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Full text of "A practical grammar of the Arabic language : with interlineal reading lessons, dialogues and vocabulary"

LIBRARY 

UNIV£KS!TY OF 
CALIFORNIA^/ 



J. i) l^t^ l\K/u^ i 



A 
PRACTICAL GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

AEABIC LANGUAGE. 



A 

PEACTICAL GRAMMAR 

OF THE 

ARABIC LANGUAGE. 

WITH 

INTERLINEAL READING LESSONS, 

DIALOGUES AND VOCABULAKY. 

BY 

FARIS ASR-SHIDYAQ, 

A WATIVE OP MOTTITT LKBAJfOTT, SYETA ; 

rORMERLT PROPKSSOR OP ARABIC AT THE UITIVKRSITY OF MALTA ; 

TRAHrSLATOR OP THE WHOLE BIBLE INTO ARIBIC, ^C. &C. 

Itevised hy the late 

Rev. henry G. WILLIAMS, B.D., 

FORMERLY PROFESSOR OP ARABIC ITS THE UNIVERSITY OP CAMBRIoaE. 



FOURTH EDITION, 

CORRECTED AND AUGMENTED. 



LONDON : 

BERNARD QUARITCH, 

15 Piccadilly. 

1891 



LOAN STACK 

9U 1^ 



PREFACE TO THE FOURTH EDITION 



The Third Edition, which is now exhausted, was an 
attempt to rewrite the Second in a manner accordant 
with the newer and more scientific methods of explana- 
tion and transliteration which have arisen since the time 
of the Kev. Henry Williams. 

In the present edition certain excrescences have been 
pared away, and the work has been corrected throughout, 
so as to render it equally useful for independent study as 
for the ordinary mode of learniug a language with the 
help of a tutor. 

The tongue to which this Grammar serves as an 
introduction is the daily speech of educated Arabs, and 
may be looked upon as intermediate between the vulgar 
dialects of Syria and Egypt, and the cultivated language 
of Arabic literature. 

BERNAED QUARITCH. 
London, 1891. 201. 



PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 



The little Arabic Grammar by Faris Al-Shidiac has 
met with considerable success, the whole of the former 
edition having been for some time exhausted. It has 
been well received, both in Egypt and Syria, and found 
useful, as well by travellers in those parts, as by others 
whose business has led them to seek a temporary home 
in the East. 

The small extent of the work, together with its 
practical character, precluded the introduction of any 
but the most necessary elements of Arabic Grammar. 
The present Editor, keeping this in view, has been 
careful to preserve its simplicity, while he has scarcely 
added to its bulk, but has found space for additional 
matter that seemed requisite, by expunging or abbre- 
viating where occasion warranted. 

While, however, the book is primarily intended to 
supply the want of such as do not contemplate any 



VIU PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION. 

extensive progress in the language, it is also hoped 
that it will furnish a solid foundation to such as may- 
be induced to have recourse to a larger treatise on 
Arabic Grammar. Space would not allow, nor has it 
been deemed expedient, to make more than an occa- 
sional brief allusion to differences of usage in Egypt 
and Syria. Such differences are not great ; and when 
(as it frequently happens) the Arabic language has 
several words with the same meaning, a little obser- 
vation will soon determine which of them has the 
general, or perhaps exclusive, use in any particular 
district. '*Nor is there so great a difference between 
the dialects of Arabic spoken in different countries as 
some persons, who have not held intercourse with the 
inhabitants of such countries^ have imagined: they 
resemble each other more than the dialects of some 
of the different counties in England."* 

(HENRY G. WILLIAMS.) 

* Lane's ** Manners and Customs of the Modern Egyptians," 
Ch. IX. 



A 

GEAMMAE 

OF THE 

ARABIC LANGUAGE. 

CHAPTER I. 

The Arabians, in common with many of the Eastern 
nations^ write from the right hand to the left. Their 
Alphabet consists of twenty-eight letters — all consonants 
— differently shaped according to their position at the 
beginning, middle, or end of words. The names and 
powers, and the order and figure, of the letters, may be 
seen in the following Table. There are, besides, three 
vowels, which are not usually marked in writing or 
printing, but which, if written, have their own special 
symbols, to be described in the second chapter. 

ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 

KAMB. FORM. POWER. 

Final. Medial. Initial. 
Connect. Uncon. Connect. 
.•,./. I • I I Like a silent A. It only serves 

AllI I I l I to give voice to the vowel 

annexed to it. 

Ba Cj* L-» - J h 

Ta cu O - i t (as in Italian) 

Tha ci*. ctrf i ^ ^^ (as in tlirovo) 

B 



2 ALPHABETICAL TABLE. 

VAME. rOEM. POWEB. 

Final. Medial. Initial. 
Connect, Uncon. Connect. 

J^^ ^ ^ ^ =^ i»y 

Ha ^ — s &. ll(^ ^eep and wheezy 

f' C- breathing) 

Kha ....... • -;, & i. kh(ascA.intheGrermaii<?oeA) 

Dal S ^ S <i d (as in Italian) 

Thai S 3 j^ i th (as in this) 

Ea ^ . «« . r (always strong) 

Za > J > J «■ 

Sin ^j(* ^Ja t^ ^ S (never pronounced as z) 

Shin jji (ji ^ w sh 

Sad j-fl. (^ «a ^ S (a strong thickened «) 

Dad ^jii, ijo Jx ^ d (a strong explosive d) 

Ta I2 L k L t (a strong explosive ^) 

Tha (W Za, k 1? k k Z (a strong explosive z) 

Ai*n «L c • c (a sort of choking sound, 

.cxixi ...... r" • f" * *• which resembles a sudden 

hiatus. We shall express 
it in transliteration by 
means of a reversed com- 
ma on thc'line, thus ^ain) 

OTifliTi i c i c c (t^® Northumbrian r, as 

V:rnain ... ^ ^ x C g ^ in row«d) 

Fa c-_A ^^ ft 9 f 

KaforQof, J J » » ^ (or A:) guttural 

Kaf ^ ^ < ^ h 

Lam J. J 1 -J ^ 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 3 



POWEE. 



J 



IfAME. FORM. 

Final. Medial. Initial. 
Connect Uncon. Connect. 

^ini ^ ^ ^ < m 

^^ cr- U - i w 

Waw(wOw) J- J J. J W{B.simvar) 

Ha d » /« ^ a h 

Y a ^ ^ jj ji y (as in yes) 

Lam-Alif liH V!!i> il V^ Za. (T^is combination of I 

and a is usually but 
needlessly added here. ) 

In this scheme, the consonants have their English sounds, except where 
otherwise indicated, and the vowels (in the names) are as in German. 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 

All the Arabic letters are consonants, although it may 
seem to Europeans strange so to consider ], c, j, and ^5. 
(There are likewise three vowels, which are not included 
among the letters, as they are only marked by certain 
signs over or under the consonants to which they are 
annexed. These vowels will be treated of in the next 
chapter). The consonant always precedes its own vowel, 
as in be, never follows it as in ab. 

\ (called alif) is the first consonant, but has no sound 
of its own. It is in fact like the silent h in the English 
words hour and honour^ and is only a consonant in name. 
The vowel annexed to it may be a, i, or w, and the use 
of the 1 is simply to afford a vehicle for the expression of 



4 OBSERYATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 

the vowel, as there would be no means^ according to the 
graphic system of the Arabs, of writing an ordinary short 
vowel without a real oi: nominal consonant to bear the 
sign. (When the 1 is written without a vowel or any 
other modifying mark, it is either utterly soundless and 
useless except for the sake of some grammatical distinc- 
tion, or else it assumes the character of a voAvel for the 
purpose of lengthening the short vowel annexed to a 
preceding letter, as qa, qa. When it is really perform- 
ing the function of a consonant, as in abu, ism, ukht^ it is 
customary to write it with a mark called Jiamza, thus : 
1, I, the place of the hamza being decided by the vowel 
written along with it, as j>l, ^t. The hamza indicates 
that there must be a slight pause or hiatus before the 
vowel, to emphasize as it were the fact that the \ is a 
consonant.) 

J {vi) is properly sounded as w in war, when it begins 
a syllable. When it ends a syllable, and has no vowel 
annexed, it may, in some instances, remain a genuine 
consonant like the w to which we give a slight utterance 
when we pronounce rapidly the word throwing. In most 
instances, however, it there becomes a quasi-vowel, serv- 
ing simply to lengthen the vowel which precedes, as «^, w ; 
or to form a diphthong with it, as au (i. e. the ow in 
novo). 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. -5 

(J (y) when a consonant, that is when it has a 
vowel attached, is always like the y in yes. When 
quiescent, that is without a vowel, it plays the part of a 
vowel either in lengthening a preceding short vowel i 
into t, or in forming a diphthong, ai, with a preceding a. 
It is necessary to inform the learner here that the final 
vowels of words are never sounded in modern colloquial 
Arabic ; Tcitdhu being pronounced hitdh ; nabiyyu, naM, 
Thus the y often seems to be merely a lengthening vowel, 
while it is really a consonant, and the proper way of 
writing naU would be nahlyy, giving to the yy the sound 
of the French colloquial ille as mJUle, 

^ is the ordinary English Ji as in Jiand, but is always 
sounded, never silent as in our interjection ah ! When 
this letter bears two dots, thus I — always at the end of 
a word — it is supposed to be sounded ^, and to correspond 
to the letter o, but the custom is to leave it quite silent 
except in reading the Koran, in grammatical exercises, 
and in construction before a vowel. Thus Ij^ is pro- 
nounced Jiamza, not hamzat ; i^ hurra, not Icurrat, but in 
construction qurrat ul Lain. 

— {j) has usually the sound of g in gem, but the 
Egyptians pronounce it as g in get, 

^ (h) is a deep aspirate, much more powerful than 
the h in hand. It is a strong wheezy breathing, to which 



6 OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 

only the Arabs give its full sound. Other people turn it 
into either a simple ^, or a German ch, 

^ (kh) is a guttural rougher than the German and 
Scotch ch in locTi, Only the Swiss mountaineers give a 
proper Arabic hoarseness to the sound. It never varies 
according to position, like the German ch in ich, ach, and 
Christ ; but is always the same. 

^ (s) is a strongly articulated palatal s, thicker and 
more forcible than the s in swarm, sward. (It should be 
noted that in English we give to the letter s, in sw, a 
stronger and fuller sound than elsewhere.) 

^ (d) is a strong d produced by a forcible pressure of 
the tongue against the teeth and the front of the palate, 
which impedes the utterance for a moment and then 
allows the sound to escape violently. All but genuine 
Arabs pronounce it either as an ordinary d, or as z. 

k (z) is z pronounced with the tongue in the same 
position as when the letter ^jo is formed. It is like the 
i (i.e. th as in those) sounded forcibly after a check. It 
has been transliterated thz or dhz, but most people, except 
genuine Arabs, pronounce it as the ordinary z. 

c is a very difficult sound, resembling nothing so much 
as a gurgling in the gullet caused by the sensation of 
choking. This gasping is produced by a forcible con- 
traction of the muscles of the throat, and the c, with its 



OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 7 

vowel, sounds like a suffocated attempt to pronounce ga 
or gUy with the result that only the vowel {a, i, or u) is 
heard, struggling as it were with a lump in the throat. 
It is clear that a consonant of this kind cannot be articu- 
lated without a vowel, and consequently, even when it is 
marked as unvowelled at the end of a syllable, a short 
and obscure a is uttered with it. It is treated as a 
simple 1 by all but genuine Arabs. For want of a better 
symbol we have represented it by a reversed comma on 
the line, thus: iilm. The greatest difficulty with regard 
to it arises when it happens to be (as other letters fre- 
quently are) doubled between two vowels. 

^ The hamza alluded to in the observations on 1 above, 
is a sort of mild c, and gives to the dlif, or rather to the 
vowel which follows, a deeper sound than usual, as 
though it were preceded by a check or hiatus. In the 
phrase " Goa is a town in India," as pronounced rapidly 
by correct speakers, the hamza is heard in, or preceding, 
the vowel i of is, (Cockney speakers put an r in its 
place.) We shall transliterate the Jiamza by means of a 
reversed comma above the line^ thus ^umm. 

c. (g) is a guttural g, very much rougher than the 
North German g in sage^ much rougher than the French 
r grasseye^ almost precisely like the burr of the 
Northumbrian r, but even stronger than this. 



8 OBSERVATIONS ON THE ALPHABET. 

^J {^) is a hard k, best represented by q (without u). 
It is tittered explosively from the back of the throat. 
Only true Arabs sound it properly. In Egypt it is a 
mere hiatus like the hamza ; Europeans, Turks, and 
Persians sound it as a simple k, 

^j (n) when unvowelled and followed immediately by 
h, takes the sound of m ; when followed by r, is sounded 
r; when by Z, Z; when hj m, m; hj w, w; by y, y. 
These are merely for the sake of euphony, but are often 
written according to the sound, as ^j^ instead of ^^ ^^ 

J (Z) never changes its sound except when, in the 
article al {^the)^ it precedes a noun beginning with one 
of the so-called solar letters ; it is then pronounced like 
the letter which immediately follows. The solar letters 
are ^, t, th, tZ, d, th, r, z, z, s, sA, s, n. (The other 
letters, before which it is not altered, are called lunar,) 

In Arabic words, the accent, or emphasis of tone, falls 
upon the long syllables or diphthongs. When the word 
consists of short syllables only, the accent is upon the 
penultimate if there are but two, on the antepenultimate 
if there are three or more syllables. When there is 
more than one long syllable or diphthong in a word, each 
of them bears a distinct stress or accent, but the greater 
weight is given to that which comes nearer to the end of 
the word. — It must be remembered that the modern 



OF VOWELS. 9 

practice of leaving unsounded the final vowel vitiates 
the theory of accent. Thus t->U> is sounded hitab, and 
the learner might suppose that it was accented on the 
ultimate syllable^but the stress is really on the penultimate, 
since in the classical language, and in orthoepical theory, 
the word is hitdhu ; and the accent is supposed never to 
fall on the last syllable under any circumstances. A 
naturally short vowel becomes long if it is followed by a 
double consonant, or by two consonants which have no 
vowel between them. 



CHAPTER II. 
OF VOWELS AND ORTHOGRAPHICAL SIGNS. 
The Arabs have only three signs for vowels, which 
are called l^ fatha (a), Ij^S Jcasra (^), l^ damma (u). 
[These three vowels, a, i, u, are all that existed in the 
ancient and literary language, and although e and o are 
also found in the modern speech, they are only local and 
dialectal varieties, a and i being sounded sometimes as e ; 
and u sometimes as o. As these peculiarities vary in 
different districts and in different instances, it will be 
safer to leave them to acquisition colloquially, especially 
as the short vowels are nearly always obscure in the 
utterance even of the best speakers.] 



10 OF VOWELS. 

The fat\ia is represented by a small oblique stroke 
above the consonant ; kasra by a similar stroke under ; 
and damma by a small curve, like a comma, above the 
letter, as follows : — 

Fatha ... ( — ) sounding as a ; for example^ (<sl) laka 
Kasra,.. ( — ) „ ,, i ; „ ,, aj JiAi 
Damma,. ( — ) „ „ w; „ „ ja ^wz^^f 

The vowel is always sounded after, never before, the 
consonant with which it is written. 

It should be observed that these vowel-points, as they 
are called, are seldom written, and therefore a difificulty 
is presented at first to the learner, which, however, will 
soon be sufficiently overcome. 

They are sometimes doubled in the final letters, which 
doubling is called ^^jiJ tanwin, or nundiMon, because the 
vowel is then pronounced as if followed by ^j {mm), as 
J-»^ rajulun, "a man;^' J-a^ rajulin; jUj^ rajulan. 
The first («) marks the nominative case singular; the 
second (7) the oblique case (genitive, dative, and abla- 
tive) ', the third (-) the accusative. It must be observed 
here that the final 1 adds nothing to the sound when the 
accusative is pronounced. 

[It should be particularly remembered by the learner 
that the www-ation {un, in, an) is not an essential portion 



OF VOWELS. 11 

of the word to which it is attached, but is purely gram- 
matical^ and marks an indefinite sense in the noun. 
When the noun becomes definite by having the article Jl 
prefixed, the tanwin is excluded. It is never used at all 
in the modern colloquial speech.] 

Fatha before unvo welled fj and j forms the diphthongs 
ai and au : e. g. c-iA*o (summer) and uJ^i. (fear) are pro- 
nounced saif, khauf* (These diphthongs are always long.) 

When the fatha is written perpendicularly, it indicates 

I 
an omitted I, and has the sound of long a, as ell) j thdlik, 

"that" (demons, pron.); aIII alldh ** God." 

Jjj-l) tashdid C**) doubles the consonant over which it 

is placed, as Jjj nazzala, **he brought down;" s%<^ 
Muhammad. 

ij^ hamza (*) is most frequently found over or under 
the alif, and sometimes over j and (j. Its efiect is to 
convert the consonant with which it is written into a 
feebly sounded c. It has^ however, various grammatical 
uses, which must be learned from a work of greater scope 
than this. 

iL>j wasla ('*) implies conjunction , and is only in- 

* It may be well here to remind the learner of our scheme 
of pronunciation, by stating that the above two words would be 
represented in English by sife, Tchowf. 



12 OF THE ARTICLE. 

scribed over 1 at the beginning of a word, to indicate that 
the I and its vowel must be suppressed, and that the 
vowel of the letter preceding them must only be heard in 
their place ; as a1!1 ^\ij^ kitdbu 'lldhi, ^* the book of 
God." {Allah is always pronounced Allah,) 

i^A madda (*-) implies extension^ and is placed over 1, 
giving it a longer sound than the ordinary vowel-point ' 
would do, as ^j»T ddam» It stands for an unwritten 
second alif, 

^jj^su** suMrij or l^ jazma, written thus (°) or (^), 
signifies a 'pause ^ and is placed over a letter that has no 

O^ J OP 

vowel. Example : Jj hal; d^i-i ukht. When the letters 
I, J, and (^ are thus unvo welled, they become long vowels 
or diphthongs, as already mentioned. When the c is in 
the same condition, only a semi-articulate gasping sound 
is heard, like an ineffectual attempt to pronounce a short 
a deep in the throat. 



CHAPTER III. 

OF THE ARTICLE. 
The proper order of succession of the parts of speech 
in Arabic is verb, noun, particle (the article, adjective, 
pronoun, and participle, being classed with nouns, and 



OF THE ARTICLE. 13 

adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions comprised under 
particles) ; but, for the sake of English learners, we will 
here adopt the European arrangement. 

The Arabs have but one article, Jl (al), which is definite, 
and is prefixed either to the singular or plural ; as, 

L->liiCjl alJcitdb/^thQ book;" v«>jOl alhutuby ^* the books/' 
When the article is prefixed to any word beginning with 
one of these letters, L, ^y ^, ^ji, ^j^, j, ^, j^ ^, vi)^ o 
4j, k, (called solar letters), the sound of the J is dropped; 
or, rather, it is assimilated to that of the succeeding 
letter, which therefore assumes the jjjJiJ tashdid ; as 
^J\ ar-rahtm, ^^ the Merciful " (i, e. God) ; oUljl 
as-samawdt, " the heavens ;" ^^jJi issjiqhu 'd-din, ^'know- 
ledge of the religion." Before the other letters (called 
lunar) the I of the article retains its sound. 

N.B. — The word to which the article is annexed does 
not admit of nun-dition, and we may therefore say that the 
Arabic tanwin is equivalent to our indefinite article. 



( 14 ) 

CHAPTER IV. 
OF NOUNS. 

In the Arabic, nouns admit of variation in regard of 
gender^ number, and case, and may be either definite by 
nature^ as in proper names, for example, »us:* Muhammad; 
or may be made so by the prefixture of the article jl, as 
^ ndbiyy (more grammatically, ^ nabiyyun)^ *^ a pro- 
phet-;'' j^i annahiyy^ 'Hhe prophet." (Ordinarily pro- 
nounced naU, but more correctly as if the final t sound re- 
sembled that of theille at the end of the French word^ZZe.) 
It is suitable to mention here that all Arabic words 
are either pure root-forms, or else constructed from 
radicals, by modification, or by the addition of servile 
letters. The root consists usually of three letters, and 
is always the third person masculine singular preterite of 
a verb. Thus, from J*-^ rasala, "he sent,'' we have J^^ 
rasulun (or rasul^ ^* an apostle;" and from jL. salama, 
'* he gave the salutation of peace," we get JX»t\ islam, 
*' the Musulman Church," and JL* muslim, " a Moslem." 
All nouns are supposed to end in the nominative case 
with the short vowel u^ extended to un when the sense 
is indefinite ; but in the colloquial language neither u nor 
iin is sounded. 



OF GENDER. 15 

OF GENDER. 

There are two genders, j^=>'x^ muihakkar, " mascu- 

line," and k^j^ mu^annath, " feminine." Nouns are 
feminine either by signification or termination. By sig- 
nification : 1st, names of women and female appellatives, 

as j>^ Mar-yam, "Mary;" ^\ umm (or omm), "a mother;" 

o o » 

cu:j bint, **a girl;" oa.1 ukht (or okht), "a sister:" 
2ndly, the double members of the body, as jj yad, " the 
hand;" ^J.^ iain, "the eye;" u_q,.;,.4=^ katif, "the 

o 

shoulder ;" 3rdly^ names of countries and towns, as j^it 

Misr, "Egypt;" i^^ MaJcka, " Mecca." 

By termination : 1st in », as aj^. janna (jannat), " a 
garden;" iii zulma, "darkness;" 2ndly, in 1 servile, 
as U-> haiM, "white;" 3rdly, in ^^ servile, pronounced 
like a, as ^ji^^ ^ikra, *^ remembrance ; " ^Jjl w/«, 
" first." There are a few words which are to be learnt by 
practice and observation, being used as feminines neither 
by signification nor by termination ; such as ^^ ard, 
" the earth ; '' ^^ Yh.amr, ^^ wine ; " cj^ \iarb, " war ; " 

o o ^ 

^U nar, "fire;" ^ nh, "the wind; " ^j.^ shams, "the 



16 OP NUMBER.' 

sun ; " &c. &c. (It must be remembered that this word 
is shams, not shamz, as an English tongue might call it ; 
and so with all similar instances of final s,) 

All other words are masculine. 

Feminines are formed from masculines chiefly by the 
addition of », as c-^-L ^ayyih, " good," fem. i-i iayyiha ; 
i^yi^sKA maJctuh, "written;" fem. hji^si^ mahtuha ; 
(sUa malik, " a king ; " aXL malika, " a queen." 



OF NUMBER. 
There are three numbers, singular, dual, and plural. 

o 

The dual is formed by adding to the singular ^jl - dni {an) 
in the nominative case, and ^- aini (am) in the other 
cases. The plural is either regular or irregular. The 
regular plural is that which ends in J,y una {un) in the 
nominative case, and in ^^^ tna (m) in the other cases. 
The regular feminines form their plural by adding ol- di. 
The irregular (or broken) plurals are such as are not 
formed by the addition of ^^J- and ^^;, and are so ex- 
tremely irregular and various, that no rules can greatly 
assist the memory. They must be acquired j^by practice. 
The dictionaries specify the irregular plurals. 



-or NUMBER. 17 

EXAMPLES OF REGULAR PLURALS. 

SING. DUAL. PLtTEAL. 

(^c-aJ^ Tcdtihun (or^ ^ • ^^ 

1 7 ^/wx -J. f rj^-^o kdtibdni, ri^^^ Jcdtihuna 

Nora. J ^'^^<f2^)j a wnter,one ! r •. ^-^ 

J who is writing [ two writers (Mtibun), 

Umasc) J writers (77Z.) 

Oblique ^^ kdtibm(kdtih) ^^^ kdtibaini ^Jt•^^ hdtibina 

(Mtibin) 

Ace. \J^ kdtiban (kdtib) ... same as obi. ... same as obi. 

!dLj\i Jcdtibatun (or^ ^jbJli kdtibatdni, cJiJC Mtibdtun 
hdtiba), a writer/ two writers {kdtibdt)^ 

(femin,) / (/^^n.) writers(/.) 

Obi. dLJli Jcdtibatm rytP^^ Jcdtibataini \z>\J^ kdtibdtin 

{kdtiba) (hdtibdt) 

Ace. lJC kdtibatan ... wsameasobl. ... same as obi. 

{kdtiba) 

I i? o- ^ ^Lu) baitdniy oj-^ miyutun 

.S _ .- , > two houses (buyut)^ 



I ^«^*0, a house J , j^^^^g^g 

Obi. cuL' baitm{bait) ^j^, haitaini oj--j buyutin 

(buyut) 

Ace. l,.;-.» bait an {bait) ... same as obi. U^ buyutan 

(buyut) 



18 OF NUMBER. 

Observe — As the final vowels are seldom sounded in 
the modern colloquial language, the distinction of the 
cases is not rendered very appreciable in conversation. 
Besides, the dual form is hardly ever used. In fact, the 
three preceding words have usually no other pronuncia- 
tion in any position than hdtih, Tcdtibun and kdtibin, 
kdtiha and kdfibdt, bait and huyut. 

A few of the more common forms of the irregular 
plurals are given below. A more extended list will be 
found farther on. 

The inflexion of every word in Arabic is modelled on 
a fixed standard of construction or measurement. This 
standard is afiPorded by the word facala Jr9, " he did," 
which the grammarians have chosen for the purpose, and 
its various forms {see under Verbs) yield examples for 
accidence. In the following list the plurals are formed 
according to the varieties specified in the row on the 
left hand. The final vowel is omitted according to 
custom. 

FORMS OF IRREGULAR OR " BROKEN " PLURALS. 

MODEL OF THE lExailiple. 

PLUEA.L FOKM. BINGFLAE. PLVSAL. 

JljjJ jiidl J-1^ jahal, a mountain JL>. jihal 

J^jti fuiul x^\ asad, a lion ^j^\ ustld 



OF THE NOUNS. 19 

Jx_9i afiul Jft.^ rijl, a foot J^^l arjul 

Jc'j9 fawddl j^sT** masjid, a mosque j^Lm.* masdjid 

J-x-9 fuiul L-iU-^s kitdh^ a book v^^= ^w^w& 

OF THE NOUN OF PLACE AND TIME. 

The same form of noun is used to denote time and 
place, and is regularly derived from the triliteral verb ae- 
cording to the measure Jxio mafial; as, k^^^ska, maJctah, 
"time or place of writing,'' from c-^^=a Jcataha, "he 
wrote;" k.^\a maUah^ "time or place of playing," from 
i._asJ laciba, "he played;" Sxa* maqcad, "time or place of 
sitting," from jjti qacada, " he sat." Or according to 
the measure Jxd* mafdl ; as, ^jAt, madrih, " time or 
place of beating," from ^^ dai^aba, " he beat." 

OF THE NOUN DENOTING THE INSTRUMENT. 
The noun denoting the instrument is derived from the 
triliteral verb, and has three forms : 1. according to the 
measure JjtL mifcal ; as, ^^ mihrad, ^* a file," from ^^ 
harada, "he filed." 2. JixA* mifud; as, -ba* miftdh, 
" a key," from ^i^ fataha, " he opened." 3. 'i]jtiumifiala; 

as, ^ r- *^^ - miknasa^ " a broom," from ^>«;it^ kanasa, 
" he swept." 



20 OF THE NOUNS. 

OF THE NOUN DENOTING A SINGLE ACTION. 
This noun has the measure of ilsts fada ; as, ij^ 



darba^ " once striking," from u^^ " he struck ;" Iji 
hatha, *'once writing," from <^^s» **he wrote," &c. &c. 
N.B — All these forms are regularly derived from the 
verb^ which lias three letters. Other kinds of derived 
nouns are described below under the heading "Adjec- 
tives." 

OF THE DIMINUTIVE. 

The diminutive is formed in general by inserting ^ y 
after the second letter of the primitive ; as^ x^ iuhaid 
(or obeid), " a little servant," from xs- cabdy ** a servant;" 
J-a^ rujail, " a little man/' from J>^ rajul, " a man." 

