and neut. ; 
nadi, at 106, for the fem. of those ending in ^ saj and dis, at 181, for the masc.. 
fem. neut. of those in T?I s). Similarly, ^T5I or 'TT?'?! 'as like/ 'how like?' 
[quulis, y^kiKog); ^■^'51 or t^!^^' so like ;' ^t^ or cfit^^^'how like ?' (qualisF). 

a. Note, that the affi-x "ff'^I is derived fi-om the root dris, ' to see,' ' appear,' and is 
in fact our English ' like,' d being interchangeable with I, and s with k. 

b. r<*<< TT ' how much,' ' how many,' and ^'mT^'so much,' are dechned like HTfTat233. 


235. Expressed Ijy prefixing the relative to the interrogative : thus, "m «BftjT^ 
'whosoever,' "mT f^^ ' whatsoever :' or by repeating the relative; as, ^ ^, 

* Prof. Lassen cites an example from the Ramayana, in which dtman refers to 
the dual: Putram dtmanah sprishtwd nipetatuh, ' They two fell down after touching 
their son.' Anthol. p. 171. 

t 7^ driksha, declined like siva ( 103), is also used. 



236. There are certain common adjectives which partake of the 
nature of pronouns, and follow the declension of tat at 220. 

These are, W^^ ' other,' ' another ;' ^[(TT ' other' (cf. Latin iterum) ; vi»Md< ' one 
of two ;' ^otitK, ' one of two' {€KaT€pog) ; W^fUfJf ' one of many ;' "^"ilT ' which of 
the two ?' {TTOTipog for Korepog) ; ^im ' which of many ?' lil^ ' that one of two ;' 
nn*i ' that one of many;' 'Hd< ' who or which of two;' "m^ ' who or which of 
many.' The above are mostly formed by adding the comparative and superlative 
affixes to pronominal bases (196. a). They are declined like WrT throughout, and 
make the N. Ac. neut. sing, in at. 

237. There are others, however, which make am instead of at in 
the N. Ac. neuter. The model of these is ^ sarva, ' all :^ thus, 
Masc. N. ^^ sarvas, ?TTr sarvau., ^ sarve ; Ac. ^ sarvam, ^^ 
sarvau, '^^'^^ sarvdn ; I. ^nw, &c. ; D. wl^, &c. ; Ab. ^ MW I ri^ , &c. ; 
G. «^m sarvasya, ^'ilhT sarvayos, ^^^^ sarveshdm ; L. 'W^W^T, &c. 
Fem. N. '^^t sarvd, ^W sarve, ^TRT sarvas, &c. (220). Neut. N. Ac. 
^Ir sarvam, ^ sarve, ^rfrftlT sat'vdni. 

238. Like sarva are dechned "^^^'both' (no sing.); iqvj 'all;' »TH 'half;' 
^nr^ 'inferior;' TJ^ 'other;' '^ftix 'other;' ^T^^ 'posterior;' <JrJi, 'superior,' 
'north;' (ff^TH ' south,' ' right;' ^.^ ' east,' ' prior ;' ^f^'one;' ^TtTT ' other :' 
but (with the exception of the first three) these may optionally follow siva, at 103, 
in the abl. loc. sing. masc. and neut., and the nom. pi. masc. ; as, WJT^TTiT or 
W^TTT, &c. 

239. fl'fn'JT ' second,' WTTT'^ 'third,' may either follow sarva at 237, or siva at 
103, and make their feminine in a. 

240. '^T^ ' a few,' 'Srt ' half,' '^fcTT^ ' how few ?' ' few,' HWJ ' first,' generally 
follow siva at 103; but may make their nom. pliu-. in ej as, W^ 'few.' '7H, 
' both' (ambo, afxcpa), is dechned only in the dual; "^'ifr, '3"H'T«rr, '^'^'iftH. 




241. Although the Sanskrit verb offers the most striking and 
interesting analogies to the Greek, nevertheless so peculiar and arti- 
ficial is the process by which it is formed, that it would be impossible, 
in treating of it, to adopt an arrangement which would be likely to 
fall in with the preconceived notions of the classical student. 


There are ten tenses. Seven of them are of common occurrence ; 
viz. I. the present, 2. the potential, 3. the imperative, 4. the first 
preterite, 5. the second preterite, 6. the first future, 7. the second 
future. Three are of rare occuiTence ; viz. 8. the third preterite, 
9. the benedictive, 10. the conditional. There is also an infinitive 
mood, and several participles. Of these tenses, the present, the 
three preterites, and the two futures, belong properly to the indica- 
tive mood ; and the imperative, potential, benedictive, and condi- 
tional, are more properly moods than tenses. Since, however, these 
latter moods do not comprehend other tenses under them, but are 
susceptible of all times, present, past, and future, it can lead to no 
embarrassment to consider them as tenses, and to arrange them 
indiscriminately with the tenses of the indicative. Four of the 
tenses, viz. the present, potential, imperative, and first preterite, 
are called conjugational tenses, and are placed first in order, because to 
them alone (as will be hereafter explained at 248) the rules of con- 
jugation have reference. 

242. Although the three preterites are used without much distinction, yet it 
should be observed, that they properly express different degrees of past time. 
The first preterite corresponds in form to the imperfect of Greek and Latin verbs, 
and properly has reference to an event doing at some time past, and not ended : 
it is often, however, used hke the Greek aorist. The second preterite is said to 
have reference to an event done and past at some definite period : it answers in 
form to the Greek perfect, but may also be used like the aorist. The third pre- 
terite refers to an event done and past at some indefinite period : it corresponds 
in form and sense to the Greek ist and 2d aorist*. So also, the two futures 
properly express, the first definite, the second indefinite futurity : the second, 
however, is the most used, and answers to the Greek future. The potential may 
generally be rendered in Enghsh by some one of the aiixiliaries, ' may,' ' can,' 
' would,' ' should, ' ought.' The conditional is used after the conjunction yadi, 
'if:' it occurs, however, but very rarely, and the potential usually supphes its 
place in conditional sentences. The benedictive or precative is a tense sometimes 
used in praying and blessing. There is no pluperfect in Sanskrit : the sense of 
this tense is expressed by the indeclinable participle or by the locative absolute ; 
as, tasminn apakrdnte, ' after he had departed.' See Syntax. 

* Tlie fact is, that neither one of the three perfects is very commonly used to 
represent the completeness of an action. This is generally done by employing the 
passive participle with an instr. case; or by adding vat to the pass, part., and 
combining it with the present tense of as, ' to be ;' as, uktavdn asmi, ' I have said.' 
See Syntax. 


The infinitive mood generally has an active, but is capable of a jiassive 

243. Every tense has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 

To each tense belong two sets of terminations ; one for the 
active or transitive voice, the other for the reflexive voice. The 
former of these voices is called by Indian grammarians Parasmai- 
pada (' words for another^), because the action is supposed to pass 
parasmai, ' to another ;' the latter is called A' tmane-pada {' words 
for oneself), because the action is supposed to revert dtmane, ' to 
oneself.^ This distinction, however, is rarely observed, and we find 
verbs, transitive or intransitive, conjugated indifferently in the 
Parasmai-pada or Atmane-pada or both. Some verbs, however, are 
conjugated only in the j^tmane, and are restricted to either a neuter 
or reflexive signification ; or sometimes, w hen a verb takes both 
voices, the dtmane may yield its appropriate meaning, and give a 
sense directing the action in some way towards the agent *. Thus, 
da, ' to give,' with the preposition a, ' to,' prefixed, when conjugated 
in the Atmane-pada, means * to give to oneself,' * to take ;' the 
causal verb darsayati, ' he shows,' becomes in the i^tmane daHayate, 
' he shows himself,' ' appears ;' the roots mud and ruch, meaning ' to 
be pleased,' ' please oneself,' are confined to the Atmane ; and ydch, 
' to ask,' although possessing both voices, is more commonly used 
in the reflexive, the act of asking generally tending to the advantage 
of the asker. 

a. Passive verbs are invariably conjugated in the i^tmane-pada. 
Indeed, in all the tenses, excepting the first four, the passive is 
generally undistinguishable from the Atmane-pada of the primitive 
verb. But in the present, potential, imperative, and first preterite 
(unlike the Greek, which exhibits a perfect identity between the 
middle and passive voices in those tenses), the Sanskrit passive, 
although still employing the ^tmane-pada terminations, has a special 

* In Sanskrit grammar, the term voice has reference to the scheme of termina- 
tions ; so that there are only two voices in Sanskrit, and they are used indiscri- 
minately. Although the Atmane-pada, in a few instances, has a middle sense, 
yet it cannot be said to correspond entirely with the Greek middle voice, the 
characteristic of which is that it takes a middle inflection, partly active, partly 
passive. The passive is a distinct derivative from the root, using the Atmane 


structure of its own, common to all verbs, and distinct from the 
conjugational form of the j^tmane-pada. Thus the Greek ukovoo 
makes for both the middle and passive of those four tenses, ist sing. 
oLKovojULai, aKovoifxrjv, ukovov, rjKovoiJirjv. But the Sanskrit sru, ' to 
hear,^ makes for the conjugational form of the Atmane, ^HR, 3TT!^, 
3141.1^ , ^^fTF; while for the passive it is "^nr, '^*\, "^j ^T^. Com- 
pare 253, and see Bopp's Comparative Grammar, Eastwick, 426, 733. 

244. As in nouns the formation of an inflective base out of a 
root precedes the subject of declension, the root requiring some 
change or addition before the case-terminations can be affixed ; so 
in verbs the formation of a verbal base out of a root must be 
antecedent to conjugation. Again, as in nouns every case has its 
own termination, so in verbs each of the three persons, in the three 
numbers of every tense, has a termination (one for the Parasmai- 
pada, and one for the i^tmane-pada) which is peculiarly its own. 
Moreover, as in nouns, so in verbs, some of the terminations may 
be combined with memorial letters, which serve to aid the memory, 
by indicating that where they occur peculiar changes are required in 
the root. Thus the three terminations which belong to the ist, 2d, 
and 3d persons of the present tense, Parasmai-pada, respectively, 
are mi, si, ti ; and these are combined with the letter P (thus, mi P, 
siV, tiV), to indicate that the roots of certain verbs must be modified 
in a particular way, before these terminations are affixed. 

245. The annexed tables exhibit, ist, the memorial scheme of 
terminations for Parasmai and i^tmane-pada, in all the tenses (the 
four conjugational being placed first) ; and 2dly, the same scheme 
without the memorial letters. Since, however, a very large number 
of roots require changes in the terminations of some of the tenses, it 
will be convenient, in the second table, to indicate the conjugations 
in which these changes occur. 

246. Terminations ivith memorial letters. 



Present tense. 







I . fin^ mi P 




W^ vake 

ITf jnahe 

2. "ftn^siP 


■q tha 


^T^ dthe 

ik dhwe 

3. ff(\tiV 

im fns 

^T»fr anti 


"mrt ate 

^I»iT ante 





VT^ ydoa XTTT ydma 



§^flff ma/u 

2.'^nT yds 

*A\f\*\ ydtam "mi^ ydta 


•Ixrr^T*^ lydthdm 



'^\'i^f[^ydtdm "^^yus 


%^\A\^^ iydtdm 




Wr^\ dva? ^Tini dma? 


^^\'\\'\ dvahaiV 

'W[^\'^ drnahaiP 

2.f^ hi 

THT tain TT ^a 

"^ swa 


JcJH dhwam 


TTTJ? ^a»i ^^<^antu 

HI turn 

'^rriTT'T dtdm 

■^T^jrnT awtom 

First preterite or imperfect (requiring 

the augment a) 


"^va fima 



Jrf^ ?wa^i 


TfT /fl?tt W fa 

■^niT thds 


£5»^ dhwam 


TfTT /««i ^tT an 



^JfT flwfa 

Second preterite or perfect. 


"^va JT ma 



IT^ ma^e 


'!l^«a/A«s ^a 


^■R dike 



^^a/j/s "S'^^MS 


mk ate 


jPirs^ future. 

i.rrrfwT tdsmi 

TTT^H/ffSft'os HlW^^i'a'smas 

ffT^ take 

fTT^^ tdswahe 

TnW^ /asmaAe 


d It^mas^Aas WTWfa's//ja 

dlff tdse 

TTTWr^ tdsdthe 

HTJ^ tddhwe 

S.WT td 

■fTRT faraw H^XTM^dras 


TTTTT ^araw 

riRH faros 

Second future. 


p **liq+<si/ayas ^l)Rfl^si/a?7ias 

'^ sye 

Wr^T? sydoahe 

^Tirt syama^e 


VJ( ^ iisyathas m 'Asyatha 

■m^ syase 


^2% syadhiue 


"^r^^syatas ^f^ syanti 

^■ff syate 

WiT syffe 

W^ syante 

Third preterite or aorist (requiring the augment a). 


^ swa W sma 

ftr si 

5grfV sicahi 

Wfw smahi 

2.^fhfT Si's 

W^^stam M sta 


TTT^m sa7Aam 



WIHste'/rt ^^SMS 



^TT sata 



t| 1 *51 yas^va ITTW yasma 

W'^ sty a 

^l"^iir swahi 

^HCi^ smahi 


'Wi'^^yustam 'm'^ydsta 


s '^^^{Wf^^stydsthdm '^^^sidhwam 

3.'^TW ydt 

■^TW [H^yastdm '^(W^^yusus 

^? si'shta 

•^imW[^^srydstd?n ^iTi-^^siran 

Conditional (requiring the augment a). 

i.^T syam 
S-Wnt syat 

T^T^ sydva ^T^ sydma 
^■jTH syatam ^W syata 
fmfm^syatdm WT syan 

^ sye ¥qTcri% sydraki 

W^l'^syathds TSJ'^T^T syet/idm 
^nr sj/afa T^Trn^ syefam. 

Tm^TT^ sydmahi 
*Mi\ syanta 



I. ft? 

247. The same terminations ivithout memorial letters. 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present tense. 

SING. DUAL. plural. 


ftr or f^ 



'fvfr 1,4,6,10. 
^rf^ 2,7,5,8,9. 

Li?2, cj, &c. L 


^ or ^ 

1^1,4,6,10. r 




[, 4, 6, 10. 
^^ ^ 

In 2, 3, 7, 5, 8, 9. 

r^wi,4, 6, 10. r^i,4, 6, 10. 
Iw 1^2,3,7,5,8,9. 

In all the conjugations. 

'—1,4,6,10,5. r 

^2,3,7,5,8,9.J TT IT 
.^2,3,7. I 

2. ^^^TRT 


^ or w 



1^1,4,6,10. 1^ 

r^i,4, 6, 10. 1^1,4,6,10. 
1^3TTrTf2,3,7,5,8,9.1'3nTt 2,3,7,5,8,9. 


3. "5 irf ^^2,7,5,8,9. wt 

In 9, fl/m is substituted for the hi of the 2d sing, after roots ending in conso- 
nants. A form KMi^tdt (cf. Latin to, Greek TW) may be substituted for hi and tu, 
and even for ta, to imply benediction, chiefly used in the Vedas. 

First preterite (requiring the augment a). 
JTi, 4,6,10. 
^ Tf IT 

r ^1,4, 6, 10. 

ff TTT J ^2,7,5,8,9 


1^1,4, 6, 10. r^ 

I'sgpjn 2,3,7,5,8,9.1 

fi,4, 6, 10. [7^1,4,6,10. 




Second preterite. 

I. ^ *^ 





2. ^or-?i ^'gn 





3. ^ ^-^ 





* Only eight roots, viz. '^, ^, "^Tj ^j "^5 *T, ^, ^, reject the initial i from 
the terminations marked with * ; and of these eight all but ^ and "^ reject it also 
in the 2d sing. The termination ^ in the 2d plural, Atmane-pada, is especially 
applicable to roots ending in vowels, but is admissible for all others. 

First future. 

I. WlftR 






2. inftf 






3. WT 






Many roots prefix i to the terminations of the above tense throughout : thus, 
^rtlfw itdsmi, 2. ^rTlftr itdsi, &c. 

Second future. 

1. Tmfti 






2. ^wftif 






3. ^flT 






Many roots prefix i to the terminations of the above tense throughout : thus, 
I. ^^'anflT ishydmi, 2. ^^ftr ishyasi, &c. 

Third preterite {requiring the augment a). 
Form I. — Terminations of the memorial scheme. 

I. ^ 



f^ ^jff^ 


2. ^^^ 



^l^or"^^ ^T^n 


3. -^ 

^ or 717 


^ or w Trrirr 


The same terminations with i prefixed, excepting in 2d and 3d sing., where 
initial 5 is rejected. 

1. ^^* J^ 1^ I ^ ^T^ ^^ 

2. '1^^ ^ S^ ^FTO ^m'^ri ^ssfor^^ 

3. ^r^ ^ ^^^ I ^ ^min ^ITTT 

Form II. — Terminations resembling those of ist preterite. 

1 . ■^ wr^ or '^ 'srm or »t 1 ^ or ^ ^TTsri? ^trI? 

2. 'swor^ worW 'snrorw ^nrpff F^ri or ^rr?if'3Tj4 

P 2 

^nr or W ^TrTT or WT 

;^Tor^!TTHT ^T^fTor^TfT 


2. Tim Tvm 

3- irnr imrrr 








Many roots prefix i to the A'tmane, but not to the Parasmai, of the above tense : 
thus, I. '^^^tmsMya, 2. '^^tUT^^isMshthds, &c. 

Conditional (requiring the augment a). 

I. ^ 






2. ^?^W 





3- ^ 






Many roots prefi:^ i to the terminations of the above tense throughout : thus, 
I. "^^ ishyam, 2 '^^'^^ishyas, &c. 

a. As an aid in committing the above terminations to memory, observe that the 
letter m generally enters into the ist sing. Parasmai ; s into the 2d sing. Parasmai 
and Atmane ; and t into the 3d sing. du. and pi. Parasmai and Atmane of aU the 
tenses. Moreover, that the letter v occurs in the ist dual, m in the ist plural of 
all the tenses, and dhw in every 2d plural Atmane-pada. In the potential and ist 
preterite Atmane, and in the 2d preterite Parasmai, th is admitted, instead of s, into 
the 2d sing.; and in the 2d pi. of the last tense, th has been dropped, owing to the 
influence of the heavy redupUcation. For the same reason the t is dropped in 
the 3d sing, of the 2d pret. Obsen^e also — When the ist dual Parasmai is vas, the 
2d and 3d end in as, and the ist plural is mas. When the ist dual Parasmai is va, 
the 2d and 3d end in tarn, tarn, and the ist plural in ma. When the ist dual 
Atmane is vahe, the ist plural is make, and the last letter of the remaining 
terminations is generally e. Wlien the ist dual Atmane is vahi, the 2d and 3d 
end in dmj the ist plural is mahi, and the 2d plural is dhwam. Note also — The 
terminations of the 2d future resemble those of the present, with sya prefi-xed. 
Those of the ist future also resemble the present, with td or fds prefi-xed. Those 
of the conditional resemble the ist preterite, with sya prefixed. Those of the 3d 
preterite also resemble the ist preterite, with s prefixed. Those of the benedictive 
resemble the potential, with s inserted in most of the Parasmai ; and with s both 
inserted and prefixed in some of the Atmane. 

b. The frequent occurrence of m in the ist sing., of s in the 2d, of t in the 3d, 
of mas and ma in the ist pi., of ta in the 2d pi., and of ant in the 3d pi., suggests 
a comparison with the Greek and Latin verb. We may remark, that m, the 
characteristic of the ist person sing., is suppressed in the present tense active of 
all Greek verbs excepting those in fXl (asmi = IfJ-fJ-h daddmi = ^i^Wfxi), and also 
in Latin verbs (except sum and inquam) ; but co and answer to the Sanskrit d of 
bhardmi = (f)epw,fero. In the Greek middle and passive, the [J-i, which originally 
belonged to all active verbs, appears in //,«< ; while the Sanskrit, on the other 


hand, here suppresses the m, and contracts a i into e (see 32); bkare (for bhara-me 
for bharu-mai) = cf)€pO[ Greek has f^i in the ist sing, optative or potential; 
and in verbs in fJ^i, v takes the place of the mute m of Sanskrit and Latin : thus, 
bhareyam = (f)(poif/.t,feramj dadydm=OiOot'yjV, dem; tishthe!/am = iarTaiYjV, stem. 
In the 1st preterite or imperfect, Greek has v for the Sanskrit and Latin mute m; 
atarpam = erepirov, adaddm =1 eOiOcov, astrinavam = eaTopvvv, avaham = vehebam. 
In the first Greek aorist, m is suppressed, so that Sanskrit adiksham (3d pret.) := 
€0€i^a; but not in the 2d aorist, so that addm = eScov. In the 2d preterite the 
Sanskrit a = Greek a, ttdopci =zTerv(pa. In the Greek middle and passive 
futures, m is retained, but not in the active; ddsydmi=.Ocoa-a, dekshydmi = ^eiKa(i}, 
ddsye =zbo)(JO(xai. As to the ist person plural, the Sanskrit mas of the pres. is 
^€v (for ^ef) in Greek, and mus in Latin; farpd-mas zzzTepTro-fJiev ; sarpd-mas=. 
kpTTO-jxev, serpi-mus; dad-mas ^=Oio(J-fX€V, da-mus ; tishthd-mas = lara-jxev, 
sta-mus. The Atmane-pada make answers to the Greek fxeOa; dad-mahe = oiOo- 
{JLcBa. As to the other tenses, in the potential ist pi. bhare-7na = (pepoi-[J.€i (-|".6v), 
fera-musj dadydma = OiOoi'i^ixeg {-fJ.ev), demusj dadi-mahi = Oi^oi-fJi.e&a. In the 
1st preterite ist pi. abhard-ma = €(pepo-f/.€V, fereba-mus j avahd-ma = veheba-mus; 
adad-ma = eOt6o-f/.ev ; abhard-mahi = €(f>€pof/.€$a. In the 2d future, ddsyd-mas=. 
Oa(TO-[xev, dekshyd-mas=iO€iKO-o-fxev. In the 2d pers. sing. active, the characteristic 
s has been preserved in all three languages : thus, in the present, the Sanskrit asj = 
e<7ai,es; dadd-si=iOiOa}(, dasj bhara-si = (pepei$,fersj vahasi = vehis. In the 
Atmane, the Sanskrit se (for sai, by 32) answers exactly to the Greek aai of verbs 
in fxi (tishtha-se=: i<TTa-aai). In other Greek verbs, s has been rejected, and 
€ai contracted into y], something in the way of Sanskrit {TvirTfj for Tvirre-aat). 
In the 2d dual, #Aas = Greek TOV, and in the 2d plur. tha=T€ and tisj bhara-thas 
= <f>epe-TQV; tishtha-tha= lara-re, statis; bhara-tha = (f>€pe-T€, fer-tis. In the 
2d pi. Atmane, bhara-dhwe = (pepeaQe. As to the other tenses, in the 2d sing. 
•potential, tishthes= lO'TUirji, stes: dadyds = oi0oivj$, desj vahes =z vehas j bhares 
=i(f)€poif,feras: in 2d du. bhare-tam = (pepoi-TOV: in 2d pi. tishtheta = laraiyjTe, 
stetisj dadydta = OiQOlVjT€, detis ; bhareta = (f>€potT€, ferafis. In the 2d sing, 
imperative, hi and dhi answer to Greek 61. DM was originally universal in Sanskrit 
(see 291), as in Greek verbs in jW-/ ; e-dhi = l<T-6i, ind-dhi = i(T-Qi, de-hi = 01^0-61, 
Many verbs drop the termination hi both in Greek and Sanskrit ; as, >nC = ^f Pf > 
and compare oeiKVV with chinu, &c. In the 2d du. imp. tarn = TOV, and ta = re. 
In the imperative Atmane, siva := the old form CO ; bhara-swa = (pepe-ao (old 
form o{<f>epov); dat-swa = Oi^o-ao ; dthdm = eaBov, &c. In the 2d sing, ist pret. 
atarpas=ieT€p'!r€$, avahas=^vehebas, &c. So also, tam^TOV, adat-tam=(:Oiho-TOV, 
ta = re, adat-ta = eOioo-Te. In the Atmane, thds is found for sds in the 2d sing. 
of the 1st pret., as well as of the potential; hence abhara-thds ^= ecpepe-ao, 
adat-thds = €^i^o-(70, dadt-thds = OiO0i{a-) 0. In the 2d pret. the tha of the 2d 
sing. =: Latin sti; dad-ifkaz=dedi-sti, tasthi-fhaz= sfeti-sti, tutodi-tha = tutudi-sti. 
In the 3d pret. adds = eoa)$", avdksMs = vexisti. In the 3d pers. sing, active, Greek 
has dropped the characteristic t (except in for/ = Sansk. asti, Lat. est) ; bharafi 


=z<l)epe[T)i, fertj vahati =: vehit . Verbs in f^t have changed t to s; daddtiz=. 
OiOacri (for '^itoiri). In the Atmane, bharate = (pepeTai. In the potential, bharet 
=r (pepoi, dadydt = OlOOiYi. In the imperative, hhara-tu or bliara-tdt = (pepe-TCC^ 
fer-to. In the ist pret. avahat z=vehebat, abharata = ecpepero. In the 2d pret. 
tutopa = T€TV(f>e. In the 3d pret. avdksMt:=vexit, adikshata = eoeiKaaro. As to 
the 3d pi., in the above tenses, bharanti = (pepovai, ferunt : vahanti ^ vehunt : 
bharante = (pepovrai ; dadati = oidovtri ; tishtanti := stewf ^- bhareyus = (pepoiev ; 
bharantu =. ferunto ; abharan = ecpcpov ; abhara7ita = €(f)ep0VT0 ; dsan ^ ijaav ; 
atarpishus = (Tep^av; ddsyante = OwaovTai. See Bopp's Comparative Grammar, 

248. The above terminations are supposed to be applicable to all 
verbs, vv^hether primitive or derivative : and as in nouns, so in verbs, 
the theory of Indian grammarians is, that before these terminations 
can be affixed to roots, an inflective base must be formed out of the 
root. Ten diiferent rules, therefore, are propounded for forming 
verbal bases out of roots in the first four tenses ; while all verbs are 
arranged under ten classes, according as they follow one or other of 
these rules. In the other tenses there is only one general rule for 
forming the base. 

These ten classes of verbs are called the ten conjugations; and the 
four tenses, which alone are affected by the conjugational rules (viz. 
the present, potential, imperative, and first preterite), are called the 
conjugational tenses. It is evident, however, that the ten conjuga- 
tions are hardly conjugations in the classical sense of the term. They 
are rather ten rules for moulding and fashioning ten classes of roots 
into the proper form for receiving a common scheme of terminations 
in four of the tenses only. 

249. The following is a brief summary of the ten rules for forming 
the base of the four conjugational tenses in the ten classes of verbs, 
according to the Indian arrangement of the conjugations. 

ist class (ist conjugation). Gunate the vowel of the root (unless 
it be ^ oi or precede a double consonant, 28. b) before every termina- 
tion of the four tenses, and affix the vowel ^ a — lengthened to ^ a 
before initial m or v — to the root thus gunated. 

2d class (2d conjugation). Gunate the radical vowel (unless it be 
^ a or precede a double consonant) before those terminations only 
which are marked with P in the scheme at 246. Before all the other 
terminations the original vowel of the root must be retained. 

3d class (3d conjugation). Reduplicate the initial consonant and 


vowel of the root, and gunate the radical but not the reduplicated 
vowel before the P terminations only, as in the 2d conjugation. 

4th class (4th conjugation). Affix tj ya — lengthened to TfT yd 
before initial m or v — to the root, the vowel of which is generally 
left unchanged. 

5th class (5th conjugation). Affix "H nu to the root, and gunate 
this nu into no before the P terminations only. 

6th class (6th conjugation). Affix ^« — lengthened to ^rra before 
initial m or v — to the root, which in other respects generally remains 

7th class (7th conjugation). Insert '^ na between the vowel and 
final consonant of the root before the P terminations, and rf n before 
the other terminations. Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation — 
that the conjugational na or n is inserted into the middle of the root, 
and not affixed. 

8th class (8th conjugation). Affix T w to the root, and gunate 
this u into before the P terminations only. Observe — As all the 
roots, except one, in this class, end in n, the 8th conjugation will 
appear to be exactly similar to the 5th. 

9th class (9th conjugation). Affix T{\nd to the root before the P 
terminations ; 7ft ni before all the others, excepting those beginning 
with vowels, where only ^ w is affixed. 

loth class (loth conjugation). Gunate the radical vowel through- 
out all the persons of all the tenses, and affix ^P7 ay a — lengthened 
to 'snn ayd before initial m or v — to the root thus gunated. 

250. It will appear, from a cursory examination of the above 
rules, that the object of all of them, excepting the 2d, 3d, and 7th, 
is to insert a vowel, either alone or preceded by y or n, between the 
modified root and the terminations ; and that the ist, 4th, 6th, and 
loth, agree in requiring that the vowel, which is immediately to 
precede the terminations, shall be a. It will appear, moreover, that 
the 2d, 3d, and 7th, alone agree in not interposing a vowel between 
the final of the root and the terminations ; and that the 5th, 8th, 
and 9th, agree in interposing either u, d, or /, after the letter n. 

a. It must never, however, be forgotten, that the conjugational 
characteristic, whatever it may be, has reference only to the four 
conjugational tenses (excepting only in the loth conjugation), and 
that in the other tenses the base is formed according to one general 


rule for all verbs of whatever conjugation ; or, in other words, that 
in these tenses all verbs, of whatever class, are as if they belonged 
to one common conjugation. 

b. It is evident, that a comparison between the difficulty of the Sanskrit and Greek 
verb would be greatly to the advantage of the former. The Greek verb has three 
voices, and about ninety tenses and moods : the Sanskrit has only two voices, and 
not more than twenty tenses and moods. Besides which, a far greater number 
of verbs are susceptible of the three voices in Greek, than of the two in Sanskrit. 
Moreover, in Sanskrit there are no contracted verbs, and no difficulties resulting 
from difference of dialect ; and although there are ten conjugations, yet these have 
reference to four tenses only ; and, under some of these conjugations, only two or 
three common verbs are contained. 

251. Hence it appears, that the very meaning of Sanskrit conju- 
gation is the Sandhi or junction of a verbal base (formed out of a 
root according to ten rules for four of the tenses, and one general 
rule for the other tenses) with a common scheme of terminations, 
and that in conjugating a verb, two things have to be done; ist, to 
form the base from the root, in the manner described above ; adly, to 
join the base with the terminations, according to the rules of Sandhi. 

252. Before proceeding to a detailed explanation of the formation 
of the verbal base of the simple or primitive verb, under the several 
classes, it will be worth while to specify the four other verbs deduci- 
ble from roots, and to explain how they are derived. 

a. It has been already shown, at 74, that there are a large number 
of monosyllabic sounds in Sanskrit, called roots, which are the source 
of verbs as well as nouns. These roots are in number about two 
thousand ; and the theory of grammarians is, that each of them 
may serve as the rough block out of which the inflective bases of 
five kinds of verbs may be fashioned : i . of a primitive, transitive 
or intransitive ; 2. of a passive ; 3. of a causal, having often a causal 
and often merely a transitive signification ; 4. of a desiderative, 
giving a sense of wishing to the root ; and 5. of a frequentative (or 
intensive), implying repetition, or heightening the idea contained in 
the root. 

b. It will be found, however, in practice, that the greater number of these two 
thousand roots never occur at all in the form of verbs, nor, indeed, in any other 
form but that of the nouns to which they give origin ; and that the roots in real 
use, as the source of verbs, are comparatively few. Of these few, moreover, 
certain particular roots (such, for exam])le, as "^ kri, 'to do'), as if to compensate 


for the inactivity of the others, are kept in constant employment ; and, by com- 
pounding them with prepositions and other prefixes, apphed to the expression of 
the most various and opposite ideas. Nevertheless, theoretically, from every root 
in the language may be ehcited five kinds of verbal 

The first, or primitive verb, is formed from the root, according to 
the ten different rules (or conjugations) appUcable to the formation 
of the base in the first four tenses. The second, or passive, is 
formed according to the rule for the change of the root, required by 
the 4th conjugation ; viz. the addition of ya in the first four tenses. 
The third, or causal, is formed according to the rule for the change 
of the root, required by the loth conjugation ; viz. the addition of 
aya to the root in all the tenses excepting the 3d preterite. The 
fourth, or desiderative, is formed by the addition of sa or isha, the 
root also undergoing reduplication. The fifth, or frequentative, is 
formed like the passive, according to the rule required by the 4th 
conjugation, and is, in fact, a reduplicated passive verb. It may 
also be formed analogously to the rule for the 3d conjugation. Thus, 
take the root 3I>T subh, conveying the idea of ' shining' — from this 
are elicited, ist, the primitive verbal base, sobha, Ho shine;' 2dly, 
the passive, subhya, * to be bright ;' 3dly, the causal, sobhaya, ' to 
cause to shine' or * illuminate ;' 4thly, the desiderative, susobhisha, 
' to desire to shine ;' 5thly, the frequentative or intensive, sosubhya 
or Sosobh, ' to shine very brightly.' 

a. Note, that as every root may be the source of five different kinds of verbs, so 
every noun may be the source of a class of verbs (not much used) caUed nominal 
verbs. A brief explanation of these will be found after frequentatives at 518. 

253. It has already been remarked, that the passive can hardly be considered a 
voice, according to the classical acceptation of the term. In Greek and Latin, 
a verb in the passive voice corresponds in form with the same verb in the active : 
thus audior corresponds with audio, aKovofxai with aKOvco, the terminations or 
system of inflection only being changed. And in Greek, a verb in the passive 
corresponds with the same verb in the middle voice, both in the form and in the 
terminations of most of its tenses. But, in Sanskrit, the form of the passive 
varies entirely in the conjugational tenses from that of the active verb (unless that 
verb belong to the 4th conjugation), whilst the terminations may sometimes be 
the same, viz. those of the Atmane-pada. It is rather a distinct derivative from 
the root, formed on one invariable principle, without any necessary community 
with the conjugational structure of the active verb. Thus the root bhid, to 
divide,' is of the 7th conjugation, and makes bhinatii or bhivic, 'he divides;' 
dirish,' to hate,' is of the 2d conjugation, and makes du-fshti or ilvislifp, he hates;' 



but the passive of both is formed according to one invariable rule, by the simpje 
insertion of ya, without reference to the conjugational form of the active : thus, 
bhidyate, ' he is divided;' dwishyate, ' he is hated.' See 243. a. 

a. In fact, though it be a distinct derivative from the root, a passive verl) is 
nothing but a verb of the 4th conjugation restricted to the Atmane-pada : and to 
say that every root may take a passive form, is to say that roots of the ist, 2d, 3d, 
5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, and loth conjugations may all be conjugated in the 4th 
conjugation, with a passive sense : so that if a root be already of the 4th conjuga- 
tion, its passi\-e form is generally, though not always, identical wth its own 

b. It might even with reason be suspected, that the occasional assumption of a 
neuter signification and a Parasmai-pada inflection by a passive verb, was the 
cause which gave rise to the 4th conjugation. Instances are certainly found of 
passive verbs taking Parasmai-pada terminations, and many passive verbs (for 
example, jdyate, ' he is born,' from the root jan ; puryate, ' he is filled,' from the 
root prij and tapyate, ' he is heated,' from the root tap) are confounded with 
verbs of this conjugation*. So that it seems not unhkely, that, by making the 
4th conjugation, grammarians only meant to say that the passive form of verbs, 
or the addition of ya to the root, is also the form that may be used to express 
a neuter or intransitive signification ; the only difference requisite to be made 
between the two forms being exactly that which might be expected to exist between 
them; viz. that the one should take the Atmane-pada; the other, the Parasmai- 
pada inflection. This fact, at least, is clear that the Parasmai-pada of the 4th 
conjugation is the form vised in numerous roots to yield a neuter signification; 
and that the Atmane-pada is identical with the form used to yield a passive sense ; 
so that the 4th conjugation can hardly be said to possess an Atmane-pada f- 
Hence it arises, that many roots appear in the 4th conjugation as neuter verbs, 
which also appear in some one of the other nine as transitive. For example, ytij, 
' to join,' when used in an active sense, is conjugated either in the 7th conjugation, 
or in the causal; when in a neuter, in the 4th. So also, push/ to nourish;' kshubh, 
' to agitate ;' klis, ' to vex ;' sidh, ' to accomphsh.' 

254. Similarly, although causal verbs are said to be distinct derivatiA'cs from 
the root, they are in point of fact verbs of the loth conjugation, inflected either in 
Parasmai or Atmane. To say, therefore, that every root may take a causal form, 
is to say that roots of the fii-st nine conjugations may aU be conjugated in the 

* Tliat the passive does occasionally take the terminations of the Parasmai-pada 
is shown by Professor Bopp, who gives several instances; as, chhidyet for chhidyeta, 
' it may be cut.' Nal. xiv. 6 ; mokshyasi for mokshyase, ' thou shalt be liberated.' 
Other instances may be found in Westergaard ; as, vidyati for vidyate. 

t At any rate, Ih.e forms given for the 3d preterites of such verbs as pad, ' to 
go,' budh, 'to know' (which are said to be Atmane verbs of the 4th conjugation), 
could only belong to passiA'e ^'erbs. The forms given by Westergaard are, apddi, 
abodhi. See 475. 


loth conjugation, with a causal sense ; and that if a root be already of the loth 
conjugation, it can then have no distinct form for its causal, the primitive verb 
and the causal being in that case identical (see 289). Indeed, it might reasonably 
be conjectiu-ed, that the occasional employment of a causal verb in a transitive, 
rather than a causal sense, was the only reason for creating a loth conjugation. 
It would certainly simplify the subject, if this conjugation were not sei)arated from 
the causal ; or, in other words, if the addition of aya to the root were considered 
in all cases as the mark of a causal verb. One thing, at least, is plain, that this 
aifix is not the sign of a separate conjugation, in the way that nu is the sign of the 
5th conjugation, or in the way of any other conjugational syllable; for it is retained 
in most of the other tenses of the verb, not only in the &st four, just as the 
desiderative ish is retained. 

255. The subject of verbs, therefore, will divide itself into two 
heads. In the first place, the formation of the base ; ist of primi- 
tive, 2dly of passive, 3dly of causal, 4thly of desiderative, 5thly of 
frequentative verbs ; with their respective participles. In the second 
place, the exhibition, at full, of the base, united to its terminations, 
under each of the five forms of verbs consecutively. 

Under the first head will be shown, how the root has to be changed 
before the terminations can be affixed ; while the mode of affixing the 
terminations to the root, thus changed, will at the same time be indi- 
cated. Under the second head, the five forms of verbs beginning with 
primitives will appear conjugated in detail; the base, or changed root, 
being combined with its terminations in regular sequence. 



256. A brief summary of the formation of the base, in the ten 
classes of verbs, has already been given at 249 ; and a great pecu- 
liarity has been noted — that the rules of conjugation have reference 
only to the first four tenses, called conjugational, viz. the present, 
potential, imperative, and first preterite. 

Remember, that after passing these four tenses the conjugational structure of 
the base is forgotten; and in the formation of the bases of the six remaining 
tenses all roots conform to one general rule, and are as if they belonged to one 
general conjugation. Hence the six last tenses are called non- conjugational. The 
tenth class alone retains the conjugational structure of the base throughout most 
of the non-conjugational tenses ; but as this class consists chiefly of causal verbs, 
no confusion can arise from this apparent inconsistency. Of the 2000 roots, more 
than half follow the ist conjugation, about 130 follow the 4th, about 140 the 6th, 

Q Z 


and all may follow the loth (see 289). Of the remaining roots, about 70 follow 
the 2d, but not more than 20 are in common use; about 20 follow the 3d, of which 
not half are in common use ; about 24, of which hardly 6 are common, follow the 
7th; about 30, of which 10 are common, the 5th; about 10, of which only 2 are 
common, the 8th; about 52, of which 15 are common, the 9th. 

257. Primitive verbs, therefore, will separate themselves into ten 
classes, according as they fall under one or other of the ten conju- 
gations ; and these ten conjugations may be segregated into three 

a. The ist group is the most important and comprehensive, as 
comprising verbs of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes, which agree 
in making their inflective bases end in a, and in taking substitutions 
for some of the terminations, as indicated at 247. 

b. The 2d group comprises verbs of the 2d, 3d, and 7th classes, 
which agree in affixing the regular terminations (at 246) to the final 
letter of the root, without the intervention of a vowel. 

c. The 3d group, comprising verbs of the 5th, 8th, and 9th classes, 
also affixes the regular terminations to the root ; but after the inter- 
vention of either u, a, or {, preceded by the consonant n. 

It will be convenient, in giving a detailed explanation of the 
formation of the base under each conjugation, to adhere to the 
grouping of the above divisions. 

258. Although, to prevent confusion, it is advisable to preserve the Indian 
classification of verbs into ten classes, and therefore into ten conjugations ; yet it 
would be more in unison with the classical idea of a conjugation, to arrange all 
verbs under three classes and three conjugations, according to the above grouping. 
The classical student may, if he please, consider that verbs of the ist, 4th, 6th, 
and loth classes constitute his first conjugation; verbs of the 2d, 3d, and 7th 
classes, his second conjugation ; and verbs of the 5th, 8th, and 9th, his third 

a. In comparing Sanskrit verbs ^vith Greek and Latin, observe that the first 
group of conjugations in Sanskrit, viz. the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth, answers to the 
Greek first conjugation in O), the conjugational ^ a becoming or e in Greek 
{tarpdmas = Tep-^Cfxev, tarpatha = Te^Trere) ; and although the Greek first con- 
jugation contains more subdivisions than the first group in Sanskrit, yet the 
inflection of these subdivisions is similar. As to the Sanskrit loth conjugation, 
however, it appears to correspond to Greek verbs in a^w and i^a, which, hke the 
loth, are generally found in company %vith other verbs from the same root : thus, 
KaGapi^w, ' I make pure' {KaSaipa), crTevd^a, ' to groan' (CTevw), where ^ is substi- 
tuted for '^ y, as in ^ea for '^'^ ' barley.' To this class also may be referred verbs in 


aa and €W : thus pdraydmi = irepaa^ where the y has been dropi)ed, and the two 
a's combined. Latin verbs in io, like audio &c., seem to be related to the Sanskrit 
4th class, as well as to the loth: thus cupio answers to kupydmi; and the e of 
audieham answers to the ay a of the loth, just as in Prakrit ay a is contracted into 
^ e. The second and third groups of conjugations in Sanskrit (viz. the 2d, 3d, 
7th, 5th, 8th, and 9th) answer to Greek verbs in fJ^i : thus emi 2d conj. = €ija/, 
daddmi 3d con]. = ^i^(0[J.l. The 7th conjugation, however, has no exact parallel in 
Greek, but many Greek and Latin verbs resemble it in inserting a nasal into the 
middle of the root ; see 342. a. The 5th and 8th conjugations answer to Greek 
verbs in vv and v ; and vv and v are lengthened before certain terminations, just 
as nu is gimated in Sanskrit : thus strinomi ■=. (XTOpvvjXl, strinoshi = 0"TO^VUf, 
strinoti = (JTOpvvri, strinumas = (rTopy/x€$", &c. The 9th conjugation answers to 
Greek verbs in vd (vyj) -. thus knndmi = '7repvdixi {iripvYifxi), knmmas='7repva[J.e^. 
Compare also Latin forms in ni : thus sternimus = Sans, strinimas, from stri, 9th 
conj. See Bopp's Comparative Grammar. 


259. Before entering upon the formation of the base, observe par- 
ticularly that the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes take substitutions 
for some of the terminations, especially in the potential Parasmai, 
and in the 2d and 3d dual of the present, imperative, and ist preterite, 
Atmane-pada. In the 2d sing, imperative they reject the termina- 
tion *. See the scheme at 247. 

260. Observe also, that it is an universal rule in all ten conjugations 
that the augment ^ « be prefixed to the base of the ist preterite ; 
and when the base begins with ^ a or ^t a, the augment blends 
with these vowels into a, by 31 (just as in Greek e and e become v 
in rjyeipov, &c.). 

a. But when the augment a is prefixed to bases beginning with 
the vowels \i, ^u, and ^ ri, short or long, it blends with them into 
^ ai, "m au, ^nr dr (instead of e, 0, ar, by 32). Thus the base ^^ 
ichchha becomes in the 3d sing, i st preterite F^sar!^ aichchhat, the 
base ^ uha becomes ^^TT auhata, and the base '^ift ridhno becomes 
^snfftw drdhnot. 

b. This rule apphes to two of the non-conjugational tenses also, viz. the 3d 
preterite and the conditional. Note, that the ist and 3d preterites and the con- 
ditional are the only three tenses that take the augment a. 

* Probably in consequence of the haste with which ' command ' is generally 


First class [ist conjugation), containing about looo primitive verbs. 

261. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Gunate the vowel (except when debarred by 28. b) before 
every termination of all the four tenses, and affix the vowel ^ a to 
the root so gunated. Note, that this vowel ^ a is lengthened into 
^n d before the initial m or ?; of a termination, but not when m is 
final, as in the ist sing, ist preterite. 

262. Thus, from the root "q"*! budh, ' to know/ is formed the base 
^^ boclha, lengthened into "^Htt hodhd before m and v (Pres. i.* 
bodhd + mi = ^^t^f^ bodhdmi, bodha + si = "^hrftT bodhasi, bodha + ti 

= ^HrfrT bodhati ; Du. i. bodhd + vas = '^vt^ bodhdvas, &c. ; j^tm. 
Pres. bodha + i = '^(i^ bodhe by 32, 6oc?/m + ^e = "^hiW bodhase, &c.). 
See table at 583. 

263. Similarly, from f^ji, ' to conquer' (see 590), comes the base 
"3IXI jaya, liable to be lengthened into IT^ j^ytt, as before {;^6. a) ; 
from "^ ni, ' to lead,' the base nay a or 7iayd ; from >^ bhu, 'to be' 
((^u'o), Lat, yw), the bases bhava and bhavd (Pres. J. >f^jff{ bhavdmi, 
^6. a ; 2. vr^ftr bhavasi, <pveis, &c., see 584) ; from ^ sri])^ ' to 
creep,' the base ^"^ sa7'pa or sarpd (see 28); from -3pj^klrip, Ho 
make/ the base "^^ kalpa or kalpd. 

a. Note, that bhu, ' to be' or ' to become,' is one of the commonest verbs in the 
language, and like as, 'to be,' at 584, 321, is sometimes used as an auxiliary. It 
is conjugated at fuU at 585. 

264. In the potential the final a of the base blends with the initial 
i of the termination by 32 (Pot. i. bodha + iy am = '^(t^ bodheyam). 
So also in the Pres, Ktm. ("^^ &c.). See table at 583. 

265. In the imperative the termination is rejected in the 2d sing. 
(Imp. I. bodha + awi = wHnfrf bodhdni, 2. ^hl bodha, 3. bodha + tu = 
Tfhi^ bodhatu). 

266. The base of the 1st preterite has the augment "^ a prefixed 
by 260 (ist Pret. i. abodha + m =w^ abodham, 2. abodha+sz= 
^(^rt^^^ abodhas, &c.). 

267. Roots like 'T'^'to cook,' f^'ST 'to beg,' ift^^ ' to live' (603), take the 
inserted ^ a, liable to be lengthened to ^Tw, but forbid the Guna change by 28. b 
(Pres. I. •^^f^ &c. ; Atm. i. f>T% &c. ; Pres. i. 'SfiTrfiT &c.). 

* I. stands for ist singular; Du. i. for ist dual; PI. i. for ist plural, &c. 


268. There are some roots ending in the Viiddhi TT ui which cannot be gunated, 
but suffer the usual change of Sandhi before 'ST a and ^ d by 37 ; as, from ^ ' to 
sing,' y ' to be weary,' ^ ' to preserve,' 'HI ' to meditate,' ^ ' to fade,' are formed 
the bases gdya, gldya, trdya, dhydya, mldya. See 595. a. 

269. Some roots of the ist conj. form their bases in the first four tenses by a 
change pecviliar to themselves, which change is of course discarded in the other 
tenses : thus, from WT ' to stand' (see 587), Ifl ghrd, ' to smell' (588), "Tf ' to drink' 
(589), 'HTT ' to blow,' ^ ' to repeat over,' come the bases fH"? tishfha, f^Hjighra, 
f^'^piva, VH dhama, W^ mana, the final a being, as before, liable to be lengthened. 

a. Note, that the roots WT sthd and TTT ghrd are properly reduphcated verbs of 
the 3d class at 330. The reduphcated base, by 331, would be tasthd, jaghrd : but 
as the reduplication is irregular, and the radical d is shortened, grammarians place 
these roots under the ist class. The Greek UTTVjfXi, on the other hand, has not 
shortened its radical vowel in the singular. 

270. Again, from "W^ ' to see,' ^T ' to go,' ^'T ' to restrain,' "^^ ' to sink,' are 
formed the bases "m^ jmsya, T^ gachchha, '^^ yachchha, Wt^ sida (Pres. i. 
1| ^ M 1 1*1 jjusydmi, &c.). 

271. ^ 'to conceal' forms 'T^(/i<Afl; ^^T' to protect,' mm^I ^opay a; and ^T^ 
'to bite,' ^^ dasa (Pres. i. T^jff^ giihdmi, &c.). 

Fourth class {4th conjugation), containing about 1^0 primitive verbs. 

272. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Affix tt ya to the root. The vowel of the root is not 
gunated, and generally remains unchanged. Note, that the inserted 
^ ya is liable to become ttt yd before an initial m or v of the termina- 
tions of the four tenses (but not before the m of the ist sing, ist 
preterite), as in the ist class at 261. 

273. Thus, from ftni sidh, ' to succeed,' is formed the base irnxf 
sidhya (Pres. i. sidhyd + mi = ffnmffl sidhydmi, 2. fffiqftr sidhyasi. 
See; Pot. I. sidhya + iya7n = f^VE(;q sidhyeyam, 2. f'H'm'^^sidhyes, &c. ; 
Imp. I . sidhya + dni = ftrarrfTr sidhydni, &c. ; ist Pret. asidhya +m = 
"^^vi asidhyam, &c. ; i^tm. Pres. i . sidhya + i = ftnfl sidhye, sidhya + 
se = iw3^:^ sidhyase, Sec). See 616. 

274. Similarly, from m md, ' to measure,' the base WT^ mdya 
(Pres. I. Ktm. mdya + i = vfTtf mdye, &c.) ; from f^^kship, ' to throw,' 
•ft^ kshipya ; from -^ nrit, ' to dance,' ^ nritya ; from "ft ^ to fly,' 
^ (Pres. ^tm. i. ^). 

275. Roots ending in am and iv, and one in ad, lengthen the vowel ; as, from 
f^ div, ' to play,' r(Nl dhya; from '^>JJ{J)hram, ' to wander,' >?T^ bhrdmya; from 
Tff mad, ' to be mad,' 'RUT mddya. 


276. If a root contain a nasal it is generally rejected ; as, from >j^ ' to fall,' 
>?^ bhrasya; tPT ' to be born' makes '^'^jdya (Pres. i. Atm. ^Tf^), lengthening 
the vowel, to compensate for the loss of n. 

a. Roots ending in ^ drop this before the conjugational ya .- thus "5^ so, ' to 
destroy,' makes its base sya. 

277. The followng are anomalous. From if 'to grow old,' "^t^jirya: from 
■^ni ' to pierce,' f^O^ vidhya; from fH^ ' to be viscid,' TST medya. 

Obser\'e — Although this class includes only 130 primitive verbs (generally 
neuter in signification), yet every one of the 2000 roots in the language may have 
a passive form which follows the A'tmane-pada of this class. 

Sixth class {6th conjugation), containing about 140 primitive verbs. 

278. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Affix the vowel ^ a to the root, which is not gunated, and 
in other respects generally remains unchanged*. Note, that the 
inserted ^ a becomes ^ a before an initial m and v of the termina- 
tions of the four tenses (but not before the m of the ist sing, ist pre- 
terite), as in the ist and 4th conjugations at 261 and 272. 

279. Thus, from f^ kship, *to throw/ comes the base fe^tr kshipa 
(Pres. I. kshipa + mi = ftfCfTfj? kshipdmi, 2. kshipa +si = fi3^tifti kshi- 
pasi ; Pot. I. kshipa + iy am ^f^Tf^ kshipeyam, &c. ; Atm. Pres. i. 
kshipa + i = f^ kshipe; see 6t^^) ; from "^ tud, ' to strike,' "K^ tuda; 
from f^ dis, ' to point out,' f^ disa. 

280. Roots in \i, ^ u or "^ u, "^ ri and '^ ri, generally change those vowels 
into ^»y, "3^ uv, fc ri, and ^ ir respectively ; as, from ft, ' to go,' comes the 
base fr^ riya; from tT ' to praise,' '^^ nuva; from ^' to agitate,' >r^ dhuvaj 
from H ' to die,' f%TT mriya (626) ; from cIT kn, ' to scatter,' f^R kira (627). 

281. A considerable class of roots, ending in consonants, in this conjugation, 
insert a nasal before the final consonant in the four tenses ; as, from 5^, ' to let 
go,' comes the base t^ muiicha ; from fc5^ 'to anoint,' Prt**! limpaj from "^r^ 
'to cut,' oF^iT krintaj from ftr^^'to sprinkle,' ^^^ sihchaj from '^^"'^'to break,' 
l^'RT lumpa. Similarly, the roots f^'^T, f%^, 'fe^* 

282. The following are anomalous. From ^^, ' to wish,' comes the base ^^ 
ichchha; from TTbBl * to ask,' "W^ prichchha ; from >?W ' to roast,' W^bhrijja; 
from '31^ ' to deceive,' f^^ vicha; from "3^' to cut,' ^^ vrischa. 

* Prof. Bopp observes, that the sixth class is only an ofFshoot of the first, con- 
taining the diseased members of that class. Comp. Gram. 1055. 


Tenth class of verbs {\oth conjugation), containing a few primitive 
verbs and all causals. 

283. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Gunate the vowel of the root throughout every person of 
all the four tenses (except when debarred by 38. b), and affix "^nJf aya 
to the root so gunated. Note, that wi ay a becomes "Win ay a before 
an initial m or v of the terminations of the four tenses, but not 
before the m of the ist sing, ist preterite. 

284. Thus, from ^T chur, ' to steal,' is formed the base ^q^^l 
choraya (Pres. i. chorayd + mi = ''^1T^^f^ choraydmi, 2. choraya + si = 
^tTTrftl chorayasi, &c. ; Pot. i . choraya + iyam = ^Vt^ chorayeyam ; 
Imp. I. choraya + mn = ■'^■jnftof choraydni, &c., see 58 ; ist Pret. i. 
achoraya + m = W-^(t^ achorayam, &c., see 638). 

285. Roots ending in vowels take Vriddhi instead of Guna; as, from ift ' to 
please,' T(m^ prnyaya; from V ' to hold.' VRII dhdraya. But tj, 'to fill,' makes 
"'JTTT jmraya. 

286. Roots which enclose the vowel ^ a between two single consonants generally 
lengthen this vowel; as, from U^' to swallow,' ?n^^ grdsaya : but not always ; 
as, from ^i^ ' to say,' <*'q*l kathaya. 

287. oITT^, ' to celebrate,' ' to praise,' makes "^^^ kirtaya (Pres. o|ild*JlfiT). 

288. A few roots with a medial "^ri retain that vowel ; as, fi'om ^T^ ' to desire,' 
*M^*4 sprihaya. 

289. Observe — Every Sanskrit root may have a causal form, and all causal 
verbs foUow the loth conjugation ; but there are a considerable number of active 
primitive verbs, not causal in their signification, which belong to this conjugation. 
In these verbs, therefore, the causal form will be identical with the primitive 
verb. Hence there wiU often be a difficulty in determining whether a verb be a 
primitive verb of the loth conjugation, or a causal verb ; and the consideration of 
the loth conjugation must to a great extent be mixed up with that of the causal 
form of the root (see 479). 

a. Observe also, that all verbs, whether primitive or causal, which belong to the 
loth conjugation, have this great peculiarity, viz. that the conjugational ay is 
carried throughout all the tenses of the verb, non-conjugational as well as con- 
jugational, excepting only the 3d preterite and the benedictive, Parasmai-pada 
(compare 254). For this reason the formation of the base of the non-conjugational 
tenses of verbs of the loth conjugation will not be explained under the general 
head of the non-conjugational tenses (at 363), l)ut will fall under causal verbs. 



290. Before entering upon the formation of the base in the last 
two groups of conjugations, observe that they take the regular ter- 
minations of the memorial scheme at 246, without any substitutions, 
excepting in the 3d plur. present and imperative, Atmane-pada, 
where the nasal is rejected in all six classes (see scheme at 247). 

a. The 3d class, however, owing to the burden occasioned by reduphcation, 
rejects the nasal from the 3d plur. of the Parasmai-pada, as well as from the 
A'tmane-pada, in these two tenses, and takes us for an in the 3d pi. ist preterite. 

h. Two roots, moreover, in the 2d class [jaksh, ' to eat,' and sds, ' to rule'), and 
roots of more than one syllable (very few in number), resemble the 3d class in reject- 
ing the nasal from the 3d pi. Parasmai, and taking us for an in the ist preterite*. 

291. Observe also, that roots ending in consonants, of the 2d, 3d, and 7th classes, 
and the root ^ ku of the 3d, take dhi (the Greek Bl) for hi in the 2d sing, imperative f 
(see 247) ; and that roots ending in vowels, of the 5th and 8th classes, resemble the 
first group of classes at 259, in rejecting this termination altogether. 

292. Again, roots ending in consonants will reject the terminations s and / of 
the 2d and 3d sing, ist preterite by 43. a, changing the fiinal of the root, if a soft 
consonant, to an unaspirated hard, by 42. a; and in other respects changing a 
final consonant, as indicated at 43. But in the 2d sing, the termination s is some- 
times optionally retained, and the final letter of the root rejected. 

a. If a root end in ^ h, this final h becomes k, in the 2d and 3d sing, ist pret., 
by 43. e ; but if the root begin with d or g, the aspirate is thrown back on these 
letters, which become dh, gh. 

b. If a root end in H s, it may change this s to Mn the 2d sing. 

293. Although comparatively few verbs fall under the last two 
groups of conjugations, yet some of these are among the most useful 
in the language. Their formation presents more difficulties than 
that of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth conjugations. In these latter the 
verbal base, although varying slightly in each conjugation, preserves 
the same form before all the terminations of every tense ; but in the 
last two groups of conjugations the base is liable to variation before 

* A few other roots of the 2d class (as, f^r^, fi"^, 'm , VJ) optionally take us 
for un in the ist preterite. Sds probably follows the analogy of reduplicated verbs, 
on account of its double sibilant. 

t Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas "^^ {kXvQi) ; and in 
the Mahabharata ^n7T"^fv . Dhi then passed into hi, as dhita passed into hita, 
and bhimi into the Latin humus. 


the different terminations of each tense, such variation being denoted 
by the letter P and other indicatory letters of the memorial scheme 
at 246, which, be it remembered, are significant only in reference to 
the second and third groups, and not to the first. 

a. In the 2d preterite, however, being a non-conjugational tense, the P is equally 
significant for verbs of all conjugations. Observe — This P, which usually indi- 
cates that in those persons of the tense where it occurs, the root must be gunated 
or vriddhied, is generally to be found after light terminations. The ist, 2d, and 
3d sing. Parasmai of the present, ist preterite, and 2d preterite are manifestly light 
terminations. The 3d sing. Parasmai of the imperative is also clearly light ; and 
the ist sing. du. and pi. Parasmai and Atmane of this tense must have been 
originally light, as these also have a P affixed. The object, therefore, of the P is 
to show, that fulness of form or weight is to be imparted to the root or base before 
these light terminations, and these only : thus \i, 2d conj., ' to go,' is in the pres. 
sing, emi, eshi, eti; in du. ivas, ithas, itas; in pi. imas, &c. : just as in Greek tifxi, 
e<V, elai}, itov, nov; 'ifMev, &c. : compare also (pyjlJ-i (for ^^^O? 0^^' i>V'^h 
(parov, (paTOv, (pafjiev, (jyan, (paai. So again, stri, ' to strew,' is in pres. sing. 
strinomi, strinoshi, strinoti; in du. strinuvas, strinuthas, strinufas; in pi. strinumas, 
&c. : just as in Greek aropvufxi, aropvvg, aTopvvTi, aropvvTOV, aropwrov, 
CTTOpvvfxeg, &c. Similarly, kn, 'to buy,' is in pres. sing, krindmi, krindsi, krindti; 
in du. &c. krmivas, krinithas, krimtas, krinimas, &c., the a being heavier than i. 
Compare Greek Trepvdtxi [irepvYJixi), Ttepvdg, Trepvari, Trepvarov, Trepvarov, &c. 
When a root is long by nature or position, no additional weight is necessary, and 
no Guna is then possible (see 28. b) ; but in place of Guna, the root or base some- 
times remains unmutilated before the Mght terminations, while mutilation takes 
place before the heavy. Thus da and dhd suppress their final vowels before the 
heavy terminations, and preserve them before the light ; see 335, 336. Similarly, 
as, ' to be,' which by 28. b. cannot be gunated, drops its initial vowel before the 
hea\^ terminations, retaining it before the light; see 322, and compare 320. 
Observe, that since Guna takes place before all the terminations of the 2d future 
indiscriminately, the P affixed to the singular terminations of this tense can have 
no significance, unless it be to show that the terminations of this tense are taken 
from the present, with sya prefixed. 

294. Another source of difficulty is, that in the second group 
(viz. the 2d, 3d, and 7th) the verbal base will generally end in a 
consonant, there being no provision for the interposition of a vowel 
between the root and the terminations. Hence the combination of 
the final consonant of a base with the initial /, th, or s, of a termina- 
tion in the conjugational tenses of these three classes requires a 
knowledge of the laws of Sandhi already propounded, as well as of 
the following additional rules. 

R 2 


a. Observe, however, that as regards the initial m or v of a termina- 
tion, a hard consonant at the end of a root is not made soft before 
these letters, as might be expected by 41, but remains unchanged: 
thus, vach + mi = vachmi, and chekshep + mi = chekshepmi. 

295. The following rules wiU also apply in forming the base of the non- 
conjugational tenses of all the conjugations excepting the loth, and in some of 
the participles ; for although in most roots ending in consonants provision is 
made for the insertion of the vowel l^i (see terminations of ist future &c. at p. 107) 
before the terminations of these tenses, yet there are a large class of common 
roots which reject this inserted vowel, leaving the final of the base to coalesce 
with the initial consonant of the termination. It wiU be convenient, therefore, in 
the following pages to introduce by anticipation a few examples from the non- 
conjugational tenses and participles. 

Combination affinal ^ ch and "ST j with IT t, "q th, and ^ s. 

296. Final ^ ch and l[^j, before K t, "^ th, and ^ s, are changed 
to oF A: (compare 43. d), the k blending with s into "BT ksh by 70 : 
thus, vach -{-ti = vakti ; vach + thas = vakthas ; vach + siz= vakshi ; 
moch + sydmi = mokshydmi ; much + ta = mukta ; tyaj + ta = tyakta ; 
tyaj + sydmi = tyakshydmi. 

297. But a final palatal is sometimes changed to ^ sh before IT t, 
y\ th; and W ^, ^ th, then become 7, 7: thus, JIT"^ + /i = Tiff ; 'p^ 

-\- thas = f^'^^, ^5^+^a = ^; ira' + /« = ireT . 

Combination of final V dh and >T bh with w t, ^ th, and ^ s. 

298. Final >l dh and >T bh, befoi*e w t and ^i th, are changed, the one 
to ^ d, the other to ^ b, and both t and th then become V dh : thus, 
rundh with tas or thas becomes equally ^"^^runddhas ; labh + tdhe 

= WJHi^ labdhdhe. But if the root begin "with d it follows 42. c. 
See 664. 

a. Observe — When final \l <//« is preceded by a conjunct ^n, as 
in rundh, then the final dh, which has become d (before t and th 
changed to dh), may optionally be rejected; so that rundh + tas = 
^r:|r7T or ^^^^ ; rundh + tarn = ^^ or ^^ . 

299. Final V dh and >t bh, before ^ s, are changed by 42, the one 
to IT t, the other to "^ p : thus, ^W*I runadh + si becomes ^rrrfw 
runatsi ; sedh + sydmi = setsydmi ; labh + sye = lapsye. 

a. And if the initial of the root be b or d, the aspirate, which has 
been rejected in the final, is thrown back on the initial ; as, bodh + 


sye = >ftT?^ bhotsye; dadh + swa = v?^ dhatswa. See 42. c, 664; and 
compare Ope^co from rpecpM. Observe — The aspirate is also thrown 
back on the initial, when final dh is changed to d, before the termina- 
tions dhwe and dhwam. See 664. 

Combination of final ^ s, '^ sh, ^s, ivith W t, "'^ th, ^ s, V dh. 

300. Final ^ s, before tt t and '^ th, is changed to '%^sh; and the /, 
thy take the cerebral form 7, ^: thus, f^5H-/e = f¥; and ^T^ + ^M* 

301. Similarly, final 1^5^, before W ^ and ^ th, requires the change 
of t, th, to 7, 7 : thus, i"^ + ti = Irfe ; and fl^ + ^Aas = f|r?^. 

302. Final '^r ^ or ^^sh, before ^ s, is changed to cF A: by 43. e, the 
* then becoming ^ sh by 70: thus, ^^+m = tP^; irtl + ^i = ^fiKf ; 
"5^ + sydmi = ■5;^TfiT . 

303. Final ^ s or 'q sh, before V dh, is changed to "f d, the V c?A 
becoming ^ c?^ by 51 : thus, fgt^+ dhi = f^'S^. Similarly, fl^H- 
dhwam = ff^ . A final W7 may also follow this rule ; see 632, 651. 

304. Final ^^ s, before M dh, is either dropped or changed to ^ c? ; 
thus, chakds + dhi = either ^ofirftr chakddhi or ^ofiTi% chakdddhi ; ^frPET^ 

+ dhi = :5iTfv ; f^^+ dhi =. f^f^ . 

a. Before iR * it is changed to l[^t ; as, vas + sydmi = vatsydmi. 
So in the 2d sing. 1st pret. of sds, asds + s=:asdts = asdt by 43. a. 

Combination of final ^ h with W t, "^ th, '^ s, V dh. 

305. In roots beginning with ^ d, like Jf c^mA, '■ to milk,^ final ^ h 
is changed to tt ^ before IT t and "^ th, and both ^ and th then become 
V (//* ; thus, ^ duh + tas or ^/«a5 becomes equally J'VH dugdhas ; 
^ dah + M^mi = dagdhdsmi. In the root rf^ the final h becomes 
dh, and blends with t and /A into if c?c?^. See 624. 

a. But if the root begin with any other letter than ^ </ or it n, 
then its final ^ A is dropped, and both the 7T t and ti th of the ter- 
mination become 7S dh. Moreover, to compensate for the rejection 
of the final h, the radical vowel, if not gunated, is lengthened, and 
in the roots sah and vah changed to ; as, J^^ + /a = jt^ ; ^^ -\. ta-= 
T^ ; "^ leh + ti=z ^fs ledhi ; ft? + tdsmi = i\d\^W ; sah -\-td = ^fTt^ ; 
vah + M = '^T. 

306. Final "? h, before ?T .9, follows the analogy of final ^ s and 
^ sh, and is changed to eir k, which blends with ^ s into ^ ksh : 


thus, ^^ kh with si becomes ^f^•, Tt? + sydmi = T^^lP^I. Similarly, 
in Latin, final h becomes k before s ; as, veksit {vexit) from veho. 

a. And if the initial of the root he -^d or T\g, the final '^ h is still 
changed to cF A: before s; but the initial ^ d then becomes >l dh, and iig 
becomes xr gh : thus, ^t^ doh + si = ^f^ ; ^'5 ^/a/t + sydmi = V^rrfiT ; 
^TT? o^mA + sam = ^r^ . Compare 42. c. 

6. In the root "^ /^aA final /< becomes V dh, and then TT t, before s. 
Compare 182. e, and see 624. 

c. In roots beginning with ^ d, like «r^ rfwA and f^?r, final ?r A 
becomes Tf ^ before f/A; i. e. before the dhi of the 2d sing, imperative, 
and before the terminations dhwe and dhwam : thus, ?^ duh + c?Ai = 
^ni dugdhi. And in a root beginning with n, like ?iaA, final h becomes 
dh, and then d, before these terminations. But if the root begin with 
any other letter than d or n, then final h is dropped, and the V dh of 
the termination becomes ^ dh, the radical vowel being lengthened : 
thus, fc?? lih + ^/«i = c5^f^ ; lih + dhwam = T^i . 

d. Again, in roots beginning with ^ d or n ^ these letters become 
respectively xf dh and t? ^A, when final ir h becomes g or is dropped 
before dhwe and dhwam ; but not before the dhi of the imperative : 
thus, duh + (/At«;e = trrs^ dhugdhwe ; and «^wA + dhwam = '^W o^Am- 


Second class {2d conjugation), containing 70 primitive verbs. 

307. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 
28. 6) before those terminations only which are marked with P in 
the memorial scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the 
original vowel of the root must be retained by 293. a. Remember, 
that no vowel is interposed between the root and the terminations, 
as in Greek verbs like ei/ixi, (pijiui, &c. See 258. «, 294. 

308. Thus, from f^ uid, ' to know' (Greek e'lSw, 'iSov, Lat. video), 
is formed the base of the singular present ved {i.ved + mi = ^f^vedmi, 
&.C.), and the base of the dual and plural vid (Du. i. vid + vas = 
fws^ vidwas, &c. ; PI. i. vid + mas =: f^"^ vidmas, &c.). So also 
the base of the potential vid (i. vid + ydm = f^fil vidydm, &c.) ; the 
base of the imperative t^ed and ind (i. ved + dni = veddni, 2. vid + 


dhi =. viddhi 29 1 , ved + tu = vettu ; Du. i . ved + dva = veddva, &c. * ) ; 
and the base of the ist pret. aved and avid (i. aved -\- am = avedam, 
2. aved + s = avet or aves by 43. a. and 292). See the table at 583. 

a. A contracted form of the 2d preterite of vid (365) is sometimes used for the 
present : thus, Sing, veda, vettha, veda ; Du. vidwa, vidathus, vidatus ; PI. vidma, 
vida, vidus ; see 168. a. Compare the Greek oiOa or FoiOa from the root FiO 
[eioa), also used with a present signification ; and the Latin vidi, vidisti, &c. 
Cf. also the present vidmas with 'I'^fi.ev {'lafxev), vittha with tare, and viddhi with 

309. Similarly, from f^, ' to hate,' come the bases dwesh and 
dwish (Pres. i. Irf^; Du. i. 'fe^^, &c. ; see 657). 

310. So also, from \i,^ io go/ will come the bases e and i (Pres. 
I. ^ftr emi, cf. eijixi, 2. ^lf^ by 70, 3. ^fir; PI. i. ^^j cf. 'i^xev, see 
645) ; from ITFT * to awake,' the bases "JTrT^ j^^g^^' and ITPT y«^ri 
(Pres. I. ^TFTf^, &c. ; Du. i. TTTn^^; PI. 3. imifiT by 290. h). 

311. The preposition ^ftl «f//«', 'over,' prefixed to the root \i, 'to go,' gives 
the sense of 'to read' (Atmane-pada only): ^then becomes iy (compare 123), and 
blends with adhi into W*fh^ adlny before the vowel-terminations of the pres. pot. 
and 1st pret. Before the consonantal-terminations it becomes ^IVt adhi. (Hence the 
Pres. I. -^C^, 2. ^^, 3. ^^TVtW; Du. i. W^^%, &c. ; Pot. i. '3r\M■^, &c.; 
Imp. I . adhi -\-e-\-ai=. ^«R by 36 . a, 2 . W^t^, &c. ; i st Pret. i . adhi -\- a -\- iy -\- i 
= ^rwftT by 260. a, 2. ^^5IT^, 3. W^ ; Du. i. '^nl^f^, 2. '^T^TITW, &c.) 

a. The preposition WT a is prefixed to the root ^ i, according to the usual rules 
of Sandhi, and gives the sense of ' to come :' thus, Pres. ^f'T, VT^, 'ffff ; ^'^j 
&c. ; Pot. IJ^f , TTOJ^^, &c. ; Imp. '^mnf^, Tjf^, ^^, &c. ; ist Pret. •m^, ^\, 
&c. Again, the prep. ^'T apa prefixed gives the sense of ' to go away :' thus, 
Pres. ^%ff{, &c. 

312. Other roots in '^ i and '3' u or "35 li change these vowels to iy and uv (com- 
pare 123 and 125. «) before the vowel-terminations ; as, from '^ vi, ' to go,' come 
the bases ve, vi, and viy (Pres. i. ^, &c. ; Du. i. '^W ; PI. 3. fW^). Simi- 
larly, ^, ' to bring forth' (Atmane only), makes in Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. '^TT, ^TTW, 
^^ ; and in Imp. S. Du. PI. i. ^, ^=IN^, ^^wf » Guna being suppressed f. 

313. ^s^M and "5 WW, 'to praise;' 'g2/M,'to join,' 'to mix;' and ^rw, 'to sound' 
— follow 312, and take Vriddhi instead of Guna before the consonantal P termina- 
tions %. Hence the bases ^ stau, ^ stu, and ^"^ stuv ; see 648. Before the 

* The imperative oivid is optionally formed with the syllable dm and the auxiliary 
verb kri (compare 384) : thus, s. 3. f^I^tiCln or f^TlJT^ • Panini HI. i. 41. 
t See Panini VII. 3. 88. 
X That is, the terminations marked with P, which begin with consonants. 


vowel P terminations both Vriddhi and Guna are generally (but not always) sup- 
pressed, and uv substituted, as in ^at 312. Note, that these roots may optionally 
insert an ^ i before the consonantal P terminations ; and before this vowel Guna, 
not Vriddhi, is required. According to some authorities, however, t is inserted 
before all the consonantal-terminations ; and, according to others, before aU the 
consonants, excepting y, t\ or m, not followed by an indicatory P. 

314. "^j 'to speak,' can never take Vriddhi, like the roots at 313; but inserts 
an '^ / after Guna in the places where those roots optionally insert it, viz. before 
the consonantal P terminations. Hence the bases bravi, bni, bruv. See 649. 

a. Before the vowel P terminations Guna is not suppressed, excepting in the ist 
pret. 1st sing. 

315. ^, ' to Ue do\vn,' 'to sleep' (Atmane only), gunates the radical vowel before 
all the terminations, and inserts r in the 3d pi. pres., ist pret., and imperative, 
after the analogy of the 3d pi. potential. See 646. 

316. 15^, 'to cover,' takes either Vriddhi or Guna of the final u before the con- 
sonantal P terminations, excepting before the 2d and 3d sing, of the ist pret,, 
where Guna only is admissible. Before the vowel-terminations it follows 312, but 
Guna is retained before the vowel P terminations, excepting in the ist pret. ist 
sing. Hence the bases urnau, urno, urnu, and urnuv (Pres. i. "^illTm or *^(i \*i ; 
Du. I. "35^^; PI. 3. "gnS^iT, see 290. bj Pot. i. "gn|^ ; Imp. s. i. ■35in^f«T, 
3. "^j^TJ or *4ri H ; 1st Pret. i. WHJ^ by 260. a, 2. '^T^H, &c.). 

317. Roots like ^T ' to go,' "m ' to protect,' ^ ' to eat' {edo), Wr*T^' to sit,' Atm., 
having a or a for their vowels, cannot be gunated, but are themselves bases (Pres. 
I. yd + mi =i ydmi, see 644, ad -\- mi z= admi, 2. ad-\-si = atsi, 3. ad-\-ti-=.atti : 
Du. 3. ad-\-tasz=.attas, &c., see 652. Similarly, ds-\-e-=.dse, ds+se = dsse, ds+te 
=.dste, &c.). With atti compare Lat. edit. 

a. Before the terminations of the 2d and 3d sing, ist preterite of ^!^, ' to eat,' 
the vowel ^ a is inserted by special rule ; and some others of these roots require 
peculiar changes, as follows : — 

318. ^*T Aan, 'to kill,' makes its base "^ ha before t or th (by 57.0); Ti^ghn 
before anti, an, antu ; and "^ ja before f^- The last change is to avoid the 
proximity of two aspirates. See 654, and compare 331. b. 

319. "^^ vach, 'to speak,' changes its final palatal to a guttural before aU the 
hard consonantal-terminations, in conformity with 176 ; but not before the soft, by 
294. a. It is defective in the 3d pi. present and imperative, where its place must 
be supplied by "3;^ at 314, 649. Hence the bases vach and vak. See 650. 

320. ^^y vas, 'to desire,' 'to choose,' suppresses the a, and changes v io u before 
the terminations which have no P (see 293. a); and T^vs becomes T^7isA before 
/ and th by 300. See 656. 

321. "^[^chaksh, 'to speak' (Atmane-pada only), drops the penultimate k 
before all consonantal-terminations, excepting those beginning with m. or v (Pres. 
r. '^^, 2. '^+ ^ = ^^ by 292, 3. '^?, &c.). 

322. ^^ ffs, ' to be' (Parasmai-pada only), a very useful auxiliary verb, follows 


293. a, and rejects its initial a, excepting before the P terminations. The 2d pers. 
sing, of the pres. is ^rftr for ^fw. The ist pret. has the character of a 3d pret., 
and retains the initial a throughout, and inserts ^ i before the s and t of the 2d 
and 3d sing. ; see 584. This root is never found in the A'tmane-pada, excepting 
with the prepositions vi and ati, when the Present is Sing, 'ajfi!?', -IT, -? ; Du. 
-■^, -'RT^, -IIT^, -^^, -f , -"^ ; Pot. S. I. ^iT^xr, &c. 

323. "^U^^sds, 'to rule,' changes its vowel to ^i before t, th, and y; and, after i, 
^becomes "^ by 70. Hence the bases ^HT and f^'^' . See 658. 

324. *J»1^?Mn/, ' to cleanse,' is vriddhied before the P terminations, and optionally 
before the vowel-terminations having no P. Hence the bases mdrj and mrij. See 651 . 

325. The roots f^ is, 'to rule' (Atm.), and '|^ trj, 'to praise' (A'tm.), not 
gunated by 28. b, insert the vowel ^ i between the rcjot and the terminations of 
the 2d person ^, ^, 5^, and t^ (^? — Pres. i. '|'?, 2. '|^f%^, 3. '|j ; Du. i. '^^'^, 
&c.; Pot. I. t^, &c. ; Imp. i. ^t, 2. ^^"^, 3. fF; ist Pret. 3. ^, &c. 
f^ — Pres. I. ^'^r, 2. ^f^^, 3. ^ by 300; Imp. 3. ^T, &c.; ist Pret. 3.^, &c.). 

326. '^^ rud, ' to weep,' besides the usual Guna change before the P termina- 
tions, inserts the vowel ^ i before all the consonantal-terminations except y, and 
optionally a or z in the 2d and 3d sing, ist pret. Hence the three bases rodi, rudi, 
rud; see 653. Similarly, but without Guna, the roots ^"'T ' to sleep,' "^ST^ and 
^»T ' to breathe,' and tT"^' to eat.' The last obeys 290. b. 

327. 1^ duh, ' to milk,' and fe'^ lih, ' to lick,' form their bases as explained at 
305, 306. They are conjugated at 660, 661. 

328. ^'ftr^T daridrd, 'to be poor' (Parasmai-pada), follows 293. a, making its 
base daridri before the consonantal-terminations not marked with P, and daridr 
before ati, us, atu (Pres. S. Du. PL 3. ^'ftl'^'TfTT, ^ftf^^, ^fr^'fir ; see 290. b). 

329. '^Hn didM, ' to shine' (Atm.), changes its final to y, and not to iy, before 
the vowel-terminations (compare 312); but in the potential the final i coalesces 
with the z'of the terminations (Pres. PI. 3. ^HlTfT ; Pot. i. ?(hihT, &c.). 

Third class {'T^d conjugation), containing about 20 primitive verbs. 

330. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Reduphcate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and 
gunate the vowel of the radical syllable before the P terminations 
only, as in the 2d conjugation, by 293. a. Note, that this conjuga- 
tion resembles the 2d in interposing no vowel between the root and 
the terminations. It is the only conjugation that rejects the nasal 
in the 3d plur. Parasmai-pada, by 290. a, and takes us for an in the 
3d plur. ist pret., before which us Guna is generally required. 

331. In reduplication the following rules are observed, ist, As to consonants. 
a. A corresponding unaspirated letter is substituted for an aspirate : thus, d for 
dh. So in Greek T is repeated for G; as, Qvw, T(6vKa, &c. 


b. The palatal ^ ch is substituted for the gutturals ^ A- or ^ kh ; and the 
palatal '^j for the gutturals "^ g,"^ gh, or'^h. 

c. If a root begin with a double consonant, the first consonant only is redupli- 
cated ; but if with a double consonant, whose first is a sibilant and whose second 
is hard, the second is reduplicated : thus, ^ ch for "^ ksh; W ^ for ^ sth; "^j for 
■g hrj oR A; for ^ sic. 

d. adly. As to vowels. '^ « is the reduplicated vowel for "^ d; \ i for ^ i or 
■^ rij "^ u for "35 ii. In certain cases ^ z is also repeated for a and «, as being a 
lighter vowel. 

e. Observe — As a general rule, the reduplicated syllable has a tendency to lighten 
the weight of the radical syllable. 

332. Thus, from H blin, 'to bear' {(pepw, fero), is formed the 
base of the present singular f^fvm bibhar (i. bibhar + m^ = f^^^), 
and the base of the dual and plural f^H bibhri (Du. i. bibhri + vas = 
f^H^F ; PI. I . bibhri + mas = f^^F^; PI. 3. bibhri + ati = f^^fif by 
34 and 390). See the table at 583. 

a. Note, that bibharti bears the same relation to bibhrimas that fert does to 
ferhmis, and vult to volumus. 

■^'^^. Similarly, from nt bhi, ' to fear/ come the two bases bibhe 
and bibhi ; from "? hu, ' to sacrifice/ the two bases juho and juhu. 
The former of these roots may optionally shorten the radical vowel 
before a consonant, when not gunated. See 667. The latter may option- 
ally reject its final before vas and mas, and is the only root ending in a 
vowel which takes dhi for hi in the 2d sing, imperative. See 662. 

a. "^j ' to be ashamed,' is hke >ft, but changes its final ^ to ^"^ iy before the 
vowel-terminations, in conformity with 123. a. See 668. 

334. "^ ri, ' to go,' is the only verb in this conjugation that begins with a 
vowel. It substitutes iy for ri in the redupUcation, and makes its bases ^IIT: iyar 
and ^^ iyri (Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^^t, ^^^, J^; ist Pret. S. i. ^•^t, 2. ^^TT:, 
3. ^^, &c.). 

335. t^T du, " to give' (^l^ufxi, do), drops its final a before all excepting the P 
terminations. Hence the bases dadd and dad. It becomes ^ de before the hi of 
the imperative. See 663. 

336. Similarly, the root MT dhd, 'to place' {Ti6Yjft.i). Hence the bases dadhd 
and dadhj but dadh becomes V7^ before t, th, and s, by 42. c; and dhe before the 
hi of the imperative. See 664. 

337. "5T hd, ' to abandon,' changes its final a to ^ / before the consonantal- 
terminations not marked with P, and drops the final altogether before the vowel- 
terminations, and before y of the potential. Hence the bases jahd, jahi, jah. 
Before hi of the imperative the base is oi^tionaWy jahi, jahi, or jahd; and, according 


to some authorities, »r^ may be shortened itito ITfV in the present, imi)erative, 
and 1st preterite. See 666. 

338. JTT md, ' to measure' (Atm.), and '^T hd, ' to go' (Atm.), make their bases 
t*TJO mimi and f^^ jihi before the consonantal-terminations not marked with P. 
Before the vowel-terminations their bases are mim and jih. According to some 
authorities, wmto' and ^iVi/ may be optionally shortened into mimi andjiAi. See 66^-^. 

ZS9- "^^jan, 'to produce' (Parasmai-pada), rejects the final nasal (see 57. a), 
and lengthens the radical a before t and th and hi, and, according to some, option^ 
ally before y. Before the vowel-terminations not marked with P it rejects the 
radical a (compare the declension of raj an at 149). Hence the three bases jajun, 
jajd, and jajri. The 2d sing. pres. is either iTWftT or TTTrfJrfTT . See 667. b. 

340. W^^bhas, ' to shine,' like jan, rejects the radical a before the vowel-termina- 
tions not marked with P ; and bh coalescing with s becomes /; by 42 (Pres. S. Du. 
PL 3. ^vr%, '^^T^F, "^^^). 

341. The roots f^'5^' to purify,' f^^T ' to separate,' and f^''? ' to divide,' gunate 
the reduplicated syllable before all the terminations, and forbid the usual Guna of 
the radical syllable in the ist pers. sing. du. pi. , imperative (Pres. t. '^^T'Ti^} 
2. •^^^, 3. ^^f^; Du. I. -^ftripT, &c. ; PI. I. -^fTTv^Tr, 3. -^f^nrfW ; Imi). I. 
^f^inftr; Du. i.-^f^lTR; pi. i.'^f?I*TTH; Pret. i.^^^, 2. ^^W, &c.; 
PI. 3. W^flT^TT, &c.). 

Seventh class {yth conjugation), containing about 24. primitive verbs. 

342. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Insert "?[ na (changeable to irr na after ri &c. by 58) between 
the vowel and final consonant* of the root before the P terminations, 
and "J^ n (changeable to T, >r, or Anuswara, according to the conso- 
nant immediately succeeding) before all the other terminations by 
293. a. Note, that this conjugation resembles the 2d and 3d in 
interposing no vowel between the final consonant of the root and 
the terminations. 

a. Similarly, n is inserted in certain Greek and Latin roots ; as, (J-aO, fxavSavw ; 
Aa/3, Xafx/Sdvct) ; 6iy, Siyydvco ; scid, scindo; fid,findo; tag, tango; liq, linquo, 
&c. See 25S. a. 

343. Thus, from f^F, bhid, ' to divide,' ' to break,' is formed the base 
of the present tense singular fvR^ bhinad, and the base of the dual 
and plural fwf^ bland, changeable to bhinat and bliint by 46 (i. 
bhinad + mi = fn^ftl, 3. bhinad + ti = fiT^rfw ; Du. i . bhind + vas = 
fW^^, 3. bhind + tas — U-^^^ or f>?;?r^j PI. 3. bhind + anli = fHV^ftff). 
See the table at 583. 

* All the roots in this conjugation end in consonants. 
S 2 


344. Similarly, from T^ rudh, ' to hinder/ the two bases ^rrni 
runadh and ^^ rundh, changeable to runat, runad, and rund (i. 
runadh + mi = ^^ft*T, 2. runadh + si = ^jiyfrH, 3. runadh + ti = "^fs ; 
Du. 3. rundh + tas = ^if^) . See 67 1 . 

345. Observe — Roots ending in If t and '^ d may reject these letters before th, t, 
and dhi, when /.' immediately precedes : hence fiT^^ may be written for fiT?^^; 
ftrf^ for fnf^^. Similarly, ^W5T may be written for ^^1^, see 298. a; and on 
the same principle (i<j<s*i is ^vritten for n^isc^ from "H"?, see 674. 

346. The roots >Ti^' to eat,' '^'t^'to join,' f^^ ' to distinguish,' conform to 296. 
Hence, from bhvj come bhunaj and bhuvj, changeable to bhunak and bhun.k. 

347. The roots H^* to break,' ^^ ' to anoint,' '^'•^ ' to moisten,' and ^''^' to 
kindle,' are placed under this class ; but the nasal belonging to the root takes the 
place of the conjugational nasal. Hence, from bhanj come the two bases bhanaj 
and bhanj, changeable to bhanak and bhan-k. 

348. The root 1^"^, ' to strike,' ' to kill,' inserts Iff instead of TU before all the P 
terminations, excepting the ist sing. du. pi. imperative and ist pret. See 674. 


Fifth class {^th conjugation,) containing about 30 primitive verbs. 

349. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Add '^ nu to the root, which must be gunated into ^ no 
before the P terminations by 293. a. Note, that roots ending in 
consonants add 7mv, instead of nu, to the root before the vowel- 
terminations. Roots ending in vowels may drop the u of nu before 
initial v and m (not marked with P), and always reject the termina- 
tion hi of the imperative. See 291 and 259 with note. 

a. This change of nu to no is supplied in the corresponding Greek afiix vv, by 
lengthening the v, as in ^evyvv[Xi, ^evyvv[X€V ; ^eiKVV[J.i, ^eiKVVfxev. See 258. a. 

350. Thus, from fg chi, ' to gather,^ are formed the bases chino 
and chinu (Pres. i. chino -\- mi zzzf'sr^f^^ chino + si = f^^rjif^ by 70; 
Du. I . chinu + vas = f%7T^?r^ or f^rcf^; PI. i . chinu 4- mas = f^'^T^ or 
fqianr, 3. chinu + anti = f^F^f^ by 34 ; Imp. i . chino + dni = f^'JTTrf^ 
by 36. b, 2. chinu by 291). See the table at 583. 

351. Similarly, from WnT dj), ' to obtain,' come dpno and dpnu. See 681. 

352. "^srn, 'to hear' (sometimes placed under the ist class), substitutes STiVi 
for the root, and makes its bases smio and srinu. See 677. 

Eighth class {Sth conjugation), containing 10 primitive verbs. 
353. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 


tenses. Add '^ u to the root, which must be gunated into ^ o 
before the P terminations by 293. a. 

a. Observe — There are only ten roots in this conjugation, and nine 
of these end either in iT /i or ttt n : hence the addition of u and o 
will have the same apparent effect as the addition of nu and no in 
the 5th conjugation. 

354. Thus, from iTrr tan, ' to stretch/ * to extend/ are formed the 
bases tano and tanu (Pres. 1. tano + mi = i[7^fJ^, 2. tano + si= A^^^^ 
by 70 ; Du. i . tanu + ms = W^^H or TTV^; PI. i . tanu + mas = IT^'W^ 
or -rP^nr ; Imp. i. ta?io + dni = TR^T^T by 36. b). Compare the Greek 
Taw Hi. I, Tuvvjuei. 

a. The root ^tt san, ' to give/ optionally rejects its 71, and lengthens 
the radical a before the y of the potential : thus, ^nirf sanydm or 
^rrat sdydm, &c. 

'^^^. The tenth root in this class is "^ kri, ' to do/ by far the 
most common and useful root in the language. This root gunates 
the radical vowel ri, as well as the conjugational u, before the P 
terminations. Before the other terminations it changes the radical 
ri to ur. Before initial m (not marked with P), v, and y, it rejects the 
conjugational u. Hence the three bases karo, kuru, and kur. See 682. 

Ninth class {i)th conjugation), containing about 52 primitive verbs. 

356. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Add "^T nd to the root before the P terminations ; rft ni 
before all the others, excepting those beginning with vowels, where 
only *|^ w is added, by 293. a. Observe — ^T, ^t, and tj^, are change- 
able to irrr, Trft, and W, by 58. 

357. Thus, from ^^ yu, 'to join/ are formed the three bases yund, 
yum, and yu7i (Pres. i. yund + Tni = '^iJTf^ ; Du. i. yum + vas = '^^- 
qm' ; PI. I . yuni + mas = TrrfhRTT , 3. 7jmi -f anti = Urifii - Pres. Xtm. i. 
yun + e = ^ ; Imp. i . yund + dm = "5J?rrfJT , 2. yum + hi = ^^1%, &c.). 

a. Observe — Roots ending in consonants substitute dna for nihi 
in the 2d sing, imperative : so, W^J7[ ' eat thou,* from ^^ ' to eat / 
umm ' nourish thou/ from '^, &c. See 696, 698. 

358. The roots Tt, (7^, >jt, "^j -?5t, "U^, \, rj, %, "^j JJ, W, |, "JT, ^T, >T, 
■^j 'SfT, ^, shorten the radical vowel in forming their bases: thus, from '5,5 ' to 
purify,' come the bases puna, pum, and pun. See the table at 5S3. 

359- ?T5> to take,' becomes 'J^, 'and makes its bases 'J'^nT? '^%»i , and 
1^. See 699. 


360. sn, ' to know,' becomes aTT, and makes its hasesjand,jant, and jdn. See 688^ 

361. mi, ' to grow old,' ])ecomes flT, and makes its h&ses jind, jim, and jin. 

362. The roots ^^, ?P^, T'^, '^'^, and '^'^, reject the radical nasal in 
faA'our of the conjngational : thus, from bandh are formed the three bases badhnu, 
badhni, and bandh. See 693. 


363. Observe — The general rules for the formation of the base 
in the 2d preterite, ist and 2d futures, 3d preterite, benedictive, and 
conditional, apply to all verbs of the first nine classes indiscrimi- 
nately ; see 250. a. The lotli class alone carries its conjugational 
characteristic into most of the non-conjugational tenses ; and for this 
reason the consideration of its five last tenses falls most conveniently 
under causal verbs. Compare 289. a. 

Second preterite (Greek perfect). 

364, Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine 
classes. In the first place, if a root begin with a consonant, redu- 
plicate the initial consonant, according to the rules given at 331, 
with its vowel [a being reduplicated for a, a, ri, ri ; i for i, i, e ; u 
for u, It, 0) : thus, from T»I biidh, ist c.*, ' to know,^ comes the base 
"^V bubudh ; from "JTiT 7irU, 4th c, ' to dance,^ ■?r"JTW nanrit ; from 
TTT^ ijdch, I st c, * to ask,' irm^ ymjdch ; from cjr kri, 8th c, ' to do,' 
^cir chakri ; from TT tn, ist c, ' to cross,' Wiltatri; from f^sidh, 
ftrpRV sishidh by 70 ; from sev, sishev ; from pu, pvpu. 

a. And if it begin with a vowel, double the initial vowel : thus, 
from ^H as, ' to be,' ^T^ as. 

b. In the second place, if the root end in a consonant, gunate t 
the vowel of the radical syllable, except when debarred by 28. b, in 
the ist, 2d, and 3d singular, Parasmai-pada (as bubodh for bubudh) ; 
but leave the vowel unchanged before all the other terminations, 
Parasmai and i^tmane-pada. See 293. a. 

c. And if the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel of the radical 
syllable in the ist and 3d singular, Parasmai | (as chakdr for chakri), 

* ist c. means ist class or conjugation. 

t The gunation of the vowel is indicated by the P of HI^^, ^\, W\, in the 
singidar terminations. See scheme at 246. 

X Grammarians assert, that there is optionally Guna in the ist singular. Vriddhi 
is indicated by the Tff of ^"^ n«P. See scheme at 246. 


and gunate it in the 2d singular (as chakar for chakri, see 293. a) ; 
but before all the other terminations, Parasrnai and j^tmane-pada, it 
must revert to its original form, and then suffer the usual change 
required by the rules of Sandhi. 

'^6^. Thus, from T^I budh, ist c, comes the base of the singular 
Parasm. T^^ bubodh, and the base of the rest of the tense T^ 
bubudh (i. bubodh + a = "W^V^ bubodha, 2. bubodh + itha = T^^rfV^ 
bubodhitha, 'X. bubodh + a=z bubodha ; Du. i. bubudh + iva = Ts^xr^. 
2. bubudh + athus = bubudhathus, &c. ^tm. i. bubudh + e = '^^, &c.). 
Similarly, from f^ vid, 2d c, ' to know/ come the two bases vived 
and vivid (i. 3. viveda ; Du. i. vividiva ; PI. i. vividima, &c.) *. 

a. Greek affords many examples of verbs which sufFer a kind of Guna or 
Vriddhi change in the perfect; but this change is not confined to the singular, 
as in Sanskrit. Compare AeAo/Tra (from Ae<7rw, eXnrov), 7r€7roi6a (from ireiBta, 
tiriQov), rhpofpa (from Tpecpcc), reSeiKa (from TiBrjfXi), &c. There is one Greek 
root, however, which agrees very remarkably with the Sanskrit in restricting Guna 
to the singular, viz. FiO (eiOu), 'to know,' answering to the Sanskrit vid above: 
thus, ot^a, oia6a, oi'te ; 'larov, larov ; 'lajxev, i<tt€, iiraai. The root vid has a 
contracted form of its 2d pret. used for the present, which agrees exactly with 
oi^a : thus, veda, vettha, &c. See 308. a. 

'3^66. Again, from w kri, 8th c, ' to do' (see 684), comes the base 
of the ist and 3d singular Parasm. -"JcJiK chakar (331. b), the base of 
, the 2d sing, "'^^x chakar, and the base of the rest of the tense ^rar 
chakri (i. chakar + a = "«<<*K, 2. chakar + tha = '^r^^, 3. chakar + a = 
•c|c(iK ; Du. I . chakri + va = ■^ofT^ 267. a, 2. chakri + athus = ^^T^ by 
34 ; PI. I. chakri + ma = -^^H, &c. Atm. i. chakri -t e = ^^ by 34 ; 
PI. 2. chakn + dhwe = '^wk . See scheme at 247). 

a. Observe — In the 2d preterite the ist and 3d sing. Parasrnai and 
Atmane have the same termination, and are identical in form. 

367. Note, that if a root end in ^ i or ^ t this vowel does not blend with the 
initial i of the terminations in the du. pi. Parasmai, sing. du. pi. Atmane-pada, but 
is changed to y, violating 31 : thus, from T^ chi, 5th c, ' to collect' (see the table 
at 583), come the bases chichai, chiche, and chichi, changeable to chichdy, chichay, 
and chichy (i. 3. f^-^N , 2. f^^f^T^I or f^^JT; Du. i. fxjMif, 2. P^l^il^^ by 
34. A'tm. I. 3. pMtii, &c.). Similarly, "jft nt, ist c, 'to lead' (Du. i. f^f^T=r, &c.; 
A'tm. I. f'T^, &c.). Observe, chi has also an anomalous form of the 2d pret. 

* There is a contracted form of the 2d preterite of vid sometimes used for the 
present. See 308. n. 


a. But roots ending in i or i, and having a double initial consonant, change ^ i 
or ^ { to ^''T iy before all the terminations, excepting those of the singular, 
Parasmai-pada : hence, from f^ ist c, 'to have recourse,' come the three bases 
sisrai, sisre, and sisriy (1.3. f^PaTR, 2. iTfr^ftl^ or f^I'MM ; Du. 1. f^f^rftRj 
&c.). So "3S^ 9th c. makes i. 3. chikrdya, 2. chikrayitha or chikretha; Du. i. chi- 
kriyiva; PI. chikriyima, &c. Atm. chikriye, &c. 

b. And all roots ending in m or m change m or m to '3"^ uv before these termina- 
tions, excepting of course the roots "^j ^, '5', ^, in the persons marked with * 
at p. 107, and excepting ^bhii, ist c, 'to be,' at 585, which makes its base ^^[^ 
babhuv throughout sing. du. and pi. Parasmai and Atmane : thus, ft-om V 5th c, 
' to shake,' come the bases dudhau, dudho, and dudhuv (1.3. ^^IT^j 2. JT'^WT or 
«?Vt^; Du. I. fir>Tf^. Atm. I. ^. T^s 2. «fuf^TR). But "^ rxth c. makes i. 3. 
^TJTT^, 2. W^^; Du. I. 3T^^, 2. "SI^JR-^K. Atm. i. 3. "Sm^. See 676. 

c. And roots ending in the vowel ri, preceded by a double consonant, and most 
roots in long ri, instead of retaining this vowel, and changing it to r by 364. c. 
before the terminations of the du. and pi. Parasmai, sing. du. and pi. Atmane, 
gunate it into ar, as in the 2d sing., before all these terminations : thus, from W^ 
smri, 'to remember,' i. 3. sasmdra, 2. sasmaritha; Du. i. sasmariva. Atm. i. 3. 
sasmare. But ""I ' to fill,' 31 ' to dissolve,' and ^ ' to rend,' may optionally retain 
ri, changeable to r : thus, Du. 'T^lT^ or mTH^. 

