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Full text of "A practical grammar of the Sanskrit language; arranged with reference to the classical languages of Europe for the use of English students"




IL n D n : 



W. H. A L L E N AND C O. 


PvblUhcrt to the India Officf. 

.2> r^ 











Hon, Doctor in La-w of the University of Calcutta; 

Hon. Member of the Bombay Asiatic Society; 

Member of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, and of the Oriental Society of Germany; 

Bodeit Professor qf Sanskrit in the University cf Oxford. 





[All rights reserved.'] 



Now that this Grammar has reached a fourth edition it 
may, perhaps, without presumption, be allowed to rest on 
its own merits. I have, therefore, dispensed with much 
of the prefatory matter which introduced the previous 

Any one who compares the present Grammar with its 
predecessor will see at once the diflFerence between the 
two, not indeed in its structure and arrangement, nor 
even in the numbering of the rules, but in the fuller and 
more complete explanation of points of detail. 

It may be well, however, to draw attention to some of 
the most noteworthy alterations and improvements. 

A table shewing the interchange of letters in the three 
sister languages, Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin, has been 
given at pages 18-20. 

The list of suffixes at pages 57-75 has been consider- 
ably enlarged, and arranged in alphabetical order under 
each declension. 

The subject of declension has been elucidated by a 
clearer method of synopsis. 

A more complete account of Sanskrit accentuation has 
been given at the end of the volume. 

The Beading Exercises have been slightly curtailed. 
The publication by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press 
of such a Class-book as the Nala, and quite recently of 
the ^ahuntaldy sufficiently supplies what is likely to be 
needed for the prosecution of the study of Sanskrit after 
the elements of Grammar have been acquired. 



Four indices instead of two have been appended. 

In order to bring the present edition into harmony 
with the Greek and Latin grammars now in use, some 
of the grammatical terms have been altered, e.g. suffix 
lias been substituted for affix ; stem for base ; special 
and general tenses for conjugational and Tum-conjugational 
tenses respectively. 

Some errors which, notwithstanding all my efforts, 
crept into the last edition have been corrected, and a 
few other improvements effected. But I dare not even 
now hope to have attained the standard of perfection. 
Sanskrit is far too vast and intricate a subject to admit 
of such pretensions. I can, however, with truth affirm, 
that I have done what I could to bring the present 
work up to the level of the scholarship of the day; 
and my acknowledgments are due to Mr. E. L. Hogarth, 
M. A., of Brasenose College, for his aid in conducting 
the sheets through the Press. 

In conclusion I may, perhaps, be permitted to express 
a hope that my second visit to India will add to my 
powers of improving any future edition that may be 
required, as it certainly will increase my ability to pro- 
mote a more general knowledge of the Sanskrit language 
and literature among my own fellow-countrymen, to 
whose rule a vast Eastern Empire has been committed, 
and who cannot hope, except through Sanskrit, to gain 
a proper acquaintance with its spoken dialects, or to 
understand the mind, read the thoughts, and reach the 
very heart and soul of its vast populations. 

M. W. 

OxFOBD, October 1876. 


Chap. I. Letters 


Classification . . . 

Interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin 






Method of writing . .20 

Chap. II. Sandhi or euphonic combination of letters . . 23 

Sect. I. Changes of vowels . 24 

Sect. 11. Changes of consonants ...... 32 

Chap. III. Roots, and the formation of nominal stems . 51 

Formation of the stems of nouns by suffixes . . . .57 

Chap. IY. Declension of nouns. General observations . . 76 
Sect. I. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in vowels . . 83 

Sect. II. Inflexion of nouns whose stems end in consonants . 95 

Sect. III. Adjectives 113 

Sect. IV. Numerals . .118 

Chap. V. Pronouns 123 

Chap. VI. Verbs. General observations 133 

Terminations . . . . . . . . .136 

Summary of the ten conjugational classes . . . .144 

The augment 146 

Reduplication . . . . . . . . .147 

Formation of the stem in the four Special tenses : 

Of group I. or verbs of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes 150 
Of groups 11. and III. Preliminary observations . . .155 
The new rules of Sandhi required for group II. . . .157 

Of group 11. or verbs of the second, third, and seventh classes 160 

Of group III. or verbs of the fifth, eighth, and ninth classes . 166 

Formation of the stem in the six General tenses 


First and Second Future 
Rules for inserting or rejecting the vowel i 

Precative or Benedictive 
Infinitive , 

Passive verbs 
Causal verbs 
Desiderative verbs 
Frequentative or Intensive verbs 
Nominal verba . 




Participles 219 

Participial nouns of agency . . . . . .234 

Examples of verbs inflected at full : 

Table of verbs of the ten conjugational classes inflected at full 235 

Table of passive verbs inflected at full 244 

Auxiliary verbs conjugated ....... 249 

Group I. Verbs of the first class conjugated .... 250 

Verbs of the fourth class conjugated ..... 266 

Verbs of the sixth class conjugated 271 

Verbs of the tenth class conjugated . . . . .276 
Group n. Verbs of the second class conjugated . . . .279 

Verbs of the third class conjugated 287 

Verbs of the seventh class conjugated . . . . .291 
Group III. Verbs of the fifth class conjugated .... 296 

Verbs of the eighth class conjugated 301 

Verbs of the ninth class conjugated 304 

Passive verbs coiyugated 309 

Causal verbs conjugated 311 

Desiderative verbs conjugated . . . . . .312 

Frequentative or Intensive verbs conjugated . . . .314 

Chap. VII. Indeclinable words. 

Adverbs 317 

Conjunctions 321 

Prepositions ......... 322 

Adverbs in government with nouns 323 

Interjections 324 

Chap. VIII. Compound words. 

Sect. I. Compound nouns 325 

Tat-purusha or dependent compounds 327 

Dvandva or copulative (aggregative) compounds . . .330 
Karma-dhiiraya or descriptive (determinative) compounds . 333 
Dvigu or numeral (collective) compounds .... 334 
Avyayi-bh^va or adverbial (indeclinable) compounds . . 335 
Bahu-vrihi or relative compounds . . . . . .336 

Complex compounds 341 

Changes of certain words in ceiiain compounds . . .344 

Sect. II. Compound verbs 347 

Sect. III. Compound adverbs 353 

Chap. IX. Syntax 354 

Chap. X. Exercises in translation and parsing 387 

Scheme of the more common Sanskrit metres .... 392 

Accentuation 397 

Indices 401 

. 415 

List of compound ob conjunct consonants 



I. The Deva-nagari or Nagari character (or its modifications *), 
in which the Sanskrit language is usually written, is adapted to the 
expressian of nearly every gradation of sound ; and almost every 
letter has a fixed and invariable pronunciation (see, however, i6). 

There are fourteen vowels (or without Iri thirteen, see 3. d) and 
thirty-three simple consonants. To these may be added a nasal sign, 
standing for either true or substitute Anusvdra (see 6), and a sign 
for a hard breathing, called Visarga (see 8). They are here first 
exhibited in the order followed in dictionaries. All the vowels, 
excepting a, have two forms ; the first is the initial, the second the 
medial or non-initial. 


'^ a, ^ T a, \fi, t'^ ^, ^ ^ , ^ ^^, ^ ^ ri "^ ^ K, 

Nasal sign called true or proper Anusvdra, * n. Substitute 
Anusvdra, * m. 

Sign for a hard breathing, called Visarga^ \ h, 


Gutturals, '^k '^ kh ^ g '^ gh '^ n 

Palatals, "^6 ^6h "^ J ^i^ ^w 

Cerebrals, Zt 'Z th ^4 ^4^ ^^ 

Dentals, W t 





Labials, ^ p 




^ m 

Semivowels, '^ y 




Sibilants, "5? ^ 



Aspirate, ^ h 

Two characters, 35 ?, 5^ /^ (often = "5 d, 

^ dh), are used in 

the Veda. 

* Such as the Bengali, Gujarati, &c. In the South of India Sanskrit is gene- 
rally written, not in the Deva-nagari, but in the Telugu, Kanarese, and Malayalam 


2 LKTTKltS^. 

llie characters are written from left to right, like the Roman. 

The compound or conjunct consonants (see 5) may be multi- 
t/pHed to the extent of four or five hundred. The most common 
arc given here. A more complete list will be found at the end of 
the volume. 


K kk, % kt, ^ or n At, 1S5 ^h 15 ^v, ^ ksh, ^ khy, r^ gn, K gr, 
7T gU ghr, f nk, "f ng, ^ h\ ^ 6(h, ^ 6y, ^ jj, ? jh, ^ jv, 
^ ?><*, 55 I'K^h, ^ nj\ I ft, ^ ty, 1" dg, SJf dy, j^ nt, 1^ nth, ^ nd, 
^ nriy ^ ny, K tt, r^ ith, ^ in, w tm^ w /y, "?r or ^ /r, ?? tv, W is, 
m /^y, ff dg, ir c^</^, 5 <^6/^ ^ <3?w, IT c?y, "5 dr, s dv, Vf dhy, m dhv, 
-Rt nt, ^ nd, ^ nn,'i^ ny, Tt pt, "or py, U pr, 5r pi, ^ ^y, ^ ^fi?, 's^ by, 
"JT ^r, vq bhy, A//r, iH wAA, W mm, J^ my, ^ ml, 121 y^^, ^ rA:, 
^ nw, ^ //?, W //, ^ vy, Tl vf, ^ i<5, ^ iy, ^ ir, ijr i/, ^ iv, ? A/, 
V *^M, tiiT shn, v\ shy, ^ sk, TBff M, H */, W sth, ^ *w, W i, 
^ sy, B sr, ^ *v, w ^, W Am, ^ %, |f hi, ^ A:/y, ^ A:/r, ^ Ar/v, 
^ A'*//w, ^ kshm, ^ A:5/<y, i^ /ywy, xwj ^^Ay, JJE? ^ry, |; nkt, ^ w-A-y, 
^aq ('(fAy, T^ <'(^/rr, ^ </y, W tsn, W /wy, T /ry, W tsy, ^ //r, 
^ ttv, T\ ddy, n ddhy, V dbhy, ^ rfry, nl nty, va\ mby, % rdr, i ryy, 
S rtr, ^ shir, ^ /Aw, ^ */y, '^ sir, c^ /^wy, ^^ ntry, i^ r/^y, 
ii^ r/*ny. 

characters, as well as in theGrantha (or Grantham), which is a name for the character 
used for Sanskrit in the Tamil country, the Tamil alphabet being too defective to 
represent all the necessary sounds. In the second edition of this Grammar I gave 
a comparatiN'e table of old Inscription characters from Mr. Edward Thomas* 
edition of Prinsep*8 Indian Antiquities, which shows that the present form of 
Deva-n^ari character is traceable to the inscriptions of As'oka, who is called 
Piyadasi for Priyadarsin a well-known Buddhist king, grandson of Candra-gupta 
=Sandrakottos and who must have reigned over nearly the whole of India, his 
capital being Pa^li-putra (=Pali-bothra, the modern Patna). These inscriptions 
are found on rocks at Giri-nagara (Gimar) in Gujardt on the Western coast, and 
at Dhauli in Kuttack on the Eastern coast (in the province of Orissa); and again 
at a place called Kapiu'digiri, quite N. of the Paftjdb, a little to the E. of Purusha- 
pura (Peshawar). It is from the Girn6r rock-inscriptions that the present Deva- 
n6gari is most evidently derived, and these are not yet clearly traceable to a 
Phenician origin, those of Kapxirdigiri being more so. 



Observe In reading the following pages for the first time, the 

wk attention should be confined to the large type. 

tm Observe also When reference is made to other parts of the 

Grammar, the numbers will denote the paragraphs, not the pages. 

The letters (except r, called Bepha, and except the nasal sign 
called Anusvdra and the sign for the hard breathing called Visarga) 
have no names (like the names in the Greek alphabet), but the 
consonants are enunciated with the vowel a. Native grammarians, 
in designating any letter, add the word oRTt kdra ; thus, ^oRR a-kdra^^ 
' the letter a ; ' oRcfiT^ ka-kdra, * the letter ka.' 






^ ^ S t ^ '\0 <\<\ 







5 6 7 8 9 lo II 




2. The short vowel ^ a is never written unless it begin a word, 
IX because it is supposed to be inherent in every consonant. Thus, 

ak is written ^c^, but ka is written oR ; so that in such words as 
^ '4'r(<3h kanaka^ Tfin; nagara, &c., no vowel has to be written. The 
mark \ under the k of ^c^, called Virdma (see 9), indicates a con- 
sonantal stop, that is, the absence of any vowel, inherent or other- 
wise, after a final consonant. It is omitted in the first tables that 
the letters may be kept unencumbered by additional marks. 

a. The other vowels, if written after a consonant, take the place of 
the inherent a. They assume two forms,' according as they are initial 
or not initial. Thus, ^Tc^ dk^ oRT kd; ^^ ik, foR ki, 

b. Observe here, that the short vowel f i, when initial^ is written 
in its right place, but when not initial, is always written before the 
letter after which it is pronounced. Hence, in order to write such 
a word as iti^ the letters would have to be arranged thus, iit ^fir. 

c. Perhaps the true explanation of this peculiarity is that in the earliest alphabets 
the two i's were written over the consonant to which they belonged, short i 
inclining to the left, and long i to the right, a perpendicular stroke having been 
afterwards added. 

3. The long vowels T d and ^ z, not initial, take their proper place 
after a consonant. Also the non-initial and au (which are formed 
by placing ^ and ^ over T a), like T d, take their proper place after 

B 2 


their consonants ; thus, ^ ko, ^ kau. The vowels m, m, rt, r, y 
not initial, are written under the consonants after which they are 
pronounced ; as, ^ ku, ^ ku, ^ kri, ^ A:r/, "^ kin. 

a. Except when m or m follows ^ r, in which case the method of 
writing is peculiar ; thus, ^ rM, ^ ru, 

b. WTien, however, the vowel ^ ri follows T r the vowel is written 
in its initial form and r in the crescent shape placed over it (see 5. a); 
thus, f^frr nirriti, * the goddess of destruction/ 

c. The vowels ri, rt, Iri and Iri are peculiar to Sanskrit (see 1 1 . c). 
75 Iri only occurs in the root j^klrip, ' to make,^ and its derivatives. 

d. The long 7^ IH is only used in technical grammatical ex- 
planations ; strictly it has no existence, and is useless except as 
contributing to the completeness of the alphabetical system. 

e. The vowels e and ai, not initial, are written above the consonants 
after which they are pronounced ; thus, W ke, % kai. 

f. In a few words initial vowels follow other vowels ; e. g. 'W^filT*^ a-rinirit 
' without debt ;' 'il^il go-agra, * a number of cows ; ' TITH pra-uga, * the pole of 
a chariot;' fnniJ Htali, 'a sieve.' 


4. The consonants have only one form, whether initial or not 
initial. And here note that in every consonant, and in the initial 
vowels, there is a perpendicular stroke or the commencement of 
one, and that all have a horizontal line at the top; but in two 
of the letters, V dh and H bh, this horizontal line is broken. In / 
writing rapidly, the student will do well to form the perpendicular 
stroke first, then the distinctive parts of the letter, and lastly the 
horizontal line. The natives, however, sometimes form the horizontal 
line first. 


5. The necessity for conjunct consonants is caused by the fact 
that every consonant is supposed to have the vowel 5!r a inherent 
in it, so that it is never necessary to write this vowel, excepting at 
the beginning of a word or, in a few cases, of a syllable (see $*/) 
Hence when any simple consonants stand alone .in any word, the 
short vowel w a must always be pronounced after them ; but when 
they appear in conjunction with any other vowel, this other vowel 
of course takes the place of short v a. Thus such a W9rd at 


^WHJT^T would be pronounced kaldnatayd, where long ^ a being 
written after / and y takes the place of the inherent vowel. But 
supposing that, instead of kaldnatayd, the word had to be pronounced 
kldntyd, how are we to know that kl and nty have to be uttered ^ 
without the intervention of any vowel ? This occasions the necessity 
for conjunct or compound consonants. Kl and nty nmst then be 
combined together thus, ^, nir, and the word is written irpWT. 
And here we have illustrated the two methods of compounding con- 
sonants ; viz. I st, by writing them one above the other ; 2ndly, by 
placing them side by side, omitting in all, except the last, the per- 
pendicular line which lies to the right. 

a. Some letters, however, change their form entirely when combined 
with other consonants. Thus ^ r, when it is the first letter of a 
conjunct consonant, is written above in the form of a crescent, 
as in "^ kurma, oRTr^ kdrtsnya ; and when the last, is written below 
in the form of a small stroke, as in the word "gj^ kramena. 

b. So again in T^* ksha and '^\ jiia the simple elements "^ "bt andjt^ 
T T are scarcely traceable. \ 

c. In some conjunct consonants the simple letters slightly change 
their form ; as, ^ sa becomes ^ in ^ s6a ; i^ d with ti ya becomes 
^ dya; ^ d with >| dha becomes ^ ddha; ^ d with >T bha be- 
comes S dbha ; 'f[t with ^ ra becomes "^ tra or a tra ; o^ k with it ta 
becomes u kta. 

d. Observe, that when r comes in the middle of a conjunct consonant, it takes 
the same form as at the endj thus, V^ grya, JX gra. When conjunct consonants 
commencing with *=^ are followed by the vowels i, i, e, ai, o, au, or by a nasal 
symbol (see 6), then *" is for the convenience of typography written on the right 
of all J thus, fi^ rm, ^ rni, cfi rke, %T rkau, W rlzam. 


6. Anusvdra ( m), i. e. ' after-sound,' is a nasal sound which 
always belongs to a preceding vowel, and can never be used like 
a nasal consonant to begin a syllable (though like a consonant it 
imparts, in conjunction with a following consonant, prosodial length 
to the preceding short vowel). It is denoted by a simple dot, 

* Sometimes formed thus Wj and pronounced kya in Bengali, 
t This compound is sometimes pronounced gya or nya, though it will be more 
convenient to represent it by its proper equivalent jna. 


which ought to come either immediately over the vowel after which 
the nasalization is sounded, or on the right of the vowel-mark ; thus, 
lit kam, ^ hum, fsR kim, "Sgi kirn. 

ITiis dot serves two purposes. It marks, i. the Anusvara 
proper or True Anusvara ; 2. a short substitute for the five nasal 
consonants ; in which latter case it may be called Substitute 

a. True Anusvara denotes the nasalization of the vowel which 
precedes it before ^ ^ ^ sh^ ^ s, and ^ h, in the body of words. 
It is then pronounced with the nose only (like n in the French 
mon, &c.), and will in this Grammar be represented in the Indo- 
Romanic type by w, as in ^s^ ansa, ^ej^if anhati. 

But since the true Anusvara must take the place of a final w m 
when the three sibilants 5( ^ W sh, ^ , and the aspirate 7 h (but see 
7. c) follow ; and also generally when T r follows at the beginning 
of a word (see e. next page); it is then in this Grammar expressed 
by m; thus, fiw ^rgw is written # ^^ tarn katrum ; tiit tT^n'R^ 
becomes it tHHH tarn rdjdnam ; and '^^ with root 5 is written 
^ samhri. 

b. Substitute Anusvara is sometimes used, for shortness, as a 
substitute for any of the five nasal consonants "^ , 'J^ , ^ w, 5^ n, 
If m, which belong to the five classes of letters (see 15), when no 
vowel intervenes between these and a following consonant in the 
middle of the same word (thus the syllables ^"f? ink^ ^ in6, ^^ and, 
^^ in/, ^^ imp may for shortness be written ^, ^, ^, ^, ^^). 
In these cases Anusvara must be pronounced like the nasal con- 
sonant for which it has been substituted, and in this Grammar it 
will always be represented in Indo-Romanic type by these nasal 

But Anusvara is more usually substituted for these nasals when 
final and resulting from the euphonic adaptation of the final m of 
accus. cases sing., nom. cases neut., some adverbs and persons of 
the verb to a following word (see 60). It will then in this Grammar 
be represented in the Indo-Romanic type by m, as in the cases 
mentioned in 6. a. 

c. Anusvdra is even used in some printed books, though less 
correctly, for the final i^ m of the words specified in the last 
paragraph when they stand in a pause (i. e. at the end of a 


sentence or clause, or when not followed by another word). In 
such cases, too, it should be represented by m. 

d. But Anusvara is never admitted as a substitute for the original 
final ^ 7j of a pada or inflected word (as in accus. cases plur., loc. 
cases of pronominals, the 3rd pers. plur. and pres. part, of verbs, &c., 
see 54), unless the next word begin with 6^ t, /, or their aspirates, 
when, by ^^n ^ sibilant is interposed before the initial letter. 

e. And in the case of roots ending in t\^n or ^ m, these final 
nasals, if not dropped, pass into Anusvara before terminations or 
suffixes beginning with a sibilant or ^, but are not changed before 
semivowels; thus iT;^ + ^w = 'f^W mansyate, 'he will think;' JR[^ + 
^ = iT-^ manye, * I think ^ (^^7) 5 W\+ "^fti = ^^fif yansyati, 'he Mill 
restrain ; ^ tth -f- 'T = ^lr^ gamy a, ' accessible ' (602) ; tTH + 1 = "^W 
namra, ' bent.' ^*T followed by rrsT is "^rariT samrdj, ' a sovereign.' 

f. Hence it appears that the nasal sign Anusvara is peculiarly 
the nasal of the three sibilants ^ s, ^ sh, ^ s, and the aspirate f h ; 
and that the true Anusvara always occurs before these letters. It 
is also to a certain degree the nasal of the semivowel X. r ; so that 
these five consonants having a nasal sign of their own have no 
relationship to the corresponding nasal consonant of their respective 

7. That Anusvara is less peculiarly the nasal of the semivowels 
is evident from e. above. Hence fr m final in a word (not a root) 
may, before \y,'vSl, ^ v, either pass into Anusvara or be repre- 
sented by ^, ^, "^, or assimilate itself to these letters; thus^+T^T 
= ^^Jif{ or ;^H, ^^^ + fJy^H = ^ c5W*T or ^llTl^H. 

In the latter case the nasal character of iT^ y and c5 / is 
denoted by a nasal symbol called Anundsika (i. e. ' through the 
nose,' sometimes called Candra-vindu, 'the dot in the crescent'), 
which is also applied to mark the nasality of a final c5 / deduced 
from a final f^ n when followed by initial H /, see 56. Of course 
the word TSJ=im^samyan6j ' going conformably ' (formed from ^fh + ^^), 
retains the m. 

a. And this Anundsika "** is not only the sign of the nasality of 
5i /> 7^ h ^^^ ^ ^) ill t^6 preceding cases, but also marks the nasality 
of vowels, though in a less degree than Anusvara, see 1 1 . /! 

b. In the Veda Anunasika is written for a final t^ n after a long vowel before 
another vowel ; as, ^^T ^^f^ for iWlt^^^ftl Rig-veda viil. i, 6. 



c. Observe A final '^m before H^hm, j| hn, "^^hy, ^ hi, d^ kv, may either be 
changed to Anusvara or undergo assimilation with the second letter; thus fw 
ScS^fri or ftlH WH^flT, ftp JTT or f^^ ?7r, f% ^: or f?|ni[^, &c. (see 7). 


8. The sign Visarga, * emission of breath/ (sometimes said to 
derive its name from symboUzing the rejection of a letter in pro- 
nunciation,) usually written thus :, but more properly in the form 
f two small circles , is used to represent a distinctly audible and 
harder aspiration than the letter ? h. It is reckoned under the vdhyu" 
prayatna, and is said, like the hard consonants, to be a-ghosha, without 
the soft articulation. This sign is never the representative of f h. 
Although conveniently represented by A, it should be borne in mind 
that Visarga {h) is a harder aspirate than f h, and is in fact a kind 
of sibilant, being often a substitute for s and r preceded by vowels 
whenever the usual consonantal sound of these letters passes into an 
aspiration at the end of a sentence or through the influence of a 
A:, kh^ p, ph, or a sibilant commencing the next word. 

And since, according to native grammarians, ^ s ought not to be 
allowed at the end of a complete word, all those inflections of nouns 
and verbs which end in s and stand separate from other words are, 
in native Grammars, made to end in Visarga. 

But in this Grammar such inflections are allowed to retain their 
final 1^ 8. We have only to bear in mind that this s is liable at the 
end of a sentence, or when followed by certain consonants, to pass 
into an audible breathing more distinct than s in the French les or 
the EngUsh w/e, viscount, when it is represented by h (:). 

In some parts of India Visarga has a slightly reverberating sound 
very difficult of imitation ; thus T:nT: rdmah is almost Uke rnr^ rdmaha, 
wfTtf: agnify like fifMi^ agnihi, f^: ^ivaify Hke f^f^ ^ivaihi, 

a. An Ardha-visarga, * half-vnsarga,' or modification of the symbol Visarga, in 
the form of two semicircles X , is sometimes employed before it, kh, and p, ph. 
Before the two former letters this symbol is properly called JihvdtnuUya, and the 
organ of its enunciation said to be the root of the tongue {jihvd-mula). Before 
p and ph its proper name is Upadhmdniya, ' to be breathed upon,' and its organ 
of utterance is then the Ups {oshtha). 

ITie Jihvdmuliya and Upadhmaniya are therefore to be regarded as the sibilants 
of the guttural and labial classes respectively. (See Pan. i. i, 9.) 

b. The sign Ardha-visarga is now rarely seen in printed Sanskrit texts. In the 


Vedas the Upadhmaniya occurs, but only after an Anusvdra or Anunasika; 
thus, f^'^nf^ or J>{^f^, and in this case also the symbol Visarga may be 
used for it. 


9. The Virdma, ' pause ' or ' stop/ placed under a consonant (thus 
"^ k), indicates the absence of the inherent ^ a, by help of which the 
consonant is pronounced. 

Observe Virama properly means the pause of the voice at the 
end of a sentence. In some MSS. it is employed like a mark of 
punctuation at the close of a sentence ending with a consonant^ 
while the mark I is the proper means of denoting the close of a \.^ 
sentence ending in a vowel, all the preceding words being written 
without separation, because supposed to be pronounced without 

10. The mark s [Avagraha, sometimes called Ardhdkdra, half the \/^ 
letter a), placed between two words, denotes the elision [lopa) or 
suppression {abhinidhdna) of an initial ^ a after ^ e or 'sft final 
preceding. It corresponds to our apostrophe in some analogous 
cases. Thus, wsfrj te'pi for ^ ^ifT? te apt. 

a. In books printed in Calcutta the mark s is sometimes used to resolve a long 
d resulting from the blending of a final a with an initial a or dj thus IHlTStl^ for 
cHIT^'T^, usually written iniT'^l^. Sometimes a double mark ss denotes an 
initial long ^. The mark s is also used in the Veda as the sign of a hiatus between 
vowels, and in the pada text to separate the component parts of a compound or of 
other grammatical forms. 

b. The half pause I is a stop or mark of punctuation, usually placed at the end 
of the first line of a couplet or stanza. 

c. The whole pause U is placed at the end of a couplet, or is used like a full stop. 

d. The mark of repetition indicates that a word or sentence has to be repeated. 
It is also used to abbreviate a word, just as in English we use a full point ; thus ^ 
stands for ^, as chap, for chapter: so >T for W>^, 


11. The vowels in Sanskrit are pronounced for the most part as 
in Italian or French, though occasional words in EngUsh may exem- 
plify their sound; but every vowel is supposed to be alpa-prdna, 
* pronounced with a slight breathing ^ (see 14. a). 

a. Since ^ a is inherent in every consonant, the student should 
be careful to acquire the correct pronunciation of this letter. There 


are many words in English which afford examples of its sound, such 
as vocal, cedar, zebra, organ. But in English the vowel u in such 
words as fun, dun, s\in, more frequently represents this obscure sound 
of a ; and even the other vowels may occasionally be pronounced 
with this sound, as in her, sir, son. 

b. The long vowel ^ a is pronounced as a in the English father, 
far, cart ; ^ i as the i in p'm, lily ; ^ as the i in marine, police ; 
T t as the u in push ; "gi w as the u in mde. 

c. The vowel ^ ri, peculiar to Sanskrit, is pronounced as the ri 
in merrily, where the i of ri is less perceptible than in the syllable 
ri, composed of the consonant r and the vowel i*. ^ r* is pro- 
nounced nearly as the ri in chagrin, being hardly distinguishable from 
the syllable ^; but in the case of the vowels ri and ri there is a mere 
vibration of the tongue in the direction of the upper gums, whereas in 
pronouncing the consonant r, the tongue should actually touch them 
(see 19, 20) : ^ e as the e in prey, there; ^ as in *o ; ^ ai as at 
in aisle; ^ au as au in the German Haxis or as ou in the English 
hoMse t. c5 Iri and o| Iri differ little in sound from the letter 7^ / 
with the vowels ri and ri annexed. 

d. Hence it appears that every simple vowel in Sanskrit has a 
short and a long form, and that each vowel has one invariable 
sound; so that the beginner can never, as in other languages, be 
in doubt as to pronunciation or prosody. 

e. Note, however, that Sanskrit possesses no short e and 6 in opposition to the 
long diphthongal sounds of e and 0. 

/. Although for all practical purposes it is sufficient to regard vowels as either 
short or long, it should be borne in mind that native grammarians give eighteen 
different modifications of each of the vowels a, i, u, ji, and twelve of Iri, which are 
thus explained : Each of the first four vowels is supposed to have three prosodial 
lengths or measures {mdtrd), viz. a short (hrasva), a long (dirgha), and a prolated 

* That there is not, practically, much difference between the pronunciation of 
the vowel j-i and the syllable fc ri may be gathered from the fact that some words 
beginning with ^ are also found ^v^itten with ft, and vice versa; thus, TTTP and 
^fl?, ixjrn and ^f^, to? and ^^. Still the distinction between the definition 
of a vowel and consonant at 19 and 20 should be borne in mind. There is no doubt 
that in English the sound of ri in the words merrily and rich is different, and 
that the former approaches nearer to the sound of a vowel. 

t CoUocjuially in India ai is often pronounced rather like e and ou like 0. 


(pluta); the long being equal to two, and the prolated to three short vowels. 
Each of these three modifications may be uttered with a high tone, or a low tone, 
or a tone between high and low ; or in other words, may have the acute, or the 
grave, or the circumflex accent. This gives nine modifications to a, i, u, rij and 
each of these again may be regarded either as nasal or non-nasal, according as it 
is pronounced with the nose and mouth, or with the mouth alone. Hence result 
eighteen varieties of every vowel, excepting Iri, e, ai, o, au, which have only 
twelve, because the first does not possess the long and the last four have not 
the short prosodial time. A prolated vowel is marked with three lines underneath 
or with ^ on one side, thus ^ or ^T^ (see Pan. i. 2, 27). 


12. "^ K ^.Ji \P} "^.^ ^1^6 pronounced as in English. 

a, T[ g has always the sound of cf in gun, give, never of g in gin. 

h. "^ 6 is pronounced like ch in church, or as c in Italian. 
Observe that ^ d is a simple consonantal sound, although repre- 
sented in English words by ch. It is a modification or softening 
of k, just as ./ is of g, the organ of utterance being in the palate, 
a little in advance of the throat. Hence, in Sanskrit and its cognate 
languages, the palatals 6 and j are often exchanged with the gutturals 
k andg. See 25. 

c. Tit,'^d are more dental than in English, t being something 
like t in stick, and d like th in this; thus veda ought to be pro- 
nounced rather like vet ha. But in real fact we have no sound 
exactly equivalent to the Indian dentals t and d. The sound of th 
in thin, this, is really dental, but, so to speak, over-dentalized, the 
tongue being forced through the teeth instead of against them. 
Few Englishmen acquire the correct pronunciation of the Indian 
dentals. They are said to be best pronounced by resting the end of 
the tongue against the inside of the front teeth and then suddenly 
removing it. 

I3 \ty ^ </ The sound of these cerebral letters is in practice 
hardly to be distinguished from the sound of our English t and d. 
Properly, however, the Sanskrit cerebrals should be uttered with a 
duller and deeper intonation, produced by keeping the tongue as far 
back in the head (cerebrum) as possible, and slightly turning it 
upwards. A Hindu, however, would always write any English 
word or name containing t and d with the cerebral letters. Thus 
such words as trip, drip, London would be written fz\, ff^, rt<!s*t^. 

c 2 


In Bengal the cerebral ^ d and ^ dh have nearly the sound of a dull r; so 
that viddla, * a cat,' is pronounced like virdla. 

In some words both Z t and T d seem interchangeable with "5^ r and "^ I: so 
that T^tV^khoty *to be lame,' may be also written 'm^, ^ft^, ^t^. In Prakrit 
cerebral letters often stand for the Sanskrit dentals. Cerebrals rarely begin words 
in Sanskrit. 

14. ^ khy ^ gh, ^ chy m^ jh, ^ M, ^ dh, "^r th, >^ dh, t^ ph, 
^ bh. These are merely aspirated forms of simple consonants. 
They are not double or compound letters ; h is only added to 
denote a distinct aspiration. Thus ^ is pronounced like kh in 
inkhoriij not Hke the Greek ;( ; "^ as /^ in anthill, not as in thmA: ; 
T^ as ph in wphi/7, not as in phytic, but colloquially ph is oflen 
pronounced like / (as phala is pronounced fala) ; H ^A as in 
cahYiorse. Care must be taken not to interpolate a vowel before 
the aspirate. Indeed it is most important to acquire the habit 
of pronouncing the aspirated consonants distinctly. Da and 
dhd, pnshta and prishtha, stamba and stambha, kara and khara 
have very different meanings, and are pronounced very differently. 
Few Englishmen pay sufficient attention to this, although the 
correct sound is easily attainable. The simple rule is to breathe 
hard while uttering the aspirated consonant, and then an aspirated 
sound will come out with the consonant before the succeeding 

a. With regard to aspiration we may note that according to Pan. i. i, 9, the 
letters are all either slightly aspirated {alpa-prdna) or more strongly aspirated 
{makd'prdna). To the former belong vowels, semivowels, nasals, and *, g, <f, j, (, 
4t '> d, p, b, which are supposed to require a slight breathing in uttering them 
when they are initial. The mahd-prdna letters are kh, gh, 6h, jh, th, dh, th, dh, ph, 
bh, 4, sh, 8, h, Anusvdra, Visarga, Jihvdmuliya, and Upadhm&niya. 

15. "^ 7^, T w, ^ w, ^ n, JR m. Each of the five classes of 
consonants in Sanskrit has its own nasal sound, represented by a 
separate nasal letter. In English and most other languages the 
same fivefold division of nasal sounds might be made, though we 
have only one nasal letter to express the guttural, palatal, cerebral, 
and dental nasal sounds. The truth is, that in all languages the 
nasal letters take their sound from the organ employed in uttering 
the consonant that follows them. Thus in English it will be found 
that guttural, palatal, cerebral, dental, and labial nasals are followed 
by consonants of the same classes, as in ink, sing, inch, under, plinth, 



imp. If such words existed ia Sanskrit, the distinction of nasal 
sounds would be represented by distinct letters ; thus, 2[^, ftJW , 
^^, ^?^, f^r^, ^. Compare 6. 

a. It should be observed, however, that the guttural nasal "^ n, which is rarely- 
found by itself at the end of a word in Sanskrit, never at the beginning, probably 
has, when standing alone, the sound of ng in sing, where the sound of g is almost 
imperceptible. So that the English sing might be written ftt"^. The palatal 5T ^ 
is only found in conjunction with palatal consonants, as in ^nd, ^/y, 3 dh, and 
"Sr jh. This last may be pronounced like ny, or like gn in the French campagne. 
In Bengal, however, it always has the sound of gy : thus TWT is pronounced rdgyd. 
The cerebral nasal TJT is generally the result of a preceding cerebral letter, as 
explained at 58. It is found in conjunction with cerebral consonants, but is not 
found at the beginning of pure Sanskrit words (except when used artificially as a 
substitute for roots beginning with ^^n). It is pronounced, as the other cerebrals, 
by turning the tip of the tongue rather upwards. The dental and labial nasals 
5^ n and ^T m are pronounced with the same organs as the class of letters to 
which they belong. See 21. 

16. '^ ?/, X^r, <^ /, ^ V are pronounced as in English. Their 
relationship to and interchangeableness with {samprasdrana) the 
vowels z, n, Iri, u, respectively, should never be forgotten. See 
22. a. 

When ^ ?; is the last member of a conjunct consonant it is 
pronounced Uke w, as I'R is pronounced dwdra ; but not after r, as 
H% sarva. To prevent confusion, however, ^ will in all cases be 
represented by v, thus ^TR dvdra. See Preface to Sanskrit-English 
Dictionary, p. xix. 

a. The character ^ I is peculiar to the Veda. It appears to be a mixture of 
e5 / and ^ r, representing a liquid sound formed like the cerebrals by turning 
the tip of the tongue upwards ; and it is often in the Veda a substitute for the 
cerebral "? d when between two vowels, as o3| Ih is for <^ dh. 

b. The semivowels r and I are frequently interchanged, r being an old form of L 
Cf. roots rabh, rip, with the later forms labh, lip. (See examples at 25.) 

17. ^^ i, ^ sh, ^5, f A. Of these, ^ s is a palatal sibilant, 
and is pronounced like sh or like s in sure ; (compounded with r it 
is sounded more like s in sun, but the pronunciation of s varies in 
different provinces and different words.) -^^sh is a cerebral, rather 
softer than our sh. That its pronunciation is hardly to be dis- 
tinguished from that of the palatal is proved by the number of 
words written indiscriminately with ^ or "q; as, ^t^ or ^. This W 


is often corrupted intx) ^ in conversation, and T5|r ksh i? often pro- 
nounced like W M. The dental ^ is pronounced as the common 
English s. Different sibilants, of course, exist in English, though 
represented by one character, as in the words sure, session, pressure, 
stick, sun. 

f h is pronounced as in English, and is guttural. 


1 8. In the arrangement of the alphabet at page i, all the con- 
sonants, excepting the semivowels, sibilants, and h, were distributed 
under the five heads of gutturals {kanthya), palatals (tdlavya), cere- 
brals (murdhanya), dentals {dantya), and labials {oshthya). We are 
now to show that all the forty-seven letters, vowels, semivowels, 
and consonants, may be referred to one or other of these five grand 
classes, according to the organ principally concerned in their pro- 
nunciation, whether the throat, the palate, the upper part of the 
palate, the teeth, or the lips *. 

a. We have also to show that all the letters may be regarded 
according to another principle of iiivision, and may be all arranged 
under the head of either hard or soft, according as the effort 
of utterance is attended with expansion (vivdra), or contraction 
i^samvara), of the throat. 

a. According to some native grammars the classes (varga) of consonants are 
distinguished thus : ka-varga the class of guttural letters heginning with k, in- 
cluding the nasal, 6a-varga the palatals, ta-varga the cerebrals, ta-varga the 
dentals, pa-varga the labials, ya-varga the semivowels, da-varga the sibilants and 
the aspirate h. 

b. In the S'iva-sutras of Panini the letters are arranged in fourteen groups : 
thus, a i u n ri hi k e o n at au 6 h y v r f I n n m n n n m~jh bh n gh 
4h dh shj b g dd 4^kh ph 6h th th 6 t t v k p y i sh s r h I. By taking the 
first letter of any series and joining it to the last of any other series x'arious classes 
of letters are designated; thus al is the technical name for the whole alphabet; 
hal for all the consonants ; ad the vowels ; ak all the simple vowels ; an the vowels 
a, i, u, short or long ; ed the diphthongs ; yan the semivowels ; ja4 the soft con- 
sonants g, j, d, d, b : jhai the same with their aspirates ; jhash the soft aspirates 
alone ; yar all the consonants except h ; jhal all the consonants except the nasals 
and semivowels ; jhar all the consonants except the aspirate, nasals, and semi- 



The following tables exhibit this twofold classification, the com- 
prehension of which is of the utmost importance to the study of 
Sanskrit grammar. 


Wa ^T a 

sskwrn kha 

7[ga Tigha 




^i %i T^e ^ai 

^6a "^dha 

'Tia Wjha 





^ri %ri 

Z ta z tha 

-^da -^ dha 





"^Iri ^Iri 

Kta -mha 

^da \t dha 



^ sa 


"3'w 'mu ^owaw 

'^pa i^pha 

-stba v{ bha 




The first two consonants in each of the above five classes and the 
sibilants, including Visarga, are hard ; all the other letters, including 
Anusvara, are soft, as in the following table : 



wX:a* T^kha^''' 

^ a ^T a 

T\ga'^ Xfgha"^ 



^(5* "^Sha^ 


fi i^t ^e ^ai 

^>* Wjha^'' 



Zta* ztha"^ 


^ri ^n 

^da"^ Z dha"^ 



1T^* y^tha'^'' 


'^Iri "^Iri 

-^da^ -^dha"^ 



T\pa^ Tfi pha'''' 

^u "mu ^0 ^au 

^^fl* ^bha^ 



Note Hindu grammarians begin with the letters pronounced by the organ 
furthest from the mouth, and so take the other organs in order, ending with the 
lips. This as a technical arrangement is perhaps the best, but the order of creation 
would be that of the Hebrew alphabet; ist, the labials; 2nd, the gutturals ; 3rd, the 

c. Observe, that although ^ e, ^ ai, are more conveniently con- 
nected with the palatal class, and ^ 0, ^ w, with the labial, these 
letters are really diphthongal, being made up of a-\-i, d-\-i, u + Uy 
a -i- u, respectively. Their first element is therefore guttural. 
(In the Pratisakhyas the diphthongs e, ai, 0, au are called 

d. Note also, that it is most important to observe which hard 
letters have kindred soft letters, and vice versa. The kindred hard 
and soft are those in the same line marked with a star in the above 
table; thus g, gh, are the corresponding soft letters to k, kh ; 
jijhy to (5, 6h^ and so with the others. 


In order that the foregoing classification may be clearly under- 
stood, it is necessary to note the proper meaning of the term 
vowel and consonant, and to define the relationship which the 
nasals, semivowels, and sibilants, bear to the other letters. 

19. A vowel is defined to be a sound (svara) or vocal emission 
of breath from the lungs, modified or modulated by the play of one 
or other of five organs, viz. the throat, the palate, the tongue, the 
teeth, or the lips, but not interrupted or stopped by the actual 
contact of any of these organs, 

a. Hence ^ a, ^ i, gr w, ^ n, c5 Zn, with their respective long 
forms, are simple vowels, belonging to the guttural, palatal, labial, 
cerebral, and dental classes respectively, according to the organ 
principally concerned in their modulation. But ^ e and ^ ai are 
half guttural, half palatal ; ^ and ^ au half guttural, half labial. 
See iS.c. 

b. The vowels are, of course, held to be soft letters. 

20. A consonant is not the modulation, but the actual stoppage, 
of the vocal stream of breath by the contact of one or other of the 
five organs, and cannot be enunciated without a vowel. Hence 
the consonants from ^ to m in the table on p. i are often designated 
by the term sparSa or sprishta, * resulting from contact ; ' while the 
semivowels y, r, /, v are called ishat-sprishta, ' resulting from slight 
contact.* By native grammarians they are sometimes said to be 
avidyamdna-vat, ' a^ if they did not exist,' because they have no 
avara (sound or accent). Another name for consonant is vyafijana, 
probably so called as * distinguishing ' sound. 

a. All the consonants, therefore, are arranged under the five heads 
of gutturals, palatals, cerebrals, dentals, and labials, according to the 
organ concerned in stopping the vocal sound. 

b. Again, the first two consonants in each of the five classes, and 
the sibilants, are called hard or surd, i. e. non-sonant [a-ghosha), 
because the vocal stream is abruptly and completely interrupted, 
and no ghosha or sound allowed to escape ; while all the other 
letters are called soft or sonant (ghosha-vat, * having sound'), 
because the vocal sound is less suddenly and completely arrested, 
and they are articulated with a soft sound or low murmur 

c. Observe, that the palatal stop is only a modification of the 


guttural, the point of contact being moved more forward from the 
throat towards the palate'"'. 

In the same way the cerebral (murdhanya) stop is a modification 
of the dental. See 13. 

d. The cerebral letters have probably been introduced into 
Sanskrit through pre-existing dialects, such as the Dravidian, with 
which it came in contact (see 24). As these letters are pronounced 
chiefly with the help of the tongue, they are sometimes appro- 
priately called Unguals. 

11. A nasal or narisonant letter is a soft letter, in the utterance 
of which the vocal stream of breath incompletely arrested, as in all 
soft letters, is forced through the nose instead of the lips. As the 
soft letters are of five kinds, according to the organ which interrupts 
the vocal breathing, so the nasal letters are five, viz. guttural, palatal, 
cerebral, dental, and labial. See 15. 

22. The semivowels / ^, h ^ (called ^riT:^ antahstha or antah- 
sthd because they stand between the other consonants and the 
sibilants) are formed by a vocal breathing, which is only half 
interrupted, the several organs being only slightly touched [ishat- 
sprishta) by the tongue. They are, therefore, soft or sonant 
consonants, approaching nearly to the character of vowels in 
fact, half vowels, half consonants. See 16. 

a. Each class of soft letters (excepting the guttural) has its own 
kindred semivowel to which it is nearly related. Thus the palatal 
soft letters \iy% i, Tl e,\ ai, it j, have ^ y for their kindred semi- 
vowel. Similarly T r is the kindred semivowel of the cerebral soft 
letters ^ n, ^ n, and 'Z 4; so also l^ / of the dentals "^ Iri, c| Iri, 
and ^ c? t ; iid ^ V of T ?/, "31 ^, ^ 0, 'aft au, and "^^ b. 

6. The guttural soft letters have no kindred semivowel in Sanskrit, 
unless the aspirate f ^ be so regarded. 

* The relationship of the palatal to the guttural letters is proved by their fre- 
quent interchangeableness in Sanskrit and in other languages. See 24, 25, and 176, 
and compare church with TcirTc, Sanskrit 6atmr with Latin quatuor, Sanskrit da with 
Latin que and Greek Kai, Sanskrit ^awM with English knee, Greek jcvv, Latin genu. 
Some German scholars represent the palatals "^and r by k' and g . 

t That "^ Z is a dental, and kindred to ^ d, is proved by its interchangeableness 
with d in cognate languages. Thus lacrima, MKpv[A.a. Compare also ^with 


23. The sibilants or hissing sounds (called ^R^T^ ushman by native 
grammarians) are hard letters, which, nevertheless, strictly speaking, 
have in some measure the character of vowels. The organs of 
speech in uttering them, although not closed, are more contracted 
and less opened (ishad-vivrita) than in vowels, and the vocal stream 
of breath in passing through the teeth experiences a friction which 
causes sibilation. 

a. The aspirate f A, although a soft letter, is also called an ushman. 

b. The palatal, cerebral, and dental classes of letters have each their own sibilant 
(viz. ^, 1^, ^, respectively, see 1 7). The Ardha-visarga, called JihvdmnUya {X = %), 
was once the guttural sibilation, and that called Upadhmdniya (X=<f>) the labial sibila- 
tion (see 8. a) j but these two latter, though called ushman, have now gone out of use. 
Visarga (I) is also sometimes, though less correctly, called an ushman. The exact 
labial sibilation denoted by/, and the soft sibilation z are unknown in Sanskrit. 

34. That some of the consonants did not exist in the original Sanskrit alphabet, 
but have been added at later periods, will be made clear by a reference to the ex- 
amples below, exhibiting the interchange of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 
ITie palatals (5, dh, j, jh, n were probably developed out of the corresponding 
gutturals; the cerebrals t, th, d, dh, n are thought to be of Dravidian origin; 
the guttural nasal n is evidently for an original n or m before a guttural letter; 
/ is supposed to be a more modem form of rj s belongs to the palatal class, and 
is generally for an original k : sh is for an original s, cf. root ush, *to burn,' with 
Lat. us-tu-s, from ur-oj h is for an original gh^ sometimes for dh, and occasionally 
for bh (e. g. root grah, 'to seize,' for the Vedic grabh). 

Of the vowels probably only a, , u were original ; ri is not original, and seems 
to have been a weakened pronunciation of the syllable ar, and at a later period 
Iri of al. In Prakrit fi is represented by either % or u. The diphthongs are of 
course formed by the union of simple vowels (see 29). 


25. The following is a list of examples exhibiting some of the commonest inter- 
changes of letters in Sanskrit, Greek, and Latin. 

Sanskfit a = Greek a, , 0,= Latin a, c, 0, i, u; e.g. Sk. a;ra-*, *a plain,' 
Or. aypO'f, L. ager; Sk. j&n-&s, 'race,' Gr. yev-of, L. ^en-us; Sk. >ana-a*, 
gen. c, Gr. yV^(a-)-of, yevov^, L. ^^ener-i*; Sk. n&v&s, 'new/ Gr. veo-f, 
L. novu-s; Sk. hpsa-AS, * of work,' L. oper-is. 

Sanskrit d = Gr. a, >?, cy, = L. d, , 6; e. g. Sk. mk-tx% (stem mdtar-), ' a mother,' 
Gr. fJ.^p (stem /A^Tf/3-), Dor. (J-aTvip, Lat. m&terj Sk. jni-ta-s, 'known,* Gr. 
yvtp-TO'f, L. {g)n6-tu-8; Sk. simi-, *half,' Gr. rjfJU-y L. s6mi-. 

Sanskrit i = Gr. /, = L. , c; e. g. Sk. sa'mi-, 'half,' Gr. rjfxt-, L. semi-, 

Sanskrit {= Gr. /, = L. O e. g. Sk. jic-a-*, 'living,' Gr. /3/o-f, L. viv-u-s. 

Sanskrit u = Gr. v, = L. u, 0; e. g. Sk. uru-s, * broad,* Gr. ivpv-i ; Sk. jdnw, 
* knee,' Gr. yovv, L, genu. 



Sanskrit m= Gr. v, = L. m; e. g. Sk. mush, mush-a-s, &c., ' a mouse,' Gr. juvf, 
L. mu5. 

Sanskrit ri, i. e. ar = Gr. p with a short vowel, = L. r with a short vowel ; e. g. 
Sk. mri-^a-, ' dead,' Gr. ^po-TO-g (for fJ.po-TO-g or fxop-TO-g), L. mor-tm-sj Sk. 
mdtribhy as/ from mothers,' L. matnhusj Sk. mdtvishu, 'in mothers/ Gr. fXVjTpaat. 

Sanskrit r^= Gr. p with a vowel, = L. r with a vowel; e. g. Sk. ddtrin, ace. pi. 
of ddtri, *a giver,' Gr. Oo-T^p-as", L. da-tor-esj Sk, ma^ris, L. mattes. 

Sanskrit e^Gr. /, /, 0/, = L. at, ^, oi, <e, ce, , uj e.g. Sk. vei-a-s, an 
abode,' Gr. {F)o'iKO~g, L. i?icM-5^- Sk. e-w, *I go,' Gr. el-fx-i ; Sk. eva-s, 'going,' 
*a course,' Gr. a^-wv, L. sevu-m. 

Sanskrit ai = Gr. a, jy, O', = L. in certain inflexions ; e. g. Sk. devy&i, * to a 
goddess,' Gr. Sea, L. dese. 

Sanskrit o = Gr. av, eu, ov, = L. au, o, uj e. g. Sk. ^roZa-s, * a ball,' Gr. yavKo-g ; 
Sk. ojas, 'power,' L. au^reo. 

Sanskrit M=Gr. av, >yv, = L. au: e.g. Sk. nau-s, *a ship,' Gr. vavg, vpg, 
L. navis, n&uta, 'a sailor.' 

Sanskrit ifc, *;^, 6, s, = Gr. Af, = L. c, 9; e. g. Sk. kracis, kravya-m, 'raw flesh,* 
Gr. Kpkag, KpeTov, L. cru-or, caroj Sk. khaZa-5, 'a granary,' s'7a, 'a hall,' Gr. 
KaKioLy L. ceZk; Sk. da, 'and,' Gr. Kai, L. -qwe. 

Sanskrit g, j, = Gr. 7 (jQ), = L. ^r (6); e. g. Sk. yug-a-m, ' a yoke,' Gr. ^vy-o-v, 
L.jug-u-mj Sk. jawM, 'knee,' Gr. yovVf L. genu; Sk. ajra-s, *a plain,' Gr. aypo-g, 
L. ager; Sk. gaw-s, 'a cow,' Gr. ^ov-g, L. bo*; Sk. gurus, 'heavy,' Gr. ^apv-g, 
L. grav-i-s. 

Sanskrit gh = Gir. % = L. g; e.g. Sk. rt. s^igh, 'to ascend,' Gr (Jreiyj-O), 
(TTiyO'c;, L. ve-stig-iumj Sk. Zaghif-s, 'light,' Gr. eAaj^y-g-. 

Sanskrit (fA = Gr. <r/f, = L. scj e. g. Sk. 6haya, ' shade,' Gr. o-Kia ; Sk. rt. 6hid, 
*to cleave,' Gr. o'X^^-^ <^^^-^9 L- scind-o. 

Sanskrit t {th) = Gr. t, = L. ^,- e. g. Sk. trayas, ' three,' Gr. rpeTg, L. tres. 

Sanskrit d=Gr. ^, = L. dj e.g. Sk. dam-a-s, * a house,' Gr. h'fJ.o-g, L. domM-s. 

Sanskrit dh =:Gr. 5,= L. initial/, non-initial d, bj e. g. Sk. da-dha'-mi, 'I place, 
Gr. Tt-6rj-fJit ; Sk. dhw-ma-s, ' smoke,' Gr. Ov-fxo-g, L. fM-mw-*; Sk. wdh-ar, 
'udder,' Gr. ovQap, L. uher; Sk. andh-as, 'food,' &c., Gr. av6-og, L. ad-or. 

Sanskrit p (ph) = Gr. tt ((/)), = L. j? (/); e. g. Sk. pi/n, Gr. Tranyp, L. pa^er; 
Sk. phttWa-m, ' a flower,' Gr. (pvWo-v, L. foliu-m. 

Sanskrit 6 = Gr. /5 (7?), = L. 6 (/); e.g. Sk. rt. Zamb, 'to hang down,' L. lah-ij 
Sk. bwcZA-na-s, 'ground,' Gr. Try^-jXiyv, L. fundus j Sk. bwrfA, 'to know,' Gr. 
7rvv6avofJt.at (nvS-), 

Sanskrit bh = Gr. </>, = L. initial /, non-initial bj e. g. Sk. rt. bhn, bhar-a-wif, 
'I bear,' Gr. (pep-io, L. fer-oj Sk. wabh-a*, 'vapour,' 'a cloud,' Gr. vecp-og, 
L. nuh-es. 

Sanskrit n, n, = Gr. y before gutturals, = L. n; e.g. Sk. an-ia-s, 'a hook,' 
Gr. ayK-uv, oyK-o-g, L. anc-M-s, unc-us; Sk. pahdan, 'five,' Gr. Trevre, L. 

D % 


Sanskrit n, n, = Gr. v, = L. n; e. g. Sk. nava-s, * new,' Gr. V6-j, L. novu-s. 

Sanskrit m = Gr. /x, = L. m; e. g. Sk. md-tri, * a mother/ Gr. fx-^-Ttjp, L. ma-ter, 

Sanskrit y = Gr. ', ^,= L. >; e.g. Sk. yakrit, 'liver,' Gr. r^nap, L.jecur; 
Sk. juff-a-tn, Gr. ^uy-o-v, L. ju^-t-m. 

Sanskrit r=Gr. /?, A, = L. r, /; e.g. Sk. rdjan, *king,' L. rex (stem reg-); Sk. 
ara-, 'whey,' Gr. opo-i, L. seru-m; Sk. rudh-i-ra-s, 'blood-red,' Gr. epvO-pof, 
L. ruAer, ru/i; Sk. rt. ^ru, sravas, sru-ta-s, Gr. Kke-Oi, Kkv-TO-g, L. -cly-/tt-5. 

Sanskrit / = Gr. A, = L. I; e.g. Sk. rt. 1m, Iw-na-mt, 'I cut,' Gr. Ai;-a>, L. re-ltt-o, 
o-ltJ-o (for e-ltt-o); Sk. \ih (=rtA), *to lick,' Gr. Ae/^-w, A/p^-vo-f, L. l%-o, 

Sanskrit r = Gr. f (f), or disappears, = L. r (u) ; e. g. Sk. nava-s, ' new,' Gr. 
vc/o-f, i.e. vo-f, L. novu-s j Sk. vish-a-s, 'poison,' Gr. i-o~g, L. viro*,- Sk. dvi, 
* two,' Gr. oyo, L. duo. 

Sanskrit (for an original k) = Gr. k, = L. c, q^; e. g. Sk. daian, ' ten,* Gr. o^Kay 
L. decern: Sk. as'ra-5, a horse,' Gr. i?nro-f, iKKO-g, L. eqiiw-s; Sk. surf, a dog,* 
Gr. "y-ctfv, L. can-w. 

Sanskrit s, sh, = Gr. O", , disappears between two vowels, = L. *, changes to r 
between two vowels; e. g. Sk. aati, 'he is,' Gr. ec7T/, L. es^y Sk. janas-as, 'of a 
race,' Gr. yV((x)-o$, yevovg, L. genex-is; Sk. rish-as, 'poison,' Gr. Uog, 
L. r-tv Sk. shaf, ' six,' Gr. ^, L. sea?. 

Sanskrit h (for an original gh, sometimes for dh, and occasionally for bh) = Gr. 
5(, Af (sometimes 5),= L. A, c, 9; e.g. Sk. \vi-ma-s, 'winter,' Gr. %^-cyv, L. \iiems; 
Sk. hriti-aya-w, 'the. heart,* Gr. t<apO-ia, L. cor (stem cord-); Sk. han for ghon 
and dhan (in ja-gh<f-a, 'he killed;* ni-dhan-a, 'death*), Gr. Qav-aTOi i Sk. hita 
for dhi/a, 'placed' (fr. dhd, Gr. ^^), Gr. deTOg. 


26, According to Hindu grammarians every syllable ought to 
end in a vowel*, except at the end of a clause or sentence, and 
every final consonant ought to be attracted to the beginning of 
the next syllable ; so that where a word ends in a consonant, that 
consonant ought to be pronounced with the initial letter of the 
next word. Hence in some Sanskrit MSS. all the syllables are 
separated by slight spaces, and in others all the words are joined 
together without any separation. Thus the two words >HI1^ tTWT 
dsid rdjd would in some books be written ^ ^ ^ n and in others 
VI^^HI. There seems little reason for considering the mere spaces 
left between the words of a sentence to be incompatible with the 

* Unless it end in Anusvdra or Visarga A, which in theory are the only conso- 
nantal sounds allowed to close a syllable until the end of a sentence. 


operation of euphonic laws. Therefore in some Sanskrit books 
printed in Roman type every uncompounded word capable of separa- 
tion is separated, e. g. pitur dhanmn ddatte ; which is even printed 
in Deva-nagari letters (by those scholars who allow an extension of 
the use of the mark called Virama) thus, frigT >nT*r ^ST^, for 

The following words and passages in the Sanskrit and EngKsh 
character, are given that the Student, before proceeding further in 
the Grammar, may exercise himself in reading the letters and in 

To he turned into English letters. 

w^y ^^, ^^, m^, w^y T^y ^y 1^, t^:, 

^5^, ^^, ^i|, "^T!!, ^IT^ IJV, W^^ '^^^y f^, 
'^m\y W^, f^, ^, %, ^> ^^^ f^^, ^TfTI^, 
^^, ^^, n, ^^, ^, ^^^, ^T^y f^rr, fs^, 
^y ^^y ^^ ft^y ?:, ^, ^^^ ftj^, rTTxi:, 

^rf:^ ^:^ ^^y ^"^y "Rfic^T^^ 1^^' ^^^ ^- 

\^rT^ ^^5 ^^^> ^f^^ c^f * ^"R^^ %C=(^> ^* 

To be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

Ada^ asa, ali, ddi, dkhu, dgas, iti, isafyy (hd, uddra, upanishad, 
uparodha, uru, usha, rishiy eka, kakudj katu, koshah, gaura, ghata, 
daitya, Set, 6halam, jetri, Jhiri, tagara, damara, dhdla, nama, 
tataSj tathd, trina, tushdra, deha^ daitya, dhavala, nanu, nayanam^ 
niddnam, pitri^ bhauma, hheshajam, marus, mahat, yuga^ rush, rudhis^ 
lauha, vivekas, Satam, shodasan, sukhin, hridaya, tatra, adya, buddhi, 
arka, kratu, ansa, anka, anga, ancala, avjana, kantha, atidcf^i anta, 
manda, sampurna. 


The following story has the Sanskrit and English letters 


asti hastindpure vildso ndma rajakaJ^ tasya garda- 

bho Hibhdravdhandd durbalo mumurshur abhavat tatas tena 

rajakendsau vydghra6armand pra66hddydranya8amipe hasyakshetre 

mo6ita1} iato durdd avalokya vydghrabuddhyd kshetrapa- 

tayah saivaram paldyante atha kendpi sasyarakshakena dhusara- 
kambalakritatanutrdnena dhanuhkdndam sajjikritydvanatakdyena 

ekdnte sthitam tatas tarn 6a dure drishtvd gardabhah pushtdngo 
gardabhiyamiti matvd Sabdam kurvdnas tadabhimukham dhdvitah 

/a/flw <ena Sasyarakshakena gardabho 'yamiti jndtvd lilayaiva 


The following story is to be turned into Sanskrit letters. 

Asti krlparvatamadhye brahmapurdkhyam nagaram, Tatra kailor 
Hkhare ghan^dkarno ndma rdkshasah prativasatiti janapravddah, iru- 
yate. Ekadd ghanfdm dddya paldyamdnah kaUid 6auro vydghrena 
vydpdditah' Tatpdnipatitd ghan(d vdnaraihi prdptd. Te vdnards tdm 
ghan(dm anukshariam vddayanti. Tato nagarajanair mantishyali khd- 
dito drishfah pratikshanam ghantdrdvaiia Sruyate, Anantaram 
ghan(dkarnai^ kupito mantishydn khddati ghanfdm 6a vddayaiUyu- 


ktvdjandh sarve nagardt paldyitdh. Tatafi kardlayd ndma kuttinyd 
vimrisya markatd ghantdm vddayanii svayam vijndya rdjd vijiidpitaJ^, 
Deva yadi kiyaddhanopakshayal} kriyate taddham enam yhantdkarnam 
sddhaydmi. Tato rdjnd tushtena tasyai dhanam dattam, Kuttinyd 
6a maTidalcL^ kritvd tatra ganekddigauravam darsayitvd svayam 
vdnarapriyaphaldnydddya vanam pravisya phaldnydkirndni, Tato 
ghantdm parityajya vdnardh phaldsaktd babhuvuh, Kuttini 6a 
ghantdm grihitvd nagaram dgatd sakalalokapujydbhavat. 



We are accustomed in Greek and Latin to certain euphonic 
changes of letters. Thus for the perfect passive participle of reg-o 
(stem reg-) we have (not reg-tu-s but) rec-tu-Sy the soft ^ being changed 
to the hard c before the hard t (cf. rex for reg-s). In many words 
a final consonant assimilates with an initial ; thus a-vv with yvw/jitj 
becomes a-vyyvwjuLt] ; iv with Xa/UTro), eWafiTrco. Suppressus is 
written for subpressus ; appellatus for adpellatus ; immensus for 
inmensus ; affinita^ for adfinitas ; offero for obfero, but in perfect 
obtuli; colloquium for conloquium; irrogo for inrogo. In EngHsh, 
assimilations of the same kind take place in pronunciation, though 
they are not always recognized in writing; thus cupboard is pro- 
nounced as if written cub-board, and blackguard as if written blag- 
guard. These laws for the euphonic junction of letters are applied 
throughout the whole range of Sanskrit grammar ; and that, too, 
not only in the interior of words when a stem is united with its 
terminations and suffixes, but in combining words in the same 
sentence. Thus, if the sentence *Bara avis in terris' were Sanskrit, 
it would require, by the laws of Sandhi or combination, to be written 
Bardvirinsterrih, The learner is recommended, after learning the 
most common rules of combination, printed in large type, to pass 
at once to the declension of nouns and conjugation of verbs. 


There are two classes of rules of Sandhi, viz. i. Those affecting, 
the junction of final and initial letters of completely formed words 
in sentences as well as of the stems of words in compounds ; 
2. Those which take effect in the process of forming words by the 
junction of roots and of stems, whether nominal or verbal, with suffixes, 
and terminations (see 74. a). As the rules which apply to one class 
are generally applicable to the other, it will be convenient to consider 
them together ; but some of the rules which come into operation in 
the formation of verbs^ are reserved till they are wanted (see 294). 


27. The changes of vowels called Guna and Vriddhi should at once 
be impressed on the memory. When the vowels ^ i and ^ i become 
U e, this is called a Guna change, or qualification {guna meaning 
'quality'). When i and i become ^ ai, this is called a Vriddhi 
change, or increase. Similarly, "g* u and ^ u are often changed to 
their Guna ^"^ 0, and Vriddhi w aw ; ^ ri and ^ ri to their Guna 
^ aVy and Vriddhi ^nx: dr ; and ^ a, though it can have no corres- 
ponding Guna change, has a Vriddhi substitute in ^ a. 

a. Native grammarians consider that a is abeady a Guna letter, and on that 
account can have no Guna substitute. Indeed they regard a, e, as the only 
Guna sounds, and rf, ai, au as the only Vriddhi ; a and a being the real Guna and 
Vj-iddhi representatives of the vowels ^ and '^. It is required, however, that r 
should always be connected with a and rf when these vowels are substituted for ri: 
and /, when they are substituted for Iri. 

b. Observe It will be convenient in describing the change of a vowel to its, 
Guna or Vriddhi substitute, to speak of that vowel as gunated or vriddhied. 

28. In the formation of stems, whether nominal or verbal, the 
vowels of roots cannot be gunated or vriddhied, if they are followed 
by double consonants, i.e. if they are long by position; nor can a 
vowel long by nature be so changed, unless it be final. The vowel 
V a is, as we have seen, already a Gupa letter. See 27. a, 

a. But in secondary derivatives long vowels are sometimes vriddhied : 4Wf5 
sthaula, 'robust,' from ^H sthula; u^ graiva, 'belonging to the neck,' from 
?J^^ gHvd; 'Te? maula, ' radical,' from ^c5 mula (see 80. B). 

29. The Guna sounds ^ e, ^ are diphthongal, that is, composed 
of two simple vowel sounds. Thus, ^ c is made up of a and i ; 
^ of a and u; so that a final ^ a will naturally coalesce with aU; 


initial ^ i into e; with an initial "^ u into o. (Compare i8. c.) Again, 
^^ ar may be regarded as made up of a and ri; so that a final ^ a 
will blend with an initial ^ ri into ar, 

a. Similarly, the Vriddhi diphthong $ ai is made up of a and e, 
or (which is the same) a and i ; and ^ aw of a and o, or (which is 
the same) a and u. Hence, a final a will naturally blend with an 
initial ^ e into ai ; and with an initial ^ o into au. (Compare i8. c; 
and see note to table in next page.) The simple vowels in their 
diphthongal unions are not very closely combined, so that e, o, ai, 
au are liable to be resolved into their constituent simple elements. 

b. If ai is composed of a and i, it may be asked, How is it that long d as well 
as short a blends with i into e (see 32), and not into ai? In answer to this some 
scholars have maintained that a long vowel at the end of a word naturally shortens 
itself before an initial vowel (see 38. i), and that the very meaning of Guna is the 
prefixing of short a, and the very meaning of Vriddhi, the prefixing of long a, to a 
simple vowel. Hence the Guna of i is originally a i, though the two simple vowels 
blend afterwards into e. Similarly, the original Guna of m is a m, blending after- 
wards into 0; the original Guna of ri is a ri, blending into ar. 

c. The practice of gunating vowels is not peculiar to Sanskrit. The San- 
skrit a answers to the Greek or (see 25), and Sanskrit ^ft? emi, 'l go,' 
which in the ist pers. plural becomes ^^ imas, *we go,' is originally a i mi, 
corresponding to the Greek eifxi and //>tev. Similarly in Greek, the root (jf'jy 
((E-(pvy'Ov) is in the present 4>evy-Q). Compare also the Sanskrit veda (vaida), 
*he knows,' with Greek 0/Oa; and compare Xe-XoiTr-a, perfect of Xitr, with the 
Sanskrit perfect. 

30. Again, let it be borne in mind that ^ 2^ is the kindred semi- 
vowel of i, i, e, and ai; W v of u, u, 0, and au; xr of ri and ri; 
and <^ / of Iri and Iri. So that i, i, e, ai, at the end of words, when 
the next begins with a vowel, may often pass into y, y, ay, ay, 
respectively; u, w, 0, au, into v, v, av, dv; and ri, ri, into r. 
[Observe Iri is not found as a final.] 

The interchange of vowels with their own semivowels is called 
by Sanskrit grammarians samprasdrana. 

In English we recognize the same interchangeableness, though 
not in the same way; thus we write holy, holier ; easy, easily; and 
we use ow for ou in now, cow, &c. 

In order to impress the above rules on the mind, the substance 
of them is embodied in the following table : 


Simple vowels, 





Iri or Iri 

Guna substitute, 





Vriddhi substitute, 






Simple vowels. 



ri or ri 

Iri or Iri 

Corresponding semivowel. 







Guna resolved, 


a + u 

With semivowel substitute, 



Vriddhi, ai au 

I I 

Vriddhi resolved. 

a-\-e a + o 

I I 

a + a -{-i a \-a-\-u 

^d + i *d + u 
I I 

With semivowel substitute, dp dv 

The following rules will now be easily understood. They apply 
generally to the junction (i) of separate words in sentences and 
compounds ; (2) of roots and stems with suffixes and terminations. 
To distinguish the second class of combinations the sign + will be 
used in the examples given. The object of most of the rules is to 
prevent a hiatus between vowels f. 

31. If any simple vowel (short or long) is followed by a similar 
simple vowel (short or long), the two vowels blend into one long 
similar vowel (Paij. vi. i, loi) ; e. g. 

T 'ff^ ^ na asti iha becomes TRcT^ ndst{ha, *he is not here.' 

TTn ^?^ T^: rdjd astu uttamah becomes THITOIR: rdjdstuttamah, * let the 

king be supreme.* 
i|^ yx^j{vd anta becomes '^fm*ff jhdnta^ ' end of life.' 
^V ^TQT adhi isvara becomes ^i/IhIC adhUoara, * supreme lord.* 
^f5 ^f^** n'" utsava becomes ^^TW^ ritutsava, ' festival of the season.' 
^ "^^pitfi rxddhi becomes f^ff^ pitriddhi^ * a father's prosperity.' 

* Since ez=ia-\-i and o=a-|-ii, therefore a+e will equal a-^-a+i or d-\-i; and 
a-fo will equal fl+a+tt or rf+u. 
t In the Vedic hymns hiatus between vowels is not uncommon ; cf. note to 66. 


3:^. ^ a or ^T a, followed by the dissimilar vowels ^ i, 1 % "^ ri 
(short or long), blends with z or ^ into the Guna ^ e; with u or u 
into the Guna ^ 0*; with ri or n into the Guna ^^ ar (Pan. vi. 
1, 87); e.g. 

^TH ^^IX.parama isvara becomes VJfC^^parameivara, * mighty lord.* 

f^ <JM'^^ hita upadesa becomes h^rilT^'^^l hitopade^a, ' friendly instruction.* 

TlpT "^cfi gangd udaka becomes *l^c^ff gangodaka, ' Ganges -water.' 

fR -H^?^ tava riddhi becomes If^fif tavarddhi, ' thy growth.* 

W^ ^f^ mahd rishi becomes W^fn maharshi, ' a great sage.* 

Similarly, cR" cS'SFTR tava Irikdra becomes "if^'^FR tavalkdray 'thy letter Zri.' 

33. ^ a or ^ a, followed by the diphthongs ^ e, ^ 0, ^ ai, or 
^ au, blends with e into the Vriddhi ai ; with ai also into ai ; with 
into the Vriddhi aw; with au also into aw (Pan. vi. i, 88); e.g. 

"JR ^irf^ para edhita becomes "^TfVH paraidhita, * nourished by another.' 

fq^li '^ ?7ic?i/a e?ja becomes f^a^ vidyaiva, knowledge indeed.' 

^ <inl*l cfera aisvarya becomes ^^^M devaisvarya, ' majesty of deity.* 

^r57 ''inI^ alpa ojas becomes 'Sr^'f^ alpaujas, * little energy.' 

3T^ 'Srhl gangd ogJia becomes H^M gangaugha, ' Ganges-current.* 

^^Sit.'^T^ jvara auskadha becomes '^iiU^^ jvaraushadha, * fever-medicine.' 

34. ^ i, "^r w, ^ n (short or long), followed by any dissimilar 
vowel or diphthong, pass into their kindred semivowels ; viz. i oy i 
into y ; u or u into vf; ri or n into r (Pan. vi. i, 77); e.g. 

wTtT "^^ agni astra becomes ^'3?^ agny-astra, fire-arms.' 

TifW "^"^T^ prati uvdda becomes TftO^V^ praty-uvdda, ' he spoke in reply.' 

5 ^^ft'T^^M iddnim becomes fr^T^T fftH ^u iddnim, 'but now.' 

TH^ ^T^T^ mdtri dnanda becomes 'TT^TT'^ mdtr-dnanda, ' a mother's joy.' 

JiTJ ^rgw mdtri autsukya becomes HT^u^^ mdtr-autsukya, *a mother's 

S^. Final ^ e and ^ 0, followed by an initial ^ , if it *e^m 
another word, remain unchanged, and the initial ^ a is cut off 
(Pan. VT. I. 109); e.g. 

ff ^f^ te api becomes nSfV? te 'pi, 'they indeed' (see 10). 
Hi ^ftr so api becomes ^^nj so 'pi, 'he indeed.' 

* The blending of a and i into the sound e is recognized in Enghsh in such 
words as sail, nail, &c. ; and the blending of a and u into the sound is exemplified 
by the French f ante, baume, &c. 

t Illustrated by some English words; thus we pronounce a word hke 
million as if written millyonj and we write evangelist (not euangelist), saying, 
playing, &c. 

E 2, 


a. In compounds the elision of initial a after a stem like go appears to be optional, 
e.g. go-'iodh or go-ahdh, * oxen and horses ' (Pdn. vi. i, 122). See 38. e. 

b. But go may become gava in certain compounds, as go agram m&j become gavd- 
groTttj see 38. e; so go indra becomes gavendra, * lord of kine,* or gav-indrahy 36. 

^6, But followed by a, i, (, u, u, ri, r{, e, 0, ai, au, if any one of 
these begin another word, final 1? e and ^ are changed to ay and av 
respectively; and the y of ay, and more rarely the v of av, may be 
dropped, leaving the a uninfluenced by the following vowel (Pan. vi. 
1,78); e.g. 

Tl xii'inu te dgatdh becomes nMHini* tay dgatdh, and then K 'WTTfTf! ta dgaidk, 

*they have come.' 
Similarly, fi uiil ^ vishno iha becomes (^"anf^^ vishnav iha, and then f^TXin ^ 
vishna iha, * O Vishnu, here !' 

Observe When go, * a cow,* becomes gav in compounds, v is retained; e.g. 
'TT f "^R go isvara becomes 'lflH!^ gav-ihara, * owner of kine.* 
n[ w^f^ go okas becomes iT^ oR^ gav-okas, ' abode of cattle.* 

a. And in the case of ^ e and ^ followed by any vowel or 
diphthong in the same word, even though the following vowel or 
diphthong be a or c or 0, then e must still be changed to cty, and 
o to av, but both y and v must be retained ; e. g. 

'^-\-'^je+a becomes "^^jaya, the present stem of^'i, ' to conquer ' (see 263). 

'fy^ + ^ agne-\-e becomes vifi<i agnaye, ' to fire ' (dative case). 

Hr + ^ bho-\-a becomes H^ bhava, the present stem of bhu (see 263). 

37. $ ai and ^ au, followed by any vowel or diphthong, 
similar or dissimilar, are changed to dy and dv respectively (Pan. 
VI. I, 78); e.g. 

^w ^rf^ kasmai apt becomes cKWIllf^ kasmdy apt, *to any one whatever.* 
T -f W^^rai-\-as becomes TJ^^^rdyas, * riches* (nom. plur.). 
^ ^?^ dadau annam becomes <^t^N*|H daddv annam, * he gave food.' 
TT + w nau+au becomes THT ndvau, 'two ships' (nom. du.). 
a. If both the words be complete words, the y and v are occasionally 
dropped, but not so usually as in the case of e at 36 ; thus W^Rl wft? kasmd api 
for ^wimPm kasmdy api, and ^ ^T^ dadd annam for ^T^^rfa<irfo annam. 


38. There are some exceptions (usually called pragjihya, *to be 
taken or pronounced separately') caused by vowels which must, 
under all circumstances, remain unchanged. The most noticeable 
are the terminations of duals (whether of nouns, pronouns, or verbs) 


in iy u, or e (Pan. i. i, ii). These are not acted on by following 
vowels ; e.g. 

oR^ ^in kav( etau, 'these two poets;' ^"'^^'^ bandhu imau, * these two rela- 
tions;' ^I^^nnTT 'these two sit down;' Xj^ff ^m 'these two cook;' 
^51^^ ^T^*T^' we two lie down.' 
Observe The same applies to '^'ft ami, nom. pi. masc. of the pronoun 'ST^. 

a. The Vedic asme and yushme are bIso pragrihya according to Pan. i. i, 13. 

b. Prolated vowels (11./) remain unchanged, as viHi-ea. "^W ^ 'STgT ' Come, 
Krishna, here,' &c. (Pan. vi. i, 125; viii. 2, 82). 

c. A vocative case in o, when followed by the particle iti, may remain unchanged, 
as f^T^nit ^fw vishno iti, or may follow 36. 

d. Particles, when simple vowels, and ^ 0, as the final of an interjection, remain 
unchanged, as ^ ^^ i indra, ' O, Indra!' 3' 4*451 " umeh, * O, lord of Uma!' 
^I^ St^'^ aho indra, *Ho, Indra!' (Pan. i. i, 14, 15.) 

Observe This applies also to the exclamation ^ a (but not to the d which 
native grammarians call ^TT^ dtt, and which is used as a preposition before verbs 
and before nouns with the meanings * to,' * up to,' ' as far as,' * until,' a little ') ; 
e, g. ^ ^'T d evam, ' Ah, indeed ! ' (but d udakdt becomes odahdt, * as far as 
water;' d ushna becomes oshna, * slightly warm'). 

e. Before initial ^ a the ^ of ^TF ^'o, 'a cow,' remains unchanged and 
optionally cuts off the aj e.g. ^"^^^^go-affram, or "TlTT^go-'gram, 'a multitude 
of cows' (cf. 35. a. b, 36. Obs.). 

Other Exceptions, 

f. The final a or d of a preposition blends with the initial "^ ri of a root into dr 
(not into ar); e.g. H "^^ = 111^ *to go on;' "^ ^^ = <3 m ^ *to approach;' 
U ^ii = Tn^ 'to flow forth;' ^ ^r^ = ^T# 'to obtain' (Pan. vi. i, 91). 
Compare 260. a. 

g. The final a of a preposition is generally cut off before verbs beginning with 
^ e or ^ 0; see 783. *. Obs. and 783. p. Obs. (Pan. vi. i, 89, 94). 

Observe The particle ^^ when it denotes uncertainty is said to have the same 
effect on a preceding final a. 

h. The "31 M which takes the place of the ^ of Tf^ in the ace. pi. of such words 
as 8'irf, * a steer training for the plough,' requires Vriddhi after a, as TT^^. 

t. The ^ M of foirg may remain or be changed to ^r before a vowel, as f^g ^^'T 
or r<i^^"J^ ' whether said.' 

j. According to S^akalya, a, i, u, ri (short or long), final in a word, may option- 
ally either remain unchanged (but, if long, must be shortened) before a word 
beginning with ^ or follow the usual rule, thus W?l ^f^t (or even "^^TT %?< 
* a Brahman who is a Rishi') may be either TC^ "^f^l or "^^l, but in no case 
can "^^TT ^f^I be allowed to remain unchanged. Similarly, TTT ^f^ may be 
either '^^^ or XT^T^f^ * according to the Rishi.' 

So in the case of / or u or r{, final in a word, followed by dissimilar vowels, thus 


^Tf\ ^VlSf is either '4^<? or ^^f^ W^ *the discus armed here.* But com- 
pounded words follow the usual rule, as "JT^ T^= "f^^ * river-water.' Except 
before words beginning with ri, as in the example ^HiO^^SIM: or ^pTlft^f^: 
(Benfey's larger Gram. p. 52), and in ^ftr^^TrT * made prosperous by (the power 
of) the sword,' Mahd-bh. xviii. 105. 

*. The words ^J^ * a cat ' and ^TO * the lip/ when used in compounds, may 
optionally cut off a preceding final aj e.g. ^(^ mg is ^cilj or ^fMiJ; ^HR 
wtv is ^swd or ^TVO^ 'the lower lip ;' (see Pan. vi. i, 94. Vart.) j and f^ ^ftcR^ 
may be either f^^TT*^ or f^^^ ' a deity.' 

/. So also the sacred syllable ^Sn'T and the preposition WI d may cut off a final a; 
c. g. fiprni ^ tf^r: = %3rn?f P?: ' Om ! reverence to S'iva ;' %W ^^ (i. e. ^ with 
1^) = fip^f^ * O S^iva, come ! ' 

m. The following words illustrate the same irregularity: ^T^ WV becomes 
^nr^; lf% W^ becomes fc^^ *jujube;' c6IS*c4 ^ becomes ^ig-c^m 
* plough-handle ; * (see Gana S'akandhv-adi to Pdn. vi. i, 94.) 

n. The following compounds are also irregular (see Pan. vi. i, 89. Vart.) : 

W^n^^rf) akshauhini, ' a complete army ' (from aksha uhini for vdhini), 

M^S praudha, ' grown up ' (from pra udha). 

Hn^ prauha, * reflection ' (from pra uha). 

W^ svaira, '^V\ svairin, * self-willed ' (from sva {ra). 

^W^ sukhdrta, ' affected by joy ' (from sukha rita). 

TTTO prdrna, ' principal debt ' (from pra rina). 

4t|c^n5 kambaldrnaj ' debt of a blanket * (from kamhala rina). 

cI^^TP vasandrna, * debt of a cloth ' (from vasana rina). 

%*ii\^ findrna, * debt of a debt * (from jina fina). 

OT praisha, ' an invitation ;' S^q praishya, ' a servant ' (from pra esha). 

The annexed table exhibits the combinations of vowels at one 
view. Supposing a word to end in m, and the next word to begin 
with au, the student must carry his eye down the first column 
(headed * final vowels ') till he comes to u, and then along the top 
horizontal line of * initial vowels/ till he comes to au. At the 
junction of the perpendicular column under au and the horizontal 
line beginning m, will be the required combination, viz. v au. 



a> t3 

o < 

cr. a- 

rt CD 



^ 2- 

& ?^- 

aq o 

!^ ft) 

ft) pj 









a S 










.L vowe: 
or a 





? % 





a f^ 














a f 




a V- 







a a 













a^ l^^ 








as as 







a a 







Oa ,c^ 



*. oa 








eo. >. 






a a 







Oa ^^ 



J-S *- 








*s ^s 






a a 













8 '^ 







S 8 






a a 




















Ss 8s 






a a 












*2. ^ 










;i. -2. 






,S ^ 













" 00 







>s ^ 



2. :!. 






a a 













a, o 









f6 et 







a a 















. . 

a a 







a a 













a ^ 








O O 







,S ^ 






a a 








a M 

8 t 




8 8 





39. Before proceeding to the combination of consonants, let the 
letters be again regarded as divided into two grand classes of Hard 
and Soft, as explained at 20. b. 



k kh 





a a 

6 6h 






i i 



t th 







ri ri 


t th 






Iri Iri 


P P^ 





u u 


40. The stems of nouns and the roots of verbs may end in almost any letter, 
and these final letters (whether single or cor^unct) are allowed to remain when the 
crude words stand alone ; but complete words, when they stand alone or at the 
end of a sentence, can only, according to the native system, end in one of nine 
consonants (or, including Visarga and the Anusvara substituted for final m, eleven), 
viz. "^ *, ^ U \if \Pj ?J > ^ > ^ > '^ ^> <^ ^j Visarga (I), and Anusvara (m) ; 
and even stems of words not ending in one of the above eleven letters are liable to 
undergo changes which shall make them so end, before the process of their 
euphonic union with other suffixes and other words in sentences is commenced. 

P4nini (viii. 4, 56), however, seems to allow a word ending in one of the soft 
consonants g, 4, rf, and b, optionally to stand at the end of a sentence or before a 
pause ; e. g. ^T^ or ^^J^^ &c. 

41. In this Grammar the soft letters ^, </, dy b, the sibilant ^ *, 
and the semivowel T r will be admitted as possible finals of com- 
plete words standing alone, as well as of stems preparing for 
euphonic combinations ; but the following five preUminary laws 
must be enforced under any circumstances, without reference to 
the initial letters of succeeding words. 

I. A conjunct quiescent consonant (i. e. a conjunct consonant 
having no vowel after it) is not generally allowed to remain at the 
end of a word, but must be reduced to a simple one. As a general 
rule this is done by dropping every consonant except the first; 
thus 6arant8 becomes 6arany avets becomes avet^ 6ikirsh becomes 6ikir 
(see 166. a). 


Observe, however, that '^ Ic, ^ t, T[^t, \p, when preceded by ^ r, remain 
conjunct if both elements of these conjunct letters are either radical or substitutes 
for radical letters, e.g. urk, nom. of urj, 'strength' (176. h); amdrt, 3rd sing. 
Impf. of rt. mrij (Pan. viii. 2, 24). But in abibhar for abibhart, t is rejected as 
not being radical (see the table at 583 ; cf. ervTrTOV for TV7rT0VT). 

II. An aspirated quiescent consonant is not allowed to remain 
final, but is changed to its corresponding unaspirated letter ; 
e. g. fq^ffs^f ditralikk becomes Sitralik (see 43) ; "^ 6h, however, 
usually becomes 7 t (see under IV. below). 

III. The aspirate f ^ is not allowed to remain final, but is usually 
changed to Z t (thus lih becomes lit) ; sometimes to cF A: or ii ^ * 
(see 182, 305, 306). 

IV. Final palatals, as being of the nature of gutturals, are 
generally changed to gutturals ; thus ^ d is usually changed to 
^ k, e.g. vd6 becomes vdk (see 176); but "^ 6h becomes Z t (see 
1 76) ; w y is changed to 7ig (or i^ k) and sometimes to ^ ^ (or Z /), 
(see 176) f. [Technical grammatical expressions are excepted; cf. 

V. The sibilants iff i, "^^A, if final, are generally changed into 
Z t ; sometimes, however, 5(^^ becomes cF k; and ^(sh either o^ k or 
Visarga (see 181) J. 

a. The above changes must hold good before all suffixes and terminations of 
nouns and verbs beginning with strong consonants (i. e. all consonants except 
nasals and semivowels), and before Taddhita suffixes beginning with nasals. 

h. But before terminations of nouns and verbs beginning with vowels, and 
generally before weak consonants (i. e. nasals and semivowels), the finals of roots 
and stems remain unchanged (see vd6, 176; va6, 650), even in opposition to the 
general rule which requires the softening of a hard letter when a soft letter follows. 

4a. If two hard or two soft unaspirated letters come in contact, 
there is generally no change ; thus 

f^^f^IToRT^ vidyut prakdsa remains f^^rM<shm vidyut-prakdsa, 'the brilliance 
of hghtning.' 

* So in Arabic h becomes t. 

t So in cognate languages ch is often pronounced as k or passes into k. Com- 
pare archbishop, archangel, church, kirk, &c. Again, nature is pronounced nachure, 
and g in English is often pronounced as j. 

X Compare parochial with parish, and nation pronounced nashun. 



^^ r^ohlM kumud vikdsa remains "^^^KTO kumud-vikdsa, ' the blossoming of 

the lotus.' 
A^[^ VMlJlfff drisad adhogati remains '^Sip^^^t'l^ drisad-adhogatiy *the descent 

of the rock.' 
"Pnnr 4- ^ vidyut-\-su remains fifir^ vidyutsuj ' in lightnings * (loc. case plur.)- 

43. If any hard letter (except a sibilant, see 6466) ends a word 

when any soft initial letter follows, the hard (unless affected by 

some special rule) is changed to its own soft, which must always be 

in the unaspirated form by 41. II. (but see d. below) ; thus 

TrfiCiT T^T sarit raya becomes TTfrj'T sarid-raya, *the current of a river.' 

r^^frfcfc f^rfeiT Stralik (for (Htralikh, 41. II.) likhita becomes f^frtf^r^n 

titralig-likhita, ' painted by a painter.* 
^T^^^ vdk (for vdd, 41. IV.) devt becomes ^I'^ql vdg-devi, *the goddess of 
eloquence;' similarly, ^S ^ vdk isa becomes ^nt^ vdg-isa, *the lord 
of speech.' 
f^ >T^ vit (for vishf 41. V.) hhava becomes f%T>T^ vid-bhava^ 'generated by 

a. An option is allowed before nasals, as follows : When two 
words come together, the initial of the second word being a nasal, 
then the final of the first word is usually (though not necessarily) 
changed to the nasal of its own class (see Pan. viii. 4, 45) ; thus 

TTil icf*i tat netram becomes TTW^^ tan netram (or tad netram), ' that eye.' 
^n^ *l^*\ ap mulam becomes W**<c4H am mulam (or ah mulam), * water and 

^Ti^^^ sarit mukha becomes K^<sl sarin-mukha (or ^f<^^ sarid-mukha), 

* the source of a stream.' 

b. Before may a and mdtra, the nasalization is not optional but 
compulsory; thus 

f^TT 6xt may a becomes f^W? din-maya^ * formed of intellect.' 
^rr^ ^^ vdk (for vdc, 41. IV.) maya becomes m^^ vdn-maya, * full of words.* 
f^ *nT vil (for vish, 41. V.) maya becomes f^ilH^I vin-maya, * full of filth.' 
in^^ TTcT" tat mdtram becomes ri*^lc^H tan-mdtram, ' merely that,' ' an element.* 

c. In the case of roots followed by Krit sufl^xes there is not usually any change; 
e. g. "SJ^ + ^^^^had-\-man becomes iBt.M^ ihadman^ * disguise.* 

d. It will be seen from 41. V. a. A. that the general rule 43 applies 
to case-endings of nouns beginning with consonants, but not to 
case-endings beginning with vowels. In the latter case, the final 
consonant attracts the initial vowel, so as to form with it a separate 


syllable; thus vdk-\-bhis becomes vdg-bhis, *by words ;^ but in vd6 
i-d, 6 attracts a, thus vd-6d, * by a speech^ (not vdj-d) : sarit + bhis 
= sarid-bhis, ' by rivers ; ' but in sarit -\-d, t attracts d, thus sari-td, 

'by a river ^ (not sarid-d). So also samidh-\-d becomes sami-dhd^ 

* by fuel ^ (not samid-d). 

. Similarly, in the case of verbal terminations beginning with 

vowels or with m, v, y, attached to roots ending in hard letters (see 

pat, 597. c ; Jcship, 6^^ ; va6, 650), rule 43 does not apply. 

/. "^ 'six' (becoming VZ by 41. V.), when followed by the augment n before the 
case-ending ^ITR dm, becomes ^^^TT'T shan-n-dm, because the final ^ becomes ^ 
and cerebralizes also the inserted n coming in contact with it. Similarly, "^ T^flT 
becomes HiaqTw shan-navati, 'ninety-six,' and ^ FT^: becomes H<a'lMt shan 
nagaryah, 'six cities.' Compare 58. h. 

44. If a soft letter ends a word or stem, when any hard initial 
letter follows, the soft is changed to its own hard, which must 
always be in the unaspirated form by 41. II ; thus 

W9^ + ^ Jcumud-\-su becomes ^1^ kumutsu, loc. pi. of kumud, ' a lotus.' 

^^^^4-^ samid (for samidh, 41. II.)+sm becomes 'HfHi^ samitsu, loc. pi. of 
samidh, 'fuel.' 

Note Similarly in Latin, a soft guttural or labial passes into a hard before 
s and t; thus reg-^si becomes (reksi) rexi, scrib-{-si=:scripsi, reg-\-tum=.{rektum) 
rectum, &c. 

a. With regard to palatals see 41. IV. 

h. Soft letters, which have no corresponding hard, such as the nasals, semi- 
vowels, and ^ Ti, are changed by special rules. 

c. If the final be an aspirated soft letter, and belong to a stem whose initial is 
'T ^r or ^ rf, \d or\b, then the aspiration, which is suppressed in the final, is 
transferred back to the initial letter of the stem; as ^4-^ *m<?^+*m becomes 
^7 bhutsu, loc. pi. of budk, ' one who knows' (177; cf. also dnh, 182). Similarly 
^+ cT^ dadh-\-tas becomes V^ dhattas, 'they two place;' and see 306. , 
299. a. b, 664. 

Note Greek recognizes a similar principle in Tp')((o, $p^of^ai ; Tpvcf), SpvTTTca : 
cf. also 6pi^, i. e. OpiK-g from the stem Tpi'Xj-, 

It is stated at 40, 41, that complete words as well as stems 
preparing for combination can only end in certain consonants. Of 
these the most usually occurring final consonants are c^ t and ^ d, 
the nasals ^ n and w m, the dental sibilant ^ s (changed to Visarga 
by native grammarians), and the semivowel ;^ r (also by them changed 

F 3 

^36 CHANGES OP PINAL T^^ t AND ^ d, 

to Visarga). It will be sufficient, therefore, for all practical purposes 
to give special rules under four heads : 

ist, Changes of final i^^and ;^. 

2nd, Changes of the nasals, especially t^ and H. 

3rd, Changes of final ^. 

4th, Changes of final T. 


45. By the general rule (43), final t t becomes ^ d before soft 
consonants, and before vowels ; as i?^ ^fir marut vdti becomes 
^T ^ ' j l ft t marud vdti, ' the wind blows/ 

a. Certain exceptions are provided for by 41. V. 6, 43. d. Hence also stems 
ending in t followed by the sufl&xes vat, mat, vin, vala do not necessarily change ; 
e. g. vidyut-vatj * possessed of lightning ;' garut-mat, * possessed of wings.' 

46. And, by 44, final ^ d generally becomes H t before hard con- 
sonants; as "^^ trWfT becomes i;j[lr^fR drisat-patana, *the fall of 
a stone.' 

47. And, by 43. c, final 1^/ or ^ c? may become 5^ n before n or m. 

Assimilation of final 11 t or ^ d. 

48. If i^/ or ^ c? ends a word, when an initial ^ 6, af y, or ?^ / 
follows, then Tit or "^ d assimilates with these letters ; thus 

>TXni^^c&lHii\^^ hhaydt lohhdt 6a becomes ^TJTTWt^TW bhaydl lohhdd 6a/ hom fear 

and avarice.' 
W^ ll ^ I'l^ tad jivanam becomes Wlrl^^rfR taj jhanam, *that life.' 

a. A final l[^t or '^ d also assimilates with a following "^ 6k or *K.jA, but by 
41. II. the result will then be 6 6hj j jh; thus iHI f^RfS becomes wfaRrf% ' he 
cuts that ;' T^ ^^t = iH^R^: * the fish of him.' 

b. Final l^f or ^d assimilates in the same way with ^ <, "^ rf, and their aspirates; 
thus "ffH^TNiT becomes n^lcfei; iT^ i^n*\, rI|TH*t^; iTi^TJC ng|tO. 

Observe ^The converse does not take place in the contact of complete words ; 
thus ^ n (not "<%) * those six :' but ^^ + IT = ^ ' he praises,' see 325. 
Final T^^/ or ^ d may also assimilate with initial 'T n and W n. 

49. If 1^ / or ^ c? ends a word and the next begins with 5^ i 
immediately followed by a vowel, semivowel, or nasal, then t or d i^ 
changed to '^ 6, and the initial 5^i is usually changed to "^ (JA ; e. g. 

iTT^^^RT tat Srutvd becomes inSr^ ta6 6hrutvd, ' having heard that ;' but rt^'JJHI 
ta6 irutvd is allowable. 

CHANGES OF FINAL 1^ t AND i^ d. 37 


B a. Similarly, the change of initial ^ * to "3 6h is optional after a final "^ ; thus 
^ToF^nr may either remain so or be written ^TofSfff ' a hundred speeches.' Again, 
after a final Z t and \p this rule is said to be optional; but examples are not 
likely to occur : though in Rig-veda in. 33, i, we have f^m^^j^^l for f^Mii 
W^, the two rivers Vipas and Sutudri in the Panjab. 

50. If IT ^ ends a word, when initial f h follows, the final H Ms 
changed to ^5 c? (by 43), and the initial ^ h optionally to V dh ; thus 

Wfl ^fw tat harati becomes cT^fw tad dharati, ' he seizes that ;' but F5[ fxfif 
tad harati is allowable. 

a. By a similar rule, and on the same principle, any consonant (except a nasal, 
semivowel, or sibilant) followed by ?], must be softened if hard, and its soft aspi- 
rate optionally substituted for the initial ^ ; thus ^^ '^fiT vdk harati becomes 
ll'M<.f7T vdg gharati, 'speech captivates.' 

b. Similarly, ^^ "g^I ac hrasvah becomes ^Ti^RJ^t ajjhrasvah, ' a short vowel.' 

Insertion 0/ T^ t changeable to ^ d. 

51. When ^ 6h is between two vowels (long or short) in the body 
of a simple word, 11 t changeable by 48. . to ^ d must be inserted 
before "3 6h ; thus root IT^ pradh followed by a vowel must be 
written v^ pra66ha (as in "mf^ papra66ha, ij^TfiT, &c. at 631); so 
also f^*+%^ becomes f^^t^ *he has cut;^ ^ * + fai^= ^f^^rfi^ 
*he was cutting^ (see Pan. vi. i, 73, 75). 

Observe In the case of root murch there is no insertion of d in miirdhana, &c., 
because 6h is not between two vowels. 

a. This insertion of 6 is obligatory when if 6h is initial, and when 
a previous syllable of any word, either separate or compounded, 
ends in a short vowel ; as, ^^^ ^TRT or ^f?r3g[RT * the shadow of a 

b. The same is obligatory afler the preposition ^T a and the 
particle ^} md ; as ^ '^ becomes ^T^a^ ' covered ;' so m f'Sj^ 
becomes JTT f^S^md 66hidat, *let him not cut' (Pan. vi. i, 74). 

c. In all other cases after long vowels the insertion of '^r^ d is 
optional; as, ^^tl^nn or ^i^^Wl^r 'the shade of a jujube tree;' 
m f^f% or ^ fSTTf^ ' she cuts' (Pan. vi. i, ^6), 

d. An augment l[t may optionally be inserted after final 7 t before initial ^s.- 
as, M^^niJ or ^cwm: * being six ' (Pan. viii. 4, 42 ; 3, 39). 

* f^ di is the syllable of reduplication to form the perfect of f^ 6hid (252), and 
^ a the augment to form the imperfect of all verbs (251). 


52. If the letter t^ n, preceded by a short vowel, ends a word, 
when the next begins with any vowel, the n is doubled ; thus 
WRT^ ^H^ dsan atra becomes ^iqc:| dsann atrUy *they were here.* 
irftRr^ Tirm ^flwiin udydne becomes rtiw^ain tasminn udydne, *in that garden.' 

a. 'fliis applies equally to final "^ n and ^ n ; as H^ T^ becomes UWrflT * he 
goes towards the west;* ^nrjl ^Ptct = ^'KaPw ' he is a good calculator' (see Pan. 
VIII. 3, 32); but these, especially the last, rarely occur as finals. 

b. Technical terras in grammar, such as Un-ddi (i. e. * a list of suffixes beginning 
with n'), are said to be exceptions to this rule. 

^^. If^n ends a word, when an initial ^^6 or i[^t or z^( (or their 
aspirates) follows, a sibilant is inserted between the final and initial 
letter, according to the class of the initial letter ; and the ^ n then 
passes into the true Anusvara, see 6. d ; e. g. 

Rf9T5^ + f^l{kasmin-\-<Ht becomes ^Ujh fxa q^ kasmin^St, ' in a certain person.' 
^fw^ (fTPT asmin taddge becomes ^ftRW5FT asmins taddge, * in this pool.' 
TfT^ 7fft mahdn tankak becomes H^TFIjt mahdnsh tankah, ' a large axe.' 
a. The same holds good before "^ dh (as, dl^^K^^fri 'he covers them'), and 
before "'(^ th, 7 th ; but the two latter are not likely to occur. 

h. If s immediately follows / in a conjunct consonant, as in the word "PFT^ ' a 
sword-hilt,' there is no change; thus ^H^ "W^ remains tirWfjJ. 

c. A similar euphonic s is inserted between the prepositions sam, avtty pari, 
prati, and certain words which begin with k, as ^^iR sans-kdra, h*spll sans-krita, 
^f<.*^<^\<pnrish-kdra, vfif^TXpratish-kdra, &c. (see 70); just as in Latin, between 
the preposition ab and c, &c., e.g. ab-s-condo. Also, between ^ 'a male,' and 
a word beginning with a hard consonant, as oRtftnW ' a cuckoo,' thus ^tatlHanrtJ ; 
also when ^TT*^ is repeated, e. g. <*i^l*i^ or <fctf*il*i^ ' whom ? ' * whom ? ' * which 
of them?' (Pan. viii. 3, 12, but cf.Vopa-deva 11. 35.) 

d. 5^n at the end of a root does not require an inserted s before terminations begin- 
ning with t; thus ^ + fk Aa + ti is ^f'lT hanti, * he kills' (but see 57, 57. a. b). 

c. Except, also, WW^lprasdn (nom. of pra^dm, 179. a); as, H^nH{)flT *the 
peaceful man spreads;' H^f^^flT 'the peaceful man collects' (Pdn. viii. 3, 7). 

54. The only cases in which ^ n, when originally the final of a word, can pass 
into Anusvara are given above at 53, 53. a; thus in classical Sanskrit combina- 
tions like ir^ qiOfn or in^^:^TfTT must not be written wf ?PCtflT, FT ^flT. 

^^. 1 ^^n ends a word, when the next begins with "^ i, then 
w{^ n and 5^ 6 may be combined in either of the two following ways : 
I8t, the final 5^ n may be changed to palatal ST n; thus it^t;^ ^: 
mahdn kuralj. may be written h^I^^C ' a great hero.' 

2ndly, the initial ^^ i may be changed to ^ 6h; thus r^^T:. 
n. According to native authorities an augment t, changeable to <5 (51), may be 


inserted in both cases, thus T^Ti^JT: or JT^T^^:, but this is rarely done; and in 
practice, both *^ and 5l[are sometimes erroneously left unchanged against the rule 
(thus, 'J^T'^ ^*)- 

b. Final ^ n may optionally insert an augment "^R k when any sibilant begins the 
next word or syllable. Hence TJTT ^"iT may be either Ml^^frf (or KT^^ by 49. a) 
or may remain unchanged. 

c. Similarly, final ^w may insert <^ t, and final ^ n may insert lit before \s; 
e.g. ^TUT, 'a good reckoner,' is in loc. pi. ^TTpg or ^H^!?^; and TH^ ^:, *he 
being,' maybe iHWt; and some say the inserted letters may optionally be aspirated. 
The insertion of 1^ between a final r|[ and initial ^ is common in the Veda ; but 
in later Sanskrit these insertions are not usual. 

56. li ^^n ends a word, when the next begins with c^ I, the n assimilates with 
the /, and the Candra-vindu mark ^ is placed over the I, substituted for n, to 
denote its nasality ; thus "^'^T'F^ cg^fk becomes ^T3|T^5TTfjT or "^^T^ ^TrfTI ' he 
clips the wings;' see 7. Similarly, ev + XafXTico = ekXafAirco ; con-{-ligo=iColligo. 

. Final *l[w, before ^y or ^jh, and ^ n, is properly written in the palatal 
form ^, but in practice is often allowed to remain unchanged against the rule. 

b. Final ^n, before "5 ^, ^ dh, and TJT n, should be written in the cerebral form T!T . 

c. But final i^n, before gutturals, labials, semivowels (except 1 y), and the sibi- 
lants ^s, "^sA, remains unchanged ; as, fTT^ "^ ' those six.' 

57. ^ w as the final of nominal stems is rejected before termina- 
tions and suffixes beginning with consonants; thus vftTr^+i^ 
dhanin + hhis becomes yftrftr^ dhanibhiSj * by rich people ; ' g^ + 7^ 
yuvan -\- tva becomes g^r5r yuva-tva, * youth.' Similarly svdmin + vat 
becomes svdmi-vat,'\i]s.e a master.' But xi'^'^^mi^rdjan-vat is excepted 
in the sense of * having a good king.' (Raghu-v. vi. 2%; Pan. viir. 
2, 14; cf. also "^"^[r^udan-vat, 'the ocean,' Raghu-v. x. 6.) 

a. 5^w as the final of a root is rejected before those terminations beginning with 
consonants (excepting nasals and semivowels) which have no indicatory P (see 
307 and 323) ; thus '^4-/iP is ^f^, but '^+fa* is ^^, see 654. 

b. Also, when a word ending in ^ n is the first (or any but the last) member of 
a compound word, even though the next member of the compound begins with a 
vowel ; e. g. TT^T^ ^^^ rdjan purusha becomes tTST^^^ rdja-purusha, ' the king's 
servant;' <.i*it,?p5 raj an indra becomes Cl^l'J rdjendra, 'chief of kings;' <5llm*t, 
VHmH svdmin artham becomes *<j n-q xiH suamy-arif Aam, 'on the master's account.' 

c. ^ w not final, immediately preceded by a palatal, is changed to the palatal 
form ; e. g. ''n^+ TT = "m^T * prayer,' ^ + 71 = "q^ * a sacrifice ;' similarly, 
TT^ * a queen,' fem. of TTl^ * a king.' 

Change o/" *^ n (not final) to m^n. 

58. li^^n {not final, and having immediately after it any vowel, 
or one of the consonants ^ n, ^^ m, ^^ y, ^ v) follows any one of the 

40 CHANGE OP 5^ W (not FINAL) TO ^ n. 

three cerebral letters ^ re (short or long), ^ ^, ^ sh, in the same 
word (samdna-pade), then t^ n must be changed to the cerebral 7!^ n, 
even though any vowel or any of the guttural or labial consonants 
at page 15 (viz. k, kh, g, gh, rt, h, and p, ph, b, bh, m, v), or y or 
Anusvdra, either singly or combined together or with any vowel, 
intervene; as in the following examples formed with suffixes or 
terminations: ft^inft!! (635) ; cF^rin (152); 'pnir(i07); ^^* causing 
to grow fat ;' ^J%T!T * horned ;' w^nnf ' devout/ ^I^I^mI d6drydm^ 
* the wife of an A6arya,' is an exception (Pan. iv. 1, 49. Vart.)*. 

Obs. I. ^ final (i. e. followed by Virama) in a word is not so 
changed; eg. ^TT*^, not ^TTO (see 127). 

Obs. 2. In a word like ^f^, 'they do,' / immediately after n 
prevents the change. Similarly, ^"^Cer^ (^7i) 

Obs. 3. This change of a dental to a cerebral letter is called uati in the Prdti- 

a. The intervention of any of the palatal, cerebral, or dental consonants at 
p. 15, except y (viz. 6, 6h, j, jh, n, s, t, th, d, dh, n, t, th, d, dh, I, s), prevents the 
operation of this rule, as in ^^7T * worship ;' Tff^ * abandoning ;* TR^^Tf 'playing;' 
^r^lPH * roads * (nom. pi, of <^w\) ; ^|'iii ' by a jackal * (149). 

The intervention of a labial, conjunct with ^ , precludes any change in the 
conjugational forms of the verb 5^* to satisfy,' cL 5. (^pftfiT &c., 618), and in 
those of ^>^ ' to shake,' cl. 9. ( W^flT &c., 694) ; see Pan. viii. 4, 39. In the Veda, 
however, q-^Un is found. But the intervention of nasals, semivowels, or h, though 
conjunct with the ^, do not prevent cerebralization, as in ^^'*UI! (157); '^0^l 
inst. c, of ^m^ * hostile ; ' moiyi of SfT^ * a stone.' 

Obsen'e According to Pan. vi. i, 16, the past pass. part, of vra^(f, *to cut,* 
and rty, *to break,' should be i<*<ff, ^^?Bf. 

b. If two conjunct ^ns follow the letters causing the cerebralization, they each 
become ^, as in f^W^ vishanna f (540). 

c. Even in compound words where ^, "^y "^j ^ are in the first member of the 
compound, and '(^ occurs in the second member, the change to JS may sometimes 
take place (especially when the separate ideas inherent in each word are lost sight 
of in a single object denoted), and sometimes is optional. When, however, the 

* The whole rule 58 is thus expressed in the first two Sdtras of Pd^ini viii. 4, 
rnwit # ^: ^W?T^ I ^^^MI^-^W^c^iIlsfTj. The vowel n is supposed to be 
included in T. ^ stands for the vowels, diphthongs, y, r, v, and hj ^ for the 
guttural class of consonants ; ^ for the labial ; ^TT^ for the preposition ^ ; "^^ 
for Anusvdra. 

t Except a word like mf^u^ui^redup. aorist of ^ 'to breathe,* with H. 

CHANGE OF t^w (NOT FINAL) TO Tn^n. 41 

words do not, so to speak, merge their individuality in a single object, no change 
is generally allowed, but even in these cases it is impossible to lay down a precise 
rule. The following are a few examples : 4|m<in 'a village-chief,' ^?pi^ 'foremost,' 
<l*il*J<n 'the Ramayana,' Im^T!ir^ 'a Rhinoceros' ('leather-snouted animal'), 
<<Uti 'having a sharp nose,' but "^Hrnftrai 'a whip,' and ^4HI*Ji^ ' a pronoun,* 
^T^ or ^<iiqt ' the river of heaven,' ^i^T^R ' a plant ' (where ^^TOT^R might 
be expected), fTftrT^ or f^Tft^ni^ ' a mountain-stream,' *il I'f|(^ *a mango-grove,' 
^^'T (ace. of js(^() 'the killer of a Brahman.' Similarly, ^^^^T ace. c. of 
^^^1 ' t^6 slayer of Vritra,' but ^WU (where han becomes gkna) ; W^T^ ' the 
whole day;* and in other similar compounds when the first member ends in 
short a, but ^T^ ' afternoon* (if from xn^T ^T^*!^). See Pan. viii. 4, 3, &c. 

d. In a compound, c|^w is not generally changed to W^n, if the first member ends 
in "'^sA, and the next word is formed with a Krit suffix containing *^ n, as fl*mT , 
|TsqR, 'l^TJqT^^ (Pan. VIII. 4, 35)- 

e. If the second member of a compound contain a guttural or be monosyllabic, 
the change of ^ w to Tir w is necessary, as in *5rM<*lfwTfIT, ^fic^T'TTU (Pan. viii. 4, 13), 
V4{l<,M<u (Pan. VIII. 4, 12); but not in compounds with agni, as l^TCTf'^. 

59. The prepositions ^nT^, ftf^ (for f^), ^U, "^ft, IT, and g^ (for 
^) require the change of r^ w to ^ ri in most roots beginning with 
f^ (which in the Dhatu-patha are therefore written with cerebral ^rr) ; 
e. g. IRIRfi! * he bows/ ^^W^ffT * he leads inside/ f^^flT ' he drives 
out/ xm:5jc[f^ * he drives away/ Tm'^ ' guidance/ TIinFl^ ' a guide/ 
Vtal^ ' circumference.^ 

a. But in the following roots the *|^ is never changed, and these roots are there- 
fore written in the Dhatu-patha with dental ^^n: TiT to dance,' "fp^ 'to rejoice,* 
"5T| 'to roar,* rS 'to kill,' T7 'to dance *,' TT^'to ask,' tTPl'to ask,* ^ 'to lead.' 

6. In the case of "^"Sl 'to destroy,' the change of rf^ into TH only takes place, 
when Sf^is not changed to ^Ef^, as TRI^fil, Xfftltr^^fT, but TR^, "TR'TS (Pan. 
VITI. 4, 36). 

c. In the case of 1^'to kill,' the change of |^ to TIT takes place except when ^ 
is changed to TT, as in TT^^W n , TI^^rT, but TCSf^ (Pan. vm. 4, 24). An option is 
allowed when 'rf^is followed by H or ^, as in H^f^ or U^flTR, &c. (Pan. viii. 4, 23). 

d. When the preposition fr{ intervenes between the above-mentioned prepositions 
and the root, the change of *|^into ^^ takes place in the following verbs, H^, T'^, 
xn^, f^, W\, ^, ^>, ^^i;, "m, ^, "^T, "*^, m^, ^, ^^^T, fg, fcj^. in most other 
verbs the change is optional, as JTRfW^fW or Tlft!jf>TTf% (Pan. viii. 4, 17, 18). 

e. After prepositions containing an r, the n of certain suffixes like ana is liable 
to be cerebrahzed, but in the case of causal stems, and in some other cases, the 

* According to some the resistance of this root to cerebralization is only when 
it belongs to class 10, and means ' to drop or fall.' 



change is optional (see Pan. viii. 4, 29-31); e.g. Ueii^MH or Ijc^mu, HMmi or 
II^IM^. In H^Ml, H*i^*l, H**<n, TnR, IWR, &c., no change to n ia 
allowed (Pan. viii. 4, 32, 34). In the case of root ^Sf^ ' to breathe,' the final 
becomes Tl^in Trnff and m<i<!|^, making inftsifTIT 'he breathes,' and ^nftjflT (Pan. 
VIII. 4, 19). The causal aorist allows two cerebral nasals, e.g. TTTfll'Dfl ; as does 
also the desid. of m.i*i(^, e. g. ^TTTftrfiirdTr . In this way final r^ may be changed 
to ^ at the end of a word, as in HHIT, tTOT!^, formed from rt. an. But this is only 
true of rt. ^?^. In no other case can final *^ become TIT. When r is separated 
from the n of an by more than one letter, no change is allowed, as in tf^fTflT. 

Changes of final it m. 

60. If H w ends a word, when any one of the consonants k, kh, 
ffi gh ; c, 6h, y, Jh ; (, th, 4, # ; t, th, d, dh, n ; p, ph, b, bh, m 
follows, then it m may pass into Anusvara, or may, before any one 
of those consonants, be changed to its own nasal ; thus aj^ '^ n \ H 
griham jagdma is written either 3J^ WX[f{ or J|^^Jn*< * he has gone 
home;' and nagaram prati either PTt nfw or rrCRrfTI ' towards the 
city;' but in these cases Anusvara is generally used. So also z\^ 
preceded by prep, sam becomes either #TtT or m^^ ' flight ;' ^EW ^R 
either w^jj or w^q * collection ;' ^iT^ ^m^ either inm^ or H^nm ' abandon- 
ment;' but in these cases Anusvara is not so usual. 

a. The final H w of a root is changed to 5T[n or T!F n before suffixes beginning 
with any consonant except y, r, I, ,- thus T5'^+ fiT = Hff'T (see 709). So also 
^^^^ + ^ = ^^P!^ (see 58 ; and Pan. viii. 2, 65). 

b. Before W, IT, ^, ^, a final IT is represented by Anusv4raj also generally 
before the semivowels, but see 6. e. f, 7. 

c. With regard to final IT^ before 1| when followed by m, n, y, I, r, see 7. c. 

d. When the next word begins with a vowel, then it m must 
always be written ; thus 3|^ ^mnfk becomes i| ' ^H T' ^l lflT * he comes 
home ' (not t^ ^WRTfrr). 

. Observe When ?( n or i^m not final is preceded by ^ 6h, the latter becomes 
51^, asira + ^ = lTO*a question ;' f^ + ^ = fTW 'lustre' (Pa?, vi. 4, 19); 
MlHi^ + fiT = muf^H ' I ask frequently.' 


61. Many cases of nouns and many inflections of verbs end 
in ^ 8, which is changeable to 3? i and it sh, and is liable to be 
represented by Visarga (:, i.e. the sign for a hard breathing, see 8), 
or to pass into x: r (regarded as the coiTesponding soft letter of the 


hard sibilants and Visarga). As these changes will constantly meet the 
student's eye, the following five rules must be carefully studied. 

Observe In other grammars these rules are designated * rules for the changes 
of Visarga/ a sibilant not being allowed at the end of a complete word standing 
alone (see 40). 

In the following pages, however, s is preserved as a final, both in declension and 
conjugation, for two reasons : ist, because it is more easily pronounced than a 
mere breathing ; 2ndly, because it keeps in view the resemblance between Sanskrit 
and Greek and Latin terminations. 

62. First Rule. When does the final sibilant remain un- 

rejected? Before i[t,'^6, and z t, and their aspirates, respectively; 

thus, final ^ s before t, th, remains unchanged ; before 6, 6h, passes 

into the palatal sibilant ^ s ; and similarly, before /, th, passes into 

the cerebral sibilant ^ sh, 

a. Final ^ s is also allowed to remain unchanged before initial ^ s, and to assi- 
milate with initial ^T^s and "^5^*. More commonly, however, it is in these cases 
represented by Visarga; see 63. 

b. So also, the final ^ of a root must always remain unchanged before the 
terminations si, sej thus ^TT^ + & = 5[nW ; ^ + ^ = '^W ; see 304. a. 

c. When an initial J{^t is compounded with a sibilant, a preceding final s, instead 
of remaining unchanged, may become Visarga as if before a sibilant ; e. g. ^Rt 
W% Jl^lfri * Hari grasps the sword-belt.' 

d. For exceptions in as, is, us, see 69. 

6^. Second Rule. When does final ^^s pass into Visarga (:)? 
Before "^k, \p, and their aspirates, and generally (but see 62. a) 
before the three sibilants ^5, 51 i, and "^ sh f. 

a. Before a pause, i. e. at the end of a sentence. 

b. When an initial sibilant is compounded with another hard consonant, the 
preceding final s is often dropped in MSS. ; e. g. 1^ ^j^fTT or ^t ^an^Ui 
* Hari goes.' 

c. Nouns ending in is or us followed by verbs beginning with Jc, p, or their 
aspirates, and grammatically connected with these verbs, may optionally substitute 
sh for Visarga ; e. g. Hfltcp^Pif or ^f^: ^fin 'he makes ghee ' (Pan. viii. 3, 44)- 

64. Third Rule. When does final ^ as become o 1 Before all 
soft consonants. 

a. Similarly, before short ^ a, which a is then cut off. 
This rule is more properly, but less simply, stated thus. When does final ^s 

* The assimilation of ^ with an initial ^is rare; but <?lMMf^ is an example, 
t Examples before initial "^^j like ^:^fF, are rare. 

G % 


blend with a preceding a into the vowel o ? Before all soft consonants final '^^s is 
treated as if liquefied into . 

h. The names of the worlds {bhuvas, mahas, janas, tapas, &c.) change to r 
before soft consonants ; e. g. bhuvar-lokOj mahar-loka, &c. 

6 J. Fourth Rule. TFhen does final ^ s become ^ r? When 
preceded by any other vowel but ^ a or ^ a, and before all soft 
letters, consonants or vowels. 

a. Unless ^ r itself be the soft letter following, in w hich case, to 
avoid the conjunction of two ^'s, final ^ * is dropped, and the vowel 
preceding it (if short) is lengthened. 

The interchangeableness of s, r, and Visarga is illustrated in some Greek and 
Latin words; e.g.Jlos,floris; genus, generis; labor for labos j sexz=^; suavis=: 
ij^yf, &c. 

66. Fifth Rule. When is final "^^b rejected f ^AVhen preceded 
by short ^ a, before any other vowel except short ^ at. NB. The 
^ fl, which then becomes final, opens on the initial vowel without 
coalition J. 

a. When preceded by long ^ a, before any soft letter, consonant 
or vowel. NB. If the initial letter be a vowel, the ^ a, which then 
becomes final, opens on it without coaUtion. 

h. When preceded by any other vowel but ^ or ^ a, before 
the letter r, as noticed at 6^. a. 

c. Native grammarians say that final s passes into Visarga, which is then 
changed to yj which y is rejected in accordance with 36, 37. 

The above five rules are illustrated in the following table, in 
which the nominative cases tTT?=^ naras, ' a man ' *Tn^ nards, * men ;' 
^fC^ haris, * the god Vishnu ;' it^ riptis, * an enemy ;' and t^ naus, 
* a ship' are joined with verbs. 

* That is, it is first changed to r, as at 65, and r is then hquefied into a vowel ; 
just as / is often changed to u in French. The plural of animal is animaux. 

t That is, it blends with a into o, as in 64 ; and becoming av before any vowel 
but a, the v is rejected by 36. Indian grammarians hold that final * or Visarga 
here becomes y, which would also be rejected by 36. 

X Tliis is one of the three cases in which a hiatus of two vowels is admissible in 
Sanskrit. The three cases are, i . when final s is rejected from as or as (66) j 2. when 
a complete word, ending in e, is followed by any other vowel but a (see 36); 
3. when certain dual terminations, ^ ^, "^ u, ^ e, are followed by vowels (see 38). 
In the middle of a word a hiatus is very rare (see 5. 6). 




. ^ 





p * 




n I- 




i ? 

tt) a 

CO t^ 



> i? ^ 

Qf "^ Of CX' 


5- =7- 

I I 

S ^ 


2 "^ 

a s. 

'^ 5* 

O .ft. 



ft) p' 

Oj CD 

fB > 

^ I* 

g- ^ 

1 pJ 

^ If 1 til til- >f 1 


^ s 2. 

S". SSn Ss 



o ti: 








!:! t^ 





< 3 












t3 CD 



tri- 1 



6*], There is one common exception to 6%^ (>7^^ 64 : ^sas, * he/ and 
^^ eshas, * this/ the nominative case masc. of the pronouns tt^ tad 
and FiT^ etad (220, 223), drop the final s before any consonant, hard 
or soft; as, ?T oirdfir sa karoti, *he does;^ ^ T^flT ^a ga66hati, *he 
goes / ^ Tperfw e^^a pa6ati, * this (man) cooks/ But rules 64. a, 66, 
and 6^. a, are observed ; thus, ^sfi; 50 'pi, * he also / ^ ;^: ^a eshak, 

* he himself.' Sometimes (but only Ml<y[l.in' to fill up a verse or suit 
the metre) sa may blend with a following vowel, as ^; for ^ ^:. 

In poetry syas, * he/ nom. masc. of tyad, may optionally follow the same rule 
(Pan. VI. I, 133). 

Compare Greek for Of. Compare also Latin qui for quis, and ille, iste, ipse, 
for illtiSy istus, ipsus. The reason why sa dispenses with the termination s may be 
that this termination is itself derived from the pronoun sa. 

68. The preceding rules are most frequently applicable to ^5, as 
the final of the cases of nouns and inflexions of verbs ; but they 
come equally into operation in substantives or adjectives, whose stem 
ends in ^r^ as, ^ is, and T^ its ; thus, by 6^, ^a<^ ^^ 6akshus 
ikshate becomes ^tainHfH 6akshur ikshate, * the eye sees / and ^"^4- 
fn^ 6akshus + bhis = ^^n^ 6akshurbhis, * by eyes.' Similarly, by 64, 
W!^ vflHlfif manas jdndti becomes Jftft WRlflT mano Jdndti, * the mind 
knows / and JTrf^ + fW^ manas + bhis = HrftfW^ manobhiSf *by minds/ 

Exceptions in ^r^ as, ^ is, ir^ us. 

69. ^sr^ * at the end of the first member of a compound word retains its s 
before derivatives of the roots ^ and ^!W, and before 'W^, ^^, m^, ^^, R!ff 
(see Pan. viii. 3, 46); e.g. n^*ai< 'causing light,* '"BT^TSiR *a blacksmith/ 
fHHK ' adoration,' flTT^RR ' disrespect *,' TR^im * a lover of milk.' The s is 
also retained in some other compounds, generally when the second member begins 
with ^, x;(.; as, f^[^FTfw * lord of day,' m^IFrfiT *lord of speech;' similarly also, 
HTSR: * the sun.' Also before the Taddhita suflfixes ^a/, f^rin, and ^^ vala: 
e. g. THT^, n f%f^ ' possessing hght.' 

a. Words ending in ^ is, ^ us, such as ^f^ ^^\y ^'^j ^^ *"*^ ^^^ 
prefixes f^, ^rf^, ^if^, g^, IHJ^, when compounded with words beginning 
with ^, ^, \i ^y change their final ^into ^(Pan. viii. 3, 41, 45); e. g. ^r|W(ii^ 

* performing a sacrifice,' ^f5^in ' drinking ghee,' "M^^^ * a bow-maker/ fT^TI 

In forms of ftlt^ the retention of ^s is considered optional (P69. viii. 3, 42); 
e. g, nvi.H^ or flTC:^. 


'removed,' fi>4co 'fruitless/ vf^^if 'excluded/ ^ff^WjiiT 'made evident/ 
JTBTR * difficult to be drunk/ 'Jng^rT *made manifest.' 

b. Nouns ending in i[^is, T^ms, before the Taddhita suffixes ^flmat, "mi vat, 
f^vin, "^^vala, change the final ^5 to t^sA according to 70; e.g. '^Pf'^TW, 
Tql fn ^n i\^ * possessing splendour/ V^^lTl^' armed with a bow.* 

c. Similarly before Taddhita suffixes beginning with If t, as tva, tama, tara, 
taya, &e. (see 80), final 5 of is and us is changed to sh, but the initial t is then 
cerebralized ; thus i'ftflT^+FI becomes Tq^iPrt^ jyotish-tva, * brightness.' So 
ll^nJ(^J{ jyotish-tama, ' most brilliant.' 

d. Similarly ^, liable to be changed to "lET according to 70, is retained before the 
suffixes "^, ^^T^ffj ^TT^T, and when compounded with the nominal verb chlUlfd ; 
as, HiT^ 'splendid/ ^^I^ 'glorious/ ^Mtai<S* 'a httle milk/ ^f$t3R"^ *a little 
ghee/ MJ'*5m<fw 'he desires sacrifice' (Pan. viii, 3, 39). 

70. ^ 5, not finals if followed by a vowel or by t^ th^ n, w, y, v, 
or by certain Taddhita suffixes, such as ka, kalpa, &c. (see 69. d), 
passes into ^5^ when preceded by any other vowel but ^ or ^n a, 
and when preceded by o^ Ar, or ^ r, or <5 /; thus ^rfxTr + ^ agni + su 
becomes ^frrr^ agnishUy ' in fires ;' ^t( + ftl karo + si = ^f^ karoshi^ 
* thou doest ;^ ^Tc^ + ^ vdk + 5m = ^T^ vdkshu, * in words ;' f^vrc. + ftf 
bibhar + si = f^wf^ bibharshi, * thou bearest/ See 69 and 6g, a. 

a. An intervening Anusvara or Visarga or sibilant does not pre- 
vent this rule ; e. g. ^^'f^, ^^ftr, ^f^:^ (or ^f^^), ^^l^- 

b. In accordance with this rule, certain roots and their derivatives beginning 
with ^ change their initials to ^ after the prepositions ^fH, ^^, f^, f^T^ "Tft, 
Ufw, ^rffT, ^, ^fiT; thus, ^fn^ from ^f>T and ^, Tjf^fif^ from ^ and fw^^ 
HlU from fT and ^ ; and the change may even be preserved though the augment 
^ a inter\'enes, as in "^f^^T^ from ftr^ with fT, ^SMaiff^ from ^T with ^fv ; 
and though the reduphcated syllable of the perfect tense intervene, as ^fVTm 
(but not always in either case, as ^n^^WTcT, ^ST^lT^n). 

c. Hence roots beginning with 5 and followed by a vowel or a dental consonant 
are written in the Dhatu-patha as if beginning with sli: e.g. "P^ (for ftPJ), 
^ (for ^), HT (for WT), WT (for ^); and this appUes also to the roots ftff, 
%^, ^^, ^^, ^t^, &c. 

d. Certain roots beginning with 5 resist all change to sJi and are therefore always 
written with s; e.g. "^{^t ^W, ^, ^, ^, ^o|^, ^, ^J^l^. In certain roots the 
change is optional, as in ^^, *a'^, &c. 

c. The root ^cfW changes its initial to ^ after ^f, as vfqgfliPri. 
/. In a few roots the change is optional, as trft^Sir^ftT or "QftT^r^frT, n^t^uTT 
or f^^^jirftr ; and there are cases where s is retained quite exceptionally, e. g. 

g. The root ^T^ as, ' to be,' when it drops initial a, leaves the 5 liable to be 


changed to sh if it be followed by y or a vowel ; e. g. wf>rBrn^, ^f^mfiV, f^T^fVff , 
Tn5:"TTi^, mjt^rf^ (Pan. VIII. 3, 87). 

Even in compounds the initial s of the second member of the compound may be 
aFected by rule 70, especially if a single object is denoted, as in the names ^fCMl!! 
hari-shena for hari-sena, ^ftTTO^ ytidhi-shthira for yudhi-sthira j and in "Sil'tiH agni- 
shtha for agni-stha, *a frying-pan.' So also in 'SrOriglH, PyrficJ^, c[*^'^> &c. 

h. In compounds formed with ^TT? (rt. ^T?^), the initial becomes ^ where 7 is 
changed to a cerebral (^, "^, or 1^). See 182. e. 

i. The ^ of the suffix ^TTi^is not changed, as "^f'itiirji * to consume by fire.* 

j. Observe The preposition nis followed by the root tap does not become nish if 
repeated action is denoted; e. g. fH^cT^'to melt (gold &c.) repeatedly' (Pan. viii. 
3, 102); othenvise f^\ 

71. For purposes of Sandhi nearly all words ending in ^ r may 
be regarded as ending in ^ s. Most of the cases in v^^hich the 
changes of final ^ r differ from those of final ^ s will be foimd 
below in large type. 

a. Thus, by 63, WK^ WlT^prdtar kdla becomes inTf:fiTc5 prdtah-kdla, ' the time 
of morning;' ^Wt^ ^ ant ar pur a becomes ^T'ifJ'JT antah-pura, 'the female apart- 
ments;' and prdtar sndna becomes VTHIW:^ prdtah-sndna, * morning ablution.' 

b. But r as the final of a stem, or as a radical letter, remains 
unchanged before a sibilant; thus ^4-^=:^| (70); f^>T^ + f;R = 
^^ j ^^"^^ = "^1 {^^^ ^^3> ^^' ^2. b); and sometimes before the 
hard letter x^jo in compounds; as, jft^fif gtr-pati, *lord of speech' 
(also written TftlirfiT, utarfff); ^^?a svar-pati, *lord of heaven* (also 
written T^:iTfTr). 

c. After the analogy of 62, uirt\. ^ prdtar tu becomes THIHSJ prdtas tu; and 
imi^ ^ prdtar 6a becomes TnTHST prdtad 6a. 

ITie transition of r into s before t is exemplified in Latin by gestum from gerOf 
ustum from uro, &c. On the other hand, r in the middle of words is preserved 
before / in Sanskrit, as in kartum, &c. 

d. But in opposition to 64 and 66, final ^ ar, unlike ^ as, 
remains unchanged before any sofl letter (consonant or vowel) ; thus 
TTRT^ wr^ prdtar d^a remains mri< i< |r prdtar-dsa, * morning meal ;' 
^^ infn punar ydti remains g^Tfir punar ydti, * again he goes ;' 
5^ 3^ punar ukta remains ^H^^ punar-ukta, * repeated' (cf. nir-ukta, 
* described/ for nis-ukta, by 6^. 

e. After the analogy of 65. a, final ar before initial r drops its own r, and 
lengthens the preceding a; as 5^ T^ffi punar rakshati becomes ^HT X^fii pund 


rakshati, 'again he preserves/ Analogously, jfli;Vf gi-ratha (i. e. fnR T^ gir rat ha), 
* epithet of Brihaspati.' 

/. Analogously to 6^, c, ^^ + 1^1 datur+taya becomes ^fXj datush-taya, 'the 
aggregate of four/ 

72. Prefixes such as nir and dur must be treated as originally ending in sj see 
nis, dus, 6g. a. 

73. '^ r preceded by a vowel may optionally double a consonant immediately 
following ; thus tT^ ^^ nir daya may be written either mT^^ mrdaya or fn^'-H 
nirddaya, * merciless;' except ^ h and a sibilant followed by a vowej, as in ^"t 
^i.b; but karshyate may be written karshshyate. In doubling an aspirated letter, 
the aspiration of the first is rejected, as ^iT (for ^V) . ?[ ^ is said to have the 
same effect in doubling a consonant immediately following j thus brahman may be 
written brahmmanj but for the sake of simplicity it is better to avoid doubling in 
both cases, and write always nirdaya and brahman. 

a. The doubling of consonants, when they come in contact with others, is con- 
stantly allowable in Sanskrit, though not usual in practice. Thus, in any con- 
junction of two (or even more) consonants preceded by any vowel, especially if a 
semivowel be the last letter in the compound, the first letter, provided it be not 
^ or ?;, may be doubled (Pan. viii. 4, 47); thus ^^ may be written for ^W, ti^CT 
for TSel^, 2['WrFini for ^mioK4Hi, but the more simple form is preferable. 

b. Again, any one of the first four consonants of any class may be doubled 
before the nasal of its own class, and if this takes place the middle consonant is 
called the yama of the preceding; thus in kkniti (Pan. i. i, 5) the second k is the 
yama or twin letter. 

c. It should be noted that by Pan. viii. 4, 65, there is an optional rejection of 
one of two homogeneous consonants after any consonant, so that hlra may be 
written cisftfif . 

The following table exhibits the more common combinations of 
consonants at one view. In the top line of initial letters the 
aspirated consonants have been omitted, because it is a universal 
rule, that whatever change takes place before any consonant, the 
same holds good before its aspirate. 












'^ 8 

-=* i 



as E^ 







a a 

P a 

On o 
a ^ 






* Ox 

ax ax 

ovax x 

. -.ax 



i i 

-. ax 

-. Ox 

-. Ox 





a va 











9 w 




go K 

Si. a- 










S 3 




^ Si.9 
?9 9 



?f ^-; 











3 S 















1 p -1 












* 3 






x x 



















Before treating of the declension of Sanskrit nouns {ndman or 
sanjnd), it is necessary to point out the peculiar method of forming 
the stem from the root. 

74. Every Sanskrit noun (including substantives, adjectives, pro- 
nouns, and numerals) has at least two distinct states prior to the 
formation of the nominative case; viz. ist, a root (dhdtu); 2ndly, 
a stem [prdtipadika or anffa^) formed directly from the root or from 
a modification of the root, generally by the addition of a suffix 
i^pratyaya)] which stem becomes a complete word [pada) by the 
addition of a case-ending (vibhakttjf. 

a. The root is of such importance in Sanskrit that it should be 
clearly defined before another step is taken. 

A root (dhdtv) is to language what the primitive elements are to 
chemistry ; it is that primitive part of a word which, being incapable 
of grammatical decomposition, is supposed to contain the primary 
meaning antecedent to any addition or modification. When a root 
has been developed in any way by the addition of letters or syllables 
or by internal change it becomes a stem, which again is subject to 
further development by the addition of letters or syllables called 
case-endings or inflexions (vibhakti), w^hether nominal or verbal. 
Thus ddna and dadd are stems (the former nominal, the latter verbal) 
developed out of the root da, but ddna and dadd are not fully 

* According to Pan. i. 4, 13, the term anga is used for the stem when speaking 
of some suffix (pratyaya) or termination which is required to be added to it, 
whereas prdtipadika is a general term for a stem without reference to its suffix. 

t The process of forming a complete word (pada), in the case of nouns, may be 
shewn, as it were algebraically, thus : Root {dhdtu) + Suffix {pratyaya) = Stem 
(prdtipadika); again, Stem (prdtipadika) -\- C&se-ending (vibhakti) = a. complete 
word (pada); e. g. in the word jan-a-s, ' a person,' jan is the root, a is the suffix, 
and s is the masculine termination for the nominative case. 

H 2 



developed until they have received terminations or inflexions, when 
they become complete words (pada); thus ddna-m^ * a gift / dadd-ti, 
*he gives' (cf. Lat. do-nu-m, Gr. Si-Sa)-<ri). 

b. There are in Sanskrit about 2000 roots, and every one of 
these conveys some simple idea, conveniently expressed in English 
by the sign of the infinitive ' to,' as in ad^ * to eat,' though it must 
be noted that the simple root ad only denotes the idea of * eating,' 
which appears under different modifications in its derivatives (see 
76. fl). The following are a few of the commonest roots, with the 
leading idea conveyed by each (omitting Uo''): 

^ ad, * eat.' 
^r^ ar6, * honour.' 
55^ as, * be.' 
'en^ dp, ' obtain.' 

^ ish, ' wish.' 
FH kam, * love.' 
^ kri, * do.' 
if^ krish, * draw.' 
^ kram, * go.' 
T^ kri, * buy.' 
g^^ krudh, ' be angry.' 
f^ ksM, ' waste away.' 
friJT^^ kship, * throw.' 
WT khyd, ' relate.' 
^gam, 'go,' 
Vf^ grah, ' seize.' 
"m ghrd, * smell.' 
^ 6ar, * go.' 
f% Hi * collect.' 
f^ 6int, ' think.' 
'^ 6had, * cover.' 
^^jariy * produce.' 
f^ji, * conquer.' 
ift^^jiv, * live.' 
'^jfid, *know.' 
1^ (an, * stretch.' 

TT^ tap, ' warm.' 
"^ iud, ' strike.* 
iqi^ tyaj, * quit.' 
^ dah, *bum.' 
^ ddf * give.' 
f^^ div, * shine.' 
f^'S[^diS, * point out.' 
^t^^ dip, * shine.' 
'^^^ driS, * see.' 
^ dyut, * shine.' 
"? dru, * run.' 
f^ dvish, ' hate.' 
VT dhd, * place.' 
i{^ nand, ' rejoice.' 
fHT nas, ' perish.' 
fff^ nind, * blame.' 
ft ni, Mead.' 
ri^pad, * cook.' 
Tnpat, ' fall.' 
qr pd, * drink.' 
ITT pd, * protect.' 
^ jOM, * purify.' 
TC^ pra6h, * ask.' 
^Ti^ bandh, * bind.' 
^ AwrfA, * know.' 
\bru, * speak.' 

>T^ bhaksh, * eat.' 
>TT bhd, * shine.' 
ftr^ A^jc?, * split.' 
^ bhi, * fear.' 
>J^ bhuj, ' enjoy.' 
Jj^ bhu, ' become.' 
^ bhri, ' bear.' 
T^ Twarf, * rejoice.' 
in^ maw, * think.' 
HT ma, * measure.' 
^ mu6, * liberate.' 
^ muh, * be foolish.' 
^ mri, * die.' 
^(IT yo;, * sacrifice.' 
Tn^ ya^, ' strive.' 
^ yam, * restrain.' 
7n ya, ' go.' 
1 yuy 'join.' 
^ yMfl?/i, * fight.' 
TT rahy * quit.' 
^ ruh, * grow.' 
cP^ Za^A, * obtain.' 
Tsr^ va6, * speak.' 
^^ vacf, * speak.' 
^ vas, * dwell.' 
w vah, * bear.' 



ftr^ vid, * know/ 
fW3T^ vi, * enter/ 
^ vrit, * be/ 
^^ sans, * praise.' 
^oF sak, ' be able/ 
^ Si, *lie down/ 
^^ su6^ * grieve/ 
^H subh, ' shine/ 
^ Sru, * hear/ 
^ sah, ' bear/ 

;in>^ 5a6?A, ' complete. 
^ m, * go/ 
;^5ri;, ' create/ 
^5nj9, * creep/ 
^Si*^ skand, * go/ 
^ stu, * praise/ 
WT sthd, ' stand/ 
^ ^wa, ' bathe/ 
^^^ sj9m, ' touch/ 
ftR 5mi, ' smile.' 

9J 5mn, * remember/ 
^^ svap, * sleep/ 
^ 5m, * sound/ 
1|t^ han, * kill/ 
^ Aas, * laugh/ 
^ hd, * quit/ 
^ hri, ' seize/ 
^ ^mA, ' be glad/ 
^^ AM, * be glad/ 
;^ A?)e, ' call/ 

75. A cursory glance at the above list of common roots will serve 
to shew that they are all monosyllabic. In other respects they 
differ. Some consist of a single vowel only ; some begin with one 
or two consonants, and end in a vowel, but none end in either ^ a 
or w au; some begin with a vowel, and end in one or two conso- 
nants ; and some begin and end with one or two consonants, in- 
closing a medial vowel ; so that a i*oot may sometimes consist of 
only one letter, as ^ i, *to go;' and sometimes of four or more, as 
^JT^ skand, * to move/ Roots consisting of simple letters, such as 
^> ^> ^> ^5 ?^5 ^^M ^^^ probably primitive; and those which 
have compound consonants, such as ^g;^ &c., are in all likelihood 
developed out of more primitive forms*. Those with cerebral 
letters, such as ^^ 'to roll,' have some of them been formed by 
adopting sounds from aboriginal dialects. 

a. The few polysyllabic words recognized as roots have probably resulted from 
a constant habit of joining some particular preposition with some particular mono- 
syllabic root till it has at length come to be regarded as part of the root ; e. g. in 
^^TT sangrdm, 'to fight,' "31'^^T^ avadhiVi 'to despise,' the prepositions "^^^sam 
and ^r^ ava have combined thus with the root. A few other polysyllabic roots are 
the result of the constant habit of reduplication; (as, ^fiC^T daridrd, to be poor;' 
'H'J jdgri, ' to be awake j' ^oRT^ 6akds, ' to shine ;' ^^ vevi, ' to go/ ' pervade ;') 
and a few are derived from nouns ; as, ^TTT ' to play,' from "^HR kumdra, a boy.* 
Most of the latter are of the loth class, and may be regarded as nominal verbs (see 
28S. b). 

* Thus '^B^scyut (also written sm), 'to drop,' beginning with three conso- 
nants, was probably merely developed out of rts. cyu, cyut, a sibilant and dental 
having been added (cf. 51, 53, 84. III). 


b. ^^n and ^ 5 at the beginning of a root are liable, according to 58 and 70, to 
be changed to ^n and \sh. Hence these roots are generally represented in 
Native Grammars as beginning with TT^and T^, because the Indian system exhibits 
that form which may occur under any circumstances (see 70. c. d). But in this 
Grammar, the real initials 5^ n and ^ s will be retained. 

c. According to Indian grammarians, roots are either uddtta or anuddtta (see 
explanation of accentuation at end of Grammar). Uddtta roots take the inserted 
\ i in certain tenses (see 391), anuddtta roots reject this inserted vowel (Pan. vii. 
2, 10). Native grammarians attach to roots (either at the beginning or end) 
certain symbolical letters or syllables indicative of peculiarities of conjugation, 
called anubandhas, 'appendages* (or technically ^t'O, which have. the uddtta 
accent on the vowel used as an anubandha, to shew that the verb takes the 
Parasmai (243) terminations only (such verbs being then called uddttetah); or the 
anuddtta, to shew that it takes the Atmane only (such verbs being anuddttetah) ; or 
the svarita, to shew that it takes both (such verbs being svaritetak). See Panini 
I. 3, 12. 72. 78. 

The following is a list of Panini's anubandhas (with one or two added by Vopa- 
deva) : 

^ indicates that the past participle sufl&xes (530, 553, called nishthd in native 
grammars) do not take the inserted i, vii. 2, 16. ^ that a nasal is inserted 

before the last letter of the root in all the tenses; thus nid-i shews that the 
present is ninddmi &c., vii. i, 58. ^ that the Aorist (or 3rd Pret.) is 

formed in two ways, either with form I (418) or form II (435); thus ghusk-ir 
shews that the Aor. is either aghosMsham &c. or aghusham &c., and drU-ir that 
the Aor. is either adrdkskam or adarsam. \ that the past participle (530, 

553) is formed without , vii. 2, 14. 7 that the indeclinable participle (555) 

may optionally reject i, while the past part, always rejects it, vii. 2, 56, 
15. "3! that i may optionally be inserted in the general tenses, vii. 2, 

15. ^ that in the Caus. Aor. the radical long vowel must not be shortened, 

VII. 4, 3. "^that the vowel may be either lengthened or shortened in 

the Caus. Aor. E that the Aor. takes form II (435) in the Par., 

III. I, 55. IJ that Vriddhi is not admitted in the Aor. Par., vii. 2, 5. ^ 

that the past pass. part, is formed with na instead of to, viii. 2, 45. W that 

a root is anuddtta, i.e. that it rejects the inserted t. "^ that a root is inflected 

in the Atm., i. 3, 12. *[ that a root is inflected in the Par. and Atm., 

! 3. 72. ^ that the past part, has a present signification, in. 2, 187. J 

that a noun with the suffix athu may be formed from the root; thus tu-kshu indi- 
cates that kshavathu may be formed from kshu, iii. 3, 89. J that a noun 
with the suffix trima may be formed from the root ; thus du-kri shews that kfi- 
trima may be formed from kri, in. 3, 88. ^that the vowel a must not be 
lengthened in forming the Causal, that in the 3rd sing. Aor. pass, (technically 
called A'n, 475) and indec. part, of repetition (567, technically named namul) the 
vowel can be optionally lengthened or shortened, and that nouns of agency in a 
(580) can be formed from Causal stems having short radical vowels, vi. 4, 93. 93. 


94- "^that a noun may be formed from the root by adding the suffix d 

(80. I), III. 3, 104. 

76. Since every word in Sanskrit, whether substantive, adjective, 
verb, or adverb, stands in close filial relationship to its root, the 
learner is recommended to commit to memory the commonest roots, 
as given at 74. b. He will thus become master of a large family of 
words, which are easily remembered when attention is directed to 
the leading radical idea running through them all. 

a. For example : let him take one of the foregoing roots, budh^ ' to know ;' 
out of it are developed, ist, a set of simple substantives; 2ndly, of simple 
adjectives ; 3rdly, of simple verbs : e. g. hodha or hodhana, ' knowledge ;' buddhi, 
'intellect;' bodhaka, 'an informer;' bauddha, 'a Buddhist;' budha, 'wise;' 
buddhimat, 'intellectual;' and the following verbs, bodkati, he knows;' budhyate^ 

it is known;' bodhayati, 'he informs;' bubhutsate or bubodhishati, 'he wishes to 
know;' bobudhyate, 'he knows well.' And the simple idea contained in the root 
may be endlessly extended by the prefixing of prepositions; as, prabodha, vigi- 
lance ;' prabudhyate, ' he awakes,' &c. 

b. Similarly, from the root man, 'to think,' a V9,st number of derivatives are 
developed, throughout all of which the leading radical idea is traceable ; e. g. 
ma-ta (i. e. man-^-ta), 'thought/ * an opinion ;' muTti (i. e. man-{-ti), mind ;' mati- 
mat, 'mind-possessing;' man-ana, 'thoughtful;' man-as, 'mind;' manas-vin, 
'intelligent;' ma<, ' devotion ;' mand-yu, zealous;' man-ishd, reflection;' man{- 
shita, 'desired;' mam's^m, 'wise;' man-u, 'man;' man-tu, 'an adviser;' man-tri, 
* a thinker;' man-^ra, ' a sacred text ;' man^rm, 'a counsellor;' mantri-tva, office 
of a minister;' ian-ma, * desire ;' manyu, 'coiu-age;' mdna, 'pride;' mdnana, 
'honouring;' mdnava, 'belonging to man,' &c. ; mdnasa, 'mental;' mdnita, 
'honoured;' mdnin, 'proud;' mdnusha, human;' mimdnsd (from the Desid. 
stem), 'investigation;' mimdnsya, 'to be investigated.' 

Similarly, after prefixing prepositions (such as anu, abhi, ava, ni, prati, vi, sam^ 
&c.) to the root, the meaning may be extended and a large number of derivatives 
formed; e.g. from anu-man, 'to assent:' anu-mata, 'agreed to;' anu-mati, 
'assent;' antt-manana, 'assenting.' From ova-maw, to despise:' ava-mata, des- 
pised;' ava-mati, 'disrespect;' ava-mdna and ava-mdnana, 'dishonour;' ava- 
mdnin, ' holding in contempt j' avamdni-tdy ' disrespectfulness.' 

77. It has been shewn at 74 that a stem (prdtipadika) is an 
intermediate state between the root and nominative case the crude 
form of the noun, which serves as a kind of stock out of which its 
eight cftses, beginning with the nominative, are made, as it were, to 
grow. In a Greek or Latin dictionary we look for the noun under 
the nominative case ; but in Sanskrit we look for it under its stem. 
Thus, bodha, bodhana, tat, pan6an, bhavat are the stems under 


which the nominative cases hodhas, hodhanam, sas, panSa, bhavdn 
are to be sought. 

The stem is, in truth, no mere useless grammatical invention. 
It is that form of the noun which, with occasional modifications, is 
used in the formation of compound words, and in this respect may- 
be regarded as the most general of cases. And since every Sanskrit 
sentence contains more compound words than simple, it may even 
be said, that the stem is the form under which the noun most 
usually appears. 

Similarly, Greek and Latin grammarians might have supposed a root Afy, from 
which was drawn out the nouns Aef/f, ke^tKog, XKto$, KajaXoy^, eWoyo^f 
and the verbs Ac-ycy, KaraXeycOy eWoyeco : so also, a root scrib, from which was 
derived the nouns scriptio, scriptum, scriptor, scriptura j and the verbs scribo, 
perscribo, ascribo : or a root nau, from which would come nauta, navis, nauticus, 
navalis, navigo, &c. And a stem A.e^< and Xel^tKO of Acl/-^ and Aef /AfO-f, and 
navi of navis j which stem is, in fact, the form used in the formation of com- 
pound words, as in \qiKO-ypa(f)0-g and navi-ger. 

78. It will now be perceived that the consideration of Sanskrit 
nouns must divide itself into two heads : ist, the formation of the 
stem ; 2ndly, the inflexion or declension of the stem ; that is, the 
adaptation of the stem to a common scheme of case-terminations. 

o. In fact, the same system applies both to nouns and verbs. As in verbs 
(see 248) the formation of a verbal stem from a root precedes the subject of verbal 
inflexion or conjugation, so in nouns the method of forming the stem from the 
root precedes declension. 

b. Moreover, nouns, substantive and adjective, are classified into 
separate declensions, according to the finals of their sterns^ not 
according to the finals of their nominative cases. In Greek and 
Latin grammars a similar system of classification is now adopted. 

c. The final syllable of nominal stems may end in almost any 
letter of the alphabet except ^ w, s^ , and t^ y. 

Those stems that end in vowels may be conveniently separated 
under four classes, each class containing masc, fem., and neuter 
nouns ; the i st ending in w a, ysc\ a, and ^ i ; the 2nd in \i; the 
3rd in T M ; and the 4th in ^ ri. 

Those that end in consonants may also be arranged under four 
classes ; the ist, and, and 3rd, ending in Ti / and ^ </, ^ w, and ^ s, 
respectively (compare 44); and the 4th comprising all other final 


Primary and Secondary Derivatives. 
79. Nominal stems {^prdtipadika), formed by means of suffixes 
(pratyaya), are of two kinds : i. Primary derivatives formed imme- 
diately from a root, or from a modified form of it, by addition of 
a Krit-suf^x (hence called Krid-anta, ' ending in a ifriZ-suffix/ the 
word Krit being an example of a primary derivative) ; under which 
head are included some participles formed with aniya^ tavya, ya 
(which with elima are sometimes called Kritya suffixes) ; as also 
words formed with Unadi^'' suffixes. 1. Secondary derivatives^ 
formed from the stems of primary derivatives by means of Taddhita 
suffixes, and therefore called secondary (for examples see 80. A. B), 

Observe It is not intended that the student should commit the following lists 
of suffixes to memory, but he is recommended to note carefully tl>e final letters of 
the stem under each of the eight classes. 

80. First Class.-t ^/em^ ending w ^ a (m. n.) ; in 'SJT a and \ 1 (f.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Rqots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes 

Observe A list of adverbial suffixes will be found at 718-725, and the parti- 
cipial suffixes will be more fully explained 524-582. Feminine suffixes must be 
looked for under their corresponding masculine forms. In the examples which 
follow, the meaning of roots will not be given when they coincide with that of 
their derivatives. Thus when bheda, * division,' is said to come from bhid, it is 
implied that the root bhid means *to divide.' In a few cases the meanings of 
roots are omitted when doubtful. From is written fr. ; Root, rt. 

I. ^ -a, forming, ist, abstract nouns, generally mascuhne, after Vriddhi of a 
medial radical a and Guna (with some exceptions) of a vowel capable of gunation ; 
a final palatal <5 or _; being changed to its corresponding guttural k or gf (cf. 
20. c, 24, 25)} e.g. bheda, ra. 'division,' fr. bhid; veda, m. 'knowledge,' fr. vid; 

* A list of sufj&xes 'beginning with the suffix %n' (i.e. u, with the indicatory 
letter w), so called from the words kdru, viyu, &c. in the first Siitra being formed 
with this suffix. The sense of Unadi derivatives frequently does not agree with 
the meaning of the root, and even when it does, usually receives a special signifi- 
cation ; e. g. kdru, though it involves the general idea of doing, means especially 
an artizan.' 

t Forms Uke pa6a, varja, &c. (from pad, vrij), generally found at the end of a 
compound, retain the palatal ; e. g. kim^pada, rasa-varja, &c, 



bhava, hhdva, m. 'existence,' fr. hhu: bharo, bhdra, m. 'a load/ fir. bhri, *to 
bear;' bodha, m. 'knowledge,' fr. btidh; jaya^ m. 'conquest,' fr. ji; pdka, m. 
cooking,' fr. pad; yoga, m. 'joining' &c., yuffa, n. *a yoke,' fr. yuj; ydya, m. 'a 
sacrifice,' fr. yaj. 

Forming, 2ndly, other nouns, substantive and adjective, especially nouns of 
agency (fem. a, sometimes i"); e.g. plava, 'what swims/ fr. plu; sarpa, 'what 
creeps,' fr. srip ; deva, 'a god,' fr. div, 'to shine/ dara (fem. t), 'one who goes/ 
fr. <^ar; jana, 'a man/ fr. jan, 'to produce/ 4ubha, 'beautiful/ fr. $ubh; kara^ 
doing,' fr. kri; jaya, 'conquering,' fr. jij dama, 'subduing,' fr. dam. Cf. Gr. 
forms in = Sk. aj e. g. XvKo-g, Xoyo-^, (popo-i, (f)opc-g, ^vyo-v, e/j-yo-v, &c. : 
Lat. sonu-Sy deu-s, vivp-s, &c. Words like kara, 6aTa, jaya, plava often occur at 
the end of such compounds ; as, bhayan-kara or bhaya-kara (fem. /), 'fear-causing* 
(see 580); arin-dama, * foe-taming/ (cf. nnro-oa^o^, veri-dicus, yrandi-loquus, 
omni-vorus, &c.) When su, 'well,' and dus, 'ill,' are prefixed to such words, they 
take a Passive sense, as in Greek (576. a); e.g. surkara (fem. generally /), 'easy 
to be done / dush-kara (fem. generally i), * difficult to be done,' &c. Cf. eu-^o^of, 
Ovi-<popc^, ^vg-TOfxog, &c. 

^ -a, frequently without change of the radical vowel, forming feminine substan- 
tives (Pan. III. 3, 103-105)5 e.g. bhidd, 'splitting/ fr. bhid; kskudhd, 'hunger,' 
fr. kshudh; mudd, 'joy,' fr. mud, 'to rejoice/ sprihd, 'desire,' fr. sprih; lekhdy 
'writing,' fr. Ukk ; jard, 'old age,' fr. jn, 'to grow old/ often added to the 
desiderative stem (Pan. iii. 3, 102); e.g. pipdsd, 'thirst,' fr. Desid. of pd, 'to 
drink:' sometimes to the intensive stem; e.g. loluyd, determination to cut,' fr. 
Intens. of lu, 'to cut.' Cf. Gr. forms in a, r}', e.g. (pop-d, (pvy-Yj, To/x-iy, 
CTTovO-vj : Lat. tog-a, mol-a. 

%-i, forming a large class of feminine nouns, generally corresponding to mascu- 
lines in a (see 123); e. g. gopi, ' a herdsman's wife* (see Pan. iv. i, 48); dev{, 'a 
goddess;' nadi, 'a river;' vrik{ {nom. ts), 'a she-wolf;' siuht, 'a lioness;' putr{, 
* a daughter. ' Many of such feminines in d and i* are not strictly formed with 
Krit suffixes, being rather derived from masculines, or formed with Taddhita 
suffixes: some words hke Indra, 'the god Indra,' have a fem. form for the 
goddess ; e. g. Indrdni, ' the wife of Indra.* 

II. '^^ -aka (having six technical names, '^, ^, ^f?^, ^, ^SJ^, ^5^)* 
forming adjectives (fem. akd or ikd) and nouns of agency (see 582. b), after 
Vriddhi of a final vowel and generally of medial a, and Guna of any other vowel ; 
e. g. tdp-aka, * inflammatory,' fr. tap, ' to burn ;' kdr-aka, * a doer,' fr. kri; ndy-aka, 
*a leader,' fr. n{; nart-aka, 'a dancer,' fr. nrit: sddh-aka (fem. akd or ikd), ' efi'ec- 
tive,' fr. sddh: khan-aka, ' & digger,' fr. khan. 

Observe The feminine of the agents is usually formed with ikdj e. g. kdrikd, 

III. ^^ -a-tra. See -tra. 

IV. ''BR -ana (having nine technical names, ^, ^J^, 5^, ^ ''^j "^^t 
cj?, J^f ^3^)> forming, ist, a large class of chiefly neuter substantives after 


m Gima of the root; e. g. nay-ana, n. 'the eye/ fr. ni, 'to guide;' ddna, n. 'a gift,' 
fr. da J sthdna, n. place/ fr. sthd, 'to stand;' darp-ana, 'a mirror/ fr. Jnj9, 'to 
make proud;' day-ana, n. 'collection/ fr. Sj vad^ana, 'the mouth/ fr. vad, 'to 
speak;' say-ana, 'a couch/ fr. s?', 'to lie down.' 

Forming, 2ndly, nouns of agency (see 582. c) and adjectives (fem. and or am); 
as, nart-ana, 'a dancer,' fr. nritj sobh-ana, 'bright/ fr. subh. 

Observe The feminine of the agents is in an{. Cf. opyavo-Vf tpeiiavo-v, 
iKavo-g^ TiiQavo-g^ &c. 