This form, although very convenient, is very seldom 
used, even in books. 



CHAPTER V. 
OF THE ADJECTIVES. 

There are many forms in Arabic for the adjective, which 
it is not quite proper to treat as distinct from the 
noun. The most common are formed (1) according to 

JO - Jo ^ 

the measure J^ fadl ; as, j»i^.^» Jcarim, " generous ; " 



OP THE ADJECTIVES. 21 

y^^i^jarmly " handsome ;" and J(2) Jjxs faiul ; as, ^^^sw. 
shaMr^ " thankful ;" j^^ sahur, " patient." 

There are also the forms JUj faecal and flcdl, denoting 
frequency or intensity ; as, c->l^ darrdb, " one who 
often strikes " (this is technically an adjective) ; 
j^^sa^ sikMr, ** very drunken ;" ^xs facal; as, ^.-^ 
Yiasan^ "beautiful;" ^ fadlu; as, ^^ farihu (farih,) 

"glad or merry;" ^J%^k faddn ; as, J\^^aA catshan^ 
"thirsty." 

The form JUs is also the model for words denoting 
trades; e.^j\^ najjdr, " a carpenter ;" LLi. kh«j/yat, "a 
tailor;" t^jUa qassdb, "a butcher," (These are con 
sidered adjectives in Arabic, being descriptive of quali- 
ties.) 

The Arabic language, rich as it is in words and in 
modes of expression, has only one form of adjectives 
derived from substantives. It is formed by adding ^j 

M O ^ 

with ('^) to the substantive; as, for instance, ^j^j^ 
wardiyy {wardiyyun), "rosy;" (^§1.* 'f^d^yy, "watery;" 
^^^ shamsiyy^ " solar ;" ^J< arddyy^ " earthen," &c, &c. 
The most usual way of forming the feminine, as has 
been stated, is by adding V to the masculine, as, m, ^^^^ 



22 OF THE ADJECTIVES. 

kamm^ fern, l^j^:^ hartma. Some forms of adjectives, 
however, are the same for both genders; e.g. j^ ^j 
rajul sahur, "a patient man;" .^^ l\j^\ imrn^a ^ahur, 
^^ Si patient woman.'* 

'Note. — In Arabic, the adjective^ as a rule, follows the 
noun it qualifies. 

OF COMPARISON. 
The comparative is formed from the positive upon the 
measure Jxsl a/cal ; as (^j»^>^ hasan, '*good '') ^j»^ ahsan, 
'^better;" (jj-^=> kabir, "great")^.^»l ahhar, "greater." 

. , o 

Than is expressed by the preposition ^ min; as, 
diUll ^^ ^kcl aczam min-a 1-malik, ^* greater than the 
king," (j»iac caztm, ** great;" JacI aczam, "greater.") 

The superlative is of the same form as the comparative, 
but it is used without the addition of than; as Jlci Ji)i 
alldh adam, ^* God (is) most wise." Or it is followed by 
a word in the genitive case ; as, jj*»Ul ^^j»^ ahsanu n-nds, 
"the best of men " — colloquially ahsan en-nes, 

N.B. — A word preceding another in the genitive case, 
even when, as in this instance, the sense is definite, does 
not admit the article; thus, ^^^--^1 ah.san, not ^J,^^)i\ al- 
ahsan. 



( 23 ) 

CHAPTEE YI. 
OF PRONOUNS. 

The Arabs acknowledge only three parts of speech, 
namely, the Verb, the Noun, and the Particle ; including 
under the noun, article^ pronoun and adjective. 

Some pronouns are separate, some affixed to other 
words. 

The PEESONAL PEONOUNS are as follows: — 

SING. DUAL. PLUEAL 

M. F. M. P. 

1. I u\ ... ^ 

and (usually pro- nahnu 

nounced short and) 

2. Thou ... d^jl cujl \^\ ^\ ^jLi\ 

anta anti antumd antum antunna 

3. He (she) ^ ^ Ua j^a* ^JSb 

liuwa Tiiya Jiumd hum Jiunna 

N.B. — The dual and the plural feminine are not used 
in colloquial Arabic. 

The DEMONSTEATiYE PR0N0U]S"S are — U tha, or (more 
emphatically) iLb JidiM, "this," and (^i ihalih, "that," 
declined as follows : — 



24 






OF PRONOUNS. 








SING. 




DT7AL. 


PIUEAL. 




Masc. . 


IS 

ihci 




ihani, thaini 


ihina 


or, 

common 

plural 


Fern. . 


thihi or 


tM 


tdni, taini 




'ula 


Masc. 


.. ilL 






J^ 






Mthd 


Mth.dni, ^ath^^ini 


Jid^uld^ 





Fein. ... 8 jib ijl^j [jiP^ >> 

^ath*^2 hdtdni, Jidtaini 

N.B. — In the vulgar Arabic, the singular form is, 

usually, the only one employed, but the plural is some- 

times replaced by the word J^jj**, and at other times by 

Jj^, or ^^jft, or (JjJA, &c. ; while for the singular ^^ is 

^ ^ tt 
frequently used ; as, JlaJI (^.i di-l-qalam, " this pen ; " 

5^^^ ^5^ di-l'hilcdya, " this story." 



Masc. ... dilS -(^U, (*liii 

tha^^^ thawTizA;, ihayinnik 

Fem. ... (JiJlU (sUU, du-J 

^i7A; tdnnik, tayinnik 



PLURAL. 

'uldHk 



OF PRONOUNS. 25 

THE EELATIVE PRONOUNS. 

^^jJi ** who," is thus declined : 



SING. 


DUAL. 


PLURAL. 


alldihi 


allaihdni 


allathin 




J^\ 


d'^\ 



Masc. 



Fern. 

alldii alldtdni alldti 

N.B, — All these forms are replaced in the vulgar by 
the word Jl alU or Hit The duplication of the J in 
writing the dual forms, and the feminine plural, is a sur- 
vival of the older and more correct method which has 
dropped out of the others. The pronunciation is not 
affected. 

C X 

^ man^ who, he who, those who, whoever. 
U md, that which, those which, whatever. 

,^1 ^ayyu, ayy (fem. lA 'ayya), who, which, what, of 
what kind. 
The three last words are used interrogatively; as, 
cujl ^^ man anta, '* who are you^" (literally^ "who 
thou 1. ") v^ti' (^yy^ ^^'^«^> *' which book 1 " 

For U as an interrogative, ^i\ atsh or esh (contracted 
from jjl fj\ ayyu sJiayin or ayy shay, " what thing 1 ") is 
in Syria usually substituted ; as, j^sj ^^1 aish turidy 



26 



OF PRONOUNS. 



^* what do you want?" The same word takes the pre- 
position J li, " to " or " for," before it, to express why ? 

as, eu-j^ ^y li-aisJijita, "why have you come?" 

N.B. — U the pronoun must not be confounded with 
U the conjunction, which means " so long as," and U the 
adverb, which means "not." 

THE POSSESSIVE PEONOUNS. 

The possessive pronouns are expressed by means of 
affixes to the nouns, which then become definite, even 
without the article, and are consequently not www-ated ; 
thus — 

^\^Htab {Mtabun), " a book." 



SING. 


DUAL. 


PLUEi-L. 




^\lf 


. .. 


bli5^ 


kitaU, my book. 




Mtdbund, Mtdhnd, 
our book. 


dJlif V 




r f^^ ^ 




kitabuTca, Mtdhah, 


\^^>\^ 


kitdbuku7n, 




thy (m.) book. 


^ kitdbukumd . 


^^ 


J your 


(2Lbr 


the book of 


kitdbilJcunna, 


book 


hitdbuki, hUdhdk, 


you twain 


kitdbJcum, 




thy (/.) book. ^ 




L kitdbkunn, J 





OF PRONOUNS. 



27 






kitdbuTiu, Jcitdbhu, hitd- 
huh, Jcitdho^ his book. 

hitdhuhd, kitdbhd, 
her book. ^ 



kitdhuhumdjj 



^V 



kitdhuJium, 
kitdbhum. 



the book of 
them twain 



hitdbuhunna^ 
Kkitdbhunn, 



masc. 

their 
book. 

fern. 



The dual, and also the plural feminine, are seldom 
used. It must also be remembered that final vowels are 
lost in the colloquial language, so that the secondary- 
pronunciations above given are the ruling ones. 

The damma n and ^, &c., is changed into kasra, if 
the preceding syllable of the word to which the pronoun 
is suffixed be vocalized with kasra, or end with ^j; as, 
^\:^kitdbih, " of his book ;" j«4j[ff, calaiJiim, ** on them." 

The same affixes are used with prepositions : for 
instance — 

o 

^jA ** of," or " from " (in certain instances written and 
sounded mina). 



28 



OF PRONOUNS. 



DUAL. 



minnt from me. 



PLUBA.L. 

M 

u 

minnd, from us. 



minka, minaJc, from 
thee (m.). 

die 

minU, mink, from 
thee (/.). 



minJcumdj 

from you 

twain. 



mirikum I from 
«• o (^ you 

minJcunna, 



minhu, minuh, from 
him. 

o 

minJidy from her. 



. minhumd, ^ 

from them 
twain 



mhihum, 



minhunna, ^ 



, from 
them 



The pronominal affix i,^- t (meaning ** my ") is changed 
into (J ya, when the word to which it is appended ends 
in\ d. It is changed into (j yya, when that word ends 

o o 

in (^- ai, [jr, % y- au, or y- u ; the ^^ or j of these endings 
being then omitted. 

So, with the preposition J " to," we have J It, ^ 
laha, laic, cilf lahi, laJc, ^j lahu, " to me," " to you," ** to 



OF PRONOUNS. 29 

O * J o 

him," &c.,'or with sic cinda,'^ with," "at;" as, ^Ja (^JJ^ 
cindifulus, "with me (is) money," i.e. "I have money." 

N.B. — The same affixes serve as the accusative case 
after verbs (except that instead of ^ the first person is 
expressed by ^ m), e.^. c-?^ daraha, " he struck." 

^y^ darahnt, he struck me. 

^)^ darahaJc, he struck thee. 

a-j^ darahhu, darahuh, he struck him. 
&c., &c. 

o ^ 

The recijprocal pronoun is expressed by ,jjiJ nafs, 
" soul," " self," joined to the pronominal affixes ; as, 
^jji nafstf "myself," asLJiJ nafsaJc, "thyself," &c. 



( 30 ) 

CHAPTER YII. 
OF THE NUMERALS. 
The Cardinal ^N'umbers are the following :- 



3. 

4. 
5. 

6. 

7. 
8. 
9. 






FEM. 
S Ox 



^ljUS 



10. 

11. 



6 o 

fio X 



20. 

30. 
40. 
50. 
80. 



^^^, or ^^j5^' 

^ i o , 



100. (mi'atun) aJL* 



12. ^ IJi 

13. «lC AJ^ 8;*lC tl>^ 

and so on to 19. 

Observe — The Cardinal numbers, from 3 inclusive to 

10, have a fern, form when the objects numbered are of 



200. 

300. 

1000. 
2000. 

3000. 



ilu ciib' 



9 ci. 






y^^\'i% 



OF THE NUMERALS. 31 

the masc. gender ; and conversely, a masc. form, when 
the objects numbered are fern,; e.g. ij^ jW^j or JU^ l^, 
" ten men " (lit. men, a decade, and a decade of men) ; 
jLs. pLJ or ^LJ^;.^, " ^^7i ivomen.''^ — This practice applies 
also to the use of the numbers 3 to 9 in combination. 

The numerals that indicate numbers compounded of 
the units and the tens, are formed by prefixing the unit 
to the tens, and uniting them by the conjunction j, " and ;'' 

^ JO , 9 , , 

as^ clt;^j *^^ ^^ one-and-twenty^^ " twenty-one,^^ 
The Ordinals are as follows : — 





MASC, 


FEM. 




MASC. PEM. 


1st. 


js>i 


.ol 

J.' 


lOth. 


Jib tr^ 


2nd. 




0, 


nth. 




3rd. 










4th. 
5th. 


20th. 


^ -» o 








30th. 


^)j-iJlj &C. 



Observe — The Ordinals^ from twentieth inclusive to 
nineiietli are identical in form with the Cardinals ; as, 

J -) J O O 

^jj.^ ^^ twenty,'' ^jj:^\ ''the twentieth'' 

123456 7 89 10 



( 32 ) 



CHAPTER VIII. 

OF THE VEEB. 

The kernel of every Arabic verb is not, as with us, the 
infinitive, but the third person singular masculine pre- 
terite indicative active, as ^faiola, ^* he did,"^^ nasara, 
"he assisted," — ^ fars^na^ *'he rejoiced," ^j.*a, hasuna, 
^^he was beautiful." The vast majority of the simple 
Terbs are, like these, triliteral (i.e. consisting of three 
letters in the primary form) ; but there are also some 
quadriliteral verbs, such as ..^^ dahrajay '^ he rolled." 
These preterite bases are the roots under which all other 
words are grouped in Arabic dictionaries ; it being a con- 
venient fiction to treat all words as derived from them. 
As already remarked, the word facala Jx» is used by 
grammarians as the model to which all others are made 
to conform ; every verb is conjugated in accordance with 
it, and as it consists of the three letters fa, iain, and lam, 
the custom, in grammatical language, is to describe the 
letters of a triliteral verb, not as first, second, and third, 
but as the fa, the iaiii, and the lam. Thus in hataba 
" he wrote," d is the /a, o is the iain, and the cj is 



OF THE VERB. 33 

the Mm, Verbs are regular and irregular. The regular, 
or strong verbs, are those in which the three radical 
letters are never suppressed or substituted, as in the five 
instances just cited. The irregular, or weak, verbs are of 
six kinds : (1) those in which the simple form consists 
of two letters one of which is doubled, as j^ madda " he 
stretched ;" (2), (3), (4), (5), (6), those in which 1, j, and 
{J, are found in the simple form, either singly or in a 
pair, as ji.1, jcj, Jli, ^^, ^^ . The latter are called 
irregular or weak, because the I, j, and {j, being semi- 
vowels, are mutable, that is, susceptible of loss or change 
in certain combinations. These phonetic alterations, 
already slightly touched on in the observations on ortho- 
graphy, do not, however, virtually interfere with the 
structure of the conjugations on the model of fa-ia-la ; 
and it might therefore be expected that our next step 
would be to give the paradigm of the simple verb. — But 
there are some further observations to make. 

According to Arabic grammarians every verb is 
capable of several different kinds of conjugation, the 
maximum being fifteen, the minimum seldom less than 
four. Western writers on Arabic grammar repeat the 
same statement ; and it forms a great stumbling-block in 
the path of the learner, who at once begins to magnify 

D 



31 OF THE VERB. 

liis difficulties. The fact is, that all those so-called con- 
jugations are distinct verbs, evolved in certain clearly 
defined methods, which will be set forth, from simple 
triliteral (or quadriliteral) verbs. The addition, or dupli- 
cation, of letters which characterises the derivative verbs, 
is not supposed to remove them from the triliteral (or 
quadriliteral) category, since the new letters are servile 
(i.e. accidentally employed) and not radical (i.e. inherent 
and permanent.) We shall now proceed to treat of the 
conjugation of the simple verb, consisting actually (in its 
third person masc. preterite) of three letters, and after- 
w^ards explain the system on which the derivative verbs 
are constructed. 

The Arabs arrange their conjugations somewhat 
differently from Europeans. There are two voices, 
Active and Passive, but the Passive is seldom used in 
the modern language for reasons which will become 
apparent when we reach the derivative verbs. In the 
old literary language there were several moods : Indica- 
tive, Imperative, Subjunctive, Conditional, and Jussive ; 
but as the last three were only distinguished by the final 
vowels which are no longer pronounced, they have 
dropped out of use, and are now only expressed by 
means of adverbial particles prefixed to the Indicative 
Present. The pure Imperative still remains a distinct 



OF THE VERB. 35 

phase ; and the verb is treated as consisting of five parts : 
Past Tense (Preterite, Perfect;) Present Tense (con- 
tinuous and Imperfect, therefore also Future) ; Impera- 
tive ; Participle ; and Verbal Noun (which corresponds 
to our grammatical Infinitive). There are three Numbers : 
Singular, Dual, and Plural (the Dual, however, is no 
longer used) ; and three Persons, as with us, but they 
take the order of 3, 2, 1 (not 1, 2, 3), and there is a 
separate form for the feminines of 3 and 2 (he, she, 
they, 77^. they/., thou m, and/., ye m. and /.) The femi- 
nines are now generally disused. 

The preceding divisions relate to the Passive Voice, as 
well as the Active, but the genuine Passive is seldom 
employed in modern speech, and only one of its parts 
has remained in constant use, namely the Participle, 
which, from its nature, must be permanent. 



b 



36 OF THE VERB. 

COI^^JUGATION OF THE SIMPLE FORM OF REGULAR 
TRILITERAL VERBS. 

j^ nasai^a, or nasar, " He helped." 

ACTIVE VOICE. 

I^reterite, 

PLURAL. DUAL. SING. 

F. M. P. M. P. U. 

^ o,^ Jx^ ^^^ ■',, o ^^< ^,^ 

they helped. they two helped, she helped, he helped, 

ye helped.* ye two helped. thou didst help. 

O^^ J Ox ^ 

we helped. I helped. 

Present or Future, 

they.. 4 they two help, she... he helps,! 

or will help. or will help. 

\^j>a^ f^jiyjAJ (jl^J jj^^i^^-flu) »«flij 

ye... ye two... thou...§ thou helpest, 

or wilt help. 

we help, or shall help. I help, or shall help. 



* In colloquial Arabic, the form is \yj^ and common in 
gender. 

t Pronounced Insur in modern Arabic. 

X Both here and in the second person the na is suppressed. 
Instead of Yansuruna, TaTiswrwna, we pronounce insur ii, tansuru. 

§ Tansuri, colloquial. 



OF THE TERB. 37 

Imperative. 

PLURAL. DUAL. SING, 

r. M. F. M. p. M. 

help ye. help ye two. ' help thou. 

Agent (or Active Participle.) 

helper, or who helps. 

Infinitive (or iVoww of Action), 

to help, the helping. 



OBSERVATIONS. 

All the vowels are given in the above paradigm, as 
well as in those that follow. But remember that, as a 
rule, the final vowels are not sounded in the vulgar 
Arabic, and the plural form \^ is always sounded w, as 
l^^^i na^aru. 

The vowel of the second radical, both in the preterite 
and the future, is not always as above. Some verbs, 
both transitive and intransitive, take z in the preterite, 
as lie "he knew," ^j "he rejoiced;" some, chiefly in- 
transitive, take -, as ^^^-^ "he was handsome/' The 
second vowel in the future is also sometimes - or 7, as 



38 OF THE VERB. 

-yj "he wi'l rejoice/' c-j^^ "he will beat." These 
variations will be found in the lexicons. The second 
vowel of the imperative is always the same as that of the 
future. If this be -, the prosthetic alif takes - likewise ; 
otherwise it takes ~,e.g. fut. ^-ij, ^y^i, ^j*^.] imp. 

^ JOe. o ^o CO 

j^A, ^j\ K^j^\ 

In the vulgar conversational Arabic, the initial alif is 
-altogether suppressed, so that the imperative becomes 

^j^ , \jj^i , 1^) , {jj*a> , ^ i^nsur, ^nsuriy ^nsurd, 'nsuru, 
^nsurna). 

The form given above for the infinitive is the most 
common one. There are, however, a great many varia- 
tions in this part of the verb, the same verb frequently 
having several forms of the infinitive. (The infinitive is 
here always vocalized in its abstract and nominative form, 
with * ; but its usual form in concordance is in the ob- 
jective or accusative case, with ^, and it is frequently 
written so in elementary grammars.) 

[The following remarks are applicable to all the 
verbal forms:] 

The form of the future of the verb is also used for 
the present. The modern Arabs, however, make it a 
real present by joining to it some other word. Thus 
u^-::-Vji j.sb signifies he writes, or lie will write. But 
c--.ix-j JUc^ has the single signification of he is writing; 



OF THE VERB. 89 

so,^^^> dJUc it is raining. The word JUc is the agent, 
or active participle of the second derivative of the verb 
J*c "he did," so that it may be rendered " doing." It 
is inflected in concordance with the verb (masculine 
or feminine, singular or plural) which follows it. Thus, 
dJUc, ^^l^c, oYUc (The word^W^j above, is feminine 
in agreement with sky or heaven, and is future of No. 4 
verb.) It is not unusual to contract all these forms to ^c. 

r 

The letter uj is also frequently prefixed to the future 
(or present) in common conversation. In this case, the 
1, which is characteristic of the first person, disappears ; 
as dJ u-aJv) lil " I will write to you," j^iJ i^jo " do 
you know how to read % " In the first person plural, 
instead of c->, ^ is prefixed (thus : m'naktuh for ^^:: <=^j). 

In Syria, the w^ord jj, with the appropriate suffix 
pronoun, as sj), isJjj, [jSi, &c., placed before a verb, adds 
to it the signification of is going (the immediate future) . 
— Ex, _^itf »^ jA " he is going to go out." 

Although in the classical Arabic there is a prefixed 
inseparable particle ^ which is employed to confine the 
verb to the future signification, it is seldom seen. 

The pluperfect in Arabic is expressed by adding j{^ 
" he was," to the preterite of the verb. Ex. c-^^=» Ji 
" he had written" (lit., " he was, he wrote"). 



40 OF THE TERB. 

The imperfect, by the addition of the same verb to the 
present tense. — Ex. e^ii^ J^ ''he was writing " (lit., 
" he was, he writes "). 

The dual forms and the feminine plurals are not used 
in common conversation. 

PASSIVE VOICE. 

The passive voice (which, with the exception of its 
participle, is very little used in the popular language, 
being almost superseded by certain derivative verbs 
which, though active in form, are passive in sense) 
differs from the active chiefly in the vowel-points, as 
may be observed by comparing them together. 

Preterite. 



PLUEAL. DUAL. SING. 

r. M. F. M. F. M. 

^oJ -f J <> » o ^ J *-» 

dJO J OJO J JO J O J y O i 

Future, 

J^\ 1 



OF THE VERB. 41 

Patient, or Fassive Participle, 

Plur./. Plur. 7». Dual/. Dual w. Sing./. Sing. w. 

An imperative passive is formed from the future by 
prefixing J to it, as moiJ . (See p. 62.) 

DERIVATIVE VERBS, FORMED FROM THE SIMPLE 
TRILITERAL. 

These are of great importance as they supply a vast 
number of useful words related in one way or another to 
the meaning of the primary verb ; and they can be 
framed in an easy way upon fixed models, to which a 
recognised and fairly precise derivative sense is attached. 
There are thirteen categories of them, according to Arabic 
grammarians, but only nine are ever used^ and even of 
these nine^ although they may be formulated as possible, 
it rarely happens that more than three or four are 
employed. The arbitrary mode of their formation, and 
the consciousness that each form has a definite signifi- 
cance, has caused the derivative verbs to be treated as so 
many diverse methods of conjugating the simple verb ; 
and hence has arisen the name *' conjugations " generally 
applied to them. Although here we shall treat them as 
verbs distinct from the primary, we shall keep the usual 
numeration 2 — 10 which implies that the root-verb is 
Xo. 1. 



42 OF THE TERB. 

No. 2 {that is, the First Derivative Yerl) 

It is formed by doubling the second letter of the 
primary verb, and intensifies tlie original meaning. 
Thus (c-j^-i darah'd, "he struck ") cj^ dan^aha, '*he beat 
violently " ; (Ji qatala, " he killed ") ji qattala, " he 
slaughtered," " he massacred." The inflexions of the 
various persons and tenses being always the same, as 
already shown in^-^, it is only necessary here to give the 
model forms of the characteristic parts, taken as usual 
from the standard yvovd fa cala Jxj. 

PRET. PEESENT, FUTURE. VERBAL NOUX. IMPERATIVE. ACT. PARTICIPLE. 

It has also the sense of causing, or being busied with ; 
as (».^^ljr"he wrote ") C2^ kattaba, " he taught or caused 
to write;" (J^ 'Mie descended'') J_^ nazzala, "he 
brought down;" and declaring or believing, as (v>^ 
"he told a lie") lL>j5 A-aththaJa, "he believed (him) to 
be lying." 

"No. 3. {Second Derivative.) 

It is formed by inserting an alif to lengthen the first 
vowel, and adds the sense of striving to the primary one. 
Thus J3l5 qdtala {from qatala), "he strove to kill;" 
(cJi^ "he overcame") ^\s- gdlaha, "he tried to over- 



OF THE VERB. 43 

come." From this comes a sense of reciprocity which 
includes the object in its signification, as u-j^U (from 
^araha) ddraha, " he fought with ; " (^jJ^ " he sat '') 
jj^^lU. jdlasa, ^' he sat with," c-aj\$ Mtaha (from kataha), 
"he wrote to." 

Model : jcls p7\ ; JcU fut ; ilcU* t?. w. ; JcU i?;?p. ; 

Jclio act, part. 

No. 4. {Third Derivative,) 

It is formed by prefixing 1 to the root and suppressing 
the vowel of the first letter. Its inherent sense is that 
of causing (an accidental sense in No. 2) as (J^ "he 
descended") \^\ ^anzala, "he caused to descend;" 
(^ic "he knew") ^bi "he informed;" ^JA^\ 'ajlasa 

(from jalasa) "he bid sit down;" l^^=»\ "he caused to 
write." It has also the sense of beginning a gradual 
movement, as ^U.1 ^ash^dma, " he went to Sham (i. e. 
Syria)." 

Model: Jxil jpr. ; Jx^. /. ; Jl^tjl i^.^i.; J«9l 2m;?.; Jxa* 
act. part. 

No. 5. (Fourth Derivative,) 

It is formed from No. 2 by prefixing the syllable J ; 
and converts the meaning of No. 2 into a reflexive or 



44 OF THE VERB. 

passive sense; as, ( ^j " he shattered '^)^^^^? talcassara, 
*'it was shattered ; " (JLc "he taught," " he caused to 
know") Aj6 taiallama, ^' he became learned,*'' "he was 

taught ; " (uJp. " he terrified ") v^js? ^akh«2t?ti;c{/b, " he 
was frightened." 

Model : Jx^ ^r. ; Jxij^* /. ; J*^" v, n, ; Jx^ zmp. ; 

No. 6. (Fi/if^ Derivative.) 

It is formed from No. 3 by prefixing the syllable J, 
and gives a passive or reflexive sense to the signification 
of No. 3. Thus (u->^U " he fought with and gave blows 

to ") u^UJ tadidraba, " he fought with and got blows 
from," which also means, collectively, ** they fought with 
one another ; " (s>o^ " he wrote to ") v_*jlfeJ takataba, 
" he corresponded with and was written-to by." 

Model : Jtlw 'pr, ; JcU:j /. ; J^U^ «^. w. : JcUJ ew^. ; 

No. 7. {Sixth Derivative,) 
It is formed by prefixing J I to No. 1, and expresses the 
passive of that verb. Thus (y-j "he broke") ,^.4^1 

inkasara^ "it was broken;" (vlfl.l^=» "he revealed") 
\Jki.*^'A inkashafa, " it was revealed." The original 



OF THE VERB. 45 

sense was properly a middle or reflexive one, as, " it 
broke itself," "it revealed itself," but this and other 
derivative verbs have become so habitually used in a 
passive sense (though active in form) that the true 
passive has virtually fallen into desuetude. (When the 
first radical is J , as in j^ , it is doubled, and the J of the 
prefixed syllable suppressed. Thus j^\ , not la^\). 

Model: JjtiJl ^r. ; JxLiJ /.; J'ot^l v. n.; Jx±j\ imp.; 

^ O J 

Jxi-l-o act. ;part, 

1^0. 8. {Seventh Derivative.) 
It is formed from the simple verb, by prefixing I to 
the first radical (which thereby loses its vowel) and by 
inserting ta Ji before the second radical. (When the first 
radical is ^^ or ^^ or L or li , then the inserted letter is 
not J but L>. This is to avoid harshness of sound). It 
resembles No. 7, in giving a reflexive sense to the 
primary verb; and it also expresses the result of the 
action, or else the idea of seeking to bring it about. 
Examples : {j^^ss) ^^.^=>1 iJctasara, " it was in shat- 

tered state ;" (i->^) \^Ja^\ i^iaraba, " he was exerting 

himself violently;" {,j^ " lie touched ") jj^^Jl iltamasa, 

'* he sought to touch," " he felt for ;" (^J " he helped ") 



46 OP THE YERB'. 

j.asj\ intasara, "he was victorious (by God's help)." 