368. By referring back to the scheme at p. 107, it will be seen that 
all the terminations of this tense begin with vowels. Those which 
begin with i are distinguished by the mark -sf, because eight roots, 
and only eight roots in the language (viz. oF ' to do/ H" ' to bear/ 
^ ' to go,' ^ ' to surround,' "^ * to hear,' ^ ' to praise,' "^ ' to run,' 
W ' to drop'), reject the i from these terminations. 

a. Most roots, however, ending in vowels, and most of those in 
consonants which absolutely reject the initial i from the terminations 
of the futures (see 394), are allowed the option of rejecting it in the 
2d sing. Parasmai of the 2d preterite ; but in these itha as w ell as 
tha is generally admissible f. 

b. Since, therefore, only eight roots reject the initial i from the 
ist dual &C.J, and these all end in vowels, it follows that the final 
consonants of roots can never in this tense coalesce with the initial 
consonants of terminations, excepting sometimes optionally in the 2d 

t Nevertheless, sixof the eight roots at 368 and p. 107, and a few others ending 
in vowels, take tha only. '^, "^, and many roots assuming i, take itha only. 

X It is said, however, that some roots ending in consonants optionally reject the 
i in the ist du. and plur. : thus, the ist du. of the 2d pret. of sidh is said to be 
either ftrfi^S^ or ftrftrftR. 


singular ; in which case the rules of Sandlii propounded at 296 &c. 
are observed * : see also 388. c. Its formation, therefore, is not 
attended with many difficulties of consonantal combination. Never- 
theless, there are numerous anomalies, as follows. 


369. We have already seen at 364. a, that if a root ending in a single consonant 
begin with ^ «, ^ i, or 7 n, these vowels are repeated, and the two similar vowels 
blend into one long one by 31 : thus, from ^HT as, ' to be,' comes a as, or as (i. 3. 
as + fl = ^rra dsa). So from 'STHI dp, ' to obtain,' comes a dp, or dp. See 681 . 

370. But when an initial i or m is gunated (as in the sing. Parasm.), then the 
reduplicated i becomes iy before e, and the reduplicated u becomes uv before .• 
thus, from ^'^ ish, 6th c, ' to wish,* come the two bases iyesh and ish, see 637 
(i, 3. ^TT^, &c.; Du. I. ffrq-, &c.) ; and from "^W^ukh, ist c, 'to move,' the two 
bases uvokh and ukh (1.3. TTt^, &c. ; Du. i. ^f<9«f). 

371. And if a root begin mth ^ a and end in a double consonant, or begin with 
■^ ri and end in a single consonant, the reduplicated syllable is dn .• thus, from 
^■^ arch, 1st c, ' to worship,' comes the base -efM-q dnarch (1.3. "»:< 1 1 "^ ) ; from 
^^jidh, 5th c'to flourish,' comes ^!\^'^Jnardh (i.3.'^rFr§; Du.i.'^'TfVl^, &c.). 

a. W5T 5th c. Atm., ' to pervade,' although ending in '5T , follows 37 1 ( i . s.^TR'^T). 

372. \i, 2d c, 'to go,' is vriddhied in ist and 3d sing., and the reduplicated 
syllable is ^ iy, in accordance %vith 370. In the du. and pi. the base is ^'^ (y 
(i. 3. ^■^T"^, 2. ^TrftrJI or ^^; Du. i. ^fq^, &c.). See 645. 

a. Observe — When the preposition adhi is prefixed to the root i, it is then Atmane 
only, and the 2d preterite is formed as if from gd : thus, i. 3. adhijage, &c. 


373. Roots ending in ^TT « (as, ^ da, 3d c, ' to give ;' VT dkd, 3d c, ' to place ;' 
■^T yd, 2d c, 'to go;' ^T sthd, ist c, 'to stand,' &c.) drop the d before all the 
terminations, excepting the tka of the 2d sing., and substitute ^ au for the ter- 
minations of the 1st and 3d sing. Parasmai. Hence, from da comes the base dad, 
see 663 (i. 3. ^, 2. ^f^ or ^^T^I ; Du. i. ^f^^. Atm. i. 3. ^^, 2. ^f^^, &c.). 

374. Roots ending in the diphthongs ^ e (except ^ &c. at 379), ^ ai, Wl au, 
follow 373, and form their 2d preterite as if they ended in d .- thus, V ist c, 'to 
drink,' makes in ist and 3d sing. ^, 2d ^fv^ or ^VT^T, Du. i. ^fv^ ; ^ ist c, 
' to sing,' makes Wft ; ^ ist c, ' to fade,' »TpT ; ^ 4th c, ' to sharpen,' ^■^. 

375. Roots beginning with any consonant, and ending with a single consonant, 
and enclosing a short '^ a, lengthen the a in the istf and 3d sing.; as, from 

* Thus, from pack, 'to cook,' 2d sing, papakthaj from dris, ' to see,' 2d sing. 
dadrashtha. See 388. c. 

t The lengthening of a is said to be ojjtional in ist sing. : thus, pack makes in 
sing. I. either ;jfl/?a'cAa or papac ha. 



"m^^pack, ist c, 'to cook,' Vim^^papdch j from tyaj, ist c, 'to quit,' tatydj (i. 3. 
tatydja, 2. tatyajithaj Du. i. tatyajiva, &c.). 

a. Moreover, before itha and in the dual and plur. Parasmai, and all the 
persons of the Atmane, if the initial as weU as the final consonant of the root be 
single, the ^ a is changed to TJ e, and, to compensate for this, the reduplication 
suppressed * : thus, from pack come the two bases mmi"*! papdch and "T^ peck 
(i. ^. papdcha, 2.pechitha or jiap a kt ha 296; Du. i.pechiva. Atm. i. ^. peche, &c.). 
Similarly, from T^^^labh, ist c. Atm., 'to obtain' (cf. Xafx^dvo), eXa^ov), the base 
c5*T lebh throughout {lebhe, lebhishe, lebhe, lebhivahe, &c.). So nah, 4th c, ' to 
bind,' makes i. 3. nandha, 2. nehitha or nanaddha by 305; Du. i. nehiva, &c. 
Atm. nehe, &c. Similarly, nas, 4th c, 'to perish,' i. 3. nandsa, 2. nesitha or 
nananshtha (»T*f?), &c. : compare 388. d. 

b. Roots of this last kind, that require a substituted consonant in the reduphca- 
tion, are excepted from the rule (but not HIT bhaj and "^^t^ phal). 

c. So also the roots ^^, ^, ^, ^1?T , ^, ^, beginning with v, are excepted. 
These require that the reduplicated syllable be '3' u, or the corresponding vowel of 
the semivowel, and also change va of the root to "3" m before every termination, 
except those of the sing. Parasmai, the two m's blending into one long "^i u: thus, 
fi-om ^^ vach, 2d c, ' to speak,' come the two bases T^'^ uvdch and "3r^ lich 
(i. 3. uvdcha, 2. uvachitha or uvakthaj Du. 3. uchatus ; PI. 3. uchus). The root 
■^ vah, ist c, ' to carry,' changes the radical vowel to ^ before tha (see 305. a), 
optionally substituted for itha (i. 3. '5'^T^, 2. T^f^T^ or <j«nd ). Compare 424. 

d. Observe— Tlie root '^^^vam, ist c, 'to vomit,' usually follows 375 (Pan. VII. 
2. 5), but may also follow 375. a. 

e. A similar rule is applied in "^l^^yaj, ist c, 'to sacrifice' (i. 3. iydjaj Du. 3. 
ijatus ; PI. 3. ijus) ; and the 2d sing, of this root will be either ^irfsfni or ^'Ifff by 
297, or ^f»nr by 375. «. The Atmane is I. 3. ^, 2. fftTH, &c. See 597. 

/. The roots ^P'^ 9th and ist c, ''JF^ 9th c, ^^ ist c, >iR 4th c, TT»T ist c, 
HT3T 1st c. Atm., >1T5T ist and 4th c, may optionally foUow 375. a, although not 
answering its conditions, and ^^ ist c. Atm. necessarily: thus, granth makes 
sing. du. pi. 3. either jagrantha, jagranthatus, jagranthus or jagrantha, grethatus, 
grethus ; bhram makes babhrdma, babhramatus, babhramus, by 375, or babhrdma, 
bhrematus, bhremus; and trap makes trepe, trepdte, trepire. 

Similarly, TT>I 4th and 5th c, but not when d is prefijxed. 

g. W 1st c, ' to pass,' also follows 375. a (as if it were tar) : thus, i. 3. tatdra, 
2. teritha; Du. i. teriva, &c. W 4th c, 'to grow old,' may optionally follow 367. c 
or 375- « {3- jf'jo'fc ■>' Du. ^.jajaratus or jeratus, &c.). 

376. ^nj^gam, ist c, ' to go,' W^jan, 4th c, ' to be born,' ^♦^ khan, ist c, ' to 
dig,' and '?ff^ han, 2d c, ' to kiU' (which last forms its 2d pret. as if from T[7^ghan), 
drop the medial a before aU the terminations, except those of the sing. Parasm. 

* Bopp deduces forms hke pechiva, from papachiva, by supposing that the 
second/? is suppressed, the two rt's combined into d, and d weakened into e. 


(compare the declension of rdjan at 146, 149). Hence, (jam makes in sing. du. pi. 3. 
jagdina, jagmatus, jagmus ; jan makes jajdna, jajhatus, jajhus ; khan makes 
chakhdna, chakhnatus, chakhnus ; and han makes jaghdna, jaghnatus, jaghnus. 

377- '^(\ghas, 1st c, 'to eat,' is analogous, making jaghdsa, jakshatus, jakshus. 
See 42 and 70. 

378. faT/J, ist c, 'to conquer,' forms its 2d pret. as if from fl gi, see 590 (i. 
and 3. fsTTTT ; Du. i. fSTfr^n", &c.) ; f^ hi, 5th c, ' to send,' as if from fg (i. 3. 
f 1 M I M ) ; "^ ri, ist c, ' to go,' makes its base "^TR dr throughout *. 

379. ^ hive, 1st c, ' to call,' forms its 2d pret. as if from ^ or ■?, see 595 (i. 3. 
^^T^; Du. I. '^^f^'^) ; ^ de, ist c, ' to pity,' ' to protect,' makes its base digi 
(i. 3. Atm. f^^, 2. f^frTTW, &c.); '^ vge, ist c, 'to cover,' makes its bases 
vivydy, vivyay, and vivy (i. f%^T^, 2. f^^XT^ ; Du. i. %f^'^ or f^^ftr^) ; 
^ V€, 1st c, to weave,' forms its 2d pret. as if fi-om rd or vav or vay (1.3. '=<'=ll or 
4'«ll^, 2. '^rnr or Tfr^T or "3"Tftr?T ; Du. I. '^fV^ or "^rf^^ or "^rPnW, &c.). 

380. K^grah, 9th c, 'to take,',makes its base »RJT'^ and ITT^ (S. Du. PI. 3. 
1«i?, 'PT^W^, 'T'TpT). See 699. 

381. TT^. prachchh, 6th c, 'to ask,' makes its base ^H'^t throughout; see 631. 
'iJ^bhrajj, 6th c, ' to fry,' makes either "^^T^or ^>J1j^ throughout. See 632. 

382. ^r^ swap, 2d c, ' to sleep,' makes its bases «»««i^ and ^^- See 655 
and 70. 

383. "^PJ 4th c. ' to pierce,' ^^ 6th c. ' to deceive,' '^^ ist c. ' to be pained,' 
and ^EHT 1st c. 'to spend,' make their reduplicated syllable vi; and the first two 
roots change vya to vi before all the terminations, excepting the sing. Parasmai : 
thus, from vyadh comes sing. du. pi. 3. f^^TTV, Rf^rVW^, f^fV^^; Atm. f%f^, 
&c. See 615 and 629. 

384. ^^ ah, ' to say,' is only used in the 2d pret., and is defective in sing. du. 
pi. I. and pi. 2, forming 2d sing, from '^'iT (2. '^TTr^, 3. WTf ; Du. 2. ^iii^^^^, 
S.'Sn^^^; PI. 3. ^Tjr^^). 

385. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by nature or position (except dp, 
5th c, 'to obtain;' diichh, ist c, 'to stretch;' and except roots having an initial a 
before two consonants), and all roots of more than one syllable (excepting urnu, 
2d c, 'to cover'), form their 2d preterites by adding '^^^dm to the base, and 
affixing the 2d preterite of some one of the auxihary verbs, W^^as, ' to be ;' *T 6Am, 
'to be;' oir kri, 'to do.' (Observe — WR^ with ^^TTT becomes ^^ii'dcftK by 59.) 
Thus, from '|^ 2d c, ' to rule,' comes ist and 3d sing. 2d pret. 'I^^TRT'^ or f^^- 
>J^ or ^T^RHT 59; from -^cjii^f 2d c, 'to shine,' comes ^<*l«l^<*lT. When 
the Atmane-pada inflection has to be employed, "^ only is used : thus, ^^ 2d c. 
Atm., 'to praise,' makes ist and 3d sing. 2d pret. f^'ra'35. The root '35^ 2d c. 

* PaniniVII. 4. II. VII. 2.66. 

t This rests on Siddhanta Kaum. 134. Some grammarians make the base in 
du. and pi. &c. ^'J-sd. 

T 2 


' to cover,' is anomalous, and makes sing. du. pi. i. «<Ii»iiq, «<5«irqq, ;nd*i r«i*i ; 
Atm. "^JWg^, &c. 

a. Observe — Roots of the loth class form their 2d pret. according to 385, the 
syllable dm being added to the base : thus, from chur, loth c, ' to steal,' 2d pret. 
sing. I. 3. choraydmusa. See under Causals, 471. 

b. Also according to 385 is formed the 2d preterite of all derivative verbs, such 
as causals, desideratives, and frequentatives. 

c. Also of the roots '^^^ay, ist c.,*to go;' ^ day, ist c.,'to pity;' and '^!iX^^kds, 
ist c, ' to shine' (ohitti'a^) * : and optionally of the roots ^ bhi, 3d c, ' to fear' 
(f^>TT^ or fWiJW'+IT); ^ hri, 3d c.,'to be ashamed' (fWfT'^ or ftr^^^TSFTT); 
H bhri, 3d c, ' to bear' (f^HTT or f%HTT=^<*K) ; ^ hu, 3d c, ' to sacrifice' (^^^R 
or a|^'i<l=d<*R) ; f^ vid, 2d c, ' to know;' T^ ush, ist c, ' to bm-n' ("T^^ or 

d. Some polysyllabic roots also take both forms of the 2d preterite : thus, 
daridrd, 2d c, * to be poor,' makes ^<5i«a<»i< and ^^flT^ ; jdgri, 2d c, * to 
awake,' makes »rFRT^«FTT and »l5ll'lli. . 

First and second future. 

386. Observe — The first future results from the union of the nom. case of the 
noun of agency (formed with the affix 'ff tri, see 83. I) with the present tense of 
the verb "^RT as, ' to be :' thus, taking ^T^ ddtri, ' a giver' (dechned at 127), and 
combining its nom. case with ^ilU+j asmi and '^ he, we have ddtdsmi and ddtdhe, 
* I am a giver,' identical with the ist pers. sing. Parasmai and Atmane of the ist 
fut., ' I will give.' So also ddtdsi and ddtdse, ' thou art a giver,' or ' thou wilt 
give.' In the ist and 2d persons dual and plur. the sing, of the noun is joined 
with the dual and plur. of the auxiliary. In the 3d person the auxiUary is omitted, 
and the 3d sing, dual and plur. of the ist future in both voices is then identical 
vnih. the nom. case sing, dual and plur. of the noun of agency : thus, data, ' a 
giver,' or he will give ;' ddtdrau, ' two givers,' or ' they two will give,' &c. t 

387. Observe also — The second future, in its terminations, resembles the present 
tense, the chief difference being that sya is prefixed. 

388. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine 
classes. Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 
28. 6, and except in certain uncommon roots of the 6th class) through- 
out all the persons of both first and second future. See 293. a. at 
the end. 

a. Note, that in all roots ending in consonants, excepting those 
included in the list at 400, and in a few ending in vowels, enu- 

* Panini III. i. 37. 35. 

t The future signification inherent in the noun of agency data, seems implied in 
Latin by the relation of dator to daturas. 


merated at 397, 399, the vowel \i must be inserted between the root 
so gunated, and the terminations. 

b. The roots of the 6th class not gunated are cir^, itit, oirT, tir, 
^» 1^' '3^' 1^' ^' ?^' ^' f ^' If' f f ' ^' "Sf ' "If ' If' If» 

ff ' ff' ^' If' ^' "^f' ^f ' ^f ' f f ' ^^' 1^' ^' p;- 

c. Roots containing the vowel ri are generally gunated, but they may optionally 
change ri to ra, when i is not inserted : thus, trip becomes either tarp or trap. 
The root mrij is vriddhied into 7ndrj (compare 324). Note, that when the change 
of ri to ra is allowed in the futures, it is admitted also in the 3d preterite and 
conditional, and before tha in the 2d singular of the 2d preterite. 

d. One or two roots, Hke majj, nas, insert a nasal in the two futures and some of 
the other non-conjugational tenses. See 403, 410. 

389. Thus, from fi{ ji, ist c, * to conquer/ comes the base iije 
(ist Fut. je + tdsnii = ^inftR, &c. ; Kim. je + tdhe — ihn^. 2d Fut. 

je + syami = %'arrfiT, &c. ; Kim. je + sye = ^(^, by 70). Similarly, 
from "^ sru, 5th c, * to hear/ comes the base ^ sro (ist Fut. sro + 
tdsmi=iT^^f[j^W, &c. ; 2d Fut. sro + syami = ■^fNlf'T , &c., by 70). 

390. So alsoj from ^v budh, ist c, * to know/ comes the base 
"^riv bodhi (ist Fut. bodhi + tdsmi = '^\f^W[fm y &c. j Atm. bodhi + 
tdhe = "^VfViTT^. 2d Fut. bodhi + sydnii = ^tf*ittrrftT, &c. ; i^tm. bodhi 

391. This insertion of i, the manifest object of which is to prevent 
the coalition of consonants, is unfortunately forbidden in one hun- 
dred and three roots ending in consonants, some of which are of 
very common occurrence ; and the combination of the final conso- 
nant of the root with the initial / and s of the terminations, will 
require an acquaintance with the rules already laid down at 296, &c. 
When these rules are known, there Mill be no difficulty in the 
formation of these tenses. The only question is, how are we to 
ascertain whether a root inserts i, or whether it rejects it ? The lists 
about to be given at 394 and 400 will determine this point. 

392. It is of the utmost importance that the attention of the student be directed 
towards these hsts, as the assumption or rejection of this inserted vowel is not 
confined to the two futures, but extends to many other parts of the verb ; inso- 
much, that if the first future reject 3[ i, it is, as a necessary consequence, rejected 
in the third preterite, the Atmane-pada of the benedictive, the conditional, the 
infinitive mood, the passive past participle, the indeclinable past participle, the 
future participle formed with the affix tavya, and the noun of agency formed with 
the affix tri: and is, moreover, optionally rejected in the 2d pers. sing, of the 2d 


preterite, and decides the formation of the desiderative form of the root by s 
instead of ish. So that the learner, if he know the first future, wiU pass on with 
great ease to the formation of these other parts of the verb, and should always 
look to this tense as his guide. For example, taking the root kship, ' to throw,' 
and finding the i st future to be ksheptdsmi, he knows that i is rejected. Therefore 
he knows the 2d future to be kshepsydmij the 3d pret. to be akshaipsamj the 
Atmane of the benedictive, kshipsiya; the conditional, akshepsyamj the infinitive, 
ksheptum; the passive past participle, kshiptaj the indeclinable participle, kshiptwdj 
the future participle, ksheptavya; the noun of agency, ksheptrij the 2d pers. sing, 
of the 2d pret. optionally chiksheptha ; the desiderative, chikshipsdmi. On the 
other hand, taking the root ydch,' to ask,' and finding the ist future to be ydchitd, 
he knows that i is inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be 
ydchishydmi, aydchisham, ydchisMya, aydchishyam, ydchitum, ydchita, ydchitwa, 
ydchitavya, ydchitri, yaydchitha, yaydchishdmi, respectively. 

393. It is evident that roots ending in vowels do not require i; 
and it may be taken as a general rule that they all reject it, except- 
ing roots ending in "gi m and "^^ri; and excepting a few roots ending 
in the other vowels. 

Observe — In the following hsts the 3d pers. sing, of the ist and 2d future is 
given after each root. The roots are arranged in the order of their radical vowels. 


394. All roots in "m a, as ^ 3d c. (^TfTT, ^TWfir, Suxrei), reject i. 

395. All roots in ^ i and ^ i, as f»r ist c. (%WT, ^TOfw), rft ist c. 
{Win, '^'JlfiT), reject i. 

a. Except f^ ('JiruHl, ^Ajwiffr), f^ ist c. (vjP'MiTI, T^rfTTorfiT), "st 1st 
and 4th c. (iPMHl, TProrfTT):, and ^ 2d c. (^Tnn, i^lftr^TT). 

396. All roots in "g" u, as '^ 5th c. ('illrti, "'jfhtlfia'), reject i. 

a. Except the roots '^, ^, ^, '^, ^, ^ (T^fWT, TE^rarfTT, &c.). 

b. The root ^ 2d c. Atm. optionally inserts i (hTcTT or TrfWT, ^fWff 
or ^rc<m w). 

397. Roots in "3! M insert "^ i, as vr ist c. (Hf^riT, Hf^juiffi) ; but 
V 5th c. optionally rejects it (>if^in or vhn, Mf^fw or vVhtTtt). 

398. All roots in "^ ri reject i in the ist future, but not in the 2d, 
as f 8th c. (cfitr, ct,r<mrri ). 

a. Except the root ^ 5th c, which optionally lengthens the i 

{^fttn or '4 Oh I, ^r-LmffT or ^^NiffT). 

b. The roots ^ 9th c. and ^ ist c. have three forms of the ist 
future (^T, ^frUT or «OriI &c., ^TffT &c.). 


399. Roots in '^n long, insert ^ i, as w (TrfciTT, TTfT^nrfTT) . 

a. They may optionally lengthen the i (iTt^T, TT^fil). 

b. Roots in ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0, reject i ; but change their final diph- 
thongs to ^ a before the terminations of the futures ; thus ^ 4th c. 
(^irr, fdwHr). The root "^ ist c. may optionally insert i (^qrwr or 
viifj^dll, &c.). 


Observe — The roots marked * optionally reject i or insert it. 

400. One in oir A:. 
^cR^, ^IW, ^r^^rflT, see 296. 

401. Six in ^ ch, and one 

■q^ I St c, xr^iT, "T^fTT 296. 
T^ 2d c, T^, T^tItt. 
ft;^ 7th C, TyfUi <«^rri. 
f^ 7th and 3d c, ^W, <^frT. 
f^ 6th c, TRT^, W^yiPrT. 

JT^ 6th c, iftw, ^rt^fw. 
*^6th c, -g^T or -gfi^Tn, w^^ 
or d r v amPri . 

402. One in "SF chh. 
lT«r 6th c, ll?T, U^fw 297. 

403. Fifteen in it j, and two 


■pn^ ist c, m^, W^Ph 296. 
>T»T Ist C, H^, H^rfiT. 

Tr«T ist c, '^w[ 297, tr^rfw. 
>jT5^6th c, >jFr, >Tirr, >?^Tfw, vr^rflf. 
jHj^ 6th c, jNjt, w^^ 388. c. 
H^ 7th c, >iw, i^^rfff. 
T^ ist and 4th c, t^, t^fiT. 
7S^ ist c, ^N«T, wrfiT. 

^^ ist c, ^^, ^^gr^. 

f^ 3d c, ^^, ^^rffT. 

f^ 3d ct, ^^, &c., like ftr^. 

>p^ 7th C, >TtW, >Tt^Tfw. 

^pT 7th c, TTt^, ^ft^rffT. 

^»T 6th c, ^tliT, Tt^rfir. 

^ 6th c, HFT 297, H^^rflT. 

*^r^ 7th c, wm or -afgriT, ^^rfw 

or 'iingmfTT. 
*^>T 2d c, HtIt or JTTf^T, JTT^fw 
or *Hi r:^ mr ri 388. b. 

404. Fourteen in ^ </. 
"51^ 2d c, ^Twr, ^TWfrT, see 46. 

f^ 4th c, TTWT, trww. 

^^ 1st and 6th c, :5TWr, ^ittMPri. 
^ 1st and 6th c, ^TWT, ^fWHif. 
^^ ist c, *5h«fll, **ntMrcT. 
f^ ist c, ^^, fWW. 
f^ 6th c, ^^, i«fi**ifw. 
f^ 7th c, if^, ijMfw. 
fW^ 7th c, HWT, JT^fT. 
fcRf 6th C, ^WT, ^^raffT. 
f^ 4th C, #^, ^MfrT. 

^ 7th c, T^>wr, ^"twffT. 
^ 6th c, ift^, iflMfir. 
^^ 6th c, tftwr, ^ftwfTT- 

t When f^»T belongs to the 7th c, it takes i .• thus, f%f»IiTT, f^^T^lffT. 


405. Eleven in xt^dh. 

•^^ 9th c, ^FiTT, >T^wfw 299. a. 

^v 4th c, ^irr, ^TwffT. 

^mi 4th and 5th c, ^^irr, ^TSTffT . 
ftr^ 4th ^^j ^f^. 
■aw 4th C.J ■^irr, wtwfiT. 
•^ 4th c, T^^ 298, "c^tMf^ 299. 

^4th c.f, -Wt^ 298, HtST^ 299. a. 

^ 4th c, T(\^, ^^mrk. 
^ 7th c, trsi, t(mfif. 
3IV 4th c, ^ftirr, ^^wfTT. 

406. Two in «T n. 

^'^ 4th c, JT'irf, ^m^ 6. b. 
^^ 2d c, ^^T, but ff^fiT. 

407. Eleven in tj j9, and three 


in^ ist c., irm, ir^rfw. 
^ ist C, TffT, «^4*fnT. 

^T3r 1st c, ^nrr, ^r^ifir. 
^T^ 2d c., ^rrr, ^t^TT. 
wni 5th c, 'HiHi, ^srrtwfw. 
ftjT^ 6th c., ^T, -^^TuflT. 
finr ist c, ■nrrr, Tn^^fir. 

■fe""^ 6th C, ^TffT, ciH^fTT. 
'^6th C, "sfTTTT, 'STN^ffT. 

:^ti^6th c, cylTTT, cft^^^rfw. 

* ojrm St C., ^K^Sn or cFf^TfTT, ^B^^lfcT 

or cBf^[TOW. 
*^4th C., TTRT or Trf^lTT, ITOfrT 

or TTf^Tqfwt. 
*"^T^4th c, ^ or ^Pmhi, ^t^TT 

or ^fl^lfTTt. 
^ I St c, wr, ^^fwj. 

408. Three in >T bh, and one 


TW^ ist c, iT3n, ^rcRTflT. 

T>T ist c., T?n, IT^W. 

c5>T 1st C., t^^TT 298, WWf( 299. 

*^>T 4th c., ?yt3n or FJ^fiTin, but 

409. Four in >^ m, and one 


TTH ist c, iPiTT 59, but TrfjTHrfiT. 
^TT 1st C, ^PfTT, «t^Tfff. 

xnr ist c., ^rar, ^r^fw. 

IT^ ist C, TTfTT 59, t^W 6. 6. 

*'gii^ 1st c. Kim.y -gi^fTT or "gifiTTrr, 
■g^w or -gifrr^frr. 

410. Ten in 31 s, and two op- 


^3T ist c, ^ 300, ^^rfiff 302. 
f^^^6th c, \t[, ^^TT ((5e/feO. 
1^31 6th c, ^FT 300, ^wflT 302. 
•fr^T 6th C., TFT, T^rflT. 
fc5^ 4th C., "Sf^T, ^y^w . 
■^:3T ist c., wtFT, wt^rfir. 

^3T^ 6th C, T^^T, ^^flT. 

•^ 1st c., ■^FT, '5;^RrrfT. 

IJ^i; 6th C., JtIt, JT^fTTj. 
?:>pT 6th C., ?^, ^q^TTj. 

* rT^ 4th c, TTFT or frf^nrr, »f^fiiT 

or Hr^imPri. 

t When "ftr^ and ^belong to the ist c, they take z; thus, ^ftlrTT, "^^fwi, &c. 
J These may optionally change the radical vowel ri to ra instead of ar .- thus, 
sarptd or sraptd, &c. See 388. c. 


*f^7I^9tll C, |i^T or li%lTT, ii^fk 
or Iff^pirfTT. 

411. Eleven in \sh, and sLx 
fi^T? 1st c, ^FT, R^rffT. 
%T^ 3d c, |-?T 301, ^^flT 302. 

ftnr 7th c, wr, ^^fw. 

f%Ti 3d c, ^, ^^ifff. 
•fifPT 7th C.J :^, ^T^rffT. 
f^^4th c, "^T 301, ^^f?T 303. 

g:^ 4th C, ^T, ^^frT". 

tr^4th c.f, "^t^, tft^fir. 
^^4th c, ^Vr, ^^rfk. 
oir^ ist and 6th c, cfi#T, oB^fffJ. 
*TT^ ist and 5th c, TOT or TTf^in, 

TT^rfir or Trfi^Tiiftr. 
*jg^ 1st c, iSTFT or HfajWt, &c. 
*^ 6th c, TJFT or ^jfrnTT, but 

*ft:^ ist and 4th c, TFT or tf^iTT, 

*1^ (with fVr^J 9th c, -ofit^T or 

-■sRtfmrr, -oRt^rfw or -optfti- 

*^ ist and 4th c, ^^T or TtfTiTT, 
but Ttf^^ilfff. 

412. Two in ^6'. 

^ ist c, Tren, ^mft^ 304. «. 

^m^ 1st c, ^WT, ^TWfff 304. a. 

413. Eight in ? h, and seven 

^^ ist c, ^niT 305, M^iT 306. a. 

rff 4th c, "^nrr 305, rf^fw 306. 6. 

^ 1st c, -^tSl 305. a, ^^ffT 306. 
f^ 3d c, ^nn 305, wrffT 306. a. 
fjT? ist c, ^ 305. a, H^rT 306. 
f?5^ 2d c, OS'S! 305. c, ^>T^ff 306. 
1^ 2d c, ^nn 305, V>^fT 306. «. 
^ ist c, t^^ 305. «, TtT^rfff 306. 
*^? ist c, ^Vr 305. a. or Trf^TTT, 

*TTT?r ist c, TTT^ or mffTn, tnw 

306. a. or Jiif^^TT. 
*f^ 4th c, WMT or ^T or ^f^T, 

^^f^ or ^^"oiffl. 
*iT5 ist c, jft^ or 'Tf^WT, tft^rfir 

306. a. or nf^'CTfTT. 
*-^ 4th c, -^(r^ or -^^T or -^f^frr, 

ift^fw 306. ft. or ■^f^'oifiT. 
*W^ 4th c, jftnjT or ifteT or JT^f^WT, 

sfr^fw or yfrfi^rfiiT. 

*-g^ 7th C, ItIt or TTffrTT, l^ff^fii 
or TT^flT. 

414. All roots, without exception, ending in ^ M, n g, "^^ffh, WJ^h 
Zt,-^ th, "S d, "S dh, m^ 71, TT ^5 "^ th, xb j^h, -^r b, "^ 7j, T. r, 7^ I, ^ v, 
take the inserted \i in the last five tenses. 

a. The root ?j^ 9th c, ' to take/ lengthens the inserted i in 
every tense except the 3d preterite : thus, U^ttTT, If^laifif, &c. 
See 699. 

t When push belongs to the 9th c, it takes i. 
X Krish may optionally change ri to ra; as, krashfd, &c. 


Third preterite (Greek aorist, Latin perfect). 

415. This complex and multiform tense, the most troublesome 
and intricate in the whole Sanskrit verb, is not so much one tense, 
as an aggregation of several tenses, all more or less allied to each 
other, all bearing a manifest resemblance to the first preterite, but 
none of them exactly assignable to that tense, and none of them so 
distinct in its character or so universal in its application as to admit 
of segregation from the general group, under any separate title of 
its own. 

Fortiuiately, however, the third preterite occurs but rarely In the 
better specimens of Hindu composition ; so that the student may 
satisfy himself with a cursory survey of its character and functions. 

416. Although grammarians assert that there are seven different 
varieties of this tense, four of which correspond more or less to the 
Greek ist aorist, and three to the 2d aorist, yet we shall endeavour 
to show that all these varieties may be included under the two distinct 
forms of terminations given in the table at 247, p. 107. The first 
form of terminations corresponds to those of the memorial scheme 
at 246, and belongs both to roots which reject i and to roots which 
assume it (see 394) : but in the latter case the initial s of the 2d 
and 3d sing, is rejected, and the i blends with the i, which then 
becomes the initial of those terminations. Moreover, in the case of 
roots which assume i the base is formed according to rules different 
to those which apply in the case of roots which reject i. The 2d 
form of terminations resembles those of the first preterite, and 
belongs, in the first place, to certain roots, whose bases in the 
first preterite present some important variation from the root; in 
the second, to certain roots ending in ^ s, iT sli, or "^ h, which have 
i, 11, or ?7, for their radical vowel ; and, in the third, to verbs of the 
10th class and causals. 

417. Observe also — In all the modifications of the third preterite, 
the first step ip the formation of the base is the prefixing of the 
augment ^ a, a further indication of the community of character 
which this tense presents to the first preterite. 

a. It will appear, however, in the Syntax, that when the third preterite is used as 
a prohibitive imperati\T, the particle *TT md being prefixed, the augment « is then 


b. Wlien a root begins wath the vowels ^ ?, "? u, or ^ ri, short or loriff, the 
augment is prefixed in accordance with 260. a. 

Form I. 
418. The terminations arc here repeated from 247, p. 107. 
i.sam Siva sma 

2. sis stam or tam sta or ta 

3. sit stdm or tarn sus 

si sivahi smahi 

sthds or thds sdthdm dhwam or dhwani, 

sta or ta sdtdm sata 

419. Observe, that when i is not inserted before the above terminations, the 
initial s may be discarded from those terminations in which it is compounded with 
t and th, if the base ends in auy consonant excepting n, or in any short vowel. 
Observe also, that ^ dhwam takes the place of ST dhwam, when the base ends in 
any other vowel than a. 

420. Rule for the formation of the base for those verbs of the 
first nine classes, at 395, 396, 398, 400, &c., which reject ^ i. In the 
Parasmai, if a root end in either a vowel or a consonant, vriddhi 
the radical vowel before all the terminations. In the Atmane, if a 
root end in i^ /, ^ /, T m, or ■gj li, gunate the radical vowel ; and if in 
"^ ri or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged before all the ter- 
minations. Observe — The augment ^ a must always be prefixed, 
as in the ist preterite. See 260. 

421. Thus, from rft ist c, ^ to lead,' come the two bases anai for 
Parasmai and ane for Atmane [anai + sam = ^s^A by 70; Atm. ane 

-\-si — ^^^f^y ane + sthds = -'^^VW, &c.) ; and from ^ 8th c, '^ to 
make,' come the two bases akdr for Parasmai and akri for i\^tmane 
[akdr + sam = ^T^tf by 70, &c. ; Kim., akri +si = W^f^ by 70, akri 

+ thds = ^H<jvi i^ ^ by 419, akri + ta = -^w, &c.). S«»e 682. Similarly, 
>T 3d c, * to bear.' See the table at 583. 

422. So from ^ 7th c, ' to join,' come the two bases ayauj for 
Parasmai and ayuj for Atmane (Parasmai ayauj + sam =^^r^t^ by 296, 
ayauj + swa =:^^fSjr, ayavj 4- tam = w^t"^ by 419 ; Atm. ayi/j +si~ 
^mf^ by 296, ayuj + thds = '^^^m^, ayi/j + ta = "^"g^) ; and from ^ 
7th c, ' to hinder,' the bases araudh and arudh (Parasmai araudh + 
sam = ^yOrtJ by 299, Du. araudh + siva — ^Fr^, araudh + tam = -siCi3; 
i^tm. arudh -{-si — ^l^fw, arudh + thds = ^T^irnr, &c.). 

423. Similarly, from "T^ ist c, ' to cook,' come the bases apdch and apach 
{apdch+sa7n='^VJ^ by 296 ; A'tm. apach + si ='^^f''^, apach + thds='^^W^^[^^, 
Sec.) ; and from ^ ist c, 'to burn' (601), the bases addh and adah [nddh + sam = 

U a 


^niT^ by 306. u, adult -\-fam='^SI!^V^ by 305; Atm. adah+si=Wjf^ by 306. a, 
adah-\-thds='^'r^W^, Ike). 

424. The root ^? ist c, 'to carry' (611), changes the radical vowel to ^ o 
before those terminations which reject an initial s (see 419, 305.0) : thus, avdksham, 
avdksMs, avdkshit, avdkshwa, avodham, &c. ; Atm. avakshi, avodhds, avodha, &c. : 
compare 375. c. '^ ist c. Atm., 'to bear,' generally follows 427 [asahishi, &c.), 
though the form asodha is given for the 3d sing. With avdkshit compare the Latin 
vexit, and \vith avakshi compare vexi. 

425. "*r? 4th c, ' to tie,' ' to fasten,' makes anutsam, andtsis, andtsit, andtswa, 
andddham, &c. ; and Atm. anatsi, anaddhds, &c., by 306. b (compare 182. e). 
Similarly, '^ ist c, ' to dwell' (607), makes avdtsam, &c., by 304. a. 

426. T55(^6th c, ' to be immersed,' and ^3 ist c, ' to adhere,' make amun-ksham 
&c., asdn-ksham &c. See 633, 597. a. 

a. The root ^ 2d c, ' to go,' with adhi prefixed, signifying * to go over,' ' to 
read,' Atmane-pada only, substitutes jft gi in the 3d pret. : thus, ^Hipftfti, ^nfl- 

jf^ffnT, ^ruTTftg, &c. 

b. Roots ending in "f^ or ^rarely reject the sibilant from some of the terminations 
in the Atmane, as indicated at 418, dropping the final nasal where s is rejected : thus, 
W'T 8th c. makes in Atmane 2d and 3d sing, vj n "q 1 *f , ^TTW (compare 57). Simi- 
larly, "Cpr^Sth c. makes ^T^'^TFIT, "^T^TT. And the roots ^"^T 8th c, »T»^ 4th c, 
^«^ 1st c, may lengthen the a when n is dropped : thus, '^WT'^rr^, -fl^lrt, &c. ; 
compare 354. a, 339. But the above roots generally follow 427, and prefix i to 
all the terminations ; so that WiTl^TffTH, WirfiT?? is more usual than 'ij n m I ti^, 
"^TfTtT. The root 5T«^ 4th and 8th c. makes 3d sing. '^RW or ^wfT? or ^HTrT. 

The same form with \ i prefixed. 
427. Those verbs which assume \i (see 388. «, 397, 399, 414) reject 
the initial sibilant from the terminations of the 2d and 3d sing., and 
the i then blends with the initial i of those terminations. In the 
other terminations the i causes the change of s to sh by 70 : thus, 














idhivam or idhwam 








Verbs which assume i, and take the above terminations, require a 
different rule for the formation of their base, as follows : — 

428. Rule for the formation of the base for those verbs of the first 
nine classes which assume ^i before the terminations, as above. 

a. If a root end in the vowels ^ i, \ i, "g" m, "35 ii, ^ ri, "^ ri, vriddhi 
those vowels in the Parasmai before all the terminations, and gunatc 
them in the iitmane. 


Observe — Roots ending in any other vowel than li and ri rarely follow 427, as 
they generally reject i, and follow 418* (see 394, &c.). 

b. If a root end in a single consonant, gunate the radical vowel 
in both Parasmai and Atmane (except when debarred by 28. b, and 
except in the roots enumerated at 388. b). Of course the augment 
^ a must in every case be prefixed. See 260. 

429. Thus, from "q 9th c, ' to purify,' come the two bases apau 
for Parasmai and ajjo for Atmane [apau + i -\-sam = ^^x|Jf^;^ by 37, 
apau +1 + is = •'sni'NhT, apau + i + it = wm:^h{, &c. ; Atm. apo + i + si 
= ^nrf%fTEl, &c., by 36), see 583; and from Tt ist c, ' to cross/ comes 
the base atctr for Parasmai {atdr + i + sam = atdrisham, &c.). 

a. Observe — Roots in '^ ri, and the root '^ vri, may optionally lengthen the 
inserted i in the Atmane : thus, ^Tofifrf^ or ^Tofi^ft. 

430. Similarly, "W^ budh, ist c, ' to know,' makes abodhisham, &c., 
see 583; and ^ir vrit, ist c, ' to be,' makes avartishi, &c.; and ij^ edh, 
1st c, 'to increase,' makes aidhishi, &c. (260. b), see 600. 

431. A medial ^ a is sometimes lengthened: thus, "^ vad, ist c, makes 
•-H'^ I n^ M , &c. See 598. 

432. The roots "e^, ^, V, 'H, '^, all of the 6th c, may either follow 429 or make 
W^f^ adhiwisham, &c, 

a. '^^ 2d c, 'to kiU,' forms its 3d preterite from "^V: thus, ^T^ftm, &c. 
See 654. 

433. Many roots in W[ a, ^ e, W 0, and IT ai, with three in ^^m, viz. '^^^yam, 
■^ ram, "T*^ nam, assume i, but insert s before it ; the final e, 0, and ai, being 
changed to 'W[ d: thus, from TH 2d c, ' to go,' comes ■sJMlP^M, &c. (see 644) ; from 
^ 4th c, 'to sharpen,' vj^iiUi'^, &c. ; from ^J^ ist c, 'to restrain,' -si *< Um , &c. 
<^Rji 2d c, ' to be poor,' makes adaridrisham or adaridrdsisham, &c. 

a. In the Atmane these roots reject the i and the s which precedes it, and 
follow 418: thus, from JTT 3d c, 'to measure,' comes 'SWlf^, &c. (see 665); 
from T*^ ist c, ' to sport,' ^TtftT, ^tWT^, ^nihJ, &c. 

434. Some Atmane-pada verbs of the 4th class form the 3d person sing, of the 
3d preterite by rejecting the termination sta, and leaving i, as in the passive 
(475. a) : thus, V!^ 4th c, ' to go,' makes 3d pret. 3d sing. ^SHTrf^ ; "W^ 4th c, 
' to be born,' makes WSff^ ; and ^^ 4th c, ' to know,' makes ^"^tftJ. Compare 
253. a. 

* Except ITFr, "35^, and f^, which follow 427, and are gunated, instead of 
taking Vriddhi : thus, ^HTFTft^, 'inurf^M, ^^afuM. 


Form IL 

435. Resembling the first preterite. 

1 . am dva or va cima or ma eori dvahi dmahi 

2. as or s atam or tarn ata or ia athds ethdm or dt I idm adhivam 
^. at or t atdm or t dm an or its ata et dm or dt dm anta 

Note, that this form corresponds to the Greek 2d aorist (compare asthdm, asthds, 
asthdt, with taTfjV, earfig, euTYj), and that the first form is more or less analogous 
to the I st aorist. The substitution of i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdm, in 
the A'tmane of form II, is confined to a class of roots mentioned at 439. 

436. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine 
classes. In general the terminations are attached directly to the 
root: thus, rm ist c, Ho go/ makes ^t\A agamam, he, see 602; fir^ 
7th c, ' to break/ 'srfW^ ; ^^ 4th c, ' to perish,' W^ (or W^, see 
441). But "h;^ ist c, * to see,' is gunated, and makes adarsam, 
see 604. Observe — Sometimes roots which follow this form in the 
Parasmai, follow form I. (418) in the Xtmane. 

437. No confusion can arise from this apparent identity with the 
ist preterite, as in all cases where these terminations are used for 
the 3d preterite, the i st preterite presents some difference in the form 
of its base; as in agachchham (270), abhinadam (343). So again, 
the sixth conjugation, which alone can ever show a perfect identity 
of root and base, never makes use of this form for its 3d preterite, 
unless by some special rule the base of its ist preterite is made to 
differ from the root : thus, lip, ^ to smear' (cf. aXeiipco), which is 
alijmm in the 3d preterite, is alimpam. in the first (281). So in 
Greek, compare the imperfect eXetTrou with the 2d aor. eXnrov ; and 
similarly, eXajj-^avov with eXa^ov ; eSdfxvtju with (oafMov, &c. 

a. One or two roots in '^T d and ^ i reject their finals ; and one or two in "^ ri 
and '^ ri change these vowels to ar before the above terminations : thus, <sqi 
2d c, ' to tell,' makes ^T^ ; f^ ist c, ' to swell,' makes ^"^ ; ^ ist c, ' to go,' 
makes "^^ ; ^ 4th c, *to grow old,' -am*.. 

438. Certain roots ending in long vowels reject the initial vowel from the ter- 
minations of the Parasmai, as indicated in the table at 435 : thus, ^ 3d c, to 
give,' makes addm, adds, addt, addva, &c.; 3d pi. adus, see 663. So also, >n' 3d c, 
' to place,' makes adhdm, &c., 664; and ^T ist c, 'to stand,' makes asthdm, &c., 
587. Similarly, *J^ist c.,'to be,' excepting in ist sing, and 3d pi. (^I*|5^> ^*cR' 
^»J7T, 'SW^r, &c. ; 3d pi. ^W^^r ), see 585. 

a. Observe, however, that some roots in d, like ijd, 2d c, ' to go," follow 434. 


h. Some roots in IJ e and '^ft o, which follow 434, optionally follow 438 ; in 
which case e and are changed as before to d: thus, ^ dhe, ist c, 'to drink,' 
makes either adhdsisham &c., or adhdm &c. ; ^ so, 4th c., ' to come to an end,' 
makes either asdsisham or asdm, see 613 : V also makes ^V, see 440. a. 

c. But ril" 1st c, ' to call,' drops the final e, and retains the initial vowel of the 
terminations : thus, ahwam, ahwas, ahwat, &c. See 595. 

d. In the Atmane-pada, roots like ^T, >IT, WT, &c., at 438, follow form I. at 
418; but drop the final «', and assume i in its place : thus, adishi, adithds, adita, 
adishwahi, &c. ; 2d pi. ^f^. See 663. 

e. ^ 2d c, 'to go,' makes its 3d preterite from a root TT : thus, agdm, agds, &c. 
/. The classical scholar will observe, that aduddm, the ist preterite of the root 

da, 'to give,' bears the same relation to its 3d preterite addm that ebioav does to 
eOwv. So also the relation of adhdm (3d pret. of dhd, ' to place') to adadhdm (ist 
pret.) corresponds to that of eSvji' to eTiSyjv. Compare also abhavas and abhus 
with e^yef and e(f)vg, 

439. Certain roots ending in ^ s, \sh, f h, enclosing a medial i, u, or ri, form 
their 3d preterites according to form II. at 435; but whenever confusion is likely 
to arise between the ist and 3d preterites, s is prefixed to the terminations, before 
which sibilant the final of the root becomes k by 302 and 306. 

a. Thus, f^^ 6th c, ' to point out,' the ist pret. of which is adisam, makes 
adiksham &c. in 3d pret. (compare the Greek ist aorist iOeiqa). Similarly, T^"^ 
2d c, 'to hate,' makes adwiksham &c. 657 ; ^ 2d c, 'to milk,' makes adhuksham 
&c. by 306. a. See 660. 

b. This class of roots substitutes i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdrn, in the 
Atmane terminations : thus, adikshi, adikshathds, adikshata, adikshdvahi, adikshd- 
thdm, &c. 

c. A few roots of this kind optionally follow 418 in the Atmane: thus, ft9^ 2d c. 
may make ^rfc^f^, 'iic^ldlM^, ^Tc9^^, &c., 661 ; and |f5 2d c, ' to milk,' may 
make '^vfEJ, 'HH^itfrff, &c. See 660. 

440. Causal verbs make use of form II, but the base assumes a peculiar redu- 
plication (analogous to the Greek pluperfect), to be explained at 492 : thus, from 
WV ist c, ' to know,' comes ^f^> &c. 

a. A few primitive verbs take a reduplicated 3d preterite, analo- 
gous to causals : thus, "PsT ist c, ' to have recourse/ makes ^^rf^"'?, 
&c. ; f^ ist c, ' to swell,^ makes either ^!r^ or ^r^fxitf or ^f^fTQ^; 
■5; ist c, '■ to run,' ^^"5^ ; H ist c, ' to flow,' ^^H^; v ist c, ' to 
drink,' ^>i; cfiJT ist c, ' to love,' w^'cfi^, &c. This last is defective 
when it belongs to the ist c, having no conjugational tenses; but 
when it belongs to the 10th c. (Pres. "^SCifk, Sec) its 3d preterite is 

441. The following primitive verbs take a contracted form of 
reduplicated 3d preterite : T^^ 2d c, ' to speak,' makes ^^"^'^ avocham 


(from ^snra^ for ^nr^ 650) ; tiw ist c, ' to fall,' ^:^^ (from 'iHlMii; 
compare Greek eTmrTov) ; ^T^R 2d c, ' to rule/ ^rf^i? (from '3T%^. 
The i^tmane follows 427; see 658) ; w 4th c, ' to throw,' ^TTW (from 
^TH^, contracted into ^mH for '^TW 304. «, whence by transposition 
^nm); ^T^4th c, ' to perish/ ^^ (from w^^ for ^Rfpf^ 620, 436). 

Benedictive or precative. 
442. Observe, that the terminations of this tense resemble those of the potential 
in the memorial scheme at p. 105. In the 2d and 3d singular they are identical. 
In the other persons of the Parasmai a sibilant is inserted, and in some of the 
Atmane both prefixed and inserted. The only difPerence between the potential 
and benedictive of verbs of the 2d and 3d groups, at 290, mil often be that the 
potential will have the conjugational characteristic : thus, bUd, 7th c, ' to break,' 
wiU be bhindydt in the potential, and bhidydt in the benedictive. Compare the 
optative of the Greek aorist '^oivjv with the optative of the present OiOoirjV. 

443. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine 
classes. In the Parasmai, as a general rule, leave the root unchanged 
before the terminations, and never insert i; but in the Atmane prefix 
i to the terminations in those roots ending in consonants or vowels 
which take the inserted i in the futures (388. a, 414)? and before this 
i gunate the radical vowel. It is also gunated in the Atmane in 
some roots ending in vowels which reject i : but if a root end in a 
consonant, and reject i, the radical vowel is left unchanged in the 
j^tmane, as well as Parasmai. 

444. Thus, from »T ist c, 'to be,' come the base of the Parasmai 
bhu, and the base of the Atmane bhavi, by 36. 6 {bhu + ydsam = >J31TO 
&c., bhavi + siya = >TfTR^ by 70). 

445. Frequently, however, before the y of the Parasmai terminations, the root is 
liable to changes analogous to those which take place before the y of the 4th 
conjugation at 272, and the y of passive verbs at 465 ; and not unfrequently it 
undergoes changes similar to those of the 2d preterite at 373, &c., as follows : — 

446. A final '^ d is changed to TJ e in the Parasmai, but remains unchanged in 
the A'tmane : thus, ^ 3d c, ' to give,' makes \'^['^ &c. for Parasmai ; ^T^ &c. 
for A'tmane-pada. 

447. Final ^ i and '3' u are lengthened in Parasmai, and gunated in A'tmane : 
thus, 'N 5th c, ' to gather,' makes '<i\i\\M &c., '^ifNT &c. ; and J 3d c, ' to 
sacrifice,' makes f TW &c., '^Whl &c. 

448. Final "^ ri is changed to ft ri in Parasmai, but retained in Atmane : thus, 
oF 8th c, ' to do,' makes f^TTW &c., and ff^ &c. After a double consonant 
ri is gunated in Parasmai, as well as before inserted i ■ thus, ^ 5th and 9th c, to 
spread,' makes H^TO &c., ^"^h? &c.. or ^fWhl &c. 


a. ^, ' to cover,' ' to choose,' makes either fcnTTTT or *|5l*i, ^^^ or ^rfT^^ 
or ^"N. 

449. Final '^ rt is changed to fl! tr in both voices, but is gunated before 
inserted i in A'tmane : thus, W ist c, ' to cross,' makes m^T^ &c., nt^^ &c., or 
riH^ifly &c., or in^-q &c. 

a. One root, "^ loth c, ' to fill,' makes "T^TRT &c. Compare 448. a. 

450. Of roots in ^ e, V ist c, to drink,' makes V'^T'ff &c. ; but ^ ist c, to 
call,' makes ^^TPff &c., and ri^TBt^ &c. ; '31 ist c, 'to coA'er,' makes '^'m^ &c., 
and ^I^Om &c. ; and ^ ist c, ' to weave,' makes *m^ &c., and '^^Rft'^ &c. 

451. Final TT ai and ^ are treated like final a at 446 : thus, ^ ist c, ' to sing,' 
makes *Im\^ &c. ; ^ ist c, ' to preserve,' makes WH^^ &c. 

452. If a root end in a consanant, there is no change in Parasmai ; and there 
are no changes in Atmane, excepting those of Sandhi, unless the root take ?', 
when the radical vowel is gunated : thus, |^ 2d c, ' to milk,' makes ^,^l« &c., 
and V^fhl &c., by 306. a; fw\ 2d c, ' to hate,' makes fl'"BIT^ &c., and f§^^^ 
&c., by 302 ; and 'f^^ist c, ' to know,' makes '^WHT &c., and TrfwhT &c. 

a. Roots of the loth class, however, retain Guna in the Parasmai, as well as in 
the Atraane, rejecting the conjugational aya in the Parasmai only; see under 
Causals (460). 

b. And if a root end in a double consonant, of which the first member is a nasal, 
the latter is generally rejected : thus, bhaiij, 7th c, makes bhajydsam, &c. 

453. JX^_ 9th c, ' to take,' makes in Parasmai M^lT^ &c. ; Tl'^ 6th c, to ask,' 
makes M-oaMl*! &c. Similarly, >I^6th c, ' to fry,' and "3^ 6th c, ' to cut.' In 
the Atmane they are regular. 

454. '^^ 2d c. ' to speak,' '^ ist c. ' to say,* "^ ist c. ' to sow,' '^^ 2d c. ' to 
wish,' "^ ist c. ' to carry,' and ^''7 2d c. ' to sleep,' substitute "S" u for '^ ?; in the 
Parasmai: thus, 4^«m« &c., '^WRT &c. In the Atmane they are regular; as, 
^^t^Ifrom ^. 


455. Note, that this tense bears the same relation to the 2d future that the ist 
preterite does to the present. In its formation it lies half-way between a first 
preterite and a second future. It resembles the first preterite in prefixing the 
augment ^ a to the base (see 260), and in the latter part of its terminations : it 
resembles the second future in gunating the radical vowel, in inserting 3^ i in 
exactly those roots in which the future inserts i, and in the sy of its terminations. 
See the scheme at 246, p. 105. 

456. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the first nine 
classes. Prefix the augment "^ a, gunate the radical vowel, except 
when debarred by 28. b, and insert i before the terminations if the 
futures insert i. When i is rejected, as in all the roots at 400 &c., 
the rules of Sandhi must be observed. 

457. Thus, IV ist c, 'to know,' makes ^r^ftrat &c. ; |f 2d c, 



' to milk/ makes Wh??f &c., by 306. a ; fl"W 2d c, ' to hate/ makes 
■iik^ &c., by 302. 


458. The termination of the infinitive is K turn, like the urn of the 
Latin supine. 

459. Rule for the formation of the base in verbs of the ten 
classes. The base of the infinitive is identical with the base of the 
first future, and where one inserts j^ i, the other does also : thus, 
budh, ist c, 'to know/ makes ^ftr^ bodhitum ; kship, 6th c, 'to 
throw/ makes %tt ksheptum. Moreover, all the rules for the change 
of the final consonant of a root before the t of the future termina- 
tions apply equally before the t of the infinitive. Hence, by substi- 
tuting um for the final a of the 3d pers. sing, of the ist future, the 
infinitive is at once obtained: thus, saktd, saktum; tyaktd, tyaktum; 
ITFT, ixi'i Vt^, Wt^, &c. See 400, &c. 

a. The following examples wiU show how remarkably the Sanskrit infinitive 
answers to the Latin supine. S. WTfT 'to stand/ L. statum ; S. ^rT 'to give/ 
L. datum; S. tiTg 'to drink,' L. potum ; S. ^'j 'to go/ L. itum; S. WiT 'to strew/ 
L. stratum J S. "^i^ 'to anoint/ L. unctumj S. WftTfT 'to beget/ L. genitum; 
S. '*s r«i g ' to sound/ L. sonitum; S. '^ ' to go/ L. serptumj S. 'ff'T'^ ' to vomit/ 
L. vomitum. Prof. Bopp considers that the infinitive affix turn is the accusative of 
an affix tu, of which the affix two. of the indeclinable participle (see 555. a) is the 
instrumental case. 


460. Having explained the formation of the verbal base in the 

ten classes of primitive verbs, we come next to the four kinds of 

derivative verbs, viz. passives, causals, desideratives, and frequenta- 



461. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a passive 
form*, which is conjugated as an i^tmane-pada verb of the 4th class. 

a. It is a form, however, not very commonly used, except in the 3d singular and 
plural of the present and imperative ; for although a passive construction is exceed- 
ingly common in Sanskrit syntax, yet almost all the tenses of the passive verb are 
expressed by participles. 

462. Observe — Passive verbs take the regular Xtmane-pada ter- 
minations* at 247, making use of the substitutions required in the 

* See 253, and 253. a. b. There are occasional instances in the Mahabharata of 
passive verbs conjugated in the Parasmai. 


4th class. In the 3d preterite they take either of the forms at 418 
and 427, according as the root may admit the inserted ^ i or not ; 
but they require that in the 3d singular of both forms the termina- 
tion be ^i in place of sta and ishta. 

Conjugational tenses. 

463. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses, Atraane-pada, of roots of the first nine classes. The rule is 
the same as in the 4th class at 272, viz. affix ti ya* — lengthened to 
^ yd before initial m or v — to the root, the vowel of which is not 
gunated, and generally remains unchanged. 

464. Thus, from >|^ist c, 'to be/ comes the base >r:T bhuya (Pres. 
bhilya -\-i — v^, bhuya +se = ^f^^, &c. ; Pot. bhuya + lya = >|^, &c. ; 
Imp. bhuya + ai = ^, &c. ; ist Pret. abhuya + i = '^v^, &c.) ; from 
TT<^ 6th c, 'to strike,' comes tudya (Pres. tudya + i = if^, &c.). 

465. A final vowel, however, often undergoes changes, some of which are differ- 
ent from, and some analogous to, those of the 4th class, as follows : — 

Six roots in ^TT a, and one or two in ^ e, ^J ai, and Wt 0, change their final 
vowels to ^ i ; thus, ^T 3d c, ' to give,' makes Pres. ^'^, ^^^> ^Tff ? &c. So 
also, VT, Wr, TT, 'TT, 1st c* to drink;' ^ 3d c. 'to quit;' V ist c. ' to drink' (3d 
sing. vt^W, &c.); ^ ist c. 'to sing' (jftT^w) ; ^ 4th c. ' to be destroyed' (^^). 

a. But other roots in a remain unchanged ; and most others in oi and o are 
changed to a.- thus, WH 2d c, ' to tell,' makes 3d sing. WT^TT ; and ^ 9th c, ' to 
know,' ^mTT; 'TT 2d c, 'to protect,' 'minr; W ist c, 'to meditate,' WRIT; 
■^ft 4th c, ' to sharpen,' ■^IT^TiT. But ^f^^T 2d c. makes ^ ^<:& " • 

b. 2|" 1st c. ' to call,' ^ 1st c. * to cover,' ^ ist c. ' to weave,' make their bases 
hiiya, viya, and uya (3d sing. ^^HT). 

466. Final ^ i or T m are lengthened, as also i or u before v or r .- thus, from f»T 
ist c, ■? 3d c, T^'^ 4th c, come the three bases W^^ ^'^, <{i«M . 

rt. But f^ ist c, ' to swell,' makes ^f^^j and '^ft 2d c, ' to sleep,' ^^7f . 

467. Final "^ ri becomes fr ri, but if preceded by a double consonant is gunated : 
thus, "^ 8th c, ' to do,' makes Psfi^lK; but ^ ist c, W^ . The roots ^ and T^n 
are also gunated. 

468. Final "^ri becomes ^zr .- thus, cF 6th c, ' to scatter,' makes "oh^^^rT; but 

469. Roots ending in two consonants, of which the first is a nasal, usually reject 
the nasal ; as, from '^^, H'*?, ^T^, come the bases badhya, &c. (^T^fff , &c.). 

* Bopp considers that this ya is derived from yd, ' to go,' just as the causal oya 
is derived from i, ' to go.' It is certain that in Bengali and Hindi the passive is 
formed with the root yd. Compare the Latin amafum iri, &c. See 481. 

X 2 


470. flH 4th c, ^*T 1st c, IT'JT 8th c, may optionally reject the final nasal, 
and lengthen the preceding a .■ thus, "rrmW or Tl'<4rt, &c. 

471. «T^2d c, ^ ist c, '^ist c, ^ist c, ^ 2d e. 'to wish,' ^ ist c, 
^TT 2d c, insist c, make their bases "3^, "^^j T^, TOT, T^, "^^T, ^W, l^i^ 
( 3*Jjr1, &c.). 

472. ?I^, UW, >J^, ^T^, ^r*I, "a^, ^T^, make their bases ^T?!, ""^33, *p5T> 
fV^Zf, f^\^, Y^, f^r^, respectively CpTrfj &c.). 

Non-conjugational tenses. — Second preterite of passives. 

473. The base of this tense in the passive verb is identical with that of all 
primitive verbs, in all ten conjugations. The bases, therefore, as formed at 364, 
will serve equally well for the 2d preterite of the passive, provided only that they 
be restricted to the Atmane-pada inflection. 

a. According to some grammarians, however, the root *J^may make ^*|5 bubhiive, 
as well as "^^J^ babhuve, in the passive 2d preterite. 

First and second future of passives. 

474. In these and the remaining tenses no variation can occur from the bases of 
the same tenses in the primitive, unless the root end in a vowel. In that case the 
insertion of ^ i may take place in the passive, although prohibited in the primitive, 
provided the final vowel of the root be first vriddhied : thus, from f^ chi, 5th c, 
'to gather,' may come the base of the ist and 2d fut. pass, chdyi {chdyitdhe &c., 
chdyishye &c.), although the base of the same tenses in the primitive is che 
{chetdhe &c., cheshye &c.). Similarly, from 7 hu and "^ kri may come hdvi and 
kdri (hdvitdhe, kdritdhe), although the bases in the primitive are ho and kar. 

a. In like manner 2^ i may be inserted when the root ends in long ^T d, or in 
1? e changeable to d, provided that, instead of Vriddhi (which is impossible), y be 
interposed between the final d and inserted i : thus, from dd, ' to give,' may come 
the base of the fut. pass, ddyi {ddyitdhe &c.), although the base of the same tenses 
in the primitive is dd {ddtdhe &c.); from hwe, ' to call,' may come hwdyi (d^lNril^ 
&c.), although the base in the primitive is hwd. But in all these cases it is per- 
mitted to take the base of the primitive for that of the passive, and chetdhe or 
chdyitdhe may eqviaUy stand for the ist fut. pass.* 

b. In the case of roots ending in consonants, the base of the two futures in the 
passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the primitive verb t, the 
inflection being that of the Atmane. 

c. In verbs of the loth conjvigation deviation from the Atmane form of the 
primitive may take place in these and the succeeding tenses. See 496. 

* This explanation of the passive rests on the authority of Panini (VI. 4. 62), 
and the Siddhiinta Kaumudi. 

t The root '^^ ist c, ' to see,' however, in the passive, may be ^^TTT^, ^T^"^» 
as well as "^^T^, '^^ ; and ^»T may be 'mf'TWT?, ^JiPH'^I, as well as ^nTT^, 
?fT^ ; and 3J^ may be iJlf^WT^, ?TTf^, as well as IT^^T'?^ Zf^^- 


Third preterite of passives. 

475. In this tense, also, variation from the primitive may occur when the root 
ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of ^ i may take place, although 
forbidden in the primitive verb, provided the final of the root be vriddhied : thus, 
from f% chi may come the base of the 3d pret. pass, achdyi {achdyishi &c., 427), 
although the base in the Atmane of the primitive is ache {acheshi Sic, 418). So 
also, from ^ hu and '^ kri may come ahdvi and akdri {ahdvishi, akdrishi, 427), 
although the bases in the Atmane of the primitive are aho and akri {ahoshi, 
akrishi, 418). Again, i may be inserted when the root ends in long ^T a, pro- 
vided that y be interposed between final a and inserted i : thus, from da, to give,' 
may come addyi [addyishi &c.), although the base in the Atmane of the primitive 
is adi {adishi &c.). But in all these cases it is permitted to take the base of the 
primitive for that of the passive (so that the passive of chi may be either achdyishi 
or acheshi), except in the 3d pers. sing., where the terminations ishta and sta being 
rejected, the base, as formed by Vriddhi and the inserted i, must stand alone : 
thus, achdyi, ' it was gathered ;' ahdvi, ' it was sacrificed ;' akdri, ' it was done ;' 
addyi, ' it was given.' Sometimes, however, the regular form of the 3d sing. Atmane 
is admissible, as well as the mutilated form. 

a. If the root end in a consonant, the base of the 3d pret. pass, will always be 
identical with that of the 3d pret. Atmane of the primitive, except in the 3d pers. 
sing., where ^ i being substituted for the terminations ishta and sta of the ist 
form, requires before it the lengthening of a medial a, and the Guna of any other 
shoit medial vowel *. Hence, in tan, 8th c, ' to stretch,' the form of the ist, 2d, 
and 3d sing. 3d pret. will be atanishi, atanishthds, atdni ; from kship, 6th c, to 
throw,' akshipsi, akshiptkds, akshepi ; from vid, 2d c, ' to know,' avedishi, ave- 
dishthds, avedi. Observe — This 3d sing, of the 3d pret. passive is not unfrequently 
found, even in the simplest writings. 

Benedictive and conditional of passives. 

476. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending 
in vowels as in the last ; that is, the insertion of 1^ i is allowed, provided that, 
before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be 
interposed after final d: thus, from chi may come the bases chdyi and achdyi 
{chdyishiya, achdyishye) ; from hu, hdin and ahdvi; from kri, kdri and akdri j 
from dd, ddyi and addyi. But cheshiya, acheshye, hoshiya, ahoshye, &c., the forms 
belonging to the Atmane of the primitive verb, are equally admissible in the 

* A medial vowel, long by nature or position, remains unchanged (by 28. b), 
and in one or two cases a short ; as, asami for asdmi. The above explanation of 
the 3d preterite rests on the authority of Panini, the Siddhanta Kaumudi, and the 
Bhatti Kavya (15. 64, 65). 


Passive infinitive mood. 

477. There is no passive infinitive mood in Sanskrit distinct in form from the 
active. But although the affix turn has generally an active, it is capable of a 
passive sense, when joined with certain verbs, especially with ^"^ sak, 4th c, ' to 
be able.' It is also used passively, in connection with the participles drabdha, 
nirupita, yukta, &c. See Syntax. 

Passive verbs from roots of the loth class. 

478. In forming a passive verb from roots of the loth class, although the con- 
jugational ^^ is rejected in the first four tenses, yet the other conjugational 
changes of the root are retained before the affix ya : thus, from '^IC loth c, ' to 
steal,' comes the base chorya (•^i*4n). In the 2d pret. '^'^ is retained (see 473), 
and in the other non-conjugational tenses the base may deviate from the Atmane 
form of the primitive by the optional rejection or assumption of ^HI, especially in 
the 3d preterite. See Causal Passives at 496. 


479. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a causal 
form, which is conjugated as a verb of the loth class; and which is 
not only employed to give a causal sense to a primitive verb, but also 
an active sense to a neuter verb ; see 289, 254 : thus the primitive 
verb hodhati, ^ he knows' (from the root budh, ist c), becomes in 
the causal ^y^lfrr bodhayati, 'he causes to know/ 'he informs;' and 
the neuter verb kshubhyati, ' he is shaken' (from kshubh, 4th c), 
becomes "^H^rfir ' he shakes.' 

a. This form may rarely imply ' allowing,' ' permitting :' thus, 
hdrayati, * he allows to take ;' ndsayati, ' he suffers to perish.' 

480. As to the terminations of causal verbs, they are the same as 
those of the scheme at 247, p. 106 ; and the same substitutions are 
required in the first four tenses as in the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth 

Conjugational tenses. 

481. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses of roots of the ten classes. If a root end in a vowel, vriddhi 
that vowel ; if in a consonant, gunate the radical vowel before all the 
terminations, and affix w^ ay a * (changeable to ayd before initial m 
or v) to the root so vriddhied or gunated. 

* Derived from the root ^ «, ' to go,' just as the passive ya is derived from yd. 
See 463. 


482. Thus, from »ft ist c, * to lead/ comes the base «rnnT by 37 
(Pres. nay ay a + mi = "HVPllf^, nay ay a -\- si = rrnHTftr &c.; Pot. ndyaya 
+ iyam = tTR^^ &c. ; Imp. ndyaya + dni = TTFRlftr &c. ; ist Pret. 
andyaya + m = ?min4 &c. Kim. Pres. ndyaya 4- « = "JH^ &c.). 
Similarly, from t^bhu, ist c, ^ to be/ comes the base WTCT bhdvaya; 
and from gr 8th c, ' to do/ the base MIA kdraya. But from "^V 1st 
and 4th c, ^ to know/ comes the gunated ^t>ni bodhaya ; and from 
^ 1st c, ' to creep/ the gunated ^^ sarpaya. 

483. Roots ending in ^TT a, or in ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0, changeable to ^ «, cannot be 
vriddhied, but generally insert "^^p between the root and the affix aya : thus, ^ 
1st c, 'to give,' makes ^"niirrftT dupaydmi, &c. ; >I ist c, 'to drink,' Vm^Tf*T 
dhdpaydmi, &c. ; m ist c, 'to sing,' Tm^Im gdpaydmi, &c. 

a. All other roots in a insert p, excepting 'TT ist c, ' to drink,' which inserts \y, 
making Mi*<*4ifiT &c. ; and "TT 2d c, ' to preserve,' which inserts 75 /, making 
TTraiTTfiT &c. 

b. All other roots in ai insert p, but most other roots in e and o insert y : thus, 
^ 1st c, * to call,' makes S^TTnTrfH &c. ; and ^ 4th c, ' to sharpen,' makes ^^- 
WH &c. 

484. '^ 9th c. ' to know,' '^ 2d c. ' to cook,' ^T 2d c. ' to bathe,' and ^ ist c. 
' to languish,' may optionally shorten the d, the last two only when not joined \vith 
prepositions : thus, ^TTTrf*? &c., or ^^HTrf'T &c. ; yiMMiP*! &c., or JprxfrfiT &c. 

485. Some roots in i, t, ri, also insert p, after changing the final vowel to «.- 
thus, ftr 1st c, 'to conquer,' makes ^ri 1 14 *( I Ui &c. ; TW ist c, 'to smile,' makes 
Wrinn'ftT &c., and Wni^ &c. ; f^ 5th c, ' to collect,' has four forms; i. ^^^TT(- 
mfj? &c., 2. •'^xnfjT &c., 3. ^-qTTrfiT &c., 4. ^^^nnftT &c. ; >ft 3d c, ' to fear,' 
has three forms ; i. MlilillPH &c., 2. >TR^ &c., Atm. only, 3. >fl"R^ «&c. ; ^ 2d c, 
'to go,' makes ^TTT^Trf'T &c., especially with the preposition wftl ' over,' '^TWF'^- 
<4ir*i ' I cause to go over,' ' I teach.' 

a. Three roots insert nj c^ 4th c, ' to embrace,' ' to adhere,' making (with prep, 
f^) -T^irrftT &c., as well as -HPT^Trftr, -rfN^lPH, and -•?5To5^fiT &c. ; ift 9th c, 
' to please,' making Tfhjnn'f'T ; and V 5th and 9th c, ' to shake,' >J^xrrf'T. 

486. '^ 3d c. 'to be ashamed' and "^ ist c. 'to go' insert p after gunation : 

thus, t^mCn &c., -iiQ^iPH &c. 

487. Roots ending in consonants, enclosing a medial ^ a, generally, but not 
always, lengthen the a : thus, 'T^ ist c, ' to cook,' makes Ml ■'I *i I Ph &c. 

a. Note, that few roots in m lengthen the a: thus, TT ist c, 'to go,' makes 
TTmfir &c. Some, however, optionally do so. 

488. Anomalies. — '^^ ist c, ' to grow,' changes h to p, making TjMMlm &c. ; 
Jf"^ 4th c, ' to be corrupt,' makes ^M«4lP*i &c., ' I corrupt ;' ^»T 2d c, ' to kill,' 
miamiPm &c. ; ^ ist and 6th c, 'to perish,' ^lIK^lPiT &c. ; ?^ 6th c, 'to 
quiver,' tmiCMlftr &c. ; W^iHT ist c, ' to increase,' ^^RT^irrftT &c. 


Non-conjugational tenses. 

489. The changes of the root required to form the base of the 
conjugational tenses are continued in the non-conjugational. More- 
over, aya is retained in all these tenses, excepting in the 3d preterite 
and benedictive, Parasmai ; but the last a of aya is dropped before 
the inserted ^ i, which is invariably assumed. 

Second preterite of causals. 

490. This tense is formed by adding m dm to the base of the 
conjugational tenses, and affixing the 2d preterite of one of the three 
auxiliary verbs, ^nr ' to be,' >T ' to be,' or cF ' to do :' thus, ^v ist c, 
' to know,' makes "^ttttiit or ^tvT^m=^>J^ * or ^hnrra'SfiTT. See 385, 

First and second future of causals. 

491 . In these tenses the inserted ^ i is invariably assumed between 
the base, as formed in the conjugational tenses, and the usual termina- 
tions : thus, budh makes bodhayitdsmi Sec, bodhayishydmi Sac. 

Third preterite of causals (Greek pluperfect). 

492. The terminations are those of form IIP; see 4:^. In the 
formation of the base of this tense, the affix ay is rejected ; but any 
other change that may take place in the conjugational tenses, such 
as the insertion of ^ or y, is preserved. The base is a reduplicated 
form of this change, and to this reduplication the augment ^ c is 
prefixed : thus, taking the bases bodhay and jdpay (causal bases of 
budh, ' to know,' and ji, ' to conquer'), and rejecting ay, we have 
bodh and jap ; and from these are formed the bases of the 3d pret. 
abubudh and ajijap (^R"^ abubudham Sec, ^n^MV( abiibudhe Sec, 
Wifhni ajijapam &c., ^HrftiR fij'tjape Sec, cf. the Greek pluperfect). 

493. The rule for this reduplication is as follows : — The initial consonant of the 
root, with its vowel, is reduplicated, and the reduplicated consonant follows the 
rules given at 331 ; but the reduplication of the vowel is peculiar. 

Rules for the reduplication of the vowel of the initial consonant. 

a. Causal bases, after rejecting ay, will end either in dy, dv, dr, or a consonant 

preceded by a, d, e, 0, or ar. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these vowels, 

except 0, is i. But u is reduplicated for 0, and sometimes also for dv. The rule 

is, that either the reduphcated syllable or the base syllable must be long either by 

* It may, however, be questioned whether >T is often found added to causals. 


nature or position ; and in general the redui)licated vowel is made long, and, to 
compensate for this, the long vowel of the causal base shortened, or, if it be Guna, 
changed to its cognate short vowel : thus, the causal base nay (fi-om ni, rejecting 
ay) makes the base of the 3d pret. anmay (^T^mT amnayam &c.) ; the causal 
base hhdv (from bhu) makes abibhav (^Rft>T^ &c.) ; the causal base kdr (form kri), 
achtkar J gam (from gam), ajigam: pack (from pack), apipach ; pal (from pa), 
apipal; ved (from vid), avwidj vart (from vrit), avwrit. But bodh (from budh), 
abubudh; and sdv (from su), asushav. Sometimes the reduphcated vowel is only 
long by position before two consonants, the radical vowel being stiU made short ; 
as, srdv (fi'om sru) makes asusrav ; drdv from {dru), adudrav ; bhrdj, abibhraj. 
Sometimes the reduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the vowel of the causal 
base, which must be long either by nature or position, remains unchanged : thus, 
the causal base jiv (from jtv) may make ajijiv ; chint, achichint ; kalp, achikalp. 
In such cases a may be reduplicated for a or a; as, laksh makes alulaksh ; ydch, 
ayaydchj vart (from vrit), avavart, &c. 

b. The following are anomalous : from pay {pd, ' to drink'), 'Sn^roi &c.* ; from 
sthdp {sfhd, ' to stand'), ^7rf?T7 &c. ; from ghrdp {ghrd, ' to smell'), ^f»Tfir"T &c., 
and ■»:i n»t « M &c. ; from adhydp {i, ' to go,' with adhi), '^W^'H'^ &c. 

Reduplication of an initial vowel in causal third preterites. 
494. Roots beginning with vowels, and ending with single consonants, form their 
causal third preterites by a peculiar reduplication of the root (after rejecting 'W^). 
The rule is that not only the initial vowel, as in the 2d pret. at 364. a, but the final 
consonant also be reduplicated. In fact, the whole root is doubled, as it would 
be if it began ^vith a consonant, and ended \vith a vowel ; but the consonant is 
reduphcated according to the rules at 331, and the reduphcated vowel is always i. 
This i, however, takes the place of the radical vowel, instead of beginning the redu- 
plicated syllable; and the vowel of the root then becomes the initial of the redupli- 
cated syllable, combining with the augment ^ a, according to 260. a .• thus, '^'^ 
5th c, ' to prosper,' which ought to be reduplicated into '3^^ by 331. a, becomes, 
by transposition of the vowels, ^f^V ; and with ^ prefixed, ^Tf^>I by 260. a (^iff^T 
' I caused to prosper,' &c.). Similarly, "35'?" 1st c, ' to infer,' which ought to be 
^ais ijiih, becomes "^sfrr? tijih; and ^vith ^ prefixed, '^flT^ (^THT^ ' I caused to 
infer'). So also, ^TPJ 5th c, ' to obtain,' makes WrfT?''? ' I caused to obtain;' 
^■5 2d c, ' to praise,' makes ^TT? ' I caused to praise.' Compare the Greek 2d 
aorist Vjyayov from aya, and copopov from cpw. 

a. If a root end in a compound consonant, the first member of the compound is 
rejected from the final, but not from the reduplicated letter : thus, ^? ist c, * to 
be worthy,' makes ^ifW^ ' I caused to be worthy,' ' I honoured ;' T?^ 7th c, 
' to moisten,' makes wf^^ ' I caused to moisten.' 

b. Note, that "SET ksh is treated as a single consonant, and ^cA is reduplicated for 
it by 331. c; thus, '^^ ist c, 'to see,' makes ^Pmsj aichiksham, ' I caused to see.' 

Panini VII, 4. 4. 


c. Roots consisting of a single vowel, form their causal 3d preterite from the 
causal base (after rejecting ay a) : thus, the root '^, ' to go,' makes its causal base 
arp, ' to deliver over;' and its causal 3d pret. '^rrftT'T ' I caused to deliver.' 

d. "91^ 2d c, ' to cover,' makes ^^'^. 

Benedictive and conditional of causals. 

495. The base of the benedictive, Xtmane, and of the conditional 
in both voices, does not differ fronn that of the non-conjugational 
tenses ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, 
which is always assumed. In the Parasmai of the benedictive both 
ay and i are rejected, but any other change of the root is retained : 
thus, ^>l ist c, ' to know,^ makes in benedictive bodliydsam &c., bodha- 
yishiya &c. ; in conditional, abodhayishyam &c., abodhaijishye &c. 

Passive form of causals. 

496. In forming a passive verb from a causal base, the causal 
affix ?FR is rejected, but the other causal changes of the root are 
retained before the passive affix ya : thus, from the causal base 
tmni jjcitaya (from xttt ist c, 'to fall') comes the passive pdtya, 
making 3d sing. Tjmw ' he is made to fall.' Similarly, ^T 1st c, 
' to stand,' makes WR^fw ' he causes to stand,' WTOI^ ' he is made to 
stand ;' and frr 9th c, ' to know,' makes ^Tjfw ' he causes to know,' 
and grq^ ' he is caused to know,' * he is informed.' 

a. In the non-conjugational tenses, the base of all the tenses, 
excepting the 2d preterite, may vary from the Xtmane form by the 
optional rejection of the conjugation ^snr. But in the 2d preterite, 
the Atmane of the usual form with dm and the auxiliaries (490, 385) 
is admitted for the passive. In the 3d preterite, the usual redupli- 
cated form (492) gives place to the Atmane form which belongs to 
those verbs of the first nine classes which assume i : thus, from 
>TT^^, the causal base of >T ' to be,' come the passive 2d pret. HT^- 
TfT^^; ist fut. HT^^nn% or mf^^; 2d fut. HT^xw or >TTfV^; 
3d pret. ^SMT'^fJTfTT or '^wrf^ftr, 3d sing, ^^rmf^; bened. ifRfJT^'^^ or 
>7Tf«nfNr; cond. '^mr^ftr^ or wnrfT^. So also, from ^PHT, the causal 
base of ^JT ' to cease,' come the passive 2d pret. '^TTirr^iR or ^IH^'IIT^ ; 
1st fut. •^TTTftnrrir or ^miTt ; 2d fut. •^irrfq^ or ^fir^; 3d pret. ^qm- 
ftrft? or W^ri^^, 3d sing. tHjiPh ; bened. ^rnfM^l^ &c.; and the radical 
a may in every case be optionally lengthened : thus, ist fut. •^prftnTT^ 
or ^T^rfqint &c. 


Desiderative form of causals. 

497. Causals may take a desiderative form (498) : thus, from 
pdtaydmi, '• I cause to fall/ pipdtmjishdmi, ' I desire to cause to fall ;' 
from swdpaydmi, ' I cause to sleep/ svshwdpayishdmi, ' I desire to 
cause to sleep/ 


498. Every root in the ten classes may take a desiderative 

a. Although this form of the root rarely appears in its character of a verb, yet nouns 
and participles derived from the desiderative base are not uncommon (see 80. XXII, 
and 82. III). Moreover, there are certain roots which take a desiderative form, 
without yielding a volitive signification ; and these, as being equivalent to primi- 
tive verbs (amongst which they are sometimes classed"), may occur in the best 
writers. For example, jugups, ' to blame,' from the root J^ gup ; chikits, ' to 
cure,' from "RJiT kit; titiksh, 'to bear,' from frl"5T tij j niimdns, 'to reason,' from 
T»T man; bibhats, ' to abhor,' from "^X^ hddh. 

499. Note, that desideratives take the terminations of the scheme 
at 247, with the substitutions required in the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth 
classes ; and their inflection, either in the Parasmai or i^tmane, is 
determined by the practice of the primitive verb : thus, the root 
^ budh, ist c, ' to know,^ taking both inflections in the primitive, 
may take both in the desiderative {bubodhishdmi &c., or bubodhishe 
&c., ' I desire to know') ; and e5>^ labh, ^ to take,' taking only the 
i^tmane in the primitive, may take only the Atmane in the desidera- 
tive {lipse Sec, ' I desire to take'). 

500. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and 
if the primitive verb inserts ^i (see 388. a), affix ^ ish; if it rejects 
i, then simply ^ s, changeable to "^ sh, to the root so reduplicated : 
the vowel a is then added to form the base, as in the ist, 4th, 6th, 
and loth classes ; and, according to the rule in those classes, this a 
is lengthened before m and v. 

a. Thus, from f^ kship, 6th c, ' to throw,' comes the base 
chikshipsa {chiksipsd + mi = f'^^''^fJT cldkshlpsdmi &c., ' I desire to 
throw') ; but from f^ vid, 2d c, ' to know,' taking inserted i, comes 
vividisha {vividishd + mi = f^f^f^'mfr{ vividishdmi &c.). 

b. The reduphcation of the consonant is strictly in conformity with the rules 
laid down at 331, and that of the vowel of the initial consonant follows the 

Y 2 


analogy of causal third preterites at 493; that is, the vowel "^i (generally, however, 
short) is reduplicated for a, a, i, i, ri, ri, e, or ai; but the vowel "^u for u, li, and 0. 
Obser\'e — The final consonant of a root rejecting i will unite with the s oi sa, in 
accordance with the rules at 296 : thus, from ^^ ist c. comes the base pipaksha 
by 296; from TJT^ ist c. comes yiydchisha ; from "ifr^ ist c, jijwisha ; from "H^ 
1st c, didriksha ; from ^T^ ist c, sisevisha (in this and in some other roots 
beginning with s, the i of the reduplicated syllable does not influence the follow- 
ing s, as might be expected from rule 70) ; from ^ ist c, jigds j from sTT, jijnds 
{yiyvcoaKCt}) -. but fi'om '^l^ 7th c. comes yuyukshuj from \c)t\i c, pupusha; from 
^W 4th c, f^W buhhutsa, see 299. a if^^\^ I Ph &c., ftlillP^cmfiT &c.). 

c. And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy 
of the same tense : thus, from W^T comes ^f^'^T ; and with isha added, ^f^T'^T'^. 
Similarly, fi'om '3?'f comes arjikisha ; from liir, vjihisha ; from ^W, tchikshisha ; 
from '3"«^, undidiska: see 494. The vowel i is reduplicated for a, as being Ughter ; 
see 331. e. 

501. When a root takes the inserted i, and consequently forms its desiderative 
with isha, the radical vowel may in general be optionally gunated : thus, H^ ist c, 
' to rejoice,' makes either miimodisha or mumudisha. 

502. When '^ sa is affixed to roots ending in vowels, it has the efPect of lengthen- 
ing a final ^ i or "^ ii j of changing ^ e, ^ ai, ^ o, to ^ dj "^ ri or '^ n to ^ tr, 
or after a labial to "31^ itr .- thus, from V^ 5th c. comes chicMsha; from "^ 5th c, 
susrushaj from "^ 8th c, chiktrsha; fi'om ^T ist c.,jigdsa; from TT, tifirsha; from 
^,pupursha; from >T, bublmrsha; from T, mumursha. 

a. When it is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the radical vowel remains 
unchanged, but the final consonant combines with the initial sibilant, in accordance 
with the rules laid down at 296; as, from ^g^ 4th c. comes yuyutsa (299) ; from 
^^ ist c. comes didhaksha (306. a) ; from H^ 2d c, dudhuksha j from >1^ 7th c, 

503. The followng roots form their desiderative bases anomalously : from ^ 
3d c, ' to give,' comes ditsa {ditsdmi, ' I \vish to give') ; from TTj ' to measure,' 
mitsa ; from ^''J 5th c, ' to obtain,' comes ipsa ; from VT, ' to place,' dhitsa : 
so also, from V, ' to drink,' dhitsa j ft'om faT, ' to conquev,' jiyishaj from pef, to 
gather,' chlMsha, as well as chicMsha ; from f '5T, ' to kill,' HriMIti ; from ?I^, 
nHUHj ; from V^ , fiT^lfgiTT ; from ^^T, 'W^'^ ; from ^IcF, ' to be able,' f^T^ 
from c5>T, ' to obtain,' fr5^ ; from TTV, frW ; fi'om T>?, fx"^ ; fi-om trff, fcrW 
from ^V, tn&, or regularly "^tfv^ ; from f^^T, J!^> or regularly f^f^ 
from ^, ^^; from <Tft^, f^^frr^i? ; from ^, PlTMrH, substituted from 
TITT 304. a. 

504. When causals and verbs of the loth class take a desiderative form, they 
retain ay, and are all formed with isha .- thus, ''^ makes chuchorayishdmi &c. 
The causal adhydpayati, ' he causes to go over,' ' he teaches,' makes ^m4 I Tm m Tm m Tn 
or 'SrfvftnTTtrftT^flT &c., ' he desires to teach.' 


Non-conjugational tenses of desideratives. 

505. The second preterite is formed by affixing dm to the desiderative base, as 
already formed, and adding the second preterite of either one of the auxiUaries kri 
or bhi (see 385. b) : thus, from pack comes the 2d preterite pipakshdnchakdra, ' I 
wished to cook.' In aU the remaining tenses it is an universal rule, that inserted 
i be assumed after the desiderative base, whether formed by sa or isha, except in 
the bened. Parasmai: thus, from pack comes ist fut. ist sing, pipakshitdsmi &c. ; 
2d fut. pipakshishydmi &c; 3d pret. apipakshisham &c. (form II. at 427); bened. 
F&rasmsa pipakshydsam &c.; Atmane pipakshishiya &c.; cond. apipakshishyam &c. 
So also, taking vividish (formed with ish from vid), the ist fut. is vividishitdsmi j 
2d fut. vividishishydmi ; 3d pret. avividishisham &c. 

Causal form of desideratives. 

506. Desiderative verbs may sometimes take a causal form : thus, div, ' to play,' 
makes Pres. dudyushdmi, ' I desire to play;' dudyushaydmi, I cause to desire to 


507. Every one of the roots in the ten classes may take a fre- 
quentative form. 

a. This form is even less used than the desiderative. In the present participle, 
however, and in a few nouns, it may sometimes appear (see 80. XXII). It either 
expresses repetition or gives intensity to the radical idea, especially in the case of 
roots signifying ' to shine,' ' to be beautiful,' or ' to lament :' thus, from ^'^^, ' to 
shine,' comes the frequentative base dedipya (Pres. 3d sing, dedtpyate, ' it shines 
brightly'), and the present participle dedipyamdna, 'shining brightly:' so also, 
from ^>T, ' to be beautiful,' comes sosubhya and sosubhyamdna : from ^^, ' to 
weep,' rorudya and rorudyamdna. 

508. There are two kinds of frequentative verb, the one a redu- 
plicated j^tmane-pada verb, conforming, like neuter and passive verbs, 
to the conjugation of the 4th class, and usually, though not always, 
yielding a neuter signification ; the other a redupHcated Parasmai- 
pada verb, following the conjugation of the 3d class of verbs. This 
last is rarely used *. 

a. Observe — There is no frequentative form for roots of the loth 
class, or for polysyllabic roots f, or for most roots beginning with 

* Intensive or frequentative forms are found in Greek, such as Traiirakkd), 
Ba/^aAAo),[xd^cc or [xatjxdu}, 'Trafxtpaivco, dXaXd^w. 

t li^ ' to cover' excepted, which has for its first form "^i^V^, and for its 
second ^^iT. 


vowels. Some roots beginning with vowels take the iV^tmane form 
of frequentative ; see 511, 681, 

h. The terminations for the first form of frequentative will be 
those of the i^tmane at 247, with the usual substitutions required 
for the 4th class of verbs. For the second form they will be the 
regular Parasmai-pada terminations of the memorial scheme at 246. 

509. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational 
tenses. Reduphcate the initial consonant and vowel of the passive 
base according to the rules for reduplicating consonants at 331, and 
gunate the reduplicated vowel (if capable of Guna), whether it be 
long or short : thus, from the passive base c(hl (of da, ' to give') 
comes the frequentative base dediya (Pres. i. dediya + i = '^^^, 2. 
dediya + se =^^tl^ &c.) ; from ^hl (passive of hd, ' to quit') comes 
jehiya (Jehiye &c.) ; from stirya comes testirya ; from puya, popiiya ; 
from vidya, vevidya ; from budhya, bobudhya (Pres. '^Vti^, "^^uifi, 
-flj^^uirt^ &c.). The conjugation of all four tenses will correspond 
exactly with that of the passive. 

510. If the passive base contain a medial "^ a, long a is substituted in the 
reduplication ; as, pdpachya from pachya : sdsmarya from smarya : if a medial a, 
e, or 0, the same are reduplicated; as, y ay achy a from y achy a; seshevya from sevyaj 
lolochya from lochya : if a medial "^ ri, then ^T^ art* is substituted in the redu- 
pHcation ; as, <^0^^*4 from dris'yaj M<ltM^*4 from sprisya, &c. 

511. If a passive base contain TT ri, this becomes '^n in the frequentative base; 
as, '^^hr from fwi (passive of "^T ' to do'). If the base begin with ^ a, as in 
■*-5i6i2| (itya (from ^CZ ' to wander'), the initial at is repeated, and the radical a 
lengthened : thus, -iMM-^ atdtya (3d sing. '^rjT^W). 

512. If the passive base contain a nasal after short a, this nasal is often repeated; 
as, from gam, ' to go,' comes '5!^'*-q ( t|^<4<( &c.), 'to walk crookedly;' from 
bhram, bambhramya. 

a. The passive bases ITW, tT^iT, ^^^I, >T5?Tj and some others, may insert nasals, 
instead of lengthening the vowel in the reduplication : thus, '5T5"^ &c. 

b. Padya (from jjad) inserts tft ni: thus, pampadyaf j from charya is formed 
^■^m; from hunyu, passive of han, 'to kill,' arfft^ ; from ghrdya, 'W^lt^', from 
dhmdya, ^wftxT (^T*fNl &c.). 

* This supports the idea that the original Guna of ri is ari. See 29. b. 
t Similarly, the roots 4^, 'B\, cj^, ^'^, "^^ ("^Rt*?^^ &c.). 


Non-conjugational tenses of Atmane-pada frequentatives, 

513. In these tenses frequentatives follow the analogy of passives, and reject the 
affix ya. Since, however, the base of the second preterite is formed by affixing dm 
(as usual in all polysyllabic forms, see 385. b), and since, in aU the other tenses, 
inserted i is assumed, a coalition of vowels might arise were it not allowed to 
retain y in all cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that letter * : thus, 
from dedipya is formed the 2d preterite (ist sing.) dedipdhchakre &c., rejecting ya: 
but from dediya, dediydhchakre &c., retaining y. Similarly in the other tenses : 
ist fut. dedipitdhe &c., dediyitdhe &c. ; 2d fut. dedipishye Sec, dediyishye &c. ; 
3d pret. adedipisU &c., adediyishi &c. ; bened. dedipisMya &c., dediyisMya &c.; 
cond. adedipishye &c., adediyishye &c. In the 3d sing. 3d preterite i is not allowed 
to take the place of the regular terminations, as in the passive form. 


514. Rule for the formation of the base in the four conjugational tenses. The 
base is here also formed by a reduplication similar to that of Atmane-pada fre- 
quentatives; not, however, from the passive, but from the root: thus, from the root 
pack comes pdpachj from vid, vevid ; fi'om "^^j daridris s from "^j charikrif. 
Moreover, in accordance with the rules for the 2d and 3d conjugation (307, 330), 
the radical vowel is gunated before the P terminations of the scheme at 246. 
Hence come the two bases veved and vevid (Pres. vevedmi, vevetsi, vevetti; Du. 
vevidwas, &c. ; ist Pret. avevedam, avevet, avevet, avevidwa, &c. ; Pot. vevidydm, 
&c. ; Imp. veveddni, veviddhi, vevettu, veveddva, vevittam, &c.). Again, the base 
will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at 296 &c., as in budh (Pres. 
bobodhmi, bobhotsi, boboddhi, bobudhwas, &c.). And in further analogy to the 2d 
conjugation (313, 314) long » is often optionally inserted before the consonantal P 
terminations (Pres. vevedimi, vevedishi, vevediti; Du. vevidwas, &c. ; ist Pret. ave- 
vedam, avevedis, avevedit, avevidwa, &c. ; Imp. veveddni, veviddhi, veveditu). 

515. Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place of i 
and i to y or iy ; of u and u to uv; and of ri to r (see 312) : as in the roots bhi, 
bhu, kri (Pres. ist sing, bebhemi, bobhomi, charkarmi ; 3d plur. bebhyati, bobhuvati, 

a. Observe — Roots in "^n substitute d in the redupUcated syllable : thus, from 
ep, ^TofT ; from ^, rTrer ; from IT, "TPT, &c. 

Non-conjugational tenses of Parasmai-pada frequentatives. 

516. The second preterite follows the usual rule for polysyllabic bases (385. b), 

* In passives this coalition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel 
to Vriddhi, as of chi to chdy, of hu to hdv, and of kri to kdr; and by the change of 
final d to dy, as of da to day; see 473. 

t In the Parasmai form of frequentative, ari and ar as well as art may be redu- 
plicated for the vowel "^ ri; so that "^ may make t^O^^^ or ^ftr^^ or ^f^J 
and "^j -mO* or ""iRoji or ^^. 


and affixes dm with the auxiliaries : thus, from vid, ' to know,' comes ist sing. 
veviddmdsa J from bin, bebhydmdsa. In the other tenses, excepting the benedictive, 
inserted i is invariably assumed; and before this inserted i roots ending in vowels 
forbid the usual Guna change in the futures, but admit Vriddhi in the 3d preterite : 
thus, ist fut. 1st sing, veveditdsmi &c., bebhyitdsmi &c. (367) ; 2d fut. vevedishydmi 
&c., bebhyishydmi &c.; 3d pret. avevedisham &c., abebhdyisham &c.; bened. vevidyd- 
sam &c., bebhiydsamj cond. avevedishyam, abebhyishyam. This rejection of Guna, 
however, admits of question, especially in the case of roots in u or li. 

Causal, desiderative, and desiderative causal form of frequentatives. 

517. Frequentatives are said to be capable of these forms : thus, fi'om the fre- 
quentative base totud, 'to strike often,' come totudaydmi, ' I cause to strike often ;' 
totudishdmi, ' I desire to strike often ;' totudayishami, ' I desire to cause to strike 


518. These are formed by adding certain affixes to the crude base 
of nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, 
there is no limit to their formation. They might be classed under 
three heads, according to their meaning; viz. ist, transitive nomi- 
nals, yielding the sense of performing, practising, making or using 
the thing or quality expressed by the noun ; 2d, intransitive nomi- 
nals, giving a sense of behaving like, becoming like, acting like the 
person or thing expressed by the noun ; 3d, desiderative nominals, 
yielding the sense of wishing for the thing expressed by the noun. 
It will be more convenient, however, to arrange them according to 
the affixes by which they are formed, as follows : — 

Observe — The terminations of nominals will be those of the scheme at 247, 
making use of the substitutions required by the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes. 

519. 1st, Those formed by affixing ^ a (changeable to a before m 
and v) to a nominal base, the final of the base being gunated (if 
capable of Guna). When the base ends in a, this vowel takes the 
place of the affix a. A final a absorbs the affix. 

a. Thus, from ^^ ' Krishna,' Pres. i. ^^TflT ' I act hke Krishna,' 2. ■^HITftT, 
3. "^nirfW, &c. So from oRf% ' a poet,' Pres. i . '^.'^ITTfiT ' I act the poet,' 2. <*«<Mr«, 
&c. ; and from ftlW ' a father,' Pres. i. ftTrTTTfn ' I act like a father,' 2. ftnTTfTT, 
3. ftlinrfiT. A'tm. Pres. i. fTTTT, &c. ; from mcYT ' a garland,' Pres. i. »TTc5TfH, 
2. H Irtl fa , 3. J^raifiT ; ist Pret. i. 4iHlc«ii, 2. ^SWTcJW, &c. ; Pot. m^, &c. ; 
from ^ ' own,' Pres. 3. ^frT ' he acts like himself.' Sometimes a final i or w is 
not gunated; as, from '^ ' a beak,' Pres. '^^Tf'T, ''^ftTj ^^fi^, ' he uses his 
beak,' &c. ; from ^if^ ' a poet,' ofi^TftT, <*«S^ftT, &c. Words ending in nasals 


preserve the nasals, and lengthen the preceding- vowels ; as, TT'TT^fw ' he acts like 
a king,' TT^'^vrfrf ' it serves as a road,' ^TTftT ' he arts like this.' 