V. '^=r^ -aniya, forming future passive participles (see 570) after Guna of a 
radical vowel liable to gunation; e.g. 6ay-aniya, 'to be collected,' fr. 6i, 'to col- 
lect.' According to Schleicher -aniya is for -ana+ya. 

VI. Wl -a. See page 58. 

VII. ^T3R -dka (fem. dkt), forming a few adjectives and nouns of agency ; e. g. 
yaZ^-aA;, * chattering/ iv.jalpj bhiksh-dka, m., bhiksh-dki, f. 'a beggar/ fr. bhiksh. 

VIII. ^TT -ana (^TR^, '^1*151, ^"R^TT, ^TT'^), forming, ist, present partici- 
ples Atm. (see 526; cf. -mdna, XXVII); e.g. lih-dna, 'licking,' fr. Uhj say-dna, 

lying down,' fr. si; chw-dria, 'collecting,' fr. S-nu, present stem of S. 
Forming, 2ndly, perfect participles Atm. (see 554. d); e.g. bubhuj-dna, one 
who has bent,' fr. bu-bhuj, perfect stem of bhvj, 'to bend ;' dadris-dna, ' one who 
has seen/ fr. da-dris, perfect stem of dris. 

IX. ^TT -i-ta, ^H^ -i-tavya. See -ta, -tavya. 

X. 2[5C -ira, j|[c5 -ila. See -ra, -la. 

XI. ^ -t. See page 58. 

XII. "^^ -uka ('^^^, T^rf^^ ^'*\j ^"^^^ , ^^"^)> forming a few adjectives 
after Guna or Vriddhi of a radical vowel; e. g. varsh'^uka, rainy,' fr. vrishj kdm- 
uka, amorous,' fr. kam. 

XIII. '3i^ -lika, forming adjectives and nouns of agency from intensive stems; 
e.g. vdvad-uka, talkative,' fr. Intens. of vad, 'to speak;' ydyaj-uka, 'constantly 
sacrificing,' fr. Intens. of yaj, *to sacrifice.' 

XIV. V^ -enya, forming a kind of future passive participle after either guna- 
tion or weakening of the root; e.g. var-enya, 'desirable,' fr. vri, to choose;' 
us-enya, 'to be wished,' fr. vas, 'to wish.' 

XV. TTC -era, forming a few adjectives and substantives ; e. g. pat-era, ' flying,' 
a bird,' fr. pat, 'to fly;' muh-era, a fool,' fr. muh. 

XVI. ^ -ka, forming a few words ; e. g. iush-ka, ' dried up,' fr. sush (see 548) ; 
dhd-ka, m. 'a receptacle,' fr. dhd, 'to hold.' Cf. Gr. OYj-KYt'. Lat. lo-eu-s, 
pau-cu-s. For the Taddhita suffix -ka, see LVI. 

XVII. If -ta, -i-ta, forming past passive participles (see 530 &c.); sometimes 
without change of the root ; sometimes with weakening of the root ; sometimes 
with rejection of the final nasal of a root ; frequently with insertion of i (which 
takes the place of aya in Causals and verbs of the loth class) ; e. g. sru-ta, heard,' 

I % 


fr. sru; jiid-ta, ' known,' it.jhd; kri^ta, * done/ fr. kri; sthi-ta, * stood,* fr. stkd; 
ga-tOj *gone,' fr. gam; ta-ta, * stretched,' fr. tanj pat-i-ta, 'fallen,' fr. patj grih^ 
i'ta, * seized,' fr. grah (inserted lengthened); ved-i-ta, 'made known,' fr. Caus. 
of vid. Cf. Gr. kXv-to-^, yva-TO-g, (TTa-TO-g : Lat. da-tu-Sf sta-tu-s, ig)no- 
tu-s, &c. 

XVIII. cPST -tavya, -i-tavya, forming future passive participles from the stem 
of the first future (see 569); e.g. kav'tavya, *to be done,' fr. krij dd- tavya, *to 
be given,' fr. dd; sto-tavya, *to be praised,' fr. stu; 6het-tavya (for 6hed-tavya)y 

to be cut,' fr. 6hid; yok-tavya, *to be joined,' fr. yvj ; pak-tavya, to be cooked,' 
fr. pad; bkav-i-tavya, *to be becoine,' fr. bhu; bodkay-i-tavya, *to be made 
known,' fr. Caus. of bhu; grah-t-'tavya, *to be seized,' fr. grah. Cf. Gr. partici- 
pials in -Tio-g (for TeF-yo-g), as 6-Tec-(r, Be-rio-g. 

XIX. W 'tya, forming future passive participles after roots ending in short 
vowels (see 572); e.g. kri-tya, *to be done,' fr. kri; i-tya, *to be gone,' fr. i; 
stu-tya, ' to be praised,' ' laudable,' fr. stu; bhri-tya, * to be borne,' fr. bhri. These 
are occasionally used as substantives ; e. g. bhrityd, f. * maintenance.' 

XX. W 'tra i-trd), -a-tra, -i-tra (for the adverbial suffix tra see 720), forming 
(after Guna of a root capable of gunation) nouns denoting some instrument or 
organ, generally neuter; e. g. ^o-tra, n. ' organ of hearing,' * ear,' fr. sru; pd-tra, 
n. * a drinking-vessel,' fr. pd; vas-tra, n. * a garment,' fr. vas, * to wear ;' 6hat-tra, 
n. *an umbrella,' fr. dhad, ' to cover;' gd-tra, n. ' a limb,' fr. gd, 'to go ;' vak-tra, 
n. 'the mouth,' fr. vad, 'to speak;' ne-tra, n. *^an eye,* fr. n/, 'to lead.' 

A few are masculine and feminine; e.g. dan$h-tra, m. or dansh-trd, f. 'instru- 
ment of biting,' ' a tooth,' fr. dans; man- tra, m. ' a holy text,' ' prayer,' fr. man, 
'to reflect;' yd-trd, 'provisions (for a journey),' fr^ yd, 'to go;' vara-trd, f. in- 
strument of surrounding,' ' a strap,' fr. vri. 

Sometimes is inserted between the root and suflSx ; e.g. khan-i-tra, n. *a spade,' 
fr. khan, 'to dig;' <!ar-i-tra, n. 'proceedings,' fr. dar, 'to go ;' and sometimes the 
present stem is used ; e. g. krinta-tra, n. ' a plough,' fr. kjit, 'to clekve ;' pata-tra, 
n. a wing,' fr. pat, 'to fly;' vadha-tra, n. 'a weapon,' fr. vadh, to kill.' Cf. 
similar Gr. forms in -Tpo-v, -Qpo-v, See. ; e. g. ViTT-Tpc-v, apo-Tpc-v, jSaK-rpo-v, 
Pa-6po-v, pYj-rpa, (ppa-Tpa, Kot[x-^-6pa: Lat. ras-tru-m, ros-tru-m, ura-tru-m, 
plec-tru-m, fulge-tra, &c. 

XXI. r^ -tva (for secondary suffix -tva see LXVIII), forming a kind of future 
passive participle (probably an abbreviated form of -tvya, -tavya) after Guna of a 
radical vowel capable of gunation; e.g. kar-tva, 'to be done,* fr. kfi; je-tva, 'to 
be conquered,' fr. ji; vak-tva, 'to be spoken,' fr. vad; snd-tva,'^t for ablutions,' 
fr. snd. 

-tvd, forming indeclinable past participles (see 555), appears to be a kind of 
instrumental case of a suffix tva (see 555. a), and is either added to the root or to 
the same weakened form of the root as the -ta of the past passive participle (see 
XVII); e.g. kri-tvd, 'having done,' fr. kri; sthi-tvd, 'having stood,' fr. sthd; 
uk-tvd, 'having spoken,' fr. vad, 'to speak:' sometimes an i is inserted; e.g. 


vid-i-tvd, 'having known,' fr. vidj likh-i-lvd or lekh-i-tvd, 'having written,' fr. 
likh: 6orayi-tvd, 'having stolen,' fr. 6ur, 'to steal.' 

-tvt, a Vedic form of -tvd (e. g. kri-M, ' having done '), appears to be for tvyd 
(which is thought to be for tvayd). 

XXIT. r^-%a, aYedic abbreviated form of -tatya (see XVIII); e.g. kri-tvya, 
'able to perform,' 'effectual,' fr. kri. 

XXIII. '^ -tha or -a-iha, forming some nouns of either gender; e. g. yu-tha, n. 
a herd,' 'flock,' &c., fr. yu, 'to unite;' uk-tha, n. 'praise,' fr. u6, a form of vad, 
to speak;' tir-tha, m. n. 'a sacred bathing-place,' fr. tri, 'to cross over;' ni-tha, 

m. n. guiding,' fr. nij gam-a-tha, m. * a traveller,* fr. garUy 'to go;' also ud-atha, 
rav-atha, sap-atha, scas-atha. 

XXIV. T -na, forming (in place of -ta, q.v.) many past passive participles (see 
530~54o); e.g. bhin-na, 'broken,' fr. bhidj bhag-na, 'broken,' fr. bhanj ; an-na, 

eaten,' fr. adj stir-na, spread,' fr. stri. 
Forming also a few nouns, generally masculine ; as, yaj-na (57. c), m. ' sacrifice,' 
fr. yaji yat-na, ra. 'effort,' fr. yat; svap-na, m. 'sleep,' fr. svapj ush-na, m.n. 
'heat,' fr. ush, 'to burn/ 

Forming also a few feminine nouns in -ndj e.g. ush-nd, 'heat;' trish-nd, 
thirst,' fr. trishj yd6-hd (57. c), 'a request,' fr. ydd. Cf. Gr. vir-vo-g, aTvy-vo-g, 
Oei-vo-g, a-Tep-vo-v : Lat. som-nu-s, mag-nu-s, ple-nu-s, reg-nu-m. 

XXV. ^ -ma (H"^, ^^), forming adjectives and a few masculine and neuter 
substantives, generally without change of the radical vowel ; e. g. bhi-ma, ' terrible,' 
fr. bhi, 'to fear;' tig-ma, 'sharp,' fr. tij (cf. 80. I); idh-ma, m. 'fuel,' fr. indh, 

to burn ;' ghar-ma, m. ' heat,' fr. ghri (after Guna); dhu-ma, m. ' smoke,' fr. dhuj 
yug-ma, n. 'a pair/ fr. yuj, 'to join.' Cf. Gr. dep-fxo-i, 6v-ixQ-g, av-e~[J.o-<s : 
Lat. fu-mu-s, an-i-mu-s. 

XXVI. W^ -mara ("^^^), forming a few adjectives and substantives; e.g. 
ghas-mara, ' voracious,' fr. ghas^ ' to devour ; ' ad-mara, ' gluttonous,' fr. ad, 
* to eat.' 

XXVII. TTT -mdna (liable to become mdna), added to the stem of the present 
tense of the first, fourth, sixth, and tenth classes of verbs Primitive, and of verbs 
Causal and Passive (see 526-528) to form present participles Atm., and to the 
stem of the second future tense to form future participles Atm. (see 578); e.g. 
hhara-mdna, bearing,' fr. bhri; kriya-mdna, being made,' fr. Pass, of krij 
bodhaya-mdna, 'informing,' fr. Caus. of budhj ddsya-mdna, 'about to give,' fr. 
the stem of the second future of dd. In the Veda mdna is also added (instead of 
ana) to the stem of the perfect, to form perfect participles Atm. ; e. g. sasri-mdna 
(for sasrdna), fr. sri, to go;' {ja-mdna, fr. yaj, 'to sacrifice;' cf. suffix -dna. Cf. 
Gr. (fjepo-fxevo-g, '^i'^o-{j.Vo-g, ^xao-fxevo-g: Lat. alu-mnu-s (for alo-meno-s), 
Vertu-mnu-s (for verto-meno-s). 

XXVIII. f{ -ya {^\, 'U^, Tlii(^, ^, WCf(), forming future passive participles 
(see 571-576), adjectives, and substantives, generally after Guna or Vriddhi, and 


sometimes other changes of the root (see 571); e.g. ^^ya^ ' to be gathered,' fr. A'; 
stav-ya or stdv-ya, *to be praised,' fr. stu; yog-ya and yoj-ya, *to be joined,' fr. 
yujj guh-ya and goh-ya, * to be concealed,' fr. guh. 

Forming also many neuter abstract substantiyes } e. g. vdk-ya, n. * speech,' 
fr. vadj hhog-ya, n. 'wealth,' 'com,' bhoj-ya, n. 'food,' both fr. bhvj, 'to 

Forming also feminine substantives in yd; e. g. vid-yd, f. ' knowledge,' fr. vidj 
vraj-yd, f. ' wandering about,' fr. vraj; iay-yd, f. * a couch' (for se-yd), fr. //, 'to 
lie down ;' cf. jd-yd (i. e. jan-yd), * a wife ;' 6hd-yd (i. e. 6had-yd)y ' shade j' md-yd 
(i. e^ man-yd), ' illusion.' Cf. Gr. ay-io-g (^zydj-ya-s), CTvy-io-g : Lat. gen-iu-s, 
in-^gen-iu-m, con-jug-iu-m. 

For the indeclinable participial suifix ya {"^Vl^ see 555. 

XXIX. T -ra (w^, T.^, T, ^^, J^), -a-ra, -i-ra (ftfit!'^), -u-ra, forming ad- 
jectives, nouns of agency, &c. ; e.g. dtp-ra, 'shining,' fr. dtp; kship-ra, 'swift,* 
fr. kskipt ' to throw ;' vand-ra, * worshipping,' fr. vand; dkid-ra, ' pierced,* * a hole * 
(neut.), fr. dhid, 'to cut;' aj-ra, m. 'a plain,* aj-i-ra, 'active,' 'an area' (neut.), 
fr. aj; pat-a-ra, 'flying,' fr. pat : also with i or u inserted; e. g. 61iid'i-ra^ m. an 
axe,* 6hid-u-ra, 'cutting,' fr. <ihid/ to cut ;' rudh-i-ra, ' red ;' hhid-u-ra, ' splitting,' 

fragile,* *a thunderbolt' (neut.); bkds-ura, 'shining' {=zbhds-vara), fr. bhds. 
Cf. Gr. Xafj.TT-po^g, IpvB'po-g, ay-po-g^ (pav-e-pos : Lat. rub-er (stem ru-bro\ 
rubra, ag-er, gna-ru-s, pu-ru-'s. 

XXX. H -la (^, c5F), -a-la, -i-la, -u-la, forming adjectives, &c. = -ra, &c. 
above; e.g. suk-la {=4uk-ra), 'white,' fr. sud, 'to shine;' tar-a-la, 'tremulous,' 
fr. tr{; an-i-la, 'wind,' fr. an, 'to blow;' harsh-u-la, 'delighted,' fr. hrish. Cf. 
Gr. /xf-y-aAc^f, hi-Xo-^j rpoyj-ako-q^ cpv-^Xo-v: Lat. sel4a (for sed4a), trem- 
ulu-s, &c. 

XXXL r -va y^^^f "^, '^)j forming participles, adjectives, and substantives; 
e.g. pak-va, 'cooked,' fr. pad (regarded as a past passive participle, see 548); 
fli-ra, *a horse,* fr. an assumed rt. o/, 'to be quick;' e-va, 'going,* fr. i; pad-va, 
*a road,' fr. pad, 'to go.' Cf. Gr. nt-ito-g (for iK-'fo-g): Lat. eq-^u-s, ard-uu-s 
(= urdh'Va), ar-vu-m, ts^u-m. 

XXXIL '^ -vara (iTT!^, ^HC^, ^t^, &c.), forming adjectives, nouns of 
agency, &c. (fem. generally {); nai-vara (fem. {), perishing,* fr. nos, 'to perish ;' 
ii-varay 'a ruler,' fr. U; sthd-vara, 'stationary,* fr. sthd, 'to stand.' After roots 
ending in short vowels or a nasal, t is sometimes inserted ; as, i-t^ara, * going ' 
{fem. /), fr. i; ji-t-vara, 'conquering,' fr.jij ga-t-vara, 'going,' fr. gam. 

XXXIIL ^ -sna (^^), forming a few adjectives; e. g. tik-shna, ' sharp,* fr. tij: 
ilak-shna, 'smooth* (said to be fr. Slish).' 

XXXIV. Other uncommon suffixes (mostly Unadi, see 79. note) forming primary 
derivatives of this class are, -anga, e. g. tar-anga (according to some rather 
taran-ga), pat-anga; -anda, e.g. kar-anda, tar-anda; -ata, e.g. dar^-ata, pad-ata, 
ynj-ata ; -anta, e. g. jay-anta, tar-ania, vas-anta ; -anya, e. g. tur-anya, nabh-anya, 
parjanyaj -apa, e.g. ul-apa, ush-apa, mand-apa; -abha, e.g. rish-abha, gard-abha, 



vrish-abha, sar-abhaj -ama, e.g. kal-ama, rus-ama, sar-amd; -amba, e.g. kar- 
ambaj -asa, e.g. dam-asa, div-asa, man-asa, vad-asaj -asdna, * being,' pres. part. 
of as, *to be,' e.g. mand^asdna, vridh-asdna j -dnaka, e.g. dhav-dnaka, lav-dnakaj 
-dnaka, e.g. bhay -dnaka, say -dnaka; 'dyya, e.g. pan-dyya, panay-dyya, mah'dyya; 
-dra, e. g. ang-'dra, tush-draj -dla, e.g. kap-dla, kar^dla, dash-dlaj -ika, e.g. krish- 
ika, vris-d-ikaj -isha (i.e. -isa), e.g. dm-isha, tav-isha, avyath-ishaj -ika, e.g. 
an-ika, dris-tka, dardarrikaj -ita, e.g. krip-ttaj ira, e.g. gabh.-tra, sar-ira, kins- 
{raj -isha, e.g. rij-isha, pur-isha, man-ishdj -utra, e.g. tar-utra, var-utraj rUfia, 
e. g. ar-una, arj-una, yam-und, var-unaj -usha, e.g. mh-usha, pwrusha, man-ushaj 
-ukha, e.g. may-ukha; -utha, e.g. jar-utha, var-uthaj -ura, e.g. may-uraj -ula, 
e. g. Idng-ula; -elima, e. g. pac-elima, bUd-elima (576. 5); -ora, e. g. kath-ora, sah- 
oraj -kara, e.g. pusJi-kara, tas-karaj -trima, e.g. kri-trima, pakrtrima (Pan. iii. 
3, 88); -thaka, e.g. gd-thaka (perhaps for gdtha-ka); -sa, e.g. draprsa, vrik-sha, 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives.. 

Preliminary Observations. 

a. The final vowels of the nominal stems of primary derivatives are liable to 
certain changes before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels or y; thus 
(i) a, d, i, I are rejected; e.g. su6i, pure;' sau6a, 'purity:' (2) u, u are gunated 
into o, which then becomes avj e. g, fr. Manu comes Mdnav-a, *a descendant of 
Manu :' (3) and au become av and dv according to the general rules of Sandhi; 
e. g. from go, ' a cow,' comes gavya, ' relating to cows ;' from nau, ' a ship,' comes 
ndvika and ndvya, belonging to a ship.' 

b. A final n is generally rejected before Taddhita suffixes beginning with con- 
sonants J and both n and its preceding vowel are sometimes rejected before vowels 
and yj e.g. yuvan, 'young,' yuva-td or yuvartva, 'youth;' dtman, 'self,' dtmya 
and atmiya, ' own,' personal.' There are, however, many exceptions to the latter 
part of this rule; e.g. yauvana, 'youth,' fr. yuvan; rdjanya, 'regal,' fr. rdjan; 
dtmanina fr. dtman. 

c. It will be found that Taddhita or secondary suffixes often require Vriddhi of 
the first syllable of the words to which they are added, as in maula, ' radical,' fr. 
mula, 'a root;' sau6a, purity,' fr. sudi, pure.' Similarly, in the case of deriva- 
tives formed from compound words ; e. g. sauhrida, ' friendship,' fr. su-hrid, ' a 
friend:' sometimes a double Vriddhi takes place, as in sauhdrda, 'friendship,' fr. 
su-hrid; saubhdgya, ' good fortune,' tr. su-bhaga, fortunate.' 

d. When the initial consonant of a word is compounded with y or v followed 
by a or d, as vxdghra, 'a tiger,' svara, ' sound,' the y and v are generally resolved 
into iy and uv, thus vndghra and suvarfl, and then vriddhied, e. g. vaiydghra, 
'relating to a tiger,' sauvara, ' relating to sound ;' so also sva, ' self,' makes sauva, 
** relating to self;' svan, 'a dog,' sauvana, 'canine.' Similarly, svasti makes 
sauvastika ; nydya, naiydyika; sv-aha, sauvasvi, &c. 


XXXV. ^ -a (fem. i'), after Vriddhi of the first syllable, forming abstract 
nouns, collecti%'es, patronymics, and adjectives expressing some relationship to 
the primitive noun; e.g. ^au(fa, n. * purity,' fr. iuci, pure;' sauhrida, n. or sau- 
hdrda, n. 'friendship,' fr. su-hrid(see Prehminary Obs. c); paumsha, n. * manliness,* 
r. purusha, a man ;' sai^ava, n. * childhood,' fr. si^, a child ;' kshaitra, n. * a col- 
lection of fields,' fr. kshetra, 'a. field;' Vdsishtha, *a descendant of Vasishtha;* 
Mdnava, *a descendant of Manu,' fr. Manu; Vaishnava, ^a worshipper of Vishnu,* 
fr. Vishnu; paurusha, 'manly,' fr. purusha, a man;' saikata, 'sandy,' fr. sikatd; 
ddrava, wooden,' fr. ddrti, * wood ' (see Preliminary Obs. a) ; vaiydkarana, ' gram- 
matical,' fr. vydkarana, 'grammar* (see Preliminary Obs. d). 

XXXVI. ^^ -aka (^, ^^, ^, ^^, ^), generally after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable, forming adjectives (fem. generally i') and substantives (cf. -ika, -ka); 
e.g. aumaka, 'flaxen,* fr. amrf, 'flax;' Angaka, 'coming from An-ga;* aushtraka, 

coming from camels,' *a quantity of camels' (neut.), fr. ushtra, 'a camel;* 
vdtsaka, n. ' a number of calves,' fr. vatsa, ' a calf.' The fem. of this suffix is 
sometimes ikd, which, however, may be regarded as the fem. of ika. 

XXXVII. ^rrj -dta, as vdddta, 'talkative,' fr. vd<^, 'speech;' similarly, 4riitgdta 
fr. iringa. 

XXXVIII. ^rnft -dn<, forming feminijies from masculine nouns hke Indra, 
see Indrdni under -t, page 58. (Observe Agni> 'fire,' has a fem, form Agndyi, 'the 
goddess of fire.') 

XXXIX. x\\Hn -dyana (^, xXfi^T, ifi^^ ^R^, "*fi^), forming patronymics, &c., 
after Vriddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. Ndrdyana, ' a name of Vishjiu,' fr. nara. 

XL. ^\(6 -dla, as vdddla, ' talkative,' fr. vdd, ' speech.* 

XLI. 3[cR -ika (fem. t'H), forming adjectives and a few collective nouns after 
Vriddhi of the first syllable; e.g. dhdrmika, 'religious,* fr. dharma, 'religion;' 
vainavika,'& flute-player,' fr. venuj Vaidika, ' Vedic,' fr. Vedaj d hnik a / d&Wy,' fr. 
ahan, a day;' naiydyika, 'knowing the Nydya philosophy,* fr. nydya; dauvdrika, 
a porter,' fr. dvdra; kaiddrika, n. 'a quantity of meadows,' fr. keddra. Cf. Gr. 
vo^'.efX-iKO-g, /3aaiX-iK0-i : Lat. hell-icu-s, naut-icu-s, &c. 

XLII. ^ -ita, as phalitOy 'having fruit,' fr. phala (the past passive part, of 
phal being phulla, 547. b) ; rathita, 'furnished with a chariot,' fr. ratha. Observe 
This may be regarded as a past passive participle suffix added to the stems of 
nominal verbs, cf. -ina below. 

XLIII. J^ rina (^^), as phalina, 'fruitful,' fr. phala; malina, 'dirty,' fr. 
mala; dringina, horned,' fr. dfinga; rathina, 'having a carriage,' fr. ratha. 

XLIV. I^H'J -ineya, forming a few patronymics after Vfiddhi of the first syl- 
lable; e.g. saubhdgineya, 'the son of an honoured mother,' fr. su-bhagd. 

XLV. ^ -iya (fem. d), as agriya, 'foremost,' 'the best part' (neut.), fr. 

XLVI. ^ -ira (fem. d), as medhira, 'intelligent,' fr. medhd, 'intelligence;* 
rathira * going in a carriage,* fr. ratha (cf. -ra, LXXVIII), 


XLVII. ^ -ila (fem. d), as phenila, 'foamy/ fr. phena, * foam' (cf. -la, LXXX). 

XLVIII. ^ -ishtha (fem. a), forming superlatives, as alpishtha, 'least/ fr. 

alpa, 'little/ which also uses kanishtha fr. rt. Jean (see 192-194). Observe 

Perhaps this suffix is in most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally 
added to the root or modified root, as uru, 'wide/ forms varishtha fr. vri (see 
-tyas, 86. V). Cf. Gr. [/.cy-ia-TO-g, yj'^-ktto-^ : Lat. juxta for jug-{i)sta, lit. 'most 

XLIX. ^ -ma (t^, W^t), forming adjectives and substantives, as gramma, 
'rustic,' fr. grama, 'a village;* kulma, 'of good family/ fr. kula; navha, * new,' 
fr. nava; adhvamna, ' a traveller,' fr. adhvan, 'a road/ anupad{nd, f. ' a boot,' fr. 
anupada; dsvma, 'being a day's journey for a horse,' fr. asva. 

L. ^'^ -{ya, forming adjectives, sometimes after Vriddhi of the first syllable of 
the stem ; e. g. svdsrzya, * a sister's son/ fr. svasri, ' a sister / hhrdtriya, ' frater- 
nal,' fr. hhrdtri; pdrvatiya or parvatiya, 'mountainous/ fr. parvataj asviya, 
'relating to horses,' 'a number of horses' (neut.), fr. asvaj parakiya (fem. a), 
* belonging to another,' fr. para (in this the final of the stem apparently remains 
and k is inserted); saukhiya, 'pleasurable,' fr. sukha. 

Forming also possessive pronouns, as madiya, tvadiya, &c. (see 231). 

LI. ^t -ira, -Ua, only lengthened forms of ira, ila, qq.vv. 

LII. "3T -ura, as dantura, 'having long teeth,' fr. danta. 

LIII. TcS -ula, as mdtula, ' a maternal uncle,' fr. mdtri. 

LIV. lie? -ula, as dantula, 'having teeth,' fr. danta; vdtula, 'rheumatic,' 'a 
whirlwind ' (masc), fr. vdta. 

LV. IJ^ -eya (fem. {), forming adjectives and substantives after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable; e.g. paurusheya, manly,' fr. purushaj dgneya, 'fiery,' fr. agni: 
ddseya, 'born of a slave-girl,' fr. ddsi; maheya, 'earthen,' fr. mahij jhdteya, n. 
'relationship,' fr.jndti. Cf. Gr. Aeovre/o-f, AeovT0-$': Lat. igneu-s, &c. 

LVI. "W -ka, forming adjectives, collective nouns, and nouns expressing diminu- 
tion or depreciation ; e. g. Sindhuka, ' belonging to Sindh,' fr. Sindhu; madhuka, 
'sweet,' fr. madhuj rdjaka, n. 'a number of kings' or 'a petty king' (m.), fr. 
rdjanj asvaka, 'a hack,' fr. asva, a horse.' Sometimes almost redundant, as 
madhyamaka (fem. ikd), 'middlemost,' fr. madhyamaj bhiru-ka, 'timid,' fr. bMruj 
putraka,\ son ;' hdlaka (fem. ikd), young.' For the Krit suffix -ka, see 80. XVI. 

Observe Some of these may equally be regarded as formed with the suffix 
-aka, q.v. Cf. also -ika. 

LVII. cF^ kalpa ("SR^T^), regarded by native grammarians as a secondary 
suffix (see Pan. v. 3, 67. 68, &c.), denoting ' simihtude with inferiority,' or in the 
sense of 'nearly,' 'about;' as, kavi-kalpa, 'a sort of poet;' mrita-kalpa, nearly 
dead ;' pa6ati-kalpam, ' he cooks fairly well.' See Diet, kalpa. 

LVIII. TPT -tana (fem. i), forming adjectives from adverbs of time ; e. g. svas- 
tana, 'future,' fr. has, * to-morrow;' hyas-tana, 'of yesterday,' fr. hyas; prdtas- 
tana, ' belonging to the early morning,' ' early morning ' (neut.), fr. prdtar, at 



day-break ;' prdk-tana, * former/ fr. prdk, * previously ;' other examples are prdhne- 
tana, pratana,nutana, (Hrantana. Cf. Gr. ;r-ij-Tavo-j : Lat. cras-tinu-s, diu-tinu-s. 

LIX. inT -tama (THRT^), {-tamdm), forming, ist, the superlative degree, &c. (see 
191, 195-197); e.g. puny a-tama, 'most holy* (see 191); uddais-tama, 'very lofty,' 
fr. u66ais. Sometimes added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. -tara, -ma : Lat. 
op-timu-s, ul-timu-s, &c. 

Forming, 2ndly, ordinals (hH7); e.g. vinhti-tama (fem. ), 'twentieth,' fr. 
vinsati, 'twenty' (see 21 1-2 13). 

Tamdm, derived from the first, is added adverbially ; e. g. uddais-'tamdm, ' ex- 
ceedingly high ;' vadati-tamdm, *he talks incessantly.' 

LX. TTO -taya, forming adjectives (fem. /) and neuter substantives from nume- 
rals; e.g. tri'taya, 'consisting of three,' 'a collection of three' (neut.)j 6atush- 
taya, 'four-fold,* 'a collection of four,' &c. (neut.), fr. datur, 'four' (see 214). 

LXI. KT,-tara (WT!^), forming the comparative degree (see 191, 195-197, 236); 
e. g. punya-tara, ' more holy ;' u66ais-tara, ' higher,' fr. udcais, ' aloft.' Sometimes 
added to pronominal stems (see 236). Cf. 'tama.- Gr. y\vKV'Tpc-Sf fxeXdv' 

Tardm, derived from -tara, is added adverbially j e. g. u66ais-tardm, ' in a higher 
degree' (cf. bahu-tardm); vadati'tardmy 'he speaks more (than he ought).' 

LXII. HT -td {=z-tva below), forming feminine abstract substantives from 
stems of nouns or adjectives; e.g. bahu-td, 'multitude,' fr. baku, 'many;* 
prithu-td, breadth,' fr. prithu, broad j' yuva-td, * youthfulness,* 'youth,' fr. 
yuvan, 'young;' purusha-td, 'manliness,' fr. purusha, *a man;' deva-td, *a 
divinity.' Cf. Lat. juven^ta, senec-ta, vindic-ta, 

LXIII. nni 'titha (fem. /), forming ordinal adjectives, &c. ; e.g. bahu-titka, 
manifold,' fr. bahu; tdvatitha, 'the so-manieth,' fr. tdvat. 

LXIV. ifni -t{ya (fem. a), forming ordinals; e.g. dvi-t{ya, 'second;* tri-Uya, 
third' (see 208). 

LXV. ^ 'tna, forming adjectives ; e.g. dira-tna, 'old,' 'ancient,' fr. dira, 'long ;' 
other examples are nutna, pratna. Cf. -tana above. 

LXVL W -tya (W^, ^'H^), forming a few adjectives; e.g. tatra-tya, 'being 
there,' fr. tatraj iha-tya, 'being here,' fr. iha. Sometimes with Vriddhi of first 
syllable; e.g. pdsddt^tya, 'subsequent,' fr. pasddt, 'behind.' Similarly, daA:Atna- 
tya fr. dakshindj pauras-tya fr. puras, 

LXVIL W -trd, forming a few feminine collective nouns j e. g. go-trd, * a herd 
of cattle,' fr. go. For the adverbial suflixes -tra, -trd, see 720. 

LXVIIL ?f -tva {ss'td above, q. v.), forming neuter abstract nouns; e.g. 
bahu-tva, yuva-tva, prithu-tva, deva-tva, &c. 

LXIX. WT -tvana (= -tva), Vedic, forming neuter abstract nouns ; e. g. mahi' 
tvana, 'greatness,' fr. mahi or mahin, 'great' (Vedic); sakhi-tvana, 'friendship,' 
fr. sakhi, 'a friend;' vasu-tvana, 'wealth,' fr. vasu, 'rich.' 

LXX. ?^ daghna (qn-^J, regarded (hke dvayasa and mdtra) as a secondary 



sufl&x (Pan. V. 2, 37), denoting * height,' ' measure,' &c. ; e. g. uru-daghna (fem. 0. 
'reaching to the thighs/ 

LXXI. \^*i desiya (^^[fhl^), regarded (like kalpa, q. v.) as a secondary suffix 
(Pan. V. 3, 67), denoting * about,' 'nearly;' e.g. patU'destya, 'tolerably clever.' 

LXXII. W^^ dvayasa (l^W^), denoting 'height,' 'measure,' &c. (see daghna 
above); e. g. uru-dvayasa (fem. i), reaching to the thighs.' 

LXXIII. "^T -na (*T, T*^), forming adjectives and substantives, sometimes after 
Vriddhi of the first syllable ; e. g. purd-na (fem. a or /), * old,' fr. purd, * formerly ;' 
pra-na, 'old,' fr. praj paunsna (fem. t), 'virile,' 'manhood' (neut.), fr. puns, 
*a man;' straina (fem. i), 'womanly,' 'womanhood' (neut.), fr. strt. 

LXXIV. ^ -ma (probably an old superlative suffix, cf. -tama, "ra), forming 
ordinals and other adjectives; e.g. panda-ma, 'fifth;' sapta^ma, seventh' (see 
209); madhya-ma, ' middlemost,' fr. madhya, middle;' avfl'Twa, 'undermost,' fr. 
ava, ' away ;' para-ma, ' furthest,' fr. para, ' beyond.' Cf. Gr, epoo-'ixo'-g : Lat. 
septi-mu-s, pri-mU'S, infi-mu-s, sum-mU'S, &c. 

LXXV. ^^ -maya ('TXIZ), forming adjectives (fern, i) denoting ' made of,' 'con- 
sisting of;' e.g. loha-maya, 'made of metal,' 'iron,' fr. loha, metal;' tejo-maya, 
'full of light,' fr. tejas, 'lustre;' buddhi-maya, 'intellectual.' 

LXXVI. m^ mdtra (iTT^^), added to words to denote ' measure,' * height,* 
&c. (cf. daghna, dvayasa); e. g. yava-mdtra (fem. i), of the size of a barleycorn ;' 
uru-mdtra, ' up to the thighs.' See mdtra in Sanskrit-English Dictionary. 

LXXVII. n -ya (xj^, IT, ^, ^, ^, TPf, ^^, ^pr, ^^, ^, 5p^, ^, 
'^j "^^i ^)^ forming adjectives, patronymics, and neuter abstract substantives, 
generally after changes similar to those required by secondary suffixes beginning 
with vowels (see Prehm. Obs. a. h, at 80. B); e. g. dhanya, 'wealthy,' fr. dhana, 
'wealth;' rahasya (fem. a), 'secret,' 'a secret' (neut.), fr. rahas, secrecy;' pitrya, 
'fatherly,' fr.pitri; ritavya, 'seasonable,' fr. rituj frequently after Vriddhi of the 
first syllable, e.g. saumya (fem, d or mi), 'lunar,' fr. soma, 'the moon;' mddhur- 
ya, n. 'sweetness,' fr. madhura, 'sweet;' 6aur-ya, n. 'theft,' fr. 6ora, a thief;' 
sauhrid-ya, n. 'friendship,' fr. su-hrid, 'a friend;' sauhhdg-ya, n. ' good fortune,' 
fr. su'bhaga (see Prelim. Obs. c); svdm-ya, 'lordship,' fr. svdminj vaiydghrya, n. 
' the state of a tiger,' fr. vydghra. Sometimes the nasal and preceding vowel are not 
rejected; e.g. brahman-ya (fem. a), 'relating to Brahman;' rdjan-ya, 'regal,' fr. 
rdjan (see Prelim. Obs. b. d). Cf. Gr. 'TiaTp-Lo-g, 'Trarp-ia, (jaiT/ip-io^g^ awTfip-ia : 
Lat. patr-iU'S, patr-ia, nefar-iu-s, &c. (cf. the primary suffix -ya, 80. XXVIII). 

LXXVIII. T -ra (probably an old comparative suffix, cf. -tara, -ma), forming a 
few adjectives (fem. a); e.g. madhu-ra, 'sweet,' fr. madhuj asma-ra, stony,' fr. 
asman: ava-ra, 'inferior,* fr. ava, 'down;* apa-ra, 'posterior,' fr. apa, away. 
Cf. Lat. sup-erU'S, sup-erj inf-eru^s, inf-er. 

LXXIX. ^^ rupa {'^^^), regarded as a secondary suffix giving the sense 
'composed of,' 'consisting of,' 'full of,' &c., and sometimes almost redundant; 
e. g. satya-rupam vdkyam, ' a speech full of truth,' or simply ' a true speech ;' drya- 


rupa, 'respectable.' Sometimes giving the sense *good,' *well/ and even used 
with verbs adverbially; e.g. patu-rupa, *very clever j' vaiydkarana-rupa, *a good 
grammarian;' padati-rupam, * he cooks well' (Pan. v. 3, 66). 

LXXX. c5 -la (fem. rf), forming a few adjectives (cf. -i-la); e.g. h-i-la^ fortu- 
nate,' fr. srt; pdnsu-la, ' dusty,* fr. pansu: phena-la, ' foamy,' fr. phena. 

LXXXI. ^ -va (probably for -vat, 84. VII), as kesa-va, * hairy,' fr. kesa. 

LXXXII. "^c5 -vala ('^c5^, ^rt^^), forming a few adjectives (fem. a) and sub- 
stantives; e.g. urjaS'Vala, 'strong,' fr. urjas; dikhd-vala^ 'crested,* a peacock* 
(masc), fr. sikhd, *a crest;' dantd-vala, m. an elephant,' fr. danta, a tooth.' 

LXXXIII. ^ -vya ('OTT, 'CP^), as pitri-vyay *a paternal uncle,' fr. pitji, a 
father.' Cf. Gr. vaTp-vic-i l Lat. patr-uu-s. 

LXXXI V. 'SfT -sa, forming a few adjectives (fem. a) and substantives; e.g. 
loma-^a, 'hairy,' 'a sheep' (masc), *a fox' {d, fem.), fr. loman, 'hair.' 

LXXXV. ^ -sa, forming a few adjectives, sometimes with Vriddhi; e. g. fftna- 
sa, 'grassy,' fr. trinaj trdpusha, ' made of tin,' fr. trapuy 'tin.' 

81. Second Class. Stems ending in ^i (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes 

I. \-i, forming abstract nouns, nouns of agency of all genders, and adjectives 
(with occasional Guna or Vriddhi of the radical vowel); e.g. kavi, m. 'a poet,' fr. 
ku: ahi, m. 'a snake' (ex^f, anguis), fr. anh; dhvani, m. 'sound,' fr. dhvan; 
yaj-i, m. 'a worshipper,' fr. yajj pesk-i, m. 'a thunderbolt,' fr. pish, to crush;' 
tvish-%, f. ' splendour,' fr. tvish, ' to shine ;' sa6-it f. ' friendship,' fr. sa6; krish-i, f. 
'ploughing,' fr. krish; lip-i^ f. *a writing,' fr. lip, 'to smear;* dhid-i, f. *an axe,* 
fr. ihid, 'to cut;' vdr-i, n. 'water,' fr. vri, 'to surround;' aksh-i, n. *an eye,* 
fr. aksh ; iu6-i, 'piure,' fr. iu6, 'to be pure;* bodh-i, 'knowing,' fr. budh. 
Sometimes with reduplication; e.g. jagm-i, 'quick,' fr. gam, 'to go;' jaghn-i, 
'slaying,' fr. han. Cf. Gr. Ttoki-g, tvvayn-g, craai-q, oipi-q, &c. : Lat. ovi-s, 
trudi-s, &c. 

Often added to dhd, ' to hold,' after various prepositions and prefixes, to form 
masculine nouns, the final of the root being dropped ; e. g. ni-dhi, m., vi-dhi, m., 
san-dhi, *n. ; one or two are exceptionally fem. (e. g. oshadhi). 

II. nl -ti (cf. -/It), forming feminine abstract nouns and a few mascuhnes, and 
closely related to the -ta of the past pass. part, at 80. XVII, being added with 
similar changes (except that is ^arely inserted); e.g. ^ru-ti, f. 'hearing,' fr. ^; 
bhu'ti, f. 'existence,* fr. bhii; sthi-ti, f. 'state,' fr. sthd; matt, f. 'mind,' fr. man; 
uk-ti, f. 'speech,' fr. vad, 'to speak;' pur-ti, 'fulness,' fr. pr/, 'to fill;' dat-ii, f. 
' a gift,* fr. da J bhit-ti, f. ' a fragment,* fr. bhid, ' to split * (but past part, bhin-na); 
^hit-ti, f. 'splitting,' fr. ihid (but past part, dhin-na); vrid-dhi (i.e. vridh-j-ti), f. 
* increase,' fr. vridh; yati, m. 'a sage,' fr. yam, *to restrain;' jhdtiy m. 'a relation/ 



fr. jhd: pati, m. *a husband' (for pdti), fr. pd, 'to protect.' Cf. Gr. fxyi-Ti-g^ 
(pd-Ti-g, (pa-ai-i, ^av-Ti-^, ito-cri-g : Lat. ves-ti-s, mes-si-s (for met-ti-s), mors 
(stem mor-ti), po-ti-s, com-pos (stem com-po-ti). 

III. ffT -ni, forming feminine abstract nouns (in many respects analogous to 
those formed with -ti, so that when the past passive participle ends in -na, q.v., a 
noun may generally be formed with -ni), also a few masculines and adjectives ; 
as, gld-ni, f. ' weariness/ fr. glai, * to be languid ;' M-ni, f. ' cutting,' fr. luj jir-ni, 
f. 'old age,' fr. jri, *to grow old;' hd-ni, f. 'loss,' fr. hd (but past part. Mna); 
agni, m. fire,' fr. ang or anj: vak-ni, m. 'fire,' fr. vah, 'to bear;' vrish-ni, 
'raining,' 'a ram* (m.), fr. vrish. Cf. Gr. (xrj-Vi-g, criroi-vi-g: Lat. ig-ni-s (=Sk. 
ag-ni-s), pa-ni-s. 

IV. f^ -mi, as bhu-mi, f. 'the earth,' fr. bhu, 'to be;' dal-mi, m. 'Indra's 
thunderbolt,' fr. dal ; ur-mi, m. f. 'a wave' (perhaps fr. vri); ras-mi, m. ' a ray ' 
(perhaps fr. ras for las). Cf. Gr. (p^-fLi-g : Lat. ver-mi~s. 

V. "PC -ri, as in anh-ri, angh-ri, as-ri, vank-ri, vadh-ri. Cf. Gr. i '^-pi-g. 

VI. f^ -vi, as in ghrish-vi, jir-vi, sir-vi, jdgri-vi, dddhri-vi. 

VII. ni -si, as in dhd-sij pluk-shi, suk-shi. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 

derivatives by adding the following Taddhita sufl&xes. 

(See Prelim. Obs. at 80. B.) 

VIII. ^f^ -aki, forming a few patronymics after Vriddhi of the first syllable; 
e. g. Vaiydsaki, * a descendant of Vyasa.' 

IX. vfiMln -dyani, forming patronymics ; e. g. vdsindyani fr. vdsin (Pan. vi. 
4> 174). 

X. ^ -i, forming patronymics after Vriddhi of the first syllable; e. g. Daushyanti, 
'the son of Dushyanta;' so Ddsarathi, *a descendant of Das'a-ratha;' Sauvasvi 
fr. Sv-asva. 

XI. rfUd -tdti (= -td), forming Vedic abstract substantives ; e. g. deva-tdti, f. 
'divinity,' fr. deca; vasu-tdti, f. 'wealth,' fr. vasuj sarva-tdti, f. 'entirety,' fr. 
sarva, 'all.' Cf. Gr. (ptkG-TYjg (i.e. (f)i?^o-TV)T-g), KaKO-TYjg (KaKO-T^T-og) : Lat. 
civi-tas (stem civi-tdt- or civi-tdti-), celeri-tas (stem celeri-tdti-), vetus-tas, &c. 

XII. "fif -ti, as in yuva-ti, ' a young woman,' fem. of yuvan (Pan. iv. i, 77). 

83. Third Class. Stems ending in ^ u (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes 

I. ^Sr^ -athu (^'5^)> ^^^^ Guna of a radical vowel; e. g. kshay-athu, m. ' con- 
sumption,' fr. kshi, 'to waste away;' soay-athu, m. 'swelling,' fr. svij also vep- 
uthu, vam-athu. 

II. ^n^ -dtu, as jiv-dtu, m. f. n. * life,' &c., fr. jtv, 'to live.' 


III. Wr^ -dru, as sar-dru, 'hurtful,' fr. sri, 'to injure;* vand-dru^ 'polite,' fr. 
vand, *to praise.' 

IV. ^HTcJ -dlu (= -dru above), as idy-dlu^ * sleepy,' fr. Hy * to lie down;* sprihay- 
dlUf * desirous,' fir. spfih (loth class), *to desire.' 

V. ^^ -itnu, forming adjectives &c. from verbal stems of the loth class ; e. g. 
gaday-itnu, 'talkative/ fr. gad, 'to speak;* stanay-itnu, m. 'thunder,' fr. stan, 
*to sound.' 

VI. ^X^ -ishnu (i.e. i-snu) z=:snu, as ksay'ishnu, 'perishing,' fr. kshi; bhav- 
ishnu =z bhu-shnu, 'becoming,' fr. bhu. 

VII. T -M (^, "J, "3', "5^1, ^T!T, ^5^), forming adjectives (fem. us or vf) and a 
few nouns, the radical vowel generally undergoing change ; e. g. prith-u, broad,* 
fr. prath, 'to extend;' mrid-u, 'mild,' fr. mrid, 'to crush;* svdd-u, 'sweet,' fr. 
svad or svdd; lagh-u, 'light,' fr. langh, *to spring;* tan-Uy 'thin,' fr. tan, to 
stretch;' ds-u, 'swift;' bandh-u, m. 'a kinsman,* fr. bandh, to bind;' bhid-u, m. 
' a thunderbolt,' fr. bhid, 'to cleave;' kdr-u, m. 'an artisan,' fr. kri, 'to make;* 
tan-u, f. 'the body,' fr. tan; ddr-u, n. 'timber,* fr. dri, 'to split;' madh-u, n. 
'honey.' Cf. Gr. WK-v-g^ Vjt-v-g, irXaT'V-g'. Lat. ac-u-s, id-u-s, sudv -is {for 

Forming also desiderative adjectives (sometimes governing an accusative, see 
834) from desiderative stems ; e. g. jigamish-u, ' desirous of going,* fr. jigamisha, 
desiderative stem of gam, 'to go:* similarly, didrikshuy 'anxious to see;' jigtshu, 
'striving to conquer.* 

VIII. '5 -tu (^, ^), forming nouns of agency &c., generally masculine; e. g. 
gan-tu, m. a wayfarer,' fr. gam, 'to go;* yd-tu, *a goer,* &c., 'time,' fr. yd, to 
go;' bhd-tUy m. 'the sun,' fr. bhd, 'to shine' (cf. bhd-nu)', jan-tu, m. 'a creature,* 
fr. jan; ri-tu, m. a season,' fr. ri, 'to go;' vas-tu, n. an object,' also vds-tu, m.n. 
' building-ground,' fr. vas, ' to dwell.' Cf. Gr. /3o>7-Ti;-f , e^>;-TV-f , a(7'TV (for 
Faa-Tv) : Lat. sta-tu-s, vic-tu-s, cur-su-s (for cur-tu-s). 

Observe The accusative of this suffix is used to form the infinitive; e.g. ydtum, 
'to go :' and in the Rig-veda other cases, as the dative, genitive, are used as in- 
finitives ; e. g. ydtave, ydtavai, ydtos (see 458, 459). 

IX. "^ -nu (l|, ^, as gridh-nu/ e&ger,* 'greedy,' fr.gridh, 'to covet;' tras-nu, 
* timid,* fr. tras, ' to tremble ;' su-nu, m. * a son,' sii-nu or su-nu, f. ' a daughter,* 
fr. 8U, ' to bring forth ;' bhd-nu, m. ' the sun,' fr. bhd; dhe-nu, f. ' a milk-cow,* fr. 
dhe, 'to suck.' Cf. Gr. 5/?^-vv-j-, Xiy-vv-g, 

X. ^ -yu, as iundh-yu, 'bright,' 'fire' (m.), fr. iundh, 'to purify;* Jan-yu, *a 
creature,* fr. jan; man-yu, 'wrath,* fr. man, 'to think;' also bhuj-yu, das-yu, 

XI. ^ -ru, as bM-ru (nova. fem. rus or rus), ' timid/ fr. bM, ' to fear ;* a^-ru, ' a 
tear * (said to be fr. a/). 

XII. ^ -snu (cf. -ishnu), as sthd-snu, 'firm,' fr. sthd, 'to stand;* ji-shnu, 'vic- 
torious,' fr. ji, 'to conquer;' bhii-shnUf 'being,' fr. bhu. 


Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes 

XIII. ^ -yu, forming adjectives, frequently in the sense of ' wishing for,' and a 
few nouns; e, g. urnd-yu, * woollen,' fr. urndj svar-yu, ' desu-ing heaven,' fr. svar, 

heaven J ' also subham-yu, kam-yu, aham-yu, asma-yu. 

XIV. <5 -lu, as kripd-luy dayd-lu, ' compassionate,' fr. kripd, dayd. 

Stems ending in \i and "gi u (see 1 23). 

XV. ^ -{, forming numerous feminine nouns, which will be found under their 
corresponding masculine suffixes, see 80. I. &c., 123-126. Others, mostly mono- 
syllabic, and often formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun, are, bM, f. 

fear;' dM, f. 'understanding;' sr{, f. 'prosperity;' stri, f. 'a woman;' Lakshmi, 
f. the goddess Lakshmi;' m, m. f. *a leader' (whence send~n{, m. *a general;' 
grdma-n{, m. f. ' the chief of a village '). 

XVI. "31 -M, forming feminine nouns, which will be found under their corres- 
ponding masculine forms, as su-nu^ bhi-ru^ 82. IX. XI. (see also 125, 126). Others, 
sometimes monosyllabic, and formed by taking a naked root to serve as a noun, 
are, lu, m. f. a reaper;' bhu, f. 'the earth;' Svayam-bhu, m. 'the Self-existent;' 
vadhu, f. 'a wife.' 

83. Fourth djAss.-Stems ending in ^ ri (m. f. n.) 
Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the Krit suffix 

IJ -tri, forming, ist, nouns of agency of three genders, and a kind of future par- 
ticiple, the same change of the root being required which takes place in the first 
future, and the same euphonic changes of t (see 386 and 581); thus kshep-tri, 'a. 
thrower,' fr. kship; dd-tri, 'a giver,* fr. ddj bhar-tri, 'a protector,' fr. bhri, 'to 
bear;' boddhri, 'aknower,* fr. budhj sodhri, 'patient,' fi*. sah, 'to bear;' bhav-i-tri, 
* about to become ' {=fu-turu-s), fr. bh4, 'to become* (Raghu-v. Vi. 52). 

2ndly, nouns of relationship, masculine and feminine ; in these the vowel of the 
root is frequently modified ; as, pi-tri, * a father,' fr. pa, ' to protect ;* md-tri, ' a 
mother,' fr. md, 'to form,' 'produce;' bhrd-tri, '& brother,' fr. bhri, 'to support.' 
Cf. Gr. to-Tyjp^ Tra-royp, fxyj^T'^p : Lat. da-tor, da-turu-s, palter, ma-ter, fra-ter. 

84. Fifth Class.' Stems ending in i^^t and ^ d (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the following 

Krit suffixes 

I. ^n^-af, forming present and future participles Par. from the stems of the 
present and the second future tenses respectively (see 524, 525, 578) ; e. g. ad-at, 
'eating,' fr. adj dinv-at, 'collecting,' fr. (H; karishy-at, 'about to do,' fr. kri; 


dadh-at, 'placing,' fr. dhd. Cf. Gr. (pep-cov (stem </)/j-6VT-), ^il-ov-^ (stem 
^/b'ovr-), Ti6-t-^ (stem t/5-Vt-) : Lat. veh-ens (stem t?cA-f-), t-ens (stem e-unt-). 

II. H^i^-iV, forming a few nouns and adjectives; e.g. sar-it, 'a river,' fir. m, 
* to flow ;' har-it, * green.' 

III. \-t, frequently added to roots ending in a short vowel, to form nouns of 
agency, substantives, and adjectives (often used at the end of compounds) j e. g. 
ji-ty ' conquering,' in sarva-jit, all-conquering,' fr. ji; kri-t, ' a doer,' in karmo' 
kr'it, * a doer of work,' fr. kri. 

Sometimes t is substituted for a final m of a root, generally at the end of a com- 
pound ; as, ga-t in adhva-gat, m. * a traveller,' fr. gam, * to go.' 

IV. This class, besides comprehending a few nouns already ending in cf, as 
iarad, f. * autumn ;' dridad, f. ' a stone ;' kumud, n. * a lotus,' includes a number 
of monosyllabic nouns formed by taking roots ending in t or d, and using them 
in their unchanged state as substantives and nouns of agency, the technical suffir 
kvip (leaving v) being theoretically added, for which a blank is substituted (see 87) ; 
e.g. (Ht, f. 'the mind;' mud, f. 'joy;' vid, 'a knower' (in dharma-vid); ad, *an 
eater' (in kravydd, 'a flesh-eater'); dyut^ f. * splendour;' pad, m. 'a step.' 

Some nouns falling under this class are formed by prefixing prepositions to 
roots ending in t or d, or in a short vowel ; e. g. sam-pad, f. * success ;' sam-vid, 
f. 'an agreement;' vi-dyut, f. 'lightning;' upa-ni-shad, *a philosophical treatise;' 
sam-i-t, * conflict ' (fr. sam-i, * to go together *). 

The practice of using roots at the end of compounds prevails also in Greek and 
Latin; as in 5^6^-v/i|/ (-w^-), /Sov-ttX-^^ ("'^^'77-), &c., arti-fex {-Jic-), carni-fex 
{-fie-), prases (sid-), &c. And there is a very remarkable agreement between 
Sanskrit and Latin in the practice of adding ^to roots ending in short vowels; thus, 
com-it- {comes), ' a goer with ;' equ-it- {eques), ' a goer on horseback ;' al-it- {ales), 
a goer with wings ;' super-stit- {superstes), a stander by,' &c. Greek adds a similar 
t to roots with a long final vowel ; as, a-yvccT- (ayvcw f ), a-TTTCWT- (aVTCog), &c. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of 
primary derivatives by adding the following Taddhita sufiixes 

V. Tn\-tdt, a Vedic suffix {=-tdti, 81. XI); e.g. deva-tdt, f. 'worship;' 
satya-tdt, 'truth.' 

VI. "Wt^^-mat (h^, ^^H^), forming adjectives (fem. ati) signifying 'possessed 
of,' full of,' &c.= -vat below; usually added to stems ending in i, i, or uj e.g. 
agni-mat, having fire;' /rZ-mof, 'prosperous;' dh(-mat, wise;' os/u-ma^, 'radiant;' 
yava-mat, 'abounding in barley;' madhu-mat, 'full of honey;' vidyun-matz=vidyut- 
vat, 'possessing lightning,' fr. vidyut; jyotish-mat, 'brilliant,' fr. jyotis, 'light;* 
dhanush-mat, 'armed with a bow' (see 69); ardish-mat, 'brilliant' (69. b). 

VII. "^-pa/ (TJ'^., Tfir), forming, ist, adjectives (fem. atf) signifying 'pos- 
sessed of,' &c. ; usually added to stems ending in a, d, or m, and in some other 
consonants; e.g. dhana-vat, 'possessed of wealth;' aha-vat, 'having horses;* 
vira-vat, 'abounding in heroes;' Hkhd-vat, 'crested,' fr. sikhdj vidyd-vat, 'learned,' 


fr. vidyd, 'knowledge;' rdja-vat or rdjan-vat (see 57), 'having a king,' fr. rdjan: 
agni-vat=agni-mat, 'having fire;' kim-vat, 'possessed of what;' pad-vat, 'having 
feet/ fr. pad, 'a foot;' vidyut-vat, 'possessing lightning,' fr. vidyut (see under -mat); 
tejas-vat, 'brilhant,' fr. tejas, 'splendour;' bhds-vat, 'shining,' 'the sun' (m.), fr. 
bhds, 'light;' srug-vat, 'having a ladle,' fr. sru6. Cf. Gr. forms in -Feis (i.e. for 
FevT-g), 'fea-a-a (i. e. fT^a = vatifor vatyd), -Fev (for FevT); as, %a^i-^ig (stem 
')(api-FVT'), taKpvQ-eit; (stem ^aKpvo-FevT-). 

Forming, 2ndly, past active participles (see 553); e.g. krita-vat, 'one who has 
done;* bhagna^vat, 'one who has broken.' 

For the suffix "Vat, in td-vat, ' so many,' yd-vat, Sec, see 234 ; and for the 
adverbial suffix -vat, expressing 'similitude,' see 724. 

85. Sixth Class. Stems ending in ^an and ^in (m. f. n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Krit suffixes^ 

I. ^R^-Gw, forming several nouns, chiefly masculine; e.g. rdjan, m, * a king' 
(fem. rdjni, 'a queen,' 57. c), fr. raj, 'to govern;' taksh-an, m. 'a carpenter,* fr. 
taksh, 'to form by cutting;' sneh-an, m. 'a friend,' fr. snih, 'to love;' uksh-an, m. 

a bull,' fr. uksh, to impregnate;' as-an, m. a stone,' fr. asj ud-an, n. 'water,* 
fr. ud or und, 'to wet.' Cf. Gr. kXv^-xv, tkt-cov (stem TeKT-ov-), eiK-cov (stem 
iK-cv-): Lat. hom-o (stem hom-in-), asperg-o (stem asperg-in-), pect-en {pec-tin-). 

II. 3f*^ -in, forming numerous substantives, adjectives, and nouns of agency 
(fem. im); e.g. math-in, m. 'a churning-stick,' fr. math, 'to shake;' path-in, m. 

a path,' fr. path, to go' (see 162); kdr-in, m. 'an agent,' fr. kri, 'to do;' dvesh-in, 
m. an enemy,' fr. dvish, 'to hate.' Cf. the secondary suffix -in at VI. 

III. t^!r{^-tvan (fem. tvart), see under 'van below. 

IV. IR*^ -man ('Tf'l'^, TfT, Hf^T^), -iman, forming neuter and a few masculine 
abstract substantives, and rarely adjectives, often after Guna of the radical vowel 
(those in iman being generally masc.) ; e. g. kar-man, n. a deed,' fr. kri, to do ;' 
jan-man or jan-iman, n. 'birth,' fr, jan, 'to beget;' ves-man, n. ' a house,' fr. vis, 
*to enter;' nd-man, n. {for jnd'man), 'a name,' fr. jnd, 'to know;' sar-man, n. 
'happiness,* probably fr. srij pre-man, m.n. 'affection,' fr. pri, 'to please;' ush- 
man, m. 'heat,* fr. ush, 'to burn:' also si-man, f. *a boundary;' as-man, m. 'a 
stone ;* ^MsA-man, m. fire,* strength' (neut.); jpa/?-maw, m. sin.' 

Sometimes with insertion of i (and Vedic z), in which case the gender is generally 
masculine (cf. the secondary suffix -iman) ; e. g. sar-iman or Ved. sar-iman, m. 
going,' fr. sri, 'to go;' star-iman or Ved. star-man, m. 'a couch,' fr. strt, to 
spread;' dhar-iman, m. 'form,* fr. dhri, 'to hold;' har-iman, m. 'time,' fr. hri, 
'to seize.' Cf. Gr. aK-fxccv (stem aK-fxov-), yvco-fjioov (stem yvce-f/.0V'), 'TrvQ-fxyjv 
(stem Trvd-fxev-) : Lat. no-men (stem no-min-), stra-men (stem stra-min-), ag-men, 
teg-men, teg-i-men. 

V. "^ -ran ("^iftn^, ^f^), forming substantives, adjectives, and nouns of 



agency (fem. generally vari; cf. suffix -varay with which -van appears to be con- 
nected); e.g. pad-van, m. *a way,' fr. pad, *to go;' mad-van (fern. var{), 'in- 
toxicating,' fr. mad, ' to gladden ;' rik-van (fem. vaH), * praising,' fr. ard (or rid); 
dris-van, ' one who has seen ' (generally at the end of a comp.), ft", rfrti; yaj-van 
(fem. van), ' sacrificing,' fr. y^j. 

When a root ends in a short vowel, t is inserted ; e. g. kri-t-van (fem. var{)j 
effecting,' fr. kri; ji-t-van, 'conquering,' fr. ji ; i-t-van, 'going,' fr. t. 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed firom the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes 

VI. ^ -in, forming numerous adjectives of possession, &c. ; e. g. dhan-in, 
wealthy,' fr. dhana, 'wealth;' bal-in, 'strong,' fr. bala, 'strength;' mdl-in, 
wearing a garland,' fr. mala, *a garland;' vrih-in, 'having rice,' fr. vrihi, 'rice;' 

kes-in, having hair,' fr. kesa, ' hair;' padm-in, abounding in lotuses' {padmint, f. 
a quantity of lotuses '), fr. padma, * a lotus.' 

VII. ^TPTf^ -iman (SpTftl^, ^iPH'^), forming masculine abstract substantives, 
mostly from adjectival stems, the finals being generally rejected, and the same 
changes being frequently requ'u*ed as before the comparative and superlative 
suffixes -tyas, -ishtha (cf. the Kfit suffix -man, 85. IV) ; e. g. kdl-iman, ' blackness,' 
fr. kdla, 'black;' lagh-iman, 'lightness,' fr. laghu, 'nimble;' mah-iman, 'greatness,' 
fr. mahatj diXso gar-iman, drdgh-iman, prath-iman, &c. (cf. comparisons, 194). 

VIII. VR^^-min, forming adjectives of possession (cf. the suffixes -in, -vin, -mat, 
-vat); e.g. vdg-min, eloquent,' fr. vd6, speech;' go-min, 'possessing herds,' fr. 
go, a cow;' svd-min, 'an owner,' fr. sva, 'self.' 

IX. 'Hf^-rtw, forming adjectives, generally from stems ending in a or as; e.g. 
medhd-vin, 'intellectual;' tejas-vin, 'splendid' (69); srag-vin, 'wearing a gar- 
land,' fr. sraj. 

86. Seventh Class. Stems ending i ^ as, ^ is, "JT^ us (m.f.n.) 

A. Primary Derivatives, formed from Roots by adding the 
following Krit suffixes 

I. ^T^ -as, forming numerous nouns, mostly neuter, and a few adjectives, 
generally after Guna of the root; e.f^. man-as, n. 'the mind,' fr. man, 'to think :* 
similarly formed are nam-as, n. 'adoration ;' tap-as, n. ' penance;' tam-as, n. 'dark- 
ness ;' jan-as, ' a race ;' sar-as, n. water,' fr. sri, 'to go ;' 6et-as, n. ' mind,' fr. 6it ; 
srot-as, n. 'stream,' fr. sru, 'to flow' (in this case t is inserted); ush-as, f. (nom. 
ds)f * dawn/ fr. ush (=ca), * to shine ;' jar-as, f. * old age,' fr. jji, * to grow old ' 
(171) ; vedh-as (nom. m. f. n. ds, ds, as), 'creating,' ' name of Brahman ' (m.) Cf. 
Gr. ylv-og, fxev-o^, ei)-'yev-)jf (stem ciJ-ycv-Cf-), iv~fxev--^f {=su-manas) : Lat. 
gen-US (stem gen-es- or gen-er-), scel-us. 

II. ^-w (= -as above), as hav-is, n. 'ghee,' fr. hu,* to offer;' also ar6-is,jyot-is, 
dyot-is, ro6{s, 4o6-is, n. 'hght,' ' lustre,* fr. ar6, jyut, dyut, ru6, sa6, 'to shine.' 



III. "^ -us (= -as, 86. I), as daksh-us, n. 'an eye,' fr. daksh, to see;' also 
vap-us, n. body;' tanus, n. body;' dhan-us, n. (m.) 'a bow;' jan-us, n. 'birth;' 
man-us, m. 'man.' 

IV. "^m^'Vas, -ivas (nom. m. f. n. van, mU, vat), forming perfect participles from 
the stem of the reduplicated perfect (see 554); e. g. vivid-v as,' one who has known,' 
fr. vivid (cf. vidvas, 168. e) ; similarly, ten-ivas, jagm-ivas, &c. (see 168). 

B. Secondary Derivatives, formed from the Nominal Stems of primary 
derivatives by adding the following Taddhita suffixes 

V. ^i|^ -lyas, forming the comparative degree (see 167, 193, 194) ; e. g. haU 
{yas, ' stronger,' fr. hala for halin or hala-vat. Observe Perhaps this suffix is in 
most cases rather primary than secondary, being generally added to the root or 
modified root; as, uru, 'wide,' forms variyas fr. vri (cf. -ishtha, 80. XLVIII). 

VI. XJ^ -yas (= -tyas above), as bhu-yas, * more,' comparative of bahu (see 194) : 
also jyd-yas (194) ; nav-yas, Ved. (comparative of nava, 'recent '). 

87. Eighth Class. Stems ending in any Consonant, except 
T^t and ^ d, *^n, ^s (m. f. n.) 

Almost any root may be used alone in its naked unchanged state as a nominal 
stem, no suffix of any kind being apparently added, but as it is a rule of native 
grammarians that no word can be formed without a suffix, they suppose a suffix 
technically called kvip (leaving v), for which a blank is then substituted. Most 
naked roots so used, form nouns of agency, especially at the end of compounds. 

Those roots which end in t or d, or in a short vowel, having t affixed, have been 
already noticed as falhng under the fifth class, see 84. III. IV. This eighth class 
is intended to comprise all other roots, ending in any consonant j e.g. bhvj (nom. 
bhuk), ' an eater ;' so, budh (nom. bhut), ' a knower ' (see 44. c) ; spris (nom. sprik), 
one who touches ;' vi* (nom. vit), *one who enters,' 'a Vais'ya' (m.), a house' (f.); 
lih (nom. lit), 'one who hcks;' duh (nom. dhuk), 'one who milks.' 

a. Some require modifications; as, prddh (nom. prat), 'an asker,' fr. pradh. 
A desiderative stem is sometimes used alone in the same way ; e. g. pipaksh (nom. 
pipak), one who wishes to cook.' 

b. Many roots are taken in this way to form substantives; e.g. yudh, f. (nom. 
yut), 'battle;' kshudh, f. (nom. kshut), 'hunger:' some requiring modifications of 
the radical vowel; e.g. vdd, f. (nom. vdk), 'speech,' fr. vad, 'to speak;' pur, f. 
(nom. pur), 'a city,' probably fr. pnj gir, f. (nom. gir), ' praise,' fr. gri. 

c. Many roots ending in nasals, when used in this way, especially at the end of 
compounds, either reject the nasal, or exchange it for t (see -t, 84. Ill) : gam, to 
go,' has ga or gat : jan hasja; han has ha or ghna, 

d. There are also a few dissyllabic nouns formed from roots which must be made 
to fall under this eighth class ; as, trishnaj (nom. trishnak), * thirsty ;' asrij, n. 
(nom. asrik), 'blood:' also a few substantives formed by prefixing prepositions 
to roots; as, sam-idh (nom. samit), 'fuel.' 

L 2, 





88. Having explained how the stem of a noun is formed, we 
have now to shew how it is inflected. 

In the last chapter, nouns, Substantive and Adjective, were ar- 
ranged under eight classes, according to the final of their stems 
(the first four classes comprising those ending in vowels, the last 
four those ending in consonants). In the present chapter their 
declension or inflexion will be exhibited under the same eight 
classes. Moreover, as every class comprises Adjectives as well as 
Substantives, so the example of masculine, feminine, and neuter 
Substantives given under each class will serve as a model for the 
declension of masculine, feminine, and neuter Adjectives coming 
under the same class. 

Gender of Nouns. 

89. The noun has three genders, and its gender is, in many 
cases, determinable from the termination of its stem. Thus, nearly 
all stems in a, i, and those formed with the suffix ti (81. II), are 
feminine : most abstract nouns and those denoting an act or instru- 
ment, formed with the suffixes ana, tva (80. LXVIII), ya, tra (see 
under 80), as, is, us (86), and man (85. IV), are neuter; those 
formed with the suffixes na (80. XXIV) and iman (85. VII) are 
generally masculine; but those in a, i, u, and ri are not reducible 
to rule. The Nominative case is, however, in the first of these 
instances a guide to the gender ; as, deva-s, * a deity,^ is masculine ; 
but phala-m, 'fruit,^ neuter. And in other cases the meaning of 
the word ; as, pitri, ' a father,^ is masculine ; and mdtri, * a mother,* 

It may be noted also that words denoting gods, mountains, seas, 
divisions of time, are generally masculine ; words denoting rivers, 
the earth, and night, are usually feminine ; while adjectives and 


participles, used as abstract nouns, the names of woods, flowers, 
fruits, towns, and water, are generally neuter. 

Cases of Nouns. 

90. In Sanskrit, nearly all the relations between words in a 
sentence are expressed by inflexions (vibhakti. Pan. i. 4, 104). 
Many prepositions exist, but in Post-Vedic Sanskrit they are not 
often used alone in government with cases, their chief use being as 
prefixes to verbs and nouns. Hence the necessity for eight cases. 
These, as it were, grow out of the stem, and are called, i. Nomina- 
tive {prathamd, scil. vibhakti, *the first case^); :i. Accusative {dvitiyd, 
*the second'); 3. Instrumental {tritiyd, *the third ^) ; 4. Dative (6a'- 
turthi, 'the fourth^); 5. Ablative [panSami, 'the fifth ^); 6. Genitive 
(shashtM, 'the sixth') ; 7. Locative {saptami, ' the seventh') ; 8. Vo- 
cative (see 92). I. The Nominative is the kartri or 'agent,' but the 
agent is not always in the N. case * ; thus in the sentences, ' he did 
that,' and ' that was done by me,' the agent in the last sentence is 
in the I. case. 2. The Accusative is the karman or 'that acted on,' 
but the karman is not always in the Ac. case ; as in ^ that was done 
by me,' where ' that ' is the karman^ and is in the N. case. 3. The 
Instrumental expresses karana^ ' instrumentality,' i. e. it denotes the 
instrument or agent by which or by whom a thing is done ; as, tena 
kritamj ' done by him f.' 4. The Dative is used in the sense sam- 
praddna, ' giving,' ' deUvering over,' &c. 5. The Ablative generally 
expresses apdddna, ' taking away,' and is usually translateable by 
' from,' and not as in Latin and Greek by ' with,' ' by,' ' in ' (see 
812). 6. The Genitive expresses sambandha, 'relationship,' 'con- 
nexion J.' 7. The Locative is used in the sense adhikarana, 'location,' 
and generally expresses the place or time in which anything is 
done; as, Ayodhydydm, 'in Ayodhya;' purva-kdle, 'in former time;' 
bhumau, ' on the ground f.' 8. The Vocative is used in the sense 
sambuddhi and sambodhana, * addressing,' ' calling to.' 

* These cases will sometimes be denoted by their initial letters. Thus N. will 
denote Nominative ; I., Instrumental ; Ac, Accusative ; Ab., Ablative. 

t The Instrumental and the Locative cases denote various other relations. See 
Syntax, 805, 817. 

X The Genitive in Sanskrit generally denotes ' possession,' but is of very exten- 
sive application. See Syntax, 815, 816. 


91. According to the Indian system, each of these eight cases 
has three numbers, singular (eka-va6ana), dual {dvi-va6ana), and 
plural (bahu-vacana) ; and to each belongs a termination which is 
peculiarly its own, serving alike for masculine {pum-linffajy feminine 
{stri-linga)^ and neuter gender [kliva or napunsaka-lmga). 

Again, according to the native system, some terminations are 
technically combined with servile or indicatory letters to indicate 
some peculiarity, or to distinguish one from the other, or to enable 
Pratyaharas to be formed (see note below). Thus the proper 
termination of the Nominative singular is ^ s (expressible by 
Visarga : before k, kh, p, ph^ and before the sibilants, or at the 
end of a sentence, see 6'^ ; but the technical termination is su, 
the letter u being servile *. Similarly, the termination of the Nomi- 
native plural is really as^ but technically jas, the j being servile. 
The two schemes of termination, with and without the servile 
letters, are here exhibited. The first, or merely technical scheme, 
is given in small type. 

Technical Terminations with the 

Real Terminations without 


letters in ca 



indicatory letters. 







N. ^s(/* 

ysh au 

"3!^ Jas 




Ac. "^^^am 


^^ S'as 




I. TT Td 

Wm bhydm 

f^ bhis 




D. ^Ne 


WW( bhyas 




Ab. tPh Nasi 






G. T^N-ffs 






L. f^Ni 






* The servile u may possibly indicate that final s, in certain positions, is liable 
to be liquefied into u. The object of the Z of W^ in the Ac. du. is to enable a 
pratydhdra ^^ to be formed, denoting the first five inflexions, i. e. the Strong 
cases of masculine and feminine nouns (see 135). The terminations for the D. 
Ab. G. and L. sing, are called by Panini nitali, * having n as their ity* to indicate 
that they are applicable to the four cases, admitting occasional substitutions ; cf. 
the inflexion of mati, dhenu at 1 13, sr{, &c. at 123. The pratydhdra ''^^sup is used 
to denote all the cases from the N. sing, to the L. pi. Pratyaharas are generally 
formed by combining the first member of a series with the final consonant of the 
last member, as above (cf. page 14, note b). 


\. The Vocative is held to be a peculiar aspect of the Nomina- 
tive, and coincides with the Nom. in the dual and plural. Hence 
it is not supposed to have a separate termination of its own. In 
the singular it is sometimes identical with the stem, sometimes with 
the Nominative. Sometimes, however, it differs from both*. 

a. The terminations beginning with vowels will sometimes be 
called vowel-terminations; and those beginning with consonants 
including the Nom. sing., consonantal terminations. 

Again, those cases which take the vowel-terminations will some- 
times be called vowel-cases ; and those which take the consonantal 
consonantal cases. 

See also the division into Strong, Middle, and Weak cases at 
135. a. 

Observe The terminations should be read horizontally, i.e. for 
each case in all three numbers ; not perpendicularly, i. e. not for 
all the cases of the singular before passing to the dual. Hence 
the expression * sas and all the remaining cases ' must be taken to 
mean the Ac. pi. and all the other cases sing. du. and pi., and the 
* first five inflexions ' must be taken to denote s, au, as, am, au, or 
N. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing. du. 

93. Having propounded the above scheme as the general type 
of the several case-suffixes in the three numbers, Indian gram- 
marians proceed to adapt them to every Substantive and Adjective 
in the language, as well as to Pronouns, Numerals, and Participles, 
whether masculine, feminine, or neuter. 

In fact, their theory is, that there is but one declension in San- 
skrit, and that the stem of a noun being given, and the regular 
case-terminations being given, the stem is to be joined to those 
terminations according to the regular laws of euphonic combination, 
as in the following examples of the two stems, ifl nau^ f. ' a ship ^ 
{nam, vav), and ^ft^ harit^ m. f. * green.^ 

* In the first or commonest class of nouns the masculine stem stands alone in 
the Vocative, just as the termination is dropped from the 2nd pers. sing. Impera- 
tive Parasmai in the first group of classes in conjugation, see 246. 



Nom. Voc. tfti^ naus 
nau + s 


iTI^ ndvau 

nau + au. See 37. 


TR^ ndvas 
nau + as. 37. 

Ace. HI4H ndvam 
nau + am. yj> 



Inst. film ndvd 

nau 4- d. 37. 

tftwrnr nauhhydm 
nau + bhydm 

flfn^ naubhis 
nau + bhis 

Dat. fTT^ nave 

nau-^e. 37. 


ftvq^ naubhyas 
nau + ^Ayrt5 

nau + as. ^y. 

-^- naubhydm 


Gen. HN^ ndvas 
nau + as. 37. 

Tiaw + OS, ^y. 

TRT^ ndvdm 
nau + dm. 37. 

Loc. *rrf^ ndvi 

nau + k S7. 


r^ naushu 
nau + *M. 70. 



Nom. Voc. ff^ An/ 

harit +s. See 41. 1. 


^fnft haritau 
harit + au. 43. d. 


Aari^ + as. 43. c?. 

Ace. ^ftiT'^^ haritam 
harit + am. 43. ?. 



Inst. ^ftjn Afln7a 

harit + bhydm. 43. 

harit + ?^^i. 43. 

Dat. ^ harite 

harit + e.4^.d. 


^fnq^ haridbhyas 
harit + i%a5. 43. 

Abl. ^fiCiT^ haritas 
harit + a*. 43. c?. 



Gen. haritas 

Aan^ + OS, 43. </. 

^frrn*^ haritdm 
harit + dm. 43. ?. 

Loc. fftfw hariti 

harit + i. 43. d. 


^f^Fg harttsu 
harit + m. 42. 


96. Unfortunately, however, ift nau^ ' a ship/ is nearly the only 
noun, ending in a vowel, that joins its stem thus regularly with case- 
endings ; and although nouns ending in consonants are numerous, 
and nearly as regular as harit, they are far less common than nouns 
in , a, iy i, u, and ri, whose declension requires frequent changes 
in the finals, both of stem and terminations. 

97. Thus in cl. i of stems ending in a (comprising almost as 
many nouns as the other seven classes together ; compare 80 with 
8187), not only is the final a of the stem liable to be lengthened 
and changed to e, but also the termination ina is substituted for a, 
the proper termination of the Inst. sing. masc. ; ya for e of the Dat. ; 
t for as of the Ab. ; sya for as of the Gen. ; n for as of the Ac. pi. ; 
ais for bhis of the Inst. pi. And in other nouns changes and sub- 
stitutions are required, some of which are determined by the gender. 
(Compare the first group of verbal stems at 257. a.) 

The annexed table repeats synoptically the terminations, with 
the most usual substitutions, throughout all the classes of nouns. 


N. ^(m.f.), ^^* (n.) ^1(m.f.),t(f *n.) ^(m.f), ^ (n.) 

Ac^iT (m.f ), Jf (m.f.n.) ^(m.f ),^(f.*n.) ^iE(;,^(m.f.),;^*(m.),^(n.) 

I. ^(m.f n.), 3f^* (m.n.) wnH (m.f.n.) fiT^(m.f n.), $^* (m.n.) 

D. ^(m.fn.), T?* (m.n.) wrriT (m.f.n.) r^ (m.f.n.) 

Ab.'^^(m.fn.),^(m.f),7^*(m.n.) rw (m.f.n.) wr^ (m.f.n.) 

G. '^(m.f.n.),^(m.f.),^*(m.n.) ^^(m.fn.) ^(m.fn.) 

L. ^ (m.f.n.), ^'rjf.), ^ (m.f ) ^ft^ (m.f n.) ^ (m. f n.) 

Obs. I. Those substitutions marked * are mostly restricted to 
nouns ending in a, and are therefore especially noticeable. Femi- 
nines in a are peculiar in taking the neut. substitution i in du. N. 

Obs. 2. It will be perceived that the Accusative pi. of all masc. nouns in the 
first four declensions ends in n, whilst that of all fem. nouns ends in the regular 
termination s. 

a. Comparing the above terminations with those of Latin and Greek, we may- 
remark that s enters into the Nom. sing, masc, and m or into the neuter, in all 
three languages. In regard to the Sk. dual au, the original termination was a, as 
found in the Vedas ; and a equals the Greek a, w, and e. In Nom. pi. masc. 
the^s appears in many Lat.,and Gr. words. In Ac. sing., Sk. agrees with Lat., 
and even with Gr., final fJi. in Gr. being changed into v. S appears in all three 
languages in Ac. pL; and when the Sanskrit ends in n, as in the first class of 



nouns, this n is probably for ns, since a preceding a is lengthened to compensate 
for the rejection of s. Cf. some Vedic Ac. plurals ; cf. also nrnov^ Ac. pi. in the 
Cretic dialect; and Gothic forms, such as halgins, sununsj cf. likewise the r added 
in the Veda after the Ac. pi., e. g. ^rt<^ ritunr anu (Rig-v. i. 49, 3). In Inst. pi. 
bhis is presen'ed in the Lat. nobis, vobis, and Gr. (pi{v) for <^/f {vav~(piv = naubhis). 
The ais which belongs to Sk. nouns in a is probably a contraction of dbhis, since 
in the Vedas ebhis for dbhis is found for ais, as vrikebhis for vrikais, &c. &c. This 
ais probably answers to the Latin Dat. and Abl. plural in is, just as bhis and bhyas 
answer to the Latin bus. In the Gen. sing, all three languages have preserved 
the s (TT^, nav'is, vr^-og for vafog) ; and in the Gen. pi. am=Gr. et'V and Lat. 
m (^TrnT = Tto^m, pedum). In Loc. sing. Sanskrit is preserved in Lat. and Gr. 
in such words as oiKOiy *at home,' 1 0*5^0?, * on the Isthmus;' humi, domit &c. ; 
and in the Dative (f^f% = vv/^t/, TTf^ = nffr). In Loc. pi. 5w = Gr. ci', e.g. 
6vpa(Tt(y), ' at the door ;' wpa(Ti(v), ' at the right time ' (fft^ = vaval). Sanskrit 
stems in a prefix t to suj so that vrikaishu (29. b) = \vKo'i<Ti. The Voc. sing, in 
Gr. is frequently identical with the stem, and the Voc. du. and pi. with the Nom., 
as in Sanskrit; e.g.TroA/TTy-s", stem andVocTroA/ra ; p^Tcw^, stem and Voc. jO>7To^ ; 
evy^VYj^^ stem and Voc. eyyevef. 

98. In the following pages no attempt will be made to explain 
how or why particular nouns deviate from the general scheme of 
terminations. A division of nouns into eight classes, four ending 
in vowels, and four ending in consonants, will be made ; and under 
every one of the eight classes a model noun for the masculine, 
feminine, and neuter, serving for adjectives as well as substantives, 
will be declined in full. 

99. But the student must understand, that this division into 
eight classes is entirely arbitrary. It does not imply that there 
are eight separate declensions in Sanskrit. All that is meant is, 
that the final letters of the stems of nouns may be conveniently 
arranged under four general heads for vowels, and four for conso- 
nants. Indeed, according to native grammarians, there is only one 
declension in Sanskrit, all nouns, whatever may be the final of their 
stems, being forced to adapt themselves to one common scheme of 
nearly similar case-terminations. 

100. It is most important to remember, that the formation of 
every case in a Sanskrit noun supposes the application of a rule of 
Sandhi or 'junction ;' and that declension in Sanskrit is strictly 
* junction,^ i. e. not a divergence from an upright line {rectus)^ but 
a joining together of a stem with its terminations. 


loi. Sometimes, however, before this joininff together takes place, 
the original final of the stem has to be changed to its Guna or 
Vriddhi equivalent (see 27), or even to some other letter (see 41. 
II -V), so that it will often be necessary to point out in what 
manner the inflective stem {anga^ see 135. c) varies from the original 
stem (prdtipadika) ; and sometimes the original termination of the 
scheme will have to be changed, as indicated at 97 ; thus, at 103, 
under the Gen. du. sivayos, sive + os denotes, that before the stem 
Siva is joined to the termination os, the final letter a is to be changed 
to e; and the reference ^6. a. indicates the rule of Sandhi (explained 
at ^6. a) which must come into operation in joining sive and os to- 
gether. Similarly, when the original termination has to be modified, 
the termination will be exhibited in its altered form; thus, at 103, 
under the Ac. sing., siva + m denotes, that the stem is to be joined 
with m, substituted for the original termination am. See the table 
at 97. 

102. In declining the first model noun siva, the stem with the sign +, and 
after it the termination will be exhibited under each inflexion, and a reference 
will be given to the number of the rule of Sandhi which must come into 

In the other nouns the process of Sandhi will be explained when necessary, 
along with the changes of the stem, immediately before the paradigms of declen- 
sion, and in the paradigms a transliteration in Italic type will be generally given 
immediately under the Sanskrit type. 


Inflexion of Nouns, Substantive and Adjective, whose stems end 

in vowels. 

First Class in ^ , "m d, and \L 

This large class corresponds to a common class of Latin and Greek words in us 
and Of, um and ov, a and a, e. g. lupu-s, KvKO-g (=Sk. vrika-s, Nom. of vrika) ; 
donu-m, ^oopc-v ; terra, ^ajpa {z=dhard) ; and to adjectives like bonus, ayadog, 
e.g. Sk. nava-s, navd, nava-m, *new/=Lat. novu-s, nova, novu-mj Gr. vo-g (for 
vefos), vea, veo-v. 

103. MascuHne stems in a, like f^r^ siva, m. * the god S'iva,' or 
as an adjective, * prosperous/ 

M 2 


The final of the stem is lengthened in D. Ab. sing., I. D. Ab. du., Ac. G. pi. ; 
and changed to e in G. L. du., D. Ab. L. pi. : n is euphonically affixed to the final 
in G. pi. Hence the four inflective stems sivOy diva, dive, sivdn. 


r f^n^ Sivas 

I diva -{-s 

f %^ sivam 


Jf^MH Sivena 
ldiva-{-ina. 32. 

-^ ff^Rni sivdya 
I divd-\-ya 


jr^H^ Sivasya 


Jf^ sive 
\diva+i. 32. 
{f^ Siva 

%^ Hvau 
siva-\-au. See 33. 

r^NI^IH^ Hvdbhydm 




r^H^il^ Sivayos 
dive + OS. 36. a. 



diva + as. See 31. 
f^r^TT*^ Hvdn 
f^lt^ Sivais 
diva-\-ais. 33. 
%^I^ Hvebhyas 


r^NM *<^ Hvdndm 


f^fk^ Siveshu 
div-\-su. 70. 
f^I^TO Hvds 
diva -\- as. 31. 


f^^ Sivau 

wa (* dropped). 92. diva-\-au. 33. 

Obs. The Vedic I. sing, may end in d, e.g. divd for divenaj N. Ac. du. may 
end in d, e.g. divd for divau; N. pi. may end in dsas, e.g. divdsas for AW*; I. pi. 
may end in ebkis, e.g. divebhis for divais. Cf. e6Aw, I. pi. oiidam, 224. 

104. Neuter stems in a, like f^ iiva, n. * prosperity/ or as an 
adjective, 'prosperous/ 

The final of the stem is lengthened and assumes n in N. Ac. V. pi. 

{fijppT Hvam f^ Hve f^Nifn Sivdni 

diva-^m. 97. diva+{. 32. divd-\-ni-i 

The Vocative is fifm itva, f^ Sive, f^fmf^ Sivdni ; all the other 
cases are like the masculine. 

105. Feminine stems in d and {, like fl^r^ Sivd, f. *the wife of 
S'iva,^ or as an adjective, * prosperous,' and cT^ nadi, f. 'a river/ 
Their declension is exhibited side by side that their analogy may 
be more easily perceived. 

In divd the final of the stem is changed to e in I. sing., G. L. du. ; yd is inserted 
in D. Ab. G. L. sing. ; and it in G. pi. Hence the inflective stems divd, dive. In 
nad{ the final is changed to y before the vowel-terminations by 34 ; d is in- 
serted in D. Ab. G. L. sing. ; and n in G. pi. ; in V. sing, the final of the stem 
is shortened. 




B Junction of stem with termination: N. sing, s rejected; N. du. 4ivd-\-(=.sive 
"^ by 32 ; N. pL sivd+asz=sivds by 31 ; I. sing, sive + d=vayd by 36. aj D. sing. 
sivd+yd-\-e=zsivdyai by 33 ; G. L. du. ve + os = vayos by 36. a. D. sing, tiadi 
-f- a 4- e = nadyai by 34 and 33 ; L. pi. nadt-]- su = nadishu by 70. 

^- \sivd 



Ac i^^^- 






D 1*^ 

' \iivdyai 

r /* 




















nadyai nadibhydm nadibhyas 





nadibhydm nadibhyas 




Obs. I. The Vedic I. sing, may be i?a for sivayd; D. sing, si'wai for sivdyaij 
N. pL sivdsasj G. pi. sivdm. 

Obs. 2. The Vedic N. pi. of nouns in ' may end in ils, e. g. wacfs for nadyas. 

106. Monosyllabic nouns in ^ /, like ^ f. 'fortune,' >Tt f. 'fear,' &c., vary from 
warft'in the manner explained at 123. 

107. In accordance with 58, such words as ^iT mn^d, m. * a deer;' 
]|^ purusha, m. *a man;' >TT"^T bhdryd, f. 'a wife;' ^imft kumdri, 
f. *a girl' must be written, in the Inst. sing. m. and the Gen. pi. 
m. f., with the cerebral ^^ n ; thus, ^im mrigena, '%'^m, inTOTT, 
^^m^JT, m^'TOT'^, fTRkrw. When n is final, as in the Ac. pi. m., 
it remains unchanged. 

108. When a feminine noun ending in d forms the last member of a compound 
adjective, it is declined like siva for the masc. and neut. Thus fr. vidyd, learning,' 
alpa-vidyas (m.), alpa-vidyd (f.), alpa-vidyam (n.), ' possessed of little learning.' 
Similarly, a masculine noun takes the fem. and neut. terminations; and a neut. 
noun, the masc. and fem. 

a. When roots ending in a, such as pd, *to drink ' or 'to preserve,' form the 
last member of compound words, they assume the terminations at 91 regularly 


for their masculine and feminine, rejecting, however, the final of the stem in Ac. 
pi. and remaining Weak or vowel-cases ; thus, ^^TTT soma-pd, m. f. 'a drinker of 
Soma juice;' N. V. -^T^, -^T, -VJ^Ji Ac. -^TR, -T^, -"q^; I. -"m, -XjiwrfT, &c.; 
D. -Xf , &c. They form their neuter like that of iivOj e. g. neut. N. Ac. V. ^"^H^*^, 
-^, -"^rfJT, &c. 
Similarly, f^mm * protector of the universe/ and ^T^WTT * a shell-blower.* 

b. Analogously in Rig-veda iv. 9, 4, TtTT * a woman * is in N. sing. 7^^^. 

c. Masculine nouns in a, like ^T^ hdhd, m. ' a Gandharva,' not derived from verbal 
roots, assume the terminations with the regular euphonic changes, but the Ac. pi. 
ends in 7f^; thus, N. V. ^T^T^, "?T^, ^1^1^; A. fTfPf, ^T^, ^TfT*^; I. ^fT, 
^^Twrnr, ^l^rfW^, &c.; D. fT%, &c.; Ab. fT^l^, &c.; G. ^TfT^, ^T^^, 
^T^H; L. ^T^, &c. 

d. The Voc. cases ot^^ ambd,^S:^ akkd, and WWTaWa, all signifying 'mother,* 
are ^S^, ^BHR, ^W, * O mother !' 

e. ^^ ra. ' a tooth,' ^TRT m. * a month,' VJ^ m. * a foot,' ^^ m. n. ' soup,' ^TFI 
n. * the face,' ^^ n. 'the heart,' ^^ n. 'water,' T^ n. 'the head,' HRT n. 'flesh,* 
PH^II f. 'night,' nftnRT f. 'the nose,' 'JTHTT f. 'an army,' are declined regularly, 
but may substitute ^l[y fl^, "^, ^55^, ^^, ^^, T^, ^t^, 'TT^, f^ST, 
i^y "^ in the Ac. pi. and remaining cases (see 184). In the neut. nouns, the 
Nom. pi. does not admit the same substitute as Ac. pi. Thus, ^(^<^ will be Ac. 
pi. ^qoftift? or ^t^lfn; I. sing. qqii or TJTT. Again, TTftHRT in I. du. will be 

!TftnsTnT or ftrrH; and inr, mwrwim or JTrw^rnr. 

109. To understand the importance of studying the declension 
of this first class of nouns, the student has only to turn back to 
pp. 57-68, where the formation of the stems of nouns, substantive 
and adjective, which follow this declension, is explained. All mascu- 
line and neuter substantives in this list are declined like Siva^ and 
all feminine either Uke Hvd or nadi, all the adjectives following the 
same three examples for their three genders. 

Second Class in |[ i. Third Class in v u. 

The inflexion of the and and 3rd classes of nouns (see 81, 83) is exhibited side 
by side, that their analogy may be more readily perceived. 

The 2nd answers to Latin and Greek words like ignis, turri-s, "noXi-gy Trtart'^, 
mare, fteA/ ; the 3rd, to words like gradu^B, cornu, /3oTpv-f , rj^V'f, fJ^eBv, 

110. MascuUne stems in ^ and T u, like ^frtT affni, m. {ignis), 
*fire;^ ^TT^ bkdnu, m. *the sun.' 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pi. ; dropped in L. sing., or, according to Panini, changed 


toaj n is inserted in I. sing., G. pi. Hence the inflective stems agni, agn{, ague, agm 
bhdnu, bhdnu, bhdno, bhdnj according to some the Locative of bhdnu was originally 
bhdnavi (such a form occurring in the Veda), and i being dropped, bfidnav would 
become bhdndv (bhdnau). 

Junction of stem with termination : V. sing., N. Ac. V. du., case-termination 
rejected; N. pi. agne-\-as = agnayas by 36. aj D. sing, ague -\-e = agnaye, 36. a; 
G. L. du. agni-{-os=agnyos, 34; L. pi. agni-\-su = agnishu, 70. Similarly, N. pi. 
bhdno -\- as ^bhdnavas, 36. a ^- D. sing, bhdno -{-ezzz bhdnave, ^6.aj G. L. du. 
bhdnu + os=zbhdnvos, 34; L. pi. bhdnu-\-su=zbhdnushu, 70. 


N. i'*?^ 



r , r 




















^ agnibhis 
i agnibhyas 
, agnibhyas 

agnind m 

2 bhdnubhis 
J bhdnubhyas 
I bhdnubhyas 

[ agnind 



G. - 

[ agnes 

\ agnau 








III. The Vedic Gen. sing, may be bhdnvas, which form may also serve for the 
Nom. and Ac. pi. 

112. Feminine stems in if i and g* w, like HfiT ma/i, f. * the mind/ 
and ^ dhenu, f. ' a milch cow.^ 

The final of the stem is gunated in D. Ab. G. V. sing., N. pi. ; lengthened in 
N. Ac. V. du., Ac. G. pi.; dropped in L. sing, (unless the termination be ^JT); 
n is inserted in G. pi. Hence the inflective stems mati, matt, mate, mat ; dhenu, 
dhend, dheno, dhen. 

The junction of stem with termination is generally the same as in the mascu- 
lines agni and bhdnu. Inst. sing. mati-\-dz= matyd, 34 ; D. mate+e=mafaye, 36. a; 
mati -\-d-{- = maty ai, 33. 











matis mail 





matim matt 





matyd matibhydm matibhis 


dhenubhydm dhenubhis 

mat ay e or tyai matibhydm matibhyas 

XC^^ or ^ ^*^ 
dhenave ornvai dhenubhydm dhenuhhyoi 

mates or Hyds matibhydm matibhyas 

dhenos or nvds 

dhenubhydm dhenubhyas 

mates or tyds mafyos 


dhenos or nvds 



matauortydm matyos 

matishu. 70. 

dhenau or nvdm dhenvos 

dhenushu. 70 

mate mati 






Witli the optional forms in D. Ab. G. L. sing., compare similar forms in the same 
cases of nad(. 

113. The Vedic Nom. pi. may be dhenvas. 

114. Neuter stems in ^ i and ^ ti, like ^ft vdri, n. * water,' and vng 
madhUj n. * honey' [imeOv), 

The stem inserts n before the vowel-terminations, and the final is lengthened in N. Ac. 
V. and G. pi. Hence the inflective stems vdri, vdri; madhu, madhu. 



. \vdri 

vdrini. 58. 






( vdrind 




madhubhydm madhubhis 



( r 

vdribhydm vdribhyas 


madhubhydm madhubhyas 


' I vdrinas 


I vdribhyas 


madhubhydm madhubhyas 








I vdrini 


vdrishu. 70. 



madhushu. 70 


j ^fr or ^ mfwt 
\ vdri or vdre vdrini 


madhu or madho madhuni 


115. TheVedicAc.pl 

. may be madhu. 


1 1 6. Neuter nouns in i and u follow the analogy of nouns in in at 159, except 
in G. plur. and V. sing. 

a. ^T^ n. 'summit/ 'ridge,' optionally substitutes ^ in all cases except the first 
five inflexions. 

117. There are not many substantives declined like agni and vdri (81), but 
nouns like mati are numerous (81. II). Moreover, adjectives hke sudi, and com- 
pound adjectives in i, are declined hke agni in masc, like mati in fem., and like 
mri in neut. 

118. Again, there are few substantives dechned like dhenu and madhu, yet many 
simple adjectives like tanu and pipdsu (82), all compound adjectives in u, are de- 
clined like bhdnu in the masc, like dhenU in the fem., and like madhu in the neut. 

a. Many adjectives in u, however, either optionally or necessarily follow nadi in 
fem. ; as, tanu, 'thin,' makes Nom. fem. either tanus or tanvtj f^, ' tender,' makes 
Nom. f. *|lft mridvtj and ^, 'heavy,' ^pK gurvi : and some optionally lengthen 
u in the fem.; as, bhtru, 'timid,' makes fem. >^t^ or >ft^, dechnable like nouns 
in u, 125. 

119. When feminine nouns in i and u form the last member of a compound 
adjective, they must be declined like agni in masc, and vdri in neut. Thus alpa- 
mati, 'narrow-minded,' in the Ac. plur. masc. would be alpa-matin j fem. alpa- 
matisj neut. alpa-matmi. 

Similarly, a masc. or neut. noun, at the end of a comp., may take a fem. form. 

a. Although adjectives in i and u are declined like vdri and madhu for the neut., 
yet in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., and in the G. L. du., they may optionally follow 
the mascuhne form ; thus sudi and tanu will be, in D. sing, neut., ^^''f'T or W*^* 
ftJ^ or fHT^j and so with the other cases. 

120. ^f% sakhi, m. 'a friend,' has two stems, ^H^fTfor the Strong cases (see 
135. a), and ^rf^ for the others ; thus, N. ^^, ^T^^, ^^Hl^ ; Ac. ^^^H, 

Ab. ^T^5^, ^f^n*T, ^f%wi^; G. ^^, ^ET^^, wg*t^T^; L. ^TW, ^^f^, 

'fffe^; V. '^ra', ^Isfl4f, ^^R^. Hence it appears that sakfii in some cases 
assumes the terminations at 91 more regularly than agni. In the rest it follows 

Obs. The feminine *i^, 'a female friend,' is declined like T^. 

121. "^rfif m. 'a master,' 'lord' {iroati), when not used in a compound word, 
follows sakhi at 120 in I. D. Ab. G. L. sing, (thus, I. mm, D. ^W, Ab. G. ^^5^, 
L. "Tflfi) ; in the other cases, agni. But pati is more usually found at the end of 
compounds, and then follows agni throughout (thus, >J5lfif^ ' by the lord of the 
earth '). 

Obs. The feminine of ^fff is M(3l patni, declinable like T^. 

122. A few neuter nouns, ^fe n. * a bone ' (oVreoi'), ^f^ n. ' an eye ' {oculus, 
OKog), ^ftpi n. 'a thigh,' ^fVn. 'coagulated milk,' drop their final i in I. sing, and 
remaining weak or vowel-cases, and are dechned in those cases as if derived from 
obsolete forms in an, such as ^^r|^, &c. (cf. ndman at 152); thus, 



^rfiw * a bone :' N. V. Ac. ^HtW, ^fwft, ^gl ^ fif ; I. ^BT^, ^sfi^wnH, &c. ; 
D. ^r^, ^TfenH, &c. ; Ab. ^l^^, &c. ; G. ^T^^, W*^^^, ^^T^T ; L. ^Tfi?J 

or ^!i^f^, ^^^t^, wf^r^. 

Hence, ^BTftj, * an eye/ will be in L smg. ^fff^in; in D. ^!I^, &c. (see 58). 

Nouns ending in \\ and ^ u. 

123. Besides the feminines of adjectives and participles, &c., 
declined like nadi at 105 (cf. 80. XI), there are a few common 
monosyllabic words in long f i (generally roots used as substantives) 
primitively feminine, i. e. not derived from masculine substantives 
(see 82. XV), whose declension must be noticed separately. They 
vary from the declension of i{^ (105) by forming the Nom. with ^, 
and using the same form for the Voc, and by changing the final i 
to iy before the vowel-terminations; thus, 

^ f. * prosperity :' N.V. '^^, f^^, f^R^; Ac. ftsRH, f^pft, f^PT^; 

I. ftnrr, ^r^n', ^rtftr^j d. "ftr^ or ftsr^, T5r^nT, ''sftwi^; Ab. f^sni^ or 

fjRT^, ^vqpT, ^tl^; G. f^^ or f^JRT?^, ftT'f^, ftsi^H or ^"NnTT; 
L. ftsrfti or f^RTH, f^'ft^, ^'^. 
a. Similarly, >rt f. *fear/ "g^ f. * shame,* and >ri" f. 'understanding;* thus, N.V. 

>rh=^, ftn^, ftrq^; Ac. fti^pr, &c. - i. firrn, &c. ; d. f^ or fn^, &c. 

6. J^ f., * a woman ' (not being itself a root like the examples above), follows 
tT^ in N. V. sing., and varies also in other respects ; thus, N. ^, f^^, ffef^J 
V. %, %rft, %^; Ac. ^gpW or %^, %^, ^f^ or %^; I. %^, 

^ftwnn, ^f^] D. %^, ^^jWt, ^^; Ab. f^RT^, ^wmr, ^R(^; 
G. %^, %xft^, ^fpp^; L. %^, %^, ;^^. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, it shortens its final, and in some of 
its cases follows agni and matt; e. g. 

^firf^m. f. n. 'surpassing a woman:* N. masc. -(^f(, -P^^^n, -^^^; Ac. 
-%T or -%^^, -%^, -^^ or -%^^; I. -%^T, -%nH, &c. ; D. -^, 
&c.; Ab. -^, &c.; G. -^, -%lft^, -^^FT; L. -^, &c.; V. -#, &c. 
The fem. form is like the masc, but Ac. pi. -^^ft^or -f^^^; I. -f^^ll ; D. -%f^ 
or -^5^; Ab. -%RT^ or -^g^E^, &c. For neut., see 126. j. 

124. A few primitively feminine words not monosyllabic, such as c4*fl 'the 
goddess of prosperity,' TT^ ' a lute-string,' TP^ 'a boat,' like ^, take s in the 
Nom. sing., but in other respects follow 7^ ; thus, N. c4VS*ft^, cMSjMft, cJTF'l^; 
Ac. r4'K*{lH, &c. J V. cor!t. 

Obs. Analogously in the Veda ^fllft' a she-wolf (Rig-v. 1. 117, 18), and (accord- 
ing to some authorities) fijl^^ * a lioness,' make N. sing, 'pii^, f^^l^. 

But ^t!^ f. 'the brilliant (goddess),' as a derivative fem. noun, is N. sing. n^. 


1 25. Feminine nouns in long gi u, not monosyllabic, are declined 
like primitively feminine nouns of more than one syllable in ^ z, i. e. 
like (5^, they follow the analogy of nadi except in N. sing., where 
s is retained. In the other cases "3! u becomes v, wherever ^ ^ is 
changed to y (see 34) ; thus, 

^'a wife :' N. ^^, ^5cft, ^hSf^; Ac. ^^, "^l^, ^^; I. ^hsn, 
^ni7, ^ftr^; D. ^sl, ^jtt, ^?^; Ab. ^lja^r^^, ^^^n?^, ^wi^; 
G. "^s^^, ^m-^, ^^T\; L. ^s^TH, ^s^, w^; V. "q^, m;^, ^i^^. 

Similarly, ^n|^ f. ' a host ;' W^ f. * a mother-in-law.' 

a. Again, monosyllabic words in u primitively feminine are de- 
clined analogously to ^t f. at 123; u being changed to uv, wherever 
{ is changed to ip ; thus, 

ij,f. 'the earth :^ N. V. Jj:^, ^, >J^^; Ac. ^H, ^^\ >J^^; I. ^[^, 
>Jn^, )jfiT^; D. ij^ or ijt, >jnH, )ji^; Ab. >j^ or ^i^^, )jith, 
>Jm ; G. ^^^or ^^TTT, g^^^, ^^fl^or ij^TH; L. ^f% or ^TH, ^^, ij^. 

Observe that the V. is like the N. 

b. Similarly, ^f. 'the eye-brow^ (o(j)pv9) : N.V. ^^, ^^, ^^, &c. 

126. Roots of one syllable ending in t and u, used as masc. or fern, nouns, follow 
the declension of monosyllabic words in i and u, such as W at 123 and ^at I2^.a; 
but in the D. Ab. G. L. sing., G. pi., take only the first inflexion ; thus, 

TKt m. f., ' one who buys,' makes D. f^^ only for m. and f,, and <^ m. f., a 
reaper,' makes D. 7^ only for m. and f. 

a. The same generally holds good if they have adjectives prefixed to them; 
thus, trCR^ m. f. ' the best buyer' (N.V. -"95^^, -fgi'ft, -f^'HT ; Ac. -f^PW, &c.) 

b. And when they are compounded with another noun as a dependent term they 
generally change their final t and m to y and v, before vowel-terminations, and not 
to iy and uv (unless i'and u are preceded by a double consonant, as in M^JfiT * a buyer 
of barley'), thus conforming more to the declension of polysyllables ; e. g. 

"Sm^ (for ^rr?m) m. f., * a water-drinker,' makes N.V. ^STH^, -"&, -"OHT^; 
Ac. "STcyarH, -"uft, -"om^; I. iTc5U(r, -xl^irnT, &c. ; D. Wc5^, &c. ; Ab. ^IH^, 
&c.; G. He^uitf^, -'of^^, &c. ; L. He^fwi (in opposition to 31), &c. 

So also, ^f^m. f. * a sweeper :' N. V. ^P?^^, -''^, -T^^; Ac. 4srcoin,) &c. ; 
I. 4sl(Ji\4 l, &c. ; L. ^c5fT^, &c. : ^H 'one who cuts well;' N.V. ^^^, -"^, -^. 

c. Similarly, W^m. f. * a frog,' f^m. *a thunderbolt,' "SFt^m. 'a finger- 
nail,' J^^ra. f. * bom again ' (N.V. 'J^^; Ac. -^^, &c. ; I. -vIt; D. -"^'; Ab. 
G. -vl^^, -fVt. But if the sense is limited to a distinct female object, as ' a virgin 
widow remarried,' the D. will be -v|; Ab. G. -^tl^^; L. -"^^m,, hke ^). 

d. Similarly also, ^'JTT^ m. *a general,' ^WHJt m. f. 'the chief of a village;' 
but these, like ^, take dm for the termination of the L. sing, even in masc. ; 

thus, N.V. ^hhI^ , -"J^, -'^; Ac. --am, &c.; I. --an; L.^^rnm*^, iHMX, 

N 2 


Jni^flg, &c. ITiis applies also to the simple noun tft m. f. ' a leader,' but the 
final becomes iy before vowel-terminations. 

e. But !t*i'?*>J^ and ^J^ m. * self-existent/ as a name of Brahmli, follow >J^ at 
125. a, taking only the first inflexions; thus, D. -^%; Ab. "^J^, &c. 

/. Masculine non-compounda in /and u of more than one syllable, like "PT^ m. 
* who drinks ' or * cherishes/ * the sun,' f^^ m. * a Gandharva,' follow sicosl and 
fO^ at 126, b, except in Ac. sing, and pi. ; thus, N. V. mmI*^, ^w, MMt^^; Ac. 
Wt^^, ^rm, ^^; and in L. sing, the final i* combines with the of the termination 
into ^^(31), not into yi; thus, L. sing. Vi^ (but |[f5|' from ^^). Again, ^rtH*il 
m. ' an antelope ' (surpassing the wind), as a compound, may follow fc7^ ', but 
Vopadeva makes Ac. sing, and pi. follow "TTJ^. When such nouns have a feminine, 
the Ac. pi. ends in sj thus ^iTT^ m. f., * tawny,' makes ^ST^^ for the Ac. pi. fem. 

g. A word like W^ f. ' superior understanding ' (formed from the compound 
verb TTW?), when used as a fem. noun, is treated as a polysyllable, and follows 
tf5Hi, except in D. Ab., &c., where it takes the second inflexions (D. sing. Iw, 
&c.) But when used adjectively, in the sense 'having superior understanding/ 
it follows "5Tc5"'ft throughout, both for masc. and fem., but may optionally for the 
fem. be declined like the fem. substantive. The Voc. fem. may be TW^^ or nfv. 

Two rare nouns, ^^T ' one who loves pleasure ' and ^HT * one who wishes for a 
son,' also follow i<4^1, but in Ab. G. sing, make ^[^3^j W^' 

h. Monosyllabic nouns primitively feminine (like ^ f., V\ f., ^ f., at 123, 
^f. *the eye-brow'), forming the last member of a compound adjective, still follow 
the declension of monosyllables, but use the first inflexions only in the D. Ab. G. 
L. cases and G. plur. for the masc, and may optionally use them for the fem. ; 
thus, N. TiPft^ m. f., ' fearless,' is ^rrrrftm only in D. sing, m., -ftr^ or -fHM in 
D. sing. f. So also, ^>rt m. f. * intelligent,' ^^TVft m. f. ' having pure thoughts,' 
^4f m. f. 'stupid,' ^Wt m. f. 'having good fortune,' ^^m. f. 'having beautiful 
brows / thus, N. V. ^^, -^^> "^^^5 ^c. ^^^> &c. According to Vopadeva, 
the Voc. f. may be ^^, and this form occurs once in the Bhatti-kavya. 

i. Words necessarily feminine {nitya-stri-linga), such as kumdri, * a girl,' GauHy 
'the goddess Gauri,' SiC. (not like ?7W^> which may be masc. and fem.), retain 
their nadi character (Pan. i. 4, 3), even though they afterwards assume another 
sense which makes them masculine. This may happen in a compound, as in 

^J^'bV m. * a man of many excellences :* N. IJ^^Hlft, -OT, -^l^; V. -filT, 
&c. ; Ac. -^ti^, -Wty -^t5![; L -W\, -lftrR, &c. ; D. -^, &c. ; Ab. G. -^WT^, 
&c. ; L. -^CTTT, &c. 

Or in words not compounded, as in "^TXt *a man who acts like a girl,' N. masc. 
^*It1. But these differ in Ac. sing, and pi. ("^ITI^IT, ^Mi^tf^). Cf. the name 
Gopdla-sarasvaU \xi Sanskrit-Enghsh Dictionary. 

Also like bahu-^reyasi (but N. sing, will end in ?^), ^rfWcTS^ft m. f. 'one who has 
surpassed Lakshmi,' 'WTWH^^n m. f. * deprived of fortune,' ^srfff^'j^m. f. 'victorious 
over hosts ' (N. ^srfH^'^, -^, -'^; V. -"5 ; Ac. -l|^, -*^, -^, Ac. pi. f. -^; 
I. -*^, '^^'^xJ &c. ; D. -'^j &c. ; Al). -'=^1^, &c.) ; but these three may follow 
Vopadeva's declension of <iinH*Jl at 126./. 

m^ INI 


J. Adjectives ending in /and m shorten the final vowel for the neuter, and follow 
vdrij but in the 1. D. Ab. G. and L. cases they may optionally take the masc. 
terminations; thus, N. V. sing. neut. 7T?rfW; I. JTiTfiTTF or TTTTf^T; D. TTrffH^ 
or nrffH^, &c. N. V. Ac. sing. aTojftT ,* I. !^ftRT or -tqfr, &c. N. V. Ac. Wc^^; 
I. -^^T or -x^. N. V. Ac. "^^^^; I. -'S^OhHT or - ^M^ T; D. -^ ufa vf or 
-^^^, &c. N. V. Ac. iJTHfiEr; I. -ft!I*TT or -WT. 

Fourth Class in ^ n. 

This class answers to OOTYjpy Trarvip, pater, &c. ; ri being equivalent to ar: and 
it is remarkable, that ddtdram, ddtdras, See, bear the same relation to pitaram, 
pitaras, &c., that loTTjpa, ^oT^pe^, ^GTYjpt^ See, bear to Trarepa, maTepeg, Trarepi, 
&c. Compare also the Latin datoris from dator with patris from pater. 

izy. Masculine stems in ri, like cH^ ddtri, m. * a giver/ and fxr^ 
pitrif m. 'a father/ The former is the model of nouns of agency 
{S^) ; the latter, of nouns of relationship. 

In nouns of agency like ddtri the final ri is vriddhied (28), and in nouns of 
relationship like pitri (except naptri, * a grandson,' and svasri, a sister ') gunated, in 
the Strong cases (see 135); but the r of dr and ar is dropped in N. sing., and to 
compensate in the last case a is lengthened. In both, the final ri is gunated in 
L. V. sing., and ur is substituted for final ri and the initial a of as in Ab. G. sing. 
In Ac. G. pi. final ri is lengthened, and assumes n in G. pi. Hence the inflective 
stems ddtri, ddtdr, ddtar, ddtri, ddtur; pitri, pitar, pitrt, pitur. 

Junction of stem with terminations : s is elided at the end of a conjunct conso- 
nant after r ; hence in Ab. G. ddturs and piturs become ddtur and pitur. See 41 . 1. ' 


I ' 







' ddtd 












\ddtdram ddtdr au 


pitaram pitarau 




ddtribhydm ddtribhis 


pitribhydm pitribhis 


ddtribhydm ddtribhyas 


pitribhydm pitribhyas 


ddtribhydm ddtribhyas 


pitribhydm pitribhyas 



ddtrindm. 58. 



pitrindm. 58 



ddtrishu. 70. 



pitrishu. 70. 








128. Pitri seems to be a weakened form of pdtri, *a protector' (/>rf, *to protect'). 
The cognate languages have preserved the root in iraryjpf pater, * father,' &c. 
The Latin Jupiter, however, is literally Dyu-pitar, or rather Dyaush-pitar, father 
of heaven.' It is clear that stems like ddtri, pitri, &c., originally ended in ar. 

a. rj naptri, ' a grandson ' (thought by some to be derived from na, ' not,' and 
pdtri, ' a protector '), is dechned like "^^ ddtri. 

b. There are a few nouns in ri expressing neither relationship nor agency. 

^ nri, m. ' a man,' is said to be dechned hke pitri; thus, N. n nd, Ac. "T^, 
I. 'JT, D. ^, Ab. G. "g^, &c. But the forms ^T, ?, ^ are seldom, if ever, used. 
The following forms certainly occur: N. sing. n, Ac. TT'?; N. Ac. du. rcr, 
I. D. Ab. "J^TH?, G. L. TT^J N. pi. fpC^, Ac. "J^, D. Ab. ^f?^* G. ^^\*\ or 
fUTPT, L. *J^. In the I. D. G. L. sing., the corresponding cases of IT are gene- 
rally substituted. 

c. "Sm? m., ' a jackal,' must form its Strong cases (except V. sing.) and may form 
its Weak cases (135) from 1^. N. "gR^FT, -Fw, -"CTT^; Ac. -FPC^, -Fw, -f^ 
or -^^; I. -FT or -fTT, -^rW, &c. ; D. -^ or -"f^, &c. ; Ab. -"|^ or -"^t^, &c. ; 
G. -^ or -"Tt^, -'gt^ or -f^, -^^UT'T or -f^TTH ; L. -wft or -"CT, &c.; V. -ft. 

As the last member of a compound adjective, in the neuter, w^ alone is used. 

d. Nouns like ^8f^ m. ' a charioteer,' 1^ m. ' a carpenter,' ^ m., ^V^ m., ""Tt^ 
m. ' diJBPerent kinds of priests,' ^u2 m. * a warrior,' of coiurse, follow ddtri. But 
^M8 m., a charioteer,' follows pitri. 

129. Feminine stems in ^ ri belong to nouns of relationship, 
like mdtri, *a mother^ (from md, *to create,^ *the producer'); and 
only differ from pitri in Ac. pi., which ends in s instead of n; 
thus, ^^l^. Compare fM^rtjpy firjrepaj Voc. /JirJTep. 

a. ^^^ svasri, ' a sister,' exceptionally follows ^T^ ddtri j but the Ac. pi. is still 
^^fW. The lengthening of the penultimate in the Strong cases is probably caused 
by the loss of the t from tri, preserved in the English sister. So soror for sostor. 

b. The feminine stem of nouns of agency is formed by adding ^ i 
to the final ^ ri ; thus, ^ + \, ^T^ ddtrij f. * a giver ;' and Wf^ + ^, 
iFcff f. *a doer.' Their inflexion follows nadi at 105. 

130. The neuter stem is thus declined : N. Ac. ^T^, ^[T^t, ^Trr%; V. ^"iT^ or 
^[TJ. The rest may conform to vdri at 114, or resemble the masc. ; thus, I. ^T^ 
or ^iqiUi, &c. But neuter stems in "^ ri belong generally to nouns of agency or 
of relationship, when used at the end of compound adjectives, such as 'T^T^ bahu- 
ddtri, 'giving much,' or f^Miiij divya-mdtri, agreeing with neuter words Hke 
^H'T, i. e. 'a family having a divine mother,' or fk^T^ ' having two mothers ' 
(compare ^ifJ.'^Tup). Their declension may resemble that of vdri at 114, or con- 
form to the masc. in all cases but the N. V. Ac. ; thus, N. Ac. ^H^j ^TJTU^, ^TfTftl ; 
V.^T^or^TiT^, &c.; I.^T^WTor ^T^, &c.; D.T^T^or <^, &c.; Ab. G. ^TJ^IT^ 
or ^T^^, &c. ; L. ^T^frU or (^ifffi,, &c. N. Ac. -'TT^, -iii|^, -TTTrfTIT; V. -ITTJ 
or -'HW^, &c.; I. -Hlj^UI or -HT^, &c. 


Nouns ending in ^ ai, ^"^ o, ^ au. 
131. We may notice here a few monosyllabic nouns in $, ^, 
and ^, not sufficiently numerous to form separate classes, 

132. T rai, m. f. ' substance,' ' wealth ' (Lat. res) : N. V. TT^, TJ^, TT^; Ac. 
XXam^, &c. ; I. TX^, TTWTTH, TlfH^ {rehus) ; D. Tl^, nnH, TTJ^; Ab. IIT^, 
&c.; G. TP^, OTrt^, TX^i^J, L. trf^, tl^i^, TT^. 

133. ^h go, m. f. *a cow' or *ox' {hos, ^ovg), *the earth:' N. V. 'TT^, Tf^n, 
Jrn^; Ac. ^JT, in^, TTT^; I. TNT, 7ftnT, Tfrfk^; D.tT^,&c.; Ab. Th^,&c.; 
G. 3fti|[, J(=n^, TTTTH ; L. nf^ {bovi), ^T^^, TftT|. Compare Tn^ with -yiyv. 

a. ?n dyo, f. 'the sky,' follows nt; thus, N. V. ^TT^, ^TT^, ITT^; Ac. ^TTT, 
?rT^, ?rT^; I. IRT, ^WTPT^, ?ftfH^; D. ^, &c. The Vedic N. du. is ^TRT. 

134. rft nau, f. 'a ship ' (cf. navis, voiv$), is declined at 94, taking the termina- 
tions with perfect regularity. With the N. pi. ndvas, compare naves, vaeg (y^eg). 
The gen. vrjog for vaog or vaFog = ndvas. 

Similarly may be declined ^JT m. ' the moon :' N. glaus, gldvau, gldvas, &c. 

a. The above nouns sometimes occur at the end of compounds ; as, ^^ * rich,' 
N. m. f. '*r^U^^, &c.; ^*ft 'having many ships,' N. m. f. ^Tt^, &c. The 
neuter is "'T^'C, ^^ ; of which the Inst, cases will be ^fcWT, ^J^^TT; and so 
with the other cases : the masc. forms being equally allowable in "^ft throughout, 
except in N. Ac. V. sing. du. pi. ; e. g. ^gfWT or q^MMi. 

b. In the case of 5^0, 'a cow,' the compound seems always formed with guj e.g. 
dvi-gu, us, us, u, ' worth two cows j' pahda-gu, ' bought with five cows ;' sata-gu, 
* possessing a hundred cows.' 


: Inflexion of Nouns, Substantive and Adjective, whose stems end 

in consonants, 

135. The last four classes of nouns, though including substantives, 

consist chiefly of adjectives, participles, or roots at the end of adjective 

compounds. All masc. and fem. nouns under these remaining classes 

regularly take the terminations at 9 1 . Neut. nouns take the substi- 

r tutions at 97 in N. Ac. du. pi. 

a. The case-terminations are here repeated with Bopp^s division 
into Strong, Weaker, and Weakest, as applicable especially to nouns 
ending in consonants (though not to all of these even). The Strong 
cases will be here denoted by the letter S ; the Weaker, sometimes 
called Middle, will be denoted by M ; and the Weakest by w. In 
those nouns which distinguish between Strong and Weak cases only, 
the Weak will be marked by both M and w. 



Nom.Voc.?^*(S),{Neut.M) ^aw(S), (Neutw) ^bt^o* (S), (Neut. S) 
Ace. ^ am (S), (Neut. M) au (S), (Neut. w) as (w), (Neut. S) 
Inst. ^ a (w) >mmbhydm (M) fiim^bhis (M) 

Dat. ^e (w) bhydm (M) v^^^bhyas (M) 

Abl. \<T^ as (w) hhydm (M) bhyas (M) 

Gen. as (w) ^er^^ os (w) wm dm (w) 

Loc. ^ i (vv) OS (w) ^ su (M) 

The Vocative, though identical with the Nom. in the dual and 
plural, has sometimes a peculiar form of its own in the singular 

(see 92). 

b. Panini always considers the Nom. sing. masc. as having the termination *, 
which is supposed to retain its effect, though it experiences lopa (cutting off) ; but 
in the N. Ac. Voc. sing. neut. there is luk of the terminations * and am, i. e. these 
terminations disappear altogether (Pan. vii. i, 23). 

c. The terms anga, pada, bha (the first two of which have also 
general meanings, see 74 with note) are applied in a restricted sense 
to different forms of the Pratipadika or stem as modified by the 
above terminations or by suffixes ; thus, the stem is called artga 
before the terminations of the so-called Strong cases or Panini^s 
sarva-ndma-sthdna (viz. the Nom. sing. du. pi., Ac. sing, and du. 
of masc. and fem. nouns, and the Nom. and Ac. pi. of neuter nouns, 
see the above table) ; pada * before the terminations of the Middle 
cases (viz. bhydm, bhis, bhyas, and su), as well as before Taddhita 
suffixes beginning with any consonant except y (Pan. i. 4, 17); 
bha before the terminations of the Weak cases beginning with vowels 
(except of course the anga terminations mentioned above), as well 
as before Taddhita suffixes beginning with vowels and y (see Pan. 

d. A stem is made strong by lengthening the vowel of the last 
syllable, or by inserting a nasal, e.g. yuvan, yuvdn; dhanavat, dha- 
navant : and made weak by eHminating one or more letters, e. g. 
yuvan, yun ; pratyan6, prati6, 

e. It should be noted that the Ac. pi., and in neuter nouns the 

* Probably so called because the laws of Sandhi which come into operation at 
the junction of separate words (pada) in a sentence generally hold good before 
the terminations of the Middle cases. 


Inst, sing., is generally the guide to the form assumed before the 
remaining vowel-terminations. 

f. This division of cases has not been noticed before, because it 
is of no real importance for stems ending in vowels. That it applies 
to stems ending in ri is accounted for by the fact that these originally 
ended in ar. 

Fifth Class in i^^ ^ and ^ d. 

This class answers to Latin words like comes (stem comif-), eques (stem equit-), 
ferens (stem ferent-) ; and to Greek words like X^P^^ (stem Xo^piT-), Kepag (stem 
kepaT-), IkTtig (stem IXtii^-), %a/j//f (stem p^a/?/evT-). 

136. Masculine and feminine stems in tt ^ and ^ c?, like ^ftTI ^n7, 
m. f. * green ^ (declined at 95), and ^fxH saW/, f. *a river/ and the 
compound \r^f%^ dharma-vid, m. f. ' knowing one's duty' (see 84. IV). 
Observe The Nom. sing, is properly harits, dharma-vits, but s is rejected by 
41. I. The same applies to all nouns ending in consonants. So aiOy)fAccv for 
aiOyjf/.oVi. Latin and Greek, when the final of tbe stem refuses to combine with 
the 5 of the Nom., often prefer rejecting the final of the stem ; thus, %a/?^f for 
X^-piTg, comes for comits ; and in these languages the final consonant frequently 
combines with the s of the Nom., as in lex (for Zcifcs), <^Aof (for <j>koKs). 



' ( sarit 












saritam saritau 


-vidam -vidau 



( saritd 

( sarite 









-vidbhydm -vidbhyas 



saridbhydm saridbhyas 





\ saritas 













137. Neuter stems in i^^^ and ^ d, like -^^harit, n. * green/ >mf^ 
dharma-vid, n. * knowing one's duty/ and "^^ kumud, n. ^ a lotus.' 

. These only differ from the masculine and feminine in the N. du. pi., Ac. sing. 
du. and pi., the usual neuter terminations ^ i", ^ i (see 97), being required, and 
^ being inserted before the final of the stem in N. Ac. pi. ; thus, 



N. Ac. V. ^ftf^ haritj ^^ficift hariti^ '^M*^ harinii ; I. ^ftjTT haritdj 
^ftiTTT haridbhydrrij &c., like masc. and fem, 

N. Ac. V. vtf^, vi^f^t, \mf^ ; I. >mf^, &c. 
Similarly, N. Ac. V. "^g?^, ^p^, "^f^; I. ^^, &c. 
138. All nouns at 84. II-IV. follow ^ftj^and V^f^. 

^39- 5^ h^^i n. * the heart,' is said to be defective in the first five inflexions, 
these cases being supplied from hridaya (see 108. e). 

140. Possessive adjectives formed with the suffixes "mi -vat (84. VII) 
and in^ -mat (84. VI), like VTTi^ dhana-vaty ' rich,' and vtiTH dhi-mat, 
* wise,' are declined like harit for the masculine ; but in the Strong 
cases (see 135. a) n is inserted before the final of the stem. 

In N. sing, dhanavdn for dhanavants, ts is rejected by 41. 1, and the final vowel 
of the stem lengthened by way of compensation. 

N. VRT^ dhanavdn VH^nfi dhanavantau VT^FfT^ dhanavantas 

Ac. VH^tIH dhanavantam dhanavantau viH<4ri^ dhanavatas 
I. VfiKI dhanavatd, V'T^rarTH dhanavadbhydniy &c., like harit, 
V. >R^ dhanavan, &c. 

Similarly, \fhTT![^ 'wise:' N. vhn^, V^Rn^, v1*IM^; Ac. vIH'HH , 
^ftH'iU, 'kflHif^, &c. ; V. X^t^^, &c. 

a. Like dhana-vat are declined Past Active Participles, such as ^jfqrl *one who 
has done' (553) ; thus, N. mas^. jinqit^, ^rf<<Wn, ^ff^nT^, &c. 

b. The feminine stems of adjectives like ^T^T^ and >lt*nT, and Participles like 
fljinqr\^, are formed by adding ^ t to the Weak form of the masc. stem ; as, VH(fft, 
^Hdl, [tninl", declined like fT^ at 105 ; thus, N. V'Rfft, VT^TU, VH^Iflff^, &c. 

c. The neuter is like the neut. of harit: N. Ac. V. >PT^, VT^T", lH<<ri!. 

141. Present Participles (524) like Ti^pa6at, 'cooking,' and 
Future Participles (578) like cfifTon^ karishyat, 'about to do,' are 
declined after dhanavat (140), excepting in the N. sing, masc, where 
a is not lengthened before n ; thus, 

N. V. sing. H'Ht[^pa6an (for padants), and not V^T^^ pa6dn : N. du. pi. M "?, 
M^-flM,; Ac. "T^nTW, y^nU, TT^nr^; I. IT^TTT, &c. Cf. Latin and Greek Par- 
ticiples \\keferens,ferent-is,ferent-em, &c. ; ^6/?a>v, ^CjOovT-Of, <ppovT-a, &c. 

a. Observe, however, that all reduplicated verbs of the 3rd class and Frequen- 
tatives (but not Desideratives) ; a few verbs from polysyllabic roots (75. a), and 
some few other verbs such as W^' to eat,' ^^ ' to rule ' which reject the nasal 
in the 3rd pi. Pres. of the Parasmai-pada, reject it also in the declension of the 
Pres. Participle. Hence the Pres. Participle of such verbs is declined like harit, 
the N. sing, being identical with the stem ; thus, fr. dd, el. 3, * to give,' N. V. sing, 
du. pi. dadat, dadatau, dadatas ; Ac. dadatam, &c. : fr. bhri, cl. 3, 'to bear,' N. V. 
sing. du. pi. bibhrat, bibhratau, bibhratas. So also, jdgrat, ' watching ' {fr.jngri). 


M :mFi 

H i^dsat, * ruling' (fr. sds), jakshat, eating' (fr. jaksh). The rejection of the nasal 
is doubtless owing to the encumbrance of the syllable of reduplication. 

Obs. I. Quasi-reduplicated verbs of cL i and Desideratives do not reject the nasal; 
e.g. tishthat, fr. sthd, *to stand,' makes N* sing. du. pi. tishthan, tishthantau, tishthan- 
tas, &c. Similarly, Ji^f^ra?, fr. ghrd,' to smell;' jighrikshat, Desid. ofgrah, *to take.' 

Obs. 2. The reduplicated verbs of cl. 3, &c., mentioned above, optionally reject the 
nasal from the N; V. Ac. pi. neut. ; thus, dadati or dadanti, jakshati or jakshanti. 

But jagat, n. * the world,' is only jaganti in N. Ac. pi. 

b. In Present Participles derived from verbs of cl. i, 4, 10, a nasal is inserted 
for the feminine stem; thus, ^'inl fr. ^^, cl. i (dechned like nadi &t 105); and 
this nasal is carried through all the inflexions, not merely, as in the masculine, 
through the first five. So 'c(T<aitfT fr. div, cl. 4 ; and ^^*lrtl fr. dur, cl. 10. 

Similarly with quasi-reduplicated verbs of cl. i and Desideratives ; e. g. tishthanti, 
fr. sthd J jighranti, fr. ghrdj jighrikshantt, fr. Desid. of grah (cf. Obs. i. above). 

The same conjugational classes also insert a nasal in the N. V. Ac. du. neut. as 
well as the pi. ; thus, T^, ^^^^, ^'^f'tT. 

In all verbs of cl. 6, in verbs ending in a of the 2nd, and in all Participles of 
the 2nd Fut. Parasmai, the insertion of the nasal in the feminine is optional ; thus, 
tudatt or tudanti, fr. tud, cl. 6 ; ydtt or ydntt, fr. yd, cl. 2 ; karishyati or karishyanti, 
fr. kri. It is also optional in the N. V. Ac. du. neut., which will resemble the Nom. 
sing. fem. ; thus, tudanti or tudati, ydnti or ydti, karishyanti or karishyati. 

c. Verbs of cl. 2, 3, 5, 7, 8, 9 follow 140. h. c, and insert no nasal for feminine 
nor for N. Ac. V. du. neut. ; although all but cl. 3 assume a nasal in the first five 
inflexions in the masculine; thus, adat (fr. ad, cl. 2); N. V. masc. adan, adantau, 
adantasj fem. adati: juhvat (fr. Am, cl. 3) ; N. V. Tddisc. juhvat, juhvatau, juhvatas ; 
fem. juhvat{ : rundhat (fr. rudh, ch 7) ; N Vi masc; rundhan, rundhantau, rundhan- 
tas : fem. rundhati. The neut. Avill be N. Ac. V. adat, adati, adantij juhvat, du. 
juhvati, but pl.juhvanti or juhvati (see 141. a). 

142. The adjective JT^"?^, 'great,' is properly a Pres. Part. fr.T?wa A, * to increase;' 
but its masculine lengthens the a of at before n in the N. Ac. sing., N. V. Ac. du., 
N. V. pi., and neuter in N. V. Ac. pi. ; thus, N. masc. *r^l^, H^lilT, n^ifit^^J 
Ac. T^T'if'T, *T^RTT, ^H^H^; I. *l^ril, &c. ; V. H^*l[, H^lnft, &c. : N. fem. i^nt, 
&c., see i40k a. b : N. Y, Ac. neut. T^ll , T^ift, i^if'rt. 

a. ^^T^m. f. n. * great,' "SfiTj^m. f. n. * moving,' ^TSpi^m. f. * a deer,' follow Pres. 
Participles ; e. g. N. V. masc. ^^^, ^^^> ^^^^- ^^m. ^^ift. Neut. ^W^^i &c. 
. 143. The honorific pronoun H^T^ (said to be for HTWiT bhd-vat) follows V*I^riI 
(at 140), making the a of at long in the N. sing. ; thus, H^l^ ' your honour,' and 
not >T^. The V. is H^. The fem. is H^?ftj see 233. 

H^7(^* being,' Pres. Part, of ^'to be,' follows of course TJ^IT at 141. 

144. 1^ n. 'the liver ' {yji^ocp, jecur), and ^I^t^n. ' ordure,' may optionally be 
declined in Ac. pi. and remaining cases as if their stems were '^W^^ and ^^^J 
thus, N. V. "^^, ^ift, Tj^ffff; Ac. "^^y 'l^rft, *4oji fni or '^^f^ ; I. ^cH or 
'J^, 'l^TH or ^rS|rlT, "'l^f^ or ^^ft^; D. "11^^ or ^, &c. 

o % 


a. A defective noun ^is optionally substituted for !pif in Ac. pi. and remaining 
cases (see 183), and is often used at the end of compounds; e.g. su-dat, 'having 
good teeth,' making N. raasc. fem. neut. su-dan, su-dati, su-dat. 

145- ^^> a foot,' at the end of compounds becomes ^ in Ac. pi. and remaining 
Weakest cases ; thus, ^^Ktf, ' having beautiful feet,' makes in masc. N. V. '5'^> 
^^, ^V[^^; Ac. ^^IT^^, ^'TT^, ^^^; I. 1^, g^nWHT, fjmfi!^, &c. 
llie fem. is ^'T'f^, like nadt at 105. Neut. N. V. Ac. *jmc, ^*?^, ^^^ 

a. Similarly, fsHlc, but according to Pan. iv. i, 9, the fem. is dvi-padd, if agreeing 
with rik, *a verse ;' dvi-padt, if agreeing with str{, ' a woman.' So also f^xn^, &c. 

Sixth Class in ^ an and ^ in. 

This class answers to Lat. and Gr. words like sermo (stem sermon-), homo (stem 
homin-), Oaifxcov (stem oatfj.ov-^), Latin agrees with Sanskrit in suppressing the n 
in N. masc. and fem., but not in neut. ; thus homo is N. of masc. stem homin, the 
stronger vowel being substituted for i, just as / is substituted for in Sanskrit ; 
but nomen is N. of the neut. stem nomin. 

146. Masculine and feminine stems in 'cr^ an, of two kinds, A 
and B. 

A. If an be preceded by m or v at the end of a conjunct conso- 
nant, then the model is ^rrw*^ dtman^ m. ' soul,^ * self.' 

B. But if an be preceded by m or r not conjunct, as in iPtf^ 
stman, f. (sometimes m.) *a border,' or by any other consonant, 
whether conjunct or not, than m or r, as in iT^i^ takshan^ m. *a 
carpenter,' THf^ rojan, m. ' a king,' then the a of an is dropped 
in the Ac. pi. and before all the other uo2^;eZ-termInation8, and the 
remaining n is compounded with the preceding consonant. 

Obs. In the Loc. sing, this dropping of a is optional. 

All nouns ending in an, lengthen the a in the Strong cases (V. sing, excepted) ; 
and drop the n before all the consonantal terminations (see 57). The inflective 
stem will be dtman, dtmdn, dtma ; stman, simdn, simn (see above), s(ma. 

Junction of stem with termination : N. sing, n final of stem, and s case-termina- 
tion rejected by 57 and 41. I; V. sing, case-termination rejected. 

A. B. 



[ dtmd dtmdnau 

[dtmdnam dtmdnau 
\ dtmand dtmabhydm dtmabhis 



simd simdnau 

simdnam simdnau 


simnd aimabhydm simabhis 



_ J ^TITrT ^TrJTnH 

^^ r^Tw^ 




simahhydm simahhyas 



simabhydm simahhyas 



simnos simndm 


simni or simanisimnos simasU 


simdnau simdncLS 

dtmanas dtmanos 
dtmani dtmanos 

La/ma?i dtmdnau 

147. Like "ttilrHrj^ are declined -M 5^1*1^ yajvan, m. *a sacrificer' (e.g. N* ^nfT^ 
I'ailtj 4'li1tv; Ac. ^liiJHH, il^Mi, "^iiH^; I. ^isilHI, &c.); in"*?r[^a/?maw, 
m. sin;' w^H^asman, m. 'a stone j' ^ *H^ ushman, m. *the hot season;' '^^'^ 
Bushman, m. *fire;' s\mr\^ brahman, m. *the god Brahman;* ^U(r[^adhvan, m. *a 
road;' d ^^rj^rfriscan, m. *a looker.' 

Like ^r^Tr^ are declined ^^m.' head* (I. ^jBTj&c; L.^[f^or^ftT,&c.); "^fi:^ 
m. 'fat' (Ac.pl. tft^); ^H*^m. *aloom;* HftTRT^m. *lightiiess'(I. c5fwr,&c.) 

148* Similarlyj like HiM^, are declined tt^ m. ' a carpenter ' and 
TTlT^ m. * a king/ 

Obsi In the inflexion of Words like takskatii rdjan (which follow the B form stman 
in combining m and n), the dental n of the stem being combined with a cerebral of 
palatal is changed to the cerebral or palatal nasal respectively^ See 57. c, 58* 


N 1'^ 

Ac 1''*'""*^ 
' [ tctkshdnam 












takshnas. ^S. 


rdjdnau ^ 


- ffT^^nt fT^jnT hhjPh^ 

[ takshnd. 58* takshdbhydm takshabhis 

rdjnd. ^J. 

c. rdjdbhydm rdjabhis 

D. I'^ 

[ takshne 

takshabhydm takshabhyas 


rdjabhydm rdjabhyas 

' [ takshnas 

takshabhydm takshabhyas 

rdjabhydm rdjabhyas 






^ ' [ takshni 













* Or 

A^'m takshani 


Or ^nrf'T rrf/ni. 


149. Masculine steins in ^, like xyt^, "5^, 'T^, generally 
form their ferainines in ^ (Pan. iv. 1, 7); e. g. ift^, ^mO, VS^, 
declined like nadt at 105. 

150. When a feminine stem in ^ i* is formed from words like <m^, it follows 
the rules at 146. A. B. for the rejection of the a of an; thus, tUSft ro;n(, * a queen.* 

151. When rdjan occurs at the end of a compound, it may be declined like siva 
(103); as, N. sing. masc. mahdrdjus; Ac. mahdrdjam, 8ic. (cf. 778) : but not neces- 
sarily, as bahw-rdjan, m. f. n. * having many kings.' The fem. stem of which may 
be bahu-rdjan or bahu-rdjd or bahu-rdjhC 

152. Neuter stems in ^ii^ aw, like ^air^*an action' and H\H^ *a 
name' {nomen, ovofia*), 

Obs. ^The retention or rejection of a in an before the Inst. sing, and remaining 
vowel-terminationsi as well as optionaDy before the Nom. Ace. du., is determined 
by the same rule as in masculines and feminines (146. A. B). They only dijBPer 
from masculine nouns in Nom. Voc. and Ace. sing, dui pi. 



N. (^ "m^^ ^ir^ftsi 

Ac, ( karma karmairii 

( karmand karmabhydm karmabhis 

D. i , ' 'of like dtman. 146. 
( karmane, c. J 

V. f "'^.'- jukeN.Ac. 
( karma or karman^lxc. ) 


TR n^ortflHcfl jtTnnftT 
ndma mm or mand ndmdni 


ndmnd ndmabhydm ndmabhis 

n^, &c. ) Ti ^ ^ 

o \ like siman. 140. 
namnCy occ. ) ^ 

TTT or fTHR, &c. ) ... ^^ . 

,^ > like N.Ac. 
nama or mmanyCcc. ) 

153. Like n^t, ^' aJ*e declined i|**<|^ 'birth,' i^in^ 'house,' ^H^ * armour,' 
aU^ ' prayer,* * the Supreme Spu*it,' ^T^ ' road,' ^?^* leather,' tfi\* pretext,* 
t|%^ * a joint.* 

Like TRHf^n. are declined <;ii*^* string,' ^ilH!^ ' conciliation,' Viii^ ' mansion,' 
^^Tr|[ * sky,' KSHA^ (for ^( rohman, from ruh)^ * hair,' IR'^ (also m.) * love.' 

154. When nouns in an, man, and van form the last member of adjective com- 
pounds, the feminine mdy be declined like the masc, or its stem itiay end in d, 
and be declined like sivd; the neuter follows the declension of neuter nouns at 
152. Those in an, if they follow the declension of s^man and rdjan, may also form 
their feminine in i, rejecting the a of an, and be declined like nad{ {P&n. iv. i, 38). 

155. There are a few anomalous nouns in an, as follow : 

a. "'BF^m.'adog'(canw,/fy<yi/): N. i^TT, "tgfft, W^i Ac. "'BTRH, "TIft, ^*T^; 
L ^, ^?rrnT, ^gfW^; D. ^, &c.; Ab. "5^, &c.; G. ^^(^yvoV), ^pft^, 

* Greek has a tendency to prefix vowels to words beginning with consonants 
in the cognate languages. Cf. also nakhUf 'nail,' ovvf ; laghu, 'light,' cAa)^f-f ; 
^' brow,' o<ppii-s 



^^; L. gftr, ^^^, "^ ; V. "^j ^ETRT, &c. See 135. a. Fem. TJ^, &c. 
(like nadt at 105). 

b. ^^ m. ' a youth,' ' young :' N. f^, ^^nft, ^TPT^; Ac. f^RH, ^^SfT^, 
^?^ ^-^'i^^^l'i^^' D. ^, &c.; Ab. ^!^, &c.; G. ^^, ^jf^, 
^^W; L. "^W, ^*^, g^; V. f^, ^^nft, &c. See 135. a, Fem. "^ (like 
nadt) or ^^flT (like mati). Neut. ^, ^Jfft, ^^f^, &c. 

c. *r9^ m. *a name of Indra :' N. *mm, -"^T^ft, -TR^ ; Ac. HimHH, -"TTtft, 
'Txft^; I. nftTT, fnnwiT'T, -"^fiW^; D.*r^^, JnRWTR,&c,; Ab.5R^rre[,&c.; 
G. HlflH^, Ttft^f^, nft^*IJ L.*nftfrr,'Txft^fi^, HXR^; V.*TTr^,&c. Fem. 

witni or HXRift. 

The last may also be declined like a noun in vat : N. ^T^TFt^, -^'^RTT, &c. See 140. 

156. W^n., a day,' forms its N. Ac. V. sing. fr. ^f^ akar, and the consonantal 
middle cases fr, ''^^^ahasj in the other cases it is like ndmanj thus, 

N. Ac. V. ^R^ (41. 1), W^ or ^rft, '^T^f^; |. ^^T, ^^twiW, ^T^fH^; 
D. ^^, ^3T^TrH, ^TfTT^; Ab. ^^, &c. ; G. ^^, ^^^, ^^HT; L. ^f^ 
or ^f^, '^^^j ^^ OJ* ^^'^t At the beginning of compounds the form is 
generally ^^^, as in ahar-nisam, day and night.' At the end of compounds it 
may be declined as a masc. ; thus, N. ^Im^i^, ^'^TOn, -'^TOIE^; Ac. -fTOI, &c.; 
V. -'5^, &c., or sometimes becomes tS^ or ^^. 

a. T^^f^ m., 'a day,' lengthens the i in those cases where the a of an is rejected ; 
thus, Ac. pi. ^t^; I. ^f^i &c. 

b. ^fl'^'*^ n., ' the head,' is said to be defective in N. sing. du. and pi. and Ac# 
sing, du., these cases being supplied from %t^n., or 5i^f 108. e, 

c. 'Hi'^n., 'the liver,' and ^|e|i^ * ordure,' are said to be defective in the first 
five inflexions, these cases being supplied from yakrit and sakjit respectively, 
see 144. 

157. ^?xpR^m 'the sun,' does not lengthen a of an in N. du. pi., Ac sing, du.; 

N. ^^T, WTiift, ^iin^; Ac^^rn'T,^^^,^'^; i.^^t,&c. 

a. Similarly, ^[^ * the sun :' N. ^1, ^W, &c. ; Ac ^[^'ll'T, &c. ; but the 
Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, may be optionally formed from a stem ^; 
thus, Ac. pi. ^^Hir^ or ^^. 

b. Similarly, compounds having -'^ as the last member, such as W?r?^m. 'the 
slayer of a Brahman :' N. pI^^I, 5j^iur,&c.; but in Ac. pi. W^BTH^ ; I. 9IHI, 
ipl^*HTH, &c. (h becoming gh where the a of han is dropped). 

158. ^R|^m. 'a horse,' or m. f. n. 'low,' 'vile,* is declined like nouns in vat 
at 140, excepting in N. sing. ; thus, N. ^m, ii^iif, ^%ff^; Ac. ^WTfT, &c.; 
I. WrIT, ^%^, ^%fk^; V. ^k^, &c. If the negative ^I^ precedes, '31^51^ ia 
regular; thus, N. ^R%r, ^H^l^l, &c.; Ac. ^R%|T!nT, &c.; I. pi. 'SHflfH^. 

159. Masculine stems in J^in, like ^^wf^dhaniUf m. *rich.* 
In N. sing, dhani for dhanins, n and are rejected (by 57 and 41. 1), and the 
vowel lengthened by way of compensation. 



N. Vrft dhani vf^fsft dhaninau vf^R^ dhaninas 

Ac uPhh** dhaninam dhaninau dhaninas 

I. Xlft^^ dhanind y^ifr^^^^ dhanibhydm. ^'j . vfTfil^c?Aam^Aw. 57. 

D. vf^ dhanine dhanibhydm vfrfoi^ dhanibhyas. 57. 

Ab. \|fn^ c?^awiwa5 dhanibhydm dhanibhyas 

G. dhaninas vlh^^^^dhaninos v^7^jf{^dhanindm 

L. vftrfW dhanini dhaninos vf^ dhanishu, 70. 

V. vf^c^Aflwiw. 92. vfrTrft c?AawinaM vif^i^^^ dhaninas 

Obs. Many adjectives of the forms explained at 85. VI. VIII. 
IX, are declined in masc. like >lf^; thus, wrf^ medhdvin, 'intel- 
lectual;^ N. W^, -ftnft, -f^^, &c. Also numerous nouns of 
agency, like n^?^ *a doer/ at 85. II ; thus, N. curtt, ^Klfno^ (58), 
^ftrn^, &c. 

1 60. The feminine stem of such iidjectives and nouns of agency 
is formed by adding ^ i to the masc. stem ; as, fr. vftr^, >lftRt f. ; 
fr. ^Tfr.*^, nfT5i!ft f. ; declined like nadt at 105 ; thus, N. vPhhI , -"aft, 
-7q^, &c. 

161. The neuter is regular, and is like vdri as far as the Gen. pi. ; 
N. Ac. vfif, >lftRt, >RtftT. But the G. pi. vf^fqw, not >j^t^; 
V. sing, vf^ or vfVp^. 

162. X|f^ m. *a rottd,' Tf^ m. 'a churning-stick,' and "^^ft?^ m. 'a name 
of Indra,* are remarkable as exhibiting both suffixes, an and in, in the same word. 
They form their N. V. sing, from the stems M"Mtt.> '"^H) ^^T^^j their other 
Strong cases, from the stems M*-^*!^, H-'^*(, ^^^*^,j their Ac. pi., and remaining 
Weak cases, from the stems "^f^, IJ^, ^^Tff ; in their Middle cases they follow 
dhanin regularly j thus, 

N. V. q-V||^ (163), ^rV^MT, MrViM^* Ac. TF!IT^, Mr'MlfiT, ^^^; I. tnn, 
(|f\||M4|l^, "qf^lrfiT^; D. vi^^ &c. Similarly, N. V. r^n^, &c.j ^^J^T^, &c. : 
I. iflT, &c. ; ^^^T, &c. Observe The V. is the same as the N. 

a. The compound tjMfxit^, * having a good road,' is similarly declined for the 
fnasc; theN.fem. isfJMHft,-nS, -'Jffl[, like nadi' at 105; the neut. is N.Ac. ^^^9, 
-xnft, -"<FTrf?!, &c.; V. ^^ftl^or ^'Tftl; the rest as the masc. 

Seventh Class in m^ as, ^ w, and "3^ us. 
This class answers to Gr. and Lat. words like vdOo^y /AVOf , genuSy scelus, &c. 
163* Masculine and feminine stems in ^i^a*, like ^n^^ dandra- 
maSf m. * the moon.* 

In N. sing, as is lengthened to compiensate for rejection of the termination s; 



^^andramas becomes 6andramo by 64 before the terminations bhydm, bhis, bhyasj 
in L. pi. 6andramas+su becomes candramahsu by 63, or dandramassu by 62. a. 

N. ^^f^;^J^^6andramds ^(^^^fV^ 6andramasau ^^*<f<4^ 6andramasas 

Ac. ^^^^iT 6andramasam 6andramasau 6andramasas 

I. ^[^i^m dandramasd ^^ir^>iV[[n6andramobhydm''S[r^;^}i^6andramobh^ 
D. -civ^H^ dandramase 6andramobhydm '^'^jftwR^ 6andramobhyas 

Ab. H^Hi(^6andramasas dandramobhydm 6andramobhya8 
G. dandramasas ^^:^f^^)^^6andramasos ^^nmn dandramasdm 
L. ^*^Hrfl 6andramasi 6andramasos '^(^^\'^6andramahsu or -'^^ 

V. ^^;^!!^j^6andramas. g2. '^sr^;fr^ 6andramasau h^H^ 6andramasas 

a. Similarly, "^rmj^apsaras, f. 'a nymph:' N. ^mi.1^, &c. 
164. Neuter stems in ^^ a*, like ^^^^manas, n. *mind' (i^evos, 

These differ from the masc. and fem. in the N. Ac. V. The a of a* remains 
short in N. sing, after the rejection of the case-termination s, but is lengthened 
in N. Ac. V. pi. before inserted Anusvara. 

N. Ac. V. H^ manas JR^ manasi ^^f^ mandnsi 

I. H^*\\ manasd, ir^\W(^^manobhydm, &c., like the masc. and fem. 

a. Obs. Nearly all simple substantives in as are neuter like manas j but these 
neuters, when at the end of compound adjectives, are declinable also in masc. and 
fem. like dandramas. Thus mahd-manas, ' magnanimous,' makes in N. (m. f. sing. 
du. pi.) mahd-mands, mahd-manasau, mahd-manasas. Similarly, sumanas, 'well- 
intentioned ;' durmanas, ' evil-minded ' (N. m. f. sumands, durmands, &c.) : cf. 1^- 
fJievYj^y ^va-'fJLev^^, m. f , but neut. and stem v-jtA6vef, ^v(7-fi.V(, derived from 

b. Where final as is part of a root and not a suffix, the declension will follow 
pMlliiT^ *one who devours a mouthful ;' thus, N.V. sing. m.f.f^qR!??!^; Ac.-ITf^' 
N. V. Ac. du. -?I^, pi. -IT^; I. -IRTT, -^ftwn'T, &c. N. V. Ac. neut. -'^^^, 
~IT^, -if ^ When a root ends in ds, s will be rejected before bh by 66. a j thus, 
^ll^, * brilliant,' makes in I. du. '^^iTlT*r. 

' c. But 'B^^ (fr. H^) and R^ (fr. *^), at the end of compounds, change final 
^ to f^ before the consonantal terminations, making N. sing. ^ETfT and SSR^; e. g. 
^4j|iyi^, ^^n^^(see Pan. tii. 2, 76; vii. i, 70; viii. 2, 72). 

165. Neuter stems m^is and ^^tw are dechned analogously to *R^ manas 
at 164, i and u being substituted for a throughout, sh for s (70), ir or ur for o (65); 

"^fk^^havis, n. 'ghee:' N. Ac.V. ^f^, ^fT^, i^^'iC^ ; I. ^f^^, ^f^^!TT, 
?f^f^; D.-^f^^j^fwWj^f^v^; Ab.-^f^^j^f^v^j^f^*^; G.-^f^^, 
^fWt^, ?f%^; L. "^f^fky ^P^mX > t^*^ or -^. 

a. ^^ iSaJcshus, n. *tlre eye:* N. Ac. V. ^W'B[, ^"5^% '^^iftl; I. ^^^, 



^^v^iiT,^'^f^; D.^r^,^?ig*^^,^TO*^; Ab. 'TO^, ^"^^Pf , ^^^; 
G. 'qg^, '^^^, ^^5^; L. ^T^, ^I^^, 'i^:i or -isg. 

i66. Nouns formed with the suffixes is and us are generally neuter. In some 
nouns, however, the final sibilant is part of the root itself, and not of a suffix ; 
such as ^iT^lt^ dsis, f. * a blessing ' (fr. rt. ^PfT^), and tf^jt^^ m. f. *an associate ' (fr. 
^^). These follow the analogy of masc. and fem. nouns in as (163) in the N. Ac. 
cases ; and, moreover, before the consonantal terminations, where the final sibilant 
is changed to r, unUke nouns formed with is and us, lengthen the i and u (compare 
nouns in r at 180) ; thus, 

N. '^f^ft^, -%^, -%^; Ac. -%^, -f^w, -%^; I. -ftimT, -^^*^, 
-^ftf^, &c. ; L. pi. -^:^ or -"SffN^. 

N. ^^, -^, -^^; Ac. -^^^, &c.; I. -^^, -Ijv^^, &c. 

a. Nouns formed from Desiderative stems in ish (497), such as ftnif^ (for 
jigadish), ' desirous of speaking,' are similarly declined ; thus, 

N. V. m. f. ftrTcft^j -f^, &c. ; I. du. -^TT. The N. V. Ac. neut. pi. ip 
ftnrf^, the nasal being omitted (cf. 181. rf). 

So f^*l^, * desirous of doing,' makes N. V. m. f. P^ofcT^, -R^f, &c. 

b. "^ well-sounding,' where us is radical, makes N. V. sing. m. f. *jij5^; 
Ac. ^^^; N.V. Ac. du. ^^, pi. ^5^; I. 5^, ^W*^, 5^f^, &c. 
N. V. Ac. neut. ^TTJ(, ^^, ^|ftr. 

c. Obs. When neuter nouns in is or us are taken for the last member of com- 
pound adjectives, analogy would require them to be declined in masc. and fem. 
according to dandramas at 163 ; but, according to the best authorities, the N, sing, 
does not lengthen the vowel of the last syllable ; thus, TrMrtM^t^ m. f. n. ' having 
lotus eyes,' N. masc. and fem. ^Tri*! ^^, -^"^^, &c. ; and ^f^^f^ m. f. u. 
* having brilliant rays,' N. masc. and fem. '5|f^Ttf^, ^Nt^'^^, &c. 

d. tp^ dos, m. * an arm,* follows the declension of nouns in is and us ; but in 
Ac. pi., and remaining cases, optionally substitutes doshan for its stem (see 184); 

thus, N.V. ?fi^, -"^, -"^r^; Ac. ^t^^y -"^, -^ or -^bct^; I. ^m or ^Vfirr, 

^fti^T'^ or <ftMW4W, &c. As a neuter noun it makes in N. Ac. V. ^t^, ^V^, ^fft. 

167. Comparatives formed with the suffix ^^^ ^yfl* (192), lengthen the a of as, 
and.in8ert n, changeable to Anusvara before s, in N. sing. du. pi., V. du. pi., Ac. sing, 
du. masc. ; thus, ^rtl<tt^^ m. f. n., * more powerful,' makes N. masc. irt'V4i*|^ (for 
"^cjhn^, * rejected by 41. A), -TTTw, -^ihl^; Ac. -'(t^, -^^T, -^l^; I. -WT, 
-m\mii^, &c., like iandramas at 163. The V. siqg. is q<>lM\; du. and pi. like 
the Nom. 

a. The fem. Hr^MtO follows nadi at 105. The neut. WWl*l^ is like manas. 

168. Perfect Participles, formed with vas (see 554), are similarly decUned in the 
Strong cases (135. b). But in Ac. pi., and remaining Weak cases, vas becomes usf{, 
and in the Middle cases vat: so that there are three foxms of the stem) vie. in vdns, 
ush, and vat*: thus, 

Vat is evidently connected with the Greek 01. Compare tutupvat (f^. rt. tup) 
with TeTV(fi-(f)QT, ^nd tutuj^vatsu with TTV</>-o(T)(r/. 

f%f%?r^ (Perf. Part., fr. f^ *to know') : N. f%f^T5(, f^f^^, f^f^lrf^^; 

Ac. W^irt^'(, f^r^dfw, f%f^5^^; I. f%5r|Mt, f^f^swrn, f^f^^fk^; d. 
f^, &c.; V. f^f^5|;, f^f^^^hft, &c. 