Model : Jxj^sl jpr. ; Jsti^ /. ; JUisi i;. w. ; J^il wip. ; 

Jsiflx act. part, 

No. 9. {Eighth Derivative,) 

It is formed from the simple verb by prefixing 1, sup- 
pressing the vowel of the first radical, and doubling the 
third radical. It is only used in connexion with words 

^ ^ o 

denoting colours or defects; as, j.iu>\ isfarra, " it became 
yellow," or "it was yellow " (from^a^l asfar, " yellow," 
Ju> "he had a bilious complexion "); .^cl icivarra, "he 
became one-eyed " (jjc\ actvaru, " one-eyed," from ^Ic 
tara, "he deprived of one eye"); ^^1 ibi/adda, "it 
was, or became, white " (from jj^-ol abyadn, " white," 
, ♦^G hdda, " it excelled in whiteness "). 

5^0 W^O^ G^C xO 

Model : J-xJl ^r. ; ^}xJu /. ; j!!iL«jl v. n.; JUil z*;;z/?. ; 

*J o ^ J 

Jjt.A-« act. part. 

No. 10. (Ninth Derivative.) 
It is formed by suppressing the vowel of the first 
radical of the primary verb, and prefixing the letters i--l. 
It implies inquiry, desire, opinion, or tendency, in rela- 
tion to the matter predicated in the simple verb. Ex- 

XXX x-OxO 

amples : {^Jlc. " he pardoned ") jJi.r 7^\ ista^fara, " he 



OF THE VERB^ 47 

asked pardon ;" (^-c- " lie knew ") ^Lat-L-**! isfadama, 
*^he wanted to know," "he enquired;" (^^^-^ "it was 
beautiful ") ^^--^^1 istahsana, " he thought it pretty ;" 

{jsf^ Jiajar, " a stone ") .s^'**\ istahjara^ " it began to 
petrify." 

Model : Jxi::^! »r. ; Jxa^hi /• j J^xfls-1 v. w. ; \xsi^\ 
imp. ] Jjti::-*^ «c^. ^ar^. 

^0.11. (Terdh Derivative,) 

It is formed from 'No. 9 by inserting I after the second 
radical, and serves to intensify the sense of the ninth 
verb. Example : .iL^l is/dn^a, ^* it was very (or bright) 
yellow." 

The 12th, 13th, 14th and 15th derivative verbs are 
only found in old books, and very rarely there. 

THE IRREGULAR TRILITERALS. 

They are of six kinds. No. 1, called muddcafu 
J, -J 
(^cLi^) or " doubled," — in which there are only two 

radicals, one of which is doubled to make the verb 

tiiliteral, as, j^ madda, " he stretched." No. 2, called 

viaJimuzu (\j^^) ov ^^ hamz^iied,^' — of which one of the 

radicals is an ah'f marked with hamza, this being a weak 

consonant, changeable in the process of conjugation into 



48 



OF THE YERB. 



^ or ^^, or liable to suppression; as, j^l 'akhafha, "he 
took " (in the Imperative, jo. khwth, '* take ! "). No. 3, 
called muUallu'l-fd (uJl Jix*) or " weak of the /a," 
i.e. having for its fa, or first radical, the letter j or ^^5 
which in the process of conjugation may be interchanged 
or suppressed; as, jcj waiada, "he promised" (in 
the Present jjt) yaddu, in the Imperative jc dd), 

!N'o. 4, called mudallu-l-iain {^J^\ J^je*) or ^* weak of 
the cain,'^ i.e. having for its iain, or second radical, the 
letter j or (5, which is changeable to 1, or suppressible, as 
Jli qdla, "he said" (which is itself modified from a 
normal form J^ , and which in the Present is J^i , in 
the Imperative J5). No. 5, called muitallu-Uldm, i.e. 
having for its third radical a j or (5, which is changeable 
or suppressible ; as, ^j rama, *^ he threw " (the original 
normal form was ^^ ramaya ; the Imperative is ^j\), 

No. 6, called lafif slsjs or " complex," because two of 
its three radicals are weak, as ^ij waqa, "he preserved," 
(^L ra^a, "he saw." They are, in the Imperative, j or 
49, and ^ or »^ . 

Examples of the Irregular Verbs will now be given, but 
only in the first words of each form or tense, which the 
learner can fill out into complete conjugations as an exercise. 



OP THE VERB. 49 

IBBBGULAB VERBS. 

CONJUGATION OF THE VERB ^acXl* (DOUBLED, HAVING 

THE THIRD RADICAL THE SAME AS THE SECOND). 



r" 


lamma, " he collected." 




Preterite, 




PLITBAT.. 


SITAL. 

UJ U 






<:-:.T 






J^tf^«/r^. 


' JJJ" 
















it* 

u 




Infinitive (Verbal Noun). 






? 




«^uy 4;^y 


Participle, 


Hi Jv 


PAST. 


»nT. 




9 >3X 







60 OF THE TERB. 



#* >o J,OJ 



CONJUGATION OF THE VERB pLaJ\ J:bc* (lit, ^' WEAK OF 
THE FA,'' i. e, HAVING THE FIRST RADICAL j). 



^3 


waiada, "he promised." 




Freterite, 




PLUfiAL. 
r, M. 


DUAL. 
F. M. 


SING. 
P. M. 




Ijj^j Ij^j 




a JO ,, ojo ^^ 


Future. 




^ o ^ • J ^ 


(jlj^ U^*^ 




X <* , » , 


Vj^J^ 




JuxJ 








Imj^erative, 


o 


u% Ijlc 


Ijc 


v^jc J-C 


J^ 


ifinitive (Verbal Noun). 




9^ 





Farticiple, 
oi^Xclj ^jj^lj (J^"^!^ cJ^^fl? ••^1? ^?1^ 

JPassive, 



PABT. 


FUT. 


PEET. 


9 jo^ 


J ^ » 


-. J 


^^C^ 


SCyJ^^ 


^^ 



OF THE VEEB. 51 



«0 J, 0J'> 



CONJUGATIO]^ OF THE VEEB ^yyJl Jijc* {lit " WEAK OP 
THE iAIN," i.e, HAYIKG THE SECOND EADICAL j OF \). 

Jli qdla, " he said." 
Preterite, 



FLUBAL. 

^ c J 



Future, 

cA^- C)M C)X?^" uVi JJ^" Jj^- 

Imperative, 

Infinitive, 
Participle, 

\ d^u ^^j!}ij\3 J^\k o^} ^^ i^ 

Passive. 

PABT. FUT. PBBT, 

5 ■»' ■»,■'•* •: « 



52 OP THE VERB. 

CONJUGATION OF THE YERB ^'LW Jlx* (lit, ^' WEAK OF 
THE LAM," i.e. HAVINO THE THIRD RADICAL, ^). 

^j rama, " he threw." 
JPreterite. 



PLUBAL. 
F. M. 


DUAT-. 
F. M. 


siira. 

F. 


M. 


KJfi^J 


1^. 


^ L*^ 


cu^ 


u^^- 


Siio., 


ojo^x 


^O.x 


o^^ 


^ c ^ ^ 


d^j 


c"^^ 


u^^ 


iSA:^^ o-^^ 


CJ 




Future. 






^ o c^ 


-. Jo^ 


°- °' 


o-» 


O, 


a?V- 


orJ- 


uWv uWi 


^/ 


ct^- 


^o o. 


^ Jo, 


I °' 


^O' o^ 


o^ 


o^/ 


OJV 


uW 


c;-V»" 


cf/' 


o^ 






' <:' 




^/ 












Imperative, 






^ o o 


Jo 


, o 


o 


Q 


Oi^j\ 


H 




^^\ 


X^l 




Infinitive (Verbal JNToun). 








c/^^ 










Participle. 






• ^ ^ 


, J , 


,, , ^ ^ 


9 ' ^ 




oL.1, 


urlf 


Passive, 


• 


/^ 




PAKT. 


FUT. 


PSBT. 






S o , 


^o J 


J 






LTV- 


crtH. 


LJ-J 





OP THE YEBB. 53 

QUADEILITERAL VERBS. 

The simple form of quadriliteral verb is conjugated 
like the second derivative verb of the triliteral system. 
The- main parts of the verb 1J>^ "he rolled," are as 
follows. The rest can bp filled up from comparison with 
the tables of triliteral conjugations. 

PEETEEITE. • FUTURE. IMPEEATIVE. INFIN. (Verbal NOUn.) 

^/-^ Gt^'^- C-T^ ^^^t 

ACTIVE PABT. PASSIVE PEET, PASSIVE PAET. 

There are three derivative verb-forms of the quadri- 
literal system, but they are of rare occurrence. The 
first agrees with the triliteral No. 5, in prefixing the 
syllable ta^ and is similar in sense and mode of coujuga- 
tion ; as ^^kLJ tasultana, "he made himself Sultan." 

The second resembles in meaniug and mode of conju- 
gation the triliteral No. 7. It is formed in a slightly 
different way (the n being changed in place) as ,^^JL— ^ 

^ o ^ 

islanqa, "he lay on his back '' (from ^^JL*. "he threw 
down flat"). 

The third is like the triliteral No. 9, and doubles the 
final radical ; as ^*U>1 itma'anna, "he was at rest" (from 

^\S tam'ana, "he leant back "). 



54 OP THE VERB. 

BEMARKS ON THE MODE OF EXPRESSING " TO BE " IN 
ARABIC. 

The verb "to be " is usually expressed in Arabic by 
a form of the word JC " he was.'' This verb is con- 
jugated in the same way as Jl5 (p. 51). 

Examples, 
iilj ^jij a) ^^l^saj^^lJ ^jli^ IcoLna tdjirun wa Jcdna lahu 
banuna thaldthatun (Mn tdjir wakdnluh hanun 
glaga), " there was a merchant, and he had (lit. there 
was to him) three sons." 

^ to J J^^^dl^ 

\xit ^ji ^i ^j^^=^l 53jU ^j\ ayyu fdHdatin yakunu U min 
' Jidzd {ay fdHdayakunU minhdzd), "what advantage 
will there be to me from this % " 

^ ^ Jo \4 ■^ J .^ Si OJ O J u)^ 

ft Rumiyya kdnu iammalin h-yehnu kemsa), " when 
I was in Rome, they were building a church '' (coZ/o- 
grwia/).* 
But when "to be " is in the present tense, followed 

by a particle, an adjective, or an adverb of place, the 

verb is not expressed ; e, y. 

Jo, J o ^ 

J^uU J-a:ill The Consul [is] engaged. 
^j^^jM ^J^\ My brother [is] ill.f 

* Concerning JUt and prefixed m , see p. 39. 
f ^^\ from ^1 "a brother," with the personal pronoun i^ 
" my" suffixed. See p. 29. 



OF THE TERB. 55 

^JLL^\ ^ jYjVI The children [are] in the garden. 

^2)L^ lil I [am] sleepy. 

^jLJ c:,jl Thou [art] tired. 

^r==:ol ^si We [are] English. 

The preposition ^ (in), joined with the personal pro- 
noun 5 , is used in vulgar Arabic to express " there is." 

JEx. : ^ 6,J \^ md fihi sJiay (contracted dnto mdfisJi), 

" There is nothing." 

3 O 

I 

j^l 9 ^sl 6^ fih lahm fi^s-suq, "Is there meat 
in the market 1 " 
Answer: i.^ fihi, "There is." 

OBSERVATIONS ON THE MODE OF EXPRESSING *' TO 
HAVE " IN ARABIC. 

The Arabic language has no word precisely answering 
to the verb " to have." An equivalent to it obtained 
by using ^\d=a " it was," ^U " it happened," " it became," 
&c., with some preposition. In the present tense the 
verb is not expressed, except in rare instances. 

Examples. 
y». fjx^ I have bread (lit., with me [is] bread).* 

^^;JC*» djJ^ You have a knife. 

* Jic is the preposition unda'^ with," here combined with the 
suffix pronoun (see p. 29). It is usually now pronounced land. 



56 OF THE VERB. 



Ln-^^s ^b aJ (s)^i Your fatherhas a large house (Z2Y.,your 
father, to him [is] a large house). 

J\j}j a1 ^2)\^=> dlo A king had two sons (lit., a king, 
there was to him two sons). 

^j^ a)^L» He had a fever. 

^j^ a) i>L> He has a fever (happening to him [is] 
a fever).* 

{J*j^ L^ , w«* iy*^ I have only a piastre {lit., there is not 
[^j**J] with me, except a piastre). 

»Xj&. g^lc A-s You have a good custom (/«Y., among 
you [is] a good custom). 

Jj)&. /**«!/ *:^ He has much humility (lit,, in him 
[is] much humility). 



The following is a list of a few of the most useful 
verbs. When a numeral is added, it notes the derivative 
form of the primary verb. 



J^ 


it was 


A 


he drank 


> 


he did 


f^ 


he hungered 


^1 


he ate 


^J^2£. 


he thirsted 



* ^U "it happened/* "it became," is the preterite ; y.U is 
the verbal noun which stands for active participle. 





OP THE VEBB. 


57 


'Li. 


he came 


^Q(4) 


he gave 


-\ 


he went 


v> 


he beat 


vulg.^j ) 




S-){^) 


he sent 


Ji^ 


he entered 


u^J 


he dressed 


r> 


he went out 


o;j 


he weighed 


(S 


he raised 




he asked 


? 


he stood up 


S^ 


he said 


o^ 


he sat down 


^Xi (5) 


he spoke 






u^ 


he touched 


he knew 


cr 


he heard 


:^ 


he thought 


Jj 


he saw 


e^ 


he sold 


oAm 


hefeU 


i^^:^l^ (8; 


) to buy 


^J 


he fell, it bef el 


y 


he read 


^! 


he collected 


* .--^ 


he wrote 


rr 


he understood 


di5.-^ 


he laughed 


p(5 


) he learned 


^^: 


he wept 


fii^: 


) he taught 


^^ 


he walked 


r^ 


he slept 


ti>^ 


he ran, or it 
flowed 


f^ 


he opened 


2^ 


he passed by 


^ 


he shut 



58 



5 


OF THE 


VERB. 




ji^'l 


he took 


^ 


he cut 


J-i 


he arrived 


^ ") 




^' 


he played 




he wished 




he killed 
he forgot 


>C(3) 


he travelled 
he rode 


. .ii. 


he sought 
he found 


t^^ 


he returned 
(came back) 


^SM\ (8) 


he died 
it began 

he finished 


f Ip (5) 


he married 
he cooked 

he stole, he 


^ 


he assisted ; 




robbed 




he defended 


ji- 


he wor- 


> 


he looked at, 




shipped 


>JJl (8) 


he observed 
he waited for. 


t" 


he rose (the 
sun) 




he expected 


t_jU 


he was ab- 


C?V' 


it remained 




sent, or in- 
visible ; he 


r 1 


he loved 




disappeared ; 
he set (the 


c^l(4) ) 






sun) 


u^iW 


he hated 


j^ 


it rained 


J^ 


he buried 


^ 


it snowed 



OF THK VERB. 59 

OF PAETICLES WHICH AFFECT THE VERB. 

In the coDJugation of the verb, as given in pp. 36 — 52, 
the future of the indicative is exhibited only in its 
simplest form, i. e, with the ordinary present or future 
meaning. It has also a subjunctive (and imperative) 
sense, in which case it is subject to the following 
changes : — The final ^^ is dropped in the five forms, 
which end in ^^j , ^^ , and ^1 ; and the other forms end 

o J o . J J o 

in a fatha (instead of damma, as l-» :^^ 1, not i_.Ai^»l). 
There is no change in plural feminine. 

[!N"oTE — In consequence of the omission of the final 
vowels and other terminations which distinguish some 
of the persons of the verbs, in the vulgar conversational 
Arabic, the following remarks need only be less carefully 
noted. Attention to the examples will, however, amply 
repay the learner.] 

The particles which make the verb subjunctive are as 
follows : — 

^Jl an, " that," as clli»l ^\ j^J " I wish to write," 
(lit), "I wish that / mat/ write.^^ 

^ Ian, "not.''— Ex. lSjH/ ^ "He will not strike." 
Some say that ^J is a contraction of ^\ V, and the above 

expression is equivalent to \->j>i>i (jl c)>^=^ ^ " -^^ ^^ ^^^ 
be that he shall strike,'') 



60 OP THE VERB. 

^jil ithm, «* therefore," " then."— Ex. ii^'^'^Ji^If ^l\ 
" Thou may est then enter the garden." 

^^=» ^a^, " that." — Ex. \so\ ^.^a of&. Ji'^w kai 
'atacallama, " I am come that I may receive 
instruction.^^ 

^ Yiatta, " that," ''so that," "until."— Ex. ^^s* dj.^ 

^jl '' I beat him tJiat Jie might return^ 

J " that," " for that."— Ex. J'y^ dOl " I came to 

thee, that thou mightest honour me^ 
jl au, "or," "ere," " till."— Ex. J^^ ^\ ^ij^\ V "I 

will not leave thee till thou give me," &c. 
The verb is also made subjunctive when it is employed 
in connection with the seven following forms : 

l.^Vl, the imperative. — Ex. t*U;.^sls ^3^; "Visit me 
that I may honour thee ;" {lit. " and then I shall 
honour thee," the/ prefixed to ^j^^\ meaning 
" and so," or "and then.") 



J o, 

(J- 



^Ijl, the negative of prohibition. — Ex. s^^ill ^jojo V 

t^Uid " Disobey not the law, lest thou he 
punished.^^ (This is one of the anomalies : " and 
thou be punished " is the literal sense, but the 
real meaning is "lest.") The first clause is in 
the jussive form of the present tense. 



OP THE VERB. 61 

3. ^Jl, tlie negative. — Ex. t->A.^=u9 c-^ioJi JCu_j. V 

"Let not the liar speak, lest lie he belied ;^^ 
(lit, "the liar will not speak, that so he be 
proved a liar.'') 

oo " ^^oJ'Sco-. 

4. j%Lfli*-Vl, the interrogation. — Ex. ^j^=^J ^ ij^ J* 

" Shall Zeid come, that he may he honoured .^" 

5. J.»Lll, desiring. — Ex. jj^iU VU J wLJ *^ Oh that I 

had wealth, that I might bestow it in alms ! " 
(lit- "Would that to me wealth, and so I might 
give alms.") 

6. ^-I>J1, hoping.— Ex. ^j J jftH vjsi J^\ "Per- 

haps I shall repent, that my Lord may forgive 
7;z^." (Jxl "perhaps," jjsj " perhaps I.") 

7. j^3«l^ offering.— Ex. \ji. k1^ l3jl: J;-li Vi " Wilt 

thou not come down to us, that thou mayest 

find good? ^^ [In this example, the word VI is 

compounded of 1, the interrogative particle, 

and V "not."] 

Sometimes the final vowel of the present-future is 

altogtither suppressed, with a modification in the sense of 

the verb. This is called apocopation, and is, according 

to grammarians, the normal form of the Jussive or 

Conditional Mood. It is used after certain particles, 

some of which apocopate one verb, while others apoco- 



62 



OP THE VERB. 



pat e two verbs in connexion with each other. Of the 
first kind, we have the following : — 



"not;'* 



U lammd, 
"not yet;" 



.VI ^v 



w-^.^=o J He has not written 
(Le. he does not 
write,) 






'• the imperative I, i.e. J ; ' 

,^iv ... 

*• the prohibitive Id;'* 



ft-^jl UJ He has not yet re- 
turned (is not yet 
returning.) 

A^ssclJ Let him speak 

o o^ 

Uj^^ V Let hin] not strike. 



The following is a list of the second kiud :- 

o->oc o J o ^ o 



J in, 

"i'f;'* 



as 



U ma 
' what," "whatsoever; 



cr» 



ma» 



• who," '* whosoever;' 



\ t->si^=o ^\ If thou wilt write, I 
will write. 

B^i S>^^ U Whatever thou ridest 
I will ride. 

j^lafi ^^ ^»« Whosoever helieveth 
shall be saved (lit. 
"made pure.") 



{.^.j^ mahmdy.,. J*^l jjtaJUio Whatever thou wilt 

"whatsoever *> ^ j ^-jj ^^^ 



OF PREPOSITIONS. 



63 



o o^ o o- 



{j^ aj/i/ww, «yy^ as u^l t_^ L)l Whomsoever thou 

shalt beat, I will 
beat. 



'* whichever," 
' whomsoever ;' 



Uip kayfamd, 

'* however," 
" whiDhersoeveri" 



_lo mata, 

"whenever;'* 

1*:j1 aynamd, 

"wherever;" 



^1 anna, 
"wherever;" 



Ui^ hai/tJivma, . 
'* wherever:" 



-iolflj A>.jij Ua-3 Whithersoever thou 



shalt turn thy face, 
thou wilt meetwith 
good. 



^oj o jc^ 



j^^ss JJ»;i j--!^ When thou shalt act 
uprightly thou shalt 
be praised. 

.. ,j*ia-l ,j**l:^ 1^1 In whatever place 
thou shalt sit, I 
will sit. 

Jxsl JxaJ ^i Wherever thou shalt 
act, I will act. 



Out,*, ,i . 



^^\ A>.jiJ U-:ja- Wheresoever thou 
wilt turn, I will turn. 



CHAPTEK IX. 

OF PEEPOSITIONS. 
The prepositions in Arabic require the oblique (equiva- 
lent to genitive, dative, ablative) case after them. They 

are called jd^ ^— ^^j particles of attraction ; and the 

Jo, 

word which follows them is said to be j^j^ attracted^ 



64 OF PREPOSITIONS. 

J ^ o 

and is marked with a Jcasra, e,g. J>. . ^ ^' from a man ;" 
J^^' c^* "^I'om the man/' The following is a list of 
the prepositions : — 

Inseparable, 
t^ by, in, with. 

o by (only in conjuring), as 4Ulj *' by God/' 
^ by (only in conjuring), as 4Jlij " by God." 
J to, for. 

(sJ like, as. 
These five particles are prefixed inseparately to the 
words they govern. When J precedes the article, the 

I of the latter is omitted ; thus Ja^ lir-rajul, " to the 
man." 

J OJ o 

The pronominal suffixes 5 and ^a> became 5 and ^» 

after c-^, as a), ^. Before all the pronominal suffixes 

■' j^ ^- <»^ 

(except ^j^) J becomes J, as aJ to Jiim, c*!) ^0 ^Ae^, U, ^0 ?<5. 

The exception just referred to is the suffix of the 1st 
pers. sing., which absorbs the vowel of the proposition, 
as J ^o me. 

Separable, 
^^ mm, from. 

, J I ila, to. 



OF PREPOSITIONS. 65 



Ki'- 


iarij 


from, after. 


'^ 


cala, 


upon. 


^. 


fi. 


in. 


Si J 


ruhha. 


mayhap,, sometimes, 
often.* 



j* muth, since. 

joJ 

jio munth, munthu, since. 

U.U hdshd, except, ahsit (omen), 

Ijc cadd, except. 

ii. khald, except, besides, 

^a. haffa, even to. 

O O X *- 

If ^J4^ or ^ precedes the article_, it is pronounced ^^ , 

\jC ; if it precedes any other word, ^^ , ^^c , When 
either is prefixed to ^^* or U, the ^.j is assimilated to the 
A in pronunciation^ and the two are usually written as 
one doubled letter; thus ^♦^j Uc, &c., for ^J'C^, ^a^} &c. 
The following words, many of which have the force of 
prepositions, also require the oblique case after them. 

* Learners may think it strange that this word should be 
included amongst the prepositions. It is really a particle, 
meaning "many a," " but few,'* " haply," and is only called a 
preposition, because the accompanying noun (although in our 
grammar nominative to a succeeding verb) must be put in 
the oblique case as governed by it. 



66 



OF PEBPOSITIONS. 



? 


Icullu, kull, 


every, all. 


t^ 


mat,, or 7»ai«, 


with. 


t^ 


jamuun, 


all, altogether. 


^ o ^ 


haida. 


after. 


^ O X 


gabla, qahl, 


before (as to time). 




fauq, fauqa. 


above, over. 




taht, tahta, 


under. 




qudddma, 


before (as to place). 


^t;. 


ward^ loard'a, 


behind, beyond. 


« o 


mitJil, mithlun, 


like. 




shibh, shihliun^ 


like. 




nazir^ nazirun, 


like, looking like, looking t< 
wards. 


J^ 


ndhw, 


about, like, towards. 


JJ^ 


dnda, colloquiall}/ 
candy 


' 1 at, with. 


(^J^ 


siiva, 


except, besides. 


> 


gair, 


except, besides ; un- 




hithd, 


by, by side of, opposite. 


i)L5 


quhdla, 


opposite. 


1^! 


izd, 


near, by. 


5U? 


tujdhy 


opposite. 



OF CONJUNCTIONS. 67 

LftJLj tilqd, opposite, 

ji thw, having, possessing. 

(^jJ lada, at. 

^;jJ ladun, at. 

k**,^ wasaiy in the middle of. 

These words are really for the most part verbs or 
nouns adverbially used, but as they govern the accom- 
panying word like prepositions, they may be advan- 
tageously included in this section. 



CHAPTER X. 
OF CONJUNCTIONS. 
The following are the conjunctions in most common 
use : — 

J *'and." — Ex. jj^^j Sij U "Zaid and Amr came." * 

^ "and," and "then."— Ex. ^U uJ^Jl ol^i "I 
have read etymology and syntax. The particle 
^ is irrespective of order : <^, on the contrary, 

* To distinguish the name j*f- Amr from that of j^ Umar 
(Omar), it is always written j^ in the nom., tj^ in the obliqne, 

and j^ in the accusative case. As the final vowels are not 
pronounced in the modern language, they are not given in. 
the above examples. 



68 OF CONJUNCTIONS. 

distinguishes it : "I have read etymology j^rs^, 
and then syntax." 
J and (^ are always inseparable prefixes. 

"1j thumma, *'then." — Ex. iL!S\ 1^ Jl->.Jjt oU. "The 
men came, tJien the women." (The verb is in 
the feminine singular, in accordance with a 
rule mentioned in chap. 4, Syntax; and, by a 
phonetic law which is expounded in grammars 
of greater extent than this, it takes the vowel 
hasra at the end when it precedes an alif 
marked with wasla. This law applies to all 
the parts of a verb which properly end with 
unvo welled consonants.) 

^ hatta, *' even."— Ex. \^\j ^ iSCjT ilAdJ\ "I 
have eaten the fish, even its head." (This 
particle may also be classed amongst the pre- 
positions, in which case it takes the sense of 
" till," ^' even to," and governs the oblique case.) 

j\ au, "or." — Ex. p^ j\ v_J^1 ^J»J\ "Be dressed in 
wool 07' silk." 

O^ P .P 

J am, "or." — Ex. jj^ ^\ Js jjjl "Did Zaid stand up 
or Amr ! " (The \ prefixed to Zaid is the in- 
terrogative particle.) 

Vj 'calci, "and not," " nor."— Ex. Vjl\ V^ J^^ JL U 
" A man did not come to me, noi' a woman." 



OF PARTICLES. 



69 



J) lal, "but."— Ex. {\^\ Jj J^j ^iV U *'A man did 
not come to me, hut a woman." 

J^ldkin, "but.''— Ex. sT^i J^ yLj ,La^ U *'I did 
not see a man, hut a woman." 