520. 2dly, Those formed by affixing t( ya to a nominal base. 

a. If it is intended to express ' wish^ or ' desire,' then a final ^ a 
or ^T d must be changed to ^ ? ,- a final ?^ i or "? u must be length- 
ened ; a final -^ ri changed to t} ri ; and a final "?? 7i dropped, before 
H ya is affixed. 

b. Thus, from "^^ ' a son,' Pres. i. '5^^*T ' I desire a son,' 2. ^^^^^^f^, &c. j 
from xrfir ' a husband,' Pres. i. 'Trrhrrf*? ' I desire a husband,' &c. So also, from 
Wnt comes mW^xnfiT, &c. ; from 1:T*T^, Pres. TTWhnfiT, &c. ; Pot. ^T^ft^, &c. 
If a word end in a consonant, ya is generally affixed without change ; as, fi'om 
■^T^ ' a word,' '^T^'^fJT ' he wishes for words.' 

c. This form of nominal has not always a desiderative meaning. The following 
are examples of other meanings, some of which properly belong to the next form : 
TTHlffl^fri ' he fancies himself in a palace;' ^^^frT ' he acts like a poet;' otKliilfri 
or -W ' he scratches ;' T?T"^fjT or -TT ' he sins' or ' he is angry ;' fjT^hrfT ' he acts 
the part of a friend;' WR^ffT 'he performs penance' (from tapas, 'penance'); 
fril.wfR' ' he vanishes ;' T^fiT ' he seeks cows' (from m ' a cow'). 

d. If it is intended to express ' behaving like,' ' acting like,' a final ^ a must 
be lengthened, a final ^Ta retained, and a final "^T «, TfT s, or TT ^ may be dropped : 
thus, from "Tftj^ff ' a \nse man,' Pres. i. "^f;J3rrT'^ ' I act the part of a ^nse man,' 
2. TlfllTtrr^, 3. ^ftjTfTTmr, &c. ; from "5^ ' a tree,' Pres. i. '^'HT'JT, &c. ; from 
TT»nT ' a king,' Pres. i . TTtTT'^, &c. ; from TWR^' sorrowful,' Pres. T'lT'^T^, &c. ; 
from ^^^ ' great,' Pres. ^^rt'} &c. 

e. This nominal is sometimes found with an active sense, especially when derived 
from nouns expressive of colour; as, from <*«!! 'black,' 'Srwr'^'ff or -Trf 'he 
blackens :' and sometimes in the Parasmai with a neuter sense ; as, from 1»16( 
' crooked,' faT^TT^rfrT ' it is crooked ;' from ^"W ' a slave,' ^T^TT^frT ' he is a slave.' 
It corresponds to Greek desiderative denominatives in laci}, as Qavariaw &c. 

521. 3dly, Those formed by affixing ^xf aya to a nominal base. 
This form is similar to that of causals and verbs of the loth class, 
with Avhich it is sometimes confounded. Like them it has generally 
an active sense. A final vowel must be dropped before aya ; and if 
the nominal base have more than one syllable, and end in a consonant, 
both the consonant and its preceding vowel must be dropped. 

a. Thus, from ^^ ' cloth,' Pres. i. ■^f^XITf*? ' I clothe,' 2. ^f^^TrfjT, 3. ^^^filT, 
&e. ; from ^A*l ' armour,' Pres. i. ^J^Mlf^T ' I put on armour,' &c. ; from W^Wi 
' authoritj-,' HHKU'lTTf'T ' I propose as authority ;' from H»T ' a garland,' tUlMlfff 
' I crown,' &c. 


b. In further analogy to causals, a ''| ;j is sometimes inserted between the base 
and ay a, especially if the noun be monosyllabic, and end in a. Before this ^j), 
Vriddhi is required : thus, from ^ ' own,' Pres. ■^TH^lfH ' I make my own.' 
There are one or two examj)les of dissyllabic nouns : thus, from «<« ' true,' 
^TWnillTfiT, &c.* 

c. If the base be monosyllabic, and end in a consonant, Guna may take place ; 
as, from "^^ ' hunger,' 'SfryrxrrftT. 

d. Whatever modifications adjectives undergo before the affixes lyas and ishtha 
at 194, the same take place before aya: thus, from ^7m ' long,' ^^iMilll*?, 5 1 m q Ul , 
&c. ; from ■afii'^ ' near,' '?r<^ <J I Pm ' I make near,' &c. 

e. This form of nominal is rarely neuter, as P^J *,M iTT ' he delays' (from "P^T ' long'). 
According to Prof. Bopp, Greek denominatives in a^», an, ecu, ow, i^a, correspond 
to this form ; as, ovofx-a^co, yvvaiK-i^w, TroAe/A-oo). 

522. 4thly, Those formed by affixing ^ sya or w^ asya to a 
nominal base, giving it the form of a future tense, generally with the 
sense of ' desiring,' ' longing for.' 

a. Thus, from "^^ ' milk,' Pres. i. "SjtTFTTf'T ' I desire milk,' 2. T^TWPh', &c. ; 
from "^ ' a bull,' •^MUlfrT ' (the cow) desires the bull;' from rfftl ' curds,' ^^- 
WTm ' I desire curds,' &c. Compare Greek desideratives in cre/OJ. 

523. jthly, Those formed by affixing odTR^ kdmya (derived from 
kam, ' to desire') to a nominal base ; as, from "TW ' a son,' Pres. i . 
^pfejiiwiiPH ' I desire a son,' 2. Mc:(<*iwjP^, 3. ■^^cBTWjfff, &c. 



524. These are the only participles that have any affinity with 
the conjugational structure of the verb. The base in the Parasmai 
is formed by substituting w t for nti, and ^sr?^ at for anti and ati, 
the terminations of the 3d plural present; so that the pecuharities of 
conjugation necessarily appear in the participle : thus, from TT^fVfT 
imchanti, ' they cook' (3d pi. pres. of tj"^^, ist c), comes Vr^pachat, 
' cooking ;' from Tifrfl- ghnanti (3d pi. of han, 2d c.) comes ghtiat ; 
from TrfsfT (3d pi. of as, 2d c, * to be') comes sat; from "qfJa" * they go' 
(3d pi. of ^, 2d c), TTH;^ ' going ;' from -^ifnT (3d pi. of ttt, 2d c), ^mi;; 
from ^^ff( juhwati (3d pi. of hu, 3d c), "^it^juhwat ; from "iprfsff 
nrityanti, 4th c, nrityat ; from fxitS^Pvyr chinwanti, 5th c, f^^^ 
chinwat ; from dpnuvanti, 5th c, dpnuvat ; from rundhanti, 7th c, 
rundhat ; from kurvanti, 8th c, kurvat ,- from punanti, 9th c, punat. 

* Similarlv, ■^, ' substance,' makes ^T^^Tlf'T, &c. 


525. So again, from the causal •^hnrPtT, ' they cause to know^ 
{479), comes bodhayat, ' causing to know ;' from the clesiderative 
^^fVrwPtT, * they desire to know' (499), comes bubodhishat, ' desiring 
to know;' from ditsanti, ' thej desire to give' (503), comes ditsat, 
^ desiring to give.' 

a. It has been remarked at 253. b, that the passive verb may sometimes assume 
a Parasmai-pada inflection ; and that all the neuter verbs placed under the 4th 
conjugation may be considered as so many examples of this form of the passive. 
This theory is corroborated by the fact of the existence of a Parasmai-pada present 
participle derivable from a passive base : thus, from the passive base "^"^ drisya 
comes T^^n^ ' being seen ;' from ^''7 chiya (passive base of chi) comes ■«li*4rf 
being gathered.' 

b. The inflection of Parasmai-pada present participles is explained 
at 141. In the first five inflections a nasal is inserted, proving that 
the base of this participle properly ends in ant. In the cognate 
languages the n is preserved throughout. 

c. Thus, compare Sanskrit bharan, bharantam (from bhri), with (pepav, (pepovra, 
ferentem; also, bharantau (Ved. bharantd) with (pepovre ; bharantas with (f>(povT€^, 
ferentes; bharatas with (pepovra^ ; gen. sing, bharatas with (pepoVTOg, ferentis. 
So also, Sanskrit vahan, vahantam, with vehens, vehentem ; and san, santam (from 
as, ' to be'), with the se7is of ab-sens, pra-sens. Compare also the base strinwant 
with (J-TOpVVVT. 


526. The base is formed by substituting JTT«T mdna for nte, the 
termination of the 3d plur. pres. of verbs of the ist, 4th, and 6th 
conjugations, and passives ; and by substituting ^IT?T ana for ate, the 
termination of the 3d plur. pres. of verbs of the other conjugations ; 
see 247, p. 106: thus, from Jrw^ pachante (ist conj.) comes "q^irnT 
pachamdna, 'cooking;' from fiff?^ {sthd, ist conj.), fiTffH'R 'stand- 
ing;' from "Jpr^ (4th conj.), "^iijHrH ; from fc5«r% [Up, 6th conj.), 

a. But from "3^^ bruvate ("g^ 2d conj.), W^TO bruvdna (see 58) ; 
from friuw (^"^ with frf 2d conj.), fTrfTT'^; from f^\iw [dhd, 3d conj.), 
^VT«T; from fgr^ (5th conj.), fqr^r^; from ■^^w (7th conj.), ■^'^T^; 
from oF^ (8th conj.), oF^ttt; from V^ (9th conj.), ^^^. The root 
^rnr 2d c, ' to sit,' makes ^^rnftrf for ^niTJT ; and ^t 2d c. is ^w in 
3d pi. (see 315), but ^^pJJ^ in the pres. participle. 

b. Observe — The real affix for the Atmane-pada pres. participle is mdna, of 
Z 2 


which una is probably an abbreviation. Compare the Greek /Aevo : VJI^HUll (58) 

527. Verbs of the loth conjugation and causals may substitute 
either mdna or ana, but more frequently the latter: thus, from 
bodhayante comes bodhuyamdna and bodhaydna ; from darsayante, 
darsaydna ; from vedayante, vedaydna. The affix ana is probably 
prefeiTed on account of the greater fulness of form of verbs of the 
loth class. 

528. Passives and other derivative verbs always substitute mdna : 
thus, from f^ir^, 'they are made/ comes f^ ^iH I HI , 'being made' (58); 
from ffhRT, ' they are given/ ^i|HH, ' being given / from the desi- 
derative f<rHn<, ' they desire to give/ HirtlMT^, ' desiring to give / 
from ftrq-Nr^, ' they desire to kill/ ftrxrhnrR, ' desiring to kill.' 

329. The inflection of i^tmane-pada pres. participles follows that 
of the 1st class of nouns at 103: thus, N. masc. sing. •q^HT^; 
fem. TT^T^T: ueut, •q^qiTR. 



530. These participles may be regarded as falling under four 
heads: ist, as derived from roots; 2dly, as derived from causal 
bases ; 3dly, as derived from desiderative bases ; 4thly, as derived 
from nominal bases. 

I. Derived from roots. 

531. In general the base is formed by adding w ta directly to the 
root; as, from f^f^kship, 'to throw/ fi^TT kshipta, 'thrown.' 

a. But if the root end in "^ ri, by adding ff ?ia ; as, from ejf kri, 
' to scatter,' ^h& kirna, ' scattered.' Some roots in wr «, ^ i, and 
^ u, some in ^ ai preceded by two consonants, with some of those 
in ^ d, t: r, sT j, one in tt y, and one in ^ ch, rejecting inserted i 
(see the lists at 394) from the participle, also take na instead of ta. 

532. Roots ending in vowels do not admit inserted ^ i in this 
participle, although they may admit it in the futures* (395. a, 396. b, 
397, &c.), but attach ta or na directly to the root ; as, from in yd, 
TTTfT ydfa, ' gone ;' from f>T, f»TrT ' conquered ;' from rft, "^W nita ; 

* ^, however, makes T^ftflT ; and "T may be tjfVir as well as "Tff . 


from ^, ^ ; from H, >TTT ; from oir, oFTT ; from in, TTnn {58) ; from 
c^, 'pJbT ; from ^, ^tisr ; from <^, cg^ ; from fi^, s^. 

533. But in certain cases the final vowel of the root is changed : thus, some 
roots in ^^TT a change a to i before ta ; as, from "^1 sfhrl, iWT^ sthita j from 'PfT, 
ffflf; from <frT^j ^Tf^. VT, ' to place,' becomes f^TT; ^, ' to give,' ^^* ; 
"TT, ' to drink,' ''flTT. jTT, ' to quit,' becomes '^ before 7ia ('?T»T). Some roots in 
a take both na and /«; as, from IH, ITHir and "UTrT; from ^, with the preposition 
fJTT, f^^TO and f^TTnT. 

534. Roots in '^n change n to ir before na, which passes into ^ na by 58; as, 
from IT, ' to pass,' ift^, ' passed.' But from ""I, "'T^ ' full,' ' filled.' 

535. The root V dhe, ' to suck,' becomes >ft before ta (vtrf) ; d^" hwe, ' to call,' 
hii (Tif) ; "^ ve/ to weave,' u i'^) ; '^ vye, ' to cover,' "^ vi ('^tw). 

536. Roots in ^ ai generally change ai to a before na or taj as, from ^ mlai, 
' to fade,' «-c<>l«1 mldna ; from UT, ' to meditate,' ■HTTiT ; from ^, ' to purify,' ^TrT ; 
from S'j 'to rescue,' "^JJHi or ^TW. But from iT, 'to sing,' jftlT; from '^,'to 
waste,' "^m. 

537. Roots in ^ change to i; as, from ^, ftnT ; from ^T, f^ITT. 

538. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted i 
in the last five tenses (388. a), generally take this vowel also in the 
past passive participle, but not invariably (see 542). Whenever i is 
assumed, ta is affixed, and not na ; as, from xnr pat, * to fall/ "qfinT 
patita, ' fallen ;' and if "5 w or ^ n precede the final consonant of 
the root, these vowels may take Guna ; as, from ?nr dyut, ^rrfwTT 
dyotita ; from JT^, Jrflw. ?r^, ' to take,' lengthens the inserted i 
(iT^ltf ' taken'). 

539. Roots ending in consonants which reject the inserted i in 
the last five tenses (400), generally reject it in the past passive 
participle. They must be combined with ta, agreeably to the rules 
at 296, &c. Whatever form, therefore, the final consonant assumes 
before the termination td of the ist future (see the lists at 400), the 
same form will generally, though not invariably, be preserved before 
the ta of the past participle ; so that, in many cases, this participle 
may be derived from the 3d sing, of the ist future by shortening 
the final a, and, if necessary, restoring the radical vowel to its 
original state : thus, taking some of the examples at 400 ; ^raiT 

* When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da may be rejected : thus, 
dtta for ddatta, ' taken ;' pratta for pradatta, ' bestowed ;' vydtta for vyddatta, ex- 
panded;' paritta ior paridattaj siitta for sudatta, the i and u being lengthened. 


iaktd, * he will be able/ gives ^^ sakta, ' able ;' ^^ sektd, ' he will 
sprinkle/ ftr^ sikta, * sprinkled / iftW moktd, ^ mukta ; TJFT, "^; 
w^, 7r?f>', "tftw, "5^; H¥T, ^; mFT, ^; ^ITT, ftri; ^^, ^; 

xft^T, "5^; "^TTT, f^TT; 79^7, ^TT ; ^T, ^; ohrHl, "^IT; ?53rr, c53r; 
<^tan,^; wr, f^; "^ft, 1?; "^tFT, 1»F; t^T, ff?; ^"\¥T, ^; "as^T, 
^; irrr, tt?; c^ft, i^¥; tjft, ^; ^^VT, ^^v; ^ft^, ^ftg"; ''Tirr, 'T5; 

TTTT, ^TT; HTT, «^ (SOJ- «) J ^^^j "f'?'^; ^^VT, fwV; ft^T, ''^ 
(305. a) ; jftrr, ^; or hVvt, wnj; ^trm, Jt\i; jf^, 'T^ : but ^j-^i^^ 
' to fry/ which is >JFr in the i st future, is ^ in the participle. 

540. Most roots ending in ^ d, forbidding the inserted ^ i (404), take na 
instead of ta, and are combined with na, agreeably to 47; as, from "R^, 'T^; 
from f>T»f, firW; from Wf^, mth the preposition f^, ?^H*u (70 and 58); from 
^T^ ' to eat/ ^TW (unless '3FV is substituted, from jaksh at 542). 

541. Those roots ending in "^j, which take na, change j to g before na; as, 
from f^r»^ vij, ?H**\ vujna ; from ^^ rnj, '^TT{ rugna. So from Tt5T , rejecting 
one _;, W^ ; from rt-n^ ' to be ashamed,' rt'»i (as well as c^fWrT). '^'T, ' to 
adhere,' also makes A* A ; and "3'^, ' to cut,' makes «jomi or ^^ (see 58). 

542. Some roots which admit i in the futures, reject it in this participle ; as, 
Y^, 1st fut. VjfMril, but pass. part. "^ ; so '^, 'Hp<r!T, but ^W (with ^STT a pre- 
fixed, ^ra ' pained') ; "H;^, ^f^TTT, but "S^ ; »T<T, rff^TTT, but TW ; ITW ' to eat,' 
*ir«|ril, but aTV; r(hr 'to shine,' ^T!TT, but ^hl ; ^T^T 'to perish,' »Tf^nrr, 
but "JTF; ^^ 'to faint,' ^jf^TiTT, but JJ^ as well as irfSTiT; IW 'to speak 
barbarously,' 5"^^3^» but f^F as well as S"^"**" '■> '^-^ ' to dance,' 'T'finiT, but 
■^ as well as »TfinT. 

543. If in forming the passive base (471), or in the 2d preterite (375. c. d), the 
V ox y contained in a root is changed to its semivowel u or i, the same change 
takes place in the past passive participle : thus, from "^^^vach, ' to say,' "3"^ ukta; 
from "^^^vap, '3'P' upta; from '^, "35^ ; from ^''^, ^ ; from 'JT^, ^. Simi- 
larly, from f(^, ?r«T or ^TrT ; from r^, 7T^. 

544. Some (jther changes which take place in forming the passive base (472) 
are preserved before ta .- thus, from '^IT^, f^ ', from '3IV, f^^. And when the 
root ends in two conjunct consonants, of which the first is a nasal, this nasal is 
rejected ; as, from W^, "T^ ; from W^ , >?F ; from ^^, ^% ; from ^T^, ^T^ ; 
from H^, >1T7T ; but not if ^ i is inserted ; as, from ^^, ^5i!5TT ; from "9!^, 
JuPn^n (except T^'^, making itF^IT). 

545. Roots ending in ^^m or "IT jj reject these nasals before taj as, from TVf^gam, 
' to go,' "mt gata ; from "^JT yam, IHT yafa j from T'T , TTT ; from TTT , TTTT ; from 
^*T, ^iTI but retain them if ^i is inserted; as, from ^^, ^f«TH'. From aT'^T, 
' to be born,' is formed 'SrnT ; from ^"JT, IfTW ; the a being lengthened. 

546. Those roots ending in T m, of the 4th conjugation, which lengthen a 


medial a before the conjugational affix y, also lengthen it before ta, and change m 
to n as in the futures : thus, from W\-, "aTFiT ; from HH , ilT^iT ; from '5IJT , ^"RT ; 
from ^JT, ^'RT ; from '^J^, *ljl»rt ; from liJ^, '^'ff. Similarly, from '^, "^TfT ; 
from efiJT, ^TnT. 

547. From FSnr, ' to swell,' is formed Hlilri or 'RSTW ; from '^^, ' to be pvitrid,' 
■'JIT ; from "an^ or "^5 ' to be fat,' ' to increase,' tfl^T or WR ; from WT, ' to grow 
old,' »fhT ; from ^, ' to bind,' ^. 

548. The following are quite anomalous : from "^^ imch, 'to cook,' '^'^'pakxDa; 
from Ig^, ' to dry,' li^^ ; from "^^^j ' to be drunk,' T^f^^. 

2. Derived from causal bases. 

549. In forming the past passive participles from these, the causal 
affix W^ aya is rejected, but the inserted ^ « is always assumed : 
thus, from 3BTTTI, causal of "gr * to make,' comes cHfUT kdrita, '^ caused 
to be made •' from wm^, causal of ^T ^ to stand/ comes wif^TT 
sthdpita, * placed.' 

3. Derived from desiderative bases. 

550. In adding tt /« to a desiderative base, the inserted ^ i is 
invariably assumed ; as, from ftixrr^, ' to desire to drink,' comes 
fiT^ftr^; from f^^, fxioflf^w; from ^^, ffsfrff, &c. 

4. Derived from nominal 

551. There are in Sanskrit certain participles, which are said to 
be formed by adding ^"fr ita to nouns : thus, from ftfTftr?5, ' loose,' 
%f?rf?5fT, ' loosened ;' from f»T^, ' crooked,' ftrftnT, ' curved.' These 
may be regarded as the passive participles of the transitive nominal 
verbs %f?lf?nrfiT, fjl^iifri (521); and whenever this kind of participial 
adjective is found, it may indicate that a nominal verb is in use, 
whence the participle is derived. 

a. Moreover, as na sometimes takes the place of ta, so ina is 
added to some nouns instead of ita : thus, malina, ^ soiled,' from 
mala ; sringina, ' horned,' from sringa. 

b. Corresponding forms in Latin are barbatus, alatus, cordatus, turritus, &c. ; 
and in Greek, OfX(/)aXwTO^, KpoKoiTog, ai/XaTog, &c. See Bopp's Comp. Gr. 

552. The inflection of past passive participles follows that of the 
first class of nouns at 103 ; thus exhibiting a perfect similarity to 
the declension of Latin participles in tus : thus, wff krita, nom. sing, 
masc. fem. neut. '^n'^' 1^^' '^' 


a. 'We. perfect identity between Sanskrit passive participles in ta, Latin partici- 
ples in tu-s, and Greek verbals in ro-g, will be evident from the following 
examples: '&&rvskv\t jiidt as ={g)not us {ignotus), JvwTOg ; dattas = datus, ^OTOg ; 
4rutas ^ clutus, Kkvrog ', bhiiias =^ (pvrog ', yuktas=:junctus, ^evKTOg; labdhas 
=: XvjTTTog ; pitas = TiOTog ', bhritas^fertus, (peprog; dishtas = dictiis, OeiKTOg. 
And, like Sanskrit, Latin often inserts an i, as in domitus (= Sanskrit damitas), 
monitus, &c. In Greek, € is inserted in forms like [J.eveTog, epirerog. There are 
also examples of Latin and Greek formations in nu-s and vo-g, corresponding to 
the Sanskrit participle in na .- thus, plenus {= purna), magnus (from Sanskrit root 
mah), digitus (from Sanskrit dis, dik, Greek 0€ik); and arvyvo-g, areyvo-g, 
aejxvo-g, &c. See Eastwick's Bopp's Comp. Gr. 1117. 

These are of two kinds : 1st, those derived from the past passive 
participle ; 2dly, those derived from the second preterite. These 
latter rarely occur. The former are much used to supply the place 
of a perfect tense active. 

553. The base of these participles is easily formed by adding 
^ vat to that of the past passive participle : thus, from "^w ' made/ 
oFTT^rT ' who made ;' from i^ ' burnt/ ^>RtT ' who burnt / from 
T^ ' said/ "g^Ti^ ' who addressed / from fvi^ ' broken/ f>T^7T * who 
broke / from wrftlTT ' placed/ wrfxTTI^ ' who placed/ &c. 
a. These participles are declined at 140. a. b. 

Participles of the second preterite. 
554. In the case of participles derived from the 2d preterite, either ^IT ras or 
l^^"?! ivas is added to the base of that tense, as formed in the dual and plural. 
Vas, when the base in the dual and plural consists of more than one syllable ; as, 
from vivid (365), vividwasj from chichi (367), chichivas ; from nanrit (364, com- 
pare 45. fl), nanritwas; from sasmar (367. c), sasmarvas. But ivas, when the base 
in the dual and plural consists of one syllable only; as, from ten (375. fl), tenivas; 
from jagm (376), jagmivas s from jaksh (377), jakshivas. Roots which take dm in 
the 2d preterite (385. a. b. c. d) form the participles of this tense by adding the 
2d preterite participles of kri, bhu, and as, to dtn.- thus, from chur, loth c, 
choraydmbabhiivas, choraydnchakrivas, choraydmdsivas. Those roots which insert 
a y or t; in the base of the 2d preterite (see 367. a. b), reject it in the participle : 
thus, sri, ' to have recourse,' makes its participle sisrivas; and bhi, ' to be,' makes 
babhuvas, not babhivvas, &c. 


a. There is an Atmane-pada participle of the 2(1 preterite formed by adding dna 
to the base of the dual and plural ; thus, vividdna, chichydna, jagmdna. See 526. a; 
and compare the Greek perfect participle in /x.evo : gg m«i = TeTVfXfj.€VO^. 

b. The participles of the 2d preterite are inflected at 168. Those of the Atmane- 
pada follow the inflection of the first class of nouns at 103. 

p. Observe — Sanskrit has no past participles derived from the ist or 3d preterite, 
corresponding to the participles of the Greek aorists. 


^^^. These may be classed under two heads: ist, as formed by 
affixing RT twd to uncompounded roots ; as, from >| bhu, ' to be,' 
>TFn bhutwd, ' having been :' 2dly, as formed by affixing ^ ya to 
roots compounded with prepositions or other adverbial prefixes ; as, 
from ^T^ anubhuy * to perceive,' ^^>^ anubhuya, * having perceived ;* 
from W5ift>| sajjibhu, ' to become ready,' ^njft>|xr sajjibhuya, ' having 
become ready.' The sense involved in them is generally expressed 
by the Enghsh * when,' ' after,' * having,' or ^ by :' thus, iTi^ ojn^ tat 
kritwd, * when he had done that,' * after he had done that,' ' having 
done that,' ' by doing that.' See the chapter on Syntax. 

a. Prof. Bopp considers the affix twd of this participle to be the instrumental 
case of an affix tu, of which the infinitive affix fitm is the accusative. There can 
be little doubt that the indeclinable participle has about it much of the character 
of an instrumental case (see Syntax) ; but the form of its base varies considerably 
from that of the infinitive : thus, vaktum, uktwd, from vach; yashtum, ishtwd, from 
yaj, &c. 

Indeclinable participles formed from uncompounded roots. 

556. When the root stands alone and uncompounded, the inde- 
clinable participle is formed with J^ tiod *. 

This affix is closely alhed to the it ta of the past passive parti- 
ciple at 531, insomuch that the rules for the annexation of W ta to 
the root apply equally to the indeclinable affix rTT twd. The forma- 
tion, therefore, of one participle generally involves that of the other : 
thus, from %5T kshipta, ' thrown,' f%WT kshiptwd, ' having thrown ;' 
from eFTf, ' done,' ^r^, ' having done ;' so from f^nf , f^zTRT ; from 
■??, "Syr; from ^^, <fi"T; from xftw, tftRT; from •giTnT, •3«T^»^; from 
3T^, n^ti^; from "STf^w, "^fTT?^; from T^, "^W ; from ^if, W^T; 
from -gjg", "35^1; from f^ (root >n), fwj^; from irv, ^s^n. And 
where i is inserted, there is often an optional change of the radical 

* There are one or two instances in which an uncompounded root takes ^ ; as, 
W^ 'having reverenced.' Manu VII. 145. I. 4. Mahabh. 3. 8017. 

A a 


vowel to Guna, as in the passive participle at 538 : thus, ^fwif^T 
dyutihvd or ?ftfWRT dyotitivd from ^"ff ; ^fRi=^ or ;?flr^ from W'^T. 

a. When there are two forms of the passive participle, there is often only one of 
the indechnable : thus, "^nT makes "WS and 'TTwIT, but only '?ffffi^T ; 75^ makes 
75'^ and ^Prrfri, but only c^fWr^T ; and, vice versa, '^^, ' to dwell,' makes only 
tPtjT, but ^n^rtll and ^^yr; and ¥?", 'to bear,' makes only ^TS", but wnfrtl 
and ^frai. 

I). The penultimate nasal, which is rejected before ta (544), is often only optionally 
rejected before twd : thus, from T^, T^, but TW or TliT- 

557. The only important variation from the passive participle occurs in those 
roots, at 531. a, which take na for ta. In such roots no corresponding change 
takes place of ^wa to nwd .- thus, fi'om '5T, ifhn', but »ir<re)i (or T|Or«(l) ; from TT, 
ffh§, but Tftf^T ; from 1%?, flg[W, but f^WT ; from VT^, W-^, but HW or VIW ', 
from ^sT, ^F^5 but ^W ; from ^, ^Ht, but f^T, ' having quitted' (not dis- 
tinguishable from f^r^Tj ' having placed,' from VT). 

558. Observe, moreover, that verbs of the loth class and causals, which reject 
the characteristic ^HT before the ita of the past passive participle, retain ay before 
itivd : thus, ^if^TtT ' made to stand' (from the causal base WT'T^), but ^T'THIi^ 
' having made to stand ;' f^^lT ' thought' (from f"^ loth c, ' to think'), but 
f^^^ftr^T ' having thought.' 

Indeclinable participles formed from compounded roots. 
C59. When a root is compounded with a preposition or any 
indeclinable prefix (excepting W a, ' not'), the indeclinable participle 
cannot be formed with tivd *. The affix Tf ya is then used, and the 
rules which regulate its annexation to the root are some of them 
analogous to those which prevail in other cases in which ya is 
affixed ; see the rules for the formation of the fourth conjugation at 
272, of passives at 461, and of the benedictive at 443. 

560. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of any lengthen- 
ing of this vowel, 1^ / is interposed -, as, from W[f^ dsri, ' to take 
refuge' (root f^), ^if^m dsritya, ' having taken refuge ;' from f^rftj, 
f^rftjW; from ■3'"r5r, ^^-^s^^; from ^^,TT^W; from f^rt^jf^t^W. The 
lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not prevent this 
rule ; as, from ^(ft ati {ati with i), ^jftTT atitya. 

561. If a root end in long wr d, ^ i, or "^i li, no change takes 

* There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed mth hod : thus, 
■^^TWfr^T (from ixf), Ramayana I. 2. 20. Especially in the case of causals; as, 
ftT^raftni^. Wlien ^ a, ' not,' is prefixed, hvd is always used; as, W^i^T ' not 
having done,' ' without having done ;' '^«fWT ' not having given.' 


place; as, from f^fT, f^nr; from ^^'^, Ttr^; from f^, f^vxi: 
but if in long ^ n, this vowel becomes ir ; as, from ^i{4<*, '^^^^ 
' having scattered.' "^Vi (from xi ' to fill') makes ^T^ (compare 534). 

562. Final diphthonjrs pass into ^Id; as, from XTfr^, Xrft^ainT (also T^ft^t^) ; 
from ^rftri^, ^fWwn^ ; from ^Wr, ^T^^T^. 

a. But from '^ with ^^^ comes ^'^^ ; and from d^ with "^^ ^^^^' 

563. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected ; as, from W^T^'^^samdsaiij, W^l- 
Wr^ samdsajya; from TR^'^, WH^ (used adverbially, ' violently'). 

a. But not always ; as, from ^TT^"^, ^T^T^ ; from ^Tfc5^, "^lirt^- 

564. If a root end in a consonant the general rule is, that no change takes 
place ; as, from f^f^\in]<shipy f^TpB^ nilcsUpya: from Vi:\\^{]wa and dp), VX^', 
from ^"^ {vi and iksh), ^^. 

a. But some roots ending in am and an may optionally reject the nasal, and 
interpose t between the final short a and ya ; as, from f»FT^ nirgam, V^^'TX 
nirgatya or HT^^ nirgamya ; from f^^^, f^TT. »nT and 1^'^, instead of 
interposing /, lengthen the final a; as, from "^'r^'T, TrlST'T. 

565. The changes which take place in certain roots before the ya of the passive 
(471, 472) are preserved before ya; as, from f^^^^, "^^J from f^R^, ^"^j from 
f%JJ^, f^ipi; from ^nrr^, ^TTY^? ; from ^T^^, ^Tlf^^. ^^ lengthens its 
vowel before ^; as, f%5=^^. 

566. In afiLxing II ya to the bases of causals and verbs of the loth class the 
characteristic W^T is generally rejected ; as, from H=rl*ni prabodhaya, imTU? pra- 
bodhyaj from TI^TTT^, TI^T§; from ^T^^^, ^'^^"^. 

a. It is, however, retained in some few instances ; as, wT^lf, ' having calcu- 
lated,' from TTirr; Wfcfic^ni, 'having imagined,' from WaS; ■^^^^, 'having 
narrated,' from ^'^. 

Adverbial indeclinable participle. 

567. There is another indeclinable participle yielding the same sense as those 
formed with twd and ya, but of rare occurrence. It is equivalent to the accusative 
case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding 
"^[fiam to the root, before which affix changes of the radical vowel take place, 
similar to those required before the causal affix W^ (481) : thus, from "jft ni, ' to 
lead,' Tnt ndyam, ' having led ;' from TIT, ' to drink,' 'TFT, ' having drunk ;' from 
^, 5|TTT ; from TT^^, trr^ ; from fejtl, ^i ; from ^^, ' to kill,' "^if . It often 
occupies the last place in a compound ; as in the expression TTflT^'^IrT, ' ha\ing 
totally exterminated ;' and in the following passage from Bhatti : 

' The descendant of Kakutstha, smiling softly, re]ieatedly bending down the 
creepers, would pluck the blossoms ; descending to the streams, would sip (the 

A a 2 


waters) ; seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration, 
(of the scene).' Compare also the passage at the end of Act V. of S'akuntala; 
^?r'^R "^sf^^ '^^^ ' repeatedly throwing up her arms she began to weep.' 

a. These participles generally imply repetition of the action, as in the passage 
above, and in this sense are themselves often repeated; as, day am, day am, having 
repeatedly given.' 


568. These are amongst the most common and useful of all partici- 
ples, and may be classed under three heads: ist, as formed with the 
affix TT^ tavya ; 2dly, as formed with 'srfftTT aniya ; 3dly, as formed 
with XT ya. These affixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin 
future passive participle in dus, and the English able and ihle, and 
most commonly denote ' obligation' or ^ propriety' and ' fitness.' 

a. Although these participles agree in signification with the Latin participles in 
dus, yet Prof. Bopp considers that the affix tavya corresponds in form to the 
Latin tivus, and in sense as well as form to the Greek reog. In some of the Latin 
formations with tivus, the passive sense is preserved, as in captivus, nativus, 
coctivus. Compare Sanskrit ddtavya with dativus (dandus), 00T€0$; yoktavya with 
{con)junctivus (jungendus) ; janitavya with genitivus (gignendus) ; dhdtavya with 
Bereog, &c. 

Future passive participles formed with 7n«T tavya. 

569. These are formed by substituting TT^ tavya for WT td, the 
termination of the 3d pers. sing, of the ist future: thus, from ^rsTT 
ksheptd, ' he will throw,' i^TRI ksheptavya, ^ to be thrown ;' ofi#T, 

* he will do,' ofi#^, ' to be done ;' from ^TfVfTT, * he will be,' nf^^, 

* about to be.' And in the case of roots ending in consonants 
rejecting i, whatever changes take place before td, the same take 
place before tavya (see 400) : thus, w^, W^l^ {relinquendus) ; ttft, 
ire^; "5^1, "J?^; ^irr, "^if^; ^rin, c^nr^; ^ffer, ^>^^; and from 
the causal oFTTftriTT, ^FRftnr^, &c. 

Future passive participles formed with ^ftfttf aniya. 

570. This affix is added directly to the root, without any other 
change than the Guna of the radical vowel : thus, from f% chi, ' to 
gather,' ^xfTftTT chayaniya, ^ to be gathered;' from >T, H^TftiT; from 

Y> ^^'^'n'hr (58) ; from iwf^, hw^^ti; from ^, ^HywI'M; from ^"pr, 

Wi^^ftTT; from ■^'tT, ■gr^tif (58). A final diphthong is changed to 
^T d; as, from ^, «rr?ftTT; from ^, m^. 


Future passive participles formed with tt ya. 
571. Before this affix, as before all others beginning with y, cer- 
tain changes of final vowels become necessary. 

a. If a root end in 'sn d, or in T? e, ^ ai, wt 0, changeable to "m a, 
this vowel becomes ^ e (compare 446) ; as, from JTT md, ' to measure/ 
^TI meya, ' to be measured/ * measurable / from f T hd, %^ hey a ; 
from ^ dhyai, ix[Z( dhyeya ; from ^, ^, &c. 

b. If in ^ i, \i, "^ u^ or '^i u, these vowels are gunated ; as, from 
f^ ch'i, ^T\ cheya. But the Guna ^ is changed to av, and some- 
times the Guna ^ e to ay, before ya (as if before a vowel) : thus, 
from jq[, H^ ; from f^T, ' to conquer/ »n^ jayyci' The Guna ^ 0, 
however, oftener passes into dv before y ; as, from ^y ^^ ; from 
ST, 3n^; from »?, »tT3I. 

c. If in ^ n or "^ r«, these vowels are vriddhied ; as, from «F, 

572. Sometimes if a root end in a short vowel no change takes place, but t is 
interposed, after the analogy of the indeclinable participle formed with ya at 560 ; 
so that the crude base of the future participle is often not distinguishable from the 
indeclinable: thus, from f»T/J, 'to conquer,' laTtq jitya, 'conquerable;' from ^ 
stu, ' to praise,' ^m stutya, ' laudable ;' from "SF kri, ' to do,' '^TI kritya, ' prac- 
ticable / from ^ ' to go,' ^W ' to be gone ;' from ■«jic ' to honour,' vii em ' to be 

573. If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, the latter may be 
vriddhied ; as, from ?J? grah, ?n^ grdhya .- but not always ; as, from '^T"^, ^|<tM ; 
from W|r, ^^ ; from T*(, "^^ badhya : and rarely if the final is a labial ; as, from 
7TJT, ^Tr^ ; from c5>T, 'FF^I. 

a. If with a medial \i or "^u, these are generally gunated ; as, from HIT, >?^tIT; 
from f75?t9 "t^' 

b. If with a medial '^ ri, no change takes place ; as, from tiM^l, ^TT^ 5 from 

574. A final '^ ch may sometimes optionally be changed to cF k, and *I j to 
^ 5* ; and other changes may take place, some of which are similar to those before 
the ya of passives ; as, from V^^ pack, Hl<w pdkya and m^M pdchya ; from '^^ » 
^n^ and ^T^; from >r5|^, >Tt^ and HtW; from ?J^, 'pT as well as VJ^grdhyaj 
from ^, "3^ (471) ; from ^, ^^Hf ; from ^THT, f^TO? (472) ; from ^^, ^. 

575. Many of these participles are used as substantives : thus, qi'W n. ' speech/ 
>Tt5JT n. ' food / >^P^\ f. ' a harlot / ^a^TT f. ' sacrifice / ^^ n. ' a ditch ;' >TF^ f. 
* a wife,' from >T ' to support,' &c. 

576. The affix ya may occasionally be added to nouns or nominal bases : thus, 
from «i«c* ' a pestle,' ♦iti*^ ' to be pounded with a pestle.' 


577. The inflection of future passive participles follows that of 
the first class of nouns at 1 03 : thus, "afiw^ ' to be done ;' N. sing. 
m. f. n. kartavyas, kartavyd, kartavyam. Similarly, karaniyas, kara- 
niyd, karaniyam ; and kdryas, kdryd, kdryam. 


578. These are not common. They are of two kinds, either Parasmai-pada or 
A'tmane-pada ; the former being formed by changing ^rf^f anti, the termination 
of the 3d plur. of the 2d future, into ^HT at ; the latter, by changing ^T^ ante 
into ■«1*<M amdna: thus, from ohRi^fil karishyanti and <*!<«{'« karishyante, 
' they will do,' come <+r<'«Mri^ karishyat and <*rH4*HRI karishyamdna (58), ' about 
to do ;' from the passive 2d fut. qvtHfi, ' they wiU be said,' comes qvtH^llW, 
' about to be said.' 

a. In the mode of their formation fi'om the 3d person plural, by the affixes at and 
amdna, and in their inflection, they resemble present participles at 524 and 526. 

b. Observe — The future participle in mdna may be compared vnih. the Greek in 
jU.ev& : ddsyamdna = '^waofJ.evo$. 


579. These have been already incidentally noticed at 80, 83, 85. 
As, however, they partake of the nature of participles, and are of 
great practical utility, some further mention of them is necessary. 
They may be classed under three heads : i st, as formed from the 
root; 2dly, as formed from the ist future; 3dly, as formed from 
the causal base. 

580. The base of the first class (see 80. II) is formed from the 
root by affixing ^ a, before which Guna, and rarely Vriddhi, of a 
final vowel is required; as, from Hiji, ' to conquer,' WJJaya, ' con- 
quering.' Medial vowels are generally unchanged ; as, from ^ vad, 
' to say,' ^ vada, ' saying ;' from "rT^ tud, ' to vex,' -^ tuda, ' vexing :' 
and final ^T d, ^n^ am, or '^im an, are dropped ; as, from ^T dd, ' to 
give,' ^ da, ' giving ;' from rm gam, ' to go,' i\ ga, * going ;' from 
W*JJan, ' to be born,' "^ Ja, ' being born.' Their declension follows 
the first class of nouns at 103. 

581. The base of the second class (see 83) is formed from the 
3d pers. sing, of the ist future of primitive verbs, by substituting 
the vowel ^ ri for the final vowel d, the nominative case being 
therefore identical with the 3d pers. sing, of that tense (see 386) : 
thus, from irTm bhoktd, ' he will eat,' vfTai bhoktri , ' an eater ;' from 
TTtirr, 'he will fight,' TTtir, 'a fighter;' from •m'NTn, "mf^; from 
^ETtTT, irfe", &c. They are inflected at 137. 


582. The base of the third class is formed in three ways. 

a. By adding ^ in to the root (see 85. V), before which affix 
changes take place similar to those required before the causal affix 
ay a (481, 482, 483); as, from cF, efirfrTT Aw-m, 'a doer;' from ^-^ 
(488), yj;\ffn{ghdt'm, ' a killer ;' from ^, ^ftr^, ' a sleeper :' y being 
inserted after roots in a (483); as, from "qi, MTfn«T, ^a drinker;' 
from ^T, ^ftr'JT ddi/in, ' a giver.' They are inflected at 159. 

b. By adding ^Tcfi aka to the root (see 80. IV), before which affix 
changes take place analogous to those before the causal ay a (481, 
482, 483); as, from oF, ofiTT«fi kdraka, ' sl doer,' 'doing;' from *fl", 
^fRofi ndyaka, ' a leader,' '' leading ;' from ?j^, JJJ^ grdhaka ; from 
■ftiv, ^mra ; from f Tj^, ttttt^ ; from ^"q^, ^^eji ; from ■gi'^, w^ ; from 
»T^, rp^ ; from WT, ^T^T^. 

c. By adding ^R ana to some few roots ending in consonants 
(see 80. V), after changes similar to those required before the causal 
affix; as, from »T^, "^i^ nandana^ 'rejoicing;' from ^^, ^^Tjr, 
' vitiating ;' from SHT, ^fhR', ' cleansing.' 

Observe- — ^The inflection of the last two follows that of the first 
class of nouns at 103. 


583. We begin by giving a synopsis of the inflection of the pri- 
mitive forms of the ten roots : ^ budh, ' to know,' ist c. ; •TTT nrit, 
' to dance,' 4th c. ; f^^ dis, ' to point out,' 6th c. ; ^nr yvj, ' to 
unite,' loth c. ; f^ vid, ' to know,' 2d c. ; >T bhri, ' to bear,' 
3d c. ; f^F^ bhid, ' to break,' 7th c. ; f^ chi, ' to gather,' 5th c. ; 
"cT'T tan, ' to stretch,' 8th c. ; \pu, ' to purify,' 9th c. : grouping 
together, first, the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes; then the 2d, 3d, 
and 7th ; and lastly, the 5th, 7th, and 9th, for the reasons stated 
at 257. In the next place, the passive forms of these ten roots will 
be synoptically exhibited, followed by the present tense of the causal 
desiderative and frequentative forms, and the participles. Examples 
will then be given of primitive verbs of all the ten classes (according 
to the grouping at 257), inflected at full; and under every verb the 
derivative forms and participles will be indicated. Lastly, a full 
example will be given of each of the four kinds of derivative verbs, 
passives, causals, desideratives, and frequentatives. 














































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584. Root ^ro «5, *to be^ (see 322). Parasmai-pada. 

Note, that although this root belongs to the 2d class, its inflection is exhibited 
here, both because it is sometimes used as an auxihary, and because it is desirable 
that the student should study its inflection at the same time with that of the other 
substantive verb bhii, ' to be,' which will follow at 585, and which supplies many 
of the defective tenses of as. It may be remarked, that all the cognate languages 
have two roots similar to the Sanskrit for the substantive verb ' to be.' Compare 
cpv and ota (eo") in Greek, es {sum) and /« {fui) in Latin; and observe how the 
different parts of the Sanskrit verbs correspond to the Greek and Latin : thus, 
asmi, asi, asti; (f^fJ'i, ecratf ean ; sum, es, est. Compare also santi with suntj 
dstam, dstdm, with Yjarov, vjaTTjV ; dsma, dsta, with yj(T[X€v, vjo-re, &c. Two other 
roots in Sanskrit are sometimes employed as substantive verbs, with the sense ' to 
be,' viz. sthd, ist c, ' to stand' (see 269, 587), and ds, 2d c, ' to sit' (see 31^. 
Indeed, the root as, here inflected, is probably only an abbreviation of as. 

Present, ' I am. 


I stj'^rftR asmi '^'W swas 
2d, ^rftr asi ^TT sthas 

3d, ■'Hfw asti W^ stas 

Potential, ' I may be/ &c. Imperative, ' Let me be.' 

^nrrf«Tasa«i ^TOT^ asdva vitil+l asdma 
?jf^ edhi ^ stam iR" sta 

'^'^astu W\ stdm '^^ sunt a 

First preterite, ' I 






'^J^ dsam -SiHS dswa 

mm dsma 

^ stha 

^TRTi^ dsis ^T^ dstam 

■silW dsta 

^rf?ir santi 

"m^dsit m^ dstdm 


Wr sydm ^rn" sydva ^TT sydma 
*M\\syds 5RrnT sydtam ^TiT sydta 
*M\ti^sydt ^tnTrf sydtdm "^"^^syus 

Second preterite *, ' I was/ &c. 
■s(i« dsa ■« I Th "4 dsiva WuWRdsima 

^rn^dsitka WlW^^dsathus "^mdsa 
WrS dsa Wm'WV dsatus '^TPfnT dsus 

^1% dse ^H I {im^jisirake -ii \ PflH^ dsimahe 
"^nf^^dsisheWr^T^ dsdthe ^a 1 ?*\^{'^)dsidhwe 
Wr^ dse ^'Rrr?r dsdte ^rrftrT dsire 

Observe — The root as, ' to be,' has no derivative forms, and only two partici- 
ples, viz. those of the present, Parasmai and Atmane, ^"iT sat, W«T sdna (see 
524, 526). The conjugational tenses have an Atmane-pada, which is not used 
unless the root is compounded with prepositions. In this Pada ^ A is substituted 
for the root in the ist sing, pres., and ^s is changed to d before dh in the 2d plur. : 
thus, Pres. he, se, ste; swahe, sdthe, sate; smahe, ddhwe, sate: see 322. 

* The 2d preterite of as is never used by itself, but is employed in forming the 
2d preterite of causals and some other verbs, see 385, 490; in which case the 
A'tmane may be used. The other tenses of as are wanting, and are supplied from 
hhii at 585. 




585. Root JT bhu. Infin. nfTJ bhavitum, ^ to be' or ' become.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present teiise, ' I am' or ' I become.' 


1st, Vi'mm bhavdmi 
2d, >T^ftT bhavasi 
3d, M4?l\ bhavati 

JITT bhaveyam 
^T^ bhaves 
>TTi^ bhavet 

>T^ThT bhavdni 
H^ bhava 
>T^ bhavatu 

^J)H<^ abhavam 
'^W^^ abhavas 
^M^T^ abhavat 

^nr^ babhtwa 
W*|f^^ babhuvltha 
"^^T^ hubhiica 


iiqiqti bhavdvas 
»T^^^ bhavathas 
HTrHT bhavatas 

Potential, ' I may be. 
>TT^ bhaveva 
>TTiT bhavetam 
HTfTT bhavetam 

Imperative, * Let me be.' 
>TTR' bhavuca 
JTTfT bhavatam 
H=lril bhavatam 

First preterite, ' I was.' 
^M^T^ abhavdva 
^>TTiT abhavatam 
^THqni abhavatam 


>TTR^ bhavdmas 
>TW^ bhavatha 
Hqffl bhavanti 

JTWT bhavema 
HTFT bhaveta 
Mm<*^ bhaveyus 

W^W bhavdma 
>?TfT bhavata 
>T«RT bhavantu 

■^Wrnr abhavam^ 
^W^TT abhavata 
^>TW»T abhavan 

Second preterite, ' I was.' 

W^rfw^ babhuviva '^M\'=i*\ babhuvima 

^*c?"^\ babhuvathus "^^ babhuva 

^*c?\>^ babhuvatus '^^'^^babhumts 

First future, ' I will be.' 
>< pNri I PwAAflmVaWi ^ P^ ri I *^ ■H bhavitdswas >J f'l ri I W H bhavitdsmas 
HpMHifti bhavitdsi ^^4 A\m^^ bhavitdsthas Hf^HI*^ bhavitdstha 

Vlfwm hhavitd ^^IfTU bhavitdrau ^"WWrT^^bhavitdras 

Second future, ' I shall be.' 
^ r«l *m Ph bhavishydmi ^tPtbTR^ bhavishydvas ><P<4«m»l^ bhavishydmas 
^rfrBrfiSt bhavishyasi jqfcjmvjTT bhavishyathas ^jf^W^ bhavishyatha 
hP'^UiPh bhavishyati >iP<4«fri« bhavishyatas >TfqWf% bhavishyanti 



Third preterite, * I was' or ' had been/ &c. 

'^Wcf abhupam 
^IHTff ahht/s 
"^Pfi^ abMt 

iJUnT bhuydsam 
>nrr^ bMyds 

^rrnr bMydt 

^TW^ abhuva 
'3T>T?T abhitam 
^njiTT abhiitdm 

^^ abhmna 
^>T!T abhuta 
■^M^^ abhuvan 

Benedictive, ' May I be/ 

>jxrr^ bhiydswa ^J^TTW bhuydsma 

H^n^ bhuydstam ^^^^M bhuydsta 

>f*(IWi bhuydstdm *i^ I « +<^ bhiydsus 

Conditional, (If) ^ I should be/ 
^SWH^hJ abhavishyam ^wf^^TR abhavishydva ^^wH^miH abhainshydma 
'SniPqwiH abhavishyas ^MfT^nf abhavishyaiam ^T^TfTHTff abhavishyata 
^wfqtMf^ abhavishyat ^^fcJUfril abhacishyatdm 'W^'^ «M »^ abhavishyan 


>T^ bhavase 
»?^Tr bhavate 

i^TMANE-PADA. Present tense, ' I am/ &c. 

>TTr=rf bhavdvahe H«rW^ bhavdmak.e 

*T^^ bhavethe VTm^ bhavadkwe 

H^TT bhavete ^T^nT bhavante 

iTTT bhaveya 
>T^ bhaveta 

>TW bhavai 
>T^^ bhavaswa 
^TWirr bhavafdm 

W^ abhc 

Potential, ' I may be/ &c. 
HT^f^ bhavevahi H"=fTrf^ bhavemahi 

H^^rrot bhaveydthdm H^S^ bhavedhwam 

^T^tTrfTT bhaveydtdm >T^Tr*T bhaveran 

Imperative, ' Let me be/ 
>i<^Nf bhavdvahai >Tqi«i? bhavdmahai 

>TT^ bhavetJidm >T^£EI bhavadhwam 

M^ni bhavetdm >T=Rn bhavantdm 

First preterite, ' I was/ 

^WcjiqH^ abhavdvahi "^^fWVf^ abhavdmahi 

^W^lV^m abhavathds 
^W^TT abhavata 

Wrr^ abhavethdm 

■^M^J^ abhavadhwam 
^MTRT abhavanta 

Second preterite, ' I was/ &c. 
^^^ babhuve ^>|fV^ babhiivivahe "^^Tf^^ babhuvimahe 

^*lf^ babhuvishe "^^JTR babhuvdthe ^>Tf%5^ (^) babhuvidhwe 

^>f^ babhuve "«T*f^ir babhuvdte ^^tNt babhuvire 


First future, ' I will be/ &c. 

irf^T?" hhavitdhe iTfVrn^f hhavitdswalie uH^rilW^ b/tavitdsmahe 

Hf«nrn7 bkavitdse ^fWtiT^Vli hlwvitdsdthe vrf^cTT?^ bhavitddhwe 

Hf^iTT bhavitd ^TfTfTTTT bhavitdruu i^fTtTn:^ bhnritdras 

Second future, '■ I shall be/ &c. 
HfT^T bhavishye H fsj «M i q ^ bhavishydvahe MVA^Wi^ bharishydmahe 

Hp^um bhavishyase '^fw^'^ bhavishyethe HfTCIS^ bhnvishyadhwe 

H^m^ bhavishyate HPmqri bhavishyete HfV*lInT bhmrishyante 

TJiird preterite, ' I was^ or ' had been/ &c. 
^SMf^fJI abhavishi ^>Tf^'^fV obhavishwahi ^Vff%''3Tf^ abfiavishmahi 

^Wf^FRT abhiwishthds "^^T^m^ abhavishdthdm ^WR'SST (^) abhavidhwam 

^Mf^ abhavishta '^wf^qT'tTt uhhavishdtdm ^WfcftnT abhurishata 

Benedictive, ' I wish I may be.' 

>Tf%^^ bhavishiya tTp^'^Hf?' bhavishivahl '^^^^f^ bharishimahi 

Vff^rftWl^^ bhamsMshlhds i^ftr'Elt'Jrr^if bkavisMydsthdm >Tf^'Rls4 (^) bhavisMdhwam 

irf^Wt? bharislnshta >?^^T"irreTr bhavishiydstdm H'f^'flT'^ bhnrisMran 

Conditional, (If) ^ I should be/ &c. 
^Wf^^ uhhavishye ^J^f^nTRf^ abhaviskydimhi Wjiw^CfX^f^ abhavishydmahi 

^^fTlvlfyjT^abhavishyathds ^^f^"^"^ abhavishyethdm ^Hf^rOTj4 abhavishyadhwam 
■^wfV'T'JT abhaviskyafa 'W^f^WiU abhaviskyetdm ^^f^W^ abhavishyanta 

Passive {461), Pres. >^, >|'iR, &c.; 3d Pret. 3d sing. (475) ^MtT^. 
Causal (479), Pres. iTTT^rrl^, m^xrftr, &c. ; 3d Pret. (492) ^5Rt>T^, &c. 
Desiderative (498), Pres. "^^ftf, "^^J^f^, &c. Desiderative form of 
Causal (497) f^vrr^ftsmfJT, &c. Frequentative (507), Pres. Tf>^, 
W^H>fiT or -sftH^fifT *. Participles, Pres. >t^ (524) ; Past pass. >|W 
(531) ; Past indecl. i??^ (556), ->|5 (559) ; Fut. pass. >Tf^^ (569), 

>T^^ (570), HTSE? or >T^ (571)- 


587. Root ^T. Inf. WTrf ' to stand' (269, 269. a). Parasmai and 
Atmane. Pres. fiT^frT, ■fifffftr, frofw; f7T¥T^, frlF^W^, fw?7T^^; fir^TTTT, 

* These derivative verbs will be inflected at full at the end of the examples of 
primitive verbs. See 706, 707. 


fireii, flre^. Pot. ftf-s^, ffT^H, firii^; firi^, &.c. Atm. fff^TT, f^^- 
'^, fimr; firi^, fir^m'^rt, &c. Imp. frTffrf^, firg, fw^w; fiT¥T^, 

&C. A'tm. firt, f?T¥^, IWfTf; flTFT^, &c. zd Pret. -fTFIT (373), 
•rfiw^ or 7T^T"?r, TT^; iff^'^, H^-^H, ■jTRTWTr; "iTf^lT, rTW, "fT^W. 

Atm. TT^, "irf^^, TTW ; irfw^j tttsito, ir^Tff ; irfwr^, irf^?^, irPw'C. 
ist Fut. wnnftR, Frnrrftr, &c. Atm. wrirr?, ^Tin^, &c. 2d Fut. 
^TTmfH, WT^f^, ^sTTFrfff, &c. A'tm. :pin^, tsth^th, ^tt?i^, &c. 
3d Pret. (438) w^, "^si^en^, "^T^TTT; ^r^T^, ^??nrf, ^KWIdi ; ^^m, 
WWTTT, ^T^^. ^tm. (438. c, 419) '^rfwf'EI, -.Mffmm i ^ , ^ftsriT; ^f^^fV, 
^W^IPTf, ^rf^RTflT; »i<rw*4r^, ^f^zr^, "STftemw. Bened. W^TTT, 
^illfl', &c. Aim. wt^ft^I, Wnft?T^, &c. Cond. ^t^t^, ?H<*JI^^, &c. 
Atm. 7H4j^ l ^ , ^.M^i^mi ^, &c. Passive, Pres. v^ (465) ; 3d Pret. 
3d sing. ^5!T^TftI. Causal, Pres. ^nTiTrfiT, -^; 3d Pret. ^rfrrftnr, 
^rfirfij^. Des. fria i fdPH , &c. Freq. ^^ or iTT^lf*? or irmrTf'?. Par- 
ticiples, Pres. firew; Past pass. f^W; Past indecl. f^fr^l, -WPT, -'^'R; 
Fut. pass, wnnq, WT^^, ^^. 

588. Root in. Inf. HTff ' to smell' (269). Parasmai. Pres. fifmftr, 

ftniftr, &c. Pot. fimxf, ftiw^, &c. Imp. ■ftrmftfT (58), ftiir, &c. 

1st Pret. -^M, ^>TSf^^, &c. 2d Pret. irm {373), iTnm or miT^, 

"*rm; *rftn", '^'^' 'f^^; »TftnT, »t¥, 'T^'t- 1st Fut. umrfer, 

Ulrilf*!, &c. 2d Fut. TTPESTTftr, Tn^ftr, &c. 3d Pret. (438) ^rat, 
^nrnr, ^^mnT; ^itr, ^nmr, ^^nrnrf ; 'Hum , ^niTW, ^^it. Or by 433, 
^nrrftr^, ^snrRft^, '^nrnftw; ^^mrftn:^, ^srsnftr^, ^inftr?!; ^mrftr^, ^irr- 
fti?, ^mr«M«. Bened. irrirw, urirr^, &c. Or ^tiht, &c. Cond. 
^UlW, ^rrrrw^, &c. Passive, Pres. liT^ (465. a) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
'^nnfiT. Causal, Pres. Tnirnf^; 3d Pret. ^ftnr^ or ^irfiJ^. Des. 
ftnmrrfiT. Freq. ^ift^, "STniTftT or ^rrfffiT. Participles, Pres. fwiHT; 
Past pass. TITW or UTO ; Past indecl. "STr^, -TTT^; Fut. pass. Trrw^, 

589. Root TTT. Inf. TTTJ* to drink' (269). Parasmai. Pres. fq^Tf^T, 
fW^fT, &c. Pot. ftl^, ftl^H, &c. Imp. fq^fTf, fq^, &c. I St Pret. 
■srfT^^, 'STftT^^, &c. 2d Pret. (373) t|t^, trf^^ or titfrzi, w; ^ft?^, 
xnr^^, irqwH; qftm, ^q, ^i^^^. ist Fut. tn^nftR, minftr, &c. 2d 
Fut. TTTWrfiT, m^iiET, &c. 3d Pret. (438) ^m, 'SjiTT^, 'snTTfT; ^PTT^, 
^mTT, ^mirf; 'srmiT, ^mir, ^^^. Bened. W^*, W"??, &c. Cond. 
^Ttn^, ^tn^^^, &c. Passive, Pres. tft^ (465) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^Txnfi7. 
Causal, Pres. xiT^Tinf^, -^; 3d Pret. '^^^^ (475). Des. ftn:rT^f»T. 

D d 


Freq. ^qxft^, xn^fiT or TiTTTTftT. Participles, Pres. fWiT; Past pass. 
^ C533) 5 P^st indecl. tfh^, -trR ; Fut. pass, tmr'^i, xrRhr, ^. 

590. Root ftr. Inf. %rf ' to conquer.* Parasmai *. Pres. afillPH, 

■snrftr, inrfw ; ^fHHW, »T^rjm, ^infw ; >nrR^, ^nr^r, »nrf^. Pot. irtt, 

»R^, »Rrr; »r^^, "iT^, ^^rii; "SniT, »R1T, 'H^^- Imp. H^lPiT, "5^1, 

"snrff; ^nrR, ^rw, »rcnrf ; trft, sRir, 'snrg. ist Pret. winf, ^nrq^, 

^nfTTrT; ^^TtTxtR, ^nPTW, WSnnTf; -^iT^TTIT, -a^iild, 'shpt-jt. 2d Pret. 
fTFTR (378), r^HMPil'iJ or f^FTST, fiTTR ; ftlf^iT^ (367), f'P'T^, f^f^TW^^; 
ftlfTTTJT, fim, ftr^^- I St Fut. -^rilfw, Wf^, ^; ^Hiy+i, ^fTTW^, 

aifiKi ; »irti**i^, ^ffl*^, %iTTC¥ . 2d Fut. ^ttJiTHj ^Tqftr, ^BrffT ; won- 
^, WanPfT, WOITT^^; WBTR^^, wsr^l, ^^rf^. 3d Pret. '51%^ (420), 
"»H^ M^W , ^iw^lT; ^^M, ^r^, ^T^¥f; '^T^^j '^%^i ^^M«. Bened. 
»fhTTO, Tfhrm, ^fhrrw; Tft^rr^, ■sfhrro, ifhrreri; 4)iiiw, ^flTrrer, ^m- 

W^^. Cond. ^31^, W%^^^, '^^Tqir; ^^^, WHTif, ^^TTT; »H^miH, 
'H^miT, ^HH«T*T. Passive, Pres. ift^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^snfu. 
Causal, Pres. t^ITIXuPh ; 3d Pret. ^»fi>nf. Des. iAi \ \^ \ [ ^. Freq. ^ift^, 
W^ftr or ^■»nTtfjT. Participles, Pres. "STXTff; Past pass. frTrT; Past 
indecl. ftn^, -ftrw; Fut. pass, '^w^, ^nnft^, ^ or f^m or ifzii 

(571. 572). 

«. In the same manner may be conjugated ^. Inf. "^^ 'to lead.' 

591. Root ftsT. Inf. ^^ '^ to smile.' Atmane. Pres. ^T^, WI^, 
&c. Pot. W^^, w^^JT^, Sec. Imp. ^%, FT^TS^, &c. ist Pret. ^W^, 
^iT^^riniT, &c. 2d Pret. (367. a) ftrf^, ftrf^tr^, ftrfui^; ftrf^irfti^l, 
faP tti ^m , ft!f^x(Tw ; ftrf^JTftmt, fwM"^^, ftrfTCRfTJt. ist Fut. W7f, 
^irr^, &c. 2d Fut. ^"^j ^^TJi"^, &c. 3d Pret. '^wPm, ■»awtnH, 
"^m^; 'HWHH^, '^wmm, wmTrf; ^ilW^P^ , wm^, W^W. Bened. 
^^TT, &c. Cond. ^rw"^, &c. Passive, wf^, &c.; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^*JW l P^ . Causal, Pres. ^N^ i Pq or i^ i m^iPh ; 3d Pret. ^fw^ or 
^^qftr^jnj. Des. ftr^rftf^. Freq. w^^, ^"J^^t or ^^Jnftf«T. Partici- 
ples, Pres. w^PTR ; Past pass, fw ; Past indecl. iwi^, -ftRW ; Fut. 
pass. Wrr^, WT^TJ, WTJ. 

592. Root "5;. Inf. "^w ' to run.' Parasmai. Pres. "jTrf'T, "5^ftT> 
■5^; "^rr^, '5;T5nT, ■^'^'fliT; "^Tm^, "5;^^, "^^f'f • Pot. '^w^, "^i^^j 
&c. Imp. ^^ I Pii I (58), -5^, &c. 1st Pret. "^T^, "^T^^, &c. 2d 
Pret. j^, ^, j^; ^ (368), ||^^^^ (367. b), 5^^,; 5|H, 

* fsT is not generally used in the A'tmane, excepting with the prepositions vi 
or para. 


f^' ^I^- ^^^ ^^^^' "5^^' "jVfnftTj &C. 2d Fut. -^tniTfT, -^"VaiftT, 
&c. 3d Pret. "^^i (440. a), ^|J^, ^^TT^^; ^J"^"^, ^JT^? 
'ilH.jJcjrii; ^l^m, ^J^TfT, "^^^4^. Bened. -^T^, ■^xrr^, &c. Cond. 
^r^^, ^r^Vanr, &c. Passive, Pres. "5^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^J^rf^. 
Causal, Pres. "^T^nnfiT; 3d Pret. ^nr^^ or '^frf^^. Des. j^mfH. 
Freq. ^^, ^t^tf^ or ^^ftfi?. Participles, Pres. "5^; Past pass. 
^; Past indecl. "^fi^, -"571; Fut. pass, ^rfctj, ■5'^RifN, "^T^ or ■5^. 

593. Root ^. Inf. ^^ "^to seize/ 'to take.' Parasmai and 
i^tmane. Pres. -^ifiT, frf^, ^fw ; "^TR^, &c. i^tm. "^j ^T^, fTW 
^<N^, &c. Pot. ■fT^, ^^, &c. ^tm. •^xr, ^r^n^, &c. Imp. fTT% 
(58), ^, &c. Atm. ^, ^T^, &c. ist Pret. ^^, 'sr^^, ^^TcT 
^r^TT^, &c. Kim. ■^T^, ^ M^i ^vii^, w^Tfi; w^X^f^, &c. 2d Pret 

»ifK, »nrfV^ or iT^, »jTn:; 'TIt^, w?'^^, "Tf^^v; 'TfpT, »Ti, »rrR^ 

i^tm. ^, ifff^, it|; Tlf^, 1TIT'^> ^TfTW; ^f^H^, ^rfff, ^f^T 
1st Fut. ftif'??, ^Tftr, &c. Xtm. ■^T^, ^tii, &c. 2d Fut. ■flr- 
'onfiT, ^"Hifti, &c. ^tm. ■^fr^, f fcm^ , &c. 3d Pret. 'ST^m, wfi^'hr, 
w^ltiT; 'st^teI, ^t?, '^Tfitf; ^p^, w^-[%, ^r|^^. ^tm. ^f«r, 

^f^^, ^fW^; '^f^^, ^I^rqf, 'ST^rniTT; '^TfT^Tff, ^ff, 'STf^. 
Bened. f^irm, ff^mr, &c. i^tm. f^^, ^^FT^, &c. Cond. ''sr^fT'^, 
^ST^ir^, &c. Xtm. '^^^j ^J<^rimvj|JH^ , &Ci Passive, Pres. ff^; 
3d Pret. 3d sing, ^si^fr. Causal, Pres. "^rrmfH, -^; 3d Pret. '^nft^. 
Des. fn^l Q iP^, -^". Freg-. ^f^^, ^rf^T or iTT^fn or iffTfTtftT or 
afjO^fW or TTft;- or aTfft. Participles, Pres. ^H" ; Pass. f^HMi^ir ; Past 
pass. ^IT; Past indecl. f?^, -^W; Fut. pass, '^^j fT^t-q, fTi§. 

594. Root ^. Inf. ^^ ' to remember.' Parasmai and iitmane. 
Pres. FTTTf»T, W^f^, &c. Kim. fTt. Pot. w:^, ^T^, &-c. i^tm. 
^ir, &c. Imp. FTTTftrr (58), ^RT, &c. i^tm. ^T, &c. ist Pret. 
^Wt, ^WT^, &c. i^tm. ^^IWC. 2d Pret. (367. c) TTWR, tetwTt^, 
^Twrr; ?t^i:^, ^fiwt'^^^, ^twtw^^; TTwfTT, ^twt, ^tft^^. Kim. w^t, 
^wfcw, TOT; ^wPi^t? ^FT^TTm, ^woTT; ^TFTftff^, ^rwlri", ^TwfrT. 
1st Fut. wtrfw, &c. Kim. w^\%, &c. 2d Fut. Fdr^TTfiT, he. 
Kim. FTft"^, &c. 3d Pret. ^9TT^, &c. (see ^ at 593). Kim. ^T^f«T, 
»iiy|\fl^, &c. (see ^ at 593). Bened. ^'^TO, &c. i^tm. ^mfNl &c., 
or ^ft;^ &c. Cond. '^T^ft^, kc. Kim. ^rwf^^, &c. Passive, 
Pres. w^^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^iJWrTfT. Causal, Pres. ^RTt^nffl, -^; 
3d Pret. ^.H^w t. Des. ^(^. Freq. wm^, ^Twf^ or ^TO7r^f?T. 

D d 2 


Participles, Pros. WTIT; Past pass. w?T; Past indecl. W^, -^"JW; 
Flit. pass. T??t^, ^m^ifhi, WW(. 

595. Root ^. Inf. 2^ ' to call.^ Parasmai and Atmane. Pres. 
df^ftr, &c. i^tm. 2^, &c. Pot. ^TiT, &c. A'tm. ^^, &c. Imp. 
o^^iTh, &c. A'tm. 2^, &c. I St Pret. ^i^, &c. Atm. '^^. ^d 
Pret. (379) ^^T^, ^^f^ or ^^, ^T^^, ^|f^, fPFl' ^P^x' 
¥f^^' IP' ^11^.- A'tm. ^1^, ^|f^, ^p; f|f^, fpr^, 
ff^W; fff^?, ^1^^' II^"^- I St F"t. d^TWrftn, &c. A'tm. 3^- 
int, &c. 3d Fut. ^Trmfir, &c. A'tm. 3fr^, &c. 3d Pret. (438. c) 
^^> ^T^^, ^TdflT; '3T^R, 'Ho^ri*, ?Hd^ rit ; ^So^ \H , 'il«^ri, ^T^^. Atm. 
^, '^T^^H, '^Ti^ ; 'SI^T^, ^^^f , '^T^f ; '^Id^f^, ^^S^, 'Sld^. Or 
^TS^ftl (433. a), '5J^7WT?r, ^^TCT; 'Jld^iyf^, ■5Id|TOT5lf, 'i<d^l*1ldl; ^!Id^- 
wrff , ^^5^, '^I^TOIT. Bened. fTRT, &c. i^tm. d^ l ^H . Cond. 
^I^W, &c. A'tm. '^T^T^, &c. Passive, ^xm (465. h) ; 3d Pret. 3d 
sing. 'iJo^iPM or ^T^rfiT? or ^rg^ or ^S^TO". 2d Fut. 5^7^W or dflfW^ 
(474. a). Causal, Pres. ^T^TTlfH (483) ; 3d Pret. ^f^. Des. '^- 
TtrrfJT, •^l^. Freq. ^ft?^, ^fi^lf*! or jf^^fir. Participles, Pres. S^^HT; 
Pass. ^ipTT^; Past pass. ^W; Past indecl. ^r^, -^tt; Fut. pass. 

a. The root ^t (268), Inf. ttt^ ' to sing/ follows the analogy of 
hive, the final diphthong being changed to a before all terminations 
beginning with i or s. Pres. TrnnliT, &c. Pot. ttt^, &c. Imp. 
innf^, &c. ist Pret. wrrni, &c. 2d Pret. (374) irm, Trf^ or 
^m^, i{m; Trfn^, wjt"^, ^t^k^^; ^fim, ^n, ir^^^. ist Fut. itt- 

Wlfw, &c. 2d Fut. TTT^Tf^i &c. 3d Pret. (433) ^mrftr^, '^ITTT^J^^, 
^RTT^ftff; ^sfJirftr^, 'STTTTf^, ^JTiftr^; ^Jiiftr^, ^nriftr^, vSJ i ifa ^^^. 
Bened. ipim, &c. (451). Cond. '^rmFI, &c. Passive, ifhl^ (465); 
3d Pret. 3d sing, ^miftf. Causal, Pres. Jumj iPn (483) ; 3d Pret. 
^if^JTXf. Des. ftrm^Tftr. Freq. ^rft^, ifFtftT or aTFTTfu. Participles, 
Pres. nnnr; Pass. jftTmrT; Past pass. jftTT; Past indecl. jfti^T, -TTJI; 
Fut. pass. TTTiniT, m^'hr, iR. 

6. After ^ may be conjugated ^ ' to be weary f ^ ' to meditate ;' 
f ' to fade ;' and all other roots in ai. 

596. Root Tmr . Inf. w^ ' to abandon,' ' to quit.' Parasmai. 
Pres. iq^tiP*?, rtflffH, &c. Pot. 7iwq, W^, &c. Imp. Winf^, W^Tj 
^c. ist Pret. ^W?t, ^^TO^, &c. 2d Pret. irmv^, TTWfini or TTi«nF^ 
(368. a), rlWTlT; WWftrr, rfTif^^, WT^r^T^; dflfifM, WT^IT, WW^. 


1st Fut. i^^ i Pm , i«rh i fa , &c. 2d Fut. Kia^ii^, uraflftr, &c. 3d Pret. 
(423, 296) 'gr mHJ , 'Hi^Jiafl^, ^^nmr^ftiT; ^sttt^, ^rmr^, '^r^^i^l; ^htts^, 
-HiHi-^ , wmrmt. Bened. mi^rw, wwnr, &c. Cond. '^nq^, ^m^nr, 
&c. Passive, Pres. 7n^', 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^STmrftr. Causal, Pres. 
»«M^ir »T; 3d Pret. ^aPriKI^I . Des. fi[7r^jf^ - Freq. iHTm, irmfw or 
rnw ^ nfH . Participles, Pres. imTTT; Past pass. TT^; Past indecl. TTliT, 

-'F^s^•, Fut. pass. w?fm, i^iRhr, ?m?T (573)- 

597. Root THT. Inf. 1TF ' to sacrifice/ ' to worship.' Parasmai 
and i^tmane. Pres. "mnftr, ^HTftr, &c. Kim. "q^, &c. Pot. 'im'f, 
TIWW, &c. A'tm. xi^, &c. Imp. inTTf?r, "mT, &c. A'tm. -q^, &c. 
1st Pret. '^rtnt, ^^qj^^<, &c. Kim. "^m^, &c. 2d Pret. (375. e) ^^TR, 
^^Hnm or ^thi or ^xre (297), jm^', t^T^j t^iyi' t^^^x^ t^' t^» 
tf^^. A'tm. t^, ff^, t;^; ^fw^, t^, t^nw; t^^t, ^ftrf, tf%T. 
1st Fut. xiFrfw, "qFrftr, &c. (403). Kim. xi¥T^, &c. 2d Fut. -q^lTfiT, 
Tj^Ti, &c. (403). A'tm. fm, &c. 3d Pret. (423) "^W^, ^snTT^Tff, 
^ q i HjIri^ ; -^Tsj^, ^sniTF, -}Ai\m ; -yiiia^, '^nn?, -i<qiw«. i^tm. ^Trfc^, 
^nrerw, ^rq?; -nMt^P^ , ^nr^r^rt, '^rxr^jTiTf; 'snr^f^, ^^2^, wq^ir. 
Bened. \ti\\H ., ^^qi^, &c. Kim. '^^:^, &c. Cond. 'sm^, ^^r^^r^, 
&c. Atm. ^nr^, &c. Passive, Pres. ^1^ (471) ; ist Pret. ^3^ 
(260. a) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^»nrrftT. Causal, Pres. HHillPH, -^ ; 
3d Pret. 'ssnftiT'T. Des. fzpTS^, -•^. Freq. -qrqi^, qiqpTH or ttht- 
^ftftr. Participles, Pres. -qm^; Atm. thftr; Pass. ^i^^HH; Past 
pass. ^; Past indecl. ^, -^1?T; Fut. pass, "q?^, q»ivflq, ^rn?? or 

a. Root ^ra*. Inf. ^^ ^ to adhere/ ' to embrace.' Parasmai. 
Pres. ^wtPh*, &c. Pot. •^!W^, &c. Imp. ^nrrf^r, &c. ist Pret. 
^W^, &c. 2d Pret. ^nrw, ^nrfw^ or TfT^N^, ^W^ ; ^Hf^, »4«g'q^, 
4 < ^^H^ ; ^^5^, T(V^, '^^^^ i^^ ^^^' ^"^T^R, &c. 2d Flit. 
«*^iPh, &c. 3d Pret. ^nrht, -T^fhr, -t^t^; ^rats^, ^trt^, -#; 
^raf^, ^WT^, ^mrw^. Bened. «tUI«*, &c. Cond. w^, &c. 
Passive, Pres. Fiq'. Causal, Pres. ^gqiPH; 3d Pret. 'Jl««y. 
Des. ftmrpfiT, &c. Frey. ^nrn^, ^I«^Pm. Participles, Pres. ^npT or 

* This root rejects its nasal in the conjugational tenses, and sometimes doubles 
the final j in those tenses (Pres. WiHTfiT, ^tjJPw, TTWfJT, &c.). It is not, how- 
ever, to be confounded with an uncommon root W5i^ or 1TT5T, meaning ' to go,' 
' to move,' which also belongs to the 1st c, and makes «"nt»P«i &c. in the present 


ff; Pass. «3^HM; Past pass, w^; Past indecl. wm or iFTiiT, -'^niT; 
Fut. pass. -^W^, ^l^^t^I, TRTq or WriJ. 

b. Root ?nr. Inf. ^frfVrff ' to shine.' Atmane, and optionally 
Parasmai in 3d preterite. Pres. ?ft^, &c. Pot. ?ftWT|, &c. Imp. 
U>t, &c. ist Pret. wr^, &c. 2d Pret. f^*, fi^^fTR, f^^; 
f^^^, n^ari l ^i , f«^^WT^ ; f^^iml, f^^W^ or -i", ff^lR. I St Fut. 
?r>fifrfTT%, &c. 2d Fut. s>ffr^, &c. 3d Pret. ^rgftfirf^, wrfrTFr^, 
wtfir?; wrffH^^, -f?nn"5iT, -finrrfrt; -fTT^rff , -fiTi4, -frnTfT. Par. wtt, 
-H^^ -in[) -"fTR, -rnf, -inrt; -TTTT, -WW, -ir^. Bened. ^fjNhl. Cond. 
TsreftfTT^, &c. Passive, Pres. UW; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^^reftfrT. Causal, 
Pres. ubnrrfiT; 3d Pret. wf^lf. Des. f^^f^ or f^iftfiT^. Freq. 
^^, ^^frfw or ^tTlrilPj? . Participles, Pres. iTlirfrR ; Past pass, ^frirf 
or fftfhw; Past indecl. ^rrirdll or ^frfwi^T, -?niT; Fut. pass. ^ftrwiT^, 

598. Root ^. Inf. -^fki or ^^ (73) * to be/ 'to exist.' 
i^tmane, and optionally Parasmai in the 2d future, 3d preterite, 
and conditional, when it rejects i. Pres. Tff, &c. Pot. "^^tf, &c. 
Imp. ■#, &c. ist Pret. W^, &c. 2d Pret. ■sTTff, '^^im, ^TTff; 
^^frr^, MM rim, ^^fff; ^frmt, '^'^^ or -i", ^WT. ist Fut. •^- 
int J &c. 2d Fut. -^ifxq or ^ifir, &c. 3d Pret. 'SiMfrif^, 'Si^fw^m^, 
^SMPria ; -UMfriMP^, -fff^rqf, -fw^TTTT ; -fff^^, -fffS^, -fwWfT. Par. w^, 

-im, -nif', -in^, -•fTtf, -TTTn; -irm, -wtt, -w"^. Bened. •^ft^fN, &c. 
Cond. ^Mfriui or ^"^j^f , &c. Passive, Pres. T^ . Causal, Pres. TffirrfiT; 
3d Pret. yi'iflMri* or ?!TMMff. Des. f^mfwk or f^MWlf^T. Freq. '^i'^^, 
MPCMrrfi or ^^TftfjT or '^'VTfftpiT. Participles, Pres. '#Jn^; Past 
pass. •^; Past indecl. ■^W.^ or ^^^ -'^; Fut. pass. ^fflT^, ^- 

599. Root ^. Inf. ^^-j ' to speak.' Parasmai. Pres. '^(?Tf<iT, 
^^, &c. Pot. ■q^^', ^^^, &c. Imp. ^^-^, ^, &c. ist Pret. ^^r^, 
^51^^, &c. 2d Pret. (375. c) ^^r^, "^^f^, "5^; "^i^^, '^i^'^^' 
■3i^H^^; "3ii^, ^, ^5^. ist Fut. MP^ri l PHi, mP^HiPh, &c. 2d Fut. 
MP'^mjpH, ^fjfoiftT, &c. 3d Pret. (431) '^RTf^xf, ^^"hr, lam^'hT; ^^- 
f^^, 'SI^Tf^F, ^"- j i nja t; ^^T^rf^^, ^UM l PH, ?, ^^r^f^^^^. Bened. -g^rro, 
^^Tff, &c. Cond. 'iiciPt^'oi, ^hmPc^ui^, &c. Passive, Pres. "^ (471) ; 

* The root ^TT violates 331. r/. by making its reduplicated syllable di for chi. in 
the 2d i)reterite, &c. Similarly, the reduplicated syllable of the frequentative is c/e. 
Panini VII. 4. 67. 


3'd Pret. 3d sing. '^RTf^. Causal, Pres. ^if^TTTfi?; 3d Pret. ^^r^"^. 
Des. f^qrf^mftT, -^. Freq. ^^^, •^r^f^ or ^r^^*^. Participles, 
Pres. ■^; Past pass, "^f^ (543); Past indecl. ^^, --^Ji; Fut. 
pass. ^r<ri^ , ^^^, ^m or ^^. 

a. Root ^ (270). Inf. ^w ' to sink.' Parasmai. Pres, ^ifir, 
^ft^, &c. Pot. ^ft^, ^^^, &c Imp. Tft^ifvr, ^, &c. ist Pret. 
^mt^', ^^^^, &c. 2d Pret. ^mi^, ^"^r (375. a) or ^TOr^, ^JTOT^; 
^^^, ^^^^, ^W^^; ^^j ^» ^J^^- 1st Fut. ^^f9?, ^^Tftr, &c. 
2d Fut. ^lijj i PH , ^wrftr. 3d Pret. 'sm^ (436, 437), ^51^^, ^m^TT; 
^sra^T^, 'STO^TT, ^H^fft; 'STTT^Fr, ^snr^TT, ^^^. Bened. ^rani, ^^trt, 
&c. Cond. w^m, '^nrW^T, &c. Passive, Pres. ^ir; 3d Pret. 3d 
sing. '^mrf^. CflM^a/, Pres. ;fn^Trrf?T ; 3d Pret. '3T?t^. De^. rHMrHlPM. 
Freq. WRT^, ^refar or ^TRnftfjT. Participles, Pres. ^ft^; Past pass. 
TS^ (540) ; Past indecl. Tfr?gT, -'5^; Fut. pass. ^^^, ?T^t^, ^Tlf. 

600. Root iru. Inf. ^ftnf ' to increase/ ^ to flourish.' i^tmane, 
Pres. ir^, ^w, &c. Pot. ^^, T?w^^, &c. Imp. tj%, ^V^, &c. 
ist Pret. ^ (260), ^V^TTTT, &c. 2d Pret. (385) ^VT^, ^VT^^^, 

^^n^; ^evT^f^, T^VT^^T^, ^VT^^T^; '^^tt^'rI, TnrFf^f, irm^- 

f^T. ist Fut. ^fVtTT^, &c. 2d Fut. Jff^, &c. 3d Pret. ^ftjft? 
(430, 260. b), ^fv¥TH, ^fw; vfv^n^, ^fvwr^it, ^Iwrwt; ^iV^f^, 
^ftr^, ^ftrRTT. Bened. ^ftmhr, &c. Cond. ^ftr^, &c. (260. b). 
Passive, ^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^v. Causal, Pres. ;?^nnfl=T ; 
3d Pret. ^f^ (494)- J^es. i?f^iv^ (500. b). Participles, Pres. ^v^TR; 
Past pass. TjfvTT ; Past indecl. ^fVr^T, -V^^ ; Fut. pass. ^jftnT^j jjyi- 

601. Root c5>?;. Inf. <5^ ' to take.' ^tmane. Pres. <9^, p5>T^, 
Wrk', cWT^I, c5>^, HHW; oJHTH^, cWS^, <W^. Pot. '^V{^, rJW^^, 
c5*TW; IW^, t5>nrnit, f5>NT7Tt; c5HlTf^, c5*^j4, f5>TT^^. Imp. c?^, 
tW^, cWiTT; <WTwt, 75>hlt, c5>TfTt; 75>TTOt, c5>Ts4, cPTnTT. Ist Pret. 

'STcTK^iT. 2d Pret. ■^H (375. a), ^fH^, ^; ^f>T^t» ^^i ^>TT^; 
^fiml, Hf>T^, HfWt. ist Fut. c^j^ (408), f53rw, 753^1; ojarr^t, 
cj^ETmm, pjarm; oi^jiwt, t^ansi, "FjarR^^. 2d Fut. c7^ (299), 

c5"«^^, c5t?lTW; TJT^JTT^, cT^^^, cT^^W ; cS^fETwt, 75^^^, c5^^^. 
3d Pret. ■^f5f^ (420, 299), ^T<53rr^^ (298), Wc^^T; ^STET'^f?, '){c<4Him], 
;3Tc5i?rnri; '3T?5'twf^, ^T?53^, 'ilci^ri. Bened. c5Whl, 75^=iRt¥T^^, oiHlly ; 

75^^, t^'^JhTT^, f^^^rrert; c^^^ftjrf?, ^j^Isct, oj^'k"??. Cond. 

'STcSt.-^, ^pS^^'SinT, ^TrST^TT ; ^Ic^TfqT^, ^STpStFT^rt, '^IH^^t; 'SIcST:^- 


»?f^, ^BHT'^ar, 'iir^»4M*ri . Passive, Pres. 7^; 3d Pret. '^Tpjf^, 
'srsarnT, ^snyrfW (475) or ^iirif**?, &c. Causal, Pres. (^M^iPh, &c. ; 
3d Pret. ^rfpjM. Des. "fe"^ (5^3)* Freq. c5Tt5^. Participles, 
Pres. <7inrR; Past pass. <53I; Past indecl. t?^^, -<5«I; Put. pass. 

«. In the same manner may be conjugated t>^ (with prep, yxi d), 
WT:«g ^ to begin.' 

602. Root JPT (270). Inf. iT^ ^ to go.' Parasmai. Pres. TrsrrftT, 
J i ^fa , Ji^aafiT; T^rr^, ^r^a:^^, t^tt^^; ii^sarm^, i^anzi, T^jf^. 

Pot. ilTrii^, T^i^, &c. Imp. JT^gcrf^, T^, &c. ist Pret. ^il'-aa, 
'^TiTSa^^, &.C. 2d Pret. (375) sTTm, 'S{T[fp;^ or IPT^, >TJTT»T; irfrtm 
{3^6), »rT^, 'FJTw^; ^rf^TJT, jT^t, ifF^^. ist Fut. TTTfTrftR, Tfrrftr, 
&c. 2d Fut. JiPHmirH, JifHuir^, Jrfiroifw; Tjf'rm^^, nf^w^^, ifk- 

"OTTnT; TTJTTBrmiT, irfHW^, nfHUlf'iT. 3d Pret. (436) ^JT'f, >HJlHf1, 
"^'Rfr; ^ITTR, ^TTTlf, '^TTTTT ; ^JPTR, ^TTlT, ^im^. Bened. JTwrw, 
TTTRH^, &c. Cond. ^Jif^'BT, ^PT'fiT'nT^, &c. Passive, Pres. ty^; 3d 
Pret. 3d sing. ^inf'T. Causal, Pres. TpTxiTf'T; 3d Pret. ^TrftTR. Des. 
fjprfwfiT. Freq, >i^>wj, iTl=f^ or H ^-hI Th ; see 709. Participles, 
Pres. TT^ajiT; Past pass, im"; Past indecl. ttt^, -T[Tt[, -ttw (563. a, 
560) ; Fut. pass. n*A'M, Tprfhr, jmi. 

60Q. Root ift^. Inf. iftf^?f'to Hve.' Parasmai. Pres. iftTrfH, 
ifMff, &c. Pot. >ftTJT, ift^^, &c. Imp. iffVrrfJT, ^t^, &c. 1st Pret. 
'snfhf, ^snft^, &c. 2d Pret. finfl^, finftfTcr, ftnft^; nK^ i r^ ci (28. b), 
fiTiftT^, finflTj^; fjTrftf^, f^nf^, infhf^. ist Fut. ■sftfrsTTft'?, 

&c. 2d Fut. iftfVaiTfJT, &c. 3d Pret. isnftf^, ^iniNt^^, 'snftwh^; 
^^nftftr^, -Hiflfci^, Wiftf^; 'snO^m, ^^nf^f^, Wi^^^^. Bened. ift- 
^mf, &c. Cond. -yj/ir^uf, &c. Passive, Pres. ^ft^; 3d Pret. 3d 
sing. ^!nftf%. Causal, Pres. *ftwtnfH ; 3d Pret. ^»nfH or ^snftf^. 
Des. fififtf^irrf'T. Freq. %>ft^. Participles, Pres. aflTfl" ; Past pass. 
iftf^rT; Past indecl. iT^f^r^, -itT^; Fut. pass. sfH^rraT, sft^jfhr, ift^. 
604. Root -^^ (270). Inf. "5^ '^ to see.' Parasmai. Pres. ■q^rrrfiT, 
'^V^, ^V^; TT^^qr^, tr^-q^^, -q^ini^^; q-^^iTR^^, -^t^, M ^qP^ri . 
Pot. ■q^', "q^q^, q^qw; tr^^^, &c. Imp. -q^Trrf^, tj^, q^xfw ; 
tnprR, &c. ist Pret. ^q^^, ^srq^TT^, ^srq^-qfr; ^-q^^q, &c. 2d Pret. 
^, ^f^^ or ^^ (368. G. b, 388. c), ^^ ; ^^^, ^"pr^^^, ^f^- 
^^^; ^^%T, '^^j ^1^^^\- ^^*^ ^"^* ^^ifa) "^^rftr, &c. 2d Fut. 
"5^TfH, ^^ftr, &c. 3d Pret. (436) ^31^, ^^^^, ^^^; ^^, 
^r^i^, 'st^^ttt; ^^^t»t, ^^, '^^^. Or ^tt| (420^ 388. c), 


^^ i «j1*4 , ^!<^n{j1ri ; vs^ i a^ , '^r^, ^i\^m ; w^t^, "^w, -n^mM^. 
Bened. "pTTm, "pTrnr, &c. Cond. "^w, w^^^^, &c. Passive, 
Pres. "p^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^Tc^. Causal, Pres. ^^l^lPH ; 3d Pret. 
'Ji«{1'^5f or ^T^fi; see 703. Des. 1^^. Freq. ^T^^ or ^-, ^ft^- 
^^ftfi? or ^ff^. Participles, Fres. V[^iTin', Past pass. •^; Past indecl. 
^f?T, -f^; Fut. pass. fW^, i^H\Hf "p^. 

605. Root ^'^. Inf. ^13^ ' to see.' Atmane. Pres. |;%, &c. 
Pot. ^T^, &c. Imp. ^, &c. ist Pret. F^T, &c. (260. a). 2d Pret. 
^ «jN^ , &c. (385, and compare ^>I at 600). ist Fut. f^fsij d I? , &c. 
2d Fut. tf^, &c. 3d Pret. ^f^^^ (260. b), ^ft^TlT, ^sr^ ; 
^fiEF^» ^r«jmv<i , ^Hfmrii; ^aj^r^, ^^, ^^^ttjt. Bened. %f^- 
^, &c. Cond. ^ft^^, &c. Passive, ^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^i3j. Causal, Pres. ^HjUlfa ; 3d Pret. ^f%^ (494)- Des. ffqf^ 
(500. b). Participles, Pres. ^^TO; Past pass, ^f^; Past indecl. 
ff^TBTT, -^^; Fut. pass, ^fsp^, ^^rrfhi, ^^. 

606. Root ^^*. Inf. ^V or -gs? ' to draw/ ' to drag.' Parasmai 
and Xtmane. Pres. os^ftr, &c. Atm. oFet. Pot. ofi^Tf &c., ^^^^^ &c. 
Imp. oB%ft!T &c., c^^ &c. ist Pret. ^ofi^, &c. Atm. ^snfi^', &c. 2d Pret. 
^^t, ^^fift^, ^^1 ; ^fi^, ^^^, -^"^TT ; ^f^TRT, '^Y^, '^f ^^^• 
Xtm. '^W, '^wf'T^, "^W^; "^Y^kww, '^m^, ^<*Mlri ; '^f^T?, ^- 
f^, ^^fwt. 1st Fut. ■3R#Tfw or -piFrf^, &c. A'tm. oR^t^ &c. or 
-mrw &c. 2d Fut. ehvt^ i PH or -giWrftT, &c. Atm. w^ or w^<, &c. 
3d Pret. '^T^BTW, ^nPltft^^, '5<c t,|^0 ri ; ^cfiT^, ^oBT?, ^nBTtt ; 'il<*l«^, 
^STcfirt, ^RcfiT^^. Or ^ST^T^, W^T^Tff, &c. Or ^^, ^T3T^, 'iJ<*«IW ; 

->ii<jiHjm , ^^"gjw, 'y<*KjriT; -i<<*H!m, 'sr^^, '.m«*«h. Atm. ^f^, 
'HehHjVjm or W^FRT, '^r^^TT or ^F ; ^^TWf? or '5?^^^* 'ST^SfT^lt, 

woF^Trrr; ^r^"^TJTf^ or ^Tejr^fV, ^r^'^jjg or ^r^f^, ^t^wt or ^r^^iT. 
Bened. eramr, &c. Atm. ofr^'^, &c. Cond. ^^f^ or ^T^^, &c. 
i^tm. -^^^ or ^-giw, &c. Passive, Pres. f^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^^Tcfift. Causal, Pres. oir§TrrftT; 3d Pret. ?r^^£( or ^^oir^. Des. fg- 
W^Tf*T, -■%. Freq. mO* "^, ^^f^ or ^^f^??. Participles, Pres. 
ofitTT; Past pass. cFF; Past indecl. ofr^, -ojr'OI; Fut. pass. -^^^ or 

607. Root ^. Inf. ^^ ' to dwell.' Parasmai. Pres, ^iTlfiT, 
^^rftr, &c. Pot. •qwir, ■^^^j &c. Imp. ^^tT^, ■^♦t, &c. ist Pret. 
^r^y ^SRTW, &c. 2d Pret. ^'^w, '^^ftrzi or ^^m, ■^^^; ^f^, 

This root is also conjugated in the 6th ronj. Pres. '^mfH. &c. ; Pot. "^^TT, &c. 


•jitTzm, "gsTirT^; ^^^^, •m^, ■giT^w. ist Fut. "q^Fnfwr, 'wwrftr, &c. 2cl 
Fut. ■^^nf»T, ■^rwftr, &c. (304. a). 3d Pret. ^RTT?T (304. a, 425), 
^Hcj i rtft ^, 'sr^rrRtw; ^snrrr^, ^^tw, ^nrr^; '^r^rrw, ^^i^rw, w^rrn^^. 
Bened. ToinT, T^PT, &c. Cond. W=IW (304- «)? "Si^M^j &c. P««- 
Mt'e, Pres. ■g'W (471) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^sirrftr. Causal, Pres. "^JV- 
irrftT, -XT; 3d Pret. ^r1^. Des. f^^WTf»T (304. a). Freq. "^T^, 
TT^W or ^T^^fHTT. Participles, Pres. '^^nr; Past pass. ■^fRW; Past 
indecl. ^ftiFcfT, -imi {r^6^) ; Fut. pass, w^ff^, ■^^fnftiT, ^irg. 

• 608. llootw- Inf. ^fffT ' to deserve.' Parasmai. Pres. '^Tftr, 
&c. Pot. ^"4, &c. Imp. ^tiftir, &c. (58). ist Pret. wrf , &c. (260). 
2d Pret. (371) ^rnrf, ^'Rff'^, ^rI ; WFTff^, ^TR^'^TTT, ^H^rtfl ; 
^RffjT, ^!TFrt, '^Rf^^- ist Fut. ^ffwifw, &c. 2d Fut. ^frmfi?, 
&c. 3d Pret. '^nffw, ^rl*^^^, ^ifhr; 'snff^, -mf^i, ^mft?!; ^^rrfl^, 
'^TiffF, ^ff^TFT. Bened. 'ST^re, &c. Cond. '^nffw, &c. Passive, 
^■?f, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^if^. Causal, Pres. ^infiT, -iT; 3d 
Pret. ^Tf^^ (494)- -De^. '^jfff^mPH, &c. (500. Z»). Participles, Pres. 
^W; Past pass. ^STfifff ; Past indecl. ^rffr^, -'^ ; Fut. pass. ^rfflT^, 

609. Root Ti^ (271). Inf. Tif^ff or jfl^ ' to hide.' Parasmai and 
A'tmane, Pres. n^lfn, &c. Xtm. it^, &c. Pot. jtT'T &c., ij^ &c. 
Imp. ^Tf^ &c., TT% &c. ist Pret. ^^^ &c., ^PT^ &c. 2d Pret. "^iT? 
(28. b), ^nf^ or -^J^ (305. a), ^ij^ ; ^Tjf^^ or ^tj^ (see note to 
368. b), ^^^,, ^^WTT; ^^Tf^ or ^Tpr, ^n^, ^5T|^. i^tm. ^^, 
^^■fV^, ^^%, &c. ist Fut. (413) irf^wifw or Tn^Tfi9T, &c. (305. a). 
A'tm. irf^^Tir or i\\d\\, &c. 2d Fut. (413) J^P^ujifa or -qVwTfJT, &c. 
A'tm. 'jf^'or or -sft^, &c. 3d Pret. ^nff^, ^'T?tw^, '^nj^; "^IJ^j 
^smf^F, ^nfV?T ; ^f^, '«<J|r^?, ^nf^^^. Or w^ (306. a), W^^, 
^■^W; ^^ra^T^, 'SI^T^lf, 'SITI^; ^mTTH, ^f^TT, W^f^. Atm. 'STn- 
f?ftT, ^irf^TfTTT, '^nff?, &c. Or W^ftf, ^^^T^^(305. ff), "^SJ^; 'H^ftjjf^, 
^STO^rzit, ^■Q'SfTTiT; ^1^^' "^"^^ (3°'^' ^' ^)' ^1^^« Or 'smf^ (439)? 
?ny8|^T^, 'sr^ff; ^isjRf^, ^^Hiivji, w^^rat; ^sr^iTf^, ^r^^s4j 
'^i^-^^. Bened. ^?TTTf, &c. A^tm. 3jfi|iftTr &c. or ^^'hr &c. (306. a). 
Cond. ^nTf^"ai or ^-sft^ &c., ^Trff -^ or ^trt^ &c. Passive, Pres. 
31^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ■^'Tff. Causal, Pres. ir^irrfiT; 3d Pret. 
^ipr. Des. ^^-Sjim, -%. Frey. »ftiT^, Ti>n>fir (3d sing. -rlVf^fe 
305. a) or sfpT^ftr. Participles, Pres. ^"fr ; Past pass, ij^ (305. a) ; 
Past indecl. nf^?^T or jj^t or nffi^T, -T^; Fut. pass. irffrrT^ or 
TTTg^, ^fjTiT, 7J^ or ifti^. 


6io. Root f^^. Inf. ^r^ ' to burn.^ Parasmai. Pres. rf^iffl, ^'fftT, 
&c. Pot. ^^, ^f^^, &c. Imp. ^T^T, ^^, cScc. 1st Pret. Wr[i, 
W?H, &c. 2d Pret. ^T?, ^f^ {^J^. a) or ^r^x[ (305), r^r^T?; ^f%^, 
^^, ^?WTT; ^ffH, ^, ^|r^. I St Fut. ej'^nn??, r^T^nffr, ike. (305). 
2d Fut. \is?lTfJT, vr^^, &c. (306. a). 3d Pret. ^>jrTW (423), WVIT^l^, 
isivrw^fT; ^5?VTT^, ^F^, '3T^FVt; '^T^rr^, '^T^FV, W^TT^H. Bened. 
^^TTR, ^"arm, &c. Cond. ^nr^Ef, ^5nr^^^(3o6. a). Passive, Pres. ^^, 
&c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^ifV- Causal, Pres. r[T?^TTf»T, -^; 3d Pret. 
^BTf^^'^. Des. f^V^ifM (306. a). Freq. ^"H^^, ?rjf^ or ^ftfJT; 3d 
sing. ^T^fni. Participles, Pres. ^'^■ff; Past pass, ^t^; Past indecl. 
^SSTT, -^; Fut. pass, ^rtj^, ^f^tzf, ^t^. 