The neuter is N. Ac. fM^^Tf^, -^Wt, -"SlflS; for fern, see d below. 

a. When this Participle is formed with ivas instead of vas (see 554), the vowel 
is rejected in the cases where vas becomes ush j thus, 

Wf"R5f|[ (fr. n\' to go ') : N. masc. ^J?^, &c. ; Ac. "irfN^^, ^jfrH^TTW, 
^frg^, &c. ; I. W^, &c. ; V. ^f"!^, ^ffniT^TOT, &c. 

b. Similarly, WftT^(fr.iT^' to stretch'): N. ^fw^, wfW^, &c. ; Ac.wf^- 
^^, Hpfl'^i^, avj^^, &c. ; V. ^tT^, -"^^, &c. 

c. But not when the i is part of the root ; thus, f^f%^ (fr. f^), f^^Tt^ (fr. 
rft) make in the Ac. pi. P^"MM^, "ft^g^. ^^i^ (fr. ^) makes, of course, 

d. The N. fem. of these Participles is formed from ushj and the N. Ac. neut. 
sing. du. pi. from vat, ush, and vas, respectively ; thus, N. fem. f^^^Mi, &c., 
declined like nad{ at 105. Similarly, from the root gt^ comes 35^ h1 (cf, TTV(f>via), 
Those formed with ivas do not retain i in the feminine ; thus, tenivas makes N. 
sing. masc. fem. neut. tenivdn, tenmht*, tenivat. 

e. The root f^, 'to know,' has an irregular Pres. Part, f^^ vidvas, used 
commonly as an adjective ('learned'), and declined exactly hke f^Ui^^ above, 
leaving out the reduplicated m,- thus, N. masc. f^T^,f^?f^, Fd i^^J V.f^^, 
&c. With reference to 308. a, it may be observed, that as a contracted Perfect 
of vid is used as a Present tense, so a contracted Participle of the Perfect is used 
as a Present Participle. The fem. is fcignl, and the neut. f^TST^. 

169. "g^m., ' a male,' forms its V. sing, from g'HE^, and its other Strong cases 
(135. h) from g'TT^; but Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest cases, from ^; and I. 
du., and remaining Middle cases, from "^/{y thus, 

N. gm^, gfm^, ^^; Ac. gm^, gn^, ^^^; i. ^^, i*TH, ^**^^; 

D.^,&c.; Ab.^^^,&c.; G.^^^,^^,^^; L.^,-5^,^;V.g^, 
ynl^r, &c. 

170. T^nr^ m., *a name of the regent of the planet S'ukra,' forms N. sing, 
9^1 li from a stem T^nT*^(i47). Similarly, JJ^^^I^ m. *a name of Indra,' and 
^J%^^ m. 'time.' The other cases are regular; thus, N. du. ^{|H*iT. But 
^l1t^ may be optionally in Voc. sing. ^^ii^ or <j^I*i or 3^Mi^. 

171. i*.^ f., * decay ' {yyjpaij, supplies its consonantal cases (viz. N. V. sing., I. 
D. Ab. du. pi., L. pi.) from WTT f. Its other cases may be either from >l<^ or WU, 
thus, N. sing. rn; V. ft; Ac. "inSTt or "iTCTH; I. "SfT^T and TTTn, ^fTTwrPT, 

^rrrfW^, &c. 

* There seems, however, difference of opinion as to the rejection of i j and 
some grammarians make the feminine tenyusht. 

t Since WT^ certainly occurs, it may be inferred that the N. Ac. V. du. are 
'Tt^ or ft ; N. Ac. V. pi. IT^^ or ^TO^. These forms are given in the grammar 
of Isvara-candra Vidya-sagara, p. 51. 

Eighth Class. Stems ending in any consonant except 

172. This class consists principally of roots used as nouns, either 
alone or at the end of compounds, or preceded by prepositions and 
adverbial prefixes. Stems ending in 11 t or ^ d, formed in this 
manner, are of common occurrence ; but their declension falls under 
the fifth class at 136. 

With regard to stems ending in other consonants which we place 
under the eighth class, the only difficulty in their declension arises 
from their euphonic combination with the consonantal terminations. 

1 y^. Whatever change of the final consonant takes place in Nom. 
sing, is preserved before all the consonantal terminations ; provided 
only, that before such terminations the rules of Sandhi come into 

174. Before the vowel-terminations the final consonant of the 
stem, whatever it may be, is generally preserved. If in some nouns 
there is any peculiarity in the formation of the Ac. pL, the same 
peculiarity runs through the remaining Weakest or vowel cases. 

The terminations themselves undergo no change, but the s of the 
Nom. sing, is of course cut off by 41. 1 (see, however, 135. b). There 
is generally but one form of declension for both masc. and fem.; the 
neuter follows the analogy of other nouns ending in consonants. 

J 75. Stems ending in ^ k, ?f kh, tt ^, T( g decUned. 
^r^ m. f. * one who is able ' (in sarva-4ak, * omnipotent '), 


. 51^ kak 

^Tojft ^akau 

T^^f( sakas 


^niT'T sakam 




"^m ^akd 

^rxwni^ kagbhydm 

^frn^ Sagbhis 




^wi^ hagbhyas 







^5Bm hakdm 




Tjr^ iakshu 

The neuter is N. Ac^V. ^, ^nft, ^rflj, &c. ; the rest like the masc. 
a. Similarly, Po*^ * one who paints ' (in 6itra-likh, * one who paints a picture ') : 
N.V. fe55^ (41.11, 41.I), fH^ (174), fn^; AcfFRHT, &c.; I. fc5^, 
f?5'rR, fcjfrH^, &c. ; L. pi. fH"W. 
The neuter is N. Ac. V. fw^, fossil, f?yfif &c. ; the rest like the masc. 



b. In the same way final 'T, T^ are changed to ^, and when final "^j \, V, H, ^ 
lose their aspirate form, the aspirate must be transferred to the initial, if that 
initial be JT, "5, ^, or ^(see 44. c). 

c. ^T5n m.f.,* jumping well,' makes N.V.^^ (41. 1), ^T5^,&c.; Ac.^^'^'TH, 

^^^ (see 70). Neut. N. Ac. V. ^^<^, ^^^, ^^f^ or (see 176. h) ^if^. 
176. Stems ending in '^^6, "^ (5A, Ty, 'f^.jh declined. 

Final '^ is changed to oF or f\^, final ''^ is changed to 3T^, which becomes ^ or "^ 
before the consonantal terminations ; final f to "^ (t) or T ("^) ; and final *^, 
which is rare, to ir or 'T, before the consonantal terminations (41. IV, 92. a). 

^r^f. * speech' (fr. rt. ^'^) : N. V. "^T^ (for vdhs, 41. 1; vox, Oip), m^ (oTre), 
^^^^^ {voces, OTres) j Ac. '^T^H^ (vocem), ^^, ^^^ {oTrag) ; I. '^T^T, H'<4it^, 

^rf^H^; D. ^T^, ^Fwrnr, ^fw?^; Ab. tt^^, ^m^iTT, ^fwi'B^; g. cTh^, 

^TTrt^, ^T^TH ; L. "^f^ (oV/), ^r^frt^j ^T^. Compare Latin vox, and Greek 
0\p or OTT for Fott throughout. 

Similarly, ^ ' a hberator :' N. V. ^o^, g^, 5'^. 

^m. f. 'one who eats:' N.V. >^^, >pft, ^^; Ac. ^pH?, &c.; I. iJWT, 

in^ m. f. 'an asker' (fr. rt. U^) : N. V. TH?, TJT^, WT^j Ac. UT^, &c.; 
J. in^, UTTwn*!, &c. J L. pi. W^. 
The root H^ becomes HT3T (just as va6 becomes vd6)'y e,g. N.V. HT^m. f. n. 

* a sharer.' 

a. The neuters are thus formed : N. Ac. V. ^"^, ^T^, ^Tf%, &c. (as in ^^T^ 
'speaking well'); ^, ^Wt, ^f^, &c. ; THT, TH^, HlPv^s^, &c. 

&. The root ^T^ an6, ' to go,' preceded by certain prepositions and adverbial 
prefixes, forms a few irregular nouns (such as TJT^* eastern'), and is found at 
the end of a few compounds after words ending in a ; such as Vwvi.l'i^ ' tending 
downwards,' &c. These all reject the nasal in the Ac. pi. and remaining cases 
masculine. In Nom. sing, the final ^(f being changed to "^ k, causes the preceding 
nasal to take the guttural form, and the "5^ is rejected by 41. 1. In the Ac. pi., 
and remaining Weakest cases, there is a further modification of the stem in the 
ease of HW^, &c. 

UT^m. 'eastern,' 'going before :' N.V. HT^, TTRT, i^^; Ac. ITT^, TTT^, 
in^^; I. TTRT, TTF^ITH, Ulf'^; D. HT?, &c. ; L. pi. IHW. Similarly, ^^T^ 
m. ' southern.' 

W^m. 'western :' N.V. ITW^, TITw, m^^; Ac. UKI*dH, TTPT^, lT?ft^; 
I. THTNt, ITW^TIW, Hi^n>?T(^; D. mft^, &c. Similarly, ^TR^* going with,' 

* fit,' and even "3^^ * northern,' which make in Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest 
Cases, ^TR^'^, "gR[^^R(. 

So also, fcfbfcfa^, ' going everywhere,' forms its Ac. pi., and remaining Weakest 
cases, fr. a stem ^^^^> making Oh M***^, &c. 


Analogously, fH^ ' going crookedly,' ' an animal/ forms its Weakest caies fr. 
a stem frti.^, making Ac. pi. Ok^^^, &c. 

The feminine form and the neut. du. of these nouns follow the analogy of the 
Ac pi. ; thus, N. fem. ITT^^ &c., ^Sfm^ &c., TCWt^ &c., "9^^ &c., TTrWI" &c., 
finnsft &c., dechned like "T^. 

The neuter is N. Ac V. "Jn^, TIT^, in%, &c ; TTW^, Mffi'^1, iywf%, &c. 

c. HI'S^^, when it signifies * worshipping,' retains the nasal, which has become 
guttural, throughout ; but <5, which has become it, is rejected before the consonantal 
terminations; thus, 

N. V. TIT^, ITP^, &c. ; Ac. TO^H, &c. j I. TTT^, in^WTTH, fec 
Similarly, ^^ 'a curlew:' N. V. "^j fP^, fec.; Ac. "5^> &c.; I. "5^, 
f^nH,&cj L. pi. f^^ or "5^(55.6). 

d. ^*l\ n., 'blood,' is regular; thus, N. Ac V. f^^, ^^fl, Vl^fy, &c.; 
but it may optionally take its Ac. pi. and remaining inflexions from a defective 
stem, ^nir^a^fln; thus, N. V. pi. ^f^; Ac pi. ^ijCy or ^Pfnf^; I. ^I^ifT or 
'W^, ^l^^^'Tr'^ or ^WWnH, &c ; L. ^Bl^ftr or ^tifn or ^f^, &c. 

c. Nouns formed with the roots TS^'to worship,' TITW *to shine,' ijp^'to rub,* 
W^*to shine,' H^i^^'to fry,' ^^*to wainder,' ^^ to create,' generally change 
the final l^to ^ or "^ before the consonantal terminations ; thus, 

^"3^ m. *a worshipper of the gods' (XH^ becoming ^T) : N. V. sing. ^^* 
Similarly, U*^m. 'a ruler:' N. sing. TTT; I. tJITT, TT^WTT?^, &c So also, UfijiJW 
* a cleanser :' N. sing. ^fXT^^. So also, fWHT m. f. * splendid :' N. sing.- fWf^. 
Similarly, ""Pfftwn^ m. * a religious mendicant ' (W5^ becoming '9(J^) I N. sing. 
Mp^fllZ. So also, rIHI<i(^m. ' the creator of the world :' N. sing. f^^B^. 

But ftra when it precedes Tl^, as in ftP^TIT'^ m. * a universal ruler,' becomes 
fqnii wherever 1^ becomes ^ or "^; thus, N. f^^STTtT^, f^^STTnTT, &c 

^jfr^m., * a priest ' (^^ + ^^for TS^), is regular : N. V. ^fr^. 

/. i<<i|^ m. ' a kind of priest,' ' part of a sacrifice,' forms the consonantal 
oases from an obsolete stem, ^^^: N. V. sing. du. pi. vi^mk^, -^TT^T, -TTSf^; 

'Ac -TiinT, &c. ; I. -^rnri, -fi^i*^, &c. ; l. pi. ^^^i^ or ^r?^:^. 

g, ^r^, *one who fries,' may take ^li^^for its stem, and make N. V. iJZ, ^JWi, 
>jKH<^; Ac. ^pf^, &c Similarly, "9^, 'one who cuts,' makes, according to some, 
^, &c., and not ?r7, &c ; but others allow vra^. 

A. "5J^f.,* strength,' makes N.V. "55^ (41. 1. Obs.),&c; Ac. 91^*^, &c. ; I. "511^, 
^ *M 1*^, &c At the end of a com p. the neuter is N. Ac. V. urk, urji, unrji. But in 
these cases where a word ends in a conjimct consonant, the first member of which 
is r or I, the nasal may be optionally omitted in the plural, so that urji would be 
equally correct. 

. ^t^, ' lame,* makes N. ^*^, W^, <a^t^; I. pi. ^Srf^H^; L. pi. 1^. 
177. Stems ending in ^M, \{^dh declined. 

The final aspirate is changed to its unaspirated form before the consonantal 
terminations (41. II, 43), but not before the vowel (43. rf). ''If^m. f. 'one who 
tells :' N. V. "aii?^, "^y 'B^; Ac ^i^, &c ; 1. 1!^, qiwi*^, &c. 

So also, ^^f. 'battle:' N.V.p^, ^,f*I^; AcfW,&c; I. '5VT,^irm,&c 

^^B IKFL] 


In the case of ^^m. f., 'one who knows,' the initial ^& becomes >I bh wherever 
the final >i^rfA becomes t or c?, by 175, h. and 44. c; thus, N. V. ^W, ^>S, "^p^i 
Ac.yHT,&c.; I.5>n,^J?5T?T, &c.; L. pi. JJT^. 

. The neuter is N. Ac. V. '^, W^, ^ft^, &c. ; ^, ^V*^, ^f^, &c. 

178. Stems ending in \p, T^ph, ^^, >T M declined. 

^m. f. ' one who defends :' N. V. ^, TVP^, 5^^ ^^' 5^' *^''* ? ^* ''^j 
jpjanH, ^f^, &c. 

cW m. f. *one who obtains :' N. V. Wl^j ^w, HH^^; Ac. 75*W, &c. ; I. cWT, 
c*Wi !*{,> Hf^T^, &c. ; L. pi. ^^. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, ^JT^, ^f'T, &c. ; W{^ cM^, r^ftwr, &c. 

Z>. ^T^f. 'water,' declined in the plural only, substitutes t (d) for its final before 
bhj thus, N. V. ^rrq^; Ac. ^PT^; I. ^fk^; D. Ab. ^nST^; G. ^m'T; L. ^TO. 
In the Veda it is sometimes singular. 

179. Stems ending in i^m declined. 

The final m becomes n before the consonantal terminations. ^^T saw, m. f. * one 
who pacifies :* N. V. 1^, ^% ^R^; Ac. ^'T, &c. ; I. ^PTT, ^pwn*i[, ^ft>?^, 
&c.; L. pi. ^^. 

a. Similarly, TT^TT'^m.f., 'quiet,' makes N.V. TTW^, H?n*U, H^liit^; Ac.^ni#^, 
&c. ; I. TOTHT, H^rrWim, &c. ; L. pi. "H^TT^ or H^llri^. Compare 53. e. 

b. The neuter is N. Ac. V. ^, "^X ^rf^, &c. j n^nt,, 'W^% -^ftr, &c. 

180. Stems ending in ^ r and \v declined. 

If the vowel that precedes fimal r be t or tf, it is lengthened before the conso- 
jiantal terminations (compare 166) ; and final r, being a radical letter, does not 
become Visarga before the s of the Loc. pi. (71. 6). 

^m.f.* one who goes:' N.V.^j'TO, ^T^; Ac. '^T?T, &c. ; L '^U, ^^W, 
^51^, &c.; L.pl.^|. 

^ f. ' a door :' N. V. "gTT^, ?rT&, ^TT^, &c. 

frV^ f. 'speech:' N. V. ^, fh^, f^t^J Ac. fW^, &c.; I. fTTT, 'fh'^'R, 
Tftf^, &c. ; L. pi. 'ftf. 

a. The neuter is N. Ac. V. '^j ^T^, ^ft, &c. ; ^, fnXty ftlft, &c. 
So also, ^TTf n. * water :' N. Ac. "^, ^T^, ^ft. 

b. One irregular noun ending in \v, viz. f^f. * the sky,' forms its N. V. sing, 
from ift (133. a), and becomes ?r in the other consonantal cases ; thus, 

N. V. in^^, f^, f^^; Ac. f^, f^, f^^; i. f^, gnj^, &c. 

Similarly, ^f^ m. f. 'having a good sky,' but the neuter is N. Ao. V. ^^, 

181. Stems ending in 3ls and '^ sh declined. 

The difficulty in these is to determine which stems change their finals to ^ and 
which to Z (see 41 . V). In i^e roots f^ST, "^ST, ^i^T, ^31^, and >|^(the last forming 


>![^^* impudent ') the final becomes ^, and in "snT optionally "^^ or ^ (T'^ or TT). 
Otherwise both ^and ""^at the end of stems pass into ^. 

f^3^m. f. ' one who enters,' or * a man of the mercantile and agricultural class :' 

N. V. f^ (41. V), f^^, f^^; Ac. ftr^, &c. ; I. fwfj f^^wn'^, &c. f^^f. 

'a quarter of the sky:* N. V. "fipR (41. V, 24), ^W, f^^I^J Ac. f^^iH, &c. ; 
I. f^^, n^J**IW, &c. "f^m. f. *one who hates:' N.V. f^^ (41. V), fg^y 
fe"^^; Ac. f?^, &c. ; I. f?r^, %TWTPT, &c. ^"B(^m. f. 'one who endures:* 
N.V. ^7 (41. V), ^, p^; Ac. ^^, &c.; I. ipr, ffnT, &c. ^^ir *one 
who touches :' N. V. ^'p^, ^W> "'HJ^I4:(^, &c. 

The neuters are N. Ac. V. f^, f^^, f^%, fec. ; f^, f^, f^^^I, &c. ; fk^, 
%T^, f^f^, &c.; f^,^,^, fec. 

a. ^Osi5| * a priest/ in the Veda, makes N. V. sing. "J^TT^, and forms its other 
consonantal cases from an obsolete stem, 'gUS^* Compare 176./. 

h. ^^f^m.f.. Very injurious/ makes N.V. ^^5^, ^^^> &c. ; Ac. ^f^^'T^, &c.; 
I . ^n^^iT, '5^^^*''1'^> ^^- B^* nouns ending in ^, preceded by vowels, fall under 163. 

c. W'ttTSr^, * a cow-keeper,' makes N. V. Wt^ or 'ftTT, jftT^, &c. 

d. Similarly, nouns from Desiderative stems, like ftniT^ * desirous of cooking/ 
and rlc|tt( * desirous of saying,' make N. V. fu^*, fxHT^, &c. ; f%^^F, ^^^ VSji, 
&c. (see 166. a). 

182. Stems ending in f A declined. 

In stems beginning with ^ d, the final aspirate generally becomes "2^ it ^Jl^g), in 
other stems ^t \^d), before the consonantal terminations; and in stems whose 
initial is ^ c? or '^ ^r, the loss of the h, which disappears as a final, is compensated 
for by aspirating the initial, which becomes dh or gh wherever final h becomes it {g) 
or t (rf). See 44. c, 175. b. fe^ m. f. *one who licks:' N. V. fc57 (41. Ill), 
frt^, ft?!^; Ac. f79^, &c. ; I. fn^T, fc5TrnT, &c. ; L. pi. f??Tg or fc^^^rH. 
J^ m. f. * one who milks :' N.V. ^c^, J^, J^J Ac. g^, &c. ; I. J^, ^'^'HW, 
1J^, &c.; L. pl."^. 

The neuter is N. Ac. V. fc5^, f^i^, f^f^, &c. ; ^^, g^, jfi?, <fec. 

a. But "5^ m. f., * injuring,' makes N. 1^ or ^ (44. c) ; I. "T^, y^^'HH or 
"^TwrPT , &c. ; L. pi. ^ or IJ^. Similarly, ^ m. f. * infatuating :* N. 5^ or ^ . 

The same option is allowed in f^ 'one who loves' and ^^ 'one who vomits.* 

h. r!i^ f., * a kind of metre,' changes its final to h (g) before the consonantal 
terminations, like stems beginning with d : N. <jfn!l2|[, Tftu!^, &c. 

c. "^fT!^, * bearing ' (fr. rt. ^ 'to bear'), changes TT to "31 u in Ac. pi. and re- 
maining Weakest cases (and before the ^ i" of the fem.) if the word that precedes 
it in the compound ends in a or dj this aotd combining with u into w au (instead 
of ^o, by 32); thus, 

miMi ^ m. f. 'a burden-bearer:* N. V. masc. WR^ I7 >?Rm^, mt^TT^; 
Ac. *fH.^I^H, WliHI^l, M!U^M,> I. >Tlf^^I, MK^!<<ll^, &c. N. fem. >TTO^, &c. 
So H<iif m. *a steer' and f<f^<fij5 'all-sustaining.' Under other circumstances 



the change of vdh to nh is optional; thus, ^Tfc9^Tl|, 'bearing rice,* makes in Ac. 
pi. T^T'^q^^ or ^TfH^^. 

d. "W^Tf m., ' Indra' (* borne by white horses'), may optionally retain ^ in Ac* 
pi. &c. i and in consonantal cases is declined as if the stem were "^ETif^^ J thus* 
N. V. "^im^, ^1T^T#, ^^rr^^; Ac. ^rmT^JT, ^IT^T^, ^#T^^ or "^^^i 
I. "Sffin^ or tStRT^T, ^fTTrwn'T, ^IT^fH^, &c. 

e. In ^IHT^, * a name of Indra,' the ^ is changed to "^T wherever ?; becomes 7 

or ^: N. "gn^?, ^Ti^rr^, ^Twr^; Ac. ^^n^H, &c.; I. "gtT^^T, ^- 

^TTIW, &c. 

/. ^nr^ m., * an ox * (for ^Tm^T?^ fr. ^r*T^ ' a cart ' and "^TT? ' bearing '), forms 
the N.V. sing, from >KH|(^; the other Strong cases from ^*TfT^, and the Middle 
cases from ^Rft^; thus, N. ^RfT*^, ^*TTr^, ^^RfTf^; Ac. ^SR^H, ^Tfl^, 
^R|f^; I. ^^Tf^T, ^TTprPT, '3l7r|fk^, &c.; L. pi. ^^TfW; V. '^Rf^. 
There is a feminine form ^TrTTl^^ but at the end of compounds this word makes 
fem. N. sing. ^T|^; neut. N. V. ^T|T^, ^-Tf^^ ^Tftf^. 

183. T1^ 'binding,' 'tying,' at the end of compounds, changes the final to l^or 
^, instead of 7 or "?; thus, TmT^ f., 'a shoe,' makes N. V. <JMiin^, TinT^, 
^^^^^; Ac. TT:n^H, &c.; I. TqR^T, 4MI'1^I T, &c.; L. pi. ^MMr. 
See 306. b. 

Defective Nouns, 

184. The following nouns are said to be defective in the first five inflexions, in 
which cases they make use of other nouns (see Pan. vi. i, 63): ^^f^n. (176. c?); 
^T^n. (loS.e); "5^ n. (108. e) ; ^m. (io8.e); ^^^ n. m. (166. rf); "f^f. 
(io8.e)j frr^f. (io8.e); IT^ m. (io8.e); ^l^f. (io8.e); *rf^n. (io8.e); *n^m. 
(108. e); ll^?[n. (144,156.0); ^^m. (108. e); ^oR|;n. (144, 156.0); ^f^![n. 
(156.5); ^n. (116. a); ^n. (108. c). 

185. Examples of nouns defective in other cases are ^3?^ n. (156); "aftj * 
(128.C); W^f. (171). 

186. The declension of substantives includes that of adjectives ; 
and, as already seen, the three examples of substantives, given under 
each class, serve as the model for the three genders of adjectives 
falling under the same class. Adjectives may be grouped under 
three heads. A, B, C, as follow : 

A. Simple adjectives, coming immediately from roots, and not 
derived from substantives. These belong chiefly to the first, second, 
and third classes of nouns (see 80. A, 81. A, 83. A, 103 115). 

B. Adjectives /ormefi?yro7W substantives by secondary or Taddhita 




suffixes. They belong chiefly to the first, fifth, and sixth classes 
of nouns (see 80. B, 84. B, 85. B, 103, 140, 159). 

C. Compound adjectives, formed by using roots and substantives 
at the end of compounds. These are common under every one of 
the eight classes. 

187. A. Examples of Simple Adjectives, 

^^ hibhttf * beautiful,' *good:' masc. and neut. stem ^ iubha ; 
fem. stem WHT ubhd. 

An example of an adjective of cl. i is here given in full, that the declension of 
the masc, fem., and neut. forms may be seen at once and compared with that of 
Latin adjectives in us, like bonus, *good.' The fem. of some of these adjectives 
is in t, and then follows nad{ at 105. In the succeeding examples only the Nom. 
cases sing, will be given. 












N.Ac.V. ^^ ^^ 



I. D. Ab. ^mwTU^ ^HTn*^ 




G. L. ^>Tii^ ^*T^ 






N. V. ^m^ ^m. 






Ac. ^HT^ 



I. ^^ gmfin^ 
D. Ab. ^HI^ ^wwi^ 




G. ^WIT'?^ WHTflB 






^^ ^"^ ' 






<0M. NEUT. 






:' beautiful' 


^*<Uor^r^. 105. 


















^n^or^CTttft. 105. 



tender ' 








>ft^or>Tl"^. 125. 


Obs. The neuter of adjectives in and u may in D. Ab. G. L. sing, and G. L. 
du. optionally follow the masculine form; thus, D. sing, iudine or Su6aye, mridune 
or mridave ; Ab. G. sing. iu6inas or 4u6es, mridunas or mridos ; L. sing. iuHni 
or iu6au, mfiduni or mjridau; G. L. du. iuHnos or ^udyos, mpdunos or mridvos. 
See 119. a. 



1 8 8. B. Examples of Adjectives formed from Substantives, 

Jm^^ * human ^ 
I vrf^cli * religious ' 
rlc4^it^ ' strong ' 

1 ^Tf^^ ' prosperous ^ 

6. {'^fei: * happy ^ 



^c^^ffl. 105. 
"^jf^TfTl". 105. 

^%7ft. 105. 



C. Examples of Compound Adjectives. 



I. I q- jfcl^ * very learned ' 

3. {iff^* foolish' 

3. { ^T^H'g ' small-bodied' 

4. { ^^ * very liberal ' 

5. { ^tftn^^ ' all-conquering ' 

6. I ^n^ ' well-born ' 

7. I TTiT^TT^ * deprived of sense' ^W^rfT^ ^(T^iTT^ 

8. I T^^5I * piercing the vitals ' i^^^ ?W^o^ 

^Tj^nn ^^^. 105. 

190. Examples of some other Compound Adjectives, 

^T^UTT * a shell-blower' (108. o). ^r^i*TT^ ^I^WTT^ 

^;T?^' ruined' (126. A). ?TF^'t^ ^fT^^jft^ 

^?5^* a sweeper' (126.^). ^H^ WiA^ 

fi^*lHT5 ^ having a divine mother' (130). f^^nmn f^mwr 

^ * rich' (134. a). "^T^ "^^^ 

^jf^ * having many ships ' (134. a). ^f 'ft^ ^"^^ 



191. The degrees of comparison are formed in two ways : 
1st, by adding to the stem TTt tar a ( = Gr. -repo-g) for the com- 
parative (see 80. LXI), and in? tama ( = Lat. -timu-s, Gr. -Taro-s) for 
the superlative (see 80. LIX), both of which suffixes are declined in 
m. f. n. like subha at 187; thus, 

^^ puny a, 'holy,' 5*1** rti. punya-tara (Nom. m. f. n. as, d, am), 'more holy,' 
g^iTf punya-tama (Nom. m. f. n. as, a, am), * most holy.' Similarly, >R^rfAa- 

Q Z 


navat, 'wealthy,' V^H"^ dhanavat-tara, * more wealthy,' V^^^TR dhanavat-tama, 
most wealthy.' 

a. A final n is rejected; as, ^iTi^dhaniriy 'rich,' ^fi^wt dhani-tara, 

'more rich/ Xffrnm dhani-iama, * most rich.^ 

^' "f^^, *wise,^ makes f^ir^T, f^^^W. Compare i6S.e, 

192. 2ndly, by adding ^??^ lyas (Nom. m. f. n. -(ydn, -lyasiy -lyas, 
see declension below, cf. Gr. Iwy) for the comparative (see 86. V), and 
^ ish(ha (Nom. m. f. n. -ishthas, -ishthd, -ishtham, declined like Mha 
at 187, cf. Gr. -larro^) for the superlative (see 80. XLVIII). 

Obs. The difference in the use of tara, tama, and {yas, ishtha, seems to be 
this that tyas and ishtha, being of the nature of primary suffixes, are generally 
added to roots or to modifications of roots (the root being sometimes weakened, 
sometimes gunated), while tara and tama are of more general application. 

a. Note, that while the Sanskrit comparative suffix ends in n and {{yans) for 
the Strotig cases, the Greek has adhered to the n throughout (N. <ydn=.i(i)v, 
Voc. {yanz=:iov); and the Latin has taken the s for its neuter {{yasz=ius, neuter 
of iorj s being changed to r, in the masc. and oblique cases). Cf. Sk. gariyas with 
Lat. gravius. 

193. Before lyas and ishtha ^ the stem generally disburdens itself 
of a final vowel, or of the more weighty suffixes in, vin, vat, mat, 
and tri ; thus, ^f?57^ * strong,^ ^c5hnFI[ ^ more strong,^ ^f75 * strongest ;* 
M I Pm*!^' wicked,^ q|if)<^ *more wicked,' "mfro *most wicked ;* W^ *%ht,' 
WmIai^ * lighter,' Hftn? ' lightest ;' mnf^ * inteUigent,' H>fN^ * more 
intelligent,' ^fvj^ 'most inteUigent.' Similarly, Tfi^ * great,' *<^1n^ 
* greater,' ^f^ * greatest.' 

a. Compare ^T^hrn^ (N. of svddiyas) from svddu, ' sweet,' with r^t-iuv from 
ij^vg ; and ^Tf^W^ with ^^wcxrof . 

The declension of 4<4l^^ masc. is here given in full (see 167). 


N. ^TThn?^ baliydn ^?75^^^ baliydnsau ^75^^^^ baliydmas 

Ac. ^S^\Hnbaliydnsam baliydnsau Hcf^'iiX^^^baUyasas 

I. Trt%T baliyasd Wc^titUvf^Jbaliyobhydm ^Tyt^f^T^ baliyobhis 

D. "^rc^l^^ haliyase baliyobhydm 'W^^t^t^i^baliyobhyas 

Ab. it(6\*i^^^baliyasas baliyobhydm baliyobhyas 

G. baliyasas ^c6\^^\^^ baliyasos Wr^^frmr^ baltyasdm 

L. "^fyhrft? baliyasi baliyasos ^oil^:^ baliyahsu 

Y. ^oSl^rl^ baity an Wc^^^Jw baliydnsau "sf csW^ baity dn^as 

^c^im^ fem. is like nadi (lo^), and ^r<?^t^ neut. like manas (164). 




mf 194. Besides the rejection of the final, the stem often undergoes 
change, as in Greek (of. e-^6iwv, exOicrrog, fr. e-^Qpo^) ; and its place is 
sometimes supplied by a substitute (cf. ^eXrlcov, ^eXria-To^j fr. ayaOofj. 
The following is a list of the substitutes : 




^Tiich antika, 'ne&r' 

^^neda (rt.f^) 



^^alpa/ mile'* 

W^ kana (rt. cF?^) 



^uru/ \&rge' {evpvi) 

^T vara (rt. ^) 



^ riju, ' straight ' * 

^^If ri; (rt. ^^) 



^^ krisa, ' thin,' * lean ' 

^^ A;rsa (rt. f ^J 



T^J{ kshipra, ' quick ' 

'^^ kshepa (rt. ft^) 



"^^ kshudra, * small,' mean' 

T|>^ ksloda (rt. '^) 



^^ guru, ' heavy ' {(3apvi) 

^T ^rara (rt. "T ) 



"^ tripra, ' satisfied ' 

W^ trapa (rt. 1^) 



^^ dirglia, ' long ' 

JTV c^r^f^rAa (rt. "JT^^) 



l^rfMra, 'distant' 

^ rfatjc (rt. 5) 



1? dridha, * firm ' 

"52" dradha (rt. '^) 



H^K^ti parivridha, eminent' 

"^r<.c parivradha 



''I'^prithu, '\)road*(7rkaTVs) 

vmpratha (rt. THI) 



''^rt^r(rt. '^t) 






fsPl priy a/ dear ^ 

I?ti?ra(rt. Tft) 



^ bahu, ' much,' * frequent ' 



^<9 hahula, much 

"^banha (rt. ^) 


^^ bhrisa, ' excessive ' 

>J^ iArflia (rt. ^5() 



^*| mridu, ' soft ' 

^ mrada (rt. ^?) 



^^yan, 'young' (;Menw) 

^T^yaa (rt. ^) 



^T^ vddha, ' firm,' * thick ' 

^nV satf^a (rt. ^m^) 



-^vriddha/ old' 

j'^varsha (rt. ^^) 






\^\<. vrinddra, excellent ' 

^^ vrinda 



r<?H<- sthira, * firm,' ' stable ' 

Tm stha (rt. "^sn) 



^75 sthula, ' gross,' ' bulky ' 

^^ s^Aatja (rt. '^) 



fttfi^ sphira, ' turgid ' 

5OT spha (rt. Flin^) 



f^ hrasva, ' short ' 

"5^ Ara^fl (rt. 1^) 



* 'Sr^ may be also regularly ^^XR[, ^f^"ff ; and '^^ may be <.ll *4^, &c. 
t In the case of "'JT and U the final vowel is not rejected, but combines with zyas 
and ishtha agreeably to Sandhi. In j^T and >J,, yas is affixed in place of tyas. 


195. Tara and tama may be added to substantives; as, tr. THTf^, *a king,' 
TJiHTT, &c. ; fr. Jt^, 'pain,' gt^TR, &c. If added to a word like ^rf^^, 'clarified 
butter,' the usual euphonic changes must take place; thus, ^fsK^j &c. (70). 

These suffixes are also added to inseparable prepositions ; as, Ti^ ' up,* "SrWT 
higher,' 3^*? highest ' (cf. Lat. ex-timus, in-timus, &c.) ; also to pronominal 
stems (236); and tama is added to numerals (209, 211). 

196. Tard and tama may sometimes be added to feminine stems ending in 
and u (like ^qi ' a woman,' ^ift *a faithful wife,' f^^ ' a wise woman '), which 
may optionally be retained or shortened ; e. g. ^tlTTT, ^IaHI, or f^riO, f^HH! ; 
tnflni.1, ^c{lrtii, or KfinTTT, ^fTnWT ; f^^fHTT or f^l^rMrtHT (Pan. vi. 3, 44. 45). 

But if the feminine be the feminine of a masculine substantive, as 9iiiiuT of 
5tl<U, the shortening is compulsory, as "^reftlTHTT (Pan. vi. 3, 42). 

197. Tara and tama may even be added, in conjunction with the syllable ^TR dm, 
to the inflexions of verbs; as, ^T^jfTHWr 'he talks more than he ought.' See 
80. LIX, LXI. 

a. Sometimes {yas and tara, ishtha and tama are combined together in the same 
word (just as in English we say lesser) ; thus, ^M<si<, '3n*i; i^T^ifT; %f^iT*T, 
&c. : and tara may be even added to ishtha; thus, aqsnTI. 

Section IV. NUMERALS. 


198. The cardinals are, ^^ m. f. n. i, s ; % m. f. n. 2, ^ ; f(S m. f. n. 
3> ^J ^C5^m. f.n. 4, ; iri5^m. f. n. 5, M; Wi^m. f. n. 6, {^; ?n?5^m. f. n. 
7yS; ^H^m.f.n. 8, fc; ^^^9, <i; ^^10, ^o; ^^!T^^ 11, <^<^; ?rT^^ 
12, S^; W^it^^i3,<^^; ^1^14, ^d; ^rg^r9[Fi:i5, *^*<; iR^?^i6,c|(; 
^01^^17, <^>9; sm^^i8,ifc; ^R^^or gRf^^rfTTi9,<\<i; N^^ifirf. 20,^0; 
^dif^^ffiT 21; ?tN^ 22; ^f^^ 23; vi^r'<l5irH 24; ^^^^flT 25; 
^i^ 26 ; wrT^^w 27 ; ^gir^^ifri 28 ; ^T^f^^i! or "g^f^^ 29 ; 

f^^f. 30; ^^#^31; ^^^32; d^r^s^iti^ 33 '> ^3^^^ 34; 

^^^^^^35; ^^iJ'Ml^ 3^> ^Hf^'^n^ 37 '> ^^^^\3^> '^f^wn.or 
"3i7T^i5rTfqn^ 39 ; ^r^rrfqiT^ 40 ; ij^R^t^Tft^ 41 ; fT^f^rft^ or ^mr^- 
fc^ 42 ; f^^r^Tfr^T^ or ^xnjr^nfqn^ 43 ; '^f^^SRTfqn^44 ; i^-Mr^tft:^ 
45 ; M^^Hif^^iT^^ 46 ; ^TR^r^t^ 4 7 ; ^r^r^r^Tft^or vHy^r^lPMifi^ 48 ; 
^n^i^TfqiT^ or -gRTi^m^Ti^ 49 ; -q^sj^ 50 ; ij^fitrg^ni; 51 ; f^TT^n^ or 
^m^T^52; f^T?^T^ or OT:irgT^ 53; ^:TrgT^f^^54; ^^^m^ 15^55 ; 
trTXT^mfrT^56; >mdi^i^57; ^r^xrgr^or ^r?T'r^T^58; ^yyi^ii^or 
JitfHfK 59 ; wf 60 ; i!*Mf 61 ; 1V^? or ^T^? 62 ; fcfNTi? or wm'^V^ 
63 ; ^:v[f9* 64 ; Tf^Rft? 6^ ; M^MPg 66 ; ^nrrf^ 67; W^^f2 or VHmfF 

* These may also be written *<fiF, ^T^^b^. See 62. a. and 63. 


fTM qf g or gi^TTfiT 69 ; ^nrfrr 70 ; idoh^wr w 71 ; Irmrfw or iTT^TRfiT 
'"]%', fgr^wfrTor ^^:?iTrfrr 73; '^t^Trfw 74; tj^WTrfir 75; ^T^mfrr 76; 

^H ^HP fr 77; -5l>ffrr or -ttlglWUfiT 78 ; Ti^^mfTT or "aiHI^lirw 79 ; ^T^TT 
80; ^^^Tf(I 81; sr^ftftr 83; ^iT3[ftflT 83; ^T^tflT84; Tn^^ftfw 85 ; 
^^tfcT 86 ; ^mr^lflT 87 ; ^^^iHtT 88 ; Tj^T^tflT or -gRT^^fk 89 ; 7T^ 

90; JET^fT^IT 91; %^nfT or irrfRftr 9^; fw^?nfH or Gr^n^^fri 93; 
'qf^^fir 94 ; TT^^^fTT 95 ; ^ir^ 96 (43-/) ; ^nR^frr 97; ^r^^fir or 
^Fr^r^fir 98 ; if^^fff or ^H^M n. (m.) 99 ; ^ n. (also m.*) or ^ ^WT 
100 ; ij^^iT n. loi ; f^T^ITT n. 10:1 ; f^^ 103 ; ^t^cT 104 ; M^^id 105 ; 
H^^rri T06; ;grsr^iT 107; ^hb^ih 108; r^ 109; ^^rw no; %^jt 
(nom. sing, n.) or "i 51W (nom. du. n.) or ^ff (nom. du. n.) 300 ; fc^^lHTH 
(nom. sing, n.) or ^1% ^Tnf^ (nom. pi. n.) 300 ; '^tljnm or ^RTftl^fflftT 
(nom. pi. n.) 400 ; ^T^^Ji^or q^ ^ifH 500 ; ^^?t or ^ ^iftf 600 ; 
and so on up to ^r^ n. (also m.) 1000, which is also expressed by 
^ '^B\ or by ^ ^nnf^ or by ^^npft f.; ? ^^ 2000; ^1% 

^^ftr 3000 ; '^i^fT ^^HTfin 4000, &c.t 

199. The intervening numbers between 100 and 1000, those be- 
tween 1000 and 3000, and so on, may be expressed by compounding 
the adjective ^ftrsR adhika (or occasionally T^ utiara), *more/ *plus,' 
with the cardinal numbers ; thus loi is ^cR^nW (see above) or JjonrfVi^ 
"^nm (or occasionally idoj?|^( ^^nnr), i. e. * a hundred plus one/ or com- 
pounded thus, FSfiTfyoF^TiT'T. Similarly, Slftl^ ^HT^R or nrfVoh^lriH lo:^ ; 

^fti^ ^*T^or ^fVnr^niH 103 ; ^nnf>nii ^thh or ^vH-hI ^im 107 ; fc^^<fv- 

<*^in*t^i30 ; ^^TT^fVcF^nTH 150 (also expressed by ^V^nnT * one hun- 
dred and a half) ; ^f^ymfiioB r^^ i ri*^ 326 ; s^^mfVicfif^^j^ 383 ; xj^- 
^wfVflR^:^'^ 485J ^W^wfwq^TH^ 596; ^^wftr^F^^^*^ 666; 

Mwrv*^eH or "qwwT:^Tf^ 1060 ; mI^^i^mh, or ^^^nnfv^^i^^g^ 1600 ; 

^^ wfVeii^ i ^1 ^1 ri ^ 1666 J. 

* I have found ^ JlKll ' a hundred hundred ' and ^W^in: * seven hundred ' 
(agreeing with '^TOT:) in the Maha-bharata. 

t ^:^^HH is used in Rig-vedaV. 30, 15 for 4000 ; and on the same principle 
f^^^F'l^ might stand for 3000, and n^^tsi#(^for 2000, &c. ; but it is a question 
whether these might not also stand for 1004, 1003, 1002 respectively. 

X Similarly 2130 may be expressed by f#^ftl%<*ri^| fd^l rf*^^ or -^cfTf^ or by 
using T?t ; thus, f^^r^fVl^ofc^lrim ? ^f &. Other forms of expressing numerals 
are also found; e.g. 21,870 ^^yilWhR^lfiT: ^TM8I >J5T^ ITfffTT: ; 109,350 
^IT^J^ T^ ^FlfiU ^^l^lTsArilfrJ ^fijr. According to Pan. vi. 3, 76, ^oFT^ 
may be prefixed to a number in the sense ' by one not,' ' less by one ;' e. g. ^^T^- 
f^fff ' by one not twenty,' 'one less than twenty,' i. e. 19. 


In the same way the adjective Ttm * less/ * minus/ is often placed 
before a cardinal number, to denote one less than that number, ^^ 
*one^ being either expressed or understood ; thus, "gRf^fk or ii<i i w\ ~ 
fl^fir ' twenty minus one ' or * nineteen ' (cf. Lat. undeviginti^ i. e. unus 
de viginti). And other cardinals, besides ^^ * one,' are sometimes 
prefixed to "gR, to denote that they are to be subtracted from a 
following number ; as, tt^ ^nm or M^Ih^ iw^ * a hundred less five ' 
or ^ninety-five/ 

a. Again, the ordinals are sometimes joined to the cardinals to 
express 1 1 1 and upwards ; thus, id<*^^f ^[rw*^ or 4d<(il<^|^|Hi^ i ^ ^ ; M<^<^| 

^nTH^i5; f^^np^i2o; f^ ^nr^or f^^T^nr^ 130; xng^f ^nn^ 150; 
^f^^ :5!nn^i94J 'i^^%5nn^2i5; f^ ^r^^or fci^iJH^tii^ 1020. 

h. There are single words for the highest numbers j thus, ^^ n. (also m.) * ten 
thousand ;' H^EJ n. or H^ f. or fT^ n. (also m.) *a lac,* ' one hundred thousand * 
(^nref^); ir^W n. (also m.) *one million;' oRtf^ f. *a krore,' 'ten millions;' 
^<; m. n. ' one hundred millions ;' ^i^i J(^ m. n. or ^HT n. or ^^ n. * one thou- 
sand millions;' ^% n. 'ten thousand millions;' f^T^% n. 'one hundred thousand 
millions ;' J^IT^RT n. ' a billion ;' ^Jj m. (or H^Hsl5 n.) 'ten billions ;' ^ m. n. or 
^^ m. * a hundred billions ;' *I?T^'^ m. n. or ^TnBT * a thousand billions ;' ^T^ m. 
or *ru| ' ten thousand billions ;' *T^T^T^ m. or TJIT^ m. * one hundred thousand 
billions;' ^ n. (^) 'one million billions;' T^T^ n. (<^iyrt) 'ten million 
billions;' ^Tipf^^ot f. 'one hundred million billions;' H^IH|ln^l!J^'one thousand 
million billions.' 

Note Some variation occurs in some of the above names for high numbers, 
according to different authorities. 


aoo. ^^ I, % a (duo^ Svo), % 3 [tres, rpei^, rpla), ^^^ 4 (quatuor), 
are declined in three genders. 

^^eka, *one' (no dual), follows the declension of the pronominals 
at 237 : Nom. m. VM^^ekas; Dat. m. i!:^ekasmai; Nom. f. ^^ ekd; 
Dat. f. f!*^ ekasyai; Nom. n. ^^ ekam; Nom. pi. m. to eke, ' some.' 
It may take the suffixes tara and tama; thus, eka-tara,' out of two ;* 
eka-tama, *one of many/ which also follow the declension of pro- 
nominals; see 2^6y 238. 

201. % dvif *two' (dual only), is declined as if the stem were 
S" dva, like Siva ; thus, N. Ac. V. m. |^ dvau, f. n. Jt dve; I. D. Ab. 
m. f. n. ^Twn^; G. L. ?^i^. 

202. f^ tri, 'three '(pi. only), is decHned in the masculine like 



W^he plural of nouns whose stems end in ^i at no, except in Gen.; 
thus, N. V. masc. ^11^; Ac. 13^; I. f;af>^; D. Ab. f^vsq;^; G. ^^n- 

W^ (Ved. ^W(^ ) ; L. f^w. The feminine forms its cases from a 

stem fk^ ; thus, N. Ac. V. fem. fffer^; I. frr^fi^; D. Ab. fw^l^; G. 

fif^^ini*^; L. firg^. The N. Ac V. neut. is ^f^ ; the rest Hke masc. 
203' ^f^ 6atur, *four^ (plural only), is thus declined : N. V. masc. 

^mjl^ {rerrape^, Tea-crapei); Ac. ^^^; I. ^^f^; D. Ab. ^ij^^; 

G. ^^5nT; L. '^I. N.Ac.V. fem. ^^nr^; I. ^ir^fW^; D. Ab. ^tt^- 

wi^; G. ^ riijiu l H^ ; L. ^^K^^. N. Ac. V. neut. ^r^rft:; the rest Hke 

the masculine. 

a. In catur, shash, pah6an, &c., an augment n is inserted before dm^ the terraina" 

tion of Gen., by Pan. vii. i, 55. 

^204. y^^^pan6anj *five^ (plural only), is the same for masc, fem., 
and neut. It is declined in I. D. Ab. L. like nouns in an (146). 
The Gen. lengthens the penultimate ; thus, N. Ac V. t^ {irevre) ; 
I. "q^ftn=^; D. Ab. xr^vq^; G. q^l^^; L. "q^. 

Like xpgr^ are declined, ^fnn^ * seven ^ [septem, eTrra), ir^'nine' 
(novem), t^';:^ * ten ' {decern, SeKo), ^^^?[ * eleven ' (undecim), iri^Jf!^ 
'twelve' {duodecim), and all other numerals ending in aw, excepting 
^F^ ' eight.' 

205. "^1^ shash, * six,' is the same for masc, fem., and neut, and 

is thus declined: N. AcV. ^^; I. iT^H^; D. Ab. "q^R[; G. "q^iT 

shanndm (43./); L. "q^. 

^ a. Similarly without distinction of gender, ^sre*^ ashtan, * eight : ' 

^ N. Ac V. ^i^ or 'gi^ {odo, oktw) ; I. "^TFrf^^ or ^?fi^^ ; D. Ab. "'SIFW^ 

or '^^vq^; G. ^FT^T^; L. ^rei^ or ^r^. 

b. The numerals from xj^gr^ * five ' to rR^^ ' nineteen ' have no 

distinction of gender, but agree in number and case with the nouns 

^ to which they are joined; thus, "iT^fiT^ n^fT: *by five women.' 

^E 206. All the remaining cardinal numbers, from "girrf^flT * nineteen * 

^B to ^ * a hundred,' ^r^ ' a thousand,' and upwards, may be declined 

in the singular, even when joined with mascuHne, feminine, or neuter 

nouns in the plural. Those ending in fir ti are feminine, and decHned 

like prflT mati at 112 ; and those in it / are also feminine, and declined 

like ^f^sarit at 136; thus, f4 ^ |W l ^^^: *by twenty men;' f^fw 

JRl^ ace pi. * twenty men;' f^lTT g^^: *by thirty men;' i^W 

'TTT'^ ace pi. 'thirty men.' ^n *a hundred' and ^T^ *a thousand? 

and all the higher numbers are declined according to their final 



vowels, whether a, d, i, i, or u; thus, ^ fqiit; ' a hundred ancestors ;' 
^nrTT^lTT^: ^from a hundred ancestors;^ ^[w fi PB ^ Irf f^r. 'a hundred 
and one ancestors;' W^jdim fq^ft?: Svith a thousand ancestors;' IT^T! 
SRK 'a milUon men;' c^tl^T ^^: 'with ten milUon men,' &c. 

207. Although these numerals, from ^5rN^rfW 'nineteen/ when joined with 
plural nouns, may be declined in the singular, yet they may take a dual or plural 
when used alone and in particular constructions ; as, f^^Tift ' two twenties j' fw^nfl 

* two thirties ;' f^TT^ ' many thirties ;' ^ * two hundred ;' ^nrrff ' hundreds ;* 
tt^tuHin * thousands;' ' sixty thousand sons,' ^F: ^^^T^HlfT!!. 

The things numbered are often put in the genitive ; thus, ?[ ^"^H <vnT!*^ ' two 
thousand chariots;' tiN^iniHrT li'lini't^* seven hundred elephants;' ^oBN^TfTTI 
^TWn^* twenty-one arrows.' See other examples in Syntax at 835. 

rio8. The ordinals are, inm * first ' * (cf, ttjOcoto?, primus) ; finft^ 
' second ' (Seurefio-s:) ; l[fCi'^ ' third ' (tertiu-s) ; which three are all 
declined like iva and Mha at 187; but the first may optionally 
follow sarva at 2^y in N. V. pi. m. (thir or H^nn^) ; and the other 
two the pronominals at 237, 338 in D. Ab. L. sing. m. f. n. ; thus, 
D. f^ rfl mn or f^Tift^ni m. n., fnft^T^ or f^nftxn^ f. See also 239. 

209. ^g^ * fourth 't {rcTapTo^) ; V^^ *fiflh;' ^^ * sixth ;' TUm 

* seventh' (septimus) ; ^xw^ * eighth ;' H^ ' ninth' (nonus) ; ^^ * tenth' 
(decimus) ; declined like Hva and kibha for masc. and neut., and 
like nodi at 105 for feminine ; thus, Nom. m. ^f^, f. ^^^. (In 
v[^n &c. the old superlative suffix ma may be noted.) 

210. The ordinals from * eleventh' to 'nineteenth' are formed from 
the cardinals by rejecting the final n ; thus, from jjcfc^^ifj^ * eleven,' 
^cRT^ ' eleventh ' (Nom. m. f. n. ^^^^, -^, -^, 103, 105, 104). 

211. * Twentieth,' * thirtieth,' 'fortieth,' and ^fiftieth' are formed 
either by adding the superlative suffix tama (195) to the cardinal, or 
by rejecting the final syllable or letter of the cardinal ; as, from 
f^^TT 'twenty/ f^finm or f% 'twentieth' (Nom. m. f. n. -11^, -ift, 
-^y -^, -^, -^^, 103, 105, 104). Similarly, f^^nn? or f;^ 'thir- 
tieth/ q^T^HR or T?^^ 'fiftieth/ &c. The intermediate ordinals 
are formed by prefixing the numeral, as in the cardinals ; thus, 
^^Ff^^mnT or v^r(^r * twenty-first/ &c. 

* Other adjectives may be used to express 'first;' as, 'wiw^, -BT, -IPT^; ^rrf^^, 
t ?[^ti|?^, -"m, -'T'^; ^"^j "^T, -A\ are also used for 'fourth.' 


21 Z, The other ordinals, from 'sixtieth' to 'ninetieth,' are formed 
by adding tama ; also by changing ti to ta in the case of another 
numeral preceding, but not otherwise ; thus, from lerf? * sixty,' i^f^rW 
'sixtieth;' but "^ for * sixtieth' can only be used when another 
numeral precedes, as i^^ or ij^iwfinTH * sixty-first,' fg^ or f^irfsiTI 

* sixty-third ;' from wT^ti 'ninety,' H^fdHH * ninetieth;' but *T^iT for 

* ninetieth' can only be used when another numeral precedes (see 
Pan. V. 2, 58). 

1^13. 'Hundredth' and 'thousandth' are formed by adding tama 
to ^ and ^er, declinable in three genders ; thus, ^friiTH ' hundredth' 
(Nom. m. f. n. ^TrTil'i^, -ft, -H'O' Similarly, ^yrtif^, -Jft, -*T^, 

* thousandth.' 

214. The aggregation of two or more numbers is expressed by modifications of 
the ordinal numbers ; thus, ^TH^'a duad,' ^^* a triad/ jjM\*the aggregate 
of four.' 

215. There are a few adverbial numerals; as, H^'f^'once,' flT^' twice,' T^^ 

* thrice,' ^^ ' four times.' ^t^\ may be added to cardinal numbers, with a 
similar signification ; as, "^^^r^^ ' five times.' The neuter of the ordinals may 
be used adverbially ; as, THHT'^ ' in the first place.' 

For a table of the numerical symbols see page 3. 



216. Pronouns (sarva-ndman) have no one stem equally appli- 
cable to all the cases. In the ist personal pronoun, the stem of 
the sing, is practically ^ ah in Nom., and in the oblique cases >! ma. 
In the 2nd, the stem of the sing, is practically i^ tva or g tu^ while 
that of the dual and plural is g yu. The 3rd has ^ sa for the stem 
of the Nom. sing., and Ji ta for the other cases. 

217. Nevertheless the form of the pronoun used in derivative and 
compound words is regarded by grammarians as expressive of its 
most general and comprehensive state, and this in the pronouns of 
the first and second persons, corresponds with the Ablative cases, 
singular and plural, and in the other pronouns, with the Nominative 
and Accusative cases singular neuter. 

R 2 



Obs. In Sanskrit, as in other languages, the general and indefinite character 
of the first two personal pronouns is denoted by the fact that no distinction of 
gender is admitted. For the same reason, the termination of the Nom. case of 
some pronouns is made to resemble the neuter, as the most general state. This 
may also be the reason why the 3rd pronoun sa drops the s of the Nom. case 
before all consonants. There is no Vocative case. 

218. Tf^ mad, sing. *I/ vfiiw< asmad, pi. *we.' 

N. ^^ahaniy * I ' ^WIH dvdm, * we two ' ^^ vayam, ' we ' 

Ac. mi\mdm or JTTwia/me' dvdm or^nau/us two' ^wi^asmdn or fT^(W, *U8* 
I. inn mayd ^RPTPr dvdbhydm ^T^Rlf*^ asmdbhis 

D. ^^[f{mahyam or H me dvdbhydm or fT nau ^r5RW asmabhyam or tT^wfli 
Ab.JTi^^mc/* dvdbhydm ^s^ri[^asmat 

Q. ^^ mama or ^ me ^^^j^^ dvayos or r nau ^TWlopH asmdkam or 't{^na8 
L. ^f^ mayi dvayos ^wi^ asmdsu 

21 g. i^ tvadf sing. ' thou/ ^t?t^ yushmad, pi. 'you.' 
N. r5R /vam, * thou' ^c||H yuvdm, * you two' ^RT yuyam, *you' or *ye' 
Ac. i^T?^/i;am or rSTT /va yuvdm or ^TH vaw Y^^ yushmdn or ^ va* 
I. f^m ivayd '^^{tmxfiyuvdbhydm "^"^uf^yushmdhhis 

D. "^iVHtubhyam or w ^e yuvdbhydm or ^TT^i;aw ^^^fi^xp^yushmabhyam or ^ vaj 
Ab. i^ /va/ * yuvdbhydm ^^\ yushmat 

G. ITT ^ava or Ti^ /c ^^41^ yuvayos or ^P^ram ^Tin^yM5AmaA:am or ^ra* 

L. Rfti /vayt yuvayos ^mi^ yushmdsu 

Obs. ^The alternative forms Tna, me, nau, &c., have no accent, and cannot be 
used at the beginning of sentences, nor before the particles (fa, * and;* rcf, *or;' 
eva, * indeed,' &c. 

a 10. ir^ tad, * he,' * that.' 


N. ^*flw (usually Hat),*he' ift/aM,Hhey two' ?r/e,* they,'* those' 
Ac. in^ tarn tau KV^ tdn 

I. ^^tena ttvt'P^Jdbhydm %-^^tais 

* As the stems mad and tvad are generally used in compounds, mat-tas and 
tvat-tas more commonly stand for the Ablative; see 719. Similarly, the Ablative 
plural may be yushmat-tas, asmat-tas; but these very rarely occur. 

t By 67, 9 will be the usual form. IT^ usually exists as ^, see 64. a. 



D. if^ tasmai 
Ab. 'W^T[t[^tasmdt 
G. w^tasya 
L. rffwr^ tasmin 

>rPTR tdbhydm 


WR( tebhyas 


ff^TTH teshdm 

N. ITT 5a, * she^ 
Ac. im^ /aw 
I. rPn /aya 
D. ff5^ tasyai 
Ab. rT^qr?^ /flwyas 
G. tasyds 


^ te, * they two' (fern.) 


iTP^nH tdbhydm 




HT^ /a*, * they' (fem.) 
inf>T^ tdbhis 
TTT^'l^ tdbhyas 
lATfriH, tdsdm 
!T^ /a5% 

N. Ac. Tmi /a/, W i?e, TrrfW ^awi; the rest Uke the masculine. 

a. Observe the resemblance of the Sanskrit personal pronouns to those of the dead 
and living cognate languages. Aham or ah is the Greek eyct) (iEolic eyojv), Latin 
ego, German ichy English * I ;' mam or wo (the latter being the oldest form found 
in the Vedas) equals e/xe, me : mahyam=imihi ; mayi=zmei : the mat of the Abl. 
sing, and of asmat, yushmat, corresponds to the Latin met in memet, nosmet, &c. : 
ray am or CO is the English* we;' asmdn=zusj nas=znos; tvam-=.tu, thou;' tvdm 
or fo = <e, *thee;' tubhyamz=.tihi ; tvayi=ztuij yMyo=v/XriJ", English * you;' 
vas=vos. The 3rd personal pronoun corresponds to the Greek article; thus, tau 
= TCtf, tam = TOv; tdbhydm =:To7v, ra^v, &c. 


221. The third personal pronoun Tf^ /ac?, * he/ declined above, is 
constantly used in a demonstrative sense, to signify *that' or *this.' 

a. It is sometimes used emphatically with other pronouns, like ille and ipse ; 
thus, ^S^%7/e ego;' H cRH *7Zi nos :* '^ r^^' ille tu/ ^ rlH *i7/o tuj* 
if ;jT^ * illi vos ;' H ^W: * ille ipse ;* Tf^ ^WT^ * id ipsum.' 

222. It is also combined with the relative ya to form another demonstrative 
pronoun (rarely used except in the Veda), of which the stem is tyad: N. 41*4^(67), 
"pft, W ; Ac. "WT, &c. Fem. ^^TT, ^, WT^, &c. Neut. ?n^, W, mrftf, &c. 

223. By prefixing ^ c to H^, another common pronoun is formed, 
more proximately demonstrative ; thus, 



WK^ etad, * this.* 


N. wv;^^eshas{^l8u.^^e8ha),Jo. ^ efau 

Ac. FiH^ eiam or ^5f^ enam 
I. intw^ etena or ^%tf enena 
D. ^^ etasmai 
AK^dWIrt etasmdt 
G. ^w^ etasya 

^onpr^e/aw or VHI|^c 

^j^ etebhyas 

etau or Ffft enau 
FirWHT etdbhydm 


^inft^ etayos or ^tnft^ enayos u^mn^ eteshdm 

etayos or enayos Tni"^ eteshu 

The feminine is N. ^m c^Aa, ^ e/e, ^TrR[ e/o* ; Ac. ^WT*^ or ^HIH, 
^ or ^, OT^ or F^TT^; I. ^inn or V^rm, <ril<IIH, ^rflf*?^; 
D. Fif^, &c. 

The neuter is N. ^jn[, VCff, l^rfirH ; Ac. ^rTi^^ or ^tn^, ^5^ or ^, 
^frllfH or inTTftr, &c. 

a. The alternative forms ^BTT'^, ^^, ^?HT*T, &c. are, like those of 
the ist and 2nd person, enclitic, and ought not to be used at the 
beginning of a sentence. Moreover, they can only be used with 
reference to some one or something mentioned in a previous sen- 
tence (see Syntax 836). 

With etad cf. Lat. iste, ista^ istud: etam=zistum, etasya =iistiiis, etat^istud, 

224. There is another common demonstrative pronoun, of which 
^^ idam, * this/ the N. neuter, is supposed to represent the most 
general state (cf. Lat. is, ea, id), though there are really two stems 
the vowels v a and ^ i (cf. a-tas, i-tas, 719). The latter serves also as 
the stem of certain pronominals, such as ^IR, ^^, ^;^. See 234, 
234. b, and 236. 


3^ imau, * these two ' ^ ime, * these ' 

imau X'^ imdn 
WPi=mH dbhydm ^f^ ebhis ^ 

dbhydm ^WR( ebhyas 

dbhydm ebhyas 
^h4^^ anayos VMIH eshdm 

anayos ^ eshu 

, N. ^T^^ay am/ this'' 
Ac. ^R*T imam 
I. fl^H anena 
D. ^I^ asmai 
Ab. ^TOTTH^ asmdt 
G. ^R^ asya 
L. wfisR*^^ asmin 

* This is an example of the old form for the Inst. pi. of masculine nouns of the 
first class, common in the Vedas. 




3ji??^ iyam 

^H ime 

![iTT^ imds 


. \^^^^ imam 




^Tftci anayd 

^T?TT dbhydm 

^ft^ dbhis 


^^ asyai 


^Tra[ dbhyas 


. ^^n( asyds 





^rfift^ anayos 

*ini#i dsdm 


'^X^m^ asydm 



^1^ dsu 


Ac. 3f^^ idam 

^ ime 

^Hlf^ imdni 


225, There is another demonstrative pronoun (rarely used, excepting in Nom. 
sing.), of which ^^^, * this ' or ' that,' is supposed to represent the most general 
state, though the stem is ^^(^ amu, and in N. sing. ^^ asu. It is thus dechned : 
Masc. N. ^^, W^l^, ^W^ ; Ac. ^'T, ^SHJ^, '3nj^; I. "^^j ^^wn*r, '^nftfn^; 
D. ^"^j 'ST^^nw, ^jft^R^; Ab. ^rgi^Ti^, '^^IFT, ^*ft?^; G. ^T^^, ^'fi^, 
^*ft"qTH ; L. ^gf^5|[, ^^^, ^*ft^. Fem. N. "SIW, ^I^, ^HJ^; Ac. ^sr^H, ^ , 

^s?jj^; I. 'STgxrr, ^r|n'T, ^^f>T^; D. ^^, ^st^^ith, ^r^ww(; Ab. ^^"otr^, 

&c. J G. ^^^, '^g^, ^I^TT; L. ^^TW^, ^snjTf^, ^15. Neut. N. Ac. 


226. The relative is formed by substituting ir y for the initial 
letter of the pronoun tad at 220 ; thus, 

Kj^ yad, * who/ * which.* 


N. ^ yas 
Ac. TCfi^yam 
I. ^ yena 
D. 11^ yasmai 
Ab. iT^T?^ yasmdt 
G. i^;^ 2/<^*y^ 
L. iif^T*^ yasmin 

T^ yau 

^ ye, * who' or * which* 

^R( yebhyas 
^^"H^ yeshdm 
xm yeshu 

HT^iTT^ y dbhydm 




The feminine and neuter follow the fem. and neut. of tad at 220. 
Fern. N. in yd^ ^ j^e, ^T^ yds ; Ac. nrR ydm, &c. &c. Neut. N. Ac. 
xn^^ ya^, ^ 2/^j ''Tftf ywi ; the rest like the masculine. 

With yas, yd, yat, &c., cf. Gr. Of, 07, 0, &c., Sk. y corresponding to spiritus asper 
in Gr. (see 25), 



227. The interrogative differs from the relative in substituting k 
instead of y for the initial letter of the pronoun tad at 220 ; and in 
making the N. Ac. sing. neut. fw\ instead of ^inf^* ; thus, N. masc. 
^ has J ^ kauy % ke, * who?' * which?' 'what?' Ac. ^A:ai, * whom?' 
&c. N. fern. "SUT A:a, iir ke, ^fT^ kds, &c. The N. Ac. neut. are ftFiT 
kim, ^ ke, nrf^ kdni. Although the real stem of this pronoun is ka, 
yet kirn is taken to represent the most general state, and occurs in 
a few compounds; such as ftFr^*on what account?' *why?' 

a. To the true stem ka may be affixed ti, to form ejrfff kati {quot)y ' how many ?* 
The same sufl&x is added to ta and ya, the proper stems of the third personal 
and relative pronouns, to form tati, *so many' (tot), and yati, 'as many.' These 
are thus declined in pi. only : 

N. Ac. V. flfiffT; I. ofifiTfii^; Dat. Ab. flRfiTR^; G. cRrlhTnT; L. flfcfiT^. 

Note The Latin quot and tot, which drop the final i, take it again in composi- 
tion; as, quotidiej totidem, &c. 


228. The indeclinable suffixes 6id, apiy and 6ana (718), affixed (in 
accordance with the rules of Sandhi) to the several cases of the 
interrogative pronouns, give them an indefinite signification ; as, 
flRf^^ kaUidy ' somebody,' * some one,' * any one,' ' a certain one.' 


N. fluf^f^^ ka^dit. 62 . ?Mf^ kau6it ^f^"?^ ke6it, * some person s ' 

Ac. '^X^[f[kah6it. 59. kau6it '^f'^f[kdni6it. 53. 

I. '^n^'^t[Jcna6it fcl**4 rO^ 1^ kdbhydndit %C'^^kais<Ht. 62. 

D. "^^fVii^kasmaiiHt kdbhydhHt ^W^f^^kebhyasdit 

Ab. JVFTTf^T^ A:a5maVA7. 48. kabhydhHt kebhyaidit 

G. 'WT^f^T[^kasya6it 'Flftf^nif^ArayosVtV. 62. W^'\f^:f[keshdh6it 

L. <k^kH^^\kasmiri46it. 53. kayodcit W^^f'^keshu6it 

Similarly, Fem. Nom. ^fq?^, ^ifVn^, ^f^; Ac. wf^, &c. : and 
Neut. Nom. Ac. f^lif^* something,' * anything,' iFf^ , wf^"^!^, &c. 

329. So also by affixing ^rftf; as, Nom. masc. 'SPtsfti (64.0) 'some one,' *a 
certain one,' ^*nf^,^sfTT(37, 35) J Ac. ^F^ftr, &c. ; I. W^ftf, &c.(3i); D.VWT- 

* Kat (or kad), however (= Latin quod), was the old form, and is, fike kirn, found 
at the beginning of compounds ; such as ka66id, * perhaps ; ' kad-artha, * useless ' 
('of what use ? ') ; kad-adhvan, ' a bad road ' (* what sort of a road ?'). 


&c. (37) ; Ab. ^WT^f^T, &c. ; G. ll^nf<l, &c. ; L. ^aR^R^f^, &c. (52). 
Nom. fern. 'SliTf^, &c.; Ac. "SRITrPT, &c. ; I. '^^TfTT, &c. &c. Norn. neut. f^Wf^T 
Something,' * anything,' &c. The suffix carta is rarely found, except in Nom. 
masc. '^^T ' some one,' ' any one ;' and in Nom. neut. f5F^T ' something.' 

230. In the same way interrogative adverbs are made indefinite; thus, from 
kati, 'how many?' katidid, 'a few;' from kadd, *when?' kadddid or kadddana or 
kaddpi, * at some time ;' from katham, ' how ?' kathahdana, ' some how ;' from kva, 
* where ?' kvadid or kvdpi, * somewhere.' 

a. 'Whosoever,' 'whatsoever' are expressed by prefixing the relative to the in- 
definite; thus, X[: ofiftgnr or "m oPtsfxi 'whosoever,' ^ f^f^i^' whatsoever :' or 
sometimes to the interrogative; as, ^ W^ '^TIT^'T 'by any means whatsoever :' 
or sometimes by repeating the relative ; as, ^ ^t, 'T^ '^^^. 


231. Possessive pronouns (Pan. iv. 3, 1-3) are mostly formed by- 
affixing iya (80. L) to those forms of the personal pronouns, ending 
in dy which are used as stems ; thus, fr. ??^ ' 1/ H^iT madiya, ' mine ;' 
fr. ^91^ ' we,' ^^^^ asmadiya, * our ;' fr. R^ * thou/ i^l^ tvadiya, 
'thine/ fr. IT^ *he/ jr^n iadiya, *his.' Similarly, H^l^I* yours* 
(Pan. IV. 2, 115) is formed from bhavad, and not from the regular 
stem bhavat (see 233). They are declined like subha at 187: e.g. 
Nom. m. J^^, f. T^^, n. i<{)q*^, 

a. Other possessive pronouns differently formed are mdmaka (fem. akt, but 
generally ikd) and mdmakina (fem. d), 'mine;' tdvaka (fem. akt) and tdvakma 
(fem. d), 'thine;' dsmdka (fem. dkt) and 'dsmdkma (fem. a), 'our;' yaushmdka 
(fem. dki) and yaushmdUna (fem. a ), * your.' Mdmaka and those formed with the 
suffix tna (80. XLIX) make their feminines in d, and are dechned like subha at 
187; the others foUow siva or subha for masc. and neut., and nadi (105) for fem. 

Obs. The genitive case of the personal pronouns is often used as a possessive ; 
thus, li^ gWi ' his son ;' JR ^t ' my daughter.' 


232. The oblique cases sing, of ^rTW^ a/waw, * soul,' ' self ' (declined 
at 146), are used reflexively, in place of the three personal pronouns, 
like the Latin ipse. 

Thus, dtmdnam {me ipsum) andhdrena hanishydmi, ' I shall kill myself by fasting;' 
dtmdnam {te ipsum) mritapad darsaya, * show thyself as if dead ;' dtmdnam {se 
ipsum) nindati, 'he blames himself.' It is used in the singular, even when it 
refers to a plural ; as, dtmdnam pummahe, ' we (will) purify ourselves ;' abudhair 
dtmd paropakarantkritah, 'foolish people make themselves the tools of others.* 
a. The indeclinable pronoun 'm'm\svayam is sometimes joined, 



in the sense of * self/ to the three personal pronouns ; thus, ^^ ^ttt 
' I myself,' &c. 

b. "^ sva (suus) is used reflexively, with respect to all three 
persons, and may stand for * my own' {meus), * thy own' (iuus), * his 
own,' * our own,' &c. (cf. a-cjyo^j ctc^j/, crcpov). It often occupies the first 
place in a compound, e. g. yj^^ U-a&.CA *he goes to his own house.' 

The Gen. case of ^miT^ dtman, or often the simple stem, is used 
with the same signification ; as, wiwhI ^ or ^smwji^ iiTadfri. It is 
used in the singular even when it refers to more than one*. In 
the most modem Sanskrit, frjir nija is often used in place of ^ and 
55rTrR?(, and fi*om it transferred to Bengali. 

^, in the sense of ' own,' is declined like sarva at 237; as a pro- 
nominal the Ab. L. sing. masc. neut. and N. pi. masc. may optionally 
follow iubha at 187 ; thus, N. pi. m. sve or svds in the sense of 
<own;' but used substantively in the sense of 'kinsmen' or 'pro- 
perty,' sva can only follow iva or Subha (N. pi. m. svds), 

c. ^\ti (f. a), W^'^ (f. ), and ^oR (f. akd or ikd), declinable like Subha, 
sometimes take the place of ^ in the sense of 'own,' * one's own.' 


233. H^ bhavat, ' your Honour,' requiring the 3rd person of the 
verb, is declined like dhanavat at 140 ; thus, N. masc. >T^T5^ bhavdn, 
>TTnn bhavantau, H^tf^ bhavantas ; V. >T^ ; N. fem. >^?ift bhavatt, 
v(^f^ bhavatyau, vr^m^ hhavatyas, &c. ; V. >T^fw. It is constantly 
used to denote 'respect,' in place of the 2nd personal pronoun; thus, 
H^T^ 1^ T^ ' let your Honour go home' for 'go thou home.' 


234. Modifications of the demonstrative, relative, and interroga- 
tive pronouns may take the suffix ^ vat to express ' quantity,' and 
y^ drika, ^^ driksha or '^^dris (Nom. masc. neut. drik, fem. driki) to 
express * similitude,' frequently used as correlative pronouns ; thus, 

iTRl^^apa/, *(.t\\^r[^etdvat, 'so many,* *so much' {tantus)-, '^[^(^{quantus) 'as 
many,' ' as much ' (declined like dhanavat at 140) ; HT"^ tddriia or iTT'^T^ tddriksha 
or Ttr^'Sl^tddri^, 'such like' {talis, ty}\iko$); Ijril^^l etddrida or I ^S(^ etddri.4, 
' like this or that,' following ^ubha (187) for masc. and neut. of those ending in 
"^ sa and TJ ksha ; and dis, at 181, for masc. and neut. of those in 3T^/; and nadt, 

* Lassen cites an example (Ramdyana II. 64, 28) in which dtman refers to the dual ; 
Putram dtmanah sprishtvd nipetatuh, they two fell down after touching their son.' 



at 105, for the fem. of all three. Similarly, the correlatives Trj^ or ^TdlS| or 
XfT^Ifl'as like,' 'how like' {qualis, rjXiKog); ^"^ or %'^ or f^^^^'so like;* 
^"H;^ or oiit^Tg or ^"^^T ' how like ? ' (qualis ?) 

a. Note, that "^ is derived from the root dris, 'to see,' * appear,' and is in fact 
our English 'like,' d being interchangeable with ?, and s with k. 

b. f^rm^'how much,' and 3[Ti^* so much,' are declined like V^^TT (140). 

c. A few peculiar pronouns of quantity, some of which are of the nature of 
ordinals, are formed with the suffix tha (itha), thought by some to be an old 
superlative, or titha (80. LXIII) j e. g. ydvatitha, as, t, am, ' to whatever stage or 
degree advanced,' 'how-manieth,' *as-manieth;' katitha, as, i, am, 'to whatever 
degree,' * how-manieth j' katitho divasah, ' what day of the month is it ?' katipaya- 
tha, as, I, am, ' advanced to a certain degree/ 

1^^, There are certain common adjectives, called pronominals, 
which partake of the nature of pronouns, and follow the declension 
of tad at 2,2,0 ; but may also take a vocative case. 

236. These are, ?[im ' other ' (but in Veda the neut. may be itaram as well as 
itarat, Pan. vii. i, 26, cf. Latin iterum) ; ^Tjni * which of the two ?' {TTOrepog for 
KOrepog); oRW' which of many?' TTiTt'that one of two;' inni * that one of many ;' 
"sirfR 'who or which of two;' ^T ' who or which of many' (formed by adding 
the comparative and superlative suffixes to the various pronominal stems, 195) ; 
^'m ' other,' ' another ;' ^nTiTC * one of two ;' and ^^rWT * one of many.' They 
are dechned hke iT^, and make the N. V. Ac. neut. sing, in at j thus, anyat, itarat, 
anyatarat, katarat, katamat, &c. ; but they have a vocative, viz. V. masc. any a, 
V. fem. anye, V, neut. anyat, &c. ; the V. du. and plural is like the Nom. 

a. With regard to itara, it loses its pronominal declension at the end of Dvandva 
compounds, but at the end of Dvandvas (748) it may optionally follow tad in the 
Nom. pi. ; e. g. varndsrametards (or -re), ' classes, orders, and others.' 

337. There are other pronominals, which make am instead of a^ 
in the N. Ac. neuter. The model of these is ^ sarva, 'all ;' thus, . 

N. TH%^ sarvas 
Ac. i^ik^^sarvam 
I. ^W^ sarvena 
D. ^^ sarvasmai 
Ab. ^^Tr^^ sarvasmdt 
G. ^^^ sarvasya 
L. "^f^if^ sarvasmin 
V. ^ sarva 



^tf sarvau 
^r%Twn*^ sarvdbhydm 

'^^^t^^ sarvayos 
^f sarvau 

s 2, 


^ sarve 
^%T*^ sarvdn 
^^ sarvais 
^^i^v^^^ sarvebhyas 
Ti^'^\ sarveshdm 
iS^ sarveshu 
^W sarve 







N. ?%T sarvd 

^ sarve 

^41^ sarvds 

Ac. ^^ sarvdm 



I. ^m sarvayd 

^?%T^Tn^ sarvdbhydin 

^T%Tf>?^ sarvdbhis 

D. ^^ sarvasyai 


"pikv^V^^ sarvdbhyas 

Ab. ^^T^ sarvasyds 



G. sarvasyds 

^<f)^ sarvayos 

^!IH sarvdsdm 


^i%Tg sarvdsu 

V. ttW sarve 

^W sarve 

^h^{ sarvds 

N. Ac. ^^ sarvam 

^^ sarve 

^Ttrftr sarvdni 

V. ^ sarva 



The other cases like the masculine. 

238. Like sarra are declined '^W^ *both' (properly only found in sing, and pi., 
uhha being used in du. ; the fem. of uhhaya is ubhay{, like nadt) ; f^^ *all ;' l^^iili 
'one of two ' (eKarepoi) ; ^rannflr 'one of many ;' WR meaning ' all,' but not when 
it signifies * equal;* ftw *the whole;* m 'other;' ^ 'half.' The N. Ac. sing, 
neuter of these will end in arn, but i^ is optionally ?sn^. In N. V. pi. masc. ^ is 
HH or ^JTT^. 

Obs. ^TVr, both' (am^o, a^</)a'), is declined like sarva, but only in du. ; thus, 
N. Ac. V. masc. inft, fem. and neut. "3^; I. D. Ab. ^m^UH; G. L. "^Hifrt^. 

a. ^eriR 'inferior,' ^ 'other,' ^SHR 'other,' ^TcR 'posterior,' 'west,' "5^^ 
Superior,' 'north,' ^ft|^ 'south,' 'right,' ^ 'east,' 'prior,' SMnli. meaning 
either 'outer' or 'inner' (as applied to a garment), ^ 'own' (232), follow sarva, 
and optionally *M^>Aa, at 187, in Abl. Loc. sing. masc. and neut., and Nom. Voc. pi. 
masc. ; as, WVT^n^^ or ^TVUT^^, &c. They can only be declined like pronominals 
when they denote relative position ; hence dakshindh (not dakshine) kavayah, 'clever 
poets.' Moreover, the pronominal inflexion is optional in certain compounds. 

239. ^^, 'one,' follows sarva, see 200; flnft^ ' second,* ^T^T 'third,' follow 
dubha (187), and optionally sarva in certain cases, see 208; they make their fem. 
in d. 

240. ^T^ 'a few,* ^ or ^ ' half,' *rqq (fem. a or * several,' ' few,' ' some,* 
inm ' first,' ^IRT? ' last,' "ST^ (fem. {), fSTHl (fem. <) ' twofold,' W^lHf (fem. f) ' five- 
fold,' and all in -ya and -taya, properly follow 4wa at 103 ; but may make their 
Nom. V. pi. masc. in e; as, W^ or ^^T^ *few,' &c. (see Pap. 1. 1, 33). 

a. ^xiixf, ^n<.n<, ' one another,* ' mutual,* make their Nom. Ac. sing. neut. 
in am, not at ; and V. in a. 

h. In some pronouns the syllable ka or ak is introduced, generally before the 
last vowel or syllable, to denote contempt, in the same way that ka is added to 
nominal stems ; e. g. W^W[ for W^\ * by me,* ^ho|ii(h^ for ^"RT^T^ ' by you.' 
Similarly, ?T%%, OvHI^^ for ^, f^^ * all ' (see Pan. v. 3, 71). 




241. Although the Sanskrit verb {dkhydta, kriyd) offers many- 
striking and interesting analogies to the Greek, yet our explanations 
of its structure are not likely to fall in with the preconceived notions 
of the student of Greek grammar. 

There are ten tenses and moods (kdla). Seven of them are of 
common occurrence ; viz. i. the Present (technically called c5T laf, 
which, with the other technical names, is applicable also to the 
terminations of each tense respectively) ; 2. the Imperfect, some- 
times called the First Preterite (fj^ Ian) ; 3 . the Potential or Optative 
(fc5^ lin) ; 4. the Imperative (c5^ lot) ; 5. the Perfect, sometimes called 
the Second Preterite (ffjT lit) ; 6. the First Future (^ lut) ; 7. the 
Second Future ("^ Irit). Three are not so commonly used ; viz. 
8. the Aorist, sometimes called the Third Preterite (^^ lun) ; 9. the 
Precative, also called the Benedictive (^f^^ f?5^ dsir lirt) ; 10. the 
Conditional (oST Irin). There is also an Infinitive, and several Par- 
ticiples. Of these, the Present, the three Past tenses, and the two 
Futures belong to the Indicative mood. The Imperative, Potential, 
Precative, and Conditional (see 242) are moods susceptible of 
various times ; but, as there is only one form for each, it can lead 
to no embarrassment to call them tenses, and to arrange them indis- 
criminately with the tenses of the Indicative. 

The first four tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, and 
Imperative, are frequently called Special tenses*, because in these 
each of the ten classes of roots has a special structure of its own (as 
will be explained at 248). 

a. Obs. ^The ancient Sanskrit of the Veda is more rich in grammatical forms 
than the later or classical Sanskrit. There is a Vedic Subjunctive mood, technically- 
called ^^ let, which comprises under it a Present, Imperfect, and Aorist ; moreover, 
the Vedic Potential and Imperative are thought to have distinct forms for various 
tenses. The Vedic Infinitive, too, has ten or eleven different forms (see 459. a). 

* In the previous editions of this Grammar these tenses were called ' Conjuga- 
tional.' I have thought it better to bring the present edition into harmony with 
other Grammars by adopting Bopp's designation of * Special.' 


242. Although the three past tenses are used without much distinction, yet it 
should be observed, that they properly express different degrees of past time. 
The Imperfect {anadyatana-bhuta) corresponds in form to the Imperfect of Greek 
verbs, and properly has reference to an event done at some time recently past, but 
before the current day. It may denote action past and continuing, or it may be 
used like the Greek Aorist. The Perfect (paroksha-bhuta) is said to have reference 
to an event completely done before the present day at some remote period, unper- 
ceived by or out of sight of the narrator ; it answers in form to the Greek Perfect, 
but may also be used like the Aorist. The Aorist refers to an event done and past 
at some indefinite period, whether before or during the current day j it corresponds 
in form and sense to the Greek ist and 2nd Aorist, and sometimes to the Pluper- 
fect *. Again, the two Futures properly express, the First, definite, the Second, 
indefinite futurity f: the Second, however, is the most used, and answers to the 
Greek Futiure. The Potential or Optative may generally be rendered in English 
by some one of the auxiharies *may,' * can,* 'would,' 'should,' * ought.' It is 
said to denote 'command,' 'direction,' 'expression of wish,' * enquiry,' 'condition,' 
* supposition' (sambhdvana, Pan. iii. 3, 161). See Syntax, 879. The Conditional (or 
Imperfect of the Future) is occasionally used after the conjunctions yadi and dedy 
if:' it has an augment like the Imperfect and Aorist, and ought on that account 
to be classed with the tenses of the Indicative (see 891). The Precative or Bene- 
dictive is a tense sometimes used in praying and blessing (dsishi). It is a modifi- 
cation of the Potential. There is no tense exactly equivalent to the Pluperfect in 
Sanskrit, although the form of some Aorists (in a few primitive verbs, and in verbs 
of CI. 10 and Causals) resembles that of the Greek Pluperfect by taking both aug- 
ment and reduplication : the sense of this tense, however, may often be expressed 
by the Past Indeclinable Participle or by the Past Passive Participle ; as, tasminn 
apakrdntey ' after he had departed.' See Syntax, 840, 899. a. 

a. According to some, the form of the Imperfect and Aorist, which remains after 
rejecting the augment of these tenses in the Indicative, and which is especially 
used after the particles TT md and WlWmd sma (see 884. Obs. and 889), ought to 
be called the Subjunctive Imperfect and Subjunctive Aorist. 

b. The Infinitive generally has an Active, but is capable of a Passive significa- 
tion (see Syntax, 867-872). 

* The fact is, that the three past tenses are not very commonly used to repre- 
sent the completeness of an action. This is generally done by employing the Past 
Passive Participle with an inst. case j or by adding vat to the Past Pass. Part., and 
combining it mth the Present tense of as, ' to be j* as, uktavdn asmi, ' I have said.' 
See Syntax, 897. 

t The First Future {lut) is said to be an-adyatane, i. e. to be so far definite as to 
denote what will happen at a future period, not in the course of the cmrent day ; 
as, "'at 'liUftR ' to-morrow I shall go ' (Pan. iii. 3, 15); whereas the Second Future 
may refer to immediate futurity ; as, ^111 ^T^hlTT^ "^ ^ iTftHmf*! 'this very evening 
or to-morrow I shall be going.' 


243. Every tense has three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 

To each tense belong two sets of Active terminations ; one for the 
Active voice (properly so called), the other for a kind of Middle or 
Reflexive voice. The former of these voices is called by Indian 
, grammarians Parasmai-pada (Svord* directed to another^), because 
the action is^^pposed to be Transitive, or to pass parasmaij *to 
another (object) ;' the latter is called Atmane-pada (^word* directed 
to one^s self ^), because the action is supposed to refer dimane, * to 
one^s self.' This distinction, however, is not always observed, and we 
often find both Parasmai and Atmane employed indifferently for 
Transitive verbs. 

Some verbs, however, are conjugated only in the iitmane-pada, 
especially when they are Intransitive, or when the direct fruit of 
the action accrues to the agent (see the distinction of Uddttetah and 
Anuddttetah at "J^.c), or when particular prepositions are used; thus, 

Mud and ru6 meaning to be pleased,' 'please one's self;' 6Amj meaning to eat ' 
(not 'to protect ') ; da, ' to give,' with a prefixed, meaning * to give to one's self,' ' to 
take,' are restricted to the Atmane-pada. Sometimes, when a verb takes both 
Padas, the Atmane, without altering the idea expressed by the root, may be used 
to direct the action in some way towards the agent ; thus, pa6ati means he cooks,' 
but^ac^a^e, 'he cooks for himself:' yajati, 'he sacrifices ;' yajate, * he sacrifices for 
himself:' namati, * he bends ;' namate, ' he bends himself:' darsayati (Causal), * he 
shews;' dar^ayate, he shews himself,' appears:' kdrayati, 'he causes to make;' 
kdrayate, 'he causes to be made for himself :' and ydc, 'to ask,' although employing 
both Padas, is more commonly used in the Atmane, because the act of asking 
generally tends to the advantage of the asker. (See this subject more fully ex- 
plained at 786.) 

a. Passive verbs are conjugated in the i^itmane-pada. Indeed, 
in all the tenses, excepting the first four, the Passive is generally 
undistinguishable from the Xtmane-pada of the primitive verb. 
But in the four Special tenses, viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative (unUke the Greek, which exhibits an identity between 
the Middle and Passive voices in those tenses), the Sanskrit Passive, 
although still employing the Atmane-pada terminations, has a special 

* Pada is an inflected word as distinguished from an uninflected root (Pan. i. 
4, 14). The term pada has here reference to the scheme of terminations only; so 
that in this sense there are only two voices in Sanskrit, and they are often used 
indiscriminately. Although the Atmane-pada has occasionally a kind of Middle 
signification, yet it cannot be said to correspond entirely to the Greek Middle. 



structure of its own, common to all verbs, and distinct from the 
conjugational form of the Atmane-pada in all but the fourth class*. 

Thus the Greek aKovo) makes for both the Middle and Passive of those four 
tenses, ist sing. aKovofxaiy yjKOvcfX'/jv^ aKovoiiXYjv^ aKovov (2nd sing.) But the 
Sanskrit iru, to hear,' makes for the conjugational form of the Atmane, "^H^* 
NH^jfiH, ^<!n*4, ^|pi%; while for the Passive it is ^, >m^, ^!^, ^. 

244. As in nouns the formation of a nominal stem out of a root 
precedes declension, the root generally requiring some change or addi- 
tion before the case-terminations can be affixed, so in verbs the forma-" 
tion of a verbal stem out of a root must precede conjugation. Again, 
as in nouns every case has its own proper termination, so in verbs 
each of the three persons, in the three numbers of every tense, has 
a termination {vibhakti), one for the Parasmai-pada, and one for the 
i^tmane-pada, which is peculiarly its own. Moreover, as in nouns, 
so in verbs, some of the terminations may be combined with servile 
or indicatory letters, which serve to aid the memory, by indicating 
that where they occur peculiar changes are required in the root. 
Thus the three terminations which belong to the ist, 2nd, and 3rd 
persons of the Present tense, Parasmai-pada, respectively, are Twi, si, 
ti ; and these are combined with the letter P (miP, ^iP, /iP), to 
indicate that roots belonging to the second and third groups of 
classes (see 258, 259, and 290) must be modified in a particular way, 
before these terminations are affixed. 

The annexed tables exhibit, ist, the scheme of terminations for 
Parasmai and j^tmane-pada, with the most useful indicatory letters 
(denoted by Roman capitals), in all the tenses, the four Special tenses 
being placed first ; 2ndly, the same scheme with the substitutions 
required by certain classes of roots (the numerical figures denoting 
the classes in which these substitutions occur, see 257). 

245. Terminations op Special Tenses. 
Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present tense. 

fn^mtP ^ra* J^mas 

fW^/iP W^ tas ^f^ anti 

W e ^ vahe ^% make 

% se Wni dthe U( dhve 

li te Wnf ate ^BRT ante 

* For this reason we prefer to regard the Passive, not as a Voice, but as a distinct 
derivative from the root. See 461.0. 



Imperfect or First Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 

' I, WT^amAP ^va ^ma 


^f^ raM 

J^f^ maAi 

2 ftr^sIP ITH^am Kta 


^l^H G/Mm 

lepT dhvam 

3 f^fflP "jTrHfam ^f{^an 

li ta 



Fotential or Optative. 

1 xrnTyam i\\^ydva "^TR ydma 

pity a 


^n^ imaAt 

2, 'm^yas XTTTTT ya7am "mifydta 




S'm^ydt ^lt^l^^ydtdm "^yus 



^Trl^ ^ra 






2, f^ hi rnr fw W ta 




Z'^tuV Wm^tdm ^ii^antu 




Terminations of General Tenses. 

Perfect or Second Preterite (requiring 



i.Tir^NaP ^va f{ma 




2."^MaP ^^^athus "^ a 


^^ a^Ae 


Z.W{J^a? '^:^atus "g^M* 




First Future or Definite Future. 

i.HTpR^asmi HT^i\tdsvas IH^f^^tdsmas 

Wlf tdhe 

rfiy^ tdsvafie 

1T(W^ tdsmahe 

2 . TTTftj tdsi TTtm ^^tdsthas m^ tdstha 

H'|JH|V4 tasathe 

3. irr td WTu tdrau HIX^ tdras 


Hl^ ^aratt 

iTT^ faVa* 

Second Future or Indefinite 


i.^TpRsyam ^{^\sydvas ^<A\*\\sydmas 


t*lN^ sydvahe 

^IH^ sydmahe 

'.'.."^f^ syasi ^H'^^syathas W^ syatka 

^re syase 

^"^ sye^Ae 

WQ( syadhve 

; }. ^fff 5y a/z ^JT^ syatas **i ^*n syanti 

^?TiT 5yef e 

*M'n syante 

Aorist or Third Preterite (requiring the augment a, 


i.'^sam T^sva W sma 



^f^ smahi 

2 . ^^^ SIS ^(^^stam ^ St a 



tSP[dhvam (^) 

3. ^T^ sit ^TJT stdjn ^ 5ms 

W sta 



Precative or Benedictive. 

I . ^trrew yasom ^q^" ya5i?a I(T9? ydsma 
2.W^^yds TU^Rydstam VlMydsta 
3. ^nT[ydt mtmi^ydstdm m^^ydsus 

^'^ siya ^l^f^ sivahi ^ft^f^ simaAi 

^^tWt^^stshthds ^ *( I ^TT siydsthdm "^IStH^sfdhvam 
"^"W sishta ^1^ I t!cf I H siydstdm m^^^stran 

Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251^ 

1 . ^nr syam 

2. ^^syas 

3. "^K^syat 

^ sye ^Iqf^ sydvahi 

*M'ti\k(syathds ^S(^XH^syethdm 


tHlHU^ sydmahi 
fM*t\ syanta 



246. The same terminations, with the substitutions required in certain classes. 
Terminations of Special Tenses. 
Pabasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present tense, 



I. wiP 

3. siP 

3. tip 


vas mas 
thas tha 


1*1,4,6,10. r 

l^ 2,3,7; 5,8,9. 1 





LaMc2,3,7;s,8,9. L 


{ite 1,4,6,10. \nte 1,4,6,10. 

a^e2,3.7;5,89- l-^e2,3,7;5,8 

ntti,4,6, 10. 
aw/i 2,7; 5, 8, 9. 
An initial 5, as in si, se, &c., is liable to become sh by 70. 

Imperfect or First Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 

{m 1, 4, 6, 10. r 

2. P 

3. ^P 

va ma 
tarn ta 

n 1, 4, 6, 10. 
^am *{ ^2, 7j5,8,9. 

Potential or Optative. 
In I, 4, 6, 10. 



^M, j^f^; 1,4,6,10. r^^^^^ 

L aMdm 2,3,7; 5,8,9. L 

J i^am 1, 4, 6, 10. f /a i, 4, 6, 10 
la^am 2,3,7; 5,8,9- la^a 2,3,7; 5,8; 

1. lyam tva ima 

2. is itam ita 

3. it itdm iyus 

In2, 3, 7; 5,8,9. 

1. yam ydva ydma 

2. yds ydtam ydta 

3. ya/ ydtdm yus 

I. awiP dvaP dmaV 
1,4,6,10; 5,8. 
^* 2,3; 5,9. 
^Ai(rfAi) 2,3,7. 
after awa 9. 


^am /a 

1. lya 

2. ^^^o* 
3. 27a 



In all the classes. 
(vahi imahi 

iydthdm idhvam 

(ydtdm iran 

3. tuV 


ntu 1,4,6,10. 

atu 3 (2). 




ji/Mm 1,4,6,10. \^^ 
U/Aam 2,3,7; 5,8,9. 1 

{itdm 1 , 4, 6, 10. r ntdm i , 4, 6, 10 
dtdm 2,3,r 5,8,9. La/am 2,3,7; 5,8; 



In cl. 9, hi is dropped after dna, substituted for the conjugational m of the 2nd 
sing. Irapv., Parasmai, in the case of roots ending in consonants. A form HJl[^tdt 
(cf. Latin to, Greek tco) may be substituted for hi and tu, and even for ta, to imply 
benediction, chiefly used in the Vedas. ' . r 

Terminations of General Tenses. 
Perfect or Second Preterite (requiring reduplication, 2^2). 

1. flP *iva 

2. itha or ihaV athus 

3. dP atus 

Hma e *ivahe Hmahe 

a *ishe dthe *idhveor*idhve 

us e ate ire 

* Only eight roots, viz. sru, stu, dru, sru, kri, bhri, sriy vri, reject the initial 
t from the terminations marked with * ; and of these eight all but vri (meaning 
* to cover') necessarily reject it also in the 2nd sing. Parasmai. See 369-372. 

First Future or Definite Future. 





tdsvahe tdsmahe 





tdsdthe tddhve 





tdrau tdras 

Many roots prefix i to the above terminations; thus, i. itdsmi, 2. itdsi, &c. 
il? lengthens this ij ^ vri and all roots in long n optionally do so. 

Second Future or Indefinite Future. , v: 

I. sydmi 




sydvahe sydmahe 

2. syasi 




syethe syadhve 

3. syati 




syete syante 

Many roots prefix i to the above terminations; thus, i. ishydmi (70), 2. ishyasi^ 
&c. JJ^ lengthens this ij ^ and all roots in long rt optionally do so. 

Aorist or Third Preterite (requiring the augment a, 251). 
Form I. Regular terminations of the scheme. 

i.sam sva sma 

2. sis st am or tarn st aorta 

^.sit st dm or t dm sus 

si svahi smahi 

sthds or thds sdthdm dhvam 
sta or ta sdtdm sata 

^H dhvam is used for dhvam, after any other vowel but a or a, or after ^ d imme- 
diately preceding. 

The same terminations with i prefixed, except in 2nd and 3rd sing., 
where initial s is rejected. 





ishvahi ishmahi 

2. is 




ishdthdm idhvam 





ishdtdm ishata 

^^f^^dhvam may be used for idhvam when a semivowel or h immediately precedes. 
33^ lengthens the throughout ; ^ and all roots in long ri optionally do so in Atm. 

T 2 


FoBM II. Terminations resembling 

those of the Imperfect. 

I. am dva or va dma or ma 




1. as or s atam or tarn aia or ta 


ethdm or dthdm adhvam 

3. at or t atdm or tdm an or us 


etdm or dtdm 

anta or aia 

Precative or Benedictive. 

j.ydsam ydsva ydsma 




2, yds ydstam ydsta 

sishfhds siydsthdm 


3. ydt ydstdm ydsus 




Many roots prefix to the Atraane, but not to the Parasmai, of the above ; thus, 
I. isMya, &c. ZTf lengthens the t in this tense also, but no other root can do so. 

Mx^H^sidhvam is used for tu*Mi sidhvam after any other vowel but a or a, and 
optionally after the prefixed i, when immediately preceded by a semivowel or h 
(see 442). 

Conditional (requiring the augment a, 251). 

sye sydvahi sydmahi 




2. syas 



3. syat 



syathds syethdm syadhvam 

syata syetdm syanta 

Many roots prefix i to the above terminations throughout; thus, i. ishyanij 2. 
ishyas, &c. V[^ lengthens this i j ^ and all roots in long r{ optionally do so. 

247. Those terminations which are marked with P will be called 
the P terminations. They are technically designated Pit (i. e. having 
P for their it), and are as follow : 

Present, Parasmai, i, 2, 3 sing. Imp/., Par., i, i, 3 sing. Impv., Par., i, 3 sing., 
I du., I pi. ; Atm., I sing., i du., i pi. In these, however, the P is indicatory only 
with reference to certain classes of roots (see 244), but in P/., Par., the indicatory 
P in I, 2, 3 sing, applies to all the classes. 

Obs. Instead of NaP, thaP, NaP (which are from Vopa-deva), Panini gives 
NaL, thaL, NaL j and this L, Uke the P, has reference to accent. 

a. Sometimes, however, it will be convenient to adopt Bopp's 
expression, * Strong forms,' in speaking of the form assumed by the 
stem before the P terminations, these terminations being themselves 
called Weak. 

b. In fact the P or Pit terminations are an-uddtta, 'unaccented ;' and when these 
are added, the stem on which the accent falls is called Strong. In other cases the 
accent is on the terminations, and the stem is then Weak and unaccented. 

c. The terminations of the first foiu* or Special tenses are called by Panini sdrva- 
dhdtuka, * belonging to the full form of the verbal stem,' which name is also applied 
to sufi&xes hke idna6 (i. e. -dna), ^atfi (i. e. -at), having an indicatory s (but not to 
Vikarapas hke iap, &c.) The term drdhadhdtuka, * belonging to the half or shorter 


B form of the verbal stem, is given to the terminations of the Perfect {lit), and Pre- 
^ cative {dsir lin), as well as to certain distinctive additions to the root before the 
terminations of the remaining four tenses (such as tds and sya in the Futures and 
Conditional, s in the Aorist, yds and sty in the Precative), and therefore practically 
to the terminations of all the six General tenses. 

d. If we examine these terminations, we shall find that they are composed of 
two distinct elements, one marking person, number, and voice ; the other, mood 
and tense. The terminations in which the former element prevails may be called 
simple, and belong to the Present, Imperfect, Imperative, Perfect, and 2nd form 
of the x^Lorist ; those which include the second may be called compound, and are 
peculiar to the other tenses. Thus the terminations of the Potential consist of i 
or { or yd as characterizing the mood, and of am, s, t, va, tarn, tdm, &c., as marking 
person, number, and voice. So, also, in the 2nd Future the syllable sya prefixed 
to all the terminations, characterizes the Future tense, while the mi, si, ti, vas, thas, 
tas, &c., mark person, number, and voice. If, then, such initial parts of every 

I termination as mark mood or tense were left out, an examination of the remaining 

parts would shew that the Present and Imperfect are the prototypes of the termina- 
W tions of all the other tenses, that is to say, that the formation of the terminations 
f of every other tense may be referred back to one or other of these two. The Present 
tense may in this way be connected with the two Futures. These three tenses agree 
in shewing a certain fulness of form, which is wanting in most of those connected 
with the Imperfect. The terminations of the Perfect, however, partake of the cha- 
racter of both the Present and Imperfect. In the Atmane-pada they very closely 
resemble the Present. Many of them exhibit the same fulness as that tense, while 
some of the other terminations of the Perfect shew even more lightness than those 
of the Imperfect *. It should be observed, too, that the terminations of the Im- 
perative, though evidently connected with the Imperfect, are in some instances 
even more full than those of the Present. 

e. Although comparative grammarians have bestowed much labour on investi- 
gating the origin of Sanskrit verbal terminations, the only point that may be 
asserted with probability is, that they stand in a certain relationship to the pro- 
nominal stems wia, tva, sa, ta. The m of the first persons is related to the stem ma 
(mad, 218); the t, th, sv, s, of the second persons, to the stem tva of the second 
personal pronoun (Gr. 0") ; and the t, of the third person, to the stem ta. We may 
also observe a community of character between the termination nti of the 3rd pi. 
and the plural of neuter nouns like dhanavat (dhanavanti). But whether the v in 
the dual is related to a pronominal stem va occurring in d-vdm, va-yam j whether 
the s of the dual and plural terminations is the result of blending different pro- 
nominal stems (e. g. vas=va'si, masz=:ma-si, ' I and thou ') ; whether the termi- 
nations of the Atmane-pada are formed from those of the Parasmai-pada by guna- 
tion or by composition of the latter with other stems, these are questions which 

* Comparative grammar, however, has established that these terminations are 
to be referred to the same source as the fuller ones. 


cannot be determined with actual certainty. The subject, however, is fully and ably 
discussed in Schleicher's Compendium of Comparative Grammar, 268-286. 

/. "Whatever the exact state of the case may be, the student may aid his memory 
by noting that the letter m generally enters mto the ist sing. Par. ; s into the 2nd 
sing. Par. and Kim. ; and t into the 3rd sing. du. and pi. Par. and Atm. of all the 
tenses. Moreover, that the letter v occurs in the ist du., m in the ist pi. of all 
the tenses, and dhv in every 2nd pi. Atmane. In the Impf. and Pot. Atm., and in 
the Perf. Par., th is admitted, instead of s, into the 2nd sing. ; and in the 2nd pi. 
of the last tense, th has been dropped, owing to the influence of the heavy redupli- 
cation. For the same reason the m and t are dropped in the ist and 3rd sing. Perf. 
Observe also When the ist du. Par. is vas, the 2nd and 3rd end in as (except the 
3rd du. ist Fut.), and the ist pi. is mas. When the ist du. Par. is ra, the 2nd 
and 3rd end in tarn, tdm (except in the Perf.), and the ist pi. in ma. When the ist 
du. Atm. is vake, the ist pi. is make, and the last letter of the remaining termina- 
tions is generally e. When the ist du. Atm. is vahi, the 2nd and 3rd end in dm ; 
the ist pi. is mahi, and the 2nd pi. is dhvam. 

g. The frequent occurrence of m in the ist sing., of s in the 2nd, of t in the 3rd, 
of mas and ma in the ist pi., of ta in the 2nd pi., and of ant in the 3rd pi., suggests 
a comparison with the Gr. and Lat. verb. We may remark, that m, the characteristic 
of the ist per. sing., is suppressed in the Pres. Indie. Act. of all Gr. verbs except 
those in /x,/ {asmiz=ifjii. Dor. fA[Xi for eafMt, daddmi = '^i^a}fxi), and also in Lat. 
verbs (except sum and inquam) j but co and answer to the Sk. d of bhardmiz=:(f>poi>, 
fero. In the Gr. Middle and Passive, the //./, which originally belonged to all 
Active verbs, becomes fJ-ai ; while the Sanskrit, on the other hand, here suppresses 
the m, and has e for ai ; bhare (for bhara-me)=i<f>epofJiat. In the Impf., Gr. has v 
for Sk. and Lat. mute m, because fi is not allowed to be final in Greek ; atarpam=. 
(TcpTTOV, adaddm^eotOoov, astrinavamz=(TTopvvv, avakam = vehebam. Gr. has [J-t 
in the ist sing. Opt. ; and in verbs in fJi.i, v takes the place of the mute m of Sk. 
and Lat. ; thuB,bhareyam=:(f>epotfJitjferam; dadydm=zOtOoi^v, dem ; tishthet/am=: 
tcratyjVi stem. In the Gr. First Aorist, m is suppressed, so that Sanskrit adiksham 
(Aor.)=e/{a; but not in the 2nd Aor., so that addm=fl(av. In the Perf., Sk. a 
=Gr. a, tutopa=iTeTV(f>a. In the Gr. Middle and Passive Futures, m is retained, 
but not in the Active ; ddsydmi=. ^cocraj, deJcshydmi=:^i^ot), ddsye=z^oi}a-ofxat. As 
to the ist per. pi., Sk. mas of the Pres. is [xev (for fJ.$) in Gr., and mus in Lat. ; 
tarpd'mas=T(p'7ro~fJ.v ; sarpd-m^s-zr.'kp'no-^iVy serpi-mus; dad-mas=zOiO0-[J.V, da- 
mns: tishthd-mas=.t<7Ta-[J.ev, sta-mus. The Atmane make answers to Gr. f^eQa; 
dad'mahez=.OiOO-[A.6a. As to the other tenses, in Impf. ist pi. abhard-ma=z(f>po- 
fJLeVf fereba-mus ; avahd-ma = veheba-mus j adad-ma = OiOO-fXV ; abhard-mahi = 
(f>p0fxt$a. In the Pot. ist pi. bhare-ma=z(f)pot-fJLV (-itX$-), fera-musj dadydma= 
^ilotYifxev (-/xf), demus; dad{-mahi=^i^oi-iX6a. In 2nd Fut. ddsyd-mas=.^a)(rO' 
fXiVf dekshyd-mas=zOt^o-fJi.V. In 2nd pers. sing. Act., the characteristic s has been 
preserved in all three languages ; thus, in the Present, Sk. fl*t (for original assi)= 
0'(^t,es; dadd-si=zOiO(i}if das ; bhara-si = (f)pigi fers ; vahasi=:vehis. In the 
Atmane, Sk. se (for sa i, by 32) answers exactly to Gr. O'at of verbs in f/>t {tish{ha 


se=i<rTa-aat). In other Gr. verbs, c has been rejected, and eai contracted into jy, 
something in the way of Sk. [tvtttyi for Tvirre-aai). In 2nd du. thas=Gr. tov, 
and in 2nd pi. tha=.Te and tisj bhara-thas=.(pepe-TOV\ tishtha-tha-= i(JTa-T, 
sta-tisj bkara-tha=(l>p6-T6,fer-tis. In 2nd pi. Ktm. bhara-dhve=z(ppe-crd. As 
to the other tenses, in the 2nd sing. Impf. atarpas=iTp7rei, avahas=vehebas, &c. 
So also, tam-=TOv^ adat-tam^eOiOo-TOV, ta=Ty adat-ta^^i^o-T. In Atm. thds 
is found for sds in 2nd sing. Impf. and Pot.; hence abhara-thds=:<ppe-(TOf adat- 
thdsz=e^i^o-cro,dad-{tMs = ^i^'Oi{(7)Q. In 2nd sing. Pot. tisht}ies=^l(7Taiy}g, stesj 
dadyds=OiOoivj^,des J vahes=vhasj bhares=i(ppoti, /eras : in 2nd du.bhare-tam=: 
<i>epot-TOV\ in 2nd. 1^1. tishtheta=l(^TaiYjTfStetis J dadydta=hi^oiy)T,detis; bhareta 
:=</) poiTiyferatis. In 2nd sing. Impv. hi and dhi answer to Gr. Si, Dhi was originally 
universal in Sk. (see 291), as in Gr. verbs in f^t, e-dhi^io'-St, vid-dhi=zi(J~9if 
de-hi=OiO0'6t, sru-dhiz=K\v-6i. Many verbs drop the termination hi both in 
Gr. and Sk. ; as, HT.= ^/je, and compare OeiKVV with dinu, &c. In 2nd du. Impv. 
tam=TOV, and ta=iT. In Impv. Atm. soa=the old form co ; bhara-sva=(pp-a'0 
(old form of (pepov); dat-sva='^i%-(TO ; dthdm=za-Qov, &c. In Perf. the tha of 
the 2nd sing. = Latin s^i; dad-itha = dedi-sti, tasthi-tha = steti-sti, tutodi-tha=i 
tutudi-sti. In the Aor. addsz=:Oci)$, avdkshis=.vexisti. In the 3rd pers. sing. 
Active, Gr. has dropped the characteristic t (except in 0"T/=Sk. asti, Lat. est); 
bharati=cf)pe{T)i, fert J vahati=vehit. Verbs in fJ.i have changed t to sj daddti^ 
^ilctiat (for ^i^coTi). In Atm. bharate=:(pepeTai, In Impf. avahat=vehebat, 
abharata = f(l)pTO. In Vot. bharet=.(f)poiy dadydt=OiOoivj. In Impv. bhara-tu 
or bhara-tdt=(ppe-TiO, fer-to. In Perf. tutopa=zTeTV(p. In Aor. avdksMt=vexit, 
adikshata=:eOei^aT0. As to 3rd pi., in the above tenses, bharanH=(ppov<7i,feruntj 
vahanti=:vehunt J bharante=:<l>epovTat ) dadati=iOiQovat j tishthanti=.stant ; bha- 
reyus = (f>epoieu l bharantu=ferunto j abharan=z(f>pov j abharanta=z(l)poVTO ^ 
dsan = Y]0'av'j atarpishus=.Tp\pav l ddsyante=zOoo(70VTat. 

248. The terminations exhibited in the preceding tables are sup- 
posed to be applicable to all verbs, whether Primitive or Derivative : 
and as in nouns, so in verbs, the theory of Indian grammarians is, 
that before these terminations can be affixed, a stem must be de- 
veloped out of a root, according to certain rules which vary for the 
first four tenses in ten different ways, according as a root belongs 
to one or other of ten classes. Accordingly, ten special rules are 
propounded for forming verbal stems out of roots in the first four 
tenses, which are therefore called the four Special tenses ; while all 
verbs are arranged under ten classes, according to the form of the 
stem required by one or other of these rules. In the other tenses 
there is one general rule for forming the stem, applicable to aU verbs 
of whatever class, and these tenses are therefore called General. 


Hence the ten classes of roots are sometimes regarded as following 
one or other of ten conjugations ; and the four tenses, which alone 
are affected by these conjugational rules (viz. the Present, Imperfect, 
Potential, and Imperative), are sometimes called the conjugational 
tenses. It is evident, however, that all Sanskrit roots, of whatever 
class, follow one general conjugation for the majority of the tenses 
of the Primitive verb, although they require a special formation of 
stem depending on the class of each root for four of the tenses. 

249. We begin by giving a brief summary of the ten rules for the 
forming the stem of the four Special tenses in the ten classes of roots, 
according to the Indian order of the ten classes. 

Obs. Native grammarians distinguish the ten classes of verbs by the name of 
the first root in their lists; e. g. cl. i. Bhv-ddi, i. e. Bhu, &c., or the class of roots 
beginning with bhu. Similarly, cl. 2. Ad-ddi ; cl. 3. Juhoty-ddi (i.e. the Hu class) ; 
cl. 4. Div-ddij cl. 5. Sv-ddi (i.e. the Su class); cl. 6. Tud-ddi; cl. 7. Rudh-ddij 
cl. 8. Tan-ddi j cl. 9. Kry-ddi (i. e. the Kri class) ; cl. 10. Cur-ddi. 

Cl. I. Gunate the vowel of the root (unless it be ^ a, or a long 
vowel not final, or a short vowel followed by a double consonant, 
38) before every termination of the four Special tenses, and affix 
^ a- lengthened to ^ a before initial m* and v to the root thus 

ITie accent is on the vowel of the root, unless it be thrown on the augment. 
Cl. a. Gunate the vowel of the root (if capable of Guna, as in 
the last) before those terminations only which are marked with P 
in the Scheme at 346. Before all the other terminations the original 
vowel of the root must be retained. 

The accent rests on the vowel of the root, but only when the P terminations are 
added. In other cases it rests on the first vowel of the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 3. RedupHcate the initial consonant and vowel (see 352) of 
the root, and gunate the radical but not the reduplicated vowel 
before the P terminations only, as in cl. 2. 

The accent rests on the first syllable of the stem before the Non-P terminations, 
and before the V terminations beginning with a vowel. 

Cl. 4. Affix Tj ya lengthened to ttt yd before initial m* and v 
to the root, the vowel of which is generally left unchanged. 
The accent is on the vowel of the root, not on the ya (of. 461^. 

But not before m final, the termination of the ist sing. Impf. Parasmai. 


CI. 5. Affix ^ nu to the root, and gunate this nu into no before 
the P terminations only. 

In this class, as well as in cl. 8 and 9, the accent is on the inserted Vikarana 
(250. h) before the P terminations, and in other cases it rests on the first vowel 
of the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 6. Affix ^ a lengthened to ^T a before initial m* and v to 
the root, which in other respects generally remains unchanged. 

The absence of gunation of the radical vowel results from the accent being on 
the Vikarana a (250. V). 

Cl. 7. Insert if na between the vowel and final consonant of 
the root before the P terminations, and \ n before the other termi- 

Observe the peculiarity of this conjugation that the conjugational na or n is 
inserted into the middle oi the root, and not affixed. 

The accent is on the inserted na before the P terminations ; in other cases it 
rests on the Non-P terminations. 

Cl. 8. Affix g" w to the root, and gunate this u into before the 
P terminations only. 

Obs. As nine out of the ten roots in this class end in n or n, cl. 8 will resemble 
cl. 5. 

Cl. 9. Affix ^ nd to the root before the P terminations ; tft ni 
before all the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only 
^ w is affixed. 

Cl. 10. Gunate the radical vowel (if capable of Guna) throughout 
all the persons of all the tenses, and affix ^R aya lengthened to 
ygm ayd before initial m* and v ^to the root thus gunated. 
The accent rests on the first vowel of the inserted aya, 

0,^0. It will appear, from a cursory examination of the above 
rules, that the object of nearly aU of them is to insert either a 
vowel sometimes alone, sometimes preceded by y or n or a letter 
of some kind between the modified root and the terminations. The 
ist, 4th, 6th, and loth agree in requiring that the vowel, which is 
immediately to precede the terminations, shall be a or a. The ^nd, 
3rd, and 7th agree in inserting no vowel between the final of the 
root and the terminations. The 5th, 8th, and 9th agree in interposing 
either m, a, or i afler the letter n, 

a. Any letters or syllables required to be inserted by the above 

* But not before m final, the termination of the ist sing. Impf. Parasmai. 



ten rules, are inserted only in the four Special tenses (except only 
in the case of cl. lo). In the other six tenses the stem is formed 
according to one general rule for all roots of whatever class, whence 
their name of General tenses. But in these also, some letter or 
syllable has to be inserted (the only exception being in the Perfect). 

b. This inserted conjugational vowel, consonant, or syllable is usually called the 
vikarana. Panini's technical names for the ten insertions between the modified root 
and terminations under each of the ten classes, in regular order, are ^ap, iapo luk, 
Muy ^yan, inu, iia, ^amj u, hd, ni6: the last, however, does not strictly contain the 
vikarana, the real insertion in cl. lo (and in Causals) being aya (represented by 
the % of ni6). The above Vikaranas (with ni6) hold good before Krit sufiixes con- 
taining an indicatory * (such as 4atri or Mnad, see 247. c). In Passives and Neuters 
the insertion is technically called yak (leaving ya), to distinguish it from the Vika- 
rana ^yan of cl. 4. With regard to the six General tenses, the Perfect has strictly 
no vikarana (the almost universally inserted i of it being called an augment). But 
in verbs belonging to cl. 10, in Derivative verbs (such as Causals), and in a few 
Primitive verbs hke (ksh, the syllable dm is added to the verbal stem. With regard 
to the other General tenses the Agama it (or inserted i) is by no means Universally 
interposed, but certain letters or syllables are regarded as additions to the root 
distinct from the terminations; that in the ist Future is technically called tdsi 
{=itds) ; that in the 2nd Future and Conditional is sya ; that in the Aorist is called 
6li (for which either si6 or ksa or 6an or an or 6%n are always substituted) ; that 
in the Precative is ydsut {:=yds) for Par., and s{yut (=iy) for Atm.; that in the 
Vedic Let is called sip. 

THE Agama or augment w a. 
251. In classical Sanskrit (but not always in Vedic) the augment 
^ a (called dgama, * increase ') is prefixed to the stems of the Imper- 
fect, Aorist, and Conditional tenses, and when the stem begins with 
V a or ^ a, the augment blends with these vowels into WT a by 31. 
(So in Gr. e and e become ri in i^yeipov, &c.) 

a. But when the augment a is prefixed to stems beginning with 
the vowels ^ i, tr m, and ^ ri (short or long), it blends with them 
into ^ aiy y^ au, ^TR dr (against 32, which would require the result 
to be c, 0, ar). 

Thus the stem ^tS i66ha {it. rt. ish, * to wish ') in 3rd sing. Impf. becomes ^^^ 
aiddhat; the stem m^ wA becomes w^n auhata (Impf. Atm.)j the stem ^^[Wt 
ridhno becomes ^iH[^drdhnot j the stem ^Bft^ okha becomes WW[^aukhat. 

b. When a root is compounded with one or more prepositions, 
the augment is placed between the preposition or prepositions and 

, e. g. anv-atishtham (fr. anu-sthd), upa-sam-aharat (fr. upa- 

When ^s is prefixed to the root ^ kri, after certain prepositions (see 53. c), the 
augment is placed before the s, e. g. sam-askarot. 

Obs. ^The augment a is thought by some to have been originally a kind of 
demonstrative particle denoting past time (probably connected with the stem a of 
the demonstrative pronoun idam, see 224), while the separable particle sma (thought 
to be an abbreviation of another demonstrative pronominal stem sa-ma), also de- 
noting past time, and often discharging the function of the augment a (see 878), 
has remained a detached particle. 


2^^. After explaining the augment it will be convenient to specify 
the rules of reduplication {abhydsa), as these have to be appHed in 
the Special tenses of Primitive verbs of cl. 3, in the Perfect tense of 
all Primitive verbs, in the Aorist of a few Primitive verbs, and of 
verbs of cl. 10, and of some Nominals (521), as well as in Desidera- 
tives and in Frequentatives. 

In reduplication the initial consonant and first vowel of a root 
are doubled, as in lilip fr. rt. lip, dadaridrd fr. daridrd. There are, 
however, special rules, as follow : 

ist, as to consonants, thus: 

a. A corresponding unaspirated letter is substituted for an aspirate, as ^ c? for 
IJ dh, in dadhd fr. dhd, (So in Gr., T is repeated for 5, as Qvcc, reOvKa, &c.) 

b. The hard palatal ^ d is substituted for the hard gutturals F fc or ^ kh, as in 
^akhan fr. khan j and the soft palatal '^^j for the soft gutturals "^ g,'^ gh, or ?^ h, 
as m. jag am fr. gam, jag has fr. ghas,juhu fr. hu. 

Obs. ^^Ztaw, *to kill,' and f^ Ai, *to go,' substitute '^ gh for ?[ h when redu- 
plicated ; as, jaghan fr. han. 

c. If a root begin with a double consonant, the first consonant only or its sub- 
stitute is repeated ; as, ^ c for '^ksh, in dikship fi*. kship j "^^s for ^*y, in sasyand 
fr. syand; '3Ty for "? Ar, in jahras fr, hras. 

But if with a double consonant whose first is a sibilant, and whose second is 
hard, the second or its substitute is reduplicated; as, "^d for ^s^, as in daskand 
fr. skandj l[^t for "^sth, as in tasthd fr. sthdj \p for F? sp, as in ^aspmfr. spri^. 
andly, as to vowels, thus : 

d. A short vowel is repeated for a long, and diphthongal sounds are represented 
by their second element ; e. g. ^ a is reduplicated for ^d; ^ e for %t, ^ ri, ^ri, 
^ e, and ^ ai ; "^ for "35 , ^ 0, and ^ au. 

Obs. In certain cases ^ J is also repeated for a and a, as being a lighter vowel, 
and dyut, *to shine,' makes didyut for dudyut. 


e. In fact it may be observed, that when a long vowel causes too great weight 
in the radical syllable, it is generally lightened in the reduplicated syllable. 

/. When a form has once been reduphcated, it is never redupUcated again in 
forming other Derivatives from it (see 517. a); and when roots which have to be 
reduphcated have any changed form, this modified form is taken in the reduph- 
cation ] thus, ^ smri, to remember,' being changed to ^R^ in the Desiderative, 
the vowel of the root does not appear in the redupUcation (^^^). 


253. In conjugating a verb, then, two things have to be done : 
ist, to form the stem from the root according to ten rules for four 
of the tenses, and one general rule for the other six ; 2ndly, to join 
the stem so formed with the terminations, according to the regular 
rules of Sandhi or euphonic conjugation. As yet, however, we have 
only given a general explanation of the formation of the verbal stem 
of the Simple or Primitive verb under the ten classes of roots. 

There are four other kinds of verbs deducible from all roots, 
whatever be their class. 

254. In fact, every Sanskrit root serves as a kind of stock out 
of which the inflective stems of five kinds of verbs may be evolved : 
I. of a Primitive, Transitive or Intransitive ; 2. of a Passive ; 3. of a 
Causal, having oflen a Causal and often merely a Transitive signifi- 
cation ; 4. of a Desiderative, giving a sense of wishing to the root ; 
and 5. of a Frequentative (or Intensive), implying repetition, or 
heightening the idea contained in the root (see, however, 507). 

255. The first, or Primitive verb, is formed from the root, accord- 
ing to the ten different rules, already given, for the formation of the 
stem in the first four tenses. 

The second, or Passive, is formed according to the rule for the 
change of the root, required by the 4th class ; viz. the addition of 
ya in the first four tenses. 

The third, or Causal, is formed according to the rule for the 
change of the root required by the loth class ; viz. the addition of 
aya to the root in all the tenses excepting the Aorist. 

The fourth, or Desiderative, is formed by the addition of sa or 
isha, the root also undergoing reduplication. 

The fifth, or Frequentative, is formed like the Passive, according 
to the rule required by cl. 4, and is, in fact, a reduplicated passive 
verb. It may also be formed analogously to the rule for cl. 3. 


Thus, if we take the root "^>^ suhh, conveying the idea of * shining ' from this 
are developed, ist, the Primitive verbal stem, sobha/ to shine;' 2ndly, the Passive, 
dubhy a,' to be bright;' 3rdly, the Causal, sobhaya,^ to cause to shine' or 'illuminate;* 
4thly, the Desiderative, susobhisha, ' to desire to shine ;' 5thly, the Frequentative 
or Intensive, sosubhya or sosubh, ' to shine very brightly.' 

a. And as every root is the source of five different kinds of Derivative verbs, so 
there are secondary Derivative verbs developed out of nouns called Nominal verbs. 
An explanation of these will be found after Frequentatives at 518. 

2,^6. The subject of verbs, therefore, as of nouns, will divide itself 
into two heads : 

A. The formation of the stem ; ist of Primitive, 3ndly of Passive, 
3rdly of Causal, 4thly of Desiderative, 5thly of Frequentative verbs ; 
with their respective Participles. 

B. The exhibition of the stem, united to its terminations, under 
each of the five forms of verbs consecutively. 



A brief summary of the ten rules for the formation of the stem 
of the four Special tenses ^viz. the Present, Imperfect, Potential, 
and Imperative in the ten classes of roots, has already been given 
at 249. These ten rules may be collected into three groups, which 
form three distinct general conjugations, as follow : 

257. Group I. Conjugation I. This (like the declension of the 
first class of nouns whose stems end in a and a) is by far the most 
important, as comprising roots of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes, 
which agree in making their stems end in a (liable to be lengthened 
to a). These also resemble each other in taking substitutions for 
some of the terminations, after the analogy of the stems of nouns 
ending in a and a at 97. (See the substitutions indicated in the 
table at 246.) 

Note Of about 2000 roots belonging to the Sanskrit language, nearly 1300 
belong to this ist conjugation. Besides which, every root in the language may 
take a Passive and Causal form, and so be conjugated as if it belonged to the 4th 
and loth classes. 

258, Group II. Conjugation II. This comprises verbs of the 2nd, 
3rd, and 7th classes, which agree in affixing the regular terminations 


(at 246) to the final letter of the root, without the intervention of a 
vowel, after the analogy of the last four classes of nouns whose stems 
end in consonants. 

259. Group III, Conjugation III, comprising verbs of the 5th, 
8th, and 9th classes, also affixes the regular terminations (at 246) to 
the root ; but after the intervention of either m, a, or i, preceded by 
the consonant . 

260. In comparing Sanskj-it verbs ^th Greek and Latin, it might be shewn 
that group I, comprising the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes, answers to the Gr. 
1st conjugation in w, the conjugational ^ a being represented in Gr. by or e 
{tarpdmas:=TpirofJ.eVy tarpathaz=TpTrTe) ; and although the Gr. ist conjugation 
contains more subdivisions than the first group in Sk., yet the inflexion of these 
subdivisions is similar. As to the Sk. loth class, however, it appears to correspond 
to Gr. verbs in a^cy and /^ft>, which, like the loth, are generally found in company 
with other verbs from the same root ; thus, KaSapi^oOy ' I make pure ' {KaOaipai), 
o"Tva^c, ' I groan' (arevaj), where ^ corresponds to '^y, as in ^ed and '^^ 'barley.' 
To this class also may be referred verbs in acw, a>, ocd ; thus pdraydmi = ir^paa), 
where the y has been dropped, and the two a's combined. Lat. verbs in io, like 
audio &c., seem to be related to the Sk. 4th class, as well as to the loth ; thus 
cupio answers to kupydmi; and the i of audiebam answers to the aya of the loth, 
just as in Prakrit aya is contracted into ^ e. The second and third groups of 
classes in Sk. (viz. the 2nd, 3rd, 7th, 5th, 8th, and 9th) answer to Gr. verbs in [Xt ; 
thus emi cl. 2=e//x/, daddmi cl. ^=Oiow[j.i. Class 7, however, has no exact parallel 
in Gr., but many Gr. and Lat. verbs resemble it in inserting a nasal into the middle 
of the root ; see 342.0. The 5th and 8th classes answer to Gr. verbs like 0iK-vv-fJi.tf 
^i/y-vv-fjit, which agree in inserting vv between the root and termination ; in Gr. 
the vowel v is lengthened before certain terminations, just as u is gunated into o 
in Sk. ; thus strinomi = (TTopvv(Mty strinoshi = aropvvf, strinoti = dTOpvvdi (for 
(TTOpwri), strinumas = (TTopvvfxev (for a-TopvvfAef), &c. The 9th class answers to 
Gr. verbs in vd {vr}) ; thus krindmi = nepvafxt {nepwjfxi), krinimas = Tripvajxev. 
Cf. also Lat. forms in nij thus strnimus=zS\i. stfiij.imas^ fr. stfi^ cl. 9. 


261. Class i (containing about 1000 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) before 
every termination of all the four tenses^ and affix the vowel 5sr a to 
the root so gunated. Remember, that this w a is lengthened into 
^ a before the initial m and of a termination, but not when m is 
final, as in the ist sing. Impf. 
262. Thus, fr. root ^"^budhy *to know,' is formed the stem ''fhlioc/Aa, lengthened 


into ^iVJbodhd before m and v (Pres. i.* bodhd-{-mi=^^i}J\f^bodhdmi, bodha-\-si=z 
^hfftr bodhasi, bodha-\-ti =^^f?r bodhati j Du. i . bodhd-\-vas =W^tVT^ bodhdvas, 
&c. ; Aim. Pres. bodha+i=^)mbodhehj ^2, bodha-\-se=:'^\V^bodhase, Sic.) See 
table at 583. 

263. Similarly, fr. fT ji, * to conquer ' (see 590), comes the stem PT jaya (i. e. 
je-\-a, see 36. a), liable to be lengthened into 'Wmjayd, as explained above; fr. rd 
m, 'to lead,' the stems naya and naydj fr. ^bhu, 'to be' (^I'cw, Lat,/^), the stems 
bhava (i.e. bTio-\-a, ^6. a) and 6Aa27a (Pres. i. H'^tfH bhavdmi; 2. H^ftl bhavasi, 
<pveis. Sec, see 584) ; fr. ^^^srip, *to creep,' the stems ^"R sarpa and *arpa (see 27); 
fr. '5F^A:/np, to fashion,' the stems ir^ kalpa and Tcalpd. 

Obs. BM, to be' or to become,' is one of the commonest verbs in the language, 
and hke as, *to be,* at 584, 327, is sometimes used as an auxiliary. BM is conjugated 
in full at 585. 

16^, The stem of the Imperfect has the augment ^ a prefixed by 
251 (Impf. 1. abodha + m = w^h:>am abodham, 2. abodha-\-s = '^^tv[^^ 
abodhas, &c.) 

265. In the Potential the final a of the stem blends with the initial 
i of the termination into e by 32 (Pot. 1. bodha + iyam = ^^i^(^R bo- 
dheyam). So also in the Pres. Kim. {js(f^ &c.) See table at 583. 

266. In the Imperative the termination is rejected in the 2nd sing. 
(Impv. I. ^ofi?M + am=:^hnfiT bodhdni, 2. "aftv bodha, 3. bodha + tu 
= ThJ5 bodhatu). 

267. Roots like tf^'to cook,' f>T8T*to beg,' ^ft^'to live' (603), cannot change 
their radical vowels (see 27. a, 28), but, as before, aflBx ^ a, liable to be lengthened 
to ^ a . (Pres. i. "T^rft? &c. ; Pres. Atm. i. f>TBgf &c. ; Pres. i. 'Sff'^^Tf'T &c.) 

268. Some roots ending in the Vriddhi ^ ai cannot be gunated, but suffer the 
usual change of Sandhi before ^ a and 'SIT a by 37 ; as, from n ' to sing,' U * to be 
weary,' 1^ Atm. *to preserve t,' ^ 'to meditate,' ^ 'to fade,' are formed the stems 
gdya, gldya, trdya, dhydya, mldya. See 595. a. b. 

269. Some roots of cl. i form their stems in the first four tenses by a change 
peculiar to themselves, which change is of couree discarded in the other tenses ; 
thus, from WT sthd, ' to stand' (587), TClghrd, * to smell ' (588), Vl *to drink' (589), 
"UTT 'to blow,' ^ 'to repeat' or 'think over,' come the bases firS tisktha, fWJf 
jighra, HT^ piva, VT dhama, TT mana, the final a being, as before, liable to be 

a. It should be noted that WT sthd and ITT ghrd are properly reduplicated verbs 
of cl. 3 at 330. The reduplicated stem, by 252, would be tasthd, jaghrd : but as 
the reduplication is irregular, and the radical a gives way to the conjugational a, 

* I. stands for ist person singular ; Du. i. for ist dual ; PI. i. for ist plural, &c, 
t A form ;^f^, as well as dlM^, is found in Epic poetry for the 2nd sing. 
Impv. of this root. 


grammarians place these roots under cl. i. The Greek laTVjfJit, on the other hand, 
has not shortened its radical vowel in the singular. 

270. Again, "^^^'to see/ n*T 'to go,' ?IH 'to restrain/ ^*to go/ ^ 'to sink/ 
Tjr^ (Atm. in Special tenses. Par. in others) *to fall,' *to perish/ form their stems 
^T*T paiya, Vl^ ga66ha, "^xS, ya66ha, ^^35 ri66ha, V\^ s<da, ^f^ hya: (Pres. i. 
H^M\^*i pasydmi, &c.) 

a. According to Panini (vii. 3, 78), ^ * to give * may sometimes substitute the 
stem 'I^ yaddha j and ^ * to go,* the stem VR dhdva, 

* !If ' ^o conceal* forms 'J^ ; fw^'to spit,' 1^; ^*to cleanse,' HT^: (Pres. i. 
'T^ft? &c.) 

c. "STH'to step,' ^W 'to tire/ ^(with ^X) *to rinse the mouth,' lengthen their 
medial vowels, but the first only in Parasmai : (Pres. i . WRlf*? &c., but Atm. "W^.) 

d. ^^*to bite,' T^'to colour,' ^T^'to adhere,' ^9^ 'to embrace/ drop their 
nasals ; (Pres. i. ^^llfR &c., Ty^f^ &c.) 

e. T^ Atm. to yawn ' makes its stem "STWr, and even <5H Atm. * to receive ' 
sometimes becomes ^WT in Epic poetry. 

271. "iF^ Atm. ' to love ' forms its stem after the analogy of cl. 10 (Pres. i. RTTm 
&c.), and some other roots add ay a; thus, fr. ^^' to protect,' TifmT^gopdya; ft*. ^31. 
* to fumigate,' ^TR ; fr. f^ ' to go,' f^R^Hl ; fr. TO Atm. (meaning ' to praise/ 
not * to wager '), "^WHI ; fr. xp^ Atm. * to praise,' MHI^^. 

a. ^^ Atm. 'to play,' like all roots containing ir and ur compounded with 
another consonant, lengthens the vowel (Pres. i. F^ &c.) 

272. Class 4 (containing about 130 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Affix ^ ya to the root. The vowel of the root is not gunated, 
and generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the inserted 
^ ya is hable to become vi yd before an initial m and v of the 
terminations (but not before the m of the ist sing. Impf. Par.), as 
in cl. I at 261. 

273. Thus, fr. fv^^sidh, * to succeed,' is formed the stem ftf^ sidkya (Pres. i. 
s%dhyd-\- mi = fWi^[f^ sidhydmi, 2 . ftllflfti sidhyasi, &c. ; Impf. asidhya -\-m = ^ftl- 
IflH ai?Ayam, &c. ; Pot. i. sidhya + iyam = fti WH^H^ sidhyeyam, 2. f^^^^sidhyeSy 
&c. ; Impv. I . sidhya + dni = fti *m P*! sidhydni, &c. Pres. Atm. i. sidhya-\-i=iiwat 
sidhye, sidhya + se= ftl ui^ sidhyase, &c.) See 616. 

274. Similarly, fr. m md, *to measure/ the stem *?T^ mdya (Pres. i. Atm. mdya 
-\-i=WiMmdye,8cc.); fr.ft5^A:sAtp,* to throw,' f^^kshipyaj fr.pfnf7, 'to dance,' 
^W nritya; fr. T\ d{, 'to fly,' T^ diya (Pres. Atm. i. tHi). 

275. Roots ending in am and ip, and one in ad, lengthen the vowel ; as, fr. f^ 
divy 'to play,' ^N| divya; fr. ''SMhhram (also cl. i), 'to wander,' tff^ bhrdmyaj 
fr. J?^ madf ' to be mad,' TW mddya. Similarly, "flSW (also cl. i) * to step,' '^'T ' to 
endure,' liH 'to grow weary,' TH^'to be afflicted/ ^*to be tamed/ but bhram 
may optionally form ^IPEI bhramya. 


f 276. If a root contain a nasal it is generally rejected; as, from \J^'to fall,' 
H^^ bhrasyaj from t^*to colour,' ti^f; n^ 'to be born' makes mi^jdya (Pres. 
I. Atm. 'TT^), lengthening the vowel, to compensate for the loss of n. 

a. Roots ending in ^ drop this o before the conjugational ya j thus, ^ so, 'to 
end,' makes its stem sya. Similarly, "Stt 'to cut,' ^ ' to sharpen,' ^"^ *to divide.' 

277. The following are anomalous. From 'I ^o grow old,' '^^jtryaj fr. '^V 
'to pierce,' f^Tfl vidhya (cf. 472) ; fr. f*?^ ' to be viscid,' ^ medya. 

Obs. Although this class includes only 130 Primitive verbs (generally Intran- 
sitive in signification), yet every one of the 2000 roots in the language may have 
a Passive form which follows the Atmane-pada of this class, differing from it only 
in the position of the accent, see 461. 

278. Class 6 (containing about 140 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Affix the vowel ^ a to the root, which is not gunated, and in 
other respects generally remains unchanged. Remember, that the 
inserted ^ a becomes ^T a before an initial m and v of the termina- 
tions of the four tenses (but not before the m of the ist sing. Impf.), 
as in cl. i and 4 at 261 and 272. 

279. Thus, fr. fi^kship/ to throw,' comes the stem f^^ksMpa (Pres. i. kshipd 
+mi=.V^'m;fJf{ kshipdmiy 2. kshipa-\- si =:f^^^fS kshipasij Pot. i. kshipa+iyam = 
n^ H*(14 ksMpeyam, &c. Atm. Pres. i. kshipa-^i=f^^ ksMpe ; see 635). 

Similarly, fr. ^^ tud, ' to strike,' ^ tuda : fr. f^3][ dis, ' to point out,' f^ disa. 

280. Roots in ^ z, T M or "3! M, ^ ri and "^ ri, generally change those vowels 
into ^iy, "^^^uv, ft^riy, and 3[T ir respectively; as, fr. ft, 'to go,' comes the 
stem ftj( riya j fr. "^ ' to praise,' "^"^ nuva j fr. ^' to agitate,' ^^ dhuva ; fr. '^ ' to 
die,' f^XT mriya (626) ; fr. '^ kri, ' to scatter,' foFT kira (627). 

a. J^'to swallow' makes either fifR or fnc5. 

281. A considerable number of roots of the sixth class, ending in consonants, 
insert a nasal before the final consonant in the four tenses ; as, fr. 'g^j 'to let go,' 
comes the stem J^muhdai fr. f^^'to anoint,' fco+^i limpa 2 fr. '^pT 'to cut,' ^^ 
krintaj fr. f^^'to sprinkle,' f^^^sindaj fr. c^'to break,' ^r Iwmpaj fr. f^5T 
'to form,' flT^r. Similarly, f^ ' to find,' f^ 'to trouble.' 

282. The following are anomalous. From 3(^, *to wish,' comes the atemf^iddhaj 
fr. 11^ 'to ask,' T^ priddha J fr. ^'to fry,' ^fzS( bhrijjaj fr. '9J^*to deceive,' 
f^"^ vidaj fr. "a^ 'to cut,' ^^ vris(^a. Cf. 472. 

a. The roots ^ and '^ are sometimes regarded as falling under this class ; see 
then: stems at 270. 

283. Class 10 (containing a few Primitive verbs, all Causals, and 
some Nominal verbs, see 521). Rule for forming the stem in the 
four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root throughout every person of all the 



four tenses (except when debarred by 28), and affix w^ ay a to the 
root so gunated. This ^HT aya becomes ^nn ayd before initial m and 
V of the terminations of the four tenses, but not before m of the ist 
sing. Impf. 

284. Thus, from ^ dur, *to steal/ is formed the stem ^^^T'J 6oraya (Pres. i. 
6orayd -f wi = "n < q i ft? dor ay ami, 2. doraya + si = '^\<Mf^ dorayasi, &c. ; Impf. i. 
adoraya + m =^^t^ adorayam, &c., see 638 j Pot. i. doraya -j- iyam =^\X^T('( 
dorayeyamj Imp v. i. doraya + dni = "iVm I Piu doraydni, &c., see 58). 

285. Roots ending in vowels generally take Vriddhi instead of Guna (481) ; as, fr. 
11^ *to please/ Tn^ni prdyaya (cf. 485. a) ; fr. >| ' to hold/ VPCT dhdraya. But ^ * to 
choose ' makes "^^ varaya. This last, however, is generally regarded as a Causal. 

286. Roots containing the vowel ^ a before a single consonant generally lengthen 
this vowel ; as, fr. ?r^ ' to swallow,* V[\'^'^grdsaya : but not before a conjunct con- 
sonant; as, fr. ^I^ 'to mark,' '^JfjiT; fr. ^?!^ *to punish,* <^l|^^. 

a. The following, however, do not lengthen the medial a, though followed by a 
single consonant : ^i^* to say * (^WT) ; TO^* to count / ^"^* to sin / ^^' to tie / 
r^ to arrange / ^7 Kim. in the sense of ' to surround / t7 * to scream / ?R!I ' to 
wound ;' ^T^and "^"^ in the sense of ' to be lax or weak / tf * to quit / ^ Atm. 
to go/ T^ *to sound/ leTrl^, ^ci^, ^^, *to sound/ Wt^ *to count' (also 
lengthened in Epic poetry) j ^PT * to spend / and others less common. 

287. "^f^, *to celebrate,' * to praise,* makes "^li^ k&taya (Pres. <*1^*<lfH). 

288. A few roots with a medial ^ ri retain that vowel unchanged j as, from F{? 
to desire,' t^j^M ; ^H 'to search,' ^J'HT; ^ 'to bear,' 1f^:^ (more commonly 

'ft^); ^ Atm. 'to take,' ^f^ (also IT^); ^^*to pity,' "^^'j but ^'to 
wipe* takes Vriddhi (*TT^^). Some of these may be regarded as nominals. 

a. The following also do not gunate their medial vowels : ^^ ' to make happy,' 
^ to bind,' ^TT * to become manifest,' "^^ or ^HFT ' to consult.' 

b. A few roots of more than one syllable (see 75. a) are said to belong to cl. 10, 
viz. ?HT3T 'to worship,* ^W^^ ' to despise,' ^HT'T *to fight,* ^Tl^ or "^^(Tc^ 'to 
play,' TT^'to search,' f^W *to imitate,' fff^^'to put on,' ^^Ti^'to invite,* 
^FF^tt5, n^t^lc^, f^Wtc^, M^c^, ' to swing,' T^<^ or M^c^ or ^^Tc^ ' to cut off.* 
These and a few monosyllabic roots of cl. 10, such as 'W5I * to divide,' ^^ ' to ask,' 
f*T^ ' to mix,' ^W ' to mark,* ^ * to make water,' ^^ ' to thread,' Tt^ ' to fan,' 
rl5i *to perforate,' ^P^'to sound,' and others less common, can, according to 
some grammarians, form their stems optionally with dpaya j thus, ^5J may make 
in Pres. i. ^T^TRTrfir or ^^nnftr. 

289. It has been shewn that every root may have a Causal form, 
which follows the rule of conjugation of cl. 10. Indeed, it may be 
owing to the fact that there are a number of Active Primitive verbs 
not Causal in their signification, but conjugated hke Causals, that a 


W loth class has arisen distinct from the Causal. In verbs of this class 
the Causal form will generally be identical with the Primitive. 

Again, as some vei*bs really Causal in their signification are re- 
garded as belonging to cl. lo, there will often be a difficulty in 
determining whether a verb be a Primitive verb of this class, or a 
Causal verb. Hence the consideration of cl. lo must to a great 
extent be mixed up with that of the Causal form of the root. See 
the special changes applicable to Causals at 483-488. 

a. Observe, that all verbs, whether Primitive or Causal, which 
belong to cl. 10, have this great peculiarity, viz. that the conjugational 
aya is carried throughout all the tenses of the verb. General as well 
as Special, except only the Aorist and the Precative, Parasmai-pada. 
For this reason the formation of the stem of the General tenses of 
verbs of cl. 10 will not be explained under the head of the General 
tenses (at ^6^), but will fall under Causal verbs. 

b. Many verbs of cl. 10 are also conjugated in other classes ; and many may be 
regarded as Nominal verbs. 

2, 3, 7, AND CLASSES 5, 8, 9. 

Preliminary Observations, 

290. The formation of the stems of verbs of groups II and III 
presents more difficulties than that of group I, containing the ist, 
4th, 6th, and loth classes. In group I the verbal stem, although 
varying slightly in each class, preserves the form assumed in the 
singular before all the terminations of every Special tense ; but in 
the last two groups the stem is liable to variation in the various 
persons and numbers of most of the tenses, such variation being 
denoted by the letter P and other indicatory letters of the scheme 
at 246. 

a. The object of the P is to shew, that fulness or strength of form is imparted 
to the root before these weak terminations (see 247. b) ; thus s^ i, cl. 2, *to go,' is 
in the Pres. sing, emi, eshi, eti; in du. ivas, itkas, itasj in pi. imas, &c. : just as 
in Gr. etfxt, ei, i(Tt, Htqv, rrov, i/xev, &c. : cf. also (p^lf^^ (for (paij.t), (ftvjf, 
(pyjo-t, (f)aTOVy (fyarov, (pafxev, <paTy (paa-t. So again, stri, *to strew,' is in Pres. 
sing, strinomi, strinoshij strinoti ; in du. strinuvas, strinuthas, strinutasj in pi. 
strinumasj &c. : just as in Gr. aTopvVixi, (7Topvv<;, a-Topvv<ri, cTTOpvTOV, aTOpvvTov, 

X 2 


CTOpvvfXV, &c. Similarly, kH, * to buy,' is in Pres. sing, krindmi, krindsi, kr<ndt% ; 
in du. &c. krtntvas, krMthas, krtnttas, krinimas, &c., the d being heavier than {. 
Cf. Tripvdux.1 (jrepvYjfjLi), irepva^, irepvariy itepvaToVy irepvaTOv, &c. The P after 
the terminations of the first three persons of the Impv., Parasmai and Atmane, 
indicates that even before these heavy terminations the stem must be full. When 
a root ending in a consonant is long by nature or position, no additional strength 
is necessary, and no Guna is then possible (see 28) ; but in place of Guna, the 
stem sometimes remains unmutilated before the light terminations, while mutilation 
takes place before the heavy. The same holds good in roots ending in a ; thus dd 
and dhd suppress their final vowels before strong terminations, and preserve them 
before weak j see 335, 336. Similarly, as, ' to be,' which by 28 cannot be gunated, 
drops its initial vowel before the strong terminations, retaining it before the weak ; 
see 327, and compare 324. 

291. Another source of difficulty is, that in group II (containing 
the 2nd, 3rd, and 7th classes) the verbal stem generally ends in a 
consonant. This group of verbal stems, therefore, will resemble the 
last four classes of nominal stems ; and the combination of the final 
consonant of a stem with the initial /, th, dh, or 5, of a termination 
in the Special tenses of these three classes requires a knowledge of 
the laws of Sandhi already given, as well as of others about to be 

292. With regard to the terminations, a reference to the table at 
246 will shew that the last two groups take the regular terminations 
of the scheme, with few substitutions. But in the 3rd pi. Present 
and Imperative, Atmane-pada, the nasal is rejected in all six classes ; 
and in the 3rd class, owing to the burden occasioned by reduplication, 
the nasal is also rejected in the 3rd pi. of the Parasmai-pada in these 
two tenses ; this class also takes us for an in the 3rd pi. Impf. 

293. Moreover, roots ending in consonants, of the 2nd and 3rd, and all roots of 
the 7th, and the root J hu of the 3rd class, take dhi (the Greek Bi) for hi in the 
2nd sing. Impv.* (see 246) ; and roots ending in vowels, of the 5th, and all roots 
of the 8th, and roots ending in consonants of the 9th class, resemble the first 
group of classes at 257, in rejecting this termination hi altogether. 

294. Again, roots ending in consonants reject the terminations * and t of the 
2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. by 41. 1, changing the final of the root, if a soft consonant, 
to an unaspirated hard ; and in other respects changing a final consonant, as indi- 
cated at 41. 1 IV. In roots ending in II, "^T, ^, V, the 3rd person rejects the 

* Dhi was originally the only form. Hence in the Vedas ^fv (k\v6i) ; and in 
the Maha-bharata ^Mlflpfv. Dhi then passed into hi, as dhita passed into hita, 
and bhumi into the Latin humus. 

m termination t regularly, and ends therefore in simple T^; the 2nd person optionally 
rejects either the termination s, and ends therefore in t, or the final dental of the 
root, and ends then in s, see 308. 

295. The following new rules of Sandhi will also apply in forming the Special 
tenses of the Parasmai-Frequentative (see 514), and in forming the stem of the 
General tenses of all Primitive verbs (except those of cl. 10), and in some of the 
Participles ; for although in most roots ending in consonants the vowel ?^i (see 391) 
is inserted before the terminations of these tenses, yet a large class of common 
roots reject this inserted vowel, leaving the fimal of the stem to coalesce with the 
initial consonant of the termination. It will be convenient, therefore, to introduce 
by anticipation examples from the General tenses and Participles. 



Combination of final ^c, ^ ch, iT j, *^ jh, with T[t, tj th, V dh, ;e^ s. 

296. Final ^d and i[^j, before "i^^, "^Z^, V^dh, and ^5, are changed 

to oF ^ (cf. 41. IV), the "3^ k blending with ^ s into "CT ksh by 70, and 

becoming tt g before dh ; thus, va6 + ti = vakti ; va6 + thas = vakthas ; 

vaS + si = vakshi ; mo6 + sydmi = mokshydmi ; muc -{- ta = mukta ; 

tyaj -{-ta = tyakta ; tyaj + sydmi = tyakshydmi. The same applies to 

final M.JK but this is not likely to occur. 

a. Similarly, final ^ 6h before s ; as, pra6h + sydmi =prakshydmi. 
397. But a final "^ 6h and i{^j sometimes become ^ sh before it t, 
"^ th ; and \ ^, "^ th, then become ^, ^ ; thus, m^ +ti = inft ; ^pT + 
thas = 1i[W^^, ;gT + /a=^; TC^.-\-td=vm* 

a. Similarly, a final "^^j may be changed to T ^ before >I dh, which 
then becomes ^ dh. 

b. ^JtST * to fry,^ iTlir * to be immersed,' and "^^ * to cut,' reject 
their last consonant, and the first two are treated as if ending in it, 
the last as if ending in 5T. See 6'^^, 633, 630. 

Combination of final v dh, i? bh, tuith c^ t, ^ th, ^ s. 
298. Final xidh and H M, before f[t and \th, are changed, the one 
to ^ d, the other to ^5, and both t and th then become >I dh; thus, 
rundh with tas or thas becomes equally ^^^f^lH runddhas ; labh + tdhe 
= <AM\t labdhdhe ; bodh + tdhe = ^tin^. 

A similar rule applies to j&nal Tf gh, which must be changed to 'T g, but this is 
not likely to occur. 

a. When final V dh is preceded by a conjunct r^ n, as in rundh^ 
then the final dh^ which has become d (before t and th changed to 


dh), may optionally be rejected; so that rundh + tas = ^^^ or ^''^; 
rundh + tam = ^^^^ or ^^^W (Pan. viii. 4, 65). 

h. On the same principle i|i!<t, is written for q<!^<sM, ftova 1^ (674). 
c. Similarly roots ending in "ff ^ and ^ d may reject these letters before th^ t, and 
dhi, when n immediately precedes, hence ^TRi may be written for w*^ , "rnnT^ for 

f>r^, M^ for "ftrf^. 

299. Final v dh and >T bh, before ^ 5, are changed by 44, the one 
to itt, the other to \p; thus, ^rirv rM/iarfA + fti i becomes IjiufrM 
runatsi; sedh -\- sydmi = setsydmi ; labh-\-sye = lapsye {c. 41, II). 

a. If the initial of the syllable containing the final aspirate be g, 
dy by or d, then the aspirate, which has been rejected in the final, is 
thrown back on the initial ; as, ^f^ bodh 4- ^ sye = >f^ bhotsye ; ^v 
dadh + sva = dhatsva : and in the case of ^ the same applies before 
/ and th, against 298. See 44. c, 336, 664. Cf. Opey^ca from rpecpw. 

b. The aspiration is also thrown back on the initial, when final dh 
is changed to c?, before the terminations dhve and dhvam. See 336, 664. 

Combinations of final ^s, "^sh, ^s, with tt t, "'(th, ^s, vdh. 

300. Final SF ^, before nj and "^Jh^ becomes '^^8h; and the l{t, ^M, 
take the cerebral form 7, ^ ; thus, ^51 + /e = ^; ^5T + thds = in^. 

301. Similarly, final t? sh, before lit and yj th, requires the change 
of "i^/, \th^ to ^, ^; thus, ^"1 4- ^i = irft ; and fs\-^ thas = f^:t^^. 

302. Final si^i or "^ sh^ before ^ 5, is changed to "2^ A: by 41. V, the 
^ 8 then becoming w sh by 70 ; thus, ^51 + ^i = ^^ ; y^ 4- *i = irftf ; 
-551 + sydmi = ^yfeqifH. 

a. Final "^ ^sA is also changed to "s^k ; as, ^"^4-% = ^^. 

303. Final 5F i or ^ 5^, before V f/^, is changed to "^ (f, the v c?i^ 
becoming ^ ?A by 51; thus, f^-\-dhi = fs^. Similarly, f^ 4- 
dhvam fy^T. A final '^j may also follow this rule ; see 632, 651. 

a. Final '^ksh also becomes "^rf, k being dropped; as,^rEI + i^ = ^Ty?. 
. 304. Final \8 \% changed \x) j^J before ?^^/ in the 3rd sing. Impf. 
(the termination / being rejected), and before 11 dh, is either dropped 
or changed to ^ </; thus, 6akd8 4- dhi = either "^idiifii 6akddhi or ^n!T% 
6akdddhi ; :^ + dhi = ^iftl ; ff ?^ + dhi = f^fjii or f^^, see 658, 673. 

a. Final ^ s before ^ * is changed to j[^t ; as, vas 4- sydmi = vat- 
sydmi. So optionally in 2nd sing. Impf. of '^JJ^^, aids -\-s = ahdts = 
aidt (or aids). 

b. But not in the case of final s preceded by a or a before si and ae. 



m Combination of final ^ h with i^t, *^th, i=^^s, v dh. 

^ 305. In roots beginning with ^ </, like ^ duh, * to milk/ final f h 
is treated as if it were "^^gh, and is changed to iT^ before 1^^ and \th^ 
and both t and th then become v dh ; thus, |^ duh + tas or thas 
becomes equally g^^V?^ dugdhas ; ^ dah + tdsmi = dagdhdsmi. 
But i^-\-ta = '^ dridha. 

Note In root ^ the final h is treated as if it were v dh, and 
becomes ^ d, afl:er which t and th both become ?A. See 62,4. 

a. But if a root begin with any other letter than ^ c? or 5^ w, then 
its final f A is dropped, and both the n^t and ^^th of the termination 
become ^ dh. Moreover, to compensate for the rejection of the final 
h, a radical vowel (except n), if not gunated, is lengthened, and in the 
roots ^ sah and "qf vah, * to bear,^ changed to ; as, g? + ^a = ^ ; 
^|4-/a = :^^; ^ + ti ^fsledhi; T^ + /osme = Tt^figR ; ^^ + /a = 
^ft^; ^ + /a = ^^. 

Obs. But i^f + /a = '^, and ^? + /a = ^ (Pan. vi. 3,11 1). 

b. "5^ * to injure,^ 'If * to be foolish,' 1%7 * to love,' ^ 'to vomit,' 
optionally follow either 305 or 305. a. 

306. Final f A, before ^ *, follows the analogy of final 3^ s and 
tr sh, and is changed to "5^ /:, which blends with ^ s into ^ ksh ; 
thus, ^ leh with si becomes ^f^ ; ^ 4- sydmi = ^t^nftr. Similarly, 
in Latin, final h becomes k before s; as, veksit (yexit) from veho. 

a. And if the initial of the syllable ending in "s h he ^ d, r\g^ -^b, 
or'^d (the two latter, however, are not likely to occur), then the final 
7 A is still changed to ^ A: before s ; but the initial ^ d and JT g are 
aspirated according to the analogy of 44. c ; thus, ^^ doh +$1 
^% 1 ^ dah + sydmi = v^rrfir ; ^'Tf aguh + sam = ^^^. 

b. In root Tf nah final f A is treated as if it were dh, and becomes 
j[^ t before ^ s. Compare 183, and see 6:^4. 

c. In roots beginning with ^ d, like |^ duh and fe dih, final f h 
becomes t\ g before dh ; i. e. before the dhi of the 3nd sing. Impera- 
tive, and before the terminations dhve and dhvam (see 306. d) ; 
thus, |f duh + dhi = gfni dugdhi. And in a root beginning with w, 
like cTf nah, final A becomes d before these terminations. 

But if the root begin with any other letter than ^ d or r{^n, then 
final f A is dropped, and the v dh of the termination becomes ^ dh, 
the radical vowel (except ^ ri) being lengthened ; thus, fc5f Uh + dhi 


= cSifs ; lih + dhvam = c?ri^. An option, however, is allowed in the 
case of the roots at 305. b. 

d. And 306. a. applies before dhve and dhvam, when final 7 h be- 
comes n^ or is dropped, although not before dhi of the Imperative; thus, 
duh + dhve = ^t^ dhvgdhve ; and aguh + dhvam = ^nrsiT aghudhvam, 

e, Obs. If a root end in ^ A, this final h becomes ^ ^ in the and 
and 3rd sing. Impf. of roots beginning with ? d (the personal termina- 
tions s and / being dropped). In all other roots the final f h becomes 
"^ t (41. III). In both cases the changed f throws back an aspiration 
on the first consonant of the root in accordance with 306. a. 


307. Class 2 (containing about 70 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except when debarred by 28) in 
the strong forms, or before those terminations only which are marked 
with P in the scheme at 246. Before all the other terminations the 
original vowel of the root must be retained. No vowel is inter- 
posed between the root and the terminations. (Cf. Gr. verbs like 
e2)ut, (ptjiJ-i, &c. See 290. a.) 