The following words and particles, many of which are 
nouns -in the accusative case, though used adverbially 
will be of considerable use to the learner : — 



%\x:)\ ihtidd^an, 

\S)\ ahadan, 

UL^l ahydnan, 

\^\ dkhtranj 

^aVI^I dkhiru 'l-amr^ 

jl 2th, 

d^i il ^'th thdkj 

\':>\ ithd, 

LJl ith md, ithamd, 

\':\ or ^jil ithaw, 

^U-1 asfalan 

'%a\ aslan, 
\JJ^ idiiirdran. 



in the first place. 

never, for ever. 

yes, certainly. 

sometimes. 

lastly. 

at length, finally. 

when. 

then, at this time. 

if, when, behold. 

when, whenever. 

then, in that case. 

below, under. 

never, not at all. 

by force. 



70 





OP PARTICLES. 




vf 


'aid, 


is not 1 


J\ 


aldn. 


'now (from al-an, 
1^ the time). 




ilia, 


but, except. 


o' VI 


ilia an. 


unless. 


r^' 


al-yaum, 


to-day. 


^J> 


ila haith, 


whither ? 


dii>ji 


ila gair ihaliJc, 


et csetera. 


uVl^^l 


ila al-dn, 


hitherto. 


U^l 


ila hund, 


hither. 


f' 


am, 


whether? orl 


Ul 


'amd. 


is it not ? 


Ci 


immd, 


either, unless. 


Ul 


ammd, 


but, as to, as for. 


jui 


ummdl, 


then, therefore. 


^u 


amdm, 


before. 


:> 


inna, 


certainly, yes. 


u' 


in, 


if. 


ut\ 


innamd. 


but, only. 


ii^ 

V 


awwalan, 


at first. 


^^ 


awalam, 


is it not ? 


%\ 


ahlan. 


welcome. 





OF PARTICLES. 


71 


o ^ 


a^, 


that is, viz. 


(2)U 


eV?/a^, 


take care ! 


Ul 


flj/daw, 


also, again, ditto. 


J 


am^ aina, 


where ? 


Ul 


bdtilan, 


in vain. 


^- 


hi-l'haqq, 


justly, in truth. 


£ji 


alhatta, 


assuredly , of course. 


^Vj. 


hadalan min, 


instead of. 


% 


bild, 


without, heyontl. 




barra, 


without, outside. 


jjt JJO 


bacda hatha. 


after this. 


JC JxJ 


baida gadin, bacda gad,eifteT to-morrow. 


J-XJ 


baud, 


far off. 


sJXj 


huTcra, 


1 'early, in the morn- 
C ing. 


L^ 


baina, bain. 


between, 
^in the meanwhile, 


c 


bainamd, 


(, whilst. 




thummay 


and then, therefore 




thamrna, 


there,in that place. 


jabran, 


by force. 


ll-:^ 


jiddaUy 


very, in earnest. 



72 



OF PAETICLES. 



iUa. ♦ iUil j, jwnla, fi'l-jumla, \ 

[ whole. 



Iju^A. jamuariy 

VU ha/aw, 
lj&. h^tha, 



altogether, 
except, God forbid, 
presently, now. 
over against. 

{according to, in 
proportion to. 

certainly. 

around. 

where. 

wherever. 

then. 



•y^ or — jlil^^s k}idrijan,Ji*l'khd'nj, without, outside. 



eU. * C 



j'kh^ssa, khassatanA especially, pecu- 
[ khususan, J liarly. 

^ * ^ L khald, nid khaldy besides, except. 

cJ'^ khaJf, behind. 

,*=,, ^ ^. fat all times, per- 

U.b dahman, | ^^^^^^^ 

^jo £?M?i, t^MTia, under, besides. 

{without, exclusive 
of. 



^J^ C^ ^^^^ ^^^y 



OF PARTICLES, 



73 



Afili^ U44M 
(Jr^ * li-i' tie 

Ml 



sdhiqan, formerly. 

sdhiqan waldhiqan, before and after. 

sancan, quickly. 

Csamcan wataca (or ") 

] [ obediently. 

(^ tacatan), ) 



sJiarcan, 

tibq, cala tibq, 

tauran, 
idjilan, 

iadd, md cdda, 
cala ^l-khusus, 

cala ^d-dawdm, 

iala ^l-faur, 
cala ayyi hdl, 
cala Jculli hdl, 
can qasd, 
can qartb, 

gdlihan^ 

gihba, gibb, 



legally. 
C according, agree- 
( ing with. 

once,asingletime. 

hastily. 

except. 

particularly. 

C always, con- 
y tinually, 

quickly, at once, 
in every state, in 
every manner. 

intentionally, 
in a short time. 



r 



C generally, prin- 
X cipally. 

after. 



74 



OP PARTICLES. 



eUi LSI J 



gibban, 

gadan, 

gair'dn, 

min gaivj 

bigair, 

gair bactd, 

fardan, 

faqaty 

fauqa V-hadd, 

fauqa Vqiyds^ 

fi atlmd t\idlilc, 

fi gudun thdlik, 

fi 'l-hdl, 

fi '1-h.aqtqa, 

fi 'l-wdgii, 

fi Tculli makdn, 

flma, fimd, 

qabl, min qabl, 

fimd bacda 

qabl aldn, 

qad, 

qudddniy 



seldom, 
to-morrow, 
except that. 

without, except. 

not far. 
singly. 
only. 

above limit, 
above measure. 

in the mean time. 

immediately, 
truly, in fact. 
in fact, really, 
everywhere, 
in what 1 why 1 
before. 

henceforward, 
before now. 
certainly, 
before, in front. 



J:^i JT* 



OF PARTICLES. 


75 


L-AJt^ qarib, 


near. 


hs qaty 


never. 


Uki qaUan, 


never, in no wise. 


yjis qaltlan, 


little {adverb). 


5c^ 

J6 ka'anna, 


as if. 


U ]^ JcatUran md, 


often. 


IjT Agatha, 


so, thus. 


dJJ5 Jcathdlikj 


likewise. 


:JS" ;5:aZZa, 


not at all. 


^ ckull aha d, hull 
U^ kullamdy 


> every one. 

r as often as, when- 
\ ever. 


^o JS^ ^wZZ yaum, 


every day. 


jf kam, 


how many, how 


\S kamdy 


as. [much. 


«^> Jcaifa, 


in order that. 
how. 


\^S kaifamd, 


1 any how, howso- 
(^ ever. 


U^i kaimd, 


r so that, in order 
1 that. 


XV ZaJwt?^, 


' necessarily, un- 
avoidably. 



76 



OF PARTICLES. 



J»V ♦ J:^l ^JA li-ajl, mm ajl, 



0" 

J 
'-^, V, ^^ 

o 



Id shay, 

Id mdhdlay 

Idkin, 

lammd, 

limd-thd, 

lau, 



on which account, 
because of, for. 

nothing. 

undoubtedly. 

but. 

not yet, when. 

why. 

if. 



lau md, lau Id, lau lam, unless. 

laita, lait, would to God. 



laisa, laiSy 



md hain, 

md dam, 

mata, 

mithl, 

mada %ayydm. 



no^ not, is not. 
yet, still, 
between, 
as long as. 
when, whenever, 
like, as. 
at all times. 



mar\idba, marhahan, welcome ! 
marra, marratan, once, once again. 
j together, along 



C,^\r 



^ 



macan, 
min aldn 



[ with, 
from this time. 





OF PARTICLES. 


77 


Ij^U ^Vl ^ 


wm aldnfa-rnddan 


, henceforward. 


cH^c^ 


min ain, 


whence. 


JM ^^ 


min haida, 


after. 


e>5: ^* 


min ta\it, 


from below. 


iCU:j^ j^ 


min haith, 


since, since when. 




mm dun, 
min gair, 


j- without. 


0> C^* 


minfauq, 


from above. 


U ^^. 


min Jiundy 


hence. 


dU ^^ 


min hundk, 


thence. 


V 


mahmd, 


as often as. 


J*' 


nahwj nahuy 


C near about,nearly, 
C as. 


r 


naiam, 


yes. 


liij 


wdqicany 


in fact, actually. 


Je^ 


wail, 


fie ! woe ! 


U 


Jid, 


behold! lo ! 


> 


Jial, 


whether 1 


U 


Jiuna, 


here. 


dlift • dJLft 


hundlc, Jiundlik, 


there. 


lijA 


huwa-thd, 


behold ! 


li"- 


yacni, 


that is to say, viz. 



( 78 ) 

CHAPTEK XI. 

GENEEAL OBSERVATIONS. 

The irregular verbs in which one of the three weak 
radicals, viz. tj, j, 1, occurs, present the greatest diffi- 
culties to the Arabic student, as those letters are some- 
times changed one for the other, or dropped altogether. 
A little practice and observation will, however, put the 
learner in possession of these irregularities better than 
any rules with which to burden his memory. See 
pp. 50—52. 

The most difficult point connected with nouns is the 
irregular, or so-called "broken" plural, which is not 
formed by the addition of ^j^ or ol. It is so extremely 
irregular and various that no rules can greatly assist the 
memory ; but those forms which most generally occur 
will soon become familiar, and a dictionary will afford 
every necessary assistance with regard to the more un- 
common. 

The principal forms, however, are comprehended in 
the following table : — 

SING. PLUBAL. 



iJA a parlour \^j 

^Ijft. a wall ^ju-&. 

j^\ red 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 79 

SING. PLXTBAL. 

i^j3 a bladder l_j^ 

J>.^ a man S^-^j 

cu*j a house ^^ytri 

L-;.^U striking ej^ 

J«\r perfect "A^ds* 

A^ throwing, an archer, a darter . . . »L*, 

^j^ an ape 5.5^ 

^^^ a branch ^Jlacf 

J_Ia. a mountain jUll 

^l&. a seal, a signet Jlji. 

^:^ aboy JJs^ 

L-A)^ noble tLsJ:. 

^a. wounded ^>^ 

Further, it is not at all an uncommon circumstance for 
the same word to have various forms of the plural ; e.j. 

, , X ^O ^ JO - 

J*>. has the forms JU>., J^l, J-&.1. 

Jo ^ 

[Note. — The last form (J-^1) is called a plural of 

5 oio JO X ^ 

paucity (iiXll jl^, and is restricted in its application 
to three to ten (inclusive).] 

With regard to the quadriliteral nouns, all the simple 



80 GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 

ones, and many of those which are augmented^ together 
with their f eminines, form their plurals by inserting 1 after 
the second letter, the first having (-), and the third (-), 

as t^j^si, from i^j^sa " a star ;" ^\;^j from ^^ " a 

dirham ;'' j^lx*, from j-at* " a temple," " a place of 

worship," etc. 

The modern Arabs use no particle for an interrogation, 
but denote it by the tone of voice. They sometimes, 
however, employ J^ (which is a corruption of ^ shay, 
" a thing," or ^ {j\, usually shortened 'to aisTi, " what 
thing") both in interrogative and negative sentences. 
Thus, they say, ix^ m,^\ ^J> <z^>j ruhtish al-yaum unduh, 
**Did you go to him to-day 1" Also, nx^ ^^Jl ^J^ e>», U 
md ruhfush al-yaum cinduh, **I did not go to him 
to-day." In the latter case, the ^ of the Arabs is used 
as pas in French after ne. 

It has been remarked (p. 20) that the use of the dimi- 
nutive form is of rare occurrence. The contrary^ how- 
ever, is the case in Egypt, where it is frequently 

employed unnecessarily ; as^,^, ioT jJui> ^^ small ;" t-^^Ji 

for u-^i "near," "neighbouring," "adjacent." 

The Arabic language abounds with synonyms; and, 
of a number of words which are synonymous, one is 
in common use in one country, and another elsewhere. 
Thus the Egyptian calls milk ^^J ; the Syrian calls it 



GENERAL OBSERVATIONS. 81 

The word ^^ is used in Syria to denote a par- 
ticular preparation of sour milk. Again, bread is called 
in Egypt ,ji-c, in other Arab countries j-^, and so on. 

It may also be mentioned that the same word is some- 
times dijfferently pronounced in diJBPerent parts. But, in 
spite of these irregularities, far less local variation is 
found in the vulgar Arabic than in the English spoken 
in the different counties of England. The vowels i and 
u are frequently sounded e and o, and in most grammars 
of colloquial Arabic they are so written. But it must be 
observed that the short vowels in Arabic are always 
indistinctly uttered, so as to affect their theoretical 
pronunciation. The same thing may be noticed in 
English provincial conversation. The Irishman always 
sounds the u in fun and similar words like a continental 
short ; the Scotchman, American, and Australian give 
to the i in hint, liim, etc., a sound like short e. 



BOOK II. 



SYNTAX. 



CHAPTER I. 

OF THE NOMINATIVE CASE OF THE NOUN. 

The nominative case is principally employed to express 
the following : — 

1. U:l^1, the subject. 

2. ^-i', the predicate. 

Ex. c-^K xj>\ ^^ Zaid (is) ivriting ;" where j^j* is 
the subject^ and u-*jo the predicate. 

3. JcUll, the agent, as jjj c->;wi '^ Za^W beat.*' 

4. JcUJI ^^U, the substitute of the agent, i. e, the 
subject of a passive verb. 

X ^ J 

Ex. jyj u^ '^ Zaid was beaten." 

5. j^^LJl, the vocative^ as j^ b ^^ 0, Zaid.^* 



( 84 ) 

CHAPTER II. 
OF THE OBLIQUE CASE. 

Wheis" two nouns follow each other, the second being in 
the dependent or oblique (i, e. genitive, dative, ablative) 
case, the latter is made j^j^ ( — see chap, ix., Etymol., 
p. 63) by a Icasra^ as J»^i ^\zS "the book of the man;" 

or by (^) if the noun is indefinite (p. 12), as J*^ ^J<:l^=» 
" the book of a man." 

Note. — The noun preceding an oblique case never 
admits the tanwin, being considered to be definite in 
sense, even though written without the article ; thus, in 
these instances, we have e-ili5 not u->L3 . 

The use of the oblique case in Arabic is very defective; 
for an adjective placed after it may be referred either to 
'^t, or to the preceding substantive. Thus, in the expres- 
sion xJijJi Jayli v^-^> ^^^ word x^kaJl may be taken as 
a qualification either to c-jIjlS^ or to Jayll. The modern 
Arabs, in their vulgar conversation, seeing the defect of 
this construction, remove the ambiguity by inserting the 
w^ord cb or cli^ *^ property." Thus, ^J\ cb ^k*)! ^\:S^\ 
*^ the excellent book, the property of the man ;" kJ^\ 
xsAaxli JaJi ^b ^' the book, the property of the excellent 
man." 

Note. — The ambiguity above spoken of arises from 



OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 85 

the omission of the final vowels in ihe pronunciation, as 
is usually done. Otherwise the expressions J»-^li c->L:lS 
xJisJl and xvk«Jl J=^i u-)l^ are sufficiently explicit. 



CHAPTER III. 
OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 
The following instances will exemplify the uses of the 
accusative case : — 

1. jjlkjl Jjxftjl, the absolute accusative, as b^ "^^ 
**I beat heating]" where G^ is the accusative of the 
verbal noun, and is equivalent to an adverb, giving force 
to the expression. This adverbial accusative is to be 
understood of the agent or subject, not of the object 
affected by the action. 

30, ^ i ^ 3 o^ ^ 

2. A> JjxflJ^ the object of the action, as Ijjj o>^ ''^ I 
beat Zaid." 

3 Ox 

3. aJ Jj-x^l, the time or place in which anything is 

done. 

fi ^ 30 
Ex. loji cjy.** " I travelled one day.^^ 

4. aJ Jjxijl, the object for which the action is per- 
formed. 

Ex. 11 Lj:>li \s>j «i^^ "I have beaten Zaid to 
give instruction to him." (Here the object is 



86 OP THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 

expressed by the verbal noun — corresponding 
to our infinitive — of the derivative verb 
i_^jij which means *' he instructed/') 

5. AX* JjxaJI, the person or thing in whose company 
the action was performed. 

Ex. ju^ss'j i\J\ ijjz^\ " The water was equal with 

the woodJ' (The verb (j;ji-i " it made itself 

equal to," is the eighth derivative of the root 

ijy,, *^ it was worth or equivalent. '') 

In such cases J and has the signification of a* ivith. 
The accusative case is also used to express the following : — 



O " ^ o J 



6. (JjLJ^ the vocative, asj .^c ^ jjj b " 0, Zaid, son 
of Amr." [This only refers to a word in the vocative 
which governs a succeeding word in the construction, 
as in the instance giv^en ^^ " son of " governs j^^ in the 
oblique case ; or to a vocative in which an absent person 
is addressed.] 

7. ^i.uJ1 , the accusative of exception. 

Ex. \jjj VI j%yLJi Ja '^ The people rose except Zaid.^' 

8. Jlil , the state or condition. 

Ex. LS\j >>i\ (\s^ " Zaid came riding. ^^ 

9. Vj-:j4»Jjl, the accusative of specification. 



OF THE ACCUSATIVE CASE. 87 

Ex. L*Aj ^ij »^IL> ** Zaid's soul was cheerful " (Z/Y. 
Zaid was cheerful as to the soul). 
[Nos. 8 and 9, like No. 1, may be considered as adverbs 
, formed from the accusatives of nouns.] 

10. AjiliWI, the accusative of metonymy.* 

Ex. 1 j*c ^ ^^s9 ** Soto many servants had I ? " 

f ^O XX O 

Ua,^ Vx^ss fjx>£- ^' I have such and such dirhems,^^ 
n. ^j^jJi, number. 

f J ^ , ^ , < , at, 

Ex. ^. ^Lc j^l ojU *' I saw eleven menr 
12. ^j^^', cautioning. 

Ex. jlVl dM "Take care of ^Ae lionr 

There are several verbs signifying *^to be/' *Ho con- 
tinue," &c., with an additional inherent sense relating to 
time or place, which require the adverbial accusative 
after them, as the following : — 

1. ^^=9 as Ul5 jjj, ^ Zciid was standing. 

2. -^1 " he passed the evening,'' as LSb j^ ^^^1 

Zaid was crying (in the evening). 

,, of ^ * ^ ' ^o t 

3. ^-^1 ^^he passed the morning," as ^\j> jjj ^^^\ 

Zaid was laughing (in the morning). 

* Metonymy, as referring to the sabstitution of li, " to me," 
for some word meaning directly '* I have." 



88 OF THE ACCUSATIYE CASE. 

4. s^' **he attained to noon-time," as U;U. Si\ ^js:^\ 
Zaid was hungry (at noon). 

5. JJ? "he continued to be, through the whole day," 

as, Lao Jj j Jli Zaid was fatigued (all day). * 

6. olf " he passed the nighty" as L^li jjj olj Zaid 

repented (all night long). 

7. ^_^m:j! as ^aU. jjj ^^^ Zaid is not ignorant. 

8. .U as UHc j^j ; .Id Zaid was knowing. 

9. ^\j U '^he failed not," as \jt\^ jjj JV) U Zaid was 

watching. 

10. csUil Ic ^* he relaxed not," as LWU. jj \ dwl U Zaid 

continued preaching. 

11. j:3 U "he ceased not/' as ^^ J^J ^^ U Zaid con- 

tinued reading. 

12. — ^ U "he desisted not," as LiU j^ -^ U Zaid 

continued walking. 

13. ^b lo " so long as," as L^m^^o JuJi ^b U Jxi Learn 

as long as learning is possible. 

In Nos. 2 — 6 of the preceding examples the verbs are 
of a peculiar kind, based upon nouns, as with us the 
verbs " to winter," " to sidle," "to forward," "to church." 

The original sense is almost ignored, and they are 



OF THE VERB. 89 

treated as meaning simply " was ^' in a continuous state. 

In jSTos 9 — 12 the U is simply the particle " not ;" in 13 

it is the adverb ^^how," taking the sense ** how long " in 

connexion with the verb J^ *'it lasted." 

There are several particles which have a similar effect. 

but which make the subject only take the accusative 

form, while the predicate remains in the nominative ; as 

the following : — 

w « <» -. 5 

Ji^ as ^U \xji) ^\ Truly Zaid (is) standing. 

^\r... HI IJ-Jji^^ ^^^^ (^^) ^^ ^ ^^^^ ^^'^^'^ "^^ 
if Zaid a lion"). 

^jSo . . . ^jXj ^U ^3 The people stood up, but Zaid 

^jJU. ij^ (is) sitting. 

c>J . . . ^U. \si\ oJ 0, that Zaid (were) present ! 

JjJ ... j»^lJ Iju^j Jx) Perhaps Zaid (is) approaching. 



CHAPTER lY. 
OF THE VERB. 
When the subject precedes the verb, the latter agrees 
with it in gender and number, except when the nomina- 
tive is a broken plural of either gender, or a regular 
feminine plural; in which case the verb is put in the 
feminine singular. 



90 OF THE TERB. 

When the order is reversed, and the verb put first, 
there are various exceptions, of which it will be suffi- 
cient to note the following cases. 

1. If the subject be a regular plural, or a broken 
plural denoting persons of the male sex, the preceding 
verb is usually put in the sing, niasc, particularly when 
one or two words are interposed between it and the 
subject ; as ^yj^^\ ^ the helievers said ; jU. . j»^ o>b eU. 

3 # o 

i^=*A ^^* there came one day {some) men from 3Iecca ; 

il4a-Jl ^^1 US ^^\ shall we believe as fools have believed.^ 

2. If the subject be a broken plural, no matter whether 
derived from a masc. or a fem. sing., the preceding verb 
may be either masc, or fem.; as j« ^ ^^=vJS »ju-i J 

dJi then your hearts became hard henceforward (ei^^-J fem. 
sing., u>^ masc. plural). 

3. If the subject be a feminine noun in the plural 
number, whether a regular or a broken plural, the pre- 
ceding verb may be put either in the masc. or fem. sing. 

Ex. IjUc U cuU- ^^\o^ and the evil consequences of what 

fhei/ did came upon them; IjijJI ^ ij^ JU (some) women 

in the city said ; ^j-sr* ^Ij ^^J and my daughters 

lamented their misery. 

In the modern language, the arrangement is more like 
European custom. Whether the noun or the verb stand 



EXERCISES. 91 

first, they agree in number, singular witli singular, and 
plural with plural. A collective noun may be accom- 
panied by either a singular or a plural verb. 



EXERCISES. 



" The leginning of wisdom (is) the fear of God.^* 
^\j the heginning^ subst. masc. without tanwtn or article, 
because it is followed by a genitive or oblique case 
(p. 84). 

i-ft-i==»il of wisdom, subst. fem. with article, and therefore 

without tanwtn (p. 11). The vowel at the end is the 

mark of the genitive. The mark over 1 is the wasla 

(p. 11), denoting that it has no vowel, the vowel of 

the preceding letter being carried on to the J ; thus 

Ta^asu 7. This is always the case with the article. 
-»' -- J i, 

Afllss* the fear, subst. fem. See remarks on ^\j, 

AiJi of God. The last letter has, grammatically, a hasra, 
being the oblique, or genitive, of Allah. 



s* not act well i 
to anc 

^-0 he who, rel. pron. (p. 25). 



" He who does not act well to himself, does not act well 
to another.'* 



62 EXERCISES. 

o , 

J not, neg. adv. apocopating the following verb (p. 62). 

^j»*^ acts well, does good, 3rd person sing. masc. future 
Conditional of the 3rd derivative from ^^^..^ (p. 43). 
The particle J never admits of the pret. after it, but 
always requires the future. 

A--iJ to himself. The prep. J governing ^jju self {p. 29), 
in the oblique case (p. 17); s the pron. suffix 
3rd pers. sing, masc, with kasra in place of damma 
(p. 27). 

Ox Ox ^ X 

ijj^ to another, ^ a noun denoting another than ; ijJd 
/o another than him{self). 



[from luqman's fables.] 

J xO'^'x xO 
X Ox O X XX xOj WXx XX O X Jxx xx xxO^ xx x ^w>x 5 x 

l^l**. ^^ ^^s:^ Li:\ Uld aJlc oLfl.^.^ c->*k» »J^ J^>. »;* ^Lil 

Xx X J ^ X ■'x X X ^^ X <* J XX XXX X Ox X XX 

X X xx?^xx '^ ^ t xxOx x-'xx J X O O^ Jxx XX xO.»x "^ ."t 

rjLjl a wiaw, subst. masc. 

y^iijjJ^^^ and death, j conj., Jl def. art., oj-* subst. masc. 
The article prefixed to it displaces the tanwin (p. 13). 



EXERCISES. 93 

ij^ once on a time, adverbial subst. fern, accus. (p. 85). 

J»». carried, 3rd pers. masc. sing. pret. 

i\j>. a faggot, subst. fern, accusative, without tanwtn, 
because preceding a genitive. 

u>k>. oftcood, subst. masc. obi. case. 

o ^ J ^ ^ 

cui-ft.:i.3 and so it was heavy, \^ denotes more than j ; 
and so — i. e. in consequence of his carrying it. 

O , J , 

cul-ftJ 3rd pers. fern. pret. sing. 

aJU vpon h'm, the prep. ^ with pron. suffix 3rd pers. 
sing. m. oblique case. 

Zi"-' 

Us and so when, 

Ci:l he was oppressed, 3rd pers. sing. pret. m. 3rd deriva- 
tive of c. 
_j^j and was weary, 

o 

^^ from, 

' o , 90^ , , , 

l^a. carrying it, J»>. , a verbal noun from the verb J*». ; 
the last radical has kasra, to denote the oblique 
after the prep. ^ * U pron. suffix fern, sing., agree- 
ing with ljj>" 

\^i ^j he cast it, 3rd pers. sing. masc. preterite, construed 
with the prep. t_^ . [It might also be used w^ith an 
accus. absolutely, without the preposition.] 

^& from. 



94 EXIRCISES. 

Ap;f^ Jiis sJioulder^ subst. fern. (p. 15) sing, oblique case, 
governed by prep, ^ ; with pron. suffix in the 
oblique case. 

Ic^ and called, conj. ^ with verb in 3rd pers. sing. pret. 
masc. 

^ upon. 

A^jj himself, — ^^ spirit, or 5^?/ (having the same meaning 
as ^jJlS), s pron. suffix ; they are in the oblique or 
gen., being governed by the prep. ^ . 

OjJb deatJiy l-> prep, governing oj^ in the obi. — The 
verb lo might also be used without the prep. ; thus 
o^°i Icl (" called death "). 

^\ai^ SO Jie presented himself, he appeared, u_j and so — 
in consequence of the call — with verb in the pret. 
sing, masc, 3rd pers. 

1j to him (p. 27). 

y3<9 saying, part. act. of Jl5 he said (p. 51). The final 
1 is not sounded (p. 10), 2. e. the word is qd'ilan, not 
qd'ildn. The word is in the accus., denoting the 
state or condition (Jl>^ p. 86). 

li^ behold. 

\S\ I. 



EXERCISES. 95 

b IJ wJiy ? {lit., ''for what this?'' meaning "what is 
this for which 1 ") 

f^ys^^ ^dve you called me ? 2nd pers. sing. pret. m. of the 
verb G^, with pron. suffix of 1st pers. (p. 29). 
According to what is remarked above about ^j 
and U^, it might have been ^j Ojc.>. 

Jli so lie said J conj. v«i with verb, 3rd pers. pret. sing. m. 

dij^j I called you, 1st pers. pret. sing, of Ic^ with pron. 
suffix, 2nd pers. sing. masc. 

JM^ that you might lift, J that— a particle making the verb 
subjunctive (p. 59), that is tarfaca instead of tarfaiUy 
2nd pers. masc. fut. of the verb ils. he raised, 

»jjfe this, demons, pron. fem. sing. (p. 24), 



« O J 

i 



ij^ faggot, accus. fem., before a gen. and therefore with- 
out tanwin. 

v-Jaji of wood, 

^ upon, prep, governing the oblique case. 

^fljL^ss ^y shoulder^ 



( 96 ) 
ANECDOTE OF THE KHALIfA MU^TASIM. 



was that-he to tlie-Mu«ta8iin happened what strange of And 

A — i — 1 — - — 9 8 J — i ^3 ^^ — ]\j i — ..^l ^j-Jlsr» (3 UcLi 

and- it-reached- his-hand in the cnp and (of-) his- assembly in sitting 
him friends 



J J o o , o o ^/^ i , o ^ ? >. 