611. Root ^. Inf. ^t^ 'to carry.' Parasmai and Xtmane. 
Pres. -^Tf??, '^H, &c. A'tm. ^, &c. Pot. ■^^f, ^^, &c. Imp. 
"^TtT^j "^j &c. i^tm. '^f , &c. ist Pret. ^^?', 'ii^^fl, &c. Kim. 
^5Rt, &c. 2d Pret. (375. c) ^^T?, •J^fV'I or -g^T^ (375. c), "^^T^; 
■gif^^, "35^^, iJi^ri*!; ^fH, "35?, "^ilT^. xVtm. "gs^, ^f?^, "35?; "SSf^T^, 

•35^, -gs^TW; -giffJTt, ^f?r|, ^f^. ist Fut. TT^rfer, fferftr, &c. 
Kim. •^Tf, &c. 2d Fut. '^^nf^T, ^^ftr, &c. A'tm. '^, tr^^, &c. 
3d Pret. (424) 'JiNiaj, '^nrT^ffhr, ^^isflrr; ^r^re?, w^^ti, wT^; ^t^ot, 
Wfe", ^ST^T"^. Atm. ?!TTf^, 'iJ<^l<ilTfI (424), ^r^"^; W^TS^f?, ^^^T?n, 
'sr^SJITTT; '^T^^^TiTj ^N^, 'iJ"4«Jff. Bened. ^^T^, TSIT^, &c. Xtm. 
■^Sjfhl, &c. Cond. 'ijcjH^, iH c( a^^, &c. Xtm. ?H«lvwi, &c. Passive, 
Pres. (471) T^; ist Pret. wr^ (260. «) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^sr^fV- 
Causal, Pres. ^l^illRfT, -^ ; 3d Pret. w^^^. Des. f^^BfrftT, -"%. 
Freq. '^T^, ^T^rf^T; 3d sing. TT^tfe (compare 424). Participles, 
Pres. ^TT; i^tm. '^?Jn«T ; Pass. ■5?m"R; Past pass. "35^ ; Past indecl. 
•35^, --^21 {^6^) ; Fut. pass. Tl?^, ^^if, ^T^. 

a. The root W?, Inf. ^fl^ ' to bear/ is i^tmane only, and follows 
vah in making ^ftTr% &c. in ist Fut.: but in this tense it optionally, 
and in the other non-conjugational tenses it necessarily inserts i ; 
thus, ist Fut. wf?7n?; 2d Fut. ^f^^; 3d Pret. ^srof^fq; Bened. 
^tP^MlM; Cond. w^f^•^. The 2d Pret. is if (375. a), ifV^, ^; 
■■H Cm 4 , ^c. The other tenses are like the Atmane of rah ; thus, 
Pres. ^, &c. 



612. Root W^ miih. Infill. »ft1V^ mohitum, ' to be troubled.^ 

Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I am troubled.^ 

g^lf*i muhydmi TWT^TI muhydvas ♦isiihW muhydmas 

^^rftr muhyasi ♦i«i'q?T muhyathas T?ni muhyatha 

^^TrT muhyati W^Tif^ muhyatas T^'PfT muhyanti 

Potential, ' I may be troubled/ 
H^J*4 muhyeyam T^'^ muhyeva *\^*\ muhyema 

^^?T muhyes ♦<*«« muhyetam H^n muhyeta 

^^Trf mukyet ^^f^ mukyetdm ♦l^^w muhyeyus 

Imperative, ' Let me be troubled.^ 
^^rrnr mukydni 5^T^ muhydva H^\M muhydma 

W^ muhya •J^rt muhyatam HHii muhyata 

l^n muhyatu ^«4rtT muhyatam ^^T*"' muhyantu 

First preterite, ' I was troubled.^ 
^W^ amuhyam ^W?IT'^ amukydva ^TT^ITR amuhydma 

^0^1 ^"*"%«* '^^^IT amuhyatam ^nT^ITT amuhyata 

^f^^TT amuhyat ^JT^TITT amuhyatdm ^W^*I amuhyan 

Second preterite, ' I became troubled.^ 
g*n^ mumohu ^^^ mumuhiva ^hH^H mumuhima 

*^*U\^M mumohitha * tJ o^ '3*\ inumuhathus WR^ mumuha 

^♦il^ mumoha «l«J^rf^ mumuhatus »T*ig^^ mumuhus 

First future t, * I will be troubled.' 
jfinpfllP*** mohitdsmi jfrffTTT^H tnohitdswas jftf^rilW^ mohitdsmas 

♦fir^Hlf*! mohitdsi h1 0^ ri I W(^^ 7nohitdsthas Htf^TUVH mohitdstha 

HlH^rtl raoAi^a jfHVfTTTt mohitdrau H^f^HK^ mohitdras 

Second future f, ' I shall be troubled/ 
mfV^rrftr moMshydmi »ftf^U|Nff mohishydvas tfir^UllHTf mohishydmas 

^1f^^^f^ mohishyasi Wtf^VJ^f^^mohishyaihas ^\f^W^ mohishyatha 

^^i^^^fit mohishyati ^\^t^A «^ mohishyatas l^tf^Vjf^ mohishyanti 

* Or ^*ft^ (305. fl) or g?rtni (305). 

t The 1st and 2d futures may optionally reject the inserted i; see under 412. 

Third preterite (435), * I became troubled.' 

^g^ amuham ^«"^T^ amuhdva ^TH^TT amuhdma 

^TTfTT amukas '•SJJ^rl amuhatam ^^^ amuhata 

^STT^IT amuhat ■•UH^HI amuhatam '^ig^'T amuhan 

Benedictive, ' May I be troubled.' 
T?rT?T muhydsam «j«i«a muhydswa ^?4l*t« muhydsma 

Tgrnr muhyds JJ^IIW muhydsfam ♦J^IW muhydsta 

ifmi^muhydt ^^tWH muhydstdm *^^[*^f^^muhydsus 

Conditional, ' I should be troubled.' 
SSfM^n^^ amohishyam 'SufrfV^lT^ amohishydva •«Hir^«MW amohishydma 

^H*l n$ «l « amohishyas ^KHIP^UIH amohishyatam ^^\?^**in amohishyata 
SH»fl n^tq fl^ amohishyat W^tf^^ftH amohishyatdm ^nfrf^»T crmo^isAyare 

Passive, Pres. ^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. wHt- Causal, Pres. iTt?- 
■qrfiT ; 3d Pret. 'smgi^. De^. <^*^'lr^^lrH or ^^fV^rfir or ^jHBjiPM. Freg. 
»T^, »fk>f^; 3d sing. *fr»frfe or HltTlO ^T (305). Participles, Pres. 
g^; Past pass. ^ (305) or ^rjj; Past indecl. hIH^HI or hH^HI or 
^PXZIT or ^T, -H^ ; Fut. pass. »fir^H«*l or jftm^, H^fvfhl, »rt?T. 


613. Root TTt (276. a). Inf. ^rr^ * to destroy' (with prepositions 
vi and ava, ' to determine,' ' to strive'). Parasmai. Pres. T?lTftr, &c. 
Pot. ^, &c. Imp. ^mf^, &c. I St Pret. '51^, &c. 2d Pret. (374) 
^#, «r««j or *««m, ;fi^; ^TfR, ^nr|^, ^^^^; ^^fm, h^, ^^. 
ist Fut. ^M i Pw , &c. 2d Fut. ^k^j i Ph , &c. 3d Pret. (438. b) ^mt, 
^smr^, ^nrn^; ^htr, ^nmf, ^sranrT; ^nrnr, w^mr, vi««. Or ^«iP«^ 
(433), 'swnfrff, ^ii f ii ^ lff ; ^iitP^n, wmfwi, "^srmfwsj; ^nrrftr^Tj 'stot- 
ftnr, ^m PHM f ( . Bened. w^m, &c. Cond. 'ii«iH(, &c. Passive, 
Pres. ?ft^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^mfiT. Causal, ^^nrrftr; 3d Pret. 
SHfflmi . Des. P^m^iPM. Freq. ^ift^, HT^, ^THTTfiT. Participles, 
Pres. ^iTTT ; Past pass, ftnr ; Past indecl. ftWT, -wr^ ; Fut. pass. ^ETTrr^, 

614. Root ^. Inf. "^^ * to know' *. Atmane. Pres. "^j &c. 
Pot. f^, &c. Imp. ^, &c. ist Pret. 'sr^, &c. 2d Pret. "f^; 

* This verb is also of the ist conjugation. See the tables at 583. 


see the tables at 583. 1st Fut. wt^, &c. 2d Fut. vfVi^, &c. 
(299. a). 3d Pret. (420, 299. a) ^wfw, ^^H, W^ or WTtftr (434) ; 
"^THr^fV, '^T^rWI'iji, ^r>TWTfTt ; ^WrF?fV, "^fji, ^WWTT, Bened. »TRftn, 
&c. Cond. ■^Mt(3^, &c. For the other forms, see wv at 583. 

615. Root "aiv (277). Inf. ^^ ' to pierce.^ Parasmai. Pres. 
i^arrfiT, &c. Pot. f^TflTT, &c. Imp. f^miffT, &c. ist Pret. ^^, &c. 
2d Pret. (383) f^TV, f^^riV^ or f^^^, f^^TTV; fqrf^fv^, f^iT^, 
fVfw^; f^^f\m, f^f^vT, f^fVuw^. ist Fut. ■3i:^f)ER, &c. (298). 
2d Fut. ■ajMlftr, &c. (299). 3d Pret. (420) '^T^TTT'ff, ■'.H-^lrt ft ^, ^l^TT?fhT; 
^■^TTf^, ^r^TT^ (419)? ^^n^; ^T^TTrW, ^T^m^, ^^I^TTT^^. Bened. 
f^urr^, &c. Cond. ^^?M- Passive, Pres. f^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d 
sing. ^3?^rrfvT. Causal, ^rnrTrfH; 3d Pret. wf^^. Des. f^^^WTfifT. 
Freq. ^^f^i^, ^\<M?m. Participles, Pres, f^vqiT; Past pass. f%^; 
Past mdecl. f^^, -frwi; Fut. pass. ^:ir3l, ^^rft^, "^ or ^mfl. 

616. Root ■ftrv (273). Inf. ^ 'to succeed.' Parasmai. Pres. 
ftrurrfT, &c. Pot. -ftnfl^, &c. Imp. ftnmf^, &c. ist Pret. ^ftr^, 
&c. 2d Pret. -ftr^, -ftr^^rq or ff^^, fti^V; ftrftrfv^ or ftrftis^ (see 
note to 368. b), ftrfr*!^, ftrfRvr^H; ftrP^ftpr or ftrftrwr, ftrfro, Mk- 
v^^. ist Fut. TiirTftR, &c. (298). 2d Fut. '^{^TTfJT, &c. (299). 3d 
Pret. *^ftnf, 'srftivm, ^rftnTrr; ^fw\n^, ^ftrw, ^hw; ^ftivFr, 
^ffl^nr, ^ftrVrT. Bened. ftnzTRf, &c. Cond. ?Hfii^', &c. Passive, 
ftw, &c.; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^fv. Causal, Pres. ^TirfiT or ^mnnfT; 
3d Pret. wtftiv. Des. fvf^r^\^n. Freq. ^ftp^, wkfm. Participles, 
Pres. ftTizrw; Past pass, ftrir; Past indecl. fw^ or ^fvRT or "ftTftrf^, 
-f^vni; Fut. pass, ^ir^, ^v^ffru, wai. 

617. Root iTfTt- Inf. JT'ff 'to think/ 'to imagine.' ^tmane. 
Pres. ^^^, &c. Pot. JT^XT, &c. Imp. jt^, &c. ist Pret. WT^, &c. 
2d Pret. ^9r (375. a), vif^^, ^; ^f^n?, w^, H^W ; ^^Flf, ^f^^, 
^^. 1st Fut. JTrTi^. 2d Fut. vm, &c. 3d Pret. (418) f^jfftl, 
sHH^m, "^m^; ^m^-f^, ^^qt, ^htttt ; 'sthwH? , ^^m^, ^Mhtt. 
Bened. jf^ftzr, &c. Cond. ^SfiTf^. Passive, Pres. Jl^; 3d Pret. 3d 
sing. -yMlPn. Causal, Pres. m^JT'nfiT; 3d Pret. ^hhIhh . -De;?. firiT^ 
or jftJiT^ or f«TJTfVr^. Freq. jhjt^, JT^^rf^. Participles, Pres. *<rMHM ; 

* When ftrv is of the ist c, it makes its 3d preterite '3Wfv^ &c. or ^T^W &c. 

t The root *nT is rarely conjugated in the 8th c. A'tinane (see 684), when 
the 3d preterite is ^JT'ftffR, ^nrfifffTW or 'SH«H'4I, ^Rf»T¥ or ''^^Wif, &c. 
See 426. b. 

Past pass. iTW ; Past indecl. 3cr?«rT or Hf^rprr, -j?W ; Fiit. pass. HnT^, 

a. The root iTT, Inf. wPh^ 'to be born/ makes Pres. in^, &c. ; 
Pot. iTT^, &c. ; Imp. jfT^, &c. ; ist Pret. ^HTR, &c. But these 
may be regarded as coming from the Passive of jan, 3d conj. 
See 667. 

618. Root fPl. Inf. im or ^R or Trf^ Ho be satisfied.^ Parasmai. 
Pres. ■fTonfiT, &c. Pot. W^, &c. Imp. ■^'orrftjr, &c. 1st Pret. ^Hijuj, 
&c. 2d Pret. TriT^, TTirfq^ or THTt^ or W^t:^, WW^ ; ITffftl^ or W^, 
riijMWfi , WiTT?W^^; TTWftlH or TTff^, rnTtf, W^^^^. ist Fut. (388. c) W^lftR 

or wmfwr or fTf^Trrfgr, &c. 2d Fut. it^tItt or ^x^ifJT or irf^imftT, &c. 

3d Pret. (420) ^^JTm"^, ■^TTT^^^, ^TtTT'^rT ; ^TfTT^^, 'iHrilH, 'UaiHT ; '^TWrt^, 

^TrTT^, ^TfTT^^. Or ^^TO, ^^T^^, '3T^T'^^(388. c), &c. Or ^nrf^^, 
^nT^I^, •^TfT^'^, &C. Or Wf^, ^^^' ^^^' WqT^, W^rf, ^"T flT ; 
^■qTO, Wtrw, ^^»T. Bened. ijmifl, &c. Cond. ^TrftRi or ^ijyi+M or 
WfTf^TJi, &c. Passive, Pres. tt"^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^nrf^. 
Causal, Pres. W^mf^ ; ^d Pret. WfftwTT or 'iJririM. Des. fiTTT^^fil or 
ffT^^TfH or fiTrrfq^^^. Freq. 7R^^, -iTT^lTf^ or fir'twf^. Participles, 
Pres. "^WrT; Past pass, ir^-, Past indecl. "^T, -^; Fut. pass. TT^^, 

619. Root ^ (275). Inf. ^JTTT ' to be appeased.' Parasmai. 
Pres. ^TT^Tfa, &c. Pot. '^l^, &c. Imp. ^T^nfrT, &c. ist Pret. 
'ST^T^, &c. 2d Pret. -sniiFr, ^^^ (375. a), ^^m; ^^'^, im"^, 
^IT^; %fHH, "^m, n^. 1st Fut. ■^fiTTrTfer, &c. 2d Fut. ^ft-oiTffT, 
&c. 3d Pret. ^r5T^, '^^I'i^, ^^TT; '^rypn^, 'sr^Ffrf, ^^rsmirr; w^stttt, 
^fi^nriT, ^r^iJ?^. Or ^^♦ttt, ^^qpfi^^, ^sqmtTr; ^r^ft^, &c. Bened. 
■^ITura, &c. Cond. ^sr^fntii, &c. Passive, Pres. ^?^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 
3d sing. ■^Jirft . Causal, Pres. ■^■qifff ; 3d Pret. '^■jft^H, &c. Des. 
%5rffl^fH. -Frey. "^^j ^^^ ; 3d sing. '^^f^. Participles, Fren. 
^ll4-m T ; Past pass, "^nm ; Past indecl. TTR^ or ^fJTr^, -"5?^ ; Fut. 
pass. ^if'TlT^? ^^T'T^t"^, ^w?. 

620. Root -frsfT . Inf. ^f^^ or -^ ' to perish.' Parasmai. Pres. 
^^^nfir, &c. Pot. ■?r5^, &c. Imp. iT^iEnffT, &c. ist Pret. W^^^f 
&c. 2d Pret. (375. a) ^iRT"^ or rfTf^, iff^-^ or ^S (388. d, ^ys- «)» 
^Tin^; ^f^^ or ^Tq, '^^'^H, ^^W^^; ^f^, '^l^, ^^^^. ist Fut. "^f^- 
Tnf^ or Tf^TffR (388. d), &c. 2d Fut. Trf^xmlTFT or i^^lftr, &c. 

3d Pret. (436) ^^^, ^5R^^, ^^nrjiw; '^nr^iT^, '5T-?r^if, ^^rw; ^^ht^ft, 

^TVTSTW, W5T5nT. Or 'SR^, &c. (436, 441). Bened. ^JiTR, &c. Cond. 


^SRf^'Bi &c. or ^^;t^ &c. Passive, Pres. ^?^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
'JTH I r^l . Causal, Pres. vfT^r^lfH ; 3d Pret. ^^fhr^. Des. frr^f^tnfJT, 
fHHHJirH . Freg.-^TTTT^, ^TTJrT^; 3d sing. rTRfFor^Trjffi?. Participles, 
Pres. HSf^tf ; Past pass. »T?; Past indecl. •TfT or tf^, -»TTT; Fut. 
pass, -^^^j HSUliI, -TT^TI. 

621. Root ^^*. Inf. Tfti ' to be nourished,' ' to grow fat.' 
Parasmai. Pres. "gWTfiT, &c. Pot. "5"^, &c. Imp. ^tuif^lT, &c. 
ist Pret. ^g"OT, &c. 2d Pret. IgifV^, ^^tf^iJT, ■5^; YS^^' H^o^l' 
^1^1^x5 ^^^' ^1^' ^^^- ^^^ ^^*- '^Tfw, &c. 2d Fut. tft^nftr, 
&c. 3d Pret. (436) '^^, '^^^j ^HHri^; ^^^T^, 'H^Mrl, ^MMHI; 
' 'H M mH , ^y«jMri, ^rg^^^. Bened. ijiqi^, &c. Cond. -iiMla^*, &c. Pas- 
sive, Pres. ■^■^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^nflf^. Causal, Pres. ^ft^MlfH ; 
3d Pret. ^3r^;g^. Des. ^tftfMmf»T or ^^TT^rftT or iji^hjiPm. Freq. "'ft^, 
TftxftftJT. Participles, Pres. "5"ffrT\;^; Past pass. ■^; Past indecl. "JfT, 
-■gxq; Fut. pass, ift?^, tfr^irft^, ^^t^. 

622. Root ^RT. Inf. ^ftrW ' to throw.' Parasmai. Pres. ^^ift, 
&c. Pot. ^T^if, &c. Imp. •?l^Tf^, &c. 1st Pret. 'sn^, &c. 2d 
Pret. ^Tw, ^rrftni, ^TRT; ^nftr^, ^trt^tt, ^TWff^; 'srrftnr, ^ira, ^n^^. 
ist Fut. •^rfrriTTfTEfT, &c. 2d Fut. ^^iftnmfH, &c. 3d Pret. (441) ^t^, 
^iw^, ^rrwiT; ^nwR, ^n^if, ^nwrrt; ^nwTT, ^t^w, ^nw^r. 
Bened. '^T^Tlf, &c. Cond. ^nfWBT. Passive, Pres. ^T^; 3d Pret. 
3d sing, ^rrftr. Causal, Pres. ^ra^nfR ; 3d Pret. ^rrftnr. Des. ^rftr- 
ftrmftr. Participles, Pres. ^^mA ; Past pass, ^rer; Past indecl. 
^r«rtfF or 'HWI, -^n^ ; Fut. pass. ^rftfiT^, ^TO^^, ^Wl. 

623. Root "5^. Inf "^r^ or "^f?^ ' to injure,' * to bear malice.' 
Parasmai. Pres. 'd^lPM, &c. Pot. T^, &c. Imp. ^^iHll, &c. 

o -a o 

I St Pret. ■51^, &c. 2d Pret. ffr^, <i)^t^ or cTjtni or ^T^, jj^ ; 
^^' ^^x' J^l^J 1^^ ||^' ^"JP:- 1st Fut. (413) -^r^W 
or "^^^ifw or ■^^f^Hlfw, &c. 2d Fut. ift^MlPM (306. a) or -^tf^vilfH, 
&c. 3d Pret. W5[f, ^"5;^^, ^^5^; ^"^ifn"? ^"5;^7f, 'y^^rri ; ^^^i*j, 
^r^TfT, ^r5rf "^ • Bened. "S^'HT, &c. Cond. '^nil^ (306. a) or ^TfftfV^, 
&c. Passive, Pres. "5^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. w^VfV- Causal, Pres. 
■^t^xrrf'T; 3d Pret. -n^'^i • Des. J^ftf^^rftr or j'^f^'^iri or jip^rft? 
(306. a). Freq. <^'^^, ^t^tflT (3d sing. ^"V^tfrv or ^Y^fHr). Participles, 
Pres. "^^nr; Past pass. -57^ or "5^; Past indecl. "^Tcn or "^rf^T^ or 
-^^ffl^, --5^; Fut. pass. -^^Tv^, -j^fTrfhT, -5^. 

* This root is also conjiigated in the 9th conj. See 698. 



624. Root rT^. Inf. TT^ ' to tie,' ' to bind,' 'to fasten.' Parasmai 
and A'tmane. Pres. ^fTWlf'Tj &c. Atm. »T^, &c. Pot. "JT^, &c. 
Ktm. H^l^. Imp. TTgnf^j &c. i^tm. «T^, &c. ist Pret. '^irf^, &c. 
Kixn. 'iJH^j, &c. 2d Pret. *nTT^ or rR^, ^1%^ or ^TTir, ^m?; ^fV^, 
H^'y«, H^rfV^; ^f^T' ^; %^- ^tm. ^^, ^W, ^^; ^f^^, ^?m, 
^TW; ^f^^, ^^i", ^f^. ist Fut. "JTSlf^T, &c. Kim. »T^T%, &c. 
2d Fut. (306. b) ^TSTlfiT, &c. Kim. 7^, &c. 3d Pret. (425) ^RTW, 

^awirHlfl, ^nrn'tfh^; Wrrrr^, ^rt^, wirn^t; w^rrwr, '^nm', ^nnT^^. 

A'tm. ^TTfw, '^R^^^, 'SI-fT^; '^Rr^f, ^SRWrqi, WITWTTTt; ^^HTr^f^, 
■41 «4^', 'SRWTT. Bened. 'JT^ITO, &c. Kim.. ^TTOtTI, &c. Cond. W?n5T, &c. 
Kim. W!{m, &c. Passive, Pres. tT^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 'JiHlf^ • 
Causal, hi^^iPh; 3d Pret. ^^T^fhTf. Des. f^HrtTlfifT, -W (306. 6). 
Fre*/. ■^R^, ^^rf^ (3d sing. ^rpfe). Participles, Pres. rraw; Past 
pass. fTir; Past indecl. ■^^, -"Pf^; Fut. pass. ^:i^, 1^^^^, '^^T^. 


625. Root "W^ srij. Infiin. H^ srashtum, ' to create' or ' let go.' 

Parasmai-pada only. 
Present tense, ' I create.' 

^Ilf*! srijdmi 
^iftt srijasi 
«n\t\ srijati 

«*1ri*< srijutas 

Wiilif srijunti 

J^W^ srij ey a in 
W^^ srijes 

*<1ll«T srijdni 
^»lrt srijatu 

^■^T srijema 
«»1il srijeta 
^^3^ srijeyus 

■si*m« asrijas 
^«*1fl a srij at 

Potential, ' I may create.' 
« »Ts srijeva 
"W TpT srijetam 
WaTirr srijetam 

Imperative, ' Let me create.' 

W5TT^ srijdva ^atlH srijdma 

Mt\n srijatam «*ni srijata 

WSnn srijatdm tni»n srijantu 

First preterite, * I was creating.' 

W^nrr^ asrijdvu ^J'^HTR asrijdma 

■»:i*mil asrijatam ^TOinT usrijata 

^IJlfHT a srij a I dill. ^unn'^ asrijun 

F f 



Second preterite, ' I created/ 

^^TtI'^ sasrijiva ««hi*i sasrijima 

*'*2'' o*\ sffsry«^A"* ««»1 sasrija 

^^»lrt« sasrijatus «*ig« sasrijus 

First future, ' I will create.' 
8. c) ^FT^H srashtdswas WSWfS srashtdsynas 

W2JW^ srashtdsthas 'BTTW srashtdstha 

^glO srashtdrau H^MM^ srashtdras 

Second future, ' I shall create/ 

H^rra^ srakshydvas H«<IH« srakshydmas 

«««('<<« srakshyatkas H^T^I srakshyatha 

«vs*lil«^ srakshyatas F^tPiT srakshyanti 

Third preterite, ' I created/ 

■s(t(l«ji asrdkshwa ^THTS^ asrdkshma 

^rerr? asrdshtam ^WT? asrdshta 

v<«igi asrdshtdm ^TFT'STO asrdkshus 

^W^ sasarja 
W^rf^ sasarjitha * 
^Wn sasarja 

HFrftw srashtdsmi {, 
FPrftr srashtdsi 
¥?T srashtd 

««<jir*i srakshydmi 
HT^rftr srakshyasi 
Wa^jfri srakshyati 

^SRJT^ asrdksham 
-HH \ \ii\H^ asrdksMs 

Benedictive, ' May I create/ 
^5*4l« srijydsam *i'^^*^ srijydswa MiH\m srijydsma 

Wjf^srijyds <ff-K<l« srijydstam Wr^M srijydsta 

^WTiT *ry2/a7 ^tmiwI srijydstdm MtH\HH^ srijydsus 

Conditional, ' I should create/ 
irakshyam »:i«a<4l^ asrakshydva vi^ajiTT asrakshydma 

asrakshyas vttiajid asrakshyatam ^SW^nT asrakshyata 

7^ asrakshyat vi«it*lrtl asrakshyatam ^W^«T asrakshyan 

Passive, Pres. ^W; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ismfW- Causal, Pres. ^- 
■qiftr; 3d Pret. 'snraff or SH^l^W- De*. ■ftrwc^Tfir, -%. Freg. ^n5^ 
or ^rcl^ftR (3d sing. ^iO^Pk). Participles, Pres. ^nnr; Past pass. 
,^ (297) ; Past indecl. ^T, -^ ; Fut. pass. :ffs^, ^T^rftiT, ^. 


626. Root ^ (280). Inf. H^ ' to die.' Atmane only in conj. 
tenses. Pres. f^, &c. Pot. f^^, &c. Imp. "Pa^, &c. ist Pret. 
^rf^, &c. 2d Pret. JT*rTT, JTrIt^ or jht'^, >tttr ; >Tf%^, H<J^ti , »raw^^; 

* Or ?TO¥ sasrashfJia. See 297 and 388. c. 


»Tf%|, JTfWt. ist Fut. JTtTftR, &c. 2d Fut. Hf imi fa , &c. 3d Pret. 
A'tm. ^ST^iT, xH^jvii*!^, ^^; 'ii^jHO^, »i<*jmvjl, 'smwnn; ^Hi*in?, ^r^, 
'^HM(f. Bened. Atm. Jjtftn, &c. Cond. ^mfr^, &c. Passive, Pres. 
f^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^mrft:. Causal, Pres. HK*4lf»f ; 3d Pret. 
■'UMlnt. Des. HJfqrftr (502). Freq. w^, W[^i^. Participles, Pres. 
f^^HliU ; Past pass, jttt; Past indecl. »JRT, -^; Fut. pass. jt#^, 

627. Root oF (280). Inf. ofifrw or ofrrt^ ' to scatter.^ Parasmai. 
Pres. f^Frrftr, &c. Pot. fcfibr, &c. Imp. ftBrrftl, &c. 1st Pret. 'STftfit, 
&c. 2d Pret. (367. c) ^^wn, '^oRfr^, ^^ofirr; ^^"^, ^^R-p;, ^^^?:w^j 

^^fifbr, ^^R, ^^li^. ist Fut. (399) ohP^ri l fa or cB^rnftfT, &c. 2d 

Fut. (399) chn^mi fa or cfi^unftT, &c. 3d Pret. ^^rarrft:^, ^sranf^n;, ^^- 
^; ^sHBTfr^, ^nurfTF, 'srarfTFT ; ^sr^fiTft^JT, 'sniiTft:?, '^loRrft^^. Bened. 
^^, &c. Cond. ^^niift^ or ^rard^. Passive, Pres. chlxf ; 3d Pret. 
3d sing. ^srsBTfc. Causal, Pres. ■giTTTrrf^; 3d Pret. ^^hfit. Des. fqoR- 
r^mPM or P^chOmfH . Freq. ^^, ''^nRifi^. Participles, Pres. f^Tf ; 
Past pass, e^ (531. a) ; Past indecl. oflitT, -ofit^; Fut. pass. oBfriT^ 
or ojiOri'M, ^R^jfhr, ^FT't. 

628. Root »T^ (281). Inf. iftwi ' to loose/ ' to let go.' Parasmai 
and Xtmane. Pres. jj^iPh, &c. Atm. ^%, &c. Pot. ^%^, &c. 
Atm. *[%^, &c. Imp. ^^Tf«T, &c. Atm. fl^, &c. ist Pret. '5R^, 
&c. Atm. '51^, &c. 2d Pret. f#Er, girtf^, 5»fN ; ^^f^, 5T^^n» 

g*j-«livf, H*j-«(id ; H^f^fl^, ^Hpv*^, ^Hf^. ist Fut. JTl^iftR, &c. 
Atm. Hlrhl^ , &c. 2d Fut. jflVi*iiPH, &c. Atm. jfti^, &c. 3d Pret. 
^n^y ^m^lT, ^TT^; ^m^'R", tHH-**!!, ^STWrTT ; ^W^TT, 'SH-clH, ■4IH-«*W . 

A'tm. '3T^f^, >^H 4 v<iq, ^?H^; 'smr^, ^sr^nit, 'ii^yjirtl; 'sr^f^, 
^Wxj4, ^iJHVSjri . Bened. n^T^, &c. Atm. gr^TTI, &c. (452). Cond. 
Wt^, &c. Atm. 4Ih1«^, &c. Passive, Pres. 5^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^nftf%. Causal, Pres. jf\'M*<lPn; 3d Pret. ^hhh^ . Des. ^ijHjlPH, -■%. 
Freq. m\ h ^ , h\h \ ? ' ^ (3d sing. hIhIP^). Participles, Pres. g^; 
Past pass, w^; Past indecl. wm, -^; Fut. pass. tftli^I, JT^^r'N, 
^t^. For the other verbs of this class which insert a nasal, 
see 281. 

629. Root ?q^ (282). Inf. ^f^fl ' to deceive.' Parasmai. Pres. 
P^-m i Ph , &c. Pot. f^^, &c. Imp. fT^rlTsr, &c. ist Pret. ^srf^^, &c. 
2d Pret. (383) f^^irr^, fwf%^, P<^«MM ; fVP^'^, f^^'giR, f^fT^^^^; 

F f 2 


f¥¥^, f^f^, fVf%^F. 1st Fut. -arfqinftH, &c. 2d Fut. c^r^mirn. 
3d Pret, ^T^iTf%-R, ^«jdn i xn H, &c. Or ^Rjfq^, ^^r^r^, &c. ; see 427. 
Bened. frarnr, &c. Cond. ^srarN'OT, &c. Passive, Pres. f%^; 3d 
Pret. 3d sing, w^mfsf. Causal, Pres. •grr^rrrftr; 3d Pret. wf^^N- 
Des. f^ f ^r^Mlfa or r ^ ^r-MmpH . Freq. ^frar, ^Fqf^ or ^T^H^- 
■Participles, Pres. fr^; Past pass. P^pMri ; Past indecl. f^cP^lrtll, 
-f^ ; Fut. pass, ^f^ir^, f^^'^rafhr, ^TRI. 

630. Root ^(282). Inf. -^f^ ' to cut.' Parasmai. Pres. ^^TfiT, 
&c. Pot. '^^. Imp. Y^rf^. I St Pret. ^5mJ» &c. 2d Pret. TcHJ, 

^^f%^ or ^^?, ^3^5 : Tsftaf^, <jpiva^ y, T^^g^ ; ^^f^aw, ^^^, ^na^^^. 

I St Fut. (401) -sfwifw or ^FrfitR, &c. 2d Fut. riPi^m i rH or d^lPH , &c. 
3d Pret. ^^figir, wa^^^, ^cT^; '^raf^^, &c., see 427. Or -ilril«j 
{418, 419), ^cTT^fhT, -Hril«i()ri^; W3T^, ^raW (297), ^rilSi ; ^T^TS?, 
^mi?, ^m^. Bened. ^isiTO, &c. Cond. ■^sraftruj or ^ra^, &c. 
Passive, Pres. T?^ (472) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. W^f^ (475. «, note). 
Causal, Pres. d'^^ l PH ; 3d Pret. ^3Tfw?J. De«. P^dP^i a qi fa or Pc«d«j l PH . 
Freq. ^^(]^^, ^^^'^7i\{^. Participles, Pres. Y^5 ^^^^ P^^^* T^^ ^''^ 
^ (541, 58) ; Past indecl. d P ^g r TT, -'^ (565) ; Fut. pass, -^fw^ 
or clF^, Tr^[^T3(, WSi. 

631. Root ira or 3r53 (282). Inf. X(^ ' to ask.' Parasmai. Pres. 
Y^rrfJT, &c. Pot. i^^4, &c. Imp. i JTad l Pri , &c. 1st Pret. ^TT^, &c. 

2d Pret. (381) TTira:, ^TiiPs^ or ttit?, inr^; TTTifsr^, MM-ad^+i^, trrrat- 
^; mhP^h, tto^, inr^^. 1st Fut. ■xrerffR, &c. 2d Fut. tt\^tPh, 
&c, 3d Pret. -iiui«|, wim^^, -niiiyjtjT; '^snrn^, '?nn?, ^^nrret; ^srm?^, 

'sniTF, ^nrrw. Bened. ■^^THT, &c. Cond. ^ana*? , &c. Passive, 
Pres. ■^q (472); 3d Pret. 3d sing, '^snnfs. Causal, HtsI^iPh ; 3d 
Pret. ^nnr^. De^. f Mi jPcdmPq . Frey. ciO'JTri.^ , m i mP^h . Participles, 
Pres. "^W ; Past pass. -^ ; Past indecl. t^, -'^^PT (565) ; Fut. pass. 

632. Root H^ or )??3^. Inf. >ji or >T| * to fry.' Parasmai and 
A'tmane. Pres. >Twrf^, &c. Atm. >T^, &c. Pot. >JW^, &c. Atm. 
>TW^, &c. Imp. jpiTTiTT, &c. i^tm. )f#, &c. ist Pret. '^T>p5r, &c. 
i^tm. '5t>j^, &c. 2d Pret. (381) "^^JW, ^^jfeni or ^>JF, '^^J'^jT; 
^>lfSR, ^iJTTT^H, ^iJWff^^; -SMfsTR, -W^nsr, -^ilTltl. Or W^T^t, W»Tf5t^ 
or ^vrt, ^iTit; "Wf^, &c. Atm. "^^m, ^^'^, &c. Or W#', 
^>^t|^, &c. 1st Fut. H?Tfw or VT#Tf)^, &c. A'tm. )j^ or nfrt, &c. 
2d Fut. ^■^■\fs{ or HT^m &c., >jTs^ or i?^" he. 3d Pret. ^3WT^, 'SMT^^, 
'^WT^; ^5Wn^, '^WT?, 'SWm; ^5WT^, 'SWT?, 'SJiJT^. Or 'SliTT^, &c. 


Atm. 'swf^, ^^nrnr, ^^m^it; ^^w^f^, 'sw^rgr, 'sm^tht; ^m^^, 

'3W^, ^!WC^. Or '^wf^, ^M¥T^, '^M?; 'SW^f^, ^swv^ivii, ^3M^TKt ; 
^Tvn^f^, 'SM^, 'SiH^lT. Bened. >pSTT^, &c. Atm. >?^ &c. or 
»r|fN &c. Cond. 'SM^ &c. or 'SM^ &c. Kim. ^5M^ &c. or ^snr^" 
&c. Passive, Pres. >Jt5^. Causal, Pres. >niRTffI ; 3d Pret. ^sr^^ 
or ^^«IH-n(. Des. fwc^fir, -"%, or f^ir^rffT, -"%; or f^^jfsrmftr, -^, 
or f^ n r^ M t fH , -^, &c. Freg. «(0*<ti^ , ■^TTHfeH (3d sing. ■^T>jf¥). 
Participles, Pres. >n3nT; Past pass. >p; Past indecl. Wf\, ->p5^; 
Fut. pass. >j?^ or vr#^, ^f^rftti, >ij^. 

6^^. Root H^ or JT^ . Inf. jHj * to be immersed,' * to sink.' 
Parasmai. Pres. JTWrfH, &c. Pot. »tw4, &c. Imp. H-nHpH, &c. 
ist Pret. 'sm^, &c. 2d Pret. Tm^a, JmfW'I or r\^■^, m{TT(; imfw^, 
ITRtHT^, HH-nlri ^^; ^mfSTH, ^W^, *T»Tt5T^^. Ist Fut. ^'^ifw, &C. 2d 

Fut. h^iPm , &c. 3d Pret. (426) ^srolrf, ^mt^TT, ^swrcftrT; 'smT^, 
'ilHirti, ^r*ri#; ^mt^, ^HT^, "^mt"^. Bened. iTriirnT, &c. Cond. 
•HH ' iii , &c. Passive, Pres. jTt5^. Causal, Pres. H-ni^lPiH; 3d Pret. 
^fTRiraf. Des. fM^rftr. Freg. HW-riii , ^T^frS^ (3d sing. HlHp*). 
Participles, Pres. JTWrT; Past pass. »r«T; Past indecl. ^T, TW, 
-iTriq'; Fut. pass, ^lf!^, H-tjr*fty, Wrrq. 

634. Root ^. Inf. ift^ ' to strike/ * to hurt.' Parasmai and 
j^tmane. Pres. w^tHj, &c. Atm. ir^, &c. Pot. w^, &c. Xtm. -^^j 
&c. Imp. ■g^Tf^, &c. i^tm. •5I, &c. ist Pret. "^w^, &c. Atm. 
^, &c. 2d Pret. -gift^, -jwtf^, "ffTft*? ; W^^, "SI^Tl' II^x' 

ririH^H^ , Wfffc^J^ (|"), ^f^T. ist Fut. iftwrP??, &c. Atm. itV^, &c. 
2d Fut. fT li^ jj i PH , &c. Atm. wtm, &c. 3d Pret. WTW, -ijriiwft^^, 
'HrilrtflT^; 'STTflr^, ^WTW, ^h1?j] ; ^TTTrW, ^T^^, ^FTrg^. Atm. ^wfw, 
Wr^^, WW; W(^i%, WWT5IT, ^iJrHlril; 'HgrWP^, W^s4, ^^r^TiT. 
Bened. 'ff^TRT &c., Hrtflil &c. (452). Cond. w^tm &c., ^iftw &c. 
Passive, Pres. 71%; 3d Pret. 3d sing. wtf^. Causal, Pres. 'ff^^nf'T; 
3d Pret. '^iFff^. Des. •JWWTfiT, -W. Freg. W^^, TfTifrftl (3d sing. 
iftfftPw) . Participles, Pres. TT^TT; Past pass, g^; Past indecl. W^, 
-■pr; Fut. pass, rft^^j, Ft^^^hr, Tffsr. 

635. Root ft^. Inf. ^"ji Ho throw.' Parasmai and Atmane. 
Pres. fgpTTfjT, &c. Atm. ft^, &c. Pot. f^^^, &c. iV^tm. f^^il, 
&c. Imp. %tjTftir, &c. Atm. ffej^, &c. ist Pret. ^fisfq, Ike. Kim. 
'ilPvjjqf, &c. 2d Pret. Pxi^q, P^^Pmq, fr^tj; f^T^fxi^, f^ie^tr^^. 


f^T^fxr^, fgf^TTT^, fMr>{jmri ; r-MpHjr M H^ , r^r^^rq ^ or -i-, r^rB^nu. 

]st Fut. ^iHifw, &c. A'tm. -^Tnt. 2d Fut. ujl^iPh. i^tm. ^'O^. 
3d Pret. ^ra'«^, 'j{Bi hA'+i , 'HaiHflff ; ^'^t^, ^r^TT, thShI ; ■•Hw'W, -fl^H, 

wnrt; ^rfV'wf^j '^rft^, ^te^''¥(T. Bened. f^'orw, &c. Atm. rBjtfl*!, 
&c. Cond. ^^ifM, &c. Atm. ^iJ^M^, &c. Passive, "ft^ ; 3d Pret. 
3d sing. ^mfq. Causal, Pres. ■^iTXlTf'T ; 3d Pret. '5rf%1%q. Des. 
f^f^'mf^, -"%. Freq. ■^i^, ^%r^ (7io» 294. a). Participles, Pres. 
fpjxnr ; Past pass. f%TT ; Past indecl. f^m, -f^'^I ; Fut. pass, ^u^, 

6^6. Root wpi. Inf. ^q^ or ws * to touch.' Parasmai. Pres. 
^q^TTftr, &c. Pot. 5EipnT, &c. Imp. ^^uPh , &c. ist Pret. ^TPJ^, 
&c. 2d Pret. ti?xr^, TjTqf^, Tjwr^ ; M^jf^R, iJHJ^I'gH, ^T^'pi^^; 
qi^^r^lH , "q?^, ^T^'nm. ist Fut. ?^^TftR or <-H«|fa . 2d Fut. ^q^rfn 
or ^qaj^iPH . 3d Pret. 'iifmai*, -iiwuafhr, ^^iwr^fhr; ^i^ia^, ^^rwr?, 
^KHJ i li ; 'HHjiB^ , ^Twn#, -y+:Mn|«. Or -yfHia}, ■^rarr^^, &c. Or 
-HH^^i , ^^m\, ^srnjWTf; ^n^^p^, ^r^q^, 'iifqvsjrti; ^sT^^rprr, '^re'p^, 
^ fM«j ^. Bened. ?^Tmi. Cond. 'SRq^ or ^fllVi*!. Passive, Pres. 
Tt^^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^Hif^l. Causal, Pres. w^^rrfir; 3d Pret. 
^qwilf or ^JifqfM^i . Des. ftf ^^j Vij I fa . Freq. T^ft^Fq^, q^^qf^ or 
q^n^qP^H . Participles, Pres. ^^"ff; Past pass. ?q?; Past indecl. 
?qfT, -^q^T; Fut. pass, m^ or fH«-=q, wr^rfhl, ^'^■ 

637. Root ^q (282). Inf. T^fq^ or ij^ ' to wish.' Parasmai. Pres. 
3[^Tfq, &c. Pot. l^'^. Imp. ^^3^. ist Pret. ^. 2d Pret. (370) 

^qq, ^qfq^, ^q; ^q, i^^, t,^^^; ^^^> t?5 tl'l,- ^^^ ^^*- ^~ 

iniw or U 8 l Pw , &c. 2d Fut. uPqiqiPH, &c. 3d Pret. ^fqq, ^"^, 
^lEfhr; ^fqx-q, ^q^, ^fq?T; ^tnir, ^q¥, ^f^^^- Bened. ^wnr, &c. 
Cond. ^fqiq, &c. Passive, Pres. ^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^fq. 
Causal, Pres. T^qqifq; 3d Pret. ^fqq. Des. ijfqfqqrfq. Participles, 
Pres. ^TsAri ; Past pass. ^; Past indecl. J^ or j^Pq^JI, -"^'y Fut. 
pass. ;j¥^ or ijfqTr^i, ^^qTjjIVq, V^. 



638. Root 'if^ chur. Infin. '^kfTTJ chorayitum, * to steaL' 
Parasmai-pada. Present tense, * I steal.' 
■«n*.^irH choraydmi ''^lT:mW^^choraydvas ^<mn^^ choraydmas 

*<\KH^H chorayasi -^ 1.^ V!|Tff chorayathas •^^M'H chorayatha 

■<rii*<rri chorayati ^^t^TJlf^ chorayatas "^^TTJ^ chorayanti 

Potential, ' I may steal/ &c. 
^h^TTT chorayeyam -^Oi^ chorayeva ^h^m chorayema 

■MKM^ chorayes •«ii*^M"iT chorayetam ■MI^'Mn chorayeta 

■«rt<^ri chorayet M\iMti\ chorayetam '4\<mm'^ chorayeyus 

Imperative, ' Let me steal,' &c. 
^K^nftr choraydni ^TTTTTW choraydva 'Mli.MI*! choraydma 

^tm choraya ^tUT^ chorayatam "^KMrt chorayata 

"«u<«tg chorayatu ^TTTiTT chorayatdm •^KM'i^ chorayantu 

First preterite, ' I was stealing/ &c. 
■s<-«ii<«4*i^ achorayam vf-ql^mq achoraydva ^^tT'H'R achoraydma 

^sraTTTTH' achorayas ^ST^TTTTff achorayatam vi-qi^Mn achorayata 

■sj-qi^Md^ achorayat ••ii'MKMrti achorayatdm ^TTtTTJ^ achorayan 

Second preterite, ' I stole.' 
^tTTTTTTO choraydmdsa ^ifUfmrTw^ choraydmdsiva ^^iTTlTrftw choraydmdsima 

"'Tl l.*l IH 1 r« V| choraydmdsitha Mil^iiWlH ^^choraydmdsathus ^<.^\*\[^ choraydmdsa 
^UyjmW choraydmdsa ^1X^W\*i^ choraydmdsatus -mV*! 1*1 1 «^^ choraydmdsus 

First future, * I will steal/ &c. 
'■«ri I^PlI ri I Pw chorayitdsmi •<ll<,rMill*5l*t chorayitdswas -q i ^Pm n i w^ chorayitdsmas 
^sftT^^nTTftr chorayitdsi ^nTrftTrTTWH chorayitdsthas ^trfWIW chorayitdstha 

^rlrftnrr chorayltd ''TlrftnTPCt chorayltdrau ^VrftHTR^ chorayitdras 

Second future, ' I shall steal/ &c. 
^^trftr^nf'T choraylshydml 'WnjTl^^T^^ chorayishydvas "qi ^Ui «< w'^ chorayishydmas 
•^<.\m*H?^ chorayishyasi •^Ti^rM^M'q^ chorayishyathas •h\*Sm^^ chorayishyatha 
•H\*S*\^^n chorayishyati '^\*S'A^t(^ chorayishyatas ■^Ti ^fq »m r»ii chorayishyanti 

Third preterite, ' I stole/ &c. 

^■^■^^rt achuchuratam 

•«"^-^<i1l achuchuratdm '^T^*^*! achiichuran 



Benedictive, ' May I steal/ &c. 
•««i5l« chorydsam •^TImi*?! chorydswa -qlMIW chorydsma 

^i5tw choryds ■'Tl^lW chorydstam ■'Tl^lW chorydsta 

^VmTT^ chorydt ■'fiMIwi chorydstam ■'Tl^lti^ chorydsus 

Conditional, ' I should steal/ 
■si'«ri<^r*4«M achorayishyam '•ii -q I <U| «q i'^ achorayishydva -si-q I vi q «h i«i achorayishydma 
•K^-^iS*^^^ achorayishyas -si-ql^lM^n achorayishyatam vt -q I ^fq *m rf achorayishyata 
•^•^\*SM*m\ achorayishyat •«< -qi cUi "M n I achorayishyatdm ^^tTT^^'^ achorayishyan 
^TMANE-PADA. Present tense, ' I steal/ 

^VxTn"^ choraydvahe •qK«4l*if ckoraydmahe 

■«ri<M'M chorayethe 

^^tTTI choraye 
'^<M*i chorayase 
•qi^Mfi chorayate 

■^VlTTrT chorayete 

"qi^MSel chorayadhwe 
■«»K«4il chorayante 

•«ri<*<l«l% choraydmahai 
'^TTTTJ^T chorayadhwam 
^<*l»rtl chorayantdm 

Potential, ' I may steal,' &c 

^^^Tn^ chorayevahi ^iT'Wf^ chorayemahi 

^txm'myn chorayeydthdm ■«iI<*<j4 chorayedhwam 
xii4^«|4lini chorayeydtdm ■«n<*4<«T chorayeran 

Imperative, ' Let me steal/ &c 
•ql <M I «t 5 choraydvahai 
^^.M^Jl chorayethdm 
•qi^^lrtl chorayetdm 
First preterite, ' I was stealing/ &c 

^T^VrTTTi^ achoraydvahi W^TTTTWf^ achoraydmahi 
■w-ql^Mxii achorayethdm Wm^lTJ^ achorayadhwam 

^r^tT^lTT achorayetdm •^•^<.*i*ii achorayanta 

Second preterite, ' I stole/ 
•«il<Ml'aai choraydnchakre -'^'^'^ choraydiichakrivahe — qoiiH^ choraydiichakrimahe 
•«r\ <.«< I '^ <* 'R choraydnchukrishe -"^^Rl^ choraydiichakrdtke -'^W^ ckoraydnchakridhwe 
•qKMl'^fh choraydnchakre — *f^lri' choraydiichakrdte — qPjftT choraydiichakrire 
First future, ' I shall steal/ 

''Tll.fMriiyi^ chorayitdsxoahe ^'V^f^TT'PFH'? chorayitdsmahe 
^rfMdlMR chorayitdsdthe ^l^filrTISel chorayitddhwe 
"^flfmn^l chorayitdrau "^UfWifTV^^chorayitdras 

Second future, ' I will steal/ 

^<rq»Miq5 chorayishydcahe "^^Tf^Wm^chorayishydmahe 
^TTt'T''^^ chorayishyethe '^tUVi^^ chorayishyadhtve 
^i^r^'Mil chorayishyante 

^TT^ni chorayeya 
^h^^n^^ chorayethds 
*n<Mrt chorayeta 

^^trm chorayai 
■«n<M«*« chorayaswa 
^TTTfTT chorayatdm 

•^•^*A achoraye 
W^tUm achorayata 

■"^tr^ftTTTTf chorayitdhe 
^ijMnm chorayitdse 
■q|<.r*lril chorayitd 

•^ *Sm «M chorayishye 
^T^nr^^ chorayishyase 
•qrcfilUlW chorayishyate 

•^^.?^wk chorayishyete 


Third preterite, ' I stole/ &c. 
ackiichure ^T^^'^T^f^ achuchurdvahi ^^^^[TT'Tf^ achuchurdmahi 

vi-q-q<x{i« achiichurathds ^^"M^Ml achuchurethdm "^^^^^ ackiichuradhwam 

•wi"«i<.d achuchurata *^"T^'" ochiichuretdm ^n "^y <*i\ achuchuranta 

Benedictive, ' May I steal.' 
^trf^TEfhl chorayishiya -f^^'^f^ chorayishwahi -ftp^f^ chorayishimahi 

'«n<ri<'OaT^ chorayishishthds -?^^i^\m\ chorayisMydsthdm -f^^il^ chorayishidhwam 
'•^\S*\ 'fl y chorayisMshta -fM m1 i| Itrfl chorayishiydstdm -f^^jy^^chorayishiran 

Conditional, ' I should steal.' 
■«|-sl<^r*t'M achorayishye -fM*4Nf^ achorayishydvahi - Tm «M \*i?^achorayishydmahi 

•^^^iS*\^^\ *{achorayishyathds -"ftT'^nn achorayishyethdm -f^U(l^ achorayishyadhwam 
■*l-<ri4.n|U4ri achorayishyata -?^^(\\ achorayishyetdm -PnUirH achorayishyanta 

Passive, Pres. '^Vif; 3d Pret.'3d sing. '^r^T. Causal, same as 
the Primitive verb. De*. •^■Mli^r^mPH . Participles, Pres. ^xnr; 
Past pass. ^friT or '^frir; Past indecl. '^kfin^; Fut. pass. ^- 


640. Root xr (285). Inf. inftl^ ' to fill*.' Parasmai. Pres. 'cri;- 
^inf'T, &c. Pot. '^^, &c. Imp. inTrrftfi, &c. ist Pret. '^nrpr, &c. 
2d Pret. ij l i^^mm , &c. ist Fut. "^thttI^, &c. 2d Fut. "qrftraTTftr, 
&c. 3d Pret. ^srgrjt, &c. Bened. ^;5T1T, &c. Cond. ^yJififci. 
Passive, Pres. ■oif; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 'S^fi or 'snjft:?. Causal, like 
the Primitive. Des. ^ i j^rumPH . Participles, Pres. "^"mr; Past pass. 
i|^ or ttRht or ^; Past indecl. ij^rMHI or ^#r, -"^t; Fut. pass. ^- 

641. Root f^^. Inf. P^ ^Ti r^ri ' to think.' Parasmai. Pres. fqrjr- 
infH, &c. Pot. f^^TTi, &c. Imp. fq^irrf^, &c. ist Pret. -^rf^rffTT, 
&c. 2d Pret. f^nT^TRre, &c. ist Fut. f^?fTftr?nftR, &c. 2d Fut. 
r^rrirMmiPH , &c. 3d Pret. '^rf^f^, &c. Bened. fg-TimT. Cond. 
'gr P^'dP iT^. Passive, Pres. f^^. Causal, like the Primitive. Des. 
f^'^^ftrnftr, &c. Participles, Pres. fg^TT!^; Kim. Px<>fiijM (527) ; 

* This root makes its base "mTU ^jaVflya as well as "^^^i inirayu, but its meaning 
is then rather ' to fulfil,' ' to accomplish,' ' to get through.' 

G g 


Past pass, fq frri A ; Past indecl. "Nnfftn^, -f^w^; Fut. pass. f^nT- 

642. Root ^^, Inf. wFtlW (with prep. U, m^, ITT^fxr^) ' to ask/ 
' to seek.' Atmane. Pres. '^rl^, &c. Pot. ^^^i|, &c. Imp. ■^- 
"JTrftr, &c. ist Pret. ■^TT^^, &c. 2d Pret. ^"^ ^Wrfi , &c. ist Fut. 

^r^ftrwT^, &c. 2d Fut. ^r^ftr"^, &c. 3d Pret. ■^ifW^, ^nfw^'^iT^, &c. 
Bened. ^^qxrhr. Cond. ^IT^^. Passive, Pres. W^ . Causal, like 
the Primitive. Des. '^^^f^^Tf^, -^. Participles, Pres. ^iw^ (527) ; 
Past pass. 'iiO^ri ; Past indecl. ^r^ftjigT, -■^m; Fut. pass. ^^T^ftriT^, 

643. Root oF^l . Inf. <*iqni»l ' to say/ ' to tell.' Parasmai. Pres. 
^vi^iPh, &c. Pot. ■sfiWT, &c. Imp. •sirzi^vT, &c. ist Pret. ^npzR, 
&c. 2d Pret. cB^nnHTO, &c. 1st Fut. oji'sifwrftR, &c. 2d Fut. cirzi- 
fyiMirH, &c. 3d Pret. ^-elejivj &c. or 'Hxflckvl &c. Bened. «RS3T"W, &c. 
Cond. ^ijohv^fxiiii, &c. Passive, ofi^, &c. Causal, like the Primitive. 
Des. fgoB^xftrrfH, &c. Participles, Pres. chvj^ri ; Past pass. chfqTT ; 
Past indecl. oinzTfiiRT, -'^i^nzi (566. a) ; Fut. pass. ctiVjf^ri^ , 'SB^nf^, 

a. Root -^w . Inf. "ift^fTi^ ' to proclaim.' Parasmai. Pres. Tft^- 
TTrftr, &c. Pot. tTlMiiti, &c. Imp. Tft^^nftT, &c. (58). ist Pret. 
^^TR, &c. 2d Pret. lilM^MehK , &c. ist Fut. tf^inrrftR, &c. 
2d Fut. tfhrftroiTf'T, &c. 3d Pret. ^rarf^, &c. Bened. TfVamr, &c. 
Cond. 'inTlMfyuf, &c. Passive, Pres. ^ft^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. THylPM. 
Causal, like the Primitive. Des. ^"txrfwfi?. Participles, Pres. isft- 
^TtrT; Past pass. TrtfRir; Past indecl. "^ftT^rfxTRT, -"^Var; Fut. pass, tft^- 

b. Root H"^. Inf. vtJ^f^■^ ' to eat/ ' to devour.' Parasmai. Pres. 
H8i«4ir*i, &c. Pot. >T^^, &c. Imp. >?BpTrftrr, &c. ist Pret. ^5M^, 
&c. 2d Pret. >T^iTT»mT, &c. ist Fut. >TB^^nnftR, &c. 2d Fut. ^t^- 
fqiinfjT, &c. 3d Pret. ^IW>T^, &c. Bened. >T^nf. Cond. ^wajP^^M- 
Passive, ^^, &c. Des. ■f^^fii^Tf'T. Participles, Pres. h^tTcT; 
Past pass. >Tf^iT; Past indecl. H^^ftn^T, -W^; Fut. pass. H^^ftnr^, 




644. Root in ?/«• Infin.TiT^ ydhcm, 645. Root ^i (310). Infin.T^etum, 

' to go.' 

Parasmai-pada only. 

Present, ' I go.' 
'^]'f^ ydmi "Wf^l^^ydvas '^TH^^ydmas 
■^Tftr ydsi ^rr?!^ ydthas "m^ ydtha 
^rrfir ydtl M\t\*i^ydtas Hlfil ydnti 

Potential, ' I may go.' 

' to go.' 

For 1^ with adhi, a, &c., see 311. 
Present, ' I go.' 
WVR emi f ^'^^ ivas ^'H imas 

Tjf^ eshi ^"'W ithas ^ if ha 

^If eti '^TT^ itas '^f^yanti{24) 

1 Potential, ' I may go.' 

Ml Mi ydy dm "mTPi^ ydydva '^T^J^ ydydma '^Tmydm "^TTC^ iydva ^HW iydma 

'^T^T^ydyd^'^T^\'^ydydtam ^^'^Tt[ydydta : i^*Hfl iyas "^TfTif iydtam "^Tif iydta 

'^T^^l^J/dydt 'm'minydydtdm 'm'^^ydyus 

Imperative, ' Let me go.' 
^f% ydni "m^ ydva ^TTT ydma 

■mf^ ydhi xrnf ydtam XfTrT ydta 

'm'ff ydtu imrr ydtdm TTT^ ya^^M 

Fir*/ preterite, ' I was going.' 
^rm aydm W^[^ aydva ^TTPR aydma 
'W^[^ ayds ^SPTTiT aydtam •«Mlil aj/a7a 
Wm iT ayaf viMlrtl aydtdm WlfT^aydn * 

2d Pret. 'W (373), ilPuvi, ^TTT ; ^rftr^T, 
MM-g**^, y^rt*!^; HPilH, ^ni, ^Tf^' ist 

Fut. ^tutPw, mmiPh, xmn, &c. 2d Fut. 
•m^inftr, ^n^rftr, tn^fir; ^m^in^, 

&c. 3d Pret. 'JJ^ l faM (433), 'Sninft^, 

'tSiii+flri^; ^nnftTR, ^nrrftr^, ^^nnfwf ; 
^nnftrT, 'sr^rrf^, ^nnfti^^. Bened. 
*4i*4i«, ^rnrnr, ^imi^; Trnn^, &c. 

Cond. ^iJi|l*4, ^tTT^^, ^^tJT^l^, &c. 
Passive, Pres. "TTm, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 

'^T(Ti[^iydt '^^HtH iydtdm ^^Ji/us 

Imperative, ' Let me go.' 
^<4lH aydni vjMiq aydva ^'^\^ aydma 
^f^ ihi ^ itam ^ ita 

^F etu 2^ itdm II^ yantu 

First preterite, ' I was going.' 
WRayam(37) ^^aiva{26o.a)^^aima 
fl^^ais (33) ^ aitain THJ aita 

vlf ait Win aitdm 

2d Pret. iiim (372), S^uCmvi or ^^, 
^^TR; tfu^, t^^\' t'W? t^'TT, ^TiT, 
f^. istFut.l?Hirw,&c. 2dFut. UmiPH, 
&c. 3d Pret. (438. e) '^nTT, "^nm, ^mTif ; 
'^nTR, ^TJTTif, WTTITT ; ^ITR, ^TTiT, 
^^. Bened. t^TT^, &c. (the initial '^ 
may be shortened when a prep, is prefixed ; 
as, frftTTRT 'may I go forth?'). Cond. 
W^, &c. (260. «). Passive, Pres. ^TT; ist 
Fut. ifril^ or ^rrftnn^ (474) ; 2d Fut. F^ 

* Or ^^ ayus by 290. b, note. 

t This root is also of the ist conjugation, making ^HTTf'T, ^^^, &c., in Pres. tense. 
X Foster gives ^HT*! , which might here be expected; but in the 3d pi. ay is substituted 
for the root, making ^T^. See Panini (VI. 4. 81), and compare Lagh. Kaum. 608. 

G g 2 



^nnftl. Causal, Pres. ^m ^ jlfa, 
&c. ; 3d Pret. ^nfhni, &c. Des. 
ftnrmTfiT. Freq. WU^, XTRTfiT or 

xrRf»T (3d sing. -m^nffT or ^n^w). 

Participles, Pres. XTTTT (Nom. case 
xrr»^) ; Past pass, imr; Past indecl. 
M[r^[, -irnT ; Fut. pass. i|lri°l4, ^- 

»i< I Hm «M ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, vi'iiftr or 
-iJlH^MH. Causal, i[Hi\\?H {suh- 
stituted from TT at 602) or ^i N M I Ph or 
^TTtRTf»T ; 3d Pret. '^nfbm or ^TTftnT or 
WrfxnT(vvith adhi prefixed,-»i<lM>fiJm' 493.6). 
Des. fifMrHMTftr (substituted from TpT at 
602) or ff^WTfir, -^. Participles, Pres. 
xnr (Nom. case iltT ) ; Past pass. '^ ; Past 
indecl. ^1^, -^; Fut. pass. irfTT, ^HT- 
'fh[, ^W or ^ff. 


646. Root ^ (315). Inf. ^tiff 'to lie down/ 'to sleep.* Atraane. 
Pres. ^^, fr^, ■^tff (/ceiVat) ; :^^, ^^n^, -^nm; %*T^ {Kei/iieOa), ^^, 

^hfff . Pot. ^Tfhr, ^nftTzmT, ^nftir ; ^nft^, -^Tirhn^, ^^fhnTrt ; ^nftirf^, 

^iftj^, ^^^. Imp. ^^, %^, -^TTTt; ^TTRt, ^^ITm, ^Nlril j ^^TTRf, 
^, %TfTf. I St Pret, ^ST^fii, ^sqnrnT, 'ST^; ^H^nP^ , 'st^xTT^, ^5T^- 

Tmn-, ^^mf^, '^^l^, ^r^mr. 2d Pret. f^^^, f^f^, %5^; f^^m^, 

%^^, ■ftfT^'Jlfff; f^TTR^, f^f^xfj^ or -f^TfS, %f^^. ist Fut. ^f^- 
ITTf, &c. 2d Fut. ^fgw, &c. 3d Pret. 'ST^frftrfw, ^^T^fwT^, sn^iHjH ; 
w^rftrE^, ^^njmvfi, ^n^irnmrii ; ^^rii<nff , 'sqiftrs^ or -ftr^, ^r^rftrair. 

Bened. '^TftrRhr, &c. Cond. ^r^^^. Passive, Pres. ^r^, &c. ; 3d 
Pret. 3d sing. 'iJ^iiPq. Causal, Pres. ^in^ i Ph ; 3d Pret. ^qfr^R. 
Des. f^i^iftr^ or "ftfl^'R. Freq. ^T5r^, ^r^rftr or ^^Tftftr. Participles, 
Pres. J^NM (526. a) ; Past pass, ^ftnr; Past indecl. ^ftn^, -^nzj; 
Fut. pass, ^ftnr^, ^^nft^, ^. 

647. Root ^ or H (312). Inf. ^ or ^^rf 'to bring forth.' 
Atmane. Pres. ^, ^^, w^; ^^f, wm^, wsn^ ; T(W^, H?^, ^Tff. 
Pot. ^^, &c. Imp. ^% (Panini VII. 3, 88), ^i:^, W^; ^^T^t, 
^^mt, ^^mn; ^^tjiI, m^, w^. ist Pret. wf%, ^w^^, ^smir; 
^^, ^^^mf, 'sr^TTTT ; ^w»rf%, ^sms^, 'sr^Rrr. 2d Pret. ir^, ^m- 
f^, ^^^; ^^^, ^^^, ^^^ ; ^gPw, ^^f^, ^mPcR . ist Fut. 
TTtTTT? or ^^7tt|. 2d Fut. ^"^ or ^f^. 3d Pret. 'smf^, ^m- 
f^^T'ff, '^^^; 'SHHf^B^, 'ST^^mTZTT, 'smfwTrf ; ^swf^^f^, ^^nrf^s^ or 
-f, ^mf^TT. Or wrfVi, wt?ro, ^^v, w^^^f^, mitm^, wtrnirf ; 
^mt^JTff , "^T^^, ^^T^TTfT. Bened. ^fWif or ^^^, &c. Cond. wt^ 
or ^r^^, &c. Passive, Pres. ^^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^mrf^. 


Causal, Pres. ^rrrmfH; 3d Pret. ^^^. Des. *4*jMirH, -^. Freq. 
^TlMil, jJtMtPH or ^tM^flfH. Participles, Pres. W^R; Past pass. WK or 
^W or ^R: Past indecl. ^l^ or ^;^, -W^: Fut. pass. ^ftTT^ or f<fc|d<=M, 
^T^Tfhr, ?rr^ or ^^. 

648. Root ^ (313)- Inf. ^cftw ' to praise.' Parasmai and Xtmane. 
Pres. ^f^f^ or ^^tfJT, wfw or ^cr^tf?, ^fir or w^Tfri ; ^"^ or 'W^- 
■^^*, W^TH or W^^IT*, WW^ or W^\WS\ TaiT^ or ^^^H^*, ^T?l or 
^^hr*, W^fif. Atm. ^, w^ or ^w^w* WW or M^; W^ or 
W^l^rl, ^^, ^5^; ^t or WcOh ^ *, ^^ or ^r^5^*, ^^. Pot. 
^■qt or W^hrt*, &c. Kim. ^^, &c. Imp. ^H^lfH or W^rftr, ^^f^ 
or w^ir^*, ^W or w^; W^X^, ^ or W<=flri, ^^TTT or ^^^twt; 
W^T»T, ^TT or ^phr, ^1^. j^tm. wt, ^jx^ or WcflN*, ^^ or 
wWlrit; WMNf, W<^ivil, WcJiHI ; W^mf , ^s? or ^^^h4*, ^^. 
1st Pret. ^k^'A or »iiw4, »iiwi^^ or •^reNhr, ^r^w or ^ro^ir ; ^r^ or 
W^*, ^^ or -iiw^lri, Win or W^hrt; WJT or W^H*, W7T 
or W^, W^. Atm. wf^, ^5^^^^ or W^hmr, WW or W- 
"^; W^ or W^t^*, W^TTT, W^TWt; W^f^ or w^ft^f^*, 
W£^ or w^24*, WTiT. 2d Pret. (368) m^, "g^'hl, 1?T^; ^I^? 

■^¥^T^, ■jf^; '5fT^, H^, risNr. ist Fut. wlififw, &c. Ktm. 
M\A\\, &c. 2d Fut. ^aWfir, &c. i^tm. wt^, &c. 3d Pret. (428. a) 
^renfr^, ^stwwNt, ^tot^; ^iiwiPcji^, '^rerrfw?, ^^renf^t; '^renf^^, 
'H^ i Pci^ , ^nwiP^ ^^. Kim. wtfi?, -ijwlaw, w^; wt^f^, 'iiw^Mivji, 
wVmwf; wV^f?, 'sreft^, W^. Bened. T^Tmr, &c. Atm. ^rfWhl, 
&c. Cond. ?HW^ui, &c. Kim. ^reft^, &c. Passive, Pres. ^^; 3d 
Pret. 3d sing. ^renf^. Causal, Pres. WT^^nf'T; 3d Pret. 4jii«4. 
Des. WftnfiT, -^. Freq. w^, wtFTfiT. Participles, Pres. ^^; 
Past pass. W!T; Past indecl. ^^, -^i^; ^ut. pass. «1ri<^, H^^, 
WW or WRI or W^. 

649. Root "3 (314). Inf. '^ (borrowed from ^ at 650) * to say,' 
* to speak.' Parasmai and Xtmane. Pres. ^4\ Ph , W^^t, "a'^tfrTt; 
■g^^T, '^\'^, '^^^^ 5 "J|^^) If^j ■^'JT t. A'tm. w^, W^, -^ ; -^j 
■g^, ^^; ^»T%, -^J^, ^Tff. Pot. ^Tif, "f^TB;, &c. Atm. "3^, 

* Some authorities reject these forms. 

t For these forms are sometimes substituted 2d sing. ^TTr^, 3d sing. ^TTf ; 
2d du. ^T^yfJ, 3d du. '^rrfW^^; 3d pi. ^rr^^T ; all from the 3d preterite of a 
defective root ^T5, with a present signification. 

^#«im, &c. Imp. -S^jfrn (58), ^, -^^W; ^^T^, -gif, ^; W^^TO, 

■^^. ist Pret. ■^ra^ (314. a), ^ra^^, -Hcjcflw; W^^, '^raif, -iJririi; 
^3?^, ^raw, ^^m^^. Attn, 'sr^, '!irfvim, ^rair; 'sra^, ^^ra^r^n, 
»!<ri^lrii; -H j^H r^ , "W^, ^"g^TT. The other tenses and forms are 
borrowed from W^; as, 2d Pret. ^^r^, &c. ; ist Fut. ci^ifi^, &c. ; 
see ^^ at 650. But the Pres. participles are w^w and w^TO. 

650. Root ■^'^^ (319)- Inf. ^ '^to say/ 'to speak.' Parasmai. 
In the conjugational tenses Xtmane also. Pres. tPept, ^rf^, Tf^; 
^•^4My ^^5T?r, "^li^^; T^3T?T, ^T^, ■g'^f'H (borrowed from w at 649). 
Pot. W^J, T^n^^, &c. Imp. •^^Tf^, ^ni, ^ ; ^^r^, ^^^ ^; ^^^JH, 
^^' 1^ (borrowed from •3). ist Pret. '^TT^, WTSf! or ^RJ? (43. «), 
^TT^ or ^r^n (43. «) ; "^sRT^, ^T^ , ^^trI ; ^^rra?, '^r^^, ^tt^«t*. 

2d Pret. (375. c) ^^T^, -^^f^ or T^cf^I, -J^T^; "arfq^, "3!^^, ^»^^^; 

^Hmm, "gr^, "gs^^- Atm. "35%, ■gjfg'^, ■35%; -grf^f, ■gr^^, "grgiw; 
■giP^M^, '35f%^ or -^, "gif^. ist Fut. Mrhlfw, &c. Atm. cf^T^, &c. 
2d Fut. ^^irrftr, &c. A'tm. ^r^, &c. 3d Pret. (441) -hmim, '^t^tN^, 
^r#^; W^t^^, ^ST^ff, W^V^; ^nt^T^, ^T^Y^TT, 'sr^t^. i^tm. 
^ITf^, 'il'^I^VjnT, ^^T^W; '^Tt^T^f, Wt^'^lt, "^Wt^TTT; '3r^t'^TTi%, 
^g?^s4, '^TTt^Tff. Bened. "g^TO, &c. i^tm. ■^'N, &c. Cond. w^. 
Atm. 'H^v^, &c. Passive, Pres. '^^ (471) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^rtN. 
Causal, Pres. -^T^^fiT ; 3d Pret. »HcjTcj^. Des. fT^-^pftr, -^. Freq. 
m<=i^, TT^fEJT. Participles, Pres. "^TrT; iitm. '^^m; (borrowed from 
■3 at 649) ; Past pass. T^; Past indecl. TUT, -T^JT; Fut. pass. "^WJ, 
W^tftTf, ^rar or ^T^. 

651. Root JH^ (324). Inf. in| or JTlf^W ' to wipe,' ' to rub/ * to 
clean.' Parasmai. Pres. Jrrf^H, Hlf^ (296), wifs (297) ; 'p?^, ^^ 
(297), ^?^^; ^^, ^, »TT^^ or ^irf^. Pot. Hiqr, Wl^T^, &c. 

Imp. m^Tf^, J|f?^ (303), J?Tt; »7T^, H¥, ^; WT^, ^W, ^^^^ or 
w'sn^. ist Pret. '^(W[^, "^miz or ^mit (292), ^wrl or ^mit; ^^w, 
■^T^, ^TH?t; 'smiiT, W?, ■^»TT^"5T or '^TijWl^. 2d Pret. jtjtt^, »mTf^ 
or jmrf (297), JT»TT#; HijftR or jjinf^, 'THir^ or JTmw^, T^nrg^^ or 

HHI^rJ^^; JT^^m or JTmf^, JT^ or Tfmjit, iT^^ or JTm^^. ist Fut. 
mfrftR or rrif^rilfw, &c. 2d Fut. JTl^lfn or mf^ufifH, &c. 3d Pret. 
^smr^, '5?JTT|r'hT, ^mr^tTT; ^sprt^, wtiy, ^mm ; ^jrrrs^, ■^mif, ^nrra^. 
Or ^UHlH^M , -^IiTT^^, 'smrlfhr; 'SUTTf^'^, &c. Bened. ^TO, &c. 

* According to some, the 3d pi. of the ist preterite is also wanting. 


Cond. 4<H I V^' or 'smif^^. Passive, Pres. Jji^, &c.; 3d Fret. 3d sing. 
'JiH l P^ . Causal, Pres. in^^ftT; 3d Pret. 'snTTm or ^Sfjft^. Des. 
rHHU^lPH or fir^Tftr or fjTOTftmfiT. Freq. H^H-^ or irfr^, i^OhiPiA 
(3d sing. hOhiP I). Participles, Pres. mw?^; Past pass. W2; Past 
indecl. Hyr or mf^T, -^; Fut. pass. HT?^ or Jnf%^, m^ilq, 

^V'^ or T^r€[. 

652. Root ^ (317)- Inf. w 'to eat.' Parasmai. Pres. ■^rftr, 
^rfw, ^!Tfw; ^I^^^, Wr'^TT, W^; W^, ^r^, '^fT=ir. Pot. '^rat, &c. 
Imp. ^Tf^r, ^!T%, W; "^r^, W, '^rar; 'ST^T'T, ^3T^, "51^. 1st Pret. 
^n^, ^^TT^^ (317. a), ^T^w; ^sHi", 'srr^, 'srrat; '^rm, 'srrw, '^n^^^- 
2d Pret. w[^, ^rrf^, "^^ ; '^if^, '^it^-^, wr^w^^; '^Tf^T, ^n^, 
^n|^. 1st Fut. 4<?ii fa , &c. 2d Fut. 'STwrf'T, &c. 3d Pret. w^;^ 
(borrowed from root Tl^), ^sterto, ^nrei^; »nvmR, ^nreTT, -ati^rtT; 
»HHtim , 4m^ri , wq^. Bened. ^^n^, &c. Cond. ^Ti^, &c. Pas- 
sive, Pres. ^ra ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^rrf^. Causal, Pres. ^fTT^lfH ; 
3d Pret. wrf^. Des. fw^nrnff (borrowed from t^tJ. Participles^ 
Pres. ^w; Past pass, ipv; Past indecl. W^l; Fut. pass. "^fW^, 

653. Root ^ (326). Inf. ^df^w ' to weep.' Parasmai. Pres. 'd- 
f^iT, -rrf^ftr, "di^fif; ^^,, ^f^^^, ^f^^; ^ttt, ^^, ^f^- 
Pot. ^?rt, &c. Imp. t^Tf^, ^f%, ^^^; ^T^> ^f^^> ^f^WT; ^TH, 
^f^, ^^. 1st Pret. ^^, 'yO<« or 'Sirt^^^, ^5R>^it or 'STTt^tw 
(Panini VII. 3. 98, 99) ; ^T^^, "^^^W, ^^f^fri ; ^T^f«^, '^^f^TT, 
^l^^^. 2d Pret. ^d^, -^Y^^, FC^; ^^f^^5 ^^^^^ "^^^^^; 
^^f^JT, "^^^j ■^^J^. 1st Fut. Tt r^ ril fa , &c. 2d Fut. •df^-orrfiT, &c. 
3d Pret. '^!T^, ^^^, 'ii^t^ri^; ^^T^, '^r^T'^j ^r^^; ^^"W, ^r^w, 
^j^TT. Or ^^rdfi^xi, '^TTt^TfT, '^R^^; ^r^T^, '5iftf^?, ^^rrtf^^t; ^rrrf^^, 
^f^, ^rftf^^^. Bened. ^?rnf, &c. Cond. ^5T^^, &c. Passive, 
Pres. ^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^r^l^. Causal, Pres. 'Ct^'mf'T; 3d Pret. 
W^^. Des. ^^f^^nfiT. Freq. Tt^^, OClPjl (3d sing, 'dftf^) or 
;ct^^ft?. Participles, Pres. ^TT; Past pass, ^f^; Past indecl. 
<%'n^r41, -^^; Fut. pass. ^rf^lT^, Tt^^fN, Tt?r. 

654. Root ^»T (318). Inf. f^ 'to kill/ 'to strike.' Parasmai. 
Pres. ■^, ifs, ffnT; f^"^^, f'^IiiT, ^im; ^^^^, •^, vf^- Pot. f^, 

&c. Imp. ?"jrrfiT, irf^, ^^5; f«TT^, w^, ^; ^•tt't, ^tt, irg. ist 
Pret. w^, "^^ '^Tf ^^ (292) ; "^r?^, '^TfW, w^in ; ^l^^, '^Tf W, ^nPT. 
2d Pret. lrm^ (376), inif^'«T or ^np^, inn^; ^flR (376), 'IH'iifl, 
i^r^-, ^TR, ^nr, ^r^^. ist Fut. ^^HI^h , &c. 2d Fut. ^fTfoiTfiT, 


&c. 3d Pret. (432. a) 'Si^ftR, '5T^>fhT, ^Tifhr; W^fV^, 'SRfw, 
^RfvFT; ^sr^ftniT, ^Rfw, ^^fv^w . Bened. "^xm'^t, &c. Cond. ^^^- 
firJT, &c. Passive, Pres. f^; 2d Pret. ifW (473); 3d Pret. 'sr^ftr, 
^^TfTTTO (426. b), 'snrrffT (or w^fv, borrowed from ^) ; ^f^f^, W^- 
^TRT, '3T^TTrf; ^?Rf^, &c.; 1st Fut. 'f ^11% or HifHril^ , &c.; 2d Fut. 
ffff^ or MlPHtt l, &c. Causal, Pres. mm^ iItt; 3d Pret. ^ST^hnf. Des. 
ftnThnftr. Freq. Wfft^, »rff^ or ^^[fH or ^T^tfti; see 708. Parti- 
ciples, Pres. TTfT; Past pass. fW; Past indecl. f?^, -■^; Fut. pass. 

655. Root T^TT (326), Inf. ^ ' to sleep.^ Parasmai. Pres. 
^ftrfir, •^f^f^, ^v;^; ^t?^, ^nr^, ^f^TTHT; ^frr^^, ^fq"?T, 

^Tjfifr. Pot. ^Tqt, &c. Imp. ^TTTf^, ^fqff , ^frj^; ^^T^, ■^ftnr, 
^W; ^TIW, ^^W, ^W. ist Pret. ^^, ^st^tht or ^st^t^tt, 
^T^triT or 'ST^rqtw; ^r^rftt^, &c. ; see ^^ at 653. 2d Pret. (382) 
^B^TTJ, ■^^rfrsT or ^E^T^, ^x^TTT; f^^^, ^T'T'x' IT^'l^ ^l^'T* 
'T'' ^l^x* ^^^ ^"^* ^rrrrftR, &c. 2d Fut. ^x^mfH, &c. 3d Pret. 

SH4<j|^, ^T^T^^, ^I^T'^ftTr; ?H*j<|U5l, '^T^TTf, ?HyiVli ; ^T^T^W, W^TJT, 
^T^TRi^. Bened. ^rarni, &c. Cond. ^I^x^, &c. Passive, Pres. 
W^ (471); 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^^ifq. Causal, Pres. ^TRiITftl; 3d 
Pret. ^nm, &c. Des. HTTWrfiT. Freq. '^"k^, ^T^f^R or fH^^^MiPH. 
Participles, Pres. ^tht; Past pass. WH; Past indecl. wr, -^; 
Fut. pass. W?T^, ^"qftflu, ^^Tc?. 

6^6. Root ^^ (320). Inf. Tf^w ' to desire,' ' to wish.' Parasmai. 
Pres. ^f^, ^f^ (302), ^f^ {300) ; T^^^, ^^^, -^T^^; ^:?T^^, T?, 
•^fnT. Pot. "^Tlt, &c. Imp. ■^Tf^, ^fts (303), ^; W^TT^, ^, 
TZ\; 'M^im, "3?, ■g'^'ir. ist Pret. "^fT^, ^nrr or '^i'^ (292), ^ni? or 
'sr^; -m^ (260. a), ^, '#^; W5»T, W, ^^^^. 2d Pret. (375. c) 
■^^T^, 7^%«T, ■?^T^; "gilTII^, *3l^«j ^^^^^; "3>f^j '3>^> "^^^^ IS* 
Fut. MP^Mlfa , &c. 2d Fut. e^r^rm r fiT, &c. 3d Pret. ^m%^, ^ITT- 
^ftrr, '^nrr^fti^, &c. ; or ^-H^P^R , -^^, -^ftw, &c. ; see 427. Bened. 
■g^^mfT, &c. Cond. W^f^"oi. Passive, T^ (471) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^H cl l P^l or ^!T^%. Causal, Pres. ^T^TTrftr ; 3d Pret. ^3i^H^. Des. 
Pm n P^ I MiPh . Fre^'. m^, '^T^ftpT or TR^ftfJT. Participles, Pres. "7^; 
Past pass. 7%Tr; Past indecl. ^P^lH I, -"^TT; Fut. pass. '^IT^, 

657. Root fi-TT (309). Inf. ^ ' to hate.' Parasmai and Atmane. 

Pres. if^, ^fi^ (302), i-f? (301) ; flrt-^i^^, f^H, f¥^'?T; %^^^, fk?, 

%^jfT. A'tm. fl"^, %■%, fl-F; f^iE^, fir^, flW; fl"^, %^j 


fg^k. Pot. it^, &c. i^tm. %^^, &c. Imp. t^ftrr, %ff^, i^; 
tm^, f^, %^; t^m, f^F, %^^. Atm. iq, f^T^, f^^; itn^, 
^TTTzri, %ilTrTT; t^^lt, f^^, f^^t. ist Pret. ^tii, 'Sit? (292), 
^T; ^flr^, w%^, '^rfk^t; ^5r%^, "^fws, '3i%T?7r or ^t%^. Xtm. 
'^rf^ftr, ^!T%¥nT, 'sif^F; 'sifirx^, ^%tTT^f, 'STf^^wf ; '^^'T^, ^fg^, 
^ff-inr. 2d Pret. f^itr, f^lf^^, f^t^; f^^f^^, f^^^r-^, f^f^r^wir; 
^fTm, f^xi, f^f¥^,. i^tm. f^fw^, f^fFfw, f<?%^; f^ft?^, 

i^%T?T^, f^fk^; f^^f^l, f^wftrs^ or -f^|, f^%f^. ist Fut. 

i^W, &c. Atra. i^ft, &c. 2d Fut. i^iffT, &c. Ktm. t^, ike. 
3d Pret. (439. «) ^srfgTJ, -"E?^, -'^^; -'WT^? -'W'ffj -"wn; -^ft, -i3pr, 
-TB^. iitm. (439. c) ^flrftj, -"^^T^, -"spr; -"^T^f^, -"SlT^n, -"SITTjf ; 
-"^T»Tf^, -^5^, -W^' Bened. ■%'an^, &c. Xtm. f^^^, &c. Cond. 
^t^- ^tm. ^51%^. Passive, Pres. fiw, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^tf?. Causal, Pres. i^rmfifT; 3d Pret. '^rf^fi^. Des. f^%-SjTfk, 
-%. Freg. ^f^"^, ^tf^ or ^fi-ifVrJT. Participles, Pres. fw^; Past 
pass, fl^; Past indecl. fl^T, -fl'^; Fut. pass, t^^, F^tr, i^. 

658. Root ^T^ (323). Inf. ^Tfe^ ' to rule/ '^ to punish.' Parasmai. 
(With wr '^ to bless/ i^tmane.) Pres. ^nf^, ^ift^r, "STrf^; OT^^^, 
fl^^^, f^^; ^nw^,, fm, ■^IT^W (290. 6). i^tm. -^T^, -^TW, W^; 
W^i HIT^, ^^^; IflTwl, Wf or ^^ (304), Wf^- Pot. %^t, 

f^n»mT, &c. i^tm. -^rnft^, &c. Imp. •^mrrfVr, -517% or ^Tf^ (304), 

^TT^; -^Wl^, f^, f^Wf; W^TFf, f^?, -^TT^TW. Atm. "^nt, &c. ist 
Pret. -H ^ I V^ , "^Tfl or ^T^ttt^ (292, 304. a), ^nTTrf; ^mT^, wf^TF, 
'^rf^; ^T^PER, ^fsi?, ^!qn^^. Atm. ^r^rf^, &c. 2d Pret. -^^jm, 
^i^iifavj , -^r^nTT ; i^rsrrftTw, -^mw^^, i^-^^^ ; ^miftm, -^i^nr, "gf^rm^. 

Atm. ■^rS^IT^, ^^Tftr^, &c. ist Fut. ■^iftriTTftR. ^tm. "^Tt'^Tn?, &c. 
2d Fut. •5TTftranfiT. ^^tm. -SFiTftj"^, &c. 3d Pret. (441) 'srf^^, ^%^^^, 
^5< r^mrt ^; ^f^^TR, ^in^lf, 'STf^iTiTT; ^^^T^, ^rf^TTlT, '^^i^'q;. Atm. 

'sqTTftrfTEr, 'sqrrfwrH, 'sr^nfti^; ^sqnftit:^^, ^sqnftnrrat, ^r^f^TTrr; 
^qiTftT^JTf^, ^s^nftrsg, 'sr^^WfT. Bened. -finTarm, &c. Atm. -^rrftniN, 
&c. Cond. ^sr^nftr^, &c. Atm. ^^fti^r, &c. Passive, Pres. %-^, 
&c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^T^ftr. Causal, ^^infi?, &c. ; 3d Pret. 
^r^T^nW* -^^*- ftr'^nftj^''- Freq. 5rfV"^j ■^TT^ItItjt or ^11311*^ fw. 
Participles, Pres. ^rren" (141. «) ; Past pass, f^; Past indecl. ^- 
fm^ or %fT, -f^TBI ; Fut. pass. ^^RtT^, "^^^tTi, %^. 

659. Root f^f . Inf. ^TV ' to anoint/ ' to smear.' Parasmai and 
i^tmane. Pres. ^?r, vfElf (306. a), ^fhj (305) ; ff^df^, f^^^ {3'^5)> 
f^nm; f^^nr, fi^V, f^?f^. A'tm. f^^, fv^, f^T^; f^i, f^?!"^, 

II h 


f^^; f^?, fyjrik (306. d), %^. Pot. f^, &c. Xtm. f^Tj, &c. 
Imp. ^^Tf^, ff^fhj, ^TV; ^fR, fi^, -fi^TVT; ^^TH, f^, f^^. ^tm. 
^t, fw, f^^; ^T^, f^rzn, f<??Trrt; ^^thI, f^54, f^-irt. ist 
Pret. ^^, 'iSi^oF or ^Tvn (292. a), 'WW or W^-, ^5|", ^f^, 
^f^Tvf ; ^^, ^^nr, ^f^fT. i^tm. wf^ff, ^rf^VT^, 'wf^rV; 
^2^i%, ^srf^rgt, wf^^Twt; ^^, ^fvrs^, ^f^w. 2d Pret. f^^, 
f?^f^^, f^; f^f^f^^, f^f^^-^, f^f^w^; f^f^i^, f^f^?, f^n^l^. 
Atm. f^l, f^^^, f^^; fi?f^^^, f^f'TfT^, f^^?Tff; fi^f»rr^t» 
f^^?s^or-|, f?;f^f^t. ist Put. ^TvrftR. A'tm. ^nn|, &c. 2d Put. 
^^Tf«7. Atm. ^^, &c. 3d Pret. (439) ^V^j "srfvi^^^, -yPviHIH^; 
^^igfT^, 'srfV-gr^, ^fti^; wfi r^ TH, ^rfv^ir, ^^rfv^^^. i^tm. ^srfvfw* 
'5Tftr^"'zn^ or 'STf^TVT^, ^rfV^TT or '^rf^v ; ^rf^Rf^, ^fva^i'^l, ^rfvnjnri ; 
^vi^TJTff , ^ifirgjs^ or ^ftp-s^, ^ftr?f?iT. Bened. f^^ni. i^tm. fVi^, 
&c. Cond. ^^. j^tm. '^rv^. Passive, Pres. f^^; 3d Pret. 
3d sing, ^^ff . Causal, Pres. ^f^frr; 3d Pret. ^Tcf^f^f. Des. f^- 
fv^^, -■%. Freg. ^f^^, "^^flj (3d sing. "^frrr). Participles, Pres. 
f^TT; Atm. f^^TR; Past pass, f^nr ; Past indecl. f^r^j, -f^^ ; 
Fut. pass, ^ni^, ^f^ft^, ^^. 

660. Root 7,-^. Inf. ^"i ' to milk.' Parasmai and i^tmane. Pres. 
?>fW, V=r% (306. a), f^^fhi (305) ; ^5^^, ^nm, ^^^^; pT^^, |tv, j^f^. 
iVtm. p, VW, |TV; |3^, ^T^, ^m ; |it|, y^i^ (306. rf), 1^^. 
Pot. ^, &c. Xtm. l^iT, &c. Imp. ^ jl^ iPH, ^f"J (306. c), 

'd^T^t. ffT^f, J^TfTT ; ^>^Flt, W^ (306. ^/), j^irf. 1st Pret. Wtf, 
^>ftcir or wtiT (292. a), w^taa or wt^T; ^^T^, ^^l^^, "^"n; ^rpi, 
^^, ^rp«T. Xtm. w^f^, ^T^TTjnr, ^sn^; ^j^i^, ^r^fit, ^r^Tirf; 
W^, ^STVTS^, ^3?!^. ad Pret. ^>?, ^>f^TJr, ^>f ; ff^^» J5^^» 
H^^^x; I5^» m> Iff 'I- A'tm. Ill, Ijff^, lit ; Hf^, IpT^, 
ipr^; Iff^l, ||ff^ or -|, ||f^. ist Fut. ^vrftn. Atm. 
^V^f , &c. 2d Fut. vV^iftr. i^tm. v^w, &c. 3d Pret. (439. a) 
^w^, wu^Tff, w^^; '^r^STTW, '5T^^, '^ro^t; ^^th, ^^w, 
wsj"?r. i^tm. (439. c) w^fm, ^^^^^^ or ^sr^nn^, ^^ or ^J^J^; 
^^mjRf^, '5TH^T^, '^sfnri; ^vpp?Tff, '^w or ^sr^^, ^^^. 
Bened. 5^n^. i^tm. ^^hj, &c. Cond. wM. i^tm. '5i^ft^, &c. 
Passive, Pres. |^; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^"^ff . Causal, Pres. ^"V^'qiftr; 
3d Pret. ^H|p. Des. ^v^Tftr, -•%. Frey. ■^^, ^^t^ (3d sing. 
^>fftfni). Participles, Pres. ■^^,^-^T^; Past pass. ?ni ; Past indecL 
^im, -pr; Fut. pass. ^^, ^>^^, ^>3I. 



66 1. Root foJir. Inf. ^ ' to lick.' Parasmai and Atmane. Pres. 
^ftr, Hf^ (306), ^fs (305. a) ; f?73fTT, o5^^^ (305. a), <^^; ff5^, 
cjfe, rrJ^Pfl. Ktm. ft5^, f?5^, H^ ; Prtd^^, ff^^ni, fr5fT'^; fc5^, 
c^f , Prt^fi . Pot. fcT^. Xtm. f?5?ttr, &c. Imp. ^^iP^, "FJtf^ 
(306. c), ^^; ^^"R, <^^, <9^; c^TH, <9t2", ft^^^. Atm. '^, 
fr9T^, pjtet; rt^r^l, r<=5'?T^f, fpj^nrf; ^toI, f^ (306. c), fc^rn. 

1st Pret. ^^?, ^T^7 or ^?T^^ (292. a), "^Z or W^^; '5Tfe^, '^1?^^, 
%4o»ld] ; ^!Tip5^, Wc!^-^, '^ifT^^. Atm. ^?5f^, ^^Tc^l^m, Wc^t^; ^fe- 
3^, '3Tf?jfT5lf, ^^rfefTfri; ^fc5^f^, Wf5^, ^fe?W. 2d Pret. fc5^f , 
fc^^ff^, ff5^; fc5fc5ff^, fcTfe^^^, Pc^rci^ri^^; frjicjf?^, fefc5?, 
fT^fefTT. i^tm. -fefcjl, PpiPriP^ ^, &c. 1st Fut. ^J^W. Atm. 
rt rfl^ , &c. 2d Fut. -^^rrftl. Atm. ■^^j &c. 3d Pret. (439. a) 
?hPc9JJj, -"^^5 -W[^'i -W^y -■^> -WTT; -^JFT, -'^, -W{- Atm. 
(439. c) ^rft^f^, ^fe^^T^^ or ^e^^TW, ^ftysiW or ^STc^'fe; ^fe^T^ff , 
-Hjivji, -Hflrii ; wfesFFff^, ^fe^s^f or ^TrS^, ^Prtttj'"- Bened. fe- 
^m. Atm, fe^^, &c. Cond. 'ST^^. iV!tm. WST^, &c. Passive, 
Pres. -fe^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^fV. Causal, Pres. ^^^iPh; 3d Pret. 
^Hf«j1P<«J^. Des. PrtPrtiJJlPH, -■^. i^reg'. '^ft?^, H^fsr (3d sing. ^^fe). 
Participles, Pres. fcJflT; Atm. fn^R; Past pass. 7^-, Past indecl. 
T^tft, -fc5^ ; Fut. pass. ^^, ^^t^, H^. 


662. Root "W hu. Infin. ^tt hotum, '■ to sacrifice.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I sacrifice.' 

'n'i\VR juhomi 
"W^u^ juhoshi 

sf^qiH juhuydm 
»ic*)l*i juhuyds 
■ST^xmr juhuydt 

^5<4lP«T juhavdni 
^r^V juhudhi (291) 

'3T"5'^^ juhuvas * 

M^A*\ juhutas 
Potential, ' I may sacrifice.' 

aT J<4 1 rt juhuyutam 
Tf^Mlfll juhuydtdm 

Imj)erative, ' Let me sacrifice.' 

3t^*<^ juhumas f 
■^d^ Pri juhwati 

»T?*II*1 julmydma 
■^^■mTT juhuydt a 
l{^*ih juhuyus 

W^TTR juhavdma 
'^'^ juhuta 
WS^IT juhwatu 

* Or ^df^ 7«/m 

H h 2 

t Or 'SRl^ juhmas. 


First preterite, ' I was sacrificing/ 
■«<^?<^ ajuhavam ^^^ ajuhuva -^^^H ajuhuma 

"W*i^l«^ ajuhos ^^%^ ujuhatam ^'§?rT ajuhuta 

^nT^tiT o/mAo/ ^nr^TTT ujuhutdm ■»Hai^^"'H ajuhavus (330) 

2cl Pret. {367. ^») ^^, ^ffV^ or ^?hT, ^?T^; fff^j ^f^^v» 
iP^x' fl^^' IP' ffl^x- ^^ ^^T^^HTT, &c.; see 385. c. 
ist Fut. -ftFrfer, &c. 2d Fut. -^rVanffr, &c. 3d Pret. ^srft^, '^T^ift^, 
W^N^; ^^Hi|h^, 'sr^, WflFT; ^^, 'S?^, W^^^- Bened. f^nf, 
&c. Cond. 'S'^luT, &c. Passive, Pres. fr^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ?n^lf^, 
Causal, Pres. irRxrrftT; 3d Pret. %Mi^^4 . Des. ^mf*T. Freq. ^t^, 
i^titVR or sfl^cOfrr. Participles, Pres. ^3^; Past pass. ^; Past 
indecl. ^Wf, -Jjq; Fut. pass. i\A^, ^ml^, ^^ or ^Fq. 


663. Root ^T isSS)- Inf. ^T^ ' to give.' Parasmai and Atmane. 
Pres. ^Tfir, ^^'^, ^<?Tftr; ^\, «?r^, ^^; -^^, ^r^, ^frT. i^tm. 
^^, ^, ^; ^?^, f^^TO, ^^■fl"; ^5^^^, ^, ^^w. Pot. ^frt, ^?nTr, &c. 

Xtm. ^^, &c. Imp. ^Tf^, ^fV, ^^; ^T^, ^> ^^; ^TT, ^, 
^«fff. Atm. (^t, <fr^, ^^; ^^^, ^^^Fjt, ^tfnrt; ^(fRf, f^, ^^. 

I St Pret. ^^T^t, w^n», ^^i^ttt; '^nfi', '^r^, ^^T^; ^:^, ^^, ^^1^1^^ 

(330). i^tm. -^f^, '^T^rTZITTT, ^3T^; ^3r^f%, ^^^, ^^; -HiHrty 

^, ^f^TT. 2d Pret. (373) ^T, ^f?^^ or ^m, ^fi; ^f^^, ^^^, 
^H^^; F,f^, ^, ^p;. Xtm. ^^, ^f^^, ^^ ; ^^, ^rq, ^^T7^; 
^f^^, r^^ or -i, ^f^T. 1st Fut. (^iri l Pw . Atm. ^TTTtIj &c. 
2d Fut. ^T^TfJT. Atm. r^, &c. 3d Pret. (438) ^, ^T^, '^r^^; 
^l^T^, '^T^, ^nrt ; "^r^, ^l^, '^^^^ ^tm. (438. d) ^f^, ^rf^- 
■5im, 'srf^; 'srf^f^f^, -yn^mvii, ^^xnTTT; ^ri^^^rf^, ^f^54 or -^, 
^if^^lT. Bened. ^^^^T^. i^tm. ^Ttft^j &c. Cond. ^Sf^T^. Atra. 
'^T^rw, &c. Passive, Pres. ^\^, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^f^rf^, see 
700. Causal, Pres. ^TtRrf'T (483) ; 3d Pret. '?T^^. Des. (503) 
f^wrfsr, i^W. Freq. ^^, ^T^Tfir or ^^f^. Participles, Pres. ^TT 
(141. fl) ; Past pass. ^■^; Past indecl. ^^T, -^m; Fut. pass. ^TTT^, 

664. Root ^ (336). Inf. VT^ ' to place.^ Parasmai and Xtmane. 
Pres. ^vrfir, ^VTftr, ^mfw; ^s^, Vr^ (42. c) *, >r^ (42. c) ; ^TJRT, 

* The root being practically ^ is amenable to 42. c. 