308. Thus, from f^ vid/ to know' (Gr. eH'^cc, H^ov, Lat. video), is formed the 
stem of the singular Present ved (i. ved-{mi=:'^f^ vedmi, &c.), and the stem of 
the dual and plural vid (Du. i. vid-^vas=:f^^^vidvas, &c. ; PI. i. vid-\-mas= 
f^^^vidmas, &c.) So also the stem of the Impf. aved and avid (i. aved-{-am=: 
avedam, 2. aved -\- s = avet or aves by 41. 1, and 294); the stem of the Pot. vid 
(i. vid-\-ydm=. fq w ii^ vidydm, &c.); and the stem of the Impv. ved and vid {i.ved 
-{dni=.veddni, 2. vid-\-dhi^viddhi 293, ved-\-tu=zvettu ; Du. i. ved+dva=zveddva, 
&c. *) See the table at 583. 

a. A contracted form of the Perfect of vid (365) is sometimes used for the Pre- 
sent; thus. Sing, veda, vettha, veda; Du. vidva, vidathus, vidatus ; PI. vidma, 
vida, vidua; see 168. e. Cf. Gr. oi^a (for Folia) fr. rt. Fil (f^^cw), also used with 
a Present signification ; and Lat. vidi, vidisti, &c. Cf. also the Present vidmas 
with J^/txev (la-fxev), vittha with HcTTCy and viddhi with /Vfi/. Cf. also old English 
* to wit.' 

309. Similarly, from %^, *to hate,' come the stems dvesh and dvish (Pres. i. 
yf^; Du. I. fk*^^, &c.; see 657). 

* The Impv. of vid is optionally formed with the syllable dm and the auxiliary 
verb kri (cf. 385); thus, Sing. 3. fq^^I^Oj or f^^TUft^ (Pan. iii. i, 41). And 
this root may optionally insert r in the 3rd pi. A'tm. of the Pres., Impf., and Impv. ; 
thus, f^W or fV^TT, ^f%^ or ^iP^l^iT, ^^^A\H or PMj j ^HW^ . 

m' 310. So also, from ^ i, ' to go,' come the stems e and i (Pres. i . ^ETR em (= ifJ.i), 
* 2. ^f^ by 70, 3. ^frr; Pi. i. ^*I^, J/^ev, see 645). 

a. TPT*to awake' makes, in the same wsiy,jdgar smdjdgri (Pres. i. '^I'mH, &c.; 
Du. I. 5llJ|o|^; PI. 3. ITTIT^ ; Impf. 2, 3. ^^nT^ or "STlTTi: ; Du. 3. ^^TPJUTT ; 

PI. 3. ^wrn^^; Pot. I. "srnpTT'T; impv. 3. ^t^; pi. 3. 'n?Tg). 

Obs. Roots of el. 2, having more than one syllable (such as '^U^ above, cffT^T 
* to be poor,' ^cIT''5[' to shine,' all formed by reduplication), as well as ^"P^ ' to rule ' 
(perhaps contracted from a reduplicated l^T^^), and W^ to eat' (perhaps for 
*R^), resemble the reduplicated verbs of cl. 3 in rejecting the nasal from the 
3rd pi. Pres. and Impv. Parasmai, and taking us for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Moreover, 
a few roots like f^^ and fl^ above, as well as some in d, like ^T * to go ' and Vl 
*to protect,' optionally take its for an in Impf., before which a final d is dropped. 

311. The preposition ^fv adhi, *over,' prefixed to the root ^ i, to go,' gives 
the sense of *to read ' (Atmane-pada only) : ^ then becomes iy (compare 123) and 
blends with adhi into ^'*fi^ oc^My before the vowel-terminations of the Pres., Impf., 
and Pot. Before the consonantal terminations it becomes "WTt adhi. (Hence Pres. 

1. ^Nt^, 2. ^\it^, 3. ^nfiff ; Du. I. ^V^^^, &c. ; PI. 3. ^>fhl^; Impf. i. adU-\- 

+y+==^^ftThy25i.a, 2.^Rfl"^?^, 3.^i^fT; Du. i.^T^f^, 2.^nflTn^T*r, 

&c.; Pot. I. ^^iNhr, ^I^lflvil^, &c. ; Impv. i. flc?^i + e + i=^lfl^ by 36. a, 

2. ^>rt^, &c.) 

a. The preposition ^ a is prefixed to the root ^ , according to the usual rules 
of Sandhi, and gives the sense of ' to come ;' thus, Pres. ^ft?, ^fR, ^fiT ; ^'f^, 
&c.; Impf. ^rRT, $^, &c. ; Pot. ^^T, ^^1^, &c.; Impv. ^^fff, ^f^, ^, 
&c. Again, the prep. ^^ apa prefixed gives the sense of * to go away ;' thus, Pres. 
'BI^f'T, &c. : and the prep. "ST^ gives the sense of *to know;' as, Pres.^^ftT. 

312. So also other roots in '^/and "^u or'Wiu change these vowels to iy and uv 
(cf. 123, 125.0) before the vowel-terminations; as, fr. ^ vt, *to go,' come ve, vi, 
and viy (Pres. i. '^ft?, &c. ; Du. i. ft^; PI. 3. f^^) *. Similarly, ^, ' to bring 
forth' (Atm. only), makes in Pres. Sing. Du. PI. 3. ^, *JnfT, ^rfj and in Impv. 
Sing. Du. PI. I. ^, ^TI^^, ^^TTR^, Guna being suppressed. 

313. i^ stu and "^ nu, ' to praise ;' ^ yu, ' to join,' ' to mix ;' and '5^ ru, * to sound,' 
follow 312, but take Vriddhi instead of Guna before the consonantal P termina- 
tions f. Hence the stems Ht stau, ^ stu, and ^"^ stuv j see 648. Before the 
vowel P terminations both Vriddhi and Guna are generally (but not always) sup- 
pressed, and uv substituted, as in 5|^ at 312. Note, that these roots may optionally 
insert an ^ i before the consonantal P terminations ; and before this vowel Guna, 
not Vriddhi, is required. According to some authorities, however, is inserted 
before all the consonantal terminations ; and, according to others, before all the 
consonants, except y, v, or w, not followed by an indicatory P. 

314. "3^, *to speak,' can never take Vriddhi, like the roots at 313; but inserts 

* According to some the 3rd pi. Impf. of ^^ is 'Sl^c^as well as ^if^^. 
t That is, the terminations marked with Pj which begin with consonants. 



an ^ / after Guna in the places where those roots optionally insert it, viz. before 
the consonantal P terminations. Hence the stems hravi, bru, bruv. See 649. 

a. Before the vowel P terminations Guna is not suppressed, excepting in the ist 
sing. Impf., which may be either ^pI|H or *(^*f*r. 

315. ^, 'to lie down' (Atm. only), gunates the radical vowel before all the 
terminations, and inserts r in the 3rd pi. Pres., Impf., and Impv., after the analogy 
of the 3rd pi. Pot. See 646. 

316. "35^, 'to cover,* takes either Vriddhi or Guna of the final u before the 
consonantal P terminations, except before the 2nd and 3rd sing, of the Impf., 
where Guna only is admissible. Before the vowel-terminations it follows 312, but 
Guna is retained before the vowel P terminations, excepting in the ist sing. Impf. 
Hence the stems urnau, lirno, urnu, and urnuv (Pres. Par. i. "3l%TnT or "^iTnTfiT j 
Du.i.-gs^^; P1.3."3RJ^, see3io.Obs.j Impf. i. ^ft^^H or ^A^?f^ by 251.0, 
2. ^Srof^, &c.; Pot. I. "gi^^nH; Impv. S. i. "3wS^fT, 3. "3iTg or "3Jfg. 
Pres. Atm. 3. *<!J"rl, "^nj^TcT, *<U^rf). 

317. HT'to go,* m 'to protect,' ^^ 'to eat' {edo), ^T^'to sit,* Atm., and other 
roots having a or a for their vowels, cannot be changed, but are themselves the 
inflective stems (Pres. i. "m yd-\-mi=zydmif see 644; ^'^ ad-\-miz=admi, 2. ad-^si 
=:atsi, 3. ad-\-ti=zatti : Du. 3. ad-\-tas=atta8, &c., see 652). With atti compare 
liat. edit. 

a. Wl^ 'to sit* is similar; thus ds-\-e=idse, ds-\-sez=dsse, ds-\-te=dste. The 
final of as is dropped before dh, hence PI. 2. ^Uf ddhve, &c. 

b. ^?^'to eat,' before the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing. Imperfect, 
inserts the vowel W a by special rule, see 652 ; and some other roots of this class 
require peculiar changes, as follows : 

318. ^frjT daridrd,' to be poor,' follows 310. Obs., making its stem daridri before 
the consonantal terminations not marked with P, and daridr before ati, us, atu 
(Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^fic^^rT, ^T^^JTiT^, ^ft'^f^T J Impf. i. ^I^^T^J PI. 3. ^- 
ft^; Pot. 3. <r<.rj<jli^; Impv. i.^ftr^ftu; Du. i.^fll^N; PI. 3. ^frj^). 

319. ^^>ft d{dh{, ' to shine* (Atm.), and ^R^ 'to go ' (Atm.), change their final to 
y, and not to iy, before the vowel-terminations (compare 312) ; but in the Potential 
the final i coalesces with the { of the terminations (Pres. Sing. i. ^Tuf ; ^RI ; PI. 3. 

^twnr; "^Wff: Pot. i. ?(NN, &c.) 

320. ^^vad, 'to speak,' changes its final palatal to a guttural before all the 
hard consonantal terminations, in conformity with 176; but not before the soft 
(except dh). It is defective in the 3rd pi. Present and Imperative, where its place 
must be supplied by ?|^at 314, 649. Hence the stems va6 and vak. See 650. 

321. ^mnj, 'to cleanse,* is vriddhied in strong forms, and optionally before 
the vowel-terminations having no P. Hence the stems mdrj and mrij. See 651. 

322. ^ rud, 'to weep,' besides the usual Guna change before the P terminations, 
inserts the vowel 1[ i before all the consonantal terminations except y, and optionally 
a or i* in the 2nd and 3rd sing. Impf. Hence rodi, rudi, rud. See 653. 

a. ^(^^'to sleep,* W3(^ and ^Hf^'to breathe,* and if^'to eat,' are similar, but 



m without Guna. The last conforms to 310. Obs. In the Epic poems, forms like 
^^ftr are found as well as ^f^ftr, while in the Veda other roots (besides the 
above five) insert i (as ^f^ftr, ^f*TfH,^ff5ffT, T^frfk, &c.) See Pan.vii. 2, 76. 34. 

323. "^ han, ' to kill,' makes its stem ^ ha before t or th (by 57. a) ; T( ghn 
before anti, an, antuj and "^ ja before f^. The last change is to avoid the 
proximity of two aspirates. See 654, and compare 252. b. Obs. 

324. "^^ra^, 'to desire,' 'to choose,' suppresses the a, and changes v to m before 
the terminations which have no P (see 290. a) ; and "3"^ us becomes ^"^ ush before 
t and th by 300. See 656. 

325. '^ir t^/to praise ' (Xtm.), not gunated by 28, inserts the vowel ?[ i between 
the root and the terminations of the 2nd person ^, ^, ik, and 5IT: Pres. i. ^Tj 

2. ^f^^, 3. ^ (see 48. b. Obs.) ; Du. i. ^^^ ; PI. 2. ^f?5^ ; Impf. 3. ^, &c. ; 
Pot. I. ^^"t^, &c.; Impv. I. ^t, 2. %f^^y 3. %TH; PI. 2. ^f^l^IH. 

a. Similarly, ^3T w, 'to rule' (Xtm. only) : Pres. i. ^^, 2. |%^, 3. ^^ by 300 ; 
Impf. 3. ^, &c. ; Impv. 3. ^^"PT, &c. 

326. "^"^^t^aksh, to speak ' (Atm.), drops the penultimate k before all consonantal 
terminations, except those beginning with m or v (Pres. i. '^j 2. ^^+ ^ = ^TSJ, 

3. ^, &c., see 302. a, 303. a; Impf. 3. vi-qg ; Pot. 3. '^^^). Katyayana con- 
siders W^ the original root, whence is formed ^T ; the latter being substituted 
for ^"SJ in the General tenses. 

327. ^^ as, to be' (Parasmai only), a very useful auxiliary verb, follows 290. a, 
and rejects its initial a, except before the P terminations. The 2nd pers. sing. Pres. 
is ^^ for ^fw. The Impf. has the character of an Aor., and retains the initial 
a throughout, and inserts ^i" before the s and t of the 2nd and 3rd sing. ; see 584. 
The 2nd sing. Impv. substitutes e for as, and takes the termination dhi. This root 
is found in the Atmane-pada, with the prepositions vi and ati, when the Present 
is Sing. ^fcTf , -^, -W; Du. -^, --qT^, -^TW, -^, -S^, -"^H; Pot. ^fcR^, 
&c. (Pan. VIII. 3, 87). See 584. 

328. '^n^ sds, 'to rule,' in Parasmai (but not in Atmane), changes its vowel to 
^ 8 before the consonantal terminations having no P, except that of the 2nd sing. 
Impv. Before that and all vowel-terminations, as well as in the strong forms, the 
vowel of the root remains unchanged ; and, after i, ^ becomes "^ by 70. Hence 
the stems ^T^ and f^'^. See 658. 

329. ^^^, 'to shine,' is Pres. i. ^^ftff, 2. ^^ifw, 3. "^^RTftcT; Du. i. ^^^- 
^^; PI. 3. ^'^TOflT(3io. Obs.); Impf. i. ^^ofinTiT, 2. ^T^^FT^or ^!r^rcRn^(294), 
3. ^^^^; Du. I. ^^^BT^; PI. 3. ^'^^l^; Pot. I. -^dil^l ^T; Impv. i. 
'^^iTOTf^, 2. ^^V or '^^f^ (304), 3. '^^fiT^; Du. i. "^^T^TT^, 2. 'l<*itHT; 

PL 3. '^^rog. 

330. 5^ duh/ to milk,' and f^ lih, 'to lick,' form their stems as explained at 
305, 306. They are conjugated at 660, 661. 

331. Class 3 (containing about 20 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Y 2, 


Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and 
gunate the vowel of the radical syllable before the P terminations 
only, as in cl. 2. 

Obs. This class resembles the 2nd in interposing no vowel be- 
tween the root and terminations. It is the only class that necessarily 
rejects the nasal in 3rd pi. Pres. and Impv. Parasmai (see 292), and 
takes us for an in 3rd pi. Impf. Parasmai, before which us Guna is 
generally required. See 292294. 

332. Thus, from ^ bhri, *to bear' (</>/?, /pro), is formed the stem of the Present 
singular f^Hl^ hihhar (i. hihhar-\-mi=f^>l^), and the stem of the dual and plural 
f^^bibhri (Du. i. bibhri+vas=f^^^\, PI. l.bibhri-\-mas=f^:^^^^\ PI. 3. bibhri 
+ai=fVfiT by 34 and 292). See the table at 583. 

a. Note, that bibharti bears the same relation to bibhrimas that fert does to 
ferimus, and vult to volumus. 

333. Similarly, from >ft bh{, 'to fear,' come the two stems bibhe and bibM; from 
^ hu, to sacrifice,' the two stems juho and juhu. The former of these roots may 
optionally shorten the radical vowel before a consonant, when not gunated. See 
666. The latter may optionally reject its final before vas and mas, and is the only 
root ending in a vowel which takes dhi for hi in the 2nd sing. Impv. See 662. 

a. "i^, 'to be ashamed,' is like ^\ but changes its final ^ to ^^ y before the 
vowel-terminations, in conformity with 123. See 666. a. 

334. "^ n, 'to go,' is the only verb in this class that begins with a vowel. 
It substitutes iy for ri in the reduplication, and makes its stems ^^ iyar and 
^ iyri (Pres. Sing. Du. PI. 3. ^^fff, ^^IT^, ^^; Impf. i. $lR*i^, 2. ^, 

3. ^q^; Du. 3. ^^ifR; Pot. 3. ^^n^; impv. i. ^^roftu). 

335. ^ da, 'to give' {Oi^ccfxtf do), drops its final a before all excepting the P 
terminations. Hence the stems dadd and dad. It becomes ^ de before the hi of 
the Impv. See 663. 

336. VT dhd, ' to place ' (TiS^^fXi), is similar. Hence the stems dadhd and dadh ; 
but dadh becomes Vi^ before t, th, and sj and dhad before dhve and dhvam by 
299. a. b : and dhe before the hi of the Impv. See 664. 

337' ^ ^4 'to abandon,' changes its final d io\i before the consonantal 
terminations not marked with P, and drops the final altogether before the vowel- 
terminations, and before y of the Potential. Hence the stems jahd, jahi, jah. 
Before hi of the Impv. the stem is optionally jahd, jaM, or jahi. According to 
some authorities, if^ may be shortened into Tf^ in Pres., Impf., and Impv. 
See 665. 

338. Wt md, *to measure ' (Atm.), and ^ hd, * to go ' (Xtm.), make their stems 
futfl mimi and ff^ jihi before the consonantal terminations not marked with P. 
Before the vowel-terminations their stems are mim and^iA (Sing. Du. PI. 3. fT?tw, 
fsf^^, fif^W ; Impf. 3. rf^1rt ; Impv. 3. fST^tlTTH). See TT at 664. a. 

339. 'T'^jan, 'to produce' (Parasmai-pada), rejects the final nasal (see 57. a). 


f and lengthens the radical a before t and th and hi, and optionally before y. Before 
consonantal terminations beginning with m or u the radical ^aw remains, but before 
vowel-terminations not marked with P the medial a is dropped, and the nasal 
combining with j becomes palatal (compare the declension of rdjan at 148). 
Hence the three stems jaj an, jaj a, a.ndjajn. See 666. b. 

340. >T^ bhas, 'to eat,' *to shine,' like jan, rejects the radical a before the 
vowel-terminations not marked with P ; and bh coalescing with s becomes p by 
44 (Pres. S. Du. PI. 3. ^Hf%, ^Vl^cT^, ^^IT). The same contraction takes 
place before terminations beginning with W, "W, but the final s is then dropped, 
and the usual rules of Sandhi applied ; thus, "^^T + rTTT = ^S'lT'T by 298. 

341. f*!^'to purify,' f%^'to shake,' f^'^'to separate' (identified with vij), 
and f^^ ' to pervade,' ' to penetrate,' gunate the reduplicated syllable before all 
the terminations, and forbid the usual Guna of the radical syllable before termina- 
tions beginning with vowels, as in the ist sing. Impf. and the ist sing. du. pi. 
Impv. (Pres. i. ^^HiH, 2. ^f^, 3, ^^f^; Du. i. ^f*ni^, &c. ; PL i. %f^nT^, 
3. ^f^TirflT; Impf. I. ^^f^iTH, 2. ^I^^, &c.; PI. 3. ^ftt^, &c.; Impv. 

I. ^ftr^f^; Du. I. %f^^^; PI. I. ^f^iTTH). 

342. Class 7 (containing about 34 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Insert tT na (changeable to th na after ri &c. by 58) between the 
vowel and final consonant* of the root before the P terminations, 
and t{^ n (changeable to ^, ^, TFT, *T, or Anusvarat, according to the 
consonant immediately succeeding) before all the other terminations. 

Obs. This class resembles the 2nd and 3rd in interposing no vowel 
between the final consonant of the root and the terminations. 

a. The insertion of nasals is common in other roots besides those of the 7th class 
(cf. 270. c?, 281, 487. b), and cf. certain Greek and Latin roots j as, fJ'-oi.O, fxav9dvoD ; 
Aa^, \auf3avu}; diy, Oiyydvco; scid,scindo; fid,findo: tag, tangos liq, linquo, 
&c. See 260. 

343. Thus, from f^ bhidy ' to divide/ ' to break,' is formed the 
stem of the Present tense singular firrf^ bhinad, and the stem of the 
dual and plural f)Tr^ bhind^ changeable to bhinat and bhint by 46 
(i. bhinad + mi = ftrrTf^, 3. bhinad + ti = fvmf^ ; Du. i . bhind + vas = 
f>T^^, 3. bhind -}- tas = f>r?^ or fH"5ir^ (298. c) ; PI. 3. bhind + anti = 
fWf^W). See the table at 583. 

344. Similarly, from ^v rudh, Ho hinder,' the two stems ^^ 
runadh and ^"W rundh^ changeable to runat, runad, and rund (i. 

* AH the roots in this class end in consonants. 

t The change to Anusvara will take place before sibilants and ^. See 6. a. 


runadh -\-mi=. ^wft*?, 2. runadh -\-si = ^nifrH, 3. runadh + ti-= ^?rf% ; 
Du. 3. rundh + tas= ^v^^) ; see 671. So also, from fxr^, * to grind,* 
the two stems fqtfw and fiH (Pres. 3. firr^+ fir = fiTT% ; Impv. 3. 

f^^^\^ f>j fVn!?f^ or f^ftss) . 

345. Observe Roots ending in l[t and ^ d may reject these letters before th, t, 
and dhiy when n immediately precedes ; see 298. a. b. c. 

346. ^T * to eat,' ^5? ' to join,' f^^ * to distinguish,' conform to 296, Hence, 
from bhuj come bhunaj and bhunj, changeable to bhunak and bkunk j see 

668. a. 

347. H^'to break/ ^ff^'to anoint,' ^^ *to moisten,' ^^ * to kindle,' 
f^^ * to injure,' ira or TT^ ' to contract,' fall under this class j but the nasal be- 
longing to the root takes the place of the conjugational nasal, and becomes T na 
in the strong forms. Hence, from bhahj come the two stems bhanaj and bhahj, 
changeable to bhanak and bhank ; from und come unad and und (Pres. 3. unatti^ 
untas, undanti; Impf. i. aunadam, 2. aunas, 3. aunat j Du. 3. auntdm, &c.) See 

669, 668, 673. Similarly, from ^^> Pres. i. indhe, 2. intse, 3. inddhe; PI. 3. n- 
dhate ; Impf. 2. ainddhds^ 3. ainddka ; Impv. i. inadhai, &c. 

348. T[^, *to strike,' *to kill,' inserts '^ instead of T!I before all the consonantal P 
terminations (Pan. vii. 3, 92), but not before those beginning with vowels. See 674. 


349. Class 5 (containing about 30 Primitive verbs). Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add ^ nu (changeable to ^ by 58) to the root, which must be 
gunated into rf^ no (changeable to ^) before the P terminations 
(390. a) *. Roots ending in consonants add nuv, instead of nu, to the 
root before the vowel-terminations. Roots ending in vowels may 
drop the u of nu before initial v and m (not marked with P), and 
always reject the termination hi of the Imperative. See 293. 

350. Thus, from ^ 6i/ to gather,' are formed the stems dino and (Hnu (Pres. i. 
6ino-\-mi = ^'^*\\^^if(Hno+si=:f^'^\?^hy^o; Du. i. 6inu^j-vas=(^*^^*\or ?'^r^'^^; 
PI. I. Snu+mas=zf^^*i*n^ or f^^T^, 3. (Hnu+antiz=:f'^^^?R( by 34 ; Impv. i. (Hno 
-{- dni= f^'H^f^ by 36. a, 2. f^ (Hnu by 291). See the table at 583. 

351. Similarly, fr. J du, *to bum,' come duno, dunu, and dunuv ; fr. ^Tr^ajp, to 
obtain,' come dpno^ dpnn, and dpnuv^ see 681; fr. IJ^'to satisfy,' iripno, tripnu, 
and tfipnuv, see 618. 

* The change of nu to no before the P terminations is represented in Gr. by the 
lengthening of v before certain terminations, as in ^fvy-vv-fJiiy htiK-vv-lxi, but 
^vy-yv'[j.v, ^etK'VV-ixV, See 260. 



m 352. ^ ru, *to hear ' (sometimes placed under the ist class), substitutes "^J sri 
for the root, and makes its stems srino and srinu. See 676. 

a. ^^*to deceive/ ^RW and ^cT^'to support,' ^^^'to stop,' and ^T*to 
astonish,' reject their nasals in favour of the conjugational nuj thus, dabhnu, 
skabhnu, &c. 

^^^. Class 8 (containing 10 Primitive verbs). Rule for forming 
the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add T w to the root, which must be gunated into ^ before the 
P terminations (see 290. a). 

Note Only ten roots are generally given in this class, and nine of these end 
inff^nor^n,; hence the addition of m and o will have the same apparent efPect 
as the addition of nu and no in cl. 5. 

354. Thus, from Tl^tan, *to stretch,' are formed the stems tano and tanu (Pres. 
I. tano+mi=l{^^, 2. ^ao +si="fnfrfi? by 70; Du. i. ^anM+ras='tT^^or ir^qT^; 
PI. I. tanu{mas=l^^^^ or ftnf|^; Impv. i. tano+dni:=inT^*{ by 36. a, 2. iT^ 
tanu, see 293). Cf. Gr. TavvfJi,i, Tavvfj.v. 

a. The root ^^ san, ' to give,' optionally rejects its n, and lengthens the radical 
a before the y of the Potential; thus, ^"SETfTsanyam OT'^W^sdydm, &c. 

b. When the vowel of a root is capable of Guna, it may optionally take it ; thus 
the stem of ^?IJT * to go ' may be either ^^ or ^SI^ (i. ^I?ffftr or ^nj^ftr). 

355. One root in this class, ^ kri, * to do,^ * to make,^ is by far 
the most common and useful in the language. This root gunates 
the radical vowel ri, as well as the conjugational w, before the P 
terminations. Before the other terminations it changes the radical 
ri to ur. The rejection of the conjugational u before initial m (not 
marked with P) and v, which is allowable in the 5th class, is in this 
verb ccnupulsory, and is, moreover, required before initial y. Hence 
the three stems karo, kuru, and kur. See 68a. 

^^6. Class 9 (containing about 5a Primitive verbs). Rule for 
forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Add n wa to the root before the P terminations ; tft ni before all 
the others, except those beginning with vowels, where only t^ w is 
added (see 390. a). 

Obs. TfT, ^, and ;^ are changeable to WT, mX and ^, by 58. 
357. Thus, from ^ yu, *to join,' are formed the three stems yund, yum, and yun 
(Pres. I. yina+mi=^TTf*T; Du. i . yunt-{- vas =^ t1 ^^ ; PI. i. yum+mas=^'*(t' 
1^, 3. yun-\-anti=z^*ff'*ff. Pres. Atm. i. yMn-j-e=^|n; Impv. i. yund-\-dni-=z 
^rrf^, 2. yun{-\-hiz='^[i^i%, &c.) 

. Obs, Roots ending in consonants substitute ana for their 


conjugational sign in and sing. Impv., and reject the termination hi; 
e. g. ^r^IR * eat thou/ from ^^ * to eat ;' ^TU * nourish thou,' from 
^; T|KTT!J 'shake thou/ from Tyr, &c. See 696, 698, 694. 

358. ^ 'to go,' 5ft 'to go,' ^c^t *to go,' *to choose,' "arl" 'to choose,' 7^ 'to ad- 
here,' Vtt 'to fear,' 'to bear,' 'CjfT 'to destroy,' ^*to shake,' ^'to purify' (583), "t^ 
*to cut' (691), ^*to go,"^ 'to hurt,' *{, *to sound,' ! *to grow old,' ^ 'to split,' 
T *to lead,' ''T *to fill,* ^'to bear,' 'to blame,' ^ 'to kill,? ^ or ^ 'to choose/ 5? 
*to injure,' ^'to spread,' ^or ^or ^or ^'to hurt,' shorten the radical vowel 
in forming their stems ; thus, from ^'to purify' come the stems /wnrf, jwn^, and 
pun ; see the table at 583. 

a. "Sit 'to buy,' ift 'to love,' ^ 'to cook,' ^ or ^t 'to sound,' 1? 'to hurt,' do 
not shorten their vowels. See 689, 690. 

359. ?J7, 'to take,' becomes 'ff, and makes its stems 'J'^JT, J^^l, and 'JlSn* 
See 699. 

a. mJ, 'to grow old,' becomes ftf, and makes its stems jind, jin{, and jin. 

360. T^V, ?J7T, *T^, ^''^j ^^> ^"d ^i^^ reject the radical nasal in favour 
of the conjugational ; thus, from handh are formed the three stems badknd, badhn{, 
and badhn. See 692, 693, 695. 

361. '3T 'to know,' in the same way, rejects its nasal in favour of the conjuga- 
tional, and makes its stems jdnd, jdn{, and jdn. See 688. 

362. ^^, 'to appear as a spectre,' is said to make its stems hhaund, khaun{, and 


363. The general rules for the formation of the stem in the Per- 
fect, ist and and Futures, Aorist, Precative, and Conditional, apply 
to all verbs of the first nine classes indiscriminately ; see 250. a. 
The 10th class alone carries its conjugational characteristic into most 
of the General tenses ; for this reason the consideration of its last 
tenses falls most conveniently under Causal verbs. See 289. a. 

Reduplicated Perfect (Second Preterite), 

Terminations repeated from 246. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

a (aw) 






itha or tha 





*idhve or *idhve 

a (au) 






t "^t however, may optionally shorten it. 


364. Rule for forming the sjtem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In the first place, with regard to reduplication, if a root begin 
with a consonant, double the initial consonant, with its vowel, accord- 
ing to the rules given at 252 (but a is reduplicated for a radical a, 
a, ri, ri, Iri, and even for radical e, ai, 0, if final ; i for i, i, e ; u for 
u, u, 0) ; e. g. 

From '^^pa6, ' to cook,' papad; fr. ITT^yatf, ' to ask,' yaydd; fr. '^ kri, * to do,* 
dakrij fr. JT^nnV, 'to dance,' nanrit ; fr. IT tr(, 'to cross,' tatrij fr. "^^Mnja, 'to 
be able,' daklrip j fr. T me, ' to change,' mame j fr. 'T gai, ' to sing,' jagai j fr. ^ so, 
* to finish,' sasoj fr. f^^^sidh, ' to accomplish,' sishidh (70) ; fr. Wt^jYu, ' to live,* 
jijh; fr. %'^se, 'to serve,' sishevj fr. "^dru, 'to run,' dudruj fr. "^pu, 'to purify,' 
pupuj fr. ^V 6m(?A, 'to know,' huhudh ; fr. c5V?^ ZoA:, 'to see,' lulok : fr. "ftR *m, 
'to smile,' sishmi; fr. ^T 5?Aa, ' to stand,' tasthd. 

a. And if it begin with a vowel, double the initial vowel; e.g. fr. 
^31^ as. Ho he,' comes a 05 = ^T^ a* by 31 ; fr. ^T^^dp, *to obtain,* 
a dp = dp; fr. ^^ ish, *to wish,' i ish = ish (see 31). 

b. In the second place, with regard to changes of the radical 
vowel, if the root end in a consonant, gunate* the vowel of the 
radical syllable, if capable of Guna (see 28), in ist, 2nd, and 3rd 
sing. Par. ; but leave the vowel unchanged before all other termina- 
tions, both Par. and iitm. 

c. If the root end in a simple consonant, preceded by short a, 
this a is lengthened optionaUy in ist and necessarily in 3rd sing. ; 
and before the other terminations it is either left unchanged, or is 
liable to become e (see 375. a). 

d. If the root end in a vowel, vriddhi the vowel of the radical 
syllable in ist and 3rd sing. Par.f, and gunate it in 2nd sing. 
(optionally in ist sing.) Before all other terminations, Parasmai 
and i^tmane, the root must revert to its original form, but the 
terminations must be affixed according to euphonic rules J . 

365, Thus, fr. '^^budh, cl. i, comes the stem of the sing. Parasmai ^*u^bubodh, 

* The gunation of the vowel is indicated by the P of ^, ^, T5T(^, in the 
singular terminations. See scheme at 245. 

t Vriddhi is indicated by the ^of IJJ^naP. See scheme at 245. 

:|: Greek affords many examples of verbs which suffer a kind of Guna or Vriddhi 
change in the Perfect; but this change is not confined to the singular, as in, 
Sanskrit. Compare Xekonra (fr. Ac/ttw, iXntov), TrenoiQa (fr. TreiBcc, eTriOov)^^ 



and the stem of the rest of the tense ''^^^bubudh (i. bubodh-{-a=bubodha, 2. bubodk 
-\-%tha=zbubodhitha, 3. bubodh-^a=.bubodha: Du. \.bubudh-\-iva=zbubudhwa^ 
2. bubudh -\- athus=bubudhathus, &e. Atm. i. bubudh }-=: bubudhe, &c.) 

Similarly, fr. f^ vid, cl. 2, *to know,* come the two stems f^k^ vived and 
^f^ vivid (i. 3. viveda; Du. i. vividiva ; PI. i. vividima, &c.*) 

From tl^, to cook,' the two stems ^m^^papdd and WV9 papad (i. papdda or 
papada, 3. papdda, &c.) 

366. Again, fr. ^ kfi, *to do* (see 684), comes the stem of the ist and 3rd sing. 
Par. ^i^ dakdr (252. b), the stem of the 2nd sing, '^m'^dakar (which is optionally 
the stem of the ist sing, also), and the stem of the rest of the tense ^ dakri 
(i. dakdr-{-a=dakdra (or dakara), 2. dakar-^tha=:dakartha, 3. dakdr-\-az=dakdra j 
Du. I. dakri-\-va=dakriva (369), 2. dakr%-\-athusz=.dakrathus by 34. Atm. i. dakfi 
-j-e=dakrej PI. 2. dakri-\-dhve=z^'^. See 684). 

a. Observe The roots enumerated at 390. a, reject Guna in the 
and sing. ; thus, f^ makes i. 3. f^^, but 2. f^rW^T^. So ^ or "5^ 
*to cry^ makes i. ^?Rm or ^cR^, 2. '^^f^vj . 

^6y, We have seen at 364. a. that if a root, ending in a single 
consonant, begin with a vowel, this vowel is repeated, and the two 
similar vowels blend into one long one by 31. But when an initial 
i or tt is gunated in the sing. Par., then the redupHcated i becomes 
iy before e, and the redupHcated u becomes uv before ; thus, fr. 
"^^ishy *to wish,^ come the two stems iyesh and ish (i. 3. ^^; Du. 
I. ifw^] see 6'^']) ; and fr. ^wM, ' to move,' uvokh and ukh (i. 3. 
^^; Du. I. ^f^ki). 

a. The same holds good in the root ^ i, * to go,' which makes 
the reduplicated syllable iy before the Vriddhi and Guna of the sing. 
In the remainder of the tense the stem becomes iy (cf. ^y^, e\ which 
is reduplicated into ey (i. 3. ^m^, 2. ^irfTO or ^; Du. i. ^Tt:^). 
But when the prep, adhi is prefixed, the Perf. is formed as if from 
gdf Kim. only (Sing. Du. PI. 3. adhijage, -jagdte, -jagire). 

b. And if a root begin with Ja a, and end in a double consonant, 
or begin with ^ ri and end in a single consonant, the redupHcated 
syllable is ^t?^ an ; thus, fr. ^i^ ard, * to worship,' comes the stem 
^xn{\dnar6 (1.3. WT^) ; fr. ^^ ridh, * to flourish,' comes ^fT^ dnardh 

(i. 3. wnrv; Du. I. ^TijfVn, &c.) 

* One Greek root agrees very remarkably with the Sanskj-it in restricting Guna 
to the singular, viz. Fio (/OCtf), *to know* (=Sk. vid above); thus, oi'^a, OKrOa, 
o<^ ; To-Tov, Jo-Tov ; HafXiVy Ha-TCy Icaai. Rt. vid has a contracted Perf. used for 
the Present, which agrees exactly with ot^a ; thus, rerfa, vettha, &c. See 308. a. 


B c. '?5r5(^Atm. *to pervade/ although ending in a single consonant ST, follows the 
last rule (1.3. 4liji). 

' 368. Obs. In the Perfect the ist and 3rd sing. Par. and Kiro., 
have the same termination, and are generally identical in form ; but 
when Vriddhi of a final vowel is required* in both, then there is 
optionally Guna in the first ; and when a medial a is lengthened, 
this a may optionally remain unchanged in the first ; thus ^ 'to do^ 
may be in 1st sing, either ^?BR or ^^R, and xi^'to cook' may be 
tnn^ or Tfij^ in 1st sing. ; but in 3rd sing, they can only make 
^eRTT: and tpTT^. 

369. By referring back to the scheme at ^67,, 246, it will be seen 
that all the terminations of this tense (except optionally the 2nd sing. 
Par.) begin with vowels. Those which begin with i are all (except 
the 3rd pi. Kiva.) distinguished by the mark *, because eight roots 
only in the language (viz. ^ ' to do t,' ^ * to bear,' ^ ' to go,' ^ ' to 
surround,' ^ * to hear,' i^ * to praise,' "5 ' to run,' e srUf ' to flow ') 
necessarily reject the i from these terminations. ' 

Some roots, however, optionally reject i from these terminations, see '^^ 371. 

Bejection of i from itha {2nd sing. Perfect, Parasmai), 

370. The above eight roots (except ^ vri when it means *to cover,' 
and except ^ kri, * to do,' when compounded with the prep, sam t) 
also reject i from the 2nd sing. Parasmai. 

. Moreover, the 2nd sing. Parasmai is formed with tha instead of 
itha after roots ending in ^ ri (except after the root ^ ri itself, and 
^ vri and Wl jdgri, which only allow itha ; thus, dritha, vavaritha, 
j agar itha ; and except 7^ at ^) ; 

b. and optionally with tha or itha after the root ^ svri, * to sound' 
(sasvartha or sasvaritha) ; 

c. and optionally with tha or itha after roots ending in ^ a, ^ e 
(except ^ vye, which allows only itha), and after roots in ^ ai, ^ 0, 
\i,\i,'^u, and the root ^*to shake' (except those indicated at 392, 
as necessarily inserting i in the Futures &c. ; e. g. f^, which makes 
Hsrayitha only, and so also most roots in "3i w) ; 

d. and optionally with tha or itha after those roots enumerated at 

t But ^ ' to do,' if ^is inserted after a preposition, as in W^, does not reject , 
and follows 374. A;; thus, 2. ^'^taifi.M. 

z 2 


400-414, which have a medial c, and which reject i either necessarily 
or optionally from the Futures &c. (e. g. ]^, sekitha or kaiaktha; 
"^, 6akshamitha or 6akshantha^ &c.) ; but not ^ and tj^, which 
can only make dditha, jaghasitha ; 

e. and optionally with tha or itha after most of the roots enume- 
rated at 415, as optionally inserting i in the Futures &c. : 

f. but all other roots, which necessarily take i, and even most of 
those (having no medial a) at 400-414 which necessarily reject i in 
the Futures &c., must take itha only in the 2nd sing, of the Perfect ; 
thus g^ is ift^ftr tottdsi in the 2nd sing, ist Future, but ^iftf^ tuto- 
ditha in the 2nd sing. Perfect (Du. i . tutudiva) . Some few of these, 
however, are allowed the alternative of tha, as l^ * to create ' makes 
^nrf^ or ^6r? ; ^pr * to see,^ ^^f^^ or ^^; both these roots requiring 
the radical ri to be changed to ^ ra, instead of gunated, when tha 
is used. 

g. Wt^ 'to dip^ and fni^^'to perish,^ which belong to 370. </, insert 
a nasal when tha is used ; thus, HHf-wi ' Vj or HH<k^ , ^IV or "SRiy. 

h. '5^ ' to be satisfied ' and ^t^ * to be proud,^ which belong to 
370. e, either gunate the radical ri or change it to t ra when tha 
is used (inrt or f^x^ or inrf^). 

Obs. When tha is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the 
rules of Sandhi (296-306) must be applied. 

Optional rejection of i, in certain cases, from the dual and remaining 
terminations {of the Perfect, Parasmai and Atmane, marked ivith ). 

371. The roots enumerated at 415, as optionally rejecting or in- 
serting i in the Futures &c., may optionally reject it also from the 
dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with * in 
the table at 363 ; thus "^ makes 'TClfJT^ or ^^repF, ^T!|% or ^^i?^, 
^reyf'Rf or ^^^1^ ; but the forms with the inserted i are the most 
usual, and all other roots, even those which necessarily reject i from 
the Futures &c. (except the eight enumerated at 369), must take i in 
the dual and remaining terminations of the Perfect marked with *. 

Observe The i is never rejected from the 3rd pi. Atmane, except 
in the Veda. 

Substitution of ^ for sir (2nd pi. Perfect, Atmane). 
31 'i*^ 4hoe is used instead of ^ dhve by the eight roots at 369, 


also in certain cases by the roots mentioned at 371. The usual rules 
of Sandhi must then be observed, as in <isiid from cT^. 

a. ^ for ^i^ may be optionally used by other roots when a semi- 
vowel or h immediately precedes, as ^t^fw or -f^|" from TS^, f^f^'^t^ 
or -fir|" from wt. 

Anomalies in forming the stem of the Perfect. 

373. Roots ending in ^T a (as ^ da, \o give ;' VT dim, \o place ;' ^ yd, *to go ;' 
'^J\ sthd, *to stand ') drop the d before all the terminations except the tha of the 
2nd sing., and substitute W au for the terminations of the ist and 3rd sing. Parasmai. 
Hence, from ^T dd comes the stem ^ dad (1.3. ^^, 2. ^f^^ or ^"^T^ ', Du. i . ^f^^. 
Atm. I. 3. <3[^, 2. ^f^, &c. See 663). 

a. ^1t;5T 'to be poor' makes i. 3. <^<:^r<^T; Du. 3. ^fr^K^; PI. 3. ^ft^^; 
or more properly takes the periphrastic form of Perfect. See 385. 

b. T^TT *to grow old ' has a reduplicated stem fiiTqi (1.3. fTi^, 2. fsf-i^I'Vl or 
f^Hiti^; Du. I. r^iHiqq). Similarly, an uncommon root Tift Atm. *to instruct ' 
makes i. 3. f^HT. .^ 

c. TH 'to throw,' m 'to destroy,' *to perish,' must be treated in the sing, as if 
they ended in dj and c5T cl. 9, 'to obtain,' may optionally be so treated; thus, 
Sing. I. W, 2. HHT^ or TfiT^, 3. JT^ft; Du. i. f'Tft^T^. But c^t is i. Wm or 
PrtrtiM, 2. c9f5T^ or rtfo^q or f<7^^ or fWc^f^ ''^ ; Du. i. fc5f%T^. 

d. Most roots ending in the diphthongs 1! e (except 3|', ^, ^, ^, &c., see e.f), 
^ ai, ^ 0, follow 373, and form their Perfect as if they ended in dj thus, >| cl. 1, 
* to drink,' ist and 3rd sing.^^, 2. ^V^ or ^VT^, Du. i. ^f^ ; ^ cl. i, 'to sing,' 

1. 3. "SI^TT, 2. "Slfrr^ or PrR; J cl. I, 'to fade,' i. 3. *T^; ^ cl. 4, 'to sharpen,' 

.1- 3- ^r^- 

e. But 2^ to call' forms its stem as if from "5, see 595 (1.3. ^^If, &c.) 

/. ^ Atm. 'to pity,' 'to protect,' makes its stem digi (i. 3.f^^, 2. f^ftlfiEr, &c.) 
g. ^*to cover' makes vivydy, vivyay, and vivy (1.3. f^^T^, 2. f^^ftr^I; Du. i. 
fRrf^ or fqrf^T^, &c.) 

h. ^ ' to weave ' forms its stems as if from vd or vav or vay (1.3. "^i or T^TT, 

2. ^f^ or HH\M or '^'^^T^; Du. i. ^W< or *r<4 or ^Pq^, &c. Atm. i. 3. "^ 
or "3?^ or "35^, &c.) 

i. "dI Atm. ' to be fat ' makes regularly V^, xrfTH^, &c. ; but the root "OIPT, 
meaning the same, and often identified with "^j makes f^^, f^^^, &c. 

374. If a root end in ^ i or ^ /, this vowel does not blend with the initial i of 
the terminations in du. pi. Parasmai, sing. du. pi. Atmane, but is changed to y, in 
opposition to 31; thus, from f^ 6i, cl. 5, 'to collect,' come the stems 6i6ai, 6i6e, 
and (5i(fi, changeable to ^6dy, 6i6ay, and 6i6y (i. 3. 6i6dya, 2. didayitha or (Hdethaj 
I)u. i.f^f^S^^ 6i6ywa, 2. didyathus by 34. Atm. i. 3. 6icye. See the table at 583). 
Obs. f^ may also substitute f^WT for f^^TR and f^^ for f^"^. 


a. Similarly, rfrn/, * to lead '(1.3. nindya ; Du. i. ninyiva. Atm. i. ntAye, &c.) ; 
and ^Zi'(Du. i. lilyivaj Atm. i. lilye). 

b. f^ji, ' to conquer/ makes its stem flTfl, as if from gi {i. 3. fiTTPI; Du. i. 
flffrq^j &c. See 590). 

c. f^ hi, ' to go,* ' to send,' makes fwf^, as if from ghi (1.3. finrRT). 

d. ^ Atm. *to sink,' 'to decay,' makes its stem f^^hl throughout ; thus, i. 3. 
f^"^^, 2. f^f^tftr^, &c. 

e. But roots ending in ^ or ^ /, and having a double initial consonant, change 
or / to ^ iy before all terminations, except those of the sing. Parasmai ; hence, 
from f<!f cl. I, 'to resort to,' come the three stems ^israi, ^re, and ^iriy (i. 3. 
f^^rnr, 2. f^r^TT!?; Du. i. iTfrf^Tf^, S:c.) So "^ cl. 9, 'to buy' (i. 3. 'N'aiT'l, 
2. fqaifq^ or f^^; Du. i. f^fgif^l^, &c. See 689). 

/. f^ hi, * to swell,' like 5^^ at 373. e, forms its stem as if from ^, but only op- 
tionally ; thus, I. 3. f!^|VJ 1 1| or ^^^, 2. f^TO"^ or f^^ftR or ^^f^ or TJ^fW^. 

g. And all roots ending in "3" m or "31 m change m or m to "^f^uv before the termina- 
tions of the du. and pi. Parasmai and the whole Atmane (except of course ^, ^<, 
"^j ^, in the persons marked with * at 246; and except ^*to be,' see t. below) ; 
thus, fr. ^dhu, * to shake,' come the stems dudhau, dudho, and dudhuv (1.3. JVT^, 
2. ^^f^ or IV^-^ ; Du. I. ^f^. Atm. i. 3. 5^). Similarly, 7 it, Atm. ' to 
sound,' makes i. 3. "35^, 2. "3if%^. 

k. But ^ makes i. 3. ^^T^, 2. ^^i|V^; Du. i- "^^j 2. ^^^^- Atm. i. 3. 
"5^5^ J and similarly, ^, "J, and ^ sru. 

i. ij^' to be' is anomalous, and makes its stem "^^J^ throughout ; see 585, 586. 
So 5R^* to bring forth ' makes in the Veda ^HJHjsC. 

j. 3i^ to cover ' (although properly requiring the periphrastic form of Perfect, 
see 385) is reduplicated into ^iu*j. In the 2nd sing, it may reject Guna; 
thus, "3l^f%^ or "35^f^^, 3rd sing. ^nj^R; Du. i. "gj^^f^^, 3. ^^I^^jj^; 

k. Roots ending in ^ ri, preceded by a double consonant, and most roots in long 
^ r{, instead of retaining this vowel and changing it to r by 364. d, gunate it into 
ar in the 2nd sing., and throughout the whole tense, except the ist and 3rd sing, 
(and even in the ist there may be optionally Guna by 368) j e. g. ^ smfi/to re- 
member,' I. sasmdra or sasmara, 2. sasmartha, 3. sasmdra ; Du. i. sasmariva, &c. 
Atm. I. 3. sasmare. 

L But >| dhriy ' to hold,' not being preceded by a double consonant, makes regu- 
larly I. Sing. Du. PI. ^VTT, ^[ftf^, ^ftm. 

m. ""^ to fill,* ^ to injure,* and ^ to rend,' may optionally retwn ri, changeable 
to r; thus, Du. THlft^ or ^fv^. 

n. "^ri,' to go,' takes Vriddhi, and makes its stem ^HT^dr throughout; thus, 
I. 3. ^TR, 2. VNlfl.'Ji; Du. I. Wlft^. 

o. ^ Atm. * to die,' although properly Atmane, is Parasmai in Perfect ; thtis, 
I. 3. ^WlXf 2. im^. 


"^{^1 *to awake,' which properly takes the periphrastic form of Perfect 
('5rPTO^ofiT:C, see 385), may also take the reduplicated form, and may optionally 
drop the redupUcated syllable; thus, i. 3. 'SnTTTn: or ^nTTT, 2. 'iT'TTniT^ or 
^TPrftrT (370. a). 

q. ^'to swallow' may optionally change Tto c^; thus, T^TTlor ITTTc?. 

r. W 'to pass' follows 375. a, as if it were (T^; thus, i. 3. WiTTT, 2. 'fffiC'^r; 

Du. I. ?rfe. 

s. "5T 'to grow old' optionally follows 375. a (3. 'SnTTT, 2. "iflTft^ or ^ffic'l; 
Du. 3. ITiltp; or ^T^). 

375. We have already seen, at 364, that roots beginning with any consonant 
and ending with a single consonant, and enclosing short ^ a, lengthen this vowel 
in the 3rd sing, and optionally in the 1st j as, fr. Vi^^pad, *to cook,' ^mi^^papdd j 
fr. tyaj, *to quit,' tatydj (i. 3. tatydja, 2. tatyajitha or tatyakthaj Du. i. tatya- 
jiva, &c.) 

a. Moreover, before itha and in du. and pi. Parasmai, and all persons of the 
Atmane, if the initial as well as the final consonant of the root be single, and if 
the root does not begin with ^ v, and does not require a substituted consonant in 
the reduplication, the reduplication is suppressed, and, to compensate for this, the 
^ a is changed to ^ e * ; thus, from pad come the stems ^'m^^papdd, papad, and 
Vl^^pe6 {i.papdda or papada, 2.pe6itha or papaktha by 296, '^.papdda; Du. i.peciva. 
Atm. I. 3. j9e(fe, &c.) Similarly, from c9*f labh, cl. i, Atm. *to obtain' (cf. Xafx- 
jBduoOf eha^Qv), the stem ^"^Jehh throughout {lebhe, lebkishe, lebhe, lebhivahe, &c.) 
So "*T? nah, *to bind,' makes i. nandha or nanaha, 2. nehitha or nanaddha by 305, 
3. nandha; Du. i. nehiva, &c. Atm. nehe, &c. 

Similarly, "^^^nas, 'to perish,' i. nandha or nanaia, 2. nehitha or nananshtha 
(TT?), 3. nandsa, &c. : see 620, 370. g, 

b. Roots that require a substituted consonant in the reduplication are excepted 
from 375. a (but not >^^bhaj and "RTc^ phal, see g. below) ; thus, H^rr *to speak ' 
makes i. 3. "^^TTtUr; Du. i. "^HftllR. 

c. "^'to speak,' r^ 'to say,' ^*to sow,' ^TJT 'to wish,' ^'to dwell,' ^ 
* to carry,' beginning with v, are also excepted. These require that the redupli- 
cated syllable be Tm, or the corresponding vowel of the semivowel, and also change 
va of the root to'W u before every termination, except those of the sing. Parasmai, 
the two ua blending into one long "35 My thus, fr. "^^racf, 'to speak,' come the 
two stems "^^T^^uvdd and "3!^ u6 (i.uvdda or uvada, 2. uvaditha or uvaktha, 3. uvdda; 
Du. 3. udatusj PI. 3. udus). 

Obs. This change of a semivowel to its corresponding vowel is called Sampra- 
sarana by native grammarians (Pan. 1. 1, 45). 

d. "^ vah, ' to carry,' changes the radical vowel to ^ before tha (see 305. a), 
optionally substituted for itha (i. 3. TTT^, 2. "^^f^ or "^Tt^). Compare 424. 

Obs. ^t?w, 'to vomit,' is excepted from 375. c (thus, 3. vavdma, vavamatus, 

* Bopp deduces forms like pediva, from papadiva, by supposing that the second 
p is suppressed, the two a's combined into d, and a weakened into e. 


vavamusj Fin. vi. 4, 126) ; it may also, according to Vopadeva, follow 375. a (3. va- 
vdma, vematus, vemus). 

e. 'I^ yaj, * to sacrifice,' is excepted from 375. a, and follows the analogy of 
375- c (i- 3- yo; ' Du. 3. ijatus; PI. 3. ^us) : the 2nd sing, is ^^ftni or ^^ by 
297; Atmane i. 3. ^T, 2. ^^, see 597. Yej is allowed optionally in the weak 
forms, and optionally in 2nd sing., especially in the Veda. 

/. ^I^ *to injure* and ^ Atm. *to give' are excepted from 375.0 (^^nfinT, 

g. >Tt.*to honour,' ^T^'to loosen,' ^*to be ashamed,* iRc^ * to bear fruit,* 
necessarily conform to 375.0, although properly excepted (thus, >TfnT, HfiT^, 
&c.) The following conform to 375.0. optionally : TROT *to go,' 535^'to sound,* 
(according to some) H^ 'to sound,' tf'^'to wander,* ^*to vomit,' and (accord- 
ing to some) ^rTH and ^T^ * to sound,* ^ ' to tremble * (thus, M^fdlVl or ^^JHI, 
SHifiU^ or "MiHujif, &c.) 

A. The following also conform optionally to 375.0: l3F^*to tie,* "W^ *to 
loosen,' ^^ 'to deceive ;' and, when they do so, drOp their nasals (thus, ^lyfrV^'y 
or $f^, T?rg^ or d^). 

. The following, although their radical vowel is long, also conform optionally 
to 375. a : Vll[, ^JT^ Atm., Vnit, and JfTST, all meaning * to shine ' (lXrf*R or 
Vw^, &c.) 

j' TJVf when it signifies *to injure,' necessarily conforms to 375.0 (2. tfv^; 

Du. i.y>m, 3. Wi; PI- 3-^)- 

k. If * to pass ' follows 375. o, and T ' to grow old ' may do so. See 374. r. s. 

376. Ttt{^gam, *to go,' IT^jon, 'to be born,' Wf^khariy *to dig,* and "^han, 
* to kill ' (which last forms its Perfect as if from "^ ghan), drop the medial a 
before all the terminations, except those of the sing. Par. (cf. the declension of 
rdjan at 148). Hence, gam makes in sing. du. pi. 3. jagdma, jagmatus, jagmus : 
jan makes jajdna, jajnatus, jajnus ; khan makes dakhdna, 6akhnatus, dakhnitsj and 
han makes i. ^. jaghdna, jaghnatus, jaghnus, 2.jaghanitha or jaghantha. 

377. '^^^ghas, to e&t,^ is SLTi&logoviS, making jaghdsa,jakshattis,jakshns: Du. i. 
jakshiva. See 44 and 70. And in the Veda some other roots follow this analogy ; 
thus,^'tofaU'(TTftl^&c.); 71?^' to stretch' (Trf^^&c.)j H^'toeat'(TTf'^&c.) 

378. TT^ to adhere,' W^*to embrace,' and ^51 *to bite,' can optionally drop 
their nasals in du. pi. Parasmai and all the Atmane; thus, ?f^*ni or ^WfSR, 
^^% or ^^^. 

379. T>^'to perish' and *n^Atm. *to yawn* may insert a nasal before vowel- 
terminations ijjyVf XXS'^V^ or IXSr ; Du. i . TXf'^R or T&sT, see 37 1 : 1.3. "SHf^). 

380. ^[^'to clean' makes its stem f^f^Xn in sing. Parasmai, and may do so be- 
fore the remaining terminations (1.3. i#n^, 2. ftuf^'q or HHT^; Du. i. 'RTlf^ 
or JnjfW^r or WJl^y see 651). 

381. V^pradh/io ask,* makes its stm ^TT^* (becoming mh-o^ before a vowel 

* This rests on Siddhanta-kaum. 134. Some grammarians make the stem in 
du. and pi. kc. Vp5. 



Bby 51) throughout; see 631. ^Isf bhrajj, cl. 6, *to fry,' makes either ^TH^^ or 
" ^^1^ throughout. See 632. 

a. '^^ *to go' gunates the radical vowel throughout; thus, i. 3. ^TT%, 
2. ^"RfS^; Du. I. ^Rft^. 

382. 'W^^svap, *to sleep,' makes its bases ^'^'^T'^and ^^^. See 655. 

a. f^'^ or "ff^'to spit' may substitute il i for 7 Mn the reduplication; thus^ 
I. 3. fz^^ or fiiW^, fzwh or fTT^^. 

383. ^V 'to pierce,' ^'^ 'to encompass,' ' to deceive,' ^'I Atm. * to be pained,* 
make their reduplicated syllable vi j and the first two roots change vya to vi before 
all the terminations, except the sing. Parasmai; thus, from vyadh comes sing, 
du. pi. 3. f^^T^, frfW^T^^, f^^^; Atm. frf^V, &c. : from vya6,f^^Vr^, 
f^f^^^, W^'^^: from vyath, fW^T^, f-N^M^I?^, f^^Mfvii. See 615 and 629. 

a. ^i^cl. I. Atm., 'to shine,' makes its reduplicated syllable di (i. 3. didyute). 

384. JX^ grah, cl. 9, ' to take,' makes its stem ^UT^ and PJ^ (S. Du. PI. 3. 
'TJIT^, PJ^^, "5PJ|^). But sing. 2. rilf^^. See 699. 

" ^f! ' to conceal' lengthens its radical vowel instead of gunating it in the sing. 
Parasmai, ^'J^, ^lff^> &c. 

b. ^T? ahy 'to say' (only used in Perf.), is defective in sing. du. pi. i. and pi. 2, 
and forms 2nd sing, from ^1^ (2. ^TTr"^, 3. ^J^\ Du. 2. ^Tf^, 3. ^TT^^; 
PI. 3. m^). 

c. j|^' to say' has no Perfect of its own, but substitutes either that of ^^(375. c) 
or the above forms from ^T?. Again, ^^ 'to eat' has a Perfect of its own, but 
may substitute that of "^ 377. Similarly, "^Sf^ 'to drive' (ago) may substitute 
that of -^i. 

Periphrastic Perfect, 

385. Roots which begin with a vowel, long by nature or position 
(except the vowel ^n, as in ^T^ * to obtain,' 364. a, and in ^T^st * to 
stretch ;' and roots having an initial ^ be/ore two consonants, 367. b), 
and all roots of more than one syllable {concept ^'/o cover,' S74'J> 
and except optionally rPJ * to awake/ S74'Py ^^^ V^T^ ' ^^ ^^ poor,' 
373. a), form their Perfects by adding ^VR dm to the root or stem 
(which generally gunates its last vowel if ending in i, u, ri, short or 
long), and affixing the Perfect of one of the auxiliary verbs, ^^ as, 
' to be ;' ^ bhu, * to be ;' ^ kri, ' to do.^ 

a. This dm may be regarded as the ace. case of a feminine abstract 
noun formed from the verbal stem. With ^crtt; it becomes ^T^ofiR 
or ^^cRi;^ by 59. Thus, ^3r, * to rule,^ makes ist and 3rd sing. 
f^IWl^ or ^^n^)J,^ or ^^T^^IT: the last might be translated 'he 
made ruling/ and in the former cases the ace. may be taken ad- 
verbially. So also, ^^^, 'to shine,' makes ^^^mi^^T ^he made 

A a 


Obs. ^The stem with dm may sometimes be separated from the auxiliwy verb ; 
e.g. W ^mnrf MV^HH ^rw * first he caused him to fall' (Raghu-v. ix. 6i), and 
IW^nrr ^ "^^ 'h<*\< (Raghu-v. xiii. 36). 

b. When the Atmane inflexion has to be employed, ^ only is 
used; thus, ^T iitm., *to praise,' makes ist and 3rd sing. ^Tra^ 
*he made praising or praised.' 

c. Roots of el. 10 also form their Perfect in this way, the syllable 
dm blending with the final a of the stem ; thus, from ^ (fwr, cl. 10, 
* to steal/ doraydmdsa, ' I have or he has stolen.' 

d. Also all Derivative verbs, such as Causals, Desideratives, and 
Frequentatives. See 490, 504, 513, 516. 

e. Also the roots T^ay, *to go;' ^ day, Atm. *to pity;' ^SP8[<fe, Atm. 'to 
sit;' SI^ifcas, 'to cough,' 'to shine' (^tii^i &c.); see Pan. iii. i, 37. 35. 

And optionally the roots Wt bht, cl. 3, * to fear ' (fWR or rq>i*^i'^<*k) J "^ hr{, 
cl. 3, * to be ashamed ' (HugiM or fTFTra^lTT) ; ^ bhri, cl. 3, ' to bear ' (^>nt or 
f^>TT:T"^rlTT) ; J ku, cl. 3, ' to sacrifice ' (^?T^ or ^^ii^iii<) ; fk^ vid, cl. 2, * to 
know ' (f^W^ or f^T^oRlT) ; ^ ush, cl. i, * to burn ' (t^Vr or ^ft^T^oRPC). 

/. The roots oFH Atm., ^jx^^, ^^ f^'g^ "qTrr^ -q^^^ whose peculiarity of conjuga- 
tional form is explained at 271, and ^T^^Atm. *to blame,' may optionally employ a 
Periphrastic Perfect, not derived from the root, but from the conjugational stem ; 
thus, ^m^ or oJiIH^I^^, ^^^ or 'HMNI^^iT, J^^ or ^MNI^i<*K, UU'rA. or 
f%^arnrn?"9RTT, ^ or ""TOTXir^nRR (according to Vopa-deva M^NI^ifi), '^% or 
yHI*l!*5r'*K, -WM^ or ^iflqi^^. 

g. Observe Stems ending in i, u, or ri, short or long, are generally gunated 
before dm; but ^hft 'to shine' and %^ 'to go' make ^WRT^, 5m'3iai, &c. 

386 First and Second Future, 

Terminations of First Future repeated from 246. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 



tdsvas tdsmas 

tdhe tdsvahe 



tdsthas tdstha 

tdse tdsdthe 



tdrau tdras 

td tdrau 


Terminations of Second Future repeated from 



sydvas sydmas 

sye sydvahe 



syathas syatha 

syase syethe 



syatas syanti 

syate syete 


Obs. ^The First Future results from the union of the Nom. case of the noun 
of agency (formed with the suffix ^ tri, see 83) with the Present tense of the verb 
"^J^o*, 'to be;' thus, taking ^T^cfa'/n, 'a giver' (decUned at 127), and combining 


its Nom. case with -^Vm asmi and ^ he, we have ddtdsmi and ddtdhe, ' I am a giver,' 
identical with the ist pers. sing. Par. and Atm. of the ist Fut., ' I will give.' So 
also ddtdsi and ddtdse, thou art a giver,' or *thou wilt give.' In the ist and 2nd 
persons du. and pi. the sing, of the noun is joined with the du. and pi. of the 
auxihary. In the 3rd pers. the auxihary is omitted, and the 3rd sing. du. and pi. 
of the ist Fut. in both voices is then identical with the Nom. case sing. du. and 
pi. of the noun of agency; thus, ddtd, ' a giver,' or ' he will give ;' ddtdrau, 'two 
givers,' or 'they two will give,' &c. * 

Hence this tense is sometimes called the Periphrastic Future. 

387. The terminations of the Second Future appear also to be derived from the 
verb ^^ joined, as in forming the Passive and 4th class, with the y of root "TT ' to 
go,' just as in English we often express the Future tense by the phrase ' I am going.' 

388. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

Gunate the vowel of the root (except as debarred at 28, and 
except in certain roots of cl. 6, noted at 390, 390. a) throughout 
all the persons of both First and Second Future ; and in all roots 
ending in consonants (except those enumerated at 400414), and in 
a few ending in vowels (enumerated at 392), insert the vowel 3[ i 
between the root so gunated, and the terminations. 

389. Thus, from f^ ji, cl. i, *to conquer,' comes the stem ^ je (ist Fut. Je-f 
/a5m^=iT(^fi?T, &c.; Xtm.je-\-tdhe=^ir{^. 2nd Fut. je4-syami="^X(nfJT, &c.; 
Atm. je-{-sye^='^r^, by 70). Similarly, from ^ sru, cl. 5, *to hear,' comes the stem 
^sro (ist Fut. sro + tdsmi = ^"i n I Pttf , &c. ; 2nd Fut. sro+sydmi='^^t^cnf^, &c.) 

a. So also, from "^^budh, cl. i,*'to know,' comes the stem ^fv bodhi (ist Fut. 
bodhi-\-tdsmi =^?VfVrt I f^H, &c. ; Atra . bodhi + /aAe = ^H fv rtl ^ . 2r\di Vxxt. bodhi -{ 
sydmi ='srtfV| iM 1 P+i , &c.; Atm. bodhi+syezzz'^f^SfWi). 

390. The roots ending in T m and "3i m of cl. 6, forbidding Guna, are "^ or oR" ' to 
call out,* ^ or ^'to void excrement,' "Ig o^"^' to be firm,' ^ or J^'to praise,' ^'to 
shake.' These generally change their final u to uv ; thus, "^f"^"!^ &c. from "^j 
but "^fTT^ &c. from f ; ^f^ftff &c. from n, but ^JTrrfgr &c. from g. 

a. The roots ending in consonants of cl. 6, not gunated, are "^f^*to contract,' 
'pT 'to sound,' ^T 'to make crooked,' VIZ 'to resist,' '^Z or "ST 'to cut,' 117 'to 
quarrel,' ^ ' to break,' ^ 'to embrace,' ^7 or ^^ or ^^ ' to pound,' T^Z ' to burst 
in pieces,' 7^ 'to roll,' of 7 'to play,' "^T or "^T 'to be immersed,' ^7, ^^, "ST, 
^5?' if' If' ^f ' '^' "^f' '^' ^11 meaning 'to cover,' n^ 'to guard,' "^^ 'to 
hinder,' ^"3 ' to bind,' "^^ ' to strike,' ^^ ' to emit,' <^T ' to adhere,' JT ' to collect,' 
f^^'to throw,' ^ Atm. 'to make effort,' "^ 'to cut,' ^^ or ^^ 'to vibrate,' 
W^ ' to be firm,' ' to go,' ^^ ' to eat,' nearly all uncommon as verbs. To these 
must be added f^aT cl. 7, ' to tremble.' 

* The future signification inherent in the noun of agency ddtd, seems implied 
in Latin by the relation of dator to daturus, -> 

A a 2 


b. ff^ ' to cover* may either gunate its final or change it to uv (^n^iflf^ or 
^f^f^inf^R, *lOn^*mrH or ^i^fTonfi?). 

c. ?fhit Atm. 'to shine,' ^^^ Atra. * to go,* drop their finals before the inserted i 
(^ir^m^ &c.) Similarly, ^ft^ ' to be poor ' (tjfxfjTnf^ &c. , ^ftrjullPH &c.) 

d. Roots in F e, ^ ai^ wt o, change their finals to a; thus, 3^ * to call ' (S^IHlf^?, 

e. f^'to throw,' 'ft 'to perish,' and ^ Atm. 'to decay,* must change, and "5J^ 
* to obtain* may optionally change their finals to a (TTTfTftR, HlHIlf'T, &c. j ^TTTT^, 
&c. ; ciniPw or rtrnifw, &c. ; ^^TTftT or rfl^lf**, &c.) Compare 373. c. 

/. Roots containing the vowel ri, as '^^'to creep,* IJOT 'to handle,' 'PJ^ *to 
touch,' ^^*to draw,' are generally gunated, but may optionally change the vowel 
fi to t ra ; thus, ^if^ or FRlftR &c., ^T^^ft? or H^^TfT &c. 

g. Reversing this principle, ^IST * to fry ' may make either ^FT^R or Hf Tf^T &c., 
^J^trrf*? or >T^fH &c. 

h. The alternative is not allowed when i is inserted ; thus, 1^ ' to be satisfied * 
makes TTffTftR or WnftfT, but only wfRWlfiSR. Similarly, '^^^* to be proud.* 

i. ^p^'to let go,' 'to create,' and "^51^' to see,' necessarily change r to raj thus, 
HFff^T, ^^nft?, &c.; '5[?TftR, "5[^TfT, &c. 

j. ^T 'to rub,' 'to clean,' takes Vriddhi instead of Guna (Trf^infw or TltrftR). 

k. Jl^'to be immersed,' and T5I^'to perish' when it rejects i, insert a nasal; 
thus, i^fhiPw, *f^nfT, &c. ; T^lftR, t^nftT, &c. ; but Tr^Jrilfw &c., rff^n^nftT &c. 

/. "SFH Atm., ^, ^T^, fk^y W, ^, ^, at 385./, may optionally carry 
their peculiar conjugational form into the Futures (oRfHlTT^ or "^'Tftlfn^, 'ftwifw 
or n^ftjinftR or jft^ftnnf^, rt rfldlffirw or f^3TftrinftR, ^KjTT^ or ^^fI- 
WT^, &c.) 

m. ^ 'to conceal ' lengthens its vowel when i is inserted. See 415. m. 

n. ^^ 'to be,' l|^and "^"^ 'to speak,* have no Futures of their own, and sub- 
stitute those of ^, ^^, and WTt respectively ; ^ 'to eat* may optionally substitute 
the Futures of '^^^ and ^W * to drive ' of Tt (^fdrilfw or ^rtlfw &c.) Cf. 384. c. 

0. The rules at 296-306 must, of course, be applied to the two Futures ; thus, 
tT^ ' to tie* makes iiilf>T &c. See 306. b. 

Observe The above rules apply generally to the Aorist, Precative (Atmane), 
and Conditional, as well as to the two Futures. 


391. These rules do not apply to form II of the Aorist at 435, nor 
to the Parasmai of the Precative at 442, which can never insert i. 

a. The insertion of the vowel i (called an dgama or 'augment,' 
and technically styled it) before the terminations of the General 
tenses constitutes onQ of the most important and intricate subjects 


of Sanskrit Grammar. The manifest object of this inserted i which 
can never be gunated or vriddhied, but may occasionally be lengthened 
into i is to take the place of the conjugational vowel, and prevent 
the coalition of consonants. Hence it is evident that roots ending 
in vowels do not properly require the inserted i. Nevertheless, even 
these roots often insert it ; and if it were always inserted after roots 
ending in consonants, there would be no difficulty in forming the 
last five tenses of the Sanskrit verb. 

Unfortunately, however, its insertion is forbidden in about one 
hundred roots ending in consonants, and the combination of the 
final radical consonant with the initial t and s of the terminations will 
require a knowledge of the rules already laid down at 296306. 

We now proceed to enumerate, ist, with regard to roots ending 
in vowels ; 2ndly, with regard to roots ending in consonants : A. those 
inserting i; B. those rejecting i; C. those optionally inserting or 
rejecting i. As, however, it is more important to direct attention 
to those roots (whether ending in vowels or consonants) which reject 
i, the paragraphs under B. will be printed in large type. 

Obs. In the following lists of roots the 3rd sing, will sometimes be given 
between brackets, and the roots will be arranged generally in the order of their 
final vowels and consonants. 

Note that if the ist Future reject ^ i, it is generally rejected in form I of Aorist, 
in Atmane-pada of Precative, in Conditional, Infinitive, Past Passive Participle, 
Indeclinable Past Participle, Future Participle formed with the suffix tavya, and 
P noun of agency formed with the suffix tri; and often (though not invariably) 
decides the formation of the Desiderative form of the root by s instead of ish. 
So that the learner may always look to the ist Future as his guide. For example, 
taking the root hship, *to throw,' and finding the ist Fut. to be ksheptdsmi, he 
knows that i is rejected. Tlierefore he understands why it is that the 2nd Fut. is 
kshepsydmij Aor. akshaipsamj Atmane of Precative, Ars^fpsiy a; Cond. a kshepsy am ; 
Infin. ksheptum: Past Pass. Part, kshiptaj Indecl. Part, kshiptvdj Fut. Part. 
ksheptavya 2 noun of agency, ksheptri ; Desid. dikshipsdmi. On the other hand, 
taking root ydc\ 'to ask,' and finding the ist Fut. to be ydcitd, he knows that i 
IS inserted, and therefore the same parts of the verb will be ydcishydmi, ayddi- 
sham, yddishiya, aydcishyam, ydcitum, ydcita, ydfHtvd, ydditavya, ydditri, yiyddishdmi, 

A. Boots ending in Vowels inserting 3^ i {except as indicated at 591). 

392. Five in ^ i and ^ t, viz. f^ * to resort to ' ('^finTT, ^f^TOlfiT), f^ ' to swell,' 
TT 'to fly,' ^ *to lie down,' fw 'to smile' (in Desid. alone). 

a. Six in 7 u, viz. '^ 'to sneeze,' '^ 'to sharpen,' r[ 'to praise,* ^ 'to join,' 


^ *to sound,' ^snw, *to drip * (the last only when Parasmai j when inflected in Atm.^ 
it may reject t). 

Obs. ^ *to praise,' and ^ *to pour out,' in the Aorist Parasmw. 

b. All in ^ M, as >J,' to be' (nf^WT, Hf^fir), except ^and ^ (which optionally 
reject i), and except in the Desiderative. See 395, 395. a. 

c. All in short ^ ri, in the 2nd Future and Conditional, &c., but not in the 
1st Future, as ^ * to do' (Bft;^^flT, but RHT). 

d. Two in short ^ ri (viz. ^ * to choose * and ITPJ * to awake') also in ist Future 

(^fun, ^rwrfF, ^nftin, &c.) 

e. AU in long ^ri, as "if *to pass' (wfTiTT, Hfcuifc!). 

393. Observe ^ ' to choose,' and all roots in long ^f/, may optionally lengthen 
the inserted i, except in Aorist Parasmai and Precative Atmane (^fTflT or *<idT, 
^raifTr or ^wfiT, iflTTrr or frttirr, &c.) See 627, note * . 

B. Boots ending in Vowels rejecting ^ i. 
394. All in ^ a, as ^T ' to give' (^KT, ^T^fk). 

a. Nearly all in ^ i and ^ /, as fir * to conquer,' tft ^ to lead ' (^iTT, 
^^fff, &c.) 

b. Nearly all in short ^w, as g *to hear' (^T^, ^*Va?fw). 

c. Those in long "3i u generally in the Desiderative only. 

d. All in short ^ ri (except ^) in the ist Future only, as ^ * to 
do' (^5t, but ^ft^qfif). See 392. c. 

e. All in ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0. See 390. d. 

C. Roots ending in Vowels optionally inserting or rejecting ^ i, either 
in all the last Jive tenses and Desiderative , or in certain of these 
forms only. 

395. \ox ^ cl. 2, 4, Atm. * to bring forth ' (^TTT or ^f^FT, ^"V^ni" or ^fV^TlT). 

a. \' to shake ' (>lf%frT or VtiTT, "irf^"OTflT or "uVoiftT, &c., but % must be inserted 
in Aor. Par., see 430), ^* to purify,' optionally in Desid. only (^^^, ftnrf^^ Atm.) 

b. "^ Atm. * to grow fat ' ("OnWT and "onftnTT, U(|^^ and UdHmM^ ; but neces- 
sarily inserts i in Desid.) 

c. ^ * to go,' ^ or ^ ' to spread,' *to cover,' and ^ * to sound,' all in ist Fut., 
and the latter two optionally in Desid. also ('5l"riT, 'Crfnn or (?) viOni; ^cTnT, 

^frrn or wOhi ; ^^T or ^TffT ; frrerYtfw or frrertofiT or frreTTi^fTT ; fp^- 

fWlT or ^^^fw). 

396. ^frjT 'to be poor' optionally in Desid. (f^^t^fT^ or f^^^"5r^^)- 

397. All roots in long ^ f< optionally in Desid., as 7J makes finTfC^W or 

398. "PsT, ^, ^, ^, optionally in Desiderative. Compare 392. 



m* A. Boots ending in Consonants inserting ^ i, 

399. As a general rule, all roots ending in ^ 1ch, "Hg, V^gh, W^jk, Zt,"^ th, "Sd, 
^ dh, W^n, Tit, "^^th, '^ph, ^^b, '^^ y, ^ r, c^ Z, ^u; thus, fc5^'to write' makes 
cjf^fTT, ^f^tqfiT, &c. ; ^cH *to leap' makes rf^Tin, ^f5?roifw. 

. ?JT 'to take' lengthens the inserted i in all the last five tenses, except Prec. 
Parasmai (i^^lffT, JT^^^frT), see 699. It rejects i in Desid. 

B. Boots ending in Consonants rejecting 5[ i. 

Obs. ^The rules at 296306 must in all cases be applied. When a number is 
given after a root, it indicates that the root only rejects i if conjugated in the class 
to which the number refers. When a number is given between brackets, this refers 
to the rule under which the root is conjugated. 

400. One in 0^ k. ^n^ 5. *to be able^ (w^> ^T^^ ^79)- 

401. Six in ^^ 6. ^^^ ' to cook ' (qiST, Tq^rfir) ; ^ ' to speak ' (650) ; 
ft^^ 7. 'to make empty ^ (XW, T^rf^); f^ 7. 3. *to separate;^ ftl'^r^ 

* to sprinkle ;' g^ * to loosen' (628). 

402. One in "3 6h. ti^* 'to ask^ (ttft, W^fn 631). 

403. Fifteen in i{^j. jin^'to quit' (59^) J >TT *to honour;' iR *to 
sacrifice' (597) ; W53^t 6. *to fry' {6^2>) ; JHi^ Ho be immersed' (6^^) ; 
W^^ * to break ' (669) ; t^ * to colour,' * to be attached ;' ifi^ * to adhere ' 
(597. a) ; ^^ Ho embrace ;' fVfS^ Ho cleanse' (^^T, ^^fff) ; fVsTj 3. Ho 
tremble' (^, &c.) ; ^6. Ho bend,' 7. Ho enjoy' (668. a) ; ^H Ho join' 
(670) ; ^T^ Ho break' (tmJ, &c.) ; ^i^ Ho create,' Ho let go' {625). 

404. One in 1^ /. ^ ' to be,' ' to turn/ but only in and Fut. 
Par., Cond. Par., Aor. Par., Desid. Par. (This root is generally 
Atm. and inserts i, 598.) 

405. Fourteen in ^ d, ^ * to eat' {6^2} ; U^ Ho go ' (trWT, vm?i) ; 
^ Ho perish;' H? Ho sink;' ^Rl^ i. Parasmai, Ho leap;' ^^ Ho 
void excrement;' f^ Ho be troubled' (^WT, &c.) ; f^ Ho cut' 
(667) ; fH^ Ho break' (583) ; f^^ 7. Ho reason,' 4. Ho be,' Ho exist,' 
6. Ho find;' fe^ 4. Ho sweat;' ^^ Ho pound' (^^, T^^iJ^rfir); f^ 

* to strike' (634) ; ^^ Ho impel.' 

406. Thirteen in v ?A. "^^ Ho bind' (692) ; ^Ho pierce' (615) ; 
TTV Ho accompUsh' {xTgl, Tjm^) ; ^TV 5. Ho accomplish ;' ftn^4. Ho be 
accomphshed '(616); ^>^' to be angry' (^^, "^wfir) ; Tf>i * to be hungry ;' 

* TVS inserts i in the Desiderative. 

t >J^ optionally inserts i in the Desiderative. ^ 

X When f^belongs to cl. 7, it takes ij as, f^fiTTTT, f^fTTBtflT. See 390. a. 


w 4. Aim. *to be aware' (614)*; ^^tm. *to fight;' ^*to obstruct' 
(671) ; ^v ' to be pure ;' ^*to increase,' only in 2nd Fut. Par., Cond. 
Par., Aor. Par. ; ^p^ ' to break wind,' only in 2nd Fut. Par., Cond. 
Par., Aor. Par. (both these last insert i throughout the Atmane). 

407. Two in 5^w. *i?^4. Atm. Ho think' (617) ; ^*to kill' (654), 
but the last takes i in and Fut. and Conditional. 

408. Eleven in "^p. irt^' to burn' (iTRT, d^qfri); ^* to sow ;' ^ni. 
*to curse;' ^x^^'to sleep' (655) ; ^m^'to obtain' (681); f^x^^Ho throw' 
{'^35)7 fir^^tm. *to distil;' f79T(^*to anoint;' ^* to touch' (^ftm, 
sftxptifiT) ; <5^6. 'to break' (^yhn, bIh^Th) ; ^'to creep' (390./). 

409. Three in ^^bh. ii>T *to lie with carnally' {^WT, ^tT^fir) ; ^ 
Atm. ' to desire' (with ^ * to begin,' 601. a) ; H>T iitm. * to obtain ' 


410. Five in ^^m. iiH * to go' (602), but takes i in 2nd Fut. and 
Cond. ; ^ * to bend' (iTiTT, TOlfw) ; ^ ' to restrain ;' ^1^ Atm. * to 
sport;' W^'to walk' in the Atmane {wm, ^FTw). 

411. Ten in ^J. ^3T *to bite' (^ct, iy^fn) ; f^^ 6. *to point out' 
(583) ; f^3i *to enter' (^FT, ^fff); fb^*to hurt;' f^y^^^'to become 
small ;' l|5r * to cry out' (^*^]?T, ^^fil) ; ^sr 6. ' to hurt ;' i^T i. * to 
see' (390.2, 604, -j^T, "^^fw); fSI^'to handle' (390./); ^^^6,* to 
touch' (390./, 6^6, 'frIt, FTOfir). 

412. Eleven in \sh. fi^'to shine' (]^?t, i^^w) ; firr/to hate' 
(657); f^Tl 7. 'to pound;' i^'to pervade;' %^ 7. *to distinguish' 
(672) ; f^^ 4. ' to embrace' (301, 302) ; ^^ 4. * to be satisfied' (h>ft, 
tn^frr); |^^4. Ho be sinful;' 5^^ 4. Ho be nourished f ' (Tft?T,Tfl^gilf7T); 
^4. * to become dry' (^*Wt, ^ft^rfff) ; ^w ' to draw' (390./, 606). 

413. Two in ^^s. Ti^Ho eat' (irerr, v;mfif) ; ^ i. Ho dwell' 
(607) t. 

414. Eight in ^ h. ^ Ho burn' (610) ; ^ *to tie' (624); i^f 
* to carry' (611); f^ Ho anoint' (659) ; f*r^ Ho make water' (k^ 
305. a, ^fir) ; f^Jj^ 2. Ho lick' (661) ; 5^ 2. Ho milk' (660) || ; ^ 
Ho ascend' (rter, Ovi^rd ). 

* When '^belongs to cl. i, it inserts i. 
t When ^belongs to cl. 9, it takes (^^fy^*!^, ^itlVoTfjT). 
X Except in the Past Pass, and Indecl. Participles TftiT and ^PMHI (607). ^^ 
cl. 2. Atm. *to put on,' *to wear,* inserts ('rf^f^'l' ^^''HT). 
II 1^ cl. I, ' to afflict/ inserts i (^IftilT, &c.) 


p C Roots ending in Consonants optionally inserting or rejecting 3[ i, 
either in all the last five tenses and Desiderative, or in certain 
of these forms only. 

Obs. When no tenses or forms are specified, the option applies to all except 
to form II of the Aorist and the Precative Parasmai, which can never insert i. 
415. Two in ^d H^or ff^7/to contract;' "9^ 'to cut' (630). 

a. Three in l[^j. '^W 7. * to anoint ' (668, but necessarily inserts i in Desid.) ; 
^^'to clean' (390. J, 651); ^IST *to fry' (optionally in Desid. only, necessarily 
rejects i in other forms). 

b. Four in f[^t. "^Tf 'to fall' (optionally in Desid. only; necessarily inserts i in 
Futures and Cond., and rejects it in Aor.) ; ^r^6. *to cut' (optionally in 2nd Fut., 
Cond., and Desid.; necessarily inserts i in ist Fut. and Aor.); ^^*to kill' (op- 
tionally in 2nd Fut., Cond., and Desid. ; necessarily inserts i in ist Fut. and Aor.) ; 
JT^'to dance' (optionally in 2nd Fut. and Desid., necessarily inserts i in ist Fut. 
and Aor.) 

c. Four in ^ d. ^^ ' to flow ' (optionally in all forms except 2nd Fut. and 
Cond. Par., and Desid. Par., where i is necessarily rejected); f^ 'to be wet,' 
"^^ ' to shine,' and "^^ *to injure ' (the last two optionally in all forms except ist 
Fut., which necessarily inserts i). 

d. Three in V rfA. ^'to perish;' ftw i. *to restrain;' "^V'to prosper' (the 
last optionally in Desid. only, necessarily inserts i in other forms, see 680). 

e. Two in ^ n. "if^ * to stretch ' and ^?|^ ' to honour ' (both optionally in Desid. 
only, necessarily insert i in other forms, see 583). 

/. Five in ^ j9. W{^* to be ashamed ;' ^]^i . * to defend ;' "5^4. ' to be satisfied ' 
(6x8); "^^4- *to be proud;' ^^*to be capable' (when it rejects i, it is Parasmai 

g. Two in ^^bh. "^^4- *to desire ' (optionally in ist Fut., necessarily inserts i 
in other forms *) ; ^^' to deceive' (optionally in Desid. only, f^fWRfcf or fVf^^PiT 
or >IT"*^rr, necessarily inserts i in other forms). 

h. One in *T m. "^H i . 4. *to bear' (^ftTiTT or ejniJ, ^ftr^ff , -flT, or "Cf^W, -fk). 

i. All in ^iy (but only optionally in Desid.); as, f^*to play,' f^'to spit,' 

j. Two in ^y. ^T^* to honour ;' "omi or ^ifiT^ * to be fat* (but both necessarily 
insert i in Desid., compare 395. b). 

k. Three in IJ^s. '^31^5. A'tm. ' to pervade t ' (but necessarily inserts i in Desid., 
see 681. a) ; T5T 4. ' to perish ' (see 390. k, and 620) ; f^SI 9. * to torment ' (697). 

I. Seven in "^sh. ^TJ *to pervade ;' iTSJ ' to form by cutting,' *to carve' (frf'^T 
or WFT, nf^^fiT or TT^flT, &c.); R'ST 'to create;' f^^with fH^ 'to extract' 
(otherwise necessarily inserts i) ; 1[^ 6. * to wish' (637) ; fx^ ' to injure ;' ^"^ i. * to 

* Except the Aorist, following form II at 435. 
t ^^cl. 9, 'to eat,' inserts i. 


injure* (the last three optionally in ist Fut., but necessarily insert i in other 

m. Twelve in f h. ?I7 Atm. *to bear' (optionally in ist Fut. only, necessarily 
inserts i in other forms, see 6ii.a); ^ 'to gamble' (^f'^in or ^dl, &c.); TT^ 
'to penetrate;' ^X^ *to measure' ('nfi^iTT or TTTT, &c.); f^T snih, *to love* 
(^%?n or ^nn or ^TT, &c.) ; ^ snuh, ' to love,' * to vomit ;' ^ ' to be per- 
plexed' (612); ^ 'to conceal' CTf^ITT or TXtZl, 'j^^^^A or xft^flT, see 306.0, 
390. m); "5^ * to seek to injure' (623) j ^ 6. 7. or ^ 6. * to kill * (674) ; ^ or ^ 
* to raise ;' ^5^^ or W^ 6. ' to kill.' 

Aorist {Third Preterite). 

This complex and multiform tense, the most troublesome and 
intricate in the whole Sanskrit verb, but fortunately less used in 
classical Sanskrit than the ^ther past tenses, is not so much one 
tense, as an aggregation of several, all more or less allied to each 
other, and all bearing a manifest resemblance to the Imperfect. 

416. Grammarians assert that there are seven different varieties 
of the Sanskrit Aorist, four of which correspond more or less to the 
Greek ist Aorist, and three to the 2nd Aorist, but we shall endeavour 
to shew that all these varieties may be included under two distinct 
forms of terminations given in the table at 246, and again below, 
and at 435. 

417. Form I is subdivided like the terminations of all the last 
five tenses into (A) those which reject i, and (B) those which assume 
it; A belongs to many of those roots at 394, 400-414, which 
reject i ; B to most of those at 392, 399, which insert it : but in the 
latter case the initial s becomes sh by 70, and in the 2nd and 3rd sing. 
the initial s is rejected, the i blending with the i, which then becomes 
the initial of those terminations. Moreover, in the case of roots 
which insert i the stem is formed according to rules different from 
those which apply in the case of roots which reject i. 

a. Form II at 435 resembles the terminations of the Imperfect, 
and belongs, in the first place, to some of those roots rejecting i, 
whose stems in the Imperfect present some important variation from 
the root (see 436) ; in the second, to certain of the roots rejecting , 
which end in 5^^i, \^, or i| A, and which have t, u, or ri, for 
their radical vowel (see 439) ; in the third, to verbs of cl. 10 and 


Form I. 
418. The terminations are here repeated from 246. 
A. Terminations without \i. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

I. sam sva sma 

a. sis stam [tarn] sta [ta\ 
3. sit stdm {tdm] sus 

si svahi smahi 

sthds [thas] sdthdm dhvam or dhvam 

sta {tal sdtdm sata 

B. Terminations with ^ i. 



I. isham 




ishvahi ishmahi 

2. is 




ishdthdm idhvam or idhvam 





ishdtdm ishata 

419. Observe The brackets in the A terminations indicate the rejection of initial 
s from those terminations in which it is compounded with t and th, if the stem ends 
in any consonant except a nasal or semivowel, or in any sliort vowel such as , i, m, 
or ri. Observe also, that initial is liable to become sh by 70, in which case a 
following t or th is cerebrahzed. The substitution of dhvam for dhvam and 
idhvam for idhvam, in certain cases, is explained in the table at 246. 

420. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
first nine classes which reject ^ i and so take the A terminations. 

Obs. I. The augment ^a must always be prefixed, as in the Imperfect; but it 
will be shewn in the Syntax at 889, that when the Aorist is used as a prohibitive 
Imperative, after the particle md or md sma, the augment is then rejected. See 
242. a. 

Obs. 2. When a root begins with the vowels sj i, 1u, or"^ ri, short or long, the 
augment is prefixed in accordance with 251. a. 

In Parasmai, if a root end in either a vowel or a consonant, 
vriddhi the radical vowel before alt the terminations. 

In Atmane, if a root end in ^ i, \i, "3" ^^, or "gi w, gunate the 
radical vowel ; if in ^ ri or any consonant, leave the vowel unchanged 
before all the terminations. Final consonants must be joined to the 
A terminations according to the rules propounded at 295306. 

a. Thus, from Tt 'to lead' come the two stems anai for Parasmai and ane for 
Atmane (ana+*ai=^^H by 70; Atm. ane-{-si='^f^, ane + sthds =i^H9\*\^, 

b. From "^ cl. 8, * to make,' come the two stems akdr for Parasmai and akri for 
Atmane {akdr-\-sam=W^^^hj 70, &c. ; Atm. akri -\- si =^"3^^^ by 70, A:n-f- 
/Aas =^I^^^ by 419, aA:r^'+<a =^!r^ff, &c.) See 682. 

Similarly, ^ cl. 3, * to bear.' See the table at 583. , . 

B b 2 


c. So, from ^^ to join* come the two stems ayauj for Parasmai and ayuj for 
Atmane (Par. ayauj -f- sam = v4 <n Hf fl by 296, ayauj-\-sva='^WWy ayavj+tam = 
"w4i^H by 419; Atm. ayvj-\-si=^^[^^ by 296, y; + Mas=^^^^, ayuj-\-ta 

rf. From ^cl. 7, 'to hinder,' the stems araudh and orurfA (Par. araudh+sam= 
viCiw^i^by 299, Du. araMc/A+5ra=^T^f^, araurfA+/aOT = ?l^5|^; Atm. arttrfA-|- 
=^T^fW, arMc?A + /Aas=^^irT^, &c.) 

e. Similarly, from ^^'to cook' come the stems apdd and apad {apdd-\-sam=z 
^nrr^by 296; Atm. apad+si=lW^f^y apad+thds=z^'^^FlX^^, &c.) 

/. From ^^ *to bum' (6io), the stems addh and adah (addh ^ sam ='^(V[T^J^hy 
306. a, addh + tarn =^(^W^hY 305; Atm. adah+si=W^?^ by 306.0, adah-\- 
thds='^r^m^, &c.) 

421. By referring to 391. ft. it will be easy to understand that most roots in , t, 
short u, and short n, take the A terminations. Most of those in a, e, ax, 0, do so 
in the A'tmane, and a few of those in d also in the Parasmai. 

fl. ^ or ^ to spread ' takes either A or B ; and in Atmane when it takes A, 
changes n to ir. See 678. 

b. ^ or ^ to choose,' 'to cover,' changes its vowel to ur, under the same circum- 
stances. See 675. 

c. Roots in e, ai, 0, change these vowels to d as in the other General tenses ; 
thus, from [| *to cover,' ^ST^ftr^ &c. (see 433), ^^T^T &c. Similarly, ft?, jft, 
^, and optionally r5% see 390. e {^mT'^^m^Scc, "^mf^ &c.) 

d. ^ 'to give' (see 663), VT 'to place' (see 664), WT 'to stand' (see 587), ^ 
* to protect,' ^ ' to drink' (if in Atm.), ^ or ^ * to cut ' (if in Atm.), change their 
finals in the Atmane to i (^f^f^, ^f^^n^4i9, ^^iT, ^f^TB^f^; 2nd pi. ^if^H). 
In Parasmai they follow 438. 

e. IT used for ^ *to go,' with ^fv prefixed, signifying 'to go over,' 'to read* 
(Atmane only), changes its final to /("WMi'ftftl, -jfttfl^, -t^?, &c.) 

/. "^ Atm. 'to cry out,' ^ 'to void excrement,' and ^ 'to be firm,' all cl. 6, 
preserve their vowels unchanged (^^f^, &c. j ^T^"^!^, ^T^, &c. ; ^^J^, &c.) ; 
^ may also make ^MiM+t^, and ^ may also make 'T^f^'I, but the latter root is. 
then generally regarded as ^. 

422. The following roots of those rejecting i, enumerated at 400-414, take the 
A terminations only, both for Par. or Atm. : T^,* TTSTJ TTST, Hl^, >TW, H^, 
W^^ inr, T^, ^, ^^ Atm., ^, ^, ^; TT^ Atm., ^ Atm., f^, ^, 
^^; ^^^, TSiv, TTV, WV, -JV 4. Atm., ^>^; T^ 4. Atm. ; HT^^, ^, ^, ^r^?:, 
fWi, iHAtm., '^; ITH, T^H, W; ^5i; ^; ^, ^, ^. 

a. The following take in Par. either the A terminations of form I or optionally 
form II ; but in Atm. usually the A form of I, sometimes form II : f^, f%^3, 
^, ^3. ^5^> ^ ^y ^ ^> Pl ^, '^'T* f^- 

b. The following take in Par. only form II ; but in Atm. the A form of I, or 
sometimes the B form of I : TJI^ (Atm. doubtful), ftf^, g^, f^ 6. 'to find' (Atm. 
doubtful), 4. 7. (only Atm.), ^^, W^, %^, %^ 4, r*^, f^ 4, "f>^, ^l(, ^ (see 


424. J; "^vvith the B terminations is generally used for Par., but ^'Trf occurs 
in Epic poetry), ^T^, f^H.? <5^> ^> 'T'T, TJ^. 

423. The following of those inserting or rejecting i, enumerated at 415, take either 
the A or B terminations : TT^ or W^, ^^, J|^, ^r^ generally Atm. only, fw^ , 
^Atm., T^, ^T^^Atm., ^, "^(the last three in Par. take also form II), '^^ 
generally Atm. (may also follow form II in Par.), "OTf^ (or '^) Atm., ^fHI, ^TS, 

424. The rules at 296-306 must in all cases be applied, as well as the special 
rules applicable to certain roots in forming the Futures at 390 and 390. a-oj thus, 
^^ makes ^5r3"T"2^T by 297. b (see 630) ; T^t^ makes "^Sm^H by 390. k (see 633) ; 
"sn^ in Atm., '^Rf^ or ^*T%f^; H^, ^WT"^^ or ^>TT^*T, ^8Wf% or ^>?fT$ by 
390. ^r; IJjT , ^pimflT^ by 390. y (also ^HTTf^^'T ) ; ^, ^^RTW*? by 306. b. 

a. tl^ Atm. 'to go,' "^ Atm. 'to awake,' ^TFj^ Atm. 'to be born,' may form 
their 3rd sing, as if they were Passive verbs (see 475) ; thus, ^"mf^, Du. 3. ^^T- 
WITTTH ; ^^fn (or optionally ^T^), Du. 3. ^^JWTTnT; ^ifftT (or optionally 

b. Roots ending in ^ and T must change these letters to Anusvara before s, aad 
T^ becomes r^ before l; thus, ^ makes ^ftf, ^fwi^, '^^M (or if in cl. 8. 
^TfVl^, or by c. below ^WH) ; T^ makes ^"SJft? &c., Du. 2. ^T^HiSPf. 

^ (generally Par.) drops its nasal before the Atmane terminations (^^ftr, 
^T^^n^, &c.; initial s being rejected according to 419). 

T^T does so optionally (^^f^ or ^^ftf, ^^TOTT^ or ^T^l^, &c.) 

c. Roots in ^ and Tff of cl. 8, which properly take the B terminations, are allowed 
an option of dropping the nasal in 2nd and 3rd sing. Atm., in which case initial s 
is rejected (419) ; e. g. rfr[ makes 3. 'iJcifrig or ^CKlt (Pan. 11. 4, 79). 

d. Similarly, Tl^^ makes 3. ^fJ^fiOF or ^"^ ; and "^^, ^fto? or '^nt . 

e. ^I^'to give' is allowed the option of lengthening the a, when n is dropped ; 
thus, Sing. 2. ^^nn^ or ^^f?reT^, 3. ^FTrT or ^nfftf?. Compare 354. a, 339 
(Pan. II. 4, 79). 

/. The nasal of ^31 * to bite ' becomes "^ before oF and 7!T before T ; thus, 
'ST^^H, Du. 2. '31^'T; Atm. i. ^f^j Du. 2. ilf^<d*r. See 303. 

425. "^ 'to carry' (see 611) changes its radical vowel to ^ before those 
terminations which reject an initial s by 305. aj thus, avdksham, avdksMs, avdksMt 
(Lat. vexit), avdksTiva, avodham, &c. ; Atm. avakshi (Lat. vexi), avodhds, avodha. 

a, ^ Atm., ' to bear,' generally takes the B terminations {asahishi, &c.), though 
the form ^WliJ is also given for the 3rd sing. 

426. rf^ 'to tie,' 'to fasten,' makes andtsam, andtsts, andtsit, andtsva, andddham, 
&c.; and Atm. anatsi, anaddhds, &c., by 306.6 (compare 183). 

a. '^^ to dwell' (see 607) makes avdtsam, &c., by 304. a. 

427. General rule for forming the stem for those verbs of the 
first nine classes which assume i, and so take the B termination* 
at 418. 


a. If a root end in the vowels ^ t, ^ /, ^ w, gi w, ^ ri, "^ ri^ \Tiddhi 
those vowels in the Parasmai before all the terminations, and gunate 
them in the Atmane. 

Thus, from ^ ' to purify ' come the two stems apau for Parasmai and apo for 
Atmane (apau+i-\-samz=^T^f^^^^hy 37, apau-f i-f i5='mc|'llf^, apau+i+tt= 
WtrNh^, &c.; Atm. apo^\-i+si='^(^f^f^y &c., by 36), see 583. 

From 7^ cl. i, *to cross,' comes the stem atdr for Parasmai (o/ar-f t + flw=r 

^wrftw^, &c.) 

So, from ^ *to lie down' comes ^^fnfs, ^^f^lBl^, &c. ; but roots ending 
in any other vowel than u and long r{ more frequently take the A terminations, as 
they generally reject t. 

b. If a root end in a single consonant, gunate the radical vowel 
in both Parasmai and Atmane (except as debarred at 28, and except 
in the roots enumerated at 390. a). 

Thus, '^^budh, cl. i,*to know,' makes its stem abodh (abodhisham, &c.) See 583. 

^rnV, 'to be,' makes avart {avartishi, &c.) 

Y\edh, *to increase,' makes aidh {aidhishi, &c., 251.6). See 600. 

428. A medial a in roots ending in T and c^ is lengthened in 
Parasmai, but n6t in Atmane. 

Thus, ^ 'to go' makes '^mkn*!^; 37^ *to blaze,' ^njT%^. The roots 
^ 'to speak' and "JH^'to go' also lengthen the a in Parasmai (^T^lf^T^; but 
not in Atmane 'ST^^ftf &c.) 

a. But those in H, 'Ij ^ never lengthen the a in Parasmai; thus, ^tTH 'to 
sound' makes ^HJjfiT^H. The following roots also are debarred from lengthening 
the a : ^^, ^n^, TT^, <^IT^, ^T, FT'T, fiT, ^n, WZ, ^, ^, ir(, ^^, H^, 
^, ^IV, '^^^^, ^^. One or two do so optionally; as, cFTJT and T? 'to sound.' 

429. Observe, that as the majority of Sanskrit verbs assume i, 
it follows that rule 427.0. i. will be more universally applicable than 
rule 420, especially as the former applies to the Aorist of Intensives, 
Desideratives, and Nominals, as well as to that of simple verbs. 

430. The special rules for the two Futures at 390. a-o will of course hold good 
for the Aorist ; thus the roots enumerated at 390 and 390. a (^^^ &c.) forbid 
Guna; and H^, ^, "1^^, ^ generally change their finals to uv (^^Pn*(^ &c., 
^5^^^^-); ^Jut when 'J^is written H it makes Wn^^&c, see 421./, and ^ 
may also make ^nnf%^, and ^, ^Rlf^^. 

a. IS^ makes ^l^lf^H or ^m^f^XH^or ^n^f^^&c, and in Atmane ^ft^f^rf^ 
or ^n^f^fi^. 

b. According to 390. c. c(hft, ^% and ^rjT drop their finals (^^fvf^, 
'W^frf^^, &c. ; see also 433). 

431. In the Atmane, ^ 'to choose,* 'to cover,' and all roots in long ^f(, such 


as ^ ' to spread,' may optionally lengthen the inserted i ; thus, ^ST^Tfi^ or 'ST^^fi^ 
&c., ^^ftftj or ^Wt!tf^ ; but in Parasmai only '^I'^lftr^H , ^IHTft^'T . 

432. f^ ' to swell' and ITPJ ' to awake' take Guna instead of Vriddhi (^T'jflR'Fr 
&c., see also 440. a j ^aTlflfTlW &c.) 

a. T(^ according to 399. a. makes 'SRT^^l^, and by 390. m. ^ makes ^^^W. 
The latter also conforms to 439 and 439. b. See 609. 

b. j|^ ' to kill' forms its Aorist from "^(^"^^^ &c.), but see 422. b. 

433. Many roots in ^ a, ^ e, ^ 0, and ^ ai, with three in T m, viz. TIT yam, 
TH ram, tfJ?^ nam, assume i, but in the Parasmai insert s before it ; final e, 0, and 
ai, being changed to ^T dj thus, from IT ' to go' comes ^^nfFT^*? , &c. (see 644) ; 
from ^ 'to sharpen,' ^^Trftr^f , &c.; from ^*to restrain,' '^nifff^'T, &c. 

^tT5[T ' to be poor ' makes adaridrisham or adaridrdsisham, &c. 

434. In the Atmane these roots reject the i and the s which precedes it, and 
follow 418; thus, from HT 'to measure' comes "^IJTTftl, &c. (see 664. ); from ^ 
'to cover,* ^iieqiftl (see 421. c) ; from TJ^'to sport,' '^tftl, ^^T^, ^^, &c. 

Form II. 
435. Resembling the Imperfect. 

Parasmai. Atmane. 

I . am dva [va] dma [md] 
1. as [s] atam [tarri] ata [/a] 
3. at \f\ at dm [tdm'] an [us] 

e [i] dvahi dmahi 

athds ethdm \_dthdm'] adhvam 
ata etdm [dtdm'] anta 


436. No confusion arises from the similarity which this form bears to the Im- 
perfect, as in all cases where the above terminations are used for the Aorist, the 
Imperfect presents some difference in the form of its stem ; thus, ^J^'to go* makes 
agadckam for its Impf., agamam for its Aor. (see 602) ; ft?^ *to break' makes abhi- 
nadam for its Impf., abhidam for its Aor. (see 583). So again, cl. 6, which alone 
can shew a perfect identity of root and stem, never makes use of this form for its 
Aorist, unless by some special rule the stem of its Imperfect is made to differ from 
the root; thus, f^^'to smear' (cf. aXeL<p(a), which makes alipam in Aor., is 
alimpam in its Impf.; see 281. (So in Gr., cf. Impf. eXenrov with 2nd Aor. 
eXiTTov ; eXdix^avQV with ekaPov ; e^afJLvvjv with e'^afj.ov, &c.) 

Obs. This form of the Sanskrit Aorist corresponds to Gr. 2nd Aor. (cf. astJidm, 
asthds, asthdf, with eo-Toyv, e(7T>;$-, earyj), and the first form is more or less analo- 
gous to the 1st Aor. The substitution of i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdm, 
in Atm. of form II, is confined to a class of roots mentioned at 439. 

437. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 
Prefix the augment, and as a general rule attach the terminations 
directly to the root. 

Thus, in agamam &c., abhidam &c., see 436. So also, n'^ ' to perish ' makes 
^R^'T^(also ej^^i'T, see 441, 424). 

a. Observe, however, that most of the roots which follow this form in Par., 


follow form I at 418 in Atm. ; thus, m^ 'to break' makes abhitsi, &c., in Atm.; 
see the table at 583 : similarly, fiS^ *to cut/ see 667. And a few roots, which are 
properly restricted to Atm., have a Parasmai Aorist of this 2nd form ; thus, ^^^ 
Atm. *to shine,' *to be pleasing,' makes Par. aru^m, as well as Atm. aro6ishi. 

b. One or two roots in ^T a, ^ t, and F e reject their finals j and one or two in 
"^ ri and "^ r/ gunate these vowels before the above terminations ; thus, ^T * to 
tell' makes ^M'^&c, ^1^ &c. ; f^ 'to swell,' ^TO^^; ^ 'to call' makes ^HS^T 
(see 595); ^ 'to go,' ^^t*!^; ^ 'to go,' '^TH??; i^'to grow old,' ^BHTT^T. 

c. "fSI^'to see' gunates its vowel (^I^^H, see 604). 

d. Penultimate nasals are generally dropped ; thus, ^cT**? * to stop' makes ^5I^cW^[^; 
^R^ 'to distil,' ^fl^^J ^^ 'to mount,' ^IT^k^J HST^'to fall,' ^^. 

e. A form >lHH|H^occurs in the Veda, from XJ^'to eat,' the medial a being dropped. 

438. In the Parasmai certain roots ending in long ^ a and ^ e con- 
form still more closely to the terminations of the Imperfect, rejecting 
the initial vowel, as indicated by the brackets in the table at 435. 
In the 3rd pi. they take us for an. 

Thus, ^ cl. 3, ' to give,' makes addm, adds, addtj addva, &c. ; 3rd pi. adus, see 
663. So also, VT cl. 3, * to place,' makes adhdm, &c., 664 ; and WT cl. i, ' to stand,* 
makes asthdm, &c., 587. 

a. Similarly, >J^cl. i, 'to be,' except ist sing, and 3rd pi. l'?!^^, ^^> ^^> 
W>J,^, &c. ; but 3rd pi. ^J.^, see 585). 

b. Observe, however, that some roots in a, hke yd, ' to go,' follow 433. 

c. And some roots in ^ e and ^ 0, which follow 433, optionally follow 438 ; in 
which case e and are changed as before to dj thus, ndhe, cl. i, *to drink,' makes 
either adhdsisham &c., or adhdm &c., also adadham, see 440. a ; Tit so, cl. 4, ' to 
come to an end,' makes either asdsisham or asdm, see 613. 

d. In the Atmane-pada, roots like ^, Xfl, TWT, ^, V, ^ follow 421. d. 

e. ^ 'to go' makes its Aorist from a root ^TTJ thus, agdm, agds, &c. 

Note Adaddm, Impf. of dd, 'to give,' bears the same relation to its Aor. addrh 
that eo/ofitfV does to eOwv. So also the relation of adhdm (Aor. of dhd, * to place ') 
to adadhdm (Impf.) corresponds to that of 6rjv to fTi$y)V. Cf. also abhavas and 
abhus with (^v6f and (pvi. 

439. Certain roots ending in ^ i, "^I sh, f h, enclosing a medial i, 
u, or riy form their Aorists according to form II at 435 ; but 
whenever confusion is likely to arise between the Imperfect and 
Aorist, s is prefixed to the terminations, before which sibilant the 
final of the root becomes k by 302 and 306. 

Thus, f^SI^'to point out,' the Impf. of which is ^f^^^, makes ^if^H &c. in 
Aor. (cf. Gr. ist Aor. e^et^a). Similarly, %^ cl. 2, *to hate/ makes adviksham 
&c., 657 ; 57 cl. 2, *to milk,' makes Wg^^adhuksham &c., by 306. a. See 660. 

a. This class of roots substitutes i for e, and dthdm, dtdm, for ethdm, etdm, in 


Atmane terminations ; thus, adikshi, adikshathds, adikshata, adikshdvahi, adikshd- 
^ thdm, &c. ; 3rd pi. adikshanta. 

b. A few roots in ?^ A (viz. "fe?, f^^j 'J^^ ^) optionally in the Atmane reject 
the initial a from the terminations of the 2nd and 3rd sing., ist du., and 2nd pi. ; 
thus, fo5^ may make ^fc^ft^, ^c5^^TE(, ^^1^; Du. i. ^f?55|^f^ ; Pi. 2. ^c?^*?, 
661 : and |7 " to milk,' ^T^ftj, 'SI^^JT^, &c. See 661, 659, 609, 660. 

c. According to some authorities, a few roots (e. g. "5^, '^\j ^^ which gene- 
rally follow form I, A, in Atmane, may optionally conform to form II, taking the 
terminations i, dthdm, dtdm, rejecting initial a and a from the other terminations, 
and taking ata for anta ; thus, atripi, atripthds, atripta, atripvahi, &c. 

440. Causal verbs and verbs of cl. 10 make use of form II, but 
the stem assumes both reduplication and augment (as in the Greek 
Pluperfect); thus, ^V cl. i, *to know/ makes in the Causal Aorist 
^T^^iT, &c. This will be explained at 492. 

a. A few Primitive verbs besides those of cl. 10 take a reduplicated 
stem, analogous to Causals (see 492). 

Thus, f^ ' to resort to ' makes ^f^f^l?H &c. ; f^' to swell' makes ^f^f^^*^ 
(also ^^JT and ^T^f^^H, see 432, 437. b) ; "5 cl. i, 'to run,' vi^^J^q*?; H ' to flow,' 
^l^^l' ^ **^ drink,' ^^T; oRH ' to love,' ^'^olW, &c. This last is defective 
when it belongs to cl. i, having no Special tenses; but when it belongs to cl. 10 
(Pres. '^TH^, &c.) its Aorist is ^^'tcF^. 

441. The following Primitive verbs take a contracted form of reduplicated stem : 
r^cl. 2, 'to speak,' makes ^^^t^^^avodam (from ^"^T^for 5mc|"*l? 650); "Ti^ 
cl. I, ' to fall,' ^T?Tm (from ^T^mTH ; compare Gr. eTriTTTOv) ; ^T^cl. 2, *to rule,' 
^fjpr^f^ (from ^%^^, but the Atmane follows 427; see 658); ^^ cl. 4, *to 
throw,' ^T^*r (from vjititi*!^, contracted into ^rrBHT for '5TIWT 304. a, whence by 
transposition ^W?) ; "^^ cl. 4, ' to perish,' ^R^^T (from ^HT^H for ^Rf'T^'T). 
See 620, 436. 

Precative or Benedictive, 
Terminations of Precative repeated from 246. 







sivahi simahi 





siydsthdm sidhvam or sidhvam 





siydstdm siran 

442. The terminations of this tense resemble those of the Potential in the scheme 
at 245. In 2nd and 3rd sing, they are identical. In the other persons of the 
Parasmai a sibilant is inserted, and in some of the Atmane, both prefixed and 
inserted. In 2nd pi. Atm. sidhvam is used for sidhvam when immediately preceded 
by any other vowel but a or a, and optionally isMdhvam for ishidhvam when imme- 
diately preceded by a semivowel or h. The only difference between the Potential 

c c 


and Precative of verbs of the 2nd and 3rd groups, at 290, will often be that the 
Potential will have the conjugational characteristic; thus, bhid, cl. 7, *to break,' 
will be bhindydt in Pot., and bhidydt in Prec. (Compare the Optative of the Gr. 
Aor. ^o<V with Optative of the Present ^i^oirjv.) 

443. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the first nine classes. 

In Parasmai, as a general rule, either leave the root unchanged 
before the y of the terminations, or make such changes as are 
required in the Passive (see 465-472), or by the conjugational rule 
of the 4th class, and never insert i. 

In Atmane, as a general rule, prefix i to the terminations in those 
roots ending in consonants or vowels which take i in the Futures 
(see 392, 399), and before this i gunate the radical vowel. Gunate it 
also in the Xtmane in some roots ending in vowels which reject i : 
but if a root end in a consonant, and reject i, the radical vowel is 
generally left unchanged in the Atmane, as well as Parasmai. 

444. Thus, from ^c\. 1, 'to be,' come the stem of the Parasmai bhu, and the 
stem of the Atmane bhavi, by 36.0 {bhu + ydsam = ^J^^raf &c., 6Aart + <yfl = 
Hf^lT by 70). 

445. Frequently, as already observed, before the y of the 
Parasmai terminations, the root is liable to changes analogous to 
those which take place before the y of cl. 4 at 272, and the y of 
Passive verbs at 465 ; and not unfrequently it undergoes changes 
similar to those of the Perfect at ^'j^, &c., as follows : 

446. A final ^ { is changed to 1^ c in Par., but remains unchanged in Atm., 
as before the s of the 2nd Future terminations; thus, ^ cl. 3, *to give,' makes 
^T^*^ &c. for Par., but ^nrhl &c. for Atm. ; "m *to drink ' makes ^^H'^ &c. 

a. But im *to become old' makes ifhlTIW &c., and ^ft^ *to be poor' drops 
its final even in Parasmai (^ft^^^'T, ^[frf^^^Thl, &c.) Compare 390. c. 

447. Final ^ i and "^ m are lengthened in Par., as before the y of Passives, and 
gunated in Atm., as before the * of the 2nd Future j thus, f^ ' to gather' makes 
"fl<4itii &.C., ^^hr &c. ; and J * to sacrifice ' makes ^TRTR &c., i^W^ &c. 

a. When \* io go' is preceded by a preposition, it is not lengthened (i^Mlt*\^ 
&c. ; otherwise 5m I M*^). 

b. ^Vft and ^^ drop their finals as at 390. c (^fv^ft^ &c.) 

448. Final ^ ri is changed to fit ri in Parasmai, but retained in Atmane ; thus, 
^ 'to do' makes f^^THH &c., and ^R^ &c. After a double consonant ri is 
gunated in Parasmai, as well as before inserted i ; thus, 'FFT ' to spread ' makes 
^(T^nW &c., ^^M Sec, or ^ft^rt^ &c. 

a. It is also gunated in ^ ri, * to go,' and ^TPJ * to awake ' (^?nn^'^, tTTT^T^'?, &c.) 

b. ^ 'to cover,' 'to choose,' makes f^m^Hor ^%^, ^^ or ^f^^^ or ^^' 


449. Final "^ ri is changed to ^ ir in both voices, but is gunated before 
inserted i in Atmane; thus, TT cl. i, 'to cross,' makes rfVm^W &c., IT^^Eff^ &c., or 
irft:^^ &c., or TTTft^^ &c. 

a. One root, TJ^cl. 10, *to fill,' makes ^^"RW &c. Compare 448. a. 

450. Of roots in ^ e, V ' to drink' makes Mf^^'T &c. (which is also the Precative 
of VT ' to hold') ; ^ ' to protect,' ^^^^T. 

a. But 5^ 'to call' makes ^m^W &c., and dfllftiT &c. ; ^ 'to cover' makes 
^hiraT &c., and ^nft^ &c. ; and ^ ' to weave ' makes *lT*t &c., and ^B*^!! &c. 
Compare 465. c. 

451. Final ^ ai and ^ are often treated like final a at 446 ; thus tt *to sing' 
makes ^TXTF^H &c. ; % 'to waste' and ^ 'to destroy' make Tff^H*?; ^ 'to cut,' 
like ^ ' to give ' and ^ to protect,' makes ^fll^T . But sometimes they are changed 
to d; thus, W 'to preserve' makes ^'H^XJ &c. ; ^ 'to purify* makes ^^'EIH; ^ 
* to think' either ItTRnW or XflTH^; ^ ' to be weary ' either ^TRn^or ^RT^'T. 

452. As abeady stated, if a root end in a consonant, there is no change in 
Parasmai, except the usual changes before y j moreover, unlike the 2nd Future, 
there is no Guna in Atmane, unless the root take ij the other changes in Atmane 
are similar to those applicable before the s of the 2nd Future terminations (390. 0) ; 
thus, ^ 'to milk' makes ^X^^^&c., and ^$^t^ &c., by 306.0,- fk^'to hate' 
makes f^^lIfl'T &c., and fi^^^^ &c., by 302 ; and ^^'to know' makes TWH^PT 
&c., and "sftfV^^^ &c. See 443. 

a. Roots of the loth class, however, retain Guna in Par., as well as in Atm., 
rejecting the conjugational aya in Par. only ; see under Causals (495). 

453. According to the usual changes in cl. 4 and in Passives, roots ending in a 
double consonant, of which the first member is a nasal, generally reject the nasal ; 
thus, >TW bhahj, cl. 7, makes bhajydsam, &c. Compare 469. 

a. So again, according to 472, ?T? ' to take' makes in Par. ^J^THH &c. ; TT^ ' to 
ask,' xpjqT^ &c. ; >J"55r ' to fry,' ^ri^TTW (632) } ^^ ' to cut,' ^'STTO'T (636) ; 
^>^'to pierce,' f^^TI^H; ^^'to deceive,' f^^TTW; ^T^'to teach,' f^imi^JT 
&c. In the Atmane they are regular. 

b. So again, "^i and I'm before r and v are lengthened; thus, "^'to sound' 
makes "^*4l>M*<^; and f^"^'to play,' i^'NlTTW. Compare 466. 

454. '^^'to speak,' "^ 'to say,' ^'to sow,' ^51^ 'to wish,' ^' to dwell,' ^ 
' to carry,' and ^^' to sleep,' substitute '^ m for ^ va in Par., and '^^^ to sacrifice' 
substitutes ifor yaj thus, y-emH^f^, ^*mt<*i^,^T*ir'H*(^, &c.; cf. 471. In the Atmane 
they are regular ; as, ^^Uf from "^ ; ^TS^f^ from ^TW. 

a. '3P|^, ^r[, and ^*|^ conform to 470 ; thus, sTSTT^'T or iTnT^T &c. ; cf. 424. e. 

Observe In addition to these rules, the other special changes 
which take place before the s of the 2nd Future terminations^ 
noted at 390 and 390. a-o, will apply to the Atmane of the Preca- 
tive ; thus, ^ or ^ at 390 makes f ^tir or ^ftRhi ; 9tS^ at 390. g, 

c c 2 


makes \r^^ or w^ ; ^ at 390. /. makes ^smfMN or ^ftr^ ; and 
^ may be j|U|ih or iftqiaiiWH^ even in Parasmai. 

Terminations of Conditional repeated from 246. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

syam sydva sydma | sye sydvahi sydmahi 

syas syatam syata | syathds syethdm syadhvam 

syat syatdm syan \ syata syetdm syanta 

455- Observe, that this tense bears the same relation to the 2nd Future that the 
Imperfect does to the Present. In its form it is half an Imperfect, half a 2nd 
Future. It resembles the Imperfect in prefixing the augment ^ a to the stem 
(see 251), and in the latter part of its terminations: it resembles the 2nd Future 
in the first part of its terminations in gunating the radical vowel, in inserting 
^ i in exactly those roots in which the Future inserts i, and in the other changes 
of the stem. 

456. The Conditional is most easily formed from the 2nd Future 
(388-415) by prefixing the augment a and changing sydmi (shydmi) 
into syam {shy am) ; e.g. karishydmi, akarishyam. 

457. Thus, "JV cl. I, 'to know,' makes ^"^ftroiH &c. ; ^ *to milk* makes 
^nft^IH &c. (see 414 and 306. a); %q^*to hate,' W^V1*<H &c. (see 412); ^ 'to 
conceal,' ^']jV*M*i^or ^smittji 1^(415. m); H^r^'to be immersed,' ^^W (390. k). 

a. The augment will be prefixed to roots beginning with vowels according to the 
rules given at 251 ; thus, "3!^ * to cover' makes ^m|f^WT or ^^fV^R, cf. 390. h. 

b. ^ ' to go,' with 'Srfv prefixed (meaning * to read '), may optionally form its 
Conditional from the root ^TT (^^"^ or ^WH^^, see 421. e). 


458. The termination of the Infinitive is ij^ turn ( = the turn of the 
Latin Supine). It is used as a verbal noun with the force of 
the accusative or dative case. 

Obs. The suffix turn is probably the accusative of the suffix tu (see 83. VIII), 
of which other cases are used as Infinitives in the Veda. 

459. Rule for forming the stem in verbs of the ten classes. 

The stem of the Infinitive is identical with the stem of the First 
Future, and where one inserts ^ i, the other does also ; thus, budh, 
cl. I, * to know,' makes ''dfvg'T bodhitum ; f^ kshipy cl. 6, ' to throw,' 
makes -^^^ ksheptum. Moreover, all the rules for the change of the 
root before the t of the Future terminations apply equally before the 


B ^ of the Infinitive. Hence, by substituting um for the final a of the 
3rd pers. sing, of the ist Future, the Infinitive is at once obtained. 

Thus, ^W, ^"'T ; ^^T, ITf7 ; ^*^T, ^'%^^, ^^fxnTT, SR^ftl^'T. So also, |^ 
makes ^^J "p;, f^^or "^V^^or flf'^^; ^% ^f^^. See 388-415. 

a. In the Veda, Infinitives are also formed by the sufl&xes H"^, W%, Wt^, ^, %, 
^^, ^r0, ^T^, IT, IT, '^I^, which are really cases of verbal nouns (see 867. a. b). 

b. The following examples will shew how remarkably the Sanskrit Infinitive 
answers to the Latin Supine. S. ^T^ 'to stand,' L. statumj S. '^T^l *to give,' 
L. datum J S. mIj^i 'to drink,' L. potum; S. IJ^'R *to go,' L. itumj S. 'RT^'T *to 
strew,' L. stratum; S. ^T^*^ 'to anoint,' L. unctum j S. "3TfT^ 'to beget,' 
L. genitum; S. *3 Ph 5H ' to sound,' L. sonitumj S. ^mH 'to go,' L. serptumj 
S. '^f'Tg'T 'to vomit,' L. vomitum. 


460. Having explained the formation of the verbal stem in the ten 
classes of Primitive verbs, we come next to the four kinds of Deriva- 
tive verbs, viz. Passives, Causals, Desideratives, and Frequentative s. 


461. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Passive 
form, conjugated as an ^tmane-pada verb of cl. 4, the only difference 
being in the accent, which in Passives falls on the inserted ya, whereas 
in the Xtmane of Primitive verbs of cl. 4, it' falls on the radical 

a. It has already been remarked, that the Passive may be regarded as a distinct 
derivative from the root, formed on one invariable principle, without any necessary 
community with the conjugational structure of the Active verb. Thus the root 
bhid, cl. 7, to divide,' makes bhinatti or bhintte, 'he divides;' dvish, cl. 2, 'to 
hate,' makes dveshti or dvishte, *he hates;' but the Passive of both is formed 
according to one invariable rule, by the simple insertion of ya, without reference 
to the conjugational form of the Active ; thus, bhidyate, ' he is divided ;' dvishyate, 
* he is hated.' See 243. a. 

b. In fact, a Passive verb is really nothing but a root conjugated according to 
the rule for cl. 4 restricted to the Atmane-pada : and to say that every root may 
take a Passive form, is to say that roots of classes i, 2, 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 
may all belong to cL 4, when they receive a Passive sense : so that if a root be 
already of cl. 4, its Passive is frequently identical in form with its own Atmane- 
pada (the only difference being in the accent). 

c. It might even be suspected, that the occasional assumption of an Intransitive 
signification and a Parasmai-pada inflexion by a Passive verb, was the cause which 
gave rise to a 4th class of Primitive verbs as distinct from the Passive. Instances 


are certainly found of Passive verbs taking Parasmai-pada terminations, and some 
Passive verbs (e. g. jdyate, * he is born,* fr. rt. jan ; puryate, * he is filled/ fr. pH; 
and tapyate, ' he is heated/ fr. tap) are regarded by native grammarians as Atmane 
verbs of cl. 4 . Again, many roots appear in class 4 as Intransitive verbs, which 
also appear in some one of the other nine as Transitive. For example, yuj^ ' to 
join,' when used in a Transitive sense, is conjugated either in cl. 7, or in the 
Causal; when in an Intransitive, in cl. 4. So also, push, *to nourish/ kshubk, 
*to agitate/ klis\ 'to vex/ sidh, *to accomplish f.' 

d. There are said to be three kinds of Passive verbs. 

I. The Passive, properly so called (karman); as, from ^, ^Hn ' he is struck ' 
(i.e. by another*), where the verb implies that the person or thing spoken of 
suffers some action from another person or thing ; e. g. ^R^t^I ^T^Sfn W^U ' rice is 
cooked by me/ 

II. An Impersonal Passive (bhdva), generally formed from an Intransitive verb, 
and only occurring in the 3rd singular; *i**\n *it is gone;' JWTf ' it is danced;' 
"ra|n ' it is cooked ' or * cooking goes on,' where the verb itself implies neither person 
nor thing as either acting or suffering, but simply expresses a state or condition. 

III. A Reflexive Passive {karma-kartri, 'object-agent' or ' object-containing- 
agent'), where there is no object as distinct from the subject of the verb, or, in 
other words, where the subject is both agent and object, as in ^"^^rfj TjxtTfT * rice 
is cooked ;' ^ ITRH * he is born,' &c. In these latter, if a vowel immediately 
precedes the characteristic y, the accent may fall on the radical syllable, as in cl. 4. 
They may also, in some cases, make use of the Atmane-pada of the Active, and 
drop the y altogether; thus to express *he is adorned by himself,' it would be 
right to use ^^ * he adorns himself.' 

Obs. According to Panini the Passive verb is merely an Atmane verb with the 
Vikarana yak in the four tenses, and karman merely expresses one idea of the 
Passive. The object is expressed by the termination of the Passive in such a case 
as the house is built by me,' where the object of the agent me, viz. house, is 
expressed by the terminations of the Passive. But no agent might be mentioned, 
as simply 'the house is built,' in which case it would be a bhdva, not a karman. 

462. Passive verbs take the regular ^tmane-pada terminations at 
246, making use of the substitutions required in cl. 4. 

In the Aorist they take either the A or B terminations of form I at 418, according 
as the root may admit the inserted ^ i or not ; but they require that in 3rd sing, 
of both forms the termination be ^ in place of sta and ishta (see 475). 

The Passive not unfrequently takes the terminations of the Parasmai-pada in 
Epic poetry; e. g. 6hidyet for dhidyeta, 'it may be cut;* mokshyasi for mokshyase, 
* thou shalt be liberated ;* adri^at, ' he was seen.* 

t The forms given for the Aorists of such verbs as pad, * to go,* budh, ' to 
know ' (which are said to be Atmane verbs of cl. 4), could only belong to Passive 
verbs. The forms given by Westergaard are, apddi, abodhi. See 475. 


^^^^" Special Tenses. 

m 463. Rule for the formation of the stem in the four Special tenses, 

i^tmane-pada, of roots of the first nine classes. 

Affix TI ya* lengthened to in yd before initial m and v to the 

root, the vowel of which is not gunated, and often remains unchanged. 

(Compare the rule for cl. 4 at 249 and 372.) 

464. Thus, from ij,cl. i, * to be/ comes the stem ^^ bhuya (Pres. bhuya+i=i^^ 
bMya-\-se=:^f^, &c.; Impf. abhuya-{-i=^^, &c.; Pot. bhuya-{-ii/a=i^^nif &c.; 
Impv. bhuya-\-ai=z'^f &c.); from ^^ cl. 6, *to strike,* comes tudya (Pres. tudya 
+i=f^, &c.) 

465. The root, however, often undergoes changes, which are generally analogous 
to those of cl. 4 and the Precative Parasmai-pada (see 275 and 445); but a final d 
is not changed to e as in the Precativx. 

Six roots in ^T a, and one or two in ^ e, ^ ai, and Wt o, change their final 
vowels to ^ tj thus, ^ *to give/ ^ *to protect,' and ^ *to cut,' make Pres. ^^, 
^^IW, ^^tmif &c. So also, VT ' to place' (3rd sing. V^^rff) ; W\ * to stand,* *n ' to 
measure,' "TT * to drink,' and ^ * to quit ;' ^ ' to drink ' (3rd sing. v)llw, &c.) ; 
^ 'to sing' (jft^nr); ^ *to destroy' (^ftliw). 

Obs. I. ^ cl. 2, *to bind,' makes ^"Rn, as it is not a ghu and does not come 
under Pan. vi. 4, 66. 

Obs. 2. ^ ' to go ' {ohdn) makes hay ate, though ^ ' to quit ' (ohdk) makes My ate. 

a. But other roots in ^ d remain unchanged ; and most others in ai and o are 
changed to d; thus, ^TT to tell' makes 3rd sing. <*ji<4ri ; and ^ to know,' 
^i?^; m *to protect,' tn^Irt ; i^ 'to meditate,' WnilT; ^ 'to sharpen,' ^iisn. 

b. ^ft^, ^^vft, and ^^ drop their final vowels as at 390. c (^fc^fW, ({ItMn, 
&c.); and mj 'to become old' makes i. 'ift'ln. Cf. 446. a. 

c. ^ *to call,' ^ 'to weave,' ^ 'to cover,' make their stems ^T, "^HT, and '^'^ 
(3rd sing. "fHT). Compare 450. a. 

466. Final ^ i or "3" m are lengthened, as also a medial i or u before u or r,- thus, 
from fT, ?, f^, ^, come l(\^^, fiT, ^^, ^^. See 447 and 453. b. 

a. But f^ 'to swell' makes 3rd sing. ^Tcf J and "^ 'to lie down,' ^HTH. 

467. Final ^ ri becomes fx ri, but if preceded by a double consonant is gunated j 
thus, ^ makes 3. fwiif ; ^, fk^TrT ; but ^, ^FT^IT. Cf. 448. 

a. The roots ^ (3rd sing. ^^) and "SfT'J are also gunated. Cf. 448. a. 

468. Final "^r/ becomes ^2r; thus, ^ 'to scatter' makes 3. '<*1*IH ; but '^ to 
fill,' ^^"ff. See 449 and 449. a. 

* This ya is probably derived from yd, 'to go,' just as the Causal aya is derived 
from i, 'to go.' It is certain that in Bengali and Hindi the Passive is formed 
with the root yd. Cf. Latin amatum iri, &c. See 481. 


469. Roots ending in a double consonant, of which the first is a nasal, usually 
reject the nasal; as, from ^'5^, ^cW, ^T^, come the stems "TWl, &c. (^THI, &c.) 

a. The roots at 390. 1, carry their peculiarities into the Passive (^FT^Tff or <li|Mj]i, 
TJ^ or Trhn^W, frsaFTTT or fcjTjAltqrt, ^^Tin^ or ^fTrNlT). 

470. "STf^ 'to produce,* ^5^ *to dig,' fT^ *to stretch,' F^ *to give,' optionally 
reject the final nasal, and lengthen the preceding aj thus, HNri or W^, &c. 

471. "5[^'to speak,' ^ *to say,' ^*to sow,' ^IT 'to wish,' ^'to dwell,' cl^ 
to bear,' ^^ to sleep,' T5T ' to sacrifice,' change the semivowels ^, '^ into their 

corresponding vowels and accordingly make their stems 3R, ^W, TOT, "3^, 
"^^y "^^j ^> ^^ respectively, (T^, &c.) 

Obs. This change of a semivowel into its corresponding vowel is technically 
called Samprasarana. 

472. Similarly, K^ *to take,' W^ * to ask,' Wli(^ *to fry,' ^^* to deceive,' ^"T^* to 
pierce,' 1^^'to cut,* make their stems ^J^, ^p5^, ^Jt5^, f^^, f^VJ, ^^ respec- 
tively, CJ^TfT, &c.) 

a. "a? ' to reason ' shortens its vowel after prepositions [i^A ; otherwise "51??^). 

b. ^n^ forms its Passive from ^; ^^ from ^; ^I^ from ^; l|^fTom ^^; 
and ^TBT from WT. 

c. ^^ ' to rule ' makes its Passive stem f^l^. 

General Tenses. Perfect of Passives. 

473. The stem of this tense in the Passive verb is identical with that of all 
Primitive verbs, in all ten classes. The stems, therefore, as formed at 364-384, 
will serve equally well for the Perfect of the Passive, provided only that they 
be restricted to the Atmane-pada inflexion ; thus, ^M, V!^j &c. 

a. When the Periphrastic Perfect has to be employed (see 385) the auxiliaries 
^TO and ^m&j be used in the Atmane, as well as ff. Compare 385. b. 

First and Second Future of Passives. 

474. In these and the remaining tenses no variation generally occurs from the 
stems of the same tenses in the Primitive, Atmane, unless the root end in a vowel. 
In that case the insertion of ^ i may take place in the Passive, although prohibited 
in the Primitive, provided the final vowel of the root be first vriddhied ; thus, from 
f"? li, cl. 5, 'to gather,' may come the stem of the 1st and 2nd Fut. Pass, ddyi 
{6dyitdhe &c., ^Ayiahye &c.), although the stem of the same tenses in the Primitive 
is (fe {detdhe &c,, ^eshye &c.) Similarly, from 7 hu and ^ kfi may come hdvi and 
kdri {hdvitdhe, kdritdhe), although the stems in the Primitive are ho and kar. 

a. In like manner \i may be inserted when the root ends in long W[ rf, or in ^ e, 
^ai, y^o, changeable to ^a, provided that, instead of Vriddhi (which is impossible), 
y be interposed between the final d and inserted 1* ; thus, from ^ drf, 'to give,' may 
come the stem of the Fut. Pass, ddyi {ddyitdhe &c.), although the stem of the same 
tenses in the Primitive is dd {ddtdhe &c.); from S^T Are, 'to call,' may come hvdyi 


(5^t*4ni^ &c.), although the stem in the Primitive is Jwd. But in all these cases 
the stem of the Primitive may be taken for that of the Passive, so that detdhe dv 
6dyitdhe may equally stand for the ist Fut. Pass. ; and similarly with the others. 

b. In the case of roots ending in consonants, the stem of the two Futures in the 
Passive will be identical with that of the same tenses in the Primitive verb, the in- 
flexion being that of the Atmane. "7^ to see,' however, in the Passive, may be 
^^f^Tn^, ^f^^, as well as ^l^, "J^ ; and ^ ' to kill ' may be xnftTTn^, TrTfT^, 
as well as ^^T^, l^f*!^; and JX^ ' to take* may be iiif^iii^, ?ITff^, as well as 

c. In verbs of cl. lo and Causals, deviation from the Atmane form of the Primi- 
tive may take place in these and the succeeding tenses. See 496. 

Aorist of Passives. 

475. In this tense, also, variation from the Primitive may occur when the root 
ends in a vowel. For in that case the insertion of ^ i may take place, although 
forbidden in the Primitive verb, provided the final of the root be vriddhied ; thus, 
from f^T ci may come the stem of the Aor. Pass. a6dyi {addyishi &c., 427), although 
the stem in the Atmane of the Primitive is a6e {a6eshi &c., 420). So also, from 
^ hu and ^ kri may come ahdvi and akdri (ahdvishi, akdrishi, 427), although the 
stems in the Atmane of the Primitive are aho and akri {ahoshi, akrishi, 420). Again, 
i may be inserted when the root ends in long ^ a, or in ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0, changeable 
to ^ d, provided that y be interposed between final d and inserted i; thus, from ^ 
*to give,' ^ *to protect,' ^ 'to purify,' ^ 'to cut,' may come addyi {addyishi &c.), 
although the stems in the Atmane of the Primitives are different (as adishi &c.) 
But in aU these cases it is permitted to take the stem of the Primitive for that of 
the Passive (so that the Passive of di may be either addyishi or adeshi), except in the 
^rd pers. sing., where the terminations ishta and sta being rejected, the stem, as 
formed by Vriddhi and the inserted , must stand alone ; thus, a6dyi, ' it was 
gathered;' ahdvi, it was sacrificed;' akdri, 'it was done;' addyi, 'it was given,* 
'protected,' 'purified,* 'cut.' 

. Sometimes the usual form of the Aorist Atmane is employed throughout (see 
461. III). This is the case whenever the sense is that of a Reflexive Passive, not of 
the real Passive; thus, WT 'to tell' in the 3rd sing. Aor. Pass, is ^TWrftl, but in 
the sense of a Reflexive Passive ^^"ff ; ftsT ' to resort to ' makes ist sing. Aor. Pass. 
^^fxrP^, but Reflexive ^f^lf^Pl; and oR^'to love' makes 3rd sing. Aor. Pass. 
^BToRW or '^srsBTftr, but Reflexive ^'^"oRJT. 

h. If the root end in a consonant, the stem of the Aorist Passive will always be 
identical with that of the Atmane of the Primitive, except in the 3rd sing., where 
^ i being substituted for the terminations ishta and sta of form I at 418, generally 
requires before it the lengthening of a medial a (if not already long by position), 
and the Guna of any other short medial vowel*. Hence, from tan, 'to stretch,' 

* A medial vowel, long by nature or position, remains unchanged (by 28), and 
in one or two cases even a short vowel ; as, asami for asdmi^ 



ist, 2nd, and 3rd sing, atanishiy atanishthds, atdnij from kship/ to throw,' akshipsi, 

akshipthds, akshepij from vid, *to know,* avedishi, avedishthds, avedi, &c. 

c. The lengthening of a medial a, however, is by no means universal ; and there 
are other exceptions in the 3rd sing., as follows : 

Nearly all roots ending in am forbid the lengthening of the vowel in the 3rd sing. ; 
thus, ^'^fn from W^ * to walk j' ^HfPH from "^ ' to bear ;' ^^if^ from 1^ * to 
be calm' (but in the sense of *to observe,* 'W^f'T). 

d. Similarly, ^"^ from ^ and ^iffrf from iff^. The former may optionally 
substitute ^TJlftT from ^f^. 

e. ^and J^ lengthen their vowels (wnf^, ^^f^). 

/. The roots at 390. 1, will have two forms, ^lifH or ^TSRlf'T, ^ftfR or ^nV^nftl, 
^f^f^ or ^f^^aiTftr, &c. 

g. T>y *to perish,' f>T *to yawn,' T*T *to desire,' insert nasals (^cf^, ^"Sff^, 
^ (.(*?). Similarly, H^T'to receive,* when it has a preposition (e.g. Tnwr*>T), 
and optionally when it has none ('^TcSft*? or ^^5t, Pan. vii. i, 69). 

h. vr^ *to break* may drop its nasal, in which case the medial a is lengthened 

. f^ ' to clothe ' may either retain the e or change it to < or (^f^T or ^fi^Hs 
or ^^tf^). 

j. 1l( 'to go' substitutes ^, and optionally does so when adhi is prefixed in the 
sense of * to read ' (^BTlfllTf^ or ^rnftl). 

k. ^5^* to blame' makes ^BrT?ffftl or x^if?. 

Precaiive (or Benedictive) and Conditional of Passives. 

4'j6. In these tenses the same variation is permitted in the case of roots ending 
in vowels as in the Aorist j that is, the insertion of ?[t is allowed, provided that, 
before it, Vriddhi take place in a final vowel capable of such a change, and y be 
interposed after final dj thus, from f^ti may come the stems (%t and addyi {6dyish{ya, 
addyishye) ; from ? hu, hdvi and ahdvi ; from ^ Arri, kdri and akdri ; from ^ <ia, 
Myi and addyu But 6eshiya^ adeshyct hoshiya, ahoshye, &c., the forms belonging 
to the Atmane of the Primitive verb, are equally admissible in the Passive. 

Passive Infinitive. 

477. There is no Passive Infinitive in Sanskrit distinct in form from the Active. 
The suffix turn, however, is capable of a Passive sense, when joined with certain 
verbs, especially with the Passive of ^P^ ^ak, 'to be able.' It is also used passively, 
in connection with the Participles drabdha, nirupita, yukta, &c. See Syntax, 869. 

Passive verbs from roots of the 10th class, 

478. In forming a Passive verb from roots of cl. 10, although the conjugational 
W^ is rejected in the first four tenses, yet the other conjugational changes of the 
root are retained before the suffix yaj thus, from ^ cl, 10, 'to steal,' comes the 


ff Btem 6orya (^^^). In the Perfect ^R is retained (see 473. a), and in the other 
General tenses the stem may deviate from the Atmane form of the Primitive by 
the optional rejection or assumption of ^HI, especially in the Aorist. See Causal 
Passives at 496. 


479. Every root in every one of the ten classes may take a Causal 
form, which is conjugated as a verb of the loth class ; and which is 
not only employed to give a Causal sense to a Primitive verb, but 
also a Transitive sense to an Intransitive verb ; see 389. 

Thus, the Primitive verb bodhati, * he knows' (from root budh, cl. i), becomes in 
the Causal ^hnrfiT hodhayati, * he causes to know,' * he informs ;' and the Intransi- 
tive verb kshubhyati, * he shakes,' ' is shaken' (from kshubh, cl. 4), becomes ^^ilfff 
*he shakes' (transitively). 

a. This form may sometimes imply other analogous senses. 

Thus, hdrayati, *he allows to take;' ndsayati,'he suffers to perish;* abhishedtt' 
yati, * he permits himself to be inaugurated ;' kshamayatif * he asks to be forgiven ;* 
^fW^^XI 'iJIrHIH*^ ' allow yourself to be inaugurated.' 

Obs. To say that every root may take a Causal form, is equivalent to saying 
that roots of the first nine classes may all belong to the loth, when they take a 
Causal sense ; and that if a root be originally of the loth class, no distinct form 
for its Causal is necessary, the Primitive verb and the Causal being in that case 
identical (see 289). Possibly the occasional employment of a Causal verb in a 
Transitive, rather than a Causal sense, was the reason for creating a loth class of 
Primitive verbs. Certainly the subject of conjugation would be simplified if the 
addition of aya to the root were considered in all cases as the mark of a Causal 
verb ; especially as aya is not the sign of a separate conjugation, in the way of any 
other conjugational Vikarana (see 250. b) ; for it is retained in most of the other 
tenses of the verb, not only in the first four, just as the Desiderative ish is retained. 

480. As to the terminations of Causal verbs, they are the same as 
those of the scheme at 246 ; and the same substitutions are required 
in the first four tenses as in classes i, 4, 6, and 10. 

Special Tenses, 

481. General rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses 
of roots of the ten classes. 

If a root end in a vowel, vriddhi that vowel ; if in a consonant, 
gunate the radical vowel before all the terminations, and affix ^R aya * 

* This may be derived from root ^ i, * to go,' just as the Passive ya is supposed 
to be derived from root yd. See 463, note *. 

D d 2 


(changeable to ayd before initial m and r, but not before simple m) 
to the root so vriddhied or gunated. 

482. Thus, from "5f^ ' to lead' comes the stem ^THHT by 37 (Pres. ndyayd-{-miz=: 
IIMMlfH, ndyaya -^ siz='iTVmfR &c. ; Impf. andyaya -fm = ffNMI^ &c. ; Pot. 
ndyaya-^iyam='iT\li^J^ &c. ; Impv. nayaya+ani = *TTTnnf^ &c. Atm, Pres. 
7taj/aya+i = fTnni &c. In Epic poetry a doubtful form ^ly^lft? is found). Simi- 
larly, from ^"t *to lie down' comes ^flTO^ s'dyaya {^\\^^\T^ &c.) j from ^bhti/ to 
be,' comes HT^^I bhdvaya (MTM^lftr &c.) ; and from ^ * to do' and "W *to scatter* 
the stem "^SVCXf kdraya. 

But from ^* to know' comes the gunated ''it^mbodhaya (^hnrrftr) ; and from 
^[^cl. I, 'to creep,' the gunated H^ sarpaya. 

Obs. "^T^*to celebrate,' and other verbs of the loth class, will take the changes 
already explained at 285-289. 

483. Roots ending in ^TT a, or in ^ e, ^ ai, ^ o, changeable to ^ d, cannot be 
vriddhied, but frequently insert \p between the root and the suf&x aya ; thus, ^ 
* to give,' ^ * to love,* and ^ * to cut,' all make rj 11*^1 Ph ddpaydmi, &c. ; ^ * to drink,' 
VnnnfiT dhdpaydmi, &c. ; ?^ *to sing,' TTlMqifn gdpaydmi, &c. See 484. 

a. So also other roots in d insert^, except ^ cl. i, * to drink,' which inserts 'T y 
(miRTrftT &c.) ; and m cl. 2, *to preserve,' which inserts e5 / (MM^lPH &c.) j and 
^ cl. 2, in the sense of *to agitate,' which inserts "3T (TTSnTfl'T &c.) 

b. So also other roots in ai insert jj, but most others in e and insert y; thus, 
^ * to call' makes S^T^nrrfH &c. Similarly, ^ ' to weave,' ^ * to put on.' ^ ' to 
sharpen ' makes ^Tni^ftT &c. Similarly, "sft * to cut,' ^ * to destroy.' 

484. FF ' to know,' ^ or '^ *to stew,' ^ *to bathe,' and Q ' to languish,' may 
optionally shorten the o, the last two only when not joined with prepositions ; 

thus, frrWftT &c., or inrnftr &c. j { ii mr i ft fec., or ^j^nnfiT &c. (but with ^ft 

only, MPvjiMMifiT). "B5f * to waste away ' makes only UfM^lflT. 

485. Some roots in , i", r, also insert p, after changing the final vowel to d; 
thus, fST 'to conquer' makes im4i(^ &c. Similarly, ft? *to throw,' ^\ 'to 
perish,' 1^ ' to buy' (HMqiP^i, WM^iPh, &c,) 

a. f^SR * to smile ' makes Wnnnf'T &c., and wiM^ Sec. 

b. "N * to collect' has four forms ; i. ^THnnf'T &c., 2. ^rgmfH &c., 3. ^^Tinnftf 

&c., 4. ^Rinftr (fee. 

c. >f\ cl. 3, * to fear,' has three forms j i. MNmPH &c., 2. >TT^ &c., Atm. only, 
3. >it^ &c., Atm. only. 

d. If cl. 2, * to go,' makes xiiM*4iftT &c., especially with the preposition ^ftl 
'over,' ieiMiiMqiPi * I cause to go over,' * I teach.' 

e. Three roots insert n; cot cl. 4, *to embrace,' *to adhere,' making (with prep. 
f% in the sense of ' to dissolve') -dO^fqiftr &c., as well as -FH^HTfi?, -?5TmTPT, 
and -HTH^ftr &c. ; in some senses, however, c^lM^lf^l only can be used : ift cl. 9, 
*to please,' makes wl^U^llf*? (also mqqifiT) ; and ^cl. 5 and 9, 'to shake,' ^nnf^. 

486. "fl cl. 3, * to be ashamed,' Tft ' to flow,' ^ ' to choose,' and ^ cl. i, * to go,' 
insert p after gunation ; thus, gMMlftf &c., ^BT^^^ &c. 


a. ^W" and ^^ and ^ft^ (see 390. c) drop their finals (^'t^Ttnf'T, q'H<4i(^, 
^ft^iJTf*?, &c.) 

b. rPJ 'to awake,' 9T in the sense of 'to long for,' IT cl. 4, 'to grow old/ ^ in the 
sense of *to fear/ ! 'to lead/ take Guna (ni'KMlf'T). But ^ 'to tear/ ^TWftT. 

c. 'T 'to swallow' makes 'IK^iPh or TTcJ^fiT. 

487. Roots ending in single consonants, enclosing a medial ^ a, generally 
lengthen the a: thus, "^^cl. i, ' to cook,' makes "m^^fff &c. There are, however, 
many exceptions; thus, ^f^ 'to he sick,' i^ 'to hasten,' &c., do not lengthen 
the vowel. In Wc? ' to blaze,' and some others, the lengthening is optional. 

a. Roots in m generally do not lengthen the a; thus, ^T^cl. i, 'to go,' makes 
*iiMir*i &c. ; ^^^ ' to be weary,' ^i*^ifH &c. Some, however, optionally do so ; 
as, f^ ' to bend/ &c. One or two always lengthen the a j as, cR^ ' to love ' makes 


b. The roots TV, !>?, T^, and ?5>T (see 475.5') insert nasals (<^Mif'T &c.) 

488. Other anomalies. ^ 'to grow' makes TtfTlfH or Tt'HnfH; ^jP^ or 3 
'to sound,' IRttRlftr; 5^ 'to be corrupt,' ^mil^J ^'to kill,' l(IH*ll(*<; ^ 
'to fall,' 'to perish,' ^llri^lfH; 'PJ^ 'to quiver,' ^^TT^fH or^Rll^nf'T; 444i|l| 
'to increase,' ^N^ft?; lE^TT^'to shake' as the earth, B{tmMif*T &c. ; ^T'to 
rub,' HT^^TTftr (390. y) ; 5f ' *^ conceal,' 'T^^fT (390. w). 

a. The roots ^, fT^, ^Jl, ''WT, ^, ^^Ti^, at 390. ?, will have two forms 
(TfhJTTTf'T or Jn^N^llPH &c., see 390. 1). 

b. ftra'to be finished' makes its Causal either ^M^IIH or, with reference to 
sacred rites, ^>nnfH ; ^Hi^ ' to fry ' either ^JWnf'T or H^^m^ j but the last form 
may be from ^i^. 

c. fT 'to clothe' makes f^TTlf'!; T^in the sense of ' to hunt/ TWnfiT. 
Obs. The Causal of verbs of cl. 10 will be identical with the Primitive ; see 289. 

The Causals of Causals will also be identical with the Causals themselves. 

General Tenses. 

489. The changes of the root required to form the stem of the 
Special tenses are continued in the General. Moreover, ay a is re- 
tained in all these tenses, except the Aorist and except the Precative, 
Parasmai ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted ^ i, 
which is invariably assumed in all other General tenses. 

Perfect of Causals, 

490. This tense must be of the Periphrastic form, as explained at 
385 ; that is, ^TTH dm added to the Causal stem is prefixed to the 
Perfect of one of the three auxiliary verbs, ^ * to be,^ ^' to be,^ or ^ 
Vto do;' thus, ^'to know' makes in Causal Perfect ^VXIT^'RTT or 


^hnrnrpfi or ^"^vi^iyij^^. ^ makes in Caus. Pexf. 3rd pi. ^IH^ltl^: 
* they extinguished' (Raghu-v. vii. 45). 

First and Second Future of Causals. 

491. In these tenses the inserted ^ t is invariably assumed between 
the stem, as formed in the Special tenses, and the usual terminations ; 
thus, jv makes ^ftvftTrTTftR &c., ^Tlyn^mifH &c. 

Aorist of Causals and verbs of cl. 10. 

492. The terminations are those of form II at 435. In the 
formation of the stem of this tense, the suffix ay is rejected ; but any 
other change that may take place in the Special tenses, such as the 
insertion of p or y, is preserved. The stem is a reduplicated form 
of this change, and to this reduplication the augment ^ a is prefixed. 

Thus, taking the stems hodhay &ndjdpay (Causal stems of budh, to know,' and 
jif to conquer'), and rejecting ay, we have bodk sxid jap; and from these are 
formed the stems of the Aorist abubudh and aj^jap ('^^'J^ abubudham &c., 
^r^;^ abubudhe &c., ^nfhn^ ajtjapam &c., ^ilitr ajtjape &c., cf. the Greek 

493. The rule for this reduplication is as follows: The initial 
consonant of the root, with its vowel, is reduplicated, and the redu- 
plicated consonant follows the rules given at 252 ; but the redupli- 
cation of the vowel is peculiar. 

"Reduplication of the vowel of the initial consonant in the Causal Aorist. 

a. Causal stems, after rejecting ay, will generally end in dy, dv, dr, or a consonant 
preceded by a, rf, e, 0, or ar. The usual reduplicated vowel for all these, except o, 
is ^ i. But 7 M is reduphcated for 0, and sometimes also for dv. The rule is, that 
either the reduplicated or stem syllable must be long either by nature or position ; 
and in general the reduplicated vowel t or u is made long, and, to compensate for 
this, the long vowel of the Causal stem shortened, or, if it be Guna, changed to its 
corresponding short vowel ; thus, the Causal stem ndy (from 'ft, rejecting ay) makes 
the stem of the Aorist aninay ("WttllM*^ aninayam &c.) ; the Causal stem bhdv 
(from >J,) makes abibhav (^R^h?^ &c.); the Causal stem kdr (from ^), adOcar; 
gam (from f^), ajigam; pad (from '*T^), ap{pa6; pdl (from ^), npipal; ved (from 
f^), avivid. But bodh (from ""J^), abUbudh; and sdv (from ^), asushav. 

b. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel is only long by position before two conso- 
nants, the radical vowel being still made short ; as, ^rdv (from ^) makes asiSrav or 
asudrav; drdv (from "5). adudrav or adidravj >JT5^, abibhraj (also ababhrdj). 

c. Sometimes the reduplicated vowel remains short, whilst the vowel of the 
Causal stem, which must be long either by nature or position, remains unchanged ; 



B thus, the Causal stem j{v (from ft^) may make ^fnfl^ (also ^iftftfW^); 6int, 
adidint; halp, adikalp. In such cases a is generally reduplicated for a or dj as, 
laksh makes alalakshj yd6, ayaydd; vart (from vrit), avavart, &c. 

d. Obs. If the stem has r, dr, ir, al (from radical ri, r/, or Iri), these are either 
left unchanged or ar, dr, ir may be changed to "% ri, and al to "^ Iri j thus, vart 
(from ^TI ) may make avwrit as well as avavart ; ki'rt (from "^T^) either adi'Atrf or 
Mdikrit, &c. 

e. The following are other examples, some of which are anomalous : from pdy 
(Caus. of ^a, *to drink'), '^fl*M*|^&c.; from sthdp (Cans. of sthd^' io stand'), ^fk- 
fiytpf^&c.i from^Arap (Caus. of ^r^ra, 'to smell'), ^f^ftnT'^&Cand^flTlI^'^&c.; 
from adhydp (Caus. of i, ' to go,' with adhi), ^TfliftJiq^ &c. ; from 6esht (Caus. of 
6esht, *to make effort'), ^T^^?'^ or ^f^'^CT^; from hvdy (Caus. of Ae, * to call'), 
\5T^^T^ or ^iJ^^; from tvar (Caus. of tvar, 'to hasten'), vinrsK.*^; from stdr 
(Caus. of stri or stri, 'to spread'), ^TT^cR^ or ^rnw<*\; from ddr (Caus. of dr{, 
*to tear'), ^S^^t^^; from dyot (Caus. of dyut, 'to shine'), ^f^^TT?^; from svdy 
(Caus. of hi, *to swell'), vj^^iq?^ or ^f^I'tS^; from smdr (Caus. of smri, 'to 
remember'), ^fJ^HC'^; from svdp (Caus. of ^^^'to sleep'), ^W^TJI^; from kath 
(cl. lo, 'to teU'), ^^^^F^ or ^^"Nt^; from JT^^(cl. lo, 'to count'), ^ifXTO'^ 
or ^ir'^TnifTi^; hom prath (Caus. of U^'to spread'), ^qn^. 

Reduplication of an initial vowel in the Causal Aorist. 

494. Roots beginning with vowels, and ending with single consonants, form their 
Causal Aorists by a peculiar reduplication of the root (after rejecting 'Sllf). The 
rule is that not only the initial vowel, as in the Perfect at 364. a, but the final 
consonant also be reduplicated. In fact, the whole root is doubled, as it would 
be if it began with a consonant, and ended with a vowel ; the consonant is redu- 
plicated according to the rules at 252, but the second vowel is generally ^ i. 
This i (which probably results from a weakening of a) takes the place of the stem 
vowel, which then becomes the initial of the reduplicated syllable, and combines 
with the augment ^ a, according to 251. a; thus, "3^ to infer' makes the stem of 
its Causal Aorist "35^1^ ujih j and with ^ prefixed, ^fTmrl^ ( wflTl'|[ ' I caused to 
infer '). So also, ^TI^ cl. 5, ' to obtain,' makes ^iPmm*^ ' I caused to obtain ;' f T 
cl. 2, ' to praise,' makes ^dfss^ * I caused to praise.* Cf. Gr. 2nd Aor. vjyayov 
from aya, and (Dpopov from opvv[ji.i, 

a. If a root end in a conjunct consonant, the first member of which is a nasal 
or r, this nasal or r is rejected from the final, but not from the reduplicated letter ; 
thus, ^31^ 'to be worthy' makes '^rrf^'^'I caused to be worthy,' 'I honoured;* 
so ^V, Causal stem from '^>(^ ' to prosper,' makes ^if^ V^ ' I caused to prosper ;' 
and "3^ 'to moisten' makes ^rfr<^<;*^ * I caused to moisten.' 

b. But when the first member of the compound is any other letter, then the cor- 
responding consonant to this first member of the compound is redupHcated by 
252. cj thus, ^^'to see' makes ^f^T^^^aidikshanif * I caused to see;' ^^'to go' 
makes ^if^^'^ * I caused to go.' 


c. Roots consisting of a single vowel, form their Causal Aorists from the Causal 
stem (after rejecting ay a); thus, the root ^ ' to go ' makes its Causal stem arp, *to 
deUver over;' and its Causal Aorist syifMMH ' I caused to deUver.' 

d. "31^ 'to cover* makes its Causal Aorist Vfin<BJi*4^ ; ^J^cl. lo, *to be blind,* 
WT5^>n? ; and "SP^cl. lo, *to diminish,' WMH**^. 

e. When the consonant which follows the initial vowel has another vowel after 
it, this vowel must appear in the reduphcation j thus, from ^H^^^ cl. lo, ' to des- 
pise,* comes the Aorist WR^fxft^. 

Precative (or Benedictive) and Conditional of Causals. 

495. The stem of the Causal Precative Atmane, and of the 
Causal Conditional in both voices, does not differ from that of the 
General tenses ; but the last a of aya is dropped before the inserted 
1^ , which is always assumed. In the Precative Parasmai both 
aya and i are rejected, but any other change of the root is retained ; 
thus, ^*to know* makes in Caus. Prec. bodhydsam &c., bodha- 
yishiya &c. ; in Cond., abodhayishyam &c., abodhayishye &c. 