-J — Vjs- ^^ ^JLc J-1^ ^^ — y«Vl (3 A^a-j^^ 5]^ 

tne-barba- of a-barbarian with the-bon- in noble a-woman that 
rians dage 

^Ox o>. ^ ^ ^ ^ " ^ S i^" W O J > 2t ,0 

a-day her-face upon struck-her that-he and Amoria in (of-)the-Rome 
he- will-come not the-barbarian to-her and- said Mu«tasim O and-she-cried 

(j-\rji ^-^lljT ^1— i-.^ J — 1 — j°f (jc Vi di-lij 

the-cup Ma«tasim and-so-sealed a-piebald-horse upon but to-you 

delivery after but I- will-drink- not said and to-the-cup- gave-it and 
it bearer 

^^O^lrf^^ O ^ O ^^ O ^r ^ , O 5<# 

. o\ UJLi .^_]L_«J1 JjJ. . -.^1 ,^ aJUj^\ 

}ie-was-in- and-when the-barbarian kill- and the-bondage from of-the- 
the moruing ing noble 



(^) All the European nations, with the inhabitants of Asia 
Minor, are often called Romans by the Arabian writers. 

(2) The t\ appended to the name of Mu'tasim is an inter- 
jection suflBxed to a nonn preceded by 1^ (Oh !) 



OF THE VERfe. ^^ 

shall-go- not that his-army ordered and Amoria to for-the-march- called 
ouc ing 

«J1 ^:;;;su-- ^^9 l^—^t^ — ==^ J — -^^ ?' (i^ ^' ri~*f '^^^ 

1000 70 in (on) and-so-they- a-piebald-horsc upon but of-them one 
went out 

^ o ^ o ^ , ^ ^ ^ jw^ , ^ , w ^ ^ xc^ 

hjy^C. 1 ft > A-^J_C Jl_»_J 4i]l 9 I— ♦JLs jjli 

Amoria to- conquest- on-him he-was- God made-open and- when — 
(of) exalted* 

JLjJI ^ — l-J^ ^2i^f--J di-:^-t'-^ Jj-ftj ^^ L^ \ >.j 

soaght and here-I-am says he and he-entered-it 



(of-)the bonds loosed and his-neck and-struck (of-)the-noble impri- 
noble (lady) soner 

with-it so-he-came- my-cup now to-me bring to-the-cupbearer said and 
to-him 

J Ci to , X ^to ^ ^^ ^ ^ ^ ^ o ^ a ^ 

* u-jI^^-jlJI t-jl — L ^j'i\ Jl — 9j Si^-'*^ L^ » « '^ (<*Jl fl 9 

the-drink was-good now said and drank and its-seal and-he-broke 



* The word JU ta^dla, *' he was exalted," is frequently added 
to the name of God in a kind of adjective sense. 



OF THE VERB. 



ANECDOTE OF MU^TASIM. 



And this was one of the strange adventures which hap- 
pened to Muctasim ; that he was sitting in an assembly of 
his friends, with a cup in his hand ; and it was reported 
to him that a noble lady was in bondage with a barbarian 
of the barbarians of Jlome, in Amnjoria, and that he had 
struck her on the face one day, and she cried, ** Help, O 
Muitasim ! " And the barbarian said to her, " He will 
not come to you unless on a piebald horse/' And 
Muttasim sealed up the cup, and gave it to the cup- 
bearer, and said, " I will not drink of it till after the 
delivery of the lady from bondage, and the slaying of the 
barbarian.'^ And when it was morning, he gave orders 
for marching against Ammoria, and commanded his 
troops that not one man of them should go forth except 
on a piebald horse: and they set out upon seventy 
thousand piebald horses. And when the Most High God 
opened to him the conquest of Ammoria, he entered it, 
and he said, " Here I am, here I am ;'' and he sought 
the barbarian, the imprisoner of the lady, and struck off 
his head; and he loosed the bonds of the lady, and saicj./ 
to the cup-bearer, "Bring me now my cup;'' and it was 
brought to him, and he broke the seal, and drank^ and 
said, " Now delicious is the draught." 



EXEKCISES. 99 

THE ALF LAILA. 

1000 the stories of from 100 the after 60 the and 2iid the night tLe 

and a night night 

her sister to Dinazad said folloAving the night the was when ar d 

US for finish then asleep not you were if sister O Shahi zad 

the king O me reached It honour and love to her she said story the 

he indeed the 5th my brother as to and said harher the that the happy 

the men begs of poor a man was and ears the ciit off was 

I — jj. — ]1^ ^^l-^=9j l^L^,-.'j »Ju_i.Lji l_*_j cjLi^j j ^ — - — 1 

our father was and by day he takes it what by subsists and by night 

left and died and so fell ill age in going far great old 

Ja.1j J-^=» ^^ ^ • • ^ » l-a\;, » .,. ^''lU (•-^•^ jiUx--j I-:.-) 

one every and took between us so we divided it dirhem 700 to us 

^ ibl^jJl j._i-i A il — 9 ^^A^ii jc ^^ ^ — -^^^ r*-^"^ *-^^'* 

the dirhems took he indeed 5th the my brother and as to dirhem ICO 

thinks he whilst and with it he does what knows not and and was 

amazed 

glass it with he will buy that his mind in fell when the money that in 



100 EXERCISES. 

put it and glass ttie lie purchased so by it gain and sell it and sort every of 

f-^;W J^\3 ^-H t-^^- (^>* ci ^'^^ -^n^ <3-^ (J 

his side to and of it he sella a place in sat and large basket in 

A_.«,,..ftJ 9 J^-a-9 ^^-X-li-J J-sti^ A-«-Lg »^_^_U J..;->**L5 kJ'vji. 
himself in said and thinks he sat and upon it his back leant and a wall 

for 400 I sell it glass this my money head that O soul know 

(Of) 

with me it reach that till sell and I buy cease not that I then dirhem 
place to and carry it goods with it and I buy 1000 4 

I buy until desist not then lOCO for 8 and sell it such 

^ jtJl » sLl-^olj J^^^'4 ^-♦^ c^* W-ti-^ L5y^^ ^^ ^ ^-? 

perfume (oO kinds and jewels all of in it other merchandise 

house I will buy that with and much gain by it an I gain and sell it 



and drink and eat horses and servants and attendants and fine 

VI iiipi J X 1 \ \ 1 % r, \ i— 1 jii vj ^^.iij 

but the city in female singer male singer leave not and and make 

merry 

M as exalted God will if my money head and make to me I brought them 



EXEECISES. 101 

( J r. V> j A-— 11 — > ^ A . r c fj^ A^s> Ijjfc ^^j:i c_ftll aJIo 

basket and his mind in lie reckons it he all of it this 1000 100 

was 

Jl — 5j <^»*A^ A \\ ' — "i jbj^ aJUIj a — JJ^ \:^^ — \ -Ls^l 

and said reckoned he indeed then at 100 his hands between glass 

ciA-3t-)l dlJi j_i-3c_s ^^ c-fl]l iJL — )L-.x» ^l -d m ^ 

I send that then at lOCO 100 my money has when and 

become 

vizirs and kings daughters demand in and weddings in female-brokers 
(of) marriage 

A 1 oO I 4-3 1 A I-J^ > ^ l,.:g.„L) JM Ij^J^ U .j->*»V ^ 

perfect that she his daughter of it reached me as our vizir especially 

1000 1 offer her and of parts charming beauty wonderful qualities 

no-^e putting in upon I took her and if it was they and if dinars 
(of) the dust not consent 

^Li-o Jju-i. IjLS- ^jJLJ^ (^U ^> O.J ..rt iA IJI 9 1, 4.,.. ?l 

yoang servants 10 I will buy my in she has and when her father 
house arrived 

^^_a^-s?Lj Ixw?;* c-^;bi ^ Lj>y— -jj c*)^JLJl »^.^=» c^^i ^ 

with jewel set gold of saddle and of kings robes then 

C^J ^^U—5j LT^-^ (sLIOi ^-^} ^i c^t^^ 
on and before me and behind me attendants I make ride then valuabl i 

and cflusedfor me he gtood the vizir he saw and my left and my right 
me to sit me when 



102 EXERCISES. 

with me I take ani his son-in-law because I below me he sat and his place 
for dowry 1000 in them two purses load them and two servants 

^^M* Q ) ^_*_^=3 lj_*JLx_i ^->.^1 ^Ljhi-^ "^^ t5«> — *1^ 

my soul greatness they know so that other 1000 I give and 

my house to I retire then my eye in of the world smallness and 
dA— jt_Li^ 4 ) ci^t*? (jl; — *^ ^^^ ;:;-* *^^ ^-^ ^^^ • 

clothed and to him I gave my wife side from one came when and 

yl . Ci i O X y JO^^ i3 ^ »" O O y <• 

^ )\ ^Ji A_-JLi: 1 ^ i^J^ i_)J — ^) L_a. ^jlj A.g.-L-g 

I indeed then him upon I gave it back with a present came if and upon him 

Jo ^^ ^ J ^ ^ ^ ^ O J J J^ 

I commanded that they did and when my state with command them 
them arranging 

O > II J O^ X o 

5^^— 1 si' o-ij 1 >- lil — 9 (C,b — ^l -olj l-^Ls)-.) 

of the retire- time came when and my to arrange and to go in 
ment house procession 

with her 

O ^O x X X J Ox^ X x9^ O • OfO 

(of) pilk cushion upon sat and my the best I put on with my 

clothes (of) wife 

nnd my mv pru- for excess left nor right turn not reclining 

gravity dence 

not and I and her orna- in the moon like standing my wife will and 
her robes ments be 



EXERCISES. 103 



^ JO 

■ ■ \ 



was presents? ho all says so that and pride for pride to her look 

I^-jLs U-^JLc cJ-k-jeJ di-::-i^Uj di_jl^*l LiVj-*j Ljj._-— ^l_i 

for she upon her be pitiful thy maid — thy wife our lord — our master 

oh! 

L4_^ ^ ^\ j.ai 8;_la_:^ U.jLc ^^\ di jj. j ^j - > a_^JI_5 

to her it gave for by a look upon shew thy two between standing 
pain her favour hands 

^O^ ^ O ^ ? Ml J '^ - JJO ^ 5 J 

I raise that and at (several) before the they kiss then standing 
times me ground 

the to my head I turn then one a look upon look — my 
earth her head 

then my clothes change and I so I rise her room to with they go and 

her 

^JaJl V dJlill A3Jls.^\j lolill 8^1 Ll;U. lils U-J^c ^^-*&.l ^j**--^l 

I look not with the second time she and than better put on 

robe came when it 

J o^'^ ci J ^o ^ ^ a ^y o ^ J ^ a ^ c ^ 

so I look times several and ask me my between they stand till to her 
two hands 

desist not — the earth to bend my eyes then my eye (of) with on her 

corner 

that servants some I com- then her decora- is till like this 

mand tion finished 

then tire women to and I gave it 500 in it purse they bring 



1(04 EXERCISES* 

sleep and on I look with they and with they that I com- 
her her entered when her leave mand 

me alone them 

my sonlthat of me it may be so that speak to her and her side at 
said , not 

O my master and say my band and kiss her mother will come and great 

^ J o/«- ^a ■» ^o, - , , JO J 

her mind and recover thy approach- wishes for she thy maid to look 
ing 

JJ-J-- — ::-j (•j—^^ LT"^^-* ^^-^ *^1; ^^^ ^!^ V-^ '^J^ 

and she will she will from me that she so answer I give and 

kiss stand saw when back not 



man saw not — young my daughter O my master say — several my foot 
girl times 

J — 4 — » L-^.--JLi ^;-*^=uj jji»U5jVl ^':> dLJ. A cji. lil-9 

so bend her heart will break frown that thee from she saw and if 

cup her mother wi'l give then and her her heart and and speak to her 
her mind soothe to her 

P*^ O OA»x tol--xx O , J , xO 

^L>. bli A--^*-lj djuM** ^iii jc-*-^^ '^-4-^ J^-^J vlr' *?^ 

tome and give hitn to thy upon conjure to her and will wine it in 
she came when drink lord say 

to her look not reclining and I my 2 hands between standing 1 leave her 

Ut ^ J O , O , 'Ml J ^ a " OxO 

V=4-^!^ 5>^>c ,^^j >i>c Jl JjiJ- ^j^ ^_^^^ ^^ 

I leave her powerful and my powerful that she says until of my pride from 
mind I soul 



EXERCISES. 



105 



know of subjection taste that slie may taste my 2 hands between standini? 

give hack not upon of God by truth O my lord to and she sultan that 1 
thee me says (am) 



Jjflij ^J^ ^JL9 l^^»L^=a\ *% — 9 ^jW ^ — **•? c5:^~ c^* r*^^ 

and upon me so she I speak still not thy slave and I my hand from cup 
says urges to her 

in my hand so I my mouth to and brings it drinking it from escape no 
shake near 

CjLs? aIs^) jjMJ, ^o lJX_ifc J-«^-^|^ (^=t^ w^-*-^'j \-^^ 



and it with his kicked then thus 
came foot 


and do with my spurn her face 
foot her 


Jji^ c>J 


t!:^ 


juC_: 


ti u^-^-j ^^^' j-^^ 


J^ 


earth 


from 


high 


a place 


in and it was (of) glass basket 


upon 






* A— ^ 


. Uj^ 


W >' X o, , - 


i ^ 



in it all what was broken ground to so went down 



THE HUNDRED AND SIXTY-SECOND NIGHT OF THE TALES 
OF A THOUSAND AND ONE NIGHTS. 

When the following night arrived, Dinazad said to her 
sister Shahrzad, **0, sister ! if you are not asleep, finish 
the story for ns." She replied to her : " With great 
pleasure. It has been related to me, O king of exalted 
dignity, that the barber spoke thus: * As to my fifth 



106 EXERCISES. 

brother, he was crop-eared, and was a poor man, 
who begged in the evening, and subsisted by day on 
what he took. Our father was an old man, greatly 
advanced in years, when he fell sick and died, leaving 
to us 700 dirhems, which we divided, each of us 
taking 100 dirhems. As to my fifth brother, when he 
received the dirhems he was amazed, and did not know 
what he should do with them. But whilst he was 
meditating upon the money, it came into his mind to 
buy with it glass of every kind, and to retail and gain by 
it. He purchased, therefore, glass, and put it into a large 
basket, and seated himself in a place in which he might 
sell it. And by his side was a wall ; and he leant his 
back against it, and sat meditating and saying to himself, 
Know, O soul, that the capital amount of this glass I 
sell for 400 dirhems. Then, however, I will not stop : 
I will buy and sell till there mount up with me 4000 
dirhems ; and I will buy goods therewith and carry 
them to such and such a place, and will sell it for 8000 
dirhems. Then I will not give over till I buy goods as 
before ; and I will purchase with it all sorts of jewels 
and perfumes, and I will sell them, and acquire great gain. 
Then, after that, I will purchase a fine house, and I will 
buy slaves, and attendants, and horses ; and I will eat, 
and I will drink, and I will make merry ; and I shall 
neither want for the male singers nor the female singers 



EXEECISES. 107 

of the city, but make them to come to me ; and I will 
increase, God willing, my capital sum to 100,000 dirhems. 
All this he reckoned in his imagination, with the basket 
of glass before him of 100 dirhems. Then he still com- 
puted in his mind, and said, When it shall become a 
capital of 100,000 dirhems, then upon that I will send 
out female brokers in marriage^ and I will demand in 
marriage daughters of kings and vizirs; ^ particularly of 
our vizir, as it is reported to me concerning her that she 
is perfect in accomplishments, wonderful in beauty, and 
graceful in shape ; and I will offer to her a portion of 
lOOO dinars. If they consent, let it be ; but if not, I 
will carry her away, in defiance of her father's anger, 
by force ; then, when she has entered my house, I will 
purchase for her ten young slaves : afterwards, I will 
buy princely robes, and a saddle of gold^ adorned with 
jewels of value. Then I will cause servants to ride 
behind me and before me, and on my right hand and on 
my left ; and when the vizir sees me he will stand 
before me, and will cause me to sit in his seat, and 
place himself below me, because I am his son-in-law. 
And I will take with me two slaves, and I will load 
them with two purses, in which will be 1000 dinars, 
for her portion ; and I will present 1000 dinars after- 
wards, that they may know my generosity and my 
greatness of soul, and the littleness of the world in 



108 EXERCISES. 

mj eyes. Then I will return to my house ; and if one 
shull come on the part of my wife, I will present him 
and clothe him with a rich dress ; and if he comes 
with a gift, I will give it him back. Then I will give 
them directions to set in order the things appertaining 
to my dignity. And when these things are performed, 
I will give them orders for the marriage night, and for 
the arrangement of my house. Then when the hour 
comes for retirement with my bride, I will dress in my 
most magnificent robes ; and I will sit in dignity, re- 
clining upon a silk cushion, not turning to the right or 
to the left, with grave prudence and majestic wisdom ; 
and there will be my spouse standing like the full moon 
in her robes and ornaments, and I will not look upon 
her, out of pride and haughtiness, so that all those who 
are present will say, 0, our lord and our master, bend 
in pity towards your spouse and your servant, for she is 
standing before you : favour her with a look : standing is 
indeed painful to her ; and they will kiss the ground 
before me several times. Then I will raise my head 
and look upon her with a single glance, and then turn 
my eyes to the ground. Th^y will then retire with her 
to her chamber, and I will also rise up, and I will change 
my clothes. Then I will dress more handsomely ; and 
when she comes a second time in second robes I will 
not look on her till they stand before me, and entreat 



EXERCISES. ^ 109 

nic ^everal times as before. Then I will look upon her 
^yith the corner of my eye ; after which I will bend my 
eyes upon the ground, and I will not desist thus till her 
decoration is completed. Then I will order some of tlie 
servants to bring a purse with 500 dinars, and I will 
give it to the tire-women : then I will order them to 
leave me alone with her. When they have brought her 
in, then I will look at her, and I will sleep by her side, 
and not speak to her. So that mention will be made of 
me, as to the haughtiness of my mind, and her mother 
will come and will kiss my hand, and say, O, my lord, 
look upon your servant, as she wishes to approach you, 
and recover her spirits : but I will not give her an}^ 
answer. And when she perceives that from me, she 
will arise and kiss my feet several times, and will say, 
0, my lord, my daughter is a virgin, and never saw man : 
w^hen, therefore, she perceives from you those frowns, it 
will break her heart. Bend to her, then, and speak to 
her, and soothe her heart and her mind. Then her 
mother will give her a cup of w4ne, and will say to her. 
Take this cup to your lord, and present it to him. 
When she approaches me, I will let her stand before me, 
whilst I^ reclining, will not look at her, from the pride 
of my heart ; so that she will say that I am proud, and 
my soul is proud ; whilst I will not relax, but leave her 
standing before me, that she may taste subjection, and 



110 EXERCISES. 

know that I am sultan, and say to me, O, m^^ lord, by 
tlie truth of God do not refuse the cup from my hand, 
I am your servant ; and I will not speak to her. Then 
she will beg me earnestly, and she will say. You must 
drink it ; and she will advance it to my mouth, and I 
shall shake my hand in her face, and spurn her with my 
foot, and do thus.' Then he kicked out with his foot, 
and struck the basket of glass, which, being on a place 
elevated above the ground, fell upon the pavement, and 
all that was in it was broken.'^ 



( 111 ) 



DIALOGUES. 



FIRST DIALOGUE. 

AEABIC riiONUJSrCIATIOir ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

fj^J[ljj\ — L^ sabdh al-khair ya Good morning, 

sidy {sayyidi) Sir. > 

d^lU ^\ aish hdlak How are you 1 

isil*i-^ji <i^\j^. 4^-W iayyih hi-\hair Well — may God 

Allah yusallimak save you. 

c:^5i;-*l ^^^ liaif a%bdht How were you in 

the morning? 
S^A jcc'^ «Jiil j.^il al-liamdu lillah Praise be to God, 
dad Idkum praying for you. 

.Li.1 ^y^ Ja lial dndak ^kh^c^r Have you any 

news % 
w^* w V ^'i s/^(2?/ muJiimm Nothing of impor- 
tance. ^ 
^ ox*-j Ja //aZ samid shay Have you heard 

any thing ? 
JU (^il) u.gj.^^ half (aish) hdl How is your bro 
^ CiJ^l akhuk ther ? 

Us. (^ij-* martd jiddan Very ill. 

Ai]l sUi. shofdh Alldh May God cure • 

him ! 



112 DIALOGUES. 

ABABIC PKONUHCIATIOlf BITGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

d^i^ss (^^Is) ^^1 ain {fa-ain) hunt Where Avere you 
yj^ j%Ij>V1 al-ayyam di these daysl 

Jji-1* o:> kunt mashgul I was busy. 

^^% ci^fl^ Jfi> ^aZ shuftfuldn Did j^ou see So- 
and-so ^ 
Aifli:* ^) naiam shuffuh Yes, I saw him. 

C*)\jjfc J.*3tJ> iP^l aish yacmal Jiundk What is he doing 

there? 
Jbiiji yatiallam He is studying. 

liA ^5: ^* mata yaji hund When will he come 

here 1 
\ys' gada To-morrow. 

^JX>JS. ^ aJIc JI-- sallim calaih min Salute him on my 
dndi part. 

aJI ^liJLo (ji J Jij waqul luh inni And tell him that 
musTitdq ilaih I am desiring to 

see him. 
^^Jl U Witt ansash I will not forget. 

ju^LJl X* TWflft assaldma (Go) in peace. 

[Note. — It is as well to remind the learners here that 
the final h (5) must always be sounded, as well as the final 
h (^), although not so strongly as the latter. In the col- 
loquial language as represented here, the final h stands for 
a grammatical hu or hi, and does not lose its phonetic value 
although the vowel is suppressed. The final I is different ; 
it is sounded as t before a vowel, but is otherwise silent.] 



DIALOGUES. 113 



SECOND DIALOGUE. 

AKABIC. PROXUJfCIATIOIf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS, 

4sr' «.IL jl^ b ya walad talai. al^ Boy, is it morn- 
fajr ing 1 

^Uj^cuxlUj^^^^ll ashnhams talacat The sun has been 
min zamdn up for some time. 

u-Jj.tJ AsUall ^1 U larama aftah. aitci- When I open the 
qa tashuf window you will 

see. 
jjt>. * ^s^ sfl^Mh, or Yiaqq True. 

dix* ^jil al-haqq macak You are right. / 

♦ Vls»» jc^U"^ J v::=^ y^^ ^^ thidbt \\dlan Bring me my 

(Jk^^) (P^ l-iojaT) clothes quickly. 

^U La ♦ ^ r>i^ ^?''i ^^ or Ma fain Where are they? >^ 

jjjJu^ll ^ dLa Tiundk cala ^s-san- There, on the box 

dul . j^c ^^^2' dnd rdsak near your head, 

U J «-t>^:j?"j ij^^ rJ ^^^^ ^^^^ i^q/*6 Z^ Now go and bring 

J-«iil ^a. (^i^-a) w?a (muyya) \at- me some water, 

(^jjj t54^j ^^ «^gsz7 i(;^^*^i that I may wash 

wa-yadaya my face & hands. 

j^sf** sjjy ioriduh svD&hn Do you want it 

warm ? 
^j^^i^ lil L V Id md and harddn No, I am not cold 

I 



114 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION-. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

aLjftJl ^^1 ain al-fuia Where is tlie 

towel ^ 
««jlki Lj9 A-9 U met jihfuwai nizd/TheTe are no clean 

ones. 
aIL^I) ^f^^^ adaituhum li U I gave them to the 
gassdla laundress. 

^«_M»lJ e:^ b1^ ,y nazzaft tdsumatt Have you cleaned 
(^jf^) {markubi) my shoes ^ 

Liflk) lo LJ Zm(^ ma nazzaft- As yet I have not 
hd* cleaned them. 

ci?^) u**?^"ULi ^^J wa-ldJcin qablamd But before you are 
LikJl (owJ t albas {takun la- dressed I will 

hist) unazzifhd clean them. 
VU *«-^> nazj^ifhum f haZa;* Now clean them 

quickly. 
i<*J^\ amrah I obey your order. 

^^c->*&. y/Zj /jz^m > Bring a chair, 

jj^l J-^ tafddidial uqiud Pray be seated. 
[jSi^\i CiWU. (j^)l a^5/(t Yidlah yd sicU Well, Sir, how are 

you? 
Ail jji aZ hamdu li lldhi Thanks (lit. Praise 

be to God). v^ 



* Agreeing with 5<j-ilJ. 
t Agreeing with «--^^»;^. 



DIALOGUES. ' 115 

ARABIC. PEONUNCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

i».U SiJ turtd Yidja Do you want any- 

thing ? 
d;*i.yi3 * V M, kathir khairak No^ tliank you. '/ 
^ dbli^ ^^* (j:> \jA murddi min jand- I have a request 
bak shay to make to you. 

jjfc j^l aish huwa What is it *? 

Ji^ djic U ijK'^l f/2 Jcdn md dndaJc If you have no- 
.hUi Jl ^XA JUJ sJiugl tacdl mad thing to do_, 

ila l-bdzdr come with me 

to the bazaar. 
\J^\ ^si (4^^ nasJitarihaidiasJiyd We will buy some 

things. 
(^1^ d^]^ ^il «25A murddak tash- What do you Avish 
tari to buy ? 

ifllis:* c;U.l&. \\djdt 7nukhtalifa Various necessary 

thinors. 
py (^i ^^-o min ay nam W hat kind ] "^ 

i_^^i^ J^^ li l-alcl iva sJi- To eat and to 
sliurh drink. 

Ac U L-^a-1 ahahh md calayya With the greatest 

pleasure. 
(JUi) 1 Ji — jfy 7i«rwh *tha?z (um- Let us go then, > 

dxc ^jU p^ (jj^l fl^isA minfulus an- What kind of mo- 
dak ney have you ? 



116 - DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PRONUNCIATION, BNGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

cjV^jj riydldt Dollars. 

-.*a-j yasiYih. It will do. 

u-i^l ^-li- khaZZ^m dsJiuf Let ine see. 

Jij iJA hatha zagal This is a bad one. 

J-^xi ^jil «i5^ nacmal What shall we do ? 

uJ;cl L ma flfir^y I do not know. 

^\J\Je6\j Ja. khwth wa-nzur al- Take and look at 
Mcp. the rest. 

^^;...,> jW Jj^ ^wZ tayyiUn These are good. , ' 

ij^j jLd ^^y Ui. kh^ZZma narvh mr Let us go, it is 
(Ij^ft^U) z^akhr^ (^rt^«- getting late (we 

khkh«r?i«) have delayed to 

the last). 
liaSj U ^ L w^ haqi land waqt There is no longer 

time. 
dJj (Jl^U) aJ U Z/55a j^/i (7)id zdl) There is yet time. 
waqt 
^hUl (ijUi) JiiJ ULs qahlamd yuqfal Before the bazaar 
J*ai (yuglaq) al-hd- closes we shall 

^ar 7^flrs^'Z reach it. 

Js?^b ^♦j namshi hi-l-cajal Let us walk 

quickly. 
Aijilj AcUl aS'Sdia thaldtha Is it three o'clock 



DIALOGUES. 117 



THIRD DIALOGUE. 



AEABIC. PRONUNClATIOlf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

^;liVl dAfl^l b dd 'l-waqt al-athdn They are now call- 
ing to prayers. 
^j^ i u-ij-^ U^ khalUnd nasJiufJl Let us see in this 
^^l^sajll di ^d-duhkdn shop. 

oU]^li f^ L>.* marhaha hikumya- You are welcome, 
la^laj ^^1 khfl^t^o/^^^^^^^^^^" gentlemen. At 

zuru [the vulgar what do you 
form for ^^Ja::3 look? 
tanzuruna]. 
Ij^ obls^ c;iji^ ^diztn sajjdddt We want some 

sagtra small carpets. 

^•.-^1 A*9 L t^^w sJiufmdfih ahsan See_, there are none 
Jji ^^ m;2 Ji2Z better than these, 

(j^l ^3 jj5C) ^^U tayyih Idliin qadd Good,, but what is 
^^xJi «i5^ as-sicr its price ? 