•UW, ^Vfk. i^tm. ^V, Vr^, vi; ^££lt, V^, V^ y V^.i ^*? «T^- 

Pot. ^w, f^rmw, &c. i^tm. ^vhi, ^^fhmr, &c. Imp. ^vrfJT, vf^, 

;^VT!iT, ^vnrf; ^>imt, v^, ^>nrf. ist Pret. 'si^vf, ^t^vt^, ^^^rnr; 
^r^, '^nr^, ^rvwf; '3t»^, '^tvt^, "STf^vrr. Xtm. ^nfiV, ^rvrmn, ^3>iw; 
^^s^, ^i»^Tzn, '^i^VTiTt; 'sr^tjrf^, ^^nrt, 'sj^^iw. 2d Pret. (373) ^, 
^^ or ^>mr, ^^; ^fVi^, ^^, ^^^; ^ftnr, ^, ^^. Atm. ^, 
^f\m, &c. ; see ^T at 66^. ist Fut. v i rilPw . -^tm. VTintj> &c. 
2d Fut. VT??nfJT. Atm. \Tr^, &c. 3d Pret. (438) ^Tvf, W*n^, 
^Tvnr; ^sniR, ^tvtw, 'STvnn; ^^nnT, ^srvnw, ^t«f. A'tm. (438. d) 
^fvftr, ^fvqnr, ^rftrw; ^ftix^jf^, ^ftiRT^n, ^^Tfytmrt ; 'srfv^JTf^, ^rfvj4 
or -^, iSfM^TT. Bened. vrnw. i^tm. VTTP&"JI, &c. Cond. 'SiVT^. i^tm. 
^rvp^, &c. Passive, Pres. \ft^; ist Fut. >JTfinn% or vnn^; 3d Pret. 
3d sing, ^rvrftl. Causal, vt m ^i Ph ; 3d Pret. ^^"hpf. De*. fvrfSFnfJT 
(503). Freg. ^>ft^, ^TVrf'T or ^f»T. Participles, Pres. ^>ri^ (141- «) ; 
Atm. ^>rR; Past pass, f^; Past indecl. f^rH, -VFI; Fut. pass. 

a. Root JTT (338). Inf. ^r^ 'to measure.^ j^tmane. Pres. f^^, 
fifft^ or firfTr^ t? rH»flri or ftrfiTW ; PhhI^^ or firfiT^ f? Phhi^, fimiw ; 
fMt*r% or rMPHM^tj fM^s^ or frrfiTsgft? f*WW. Pot. fjT»friT, rH»fl^m, 
fifTlftlT, &C. Imp. fj?t, fk^f^ or firflT^ f, fimVrTT or f^rflTlTf t ; fMHIcjl, 

pMHrni , fTTTTTfTT; fimFitj f^ift^ or firfrrs^t, fMrwf. ist Pret. ^^iftrftT, 
^^{pH Hi'^m^ or ^ fHpHviR ^t, '^rfiTjft'ff or ^irfiTTT t ; 'iJpHHT^P^ or '^PhPh-nP^, 
^rf^iTRif, '^rfjTHTiTf; ^^rfTTHbrff or 'srfWiiTf^ t, ^Jrfifra^s^ or wfirfiTs^t, 
■^hPhhtt. 2d Pret. ^^, ^f^^, rj^; hPhcj^, jt?tt^, jrhtw; hPhji^, tPr^^ 
or -|-, Hfiit- 1st Fut. qnnt, &c. 2d Fut. jtt^, &c. 3d Pret. 
(433. a) ^mrftr, ^hhi^i ^, ^mrcr; ^mi^rf^, ^tjttot^, ^mraTin ; ^trt- 
wff , ^R75^, 'smTTnT. Bened. RnfttT, &c. Cond. ^WT^, &c. Pas- 
sive, Pres. Jft^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^hh I Pn . Causal, WTWm^ ; 3d Pret. 
^Tfftjni. De^. pHWlftl , -W (503). Freq. ^^^f(\^^, HTrrrftr or iT'mfJT. 
Participles, Pres. f5fTTTT«T; Past pass. "firiT; Past indecl. Phhi, -HT^, 
-iftiT; Fut. pass. JTrW^I, JTT^IT, ^. 

665. Root fT (337). Inf. fT^g ' to quit.^ Parasmai. Pres. sTflf'T, 
iTfrftr, =H^lPri; =H^1'=<« or ^P^^mf, ^T^hnr^ or irfT'I^t, ^T^^THT or 

* The aspirate is thrown back on the initial of the root, both before terminations 
beginning with s and t, and before dhwe and dhwam, as in roots ending in ■? h. 
Compare 306. d. 

t According to some authorities. See Foster. 


TiP^Hfl* ; "SfT^hm or "Sff^rm^, W^ or "Sfff^*, aT^frT. Pot. iT?n, 
»r?niT, &c. Imp. H^tCh, sTfttf or irfVf^ or sTTrf^, »TfT^; 'T^^, 
i^n or irir^ri *, =H^1rii or iff^lTf*; WfTT, '^^li or afP^d *, »I^. 
ist Pret. WiTff, iSRfniT, ^^T^rnr; ^n?i^1<j or ^snrf^*, ^H^i^lri or w»T- 
f^ *, '^Mjl^lrii or -HjiH^rii * ; -H^{iH or ^i i »ir^H *, WW^^rT or '^JiffT^ *, 

^nrpr. 2d Pret. ir^, ijft^ or vi^iy, w^; "srff^, »i^'^fl, 'Tf^^^; 

sff^, >Tf , WpT. 1st Fut. ^WTf^T, &C. 2d Fut. fT^TTfTT, &C. 3d 

Pret. (433) -n^ir«4, '^T^TTft^, ^n^T^; ^sr^^t^, ^n^ifa^ , 'STfTftTFT; 
WflftniT, '5<^inH{f, ^^T^^^^. Bened. ^^TW, &c. Cond. '^^1*4. 
Passive, Pres. ^^; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^r^rftl. Causal, Pres. ^4*4 iPh ; 
3d Pret. 'snft^Ti. Des. fw^rWffR. Freq. ^% ^TT?rrfiT or intfji. 
Participles, Pres. ir^ (i4i' «) ; Past pass, '^trf; Past indecl. l^i^T, 
-fT^; Fut. pass. T\l^, ^pft^, f^. 

666. Root H^ (333). Inf. H^ ' to fear.' Parasmai. Pres. f^^fir, 
f^P^T^, f%>TfiT ; f^i^fi^^ or f^fir^, f^vft^ or f^firq^^, f^>ft?T^^ or fsrfH- 
7T^^; f^'ift^^^or f^f^H^, f^irhr or f^-g, f^vqfiT (34). Pot. f^^lt or 
f^fMHi, &c. Imp. f^MXTrPrf, f^^ftf^ or fMWf^, fw^TW; f^>T"m^, f%>Thf 
or f^fiTrf, f^llTT or f^ftrTTT; f^H^TR, ■Mtw or f^iT, ftr«m (34). 
ist Pret. wf^^ni, ^f^ihr, wNhit; ^rI^^tN^ or ^rf^fir^, wf^vftif or 
^fMHTT, ^f^Hhrt or ^f^fWlTT; ^rf^lrT or ^r^fiw, ^Tf%>fhT or ^fM^, 
^f%H^^ (330)- Or f^tT ^MchK (385. c). 2d Pret. (367) -f^m^, ftwftm 
or f^^, f^m; f^f«r^, fw«T^^, f%«rff^^; f%f«m, f^^r, f^^^^- ist 
Fut. irmf^, &c. 2d Fut. H^mftr, &c. 3d Pret. ^H^i, ^h^, ^§- 
xftlT; ^H^^, 'SW^, '5W^ ; ^§^, '3?^, '^TH^^. Bened. vfhrPET. Cond. 
^^. Passive, Pres. h^; 3d Pret. 3d sing, '^vrrfxr. Causal, Pres. 
>TTinnfiT or -q^, or >TR^ or >ftira ; 3d Pret. 'ST^fhTTT or w^^ or wsftf^^. 
Des. f^i![^[^\fiR. Freq. ^p^ or ^^fir or %>TT(tfiT. Participles, Pres. 
f^«nr (141. a) ; Past pass. >frfT; Past indecl. >Tt^, -iTt^T; Fut. pass. 

a. Root ^t. Inf. fW ' to be ashamed.' Parasmai. Pres. ftr^ftr, 

ftrlft, fiTifw; f^-^^, M^H, ftr^hf^j fwiws, f%fhl, M^TJ^ 
{123. «). Pot. r»i ^l4j t, &c. Imp. ftr^mftir, fiTfiff , ftlFj; fwfin^, 
HH^Iri , nH^Iri) ; ftrfxriH, r=H ^ri , ■Nrfl^. ist Pret. ^il^, ^'Tf^, 
'STftrJlT; ^flTl^^, 'srflTFhf, 'STfjTI^Fr; ^SlftrfN, 'STftritlT, '^rflTf^^^ {i?,o)' 

2d Pret. f^rrnr, ftrff^m or f^^, f'TfT'T ; fiffff^ (367- «)? P'Tff^r^^, 
ftrfFTg^; ftrf^ftR, ftrfi^, "f^rfi^^^. ist Fut. lirrftR, &c. 2d Fut. 

* According to some authorities. See Foster. 


^Tanfir, &c. 3d Pret. ^f^, w^^^^j '^^'^; "^^^ -^^ -^; w^' -■?> 

-"1^. Bened. fhn^. Cond. W^^. Passive, Pres. -^xf; 3d Pret. 
3d sing, ^f i fi r. Causal, Prcs. frnnfi?; 3d Pret. '^wf^*. Des. 
ftrFtmfiT. Freq. W^, ^fftf or ^^iOPH. Participles, Pres. ftrfT^TT^ 
(141. a) ; Past pass. "^ or ■^; Past indecl. "^t?^ ; Fut. pass. fTT^, 

6. Root ir^. Inf. ^rftT'5 ' to produce.' Parasmai. Pres. 'snif^, 

^ntftr or ^nrfTTtT, inrf^iT; ^nr^w, ^nn^^^, "jnTTiT^^; iht^, "snTR, 
iT^iT. Pot. snn^t or "3T»TT^, &c. Imp. TTTTVTTfVr, iT*rrf^, "3nr|; 
w^TTT^, »nnff, TiJTirii; ^nrTFT, mfnir, jt^w. ist Pret. ^rrjinf, 'snnT^ 
(292. a), wsfw^; ^ ^^'4 , ^inmf, ^^nnTTwf; ^Ti^i-M, ^sTinTTfr, ^nr^. 
2d Pret. jtwr or »nnT, inrf^, ^nn^; "sff^^, 'T^^'^'^v' "T^^^x^ ^t^t, 
W^r, w?!;. ist Fut. Ti fwrilfai , &c. 2d Fut. sirnmiPH, &c. 3d Pret. 
^Hrnf^^, ^^^m^, WiTT^; ^^nTTf^"^, &c. Or ^nrffnr, &c. ; see 427. 
Bened. Tpgm or ^n^m, &c. Cond. ^^if^^, &c. Passive, Pres. 'in^ 
(compare 617. a) or »T^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ''BflTf^. Causal, Pres. 
iR^TfjT; 3d Pret. ^nfhnf. Des. f^nrf^. Freq. >iMH or W^, 
»f^^. Participles, Pres. "Sf^nr (141. a); Past pass. aTTiT, ^TftTTT; 
Past indecl. iff^T, -"W^, -»TPT; Fut. pass, llf^nr^, 'n=Rt^, ^PT. 


667. Root f^ chhid. Infin. 'if^ chhettum, ' to cut.' 
Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I cut.' 

f^pfRT chhinadmi 
'reT'TmT chkinatsi 
T%*Tt% chhinatti 

Mg^'fill chhindydm 
na»€ll^ chhindyds 
V3(R3ilK chhindydt 

n^Hr^lPH chhinaddn 
f^f^ chhinddhi f 
MSt«iri chhinattu 

rSFl^ chhindwas 
fgr^'^^ chhinthas (345) 
fg^fi^ chhintas (345) 

Potential, ' I may cut.' 
f^FSTR' chhindydva 
hj^'^in chhindydtam 
rBr^rnrr chhindydtdm 

Imperative, ' Let me cut.' 
■repT^T^ chhinaddva 
f^pif chhintam (345) 
■pBptrf chhintam (345) 

fc^r^^ ckhindmas 
f^Spi chhintha (345) 
fstt^ffi chhindanti 

hs^'SII*! chhindydma 
rst'tl I rt chhindydta 
VS^SIS chhindyus 

f^[*T^TR chhinaddma 
rri^»d chhinta (345) 
n4*4»H chhindantu 

So Foster. Westergaard gives ^Oh^M. f Or f3[f^ chhindhi, see 345. 


First preterite, ' I was cutting.' 
vlhji^ achhinadam ■^Petrg achhindwa ^TRTRT achhindma 

^re^Hn achhinat (292) ^rr5»tT achhintam ^f^^ achhinta 

"Sihs^rirt achhinat (292) ^T^piTT achhintam ^TreT^'?!' achhindan 

2d Pret. fNr^ (48. Z»), fg-^f^, f^^ ; f^f^i^, f^fs^^iT, f^fe- 
^HW^; f^Pxriin^H , -Nf®^, f^^J^^. I St Fut. %WTfFT, &c. 2cl Fut. 
in^rrftr, &c. 3d Pret. ^rf^, ^f%^?T, -yPsi^f^ft^; '^rfg^T^, ^srf^^cf, 'srf^- 
^; 'ilP^^m, ^^5^, ^rf^-R;. Or ^wm, ^W^'\-^, ^%rRhT; ^ifr^, 
^%W, ^%wf; ^rFT, ^1%^, '^l^TT. Bened. fs^T^, &c. Cond. 
^M^(*<|, &c. 

Xtmane-pada. Present tense, ' I cut.' 
'rS[»^ chhinde VS^"^ chhindwahe T%T?I^ chhivdmahe 

r«t«T« chhintse Pg^t^^l'M chhinddthe VS}'^ chhinddhwe 

"TgJnT chhinte (345) f%»^TW chhinddte T^^fT chhindate 

Ma»t{i*4 chhindtya 
f^Ft?^^^ chhindifhds 
iistn^lrt chhindtta 

Pstl^ chhinadai 
■^Pr^ chhintswa 
ns^»fii chhintdm 

W^l^ achhindi 
^ri^^^rra' achhinthds 
■««r«t»n achhinta 

Potential, ' I may cut.' 

rts^t{lqi% chhindwahi T^'«^rRT^ chhindtmahi 

VSy^'m^l chhindiydthdm f^«^T5^ chhindidhwam 

ni'^liTTflT chhindiydtdm T^S^^X^ chliindiran 

Imperative, ' Let me cut.' 
f%«T^r^^ chhinaddvahai haW^I*<% chhlnaddmahai 

Piat^l^ chhinddthdm 
V3[^Tin chhinddtdm 

First preterite. 
^T^Fl'Ti^ achhindwahi 
'3?PQ«^l'qi achhinddthdm 
^P«^«T^ldl achhinddtdm 

f^^ chhinddhwam 
TiS^«t^rtl chhindatdm 

^fSF^TT^ nchhindmalii 
^ay^r^ achhinddhwam 
^r^S^T^rt achhindata 

2d Pret. PxjPad,^, fsrf^^, f^f^a;^; fgf^P^^I, f^f^^T^, f^f^^TH; 
f^fsf^»=rt, -Nf^f^s^, ■Nfgrf^T. ist Fut. %wt|, &c. 2d Fut. -gi^, 
&c. 3d Pret. 'uPsiPrW, ^!Ti%r^nT, ^f%^ ; '^rfg-f^f^, '^rf^wrgf, '^rfsTr^mrf ; 
'^rf^f^Rl^, 'uPci^, ^srf^rww. Bened. %wt^, &c. Cond. '5ii(^. Pas- 
sive, Pres. fs[€f, &c. ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^T^f^. Causal, Pres. %^Tf*T ; 
3d Pret. ^srfeifscf. -De^. f^ftai^ft?, -i^. i^rey. -^fsa^, ^-^ftr. P«r- 
ticiples, Pres. f^R[TT; i^tm. fdr<^ | Vi ; Past pass. f^{^; Past indecl. 
f%^, -f^; Fut. pass, -g^^, %^rfN, ^. 



668. Root ^W- Inf. ^^ ' to anoint,' ' to make clear.' Parasmai. 
Pres. 'ST^rftn, ^"^f^ (296), 'SRf^ ; '^igiT, '^^RW, ^^^; WSp;^, W^^^, 
'■H^r>ri . Pot. W3?TT, &c. Imp. -^TTinffT, ^fnr, ^^^ ; '^l^nTT'^, #^, 
'^liT; -ssnnTm, ■^j ^T^. ist Pret. -SST^, '!fR<* (292), -HHcf ; 
^5Ttw, ^^, ^STTlit; ^^rirH, '^ft^, 'STT^. 2d Pret. -HM^, '^n'^W?! or 
^H'cty, ^"R^; WRf^^, WR^Y^l' "^N^iTF; ^-Rf^TT, ^T?r^, ^T^^. 

ist Fut. ^^f^T or ^f^Trrfm, &c. 2d Fut. ^^^ifsr or ^rfw^rfH, &c. 
3d Pret. ^nf^^, ^517^^, ^m^lri^ ; ^nf^^, &c., see 427. Bened. 
4<3^nl (452. b). Cond. wrm or ^^rriVof. Passive, Pres. ^n^ (469) ; 
3d Pret. 3d sing. ^!rrfw. CcM^a/, Pres. ^^xrrfk; 3d Pret. ^rrf^if- Des. 
'^Tf^ftr^rm. Participles, Pres. W^ ; Past pass, ^sns ; Past indecl. 
^f^r^ or wm or ^w, -^i^T; Fut. pass. ^^^^ or ^%W^, ^^^^, 
Wrfi or ■^ny. 

fl. Root >T3T (346). Inf. >tV^ 'to eat,' 'to enjoy.' Parasmai and 
i^tmane. Pres. ^prfTR, H^^, >j^f^ ; ^ipr, )j^=^^, ij^iT ; HtFTTT, »j^^, 
^T^f^. A'tm. H^, H^, >T%; >p?^, vj^%, >|WTW; ihrrt, htj^, >f^. 

Pot. ^s?n, &c. i^tm. >^t^, &c. Imp. iTTT^fVr, Hfnr, >T?r^ ; ^'Tt^, 

)j^, ij^; >pTiTm, >T^, >T^. Atm. >pr%, WT^, H#; jpnTT^t, 
iJ^Flt, HWnn; ^^»Tmt, ^^^ *J^wt. ist Pret. ^ipTW, ^>J^T5Jr (292), 

^»pT^; ^'J, ^^5 ^^; ^*|'ff, '^w^, ^^"57. Kiva. ^>Tf^, 

^TipRinT, ^^; '^THWfV, ^H^TJlf, '^TiJ^Tiri; ^5T>rfrd^, •^^, ^iTWtT- 
2d Pret. WHT, ^HtfiTT, "^vrtjT; ^>TftT^, '^HiT^^T, -^^nTFTT; ^tTfTnT, 

^>pT, ^^J^'T- i^tm. •^iT%, fifftR, '^»5^; -ftr^, -'5Tr^, -wi^; -ftnif, 
-f»TJ^, -fiTT. ist Fut. vrf^ifw. i^tm. >ft^T?, &c. 2d Fut. Ht^iffT. 
Atm. ift^, &c. 3d Pret. ^mT^, -Tfhff, ^tTT; ^m?^, ^3W^, -^t ; 
^m^, WN, ^m^^. Atm. '5T>Tf%, IJWoF^nT, ^^; ^W^ff, ^»T- 
■?^T^, ^iT^Tirf ; ^^f?, ^>Ttj4, ^^K. Bened. ^i^TO, &c. Atm. 
>T^hr, &c. Cond. ■WTT!^, &c. Xtm. ^w^, &c. Passive, Pres. 
iliq'; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^Tifrftr. Causal, Pres. vrnrmftr, -^^•, 3d Pret. 
W|;)?iT. Des. WiJ^fiT, -"%. Fye*/. '^>T'^, "^WtfriT. Participles, Pres. 
>|g7r; A'tm. ij^TT; Past pass. >T^; Past indecl. >Twr, ->J5q"; Fut. 
pass. >frai^, H^irfhr, HtxJT or >T>nT- 

669. Root VT^ (347)- Inf. 4^ 'to break.' Parasmai. Pres. 
>T^TfViT, H^f^, >?^f^; HW^, ifcRI^, H^^; HtJTTT, Hcf-^T, >l^f^. Pot. 
>n?Tt, &c. Imp. ^RWrf^, Hfnj, mr^; H^^nqf, H^, H#; H^iTR, H^, 
>T^. 1st Pret. ^!TiR*r, ^WVT'Sff (292), ^VT^Tejr ; ^w^, '^TH^, ^4^T; 

I i 


'CTvhR, ^5M^, 'SW^. 2d Pret. ^ir^, ■^iif^R or "^oRl, ^H^ ; ^Hf^^, 
^^T^'^^, "^H^^^; "WHf^^, ^>i^, ^>T^TtT. 1st Fut. 4^1 fw, &C. 2d 

Fut. >T^Tf»T, &c. 3d Pret. ^m^, -'^H, -"^'^; "^W, "^f^rm, -^; 
^swfsp, ^Tvrr^, ^^MT^^. Bened. MTi^lTTf, &c. (452. b). Cond. ^nt^, 
&c. Passive, Pres. H5^ (469) ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^MTftT. Causal, 
Pres. >7gTITfiT; 3d Pret. 'sr^H^. De^. f%>T^TfiT. Freg. -snr^, -^ijfm. 
Participles, Pres. vr^; Past pass. hjtT; Past indecl. vriiT or ^nrr, 
-HST; Flit. pass. 4ii^, >T^T}hT, >n?T. 

670. Root ^rsT . Inf. "^^ ' to join/ * to unite.^ Parasmai and 
Atmane. Pres. ^ri Pt H , ^■i H if, &c. ; see >pT at 668. a. Kim. -g^, ^, 
&c. ; see 668. a. Pot. "^i^t, &c. Xtm. ^^1i|, &c. Imp. MHWir^, 
■nfrvT, ^^ ; ^^?nTT^, &c. ; see 668. a. i^tm. '^^, "5^, '^W, &c. 
ist Pret. w^r^t, ^^^hf (292), 4|^H<* ; W^, &c. ; see 668. a, 
Kim., ^^f^, W^TJinr, &c. 2d Pret. -^^, ^*\\^^n, "5^^; "g^'T^? 
&c.; see >Ti^^ at 668. a. Kim. "g^^, &c. ist Fut. 41^ 1 fa , &c. Kim. 
TTf^iT^, &c. 2d Fut. ift^TfH, &c. i^tm. ift^, &c. 3d Pret. ^^r^, 

-aTH, -"STrT ; -*rR, -"snr, -itttt; -sTtt, -»nT> -^T'T. Or ^nn^, -"sjIf, 
-#?r; -iiiuKjl, &c.; see 668. a. Kim. W^, '5Pg«F^mT, '^J'p;; 'H^iyH^, 
&c. Bened. "f^^TTO, &c. Kim. ■^^|hr. Cond. ^iff^. Kim. w^^. 
Passive, Pres. ^^^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^TftftT, see 702. Causal, 
Pres. TftjTmfiT; 3d Pret. '^T^^. Des. ^X^^f^, -■%. Freq. "^TW^, 
xft''fri%iT. Participles, Pres. "g"^; i^tm. ^^n ; Past pass. ■^ ; Past 
indecl. -giiT, -"gW; Fut. pass, ift^^, ^»nfhi, '^^ or ^iti^r. 

671. Root ^. Inf. ^:i 'to hinder.' Parasmai and i^tmane. 
Pres. ^Trrfar, ^T!ifw, ^wf^ ; ^'SEJ^, ^IT^*, ^¥^^* ; ^^»m , ^^ *? 
^^fffT. A'tm. ^, ^Tf^, ^*; ^^«r^, ^s'Mi'ii, ^^grw; ^^«t|, ^, 
^^W. Pot. ^^, &c. Kim. ^^ifhi, &c. Imp. •^?ir^^, ^ft¥, '^w^; 
^3pn^, ^^*, ^it*; ^VT*T, '^'ir*, ^^^«l^. A'tra. ■^TJit, -^r^, 
^ST; ^iTjin^t, ^T^T^if, ^ ^ irii; ^vthI, ^f, ^^^nrt. ist Pret. 
^r^wv, ^5T^iTTrr or ^5T^i!T^ or ^^T5W (292), ^sr^iin^ or ^?^5!I^; ^T^Hsr, 
^r^¥, ^T^^lT ; '^T^^wT, "si^'ir, ^r^^»^. i^tm. ^^f^, '^r^^^^, '^r^^ ; 
^^^orff , W^-s^n^, ^*>"-yirii; ^(jvu<r^, 'ST^^, 'Hi^^ri . 2d Pret. ^^5 
^Ttftl^, ^Thl ; ^^fv^, ^^V^, ^^VW?T ; ^^ftm, ^^v, ^^v^^- ^tm. 
^^, ^^fyq, ^^; ^^fVn%, ^^VT^, ^^VT^; ^^fv»?|, ^^fv|, 
^^fiK. ist Fut. ^irrfw, &c. A'tm. 'd^Tl, &c. 2d Fut. rfwrf^. 

* ^^TT may be written for ^'^. Similarly, T^^ for ■^^, <5'5^ for ^^, &c. 
See 298. a. 


Atm. rtr^. 3d Pret. W^^^, -'VW, -'iTiT; -VT^, -W, -VTIT; -vm, -'ifJT, 
-V^. Or WW, TOT^, WaT'fftTT; ^m?^, ^TTi, W^; mirFT, 
^JT^tir, ^<lrW«. Kim. ^T^fw, ^T^irnr, "^T^^ ; '^r^?, ^iT^WT^lt, 
"^T^T^rnrf ; •^r^rWf^, '^r^, ^^WTT. Bened. ^WPFT, &c. Atm. ^rffH, 
Sec. Cond. 'H0i4*/, &c. i^tm. ^nOi^, &c. Passive, Pres. ^tzi ; 
3d Pret. 3d sing. ^rcHV. Causal, Pres. TtV^rrfiT; 3d Pret. w^^v. 
Des. ^^NrtJi PH , -1^. i^re^. T^^, Tt'dftJT. Participles, Pres. ^^^; 
i^tm. ^^VR ; Past pass. ^|f; Past indecl. ^^T, -^«T; Fut. pass. 

673. Root f^^. Inf. ^ ' to distinguish,' ' to separate,' ' to leave.' 
Parasmai. Pres. f^^^, f^^^, f^Rf^ ; ftft^^^, ft[T?^, ft[T^; fw^\, 
f^, f^mffft. Pot. ftfroff, &c. Imp. r^fffMiftr, ftrf^ or %fig3 (sec 

303, and compare 345), f^PTf ; f^^T^^, fw, f¥^; f^PnTR, f^F, 
fTIM'd. ist Pret. ^rf^PTR, ^f^R7 {292, 43. e), ^^R7; ^rft^T^, ^^, 

'-sP^igT; "^TfjfhJT, '3if^a, '^^^. 2d Pret. f^'^nr, ftir^HTT^T, f^nnr; 

%f5Tf^, %f^m^^, %%^TO; f^fsiPMH, %%^, %fl^^^. I St Fut. 
^lyiPw, &c. 2d Fut. •^T^nfJT, &c. 3d Pret. W%TEf, -^^^, -iTiT; -"qr^, 
-¥?f, -"qTrf ; -^m, -inr, -ir. Bened. f^TirnT, &c. Cond. ^n^jitH, &c. 
Passive, Pres. f^W; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^r^tft. Causal, Pres. ^"R^nfiT; 
3d Pret. W5ft%^. Des. f^rf^^pfiT. Freq. ^%"^, ^'^if^. Participles, 
Pres. ftff^TT ; Past pass. %? ; Past indecl. f^T^, -f^^ ; Fut. pass. 

673. Root f^^. Inf. f^ftR ' to injure.' Parasmai. Pres. ff^fi^R, 
ff^W, f^^T%; ff^^, f^^zR, ff^H; f^w^, f^^, f^^TPrT. Pot. 
fwvji, &c. Imp. ff^rmfW, f^f^:g or fff^ {304), f^^; ff^T^R, 
fi^, f^wf; ff^nnJT, ff^, f^^. ist Pret. ^srf^^TR, ^f^rfw or ^^rf^ir 
(292, 304. a), ^^; ^rfV^, '^W, ^fwT; ^ffw, ^f^^, ^ffH-^. 
2d Pret. ftrf^, f^r^Ttivj , ftrff^; ftrffftr^, ftrf^f^^^^, firff^wH; 
firf^ftm, ftrff^, ftrf^^. ist Fut. fffwrf^R, &c. 2d Fut. f^ftr- 
tqrfir, &c. 3d Pret. ^f^ftni, '^rf^^^, ^JTf^^Ttrr; ^f^fni^, ^f^^?, 
wf?ftT¥T; ^rf^ftniT, ^^fff?, ^rf^ftr^^. Bened. f^^TTT, &c. Cond. 
'Hr^T*l«i. Passive, Pres. fi^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^if^fH. Causal, 
Pres. ff^TTTftl; 3d Pret. ^»rf^^. Des. fwff f^iITfiT . Freq. ^fiw, 
wfffttT. Participles, Pres. f^^ff; Past pass, f^f^aw; Past indecl. 
f^ftn^, -ftm ; Fut. pass, ff ftTTT^T, f^TTTf^n, ff ^. 

674. Root •^. Inf. "jrff W or IT^ ' to injure,' ' to kill.' Parasmai. 
Pres. -^^rf^r, H^f^ (306), ff^f^ (305) ; ^w, ffWB (345), l^t^S^-, ff?ni, 
■pg,^f?iT. Pot. wait, &c. Imp-lTWlfrf, wfc^(see 306.C), ^^^; ^irrfT^, 

I i 2 


infi, irWT ; ^TTTf m, "^W, '^^- ist Pret. ^inf , ^TW^7 or W^^ (293), 
^n^Z or '3T^^^; ^^^, "^nrpi, Wi^; "^r^, Wfl^, ^mj^h. 2d Pret. 
fTfT't, TTWf^"?! or ITTrt, Wtif ; ■fTffffW, riri^'^TI, Tf^^W^^; ri^f^T, "iTFf , 
■fT^?T. I St Fut. ■flftfTTfTR or TrtTftR, &C. 2d Fut. -rrffTlTTftr or rfy^lPH, 
&c. 3d Pret. ^TTfitw, -|t^, -ftw; -fft-^, -ff?, -ffFT; -ff^, -ff?, 
-ff^IT. Or ^-gf, --5^^, -■^; --g^T^, --^ff, -W; -"^P^, -"^"iT, -■^• 
Bened. "^TTT, &c. Cond. Wrrfil'at or ^"a^*, &c. Passive, Pres. W^; 
3d Pret. 3d sing. ^Trrff . Causal, Pres. TTfTrrf'T; 3d Pret. ■^JTinTf or 
^TtTs^, Des. fffirff^Tftr or ■firff^lftr. Freq. riOiJ^, ITTlTrr^ (3d sing. 
irrVjrft). Participles, Pres. '^flT; Past pass. ■^^; Past indecl. irf^T 
or W^J, -TT^', Fut. pass. T^fflf^ or Trt^, TTfirfhr, W^. 


675. Root w vri. Infin. "^ft:ff varitum or ^^ varitum, ^ to cover/ 
' to enclose,' * to choose *.' 

Note, that the conjugational H nu becomes m nu after '^ vri by 58. 

Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I cover/ &c. 
^^DITh vrinomi 'J^uqw^ vrinuvas f ^T^'W vrinumas X 

^^nfn vrinoshi '^W^'51 vrinuthas cJiUVJ vrinutha 

■^^JlmT vrinoti <|«]rt«^ vrinutas ^Wf^fT vrinwanti 

Potential, '■ I may cover/ &c. 
■^■m vrinuydm •^^I^f];}^ vrinuydva ^^^TR vrinuydma 

<|*H*4it<^ vrinuyds qtnmn vrinuydtam "^WOJ^ vrinuydta 

1*0*^ "\ '-^T^Wy<^^ ""^^^HiflT vrinuydtdm <^<!i<4*<^ vrinuyus 

Imperative, ' Let me cover/ &c. 
^TU^rf^ vrinavdni «<^l<^l«l vrinavdva '^^THT vrimvdma 

<|<y vnMM ^^^ vrinutam "^Wii vrinuta 

^tju^ vrinotu ^^ITT vrinutdm «JiH»(J vrinwantu 

First preterite, ^ I was covering/ &c. 

^r|TrR (wrinavam ^:\^*s^ avrinuva § ^T^imT avrimma \\ 

^n^m^avrinos ^H^vT^ avrinutam ^C^t^ avrinuta 

^T^TTniT avrinot W^TTT avrinutdm ^T^^J^rT avrinwan 

* In the sense of to choose,' this root generally follows the 9th conjugation ; 
thus, Pres. ^xniPH, ■^TdTrf^, ^ifw ; ^nft^, &c. See 686. 

t Or "^^F^ vrinwas. % Or ^'W^^ vrimnas. § Or ■»il<4<f4 avrinwa. 

II Or ■st<5*i*i avrinma. 



2d Pret. (368) ^^T, M^lfi^vj, '^^TT; T^ or ^^^, T^^^, =«««J«^; 
■^ or T^rftTT, ■^^j "^H or T^^ (367. c). ist Fut. (399) ^frtTlfw 
or ^fhrrfw. 2d Fut. (399) ^T-OTTftr or ^OtMlPH . 3d Pret. ^sr^rifH, 
'sttjtNt, s Mcj i Ori ; 'STTrfr^, ^^Trrfr^, ^^iH^ai; ^sr^rfr^, '^i^rfr?, '^Rrft^^. 

Bened. f^TH^ or ^tl^, &c. (448. a). Cond. 'ST^fb'T or ^^T^-OT, &c. 
Xtmane-pada. Present tense, ' I cover,' &c. 

'Tl^ vrinwe 
■^^ vrinushe 


■^^TT vnnute 

<J1mIm vrinwiya 
'=i*i^ln vrinwita 

«1*IN vrinavai 
=t<Jj«l vrinushwa 
e|<iirtl vrinutdm 

■«^r<!«l avrinwi 
^fJ^^^ITTT avrinuthds 
■siq<!i"iT avrinuta 

«<<Mcj^ vrinuvake "^ 
"^jJsllVj vrinwdthe 

^i}\H^ vrinumahe f 
■^HTS^ vrinudhwe 
<H!«in vnnwate 

Potential, ^ I may cover,' &c. 

•MlleO^n^ vrinwwahi ^T^t^rff vrinwimahi 

^npfhrrTT vrinwiydthdm <|<!ql54 vrinwtdhwam 

"^UtflHldi vrinwtyutdm q*!««VH vrinw&an 

Imperative, ^ Let me cover,' &c. 

"^4imM^ vrinavdmahai 
■^^ITS^ vrinudhwam 
<!<!«! n I vrinwatdm 

M*H "^ I "1 ^ vrinavdvahai 
^fj^mi vrinwdthdm 

First preterite. 

41^111 s(f^ avrinuvahi J 
W^TJ^T^JT avrinwdthdm 
W^Tjmn mirinwdtdm 

vi q <u ♦! n^ avrinumahi § 
■^'linSel avrinudhwam 
•^umimx avrinwata 

2d Pret. T^ (34) or -^r^ (367. c), "^^j T^ or "^^; ^T^^, ^WI^, 
TaTTT; ^^, "^, ■^f^. ist Fut. •^fbrrt or ^Orill, &c. 2d Fut. 
■gir^ or ^rh^, &c. 3d Pret. '•K^fifq, ^sRfr^nr, ^rrfri?; ^^r^wfi^, 
^5RfTTn^, ^TqrfWfTT; ^Rfr^iT, ^"^s^ or -fr^, ^Tft^ir. Or '^rrdf^, 
'gT^ r^ T^, &c. Or ^5T^, '^T^^mr, ^^; ^h^hP^ , ^m^, ^^tmrf; 
sH^mP^ , w^, '^rw. Or ^sr^, ^fw, ^rat; ^r^t^ff, ^^rftnit, 

^Tftm; 'sr^f^, ^^, ^WcT. Bened. M^hI^ or ^^ or ^hl 
{448. a). Cond. ^n^pLtM or ^3TTd^. Pa^siw, W; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^rtIt. Causal, Pres. cj ^i ii pH or -^, or «4KmPH or -^ ; 3d Pret. ^STsfHt . 
De*. P^ciP<mpH or -^, f^^'^xrrftr or -^, f^ftr or -^ (502). Freg'. 
Tfft^ (511) or Tf|3f, '^f'l. Participles, Pres. '^WiT; i^tm. '^IFTJT; 
Past pass. YiT; Past indecl. w;^, -'^; Fut. pass. TfTfT^ or ^^^, 

* Or ^ptF^ vrinwahe. 
Or ^r^Tf^ avrinmahi. 

t Or ^T^ vrinmahe. % Or ^<J<!<=lp5 avrinwahi. 



676. Root T5T*. Inf. TTt^ 'to hear.' Parasmai. Pres. '5J'irtf'T, 
ai^ihrM, Ijnrfrfw; ^^^^ or 3I<M*(, 3TW5I^, ^pjTWTFT ; 3KJIH«^ or STTR^, 

^nrr'^r, sknIV. Pot. si^ni, &c. Imp. sniRTfR", "sm, ^prtw; "sprr^T^r, 
WTTif, ■snrTWT ; ^iiNiH, "STWif, 5\mi\ . ist Pret. ■^nnjR, ^■JWf^, ^whr ; 
^nnn^ or ^nr^, ^raro^, ^nspnTTrt; -^jouhh or ^rspir, ^nrw, ^nnF*T. 
2d Pret. (368) ^^TR, srahr, sr^r=i ; ^^, 3|'«^'^«, ^'y-=<ri«^; 'sr^, 
sm^, w^r^m. ist Fnt. ^jftwrfw, &c. 2d Fut. '^'V^qif^, &c. 3d Pret. 
'^rarnf, ^T^^ihT, ^jw^tr^; "w^^^, ^r^rr?, -^; ^t^trt, ^t^f, ^st^^^. 
Bened. "^TtrnT, &c. Cond. ^mW, &c. Passive, Pres. ■^^; 3d Pret. 
3d sing. 'sJT^nftr. Causal, Pres. '^T^rxrrfiT ; 3d Pret. ^f^r^ or ^^TSr^. 
Des. w^. Freq. '^fV^, ^>«5rriTT or ^>^fiT. Participles, Pres. 
^TRIT ; Past pass, '^nr ; Past indecl. "^sn^, -"'^TFet ; Fut. pass. '-ylri-sH, 

677. Root V t- Inf. vf^ or vt^ ' to shake,' ' to agitate.' Parasmai 
and i^tmane. Pres. VTrfiT, wrftf^, Vrftfir ; ^"^^^ or "»^^, ^"^j 
Y^^,; 1^^, or TTiim, v-g^, -JTr^frjr. A'tm. v^, v^^, y:^; v^^ 
or -q^^, ^?TR, >JV^W; tj^itI or V^jtI, V^sg, v^. Pot. v^-qf, &c. 
Xtm. Vf^^, &c. Imp. VtrtTtt, ^3, "^W ; vtrt^, -q^if, Y;^t; 
vir^TiT, Yl^' '?^^- ^*"^- ''^' V^^' "^^5 'i^T^T^j >T»:^T5lf, 
Vf'^TTTT; Y^T^TTt, 'w^s^' ^"^T. ist Pret. '^rww^, ^Y^'^x' "^^^7^5 
wvr^^ or 'STV^, 'sryn^TT, ^v^; ^^^ ®^' wutjt, '^■^, '^rvv^^. 
Atm. ^srufV"^, ^'^YT'^^x' ^^ 5 ^^^ °^ ^r«rj^5 ^sru^TT^f , ^stv^'^tttt ; 
^^jrf^, ^^^4, ^r«r?^ff . 2d Pret. (367. b) J^T^, J^^^ or jvhr, ^^TR ; 

lY^' J^^^x' lY^^v 5 I^^' J^' 5¥Fl- ^^"^- J^^' ^^' ^ 5 
rrvif^^, fTVRT^, rfWff; fTvf^t, ^^s^ or -^, ^f^. 1st Fut. 

vfTfrrftR or Vtrrrftff, &c. Atm. Mf^TTlt or vtlTTf , &c. 2d Fut. vf^- 

"^mf^ or VtTtrrfT. Atm. vf^W or \ft^. 3d Pret. t "^nnf^, W^TRhf, 

^3ivT^ ; ^r uiPc^M , ^^Tvrfw, ^srvif^ ; '^nnfw, ^nrri^, ^rMiG^M^^. Or 

^5T^, -•Efhr, -Tfhr; ^^imw, "^rmw, -¥f; wn??, ^nn^, ^sr^'grr. A'tm. 

^^rvif^ft, ^snrftrsrr^^, ^3wf%¥; ^nrf^^Mr^, ^srvf^^m, -t^tttt; ^r^fcj'+tns, 

* This root, although manifestly following the 5th conjugation, is placed by- 
Indian grammarians under the ist class. 

t This root may also be conjugated in the 9th conjugation ; thus, Pres. Y^TTIT, 
Y^nftr, Y^fW; Y''^' ^^-'^ ^^^ ^^^= '^^^ ^" *'^^ ^*^^ (Y^^ 280). in the 
latter case the 3d Pret. is 'JHYf^W, &c. ; see 432. 


^wf^i^ (-f)j ^nifTRH". Or 'snrrf^, w«Tt¥T^, wt¥; wt^^lV, "^^ftm^, 
-tmrf; ^4ir^ , w^ia[ (-^), wNTT. Bened. v^rnr. A'tm. vrf^tftrr or 
Vt^Tf, &c. Cond. ^snrf^'oi or wtW, &c. i^tm. ^HtTt^ &c. or ^rvft"^ 
&c. Passive, Pres. -w^, &c.; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^^TOlf^. Causal, Pres. 
v^TfT^T or VTTmftr; 3d Pret. "^r^^ or 'Sl^M^. Des. JV^nf^, -^. 
Freq. ^^, ^\^tf^ or ^>M^Mtt. Participles, Pres. "U»^; i^tm. '^;;:^T^ ; 
Past pass, vw or >nT ; Past indecl. Yj^^ -^5 5 Fut. pass. vfrfT^ or 
vtfT^, VTJfi"ir, VT^ or v^. 

a. After v may be conjugated the root ^ ' to press out the juice 
of the Asclepias plant,' which in native grammars is the model of 
the 5th conjugation ; thus, Pres. W^tf^, ^"tf^^, &c. The two futures 
reject i; thus, ist Fut. ^inftR, &c. 

678. Root ^ or ^ *. Inf. ^crfr^ or wdl^ or ^* ' to spread/ ' to 
cover.' Parasmai and i^tmane. Pres. ^TifrfiT, &c. ; see "^ at 675. 
Atm. ^^, ^in^, &c. Pot. Frrrnrt, ^rnrnrT^, &c. Kim. WT^^^, &c. 
Imp. ^THTrftr, &c. j^tm. ^^%, &c. ist Pret. ^irfTIR, &c. Atm. 
wftF, &c. ; see 675. 2d Pret. (331. c) TreTR, TI^"^, Tt^TT; H^ft^, 
■nW'l^*^, W^^W^^; TT^IT?, rl'CTT, TfET^. i^tm. rf^T, rf^ft;^, l!Wt ; 

rrerii:^, w^Tm, it^cRtw; TT^frfr^rf, ri^fi:s^ or -|, TrerfrT. ist Put. 

^frffTftFT or ^T^TTTWT or ^TfttT, &c. i^tm. ^fTTfTT^ or H^m? or 
WWTf, &c. 2d Fut. ?TrftTtTTfiT or ^fT^T'T^Tf'T . Xtm. ^t^^ or ^<lt4, 
&c. 3d Pret. '^rerifc^, --chr, --J^^; ^^rerifb-'^, &c.; see 675. Or ^^tW, 
-iitiT, -^llT; ^ren^t, -%, -■§"[; ^!i^T"t^, -t, -tw. Atm. '^rerlrfw &c. or 
^H^O ftr &c. or 'ssrerfq &c. or ^Rfftft &c. ; see 3d Pret. of ^ at 675. 
Bened. ^cT^ &c. or Ht^TTT &c. i^tm. W^Ti or ^FrfNt^ or ^fft^tTi, &c. 
Cond. ^rerf^Tij or w^^, &c. Atm. '^siwIt'^ or 'srer?!!'^, &c. Pas- 
sive, Pres. (467) m^i; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^TWlfr. Causal, Pres. WR- 
xnfiT ; 3d Pret. ^ftf^t or ^ir^t . Des. -fir^ftTlTfiT or -^, or fii^rdTTTfifT 
or -^, or iw^tlfiT or -tf. Freq. 'aTCR or liWi^i, W[^f^ or TTTl^f^. 
Participles, Pres. ^TFW; Atm. w^FFT; Past pass. ^ or wi^t (534) ; 
Past indecl. Wt^, -^cft^, -^W; Fut. pass. wftfT^ or ^cHSit^ or ^cT#^, 

679. Root ^oF t- Inf. ^#i ' to be able.' Parasmai. Pres. ^T^tftr, 

* This root may also be conjugated in the 9th conjugation ; thus, Pres. ^inTw, 
W^irifw, ^?TjrTfirr; ^^ift^, &c. See 686. 

t ^«ir is also conjugated in the 4th conjugation, Parasmai and Atmane (Pres. 
5f^lfH &c., ^'?R) ; but it may then be regarded as a passive verb. See 253. b. 


^T^^, ^I^tfrT; ^^, ^T^^^, ^IT^^; ^I^'T, "^WJ , Sl'^^ . Pot. 

^iTT, &c. Imp. siidi^ir^, ■^i^f^ (291), ■51^; ^ra^^, 5T^, ir^; 
^TiiTrJT, ^nr^, ^^. ist Pret. 'H^i^--!, ^qi^^^, 'st^i^w; ^sjit^, 

"^T^T^, SHSl^di; "^^T^, ^T^^W, "^T^^"^. 3d Pret. "^T^TRi, ^^F^ or 
^r^R^, 5f5n<* ; ^ftR^, ^^"^^, '^RW^^; ^if^H, %^, ^^^^. ist Fut, 
51^1 fw, &c. 2d Fut. ^r^Tfrr, &c. 3d Pret. w^-k, -^, -"SFrT; -"SRR, 
-■^j -'^iflt; -■^iPR, -^^, -ofi"?^. Or ^T^fsfitf, -cfi^^, -optiT; ^r^fefi^, -fefi^, 
-i; ■^^ftrtsr, -f^, -f^^. Bened. •^nPTm, &c. Cond. ■^ir^i^, &c. 
Passive, Pres. "^HR; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 'ST^ifsfi. Causal, Pres. "^rvsf,- 
^fjT; 3d Pret. '.M^n^l-*. Des. f^r^ifwrfifT or %^TfiT or -t^* (503)- 
Freq. ■jfTT^^, ^ll^lchPH or ^^TorHtt. Participles, Pres. '51^^; ^tm. 
^^T^; Past pass. -51^ ; Past indecl. •51W, --^I-qpT; Fut. pass. -51^3^, 

680. Root ■^. Inf. ^V^ ' to prosper/ ' to flourish/ ' to increase.' 
Parasmai. Pres. ^iftfiT, ^ifrfR, ^nVw; ^"^5 ^^^^5 "^^^^^ 

^^^im, -^T^, ^f^f^. Pot. ^^t, &c. Imp. ^^^Tftr, ^^, w^ ; 
^"HTR, ^^, -frt; ^VTR, ^^^, "^^^^ ist Pret. (260. «) •mv:i, 
'srrlrtTT, ^nffUr; ^^, wr|-it, ^^tt^; ^^, ^^fst, 'snf^^. 2d Pret. 

^^TTT^, ^TRf^, ^STPT^; '^TFTf^^, '^JIT^^, 'SITrr&^TT; ^TRfv^T, ^iTT^, 
^STT^T^H. 1st Fut. ^fvwTftFT, &c. 2d Fut. 'SifW^T, &c. 3d Pret. 
'^nf^TT, ^nft^, 'jfiT^ri;; ^^rf^, ^snf&i?, -T[; wif^^, ^Tfw, ^if^^H. 
Or ^mi, -^, -^; -VR, &c. Bened. "^^triH, &c. Cond. ■^fv^Ji, &c. 
Passive, Pres. ^xq ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. '^f^. Causal, w^^nf'T ; 
3d Pret. '^nffv. Z)e5. ^^rfffwf'T or frtrfiFT (503). Participles, Pres. 
^^^^; Past pass. ■^^; Past indecl. ^^T^ or ^^, -^Tfl; Fut. 
pass, ^fvintr, w^>TT, -^iti. 

681. Root ^Ti. Inf. ^TT ' to obtain.' Parasmai. Pres. ^TM^fH, 
^nTTtfti, '^Tufrfir; 'iiiM^^, '^n^Tz^T, 'sn^jrnr; ^snrm^, ^t^, ^i«^ffi. 
Pot. ^^, &c. Imp. -hiUchPh, Wf?, '^niftW; ^TTRT^, WW, --31; 
^TTRTT, '^n^, '^n^w. ist Pret. ^^nrrf, 'smfti^, ^rra^; ^rg^, ^t^w, 

-Wf ; WT^, ^T^, ^TT^T?^. 2d Pret. ^nr, ^^fxT^, ^tT ; ^jfcm, ^STTTT- 

■5^, ^rmwH; ^fcR, 'STR, "^T^^. 1st Fut. ^iTrmftR, &c. 2d Fut. 
^nrwrftr, &c. 3d Pret. ^sTTtf, -simH^, '^imw; ^trt^, wnnf, -fit; '^ntrm, 
^TRTT, ^mT»T. Bened. ■grrornf, &c. Cond. ■^srn^, &c. P«**/ye, Pres. 
^TO; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^xfii. Causal, Pres. ''SiTTrcnftT ; 3d Pret. 

* This form of the Des. generally means ' to learn,' and is said by some to come 
from a root 'DI'SJ . 



^nftltf. Des. (503) S^miPH . Participles, Pres. ^^n^^; Past pass, 
^mr; Past indecl. ^!Tr^, -^STTOT; Fut. pass. 'STm^, -amvfhr, ^rna. 

a. Root ^r^T. Inf. ^r%^ or ^' ' to obtain/ ' to enjoy,' ' to per- 
vade.' Xtmane. Pres. ^sm^, ^■^, w^; "^PS^^, "^TR, ^t^^; 
SH^H^ , ^T^, '5P|^. Pot. 'sra^xr, w^^fhrm;, &c. Imp. ^3ng%, 
^H>aM, '^r^f; ^srw^r^t, OT^rsri, wrnri; 'stotrI, w^s^, wpirf. 
I St Pret. 'STT^f^, ^mi^vjiH, ^T^^; 'STT^^, ^OT^^rqr, ^srra^Trft; ^OT^- 
»d^, ^TT^Jg, %4l>^c|7T. 2d Pret. (371. a) 'm^^, "^J^f^ or 'HM^I *, 
««H^i; xmnP^im^, ^^tr^t^, ^sm^it^; ^^f^t» '^n^f^s^ or flui^ *, 
vmnP^K . 1st Fut. ^^wtI or ^ft|. 2d Fut. ^%^ or '^r^. 
3d Pret. 'snf^, 'H i »m , 'sn?; ^n^, 'Hiujml, 'STr^TiTt; ^Ta?ir^ , ^stfs^, 
vH i Hjri . Or '5TT%fTET, 'Jii P^ i a i^, ^Hi P^ ia; 'ii I P^i M Pi^ , '^TiP^rMml, ^f^T^nn; 
^iP^r^P^, '^snf^J^, ^snf^TTfT. Bened. ^fi^^ or ^^^T. Cond. ^ST%^ 
or ^rr^. Passive, Pres. ^^^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ix\T\\ . Causal, 
Pres. ^T^nrrfir ; 3d Pret. ^T%5T. Des. ^^1%%^. Freq. w^tT^^ (5°^' «)• 
Pafiiciples, Pres. ^r^^T«T ; Past pass. ^rf^iT or ^t? ; Past indecl. 
^f^lM I or ^^, -^^; Fut. pass. 'srf^W^ or ^re^, ^^til, ^15"^. 


682. Root oF kri. Infin. 'sfw karttum or ^ kartum, ^ to do' (355). 

Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I do.' 

<*0P*1 karomi 
"^OPm karoshi 
fiftOPn itflro^i 

efi*^! t kurydm 
«5*5lf4 kuryds 
■^xtTJT kurydt 

<H4.q I P<li karavdni 
W^ kuru 
<««0b karotu 

Wsi^'t kurvas 
■^r^TTO kuruthas 
oJT^lTO kurutas 

Potential, ' I may do,' &c. 
oF^^T^ kurydva 
oFWrW kurydtam 
o|r*5lril kurydtam 

Imperative, ' Let me do,' &c. 
<**.qi«i karavdva 
■^^■ff kurutam 
W^in kurutam 

"^tfj^-f kurmas 
W^ kiirutha 
elfff^Tt kurvanti 

WTXfm kurydma 
oFWnr kurydia 
■^^^ kuryus 

•=^,<Mi*i karavdnui 
W^K kuriita 



* So Westergaard under this root. 

I Wf^^, oF'R^, "^f, &c., would be equally correct; see 73. 
K k 



■^^iT^ akaravain 
'ilchilW akaros 
vjohOlrT akarot 

•«<<*K chakdra 
•*I<*Q chakartha 
•«<<*|T; chakdra 

^iWrfw karttdsmi 
ofi^rftr karttdsi 

^ft'Orrf'T karishydmi 
<*R«qr« karishjasi 
^fTQlf»T karishyati 

^oBnr akdrsham 
■SfoMMlTT akdrshis 
^<*Im)i1 akdrshit 

fffmW^ kriydsam 

^oRTT''^'T akarishyam 
^^r<m«^ akarishyas 
^cfiff^rqrt akarishyat 

683. i^TMANE-PADA. 

■^gp Arwnje (73) 
■^^^ kurushe 
«pt>rt kurute 

^'1^^ kurvtya 
^Sjl'm^ kurvtthds 
■^gfTTT kurvita 

First preterite, ' I was doing,' &c. 

^r^lT akurva (73) -sich*** akurma (73) 

v»oft<\n akurutam ■«i<*<\n akuruta 

■^n<*i\ni akurutdm lueti^ri akurvan 

Second preterite, ' I did/ &c. 

■q<*«l chakriva -q***! chakrima 

^*'y*\ ^^'^^''fl^^MS '^ra chakra 

■qjhrt*^ chakratus '*f*« chakrus 

First future, ' I will do/ &c. 

<*r)l*S+< karttdswas <*fJI**<^ karttdsmas 

ofiWT^TT karttdsthas «fiWTW karttdstha 

<*rJlCi karttdrau '^iWITW karttdras 

Second future, ' I shall do/ &c. 
! c^rLttiN*^ karishydvas '^>^^^J^'S karishydmas 

«Ffrni^^ karishyathas efiflTlI^ karishyatha 

'*r<mrt?r karishyatas <^?<^*H?*i\ karishyanti 

Third preterite, 'I did/ &c. 

^T^RTE^ akdrshwa ■n<%\'M akdrshma 

•»ii<*lg akdrshtam ^'^T? akdrshta 

■sjchigi akdrsktdm -flshlg^ akdrshus 

Benedictive, ' May I do/ &c. 

f^PTT^ kriydswa f^'mFT kriydsma 

1*4(1^ kriydstam ijft^iitrt kriydsta 

f^Mlwl kriydstdm f^lfT^^ kriydsus 

Conditional, ' I should do/ &c. 

■»iJ«hKw4l«I akarishydva viohK.«Ml*1 akarishydma 

^«»iK«4n akarishyatam ?MohK^ri akarishyata 

'■SieftU^mni akarishyatdm '^I^K^'JT akarishyan 

Present tense, ' I do/ &c. 
■^■^ kurvahe «fi«*i^ kurmahe 

>^ai<J kurvdthe ^^^ kurudhwe 

■^ITH kurvdte ^^TT hirvate 

Potential, ' I may do/ &c. 

^gflqi^ kurvwahi WWTH^ kurvimahi 

^ 81 1 •Ml '<< I kurviydthdm W^^ kurvidhwam 

^gjlMlrtl kiinnydfdm. "^glTTT kurviran 



<*V^ karavai 
^t**^ kuruskwa 
ofttjni kurutdm 

^^ri «A;Mr?ji (73) 
^^<jxji« akuruthds 
^<*^n akiiruta 

^^ chakre 
^«fi"R chakriske 
■«IJfi chakre 

oh'^l^ karttdhe 
<«'3lti karttdse 
"^n karttd 

Imperative, ' Let me do,' &c. 

**.'=< I M ? karavdvahai "^T^HW^ karavdmahai 

'^"IT'lT kurvdthdm W^J^ kurudhwam 

^"^TWT kurvdtdm '^a^ kurvatdm 

First preterite, ' I was doing/ &c. 

?H <* a f? akurvahi ^■^♦mT^ akurmahi 

^cFaiMI akurvdthdm ^«<>*«r aktirudhwam 

^oh§lnl akurvdtdm W^'^IJ akurvata 

Second preterite, ' I did,' &c. 

^Tofi"^ chakrivahe 
■^"351^ chakrdthe 
■^"SiTW chakrdte 

^ofTR^ chakrimahe 

^TcFS% chakridhwe or -n-dhi 

^f^T chakrire 

First future, ' I will do/ &c. 

sti^ltS^ karttdswahe "^^"[W^ karttdsmahe 

=lf§T?rr^ karttdsdthe '^TSEI karttddhwe 

«ti-am karttdrau "^iWR^ karttdras 

Second future, ' I shall do,' &c. 
«ttr<*m"=«^ karishydvahe a|iK«qi*i? karishydmahe 
<*K,tq'4J karishyethe ««iK«j4^ karishyadhwe 

<*KM4rt karishyete stifc^ff karishyante 

TJiird preterite, ' I did/ &c. 
■»a on twi h^ akrishwahi ■»:i otn*i G? akrishmahi 

VI eo m xj I akrishdthdm W^^akridhwam or -"S-dhivam 

'STWRTITT akrishdtdm ^ctiMrt akrishala 

Benedictive, ' May I do/ &c. 

<* m) q n^ krishwahi W^J{f^ krisMmahi 

■^MT^rrWT krishiydsthdm "^TRTSei' krishidhwam 
oii^MIWl krisMydstdm oF'iflT''^ krishiran 

Conditional, ^ I should do/ &c. 

^T^TTT^irr^f^ akarishydvahi ■*i<*U,"aj(*ir^ akarishydmahi 
■>ij ohPcM "^ I "^akarishyathds W^iftW^ akarishyethdm ^'^ilTnTS^ akarishyadhwam 
■«i <*rk«M n akarishyata ^raiT"'^Tn akarishyetdm ^ohK^'iT akarishyanta 

<*r<«i karishye 
<«r<«q*i karishyase 
«*K«4n karishyate 

vioftH akrishi 
■Si Oft "q |?T akrithds 
^T^TT akrita 

ofpEftTI krishiya 
oJiMlam^ krisMskthds 
efilfly krishishta 

•«<*«<«* akarishye 

Passive, Pres. f^xf; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ^oBift, see 701. 
Pres. cMi^mfa ; 3d Pret. ^r^hiit. -De*. f^tlfJT, -^ (302). Freg-. 
^sfilii, '^fifil or ^rftofil^ or ^^^Hlif^ or ^^ftr or '^^ft^f'T or 'q^cpT^. 

K k 2 


Particvples, Pres. '^T\', A'tm. ■^tTO; Past pass. WW; Past indecl. 
^f^, -fW; Fut. pass. ^^, ^iiftTi, ofip§. 

684. There are only nine other roots in this class. Of these the commonest is 
tPT to stretch,' conjugated in the table at 583. The others are, "^S ' to go,' 
"8^ ' to kill' or ' to hurt,' 'ftpT^ ' to kill' or ' to hurt,' "^^ ' to shine,' 1^ ' to eat 
grass,' ?T"JT ' to imagine,' A'tm.; ^^' to ask,' ^TfT ' to give.' As these aU end in 
nasals, their conjugation will resemble that of verbs of the 5th class at 675; 
thus — 

685. Root "5^. Inf. y^fw^ 'to kill/ 'to hurt.' Parasmai and 
iitmane. Pres. -g^"^, ^liftf^, ^rriVfrT ; ^^, &c. Ktm. T^, W^, 
&c. Pot. "^Tlf, &c. Ktm. Hj^tflij, &c. Imp. "Fpr^TftT, &c. Kim. 
"8pr%, &c. I St Pret. 'yajuicj, ^T^prPtTT, &c. Ktm. ^srefftjq, &c. 2d 
Pret. ^^m, ^^^TR, ^^TO; ^^ftR, -cJHjiU^*)^, '^^WW^; ^ajPn i H , 
■««8j*ii> -"itsj^Ji^. Kim. ^T^w, -^ afOir^, ^Jifiir ; ^^rui'«<^ , ^ajiui^J, ^rj- 
w; -tajHim^, ^'gjfti^, ^^Jtrrt. ist Fut. -EjftrnrrftR, &c. Kim 
■^ftrriTTt, &c. 2d Fut. HjO iimi PH , &c. j^tm. -5^^, &c. 3d Pret 

Kim. ^l\^^il\f^, ^B^fwr^^ or ^^TJn^ff (426. b), ^M HjPi U^ or ^^ (426. b) 
^rgfftnwff , -■firrqTqr, -ftrRTfrf ; ^'grftr^f^, -ftns^, -%^W. Bened 
■^TPinT. Kim. ^w^. Cond. >n ^ tjr*i | <4 . Kim. ^T^"^. Passive. 
Pres. ^^T^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. w^lfilT. Causal, Pres. HjHi r ^j ifir 

3d Pret. v)P«usj*u. Des. fgr^trrfrr, -^. Freq. A'^m, ^^ftw 
Participles, Pres. "^TRTT; Kim. m\<\ \ ^ ; Past pass. ■^; Past indecl 
T^T^ or ^3[rn^, --8^ ; Fut. pass. •^aUTT^, ajillWl^, W^- 


686. Root ^ yu. Infin. '^f^rf yavitum, ' to join/ ' to mix.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present tense, ' I join.' 
^^TTfir yundmi •^r(\r^^ yunivas '^'^i^'^ yunimas 

^"Trftr xjundsi ^Vflv/^^ yunithas ^»fl«J yunitha 

^llPn yMwafi MlTrt^^ yumtas ^Irlftf yunanti 

Potential, ' I may join.' 
Xprfhn yuniydm *^'^\*\\'i yuniydva J*tl*ll*l yuniydma 

g«il*im^ yuniyds ^"hnW yumydtam ^»flMlH yuniydta 

^ffhrnr yumydt ■^t^mrf yumydtdm 



Imperative, ' Let me join.' 

Tf^Tt^ yundva ^11*l yunnma 

ir*ft"?f ymiitam •Jj'lirf yunita 

^HIhI yunitdm ^^ yunantu 

First preterite, ' I was joining.' 

^nrrfH' ayiinwa 'il<j»ll*l ayunima 

^T^tff ayumtam ^TJjftTT ayunita 

WTrfhn nyunttdm ^ii^»11^ ayunan 

2d Pret. -pr^, ^fT<zi or ^"hr, -g^n^; f^f^^, fj^^^? "51^^;,; 
^^JT, -g^, "g^^^. I St Fut. ^r^ri i Pw or ^rVinfw*, &c. 2d Fut. 
^rf^Tftr, &c. 3d Pret. ■^nnf^, -■^^^, -'^; ^^nrrftr^, -f^, -f^; 
'3nrrf%^, -f^, -f^^w. Bened. "^^nr, &c. Cond. ^^iP^uJ, &c. 

g^lPrJ yundni 
^lih^ yunihi 
^llfl yundtu 

■«^»1I ayundm 
vi^t1I«^ ayunds 
IT ayundt 


^»ilH yumshe 
■M»im yunite 

^*1iM yuniya 
^^fhmr yunithds 
Mnln yunita 

M«il«Kl yumshwa 
^♦flni yunitdm 

i^TMANE-PADA. Present tense, * I join.' 

^T^ftr? yunwalie 
^J^TT"^ yundthe 
^^TTTT yundte 

Potential, * I may join.' 
Tfrrrf^ yunivahi 
44 rjl 44 1 x^l yumydthdm 
M^dmrw yumydtdm 

Imperative, ^ Let me join. 
*1«lN^ yundvahai 

Mt{\h^ yummahe 
^^fts^ yuntdhwe 
M«1ft yunate 

^ ^*i n^ yummahi 
XITfts^ yunidhwam 
*<»ll<«T yumran 

<J»11*15 yundmahai 
TTrfim yunidhwam 
<4»liii yunatdm 

Mlini yundtdm. 
First preterite, ' I joined.' 
^raffT ayMwi ^T^ffM^ ayunivahi ^T^rftJTf^ ayunimahi 

'M g »fl VJ I'H^ ayunithds ^^HlVji ayundthdm ^T^rfts^ ayunidhwam 

•^^»flfl ayunita ■«<j»llill ayundtdm ^TCRTT ayunata 

2d Pret. "5^, -J^i^, ^; ^^, 5^^' ^f^^ 5 H^^j 
^^s^ or -^, ^^P^l . I St Fut. TrfVrTT^, &c. 2d Fut. irf%^, &c. 
3d Pret. ^snif^, -fwRT, -fw ; ^xrT^Mn^, '^nrfw^, -mTTT ; WirfV'JTf^, 
-■f^ai, -fV^ir. Bened. ^jPc^Mlq , &c. Cond. '^nrf^, &c. Passive, 
Pres. ■^; ist Fut. TnfNin% ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, "^nrrf^ or ^nrrl^^W. 
Causal, Pres. ^jN^ i PH ; 3d Pret. ^nfhR. De^. gy^mfn or findwrfir. 

* Some authorities give JtriHlPbH &c. as the only form. See Laghu Kaum. 724. 


Freq. "^T^, '^V^^ or ifhmtftT. Participles, Pres. -5^; Kim. ■g^^TT^; 
Past pass. ^; Past indecl. ^|^, -"jw; Fut. pass. ^ PNricti , n^>fln , 
■^T^i or XRI. 

688. Root fTT (360). Inf. ^7[ ' to know.' Parasmai and j^tmane. 

Pres. ^rnnfiT, in^Tftr, >Trnfw; m^t^^, ^^ft^, »n^^^; ^n^ftim, 

^TTTH, ^^rf^. Kim. ITT^, »n^, >TT^W; ^TPft^, in^T^, ^^T^; 
Til'dul, ifT^ts^, iTTTff. Pot. iFn^fhn, &c. i^tm. >nvftTT, &c. Imp. 

^■JTrfJT, TTT^f^, wr"?rrff; ^tt^^, >rr*ft(f, irr^itrTt; wrtt, sn^tTr, ^rr^nff. 
Kim. >n%, irnfrR, jn^friTT; afi^^, ^n^rrJit, in^rrrrt; ^^tthI, itt^s^, 

'THrtf. ist Pret. ^sniT^t, ^jTRRT, ^RT^Tff; ^^T^^^, ^UTiMlri , ^HH- 

■jftffT; wrTr'jftJT, ^ain^tTT, ^htr"??. Kim. ^»nfJT, ^nrnfhrr^, ^^nn^flTT; 

^in^ftTf?, 'i<iiMI'5n, '^TlTT^nWT; ^iTTTftirf^, ^iTFftsg, ^TrfTTiT. 2d Pret. 

i?>1?,) 'T^» 'HV'i, 'T?!; ^rfV^, 'Tfr^, ^nrw^; irf^riT, inr, 'T^^^. 
A'tm. iT^, iff^^, »I%; ^5R%, Wfn'^, iTsfT^ ; irf^mtj »r%s^ or -|, 
^rfVt. I St Fut. ?rnnf^, &c. 2d Fut. fTT^mftr, &c. 3d Pret. (433) 
'ST^ftT'q, ■^^nrhr, wsTT^ftiT; Wfrrftr^, ^^r^rrftr?, -^; w^Iittti, ^r^ftr?, 
'H^nPuM^^. Kim. w^Rfti, -ii5ii^m, ^^rrer; w^r^f^, -i)sti^i«il, ^tstt- 
^mn; '^TsTTwl^, WfTTsg, ^STfrPFHT. Bened. ^ttht or '^T^m. Kim. ^rrehl, 
&c. Cond. ■^^TTTif, &c. i^tm. W^T^, &c. Passive, Pres. (465. a) 
^TTO; 2d Pret. ir^ (473) ; ist Fut. imnt or ^rrfwrt (474) ; 2d Fut. 
sTT^ or ^rrftr^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing. ■^sr^rrftT. Causal, Pres. 5rrtTTITf»T or 
^TtTinfiT; 3d Pret. ^rftf^nr. Des. ftr^TT^. Freq. tTT^TT^, sTTsnfir or 
jfT^fiT. Participles, Pres. 'srrTiT; Kim. ITRTJT ; Past pass. ^mT; 
Past indecl. ^Ti^T, -^TR; Fut. pass. ^TTTT^, 50^^11, t^T. 

689. Root ■^. Inf. "31^ ' to buy.' Parasmai and i^tmane. Pres. 
■sfl^nfH, ■gJhrnftT, iS^wfti ; ^(Nft^^^, thl^ilvj TT, -gRhrlhTO ; ^h#fm, ^h#si, 
"aRt^nf^tr. ^tm. -gftw, "^Nft^, "giWtw; "^NO^, "^trrr^, "^hrrrw; "sTirftH^, 
■3rt5[!ft5^, ■a'tirw. Pot. ^^^irft^, &c. Kim. -^Tit^, &c. Imp. ^"tlirTftT, 

■a'^^'tff, sR^^TW; -^i^w^, -^^T^, wiwinj; '^v^^, '^w\ii, -wtw^. 
Kim. -^m, -^T^ri^, wf^'^iTt; -gftTTiT^t, ■gs'^^TrrJif, ■si'^TrrTTri; ^wmf, 
wNfis^, "af^ifnTt. 1st Pret. ^^TffiW, '^T^'tifrnT, ^^r^^irrTTT ; ^^ns^^^^, 
'ST^^^if, ^^rgs^irtiTt ; ^'a'^iii^JT, ^st^^^tt^tt, '^t^^w^. A'tm. ^srss^fw, '^'^- 
Tjift^mT, 'srai'iTn^iT; ^sT^'^xn^^, 'srai'txrrT^t, -y*1*iiirii; '^ra'tin'tiTf^, '^^- 

W\m, '^rsf^WW. 2d Pret. (367. g) fwwtr, f^"3iftR or fq^^, f^^FT; 

r^r*r4cj, ferf^xr'^, f^f^Tj^^; f^f^ftm, fM^"^, f^^^^. Xtm. 

f^f^, -Nf^ftr^, f%f^^; f^f^fti^, f^f^TTT^, M^inw; f'^ftrot, 
f^f^ftrs^ or -^, f^f^ftn:. ist Fut. ^iriftR, &c. Atm. win'lj &c. 
2d Fut. iRTqifk, &c. Atm. ^, &c. 3d Pret. '^^, --Elt^, -■^ft?^; 


^T^TEZr, -F, -?t; ^^, -?, -"^TT. Atm. W^, -FW, -•? ; ^^^^, 
-■^Tsit, -mm; "^W^, ^54 or -^, ^TTff. Bened. ■gi'^Trro, &c. 
Atm. wfUf, &c. Cond. ^ii^if, &c. i^tm. 'srim, &c. Passive, Pres. 
■aft^, &c.; 3d Pret. 3d sing. W3iTf^. Causal, Pres. -giTtrtnftT; 3d Pret. 
'srf^^. Des. f^gfi^ftT, -^. Freq. ^^^, ^W^T or ^^xftfir. Parti- 
ciples, Pres. -gi^irnT^; i^tm. ^"^illT^ ; Past pass, ■gi'tw ; Past indecl. 
■gs^f^T, -■gi^'^; Fut. pass, inr^, "g^■qT!ft■^, "as'T- 

690. After -art may be conjugated jft ' to please ;' thus, Pres. 
TftTiITftT, &c. ; Atm. lf\m, &c. The Cawsa/ is ift^infiT or TmnrrfH ; 
3d Pret. 'srfwj* or 'srfinitnT*. Des. ftufNTftr, &c. Freq. ^qift^, &c. 

691. The root H, ' to cut/ follows the conjugation of t?, ' to 
purify,' in the table at 583 ; thus, Pres. ■^^Tfi?, &c. ; Atra. "^^j &c. ; 
Pot. H^^, &c.; i^tm. '^^, &c.; 2d Pret. '^R, &c.; i^tm. "^^^ 
&c. ; Tst Fut. Hfwfer, &c. ; 2d Fut. rtf^ m iPH , &c. ; 3d Pret. 

^n^if^^, &c. 

692. Root w^. Inf. ^r3 ' to bind.' Parasmai. Pres. ^UTfir, 
-^inftr, -^TnfiT; w?fk^^, wshj-^, wstim^; ^^^, t^, -^uf^. Pot. 

^Tlt, &c. Imp. -^wf^, ^VT^T {357. a), "^m^ ; ^UT^, Wlihf, -TTT; 
TSm> ■^^, ^ir^- 1st Pret. ^^nf, 'SRUT^, ^R^mr; ^^ift^, w^lfrrf, 
-wf; ^-^li^T, ^WShf, ^^r^fl^. 2d Pret. ^R^, '^^f?^ or ^^^ (298) 
or ■sfcf^ (298. c), ^^^ ; ^^f;^R, "g^^?rc[^, ■g'w^rjTT ; -^^^^m, ww^, 
"W^^. ist Fut. '^:irTf^ (298), &c. 2d Fut. Hn^rrf^T (299. a), &c. 
3d Pret. ^MTrW (299. a), '^THTn^'hl, '^WTTW'hr; '^MTr-f^, ^^T^^, ^s||r^]; 
^WPWT, '5?TF:ir5 ^WTJ-HT^T. Bened. "^^qnt. Cond. ^il^. Passive, 
Pres. (469) ■^. Causal, Pres. ^"J^nnfiT ; 3d Pret. '^r^^. Des. 
fwwrfir (299. a). Freq. -^TWm, wr^f^W, ■^T^T^ftffT. Participles, 
Pres. ^niT; Past pass. -^U; Past indecl. "^^, -'^xg; Fut. pass. 

693. Root ?rr^. Inf. ^jf^'JI^ ' to connect,' ' to tie,' ' to fasten 
together.' Parasmai. Pres. ^T^rfiT, U'^lftr, ^I'^Tfw; ^J'^t^, H'^^^HT, 
?j^hnT; ir^N^^, H"^, ?T^f5tT. Pot. ?I^hTf, &c. Imp. JT'^^j ?T^rRt, 
Tfm^; ?J^, ?r^, --fft; rj^T^, IT'^, ^T"^. ist Pret. ^u^, 
^3T?I^T^, '^TTj^w; %Sij>i[l^, ^?T'^lf, -in; ^H'^'^, 'Mil'^nri, ^IT^- 2d 
Pret. (375./) ^nr-^t, ^iiiPrVj i g or ^f^, liip^f; ^Rlf^^I^ or ^f^^, 

* Foster gives ^TfTnTOT ; Westergaard, ^f^Tftni • 

t Some authorities give IP'^TR' in 2d sing. Imp. ; and the option of »l?ri^ in 
the 1st and 3d of the 2d Pret. Compare 339. 


"TIP^^ or d^^, ifJjrVj^ or d^WIT; jf^fr^m or ^f^m, "WCF^ or 
^, iHTr^^ or d'fT. ist F'ut. yyfV^nnftff, &c. 2d Fut. 7Tl^^Tmf»T, 
&c. 3d Pret. ■^r^jft^^, -^^^ft^, -'J:^, &c. ; see 427. Bened. ?pqnT, 
&c. Cond. 'ST^ftizn'T, &c. Passive, Pres. (469) Zf^, &c. Causal, 
Pres. ?pTziTTTfiT ; 3d Pret. ^nriT^. J^es. fsRyfV^TnfiT. Freq. ifT?!^, 
^r'^rftr, ^JT^^'iWT- Participles, Pres. ?I'gTT; Past pass. JjftriT; Past 
indecl. yf^ii^I or Tffr^n^, -37^; Fut. pass. ?Tf^-?nT^, ?P'^Rhl, IRzi. 

a. After ?J^^ may be conjugated ^^ ' to loosen,' w^ ' to churn/ 

694. Root '^*. Inf. "^VfiT^ 'to agitate/ 'to shake.' Parasmai. 
Pres. "^tfrfi?, ^vrftr, "^^ir; t|^^^, ■CT^ihnff, "CT^fhnr; w^hr^, "^^ft^, 
w^rf^. Pot. "^^fhTf, &c. Imp. T3^rrf^, mrm (357. a, 58), '^vTff ; 
■^vr^, "^^jtit, -"irf ; "^VTT, "^^jtir, "^^Vff. ist Pret. ^^w, "^ravw, 
^T^^fTfT; ^^^^, ^^^ff, -in; ^rw\jtH, ^t^M^, ^"av^r^- 2d Pret. 
■^^jtvr, ^nftfir?!, ^^^; ■^■^rftr^, ^"ssw^m, '^"iswrinT; '^"^fim, 'sttth, 
'^■^^. ist Fut. 'S^tfiTrnfw, &c. 2d Fut. ^^ fam i PH , &c. 3d Pret. 
'ST^'tfW^, -■qhl^, --^W, &c. ; see 427. Or '^^, -v(^, .^•, -m^, -*T7f, 
->nTf; -HTR, -vrn, ->nT. Bened. "^vin^, &c. Cond. 'sr^'tfWTJT, &c. 
Passive, Pres. Tsn^ ; 3d Pret. 3d sing, yjaflf*?. Causal, Pres. t^- 
^rrftr; 3d Pret. 'sr^^. Des. '^^frfir^lfiT or ^^Hmfi?. Freq. ^'^^, 
''^^f*»T (3d sing. ^^^tfai). Participles, Pres. "^^fiT; Past pass. "^31 
or "^rfiTfT ; Past indecl. W^ or "^HJ^, -'^«T ; Fut. pass, i^tfirina, 
#>n!)H (58), •^^. 

695. Root ^?(T»T t. Inf. ^af^TTf ' to stop/ ' to stay/ ' to support/ 
Parasmai. Pres. WVTfJT, &c. ; see ^>? at 694. Pot. W\JHrr, &c. 
Imp. ^avrfVr, w^n^ {357. a), ww^; w^jt^, ^ip^, -in; wsm, w^, 
M}p^. ist Pret. 'sreref, &c. 2d Pret. WW»T, irerf»T?l, HW^ ; 
riRf*H^, ITFT^f^nT, ■H^FnWT^; IT^f^iTJT, W^tT»T, IT^WT^. Ist Fut. ^cT^*?- 
fTrftR, &c. 2d Fut. 4Hr*Hmi fTT, &c. 3d Pret. ^rorf^T^, -^^H, -^\, 
&c. ; see 427. Or "^m^, ->nT, ->T7r; -HT^, ->Tlf, ->Twi; ->rn?, ->TW, 
->T^. Bened. ^fTwmr. Cond. ^rerfwi'Bi. Passive, Pres. w^. Causal, 
Pres. wwrrnftr ; 3d Pret. ^iT^»|. Des. firerf^T^fH. Freq. irrew, 
irrerTiTfiT or iTreT^rtftr. Participles, Pres. ^flVTT; Past pass, w^; 
Past indecl. W3^ or ^frftiTRT; Fut. pass, ^frfbrw^, H^T^fhl, ^cFWI. 

* This root is also conjugated in the 4th conjugation, when it is neuter, and 
signifies ' to be agitated;' thus, Pres. "^^tSt, &c. See 612. 

t This root also follows the 5th conjugation ; thus, Pres. W^fT, &c. See 675. 


696. Root ^5T*. Inf. '^if^TF 'to eat.' Parasmai. Prcs. ^TOTftr, 
^■^Tftr, ^srmfrT; ^^t^h, ^r^^, ^^r^^j ^-^tt, ^r^ihi, ^^r^f^. 
Pot. w^rhrt, &c. Imp. ^sr^ifTT, ^^t^t^ (357. a), ^3r3T"ff; "^t^r, ^njihf, 

-TTT; ^^T^TT, ^nihr, ^■^. ist Pret. ^TT^TT, ^TTSm, ^^TT^TrT; ^IT^^, 
'Siratw, -TTf; '3Tr5ftH, ^T^W, ^ra"^^. 2d Pret. ^5TT^, 'STTf^-g, ^T^; 

^TT%^, ^i^r'^^, ^^T^^^^; ^T%H, ^T^T, ^T^^. ist Fut. ^rfwrfm, 
&c. 2d Fut. ^ftfi-anfJT, &c. 3d Pret. ^^rrf^tf, ^T^tir^, WTsftlT ; '^if^^'^, 
^Tf^, '5IT%Ff ; ^%^, ^T%¥, ^T%^^^. Bened. ^KTO, &c. Cond. 
'Hlf^fBT, &c. Passive, Pres. ^T^. Causal, Prcs. ^rr^'mftr ; 3d Pret. 
'^df^r^. Z>e5. ^%%^Tf^. Freg-. ■^jfin^ (508. «). Participles, 'Pres. 
W^; Past pass. ^rf^lrT ; Past indecl. ^^rftiTi^T, -^^ ; Fut. pass. 

697. Root f^. Inf. ir%F or iri ' to harass,' ' to vex/ ' to dis- 
tress.' Parasmai. Pres. f^s^ifH, &c. ; see "mf at 696. Pot. ffi'^W, 
&c. Imp. n^wif^, f^T^ (357. a), &c. ist Pret. ^f^T^, '^rfw^TIT, 
^^-^w; ^r^ii/1^, 'Hf^Jiftw, -irf ; ^srfii^iT, ^f^ratw, ^rfpr^. 2d Pret. 
f^li^, f'^iif;?i'5r or f^^, f^^W; f=^lif^^, f^f^^rw, f'^f^^HTr ; 

f^f^rf^IH, P^r^^l, f^^5T^. ist Fut. iRftfTlTTftR or |i¥Tf^, &C. 2d 
Fut. ^f^Tqifq or |ra?TTfiT, &c. 3d Pret. '^rlif^, -"5fN;» -"5^^^; '^^" 
ftrr^"^, -fw, -fw; ^Ii%^, -■%?, -%^^- Or -nr^^, --^\, -W^'-: 
-■^T^, --spf, -TS^; --^TT, -■^W, --^T^ (see 439). Bened. 1^^, &c. 
Cond. ^%^ or '^rlre??. Passive, Pres. fw^^; 3d Pret. 3d sing. 
^ii%. CaM5«/, Pres. |i-^^TfiT; 3d Pret. ^^li^. De^. f^ftl^Tftr 
or f^lif^TnfJT or f^flf^TfiT. Freq. ^fw^x(, ^|if^H. Participles, Pres. 
f^pgiT; Past pass, f^ or •%%"!?; Past indecl. ffi^T or %f5Irnj 
-fli^iT; Fut. pass, ii^rr^ or liB^, iR^rihr, li'^tl. 

698. Root "^ {357- a). Inf. "'frfR^ ' to nourish.' Parasmai. Pres. 
TnnnffT, ^TznTftr, ^wifrT ; "gTiift^, Tqiuvhrw, ^"iiiftw^; igtiiftRTT, ^Tufhr, 
^wT^. Pot. -qiiift^t, &c. Imp. -qwrf^, wirr, "g^Tw ; ^^^m^^, "^^trf, 
-TTt ; "gwrT, ^whr, 'jw^- ist Pret. ^Tmf, '^^wttt, ^^wtw; 

^Tirft^, ^mxiTfrif , -rTT ; ^x(T3jftiT, ^^wtw, ^^"^T . For the other tenses 
and forms, see "^il 4th c. at 621. 

699. Root ?pr (359). Inf. U^'^ 'to take' (414. a). Parasmai and 
i^tmane. Pres. 'T^lfiT, Y^TfifT, n-^rrffT; ^J"^^^,, ']'^t^^, 'J'^'^n^,; 
3T^;fNw^, JT-^fhi, Jj^ffff. A'tm. n%;, n^^, ^w; ^r^^, I^T^, 
T^; T^fN?%, 37^^, 'T^. Pot. ir^t. Atm. J7-^;hT, &c. 

* This is a different root from ^'^I 5th conjugation. See 682. 
L 1 


Imp. JT^ftr, Tv^m, 'T^^Tw; n^r^, ij^fhr, w^^; J^^, JJ^w, 
T^TS- A'tm. 37%, TT^^, ^•^^; iT^ST^I, ^i^i"^!, T^iHi ; 
T^n^t, Y^^' 1'^nn. I St Pret. -yji^i, 'yj|^i*i, ^nr-^jTiT; 

^T^S^' ^T^' ^^T^^^' ^T^^' ^^T^*^' ^^T^^x- ^^'^• 
'^T'l^j ^JJ^flliiJi*!, ^nr^TT ; w^^, ^n^i^T, ^iT^STflf ; 'st'T^- 
»T^. '^llSfts^, ^rJT^JTT. 2d Pret. (380) inn?, ^TJlf^, WlTT?^ ; ^rrf^, 
'T'l^l^x' '''Hl*^\5 'T'jffJT, »rpr, 'T'T|TT. Atm. ipi?, W^jf^, »nT^ ; 

wrf?^, TPTfT^, ifiTfTH; ^rnf^Ht, 'Prf^s^ or -|, inrf^T. ist Fut. 
ITf^iTlfw, &c. (414. a), j^tm. ii^lrii^, &c. 2d Fut. ^nf^imfiRf. 
Atm. JJ^-^, &c. 3d Pret. ^MJj^I tt, 'STJJ?^^^, 'STtt^tt; ^IT^^, ^?I- 
^F, '^TJTf^i?! ; ^?J^TJT, '3T?j^^F, ^JJ ^1m *<. Xtm. ^?7f^f^, '^IJT^'^TTW^, 
THy^l?; ^ITf^^srf?, ^i|^1m>y'l, ^nr^tiTfTf ; ^T?r^TJTf?r, ^n^5^, ^H- 
■^^t^. Bened. n^m, &c. ^tm. ?j^Tr^xr. Cond. ^!(?jf^'aT. A'tm. 
^Tf^-^. Passive, Pres. tt^ ; 2d Pret. W^ ; ist Fut. ?7^"in^ or 
?7in^riQ; 2d Fut. Tj^^x^ or ?lTff^; 3d Pret. 3d sing, ^^jjiP^ , 3d pi. 
^?If^WiT or ^i<i|in^i|iT. Causal, Pres. JjT^TnfiT ; 3d Pret. ^iRTf' 
Des. ftr^^^j -% (503). Freq. WJCtn^, ^nf^ (3d sing. >mjTf^) or 
»TTII?^; see 711. Participles, Pres. JT^tt; Xtm. J[^IH ; Past 
pass, n^l^', Past indecl. ^T^r^, -'T^; Fut. pass. ?T?^TT^, ?I^^^, 


700. Root ^ dd (465). Infin. ^ datum, ' to be given.' 

Present, ' I am given.' 
?[hl dtye ^MI<=I5 diydvahe ^tzfRf dtydmahe 

^I^W fZtyase ?(hrM diyethe ^"hlS^ diyadhwe 

Potential, '^ I may be given.' 
^^T^ diyeya f{l*iqn5 diyevahi ^t^^^ dtyemahi 

^TT^"^ diyeihds ^hUU^ diyeydthdm, ^h?s4 diyedhwam 

^T^ dtyeta ^Umdl diyeydtdm cfN^ diyeran 

Imjjerative, ' Let me be given.' 
<fft c/i^ai ^hrrr? diydvahai f{lqi*l^ dtydmahai 

?(tTT^ diyaswa "^J^^ diyethdm "^"^.^ dtyadhwam 

t{l*4rtl diyatdm r{lMm dtyetdm ^1*1 ft I diyantdm 



First preterite, ' I was given.' 
^l^^ aiUye ^rf^^T^f^ adiydvahi ■^"t^FTf? adtydmahi 

^^nfhnrr^ mliyathas '!ff{iAi«ii adiyethdm ^5I^l4 adiyadhwam 

^Tcfhnr adtyata '^T^^lTf adCyetdm 'J<^{lMf1 adiyanta 

Second preterite, ' I have been given.' 

^f^l? dadiske 

r^THTf dntdhe or 
r^irHril^ ddyitdhe 

{^ItM (/ff'sye or 
^ftT"^ ddyishyt 

J ^Srf^f^ flrf/sA« or 

1 ^f^rftm^^addyishthds 
•^ii^\\*iaddyi,' it was givxn. 

^■^T^ dadimahe 

^i^m dadid/nve or -^ - rf/m'e 

^f^ dudire 

^f^'^ dadivahe 
f^^T^ daddthe 
^TfT daddte 

First future, ' I shall be given.' 

^IrilH^ ddtdswahe ^TtTTW^ ddtdsmahe, &c. 

^Tfuriiy^ ddyitdswahe ^TftTiTTF?^ ddyitdsmahe, &c. 

Second future, ' I shall be given.' 

^TWR^ ddsydvahe ^P^TR^ ddsydmahe, &c. 

^ifumN^ ddyishydvuhe ^TftnTIT? ddyishydmahe, &c. 

7%irc? preterite, ' I w^as given.' 

^rf^tq^ adishwahi wT^^lTf^ adishmahi 

^iftr^ff addyishwaJii "^ifw^lft addyishmahi 
^rf^T'^lf adishdthdm ^rf^^ adidhwam 
'^7^Tf'VmJ^addyishdthdm ^iftlJ^ uddyidhwam 
^f^^rff (idishdtdm ^f^TTiT adishata 

^TftnTTfTT addyishdtdm ^T^^WiT addyishata 
Bened. J^T^fhr or ^ifq^'hr, &c. Cond. ^T^ or ^iftT"^. 

701. Root cir A;n (467). Infin. ofi^ karttum., ' to be made' or ^ done.' 

Present, ' I am made.' 

f^^m f^^^ f^^J^ 

f^^ f^w^ f^^ 

Potential, ^ I may be made.' 

Imperative, *Let me be made.' 
f^xf^ f^^rar f^'iTJ^ 

f^WTTT f^^ f^'T'^t 

Fii'st preterite, ' I was made.' 

^liT^n^ ^^w ^f^iis^ 
'srf^TTiT 'srf^tnn ^rf^^r^ 


Second preterite. 





Fi?'5/ future. 

or ^Tftm? ^TftWT^f ^iftWTW?, &C. 
Second fut. ofift:^ or ^filfx"^, &c. 
lI 2 




"srarftr or ^enrlrfti 
?H<*viTiT or ^ajrrPr^TTr 
^Icirrft: ' it was done' 

Third preterite. 


woF'E^fV or ^sRrrir'E^ 

'HefiHI'ili or ?H<+iri'HT'i|t 
^raTTTrff or ^.Mctiirmirii 


^ToFT^rfV or ^ToRTftTTTlV 

'^ToFT? or ^ofirfts^ 

i 4 


Bened. ojrRhT or cFrfr^ftxr. Cond. ^cjHt"^ or ^STcfirftw. 

702. The following is an example of a passive verb from a root 
ending in a consonant : 

Root xr5T yi/j. Infin. '^\^ yoktum, ' to be fitting.' 

Pres. '^3^' ' I am fitting,' ' ^ik\^ , ijx^ri , &c. Pot. ^aifi|, &c. Imp. 
^1^, OTiffjil, ^rEnrt, &c. 1st Pret. ^T^^^, ^T^sT^n^* ^55^, &c. 
2d Pret. T^, ^^ftr^' 'g^» &c. I St Fut. nl^ l ^ , irtw^, ^ft^, &c. 
2d Fut. ift^, ■^>^^, tfr^, &c. 3d Pret. 'ST^fsf, w^^w, ^nftftT; 
yiqg^r^, '.H^«j|fii], &c. Bened. '^'^'^, &.c. Cond. '^nft^, &c. 


703. Root ^bhu. Infin. >Tr^f^ bhdvayitwn, '^ to cause to be.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present. ' I cause to be,' &c. 


mr^n^^^ m^wT^^ 



*^l'-^^^'ii*^ m'^i\^ 




Hl^yri H\'\^ 



HNilrtW HNilff) 


Potential, ' I may 

cause to be,' &c. 

1 -i"^ • 

> -s /» 

^ ♦ 


MHHij ♦{icjijcir^ 


♦Jlcclivjl'W ♦JNijljisill 



~\ • -N 

*fc<i|rf *fHlJlJlril 

....;~. ■ ^ 


m"^fTT iTTTH^^ 


Imperative, ' Let n 

le cause to be,' &c. 


>Ti"^i|H VTRlTTH 

H\'\k HHUT^^ 




m^inT Hmmr 

*^Ni^^<^ ^t^tk^S 



Ml^^di Hl^^rii 


First preterite, '■ I w{ 

is causing to be,' &c. 


'iJHN^^N 'iJHNinn 

^»n^n ^^n^MNr^ 



^iTT^tTfT 'SWTTqw 

y?Hlc|qviTM '!I>4r^i|Vji 



■'^)?r<^qrH 'iIHTc}q«1 

')<Hmyri ':<HHi!HI 




Second preterite, ' 

First future, ' I w 
HT^ftnnf^T >TRfHril*f|1T HIclDlrilW^ 

wRftrrrrfti HRftnTT^nr irNfiiriiw 

I caused to be,' &c. 
1 cause to be/ &c. 


Second future, '• I shall or will cause to be,' &c. 

*TRftraiTf'T HFrftrorR^ ^TTTftroTR^ HTTftf"^ ^TRftT'm^ ^TRftrsnT? 

^TTffraiftT HT^TTOT'SITT >TT^irar^ I HT^fTTom m^flT^ >TT^ftraiJ^ 

^n^f^TBrfiT >TRftrannT >?T^ftntif^ HiMrumn HT«rftraw >TT^M«H»rt 

Third preterite, 
w^fhr^T w^fhr^T? ^r^t>T^TT 

^r^l^T^IT W^ftHTff ^T^fM^TfT 

^^fhr^fT ^r^^ ^[^N^^ 

I caused to be,' &c. 

w^HT^inr 'ST^^iTTsit ^3r^>T^£^ 
'sr^'iH^fr ^^"^H^wf WT^H^^ 

Benedictive or optative, ' May I cause to be/ &c. 

iTRftr^tl >TTTftr^^f^ JTRfMtHff 

Conditional, ' I should cause to be,' &c. 

^ MNHmMH ^T ^j i MPum i ^ ^ Hmrnmm 
^THNrym^ ^^wnfxnmf w>fRftraiiT 
^^rrftrsn^ ^MT^rftnmrt w^ri'^fq^i^ 

704. Root -^ dris. Infin. ^^ftrj 

Parasmai-pada. Present, ' I cause 

^H icjn<mmi ^ '5T>TRftTO'?n ^m^rftrirs^ 

<^^Mll*l darsaydmi 
^^nrftr darsayasl 
f\^*\\t\ darsayati 

<^^IM*< darsayeyam 
i\ii<\*\^ darsayes 
'^^^^![^^ darsayet 

^^'^TW^^ darsaydvas 
^■^t(rt« darsayatas 

Potential, ' I may cause to see, 
<^ ^1 *i =1 darsayeva 
^^■qir darsayetam 
^^Mril darsayetam 

^ to cause to see. 

to see.' 

i^^nTTT'W darsaydma 
^^nr^ darsayatha 
'^^iOX*r{ darsayanti 

^■^I'P' darsayema 
^aiMrt darsayeta 
^■^^ darsayeyus 


Imperative, ' Let me cause to see.' 
^^Tnf«T darsaydni r^^H\A darsaydva ^^*IIH 

^^M darsaya <;^Mrt darsayatam <;^*irt darsayata 

«f;^Mn darsayatu <;^(Mrtt darsayatam ^^'T^ darsayantu 

First preterite, ' I was causing to see.' 
VI <^ ^1*4 adarsayam. ^I^^'TT^ adarsaydva '^T^'^T^n'T adarsaydma 

•>iir^^m\ adarsayas •»:<»; SMMrt adarsayatam ^T^^'TiT adarsayata 

'Jiqi^l<4ri adarsayat •^»r'^^^t^\ adarsayatam 'iirj^MI adarsayan 

Second preterite, ' I caused to see.' 
fJ^lAJlHI^ darsaydmdsa * ^^tM\H\^«M darsaydmdsiva "^^[mmfwc^ darsaydmdsima 
^^^llJTfnfw^ darsaydmdsitha f\^^\H\*^ '<^«darsaydmdsathus (;^I<4I*1I« darsaydmdsa 
^^THTra darsaydmdsa <;3l*4l«ll*irt1T darsaydmdsatus ^^nTTTTOTT darsaydmdsus 

First future, ' I will cause to see.' 
^^IM n I U+t darsayitdsmi ^^ffvinW^ darsayitdswas <^^|Uini*+(« darsayitdsmas 
^■^ftnrrftl darmyitdsi ^^rftTiTT^W darsayitdsthas V^'^lfilrtlffiJ darsayitdstha 

r^^UMtW darsayitd ^^rftnTltt darsayitdrau ^^iftnTR^ darsayitdras 

Second future, ^ I will cause to see.' 
^^■ftnTTftr darsayishydmi '^^\^*\^\H*\ darsayishydvas ^^iPm^mIh^ darsayishydmas 
<; ^1 Pq ttf ftr darsayishyasi ^^ftrOT^^ darsayishyathas r^^M^'H darsayishyatha 
'rfTflftrornT dursayishyati ^^ftnmTO darsayishyatas r^ ^1 fq «M Pfir darsayishyanti 

3d Pret. ^n>fl^^ or ^^ft, &c.; see 63S. Bened. ^"^ra, &c. Cond. 
'il^^'lftltij. ^tm. Pres. ^^^, ^"IW, <5TMH, &c. Pot. ^"^^. Imp. 
^%, ^q^, &c. I St Pret. '^^. 2d Pret. ^trra^. ist Fut. 
Tf^ftTTTTt. 2dFut. ^^ftm. 3d Pret. '^^t-pi, ^l^^im^^, &c. Bened. 
r^f^xT, Cond. ^^"ftm. 

After these models, and after the model of primitive verbs of the 
loth class at 638, may be conjugated all causal verbs. 


705. Root ^bhu. Infin. f^ff^ bubhiisJiitum, ^ to wish to be.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present, ' I wish to be,' &c. 

















Or q^qi^^R darsaydnchakdra J see 




Potential, ' I maj 

f wish to be, 



1>^ Ti^ 





fH^ Tl?^ 





I»?^ Ti'*^*! 




Imperative, ' Let me wish to be,' &c. 


Ti^ fU^ 





Tl?^ 1^^ 





1*S?^ I^J?^ 




First preterite, ' I was wishing to be/ &c. 


^wrnc w^^mn 





^r^H^ ^R>|^ 



V9 Cs 


■^^i'^^ ^r|»|5^^ 




Second preterite, ' ^ 

wished to be/ &c. 

^^m^chiO ii^\^^^ n'^'^l'*^ 




^»^^l=^*^H ^♦[Mi'djfi 





^H^^^^^ l^^n^li^. 




First future, * I w 

ill wish to be,' &c. 

fiffqiTl?;!*!^ -^M/MrilW^^ 

"I^TETiTTW^^ ^^jTmHIW 


^>|ft[lT"Rt Wf^IWTT:^ 




^ ^ 

Second future, ' I will 

3r shall wish to be,' &c. 

^rMUiiciw ^»^J'^mlHM^ 

Tlf^^^^^N 1^'^'*"<'^ 


^irfqnnT^^ ^j^rMmPfi 




Third preterite, ' I 

wished to be,' &c. 


'sri^rMM 'H^HfMifl 





^*|f^ '^Tff^ 




^Hfmji ^f»fftT^^, 




Benedictive, ' May 

I wish to be,' &c. 


TI^T^ Tl'^IW 

_>- n 



f^j^rer f>^mi« 



W^^mn f>TTqT^^ 



r ^♦ifR^^ 

Conditional, ' I sho 

uld wish to be,' &c. 


^■^HfHTm^ 'SJW^tjfqTqm 


^f>jf^T^ ^I^TfxnUHTf^ 


'H^^jTm^d -n'^MTMmri 

'3T^>4fi(TiTvrm^ -n^^jTm^tsit 



^ijftiTinrT '5Tf>|fEnii^ 




* Or^ 




706. Root ^bhu. Infin. ■^>Tfsr^ bobhavitum or ^^t^jftrg bobhuyitum, 
' to be repeatedly' ' or frequently.' 

Atmane-pada form (509). 
Present, ^ I am repeatedly/ &c. 

cft>T^ ^>T5^ ^V-^Tjir 

wt>Txrw ^H^w Tr>jw 

Cx Cs t~v 

Potential, ' I may be frequently/ &c. 

Imperative, ' Let me be frequently/ &c. 
■^•q^ TfifW ^>|3T54 

■^>>jwr ^>>^ ^>>rcF?n 

First preterite, ^ I was frequently/ &c. 

^T^t>TWnT ^3I^>rqT!n ^-^iJTlJ^ 

'3T^>nnT ^^ft>|57Tt w^mpir 

Second pi'eterite, * I was frequently/ &c. 

^Virnf^^ ^>>TqT^^m ^Wi^Tfl 

^»nrra^ tT^j^t^^tw Tt^nn^if^ 

First future, ' I Avill be frequently/ &c. 
^fTfnl -^ifftrrrr^ ^finn^l 

^»|ftnTT ■^^Ttnn'o -w^^rfqimt^^ 

Second future, ' I Avill or shall be frequently/ &Co 

^VijpJT-^ ^iTfrrarR^ cr>>Tftran5Tt 

cft>|ftrai^ ^ijfzr'^^ ^>Tftnii5^ 

^>jfqTq^ ^ijfiT^ ^Tijfxi'aT^ 

Third preterite, ' I was frequently/ &c. 
'^l^Hfqftl 'Si^tiTftrc^ ^^R^Hfir 

'^HftT^TTT^ wtijftnrRT wTtHftrs^ or -^* 


Benedictive, ' May I be frequently/ &c. 
^t^jftrRt^ ^Tt^rftprNrf^ ^Wftr^WV 

Conditional, * I should be frequently.' 