Infinitive of Camals. 
a. The Infinitive may be most easily formed from the 3rd sing, 
ist Future, as explained at 459; thus, from ^ comes TTtvf^nn * he 
will cause to know,' ^ftvfil^ ' to cause to know.* 

Passive of Causals. 

496. In forming a Passive verb from a Causal stem, the Causal 
suffix ^nr is rejected, but the other Causal changes of the root are 
retained before the Passive suffix ya. 

Thus, from Caus. stem ^\t\A pdtaya (from m^^'to fall') comes the Pass. VJIH 
pdtya, making ist sing, ^nw * I am made to fall,' 3rd sing. ^tJTWff *he is made to 
ftll.' Similarly, Wl * to stand' makes ^THnrfw * he causes to stand,' ^|U4^ * he 
is caused to stand;' and UT *to know' makes ^MMPrt 'he causes to know,' and 
ISrmt 'he is caused to know,' 'he is informed.' 

a. In the General tenses, the stem of all the tenses, excepting the 
Perfect, may vary from the Atmane form by the optional rejection 
of the conjugational ^R. But in the Perfect, the Atmane of the 
usual form with dm and the auxiliaries (490, 385) is admitted for 
the Passive. In the Aorist, the usual redupUcated form (492) gives 
place to the Atmane form which belongs to those verbs of the first 
nine classes which assume i. 


Thus, from HTTEf, the Causal stem of ^ ' to be/ come the Passive Perfect 
^n^^rWgi or m^xnTT^ or T^^W>iL%; ist Fut. m^^rUt or mf^Wrt ; 2nd Fut. 
Hl^ftm or HTf^-^ ; Aor. ^HT^ftlf^ or '^T^tWeT, 3rd sing, '^mf^ ; Prec. >?Fr- 
f^^^ or inf^^t'T ; Cond. ^Hlcff^UJ or ^Hlf^xg. 

b. Similarly, from '^tV'I, Causal stem of "^V * to know,' come Passive Perfect 
^fNr^^^ &c. 'I have been caused to know;' ist Fut. ^^hlftTfn'^ or ^fVWT^ &c. 
*I shall be caused to know;' and Fut. ^hrN'Ol or "^tf^J"^ &c. ; Aor. ^R^ftlftf 
or ^T^vf^ ' I have been caused to know,' 2. ^5I^>Tfir5T^ or ^^tfVTIl^, 

3. ^r^ftiV &c. 

c. So also, from ^T^, Causal stem of l^f^^'to cease,' come the Passive Perfect 
5nnn^ai or ^nnTPfn^ &c. * I have been caused to cease,' &c.; ist Fut. '^Rf^'flfT'^ 
or ^|firti^; 2nd Fut. ^JT^T^ or ^f^T^; Aor. ^I^PTfirf^ or ^T^ldT^, 3rd sing. 
^^(Ih ; Prec. ^prfl'tft'^ &c. : and the radical a may be optionally lengthened ; 
thus, 1st Fut. ^iftnn^ or ^IPRf'lin^ &c. 

d. So also, ^r^jftl or ^IS^lfT, 3rd sing. Aor., from Causal of ". 

Obs. Even T!!H, '^5^, ^f?, and some other roots which end in a double conso- 
nant, may optionally lengthen the medial a,- thus, Aor. 3rd sing. ^TTf^ or ^Tjf^. 

Desiderative of Causals. 

497. When Causals and verbs of cl. 10 take a Desiderative form 
(see 498), they retain ay, and are all formed with isha ; thus, tlTH^lfi? 
' I cause to fall ' makes f^mrifiimfiT * I desire to cause to fall ;' 
^T'RTftr * I cause to sleep ' makes ^^^TTftl^fiT * I desire to cause to 
sleep ;' ^ cl. 10, * to steal,^ makes ^^hf^Wlftr * I wish to steal.^ 

a. The Desiderative stem of the Causal of ^M^, * to go over,' is either ^TUlTfiT- 
V^V^ or ^fvf^PTTtrfir^ ; of the Causal of ^ ' to call,' ^f Rf^^ (as if from ^^ ; 
of the Causal of ^ ' to know,* ^Nt (or regularly f^TlTTTfll^ or f^i^iMf^N); of the 
Causal of f^ ' to swell,* ^^^^lEf (or regularly f^^aiMP^^M). 


498. Every root in the ten classes may take a Desiderative form. 

a. Although this form of the root is not often used, in classical composition, in 
its character of a verb, yet nouns and participles derived from the Desiderative stem 
axe not uncommon (see 80. 1, and 82. VII). Moreover, there are certain Primitive 
roots which take a Desiderative form, without yielding a Desiderative sense ; and 
these, as equivalent to Primitive verbs (amongst which they are generally classed), 
may occur in classical Sanskrit; e. g. jugups, *to blame,' from "^^gupj 6ikits, to 
pure,' from fwfijcit ; iitiksh, 'to bear,' from fn'^itij; ^^^[^m{mdns, 'to reason,* 
from Tf^man ; bibhats, ' to abhor,' froni "^T^^^or ^^. 

E e 


499. Desideratives take the terminations at 246, with the substi- 
tutions required in classes i, 4, 6, and 10; and their inflexion, 
either in Parasmai or i^tmane, is generally determined by the practice 
of the Primitive verb. 

Thus, root ^^6urfA, cl. i, 'to know,* taking both inflexions in the Primitive, 
may take both in the Desiderative {bubodkishdmi &c., or bubodhishe &c., I desire 
to know'); and c5*T /aiA, *to obtain,' taking only the Atmane in the Primitive, 
toay take only the Atmane in the Desiderative {lipse &c., * I desire to obtain'). 

500. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

RedupUcate the initial consonant and vowel of the root, and gene- 
rally, though not invariably, if the Primitive verb inserts ^ i (see 
392415), affix ^\ish or in a few roots ^ir (see 393); if it rejects i, 
then simply ^*, changeable to '^ sh (by 70 ; see, however,/*), to the 
root so reduplicated. The vowel a is then added, as in classes i, 4, 
6, and 10; and, agreeably to the rule in those classes, this a becomes a 
before terminations beginning with m and v (but not before simple m). 

a. Thus, from f^^^kship, *to throw,' comes the stem dikshipsa {dikshipsd-^mi= 
f^fei^lf*! (Hkshipsdmi &c., *l desire to throw'); but from f^ vid, *to know,' 
taking inserted i, comes vividisha {vividiskd-^mi=lf^f^f^^}f^ vividishdmi &c. In 
Atm. the stem is vivitsa). 

b. Some roots, however, which reject the inserted t in other forms, 
assume it in the Desiderative, and vice versa. Some, again, allow an 
option ; thus, ^ ' to be^ makes f^f^cfS^ &c. or fM^JrHlftr &c. See the 
lists at 392415. 

c. The reduplication of the consonant is in conformity with the rules at 352 ; 
that of the vowel belonging to the initial consonant follows the analogy of Causal 
Aorists at 493 ; that is, the vowel ^ is reduphcated for a, d, t, {, ri, fi", Iri, e, or at ; 
but the vowel "^ u for u, u, and 0; and also for the a of av or dv preceded by any 
consonant except j, a labial or a semivowel ; thus, fr. '^^ * to cook ' comes Desid. 
stem pipaksha by 296; fr. 'TT^ *to ask,' yiyddishaj fr. "SfN^ *to live,' jijivisha : 
fr. "5^* to see,* didriksha; fr. %^ *to serve,' sisevisha ; fr. ^ *to sing,' j^csa ; 
fr. ?rT *to know,' jijhdsa (yiyvucTKCt)): but fr. J5^ *to join' comes yuyuksha; fr. 
^ *to purify,' pupdshaj fr. "^(^ cl. 4, *to know,' ^^W bubhutsa, see 299. a; 
fr. TT^^, Causal stem of ^ *to praise,' nundvayisha ; fr. 'CJT^, Causal stem of ^ 
*to purify,' pipdvayisha. 

d. And if the root begin with a vowel the reduplication still follows the analogy 
of the same tense at 494; thus, from V5F comes vf^iSI; and with isha added, 
^r^lf^lM. Similarly, from ^f^ comes arjihisha ; from ^Jf, ujihisha ; from ^^, 
iiikshisha ; from "3^, undidisha ; see 494. 


Obs. In reduplication the vowel i takes the place of a, as being lighter j see 
252. d. Obs. It is probably the result of a weakening of a. 

e. In Desiderative stems formed from the Causals of ^ ' to fall/ ^ ' to run,' ^ 
* go,' ^ ' to leap,' ^ ' to hear,' ^ 'to distil,' and ^ ' to flow,' a or a may be repre- 
sented by either u or i; thus, the Causal of ^ makes f^I^T^ftTR or ^xCfT^ftj^. 

/. Observe When the inserted 5 becomes sh by 70, the initial ^of a root will 
not be affected by the vowel of the reduplicated syllable ; thus, si6 makes sisiksha, 
not sishiksJia j and sev makes sisevisha. Except, however, ^, which makes '51^ ; 
and except the Desid. of Causals, as ftf^ftR fr. Cans, of f^ . 

501. When a root takes the inserted i or { (393), and forms its 
Desiderative with isha or ishaf then the final ^ rHs gunated. 

Thus, TT ' to cross ' makes titarisha or titarisha (also titirsha, see 502). 
a. Moreover, initial and medial , u, ri are often, but not always, 
gunated if followed by a single consonant. 

Thus, "S'JI^'to go' makes 0(Hkhisha; ^ 'to wish,' eshishisha ; f^'to play,* 
didevisha; pl 'to dance,' ninartisha : but T^ *to know,' vividiska. 

h. An option, as to Guna, is however generally allowed to medial i and u; thus, 
^^ ' to rejoice ' makes either mumodisha or mumudisha ; f^ ' to become moist ' 
either (Hklidisha or 6ikledisha : but roots in it? (e. g. siv) are peculiar, see 502. h. 

c. ^ *to go^ and "g* 'to sound/ having no consonant, reduplicate 
the characteristic letter of the Desiderative with i ; thus, ^^^ (used 
with the prepositions adhi anid prati), so "gif^^. 

50a. When a root rejects i and forms its Desiderative with 
^ sOy this sa, if affixed to roots ending in vowels, has the effect of 
lengthening a final ^ i or "g" m ; of changing ^ e, ^ ai, ^ 0, to ^T a ; 
^ ri or ^ ri to ^ ir, or after a labial to "31^ ur. 

Thus, from rsf comes 6id{shaj from ^, susrusha ; from ^, 6ikirsha; from ^, 
jigdsa; homlf. titirsha ; hom^y pupursha ; {rom'H^, bubhtirshaj from^, mumursha. 

a. When it is affixed to roots ending in consonants, the radical 
vowel generally remains unchanged, but the final consonant combines 
with the initial sibilant, in accordance with the rules at 296. 

As, from ^"^ comes yuyutsa (299); from ^ comes didhaksha (306. a); from |[^, 
dudhuksha j from ^p^, bubhuksha. 

b. A medial long ri becomes &, and final iv becomes yu or is gunated ; thus, 
from Wt{ comes Akirtayisha j from VS^, susyusha or sisevisha. 

c. Many of the special rules for forming the stem in the last five tenses at 
390. a-o apply to the Desiderative; thus the roots at 390. a. generally forbid 
Guija {6uku6isha &c.) 

, d. So ^^makes bibhraksha or bibharksha or bibhrajjisha or bibharjisha (390. g); 
Tli^^and ^51^, mimanksha and ninanksha (390. k); I^, ninatsa (390. 0); <^r<ji, 

E e 2 


didaridrisha (390. c, but makes also didaridrdsa) ; ^1!'^, 6ikamisha or 6ikdmayisha ; 
^^Tfl^f jugopisha or jug opdyisha or jugupsa (390. /). 

503. The following is an alphabetical list of other Desiderative stems, some of 
them anomalous: ^STizfT^ fr. ^17 'to wander;* ^fgf?^ fr. ^^ 'to transgress;' 
^ftto fr. "^ *to go;' ^^ fr. ^TT^ 'to obtain ;' f^i^ (or regularly ^^f>I^) fr. 
^^ *to prosper;' ^f^f^^ or ff^r^M fr. t^'to envy;' "35^|5 or A^^f^M or 
<h^rjf^i( (3(^0. b) fr. "35^ 'to cover;' f'^cfclM (or regularly f^*^^) fr. fj^ 'to col- 
lect ;' ftrirf^ (or regularly fiTnf?^) fr. Jl'^* to go ;' f^I'lfrfU (or regularly fsfl'lRM) 
fr. JT * to swallow' (cf. 375. 9) ; f*T^^^ fr. fT ' to conquer ;' fTVrW fr. TR^ ' to eat' 
(used as Desid. of 'ST^); fiHTt^ fr. "^ *to kill ;' ftnfN fr. f^ * to send ;' fi^| 
ft". ?I^ 'to take;' ^^ fr. 35" *to call;' fmrf^ (or regularly fdiffrm) fr. f^ 'to 
stretch ;' flH^ fr. "5^ ' to kill ;' f^W fr. ^ ' to give,' ^ ' to love,' and ^ ' to cut ;' 
f^fr^ fr. *^ ' to respect ;' f^^t^J or f^^^ or f^^t fr. ^ ' to tear ;' i^^flR or 
f^frR fr. ^' to shine ;' f^Vft^ fr. >| ' to hold ;' ^^ (or regularly f^^f%^) fr. 
f^ ' to play ;' fV|TR fr. W ' to place ' and ^ ' to drink ;' fvm or vNt (or f^^fw) 
fr. ^*to deceive;' fvm (or fTTlfirR) fr. "m^'to fall' and "Q^ 'to go;' f^Hlf^^ 
or ^^ fr. f^ 'to purify;' fxTjfe^ fr. "H^ 'to ask;' f^H^ or ^ij? fr. ^ 'to 
bear ;' THW fr. HT ' to measure,' f*T ' to throw,' jft ' to perish,' and ^ * to change ;* 
f*TOTf^^ or ftnj^ fr. p|[*to rub;' *ft^ fr. ^^(in the sense of ' desiring release 
from mundane existence,' otherwise ^^); f'Hlf^^ or ^^ fr.^ 'to join ;' fxw 
fr. TT^ ' to accomplish ;' ft^ fr. T>T ' to take ;' ff5^ fr. W\ ' to obtain ;' f^^ft^? 
or f^^rN or ^^t fr. ^ ' to choose ;' f^pf^ fr. "3^' to cut ;' f^m fr. ^ 'to be 
able;' f^I^ftr^ (or f^t^*^^) fr. f^ *to have recourse to;' ftnin! (or ftnTftf^) fr. 
^ *to obtain,' ' to give ;' ftrwftr^ fr. f^T ' to smile ;' ffJ^fc^ (or ^^^) fr. ^ 
*to sound;' ^m fr. ^^^*to sleep.' 

General Tenses of Desideratives, 

504. The Perfect must be of the Periphrastic form as explained at 385 ; that is, 
^crnr dm added to the Desiderative stem, as already formed, with *a, isha, or (sha 
(500), is prefixed to the Perfect of one of the auxiliaries kfi, as, or bhu (see 385) ; 
thus, from pipaksha (root pad, to cook ') comes the Perfect pipakshdh6akdra, * I 
wished to cook ;' from bubodhisha (root budh,^ to know') comes bubodhishdhdakdra, 
bubodhishdmdsa, bubodhishdmbabhuva, * I wished to know.* 

a. In all the remaining tenses it is a universal rule, that inserted be assumed 
after the Desiderative stem, whether formed by sa or isha, except in the Precative 
Parasmai; thus, from pa6 comes ist Fut. pipakshitdsmi &c. ; 2nd Fut. pipakshi' 
shydmi &c. j Aor. apipakshisham &c. (form I, B, at 418); Prec. Par. pipakshydsam 
&c. ; Atm. pipakshisMya &c. ; Cond. apipakshishyam &c. So also, taking vividish 
(formed with isha from vid, *to know'), the ist Fut. is vividishitdsmi : 2nd Fut. 
vividishishydmi ; Aor. avividishisham &c. Similarly, from bubodhisha, ist Fut. 
bubodhishitdsmi &c.; 2nd Fut. bubodhishishydmi ; Aor. abubodhishisham 8cc. 


b. The Infinitive may be formed regularly from the ist Future; thus, from 
bubodhishitd, 'he will wish to know,' comes bubodhiskitum, *to wish to know.' 

Passive of Desideratives, 

505. Desideratives may take a Passive form by adding ya to the Desiderative 
stem after rejecting final a ; thus, from bubodhisha comes bubodhishye, ' I am wished 
to know/ &c. The General tenses will not vary from the Active Atmane-pada 
form of Desiderative except in the Aor. 3rd sing., which will be abubodhishi instead 
of abubodhishishta. 

Causal of Desideratives. 

506. Desiderative verbs may take a Causal form ; thus, dudyushdmi, * I desire to 
play' (from div), makes in Cans, dudyushaydmi, ' I cause to desire to play,' &c. 


507. Most roots may take a Frequentative form, except poly- 
syllabic roots, and except those of cl. 10, and except certain roots 
beginning with vowels. 

Obs. ^^Wg to cover,' however, has forms "^WSTHJ^ and okui^. Some few roots 
also beginning with vowels take the Atmane form of Frequentative ; see examples 
at 511. a. b, 681. a. 

a. The Frequentative form is even less common in classical composition than 
the Desiderative. In the Pres. Part., however, and in nouns, it not unfrequently 
appears (see 80. VI). It either expresses repetition or gives intensity to the radical 
idea; thus, fr. ^^'to shine' comes the Frequent, stem dedipya (Pres. 3rd sing. 
dedipyate, 'it shines brightly'), and the Pres. Part, dedtpyamdna, 'shining brightly :* 
so also, fr. ^^*to be beautiful,' sosubhya and iosubhyamdnaj fr. ^ *to weep,' 
rorudya and rorudyamdna. 

508. There are two kinds of Frequentative verb, the one a redu- 
plicated i^tmane-pada verb, with ya affixed, conforming, like Intran- 
sitive and Passive verbs, to the conjugation of cl. 4, and usually, 
though not always, yielding an Intransitive signification ; the other 
a reduphcated Parasmai-pada verb, following the conjugation of cl. 3. 
The latter is less common in classical Sanskrit than the former, and 
will therefore be considered last*. 

a. The terminations for the first form of Frequentative will be 
those of the iitmane at 346, with the usual substitutions required 
for the 4th class of verbs. For the second form they will be the 
regular Parasmai-pada terminations of the scheme at 246. 

* Intensive or Frequentative forms are found in Greek, such as iranraWWy 




509. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. 

Reduplicate the initial consonant and vowel of the Passive stem 
according to the rules for reduplicating consonants at 252, and 
gunate the reduplicated vowel (if capable of Guna), whether it be 
a long or short vowel. 

Thus, from the Passive stem ^^ (of (frf, *to give') comes the Frequent, stem 
ded{i/a (Pres. i. rfec?/ya+i=^^, 2. rfe<fiya+se=^^^ &e.) ; fr. "^ (Pass, of 
hd, ' to quit ') comes jehiya {jehiye &c.) j fr. ^cT^ (of ^ ' to spread ') comes testtrya 
(also tdstarya); fr. "^IT (of ^ *to purify'), popuya; fr. f^ (of f%^ 'to know'), 
vevidyaj fr. fT (of ^V ' to know'), hohudhya (Pres. "^"JtiR, ^t^lZRT, "sh^TflW, &c.) 
The conjugation of all four tenses corresponds exactly to that of the Passive. 

510. As to the reduplication of the vowel, if the Passive stem contun a medial 
^ a, long a is substituted ; thus, pdpadya from pacy a j sdsinarya from smarya. 

a. If it contain a medial ^T d, ^ e, or ^ 0, the same are reduphcated ; as, yd- 
yd6ya from yd6yaj seshevya from sevyaj lolo6ya from lo6ya. 

b. If it contain a medial ^ ri, then "WTTt an * is substituted in the reduplication j 
as, <^<*t^^fl from drisya; '^if^:^^^ from sprisya, &c. ; ^^^^ from "3^; ^^Vf^rlT 
from HW. Similarly, ali is substituted for "3? Iri, in "^^ making '^cTt'^"''T. 

511. If a Passive stem has ft ri before ya, this fc ri becomes t^ r{ in the Fre- 
quentative stem ; as, ^T^i^^ from flOT (Passive of ^ * to do '). 

a. If the stem begin with ^ a, as in '3?^ atya (from ^^ ' to wander'), the initial 
at is repeated, and the radical a lengthened; thus, ^fZTZSl nfafya (3rd sing. 
^ZT^pf). Similarly, ^^ii^m from ^51 *to pervade.' 

b. "^ ri, * to go,' makes its stem ^U^ ardrya. 

512. If the I'assive stem contain a nasal after short a, this nasal generally appears 
in the reduplicated syllable, and is treated as final \m; thus, fr. T'^'to go' comes 
<fl'WJ * to walk crookedly j' fr. OT ' to wander,' ^*dni ; fr. "EJW ' to kill,' ^^flWT. 

a. The Passive stems *TO, rl, ^, and some others formed from roots con- 
taining nasals (as ^T'T, Hill), may insert nasals, instead of lengthening the vowel 
in the reduphcation ; thus, siyui, vf^MT) ^^^, &e. 

b. Anomalous forms. "T^ * to go' (making TTO) inserts "^ni; thus, mlyil. 
Similarly, ^ * to fall,' 'm^^ or W^'to go,' >J3T*to fall,' H^'to drop,' 4^*to 
fall,' ^f^ *to go,' ^ 'to deceive' (T^ftqw, ^r*T^^'ilT, ^rfttf^, ^R^^^, 
5[^cR?T, '^h1**, &c.) ^ ' to go' makes WR. 

c. '^ *to kill* makes Ull^^; T(\ 'to smell,' iHI^^ ,' ^'H 'to blow,' ^Tfl^ 
(^iflfft &c.) ; JJ * to swallow,' JHfilttM. 

* This seems to support the idea that the original Oui^a of r ii art. See 39. h. 


General Tenses of Atmane-pada Frequentatives. 

513. In these tenses Frequentatives follow the analogy of Passives, and reject the 
suffix ^ ya. Since, however, the stem of the Perfect is formed by affixing ''Wm dm (as 
usual in all polysyllabic forms, see 385), and since, in all the other tenses, inserted i 
is assumed, a coalition of vowels might arise were it not allowed to retain y in all 
cases in which a vowel immediately precedes that letter * ; thus, from ^^^hT is 
formed the Perfect ist sing. ^^fhlT^^ &c., rejecting yaj but from ^^^"T comes 
^^iXfl^jfi &c., retaining y. Similarly in the other tenses : ist Fut. dedtpitdhe, 
dedtyitdhe, &c. ; 2nd Fut. dedtpishye, dediyishye, &c. ; Aor. adedipishi, adediyishi, 
&c. ; Prec. dedtpisMya, dedtyishtya, &c. ; Cond. adedipishye, adediyishye, &c. In 
the 3rd sing, of the Aor. ^ i is not allowed to take the place of the regular termina- 
tions, as in the Passive form. 

a. The Infinitive, as formed in the usual manner (459), will be dedipitum, &c. 


514. Rule for forming the stem in the four Special tenses. The stem is here 
also formed by a reduplication similar to that of Atmane-pada Frequentatives ; 
not, however, from the Passive, but from the root ; thus, from root ""^ pa6 comes 
pdpadj fr. f^ vid comes vevid; fr. "'f^ comes dartdris; fr. '^ comes darikn. 

a. But in the Parasmai form of Frequentative, ^R ari and ^T!. ar as well as ^Vt 
art may be reduplicated for the vowel "^ ri; so that "^TH may make ^ifl S^^F or 
^ft"5^or ^"I^^I ; and ^, ^T^^ or ^ft.^ or ^ (Pan. vii. 4, 92). 

Similarly, cin^may make ^<9^'^r^(^or "^ifH^^or ^^^. 

b. Again, in roots ending in long ^ ri, d is reduphcated for "^ r/, and this a is 
retained even when r/ becomes irj thus, ^ kn, *to scatter,' makes i. cdkarmi; 
PI. 3. 6dkirati. Similarly, from H ' to cross ' come tdtarmi and tdtirati. 

c. In the Special tenses Parasmai, these Frequentatives follow the conjugation of 
cl. 3, and in accordance with the rules for the 2nd and 3rd class (307, 331), the 
radical vowel is gunated before the P terminations of the scheme at 246. Hence, 
from vid come the two stems veved and vevid (Pres. vevedmi, vevetsi, vevettij du. 
vevidvas, &c. ; Impf. avevedam, avevet, avevet, avevidva, &c. ; 3rd pi. avevidusj 
Pot. vevidydm, &c. ; Impv. veveddni, veviddki, vevettu, veveddva, vevittam, &c.) 

d. Again, the stem will vary in accordance with the rules of combination at 296- 
306, as in "^^budh (Pres. bobodhmi, bobhotsi^ boboddhi, bobudhvas, &c. ; see 298). 
So also, ^ vah makes in 3rd sing, '^^f^ vdvodhi (see 305. a) ; ^ makes cft^*^fTir 
(305)* 'Jf makes TT7f^ (305 note); "^ makes ^'t'J^fe or ^^5^^^^; and f^, 
^"Q^ffe or %"BSifHl (305. b). 

e. And in further analogy to cl. 2 (313, 314) long / is often optionally inserted 

* In Passives this coalition of vowels is avoided by the change of a final vowel 
to Vriddhi, as of 6' to ddy, of hu to hdv, and of kri to kdrj and by the change of 
final a to dy, as of da to day; see 474. 


before the consonantal P terminations (Pres. vevedtmi, vevedishiy vevediti: du. 
vevidvas, &c. j Impf. avevedam, avevedis, avevedity avevidvOf &c. ; Impv. veveddni, 
veviddhi, vevedttu). 

515. Lastly, when the root ends in a vowel, the usual changes take place of 
and t to y or iy ; of m and m to uv : and of r to r (see 312): as in the roots vft bht, 
^bhu, ff kri (Pres. 1st sing, bebhemi, bobhomi, 6arkarmi; 3rd pi. bebhyati, bobhu- 
vati, darkrati). 

a. Observe Many of the anomalous formations explained imder Atmane-pada 
Frequentatives must be understood as belonging also to the Parasmai-pada ; thus, 
^ (512.6) makes in Parasmai xrftqf^, TTtr'^qfrF, MrllMPvi, &c.; and so with 
the other roots at 512. 6. 

b. ^ *to kill,' 'T *to swallow' (512. c), and some others have a separate 
Parasmai-pada form (in*r*H, ^TPTW; the last identical with Pres. of TPy). 

General Tenses of Parasmai-pada Frequentatives. 

516. The Perfect follows the usual rule for polysyllabic roots (385), and affixes 
^rm dm with the auxiliaries; thus, from "^^budh, *to know,' comes bobudhdmdsa, 
bobudhdmbabhuva, bobudhdhdakdra ; from f^^ vid, *to know,* comes veviddmdsa. 
Guna of a final and sometimes of a penultimate vowel is required before dm ; thus, 
bobhu (from ^) becomes bobhavdmdsa. So also, ^ makes vdvartdmdsa. In the 
other tenses, excepting the Precative, inserted i is invariably assumed ; and before 
this inserted some roots are said to forbid the usual Guna change of the radical 
vowel in the ist Fut. &c. ; thus, budh is said to make bobudhitdsmij bhi, 'to fear,* 
bebhyitdsmi, &c. (374) ; 2nd Fut. bobudhishydmi, bebhyishydmi, &c. ; Aor. abobu- 
dhisham, abebhdyisham, &c. ; Prec. bobudhydsam, bebhiydsam, &c. ; Cond. abobu- 
dhishyam, abebkyishyam, &c. The rejection of Guna from the radical syllable, 
however, admits of question; thus, bhu, 'to be,' makes, according to the best 
authorities, bobhavitdsmiy &c. 

a. The Infinitive will be formed in the usual way from the ist Fut., see 513. a. 

Passive, Causal, Desiderative, and Desiderative Causal form 
of Frequentatives, 

517. Frequentatives are capable of all these forms. The Passive, when the root 
ends in a consonant, will be identical with the Atmane-pada Frequentative formed 
by reduplication and the suffix ya; thus, fr. Frequent, stem totuda, *to strike often,* 
comes totudye, ' I am struck often ;' but fr. loluya {lu,* to cut'), loluyye, &c. Again, 
fr. totuda comes totudaydmi, * I cause to strike often ;' totudishdmi, ' 1 desire to 
strike often ;' totudayishdmi, ' I desire to cause to strike often.' 

a. The ya of the Atmane-pada Frequentative if preceded by a consonant is 
rejected j but not if preceded by a vowel ; thus, loluya, Frequentative stem of lu, 
' to cut,* makes loluyishdmi, ' I desire to cut often.* See 252./, 



518. These are formed by adjiing certain suffixes to the stem of 
nouns. They are not in very common use, but, theoretically, there 
is no limit to their formation. They might be classed according to 
their meaning ; viz. ist. Transitive Nominals, yielding the sense of 
performing, practising, making or using the thing or quality expressed 
by the noun ; ^nd, Intransitive Nominals, giving a sense of behaving 
like, becoming like, acting like the person or thing expressed by the 
noun ; 3rd, Desiderative Nominals, yielding the sense of wishing 
for the thing expressed by the noun. It will be more convenient, 
however, to arrange them under five heads, according to the suffixes 
by which they are formed, as follows : 

519. ist. Those formed by affixing ^ a (changeable to a before 
a syllable beginning with m and v) to a nominal stem, after Guna 
of its final vowel (if capable of Guna). When the stem ends in a, this 
vowel takes the place of the suffix a. A final a absorbs the suffix. 

Obs. The terminations of Nominals will be those of the scheme at 246, both for 
Par. and Atm., requiring the substitutions of the ist, 4th, 6th, and loth classes. 

a. Thus, from ^^ ' Krishna,' Pres. i. '^Wlf'T ' I act like Krishna/ 2. "^^ftf, 
3. '^'B^lf iT , &c. So, from ofif^ ' a poet,' Pres. i . "^^if*! ' I act the poet,' 2. "^^^f^ , 
&c. ; and from f^^^ 'a father,' Pres. i. fxiTTCTf^r ' I act like a father,' 2, fcHTtf^, 
3. fxTHTfiT; Atm. Pres. i. fWT, &c. : from TTc?! *a garland,' Pres. i. TT^lf'T, 
2. lTTc5lf^, 3. ?"raTfw; Impf. i. ^'TTc5T'^, 2. ^'RT^T^, &c. ; Pot. licO*l*i^, &c. : 
from ^ ' own,' Pres. 3. T^TTT 'he acts like himself.' Sometimes a final i or u is 
not gunated; as, from ofifcf 'a poet,' Pres. oF^TfT, oF^f^r, &c. (Pan. vii. 4, 39). 
Words ending in nasals preserve the nasals, and lengthen the preceding vowels ; 
as, TT*nTf(T * he acts like a king,' XT^jlfTfif ' it serves as a road,' ^^T^tflf ' he acts 
like this.* 

520. andly. Those formed by affixing tj ya to a nominal stem. 

a. If a word end in a consonant, ya is generally affixed without change ; as, 
from ^T^' a word,' "^TSTflT ' he wishes for words ;' from f^"^ * heaven,' f^nfw ' he 
wishes for heaven' (or, according to some, ^T^fH) ; from WXI^ * penance,' ?f^^^flT 
*he does penance;' from TH^ * reverence,' T'i^flT'he does reverence.' Final 
is dropped, and the next rule then applied; thus, from THTf^'a king,' Pres. 
TTSfhnf'T, Pot. n^f^'^; from ^rf^'rich,' >J^fhnfiT, &c. 

h, A final ^ a or ^T a is generally changed to \i; final \i or ^ w 
lengthened; final '% ri changed to Tftrt; ^0 to av ; "^ au to dv. 

Thus, from ^^ *a son,' Pres. i. ^^hrrfK *I desire a son,' 2. ^^^ftf, &c. ; 
from xrflT * a husband,' Pres. i. 'mft^ftr ' I desire a husband,' &c. So also, from 
m^ * a mother' comes HT^^XfH^ fec. 



c. This form of Nominal has not always a Desiderative meaning. The following 
are examples of other meanings, some of which properly belong to the next form : 
WrBnr^hrflT 'he fancies himself in a palace j' R^^fTT *he acts like a poet ;' '^n^'TuT 
or -n ' he scratches ;' I'flMflT or -ff * he sins ' or * he is angry ;' f'T^hnr ' he acts 
the part of a friend ;' ^^^ff "51^^ ' he treats the pupil as a son ,' f^^m^frT f^^ 

* he treats the Brahman as if he were Vishnu;' fWTWfif ' he vanishes s' ^^fff ' he 
seeks cows* (from ^t 'a cow'). 

d. In the sense of ' behaving like,' ' acting like/ ' doing like,' a final ^ a is 
generally lengthened, a final W a retained, and a final ^^n,^^s, or l[^t dropped ; 
thus, from ^ft^ * a wise man,' Pres. i. Mr<jidiM * I act the part of a wise man,* 
2. Mfiliril^lif, 3. ^r^liril^H, &c.; from "^ *a tree,' Pres. i. "5'n^, &c. ; from 
^r^ 'a noise,' Pres. ^i^m ' I am noisy ;' from TT?!^ * a king,* Pres. i. <iliM,&c.; 
from gnTT^ * sorrowful,' Pres. J^HHI**, &c.; from ^^' great,' Pres. ^^T^, &c. 

e. This Nominal is sometimes foimd with a Transitive sense, especially when 
derived from nouns expressive of colour j as, from ^HU * black,' ^WIHl n or -fiT * he 
blackens :' and sometimes in the Parasmai with an Intransitive sense; as, from tW9 

* crooked,' firafT^iT ' it is crooked ;' from ^H ' a slave,' ^TOHlfk ' he is a slave.* 
It corresponds to Greek Desiderative Denominatives in ia<a, as OavaTiaca &c. 

521. 3rdly, Those formed by affixing "^m ay a to a nominal stem. 
This form is similar to that of Causals and verbs of the loth class, 
with which it is sometimes confounded. Like them it has generally 
an Active sense. A final vowel must be dropped before ay a ; and if 
the nominal stem have more than one syllable, and end in a consonant, 
both the consonant and its preceding vowel must be dropped. 

a. Thus, from ^^ ' cloth,' Pres. i. ^^^ift? * 1 clothe,' 2. ^^^ftr, 3. "^T^^, 
&c.; from ^Ef^ ' armour,' Pres. i. '^^fk 'I put on armour,' &c.; from TIRHU 
'authority,' IIii*UMif*T 'I propose as authority;' from ^TS^'a garland,' ^^T^f*? 

* I crown ;' from "^7 * a jar,' mcmiP*! * I make a jar ' or * I call it a jar,* &c. 

b. In further analogy to Causals, '(^p is sometimes inserted between the stem 
and ay a, especially if the noun be monosyllabic, and end in a. Before this \pt 
Vriddhi is required; thus, from ^ 'own,' Pres. wlMMifR *I make my own.* 
There are one or two examples of dissyllabic nouns; thus, from ^W true,* 
^nmmf'T, &c. ; and from ^T^ ' substance,' ^"^IM^lf**, &c. 

c. If the stem be monosyllabic, and end in a consonant, Guna may take place ; 
as, from "^V ' hunger,' TSftvnf'T. 

d. Whatever modifications adjectives undergo before the suflfixes (yas and ishlha 
at 194, the same generally take place before ay a; thus, from ^^ * long*' "^TT'nrrm 

* I lengthen ;' from ^f'inB ' near,' nSfXrrfl? ' I make near,' &c. 

e. This form of Nominal is sometimes Intransitive, as f'lTTTTIT * he delays* (from 
f<n: 'long'). According to Bopp, Greek Denominatives in a, W, ocy, <f cor- 
respond to this form ; as, iroAe/x-o'cy, yvvaiK^^oi, 


m' 523. 4thly, Those formed by affixing ;ct si/a or ^STRT asya to a 
nominal stem, giving it the form of a Future tense, generally with the 
sense of * desiring,^ ' longing for/ 

a. Thus, fr. "81^ 'milk/ Pres. i. ^'^T'^Tf'T ' I desire milk,' 2. f'>i:^ftr, &c.; 
fr. ^^ * a bull,* ^^^fW ' (the cow) desires the bull ;' fr. ^V( ' curds,' ^^q^lfH 
* I desire curds,' &c. Cf. Greek Desideratives in cre/cy. 

^2^. 5thly, Those formed by affixing "Sfnj^ Mmya (derived from 
ham, *to desire') to a nominal stem; as, from g^ 'a son,' Pres. i. 
^(?r<*IHiTfH * I desire a son,' 2. "J^^^T^rf^, 3. ^^^RTT^rfw, &c. ; from ti^ 
' fame,' ^j^r^rri^jTfJT ' I desire fame.' 

a. The General tenses of these Nominals will be formed analogously 
to those of other verbs ; thus, from ^rliT ' I act like self comes 
Perf. ^n^; from ^mt^f*? 'I play like a boy' comes Aor. '^r^^mT'T, 
&c. A long vowel in the stem generally remains unchanged, and is 
not shortened ; thus, mc^nnfJT (from jtTc^ ' a garland') makes ^>?HTo5T. 
So also, ^JTftznn 'he will w^ish for fuel' (Guna being omitted), 
^WBTfRWT ' he will wish for a son.' 

b. Nominal verbs may take Passive, Causal, Desiderative, and 
Frequentative forms. The Causal of those formed with aya will be 
identical with the Primitive Nominal ; thus, "^^xrrfJT 'I put on armour' 
or * I cause to put on armour.' In reduplicating for the Desiderative 
or Frequentative, sometimes the last syllable is repeated, sometimes 
the first; thus, a|r7!|iT *to scratch' makes its Desiderative stem oFT!|fTi- 
f^^, and ^1^ Ho treat as a son' makes ^^f'T^ or gi^tf^xr^. Accord- 
ing to some, the middle syllable may be reduplicated ; thus, gfwfkf^. 



524. Present Participles are the only Participles the formation of 
which is connected with the conjugational class of the verb. The 
stem in the Parasmai may be most easily formed by dropping the 
final i of the 3rd pers. pi. Pres. Par. and rejecting the nasal in certain 
cases (see 141. a, 84. 1); e. g. 

From Vr^f^ pa6anti, 'they cook ' (3rd pi. Pres. of ^^, cl. i), comes il'^jaacaf, 
cooking;' fr. W^ ghnanti, 'they kill' (3rd pi. of han, cl. 2), comes JS^ghnat^ 
killing;' fr. ^f^ santi, 'they are' (3rd pi. of as, cl. 2, 'to be'), comes ^HT saf, 
being;' fr. '^f^ yanti, 'they go' (3rd pi. of ^, cl. 2), If^ya^, 'going;' fr. "Tlf^ 

F f 2 


ydnti, 'they go' (3rd pi. of ^, cl. 2), 'mi[^ydt j fr. "^fff juhvati, 'they sacrifice* 
(3rd pi. of hu, cl. 3), J<J5 1\^ juhvat fr. J7lrf% nrityanti, 'they dance,' cl. 4, 
"^If^nrityat ; fr. f^^f^ cHnvanti, ' they gather,' cl. 5, f^*^(Hnvat j fr. ^BrR|^f^ 
dpnuvanti, * they obtain,' cl. 5, ^T^^l[^dpnuvat ; fr. ^^f^ tudanti, ' they strike,' cl. 6, 
tudatj fr. 45*^rfi rundhanti, 'they hinder,' cl. 7, rundhat j fr. ^^fnf /twrron/i, 
'they do,' cl. 8, kurvat j fr. ^Tf'iT punanh", 'they purify,' cl. 9, />uwa/. 

525. The same holds good in Derivative and Nominal verbs ; e. g. 

From Cans, "^tv^f'ir 'they cause to know' (479) comes ^hnUT * causing to 
know;' fr. Desid. '5?tfVr^% (499) comes TJ^fVnn^' desiring to know;' fr. r^rHfnf 
(503) comes f^T^' desiring to give ;' fr. Frequent, ^ftj^flT comes ^ftjT^' throw- 
ing frequently;' from the Nominal <spiljlf^ ' they act like Krishna,' ^^Iin^ ' acting 
like Krishna;' fr. fT^^fiT 'they do penance,' n^t<4n 'doing penance.' 

a. In corroboration of the remark made at 461. c, that the Passive verb appears 
in a few rare instances to assume a Parasmai-pada inflexion, and that many of the 
Intransitive verbs placed under cl. 4 might be regarded (except for the accent) as 
examples of this form of the Passive, it is certain that a Parasmai-pada Present 
Participle derivable from a Passive stem is occasionally found ; thus, rf^^^d * being 
seen,' from the Passive stem "^^ drisya j ^^' being gathered,' from ^^^ 6tya 
(Passive stem of <H). 

b. The inflexion of Parasmai-pada Present Participles is explained 
at 141. The first five or strong inflexions (see 135. a) of this parti- 
ciple in nine conjugational classes retain the nasal, shewing that the 
stem in all the classes, except the third, and a few other verbs (141. a), 
ends in ant as well as in at. The Parasmai-pada Frequentative, as 
conforming to the conjugational rule for cl. 3, also rejects the nasal. 

Obs. In the cognate languages the n is preserved throughout. Cf. Sk. bharan, 
bharantam (fr. bhri), with 0/?a>v, (pepovra, ferentemj also, bharantau (Ved. bha- 
rantd) with (pepovre ; bharantas vnih 4>ipovTg, ferentes : bharatas %vith (pepovra^ ; 
Gen. sing, bharatas with (pepovTOf^ ferentis. So also, Sk. vahan, vahantam, with 
Lat. vehenSy vehentemj and san, santam (fr. a, 'to be'), with Lat. -sens of ab -sens, 
pra-sens. Cf. also the strong stem stfinvant- with a-TOpvvvT'. 


^26. The stem is formed by substituting rR mdna for ^ nte, the 
termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. Atm. of verbs of the 1st, 4th, 6th, and 
loth classes, and Derivative verbs (see 527, 528, below); and by 
substituting WT ana for ^7^ a/e, the termination of the 3rd pi. Pres. 
Atm. of verbs of the other classes (see 2,46) ; e. g. 

From^^flj9a(fanfe(cl.i)comes W^Wt^ pac'amdnn, 'cooking;' fr.ffT^(.s-ifAa,cl.i), 
fwVHT^ * standing ;' fr. ^ilRf (cl. 4), ^WRF! ; fr. fc7T^ {lip, cl. 6), frf*MHTT. 


a. But from "^^iT bruvate (^cl. 2), "S^W hruvdna (58); fr. f^TTIW (^ with fT 
cl. 2), froi^ ; fr. ^>m {dhd, cl. 3), ^^ ; fr. fq^^ (cl. 5), f^^^R ; fr. f^ (cl. 7), 
^^'T ; fr. f t^ (cl. 8), ftra ; fr. '5^^ (cl. 9), g^Tf. Root ^T^ cl. 2, ' to sit,' 
makes ^rehT for ^^1*1; and ^^ cl. 2 is ^Iliff in 3rd pi. (see 315), but '5r'nT in 
Pres. Part. 

Obs. The real suffix for the Pres. Part. Atm. is mdna, of which ana is probably 
an abbreviation. Cf. Gr. -i^ivo- in <t>epo-fXVO-^=bhara-mdna (58). 

527. Verbs of class 10 and Causals substitute m^ mdna; as, fr. 
vflV^I'if bodhayante comes ^\nnTTT bodhayamdna : but occasionally 
^sn^ dna; as, fr. ^^^, ^^^TR ; fr. ^^^^, ^^^^ ; fr. NrH^^, f^^iniR ; 
fr. ^inpiT, ^nrrT. 

528. Passives, Desideratives, Frequentatives, &c. substitute ?TFr 
mdna for the Atmane ; thus, from fw^ *they are made' comes 
f^^mra 'being made' (58); from -^tvc^ ' they are given,' <(^*|HTH 'being 
given ;' from the Desiderative f;^i^ ' they desire to give,' f^TOHTT 
'desiring to give;' from fii||^ 'they desire to kill,' r J!M i^* <M 
'desiring to kill;' from the Frequentative ^^iq.rf 'they know 
repeatedly,' ^"^mtT * knowing repeatedly.' 

529. The inflexion of Pres. Participles Xtmane follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; as, N. sing. m. f. n. mnm^, tr^HT, iT^HT^. 


530. This is the most common and useful of all Participles. In 
general the stem is formed by adding it ta directly to roots ending 
in vowels, and to most roots ending in consonants ; as, fr. in yd, ' to 
go,' ^nrr ydta, 'gone;' fr. fif 'to conquer,' finr 'conquered;' fr. 1^ 
* to lead,' t'^ ' led ;' fr. f^^^ksh^py ' to throw,' f^ kshipta, ' thrown ;' 
fr. f ' to do,' f 7T ' done' (see 80. XVII). 

a. But if the root end in ^ n, by adding tT wa, changeable to T!r na 
(58); as, fr. "^ kriy *to scatter,' oR^ kirna, 'scattered,' see 534. 

531. Some roots in wi d, ^ z, and "3i w, some in ^ ai preceded by 
two consonants, with some of those in ^ c?, ^ r, "S y, one in n ^ i^^Ji 
and one or two in ^ (5, ^ 6h (see 541, 544), also take na instead of 
ta; see 80. XXIV, 532, 536, 540, &c. 

532. Roots ending in vowels do not generally admit inserted ^ i 
in this Participle, even when they admit it in the Futures (392, 
395, &c.), but attach ta or na directly to the root ; as, fr. "qr ' to 


protect/ iTTTT ; fr. ftr * to resort to/ fwiT ; fr. ^ * to hear/ 15IT ; ^ Ho 
become/ )JTT; ^ *to do/ ^; m *to smell/ UTO (58); Tt * to fly/ 
Thr ; ^ ' to decay/ ^^ ; *r^ * to perish/ jt^tt ; c5^ * to embrace/ 7^ ; 
ft ' to be ashamed/ ^hrr ; ^ * to cut/ <y^ ; 5 ' to be afflicted/ |^ ; 
fg * to swell/ ^. 

a. But when they do retain i, gunation of the final vowel is 
required as in the Future ; thus, ^ * to lie down' makes ^ftiw; and 
^ ' to purify/ i|f^ (also ^); and ITPJ * to awake/ ^nftiT. 

533. In certain cases the final vowel of the root is changed ; thus, some roots in 
W\ a change a to i before ta ; as, from WT sthd, * to stand,' fwIT sthita ; from Wl 

* to measure,' f^TiT ; from ^frjT ' to be poor,' ^ft^fjTT. 

a. VT * to place ' becomes f^ ; ^ * to give,' ^. 

Obs. When prepositions are prefixed to datta, the initial da may be rejected; 
thus, dtta for ddatta, 'taken j' pratta for pradatta, ' bestowed / vydtta for vyddatta, 
'expanded;' n{tta for nidatta, 'given away;' paritta for paridatta^ 'delivered 
over;' sutta for sudatta, 'well given,' the i and u being lengthened. 

b. 'TT 'to drink' makes ^fif ; but ^ 'to quit,' f^; and i^H 'to grow old,' 
ftT; ^ 'to go,' ^TtT. 

c. Some roots in d take both na and ta ; as, fr. "HT 'to smell,' "HT^ and TTnT ; fr. '5fT 

* to blow,' with prep, f^, fiqi<u and frJ^IH ; fr. ''JTr (or ^) ' to cook,' ^THU or frsnf. 

534. Roots in ^r/ change r/to ir before nay which passes into Tff na by 58 ; as, 
from ?^ ' to pass,' ?rt' ' passed.' But when a labial precedes, H becomes ur; as, 
from ^ or ^, ig[ff or ^ ' full,' ' filled.' 

535. The root h dhe, ' to suck,' forms >fhT ; ^ hve, * to call,' f^', ^ ce, ' to 
weave,' Tfi ; ^ vye, ' to cover,' ^V?I ; H ' to barter,' fTiT. 

536. Roots in ^ at generally change ai to d before na or ta ; as, from '^ mlaif 

* to fade,' *e5T*T m/ana ; from ^ ' to meditate,' ^ITiT (in the Veda V^) ; from ^ * to 
purify,' ^TW ', from ^ * to rescue,' WTO or WTW ; from "^ * to grow fat,' mif, &c. 

fl. But fr. n 'to sing,' Tfrff ; fr. ^ 'to waste,' ^iT ', fr. "^ ' to waste,' T^TTH, see 
548 ; fr. "Spl ' to coagulate,' iptlT or ^ftT or "pH^ ; fr. "^ ' to accumulate,* ^in, 
(with U) ^cfhr or ^cftT. 

537. Of the four or five roots in ^ 0, 3Rt 'to destroy' makes fWK (as also 
ft? 'to bind'); ^ 'to sharpen,' f^ or ^TTH; ^ 'to tie,' f^ ; "ift 'to cut/ 
"SfTTT and ftnr ; Wt ' to instruct,' ftw. 

538. Those roots ending in consonants which take the inserted i 
in the last five tenses (399), generally take this vowel also in the 
Past Pass. Part., but not invariably (see 542) ; and when i is assumed, 
ta is generally affixed, and not na ; as, from xn^^ pat^ ' to fall,' "qfrnr 
patita^ 'fallen.' 

a. 3^ , T Uf or ^ ri preceding the final consonant of a root may 



m 6ccasionally take Guna, especially if the Participle be used imper- 
sonally ; as, fr. fig^ 'to sweat/ ^f^ir or 1%^; fr. f^ *to be 
unctuous/ #f^ or ft^^ir ; fr. ^ * to shine/ isifint or ^firw ; fr. p * to 
bear/ ^fh( ; fr. vf^ ' to sprinkle/ r[S. See Syntax, 895. 

b. ?If *to take^ lengthens the inserted i, making 3Jf^. See 
399. a. 

539. Roots ending in consonants which reject the inserted i in 
the last five tenses (400-415), generally reject it in the Past Pass. 
Part. They must be combined with /a, agreeably to the rules 
of Sandhi at 396, &c. Whatever change, therefore, the final con- 
sonant undergoes before the termination id of the ist Put. (see 
400-415), the same will often be preserved before the ta of the 
Past Part. ; so that, in many cases, the form of this Participle 
resembles that of the 3rd sing. 1st Fut, provided the final a be 
shortened, and the vowel of the root preserved unaltered; thus, 
taking some of the roots at 400-415; :5T?f (^raiT), ^H; f^'sf (^Ht), 
fw^; g^('ft^T), g^; miT, W^; fiT, f^; ^iT, ^?; ^^ and JJ3^, jjf; 

ftw,f^; ^,^; ^^,,1^; f^R:,f^; W^.W^ ^1'^' f^>fw; 
HH, Har; ^^, ^; f^TT^, f^; "f^r, ^T; f^r, ^^; %^,, fF; ^^, 
p; ^n, f; ^^^, ^; ^, ^^; ^, ^"^ (415- ^); ^, "^ (414); 
nr%, m^ (415- ^)', ^, ^"i^; ^, ^^^; f^, f^^; ^, ^; ^, 

^ or gnj (415. m); ^, gnj; ^, n^ (415. m). 

540. Most roots ending in ^ c?, forbidding the inserted 3f i (405), take na instead 
of ta, and are combined with na^ agreeably to 47 ; as, fr. ^^ ' to go,' "^T^ ; fr. f%^ 
' to find,' f^ (also f%^) ; fr. "^^ 'to impel/ "^ (also ^W) ; fr. fil^ *to break,' fH^ ; 
fr. '^ *to sit,' 'to sink,' ^T^, with f%, f^^W (70, 58); fr. ^^ 'to pound,' "^; 
fr. ^ ' to play,' ' to vomit,' ^ ; fr. '^ST^ ' to eat,' ^T^ (unless WV be substituted), 
^? 'to rejoice' makes ^^. 

541. Roots ending in "'^ (5 or "S^ j of course change these letters to k before taj 
see examples at 539. Similarly, those which take na, change 6 and j to g before 
naj as, fr. n^ 'to be ashamed,' rriT 'naked/ fr. f^^ 'to tremble,' CV'i; fr. 
^^ ' to break,' "^TiJ ; fr. ^^ ' to thunder,' ^'^^ ; fr. ^^ ' to move ' (in some 
senses), ^rgj. So, fr. 'rai ' to be immersed,' rejecting one j, W^ ; from c5^ ' to 
be ashamed,' c5'"T (as well as c5f55frr). <^^'to adhere' also makes c?'^. But 
fgi^ 'to forget,' ^'gW; J'3t 'to be crooked,' ^[W. 

542. Some roots which admit i necessarily or optionally in one or both of the 
Futures, reject it in this participle ; thus, y[^ 'to be bold' makes "^F. According 
to Pan. VII. 2. 24, ^I^ ' to move' makes ^l^arnna after the prepositions sam, ni, and 
ri, and in every other case ^ff W ardita, so that after a prefixed, it becomes ^if^W 


(^H 'pained' is thought by some to be ritay fr. rt. rt, with prep, a prefixed, and 
by others is regarded as an anomalous form of rt. ardj by native grammarians a 
form ^# artta is referred to rt. ^fi^) ; "i;^ ' to make firm,' "^ ; ^ ' to extol,' ^ ; 
H^ *to be mad,' nT; ^'to shine,' ^; ^ni 'to perish,' !?; ^ 'to faint,' f^i 
as well as ^f%W; 5"^ 'to speak barbarously,' fff^ as well as Jf^IiT; J^'to 
dance,' "J^; ^' to strive,' ^l^. 

543. If in forming the Passive stem (471), the r or y contained in a root is 
changed to its semivowel u or , the same change takes place in the Past Pass. 
Part.; as, fr. '^t7a<5, 'to say,"3^ uA:/a; fr. '^* to speak,' Tf^; fr.'^' to wish,* 
7%iT; fr. "^ ' to dwell,' "^f^; fr. -^^ to sow,' "JW ; fr. ^ ' to carry,' "3!^ (with 
W> "jftcT, 38. ); fr. ^[^'to sleep,' ^; fr. iH^'to sacrifice,' ^. 

Obs. This change of a semivowel to its corresponding vowel is called Sampra- 
aarana by native grammarians (Pan. i. i, 45). 

a. Some roots change ! with a preceding or following vowel into 1! J as, 19R 
* to be feverish,' J^ ; f^ ' to hasten,' "iJ^S ; foR * to dry,' ^ ; ^ST^ ' to protect,' 

gnr ; j?^ ' to bind,' ^. 

b. Some roots ending in "^also substitute "3! for "^; as, f^ ' to play,' ^W and 
V*^ (the former only in the sense of 'to gamble'); fVj^'to sew,' ^^^TT; fllj^or 
T^^'to spit,' ^^; f^or Ft^'to spit,' FHT. 

544. Some other changes which take place in forming the Passive stem (472) 
are preserved before ta; thus, fr. '50^ 'to rule,' f^; fr. IIV 'to pierce,' f^; 
fr. II^' to deceive,' f^lf^if ; fr. ^^ ' to fry,' ^ ; fr. Tl^ ' to ask,' ^ ; fr. T(\' to 
cut,' ^^m (58). 

a. When a root ends in a conjunct consonant, of which the first is a nasal, this 
nasal is generally rejected before taj as, fr. T'V 'to bind,' "^j* fr. ^^ 'to fall,' 
; fr.^'tofall,'reT; fr. ^ 'to move' and ^' to anoint,' ^HtR; fr.^'to 
adhere,' ^"^; fr. t^'to colour,' Tli; fr. ^['H^'to kindle,' ^^J fr. '3'^ 'to be wet,* 
T^ or T^ ; fr. ^n^ ' to flow,' W^; fr. ^j?^ ' to ascend,' ^W ; fr. "^W * to stop,* 
^r; fr. ^jf^*to stop,' WV; fr. ^W^'to deceive,' ^; fr. >T^*to break,' VTJ^; 
fr. ^11 'to bite,' <^; fr. TT^'to contract,' K%. 

b. But not if ^ t is inserted; as, fr. ?ni? 'to break,' ^ft^; fr. "HP^, ^f^?^^ 
(except *n=^*to chum,' making Tf^lT; and ?r^ *to tie,' ?lfTiT). 

545. Many roots ending in ^^171,^^11^ or Tffn reject these nasals before ia if i is 
not inserted ; as, ^'^^am, 'to go,' Vlfgata; ^ yam, 'to restrain,' VKyata; f^'to 
sport,' TiT; 7T^'to stretch,"iT?r ; ^'to kill,' T^; H^'to bend,' "^TK; ?5^*to 
think,' HW ; "^T^ ' to hurt,' T^ : but W( ' to breathe ' and ^^^ ' to go ' make W^ 
(the latter also ^ftriT) ; and ^*^ 'to sound,' ^ftTTT (also 5^Tnf with prep.) 

a. f?^'to be born' makes IfXK', and ?n^*to dig,' Wlf; ^'to give,' Wit; 
medial a being lengthened. 

546. Those roots ending in T^ to, of the 4th class, which lengthen a medial a 
before the conjugational suffix ya, also lengthen it before ta, changing m to n as 
in the Futures ; thus, fr. "flF^ ' to step,' Hfff ; fr. P^ * to wander,' ^STPff ; fr. ^'^ ' to 


appeased,' l^tJ^if; fr. ^*to tame/ ^TmT (also '^TT); fr. "8^ 'to be patient,' 
W^; fr. 1F[ 'to be sad,' liPfT. 

a. Similarly, ^^ 'to vomit,' ^TnT; ^i'l^ 'to love,' ^iTiT; ^'^'to eat,' ''^T^. 

547. From 'TOl^'to swell' is formed ^tfitW; fr. 'C^TT^'to shake,' "B^ITfi; fr. f^^'to 
be putrid,' ^; from "3!^ 'to weave,' "^TfT; fr. 'Oini 'to be fat,' TTtrT (with ^T and 
^y -"on^); fr. 1^^/to stink,' "^W. 

fl. ^ or 'TT ' to make effort' forms 'TTOT ; g*^* to kill,' like r^T ' to hasten,' Tl^ ; 
5^ 'to bind or tie' makes JJ^S ; vn^'to wash,' VTrf, 

b. T|ic^ ' to open ' makes "^W (Pan. viii. 2, 55) ; and TITq^^ ' to eat,' FV (fr. ^TBT). 
Obs. From the above examples it appears that sometimes several roots have 

the same form of Past Pass. Part. The following may also be noted : ^[^^ * to stink ' 
and ^' to purify ' make ^iT J HT ' to measure ' and ^ ' to barter,' fmt ', *f3^' to wipe,' 
^51^ 'to touch,' and l^'to sprinkle,' all make ^ (f^'to bear' making Tf^iT by 
Pan. I. 2, 20) ; ^f^ ' to recite ' and ^^ ' to kill,' ^RcT ; ^TT^ ' to rule ' and f^ ' to 
distinguish,' %; TTt 'to destroy' and ft? 'to tie,' ftlW. On the other hand, 
^^ ' to enjoy ' makes ^ ; but ^T * to bend,' ^J^. 

548. The following, though regarded as Participles by native grammarians, are 
more properly adjectives : "^^j fr. "^^^pad, ' to cook ;' W^, fr. '^^ ' to dry ;' "Sftw, 
fr. "Sft^'to be drunk;' ^1^, fr. ^31^* to grow thin;' ^TT, fr. "^ 'to waste.' 

549. In forming the Past Pass. Part, of Causals^ the Causal suffix 
^^^ aya is rejected, but the inserted ^ i is always assumed ; as, fr. 
cRTTxr, Causal of ^ * to make,^ comes oBiftTT kdrita, * caused to be made ;' 
fr. WTTR, Causal of WT * to stand,^ wrf^ sthdpita, * placed ;' fr. SH|U(|44 
("^ with ^rr), ^mmftRT ' increased,' * refreshed.^ 

550. In adding w ^a to a Desiderative or Frequentative stem, the 
inserted ^ i is assumed, final a of the stem being dropped ; and in 
the case of roots ending in consonants, final ya being dropped ; as, 
fr. fcRT^ *to desire to drink ^ comes frjirrfwcr; fr. f^cirt"! 'to desire 
to do,' f'^oRtff ff ; fr. ^ * to desire to obtain,' ^fWiT, &c. ; fr. T^tT^ 

* to cut oflen,' ^>7|finT ; fr. ^vi^ ' to break frequently,' "^ftrf^. 

551. K ta with i is added to nominal stems, final a being dropped ; 
as, fr. f^fqc5 'loose,' f^ftrfeiT * loosened;' fr. ftm 'crooked,' ftrf^riT 

* curved.' These may be regarded as Past Passive Participles of the 
Transitive Nominal verbs f^f^JTcy^fiT, ftrgRftf (5^1). So again, from 
'TT^ 'to do reverence' comes H Hft ?|ff or nTfW. 

Obs. Moreover, as na sometimes takes the place of ta, so ina is added to some 
nouns instead of ita; e.g. Hfc9T 'soiled,' fr. *Tf7 'dui;;' ^fW'^ (5^) 'horned,' 
from ^ ' a horn.' See 80. XLIII. 

a. Corresponding forms in Latin are barbatus, alatus, cordatus, turritus, &c. ; 
and in Greek, o^^aAwTOj", KpoKCCTO^, avXcoTOgj &c. 


552. The inflexion of Past Passive Participles follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; thus exhibiting a perfect similarity to the 
declension of Latin participles in tiis ; thus, ^ kritaj Nom. sing, 
masc. fern. neut. ^TT^, ^cTT, ^'^. 

a. The resemblance between Sanskrit Past Passive Participles in /a, Latin Par- 
ticiples in tu-s, and Greek verbals in TO-f, may be seen in the following examples : 
Sk. jna7a-s= Lat. {g)notu-s (ignotus), yv(t)TO-{; Sk. datta-s=L&t. datus, ^OTog; 
^ruta-s=.clutus, K\vTO-i ', bhuta-s=:(f>VTO-g ; yukta-s=junctu-s,^iVKTO-i ', labdha- 
zzzXvjnTO-g; p{ta-s=7rOTC-$; bhrita-s=<pepTO'i', diskta-sz=zdictu-s,^iKTO-i, And, 
like Sanskrit, Latin often inserts an i, as in domitu-s (=Sk. damita-s), monitu-s, &c. 
This is not the case in Greek, but f is inserted in forms like /xVTO-f, epirero-g. 
There are also examples of Latin and Greek formations in nu-s and vo-f, corres- 
ponding to the Sanskrit participle in naj thus, plenu-s {^purna-s), magnu-s (cf. Sk. 
rt. mah), dignu-s (cf. Sk. di^, dik, Gr. ^eiK) ; and (TTvyvG-g, areyvo-$, cr/AVO-f , &c. 


These are of two kinds : A. those derived from the Past Passive 
Participle; B. those belonging to the RedupUcated Perfect. The 
former frequently supply the place of a Perfect tense Active (see 897). 

^^^. A. The stem of these Participles is formed by adding ^va/ 
to that of the Past Passive Participle ; e. g. 

From ^ff 'made,' ^im^^' having made,' *who or what has made ;' fr. ^^^ 'burnt,' 
^nj^' having burnt ;' fr. "W^ ' said,' TIK^* having said j' fr. ft?^ 'broken,' fW^^I^ 
'having broken;' fr. WrftlTT 'placed,' Wlf^iT^ ' having placed,' &c. 

a. For the declension of these Participles see 140. a. b. c. 

554. B. In these Participles, either '^^^vas or ^r^ ivas is generally added to the 
stem of the Reduplicated Perfect, as formed in the dual and plural. Vas is added 
when the stem in the dual and plural (as it appears in its unchanged form before 
the terminations are added) consists of more than one syllable ; thus, from <!akri 
(root kji, *to do'), 6akfiva8: from AH (374), dicHvas; from nanfit (364, compare 
45. a), nanritvas; from sasmar (374. k), sasmarvas. 

a. And ivas is added when the stem in the dual and plural consists of one 
syllable only j as, from ten (375. a), tenivas; from ghas (377), jakshivas. 

Obs. Certain roots are said optionally to form this Perf. Part, with ivas or vas, 
whether the stem in dual and plural consists of one syllable or two (see Pdn. vii. 
2, 68) ; e. g. fr. gam (376), jagmivas or jaganvas; fr. han, jaghnivas or jaghanvas; 
fr. vid, cl. 6, *to find,' vividvas or vividivasj fr. t?V, vivihas or vivi^ivas; fr. rfrt/, 
dadfihas or dadriHvas. 

b. When vas is afl&xed, it will be necessary to restore to its original state the 
final of a root ending in t, {, u, u, or p, if changed before the terminations of the 
du. and pi. to y, v, r, iy, uv, or up; thus, ftsT sri, changed by 374. e. to si^riy, 
becomes f^ftsf^; lit, changed to 6kriy, becomes f'mi\Hfi^(Hkr{vas; ^, changed 


'y 374- 5'- to dudhuv, becomes ^^^^^^[^^ dudhuvas j ^, changed by 374. . to bahhuv, 
becomes ^^^^ babMvas. In declension, the 3rd pers. pL with its termination ns 
is the form of the stem in the weakest cases (135. a), and in the fem. final 5 becoming 
sh by 70 ; e. g. 3rd pi. jagmus, I. jagmushd; 3rd pi. tenus, I. tenushd, &c. See 168. 

c. Roots which take the Periphrastic Perfect (see 385) form the Participles of 
this tense by adding the Perfect Participles of kri, bhu, and as, to dm; thus, from 
dur, cl. 10, doraydm-babhuvas, 6oraydn-6aTcrwas, doraydm-dsivas. 

d. There is an Atmane-pada Participle of the Reduplicated Perfect most easily 
formed by changing ire, the termination of the 3rd pi., into dna; thus, vividdna, 
Sdydna, jagmdna. See 526. ; and cf. Greek Perf. Part, in fxevo {TervfJifxevos z= 

e. The Parasmai-pada form of these Participles is inflected at 168. Those of the 
Atmane-pada follow the inflexion of adjectives like subha at 187. 

^^^. These are of the nature of Gerunds, as ' carrying on the 
action of the verb.' They fall under two heads : ist, as formed by 
affixing RT tvd to uncompounded roots ; as, fr. ij^ bhu, * to be,' )ji^ 
hhutvd, * having been' (see 80. XXI): 2ndly, as formed by affixing 
^ ya to roots compounded with prepositions or other adverbial pre- 
fixes ; thus, fr. ^"^^J^ anubhu, * to perceive,' ^>J?I anubhuya, * having 
perceived ; ' fr. ^Hift^ sajjibhu, ' to become ready,' ^HjT'^^ti sajjibhuya, 
'having become ready.' The sense involved in them is generally 
expressed by the Enghsh ^when,' 'after,' 'having,' or 'by;' thus, 
ni(^^i^T tat kritvd, 'when he had done that,' * after he had done 
that,' 'having done that,' *by doing that.' See Syntax, 898. 

a. The suffix tvd of this participle is thought by some to be the instrumental 
case of a suffix tva (see 80. XXI). The Indeclinable Participle has certainly much 
of the character of an instrumental case (see Syntax, 901). 

Obs. In the Veda f^TFT, RT^, r^trf'^or r^ are sometimes used for 1^. 

Indeclinable Participles formed with tva from uncompounded roots. 
^^6. When the root stands alone and uncompounded, the Inde- 
clinable Participle is formed with rt tvd. 

This suffix is closely allied to the n ta of the Past Passive Parti- 
ciple at 531, so that the rules for the affixing of it ta to the root 
generally apply also to the Indeclinable suffix j^ tvd, and the forma- 
tion of one Participle then involves that of the other. 

Thus, f^ kshipta, 'thrown,' fl^"ST ksMptvd, ' having thrown ;' ^ *done' (rt. ^), 
^i^ ' having done ;' f^iT (rt. WT), ft^Ti^ ; "^ (rt. "^"Sl), '^ I ^"^ (rt. ^T), ^f^ ; 

G g 2 


TftiT(rt."qT),^^^; ^!TnT (rt. -Si^), "95^/^ ; T^(rt. ?T^), ^^^; TftTtT (rt. ^^ ), 
^fiTr^; T^(rt.^), fW; "^ (rt. ^^), f5T ; "35^ (rt. ^), ^tfT; f^ (rt. \n), 
fff^; Tni(rt.II^), iri?T; nW (rt. 111^545), ni^. 

a. Where i is inserted, there is generally gunation of final i, i, u, 
u, and of final ^rrand of medial ^ ri; and optional gunation of 
medial i, u (except as debarred by 28). 

Thus, ^ftlRTfr. ^; T?f%r^(also ^^) fr.^; ^flj^T or TT^ fr. "5[; f^f^i^ 
or ^f^^i^ fr. fn^; ^ftn^ or tDfrir**! fr. ^; if^?^ or *rfw fr. p^. 

6. But from f^^, ^f^RT and BT^; from f^, ^f^fm and ^an. 
So fv^ &c. The root ^TPJ makes WPTfti^ {53^- ^)f ^^^ initial i, m, 
before single consonants, must be gunated ; as, ^ makes ^f^FTT. 

c. The roots in the list at 390. a. do not admit Guna ; thus, f^^ 
can make only f^f^T?^. 

d. When there are two forms of the Passive Participle, there is often only one of 
the Indedinable ; thus, p^ makes ''J^ and tTflTTT, but only HfriHI ', rS^^, ^HT 
and foPmn, but only hPtjJHT; and, vice versa, ^(543) only "^f^, but ^TmHI 
and gyr; ^, ^ft^, but ^f^refT and ^I^T; p^, Jp, but Tlf^i^rT and JJ^T- So, 
some roots in nasals optionally insert ij iT?[, Wi^ or jTf^n^T; T^IIT, "TS^ or 
^ftn?^; ^^^y "^H^l^J or ^Tr^T; "Sil^, JflVn^ or ^r)^ or ^ft?!^; ^, T^m^ 
or IsIPhhI. 

e. The penultimate nasal, which is rejected before ta (544. a), is optionally so 
rejected before ^ca in T^, ^T^, W^^, cT^ or ff^, and ^T^; thus, from t^ comes 
T^, but T^ or TW, from ^3T^, ^f^i^T, ^IRT or ^W 

/. *n^and rfj^ optionally insert nasals ; ^W or ifW? TJT or "Jf^, 390. it. 
g. Some few roots necessarily retain their nasals ; thus, tatl makes ^nm J and 
W^, ^M^\ or ^fr^r^T. 

557. The only important variation from the Past Passive Participle occurs in 
those roots, at 531. a, which take na for ta. The change of r/to & and lir (534) 
is preserved (unless i be inserted), but tvd never becomes nvdj thus, '5T, "ifW, 
but fftj(T (or ^^h^) ; from 1|[, WhJ, but ifti#7 ; from "J^, ^1&, but ^T ; from 
f^, f^, but fa[W ; from >T^, ^THT, but HW or HW (556. e) ; from ^W, ^tttt, 
but ^iFT; from ^T, ^T*T, but i^t^J 'having quitted* (not distinguishable in form 
from fi^ni ' having placed,* root VT). 

558. Observe, moreover, that verbs of cl. 10 and Causals, which reject the 
characteristic ay a before the ita of the Past Pass. Part., retain ay before itvd; thus, 
NifMn * made to stand' (fr. Cans, stem ^Ih^i), but^lMfUHl* having made to stand ;* 
f^fnTiT * thought' (fr. f^n^cl. 10, * to think*), but f^ilfMrtfl ' having thought.' 

a. All Derivative verbs of course assume , and form their Indeclinable Participles 
analogously to Causals ; thus, "'ytftf^lfMHI (fr. Desid. of y^), and 'Tt^ftTF^T (fr. 
Freq. of ^). In regard to the Atmane Frequentatives, T^VjgfxTRT is formed fr. 
o^cj^v, and ^^Ifq^I fr.^(flM (ya in the latter being preceded by a consonant). 


h. There are one or two instances of compounded roots formed with tvdj thus, 
^sr^WITrofT (fr. "W), Ramay. i. 2, 20; also ^STHT^W, Ramay. i. 74, 23. Especially in 
the case of Causals ; as, fH=nUlr4l. 

e. When ^ a, ' not,' is prefixed, tvd is always used ; as, '(ojirq| * not having 
done,' 'without having done;' ^iif^TplI *not having given.' 

Indeclinable Farticiples formed with jdifrom compounded roots. 

559' When a root is compounded with a preposition or any 
indedinable prefix (except ^ a, ' not/ see 558. c), the IndecHnable 
Participle is formed by affixing n ya, and the rules for annexing it to 
the root are some of them analogous to those which prevail in other 
cases in which ya is affixed ; see the rules for forming the Special 
tenses in cl. 4 {2,'j2)y for Passives (461), and for the Precative (443). 

560. But if a root end in a short vowel, instead of lengthening 
this vowel, i[^t is interposed ; as, fr. ^if^ dsri, ' to take refuge' (rt. f^ 
with ^t), ^TftsiW dsritya, ' having taken refuge ;^ fr. ffff^ (rt. fq with 
f^), ftrftjm ; fr. m^, ^rwm ; from ^^ (rt. f with ^), w^ ; fr. fcf:^, 
f*f:^. The lengthening of the radical vowel by coalition does not 
prevent this rule ; as, fr. w^ ait (rt. ^ with ^fir), ^nftm atitya. 

a. rnj *to awake' gunates its final as in T^jHT^; and f^ *to 
destroy,' ' to waste,' lengthens its final as in U^^, Ttr^ij. 

561. If a root end in long ^T a, ^ i, or "3i w, no change generally 
takes place ; as, fr. f^^, f^^FI ; fr. "3tt^, "3"^^^^ ; fr. f%^, f^^. 

a. If it end in long ^ n, this vowel becomes ir, and afler labial 
letters ur ; thus, fr. ^r^oir, ^l^^^ 'having scattered;^ fr. ^t^ (root 
q *to fill'), ^3n^^ (compare 534). 

562. Final diphthongs pass into WT a; as, fr. ^ft^l, ijix^q (also ^fT^^hl); 

fr. ^fn^, ^ftrmr^ ; fr. ^^r^^, ^r^htt. 

a. But 3^ with ^T makes ^TfT. In Epic poetry, ^ with ^^ makes <Mii:q. 

b. "ftr ' to throw,' HT * to kill,' HT ' to measure,' and T *to harter,' all make '^V^. 
Similarly, ^ 'to decay,' -^T^J but c^ 'to adhere,' -HTO or -c5^ (see 390. e). 
fVg and ^ conform to the rule for the Passive ("^^j "^P'T)? ^i<r*f^l*M 'having 
rechned upon,' Kirat. i, 38. 

563. A penultimate nasal is generally rejected, as in Passives (see 469) ; as, fr. 
^IfnTT^H^ samdsanj, WW^m samdsajya j fr. WT?^, V(W^ (used adverbially in the 
sense 'violently'). 

a. Some few roots retain the nasal ; thus, W^I^ makes ^T^HJJ j and ^Tfc5^, 

b. H^ ' to acquire* may insert a nasal after the prepositions ^ and "3^1 ; thus, 
^nsy^T &c. (otherwise -HW?). 

564. If a root end in a consonant the general rule is, that no change takes place ; 


as, from f^ft^ nikship, f^ftf'lT niksMpya ; from UT^ (root ^TT^ with W), 10^ ; 
from ^"W (root ^T^ with f^), ^t^. 

a. But roots in ^ or q^, preceded by i or u, lengthen these vowels, as in "RflTc(t'| 
from f^, f^^^ from f^. 

h. Four roots in ^n^(^, T'^, ^, t^) optionally reject the nasal, and interpose 
t between the final a and ya ; as, from f^*^, fi'^i*l or f*n^HI. The roots ^j 
'^j "Ht^, ^, "IB^, ft^, ^^W, W, ^, ^ always reject the nasal ; as, from 

c. ^5^, r^, and ^ optionally reject the 5^; but instead of interposing /, 
lengthen the final a, as in Passives (see 470) ; thus, from T?^^, TrJ^TO (or ;frfS*l). 

565. The changes which take place in certain roots before the ya of the Passive 
(471, 472) are preserved before ya; as, from f^T^, "J^^ ; from f%^, '^ ; from 
11^,1^51; from ^T^^, ^TfJ^ ; from f^?I^, f^JJ^ ; from ^11^, ^n^"5a;T ; from 
^TRIV, Xjrfsnfl; and so with all the roots at 471, 472. 

a. The roots at 390. 1, have two forms ; thus, from ^p^comes -iHlll< and -TOI, &c. 

h. There are one or two instances in which an uncompounded root takes ^J as, 
^?r^ 'having reverenced,' Manu i. 4; vii. 145: Maha-bh. iii. 8017. "^"0? 'having 
resided,' Nala v. 41 (from ^); 3ji?r 'having taken,' Astra-siksha 21. 

566. In affixing ^ ya to the stems of Causal verbs of cl. 10, and the 3rd class of 
Nominals (521), the characteristic Wll is generally rejected; as, fr. TT^hni ^jrofto- 
dhaya,Vi^^:mprahodhya ; fr. "H^rTTTT, "H^TR ; fr.'^T?^^,^!*^^^; fr. f^^TTTT, f%^T^. 

a. It is, however, retained when the root ends in a single consonant and encloses 
short a; thus, P^'Kii^* 'having calculated' {^m with fw); ^|ofic4S| 'having 
imagined' (^i<^ with ^); TTfj^rni 'having narrated' (cR^ with ^) : and also 
sometimes in other cases; e. g. Hm*M 'having conducted,' Raghu-v. xiv. 45. 

b. The final a of Frequentative stems is of course dropped, and the final ya of 
both Frequentatives and Nominals, if preceded by a consonant; as, from rtleg^M 
comes -<>lc^*M J from ^^^, -T^^m ; from IH^, -iHT^. 

Adverbial Indeclinable Participle. 

567. There is another Indeclinable Participle yielding the same sense as those 
formed with tvd and ya, but of rare occurrence. It is equivalent to the accusative 
case of a noun derived from a root, used adverbially ; and is formed by adding 
^J^ am to the root, before which suffix changes of the radical vowel take place, 
similar to those required before the Causal suffix ^1^(481) or before the 3rd sing. 
Aorist Passive (see 475); thus, from ^rt ni, 'to lead,' tfiq^ ndyam, 'having led ;' 
from Tin * to drink,' ^rq[^ ' having drunk ;' from ^, 3^1^ ; from "^^, m^^ ; from 
f^, "^^ ; from ^ ' to kill,' '^Tf(^^. It often occupies the last place in a com- 
pound ; as in the expression ^^o m in ^ 'having totally exterminated ;' and in the 
following passage from Bhatti-k. ii. 11 : 

*The descendant of Kakutstha, smihng softly, repeatedly bending down the 


creepers, would pluck the blossoms; descending to the streams, would sip (the 
waters); seating himself on some variegated rock, would recline in admiration (of 
the scene).' Compare also Sakuntala, Act V, verse 131, WTg^rVJjM "Sif?^ H^WT 
* repeatedly throwing up her arms she began to weep.' Other examples are 
Hi*i4|i^*t^ 'mentioning by name,' and Tl^?It^*^ ' taking alive.' 

a. These Participles generally imply repetition of the action, as above, and in this 
sense are themselves often repeated \ as, day am, day am, ' having repeatedly given.* 


568. These are gerundive in their character, and may be called 
verbal adjectives. They may be classed under three heads : ist, as 
formed with the suffix cT^ tavya (80. XVIII); 2ndly, as formed vi'ith 
^ftn aniya (80. V); 3rdly, as formed with Ti ya (80. XXVIII). 
These suffixes yield a sense corresponding to the Latin Fut. Pass. 
Part, in dus^ and the English able and ible, and most commonly 
denote *obhgation^ or 'propriety^ and 'fitness.' 

a. In some of the Latin formations with tivuSy the Passive sense is preserved, as 
in captivus, nativus, coctivus. Cf. Sk. ddtavya with dativus (dandus), ^QTog ; 
yoktavya with {con)junctivus (jungendus) ; janitavya with genitivus {gignendus); 
dhdtavya with Oereog^ &c. 

Future Passive Participles formed with 1^ (80. XVIII). 

569. These may be formed by substituting tt^ tavya for in td, 
the termination of the 3rd pers. sing, of the 1st Future; e. g. 

From I^T ksheptd, * he will throw,' tjHM ksheptavya, ' to be thrown ;' oRffT ' he 
will do,' "^iff^ 'to be done;' fr. Hf^TTT 'he will be,' Hf^HM 'about to be;' fr. 
^f^WT, ^f^^ (see 390. a); fr. f^flTrTT, f^f^FTTHq. 

Obs. In the case of those roots ending in consonants which 
reject i, whatever changes take place before td, the same take place 
before tavya, and the special rules at 390. ao will equally apply to 
this suffix. 

Thus, W^, m^fR (relinquendus) ; HFT, TI?^ ; "^1, "^^ l ^t^, ^^^T; 
^'VT, ^TV^T ; Wt-^y ^t^^ ; cirfirrrT or ^BTHfmTT, ^ftnPT or ^THfUrT^ ; ^f^TWl, 
^fVcRI ; mh or mf^WT, ml ^ or mf^H^ ; and from Causal "oRRftniT, ^^ftHTsq ; 
from Desid. ^T^fVlf^WT, ^^fvfTH^ ; from Frequentative ^^t^fVim, ^^fVcT^ ; 
from "^Hf^in, ^^P=iiiM. See the rules at 388, 390, 491, 505, 513, 516. 

Future Passive Participles formed with ^R^ (80. V). 

570. This suffix is added directly to the root, and generally with- 
out other change than gunation (if Guna is admissible). 


Thus, fr. 'N <H, ' to gather,' '*mHll( 6ayan<ya^ * to be gathered j' fr. )J^, ^T^^fN ; 
fr. ^, ^T?!ft^ (58); fr. fc5^, c*4j(h1m; fr. ^, ^HvhI^; fr. ^^, wful^ ; 

fr. f^^, "SR^^tn ; fr. ^^ (cl. 10), "^^Tift^ : but ^w, HT^^ ; n^, n^^ ; cfhft, 
^^unf^ij ; ^^, oUHrftxi and *ii*iY'I ; ^^, 'ft^^'J and 'ftm'TT^, &c. See 
390. >.Z.m. 

a. A final diphthong is changed to ^ a, which blends with the 
initial a of aniya ; as, fi-om >S, iinrhT ; from ^, TTTfT^. 

h. The roots at 390, 390. a. of course forbid Guna ; thus, ^^^Trfhl 
from ^^; Jjmlq from ^, &c. 

c. As to Derivative verbs, aya is rejected from a Causal stem, and 
a from the stems of other Derivative verbs, and ya, if a consonant 

Thus, ^^rft^ from the Causal stem "^>ni; ^^ftfVfwN from the Desid. 
^TTtfv^ ; also Wt^J^T'fH, '%f^"^#'?J fr. the Frequentatives ^>J]R, ^f^^; and 
fTM^/i^ or cT^^hIt fr. the Nominal rtMt**. 

Future Passive Participles formed with Tt (80. XXVIII). 

571. Before this suffix, as before all others beginning with y, 
certain changes of final vowels become necessary. 

a. If a root end in ^n a, or in ^ e, % ai, ^ 0, changeable to ^ a, 
this vowel becomes ^ e (compare 446) ; e. g. 

From TT mdy ' to measure,' T^ meya, ' to be measured,' * measurable j' fr. '^ hd, 
* to quit,' ^ hey a; fr. "^ dhyai, 'to meditate,' Ifl^ dhyeya ; fr. y *to be weary,* 
jpr ; fr. cTI * to give,' ^ * to pity,* and ^ * to cut,* ^. 

b. If in ^ i, ^ , "^ M, or "31 u, these vowels are gunated ; e. g. 
From f^ <H, '^ deya (in the Veda ^TOf with T^)i but ff\ with "3^, -tft^. 

But the Guna ^ is changed to av, and sometimes ^ e to ay, 
before ya (as if before a vowel) ; thus, from ^, Hl ; from fif * to 
conquer,' im ; from wt * to buy,' jfm ; from ft| * to destroy,' ^rg. 

And the Guna ^ passes into dv before y, especially when it is 
intended to lay emphasis on the meaning; as, from g, i5n^; from 
g, jrm; from ^, Hm. But ^*to shake' makes ^tj. 

c. If in ^ H or "^ n, these vowels are vriddhied ; e. g. 

From ^ * to do,' ^m ; from ^ * to support,' HT^ (also JW, see 572) ; fr. ^ * to 
choose,' m^ (also ^). 

d. The roots at 390. c. drop their finals (^ifl, ^fTSr). 

572. Sometimes if a root end in a short vowel no change takes place, but t is 
interposed, after the analogy of the Indeclinable Participle formed with ya at 560 ; 


m 00 that the stem of the Future Participle is ojpten not distinguishable from the 
Indedinable ; thus, from T^ji, *to conquer,' f'^mjitya {&lsojeya), ' conquerable ;' 
from '^ stu, 'to praise,' ^W stutya, 'laudable;' from ^ kri, 'to do,' opf\ kritya 
(as well as ^^iP?), 'practicable;' from ^ *to go,' ^m 'to be gone;' from ^r? 'to 
honour,' ^TTW 'to be honoured.' 

573. If a root end in a single consonant with a medial a, the latter may be 
vriddhied ; as, fr. ?J^ grah, ' to take,' ?n^ grdhya 2 fr. ^* to be ashamed,' ^"01 ; 
fr. ^'^ 'to love,' W^f^ : but not always ; as, fr. ^"^, ^f^; fr. ^, ^r?r ; fr. "^j 
"^T^ ; fr. 'Tr^, ^W : and not if the final is a labial (except ^^, f^, H^) ; as, fr. 
711^, TTm; fr. ^F^^, ^T^; fr. HH 'to receive,' c5? (and <5Wl). The root H^ 'to 
be mad' makes Tref after prepositions, but otherwise TU. Similarly, JR and ^T. 
The root >nT 'to serve' makes Hiir and HT^ (see 574). 

a. If with a medial 3[ i or '3'm, these are generally gunated ; as, from ^W, ^TtiH' ; 
from fc^, c9^; but ^^, ^^ : and sometimes only optionally ; as, ^ makes J^ 
as well as ft^ ; and g^, ^ and ^^. 

h. If with a medial ^ n, no change generally takes place ; as, fr. ^51, ^^^ J 
fr. "iJST, i;^TI J fr. ^11, ^3?r (after ^R and ^, W^ \ fr. *J^, ^^ (also m^"^) : 
but fr. ^^, ^^ or ^^. 

c. The roots at 390, 390. a. are, as usual, debarred from Guna; thus, ^^, &c. 

574. A final "^ 6 may sometimes be changed to oF A:, and final *r j to ^^, when 
the Past Passive Participle rejects i; as, from ^^ pa(f, m"^j?aA:ya and V^'^'pdiya; 
from ^'iT, 'jt^ or ^'I. When the final is unchanged, as in pd6yat the obligation 
implied is said to be more absolute ; but the two forms may have distinct meanings ; 
thus, bhojya (fr. bhuj) means 'to be eaten,' but bhogya, 'to be enjoyed;' vddya {h, 
va6) means 'proper to be said,' but vdkya, 'that which is actually to be said.* 

a. Again, TH^ (fr. W'^) is used after the prepositions fjf and H, otherwise ?TFT. 
Shnilarly, ^tfti^ (fr. ^^) after f^ and K, and '^y^ or "mm (fr. '^^) after the same 

b. Other anomalous changes may take place, some of which are similar to those 
before the ya of Passives; thus, fr. ?J^, ^JV as well as ?n^ (472); fr. "^, "^'^T 
(471, also ^^); fr."'l^,^iT(47i); fr.^T^,f^ (472.0); fr.^'to dig,' ^; fr. 
^^'to praise,' ^T^ or ^T^ ; fr. ^ 'to fry,' >?t5^ or ^Sr^; fr. ^, ^UI or XTTW. 

c. The roots beginning with ^HJ^at 390. 1, have two forms ; thus, m^ or W^m^, 

575. Many of these Participles are used as substantives ; thus, ^1"^ n. ' speech ;* 
*ftw n. ' food ;' >ftnn f. ' a harlot ;' ^im f. ' sacrifice ;' ^^ n. ' a ditch ;' HRT f. 
' a wife,' fr. ^ ' to support,' &c. 

576. The sufl&x ya may be added to Desiderative, Frequentative, and Nominal 
stems in the same way as aniya (570); thus, ^^fv^, "^n^J^iT, %f^'ai, im^. So 
also, from ^^<5 ' a pestle,' 1^"^ 'to be pounded with a pestle.' 

a. "^ a added to a root after gunation (if Guna is possible) gives 
the sense of a Future Passive Participle when in composition with 

II h 


^, g^, and $51^; as, ^^T *easy to be done/ JB^ITT * difficult to be 
done/ jiar * difficult to be crossed.' See 80. I. 

b. Again, a suffix ^r<5*< added to a few roots has the same force 
as the suffixes of the Future Passive Participle ; e. g. M^fc^M ' fit to 
ripen' or *to be cooked/ fM^ffSH *to be broken/ 

577. The inflexion of Future Passive Participles follows that of 
adjectives at 187 ; thus, oR^tq *to be done/ N. sing. m. f n. karta- 
vyaSy -a, -am. Similarly, karaniyas, -a, -am; and kdryas, -a, -am, 


578. These are not common. They are of two kinds, either Parasmai-pada or 
Atmane-pada ; and, like Present Participles, are most easily formed by changing 
^sfR( anti, the termination of the 3rd pi. of the 2nd Fut., into ^Ti^ at, for the 
Par. ; and by changing ^r?T ante into "WTt t amdna, for the Atm. ; thus, from WfXr 
"0?f7if karishyanti and fl|ifCB?H karishyante, *they will do,' come <^^<m i^ karishyat 
and cfiftmHUU karishy amdna (58), 'about to do/ from the Passive 2nd Fut. qits'fl 
* they will be said' comes ^^WTO * about to be said ' (see 84. 1, and 80. XXVII). 

a. In their inflexion (see 141), as well as in their formation, they resemble 
Present Participles ; see 524 and 526. 

Obs. Cf. Greek in oa}(70'f/.ivo-i=zddsya-mdna'-s. 


579. These have been already incidentally noticed at 80, 83, 84, 85, 
87. As, however, they partake of the nature of Participles, and are 
oflen used as Participles (see Syntax, 909911), a fuller explanation 
of them is here given. They may be classed under three heads : ist, 
as formed from the root ; andly, as formed from the same stem as 
the 1st Future; 3rdly, as formed from the root by changes similar 
to those which form the Causal stem. 

580. The stem of the first class is often identical with the root 
itself; that is, the unchanged root is frequently used at the end of 
compounds as a noun of agency, / being added if it ends in a short 
vowel ; see examples at 84. III. and 87. 

a. Another common noun of agency is formed from the root by 
affixing ^a (as in the first group of conjugational classes at 2^7), 
before which a, Guna, and rarely Vriddhi, of a final vowel is required ; 
as, from f^Jiy *to conquer,' Wi jaya, * conquering.' Medial vowels 
are generally unchanged ; as, from ^ vad^ * to say,' ^ vada, * saying ;' 
from g^ tud, * to vex,' g^ tuda, * vexing' (see 80. I). 

b. And final ^ a, ^Bfi^ amy or ^Tf^ an are dropped ; as, from ^ 


pa, *to give/ ^ ?, * giving;' from VJ{gam, *to go/ ri ga, * going;' 
from n|; Jan, * to be born/ t Ja, * being born.' Their declension 
follows that of adjectives at 187. 

581. The stem of the second class (see 83) may be always inferred 
from the 3rd pers. sing, of the ist Fut. of Primitive verbs, the vowel 
^ ri being substituted for the final vowel a, the nominative case being 
therefore identical with the 3rd pers. sing, of that tense (see 386). 

Thus, WV?RT bhoktd, 'he will eat/ >i^^ bhoktri, *an eater/ ^^ 'he will fight/ 
'i^^ * a fighter ;' XTrf'^rTT ' he will ask,' ^f''^^ ' an asker ;' m^J * he will bear,' 
m^ *a bearer,' &c. They are inflected at 127. 

58a. The stem of the third class is formed in three ways. 

a. By adding ^ in to the root (see 85. II), before which sufEx 
changes take place similar to those required before the Causal suffix 
ay (481,482, 483); as, from^, ^ftri;Hnw, 'adoer ;' from ^(488), 
Hl frir^ ghdtin, * a killer ;' from ^1, ^f^ * a sleeper :' y being inserted 
after roots in d (483); as, from in, v:\f^ *a drinker;' from ^, 
^iftp^ ddyin, * a giver.' They are inflected at 159. 

b. By adding ^nR aka to the root (see 80. II), before which suffix 
changes take place analogous to those before the Causal ay a (481, 
482, 483) ; as, fr. ^, ^RTTSR kdraJca, 'a. doer/ 'doing;' fr. Tft, ^xrsR 
nay aka, ' a leader,' * leading ;' fr. rj^, ?n^ grdhaka ; fr. f^V, ^TVofi ; fr. 
^, "^rHF; fr. 5^, |^^; fr. w{^, W^; fr. ^^, ^T?^; fr. ^n, mvi^. 

c. By adding ^R ana to some few roots ending in consonants 
(see 80. IV), after changes similar to those required in forming the 
Causal stem; as, fr. "q"^, ^fr^ nandana, 'rejoicing;' fr. g^, |TO 
'vitiating;' fr. m^, ^Vr 'cleansing.' 

The inflexion of the last two follows that of adjectives at 187. 

583. The following tables give a synopsis of the inflexion of the 
Primitive forms of the ten roots: '^^budh, cl. i, 'to know;' ^^nrit^ 
cl. 4, ' to dance ;' f^ dis, cl. 6, ' to point out ;' ^^ yuj, cl. 10, ' to 
unite;' f^^ vid, cl. 2, ' to know ;' *[ bhri, cl. 3, ' to bear ;' fn^ bhid, 
cl. 7, 'to break ;' f^ 6i, cl. 5, ' to gather ;' T^ tan, cl. 8, 'to stretch ;' 
'^pu, cl. 9, ' to purify :' classes i, 4, 6, and 10 ; 2, 3, and 7 ; and 5, 
7, and 9, being grouped together as at 257-259. Then the Passive 
forms of these ten roots are given, followed by the Present tense of the 
Causal, Desiderative, and Frequentative forms, and the Participles.- 

H h 2 






1 & ^ i: 























1 1 I 

ithe ite 

dthe dte 















1 i ^ 



bhint * 

















1 1 1 

Hi -2 a, 

1 1-^ 








1 1 I 
























1 ! I 

1 -5- ^ g 








M 4 NO o 

2. Vid 

7. Bhid 

1006 d> 
















1 1 





e 53 53 

53 53 53 


.1 1. 





1 S 1 

53 53 5r 

1 -1 ^ 





! ,= .1 

1 ^ i> 

^ -^ '^ 

: :2 : 


! 1 

1 f 





>> "^ 







1 i 




^ 53 i* 



^ .-s - 



C 53 

a? '^ 

t 1 



!>. 1 

53 53 e 


1 ^ 

1 1 

'% as 
1 o 





1 i 





11 1 




i 1 

'^ 2 










53 53 53 

1 - 









1^3 1 

IS 3 

B 53 e 









* 1 


.*; :2 -^ 

ft -O <5 
53 53 







8 1 8- 

53 53 

1 1 

1 1 






e 53 e 


1 ^i 
1 1 

CO a, 


1- , .1 

53 53 

1 1 

^ rs :^ 

1 " -^ 


1 1 

CO 1 

res OQ 

d) ^ 5 




o a i 


II 1 

^ 1 

53 53 



1 I 


1 3 g- 

4 vd d 

!^ PCI Pq 
c5 f^ t^ 

00 ON 



























1 !> 1 
1 1- ^ -g 













1 1- ^ 'g 

































1 1 I 

ima ita iyus 
ydma ydta yus 
















iva itam itdm 
ydva ydtam ydtdm 







't. 1 

9 a ^ 








iyam is it 
yam yds ydt 












4 vd 6 

C CO t^ 

lO 00 On 








i ^ 



























.3 "S 



































1 1- ^ g 

fe 1 


8 8 


1 *= 1 
1 1- 5 -g 








1 f 1 

1 1- ^ i: 




1 !> i- 

1 1- ^ i: 



1 1 ^g .| 

TS :S a 


8 1 

2 8. 




1 1 ^ 1 

ts r2 ;5 



2 i. 

J 1, 

-^ - 1 

^ rg :^ 



1 ^1 

8 S 

^ 1, 






1 1- ^ g 









1 !-,= > 
1 1- ^ g 

*. "8 


1 1. 


IS 2 


8 ^ 

1 1, 


1 1- i 1 




1 i- = .l 
1 1- ^ g 



1 ^ 
1 1. 



^ fc-=i g 


1 S J 


2 1, 






^ 'S. ^ "^ 

^c^ 8 'tS 5 





S s, 

1 i- >! g 


^ : ;^ 




M 4 vo d 


ri CO t^ 

00 On 



be c 


73 8 

a 3 




2 J: 

-^^ S CO 

^ -*S '^ 

^ 1 
8 .o 

^ S M 

00 C CO 

^ I 


i ': .a 

S3 -^ ' 

'C! ^ ;:S 

^ ' "^ 






4* -c 















yojay f 




yojay i 





yojay f 






yojay t 






yojay f 












-5 8 - >. 






yojay t 


tl 1 






tl 1 

yojay f 



yojay f 













tl 1 

yojay \ 






yojay t 





yojay f 









1 1 1 

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form in 
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also makes 
stem ninri 
bhri, bubhur 

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Parasmai : 
budh and 
may respect 

make their s 
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Parasmai-pada (see ^'Z'])^ 

584. Although this root belongs to cl. 2, its inflexion is exhibited here, both 
because it is sometimes used as an auxiliary, and because it is desirable to study- 
its inflexion together with that of the other substantive verb >J^&M, 'to be' (585), 
which supplies many of the tenses in which ^5P^ is defective. Two other roots are 
sometimes employed as substantive verbs, with the sense to be/ viz. ^TT cl. i, to 
stand ' (see 269, 587), and ^T^ cl. 2, ' to sit' (see 317. a). Indeed, the root ^^ as, 
here inflected, is probably only an abbreviation of ^T^i;^ as. 

The cognate languages have two roots similar to the Sanskrit for the substantive 
verb * to be.' Cf. <f>v and ecr in Greek, es {sum) and/M {fui) in Latin ; and observe 
how the different parts of the Sanskrit verbs correspond to the Greek and Latin ; 
thus, asmi, asi, asti; fx[xi, eaat, eaTi; sum, es, est. Cf. also santi with suntj 
dstam, dstdm, with v}<7T0V, rjaTVjv ; dsma, dsta, dsan, with ;fAV, ^are, ^(xav, &c. 

Potential, * I may be/ &c. 


m\^^ sydm "^m sydva WTT sydma 

Present, ' I am.^ 


[st, ^fi?? asmi 
:md,^ftT asi 
3rd, ^i%r asti 


^ra[ svas 
^Z[^ sthas 


"^ stha 
^TRf santi 

Imperfect, *I was.' 
^T^'^ dsam WT^ dsva ^T9? 
'isHl^ft^ dsts tiw*\ dstam ^TTOT dsta 
^^^ti^dstt ^TWt^^ dstdm "^JWf^dsan 

W^^^syds *M\i\*\sydtam WTit sydta 
WTf[^sydt tMittiH^sydtdm J^^syus 

Imperative, * Let me be.^ 
^^fT asdni ^^ETR asdva ^FTH asdma 
V^fv(edhi ^^stam "^ sta 

astu Wn^ stdm ^ff santu 

Perfect *, * I have been/ &c. 
Parasmai. Atmane. 

^T^ dsa ^ft?^ dsiva Wif^^dsima 
^ifw^dsitha ^W^^dsathus ^TO dsa 
^:mdsa ^W^^dsatus ^\^(^dsus 

WI ase ^ifti i 5 dsivahe ^Tf^fT^dsimahe 
"isrif^dsishe ^HW^ dsdthe ^ftWef dsidhve 
^W\H dsdte '^iftJT dsire 

'^J^ dse 

Obs. ^The root as, *to be/ has no D^ivative forms, and only two Participles, 
viz. '^^sat, Pres. Par., ^Trf sdna, Pres. Atm. (see 524, 526). The Special tenses 
have an Atmane-pada, which is not used unless the root is compounded with 
prepositions. In this Pada ?^ A is substituted for the root in ist sing. Pres., and 
'iE^ s is dropped before dh in 2nd pi. ; thus, Pres. he, se, stej svahe, sdthe, sdtej 
smahe,dhve,sate: lmipf.dsi,dstkds,dstaj dsvahi, dsdthdm, dsdtdm : dsmahi, ddhvam, 
dsata : Pot. sty a, sithdsy sita ; sivahi, stydthdm, siydtdm j simalii, sidkvam, siran : 
Im^v . asai, sva, stdm J asdvahai, sdthdm, sdtdm ; asdmahai, dhvam, satdm : see 327. 

* The Perfect of as is not used by itself, but is employed in forming the Perfect 
of Causals and some other verbs, see 385, 490 ; in which case the Atmane may be 
used. Tlie other tenses of as are wanting, and are supplied from bhu at 585^ 

K k 



Group I. Class I. 


^S^, Root ^ bhii, Infin. ^jf^n^ bhavitum, * to be' or * become.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, *l am' or *I become.' 


ist, HcdPH bhavdmi ^^Wt^^^bhavdvas ^mH^^bhavdmas 

2nd, V[^f^ bhavasi H^^I^ bhavathas H^TI bhavatha 

3rd, H<|flT bhavati >I^^ bhavatas >^'^f*^ bhavanti 

^W^ abhavam 
^W^^ abhavas 

>i^M*|^ bhaveyam 
H^^ bhaves 

H^fifn bhavdni 
>I^^ bhavaiu 

Imperfect, *I was.' 
^MrT^ abhavdva 
^?Hrt^ abhavatam 
^MHA\*\ abhavatdm 

Potential, * I may be.' 
H^^ bhaveva 
l^rt*^ bhavetam 
H^T'^ bhavetam 

^W^TO abhavdma 
^THTiT abhavata 
>n*mf\^ abhavan 

H^m bhavema 
H%iT bhaveta 
^^^^^ bhaveytts 

Imperative, * Let me be.' 

>rTR bhavdva >T^W bhavdma 

>TTfn^ bhavatam HTff bhavata 

Hfni*^ bhavatdm ^^^^ bhavantu 

Perfect, * I have been,' * I was.' 

^TiJ^ babhuva "'T^jf^ babhuviva '^^if^^ babhuvima 

^^f^ babhuvitha W^M^ babhuvathus ^^ babhuva 

^^ babhuva ^^**3*l. babhuvatus "^^^^ babhuvus 

First Future, * I shall or will be.^ 

>?ftnrrftR bhavitdsmi 
Hfrwrftr bhavUdsi 
nO^HI bhavitd 

M?^n\*si^^ bhavitdsvas 
^f^l^W^^ bhavitdsthas 
>TfirtT^ bhavitdrau 

HfVin^R^ bhavitdsmas 
Hf^TTTW bhavitdstha 
HfViTR^ bhavitdras 

Second Future, * I shall or will be.' 
HP^miPH bhavishydmi M^^m^^ bhavishydvas Hf^^lV^ bhavishydmas 
^r<irfl bhavishyasi HP'IUI'M^ bhavishyathas 

Hf^WlfH bhavishyati ^fq^Mnt^ bhavishyatas 

MOfUIVJ bhavishyatha 
Hfn^^ bhavishyanti 



Aoristy *I was' or * had been/ &c. 
^^'^ abhuvam "^^ abhuva ^^ abhuma 

^^iJ\ abhus ^^li^ abhutam ^iJiT abhuta 

^^^abhut ^i^JVf^^ abhutam ^^S^j{^abhuvan 

Precative or Benedictive, * May I be.^ 
^J^nrn^ bhuydsam ^^T^ bhuydsva IJX^IW bhuydsma 

^jj^bhuyds ^iifi*\bhuydstam ^fJU^ bhuydsta 

^$Jin[^bhuydt ^H\mi*\ bhuydstdm >J*ir^^ bhuydsus 

Conditional^ (If) * I should be/ 
'5T>Tf%TirJ^ abhavishyam ^^f^Wi'^ abhavishydva '^wfcjmw abhavishydma 
^SMfV^T^ abhavishyas ^wf^U|rt*( abhavishyatam ^wf^'BTK abhavishyata 
^*T ri m^ abhavishyat 'STHfq 4 rt i*^ abhavishyatdm ^^f^'^Eft^^abhavishyan 

586. i^TMANE-PADA. Present Tense, * I am,' &c. 

>TW 6Aflce >TTR^ bhavdvahe H^l*l^ bhavdmahe 

>T^ bhavase ^"^ bhavethe >TWr bhavadhve 

>?TiT bhavate ^WH bhavete H^?f bhavante 

^Wq^iilf^^ abhavathds 
'^i^^lT abhavata 

*T^ bhaveya 
>T^^n^ bhavethds 
H^W bhaveta 

^ bhavai 
>T^r^ bhavasva 
^TWiIT'^ bhavatdm 

Imperfect y * I was/ 

^>T^^T^f^ abhavdvahi ^McTPRf^ abhavdmaki 

^^T^^rnr abhavethdm 'ST^T^lelH abhavadhvam 

^M^ifTT^ abhavetam ^>T^^ abhavanta 

Potential, * I may be,' &c. 
^TW^fi^ bhavevahi H^ff^ bhavemahi 

M^^\'<^\*\^ bhaveydthdm ^T^SEJ'^ bhavedhvam 

^T^TTiTT'^ bhaveydtdm H^^ bhaveran 

Imperative, * Let me be.' 
>TCTl^ bhavdvahai W^m^ bhavdmahai 

^T^T^'^ bhavethdm ^mST^^ bhavadhvam 

iT^TTT^ bhavetdm 

M^'iWH bhavantdm 

Perfect, * I have been,' * I was/ &c. 
"'^^ babhuve ^>jf%^ babhuvivahe 'TJJJR'Tf babhuvimahe 

^>jf%^ babhuvishe W^^"^ babhdvdthe ^^ik (\) babhuvidhve 

^*J5 babhuve "^r^J^fff babhuvdte ^^$f^ babhwoire 

K k 2 


First Future f * I shall or will be,' &c. 
Hfqrti^ bhavitdhe ^f^rtiy^ bhavitdsvahe HpelrflW^ bhavitdsmahe 

^fqiuii bhavitdse ^fmnWl^ bhavitdsdthe ^fWfHlk bhavitddhve 

HfVcn bhavitd Hf^HlO bhavitdrau ^Tf^rTTT^ bhavitdraa 

Second Future, *I shall or will be/ &e. 

Wr|wf bhavishye Hfl*HN^ bhavishydvahe Hpei^mH^ bkaviskydmahe 

>^f^!^B^ bhavishyase ^^4^^ bhavishyethe V<rlM^ bhavishyadhve 

Hfr^nf bhavishyate HP^^^ bhavishyete ^f^iWif bhavishyante 

Aorist, '1 was' or *had been,' &c. 
^BWf^f^ abhavishi ^wf^^f^ abhavishvaki ^wfq'^r^ abhavishmahi 

^wfciBI^ abhavishthds ^wf^MIVII*^ abhavishdthdm ^Hf^lenT (|^) abhavidhvam 

^Wf^ abhavishfa '^wf^TrTT'^ abhavishdtdm ^wf^T^TT abhavishata 

Precative or Benedictive, * I wish I may be.' 
Hf(Ul^ bhavishiya ^f^!^t^f^ bhavishwahi ^WtTfi^ bhavisMmahi 

>jN^TST^^bhavisMskthds ^f4 fl A| 11^4 IH^ bhavishiydsthdm Vi^^:^l^^{,'^'^)bhavish{dhvam 
M[^^{H bhavisMshta Vtf^lMlMltctl*^ bhavisMydstdm >Tf^^'H^ bhavishtran 

Conditional, (If) ' I should be,' &c. 
SHhTqiU^ abkavishye ^Tvrf^nm^f^ abkamshydvahi ^wf^'Hrprf^ abhavishydmaki 

"SH^rfclUI^I^ abhavishyathds ^Hf^^tf^TP^ abhavishyethdm ^>?f^^li^ abhavishyadhvam 
^WrfVonr abkaviskyata ^MfTBTTTT'^ abhivishyetdm ^SMfrOTiT abhavishyanta 

Passive (461), Pre^. >J5, >ji?^, &c.; ^or. 3rrf ^in^^. (475) ^wrfsr. 
Causal (479), Pres. HR^nftr, TT^'TfiET, &c.; ^or. (492) ^rsfh^l'^, &c. 
Desiderative form of Causal (497) f^>TT^il^TftT, &c. Desiderative 
(498), Pre^. "^JJ^TfT, f^^^, &c. Frequentative (507), Pre^. ^^J^^, 
^^frftr or ^W^*T*. Participles, Pre*. >T^ (524) ; P<w^ Pa**, ^w 
(531); Pa*/ Jwfi?ec/. )jr^ (556), -JJTT (559); J^/. Pa**. Hf^inq (569), 
H^tif (.570), HFq or >nq (571). 

Obs. The following examples are given in the order of their final letters. 

587. Root ^m (special stem fjr^, 269, 269. a), /w/l WT^^^ * to 
stand.' Par. and Atm. Pre*, firoif??, firef^, frrafw ; fw^T^, fWF^, 
f?f rt^ ; frtsiHM^, fTrr^T, Iwf^. Ktm. fni, fiTB^, finrw; fireT^t, f^W, 

flTFW ; fffVlH^, ffTffli, fiTnf. /m;?/'. ^fiT9^, SHfdtf^, &c. Atm. 'SfflTF, &c. 

Pot. fire^, fwi^, IWf^; fsro^, &c. Kim. fire^, frrF^n^, "(wst; 1w^f^, 

fff ^ T V|f*^ , &c. Impv. fireTftT, fW, fllTig; fWT^, &c. Atm. fwl, f7T^, 

fwirn^; IttfrI, &c. Per/, imt (^'j^), irfw^ or irwT^, ir^; irf^w^, 

* Th^se Derivative verbs will be inflected at full at 703, 705, 706, 707. 


W^T^, rTWTff; rrf^WHt, Wf^^T^^, kF^. 15^ Fut. ^THTPST, ^TTTTW, &c. 

A'tm. wnnt, ^Tinir, &c. 2nd Fut. wiwif^r, ^i^ftr, wtftItt, &c. 

i^tm. ^T^, wr^, FTT^ff, &c. Aor. (438) ^'WIT^, ^t^T^, '^fm\\; 
^WN, '^WM*i^ , 'sr^HP^ ; ^^mT, ^^i^zniT, ^sr^. Atm. (438. d, 421. c?) 
^f^P^, ^^^TT^, ^fWfT; '^sf^^^, ^fiwwRW[, -mrtf*i^; ^^zn^rf^, 
^Wd*^^, ^fiw^. Free, 'W^J^^^i ^^^l^, &c. Atm. ^n^t^^ ^T^Eft^T^j 
&c. Cond, ^^T^cf^, ^^TFT^, &c. Atm. ^Wi^, ^^iwjvinii^, &c. 
Pass., Pres. wt^ (465) ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^^Tf'l. Caus., Pres. ^qr^- 
inftr, -^; -^or. ^fiT%^^, ^irfff^. Des. finn^fH, &c. Freq. ff^^ or 
iTTWftr or WTWrfir. Part., Pres. f7r?^(i4i- Obs. i); P5^ Pass, f^^nr; 
Pa^/ In^/ec/. tei^, -^err^r, -fr; jP^^. Pa^*. wnr^, ^otf^'^^, ^t:t. 

588. Root TTT (special stem fnr, 269). //^/*. m^?^ *to smell/ 
Par. Pres. fmnftr, ftnrftr, &c. Imjo/. ^ftm^, ^ftnr^, &e. Pot 
fT&^, fiT^i &c. Impv. ftnnftl (58), fiTO, &c. Per/, ir^ {373)9 

*Tfinr or ^iuivf, nft ; TftR, T'^'5^ ii^; TfinT, "snr, r5^. i^/ Fut, 
mmf^, Tmnftr, &c. 2wc? Fut. tttbh^, Trr^ftr, &c. ^or. (438) wutt^, 
^rm^, ^mn^; ^nn^, ^nmn^, ^nmn^; ^tiw, ^nrnf, ^srp;. Or by 433, 
^mrftr^, 'srin^, ^in^T^; ^inftns^ , ^nnftr^, -f5RT?T(; ^inftr^, -ftr^, 
-ftn^. Prec. TTRHT^, Him^, &c. Or ^^^, &c. Cowc?. ^TEIT^, 
^^^^, &c. Pass., Pres. Td^ (465. a) ; ^or. 3r</ 5m^. ^irrftT. Caus., 
Pres. "HT^rnfiT; -^or. ^fiM*( or ^ftrftHP^. Des. ftnrr^Tf'T. Freq. 
ww^^, ^mnftr or in^T. Part., Pres. ftrm^; P*^ Pa55. imT or inw ; 
Pa5^ Indecl. im^, -TTHT ; Fw/!. Pass. liiTT^, TTHlft^, ^. 

589. Root "qr (special stem fq^, 269). Inf. ^\^\ * to drink.' Par. 
Pres. fqqrfJT, fq^ftr, &c. Impf. ^fw^, ^fq^^, &c. Pot. fir^Tji^, 
fqq^, &c. Jmjot?. ftrrrftr, f^^, &c. P^r/". (373) q^, ^q^ or qxTT^, 
W ; "Tfl^, ^q^, ^^^5^ ; "qnTH, qq, q^. I^^ Pm^ "TTTTTfw, tTTrrrftr, &c. 

2nd Fut. xn^qrft?, ttt^%, &c. y4or. (438) ^tti^, ^tn^, ^qn^; ^m^, 
^nTTTTT^, ^SHTTin'^; ^miT, 'Sixnif, ^T^. Prec. ^^, ^rn^, &c. Gond. 
^TIW*^, ^TTT^^, &c. Pass., Pre*, tr*^ (4^5) ; ^or. 3rd sing. "^TTTf^ 
(475). Caus., Pres. "qr^iTTTffT, -^ ; Aor. ^m1u|*^ (493. e). Des. f^T^miftT. 
Freq. ^1^, m^f^ or Tn^lf^T. Part., Pres. ftr^; Pas^ Pass, ifhr (533. b) ; 
Past Indecl. -^r^j, -xn^; Fut. Pass, mK^y mTt^T, ^^. 

590. Root fiT (special stem nT, 263). Inf. ^(^ * to conquer.' Par.* 

* ftr is not generally used in the Atmane, excepting with the prepositions vi or 
para. See 786. 


Pres, nnfiT, nrf^, ^nrftr; ir^n^, ^nr^, ir^m^; 5t?th^, in^'^, 
iprf'if. /wy?/'. ^T^, ^af^, ^nm^; ^h^r, ^innT'^, ^nnriT"P^; ^ii^rw, 
^nnnr, ^nr^. Po/. irW^, ^^, ir^; irtw, ^rit^, ^tw^; ^^, 
Rir, 'T^^. Im/>t;. ^nnf^, ^nr, ing ; ^^^, irm^, ^mfr?^ ; irrt'?, ^^, 
^ni^. Per/. fifiTrq (368, 374. b), PiiJif^vf or fifT^T, fiTnTxr ; ftrfrij^ (374), 
fif'^^"^, ftr^^; fsrf'Tm, fsFiT, ff'^^. 15^ Pm/. ^mf^T, ^t%, ^ht ; 

^HT^^, ^dlfl^, ^iflO; ^dlW^, ^W, ^^^. 2nd Fut. ^llfM, 
^Tarfn, 5T"0TflT; iIN^, ^W^, ^uiH^; ^ujih^, ^^inr, ^^f^. Aor. 
^v^ (420), sa^Ml^, "srlr^T^; ^^, ^f](, 'c?%ft^; ^t^, ^^, 
^^5^. Free, whn^, "ifhm^;, ^fhrn^^; iftur^, "iftin^, ^ftm^p^; ift^r^r, 
iftmw, ^^n^. Cone?, ^^iq^, ^^^, won^; ^i^rm, ^^^mi^, 
^^^Iri lT ^ ; ^^mu T, ^^mri , ^$^l^. Pass., Pres. wt^, &c. ; Aor, 
^rd sing. 'snTrftr. Caus., Pres, "3TT<nnf*T: -4or. ^srifhT^. Des. ftrxftmfH. 
Freq. ^ift^, ^irftr or wsnftftr. Part., Pres, W^\ Past Pass. fsTiT; 
Past Indecl. f^FTr^, -frw; Fut. Pass. ^lTcr, aHR^, W^ or f*rw or ipHI 

(571, 572). 

a. Like fT may be conjugated trt. Inf. ^k^ * to lead.' But the 
Causal is Tn^nrrftr; Caus., Aor. ^snrt^T^; Des. fHtflmfH. In Epic 
poetry the Perfect is sometimes h'^ihi^ for Phhi*!, and the 2nd Fut, 
TifMuiifH for ^"Birfif (especially when preceded by the prep. w). 

591. Root fm (special stem wn). Inf, W^ ^to smile.' i^tm. 
Pres. w^^ WI^, &c. Impf ^w^, ^m^^\(, &c. Pot. W^:^, W^^\k\^y 
&c. Impv. ^R^, FHI^, &c. Perf (374. e) f;HfiR*, f^f^wftl^, ff^*ni; 
f^rtuf-MM?, iirf'^nn^, iirf^JniTff ; ftrf'TfTT*T^, f^rmf^^ii^ or -fti^, f^rfW^. 
I8t Fut, wmt, W^, &c. 2nd Fut. ^^, ^^, &c. Aor. ^smf^, 
^T^i?T^, ^W; w^, vHwmvji*i^ , -^nn^; ^iw^f^, ^sw^, ^^. 
Prec. ^^(hT, &c. Cond. ^rw^, &c. Pass., Pres. ^^ ; Aor. ^rd sing. 
^T^Rlftr. Caus., Pres. wnnnf'T or (jHIM^iPh ; Aor. ^ftn*T^ or ^f^^fhtj^. 
Des. fwrftl^. Freq. i|Hll, ^^ftr or ^mqlftr. Part., Pre^. WWR ; 
Past Pass. fwiT; Pfli?/ Indecl. PwH I, -ftRW ; Pw^ Pa**, ^^q", 

592. Root "E (special stem "5^). Inf. '^(f[i{ *to run.' Par. Pres, 
j^rf^, "5^??, "5^; "5^1^^, "jT^, "5^TT?(^; $<ih^, "5^^, ^^^^fff. Impf 
^ ^4 i { , ^rj^, &c. Po/. "jw^, "5^^, &c. Jw^r. -5:^% (58), 5[^, &c. 

Per/: 5^, ^, ^jt^; fp (369), 5|T^ (374- ff), SI^p;; 5F' 

"5^' f|I^' ^*^ ^"^- "^Tfw. 2rf Pm/. ff^m i fH , "J^^ftr, &c. Aor, 
* When f^ is prefixed, the Perfect is f^f^fiaR^ against 70. 


11^ (440. a), 'Slg^^, ^S^J ^Ifl^T^, ^^"^^ ^F^ 5 ^flT^, 
^l^^rT, ^^ig^^. Free. I^n^'^, 1^n?(, &c. Cond. ^"jt^. Pass., 
Pre^. "5^ ; Aor. yrd sing. ^ST^rf^. Caus., Pres. ^R^nftT ; ^or. ^IJ^'^ 
or ^ f< ^^^ - Des. |^mf*r. Freq. <t?^, ^^^^^ oi" ^V^^fH. Part, 
Pres, "5^; Pa^/ Pass, "^ ; Pa5^ Indecl, 1?^, -"|?T ; P*^. Pa^^. "^H^, 
"JW^^, ^JFO" or '5;3T. 

a. Like "5; may be conjugated ^ (sometimes written ^). Inf. 
^rt^ * to flow.^ 

593. Root ^ (special stem ^). Inf. ^|^ * to seize,' * to take.' 
Par. and i^tm. Pres.^X^- Atm. ^, ^T&, ^i^; ^T^, &c. Impf. 
^^t?^, ^^^, ^Tf^; -w^i-H, &c. Atm. ^^, ^^i??IT^, ^^; ^U^f^, 
&c. Pot. ^^. i^tm. ^xr, IW^, &c. Impv. "^ftrj (58), ft, &c. 
Atm. -^j fi;^, &c. Perf. ^IT^T, iT?^ (370. a), if^T; ^1^, ^^5^, 

irflHf , '^{f^ik or iTflf , wf^. 15^ Fut. -^hfm. Atm. ^^tI, f tm, &c. 
ind Fut. fftianfiT. Atm. f fr^, ^Ithto, &c. Aor. '??fTl'(, ^r^T^, 
'^r^^j ^tb|, ^r^Ttr^, ^fitn^; ^i^"^, ^it, ^r^if^. Atm. ^f^, 
^^^n'E^, ^fw; ^r^^ff, 'if^Mi'iiT'^, ej^Nirir*(; ^sf^ff, ^^'i;, ^^mh. 
Prec. f^^n^. Atm. f^'hr, ^^"Nn^, &c. Cow^/. ^^ficoj?^. Atm. 
^ ffc ttf, ^ft^vii^, &c. Pass., Pres. fj^; Aor. yrd sing. ^i^fr. 
Caus., Pres. ^nrnf^, -^ ; Aor. ^ftfX?|;. Des. f^^iftr, -W. Freq. 
^f^, irt^'tf*! or ^Rft^T'tfiT or irftfi^fH or iir^^H or ifft:- or ifffn. 
Part., Pres. "^Tji^j, Pass, ff iWRjr ; Past Pass, fw ; Past Indecl. ^i^, 
-fm ; Fut. Pass. ^ f ^, f Ti^^tiT, ^. 

594. Root ^ (special stem mt)- Inf. W^ * to remember.' Par. 
and Atm. Pres. wcrftf. Atm. ^. Impf. ^T^Rt*^, ^19?^, &c. 
Atm. ^^. Pot. kHii\*{. Atm. iBRT^, &c. Impv. FTUf^ (58). Atm. 
^, Wt:^, &c. Perf. ^ETwn", ^Rwt (370. a), ^WK; W^fx^, ^W*.^^, 
^r^RT^; ^Eiwto, ^twt:, ^w^. Atm. ^ot, ^wft:^, ^rw^; ^n?TfT:^%, 

^WTT^, TETWTTW ; ^RRftiRl, ^TRfi:^ or -ftf, ^iwfi^. 15/ Fut. TOlftR. 
Atm. ^t|. 'Znd Fut. Vifxyivf^. Atm. wft^. Aor. ^^rt^, &c. 
(see 5 at 593). Atm. ^<refff^, ^I^^TT^ (see f at 593). Prec. ^tra^. 
Atm. ^rsi\T[ or wfcT^. Cond. w^xyc(f{. Atm. ^sPfRft'^. Pass., Pres. 
vm; Aor. yrd sing. ^STWlfr. Caus., Pres. ^HTT^nf'T, -^; Aor. ^h^rt?^. 
Des. ^w^\ Freq. ^RT^xf, ^BTWfR or ^TTTOtfR. Part., Pres. ?RTi^; Pa/ 

595. Root % (special stem ^). Inf. ^^X^ ' to call.' Par. and 
Atm. Pres. 5^TfR. Atm. 3|^. Impf ^5^xp^, &c. Atm. ^5^. 


PoL l^^:v^. A'tm. 3^^iT. Impv, ^\{ a. A'tm. 5||. Perf, (373. e) 
IfT^, ^^f^ or ^^, ^^^ ; ^f%^, ^^^^, 5f^^; ^f^^T, ^^, 
^1^- ^tm. ^p, ^J^, ^^; ^ff^^f, ^^, ^^ff; ^W, 
^^Aik or -f^, ^jNt. 1st Fut. d^mifw. A'tm. 5fidl^. 2nd Fut. 
3^^TftT. Atm. 5^T^. Aor. (438. c) ^'^j ^^, ^S^T^J ^T2fT^, ^d^fl'^, 
^5^^; ^d^, '8Td|'7T, ^d^. A'tm.^%, ^j^^zn^, -^idlTT; ^H3^^f?, ^%^n^, 
>Md^ni*t^; ^2|T^f^, ^I2^(, ^3^. Or W5^Tf^ (434) ^5^WI^, ^2fl^; 
^Td^T^f^, ^r3^m"n^, VHi^lfiMI^; ^Td|TWff, ^5^P^, ^5^Trf. Free, 
i}^\^\' -^tm. 5^^. Cond. ^STd|T^. Kim, ^d^T^. Pass, frn^ 
(465. c) ; Aor. yrd sing. ^Md^if^ or ^I5frftr? or ^srs^ or ^^^IM. 2nd Fut, 
5^T^^ or d^fxnq^ (474. a). Cans., Pre^. d^wmftr (483. b) ; Aor. ^S^^5^. 
Des. ^^fif, ^^. Freq. if^|^, ftfrfiT or ft^^. Part., Pres, 
S^im ; Pass. ^*IHH ; Past Pass. ^ ; Pa*^ Indecl. ^i^, -^^ ; Pm/. 
Pass, d^H^q", S^nln, %^. 

a. ^ (special stem ttui, 268), Inf. jtt^jt ' to sing/ follows the analogy 
of %, the final diphthong being changed to a before all terminations 
beginning with t or s. Pres, iTRTftf. Imp/, ^mv:^, &c. Pot. nr^TEI'T. 
Impv, 7\TEUfi\. Per/, {^y^, d) *nft, iTfrm or WIT^, ^ ; ^n^, ^JPT^, 
^FTTT^; ^fnH, im, ^in^. 15/ Pw^ niinf^. 2nd Fut. m^mfn. ^or. 
(433) ^nTftm*^, ^nral^, ^nrah^; ^nrif^^, wnftig'^, ^mf^reTT; 
^TTf^"**?, '^mfw, ^smrf^^. Prec, itrinw (451). Cond, ^mm\. 
Pass. -^T^ (465) ; Aor. yd sing. ^mfiT. Cans., Pres. rinnnf^ (483) ; 
Aor, ^Hiftn^. Des. faT'llWlPH. Freq. ^'i^, sTFrf^ or "Sfmrfj?. Part., 
Pres. TT^; Pass. jfli^HH ; Pa*/ Pa**, ifhr ; Past Indecl, ftr^, -TT^ ; 
Fut, Pass, iTTTT^, TTTTfhi, ^nr. 

d. Like xt may be conjugated ^ * to be weary ;' ^ * to meditate ;' 
J *to fade;' and all other roots in ai (see 268). 

c. Root ^ (special stem V[^). Inf. ij^ * to cook.' Par. and Atm, 
Pres, iT^Tf'T. Atm. -q^. Imp/, ^^^^^, ^(^^^^, &c. Atm. ^H^. 
Pot, "q^^, Tj^, &c. i^tm. H^Tj. Impv. -q^Tf^, ^^, &c. Atm. H^. 

Per/, x(m^ or trtrq, qqcw or ^f^ (37o ^j? ^^n^; ^'^j q^)^^, 
^^^; ^fm, ^^, ^^. A'tm. ^, ^^^, ^; ^"q^, ^^r^, ^^w ; 
^fq?T, ^"^^^j ^^. 1st Fut.-q^m, Atm. "q^l. 2nd Fut.WSPlf^. 
Atm. iTO. Aor. (420. e) ^m^T, ^tit^^?[, SHMlKlli^; ^srqi^, \frqiW, 

^"qr^jpT; vhmivj*<, ^m^s, ^tn"^. Atm. ^^rfcf, shm+v/i^, ^q^; ^n?T^f , 

^^TJJTTR^, HiqB|lifnT; ^MK^if^, ^qri^i?, v!{qH|ri. Prec. "q^qpRH. Atm. 
TjT^TI. Cond. '5n?^?m. Atm. ^xi^. Pass., Pi^es, xj^q ; Imp/, ^w^ ; 
Aor, yrd sing. ^"qrfq. Cans., Pres. Tn^xTTfT, ^T^^ ; Aor. ^h^ti^. 


P'Des. fqinsjrfT, ftm^. Freq. Tntj^, ^TRfsJ? or TTTiHtfiT. Part., Pres. 
M"^; Atm. ii^i?TT ; P55. TnirmT ; Past Pass, t^^ (^48); Past Indecl. 
'^w, -tsr; Fut, Pass. xriR^, ^r^^tii, tttbet or tn^ (574)- 

d. Root m^ (special stem xn^). Inf. M\r^^*{^ 'to ask.^ Par. and 
,j^tm. Pres. TU-^rfiR. i^tm. "m^. /mjo/. ^HTT^, ^^T^, &c. i\^tm. 

^nn^. Pot. m^w{, ^it^^, &c. i^tm. -m^n. Impv. ^^jf^, t\v^, &c. 
-^tm. -m^. Perf, ^nn^, TRifBT^, "rn^ ; ^nnf^^, ^rt't^^, 'nn^p; ; 

'I^'^H; ^"mf^, ^I^Tf^s^, xnnf^. 15/ jPm/. XTTf^inftR. i^tm. 
^'^ht|. ^nd Put. ^\f^'^^. i^tm. mf^wi. ^or. (427) ^iiT- 
rm*f^, ^?irT^^, ^xtrI"?^; ^^nf^^, ^nnf^'^, -^t(; "^xTrfg"^, -fq?, 

-qriTT^; -^^j iP^ mf^, ^xnfers^, ^xnfynr. Prec. xrrarT^. Atm. inf^- 
Trhl. Gond. vsmTf^^xii*^. Pass., Pre^. xn^. Caus., Pre^. XTRinf'T; 
^or. ^nnn'^. Des. fxRnf^^ftr, -^. Freq. xnxrri, xmnf^ {'^rd sing. 
XTRTf^). Part., Pres. xir^; -^tm. xn^HT^ ; Past Pass^ xnfqir ; Past 
Indecl. xrrNr^; Pm/. P55. xnfqw^, xn^^^, XTRf. 

e. Root ^^ (special stem ^^). J/i/*. ^'^f^'^ ' to grieve/ Par, 
(Ep. rarely Kim) Pres. ^'^ififT. Impf. ^I^*^^^, '?r^'^'^, &c. Po^. 
5[ft^x|?^, ^ft^, &c. Impv. ^^^TfrT, ^"^^j &c. Perf. ^^^, ^^ftNv, 

^'^j W^^' ^'^^^ ^^'^1^5 W'^' w^' i^'p:- ^^^ -^^^ 

^>f^7TTftR. 2nd Put. ^Sff^f^rqifH. ^or. (437. b) ^^*tf^^^, W5ft^'^, 
^i^fNh^; ^^^f^^, ^^ftf^*^, ^^"^f^^*^ ; ^^fs^^, ^^f^^, ^^Nj^. 
Prec. si^i^^. Cond. ^T^ftf^tqi^. Pass., Pres. ^^ ; ^or. T^rd sing. 
.^^[frf%. Caus., Pre5. ^^iNxTrfH; Aor. jj5J5M?^. Des. ^f'^^ifJT or 
^^f^^rfiT. Freq. ^n^^, ^ft^"^ {^rd sing. ^"^f^). Part., Pre^. 
^^; Pass. 9j^HH ; Pfl/ Pa*^. '^f'^ and ^ftf^if ; Past Indecl. 
^'N?^ or ^f^i^T, -^^ ; Put, Pass. ^f^H^, ^^T^, I^tNt. 

596. Root TqT. Inf. W^n^ ' to abandon,^ ' to quit.' Par. Pres. 

vnnf'T, Impf. ^TiR?^, 'sim^r^, &c. Pot. ?mxp^. Z?w/?v. iinnftT, ww, 

&c. Perf <nqT5f, "rrmftni or imw^ (370. <?), WWT^; rTf?rftT^, TTHm^, 

nw^j^; "?Tmfn7, WTHT, iTW^^. 15/ Put. ?raTf9T. 2Wfi? i^/. w^nftr. 
Aor. (422, 296) ^STWT^'^, ^?n"^[t^, ^rwT^ti^; ^?n^, ^nm^, ^wi^i*^,* 
^WT^, ^nmu, ^nm^^. Prec. W5?n^. Cond. ^rw^I^, &c. Pass., 
Pres. mi^; Aor. ^rd sing, ^imf^T. Caus, Pres.iuj^mff^; Aor. ^ffT*- 
HR'^. Des. PdKiai'lftr. Freq. HTFnq', HTWfsH or wim^ftr. Part., Pres. 
W^; Past Pass. ?r^; Past Indecl. mw, -Wi^; Pw/. Pfl55. Tira^^ir, 

w^xi, jqn?r (573)- 



597. Root in^. Inf. ii|^ * to sacrifice/ ' to worship/ Par. and 
i^tm. Pre*, inrrfif. Atm. im. Imp/, ^inn^, '^nnr^, &c. Atm. w^i^. 
Tot. ^'k^yy. Atm. ijihr. Impv. iisuf^T, ^^nr, &c. K\m. t^. Perf, 
{315' ^) V^^y ^ftni or ^fini or ?[ir? (297), x^r^ ; t<^> t'^* t^rg^; 
tf^^, t^, t^- ^^^' ^y t^> ^j tf^, t^ ^^; tf^> 

^T^, ^flft. 1*^ Fut. Tmfm (403)- -^tm. lI^Tt. 2Wfl? Fm^. ^TB^rrfH 

(403). Atm. "q^. ^or. (422) ^Bnmi^, ^mH ffM .^ ^nn^'^; ^snrrw, 
wn?'^, ^nrrFf^; ^nrr^, w^wv, ^m^^. j^tm. ^^nrftj, ^^tt^, ^nr?; 
^MB^r^, ^nr^irin'^, ^nr^inrr'^ ; ^^r^^rf^, ^^r^'^, vsMHjrf. Free. ^?n^. 
Kim. 11^^. Oowd ^PT^^. Atm. ^R^. Pass., Pre*. ^^ (471); 
Jmpf. ^ (251. a) ; Aor. ^rd sing, ^nnftr. Caus., Fres. Trnrnft?, -^ ; 
Aor. WJfhnPT. Des. ftm^jT^, -1$. Freq. i\ \ ^ ^ ^ , ^ rPtH or irnnrHi?. 
Part., Pre*, inn^; i^tm. ^HHH ; Fass. ^tHHM ; Pa*/ Pa**. ^; Pa*/ 
Jc?ec/. ^, -^; Pw/. Fass. ii^tq, inrfhr, ^inir or iVrfl. 

a. Root ^ (special stem ^HT, 270. ?). /w/". ^^ri^ * to adhere.' Par. 
Pre*, ^nnftr*. Impf.ym'^. FoL-^TB^, Impv.'^^\f^. Ferf.w^, 
^ref^or^w,^ra^; f<^r%<c| , ^f{v ^ ^f( , ^^Vjf(^ ; f(^r%m ,^re^, ^ tf^^ . 
1st Fut. WihlfkH, &c. 2nd Fut. iR^^nftr, &c. Aor. ^raf^^, -"sj^^, -"^fh^; 
^HT^, ^w^, -w^; ^^ingiT, ^rat^, ^^^. Prec ^n^rra'^, &c. 
Cond. ^irN^Tf^, &c. Pass., Fres. ^^. Caus., Pre*. ^TS^nftr; Aor. 
'W^^y*!- I^es. fro^ftr, &c. Freq. ?inR$, ^rrof^. Part., Pre*. 
?nn^; Pa**. ^tI^HM ; Pa*/ Fass, T(% ; Fast Indecl, ttw or iiw, -WSfl ; 
Fut, Fass. WSf^, ^r^^ii, ^ or Wrq. 

b. Root ^ (special stem iftw) . J/i/*. iftP H ^^f^ * to shine.' -^tm. (and 
Par. in ^or.) Pre*, iftir. Impf.^^^. Fot.l^. Impv.is^. Ferf, 
ftf^ is^-f^l '^> -^; f^gfiT^, -in^, -in^; ft^^finrl, -fro, -fift. 
I*/ Pm/. irlfrtifQ. 2nd Fut. ^fiTO. ^or. ^ M g f^f dft , ^^TlftfireT?^, Wtfire ; 
^WtfrtHH?, -fdMrvil*^^, -rnmrfl*!^; -^TT'Tf^, -flTI^, -fTRTT. Par. ^H^if^, 
-?r^, -Tn^; -fTR, -WTP^, TTiTT'^; -ITTH, -THT, -IT?^. Pree. ifHTrtt^T. Cond. 
Wwhfir^. Pass., Pre*. ^; ^or. 3rc? *iw^. wwtfTT. Caus., Fres. 
ifhnnfH ; ^or. ^^in^. Des. f^fll^ or f^tfiPfftl. Freq. ^, ^fw 
or ^^iflfH. Part., Fres. iftrmR; Pa*/ Pa**, ^fww or iftfinr; Pa*/ 
Indecl. tjfdr*! or if^fin^, -^ ; Pm/. Pa**. iftfiTiraT, irhRt^, fi^. 

c. Root^. /w/*. TTfwg^^ ' to fall.' Par. Pre*. ijmftT, Impf.^^J(^. 
Fot, ij7hjf. Im/w. innfVi. Ferf. inmT or innr (368), ^fjni, tthk; 

* The final y is sometimes incorrectly doubled (Pres. ^Bl^ft, ^HirftT, ^nsrfif, 
&.C.) ; but the root must not, therefore, be confounded with an uncommon root 
^ni^or ^I^, meaning *to go,' *to move,' also cl. i, and making ^njfTfHj &c. 

^Jm, ^rT^, MrfiJ^; ^frW, ^, ^g^. I^^ Fut, 'qfjnnfW- %nd Fut, 

^Tfci^TfH. Aor. ^TT?w(44i), ^niTR(, ^Tnn|^; ^tnrR, ^irmm, ^^^nnH; 
^nHTTT, ^xnnf, ^^rirj^. Free. ttk^IHH. Cbwd ^nTffr"HT*?. Pass., Fres, 
yj^ ; /mj/. w^m ; ^or. 3rcf 5ewy. ^nnfk. Caus., Pre*. T^TnTTfT, ^TR 
and XTHRTfT, miT^; ^or. ^q't^HH. Des. fmrfwrnftr or fi^wrfiT. Freq. 
^^^W, ilTt^fw or T^Ttmr^. Part, Fres. mrr^^; Fass. MiMH I H ; P5^ 
Fass, irfinT; P5^ Indecl TifiTiirr, -^W; i^w/. Pa**, ^rfinf^, Tcnnft'T, 
inw or TTIT. 

598. Root ^ (special stem ^). 7w/". ^W^ * to be,' ' to exist.* 
^tm. (and optionally Par. in i^nd Fut, Aor., and Cond., when it 
rejects i). Fres. w^. Imp/. ^rW. Fot, ^^^xr. Impv, ^. Per/I 
^W, ^r^TT^, ^^; ^^cRf, ^cTR, '<'}iTlIf ; ^flHT^, ^^TT5^, ^^ftfi. 
jst Fut wfwmt. 3WC? Pm^ ^w^. ^or. ^^T^tftf, ^T^tT^, ^I^#F; 
^Rft"^^, -fSmvfiH, -fff^TiTT^; -f#^Rf^, -fffii^, -fff^ff. Par. ^[^^(^, 
-If^, -m^; -ITT^, -iTK'T, -TTHTH; -TTTH, -TTfT, -rT^. Free, ^iT^^. Cond. 
^I^W^ or Ucj^jT. Pass., Fres. ^w. Caus., Fres. "^mfn; ^or. 
VH^l'^riH or ^?^ti?. Des. f^fS^ or fw^wrftr. Freq. ^t^w, " m J^Pi^ 
or ^'^ir^fiT. Part., Fres. "^jtr ; Fast Fass. ^ ; Pa*^ Indecl. ^fSt^ 
or ^^, -^; Fut Fass. ^WH^, ^^fhl, ^W. 

599. Root ^^. //i/. ?rf^^ * to speak.' Par. Pre*, ^^rftr. Imp/, 
^T^JT, ^^^, &c. Po^. ^T??T. Impv. ^if^. Per/*. (375. c) "T^, 

i^f^^, g^^ ; "3if^, "31^^, *<ii^ ; "gjf^, "35^, "^rg^. i*/ Pw^ ^rf^Tftff, 
^f^inftr, &c. 2nd Fut. ^f^f^, ^f^fti, &c. Aor. (428) ^^f^i^iT, 
^snr^^, ^m^; ^i^f^, iH^iH^gH, '3?^^Fr'T^; ^^f^, ^r^rf^, wrr- 
f^^. Free. TUT^, ^"il\\f &c. Cb/ic?. ^^f^*T, ^mf^xq^, &c. Pass., 
Fres. "3^ (471); Aor. ^rd sing. ^Rrf^. Caus., Fres. "^T^inftT; Aor, 
'mt^:^^. Des. f^^f^fiT, -^. Freq. ^m&, ^Rf^ or ^^ftr. Part., 
Fres. ^^; Fass. tirt^ ; Pa^/ P**. gf^ (543) ; Pa*/ Indecl. ^f^l^, 
-"^u; Pw^ Pa**. ^^H^, ^^rrhr, ^fnr or ^?r. 

a. Root ^ (special stem ^, 270). Inf. W^^ * to sink.' Par. 
Pre*,^"^^. /w;?/.^nr^. Po/.^%?H. /m/?i7. ^^ftf. P^r/*. ^rer^, 

^^ (375- ) or ^^n=^, ^^ ; ^f^> &^^, ^^5^ ; ^f^, ^^^ %^- 
1st Fut. ^TwrfFT. 3WC? Fut. ^rwrftr. ^or. ^ra^?? (436, 437), ^^r^, 

^^^; '31^^^, ^^iHT , SH f^ ri I *i^ ; ^5W^, ^^T^, ^RT^. Pre^. ^ITRR . 
Cb/jc?. '^^rWT. Pass., Fres. to; ^or. 3r</ sing. ^^^. Caus., Pre*, 
^^^fir ; Aor. ^ift^^. Des. ftr^WTfiT. Freq. ^OT, ^T^ftl or ^^- 
?ftf*T. Part., Pre*, ^t^; Pa*/ Fass. ^r^ (540); P^ Indecl, 'fS^y 
-^nr; Pt*^. Pa**. ^r^^,^r^5fN, ^ira. 

L 1 2 


b. Root ^ (special stem ^). Inf. ^f|H * to increase.' Kim. 
(and Par. in Fut.^ Gond., and Aor.) Pres. ^. Imp/. 5!RV, ^(Oviii^, 
&c. Pot. wI. Impv. ^, ^^^, &c. Per/, ^^, ^^fv^, ^^; 
^v^, ^r^vr^, ^vTir; ^^f>m?, ^fvw, "^^fvt. 15^ Put. "^f^m%. 
Par. ^^T%. 2nd Put. ^f^. Par. ^i^rfR. Aor. ss^f^f^, ^nfwr^, 
^Rf^; s.wc(n5wf^, ^r^fviRT^n^, ^i^fvmHi*^^; '?Rfv'*rf^, ^r^iei^, ^w^fl^. 

Par. ^I^U?^, ^^T^ "'^^j ^^VT^, ^^ra?^, ^VrlTf^; ^I^VPT, ^ViT, 
^>l^. Prec. ^fvT^. Cond. ^Rfy^. Par. ^I^^, <MMif^^, &c. 
Pass., Pres. ^ ; Imp/, ^si^ifl ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^T^f^. Cans., Pres. 
^^fir; A(yr. ^Mcjl^ ir^ and ^^^r^. Des. f^^v^, f^^jwrf??. Freq. 
^T^^, "srWi^ or ^^iftftr. Part., Pres. "^r^RT^ ; Pass, ^iqm^ ; Past 
Pass. ^^ ; Past Indecl. "^1^, ^, -^ ; Put. Pass, ^v^^, ^fvTl^, ^. 

600. Root ^. //?/". ^fvg*^ * to increase,' * to flourish/ Ktm. 
Pres. ^, ^v^, &c. Impf. T^ (251), ^V^n^, &c. Pot. J^. Impv, 

^, ^v^, &c. Perf. (385) 1^1^, ^>n^^, Tjvrg^; ^vraf^, 

'^VT^raJT^, 'JVT^^ff; ^>*N<JH^, ^N<i[^, ^^T^"^. 15^ Fm/. ^dVHT^. 
2nd Put. ^fW^. Aor.^f^ (42'j.b, 351), ^ftmr^, ^fvF; ^fv^f?, 
^fWRT*^, ^fti^TlTT'^; ^fv^fffi^, ^fvi^, ^fvM H . Prec, ^ftr^'I. Cond. 
^fVr^ (251). Pass. ^^; -^or. 3rc? 5m^. ^fi|. Cans., Pres. ^v^rrfH; 
^or. ^f^VJ^ (494). Des. if^>l^ (500. ^). Part, Pres. ^V*TT^; P5^ 

fl. Root in^. Inf. TTWi^ * to burn.' Par. and i^tm. Pres. TTmfiT. 
Atm. IT^. /wjo/1 ^lfW{. Atm. ^nr^. Po^. cRirn^. Atm. iT^. Jm/?!;. 

inrrftr, ir^, &c. Atm. k^. Per/! mrTrr or tttt^, wtt^ or ^fxr^, witt^ ; 
w^; ?rf^|, Trfro, ?rfii^. 1st Put. TTHifw, &c. A'tm. cnnt, &c. awrf 

i^w/. fTC^mf'T (Ep. also rifwuilPH). Atm. in^. ^or. ^nTT^, Wrtiml^, 

Wififflf^; ^WT^H, ^nrnni[, ^fffmrp^; ^snrnw, ^htttt, ^wt*^. Atm. ^rwf^, 

^BTrTC^n^, ^STiTR ; WifC^f^, ^ITmi'^l^^, ^dmiril*^^ ; Wrfiwf^, TiW^, ^Tn^TiT. 
Prec. inimm. Atm. fTwt^. Cor></. ^m^^T. Kim. WiH^. Pass., 
Pre*. TT^; Impf wrr^; ^or. ^rd sing. ^iTrf^. Caus., Pres. K[^^[ff{, 
Kvik; Aor. VirilriM^, VHrflri^. Des. fiTffmif^, fWiTW. Freq. fl!H4, imTf*'? 
or iTTTnftftr. Part., Pre*, w^; Atm. iTWR ; Pa**, huihih ; Pa*/ 
Pa**, inr; Pa*^ Indecl. TTRT, -W^; -Fm^ Pa**. FJraj, Tmrfhr, ttht. 

601. Root FPT (270. e). Jw/. c5^ * to take.' Atm. Pres. 7^, 

vrf**v^i^, ^Sf5H7r; ^rc5>rnf^, ^Hc^h^tf'^, ^th^Titp^; ^<wrRff, ^c^hkiti^, 

'WcW^. Pot. HH^, H>TO^, <W1T; HHqff , c5Hmv|f*f^, f5>Tinfn^; TWf^, 


pHH^el'^, 75>n?^. Impv. ^^, <W^, c^HiTT'^; Hm^, TJH^rP^, H^TTTT'^; 
x55Hto|, e5Hr^, cW^ifnT. Per/. ^H (375. a), :^>?^, ^; Hf>?^,^>Tm, 

^>nw ; ^firot, ^ftrs^, ^>fi. 15^ -Fm/. c5^ (409), cjanif, hw, &c. 

3WC? Fut. c^t^ (299), <=rE^, &c. Aor. ^c?if<fr (4^0, ^^99), '^HStlT^ (298), 
^e53ir; ^SnJT^f;^, ^e^mmiH, ^<9^rilH; ^THX^f^, '^TFJOTT, ^Tc^"^. Prec. 
<5r^, TS^OT^, H^'FTt?, &c. C0W6?. ^cjwj, &c. Pass., Pres, H^ : 
Aor. ^r?5f^, ^!53kn^, ^9Tf>T (475) or ^Tc5f^, &c. Caus., Pre*. pP^- 
mftr, &c.; Aor, ^cg-cS ^ W. Des. f??^ (503). Freq. ?5T?5^, HTcsyw^Hn. 
Part., Pre*. <55WT^ ; Po*^ Pass, v5U ; P*^ /^ec/. H^JT, -Hl ; P?*/. 
Pa**. cS^t^, c5H7!N, 7JWT. 

. Like HH is conjugated T?T (with prep. ^), ^TTiSMi^ * to begin.* 
602. Root 7]^ (special stem ij^, 2^70). /ti/*. T^ * to go.' Par. 
Pres, JiSssufH, T^fti, T^aifk; 'l-aiN^, jt^T^^, il-adlH^; 'I^IH^, W^yi, 
v:^f^. Impf. ^jx^J\^i ^n^a[^, &c. Pot. jitsaii^^^, xna^, &c. /m^y. 

T^OT^T, 1^, &c. Perf. ('^'j6) ipiTT, nT^ or WV^, ^HTR; ^rfi^Jf^, 

^"^ 'Tnrg^; TfrfTT, ^fh, ^rg^. i^^ Fut. jmiPw . :i?i<f Pw/. 
J i fa ui iPH , nfiroftr, nf^nqfrr, &c. ^or. (436) ^im^, ^nT^, ^n^; 
^miTR, ^jm?^, ^THflT^; ^nmT, ^^jht, ^jt^tt^. Prec. ir^inn^. 
Cond. ^PrfHiip^. Pass., Pre*, in^; ^or. 3rc? *m^. ^prnftr. Caus., 
Pres. TTinnfi? ; ^or. ^rbPT'^. Des. f^irfH^Tfi?. Freq. ITI^J^, "^f^ 
or r^ftfiT; see 709. Part., Pres. Trar?^; P*/ Pa**, ^nr; Pa*^ 
Iwcfee/. iTFTT, -iTHT, -^m iS^^' , 560) ; Fut. Pass. THir^, innfN, TT^j. 
_ a. Root T'^. /w/! Tg'^ *to bend.' Par. and ^Ltm. (*to bow one's 

IP self). Pres. W(^ -^tm. "^f^. Impf. 'sr^ffqi^. Kim. ^rh. Po^. 
t^^Ti?^. Kim. 7^. Impv. Rlf'fT. Kim. t^. Perf. {^y^. a) fHTR 
or rRT, r?F'I or ^ftr^, 'fR'R; %fW^, ^^, ^*f^^; %^, ^iT, ^^. 
Atm. %H, %ft?^, ^^; ^fN^, ^iTR, %rrff; ^ftm%, ^ftrs^, %fSi. 
1st Fut. tftri i rw . Atm. Hnll^. awe? Pm/. ^NqrfH. Atm. tf^. ^or. 
^tftra'^, ^N1^, ^sHrT^rh^; ^ftr^^j ^ftrF*^, ^Tftjsr*^^; ^sntftr^r, 

^tlfJlril'^^; w^^f^, ^nT*Son^, vsTWiT. Prec. i|i*^. Atm. t^'T. Oowt?. 
^i^'^. ^tm. ^^. Pass., Pres. rfr^ ; Impf. ^in| ; ^or. 3rc? *iw^. 
^BRfH or 'SRTfir. Caus. "JT'rmf'T or iTTTrnftr; ^or. ^STfRH?^ or ^Rt^TH'^. 
Des. "ftnf^fjT. Freq. r^, H^*i1ftT or tT?rf^. Part., Pres. WT^^; 
i^tm. ^?nWT^; Pa**. H<*iM ; Pa*; Pass, ttk; Past Indecl. -rfi^, -"JTwr 
or -Trm ; Pi<;. Pass. TnTaT, TTffNl, TT^ or ^P^r^. 

b. Root ^. Jw/. ^fH^*to move.' Par. Pre*. ^TJlfir. Impf 
^r^cJ?^. Po^ ^^. Impv, ^c5TftT, ^c5, &c. Per/". ^'qjcS or ^'ifcJ, 


^fn^, ^^tth; "^fc?^, *ic*vj^, ^H^^; ^Pc^h, 'to, 'ic^^. i*^ Fut, 
^rcSff t Pw . 2nd Fut. ^ Pc^m i fa . Aor. ^^cJ^, Sf^ l c^l ^, ^T^TTS^; 
^M i r<^M , ^irrt8*(^, -TH; ^T^jfrPiT, -fTW, -f<^^. Free, ^^ii^^. 
Cond. ^^frftt^H. Pass., Pr^^. 'q^. Caus., Fres. yi(^i\ \ U{ or Mlci^llfH. 
Des. fq^ffTRTfifT. Freq. ^rsr^, ^?T^f^. Part., Fres. ^Wi^^; Fast 
Fass. 'qfHiT; Fast Indecl. ^PcSr^ f, -'^^j i*^^ Pa*. ^fcTrT^, '^rffl^^, 

603. Root if^^^. /w/. iftf%5i?*to live.' Par. Prcs. ^fNif*?. Impf. 
^nfl^. Po^. irtTq'^. Jm/?v. ^fNlftr, ift^, &c. Per/*, ftf ift^, finflf^^, 

ftnfN; f^nftf^cf, fnftw^, ftnftwg^; ftnftf^T, finfN, fwsft^. ist 
Fut. ^flr^riiPw . 2nd Fut. JT ir ^^r fa . ^or. ^nftfw^, ^snfW^, ^sift^; 
^Ttfr^, ^^nftfsre^, '*flrfCTH,> ^flr^*H, 'snftff?, ^nftfr^^. Free. 
^^Nra^. Cond. ^Mftfc|tM"*^. Pass., Pre*. ^"^ ; -4or. 3rc? ^iw^r. W5rt1%. 
Caus., Pre*. ^1<4^lfiT ; -^or. ^inft^ or ^nftf r^. Des. "Nnftf^^rfH. 
Freq. ^wt^. Part., Fres. ft^; Fast Fass. "srH^; Fast Indecl, 

fl. Root vi^. /w/. VTf^5^ * to run/ ' to wash.' Par. and ^tm. 
Fres. vnrTftr. Kim. Xfxk. Impf. ^niT^. Kim. ^SHTR. Po^. VT^^. 
Kim. VT^. Jmj9V. VT^f^. i^tm. VtI. Ferf. ^VT^, ^VTf^, '^vm; 

^VTf%^, ^vm^, -^^; ^f^H, ^^, ^VTf^. is^ Pm/. vrf^wrfw. 
Atm. v rf^ ri T ^ . 2nd Fut. vrf^^^T. Atm. vrf^. Aor. ^nnf^^, 
w^ynft^, ^TVT^T^; ^wrf^M, -f^i'^, -f^irn^; ^nnf%^, -f^, -f^^. Atm. 
^utM^, -fT?T^, -f^; ^ wifciMn ^, &c. Free. vT^iiw^. i^tm. vrWhr. 
Cond. ^?VTfTP^. Kim. ^vrf^. Pass., Fres. >n^. Caus., Pre*. 
VHRTfTR; Aor. 'W^^V^. Des. f^vrf^i^*?, -^. Freq. ^TVT^. Part., 
Fres. \n^, ^m H M ; Fast Fass. >iTf^, ^ ('washed') ; Fast Indecl, 
VrfsR^ or >ftRT ; Fut. Fass. vrf^iT^, VR^tiT, VFq. 

604. Root "^ (special stem Tqri, 270). Inf. '^^ * to see.' Par. 
Fres. inprrftr, 't^h, ^^fir; q^^iN^, xq^^ni^, ^'T^'nf^; M5^m^, m^mn, 
q^iifiT. Iw/?/'. ni^ii^, 'NM^ti^, ^nnpn^; ^m^mm, &c. Po/. ^^^npT, 
115^, "<T^^; "^1^, &c. Impv. xqTnfT, ^^j m^**^ ; M^Mii, &c. 
Ferf. ^, ^^f^ or ^^ (zio.f), ^; ^^, ^^[1^, ^"f^frp^; 
^^ir, ?rpT, <j.^^ . I*/ Fut. -^Vixfw, 2nd Fut. "j^nfR. Aor. 
(437. c) w^H, VH<5*J^, ^T^^; ^T^T^, ^i^^hm, ^s^^in*^; ^^$tt, ^^, 
^i^. Or ^jrHfH (420, 390./), wjT^, wjT^tr^; ^T^, >n5^ih, 
^rjTOTH; ^rjT^, ^T, ^^^[T^. Prec. pfmrm. Cond. wjrsfp^., 
Pass., Pre*, "j^ ; -4or. 3rfl? *iw^. ^r^. Caus., Pre*. ^fr^lPH ; Aor. 
^r^5I?T or ^r^^$^; see 703. Des. f^^. Freq. ^"p^, ^ff^- 


^Part., Pres. "q^iRT; Past Pass. ^; Past Indecl, "^j -"5^; Put, 
Pass. "5?^, ^^^ft^, "p^. 

605. Root ^^. Inf. ^f^JT'to see/ -^tm. Pres. ^. Imp/, 
^ (251). Pot, %Wf, Impv. %% Perf, ^^T^, &c. (385, and 
compare ^ at 600). 1st Put. %f^fr^. znd Put. ^f^xct, Aor. ^f^f^ 
(251), ^iBprr^, ^^?; ^fti^ff, ^ftj^TW, ^^^tttth;; ^ft^%, 
^ftji^n^, ^ft^^. Prec. %^^^, &c. Gond. ^^^. Pass. ^^; 
Aor. yd sing. $f^. Caus., Pres. \^^\^^ ', Aor. v^^c^^ (494). I^es. 
^'^^ (500. b). Part., Pres. %W^m; Past Pass, fftp; Past 
Indecl. ^rifHT, -f;^; Put. Pass. ^^Tnq, fiBpi^, f;^. 