U>. u'atPV) rakhisjiddan It is very cheap. 

Jli ^ ♦ ^^1 a2>A^ Az^id;^^ gaZi What ! it is dear 1 
A-ksJ ^A M) hi-qadd ahli tadih For how much will 

you give it 1 
. dAil jaaJ ^j^l j.i* (7^c?^ «/«A tadt What do you 
anta offer 1 

uV c^^j A--w.^!> khamsa wa thdld- Thirty-five pias- 
thin qirsh tres. 



118 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. PEONUNCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

^x^ lo cjUlji- b yob 'kh.awdjdt md Gentlemen, not 
^^wf^ ^ U^a^^ yumkin hianqa^ less than fifty, 

Jk-sF' ^jI min 'khamsin in if yon please. , 

aijahkum 

^jtx)j\ J&.IJ j^> ^wr^c? ^akhifth «r- Will you take 
hadn forty *? 

d^U. Vi^ ?^flf t/Za khdtirak If not_, adieu. 

ji^r*^ (^^yuJl as-sicr di yvMias- I shall lose by this 
sirni price. 

^ (l_^u^O) ^-)^) ^ar5«h (tahsih), You will gain by 
8^ min gairuh something else. 

^ dAX) U ^♦jJl al-yaum md Hit To-day I have 
sTiay sold nothing. 

^jUll jjti naiudd dl-fulus Let us count the 

money. 
JUWj^ ^Ui jjc idla 't-tamdm Quite right. 
w;«j 1-kamdl 

bbj^li jS.»» jJj »JJl indaJi walad hatta Call a boy, that 
d^-Ji Jl yakhwth-//^^ ila he may take it 

^I'hait to the house. 

eJ^Wli. khdiirak Good bye. v 

«CJl ^Ul (3 j^ aindni ^lluh With the peace of 

God. 



DIALOGUES. 



119 



ARABIC. 






FOURTH DIALOGUE. 

PEONUIfCIATIOIf. 

jib futur 
jib gadct 
jib khubz {caish 

Egypt.) 

jib laban (halib) 
adi sulckar 
hul iasJidh 
ishrab halib 
nawwir as-sirdj 

naivwir ash-sJiarma 
atji ^sh'sTiamca 
Id tansa 
taiobla hun 
qarrib 



ENGLISH IQUIVALEPTTS. 

Bring breakfast. 
Bring dinner. 
Brino^ bread. 



/ 



tiW cH^ {J* ^^^^ ainjdyi 






'/Zfl^ ain rdih. 
haddir ash-shay 
mil ila ^l-yamin 



Bring milk. 

Give sugar. 

Eat your supper. 

Drink milk. 

Light the lamp. 

Light the candle. 

Put out the candle. 

Do not forget, i/ 

Come here. 

Come near. 

Where do you 
come from ? 
(Whence com- 
ing^) 

Whither (are you) 
going 1 

Make ready the 
tea. 

Turn to the right. 



120 DIALOGDES. 

ARABIC. PEONUNCIATIOIS'. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS 

JU^i (Jl J* 'niil ila ^sJi-sMmdl Turn to the left. 
^U ciaJI (il ^; ^z^^i *^«^ 7-5a^V h^t- Go home quickly. 
Ian 

^^Uil 8JJl indah al-hammdUn Call the porters. 
sJjUJI ^J Wfl^hh* 'l-mdHda Take away the 

table. 

/ 

jj*>^i*i * \joj^\ ihtaris Be careful. ^^ 

i-j4|^l^a. h^ddiV al-karrusa Get ready the car- 
riage. 
^Id c>3\ «?z^«^ /ad^ Are you at leisure *? 

^s:*L* ii^laf ^^ min haramah sd- Be pleased to for- 
mihni give me. 

dw^flll d^l^c camilt al-farsha Have you made 

the bed ^ 



LjUl^j^^ darbiz al-hdh 


Fasten the door. 


I--*a* i_^jjb Aathe 7nusiba 


This is a misfor- 




tune. 


^ll^a. ^ hum juhald 


They are ignorant. 


^>l:;^=» C-A-*. y*5 JcitdM 


Bring my book. 


jjJl Jl -.^ rwh 27a 's-swg^ 


Go to the market. 


^ Ajjw I ^.^-i. yi5 shuwayya 


Bring a little 


Idhm 


meat. 



DIALOGUES. 121 



FIFTH DIALOGUE. 



ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. / 

ciJl ^ man ant Who are you % '' 

cu-a- (j^iV li-aishjit Why are you cornel 

iJ^ J ^^iJ jjji turtd taqul U shay You want to speak ^ 

about something 
to me. 
JJJ ^jCjV Id takun thaqU Don't be trouble- 
some. 
^ji>\ \i\ ana akhruj I wiJl go out. 

^LJ ,^^>> jib thiydht Bring my clothes. 

dLjfe j*^o j»» Jium Jculluhum hu- They are all there. 
ndk 
jib ^ man Jiuwa Who is he 1 '-^ 

dl:jb SsA ^ hal ahad hundk Is any one there 1 
^^l*S^(^^ Ji qui di kamdn Say that again. 

Ijc _j^ ^ nahn naru\\ gada We shall go to- 
morrow. 
1 ja Ji nahht Jidthd Move this away. 

»>&.U l^^s>\3 ^jjt> hathi fdJciha fa- This is very fine 
khiVflr fruit. 

\^^^^jS- 1 jjb Mthd khaiar cajib This is wonderful 

news. 
^^\;^c^^\^J>.^J^ ndhn jauidntn wa We are hungry 
iatshamn and thirsty. 



122 DIALOGUES. 

ASABIC. PRONUlJfCIATION'. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

^o»^jL.s^ J-=»v j-^ ^uwa rajul rnvhta- He is a careful 
(<ya)^) ris (har^s) man. 

^S o^y^ (^ ^wm Mth.\hdbin They are great 
Tcihdr liars, 

^jjijs:* aJi9 qalhhu mdhzun His heart is 

grieved. 
ciA^j ^jVi (sks^*^ maslahafak al-dn Is your business 
tammat now completed ^ 

(_^ji A-Ic JJjJi Ja ^«^Z ad-dalil calaih Is the proof of it 
qawi strong 1 

Aikftll Av>^ (s^ ^^^ cadimat alfit- She is very impru- 
wfl'^. dent {lit. "de- 

void of pru- 
dence "). 

(^L>) (3l^jil al-jaww s,dfi (sa- The sky is quite 
M) clear. 

AjiVl Ij-si ^Vjl Jj^ t?w? auldd yuhihbu These are mis- 
H-athiyijah chievous chil- 

dren (lit. "these 
children love 
mischief"). 
^J^"^ j^ f»J^ Tculluhum haqu They all remained 
mukhtafin hidden. 

^J^ iJa qalbuh qalqdn His heart is rest- 



DIALOGUES. 123 

ARABIC. PEOIfUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALBNTS. 

^J^JSb huwa ahmaq He is a fool. 

JjL* jj^jll U;b Mthdl'Waraq ma- This paper is 
blul moist, 

is^ J*lc ^A 7Wfl7^ i^wz7 dajja Who is making a 

noise 1 
J^ftJ* JUii (j^>i aisk iammdl taqul What are you say- 
ing ? 
(j.i Js^l ^1 ^\ aish ism ar-rajul What is the name 
di of this man ? 

ij^^ l^^ jjfi. J^ ^aZ 4^5?^^ dikha ^sli- Is there much fruit 
j^l^=»j^i shajara thamar on that tree ? 

hathir 



SIXTH DIALOGUE. 

Jj^j J^' takallam hi-suJiula Speak easy. 
dUife jjl -rjy Jxi V Z(^ taiud taruh ila Go not there 

hundJc again. 

(sJLib j^:^\...jas ^ ^a/i Aw«i7fl^ sa^w Who lives there ? 

loj j.--) hj^ c-A*a* y*^ slmwayya na- Bring some wine 
i^th wa md and water. 

c-*-L '^Ijl ^ harrid al-md iay- Cool the water 
?/zJ well. 

»j5Ui (Jfi Ij^i al-gadd cola '/- The dinner is on 
mdHda the table. 



124 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PEONTJlfCIATION'. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

(!*U**»1 ,^1 aish ismah What is your 

name ? 
\sj>. jjiU. ja huwa hathi^ jid- He is very clever. 
dan 
fj^ (^jj jJ-jsT^ Sfl^lihiw^ hadrt qam Wake me very 

early. 
js^* ^^1 al-yaum ^dhw It is fair to-day. 

'hjL j^\ i^hir shuwayya Have patience a 

little. 
(J^ (J^ f*t^^ zJifl^^AAwm i7« 5«eY* Send them to my 

house. 
U Ajj^ (j^. rushsh sTiuwayya Sprinkle a little 
md water. 

69jJ\ \^^=»^ uJidl iqlih dikJia ^l-wa- Turn back that 

o'ag[a leaf. 

^>.lj ^Jjl kj .1 itrhui aidihum loa- Tie their hands 

arjulhitm and feet. 

c-jU1 ^^ j-^ ^ ^wwfl^ y«2'ir iaZa Here is a fakir at 
^l-hdh the door. 

; Ij^ ^-49 ^ hmoa fahim jid- He is very intel- 
dan ligent. 

S^ ij^) LTs^^"^ ^^ '^^^^ (orkhwSg;) This is very good 
ij^ iayyih qam bread. 

fj^ i^suJl ^ Ai.^1 irjai fi ^s-sihlcah Come back this 
di "^vay. 



DIALOGUES. 125 

ARABIC. PKONUNCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

t^j^W \^^s^:i Jo. khwtli dikha 7- Take this letter. 
maJctub 
o-Jl ^^ r>^^ ukhruj min al-lait Come out of tlie 

house. 
dl4».jj e*bJj J-**^^ **o*^*^ yadaih wa- Wash your hands 
wajJiaJc and face. 

^jlT c->ls.**' tx^c cinduJi as^hdb Jca- He has many 
thir friends. 

? ^^yCj »JjU ^^1 «f5^ fddda takun What henefit will 
l^i^rs^ ji dihJid there be in that 1 

j^ ^^y>^ \jd^^ Tcdhadu huzn ^«r- They have suffered 
tMr much sorrow. 

il)jl> ^J» a! lahti (lull) lihya He has got a long 
iawila beard. 

\dJbj}o ^^ ^^\ aisJi min iair lid- What bird is this ? 
ihd 
j^^ss^M j^ huwa sihlctr He is a great 

drunkard. 
1 jjb ^ JHa hagl man Tidtha Whose field is 

' this *? 
dbb (j*>l3 (jl^ j»^=3 ^«m ^^/i nds hu- How many people 
ndk were present ] 



126 DIALOGUES. 



SEVENTH DIALOGUE. 



AKABIC. PKONU2s^CTATIO]!f. E3faLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

-.1^1 (J *^i) ^ ^^ ^^ v^^ ^^^^' fi '^" There is no oil in 
sirdj the lamp. 

^1^ dl^ ^^ (J-^^^ aiU'wi mM2 fa^lak Pray give me a 
qalam pen. 

^^ cH^ ^^^ dukhcinuh Where is his shop? 

^JLc jjj[:>. dJl-*.ll al-malik jalas (.a- The king sat upon 
jijJ^\ la ^S'Sartr the throne. 

^j^>. ijyo ^autuh hasan His voice is good. 

jjb ij\j.^ ^^j ^^1 a7/i/ nauc haiwdn What sort of ani- 

1 ja huwa hiithd mal is this 1 

lo) ciii.^>^' ^-i^ ^^^^* nasihafak What is your ad- 
(dj|^ (md ra^i/aJS) vice *? / 

c>)^ ;^)1 ji ^«(^cZ aish iuinrah What is your age ? 
c*Jus^ c-i*^a Z;r.r(/''s«hha^«A: How is your 

health ? 

Oj^3 Jl5j^&. c->*a- y^^ hi^r wa qalam Bring ink, pen, 
wa loaraq and paper. 

Ijjb ^jA ^jLo*. hzsa?i ^rt;7^ Jidthd Whose horse is 

that 1 
5^.9^1 l^r^ji ^^ wa;i Awi^^ dilcha Who is that Euro- 
H-ifranji pean "^ 

j^! U^^^ ^'^ Aathz'/i al-ardi Mr This soil is barren. 



DIALOGFES. 127 

ARABIC. PROlfUNCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

J^jJ JUc Ji^ ^\ aish sJiugl cammdl "What business are 
taimil you doing 1 

lj^^:s j\s^\ UUc camalu adhdr Jca^ They made much 
tMra apology. 

ltI) ^^3 {jy*^ cindt wajac rds I have a headache. 
^j:j lijli. [Sj^^ j^ ^^'' Wfl^khr^ ]^al- It is late, let us 
Vind nitwajjah depart. 
(natawajjaK) 
jjjl «j>.j ^ (^^ yasJitaki min wa- He has a liver 
jai al'Jcahid complaint. 
{Mhd) 
^j^\ ;t&.j ^x^ dnduh wajai «d- He has a tooth- 
diirs ache. 

»;*i_r L^l^UUl ^i j/j H-ldzdr asJiyd There are many 

u^xD IcatMra li 7- playthings in 

Zrti^ the bazaar. 

'i4^j:i^\ »jjb ^athz^ at-tarjama This translation 
Ija. hasana jiddan is very good. 

]o ^J^ i^::cL. sacatak tamsJii Your watch goes 
iayyih well, 

ju^ (j^ dt shame This is a wax 

candle. 
L-^\iJl ]jSj,S Jc am Mr a al-qdrih How much is the 

fare of the boat ? 



128 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

5L-cLJl ^^=s Team as-saca What o'clock is 

yj\jLJ\ X3j\ irfui as-satdHr Lift up the blinds. 

4jjs.*^' J nahhi a^-^uhun Take away the 

dishes. 

ul 

ftjjUi ^^ (&^^ ^ huit sdcati iola 7- Place my watch 

mdHda on the table. 

aJu\s^ i^.^->lft]l sjjb Jiaihih al-fakiha This fruit is very 

Ijo. \^dmi^a jiddan sour. 

^jLflC kzj^\ jjiiV ?«^s^ (li-aish) ant a Why are you 

g«d Ja72 angry % 

(j^y u>.x-d Ji^ (^^ di sTiugl saih qawi This is a very dif- 
ficult business. 

^5j5 c^^ r^ ^^^ '^cthhdrin qa- They are very de- 

^(7^ ceitful. 

j?^ ^jJiJt^ (j^ (jiUftll al-qumdsh di kha- This cloth is very 

shin qawi coarse. 

JJLll! LaJ dJl Ja Jial ant a tasluh. li Are you fit for the 

'sh-sTiugl business ^ 

U**^^ c>* t^^'^ (*^^ al-yaum ahrad onin It is colder to-day 

<?»is than yesterday. 

li^ Up* Jb ^fyflf kharm wa- She is dumb and 

tarshd deaf. 

cjJ3 l^jj^s)' ^^^ <?i ^l-hikdya Tcul- This story is all a 

7w^a ^athe^ lie. 



DIALOGUES. 1-9 

AKABIO. PRONUXCIATIOIf. ENGLISH EQUIVALBSTS, 

i-j^W »->.j\ \ssb hatha zabtb iaijylh These are fine 

raisins. 
j^ \:l^ 8J.1C dndiih halt Icahir He has a larL;e 

house. 
j^j5 A»^ 1ji^\ (j^ dl U-auda shirha This room is very 

qawi well lighted. 

(jj5 aJIc i.J>ji\ ,j:i di ^l-aicda ioliyija This room is rery 
qawi lofty. 

^Is A3uW tabiuh qdsl His disposition is 

cruel. 
^jlA^-u^ ^\S ^ hum hasldnin wa- They are lazy and 
mutahdmilin negligent. 

i:i\r^j^j JlflJl (^j dt U-qalam rakhau This pen is too 

li-zi(/dda soft. 

Ij^ i^^^ ^^^i ^^ hdtha 7- loaraq This paper is very 

kha^/i / w jiddan coarse . 
(^j9 i3^^ f*^ *-^^ «^2to tatahallam hi You sj^eak very 

H'taanni qawi slowly. 

(j^)J5kjVI> ^Kkj jjftJ taqdir tatahallam Can you S23eak 
Ji ^I'lnklizt English 1 

5t_aJ ^1^ ^J^i inzil loa-illd taqac Descend, other- 
wise you will 
fall, 
jjt^ ^jj dul jjV ^a Z>i^t?J aniialc ia- You must go willi 
ruh ma it me. 



/ 



1 30 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. PBONtJNCIATIOIf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

fj^ i».LU j nalilii 'l-Yidja di Take away this 

thing. 
aK' &3ji6 nairifuJi kulluh We know it all. 
j^ \^jio yairifu katlnr They know a great 

deal. 
jA c-^xJ x.a)S kallafni taioh He gave me much 
kathir trouble. 

L->uu-i % in^si^^^ii laish tadihak hild Why do you laugh 
sahab without cause ^ 

^2-j-) ^ L 1 jjb Jidtha md Jiuwa This is not my 
haiti house. 

ijsb^\ sjjb ^11 ^1>- hhallini askumm Allow me to smell 
hdihih az-zahra that flower. 

d^^lj (<V^^ ^^^ ^cZ^«w al - kursi Apply oil to the 
hi ^z-zait chair. 

u->Lll Z3\ ■ 'iftah al'hdb Open the door, v 

^^=»Ljtll ^^ j^x) haidi mill al-casdkir Some of the sol- 
l^a^l injardim diers have been 

wounded. 

jjjll l^^j L-j^-i\ 2dre5 e?2^/z« 7-t(;flr- Beat that lazy 
^j^L-XJl lad al kasldn bo3^ 

^L» Ijjb Jl» ^j\ jjo JaicZ a;t ^'dZ hatha Having said this, 
(jiWil) sdfar (inialaq) he departed. 



DIALOGUES. 131 

ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION-. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

di)L*&. i^U oil) S kami halagat qdH- What is the 
ma hisdbah amount of your 

bill 1 
Jji ^^ [jj^^j^ (j^i^ ^^^^ huwa al'farq^ What is the dif- 
^^pVI hain dul al-ith- ference between 

nain these two "? 

diljS^ UrJI ^Jfe U^^ Jcamd huwa al-mu- As the master, 
Jxijl ^^i ialliin, haVadliJc so will be the 

yakun al-muta- scholar. 
(.allim 



EIGHTH DIALOGUE. 

'jjb ^ J.-A3 ^^ jT ^fl^m ??^^;^ fa^l fi How many chap- 
ujlixJl Ac^tha ^l-kitdh ters are there 

in this book ? 
icLiJl sjjfe jjc- Jjfc ^«Z iala hdt\iih aU Is there any dis- 
t^Lji ^ LU->1 hiddca isqdt fi count on these 

H-hisab goods 1 

LJi c-*Is:* irf*^^^ ^'^^ Tidihd 's-saM mu- This boy is much 
Ij^ habbab ilaind loved by us. 

j id dan, 
^_;>ill Ua ^ ja /zflfZ./^ MVad 1-ga- Are there any fish 
d.^ (?i!r samak in this tank ? 



132 DIALOGUES. 

ABABIC. PROXUNCIATIOX. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

Lojo i-X»-j cjjla-ol istacU samaJca hi- I caught a fish 

iam with a rod. 

^^ I4] L »^1 8JJi Mihih al'haqara This cow has no 

md lahd qurun horns. 
^yi \'jjb c.y (^1 ^ min ayy nau(, lid- Of what kind is 

tha 7-yz2kh this cloth 1 

j^^ ,jl duJ ^ Jjb /i«Z ^ niyyatak an Do you intend go- 
\ij^ Jl iusdfir ila au^ ing to Europe 'I 

(ii5^') b^Ujjb Jic 4«ZZ/(/ ^ath/A «fA- Hang uj) this lamp 
icliill ^ thuryd{an-naja- in the hall. 

fa)fi ^l-^d(,a 
tit 
^J^l^l ^^l^J Ja hal tusdfir fi 7- Do you go by land 

j^^ harr aufi^l-la\\r or by water"? 

Jfti a] U ii*l9«ji-d ^anduqalc md laJiu There is no lock 
qujl to your box. 

lKj ^Jl uJA' (^ *'^^^' ^araf annaJir There is niucli 
y..jl^=» z6'ahZ katJiir mud on the 

river side. 
,^^LJi jj* ^jo X /cY7;;i 7ft/?2 w^n al- How many pas- 
c-aS^1 Ci)^]i ^ musdjirinjithd' sengers were in 

lik aUmarkah that vessel ? 

aI^lt^JI^WjJ ^aiflttflr aUhait The whole house 
kuUuh was scented. 



DIALOGUES. 133 

ARABIC. PKO NUN CI ATI ON. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

bStb L_^U c:>.il Jib Jial anta sahib Are you the owner 

Uli hdt\iih ad'dd}' of this house 1 

UilJjjT J«x.ftJ \S Icamd tafial lea- Such as you will 
5^" thdlik tuldqt do, so ^\dll you 

find. 
jjJ.^i. {^^^^ at-tasUm khair Kesignation is the 
7'afiq best companion. 

.J .c .!.> IjjJl ad-dunyd ddr The world is the i / 
gurur house of deceit, 

(ils?^') jj/^:Ji »;J tliamaratat-iahaw- The fruit of rash- 
i*ljJl t(?J^r (al-iajala) ness is repent- 

an-naddma ance. 

ii^^s-* iLii^^^Jl aS'Sabr manqaha Patience is an ex- 
mahmuda cellent quality. 

,j^ j~i~T^ cl^^l as-samdikhairmm Hearing is better 

^'^^=>]\ al-haldm than speaking. 

isIJ jj j^K-:;ji l-^ Icamd iataJcallain Such as you speak, 
«.»-J kaih.dliJc tasmac so will you hear. 

i».Ul -,l:i* icLii)! al-qandca miftdh Contentment is the 
ar-rdha key of repose. 

>L&.Vl o^ J4U al-jaJd maut al- Ignorance is death 
ahyd to the living. 

\J^ J^ fj .iUaisVl al-iqtisdd Ji-kull Moderation in 
j^ shay khair every thing 

is best. 



134 DIALOGUES. 

ABABIC. PRONUNCIATION. EJSTGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

».U*1 duft^ f»S^ ^^ - l^^^^^^i takfih To the wise a hint 
ishdra is enough. 

jjJLll ji dU.1 JcU» sddd akhdk fi ^sh- Assist your bro- 
sMdda ther in distress. 

^^ L V^iT TjjJl al-dawd hatJiiran- Very frequently 
b Wia yakun da' medicine is sick- 

ness. 
i^ji^^ «— ?/«i c)^^' al-insdn yuiraf hi- Man becomes 
siratuh known from 

his conduct. 
l*cj\ jj)) >iljl ^^ min al-ma7ii tazid From prohibition 
ar-ragba desire increases. 

^L-A ^Li V l:>s^' aZ-&«kh^ Za yai^i Fortune does not 
i^xJi m«i al-hikma come with wis- 

dom. 



NINTH DIALOGUE. 

«5^ t^-dl Ijjfc »Xo i ^ onuddat Jidthd Daring this month 
.-•ii ik* 'sh'shahr wagai much rain fell. 

^;iatar hathir 
duA J! LjU. e*3wi z//ia^A khaJm z'Za Send a servant 

hunak there. 

8^'^' ijjb c:^^ Jji5l uqiud ta\\t haihih Sit under this 
asli-sliojara tree. 



DIALOGUES. 135 

ARABIC. niONUNCIATIOK. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

J^ll ijjt ^J^ S^Jcam thaman hd- What is the price 
thih al-ladli of these pearls 1 

(djNL ^) r*^^^ ^-^ ^^^ (Uzam (md ya- "What is the weight 
^ VsA Vflj Z;^'^^0 ^^^9'^ hdthd of this stone ? 
7-hq7«r 

Ajill 8Jjb ^1 ^i^ aish ism hdihih al- What is the name 
qarya of this village 1 

c^^^ll ^jU:^ »->:^:^ i^^ li^saw ar-rw- Bring the riding 
Mh horse. 

^^ i.liJi jjiaai^ ww/z^d as-sitdra Brush the curtain 
L-9 i-_j V . ^ iayyih hatta Id well, so that no 

( *ii^) ^^li ?/a&g<^ ^^a wa- mosquito may 

mus {hargash) remain. 

.^5Cj ^\ »w^-fi y«5;i*^ «« nakun We ought to be 
^:^i«*s:* muhsinin benevolent. 

oUst-d i L-xJj waqacndfi suiuhdt We have fallen 
i^^kc caztma into great diffi- 

culties. 
C-5K.J1 p^* j^^ IcatJnr min al-ma- Many ships have 
•Ji pw« oikjJ ra^•^5 tacattalat been damaged 

w?^*w an-nau by the storm. 

r^ J^ <? H^^^i ^ ^wit'^ yashrah fi He every day 
(^kl ^^1 >tw?^ yaum al- drinks new 

lahan a\>-iari milk. 



136 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

o^x-Ji it* jjxflJl al-quiud wai as- To sit still is 
cjpl ^^i. suhutWiairmin better than 

an-nizdi quarrelling. 

^-».i>Jl Ijjb ^^^' iV\ian Jidthct 7- Grind this wheat 
^jJL) qamh hi V-rah« in the mill. 

ySb ^jA Af^ u-i/t) tairificakiluh man Do you know who 
Jiuwa is his agent 1 

^Jljjt^^ ,J^I isJitari'li ahanna- Buy two candle- 
ddnain sticks for me ? 

^lUl a1 k_flJl U^b ^atha V-qiit lahu This cat has large 
ij^ azafir kahtra claws. 

Jl jj«^i ^A* Aa- khwth Jidthd 7- Take away this 
(j^Vl AwijVl y^wr^i i7« 7-aw- chair into the 

daf al-ukh.7'a other room. 

il*^ »^^ dlj .1 lil ana urtk sHra I will show you a 
jamtla beautiful pic- 

ture, 
jjc aJ^ jj ^ djl-^1 hnd'ak Id hudd Your signature is 
jijtll iJA minku (ininJi) necessary tu this 

iala Mthd 7- bond. 
iaqd 
^ <— ft:^-i cl^ f*^' al-yaum yaJcun To-day there is a 
^A^b daiffi ddriJmm guest in their 

house. 



DIALOGUES. 137 

ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION'. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

Jl ••jjy ^y> U .♦^l ismah land hi-dn Permit lis to go 

cu*.Jl naruh. ilaU-hait home. 

8jl-J^Vl 1 jifc . 3 fi Jidthd ^l-amr q^a- In this affair there 

l^\' sdwa zdHda is much cruelty. 

ibjL ijuj \:.a\s9 qudddmand saf- We have before us 

raiawUa a long journey. 

Ul Jiic J ^jL^'jVI al'insdn laliu iagl Man has reason, a 

% A*:MiJI ammd H~halii- brute none. 

ma f aid 

v-jO ^cl (JsJJUs ^J^ min fadilak adim Please give me a 
a*^jji Jcitdb tauBiyya letter of intro- 

duction. 

JLfl_i ^S3 ^y laish taJduh hi- Why do you write 
{jcij qalam radi with a bad pen 1 

^:;i-i-jVl ^^.JA ,^1 ai/i/ Tiatliain al- Of these two, 
^J..^\ ithnain cihsan which is the 

besf? 

^^* Ji^l JiT Ljl ana akhi^th ash- I will take the 

sljil jukclj djj sJiw^l min ya- business from 

dak tva'iutth you and give it 

aijyali, to him. 

jJ:- eiJl:> Jl diAfti i\\ihdhah ila hit- Your going there 
^ji ndJc gair Idz'iin is not neces- 

sary. 



1«33 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. PRONUNClATIOif. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

IjA. ^\s^[)j^^ huwa 'khahir hi% He is well versed 

dim jiddan in science. 

U-a. Jlcja huwa cdlim jid- Heis very learned. 
dan 

cT**^^ cl?^ ^^'^ Mtlut yakun a\\- This will be best 

«.-^ii san al-jamii of all. 