^r^^jTumvjj-H ^sr^ijfiiqvi] ^r^>|fTraTJ^ or -^ 

4i«ri*jrquirt ^r^ijfTTOwf ^Rt^rftroTfr 

707. Parasmai-pada form (514). 

Present, ' I am frequently/ &c. 
^Tt^^tfir or ^Wtf^ "^H?^ ^^^?^x 

TtH^tfi? or TNVf^ "^^>J5^^ ^hr?! 

^^H^IT or -^W^flT ^*J?^^ ■^^>f^W 

Potential, ' I may be frequently/ &c. 

^^>|imT ^^JfW "^^tlTiT 

^^^ ^^^niTT ^*JS^x 

Imperative, * May I be frequently/ &c. 

iq^^nrf^ ^^^J^ "^M^J^ 

^^ ^^ ^ 

Tt>T^ or ^Wt^ ^t>|lTT ^*J^ 

First preterite, * I was frequently/ &c. 

W^T^ or wM^ ^R^t>JTTt ^R'tH^^ 

Second preterite, ' I was frequently/ &c. 
^t>T^Tg>J^, &c. ^H^T^>|f^, &c. -^H^TWiff^, &c. 

or or or 

"^W^ or ThJ5 "Tt>jf^ or TtJjfqT^ ^Hf^ or -^^jf^ 

^^»|f^ -^^^^^ or -^ij^^^ ^^ or ^>>|5 

^t>TT^ or ^>»T5 ^^^^^ or -^^iJ^WW^ ^"^*n^^ ^"^ ^"^Wl 

First future, ' I will be frequently/ &c. 
^N ^ jri iPm ^t^rfrfrr^^^ ^t^rf^inFTW^ 

^tirf^HTftr ^^irf^TTTW^^ ^>Hf^nmsr 

Tt>Tf^ ^Hp^rilCt ^f<4rtlUff^ 


Second future, ' 

' I will or shal 

1 be fr 

equently/ &c. 











preterite, ' I was : 

frequently,' &c. 






















Benedictive, ' May I be frequently,' &c. 
^>rqnT ^>nrr^ ^^nrrw 

^>l3rnT ^if^T^ ^rtHTirer 

^HiTm ^Vxrreri ^*i^^^ 

Conditional, ' I should be frequently,' &c. 
^ST^^f^JT ^R^r^imN ^HTtHfrOTUT 

^R^r^ui^ ^irt^rfTHnf ^^N^iTfrsnT 

^si^irf^Tiiw ^H^ Pcimrii ^sNt^rfVai^^ 

708. Root ^iT ' to kill' (3 1 8, 654) . Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pres. iTff^ or iTf^fff, »T^ftr or -jT^^Tftftr, W^fftJ or »Tf^'^fw ; »Tip^, 
5l^vi^^, ^TfTTTT ; ^Tf^^^, ^T^, ^^^^T^T or imfw. Pot. ITf^, &C. 
Imp. "STf^lf^, 'T^f, W^^ or '5T^'5fh5; ^Tf^"^, W^, -in ; i^im, 
^W^, ^^^ or strrw. ist Pret. W5T^, "^HT^^ or 'snTf^'hT, ^»T1^ or 
^T>T|^ii;; ^»f^H, ^^nr^w, -m; ^^Tf^, ^^T^, ^»i^-^h or -Hjii|«. 
2d Pret. ir^^TTgH^ or iff^T^^IiTT, &c. &c. 

709. Root 7T^' to go' (602, 270). Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pres. WWffi^ or jT^^JT^ftr, ^^ftr or jI^-hITm, iT^f^ or ^STl^ftfir ; >T^'^«, 
'T^^, 'T^TT^J ^^"*4H , WW^, iTl^flT or wrjfif. Pot. >i^-«ji, &c. 
Imp. lTl=mf^, WW^, »TW^ or ^^tflij; ^TW^R, WW^, ^rgTrf; ib*h*1j 
'TITT, 'TW^ or ipw^, ist Pret. ^nn=^, ^T»T1^ ^^ ^^nf^jfl^, W3T1^ or 

^HTW^J ^nri^^, ^nr^TTj -wf; "^mw^, ^htitt, -y»i^'H« or ^nr^^. 
2d Pret. ^TlTTgiT^ or »T^-HI=5l<*K, &c. &c. 

710. Root fiBfTj ' to throw' {6^^). Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pres. ^f^ or ^f^rrtfiT, '^'^f^ or ^ft^f^, ^^fvJ or ^pHji/irrt; 


^ftr«^, ^%c^, ^ft^rm; ^ftj^, ^f^tvi, ^ PajMrri . Pot. ^fg^, 
&c. Imp. ■^^mftr, ^ft^fatl, ^^H or ^f^rfrj; ^^mq, '^ft^, -in; 
%%mH, ^f%H, ^ft^w. 1st Pret. ^T%%TT, ^"^TI or ^^f«j ifl^r, ^3i^^^ 
or ^^f%qhf; '^r^f^, 'si^ft^, --rt; wPe^^, 'ii^r«jn, 'H^fvsj^. 
2d Pret. ^r«i|Mlt) >|5 or ^ f^j M l^ahK , &c. &c. 

711. Root ?lf Ho take' (699, 359). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive. Pres. ^ [ H^H or WHJ^fiT, »Tnif^ (306. a) or aiUJ^IPM, iTRjTfe 
iS^S' «) or ^ l ij^lPri ; TTTTdlTET, ITTT^, IfPp^^; ^TPp^^, WPJS, ^TPrffw. 

Pot. iTPpn. Imp. ^nnfrftrr, imrf^, Wfvu^ or in?!^^ ; ^hij^^n, wni, 
-TT ; IT UJ^ I H , ITITVS, "nn^. ist Pret. ^.4^< | JJ^\ ^n^niZ (292. a, 43. c) or 

'snTTJTf^^ (330), &c. 




712. Adverbs, like nouns and verbs, may be divided into simple 
and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter on 
Compound Words. 

Simple adverbs may be classed under four heads ; ist, as formed 
from the cases of nouns ; 2dly, adverbs of less obvious derivation ; 
3dly, adverbial affixes ; 4thly, adverbial prefixes. 

Adverbs formed from the Cases 0/ Nouns. 
The following cases of nouns are used adverbially : 

713. The nominative or accusative neuter of any adjective. 

As, ^rW ' truly;' ^'^ ' much ;' '^fHi, fl^TT, ' quickly ;' W^ ' fitly;' '^^'^ ' near ;' 
H^' lightly;' f^T'&t, ■'iJrfJil, TT^^ H^, ' exceedingly ;' ^T^^ ' certainly ;' f«TTT 
* constantly ;' r^ ' for a long while ;' «ifO<mi ' strongly ;' >T^nT ' again,' ' repeat- 
edly' (194) ; <*"=«<«> ' only,' ' merely.' 

a. The nom. or ace. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, TTiT ' therefore,' * then ;' 
^TiT * wherefore,' ' when ;' niqrt ' so long,' ' so soon ;' *4\«in^ ' as long as,' as soon 
as ;' f^ff{^ ' why ? ' 

b. The nom. or ace. neuter of certain substantives and obsolete words; as, 
T?^ ' secretly ;' «(rR ' willingly ;' ^BR ' of one's own accord,' ' of one's self,' ' spon- 

M m 2 


taneously ;' •TR ' by name,' ' that is to say ;' "^ "^xt ' repeatedly ;' f%^ ' long 
^go '' ?5^ ' pleasantly ;' ^»9»f ' now ;' «T^ ' by night' (noctu). 

714. The instrumental case of nouns and pronouns. 

As, VWrTTT ' virtuously;' ^fT^^«T ' southwards' or ' to the right;' "^^T'Tr ' north- 
wards;' «qrrt<oh5T 'without;' 7%^ ' above ;' ift^^ 'below;' ^1%^ ' slowly ;' 
■ff^ ' therefore ;' T^*T ' wherefore.' The instr. case of certain obsolete nouns ; as, 
r-q«y ' for a long time ;' ^Tf^T^ ' in a short time ;' f^^ ' by day ;' f^fWT ' for- 
tunately ;' ¥f ^, '5T^^, ' quickly ;' ^?VfTT ' now.' 

715. The ablative case of nouns and pronouns. 

As, ^c5T^ ' forcibly ;' ^"RTrT ' joyfully ;' ^HIT ' at a distance ;' iTWn^ ' there- 
fore;' ^i^TTif 'wherefore?' 'iJ+WTfT 'without cause,' 'unexpectedly;' T^TTi^'from 
the north :' and of a few obsolete nouns ; as, P^n^in ' for a long time ;' 'T^JTiT^ 
' afterwards ;' TTrtt|HIlfl ' at that instant.' 

716. The locative case of a few nouns and obsolete words. 

As, ^rrar 'at night;' ^ 'far off;' UiTTTT 'in the morning;' Ul^ 'in the 
forenoon ;' WTn ' suitably ;' ^I?f ' in front ;' TToB^q ' at once ;' ^^f^ ' instantly ;' 
^»ffT ' within.' 

Adverbs of less obvious Derivation. 

717. Of affirmation. •|»T, ^'^^j f^f5, T^, ' indeed ;' '^rftl ' even.' 

a. Of negation. — tf, *ft, ♦ff^, ' not.' IT, TTW, are prohibitive; as, HT "^j 
*TT ^iTT^, ' do not.' See 889. 

b. Of interrogation. f^, f^, ohP^rT, ^, -^j foh^^, ' whether ?' 

c. 0{ comparison. ^'^ 'hke;' ^, ^, 'so;' f<*«<Hl. 'how much rather;' 

W^ (■fTsrr + 5^) ' in Uke manner.' 

d. Of quantity. '^nft^ ' exceedingly ;' f;^ ' a httle ;' Hehif ' once ;' ^nr^, 

I^- ¥^' ?Fl' ' repeatedly.' 

e. Of manner. ^TT, 1J#, ' so,' ' thus ;' '^^ ' again ;' TTTT^ ' for the most 

part;' *rRT 'variously;' «j'h<* 'separately;' f^^^\ 'falsely;' ^^j ^>TT, 'in 
vain ;' Wc5 ' enough ;' VBfTfif, ^TTTT (cf. ^Kvg), ' quickly ;' ^H!lT ' silently ;' 
m^lT 'reciprocally,' 'together.' 

/. Of^ime. '5ra' to-day,' 'now;' ^*T^', «**irK,'now;' jT^T«T% TTf^,' then;' 

Tjn' formerly;' "JT^^, ^^TfT, ITTcF,' before;' "^TXTrT 'at once;' ^TERT 'instantly;' 
IIW 'after death;' "qt 'afterwards;' '^\Jt^ 'ever;' "JT aTTff 'never;' ^T^^ff^, 
■qrS^, ' another day,' ' next day.' 

g. Of place. — ^'here;' H' where?' '^ff^^' without.' 

h. Of douht. Oir^sTT, ^tnTnT, ' perhaps.' 


Adverbial Affixes. 

718. fwH chit, "^ api, and ^R chana, may form indefinite adverbs 
of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs. 

As, from cfi^ ' when ?' <*<lP<<ri^, <*>^lfq, and "tir^l-'iH, ' sometimes ;' from W^ 
and B 'where?' '^^f^, ^^Tftl, Hf'^, Ifrf^, 'somewhere;' from WiT^ 
'whence?' «* rf pq rf and WTTgR 'from somewhere;' from "SBfir 'how many?' 
ctiPri r-^ rf ' a few ;' from afifit ' when ?' «lifi|f^ ' at some time ;' from ^5^ ' how ?' 
odVlHTM, ehVJ^H, ' somehow or other,' ' with some difficulty.' Compare 228, 230. 

719. im tas (changeable to m or ift by 6^, 64) may be added to 
any noun, and to some pronouns, to form adverbs. 

As, from T^, 14(^(1^ ' with effort ;' from ^Tlf^, ^nf^im ' from the beginning ;' 
from IT (the proper base of the pronoun TT^), innT 'thence,' ' then,' ' thereupon,' 

* therefore :' similarly, ^Ti!^ ' whence,' ' since,' ' because ;' 'iin^^, ^rt« ' hence,' 

* hereupon.' 

a. This affix usually gives the sense of the prepositions with and from, and is 
often equivalent to the ablative case ; as in T^IT ' from me ;' r^^?r ' from thee * ;' 
■ftr^Trfl ' from the father ;' ^(^nH ' from an enemy.' 

b. But it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations ; as, 'J8nW^ 
' behind the back ;' 'i|.i|ri^^ ' to another place,' ' elsewhere ;' H'M*irt« ' in the first 
place;' ^riWri'^^'here and there,' 'hither and thither;' «Hfin^'on all sides;' 
^l_ri'*f, ^T?IW^, ' in front ;' ^rfiTrT'^ ' near to ;' r<4Hqn^' in pomp or state.' 

720. c( tra, forming adverbs of place. 

As, ^T^" ' here ;' 7^" there;' "^^' where?' ^TW' where;' wfw ' every where ;' 
^TT^'in another place;' TT^^ ' in one place;' «l^c4 'in many places;' '^W 
' there,' * in the next world.' 

721. "TT thd and "^ tham, forming adverbs of manner. 

As, IT^ ' so,' ' in hke manner;' 'T^ ' as;' ^'gcql ' in every way,' ' by all means;' 
^r^rar * otherwise ;' "^FTST ' how ?' ^r^ ' thus.' 

722. ^ dd, forming adverbs of time from pronouns, &c. 

As, IT^ ' then ;' Xl^'when;' ofi^'when?' ^«fi^'once;' flWf^l 'constantly;' 
?rg^, ^f^, ' always.' 

723. VT dhd, forming adverbs of distribution from numerals. 

As, ^afiVT ' in one way ;' fl'VT ' in two ways ;' "^VUT ' in six ways ;' ^TirVT ' in a 
hundred ways ;' f>^*l*n ' in a thousand ways ;' ^^VT or W?RWT ' in many ways.' 

* In fact, these are the forms generally used for the ablative case of the personal 
pronouns, the proper ablative cases Wif^, i^, being rarely used, except as substi- 
tutes for the crude base, in compound words. 


724. ■^ vat may be added to any noun to form adverbs of com- 
parison or similitude. 

As, from ^ff^, ^^cq^rT ' like the sun ;' from ^, '^^^' as before.' It may be 
used in connexion with a word in the accusative case. See 918. 

a. This affix sometimes expresses * according to ;' as, TTlV'^l^ according to 
rule ;' M tTl »i 1 "=« fi * according to need.' 

725. "^^sas, forming adverbs o{ quantity. 

As, "^TF^Pff ' abundantly ;' ^T^IT^iFT ' in small quantities ;' <i«»i^i^ ' singly ;' 
^M^^U^I^ ' by hundreds and thousands ;' "gfR^HT ' by degrees.' 

Adverbial Prefixes. 

726. ^ a, prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a priva- 
tive or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, 
and the EngUsh ' in/ ' im/ ' un ;' as, from ^r^ ^ possible,' SH^i+l 
'impossible/ from FT^T^ '^touching' (pres. part.), ^n?T^ir * not 
touching / from -^iRT ' having done' (indecl. part.), 'y<*HI ' not hav- 
ing done.' When a word begins with a vowel, ^r^ is euphonically 
substituted ; as, ^PiT * end ;' ^Hif ' endless.' 

a. ^3TfiT ati, ' excessively,' ' very ;' as, 'yfrfH^ri^ ' very great.' 

b. ^T a, prefixed to imply * diminution ;' as, ^mnj| ' somewhat 
pale.' f^^fT is prefixed with the same sense. 

c. oBT X:a or oF ku, prefixed to words to imply ' disparagement ;' 
as, chi ^^^ ' a coward ;' ^r^TT ' deformed.' 

d. «n: dur, prefixed to imply ' badly' or * with difficulty ;' as, 
'^^^ * badly done' (see 72); ^>f?r "^not easily broken.' It is opposed 
to '^, and corresponds to the Greek ^vcr. 

e. f^TT nir and f^ vi are prefixed to nouns like ^ a with a priva- 
tive or negative sense ; as, f^-tf5 ' powerless ;' f^uhc4 ' without fruit' 
(see 72) ; f^^ ' unarmed:' but not to participles. 

/. '^ su, prefixed to imply ' well,' ' easily ;' as, ^TT ' well done ;' 
TT^ ' easily broken.' In this sense it is opposed to ^, and cor- 
responds to the Greek eu. It is also used for ^rT, to imply ' very,' 
* excessively ;' as, MH^it ' very great.' 


727. ^ cha, * and,' ' also,' corresponding to the Latin que and not 
to et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence, 
but follows the word of which it is the copulative. 


a. irm ' so,' ' in like manner' (see 721), is not unfrequently used for ^, as a 
kind of copulative conjunction; and like ^ is generally placed after the word 
which it connects with another. 

b. f^ * for/ like ^, is always placed after its word, and never 
admitted to the first place in a sentence, irf^, ^, 'if/ Tnm 'upon 
that/ Uhen' (see 719). 'srar^, ftfi^, 'snn^, iTT^, '^rftT^, 'again/ 
* moreover/ used very commonly before quotations. ^^ ' also/ 

c. ''^^ ' then,' ' now,' is used as an inceptive particle at the commencement of 
sentences or narratives. It is opposed to ^fw, which marks the close of a story 
or chapter. 


728. ^ vd, 'or/ corresponds to the Latin ve, and is always 
placed after its word, being never admitted to the first place in a 

a. -J, fsB?^, ' but / the former is placed after its word. 

b. mir*i 'although;' riVJlftj 'nevertheless,' 'yet,' sometimes used as a cor- 
relative to the last; W!fW(, ftRT^T, 'or else;' 'JT^ ' or not;' "^f^ ' whether,' 
' whether or no.' 

c. '^'VrWT may also be used to correct or qualify a previous thought, when it is 
equivalent to ' but,' ' yet,' ' however.' 

d. Wi '5, rT, %, are expletives, often used in poetry to fill up the verse. 


729. There are a great many prepositions in Sanskrit, but they 
are generally found as inseparable prefixes, qualifying the sense of 
roots, and the nouns and verbs derived from roots ; see 783. Only 
three, out of the list of prepositions at 783, are commonly used in 
government with nouns ; viz. ''STT a, irffl' prati, and W^ arm ; and of 
these the two last are rarely so used, except as postpositions. 

730. ■^ a, generally signifying ' as far as/ ' up to/ ' until/ with 
an ablative case ; as, ^Ml ^*^^lri^ ' as far as the ocean / ^rmf^fl^^ ' up to 
Manu :' and rarely with an accusative ; as, ^»T ^mmft^^ ' for a 
hundred births.' 

a. "^ a may sometimes express ' from / as, ^T'Jcrn^ ' from the 
beginning / ^i »v<H<j^lHlri^ ' from the first sight.' 

b. TifTr prati, generally signifying ' at/ ' about/ ' with regard to/ 
' to,' ' towards/ ' against,' with an accusative ; as, tt^ irfk ' at the 
Ganges / v^ irfTT ' with regard to justice / ^^ Trfff ' against an 


enemy/ It sometimes has the force of apud ; as, jtt TrfrT, * apud 
me' ' as far as regards me/ 

c. ^ anu, ' after/ with an accusative ; as, TT^^ ' after that/ 

rf. irnr, and more rarely ^^, may be used distributively to signify ' each,' 
' every.' They are then prefixed ; thus, TrnTTWT or ^^T^TWT ' every year/ ' year 
by year.' 

e. Observe — The preposition ^ is generally not separated from the word which 
it governs, and may be regarded as forming with it a kind of adverbial compound. 
Instances are not uncommon of other prepositions united in composition with the 
neuter form or accusative case of nouns; as, HTn**'*! 'upon the shoulders/ 
■prfirg^ 'face to face;' vtPMqBj 'upon the tree;' ^Ht^ 'along the Ganges.' 
See 760. b. 



731. There are certain adverbs used as prepositions in govern- 
ment with nouns, but generally placed after the nouns which they 

a. These are, '^W ' besides/ with the accusative and sometimes ablative case. 
•4 1 N fT ' up to,' ' as far as,' sometimes found %vith the accusative, ''ff^, TT^j ' with/ 
' along with,' with the instrumental. H^Hl ' without/ with the instrumental or 
accusative, or sometimes the ablative. "^f%^ 'out;' IT^jfiT} ' inde a/ 'from a 
particular time,' with the ablative, or placed after the crude base, '^ni, ^T^, 
^fM*t^, '^iBT, WW, fffftrw, 'on account of,' 'for the sake of,' 'for,' with the 
genitive, or usually placed after the crude base*; ^^IK, "35%, 'above,' 'over,' 
' upon' (cf. fTrep, super), with the genitive : so ^V^ or vitjtflifi ' below ;' ^TfpfTT 
'after,' 'afterwards;' ^*flM, «<*I5(, 'near;' ^niiT^rnr 'from;' ^?r, M<.ri*(^, ^HVJj, 
« I «j I rt , ' before the eyes,' ' in the presence of;' "'TOTTT ' after :' all with the geni- 
tive. UToF, ''^, 'before,' with ablative or genitive; "'JT, WTTeF, "35^, 'after,' 
with the ablative ; vt^fli.*!! ' without,' ' except,' ' with regard to,' with the genitive 
or accusative ; ^RTT ' mthin,' with the genitive. All the above may be placed 
after the crude base. ^nPi. and ^?>nf are sometimes doubled; thus, ^M^sft, 

b. Some of the adverbs enumerated at 714, 715, may be used in government 
with the cases of nouns; thus, ^ftpiHTj 'to the south' or 'to the right,' may 
govern a genitive case; ^mTikoikii, ' without,' is placed after the crude base. 

* '^T^ is almost always found in composition with a crude base, and may even 
be compounded adjectively to agree with another noun ; as, %»rnrJ 4iM*i^' broth 
for the Brahman ;' ffSTT?! tr^TIT ' milk for the Brahman.' See 760. 



732. ifllT, »tV, ^, are vocative; T, '^ft, less respectfully vocative, 
or sometimes expressive of ' contempt.' ftfojr expresses ' contempt/ 
' abhorrence ;' ^m^, Wf\, 'Sif F, ' surprise/ '■ alarm / '^T, ?T?T, Wf, 
W?^^TT, ' ffrief / m^, fff, ' approbation ;' ^fta", ' salutation.' 



733. CoMPOuxDS abound in Sanskrit to a degree wholly unequalled 
in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the prin- 
ciples on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to 
understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In 
the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, 
and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, 
compound verbs, and compound adverbs. 

a. ObsenT, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the base, of a substantive 
terminating a compound will be given ; and in the instance of an adjective form- 
ing the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc, fem., and neut. The 
examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopadesa, and sometimes the oblique cases 
in which they are there found have been retained. A dot placed imderneath 
marks the division of the words in a compound. 


734. The student has now arrived at that portion of the subject 
in which the use of the base of the noun becomes most strikingly 
apparent. This use has been already noticed at 77, p. 42 ; and its 
formation explained at pp. 44 — ^^. In all compound nouns (with 
some few exceptions) the last word alone admits of declension, and 
the preceding word or words require to be placed in the crude form 
or base, to which a plural as well as singular signification may be 

a. It may here be noted, that while Sanskrit generally exhibits the first 
member or members of a compound in the crude base with the final letter 
unchanged, excepting l)y the lav^s of eiiphony, Latin frequently and Greek less 
frequently change the final vovv'el of the base into tb.c light vowel / ; and both 

N n 


Greek and Latin often make use of a vowel of conjunction, which in Greek is 
generally o, but occasionally *: thus, cali-cola for ccelu-cola or coelo-cola; lani-ger 
for lanu'ffer; ')(^aXKi-va<jg, i'xPv-(j-(f)dyog, fceder-i-fragus. Both Greek and Latin, 
however, possess many compounds which are completely analogous to Sanskrit 
formations. In English we have occasional examples of the use of a vowel of 
conjunction, as in ' handicraft' for ' hand-craft.' 

735. Native gi-ammarians class compound nouns under six heads : 
the 1st they call TAT-PURUSHA* or those composed of two nouns, the 
first of which (being in the crude base) would be, if uncompounded, 
in a case different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, ^^^TWT 
■^ moon-light' (for ^^Tq T(W[ ' the light of the moon') ; ^l^^-5Tc5H, 
-HT, -c5, ' skilled in arms' (for ^^1 f^TcJ^J ; JRfta^^rf^Tr^, -ITT, -W, 
* adorned with gems' (for JTftnf^TT; ijf^rr^^). The 2d, DWANDWA, or 
those formed by the aggregation into one compound of two or more 
nouns (the last word being, according to circumstances, either in 
the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the preceding word or 
Words being in the crude base), when, if uncompounded, they would 
all be in the same case, connected by a copulative conjunction ; as, 
^^;%^' master and pupil' (for n^; f^-onaf); iRW^Tftr^ft^fim 'death, 
sickness, and sorrow' (for HTIJ ^Tfti: ^"^^B^) ; tiTftn;m^ 'hand and 
foot' (for Tnfi^r: tjt^^). The 3d, KARMA-DHARAYA, or those com- 
posed of an adjective or participle and substantive, the adjective or 
participle being placed first in its crude base, when, if uncom- 
pounded, it would be in grammatical concord with the substantive ; 
as, ^Tv;^f5^^ ' a good disposition' (for ^TV: ^fh?^) ; ^;^^TfT!T ' all 
things' (for ^fiftT "5^1%). The 4th, DWIGU, or those in which a 
numeral in its crude base is compounded with a noun, either so as 
to form a singular collective noun, or an adjective ; as, f^^ ' three 
qualities' (for w^ ^T^^,) ; 'f^^'l^j -''TT, -W, ' possessing the three 
qualities.' The 5th, BAHU-VRIHI, or those formed of any number 

* These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of compounds, or 
give some sort of definition of them : thus, ffr'T^:, ' his servant,' is an example 
of the I St kind (for W^ ^^t) ; "W^' is a definition of the 2d kind, meaning 
' conjunction ;' -^i^R^: is a definition of the 3d kind, i. e. ' containing the 
object' {<=ti**i) ; f^TJi [^ an example of the 4th kind, meaning ' any thing to the 
value of two cows;' ^^siff: is an example of the 5th kind, meaning ' possessed 
of much rice.' The 6th class, '^I^tftm^: mnjayibhdvah, means 'the indechnable 


of words associated to form an epithet to a noun ; as, ^^^'UinT, ->?T, 
-H, ' brilliant as the moon ;' ^TJHrj^fvT^t^f!^ , -«fiT, -'^, ' liable to 
death, sickness, and sorrow;' wrv^^H^, -T^T, -<^, 'well-disposed.' 
The 6th, AVYAYI-BHAVA, or those resulting from the combination 
of a preposition or adverbial prefix M'ith a noun ; the latter, whatever 
may be its gender, always taking the form of an accusative neuter. 

736. Such then, in brief, is the native division of compound 
words, a division leading to some confusion, from the incompleteness 
and want of sufficient comprehensiveness in the definitions, and the 
absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the several 
parts or members of the division. For it is plain, from the exam- 
ples given, that the 5th class of compounds may often be regarded 
as another name for the first three, when they take the form of 
adjectives declinable in three genders ; and that the second species 
of the 4th class is for this reason referrible to the 5th. The student, 
moreover, finds it difficult to understand why, if the definition of the 
5th class of compounds be, that they are epithets of other nouns, such 
compounds as ^i^ 49Ic^ and JT^rHf^rT should not be comprehended 
under it. And further, he is often at a loss to refer a compound to 
its proper head *, from the inadequacy of the definitions to express 
all the cases included under each class. 

In the following pages the subject is discussed according to a 
different method, although it has been thought desirable to keep the 
native arrangement in view. 

737. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or 
complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of 
compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving 
two or three species of simple compounds under one head. 


738. These will be divided into, ist. Dependent compounds or 
compounds dependent in case (corresponding to Tat-purusha) ; 2d, 
Aggregative {Divandwa) ; 3d, Descriptive f [Karma-dhdraya) ; 4th, 
Collective {Dwiyu) ; 5th, Indeclinable or Adverbial [Avyayi-bhdva) ; 

* Ex. gr. such a compound as W«!i3i£n^» ~^T, -'^, ' any thing black and white.' 
t As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and 

always descriptive of the substantive. Prof. Bopp calls them ' Determinativa,' a 

word of similar import. 

N n 2 


6th, Relative (Bahu-vrihi) . This last consists of, a. Relative form 
of absolute Dependent compounds, terminated by substantives ; 
b. Relative form of Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of 
Descriptive compounds ; d. Relative form of Collective compounds ; 
e. Relative form of Adverbial compoinids. 

Accusatively Dependent. 

739. These comprehend all those compounds in which the 
relation of the first word (being in the crude base) to the last is 
equivalent to that of an accusative case. They are generally com- 
posed of a noun in the first member, and a participle or noun of 
agency in the last ; as, ^^TTTTI^, -TTT, -IT, ' one who has obtained 
heaven' (equivalent to ^^f tttpt^) ; ftl^TRl ' one who speaks kind 
words ;' '^7?'^ ' one who gives much ;' ^^-JTTT ' one who bears 
arms ;' tig^TTTT^, -TTT, -IT, ' committed to a leaf,' ' committed to paper' 
(as ^ writing') ; f^^;JTff^^, -KT, -if, ' committed to painting.' 

a. Observe — TIT ' gone' (past pass. part, of t'T ' to go') is used loosely at the 
end of compounds of this description to express relationship and connexion, with- 
out any necessary implication of motion. In the above compound, and in many 
others (such as "f^T'c^iTf^Trfff J?f<in^ ' a jewel lying in the cleft of a rock ;' 
^tcl^ncO^JTTT^, -ITT, -if, ' lying in the palm of the hand'), it has the sense of W 
' staying :' but it may often have other senses ; as, 'ft&t^TrfT'^, -TTT, -W, ' engaged 
in conversation ;' ^Tf^^Tif f^.f%TT ' something relating to a friend.' In theatrical 
language viirH^^in and ijIMfl (lit. ' gone to one's self) mean ' spoken to one's 
self,' ' aside.' 

b. Before the nouns of agency the accusative case is often i-etained, especially in 
poetry ; as, ^rfT'^5['T'W? -TT, -H, ' enemy- subduing ;' ^^"^TT, -J?T, -if, ' heart- 
touching;' iT'T^TT, -TT, -T, 'fear-inspiring' (see 580). 

Insti'umentallij Dependent, 

740. Or those in which the relation of the first word (being in 
the crude base) to the last is equivalent to that of an instrumental 
case. These are very common, and are, for the most part, com- 
posed of a substantive in the first member, and a passive participle 
in the last; as, c^H;jrr%fT^^, -TfT, -TT, ' beguiled by avarice' (for c5^^ 
^f?7l) ; ^^^^f^TTT!^, -TIT, -if, ' covered with clothes;' tlaT^f^flT^, -TTT, 
-ff, ' honoured by kings;' f^llT"?t'?I^ , -ttt, -'^, 'deserted by (i. e. 
destitute of) learning ;' '^%;Tf?r^iT, ~WT, -W , ' destitute of intelligence ;' 


'T:^^^^, -WT, -W, ' pained with grief;' ^TUT'^H^, -rfT, -W, ' done by 
one's self;' ^if^^'^^'T, -■5ft, -■51, 'like the sun' (for '^rif^^^ ^f^^x' 
see 826) ; ^ Wi^M l P^ri ^^, -"?n, -"rf, ' acquired by us.' 

a. Sometimes, but rarely, this kind of compound contains a substantive or 
noun of agency in the last member; as, r=lt( l^»f ' money acquired by science ;' 
'^tfllM'ft'^ ' one who lives by arms.' 

Datively Dependent, 

741. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a dative ; as, xrft:VH^«<<?+r4 ' bark for clothing ;' 
mTt^"^ ' water for the feet ;' -qTr-f^T^w ' wood for a stake ;' ^TTTHTTTrr^, 
-TTT, -if, *come for protection' (for ^n^fTHT wrmT). This kind of com- 
pound is rare, and is generally supplied by the use of 'ST^ {I'i'^- «) '•> 
as, ^Tiirr^^ ^HTTT^^. 

Ablatively Dependent, 

742. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of an ablative; as, fxnr^Trrff^, -Trr, -TT, ' received 
from a father ;' TTW>T?^ , -FT, -?, ' fallen from the kingdom' (for 
UriTTfr >JF^) ; fR:"^^^<^rn:^ , -TT, -t, ' more changeable than a wave ;' 
H^^"^' other than you' (for >TTiftsTiT^) ; >?^^' ' fear of you' (814. d) ; 
^I^.MU^<sl*i, -^, -fk, ' turning the face from books,' ' averse to 

Genitively Dependent, 

743. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of 
all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a 
similar compound in English. They are for the most part com- 
posed of two substantives ; as, ^H^riK ' sea-shore' (for ^JT^l^ li\t 
' shore of the sea') . 

a. Other examples are, ^r^nT¥' horse-back;' >r^^^^' bow-string;' ^fV^rT'^ 
' brick-house ;' T'lR H»{1 ' mountain-toiTcnt ;' Tirt^rtlT ' water's edge ;' ^T^JTIT^ 
or '^rtfhn'^^ ' acquisition of wealth ;' fV'J^T ' state of misfortune ;' ^^^^ 
'separation of friends;' '^?|% 'on whose brow' (loc. c.) ; ■fTIT^^'his words;' 
»Rrwnf or Tf'^STirf'nT 'birth-place;' ^^^^ 'with hundreds of fools' (in- 
strum. c. plur.) ; "tilsfi g<( ' a couple of S'lokas ;' ^J^^ ' the surface of the earth ;' 
■^ftl^^^^ ' lord of the earth;' "ff^^rfT^ 'for his support' (dat. c); "ST^T- 
ir^^^'the sons of a Brahman;' ■^WTr^pTT^ 'our sons;' r^.'^ ' thy deed;' 
flTW;'^=5f^ ' a father's speech;' 'JW;irTT: ' tlie gate of deatli;" 2;^T7?WT7T^' fulfilment 


of wishes;' TT^'T'^^ 'a mother's joy;' »<rtJ^lM*< ' a receptacle of water,' 'a 
lake ;' rqajx/l ' seeker of knowledge,' ' a scholar.' 

h. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies 
the last place in the compound ; as, H<^^«*i or M<MJr«*l*1 ' the best of men.' 

c. In a few instances the genitive case is retained; as, f^^'jrfire ' lord of 
men ;' f^^^^crffHT ' lord of the sky.' 

Locatively Dependent, 

744. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a locative case; as, t^-rt^t^, -r^, -Trf, * sunk 
in the mud' (for xf^ T^^); T^^fT'f^^rn^ ' sporting in the sky;' sTf^^'SR^Tr 
' sport in the water ;' tjtR'^^ ' a dweller in a village ;' jTpST^T^ 
' going in the water ;' »Tc9^»nT ' born in the water ;' f^rrfT(3" ' gem 
on the head.' 

a. It is not unusual to retain the locative case, especially before 
nouns of agency ; as, ?n^^T^ ' a villager ;' "3T^^xr;?T ' going in the 
water ;' "^Tftrilf^lT^, -TTT, -if, ' ornamented on the breast.' 

Dependent in more than one Case. 
745. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be 
composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the 
manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, '^'^^T'T^rrfiT- 
Wr^^, -Tfrr, -'jf , ' passed beyond the range of the eye' (for '^"Srift f^^TTH 
^W^rffTIT) ; T'^riTTfl^W^ ' standing in the middle of the chariot;' Htinrft^- 
*ir^ ^^4 1 rt^"Tft!3rT^ ' skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger.' 

a. There is an anomalous form of Tat-purusha compound, which is really the 
result of the elision of the second or middle member {uttara-pada-lopa, madhyama- 
j)ada-lopa) of a complex compound ; thus, wTh^TT'JT^** fi rt I ' token -S'akuntala' 
for "SrfiT^rr^^ir^T'^'frpJT ' S'akuntala (recognised) by the token.' 

b. Dependent compounds abound in all the cognate languages. The following 
are examples from Greek and Latin; olvo-QyjKYj, otKO-(f>vka^, XiQo-dTpwTog, 
yvvaiKO-KYjpvKTOs, avSpcoTTO-'^i'^aKTog, Bio-torog, Geo-rpeTTTog, yiipo-iroiyjTog, 
auri-fodina, manu-pretium, parri-cida for patri-cida, parri-cidium, matri-cidium, 
marti-cultor, mus-cerda. English furnishes innumerable examples of dependent 
compounds, ex. gr. ' ink-stand,' ' snow-drift,' ' moth-eaten,' ' priest-ridden,' ' door- 
mat,' ' writing-master,' &c. 

746. This class of compounds has no exact parallel in other 

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it 


is usual in Sanskrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to 
aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical depend- 
ence of one case upon another subsists between the members of 
Dwandwa compounds, since they must always consist of words 
which, if uncompounded, would be in the same case ; and no other 
grammatical connexion exists than that which would ordinarily be 
expressed by the use of the copulative conjunction and in English, 
or ^ in Sanskrit. In fact, the difference between this class and the 
last turns upon this dependence in case of the words compounded 
on each other ; insomuch that the existence or absence of such 
dependence, as deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the 
only guide by which the student is enabled to refer the compound 
to the one head or to the other : thus, JT^^"aj|^ofiT'?T may either be 
a Dependent compound, and mean ' the servants of the pupils of 
the Guru,' or an Aggregative, ' the Guru, and the pupil, and the 
servant.' And Jrra^^itfirnf may either be Dependent, ' the blood of 
the flesh,' or Aggregative, * flesh and blood.' This ambiguity, how- 
ever, can never occur in aggregatives inflected in the dual, and 
rarely occasions any practical difficulty. 

747. There are three kinds of Aggregative compounds: ist, in- 
flected in the plural ; 2d, inflected in the dual ; 3d, inflected in the 
singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the base of the 
word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its 
gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems 
to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless 
the last word ends in ^ a, or in a vowel changeable to ^ a, or in a 
consonant to which ^ a may be subjoined ; and the gender is inva- 
riably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word. 

Inflected in the Plural. 

748. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the 
last is inflected in the plural ; as, ^rtJir^f-j.ilHT^ra ' Indra, Anila, 
Yama, and Arka' (for ^^, ^f^^, tPR^, ■^■^'^) ; TT*lT5^tr;«TWT^, 
' Rama, Lakshmana, and Bharata ;' HTT'^TniTrqj^nfiTTW ' the deer, the 
hunter, the serpent, and the hog.' The learner will observe, that 
although the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, 
each of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plm-al 
signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words 


constituting the compound ; thus, "^T^JTr^^^Tr^^ir-Sr^TTf ' Brahmans, 
KshatriyaSjVais'yas, and S'ddras;' ftr^T^Ti^'^^'^W^^/ friends, neutrals, 
and foes' (for ffl^lftr, -grj^TTft^W^, -51^^^) ; ^fxr^TtefiTf^".»fTnf^ 
' sages, gods, ancestors, guests, and spirits' (for ■^^^, ^^T^f, ftmTH, 
^FSTi?^, >T7nf^ ^) ; ftT?;^TW^J^?k3TTTff ' lions, tigers, and serpents ;' 
'^I^'^7^1f?^T^t?5;HnriftsTT^^zrTmT^ ' f^ogs, vultures, herons, ravens, 
kites, jackals, and crows.' 

749. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enume- 
rated, the last may be inflected in the plural ; as, VKRT^cFiTH^iTV^rpr 
' virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude' (for ^TW^^, ^^^^, "SfiFr^, 
hVsj"^) ; ^^T«nnT;<?T'?rTf^ ' sacrifice, study, and liberality' (for ^tEIT, 
^^t^:i7r, <^"pf ^). In some of the following a plural signification is 
inherent ; as, "^raT^iJc^TlK^TftT ' flowers, roots, and fruits ;' ^"qTr^TTTI^rTst 
' of the unborn, the dead, and the foolish' (for ^'STTlTT^t, J^rTRT, 
5TOTOt^); ^w;s?'^i:-g^rT^TO^'eyes, mind, and disposition;' rt'T^cT^- 
f3:rrT^^"^RJ^"^HTiTf^ ' sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions;' 
^T8'sT(7^T?«'rJTc'57n^Tfrr ' wood, water, fruit, roots, and honey.' 

750. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are 
enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is 
inflected in the plural ; as, ^^i^'^'aiTF ' gods and men ;' "qgrTfr^^ 
' sons and grandsons ;' tiTTrVrtrmT^^ ' falls and rises ;' m^fiRTlfr^iff 
' ramparts and trenches ;' ^TTr^t^'Er ^ in pleasures and pains' (for 
^^■g, ^t^^ ^) ; tiT^^^^^Tf^ ' sins and virtues.' 

Inflected in the Dual. 

751. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of 
which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the 
dual; as, TT'Tc^'S^TnT 'Rama and Lakshmana' (for T"R^, c5^^^) ; 
^^■j?^t 'the moon and sun;' htj^^t^ 'a deer and a crow;' 
iTP^TTTifl' ' wife and husband.' 

752. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in 
each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected 
in the dual ; as, "^R»TT^¥T^ ' beginning and end' (for ^r^?^, •^•^~ 
TTT^ ■^); ^^um^ilFH 'affection and enmity' (for ^^m^^, ^tlTTrr^) ; 
^^^f^^n^ 'joy and sorrow;' i^Tfrprxn^ 'hunger and thirst' (for "Wti^ 
ftRTOT ^) ; "^Smft ' hunger and sickness ;' wr^TH^T«lt ' by standing 
and sitting' (for ^T^"^, wr^^Tf ^) ; ^rVTlfgtft 'honey and ghee;' 
^to;|":^ 'pleasure and pain;' Tc^^T^^W^ 'mortar and pestle;' 


TrWr^TRrfW^T^Twrt ' by rising and saluting- ;' iT|iiT»n ' by earth and 

Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 
753. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whe- 
ther singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be 
inflected as above (748, 749, 750, 751), or in the singular number, 
neut. gender; as, i^tq h^ q,^^ ' flowers, roots, and fruits' (for ■gnnfirr, 
«J<^irH, MirtlPtT ^) ; *I=1*«I^^%^VJT ' grass, food, water, and fuel' (for 
iRH^, ^, 7^, ^f^ ^) ; ?H^1 <l^ ' a day and night' (for ^51^, 
rrf^^) ; f^»^ ^quarters and countries' (for f^^, ^^'^) ; ^^f^ 
'day and night;' f^l^JjH * head and neck;' ^A Hl^l^^fvt 'skin, 
flesh, and blood.' 

a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded ; as, i^c? Mlej 
sons and grandsons ;' 5*1*4 ^BT ' elephants and horses :' especially inferior objects ; 
as, "d^-Hiissirt ' a dog and an outcast.* 

754. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to 
form a Dwandwa compound of this kind, by doubling an adjective or participle, 
and interposing the negative ^ a; as, •<J<l-«<< 'moveable and immoveable' (for 
^TTT ?sf^< ^) ; 3THT5M ' good and evil ;' ftl'mftR ' in agreeable and disagree- 
able' (for f^I'^ wftnr ^) ; "HTTT? ' seen and not seen ;' ojirtlcOfT ' done and not 
done ;' ♦ic»i, ' gentle and cruel.' 

a. In the Dwandwas which occur in the Vedas the first member of the com- 
pound, as well as the last, may sometimes take a dual termination ; thus, Mdi"^- 
^'[ft (see 97. a), ^'tTT^THJ^, f^TiTOTmRT ; and some of the anomalous Dwandwas 
used in more modern Sanskrit are probably Vaidik in their character; thus, 
irmTjftl'^ ' heaven and earth ;' JTTfrr^fTTfTTt ' mother and father,' &c. 

b. Greek and Latin furnish examples of complex compounds involving Dwan- 
dwas ; thus, /3aToa^o-|avo-^aj^<a, 'frog-mouse war;' s«-ovt-^aMnZia,' pig-sheep- 
bull sacrifice ;' ^ao-(fiVTOV, ' animal-plant.' Zoophyte is also a kind of Dwandwa. 
In English, compounds hke ' plano-convex,' ' convexo-concave,' are examples of 
the relative form of Dwandwa explained at 765. 

755. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by means 
of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanskrit to compound 
the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the 
first member of the compound in its crude base ; as, ^rnrsT^^^ ' a 
good man' (for TTT^ tR^) ; f^crfn^ ' an old friend' (for f%T; f^^) ; 
ftlxrHWT* ' a dear wife' (for fjpn m^T); ?riq^fF§T* ' a beautiful wife' 

* The feminine bases of adjectives rarely appear in compounds ; so that fu^- 
>Tn§T and *vM^rtl*TT^T are not found; although there can be no question that 

O O 


(for i^^fft >tt^t) ; ^^rpS"^: * a troubled ocean ;^ qiiq o|iJ# ' a holy 
act ;' ^snpfTTWT ' the infinite soul ;' ^^rTlf^H '^ polished speech ;' 
Mil^ cji^A i fa ' holy acts' (for ^inTlf^ ^'^1%) ; ^W^TTOf ' of the best 
men' (for ■g^TTT'rri ■JTTTOt) ; H?rmTT«B ' a great crime' (see 778) ; 
'TfTTTST^^ ' a great king' (see 778) ; finr^W^^ ' a dear friend' (see 
778) ; ^Vtrr^ ' a long night' (see 778). 

a. An indeclinable word or prefix may sometimes take the place of an adjective 
in this kind of compound; thvis, fl^MVj: 'a good road;' H^«f 'a fine day;' 
^ff^Tffnr ' good speech ;' ^' ' bad conduct ;' ^M^T ' not fear,' &c. ; 'TfVt'^Tt^ 
' external cleanliness' (from vahis, ' externally,' and saucha, ' purity') ; ^IWI'^ft^ 
' internal purity.' 

756. Numerals in their crude state are sometimes found occupying the place of 
adjectives in the first member of a compound of this class ; as, '^^^HT ' the four 
castes ;' M^^«Jl<yT^ ' five arrows.' 

757. Adjectives, used substantively, sometimes occupy the last place in Descrip- 
tive compounds ; as, m i,*i ^TTT'T^H ' a very just man ;' M<.*iian ' a very wonderful 

a. In the same manner, substantives, used adjectively, may occupy the first 
place ; as, 'Tc5"'5^T'ft!T ' impure substances.' 

758. Compounds expressing 'excellence' are said to fall under this class, and 
are composed of two substantives, one of which is used as an adjective to describe 
or define the other, and is placed last, being generally the name of an animal 
denoting ' superiority ;' as, ytxM^H^-q; ' man-bull,' "J^jH^rtl^: ' man-lion,' '5^- 
"trWt ' man-bull,' equivalent to ' an illustrious man.' 

a. The following are examples of Greek and Latin compounds falling under this 
class ; fJLeyako-fJ.'^TYjp, iao-7re^ov, fxeyaXo-voia, y]fji.t-Kvav, sacri-portus, meri-dics 
(for medi-dies), decem-viri, semi-dens. Parallel compounds in English are, ' good- 
will,' ' good-sense,' ' ill-nature,' &c. 

759. A numeral is often compounded with a substantive to form 
a collective noun of the neuter gender ; thus, ^W'^'f ' the four ages' 
(for ^f^Tfr ^mf^) ; '^wff^i ' the four quarters ;' f^ff^ * three days' 
{triduum) ; f^TlT^ ' three nights' (tT^ being substituted for TTf^, 
see 778) ; ^in^ ' three years' {triennium) ; Xf^li^'^ ' the five fires.' 

a. Compare Greek and Latin compounds like Terpaodiov, rpivvKTiov, riQpnrTrov, 
triduum, triennium, trinoctium, quadrivium, quinquertium. 

TTTTT and <s^mM(U are the proper bases of the feminine form of the adjectives. 
There are, however, a few examples of feminine adjective bases in compounds of 
this kind, as stiir*iHVii«i«, where ^f^nft is used substantively. See also 766. a, 


b. Sometimes the final vowel of the substantive is changed to ^ ; as, f^W^ 
the three worlds.' 


760. In this class of compounds the first member must be either 
a preposition (such as ^^, irfw, &c.) or an adverbial prefix (such as 
TTiH ' as/ ^ or ^^^ ' not,' ^ ' with'). The last member is a sub- 
stantive which always takes the form of an accusative case neuter, 
whatever may be the termination of its crude base ; thus, XRir^^ 
* according to faith/ * proportioned to faith' (from t^IT and 'ssnrr). 

a. The majority of these compounds are formed with the adverbial 
preposition ^, contracted into ^ ; thus, ^r^H ' with anger' (from ^ 
and cpt^) ; W[^X ' with respect' (from ^ and 'sn^T) ; ^T^T^tiTlf '^ with 
prostration of eight parts of the body.' 

b. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds formed with other 
prefixes; ^T^'^'ff 'according to seniority;' WT'T'^ 'over every limb' (compare 
730. d); uPri H(*I 'every month' (730. d) ; ^TTH^fV 'according to ride;' 
^IVJI^^lP* or *<H«d+l (49) 'according to one's ability;' TT^Tr^^ 'happily;' 
•sj«1 ajill ' every moment ;' «*1«^ ' before the eyes' (see 778) ; Mfrt**"'^ ' upon the 
shoulders ;' wfv^'^ ' upon the tree ;' ^nr^PT ' without doubt ;' f^Tfr^T^ ' without 

c. Analogous indeclinable compounds are found in Latin and Greek, such as 
admodum, ohviam, affatim, avTi^ifjV, avTi(3tQV, VTrepy-opov, '7rapayj)VjfJ.a. In these, 
however, the original gender is retained, whereas, according to the Sanskrit rule, 
obvium would be written for obviam, and affate for affatim. In Greek compounds 
like avjfxepov, the feminine Vjfxepa appends a neuter form, as in Sanskrit. 

d. The neuter word ^^ ' for the sake of,' ' on account of (see 731. a), is often 
used at the end of compounds ; thus, *sMi'q ' for the sake of sleep ;' <»«*ii^8i»ii<i 
' for the sake of the performance of business.' See, however, 731, note. 


761. The greater number of compounds in the preceding four 
divisions are terminated by substantives, the sense of each being 
in that case absolute and complete in itself. All such compounds 
may be used relatively, that is, as epithets of other words, the final 
substantive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective 
(see 108, 119, 130, 134. a) : and it cannot be too forcibly impressed 
upon the memory that the terms Relative and Bahu-vrihi have 
reference to the adjective use of those compounds only which have 
a substantive in the last member. This is not to be regarded, 



therefore, as a distinct division of the subject of compound words, 
so much as a distinct view of the same subject ; the object of which 
is to show that all compounds, which are in themselves absolute 
and complete in sense, and are terminated by substantives, may be 
used adjectively, and in the relation of an epithet to some other 
word in the sentence. We have given the name relative to com- 
pounds when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their 
being relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they 
usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated 
into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved 
by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words 
by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (^TW). Thus, JT^TV^ 
is a Descriptive compound, meaning ' great wealth,' and may be 
used adjectively in relation to g^M«, as JTfT^nr: "q^^; ' a man ivho 
has great wealth ;' or to ^, as JrfTVrTT ^ ^ a woman who has great 
wealth ;' and M'ould be resolved by commentators into xt^ or Tj^sfl 
JT^^ vpf. In English we have similar compounds, as ' high-minded,' 
' left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive terminating the 
compound is converted into an adjective. 

Relative form of Dependent Compounds. 
762. Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instru- 
mentally dependent at 740) are already in their own nature relative, 
and cannot be used except in connexion with some other word in 
the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially 
those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest 
number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and 
yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by 
declining the final substantive after the manner of an adjective ; 
thus, ^^T^fff^, -fiT^, -fk, ' moon-shaped' (see 119), from the abso- 
lute compound ^^^T^ftT^ ' the shape of the moon.' 

a. Other examples are, ^T^^^, -'^, -^, 'whose form is godlike' (see 108); 
iJJt§TMT^, -■^j -■#, 'splendid as the sun' (108); ^ftcHTT^^, -^, -^ *, 
' elephant-footed' (see 57) ; ^FTTpW^, -W[, -'ff, ' ending at the sea;' ♦i<<yi'n*(^, 
-»?rT, -^, ' terminated by death ;' «JTO"''TrtTH^, -TT, -'f, or ofi^^^^, -"Wl, -'^» 
'headed by Karna;' fqun^iA^^TRT, -HT, -M, 'named Vishnusarma' (see 154); 

* 'TT^ may be substituted for tiT3[ in compounds of this kind, but not after 
^%"!^. See 77S. 


M4!jl!l°h!^^, -^, -Wj ' lotus-eyed' (see 778) ; HRIM^U!^^, -WT, -^, ' called 
Narayana;' V^|^t?^, -f^T, -c5, 'founded on wealth;' rtKj,*i<?mf^ (agreeing 
with VJHiPh), ' money to the amount of a lac;' T^T^^^, -Wf, -"M, ' having a 
club in the hand,' or ' club in hand ;' ^^,M I Pui^, -'ftlT^^, -"ftl, ' arms in hand ;' 
a ll cy^^W g, -Wf, -^, ' net in hand;, ^tq H^qilTT^, -T^ , -'^, 'on the subject of 
flowers,' ' relating to flowers.' These examples are not distinguishable from abso- 
lute dependent compounds, except by declension in three genders. 

763. Many of them, however, are not found, except as relatives; 
and if used absolutely would yield a different sense ; thus, '^^ 
means ' the face of Karna/ but when used relatively to TTWT^, ' the 
kings headed by Karna/ So also ^ii.^"^^^ signifies ' the eye of the 
spy/ but when used relatively to TT^TT, ' a king who sees by means 
of his spies/ the nom. case masc. being then ^TT^TsnT. See 166. a. 

764. The substantive ^f^, ' a beginning,' when it occiu-s in the last member 
of a compound of this nature, is always used relatively to some word expressed or 
understood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is generally found either 
in the plural or neuter singular ; as, ^•^i^M*^^ ' Indra and the others ' (agreeing 
with the nom. case ^T^ expressed or understood, ' the gods commencing with 
Indra'); 'iJJ'MI<f)«i] ' of Agni and the others' (agreeing with "JJlf^iRT understood, 
'of those above-named things of which Agni was the first'); ^*a<^l«{ir»i 'the 
eyes, &c.' (agreeing with ^-^ *4 1 r*n 'the senses commencing with the eyes'). 
When used in the neut. sing, it either agrees \vith "nWI^? 'the aforesaid,' under- 
stood, or with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti * may be 
prefiuxed ; as, ^nf«T?rrf^ ' the word devdn, &c.' (agreeing with "'JIT^ understood, 
'the aforesaid sentence of which devdn is the first word'); ^lllH^ii 'by Uberality, 
&c.' (agreeing with some class of things understood, ' by that class of things of 
which liberality is the first'). 

a. It may occasionally be used in the masc. sing.; as, TTW^TTv^^^ ' brooms, &c.' 
(agreeing with gM*3i<tl ' furniture'). 

b. Sometimes ^Tlf^ is used for 'Sllf^ ; as, '^TTrf^ ' gifts, &c. :' and some- 
times W^ ; as, ^»^lili; ^gTT'^T ' the gods of whom Indra is the first.' 

c. The feminine substantive TW^T ' manner,' ' kind,' may be used in the same 
way ; thus, ^"tJ ^U*TfT^; ^Trnff ' the gods, Indra and the others ;' TT^ ^ITTf^T^- 
■ftnnjlft^ ' of those villagers, &c.' 

d. Observe — The neuter of ^Trf^ may optionally take the terminations of the 
masculine in all but the nom. and accus. cases; thus, ^t(M*Ml^^^' of elephants, 
horses, &c.' (agreeing with frttM gen. neut. of "^^ ' an army'). 

* Sometimes evam is prefixed ; as, ^MHI^fif^ Hf5"nTTf«f ' lamentations begin- 
ning thus.' 


Relative form of Aggregative Compounds. 

765. Aggregative compounds are sometimes used relatively ; as, 
jn^'^rrf>r^"V^^, -cFT, -oR , ' that which is liable to sorrovs^, sickness, 
and death:' especially in the case of adjectives or participles; as, 
YUJI.SJ^^j -W-, -"^^ 'black and white;' ^TrTT^feTm, -TTT, -"ff, 'bathed 
and anointed ;' ^TTTT'1 1 H M^^, -^T, -^, ' city and country ;' ojrrrTRoinnT, 
-HT, -if, ' done and done badly ;' ^^TTTSmH, -m, -H, ' good and evil' 
(754); ^TT^iwnr^, -nrr, -t^, 'thick and unctuous;' Jl^lH^HPri^rhl:^ 
' of him taken and let loose.' Compare Greek compounds like 
XevKo-fxeXaq, ' white and black.' Examples are still more common 
under the head of Complex Compounds. 

Relative form of Descriptive Compounds. 

766. A greater number of compound words may be referred to 
this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds with 
them; thus, ^TW^rf^^^, -f^W, -f^, 'whose strength is small' (119). 

a. Other examples are, T^*'^^^, -t^, -"c^, 'whose strength is great' (108, see 
also 778) ; TfTWirnT, -"STHT, -"STff, ' whose glory is great' (164. a) ; ^ST^flWlW, 
-*rr, -•?, 'whose wealth is small;' H^lrHT, -W\ , -"rW, 'high-minded' (151); 
T^TTTsrHr-rTTr , -irr, -Tf , ' of noble demeanour ;' ^JT^T^, -WJ, -^, ' having 
many fish;' W^ntfi^T^^, -7^, -7^, 'having very httle water;' "TftlSfT^'f^^j 
-'^'T, -fs, ' of wise intellect' (119); ftniHF^'^T, -Wf, -^, ' having a dear wife * ;' 
^T^I^nnVR^, -»TT, -if, 'not to be reconciled;' ^T^TTWR^, agreeing with 
TTiTT, a king who conceals what ought to be concealed.' 

767. Although a passive participle is not often prefixed to a 
noun in an absolute sense, this kind of combination prevails most 
extensively in the formation of relative compounds; as^ inTToirra^, 
-(5T, -<^, ' whose time has arrived.' 

a. Other examples are, fsTfrf^T^^TW, -'m, -'T, 'whose passions are subdued;' 
^1111 ■'iftl^, -TTT^, -HIT, ' whose mind is composed ;' ^^F^^^^' "'^» -*nT » 
'whose mind is rejoiced' (see 164); VTTTfj^^, -^, -'^,' whose hopes are broken;' 
^iTTlTq**^, -a^n, -'5'T', 'whose kingdom is taken away;' ^rftTTTrfSTT^, -'TUT, 
-ITff , ' whose glory is boundless ;' ^1*1^ HT^^, "W^, -W, ' whose death is near ;' 
"^TTWrT^, -^^, -T, 'whose desire is accomplished,' i. e. 'successful;' WrnTT- 
»T«T^j -«TT, -*Tj ' one who has finished eating ;' ^TlfftTTfr^T^pr^, -l^, -^j ' one 

* Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound; as, 
■^IffTHTO^ ' having a sixth wife.' Compare 755, note. 


by whom the S'astras have not been read ;' fH^;^"H^, -"'Crr, -'4, ' whose heart is 

b. Examples of Greek and Latin compounds of this kind are, [J.€yaXo-K((f)aXo^, 
fxeyaXo-fxrjTi^, kivKO-Ttrepog, "nokv-y^vaoq^ ')(j}V(7eo~(XTe(pavoi, rj^v-ykwaao^, 
€pY]fji.o-7roXi$, )nagn'animus, loixji-manus, multi-comus, albi-comus, jmiltl-vius, atri- 

c. In Enghsh compounds of this kind abound ; ex. gr. ' blue-eyed,' ' narrow- 
minded,' ' good-tempered,' ' pale-faced,' &c. 

Relative form of Collective Compounds. 

768. Collective or Dwigu compounds may be used relatively ; as, 
f^TI^^^, -tft, -^, ' two-leaved;' fd^rSi^W ^^, -"Jft, -"jf, ' tri-ocular/ 

a. Other examples are, f^TJ^^, -|j^, -^, 'three-headed' (JT# being substituted 
for ^"JT, see 778); •^H Ai?l«, -'^, -^, 'four-faced;' ^^WWt^IIH, -WT, -^jf, 
' quadrangular ;' ^ri §!<«, -TT, -t , ' hundred-gated ;' ^wftlHT, -JH, -?f , ' pos- 
sessed of the four sciences;' ¥^HT^^^, -"^^ -T^, 'thousand-eyed' (see 778); 
■R^TTT^TT^, -TT, -'«Tj ' having the wealth of five bullocks.' 

Relative form of Adverbial or Avyayi-bhdva Compounds. 

769. The adverbial compounds most frequently employed rela- 
tively as adjectives are those formed with the adverbial preposition 
;h^ 'with/ contracted into iff; thus, ^T^^, ->n, -V, ^ angry' (lit. 
* with-anger/ * having anger') ; ^HIk?^, -c^T, -f5, ' fruitful' (108) ; 
fi v^rtm, -■'^^, -"w, ' possessed of kindred' (119) ; ^nj^lT, -^, -^, 
'energetic;' ^ift^«, -^^\, -^, 'possessed of life,' 'living;' ^TpT'?^^, 
-'^, -v^, 'joyful;' ^;^fg^, -'^, -•#, 'accompanied by ministers;' 
?nTT§^ * accompanied by a wife,' ' having a wife ;' ^sT^, -"rirrj -Tq", 
' strung' (as a bow, lit. ' with-bowstring'). 

a. Sometimes the affix '^ ka is pleonastically added; as, '^TW^W, -'^, -'^, 
' possessed of fortune ;' Al 4t:(t=S^, -'^T, -'^, ' accompanied by women.' Compare 
80. XVII. 

b. The foUomng are examples of other nouns combined with adverbial prefixes, 
so as to form relative compounds: "^^^^^j -VT, -V, 'with uplifted weapon;' 
*TRTTT«liTt?T, -T\, -t, 'of various shapes;' ^if^^H^^, -W, -1i, 'half-eaten;' 
fiTlTTr^H, -TTT, -^, 'where dweUing?' ^^T^STT, -"'TT, -•*?, 'where born?' 
f^TTTTOVH, -VT, -■^, '^vithout fault;' f^TfRTff, -TT, -t, 'having no food;' 
^rnrNr, -)^, -f^, ' fearless' (123. b) ; ^TfTTinT, -ITT, -Tf, ' unknown ;' ITSTrf^- 
V^, -VT, -V, ' of that kind,' ' in such a state ;' jffl^> -f%?5 -'fe? ' weak- 
minded;' |!^f"fiT^j -'firW» -fir, 'ill-natured' (see 72); ^5^3^> -^» -^» 
' handsome-faced ;' ^T^f^T^, -f^^> -fli > ' of good understanding.' Some of the 



above may be regarded as the relative form of Descriptive compounds, formed 
with indeclinable prefixes ; see 755. a. Similar compounds in Greek and Latin are, 
aryvaTog, av-vifxepog, tv-OYiXog, iwimicus, in-felix, dis-similis, semi-pleiius. 

c. Observe — The adverbial prefixes lifr and H (726. d.f) impart a passive sense 
to participial nouns of agency, just as ova and €v in Greek ; thus, ^'^^ ' difficult 
to be done,' 'g^ ' easy to be done ;' <I#>T ' difficult to be obtained,' ^o5H ' easy 
to be attained;' JW^ 'difficult to be crossed.' Compare the Greek ev(f)Opoiy 
' easy to be borne ;' IvaTTOpog, ' difficult to be passed,' &c. 

d. *< «iix<«, -"^T, -■^, ' possessed of a master,' is sometimes used at the end of 
compounds to denote simply ' possessed of,' ' furnished with ;' thus, f^TTTT'^RT^ 
n^lrtlrtrt ' a stone-seat furnished with a canopy ;' f^«5T''?ig^*i 1 1 Wt TT!?'?: ' an 
arbour having a marble-slab as its master,' i. e. ' furnished with,' ' provided with,' 
&c. Similarly, ^,«l<**HIV|t '=(7 Tl<m ' a fig-tree occupied by a nimiber of 

e. Observe — The relative form of a compound would be marked in the Veda by 
the accent ; thus in mahd-bdhus, ' great arm,' the accent would be on the last 
syllable ; but in mahd-bdhus, ' great armed,' on the ante-penultimate. 

/. Note, that ^TTFR^ and 'CT are used at the end of relative compounds to 
denote ' composed of,' ' consisting of;' but are more frequently found at the end 
of complex relatives ; 866774. 


770. We have now to speak of those complex compound words, 
or compounds within compounds, which form the most remarkable 
feature in Sanskrit composition. Instances might be given of 
twenty or thirty words thus compounded together; but these are 
the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and 
are only curious as showing that the power of compounding words 
may often be extravagantly abused. But even in the best specimens 
of Sanskrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, 
or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving 
two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to 
determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules pro- 
pounded in the preceding pages ; in proof of which the student has 
only to study attentively the following examples. 

Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete 
and unconnected, are not rare. 

a. The following are examples : c|rrapfTT:T^f^3I>TJ"5I>TTf^ ' good and evil 
(occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time,' the whole being a depend- 
ent, involving a dependent and an aggregative ; ^^T'lfrT^f^pfl^T ' the general 


of the army and the overseer of the forces,' the whole beitifr an aggreorative, 
involving two dependents ; ■^I^oFTTTTlTH'T^'nif ' the protection from sorrow, 
enemies, and perils,' the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative; 
'ST^VtiTri 'W^f I4M ' the disregarded words of a friend,' the whole being a descrip- 
tive, involving a dependent; ^HTg^.T^CT^TW 'a white robe and a string of 
garlands,' the whole being an aggregative, involving a descriptive and dependent; 
^TT^TT^mT^T^^ ' one who has gone to the opposite bank {para) of all the 
Sastras,' i. e. ' one who has read them through ;' ^■^iTT^rT^'Vr^ ' the bones of a 
dead Hon.' 

771. The greater number of complex compounds are used as 
adjectives, or relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sen- 
tence ; thus, 3Tff55Tr^m;"JTir?RT, -ift, -"JT, ' whose teeth and eyes were 
decayed,^ the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving 
an aggregative ; TTrgflM emjH * having a throat emaciated with hunger,* 
the whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving a de- 

a. Other examples are, ^liTTTW"^^^"^^, -'^, -'^■> ' having a white garland 
and unguents,' the whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a 
descriptive ; ql'sT'T'eFTT^, -TIT, -if, ' done in a former birth,' the whole being 
a dependent, involving a descriptive; T%^rnT^r^^^j "^5 -^? advanced in 
learning and age,' the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative ; ^mI- 
Tr¥?J»frfV5T^5 -«TT, -■?[} ' having fresh garlands, and being free fi-om dust,' the 
whole being the relative form of aggregative, involving a descriptive and depend- 
ent ; ^rfW^otrrf^f^TF, -THT, "^1' 'whose head was moist with unction;' 
WfWtrJT^^, -WT, -'^, 'having the face turned in any direction one hkes ;' 
STFTH^r^T^, -^T, -#, ' spear and club in hand ;' ??:^TT^f?!tT?^f'^lT^^, -TH, 
-if, 'sufficient for support during one night' (see 778); ^^TTT^t^T^TIjir^^"- 
?r»-WI'5jr*T5rT^ ' acquainted with the meaning of the three Vedas, called Rig, 
Yajur, and Sama' (agreeing with f^^^) ; W?^^^'5[<57rW5WT^^ ' biting their 
lips and having red eyes' (agreeing with TTtjiiIT) ; 1TT*'^T?^^WVT^ injuring 
another by action or by intention.' 

772. The substantive ^rrft^, ' a beginning,' often occurs in complex relative 
compounds, with the force of et cetera, as in simple relatives at 764; thus, ■^"^TTT- 
ir^iT^XRT ' parrots, starlings, &c.' (agreeing with llfl^I!;^ ' birds beginning with 
parrots and starlings'), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving 
an aggregative ; wf^f^?!?!!^ ' peace, war, &c.' (agreeing with "'J^T'^ under- 
stood) ; 'T^'^Trn"RTf^",''T^i^ , -'^T, -'^, 'possessed of houses, temples, &c. ;' 
ohfc.ri ij I ,<*^'^T Tf^ ,M riT:d,r("^T^^, -^, -'^, ' possessed of elei)hants, horses, trea- 
suries, and other property.' 

a. Similarly, '^T?I in the example '^'^'T'lTS^IfTTr^ (agreeing with ??'3T^^' garlands 
possessing the best odour and other qualities'). 



773. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the 
last word and proceeding regularly backwards, as in the following ; »T^^T^«h<,r»i- 
<*<,^*,H»,4M</Hrc4rt a^Yfcfirtl f«5iy|*<^nd <*«<?! j<4^:, -^, -^, 'causing pleasure 
by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hum emitted by the 
swarms of joyous bees.' 

774. -wiwoti or '^TT, as occupying the last place in a complex relative, denote 
'composed of;' thus, ^*« "d^cq^i^f^ird^ofi^^oiiMrKsJi "^75 'a force consisting of 
elephants, horses, chariots, infantry, and servants;' Mi'n'»i,«««n^';'«wn «!\^ a»«**i*iii 
' the two actions consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.' 

775. Complex compovmds may sometimes have their second or middle member 
elided or omitted ; thus, ^TH^T »T^ :^l 31 11 rt i is really a complex compound, the 
whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent ; but the middle member ^JTT is 
eUded : see 745. a. Similarly, ^rRTCfTf^^lT ' the era-king' is for ^T^rftnT^^Trf^^ 
' the king (beloved) by the era.' 

a. Sometimes the substantive verb 'to be' may be inherent in a relative com- 
pound ; as, TTTT'HTfrr^n^'lW ' his success was proportionate to his undertakings ;' 
Vlril^rftf ' on his drinking water,' for im '^TT>TftT TfriT ^TflT. 

776. Complex compound adverbs, or indeclinable compounds, 
involving other compounds, are sometimes found ; as, ^nT|rf^fT?R7rr 
* not differently from one's own house ;' ^n^twTTTnT^T^t ' after utter- 
ing a sound ;' ^crT>n;^'^HH •*iWW ^j H M^ ' regardlessly of the curving of 
her waist bending under the weight of her bosom ;' ij^rdy^^ri ^ as 
seen and heard.' 


777. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation 
to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. Amongst 
these may be placed those compounds expressive of ' comparison' or ' resemblance,' 
usually included under the Karma-dharaya or Descriptive class. In these the 
adjective is placed last; as, "Sfnrn^^rJ^, -'^, -(^j 'fickle as a shadow;' qsa^m- 
inT"^^, -■^ft, -'^, 'like a clap of thunder;' "Rj^qfl^, -jtt, -4, 'like foam;' 
^Tf^^TTTH^, -HT, -jf , ' dark as a cloud;' HVrf^TSft'S^, -#r, -?lf, ' spread out 
Uke a mountain;' 'i^j/'^^.c^c^.'^Mc*^, -cJT, -c5, 'unsteady as a trembling 
drop of water;' ^rf^'fl^^rt^nlq n<rt^, -HT, -c5, 'tremulous as water on the 
leaf of a lotus :' the last two examples are complex. 

a. '^f5I, i^^^, ^, '^'HT, MT^i afilxed to crude bases, form anomalous com- 
pounds; see 80. XX. XXL and 919. 

b. There is a common anomalous compound formed by placing ■«i»fl<. after a 
crude base, to express ' another,' ' other ;' as, ♦*<i«ii»flT or ^^fTpflT ' another 
place;' TT'TT'rt<<!.i ^^ ' along with another king;' IP'TprrTTfW ' other births.' The 
following examples, also, are not readily assignable to any class : W^TlftfVinfhft 


' a fighter who abandons all idea of life ;' ^TT^T^Tfhl^, -"Wf, -TT, ' accompanied 
by the Sarasa* ;' 'UdB^Ml^^, -gT, -f , ' never before seen.' 

c. 'Q§ or lJ<+ or ""ITt^TT (meaning literally 'preceded by') may be added to 
crude bases to form a kind of anomalous compound, as in the following example ; 
TnrnT^JT ^sr^ ^^ ' he gave food with reverence.' See 792. 


778. The following is an alphabetical list of the substitutions or 
changes which take place in the final syllables of certain words, 
when used at the end of compounds. Observe — The most common 
substitution is that of 'sr a for the final vowel or final consonant and 
vowel of a word. 

W^ m. for ^^ n. ' the eye.' '^W*' ™- in ^ ^^^ compounds for ^^"frt f. ' the 

finger.' 'Hyc* m. in a few compounds for -et^rrt m. 'joining the hands in 

reverence.' ^SI m, joined with a few inseparable prepositions for ^JSJ'^T m. ' a 

road.' ■st«m in Karma-dharaya compounds for ^•Tff n. ' a cart,' a carriage.' 

viMt* in Karma- dharayas for -sj^tf^n. 'iron.' '^TSpT in Karma-dharayas for 

'»i<5H'H m. 'a stone.' ^T¥^ in Dwandwas for vtslNr^^m. n. 'the knee.'' — ^3W 

for vifti f. ' an angle.' ^^ for ^T^*? n. ' a day.' vj^* in the first member of a 

compound for Wf «T n. ' a day.' — ^3T^ at the end of a few compounds for ^33 "^/^n. 

^ for ^ni f.' water.' T^ in a few Karma-dharayas for T^«T m.' an ox.' 

T^THT in the beginning of Dwandwas for TR^^n. f.'the dawn.' "^W*^ (fem. "^ilft) 

for «^« n. 'an udder.' — <*igi<^ in a few Bahu-vrihis for 'BT^ m. 'the palate.' 

W^ for eFT^ m.'the belly.' TPV in Karma-dharayas for V^ m.' smell.' 

T^ in Dwigus for jft m. f. ' an ox.' »rrf»T for jfTTT f. * a wife.' — '3^ and '5 

in Bahu-vrihis for Wf^ n. 'the knee.' THHT in Karma-dharayas (preceded by 

"5T, ^Tofj or ^T'V) for fl*i« n. ' darkness.' — ^ in a few Bahu-vrihis for ^nf m. ' a 

tooth;' the feminine may be ^ift. f^TT in the beginning of a few compounds 

for n^qn m. 'the day.' 'r^^ at the end of a few compounds for ^ 'yielding 

milk.' eiMl as the first member of a compound for i^ f.' heaven.' ^•"««»l for 

VW^ n.'a bow.' 'VITST for VJT m. 'virtue,' 'duty.' >IT for VT; f.'a load.' '5TM 

for "STrfiT f. ' the navel.' — "^jm for "t^ f . ' a ship.' V^ for xrftT*T m. ' a road.' 

VJ^ for ^T^ m. ' a foot;' the feminine may be ''I^T. "'pT for MfllT f. ' an army.' 

^^f^^ at the end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^, or HT) for THTT f. — "3^ 

at the end of Karma-dharayas for "aiH^ m. ' a Brahman.' *T»T for HPT f. ' the 

earth.' >I^ in a few Dwandwas for ^f. ' the eye-brow.' TfRT in Dwandwas 

* So WTrfiriftTi: in Nala, translated by Bopp umbra geminatus. 

p p a 



for JR^ n. ' the mind*.' — H^ at the end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by % and 
f^) for JJ^t^m. ' the head.' — JT^ and Tft at the end of anomalous compounds 

(preceded by ftTrTT, Jmn, &c., see 754. a) for ^^ m. f. n. ' great.' *r^ at the 

beginning of Karma-dharaya and Bahu-vrihi compounds for JTfWm.f.i).* great f.' 

^>nT at the end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^, ^, 'ST^, *n^) for HVT f. 

' intellect.' TT»T at the end of Karma-dharayas for TXW*^ m. ' a king;' see 151.0. 

TTW in Dwigus, Karma-dharayas, and Dwandwas, for Ttf^ f. ' night.' T^ 

in Karma-dharayas for ^^ n.' splendour.' "^T^ in Karma-dharayas and Bahu- 
vrihis for ^R^ n. ' fehcity.' ^ for "'gt^m.'a dog.' '^ in A^yayi-bhavas and 

Bahu-vrihis for TT^ ' %vith.' — Wopq' in Karma-dharayas and Bahu-vrihis for TrfoTO 

n. the thigh.' ^^ in Karma-dharayas and Dwigus for "^^ m. ' a friend.' 

^FTT^ in Karma-dharayas for ^R:TT n. ' a lake.' ^ for '^'^ n. ' the heart.' 

779. '^^ is found in the beginning of certain anomalous compounds (such as 
^STf^T:, -SI^WTrt^, &c.) for TfT or '5I^T^ ' I.' 

780. Numerals, when preceded by particles, prepositions, or other numerals, 
may change their finals to ^ a ,• or if their final letter be a consonant, may either 
drop that consonant or add ^ a to it ; thus, fWdf (nom. -Wf\, -W^, -^"fe) 
'two or three;' '^^[^ (nom. -"ETT^^, -m^, -"mfm) 'five or six;' Tq^'gi: (nom. 
-TT^) ' nearly four.' 

Compound Nouns formed from roots combined with Prepositions. 

781. In the next section it will be shown that the combination of 
roots with prepositions prevails most extensively in Sanskrit. From 
roots thus combined nouns of the most various significations may be 
formed ; thus, from ^ ' to seize/ with f^ and W^, is formed ^'^^T 
' practice ;' from -^ ' to do/ with ^^, ^ofipc ' imitation.' Hardly 
a line can occur in any book that does not afford an example of 
this kind of compound. 


782. The learner might look over the list of 2000 simple roots, 
and well imagine that in some of these would be contained every 
possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions and adverbial 
prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root would be 
unnecessary. But in real fact there are comparatively very few 

* ^^H^ ' speech and heart,' which is the example given by Panini (V. 4. 77). 
occurs in Manu II. 160. 

t As Ji^r^TrJ ' a great family ;' see also 755. In Tat-purusha or dependent 
compounds W^rT is retainer! ; thus. ^^'^^T?: ' recourse to the great.' 


Sanskrit roots in common use ; and whilst those that are so appear 
in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or two or 
even three prepositions, the remainder are almost useless for any 
practical purposes, except the formation of nouns. Hence it is that 
compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than simple ones. 

They are formed in two ways : ist, by combining roots with pre- 
positions ; 2dly, by combining the auxiliaries W ' to do' and ^ ' to 
be' with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions with roots. 
783. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in 
combination with roots : 

a. '^rfir ati, ' across,' ' beyond;' as, ^rffHTT, Wift (pres. '^nTfir, &c.), '^TfrTai'T, ' to 
pass by,' ' to pass along,' ' to transgress.' 

b. '^rfVl adhi, ' above,' ' upon,' ' over;' as, ^fv^T 'to stand over,' 'to preside' 
(pres. ^^rftlfriairH) ; ^rftr^ ' to climb upon ;' ^1V^ ' to lie upon ;' ^lf>rTT^' to 
go over towards ;' '^STVfl' ' to go over,' in the sense of ' reading.' 

c. '3T"3 anu, ' after ;' as, "ST^^T ' to follow ;' ^Jf»jaT ' to follow,' in the sense of 
'performing;' WToF ' to imitate;' ^^"^T ' to assent.' With >|^it signifies ' to 
experience,' ' to enjoy.' 

d. '^RTT aw ^ar, 'within' (Latin inter); as, '^niTVT 'to place within,' 'to conceal,' 
in pass. ' to vanish ;' ^ra^' to be within ;' W^iT^ ' to walk in the midst.' 

e. ^ni apa, ' ofp,' ' away' {airo) ; as, '^rq'T'T, ^^^, "^^ (from ^TT and ^), ' to 
go away;' ^HTrft'to lead away;' '^RoF^'to abstract;' ^HT^'to bear away.' 
It also implies ' detraction ;' as, ^1«l*? ' to defame.' 

/. ^rfxi api, ' on,' ' over,' 'up,' only used with >n and «Tf ; as, ^fiWr ' to shut up ;' 
wftR^ ' to bind on.' The initial a is generally rejected, leaving ■ftl>JT, T^R^. 

(J. ■^H abhi/ to,' 'towards' (ctt/); as, ^f«^, ^T^ft, 'to go towards;' ^miT^ 
' to run towards ;' Wl>?"^ ' to behold ;' ^f*?"^ or ^rfHVT (see VT at 664) ' to 
address,' ' to accost,' ' to speak to,' ' to salute.' 

k. ^S^ ava, 'down,' 'off;' as, ^R^, '^TTff, 'to descend;' ^IT^ ' to look 
down ;' 'H'^lch ' to throw down,' ' to scatter ;' TJi-^ejirt ' to cut off.' It also implies 
'disparagement;' as, ^ST^^'to despise;' ^nfi^^ ' to insult.' With VT (3d c. 
■siqf^tufn), ' to attend.' 

i. ^n a, ' to,' ' towards,' ' up' (Latin ad) ; as, Wlf^^ ' to enter ;' ^rraW ' to go 
towards ;' 'illij^ ' to mount up.' When j)refixed to TH, "m, and ^, ' to go,' and 
^ ' to give,' it reverses the action ; thus, ^TPT'T, ^STHTT, T^, ' to come ;' ^T^T ' to 
take.' With ^^, 'to practise.' 

./. TW M^ 'up,' ' upwards' (opjwsed to f^) ; as, T5T (48), ^f<?, ' to go up,' ' to 
rise' (pres. ■g^xrrfiT, ist conj.); TT^ 'to fly up;' Tg^^ ' to strike up' (TjT and 


•^^5 50) ; T^ (^W and ^, see 50) * to extract ;' "^'f^T'^ and d»*flc4 (47) ' to open 
the eyes;' "^'l^Tf, Tf^a[^, 'to cut up;' T?^ 7^ ' to root up;' Tfsj 'to lift up' 
(■Jf^ and ftl, 49). 

AVhen prefixed to the roots WT and ^tT'^T it causes the elision of s; as, TrTT to 
stand up ;' •a ■?(♦♦? ' to prop up.' In some cases it reverses the action ; as, from 
■TTT'to fall,' "Trin^'to leap up;' from «T'^'to bend down,' ^^(47) 'to raise 
up ;' from '^^^ ' to keep down,' 3a«1 * to lift up.' 

k. TT Mjofl, 'to,' 'towards' (vTro), ' near,' joined like 'STT and ^!rf>T to roots of 
motion ; as, "^'XHTT ' to approach ;' TT^T ' to wait upon ;' 3M*?m ' to stay near,' 
' to be present,' ' to arrive.' With f^ (6th c. ^TpsJ^lfff), ' to sit down ;' with 
^■RT, 'to sit near.' 

I. mT ni, ' down,' ' downwards,' ' under' (opposed to Tff) ; as, "nTTTT ' to fall 
down ;' f«nT»T^ ' to suppress ;' fsTf^T"^ and P*1*flc<4 ' to close the eyes ;' f^f^iT, 
f»TVT, "JT^, 'to lay down,' 'to deposit;' frTftr^T 'to go within,' 'to encamp.' 
With Yft it signifies ' to return,' ' to desist ;' with "^JJ^f ' to hear.' In some cases 
it does not alter the sense ; as. Pi ^ ri ' to kill.' 

?«. ff{Z nir, ' out;' as, f«T^T (see 72), 'ftf^, f«Tt^ (71. a. c), ' to go out,' 'to 
come out;' P«i*^TT 'to cut up;' fcT^fT 'to come to an end,' 'to cease;' P«lPsJ 
(71.6) 'to determine.' 

n. VJ^ para,' h&ck' 'backwards' {irapd), combined with f»T and >J in the sense 
of ' defeat;' as, ^TUf'T 'to overcome' (cf. TiapaviKao), ^Esch. Choe.); 'TTT^J^'to be 
defeated.' ^Yhen joined with ^, 2d conj., it signifies 'to retire towards' (pres. 
irnr) ; when with ^, ist conj. Atm., ' to run away,' ' to retreat,' r being changed 

to I (pres. xr?rni). 

o. "Tfr pari, ' around' (Trepi, per) ; as, ''Tfc^i ^^^J ' ^^ surround ;' mP<"<i^, 
■TftTnT, ' to go round ;' '^^'^ ' to look round,' ' to examine ;' Mp<«jii^ ' to turn 
round ;' "TfOIT^ ' to run round.' When prefixed to cF it signifies ' to adorn,' and 
^ is inserted, Mp<«<fi. With H^, ' to despise,' and with ^, ' to avoid.' It some- 
times merely gives intensity or completeness to the action ; as, 'TiTiT'T * to abandon 
altogether;' MPi^sjil ' to ascertain completely.' 

p. Tt pra, 'before,' 'forward' (TTpo, pro, prce); as, THT'T, U^^, 'to proceed;' 
ITTH 'to set before,' 'to present;' TTai'T 'to begin;' HTff 'to proceed,' 'to begin;' 
lj>n^ ' to run forward ;' TTWI ' to set out,' ' to advance ;' Tt^^' to be superior,' ' to 
prevail;' vctf^l ' to foresee.' With c5*T, ' to deceive.' Observe — In combination 
with verbs beginning with e or this preposition generally drops its final a; as, 
HMMlfii ' I send,' from TI and ^^HT, causal base of ^^ ' to go.' Similarly, H'aTrt 
' he trembles' (3d sing, of ej with pra). 

The r of pra influences a following nasal by 58 ; as, TTOT'^ ' to bend before,' to 
salute.' Sometimes U does not alter the sense of a root, as in ITPJ ' to obtain' 
(5th c. ; see 681). 


q. TTfil * prati, ' against/ ' towards,' ' back again;' as, TTftT^V ' to fight against ;' 
ITfft ' to go towards' (pres. UrMpM) ; llfiPT'T ' to go towards,' ' to return ;' ITnT^ 

* to counteract ;' BPrf^^ ' to beat back,' ' to repel ;' irfiTT^ ' to answer ;' nfiTH^T 
*to recover;' nfd »fl ' to lead back;' ufdH'^ 'to re-salute.' With '^, 'to pro- 
mise;' with ^, 'to arrive at,' 'to obtain;' with ^'^, 'to wait for,' 'to expect.' 
Sometimes it does not alter the sense of the root ; as, h Td «l ^^ ' to dwell.' 

r. f% ?7J, 'apart,' implying * separation,' ' distinction,' ' distribution,' ' dispersion' 
(Latin dis, se) ; as, f^TC ' to wander about ;' f^'^c^ ' to vacillate ;' T%^ ' to roam 
for pleasure;' f^^ 'to dissipate;' f^ 'to tear asunder;' T^H»^ ' to divide;' 
rqPq-q^ ' to distinguish.' Sometimes it gives a privative signification ;' as, T^TJi^ 
'to disunite;' f%W 'to forget;' f^^ 'to sell.' With "^j'to change for the 
worse.' Sometimes it has no apparent influence on the root ; as, Iq *i ^l^ ' to 
perish ;' f^f^n^ ' to think.' 

s. '^M sam, ' with,' 'together with' (a-vv, con); as, ^ST^, Ǥ'^, 'to collect;* 
W|J3^ ' to join together ;' ^I^»^ ' to meet together ;' «<*M^ 'to happen;' ^rf^^'to 
contract.' With "Sfi" it signifies 'to perfect,' and ^^is inserted, ^ff^. It is often 
prefixed without altering the sense ; as, ?I^«^ ' to be produced.' 

784. Two prepositions are often combined with a root ; as, ^qj^ 

* to open' (f^, ^n) ; ^rq^ (10th c.) ^ to kill ;' ^tjttTH ^ to go under/ 
' to undergo/ '^ to arrive at' (■giT, W[) ; ^ Ho assemble' (^, ^rr, 
with root ^) ; llftrqw ' to prostrate one's self (u, fsT, 58) ; if^ ^ to 
raise up' (n, T7T, with root ^) : and occasionally three; as, "R^T^ 
' to predict' (tt, f^, ^t) ; ITW^T^ ' to answer' (TTfrT, TTT, '3TT). Other 
combinations of three prepositions, occasionally prefixed to roots, 
are ^ + -jq + ^ ; ^rfir + f^ + ^ ; ^ + ^sifW + 11; ^tt + ^ + Tl ; 
^ + ^ + f^. 

a. Observe — Excepting in the case of IT above, prepositions ending in vowels 
combine with roots beginning with vowels according to the rules of Sandhi ; thus, 
^ with ^ ' to go' becomes ?? (32), and in pres. ^fir (^ + Vf^ 33), &c. ; in pot. 
^^ (^TT + J^t), &c. ; in imp. ^TTm^T (^ + "TTf'T), &c. ; in ist pret. ^TR, ^^ 
(645, 33), &c. Similarly, ^^ with ^fH becomes W^lfk by 33. 

785. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, 
the augment and reduplication do not change their position, but are 
inserted between the preposition and the rootf; as, m5*ii4, ist pret. 

* The final i of the prepositions IlfiiT, "qft, f^", is optionally lengthened in 
forming certain nouns from compound verbs; as, HrtlohK, M<J?i*ii ni^iTT. 

t There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Mahabharata; as in ^^^^T^^IT 
(Mahabh. Selections, p. 33). 


of rft, with Tift:; "^tirf^, I St pret. of f^, with Tq; ^T^^ftr?, ist 
pret. of ^T, with ^; Trfffinn^, 2d pret. oi' ■^, with irfw; in-ni^ TT, 
2d pret. of ^, with n and ^7^^. 

786. Grammarians restrict certain roots to particular voices, w hen 
in combination with particular prepositions ; as, for example, the 
root f^ * to conquer/ with i^, and the root f%^ ' to enter,' with ftr, 
are restricted to the i^tmane-pada ; but no certain rules can be 
propounded on this subject : and in the two epic poems especially 
the choice of voice seems generally arbitrary and subservient to the 
purposes of metre *. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs ivith the roots 
cF kri and >T bhd. 

787. These are of two kinds; ist, those formed by combining 
adverbs with "^ ' to make' and >T ' to become ;' 2dly, those formed 
by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. 

a. Examples of the first kind are, ^Tc^"^ ' to adorn ;' ^Tf^t^ ' to 
make manifest' (see 72); ^f^n:^ ' to eject;' ^-^ "^to place in front,' 
' to follow ;' fV?TTW ' to deprive ;' ^i^ ' to entertain as a guest ;' 
^T?T'^ ' to revere ;' ^T^T^, UT;^, ' to become manifest,' &c. 

788. In forming the second kind, the final of a crude word, being 
a or a, is changed to i ; as, from ^HiT, W^fNr 'to make ready,' 
^nrfbr * to become ready ;' from "sirail, ofrmftofr ' to blacken ;' from 
Tlfr^OT ' a ditch,' Tifc^cF ' to convert into a ditch :' and sometimes 
a becomes a ; as, ftnrrar from f^n. A final i or m is lengthened ; 
as, from ^f'^, ^^>T^'to become pure ;' from f5^, pJfW 'to lighten.' 
A final ri is changed to Tfl" ri ; as, from jttw, TT^Ih ' to become a 
mother.' A final as becomes either ^ (as, from TT?R^, ^iffftH ' to be 
of good mind') or asi (as, from %T^^, f^T^rHn ' to place on the head'). 

a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from crude 
nouns in a. The following are other examples: '?nfftoir 'to esteem as a straw;' 
«-*iT<* * to stiffen ;' li<*rMrlb|^' to fix the mind on one object ;' ^ftoF ' to make 
one's own,' ' to claim as one's own ;' ^^>T ' to become friendly.' Substantives are 
sometimes formed from these; as, ^^^TR'the state of being friendly,' 'friendship.' 

* Thus, ir?^ ' to strive' and TTT^ ' to beg for,' which are properly A'tmane-pada 
verbs, are found in the Parasmai. Instances of passive verbs taking Parasmai 
terminations have been given at 253. b. On the other hand, '57'? ' to rejoice,' which 
is properly a Parasmai-pada verb, is found in the A'tmane. 


b. Observe — This mode of compounding nouns and adverbs with kri and bhu 
is by Indian grammarians technically termed chwi. These compounds, however, 
rarely occur, excepting in the form of passive participles * ; and it may be ques- 
tioned whether the genius of Sanskrit favours the combination of any other part 
of speech but a preposition with the tenses of verbs. In Greek and Latin, on the 
other hand, the composition of nouns with verbs is not unusual. 

789. Sometimes ^TTiT, placed after a crude noun, is used to form a compound 
verb of this kind ; as, from "ST^y ' water,' »1c6MlrJ ' to reduce to hquid ;' from 
>?W*T ' ashes,' >T9TOTi^ (57) ' to reduce to ashes.' These compounds, like the 
last, are rarely found, excepting in the form of past passive participles. 


790. Compound adverbs are formed, ist, by combining adverbs, 
prepositions, and adverbial prefixes, with nouns in the nom. or 
accus. singular neuter ; 2dly, by placing adverbs, or adjectives used 
as adverbs, after the crude base of nouns. 

a. The first kind are identical with indechnable compounds at 
760, and the greater number are formed with the adverbial preposi- 
tion ^ saha, contracted into ^ sa ; as, from ^ ' anger,' ^^ 

* angrily ;' from ^SfT^ ' respect,' ^ETT^t ' respectfully ;' from 'ST^T^TIT 

* prostration of the Umbs,' ^T^^mif ' reverentially.' 

b. The following may be taken as examples of compound adverbs formed with 
other prefixes : ^"T^¥ ' according to seniority ;' WW^ * over every limb ;' 
MPriH I ti* ' every month ;' i|VJ| r^fvi ' according to rule ;' ir«irTS[Tf^ or *4iqfla«w* 
'according to one's power;' ^tTW^ffT^ 'happily;' "^W^ 'before the eyes' (^T^ 
being substituted for ^f^, see 778) ; ^TO^ ' undoubtedly ;' fv^f^^ ' without 

791. Most of the adverbs at 731 may be placed after the crude 
base of nouns ; thus, ■«!rM'*;^*Ov * near the child ;' CT^pi ' for the 
sake of protection ;' f^^ ' on what account?' ^f'^^K^ipf'^t ' after 
uttering a sound.' 

792. tr§ or ^;§'^ or tn::^t {meaning literally ' preceded by') is 
placed after crude bases to denote ' the manner' in which any thing 
is done ; as, "^tUTI^ ' with anger.' See 777. c. 

793. A kind of compound adverb, implying * reciprocity,' is formed 

* Generally as past passive participles ; thus, 'SfO^'rt ' adorned ;' TnjHTT ' become 
manifest ;' U-nO^ ' made ready ;' '?5"^"'T " lightened.' The future passive parti- 
ciple is sometimes found so compounded ; as, «1 ^KMi\ *i ' to be agreed to.' 

298 SYNTAX. 

by doubling u noun, lengthening the final of the first word, and 
changing the final of the last to i ; as, from 7^^ ' a stick,^ (?mi^ftj5 
' mutual striking ;' ^^^f^T ' share by share ;' ^iRf^T^^fe ' club to 
club ;' WSl^fs ' fist to fist.' 

a. Something in the same manner, W^ and XTT, ' another,' are 
doubled; thus, '^nifN, xi^?qt, '^mutually,' '^together.' 

h. The indeclinable participle ^TRW?, ' having begun,' is joined with ^ra,' to-day' 
(^?r'R*'?)j in the sense of ' fi'om this time forward;' and with the crude bases of 
other words to express 'beginning from;' see 925. IT*jflT is placed adverbially 
after words, in the same sense ; as, jpTUHfrT ' from birth upwards.' 


794. Sanskrit syntax, unlike that of Greek and Latin, offers 
fewer difficulties to the student than any other portion of the 
Grammar. Indeed, compounds prevail so abundantly in this lan- 
guage, that the writer who has properly expounded the subject of 
compound words has already more than half completed his investi- 
gation into the laws which regulate syntactical combinations. We 
shall endeavour, in the present chapter, to collect together all the 
most useful rules for the connexion and collocation of uncom- 
pounded words. Much vagueness and uncertainty, however, may be 
expected to attach to the rules propounded, when it is remembered 
that Sanskrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, and that 
the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of 
metrical composition. 

a. Observe — In the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made 
as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will 
not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of 
combination. When compounds are introduced into the examples, a dot, placed 
underneath, generally marks the division of the words. 


795. There is no indefinite article in classical Sanskrit ; but 
«fi%TT (228) and in modern Sanskrit ??^ (238) are sometimes used to 
supply the place of such an article ; thus, TfofiftR"^ n^^ ' in a certain 

SYNTAX. 299 

country ;^ opftjir srnTH: ' a certain jackal.' The definite article may 
not unfrequently be expressed by the pronoun ^ (220) ; thus, ^ "^^t 
may mean simply ' the man,' not necessarily ' that man.' 


796. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number 
and person ; as, w^^ "^WTfilT '^ I must perform.' 

a. Other examples are, r^^ W=rvf^ ' do thou attend ;' ^ ^^TfrT ' he gives ;' 
'STRT ^«r: ' we tw'o say ;' ^.^rTT "ST^t ' the pigeons said ;' TTtTT 'R^'t ^ 1'»lrt: 
'the king and minister went;' ^T«T"=r xfr^i^T TtT^'frt 'as long as the moon and 
sun remain;' ^"^ fsRTXrff 'do you two reflect;" '^ITH ^n^TfT 'do ye come;' 
^W»TTI ""Tt^^ ' good men are honoured ;' TtTiT '^'^i^'. ' the wind blows ;' "^^^'^fTT 
91 ^1 1 |,*t ' the moon rises ;' "STTTT ''^'^T ' the flower blossoms.' 

b. Observe — The verb is usually, though not always, placed last in the sentence. 

797. When a participle takes the place of the verb, it must agree 
with the nominative in number and gender ; as, ^ nw: ^ he went ;' 
^ ^?rr ^ she went ;' tTT^T^ T5^1^ ' the two women spoke ;' TT^TT ^TT: 
^ the king was killed ;' '^■^^y^fR' f^^rfrf ' the bonds w ere cut.' 

a. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees 
with one only ; as, ^"^>it TT^TftnTT "'T^ST^ ' his wife and son were awakened.' 

b. Very often the copula, or verb which connects the siibject with the predicate, 
is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it wiU follow the 
rules of concord in gender and number ; as, Vm ^'^*? ' wealth is difficult of 
attainment ;' ■».5il«il «ini 1 ? Ki ' we two have finished eating.' But if a substantive 
stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place ; 
as, «**|<!;J ''r^T 'Ul'Te^T ' successes are the road to misfortunes.' 


798. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a 
substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree Avith the 
substantive in gender, number, and case ; as, ^iv: xy^i?; ' a good 
man ;' JTf^ T^'M ' great pain ;' ^^^ ^Ff^"^ TT^^ ' in these before- 
mentioned countries ;' "^^ fw^f55T ' three friends.' 


799. The relative must agree with the antecedent noun in gender, 
number, and person ; but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun generally 
precedes the noun to which it refers, this noun being put in the 
same case with the relative, and the pronoun ^^ follows in the latter 
clause of the sentence ; as, ^i^ ^^^ ^%: ^ Tc^^f^T ' of whatever 
man there is intellect, he is strong.' 

Q q 2 


a. The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with 'H, as HMfA 
■^f^: ^ rPCt ^TJTH^; or may be omitted altogether, as ^ "RfrisniT ITTT VJt^ 
' what you have promised, that abide by ;' 'IRTT '^TmmfJT Wrf^TTfiT ITI (qhSjUTt 
understood) Hn 51 1 « I ^KTTatlT 'by those (birds) whose young ones were devoured 
an inquiry was set on foot ;' T\', TS^X^ f^M'<4M UTTT'mT? ^HJ TfTT'T TTSJW inrtT 
f^^mMoh: '^r'TT'5T ' he who would obtain all objects of sense, and he who despises 
them, of the two the despiser is the best.' 

800. Tlie relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun being 
understood, from which it takes its gender and number; as, Hlfw '^iPr^T*^ (wWTff 
understood) ^I^ fT^W ^THTW*. ' there is not a happier (than that man) of whom 
there is conversation with a friend ;' >I»T«T f^ "lu "T ^^TTff ' What is the use of 
wealth (to him) who does not give ? ' 

n. Sometimes, though rarely, the antecedent noun precedes the relative in the 
natural order ; as, *T ^ ^Tnm "^Tm HWT «T ITOImT ' she is not a wife in whom 
the husband does not take pleasm-e.' 

801. ri I «l rt^ and T3JTx{ stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and 
relative ; as, 'Tl'^f^ rT^ ift^^ ^^f^ TTTerf^iT ^^"RiJ? T'TTtT^TrffT ' as many 
products as belong to that island, so many are to be brought to us.' See also 876. 

a. Similarly, ■fT'R;^ and '^rr?'5T ; as, ^IT?'^! "T^ ri I rt ^i ITW oBf^rT^^t ' as the 
event occurred, so they related it to him.' 