606. Root ^* (special stem oRt). Inf. "^^^ or "^f^ *to draw/ 
* to drag.^ Par. and i^tm. Pres* "SfitlfT. j^tm. "ojiif. Impf ^RRf?^. 
Xtm. ^nfi^\ Po^. ?R^'t[P^. Atm. ?R^. Jmjov. ?stT%. i^tm. ^ 
Per/l 'qofit, '^cfift^, '^cfit ; ^f^, McjiM'J^, *|o[iM^^; '^^Pnh, "^Y^, 
^^^. i^tm. ^^^, ^f^, ^^^ ; ^f fa^, '^fmvj , ^^; ^f^, 
^fw, '^f f^. 1st Put. SFtrftfT. Kim. -smk or -mx^. %nd Put. 
W^^ or ^laginf*?. ^tm. "sire^" or ^. ^or. ^srai^^, *Hci kIT^, ^hrt^; 
w <*!?&, ^raal^, ^flfciST'^; 2{cRiv[, j{<*il, -^UoiiivH^. Or ^rgjT^, ^^^^, 
&c. Or ^i^^fT, ^^^1^, ^^rs^T^; i<i|N, ^^"S^rfT, ^^tejfpt; ^^^pt, 
W^^JTT, *il<JK|t^. Atm. ^^ft^, ^<![iHjvn^ or 'Siijiai^, ^ijiHjrt or ^?^; 
^ ^gfr'^r^ or ^?fT^, ^c[ij|vjTg, ^^ v sf l riiH ; 'Siif ^iTHfi^ or ^f ^f^, 
^^Hjap^ or ^^^^, 3l<JiHftf or ^oji^d. Prec. ^thttoh. Atm. ^^j^. 
Cond. ^ioha^'T or iij*iVt*|H. i^tm. ^4^ or wgra^. Pass., Pres. ^"^; 
Aor, yrd sing. ^BRufS. Cans., Pres. ^iwftT ; Aor. ^i^cR^r or ^"qt^r^. 
Des. fq^Tfir, -"%. Freq. '^tfl^i^, 'qOcUr^^ or ^T^fTii. Part., 
Pres. ofilf^; Past Pass. ^; Past Indecl. ^ifT, -^ror; Put. Pass, 
?bI^ or is?^, ^^^, Y^. 

a. Root m^^. J/i/. mftgn * to speak.' Kim, Pres. xrk, Impf 
wrik. Pot.^rk^. Impv.vi^, Per/.^m^, -^mf^, W^; -^mf^, 
-T^T^, -^; ^wrfw, -f^d, -f^. 15^ Put. mf^Tnl. 2^nd Put. 
JTlf^"^. Aor, ^MTf^, -Pmvt^, -te; ^HlPMNf^, -fi^^FTm, -fwiTT'T; 
^smfw^f^, -f^iiT, -f^^. Prec. mWN. Cond, ^wrf^. Pass., 
Pres. >?m; Aor, yd sing. ^(H:f^, Caus. ^rm^nf'T; Aor, ^^mm^^ 
and ^J^>T^. Des. f%>nf^. Freq. TW^, "^THTPiT {^rd sing. ^mf^). 
Part., Pres, m^mw; Pa*/ Pa**. *nf^; Past Indecl. mf^T, -nmj 
Put, Pass, mf^TT^, HT^^, HTHI. 

* This root is also conjugated in cl. 6 ; Pres. ^^Tf??, &c. ; Pot. ^^'l'^, &c. ' 


h. Root ;:"S^. Jw/!Tft|^* to preserve,'* to defend.' Par. Pre*. tt^Tftr. 
Impf. ^rtijjJT. Tot. T^ipT. Imjpv. T^^ (58), x^, &c. Terf. TTW 
td^, iX8f ; Ttf^, tr^ry( UHI^^; T^cf^, TT^, IXW^. 15/ -Fw^. 
tftpflfFT. ind Fut. Tftp:nfT. -^or. ^TfiSfMH, ^T^^, ^tHp"?^^; ^TCft^, 
^RfWT, ^STft^^T'T; ^!Rf8^, ^Tft^, ^TcPbt^. Prec. lM\ifr . Cond, 
^iS^vi\H. Pass., Pres, x:^. Caus., Pres. XW^, &c. ; Aor, 'WUBJH. 
J)es. fufHI M l Ptf , &c. Freq. UTTJ^, WkSw - Part., Pres. t^; 
Pas/ P<w*. TfFjTT; Past Indecl. Tf^^^t^, -T^; Fut, Pass. Tftp'ST, 

607. Root ^. Inf. 1^^'to dwell' Par. Pres. ^rrrfw. Imp/. 
^T^TW. Pot. ^imn. Impv. cf^iPH, ^^, &c. Per/. T^nr (368), 3tF'H"'i 
or T^;w, -^^w ; "^Ffi^, ^m^, ^!wp^; "arf"^, "aw, gr^. ist Fut. t^mfw . 
arf i^M/. ^wrftr (304. a), ^or. Sil^lrH*<^ (304. a, 426. a), ^a^wt^, 
W^TT^T^; ^^Tr^, ^I^T^, ^^T^; ^^T^?, ^RT^, ^RTW^. Prcc. Ttqi^^. 
Cowfi?. ^Ri^n^ (304- ^)' Pass., Pre*. ^^ (471) J ^or. 3r? sinff. ^mfv. 
Caus., Pre*. ^nnnfR, -xr ; ^or. ^R^^. Des. f^^wrfi? (304. a). 
Freq. ^T^, m^9T or m^?ftf*T. Part., Pre*. ?Rn^; Pa*f Pa**, -gf^ 
(with f^, T?) ; Po*^ Jw^ee/. Tf^rSTT, -TB? (565) ; 1^/. Pass. ^^EPq 

608. Root ^. Inf. ^ft^^ *to deserve.' Par. Pres. mfifxf. 
Impf. ^np{. Pot. r^7Ti^. Impv. '5i|t% (58). Perf. (367. ^) ^HRf, 
WRff^, vhmI ; vMr|<, ^H?'^^, ^^li^; ^mTI**, ^Prt, -cimI^. 
1*^ Fut. ^finf^. 2/ifl? Pm/. ^rffqiftr. Aor. wff^^, ^rr^'ft^, ^n^; 
wrf^t^, ^nf??^, ^Tfl^T'^; ^if^^, ^rrf^y, viif^^^. Prec. ^n^nnr. 
Cond. ^Hi^vnJ^. Pass., Pres. ^1^; .4or. 3rc? *iw^. 'wrff . Caus., Pre*, 
wfinfi?, -^ ; Aor. y^it^ (494)- ^es. ^^f^inPH, &c. (500. d). Part., 
Pres. wfr^; P*/ Pa**, ^f IT ; Past IndecL ^rff?^, -"W^ ; Fut. Pass. 

609. Root nf (special stem i|^, 270. b). Inf. ^^^*\ or '\\^\ * to 
hide.' Par. and Kim, Pres. n^Tf^. Atm. ijj^. /^wj^/*. ^PT^. 
Xtm. ^T'^- Po^. Ji^*^*f^. Atm. ^TT. Impv. Jj^ifn. Atm. ij^. 
^/- T3:]5 (384- ), Tlf^ or ^ift^ (305. ), TI?; ^^f^ or ^ipr 

gjlf^^ or W^, &c. 1st Fut. (415.7/1) JTr^Tn% or ifferftR (305.0). 
Kim. /jT^ri l l or itef^. 2wrf Pw/. ar f^ mi fa or Tft^nftf. A'tm. xjf^ 
orift^. ^or. ^BTirff^, ^Bnjil^, ^^^; ^ ^f^ W, -^^ i f^ g H ^ ^^j f ' g ^'*!; 
^iTf^, ^'jf^, ''^'Tf?^- Or ^r^^ (306. o), w^^, ^^^; ^^^^, 
^rg^pT*^, ^rj^TTT^; ^rg^Tir, ^vh|it, ^f^. Atm. ^nf^^, wijfV^, 



^^f^F, &c. Or ^^naj (439. b), ^^T|^t^ or '^^T^, ^v^ or ^n^ ; 
^5^T^ff or ^^73^, ^Y^T^T*^, ^^nn^^ ; ^^mf^, 'srg^s^ or ^^!;, 

^^TrT. Prec. ^^I^. i^tm. ^f^^il or ^^^-q (306. a). Cond. ^3Tfl5"^'=( 
or ^^>^qi^. i^tm. 'Si^f^^ or ^xft^. Pass., Pres. ^# ; Aor. yd sing, 
^Jjf^. Caus., Pre5. 3j^f*r ; ^or. ^I^^^. Des. ^T|^fiT, -"%. Freq. 
^^^, ^>^f^ {-^rd sing, if^if^f^) or ^f^Jji^iT;?. Part., Pres. 3]^; Pa5^ 
P55. ^ (305. a) ; Pa5^ Indecl. 'jf^r^T or arg-T or Trf^?^, -n?r; Pw/. 
Pfl55. JTf^rTtq or n^^^, ni^'t^, ^ or ifl^ {gj^. a). 

610. Root ^. J/j/". ^7^ ' to burn.^ Par. Pres.'^'^f^. Imp/, 
^J^^. Pot ^^, &c. Impv. ^TffT, ^^, &c. Per/, ^f , ^f^ 
(375- f^) or ^v (305), ^Tf ; ^%, ^f'^^, ^^p;; ^f^, ^^, ^|^. 
1st Fut. -^Txcifm, ind Fut. ^^af^ (306. a). Aor. "^wn^ (422), 
^m^ft^, ^snnTaj'if^; ^vr^, ^tt>j^, ^i^^n?^; ^nn"S5T, ^^t^v, 'sivt^. 
Prec. ^T^T^. Co^^c?. ^nr55^*(. Pass., Pre^. ^^; Aor. yrd sing. ^Tff . 
Caus., Pres. ^T^inftr, -^ ; Aor. ^c^^^. Des. f^v^ft? (502. a), 
Freq. t;^^, ^T^ftr or ^T^^fJT {'^d sing, ^'^frv or ^r<^ ^1Pri ). Part., 
Pres, -^-^fi^y Past Pass, ^nj; Past Indecl. ^tutt, -^; Pw^ Pi?. 

611. Root ^?. Inf. "^t^ *to carry.' Par. and iLtm. Pres, 
^iftr. iitm. ^f . Imp/. ^^^. Atm. ^srat. Po^. ^i??^. -^tm. 
^iT. Lnpv. ^^iftr, ^^, &c. i^tm. ^. Per/. (375. c) r^T^ (3^8), 

^^f^^ or ^^t^, "3^^; "^if^^, "^j^"^, "^i^^; "gyf^T, "ar^, "3!f^. Atm. 

gsf, gi%^, ^1; "3>ff^, "3ifT^, 'm^; ^f^vi^, ^^ or -gif^, -gif^T. 

Ik 15^ Fut. 'i\s\T\H. ^Ltm. Ttert. 2nd Fut. ^^^nf^. i^tm. ^^. Aor, 

(425) ^^R^, ^^T^^^, ^^^^1^; ^^iftjr, '31^^, ^^^7^ ; 'SI^TT^T, ^^*W, 

^T8^f , Wt^'^, ^^W^. Prec. 4^m\. i^tm. "^iB^^. Cond. ^^^?^. 
^tm. ^^^. Pass., Pres, (471) "3^; Imp/, ^ft^ (251.0); ^or. yd 
sing. '^mf^. Caus., Pre5. ^^^nfn, -^; ^or. ^^^^^. Des. f^^^fir, 

k--^. Freq. ^T^^, ^^f^ (3rc? sing. "^T^>fe; cf. 425). Part., Pres, 
?rfT^; Xtm. ^^inT; Pass. T?mT^; P<^^ Pa**, ^ig"; Past Indecl. ^1, 
-"5?r (565) ; Fut. Pass. fiT^, gr^Thr, ^r^. 
a. ^, ///. ^"^^H^or ^fl^T * to bear,' is iitin. only, and, like vaA, make^ 
5Efl^% &c. in ist Fut. : but in this tense optionally, and in the other 
General tenses necessarily inserts i; thus, ist Fut. ^f^HTti 2nd Fut, 
^%cq; Aor.'^^'^U; Prec.-^-^-^; Cond,'^^f^-^. The Pe?/. is ^ 
{375- )j ^f^^, ^c. Part., Fut. Pass. Ht^^ or ^rfflT^, ^^'hr, ^r?r {573). 
The other tenses are like the Atm. of vah; thus, Pre*. ^, &c. 

M m 




612. Root g^ muh. Infin. jftf^^ mohitum, *to be troubled.' 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I am troubled/ 

g^ifti muhydmi 
^tsU* muhyasi 
^l^ffT muhyati 

g^TR^ muhydvas 
g^'Mtt, muhyathas 
^^n^ muhyatas 

^^nT^ muhydmas 
g^ni muhyatha 
gtrn muhyanti 

Imperfect y * I was troubled.' 

^qil amuhydva wq^i*t amuhydma 

^J^n*^ amuhyatam v^^n amuhyata 

^FTg^^nrn^ amuhyatdm Ssiijisif^ amuhyan 

Potential, *1 may be troubled.' 

g^n muhyeva ^^ muhyema 

^^n*t^ muhyetam ^t$(ii muhyeta 

^^nrnf^ muhyetdm ^'^^\ muhyeyus 

Imperative, * Let me be troubled.' 

l|W^ muhydva Jg^lH muhydma 

q^ci*i[ muhyatam ^^n muhyata 

^^HTT^ muhyatdm gijl*^ muhyantu 

Perfect, * I have been troubled.' 

ggf^ mumuhiva ^jGjH mumuhima 

^^^^*l inumuhathus ^^ mumuha 

^^^3^ ^umuhatus ^^S^ mumuhus 

First Future % * I shall or will be troubled,' 
Tl r^ rf I fw mohitdsmi ' Wt^^riihi^ mohitdsvas ^\f^ ft I w^ mohitdsmas 

Htr^rtlftj mohitdsi 'ftn^HIIW^ mohitdsthas jf^f^TTTFT mohitdstha 

irtf^TiTT wioAtfi H^fi^inU moA7(fraM #11 Hg n i <^ mohitdras 

Second Future f, * I shall or will be troubled.' 

Jftf^^mfn mohishydmi ^^f^^^m^ mohishydvas 'ftf^mi^^ mohishydmas 

iftf^^ftf mohishyasi fVffTinr^ mohishyathas i^H^'H'H mohishyatha 

^df^^ftf mohishyati ilP^'Mnt^ mohishyatas ^^t^^?*n mohishyanti 

* Or gn^ (305. a) or ^iftni (305). 

t The 1st and 2nd Fut\ires may optionally reject the inserted i; see 415. m. 

Vi^^*^ amukyam 
y^'^r^ amuhyas 

^'^*\\ muhyeyam 
^^\ muhyes 
^^1^ muhyet 

^tjiiUi muhydni 
^^ muhya 
^t$i^ muhyatu 

^m^ mumoha 
syfrf^ mumohitha * 
yf^ mumoha 


Aorist (435), *I became troubled.* 
' ^N^^#^ amukam "*<*Jt^T^ amuhdva "wg^iH amuhdma 

^J^tt^ amuhas vi*j^rT*^^ amuhatam '^Ij^rt amuhata 

'^^*l^J[^amuhat "Wig^n i#^ amuhatam ^g^^ amuhan 

Precative or Benedictive^ * May I be troubled.* 
5?rnn^ muhydsam j^i4<i muhydsva }^iti muhydsma 

g?n^ muhyds g^itfl*t^ muhydstam ^^i<xt muhydsta 

^^ni[^muhydt g^ iT^ muhydstdm ^^'^(^muhydsus 

Conditional, * I should be troubled.* 
^'nf^'OI'^ amohishyam ^^tC^^m amohishydva ^nur^m#i amohishydma 

^mf^V^^^ amohishyas ^nnf^Mn*( amohishyatam ^^(Hti^'^'H amohishyata 
^*il n^ M n^ amohishyat ^^\f^yCfJ(\^^amohishyatdm ^^ftfs^tq*^ amohishyan 

Pass., Pre*. gi^ ; ^or. 3rc? 5iw^. ^TFTtf^ . Caus., Pre*. ifh^UTftr ; ^or. 
^gi^. Des. grftf^^rfH or ggf^i^fiT or gfejiftr. Freq. ft^, iMftr 
(3rc? 5iw^. ??^ftf^ or ift*f^fni, 305). Part., Pre*, g^; Pa*^ Pa**. ^ 
(305. a) or gm; Pa*^ /?ic?ecZ. >T^f^ or gf^Hl or gr^n or ^, -pr ; 
Fm^ Pa**. *ftf^W3T or jftnr^, ft^"q, *rl^. 


613. Root ^ETt (special stem ^, 276. a), /w/". ^t|[^ * to finish* 
(with prepositions vi and av, *to determine,* *to strive'). Par. 
Pre*. ^JTrfT. Jmjo/. ^R^i^. Po^. ^*l*f^. Jmj^v. ^[rrfT. Per/, {^y^. d) 

^5T, ^^EHT or ^FR, ^^; ^ftr^, ^w^^, ^'^l^; ^f^, ^nr, ^i^. 
ist Put. ^TTTif^. 2w<? Pm^. ^rr^nf^. Aor. (438. c) ^^, ^rar^, 

^^^Ti^; ^^T^, ^5ffTTT'^, ^TTTlTfT^; ^TOTT, ^^iT, ^I^- Or ^FlfFRI^ (433) j 

^^rrot^, ^TfmH^; ^^rfHTi^, ^smrf^*^, ^^^reT^; ^^if^^, ^nnftrF, 
^^rfti^. Prec. iinTH?^. Gond. "^ mm^ Pass., Pres. ^'^; Aor. 
^rd sing. ^^f^. Caus., Pres. '^x^'^^^^ ; Aor. 'SI^^tj^. Des. fn^- 
mfiT. Freq. i^'i^, ^mfJT, ^ l^ifn. Part., Pre*. m\', Past Pass, f^nr; 
Pa*/ IndecL "ftn^, -TIT^ ; Pw/. Pass. ^TH^, ^TT^'Nr, H^l. 

614. Root ^ (special stem "Tifl). Inf. ^t^ * to perceive *.* i^tm. 
Pres. '^, Impf.'^wm. Pot, '^^. Impv.'wm. Perf.W^; see 
the tables at 583. jst Put. '^^1^. o.nd Put, >fV^ (299. ). Aor, 
(420, 299. ) ^^W, ^"JITT^, ^T^ or ^r^fv (424. a) ; ^ST^r^f^, ^I^JWrqP^, 
^rtnKI*i^; ^^rwf^, ^^^ (299.*), ^^WW. Pree. ^Jw'hT. (7ow?, 

^>ft?^. For the other forms, see ^ at 583. 

. _____ __ %.' 

* ^ is also conjugated in the I st class. See the tables at 583. 
M m 2 


615. Root n^ (special stem f^iir, 277). Inf, ra^^ ' to pierce/ 
Par. Pre*. f^iflTftr. /m;?/. ^^izn^. Po/. fw^. Impv. f^voiftr. 
Terf. (383) f^^qrv, f^^^HT or f^?^^, f^^mi ; fVfi|?, M^V^, W^- 
vg?[; f^MVm, f%f^, f^f^^. 15/ ut. ^TirrfFr (298). 2nd Fut, 
WnfiT (299). ^or. (420) ^ram^Tj;, ^?!TTWt^, ^pqn^T^; ^I^qn^, 
^J^T^ (419, 298), ^^n:ST^ ; ^Pmr9T, ^^ir, ^^nr^f^^. Prec. f^iflT^. 
Cond. ^i\^m\ Pass., Pres, fro ; Aor. yd sing. ^nmfv. Caus., 
Pre*. ^nmrfT; ^ or. ^g^\p^. Des. fcifMi^ i PH . Freq. ^w, ^^^. 
Part., Pres. f^rmr^; Past Pass, f^^; Past Indecl. fqfST, -fw; Put, 
Pass. ^5^, ^V^fhr, TO or Tnfl. 

616. Root f^ (special stem f^nfl, 273). /w/. ^^*to succeed.' 
Par. Pres.f^xv^Jf^. Imp/, ^^tsv^. Pot.f^vnnJ^. Impv.i^mTf^. 
Per/, %^, fwkf^ or fn^^, flT^; f^^fVi^, Wwj^, fRfwg^; 
f^^viT, f^rfqv, ftrf^^^. 15^ i^w/. isTfw (298)*. 2wrf -Fw/. iwrfW 
(299)*. Aor, ^r%>i^*, ^ftrv^, ^^nn^; ^^vr, ^^nnr^, ^^nnn^; 
wftWTH, 'arf^nriT, ^rf^m^. Prec. fmm^. Cond. ^mt^. Pass., Pres, 
fw^; Aor, yd sing. ^fv. Caus., Pres. ^>nnfT or ^mrurfn; Aor, 
^Blf^>T^. Des. f^-^rmfH. Freq. ^li, ir^HT. Part., Pre*, fpifli^; 
Past Pass. f^Tir ; Past Indecl. f^^T or %fvi^ or Mvi^, -f^Hfl ; Fut, 
Pass-, ^if^, ^^R't^, ^. 

617. Root T{^j\ (special stem ^7^). Inf. it^t^ Uo think,' *to 
imagine.' Atm. Pres. ^^. Impf. ^m^. Pot. ^i\^. Impv. T^. 
Per/. ^ (375- )> ^^, ^; ^fJT^, ^^, ^W; ^W, ^f^ik, 
^f^. J St Fut. HT^rt. 2nd Fut. 11^. ^or. (^24. b) '?fTffFt, '^nfwTT^, 
^H; 'SJ^f^f^, ^MHHTV|l*ir, ^HfllHI*^^; ^9Tff, ^TWI^, ^if^TT. Prec. 
if^fhj. Cowd ^^. Pass., Pre*. r^; Aor. yd sing. ^mrft^. Caus., 
Pres. HIH^iPh ; ^or. "^hIhh^. Des. f^nft or ftin% or fmf^^. Freq. 
irT^, r!*Tf^. Part., Pres. h^hm ; Pa*/ Pa**, inf; Pa*/ 7c?ec/. 
Tr^, -Tm; Fut. Pass. W^m, tr^T^, Hrai. 

a. ifp[^y Inf. jrifHrJ*^ * to be bom,' makes Pre*. TT^ ; Impf ^nn^, 
&c. ; Pot. "3fT^ ; Jmj9i;. ITR. But these may be regarded as coming 
from Passive of Jan, cl. 3. See 66y, 

618. Root ^J (special stem jact). Inf. fT^ or ^FJ^ or lif^l^ 

* When f^ belongs to cl. i, it optionally inserts ^; TOT^R or ^VTTTfw, 
inHif*! or ^f>ronfT, ^T^fV^ or ^RTW^^. 

t The root ^^^ is rarely conjugated in cl. 8, Atmane (see 684), when the Aorist 
is ^fnrftTf^, ^^fiwitt, or ^'W^TR^j ^mf^T^ or ^RTT, &c. See 424. b. 

X Also conjugated in cl. 5, Par. ^Tftfw, &c. 


.tisfied.' Par. Pres. l[mf^. Impf. ^T^^. Pot. "5^^'^. 
Impv. l^jfm. Perf. inTt, TfKf^^ or Hil^ or WW^, cHT^ ; F^^?^ or w^, 
H^^T^, H^^^ ; 1!^W or H^^, H^, IT^f^. 15^ Put. (390./) Tmif^ or 
^mf^T or Trfqinf^ (390. h). 2nd Put. TH^^rf^T or ^x^TfT or wfranfT, &c. 
Aor, (420) ^f!i"^, ^iTT'^'Eff^, ^iTT'^^ffr^; ^nrrc#, ^?fT^, ^sTrrrffi^; ^itt^, 

^TiTTW, ^WT^^. Or ^^^^, ^Wn^'^, ^5T^TW)7^, &c. Or ^rrfqtn^, 
'^fl^ff^, ^iT"qfr^, &c. Or ^^, ^^, ^^j ^^TT^, ^"^^TP^, ^tnn?^ ; 
^T^TTUT, '^i^mr, ^^^. Prec, IJ^m^. Co7id. ^m^'^ or ^ii^mi?^ or 
^iTfq^?(. Pass., Pres. l^; Aor. ^rd sing. ^mfq. Caus., Pres. j(^- 
infr ; Aor. "^^^^ or 'sniii^. Des. f rf^wrft? or fwc^'^lfif or finrfq^TfiT . 
Freq. ff5^, wr^cff*^ or TTTt^'<*r. Part., Pres. "5^; Past Pass, "^n; 
Past Indecl. ipii, -i^\ Put. Pass, -ff^^, ttw^^tt, ^. 

619. Root ^T^ (special stem ^WT, 275). Inf. ^JT^ *to be 
appeased.' Par. Pres. ^HiTfT. Impf. ^^ruVi^. Pot. \\\i^i\\\^ . 
Impv. ^iiwuPfT. Perf ^^iw (368), $f?r^ {'7,']^. a), ^5IT?T ; $fH^, $r^, 

5ni^; $fT5R, 5P?, $p[. ist Put. ^Hinf^T. 3i<? Fut. ^ i fH mi r n. 
-4or. ^r^i^?^, ^5ir^, ^^TT^; ^^T^, ^^nr'^, ^t^tttt'^ ; ^^m, ^t^htiT, 
'ii^IHrf^. Or ^:5rf'7^1[, ^^*ft^, ^^ifti^; ^t^h^, &c. Prec. ^rwrr^'^. 
Cond ^^JTBjT^. Pass., Pres. ^^q; Aor. yd sing. ^^rfiR or ^^ifir. 
Caus., Pres. \\HmfH ; Aor. ^^I^nn^. Des. fji^rfHWrftr. Freq. :^^t^, 
^f^^ (yd sing. ^^^). Part, Pres. ^TT^^T^; Pa*^ P*5. ^ipif ; P^^s^ 
Indecl. ^T^T or ^Tr^, -^wi; Pm^. Pa*^. ^fTTf^, ^nnft^, :[li. 

620. Root rTS? (special stem T^). /^. "Tf^T^ or Hf^* to perish.' 
I Par. Pres. ^xnfn. Impf ^snr^^. Po^ ^^'^. Impv. TT^xnfrf. 

^^^/ (375' ) ^T^T^ or ^iTT^, ^^ or t\M^ {^y^. a), tt^t^I; ^f^ or 
^^, ^5r^, ^^r^; ^f^ or ^^h, ^^r, ^^. i^^ Fut. -^^mf^j or 
^FlftR (390. k). 2nd Fut. "^rf^TtqrfJT or ^^^iT. Aor. (437) ^^t^, 
^R^, ^nr^; ^t^^r, ^r^t^, ^^ttp^ ; ^^^tth, ^^tt, ^stft^i^. Or 
^:^T^, &c. (437, 441). Prec. "^^T^. Cond. '^^%'aT?^ &c. or ^r^^. 
Pass., Pres. "^ ; Aor. yd sing. ^^f^. Caus., Pres. 'ifT^nnf'T ; Aor. 
^Rhr^. Des. fTRf^Tfn, f^^f*T. Freq. -Jn^^, ^TiffR {yd sing, 
TfT^f? or ^rT?). Part., Pres, ^T^rn^; Past Pass, -q?; Past Indecl, 
-j^ or ^fT, -^^; Pw^. P55. "^f^IH^, TT^TT, TTT^^. 
. 621. Root g^^* (special stem ^tg). Inf. irt^ 'to be nourished/ 
'to grow fat.' Par. Pres, "giaiTR. Impf ^^. Po/. g^H'^. 
Impv. ^^fm. Perf ^^^ ^t^>f^, ^ttT^; ^f^^, g^^^, i^^^,* 
3if^> ii^, Bi^- ^*^ ^'"^- "^^Tfw. ind Fut. ql^lf*!. ^or. (436) 
* This root is also conjugated in the pth class. See 698. 


^^, '^v;^^, ^i^; ^m^, ^^f^, ^5^tt^; ^^tt, ^^^, ^^^. 
Prec^tm^. Co/id ^nft^^. Pass., Pre*. ^^ ; Aor, ^rd sinff.^n^. 
Caus., Pre*. ulMi^ifn; Aor. ^TfJ^. Des. ^xftfwfH or ^MrfH or 
5^^5Tf^. Freq. ^"^f^, tfhftfiT. Part., Pres. fOT^; Past Pass, ijf ; 
Past Indecl. ^fT, -"g^ ; Pw^. Pa**, "gt?^, ^J^W^T, tt^. 

622. Root ^ (special stem w^). Jw/*. ^ftrg^^ * to throw.' Par. 
Pre*. ^T^nf'T, &c. Impf.'^wp;^, Pot, '^^^\ . Impv.^tWff^. Per/, 
^TT^, ^ftnr, ^n^ ; sffiiia^, ^rnr^, ^h^^ ; ^nftm, ^rm, ^n^. i*^ Pm/. 
^^nrrf^. 2w? Fut. ^TftronfT. ^or. (441) ^jt^?i*^, ^!n^?i^, vNifv^r^^; ^^ir?, 
^rr^nr^, ^iwaih ; mmT^, ^ttwcT, ^mm^. Prec. ^sr^imnT . Cond. ^T ft im^T. 
Pass,, Pre*. ^^; ^or. 3r6? *m^. ^nftr. Caus., Pres. ^wmf^; Aor. 
^fti^H. Des. ^ftrfn^rfH. Part., Pre*. 'srwiT; Past Pass, ^sm; Past 
Indecl. ^ftn^ or ^sre^T, -^r^; Pm#. Pa**. ^ftn^ST, ^HR^, ^TTRT. 

623. Root J^ (special stem '^). Inf. "^fJ^^ or "^f^^^ * to injure,* 
* to bear malice.' Par. Pres. "|?nfT. Imp/. VHd^H . Po/. ^^rqw . 
/m;?y. pnfw. Per/. 5^, J^tf^ or jj^ or j^, |^; ^^f^, 

?I^1^ ?f^l^ glT^. fP fff^- i^ -^^. (415- ^) "^f^ or 
"5^1^% or ^tf'fTrrf^, &c. 2nd Fut. ifly^iHn (306. a) or ^ V^m ifa. 
Aor. '^^^^, ^r|^, 'sij^; ^r|fm, ^!r|^T!*T, sn^^riw; 'sr^m, ^"pw, 
WJ^. Prec. Ji^l^H, &c. Coc?. ^nrt^T (306. a) or sh^Vi^uih. Pass., 
Pres. 1^ ; ^or. 3rc? sing. w^f^. Caus., Pre*, "^^nfii ; Aor. ^<j^^*i . 
Des. ^f^mf*T or i^f^mf** or JW^^rf'T (306. a). Freq. ({V^^, ^Ijlffl 
(3r? sinff. ^tftfhf or ^"^^tfr, 514. d). Part., Pre*. "51^; Pa*/ Pass. 
-^ ; Pa*/ Jwc?ec/. "^xwn or if^i^ or "^f^, -J^ ; Fut. Pass. "jVvq, 

624. Root tTf (special stem rf^). In/, tt^ * to tie,' * to bind,' * to 
fasten.' Par. and Atm. Pres. !?nfT. Atm. "i^r^. Imp/ "WH^H. 
Atm. VHH^i. Pot. ^^i\H. Xtm. tT^. Jm/?r. t!?nf^. A'tm. Tf^, 
Per/ TPTT^ or R^, ^1^ or ^TT^, ^^TT? ; ^f^j ^^^^, ^^1^; ^f^, 
%^, ^j^. A'tm. ^1, ^ff^, %|; ^ff^l, %^T^, ^TT; ^fT?, ^f^i^ 
or -i", ^fi^. I*/ Fut. "STSrftR. i^tm. ^T^lt. 2nd Fut. (306. ^) ^TWrftr. 
Atm. ?!l^. Aor. (426) ^RTW^, ^RTWh^, ^?fTi^Tt,5 ^^<r^, ^TrfT^, 

^HrH i vi i *(^ , ^e^H^H^ri^*f^ ; ^R-f^rf^, ^'<'^^*1 > ^*^'^'^ - P^ecmnr^. A'tm. 
^fTf^g. Cond. "^Hrmm^. Atm. WTO. Pass., Pre*. "^ ; Aor. ^rd sing, 
WfTlf^. Caus., Pre*, ^l^^lfn; -^or. WhIh^H,- ^^^- rHHrirT, -T^. 
Freq. ^T"?!^, ^TRftir (3rc? *i?z^. TT'Tfgr). Part., Pres. ^f{Wi[; Past Pass, 
WS ; Past Indecl, "JT^t, -T^ff ; Fut. Pass. ^Tff^, ^^^, TTiJT. 




625. Root ^ srij, Infin. ^r|^ srashtum, ' to create/ * to let go.' 
Parasmai-pada only. 
Present Tense, *I create.' 

^fR^ srijdvas ^'Wt^ srijdmas 

^nra[ srijathas ^iT^ srijatha 

^Wf^ srijatas ^1Ti% srijanti 

^TTm srijdmi 
^Wftl srijasi 
^TnT srijati 

Imperfect, * I was creating/ or ' I created.' 

^'J'^ O'Srijam 
^3?^*I^ asrijas 

^nP^ srijeyam 
^^\ srijes 

^^TTmT srijdni 
^^^ srij a 
^W^ srijatu 

^i^^m asrijdva 
'Jtj^n'^ asrijatam 
vt^^^rtl*^ asrijatdm 

vjtjniT asrijdma 
^*int\ asrijata 
'WtJI't, asrijan 

Potential, * I may create.' 

^n^ 5ny?a ^^ srijema 

^^t^*\ srijetam ^If m/e/o 

^^TTT^ srijetdm 'J^l^ srijeyus 

Imperative, ' Let me create.' 

^ifR myoca ^'HH srijdma 

<J1rt*\ srijatam ^'HT srya^a 

^irtl*| srijatdm ^HT'J srijantu 

Perfect, * I created/ or * I have created.' 
tin sasarja ^I^^^ sasrijiva ^HpslH sasrijima 

H^r^fq sasarjitha or ^CT^ * tj*t'^tt^ sasrijathus ^H^ sasrija 

^iHf sasarja ***t^^*\ sasrijatus ^l^ijl^ sasrijus 

First Future, * I shall or will create.' 
Hirf^T srashtdsmi (399. ) ltat^ srashtdsvas hi^\^H^^ srashtdsmas 

0?Tftr srashtdsi *J8IW^ srashtdsthas B^WJ srashtdstha 

tKi srashtd tt^iCi srashtdrau UV\KH srashtdras 

Second Future, * I shall or will create/ 

F^^ sraA%asi e^nR( raA:*%^Aas B^f^ srakshyatha 

ff^^n srakshyati B^(t[^^srakshyatas B^^ti srakshyanti 

* As to sasrashtha, see 37c./. 


Aorisiy * I created/ 

"WfjiltSI*!^ asrdksham ^ST^TTT^ asrdkskva ^(BT^ asrdkshma 

vitiln*t, asrdkshis "^BT^ asrdsh(am ^HT? asrdskta 

^BlW^l[^asrdksh{t ^BT^l^ asrdshtdm HU\%H^ asrdkskus 

Precaiive or Benedictive, * May I create/ 
^jin'^ srijydsam ^rfJl^ srijydsva ^i*|iw srijydsma 

^rfT^srijyds ^3<4 \^*\ srijydstam ^itjiw srijydsta 

"^^mjflsrijydt ^xtJlWl*^ srijydstdm ^-rtd^jt^^ srijydsus 

Conditional, * I should create/ 
^ren^P^ asrakshyam *^ki^\^ asrakshydva ^U^flV^ asrakshydma 

*iyV4*l^ asrakshyas ^fUWK^^ a&rakshyatam vi>sin asrakshyata 

"^y 14^ rt asrakshyat ^ti *< n I *|^ asrakshyatdm ^B^^asrakshyan 

Pass., Pre5. ^iq"; ^or. 3rc? ^m^. ^^^. Caus., Pre.9. ^^mfn; 
^or. ^Rnr^ or ^^r^n^. Des. ftrg^rf'T, -^. Freq. fiO^s*! . Part., 
Pre*, ^pn^; P^/ Pa55. ^ ; Pa*/ Indecl. ^fT, -^5?T ; Pm^ Pa**. Bf^^, 


626. Root J| (special stem f%Tj, a8o). //*. i|i^ * to die.' j^tm. in 
Special tenses,also in ^or. and Prec; Par. in others. Pres.f^^. Imp/, 
^sffw^. Pot.f^xi. Impv.f^, Perf.^w[^y^^^y^^K; ^fw^,^^^, 
iwp^; rf^, W, 1^. -^tm. H%, Tf^^, ^^; Hf^^, 'TOT^, fWTH; 
qrf^l, Jff^i^or-^, irf^. 1st Fut.^^jfm- 2nd Fut.^fTymi^. Aor, 

Prec. |^ft^. Cond. ^s^fr^. Pass., Pre*, f^^ ; Aor. yd sing. shhiPc. 
Caus., Prw. mfnf'T; ^or. ^?iftirT?^. Des. g^ttf^ (502). Freq. 
^^, lft- or Jfrt- or ^^f^. Part., Pre*, f^^mro; Pa*/ Pass. ^; 
Pa*/ Indecl. ^i^, -^ ; Pm/. Pa**. T^^, ^XJ!ft^, ^}^. 

6%'], Root ^ (special stem fsir^, 280). Inf. '^TJ^^ or fk(S^\ * to 
scatter." Par. Pres. fwKJ^^. Impf. ysf^V\. Pot, f^>ii?. Impv, 
fwvfm. Per/. (374. k) ^^^, M*M, '^^sr; ^^ife, ^^rr^, ^^Tg^; 
^HFftiJT, ^^FT, ^^t^M, i*^ ^w/. (393) ^i!T% or WT^f^ER. 2nd Fut. 
(393) ^FJTBnfq or iFT!hJnfr, &c. Aor. ^^nfirfti^, 'WcfciO^, 'SHRR^; ^r^- 
fr^f, ^SHFifm^;, ^T^ftsT?^; ^T^ft^, ^^ft?, ^^ft^g^. Prec. ift^^. 
Cowc?. ^^Rfbu^ or ^^TfN^. Pass., Pres. ^if ; Aor. yd sing. ^?^fT. 
Caus., Pres. ^K m Fx ; ^or. ^R^fhliT?^. Des. fq^C^rfN*. Freq. ^^, 

* With regard to 393, 501, W and 't are not allowed the option of isha. 



K^^rafjR. Part., Fres. fsiTTj^; Past Pass. w\^ (530. a); Past Indecl, 
^"hftl, -"spt^; Fut. Pass. -^fORT or ^ir^, ^X^rj"^^, ^. 

628. Root g^ (special stem g^, 381). Inf. ^i'^'^^^ *to loose/ * to 
let go.' Par. and iitm. Fres. g^H. -^tm. g^. Imp/, ^f^. 
Atm. wg%. Pot ^^r^J[. Atm. g[^. Jmj9v. g^^if. Atm. g^. 
Per/, girt^, gnVf'q"^, gn^^; gi^^, fl'^^^j l^'^?^; '51^'^' W^y 
^g'^^. i^tm. gg%, gff^^, gg'^j gi^^^^lj ig'^^, ^^W; ^^1, 
ggf^i^, ffN^. 15^ Fut. W\wf^, Atm. n"^^. 2nd Fut. ^\^^. 
Atm. ^>^. Aor. (436) ^^'^j '^g^^, ^g'^^; ^nS^T^j 'Sig'^lTTf;, ^ig^Tn'^ ; 
^^TH, ^^IT, 'Sig^r^. iLtm. ^ft3f , ^^^TPEI^, ^^ ; ^g;^^, vMiJiljI'qi?^, 

^^in^; ^i|tf*if^, ^f^?i^, ^Jfsp. Free. g^T^^. iitin. gi^'N (452). 
Cond. ^ Hlvtjj*!^ . Atm. "^*ft^. Pass., Pre^. g^ ; ^or. ^rd sing. ^hVN. 
Caus., Pre*. *fl'^ilTf*T; Aor. ^^^. Des. gf^lfT, -"^j jft^ (503). 
Freq. jftg^, f1ftf^ {^rd sing. ift*ftf^). Part., Fres. g^; P5^ Pa**. 
gi5; Past Indecl. gwT, -^; ^w^. Pass. *il^MI, 'A^Ti^, 'fNr. 

639. Root ^'^ (special stem f^'^, 282). Inf. cmN^^ 'to deceive.' 
Par. Pre*, f^^if*?. /w/?/. ^f^^. Pot. f^T[^. Iwjov. f^'^f^. 
Per/: (383) f^T^, f^^f^^, f%^T^; W^f^^, W^'^'^^, f"^f%^p;; 
fwf^f^JT, f^f^r^y W^r^. 1st Fut. ^^rflftR. 2nd Fut. ^fq^m. 
Aor. (428) ^s^f'sr^, ^naj^l^, &c., or ^inf^^, &c. Free. f^TOT^. 
Gond. ^^crNxria^. Pass., Pre*, f^ ; Aor. yrd sing. ^^TtN. Caus., 
Fres. ^qrr^xrrfrr ; Aor. ^f^^. Des. f^fq^rftr. Freq. ^f^^, ^^f^ 
or ^m^ftr. Part., Pre*. fT^n^j Past Pass, f^fqw; Past Indecl. 

630. Root "3^ (special stem ^, 282). Inf. "S^-^l^ * to cut.' Par. 
Fres. ^ifiT. Jw/?/. ^^?^. Pot. ^'%^. /wjsv. ^^if^. Perf. ^^^, 
^^'^ST'I or ^^?, ^^^ ; ^prf^^ or ^^^ {'^1^\ ^r^^, ^^^Sp(;; T^f^ 
or ^sTl^JT, ^cH?, ^W^. I*/ Pm^ (415) ^fWTfw or ^T%. ind Fut. 
^ftj^ftl or ^^nf*?. Aor. ^^^^1^, ^w^*^^, ^"S^^T^; ^"Srf^Ts^, &c., 
see 427. Or ^r^T^ (423), vsc il gi' ^, ^SWT^I^; ^?n^, ^r^'re'^ (297), 

t^rm^'P^ ; ^rai^, ^rm?, ^tjtt^. Free. ^^in^'^. Cow</. wsrftj'op^ or 
^W^l^. Pass., Fres. ^^ (472); Aor. yd sing. ^i?rf^ (475. b), 
Caus., Pre*. w^iiTfR ; Aor. ^f^^r^?^. Des. f^^f^^f?? or fg?r^Tf'. 
Freq. ^ic^^, ^^"KiT. Part, Fres. ^^; Past Pass, ^^m (544 
58); Past Indecl. ^^i^, -^ {s^s); Fut, Pass. srftjTT^ or ?re^, 

a. Root ftr^ (special stem ftr^, 281). Inf. ^^T*^ ' to sprinkle.' Par. 
and Atm. Fres. ftnitrft?. Atm. ftr^. /tti/?/. ^^ff^. i\^tm. ^fti^. 

N n 


Pot. ftrw^. Atm. fR^. Impv, ftrgrtVr. A'tm. ftr^. Perf. ftra^, 

Kim. ftjf^, ftrftrfq^, f^tf^ ; fiRftif'^, &c. I St Fut. %^w, ^ftr, 
&c. A'tm. ^^T^. ind Fut. H^TfT. Kim. %^. Aor. ^;r^^, -^, 
'^^, ^sf^^T^, -^in^, -^^rn^; ^BrftpmTRr, -^nr, -^. Atm. ^rfti^, -^^n^, 
-"^fT; ^ffi^iccH^, -'^^, -"^HT^; ^ftnimf^, -^i^, ^nT, or ^^f^, 
^ftr^WT^, ^ftm ; ^ftr^ff , -"sp^rn^, -"BjTiTT*^ ; ^ftra^rf^, ^ftTTij^, ^ftrsp. 
Prec. ftr^T^. Kim. ffiafl^^. Cowc?. ^ii^^. Kim. vs^w^. Pass., 
Pr^5. ftr^. Caus., Pres. ^ijifH; ^or. ^^f^'^^. Des. f^ftr^Tftr, 
-^. Freq. ^ftr^, ^U^. Part, Pres. ftr^, ftr^RR; Past Pass. 
ftr^; Pa*/ Indecl. ftraiT, -ftrar; Fm^ Pa**. H3i^, ^^^, ^. 

631, Root H"^ (special stem ipa, 282). Inf. v;^ *to ask.' Par. 
Pres.r^f^{c^l), Imp/. -^r^^r^. Pot.r^^^T^. Jmpv.T^f^, Perf. 

(381) MMTsa, HHPea^^ or Tjir?, xiii5; ^nrf^a^, mraar^, Mn^jdrj^; xnif^H, 
ilTTflS, mi^^. \st Fut. n^if^. 2nd Fut. vr^cifn. Aor. ^rt^^, ^ht- 
Tft^, ^Hi^'hfj ^m^, ^TiTF^, ^miFT^; ^in^, ^m^, ^m^. Prec. 
^TsWI^. Cond. ^ws^^^. Pass., Pre*, ij^ (472); Aor. yd sing. 
wmPaaf. Caus., Pre*. ir3a[7?Tft7; ^or. ^nnrsa?^. Des. fqTjPsamf'T. 
Freq. "qt^hj^, milf^iT. Part., Pres. 'J^sai^; Past Pass, ij?; Past 
Indecl. ijfT, -^fBPI (565); Fut. Pass. ttfT, TT^aL^'^Ti, n^aqr. 

6^%. Root if or ^ (special stem ^fm). Inf. >s^ or i^ ' to fry.' 
Par. and Atm. Pres. ^'^^. Kim. ^^. Impf ^^^i|^. Atm. wi^. 
Pot. ^1^^. i^tm. ^^. Impv. ^Tinf^. i^tm. ^. Per/*. (381) 
^WtHT, ^fw^ or ^?, ^WIjT; "^^fsST^, -^^nrT^, ^l^^; ^wfWT, 
^T^, "^^^g^. Or ^>f5t, "^hM^ or ^^^, ?>m; ^nfst^, &c. Atm. 
-ara"^, qijfi^, &c. Or si^, "^^fst^, &c. i*/ Pw/. ?T% or HFlfw. 
Atm. ^Frt or ^tIt^. 7,nd Fut. ^TfH or >T^fiT. Atm. ^ or K^\ 
^or. WtfTE^T^, ^ai^T^, ^T8ftf^; ^T^,^T^^,^Trr^; ^T^, ^T^, 
warg^. Or ^>Tr^. Atm. 'swft?, ^^j^T^, ^ir; ^>n^, ^>jT!jr^, 
w|TriIH, ; ^^rs^ff , ^T^, wrBTfT. Or wwfit, ^>?tT^, ^w# ; '^w^f^, 
. ^>T$nrP^, ^rHT^lffl*^^ ; WT^f^, ^w?^, ^MT|7r. Prec. >p5?rw?. Atm. 
^TB^ or H^lfFq. Cond. ^rere^ or ^^iT. Atm. ^^Tl^ or ^M^. 
Pass., Pres. ^ri^ (472). Caus., Pres. h^^ \ [h \ Aor. w^>sm:f{^ or 
W^HtSh. Des. f^yiSflfH, -1^, or f^^r^ftr, -'^; or f^tffWTrfH, -^, or 
finrfitmfifT, -^, &c. Freq. ^^^t5^, "^fT3JT {yrd sing. ^f?). Part., 
Pres. ^Wl^; Past Pass.^; Past Indecl. ^jfT, -^frStf; Fut. Pass. F^ 
or nt^, >ntfhcr or >jwfbT, H*5# or wSl^, 
^33' Root m^^ or R5^ (special stem ^rsr). Inf. 'T^"'? *to be 


immersed/ *to sink/ Par. Pres. inirTfT. Imp/. ^JHsnT. Pot. 
H^MH. Impv. ^nsnf^. Per/, tws^, imf^rR or JRoR, itprtT ; HflPnT'C, 
*TH:ni'^^, HH-nT^i^; TJ^fsiTiT, ^^^, ^^'^^. 1st Fut. ^'^fw. 2nd Fut. 
w^nf^. ^or. (424) 'sim^, ^WTT^^, ^mn^"!^; ^Hfi^, ^smf^nr, ^ifwT ; 
^HTa^, ^?f^, ^mf"^. Prec. ^RiHT^H. Cond. 'SW^PT. Pass., Pres. 
Wr^. Caus., Pres. JHiRTfH ; Aor. ^HHi5r*T. Des. f*W^fT. Freq. 
JTT'Rf^aiq', mTf'riR (3^6? sing. HT'ff^). Part., Pres. WWj[^; Past Pass. JftT ; 
Past Indecl. fw, TW? -TTTq"; Fut. Pass. *f^^, *r55rT^^, Hi5?T. 

634. Root g^. /;^/*. kV^ 'to strike,^ 'to hurt.' Par. and Kim. 
Pres. '^^^. Atm. ^. Imp/. ^^JT. Kim. ^T^. Po/. g^^H. Kim. 
^iT. Jm^v. ^rjrf^. i^tm. g^. Perf. gwt^, p^f^, g7T>; g^f^^, gg- 

^^j "^l^TW; ggf^l, f3f^5^, ggf^- 15^ -^^. rf^fw. A'tm. iftwil. 
2nd Fut. rf^WlfiT. i^tm. TT^. Aor. '^tt^Wt, ^im^, ^rilwlrt^; 'snm^, 
^in^T, ^nftwrn; ^rrftf^, ^ift^, wsftw^. ^tm. ^t^w, ^r^T^, ^si^; 

^r^f^, ^|[Wrn^^, 'Hi^rHlriW; ^rWfl^, ^^A^, ^^IT. Prec. ^^TT^. 
i\^tm. ^^^ (452)- Cond.'^-^tm^^. Kim.'^w;m. Pass., Pre5. ^ ; ^on 
^rd sing. wtf^. Caus., Pres. wt^^nftr ; Aor. wg^H. Des. ggwrftr, 
-W. Freq. "ri^^, ffnftftr (3?'c? 5m^. Tftiftf^). Part., Pres. -5^; Pa^^ 
P5*. gw; Past Indecl. ^^T, -^; Pm/. Pass, ift^^, wt^^'hqr, iftir. 

635. Root fi^t^. Iw/*.-^!?' to throw.' Par. andi^tm. Pres.f^v:[ff{. 
Kim. fsf^. Impf. ^fcjtiiT. i^tm. ^f^^. Po/. fejw?^. Atm. f^^^. 
Im;?2;. fiBjtnfJlir. Kim. ft^. Per/", f^^xj, f^^-q^, f^-^q; f^ft^q^, 
f^fW^^, f^^T?^; fgf^fTnr, f^^TT, f^^^. i^tm. fqft^, fqf^^- 
f^k, fqfsi^; f^feifq^, f^iS^TTT^, f^^^H; fqf^q?rt, f^f^-qji, 
fgf^fiiT. 15^ Fut. '^mfW' Kim. i^rnt. 2nd Fut. '^^^J[\f^. Kim. 
'^^. Aor. ^sr^^^, ^r^^l^, ^^^tr^; ^sr^t^, ^r^^nr, ^"^w ; ^r^^^R, 
^R, ^^^. Kim. ^^f^, -^f^Tsn^, ^ft^ff; ^fV^-Wf^, wfsr^^'^, 
^f^T^TTT'T; ^fi^wFf , 'srfT?!^, ^fjmri. Prec. f^m^^, &c. Atm. 
f^^ir. Cond. ^%iFIT. Kim. ^r^x^. Pass., Pres. ft^; Aor. ^rd 
sing, ^i^ftr. Caus., Pres. "^zTTfir; Aor. ^'^f^iTH. Des. f'^f^^qErif'T, 
-"^. Freq. ^f^^^, ^f^ (710, 43. e). Part., Pres. ftytn^; Past Pass, 
ftp? ; Past Indecl. fsj^, -ft^ ; Fut. Pass. "^H^, t^ttot^^, ^^. 

a. Root f^5I. /w/*. ^J?^ ' to enter.' Par. Pres. f^^nf^r, fw^w, 
&c. Impf. ^^^, ^f%^^, &c. Pot. f^^nw, f^^, &c. Impv. f^^P?T, 
f^, &c. Perf. f^^, fw^^R, f^^r; f^^%W, Ww^T^, fwf^^ipr; 
f^%H, Wq^, f^f^^^. J St Fut. ^1%. 2WC? Fut. ^^^^f^, Aor. 

N n 2 


Oi^Mi^JT. Cond, ^^^TR. Pass., Pres. f%^; A&r. ^rd sing, ^^%. 
Caus., Pres. ^^nnfJT; Aor. ^Ttfr^^. Des. W^T^fiT. Freq. %f^, 
^^f^ (^rd sing. ^%f^). Part., Pres. f^r^; Past Pass, fw; Past 
Indecl. f^fT, -f^^; Fut, Pass, ^r^^, ^^ r fl ^, w^. 

636. Root mil. W' ^*^ or 'Wf T * to touch.' Par. Pres. w^fT. 
Impf. ^^H. Po/. ^q^hnr. /mpv. w ^ft f^ . Perf. q^, TT^i^fTir, 
^J^; ^3Fjf:^, ^J^^, MWi^l^^; Ti^ftfm, 1?^^, ^T^^. I*/ Fw/. 
^T% or ^UFTf^T. 2Wfl?Fw^.^q?SrfHor?iT^nfT. ^ or. 'sr^qrit''^, ^WTTff^, 
*^iifi^; ^WFqr^, ^sr^n^iT, 'er^qifr'T; vhu<ivsS , ^i^htf, ^^i^^. Or 

xi*Hnsji, ^TOHTIlt^, &c. Or ^rw^, <WHJ^, ^WJHfcf^; ^?^^fT^, 4i+q|WW, 
^TWpprif ; {^J5|W, ^W|iT, ^ff^^. Prec. va^^. Cond. ^H^v!^*^ or 
wtH <<*?. Pass., Pres. W5^; Aor. ^rd sing. ^^^. Caus., Pres. 
m^:^}^ ', Aor. ^\\^\\H^ or ^srfq?^^. Des. rm^jH^fH . Freq. ^^^t^^, 
^O^r^H or TTCi^Rf^K. Part., Pres. ^^^; Past Pass, m^i Past 
Indecl. ^^, -W^'T; Put. Pass. mhi\ or ^H^^, W ^Th1 ^, ^^. 

637. Root ^"^ (special stem ^, 282). Inf. ^fi^ipT or ^^/ to wish.' 
Par. Pres,^^f^. Impf.^k^. Pot.^-^im. /mjor. ?;^iT. Per/. 
{s6y) ^7f^, ^1^, 3^^ ; ^^, ^^, f ^g^ ; ^f^^^ \^, ^. 1st Put. 
iifmnfmorii^ifw. 2nd Fut. T^frmrf^. Aor.T^^^^,^wf^^,^^\l[; iPir w, 
^fi^FH, ^TRfT*T ; ^f^, ^f^, ^fEl^. Free. ^^mrnr. Cond. ^f^tqj?. 
Pass., Pres. ^; Aor. yrd sing. ^f^. Caus., Pres. ^^^ftr; Acrr. 
^fqinr. Des. i^W^Trrfi?, Part., Pres. ^^aCi^; P^ Pa*5. ^; Pa*/ 
/c?ec/. ^ or ^qf^, -^; Ptt^. Paw. ^^^ or ^rf^i!^, ^^TifhT, 1?^. 


638. Root ^ 6ur. Infin. ^Thcftl^^ 6orayitum, * to steal.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmank-pada. 

Present Tense, *I steal.' 
^talftr ^toT^ ^t^TTR^ 

^TTrf?T ^^hrnr^ ^-JHT 

^"k^ ^T^TfT^ '^T'lfnT 


^^T^ ^t^ Vtr^i^ 
^^xr?^ ^Vmh ^*^ttt^ 

Imperfect, * I was stealing,' or * I stole.' 

^T^tTTR ^^T^TR ^r^mm 

^^^TTT^ ^^hTTrH^ ^^^TTHT 

^^^T!^ ^T^k^^iTTf^ 'I^^hTTJ^ 

^^^T^mr^ ^^t:W^ ^^^TTTi;^^ 



Potential, * I may steal/ 

Imperative, * Let me steal.' 

Perfect, * I stole/ or * I have stolen.' 

^^^ITRTF ^taPRTftr^ ^^THHTftm 



First Future, * I shall or will steal.' 

'^tflinficR ^Tf^rir*5*"^ ^(.r^irfiw^ 
^^ftnTiftr '^^-cftiTfrwi^ ^^f^T^ 
'^ftnrr ^rt^ftnnn ^^ftnni^ 

M.r^ -i fi *^ 

Second Future, * I shall or will steal.' 

^T:finqTf^ ^tftlxqT^ "sfWlItqTJ?^ 

^^ftr^ftr ^T:fMi'y^ ^hrftro^ 
'q^^fzi'BTfw '^if^^ni^ ^ftrf^T^rftf 




Aorist, * I stole.' 

Precative or Benedictive, ' May I steal.' 

v^Vfijt J ^U -ftl^^ff -ftl^% 

Conditional, * I should steal.' 

^xf^x^frrBn^ ^5Rt^fiim'<i ^'^ftrBrrR 
^"^^ftroR^ ^'^^ftranr'^ ^^^ftnmf 
^H^tfiT^ -e iMtcf^ m ri T^ ^-Jii.rqmvj^ 



639. Pass., Fres. ^5f ; Aor, ^rd sing, wtfr. Caus. same as the 
Primitive verb. Des.^^'^ftT^fiT. Part., Pre*, ^k^n^^; Past Pass, "^fjjif 
or ^eftftlT; Past Indecl '^flcf^r^T; Fut, Pass, ^fmr^, ^l?rft^, ^^. 


640. Root ^ or ^ (stem ^pj). Inf. ijcftl^ ' to fill *.' Par. Fres. 
^pl[f^, Imp/, ^^acin^. Pot. ^T^vo;f{. Impv, ^[tini%. Pei-f. ^^pj^m^. 
1st Fut. ^fxnrrfisR. 2nd Fut. ^ftnmfH. Aor. ^r^'^. Prec. '?.^^'^. 
Cond. W^dTTtqi^. Pass., Pres. ^if; Aor. ^rd sing. ^^ or ^^fTF. 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. ^j^ c f^jMifa. Part., Fres. ^T^; Fast 
Pass, ^ or ^Fttt or ^W ; Past Indecl. ^Tiftr^rT or ^rlr, -^^ ; Fut. Pass. 

641. Root f^^^ (stem rlil*l). Inf. f^PiTf^g'^ *to think.' Par. 
Pres. f^*im\rH. Imp/, ^'^nT^. Pot. f'^l^^V^, Impv. f^^irmf^T. 
Per/, f'^rri^m nr. ist Fut. f^JiffTnnfm. ind Fut. fwfxranfH. Aor. 
^'^'^^. Prec. f^nUI^H. Cbwc?. ^-^-dHimH. Pass., Fres. f^^. 
Caus. like the Primitive. Des. f^f^TjffTmrfJT. Part., Pres, f^^^iT^; 
Atm. f^7?nrr^ {S^"]) ; Past Pass. Nffffff ; Past Indecl. f^^f^iHT, -f^nw ; 

642. Root ^^ (stem ^r^). In/ ^r^firg^T (with prep. IT, w\, Tfj^^T^^ 
*to ask,' *to seek.' Kim. Pres. ^r^. Jyw/?/'. ^rS^. Pot. 'W^xnr. 
Jmjov. ^^. Per/ ^QI153^. i*^ Pw^ ^Qfi^rtl^. 2W? Fw^. ^T^f^. 
^or. ^nfff"^, ^fff^^ir^, &c. Prec, ^r^whr. Cbwc?. ^nnrfV^. Pass., 
Pres. ^I^^ . Caus. like the Primitive. Des. ^frivir^^mfif, -^. Part., 
Pres. ^TWR (527) ; Fast Pass. ^ri% ; Past Indecl. ^rqfli^, -"5n; 
Fut. Pass, ^r^fmnq, ^^^fhr, 'cii^. 

643. Root ^ (stem ?Rvni). In/ cR^fxr^^ * to say,' * to tell.' Par. 
Pres, chVji^ i fn . Imp/ ^^fi^rHH. Po/. "Sfiwn^. Impv. cfcVfJ^ i fH . Per/*. 
*V|<||*IW. 15^ Pm/. ^iTJlfinTTftR. 2WC? Ptt/. <vjr^mir q. Aor. S8<HcfcVj * (^ 
or ^^T^^ifq*^. Prec. ohsiMi^iT. Cond, ^<*v^fTroiT. Pass. ^^, &c. Caus. 
like the Primitive. Des. r^otiVj fzpnfir. Part., Pres. cR^rm^; Past 
Pass, "af^ ; Pa*/ Indecl. cfiVjfi^HI, -"aii^rnT (566. c) ; i^/. Pa**. cR^ftnr^, 

a. Root "5^ (stem ift^. Jw/. xft^ftr^* to proclaim.' Par. Pres. 
'^^^\f^. Imp/, w^t^m. Pot, ift^w?. Impv, xrt^nnfiu (58). Per/. 

* Thid root forms its stem VJl^pdraya from ^, and ^[Cl puraya from ^; but 
the meaning of MKMifH is rather 'to fulfil,' 'to accomplish,' 'to get through.' 
The Caus. of ^ pjri, cl. 3, is also TTC'TTf'? ' to carry over,* ' to accomplish.* 




Tft^Hf^otiH:. 15/ Fut. xft^fTiTT%. 'Xnd Fut. xft^fq^fiT. Aor. ^^J^'^. 
Prec. "^tqi^R. Cond. ^ifNfiitqJT. Pass., Pres. Tft^; Aor. ^rd sing. 
^snnf^. Caus. like the Primitive. Des. ^"^wfxRTfH. Part., Pres. 
xft^in^; Past Pass. '^\f^K; Past Indecl. xft^ftn^T, -xfttq; Fut. Pass. 

b. Root H'Sr (stem H^^). Inf, H^ftr^H 'to eat,^ 'to devour.' Par. 
Pres. H^iftr. Jmjo/*. ^viajnn. Pot, >t^^jt. /mj^v. vr^pnftn. -Pe?y. 
>T^pnTm. 1st Fut.v(^^-^jf^. Q,nd Fut. >ir^fTm\^'H. Aor.w^w^^^. 
Prec.'ur^ocm^. Cbwc?. ^M^ftrorR . Pass., Pre^. H^. Des. f!WS|fiimf*T. 
Part., Pres. >T^^; Past Pass. >?f^7T ; Past Indecl. >r8jftn^, -H^ ; 
Fut. Pass. >T^Tni^, H^xr/^TT, ^. 


644. Root ITT yd. Infin. "TT^ ydtum, 

Parasmai-pada only. 

Present, ' I go.' 
W^T yami "^H^ ya^ja* ITH^ ydmas 

'^\f^ ydsi ^IT^ ydthas ^^ ya/Aa 
^nfir ya7i 'niT^ ydtas "mfuf ydnti 

Imperfect, I was going,' or I went.' 
^'m'1[ aydm ^^TR aydva ^nHT aydma 

Wm^ ayds ^M\ti^ aydtam "^fUK aydta 
^PTTf^ayaf WmiH^aydtdm '5rinT[ cyan * 

Potential, ' 1 may go.' 
'^Vm^^ydydm ^J'm'^ ydydva *l\mhydydma 
'n^n^ yayas TFITiT^ ydydtam IIT^TW ydydta 
^mni^ydydt '^\'^J^n^1/dydtdm "mi^^ydyus 

Imperative, * Let me go.' 
Ttftr yani XfT^ ya'ija Tp[f{ ydma 

Trf^ yaAi xrirr*f^ ydtam THTT ya7a 

Trg yo^M 'TTITT'^ ydtdm VJ^ ydntu 

645. Root \i (310). Infin. T5f^ 
etum, * to go.* 

For ^ with adhi, a, &c., see 311. 
Present, ' I go.' 
^fn emi t ^^ ivas ^^l^^ imas 

^f^ esA j ^^R( ithas J^ itha 

^f?[ eti "^^If^itas '^f^yanti{^4) 

Imperfect, ' I was going,' or ' I went.* 
'^TfT dyam (37) lj^ai??a (251.0) ^ aima 
^ ais (33) ^TnT[ aiVaw ^iT ai7a 
^ ait iinXH^ aitdm viim\ ayaw J 

Potential, * I may go.' 
^'TP^ iyam 3[^^ ya?;a "^^m iydma 

^"m^^iyds ^M\n*\iydtam ^TK iydta 

^^TR^ iydt 3[*4lrtl*i iydtdm 3[^ iy s 

Imperative, ' Let me go.' 
^nnfT ayawi ^fHTT^ aya;a ^HTW aydma 

1?^ e/M ^rtl*^ itdm l*^ yw^M 

* Or ^I^ oyMs (see 310. Obs.) 

t This root is also of the ist class, making ^sniTftr, ^^^, &c., in Pres. tense. 

X Foster gives ^m^. See Panini (vi. 4. 81), and compare Laghu-kaum. 608. 



Ferf. inu (373), ^'TT^ or ^^, ^EHn ; 

\st Fut. illdlfw, "fllrflf, ^TTrTT, &c. 2nd 
Fut. mm\^*iy TTWftf , ^n9jfw ; VJWJ- 
^,&c. ^or.^^ftRi[(433),^nn^^, 

>5<44iti^; wTinf^'K^, ^*iir5*(, ^^- 
Free, vrmw^y '^l'^T^^, *ii^if^; ^mn^, 

&c. Conrf. ^^n^q^, ^in^il^, ^PTT^, 
&c. Pass., Pres.^n^j&c.j Aor.^rdsing. 
^ll[f^. Caus., Pres. ^tPTTTftr, &c.j 
Aor, ^nihnp^, &c. Des. fiHITOTfT. 
Freq. "m^lPT, ^THlTftl oir "mVlfk {^rd 
sing, "m^jfft or ^^flf). Part., Pres. 
TR^(]Vom. case ^J^); Past Pass. VXJf; 
Past Indecl. 'Hr^T, -fni; Fut. Pass. 

a. Like IT may be conjugated HT ' to 
^IlHlfw; Aor. ^mftf^, &c. 

Per/, ^im (367. a), ^^rftni or ^^^, 

jviv; ^ftr^, t^^> t'^J V^> 

^,^^. i<FM/.^irrfFi,&c. 2nd Fut. 

"^ymf^f&c. i4or. (438. 6')^rn^,^rm^, 

^SmW, ^7T^. Pree. ^'Tm^, &c. (see 
447. a). Cond. *j<mi. Pass., Pre*. 
^; i^ Fut, ^cH^ or ^rld1^ (474); 
2nd Fut. ^^ or WrftTO? ; Aor. yd sing. 
^nrftl or ^rrTT^nr or ^iftr^. Caus., 
Pres. 3TH^m (from ^TH at 602) or ^"R- 
^^ or ^mTrftf; Aor. ^hI'IHW or 
^TftnJCT or ^JlfWT (with flrf^i prefixed, 
^^^lI'IMi^ 493. e). Des. ftrnf^^rf^ 
(from ^X^ at 603) or ^fT^lfH, -^. Part., 
Pre*. ^(iVom. '^^^); Past Pass. ^ ; 
Past Indecl. 3^, -J^l Fut. Pass. 
WW^f ^^Trft^, ^ or ^xr. 
shine:' Pres. mf?T; Per/, "swl; isf Fm/. 


646. Root ^^ (special stem $, 315). Inf. T^ftr^T *to lie down/ 
* to sleep.' Atm. Pres.-!^Ti,^,^{K?Tai); $^|, ^T^, ^nnTT ; ^irt 
{KeifieOa), $^, %?:^. Imp/. 'ST^TT, ^ijizn^, ^%if ; ^T^f^, ^?^iTnnT, 

w^nmn^r; ^^^fw, ^$kih, ^^. Pot. ^nitiT, ^nflv jt ^ , ^Trtw; ^^%, 
5nft^TTn*T, ^Tfhn?n^^; i^l^rn^, ^uih, ^Ti\x^, Impv, ^^, $^, ^itth ; 
^nn^, Tn^TT^H, ^tttth; ^in*|, $j^t, ^hjn^. Perf. f^, f^rf^^, 

f^n^; fl^^^, %^^T^, f^T^T?r; f^f^Uflt, %f:^fi& or -f^^, f^^. 
1st Fut. ^rfwt. ind Fut. ^fil^. Aor. ^r^ufq, ^^rf ^T tfi^ , ^^?; 
U^lO^i-'^fV, ^M^irMHixiilT, W^rfiiMMIff ; ^T^rftP'rff , ^T^lf^KIH or -fTT^H, ^I^- 
filMil. Prec. ^if^M^^. Cond. ^fT^lfinft. Pass., Pre*. ^^; Aor. yrd 
sing. ^Tf'I. Caus., Pres. ^nRTfif; .<4or. ^ ^H^ iqiT. Des. f^r^iT^. 
Freq. ^T^, i^Tif or Jj^i^fiT. Part., Pres. ^^VT^ (526. a) ; Past Pass. 
^rfjnr; Past Indecl. ^ITRT, -^xr; Pw/. Pass, ^tjtt^, ^^^, ^. 

647. Root ^ or g (special stems ^and ^g^, see 312). Inf. ^ftg?^ 
or mU^\ * to bring forth.' Kim. Pres. 5^, ^t^, ^ ; ^;5^, ^^y 
^^ ; ^t, ^&, ^. /wp/. ^f^, ^i^^T^, ^fw ; ^?^ff , ^^r^rr^, 



I ^^<iJlril*i^; ^r^f^, ^I^, '5?^^. Fot, ^[^. Impv. ^ (Pan. vii. 3, 88), 
^,?m^; 1^, ^^TWi;, ^WT^; ^^, ^s^, ^^ifT^. Ferf.-^, 

i*^ Fw/. Tfibnl or ^f^|. 2WC? Fw^. ^"^xi orifff^. -4or. ^wfW^, W^ftf- 
FR(, ^^f^; (fHif^> ^WfW'TT'^, 'SWfWTfT'^ J ^Hfff^^^r^, ^TOf^UP^ or 

-f T^, ^^fw^?r. Or ^^^, w^^, ^^ ; ^^^^, vHimviT'(, ^HtmHr*(^j 
^hiTff , ^^1^, wt^. Free, ^ft^ or ^f%^. Gond, ^^ft^ or ^5wr- 
f^. Pass., Pre5. ;|^; -4or. 3rc? sing, ^^if^. Caus., Fres, ^R^nftr; 
Aor, w^jMcf*^. Des. ^mfn, -^. Freq. ifft^, ^tWh or wM^. 
Part., Fres, ^^tr ; Pa^^ Fass, ^ or ^ or ^ ; Fast Indecl, ^WT or 
^Fn, -^^; Pm^. Pas*, ^fti!^ or Hf^'T, ^RT^^, ^^ or ^J^. 

648. Root i^ (special steins ^ or w^, ^ and ^^, see 313). Inf, 
^cf^* to praise.' Par. and i\^tra. Pres. ^cftfn or HTt^, ^cftfi^ or w^tf^, 
^ftfw or H^tfrr ; fp^or^p^*, ^^or ^ipt^*, ^^or ^ThR(*; 
ijj?^ or ^^tT^^^ i^^ or ^^t^J *, ^^f^. Kim, ^%, ^^ or ip=t^ *, ^?> 
or ^1^*; fpt or ^Th?*, ^pr^, ^^S ; ^J^t or ^T^H^*, ^t4 or 
^"^^ *, ^^- Ii^Pf' ^l^p^ or ^^cR'^, ^nscfi^ or ^IH^^ , ^^cftl^^ or ^rer- 
^; ^wpor^^*, ^?^p(or^rep=tin^, ^TfP1[or^Tt7n^; ^^ 
or^wp1w*,^W|rror^^W,^^. Atm.^f^,^Rpn^or^a^phrR[, 
^R^w or ^T^TtH ; ^lipf^orwFj^'^f^*, w^^^P^, ^T^TriTT^; ^sf^^iff or 
^^W^*, ^n^ or ^^ts^^*, '^i^^. Fot, ^pr^ or f^^^n^*. 
Kim, ^t^. Impv. ^prffT or ^rT^fVr, ^^ or ^ptf^*, ifftg or ^wtg; 
tcinn, ^IW or ^^TTR, ^TTT'T or ^^'^IITT ,' ^cRTT, ^IT or ^^Tf, ^^. 
i^tm. nt, ^^ or ^-cftur*, ^piH or ^phlH ; ^cRT^, ipWTT, i^^TTniT; 

V W^ml, ^lOT^ or ^^^iq^^*, ^^imr. Per/. (369) ^FR, ^, PR ; 5^^, 

H^w; gf?it, H^ (372), ^^ i^ Fut, ^^fw. Atm. ^'bnt. 
2WC? Fut, y^^^, Kim. ^>^. ^or. (427. a) ^wif^M**, ^id ml^ , 
^IWTT^; ^HEcTTf^^, ^^f^^, 'ir4l!|*ij 'iiWlPM^, ^Wlfei?, ^^if^^^. 

Aim. ^ref^f^, 'si^^T^, wtp; 'srefNrff, whr^, wNrwin; W^- 
^f , ^reftfT^, ^srefr^rr. Free, w^inm. Atm. ^cft^^^. Cond. ^^RfVorif. 
Atm. vhWIui. Pass., Fres, ^ ; -4or. 3rc? sing. ^Wlf^l. Caus., Pre*. 
^cTR^ft ; ^or. "wgg-cjH. Des. ^f^Tfir, -^. Freq. if^, ift^ft. Part., 
Fres. ^^; Ps^ Pa**. ^; Fast Indecl, ^ji^, -it|W; Pw/. Pa**. 
^Tr^I, ^cTWrhl, 'IS^TI or wy^ or ^cT'T. 

649. Root \ (special stems "^?rt, 1|, "^^, see 314). Iw/! ^T^^^ 

* Some authorities reject these forms. 
o o 


(borrowed from ^at 650) 'to say,' *to speak/ Par. and i^tm. Pres. 
WTHit, -STtfiJ^ ^TtfiT''; ^5^, "^T^*, ^fiT^*; '^^^, ^^, -^^f^*. 
A'tm. "5^, 1^, ^ ; "f^l, ^^, ^TT ; ^1, "^tS, "l^. /m;;/. ^ra^ or 

^TTO^, VN^iif. Pot, i\^\*{, ij^i^, &c. ^tm. i|^t5r, "^^tNt^, &c 
Jm/>v. -g^rftiT (58), ^, -^^f^; pRR, -air^, "^irr^; "a^rw, "fw, "5^ 
Atm. -al, ^, ^TTT(; ^^T^, ipr^TP^, "g^nm^; pRthI, i|t^,^^irr^ 
The other tenses and forms are borrowed from T^; as; Per/. "g^T^ 
&c. ; 1st Fut. WSUrfw, &c. ; see ^^^ at 650. But the Pres. participles 
are "^^ and ^NKIT. 

650. Root ^ (320). Inf. ^r^ * to say/ ' to speak.' Par. In the 
General tenses Atm. also. Pres. ^foT, ^fty, -^f^ ; ^^^, ^^P^, ^rar^ ; 
^^J?^, ^W, rf^jft! (borrowed from i|^ at 649). /wjo/*. ^^^,^r^ 
(294), ^^ (294); ^^^, *Mi'*'^, ^^W^; ^s^^, 'WT^, ^3T^^t. 
Po^. Ta?T^, ^r^in^, ^'qni;, &c. Impv. ^^lf*T, ^ni, ^^ ; ^^t^, ^^, 
^W^ ; 'T^nw, ^^, "^^ (borrowed from '^. Per/. (375. c) i^T^, T^rN^ 
or "j^c^, T^i^; "arf^^, ^w^, "35^5^; "3f^r, "3!^, "3!^^. Atm. "gi^, 
^^, "OT; nf^^, "31^1^, "3i^ff ; <*if^H^, ^'^s^, Ap^ft. ist Fut.'^w- 
ftR. Atm. ^^. and Fut. ^VijufH . i^tm. "^. Aor. (441) ^R>^, 
^bi^Wt^, ^8T#rw ; ^^^^R, ^sraWiT^, ^fffNin^ ; Wc^^ t h , ^^ ' ^^ff, ^m^ ^ -<*i ; . 
Atm. ^R^, ^sr^t^^n^, ^^'riT ; ^r#^^f^, ^sttt^^tp^, wt^iTP^; vs^Tl^wf^, 
'm^^W'i[, ^?^N^. Prec.-^-^TWf^. Atm. ^^jhl. Cond.^sr^^^. Atm. 
^snr^. Pass., Pres. t^ (47 i) ; Aor. ^rd sing, wsrrf^. Caus., Pres. "m^- 
infR; Aor. SH^(*M*^. Des. "fw^fT, -"$. "Freq. '^r^, "^T^^^JT. Part., 
Pres. "^^j Atm. g^ro (borrowed from "^ at 649) ; Past Pass. T^ ; 
Past Indecl. TRT, -T^r ; Fut. Pass. ^^fPT, ^^Rhr, ^T^ or mm. 
K 65 1 . Root ^ (special stems in^ and i|i^, 3 2 1 ). Inf. mf'^ or irrf^^ 
* to wipe,' * to rub,' * to clean.' Par. Pres. inf^, HTf# ( 296), mfl (29 7) ; 
^[^^> ^^> ^^ ; ^'''^j ^> rr#f^ or fp^. Imp/, vMHi^*^, ^wrf 

(294), WT^ ; ^Bi^, ^i^[F^, ^njFP^ ; ^'p^f ^J^, ^TRT^ or ^T^n^. Pot. 
*i"*li*f^ ^P^T^, &. /fw;w. mwrf'T, ^^f7 (303), in|; *n^T^i ^^, ^fF^; 
TT^TR , ^, Hi^tj or prg. Per/". ^^T^, HH\t^yi or irijTt (370. c), Tin^ ; 
ii^[1l!^ or nnf^, ''^TJ^ or IWT^"^, *?prp^ or JnTT^^^; *l^[fW or 

* For these forms are sometimes substituted 2nd sing. Wr^, 3rd sing. WF^ ; 
2nd du. W5^ 3rd du. WT5p[; 3rd pi. HIIJ^; all from the Perfect of a 
defective root ^(^, with a Present signification. 

t According to som^, the 3rd pi. of the Imperfect is also wanting. 


I TrnfiPT, *njif or ^^T^, ^^H^, o^ 'f'n^. 15^ Fut. HTtiftR or iirf^rfw 
(415. ). md Fut. m^(ific( or ^Tfmlf^. ^or.^nn^,^!mT8fft(;,'3WT^^; 

^JTT8#, vjtllK*^, ^H|g|^; ^HIVS, Wnf , ^*TT^. Or ^HTf'HM'^, ^HTlfl"?^, 
^WTiffi^^; ^Hlf^^, &c. Free. ^3?n^^. Cond. ^Tfn^ or ^smrf^^'T. 
Pass., Pres. ^^ ; Aor, ^rd sing. ^rmf^. Caus., Fres. v:[^(wfH ; Aor, 
'^^HH\'^'\ or ^iftj[iTH. Des. fHrrnfrfH or f*<*jHiirii or ftHlOS^lfH. Freq. 
iT^|3$, Htt- or *rft- or ^iUh ($rd sing. -mfl). Part., Fres. m^; Fast 
Fass. Jj?; Fast Indecl. JjfT or mf^Si^T, -pT; Fut. Fass. ml'q or 
nf^^, m^Srhi, m^ or ^. - .^-o^, 

653. Root "^ (317). Inf. 'S?^^ * to eat.* Par. Fres. ^fsr, ^w, 
^rf%; ^rir^, ^r^, ^r^ ; ^^^, ^7^, ^f%. Jm/?/. ^rr^^, ^sn^(3i7.6), 
^1^(317.^); ^ir,^T^*i^,^rr^'T; ^rr!T,^T^,^T^. Po/.^htpt. I2/?i;. 
^r^ftr, 'srf^, ^ ; ^i^, ^^, mj^ih ; ^51^,^?^,^^. Pe?/. ^^, ^srrf^, 
^5T^ ; ^if^, ^T^^j ^T^l^j ^f^, ^n^, ^ig^. 15^ -iPw^. '^wrfiw. 2nd 
Fut. ^n^nfT. ^or. ^SR^H (borrowed from root tri[), ^HTO^, "SHT^; ^ni- 
^ETT^, ^xi^nrH, ^nnnn'T ; ^tt^th, ^nmw, 5(Mt|^. Free. ^fn^w. Cond. 
^TTiFnT. Pass., Pre*. ^srS" ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^if^. Caus., Fres. ^T^^nftr ; 
-4or. ^ifi^<^H. Des. fniirUlfk (borrowed from "^). Part., Fres. ^T^; 
Pflw^ Fass. w^; Fast Indecl. W^J3u; Fut. Fass. ^'^^, ^^, ^fT. 

6^^. Root ^?, (special stems ^ft^, ttf^, ^f^, ^^, see 322). Inf. 
Tt^iT * to weep.' Par. Fres. df^ftr, ttf^ftf, ttfi^fTT ; ^f^^^, ^^f^, 
^^TT^ ; ^f^*?^, '^^'^f ^f^. Jmjo/. ^^C^, ^^^ or ^^^^^, ^^T^ or 
^^tf^^ (Pan. VII. 3, 98, 99); '^^^j ^^f^W^, ^^f^T^; ^^^H, ^^- 

f^iT, ^^i;. Fot. ^rn^. Impv. ^^^, ^f^, tif^ ; xt^, "^f^^, 
^^T(P{ ; d^, ^f^iT, ^^. Per/: ^d^, ^df^, i^ ; '^^f^**, ^^'S^, 
^Ij^iM,; ^^^> ^^, ^^^5^- ist Fut. -d^lf^. 2,nd Fut.'^f^vuf^, 
Aor. "^T^^y '^^^j ^^^; ^^5[T^, ^r^^in^, ^^^in'^; ^^^tt, ^i^^, 
^^^. Or iCin^N*^, ^^'h(, ^nct^ti^^; ^f^, ^rrf^'?*'(, ^c\r^VI'^5 
^df^, ^df^, 'srdf^^. Free. ^ix\m\ . Cond. ^irtf^iqi^. Pass., 
Fres. ^ ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^ttf^. Caus., Fres. i\^^\(^ ; Aor. ^Bi^^^?^: 
Des. ^^^f^tnfii. Freq. ^^d, ddf^ (srd sing. fttt%) or < l ^ - < ^ r T. 
Part., Pre*. ^^; Fast Fass. "^f^ ; Fast Indecl. '^^;i^, --^is; Fut, 
Fass. "df^^, rtVftTT, thr. 

654. Root ^* (special stems ^, j, jt, and T, see ^2$). Inf. fn^ 
' to strike,' * to kill.' Par. Fres. ^fi*?, ^ftr, ff^*; ^^, ^^, ?H^; 

* It must be borne in mind (with reference to 323) that han only loses its nasal 
before t and th, if not marked with P. When the prep. "^ a is prefixed, this root 
may take the Atmane, in which case the 3rd sing. Pres. wUl be Niti^d. 

o o ij 


T^y T^j iri% I^npf. ^^, ^IT^, ^fT^ (294) ; ^^^, SH^H*i^, ^'<^rti*l.J 
W5^, ^ff, WR^, Pot. ^^\H, &c. Impv. ^hiPh, Tf^, ^* ; ^^fTT^, f if",, 
^nr ; ^TTTR, ^, n^. Per/*. WTR (376), mrf^ or ^nr^, ^fniR ; *TfT^, 
Tirgr^, Tjrg^; ^ffBH, ww, rg^. i*^ i^w^. ^nfif^r. 2nd Fut. ^rH^mfH. 
^or. (432. A) sej^r^MH, ^!nr>ft^, ^RV^; ^nrfv*^, ^rql^w, vh^Phkw^; 
^r^fw, ^r^ftlF, Hi^fug^. Prec, ^ufm^. Cond. w^PHm*!. Pass., Pres. 
f ^ ; Per/*, iri (473) ; Aor, 3rd sing. wi[iP{ (or w^, borrowed from 
^'y 1st Fut, ^vjnt or M i Ph^ i ^ ; 2nd Fut. ff^ or vjf^. Caus., 
Pre*. xrTrnnfJT ; Aor. ^.flvrti^. Des. f^^iN i P<< . Freq. ifwft or inf^> 
Wf P^ or ifffwT or WfrftfiT ; see 708. Fart., Pres. jn[^; Past Pass. ^; 
Past Indecl. f?^, -^jn; Fut. Pass. "^W^y ^T?fN, xrrw. 

655. Root ^T^ (special stems ^x^ and ^t|, 322. a). Inf. W^ * to 
sleep.' Par. Pres. ^t^, ^^f^, ^frrfir; ^in^, ^P qvi ^ , ^ftnr^; 
^tItW^j ^Pyvi, ^qf?iT. /wijo/'. ^^ip^, ^T^xr^ or ^i^ift^, VNMMfl^ or 
^W^ll^; ^yPq^, &c. (see ;^ at 653). Pot. *sl^ \ *{ . Impv. ^^rnfVr, 
^fqf^, ^f^; 'STTR, ^Pmn^, ^tutp^; ^tttt, ^fmr, ^^^. P^?/. 

(382)^^^nT,:5^fxriTor^i:^Fq,^iq[TXT; ^g^^' ?T^' ^T^ > W^' 
^T*' 1^^' ^^^ -^^^- ^^Tf^T. 2e/ Pw/. 4<mmP tT. Aor. ^T^T^, 
^^IHflf^, ^^TO^; ^J^TX^, SHfjITHII, W4^ T WI*^ ,' VH^ I tW , ^H^TTT, ^SP^T^. 
Prec. ^uiii^. Oowc?. ^T^T^. Pass., Pre*. ^ (471) ; -<4or. 3rd sing. 
w^Jf^. Caus., Pre*. ^rnnnfiT; Aor. ^r^JiP^, &c. Des. 'p^wftf. 
Freq. ?ftf^, 'Hl^slP^T or 4ll^qlPq. Part., Pres. ^m^; Past Pass, pr ; 
Past Indecl. ^, -^; Pw^. Pa**, ^rrq, 5^xpfhl, ^xq. 

656. Root ^s^ (special stems ^ and g^, 324). Inf. ^%g^ * to 
wish.* Par. Pres. ^ir, ^ij (302), ^ (300); lyig^f^, 7^, ^^; 
T^^, TF, T^rPifT. Jm//. ^^^, ^BT^ (294), ^PTT; Y^ (251. a), 
W7^, ^TH; ^ft^, ^sft^, ^^. Po/. Jf^mH, 45<T^, &c. Impv, 
^5rrf^, TTf5? (303), ^; ^^TT^, ^^, :t^; ^^fTTK, TF, T5P5. Per/. 

(375- ^) "'^rT^, T^^rq, "j^t^ ; gi%^, "^n^rgp^, '9>^t^ ; "3rf^, "95i, "s^^. 
i*^ Fut. "qf^inftR. 2wrf Fut. ^fP^wipH. ^or. ^BHif^nw, ^m^'h^, ^sm- 
5fri^, &c. ; or fJ|P^m*^, -^f^, -^fh^, &c. ; see 427. Prec, TpilW[, 
Cond. 'HciP^juiH. Pass., Pre*. ^ (471); ^or. 3rd sing, ^nnfi^ or 
^T^5T. Caus., Pre*. ^T^nnfT ; ^or.^Nt^^. Des. fw^fijnnfH. Freq. 
<iM^M, "^RP^H or ifiq^ftfi?. Part., Pre*, "y^; Past Pass, ^jf^; Past 
Indecl. ^fipRT, -T^ ; Fut, Pass, ^f^nm, q^pft^, 'mpi. 

* It must be borne in mind (with reference to 323) that han only loses its nasal 
before t and tk^ if not marked with P. 


6^'], Root f^ (special stems fw\ and ^^, 309). Inf, ^^^ ' to hate.' 
Par. and Atm. Tres. \^, I'fti (302), \fz (301) ; f|rE^, %^, ^\\ 
fir*ra[, fir, IV^f^. i^tm. f^, fk^, f^; %^t, flr^, %^w ; fk^, 
%^, %^. iw?/?/'. ^I^, ^7 (294), ^7 ; ^T%^, ^f^fi^, ^srfk^; 
^81%^, ^srf^F, ^%i^ or ^^w^. A'tm. ^fkf^, ^%ot^, ^%:? ; ^%tzrf^, 
^%m^, ^ %MTrii*^ ; ^rf^T^rff , 'srfk^f^, '^f^^. Pot. fg ttf iT^ . j^tm. 
f?r^. /m/?y. lr^T%, %^, Ir^; %^^t^, f^, %^ ; Ir^w, %f, fk^. 
i^tm. iri, fk^, f?rFW[; %m^, %^rqT^, %^TTn^; im*?!, fk^f^, fk^wi^. 
Per/. f?jtw, f^T^, f^; f^%f^, f^^^, f^^^p;; fi?%r^, f^fk^, 

f^lTf^. A'tm. f^^, f^f^^, f^[f^; f^fw, f^f^r^, f^lVmw; 
f^ r g fq H ^ , f^f^s^, f^f?fgT. 15^ jPm^. t^rftR. Atm. ir^. 2nd Fut, 
^^tPh. Atm. ir^. ^or. (439) ^Tf^^, -iBpf;, -"s^; -"8^, -'sp^, 
-Hlff^i^; -"SfTT, -Tp, -T!|^. Atm. (439. a) ^rf^rftj, -"^^n^j -"^jw; -H|i<r^, 
-i^TOi^, -^?n^; -ermff, -"sji;^, -^^. Precf^rTT^. Atm. fi^^. 
Cond. ^Ir^n^. Atm. ^^^. Pass., Pres. flT"^, &c.; Aor, Q;rd sing, 
^lirf?. Cans., Pres. Ir^xrri^: ^or. ^f< f g^T^. Des. f ^gi|irn , -1^. 
Freq. ^f^, ^%f^ or ^m^^fir. Part., Pres, f^^; Past Pass, fir^; 
Past Indecl. f?rf7, -f^ ; Fut. Pass. %^^, im\'^, ^. 

a. Root '^. In/, ^ftrg^^*to wear,' *to put on (as clothes, &c.)' 
Kim. Pres. -^j w (62. b), ^ ; ^^, ^^n^, ^mk ; ^wt, ^ or ^ 
(304), ^F7^. Imp/, ^t^, ^M^ i ^ , ^m^; ^T^^ff , ^^TTFn^, ^i^wnn^; 
^Bi^wf^, ^sr^np^ or ^r^iPi[, ^^^RT. Poi. 'mi'^' Impv. ^. Perf. ^^, 
^[^^, &c. 15^ Fut. ^ftnn|. 2WC? Fw/. ^^. Aor, ^R^ftff^, 'SRftr- 
WT^, ssmftig; ^Rftr^f^, ^T^fti^Fn^, ^i^ftji^nn'^, &c. Prec. ^^n1x(. 
Cowd ^^r^ui. Pass., Pre*. "^. Cans., Pres, "^JWUJ^ or -^. Des. 
f%^^. Freq. "^T^, ^T^ftR. Part., Pres. ^rm^ ; Past Pass. ?rftm ; 
Pa*/ Indecl. ^^n^, -^^; Fw/. Pa**. ^ftriT^, ^Rnfhr, ^T^. 

658. Root ^[TT^ (special stems ^n^ and f^, see 328). Inf. ^rrftrf^ 
*to rule,' *to punish.' Par. (With ^ * to bless,' i^tm.) Pres. ^nfw , 
^nfw, ^nfttT; f^*!^, fsfre^, %^; f^^n^, %?, ^rnrfk (3io.Obs.) ^tm. 
^n%, T^rTO(62.5),5ira"; ^u^^, ^ni5,T[rnn7^; ^Fn^,^[rT^ or ^1^(304), 

^F^. Impf. SH^IIf?^^, ^:s[rTf^ or ^^TT^ (294, 304. fl), ^r^ (304) ; 
^%tsr, ^fjfr^, ^3r%^; ^ftfRT, ^rf^, ^n^n^. -^tm. ^i^ftr, &c. 
Po/. f^THTT'^. ^tm. ^p^TT. Impv. ^mftr, ^fv (304), ^^; ^^nw, 

%i^, fi^r^; ^^TR, %?, T^nrr^. -^tm. ^nt. Perf. ^r^rw, ^r^rrftr^, 
iprw; \\\\\^iA, ^T^rro^, i^i^iw^^; ^rftw, w^^^ ^^n^^. Xtm. 

^^^n^, ^(r^lTftT^, &c. I*/ Fm/. ^TftnnficR. Atm. ^nHHril^. ct.nd Fut. 
^f^^r?!. Atm. ^ftr^. Aor. (441) 'wftfr^, ^^"7^^, ^f^H^; ^f^^T^, 


^T%^H^, vHr^mrfi?^; ^^r^T^, ^rf^iT, vir5m-^. A'tm. ^t^ttW^, ^ ^ ii f^g t ^ , 
^T^iT^ ; ^^nPHMr^, ^sT^^mv/i*^, ^sT^TftnnTrT'^ ; sH^nPHmr^ , ^qrrfFt^, 
VH^Ilffmif. Prec. f^nn^. Atm. ^nftr^. Cond. ^v^ ri fa^T*i^ . i^tm. 
^^Tftf^. Pass., Pres. f^ (472. c) ; A(yr. '>;rd sing. w\\\{h , Caus., 
Pres, '^w^\f^'y Aor, ^fqr^mr^. Des. r^ i^nP-Hm fa . Freq. ^^, 
^rmrfw or ^nsulfOfn. Part., Pres. ^TRTi^ (141. a); Past Pass. f^F; 
Past IndecL ^frt or f^, -f^iq; Fut. Pass. ^nf-Hct^ q, ^nr^fhr, fijTBT. 

659. Root f^ (special stems f^ and ^). Inf. ^r^Ho anoint/ 
* to smear.^ Par. and Atm. Pres. ^ftr, ^^ (306. a), ^tv (305) ; 
^i4% f^^^, ^V^; ^^''^ ^^ f^^f'iT. i^tm. f^^, f\r$, f^ ; f5[^, 
f^, f^ ; f^, fv^J^ (306. rf), f^. Jm/?/ ^^, 5s^^ (294), 
^?V^; ^^, '^^nr^, ^^TVT^; SHn^,^^V, ^f^i^^. Aim. ^^f , 

^. Pot, f^^TF^, n^^l^, &c. Atm. f^^. Impv, ^^^, f^nj, ^7^; 
\^y f^^, f^>n^ ; ^^PT , f^ny, f^^. Atm. ^, fw, f^nn^ j ^?t^, 
f^lTUT^, f^inn^; ^inil, fv^i^J^, f^frrr^. Per/, f^, f^^f^, f^ ; 

f^[f^^, f^f^^^, f^^ig^; f<r<r^fi, f^^, f^^i^. A'tm. f^f^, 

f^f^[f^. 1st Fut, ^nnf^T. i^tm. ^TVTf . o^nd Fut. ^^nfH. Kim. 
^n^. Aor. (439) ^v^*^, ^v^^, ^Brfvnp^; ^vgit^, "^viep'^, wfv- 
"!gr?n^; ^Pvkiih, ^>j^, ^y^. i^tm. (439. b) ^Brf^ftl, ^f^f^r^ or 
^Hf^TVT^, ^V^^ or ^^Tv; NHfilHINn^ or ^f^fi^, ^rftj^ir^T'^, wfv- 
TBPiTP^; ^fnHiiHr^, lyfyvsiiflj^ or ^fvxp^, ^fvvsinf. Prec. H^^iu'^. 
Atm. fv^jhr. Gond.-^B(^c^ff{, Atm. ^^^. Pass., Pre^.f^; ^or. 
yrd sing. ^H^f^. Caus., Pres. \i.^\[H ; Aor, ^i^tf^^ . Des. f^fynfifH, 
ri^. Freq. ^f^, ^^^ {^rd sing. ^^^). Part., Pres. f^T^; Atm. 
n^^M ; Pew/ Pflw*. f^ni; Pa*/ /</ec/. f^IT, -f^; Pw/. Pass, ^^v^l, 

660. Root 5^ (special stems ^ and ^). Inf. ^^^^ *to milk/ 
Par. and Atm. Pres. ?J^, vtfi^ (306. a), ^tfni (305) ; jj^, jni^, 
jni^; gTB^, 5^, Jff^. A'tm. 5^, ^, jTV ; 531%, f^, J^H ; jci|, 
^*^ (306. d\ 5^. Impf ^r^, wt^ (294), ^8iv^ ; ^53r, ^'V'^, 
^jjTvp^; ^jw, ^Tjnf, ^sp^. Atm. ^ajf^, ^ijnn^, ^sjni; ^5^f, 

Atm. jfrj. Iw/w. ?j^ftT, jfhi (306. c), ^; ^7^, jnp^, jnn^; 
^^^TH, jni, 5^. Kim. ^1, ^^, 5nrr?^; ^^^, jfnn^, pm^; 
^fT^I, ^i^ (306. c?), j?wr^. Per/. 5^, jffir^Vi, 5^^; jjf^. 


|?^^^ 5?^; 5^^ ^t^ o^ -| 15^^- i^^ ^^^- ^^^^n%. ^tm. 

^ftniTf. Q.nd Fut. vt^lftr. -^tm. vT!^. Aor. (439) '^l^f^, ^^W^, 
's?^^; ^^p^, ^^P'^, ^^rtiHJ ^^'^^^j ^si^^pr, ^^- -^tni. 
(439. 5) ^fe^, '^s^Hf'yi^ or -^Hg^m^, ^T!JW or ^^ ; "^W^"^ or ^s^S^^, 
^^JT^IT^, ^^Hfirtf^; ^ttji^tf^, ^5i^^^nT or ^I^UPT, ''sr^^^. Free, 
5?n^. i^tm. ^^^. Cond. ^vt^JT. -^tm. ^rvt^. Pass., Pres. 
g^; Aor. ^rd sing. '^^tf^. Cans., Pres.^^t^mf^; Aor.'^(^^^, Des. 
l^^fiT, -"^. Freq. ^^, ^t^^ {^rd sing. ^t^nj). Part., Pres. |fT^, 
5^r; Past Pass, gni; Pa5^ Indecl. 5'"rT, -|^; Fm^ Pa**. ^x>j^, 
iir^"^^ c[^ or pr (573. a). 

65 1. Root fc5f (special stems f<;5^ and Hf). i^. c^^^'to lick.* 
Par. and Kim. Pres. (329) ^5r, ^rfisj (306), ^fe (305. a) ; f<75|^, 
c5t^ (305. a), <^te^; fc55^, c5^, fHff^. Ktm. fe5^, fc'J'^, c^ti"; 
^<f55^, i^T^, fc5^TK; fc55^, c5^, fc5^H. Impf. ^'^^H, ^I^ (294), 
VNc4? ; ^fF53|", SMrtl<s*<^, SSicildTHj ^rfHlT, ^c^Hd, ^fc5^. Atm. ^sf^yf^, 

^t^ft^T^, ^Tc^; ^r<9d^r^, ^fHi^Frnr, ^^rfc5^?TTH; ^c5?rff , ^e!5t^^, 

^srfH^iT. Pot. fH?n^, ft!5^rR(, &c. Atm. ff5^^^. Impt;. ^Tf?r, H'tf^ 
(306. c), :^; fo^iq, c9t^, cStar^; c*^IH, 7^j r<4^*J' Atm. ^f, 

Perf.ft^^, fc^c^n^Vf, f?JH^; ft9fc5f^^, fnfcTf^, fHf<r5^^; fc^f^jf^, 
fpjfn^, fcjfc*^^. Atm. f?5fc5^, fHfcif^M, &c. 1st Put. c^dlH^T. Atm. 
^nt- 2WC? i^w/. rtfc|lirH. Atm. &^. Aor. (439) ^rf?5^, -'^\y 

-T^; -"8fT^, -"s^in^, -KiHi*^; -w^> -W^3 -"^' Atm. (439. i) ^c5f^, 
^cJ^^n^ or ^n^l^T?^, ^sf?5^ or ^75^ ; ^r^J^T^f^ or ^c5d^, - Hj i vj i *^^ , 
-K|lril*(^; ^rf^iBfTTf^, ^c5J**t^ or ^T^t^, 'nfrtVSIfi. Prec. fr5?TT^. 
Atm. fagft ^l, &c. Cond. -^rfvtjj*^ . Atm. w^, &c. Pass., Pres. 
fc5^; -^or. ^rd sing, ^i^f^; Cans., Pre*. ;^mf>T; -4or. ^JTy^tfH^. 
Des. fcFfRT^TftT, -%. Freq. ^fc^, rtc^ffl (3r? *m^. :a>^f^). Part., 
Pres. fw^ft^; Atm. fcS^ivf ; Pa*^ Pa**, c^ ; Pa*/ Indecl. fJ^yr, -fc^ ; 
Pm/. Pass. ^^3iT, rt^nliT, ^. 


662. Root J hu {^^'^ Infin. ^^^ hotum, * to saicrifice.* 

- ,Parasmai-pada. Pre*cw/ Tew*e, M sacrifice.* 

^^Kjuhoti ^ti^^juhutas . ^^Tfjuhvati 


Imperfecty *I was sacrificing.* 
^J^^*\ ajuhavam *<J?^ ajuhuva vij^i ajuhuma 

^J^lt^ ajuhos ^!Jf '**l ojuhutam ^^f ^ ajuhuta 

^^i\\ajvhot ^^^tM*\ajuhutdm W^l^^ q;uAars (331. Obs.) 

Potential, * I may sacrifice.' 

^Jin^yuAMyas 'J *4 1 nnjuhuydtam ^^IT!( juhuydta 

^^Mit[Juhuydt ^1 <l I a I *\juhuydtdm ^^f^juhuyus 

Imperative, * Let me sacrifice.* 
^^^TJMAauani ^^<l^yuAat?ara ^^^IH^/iauama 

^jfvyuAMrfAt (293) ^^n*ijuhutam ^^juhuta 

^^^juhotu ^^n\\juhutdm ^^juhvatu 

Per/, (374- ff) ^^> W^ or g^, ^^r^; ^[jf^, ^^^, 
^5^1^; W^' ^F' ^Jl^- ^r ^^^l*d4R, &c.; see 385. e. i/ 
Fut. fanf^. 2nd Fut, ^VHnfq. AoT, ^^^, ^^^"h^, ^T^^; ^w^^, 
>H^gj^, ^^Fl^^; ^^, ^^, vS^I^^. Free. fira*r. Cofi?. ^r^toiT. 
Pass., Fres. "^ ; ^or. 3rc? sing. VN^iPq. Caus., Pre^. fT^^nfH ; ^or. 
^nj^. Des. gf^T. Freq. ^f^, ift^"tfiT or iftf^iT. Part., 
Fres. ^5^; Fast Fass. jw ; Fast Indecl. |f^, -|w ; Fw^ Pa*5. "f^Tr^, 
t^A \^, I^ or ^^. 


663. Root ^ (special stems ^, ^^, see 33^. Inf. ^TfR * to give.* 
Par. and ^tm. Fres, ^Tfir, ^iftr, ^^; ^^, r^^, ^[^; ^^, 
^fVl, n;^. A'tm. ^, ^, ^; ^, ^^r$, ^Tff; ^, ^, ^. 

/mp/. w^T, ^^^, ^^; ^i^, ^i^rnr, w?^^; ^^, ^^, ^^5^ 
(331. Obs.) iitm. ^H^, vHt^fVii^, ^r^; ^i^f, ^J^niTT, ^^HTH; 
H^Trf^, ^<^H, ^^. Po/. ^m'T. Atm. ^A. Impv. ^^iftrf, ^iV, 
^^ ; ^^T^, ^^, ^^; ?J^, ^, ^. Atm. ^, ^r^, ^^; ^^T^, 
^^T^, ^:^Tin^; ^^7?t, ^^, ^^WT^. Per/. (373) ^, ^^TZI or ^^T^, 

?^^T^, ^^; <;rq*i^, ^^j ^fi^. 1st Fut. ^wrftR. Atm. ^TWT^. 
2WC? Pm^. tJT^RTf^T. Atm. ^T^. Aor. (438) ^IT^, ^T^, ^n^; ^T?^, 
^H^TTTR, "^ir^iniH ; '^<;ii, (<^M, ^JJ^. i^tm. (438. </) wH^Tm, ^erf^^n^, 

^rf^; ^rf^^^^, vsft^mvjiH , ^r^M T i T lH ; ^rf^^nf^, wf^^, ^^. Free. 
^^mnr. ^tm. ^1^44. Concf. ^^t^h. Atm. ^H^^. Pass., Pre*, ^i? ; 
-4or. 3rdf sing. ^?[Tfr, see 700. Caus., Fres. i^nrmf^f (483) ; Aor. 


^t^iW. Des. (503) f^WTf^T, f^W. Freq. ^t^, ^T^Tf^T or ^ftr 
Part., Pres. ^(^(141. a)\ i^tm. ^FT; Past Pass. ^^; Past Indecl 
^^, -^T^; Put, Pass, ^TH^, ^T^t^, ^Ti. 

664. Root VT (special stems ^VT, ^V, see ^'^6). Inf, vt^i^ * to place. 
Par. and i^tm. Pres, ^tFt, ^VTf^, ^ifrT ; \^a^, Vr^ (299. a), V^^ 
(:i99. ); ^i*R(, Vr^, ^vfw. i^tm. ^, vw, vi; ^lt, ^>n^, ^^ 
^iirt, >i^ (299. *), ^. Impf, 'si^vT^, ^^VT^, ^>ni|^; ^^i^, ^nw^ 
wv^F^; ^T^uT, ^sni^, ^31^^. Atm. ^v, 'siVr^^, '^iv^; ^;^J^f^ 
^^^T^, ^c[>JT(n^; ^sr^wrf^, ^>if^ (299. h), ^ssrjvtt. Po^ ^xm^i;. iitm 
'^'^. Impv. ^yjxf^, vf^, ^ig; ^VR, \Tw^, v^T^; ^VTT, v^, ^v;^ 

iitin. ^, Vr^, >|^TT^; ^>IR%j ^"^rn^, ^VTiTT'^; ^VTR^j "*^^^ ^VWT'^ 

A'tm. ^^, ^fv^, &c. 15^ Fut. mTnfw. i^tm. mHTt, &c. 3wc? Fut 
MT^TfH. i^tm. VT^. ^or. (438) ^T>n^, ^VT^, ^>ni^; ^VT^, ^>ITiT^ 

^WTfn?^; ^>nT, ^vTfT, ^^. i^tm. (438. c?) ^irfw, 'siftnn^, ^^ 
^fv^ff , ^V^^Fn'^, ^vmcTT^j ^f^l^f^, ^fti^, ^fVjiiiT. Prec. xtmr^ 
Atm. VT^^. Oowc?. ^TVIFT'^. i^tm. ^TVT^. Pass., Pres. >fft; 15^ 
i^^/. ^ftlrTT^ or VTTTT^ ; -4or. ^rd sing. '^Vlftl. Caus., Pre^. VPT^T 
Aor. 'Si^tH^. Des. fvwifJT {5^3) - Freq. ^v'ft, ^TVlfJT or ^i^fj? 
Part., Pre*. ^^1^(141. a); KXm. ^VTT; Pa*^ Pa5*. ffiT; Past Indecl 
f??^, -VR; Pw/. Pass. VTiT^, VT^'I, V^. 

a. Root m (special stems fR^rt, i^^^, see 338). /w/*. TT^ 'to 
measure.' i^tm. Pres. fn^, f^^, fw't^; fwN^, f?WT^, f^RTW; 

^ftrm^n^, ^firHnn'^ ; ^finft^ff , ^fi^jft^r^, ^fwir. Pot. f^f^^, f^ ^m^^ , 
fTfhT, &c. Impv. ff{%, ftmt^, fi*fhn^; ftnn^, frmmi^, ftwnn^; 
fiTRwt, fw't?^, ft!HTTTT^. Perf. w, ^ffi^, w; *Tfti^|, ?Tin^, inn^; 
<r*<M^, J?fH?i, ^rfWr. 15^ Fut. HTcItI. 2w<;? Pw^ ?n^. Aor. (434) 

VHHI^ri. Prec.m^Tl. Cond.'^WP^. Pass., Pre*, ifft; Aor. yd sing. 
^^\f^. Caus., Pres. mxftnf^ ; Aor. ^h\h m*^. Des. ftTwrftr, -r^ (503). 
Freq, ^wft, mmfn or ^mf({. Part., Pre*. fiwR; Pa*^ Pass, fwii ; 
Past Indecl. fiTi^, -^'{^ ; Pw^. Pa**. mTf^, m^^t^ ^^. 

66^. Root ^T (special stems i^T, iT^t, iT|, see 337). Inf. fig^ * to 
quit.' Par. Pres. ^T^iftr, ^iftr, iT^frT ; ^t^ (or wff ^, see Pan, 
VI. 4, 116), i^^^ (or iTf^^), ^n^'hr^ (or ^ffn^); ^ { \ H\ (or ^f^), 
^"N (or mf^), iT^iT. Imp/. ^IT^, ^IIT^T^, ^^TfTi^; ^^t^ (or 
^^i^^), ^nr^^ (or ^irf^T^), ^iT^in^ (or ^rf^HT^) ; ^T^?T (or "zm- 



f^), WT^^ (or ^TfH^ff), ^Wp[. Pot. i\^\H^, T?n^, &c. Impv. H^lftl, 
^ff (or iTf?f^) or if^f^, "Sf^ ; f^T^, ^{ \ d\ (or irf^i[), "JT^twT?^ (or 
Tf^'(;) ; TfTT, W^^cT (or irf^), "sr^. Perf. t^, irf^ or f^|V|, ir^ 
ilf^l, H^vj^, W^^; ^fH, aT^, ^T?^. i*^ -Fm^. ^T^R. 2nd Fut 

fTwrftr. ^or. (433) ^Tfif^f^, ^T^'^^, sn^r1i\^; ^r^rftn^, ^^ftr^ 
^iftTFT^ ; ^^ftpiT, ^sr^ftTF, ^^ft?^. Prec. ^^l\^^. Cond. ^f^wP\ 
Pass., Pres. ^ft; Aor. yrd sing. ^^tt. Caus., Pres. ^T^rmftr; Aor 
fl^M*i^. Des. f^^ i ^ iftr. Freq. ^^, W^\f^ or ^ftr. Part., Pre* 
iT^(i4i. a); Pas^ Pa**. ^; Past Indecl. f^r^, -^m; Fw/. Pass 

666. Root vi\ (special stems f%H, f^, f^fk, see 333). Iw/. v^ * to 
fear.' Par. Pres. f^Hrftr, f^irf^, f^^TT; frn^t^ or f^fir^, f^>f^^^ 
or f^firq^, f^nhl^ or ftrfWlT^; f^H^ or f^^HT^, f^whl or WfTO, 
f^flT (34). Impf. ^^HH^, 'Slf^^, ^f^*n^; ^^^ or ^"^fW^, ^rfHr- 
\ftfP\ or ^rf^>?7T^, ^P^iftTTT^ or ^f^ftrHT^ ; "^^^ or ^wf>W, ^-^^rhr 
or ^<rWWff, ^^H^ (331. Obs.) Pot. f^Ht^m^ or f^fn^, &c. Impv. 
fwnf^, f^jftf^ or f^>Tff , f%^; fsM^^, f^>fhT^ or Wi^W^, f^nV 
HT^ or W>?TTP^; f^H^im, f^Tf or WWcT, ftrig (34). Perf. (374) 
f^vrnr, fTHfinJ or fw^, f^>Tni ; f^fT^, f^vii"^, f^wg?^ ; ftrfw, fsw, 
f^^. Or f^ H^ ^i ^ohK (385. e). 1*/ Pm/. HTfTPw. %nd Fut. ^rinfi?. 
-^or. w^, ^^t^, ^ijfh^^; ^W^, ^H*T, ^S^TH; ^h^, ^^t, ^^^ 
Prec. JTtirnm. Cond. ^!?>raTH. Pass., Pre*, nft ; Aor. -^rd sing. ^wifxT. 
Caus., Pres. HN^iPh or -^, or m^^ or ^fti?^ ; Aor. ^i?'=t>nw or ^T^rbrqir or 
mrtftm. Des. f%>ft^H. Freq. ^>rt^ or "^Hfir or "WiitfJT. Part., 
Pres. f%n(^(i4i. a); Past Pass, ntfi; Past Indecl. H^, ->ftir; Fw/. 
Pa**. JtiT^, xm^iIm , ihi. 

a. Root ft (special stems fff, fsTft, frfl^, see ^^'^. a). Inf. 
fgT*to be ashamed.' Par. Pre*. fwffT, fTlf^, fT^; fiff^N^, 
fiTf^, ftrr^; f^r^, f^'N, f^fF^fw (123. a). Impf ^ f sf g ^n, 
^f*Hg^, ^Tf^r?T^; ^rfg1fc(, ^!ftiT|^, ^fsrf^lin*? ; ^P^i^Ih, 'STftr^ir, ^drr- 
fp; (33 1. Obs.) Pot.fr^:^t^w^. Impv.iii^fu;\f'm,fi(ftf'^,f^^; fwf^^, 
fiTf^iPT, r^i^liffH ; ftrf^iw, f^i^, ftrff^. Pf^f ftrgriT, fir^f^^ 
or ftfi^, f^Tfm; firfrf^ (374. e), firff^Tj^, ftrfprg^; firffftw, 

f^rff^T, f'Tffp. i*^ Fut. finfw. 2nd Fut. I'oiTf'T. Aor. 
^W, ^JmI^, 'srt^^T^; ^^, -iT, -FTH; ^^, -F, -^^. Prec. 
^hn^. C0W6?. ^Tf^R*?. Pass., Pres. jt^; -4or. 3rc? sing, m^ i f^l . 
Caus., Pre*. ^rnnfT ; ^or. ^Tftrf^TjiT. Des. ftffbnf^T. Freq. 
'W^i ^J^ or ^f^ftf*?. Part., Pres. fsfff^n^^ (141. a) \ Past 



Pass. ^Tn or f^H ; Past Indecl. '^'m; Put. Pass. tf^> 1^" 

b. Root aT^ (special stems Tf5^, ^T^T, nf , see 339). Inf. sTpti^H *to 
produce.^ Par. Pres. inrfwT, ^^ftr, iT^ffnT ; iHT^, ^niT^, ^STIrf^; 

TnT^, inrm, ^r^rfiT. /m/?/. ^^nr^, ^nnn^ (:a94), ^iHi^; ^TinF^> 

^T5TTrr^, ^IT^TTTTT'^ ; ^^n*T, ^ITITTiT, ^Wg^. Pot. llW^X^^ or ^nTT'TTT . 

Impv. ^r^^, Wirrf?, 'T^nff; ^hrt^, ^^Tnm, ^nrTWTT; ^hrtr, ^nnrr, 

iT^g. Per/*. WSTHT or ^TiHT, 'HTf'T^, TnT ; rfF^, 'T^'^, ""T^^; "SfftH, 
^ST, T^. 15/ Put. Trfrnrrfw. 2wc? Put. iff^^Tftr. ^or. '^RTfiT^, 
^nrfN(, ^rn=f^; ^*nf^, &c. Or ^irf^r^, &c. ; see 418. B. Prec^ 
ipm^ or iTT^TTOH. Cond. ^nrf^T^'T. Pass., Pres. l[T^ (of. 617. o) or 
W^; Aor. ^rd sing, "^irf^. Caus., Pres. "srfRlf^T; Aor. ^nft^fR'T. 
Des. fiT^rfW^. Freq. "STT^TT^ or ^m^, mf^. Part., Pres. ^^(141. a) ; 
Past Pass. iTTrT, iff^; Pa*^ Jc?ec/. irf^Tr^, -"if^, -"STTXI; Pm^. Pa**. 


667. Root fg^^ 6hid. Infin. "%^ 6hettum, * to cut.^ 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I cut.* 
ftrTf^ dhinadmi f^FlT^ dhindvas f^P^I^ dhindmas 

rfi^lPfW dhinatsi f^F^ dhinthas (345) fgF'I dhintha (345) 

fS[^f% dhinatti f^piT^ (fAin^a* (345) fdn^fnl dhindanti 

Imperfect, * I was cutting,* or ' I cut.' 
^rSLl(;#t^a(f(fAinac/am (51) ^rod.r^ a66hindva ^f^rSf addhindma 

^f^yT([^addhinat (294) H radii *( addhintam (345) ^fagpiT addhinta (345) 

^rxsa.r|(^a(f(f^tna/ (294) WrS(ill*^ addhintdm (345) ^ HaAr^^*!^ addhindan 

f^'^TT'^ dhindydm 
rgfrgrr^ dMndyds 
f^FSrn^ dhindydt 

Potential, * I may cut.* 
r^"llW dhindydva 
istryirt*^ dhindydtam 
fSFSrnil^ dhindydtam 

Imperative, * Let me cut.* 
t^SR^hT dhinaddni fri^H^l^ dhinaddva 

T^f^ dhinddhi (or dhindhi, 345) f^pfH^ dhintam (345) 
f^7^ dhinattu f^fll*!^ dhintam (345) 

P p :2 

rtII*l dhindydma 
f^FSTTW dhindydta 
fsJT^^ dhindyus 

r^i^iH dhinaddma 
Ic^m <fAm^a (345) 
'^'^'S ^hindantu 



Terf. fra^ (51), fq^f^, f^^; f^fsaf^, f^fsff^^, f^^^K^^; 

^rf^aif^JT, ^f53^, ^rf^^; ^rf^a:^^, ^rfssTfir^, 'Nf^i^HiH ; ^^35^, 
^^3^, ^"^^. Or ^ar^ir^m, ^t^tc^, ^r^rw^; w^r^, ^t^[^, 
^r^iriH; ^s^rFT, ^r^, ^^15^. Free, fsjirmH. Cond. sH^#i. 

Atmane-pada. Present Tense^ * I cut/ 
rtq dhinde f^P^^ dhindvahe f^[^I^ dhindmahe 

f^Fw 6hintse fST?^!^ dhinddthe fi^*^ dhinddhve 

f^t'if <fAtn<e (345) fsp^R 6hinddte Hftn^H 6hindate 

Imperfect, * I was cutting,' or * I cut.' 
^roafrt; a66hindi (51) "^f^rSf^ addhindvahi ^f^^r^ff^ addhindmahi 

^Tjd-Vi I ^a(f(fAinMas (345) ^fe^T^TR^ otfcfAinrfa/Aam ^fsa^;^ atfcAinrfrfAtJCw 
W^gRT addhinta (345) ^ftar^^THT'^ addhinddtdm ^fts*^ addhindata 

r^n^lM dhind{ya 
fSF^^lT^ dUndithds 
f^P^^ dhindita 

Potential, * I may cut/ 
f^^W^ dhindwahi 
f^S^hlT^n^ dhindiydthdm 
fsp^^rnm^ dMndiydtdm 

fift'^^lnfi^ dhindtmaki 
f^[f^l<^ dhindidhvam 
ri'<lii^ dhindiran 

Imperative, * Let me cut.' 

fSR^ dhinadai ft1^i^ dkinaddvahai ftftH^ilH^ dhinaddmahai 

r^rf dhintsva fST'^T^n'^ dhinddthdm ft^*^ dhinddhvam 

ftpiTP^ dhintdm (345) fiST'^Tini^ dhinddtdm Hftn^rtl*!^ dhindatdm 

Per/. f^Psa^, f^fsarf^, f^f^; fgfsacf^^, f^rfss^i^, f^^sj^; 
f^pTsaf^R^, f^fsaLf^t^, f^^f^ . 15^ i^w^ %^^. 2wfi? Fw^ w. ^or. 
^rPsafWj^fwf^n^j^f^a^; ^f^ar^f^,^ftawT^T,^Tf3arf^rnn*T; wPsarwf?, 
^jf^A^JT, VHrTsdrHH. Prec. fsH^rhr. Cbwc?. ^T^W. Pass., Pre*. fOT; 
^e>r. 3rrf *i^. ^^^. Caus., Pre*. %!pnfiT ; -^or. ^srf^'sa^. Des. 
f^lfsarwTfH, -1^. Freq. ^f^a^, wf?r. Part., Pre*. fST?^ ; i^tm. 
nft<I*T; Pa*/ Pfl**. f?5^; Pa*/ Indecl. fTOT, -faW; Fm/. Pa**. "OT^, 


668. Root ^T^ (special stems ^nn^, ^a^, see 347). ii^?/*. ^J*^^ * to 
anoint,' * to make clear.' Par. Pre*. 'W^ftH, ^Rftf (296), ^-Tf^; 
^ij^, ^?R^, ^r^; ^w^, ^^^, ^rgfvff. Imp/. ^rrfTim, ^rnn^ (294), 
^R^; ^rhj, wNnr, w^^; ^jt, ^??i, ^^. Po/. '?ii?n''^. /w/??;. 


titir*T, ^fV^, ^ni^; ^^HIM, '^'\f ^UPT; ^iiiT, ^^, ei^'ii. Per/, 
^T^T^, ^T^'^^ or 'STT^sR, "^rn^; ^"Rf^, 'srnyy^, 'str^^; ^n^f^, 
^^r^, ^TPT^. i*^ Fut. "^wfm or 4ir^rii%i. 2nd Fut. '^^nftr or 
^ r^m i fa . Aor, ^f^^*T, ^rm^, ^^l ^ltt^ ; ^1%^, &c., see 41 8. B. Prec, 
K\:i^\iH (453). Cond. ^sf^'T or ^if^^. Pass., Pres, w^ (469); 
-4or. 3rc? sing. 'srrf^. Caus., Pre*. ^r^^H ; Aor. ^f^ifH. Des. 'srf^- 
fsT^T. Part., Pres. *iiyi^; P5^ P55. ^n?i ; Pa*^ Indecl. ^f^WT or 
^W or ^IW, -^TtIT ; Pm^. Pa55. ^^i^ or ^^rRT, ^rg^'t'T, "^m or ^fnT. 

a. Root ^^ (special stems ^'T'T, ^J^, 346). Jw/*. ^T^^T*^ *to eat,^ 
*to enjoy.' Par. and i^tm. Pres, ^friT, prf^, ^Tf^; ^'f^, ^pF^, 
^^; ^P^ ^^. ^[^^- ^tm. ^, ^^, ^i;; H5t|, >jw^, ^^w; 
^tJt|, >JTsa, ^j^. /Wjo/. ^i^^T^, ^sr^pT^ (:Z94), ^i^pT^ ; ^w^, ^w"^, 
^T^^iTT^; ^WtH, ^T^, ^T^^. -^tm. ^f^, ^^^r;, ^W^; ^M^?%, 
^^[^T^n^, ^^WP5[; ^sriJTJTff , '^tjjts^, ^srij^w. Pot. ^iirFf;. A'tm. 

>f^. Jmjov. ^^^TfJT, jfT^, ^?T^; ^^ITT^, ^ir^, >j^5T?(; >J^1TR, ^, 

^;^. A'tm. ^t, iw, >^r^', ^^nn^, ^^arzn^, ^jgrrn^T; ^^mm|, 
^'s^H, ^wm. Per/. ^^iT, i^Ttf^nr, "^^t^tt ; fjf^w, "^^^r^, J^^rp;; 
?^^^. 1^^ ^^^. ^tm. i^w, f^jftr^, ^^; -fiRf, -5n^, -inw; 

-ftmt, -ftrd, -ftft. 15^ Fut. >Tt^f9?. i^tm. H^Wf. 2nd Fut. >T^fiT. 
Atm. >Tt^. Aor. ^nn^, -^|^, -T^^; ^^TO", ^W^TJ^, -w^^ ; ^J*fti5fT, 

^t>}^|THTt; ^T^^f, ^^^IH, ^r^^TT. Prec. ^^mjm. i^tm. ^j^fbr. 
Cond. ^^h?nT. Atm. ^nt^^. Pass., Pres. ^1^ ; ^or. 3rf? sing. wtfr. 
Caus., Pre*. hIh^^iTh, -^; Aor. ^R>}nT. Des. f^^pfw, -"%. Freq. 
^"^^, ^>ftfiiT. Part., Pres. ^^; Atm. ^^TiT; Pa*/ Pass. ^; 
Pa*/ Iw</ee/. ^piiT, -^w ; Pm/. Pa**, ^rt^;^, ^fhnfhT, ^rh'tr or ^nf (574). 

669. Root >l{^^ (special stems >T^, >T^, 347). Inf. \k%^^ ' to break.^ 
Par. Pres. >imfm, wrf^, H^T% ; nr^, H"3W^, H^; >hR^, >t^r, H^fTjr. 
Impf. 'ssMTnTH, 'SWT^ (294), '^iReF ; ^>nj, ^!M^, 'SM^; '5t4iT, 'SM^, 

>T^nn*T, 4^, >T^^. Per/. ^>T^, ^iTf^ or "WR, ^>T^; -^f^^, 
^^T^^, ^^T^PC; ^>Tf^, ^>?^, '^>T^. 1st Fut. H^ftR. 2/jfi? Pm/. 
^TfjT. Aor. '^WTB^, -'^, -'gJ^T^; ^m^, 'SWf^, -liT(;; ^MT^, 
^flj, ^>?fi^^. Prec. Hi^R?^ (453). C0W6?. 'SiH^p^. Pass., Pres. \^ 
(469) ; Aor. Q,rd sing. ^^rrfiT. Caus., Pres. wr^xnfi^ ; ^or. ^j^>t^. 
Des. f^^Tftr. Freq. "^HW, "^^rft-Jf . Part., Pre*. H^; P*/ Pass, ht^ 
Pa*/ Iw6?ee/. >kw or h^t, -Hi^ ; Fut. Pass. H^l^, vr^Thl, H5?T. 

670. Root gi^ (special stems ^ITIT, 5^, see 346). Iw/ ^^nr 'to 


join/ 'to unite/ Par. and Atm. Pres. "^^fm, ^HPHf , &c. ; like ^, 
668. a. A'tm. fi, g^, &c. Impf, ^BTf^HP^, '^f^?^ (294), ^^ ; 
^I^, &c. Atm. ^T^^, ^^5n^, &c. Pot. ^WT^T. A'tm. g^g^. 
Jwjv. ^i=nnfW, ^frv, ^^; f^^m, &c. Atm. frfi, ^1^, ^^, &c. 
Perf. ^^, ^Tftlini, ^if ; ^^TW? &c. ; like ^, 668. a. Kim. ig^^. 
i^ Fut. ^T%T. Atm. ift^. 2fl? Fut. ijWrft?. Atm. ^^. 
-^or. ^^T^T, -1T^, -"in^^; -1TR, -"ITHH, -"snTT'T; -irm, -"iTW, -"iT^. Or 
^nft^, -"Sjt^, -"8^; 'STW, &c. A'tm. '^T^j^g^n^,^^; 'Sl^Wf^, 
&c. Prec. '^rivm, Atm. g^rN. Cowc?. ^nft^i^. Atm. ^snfti^. 
Pass., Pres. ^a^ ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^iftfiT, see 702. Caus., Pres, ^"^if- 
inftr ; -^or. SHq^^H. Des. ^^ii(*<, -^. Freq. ifl^ai^, ifhfttT. Part., 
Pres. 5^; Atm. g^^ ; Pa*/ Pa55. ^ ; Past Indecl. ^w, -^m ; 
Fut, Pass. xft^piT, iftwTihl, m^ or TJh^T (574, 574. a). 

67 1. Root ^ (special stems ^V, ^^r^ir, 344). Inf. Xt^ * to hinder.' 
Par. and Atm. Pres. "^Tfffijf, ^fw, ^xrrf^; ^^^, ^^^*, ^^^* ; 
^WW(, ^^ *, ij-yP^. i^tm. ^, 1^7?^, ^r^ * ; ^Ucil, ^-svn^, ^"^WiT^ ; 
^vui^, ^^, ;^T?u^. Impf, ^^Tinn^, ^^TTTi^ or ^sr^rn^ (294), ^^^ 
(294); ^^r, ^n^^S'i;*, ^^^H*; ^^?t, ^i^^*, 'st^^'^. Atm. 
^s^f^, ^^^!5T^*, '5?^'5*; ^^^^Miff, ^^?*nw, ^r^^^iTm; ^^?w?f^, 
^^7|iT, ^^^^. Pot. ^mm. Atm. ^^^tN. Impv. ^TiiniTfVT, ^f^, 
^^^; ^WVR, ^^S^T*, ^^^T^T*; ^T!iVTH, ^:5*', ^''^. Atm. ^ni^, 
^ii<*, ^5W*; ^TUvT^^j ^^^^n^iTH, ^rMnrnr; ^rnvw^, ^^, ^^uwt't. 
Perf. -^fiVy ^ttfw^, ^V; ^^fv^, ^^^^, ^V^^; Wv*t, ^^, 
^^^. Atm. ^^^, ^^N^, ;^^ ; ^ftrat, ^IsMm, ^^^VTW ; ^^VT^, 
^^fMiil, ^fVit. 15/ Fut, TtifTfisT. A'tm. dirrl. 2nd Fut. ^twrftr, 
Atm. T>W. Aor. w^\^, -^^, -mi; -VR, -mr^, -mttt^ ; -vm, -^, -vt^;. 
Or VHUrH*!^, W^UWft^, ^dr^l^; TOr^, ^tTS^, ^^^'^J "S^r^, SHfi"a, 
^101^. Atm. ^T^fw, ^^^dl^, ^I^U ; ^ryf^, ^^rHIVJI?^, ^ ^ i^ liTT *|^ ; 

'W^rwf^, ^si^i^, ^^rHif. Prec. "^uiiw^. Atm. ^m\^ . Cond. ^ttW^. 
Atm. ^1^. Part, Pre*. ^^ ; Aor. yd sinff.^srdfxi. Caus., Pres. 
ttWU^'y Aor. ^rw^vrf{. Des. ^^wrfir, -w. Freq. 6^, dttfi*T. 
Part., Pres. ^^^; Atm. i^^iH ; Past Pass, ^; Past Indecl. ^in, 
-^ui; Fut. Pass. 6^^, dv^, Tha. 

672. Root f^ (special stems f^R^, f^). Inf. ^t^'^ * to distinguish,' 
' to separate,' * to leave remaining.' Par. Pres. ftfRf^, f^^W f^fi? ; 

f^p:^, f^nn^, f^jT^; ft'^f ^, f^f^. Impf, wf^fH^, ^%^ (294)* 

* ^^''V^ may be ^vritten for ^^. Similarly, ^'^ for ^''ff , &c. See 298. a. 


^f^; ^f^, ^f^^?^, 'srf^^T^ ; ^f^-^, "^f^, 'Srf^r^. Pot. f^^TT^. 
Impv.f^[Tm\^, f^^f^ or f^ftig {303, compare 345) %^ J f^^^T^jf^ff^'^, 
fwsr^^; %^T^W, f^F, f^W. Per/. %tr^, %^ftrxi, %^^; %fj[rf^, 

%%^^, f^f^i^i^; %f:^'^*T, f3[rf5[r^, %f^l^- i^^ Fut. ^mf^, 

ind Fut. $T^f*T. Aor. ^%^, -^, -^\; -VX^, -^TH^, -^in^; -^PR, 
-"^W, -"^. Prec. %^^. Cbwc?. ^$^'^. Pass., Pres. f^i"^ ; Aor. 
^rd sing. ^$f^. Caus., Pres. ^irrf'T ; ^or. ^^"^f^r^. Des. f5[T%^fiT. 
Freq. ^f^"^, $$f^. Part., Pres. f^^; Past Pass. %?; Past 
Indecl. %f T, -ftfr? ; Fut. Pass, ^re^, $wt^, $t^. 

6^^. Root f^ (special stems ff^? '^^)- -^^' f^HRrJ^^^ ' to injure/ 
Par. Pre*, f^f^r, f^^f^*, f^"M%; f^^^, ff^T^, ff^; f^^^, 
ff ^, f^^rf^. /m/?/*. ^f^^r^, wf^^ or ^f^T^ (294, 304. ), ^f^rTT^; 
^rf^^, ^rf^H?^, ^f WT^ ; ^f^w, ^f?^, ^f^^. Pot. fiw^. Impv. 
f^^T^T, f^^:g or f^"5V (304), ff"?!^ ; fi^^^T^, f^W(, f^HT'^; f^T^TH, 

f^, f^^. Perf. fwf^H, ftrf^ftni, ftrf^ ; ftrfifn^, f^rf^^H"^^, f^ff ^^; 
f^rf^^nr, ftrff^, f^^*^. i*^ Pw^. fff^nrrftR. ind Fut. fif^^ff{. 
Aor. ^fti^T^, ?iff?ri^, ^f^^^; ^ffti^, ^^^?^, ^f^^T^; ^- 
ftn*T, ^^^re, ^fi^f^T^. Prec. ii^X^. Cond. ^^^^^. Pass., 
Pres. f^^ ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^rf^^. Caus., Pres. fiwllf^; Aor. ^1^- 
f^^. Des. f*rf^^mf*T. Freq. ^?*^, wf^W. Part., Pre*, f^^; 
Past Pass, ffftrff; Past Indecl. f^ftr?^, -ft^; Fut. Pass. f^^rT^, 

674. Root ^ (special stems ^^, "5^, ^, see 348). Inf. irft^or 
if|jT^ * to injure,^ ' to kill.' Par. Pres. "^[f^, ^wfTaj (306), "J^f^ (305. a) ; 
^3|^, ^[^^, ^"^ja^ (298. ^); ^151^, ^, ^^fT=ir. /mjo/. vN^iii^ir, ^t^%7 
(294), ^n^^; ^T^, ^i^^, ^t^TH; ^^, ^^, ^f?^. Po/. 
^^JT. Impv. '^W^TfJT, ^r^ (see 306. c), ^^; ^^i^N, ^[^I^'T, ^^j^th; 
^T!Tf m, ^, ^^. Per/! Trirt, wirft^ or wHt, mrf ; w^f^, h^^vj^, 
jT^^^; ri^f^H, WJ^, T^^ ^st Fut. TTf^fwrfR or iT#Tfi5R. 2nd Fut. 
irft^nfT or it^fJT. Aor. ^irffi^, -^T^, -^'f^; -f|^, -ftFT, -ffFTH; 
-ft^, -ft?, -^T|^- Or ^r^H, -^^, -^; -^IR, -^fT*r, -^^wt't; -^^, 
-8J1T, -^. Pree. prnm. Cowd^snTft^JTor^W^iT. Pass., Pre*. ^; 
^or. 3r6? *m^. ^nfff. Caus., Pres. FfifTl^ ; Aor. ^TtnT^T or ^nft^^. 
Des. fiTTTftmfH or fTTJ^f^. Freq. UT^^, K^nf^^ (3rc? *iw^. TR'tirft). 
Part., Pres. "5^; Pa*/ Pa**. (305. a) ^; Pa*^ Indecl. crf|i^ or (j^, 
-5^; Pm/. Pa**. HftrT^ or iit^, HfTU^^, ^. 

* Final ^ s preceded by a or a remains unchanged before the terminations si 
and se; see 62. 6. 




6y^. Root ^ vri. In fin. ^ft^H varitum or ^^^^^varitum, * to cover/ 
* to enclose/ * to surround,' * to choose *.' 

Note, that the conjugational g nu becomes ^ nu after ^ t;rt by 58. 

Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I cover.' 
*J*inrH vrinomi ^^J^ vrinuvas f j<^#t*^ vrinumas X 

^nnfw vrinoshi ^^^ vrinuthas ^[XJ^ vrinutha 

^TBrtfitT vrinoti 'J^^rt^ vrinutas ^?FTf^ vrinvanti 

Imperfect, * I was covering,' or * I covered.' 

^J'JiU^l'^ avrinavam 
vj<uVr^ avrinot 

^^^T'^ vrinuydm 
^^^n^ vrinuyds 
^^TT^ vrinuydt 

^TDT^nr vrinavdni 
^'In^ vrinotu 

^I^^JH arrtnuma |l 
^j<^il avrinuta 
"'j<!*i\ arrincan 

^^"R vrinuydma 
^if^MxH vrinuydta 
J<^^<t, vrinuyus 

^*UlfT vrinavdma 
^^ vrinuta 
<jt!lfl vrinvantu 

^^*3^ fivrinuva 
v*'j<^rt*t^ avrinutam 
^Y^t^l^^ avrinutam 

Potential, * I may cover.' 
^'IT^ vrinuydva 
^^*<in*^ vrinuydtam 
^^^cfT'^ vrinuydtdm 

Imperative, * Let me cover.' 
^lO^l^ vrinavdva 
*J<.^iT^ vrinutam 
^^JTTT'^ vrinutam 

Perf. (369) ^f^K, ^^ (Vedic) or ^^r^I (see 370), ^^TT; ^^^, TpI^, 
*<iiH J ^j ^^ ^^ or ^^^t. IS/ Fm/. (392. c?) ^^Tfi5R or 
^^^^^^9? (393). 3WC? Fm/. ^ R mi fH or vjOm i f iq (393). ^or. ^^ i r<M ^, 
^H^rt^, W^n^; ^^T^, ^^TfC?T, ^?^Tft?TT; ^^TfT7T, ^I^TftP, ^m- 
1T5^. Prec. ftnnH^ or ^^ (448. d). Cowc?. ^RftTm or ^r^^'t^. 

i^TMANE-PADA. Present Tense, * I cover.' 
^^ rrinpe ^^^ vrinuvahe * * *JiiJH^ rnnumaAe f t 

^^ vrinushe ^mv^ vrinvdthe ^^ vrinudhve 

^gw t?fnu/e ^vl^ vrinvdte ^^^ vrinvate 

* In the sense of * to choose,* this root generally follows cl. 9 ; thus, Pres. 
^i^, ^*Uir, ^^ifff; ^lU^^, &c. See 686. 

t Or Y^\ vrinvas. X Or ^^^ rp'nOTa*. Or jv^ aPftwa. 

II Or ^T^^ avfinma. 

II ^ rt is sometimes written with long fi', in which case 374. k may be applied. 

* Or ^IW^ vrinvahe. ft Or ^?R^ rrnwaAc. 


Imperfect, * I was covering/ or ' I covered.^ 


^'jf'M'l avrinvi 
'Sr^^n^ avrinuthds 
VSi'JIJ^if avrinuta 

^I^Jlf^ avrimmahi t 
^^SeP^ avrinudhvam 
"^^i^n avrinvata 

f^ vrinviya 
^^ vrinvtthds 
^il^tt vrinvita 

^^HT'T vrinutdm 

j<!nH% vrinvimahi 
^?!^Sen^ vrinvtdhvam 
^<|fl<l^ vrinviran 

JUN.l*i^ vrinavdmahai 
^?;^ vrinudhvam 
<j<jlrtl*t^ vrinvatdm 

^ra^y^f^ avrinuvahi * 
^^^il^Vm^ avrinvdthdm 
^T^^FTrfT'^ avrinvdtdm 

Potential, * I may cover .^ 
^?Fft^rf^ vrinvwahi 
^iN^r^TT^ vriiwiydthdm 
^Tpft^lfTT'T vrinviydtdm 

Imperative, * Let me cover.' 
^^CN^ vrinavdvahai 
^imVW{ vrinvdthdm 
'^<Jllrtl*t^ vrinvatdm 

Per/, wk (369) or ^ J, ^^, "^ or w^; ^^, ^m$, ^^T?^; 
^1, ^f , ^f^. 15/ Fw^ ^fTTTT^ or ^t'^TTT?. 2WC? Fw/. ^fc^ or 
H'O**!. ^or. ^Rftf^, w^r<8i^, ^^ft:?; ^sRfctiff^, ^r^fOT^rPir, ^^ftw- 
iTR^; ^^ft;^f^, ^Rf^n^ or -ft^, xM^Hmrf. Or ^sr^f^, ^RrTctFR(, &c. 
Or ^5?^^, ^i^T^, ^TT; ^5^^^, '^^^rm?^, ^^Tin^; -h^^hI^, ^f^, 
^^wff. Or ^ifl, ^ffr^, ^r|t ; ^fi^f^, ^r^^Fn^, ^^irn^ ; ^r^^f^, 
^l^S^, ^^^if. Prec, ^fr^Jl or ^^\^ or ^t^ (448. b). Cond, ^Sf^T^k 
or "4(^1:1 w(. Pass., Pres. fTm ; Aor. yrd sing. ^^ift. Caus., Pres, 
^ITqrfH or -^, or ^TTTnfH or -^ ; Aor. ^T^fNT?^. Des. f^^fTimftr or -^, 
fmi^mftr or -^, "l^fiT or -^ (503). Freq. ^^'^ (511) or ^t^, ^fiS. 
Part., Pres. ^TFTi^; Kim. c[^itf ; Past Pass. ^ ; Past Indecl. ^r^, 
-^W; Put. Pass, ^k!m or ^^ctlT^, ^TTn"^^, m^. 


676. Root ^J (special stems ^#, ^y^, see 352). Inf. ^Itg'^ *to 
hear.' Par. Pres. ^Tjftf??, ^piftf^, ^TiftflT ; ^J^^ or 5](r4^, ^^J^^, 
^?I1T^; ^J^'T^or^pm^j^-qj^jTiqfTir. /m/?/*.^i!j^,^?nh(,^TDh^; 
^qj^^ or 'si^pF, ^T^HK^, 'si^WT^; w^H or ^ST^H, 'si^J^, ^:|]IH<. 
Po^. ^^^. M^v. ^jW^, ^, ^'^; ^Tjmi^, ^rT^, ^m\', 
^'imTH, ^W, ^JTF^. Per/. (369) ^R, ^^jfrq, ^^T^; ^^, ^^Tg^9 
^5^^^' ^^' ^^ ^W^- ^^^ ^^^- '^TTftR- 2Wfl? P^/. '^TtqifiT. 
Aor, ^3r^^, -^HftMl^, ^^^tl^; ^J^fti^, ^T^?^, -SP^; ^i^ft^, ^i^, 

* Or "iJ<!lf^ avrinvahi. f Or ^^wf^ avrinmahi. 

J ^ is sometimes written with long n, in which case 374. k may be apphed. 
This root is placed by Indian grammarians under the ist class. 



^reft^. Tree. y^m\. Cond. ^Tsftai*i[. Pass., Pres. ^; Aor, 
^rd sing. w^xf^. Caus., Pres. ysiT^^lf^] Aor. ^%^^ or ^r^TSi^. 
Des. ^J^. Freq. ^\^, ^ft^ftfT or ^^^rr^ftr. Part., Pres. ^pTi^^; 
Past Pass. ^; Past Indecl. ^i^, -^W; Fut. Pass, ^im, ^Rxsftil, 

677. Root ^* (special stems ^^, yf^. Inf. vf^5^ or M^ ' to 
shake,' 'to agitate.' Par. and i^tm. Pres. ^tftf^T, ^^f^, ^'ftfiT; 
^^ or >j^, \^^, >jgw^ ; ^ir^ or ^^, ^t,, ^;^f^. A'tm. >J5^ ; 

^^> ^^ J ^^ ^ ^' ^^^' "^ i ^'^ 0^ ^> ^^^^ ^'^ 
Impf. ^?T^, ^^, ^^ ; "^^^ or ^?^?, 'Sl^^lTTi;, '31^3'"^ ^ "^ W^ 

or ^s^, ^^^fT, '3T^'^- -^tm. ^^N, ^i^'n^, ^^3^; ^^:3^^^ ^^ 

^^, ^^- A'tm. ^^1, ^^, ^?nT; ^5^, ^^^mn, ^J^^TTTT*?; 
^H^TTtI, ^W, ^'-^WT?^. Per/. (374. ^) |VR, 5>if^ or JVtTZi, 5>n^; 
W^^ f^^^' S^^3^ 5 ^^'^> f^^> SWC- ^tm. 1^^, ^f^, 5^ ; 
5^f^ 5?^T^' ?^^ W^'^^y W^^^ or -|, pf^. 1st Fut. vf^- 
iTTftR or vtinfiSR. J^tm. vf^rfT^ or vtlTT^. 2nd Fut. vf^^f^ or vhmfH. 
Kim., vf^ or vtw. -4or.* ^rvrf^^, ^sr>n^^, ^niR^; ^Jvrf^^"^, ^nn- 
f^T, ^VTf%CT?^; ^>nf^, ^^^?, ^rvrf^^. Or ^s^jt, -^^^, -^; 
^i^, ^T^jR, -m ; ^r^^, ^hi^f, ^nft^. Ktm. ^nrW^, ^vf^vrr^, 

f^^. Or ^wtf^, ^srvtOT^, 'snftF ; ^vt^f , ^^t^jt, -miinT; ^\i^f^, 
^H>ftfT, Wt^. Prec. ^^^. -^tm. %rf^il or vt^^. Cond. ^\I- 
f^iqiT or 5H^itBTH. Kim. ^>if^ or WT^. Pass., Pre*. ^; Aor. 
yrd sing, ^srvrf^. Caus., Pres. "^^^nftr or \n^nnfT; Aor. ^g^\jHH or 
'gV^. Des. J^^^TfiT, -^. Freq. ^^, ^^fiT or ^\Ntf^. Part., 
Pres. ^^; ^tm. ^^^; Past Pass. ^f or ^; Past Indecl. ^rt, 
-^^; Pm/. Pa55. vf^fPq or vhr^, V^rfhl, Hl^ or M^. 

a. Like ^may be conjugated ^ *to press out Soma juice,' which 
in native grammars is the model of the 5th class ; thus, Pres. ^ftf'T, 
&c. The two Futures reject i; 1st Fut. ^[fhnf^, &c. 
' 678. Root ^ or ^t (special stems ^'^, ^). Inf. "mftj^ or 

* This root may also be ^^fH &c., and also in the 9th class ; Pres. ^Tft?, 
^^9, ^^fW ; ^Tt^^, &c. ; see 686 : and in the 6th (^^^ 280). In the 
latter case the Aor. is ^flM*t^, &c. j see 430. 

t This root may also be corrugated as a verb of the 9th class ; thus, Pres. 
*J<!Jir*, muiffi, ^RTinftT ; t^^ulitt^, &c. See 686. 


^?ncT^ or ^^ * to spread/ * to cover .^ Par. and iitm. Pres, ^^n^fj?, 
&c. ; like ^ at 6"]^. Kim. '^^, ^^) &c- Impf. ^^TJi^. Kim. 
^^ftF. Pot. ^cn^^TT^. Kim. ^p^iT. Impv. ^TO^fff. Kim. '^%. 
Perf. {ci^2,.c, 374.^) imK, irer't, ir^crn:; irerftw, ttcr^, irerif^; 
frerf^T, h^ctt:, irer^^. i^tm. iTwt, nwW, tot ; irertat, ct^tt^j it^to^; 

rir<Ht, imf^ik or -^, wwfi^. 15^ Fut. ^ftifTf^r or W^T^R or ^^TfijT. 
Kim. ^Tjn| or ^rtin% or wtlt. 2nd Fut. ^fcanf^T or ^ER^^fiT. 
Kim. ^ft:^ or ^crtt^. Aor. '^i^jft^'^, -^, -di^; ^renfr^, &c. ; see 
6yS' Or 'stht^?^, -^, -'^; ^^Ern%, -h\, -ti^f;; 'gr^TT^, -t, -"f^. 
A'tm. ^T^^ft or ^iHT'tf^ or '^^f^ or ^SHtft. Prec. ^EcT^T^ or ^^TO?^. 
Kim. ^^\t{ or ^T^'t^ or ^^. Cond. ^HtTfT'tl'^ or ^TKT^TaiT^. i^tm. 
^wft:^ or ^i^cT^"^. Pass., Pres. (467) hW; Aor. ^rd sing, ^rerift:. 
Caus., Pres. ^TTTnf'T ; Aor. '^fireTT'^ or -iiriWC*|. Des. friwiT^fH, -^ ; 
or fHmtmftr, -^; or ftrefttrftr, -^*. Freq. WT^^ or H^xf, wrerf^ or 
d^wfn. Part., Pres. ^JTFn^; i^tm. ^IJ^T^ ; Past Pass, ^tt or ntrS 
(534) ; Past Indecl. ^i^, -^gft^, -^ ; Fw^. Pass, mfxn^ or Ort^ 
or HW3T, ^cn^jfhr, m^. 

679. Root i^eF* (special stems ^nfit, ^, ^\). /w/*. ^''^* to be 
able.' Par. Pres. ^B^fJT, ^f^, ^flT; ^Tf^, ^^, ^IfiT^; 
5If^^, ^5If^, ^rf^%. Iwjo/. -H5l*^H '^5iailH> ^T^i^; ^^f^ ^^f- 
ri'^, ^i^ifm^; ^^^TfH, "^r^w, 'si^if^. -Po^. ^^^p^. /w^v. ^rai^^, 
^% ^fr#i; ^rai^T^, ^^ifw?^, ^kv^; ^iwt^, ^fw, ^rf^^. -P^^/ 

^Ri, $f^R^ or ^^<*V|, ^i^TT^ ; ^f^, $^"^, $W5^ ; $f^T, ^, ^I^. 
15^ Fut. ^^Tfw. znd Fut. ^r^nftr. ^or. ^r^^^, -^, -^; -'siiR, 

-^lf'(, -^TTP^; -^ilH, -oRrr, -?F^. Or ^^ifohM*^, -=|ft^, -^tl^; ^T^ftlTB^, 
-f^n?T(, -FP^; 4151 fomr, -f^, -ffif^- -P^ec. l^r^RT^. Cond. "^^[^i^. 
Pass., Prc5. ^^; Aor. ^rd sing, ^^iftfi. Caus., Pres. ^oF^nft?; ^or. 
^^n^IcfcH,- I^es. %^^mfH or -fi^r^T, -"%t (503) Freq. ^T^^, 
^TT^rftCT or ^ir^i+lfH. Part., Pres. ^I^i^; ^tm. 51^414; Past Pass. 
^rai; Past Indecl. ^rw, -"^T^J -?^</. Pa**. ^^^, ^HRhr, ^^. 

680. Root "^ (special steins ^gift, ^, ^^)- Inf, ^^gr^'to 
prosper,' *to flourish,' *to increase.' Par. Pres. ^rfffn, ^W^f^, 
^ifVfw ; ^^p^, W^^, ^r^^ ; ^^?^^, ^^^, ^f^f^. Imp/. {251. a) 

* ^"^ is also conjugated in the 4th class, Parasmai and Atmane (Pres. ^i^mft? 
&c., ^I^); but it may then be regarded as a Passive verb. See 461. b. 

t This form of the Des. generally means 'to learn,' and is said by some to come 
from a root fj^. 

Q q a 


'*sii5i*(, ^nvf^, ^iwfr^; ^n^, ^rmTT*^, ^rTrp^ ; wr^, ^igw, ^nfi^. 
Pot. ^^^^. Impv. ^^gn^rf^, "^"^y "^^'i '^ir^^, '^f^tn^, -n^; 

'"i^^H' ^nj5iT, ^rnpi, ^rnj^. ist Fut. ^^hiPw. 2w? Fut. lErfv- 
Mif^i. ^0?*. ^srrfv^, ^TTvft^, ^mff?^; ^fv^, ^f^^^i^, -Tt^^; ^if^*^, 
'wrfv^, ^fv^. Or ^^, -^, -^; -^, &c. Prcc. ^wrra^. 
Cond. ^rrfjoi?^. Pass., Pre*. 's^Tfl; -4or. 3rrf5m^.^rrP. Caus., Pre*. 
wmf*T; Aor. ^ff>T^. Des. ^sfffwfH or ^t^'T iS^S)- Part., Pre*. 
^JSryr?^; Past Pass. "^ ; Pa*^ Indecl. ^^^ or ^^^, -^m ; Fut. Pass. 

68 1. Root ^JT^ (special stems ^srrrft, "e?T^, ^rw^). ^w/. ^btt^ *to 
obtain.' Par. Pre*. ^BnTTtfiT, ^mftfi^, ^JHTftfiT; w^^, ^nw(, 'sn^^; 
*iHf|^, ^BiHT^, ^n^^ftr. Imp/, ^rnr^, ^nrf^^, ^nrft?^; ^^5^, ^n^w^, 
-HP^; ystiWR, ^iT^fT, ssfw^;^. Pot. wcwm^^, Impv. ^TT?^^, ^0^1?, 
^nrftg; ^rwrr^, ^tt^itt^, -rfn^; ^tttitr, ^t^tt, hmim^^. Per/, wr, 
^ftR, ^sniT; ^fiT^, wnr^, ^mip;; ^iftw, ^ir, ^rr^. 1*^ Fut. 
^snw[fm. 2nd Fut. wwnf^. Aor. ^rfi% wm^, ^nri^; ^thtr, ^^tt*^, 
-W{; ^TOTT, ^TTff, m^. Free. ^TrqiHi^. Cbwc?. ^siTt;^^. Pass., 
Pres. ^TO ; -^or. ^rd sing. wfVr. Caus., Pre*. ^TTnnfT ; Aor. ^srrftw^. 
Des. (503) ^ Hn fH . Part., Pre*, w^; Pa*^ Pa**, ^sm; Pa*/ Iwc?ec/. 
wr^T, -^rro?; Pm/. Pa**, wrrai, ^rcRt^, terror. 

a. Root ^51 (special stems ^r^, w^, ^f^J* I^f^ ^fii9*t, or W|i^ 
*to obtain,' *to enjoy,' *to pervade.' ^tm. Pres. ^^, ^"^j ^'^rf; 
^npt, wg^, ^TCT^; ^^t, ^sl^, ^^^. Imjo/. ^T^f^, ^?TT^^n^, 
vr^; ^"^f^, 'NT'^^ivii*^^, ^n^^nrn^; ^"^ff^, wrgi***^, ^rr^^rr. Pot. 
w^^. Impv. ^?igt, wg^, ^r^Tn(; ww^t^, ^r^^nm^, ww^irn^; 
W^rot, W^oa^, ^^Mff l^ ^ . Perf. {^6y. c) ^iffr, ^STRf^^ or VHH^, 

ifTT#; ^^^nt or ^TRRarl (371), ^R^n^, ^sR^; ^Rf^ or 

^nT^, ^HR%i^ or ^TR^, WinO^ft. I8t Fut. ^f^iTT^ or ^r^. 
2nd Fut. ^H%^ or 'BI^. Aor. ^nf3|, ^"TOT^, ^STW ; ^n^?, ^t^"^t(, 
'snrpirnT; ^iwf^ , ^sifot, w^. Or 'snf^T^, ^%T^, ^f^; 
^?Tf^f^, ^f^m^, ^ r^ l V l HlH ; 'crTfi^rTf?, ^Tf^s^^r, i^f^^. Prec. 
'?T%^ or ^n^v. Cond. ^HT%^ or ^tto. Pass., Pres. ^r^; Aor. 
yd sing. 'snf^. Cans., Pres. ^HT^RifH ; Aor. wrfw^^- ^^^' 'rf^^- 
Freq. ^n^n^ (511. ) Part., Pre*. ^^^R; Pa*/ Pass, ^srftp or 
^nr; Pa*/ Indecl. %1in or 'wrjrr, -1?^; Fut. Pass, ^f^pm or ^IFT, 




6S2,. Root ^ kri, Infin. o|i|iT kartum, * to do^ (SSS)' 

"SBrnftr karomi 
cF^Ctf^ karoshi 
flFuflT karoti 

WSRT^JT akaravam 
|oCl^ akaros 

^^W* kurydm 
"^^T^ kuryds 

oFT^ftjy karavdni 
^^ ArMrw 
^FUg karotu 

^oRK (faMra (368) 
^ouQ dakartha 

cfiri I ftjH kartdsmi 
flfiHrftl kartdsi 
^T Ararte' 

<lifiC5nf^ karishydmi 
cfift^ftl karisJiyasi 
cfift^^lfiT karishyati 

Parasmai-pada. Present TensCy ' I do.' 

^^* A;Mrras ^^* A;MrTOa5 

^^^ kuruthas '^^M kurutha 

<^^A\ kurutas '^f^^ kurvanti 

Imperfect, * I was doing/ or * I did.' 

^^5 akurva (73) ^g|*i akurma (73) 

"^^ri>T akurutam Sei^^A akuruta 

K ^ ^ ATT^ akurutdm ^^^^ akurvan 

Potential, * I may do/ &c. 
^^T^ kurydva "^^TH kurydma 

"^"mii^kurydtam ^^ITiT kurydta 

^mTITTT kurydtdm ^f^ kuryus 

Imperative, * Let me do,' &c. 

^Wi^ karavdva 'n<<lTH karavdma 

^^n*t kurutam '^^ri kuruta 

"J^lfTH kurutdm ^^nj A;MrTawfM 

Perfect, * I did/ or * I have done/ 

^^^ 6akrwa ^^^ dakrima 

^jn^t^ dakrathus IHi (faibra 

^^jp^ 6akratus ^^^ dakrus 

First Future, * I will do.' 
<*Ht^^ kartdsvas ^HT^^ kartdsmas 

flfitr^^ kartdsthas ^TW kartdstha 

fti?iii kartdrau nnKt^^ kartdras 

Second Future, * I shall do/ 

eRfr^lT^ karishydvas <^^K^\H\ karishydmas 

^fifbH^ karishyathas cfcOimVi karisJiyatha 

^r<tfK^^ karishyatas ^^<^^*n karishyanti 

* ^^ ^"^j '^'^'^j &jC., would be equally correct ; see 73. An obsolete form 
^fl for ciTtftf is found in Epic poetry. 



W4m*( akdrsham 
^iiifl'i^ akdrsMt 

Aorist, * I did/ 
<*1^ akdrshva 
^niiTl^ akdrshtam 
**<*l^l'^ akdrshtdm 

^niTP^ akdrshma 
^r^% akdrshta 
"WcST^ akdrshus 

Precative or Benedictivey * May I do/ 

faWnn^ kriydsam 
f^^TR^ itriyos 

^lift!T'^ akarishyam 
^Miir<.M^ akarishyas 
"f<*r<mi akarishyat 

ri*ll^ kriydsva 
ftnmm*\ kriydstam 
faS^rrerT^ kriydstdm 

Conditional^ * I should do.' 
'wi<*RMii akarishydva 
^rafrrmf'^ akarishyat 

ffli^llw kriydsma 

^ir<mi akarishydma 

^ ^.,^ . ,.yv..^,., VH<*r<U|H akarishyata 

"<*Klrtl*( akarishyatdm ^ToFfTTTf^ akarishyan 


683. Xtmane-pada. Present Tense, * I do/ 

^ Arwrrc (73) ^^ kurvahe ^^ kurmahe 

^^H kurushe ^%rT kurvdthe ^^ kurudkve 

^t^n kurute ^%Tn kurvdte ^W kurvate 

Imperfect^ * I was doing,' or * I did.' 

^r^f^ aArurrt (73) 
^^tjjT akuruta 

^'qTn kurviya 
f^Vj l ^ kurvUhds 
"^pffiT kurvita 

"W^ karavai 
^^l kurushva 
^tjniH kurutdm 

^ <5aJtrc 
^^ dakrishe 
^W (5aA:re 

w^^f^ akurvahi 
"e^^l^l*t^ akurvdthdm 
^<^'i[n\\ akurvdtdm 

Potential, * I may do.' 
^^Wl^ kurv<vahi 
^<Tmi'MI*( kurv(ydthdm 
^^^\M\ kurv{ydtdm 

Imperative, * Let me do.' 

^<m^ karavdvahai 
^T^TP^ kurvdthdm 
^^WTHTH kurvdtdm 

^r^^f^ akurmahi 
^^<xSc|T^ akurudhvam 
v<55rt akurvata 

^^*i^l^ kurvmahi 
^^t^ kurvidhvam 
^^lj\ kurviran 

^T^TR^ karavdmahai 
'^isVB(H^ kurudhvam 

^%TrPf kurvatdm 

Perfect, * I did,' or * I have done.' 

^^^ (^akfivahe ^^W^ (^akfimahe 

^^c cakfidhve 

^WT^ dakrdthe 

"irii 6akrire 



First Future, * I will do.^ 
cRffT^ kartdhe "^JW^ Jcartdsvahe olitT^T^ kartdsmahe 

^WT% kartdse "^WX^ hartdsdthe oRtr?^ kartddhve 

"^mf kartd "^vd kartdrau "'^^Uj^kartdras 

Second Future, * I shall do.' 