J^aji ^'* jj J5 ^ul U md yaqul Tell me what he 

is saying. 

j^^ ,j**jLJLJ Ji qui li 's-sd'is yu- Tell the groom to 

^UU hadd/r aZ-h^sa7^ get the horse 

ready. 

TENTH DIALOGUE. 

^ Jj,l eiijS^ Lil ona kathdllJc urid I also wish to go 

^j^\ an dVhrtij out. 

«j<;b Jl Jx-A) ^V li-aisJi tascad ila Why do you climb 

6\sH^ ^athz'A ash-sha- this tree ? 
y* ara 

Ac I^^'v9 ^^ ^ujI i>nta{\.Q.ayymata) When will you be 

.iJi takun qddir iala able to depart *? 
^s-safar 

^jl-Ji ^^c. <^j^^\ Jjb ^a^ as-sarj cala 7- Is the saddle on 

^ j\ hisdn au Id the horse or not? 

jjli.^ Sx) ^J ^< nahn narjai bacd We will return in 

daqdHq a few minutes. 



DIALOGUES. 139 

ASABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

\jJ>\^ Xxill ^^ ^j\ in Mn al-gadd If dinner is read}', 

A-*a. hadir jibuh, bring it. 

Js>J\ Ua I.— i;?o Ja Tial tacrif hatha Do you know this 
W-rajul man 1 

\jA A3^\ ^A jioft. hassaZ mi>^ al-dlm He has acquired 
kathtr much science. 

aLi^ »j^ 5u.^ jamai tliarwa ja- He has amassed 
zila much wealth. 

^^J^l ^^ LU. JljJ tacdla 'kh.allind Come, let us two 
i-.>j^ oj^ ?iflrh;2 al'ithnain have some talk. 

7i«^^ahac?f/a^^ 
shuwayya 

^jJb Aa^lj ^jl.aa. Ja /i«Z h/sa?z t^'^jh?'^ Will one horse he 

Jto J^^^=^ l^-^ y^(ldir Lalajarr able to draw so 

1 ja jfAw^/ mitlil ltd' great a weight % 

i\d, 

, ^ ^^ oil ^SaJ taqaddam anta You go on, we are 

nciX\n naji coming, 

j^-o oU. cjld-'Ji sJcA Acith/A al-h.ajdt These things have 

\3j^\ jd'(it7ninuruhba come from Eu- 
rope. 

ilill »jjb j^^ ^\ ain naqdi hdihih Where shall we 

al-laila pass the night 1 

oij ^^\ IjjJ^ U md dndand al-dn Wo have no time to 

icaqt li ^l-lid) play at present. 



IJjO dialogues. 

ARABIC. PBONUNCIATIOX. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

»L_*JL) As^j {jj-^^ ahraq rijluh hi He has scalded his 
^Jsr^^ ^l-md as-suWin foot. 

L4J& ^JS^€i^\ sjjfc Jidt\\ih as-sdkdktn All these knives 
^Xo kullaJia sada are rusty. 

^^i^Aji .iYjVl VjA hduJd al-auldd yu- These children are 
^1^1 Jjl? s^mklmTi ti^Z screaming all 

an-nahdr day. 

IJA Ic jjjliAJ \£ hunnd nufattish We were seeking 
.LJl J^L t«Zfl? Jidthd tul for this all da}-. 

an-nahdr 

dl^yCo ciA^ii. Ja Jial khatamt mak- Have you sealed 
mhak your letter ? 

.sA'Ij Jlk* Llo haitand muzallal Our house is 

5^ ^sli-shajar shaded with trees 

^jUi Li^^ykJ ^Uc iamrndla* tamtur It is raining, 
dj.^ khallmd na- kindly give us 

tdwwa dndak shelter. 



S^j dljJb 11 j*jiJ taqaddam ila liu- Go forward there, 
ndk wa-qif and stand still. 

^ oUlU »JJb <^^1 akh?^* hdWiih al- Bring out these 
jjji-aJl hdjdt min as- things from the 

sanduk box. 



This word, in all its forms, is usually contracted to iam. 



DIALOGUES. 141 

ARABIC. PKONUNCIATIOX. ENGLISH EQIIVALE^ITS. 

jfij>. JUllf Jl-^s^j takallam li 7- Speak loud, then 

t^x^^l iaZ^' htnaHihin I shall hear you. 
asmacah 

i^lj^^, iS^ f*-**^ L-ri^ ^'^^^^ ^"^"^ ^^ ^^ '^" ^^l^at do you call 

(.arabi that in Arabic 1 

'ij\.\ 8JA jjij J wdfaqani hcithih He agreed with 

al-marra me this time. 

i)lixi\ ^ el***Ai c^jjt tudarrib nafsak fi You exercise your- 

»J^[j U-Jcitdha wa 7- self in writing 

qirda and reading. 

^^U Ua w^cU-j JJ.C «w^« samdciJium On hearing this 

»^-ff^ ^-^J J,aa- ^tttht^ 7-kh«?y«r news they were 

jjjj;. h«s«Z lalium much frightened. 
ruJ) sliadtd 

(jjjj.-a]l ijjb «-«j S ^ct^^ yasai hdthd How much indigo 

(J^Jl) iLJi ^ 's-sanduq min will this chest 

an-ntl, contain? 

^.^xj ^^ Ijliliiil wJ^ kuUuJium igtdzu They are all of- 

^jt.) mill haidihum fended with one 

hacd another. 

J jxlV J^i ,^* ^ij:^ najaund min yad We have escaped 

al-(,aduwiv from the hand 
of the enemy. 

o9 s- Ifc^-U iJjjJil al-madina hi-as- The whole city has 

U)b r^V^a gariqat hi- been flooded. 
7-?/i(x 



142 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PEONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

La^ ^\y^^ 1 Jvp bi-hdtha yazddd With this our 
farahnd joy will be in- 

creased. 
AjliiJ \J^j,ajt, UU kallalnd masru- We have much 
/and U^l-gaya reduced our ex- 

penditure, 
l^il j*\V yfcliJJi »ia y^athzA ad-dardhim This money must 
aJl iia^* Za-2:m annahd be sent back to 

iarjac ilaiJi him. 

u-^:5i J di,j JL*» 5«ttiV waraqah Kule your paper, 
thumma uJctuh then write. 

^^^ yi* ^J^ rJ-^^ al-qaum JculluJium All the people 
c^ii Twa^i^ Twm aZ-yz^i have died with 

hunger. 
^iuti Ac (•^xJ ^9j waqai bacduJium They have fallen 
iaZa Z^atd. one upon ano- 

ther. 

\jS6 It^c uj^*jt yddshun caish na- They live in great 
kidan affliction, 

^l^ Ac h_^ s ^ lana bait cola He has built a 
^^Jl 5^at^ an-nalir house on the 

bank of the 



DIALOGUES. 143 

ELEVENTH DIALOGUE. 

ARABIC. PRONITNCIATIOJf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. ' 

Uib\A ^Js^^ c->^4) ^,^c cala md nahruh Why should we 

Jai>. lais TidJiund {md run away? there 

Jih hi7id)k'hatar is no danger 

here. 

i\3s^\^ Jiajar a^diqdh He has abandoned 

his friends. 
3 iVl ^^ (Jl |j;l-j sdru ila lildd al- They went to Eu- 
j^tj\ li^ ^ ifranj minsittat rope six months 

asTihvr ago. 

^* Uj^ftJ ^A.cU-j jJwC and samdiihum On hearing a state- 
1,.L> J-*a5' '^* taqrtr min Jid- mentof this sort 

^jjCs.*^. thd ' l-gabil sai^u they began to 

?/flfdhaM* laugh. 

LjJ 1;*-Uji fi u-axj tadb fi tadimind He taught us with 

U-kc ^aia& i«5z^??^ great labour. 

i>.l. «*Jll i»>^ ^-^^j wajadndbi-rdhmat By the grace of 
aZM/i n/ha God we have 

found repose, 
l^i J<c^ j»j-i-o j»jJl al-yaum magyum The day is cloudy 
l^^jiS^^) fa-ya\iiamil an- and heavy, it 

wa^a iamtiir ka- may rain much. 
tliir 

* Tulgarly, the plural future endings in ^jj «?2a are corrupted 
into \j 4, like the form of the plural preterite. 



144 DlJiLOGUES. 

AKABIC. PEOXU:VCIATION-. EXGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

~^%j icU .UJl »jj> ^j fi hdtlilk ad'dar In this house there 
{\joj\) cjj^^ qcua wa-tha- are a hall and 

Idthat huyut {u- three rooms. 
wadi) 

IJA ii*UJL> S Xwo munih. ham hala- How long is it since 
jjX gah hatha 7- you received this 

}diabai% news *? 

{jS*^ IjA it-J Sj hikam tabic kdtha For how much will 
li-stdi you sell this to 

my master? 

ft^ ^ Lft ^1 ibqa Jiuna \\atla Remain here until 
narjai we return. 

^Si ^* ^^-^^ P-9j loaqai as - sikJcin The knife fell 
^Jl ^ mill yadl fi ^n- from my hand 

nalir into the river. 

^jJb V ^^Jwll ^j'^iVl al-insdn «ZZatM A man who cannot 

^_^^JJ1 ^^\ lA> JiL (*^-^*') ^^ y«^^2^'^^ speak the lau- 

<^ ydtcfl^cillam hi- guage of the 

. \ * ^ - /wg«^ al-qaum people among 

^3^*V* allai\itn yasJcun whom he so- 

hainahiim qad journs may 

yamut min al- sometimes he 

iu' in danger of 

starving. 



DIALOGUES. 145 

AKABIC. PRONtrjTCIATIoy. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

( *^) • i. jj^^ y:,! ishwi shuwayya Toast some bread, 

aic {]a. a.) x^ kli?^&2? (caisJi) and butter it. 

gj._jj fa-dai calaih 

zuhda 

Aij. LJl Ja hal al-md yagli Does the water 

boil ? 

^U. ^jUi-^ A^-Ji^ ^^ ^^ti H-']^awdjah Give the gentle- 
.y. finjdn sMy a- man another cup 

khar of tea. 

ij^lixJb (jrj9 aUcI dcmiluh qawt hi 7- Make it strong 

.. ^ 1^1 Mfdya tea ithd enough; andput- 

^ / tvadad fih haltb ting in it plenty 

J^^ ^" • - JcatMr wasuJc- of milk and sugar 

u^ wb j^ss ^^^ ^^Y j^/,Yi^^ jQii ^iii always 

LJI ^^jC cU:*-59 iayyib bi-haith make it good, pro- 

1. yakun al - md vided the water be 

yagli actually boiling. 

h^j 6^ J^-^ ij^ adini finjdn qah- Give me a cup of 
^j'l^jCj wa wa - sTiU' coffee, and a little 

luayya sukTcar more sugar. 
fcamdn 

V (j^j i;^-^ (JI-jI isliq baid loa-ldhin Boil some eggs, 
^j^-uj.) iiii' ldtuk\\alliliyai' but do not let 

^«s them get hard. 



146 DIALOGUES. 

ARABIC. TEOXUNCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALEN^IS. 

(^jljc) j^ oU licbt Wmbz {iaish) Bring bread, sweet- 

dlX c^Ij^L-j wa - hulioiydt meats, and cakes. 
wa-JcacJc 

.J.9I lo jjl «^sJ ciJl aw^a (a/t^) ^fl^ir?/ You know I can- 

y^ ^ (_^U. c_^l «5w;2* wft aqdir not drink tea 

v-Ajia. asJirah shay min without cream. 
gair halib 

^^ ^j^ (j^ jji al-khuhz radi onal- The bread is bad, 
J.*^l an min ar-raml and full of sand. 

Ijjfc AJ J-^^ (jJJl Ul al-md allatht ima- The water with 

jjii ^;;0 lo (jltJl ??i«Z Jz'A Jidthd which this tea 

^sJi-slidy md Jcdn is made has not 

1/agU, been boiling. 

%a\ ^jtL> a! U ma Zw^ t«i7?2 aslan It has no taste at 

all. 

Uill ^^ j^-liall Ji qulU^t-tahbdkhyU' Tell the cook to 

iilbJl icUl ^J haddiV al-gadd liave the dinner 

Ji ^s-sdia afh' ready at three 

thdlitha o'clock. 

jJ^ l^ill ^^*-^\i yd-sidt al-gadd ha- Sir,dinner is ready. 
dir 

tj hj^\ ^jA ain asli-sJiuraha Where is the soup, 
hj^\ wa-imUaqat ash- and the soup 

shuraha spoon ? 



DIALOGUES. 



147 



ARABIC. PEOJfUIfCIATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

^^ 'i-3j^ L-^^ jih shuivayyat iaish Bring some bread, 

^^^ /. . \ (yhubz) wa-batd- potatoes, greens, 

tis 'wa - khudra asparagus, cab- 

-^^ ^ -^*^^ ^^y^ al-Jialyun bage, cauliflow- 

ia-J/Jlj t-JjflU[, ^^^ n-malfuf wa ers, turnips, car^ 

J^jjJh ^^^]j 'l-qarnaUi wa- rots, and cucum- 

'l-liftwa^l-jazar bers. 

z/;« 1-kh.n/ar 

^jLi^ jib A* ^^ y^& Zflhm ba^ar iva Bring some beef, 

—W^ (jiU**j^ Js.^ d^Tz wa-djl wa- mutton, veal, 

samak wa-dajdj fish, and fowl, 

cii^l ji 15*^^ ^^ gada natagadda fi To-morrow we dine 

(J c/* J^^^^^ 'r-rif ihiath hull in the country : 

A_x_9j 5^«y fi icaqtuh send everything 

in time, 

jjl S^ ^$<S^^^ ^Vl «Z^;2 yiimhinhum Now you may all 

^jjl J^A IjiilaLj' hulluhum an depart, you have 

tantaliqu, mac- leave. 
kum ithn 

,X^f Ij^ *-l (J Ji ^'wZ Z/ ism hatha Tell me the name 

hi-lugatiJcum of this in your 
own language. 

(^jJl jc-a-V J-5_V V Z^ ^flf^wZ Zf - a\\ad Do not tell any 

^^^^ dJ Aidi aZZ«thi qiiUuh one what I said 

c-jl:3v)i dlli Z«^ &^ - khwsw5 to you about that 

ihdlik al hitdh book. 



148 DIALOGUES. 

ARiLBIC. PEONUNCIATIOlf. EITGLISH BQTJIVALEirTS. 

Ujfc ^:^ aJ Ji qui luh yaji hund Bid him come 

here. 
e^«^ Ail a! Ji qui luh innahu Tell him he is 
j^^^ kh^Mth Jcahir a great scoun- 

drel. 
A&.)yi 11 ^ ji- khz^thm ^7«^ fl?Z-kh«- Take me to Mr* 
jj^ 'wdjaU fuldn So-and-So. 

^^c o^I ciA)! anta tiht can at- You have lost 
^1 jj-j^^Ja_ll t^rf^' ila haituh the road to his 

Ai^ house. 

U^J (j*>ji9 ^^ I* ^i'^a mflja /wZz'<5 wa- I have no cash 
j^U ^A^jtJ" lii Za^m ^tha talnc- about me, but if 

v^ ^_^ du-j^U ^rtm if«5kh?^th/2^- you will follow 

Idsah ji baitt me you will 

receive your 
money at my 
house. 
UjULj Jx:) Jifc hot tatakallam bi- Do you speak our 
lisd7iind language 1 

X)1 lil (^^.^-jIj *xj naiam yd-sidi ana Yes, Sir, I can 
^Ui ^jysJif atakallam bil- speak a little 

iarabi qalil Arabic. 

^ j.a ;3 ^ ^\ Ji 2«f^ «i5^ lak Ji hd- How long have 
:>'X}\ thih al'bildd you been in this 

country ? 
^y^*U * ^;^»-*w sanatain, uimain Two years. 



DIALOGUES. 149 

ARABIC. PEONUNCIATIOlf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

1 — n\i\ {jxs:- LiuK«l umkuth dndi ay- Abide with me a 
dUd yam qalUa few days, 

i^c lAsb\ 8jj^ dnduh ahliyya He possesses great 
iazima ability. 

j^ls J^j* ^uwa rajul qadir He is an able man. 
Jjts ^ 'ijSsu, dlJ lah maqdara Lola Are you able to 

1 jjb fiil hatha do this 1 

i^^ Lilii cui^a Jcunt ghdHt casha- I have been absent 
^Ijl rat ay yam ten days. 

Jx9 s>i^ tjl S-*5S y^'i^ «w natajan- We ought to ab- 
^^1 72a5 fid ash-* stain from com- 

sJian^ mitting evil. 

c^ld Ijxa ^^.^=01 al'haldm Jidkathd It is absurd to 
(Jjiixjl j-^) /<^^^'g (didd al- speak thus. 

di-^ U ^xJ j-i. khttth qadr ma Take as much as 
j^£ ^x>£. yuijihah dndi you please, I 

kathir have abun- 

dance. 

cu-^ I*) «^>*^ Jjb AaZ rfl^d*^ Jm^ Do you accede 
Vjl duk caraditu ialaiJc to what I 

fi^w Za have proposed, 

or not ? 



150 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PEONUIfCIATIOlf. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

ei^v^o t^JJi i^\iJ^=K]\ al-kitdh allatht The book you sent 
J^lljla. \ bacatht U hdz me was accept- 

al-qabul able, 

-.j^l V (JAJ]^' J tjl m lam turdfiqni Unless you ac- 

Id aruh company me, I 
will not go. 

it--L)l ^\ o,ji U md qadart an ah- I was not able to 

^5^1^ {^\) lug (utammim) accomplish my 

murddi wishes. 

c->L*&. A3u> djJwC Ja //fl'Z dndak maihu Have you an ac- 

Ydsdh count with him 1 

^j^ ail aJc >^1 ushtuJci iolaiJi an- He is accused 

aW wt^^ saraq mu- of robbing his 

callimuh master. 

»J^1 j^c (<*A«w.fl3 j^ iawwid nafsak cala Accustom your- 

h\:6^\^ 1-qirda wa-l- self to read 

Jcitdba and write 

lji^-^=» u-i^Uo ajjc iinduh maidrifJca- He has many ac- 

thira quaintances. 

ii^ i—ijU* J^aa- hflJss«Z maidrif ja- He has acquired 

2?^a great knowledge. 

j>Sa^ V^^ lM^ «Z-^6Z ai'tayyihja- A good action 

lift liil'o dir Wth'thand deserves our 

minnd (i.e. min praise. 

nd) 



DIALOGUES. 151 

ARABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

ellS ^ 1a>. ss^ yt Jiu mujidd jiddan He is exceedingly 
(Jsi.lJl)^Vl fi ihdlik al-amr active in that 

{ash-shugV) business. 

isS^>. o^l^ zddat jamhiyyatuh His salary has 

been increased. 
u>s?^ ki. Vssb hatha khatt yuc- This is admirable 
^2*5 writing. 

jij-9^ Ai-o s^s?"' atacajjah minh li- I admire him for 
Ac wufur dlmuh his great learn- 

ing. 
JjaJ Uj *U1 ^ Za usallim hi-md I do not admit of 
taqul what you say. 

fiJULl I jdfc jAftLJ^jiJ taqdir tuslifni hd- Can you advance 

tha ^l-mahlag me this sum ? 

^>. ^»j-fli jjjJl al-caduww taqad- The enemy has 

Ji Jam h«^^a i7a advanced as far 

as 

(J L^y^ cJ^) U^ j^ s^^' lahd zamdn She has long been 

(j^l tawil fi 'd-dfg in adversity. 

U|^3s.6^4kl ^jV (—aKo takallaf li-an az- He affected a 
]jy^^^ Jiar maivuf lea- great show of 

tJiir gratitude. 

i^j^ i-^JLJl sAJb hdthih al - qlssa This history is 
(iiJb * ilUa) mu^aththira (fac- affecting. 
cala, hdliga) 



152 DIALOGUES. 

AEABIC. PEONUNCIATION. . ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

aI^ »3j* (jrfLl!^^) yuzhir It ^n - nds He shows great 
maioadda jazila affection for 

the people. 

A:».jili j^ ujU-1 lil «^« <^kha/m^^ a^- I am afraid to 
dliA Ji taioajjuh ila liu- go there. 

ndh 

^^\ (ji J-) j^ ^-* ^^ ^^'^^ ^^ q;*6«- I do not wish to 
(Aft^-4^1) Aw^ {aksifuK) confront (en- 

counter) him. 

^jft *<^^ 1 ^ lo Li-a sinn^hd md hu ah- Her age is not 

^jj^j^c- thar min iashr more than ten 

sinin years, 

ca ^^ Asi;*^ v-i;3o ta(.rif sTiaikhuh Do you know who 

^aw hu is his tutor 1 

JjfiJ U Afi diiLsljl uicdfiqah cala md I agree to what 

taqul you say. 

Ci)i*_j J^ ^j^\ <j^ «^^y ittifaq Mii What agreement 
Ai-jj 'bainah wahainuh had you with 

him? 
J*i:l (JiJj)^^I(^l ayy tagyir (faldil) What alteration 
a4m«Z shall I make ? 

1 jjb ^ ( J^) aJLj talahlia (tasalld) Amuse yourself 
^Lli ^jli-Ji /i Jidtha 'Z &WS- awhile in the 

faw r^'^Z/Z garden. 



DIALOGUES. 153 

AEABIC. PRONUNCIATION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

i*3juJ duujiju-o iX^ Mthih madina This is an ancient 

(ifl-j-;^) qadiina {iatiqa) city. 

IJA csL-iij Jjfe A<^Z yugdiibaJc hd- Does this make 

tha you angry ? 

^JlJ*il 1 jjfc ^«,1 «_i^) tacrif ism hatha 7- Do you know this 

haiivdn animal's name ? 

c-;lj^ ^-JasJ jSU taqdir tudini ja- Can you give me 

d!d^\\ n'ssb wdb Tidihih al- an answer to 

masa^ala this question 1 

c_^il jj:*. jjla jj lil ana fi qalaq hafta I am anxious to 

e*)bfc Jl ath^«6 ila 7iu- get there. 

SJl* ^^c^j^cl L mdictailiar cansu- He made no apo- 
lukuh logy for his be- 

haviour, 
c-o^ ail J^^iai yazhar li annuJi It appears to me 
gar lb very strange. 

J^l U L_-5j*ai-.]i Ja 7m Z tastaswib md Do you approve 
<7^M? of what I say 1 

6.ij9 JjV^ '^jji yurid daldHl qa- He uses very 
wiyya strong argu- 

ments. 
A^^j^w ciAx^w Jifc hal samiit bi-qu- Have you heard 
dumuh of his arrival % 



154 



DIALOGUES. 



ABABIC. PBONUNCIAIION. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS. 

(J**i; {J^ U^ CiUJll al-malik Mn iola The king was at 
iJL^ rdsjaisJiuh the head of his 

army, 
^i (sUJj Ij^ J U ma Zi 'khihrah hi- I am not ac- 
ihdlik al-fann quainted with 

that art. 
^j^llis.* ^ Jium muhtalun They are very 

artful. 
Afli::s:* ULol (j>^^i yatacaiun a^ndf They deal in va- 

7wwkhtaZ*/(3? rious articles. 

^1 ^tLki ^^Vi Uk. 'khalUnd al - an Let us now ascend 
J-il natlac ila 'I - the mountain. 

jahal 
\yt^\ lij&\ Jjbl alil al-qarya ij- The people of the 
tamadi village assem- 

hled. 
i^U^- (euft^) c>ji]^ r«*«z^ [sTiuft) ja- I saw a great 
(j*»Ul ^^« ^jiaii /?za4«5 iazima assemhly of 

min aii-nds people. 

iS^^jja^^ (^JLi qahilt bi-mairddak I assent to your 

proposal. 
diljS^AJl ^\ zacam annuh ha- He asserted that 
ihdlih it is so. 

L^ijtj jcLj ^jl L-^ ^a;7& «w nusddd We ought to assist 
Liio 5««dw« haida7i each other. 



DIALOGUES. 155 

ARABIC. PEONUNClATIOir. ENGLISH EQUIVALENTS* 

ljj\ y^[jj IJI^J U-mdthd tuidshir Why do you asso- 
j\j^)l\ ar - rifqat dl- ciate with evil 

ashrdr company ? 

^J ^j«J Ajl d.1 jfl>.l uhaqqiq lak an- I assure you there 
Jas>^jA'i\ Vdsb nuh lais fi is no danger in 

hdthd 'I - amr that matter. 
kh«t«r 
\i^^jSsti\ 'SlLs>. 'khiT/alafal-cadutviv The enemy's ca- 
iqiahamtlnd valry attacked 

us. 
l;^ ^Jc L-Jbljj iJii. khalUnd nuwdzlh Let us attend to 

4aZ« fardiina, our duties. 

Jxll ^c ifl\»u ^ Jilya mumakifa She pays attention 
Lala 7 a'/m to learning. 



( 156 ) 



YOCABULAEY. 



Abandoned (he),^sf^ hajar, 
d^J tarak 



Ability, 



maqdara, 



iclk:^! istitdca 
Able,^^l5 qadir 
Able (he was), .ji qadar 
About, around, Jja. haul 
Above, ^^fauq 
Absence, c->LiJ giydh 
Absent, c-/5lc gdHh 
Absurd, Jls:* muhal, ^J^JrA 

gair al-haqq 
Abundance, 8^»3 kathra, 

j^j wufur 
Abundant, jjf Jcathir, ^\j 

wdfir 
Acceptance, acceptability. 



lH!^ 



;.^g-«d. hash 
reckoning), 



Accident, axil^ wdqua 

Accompanied (be), 

rdfaq 
According to, 
Account (a 

c->Ly^ hisdh 
Accounted (he), e..*<«^ hasah 
Account of (on), J^.! ^JA 

min ojl 
Accused (he), complained, 

^J^\ ishtaJca ; passive, 

ushtuJci 
Accustomed (he), ^jc caw- 
wad ; — (he was), ^aJ 

tacawwad 
Acid jjiu»l>. ham^'d 
Acquaintance (knowledge), 

i_S;jiA macrifa 
Acquaintances sJ^U* mac 

drif 



VOCABULARY. 



157 



Acquainted with^ j uJ.U: 

cari/M, ^Jc «JLk-* mu- 

tallic cola 
Acquired (he), J-o^i. hassa? 
Action, Jx9 fid 
Active, J^^^ camuly j>..<*^ 

mujidd 
Addition, sjljj ziydda 
Additional, jjU 2;a*ecZ 
Admirable, u^si** muijih 
Admission, admittance, 

Jjs.^ dukhul 
he gave admittance, 

Ja.^ daklikhal 
Admitted (he), he granted 

JL sallam 
Adorned (he), ^ji\ zayyan 
Advanced (he), went for- 
ward, ^JJL) taqaddam 
Advantage, i^jls fd'ida 
Advantageous, j-a* mufid^ 

«ili nafii, 
Adversary, ^Isr* mukhaBim 
Advice, counsel, i^i;*^ 7^as^- 

ha 
Affair, is?*^* masZaho, j^\ 

amr 



Affection, j*^ maivadda 
Affectionate, ^^ tvadud 
Afraid, cajU- khdHf 
After, jjo &ai^^ 
Again, L^A aida7i ; ditto, 

d.)JJ A;athaZ//r 
Against, opposite, ^s- 

iola 
Against, (opposed to), xi 

didd 
Age, ^jM sinn^j^s. iumr 
Agent, Ji^ ivakU 
Agree — he agreed, ^\j 

ivafaq, j_ftJl ittafaq, Jj 

qabil 
Agreeable, v— aJa) Zat*/; u-^L> 

tayyib 
Agreement, l?^^ s/^art (pi. 

]e>jj^ sliurui) 
Aid, s. »ji:L** muscaada 
Air, [jjfc /itt'^ra 
Alive, ^ hayy 
All, 9^->. jamu 
Allow (imperat.), Ji. khaZZ* 
Almost, jsf nohw^ ^?^fi-J*j ^<^5'- 

rihan 
Alms, Us^ sacJaqa 



158 



VOCABULARY. 