802. Under this head it is proposed to explain the construction 
of substantives, without reference to their connexion with particular 
adjectives, verbs, or participles ; and for this purpose it will be 
desirable to exhibit examples under each case. 

Nominative case. 

803. A substantive simply and absolutely expressed must be 
placed in the nominative case; as, f^TrVq^^t 'the Hitopadesa;' 
Hf^^T^ ' tJi6 poem of Bhatti.' 

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may be placed in apposition to 
each other ; as, 11 <u I fi ^IxtTT ' grass as a bed.' 

Accusative case. 

804. Substantives are not found in the accusative, unconnected 
with verbs or participles, except as expressing ' duration of time^ or 
' space.^ See 821. 

Instrumental case. 

805. This case yields a variety of senses. The most usual is 
that of 'the instrument' or 'means' by Mhich any thing is done ; as. 


wm (t^) ' by me it was said ;' ^mv^ ('T^ft ^ftftTiT:) " by the fowler 
a snare was laid f ^^thhr^ ' by the study of the Vedas ;' ^^-^^ 
' with one's own eye/ 

806. It also has the force of ' with' in expressing other collateral 
ideas ; as, ^"sfhnrr «rtT ' vying with the strong ;' fJT^^ ^t>tt^: ' con- 
versation with a friend ;' iT^fH: wnn'4 ' equality with beasts ;' fq^ 
jf^^TOT ' with the knowledge of (his) father:' especially when 'accom- 
paniment' is intended ; as, f^"^Trr n^ ' the master with his pupil.' 

807. The other senses yielded by this case are, 'through,' 'by reason of,' 'on 
account of;' as, "^'T'ln' 'through compassion;' TTT ■flM<lV*T 'on account of 
that transgression :' especially in the case of abstract nouns formed with TTT 
(80. XXIII) ; as, ij^'m ' through infatuation.' 

a. ' According to,' 'by;' as, T^fVnTT ' according to rule;' TT ^nTfT»T ' according 
to my opinion ;' tiiimi ' by birth.' 

b. 'The manner' in which any thing is done, as denoted in English by the 
adverbial affix ' ly,' or by the prepositions ' in,' ' at ;' as, «(l^t^«T ' in abundance ;' 
VWIH 'virtuously;' ^T^'^TTT or *<j«3i*4l 'at pleasure;' ^^"T 'at ease;' -HH^ 
■f^ftnrr ' in this way ;' W^IH ta?»i (f^^^nn) ' they both dwell together in great 
intimacy;' ('pTt ^r§'»JrTTf^ wfiT»?TfTT) "fTsnTr 'a king surpasses aU beings in 
glory ;' T'^nTT ( »T '^W^) ' such a deed must not even be imagined in the mind ;' 
Wl'^H ««sM<ii ' in human form.' 

808. Substantives expressive of ' want,' ' need,' may be joined with the instru- 
mental of the thing wanted; as, ■««^*4T IT infTrnT ' there is no occasion for inquiry;' 
W^\ ^'^^mT -T TIlft'T'T ' there is no need of me as a servant ;' TRf^ oFTnf ' there is 
use for a straw.' 

809. 'The price' for which any thing is done may be in the instrumental; as, 
■q^fir: «^<.l<llT (infw ^^TTTT^) ' for five Puranas he becomes a slave ;' ^T^f^^^ ^^ 
(yUlfl) 'they fight for great rewards.' Similarly, Ml^l qPLitlWI^M tt^JlH (^ft^ «T 
<9*Tfr) ' fortune is not obtained at the price of the sacrifice of hfe.' 

a. So also ' difference between ' two things ; as, 'FHTf *<*i j<i[ ^ T^ ^TJfTT 
there is great difference between you and the ocean.' 

b. The Enghsh expression ' under the idea that' is expressed by the instrumental 
case of the substantive ^f^ ; as, <Ml«,^ai ' under the idea that he was a tiger.' 

Double Instrumental. 

810. Sometimes when two substantives come together, expressing ' parts' of a 
common idea, they are both placed in the instrumental, instead of one in the 
genitive ; as, q^rtl M"<< '^T^Tr ' an odour is emitted by the bakul-plants by 
their flowers' (for ^T^TTRT "^nt:). Similarly, TrR ->.HIHJ|^^|HI^ ^"BTTfWsT ^^^- 
1^e»it ' he caused her to revive by her attendants by sandal -water.' 


Dative case. 

8 1 1 . This case is of very limited applicability, and its functions^ 
irrespectively of the influence of verbs, are restricted to the expression 
of ^the object/ ' motive/ or ' cause' for which any thing is done, or 
* the result' to which any act tends ; as, ^TTTrf^^rg^ "^ for self-aggran- 
dizement ;' ^TtT^irRioBTn^ ' for the counteraction of calamity ;' ^^ ^ 
^T^ ^ TlflTxr^'q ' arms and books (lead) to renown.' 

a. When, as in the last example, ' the result' or ' end' to which 
any thing leads is denoted by this case, the verb is seldom expressed, 
but appears to be involved in the case itself. The following are 
other examples : ^^ ^t^ f^T^Hjff siTff TRni ^m^ ' where there is 
admixture of poison, then even nectar (leads) to death ;' ■3'xi^:^ 
^#TOt Tr«Ftm"T ^ ^FJT^ ' advice to fools (leads) to irritation, not to 
conciliation ;' TT ^T^^^ TTT^t: ^^T^ii ^ '^m^W ' that old husband 
was not to her liking,' 

b. It will be seen hereafter that certain verbs of giving and relating govern the 
dative. Substantives derived from such verbs exercise a similar influence ; as, 
^•*(*+i ^T»T ' the giving to another ;' W^^^{ ofi^'TT ' the telling to another.' 

c. Words exi)ressive of ' salutation' or ' reverence' are joined with the dative ; 
as, T[I53[ITTT r[JT; ' reverence to Ganesa ; WSTc? IT ' health to thee.' 

Ablative case. 

812. The proper force of the ablative case is expressed by *from;' 
as, (^^TTT ("^tu: "RiT^fw) ' from avarice anger arises ;' frR: "TIT^ ^ falling 
from a mountain ;' ^■RRrt ^^ITIT ' from the mouth of the spies.' 

813. Hence this case passes to the expression of various correlative ideas; as, 
^TT^TTTTT "Ril^fr ' a portion of (from) their food :' and hke the instrumental it 
very commonly signifies 'by reason of,' 'in consequence of;' as, ^"^T^'^TTRft 
^^TTT ' on account of the slaughter of cows and men;' 'ii "l q « < TT^TTT {'W^ 
TH'^ffr) ' he blames his son for entering inopportunely;' ^^l^^'^ITfT ' through fear 
of punishment ;' '^Flr^^IRT^'mif ' by reason of my good fortune.' 

a. ' According to ;' as, T'f^^'^^'TTl^ ' according to the advice of the minister.' 
Abstract nouns in r^ are often found in this case to express some of these ideas ; 
as, ^H =J u^iTT^r^'WrSrnT ' by reason of the unsteadiness of his mind :' especially in 
the writings of commentators ; as, '^ybMHl-lllHIlT ' according to what wiU be said 

814. It also expresses ' through the means' or ' instrumentality of;' as, 'STJT'n^Trr 
'^^I'.'^^t ' caught in the toils through the instrumentality of the jackal ;' "?! ^Vf^- 
VTrfTITFTT^ (^T^: :5TTfJiT^ VT^W) 'the alleviation of disease is not effected by the 
mere knowledge of the medicine.' 


a. 'The manner' in which any thinor is done is occasionally expressed by the 
ablative ; as, i|(?|M^ ' with diUgence ;' ^^TT^ * forcibly ;' 3'^^rtTr^ ' with wonder ;' 
Hc5T^ ■3'ST^ 'tearing up by the roots:' or by the ablative affix THT^; as, i^-sATTT^ 
' at one's own pleasure' (see 719. a. h). 

b. This case also denotes 'after;' as, ^^T^fV'Nlrt^ 'after separation from the 
body;' 5^!nrftT^''^r?rT?T ' after the imprisonment of the Chief;' rWT '^TTTTTrT 
' since his arrival.' 

c. In reference to time, ' within ;' as, fcT^T^TTT ' within three fortnights.' 

d. Nouns expressive of 'fear' are joined with the ablative of the thing feared; 
as, ♦irql^ >7^ ' fear of death ;' "'^TTt mi ' fear of robbers.' 

Genitive case. 
815. This and the locative case are of the most extensive applica- 
tion, and are often employed, in a vague and indeterminate manner, 
to express relations properly belonging to the other cases. 

a. The true force of the genitive is equivalent to ^ of/ and this 
case appears most frequently when two substantives are to be con- 
nected, so as to present one idea ; as, f*T^^ T^ ' the speech of a 
friend ;' >T#T TT^T: "TTlJf >TTO ' the best ornament of a woman is her 
husband ;' t^ rR^ rrrt ^TTTt ^T?l^ W ^'^ifil '^ man is not the slave of 
man, but the slave of Avealth.' 

816. Possession' is frequently exi)ressed by the genitive case alone, without a 
verb ; as, ^t: ^"TW^^^ 1T^ "^^ ^'^ TT'^nf ' all riches belong to him who 
has a contented mind;' V'sffS'^ ZfTT ^T'^fl' HF^T 'happy am I in possessing 
such a wife.' 

a. It often, however, has the force of ' to,' and is very generally used to supply 
the place of the dative ; as, TtJWi ^TfTlft S>TV?Tt ' one's own life is dear to one's 
self;' VT "jft^^Tinf ^t ^T^JTT^TW "iTWTT ' a hundred Yojanas is not far to one 
borne away by thirst (of gain) ;' f^ WT^TfTT'T ^f^f^ ' What is unknown to the 
wise r' f^T^ "^T'^^I^ lI^T^^ffT V^^^\ ' What does a lamp show to a bhnd man ?' 
f^ »=RT '^^■^■(f TTsT: ' What offence have I committed towards the king ;' f«fiJT 

^rqJT ^WRi ^W W{^'. ' What can this man do to us ?' 

\ o 

b. And not unfrequently of 'in' or 'on;' as, ^<iii fqsgm: 'confidence in 
women ;' '^^ '3TTMrlr<i ' dependence on me.' 

c. It is even equivalent occasionally to ' from' or 'by,' as usually expressed by 
the ablative or instrumental ; as, "^ '^i^Tf^ (TTT'T'Jt '^ %0^iT) ' one ought not to 
accept a present ft-om any one;' ^FRT'^ (^'JT r*<lTt() 'the wood is to be abandoned 
by us;' ^ V^T ^T^ ^ft^ "?! HifTf^ f^l^t ' he is blessed from whom sup- 
pUants do not depart in disappointment.' 

d. ' Difference between ' two things is expressed by this case ; as, *< =M*« =( <**ri ^ 
♦<??; ^Tli 'there is great difference between the master and the servant.' Com- 
pare 809. a. 


Locative case. 
817. The locative, like the genitive, expresses the most diversified 
relations, and frequently usurps the functions of the other cases. 
Properly it has the force of ' in,^ ' on,' or ' at,' as expressive of many 
collateral and analogous ideas ; thus, tt^ ' in the night ;' 3JTO ' in 
the village ;' t^ * on the back ;' r^ftl PcTHJ I ^ : * confidence in you ;' 
iT^Wcin ^fV * rain on desert ground ;' MVi*<,«t»IHj l ^ T ' at the first desire 
of eating ;' Tjftnqt ftfwf Y^: ' a tree planted in the earth.' 

818. Hence it passes into the sense ' towards ;' as, "^TT '^T^ ^ f'T^ ^ ' leni- 
ency towards an enemy as well as a friend ;' ^g'^TiT"^ ^TIT ' compassion towards 
all creatures ;' ^^TW ^fwST: * upright towards friends ;' ^ohri^^id*^ "sitirH •!? ' a 
hundred good offices are thrown away upon the wicked.' 

819. Words signifying ' cause,' ' motive,' or ' need,' are joined with the locative ; 
as, ^T^TT^ ^-j: ' the cause of his modesty ;' >JtlTc3"'Tt^ f^RT^ ^<^§-«l«i f-lc^M* 
'your speech was the cause of the war between the two princes;' UT^^pTT^t 
♦irtlrti <*K<1( fip^^: ' the absence of a suitor is the cause of a woman's chastity ;' 
*ll=»ilMi f^ ■JT^inT ' What need of a boat ?' Also words signifying ' employment' 
or ' occupation ;' as, ^T^TpnT 11^1%: ' engaging in the acquisition of wealth.' 
Words derived from the root yuj usually require the locative ; as, ^TT TlTq^<«ji- 
Trnr TT^tirt ' I am of service in preserving the kingdom.' 

a. This case may yield other senses equivalent to ' by reason of,' ' for,' &c. ; as, 
^ f^^ ' through my faults ;' ''sm:: tTTTTFT'ITTR ^r^<=5^^ ' a spy is for the sake 
of examining the territory of one's enemies;' T^ "^(^Slf 'this is the time for 
battle;' "ff^nT^ ^^TTT: 'affection for her;' JM^^f WTl^t 'disregard for advice ;' 
^T P'l'fll TTW T^ ' What anxiety about dying in battle ! ' 

6. It is also used in giving the meaning of a root ; as, ?J^ ^'TT^T^ ' the root 
grah is in taking,'' i. e. conveys the idea of 'taking.' 

c. The locative case is often used absolutely ; see 840. 


820. When reference is made to any particular division of time, 
the instrumental case is usually required ; as, f^fHT '^: ' in three 
years ;' fT^fW^ ?n%: ' in twelve months ;' "SJ^hT ' in an instant ;' 
retiMfii ^Hclffr 'In how long time?' "fT^w: 'in hundreds of years;' 
■gRTHTT^TW ' in process of time.' 

821. When to duration of time, the accusative case is generally 
used ; as, ^w ' for a moment ;' ^HoToFTc? ' for a long time ;' ftfiw 
^in^ ' for some time ;' w^ Mm ' for one month ;' ^ irraT ' for two 
months ;' ^§^^ ' for a hundred years ;' ^T^ift: W{\\ ' to all eternity ;' 
^ff ^^Tnn ' for a hundred years ;' ^^f^f ^irif^ ' for many days.' 


The instrumental, however, is sometimes used in this sense also ; 
as, I'T^^fHT! "^WT: ^Ti%'5q" cJTT^ ' having: traded for twelve years ;' 
cfifiTtnTi'^T^ ' for a few days.' 

822. When any particular period or epoch is referred to, the 
locative may be employed ; as, of.f^fijg^ f^^^ ' on a certain day ;' 
Wrfft fq^H ' on the third day :' or sometimes the accusative ; as, t?t 
TTf^ W Ot: irf^f^ ?R m^ ITT TTf^ ^TT^'^ ^^ f?: ' on the night when 
the ambassadors entered the city, on that night a dream was seen by 


823. Nouns expressive of ' distance between two places' (according 
to Carey) may be in the nominative ; as, ojmiT: ^ "^l^Tt ^VrTT^TtT 

* Krishna is a hundred Kos from Somanath.' ' Space' may also be 
expressed by the accusative ; as, "sst'^t fhfr: ' a hill for a Kos :' or by 
the instrumental ; as, sRt^ tt^T ' having gone for a Kos.' ' The 
place' in which any thing is done may be in the locative ; as, "N^ifor 
' in Vidarbha.' 

Accusative after the Adjective. 

824. The only adjectives governing an accusative are those formed 
from desiderative bases; as, ^tt^ finf*?^: 'desirous of going home;' 
■'T^ ^>ftT^; ' desirous of obtaining a son ;' TTlTFT f<^"H;"sr: ' desirous of 
seeing the king.' 

Instrumental after the Adjective. 

825. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 

* want* or ' possession,' require this case ; as, "^^^f ftvr: ' destitute 
of wealth ;' ^^: ^rorj^t ' possessed of riches ;' Tlftl^T "^^rt "5f7: ' a jar 
full of water.' 

826. So also of 'likeness* or 'equality;' as, ^^^^^^ "^T^ T^Xk "JT 
*Jifr "!T ^TfTorfrT ' there has never lioen, nor will there ever be, any one 
like him in this world ;' HR^^: ^'^ Ti^'^T: ' his success was equal to 
his undertakings ;' TTTO: Tn7T ^^t ' a wife as dear as life ;' ^Tf(^^'?r TT^: 
' equal to the sun.' These are also joined with a genitive. 

Genitive after the Adjective. 

827. Adjectives signifying ' dear to,' or the reverse, arc joined 
with the genitive ; as, VK^\ ivw, ' dear to kings \ hwtt: ^Urif fT?qT: 
' husbands arc dear to women ;' «T =fifw ^llJITH ^fnif: ' women dislike 
nobody ;' i^> H^fw i?f^t ' he is detestable to his ministers.' 

B r 


a. Adjectives exjjressive of 'equality' often require this case as well as the 
instrumental; thus, *i^*<i ^HTI 'equal to all;' JTPSf ^"^^m 'like him;' ■M'ti*^ 
'*^* ' like the moon ;' »T W^ "J^: ofi^T^ ' nobody is equal to him.' 

b. So also other adjectives ; as, ''TTl"'Tf^^: ^if^ Wefii;: TTint ' giving advice to 
others is easy to all men;' WWRT'T tP^: 'worthy of happiness;' tP^IT: li^TRT 
' capable of toil.' 

Locative after the Adjective. 

828. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 
' po-vver^ or ' ability/ are joined with this case ; as, ^^Tsrf^ -sprT WETT: 
' horses able for the journey ;' »T?frr ^^ "SliiY TTtTT ' a king who is a 
match for a great enemy ;' WW^ '^V^yicm W^ ^^W}^^ ' unable to 
build a house, but able to demolish one/ 

ff. So also other adjectives ; as, '51^^ cjr^[?5t ' shlled in arms ;' 'il^rMM VJ^\ 
' wise in trifles ;' r^^ ^^T^ f^TlFt ^ ^ppft ' Is your master attached or adverse 
to you ?' ^T^lftf^^ »T«^T: ' imjlectful of his dependants.' 


829. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative 
case ; as, v:^ TlTO«rfsfTT TrO^l^fl ' a wife dearer even than one^s life ;' 
^GJ tH^lirf ^^H<: ^"^ "c^th "T f^?T^ ^ there is no pleasanter touch in 
this world than the touch of a son ;' Tt"JTTl^ TJITTT^^ ^^: ' the pro- 
tection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement;' "q" »T^ (719.G) 
^tfiainn:: '5'n^ "^^ ' there is not a more wretched man than I ;' 
irfwr: T?5T^ «Jc4li|^ ' mind is more powerful than strength.' 

830. Sometimes they govern the instrumental; as, TTTO: fiTinn:: 
' dearer than life ;' ^ '^rfe inn ^^ ^STWHFiriTfV >|f^ ' there is nobody 
upon earth more unfortunate than I.' 

a. When it is intended to express 'the better of two things' the genitive may 
be used ; as, ^TrTlflT; ^^^ft: ^ ^^ K^TTT: ' Of these two countries which is the 
better ? ' 

83 1 . The comparative in Sanskrit is often resolved into the expres- 
sion ' better and not ;' as, ^ m^",Mrii*lWI> ^ ^RT; ^"pt ^Pf^fin TI^: 
' better abandon life than (literally, and not) engage in such an 
action ;' ^ ifr^ oRt^ tt ^ A^^H -^ tj^ ^^ ' it is better that silence 
should be kept than a speech uttered which is untrue ;' f^ST'TT ^ 
i^T«n^^ ^ HW^ •JT ^ '5TXqTTT^7ft«f;f5iTr[mT^ '^rqi^nr IJITT TlfiniT^^ ' a 
teacher of the Veda should rather die with his learning than commit 
it to an unworthy object, in the absence of a pupil worthy to be 
instructed in it.' 


832. The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive ; 
as, cji^iiH fgv[r^ wt JTTT ^rfr^T w^^ I ^T^ nrhrot w; ^^; ?T[^^t 
^: ' a Brahman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a 
Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch :' but 
sometimes with the locative ; as, Tj^rq ^c5^^^^: ' the most powerful of 
men :' and even with an ablative ; as, \rRir?rt ^"^ "^^m 'ffW,** Jk'^'^ 
* a store of grain is the best of all stores.' 

a. A superlative degree may even take a comparative affix, and govern the 
genitive; as, "Wm 3*(8rti,'^ ' the eldest of them.' See 194. 

833. 'Comparison' is often expressed by an adjective in the positive degree, 
joined with a nonn in the ablative case ; as, Hlfw rTWriT 'J^PT^T'!^ ' there is not a 
happier than he ;' ^ H^ (719. a) ♦i^ii ' he is greater than me.' 

a. In more modern Sanskrit ' comparison ' is sometimes expressed by the use of 
^nr^ 'regarding,' 'with reference to' (indecl. part, of the root ^"^ with W^), 
which may take the place of ' than' in English; thus, (^^PlmUn^^ "^^^ ^Hl^ 
^rr^'n^'^fTJT ^^^ ftnrr ^rR^in ^ffHr^ HTTiT ' an A'charya ought to l)e higher 
in estimation than ten Upadhyayas, a father than a hundred Acharyas.' 

834. Many words have a kind of comparative influence, and require an ablative 
case, especially TT, W^, "^T^, '^^T, ^!m^ , ^TTC, "<IT, ''|t, "^rfv^, 'Si'T, 
'^nf^TF ; as, H«jirttiTfr '^'^^ "^^M^n "^ ' it is better not to touch mud than to 
wash it ofP;' ^TfTT^JT "^wt. ♦HV^Ilri ' poverty is less desirable than death ;' W "n 
fir^T? ^r^TTT^ ^T'^* ^JT^: ' Who is able to rescue me, other than a friend ?' foR^ 
«f:T^ ^nr: tjt ' what grief is greater than this ?' «T ^T^ ^'^ P^ a*\ I ri^ ' one 
ought not to speak difPerently from what one has heard ;' "fr^T^T^ "^Tsr^T at 
another time than the present ;' «TT^ *T ^H^W ^n^TTT^ h4 ' there is no cause of 
fear to man from any other quarter than from death;' ■^TifTfTTT (73i.«, 778) '^51'^''^ 
' on the day before that of the S'raddha;' ^ftaT^^lrlKi ^fMi ' more than a hundred 
Yojanas ;' ohlfTt'^'Ht ^T^TTW f^if%<T "^TfT: ' intelligence of a lover is something 
less than a meeting ;' ^^r[ ^^^ ' the remainder of the food.' 


835. The syntax of numerals is explained at 206. The following examples may 
be added : '?IT!TT HUUli ' of ninety men ;' ^FT: *Tm!IT ' of sixty men ;' F^^T^ 
•RTOTT ' of a thousand men ;' TtTRt ^^TRrt JTWT^ ^RTcfR: ' one of these three.' 

a. The aggregative numerals may sometimes be employed at the end of com- 
pounds for the cardinals; thus, ^TaTfTI 'two armies;' f^TTTf^l^W?^ 'four mar- 
riages.' See 214. 

b. Numerals, if used partitively, may take the genitive ; as, ^TOT"^ ^"TT^^TTf?!! 
' a hundred thousand of the horses :' and, if comparatively, the ablative ; as, 
r^q^TTT Pf J]*!irt r^', ' a fine the double of that which is in dispute.' 

B r 2 


836. The chief pecuharities in the syntax of pronouns have 
already been noticed in Chapter V. pp. 94 — loi. It remains to 
otfer one or two remarks with reference more especially to the rela- 
tive and interrogative. 

a. In the use of these pronouns a very peculiar attraction is often to be 
observed ; that is, when either a relative or interrogative pronoun has been used, 
and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to follow, the relative or 
interrogative are repeated, as in the following examples : '^\ Tl^ (for <*tMM'?l^) 
HT^: ^TW' whatever may be the disposition of whom (i. e. any one);' '^^ tV^tT 
WT ' whatever is pleasing to any one ;' '^ '^7^ JTrTTiT WOTfff ' whoever eats the 
Hesh of any animal;' '^TJJ '^ JlWil ^f'tf 'whatever excellencies belong to any 
one;' 'IR' ipf '^^^lf 'whatever corresponds with any thing;' '^^f f^ ^^^^ 
^UTlTTfh? ■ What book is to be read by whom ? (i. e. by any one).' See Bopp's 
Comparative Grammar, vol. II. p. 537. 

837. The I'elative and interrogative are sometimes used together, in an indefinite 
distributive sense; as, "mfJT ^iTh fjT^Tftl ' any friends whatever:' or more usually 
with r^r^ affixed to the interrogative ; as, "^IW '^rFff%Tr ' to any one whatever.' 

fl. The neuter of the interrogative (f«fi) is often joined with the instrumental to 
signify "What is the use of?' 'there is no need of;' as, "^JTTrf f^ ift 'JT VfT^T 
'^T^T?!^ f^J^^ 'Srn^r'^T "^t »T ftrrf^^^ >?^rT ' Of what use is scriptural knowledge 
(to one) who does not practice virtue ? Of what use is a soul (to one) whose 
passions are not kept in svil)jection ?' f^ ff W^'?T TT"^^ ' What business have you 
to make this inquiry ?' f^ «l|:«l( ' What need of more !' 'in short.' 

b. As already shown at 761, a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unne- 
cessary by the use of the relative compound ; thus, "JTrr^ ^f^l^rvj^i 11^5*^1 is 
equivalent to ^PR^ ^T^T^ '^f'^ohl vrTWTf«T ^T^ftrr ' a city whose palaces were 
silvered by the moon-beams.' 

c. The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense, may sometimes be expressed 
by the indechnable participle; thus, ftrft ^m^ ^roTT ' a Hon having killed a hunter,' 
or ' a lion who had killed a hunter.' 

838. The following examples will illusti'ate the use of pronouns of quantity and 
pronominals : ^^TtT: (or tn^^cRT^) TfTHT^^ H^ IHWff: (or TTO^cSTfT) ^iflT 
' as many mouthfuls as he eats, so many he gives away ;' '^f^ ^HT^"?!' fl'SJ cft'Tff 
IT^T T^rTT^T^ ^5Zn"'5^f*7 ' if so much is given to me, then I will gi\'e so much 
instruction ;' im\ wf^^ J71Z?!? W^l^^l ' one out of all those.' See also 801. 

839. Nothing is more common in Sanskrit syntax than for the 
verb to be omitted altogether, or supplied from the context. 

a. This is tuore especially the case with the co]Hila, or substantive verb ; thus. 



■^ ' as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as long as the Ganges upon earth, 
as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the family of 
Brahmans;' TTft'^: ^'nftlST'i ' discrimination (is) wsdoiii.' 

Locative, Genitive, and Nominative absolute. 

840. The locative case is very commonly used absolutely with 
participles ; as, irftR-JT ^fHrfrr ^mfiT ^ wf^^ f^ ^t ' he living I 
live, he dying I die ;' ^snTO^Fff 7^^ ' the night being ended ;' #? 
>rrfliT ^^'^ ' the elder brother being unmarried ;' W^frT ^qiilMT 
' there being no other expedient ;' inn ^rfw ' it being so/ Sometimes 
the verb is omitted ; as, ^ H^ ' the danger (being) distant.' When 
the passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the 
locative case, the present participle of ^, ' to be,' is often redun- 
dantly added ; as, inrT ^W ^flT or TT^IT ^^W ' it being so done *.' 

a. The genitive is less commonly used absolutely ; as, ^^TTPR^T'T ■« 1 m n fii »i I 
'calamities impending;' "R^^TiTf ■^TTTOt ' the men looking on.' 

b. The nominative is very rarely thus used; as, ^"J^ ^ ^mTXITW: JjiW-m'J^^^T 
*my friend having arrived, I am happy.' 

c. It is evident from the above examples that the locative and genitive absolute 
often take the place of the particles 'when,' ' while,' ' since,' ' although.' 

Nominative case after the Verb. 

841. Verbs signifying '^ to be,' 'to become/ 'to appear,' 'to be 
called,' or ' to be esteemed,' and other passive verbs used denomina- 
tively, may take a nominative after them ; as, TTITT "RiTrmFS^: ^TTT 
^ let a king be the protector of his subjects ;' "m f^^W^"^ nftTmfw 
* she appears sorrowful;' mifrsT^ irflTHTflT ' the village appears like 
a desert ;' irRT W ^H>fhlW ' a king is called Justice.' 

Accusative case after the Verb. 

842. Transitive verbs generally govern this case; as, f^^g ^^# 
^: ' Brahma created the universe ;' "^TirrfifT f^TtfrT iTPd ' the woman 
gathers flowers ;' TTnrrT^ »TFT 5^^*. '^ the dying man gave up the ghost ;' 
*nT ^^ ' one should avoid wine ;' IT^ "a^f^ ' speal the truth.' 

843. So also verbs of motion; as, WtTw ffHf ^fH 'the holy man (joes to the 
place of pilgrimage ;' "VTir: ^"5 IT^'^ ' rivers run into the ocean ;' >JflfiiT T^T 
he wanders over the earth.' 

* Possibly the object of adding the word sati may be to show that the passive 
l)articiple is here used as a participle, and not as a past tense. So also in com- 
mentaries ^(T is placed after a word like ^Hi'i-oaPfi, to indicate the loc. c. sing, of 
the pres. part., as distinguished from the 3d sing, of the pres. tense. 


844. Verbs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives, to supply the 
place of other verbs; as, WrfTT ^fff ' he goes to fame,' for ' he becomes famous;' 
^HrilH ^fir ' he goes to equality,' for ' he becomes equal;' Tfft^ fJTWJn'R ^»IiTnT 
' he came to the friendship of those two,' for ' he became a friend of those two ;' 
tr^p^ TW: ' he went to death,' for ' he died ;' «J^1T ^f? ^TTflT ' he brings the 
king to satisfaction,' for ' he satisfies,' &c. 

a. The following are other examples : ^!T^^ tfV3T "Tfr^TTfT ' he avoids paining 
others ;' WTrWT ^^STTtT ' he desires what is unattainable ;' f^^ f-Mfi^"!!;^ ' he 
should thinh on wisdom;' 'HiyH ^TTt^fT ' he mounts his horse;' <+*Air*lT '^TRfHT 
'they began the business;' TTTTtT TT ^T^I 'grieve not for the departed;' ^"§1^- 
■^T'ftm'WH ^'t'ffl' ' he deserves the sovereignty of the universe ;' "RafT^*^ ^ 
' he lies down in a cave of the mountain ;' 7|f '^It f^TW^^' "^ f^'^TTTTi^ ' one 
ought not io prevent a cow from drinking milk.' 

845. There are certain verbs which take a redundant accusative case after them 
of a substantive derived from the same root ; as, ^'T^ ^m ' he swore an oath ;' 
T^fT ■^riTT 'he dwells;' qrJrt "^W 'he conducts himself;' '^T^ '^^fcT 'he speaks 
a speech;' »T^nrr »TT^ 'he raises a cry' (cf. the Greek expressions X^yw Xoyov, 
-Xaipa xa/?av, &c.). 

Double Accusative after the Verb. 

846. Verbs of asking govern a double accusative ; as, ^ "^X ^^IT ' he seeks 
a boon of the god;' V^ TTsTT^ TTi^qn 'he begs money from the king.' Of 
speaking; as, TT111 '^^ •T'T^ WW^TTT ' he addressed a speech to the king.' Of lead- 
ing; as, "ff JT^ "^UJifli ' he leads him home.' 

847. Causal verbs ; as, HJ^frff^ >ff»T^rfiT ^TW ' he causes the guest to eat food ;' 
r?f "^^^fif? 1JW W f^ ' I cause you to know what is for your interest ;' f^'QT 
^^T^ ^TWr^T■^fcT ^^: 'the Guru teaches his pupil the Vedas;' irf ^T^ "R^^TT 
' he causes her to enter the house;' tfif5^^^<^^ ^TTfTTTT^ 1JXITW»T ' he presented 
the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water ;' ^ST^ ^1?*^ ^T^^trfw ' she causes 
her son to sit on her lap' (literally, ' her hip') ; f^STT ^ "JJ^ ^fT^^Ttrfk ' learning 
causes a man to have access to a king.' 

a. Other examples are, TT ^rfT^frW ^fnfJlf^^: they inaugurated him general,' 
more usually joined with an ace. and loc. ; ^^ 'Tfff "^^rf ' she chooses a god for 
her husband ;' ^nrf^^fcT ofTWRlf^ =J lij M ' she gathers blossoms from the trees ;' 
TTT'T irrf^'lfti^ TW^^I<«i ' he sent them to the abode of Yama' (Hades) ; ^*^f^- 
TTTf^' ■Jit ^J^f^ r^m^HTTf TT Hilftl ' his own acts lead a man to eminence or the 

Instrumetital case after the Verb. 
848. Any verb may be joined with the instrumental, to express 
' the instrument or cause or manner' of the action ; as, ^'cq ^7T«T 
S'Tqfff ' the flower fades by reason of the wind ;' ^^: "Si^^fTT * he 


plays with dice ;' ^Tftsfr^ #^ fH^ i miPri ' the cloud puts out the fire 
with its rain ;' TT^^ TfNfir ' he lives happily/ 

a. In this sense many causals take an instrumental ; as, rTT [♦iuitjT >flT|t(l«ii« 
' he caused her to eat sweetmeats;' TTft^fiT: Pmisi^i^ <<^ir; Mfn ' he causes the pieces 
to be eaten by the birds.' 

849. After verbs of motion this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by 
which, or the place on ivhich, the motion takes place ; as, ^M*! innfw ' he goes in 
a chariot;' -wsyti ^T^TJ^IT ' he goes on horseback;' TT^RT Tj^flf ' he goes on the 
road;' ^HMJU^iH T^tTtT 'he goes through afield of corn;' "^^^ 'W\JK «fl<*MI 
' he navigated the ocean in a boat.' Similarly, ^FR »1*4'lt ^Tc-ioi ' tears flowed 
through the eyes.' 

a. After verbs of carrying, placing, &c., it is used in reference to 'the place' on 
which any thing is carried or placed ; as, '^^frr TaT ^W»T ' he bears fagots on his 
head;' ch^O *5h'*i«i "3^'^' 'the dog is borne on the shoulders.' W is found with 
this case in the sense of placing; as, f^^T M^h^ -siodOTT ' he placed his son on 
his head.' The following are other examjjles : f^T^TO ^'^rfir ^J^t ' the master 
goes in company with the pupil ; ' *l««Ml*l(*i *i !»« PhJ ' he consulted with his 
ministers ;' but in this sense ^'^ is usually placed after it. >T^T >TT§^ ^'^^TfiT 
' the husband meets the wife ;' ti *u si ■q Ht ^^ ^^Tt ' he harnesses the horses to the 
chariot ;' ^^ f^^r^ITT ' he is separated from the body,' more usually with the 
ablative. '^^W ^^fi?: ' he fights his enemies,' or ^T^fHI ^, &c. ; tr •? 
cF,"?rf^7r ^ "^^^rnr^ ' one ought not to be at enmity with any one.' 

850. Verbs of boasting ; as, f^^RT fT^r^TTT 'you boast of your learning;' 
R<;Ml M^Jtfl "^nrW 'you glory in the fame of others.' Of swearing; as, VHMl 
^t| 'he swore by his bow.' Of thinking, reflecting; as, *l«i«l r«|PqTM ' thinking 
in his mind.' 

851. Verbs denoting liberation, freedom from, sometimes take an instrumental 
after them ; as, ^i'^^MlMi UH^TfT ' he is released from all sins.' 

852. Verbs of buying and selling take the instrumental of the price; as, TT^^ 
^rfll H<5l*!.lT'^ F^ "SRhrfh^ M r^js rt ' buy one wise man even for thousands of fools ;' 
TX^ i\iHM 17^ fsj^iiiHrt ' he sells his house for a thousand cows.' 

Dative after the Verb. 
853. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating 
any thing to any object is inherent, may take an accusative of the 
thing imparted, and a dative of the object to which it is imparted. 
(Frequently, however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the 
object ; see 857.) "T^TiT fTt^oFT^ ^ifrT ' he gives sweetmeats to his 
son;^ "fwnr TT HrriSmrirri ^ he promises a cow to the Brahman;' ^^^^n 
^ vnTrffT ' he owes money to Devadatta ;' "35^ im 'Jlfinn^''T ' consign 
the maiden to him,' more usually with the locative ; see 861. 


a. Other examples of the dative are, ^^f I^^TT^IR IW'^'iT 'T'?!: ' he sets his 
mind on their destruction ;' TTT^TR ^fw ^VT ' he set his mind on departure,' or 
with the locative. fT"?? ^'^ Tt^'ff ' that is pleasing to me ;' f^^^t IR^tPr ITTT 
' I will declare this to my pupils ;' W^ ^T^ f^r^"T7Tfrr ' he makes known all to the 
king,' these are also joined with the genitive of the jierson. '^Hfn^T^ ■^i^TT ' he 
is rendered Jit for immortality ;' ■SWTTrT fJJT ^nTPT ' he has the power to kill me ;' 
rTT^ ^TWT: «niPT W^ITW ' he incited them to the murder of their mother;' ^^^ 
"^WnT ' he is angry with his son.' 

Ablative after the Verb. 
854. All verbs may take an ablative of ' the object' from which any- 
thing proceeds, or arises, or is produced ; as, ij^TtrfifT ^gJTF "q^ '^ the 
leaf falls from the tree ;' ^fvt ^^flT TTTeTTW ' blood fioivs from the 
body;' ^[^■?rT^ "g'fw^fTT ^ he raises from his seat;' JTfrxr^JTfT: (719) ^T 
cii^rt ^TITT i^^frf ' from the lump of clay the artist makes whatever 
he w ishes ;' fT^TW ^ifiT xiT^f ' from education a person attains 
capacity ;' frj^iT'R ^JTTTTT ' he went out from the city.' 

855. Verhs of fearing are joined with the ahlati^•e, and sometimes with the 
genitive ; as, ^TT^ "?[ IVm ^f^^ f^T^rfff XRT ^^TiT ' a good man does not /ear 
death so much as falsehood;' TT ^|««!^|r^ f^vfi'TT 'be not afraid of a noise;'' 
<T<{3l<^ Tl^»TW sTTW 'the whole world stands in awe of punishment;' ^fKJ<ll+*| "ff 
Y^^T^TWI^TIJ fq^f^ ' I fear thee, a cunning penitent ;' see 859. 

856. Verbs which express superiority or comparison govern an 
ablative ; as, TITXiWTi^ '^iTTr^ trftTmi"^ f^f^fl" ' the abandonment of 
pleasure is superior to (better than) the possession.' 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by ablative cases are, TTra'T^Tf? ^SHTt^frl ' he 
descends from the palace;' f^'OTt ^^Tf^ ^•^rtrtK ' Vishnu descended from heaven;' 
<*rj <*^w;arJT ^I^T^ 'i<«frTTf^fiT ' he takes off (causes to descend) the golden bracelet 
from his hody;' Ptiq^ft XTRTTT ' he ceases from wickedness;' ^[^^Tf^ f^rTOT 
' he left off' speaking ;' »n;^7t^ ftmt ^T^H ^Wt Vrrf^R^: ' a \'irtuous son saves 
his father from hell ;' ^Sng^^TTT^fJIH W^m 'iirriP-L^Tf ' truth is superior to a 
thousand sacrifices;' ^f^rTTff TnTT^frT 'he neglects his own interest;' f'TW' 
^T^TJp^T^ f^^TTTfiT ' a friend guards one from evil.' 

Genitive after the Verb. 

857. The genitive in Sanskrit is constantly interchangeable with 
the dative, locative, or even accusative *. It is more especially, 
however, used to supply the place of the first of these cases, so that 

* This vague use of the genitive to express ' various relations' prevails also in 
early Greek. 


almost all verbs may take a genitive as well as dative of ' the object' 
to which any thing is imparted. For example, ^ftr^T?? >l«f ^^ifk * he 
gives money to the poor.' 

858. It may be used for the locative after verbs of consigning, as 'ftT^''? ^^ 
^Wq'^fff ' he deposits a pledge with me ;' or of trusting, as «T '^iT^TT ^t^TillT 
■^r^vrfff ' nobody puts trust in women :' and for the accusative in examples such 
as ^f^f^fTfrrfJT ^IWrftr ^T^nfnT ^%^ ' unexpected ills come upon corporeal 

859. It is sometimes used after verbs oi fearing ; as, 7f?^ f^ '«T ^T^^HT 'Why 
art thou not afraid of him ?' see 855. Also after verbs of longing for, desiring, 
envying; as, ^R»TT^T^ ^^W^'he should desire contempt;' ^^T^^fH "^^T?TOT 
^p^"^^ ' I envy men who possess eyes.' 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by genitive cases are, ^ST^^TrfTH ^9TT^ 
;^in"qTT '^n^ ^rf^ HT^T ' tell us, who are ignorant of it, whose wife you are ;' 
^R5p:r (for "^^TnT) l^i^ffT ^tM^: 'Of whom are the righteous afraid?' ^q^ 
V5,lj44{ TrffTiTR^ 'Tf TT? ^^^ r^^TTf ' one should not give to one what one 
promises to another ;' TIT ^ ^RltfiT ' he does not hear me' (cf. the Greek usage) ; 
*W ^RTJ ' remember me,' or with the accusative. '^<FTT'^ "^Wi I?»T=Trfr ' death 
overcomes us;' ^f^^T '5T il«*irrf "^T^'RI 'fire is not satisfied with fuel;' ITWr 
■^H^; 'forgive them.' 

Locative after the Vei-b. 
860. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere re- 
marked, is frequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. 
The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with 
verbs in reference only to ' the place' or ' time' in which any thing 
is done ; as, xr|; Wrsf^ ' he sinks in the mud ;' ^ ^Hfw '^ he dwells 
in the city ;' W^^ fWFfiT ' he stands in the front of the fight ;' 
^ni^^^' HTWIW ^ at sunrise he awakes.' 

861, The transition from 'the place' to 'the object' or 'recipient' of any action 
is natural; and hence it is that verbs are found with the locative of the object' 
to which any thing is imparted or communicated, as in the following examples : 
TT Trrai t^ V^ ' bestow not money on the mighty ;' "ffftR'^T ^ntlftl fVff^- 
tnfH ' I entrust my affairs to him ;' "gW ^■^T^^ Tf^^^fiT ' he consigns a ring to 
his son;' '^^^ ^rf%^ "ar^^fff TTi'T'^H'R ' he entrusts the burden of the kingdom 
to a capable minister;' T;T% or TT'T^'^ f^T^'^ffT 'he informs the king;' ^rl 
>J^T fHt^Ullff^ 'one should place (bury) a dead man in the ground;' ^IW Tm 
^ifir ' he applies his mind to Adrtue.' 

a. In this sense "^ is used ; as, '^'2 iJ^r^*y^ ^'^i^tiT ' he placed the wood on his 
back ;' Hfw tnTT «B^fTT ' he applies his mind to sin.' 

862. When ^T, ' to give,' is used for ' to put,' it follows the same analogy ; as. 


WPJ ^^T?T ?^ ^fV 'put your hand on the end of its tail;' >TfH'^^ "q^ ^^ 
' he placed his foot on a heap of ashes.' Similarly, ■^^fj^t^ Vlffsf^ ' he was 
held by the skirt of his garment.' So also verbs of seizing, striking ; as, "^'^T? 
*i%tifrT or ^TofT^rT ' he seizes or drags him by the hair;' ^TTT TT^TfrT ' he strikes 
a sleeping man.' 

863. The locative is often put for the dative in sentences where the latter case 
stands for the infinitive ; thus, >TW^ ■*<'■=« M*lf r^^^ ' hasten to seek thy spouse ;' 
Hrt**f ^^"IT^ ^'AVl "strive to bring Nala hither;' "?[ ^"^^ TTFT "^^^ JX^ 
' they could not hold that bow.' 

a. Other examples are, T^ TmftT "^^'fl" ' he is engaged in a very severe penance ;' 
"TT^'^WT^^ HT ^TT''?frT >T; 'do not busy yourself about other people's affairs;' 
f^nr^^ ^^^ ' he is addicted to objects of sense ;' 'Jff'iT^'rarf^W T^^W ' he delights 
in the good of all the world;' J^jf^I'^lT f^^i^TT ' he is appointed to the com- 
mand of the fort;' '^T '^W V^^ f?R^»r^lT 'he yokes two bulls to the pole;' 
^TT??? ^irftrt ^rf ' anoint me to the generalship;' iTrT^ TTFT^f^JJ^ ' he strives 
to suppress evil-doers.' 

b. ^T HT^V ^Tq"ff TRJT?T ^^"^ ' such language is not suited to a person like 
me;' H^j?^ r^^f TT^i^JlT 'sovereignty is suited to you;' WWrf TTlfTSTTT 'he 
reclined on a seat;' T^T?^ ^TW^ 'sit thou on a cushion;' ^^^ fT'^^lT ' he 
confides in his enemies ;' ^T^'^^t tlwfiT ' it falls at his feet ;' TSZfl^ 'TT^'^ ' it rolls 
at the feet.' 

Change of case after the same Verb. 

864. This sometimes occurs ; as, f^^^ VTTTT^'R W^ "^ TTPirR^T: 5^§ "^R^- 
MiW Vidhura and Kunti announced every thing, the one to Dhritarashtra, the 
other to Gandhari' (Astrasiksha 34), where the same verb governs a dative and 
genitive. Similarly, in the Hitopadesa, "^ifl^^t fr^gT^"^ "T ^^t ^^ '^ ' con- 
fidence is not to be placed in horned animals or women.' 

865. The prevalence of a passive construction is the most remark- 
able feature in the syntax of this language. Passive verbs are joined 
Avith ' the agent, instrument, or cause,' in the instrumental case *, 
and agree with ' the object' in number and person ; as, Wtt T^f 
<J^i|ri ' the dust is raised by the wind ;' W^ ^;'5'3Trft!I ^r5jfrf^"5T^f 
' let all things be prepared by him ;' ^^f»T^ ^■fi^?fts7fTTVhTn" ' the sun 
was concealed by arrows.' 

866. But the passive participle usually takes the place of the past tenses of the 
passive verb, and agrees with ' the object' in gender and case as well as number; 

* There are a few instances of the agent in the genitive case ; as, ^TH oFW 111''?. 
a crime committed by me,' for iT'm. 



as, '^^f% ^Jrrsnrrf^ Trft^T ' (their) eyes were suffused with tears ;' rl'^T T^ 
(^ being understood) ' it was said by him.' Compare 895. 

a. This instrumental construction after passive verbs is a favourite idiom in 
Sanskrit prose composition, and the love for it is remarkably displayed in such 
phrases as the following : ^t^^ TWJTT, ' he is gone to by misery,' for H^ T^^ftT ; 
and ^mT^TTTT ^^^, ' let it be come by your majesty,' for ^^T^ ^^: ; and 
again, ^^TlfWi: ?J«B^ W^^TfTT, ' let it be remained by us in one spot,' for ' let us 
remain in one spot ;' '^^ JTFftrr ^ TfTT tTRITTT ' by whatever road it is desired, by 
that let it be gone.' 

b. Active or causal verbs, which take a double accusative, will retain one accusa- 
tive when constructed passively ; but the other accusative passes into a nominative 
case: thus, instead of ^ J?t "^^TTft!I "g'^TT^, 'he addressed me in harsh words,' 
may be written TR' '^T^ 'Rl^l^Tftn' "^'lit, ' by him I was addressed in harsh words.' 

867. The infinitive in Sanskrit cannot be employed with the same 
latitude as in other languages. Its use is very limited, corresponding 
to that of the Latin supines, as its termination um indicates. 

a. Let the student, therefore, accurately distinguish between the infinitive of 
Sanskrit and that of Latin and Greek. In these languages we have the infinitive 
made the subject of a proposition ; or, in other words, standing in the place of a 
nominative, and an accusative case often admissible before it. We have it also 
assuming different forms, to express present, past, or future time, and complete- 
ness or incompleteness in the progress of the action. The Sanskrit infinitive, on 
the other hand, can never be made the subject or nominative case to a verb, 
admits of no accusative before it, and can only express indeterminate time and 
incomplete action. Wherever it occurs it must always be considered as the object, 
and never the subject, of some verb expressed or understood. And, as the object 
of the verb, it may be regarded as equivalent to an indeclinable substantive, in 
which the force of two cases, an accusative and dative *, is inherent, and which 
differs from other substantives in its power of governing a case. Its use as a 
substantive, with the force of the accusative case, corresponds to one use of the 
Latin infinitive ; thus, ITiT ^TH '^'rnT ^'^TfjT ' I desire to hear all that,' ' id audire 
cupio,' where '^STfrT and audire are both equivalent to accusative cases, themselves 
also governing an accusative. Similarly, 'Uf^W ^^^ ' ^he began to weep;' and 
W^ 3T1JH ^TTTH ' he began to conquer the earth,' where T^^iHT'^ ^iTTT*!", ' he 
began the conquest of the earth,' would be equally correct. 

* Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be the accusative of the 
affix W (459. ff) ; and it is certain that in the Vedas an irregular infinitive in If^ 
and 1^ is found, which wovUd seem to be the dative of the same affix. See 
Panini III. 4. 9. 

S S 2 


868. But the Sanskrit infinitive most commonly involves a sense 
which belongs especially to the Sanskrit dative, viz. that of * the end' 
or ^purpose' for which any thing is done; thus, ^'R^fiT^ *rf^WJT 
^T^T^frT ' he comes to devour the young ones ;' ^TW^ ^TfH ^^ TlTf^'Vrr 
' he sent an army to fight the enemy.' 

a. In these cases it would be equally correct in Sanskrit to substitute for the 
infinitive the dative case of the verbal noun, formed with the affix ana; thus, 
>T^5[Um, ' for the eating,' for >?f^^ ; ^fhllTT-Er, * for the fighting,' for ^ft^ ; and 
in Latin the infinitive could not be used at all, but either the supine, devoratum, 
pugnaturn, or, still more {iroperly, the conjunction with the subjunctive mood, * ut 
devoret,' ut pugnarent.'' The following are other examples in which the infinitive 
has a dative force in expressing ' the purpose ' of the action : 'mffH ''7TJ 'T'ftJ^ 
^'PT'ff 'he went to the river to drink water;' W\ ^T^R %WT TT^^^ffT 'he 
comes to cut asunder my bonds ;' ^TT ^TTT T^Wi'. (^f% being understood) ' he is 
able to rescue me ;' XIT^T'5T ^^fT'rf ^^I^ ^*|5 ' he busied himself about collect- 
ing together the snares.' 

869. The Sanskrit infinitive, therefore, has more of the character 
of a supine than an infinitive ; and in its character of supine is 
susceptible of either an active or passive signification. In its pas- 
sive character, however, like the Latin supine in u, it is joined with 
certain words only, the most usual being the passive verbs ^r«5r ' to 
be able' and '^■jt '' to be fitting,' and their derivatives ; thus, w^ "«T 
^^^ ' it cannot be abandoned ;' xn^ "JT "^"^ '^I^W ' the snare cannot 
be cut ;' rf ^n»Tn ^ITWT^ W ^WTt ' those evils cannot be remedied ;' 
■^ilW ^ ^35fw ' it is not fitting to be heard ;' %wiT ^nff3^: ' unfit to be 
cut ;' -^-m rf -^ST ^^HT^ff^ ^^r^ "^^ ' contempt is not proper to be 
shown by thee for him.' 

a. The following are other instances : frUTT: ^TfsTg'T WR^ti: ' the shed was 
begun to be built;' T^T^ "^SffW^^ >T^'?r "ftfCiViT: 'your honour has been 
selected to be inaugurated to the kingdom;' ^'^frr ofiW ' it deserves to be done' 
(Naisadiya V. 112); ^v^ ^'?fr^TT 'improper to be done' [ci. factu indignum and 
TTQieTv alay^ov) ; ^T jft^fiTW '!^W{^\ 'she ought to be released.' 

870. The root ^% ' to deserve,' when used in combination with an infinitive, is 
usually equivalent to ' an entreaty' or ' respectful imperative;' as, V#T^ "jft ^"^ 
^"tftT ' deign (or simply 'be pleased') to tell us our duties.' It sometimes has the 
force of the Latin debet; as, ^ J^T"^^ i^TR ^VTiTT|'T ^ffT ' such a person as I 
ought not to address you;' "?f ^^ ^f%^ ^f^ ' you ought not to bewail him.' 

871. The infinitive is sometimes joined with the noun ^TTfT, ' desire,' to form a 
kind of compound adjective, expressive of 'the wish' to do any thing, but the 


final m is then rejected; thus, '^^'^'W:, -'RT, -JT, ' desirous of seeing;' ai^ohlHt, 
-HT, -f{, 'wishing to conquer.' 

a. In the 2d Act of Vikramorvasi the infinitive is joined in the same way with 
♦l«1*i^; thus, ^ "rjyHlT: ' he has a mind to see.' 

872. When kim follows the infinitiA'e a peculiar transposition sometimes takes 
place, of which the ist Act of S'akuntala furnishes an example; thus, «<?f'V IT 
?rrff»T ^l^flffl f^ 'illMT %^nT^ "aw "ftr^f^a^, ' I wish to know thy friend, 
whether this monastic vow is to be observed by her,' for ^WJ^^'^lftr f^ ^^T IT 
&c. ' I -wish, to know whether this vow is to be observed by thy friend.' 

873. PRESENT TENSE. — This tense, besides its proper use, is often 
used for the future ; as, ^ Tf^Tfj^T ' Whither shall I go }' eS^T T^ 
TT^trrfir ' When shall I see thee ?' f^ ^jfdfsT ' What shall I do ?' and 
sometimes for the imperative ; as, 1^ cjr^^ ' let us do that.' 

874. In narration it is commonly used for the past tense ; as, ^ ^f^lT ^f T «fiWr 
fT^lfiT "^TT '^ 'he, having touched the ground, touches his ears, and says.' 

875. It may denote ' habitual' or ' repeated' action; as, WHl Tim^ W^ IRT ^H^ 
^Tf^f fT ' the deer going there every day was in the habit of eating the corn ;' ^T 
^ lf*^^F^ ^prrtfrT IT^T r^dlci ^Nf^fiT ' whenever he heard the noise of the 
mouse, then he would feed the cat.' 

876. It is usually found after ^1^ and ITTTiT; as, 'm^^ ^ ^^iTT ^ l^zgf'ri' 
inTiT '3'^ "m^ fW^T^ ' as long as my teeth do not break, so long \vill I gnaw 
asunder your fetters.' (Compare the use of the Latin dum.) 

877. The present tense of the root ^X^, ' to sit,' ' to remain,' is used with the 
present participle of another verb, to denote 'continuous' or ' simviltaneous ' action; 
as, "TST^TT "W^ ^W^ ^T^ 'he keeps making a slaughter of the beasts;' ^^ "T^rT 
WTIflS^ ^T^ ' he is in the act of coming after me.' 

878. The pai-ticle W, when used with the present, gives it the force of a perfect; 
as, TTfrjTf^ W ^'f 'they entered the city;' f^^TfTf^ W? 'they dwelt.' 

879. POTENTIAL. — The name of this tense is no guide to its 
numerous uses. Perhaps its most common force is that of ' fitness' 
in phrases, where in Latin we should expect to find oportet with the 
infinitive ; as, ■^ninf H^ ^fl^ "qr: "^^T? "JI^"^f^ '^ having beheld danger 
actually present, a man should act in a becoming manner.' 

880. It is also employed, as might be expected, in indefinite general expressions ; 
as, "^^ '^Tt *n'^: Wn^ ' whatever may be the disposition of any one ;' '^^'\ TTW[ 
*S<4 '«T "^Wnr ^T'i^^ai'fi ' when the king may not himself make investigation of 
the case;' uihih ehirt cj-qrf "3^ ^TTJ^^ ^^HHl^i 'by uttering unseasonable 
words one may meet with dishonour.' 


a. Es])ecially in conditional sentences ; as, '^f^ TT5TT ^^ «T TmnTW *SI«4 
■^fprftSf^ "T ^TTT ^;^TI'^^ ftraT"^^ ' if the king were not to inflict punish- 
ment, ownership would remain with nobody, and all barriers would be broken 
down.' Sometimes the conjunction is omitted ; as, ^ H'^rT ' should it not be so ;' 
♦T ^TfT ''?TT^*n ' were he not subject to another.' 

88i. The potential often occurs as a softened imperative, this language, in com- 
mon with others in the East, being averse to the more abrupt form ; thus, ^T^I » 
' do thou go,' for T^ ; and WfTTTT 1fif5Tf^, ' let him eat fruits,' for WW. 

882. IMPERATIVE. — This tense yields the usual force of ^ com- 
mand' or 'entreaty;' as, ^'^gftrf^ 'take courage;' jtt'T ^^^mi^ 
' remember me.' m, and not ^r, must be used in prohibition ; as, 
"W^TT JTT wf^ ' do not tell a falsehood ;' JfT <5^tT^ ' be not ashamed ;' 
see 889. The first person is used to express ' necessity,' see example 
at 796. 

a. The 3d pers. singular is sometimes used interjectionally; thus, 
>j^ ' Be it so !' ' Well !' ittf ' Let it go !' ' Come along !' ' Come !' 

883. It is sometimes employed in conditional phrases to express ' contingency ;' 
as, W^irr'll'f? TT 'I'oaif'T ' permit me, (and) I will go,' i. e. ' if you ^vilI permit me, 
I will go ;' WT^rT'iT"^ ^^ 1^^"'^^ ' if JO" command me, I will kill the villain;' 
'WH^'^'r^ ^ ^T^ T^TfiT ' if you give me a promise of security, I will go.' 

884. FIRST PRETERITE. — Although this tense properly has refer- 
ence to ' past incomplete action' (see 242), and has been so rendered 
in the examples given at pp. 198 — 267, yet it is most commonly 
used to denote 'indefinite past time,' without any necessary connexion 
with another action ; as, ^ tj^w xj^ WoRT^ ' I made an effort to 
collect wealth,' not necessarily ' I was making.' 

885. SECOND PRETERITE. — As observed at 242, this tense is pro- 
perly used to express ' an action done at some definite period of 
past time;' as, •^r^r^T^> iT^flT ^m^ "^rgi^' 'Kausalya and the others 
bewailed king Das'aratha.' It is frequently, however, employed 

886. FIRST FUTURE.— This tense expresses 'definite futurity;' 
as, wm f^"^ "^jn^m TfiH T^stTTftl ' in those regions thou shalt obtain the 
fruit of thy desire ;' but is not so frequently found as the second 

887. SECOND FUTURE. — This tense, although properly indefinite, 
is employed to express ' all degrees and kinds of futurity,' immediate 
or remote, definite or indefinite ; as, ^t^ t?^: iTTFlftT ' thou shalt 


drink sweet water ;' fr^ 'ST^^tt r;^'i J^fii ' there certainly he will 
see his wife.' 

a. It is sometimes used for the imperative ; as, ^ ^ rT^ <^l?TfH 
* whatever is to be given, that you will give,' (do thou give.) 

888. THIRD PRETEEITE. — This tense properly expresses '^ time 
indefinitely past;' as, ^srifrj^ vjti: '^ there lived (in fomier times) a 
king;' see 242. 

889. It is also employed to supply the place of the imperative, after the prohi- 
bitive particle TT or ffT9T, the augment being omitted ; as, TT ^^Tt ' do not 
make ;' W[ TH^l W^ ' do not lose the opportunity ;' TTOT ^"pT WT^I ' do not 
tell an untruth ;' Wl "aiV: ' do not be angry ;' TT W^'. ' do not grieve ;' ^^[ f^^*^: 
' do not injui-e ;' W[ HRtl ' be not afraid.' 

890. BEXEDICTIVE. — Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopadesa: 
fj^ iTTrrrT W<*c4,'Hi^ '^^Pri; ' May he constantly be the abode of all happiness !' 
It is chiefly used in pronouncing benedictions. Also in imprecations. 

a. In the latter case a noun formed with an affix ani is frequently used ; thus, 
Wrfi^tnT W *J5T7r ' May there be loss of hfe to thee !' ' Mayst thou perish !' 

891. CONDITIONAL. — This tense is even less frequent than the last. It is used 
in conditional propositions, as illustrated by the following example fi-om Manu : 
■^f^ TJin ^ ^ TTOR7T TT^T ^ Ti^TR ^^ ^TCf^^ J'^f^ =<(^^rl<T: ' if the 
king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger would roast the weak like 
fish on a spit ;' or, according to the Scholiast, f^T^T W^T"'^ ' would cause 


892. Participles in Sanskrit often discharge the functions of the 
tenses of verbs. They are constantly found occupying the place of 
past and future tenses, and more especially of passive verbs, insomuch 
that an instance of a passive in any other tense than the present or 
imperative rarely occurs. 

893. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are 
derived ; as, ^nv ■T"5'JI"5T ' seeing the fowler ;' 'Hi^lLM ^T"?? ' walking in 
the forest ;' rTTT "^TT^iT ' he did that ;' ^I^»T WR!^ ' having heard a 
noise ;' ^T^xifl^ "^tftj^ ttit: ' he went away without drinking water.' 

a. In the case of passive participles, as will presently appear, the 
agent is put in the instrumental case ; and the participle agrees with 
the object, like an adjective. 

Present Participles. 

894. These are not so commonly used in Sanskrit composition as 
])ast and future participles, but they are often idiomatically employed, 


especially where in English the word ' while' or ' whilst' is intro- 
duced ; thus, -^-i ^S^rnxm ^V^ ^^^J^ ' whilst walking in the 
southern forest, I beheld/ &c. 

Past Passive Participle, 
895. This most useful participle is constantly used to supply the 
place of a perfect tense passive, sometimes in conjunction with the 
auxiliary verbs as and bhu, ^ to be ;' thus, ^f^Ftsf^ ' I am com- 
manded ;' "^4 f^fwTTT: W. 'we are astonished' (compare 866). Of 
course the participle is made to agree adjectively with the object in 
gender, number, and case, as in Latin ; and the agent, which in 
English would probably be in the nominative, and in Latin in the 
ablative, becomes in Sanskrit instrumental. Thus, in Sanskrit, the 
phrase ' I wrote a letter' would not be so idiomatically expressed by 
^ "m fr5^^, as by w^j t?^ fcjfw or ^•m tr^ fc^fw wwhr ' by me 
a letter was written,' ' a me epistola scripta.' So again, "ff^ ^■^HlffT 
■f^Wrf^ ' by him the bonds were cut' is more idiomatic than ^ '^■^- 
^f^ f'^^ ' he cut the bonds ;' and ic^ "3^ ' by him it was said' is 
more usual than ^ '5^1'^ ' he said *.' 

896. But frequently the past passive participle is used as an active past participle; 
in which case it may sometimes govern the accusative case, like a perfect tense 
active ; thus, ^ '^'8J'?T ^T^^: ' he ascended the tree ;' ^ ^ TTTTI or ^■PTTTI ' he 
went home;' ^1# ift^: 'having crossed the road;' "W^ ^^^JT ^^fftwtsftR 
' I have descended to the road;' W^ 'STT^^ ^'^TnTi: ' I reached the city;' ^'HT'T 
'STT^'T TfRT?! ^: ' we two have entered the hermitage.' But observe, that its 
active use is generally, though not invariably, restricted to verbs which involve the 
idea of motion,' and to a few neuter verbs. The following are other examples : 
T^ftpi ■3'rtrffnrr: ' the birds flew away ;' ¥ HWJ ' he died ;' ^JTPlt f'T^^t ' the 
fowler returned;' ^ >T^tJ^ "^^^ ' ^^e proceeded to eat;' ^ ^TgHt 'he fell 
asleep;' TT fw?TT: 'they stood.' 

a. Occasionally this participle is susceptible of a present signification; thus, 
T^'fT stood' may sometimes be translated ' standing,' and HTW 'fearing.' 

b. The neuter of the passive participle is sometimes used as a substantive ; thus, 
^W ' a gift ;' ^TT ' an excavation ;' ^T# ' food ;' f^ ' milk.' 

* This instrumental or passive construction, which is so prevalent in Sanskrit, has 
been transferred from it to Hindi, Marathi, Guzerati, and other dialects of India, 
The particle ne in Hindi and Hindustani corresponds most clearly to the Sanskrit 
*T na, the final letter of the commonest termination for the instrumental case; and 
this particle can never occasion any difficulty if so regarded. 



Active Past Participle. 

897. This participle is much used (especially in modern Sanskrit 
and the writings of commentators) to supply the place of a perfect 
tense active. It may govern the case of the verb ; as, ^^'^ ^^"JT ' he 
heard every thing ;' TT(=ft tifwiT ^Tfe%fT^7ft ' the wife embraced her 
husband ;' TT^rV ^;ct tJk^ ^^^^ ' he gave the fruit into the hand of 
the king ;' WW etidMril ' she did that.' This participle may also be 
used with the auxiliaries as and bhu, ' to be/ to form a compound 
perfect tense ; thus, WW oFW^^ ^ftw ' he has done that ;' TTW ^''T^T^ 
^rfroifiT ' he will have done that.' 

Indeclinable Past Participles. 

898. The sparing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative 
pronouns, conjunctions, and connective particles, is mainly to be 
attributed to these participles, by means of which the sense of a 
clause may be suspended, and sentence after sentence strung toge- 
ther without the aid of a single copulative. They occur in narration 
more commonly than any other kind of participle ; and some of the 
chief peculiarities of Sanskrit syntax are to be traced to the frequency 
of their occurrence. 

899. They are generally used for the past tense, as united with a 
copulative conjunction, and are usually translatable by the English 
' having,' ' when,' ' after,' ' by,' see ^^c^ ; thus, W^ ^T<*IW IVftarWT ^^ 
^ f "f; ^fT m^ 'SFT'f ITliT ^Ti^ ^n^ W ' having heard this, having 
thought to himself " this is certainly a dog," having abandoned the 
goat, having bathed, he went to his own house.' In all these cases 
we should use in English the past tense with a conjunction ; thus, 
' When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must cer- 
tainly be a dog. He then abandoned the goat, and, when he had 
bathed, went to his own house.' 

a. It is evident from the above example that the indeclinable participles often stand 
in the place of a pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanskrit. 

b. But although they always refer to something past, it should be observed that 
they are frequently rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth 
sentence of the story at 930. 

9CX5. Another, though less frequent, use of them is as gerunds in do ; thus, «1<Tl 
^n^^TTPT^ ^TVtw* Hsjfff "tT^ISWT: 'men become wise by reading the Sastras;' 

* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future participle in dus, so the Sanskrit 
indeclinable participle in ya is connected with the future passive participle in yu. 

T t 


W[Wl ^Ti? ^r^rWI^rf ^r^T >T#^T ' a wife is to be supported even by doing a 
hundred wi-ong things;' f^ "qt^ ^r^ ^ 'What bravery is there in killing a 
sleeping man ?' 

901. The termination RT twci of this participle is probably the instrumental case 
of the same affix of which the infinitive termination {urn) is the accusative ; see 
459. a. There can be little doubt that the indeclinable participle bears about it 
much of the character of an instrumental case. It is constantly found in gram- 
matical connexion with the agent in this case ; thus, "W^l TTST^R ^H Trtr^l I ftrf 1 
T^'^TTt ' by all the beasts having met together the lion was informed;' ^%T 'TT75H 
WT^^T Tf^^tTiTT ' by all having taken up the net let it be flown away.' 

a. Another and perhaps stronger proof of its instrumental character is, that the 
particle ^r?J, which always governs the instrumental case, is not unfrequently 
joined with the indeclinable participle ; thus, ^T^ ^TtsTTfT, ' enough of eating,' is 
with equal correctness of idiom expressed by ^Tc? *TliT ; see 918. 0, 

Future Passive Participles. 

902. The usual sense yielded by this participle is that of ' fitness/ 
' obligation/ ' necessity' (see 568) ; and the usual construction re- 
quired is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity rests be in 
the instrumental case, and the participle agree with the object ; as, 
rWm If^fw^ "JT f^wr ' by you the attempt is not to be made.' 

a. Sometimes, however, the agent is in the genitive case; thus, Pg »t 1 fl T»TT 
>T^JT^ ^T^ ' boiled rice is to be eaten by Brahmans.' Compare 865, note, 

903. Occasionally the future passive participle may yield a sense equivalent to 
' worthy of,' ' deserving of;' thus, «Ii^ ' deserving a whipping ;' (llsWlq ' worthy 
of being beaten ;' ♦j««h4 ' deserving death by pounding ;' "W^ ' worthy of death.' 

904. If the verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the future 
passive participle ; as, i^ri tffrtc") r^^ ^if^fT *nT ' the tear of the eye is to be 
brought to assuagement by thee.' 

905. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally; in which 
case it does not agree wth the object, but may govern it in the manner of the verb; 
thus, ^"m Tjm TT^K^, ' it is to be gone by me to the village,' for ^m JX^ TrRIt. 
So also, r^TTT ^HT "H^F^ ' by you it is to be entered into the assembly.' 

a. The neuter ^P^rt^M (from ^T) is thus used, and, in accordance wth 841, 

requires the instrumental after it, as well as before ; thus, ^Hlfl <*K^^ ^TfTrT^ 

by something it must become the cause,' i. e. ' there must be some cause ;' 

*Sir*i*iT «r<4^m*y HfTrT^ 'a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination;' 

^^^\ TH" ^«j-M<.<ii >Tr«Jrt«M ' I must liecome your companion.' 

906. Similarly, the neuter of '^H*? may be adverbially used, and impart at the 
same time a passive sense to the infinitive ; thus, 1«l*It '51^1'^ ^^Tfef^'^'T ^I%I 
for "R"^: ^^I &c. 'the breeze is able to be embraced by the limbs' (S'ak. 
Act III). Again, ^^W W^fr5f»T: "RTF '^\Wl\ 'the breezes are able to be drunk 


by the hollowed palms ;' f%»Tini: ^|"*MH ^T^'^ ' great successes are able to be 

907. It is not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of 
a future tense, no propriety or obligation being imphed, just as the past passive 
participle stands in the place of a past tense ; thus, «jH*i^ '^HT'T rt«M<*«l HTTTT- 
^llO^HT T^rT^i ' in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh,' 
where 'Ifl'=M is used impersonally; l^T "^yr <^^: f^if%^ "^^"^ ' when the people 
see you, they will utter some exclamation ;' ^ "^^ "mrfff IT^ JnTT ^if^TT^: 
' if the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me.' See also the eleventh sentence of 
the story at 930. 

908. The neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively or substantively, 
as expressive merely of ' the indeterminate action ' of the verb, \vithout implying 
' necessity' or ' fitness.' In such cases ^f^ may be added ; thus, q^Uin«M*i^ ^fif 
' the being about to deceive ;' ♦iri"*i*i ^UT ' the being about to die :' but not 
always ; as, Wliemoq ' life.' 

Participial Noun^ of Agency. 

909. The first of these nouns of agency (580) is constantly used in poetry as a 
substitute for the present participle ; implying, however, ' habitual action,' and 
therefore something more than present time. They are sometimes found govern- 
ing the same case as the present participle, but they are always united with the 
word which they govern in one compound; thus, M*.^*i ' city- conquering ;' 
ftnr^ 'speaking kind words;' sfcT'^ going in the water;' «<r« »i 'lake- 
born.' The word which they govern is often in the crude base; thus, nai*jt»*., 
'light-making' (see 69), from tejas and kri ; •til^^*., ' mind-captivating,' from 
manas and hri (64); ^^'J^y ' giving much,' from bahu and da ; ■« I r« 51 , self- 
knowng,' from dtman and jrea (57. b). 

910. The second (581) is sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing 
the case of the verb ; thus, "^iim W^ ' speaking a speech ;' ^JiT^T^.Tr '^\^\ 
' bearing the Ganges.' 

911. The first and second species of the third (582. a. b), like the first, have 
often the sense of present participles, and are then always united with the crude 
base of the word which they govern in one compound ; thus, T'Tr^Tft*^, ' mind- 
captivating,' from manas and hri; ■^TTWinVali ,' effective of the business,' from 
kdrya and sidh. They may sometimes govern the case of the verb whence they 
are derived, and may then be compounded, or not, with the word which they 
govern; thus, ITW^Tiir*^, ' dweUing in a village,' or TT^ ^iftc^; 5^<^Tf^ 
■^g«li * kisser of the buds' (Ratnavali, p. 7). 


912. '^ 'and' (727) is always placed after the word which it connects with 
another, like que in Latin, and can never stand first in a sentence, or in the same 

T t 2 


place as ' and' in English; thus, 'tPc'SJRT 'ii«ic<>l'*M ^ 'walking round and look- 
ing.' Unlike que, however, which must always follow the word of which it is the 
copulative, it may be admitted to any other part of the sentence, being only 
excluded from the first place ; thus, riHH"!^ ^'^TTff TTT^ ^ ^^* H^ ^ ^T^JT 
' and having after a short time given birth to a pure son, as the eastern quarter 
(gives birth to) the sun.' 

a. Sometimes two oka's are used, when one may be redundant or equivalent to 
the English ' both;' or the two cAa's may be employed antithetically or disjunc- 
tively, or to express the contemporaneousness of two events ; thus, 'it^'a TTT^^ 
' Both day and night ;' B T^W^T^ »fH^ ^ ^fffrS^?? M ^ ^^^ ^ ' Where 
on the one hand is the frail existence of fawns ? Where on the other are thy 
arrows ?' "aif^^ ^ '^^^ ^^^^Wpf "^ 3?ftflT^ ^fr'E^ ^Tff i^*{\H ' no sooner 
had she began to weep, than a shining apparition in female shape, having snatched 
her up, departed' (S'ak. Act V). Observe — When '^, ' where ?' is used as in the 
above example, it implies ' excessive incompatibility.' 

b. Sometimes '^ is used as an emphatic particle, and not as a copulative ; thus, 
f^ ^ 'T'm 'Tft?tftlT;^T ' Was she indeed married by me formerly ?' 

913. inrr so,' 'likewise' (727. a), frequently supplies the place of ^; thus, 
^RFTTTi^riTT ^ TT^r^^T^^ ^^ ' ^^°t^ Anagata-vidhata and Pratyutpanna- 
matis' (names of the two fish in Hitop. book IV). 

914. f^ 'for,' '5 'but,' '^ 'or' (727. a, 728. a. b), like ^, are excluded from the 
first place in a sentence ; thus, ''jf T^^fHTrf "^T^ 'r^'M f^ "Tft^^TT ' for happiness 
formerly scorned turns to misery;' T^'7'II^ ^ 'but on the contrary;' ^^T l^'T 
^T '^^1*11 ^TT 'either abandon her or take her.' 

915. JjH^ 'if and ^TT 'if (727. b) may govern the potential or conditional (see 
891), but are also used with the indicative; thus, TJ^ if^M^ M^lPill tJ'^TTfll' 
' if he live, he will behold prosperity ;' '^f^ W^J n*ili|i*i^ ^iftcT ' if there is need 
of me ;' '^WT ^?T "tIt'W^ "^ ^'^^ ' If avarice were abandoned, who would be 

Prepositions and Adverbs. 

916. Of all the internal evidences of the antiquity of Sanskrit, there is none 
more decisive than the sparing use which this language makes of prepositions, in 
expressing the dependence of one word upon another. Indeed, the employment 
of these aids to syntactical combination may be regarded as a result of modern 
refinement, incompatible with the simplicity of the most ancient languages. Thus, 
even the Greek, which is copiously provided with prepositions, made comparatively 
little use of them in the days of Homer, and was satisfied to express most of the 
relations of the words in a sentence by the cases of its nouns. But let it not be 
imagined that few prepositions exist in Sanskrit. On the contrary, they exist in 
great abundance, as we have shown at 729. Of these, however, only three are 
generally used in government with nouns, viz. ^TT, irfw, and W^ ; the latter two 
being usually placed after the word wliich tliey govern. Examples will be found 
at 730. 


a. Other examjtles of 'STT are, tui ♦ifilloj'^mT^ ' as far as the wrist ;' ^TTHTfl^ 
'till death;' ^T^mT^^'to the completion;' W[ ^7T^ ^JT'R'JnF ' till the comple- 
tion of his vow ;' W^ttrftnTt^PITff ' tiU his release from the body ;' 'iil»f»*4H'H 
' from birth.' 

917. Adverbs are often used as prepositions, or rather postpositions, 
in government with nouns. The following examples illustrate their 
construction as described at 731. 

a. 'JT ^^!3T7 "^TfT '^I^I ^W 'TTTf^f^^T^t ' the restraint of crime cannot be made 
without punishment;' ^TfT M "H if^ ^'^'for a hundred births;' ^m^f^^ 'mTiT 

* up to the serpent's hole;' M(?|*u ^ 'along with his son;' '^'j f^*TT ' \vithout 
cause-,' ^nTTJtr^ iTTT 'without fault;' fmi.l< ^f^C f^t^W 'creeping out of 
the hole ;' ■W'^rt'^ojii^tiKirirf TT^jftr ' from the moment of seeing (him) ;' ^»^M*TfiT 

* from birth;' WW: U^jfrT ' from that time forward;' <JMl«<«1l'i^ '^^^f^ ' f^^^m the 
time of investiture ;' V*ltM ^T^T, or more usually vnTRTj ' for the sake of wealth ;' 
TTPJJ: epW or TT^^ ' for her sake ;' Mc^.^fTlM, ' for the sake of a son ;' rt f^P*!^ 
' on that account.' '3"'TfTj with the genitive, occurs rather frequently, and with 
some latitude of meaning ; thus, ♦fPTT! TTfT ' above the navel ;' 'W^ IT^ '^nTTC 
MMin 'the lion fell upon him;' fJJJ TTfx f^'^rrfTiTt 'changed in his feeUngs 
towards me ;' TT^ d'MK, ^Hei^i oqq^iO ' not behaving properly towards thee ;' 
"5^1^ ^mR ^; 'angry mth his son;' *TPTT: "3!^ 'above the navel;' »TT*T^ 
WUWnr ' below the navel ;' TEf^ 'H'MW I cT^ ' beneath the tree ;' >Tl»m«T'TrT 
'after eating;' TT^t ^S^tfj 'near the king;' f^Wt JH^I^fT^ V'T'T ^TT^fTT 'he 
receives money from his father ;' 'tW ^pfts?! f^f^ ' flesh thrown before the 
dog ;' TT M*iY^ ' in my presence.' tmsjilT may take an instrumental ; as, ^"^1 
^rr^TTT ' before others ;' ■»ilWl4i TTOTTT ' after us ;' TTIT f«TW^«n7T ' before teUing ;' 
TIFT TTnPTITTiT 'before investiture;' WtiTHTW TTTojr 'before eating;' *^HI«|^"'J^ 
'before bathing;' r«t q 1 5 1 n "^ 'before marriage,' Hl«ti may take an accusative; 
as, "RT^ fRT^T'^rTr: 'before twelve years are over;' ^Tfim^"»rn^ Xft ' after salut- 
ing ;' IT^T^IT "^Tg" ' after that period ;' W^WTH^ "Si^ ' after a year,' i. e. ' above a 
year having expired;' f«R"rfpr wtrSF 'after marriage;' vi^lofi «=^t|*1ic ^T^T 
' after collecting the bones ;' TSc^'^^PiTT^ ' %vithout fruit ;' >T#^ W^^fin^ vift^n 
'wthout the consent of her husband;' TrfT^FniT ^ftpTT 'to the right of the 
garden ;' M 1 r+u^h^** I <=M PiKetKii ' without injury to living beings.' 

918. '^TJ^,' enough,' is used with the instrumental, with the force of a prohibitive 
particle ; as, Wc^ ^l^My ' away with fear,' ' do not fear.' 

a. It is also used with the indechnable participle ; as, W?! ^^•^y^ ' enough of 
consideration;' see also 901. a. 

h. It is sometimes followed by an infinitive ; as, ^ ^THH ^rf^ ^^'^ fJT"^fTI^ 
' I am not able to turn back my heai-t.' 

919. m^ ' even,' ' merely,' when compounded with another word is declinable ; 


as, 3rr<*fl^ *T ^ifir * he does not even give an answer;' •? ^r^^HTWT^ >TiT^* 
'one ought not to be afraid of mere noise;' 5I<^HT^X[T 'by mere sound;' 
q-^il /ilGlTfr ' by mere words.' 

920. ntjl and t(^, when used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English so 
that,' and the Latin ita utj thus, "W^l W^ 'STPTf^ TTSTT WH «FW^ ' I must so 
act that my master awake,' i. e. ' I must do something to make my master awake.' 
So also, r^ ^ sTT^TTftT ^T^T ^TfT^ *C\^H ' Do not you know that I keep watch 
in the house ?' * 

a. \^Ah Hi^^l, and '^'^^, may be used in the same way; thus, in'^^'T 
^RT^ ^ f%f^ f^^ ^"pr TTr^TTTTTft ' nothing is so opposed to length of 
life as attention to the wife of another.' 

b. "mf^, as well as TT^, is used for 'that;' thus, ^ »J^rt«i*l "^IT^ H^ ^TTfif 
■^RT 4^»rimi Hamf ' this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse 
should be felt.' 

921. f^, ' why ?' may often be regarded as a mark of interrogation which is not 
to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is uttered ; 
as, lTTrn/ii(S<ii f^ ^iftariT ""JiT^ ' Is any one honoured for mere birth ?' 

a. It sometimes has the force of ' whether ;' as, ^TPTiTT iW( 'W^'^^ ^rTRff ^W^ 
3J^Tm ^'^^g^ ^ ' let it be ascertained whether he is worthy to receive so 
large a salary, or whether he is unworthy;' W^ ^fw f% '^*U^<j7t»t TX^l •? '^ 
* the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not.' 

922. qfTT as an affix of comparison or similitude (724) may be compounded with 
a word in the crude base, which if uncompounded would be in the accusative case ; 
thus, viifHiti ^^^^ ^•^^ ' showing himself as if dead;' ^TT^^nf 1^ "T^TTfiT 

he regards it as a wonder.' 

923. The negative «T is sometimes repeated to give intensity to an affirmation ; 
thus, *T *T ^^fk ' he will not not say' = ^iftHTn Vm ' he will certainly say.' 

924. The indeclinable participle of dis with ut is sometimes used adverbially to 
express 'on account of,' 'with reference to,' 'towards,' and governs an accusative; 
thus, ftp=(^ ^T^^'^ ' On account of what ?' IW "^f^^Xf ' with reference to him.' 

925. The indechnable participle of T*T with W\ ('to begin') is used adverbially 
to express ' from,' ' beginning wth,' and may either govern an ablative or be 
placed after the crude base ; thus, rHH«^*lll< ^RWT '^IT^ ^Hcl ' from the time of 
invitation to the time of the S'raddha.' fHH«T!(iyK«T would be equally correct. 

926. The interjections ftloF and '^T require the accusative; as, fv^ ^Tf^¥ 
'Woe to the wretch!' and the vocative interjections the vocative case; as, >ft: 
VJPfl 'O traveller!' 

927. All the languages of the East are averse to the use of the 
obliqua oratio. In Sanskrit it is rarely admitted; and when any 
one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of 


another, the relator generally represents him as speaking the actual 
words in his own person. 

a. In such cases the particle '^fif (properly meaning ' so,' 'thus') is often placed 
after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted 
commas ; thus, f^iuil "ai^: ^IT^WT ^^TH ^fcT ' the pupils said, " We have 
accomphshed our object;"' not, according to the Enghsh or Latin idiom, 'the 
pupils said that they had accomphshed their object.' So also, «*f<>5^<*i*J ^TT "^ 
H^ 'your husband calls you "quarrelsome," ' where <*c05.«m0 is in the nomina- 
tive case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself 
in his own person. So again, ^^TT"?? f^nrWHI ^ ^ tlfTg^JTrr JHT 'STIT 
U^'^^ ' all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, " He is an object of 
confidence,"' where the particle l^fif is equivalent to 'saying,' and the word 
fr^^n^fnTt is not in the accusative, to agree with ^^TT?^, as might be expected, 
but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the 
birds in their own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained 
before ^TT, as in the following example from Manu : ^ ^lc<JH ^ ^TT^; ' they 
call an ignorant man " child." ' But in the latter part of the same line it passes 
into a nominative ; as, f'T^W "^ ^ H^^ ' but (they call) a teacher of scripture 
"father."' II. 153. 

928. In narratives and dialogues ^fif is often placed redundantly at the end of 
a speech. Again, it may have reference merely to what is passing in the mind 
either of another person or of one's self. When so employed, it is usually joined 
with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb signifying ' to 
think,' 'to suppose,' &c., and may be translated by the Enghsh conjunction ' that,' 
to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent; thus, HsJkjT *J<}ci ^T^'^TTT 
^fir M fCsl I M ' having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell ;' 'g'TT 
^^.^f^t oFTTifhrr "0^ MfKX. ^*|5 ' his idea Avas that an increase of wealth ought 
again to be made ;' V^S^ TJ^ Tim ^\{\ HP^T ^fiT JTTflT f^TVFT ' reflecting in 
his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife.' The accusative is also 
retained before ^ffl" in this sense; as, ^W»T ^flT ^r^ 'thinking that he was dead.' 
In all these examples the use of ^fif indicates that a quotation is made of the 
thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place. 

929. Not unfrequently the participle ' saying,' ' thinking,' ' supposing,' &c., is 
omitted altogether, and ^fir itself involves the sense of such a participle; as, 
•^TH^sfty 7T ->l{c(H*H<4^ ^^^ ^f'T *|f'1"'TJ ' a king, even though a child, is not to 
be despised, saying to one's self, " He is a mortal;"' *H^I^I^ TT TT^ ^uT "m 
T^ '>l<H{f)^IM ' either through affection or through compassion towards me, 
saying to yourself, " What a wretched man he is ;" ' ^Hi M<\^1 I ^Ttf ^| lg<5 ^TT 
^^TTTftr^ ^rrf^^!5TiT 'There's a boar! Yonder's a tiger! so crying out, it is 
wandered about (by us) in the paths of the woods.' 



930. The following two stories are taken from the 4th book of 
the Hitopades'a. A literal translation and grammatical analysis are 
given to both stories. All the rules of combination are observed, 
but the words are separated from each other in accordance with 26. 
In the two cases where such separation is impossible, viz. where a 
final and initial vowel blend together into one sound, and where 
crude words are joined with others to form compounds, a dot placed 
underneath marks the division. 

1st sentence, ^fe 'HrTT?^ ^%^ rfRtTT^ ^frHXH 

HTR 'RtH* I ' There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a 
sage named Mahatapas (Great-devotion).' 

2d. H^T^Tr;^f^\n% ^ft^;^!^"^: ^RT^H^t^ ^ 

?^J I * By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young 
mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.' 

' Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild 
rice it was reared.' 

^'m'HfT ^^* I ' Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage 
running after the mouse to devour it.' 

5th. rf ^ft^ ^HT^ ^Tc^^ rTif:iTHT^Trr W^ 

^f^^ ^ft^ "^"R^^T f^^TT^y: ^?T: I ' Perceiving the 
mouse terrified, by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, 
the mouse was changed into a very strong cat.' 

6th. B feTf^: ff ^T^ f^HfrT I rTTT: ff t: ^ct: I 

'The cat fears the dog: upon that it was changed into a dog. Great 


is the dread of the donj for a tiger : then it was transformed into 
a tiger/ 

7th. ^^ ^TTTi? ^ft ^ft^;fHf^^^ "q^fn ^f^: i 

* Now the sage regards even the tiger as not differing at all from 
the mouse.' 

8th. ^TT: ^ H^^reen IT^TO^ ff ^Tli ^T ^^f^ I 

'Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood, seeing the 
tiger, say.' 

9th. ^%7T ^fi=r^T ^f^^s^ ^mm ^w: i ^By this 

sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger.' 

loth. ^rT^ ^T^ ^ ^W: ^^Sr^Sf^^H I The tiger 
overhearing this, being uneasy, reflected.' 

nth. -^T^^ ^%^ ^f^^T ^f^W^ rTT"^ f^ ^^ 

^^^'qj^T^ ^^ff ;^ ^ "qc^nft^^ « 'As long as it 
shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my 
original condition will not die away.' 

1 2th. tRr ^HTcTt^ ^f^ 1^ ^*|^rf: I 'Thus reflecting, 
he prepared (was about) to kill the sage.' 

|[rET "^3^T 'rftcfi TTcf "^ff : I 'The sage discovering his intention, 
saying, " Again become a mouse," he was reduced to (his former 
state of) a mouse.' 

Observe in this story four peculiarities: ist, the simplicity of the 
style ; 2dly, the prevalence of compound words ; 3dly, the scarcity 
of verbs ; 4thly, the prevalence of the past passive participle with 
the agent in the instrumental case for expressing indefinite past 
time, in lieu of the past tense active with the nominative : see 895, 
with note. 

First sentence. — Asti, 'there is,' 3d sing. pres. of the root as, 2d conj. (see 584). 
Gautamasya, ' of Gautama,' noun of the first class, masc. gend., gen. case (103). 
Munes, ' of the sage,' noun of the second class, masc. gend., gen. case (no): final 
s remains by 62. Tapovane, 'in the sacred grove,' or 'grove of penance,' geni- 
tively dependent compound (743) ; the first member of the comjjound formed by 
the crude noun tapas, ' penance,' as being changed to by 64 ; the last member, 

V u 


by the loc. case of vana, ' grove,' noun of the first class, neut. (104). Mahdtapd, 
'great devotion,' relative form of descriptive compound (766); the first member 
formed by the crude adjective mahd (substituted for mahat, see 778), great;' the 
last member, by the nom. case of tapas, ' devotion,' noun of the seventh class, 
neut. (164) ; final s dropped by 66. a. Ndma, ' by name,' an adverb (713). Munih, 
'a sage,' noun of the second class, masc, nom. case (no): final s passes into 
Visarga by 63. a. 

Second sentence. — Tena, by him,' instr. case of the pronoun tat at 220. Asra- 
ma-sannidkdne,' in the neighbourhood of his hermitage,' genitively de])endent com- 
jjound (743); the first member formed by the crude noun dsrama, hermitage;' 
the last member, by the loc. case of sannidhdna, ' neighbourhood,' noun of the first 
class, neut. (104). The final a of tena blends with the initial a of dsrama by 31. 
Mushika-sdvakah, ' a young mouse,' or ' the young of a mouse,' genitively depend- 
ent compound (743) ; the flj-st member formed by the crude noun mushika, a 
mouse ;' the last, by the nom. case of sdvaka, ' the young of any animal,' noun of 
the first class (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kdka-mukhdd, 'from the 
beak (or movith) of a crow,' genitively dependent compound (743) ; the first 
member formed by the crude noun kdka, ' a crow ;' the last, by the abl. case of 
mukha, ' mouth,' noun of the first class, neut. (104) ; t being changed to d by 45. 
Bhrashto, 'fallen,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root bhrans 
(544) : as changed to by 64. Drishtah, ' seen,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the 
past pass. part, of the root dris : final s becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

Third sentence.— T«fo,'then,' adv. (719): as changed to by 64. Dayd-yukfena, 
' touched with compassion,' instrumentally dependent compound (740) ; the first 
member formed by the crude noun dayd, ' compassion ;' the last, by the instr. case 
of yukta, ' endowed with,' past pass. part, of the root yvj (670). Tena, see second 
sentence. Munind, ' by the sage,' noun of the second class, masc. gend., instr. 
case (no). Nwdra-kanaih, 'with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent com- 
pound (743) ; the first member formed by the crude noun nivdra, wild rice;' the 
second, by the instr. plur. of kana, noun of the first class, masc. : final s becomes 
Visarga by 63. Sanvarddhitah, ' reared,' nom. case, sing, of the past pass. part, 
of the causal form of the root vridh (549) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

Fourth sentence. — Tadanantaram, ' soon after this,' compound adverb ; the first 
member formed with the pronoun tat, 'this,' at 220; the second, by the adverb 
anantaram, 'after,' at 731 and 917. Mushikam, noun of the first class, masc. 
gend., ace. case (103). Khdditum, 'to eat,' infinitive mood of the root khdd (458, 
868). Anudhdvan, ' pursuing after,' 'running after,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the 
pres. part. Paras, of the root dhdv,' to run,' with the preposition anu, ' after' (524). 
Viddlo, ' a cat,' noun of the first class, masc. (103), nom. case : as changed to o 
by 64. Mmiind, see third sentence. Drishtah, see second sentence. 

Fifth sentence. — Tam, ace. case of the pronoun tat at 220, used as a definite 
article, see 795. Mushikam, see fourth sentence. BMtam, ' terrified,' ace. case, 
sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the root bht (532). Alokya, ' perceiving,' 
indeclinable part, of the root lok, with the prep, d (559). Tapah-prnbhdvdt, 


' through the efficacy of his devotion' (814), genitively dependent compound (743) ; 
the first member formed by the crude noun tapas, ' devotion,' s being changed to 
Visarga by 6t, ; the second, by the abl. case of prabhdva, noun of the first class, 
masc. (103). Tena, see second sentence. Munind, see third sentence. Mushiko, 
nom. case : as changed to by 64. Balishtho, ' very strong,' nom. case, masc. of 
the superlative form of the adj. balin, ' strong' (see 193) : as changed to by 64. 
Viddlah, see fourth sentence : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, changed,' 
' made,' nom. case, sing, of the past pass. part, of the root kri at 682 : final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

Sixth sentence. — Sa, nom. case of the pronoun tat at 220, used as a definite 
article (795) : final s dropped by 67. Viddlah, see fourth sentence. Kukkurdd, 
'the dog,' noun of the first class, masc. (103), abl. case after a verb of 'fearing' 
(855) : t changed to d by 45. Bibheti, ' fears,' 3d sing. pres. tense of the root bM, 
3d conj. (666). Ta/a/i, 'upon that,' adv. (719) : as changed to ah by 63. Kukku- 
rah, ' the dog,' nom. case (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see fifth 
sentence. Kukkurasya, 'of the dog,' gen. case (103). Vydghrdn, 'for the tiger,' 
noun of the first class, masc. (103), abl. case after a noun of fear' (814. rf) : t 
changed to n by 47. Mahad, ' great,' noun adj. of the fifth class (142), nom. case, 
sing. neut. : t changed to d by 45. Bhayam, ' fear,' noun of the first class, neut. 
(104), nom. case. Tadanantaram, see fourth sentence. Vydghrah, nom. case: 
final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see fifth sentence. 

Seventh sentence. — J^A«, ' now,' inceptive particle (727. c). Vydghram, ace. 
case. Api, ' even,' adv. Mushika-nirvisesham, ' as not differing at all from the 
mouse,' relative form of dependent compound (762) ; the first member formed by 
the crude noun mushika; the second, by the ace. case of the substantive visesha, 
'difference,' with nir prefixed: or it may be here taken adverbially, see 776. 
Pasyati, 3d sing. pres. tense of the root dris, ist conj. (604). Munih, see first 

Eighth sentence. — Atah, 'then,' adv. (719). Sarre, 'all,' pronominal adj., nom. 
case, plur. masc. (237). Tatra-sthd, ' residing in the neighbourhood,' anomalous 
compound, in its character resembling a locatively dependent ; the first member 
being formed by the adverb tatra (720), ' there,' or ' in that place ;' the second, by 
the nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of the root sthd, ' to remain' 
(587) : final s dropped by 66. a. Jands, ' persons,' noim of the first class, masc. 
gend. (103), nom. case, plur. : final s remains by 62. Tam, ace. case of the pro- 
noun tat (220), used as a definite article (795). Vydghram, 'tiger,' noun of the 
first class, masc. gend. (103), ace. case. DrisA^wa, ' having seen,' indeclinable 
past participle of the root dris (556). Vadanti, ' they say,' 3d plur. pres. of the 
root vad, ist conj. (599). 

Ninth sentence. — Anena, 'by this,' instr. case of the demonstrative pronoun 
idam at 224. Munind, see third sentence. Mushiko, nom. case : as changed to o 
by 64. a. Ayam,' this,' nom. case of the demonstrative pronoun at 224: the initial 
a cut off by 64. a. Vydghratdm, ' the condition of a tiger,' fem. abstract noun of 
the first class (105), ace. case, formed from the substantive vydghra, 'a tiger,' by 

IT u 2 


the affix td (80. XXIII). Nitah, ' brought,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past 
pass. part, of the root nt at 532. 

Tenth sentence. — Etach, 'this,' ace. case, neut. of the demonstrative pronoun 
etat at 223 : t being changed to ch by 49. Chhrutwd, ' overhearing,' indeclinable 
participle of the root sru (676 and 556). 'Wr^l becomes ^rtl by 49. Vydghrah, 
nom. case : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Sa-vyaiho, ' uneasy,' relative form of 
indechnable compound, formed by prefixing the preposition saha to the fem. sub- 
stantive vyathd (769) : as changed to by 64. a. Achintayat, ' reflected,' 3d sing. 
1st pret. of the root chint, 10th conj. (641) : the initial a cut off by 64. a. 

Eleventh sentence. — Ydvad, 'as long as,' adv. (713): t changed to d by 45. 
Anena, see ninth sentence. Jivitavyam, ' to be lived,' nom. case, neut. of the fut. 
pass. part, of the root jiv (569, 905. a, 907). Tdcat, ' so long,' adv. correlative to 
ydvat (713). Idam, 'this,' nom. case, neut. of the demonstrative pronoun at 224. 
Mama, of me,' gen. case of the pronoun aharn,'!,' at 218. Swarupdkhydnam, 
' story of my original condition,' genitively dependent compound (743) ; the first 
member formed by the crude noun swarupa, ' natural form' (see 232) ; the second, 
by the nom. case of dkhydna, noun of the first class, neuter (104) : m retained by 
60. ^Hr?i-A:arflm, ' disgraceful,' accusatively dependent compound (739); the 
fii'st member formed by the crude noun akirti, ' disgrace ;' the second, by the 
nom. case, neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, ' causing,' from kri, ' to 
do' (580). JV«, ' not,' adv. (717. a). Paldyishyate, ' w'iH die away,' 3d sing. 
2d fut. Atm. of the compound verb paldy, formed by combining the root i with 
the prep, para (783). 

Twelfth sentence. — Iti, ' thus,' adv. (717.6; see also 928). Samdlochya, ' reflect- 
ing,' indeclinable part, of the compound verb samdloch (559), formed by combining 
the root loch with the prepositions sum and d (784). Munim, ace. case. Hantum, 
to kill,' infinitive mood of the root hayi (458, 868, and 654). Samudyatah, ' pre- 
pared,' nom. case, sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of the compound verb 
sam-ud-yam, formed by combining the root yam with the prepositions sam and 
■ut (545)- 

Thirteenth sentence. — Munis, nom. case: final s remains by 62. Tasya, 'of 
him,' gen. case of the pronoun tat (220). Chikirshitam,' mteniion,' ace. case, neut. 
of the past pass. part, of the desiderative base of the root kri, 'to do' (550 and 
502), used as a substantive (896. h). Jhdtwd, ' discovering,' indeclinable part, of 
the root jnd (556 and 688). Punar, ' again,' adv. (717. e) : r remains by 71. e. 
Miishiko, nom. case : as changed to by 64. Bhava, ' become,' 2d sing, imperat. 
of the root bhu (585). Ity answers to inverted commas, see 927. a .- the final i 
changed to y by 34. Uktivd, ' saying,' indeclinable part, of the root vach (556 
and 650). Mdshika, nom. case : final s dropped by 66. Eva, ' indeed,' adv. 



XTlt^fw I f^nj ftj^ W^ X^%* ^Sft ^ifw ITH 

1 See 584 ; the final i becomes y by 34. ^ Loc. case of Ujjayini; see 106. 

•^ Proper name, noun of ist class at 103; as becomes by 64. ■* 713. ^ Nom. 

case of Brdhmana, noun of ist class at 103; final s becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

^ 220, ^ 80. XXV. ^ Past pass. part, of the root sm, 'to bring forth,' with 

the preposition ^ra, 532 and 647. ^ 220. i** Bala, ' young,' crude base; 

apatyasya, gen. case of apatya, noun of ist class, neuter, at 104; see 755. 