^ft?arr^ karishydvahe '^Tk^IH^ karishydmahe 

BRr^ karishye 
^T^TO karishyase 
mtWf karishyate 

^I^ftr akrishi 
^I^^T^ akrithds 
^I^K akrita 

^^'^ krisMya 
^^ft?T^ krisMshthds 
^^ft? krisMshta 

ciiK(S^ karishyadhve 
^KWtT karishyante 

^^flH^ akrishmahi 
^f^*i^ akridhvam 
^^ akrishata 

"af^Tvp^ karishyethe 
'<*r<Wiif karishyete 

Aorist, * I did.' 
^I^^f^ akrishvahi 
^^mtlli^ akrishdthdm 
^BT^mirTT akrishdtdm 

Precative or Benedictive, * May I do.' 

^^^^ krisMvahi ^^fhrf^ krisMmahi 

^^M\^TR^ krishiydsthdm ^^ScfH krisMdhvam 
^^tlirenH krisMydstdm "^^^^ krisMran 

Conditional, * I should do.' 
^flfifCOl akarishye 'SToRfllWT^f^ akarishydvahi "^S^TW^f^ akarishydmahi 

^'!^fty^'VX^^akarishyathds vi ofiP^iM Ml^Mkarishyethdm '^SC^fTy^lS^^akarishyadhvam 
S^dk^imH akarishyata ^:^T.'^Wm^akarishyetdm ^<*r<Hid akarishyanta 

Pass., Pres. f^^; -t^or. 3r</ ^iw^. ^^Rif^ (7oi)- Caus., Pre*. 
sRHTnfiT; -^or. ^^ti|ft^. Des. f^^trfH, -^ (503). Freq. ^^"ft, 
'qlif^ or 'qfc^^ or ^t't^M or ^%^tfH or ^?:5F^*T or 'qtt^irrifH (Pari. 
VII. 4, 93). Part., Pre*. ^%1^; Xtm. f%n!T; Pa*/ Pa**. ^; Past 
Indecl. ^firr, -^w; P/. Pass, ^t^, ^i?ll^, ^. 

684. Only nine other roots are generally given in this class. Of these the 
commonest is H^'to stretch,' conjugated at 583. The others are, ^JTTT *to go,* 
'Bflff and f^P^^ * to kill ' or * to hurt,' "^TH ' to shine,' 1^ ' to eat grass,' 1^ ' to 
imagine,' Atm. ; ^P^ 'to ask,* ^^ *to give.' As these end in nasals, their 
conjugation resembles that of verbs of cl. 5 at 675 ; thus 

685. Root Tipn (special stems "cpjV, ^). Inf. vsiPiil^*^ * to kill,' 
* to hurt.' Par. and -^tm. Pres. spjfrf'T, ^pftf^, TjTlflfrr ; ^?^^, &c. 
Atm. ^B|?^, TSJ^^, &c. Impf. ^Epi^'^, ^^juft^, &c. Atm. ^^^1%. 
Pot. ^^l^\\. Kim, "^^iT. Impv. T^^[fH. i^tm. TSprl. Per/. 
^^p^, ^^Tir^, '^TifTO; ^^ftji^, ^vsinr^^, ^^i^g^; ^njftuT, ^^w, ^^- 
^. Kim. ^^iii, ^^?o^, "^^5 ^^fw^, '^lOT, ^^epiTff ; ^^^^r^, 



^wftiT^, 'ivsjriul.. i*^ FuU. u^fiuinf^. Kim. njftsnn?. 2nd Fut. 
^fftjnqrfiT. Atm. "^^. Aor. ir8^ftrRT|[, -?!jt^, -Tsrh^; ^irajftjrf, -fm^, 
-TT^; ^vsfHu***, -1%?, -1%^^. i^tm. ^r^rftnf^, ^^^fruTR^ or ^TT^^gr^ 
(424. c), ^BT^35i or viisirt ; vijr<ur^, -fuinnn'i[, -fiumdi*!^; s^Hjruji+^r^, 

j^tm. ciUfOcavT. Pass., Pre*, x^ ; Aor. yd sing. ^r^\fm, Caus., Pres, 
^yninnftT; ^or. ^rf^^'^. Des. pMBfriUMrf^T, -^. Freq. ^^rgrw, ^^^qf^w. 
Part., Pres. Wf'^t KXm. vsj^miH ; Pa*^ Pa*. Tp; Past Indecl. 73^ 


686. Root ^ yu, Infin. 'if^^ yavitum, * to join,* * to mix.* 
Parasmai-pada. Present Tense, * I join.* 

^niftf yundsi ^T^^I^ yunithas ^fl'M yunitha 

^nfrt yundti ^*fldf^^ yunitas ^wPm yunanti 

Imperfect y * I was joining,* or * I joined.' 
^^11*1, ayundm vi^*ilq ayunwa 'w^fli ayunima 

xi^ni^ ayunds ^T5ft WT ayunUam ^^f^iT ayunita 

^ m^ ayundt vt^*ilrti#i^ ayunitdm ^'^ yfl 

Potential, * I may join.' 

^l"l*<l** yuniydm ^t^TR yuniydva ^hI^IIM yuniydma 

^rfhn^ yuniyds ^fft^TTTH yuntydtam ^nlMin yum'ydta 

^^mty^yuntydt ^ ll <H m*i^ yuntydtdm ^ ft^ yuniyiw 

Imperative, * Let me join.' 

]JTTfT yundni ^^TR yundva ^^if yundma 

^^^^(\f^ yun{hi *^^nn^yun{tam ^-iln yuniVo 

^I'i yundtu '^'^M^^yunitdm ^^*t^yunantu 

Perf. gin^, ^iTfT^I or ^ift^y, ijin^; ^f^, ^^^. "^TI^; ii^, 
3i^ 1^1^* ^*^ ^*'^* ''^^^^ or H>7TTncR*. 2wrf i*W. irf^xqifH. ^or. 

firf^^j -^t^, -^^; j4^iriM, -f^r^, -f^rer^^; ^^irlV^, -f^, -f^^. 
Prcc. ^^nn^. Cone?. ^nrfT'l'^. 

* Some authorities give ^Jlfiifv* &c. af the only form. See Laghu-kaum. 724. 

1 . 687. 

.^n yune 
^priM yunishe 
^*!T^ yumte 


Atm ANE-PADA. Present Tense, * I join/ 

^^Tir^ yunhahe ^rft>T^ yunimahe 

g-TT"'! yundthe <3rftd yunidhve 

^niff yundte Tp^Jt yunate 

Imperfect, * I was joining/ or * I joined.^ 


^rT ayuni 
^fl^n^ ayunithds 

^JnPT yuniya 
^TTiT yunita 

^ft^ yunishva 
JnTinf yunitdm 

^qrfli^f^ ayummahi 
vj^llsel^ ayunidhvam 
'^rm ayunata 

^fmT^ yunimahi 
^ft^'T yumdhvam 
^pfl T^. yuniran 

^I^tftrf^ aytmivahi 
^"^AkMk^ ayundthdm 
^i5*flffr*t^ ayundtdm 
Potential, * I may join.* 
^llir^ yunivahi 
Imperative, * Let me join.* 
glt^^ yundvahai ^*Iffl^ yundmahai 

^n\'**l*i^yundthdm ^"^l^fJ^yumWivam 

^WlilT'*^ yundtdm ^'THTH yunatdm 

^^^/. ii^, ii^> fS^; l^f^, ll^i^ ^^^; l^f^t, 1I^^ 

Prcc. ^rf^^ir. Cowfi?. ^Tif^. Pass., Pre^. 1^; 15/ Pw/. ^f^lt; 
^or. 3rc? 5m^. ^nnf^. Cans., Pre^. i|T^inf*T; ^or. ^iftii^T^. Des. 
f ^fir or finrf^wrfH. Freq. ij^^, ^i^fjf or ift^^^fifT. Part., Pre*. 
^*n^; ^tm. ^tTTIT ; Pa^f Pa**. ^H ; Pa*/ Indecl. ^fh, -^ ; Pm/. Pass, 
7jf%H^, ^^fl^l, ^T^ or im. 


688. Root ^ (special stems "inn, iTT^, "5TTi;, 361). Iw/l^*^'to 
know.' Par. and ^tm. Pre*. iTrfnfH,*rFnf?r, *n^Tf?r; =iTm1<^, 'fT^^^, 
"STR^H^; "STFfNi^, ^^fN, ITT^nT. -^tm. ITT^, inf^^, 'Tl'ftW; n^^?, 

^Mi^, ^TRm ; in^flt, iri^s^, wr^. Imp/. ^nn^i[, ^^n^^n^, ^wr^; 
'W'JmIw, ^iwTrr'hT'^, >HrR^iT^; ^^nrt'', ^irnfVrf, ^RTitit^. Atm. ^?nfVr, 
^rwRhrr^, ^r^TRtir; ^nrRl^f , ^t^tttrp^, ^wrthtt^; ^ptrW^, ^rt- 

^p^, ^^TTfTiT. Pot, nr^fi^lt^^. i^tm. iTFTt^. Impv, "iTRTf^, 'TT^tf^, 
^TFTT^; ^TRT^, ^THlH*i^, ^TR'hfT^; ^mrm, ^TR'tW, ^rR^. ^im. ilT^, 
^rnft^, ^MlriT; THN^, WrfTTOT^, iTRn!T^; 3IHIH$, WT'fts^'^, '5nTHT'^. 
P^rf' (373) ^^ ^%^ or ^T?T^, IT^ ; iTf^, ^TF^^, ^^i; ; ^^, ^^, 

?T^. Atm. ^, irf^, tS ; ^f^%, w^rr^, ^r^w; wf^t, wf^i^, t%t. 
1st Put. ^irijfw. 3Wfi? Put. ^TT^qifH. ^or. (433) ^l^ftc^, ^^^t^, 

R r 


"w^mli^; ^i^H^, ^i^ft?^, 'Ti^; w^\fwfiy -ftr?, -fwj^. Atm. "^surftr, 

Prec. ^mvf^ or ^rFTT^'^. Atm. ^rrohr. Cond. ^ ^ i ^ ^. Atm. ^r^rr^. 
Pass., Fres. (465. a) ^rr^ ; Petf. Sf^ (473) ; isi Fut. ^rmT? or ^rrftnnl 
(474) ; 2nd Fut. ^rrd or irrf^ ; Aor. ^rd sing. ^s^xr. Caus., Pres. 
fmnnfH or ^^J^f^ ; Aor. ^iT^ni[. Des. fiT^ (-^*T, Epic). Freq. 
^T^^, ri^rTff or nfT. Part., Pres. in^; Kim. HT^TR ; Past Pass. 
^mr; Pc*^ IndecL '^r^n, -^rnr; Pw/. Pa**, ^rnr^, ijpft^, Inr. 

689. Root ^ (special stems "^^t, TKhnt, "ashrr, 358. a). //?/. ^^ * to 
buy.^ Par. and A'tm. Pres. "^Nnftr, "SftTrrTftT, l^mxfn ', TKhttt^^, -Shhot^^, 
^^rld^; ^tTTftii^, -^^j^, -gShrftT. Kim. ^, ^'hift^, ^Shnft; "SKhn^, 
"SRhnr^, ^'^'OTit; '^'NItt^, "gRhiftji, "^huTi. Jwjo/. ^"aSNiT^^, ^rgfihur^, 
^rahuTi^; ^r?fit?ift?, ^iRt^tTn^, ^rgst^lHi*^; w^ftrnlT, washotir, ^rahn^. 
Atm. ^gfl'ftiT, ^"^hrft^n^, ^^Wtrr; wjshnhrff , ^"a'hDT^n'=(, ^"aShimn'T; 
^T^hrftRf^, ^?mt^w, ^^^7T. Pot. ^5hnl^. Atm. -^t^iihi. Impv. 
"sihjnfW, "ast^T'lV, sKt^; "gHwR, "sftTdtcTH, "^TntinH; "^krnr, 'g(hnViT, ^tw^r. 
i^tm. -^m, ^^'Nr, "aftJirtinT^; "SRhnr^t, is^^iwr, "akmrr^; isshmT^, 
^SNfti^K, ^tTnirrH. Perf. (374. c) f^ranr, f^ftj^ or fq^, f^w^; 
f^fflifV?^, f^iaixr^, f^f^^ip^^; fqftsftm, f^fajir, f^-^g^. A'tm. fqf^, 

f^^ftl^,f^^^; f^%f^^|,f^^xrR, -UTT^; f^fg!ftRt,f'^-3if^^or-|, 
f^Wri. 15/ Fut. Wt^^T^{' Atm. ^inf . 'Znd Fut. ^iqiftr. Atm. 
^. Aor. '^s^;^, -^, -i;itf^; ^1;^, -?h, -i?^;?; ^sli^T, -7, -"fF^. 
Atm. ^?^, -in^, -F ; ^^r^ff , -^nHH, -miTR ; ^nf^, ^^^^, ^rawir. 
Prec. ?iSt^inw. Atm. ^"t^. Cond. ysrk^. Atm. ^^. Pass., 
Pres, "ft; -^or. 3rc? *%. ^rwf^. Caus., Pre*. HiPrmftr; -^or. ^rfVg^. 
Des. f^Tl?W^, -^. Freq. '$^, ^f^ or ^iW^tf^. Part., Pres. 
w^t^^i Atm. "aJNn^; Pa*/ Pass, "ashr; Po*^ /wcfec/. "jiStr?!, -?j5h; 
JVi/. Pa**. ^^, gniTEft^, ^. 

690. Like iSt is irt * to please.' Pre*. ifhinfiT ; Atm. ij^. Caus., 
Pre*. i?h!nnfT or imnnftr ; Aor. ^sf^^vm^ or ^finfho'^*. Des. frnrhnfir. 
Freq. ^ift^. 

691. <5 (special stems g^, 75^% <5^, 358), *to cut,' follows ^, 
*to purify,' at 583; thus, Pres. c^HffH ; Atm. 75^. Po/. <5?fNT^; 
Atm. <^^. Perf. cjHT^; Atm. igr^^. ist Fut. cjfTOfw. 2nd 
Fut. Hfr^nf*?. ^or. firilf^M^. 

692. Root i|^^ (special stems -Wffly "Wt, ^). Jw/. Vli^ ' to bind.' 

Forster gives ^f^nWH? ; Westergaard, 'MfWHliU**. 


Par. Pre5.wwfiT,^]nftT,wwTffT; 'wt^,^irt^,'^iftTr^; ^vfh?^, "^^fhi, 
Wiif^. Imp/. w^wj{y ^rsrw^, ^RKTT^; ^^^, ^r^>rhT^, -inr^ ; ^R^ftT, 
^i^>i^, ^r^iFi;. Pom-^TTff^. Imjor. -^inftr, "^Tvnr (357. ), ^rurg ; ^w^> 
^>ftfr^,-ITT^; ^m,^^,"^M^. Per/. ^^, -^ffUTzr or g^:i or t^^ 

(298. ), ^^Ri; w^i^?if^, ^^^^, ^^^y^M,; ^^f^, ^^FH, "^^^g^. 

jst Fut. "^^irrftR. 2nd Fut. wmi^ (299. a). Aor, ^WrW^ (299. a), 
^WT Wt^, '3T>iT^f^; ^MPr^, ^^IV^T^, 'SRT^JIP^ ; ^m^r^??, ^^T^, ^>TPT|^. 
Free, ^vrr^. Cond. ^Hn^. Pass., Prc5. (469) ^. Caus., Pre*, 
^^^fir; Aor.'^sf^w^. Des. f^>Tn^fiT (299. a). Freq. ^^, ^fTTftwT, 
^TT^^fiT. Part., Pres. "^WT^^; P5^ P5*. "^ ; Past Indecl. sf^, -'^m; 
Fut. Pass. ^:g^, 4^r ft TT, t^tuj. 

693. Root 5JI?"^ (special stems ?j^, ?l^, ?I^, 360). Iw/*. Jlf^'I^'^ 
* to string,* * to tie.' Par. Pres. IT^fn, ?r^^> H^lfrt ; H^^M,, H^^R^* 

?r^^; ?r^Hi^, ir^, zr^f^- Imp/. ^?r^T, ^n^^, ^ir^n^; ^sfzr^w, 

^r?r^ jTH, -tttH ; 'SJrjvftH, ^snj^iT, ^?T^f!;. Pot. ?7^hTr'T. Impv. ?i^Tf^, ?i^n^ 
(257. ), ?I^Tl ; ?rgT^, ir^fT^, -iTT*t; tt^tr, zr^, n^. Per/, {^y^- ^0 
^RI^*, Siiffrvivf or ^fepir, W?J^* ; ^il^i-vr^ or $fq^, ^RI^^ or d^'^, 
^'Ir'^Tp^ or ^^rp^ ; iRjfr^m or ^f^qw, ^?I^ or ^^, ^T?T^^ or d"^^* 
I*/ Fm^ ^rTqiTTftff. Q,nd Fut. ?lf?^mTftT. ^or. ^^fiTZIW, -^^t^, -^^, 
&c. Prec. u^i^H. Cond. ^r^ f^^um . Pass., Pre*. (469) 5^. Caus., 
Pres. ?IT^nnfH; -4 or. ^Hil^-^H. Des. ff?i1V^RT^. Freq. aTT?T^, 
'iy-'^/H, if?T?^fiT. Part., Pres. Tni\; Past Pass, iff^; Past Indecl. 
?jftTf^T or ?lf^^zii^, -r:^7^ ; Fut. Pass, i irr^ri-sq, ?p!T^^, If^^. 
a. Like ?p^^ is conjugated ^51^^ * to loosen,' *n^ * to churn.' 

694. Root Wt (special stems ^^T, "^^, "^j- -^H/^ "#^H^ *to 
agitate.' Par. Pres. "5|wfH, ^wftr, "^f?! ; ^vt^, T|hl^, "^^^; 
Tfftft*!^, "^^jhr, ^f%. Imj9/.^'g\n'^,^^w^,^^Tii;; ^^^^,^^ytrn^, 
-TTT*^; ^^vf^T, ^^tiT, ^^^. Pot. wtfhn^. Im2)v. wg\f^, T^vtrm 
(357- , 58), "^wg; ^T^, ^^VM;, -rTTii;; ww^, -^w, "^v^. Per/. 

i*^ Fut. ^ftrmf^T. 2w? Fut. ^ftnqrftr. ^or. ^^V^rii'f;, -"R^, -^j &c. 

Or ^I^J?, ->T^, ->?T^; -HT^, -HTUT, ->TWW; -HTH, ->TTT, -H^. Pree. ^WTTW. 
Cond. W5ftfTBiTiT. Pass., Pre*. '^^; -^or. ^rd sing. ^^f^. Caus., 
Pres. "S^^ftr; ^or. ^^^w. Des. '^^tftT^Tfj? or ^^mfH. Freq. 

* Some authorities give the option of "iRIT^ in the 1st and 3rd of the Perf. 
Compare 339. 
t Also cl. 4, Intransitive, *to be agitated;' Pres. ^^uf'f!, 612. 

R r 2 


^W>^, ^^hfrfwT {^rd sing, ^^h^fiw). Part., Pres. TgVI^; Past Pass. 
TOT or ^fWiT ; Past Indecl. "W^^ or iffftrRH, -"^ ; Put. Pass. "C^f^nriT, 
T^^>n!fh? (58), ^>WT. 

695. Root ^cW^^ (special stems ^ftvt, ^JTVt, ^, 360). Inf. wfi*!^*^ 
*to stop/ *to support.^ Par. Pres. m\^f^; like w^T, 694. /t??;?/*. 

^mw^. Po/. ??Tvt^. Impv. ^TfW, ^tWT^ (357. 0), ^trw|; ^Fnn^, 

^nftrl^, -TTT^; WWT, ^tRftiT, ^rW^. Pe?/. iTOT^T, fl^fw^, im^; 

2nd Put. ^f^>ranfT. ^or. ^srerfw^J^, -^, -ftT^, &c. Or TreT>^, 
-^, -HT^; -HR, -vriT^, -HiTT'^; -HTR, -vnr, -W^. Prcc. fFrwnH^. Cond. 
^?^fiH^. Pass., Prf 5. ^FT^. Caus., Pre^. ^^rw^nftr ; Aor.'^im^f^. 
Des. frrerfTH^fi?. Freq. htcw, irrerwfH or iTTH'^ftf'T. Part., Pres. 
^tTVT^; Past Pass. WV; Past Indecl. W3^ or Hfwn^; Fut. Pass. 

696. Root ^5rt (special stems ^Bi^, ^ijft, w^). Inf. ^f^w *to 
eat.' Par. Pres. w^ftr, VM ^i fa , ^rwifrr; ^^^, ^t^^^, w^l!^; 
^^t*T^, ^^^, ^r^f^. Jm/?/. ^TTOW, ^irwT^, ^T^; ^rr^H, ^n^inr, 
-inT ; 'TPrft'T, ^rraftiT, ^stto^. Po/. w^mn. /m;?v. ^tot^t, ^w^ (357. a), 
^rwig ; wwr^, ^r^fT*T, -iTR ; wwr*?, ^r^w, ^w*^. Per/, ^rr^, 'wjfiiinr, 
^mt; ^f?!^, ^^r^, ^rr^r^; ^f^, ^^, ^i^^. 15/ Pm^ ^%inf^. 
2nd Fut. ^ftfnqrfiT. ^or. W^?^, ^o^t^, ^^fti^; ^tP^i*^, wf5[nrT, 
WT%Fm; wf^, ^n%?, ^ftfr^^. Prec. ^^in^. Cond. ^n%WT. 
Pass., Pre5. ^T^. Caus., Pre*, vn^rqifn ; Aor. ^Jf^^. Des. ^%- 
f^nrfiT. Freq. ^T^^ (511- ) Part., Pre*. ^^; Pa*/ Pass, ^(f^; 
Past Indecl. ^%rJT, -^T^; Pm/. Paw. wf^q, 'er^nftiT, wr^. 

697. Root f^rar (special stems f^rai, f^i^, %w). Iw/*. ^ffV^^ or 
Jj^^ * to harass.' Par. Pres. f^Parftr ; like "W5T, 696. Imp/. ^f^rWTH, 
^f^WT^, ^firaiT^; ^rf^r^t?, ^f^F^rhnr, -ttr; ^fii^t^T, ^rfir^tw, 'wfiF^. 
Pot. fgnrft^. /m/w. f?ir^fW, f^iRfn^, &c. P/. f^|i^, f^lsf^ or 
f^i^, f^WJ f^^f^rf^ or f^rf^ng (371), f^r^^vj^, -^rp[; f^fprf^ 
or fqf^!^, f^fsF^, f^rfpiTO. ist Fut. luf^irrfw or ^rerrfw. 2nd Fut. 

^if^nmf'r or Jh^s^iifH. Aor. ^f^r^, -^'t^, -^'^; ^f^r^, -f^i k*?^, 
-f^TCTH ; iM^r^i'^, -f5[r?, -f^^. Or ^rf^reiH, -"E?^, -"E^^; -W^j -W^^, 
-VSJfffM^; -"E^, -"^j -"^ (439). Prec. f^r^THfW. Cowc?. ^riif^rnT or 
Yi^i^m. Pass., Pres. fwi^ J Aor. ^rd sing. Tsrirf^. Caus., Pres. ^^Hlf^; 
^or. ^f^rfpJ^T. Des. f^^f^infT or f^f^[nnf*T or fidliraiTf'T. Freq. 

This root also follows cl. 5 ; thus, Pres. wtTll**. See 675. 
t This is a different root from ^9^^cl. 5. See 682. 


^%5^,^iff^. Part., Pre*. fir^; Past Pass, fw^ or f^f^; PastlndecL 
flJfT or fir%r^, -flF^ ; Put. Pass. Jrf^sq or ^f^t, Jl^Tft^, ^^iT. 

698. Root gw (special stems ^Btni, '^W\, ^). Inf. ^'^f^'^ * to 
nourish.^ Par. Pres. gnnif^r, giEiinftr, fainfw; g^'^^, iJwfhR^, 
gwlTT^; ^antT^, 5^tjfN, T|B[nf^. Imp/, ^^^im^, ^g^iin^, ^ijwni^; 
^g^ift^, ^Hn^fi^, -ln^^'y ^wk, ^g^tiT, sHymi^. Pot. '^ m \* i}*{ . 

/mpt;.^^TfVT,5qTOr(357.),gWTg; ^xtrn^, ^^rftiri^, -HT^ ; ^x^n??, ^xtrrtiT, 
^^[n*^. For the rest, see tjw cl. 4 at 621. 

699. Root 7^ (special stems jj^jt, r^^ 3j^, 359 ; see 399. a). 
W' V:t^ ' to take." Par. and A'tm. Pres. 'Jl^fn, 1"^^^^, T^^ 
'raJM;, 'TO^'^, T^tw^; 're^'T^, T^ft^, T^fnT. A'tm. 3j^, 3f^%, 

^^1^. '^'i^i'l,; ^T^^' '^^l^lrtH' ^^ir^"^; ^iT^'f> ''T^^w, 

TST^- Atm. 3j^, ^i"^-?, T^Stm^; t^^rI, T^t^, TO?nn^; 
T^'tI, T^*^^, 'rerfiT^. Perf. (384) iT?n^, -sRif^, inn? ; ^^f^, 

^1, ^PI^T^, iT^ra ; ^r?^, wi^\^ or -|, r7f^. \st Put. ij ^lri i f gr 
(399. ). Xtm. ?i?^fTT|. 2nd Put. ^j^lufrPH. -A^tm. ?T?^. ^or. 
^ITf^^^, ^RTF^;, ^^ni^X' ^'^'^^ '^^T^^,, ^m^TH ; 'ST^Tf^JT, VHJjjlg , 
^^T^"^- ^t"^- '^iT^f^, '3T?T?'^i?T^, ^ny^F; ^r?T?^f^, ^ij^lmvfii^, 
^lTf'^mTn^;^lI^^f,'5r?rf'ti<si^,^?I^^. Prec.3|^^. Atm.Jj^i^'N. 
Oofi?.3ii4^'lqi^. Atm.^JT^i^. Pass., Pre*. 7[^; Per/". "5pjf; 1st Put, 
^Tf'^in^ or ?lTf^lTT^ ; 2c? Pw/. ?I^^ or gifi^u^; Aor. ^rd sing, ^nnf^, 
yrd pi. ^if^^ti or ^?n%^ Caus., Pres. ?jT?iiTfH ; -4or. ^ffftrjT^. 
Des. fd^^rfn, --^ {5^3)' Freq. Ttt^, iTT?l% (3rc? *%. ^imfe) or 
^T?l?'VfH (711). Part., Pres. 'f^; Atm. J|^iw; Po*^ Pass. ^tK; 
Past Indecl 'J^rTT, -^; Pm^. Pa**. ?I^ir5iT, ?i^^tt, ?n^. 


700. Root ^ da (465). Infin. ^r^ datum, * to be given.* 

^ r ! * present Tense, *I am given.* . I 

^hl c?iye ^'^^R? diydvahe ^M\n^ diydmahe ; V 

^^hr&c/tyflse ^^"^ diyeMe "^lilSl dtyadhve t 



^({M ad{ye 
^r(\x(^\^^ ad{yathd 
^^1(rt adiyata 

^t^ni diyeya 
^W'!TR( dtyethds 
^^^ diyeta 

Imperfect y * I was given.' 

^"Vm^ir adiydvahi ^T^fhnHf^ adiydmahi 

^t^r^rf^ adtyethdm ^l^tEP^ adtyadhvam 

^t^mr'^ adtyetdm ^^hpiT udiyanta 

Potential^ * I may be given/ 

^^M^fi? dtyevahi ^Im^iP^ dtyemahi 

^^VJfXW:^^ diyeydthdm ^^r^ dtyedhvam 
^4*4ini*t^ diyeydtdm 'ft^tr^ dtyeran 

Imperative, * Let me be given.' 

^^Tsr^ dtydvahai ^^"m^^ dtydmahai 

<;1mmi#^ dtyethdm ^"ms^i^ diyadhvam 

^1<ini*^ diyetdm ^^TfrP^ dtyantdm 

'Perfect y * I have been given.' 

^^^ dadivahe fjf^H^ dadimahe 

^^ daddthe ^^^ dadidhve 

^TTI daddte ^f^ c?odire 

l^ir/ Future, * I shall be given.' 

^HT^^ ddtdsvake ^ii<W5 ddtdsmahe, &c. 

^^ipMfiKji^ ddyitdsvahe t^\?Mniw^ ddyitdsmahe, &c. 

Second Future, * I shall be given.' 

<;itmij ddsydvahe ^T^TTf ddsydmahe, &c. 

^ftnm^ ddyishydvahe ^if^^RT^ ddyishydmahe, &c. 

Aorist, * I was given.' 

^f^T^^ adishvahi ^H^^Hpf adishmaki 

W^ftl^^rf^ addyishvahi ^[^f^^{^ addyishmahi 

WP<;m^I*t^ adishdthdm 'Blf^^*^ adidhvam 

^^Jf^^TVJ^addyishdthdm ^^jf^m^^addyidhvayn (-^) 

-^ J r ^HPi^mrtlH adishdtdm wP^Mrt adishata 

^^JTladdyi, it was given,' < ___-, ___e___ 

Prcc. ^^^ or ^iflKtl, &c. (7orf. ^T^ or fJi^iPMuJ. 

701. Root ^ Arfi (467). Infin. |!|*^ kartum, * to be made' or * done.' 
Present Tense, * I am made.' Imperfect, * I was made.' 

ftuqiir fis^ f^d j ^rf^nn^ ^ftR^'^rr'^^ ^fT^^n( 

f^^ ftiwir fnw^ I irfiiPinT wfw^WT'^ vPwiRr 

^Tm rfiyai 
^^IT^ diyasva 
j(\At\\f{^ diyatdm 

"^ dade 
^f^ dadishe 

{^TifT5 ddtdhe or 
qiP*inl^ ddyitdhe 

J ^T^ rfaye or 
[ ^rftW ddyishye 

{^?f^ftl ac?i5At or 
^T^rf^f^ addyishi 
r ^5f^^rnfl[ adUUds or 
[ W^rf^TOT^ addyishthda 



Potential, * I may be made/ 

Imperative, * Let me be made.' 
f^nrrn^ fmKV\ f^R^in^ 


First Future. 
JofitTf ^WT^^ ohrilW^, &c. 

[ or ^r<flQ wftin^f *ini.riiw^,&c. 
Second Fut. oirfT^ or "SRifOT, &c. 


'Ci^fT^ or ^^RTftfiEr 
^^pn^ or ^onifi^ar^ 

^T?RTft; ' it was done ' 


^^^^ or ^fTaRTftTiTf^ 

^j^ or ^nfiTft:n^(-|() 

il<5iMd or ^nFlfTWrT 



^I^^f^ or ^TflRTf^^^rf^ 
iopmxfi*t^ or ^ToRTft^T^IF^ 

Prec. ^^^Tj or ^t^it. Cond. ^^fr^ or ^Tonrfc^. 

70:1. Example of a Passive from a root ending in a consonant : , 
Root x[*^ yuj. Infin. 'ft^T^ yoktum, * to be fitting/ 

Pres. ^, f 1^, ^Wff, &c. Impf, ^fW, ^^Kl'ill^, -3J'^:i^fr, &c. 
Po/. ^i^. Impv, ^, gi?T5^, fWiTP^, &c. Perf. g^^, ^^, f5^, 
&c. ist Fut.^^mk,-^im,'^m,^c. 2ndFut.T^,T^^,kc, Aor, 

703. Root ^ bhu. Infin. HHfu^^f^ bhdvayitum, * to cause to be.' 
Parasmai-pada. Atmank-pada. 

Present Tense, * I cause to be/ 


>TT^ftf iTR^T^ >n^^ni 

vn^ftr HIMUd^^ HR'if'iT 


Imperfect, * I was causing to be/ or * I caused/ &c. 

^THIcf^lVIl^ ^MR^^IT ^>TRXrS^^ 
^MH^Iff 'WHrl3HIH ^HT^'l^ 

Potential^ * I may cause to be.' 



Imperative f * Let me bause to be/ 
HTTmfH m^TiR Mumn \^t^% Hi^m^l 

Perfect, * I caused to be.' 

>n^TTT^R!Tt >TT^^n^rf^ HIc(H4d^H 
WSRT^RiTt m^MTSJ*^^ HNAliy^ 

First Future, * I will cause to be.' 
JTT^flTrnftR HT^IrtTW^ MNr^rilW^ HNf^ril^ ^rnf^nn^ 

Hi^ftnnfH m^ PMrf i w^ h i^P^ h i^ HNf^rfi^ HT^ftmror^ 

Second FuturCy * I shall or will cause to be.' 
HT^finmftT HNP^imN^ HRPh^IH^ | >TRf^^ m^ftlTqi^l 

HT^^'OTftf ^TT^TOnT^ XNT^UIVI j iTRfntq^ HT^ftTHT^ 

HNf^^mfri >TRftnnf^ Hi^ftnirf^ | m^f^nTff MNf^iuiH 
Aoristy * I caused to be.' 

Precative or BenedictivCy * May I cause to be.* 

iTnarwl^ wn^ ^trutw HRftT^'hr m^finfh^ m^iintTf^ 
wni^^ m^nicrw hiii^^ ^Nf'iMt? HT^fQ^irren'THT^WtT:*^ 

Conditional, * I should cause to be.' 
^MT^^TBl'T ^MT^'HRT^ ^eWNPutMIH | ^MT^f^rl ^WT^ftl^irRff ^^TT^ftrOTWfi^ 

'iMT^finii^ ^MT^frninnT ^rm^ftHmr i ^^TRftrBT^m^ ^wr^frr uivj i *^ ^kn^fTrorui^ 
^nn^'nuT^ ^swr^ftronnH ^ht^^tot*^ | ^m^f^roTfr ^HNr^iaidi*^^ ^wRPuui^rt 

704. After this model, and after the model of Primitive verbs of 
cl. 10 at 638, may be conjugated all Causal verbs. 


705. Root ^ bhu. Infin. ^>jf^^ bubhushitum, * to wish to be.' 

Parasmai-pada. Atmane-pada. 

Present Tense, * I wish to be.' 

^^mf* 5?5T^ ^^^^ I "5^^ 5^^"^ ^^^TT^ 

5^^ ^^^^ 1^^ I ^^^ 1^^ ^^^^ 

'Vl^^ Ti^^ ^^^^ I ^^^ "5^^^ TJ^ 

Imperfecta * I was wishing to be/ or * I wished/ &c. 



^^^^ ^1^^" 





'H-|^Mir^ ^-fjj^rr 





^M^^MdT't *^1^M 




Potential, * I may wish to be/ 


1^^ ^^^ 





l^^'l l^^ff 





I^^WT^ l^^i^ 




Imperative, ' Lei 

D me wish to be/ 


I^J?T^ 1^^ 





I^^^'l I^^w 





1^^^ 1^^ 




Perfect, * I wished to be 



* 5^^T^W ^^J^T^H 





I^Ml^*vf^ ^^m^^ 





l^m^-*!i^ l^^T^-^ 




i^ir/ Future, * I will wish to be/ 

^^f^inf^T ^jjfMriiijj^ 'f^f^wrwq; 





^i^f^rnw^ ^^muw 





l^flia ^^f^^ 




r f*-- 

Second Future, ' I wil 

I or shall wish to be/ 


^^fMuim^ -jjfTOTR^ 










^^fMUidH -S^fMi^rrrf 




Aorist, * I w 

ished to he: 



^^fw^ ^itfw 





^l^fN^H ^^^f^ 



r ^^f^^Jel'T 


^^fMgT^ '^iw^f^^^ 


^^r^ttiffi*^ ^^^^^w 

Precative or Benedicti 

ve, * May I wish to be/ 


l^^n^ -f^j^nw 





I^^IW^ l^T^ 



7 ^^f^S^^ 


^^^THT>^ ^^^n^ 


^^r^tftinwTT f ^^^^T5i: 

Conditional, * I should wish to be/ 

^^jjf^xq?^ ^^)jnq"Hn^ 'si'^ijf^^m 
^^)jf^BT^ ^^jjfq-ann^ ^^jjpR^nr 

^^ijfq^ ^^^ftlTBiWT'^ ^5^i^^^ 

'^T^jjfwBniT^ ^"^ijfuTqTmT ^"^^f^^scR 

Or f^^T^WT. 



706. Root ^ bhii. Infin. 'Tt)jfq|^ bobhuyitum, * to be repeatedly/ 
Atmane-pada form (509). 

Present Tense, * I am repeatedly/ 

Imperfect, * I was frequently/ 

Potential, * I may be frequently/ 

Imperative, * Let me be frequently/ 

Perfect, * I was frequently/ 

First Future, * I will be frequently/ 

Second Future, * I will or shall be frequently/ 

^^ftraj^ ^)jfir^ ^^xnm^ 
^ijfroi^ ^^v^^ ^^iPm^ 

Aorist, * I was frequently/ 

^ijfiniT^ ^^jf^ia^ or -^ 


Precative or BenedicHve, * May I be frequently/ 
^^r^^iT W*^>iLf^Wf ^Jjf^^frff 

Conditional^ * I should be frequently.' 

^"^jjjfVr^TJn^ ^^ijfiiw^ ^^ftr^i^ 

'sr^^jfti'BrK ^i^^fwrn^ ^sRt^jftroTnr 

707. Parasmai-pada form (514). 

Present Tense, *I am frequently.' 
'^H^^ or "^^mfj? ^^J^ '^^J?'^ 

^>T^f^ or ^bftf^ ^^S^!!^ ^>fI 

^Wtfw or wt^fir ^^^J?^ "^^fff 

Imperfect, * I was frequently.' 
^T^t^T^ ^r^>j5 '^i^^j^ 

^i^tn^^^ or ^r^t>Tl^ ^5^>jfr^ ^rsft^j? 

Potential, * I may be frequently.' 


^^^T^ "^^j^nn 


'^^iTTH'^ ^>j?nw 


^^S?nin^ %p: 


ive, * May I be frequently.' 


^\vl^J^ ^^m 


^^'^ "^^J? 

^T^ or -^iTtg 

^^Jjin^ "^^^ 

Perfect, * I was frequently.' 

^^m^, &c. 

^^^^pm^^, &c. "^t^prg^jf^, &c. 


or or 

^>Tm or -^JJ.^ 

^t^jf^ or ^Jjf^ ^^^f^ or -^Jjf^ 


%^^or^ljj5^ ^>^or^^ 

^>n^ or ^)J5 

^^iH^r^H'^jj^ ^^l^or^H^ 

First Future, ' I will be frequently.' 
^t^rf^TflfFT ^Wf^rilfjH^ ^HP^mw^ 

^>f^f^ ^'^ Hf^ri i f^i^ ^^f^inFT 

^>^^in ^^fmnvi -^^f^njx^ 

s s 2 


Second Future, * I will or shall be frequently/ 
^t^rfTorrfH "^tHf^'BTR^ "'Tt^rfTorrR^ 

^HfTorftl ^>TfTonT^ ^HfmMiq 

^>Tf^xqfH ^H f^ md l( Tl>Tf^^% 

Aorist, ' I was frequently/ 

^?^>p^ ^T^^JjfT'^ ^Bl'n^JjT 




^nrt^if^^ ^"sftHif^w w^rnf^^ 

^s^hn^t^ ^T^>TTf%i?'^ ^r^TTf^F 

^nrWr^h^^ ^r^Hrf^FF'^ w^^rrf^^ 

Precative or Benedictive, * May 1 be frequently.' 
^^J^n^*^ "^^J^n^ ^>J^TFT 

^>j?n^ Wt^TO^ ^>JXIT^ 

Conditional, * I should be frequently/ 
^r^nfro?!^ ^rsftiifijuiiei ^T^'^^r^^m*? 

^r^H^r^UJ^^ ^r^HfTOTW'^ ^T^>Tf^"Tif 

^r^^f^-nn^ ^sr^^Hf^^ffT'^ ^^h^oit^ 

708. Root ^ * to kill' (333, 654). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, * to kill repeatedly/ Pres. Wff'T or W^^ftr, rf fn or WlpftP?, 
iT^f^ or inpftfiT ; ^Tf^i(, ^1^, iT^^ ; ^fTf^, ^^, ^HpTflT or 
nil Pit. Imp/, ^nr^^, ^>r^ or ^Tf^^, ^T^ or ^iT^^^ ; ^iTIf r^, 
^nr^TP^, -TTT^ ; ^it^:tT, ^iTfW, ^T^f^or ^^f^. Pot. iT^^T^. Impv. 
'Hfiif'T, 'hlf^, ^np^ or ^"Jfl^; f^*iH, "ST^fTP^, -"ffTH; ifHIH, W^, 

inprg or inrg. Per/, inpng^^ or uipn^RiTT, &c. &c. 

709. Root ITT * to go' (602, 270). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive, * to go frequently/ Pres. "iT^fw* or afJ^ftf'T, W^"^ or iTg^tf^, 
i^fRt or ^!^fw; IHF^, ^Tl^, ^T^^; WfpP^, IT^^, IT^^ or 
bHffT . Imp/. ^nrSPW, ^W^ or ^^J^nt^, ^nf^ or ^iriJ5flcl^; vs^ijJH, 
WFTITW, -TnH; ^WSpf^, 'WinFrT, '.HT< j ; ^i|^ or ^irg^. Pot. "SHfJ^TH. 

^HflT, Wfp^ or ^711^. Per/, 's^'^m^^ or H^H i ag|cl.K , &c. &c. 

710. Root fiB^'^^* to throw' {6^^), Parasmai form of Frequentative. 
Pres. ^^iJT or ^f^jTrtfn, ^fT or ^^litf^, ^^fr? or '^fHTQ^fH ; 
^Kj^M,> ^f^"*^, ^fenr^j ^fe^^in^, ^f^^, ^^sj^fw. Imp/, ^r^qi^, 


'ST^^T^ or ^^f^Rt^, ^^^ or ^%q^T^^; ^^fs^, 'sr^f^iTP^, -frp^; 
^'^fs^, ^^ft^, ^T^f^^. Pot. ^f^w^, &c. Impv. %%mfi!T, 

Ferf. ^^fTng>j5 or ^f^i^RiTT, &c. &c. 

711. Root 7X% * to take' (699, 359). Parasmai form of Frequenta- 
tive. Pres. "imif^ or ^TU^'tfH, ^mrf^ (306. a) or *n?T?^f^, ^T?nf^ 
(305. a) or TT?Tf^frT ; ^iN^^^, WPJ^, ^TPJ^ ; ^fTPpT^, ^TPJ^, WPJ^iT. 
Impf. ^rTir?'^j ^IHTT? (306. e) or ^xnilf'^^, ^^Tni3 or ^in?T^1f^; 

^'TPjs^, ^^pj^, -^; ^^Pfsr, ^^TPj^, ^EnrTT7T|^ (33 1. Obs.) Pot. 
M\il^\\. Impv. inu^\fm, ^TPjf^, in?nf or in?T^'ig ; ^nufT^, ^tpjct^, 
-^p^; Tni^TH, TT^, i"nj?l, &c. &c'. 


712. There are in Sanskrit a number of words used as nouns 
having only one inflexion, which may be classed among indeclinables ; 
e. g. ^rer*^ * setting,' * decline ;' 'rf% * what exists,' * existence ;' ^f^ 

* the sacred syllable Om ; ' ^ tT^ * satisfaction,' * food ; ' T?^ * reverence ; ' 
rnftcT * non-existence ;' "^f^ or ^f^ * the fortnight of the moon's wane ;' 
^^ * sky ;' ij^ ' earth ;' ^ * ease ;' ?Nt^* a year ;' ^f^ or ^f^ ' the 
fortnight of the moon's increase;' ^VT an exclamation used on 
making oblations to the spirits of the dead; ^t. * heaven;' ^figT 

* salutation' (see Gana Svarddi to Pan. i. i, 37). Others will be 
mentioned at 713717. 

a. Adverbs [nipdta)^ like nouns and verbs, may be divided into 
simple and compound. The latter are treated of in the next Chapter 
on Compound Words. Simple adverbs may be classified under 
four heads : ist, those formed from the cases of nouns and obsolete 
words ; andly, other adverbs of less obvious derivation ; 3rdly, 
adverbial suffixes ; 4thly, adverbial prefixes. 

Formed from the Cases of Nouns and Obsolete Words, 

713. The Accusative neuter of many adjectives; 

As, ^lip^' truly;' ^'much;' ^TlT'^, "ftpi^, * quickly;' ^W^' fitly;' ^fi^ 


*near;' W^ 'certainly;' H^ 'lightly;' f^^, ^WnT^, 1\dH^, ^^> 'exceed- 
ingly;' 'STT?^ 'certainly;' ft^iq*^ 'constantly;' f'TT'^ 'for a long while;* 
^TH^T^ ' strongly ;' >JII^ * again,' * repeatedly ' ( 1 94) ; hl<4(^ * only,' ' merely ;' 
eilC*^ ' very well.' 

a. The Ace. neuter of certain pronouns ; as, inf ' therefore,' ' then ;' ^'where- 
fore,' ' when,' ' since ;' i\mt[^ so long,' ' so soon ;' TRTI * as long as,' ' as soon as ;' 

b. The Ace. neuter of certain substantives and obsolete words ; as, -C^ * secretly ; ' 
cfiW^ 'willingly;' *jM*^ 'of one's o\vn accord,' 'of one's self,' 'spontaneously;' 
TTH 'by name,' 'that is to say;' Tft ^TTT^^ 'repeatedly;' P^i.*^ 'long ago;' 
^#^^ 'pleasantly;' tii*in#^ 'now;' *%'9**\ 'by night' (noctu); t\m*\^ 'in the 
evening' (this last may be an ind. part, of so, * to finish*). 

714. The Instrumental of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words ; 

As, V'Tt!! 'virtuously;' ^ft^nTT 'to the right,' 'southwards;' "3'^w 'north- 
wards;' ^fdlcfciy 'without;' tS?^ 'above,' 'aloud;' T^t'%^* below;' ^^ or 
^H%^ 'slowly;* iHT 'therefore;' ^Jrf 'wherefore;' ^ntlTT or ^n^T!! 'without,' 
* except ;' Hfi)W ' instantly ;' f"K<u ' for a long time ;' ^f^TJT ' in a short time ;' 
'W^ITO ' entirely ;' f^ ' by day ;' f^^T ' fortunately ;' *(^!, *si, ' quickly ;* 
^T^^ * now ;' f^^^^ ' in the air ;* ^TT * formerly ; ' 'EJTT ' on the ground ' (yafiat). 

a. The Dative case more rarely ; 

As, f^^T^I ' for a long time ;* f^TTl^PT * for a period of many nights ;' ^^1** 
' for the sake of.' 

715. The Ablative case of nouns, pronouns, and obsolete words ; 
As, "^cyn^ ' forcibly ;* ^T?^ 'joyfully ;' gTTI^^ ' at a distance ;* lfWT?[^ ' there- 
fore;' cFWn^* wherefore?' NH * W 1 1^' without cause,' ' unexpectedly ; ' T^ITr^'from 
the north;* f^TTf^^'for a long time;' 1^17^ ' afterwards ;* nrB|*uii\^ 'at that 
instant;' ^Wim^^ ' from all quarters.* 

716. The Locative case of nouns and obsolete words; 

As, TT^ 'at night;' ^ 'far ofP;* TWTl^ 'in the morning;* llffe 'in the 
forenoon ;' WT% ' suitably ;' ^f^ ' in front ;' ;m^ ' at once ;' ^HTf^ * instantly ;' 
^^ 'except;' ^Wnf^ 'within;' ^^BJ^ 'towards the south ;' ^hIr or W^lm 'near;' 
l!cii|H ' in private ;' flt^lTjg ' in the evening ;' ^?n ' by reason of.' 

Other Adverbs and Particles of less obviom Derivation. 

717. 0{ affirmation. ^^T'^,^,^!!*^,^^,^'^,' indeed;' ^^f^ 'certainly.' 

a. Oi negation. T, *f^, "Tf?, 'not.' n, HT W are prohibitive; as, RT ^^, 

m ^^T^, ' do not.' See 889. 
h. Of interrogation. f^'^, fip^, ^fs^T, ^j 'T^, f^, f^f^, 'whether?' 


c. Of comparison. ^'^ * like ;' ^^, ^^, ' so ;' foR*^n^ * how much rather ;' 

W^^ (rT^T + IJ^) *in hke manner.' 

d. Of quantity. '^fl^ 'exceedingly;' ^'^'a little' (cf. 726. 5). 

e. Of manner. '^fiT, 'R'^, * so,' * thus ;' ^rf^ ' again ;' '!l^^[^^ ' for the most 

part;' cTRT 'variously;' "^j^"^ 'separately;' ^^T, ftnziT, 'falsely;' ^T, ^VT, 
' in vain ;' ^7^ 'enough ;' fljf^fiT, ^T^ (cf. ^Kvg), ' quickly ;' "^'t*^; ' silently ;' 
fW^^ ' reciprocally,' ' together.' 

/. Of time. 'SHET * to-day,' 'now;' "^ET^ 'to-morrow;' ^I^ 'yesterday;' 

Mi-*t, **h6 day after to-morrow;' ^IWfiT 'now;' ^TT 'formerly;' ^^, ^^HT?^, 
in^, 'before;' ^^^ 'at once;' ^RT^ 'instantly;' THQ 'after death' (lit. 
'having departed'); XTC^ 'afterwards;' W^ 'ever;' T ^TT^ 'never;' ^"aj^T^, 
mI^^, 'another day,' 'next day;' ^^'once;' ^^^, ^^ ^^, 'again 
and again,' ' repeatedly.' 

Obs. ^ is used with a Present tense to denote past time. See 251. 6, 878. 

g. Of place. ^^'here;' ^' where?' ^f^^ 'without.' 

h. Of doubt. f^^, f%f^^, ^f^^m, -^j -^in^, iinf^ %^, ^ift fe^, 

perhaps,' &c. 
i. ^f^ 'even,' IJ^ 'indeed,' ^ 'just,' are placed after words to modify their 
sense, or for emphatic affirmation. 2^^, v|^, Tf are similarly used in the Veda. 
Observe Some of the above are properly conjunctions ; see 727. 

Adverbial Suffixes. 

718. f^ 6idj ^ftl api, and ^rf Sana may form indefinite adverbs 
of time and place, when affixed to interrogative adverbs ; 

As, from ^T^ 'when?' ^^if^^, '^^flf^, and h(^H*f, 'sometimes;' from ^^ 
and li 'where?' ^fWf'^^, ^f^lf^, "Slf^^j "Silf^j 'somewhere;' from ^7T^ 
'whence?' "^iTf^J^ and '^jT^'T 'from somewhere;' from ofifw 'how many?' 
flfifrtf^ ' a few ;' from ciif^ ' when ?' ^Fflff^ ' at some time ;' from cfi^ ' how ?' 
irwf^, c|i'q'5iH, ' somehow or other,' ' with some difficulty.' Compare 228, 230. 

a. ^rf^ following a word, generally signifies ' even,' but after numerals, * all,' as 
;^sfTi * all three ;' ^H^s fx( ' all together.' 

719. "(T^ tas may be added to the stem of any noun, and to some 
pronouns, to form adverbs ; 

As, from 'I^, ^I^T^ ' with effort ;' from ^tf^, ^Sflf^^ ' from the beginning ;' 
from K (the proper stem of the pronoun TT^), "ffT!^ 'thence,' 'then,' 'thereupon,' 
* therefore:' similarly, ^Til^ 'whence,' 'since,' 'because;' ^TiT^, ^IHE^, ^T^^, 
'hence,' 'hereupon.' 

Obs. In affiLxing tas to pronouns, the stem TT is used for W^, ^ for ^W^j ^ for 
^1 ^ ^o^ ^^> ^ for ^, ^ for ftlf^. 

a. This suffix usually gives the sense of the preposition 'from,' and is often 


equivalent to the ablative case; as in IHI^ 'from me;' r^^ 'from thee*;' 
f^H^ ' from a father;' ^i^nt^ ' from an enemy.' 

b. But it is sometimes vaguely employed to express other relations ; as, ^FiT^ 
* behind the back ;' ^ram^ ' to another place,' * elsewhere ;' inHTiT^^ ' in the first 
place;' ^ireni^'here and there,' 'hither and thither;' ^H>rfrf^ *on all sides;* 
^m^THT^ ' in the neighbourhood ;' ^XjT^, *KyH^, * in front ;' ^ftril^ ' near to ;' 
f^^TWlT^ * in pomp or state.' 

c. TTTl^is a sufl&x which generally denotes * place' or * direction ;' as, from ^HW, 
^niHTi^* do^vnwards ;' from ^njf^ (which becomes "^Tjft^), "y^TTIT^^' above' (cf. 
84. V). 

720. ^ tra, forming adverbs of place with a locative sense from 
stems of pronouns, adjectives, &c. ; 

As, ^^* here;' H^' there;' ^W' where?' ^T^* where;* ^f^ * everywhere ;' 
'W'MC^ 'in another place;' ^^^T^ 'in one place;' "^J^ 'in many places;* ^^ 
'there,* 'in the next world.' 

a. ^ trd; as, ^ic^i ' among the gods ;' i^'mc^i ' among men* (Pan. v. 4, 56); 
q^C^l ' amongst many.' 

721. "^ thd and '^ tham, forming adverbs oi manner ; 

As, ir^n ' so,' * in like manner ;' IHIT ' aa ;' M%^\ ' in every way,* ' by all means ;* 
^M'm 'otherwise;' ^R^'how?' ^r'n^'thus.' 

722. ^ dd, f^ rhi, ft'^ nim, forming adverbs of time from pro- 
nouns, &c. ; 

As, ICf^ 'then ;* TJ^ 'when ;' ^RJT 'when ?* i^cMqV 'once ;' fTW^ 'constantly ;' 
^1%^, T^, ' always ;' if ft, i^lfl*i^, ' then ;' ^<|rfl?^ ' now.' 

723. >n dhd, forming adverbs of distribution from numerals ; 

As, ^^VT * in one way ;' %VT ' in two ways ;' "^^VT ' in six ways ;' ^IffVT ' in a 
hundred ways ;' ti^tJ^ ' in a thousand ways ;' ^JVT or ^^<**n ' in many ways.* 

. ^f'f^, signifying 'times,* is added to tl^, 'five,* and other numerals, as 
explained at 215. ^^T, 'once,' may be a corruption of ^Tjn^^ ('this time'); 
and only ^ is added to fSt ^, and dropped after ^"^^^ ' four times.' 

724. ^ra/ (technically called vati) may be added to any nominal 
stem to form adverbs oi comparison or similitude (see 922); 

As, from ^, ^^^ ' hke the sun ;' from ^, ^t^ * as before.' It may be 
used in connexion with a word in the Accusative case. 

a. This suffix often expresses 'according to;' as, f^fvWTT 'according to rule;' 
infriT^m^ ' according to need.' It may also be added to adverbs ; as, ^<V||t|H 
' truly' (exactly as it took place). 

* These are the forms generally used for the Ablative case of the personal pro- 
nouns, the proper Ablative cases Wf(y r^ being rarely used. 


7 '^5* ^ ^^*> forming adverbs of quantity, &c. ; 

As, ^J^^ * abundantly j' ^^^^ 'in small quantities;* ^^Sfl^ * wholly;' 
^^51^ * singly ;' ^inti^ti^l^ ' by hundreds and thousands ;' "aiTl^ ' by degrees ;' 
g^^^ ' principally ;' "m^^ * foot by foot ;' fWW^ ' two by two ;' f^^I^ ' by 
threes;' ^^^ 'in great numbers;' ^TSp^^ 'syllable by syllable;' TIT^^^'in 
so many ways ;' ^im^H ' how many at a time ?' 

a. ^rnr is added to nouns in connexion with the roots ^, ^H^, and ^, to denote 
a complete change to the condition of the thing signified by the noun ; as, ^rf'^'T- 
^m^'to the state of fire.' See 789, and cf. 70. i. 

Adverbial Prefixes, 

726. ^ a, prefixed to nouns and even to participles with a priva- 
tive or negative force, corresponding to the Greek a, the Latin in, 
and the EngUsh m, im, un ; as, from ^l^ * possible,' ^l^^ 
'impossible;' from 'F^^ * touching' (pres. part.), ^I^ij^ *not 
touching ;' from t^j^j ' having done' (indecl. part.), ^^i<n * not having 
done.' When a word begins with a vowel, ^r*^ is euphonically 
substituted ; as, from ^STRf * end,' ^HWf ' endless.^ 

a. ^rfk atij * excessively,' ' very ;' as, ^fim^ * very great.' 

b. ^ a, implying * diminution ;' as, ^srrcn?g * somewhat pale.' 
^;(n^ is prefixed with the same sense ; as, ^^^ * slightly warm.' 

c. oFT kd or "^ ku, prefixed to words to imply 'disparagement;' 
as, ^g^TR *a coward;' ^^ry 'deformed.' 

d. ^ dus (or 1^ dur)j prefixed to imply 'badly' or 'with difficulty;' 
as, jiE^w 'badly done' (see 72); gvfBT *not easily broken.' It is 
opposed to ;g, and corresponds to the Greek Sva--, 

e. "ftf^ nis (or fir^ nir) and f^ vi are prefixed to nouns hke ^ a 
with a privative or negative sense; as, frT"tc5 'powerless;' ffTJRc5 
'without fruit' (see 72); P^^l^ 'unarmed:' but not to participles. 

/. ^ su, prefixed to imply ' well,' ' easily ;' as, ^IT ' well done ;' 
^^ ' easily broken.' In this sense it is opposed to ^, and cor- 
responds to the Greek ev. It is also used for ^fir, to imply ' very,' 
* excessively ;' as, ^pfT|T^^ ' very great.' 



727. ^ (5a, 'and,' 'also,' corresponding to the Latin que and not 
to et. It can never, therefore, stand as the first word in a sentence, 
but follows the word of which it is the copulative. ^ (^ ^), ' also,' 
is a common combination. 

T t 


a. TH ' and/ * also/ is sometimes copulative. Sometimes it 
implies doubt or interrogation. 

b. irm * so/ * thus/ * in like manner' (see 721), is not unfrequently 
used for ^, in the sense of *also;' and like ^ is then generally 
placed after the word which it connects with another. 

c. w^ ' now/ * and/ w^ * then/ are 'inceptive, being frequently 
used at the commencement of sentences or narratives. W^I is often 
opposed to ^, which marks the close of a story or chapter. 

d. f^, * for/ is a causal conjunction ; like ^ it is always placed 
after its word, and never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 

e. irf^, ^^, both meaning * if/ are conditional conjunctions. 

/. mr^ *upon that/ *then' (719), fr\ *then/ varoi^, f%^, ^^T^, 
Tir^, "^W^, * again,' * moreover,' are all copulatives, used very com- 
monly in narration. 


728. ^ vdy * or' (like -ve in Latin), is always placed after its word, 
being never admitted to the first place in a sentence. 

a. 5, fw^t * but ;' the former is placed after its word. 

b. '^f^^^ 'although/ rf 'q I Ih 'nevertheless/ *yet,' spmetimes used as a cor- 
relative to the last; ^HRT, f^ ^, *or else/ T ^ *or not/ '^f^ m 'whether/ 
* whether or no/ 

c. ^BTZTcTT may also be used to correct or qualify a previous thought, when it is 
equivalent to ' but no,' ' yet/ ' however.' 

rf. W, ^, 5 ^ ^^^ expletives, often used in poetry to fill up the verse. 


729. There are about twenty prepositions (see 783), but in later 
Sanskrit they are generally prefixes, quaHfying the sense of verbs 
(and then called upasarga) or of verbal derivatives (and then called 
gati). About ten may be used separately or detached in govern- 
ment with the cases of nouns (and then called karma-prava6aniya)\ 
e. g. ^, ufsT, ^, wfff, ^rfv, ^H, lift, ^nr, ^fir, and '^^ ; but of these 
the first three only are commonly found as separable particles in 
classical Sanskrit. 

730. ^ a, generally signifying * as far as/ * up to/ * until,' with 
Abl. ; as, ^m ^ff^TT^ ' as far as the ocean ;' ^T nft^ * up to Manu ;' 
'ST *ffT!I^^TnT^ * as far as the wrist ;' ^t ^pft^ * till death ;' ^T WH^ 
*iimii^^ ' till the completion of his vow i' and rarely with Ace; as, 
W(^ ^ nift^ * for a hundred births.' 


a, "^ a may sometimes express ' from ;' as, ^ ^^\ ' fr^ ^^ 
beginning;' ^T inm^^ifTTT^ * from the first sight;' '3TT ^^^ *from 

b. It may also be compounded with a word in the Accusative neuter 
forming with it an Avyayi-bhava (see 760); thus, ^^ <fc&*^ *as far 
as the girdle' (where H4slc4*^ is for Hlsft^l*^^). 

c. Jifjf prati, generally a postposition, signifying * at,' * with regard 
to,' * to,' * towards,' * against,' with Ace. ; as, tt^ nfw * at the Ganges ;' 
V^ wfw * with regard to justice ;' '^^ nfiT * against an enemy ;' iTT nfw 
' as far as regards me.' When denoting * in the place of,' it governs 
the Ablative. 

d, ^ * after,' with Ace, and rarely with Abl. or Gen. ; as, T^Pn 
^ * along the Ganges ;' tt^ or "rnfts^ ' after that.' 

e. irfiT, and more rarely ^S^ and ^Tf>T, may be used distributively to signify 

* each/ ' every / thus, ^tstj*i^ ' tree by tree.' They may also be prefixed to form 
Avyayi-bbavas ; UfTT^TTOT'^ or ^"^TRn?^ * every year/ * year by year.' See 760. 

/. ^STfrr, '^ft?, XIPC are said to require the Accusative; ^rf>l the Locative or 
Accusative ; ^"T and ^ft, in the sense 'except/ the Ablative ; "^TTJ the Locative and 
Accusative : but examples of such syntax are not common in classical Sanskrit. 

g. Instances are common of prepositions united with the neuter form or 
Accusative of nouns, so as to form compounds (760. 6); as, nfw^i^f^ 'upon the 
shoulders / TlfligW^ ' face to face ;' ^fv^^l'^ * upon the tree / ^^T^*^ ' along 
the Ganges.' 

731. There are many adverbs used like the preceding prepositions 
in government with nouns, and often placed after the nouns which 
they govern (for examples see 917). 

These are, ^HJ 'before,' *in front of,' with Gen.; ^fwt^ 'under/ with Gen. or 
Ace; ^!rvrf(^ or ^V^TT^ ' below/ with Gen. (^TV^ is sometimes doubled; thus, 
^^S v^) ; '^H'Hi?^ ' after,' 'afterwards,' with Gen. ; -^InT^ ' within/ with Gen. or 
Loc. ; WfTtrrr ' without/ 'except/ 'with regard to,' with Ace. ; 'SlfnToF'^ 'near,' with 
Gen. or Abl. ; "^rfWiT^ 'on both sides of,' with Ace. ; 'Srf^f^T??^ ' in front of/ with 
Gen. or Ace. ; ^WTO ' near,' with Gen. ; ^"^ or ^^HJ or ^51^ ' on account of/ 

* for/ with Gen. ; ^%T^ ' after/ ' beyond,' with Abl. ; T^TTc^' to the north,' with 
Gen.; ^^i^l 'to the north,' with Gen. or Ace; '^mfx * above,' 'over,' 'upon/ 
with Gen. or Ace. (sometimes doubled; thus, ^T?^ft) ; '^iS^'^ ' above,' 'over/ 
'upon,' with Gen. or Ace; 'after,' 'beyond,' with Abl.; ^IT ' besides/ 'without,' 

* except,' with Ace, sometimes with Abl. ; ohKHIIi^ or ^7T ' on account of,' ' for,' 
with Gen.; ^fepjIT^^'to the south,' with Gen.; ^T^^T 'to the right,' 'to the 

T t 2 


south,* with Gen. or Ace; f^fft?^ *for the sake of,' *for,' with Gen.; IJTTI^ 

* behind,' with Gen. ; ^T^ or ""^TW * after,' * beyond,* with Abl. ; ^TOTl^* after,* with 
Gen. or Abl. ; ^TIT *on the further side,' with Gen. ; ^TiT^ or ^T^ * before,* * in the 
presence of,* with Gen. ; ig[%^ * before,' with Abl., rarely with Gen. or Ace. ; l^jflT 

inde a,* * from a particular time,* ' beginning with,* with Abl. ; ITTli ' before,* with 
Abl., rarely with Gen. or Ace; ^V[( *in the middle,' with Gen.; ^rf^ *out,' 
'outside of,* with Abl. or Gen. ; *itln *up to,' * as far as,' sometimes with Ace. ; 
f^^ 'without,' with Inst, or Ace. or sometimes with Abl. ; ^liT^n^ *near,* with 
Gen. ; tiom^m\^*from,' with Gen. ; ^ifTl^ * before the eyes,* * in the presence of,* 
with Gen. ; WO^ 'together with,' with Inst. ; i1m*^^ or ^(lu(^ * near,' with Gen. ; 
^ * with,* * along with,' with Inst. ; tiii#t, * with,* with Inst. ; tii|if^ ' before the 
eyes,' * in the presence of,' with Gen. ; ^nv?^ * along with,' with Inst. ; ^H*^ or 
^m * on account of,' * for the sake of,' ' for,' with Gen. 

Obs. Many of the above, especially ^T^*^*, ^BPrf^, flRTOTTl^, ^rT, frffi?^, "^if^, 
^ifi , &c., are more usually found at the end of a compound, after a nominal stem. 

a. The adverb ^75^^, ' enough,' is used with the Inst, (see 918). 

b. Some of the adverbs enumerated at 714, 715, may he used in government 
with the cases of nouns ; e, g, ^1B|T!T^, <JtK<u above. ^rfnifliKU, 'without,' is 
generally placed after the stem of a noun. 

73a. H^, >f^, ^ are vocative; "i, ^ less respectfully vocative, 
or sometimes expressive of * contempt.^ fv*^ expresses * contempt/ 

* abhorrence,' * fie !' * shame !' (with Accusative case) ; W?^, ^i^, ^^, 
'surprise/ 'alarm/ ^, ^TfT, ^, ^^TT, ^H, 'grief/ TH^, ^, 

* approbation / wf%, * salutation.' 


733' Compounds abound in Sanskrit to a degree wholly unequalled 
in any other language, and it becomes necessary to study the prin- 
ciples on which they are constructed, before the learner can hope to 

* ^N*^ is generally found in composition with a nominal stem, and may be com- 
pounded adjectively to agree with another noun ; as, fstli^I ?rTB[ * broth for the 
Brdhman ;' f^"iTT 'Hl^ * milk for the Brahman.* See 760. d. 


understand the simplest sentence in the most elementary book. In 
the foregoing chapters we have treated of simple nouns, simple verbs, 
and simple adverbs. We have now to treat of compound nouns, 
compound verbs, and compound adverbs. 

a. Observe, that in this chapter the nom. case, and not the stem, of a substantive 
terminating a compound will be given ; and in the instance of an adjective forming 
the last member of a compound, the nom. case masc, fem., and neut. The 
examples are chiefly taken from the Hitopades'a, and sometimes the oblique cases 
in which they are there found have been retained. 


734. The student has now arrived at that portion of the grammar 
in which the use of the stem of the noun becomes most strikingly 
apparent. This use has been already noticed at 77 ; and its forma- 
tion explained at 80-87. 

a. In almost all compound nouns the last word alone admits of 
inflexion, and the preceding word or words require to be placed in 
the stem, to which a plural as well as singular signification may be 
attributed. Instances, however, will be given in which the charac- 
teristic signs of case and number are retained in the first member of 
the compound, but these are exceptional. 

b. It may here be noted, that while Sanskrit generally exhibits the first member 
or members of a compound in the stem with the final letter unchanged, except by 
the usual euphonic laws, Latin frequently and Greek less frequently change the 
final vowel of the stem into the light vowel i ; and both Greek and Latin often 
make use of a vowel of conjunction, which in Greek is generally 0, but occasion- 
ally /; thus, ccdi-cola for coelu-cola or coelo-colaj lani-ger for lana-gerj yakKi- 
vaog, l'/Pv'0-(l>OLyog, fader-i-fragus. Both Greek and Latin, however, possess 
many compounds which are completely analogous to Sanskrit formations. In 
English we have occasional examples of the use of a conjunctive vowel, as in 
* handicraft ' for * hand-craft.' 

Obs. A dot placed underneath words in Nagari type marks the division of the 
different members of a compound. 

735. Native grammarians class compound nouns under six heads : 
I. DvANDVA, or those formed by the aggregation into one com- 
pound of two or more nouns (the last word being, according to 
circumstances, either in the dual, plural, or neuter singular, and the 
preceding word or words being in the stem), when, if uncompounded, 


they would all be in the same case, connected by a copulative 
conjunction; as, ^^f^Toft 'master and pupil' (for n^: %r5); 
'TtTr^fv^ofiT: * death, sickness, and sorrow* (for *rTX!T ^nfv: ^ft^TO); 
mftUTTT^ * hand and foot' (for "mftir: ^TT^). 

II. Tat-PUEUSHA, or those composed of two nouns, the first of 
which (being in the stem) would be, if uncompounded, in a case 
different from, or dependent on, the last ; as, 'P^TDTT * moon-light' 
(for M>^^ IWT ' the light of the moon') ; ^1^,^^^^ :, -FH, -H^, ' skilled 
in arms' (for ^l^M ^5Ic5:); rftn;*jftnT:, -in, 'T(f{, ' adorned with gems' 
(for Hft!jfT^ Jjf^TT:). 

III. KarmA-DH^^RAYA, or those composed of an adjective or 
participle and substantive, the adjective or participle being placed 
first in its stem, when, if uncompounded, it would be in grammatical 
concord with the substantive ; as, f|^ fH; ' a good person' (for ^n^ 
ir:); ^^ j^tiM Tftj ^all things' (for ^iftr ^^^). 

IV. D VIGU, or those in which the stem of a numeral is compounded 
with a noun, either so as to form a singular collective noun, or an 
adjective; as, f^T^^^ * three qualities' (for ^r^ ^IT:); fcSI.JJ^u:, -5UT, 
-3p^, * possessing the three qualities.' 

V. BAHU-VRfm, or attributive compounds, generally epithets of 
other nouns. These, according to Panini (ii. 2, 24), are formed by 
compounding two or more words to qualify the sense of another 
word ; thus, TlTjft^^ JTm: for imi^ ^T^ ^ UTH'^ * a village to which 
the water has come.' 

VI. AvyAYI-BHaVa, or those resulting from the combination of a 
preposition or adverbial prefix with a noun. The latter, whatever 
may be its gender, always takes the form of an accusative neuter 
and becomes indeclinable. 

a. Observe These names either furnish examples of the several kinds of com- 
pounds, or give some sort of definition of them ; thus, 'ff^I (soil. n^;) is a 
definition of the ist kind, meaning 'conjunction;' Wr^^^I, 'his servant,' is an 
example of the 2nd kind (for TTW 5^*) ; ^^VTT^t is a somewhat obscure defi- 
nition of the 3rd kind, i. e. ' tbat which contains or comprehends (VT^^f^T) the 
object' (l^); ftjy* is an example of the 4th kind, meaning 'anything to the 
value of two cows ;' ^J^f^t is an example of the 5th kind, meaning ' possessed 
of much rice.' The 6th class, ^rnft>n^: avyayi-hhdvaJi, means 'the indeclinable 
state' ('that which does not change,' na vyeti). 

736. It should be stated, however, that the above six kinds of 
compounds really form, according to the native theory, only four 


classes, as the 3rd and 4th (i. e. the Karma-dharaya and Dvigu) are 
regarded as subdivisions of the Tat-purusha class. 

Obs. Panini (i. 2, 42) calls a Karma-dhdrayah a Tatpurushah samdnddhikaramh. 
As such a classification appears to lead to some confusion from 
the absence of sufficient distinctness and opposition between the 
several parts or members of the division, the subject will be dis- 
cussed according to a different method, although it has been thought 
desirable to preserve the Indian names and to keep the native 
arrangement in view. 

737. Compound nouns may be regarded either as simply or 
complexly compounded. The latter have reference to a class of 
compounds within compounds, very prevalent in poetry, involving 
two or three species of simple compounds under one head. 


738. These we will divide into, ist, Dependent compounds or 
compounds dependent in case (corresponding to Tat-purusha) \ s^nd, 
Copulative (or Aggregative, Dvandva); 3rd, Descriptive* (or Deter- 
minative, Karma-dhdraya) ; 4th, Numeral (or Collective, Dvigu); 
5th, Adverbial (or Indeclinable, Avyayi-bhdva) ; 6th, Relative (Bahu- 
vrihi). This last consists of, a. Relative form of absolute Dependent 
compounds, terminated by substantives ; b. Relative form of Copu- 
lative or Aggregative compounds ; c. Relative form of Descriptive or 
Determinative compounds ; d. Relative form of Numeral or Collective 
compounds ; e. Relative form of Adverbial compounds. 

a. Observe A list of the substitutions which take place in the 
final syllables of certain words in compounds is given at 778. 

Accusatively Dependent. 

739. These comprehend all those compounds in which the relation 
of the first word (being in the stem) to the last is equivalent to that 
of an accusative case. They are generally composed of a noun in 
the first member, and a participle (but not a present or indechnable 

* As being composed of an adjective or participle preceding a substantive, and 
always descriptive of the substantive. Bopp calls them * Detenninativa,' a word 
of similar import. 


participle), root, or noun of agency in the last ; as, ^s^Tmr:, -"RT, -Jn^, 
*one who has obtained heaven^ (equivalent to ^ mrc); faTT^J^ 
*one who speaks kind words;* ^^: *one who gives much;* 
^^^ * god-praising ;* i^r^TjT^'one who bears arms;* m^j I it :, -in, 
-W^, 'committed to a leaf,* * committed to paper* (as 'writing*); 
f^BT^TTin, -THy -jP^, * committed to painting;* ^ ^ H l ^J. ^ T^ft, -fVfT^, -ftf, 

* thinking one's self handsome.* 

a. Tllf ' gone' (past pass. part, of T*^ * to go') is used loosely at the end of com- 
pounds of this description to express relationship and connexion, without any 
necessary implication of motion. In ^W^TrT, "NWTff above, and in others 
(such as f^Tc^TH^TTrft ITfttj: *a jewel lying in the cleft of a rock ;' ^^cTHTTJl H : , 
-TTT, -in^, 'lying in the palm of the hand'), it has the sense of W * staying :' but 
it may often have other senses ; as, ^n^l^^rfl, -KT, -rf1[, ' engaged in conversation j* 
fusH/in "ftsf^T^ * something relating to a friend.' 

b. In theatrical language viirn Jin*^ and lJ'lrt*f^ (ht. * gone to one*s self) mean 

* spoken to one's self,' aside.' 

c. Before nouns of agency and similar forms the accusative case is often retained, 
especially in poetry ; as, ^T^*t:, -^\, -q^, ' enemy-subduing ;' l^^PI^:, -HT, 
-nf( * heart-touching ;' H<<gj<:, -;ct, -T?^, * fear-inspiring ' (see 580. a) ; ^TrTtJ^t, 
-m, -f^, * going to the ocean ;' ^rf^Tirq:, -"an, -'5'T'^, * one who thinks himself 
learned ;' tlfe*^<ll *one who thinks it night.' 

Instrument ally Dependent, 

740. Or those in which the relation of the first word (being in 
the stem) to the last is equivalent to that of an instrumental case. 
These are very common, and are, for the most part, composed of a 
substantive in the first member, and a past passive participle in the 
last ; as, TytHiTtr^H:, -BT, -lfJ{y * beguiled by avarice' (for ^ht HlH^fl:) ; 
MW.^^^5 '^> -^> 'covered with clothes;' U^r^jf^nr:, -TIT, -Tf^, 
'honoured by kings;* fMfll,^^:, -TT, -l'^, 'deserted by (i.e. desti- 
tute of) learning;* ff^lTf^, -WT, -Tf^, 'destitute of intelligence ;* 
jr^nfJ:, -^, -^f{y 'pained with grief;' ^TTW^IT:, -TTT, -TP^, 'done by 
one's self;' ^iff^rq;^^'^:, -^, -^i?^, 'like the sun' (for "if<KlT ^f^C, 
see 826); ^FJ?mf^fn, -irr, -TT^, 'acquired by us.' 

a. Sometimes this kind of compound contains a substantive or noun of agency 
in the last member ; as, ri,Mi*t^ * money acquired by science ;' ^I^Im^hO^ * one 
who lives by arms.' 

Datively Dependent, 

741. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a dative ; as, ^fblTff^^'fi^ 'bark for clothing ;' 


in^oF^ * water for the feet;^ ^!?I^T^ *wood for a sacrificial post;' 
^t^tnynw:, -in, -TH^, *come for protection' (for ^T^T^ ^Tmr:). This 
kind of compound is not very common, and is generally supplied by 
the use of ^H {73^)f ^^> ^^^T^T ii|i|ri:. 

a. Parasmai-pada and Atmane-pada (see 243) are instances of 
compounds in which the sign of the dative case is retained. 

Ablatively Dependent , 

742. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of an ablative ; as, fq^UTTT:, -TTT, -TTH, * received 
fi-om a father;' TT1^:, -T, -W, 'fallen from the kingdom' (for 
ila*!!^ ^^0? rf<^;*^i^c!&iiT:, -TT, -^T, *more changeable than a wave ;' 
H^?[^: * other than you' (for >T^s^:); h ^^ h h ^ * fear of you' (814. e); 
ll^^*^ ' ^^^^ of a dog ;' ^T^a?^tr^T^:, -^, -i^^, ' turning the face 
from books,' ' averse from study.' 

Qenitively Dependent, 

743. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a genitive. These are the most common of 
all dependent compounds, and may generally be expressed by a 
similar compound in English. They are for the most part com- 
posed of two substantives ; as, ^"^[ift^JT ' sea-shore' (for ^l^[^[^ rft^ 
* shore of the sea'). 

a. Other examples are, ^sn^l'^' horse-back;' V^^t 'bow-string;' ^^oPPJ^ 
'brick-house;' fnft^Tcft * mountain-torrent ;' I^TftT?^ * water's edge ;' ^TT'^r: 
or ^snif^T^^T 'acquisition of wealth;' f^M^^I I 'state of misfortune;' Jg^^r^: 
'separation of friends;' TfTffi 'on whose brow' (locative); KW^* 'his words;' 
lSRrwrT'^ or WT^JR: 'birth-place;' ^#^J Svith hundreds of fools' (inst. pi.); 
^>4^^'a couple of Slokas;' ^JTTcF^'the surface of the earth;' ^jf^T^fH; 
'lord of the earth;' H^1jtlM 'for his support' (dative); WT^TOT^WT: 'the sons 
of a Brahman;' 'SIW^T^: 'our sons;' r^ijW 'thy deed;' flT^^^^^rp^ 'a father's 
speech;' ^;^TTT['the gate of death;' ^^flaT^^n^' fulfilment of wishes;' HT^- 
n^: ' a mother's joy ;' ^irtl^l^t ' a water-receptacle,' 'lake ;' f^^reff ' knowledge- 
seeker,' ' a scholar;' ^^^H^ (for ^^^^i^) ' a hen's egg.' 

b. Sometimes an adjective in the superlative degree, used substantively, occupies 
the last place in the compound ; as, Tr'^: or "JZii^'^W?: ' the best of men.' 

c. In occasional instances the genitive case is retained ; as, f^^Cl*JTlTJ ' lord of 
men ;' f^^FTfw: ' lord of the sky.' 

d. Especially in terms of reproach; as, ^rWlJ]"g^t (or ^T^^^*) *^" ^ ^ '^^^^^ 

u u 


Locatively Dependent^ 

744. Or those in which the relation of the first word to the last 
is equivalent to that of a locative case ; as, h^^h^H: , -'^TT, -^^, * sunk 
in the mud* (for i^% ^7^:) ; T'llu/*i^lO * sporting in the sky;' HW^tZJ 
'sport in the water;' ?nr^?ft *a dweller in a village;' ^n=57<ix:: 
'going in the water;' "ifw h: *bom in the water;' fr^TT^T;^ *gem 
on the head.' 

a. The sign of the locative case is retained in some cases, especially 
before nouns of agency ; as, ajw^^nft * a villager ;' ir^^: * going in 
the water;' ^T:ftnjf^H:, -in, -ITf^, * ornamented on the breast;' ys(^} 
or Miii^4<<: * going in front;' f^f^TT?^ (rt. ^) * abiding in the sky;' 
f^fr^ijcjr (rt. FJ^) ' touching the sky ; ' gfVrfi?^: * firm in war.' 

Dependent in more than one Case. 

745. Dependent compounds do not always consist of two words. They may be 
composed of almost any number of nouns, all depending upon each other, in the 
manner that one case depends upon another in a sentence ; thus, ^^ft^C^jfri- 
UiPff:, -nTT, "'^if^f 'passed beyond the range of the eye' (for ^^^ f^iW^ 
^Tn !:); t^JTTUTTW: 'standing in the middle of the chariot;' H^jT^trflx^liU,^- 
"W^ \ cj T*^?|?fn * skilful in censuring the means of rescuing those in danger.' 

a. There is an anomalous form of Tat-purusha, which is really the resiilt of the 
elision of the second or middle member {uttara-pada-lopa, madhyama-pada-lopa) 
of a complex compound; e.g. 5ll*mf^: for ^n*rfll^^f^: (see 775). 

b. Dependent compounds abound in all the cognate languages. The following 
are examples from Greek and Latin; oivo-dYjKVjj olKO-cpiiKa^, XiQo-arrptarog, 
ywaiKCt-KVjpvKTO^y avOpciyTro'^lhaKTog, deo-^OTog, Oeo-TpeirTog, yj^ipo-Ttolriroi, 
auri-fodina, manu-pretium, parri-cida for patri-cida, parri-cidium, matri-cidium, 
marti-cuHor, mus-cerda. English furnishes innumerable examples of dependent 
compounds ; e. g. * ink-stand,' * snow-drift,' * moth-eaten,' * priest-ridden,' * door- 
mat,' 'writing-master,' &c. 


746. This class has no exact parallel in other languages. 

When two or more persons or things are enumerated together, it 
is usual in Sanskrit, instead of connecting them by a copulative, to 
aggregate them into one compound word. No syntactical depend- 
ence of one case upon another subsists between the members of 
Dvandva compounds, since they must always consist of words which, 
if uncompounded, would be in the same case. The only grammatical 
connexion between the members is that which would be expressed 


B by the copulative conjunction and in English, or "^ in Sanskrit. 
In fact, the difference between this class and the last turns upon 
this dependence in case of the words compounded on each other ; 
insomuch that the existence or absence of such dependence, as 
deducible from the context, is, in some cases, the only guide by 
which the student is enabled to refer the compound to the one head 
or to the other ; thus, T^f^^l^^cRT: may either be a Dependent 
compound, and mean 'the servants of the pupils of the Guru,^ or 
a Copulative, *the Guru, and the pupil, and the servant/ And 
m^.lf^f^niT'^ may either be Dependent, ' the blood of the flesh,' or 
Copulative, ' flesh and blood/ This ambiguity, however, can never 
occur in Dvandvas inflected in the dual, and rarely occasions any 
practical difficulty. 

747. There are three kinds of Copulative compounds : ist, in- 
flected in the plural ; 2nd, inflected in the dual ; 3rd, inflected in the 
singular. In the first two cases the final letter of the stem of the 
word terminating the compound determines the declension, and its 
gender the particular form of declension ; in the third case it seems 
to be a law that this kind of compound cannot be formed unless 
the last word ends in ^ a, or in a vowel changeable to ^ a, or in a 
consonant to which ^ a may be subjoined ; and the gender is inva- 
riably neuter, whatever may be the gender of the final word. 

Inflected in the Plural. 

748. When more than two animate objects are enumerated, the 
last is inflected in the plural, the declension following the gender of 
the last member of the compound ; as, ^^f^SS^^TfliT: * Indra, Anila, 
Yama, and Arka' (for ^;^sfirrc5^ ^s^); TTH^J^iiT^HTin: 'Rama, 
Lakshmana, and Bharata ;' Jjir^nrw^^^TT: ' the deer, the hunter, 
the serpent, and the hog/ The learner will observe, that although 
the last member of the compound is inflected in the plural, each 
of the members has here a singular acceptation. But a plural 
signification may often be inherent in some or all of the words 
constituting the compound ; thus, WT^TTTj^^f^T^^T^J^T: ' Brahmans, 
Kshatriyas, Vaisyas, and S'udras;' fir^^Hhr^^^: 'friends, neutrals, 
and foes' (for ikmf^ ^^^^t: ^TW^^) ; ^f^^Tf^^fwf^^Tnf^ ' sages, 
gods, ancestors, guests, and spirits' (for ^Wift \^l fm^^^fn'^'^ ^rflf^ ^) ; 
f^^^nni^kTTT: 'lions, tigers, and immense serpents;' "^^pnii'lf^^cliToRt- 

u u 2 


cJ^TnrjftTT^Trnmr: ' dogs, vultures, herons, ravens, kites, jackals, and 

749. So also when more than two inanimate objects are enume- 
rated, the last may be inflected in the plural; as, \ l^| ' 5 cMH - HtgUff^ 
'virtue, wealth, enjoyment, and beatitude' (for imfs^: ^SRpft ft^J^); 
^TqiUf^H/r^fH * sacrifice, study, and Uberality^ (for ^9^ ^nfliR 
^Tr} ^). In some of the following a plural signification is inherent ; 
as, y^.*j5*,mc*'lf^ * flowers, roots, and fruits ; ' WSTTffTJir^^tTTin*^ * of the 
unborn, the dead, and the foohsh' (for ^HIrrTfi i^riMJ ij^<N l iu} ^) ; 
^^TRryHHi: ' eyes, mind, and disposition ;' 0^ 1 ,^11 4 ^ H iri r q ; " 4 " V ^yi- 
^Trnftr * sickness, sorrow, anguish, bonds, and afflictions ;' ^ a T i(^ Mi - 
H^FrT^fT ' wood, water, fruit, roots, and honey/ 

750. So also when only two animate or inanimate objects are 
enumerated, in which a plural signification is inherent, the last is 
inflected in the plural; as, ^Tr?^^: 'gods and men;' ij^^ft^: 
'sons and grandsons;' TTTlfVrmTTT: 'falls and rises;' TrniTrxif^?n: 
'ramparts and trenches;' ^^tW^ 'in pleasures and pains' (for 
^1 5'^ ^) j 'n^H'^rrf'T * sins and virtues.' 

Inflected in the Dual. 

751. When only two animate objects are enumerated, in each of 
which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected in the 
dual, the declension following the gender of the last member; as, 
tPTH^nin * Rama and Lakshmana' (for tTH^ H^ninj) ; ^^^ri^^ * moon 
and sun ;' jpr^Rnft 'a deer and a crow;' >TT^i;q'ifl ' wife and husband ;' 
*<<U.1^53l ' pea-hen and cock ;' ^ftjH^^T * cock and pea-hen.' 

752. So also when only two inanimate objects are enumerated, in 
each of which a singular signification is inherent, the last is inflected 
in the dual ; as, ^^^r^fli"^ 'beginning and end' (for ^W^s^rtr '^) ; 
^nm^TT'ft 'affection and enmity' (for ^un^STinn^) ; f^f^^ 
'joy and sorrow ;' Tgfrqqi^ 'hunger and thirst' (for ^ f^^rm ^) ; 
"i^^jnft ' hunger and sickness ;' ^BTT^TT^TTTTwrR ' by standing and sitting' 
(for ^in^^ ^^^ '^) ; T^Ff^ ' honey and ghee ;' ^^^g:^ * pleasure 
and pain;' ^T^^c^.^Mr^ 'mortar and pestle;' ili^rVJlHrfH^l^l^f 'by 
rising and saluting ;' ^?Tficwn'^ * by earth and water.' 

Inflected in the Singular Neuter. 

753. When two or more inanimate objects are enumerated, whether 


singular or plural in their signification, the last may either be inflected 
as above (748, 749, 750, 751), or in the singular number, neut. gender ; 
as, ^I'JcT.Tfic^T ' flowers, roots, and fruits ' (for ^wnftrT ^e^^ ifir5Tf^ ^) ; 
*\ ^m ' ^Ji(*'-^HH * grass, food, water, and fuel^ (for t^^st^i? "3^?? ^ff 
m); ^?ft;u^^a day and night ^ (for 'gr^t Tlfw^. A form ^TT^: 
masc. sing, also occurs) ; f^^^ ' quarters and countries ' (for f^^ 
\W^) ; ^^^^'!; ^^ f^^Ti'^H ' day and night ;' f^trift^ * head and 
neck ;' ^;Tf^^ftn?T * skin, flesh, and blood/ 

a. Sometimes two or more animate objects are thus compounded ; as, "J^T'^W^ 
' sons and grandsons ;' ^tit4*a*\ * elephants and horses :' especially inferior objects ; 
as, '57^i<!Sirt#t^ ' a dog and an outcast.' 

754. In enumerating two qualities the opposite of each other, it is common to 
form a Dvandva compound of this kind, by doubhng an adjective or participle, 
and interposing the negative ^ a; as, ^TT^f^ moveable and immoveable' (for 
^f^ ^^t ^) ; ^^TO*"!^ ' good and evil ;' fH^lfW ' in agreeable and disagree- 
able' (for fvm ^TR ^) ; ^Kl^y*^ * seen and not seen ;' ojini=jirt'T ' done and not 
done;' JJ^^STTT ' gentle and cruel.' 

a. In the Dvandvas which occur in the Vedas the first member of the com- 
pound, as well as the last, may sometimes take a dual termination ; thus, fif^T^- 
^i^^ (see 97. a), 5^^^^%"^, f^cKMIrtCt : and some of the anomalous Dvandvas 
used in more modern Sanskrit are probably Vedic in their character; thus, 
Hrjf^^T" * heaven and earth ;' HTrtlfMfiU * mother and father,' &c. 

6. It is a general rule, however, that if a compound consists of two stems in n, 
the final of the first becomes ^, as in *ITTrTftl?T^ above. This also happens if the 
last member of the compound be ^^, as f^Tin^^^ ' father and son.' 

c. Greek and Latin furnish examples of complex compounds involving Dvan- 
dvas ; thus, PaTpa'^o-fJiVO-[J.a')(^ia, ' frog-mouse war ;' su-ovi-taurilia, * pig-sheep- 
bull sacrifice ;' ^coo^(f)VTOVf ' animal-plant.' Zoophyte is thus a kind of Dvandva. 
In English, compounds hke * plano-convex,' * convexo-concave ' are examples of 
the relative form of Dvandva explained at 765. 

755. In describing, qualifying, or defining a substantive by means 
of an adjective or participle, it is common in Sanskrit to compound 
the two words together, placing the adjective or participle in the 
first member of the compound in its stem ; as, ?n^T^: ' a good man' 
(for ^T^^ iR:) ; f'BrrfiT^ * an old friend' (for f'^t fT^'^) ; ^3Tr^: * a 
troubled ocean;' ^TTToifH *a holy act;' ^HHflJWI *the infinite soul;' 
5ffwVf^: ' polished speech ;' ^TBT^^Tf^CI ' holy acts' (for ^g^prrf^ ^Hlfidr) ; 
TWHTOTITP^ * of the best men' (for 4(HIHi T^T'OT'^) ; '?^m7TW^ ' a great 


crime' (see 778); !frn^: *a great king' (see 778); finnm: ' a dear 
friend' (778); f ^ l ^ ^ lcf^ ^ ' a long night' (778). 

a. The feminine stems of adjectives do not generally appear in 
compounds; thus, fn^nrr^ 'a dear wife' (for firm Hl^); T^nTT'T 
'a great wife' (for m^ hi^t, see 778); i:qi|^iqT *a beautiful wife' 
(for ^iT^ HRt); "qr^oF;^ ' a female cook' (for qif'^**! ^). 

b. There are, however, a few examples of feminine adjective stems 
in compounds; e.g. mnte^T^T *a wife with beautiful thighs;' TKiftf- 
iVaTf: *au impassioned woman,' where cKlfiRt may be used sub- 
stantively (cf. 766. b), 

756. An indeclinable word or prefix may take the place of an adjective in this 
kind of compound ; thus, ^^T^t ' a good road ;' ^f^^l*^ ' a fine day ;' ^^MIPmH*^ 
'good speech;' ^r<ji#^^*bad conduct;' ^WIH^ 'not fear,' 'absence of danger;' 
qf^t^^^^ 'external cleanliness' (from vahis, 'externally,* and sau6a, 'purity'); 
^Pfr:^^rN'=(^' internal purity;' ^H^^M^'a slight inspection ;' ^^^^l' a bad man.' 

757. Adjectives used as substantives sometimes occupy the last place in 
Descriptive compounds ; as, T^T^rvrfRoFJ ' a very just man ;' MUHI^ri^ * a very 
wonderful thing.' 

a. In the same manner, substantives, used adjectively, may occupy the first 
place ; as, Hc575^TfTDf 'impure substances ;' "rnfflj ' a royal sage.' 

758. Descriptive compounds expressing ' excellence ' or ' eminence ' fall under 
this class, and are composed of two substantives, one of which is used to an adjec- 
tive to describe or define the other, and is placed last, being generally the name of 
an animal denoting 'superiority;' as, ^<5M^'=mwt 'man-tiger,' ^fj"4,^^'=li 'man- 
bull,' ^|jM/<|^: * man-lion,' ^^^^^^T: * man-bull,* i. e. * an illustrious man.* 

Similarly, t(^1.<(rl*\ ' an excellent woman* (gem of a woman) ; ^^1i'*i*t^ ' face- 
lotus,' i. e. ' lotus-like face.' 

a. So other compounds expressive of * comparison' or 'resemblance* are usually 
included in native grammars under the Karma-dhdraya class. In these the adjec- 
tive is placed last ; as, ^xir^^T^I, -<5T, -f5'l[, ' fickle as a shadow ;' ^^^^^TT?:, 
-TT, -T'^, ' dark as a cloud ;' J}>nrr<iW)<Sl:, -^If -Wi^, 'spread out like a mountain.' 

b. The following are examples of Greek and Latin compounds falling under this 
class ; /x6'yaAo-/xoJT>y/J, lao-ittloVy {xeyaXo-VQiay ^fxi-Kvwv, sacri-portus, meri-dies 
(for medi-dies), decem-viri, semi-deus. Parallel compounds in EngUsh are, * good- 
will,' 'good-sense,' 'ill-nature,' 'holiday,' 'blackguard,' &c. 


759. A numeral is often compounded with a substantive to form 
a collective noun, but the last member of the compound is generally 
in the neuter singular ; thus, ^f P^ * the four ages' (for ^j^fc, ^f^) ; 


^ff ^^ ' the four quarters ;' f^^^ * three days' (triduum) ; f^TTW^ 
'three nights' (u^ being substituted for tlf^, see 778); W^:^ * three 
years' {triennium); il^lf'H *the five fires.' 

a. Rarely the stems of numerals are compounded with plural substantives ; as, 
^^%^n 'the four castes;' T^^TITT* 'five arrows;' HTIl(: 'the seven stars of 
Ursa Major.' 

b. Sometimes the last member of the compound is in the feminine singular, with 
the termination f ; as, fc^c^l*^ 'the three worlds.* 

c. Compare Greek and Latin compounds like rerpao'^ioy, t^ivvktiov, TeSpiTTTTOV, 
triduum, triennium, trinoctium, quadrivium, quinquertium. 


760. In this class of indeclinable (avyaya, i. e. na vyeti, * what does 
not change') compounds the first member must be either a preposition 
(such as ^rfTr, ^fv, ^^, TTffT, &c., at 783) or an adverbial prefix (such 
as T(^\ * as,' ilT^ * as far as,' ^ or ^ * not,' ^^ * with,' &c.) The 
last member is a substantive which takes the form of an accusative 
case neuter, whatever may be the termination of its stem ; thus, 
^ vj i < ^^*|^ * according to faith' (from V^ and ^irr) ; JrffrftT^^ ' every 
night' (from ijfTT and fsT^l); xrFffT^^P^ * in every quarter' (from Trfw 
and f^Si); ^iiPrt^ ' beyond the ship' (from ^fir and ft). 

a. Many of these compounds are formed with the adverbial prepo- 
sition TT^, generally contracted into ^; thus, ^ToShT?^ * with anger' 
(from TT and -a^j;) ; TTT^T^ * with respect' (^ ^T^t?^) ; ^T^T^mH^ * with 
prostration of eight parts of the body ;' ifMv (i. e. sa-upadhi) 
' fraudulently ;' ^frrf ' with fire.' Panini (11. i, 9, &c.) gives some 
unusual forms with postpositions ; as, ^llfrT ' a Uttle sauce.' 

b. The following are examples of indeclinable compounds with other prefixes ; 
^T^'i^'^ * according to seniority ;' him^'*\ * over every limb ;' nflTJRT^ ' every 
month' (730. e); ^J^TTf^ftl 'according to rule;' ^1^5^^ or XTR^^?^ (49) 
* according to one's ability ;' *4MI,^<si*t^ ' happily ;' *'qi^*^ ' suitably,' ' worthily ;' 
<l'ilrh*i^' as described;' H ^.Hj^'l^ ' every moment ;' ^OTHc^'^' before the eyes '(778); 
Wfir^Fyi^ ' upon the shoulders ;' ^f^J^^f^ ' upon the tree ; ' <JMHlff<6llfil<*t^ ' near 
the banks of the Mahni ;' iitJ^IM*t^ ' without doubt ;' fTf5ii ^\ ' without distmc- 
tion ;' Tlmi^'#^ ' in the middle of the Ganges.' 

c. Analogous indeclinable compounds are found in Latin and Greek, such as 
admodum, obviam, affatim, aVTt^irjv, dvTifStov, VTrepfJLOpov, '7rapa'XjpY][xa. In these, 
however, the original gender is retained, whereas, according to the Sanskrit rule, 
obvium would be written for obviam, and affate for affatim. In Greek compounds 


like (Tvifxepov, the feminine rjfJiepa appends a neuter form, as in Sanskrit. In 
English * uphill.' 

d. The neuter word ^'q*^ * for the sake of,' * on account of (see 731 . Obs.), is often 
used at the end of compounds ; thus, tsi^*^ * for the sake of sleep ;' o(r^T^T*!T^'^ 

for the sake of the performance of business.' See, however, 731, note. 

e. There is a peculiar adverbial compound formed by doubling a nominal stem, 
the final of the first member of the compoimd being lengthened, and the final of 
the last changed to ^i. It generally denotes mutual contact, reciprocity, or oppo- 
sition ; thus, gK^^r? ' fist to fist ;' ?[?|?T^ftp * stick to stick ' (fighting) ; ^shprf^ 

* share by share ;' 4^nf^ * pulUng each other's hair ;' ^8T^% * body to body ;' 
*ll^ii^r^ ' arm to arm ;' TST'Tf^ 'scratching each other.' 

/. Something in the same manner, ^B^ and Vity ' another,' are doubled ; thus, 
^n?ft"3l^, TJt?PTf^, 'one another,' 'mutually,' 'together.' 


761. The compounds in the preceding four divisions are generally 
terminated by substantives, the sense of each being in that case 
absolute and complete in itself. Most of such compounds may be 
used relatively J that is, as epithets of other words, the final substan- 
tive becoming susceptible of three genders, like an adjective (see 108, 
119, 130, 134. a). We have given the name relative to compounds 
when thus used, not only for the obvious reason of their being 
relatively and not absolutely employed, but also because they 
usually involve a relative pronoun, and are sometimes translated 
into English by the aid of this pronoun, and are, moreover, resolved 
by native commentators into their equivalent uncompounded words 
by the aid of the genitive case of the relative (^I^). Thus, JT^nRJ^ 
is a Descriptive compound, meaning * great wealth/ and may be 
used adjectively in relation to 5^:, thus jt^TV^t: ^^l *a man who 
has great wealth ;' or to ^, thus *T^T>RT ^ ' a woman who has 
great wealth ;' and would be resolved by native commentators into 
71^ or Tf^EH w^ Vl^. In English we have similar compounds, as 

* high-minded,' 'left-handed,' and the like, where the substantive 
terminating the compound is converted into an adjective. 

Relative form of Tat-purusha or Dependent Compounds. 

762. Many Dependent compounds (especially those that are instru- 
mentally dependent at 740) are already in their own nature relative, 
and cannot be used except in connexion with some other word in 
the sentence. But, on the other hand, many others, and especially 


those which are genitively dependent, constituting by far the largest 
number of this class of compounds, are in their nature absolute, and 
yield a sense complete in itself. These may be made relative by 
declining the final word after the manner of an adjective; thus, 
^^^T^fir:, -fn:, -fir, * moon-shaped^ (see 119), from the absolute com- 
pound ^^5T^fif: ' the shape of the moon/ 

a. Other examples are, ^"T^^J, -"TT, -'^j 'whose form is godlike' (see 108); 
^^WT^:, -^, -'^'^, 'splendid as the sun' (108); ^f^rf^M^:, -^T, -^'^*, 

* elephant-footed' (see 57); tii'i<i*ri;, -'in, -'fnF[, 'ending at the seaj' *TT?!Ip?r:, 
-^fTT, -"'iT'^, 'terminated by death ;' c|ra^yCl'i*i:, -^Tf, -IT^^, or ^'H^g^t , -W, -W^^, 

* headed by Karnaj' fqajj^^iti it'll, -TT, -T, 'named Vishnusarman ' (see 154); 
54isOiius|:, -T3|t, -"Sf^, ' lotus-eyed' (see 778); nTnnnT^:, -MT, -Wl^^, 'called 
Narayana;' ^i^'j^rt:, -HT, -c?'^, 'founded on wealth;' cO'Sj^^iSHTf^ (agreeing 
with >T5nfT), 'money to the amount of a lac;' l^tl^Wt , -Wl, -H*^, 'having a 
club in the hand,' or 'club-in-hand;' ^^,'*lf<l*I, 'fiSTJ, -fw, 'arms-in-hand;' 
*1irt.5wJ, -icTT, -"^^y 'net-in-hand;' yM rm<4:, -X|T, -1'^, 'on the subject of 
flowers,' 'relating to flowers;' WHTmil, -IJ, -T*(} 'having meditation for one's 
chief occupation;' TTfk^TJ, -Vl, -H'^, 'having his knowledge.' These examples 
are not distinguishable from absolute dependent compounds, except by declension 
in three genders. 

b. Similar compounds are found in Greek ; e. g. <7rBro-7Actf(7d"Of, *horse-tongued.' 

763. Many of them, however, are not found, except as relatives ; 
and if used absolutely would yield a different sense ; thus, <4i^l^4<^ 
means * the face of Karna/ but when used relatively, as <4iiU4|4;<i UsTFi*, 

* the kings headed by Kar^ia.^ So also ^R^"^: signifies * the eye of 
the spy,' but when used relatively, as ^T^^THTT, ' a king who sees 
by means of his spies.' See 166. c. 

764. The substantive ^f^, 'a beginning,' when it occurs in the last member 
of a compound of this nature, is used relatively to some word expressed or under- 
stood, and yields a sense equivalent to et cetera. It is generally found either in 
the plural or neuter singular ; as, ^^Tp^J ' Indra and the others ' (agreeing with 
the nom. case ^tTI expressed or understood, ' the gods commencing with Indra'); 
"J^r^T{l*^'of Agni and the others' (agreeing with ^jT^ T H I *!^ understood, 'of 
those above-named things of which Agni was the first'); '^WTT^tf^ 'the eyes, 
&c.' (agreeing with ^r*5*nfin 'the senses commencing with the eyes'). When 
used in the neut. sing, it either agrees with ^ii^*^, ' the aforesaid,' understood, or 

* m^ may be substituted for VJ^ in compounds of this kind, but not after 
f fwi;. See 778. 

X X 


with a number of things taken collectively, and the adverb iti * may be prefixed ; 
as, ^^rnpirrf^ *the word devdn, &c.* (agreeing with ^m'**^ understood, ' the afore- 
said sentence of which devdn is the first word'); <;H\f<^fl *by hberality, &c.' 
(agreeing with some class of things understood, ' by that class of things of which 
liberality is the first'). See also 772. 

a. It may occasionally be used in the masc. sing. ; as, HTWnf^: * brooms, &c.* 
(agreeing with ;mt!fiO 'furniture'). 

b. Sometimes ^f^cfi is used for wf^ ; as, ^HlH^*'^ * gifts, &c. :' and some- 
times '^SfJft; as, ^^leii: ^TT: 'the gods of whom Indra is the first.' 

c. The feminine substantive W^fff, * beginning,' may be used in the same way ; 
thus, ^^injiHi: ^TT: 'the gods, beginning with Indra ;' iNf i(IHrH<<lf?ni^fllii*\ 

of those villagers, &c.' 

d. Observe The neuter of Wf^ may optionally take the terminations of the 
masculine in all but the nom. and ace. cases; thus, ^iMi^t^^ *of elephants, 
horses, &c.' (agreeing with *lc*i;M gen. neut. of "^<9 *an army'). 

Relative form of Bvandva or Copulative Compounds, 
765. Copulative (or Aggregative) compounds are sometimes used 
relatively ; especially in the case of adjectives or participles ; as, 
^xur^:, -W, -W{, * black and white' (cf. XevKO-iJLeXa^) ; yidl^fc^^W:, 
-TTT, -TH^, * bathed and anointed;' ift^WPT^:, -^T, -^, * belonging to 
town and country;' ^ITjM^d:, -ITT, -in^, * done and done badly;' 
^m^:, -m, -H^, * good and evil' (754) ; ^k/^^ v:, -nn, -T^, * thick 
and unctuous;' fir.^r^.1%f*nf:, -TTT, -in=(, 'noiseless and motionless' 
(night); J|^1ri Hfri^Tft^ 'of him taken and let loose.' See other 
examples under Complex Compounds. 

Obs. Many compounds of this kind are classed by native gram- 
marians under the head of Tat-purusha (Pan. 11. i, 69), though the 
accent in many conforms to the rule for Bahu-vnhi (vi. 2, 3). 

Relative form of Karma-dhdraya or Descriptive Compounds. 
'j66. A greater number of compound words may be referred to 
this head than to any other. Every style of writing abounds with 
them; thus, ^r^ir^f^, -f^:, -fiF, * whose strength is small' (119). 

a. Other examples are, Tfr^HJj -HT, ''^IS^^, 'whose strength is great' (108, 
see also 778); H^TT^iTTI, -ifT:, -W*t 'whose glory is great' (164. a); ^<m^<^:, 
-n, -TT, 'whose wealth is small;' injTWT, -WT, -W, 'high-minded' (151); 
T^rr^rfCiT:, -WT, -WH, 'of noble demeanour;' "afJTTW:, -WT, -W^, 'having 

* Sometimes evam is prefixed ; as, tt^i^tuflftf T^TTTmf ? * lamentations begin- 
ning thus.' 


many fish;' '5"55TErrf575:, -"^T, -f5H, * having very httle water;' 'iftlKir^^t, 
-f^:, -ff , *of wise intellect' (119); flPTHT^:, -^, -^T, 'having a dear wife;' 
^S^^W^TRJ, -rTT, -T'^j 'not to be reconciled;' ^fl^^^T^J, agreeing with 
TTTT, *a king who conceals what ought to be concealed.' 

b. Occasionally the feminine of the adjective appears in the compound; as, 
^^HT^: ' having a sixth wife.' Compare 755. h. 

'j6'j. Although a passive participle is not often prefixed to a 
noun in an absolute sense, this kind of combination prevails most 
extensively in the formation of relative compounds; as, UTTTofTH:, 
-HT, -cJ*^, * whose time has arrived.' 

a. Other examples are, fwiff^^t, -TIT, -^^, 'whose passions are subdued;' 
^liii^^ifTJ, -flTJ, -TT:, 'whose mind is composed;' ^^^7^^* -*nJ, -T1, * whose 
mind is rejoiced' (see 164); v*'ll^ll, -'^IT, "Wi? 'whose hopes are broken;' 
^TTTJi^!, -Tm, -1^^, 'whose kingdom is taken away;' ^f*iii^niiJ, -"STTt, 
-5^:, 'whose glory is boundless;' '^TT^cJ^fTTH* > "^*' "''5' *^hose death is near;' 
oji(i,<*w*, -HT, -'P^, 'whose desire is accomplished,' i.e. 'successful;' ^"THTt- 
R:, -rTT, -'T'^, 'one who has finished eating;' ^^fV|J|ri^^|l^:, -^, -'^(% 'one 
by whom the Sastras have not been read;' fir^^^^J, -XIT, -"f^, or ^c5^^^J, 

whose heart is pierced;' fiT W'^^t , ~'^'<>i ~W> 'who has conquered his enemies;' 
n^^ oh^Tt, -'Wi -W[y 'having the hair cut;' fHTTT^:, -rTT, -^*T, 'eating 
sparingly;' ^fT^n^J, -XfT, -"^T, 'purified from sin.' 

b. The suffix ^ ka is often added; as, ^iT^ftoFt, -'^, -'^, 'reft of fortune;' 
^nPrti^^:, -7^, -'^^'^, ' shorn of (his) beams.' Cf. 769. a. 

c. Examples of Greek and Latin compounds of this kind are, [XyaXo-K<potXogf 
fxeyaXo-fxYjTtij XivKo-irrepog^ 'noXv-yjiVdog, p^yo-eo-o-re^avo^, yjtv-yXaxyaog, 
epyjfxO'TroXig, magn-animus, longi-manus, multi-comus, albi-comus, multi-vius, atri- 
color. In English compounds of this kind abound ; e. g. ' blue-eyed,' ' narrow- 
minded,' ' good-tempered,' ' pale-faced,' &c. 

Relative form of Bvigu or Numeral Compounds, 

768. Numeral or Dvigu compounds may be used relatively ; as, 
fk^q^;, -inT, -^h, * two-leaved ;' f^l^"??:, -^ or -";ft, -"JTJT, ' tri-ocular.' 

a. Other examples are, f^f^JJ^JI, -VT, -VT, ' three-headed' CJV being substituted 
for ^^, see 778); ^^^:, -'^, -"^, 'four-faced;' ^^g^^TCT:, -T!TT, -W^, 
'quadrangular;' ^[^T^I, -tT, -T7T, 'hundred-gated;' '^ff?r:, -^TT, -^, ' pos- 
sessed of the four sciences' (108); ^^yi^J, -^, -"^T, 'thousand-eyed '(see 778); 
m^/ii,*IT:, -"5TT, -T'l, ' having the wealth of five bullocks.' 

Helative form of Compounds with Adverbial Prefixes. 

769. The adverbial compounds most frequently employed rela- 
tively as adjectives are those formed with the adverbial preposition^ 

X X 2 


?lf ^with/ contracted into Tt; thus, ^rsstv:, -VT, ->|T, * angry ^ (lit. 

* with-anger/ 'having anger'); ^nifcij:, -?5T, -?PI^, *fruitfur (io8); 
^T^:, -^:, -^, 'possessed of kindred' (119); ^tt^, -^, -^, 
'energetic;' ^ft^:, -TT, -'^IT, 'possessed of life/ 'living;' ?rR^:, 
-^> -f^, 'joyful;' ^r^f^R:, -^, -"qjT, ^accompanied by ministers;' 
wyn^: 'accompanied by a wife,' * having a wife;' Wimy -i^, -mf{, 

* strung' (as a bow, lit. ' with-bowstring'). 

Obs. When adverbial compounds like T'nWT (760. b) are used at the begin- 
ning of relative compounds, the final f is dropped j e. g. HV||^4mK:, -TJ, -t*?, 

* employed in the manner described.' 

a. The suffix ^ ka (80. LVI) is often added to this kind of compound ; as, ?r^fhs:, 
-<RT, -^*(, * possessed of fortune;' ^*^St, -5T, -"^W, 'accompanied by women.* 

b. In some compounds F^ remains ; as, ^'fl^HfI * with his array ;' ti^^gdt 

* along with his son.' 

c. TC is also used for TfTR * sarae ;' as, ^^fl^J , -^T, -'^^^, ' of the same family.' 

d. There are of course many examples of nouns combined with adverbial prefixes, 
so as to form relative compounds, which cannot be regarded as relative forms of 
Avyayi-bhava ; thus, ^^T^Vt, ->n, -V^, 'with uplifted weapon;' iMi,H<*Kt, 
-TJ, -T??, 'of various shapes;' "9i;fTrret, -^, 'Wf, 'where dwelling?' 8j,ai^i, 
-^n, -^, 'where bom?' f^I^mv:, -"UT, ->l^, 'without fault;' f^U^R:, -TT, 
-TH,' having no food;' ^HT^f^:, ->ft:,-f>T, 'fearless' (123. i); nrrf^V:,-VT,->IH, 
'of that kind,' 'in such a state;' 53%*, -fe, -f^, 'weak-minded;' JW^flTt, 
-fk:, -fir, 'ill-natured;' ^[^[^, -^ or -W\, -^W, 'handsome-faced;' ^^fs:, 
-^, -fSy 'of good understanding.' Some of the above may be regarded as 
relative forms of Descriptive compounds, formed with indeclinable prefixes ; see 
756. Similar compounds in Greek and Latin are, av-YjfA.po(, ev-OiqXo^, tn-imCM, 
in-felixy dis-similis, semi-plenus. 

e. Observe The adverbial prefixes ^ and ^ (726. d,f) impart a passive sense 
to participial nouns of agency, just as Of o" and ey in Greek ; thus, J^^ ' difficult 
to be done,' ^4C ' easy to be done ;' ^wWf ' difficult to be obtained,' ^?W 'easy 
to be attained ;* J^tT^ ' difficult to be crossed.' Cf. V(f)opoi, ' easy to be borne ;' 
Ovairopoi) * difficult to be passed,' &c. 

/. ^HTR;, -^, -'IH, ' possessed of a master,' is used at the end of compounds 
to denote simply 'possessed of,' 'furnished with ;' thus, fWR^^nTT'? f^l rtTTTc^'^ 
*a stone-seat furnished with a canopy ;* f^fTfTT^^PRfft H!4Mt 'an arbour having 
a marble-slab as its master,' i. e. * furnished with,* ' provided with,' &c. Similarly, 
<4^ i|c|i <4rf|vfi (3^m^li: ' a fig-tree occupied by a number of cranes.' 

g. Observe The relative form of a compound would be marked in Vedic San- 
skrit by the accent. In the Karma-dharaya compound mahd-bdhu, 'great arm,* 
the accent would be on the last syllable, thus H^RI^ ; but in the Relative mahd- 
bdhu, 'great-armed,' on the ante-penultimate, thus, TfTWTJ. So, native com- 
mentators often quote as an example of the importance of right accentuation, the 



word Indra-satru, which, accented on the first syllable, would be Bahu-vrihi (see 
Pan. VI. 2, I, by which the first member retains its original accent) ; but accented 
on the penultimate would be Tat-purusha. The sense in the first case is * having 
Indra for a conqueror or destroyer ;' in the second, * the destroyer of Indra.' 

h. Note, that vlr<5ii and ^^ (80. LXXIX) are used at the end of relative com- 
pounds to denote 'composed of,' 'consisting of;' but are more frequently found 
at the end of complex relatives ; see 774. 


770. We have now to speak of complex compound words, 
or compounds within compounds, which form a most remarkable 
feature in Sanskrit composition. Instances might be given of 
twenty or thirty words thus compounded together; but these are 
the productions of the vitiated taste of more modern times, and 
are only curious as shewing that the power of compounding words 
may often be extravagantly abused. But even in the best specimens 
of Sanskrit composition, and in the simplest prose writings, four, five, 
or even six words are commonly compounded together, involving 
two or three forms under one head. It will be easy, however, to 
determine the character of the forms involved, by the rules pro- 
pounded in the preceding pages. 

Instances of absolute complex compounds, whose sense is complete 
and unconnected, are not rare. 

a. The following are examples : fiIc5prrTT^f^^HT5>^fT ' good and evil 
(occurring) in the revolutions of the interval of time,' the whole being a dependent, 
involving a dependent and a copulative ; Hli.Mfn.qrtjwiBii ' the general of the 
army and the overseer of the forces,' the whole being a copulative, involving two 
dependents ; ^n <*j <i fH^^T^^nn'^ * the protection from sorrow, enemies, and perils,* 
the whole being a dependent, involving an aggregative; 'W^^firt^^^^l'W*^ 'the 
disregarded words of a friend,' the whole being a descriptive, involving a dependent ; 
Wmig^^Hl^jW^t^TT a white robe and a string of garlands,' the whole being a copu- 
lative, involving a descriptive and dependent ; ^'^^W^^^'^TTT* * one who has gone 
to the opposite bank (para) of all the S'astras,' i. e. 'one who has read them through ;* 
*iil,WlT^TfVr ' the bones of a dead lion.' 

771. Complex compounds are generally used as adjectives, or 
relatively, as epithets of some other word in the sentence; thus, 
^<55 t;T^7T'R: , -T^, -!*?, 'whose nails and eyes were decayed,^ the 
whole being the relative form of descriptive, involving a copulative ; 
"Wr^JTflRS^: ' having a throat emaciated with hunger,^ the whole being 
the relative form of descriptive, involving a dependent. 


o. Other examples are, ^lITTr^T^^TT: , -"^TT, -^, * having a white garland 
and unguents,' the whole being the relative form of copulative, involving a 
descriptive; ^fT^Rn^T^Tj: * broad-shouldered and strong-armed,* the whole 
being a copulative, involving two descriptives ; ^^W*r^fT: , -FT, -if^, ' done in a 
former birth,' the whole being a dependent, involving a descriptive; f^WPI- 
TT^*, -ifT, -if*^, * advanced in learning and age,' the whole being a dependent, 
involving a copulative; ^fRU^OT t^, ^1 1 1 , -rTT, -"Jf^, * having fresh garlands, 
and being free from dust,* the whole being the relative form of copulative, 
involving a descriptive and dependent ; ^fiTRcRT^^f^TTTt , -UI , ~V,' whose head 
was moist with unction ;' 'Hlf^^nrg^:, -^ or -^^, -^^> * having the face turned 
in any direction one likes;' ;^rt.jJi<^trtt, -^FTT, -H*^, * spear and club in hand;* 
^<* O c^ fn^ I ^ ) H H t , -ITT, -KH, 'sufficient for support during one night' (see 778) ; 
"^PTT^r^THI^oi^^^M 4|r'qjx4Tf>1^: * those who are acquainted with the meaning of 
the three Vedas, called Rig, Yajur, and Sama ;* *ir<^K^<;n'oa(^^rti^^H^it ' biting 
their lips and having red eyes' (agreeing with UWRt); M<^jl^,cn^^^tt 'injuring 
another by action or by intention.* 

772. The substantive ^nf^, *a beginning,' often occurs in complex relative 
compounds, with the force of et cetera, as in simple relatives at 764 ; thus, ^fi^^- 
Rcftit;**! 'parrots, starlings, &c.' (agreeing with Mhsj*yi 'birds beginning with 
parrots and starlings '), the whole being the relative form of dependent, involving 
an aggregative ; ^f^f^U^TT^ ' peace, war, &c.' (agreeing with ^T^!^ under- 
stood); 'i^.H^^'^'Xl^^.^^'j "^> -W*^) 'possessed of houses, temples, &c. ;* 
oRR g<.'i.ii*in; MfiCrMLf;^^^ *\> "W, 'If^i ' possessed of property such as elephants, 
horses, treasure, &c.' 

a. Similarly, ^HTlff in the example o^#i^'i^itai: (agreeing with BW ' garlands 
possessing the best odoiur and other qualities'). 

773. Long complex compounds may be generally translated by beginning at the 
last word and proceeding regularly backwards, as in the following : TinT^cirT^- 
^l.^*J*>li4'l<rHfc4d,<*tftlf<*>irtiM.ti^lno(,^tj4ai^:, -^, -^, 'causing pleasure 
by the music of the voice of the cuckoo, blended with the hiun emitted by the 
swarms of joyous bees.' 

774. "^IrW* or "^^j at the end of a complex relative, denotes 'composed of;' 
thus, ^w^d.^N^M^^ifn^flW^oFiirtieit "^"(^ ' a force consisting of elephants, horses, 
chariots, infantry, and servants;' HMji^,*jfF^w!pif,^M W^W\ 'the two actions 
consisting of the good and evil done in a former birth.* 

775. Complex compounds may sometimes have their second or middle member 
omitted ; thus, ^Bf^J^M.^I^J'rtrt*^^ is really a complex compound, the whole being 
a descriptive, involving a dependent ; but the middle member ^ffiT is eUded. 
Similarly, ^ll^mfQiC 'the era-king' is for ^rnirfirT"qTf^ 'the king (beloved) 
by the era ;' fTSi'f^^ for rl*HMIMl^5jl ' Urvasi gained by valour.' 

a. Complex compounds expressive of comparison are not uncommon ; as, 
if6,r<^.<4lc<J,'<M<5J, -r5T, -75'^, 'unsteady and trembling as a drop of water;* 


Tff5ft]^c5^rftTiTT:<^:, -cST, -HH, 'tremulous as water on the leaf of a lotus;' 
the last two examples are complex. Compare 758. a. 

b. A peculiar compound of this kind is formed from Dvandvas by adding the 
suffix iya ; thus, oRToirTncyhi: , -'TT, -^H, * like the story of the crow and the palm- 
tree ;' ^TIT"R^^lft^:, -^, -^, *like the story of the hawk and the pigeon.' 

c. The substantive verb must often be supplied in connexion with a relative com- 
pound ; as, inC^J^^^f^^J ' his success was proportionate to his undertakings ;' 
^^'Hftl ' on his drinking water,' for iR ^snwfH ^^ ^rflT. 

776. Complex compound adverbs, or indeclinable compounds, 
involving other compounds, are sometimes found ; as, ^7J^f^Tf%^TO 
' not differently from one's own house \* ^r^^WKTrtpTiR'^ * after utter- 
ing a sound;* ^g-q^jn^f^fTT'Ttfl^H^fT^^ * regardlessly of the curving 
of her waist bending under the weight of her bosom;' '^'T'^^F^jfT^^ 

* as seen and heard.' 


777. There are certain compounds which are too anomalous in their formation 
to admit of ready classification under any one of the preceding heads. 

a. c?r^, ^^"^^j ^, irT'ff, ^JTW, afl&xed to stems, form anomalous compounds ; 

b. There is a common compound formed by placing ^r?r^ after a nominal stem, 
to express ' another,' * other ;' as, WT^TpfTCT or ^^TpflT^ * another place ; ' n3IjH'l.*lir 
^ ' along with another king ;' ^PTpimf^ ' other births.' 

c. Similarly, JITW is added to express *mere ;' see 919. 

d. '5% or ^"^ or ^tJ'^ (meaning literally 'preceded by') may be added to 
nominal stems to denote the manner in which anything is done ; as, '3MV^f5*^' ^^^h 
anger ;' ^WTf^cF^T ^^ '^ ' he gave food with reverence.' 

e. A pecuhar compound is formed by the use of an ordinal number as the last 
member ; thus, ^T^^r%fft^t ' accompanied by the Sarasa ;' ^mT^niJ (agreeing 
with TTR!) * having Sita for his third (companion),' i. e. including Lakshmana ; 
^ N lf^i ft ^: (^Tf5:) ' Nala made double by his shadow ;' m^f;^^: (lllJISqT:) 

* the Pandavas with their mother as the sixth ;' ^T vmsHiti m'^^iTJ ' the Vedas 
with the Akhyanas as a fifth;* ^WM<;^H ^T^: 'ten cows and one bull' (Manu 
XI. 129). 

/. The following are pecuhar : T^rar^ftfTiriftvt * a fighter who abandons life ;* 
'W^iiTHUt, -'IT, -^H, 'having no fear from any quarter;' ^T^]^:, -WT, -^'^j 

* never before seen ;' ^TRTJ^tf^rrt * one who has lodged seven nights.* 

g. With regard to compounds like TnJ^o|il*i * desirous of going,' see 871. 

li. The Veda has some peculiar compounds ; e. g. vidad-vasu, ' granting wealth ;' 
ydvayad-dveshas, ' defending from enemies ;' kshayad-v&a, ruling over men.* 
These are a kind of inverted Tat-purusha. 



778. The following is an alphabetical list of the substitutions and 
changes which take place in the final syllables of certain words 
when used in certain compounds. They are called by native gram- 
marians Samasanta suffixes. They are properly only added to 
Tat-purusha compounds (which include Karma-dharaya). 

^rej at end of various compounds for wftf n. *the eye;' e. g. T^^ * a bull's 
eye (window) ;' c^tH^fflvy: , -^, 'W{i ' red-eyed .'- '^W^ ^^^ ^r5^f<'5 f . * the finger ;* 
e. g. 2rWc5I, -HT, -'3'^, ' measuring two fingers.' w^c* for ^I^f^ m. 'joining 
the hands in reverence.* ^HiEI for ^|5^ ra. *a road;' e.g. TTT^*, "*^ "^^ 

* distant (aa a road).' WHi^ in Dvandvas for ^Rff m. ' a bull ;' e. g. M?=^^Tp'^ 
or -^ * cow and bull.* WtflT in Karma-dharayas for ^1^ n. * a cart,' ' a carriage ;' 
e. g. H^M^^'a large cart' (Pan. v. 4, 94). "^l^TO in Karma-dharayas for Mt^^ n. 

* iron.'-^-^T^ in Karma-dharayas for ^;^it, m. * a stone.* ^TO for ^ftl f. * an 
angle;' e.g. ^TgT^:, -''511, -^J*^, 'quadrangular.' Wgl in Dvigus and relative 
compounds for^T?*^; e.g. ^&f TePf^ ' a car drawn by eight oxen;' >MKi^<Micit, 
-HT, -T^i^^, * having eight receptacles.' wit^ in Dvandvas for ^slqci m. n. ' the 
knee ;' e. g. istl^^' thigh and knee.' ^W for ^fw| *a bone.' 'BT^ or ^BI^ 
for ^T^n. *a day;' e.g. ^oRT^t 'the period of one day;' j^lWI^H^'a holy-day;' 
Wl^^fw: 'the lord of day.* ^^ for ^I^n. 'a day ;' e. g. ^^1^; ' the forenoon.' 
^ for W^f. * water ;' e. g. jjlMH * an island ;' ^iIOmH ' an island.' ^^ for 
^ *a wound' (Pan. v. 4, 126). "3Tf in Karma-dharayas for "5^5^ m. *an ox ;* 
e. g. T^^I * a large ox.' "3^ for "3^ n. ' water ;' e. g. 5^J^*h: ' a water-jar ;' 
fl<J^J ' the sea of milk.' "3T^ in Karma-dharayas for "^T!^ n. * the breast ;* 
e.g. ^Vi<^I, -^, "'W, 'broad-chested as a horse.' ^MiVi an old dual form 
in Dvandvas for T^ f. n. ' the dawn ;' e. g. T^nrr^'T * dawn and sun ' (Piii. vi. 
3, 31). "3SM^ (f. "3!^) for "gi^n. 'an udder,* at end of Bahu-vrihis (Pan. iv. 
I. 25); e.g. "<ftfft>ft 'having a full udder;' SUft 'having two udders;' ^n^^ 

* having an exceedingly large udder.' ^^HI for ^X(^f. * water ;* e. g. "WJ>*; , -'m, -'H^, 
'near water,' 'watery.' ^^^ for ^^J see 779. '*^^ for "^"^ m. 'the top,' 

* head ;' e. g. Gf!,l^i\^* three-peaked (mountain).' ^^ or "^Hl or "^ for "^ express- 
ing inferiority or diminution ; e. g. ^s*!i or ftiu!i or iil!i ' slightly warm ;' 
li<;|<.*^'a bad letter;' cRT^^: *a coward.' iii^q at end of Bahu->Tihi8 for 
4T^(^ m. 'the palate;' e.g. fqcui^j^^' having no palate.' "^TBI for ^T^ m. 'the 
belly.' ^R for ^nft J e. g. ^^^Tf^ ' half a khari ' (a measure). ^f^ for nV 
m. ' smell ;' e. g. ^fimf^:, -f^V:, -f^, ' fetid.* IR in Dvigus for n^ m. f. ' an 
ox ;' e. g. M'^a'ii*!^ * a collection of five cows.' ^1^^ for ^^ * four ;' see 779. 
if^ for n'n * a wife ;* e. g. *Ftnft du. * husband and wife.' "^W^ for iPH ' a 
tooth;' e.g. "gpH^^fWIT, -^HT, -'H, 'grass-toothed,' 'graminivorous.* "inf^ for 
IfXm f. ' a wife ;* e. g. ^TifTf'TJ * having a young wife.* ^ and ^ in Bahu-vrihis 



for W^ n. *the knee ;' e. g. WJ, -'gr, -'^, or T(^t, -?T, -^'^j * bandy-kneed.' 
"W^ for riiJJf^ m. ' a carpenter ;* e. g. Rr7ir8|J * a carpenter who works on his own 

account;' ^H'^'r^* *the village carpenter.' TfH^ in Karma-dharayas (preceded 

by ^Jf^, ^T^f or ^T^) for TT*!^ n. * darkness ;* e. g. '3I^?[*T^^ ' slight darkness.' 

f^'^ for r5(^, see 779. ^7(^(f. ^rft) for ^^ ra. ' a tooth ;* e. g. ^^, -^t, -^f^, 

* having beautiful teeth.' ^'^ for ^TI^T * a wife ;' e. g. ^WTiT^ ' husband and wife ' 
(according to some, 'the two lords of the dama or house '). f^^ at end and f^"^T at 
beginning for f^^ m. ' the day ;* e. g. T^f^'^* night and day ;' f^^^fTT^*^ ' day 
and night.' f^^ at end for f^W, see Gana S'arad-ddi to Pan. v. 4, 107. J^ at 
end for ^ 'yielding milk ;' e. g. fiT'T"g"m 'the cow of plenty.' ?n^T an old dual 
form for f^f. 'heaven;' ^Tm^f^I^T du. 'heaven and earth.' V^?|^ at end of 

Bahu-vrihis for If^^n. *a bow;' e.g. '^^V^'^, -r^T, -'?^, 'a strong archer.' 

VHt|^ at end for "^ m. ' virtue,' ' duty;' e. g. "^J^TTJTV'RT, -fn, ~^, ' virtuous.' 

^ for ^^ f. ' a load ;' e. g, <l^,^^ ' a royal load.'- "R at the beginning of a few 
compounds for ^ 'not;' e.g. H^*<<*J 'a eunuch.' T^ for T^l' 'a river;' e.g. 
M^aic^'^'the Panjab.' nT or T^ for TTftraT 'nose;' e..g. J^IT^t, "WW, -W,, 

or ^TTSr^: , -^, -''^, ' sharp-nosed.' "?n>T for TTft? f. * the navel;* e. g. "T^JTrfW: 

' lotus-naveled,' a name of Vishnu. TT^ for Tr f . a ship ;' but only in Dvigu 

compounds and after ardAa (Pan. v. 4, 99, 100) ; e. g. P^Hn*^' two boats;' ^IVTT'^f( 
' half of a boat.' "r^ for ""crf^ m. ' a road;' e. g. ^"T^: ' a good road.' tj^ and 
^T^ (fem. '^I^) for "m^ m. ' the foot ;' e. g. "Tf^'ll ' coldness of the feet ;' %TT1^, 
-XJ^y -in^, *a biped;' ^^Hf^'a quadruped.' "^ for m^ m. 'the foot;' e.g. 
^^"'Tt, -Vil, -f^, * going on foot.'- ^"^ in Dvandvas for ^^ m. ' a male ;' e. g. 

^(^fly^ nom. du. 'man and woman.' 'J^for ^1TTT f. 'an army.' U^I^at end of 

Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^, or ^) for THTT f. ' people,' ' progeny ;' e. g. '^TI- 
^;, -"ifT*, -'5Tt, 'having a numerous progeny. '-^-^^ for "S5J*(^ m. *a Brahman ;' 

e. g. <^^iM ' a contemptible Brahman.' ^ for ijf'T f. *the earth ;' e. g. "3^'"^: 

'land towards the north.' -^^ in Dvandvas for W f. 'the eye-brow ;' e. g. ^"8^;^^ 

'eye and brow.' V^^^ in Dvandvas for Hr(^ n. "* the mind;^ e. g. ^T^nti nom. 

du. n. ' speech and heart.' *T^ and ff^ (preceded by ftTiTT, TT1TT, &c., 754. a) for 

*i^"f^' great;' e.g. fmrR^: 'grandfather.' H?T at beginning of Karma-dharayas 

and Bahu-vrihis for if^T^m. f. n. 'great;' but in Tat-purusha or dependent com- 
pounds T^ is retained, as in ?^^ra"^t ' recourse to the great ;' also before >JiT 

* become,' and words of a similar import, as T^^fft ' one who has become great ;' 
but T^T^JrfT^ ' an element.' ^J^ at end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by fl", f^, &c.) 

for ^VJ|;m. 'the head ;' e. g. fl^l^^:, -^j -^ (see Pan. v. 4, "5 5 ^i- 2, i97)- 

^>l^at end of Bahu-vrihis (preceded by ^, ^, |^, ^^, ^'^) for ^VT f. 'intellect ;' 

e. g. >HgM^*H^ T:, -m:, -^: . 1^^ for ^^, after ^^, ^^, and TTTT ; e. g. ^^^^: 

' solitary.' tTIT at end of Karma-dharayas and Tat-purushas for TT^T^m. ' a king * 
(see 151. a) ; e.g. "q^TT^r: 'a supreme monarch ;' ^^TT"3T: 'the king of the gods.' 
But occasional instances occur of ^1^5^ at the end of Tat-purushas ; e.g. f^H^l^: 


gen. *of the king of Vidarbka' (Nala xi. 21).- TVS at end of Dvigus, Karma- 
dh4rayas, and Dvandvas, for TTf?f f. * nigHt ;' e. g. ^T^VcT^*^ * day and night ;* 
f^n^ * a period of two nights ;' TWITT^: * midnight.' H^ (after ^^, ^R, and 
TlflT) for <5^t^ n. 'hair;' e.g. ^j<ftl*<:, -HT, -J^, 'with the hair.' '^^^ in 
Tat-pmrushas for ^^^ n. * splendour;' e. g. "aisr^^^ 'the power of a Brahman.* 

'M in Karma-dharayas and Bahu-vrihis for ^M^ n. * virtue,* ' fehcity ;' e. g. 

nf:'^<4:, -^, -^H*^, 'destitute of excellence or happiness.' "^ or "'ST for'^BF^m. 
*a dog;' e.g. '5Tf?TO:, -itft, -"'EP^, 'worse than a dog;' '^\^^l * a beast of prey;* 
'^'ff: *a dog's tooth.' ^ at beginning of Avyayi-bhavas and Bahu-vrihis for 
^ 'with;' e.g. t<*lM*^ 'with anger;' ^^l 'accompanied by a son' (iff^^J 
would be equally correct). ^ for WRm ' same;' e. g. ^f^T^t * one who eats the 

same cake.' <*x| iu Karma-dharayas and Bahu-vrihis for tfTcrM n. 'the thigh;' 

e.g. ^^TeTOt, -oRT, -W^, 'having no thighs.' ^I^ in Tat-purushas and 
Dvigus for ^rf^ m. ' a friend ;* e. g. *T^'rWI^: ' the friend of the winds ' (Indra). 
^^ in Karma-dharayas for ^Ti^n. 'a lake ;' e. g. i^i<.ti*^'a great lake.' "Wm 
(after ^^, ^J^, vfii) for ^rWr|[n. 'conciliation;' e.g.^^li:,-*n, -'l'^,' friendly.* 
^c5 for ^?5 m. 'a furrow;' e. g. ^^rJ*, -<9T, -c^^^, * unploughed.' ^ for 
^V n. ' the heart ;* e. g. ^TatsiM* ' sleeping in the heart ;' ^^m. ' a friend.' 

779. It is evident from the above list that the most common substitution is that 
of ^ a for the final vowel or final vowel and consonant of a word. Other stems 
ending in ^^, "^, H^, V^ ^, ^, ^, i^ may add a; as, F(^ for 1^ in (|c(iH^'^ 

* voice and skin ;' ^^ for 'J^^ in 'i'*4'jH*|^ ' the Rig and Yajur-veda.' Also ^^ 
for T"5T^ , ^n^isr for WT^, ^TS[ for ^ITS, &c. Also ^^ for ^^^ in ^M^I , -^'?, 

* half a verse of the Veda ;' and '^^^* ' one conversant with the Rig-veda.* 

a. Some words as the first member of a compound lengthen their finals (see 
Pan. VI. 3, 117; VIII. 4, 4); e.g. "^tTT before ^^ (cBtZTT^^T 'a wood full of 
hollow trees'); VHyH before Wx. (^ydTflft: 'name of a mountain'); f^ 
before TT^ and f[^ (f^^ffT^T^ 'a universal sovereign ;' r^HJUfMcl* * Visvamitra'). 
This is more common in the Veda. 

b. Some few shorten their finals, when they stand as the first member, especially 
nouns terminating in "91 m or ^ <j e. g. ^ for ^ in ^^fe f. * a frown ;' ITWfiir for 
illHUft in ?imftD^: 'the son of a harlot' (Pan. vi. 3, 61): so Hf^fHI^T^: for 
c>K*il*M^I 'endowed with good fortune' (Ramay. i. 19, 21). 

c. A few feminine words in ^T d (such as "?tniT, ^MT, f^T^T, ^TTcTT, <*-mi) may 
be made neuter at the end of certain compounds ; e. g. ^^^ai*<i^ ' the shade of 
sugar-canes' (Pan. II. 4, 22); M"LiM*t^'a shady place;' t^F^H'^ ' an assembly of 
princes;' ^iH^i*^ 'an assembly of women;' "'H^ffT^I'^ (or -^IT) *a night when 
dogs howl.* 

d. A sibilant is sometimes inserted between two members of a compound ; as, 
Wxrfg^ (for TlTTf*!^) * expiation of gin;' < R^ 1 1 *^ 'mutually ;' cf. ^H^rq^ 

* place.' 

780. Numerals, when preceded by particles, prepositions, or other numerals. 


may change their finals to ^ y or if their final letter be a consonant, may either 
drop that consonant or add ^ a to it ; thus, fl'W (nom. -^TT^, "WI^j -^ftjf) 
'two or three;' TJ^R (nom. -WT^, -"^^j -WrfW), 'five or six;' "3"^^^ (nom. 
-tr^) 'nearly four.' 

781. ^T^'^ is found in the beginning of certain anomalous compounds (such as 
SM^^'K, ^fjf^^, &c.) for i?^ * I.' 



ySz. It might be supposed that 2000 simple roots (74. b) would 
convey every possible variety of idea, and that the aid of prepositions 
and adverbial prefixes to expand and modify the sense of each root 
vrould be unnecessary. But in real fact there are comparatively 
few Sanskrit roots in common use; and whilst those that are so 
appear in a multitude of different forms by the prefixing of one or 
two or even three prepositions, the remainder are almost useless 
for any practical purposes, except the formation of nouns. Hence 
it is that compound verbs are of more frequent occurrence than 
simple ones. 

They are formed in two ways : ist, by combining roots with pre- 
positions or prefixes ; 2ndly, by combining the auxiliaries ^ * to do^ 
and )}^*to be' with adverbs, or nouns converted into adverbs. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Prepositions and Prefixes 

with roots. 
783. The following list exhibits the prepositions chiefly used in 
combination with roots : 

a. ^ffT ati, * across,' 'beyond,* 'over;' as, ^finn, ^nft (pres. ^WffT, &c.), 
^fiTar'^, ' to pass by,' ' to pass along,' * to transgress.' 

b. ^ft| adhi, * above,' 'upon,' *over;' as, ^fVFI 'to stand over,' 'to preside' 
(pres. ^fvfWFTffl) ; ^rfv^ ' to chmb upon ;' ^fv^^ ' to he upon ;' ^fVl^^'to 
go over towards;' ^SHI^ 'to go over,' in the sense of 'reading.' The initial ^ a 
is rarely rejected m Epic poetry; as, fVlflHT for W^mW. 

c. ^ anu, 'after;' as, '^^'to follow;' ^^WT 'to stand by,' 'to perform;* 
W^ 'to imitate;' W^[H^'to assent;' ^ST^^iL'to experience,' 'to enjoy.' 

d. '^:^antar, 'between,' 'within' (Gr. ev-ToV; Lat. in-tus, inter); as, vinvT 

* to place within,' ' to conceal,' in pass. * to vanish ;' ^nf^* to be within ;' "WifSIc 

* to walk in the midst.' 

e. ^S^ apa, 'ofp,' 'away,' 'from' (aW); as, ^^n*^, ^HT^, ^^ (from ^'^ and . 
^), 'to go away;' ^T^ft 'to lead away;' ^HJ^^'to abstract;' ^^^ 'to bear 
away.' It also impUes ' detraction ;' as, ^^^ ' to defame.' 

Y y 2 


/. ^fVr apt, *on,' *over' (cw/), only used with VT and "fT^ ; as, ^fw 'to cover 
over;' ^ftfT^ *to bind on.' The initials a is often rejected, leavinf^r finiT, f'T^. 

g. ^H abhi, 'to,' 'unto,' 'towards;' as, ^rfW^, ^hI", 'to go towards;' ^ftl- 
VT^'to run towards ;' ^^T'J?^ 'to behold ;' ^f>TW^ or ^miT (see VT at 664) *tO 
address,' 'to accost,' 'to speak to,' 'to salute.' 

h. ^R ava, 'down,' 'off;' as, SHc|^^, ^T^, 'to descend;* ^?^l^*to look 
down ;' ^"^ ' to throw down/ * to scatter ;' W^^>T ' to cut off.' It also implies 
'disparagement;' as, i5i 'to despise;' W^f^JH^ 'to insult.' With ^, 'to 
attend.' The initial ^ a may be optionally rejected from ^H'^'II^ * bathing.' 

i. ^ a, ' to,* ' towards,' ' near to' (Latin ad); as, ^Tf^SI^* to enter;' WH?^ * to 
go towards;' vinv^ *to mount up.' When prefixed to ^p^, ^T, and ^, 'to go,' 
and ^T to give,' it reverses the action; thus, ^T^P^r^TT^T, ^, 'to come;' W^ 
* to take.' With ^^, * to practise.' 

j. "^ ud, 'up,' 'upwards,' 'out' (opposed to f^); as, o^^ (48), ^f^, *to go 
up,' 'to rise;' 7|^ 'to fly up;' ^5^ 'to strike up' (^ and ^, 50); "^ ("^ and 
15, 50) 'to extract;' '9'f''R^ and Ti^ft^ (47) *to open the eyes;' 4rjd, "^rfal^, 
'to cut up;' T^c5 'to root up;' ^f^ 'to lift up' (T^ and f^, 49). 

When prefixed immediately to ^TT and H^ it causes the ehsion of sj as, Tr'IT 
'to stand up;' T^T 'to prop up.' In some cases it reverses the action; as, 
from T'^ 'to bend down,' <iq#^ (47) 'to raise up ;' from V[f^ ' to keep down,' ^1^ 
'to lift up.' 

k. "3TT upa (opposed to apa), 'to,* 'towards ' {vno}, 'near,' 'down,' 'under,' joined 
like ^1 and ^>T to roots of motion; as, TtHTT 'to approach;' TTTC 'to wait 
upon;' "grTTWT *to stay near,' 'to be present,' 'to arrive.' With f%31 (cl. 6, 
^rqf^^rfiT), ' to sit down ;' with ^HT^, * to sit near.' 

Obs. T^ with ^^frr (from "3"^) = lr^\^fi( ' he bums ;' see 784. a. 

I. f^ ni (thought to be for primitive ani; cf. Lat. in, Gr. v/, ev, e/v), *in,' 'on,' 
down,' 'downwards,' 'under' (opposed to "3^); as, fviMH 'to fall down;' Ph^*!^ 
'to suppress;' f%f*r^ and P^ihIp^ 'to close the eyes;' f^f^^, f^TVI, '^^^^, 'to 
lay down,' 'to deposit ;' f^rf^ST 'to go within,' * to encamp.' With ^, * to return,' 
*to desist;' with ^P^, 'to hear.* In some cases it does not alter, or simply 
intensifies the sense ; as, Ph^^ * to kill outright.* 

m. fT^ nis, ' out ;' as, f^'Si'^ (69. a), Pi'i*t^, ^'^j * *<> go out/ *to come out ;' 
r*l^f^'to cut up ;' Ph^i^ ' to come to an end/ 'to cease j' fffty * to determine.' 

n. "mUparrf, 'back,' * backwards' {irapa), combined with ftf and >J,in the sense 
of 'defeat;' as, ^?TTfT 'to overcome' (cf. irapavtKoidJ); iRT^J^'to be defeated/ 
With ^, cl. 2, it signifies * to retreat* (pres. ^fif); with ^ or ^(\, cl. i, Atm., 'to 
run awsij,^ pard being changed to paid (pres. ^THTm). 

0. "^ft pari, 'around,* 'about' {Trepi, per); as, Mp<.i^, ^ft^, 'to surround;' 
^rf^^, ^Pt^, ' to go round ;' lTrtT5(^ ' to look round,' * to examine ;* mPi."}*^ ' to 
turn round ;' ^tVT^ * to run round.' When prefixed to ^ it signifies ' to adorn,' 
and ^ is inserted, ^P<^. With ^, 'to despise,* and with ^, 'to avoid.' It 


sometimes merely gives intensity or completeness to the action ; as, TrKW"3^ ' to 
abandon altogether;' ""CTiWr 'to ascertain completely/ 

p. TI pra, * before,' 'forward' (t^o, pro, prce); as, J^'l*^, IT^H,* *to proceed;' 
HM*\ ' to set before,' * to present ;' TI^^ * to begin ;' U^ * to proceed,' * to begin ;' 
H>n^ ' to run forward ;' UFIT * to set out,' ' to advance ;' TI>J. * to be superior,' * to 
prevail;' IT^ST *to foresee.' With ^H, *to deceive.' 

Obs. If with ^^fiT * he goes,' makes UT^fff (or Hitf^PlT) * he goes on quickly ' 
(38./) ; H with ^^^, causal stem of ^^^' to go,' makes H'^'^R * I send.' Similarly, 
H + T^W = fti!^ * he trembles j' and IT + ^^iT (from "3^) = ift^fTT * he burns.' 
See 784. a. 

The r of pra influences a following n by 58 ; as, TTOfl^ ' to bend before,' 'to salute.' 
Sometimes U does not alter the sense of a root, as in HT^'to obtain' (see 68i). 

g. Tif^ prati, * against,' 'to,' 'towards,' 'near,' *at,' 'back again' {Trpog)-, as, 
TrffT^V 'to fight against;' inft 'to go towards' (pres. himT*!) ; UPri'l*^ 'to go 
towards,' ' to return ;' UffT^^' to dwell near or at ;' TlfTT^ * to counteract ;' UflT^*^ 
*to beat back,' 'to repel;' HfrTW^ 'to answer;' TffTTcTH'to recover;' UfTRt'to 
lead back ;' uflf T^ ' to re-salute.' With ^, 'to promise ;' with V^y 'to arrive at,' 
'to obtain;' with ^^, 'to wait for,' 'to expect.' 

r. \^ vi, 'apart,' 'asunder,' implying 'separation,' 'distinction,' 'distribution,' 

* dispersion ' (Latin dis-) ; as, fcf^l^ ' to wander about ;' f^^c^ ' to vacillate ;' f^ 
*to roam for pleasure;' f^,"^ 'to dissipate;' f^ 'to tear asunder;' f^>?T 'to 
divide ;' fTf^"^ * to distinguish.' Sometimes it gives a privative signification ; as, 
f^^'to disunite;' f%^ 'to forget ;' f^'gft' to sell.' With ^, 'to change for 
the worse.* Sometimes it has little apparent influence on the root ; as, f^5T ' to 
perish,' or 'to perish entirely ;' f^f^^fT 'to think.' 

s. ?nR[ sam, 'with,' 'together with' (ctuv, con)-, as, ^^, ^^^j 'to collect;' 
^3^ ' to join together ;' tig**^ ' to meet together ;' ti**i^ * to happen ;' ^^^' to 
contract,* With ^ it signifies ' to perfect,' and ^ is inserted, W^- It is often 
prefixed without altering the sense ; as, tJ^*t^ ' to be produced.' 

t, ^ dus, 'badly,' and ^ su, 'well,' are also prefixed to verbs or verbal deriva- 
tives ; see 726. d.f. 

, Also other indeclinable prefixes ; thus, ^^*t, * dechne ' is compounded with 
^ in the sense of ' to go down,' * to set ;' flTC^ ' across,' with X[[ in the sense of 

* to conceal,' with W\ ' to disappear,' with ^ * to revile ;' '^7^ with >IT ' to believe.' 

784. Two prepositions are often combined with a root ; as, ^^ 
(fw + ^) *to open;^ sqm^ (el. 10) 'to kill;' 3ttttT'^ (^+^) 'to go 
under,' * to undergo,* * to arrive at ;' ^^ (^ + ^ -f rt. ^) * to assemble ;' 
Uftinn^ (it + f?r, 58) * to prostrate one's self;' if^ (it + "^ + rt. ^) * to 
raise up :' and occasionally three ; as, IT^IT^ (n + f% + ^) ' to predict ;' 
ITW^T^ (lTfw + ^ + ^) *to answer.' Other combinations of three 
prepositions, occasionally prefixed to roots, are ^ + 3'tT + ^T ; ^H + 
f^-f-^;* + ^r^ + W;^ + ^ + IT;^g + ^ + f^. 



a. Observe Final ^ a and VTT a' of a preposition combine with the initial 
^ ri of a root into dr, and are rejected before initial 5^ e and ^ o (except in forms 
from the roots 3f , *to go/ and ^BT^'to increase), see sS.f.g: and see TT and 
T*T above : but in other cafies prepositions ending in vowels combine with roots 
beginning with vowels according to the rules of Sandhi ; thus, WT with ^ * to go * 
becomes ^ (32), and in pres. ^i^ (^ + wfk 33), &c.; in impf. 'STfl'^, ^(645, 
33), &c. ; in pot. ITm'^ (^TT + ^'H'^), &c. ; in impv. WHnfW (^ + 'Hf'f), &c. 
Similarly, ^HT with ^^ becomes ^^f*r by 33. 

b. Observe also, a sibilant is generally inserted between the prepositions Wf, 
W^y ^ft, Trfir, ^R'^, and the roots ^ * to do' and R 'to scatter ;* see above under 
^rftand '^^. Similarly, from ^3R and "^ is formed ^|'*A< * excrement.* 

c. The final of ^iflT, TTfir, ^ft, f^, is optionally lengthened in forming certain 
nouns from compound verbs ; as, WhmC, inft^in:, ^tt^F, 0*K. 

785. In conjugating compound verbs formed with prepositions, 
neither the augment nor the reduplication change their position, 
but remain attached to the root*; as, q^^m*^, impf. of ^, with ^ftj 
^mf^^I'^, impf. of f^, with "wvt; ^n^iri?^, impf. of ^n, with ^; 
TTfW'TETT'T, perf of ^, with irfw; Hl-nli^K, perf. of If, with U and T^. 

a. In the Veda, as in Homer, prepositions may be separated from 
the root by other words ; as, ^T r^ ^^Wfi ' let them enter thee.^ 

786. Grammarians restrict certain roots to either Parasmai-pada 
or Atmane-pada when in combination with particular prepositions 
or when peculiar meanings are involved t. Most of the examples 
specified by Panini (i. 3, 193) are here added. The 3rd sing, 
present will be given, the termination either in ti or te marking the 
Pada to which in each case the root ii^ supposed to be limited. 

^^ *to throw* is generally Parasmai, and ^ *to reason' is generally 
Atmane, but combined with any preposition may take either Pada. "^ 'to do;' 
anu-karoti, 'he imitates;* adhi-kurute, 'he overcomes;' ut-kurute, 'he informs 
against,' 'reviles;' ud-d-kurute, ' he reviles;' upa-kurute, * he worships;' upa-s- 
kurute (784. 6), 'he prepares ;' upa-s-karoH, 'he pohshes ;' pard-karoti,' he rejects ;' 

pra-kurute^'he offers violence,' 'he recites (stories).' "^ 'to scatter ;' apa-s-kirate 

(784. h), 'he (the cock) throws up earth ;' but apa-kirati, 'he scatters (as flowers).' 
W^ 'to go ;' d-kramate, * he (the sun) ascends ;' but d-krdmati'when not in the 

* There are a few exceptions to this rule in the Maha-bharata ; as in ^^H^m^ 
(Johnson's Selections, p. 33, 1. 14) 

t In Epic poetry, however, there is much laxity; e.g. "^QT^and HtM, which 
are properly Atmane-pada verbs, are found in Parasmai. Instances of passive verbs 
taking Parasmai terminations have been given at 461. c. On the other hand, n^ 
'to rejoice,' which is properly Parasmai, is found in Atmane. 


sense of the rising of a luminary, &c. ;' vi-Jcramate, 'he (the horse) steps out;* 
but vi-krdmati, 'it (the joint) splits in two ;' upa-kramate or pra-kramate, he is 
valiant ;' but upa-krdmati, ' he approaches ;' and pra-krdmati, * he departs.* W^ 

to buy;* ava-krmite, pari-krinitey he buys;' vi-krtmte, 'he sells;' but ^n alone 

takes either Pada. '31^^ 'to play;' d-kridate or anu-kridate, 'he sports;' pari" 

kridate, he plays about ;' san-kndate, 'he plays ;* but san-kridati, 'it (the wheel) 

creaks.' fTSf^'to throw;' ati-kshipati, 'he throws beyond;' abhi-kshipati, 'he 

throws on ;' prati-kshipati, 'he throws back or towards.' T^ 'to sharpen ;' *- 

kshnute^ 'he sharpens.' ^'T'^ 'to go ;' d-gamayate, ' he delays or waits patiently ;' 
vy-ati-gacchanti, they go against each other ;' san-ga66hati when motion towards 
anything is implied, as ' he goes towards (the village) ;' but Kim. in the sense of 

he goes with' or 'agrees with.' ^'to swallow;' san-giratey^ he promises,' 'he 

proclaims;' but sawr-^'irah", * he swallows ;' ava-girate, he swallows.' ^^'togo;' 

ud {for ud)-darate, 'he goes astray;' u6-darati/ it (the tear) overflows;' san-darate 
or sam-ud-d-darate, ' he goes in a chariot.' fiT 'to conquer ;' vi-jayate, pard-jayate^ 

he conquers ;' with other prepositions ji is generally Parasmai. ^^T 'to know ;' 
apa-jdntte, 'he denies (the debt);' prati-jdmte or san-jdnite, 'he acknowledges.' 
Without a prep, this root is restricted to either Pada if certain meanings are 
involved; as, sarpisho (for sarpishd) jdmte, 'he engages (in sacrifice) by means of 
ghee ;' gdm jdmte,' he knows (his own) cow ;' svdm gdmjdndti or jdnite, 'he knows 

his own cow.' rfi 'to lead ;' un (for ud)-nayate, ' he lifts up ;' upa-nayate, ' he invests 

(with the sacred thread);' vi-nayate,'he pays,' or 'he grants,' or 'he restrains ;' vi- 
nayatiy. he takes away' (the anger of his master) ; vi-nayati, 'he turns away (his 
cheek).' Without a prep, this root is Atm. if it means 'to excel,' or 'to ascertain.' 

^ to praise ;' d-nute, ' he praises.' fP^^'to burn ;' ut-tapati or vi-tapati, 'he warms ;' 

ut-tapate orvi-tapate, 'it shines,' 'he warms (his own hand).' Without a prep, this root 

is Atm., cl. 4, if it means 'to perform penance.' ^ 'to give ;' d-datte, ' he receives ;' 

vy-d-daddti, he opens (his mouth) ;' vy-d-datte, 'he opens (the mouth of another) ;' 
sam-yaddhate, 'he gives' (as ddsyd, 'to the female slave,' the instr. being used for 

the dative). "^ST 'to see ;' sam-pasyate/he considers thoroughly.' "'IT"'!! 'to ask 

for;' always Atm. if used with gen., as madhuno ndthate,'he asks for honey.' 

H"^ to ask;' a-jjnVcf^a^e, 'he bids adieu to;' sam-/?n(f(fAa^e, ' he interrogates.' 

*|^^'to eat' is Atm. if it means 'to eat,' 'to possess,' or 'to suffer ;' but Par. if it 

means 'to protect.' *J^ 'to bear;' pari-mrishyati, 'he endures or forgives.' 

'^^^ 'to restrain ;' d-yaddhate, '(the tree) spreads ;' d-yaddhate, 'he stretches out (his 
hand);' but d-yaddhati, 'he draws up' (as a rope from a well); upa-yaddhate, he 
takes (a woman) to wife;' but upa-yaddhati, 'he takes the wife (of another);' 
d-yaddhate, 'he puts on (clothes);' ud-yaddhate, 'he takes up (a load);' but ud- 
yaddhati, he studies vigorously (the Veda, &c.);' sam-yaddhate, 'he collects' (or 
stacks as rice^ &c.) ^^"3^ 'to join ;' ud-yunkte, 'he makes effort ;' anu-yunkte, 'he 
examines;' ni-yunkte, 'he appoints;' pra-yunkte, 'he applies;' but pra-yunakti, 
'he sets in order (sacrificial vessels).' T?^'to sport;' upa-ramati, he causes to 
refrain*;' d-ramati, 'he rests;' vi-ramati, 'he ceases.' e^ to cut;' vy-ati* 

* This is an instance of a simple verb involving the sense of a causal. 


luntie, * he performs cuttiDg (of wood) which was the office of another.' ^ 'to 
speak ;' anu-vadate, * he speaks after or like ' (with gen.) ; but anu-vadatij * he 
imitates' (as giram, a voice,' ace.) ; upa-vadate, * he coaxes,' * he advises ;' vi-pra- 
vadante or vi-pra-vadanti, *they dispute ;' sam^pra-vadante, *they speak together ;' 
but sam-pra-vadanti, they (the birds) sing together;' apa-vadate, he reviles im- 
properly ;' but apa-vadati, ' he speaks against.' Without prep, vad is Atm., *to be 
learned in interpreting ' (the S'astras), or * to be earnest in the study of anything * 

(as agriculture, &c.) ^^ 'to carry;' pra-vahati/ it (the river) flows along.' 