11 Rakshd, f. ' protection,' crude base; artham,'tor the sake of,' adv.; see 731, 

mth note, and 917. 12 Accus. case of Brdhmana. ^^ Indecl. part, of the causal 

of the root sthd,' to stand,' with preposition avaj see 566 and 587. i"* Infinitive 

of the root srea,' to bathe,' 2d conj.; see 458, 868, and 200. ^^ 545, 896, and 200. 

is 727. c. I'' Gen. case ; see 103. l^ 731 and 913. i-' i49- -^ Pdrvana, 

crude base; srdddha, noun of ist class, neut., at 104; see 743; ' a funeral ceremony 

in behalf of three ancestors.' -^ Infinitive of the root dd,' to give,' 3d conj.; 

see 458, 868, and 663. — Nom. case, sing, of dhwdna, ' invitation,' noun of ist 

class, neut., at 104. -"^ Past pass. part, of the root gam, to go,' with preposition 

a: see 783, 545, and 896. ^4 220, 49. -^ 49, 556, and 676. 26 Sahaja, 

' natural,' ' inborn,' crude base ; ddridrdd, abl. case of ddridra, poverty,' abstract 

noun of 1st class, neut., formed according to 80. XII, see 755 : final t changed to 

d by 45. 27 gij sing, ist pret. of the root chint, 'to think,' loth conj. ; see 641. 

23 790. a, 760. 29 yi-^. a. ^0 See 602. ^^ For tadd anyah by 31. ^2 228, 

49. ^ 49. '■^ See 699, 414. a. ^^ 728. b. ^^ Gen. case of sisu, m. ' a 

child;' see iii. ^^ 720. '^ Nom. case of rakshaka, 'a protector,' noun of 

ist class, masc, at 103. ^9 229, ^o gi^ ^84. ^l 220. ''2 227. -^^ See 

682 and 873. ^ See 644 and 882. a. ^^ Ckira, ' long,' crude base ; kdla, 

' time,' crude base ; pdlitam, ' cherished,' accus. case of pdlita, past pass. part, of 

the root pal, ' to cherish,' loth conj. ; see 538. This is a complex compound, the 

whole being an accusatively dependent (see 739, 821), involving a descriptive, 755. 

4fi 224. •*' See seventh sentence of the last story, p. 331- 


^^;5Fnt ^TTTlf^rT: ^%rT^^ "% I HlTtS^ ^c^ 

^raTSTTT^ ^^foT^ ^^o?t^ Ti>i^fcJyirH^:xn^: 

^«^T^ ^X|mi5I ^T^^rrj^ "=^1:^^ fjoft? I rfi?tS5^ 

^ 83 <^ ^ 8i 84 ♦ «? 86 87 

^rf^^T^q ^STiTTTT^H^T^ I ^H^^ ^T^ ^^BT^ '^'^^J^ 

"^^ Accus. case of nakula, ' a weasel,' ' ichneumon,' or * mungoose,' noun of ist 
class, masc, at 103. ''^ Bdlaka, m. ' a child,' crude base ; rakshd, f. ' protection,' 
crude base; artham, 'for the sake of,' adv. ; 731, with note. ^^ Indecl. part, of 
the causal of sthd, ' to stand,' with prepositions vi and ava, 566. ^^ See 602. 

52 ^21. ^^ 556. ^-^ 719; final s remains by 62. ^•'' 720. ^^ lustrum, case, 
103. 5'" See above. ^^ 73i- ^^717.6. ^o pj-es. part, of the root ^'am, 'to 
go,' 524, with preposition a,' to come,' 783. ^^ Krishna,' hla-ck,' crude base; 

sarpo, 'a snake,' nom. case of sarpa, noun of ist class, masc, at 103; as becomes 
o by 64 : see 755. ^- Past pass. part, of the causal of the root pad, with vi and 

a, ' to kill,' 549. ^ Past pass. part, of khand, ' to tear in pieces,' 538 ; final s 

becomes s by 62. ''^727,912. ''•^ 225; initial a cut off by 64. a. ^'^ Nom. 
case; as becomes by 64. ^^ Accus. case, 103. ^^ Pres. part, of yd, to go,' 
524, with preposition d, ' to come,' 783. ^^ Indecl. part, of the root lok, with 

preposition ava, ' to see,' ' to observe,' 559. ^^ Rakta, ' blood,' crude base ; 

vilipta, ' smeared,' crude base of past pass. part, of the root lip, ' to smear,' with 
preposition vi ; mukha, ' mouth,' crude base ; pddah, nom. case of pdda, foot,' 
noun of 1st class at 103. Complex relative compound, the whole being the relative 
form of descriptive, involving a dependent and an aggregative, 771. "^ Indecl. 

part, of the root gam, 'to go,' with prepositions upa and d, 'to approach,' 564. a. 
'"^ Loc. case, dual, of charana, ' a foot,' noun of ist class, masc. or neut., at 103, 
104 ; see 862. b. '^ 3d sing. 2d pret. Parasmai of the root luth, ' to roU,' 364. 

'''* Final s remains by 62. "•'' Tathd, ' so,' adv., 721 ; vidha, ' kind,' ' manner,' 

relative form of adverbial compound, 796. b. '*> Indecl. part, of dris, ' to see,' 

556. '''^ 218. ^^ Nom. case of putra, ' a son,' noun of ist class at 103; as 

becomes by 64. a. "^ 224 and 64. a. ^ Past pass. part, of the root bhaksh, 
' to eat,' 538. ^1 719. e, 928, and 929 ; final i becomes y by 34. ^- Indecl. 

part, of the causal of the root char, with preposition vi and negative prefix a (726), 
' without deliberating,' 566. ^'-^ Past active part., formed from the past pass, 

part. ryapadiVff,' killed,' 553. '^^ 73i- ®^ 713- ^"^ 225 and 37. •'^"Indecl. 
part, of the root sri, 'to go,' with preposition upa, 'to approach,' 560. 


^ See 604. ^^ 713. ^ Nom. case of su-stha/ in a good state,' safe,' from 
s«/well,' 726./, and stha, participial noun from sthd, 'to stand,' 580. ^^ See 

655. 9-728.0, 914. ''^784. 9-«See587. ^^ UpaMra/ benefit,' crude base; 
karam, ' causing,' accus. case of kara, participial noun from kri, to make,' 580 ; 
see 739. b. ^^ Indecl. part, of the root rup, with preposition ni, to look at,' 564, 
9' Saniflp/fl,' scorched,' 'tormented,' 'distressed,' crude base; chetdh,' mind,' nom. 
case, masc. of chetas, noun of the 7th class, neut., at 164. a; see 767. ^ 6'j. 

^^ Accus. case of para, adj. m. f. n.' excessive,' 187. ^*^o Accus. case of vishdda, 
'grief,' ' despondency,' noun of ist class, masc, at 103. ^^^ Past pass. part, of 

gam,' to go,' with preposition upa, 545, 896, and see 844. 

932. Translation. 

* There lives in Ujjayini a Brahman named Madhava. His wife 
bore him (a son). She, having stationed the Brahman (her husband) 
to take charge of the young child, went to perform ablution. Mean- 
while a message came from the king for the Brahman to perform 
the Parvana S'raddha. On hearing which, the Brahman, from his 
natural neediness, thought to himself, " If I do not go quickly, some 
other Brahman will take the S'raddlia. But there is none here (that 
I may leave) as a guardian to the child. What then can I do ? 
Come, having stationed this long-cherished weasel, dear to me as a 
son, in charge of the infant, I will go.'^ Having so done, he went. 
Presently a black serpent, silently approaching the child, was killed 
by the weasel and torn in pieces. By and by the weasel, seeing 
the Brahman returning, quickly running to meet him, his mouth 
and feet smeared with blood, rolled himself at the Brahman's feet. 
Then that Brahman, seeing him in such a condition, hastily con- 
cluding that he had eaten the child, killed him. Afterwards, no 
sooner did he come up than he beheld the infant slumbering safely, 
and the black serpent lying dead. Then looking at his benefactor the 
weasel, and bitterly repenting (of his precipitation), he experienced 
exceeding grief.' 



933. Note — The numbers over the words in the following sentences 
and fables refer to the rules of the foregoing grammar. Those words 
which cannot be translated by a reference to the rules are explained 
in regular order at the foot of the page. Observe, that cr. stands 
for crude base ; c. for class or for case ; s. for substantive ; m. for 
masculine ; f. for feminine ; n. for neuter. 

# I H^^T ^ I f ^ ^^t^ ^%f?T I -^ f^ ^t^ I 
^cTT^ ^t I W WTT I ^: #ftH I W ^%' ^^: I 
^ 'Jf ^ftfrT I ^tfn: f¥^ ^y \ "SR ^T^H 

311 J^, 2i8 f\ ■ill. 560 ^ _^ 8o6.b * 

♦ 668. a 518, 896. b ♦ 66S. a ♦ lip 8q6. b « #K =So ♦ 2ig ♦ ♦ 

8S9 ^ 714 6!S ** 106 ^» 880 601 88j S55 ^ 6M ^ 

885 ♦ ^ yhit.h * 6gj 


UfV^ f^lT^ ^^^T^ ^%TT II 

^Twrfq^^^ wmi €w h^^: -qic^ xrtw 11 

«R s. m. (ist c. 103) 'aman.' JT^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'a house.' ^T^ s. n. 
(ist c. 104) 'a book,' 'a sacred treatise.' Wc^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'water.' TTT^- 
■^T^ genitively dependent (743); rdtri, cr. ' night ;' seshe, loc. c. of sesJia, s. m. 
(ist c. 103) 'end.' '5I^T«T s. n. 'a bed;' -?2ac?, abl. c, / becomes rf by 45. 'gf? 
s.f. (2d 0. 112) 'gratification;' -shtyd, instr. c. TTTH s. n. (7th c. 164) 'penance;' 
-sah, gen. c. Hie? s. n. (ist 0. 104) ' frnit ;' -lam, nom. c. 


Xji^ iJrTT^ ^iq^ ^%f7f f^^ ^ ^^^^^^ II 
^ff:;5n^ ^tft*^PR ^nrr:;3|t^ TT^l^f^T^T'l^ 

f^^w II 

^^TT^ ^ ^r^t^ ^^^ ^^H ^^%H II 

W^J^\: ^-feu^ ^^^ iw II 
^f^ nX^ftj ^^Prf ^^^'f f^ft^i^^lf^^T 
^f^ ^rqif^VT^H II 

^df s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a barren soil;' -ne, loc. c. '^'5T s. n. (ist c. 104) ' seed;' 
-jam, ace. c. "3^1 indecl. part. (556), ' having sown,' from root vap. '^'BRi s. ni. 
(ist 0. 103) 'a husbandman.' '3h*C s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a hog.' 'ii-^^ni^ii^Tl'^- 
^^rn^ complex compound (770. «); arma, cr.' food;' ghrdna, cr.' smelling;' ynr/ya, 
or. 'suitable,' 'fit;' desdn, abl. c. of desa (ist c. 103), ' spot,' 'place,' t becomes n 
by 47. Ml <.*« »li M fut. pass. part. (570), 'to be driven away,' 'to be expelled,' 
from root as, with prep. nir. JTW s. n. (ist c. 104) 'a Uving being;' -tdndm, 

gen. pi. '^rJT cr. ' sleep;' artham, see 760. d. f^ s. n. (ist c. 104) ' day.' 

ofW cr.' business;' anushthdna, cr. ' performance ;' artham, see 760. d. TTTl"- 

mn^r«4l'l«1 complex compound (772); rdga, cr. ' passion ;' dwesha, cr. ' hatred ;' 
ddi, cr. ' et cetera;' tydgena, instr. c. of tydga, s. m. (ist c. 103), ' abandonment.' 
■^TR s.m. (ist c. 103) 'desire,' object of desire;' -ma^, nom.c; -ma'/iam, gen. c. pi. 
"^rWTT s. m. (ist c. 103) ' enjoyment ;' -genu, instr. c. '^H«T s. n. (ist c. 104) 

'vice;' -nasya, gen. c. HTT s. m. (3d c. m) ' death;' -tyos, gen. c, s becomes 
^ by 62. '^i^ adj. (ist c. 187) 'painful,' used here as superlative, 'the most 

painful.' "^ cr. ' prosperity,' ' fortune ;' siddhi, cr. ' attainment,' ' accomplish- 
ment,' see 34 ; artham, see 760. d. IS^m s. m. (ist c. 103) ' efPort,' ' exertion.' 
Jllcf s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a limb;' -trdni, n. pi. i}liAjr»n 3d pi. pres. Parasmai, 
' are purified,' from root sudh (4th c. 612). f?r'rtI'l!r^'!TnT^«n complex compound 
(764); nishiddha, cr. 'forbidden;' chintd, cr. 'thought;' ddind, see 764. fTnTiT 
past jiass. jiart. (549), ]iolluted,' defiled,' from causal of root dtish (4th c). 
*< iM I iHVr^^ Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; salya, cr. ' truth ;' abhi- 
dhdnena, instr. c. of ahhulhdiw, s. n. ( ist c. 104), ' speaking.' 

X X 


663, 571- a 

f5=T^sfq ?fW Ht^T^ ^ II 
HT^TTrft ^W% ^r^%rrf II 

7n% ^^ HT^^ m frT infioH ^ ^itfw ^"R^ 

f^^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'poison.' ^WW s.r. (ist c. 104) 'nectar.' WTf5 s. m, 
(ist c. 103) ' a child;' -lad, abl. c, t becomes d by 45. '^TlfVT'T s. m. (ist c. 103), 
' a believer,' from srat, an indecl. prefix implying ' belief,' and dadhdna, ' having/ 
pres. part. Atm. of dhd, see 664. «^irt jHttrTT Bahu-vrihi or relative form of 

descriptive (767. a); sahjdta, or. 'excited,' roused;' krodhdya, dat. c. of krodha, 
s. m. (ist c. 103), ' anger;' see 853. a, TTflTWtV s. m. (ist c. 103) ' anger in 

return.' ^ s. m, (ist c. 103) 'the sun;' -ye, loc. c, see 840. ^S^rf^ past 
pass. part. (531), ' having gone to its setting,' ' having set,' from astam, ace. c. of 
asta, ' the western mountain,' and ita, past pass. part, of i, ' to go,' see 645. *l^*^ 
s. m. (ist c. 103) 'a householder;' -sthena, instr. c. vj Prt Hq s. m. (2d c. no) 'a 
guest,' s becomes r by 65. HmTWI fut. pass. part. (571. a), 'to be refused,* 

from root khyd (2d c), with prep, jwati and a. ^"RT^I^ii s. n. (ist c. 104), 

' evening meal,' ' supper,' from sdyam, indecl. ' evening,' and bhojana, s. n. ' meal,' 
see 755. a; -ne, loc. c, see 840. f«T^W past pass. part. (531), 'being ended,' 

from root vrit (598), \vith prep. ni. 9 1 id s. m. (2d c. iio)'a kinsman,' 'relative;' 
-tisliu, loc. pi., see 840. '^^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a man.' >?T^Tr 3d sing. pres. 
Atmane,' speaks,' from root hhdsh (ist c). HI fill rf infin. (458), 'to breathe,' 

from root an (2d c. 326), v/ith prep. pro. H 1 Uy Prt 3d sing. pres. Parasmai, 

' breathes;' see 326. |r^ s. m. (ist c. 104) 'a hand;' -stau, nom. c. du. ^»IW 
Tat-purusha or instrumentally dependent (740); rakta, cr. 'blood;' aktati, nom. 
du. of akta, past pass. part. (539), ' soiled,' from root aiij (7th c. 668). fq*irt»lrtH 
Karma-dharaya or descriptive (755); vimala, cr. ' clean,' 'pure;' jalena, instr. c. 
of jala, s. n. (ist c. 104), ' water.' R^^-g past pass. part. (539), ' cleansed,' 

' purified,' from root sudh, with prep, i-i ; -ddhau, nom. du. 


Mm II 

Hn^TfT ^:^^ ^^t^fw ^ ^ ^ftr f^1k% ii 

vTHfrt ^^Tt^rTT^^ ^m^TO ^ftr^ trn^TiT- 
^T^t ^H^^Tftn ^11% II 

^Tfir^ ^^^Pti II 

♦j« ai r*i It Tat-purusha or instrumentally dependent (740) ; murkha, cr. ' a fool ;' 
janitam, ace. c. oijanita, past pass. part. (549), 'occasioned by.' rfln s. m. (ist c. 
103) 'mistake,' 'fault.' ^TT^FiT 3d sing. pres. Parasmai,' removes,' 'takes away,' 
from root hun (2d c. 654), with prep. apa. aT»T s. m. ( ist c. 103) ' a man.' ^^- 
faB»T adj. m. f. n. (6th c. 188) ' alone ;' -ki, nom. c. masc. rft^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 
' grief,' ' pain.' >IT1T s. m. (3d c. 1 1 1 ) ' a metal ;' -tundm, gen. pi. ^^^T'T- 
ni<{l*li complex relative compound (772) ; suvarna, cr.' gold ;' rajata, cr. ' silver ;' 
n'dinam, see ']'j2. J|^ s. f. (ist c. 105) 'a crucible;' -shdydm, \oc.c. ^m*il»1 
pres. part. pass. (528), 'being melted,' from root dhmd, 'to blow' (ist c. 269). 
^^ s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a family ;' -Idni, nom. pi. '^^TMnrrf^wf^ Tat-purusha 
or dependent (745); veda, cr.' the Veda,' 'holy scripture;' ndhyayana, cr.' study;' 
yuktdni, nom. pi. neut. of yiikta, past pass. part. ' intent on,' ' attached to.' WrfiT 
s. f. (2d c. 112) ' celebrity,' ' honour.' ^iTWT'f'iT 3d pi. pres. Parasmai, ' they 

obtain,' from causal of root arj. ^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' the body;' final s 

becomes o by ^4. f%f^V^T*ftiTt Karma-dharaya or descriptive (755) ; vividha, 
cr. ' various ;' vyddhmdm, gen. pi. of vyddhi, s. m. (ist c. 103), ' disease,' sick- 
ness.' Wnni s. m. (ist c. 103) 'abode,' ' seat.' "^fr^ '*[?! I ^f) m«!i m1 Ts n i 
complex compound, the whole being a dependent, containing an aggregative 
(771); kshudh, cr. ' hunger,' dk becomes t by 42; pipdsd, cr. 'thirst;' stta, cr. 
'cold;' ushna, cr.'heat;' jndilo, nom. c. o( pidita, past pass. part. (538),' afflicted,' 
'suJBfering from.' fV^p^R^viT^ Bahu-vrihi or relative form of descriptive 
(766) ; vinaswara, cr. ' perishable,' ' frail ;' swahhdvo, nom. c. of swahhdva, s. m. 
(ist c. 103), 'nature.' 

X X 2 



II "S^m ^ II Story i. 
rTf^^^^ f^^%^T^ I €it f^^Sfw I rT| ^^J^^^ 

ir^T s. m. (ist c. 103) ' trouble,' ' pains.' '^^'^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' rearing,' 

' bringing up ;' -ve, loc. c. f»fEoFfw s. f. (2d c. 112) ' acquittance,' ' discharge 

of a debt or obligation.' 

^TtTT^ s. m. (3d c. 1 1 1 ) ' a jackal,' a proper name ; -yur, nom. c, final s becomes 
r by 6r^. ^TTrJ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a jackal ;' -lah, nom. c. (63). "^V s. f. 

(8th c. 177) ' hunger;' kslmt, cr., for kshudk by 42. <*<!« s. m. n. (ist c. 103, 

104) ' the throat ;' -nta, nom. c, final s dropped by 66. '^fOJm[^ pres. part. 

Parasmai (524), ' wandering,' from bhram,' to wander' (ist c), with prep, pari, 
' about' (783) ; -man, nom. c. masc. '^»T s. n. (ist e. i04)'a wood;' -ne, loc. c. 
^rarf TT^T^TJT^fjTJT Tat-purusha or dependent (745); sainya, cr. 'army;' dwaya, 
cr. 'two' (835. a); san-grdma, cr. 'battle,' 'war;' bhumim, ace. c. of bliumi, s. f. 
(2d c. 112), ' ground,' ' field,' ' site.' J^^*'^ s. m. (2d c. 1 10) ' a kettle-drum ;' 

-bheh, gen. c. (63) ; -bhim, ace. c. ^T^"^^ll<^ Tat-purusha or dependent (743) ; 

vdyu, cr. 'wind;' vasdd, abl. c. of vasa, s. n. (ist c. 104), 'power,' 'force;' vasdd 
for vasdt by 45. "^'ITfTW^Tir^ complex compound (770. a); uddhata, cr. of 

past pass. part. ' raised,' lit. ' struck up,' from root han, see under ut at 783, and 
compare 545; sdkhd, cr. 'branch;' agrair, instr. c. pi. of agra, s. n. (ist c. 104), 
' point,' ' end.' ^•*4*<l«i pres. part. pass. (528), ' being struck,' from han, ' to 

strike' (654) ; -nasya, gen. c. '^T^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' noise,' ' sound;' -bdam, 

ace. c. The nom. c. occurs in next page. "^'f^TfT^^'it^ Bahu-vrihi or rela- 

tive form of descriptive (761, 766) ; kshubhifa, cr. of past pass. part. ' agitated,' 
' shaken,' fi'om root kshubh (539) ; hridayas, nom. c. masc. of hridaya, s. n. (ist c. 
104, 108), ' heart,' ' mind.' f^FT? past pass. part. (531), ' lost,' ' undone,' from 
root nas (4th c. 620), with prep, vi ; see imder vi at 783 : see also 895. 
* Selected from the Pahcha-tantra. 


^ITThHtT I ^^-^ ^7r| ^^ ^i|^^ ftlj;T7^7iTiTrf 

^T^^rT I ^T^^ TI^ ^^ l(f?Tn%f?T TTT^^. ^^^1 
^T^W I ^T-^^ ^mT% ^Tf 5^1^ v^ m^ 
^^ ittfrT I ^^ f^^, ^^ ' fTlf^ ^^^ 

■jft^rfrw i)ast pass. part. (549), ' made to utter a sound,' 'made to give forth a 
noise,' ' uttering a loud voice,' from causal form of root char (ist c), with prep. 
pra and ut (48, 783) ; -tasya, gen. c. "^f^ifh^ Tat-purusha or dependent 

(743) 'the range of the sight;' drishti, cr. ' sight ;' gochara, range,' limit,' lit. 
' range of a cow's pasturage ;' -re, loc. c. cI'SITftT ist sing. pres. Parasmai, ' I 

will go,' from root vraj (ist c.) ; see 873. fVff'T'^TMWlri Tat-purusha or 

dependent (745) ; pitri, cr. 'father,' 'ancestor;' parydya, cr. ' succession,' inhe- 
ritance;' dgatam, ace. c. of dyata, 'come,' past pass. part. (545) of root gam, 'to 
go,' with prep, a; see under a at 783. VT^T s. n. (ist c. 104) ' fear,' ' fearful thing,' 
'danger;' -ye, loc. c. '^'R s. m. (ist c. 103) 'joy,' 'pleasure,' 'happiness;' 

-rshe, loc. c. «*«j||m past pass. part. (531), ' obtained,' ' arrived,' ' happened,' 

from root dp (5th c. 681), with prep, sam and pra; -pte, loc. c. iV'l'?!^'?^ 3d 

sing. pot. Parasmai, ' he may consider,' ' deliberate,' ' hesitate,' from root mris 
(loth c), with prep. vi. "SFTW s. n. (ist c. 104) ' act,' ' action,' ' that which is 

to be done;' -tyuni, ace. c. ^T s. m. (ist c. 103) 'impetuosity;' -gdn, abl. c, 

t becomes n by 47. ^nfTTT s. m. (ist c. 103) ' remorse,' ' repentance,' ' pain ;' 

-pam, ace. c. V^^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'firmness,' 'boldness,' ' courage;' -ryani, 

ace. c. ■«< I rt *•"»<< indecl. part. (564), ' having taken hold of,' ' iiaving rested on,' 
' having recourse to,' from root lamb, with prep. d. ^fl^jUri 3d sing, ist pret. 
Parasmai, ' he reflected,' ' he considered,' from root mris, with prep. vi. M"*^ adv. 
' slowly,' from manda, ' slow;' see 713. ctK'fii^^ for "^TTI^T^T; by 49; see '^'^- 
^Wisliiii. in last page. ■^TRToir adv. ' truly,' ' accurately.' ''ifwr^ indecl. 

part. (561), having ascertained,' from root jnd (688), with j)rep. pari. "^W^ 

s. n. (ist c. 104) 'cimosity,' 'sport;' -kdd, abl. c. (45). 


II cf5^ ^ II Story 2. 

WlPT s. n. (ist c. 104) ' food ;' -nam, nom. c. ■»i4 IM frtrt past pass. part. (538), 
' happened,' ' befallen,' from root pat, with prep. a. 'TWT^S'^fTW; Dwandwa 
or aggregative (749); mdnsa, cr. 'flesh;' medas, cr. ' marrow,' as becomes o by 
64. fly asrighhih, instr. c. pi. of asrij, ' blood' (8th c. 176. d). "TtTIT past pass, 
part. (549), ' filled,' from root ^jn (loth c. 640). Ht>M'«<*ii^'jfVi«sn complex 

compound (770); parusha, cr. 'harsh,' 'hard;' charnia, cr., for cAflrmaw, ' skin,' 
'hide,' 'leather,' see 57; avagunthitam, ace. c. of avagurithita,' covered,' past pass, 
part. (538) of root gunth, %vith prep. ava. 1^^^ indecl. part. (566), ' having 

torn,' from causal of root dri, with prep. vi. «;c»i^^| Karma-dharaya or 

descriptive (755) 'in one spot;' eka, cr. 'one;' dese, loc. c. of desa (ist c. 103), 
' spot,' ' place.' f%^ s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a hole ;' -dram, ace. c. Mpsia past 

pass. part. (531), ' entered,' ' penetrated,' ' pierced,' from root vis, with prep, pra; 
see 896. XR adv. ' afterwards,' ' then,' ' but,' ' nevertheless.' ^fl»T s. n. 

(6th c. 152) 'skin,' 'hide,' 'leather;' -rma, ace. c. i^tr^K'TiT pres. part. Parasmai 
(524), tearing,' 'rending asunder,' from causal of root dri, with prep, vi; -yato, 
gen. c., final as becomes o by 64. ^^T>T^ Tat-piirusha or dependent (743) ; 

danshtrd, cr. 'tooth;' bhan-gah, nom. e. of bhan-ga (ist c. 103), 'breaking,' 'frac- 
ture.' «^irt past pass. part. (545) ' produced,' ' happened ;' -tah, nom. c. 
^T^^flrf^^W complex relative compound (771); ddru, cr. 'wood;' charma, cr., 
for charman, skin,' see 57; visesham, ace. c. of visesha, s. m. (ist c. 103), pro- 
perty,' ' attribute.' ^(Tt^ indecl. part. (564), ' perceiving,' ' seeing,' from 
root lok, \vith prep. a. fl^l^fl^JlT past pass. part. (532), ' disappointed,' from 
nir 'not,' dsd 'hope,' hhiita 'become;' see 788. 

WrV?T»T s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a place,' ' a town ;' -ne, loc. c. "TT adj. m. f. n. 

(ist c. 187) 'great,' 'excessive;' -r«w, ace. c. 


?fH I w^^w f^f^H; ^in ^r^T wtf ^t#t: m? I 
^ ^ f^^ fN% Tjgf iif?R?: %^c5r:f2JT <5y«im I 

f^HT Wj^i T%^ I '^^ fflftwfHffrf I ^ft 

tT^TT adj. m. f. n. (5th c. 188) ' possessed of intelligence,' ' intelligent,' see 
140; -man, nom. c. 'ifVoTW past pass. part. (530), ' planned,' 'deliberated,* 

from root mantr (loth c). ^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' merit,' 'advantage;' -no, 

nom. c, as becomes by 64. f^Vl s. f. (ist c. 105) ' learning,' ' knowledge,' 

' science;' -dyciyd, gen. c, final s dropped by 66. a; -dydm, ace. c. "'mTm'QI 

indecl. part. (566), * having propitiated,' ' having pleased,' from causal of root tush, 
with prep. pari. TT^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a road,' ' a way;' -rgam, ace. c, Hl^ 
3d sing. 2d pret. Parasmai,'he said,' 'he addressed,' from root ah, with prep. ;)ray 
see 384 and 783. p. JJ^ past pass, part., used as adj. (ist c. 187), ignorant,' 

'foolish,' from root muh; see 539, 305. a. TlffT?!^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' donation,' 
' countenance,' ' favour ;' -hah, nom. c. "^<=l rt '^ a 1 Karma-dharaya or descrip- 
tive (755); kevala, cr.'mere;' huddhyd, instr. c. of buddhi, s. f. (2d c. 112),' intel- 
ligence.' ^^T^'TrfWR complex compound (770) ; swa, cr. ' own,' see 232 ; 
updrjand, cr. ' earning,' 'acquisition;' vibhdgam, ace. c. of vibhdga, s. m. (ist c. 
103), ' share.' ^T^ s. n. (ist c. 104) ' house,' ' home ;' -ham, ace. c. ^Trvrf^TT 
past pass. part. (533), ' said,' ' spoken,' ' accosted,' from root dhd, with prep. abhi. 
<I««H s, n. (ist c. 104) ' childhood ;' -lydt, abl. c. "astf^ff past pass. part. (538), 
'played,' 'sported,' from root krid. T^^^TT^ Bahu-vrihi or relative form of 

descriptive (761); mahdiov mahat, cr.' great,' 'noble,' see 778; anubhdvo, nom. c. 
(64. a) of anubhdva, s. m. (ist c. 103), ' disposition.' This compound is equivalent 
to the English, ' a good fellow,' ' a fine fellow.' 


HmTr^ ^firit^f^ ^?^t TjR[;ftif T^lffTT itifH I 

rTrr^^^TfilflTt I ^ft f^T^^rTf^ITT^T: Hr^^: f^^H I 

r«Jr( s. n. (ist c. 104) 'wealth,' 'riches,' 'property;' -ttasya, gen. c. '?rf%>?T- 
"PT"*T agt. (582. a), ' a participator,' ' a sharer,' from root bhaj, with prep, sam and 
vi; -gi, nom. c, see 159. W3=ft s. f. (ist c. 106) ' a forest,' 'a wood;' -vydm, 

loc. c. «4^i*<lrtrq€ll*<lt complex compound (770) ; piirva, cr. ' former,' ' for- 

merly;' adMta, cr.' studied;' vidydydh, gen. c. oividyd, which see. TUTT s.m. 
(ist c. 103) 'test,' 'trial,' 'ascertainment.' ^IHT^ Karma-dharaya or descrip- 
tive (755); mrita, cr.'dead;' sathvam, nom. c. of sattwa, s. n. (ist c. 104), 'animal,' 
' beast.' ^«lwf^?rraiTr^?IT complex compound (770) ; sad for sat, cr. ' well,' 
good,' see 45; abhyasta, cr. ' exercised,' 'practised,' 'learnt;' vidyd, cr. 'science;' 
prabhdvena, instr. c. of prabhdva, s. m. (ist c. 103), 'power.' HW-snlqMrfT: ist 

pi. pres. Parasmai, ' we will cause to live again,' ' let us resuscitate,' from causal 
of root jio (603), with prep, /»r«?i and iitj see 48 and 873. HMTsaiT*! ist sing, 

pres. Parasmai, I will provide,' ' I will furnish,' from root yam, ^vith prep, praj 
see 270 and 873. ^T^t^^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'bringing to life;' -nam, ace. c, 

'^tF^^T^TT; Tat-purusha or dependent (743); asthi, cr. 'bone;' sahchayah, nom. c. 
'collecting,' 'gathering together.' ^^ftf»nT past pass. part. (530), 'furnished,' 

' endowed,' from root yvj (see tables at 5S3), with prep, samj -tah, nom. c. rt'«l 
past pass. part. (531. a), 'intent on,' 'busied about,' from root lag, see 896; 
-gnah, nom. c. 'HTnTir past pass. part. (539), ' prohibited,' ' forbidden,' from 

root sidh, with prep. 7n (see 616 and 783. 1). fw^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a lion ;' 

-hah, nom. c. '^TR'n^ftl'^fff 3d sing. 2d fut. Parasmai, ' he will kill,' ' he will 

destroy,' from cavisal of root pad, ' to go,' with prep, r/ and d, 'to kill ;' see 784. 


O N \ ♦ 


^f nw: II 

II ^i^ ^ il Story 3. 

Tiwr TifTTtlirT: # I H^ T!:^^f%^ #ir TITrpt 

ftr^^T^ ^t%H I Jr^ % f ^Sft ^^Tlfft ftiW 

^T& s. m. (ist c. 103) 'a fool;' -rkha, voc. c. f<=imrt7rr s. f. (ist c. 105) 'un- 

profitableness,' ' uselessness;' -fdm, ace. c. ?nfi"mT% Karma-dharaya or descrip- 
tive (755) ; samipa, cr. ' near,' ' neighbouring ;' turum, ace. e. of taru, s. m. (3d e. 
Ill), 'a tree.' viiCl^if*! ist sing. pres. Parasmai, ' I ascend,' ' I mount,' from 
root ruh (ist c), with prep. «'. "^'TTT^ indecl. part. (561), ' having risen (into 

life),' from root sthd (587), with prep, ut ; see under ut at 783. y. "^^ s. m. (ist c. 
103) ' a tree ;' -kshdd, abl. c, see 45. 

^nT^'iV'T^BTf^r*n'R"RT complex relative compound (771); satabuddhi, cr.' Hun- 
dred-devices,' name of a fish; sahasrabuddhi, 'Thousand-devices,' name of a fish ; 
ncimdnau, see 152 and 154. TW s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a fish;' -tsyau, nom. du. 

F^Wf^T Bahu-\Tihi or relative form of descriptive (766) ' One-device,' name of a 
fish ; final s becomes r by 65. T55|^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a frog ;' -ko, nom. c, 

see 64. ■ftrWrTT s. f. (ist c. 105) ' friendship ;' -tdm, ace. c. ^iflrt^riaTw^ 
complex compound (770) ; sw, indecl. ' good ;' bhdshita, cr. ' discourse ;' goshthi, 
cr. ' conversation;' sukham, ace. c. of sukha, s. n. (ist c. 104), ' pleasure,' ' happi- 
ness.' aTc^ s. n. (ist c. 104) 'water;' -Zara, ace. c. H iq 9i \^ 3d pi. pres. 
Parasmai, 'they enter,' from root vis (6th c), with prep. j}ra. vNT s. m. (ist c. 
103) ' a fisherman ;' -rdh, nom. pi. ^*f? P^st pass. ])art., used as adj. (ist c. 
187), 'many,' 'abundant,' from root bhii, with pvep.pra; see 532. 


^TtTT: I rf "^ iTB"iVr4 ?^T H ft=t'^: ifft^: i 'Sift 

86q ^« 70? "V **V 4Q , 676 

\ « ♦ > ^ o 

♦(trt««i s. m. (ist c. 103) ' the head ;' -ke, loc. c. V(T past pass. part. (532), 

' placed/ ' held,' from root dhri. ^«*<M»1^c9nn Tat-purusha or dependent 

(743) ; astamayana, cr. ' sunset;' veldydm, loc. c. of veld, s. f. (ist c. 105), 'time.' 
^TRTiT past pass. part. (532), ' arrived,' ' came,' from root yd, with prep, sam 
and d. TCt^l 3d pi. 2d pret. Parasmai, ' they said,' from root vach, with prep, 

praj see 375. c. "f^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' lake,' ' pond;' -do, nom. c, see 64. 

TliT indecl. part. (556), ' having said,' 'having spoken,' from root vach. T^^ 
s. n. (7th c. 164) ' speech,' ' discourse;' -chah, ace. c, see 6^. *if^m'^W. 3d pi. 
2d pret. Parasmai, ' they consulted,' 'they deliberated,' from root rnantr (loth c.) ; 
see 385. a. Wl^ adj. m. f. n. (ist c. 187) ' good,' ' excellent;' -drau, voc. du. 

HrtlMI s. n. (ist c. 104) ' flight,' ' departure;' -nam, nom. c. ■»:isjg**T s. m. 

(ist c. 103) ' stopping,' ' staying ;' -mbho, nom. c, see 64. iVf^ indecl. part. 

(564), ' having smiled,' from root has, with prep. vi. Tfl^ s. n. (ist c. 104) ' a 

friend;' -tra, voc. c. '^'^TIT s. n. (ist c. 104) ' hearing,' ' hstening to.' ■«fl'l*i'«T 
s. n. (ist c. 104) ' arrival,' ' coming;' -nam, nom. n. ^TT^TRlTr 3d sing, pres. 

passive, ' will take place,' ' will happen,' from causal of root bhu (585), with prep. 
sam: see 496, 873. ^^ngH*<i««<y Tat-purusha or dependent (743); siva, cr. 

'own;' buddhi, cr. 'intellect;' prabhdvena, instr. c. of prabhdva, s. m. (ist c. 103), 
'power.' T;ftsj«mr*i ist sing. 2d fut. Parasmai, ' I will preserve,' from root 

raksh (ist c). ^HT'^'Tr^Tift^ complex compound (770) ; aneka, cr. 'many ;' 

Jala, cr. ' water;' (jati'r, ace. c. pi. of ffati, s. f. (2d c. 112), 'movement;' final s 
becomes r by 6f,. 


Tlf^flR I T!?J|^ ^^ I ;:?^ T{^ m^^. t^^ lf%: 

TT% TTf^^fMi^: mw ^iFw 3!T#^ ^rr^f^wt 

H rt I *4 1 r sjH q I Bahu-vrihi or relative form of dependent (762); paldyana, cr. 
'flight;' vishayd, nom. fem. of vishaya, s. m. (ist c. 103), 'subject,' 'of which 
flight is the svibject,' ' relating to flight ;' see 762. a. TTf^ s. f. (2d c. 112) 

' night ;' -trim, ace. c. ^l«l€l indecl. part. (566), ' having reached,' ' having 

arrived at,' from root sad (loth c), with prep, d; rdtrim dsddyu, ' having arrived 
at the night,' i. e. ' when the night had arrived.' «4*(r<*|;*.THT; anomalous com- 
pound (777) ; yama, cr. ' Death,' 'the god of hell;' kin-kara, cr. ' a servant,' ' a 
messenger;' dbhair, instr. c. pi. of dbha, adj. (ist c. 103), 'like,' resembling;' s 
becomes r by 65. TSITf^vfiTt Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; 

matsya, cr. ' fish ;' bandhibhih, instr. c. of bandhin, noun of agency, ' a catcher/ 
' a killer,' see 582. a. W[7ns[ indecl. part. (564. a), ' having come,' from root 

yayn, with prep. d. a^lrt s. n. (ist c. 104) 'a net;' -lair, instr. pi., see 65. 

^rra^TT^'iT past pass. part. (530) ' covered;' -to, nom. c, see 64. Htkfi «i^^*i^|_- 

<**^<5I(^tCl complex relative compound, involving an aggregative (772); matsya, 
cr. 'fish;' kurma, cr. ' tortoise ;' manduka, cr. 'frog;' karkata, cr. ' crab ;' ddayo, 
nom. pi. of ddi, s. ra. (2d c. 1 10), ' beginning ;' see 772. Ht^ past pass. part. 

(544), ' caught,' 'confined,' from root bandh,wii\i prep, wj; -ddhd, nom. c. pi. ; 
final s dropped by 66. a. MrtiM*ii«l pres. part. Atmane (526), ' running away,' 
' trying to escape,' from root i, with prep, pard, see under para at 783 ; -nau, 
nom. du. TTmT^PnTSrnT; complex compound (770) ; gati, cr. ' movement;' 

riseska, cr. ' variety,' ' difi'erence;' mjlidnaih, instr. c. pi. of vijiidna, s. n. (ist c, 
104), knowledge.' 

y y 2 


II ^nm 8 II Story 4. 

wfert-^Kill Karma- dharaya or descriptive (755); kutila, cr.' crooked;' chdrena, 
instr. c. of chclra, s. m. (ist c. 103),' motion.' T^^»ift nom. du. masc. of rakshat, 
pres. part. Parasmai (524), 'preserving,' from root raksh. f »m id n 1 past pass, 

part. (538), ' fallen,' ' fell,' see 896, from root pat, with prep. ni. 

W^ft^ Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743); vana, cr. 'wood;' uddesa, 
s. m. (ist c. 103), 'quarter,' 'region;' -se, loc. c. "^T^*^ s. m. (ist c. 103) 'a 

mountaineer,' ' a countryman;' -ndah, nom. c. MmHg; s. f. (2d c. 112)' hunting,' 
' chase ;' -rddhim, ace. c. TTf^lT past pass. part. (533), ' set out,' ' set forward,' 
from root sthd, with prep, praj see under pra at 783, and see 896. H«Miil 

instr. c. sing, of prasarpat, pres. part. Parasmai (524), ' proceeding onwards,' 
' creeping forwards,' from root srip, with prep. pra. W!^ s. m. (ist c. 103) a 

boar,' ' a hog.' ^RTTRlf^ past pass. part. (530), ' met,' ' encountered,' from 

causal of root sad, with prep, sam and a. <^ I <* K Pi f^fre'R'^ *? complex com- 

pound (770); karna, cr. 'ear;' dkrishta, cr. ' drawn,' 'pulled;' nisita, cr. sharp;' 
sdyaka, s. m. (ist c. 103), ' an arrow;' -kena, instr. c. *i*1l^rt past pass. part. 

(545), ' kiUed,' from root han (2d c, see 654), with prep, sam and d. <^^\^'At- 

^THTT complex relative compound (771); ^o/jff, cr. ' rage ;' dvisht a, cr. possessed,' 
'filled with;' chetas, s. n. (7th c. 164),' mind;' -sd, instr. c. ^IoJ'^^frtt^gl44<i< 
complex compound (770) ; bdla, cr. ' young ;' indu, cr. ' moon ;' dt/uti, cr. ' bright- 
ness;' danshfrd, cr. 'tusk' (80. XXIV); agra, s. n. (ist c. 104), 'point;' -grena, 
instr. c. 'mTTrTT'^I Bahu-vrihi or relativ^e form of descriptive (766); pdtita, cr. 
'rent,' 'ripped up;' vdara, s. n. (ist c. 104), ' belly,' 'stomach;' -raA, nom. c. 
TcffW Bahu-vrihi or relative (767) ; gata, cr. 'gone,' 'departed;' asu, s. m. (3d c. 
Ill), 'breath,' 'life;' -A'«r, nom. c, see 65. *T7rc5 s. n. (ist c. 104) 'the ground,' 
'the earth;' -le, loc. c. MIMriet^ 3d sing, ist pret. Parasmai, 'he fell down,' 

from root pat (ist c), with prep. prn. 


nm wrtft xi^fir m^rf hifT ^f^^H ( '^^ 

3i3 714 

•feiTf I w^ ^? H% H^'^tftr ^^^ ^|iif tf5=T ^ 

■^31^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a hunter ;' -kam, ace. c. <=mma indecl. part. (566), 
' having killed,' from causal of root pad, with prep, vi and a. ^J^ s. m. ( ist c. 
103) ' a boar,' ' a hog.' ^KM ^ I l.TT^^'^T'^T Tat-purusha or dependent com- 

pound (745); sara, cr. 'arrow;' prahdrw, cr. 'wound;' mdtra, cr. 'mere;' vedand, 
s. f. (ist c. 105), ' sensation,' ' perception ;' -nayd, instr. c. M=^rs( s. n. (ist c. 

104) ' death,' 'the state of return to the five elements.' "^''TFT'iT past pass. part. 
(545), ' underwent,' 'went to,' from root gam, with prep, upa and d; see 896, 844. 
•«fT<, s. n. (ist c. 104) ' interval;' -re, loc. c. ^TT?5 s. m. (ist c. 103) ' a 

jackal.' f^TTJfmrr abst. s. f. (ist c. 105 and 80. XXIII) ' the state of being 

without food ;' -tayd, instr. c. ; see 769. a. Uixin past pass. part. (538), ' dis- 

tressed,' from root pid. "^fv^l^^ pres. part. Parasmai (524), ' wandering about,' 
from root bhram (ist c), with ^ve^. jmri; this root is also of the 4th c, see 275; 
-man, nom. c, s added by 53. T^^ s. m. (ist c. 103) ' spot,' ' place,' ' region ;' 
-sam, ace. c. ^Kl^i^Trtt^i Dwandwa compound (751) ; vardha, cr. ' a boar,' 

' a hog;' pulindau, nom. du. masc. of pulinda. 'U^'S' past pass, part., used as 

adj. (ist c. 187), 'pleased,' ' delighted,' from root hrish, with prep, pra; see 539. 
<=Mr«i»fl'q'i^ 3d sing, ist pret. Parasmai, ' he reflected,' ' he thought to himself,' 
from root chint (loth c, see 641), with prep, vi, 783. ^"JToR"f5 adj. m. f. n. 

(ist c. 187) 'favourable;' -lo, nom. c, see 64. f%ftl s. m. (2d c. no) 'destiny,' 
'fortune;' -dhih, nom. c, see 63. a. HTlpT s. n. (ist c. 104) 'food;' -nam, 

nom. c. HKUMlc^l Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; prdna, cr. ' life;' 
.ydtrd, s. f. 'the means of going,' 'the means of supporting,' see 80. XXIV; -trd, 
nom. c. WT^^^ Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; sndyu, cr. 

' sinew ;' j^dsa, ' string ;' -sam, ace. c. V^tcfitf^'j rt* Tat-purusha or dependent 

(745) ; dhanus, cr. ' bow,' see 6t, ; koti, cr. ' the end,' ' the ])oint ;' f/atn, see 739. n. 
• inaTT indecl. part. ; see under »ir, 783. m. and 560. 


HTTiT past pass. part. (538), ' cut,' * divided,' from root trut (6th c. 388. b) ; 
-tite, loc. c, see 840. nlriHt^^l Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; 

tdlu, cr. 'palate;' pradesa, s. in. (ist c. 103), ' region;' -sam, ace. c. flt^lM 

indecl. part. (566), ' having pierced,' ' having penetrated,' from causal of root dri, 
with prep. ni. ^TT^HtT Tat-purusha or genitively dependent (743) ; chdpa, 

cr. 'bow;' koti, s. f. 'point;' -fir, nom. c, see 65. *««<* s. m. (ist c. 103) 'the 
head;' -Are, loc. c. f^^ST^lT indecl. ; st7:M,'a tuft,' as of hair, &c.; »a^,'like,' 

affix of similitude, see 724 ; t becomes n by 47. «Rr*TT s. f. (ist c. 105) ' pain,' 

* agony ;' -nayd, instr. c. 


15^ class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the number 
of SYLLABLES in the half-line. 

Sloka or Anushtubh (8 syllables to the half-line or Pada). 

935. The commonest of all the infinite variety of Sanskrit metres 
is the S'loka or Anushtubh. This is the metre which chiefly prevails 
in the great epic poems. 

It consists of four half-lines of 8 syllables or two lines of 16 syllables each, 
but the rules which regulate one line apply equally to the other ; so that it is only 
necessary to give the scheme of one line, as follows : — 

1234 5 6 7 8 II 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 

Note — The mark ♦ denotes either long or short. 

The 1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 9th, loth, nth, and 12th syllables may be either long or 
short. The 8th, as ending the half-line, and the i6th, as ending the line, are also 
common. Since the line is considered as divided into two parts at the 8th 
syllable, it is an universal rule that this syllable must end a word, whether simple 
or compound* . 

* There is, however, one example in the Hitopade<a of a compound word 
running through a whole line. 


The 5th syllable ought always to be short. The 6th may be either long or 
short ; but if long, then the 7th ought to be long also ; and if short, then the 7th 
ought to be short also. But occasional variations from these last rules occur. 

The last 4 syllables form two iambics; the 13th being always short, the 14th 
always long, and the 15th always short. 

Every Sloka, or couplet of two hues, ought to form a complete sentence in 
itself, and contain both subject and predicate. Not unfrequently, however, in the 
Ramayana and Mahabharata, three lines are united to form a triplet. 

936. In the remaining metres determined by the number of sylla- 
bles in the half-line, each half-line is exactly alike ; so that it is 
only necessary to give the scheme of one half-line, or quarter of the 
verse (Pada). 

Note, that in printed books each quarter of the verse, if it consist of more than 
8 syllables, is often made to occupy a hne. 

937. Trishtubh (11 syllables to the half-line). 
Of this there are 22 varieties. The commonest are — 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 

938. Indra-vajrd, — — v^ — — ww — w — .| 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 

939. Upendra-vajrd, v^ — v^__v^v./_o'_. 

There is generally a caesura at the 5th syllable. 
Note — The above 2 varieties are sometimes mixed in the same stanza; in which 
case the metre is called Upajdti or Akhydnakt. 

I -2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 

940. Rathoddhatd, — ^ — v./v^«w' — v^ — v^— I 

941. Jagati (13 syllables to the half-line). 

Of this there are 30 varieties. The commonest are — 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 II 

942. Vansa-sthavila, y^ — ^ — — \^ k^ — \j — \j -r^ Vi 

I "2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9ioiii'2 II 

943. Druta-vilambita, \^\^\j — \j\^ — \j\^~^— || 

944. Atijagati (13 syllables to the half-line). 

Of this there are 16 varieties. The commonest are — 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 ji 

945. Mahju-bhdshim, \j\j — \^ — \j\j\j — ^ — ^— || 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 II 

946. Praharshim, — — — \jy^Kj\j — k^ — ^ — — \\ 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 n 12 13 II 
g^T , Ruchird or Prabhdvatt, yj — \j — \j\j\^\j — \^ — \j— \\ 

* The mark -:- is meant to show that the last syllable is long at the end of the 
half-hne, but long or short at the end of the line. 


948. Sakwari or Sakkari or Sarkari (14 syllables to the half-linej. 
Of this there are 20 varieties. The commonest is — 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 11 
949. Vasanta-tilakd, — — ^ — ^kj<^ — \^kj — \^ — — \\ 

950. Atisakwari or Atisakkari or Atisarkari (15 syllables to the 

Of this there are 18 varieties. The commonest is — 

I 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 jl 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 
g^i, Mdlim or Mdnim, v^v^v_/>^ww — — II— v^ — — v^ — — 

There is a caesura at the 8th syllable. 

952. Ashti (16 syllables to the half-line). 
Of this there are 12 varieties; none of which are common. 

953. Aty ashti (17 syllables to the half-line). 
Of this there are 17 varieties. The commonest are — 

I 2 3 4 5 6 II 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 

954. Sikharim, v-i — — — — — ||<^v^wwi^ — — v^wv^-:- 

Caesura at the 6th syllable. 

J ^ 3 4 || 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 12 13 14 15 16 17 

955. Manddkrdntd, — — — — llv^-i^w'^i^— II— v^ — — w — — 

Caesura at the 4th and loth syllables. 

I 2 3 4 s 6 Ij 7 8 9 10 || II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 

Caesura at the 6th and loth syllables. 

957. Dhriti (18 syllables to the half-line). 

Of this there are 17 varieties; one of which is found in the Raghu-vansa — 

I 2 3 4 s 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18 
958. Mahd-mdlikd, v^w^-l<^wv^ — v^ — — v^ — — v^ — — v^-:- 

959. Atidhriti (19 syllables to the half-line). 

Of this there are 13 A^arieties. The commonest is — 

^ ^ ^ ^ I 2 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 II 13 14 IS 16 17 18 i9| 
960. Sdrdula-vikridita, su\j— \^ — ^^^ — \\— — \j — — ^—\ 

Caesura at the 12th syllable. 

961. Kriti (20 syllables to the half-line). 
Of this there are 4 varieties ; none of which are common. 

962. Prakriti (21 syllables to the half-line). 

I 2 3 4 s 6 7 II 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 II IS 16 17 iS 19 20 21 I 
963. Sragdhard, w ||^v^«^«^v.^i^— 11— ^ — — ^ — — I 

Caesura at the 7th and 14th syllables. 


964. Of the remaininfr metres determined by the number of syllables in the 
half-line, Akriti has 23 syllables, and includes 3 varieties; Vikriti 23 syllables, 
6 varieties ; San-kriti 24 syllables, 5 varieties ; Atikriti 25 syllables, 2 varieties ; 
Utkriti 26 syllables, 3 varieties; and Dandaka is the name f^iven to all metres 
which exceed Utkriti in the number of syllables. 

965. There are two metres, however, peculiar to the Vedas, called Gdyatri and 
Ushnih. The first of these has only 6 syllables to the quarter-verse, and includes 
1 1 varieties ; the second has 7 syllables to the half-line, and includes 8 varieties. 

a. Observe, that when the half-line is so short, the whole verse is sometimes 
written in one line. 

b. Observe also, that great hcense is allowed in Vaidik metres : thus in the 

966. Gdyatri, 

which may be regarded as consisting of a triplet of 3 divisions of 8 syllables each, 

or of 6 feet of 4 syllables each, generally printed in one hne, the quantity of each 

syllable is very irregular. The following verse exhibits the most usual quantities : 

I 2 ?, 
aha b a h 
I ^ - w . 11 .... I w - ^ . 11 .... I V. - V. . 11 

but even in the b verse of each division the quantity may vary. 

%d class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the number of 
SYLLABLES* in the WHOLE LINE {each whole line being alike). 
()6'j. This class contains 7 genera, but no varieties under each 
genus. Of these the commonest are — 

968. Vaitdliya (21 syllables to the whole hne). 

I 1 34 56 7 8 9 10 II II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 I 

v_>v^ — \_/>^ — vj — o-— llv-/w — — VJW — >-' — w.l 

There is a caesura at the loth syllable. 

969. Aupachchhandasika (23 syllables to the whole line). 

The scheme of this metre is the same as the last, with a long syllable added after 
the loth and last syllable in the line ; the caesura being at the i ith syllable. 

970. Pushpitdfjrd (25 syllables to the whole line). 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 1: 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 I 

^ \J ^ \J \^ ^ — ^ — V^ — — II ^-'1.^*-/*^ — \J ^ — v^ — v-* — .I 

There is a caesura at the 1 2th syllable. 

* This class of metres is said to be regulated by the number of feet or instants 
in the line, in the same way as the 3d class. But as each line is generally distri- 
buted into fixed long or short syllables, and no option is allowed for each foot 
between a spondee, anapaest, dactyl, proceleusmaticus, and amphibrach, it will 
obviate confusion to regard this class as determined by syllables, hke the ist. 

z z 



yl class of Metres, consisting of two lines, determined by the 

of FEET in the whole verse {each foot containing generally four 
instants or mdtrds). 

971. Note — Each foot is supposed to consist of four instants, and a short syllable 
is equivalent to one instant, a long syllable to two. Hence only such feet can be 
used as are equivalent to four instants ; and of this kind are the dactyl (— \j ^), 

the spondee ( ), the anapaest {y ^ —), the amphibrach {y — v^), and the 

proceleusmaticus (^ v^ w v^) ; any one of which may be employed. 

Of this class of metres the commonest is the 

972. Aryd or Gdthd. 

Each line consists of seven and a half feet; and each foot contains four instants, 
excepting the 6th of the second line, which contains only one, and is therefore a 
single short syllable. Hence there are 30 instants in the first Une, and 27 in the 
second. The half-foot at the end of each hne is generally, but not always, a long 
syllable; the 6th foot of the first line must be either an amphibrach or proce- 
leusmaticus; and the ist, 3d, 5th, and 7th feet must not be amphibrachs. The 
caesura commonly takes place at the end of the 3d foot in each line, and the 
measure is then sometimes called Pathyd. The foUo\ving are a few examples : 

\^ ^ ^ 



\J <^ — 


^ — 

\J KJ — 


^ v^ v^ O 

973. The Udgtti metre only difPers from the Aryd in inverting the fines, and 
placing the short line, with 27 instants, first in order. 

974. There are three other varieties: — In the Upagtti, both fines consist of 27 
instants ; in the Gtti, both consist of 30 instants ; and in the Arydgiti, of 32. 


Obs. — The numbers refer to the number of the rule. 

Abstract nouns,8o.IX.X.XII. XXIII. 
8i.V. 85. IV. 

Accentuation, 24. 

Adjectives, 184; syntax of, 824. 

Adverbial compounds, 760. 

Adverbs, 712; syntax of, 917. 

Affixes ; forming nouns, substantive and 
adjective, 80; forming adverbs, 718. 

Agency, nouns of, 579. 

Aggregative compounds, 746. 

Akriti, a kind of metre, 964. 

Alphabet, i — 26. 

Anomalous compounds, 777. 

Anubandhas, 75. c. 

Anunasika, 7. 

Anushtubh, a kind of metre, 935. 

Anuswara, 6. 

Aorist, see Third preterite. 

Ardha-visarga, 8. a. 

Ardhakara, 10. 

Arya, a kind of metre, 972. 

A'ryagiti, a kind of metre, 974. 

Ashti, a kind of metre, 952. 

Atidhjiti, a kind of metre, 959. 

Atijagati, a kind of metre, 944. 

Atikriti, a kind of metre, 964. 

Atisakwari, a kind of metre, 950. 

Atmane-pada, 243. 

Atyashti, a kind of metre, 953. 

Augment ^ a, 260, 260. a. b. 

Avyayi-bhava compounds, 760. 

Bahu-vrihi compounds, 761. 

Base, of nouns, 74, 77 ; formation of 
base of nouns, 79, 80 — 87 ; inflection 
of, 88 — 183; of verbs, 244; formation 
of the base of verbs, 256 — 517. 

Benedictive, 242 ; terminations of, 246 ; 
formation of the base of, 442 ; syntax 
of, 890. 

Cardinals, 198; declension of, 200. 

Cases of nouns, 90. 

Causal verbs, 479 ; terminations of, 480 ; 
formation of the base of, 48 1 ; passive 
form of, 496 ; syntax of, 847. 

Chandra -vindu, 7. 

Classes, of nouns, 79 ; of verbs, see Con- 

Classification of letters, 18. 

Collective or Dwigu compounds, 759 ; 
nouns, 80. XII. XXIII. 

Combination (euphonic) of vowels, 27 ; 
of consonants, 39; of the finals of 
verbal bases with terminations, 296. 

Comparative degree, 191, 194; syntax 
of, 829. 

Comparison, degrees of, 191, 192; syntax 
of, 829. 

Complex compounds, 770. 

Compound consonants, 5. 

Compound verbs, 782, 787. 

Compound words, 733 — 737; Tat-puru- 
sha or Dependent, 739; Dvvandwa or 
Aggregative, 746; Karma-dharaya or 
Descriptive, 755 ; Dwigu or Collective, 
759; Avyayi-bhava or Indeclinable, 
760; Bahu-vrihi or Relative, 761 ; 
Complex, 770 ; Anomalous, 777 ; 
changes undergone by words at the 
end of, 778. 

Conditional, 242 ; terminations of, 246, 
247 ; formation of the base of, 456 ; 
syntax of, 891. 
Z Z 3 



Conjugational tenses, 241, 248. 

Conjugations of verbs, summary of, 249; 
three groups of, 257 ; first group of, 
259; second and third groups of, 290. 
xst conj., 261 ; examples, 587 : 2d 
conj., 307 ; examples, 644 : 3d conj., 
330; examples, 662 : 4th conj., 272 ; 
examples, 612: 5th conj., 349; exam- 
ples, 675: 6th conj., 278; examples, 
625 : 7th conj., 342 ; examples, 667 : 
8th conj., 353 ; examples, 682 : 9th 
conj., 356 ; examples, 686 : loth conj., 
283 ; examples, 638. 

Conjunction (euphonic), seeCombination. 

Conjunctions, 727; syntax of, 912. 

Consonants, i ; method of writing, 4 ; 
compound, g ; pronunciation of, 12; 
combination of, 39. 

Crude form or base, 77. 

Dandaka, a kind of metre, 964. 

Declension; general observations, 88; 
of nau, ' a ship,' 94; of ist class of 
nouns in a, a, i, 103 — 109; of 2d 
class in i, no, 112, 114; of 3d class 
in M, III, 113, 115; of 4th class in 
ri, 127 — 130 ; of 5th class in t and d, 
136 — 145 ; of 6th class in an and in, 
146 — 162 ; of 7th class in as, is, and 
us, 163 — 17 1; of 8th class in any 
other consonant, 172 — 183. 

Degrees of comparison, 191,192 ; syntax 
of, 829. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 223. 

Dependent compounds or Tat-purusha, 

Derivative verbs, 460. 
Descriptive compounds or Karma-dha- 

raya, 755. 
Desiderative verbs, 498; terminations 

of, 499 ; formation of the base, 500 ; 

causal form of, 506 ; nouns, 80. XXI I ; 

adjectives, 82, in. 
Deva-nagari alphabet, i . 
Dhriti, a kind of metre, 957. 

Dwigu or Collective compounds, 759. 
Euphonic combination of vowels, 27 ; 

of consonants, 39. 
Examples of verbs, see Conjugations. 
First preterite, 241, p. 102; terminations 

of, 246, 247 ; formation of base of, 

260, 261, 272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 342, 
349' 353' 356 ; syntax of, 884. 

Frequentative verbs, 507; Atmane-pada 
frequentatives, 509 ; Parasmai-pada 
frequentatives, 514; nouns, 80. XXII. 

Future, first and second, 386 ; termina- 
tions of, 246, 247 ; formation of the 
base of, 388; syntax of, 886, 887. 

Gayatri, a kind of metre, 965, 966. 

Genders of nouns, 89. 

Giti, a kind of metre, 974. 

Guna change of vowels, 27, 28, 29. 

Hard consonants, 18. a. b, 20. b, 39. 

1[ i, inserted, 388. a, 391, 392; list of 
roots ending in vowels inserting or 
rejecting i, 394 ; list of roots ending 
in consonants rejecting i, 400. 

Imperative, 241, p. 102 ; terminations 
of, 246, 247; formation of the base of, 

261, 272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 342, 349, 
353» 356; syntax of, 882. 

Imperfect tense, see First preterite. 

Indeclinable compounds, 760. 

Indeclinable words, 712; syntax of, 9 1 2 . 

Indefinite pronouns, 228. 

Indicative mood, 241, p. 102. 

Infinitive, 458; formation of the base 
of, 459 ; syntax of, 867. 

Intensive verb, see Frequentative. 

Interjections, 732 ; syntax of, 926. 

Interrogative pronouns, 227. 

Jagati, a kind of metre, 941. 

Karma- dharaya or Descriptive com- 
pounds, 755. 

Kriti, a kind of metre, 961. 

Letters, i; classification of, 18; euphonic 
combination of, 27. 

Metre, scheme of the more common 
kinds of, p. 350. 



Moods, 241, p. 102. 
Multitude, nouns of, 80. XII. XXIII. 
Nagari alphabet, i. 
Nominal verbs, 518 — 523. 
Nouns, formation of base of, 74 ; declen- 
sion of, see Declension ; syntax of, 802 . 
Numbers, of nouns, 91 ; of verbs, 243. 
Numerals, 1 98 — 215; syntax of, 206, 835. 
Numerical symbols, 216. 
Optative, see Potential or Benedictive. 
Ordinals, 208. 
Pada or voice, 243. 
Parasmai-pada, 243. 
Parsing, exercises in, 930. 
Participial nouns of agency, 579. 
Participles, present, 524, 526 ; past 
passive, 530 ; past active, 553 ; of 
the 2d preterite, 554 ; past indeclina- 
ble, 555 ; adverbial indeclinable, 567 ; 
future passive, 568; of the 2d future, 
578; syntax of, 892. 
Particle, 878. 

Passive voice, 243. a, 253; passive 
verbs, 461 ; terminations of, 462 ; 
formation of the base of, 463, 
Patronymics, 80. XII. 81. VI. 
Perfect, see Second preterite. Third pre- 
Persons of the tenses, 244. 
Possessive adjectives, 84. I. II. p. 51, 

85. VI. VII; pronouns, 231. 
Potential, 241, p. 102 ; terminations of, 
246, 247 ; formation of the base of, 
261, 272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 342, 349, 
353. 356 ; syntax of, 879. 
Prakriti, a kind of metre, 962. 
Prepositions, 729, 783 ; syntax of, 916. 
Present, 241, p. 102 ; terminations of, 
246, 247 ; formation of the base of, 
261, 272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 342, 349' 
353' 356; syntax of, 873. 
Preterite, see First preterite, Second 
preterite, Third preterite. 

Pronominals, 236, 240. 

Pronouns, 217 ; syntax of, 836. 

Pronunciation, of vowels, 1 1 ; of conso- 
nants, 12. 

Prosody, 935. 

Reduplication, rules for, 331, 369. 

Relative pronouns, 226 ; compounds 
(Bahu-vrihi), 761. 

Root, 74, 75. 

S'akvvari, a kind of metre, 948. 

Sandhi, rules of, see Combination. 

San-kriti, a kind of metre, 964. 

Second preterite, 364 ; syntax of, 885. 

Soft letters, 18. a, 20. b, 39. 

Sonant letters, 18. a. b, 20. b, 39. 

Superlative degree, 191, 192. 

Surd consonants, 18. «. b, 20. b, 39. 

Symbols, 6. 

Syntax, 794. 

Tables of verbs, 583. 

Tat-purusha or Dependent compounds, 


Tenses, 241, p. 102. 

Terminations, of nouns, 91 ; of verbs, 
246, 247. 

Third preterite, 415; syntax of, 888. 

Translation, exercises in, 930. 

Trishtubh, a kind of metre, 937. 

Udgiti, a kind of metre, 973. 

Upagiti, a kind of metre, 974. 

Ushnih, a kind of metre, 965. 

Utkriti, a kind of metre, 964. 

Vaitaliya, a kind of metre, 968. 

Verb, 241 ; syntax of, 839. 

Vikriti, a kind of metre, 964. 

Virama, 9. 

Visarga, 8, 61. 

Voices, 243. 

Vowels, I, 2; method of writing, 4 ; pro- 
nunciation of, 1 1 ; combination of, 27. 

Vriddhi change of vowels, 27, 28, 29. a. 

Writing, method of, 26. 


Obs. — The numbers refer to the number of the rule. 

^ affix, 80. I. II. III. XII. 

W^ affix, 80. IV. 

^fv^ 'an eye,' 122. 

^f'»f 'fire,' no. 

-«i>«. ' to stretch,' 385. 

^^ ' to anoint,' 347, 668. 

W^ affix, 82. VI. 

^ 'to eat,' 317, 652. 

^!T^ 'eating,' 141. c. 

^I^ 'this' or 'that,' 225. 

^nft 'to read,' 311, 372. a. 

^RcTfT ' a road,' 148. 

^rf ' to breathe,' 326. 

'SR affix, 80. V. 85. I. 

^HTTf ' an ox,' 182. d. 

^P?R ' another,' 777. b. 

W!^ ' other,' 236. 

^■R^ ' with reference to,' ' than,' 833. a. 

^"''ER^^'a nymph,' 163. a. 

^T^T ' a mother,' 108. c. 

^^'togo,'385. c. 

^Tlaffix, 80. VIII. 

^T^'to worship,' 371. 

^nr 'to ask,' 642. 

■»ii*q*l»l^ 'the sun,' 157. 

^^*^ 'a horse,' 158. 

^rt 'to deserve,' 608. 

'SIH affix, 80. VIII. 

Wc5 'enough,' 901. a, 918. 

^r55 'a few,' 240. 

^^wfjT ' narrow-minded,' 1 19. 

^r^Tf^^T ' possessed of little learning,' 

■sjivlc ' to despise,' 75. a. 
^m^ 'southern,' 176. b. 
'51^ 'to eat,' 357. a, 6g6. 
W^ 'to obtain,' 'to pervade,' 371. a, 

681. a. 
'3?'5'I"JT ' a stone,' 153. 
^5W 'to be,' 322, 364. ff, 369, 584. 
^fW 'to throw,' 622. 
^^ affix, 86. I. 
^^3^ 'blood,' 176. d. 
^tPot 'a bone,' 122. 
^fWt^ 'I,' 218. 
'Sr^T ' to say,' 384. 
W^ ' a day,' 156. 
W[ affix, 80. XXII. 
^TT^ affix, 80. VIII. 
■wir«<* ' composed of,' ' consisting of,' 

769-/' 774- 
■^TWIT ' soul,' ' self,' 147, 222. 
^rrf^ ' beginning with,' ' et cetera,' 764, 

^n''! 'to obtain,' 351, 369, 681. 
^nr*'! 'beginning from,' 925, 793. b. 
^m^ affix, 82. VI. 
^TTH affix, 82. VI. 
^rrf^T^^ ' a blessing,' 166. 
^TPff 'to sit,' 317. 

Wm 'to remain,' with pres. part., 877. 
^'togo,' 310, 372, 645. 



^ affix, 81. I. II. III. VI. 

^ affix, 80. XIII. 

^ affix, 84. II. 

^ affix, 80. XXI. c. 

^TTC ' other,' 236. 

^fff 'so,' 927. 

3^ affix, 82. VI. 

^ ' this,' 224. 

^^^ affix, 85. V. VI. 

^ affix, 80. XVI. 

^^' to kindle,' 347. 

^•^ affix, 85. IV. 

^ affix, 80. VIII. 

^ affix, 80. VIII. 

^■^^ ' to Avish,' 282, 370, 637. 

^ affix, 192, 80. XIX. 

^^ affix, 82. V. 

^^ affix, 86. II. 

t affix, 80. XXV. XXVI. XXVII. 

^^ 'to see,' 605. 

s"? 'to praise,' 325. 

f;pi 'so like,' 234. 

tTT affix, 80. XVI. 

^•q affix, 80. XV. 

^'HT affix, 192. 

t;5I 'to rule,' 325, 385, 

"g- affix, 82. I. II. III. 

^^ affix, 80. VIII. 

'3'T^'to move,' 370. 

■^'f^pj''^^^ ' having lotus eyes,' 166. a. 

'3^'^ ' northern,' 176. b. 

01^^ M ' with reference to,' 924. 

"T?^ 'to moisten,' 347. 

^M'ir 'near a cow,' 134. a. 

<IHI*15 'a shoe,' 182. e 

■5T affix, 80. VIII. 

7c5 affix, 80. VIII. 

Tl^rnr ' Venus,' 170. 

"3"^ ' to burn,' 385. c. 
TfW5 a kind of metre, 182. b, 965. 
"^WH 'the hot season,' 148. 
■?^^ affix, 86. II. 
■gi^ affix, 80. VIII. 
oi-sji ' strong,' 176. //. 
■35UT 'to cover,' 316. 
^ ' to go,' 334, 378. 
■^TTT ' to go,' 684. 
■^V 'to flourish,' 371, 680. 
^»jf^»T a name of Indra, 162. 
V^ ' one,' 200. 
^TTiT'that,' 223. 
^■^I ' to increase,' 600. 
xm affix, 80. XIV. 
^ affix, 80. VIII. 
^ affix, 80. VIII. XVII. 
ofif rt pcj ft^ ' a few,' 230. 
■^^ ' to say,' 286, 643. 
■^J? ' to love,' 440. «. 
^^ 'an action,' 152, 
^F5CI affix, 80. XXI. 
■^iftSTT ' any one,' 228. 
^TR ' desirous,' with infinitive, 871. 
■^rrfr"'^ ' a doer,' 159. 
^TRT ' to shine,' 385. c. 
f^ ' who ?' ' what ?' 227. 
f^ 'why ?' 921. 
T<*M rt ' how many,' 234. b. 
■^'■^ ' to pain,' ' to be pained,' 362. 
^JTR ' to play,' 75. a. 
«fi*lKl 'a girl,' 107. 
■^^f^ n. ' a lotus,' 139. a. 
on ■=< n ' doing,' 141. c. 
^ ' to sound,' 432. 

^ ' to do,' 355, 364, 366, 368, 682, 683, 


oFTT 'to cut,' 281. 
c \ 

oFrT'^W ' who made,' 140. a. 

oFtI ' to draw,' 606. 

t \ 

■^ ' to scatter,' 280, 627. 
■^ ' to hurt,' ' to kill,' 358. 
■^■ff 'to celebrate,' 287. 
Wt ' to make,' 26^. 
cCTsftI ' any one,' 229. 
lS( 'to buy,' 689. 
W| 'a jackal,' 128. c. 
fW^ ' to harass,' 697. 
^^^ ' to kill,' 684, 685. 
?W ' to sharpen,' 396. a. 

fe^^'tokui,' 684. 

■ft^ ' to throw,' 274, 279, 635. 

■ft^'to throw,' freq., 710. 

"CT ' to sneeze,' 396. a. 

"^^T 'to agitate,' 694. 

^•^ ' to dig,' 376. 

Wt^ 'a sweeper,' 126. b, 190. 

f<?l*^ ' to vex,' ' to torment,' 281. 

Wr 'to tell,' 437. a. 

^fT7T>fl' 'fearless,' 123. b. 

^l^^ ' to go,' 270, 602. 

^JT ' to go,' freq., 709. 

^^'to protect,' 271. 

1^' to evacuate,' 432. 

1 ' to sound,' 358. 

^ ' to sing,' 268, 374, 595, a. 

TTT 'a cow,' 133. 

'n<"EJ 'cow-keeper,' 183. b. 

?pir 'to tie,' 362, 375./, 693. 

IT^^'to swallow,' 286. 

jr^ 'to conceal,' 271, 609. 

?rf ' to take,' 359, 699. 

ZfW 'to take,' freq., 711. 

iJT'ntft ' chief of a village,' 126. a. 

^ ' to be weary,' 268, 595. b. 


Tf^ ' to eat,' 377. 

TT^'to proclaim,' 643. a, 

"^^JT ' to shine,' 684. 

ITT ' to smell,' 269, 588. 

^ 'and,' 912. 

■q<*i^ ' to shine,' 75. a. 

■^■^r ' to speak,' 321. 

^■W^^'the eye,' 165. a. 

'^WH ' four,' 203. 

■q'5*i^' the moon,' 163. 

■^JT^'a host,' 125. 

^T ' one who goes,' 180. 

^^^ ' leather,' 153. 

f^ ' to gather,' 350, 367, 583. 

r^^fe^ 'a painter,' 175. 

f^^ 'to think,' 641. 

'^^' if,' 915. 

^^T. ' to steal,' 284, 638, 639. 

€^^»t 'a pretext,' 153. 

f^ 'to cut,' 667. 

IT ' to cut,' 388. b. 

»r^ ' to eat,' 290. b, 326. 

anrW 'moving,' 142. a. 

"STT ' to be born,' 276, 376, 434, 617. a. 

W*T ' to produce,' 339, 666. b. 

3T"M«^ ' birth,' 153. 

IR^ ' decay,' 171. 

sITT ' decay,' 108. d. 

"Wc^^ 'water-drinker,' 126. a. 

WPT ' to be awake,' 75. «, 316, 385. d. 

31li(ri 'watching,' 141. a. 

faf ' to conquer,' 263, 590. 

faprf^TT ' desirous of speaking,' 166. 

ifr^'to live,' 267, 603. 

tTS^ 'sacrificing,' 141. c. 

tT ' to grow old,' 277, 358, 375. ff, 437- «• 

fTT ' to know,' 360, 688. 

3?n ' to grow old,' 361. 

N D E X II. 


^' to fly.' 274,395.0. 

T^ affix, 84. I. 

W^*J *a carpenter,' 150. 

ITfl^^'he,' 220. 

IfT ' to stretch,' 354, 583, 684. 

W^T affix, 80. XVI. 

W^ 'thin,' 118, 119. a. 

THm ' a string,' ' a wire,' 124. 

im affix, 191, 80. XIX. 

ITT affix, 191, 80. XIX. 

IT^ 'a boat,' 124. 

HT affix, 80. XXIII. 

Wr^ 'such like,' 234. 

me^l * so,' 801 . a, 920. a. 

ITTTt^'so many,' 801, 838, 876, 

fir affix, 81. V. 

"fira^' going crookedly,' 176. b. 

5 affix, 82. VI. 

■J 'but,' 914. 

TTT ' to strike,' 279, 634. 

^ affix, 83. I. II. 

ipn ' to eat grass,' 684. 

W^ ' to be satisfied,' 618. 

TT^ 'to kill,' 'to strike,' 'to hurt,' 345, 

348, 674. 
IT ' to cross,' 364, 375. g. 
imi ' to abandon,' 596. 
Tm^ ' he' or ' that,' 22 1 . 
^ affix, 80. VII. VIII. 
1^ affix, 80. XXIV. 
T^ 'three,' 202. 
^Z ' to break,' 388. b. 
^ ' to preserve,' 268. 
m affix, 80. IX. 
FHT 'thou,' 219. 
R^'hl 'thine,' 231. 
^^ 'to bite,' 271. 
^ affix, 80. XX. 

^iSSlf^PiSS ' mutual striking,' 793. 

^f^TT 'giving,' 141. a. 

^fv 'ghee,' 122. 

^'to pity,' 385. c. 

t^Hcji ' to be poor,' 75. a, 328, 385. d. 

^■5 *to burn,' 610. 

^ ' to give,' 335, 663, 700. 

'?T^ 'a giver,' 127, 129. b. 

^T*T^ ' a string,' 153. 

fr^^'to play,' 275. 

f^Wir 'a day,' 156. a, 

f^[^ 'to point out,' 'to exhibit,' 279, 

439- a, 583- 
f^ 'a quarter of the sky,' 181. 
T^? ' to anoint,' 659. 
?fhft ' to shine,' 329. 
cAiti 'evil-minded,' 164. «. 
^^ ' to milk,' 327, 660. 
F? ' one who milks,' 182. 
"?'5r ' to see,' 270, 604. 
TS^ * to see,' causal, 704. 
"HT^rT ' a looker,' 148. 
f^ ' to tear,' ' to rend,' 358, 367. c. 
\ ' to pity,' 379. 

^^a^^ ' a worshipper of the gods,' 1 76. e. 
^11 affix, 80. XXI. 
^TH ' an arm,' 166. b. 
^H^ ' to shine,' 597. b. 
■5 ' to run,' 368, 592. 
"5? * to injure,' 623. 
■5? ' one who injures,' 182. 
SVm affix, 80. XX. 
fW 'two,' 201. 

r^*ilij ' having two mothers,' 130. 
fW\ ' to hate,' 309, 657. 
fV'^ ' one who hates,' 181. 
>nTTr^ ' rich,' 140. 
vf^T'T ' rich,' 159, 160, 161. 

3 A 



Wf^ ' knowing one's duty,' 138. 

VT ' to place,' 336, 664. 

>rnT«T ' a house,' 153. 

Vt ' understanding,' 123. 

■^ftlTf^ ' wise,' 140. a. 

■«; ' to agitate,' 280, 358, 367. b, 677. 

Y ' to hold,' 285. 

W ' to drink,' 438. b, 440. a. 

V^ a cow,' 113. 

WTT ' to blow,' 269. 

UI ' to meditate,' 268, 595, b. 

"^'to be firm,' 432. 

Tf affix, 80. VI. 

•IcJT 'a river,' 106. 

«1H 'a grandson,' 128. a. 

*T'T 'to bend,' 433. 

'T^r ' to perish,' 620. 

•Til to bind,' 624. 

•TTR^ 'a name,' 152. 

■R^ ' to pm-ify,' 341 . 

«ft ' to lead,' 590. a. 

■^ 'to praise,' 280, 313, 396. «. 

•5 affix, 82. IV. VI. 

■^ 'a man,' 128. 

■^Tf 'to dance,' 274, 364, 583, 

IT ' to lead,' 358. 

■JTT ' a ship,' 94. 

TT'^ ' to cook,' 267. 

■IJ^TT ' cooking,' 141. 

'T^'T ' five,' 204. 

■Tfir 'a lord,' 121. 

^rf^'aroad,' 162. 

xr^ ' to go,' 434. 

TTTTTIT ' a cleanser,' 176. e. 

TTfTflTsT ' a rehgious mendicant,' 176. e. 

"TT ' to drink,' 269, 589. 

"m 'to protect,' 317. 

^T?R 'pale,' 187. 

tn^ 'a foot,' 145. 

m^Tr^' sin,' 148. 

ftnr 'a father,' 128. 

ftf'q'a" ' desirous of cooking,' 166, 

f^^^ 'thirsty,' 118. 

V^ 'to organize,' 'to form,' 281. 

^^ ' fat,' 150. 

■5^^ 'a male,' 169. 

'^^ ' to contract,' 388. b. 

"5TPI 'holy,' 191. 

''DTTh 'twice-born,' 126. b. 

IJTJ'^TT ' preceded by,' 777. c, 792. 

■^^^ 'a man,' 107. 

"T^'to nourish,' 357. a, 698. 

"^^ ' to be nourished,' 621. 

^' to purify,' 358, 364. 

''T^ or'qr^ 'preceded by,' 'with,' 777. c, 

■^TT ' the sun,' 157. 
"tmTT ' a deer,' 142. a. 
i|'tofiU,'285, 358,367.6-, 640. 
"ct ' to grow fat,' 399. b. 
U'^ 'to ask,' 282, 381, 631. 
■jn^T^ ' western,' 176. b. 
U^ll*i 'quiet,' 179. a. 
TTT^ 'an asker,' 176. 
in^ ' eastern,' 176. b. c. 
finr 'dear,' 187. 
Tft 'to please,' 285, 690. 
■JTT^ ' love,' 153. 
"^^ ' to bind,' 362, 692. 
Wff5? ' strongest,' 193. 
■^WN^' stronger,' 167, 193. 
■^^TflT ' having many ships,' 134. a, 190. 
W?X ' rich,' 134. a, 190. 
■^V ' to know,' 262, 364, 583, 614. 
^V 'one who knows,' 177. 
^STT ' under the idea,' 809. b. 

INDEX 11. 

«w^«T ' the murderer of a Brahman, 

■3^' to speak,' 314, 649, 
>T^ ' to eat,' 643. b. 
>T^ ' to break,' 347, 669. 
>?^Tf 'your honour,' 143, 233. 
Vi^ ' to shine,' 340. 
HT^ 'the sun,' iii. 
^rnr^T^ ' bearing a burden,' 182. c. 
HT§T 'a wife,' 107. 
■^TTJ ' to beg,' 267. 
fW^ ' to break,' 343, 583. 
*Tr 'fear,' 123, 333, 666. 
>ft^ 'timid,' 118. a, 187. 
^TtT ' to eat,' 346, 668. a. 
»|^'to be,' 263, 367. b, 585, 586. 
>|^'to be,' causal, 703. 
ij^'to be,' desiderative, 705. 
>|^'to be,' frequentative, 706, 707- 
ij^'the earth,' 125. a. 
HXifrT 'a king,' 121. 
»J 'to bear,' 332, 368, 583. 
H ' to blame,' ' to nourish,' 358. 
>?^'tofaU,' 276. 
>R5r ' one who fries,' 176. g. 
H^ ' to fry,' ' to roast,' 282, 381, 632. 
>?IT ' to wander,' 275, 375./. 
>nir 'to shine,' 375./. 
iJT^r ' to shine,' 375./- 
>jt ' to fear,' 358. 
JT affix, 80. VIII. 
»niT»T a name of Indra, 155. 
T35r ' to be immersed,' 633. 
ITTT affix, 84. V. 
»T?T'I,' 218. 
Jrfir 'the mind,' 112- 
*Tftl«T 'a churning-stick,' 162. 
T? *to be mad,' 275. 

JT^jt^ ' mine,' 231. 

JTW ' honey,' 115. 

^'^ ' to imagine,' 684. 

»T^ affix, 85. II. 

*lHX ' the mind,' 164. 

»T^^' to churn,' 'to agitate,' 362, 693. a, 

^•^ affix, 80. XVIII. 

JTT: affix, 80. VIII. 

JT^ ' great,' 142. 

H^TWJT ' magnanimous,' 151. 

'T5T1T'5T^ ' magnanimous,' 164. a. 

JT^TTTiT ' a great king,' 151. a. 

ITT 'to measure,' 274, 338, 664. a. 

TT ' not,' in prohibition, 882, 889. 

TT^vnT 'flesh-eater,' 176. 

JTT^ affix, 80. XX. 

TT^ 'merely,' 'even,' 919. 

ftr affix, 81. IV. 

■ftf^ ' to be viscid,' 277. 

T^ 'to let go,' 'to loose,' 281, 628. 

T? ' to be troubled,' 612. 


^ 'foohsh,' 182. 

'T^'^ ' the head,' 150. 

IT 'to die,' 280, 626. 

ITT 'a deer,' 107. 

^W ' to cleanse,' 'to wipe,' 324, 651. 

H^ 'tender,' 118. a, 187. 

IT'^ ' one who endures,' 181. 

TVTf'T'fT ' intellectual,' 159. 

^T ' to repeat over,' 269. 

t 'to fade,' 268, 374, 595. b. 

TX affix, 80. X. XI. 

*l<*(l^'the hver,' 144. 

■^j^ ' to sacrifice,' 375. e, 597. 

M'J^'I 'a sacrificer,' 148. 

^nr 'who,' 226. 
irf^'if,' 880. fl, 891,915. 

^ ' to restrain,' 270, 433. 
3 A 2 


INDEX ir. 

^ 'to go,' 317, 644. 

^n^ to ask,' 364, 392. 

^rr^ ' as many,' 801, 838, 876. 

V 'to join,' 'to mix,' 313, 357, 396, «, 

583, 686, 687. 
^^ affix, 82. VI. 
51^ * to join,' 346, 670. 
^»T ' to be fitting,' 702. 
^[^' a youth,' 155. 
5^H^'you,' 219. 
^ affix, 80. VII. 

T>T (with ^) ' to begin,' 601 , a,. 
1?T 'to sport,' 433. 
TTHT 'to shine,' 375./- 
TT3T a ruler,' 176. e. 
TT3T«T 'a king,' 149. 
Kis^l ' a queen,' 150. a. 

fr ' to go,' 280. 

^ 'to go,' 358. 

^ to sound,' 313, 396. fl. 

^ affi.x, 82. VI. 

^ 'to weep,' 326, 653. 

^^ 'to hinder,' 344, 671. 

^■^^nr ' hindering,' 141. c. 

CT ' composed of.' ' consisting of,' 

769./, 774. 
T 'wealth,' 132. 
TtT»^ ' hair,' 153. 
H affix, 80. VIII. 
(6'^ 'fortune,' 124. 
rtftjH'J^ ' hghtness,' 150 
c5ftrff 'lightest,' 193. 
cJtft^^^' lighter,' 193. 
<^'to take,' 601. 
fW 'one who obtains,' 178. 
fe'T 'to anoint,' 281, 437. 
fc5^ 'to lick,' 327, 661. 
ff5^ 'one who licks/ 182. 

■^t ' to adhere,' 358. 

cj^'to break,' 281. 

c^'to cut,' 358, 691. 

^ affix, 80. VIII. 

W^ ' to speak,' 319, 650^ 

^ affix, 84. IV. 

^T^'Uke,' 922. 

^ 'to speak,' 599- 

^[V^'a wife,' 125. 

'^^ ' to ask,' 684. 

^affix, 85. III. 

^^ ' to sow,' 375. c. 

^*T ' to vomit,' 375. d. 

^ affix, 80. VIII. 

■^TTt^'a road,' 153. 

WT«^ 'armour,' 153. 

•^75 affix, 80. XVI. 

«I^T 'one who leaps,' 183. 

■^^ 'to choose,' 'to desire,' 320^ 6^6. 

W^^^to dwell,' 607. 

^^ to carry,' 611. 

W[ 'or,' 914. 

TT^ ' speech,' 176. 

Trf^ 'water,' 114. 

Wr^ ' bearing,' 182. c. 

tV^ ' to distinguish,' 346- 

fr*^ ' to separate,' 341. 

f%^ ' to know,' 308, 583, 

f^ 'to find,' 281. 

f^^'wise,' 168. a. 

f^ affix, 85. VII. 

f^T5^ 'splendid,' 176. e. 

T^WKT ' djssirous of entering,' 166 • 

f%^ 'one who enters,' 181. 

frtSrWi^ 'the creator of the world,' 176.6. 

f^'^ 'to divide,' 341. 

^ 'to go,' 312. 

^ ' to surround,' 368. 



^ ' to choose,' 675. 

^i^^'to be,' 598. 

^^fl^' great,' 142. a. 

■^ ' to choose,' 358. See ^ . 

^ * to weave,' 379. 

^»T ' a loom,' 150. 

^«ft 'to go,' 'to pervade,' 75. a. 

^[5^*? ' a house,' 153. 

^^ to deceive,' 282, 383, 629. 

^TT to be pained,' 383. 

^IV to pierce,' 277, 615. 

^nr ' to spend,' 383. 

^ ' to cover,' 379. 

^>T7r'sky,' 153. 

"a^'to cut,' 282, 630. 

W^'one who cuts,' 176. g. 

ai ' to choose,' 358. 

■5^ ' to choose,' 358. 

^SfniT to be able,' 679. 

^■^TT ' ordure,' 144. 

^nr 'to be appeased,' 619. 

^iPrtm'^ 'bearing rice,' 182. c. 

■^inr ' to rule,' 290. b, 323, 658. 

Wff^' ruling,' 141. a. 

f^r^r 'the god S'iva,' 'prosperous,' 103, 

104, 105. 
f^'^ 'to distinguish,' 672. 
^t 'to lie down,' 315, 646. 
3Tr^ 'pure,' 117, 119. a, 187. 
3jpq0 Pq^^'having brilliant rays,'i66.». 
^*T 'to shine,' 252. 
Spr 'fortunate,' 187. 
^''T^'jare,' 148. 
TR 'to dissolve,' 367. c, 
^'to hurt,' 358. 
Sn ' to sharpen,' 374. 
^^ 'to loose,' 'to string,' 362, 375./, 

693. a. 

ft? 'to have recourse,' 367. a, 395. a, 

440. a. 
■'jft ' prosperity,' 123. 
^ 'to hear,' 352, 367. b, 368, 676. 
Tg^'adog,' 155. 
"ig^'a mother-in-law,' 125. 
■'Sr^^ ' to breathe,' 326. 
f^ 'to swell,' 395. a, 437. a. 
^ri^l^ ' Indra,' 182. c. 
^for ^ 'with,' 790. ff. 
■Hn+VJ 'a thigh,' 122. 
^Mf 'a friend,' 120. 
^T^W ' an associate,' 166. 
^^ to adhere,' 426, 597. a. 
^^TH 'to fight,' 75. «. 
^ to sink,' 270, 599. a. 
^ ' to give,' 354, 426. b, 684. 
^^TT^r 'possessed of,' 'furnished with,' 

769. d. 
^TT^I^'fit,' 176,6. 
W particle, 878. 
^rrTTT 'a river,' 136, 
Hf' ' all,' 237. 
'Tq^ioh 'omnipotent,' 175. 
^ 'to bear,' 611. a. 
^TTrT affix, 789. 
^TV 'good,' 187. 
WR'T ' concihation,' 153. 
ftr^ ' to sprinkle,' 281. 
■PfrVT ' to accomplish,' 364. 
■ftrv 'to succeed,' 273, 616. 
^ftT^T ' a border,' 150. 
^ 'to bring forth,' 647. 
^ 'to press out juice,' 677. a. 
^•^K * beautiful,' 187. 
WTftl*T ' having a good road,' 162. 
^Ml^ ' having beautiful feet,' 145. 
IJH^' having beautiful eyebrows,' 125. b. 


INDEX 11. 

♦fHH*! 'well-intentioned,' 164. a. 

'^^ to bring forth,' 312, 647. 

^'togo,'368, 437. ff. 

^nr ' to create,' 625. 

^nr 'to creep,' 263. 

«*tl*fl ' a general,' 126, 

^ * to serve,' 364. 

Tfft ' to destroy,' 276. a, 613. 

^nT'TT ' a drinker of Soma juice,' 108. a. 

HW ' to stop,' 695. 

^ ' to praise,' 313, 368, 648. 

^ ' to spread,' 678. 

^ 'to cover,' 'to spread,' 358, 678. 

1^ 'a woman,' 123. c. 

TPIT ' to stand,' 269, 587. 

^ ' to drop,' 'to trickle,' 368, 396. a. 

•m affix, 82. VI. 

^Sf ' to e.xpand,' 388. b. 

^B^ ' to glitter,' 388. b. 

^^ ' to touch,' 636. 

W? ' to desire,' 288. 

McR ' to smile,' 591. 

OT ' to remember,' 367. c, 594. 

^ ' own,' 232. 

^«^'to sound,' 375./. 

^■'J ' to sleep,' 326, 665. 

^^»T 'self-existent,' 126. c. 

^W ' a sister,' 129. a. 

^■q^ ' to kill,' 318, 654. 

f 7^ ' to kill,' freq., 708. 

^ftjfl^' green,' 95, 136, 137. 

ff^H 'ghee,' 165. 

f T ' to quit,' ' to abandon,' 337, 655. 

^T^T ' a Gandharba,' 108. b. 

f^ 'to send,' 378. 

fir 'for,' 914. 

fi^ 'to injure,' 673. 

^ 'to sacrifice,' 333, 662. 

f 'to seize,' 593. 

■^t ' to be ashamed,' 333. a, 666. a. 

■gt 'shame,' 123. 

^ ' to call,' 595. 



^ kka, ""^^ kkha, ^^ kna, "^ kta, "^^ ktha, Ifi kna, '^^ kma, 
^*\ kya, "^ or ^ kra, ^ kla, "^ kiva, "^ ksha. <$H khya, ^ Mmja. 
'"^ ^^/««, ^^ gdha, 'K[ gria, ^H gbha, ^^ ^ma, '^ ^?/«, ^ ^grm, 
''T ^/a, '^ giva. Ti ghna, ^^ ghya, ItT ghra, "^ ^Awa. "^ n-ka, 
^ n-kha, ^ w-//«, W n-glia, ^ n-bha, ^A nma. 

^ chcha, tJ^ chdilia, ^ c/t/ic, x4-| chma, ^Ef c%a. ^^ chhya, 
^ chhra. -3^ j}'a, 3^^ i;Vifl!, sf //?«, ^♦H jma, ^T jya, ^ /ra, 
"^if /*«;«. ^ 7?c^«, ^i^nchha, "^ /(/a. 

7 //«, 7 /f/ia. (Slf /^2/«. |j </^«, ^ </</«, ^ (/wa, ^ ddha, 
5 </Z>A«, "^ dya, ^ f//'a. 5^ #y«, ^ rZ/ira. T|5 ?i/«, TS5 Z'tha, 
J^ nda, <5<S >?</^a, ^ wwa, TtH w/«o, iS*l nya, TR w?<?a. 

1^ /fA'ff, ^ tta, ^ //A«, nR" tna, ?^ ^ma, cT %a, ^ tra, ^ /«^«, 
rH tsa. '^ /Awa, "SI /At/A!, ^ ^/M^;a. ^ f/gr«, ^ dgha, ^ f/c^a^ ^ ^<?A«, 
"^ dna, W c?6«, ^ dbha, ^ f/m«, '?[ %fl, '^ dra, W </w^«. ^ dhna, 
'^R dhma, "^ f/%a, "U ^Ara, ^ c?/^^^a. ''tT nta, *^ w^/?«, "^ w</a, 
•^ ndha, ^ nna, "^ nma, *^ nya, ^i ?^r«, "^ wwa, •^ ws-a. 

^ pta, '^ ptha, "Sf ^««, "^ ^j^jc, tT^i ^^Afl, T^ pma, ^ pya, 
IT /)ra, 5r i^Zc, "^ i?M;«, "^ psa. ^ *>, "^ Z»^«, ^ 6^Aa, 
W 66«j, ®^ bbha, «2T ^)?/a, ^ ^ra. ^ 6%fl!, ^ Z^Ara, ^ bhioa. 
Y^Tf mwa, ^ wiwa, ^ mpa, ^"^ mpha, '■"^ 7?i6«, '^ mbha, ^f\ mma, 

''^ rka, 1^ rA;/«G, T r^ff, "^ ?*//^<«j "^ >'cAa, ^ rchha, 3f 770, TJT nm, 
iT rta, ^ rtha, "^ rda, V ^'^/Ae, "R /7^«, ^ rba, H ri/ta, H rma, 
"^ rya^ "^ /T«j ^ Tsa, ^ rsha, ^ 7'ha. 


^■^ Ika, v^ Iga, ^ Ida, '^ Ipa, "^ Iba, '^H Ibha, ^ Ima, 
^ lya, "^ lla, ^ Iwa, ^ Isha, '^ Iha. 

^ vna, '31 t;y«, "^ rra, ^ v/a, W vwa. 

^ scha, '^ ma, "^ hja, "^ sra, "^ s/a, ""^ siva. '^ sA^a, 
"?■ sA/«, "^ 5A?/m, ^ */infl!, "ST shpa, "^T sAma, "^ sAya, "^ shwa. 
"^ sA:a, ^(^ skha, W «;«, ^QT sMa, "^ sna, ^ spa, ^R spha, 
"Ml 5ma, ^Zf 5y«, ^ 5ra, ^' sw«, "W ssa. ^^ hna, ^ /twa, 
^ hma, ^ Ay«, ^ hra, S A/a, ^ Aw«. 

IPn or cF«ra Mwa*, "^ ksJma, "^ kthna\, "SP ^^Amc, 
^^ kkija, cp^^ ^A;%fl, ^ ^/ya, ^^ A:^%a, "^ A:s%a, "^ ktra, 

XTf ^r?/«, 3^ gdhwa. "^ ?iA;/«, ^f w%«, ^ n-khya, ^J 7i-^ya, 
^ n-ghya, ^ nksha. 

^*r chchya, -tfitM chchhya, "^J chchhra, "t®^ chchhwa. '^^jjna, 
^^ jjwa. >"«*«| iichya, >^^ iichhya, ^ iickwa, ^ ??;■^^a. 

ijS>| r? </*/«, its n(/r«. 

^ ddhya, "?! dbhya, 1[[ dry a, ^ c?wya. "^^ dhivya %, ^ dhnwa. 
•*^ nddha, *T?T ^i/ma, *'^ ndma, ^^ ndhma, •W »/«/«, *^2^ nthya, 
*^ w%a, ^J /i/?y«, •'^ w^r«, ^5 wc?ra, •H" ndhra, n^ w^wa, •^ w</^^;a, 
•^ ndhwa, "^ /iT/i^a, ^(5R ?^^s«. 

"C^ ^if/ic, ^ J»^y«j ^^^ ;^*y«? ^ j^/ra, "^ pnwa, ^ jo//<7fl, 
^ plwa, t^" ^5««;a ^. «-3^ bjya, «^ bdhya, ®^ bbhya, ^T bbhra, 

* As in 4J^*IIT from "^^^^ t ^«F^ from ^f«R. 

t ^^: from m^. § ^t:^>: from ^. 


«^ bdhn-a. ^ bhrya. 1-"^ mpija, 'f^ mbtjo, "^T^ mb/a, 
^^T mbhya, ^*A mpra, ^^ mbhra. 

■^ rksha, If rshta, ^ rnna, ^ r^/a, ^ rddha, If r^J/c,, 
XSJ rghya, "^ rchya, J^ rmja, rf\ rtya, '^ r/)//r7, "^ r^^-^iw, 
TE( ryya, '^ rsJma, i^T rhmu. 

^^ %r/, '^^ %«, '^"S Ipta, ^"^ /joyfl'. 

^^ schya, ^5IJ sry«. ^ ■'^Mya, ^^iKJ shnya, ^ sliira, ^ shtwa. 

^^ ktrya, ^yW4 kshmya. ^ nkshna, §f^ nkshma *, ^^ n-ktyo, 
^^ nkshya, ^ nktra, ^ nkshwa. i|§^ ndrya. F^J ^/ryc, 
r^IT /s»?/G, rtH| tsmya. ^ ddhrya. •"sq wirycf, n^ w./^ryc, 
•Ti^ ntswa, "^^J^ ndhrya. X-^ ptrya. "5^ rkshya, ^J ?'//f/c, 
"^ rfrya, W r^st/fl, ^ rddhra. '^9? /p^c, ^^^W //?.?w^, 
^^^ /j95ya. "^T shtrya. 

^ nkshnwa-f, ^^ n-ktryat- W rn-kshma §, ^ rn-kshwa§, 

rt5M rtsnya ||, ^ rddhrya. 

* '^T^rsffl Intens. of ^!T^. t ^^^* fi-om «?jTJ. 

t H^*^*): from *»#. ^ As in 'smilfH, ^SHl||'^, from root 'ff?. 

11 As in <*IH^*. 

3 B 


vTage i6o, line 17, for form III; see 441. read form II.; see 435. . 
v/P. 166, 1. 2, for 681 reac? 682 
^P. 178, 1. 22, for 459 read 559 
^T. 197, 1. 13, for 316 7-earf 317 
V P. 215, 1. 19, for TT^^ read wS^ 
-" P. 216, 1. 15, for MIMilfl*! rearf M^H^Il** 

H*ase 77, line 16, /or ojr^t^ re«f/ ^M ', line 17. A;/- '^T^'^ read ^*l 






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