T%^ *to knowj' sam-vitte, *he is conscious;' sain-vidate or sam-vidrate, 'they are 

conscious' (308). f^^'to enter;' ni-visate/he enters.' ZP^'to swear;' dapate, 

' he swears at' (with dat.) ^ *to hear ;' sam-4rinoti, 'he hears (the speech) ;' but 

sam-drinute, *he hears well' (intransitively). WT 'to stand;' ava-tishthate, *he 

waits patiently;' pra-tishthate, 'he sets out;' vi-tishthate, 'he stands apart;' san- 
tishthate, ' he stays with ;' upa-tishthate, ' he worships,' * he attends on.' Without 
prep, sthd takes the Atmane when it denotes * adhering to,' giving one's self up 
to shewing amatory feelings' (Pan. i. 3, 23), as tishthate gop{ Krishndya, 'the 
shepherdess gives herself up to Krishna;' but upa-tishthati, he waits on' (not in 
a religious sense, and governing an ace); ut-tishthate, *he aspires' (to salvation); 
but ut-tishthati, 'he rises' (from a seat). ^r^^'to strike;' d-hate (see 654), 'he or 
it strikes' ('himself or itself,' the object being omitted); but d-hanti vrishabham, 
'he strikes the bull.' ^ 'to sound;' sam-svarate, 'it sounds clearly.' ^*to 
seize ;' anu-harate, 'he takes after ' (the disposition of his father or mother), other- 
wise anu-harati. ^ 'to call;' vpa-hvayate or ni-hvayate or vi-hvay ate or sam~ 
kvayatCj ' he calls,' ' he invokes ;' d-hvayate, ' he challenges ' (an enemy) ; but 
d-hvayati, he calls ' (his son). 

a. Some causals are also restricted to either Parasmai or Atmane, according to 
the preposition prefixed or the meaning involved ; thus the causal of 'J'l with ^K, 
meaning 'to bewitch,' is limited to Atm. So also, 'P^'to be greedy,' when its 
causal means 'to deceive,' is restricted to Atm. : and the causal of "^^, meaning 
*to deceive,' takes Atm. ; meaning ' to avoid,' Par. Again, ^ in the causal, when 
joined with mithyd, and signifying ' to pronounce badly,' takes Par. ; but only in 
the sense of doing so once. In the sense of * causing a false alarm ' it requires Atm. ; 
but the above specimens will suffice to shew the little profit likely to be derived 
from pursuing this part of the subject farther. 

Compound Verbs formed by combining Adverbs with ^ and v^, 
787. These are of two kinds : ist, those formed by combining 
adverbs with ^ *to make' and ^*to become;' 3ndly, those formed 
by combining nouns used adverbially with these roots. 

a. Examples of the first kind are, ^?f51 'to adorn;' ^snf^t^ *to 
make manifest' (see 7a) ; ^ P^ wfi * to eject ;' ^X^ ' to place in front,* 
'to follow;' f^^ *to deprive;' ?i^ *to entertain as a guest;* 
TR^ *to revere;' fl T gj I j i, inj^ 'to become manifest,' &c. 


788. In forming the second kind, the final of a stem, being a or a, 
is changed to { ; as, from ^niT, ^^^ * to make ready,' ^t^^J. * to 
become ready;' from ^^, ^Wi^ * to blacken ;' from "m^X^ * a ditch,* 
^ir^t^ 'to convert into a ditch :' and sometimes a becomes a; as, 
fllillcjt * to please,' from finT. A final z or w is lengthened ; as, from 
mf%, ^^^*to become pure;' from c!rg, c5^^ *to lighten.' A final 
ri is changed to ^ rl; as, from *?T5, lT^^*to become a mother/ 
A final as and an become i; as, from ^R^, ^T*ft^ * to be of good 
mind ;' from TJ^, tl*ft^ * to be a king.' 

a. But the greater number of compounds of this kind are formed from nominal 
stems in a. The following are other examples : "^^"^ ' to esteem as a straw ;* 
^*nji * to stifPen ;' <;<*r'tfl'^*to fix the mind on one object ;' ^^ ' to make or 
claim as one's own ;' H^ft^J^ ' to become friendly.' Substantives are sometimes 
formed from these; as, H^iTT^ *the state of being friendly,' * friendship.' 

Obs. This change of a final to { before kri and hliu is technically said to be 
caused by the suffix di, and the change to a by dd6. . 

b. These compounds often occur as passive participles ; thus, ^c51ffT 'adorned j' 
ingK * become manifest ;' ^ff5jft*JiT * made ready ;* c5^1T * lightened;' ^^T!- 
^rhr ' to be agreed to.* 

789. Sometimes ^TcT, placed after a nominal stem, is used to form a compound 
verb of this kind; as, from ^Tc? 'water,* ^(5^1^ *to reduce to liquids' from 
H9^' ashes,' ><w*urj (57) *to reduce to ashes.' Cf. 725. a, 


790. Compound adverbs are formed, ist, by combining adverbs, 
prepositions, and adverbial prefixes, with nouns in the ace. singular 
neuter; 2ndly, by placing adverbs, or adjectives used as adverbs, 
after nominal stems. 

a. The first kind are identical with indeclinable compounds (760). 

791. Most of the adverbs at 731 may be placed afl;er the stems 
pf nouns ; thus, WTc^y^ Hl q^ * near the child ;' TTB^T^?^ * for the sake 
of protection;' nn^ 'for the sake of ofifspring;' foir*T"^^ *on what 
account ?' ^^t^TOErppiTT^j^ 'after uttering a sound.' See also 777. d, 

792. The indeclinable participle ^HTT^I, * having begun,' is joined with ^'BT, to- 
day' (^ar?n^*'l), in the sense of *from this time forward;' and with the stems of 
words to express * beginning from ;* see 925. Tnjfw is used adverbially in the sftme 
sense ; as, iT^TI^flT ' from birth upwards ;' fT^TU^W ' from that time forward* 
(see 917). 

z z 

354 SYNTAX. 



793. Sanskrit syntax, unlike that of Greek and Latin, offers 
fewer difficulties than the other portions of the Grammar. In fact, 
the writer who has fully explained the formation of compounds has 
already more than half completed his exposition of the laws which 
regulate the order, arrangement, and collocation of the words in a 
sentence (ydkya-vinydsa, vdkya-viveka, paddnvaya), 

794. Observe In the present chapter on Syntax, that the subject may be made 
as clear as possible, each word will be separated from the next, and vowels will 
not be allowed to coalesce, although such coalition be required by the laws of 
combination. When compounds are introduced, a dot will generally be placed 
pnderneath, to mark the division of the different members. Much vagueness 
and uncertainty, however, may be expected to attach to the rules propounded, 
when it is remembered that Sanskrit literature consists almost entirely of poetry, 
and that the laws of syntax are ever prone to yield to the necessities of metrical 

i 795^ There is no indefinite article in classical Sanskrit; but 
^irf^?^ (228) and in modern Sanskrit i?es (200) are sometimes used to 
supply the place of such an article ; thus, ^olrfw^ TT^^ * in a certain 
country ;' cirf^ii(^ ^TTFJ: * a certain jackal.^ The definite article may 
not unfirequently be expressed by the pronoun TO (220); thus, ^ ^^: 
may mean simply *the man,^ not necessarily *that man.* It is, 
however, more commonly omitted, and ic^ when joined to a noun 
must generally be translated by ' that.* 

' 796. The verb must agree with the nominative case in number 
and person ; as, ^ ^T^fiff * I must perform.^ 

a. Other examples are, r^ viq^if^ * do thou attend ;* ^ ^^frT * he gives ;* 
VINI T^\ * we two say ;' ^^iWT "^l^: ' the pigeons said ;' ^^ f^^^'^ * do you 
t\<ro reflect ;* ^^''^ ^iMiif * do ye come j' ^Wn: y^i*|ff ' good men are honoured ;* 
^nrftr V[^\ * the wind blows ;' "9^fif ^^^: ' the moon rises ;' ^jnjflT ^'*\*\ ' the 
flower blossoms.' 

Obs. Of course, therefore, two nouns in the singular connected by ^ require 
Ihe verb in the dual; as, TT'TT itsl ^ 'SnTTg: 'the king and minister wentj* 
^N"*! ^5T^1 friSrii ' as long as the moon and sun remain.* 

SYNTAX. ^ 355 

h. The position of the verb is not always the same as in English. It may some- 
times come last in the sentence. 

797. When a participle takes the place of a finite verb, it must 
agree with the nominative in number and gender; as, ^ TIT: *he 
went ;' tht Tin *she went '/ tTT^ T^Tw *the two women spoke ;' nTT 
^w: *the king was killed;^ *^'*nnfT f^f^T * the bonds were cut.* 

a. Sometimes, when it is placed between two or more nominative cases, it agrees 
with, one only ; as, ^a^^I TI'^IViTT ^^^ * his wife and son were awakened.' 

h. The following is noticeable : ^T5^ "Wiwl ^ ^^ ftTTTf^ mUril*^^ ' king- 
dom, self, we,, and wife were brought (neut. pL) to the state of a stake (to be played 
for),' Kirat. xi. 47. See also 906. 

c. Very often the copula, or verb which connects the subject with the predicate, 
is omitted ; when, if an adjective stand in the place of the verb, it will follow the 
rules of concord in gender and number ; as, Vrf ^^^T?^ ' wealth is difficult of 
attainment ;' ^TT^f ^HT^TU * we two have finished eating.' But if a substantive 
stand in the place of the verb, no concord of gender or number need take place ; 
as, T5R?^J ^T^ ^STR^T^ ' successes are the road to misfortune.' ~ 


798. An adjective, participle, or adjective pronoun, qualifying a 
substantive, when not compounded with it, must agree with the 
feubstantive in gender, number, and case ; as, "lErr^: ^^I * a good 
man;* H^^ ^ 'great pain;* ^^^ ^^^^ '^'^ '^^ ih.e^e before- 
mentioned countries;* ^fiu fn^f^U 'three friends.* , 


799. The relative must' agree with the antecedent noun in gender, 
number, and person ; but in Sanskrit the relative pronoun generally 
precedes the noun to which it refers, this noun being put in the- 
same case with the relative, and the pronoun cT^ fgllows in the lattei* 
clause ; as, T^m tT^ ^if: ^ ^rH^'n^ * the man who has intellect is 
strong* (Ht. * of whatever man there is intellect, he is strong*). 

, a. The noun referred to by the relative may also be joined with "ff^, as 'IW, 
^%: ^ Td ^cO<=llt^; or may be omitted altogether, as Tr^ufk^lW TTi^ ^^^ 
*what you have promised, that abide by;' '*k^,\\ ^mmftT T^lf^inf^ W: (tjfTlfftTt 
understood) fwWT WHKaT 'by those (bbds) whose young ones were devoured 
an inquiry was set on foot;' T. W^ f^^^TT?^ HIM^I^ ^T^ ^rH?^ ^"^^ inf^ 
fm^4jMfoh: S^ff^ * he who would obtain all objects of sense, and he who despises 
them, of the two the despiser is the best.' 
800. The relative sometimes stands alone, an antecedent noun or pronoun bein^* 

Z Z 2 


understood, from which it takes its gender and number ; as, ^r*T f^ ^ T V^'T 
^TWll^ * Of what use is scriptural knowledge (to one) who does not practice 
Tirtue ?' Vn^ f^ ^ ^T ^^Tf ' What is the use of wealth (to him) who does not 

a. Sometimes, though rarely, the antecedent noun precedes the relative in the 
natural order; as, ? ^ >n^ Vi^ H^l tf fTfrT 'she is not a wife in whom 
the husband does not take pleasure.' 

8oi. fiiii^ and 'IT^ stand to each other in the relation of demonstrative and 
relative ; as, Mi<rif fH^T ^^^^ "^^^ nxH^Hf 'HWIi'^ JMid*MTfT * as many 
products as belong to that island, so many are to be brought to us.' See also 876. 

a. Similarly, rti^^i and VI ^^J ; as, <<i^^l ^ iH"^ ifw *r>4rt<<n!: * as the 
event occurred, so they related it to him.' Cf. 920. a. 

803. Under this head it is proposed to explain the construction 
of substantives, without special, reference to the verbs which govern 
them ; and for this purpose it will be desirable to exhibit examples 
beginning with the nominative case. 

Nominative Case* 

803. A substantive simply and absolutely expressed must be 
placed in the nominative case; as, f^whr^^i: *the Hitopadesa;^ 
H%7liTn^ * the poem of Bhat^i.* 

a. Two nominative cases in different numbers may be placed in apposition to 
each other ; as, ^punf T ^P^n * grass as a bed.* 

Accusative Case, 

804. Substantives are not found in the accusative, unconnected 
with verbs or participles, except as expressing * duration of time ' or 
'space' See 831. 

Instrumental Case* 

805. This case yields a variety of senses. The most usual is 
that of * the agent ' and * the instrument ' or * means' by which any- 
thing is done ; as, wm {^W^) *by me it was said ;' in^T {w^ ^ftf'TIT:) 
*by the fowler a snare was laid;' ^t^jum^H *by the study of the 
Vedas ;* M^^^m * with one's own eye^' 

806. It also has the force of * with' in expressing other collateral 
ideas ; as, ifnSl^^H T ^^^ * vying with the strong ;' fk^ ^rn^: * con- 
versation with a friend;' 1^5?: ?lTm^ * equality with beasts;' ftr^^ 


jft^isr * with the knowledge of (his) father \' especially when 'accom- 
paniment' is intended; as, f^^ n^: *the master with his pupil;* 
^TW^m^R: * the fifth with myself/ i. e. * myself and four others/ 

807. The other senses yielded by this case are, * through,'' * hy reason of," * on 
account ofj* as, ^tfirr 'through compassion;' "iTT "^S^O^rf 'on account of 
that transgression :' especially in the case of abstract nouns formed with Wl 
(80. LXII); as, 'Jciiqi * through infatuation.' 

a. 'According to, ' hy ; as, f^fVTT * according to rule;' W BWcHT 'according; 
to my opinion;' "SnTIT *by birth.' 

h, ' The manner ' in which anything is done, as denoted in English by the 
adverbial affix ' ly,' or by the prepositions ' in,' * at ;' as, <m^<^rf ' in abundance ;' 
WSr 'virtuously;' ^?^^[^ or ^^^ 'at pleasure;' ^^ 'at ease;' ^T^ 
f^fVrfT *in this way;' H^flT ^15T (fTr^iTt) 'they both dwell together in great 
intimacy;' (jm ^RJ^JjTTftT ^H>?^rT) ITil^r *a king surpasses all beings in 
glory ;' HmT (T ^rt4*^) ' such a deed must not even be imagined in the mind ;' 
TT^T^'TO ' in human form ;' Tlfw^'''^ ' for a hindrance.' 

808. Substantives expressive of 'icaw^,' 'need,' may be joined with the instru- 
mental of the thing wanted ; as, '^^^ ? II*il1T*t^ 'there is no occasion for inquiry ;' 
Tm %^^T ? innTT'^ ' there is no need of me as a servant ;' ^T oRT^'^ 'there 
is use for a straw.' 

809. ' The price ' for which anything is done may be in the instrumental ; as, 
T^fii: ^n^^ i^ffi ^T^n^) ' for five Puranas he becomes a slave ;' ^ftf^ ^%^ 
(^IflTfT) 'they fight for great rewards.' Similarly, ITTO^^ILi*! I ' l,*i^<54 H {^X. T 
^wnTj fortune is not obtained at the price of the sacrifice of life.' 

a. So also ' difference between ' two things ; as, FHIT g5^<u ^ T^^ viri<#^ 'there 
is great difference between you and the ocean.' 

b. * Separation from,' either with or without ^ ; as, ^^ "nTHnt * separation 
from a husband ' (or ^J$J TT^ f^^^:). Similarly, f^^^ '^frjUl ^ ' separation 
from Hari.' 

c. The English expression 'under the idea that' is expressed by the instrumental 
case of the substantive "^T^; as, qm^qi1 'under the idea that he was a tiger.' 

Double Instrumental. 

810. Sometimes when two substantives come together, expressing 'parts ' of a 
common idea, they are both placed in the instrumental, instead of one in the 
genitive ; as, r^c5t ^^^ ^TWrT ' an odour is emitted by the Vakula-plants by 
their flowers ' (for r^HTTf Ig^t)* Similarly, Tn*^ ^TOfBHTTHT^ &^f?5r ^*^- 
Tt^%; ' he caused her to revive by her attendants by sandal-water.' 

Dative Case. 
811. This case is of very limited appUcability, and its functions, 
irrespectively of the influence of verbs, are restricted to the expression 

358 SYNTAX OP substantives; 

oi* the object' ^motive,' or * cause' for which anything is done, or 
*the result' to which any act tends; as, ^rrw'f^^^ *for self-aggran- 
dizement ;' ^rnrrinftfiIU*l * for the counteraction of calamity )' ^r^ ^ 
^n^ ^ nf^nnr^ * arms and books (lead) to renown/ 

a. When, as in the last example, UJie result' or * end' to which 
anything leads is^ denoted by this case, the verb is seldom expressed, 
but appears to be involved in the case itself The following are 
other examples: ^3 ^T^ f^^^'s^ IT^ i|T^^ * where there is 
admixture of poison, then even nectar (leads) to death ;^ jfn^^H 
^^rrnf UehlMN ! ^[rn^^ * advice to fools (leads) to irritation, not to 
conciliation;^ '^ ^ST^TfTT^ rl^qr: fJif^Mm H ^M^Tl(^*that old husband 
was not to her liking ]' ^ Tjin H^m ^^ ^ "^^ * that king was not 
to her Hking ]' fTO ^Tsac * go for the accomplishment' (of this matter). 

b. It will be seen hereafter that certain verbs of giving and relating govern the 
dative. Substantives derived from such verbs exercise a similar influence ; as, 
^r^Iw ^T^T'^ ' the giving to another;* ^STHTw *'ql*^ * the telling ta another.* 

c. Words expressive of ' salutation * or * reverence ' are joined with the dative ; 
as, 'TOT^^ TTI * reverence to Ganesa;* "^^R^ it ' health to thee.' 

Ablative Case, 
812. The proper force of the ablative case is expressed by *from;' 
as, HtHTi^('^t>i: TT^rfir) *from avarice anger arises -' fjft; tjk^/ falling 
from a mountain \' ^TTTTnf g^iT ^from the mouth of the spies.' 

813. Hence this case passes to the expression of various correlative ideas; as, 
^l^RIl^ f^n^i^ ' a portion of (from) their food :* and like the instrumental it 
very commonly signifies 'because,'' ^ by reason of, * in consequence of;'' as, 
'i^,i^m<uf ^>ni^*on account of the slaughter of cows and men;' SHHc^^iH^- 
^nr^ (^^ Mn^frf) *he blames his son for entering inopportunely;' qijs^HMiTT 
' through fear of punishment ;* 'wwr^ilM^f^MH^^ * by reason of my good fortune j* 
^c* dl s fci ^1 m 'j^ * because (there is) no difference as to the result.* 

a. 'According to j* as, ifi^^'^^ri in 'according to the advice of the minister.' 
Abstract nouns in FT are often found in this case to express some of these ideas ; 
as, ^BrTrnWrT^f^^r^Ti^*by reason of the unsteadiness of his mind :' especially in 
the writings of commentators; as, t*4ii<urmn* according to what will be said 
hereafter ;' t*^KHrt<^K^nS^n^ri<^rt tljn^>?^TT^* according to the division of touched, 
slightly touched, slightly open, open and contracted.' 

814. It also expresses 'through the means* or 'instrumentality of;' as, ^PTTHT?^ 
m^i,i: * caught in the toils through the instrumentality of the jackal ;' "T w^- 
\mR5iii: {^^X^: ^nf^ *'^) * tlie alleviation of disease is not effected by the 
mere knowledge of the medicine.* 



a. * The manner ' in which anything is done is often expressed by the ablative ; 
it is then used adverbially (compare 715); as, 'I^f^^' with dihgence,' or ' dihgently ;' 
^^l^TT^' forcibly 5* ^"^c^Tf^* with wonder;' Tq^TtTH^' figuratively;^ fHT^ 3"irT:T!J^ 

* tearing up by the roots :' or by the ablative suflfix K^J, as, tsi'c&iiTI ' at one's own 
pleasure' (see 719. a. 6). 

h. This case also denotes *fl/iferi' as, "^irfhrf^^TTR^ * after -separation from the 
body;' g^nffl^^^^nm^^ ' after the imprisonment of the chief;' cT^ '^TnHHlff 

* since his arrival.' . 

c. So also, in native grammars the ablative case is used to express * after ;* 
thus, T^^Tl'^' after the letters ra and haj' ^TTH *after the letter .^a;' ^^^T^ rp^ 
Ijn^ ^fsqi^ * it should be stated that after the letters ri and ri the cerebral ^ n is 
substituted in place of the dental ^n." 

d. In reference to time/ within ;* as, f^^^tl^ * within three fortnights.* 

e. Nouns expressive of ^fear ' are joined with the ablative of the thing feared ; 
as, ^*^ HII^ ' fear of death ;' '^TTr^ H^ ' fear of robbers.* 

Genitive Case. 

815. This and the locative case are of the most extensive applica- 
tion, and are often employed, in a vague and indeterminate manner, 
to express relations properly belonging to the other cases. 

a. The true force of the genitive is equivalent to * o/*,' and this 
case appears most frequently when two substantives are to be con- 
nected, so as to present one idea ; as, fir^W '^r^'^'\ * the speech of a 
friend )' >m n^T: ^T*f ^JTO'^ * the best ornament of a woman is her 
husband;' tf t^^ ^r^ ^ni^ ^^ 3 ^"^^ *man is not the slave of 
man, but the slave of wealth.' 

816. 'Possession^ is frequently expressed by the genitive case alone, without a 
verb ; as, ^%t: ti*MtiM^ K^ ^^ '^^ m:^^:^^ ' all riches belong to him who 
has a contented mind;' >nfts^ ip^ ^"5^^ ^^ 'happy am I in possessing 
such a wife.' 

a. It often, however, has the force of ' /o,' and is very generally used to supply 
the place of the dative j as, TITOT ^li*f 1I S^l^TJ * one's own hfe is dear to one's 
self;' "T xfrinr^ ^ ^T^nTrT^ l^W^X *.a hundred Yojanas is not far to one 
borne away by thirst (of gain)^' f% H^Mdl^ ^f^f^TPl^ * What is unknown to the 
wise ?' fsfi^ ^"5=^1^ (HcRT^fir) JT^^m ' What does a lamp (shew) to a blind man i' 
fHi ^'^T 'Srxj^ tr^J *What offence have I committed towards the king;' f^'^ 
^^ ^TWrai (^f W(^:) ' What can this man do to us ?' 

b. And not unfrequently of *i' or 'on;* as, ^^^t f^iniWI * confidence in 
women ;' ^^ ^TT^r^'^ ' dependence on me.' 

p. It is even equivalent occasionally to 'from ' or * 6y,' as usually expressed by 
the ablative or instrumental ; as, ! ^^J^lfi? {^^Tif '^^^ImIii^) ' one ought not to 


accept a present from any one ;* ^T??!^ (^tf Wmp^) *the wood is to be abandoned 
by us J ' ^ V^ ITW ^f^l> ^ mnf^ f^g^: 'he is blessed from whom sup- 
phants do not depart in disappointment;' irt^ JM^^rl Tf^^meat cooked by 

d. 'Difference between two things ' is expressed by the genitive; as, ^3j|^'i|oBTn^ 
'T^ ^ii<*t^ * there is great difference between the master and the servant ' (cf. 809. a). 

e. In native grammars it expresses 'in place of; as, TT?!! T^TCJ *a? in place of 
X% is followed by ra,^ 

Locative Case, 
817. The locative, like the genitive, expresses the most diversified 
relations, and frequently usurps the functions of the other cases. 
Properly it has the force of * in' * on,' or * at' as expressive of many 
collateral and analogous ideas ; thus, TTW^ ' in the night ;' ?n^ * in 
the village;' tJ * on the back;' 'x^f^ ftroi^: 'confidence in you;' 
H^^^<*Mi \f2\ *rain on desert ground;' ITW^^rm^ *at the first 
desire of eating;' ^ftracif ^finft ^^: *a tree planted in the earth.' 

818. Hence it passes into the sense * towards * as, "^T ^1^ ''ST m^ ^ ' leniency 
towards an enemy as well as a friend;' ^^*Jrt*^ ^^TT 'compassion towards all 
creatures;' ^^1^ ^f^TSIJ 'upright towards friends;* ^^T^fT^ ^^r^ 'f^'a 
hundred good ofl&ces are thrown away upon the wicked;' Tf5Sr|^TnJ 'love for 
Nala ;' iH^T^ ^T^TPTt * affection for her.' 

819. Words signifying causCy 'motive* or ^ need'' are joined with the locative ; 
as, ^Mi^ Ig: 'the cause of his modesty;' ^qTUii: f^?lt HW^^ f%^T^ 
* your speech was the cause of the war between the two princes ; ' ITTm RpTRt 
^nftr? "^V^h r^*4Tt * the absence of a suitor is the cause of a woman's chastity ;* 
ToRnif f^ H*riIt*t, * What need of a boat ?' Also words signifying * employment * 
or * occupation ;' as, f^fiH TT^f^t ' engaging in the acquisition of wealth.* 

a. So words derived from the root yuj usually require the locative ; as, TT 
TiHRT^T^^nn'^ <JM*n'iI ' I am of service in preserving the kingdom.* 

b. This case may yield other senses equivalent to ' by reason of,* for,* &c. ; as, 
^ ^^5^3 ' through my faults ;' ^Ttl ^T^^igKUP^ ^r^f?JT^n * a spy is for the sake 
of examining the territory of one's enemies;' ^^ "^F^VsT?^ 'this is the time for 
battle ;' T^T^^S'TT^I ' disregard for advice ;' fiT N^fTT HW T?5r * What anxiety 
about dying in battle !' inr5 T^ RrtmH * I think the time has come for escaping ;' 
Q^^ ^r?Rn * with the consent of a son.' 

c. It is also used in giving the meaning of a root ; as, ?T? ^Rl^ln ' the root 
grah is in taking,' i. e. conveys the idea of * taking.' 

d. In native grammars it expresses 'followed by ;' thus TTTiT means when any- 
thing having an indicatory n follows.* So again, T"RT^ Tp?^ ^"^^Ttt ?ft9 ' in 
the room of m final in a word followed by any consonant {hal) there is Anusvdra.' 

e. The locative case is often used absolutely ; see 840. 



820. When reference is made to any particular division of time, 
the instrumental case is usually required ; as, i^d^X. ^: * in three 
years;* ITT^f^TT: HT^: *in twelve months;' "^rf *in an instant;' 
f^^nn chljjrf *In how long time?* ^^^: *in hundreds of years;* 
<*M,^^TW (or simply oRiJjfi) *in process of time;* HI^H *in a 
month;* iii^HMi!J *in the space of a month;* idriNril oBT^T *in so 
much time.* 

821. When duration of time is implied, the accusative case is 
generally used; as, '^XD'|[ *for a moment;* ^oiPoiiTc?'^ *for a long 
time;' foir^fT orFFJ*^ *for some time;' Jiifi ^\^'^^ 'for one month;* 
f^fir TT^nrj^ * for twenty months ;* ^ in^ * for two months ;* ^^^^cT'^ 
' for a hundred years ;' ^n^lft: ^WT: * to all eternity ;* ^ ^1% * for 
a hundred years ;* ^f*T ^fTfT * for many days.* The instrumental, 
however, is sometimes used in this sense, and to express other 
relations of time ; as, ST^^^T^ ^t|t 'grir^rrjtf ^r^ * having traded for 
twelve years ;* oRfiniTf^^%: * for a few days :' and even the genitive ; 
as, i^im oBTe5^ (or simply f^T!^) * for a long time ;* ^frR^tlT^^ 'after 
a few days.* 

822. When any j9ar/icM/ar day or epoch is referred to, as the date 
on which any action has taken place or will take place, the locative 
may be employed ; as, "SfiftRfi??^ f^"^ * on a certain day ;* ^jfft f^^ 
*on the third day;* ITT^^sfg *on the twelfth day;* ^: ^nT^sffVr 
* seventeen days from this time.* Or sometimes the accusative ; as, 
'ri Tjf^ ^ grn: Trf%^% W gifif irf Xjf^ ^tS^ ^TI^ -5?: ' on the night 
when the ambassadors entered the city, on that night a dream was 
seen by Bharata.* 

a. The adverbs at 731 may often be found expressing relations of 
time ; as, ^^r*TTOT5 ^tt?^ or i^?^ * after six months ;* MiJHi^ff or 'fpim- 
^^I^^I'dliU ^[t'^ ' six months ago ;* or (employing the locative absolute) 
^ "^t^^n^H ' after a thousand years.' 


823. Nouns expressive of ^distance or space between two places' 
(according to Carey) may be in the nominative ; as, ^ i^^X ^HA\^\l[^ 
*a hundred Kos from Somanath:* but they are more properly in 
the accusative; as, if^^J^ *for a Yojana;* is['^J\ *for a Kos:* or 

3 A 


in the instrumental ; as, "^t^ ^imj * having gone for a Kos/ ' The 
place ' in which anything is done is expressed by the locative ; as, 
f^^fvfj * in Vidarbha/ 

Accusative after the Adjective, 

824. Adjectives formed from desiderative stems will often be found 
governing an accusative in the same way as the verbs from which 
they are derived ; as, yj4 f^TTfT^: * desirous of going home ;' ^?rR[ 
^9>Tt^: * desirous of obtaining a son ;' tHTR f<;^g: * desirous of seeing 
the king.* 

Instrumental after the Adjective, 

825. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 
^want' or 'possession ' require the instrumental case; as, W^tf ^tf: 

* destitute of wealth ;* ^: ^*rrg^ * possessed of riches;* "^ftm ^^nf 
^7 J * a jar full of water.* 

826. So also of likeness' 'comparison,^ or 'equality;' as, ^8?^ 
V^^i^ c5^ T ^Jlfft T HfroifTT * there never has been, nor will there ever 
be, any one Hke him in this world ;* wr^jrw ^v*\\ wft * he reads 
like a Brahman;* TTTT?^: ^^ "3^^: 'his success was equal to his- 
undertakings ;* 3n: ^WT xi^ * a wife as dear as life ;* ^nn ^wftnFt 
^: * more liberal than (other) kings ;* ^f^T g^: * equal to the 
sun.* These are sometimes joined with a genitive ; see 827. b. 

Genitive after the Adjective. 
827* Adjectives signifying * dear to^ or the reverse^ are joined 
with the genitive; as, xm ftn: *dear to kings;* Htrr: ^W fvm: 

* husbands are dear to women ;' tf ^fiftsfi^ ^i i ||*|^ wftnr: * women disHke 
nobody ;' ^xq^ >nflT ^if^^TOT'^ * he is detestable to his ministers.* 

a. Adjectives expressive of 'fear' may govern the genitive or 
ablative ; as, ^^ >rhT: * afraid of the sage.* 

b. Adjectives expressive of ^equality* Resemblance* * similitude,* sometimes 
require the genitive as well as the instrumental (826); thus, ^^ ^m * equal to 
alii' TT^ Wg^q: 'like him;' ^^f^ W^ * rather like the moonj* ^ Tfm Tj^l 
^i^T * nobody is equal to him.' 

c. So also other adjectives ; as, M^jq^^rt ^^ ^^^^* j<ui*^ * giving advice to 
others is easy to all men ;' ^^Ml*(^ J Nil: ' worthy of happiness;' Tf'HT: ^I^TRP^ 

* capable of toil;' iw^in ^ni.iK* 'unknown to Dhfita-rashtra;* ^I^W ^T^i: * com- 
petent for duty.' 



Locative after the Adjective. 

8:^8. Adjectives, or participles used adjectively, expressive of 
*power^ or * ability' are joined with a locative ; as, ^SerftT "^T ^^: 

* horses able for the journey ;' ^^fi^ -^ ^ ^^ * a king who is a 
match for a great enemy ;' ^^IWT ^^^X^ ^^ 1C*^^ * unable to 
build a house, but able to demohsh one/ 

a. So also other adjectives ; as, ^^^ ^^TcJI * sUlled in arms ;' W^^ Xn^t 
'wise in trifles;' i^flT >^i.^ f^XT^ ^TT ^T*ft ' Is your master attached or adverse 
to you?' ^*jnir<?^^ 'i'^^^J * neglectful of his dependants.' 


829. Adjectives in the comparative degree require the ablative 
case ; as, tt^ TITOftsfT| Tft^Tra^ * a wife dearer even than one^s life ;' 
y<^^S^ ^^KT: ^J^fTf T^ ^ fer^ * there is no pleasanter touch in 
this world than the touch of a son;' ^^TTr^ HiTTT^^ ^: *the pro- 
tection of one's subjects is better than aggrandizement ;' tf ?r^(7i9.a) 
jrf^WlTT: ^TF^ ^rf% * there is not a more wretched man than I ;' 
irfTT^ ^<5R ^c?rhRl^ * mind is more powerful than strength.' 

830. Sometimes they govern the instrumental ; as, IItS: ftnilTTt 

* dearer than life ;' f{ ^rftcT ^m ^^ ^^mniWTt ^ ' there is nobody 
upon earth more unfortunate than 1/ 

a. When it is intended to express "the better of two things^ the genitive may 
be used ; as, ^nnft^ ^l^^I A ^^ iT^^rP:,: * Of these two countries which is the-s 
better ?' 

831. The comparative in Sanskrit is often expressed by * better 
and not' or * but not;' as, ^ ITranrftWrn^ rf ^Tf;^ ^"^ ^^Tjr l^W* 
'better abandon life than (but not) engage in such an action;' ^ 
jftrf oFT^ ^ '^ ^^^ ^ '^^ ^'I^ * ^* ^ better that silence should be 
kept than a speech uttered which is untrue;' f^?nn ^ ^^JUTTTi^ 
^ H^ ^ g ^i >m q Hj4 ^ J ^^nqT>TR ^^?rni tt^ idw^^ ' a teacher 
of the Veda should rather die with his learning than commit 
it to an unworthy object, in the absence of a pupil worthy to be 
instructed in it.' 

^^1* The superlative degree is usually joined with the genitive ; 
as, gi i qiui fir^ ^ 'ft^ ^ftsT ^gi"?^ \ '^\ n^w m: ^?r: ft^^ 

^: * a Brahman is the best of all bipeds, a cow of quadrupeds, a 
Guru of venerable things, a son of things possessed of touch:' but 

3 A 


sometimes with the locative ; as, fT^ ^FJ^^*!: * the most powerful of 
men :* and even with an ablative ; as, VMHI Wf^ "3^t: ^ ^,^^'^ia 

* a store of grain is the best of all stores.' 

a. Rarely with an instrumental ; as, ^^^t ^o^JK WTOT ^ITRI * a hero dearer 
than the life of Kunti.' Hence it appears that comparison may sometimes be 
expressed by a superlative sufiBx. Another example is ^BT^^ yfr^ilcf: "^fWJl * people 
well-read in books are better than ignorant people/ 

b. A superlative degree may even take a comparative sufl&x, and govern the 
genitive ; as, TTWr i^HT: *the eldest of them.* See 197. a. 

c. A comparative word may have a superlative sense ; as, 'tfdHU * very firm.' 

833. 'Comparison* is often expressed by an adjective in the positive degree, 
joined with a noun in the ablative or instrumental case ; as, "^jf^ itwlfl yiWilHf^ 

* there is not a happier than he;' ^ TrlT (719. ) i^l'\ 'he is greater than I.' 
Similarly, ^sn=C[t^ fq^mitl * more excellently than all.' 

a. In more modern Sanskrit 'comparison' is sometimes expressed by the use of 
wMWJf 'regarding,' 'with reference to' (indecl. part, of root ^ with '^'^), which 
may take the place of 'than' in English; thus, (^^rJMIW4l*ll|^ ^^T^ ^STT^T^ 
^^^^^nn^ ^^^ f^iTT wS^H ^fn ft^ >^li ' an Adarya ought to be higher 
in estimation than ten Upadhyayas, a father than a hundred Adaryas.' 

834. Many words have a kind of comparative influence, and require an ablative 
case, especially "^X^, ^'^JJ[, "^TaT, ^^T^, ^HT^, ^TIT, V!t, ^, ^Pmau, "^R, 
^^f^, ^ ; as, M^lc4Hlft^ ^ii^ ^(BVft^ '^Xf{ ' it is better not to touch mud 
than to wash it off;' ^Tfr^^*^ ^I^ i^uiT^' poverty is less desirable than death ;' 
'^ m ftr^T^ ^'^^ ^(T^ ^FHT^: ' Who is able to rescue me, other than a friend ?' 
f%^ 5:^*^ ^"ir: ^^ ' What grief is greater than this ?' T ^rfl^ ^T^ f^^lTlf 
'one ought not to speak differently from what one has heard ;' diftilc6K TaT^ 'at 
another time than the present;' TCW T ^''^ Tt^ffTfl W^^ 'there is no cause of 
fear to man from any other quarter than from death ;' ^l^l^lrt (731, 778) ^Tfi^H 
*on the day before that of the Sraddha;' 'uHn^^Crtr^ ^ftpF^^* more than a hundred 
Yojanas;' qiinTjf^ti: tia#in\ f^^ ^R: 'intelligence of a lover is something 
less than a meeting;' ^I^^ ^R%^ 'the remainder of the food;' i^^Ii^Myj^*^ 

* five times more than the value.' 


835. The syntax of numerals is explained at 206, 207. The following examples 
may be added : tT^rtT l.l<lil*t^ * of ninety men ;' "R^ Hi.KUi'^ ' of sixty men ;' 
^^tM TtPJn^ 'of a thousand men;' ^^ PMrtU *a thousand ancestors;' 
f^fir^ nftrnr ^nr^ 'one hundred multiplied by three ;' "ftc4,f^6 i" 'two thousand 
fruits;' ^ ^^TOf ^Vl\^ ^*<iTH: 'one of these three;' W^ m ^ 'he gave 
ten thousand cows;' "R^^TT ^TP^ INII ' he killed five hundred deer.' 


a. Sometimes the plural of the numerals from "^Rf^^flT upwards may be used ; 
as, xj^rT^rfe^ ^rrtr: ' with fifty arrows.' 

b. The aggregative numerals may be employed at the end of compounds for the 
cardinals; thus, %;^r^^' two armies;' f^^T^^'^lftl'^' four marriages.' See2i4. 

c. Numerals from nineteen (una-vinsati) upwards may take the genitive after 
them of the things numbered; as, ^"^BTT'Tf ^^HTfiu 'a hundred thousand of 
horses;' MIC^^T ^Tfr^fTTftl 'seven hundred foot- soldiers;' ^TcT'^ ^T^'RTIIJT'^ 'a 
hundred preceptors ;' V^ "^^i^Jdnf^ mF^ 'five hundred and sixty cows ;' ^HTOT 
VIZ 5T7nf^ f^^r^^^ ' six hundred and twenty chapters ;' T^^ fw^^V<*5lrt ^ 
^^ ^ 'two thousand one hundred and thirty men;' Tpg T^^T^^ftu 'five 
thousand chariots;' ^oF^TiT 'll*( 'a hundred and one cows' (Manu xi. 129). 
They may be used at the end of genitively dependent compounds ; as, "^^T^flT 
* eighty Tridas,' i. e. eighty of Tricas. 

Obs. But the genitive is not admissible after numerals below nineteen ; e. g. 
^^ TTT: 'ten men' (not ^^ TU^T'^). 

d. When numerals are used comparatively they may take an ablative; as, 
f^T^ fl'^JW^ ^l ' a fine the double of that in dispute.' 


836. The chief peculiarities in the syntax of pronouns have 
already been noticed at 316 ^240, and at 799801. 

With regard to the alternative of ?rT'^, &c. (see ^123), it is properly 
only allowed in case of the re-employment {anvddeia) of this pronoun 
in the subsequent part of a sentence in which ^|^ or 5^^ has already 
been used ; thus, ^^ gn^n^T^ ^^fhrF( ^ W^^'^J'^ ' the grammar 
has been studied by him, now set him to study the Veda' (cf. Nala 
XII. 31, ^2,). It is an encHtic, and ought not to begin a sentence. 

a. In the use of the relative and interrogative pronouns a very peculiar attrac- 
tion is often to be observed; that is, when either a relative or interrogative 
pronoun has been used, and an indefinite pronoun would naturally be expected to 
follow, the relative or interrogative is repeated, as in the following examples : 
in T9T (for F^5Tf^^) HT^I ^TTf * whatever may be the disposition of whom (i. e. 
any one);' ^ Xt^iT Iw 'whatever is pleasing to any one;' "In W^ ^WPf^ 
VMiyiflT 'whoever eats the flesh of any animal;' 1FT 1 ^'HTJ Hf^fT 'whatever 
excellences belong to any one ;' T^ ^T ^^Tff * whatever corresponds with any- 
thing ;' ^^ f% ^llf^^ ^?nR^^ ' What book is to be read by whom ?' 

837. The relative and interrogative are sometimes used together, in an indefinite 
distributive sense ; as, ^if^ cRlftr f'TWT% 'any friends whatever :' or more usually 
with f^^ affixed to the interrogative ; as, ^Tw Fwf^l^ ' to any one whatever.' 

a. The neuter of the interrogative (fF'i[) is often joined with the instrumental 


to signify 'What is the use of?* 'there is no need of;' as, ^"^ f^ 'ft "T ^T^ 
^Trrtl^ I f^'^ "eiiwrii Tft ^ ftf^'^r'ft VT^'Of what use is scriptural knowledge 
(to one) who does not practice virtue ? Of what use is a soul (to one) whose 
passions are not kept in subjection ?' f^ W "w<H|r| n^T * What business have you 
to make this inquiry ?' f^ 'f^HII 'What need of more !' 'in short.' 

b. As already shewn at 761, a relative pronoun is sometimes rendered unne- 
cessary by the use of the relative compound j thus, PTT;^ ^f5flFT^irt^^^i is 
equivalent to ^*i<] 'IWrS^ ^^41 iTMifH f*^rftj ' a city whose palaces were 
silvered by the moon-beams.' 

c. The relative, when followed by a pluperfect tense in English, may be expressed 
in Sanskrit by the indeclinable participle ; thus, fij^ ^TV ^r^TT ' a lion having 
killed a hunter,' or ' a lion who had killed a hunter.' 

838. The following examples will illustrate the use of pronoims of quantity and 
pronominals : 'TRfi: (or Tr5T^T^I^) ifitil\ ^ii JTimC (or HrHI?M<*l5^) ^[^If 

* as many mouthfuls as he eats, so many he gives away ;' '^f^ IHTT^ 1^ ^^"^ 
W^ ^inr^ ^3rrnnnfH 'if so much is given to me, then I will give so much 
instruction;' TTRT finnl ?Wl^ ^^OTH: ' one out of all those.' See also 801. 


839. Nothing is more common in Sanskrit syntax than for the 
verb to be omitted altogether, or suppHed from the context. 

a. This is more especially the case with the copula, or substantive verb ; thus, 

^n^ ^^i^RTTT ^^ TT^ T^ ^Vrr^ I ^^ij^i m% 'n^ in^ f^^H 

^M*\^ 'as long as the gods have existed in Meru, as long as the Ganges upon earth, 
as long as the sun and moon in the sky, so long have we (existed) in the family of 
Brahmans ;' 'j1t^[^J Mif^is*!^ ' discrimination (is) wisdom.* 

Locative and Genitive absolute. 

840. The locative case is very commonly used absolutely with 
participles ; as, Kfm*l Wt^fn ift^ftr ^ fifw^ f^^ ^: ' he Uving I 
live, he dying I die;' ^^r^T^ilf TT?^ *the night being ended;' i^ 
Wirfx. ^tf^ 'the elder brother being unmarried;' ^rofw ^M l ^JitX 

* there being no other expedient;' inn irfTT * it being so.' Sometimes 
the participle is omitted ; as, ^ h^ *the danger (being) distant.' When 
the past passive participle is thus used absolutely with a noun in the 
locative, the present participle of ^T^, * to be,' is oflen redundantly 
added; as, ifm ^ ^rfw or K^n w^^ *it being so done*.' 

* Possibly the object of adding the word sati may be to shew that the passive 
participle is here used as a participle, and not as a past tense. So also in com- 
mentaries ^W is placed after a word like ^T^^aSfiT, to indicate the loc. sing, of 
the pres. part., as distinguished from the 3rd sing, of the pres. tense. 


a. The genitive is less commonly used absolutely; as, ^tj^H^ ^^mrinllHI^ 
'calamities impending;' ^^^HF T^i<yi*^ the men looking on.' 

b. When the nominative appears to be thus used there are really two sentences ; 
as, ^^ ^ ^nTRnr: g*i*iili^ ^jf^ * my friend having arrived, I am happy.' 

c. It is evident that the locative and genitive absolute may often take the place 
of the English particles 'when,' 'while,* 'since,' 'although;' and may supply the 
place of di. pluperfect tense; thus, cIUjW^ ^^'Si'Fff 'when he had departed.' 

Nominative Case after the Verb, ^ 

841. Verbs signifying *to be/ *to become/ *to appear/ *to be 
called,' or ' to be esteemed/ and other passive verbs similarly used, 
may take a nominative after them ; as, 03n TnTT^TTcnil ^WTTT * let a 
king be the protector of his subjects;' ^ fTXM'<l TrffWrffT *she 
appears sorrowful;' ?nfts^ nfiWTfiT 'the village appears like a 
desert;' TTn V^ ^fiw*^^ * a king is called Justice.' 

Acctcsative Case after the Verb. 

842. Transitive verbs generally govern an accusative ; as, f^ "^^^ 
^: * Brahma created the universe ;' yqrftlT f^^fw m^ * the woman 
gathers flowers ;' iiiniif^ if^ l^t * *^^ dying man gave up the ghost ;* 
^^ ^^ * one should avoid wine ;' W^ wf^ * speak the truth.' 

a. Verbs of speaking to or addressing take an accusative; as, 
"H'^ ^r^tr^ * he said to him ;' 3^fk "5^T^ thrj^ ' he thus addressed 

843. So also verbs of motion ; as, ^flT ?fhl ^fn * the holy man goes to the 
place of pilgrimage;' TSri ^g^ "5^^ * rivers run into the ocean;' WTfk T^^ 

* he wanders over the earth.' 

844. Verbs of motion are not unfrequently used with substantives, to supply the 
place of other verbs ; as, ^^TrfW ITfW ' he goes to fame,' for * he becomes famous ;' 
^HHI*^ IjfiT * he goes to equality,' for * he becomes equal ;' THIVt: ftT^fUl^ ^TT^TTW 
*he came to the friendship of those two,' for 'he became a friend of those two;' 
XRTi^ Tif: 'he went to death,' for 'he died;' 'f^fiff "^"i T^ffT 'he leads the 
king to satisfaction,' for ' he satisfies,' &c. 

a. The following are other examples : ^ST^^ 'V\^ '^fT^fjf * he avoids paining 
others;' ^m*M*t^ l^fTT 'he desires what is unattainable;' f^T^Tf P^iiiMi^'he 
should think on wisdom;' ^^9^ ^nO^fil 'he mounts his horse;' ^^TftCT ^TTWT 

* they began the business ;' '|jn\ HT ^^I * grieve not for the departed ;' ^%^c5^- 
cRTf^Ti*!'^ ^ffw *he deserves the sovereignty of the universe;' ^?I^^^R[f^ 
^fv^ 'he lies down in a cave of the mountain;' TT ^K fn^'flT T f^T^^^ 

one ought not to prevent a cow from drinking milk.' 


845. There are certain verbs ^vhich take a redundant accusative case after them 
of a substantive derived from the same root ; as, ^PHHT ^ ' he swore an oath ;' 
"^mfif ||*^ * he dwells ;' ^K iffi*^ ' he conducts himself;' ^^T^ ^^fi{ 'he speaks 
a speech ;' "5ftf%^ ft^filT ' he lives a life j' T^ TT^ * he raises a cry ' (cf. the 
Greek expressions Ae-ycy koyov, yaifto '/apa.Vf &c.) 

Double Accusative after the Verb, 

846. Verbs of asking govern a double accusative ; as, ^ ^ ^TT^W ' he seeks 
a boon of the god ;' VT ^mif "HTNTn ' he begs money from the king ;' TT ^MIA 
^paifiT ' he asks whether he has had a good ablution.' Of speaking ; as, TTWTJf 
^^R*^ War^tl^' he addressed a speech to the king.' Of leading; as, ^ 'Jl^ Hjflf 
*he leads him home;' <l i,^it I TTli*rt<. fHtr*J 'he led the princess to another 

a. Other examples of the use of verbs of this kind are, TT ^fn| "qin * he milks 
milk from the cow ;' gg^c vfx^ t^TF5T 'they milked jewels out of the earth' (cf. 
895' b) ; flirt I "Tc^y Tn?p^ ' having won his kingdom from Nala,' i. e. * having by 
play deprived Nala of his kingdom' (cf. 895. b); ^^f^^tfif ^^HTfT ^^l^ * she 
gathers blossoms from the trees ;' TTTr^ UTf^T^ ^nr^n^'H^ 'he sent them to the 
abode of Yama;' f^^^rgrflfiT Tt H^ f<Ml.lririi ^J ^HTf^rT 'his own acts lead 
a man to eminence or the reverse ;' f^i|<{i*inT iTR^ vj^iHUF ' he taught them the 
use of arms;* W %^T^nn^ ^THT^f^^J 'they inaugurated him general,* more 
usually joined with an ace. and loc. ; ^^ VTi( ^kmIIT ' she chooses a god for her 

Obs. When verbs which govern a double accusative are used in the passive, 
one accusative will remain (cf. 895. b); as, ^^rTfv^ ^f^fJi nn^-M 'the ocean was 
churned for nectar' (Kirat. v. 30). 

847. Causal verbs ; as, wflfN >Ttnrfw 'CI^ * he causes the guest to eat food* 
(see Pan. i. 4, 52); r^ ''TtV^T Ti^^ n f^iH^ 'I cause you to know what is for 
your interest;' f^jC^ H5l\ Wim^fiT ^T^: 'the Guru teaches his pupil the 
Vedas ;' rlT 'J^ U^^fnrfiT ' he causes her to enter the house ;* Mic6,|ju|)<^* JJT^TIT- 
^J^ jHir5^*^*he presented the king's son with fruits, flowers, and water;* 5?P^ 
^m*\ viiCImmPci ' she causes her son to sit on her lap* (literally, * her hip '); ftWT 
PC ^ ttur^MPn ' learning causes a man to have access to a king.' 

Instrumental Case after the Verb, 
848. Any verb may be joined with the instrumental, to express 

* the agent,' * instrument,^ or * cause/ or * manner* of the action ; as, 
^ ^TTTR F^^frr * the flower fades by reason of the wind ;' ^r^. "SK^^fw 

* he plays with dice ;' W^sfnf ifi^ rH^ i mifit * the cloud puts out the 
fire with its rain ;' t^^ "StWiT * he Hves happily.* See 865. 

a. In this sense many causala take an instrumental; as, Wt f#ii5^ H^*lMin** 


he caused her to eat sweetmeats ;' ^fi^ft?: fMUil*i^ ^T^fw ' he causes the pieces 
to be eaten by the birds.' Cf. 847. 

849. After verbs of motion this case is used in reference either to the vehicle by 
which, or the place on which, the motion takes place ; as, T^T H'llf if * he goes in 
a chariot;^ ^^T ^R^TffT *he goes on horseback:^ JIFRST Tj^fijf 'he goes on the 
road;' ^^^^5<U T^fjT *he goes through a field of cornj' "^^ ^T^t HTc*X|T 
'he navigated the ocean in a boat.' Similarly, ^"ETT^ T^J ^f^c5"*( * tears flowed 
through the eyes.' 

a. After verbs of carrying, placing, &c., it is used in reference to *the place' on 
which anything is carried ; as, '^frT I^T ^'^T'^ ' he bears fuel on his head;' "^W^* 
^*^ "^^ni ' the dog is borne on the shoulders.' ^ is found with this case in the 
sense of placing; as, f^T^^T ^W^ ^^tti^^' he placed his son on his head.* 

The following are other examples : f^i ^^ T^frf ^J^: ' the master goes in 
company with the pupil;' Ht?(^IIHI^ J^f^i?: ' he consulted with his ministers ;' but 
in this sense ^ is usually placed after it. HBT >TT^^ 4^^'^fff ' the husband 
meets the wife ;* ^^fhrplfiT I!^ ^^t * he harnesses the horses to the chariot ;' ^^W 
^[T^r>T: ' he fights his enemies,' or ^I^fw: ^, &c. ; ^ rf %ff^f^^^ "^^^ ' one 
ought not to be at enmity with any one ;' 'if ^^TH Tjft^^irjf ' he suspects me of a 

850. Verbs of boasting, &c. ; as, f^^RT f^^r'^w 'yo^ ^oast of your learning;' 
"'?T"'^f ^t^T^ W^ra * you glory in the fame of others,' 

a. Of swearing ; as, V^^T ^"T * he sujore by his bow.' 

b. Of thinking, reflecting ; as, HT^T f^^nT ' thinking in his mind.' 

c. Of comparing ; as, ncOi<*MT ^JM'i'l^n IW^T * a beautiful woman is compared 
to a leech.* 

851. Verbs denoting liberation, freedom from, sometimes take an instrumental 
after them ; as, ^W^m^J H*|*MW ' he is released from all sins ;' ^'^'T f^Tq7T ' he is 
separated from the body' (more usually with ablative). 

852. Verbs of buying and selling take the instrumental of the price ; as, ^^H^ 
^f^ 1^1*111*^ ^^ "3^^h^ Mr<iSfl1[ ' buy one wise man even for thousands of fools ;' 
^mi ^^yiLF 3p^ f^'gsWt^ ' he sells his house for a thousand cows ;' "Si^^^^ H^ 
^^f>T; ^^fl * buy that for ten Suvarnas.' 

Dative after the Verb. 
853. All verbs in which a sense of imparting or communicating 
anything is inherent, may take an accusative of the thing imparted, 
and a dative of the person to whom it is imparted. (Frequently, 
however, they take a genitive or even a locative of the recipient ; 
see 857.) ^^q jft^^RT^ ^fw * he gives sweetmeats to his son ;' f^TTTT 
if nfif^junfir ' he promises a cow to the Brahman ;' ^^^^ >R vnTrfW 
* he ovjes money to Devadatta ;' ?fi^ w^ ufcnTT^^ * consign the maiden 
to him,^ more usually with the locative ; see 861. 

3 B 


a. Other examples of the dative are, Ti^ f*HrS[IIM TT^^W iHTt 'he sets his 
mind on their destruction;' TT!ni ^fi( ^^ 'he set his mind on departure,' or 
with the locative. if5^ ??r d^H * that is pleasing tome;' f^TOI^n mytJUfH 1{1[^ 

* I will declare this to my pupils ;' ^ TT? fl^N^fiT * he makes known all to the 
king,' these are also joined with the genitive of the person. ^Hr^PI ^T^TiT * he 
is rendered Jit for immortality ;' HH^H ^^ TVHI ' he has the power to kill me ;' 
rrnf^ TT^T "STVR W^t^^ * he incited them to the murder of their mother ;* yciiM 
^lfir ' he is angry with his son ;' ^ m^^^ WTrTT ^.'^R * this lump of flesh 
is produced for a hundred sons ;' TT^^ f^'HTR ' I had no hopes 0/ success.' 

Ablative after the Verb, 
854. All verbs may take an ablative of the object from which 
anything proceeds, or arises, or is produced ; as, tf^ijfH ^W\ "^'W'^ 

* the leaf /a//* from the tree ;' ^^fvt B^fif 'llc^lr^ * blood /oi^5 from the 
body;^ ^^ ^fwfif *he rises from his seat;' ijfrXIISTiT: (719) "^fitr 
^^ ^W[\ ^-qAfrf * from the lump of clay the artist makes whatever 
he wishes;' f^TRT^ infir ttt^T*^ *from education a person attains 
capacity ;' fi r^ ^ iH PTOIT ' he went out from the city.' 

855. Verhs of fearing are joined with the ablative, and sometimes with the 
genitive; as, ^IT^ T rHlT ^[W^ f^^fiT ^TTT ^BTJini^*a good man does not /ear 
death so much as falsehood;' *rr 5l^l^ fwhr *be not afraid of a noise;* 
^?^^ T%T7r I3TiT 'the whole world stands in awe of punishment;' ^fcjiu^^i IT 
^ri^M^l^mf^ f^fn ' I fear thee, a cunning penitent ;' see 859. 

856. Verbs which express superiority or comparison govern an 
ablative ; as, m^TOTf^^ ^RT^ ^fliqin^ f^f^^ ' the abandonment of 
pleasure is superior to (better than) the possession.' 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by ablative cases are, TTTtiKi^ vienJ^flT * he 
descends from the palace ;' f^"^! ta^ll^ ^^fTiTR * Vishnu descended from heaven ;' 
ii14,^c4H, ^^*l<! 'TTrTRlrflT * he takes off (causes to descend) the golden bracelet 
from his body ;' ftT"=(^d mmv^ ' he ceases from wickedness ;' ^<1i^ f^TXTT 
'he left off speaking;' Hl*li^f^nt W^^ ^^ Vji^Ml *a virtuous son saves 
his father from hell;' ^'JH>rti^tiii|^ ?^^^'^ wfkft^n * truth is superior to a 
thousand sacrifices;' yf^dlil^ HHItlPTT *he neglects his own interest;' r*ici*t^ 
V<^9lc6l^ fn^K^fd * a friend guards one from evil.' 

Genitive after the Verb. 

857. The genitive in Sanskrit is constantly interchangeable with 
the dative, locative, or even instrumental and accusative *. It is 

* This vague use of the genitive to express * various relations ' prevails also in 
early Greek. 


more especially, however, used to supply the place of the first of 
these cases, so that almost all verbs may take a genitive as well as 
dative of 'the recipient;^ e.g. ^t::^[^ \r ^^Tfir * he gives money to 
the poor;^ "^^^^^^ liT^l^ *he benefits others.^ 

858. It may be used for the locative after verbs of consigning, as fT^lt ^^ 
^ffTH^fff ' he deposits a pledge with me ;' or of trusting, as *T lrf%fT ^1lUI 
'^^Vrfrf ' nobody puts trust in women :' and for the accusative in examples such 
as ^f^^^Tf^ S*^^^ ^T^Tf^ ^f^^TT'^ ' unexpected ills come upon corporeal 

859. It is sometimes used after verbs of fearing j as, TT^ f^ *T Hxqf^'Why 
wilt thou not be afraid of him ? ' see 855. Also after verbs of longing for, desiring, 
envying J as, ^RITFT^ ^TToRt^T^'he should desire contempt;' 5F^^^T ^^^^f 
^^^m*^ ' I envy men who possess eyes.' After verbs of remembering ; as, f^^ 
T WTiniT 'they do not remember heaven ' (Kirat. v. 28). 

a. Other examples of verbs followed by genitive cases are, ^finm'=^ ^^M 
^mi^ ^^ ^f^ VTT^ ' tell us, who are ignorant of it, whose wife you are ;* 
^r^ (for ^WTr^) f%lfw Vrf^R^t 'Of whom are the righteous afraid?' T^ 
"5n?l^ IirinnftT ^r W^ ^^T^ ^^rii^'one should not give to one what one 
promises to another;' ^^ "JT ^50511% ' he does not hear me' (cf. the Greek usage); 
"W ^TJ 'remember me,' or with an accusative. ^^T^ ffT^l UVT^fir * death over- 
comes us;' ^'"rT^ T ^fiT BTTtTT'^ * fire is not satisfied with fuel;' IT^f "SJ'l^t 
'forgive them ;' f^ ^VJ iT^ ^HRT^?^ * What offence have I given him ?' 

Locative after the Verb, 

860. This case is very widely applicable, but, as elsewhere re- 
marked, is frequently interchangeable with the dative and genitive. 
The first sense of the locative requires that it should be united with 
verbs in reference only to * the place ^ or * time ' in which anything 
is done; as, tj^ ^nifflT 'he sinks in the mud;^ ^ ^^flT 'he dwells 
in the city;' ^^^*jf^ flTffffT 'he stands in the front of the fight;* 
^5f^^TT^[ifl^ 'at sunrise he awakes.' 

861. The transition from ' the place * to ' the object ' or * recipient ' of any action 
is natiu-al ; and hence it is that verbs are found with the locative of * the object * 
to which anything is imparted or communicated, as in the following examples : 
TT U^^ f;?aft V*f=( ' bestow not money on the mighty ;' HfW^ ^^iftST f^f^- 
V^^ ' I entrust my affairs to him ;' ^^ il^O*l<* ^T^fiT 'he consigns a ring to 
his son ;' 'ft^ ^f^ "JT^fw tTI^T^HTT^ * he entrusts the burden of the kingdom 
to a capable minister ;' Tlf^ or '<li^c5 ff^"'TfW ' he informs the king ;' Tc5 ^ 
* say to Nala.' 

a. Sw >JiS flf^lflfTT^^'one should place (bury) a dead man in the ground ;' V*f 
^% ^VTItI ' he ajpplies his mind to virtue.' In this sense ^ may be used ; as, 

3 B 2 


iji ^5VR^ ^oFT^* he placed the wood on his back ;' HflT "'TT^ ?FTtfH ' he applies 
his mind to sin.' 

862. When ^, 'to give,' is used for 'to put,' it follows the same analogy; as, 
"f^ S^iii f^ ^^ 'put your hand on the end of its tail ;' ^TO?;'^^ ^T^ ^^ 
'he placed his foot on a heap of ashes.' Similarly, q^i^ro ^flftslTRT 'he was 
held by the skirt of his garment.' So also verbs of seizing, striking; as, <*^l^ 
Jj^lfir or ^lopHPrt ' he seizes or drags him by the hair ;' ^ M^^Prt * he strikes 
a sleeping man ;' J|^1hI W ^^PT ^UTin 'having taken hold of him by the right 

863. The locative is often put for the dative in sentences where the latter case 
stands for the infinitive; thus, >T|t: '?P''^^T!J rl<.*S 'hasten to seek thy spouse;' 
^TH^ VIHM^ J(W^ ' strive to bring Nala hither ;' ! $^^ "ff^ ^''^^ ?l^ 
'they could not hold that bowj' ? ^^'H^ PhMKHI 'he was not able to 
prevent it.' 

a. Other examples are, "^ TmftT tSw * he is engaged in a very severe penance ;' 
"q^^nf^ *TT ^T^fft ^t ' do not busy yourself about other people's affairs ;' 
f%q^ ^Wit ' he is addicted to objects of sense ;* ^t^c^toirf^T^ T??)^ * he delights 
in the good of all the world ;' J^fVfcBK f^I^s^ ' he is appointed to the com- 
mand of the fort ;' ^ ^^>S ^ft fnftnTffT * he yokes two bulls to the pole ;' 
IWHiMrM ^STfWfi^ mj[^ ' anoint me to the generalship j' ^TTff Tjni^fHil^ * he strives 
to suppress evil-doers;' oFhT^ WWT^ ^TO^ Jm 'they had anger against the 
king ;' MOKfl ^^ ^'1'" * ^^^^^^ trial 0/ Vahuka ;' ^HTVT^ '^f^ ^^ ' / will lay 
the blame on you;' ^TTT^ it ^fifr^ 'choose him for thy husband;* \^ iMtj^n 
MC^^itu "^*J^t * the gods exerted themselves for the nectar.' 

b. tT Hf^ ^Wff ^T^*^ ^^^1 ' ^^^^ language is not suited to a person Uke 
me;' II^p# i^ftT M^i^^ri 'sovereignty is suited to you;' ^i^ ^mfq^ii^'he 
reclined on a seat ;' ^^IT^ ^TW^* ' sit thou on a cushion ;' ^^IJ fT^Sff^fw ' he 
confides in his enemies ;' k.<um1: ^QTTfff ' it falls at his feet ;' ^^Zffl ^"H^^ ' it rolls 
at the feet.' 

Change of Case after the same Verb. 

864. This sometimes occurs ; as, Pm^O >JirLI|{l^ ^^ ^ nT5^^: ^ ^^- 
Mtwy ' Vidhura and Kunti announced everything, the one to Dhrita-rdshtra, the 
other to Gdndhari * (Astras'iksha 34), where the same verb governs a dative and 
genitive. Similarly, in the Hitopades'a, ^IT^ f<*Mi^l ? ft^M* tt^lj ^ * con- 
fidence is not to be placed in homed animals or women.* 

865. The prevalence of a passive construction is the most remark- 
able feature in the syntax of this language. Passive verbs are joined 

* ^i Epic form for xtit*a or vti^. 


with ' the agent, instrument, or cause,' in the instrumental case *, 
and agree with *the object' in number and person; as, ^ttr TiT 
"grmrw *the dust is raised by the wind;' ^ ^;^[^ftn ^FSfK^iFin^ 
' let all things be prepared by him ;' ^fTC ^^l^nsviT^v^xiiT * the sun 
was concealed by arrows.' 

866. But the past passive participle usually takes the place of the past tenses of the 
passive verb, and agrees with *the object ' in gender and case as well as number; 
as, ^Tfoi ti*ii^flTf?r ^fWT * (their) eyes were suffused with tears ;' WT ^iHH 
(^^'^ being understood) * it was said by him.' Cf. 895. 

a. This instrumental construction after passive verbs is a favourite idiom in 
Sanskrit prose composition, and the love for it is remarkably displayed in such 
phrases as the following : ^t^*T ^^TT, *he is gone to by misery,' for ^1^ TI"^[frr; 
and vn'i4llf \^'^f *let it be come by your majesty,' for ^11'i|[ \m; and 
again, ^WlfHT!. ^W^ ^pfttJrtT*^^, * let it be remained by us in one spot,' for 'let us 
remain in one spot ;' ^Dj*! TTHX!! 2^ ffrf T^FP^ ' by whatever road it is desired, by 
that let it be gone.' 

b. Active or causal verbs, which take a double accusative, will retain one accusa- 
tive when constructed passively ; but the other accusative passes into a nominative 
case; thus, instead of 'H T R^^f^ T^^, *he addressed me in harsh words,' 
may be written fPT ^^ ^"^mK!r T3Jt, ' by him I was addressed in harsh words.' 

867. The infinitive (formed with "^ turn) in Sanskrit cannot be 
employed with the same latitude as in other languages. Its use is 
very limited, corresponding to that of the Latin Supines, as its 
termination turn indicates. 

a. Let the student, therefore, distinguish between the infinitive of Sanskrit 
and that of Latin and Greek. In these latter languages we have the infinitive 
made the subject of a proposition ; or, in other words, standing in the place of a 
nominative, a,nd an accusative case often admissible before it. We have it also 
assuming different forms, to express present, past, or future time, and complete- 
ness or incompleteness in the progress of the action. The Sanskrit infinitive, on 
the other hand, can never be made the subject of a verb, admits of no accusative 
before it, and can only express indeterminate time and incomplete action. W^herever 
it occurs it must be considered as the object, and never the subject, of some verb 
expressed or understood. As the object of the verb, it may be regarded as equiva* 
lent to a verbal substantive, in which the force of two cases, an accusative and 
dative, is inherent, and which differs from other substantives in its power of 

. * There are a few instances of the agent in the genitive case ; as, ^^ ^ ^T^, 
* a crime committed by me,' for IXIT. 


governing a case. Its use as a substantive, with the force of the accusative case, 
corresponds to one use of the Latin infinitive ; thus, iTiT TT^ ^'^^l'^ ^^Sa^TftT * I desire 
to hear all that,' 'id audire cupio,' where ^^*\ and audire are both equivalent to 
accusative cases, themselves also governing an accusative. Similarly, ^f^ ''^^ 

* she began to weep ;' and T^ iT^ ^BTRH * he began to conquer the earth,' where 
T^HnP^ ^Tt^, *he began the conquest of the earth,' would be equally correct. 

b. Bopp considers the termination of the infinitive to be the accusative of the 
suffix tu (458. Obs.), and it is certain that in the Veda other cases of nouns formed 
with this suffix in the sense of infinitives occur ; e. g. a dative in tave or tavai, as from 
han comes hantave, * to kill ;' fr. anu-i, anvetave, * to follow ;* fr. man, mantavai/ix) 
think :' there is also a form in tos, generally in the sense of an ablative ; e. g. fr. 
comes etos, 'from going ;' fr. han, hantos, as in purd hantos, 'before killing :' and 
a form in tvi corresponding to the indechnable participle in tvd of the classical 
language; e. g. fr. han, hatvi, 'killing ;' fr. hhu, bhutvi, ' being.* Infinitives may also 
be formed in the Veda by simply adding the usual case-terminations to the root ; 
e. g. in the sense of an accusative, fr. d-ruh may come druham, * to ascend ;' fr. 
d-sad, dsadam, *to sit down :' of a dative, fr. d-dhrish, ddhrishe, 'to get at,' ' subdue ;' 
fr. san-daksh, sancakshe, 'to survey:' of an ablative, fr. ava-pad, avapadas, 'from 
falling down.' Infinitives are also formed by changing the final d of roots ending 
in this letter to aij e. g. fr. pra-yd, prayai, 'to approach :' or by adding se (liable 
to be changed to she) to a root, as fr. ji comes jishe, *to conquer:' or by 
adding asej e.g. ir.jiv,jivase, 'to live:' or adhyai; e.g. fr. bhriy bharadhyai, 'to 
bear ;' fr. yaj, yaj adhyai, * to sacrifice,' &c. 

868. But the Sanskrit infinitive most commonly involves a sense 
which belongs especially to the Sanskrit dative, viz. that of * the end* 
or * purpose' for which anything is done; thus, ^T^oST^ >TftT^ 
^T^fw * he comes to devour the young ones ;' ^I^ ^^ &^ inf^Tjfhl 

* he sent an army to fight the enemy.' 

a. In these cases it would be equally correct in Sanskrit to substitute for the 
infinitive the dative of the verbal noun, formed with the suffix ana ; thus, ^KJiUI^, 

* for the eating,' for Hf%|^ ; 4tVHI4, ' for the fighting,' for 'f^^ ; and in Latin 
the infinitive could not be used at all, but either the supine, devoratum, pvgnatum, 
or, still more properly, the conjunction ut with the subjunctive mood, ' ut devoret,* 

* ut pugnarent* The following are other examples in which the infinitive has a 
dative force in expressing * the purpose ' of the action : It'lllj ^TJ 'f^t'^ ^TTTI 

* he went to the river to drink water ;' W\ '^l^V^ WJ'^ JM**QfiT ' he comes to cut 
asunder my bonds ;' HT ^TJ ^^ ' he is able to rescue me ;* si^ii^ 'TWfT^ ^fHT^ 
TTJJ^ * he busied himself about collecting together the snares.' 

b. The best Pandits think that the infinitive ought not to be used when the 
verb which is connected with it refers to a different person, or is not <nnini^i.<u ; 
.thus H T^*^ ^I5HI4M, ' command him to go,* would be better expressed by Tf 


c. The infinitive cannot be used after an accusative to express that* as in 
Latin ; thus, ' having heard that Duryodhana was killed ' would be expressed by 

869. The Sanskrit infinitive, therefore, has the character of a 
Supine, and in this character is susceptible of either an active or 
passive signification. In its passive character, however, hke the 
Latin Supine in , it is joined with certain words only, the most 
usual being the passive verbs ^off * to be able' and gi^ * to be fitting,' 
aiid their derivatives ; thus, m^ rf ^^ff * it cannot be abandoned ;' 
VJ^ rf %^ ^r^7 * the snare cannot be cut ;' tf ^HRT: ^HTVTg ^ ^wr: 

* those evils cannot be remedied;' ^f^ ff "^^ffk *it is not fitting to be 
heard ;' %^ ^nftTTj: * unfit to be cut ;' l^TT *T ^^^ ^r^TT^ ^^ cFf'^ 

* contempt is not proper to be shewn by thee for him ;' cR^ft(5^ ^^ti: 

* worthy to be celebrated.' 

a. The following are other instances: Hlji^J ^fTTf'I^'^ ^R^K *the shed was 
begun to be built;' HH^ ^fW^ H^T*^ f*T^ftlTTJ *your Honour has been 
selected to be inaugurated to the kingdom ;' ^^fw "^^ * it deserves to be done ;* 
^S'l 'ST^f'^H'^ * improper to be done* (cf. factu indignum and TTOieiv aicr'^jiov); 
m ^t^T'^^ "arpm 'she ought to be released;' f^ ^ TTTf^iT Wf*^ 'what is 
sought to be done.' The infinitive of neuter verbs, which have a passive sense, 
will of course be passive ; as, "gRt^ ^ ^f^ * deign not to be angry.' 

870. The root ^^ * to deserve,' when used in combination with an infinitive, is 
usually equivalent to ' an entreaty' or ' respectful imperative ;* as, V^T^ Ti l^*\ 
^^ftr * deign (or simply ' be pleased') to tell us our duties.' It sometimes has the 
force of the Latin debet j as, ^ Wf^^ f^TT^ ^>?HT^ ^fw ' such a person as I 
ought not to address you;' ^ i T^^^^^f^ 'you ought not to bewail him.' 

871. The infinitive is sometimes joined with the noun oFTR", 'desire,' to form a 
kind of compound adjective, expressive of wishing to do anything, but the 
final m is then rejected; thus, "^g^W, -T, -^y * desirous of seeing;' ^^W:, 
-HT, -^n^, * wishing to conquer.' 

a. Sometimes the infinitive is joined in the same way with W^^l thus, ^ 
"^iWRWl * he has a mind to see.' 

872. When kim follows the infinitive a peculiar transposition sometimes takes 
place, of which the ist Act of S^akuntala furnishes an example ; thus, *^T a 
Wf*^ ^"^fir f^ ^snrm t^-lH ^ ftr^f^ir^'^, ' I wish to know thy friend, 
whether this monastic vow is to be observed by her,' for 9\^*\ ^^ifH f^ ^W(l Jt 
&c. * I wish to know whether this vow is to be observed by thy friend.' 

873. Present Tense. This tense, besides its proper use, is oflen 
used for th^ future; as, "^ iTSaafH 'Whither shall I go?* ^T 1^ 


tT^TnfT * When shall I see thee?' f^ ^3f^t(f^ *What shall I do?' and 
sometimes for the imperative ; as, wh ^^: * let us do that/ 

874. In narration it is commonly used for the past tense; as, <R ^^J^ t*j^i ^^T 
W^flT ^ ^ ' he, having touched the ground, touches his ears, and says.' 

875. It may denote 'habitual' or * repeated* action ; as, ^Ht TTW^ H^ Tr^ ^I^ 
^^T?[frT 'the deer going there every day was in the habit of eating the corn ;' '^^T 
^ ^W^[r^ ISJIpiVflT iT^T r^sif^ ^^V^fff * whenever he heard the noise of the 
mouse, then he would feed the cat.' 

876. It is usually found after 'IT^ and ITRTf^; as, '^J^^^ ^ ^*iC\ ! ^CalT-n 
fTT^R^^lf^ ^^f f^^rftl *as long as my teeth do not break, so long will I gnaw 
asunder your fetters.* (Compare the use of the Latin dum.) 

877. The present tense of the root ^STT^, 'to sit,' *to remain,' is used with the 
present participle of another verb, to denote continuous' or * simultaneous' action ; 
as, "'l^'Tf ^ ^<=l^ ^^ ' he keeps making a slaughter of the beasts ;' ^^ "'TOT^ 
^TT^W ^H ' he is in the act of coming after me.' 

878. The particle ^, when used with the present, gives it the force of a perfect ; 
as, Tlf^^rf^ W H^^ *they entered the city;' fT^^rfnT W *they dwelt.' See 
251. Obs. 

879. Potential. ^The name of this tense is no guide to its 
numerous uses. Perhaps its most common force is that of * fitness' 
in phrases, where in Latin we should expect to find oportet with the 
infinitive ; as, ^mT h4 ^^ fTt: ^^R wtf'^H'^ ' having beheld danger 
actually present, a man should act in a becoming manner/ 

880. It is also employed, as might be expected, in indefinite general expressions; 
as, 'I^ 'f^ HT^I WTTI ' whatever may be the disposition of any one;' T^ tTTT 
5^ ^ ^^^ ^T^.<i ^M*i( ' when the king may not himself make investigation of 
the case;' ^nTTTT^FJ^^^ "^^ "WTTJ^^ ^M*tii*^^ *by uttering unseasonable 
words one may meet with dishonour.' 

a. Especially in conditional sentences and suppositions; as, Tr^ <.Ni ^^ rf 
Um^ ^T''? ^ftRf^S?^ "T FITf^^ ft^^Jd^y fnJ^Tt^ * if the king were not to inflict 
punishment, ownership would remain with nobody, and all barriers would be 
broken down.' Sometimes the conjunction is omitted; as, rf H^TI 'should it not 
be so ;' "T WT?^ '^Trvt'Tt ' were he not subject to another.* 

881. The potential often occurs as a softened imperative, the Sanskrit language, 
in common with others in the East, being averse to the more abrupt form ; thus, 
xna:, 'do thou go,* for ^TT^; and xfi(^ Micilfff, *let him eat fruits,* for 'W^i 
^mw, 'let there be,' for 'there must be' (in comment, to Pan.) 

882. Imperative. ^This tense yields the usual force of * com- 
mand' or ^entreaty;' as, 'crraf^f^ * take courage;' *rP^ ^9TT 
* remember me.' 

m, and not tT, must be used in prohibition ; as, w^ fT "ff^ * do 



not tell a falsehood;' m <5r53r^ *be not ashamed;' see 889. The 
first person is used to express * necessity' see example at 796. 

a. The 3rd pers. singular is sometimes used interjectionally ; thus, 
vr^ * Be it so!' * Well !' njig ' Let it go!' ' Come along !' 'Come!' 

883. The imperative is sometimes used in conditional phrases to express * contin- 
gency /' as, ^iTT'ftf^ Tf n^atrfT ' permit me, (and) I will go,' i. e. * if you will permit 
me, I will go ;' ^T^rro'^ ^^K;'HH'^' if you command me, I will kill the villain j* 
^i^TT^T^ ^ TT^aat 'iTssLifH *if you give me a promise of security, I will go.' 

884. Imperfect. Although this tense (see :Z42) properly has 
reference to ^ past incomplete action^' and has been so rendered in 
the paradigms of verbs, yet it is commonly used to denote * indefinite 
past time' without any necessary connexion with another action ; 
as, w^ V^% ^l^'^ SH"oh<cf^ ^ I made an effort to collect wealth/ no^ 
necessarily * I was making.' 

Obs. The augment may be cut off after HT, as in the aorist ; thus, 
^ W >^ * May he not become ?' See 24a. Obs. ; Pan. vi. 4, 74. 

885. Perfect. As explained at 242, this tense is properly used 
to express ^ an action done at some definite period of past time;' as, 
w^r^Rpnr^ ^qfw c^^"^ '^'gi*?: * Kausalya and the others bewailed king 
Dasaratha.' It is frequently, however, employed indeterminately. 

' 885. First Future. ^This tense (see 242) expresses 'definite 
but not immediate futurity ;' as, in^ f^ oRT*t^ tr^ <?3krrftj * in those 
regions thou shalt (one day) obtain the fruit of thy desire.' 

^S']. Second Future.- This tense, although properly indefinite, 
is employed to express * all degrees and kinds of futurity' immediate 
or remote, definite or indefinite ; as, ^rg ^^: ^PTT^f^ ' thou shalt 
drink sweet water;' ic^ ^^^ ti^*^* '^[^iT 'there certainly he will 
see his wife ;' ^?r Tf^'^ifR * this very day thou shalt go.' 

a. It is sometimes used for the imperative ; as, t^ \^ W^ ^T^f^ 

* whatever is to be given, that you will give,' (do thou give.) 

888. Aorist. This tense (see 242) properly expresses * time in- 
definitely past ;' as, ^^ irni * there lived (in former times) a king.' 

889. It is also employed to supply the place of the imperative, aftei; the prohi- 
bitive particle ^H or Jn W, the augment being omitted (see 242. Obs.) ; as, TF ^f^t 

* do not make ;' *rT iMlJsil: ^EWTP^' do not lose the opportunity ;' TT W ^^ ^\^l 

* do not tell an untruth ;' ITT ^jiVt * do not be angry ;' 'TT '^^* * do not grieve ;' *TT 
f^^X * do not injure ;' Tf Tt'T^i: ' do not destroy ;' H^ ^f^ ' do not spe&,k po ;* 
JtT 5K^^: ' be not afraid ' (contracted into JT h: in Nala xi v. 3). ; 



890. Prbcativk. Only one example of this tense occurs in the Hitopadesat 
fWw ^^rn^ f<*rt,^^^^W: * May he constantly be the abode of all happiness ! * 
It is chiefly used in pronouncing benedictions. Also in imprecations. 

a. In the latter case a noun formed with a suflBx ani is frequently used ; thus^ 
^TifNf^ K *i[j5m^* May there be loss of life to thee ! ' * Mayst thou perish ! ' 

891. Conditional. This tense (see 242) is even less frequent than the last. 
The following are examples : ^f^ TT^TT T!^ rf TTTn^iT^ ^JT5 HWT^ ^ v<h>54\ 
^^c4i^ ^c<>l?K.i: * if the king were not to inflict punishment, then the stronger 
would roast the weak like fish on a spit ;' or, according to the Scholiast, f^^TT*^ 
^^r<.it^ * would cause injury;' ^^fi?"5T ^^ ^Hf^^^^^7T^ ^PhVSJ*!^ ^BMftrr^*if 
there should be abundant rain, then there would be abundance of food.' According 
to Panini (iii. 3, 139) it is used f^RlfH^Tm * when the action is supposed to pass by 
unaccomphshed ' (ffliMiMi ^fffT^T^ Schol.) 

a. Let. The Vedic mood, called Let by native grammarians, corresponds to 
the subjunctive of the Greek language. In forming it a short a is inserted between 
the conjugational stem and the termination, or if the conjugational stem ends in a, 
this letter is lengthened ; at the same time the augment of the imperfect and aorist 
is dropped, e.g. from han comes pres. ind. han-ti; but subj. han-a-ti: from pat, 
pres. ind. pata-tij subj. patd-ti: from a^, impf. ind. d4no-t j subj. a^nava-t, i.e. 
a^o-\-a-\-t. So also, from pat, impf. ind. apata-t; subj, patd-t : from tr{, aor. ind. 
atdr{t (for atdrish-t, cf. du. atdrish-va, &c.); subj. tdrish-a-t. It may also be 
mentioned that in the Atmane the final e may optionally be changed to at, e. g. 
mddayddhvai ; and that the subjunctive of the aorist sometimes takes the termina- 
tions of the present tense without lengthening a, e. g. from va6 comes aor. ind. 
avodat, subj. vodati. 

Observe The characteristic of Le{ is the insertion of a. 


892. Participles in Sanskrit oflen discharge the functions of the 
tenses of verbs. They are constantly found occupying the place of 
past and future tenses, and more especially of passive verbs. 

893. Participles govern the cases of the verbs whence they are 
derived ; as, qTV ^^R5^ * seeing the fowler f wn^ ^^T?^ * walking in 
the forest ;' TR^ ^rT^rTT^ * he did that ;' ^1^3^ ^^ITT!^ * having heard a 
noise ;' m*fti|*^ WMlr4l fnfi * he went away without drinking water.* 

a. In the case of passive participles, as will presently appear, the 
agent is put in the instrumental case ; and the participle agrees with 
the object, like an adjective. 

Present Participles. 

894. These are not so commonly used in Sanskrit composition as 
past and future participles, but they are oflen idiomatically employed) 


especially where in English the word * while ^ or 'whilst' is intro- 
duced; thus, ^"i ^ft^R^ '^^ ^^^ * whilst walking in the 
southern forest, I beheld/ &c. 

Past Passive Participle, 

895. This most useful participle is constantly used to supply the 
place of a perfect tense passive, sometimes in conjunction with the 
auxiliary verbs as and bhu, * to be ;' thus, ^if^^sf^ * I have been com- 
manded;' ^4 f^^Rin: ^: *we were astonished;' 'g'fT^sf^ *I have 
dwelt' (cf. 866). Of course the participle is made to agree adjec- 
tively with the object in gender, number, and case, as in Latin ; 
and the agent, which in English would probably be in the nomina- 
tive, and in Latin in the ablative, becomes in Sanskrit instrumental. 
Thus, in Sanskrit, the phrase * I wrote a letter ' would not be so 
idiomatically expressed by 'Si^ n^ fc5^^, as by wm t^^ fc^f^*^ * by 
me a letter was written,' * a me epistola sa^ipta.' So again, ^ ff ^'?^nfT 
fe^rl^T * by him the bonds were cut' is more idiomatic than ^ ^''^RTffT 
fsra:^ * he cut the bonds ;' and ^ <iik\ * by him it was said' is more 
usual than TT "3^^ ' he said *.' 

a. This participle may often be used impersonally, when, if the 
verb belong to the first group of classes, it may optionally be 
gunated ; as, ^finf^ or ^ftfiTff Jff^W * it is shone by the sun.' The 
same holds good if the beginning of an action is denoted ; as, ^: 
U^rffTir: or ireftfcTTf: * the sun has begun to shine.' 

b. When a verb governs a double accusative case (see 846), one accusative will 
be preserved after the past passive participle ; as, f^^Tf=IWT!J ^^IT^ XJ^ Vli^Ht 
* Da^aratha was asked for Rama by Vis'vamitra ;' Trftfi^ ift^ 5'">n * the sky has 
been milked of your wish,' i. e. *your wish has been milked out of the sky;' fWiu 
tniT ^^!fT '^ ' deprived by defeat in play of his kingdom and property ' (cf. 846. 

896. But frequently the past passive participle is used for the active past 
participle; in which case it may sometimes govern the accusative case, like a 
perfect tense active ; thus, ^ ^W{ ^TT^^: * he ascended the tree ;' ^ 'J? ^fTI or 
^TTH: *he went home;' "^W jfiW 'having crossed the road;' ^^ M(;il'^ 

* This instrumental or passive construction, which is so prevalent in Sanskrit, 
has been transferred from it to Hindi, Marathi, Gujarathi, and other dialects of 
India. The particle ne in Hindi and Hindustani corresponds to the Sanskrit T na, 
the final letter of the commonest termination for the instrumental case, and can 
never occasion any difficulty if so regarded. 

3 c a 


^^nlTnT5fQ? ' I have descended to the road ;' ^ d'lO'i[ tr^TITff: * I reached 
the city;' ^T^rP^ ^3TTO# Mpqd ^t *we two have entered the hermitage.* But 
observe, that its use for the active participle is generally, though not invariably, 
restricted to intransitive verbs which involve the idea of * motion,^ and to a few 
other neuter verbs. The following are other examples : ^ftj^BT Tr^ffTrn: ' the 
birds flew away ;' ^ JTT: ' he died ;' ^mft fT^: ' the fowler returned ;' ^ ^f^ 
11^: *he proceeded to eat;' ^ wf^l 'he had recourse to;' ^ Tf^l *he fell 
asleep ;' ff fWiTTt ' they stood j* "^f^t * he lodged.* 

a. This participle has sometimes a present signification ; thus, fWil * stood * 
may occasionally be translated * standing,* vftlT * fearing,' fwit ' smiling,' wrf^W 

embracing j* and all verbs characterized by the Anubandha ft? may optionally 
use this participle in the sense of the present. See 75. e. 

b. The neuter of the passive participle is sometimes used as a substantive ; thus, 
^'^*\ ' a gift ;' ^siin*^ * an excavation ;' vq#^ * food ;' J^V^ * milk.* 

Active Past Participle. 

897. This participle is much used (especially in modern Sanskrit 
and the writings of commentators) to supply the place of a perfect 
tense active. It may govern the case of the verb ; as, Tif ^"fT^ * he 
heard everything ;' Jj^ -qfiT*^ ^ff5fwT^^'^ ' tlie wife embraced her 
husband;' TT^ ^ ific^ ^^Tr^*he gave the fruit into the hand of 
the king;' Wl^ ^tnift 'she did that/ This participle may also be 
used with the auxiharies as and bhu, * to be/ to form a compound 
perfect tense ; thus, 7!r^ ^dili^ ^ftcT * he has done that;' FiT (^if^I^ 
nf^orfw * he will have done that.' 

Indeclinable Past Participles, 

898. The sparing use made in Sanskrit composition of relative 
pronouns, conjunctions, and connective particles, is mainly to be 
attributed to these participles or gerunds, by means of which the 
action of the verb is carried on, and sentence after sentence strung 
together without the aid of a single copulative. They occur in 
narration more commonly than any other kind of participle ; and 
some of the chief peculiarities of Sanskrit syntax are to be traced 
to the frequency of their occurrence. 

899. They are generally used for the past tense^ as united with a 
copulative conjunction, and are usually translatable by the English 
* having,' * when,' * after,' * by,' see 55^ ; thus, tr ^rsFirq f^f^f!?^ i^ 
^ ^1^ ^ ^^^ "^^ "^^ ^?^ 'SPJ^ ?nft * having heard this, having 
thought to himself " this is certainly a dog," having left the goat, 



having bathed, he went to his own house.* In all these cases we 
should use in English the past tense with a conjunction; thus, 
' When he had heard this, he thought to himself that it must cer- 
tainly be a dog. He then left the goat, and, when he had bathed, 
went to his own house.' 

a. It is evident from the above example that the indeclinable participles often stand 
in the place of a pluperfect tense, a tense which does not really exist in Sanskrit. 

b. But although they always refer to something past, it should be observed that 
they are frequently rendered in English by the present participle, as in the fifth 
sentence of the story at 930. 

900. Another, though less frequent use of them is as gerunds in do j thus, "JTTTJ 
^itfli*lM ^nr^W* H^nT xrfein: *men become wise by reading the Sastras;' 
HT^ ^f^ ^"afiPT^IH ^i^ >TiI3TT 'a wife is to be supported even by [or in] doing a 
hundred wrong things ;' f% ^Tn^^^ ^r^TT '^^ * What bravery is there in kiUing 
a sleeping man?' 

Observe ^This participle is occasionally capable of a passive sense. 

901. Note ^The termination r^ tvd is probably an instrumental case, and bears 
much of the character of an instrumental, as it is constantly found in grammatical 
connexion with the agent in this case ; thus, ^r: ''I^^*^^ 1^1051^1 fiff^"^ f^t^W: ' by 
all the beasts having met together the lion was informed j' ^lir^ ric5H '^T^T^ 
T|^'^"l^^ ' by all having taken up the net let it be flown away.' 

a. Another and stronger proof of its instrumental character is, that the particle 
^H'^, which governs an instrumental, is not unfrequently joined with the inde- 
clinable participle ; thus, ^!TW H^'iFr'T, * enough of eating,' is with equal correct- 
ness of idiom expressed by ^n^ ^$W, see 918. a. 

Future Passive Participles, 
902. The usual sense yielded by this gerundive participle is that 
of 'fitness/ ' obligation/ * necessity ' (see 568) ; and the usual con- 
struction required is, that the agent on whom the duty or necessity 
rests be in the instrumental, and the participle agree with the object ; 
as, r^xrr lf|f^ ri f^Xfm * by you the attempt is not to be made.' 

a. Sometimes, however, the agent is in the genitive case; thus, Ti'^flTfT^ 
*I^^ ^S^m^ ' boiled rice is to be eaten by Brahmans.' Compare 865, note. 

903. Occasionally the future passive participle may yield a sense equivalent to 
'worthy of,* 'deserving;^ as, '^'5^ * deserving a whipping ;' rTTT^^ worthy of 
being beaten ;' g^H^tr * deserving death by pounding ;' ^m ' worthy of death.' 

904. If the verb govern two accusatives, one may be retained after the future 

* As the Latin gerund is connected with the future part, in dus, so the Sanskrit 
indeclinable part, in ya is probably connected with the future pajssive pai^; iaj^a^ ^ 


passive participle ; as, T'TTHf^fy r^VT ^Tf^ n^ * the tear of the eye is to be 
brought to assuagement by thee.* 

905. Occasionally the neuter of this participle is used impersonally; in which 
case it does not agree with the object, but may govern it in the manner of the 
verb ; thus, Wm W^ 'i'flM^, * it is to be gone by me to the village,' for Wm HfV^ 
J|n1M:. So also, r^RT ^>?f IR^P^ ' by you it is to be entered into the assembly.* 

a. The neuter >irqnM*( (from ^) is thus used, and, in accordance with 841, 
requires the instrumental after it, as well as before ; thus, ^SITrfrfxT cRH^SR Hf^TT^n^ 
by something it must become the cause,' i.e. 'there must be some cause;* 
<5iir*ili ^Pei^miu >riffqt^ *a ruler ought to be possessed of discrimination;' 
Wm ?R ^^'Iw ^rqnq*t^'l must become your companion ;' ^^IH Hi^*ui^- 
Z^ Hrin<M*j^ ' the lady must be seated in the carriage.' 

906. Similarly, the neuter of ^T^ may be adverbially used, and impart at the 
same time a passive sense to the infinitive ; thus, ^ef*!; ^i<m^ "wiror^'tj*^ ^ Wt 
for "^m^** Tir^l &c. *the breeze is able to be embraced by the limbs ' (S'akuntala, 
verse 60). Again, ^iwt^ ^3r^c5fH: xjTg "mifJl * the breezes are able to be drunk 
by the hollowed palms ;* f^^JlHTt ^WJT*^ ^TTff'^ ' great successes are able to be 
obtained.' Observe a similar use of ^W|[ in tf ^^ >^il|^^rh*^*his Highness is 
not proper to be addressed * (Maha-bh. Adi-p. 27). 

907. It is not uncommon to find this participle standing merely in the place of 
a future tense, no propriety or obligation being implied, just as the past passive 
participle stands in the place of a past tense ; thus, J^'^ 'I^'T cj^^^n J'l^'ii- 
'RTf^'TT 'iiiM*j^*in all probability this hunter will go in quest of the deer's flesh,* 
where 'ifi^q*!^ is used impersonally ; 1^ "^^^ 0^4: f^f%^ e|M\ * when the 
people see you, they will utter some exclamation ;* '^f^ ^^^ "^fff iT^ W^J T^lf^^wm 

* if the bird falls, then it shall be eaten by me.' See 930. xi. 

908. The neuter of this participle is sometimes used infinitively or substantively, 
as expressive merely of * the indeterminate action * of the verb, without implying 

* necessity ' or * fitness.* In such cases ^^ may be added ; thus, ^^^iMrt^*^ ^TTT 
*the being about to deceive,* * deception ' (Hitop. line 416) ; l^^l'^ ^H ' the being 
about to die,' * dying :* but not always ; as, (irinM'^ ' life.* 

Participial Nouns of Agency, 

909. The first of these nouns of agency (580) is constantly used in poetry as a 
substitute for the present participle; implying, however, 'habitual action,' and 
therefore something more than present time. It is sometimes found governing 
the same case as the present participle, but united with the word which it governs 
in one compound; thus, ^C5pT 'city-conquering;* ftl^^ 'speaking kind 
words;* ^f^T^T 'going in the water;* ^fT^ftnT 'lake-born.* But the word 
governed is often in the stem ; thus, THf^n:, * light-making ' (see 69), from tejai 
and kri; H*ft^, ' mind-captivating,* from manas and hri (64); ^J^, 'giving 
much,' from hahu and dd; WRT?, * self-knowing,' from dtman and jci (57. b). 


910. The second (581) is sometimes, but rarely, found as a participle governing^ 
the case of the verb; thus, ^T^ ^^ * speaking a speech;' ^^*n^nf ^^T 
'bearing the Ganges.* 

911. The first and second species of the third (582. a. 6), like the first, have 
often the sense of present participles, and are then always united with the stem 
of the word which they govern in one compound; thus, Hfl^^lf<,j[, 'mind- 
captivating,' from manas and hrij RT^^TV^, 'effective of the business,' from 
Jcdrya and sidh. They may sometimes govern the case of the verb whence they 
are derived, and may then be compounded, or not, with the word which they 
govern ; thus, ^JTH^^ or WM ^uPtiTt^ ' dweUing in a village ;' g^c^TR ^^R: 
'kisser of the buds' (Ratnavali, p. 7). 


912. ^ *and' (727) is always placed after the word which it connects with 
another, like que in Latin, and can never stand first in a sentence, or in the same 
place as ' and ' in English ; thus, "^fT^3'T "ic|co1im ^ * walking round and looking.* 
Unlike que, however, which must always follow the word of which it is the copu- 
lative, it may be admitted to any other part of the sentence, being only excluded 
from the first place ; thus, ni*i*t^ "^f^Ul^ HT^^ ^ ^fSf! u^ 'q TTHiiJ^ ' and 
having after a short time given birth to a pure son, as the eastern quarter (gives 
birth to) the sun.' 

fl. Sometimes two da's are used, when one may be redundant or equivalent to 
the English ' both ;' or the two <fa's may be employed antithetically or disjunc- 
tively, or to express the contemporaneousness of two events; thus, ^^"^ 'Ctf^^ 
'both day and night;* B ^fWafiRT ftf^ ^ ^f?Tc5^c5 15 "^ ^TU^ ff 'Where 
on the one hand is the frail existence of fawns? Where on the other are thy 
arrows ?' sfifV^ '^ V!^ ^\^^M* "^ -RftfTTC. "grfr^TaT ^^Tf 'TTTT ' no sooner 
had she began to weep, than a shining apparition in female shape, having snatched 
her up, departed ' (S akuntala, verse 131); W ^ 'fT^ ^<;r'n '^^ ^ ^f^^^^: ' they 
reached the ocean and the Supreme Being awoke ' (from his sleep), Raghu-v. x. 6. 

b. Observe When "1, 'where?' is used as in the above example, it imphes 
excessive incompatibility,' or * incongruity .* 

c. Sometimes ^ is used as an emphatic particle, and not as a copulative ; thus, 
fW ^ ^^^ trfl^nhr^T 'Was she indeed married by me formerly ?' 

913. H'm so,' 'likewise' (727. 6), frequently supplies the place of '^; thus, 
'iiHMIH.f^VTTTT ^ MWrM^^HfiT^ THBrT ' both Anagata-vidhatri and Pratyutpanna- 
mati ' (names of the two fish in Hitop. Book IV). 

914. f^ 'for,' g 'but,' ^ 'or' (727. c?, 728.0), like ^, are excluded from the 
first place in a sentence ; thus, ^^^>1^fiCH ^^ ^t^ f^ xyf^C^Kn ' for happiness 
formerly scorned turns to misery;' fqMM^J 5 'but on the contrary;' ^^ 71^ rT 
3J^TX!I TI ' either abandon her or take her.' 

915. ^f^ 'if' and ^ *if ' (727. c) may govern the potential or conditional (see 


891), but are also used with the indicative; thus, ^rf^ afft^fw ^T'JlftjT tj^ljfjT 

* if he live, he will behold prosperity ;' ^f^ ^^\ lTM^tH*\ ^fw ' if there is need 
of me ;' ^HfTT ^fc^ ^ftjTijT Rt ^ft^I ' If avarice were abandoned, who would be 

Prepositions and Adverbs. 

916. Prepositions often govern cases of nouns. See 729, 730. 

917. The following examples illustrate the use of adverbs in con-^ 
struction with cases of nouns, as explained at 731. 

hIH ^'T^sd frifKIW*!^' flesh thrown before the dog;' Tf^^HTl^ ^fTVf: 'under the 
trees ;* *n>TT WlTOTTi^ ' below the navel ;' ^^^^ v^^itmn^ * beneath the tree ;' >T^iT- 
TT'T'trC^ * after eating ;* M\r^*{ Wnftui ' without fruit ;' >T|t: ^^HPrfif^ ^^(HJ 

* without the consent of her husband ;' V1t<4 ^m'^, or more usually VfTT^^, 'for 
the sake of wealth ;' f^^T^T^ ^%ToK ' after marriage ;' ^%Tc^ ^T^PT^ ^T^P^ 

* after collecting the hones :' '3'"^fT;, with genitive, occurs rather frequently, and 
with some latitude of meaning; thus, TWT "W^f^* above the navel;' m^M^ fT^ 
"^njft "^mff * the lion fell upon him ;' ^^ T^lfx fw^dlfXjKl ' changed in his feelings 
towards me;' iR ^M^< ^5 ^^l^M^fTI^ 'not behaving properly towards thee;* 
^WW ^^T 1^1 ' angry with his son ;' TRT; "911^ ' above the navel ;' if^^M^ 
^lei*^ ' after that period ;' ^^fWH^ "^Kq^' after a year,' i. e. * above a year having 
expired ;* T ^^T^ "^ W^l ^ "<rrTf%fTm: ' the restraint of crime cannot be 
made without punishment ;' "rH" cRTT^ffT?^* ow thy account ;' JP^V, ^ or iTl^rr 'for 
her sake ;' Trf^^'IT ^fT5I^*T * to the right of the garden ;' rtfaf^iS ' on that 
accounts ^^mf^tit^VTIf^^' after SBluting ;' '<^ W I* ^^TJ^^* after us ;' ^iiii^^[%l^ 

* before bathing ;' f^TF^TT^^ ^[f'^ * before marriage ;' VHi<f*i<*H,Hf^ll|^ ^^ 'from 
the moment of seeing (him) ;' Wn^jfTT 'from birth ;' TfUl P^f TT 'from that time 
forward;' Mi*4in^ ^^^ 'from the time 0/ investiture;' ini<; f'i'i^^MH^' before 
telling ;' TH'T TTIrpnTTl^' before investiture ;' HlaHlif^ TH^ ' before eating :' JH^ 
may take an accusative; as, TJIT islt^^l.^Hi! 'before twelve years are over;' ^[Rf 
ai^nifti *\m^'for a hundred births;' JHi^ r*||( i||( l^'tip to the serpent's hole;* 
f^^n^ rf^ fsr:^ 'creeping out of the hole;' ^H f^^ 'without cause;* 
^M<l^ f^^ ^without fault;' W f^^ r^*< I,^ fd t * ^ 'without injury to living 
beings ;' f^rgj 9iii^ii^ Vfp^ ^I^^'he receives money from his father ;' *n? flHHf'*^ 
' in my presence j* XJ^l 'E^^^"^'^ * near the king ;' "^W^ ^ ' along with his son :* 
?nT!JT?(^may take an instrumental; as, ^SW: ISV^Jit' before others;' yci^^fii* */*'' 
the sake of a. son.' 

918. 'wrt*^, 'enough,' is used with the instrumental, with the force of a po- 
hibitive particle ; as, ^T ^if^Mi * away with fear,' ' do not fear.' 

a. It is also used with the indeclinable participle ; as, ^c5 ^^RT ' enough of 
weeping !' ^Tf5 f^'fll^ * enough of consideration !' see also 901. a. 

Obs. If;^ is used in the same way ; e. g. ^^ ^r^ = ^5c5 ^WI (Pan. iii. 4, 18). 



b. It, is sometimes followed by an infinitive; as, ? ^r5'^ ^W ^^ frRffPtTg'^ 
I am not able to turn back my heart.' 

919. HT^'^ *even,' 'merely,' at the end of a compound is declinable; as, Ti'- 
^^^^ "T '^^Tffr ' he does not even give an answer ; ' T i^l<^^*ii<?|T5 HH^'^ * one ought 
not to be afraid of mere noise ;' l^r^TI^Tjr * by mere sound ;' ^H^*<M'iU ' by mere 
words j' <irti^*iT^ ^M^ 'immediately on the mere utterance of the speech.' 

920. iniT and ^niT, when used as correlatives, are equivalent to the English ' so 
that,' and the Latin it a ut; thus, ""T^J ^TT^ TfTTft ITm J?^ cfiB^n^ ' I must so 
act that my master awake,' i. e. * I must do something to make my master awake.' 

So also, r# ? TTTTf^ 'l^ 1??^^ "^tiffi 'Do not you know that I keep watch 
in the house ?' 

a. \i^^\\, rf I ^^l*\, and Tf^TR^ may be used in the same way ; thus, rTT ^Wl^ 
^RT^^ *T f^f^^ f%?rff ^"T^^ MVt^K^JIHH*^ ' nothing is so opposed to length 
of life as intercourse with the wife of another.' 

b. '?n^, as well as ^T^TT, is used for 'that;' thus, ^ J?^*^ 'H^ ^ ^Tlfw 
^rli ^ifmJ vWlli ' this is a new doctrine, that having killed an enemy remorse 
should be felt.' 

921. fWf{^, 'why?' may often be regarded as a mark of interrogation which is 
not to be translated, but affects only the tone of voice in which a sentence is 
uttered ; as, WlfTTHT^^ f^ ctif'yB "^^^ * Is any one honoured for mere birth ?' 

a. It sometimes has the force of ' whether ;' as, ^HITTf fw'^ ^M^rh ^ITR^ ^ITrf 
^i^lnf '5?"^M^?hl m 'let it be ascertained whether he is worthy to receive so 
large a salary, or whether he is unworthy ;' *n^ ^f% f^ ^^I^"^ ^'TT "T ^T 
the minister knows whether the king is meritorious or not/ 

922. ^T^ (technically vati) as a suffix of comparison or similitude (724) may be 
compounded with a nominal stem, which if uncompounded would be in the accusa- 
tive case ; thus, ^TWTnf 'i'ff^ ^f?^^^ ' shewing himself as if dead ;' "^THJ^^ ^ 
''nRnT ' he regards it as a wonder.' Also in the locative or genitive case ; thus, 
"T^^i^f^ ^ir irnSTTJ ' a wall in Srughna like that in Mathura.' According to 
Panini v. i, 115, it is used for the instrumental after adjectives of comparison, 
when some action is expressed ; thus, 'OT3I'I!T*f 1^'''^ 'STlftW (see 826) may be 
rendered riltJIHI^^ ^V'^W, but it would not be correct to say ^^^ ^c5: for 

923. The negative *T is sometimes repeated to give intensity to an affirmation ; 
thus, T T ^^rflf 'he will not not say'=|VJ^rri im 'he will certainly say.' 

924. The indeclinable participle "^fl^^, ' having pointed out,' is sometimes used 
adverbially to express ' on account of,' ' with reference to,' ' towards,' and governs 
an accusative ; thus, f^'^ ^n=^*( ' On account of what ?' IH^ ^f^^*^ ' with refer- 
ence to him.' 

925. The indeclinable participle Wl?'?, 'having begun,* is used adverbially to 
express from,' * beginning with,' and may either govern an ablative or be placed 



after a nominal stem; thus, ftf^RTOT^ ^rrT>^ "^tTS 'TT^ 'from the time of 
invitation to the time of the S'raddha.' fVpTJ^TOTT^I would be equally correct. 

926. The interjections fv^ and 1^ require the accusative ; as, fv|R mflTWl[ 
*Woe to the wretch!' and the vocative interjections the vocative case; as, *nl 
TTT^'O traveller!' 

a. Adverbs are sometimes used for adjectives in connexion with substantives ; 
as, irgr ^ITcTT^rP^ for rT^ ^llc^l^l^ ' in that hall ;* ^HTW^ ^WHJl for ^nnw^ 
g<?M3 * among the principal ministers.* 


927. In Sanskrit the obliqua or alio is rarely admitted ; and when 
any one relates the words or describes the sentiments or thoughts of 
another, the relator generally represents him as speaking the actual 
words, or thinking the thoughts, in his own person. 

a. In such cases the particle ^TT (properly meaning * so,' *thus') is often placed 
after the words quoted, and may be regarded as serving the purpose of inverted 
commas; thus, f^T^ ^: ^cT^i^T ^TT^ ^fw *the pupils said, "We have 
accomplished our object;'" not, according to the English or Latin idiom, *the 
pupils said that they had accomplished their object.' So also, <*rt^^<*iO ^W "i^ 
HnT 'your husband calls you " quarrelsome," ' where <*c<5^.*irt is in the nomina- 
tive case, as being the actual word supposed to be spoken by the husband himself 
in his own person. So again, ^WT*^ fqyit,^'T^ ^fw ^^ ^^J^ ^^ ^I?T 
ir^[^T^ * all the birds praise you in my presence, saying, " He is an object of 
confidence,"* where the particle ^fw is equivalent to 'saying,' and the word 
fq^JI^^H^Jl is not in the accusative, to agree with ^*ii^, as might be expected, 
but in the nominative, as being the actual word supposed to be uttered by the 
birds in theur own persons. In some cases, however, the accusative is retained 
before ^fiT, as in the following example (Manu 11. 153): 'CI^ ^lrt*t^ ^fw ^nj: 
'they call an ignorant man "child.** * But in the latter part of the same Une it 
passes into a nominative ; as, fTrTT ^flT ^ ^ *'^<^*t, * but (they call) a teacher of 
scripture " father." ' 

928. In narratives and dialogues ^fif is often placed redundantly at the end of 
a speech. Again, it may have reference merely to what is passing in the mind 
either of another person or of one*s self. When so employed, it is usually joined 
with the indeclinable participle, or of some other part of a verb signifying ' to 
think,* *to suppose,* &c., and may be translated by the English conjunction * that,' 
to which, in fact, it may be regarded as equivalent ; thus, \^i\ "^Tpt efK^MTiT 
J^H TftSTR 'having ascertained that it is a monkey who rings the bell;' 3*11 
t\^rs: *<I!J1<II \fn 'Rtir^ ^>J5 * his idea was that an increase of wealth ought 
again to be made;' V^s^ "^^ ^rtl^^i*^ >TT^ ^fTT *Tt1% ftrVfl 'reflecting in 
his mind that I am happy in possessing such a wife.' The accusative is also 


retained before 1(% in this sense ; as, J7n^ \Tn ^r^ ' thinking that he was dead.* 
In all these examples the use of ljf{ indicates that a quotation is made of the 
thoughts of the person at the time when the event took place. 

929. Not unfrequently the participle 'saying,' 'thinking,' * supposing,' &c., is 
omitted altogether, and ^fiT itself involves the sense of such a participle; as, 
"^TtTtsfil tT ^cinfi^^ T^^ ^fff ^^^^ ' a king, even though a child, is not to 
be despised, saying to one's self, "He is a mortal;" ' ^^T^ TT f^^ ^fif TT 
'THT ^S^'^^m^ ' either through affection or through compassion towards me, 
saying to yourself, "What a wretched man he is !" ' ^'^ '^XT^l I W^ ^T^o5 1^ 
^rfTnfwg Wr^Ti^^"ff 'There's a boar! Yonder's a tiger! so crying out, it is 
wandered about (by us) in the paths of the woods.' 




* There is in the sacred grove of the sage Gautama a sage named 
Mahatapas (Great-devotion).* 

'5'S'I I * By him, in the neighbourhood of his hermitage, a young 
mouse, fallen from the beak of a crow, was seen.* 

iii. infl c'3n;^%?r ^^ ^f^r^ri ^ft^R^cR^: ^^f^Tr: 1 

* Then by that sage, touched with compassion, with grains of wild 
rice it was reared.' 

iv. H^^lnfTt ^f^^ '^f^^ ^J^^ f^SToyt 
Hm^T ^ I * Soon after this, a cat was observed by the sage 
running after the mouse to devour it.' 

^1^fi1 ^frt^t fN3Tc7* ^rT I 'Perceiving the mouse terrified, 
by that sage, through the efficacy of his devotion, the mouse was 
changed into a very strong cat.' 



vi. ^ ik^W' lif ^ ^^ I itit: ff t:: ^: i 
ff ^W ^m^ il^ H^?^ I iRj^inTt ^iira: fir: 

* The cat fears the dog : upon that it was changed into a dog. Great 
is the dread of the dog for a tiger : then it was changed into a tiger/ 

vii. w^ ^jrm ^i^ ^Rft^rf^f^^ ti^frr wfJ^: i 

* Now the sage regards even the tiger as not differing at all from 
the mouse/ 

viii. ^RT: ^^ TT^^T 5RTO if ^^J^ ^ ST^ I 

*Then all the persons residing in the neighbourhood, seeing the 
tiger, say/ 

ix. ^rT gfTTrTT ^Rft^S^ ^TTrTt ^rf: I * By this 

sage this mouse has been brought to the condition of a tiger/ 

X. ^^ ^pctT ^ ^irra: ^e^^Sf^^^l * The tiger 
loverhearing this, being uneasy, reflected/ 

xi. ^"^ ^%rr gfH^ ^f^rT^ TTT^ ?i^ HH 

l^i^^MjI^mrT^ ^niStfi'^ ^ XIoTrftRH I * As long as it 
shall be lived by this sage, so long this disgraceful story of my 
original condition will not die away/ 

Xii. ?f7T ^TRTojt^ gf^ f^ ^^^ri: I 'Thus reflecting, 
he prepared (was about) to kill the sage/ 

xiii. gf^ TT^ f^^RtPtrf gTm ^^ ^^^ ^^ 

5L^ ^^1 'Rfit^ ^'^ ^^* ^ * '^^ ^^^ discovering his intention, 
saying, "Again become a mouse," he was reduced to (his former 
state of) a mouse/ 

931. Observe in this story : ist, the simplicity of the style; andly, 
the prevalence of compound words ; 3rdly, the scarcity of verbs ; 
4thly, the prevalence of the past passive participle with the agent 
in the instrumental case for expressing indefinite past time, in lieu 
of the past tense active with the nominative : see 895, with note. 

932. i. Asti, 'there is,' 3rd sing. pres. of rt. as, cl. 2 (584). Gautamasya, *of 
Gautama,' gen. m. (103). Munes, ' of the sage,' gen. m. (i 10) : final s remains by 


62. TapO'Vane, 'in the sacred grove* (lit. 'in the penance-grove')* genitively 
dependent comp. (743) ; the first member formed by the stem tapas, * penance,* 
as becoming by 64 ; the last member, by the loc. case of vana, ' grove,' neut. 
(104). Mahd-tapd, 'having great devotion' (164. a), relative form of descriptive 
comp. (766); the first member formed by maJid (substituted for mahat, 778), 'great ;' 
the last member, by the nom. case masc. of the neuter noun tapas, ' devotion ' 
(164. a) : final s dropped by 66. a. Ndma, * by name,* an adverb (713. h). Muniht 
*a sage,' nom. masc. (no): final s passes into Visarga by 63. a. 

ii. Tena, 'by him,' instr. of pron. tad (220). Asrama-sannidhdne, 'in the 
neighbourhood of his hermitage,' genitively dependent comp. (743); the fiirst 
member formed by the nominal stem dsrama, 'hermitage;' the last member, by 
the loc. case of sannidhdna, 'neighbourhood,' neut. (104). The final a of tena 
blends with the initial d of dsrama by 31. Mushika-sdvakah, 'a young mouse,' or 
'the young of a mouse,' genitively dependent comp. (743); formed from the 
nominal stem mushika, ' a mouse,' and the nom. of ddvaka, ' the young of any 
animal' (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kdka^mukhdd, 'from the beak (or 
mouth) of a crow,' genitively dependent comp. ; formed from the nominal stem 
kdka^ a crow,' and the abl. of mukha, ' mouth,' neut. (104) ; t being changed to d 
by 45. BhrashtOy fallen,' nom. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt. hhrand 
(544. a) : as changed to o by 64. Drisktah, * seen,' nom. sing. masc. of the past 
pass. part, of rt. dris: final s becomes Visarga by 6^. a. 

iii. Tato, 'then,' adv. (719) : as changed to by 64. Dayd-yuktena, 'touched 
with compassion,' instrumentally dependent comp. (740) ; formed from the nominal 
stem dayd, ' compassion,' and the instr. of yukta, ' endowed with,' past pass. part. 
of rt. yuj (670). Tena, see ii. above. Munind, 'by the sage,' instr. m. (no). 
Nwdra-kanaih, ' with grains of wild rice,' genitively dependent comp. (743) ; formed 
from the nominal stem nivdra, 'wild rice,' and the instr. pi. of kana.- final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. Satnvardhitah, 'reared,' nom. sing, of past pass. part, of 
causal of vridh with sam (549) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

iv. Tad-anantaram, 'soon after this,' compound adverb; formed with the pro- 
nominal stem tad, 'this' (220), and the adverb anantaram, after' (731, 917). 
Mushikam, ace. m. (103). Khdditum, 'to eat,' infinitive of rt. khdd (458, 868). 
Anudhdvan, pursuing after,' 'running after,' nom. sing. masc. of the pres. part. 
Par. of rt. dhdv, ' to run,' with anu, * after ' (524). Viddlo, a cat,' nom. case masc. 
(103): as changed to by 64. Munind, see iii. above. Drishtah, see ii. 

v. Tam, ace. case masc. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article, see 795. 
Mushikam, see iv. Bhttam, 'terrified,' ace. sing. masc. of the past pass. part, of rt* 
bh{ (532). Alokya, ' perceiving,' indec. part, of rt. lok, with prep, d (559). Tapah- 
prahhdvdt, 'through the efficacy of his devotion' (814), genitively dependent comp. 
(743) ; formed by the nominal stem iapas, 'devotion,' s being changed to Visarga 
by 63, and the abl. case of prabhdva, noun of the first class, masc. (103). Tena, 
seeii. Munind, set m. ikfttsj^iio, nom. m. (103) : s changed to by 64. Balishtho, 
'very strong,' nom. masc. of the superlative of balin, 'strong' (see 193): as 
changed to o by 64. Viddlak, see iv : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, 


'changed,* *made,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of rt. kri (682): final s 
becomes Visarga by 63. a. 

vi. Sa, nom. case of tad (220), used as a definite article (795) : final * dropped 
by 67. Viddlah, see iv. Kukkurdd, ' the dog ' (103), abl. after a verb of * fearing * 
(855) : t changed to d by 45. Bibheti, ' fears,' 3rd sing. pres. of rt. bh{, cl. 3 (666), 
Tatah, 'upon that,' adv. (719): as changed to ah by 63. Kukkurah, 'the dog,* 
nom. m. (103) : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritaifi, see v. Kukkurasya, *of 
the dog,' gen. masc. (103). Vydghrdn, 'for the tiger* (103), abl. after a noun of 
'fear* (814.6): t changed to n by 47. Mahad, 'great' (142), nom. case, sing. 
neut. : t changed to d by 45. Bhayam,*{e&T,' nom. neut. (104). Tad-anantaranif 
see iv. Vydghrahy nom. case : final s becomes Visarga by 63. Kritah, see v. 

vii. Atha^ * now,' inceptive particle (727. c). Vydghram, ace. case. Api, * even,* 
adv. Mushika-nirviseshainy ' as not differing at all from the mouse,' relative form 
of dependent comp. (762) ; formed from the nominal stem mushika, and the ace. 
of visesha, ' difference,' with nir prefixed : or it may be here taken adverbially, see 
776. Pasyati, 3rd sing. pres. of rt. djis, cl. i (604). Munih^ see i. 

viii. Atak, then,' adv. (719). Sarve, all,' pronominal adj., nom. plur. masc. 
(237). Tatra-sthd, 'residing in the neighbourhood,' comp. resembling a locatively 
dependent; formed from the adverb tatra (720), 'there,' 'in that place,* and the 
nom. plur. masc. of the participial noun of agency of rt. sthd, 'to remain' (587) : 
final s dropped by 66. a. Jands, 'persons,' nom. pi. masc. (103) : final s remains 
by 62. Tarn, ace. of pron. tad (220), used as a definite article (795). Vydghram^ 
tiger,' ace. masc. (103). Drishivd, ' having seen,' indec. past part, of rt. dri^ (556). 
Vadanii, * they say,* 3rd pi. pres. of rt. vad, cl. i (599). 

ix. Anena, 'by this,' instr. of pron. idam (224). Munind, see iii. Mushiko, 
nom. masc. : as changed to by 64. a. Ay am, 'this,' nom. masc. (224) : the initial 
a cut off by 64.* a. Vydghratdm, 'the condition of a tiger,* fem. abstract noun (105), 
ace. case, formed from vydghra, ' a tiger,* by the sufl&x td (80. LXII). Nttah, 
' brought,* nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of rt. n{ (532). 

x. Etad, * this,' ace. neut. of etad (223) : t changed to d by 49. Chrutvd/ over- 
hearing,' indec. part, of rt. irw (676, 556) ; see 49. Vydghrah, nom. case : final * 
becomes Visarga by 63. Sa-vyatho, 'uneasy,' relative form of indeclinable comp., 
formed by prefixing sa to the fem. substantive vyathd (769) : as changed to by 
64. a. Adintayat, 'reflected,' 3rd sing. impf. of dint, cl. 10 (641) : the initial a cut 
off by 64. a, 

xi. Ydvady 'as long as,' adv. (713. a): t changed to rf by 45. Anena, see ix. 
Jhitavyam, * to be lived,' nom. neut. of the fut. pass. part, of rt. j{v (569, 905. a, 
907). Tdvad, 'so long,* adv. correlative to ydvat (713. a). Idam, 'this,* nom. neut. 
of the demonstrative pron. at 224. Mama, 'of me,' gen. of pron. aham, ' I * (218). 
Svartipdkhydnam, ' story of my original condition,' genitively dependent comp. (743) ; 
formed from the nominal stem svarupa, natural form ' (see 232. b), and the nom. 
of dkhydna, neut. (104): m retained by 60. Akirtti-karam, 'disgraceful,' accusa- 
tively dependent comp. (739) ; formed from the nominal stem ak&tti, ' disgrace,* 
and the nom. neut. of the participial noun of agency kara, ' causing,' from kri, ' to 



do' (580). Na, 'not,' adv. (717. a). Paldyishyate, *will die away,' 3rd sing. 2nd 
fut. Atm. of the compound verb paldy, formed by combining rt. i or ay with prep. 
para (783. n). 

xii. Iti, 'thus,' adv. (717.6,- see also 928). Samdlo6ya, * reflecting,' indec. 
part, of the verb sam-d-lod (559), formed by combining rt. I06 with the preps, sam 
and a (784). Munim, ace. case. Hantum, to kill,' infinitive of rt. han (458, 868, 
654)' Samudyatah, prepared,' nom. sing. masc. of past pass. part, of sam-ud-yam, 
formed by combining rt. yam with the preps, sam and ud (545). 

xiii. Munis, nom. case: final s remains by 62. Tasya, 'of him,' gen. of tad 
(220). Ciktrshitam, ' intention,' ace. neut. of past pass. part, of desid. of rt. Jtn, 
to do ' (550, 502), used as a substantive (896. b). Jndtvd, * discovering,' indec. 
part, of rt. jhd (556, 688). Punar, 'again,' adv. (717. e): r remains by 71. c?. 
Mushiko, nom. case : as changed to by 64. Bhava, become,' 2nd sing. impv. 
of rt. bhu (585). Ity answers to inverted commas, see 927. a : the final i changed to 
y by 34. Uktvd, ' saying,' indec. part, of rt. vad (556, 650). Mushika, nom. case ; 
final s dropped by 66. Eva, 'indeed,' adv. (717). 


933. Note ^The numbers over the words in the following sentences 
refer to the rules of the foregoing grammar. 

220 783. i, 602 220 218 

220 ^ 783. k J5n 676 "s. 676 218 <S 587 ^ 

219 ^ r)87 218 ^ 783. j, 687 220 >. 219 * 

^ ^ 783.h,661v < "s 663 219 

663 233 233 607 ^ 219 607 

\646 "S "S 646 655 ^ v -s,r 655 

V 644 ^ 219 ^ f\ ^ 228 ^v 668. a 

811 i^ 21L^ 311,569 \ ^ \ 896. b 

668. a 218, 896. b 668. a 219 896. b * ^^589 219 

^ 589 688 <S 219 ^S 485 ^s 

889 <S 714 655 <^ 106 ^* 889 438, e 882 855 .^666*^ 

IT T^^ ^T^: I ^^ ^ ^: I TIT 5J^^ f%4trT I 

882 _^ 769. b 692 

ITT ^T f5!TTTT^ ^^^\^ II 


783. j 

TTf^%^ fNir^ TPT'lT^ ^f%^ II 

754. a ^ s. ____^^ 237 ^ ^^^ * 793. p *y 

^nrTTTqTW f^H ^^^ rT^W^ "^fic^T VP^m II 

Tjf^ ijfTFrt ^'RT^ yflfff f^^ ^ *^i'[jaiij^Hii 

f^v^^ II 

-~s 471 . f..'-,0s 

^ra^T^ ^ ijsn^ ^^q ^m? ^^TO II 

^T^ TRTTT!! ^[izrfTfr H^^ T^ftl^rqTfrTT^^ 
^ff ^Ti^H^%^ II 


934. Metres are divided into two grand classes : i. Varna-vritta, 
2. Mdird-vritta. The first has two subdivisions, A and B. 

Class I. Varna-vritta. 

A. Metres, consisting of two half- verses, determined by the number 

of SYLLABLES in the Pdda or quarter-verse. 

Note It may be useful to prefix to the following schemes of metres a list of 
technical prosodial terms : "TT^ = the fourth part of a verse ; TT^ = an instant or 
prosodial unit = a short syllable j ^RT = four M^trds ; "^flf = a pause ; ^ or ^ 

= a long syllable ( ) j H^ or c5 = a short syllable ( w) ; ^TT = a spondee ( ) ; 

Hc5 = a pyrrhic (w w) j T3 = a trochee (- v^) j HH = an iambus {^); *f = a 

molossus ( ) J >? = a dactyl (- ^ w) j ff = a tribrach (v- w v>) ; TI= a bacchic 

(vy ) ; ^ = a cretic ( v ) ; ?f = an anapaest (w w ) ; TT = an anti- 

bacchic ( v-*); ^=an amphibrach (w vj-). 

Sloka or Anushtubh (8 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

935. The commonest of all the infinite variety of Sanskrit metres 
is the Sloka or Anushtubh. This is the metre which chiefly prevails 
in the great epic poems. 

It consists of four quarter- verses of 8 syllables each or two lines of 16 syllables, 


but the rules which regulate one line apply equally to the other ; so that it is only 
necessary to give the scheme of one line, as follows : 

12 3 4 5 6 7 8 II 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 i6 II 

Note The mark denotes either long or short. 

The 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 9th, loth, nth, and 12th syllables may be either long or 
short. The 8th, as ending the Pada, and the i6th, as ending the half-verse, are 
also common. Since the half-verse is considered as divided into two parts at the 
8th syllable, it is an almost universal rule that this syllable must end a word, 
whether simple or compound*. 

The 5th syllable ought always to be short. The 6th and 7th should be long j 
but instances are not unusual in the Maha-bharata of the 6th being short, in which 
case the 7th should be short also. But occasional variations from these last rules 

The last 4 syllables form two iambics; the 13th being always short, the 14th 
always long, and the 15th always short. 

Every S'loka, or couplet of two lines, ought to form a complete sentence in 
itself, and contain both subject and predicate. Not unfrequently, however, in the 
Ramayana and Maha-bharata, three hnes are united to form a triplet. 

936. In the remaining metres determined by the number of sylla- 
bles in the Pada, each Pada is exactly ahke [sama) ; so that it is 
only necessary to give the scheme of one Pada or quarter-verse. 

In printed books each Pada, if it consist of more than 8 syllables, is often made 
to occupy a hne. 

937. Trishtubh (11 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 22 varieties. The commonest are 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II .. 

938. Indra-vajrd, *^ ^ ^ ^ II' 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 

939. Upendra-vajrd, ^ ^ <^w <^ 11 

There is generally a caesura at the 5th syllable. 
Note The above 2 varieties are sometimes mixed in the same stanza; in which 
case the metre is called Upajdti or AkhydnakL 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II II 

940. Rathoddhatd, w v^'^-v^ v^ v^ 11 

941. Jagati (12 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 30 varieties. The commonest are 

* There are, however, rare examples of compound words running through a 
whole line. 

3 E 


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 lo II 12 11 

942. Van^a-sthavila, v^ v,/ ww v^ v^ *ll 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 II 

943. Druta-vilambita, \^\j\^ ^\j \^\j \j II 

944. Attjagati (13 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 16 varieties. The commonest are 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 13 13 

945. Manju-bhdshim, \>\j \^ \j\^kj kj \j 

1 a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 II 

946. Praharshin{, v^v^ww v^ w II 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II la 13 jl 

947. RucHrd or Prabkdvat{, \j w wwi^v-- v^ w-r-ll 

948. Sakvari or Sakkari or Sarkari (14 syllables to the Pada). 

Of this there are 20 varieties. The commonest is 

. I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 If 12 13 14 II 

949. Vasanta-tilakd, \j \j\j\^ \j\^ ^ || 

950. Atisakvari or AiiSakkari (15 syllables to the Pada). 

Of this there are 18 varieties. The commonest is 

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 I 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 
951. Mdlin{ or Mdnin{, wv^wv^v^*^ I v^ ^ 

There is a caesura at the 8th syllable. 

952, Ashti (16 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 
Of this there are 12 varieties; none of which are common. 

953. Aty ashti (17 syllables to the Pada or quarter- verse). 

Of this there are 1 7 varieties. The commonest are 

I a 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 

954* Sitkharintf \^ 1^ v^v^wv^ >^ \j \j -r 

Csesura at the 6th syllable. 

I 2 3 4 I S 6 7 8 9 10 I II 12 13 14 15 16 17 
955. Manddkrdntdy -- Iwwwv^v I v^ w 

Caesura at the 4th and loth syllables. 

I a 3 4 5 6 I 7 8 9 10 | 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 

Caesura at the 6th and loth syllables. 

957. Dhriti (18 syllables to the Pada or quarter- verse). 

Of this there are 17 varieties, one of which is found in the Raghu-vaQs'a 

I a 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 II 
958. Mahd-mdlikd, v^^^www w v-* v^ v< || 

* The mark is meant to shew that the last syllable is long at the end of the 
Pada or quarter- verse, but long or short at the end of the half-verse. 


959. Atidhriti (19 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

Of this there are 13 A'arieties. The commonest is 

I 2 3 4 5 6*7 8 9 10 II 12 [ 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 II 
960. S'drdula-vikridita, \j\j kj\^kj\^ I v^ v- || 

Caesura at the 12th syllable. 

961^ Kriti (20 syllables to the Pada or quarter- verse). 
Of these there are 4 varieties j none of which are common. 

962. Prakriti (21 syllables to the Pada or quarter-verse). 

I 2 3 4 5 6 7 I 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 I 15 16 17 18 19 30 31 11 

963. Sragdhard, 'u \\^KyKy\j\j\j \ \j y^ rtl 

Caesura at the 7th and 14th syllables. 

964. Of the remaining metres determined by the number of syllables in the 
Pada, Akriti has 22 syllables, and includes 3 varieties; Vikriti 23 syllables, 

6 varieties ; Sankriti 24 syllables, 5 varieties ; Atikriti 25 syllables, 2 varieties ; 
Utkriti 26 syllables, 3 varieties; and Dandaka is the name given to all metres 
which exceed Utkriti in the number of syllables. 

965. There are two metres, called Gdyatri and Ushnih, of which the first has 
only 6 syllables to the quarter- verse, and includes 11 varieties; the second has 

7 syllables to the quarter- verse, and includes 8 varieties. 

a. When the Pada is so short, the whole verse is sometimes written in one line. 

b. Observe, that great license is allowed in metres peculiar to the Vedas ; thus 
in the 

966. Gdyatri, 

which may be regarded as consisting of a triplet of 3 divisions of 8 syllables each, 
or of 6 feet of 4 syllables each, generally printed in one line, the quantity of each 
syllable is very irregular. The following verse exhibits the most usual quantities : 


KJ ^ 

but even in the b verse of each division the quantity may vary. 

B. Metres, consisting of two half -verses, determined by the number 
of SYLLABLES* in the HALF-VERSE {each half-verse being alike, 
()6'j. This class contains 7 genera, but no varieties under each 

genus. Of these the commonest are 

* This class of metres is said to be regulated by the number of feet or Matras in 
the half-verse, in the same way as class II. But as each half-verse is generally dis- 
tributed into fixed long or short syllables, and no option is allowed for each foot 
between a spondee, anapaest, dactyl, proceleusmaticus, and amphibrach, it will 
obviate confusion to regard this class as determined by syllables, like class I. A. 

3 E 2 



Vaitdltya (21 syllables to the half-verse). 

5 6 7 

v^ v-* 

9 10 I II 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ao 31 

V^ Iwv-* KJ ^ \J W 

There is a caesura at the loth syllable. 

969. Aupaddhandasika (23 syllables to the half-verse). 

The scheme of this metre is the same as the last, with a long syllable added after 
the loth and last syllable in the line ; the caesura being at the nth syllable. 


Pushpitngrd (25 syllables to the half- verse). 

^^3456789 10 II 
^ "^j \j \j \j \j \j w 

[2 I 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 ao 31 33 33 24 35 

I \^ \j \j Kj \j \j \j \j 

There is a caesura at the 12th syllable. 

Class II. Mdtrd-vritta, consisting of two half -verses, determined by 
the number of feet in the whole verse [each foot containing 
generally four Mdtrds). 

971. Note Each foot is supposed to consist of four Matras or instants, and a 
short syllable is equivalent to one instant, a long syllable to two. Hence only such 
feet can be used as are equivalent to four Matras ; and of this kind are the dactyl 

( <- w), the spondee ( ), the anapaest (v^ \j ), the amphibrach (w w), and 

the proceleusmaticus (v^ w w v^) ; any one of which may be employed. 

Of this class of metres the commonest is the 

972. Jivyd or Gdthd, 

Each half-verse consists of seven and a half feet j and each foot contains four 
Matrds, excepting the 6th of the second half-verse, which contains only one, and 
is therefore a single short syllable. Hence there are 30 Matrds in the first half- 
verse, and 27 in the second. The half-foot at the end of each half-verse is 
generally, but not always, a long syllable ; the 6th foot of the first half-verse 
must be either an amphibrach or proceleusmaticus; and the ist, 3rd, 5th, and 7th 
feet must not be amphibrachs. The caesura commonly takes place at the end of 
the 3rd foot in each half-verse, and the measure is then sometimes called Pafhyd. 
The following are a few examples : 







\J v^ 




v^ v^ 

KJ ^ 


w w 






KJ \^ 


^ KJ 

W ^ 


w w 






v^ w 

v-/ w 



W v_/ 

v-* w v^ v^ 




w w 
w w 





^^Ky Kj y^ ^ 


KJ \J \J KJ 




KJ \J 


\^ KJ 



w w 


W V^ W V^ 

w w 







w w w w 


Vs^ W 


973. The Udgiti metre only differs from the Aryd in inverting the half- verses, 
and placing the short half-verse, with 27 Matras, first in order. 

974. There are three other varieties : In the Upagiti, both half-verses consist of 
27 Matras; in the G{ti, both consist of 30 Matras; and in the Arydgiti, of 32. 


975. Accentuation {svara, 'tone') in Sanskrit is only marked in the Vedas. 
Probably the original object of the marks used was to denote that peculiar change 
in the ordinary intonation practised in reciting the hymns, which consisted in the 
occasional raising of the voice to a higher pitch than the usual monotone. Only 
three names for different kinds of accent or tone are generally recognized by 
grammarians ; viz. i. Uddtta, ' raised,' i. e. the elevated tone or high pitch, marked 
in Roman writing by the acute accent; 2. An-uddtta, *not raised,* i. e. the accent- 
less tone ; 3. Svarita, ' sounded,* i. e. the moderate tone, neither high nor low, but 
a combination of the two {samdhdra, Pan. i. 2, 32), which is produced in the 
following manner : In pronouncing the syllable immediately following the high- 
toned syllable, the voice unable to lower itself abruptly to the level of the low 
intonation, is sustained in a tone not as high as the uddtta, and yet not so low as 
the an-uddtta. A syllable uttered with this mixed intonation is said to be svarita, 
* sounded.* These three accents, according to native grammarians, are severally 
produced, through intensifying (dydma), relaxing (visrambha), and throwing out the 
voice (dkshepa); and these operations are said to be connected with an upward, 
downward, and horizontal motion (tiryag-gamana) of the organs of utterance, 
which may be illustrated by the movements of the hand in conducting a musical 
performance *. 

976. But although there are only three general names for the accents, it is clear 
that there are only two positive tones, viz. the uddtta or high tone, and svarita or 
mixed tone, the an-uddtta representing the neutral, monotonous, accentless sound, 
which lies like a flat horizontal line below the two positive sounds. There remains 

* In native grammars the uddtta sound of a vowel is said to result from 
employing the upper half of the organs of utterance, and the an-uddtta from 
employing the lower half. In my recent travels in India I frequently heard the 
Vedas recited and intoned by Pandits at Benares, Calcutta, Bombay, Poona, &c., 
and found to my surprise that the voice is not now raised in pronouncing the uddtta 
syllable. Great stress is laid on the an-uddtta and svarita, but none upon the uddtta ; 
and I was told that the absence of all mark on this latter syllable is an indication 
of the absence of accent in intoning. 


no designation for the low tone, properly so called, i. e. the tone which immediately 
precedes the high and is lower than the flat horizontal line taken to represent the 
general accentless sound. The fact is that the exertion required to produce the 
high tone (uddtta) is so great that in order to obtain the proper pitch, the voice is 
obliged to lower the tone of the preceding syllable as much below this flat line as 
the syllable that bears the uddtta is raised above it ; and Panini himself explains 
this lower tone by the terra sannatara (compar. of sanna, * sunk,' for which the 
commentators have substituted the expression anuddttatara), while he explains the 
neutral, accentless tone by the term eka-^ruti, i. e. the one accentless sound in which 
the ear can perceive no variation. 

977. The expression anuddttatara, then, is now adopted to designate the lowest 
sound of all, or that immediately preceding the uddtta or high tone. But no 
special mark distinguishes this sound from the an-uddtta. It must be borne in 
mind that no simple uncompounded word, whatever the number of its syllables, 
has properly more than one syllable accented. This syllable is called either uddtta 
or svarita, according as it is pronounced with a high or mixed tone. But if a word 
have only a svarita accent, then this svarita must be of the kind called independent, 
although it may have arisen from the blending of two ayllables, one of which was 
originally uddtta, as in TP^ (for tanu-d, where the middle syllable was uddtta). 
A word having either the uddtta or the svarita accent on the first syllable is called 
in the one case ddy-uddtta, in the other ddi-svaritaj having either the one or other 
accent on the middle is in the one case madhyoddtta, in the other madhya-smrita ; 
having either the one or other accent at the end is in the one case antoddtta, in the 
other anta-svarita. All the syllables of a word except the one which is either an 
uddtta or independent svarita are an-uddtta. Although, however, no one word 
can have both an uddtta and an independent svarita, yet, if a word having an 
uddtta is followed by an an-uddtta, this an-uddtta becomes a dependent svarita, 
which is really the commonest form of svarita accent. 

978. As to the method of marking the tones, the uddtta or high tone is never 
marked at all, so that if a word of one syllable is uddtta it remains simply un- 
marked, as ^J ; if a monosyllable is an-uddtta it has a horizontal stroke underneath, 
as n ; if svarita, it has an upright mark above, as ?i\. A word of two syllables, 
both of which are an-uddtta, has two horizontal marks below, thus HTJ ; and if the 
first syllable is uddtta it is marked thus, ^5^: ; if the last is uddtta, thus "wP'ti, 
A word of more than two syllables being entirely an-uddtta {sarvdnuddtta) has 
horizontal marks under all the syllables, thus ^I^^nT ; but if one of the syllables 
is uddtta, the horizontal stroke immediately preceding it marks the anuddttatara, 
as in ^iJ^qirit, where the first and second syllables are an-uddtta and the third 
anuddttatara, the fourth being uddtta: and if the uddtta syllable is followed by 
another an-uddtta, this becomes a dependent svarita, and is marked by an upright 
stroke, as in iniii<j4 (Rig-veda m. 3, i). Similarly, in a word of three syllables 
like ^^K, the syllable ^ is anuddttatara, oRT is uddtta, and T is svarita. 


It should be noted that in Romanized Sanskrit printing and writing it is usual 
instead of leaving the uddtta unmarked to treat that as the only accent to be 
marked, and to treat both anuddttatara and dependent svarita as an-uddtta or 
without any accent at all. 

979. The foregoing explanations wiU make clear how it is that in the Samhita of 
the Rig-veda an anuddttatara mark is generally the beginning of a series of three 
accents, of which the dependent svarita is the end ; the appearance of this anuddtta- 
tara mark preparing the reader for an uddtta immediately following, as well as for 
a dependent svarita. This last, however, may sometimes be retarded by a new 
uddtta syllable, as in f^^ XIimn*t^, where the syllable '^, which would otherwise 
be a dependent svarita, becomes changed to an anuddttatara because of the uddtta 
syllable IT following. 

980. But if an independent svarita is immediately followed by an uddtta or by 
another independent svarita, a curious contrivance is adopted. Should the syllable 
bearing the independent svarita end in a short vowel, the numeral ^ is used to 
carry the svarita with an anuddttatara under it, e. g. '^HT^^'T (Rig-veda x. 89, 2), 
^^^t^WTBT (iv. 17, 2); and should the syllable end in a long vowel, the 
numeral ^ is employed in the same way, but the anuddttatara mark is placed 
both under the long vowel and the numeral, e.g. f^^^f^^rf'n (i. 166, 11), 
^^ft^'SR (IV. 55, 6), ^^ftr: (VI. 21, 8). 

981. It should also be pointed out that the absence of mark is employed in a 
sentence to denote an-uddtta as well as uddtta j thus, in the Samhita of the Veda, 
at the commencement of a sentence a horizontal stroke underneath marks the first 
anuddttatara syllable of the sentence as well as all such an-uddtta syllables as 
precede ; the next syllable, if without mark, is uddtta j and the next, if it has an 
upright mark, is svarita; but the next, if it has no mark, is an-uddtta; and the 
absence of all mark after the upright mark, continues to denote an-uddtta until the 
appearance of the next horizontal mark, which is anuddttatara. In fact, all 
the syllables, both in words and sentences, which follow the svarita are supposed 
to be pronounced in the accentless tone until the voice has to be depressed for the 
utterance of another uddtta syllable. 

With regard to the absence of accentuation, we may note that in direct sentences 
a verb (unless it is the first word) is regarded as an enclitic and loses its accent. 
The same rule applies to Vocative cases, which are accented only when they begin 
a sentence, and then on the fiirst syllable. Verbs preserve their accent in con- 
ditional sentences and in a few exceptional cases. 

982. The system of accentuation in the Pratis'akhyas often differs from that of 
Panini. The rules given by these treatises for determining the accent when two 
vowels (each bearing an accent) blend into one are very precise, but are liable to 
exceptions. The following are some of those most usually given : uddtta -\- uddtta 
zzzuddttaj uddtta -\-anuddtta=uddtta J anuddtta-\-anuddtta=zanuddttaj anuddtta-^ 
uddtta =.uddtta j svarita -\- uddtta =uddtta 2 svarita + anuddtta z=:svarita. 

When anuddtta vowels are pronounced with the uddtta tone, this is called in the 


Pratis'akhyas pra6aya. When the accent of two vowels is blended into one, this 
is called praslishta, samdvesa, ektbhdva. The expressions tairovyahjana and 
vaivritta are used to denote forms of the dependent svarita; while kshaipra 
and jdtya apply to the independent svaritas caused by the blending of the accents 
of two vowels, the first of which has passed into the semivowel y or v. 

983. A few compound words (generally names of Vedic deities) have two accents, 
and are therefore called dvir-uddtta, e. g. y^wft^J, dj^HMld, where the first 
syllable being nddtta remains unmarked, and the second being an-uddtta ought to 
become a dependent svarita^ but the third being uddtta again the second becomes 
anuddttatara and is so marked. In ftr^T^'OT both the second and third syllables 
are uddtta. A compound (called trir-uddtta) may even have three uddtta syllables, 
as in ^^I^^Wffl'. 

984. In the Pada text where compounds are divided, if the first half of the 
compound ends in a svarita coming after an uddtta, and the second begins with 
an uddtta, the svarita accent at the end of the first member of the compound is 
called tdthdbhdvya. 

985. Observe The accent in Sanskrit is not confined to the last three syllables 
of a word, as in Greek and Latin. 

Observe also Although the Sanskrit independent svarita is in some respects 
similar to the Greek circumflex, it should be borne in mind, that the latter is con- 
fined to long, whereas the svarita may also be applied to short syllables *. 

* See on the subject of Vedic accentuation, Roth's preface to the Nurukta : two 
treatises by Whitney in the Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. IV. 
p. 195 &c., and vol. V. p. 387 &c. : Aufrecht, de accentu compositorum Sanscriti- 
corum, Bonnae, 1847; reviewed by Benfey, Gottinger Gelehrte Anzeigen, 1848, 
pp. 1995-2010. 



(The numbers refer to the paragraphs, except where the page is specified.) 

Abstract nouns, 80. xxviii, 
XXXV, Ixii, Ixviii, Ixix, 
Lxxvii, 81. ii, iii, xi, 85. 
iv, vii, &c. 

Accentuation, 975-984. 

Adjectives, 186; syntax of, 

Adverbs, 713-725; syntax 
of, 917-923. 

Agency, participial nouns of, 

Alphabet, 1-24. 

Aorist, 416-441 ; syntax of, 

Augment a, 251, 251.0. i. 

Benedictive, see Precative. 

Cardinals, 198; declension 
of, 200. 

Cases of nouns, 90. 

Causal verbs, 479 ; termina- 
tions of, 480; formation 
of stem of, 481 ; passive 
of, 496; syntax of, 847. 

Classes, of nouns, 78; of 
verbs, see Conjugations. 

Classification of letters, 18. 

Collective nouns, 80. xxxv. 

Combination (euphonic) of 
vowels, 27-38; of conso- 
nants, 39-7 1; of the finals 
of verbal stems with ter- 
minations, 296-306. 

Comparison, degrees of, 191- 
197; syntax of, 829-832. 

Compound verbs, 782-787. 

Compound words, 733-737 ; 
Tat-purusha or Depen- 

dent, 739-745 ; Dvandva 
or Copulative (Aggrega- 
tive), 746-754 ; Karma- 
dharaya or Descriptive 
(Determinative), 755-758 ; 
Dvigu or Numeral (Col- 
lective), 759 ; Avyayi- 
bhava or Adverbial (In- 
declinable), 760; Bahu- 
vrihi or Relative, 761-769 ; 
Complex, 770-776; Ano- 
malous, 777 ; changes un- 
dergone by certain words 
at the end of, 778. 

Conditional, 242, 455 ; for- 
mation of stem, 456; 
syntax of, 891. 

Conjugations of verbs, 248, 
249 ; three groups of, 257- 
259; first group of, 261- 
289 ; second and third 
groups of, 290-362. ist 
cl., 261 ; examples, 585 : 
2nd cl., 307; examples, 
644: 3rd cl., 331; ex- 
amples, 662 : 4th cl., 272 ; 
examples, 612: 5th cl., 
349 ; examples, 675 : 6th 
cl., 278 ; examples, 625 : 
7th cl., 342 ; examples, 
667 : 8th cl., 353 ; ex- 
amples, 682 : 9th cl., 356 ; 
examples, 686: loth cl., 
283 ; examples, 638. 

Conjunct consonants, i, 5. 

Conjunctions, 727; syntax 
of, 912. 

3 F 

Consonants, i ; method of 
writing, 4; conjunct, 5; 
pronunciation of, 1 2 ; com- 
bination of, 39-73. 

Declension; general obser- 
vations, 88-101; of 1st 
class of nouns in a, a, {, 
103-109; of 2nd and 3rd 
classes in i and m, 1 10-122 ; 
of nouns in I'and u, 123- 
126; of 4th class in n, 
127-130; of nouns in ai, 
0, au, 131-134; of 5th 
class in t and d, 136-145; 
of 6th class in an and in, 
146-162; of 7th class in 
as, is, and us, 163 -171; 
of 8th class in any other 
consonant, 172-183. 

Defective nouns, 184, 185. 

Demonstrative pronouns, 

Derivative verbs, 460-522. 

Derivatives, primary and 
secondary, 79. 

Desiderative verbs, 498 ; 
terminations of, 499 ; for- 
mation of stem, 500 ; cau- 
sal form of, 506; nouns, 
80. i ; adjectives, 82. vii, 

Euphonic combination of 
vowels, 27-38 ; of conso- 
nants, 39-71. 

Frequentative verbs, 507 ; 
Atmane-pada frequenta- 
tives, 509 ; Parasmai-pada 


INDEX I. English. 

frequentatives,5i4; nouns, 
80. i. 

Future, first and second, 
386 ; formation of stem, 
388; syntax of, 886, 887. 

Genders of nouns, 89. 

General tenses, 248,363-456. 

Hard consonants, 18. a. b, 
20. b, 39. 

Imperative, 241 ; termina- 
tions of, 245, 246 ; forma- 
tion of stem, 261, 272, 278, 
283, 307 330> 342, 349. 
353. 356 ; syntax of, 882. 

Imperfect tense, 242; for- 
mation of stem, 261, 264, 
272, 278, 283, 307, 330, 
342, 349 353. 356 ; syntax 
of, 884. 

Indeclinable words, 712 ; 
syntax of, 912. 

Indefinite pronouns, 228,229. 

Indicative mood, 241. 

Infinitive, 458, 459; syntax 
of, 867 ; Vedic, 459. a, 
867. b. 

Intensive verb, see Frequen- 

Interjections, 732 ; syntax 
of, 926. 

Interrogative pronouns, 227. 

Letters, i ; classification of, 
18; interchange of letters 
in cognate languages, 25 ; 
euphonic combination of, 

Metre, schemes of, 935-974. 
Moods, 241, 242.0. 
Nominal verbs, 518-523. 
Nouns, formation of stem, 

74, 80-87; declension of, 

103-183; defective, 184; 

syntax of, 802-823. 
Numbers, 91, 243. 

Numerals, 198-215; syntax 
of, 206,835; compounded, 


Numerical figures, page 3. 

Ordinals, 208. 

Participial nouns of agency, 

Participles, present, 524- 
529; past passive, 530- 
552 ; past active, 553 ; of 
the perfect, 554 ; past in- 
declinable, 555-566; ad- 
verbial indeclinable, 567; 
futm-e passive, 568-577 ; 
of the 2nd future, 578; 
syntax of, 892. 

Particles, 717. 

Passive verbs, 243. a, 461 ; 
terminations of, 462 ; for- 
mation of stem, 463 ; ex- 
amples, 700-702. 

Patronymics, 80. xxxv, 81. 
viii-x, &c. 

Perfect (reduplicated), 364- 
384 ; (periphrastic), 385 ; 
syntax of, 885. 

Persons of the tenses, 244. 

Possessive adjectives, 84. vi, 
vii, 85.vi, viii; pronouns, 

Potential, 241; terminations 
of, 245, 246 ; formation of 
stem, 261, 272, 278, 283, 

307> 330, 342, 349' 353 
356 ; syntax of, 879. 

Precative, 242, 442 ; for- 
mation of stem, 443-454 ; 
syntax of, 890. 

Prefixes, adverbial, 726. 

Prepositions, 729, 783 ; syn- 
tax of, 916. 

Present, 241; terminations 
of, 246, 247; formation 
of stem, 261, 272, 278, 

283, 307> 330, 342, 349. 
353. 356 ; syntax of, 873. 

Pronominals, 235-240. 

Pronouns, 216-234; syntax 
of, 836. 

Pronunciation, of vowels, 
II; of consonants, 12. 

Prosody, 935-974. 

Reduplication, 252, 367. 

Relative pronouns, 226. 

Root. 74 75- 

Sandhi, rules of, 27-71, 

Soft or sonant letters, 18. a. 
b, 20. b, 39. 

Special tenses, 241, 248, 249. 

Stem, nominal, 74, 77; for- 
mation of nominal, 79, 80- 
87; inflexion of, 88-183; 
verbal, 244 ; formation of 
verbal, 249-517. 

Strong cases, 135. a. 

Strong forms in verbal ter- 
minations, 246. c. 

Sufl&xes, forming substan- 
tives, adjectives, &c., 80- 
87; adverbial, 718-725. 

Superlative degree, 191, 192. 

Surd consonants, 18. a. 6, 
20. b, 39. 

Symbols, 6-10. 

Syntax, 793-929. 

Tables of verbs, 583. 

Tenses, 241, 248. 

Terminations, of nouns, 91, 
96 ; of verbs, 244-248. 

Verb, 241 ; syntax of, 839. 

Voices, 243 ; roots restricted 
to, 786. 

Vowels, i; method of writ- 
ing, 2, 3 ; pronunciation of, 
II ; combination of, 27. 

Weak cases, 135. a. 
I Writing, method of, 26. 

INDEX 11. 


^ or ^n^ prefix, 726. 

^ augment, 251. 

^^ 'eye,' 122. 

"*ij f' rf * fire,' no. 

^d 'before,' 731,917- 

^r^'to anoint,' 347, 668. 

^fiT prefix, 726.0/ prep., 

783. a. 
^fff^i26. i. 
"^fWc^W^ 126.?. 
^ni 'then,' 727. c. 
^^I^ *y6*j' 728. 6. c. 
^nft'then,' 727. c. 
^I^'to eat,' 317, 652. 
"Sr^f^^' eating,' 141. c. 
'W^'this,' *that,' 225. 
^r^TW 'under,' 731. 
^?>I^ ' under,' 731. 
^ftr prep., 783. b. 
^>ift 'to read,' 311, 367. a. 
^lejT^'aroad,' 147. 
^I^'to breathe,' 322. a. 
^TIT? 'an ox,' 182./. 
^TnH?^ ' after,' 731, 917. 
^ prep., 730. d. e, 783. c. 
^In^^ 'time,' 170. 
^'iTt.' within,' 731, 783. d. 
^snaX ' another,' 777.6. 
^PiRTU 'without,' 731, 917. 
^rfloft*^ ' near,' 731. 

^SPT ' other,' 236 ; ^HT 238 ; 

iTT 236. 
^nifl^iT'^ ' mutually,' 760. /. 
"^n^* water,' 178. b. 
'Wl prep., 783. e. 
^f^prep.,783./; adv.,7i7.i. 
^TOI 833. a. 
'^HK.^ ' a nymph,' 163. a. 
^fHprep., 730./, 783. 5r. 
^f^TTT^' on both sides,' 731. 
'^fHg?^*^ ' in front of,' 731. 
^n^'near,' 731. 
^31^ ' a mother,' id^.d. 
^^^'to go,' 385.6. 
^^'to worship,' 367. b. 
"^ro 'to ask,' 642. 
^r^'on account of,' 731, 

760. d, 917. 
^ST^ or ^nin^ 'on account 

of,' 731. 
'et5t\*the sun,' 157. 
^^'a horse,' 158. 
^%TeF ' after,' 731, 917. 
^rt ' to deserve,' 608. 
^c^' enough,' 901.0, 918. 
^^ ' a few,' 240. 
^T^Wfw 119. 
^^ftriT 108. 
^^ prep., 783. h. 
^rvt^ ' to despise,' 75. a. 
3 F ^ 

^R^f ' a priest,' 176. /. 
^^^' southern,' 176. b. 
W5I 'to eat,' 357. a, 696. 
^51 'to obtain,' 'to pervade,' 

367. c, 681. a. 
^STSfHrJ^'a stone,' 147. 
'^ 'to be,' 327, 364.0, 

^T^'to throw,' 622. 
^W' blood,' 176. (^. 
^W*^' setting,' 712. 
^ftcT ' existence,' 712. 
^fiw'abone,' 122. 
^^5 'we,' 218. 
'^'to say,' 384. 6. 
^STf^ ' a day,' 156. 
'^prefix, 726. b^ prep., 730, 

730. a. b, 783. i. 
^T>3[ 'to stretch,' 385. 
^Tr(c6yi*it 126. i. 
^TfWoR' 'consisting of,' 769. 

h, 774. 
'^TrR*^ 'soul,' 'self,' 147, 


^jf^ 'beginning with,' 'et 

cetera,' 764, 772. 
^f^ or ^?r ( = "^Tf^) 

764. b. 
^\\' to obtain,' 351, 364. a, 



INDEX II. Sanskrit. 

'3nT;I * beginning from/ 

792, 925- 
^T^ 'tawny,* 126./. 
^r^^ * a blessing,* 166. 
^T^'to8iV3i7; withpres. 

part., 877. 
^*togo,*3io, 367.0, 645. 
^inserted, 391-415. 
1^ 'other/ 336. 
V^*8o>' 927-939. 
^' this/ 224. 
^^*to kindle/ 347. 
^Tf^^* so much/ 234. b. 
^*to wish/ 282, 367, 637. 
^^ * to see/ 605. 
tf* to praise/ 325. 
tSFl' to rule/ 325. a, 385. a. 
t^' a little,' 717.^,726. J. 
^<^ to move,* 367, 
^3TT*also/7i7.A, 727.0. 
^^T, "a^T: 195. 
'^rat.TT^or ^wNr 731. 
^TTf?^^^ 166. c. 
^prep., 783.>. 
^^ 'northern/ 176. b. 

^ft[^ 'with reference to/ 

"5^ *to moisten/ 347. 

"^ prep., 783. k. 

<3Mr<' above/ 731, 917. 

<JMM^ * a shoe/ 183. 

^H,^T?* both/ 338. 

^IR^' Venus,' 170. 

^*to bum,' 385.6. 

^r*!i^ a metre, 182. b, 

9'''!*^' the hot season/ 147. 

^'strength/ 176. A. 

^ *to cover/ 316, 374. >. 
'3r4'^ ' above/ 731, 917. 
^ 'to go,' 334, 374. n. 
^ 'to go/ 381. a. 
^Tff 'to go,' 684. 
^^ 'except/ 731. 
^fr^^r'a priest,' 176. e. 
^V * to flourish,' 367. b, 680. 
^^ft^'Indra,* 162. 
JST^ 'one,' 200; ^iW 236; 

Kt 238. 
^fT^ ' this,' 223. 
IT^ to increase,* 600. 
^*^ 'the syllable Om,* 712. 
^frrf^R; * a few,' 230. 
"W^ ' to say,' 286. a, 643. 

^rhi^, ofcftia 194. 

Slf^ ' to love,' 440. a. 
M^^ ' an action,' 152. 
^ftj^ * any one,' 228. 
^ prefix, 726. c. 

Vm 'desirous,* with inf., 


<%i<.<uic^' on account of,* 731. 
"^fr^ ' doer,* 159. Obs. 
^F!^ * to shine,* 385. e, 
ftRSJ ' but,* 728. a. 
f^'^' who?' 'what?' 227. 
fcF'^'why?' 921. 
ffc^i\^'how many,* 234. b. 
^ prefix, 726. c. 
^p'^' to pain/ 360. 
^HTCt ' a girl,' 107. 
^i|^ n. * a lotus,* 137. 
^1' to play/ 271.0. 
^* to sound/ 358.0. 

^ 'to do,* 355, 366, 369, 

682, 683, 701. 
^p^'to cut,' 281. 
^THR^' who made,* 140. a. b. 
^F ' on account of,' 731. 
^W^ 'times/ 723. 0. 
^W ' to draw,' 606. 
^ 'to scatter,' 280, 627. 
^ 'to hurt,' 358. 
^ra 'to celebrate,' 287. 
^^'to make,' 263. . 
eRsfxj * any one,' 229. 
'Wt ' to buy,' 374. c, 689. 
"5^ 'a cur