Alms (he gave), ^js^ &ad- 

daq 
Also, UjI cddan 
Alteration, ^^^' tagytr 
Altogether, {ju^^jamuan 
Always, UiU dddman, ^js. 

j»ljjJl idla ^d-dawdm 
Ambassador, ^:^^ elchi 

{TurUsh) 
Among, amidst, ^^ hain 
Amount, total, iUa. jurnla 
Amount, sum of money, 

iL» mablag 
Amounted (it), ib halag 
Amused himself (he), ^^^ 

talahJia, /LJ tasalla 
Amusement, J4J laliio 
Anchor, sL*^ mirsat 
Ancient, ^j5 qadtm, ^:^ 

catiq 
Angered (it), l-a^ gaddab 
Angry, ijLoc gadbdii 
Angry (he was), ^>._^-c 

gadih 
Animal, ^j\j^ haiwdn 
Answered (he), ^jXs^jdwab 
Answer, s. L^\j>^Jatvdb 



Anxious, ^jU qaliq, jS^ 

mulcaddar 
Ape (an), ^ qird 
Apologized (he), J^zs.\ ida- 

thar 
Appeared (it^ or he), ^]i 

zahar 
Appeared in person (he), 

jj^as:*' shakhas 
Apples, -iLJ tu^dh 
Approved (he), l^j .n 7 ...1 

istastoab 
Arise — he arose, ^^Is qdm 



Arms (weapons), 



.1-- 



sildh 
Arm (the limb), sc\^ sdM 
Army, ^^1^ caskar, ^Ji^ 

jaish 
Around^ j\j^ datcdr, J^ 

haul 
Arranged (he), l-J, rattab, 

j»kj nazam 
Arrangement, *-*J/ tartib, 

^.\?;) tanzim 
Arrival, Jj-^j wusid, j»^j» 

Arrived (he), J^ ?^asaZ 



VOCABULARY. 



159 



Art, ^ fann 

— (profession, trade), 

sama, ai^a. hirfa 
Artful, ^K-o mahkdr, ^*b 

daJd 
Artifice, ^jii gadr 
Artificer, joU mnii 
Artificial, Uc camali 
As, d prefixed, U^a Jcamd 
Ascended (he), «JlW idlic 
Ashes, :>U, ramdd 

c 

Asked (he), JL» sa^al 
Asleep, olj ndHm 
Asparagus, ^^ halydn , 
Ass, .Ua. \iimdr 
Assembled (he), brought 

together, st.^ jamai 
Assembled (it, as a crowd), 

«^;o.l ijtamai 
Asserted (he)^ ^cj zaiam 
Assiduous (in study), 

c-iXauA muncahif 
Assisted (he), ^J\s^ acdn, 

j^ na^ar 
Assured (he), affirmed, 

A^=»l alilmd, (jQa. Yiaqqaq 



Associated with (he), ^Ic 

idshar 
Astonished (it), ^-^ ('Oojo>h, 

j^ hayyar 
Astonished (he was), i-xs?" 

taiajjah^ Jcj>\ ihtdr 
Astonishment, i^ haii^a, 
Astray (he went), J-<i dall 

(he led), Jl^i idldl 

Attacked (he), ^ Jiajam, 

^\ iqtaham 
Attention, »L*jJl intibdh 

^jril^l zhtirds 
Attentive, jujiio muntahih 
Author, i^Ju^A musannif 
Authority, j..W 1,>^ suha 

iikU* sultanah 
Autumn, eJ^i. \h.anf 
Avoided (he), ^^ ^^' ta- 

jannah min 
Awake — he awakened, he 

roused, kojl aiqaz 
Awake — he awoke, ]a^^\ 

istaiqaz 
Axe, ^j-U/a'as 



160 



VOCABULARY. 



B. 

Back — see reverse, return, 
etc. 

O -' 

Back (the),^ za7i7^ 
Bad, ^:>j radi, jjl sharrir 
— . (in reference to money), 

Ji^J zagal 
Bag, ^^S Ids 
Baggage, Jlijl athqdl 
Baker, jLi. Wiobtdz 
Bank (of a sea or river), 

Js.U* sdhil, ^Ll^ sMtz 
Banker, v-jj^ sarraf 
Barber, ^J%^ lialldq, ^j-i}* 

muzayyin 
Bargain — see Cheap 
Bargain — a cheapening_, 

A^-«wo musaicamah 
Bargain — an agreement, 

jlftj"! ittifdq 
Bargained (he), agreed, 

,j_fl_)l ittafag 
r>argained — he cheapened, 

or chaffered, ^jL. sdwam, 

S'Xi ^y^ carnal hdzdr 
Barley, »-jtl shadr 



Barrel, J^ larmil 
Barren (as soil, ground), 

j^ bur, haur 
Basket, J*J) zamhtl 
Be — he was, ^ Icdn 
Beans, ^^9 Jul 
Beard (the), iX^ lihya 
Beat (he), t_^ darah 
Beautiful, ^^_***_&. hasan, 

^^^^t^ jamil, ^sJU malih. 

Become — he becamCj^U sdr 
Bed, jjil^ firdshy IL^ fa?'- 

sha 
Beef,^iij ^s) lahm haqar 
Bees, Jis nahl 
Before (in place), ^\j3 qud- 

ddm^ j»lol amdm 
Before (in time)_, J-.i qahl 
Beggar, ^^aJ faqir 
Begged (he), JU sa'al ; 

(he entreated), ^^_^^^j 

tarajja 
Begin — he began, \xj\ ih- 

tadd 
Beginning, ^jj had\ IjjljI 

ibtidd, ^K rd^as 
Behind, l,^ tvard^ 



YOCABULARY. 



161 



Behoves (it), c-^-s: yajih 
Believed (he), ^^1 dman, 

jiicl iitaqad 
Bell, ^j>.jaras 
Belly, ^Ja^ lain 
Below, ciasJ tdht, ^^^:> dun 
Bend — he bent, JU mal 
Benefaction, Jm\ imam 
Benefit, use, sjjla fdHda 
Benefited (he), verb ti\ 

^ ^\ amam cola 
Beside, l-^^ qarib 
Besides, Ij^ iadd 
Better, best, j > ,>. kha^V, 

^i dkhyar 
Betrothal, iJai. khwt6flj 
Between, ^-*-j hain^ U^f 

hainamd 
Beyond, A.^ ward^ 
Big, ^ dakhm 
Bird,^l9 lair {"^l. jy^oiuyur) 
Birth, jJj^ maulid 
Bishop, ^_fli*.l usquf 
Bit (he), ^c. 4«dd 
Bitter,^* 7?i2^rr 
Black (adj.), ^1 aswad, 

(fern.), \^jM saudd^ 



Bladder (water-bag), ^^ 

qirha 
Blamed (he), ^^ lam, -j . 

wahhakh. 
Blessing (suhs.), I ^^/-j 

baraJca 
Blind (adj,), ♦cl acma 
Blood, A^ damm 
Blossom (flower), ijitjzaJira, 

Skimm 
Blow (a stroke), h^ dai^ba 
Blue, ^j\\ azrak 
Boat, t_:>.LJ 5'ari5 

markab 
Body, ^-**-a» j/sw^, jc 



Boiled (it), ^Jc g«Za; he 

boiled, jjJL sci^Zag' 
Bold, .^--ji. jasur 
Bolt (of a door), l->— ^ 

d«5^, jlc g«/g' 
Bone, Jac tazm 
Book, ^\^ kitdb (pi. >^:5 

Am^wJ) 
Bookseller, ^i^\ ^[> bd'u 

al-kutuh 
Boot, 6jij>- jazma 

M 



162 



VOCABULARY. 



Boots or shoes, Icj^^ tasu- 
ma, Jlj^ sirwdl, ^fj^ 
markuh 

Borrowed (lie), .\,y„:.M>il 
istatdr 

w 

Bottle, i:^J qinnina 
Bottom (depth), ^ qacr 
Bough, ^ fan (pi. ^^J 

furui) 
Bought {partic), (jj t .t. 4> 

musJitar^a 
Bowed (he), in courtesy, 

fSj rahai 
Box, trunk, jjjj.^ sanduq 
Boy, jc-^-*« saJ^, ^^-^ 

guldm 
Brain, cU^ dimdg 
Branch, ^j^^ gusn, &jJ 

fan 
Brass, ^jA^ nahds 
Brave, ''^j^^- J^^ 
Bread, ^^ (Syr.) khubz, 

^^^ (Eg.) caish 
Breadth, ^jc card 
Break — he broke, ^ . .., <=== » 

Breakfast, jjaafuiur 



Breath, ^^^^«iJ w^j/Jr^ 
Brick, ^1 o;*wrr, j^ qar- 

mid 
Bride, (j**;^^ iarz^s 
Bridegroom, fj^j>-^ iarus, 

Bridle (suhs.), A^ lijdm 
Bright,^* munir, ^ jalt, 

^^ baM 
Bring (imp.), ^^Jlj».\ ahdeV, 

c^U hdtj i^^j^ jih 

— he brought, c->U. jdh 

— he brought forward, 
^^ haddflfr 

Broken, j^J^» maTcsur 
Brother, ^\ akh (pi. ^J\y>\ 

iWLwdn) 
Brown, ^,^^1 asmar 
Brush, iZ»^ furaha 
Brute, beast, i*-4^ haJiima 
Build — he built, ^-> hana 
Buried (he), ^^j dafan, 

jA qdbar 
Burn (y,a. and v. w.)— he 

burnt, or it burnt, j/a-l 

i\daraq 
Business, Jii. shu^^ 



VOOABIJLART. 



163 



^^sy, Jji^ masTigul 

But, ^J^ laJcin^ Jj hal, Ul 

ammd 
Butcher, L->La9 qassdb 
Butter, ^J.^^^% samn, lx-i\ 

zuhda 
Button (a)^ j5 zarr (pi. .l^jl 

Buy — he bought, (_^,:.,^1 



Buyer, (j^^« mushtari 

C. 

Cabbage^ v-*_i^^ kurumh, 

\^y^ malfuf 
Cable, J-.a. h«5Z 
Cage, jjAfls ^«/«s 
Cake, ii^ Tcaik 
Calf, JsP a}7 (pi. J^ iujul) 
Called (he), proclaimed, 

^^U ndda 
Called (he), named, ^♦-j 

samma 
Calm, ^\sb hddi, ^^> L*» 

sdkin 
Calmed (he), ^jjt Jiadda, 

K^iS^ sakhat 



Calmed (it), cuC» saJcat 
Camel, ^^ jamal {i^\, JU»- 
jimdl) 

Camp, jCmjc* muiaskar 
Can — see Able 
Candle, x^ shame 
Candlestick, ^jljjt^ sha- 

maiddn 
Captivity, »yjl isr 
Care (anxiety), djUi dndya, 

(attention) j*UiJbl ihtimdm 
Careful, fjo)^ harfs, ^4* 

muhtimm 
Carpenter, ^l^ najjdr 
Carpet, l^\^ sajjdda 
Carried (he), J*&. hamal 
Carrot, .^ jazar 
Cash, jAJ ^ag^;? 
Cask, J-^o^ harmil 
Castle, ix]^ qalca 
Cat, k5 g'itt (pi. LlkS git at) 
Catch — he caught, gripped, 

(<*Lmwo masik ^^ qabad, 
ja.1 «khath 
Catch — he caught (in fish- 
ing or fowling), ^lJa_^l 
istdd 



164 



VOCABULARY. 



Cauliflower, k«j^ qarnabti 
Cause, ^^^ sabah (pi. ^\^\ 

ashdh) 
Cautious, j^is:* 7nuh.tariz 
Celebrated {partic), jj^-^ 

mashhur 
Certain (sure), J-a-s^ fnu- 

haqqaq 
Certainly, la>. haqqan 
Chain, aJUL salsala, silsila 
Chair, ^^ kiirst 
Changed (he), Jjj baddal, 

Chapter, ^^fasl 

Charcoal, ^ fahm 

Charge, care, custody, 1*,!^. 
\iirdsa 

Charged (he), commis- 
sioned, commanded, ^j 
wassa, J^ wahkal 

Charged — see Cost, Eeckon, 
Order, Office 

Charming, agreeable, ^^JLo 
malih 

Cheap, ^jo^j rdk\ds 

Cheat (v.), ^J:^ gashsh, jS£. 
gadr 



Cheerful,^j^^.M** masrur 
Chicken, ^^Jfarruj 
Child, jjj walad (pi. ^Vjl 

auldd) 
Choose — he chose, .LjL-i.1 

*kh^ar 
Chosen, ^lis* mukhtdr 
Church, h^^ kamsa 
Circle, lj\^ ddHra 
Circumstance, J'o. h.dl (pi. 

Jlj>.l dhwdV) 
City, A,;_jtj^ madina (pi. 

^j^ mudun) 
Civil (polite), e^jLi-o tww- 

ta'addib 
Claw,^flU zufVy v_Jli. khwZJ 
Clay, ^j^o tin 
Clean, neat, ^— g » \^.) waz*/, 

^l-l? idhir 
Cleaned (he), e-Li5 ^adda/, 

^* Twa^ah 

Clear (as the sky), jj^U 

sahi, iL» so^ 
Clever, Jj?Li, sJidtir, jiU 

hathzg' * 

Climbed (he), Jju© s«4ff^, 

^iLLl irtaqa 



VOCABULARY. 



165 



Clock, AcL> sdca 
Closed (he) — see Shut 
Closet (privy), iiUs^l adab- 

khdna 
Closet (private room), i^ 

hujra, 'ijii. khalwa 
Cloth, ^U5 qumdsJi, ^j^ 



Clothes, raiment, l^jJ) 
thauh, (^lo thiydhf <^^y\ 
athwdh 
Cloud, c-.As.'** sahdh 
Clouded (it), ^^ gapjam 



Coach, l^itf kar7 
iaraha 
I Coal, j^ fdhm 



V 



Coarse (material)^ c;— ^-^ 

Coarse (manners), Ja-^-Lc. 

galiz 
Coast, Ja.L» sdYiil (pi. J.a-l^»j 

sawdhil) 
Cock, eJ^j J dik 
Coffee, ly^ qaliwa 
Cold, coldness, ay hard 
Cold, frigid, aj^j hdrid 



Collected (he), Ji lamm, 

«.«.&. jamac 
Colour (suhst.), ^j^J laun 

(pi. ^\j\ alwdn) 
Comb, W^ mushi 
Come {imp.), JUj' tacala 

he came, \>'jd\ ^j\ aia 

Comfort, ease, l:^J raha, 

bb hand 
Comfort, consolation, iJLj* 

tasliyya 
Command — see Order 
Commerce,^* matjar 
Common (shared by seve- 
ral), d^-o mushtarah 
Common (inferior), ^j^ dun, 

j^ haqtr 
Communicate — see Inform 
Companion, ^J^ rofiq (pi. 

f\AJj rufaqd) 
Company, i^st^ jamdyya, 

^jJisT* mujlis, llsj rufqa, 

1^ s>uh.ha 
Compared (he), ^}i qdyas 
Compass, pair of compasses, 

jIsIj Mkar 



166 



VOCABULART. 



Compelled (he), *pl alzam, 

^y>\ ahwaj 

(he was), ^^1 iltazam 

Competent, .^Is qddir,ji^ 

jadlr 
Complained (he), JOlJ 

tasJiahlca, ^S<i^\ ishtaJca 
Completed (he), Jl atamm, 

^ tammam 
Completion, J-^ takmil 
Comply — he complied, Jj 

qabil, ^j rofd* 
Concealed (he), ^1 akh/«, 

J^katam 
Concealed (he or it was), 

^^:s>\ ikhtafa 
Concluded (he), finished, 

^ khatam 
Conclusion, ^^lii. khitdm 
Condemn (he condemned 

to death), ojJIj -X». 

haJiam hi ^l-maut 

he blamed, ^i \h.amm 

Condition (state), JU haZ 

(pi. J|^-»-l dhwdl), ^jLJ:. 

sMn 



Condition (of agreement), 

]oj^ shart (pi. ]ojj^ shurut) 

Conduct, behaviour, taJ^ 

SUlUfC 

Conducted (he), led, guided, 

^Is qdd, ij^jb Jiada 
Confessed (he),^il aqarr 
Confession, ^1^1 iqrdr 
Confidence (trust), Isu thi- 

qa, jUicI iUimdd, ^U:;cl 

iUiqdd 
Conjunction, iUj wa^la 
Conquered (he),^ qaJiar, 

e-^lc galab, z$ fatah,y^ 

zafar 
Conquered (partic), vjU* 

magluh 
Conquest, ja fafh^^ zafr 
Consent («.), Li. ri^a 
Consented (he), U . rad^ 
Consequence, isj-' natija 
Considered (he), reflected, 

J.*l3 iaammal, ji^ tofaJc- 

kar 
Consoled (he), A^ salla 
Consulted (he), j^li shd- 

e^«7', ^lli^l istasMr 



VOOABULAET. 



167 



radda 



Contained (it), J^l ish 

tamal 
Contented, ^\j rddi, ^U 

qdnic 
Contented (it), ^j 

(he was), ^.-^ 

radi 
Continued (he),^.» ; »»! ^5^«- 

marr 
Continued (he), ceased not 

froDQL, JhU wazaZ 
Continually, Ujb daiman 
Contrary, uJ^a» khi'Za/, J^ 

diJt^ 
Contrived (he), ^\ij\ irtda, 

c,i>.l ikhiarai 
Convenient, «-*>.|^ wojih, 

cyukjLo mundsib 
Conversation, ijil^ muhd- 

datha, l^o\s^ mukhdiahttf 

ijj\^ mvhdwara 
Conversed (he), cijj^ ta- 

haddath^j^\c idsJiar 
Conveyed (he), carried, Ji5 

naqal 
Cook (suhs.), ^\^ iabhdkhi 



Cooked (he), ^J© taJakh 
Cool, fresh, ^]oj ratb 
Cool (he made), ^ harrad 
Cord, J^ h«5Z (pi. JU1 

«h5aZ) 
Cork, stopper, i^ljw^ siddda 
Corn, ^ g'amh 
Comer, ajjI^ zdwiyya, \^Jio 

iaraf 
Cost (it), (_ftJLSo takallaf 
Cotton, ^9 quin 
Cough (subs.), iix^ sacala 
Coughed (he), Jx^* 5ai«Z 
Counted (he), numbered, 

reckoned, jc cadd, <.^j^^ 

hasab 
Country, jJb balad, j^_^ 

5iZa^, (pi, of »jL haldd) 
Courage, i\^jard^a 
Course, extent, Ix^ mud^/u 
Cow, »^ baqara 
Cradle, J4* wa^J 
Created (he), ^jli. kh»Z«g 
Creator, ^jJU. khaZzg, ^^ 

kh^ZZag' 
Credit, (loan), ^^ J^^iw 
(belief), :>U^i idimdd 



168 



VOCABULARY. 



Credit (reputation), ^L:;^! 

idibdr 
Crooked, — ^cl aiwaj 
Crowd, J^\ zihdm, iJj>^ 

jauqa 
Crow (a bird), c.\j zdg 
Crown, coronet, —IS tdj 
Cruelty, ijLj qasdwa 
Cruel, J Hi zdlim, ^l5 qdst 
Cry — lie cried out, ^^^^ 

sarakh, ^{^ sah 
Cry — he wept, ^ bdka 
(Cucumber, .Li. klieyar 
Cultivated (he) [the ground] 

ci^ harath, ^falah. 

Cunning (adj.),JC^ makMr 
Cunning, guile,^^ makr 
Cup, — j5 qaddh^ J^finjdn, 

^^y^hds 
Cured (he), (^b ddwa 
Oure, remedy, \^^ dawd 
Curious (strange), '--'^ 

iiijiby vJ;C garib 
Curious, inquisitive, 

uiutajassis 



Curiosity, inquisitiveness, 

Lafti**il istiqsa 
Curtain, s.L*. sitdra 



Cushion, ji^< masnad, sjit* 

mukhadda 
Custom, 5jW idda 
Cut (he), ^ qaiac 

A cutting otf, l^jazma 

D. 

Damp, moist, v--.-!?^ ratft, 

Danced (he), ^j raqas 
Danger, ^ki. khatar 
Dared (he),^U^' tajdsav 
Darkness, ^^ zaldm, iUk 

zulma 
Date (fruit), ^ tamr 
Date (of a letter dr a book), 

^jlJ tdrikh. 
Daughter, c>ij &m^ 
Dawn,^/cy>, ^^ sM^h 
Day, ^^i yaw7?i (pi. ^L*! 

ayyain) 

To-day, ^y^\ al-yaum 
All day long,^l4Jl J^ 
tUl an-nahdr 



YOCABULARY. 



169 



Dciytime,^l4i nahdr 
Dead, ^^ mutawqffi, kz. 

niayyit 
Dear (not cheap), JU gdli 
(beloved) , c-*--a. haUh^ 



^jfsf mahhub 
Death, oj* maut 
Debt, ^ji^ dain 
Deceit, ^^^ gish, jj^ gurur 
Deceived (he), cji. khadac 
Decided (he), determined, 

concluded, ^jazam, Xas 

qcmad 
he delivered judg- 
ment. So- \akam 
Declaration,^;)^ ^agr/r, ^^1 

iddm 
Deep, profound, jj*^ iamiq 
Defended (he), *U hdma 
Delay, ^^-j^U ^a'^kh/r, ^\J 

taani il^* muJila 
Delay — he delayed, j^ 

akhar, J^*! amhal 
Delight (5w55.), iijj Zaththa 
Delightful, ^L-*> mrr, ^j.a^ 

mufarrih. 



Delivered (he), consigned, 

surrendered, JL sallam 
Delivered — he liberated, 

^Ja\^ khallas 
Deliverance, liberation, »Ui 

najdt 
Deliverance, handing over, 

^JLJ taslim 
Demanded (he), claimed, 

requested, w-JUs talah 
Demolished (he), j*ja hadam 
Denial, ^&1 inkdr 
Denied (he), ^1 ankar, 



Departed (he), ^\j rah,^L. 

sdfar 
Depended on (he or it), 

_) jIjo tacallaq hi 
Depended — he relied on, 

trusted in, j^aicl iUaqad 

Deprived (he), ^^ j»^>. 
haram min, ^ ojj nazac 



can 



j\ 



Deprived (he was), -»^ 

inharam 
Descended (he), J^ nazal 



170 



VOCABITLARY. 



Described (he), lJl-^^j 

wasaf 
Description, c_ft^ was/ 
Desert, waste (5.), hy har- 

riyya 
Desert, merit, jlasr*-] istih- 

qdq 
Deserted (he), j^ Jiajar, 

^J lardk 
Deserved (he), jW^' ista- 

h.aqq^ ^>&.ji^l istaujdb 
Deserving, worthy, ^j-s?**** 

mustahiqq 
Desire {s.), Is-j ragba, jl^ 

murdd 
Desire, passionate longing, 

^ji shauq 
Desire — it excited desire, 

jj^ shawwaq 
Desired (he), ^^^\ isJitaha, 

jl::^! ishtdq, c-aC, ragib, 

Jlc mdl 
Desirous, v-^K rdgib 
Despair (subst.), ^ja\j ya^as 
Despaired (he), ^j^ij ya^is 
Desperate, hopeless, ^^\m 

ma^ayus 



Desperate, furions, ,^4 -^ 

mutahawwir 
Despicable, JJ j thaZi^ j^ 

haqtr 
Despised (h&),^^\ thtaqar 
Destination, Xai* maqsad 
Destined (he), assigned, 

appointed, ^yu: cay y an 
Destined, decreed by fate, 

jji* muqaddar 
Destiny, Lii qa^d^ j^xL* 

maqdur^ l^^ qisma 
Destroyed (he), ruined, ^h»j 

dammar, ddal ahlak 
Destruction, ^^^ takhrib 
Detail (in), J-«afli)l jjc (,ala 

't'tafsU 
Detailed (he), J-aj fassal 
Detained (he), withheld 

held back, j^ cawwaq, 

du***! amsak t^i-sjl aio^ 

Detained (he), [in custody], 

^^j,,^ habas 
Detected (he), s^MSkashaf 
Detection, discovery, ^-AtT 

kashf, \^\ vihdr 



VOOABULARY, 



171 



Determination, firm inten- 
tion, s^ qasd, ^ys. cazm 
Detestable, ijS^ makruh 
Detraction, scandal, 1.^4-1 

tuhma 
Deviated (he), strayed, sU 

tdh, J^ daZZ 
Devil, ^jlkJt, shaitdn 
(a bad man), .j^ 

sharir 
Devoid, destitute of, ^c^xc 

cadim 
Devotion (religious), »^Lc 

dldda 
Devotion (personal), l^yai^ 

khususit/ya 
Devoured (he), aL balac 
Devout, JL> sdlih 
Dew, fjji nada 
Diamond, ^j^L mas, (j*»ljl 

almas 
Diarrhoea, JIjm.1 is'hdl 
Dictionary, iiill ^\SMtab 

al-lugat 
Died (he), oU mat, ji^j 

tawajffu 
Differed (he), ^^^ farag 



Differed (he) in opinion or 
feeling, t^h^j ikhtalaf 

Difference, diversity, ^ 
farq, v^^Li.! ^kh^i'Zci/ 

Different, u-iJU:* mwkhaZi/, 
«^lis^ wwkh^aZ2/ 

Differently, l5^ farqan 

Difficult, u-*3S4d saib, ^^--*c 

Difficulties, straits, ,j^ d/g, 

^ 5aZ« 
Difficulty, ijjjc-a smuba, 

Diffident, ^^b^ mutawahhim 
Dig— he dug,^fls^ ha/ar 
Digested (he), ^,.^ haMam 
(put in order), Ja> 

nazam 
Digestion, ^^ hadm 
Dignity, 1_-J^_* martaba, 

\^J:> sharaf 
Diligence, A^^\ ihtimdm 
Diligent, J.^^ mujtahid 
Dim, adj.^ ^sae* mudim 
Dimension, ix-jj vjasca 
Diminished (he), jj^-iJ 

naqqas, Jli ^a//aZ 



17'2 



VOCABULARY. 



Diminished (it), Ji qall 
Diminished in value, fallen, 

ksr* munhatt 
Diminution, J-JLqJ taqlil, 

^JaA^ naqs 
Dined (he), ^jsk) tagadda 
Dinner, ]s^ gadd 
Direct, straight, ^pi^^ mus- 

taqtm 
Directed (he), instructed, 

v_j^l addah 

commanded, ^,_*1 amr 

(tte), pointed out, 

j^j^ Jiada, J^ dall 
Direction, ^U..l irsMd 
Dirt, filth, j^j wasakh 
Dirty, 2**^ wasikh., ^j^ 

najis 
Disabled (^particip.), * Q«»^tr 

mudaccaf 
Disadvantage, j^ darar 
Di.sagreeable, u^ makruh 
Disagreement, uJ^Li^l ikhti- 

Idf, Afii^Lo mundzaia 
Disappeared (he), t->U gdh 
Disappointed (he), ^,« ,. >. 

khayyai, Jji. khathaZ 



Disappointed (he was),L-*li. 

kha6 
Disapproved (he), ^ithamm 
Disaster, l^^^ masiba 
Discerned (he), distin- 
guished,^^ mayyaz 



Discernment, 



'tjt^ 



dismissal, ^ys, 
prison), 



Discharge, 

iazl 
Discharge (from 

^j£. gufrdn 
Discharged (he), dismissed, 

^ys. cazal 

(a gun), jjJLLl atlaq 

Discontented^ ^\j jtP- g^iT 

rddt 
Discount, Ll£*»l isqdt 
Discovered (he), c^s &.I 

dhdafh,^] azhar 
Disdain (subs.), ijUl ihdna 
Disdained (he), ^jUl ahdn 
Disease, b dd, ^^ marad 
Disgust, loathing, 6^ karh 
Disgusting, ij^:^^ mustak- 

rah 
Dish, platter, jsi^ sahn, 

Afts^ sah/a (pi. swhww, 

siha/) 



YOCABULARY. 



173 



Dishonest, ^j^ j*s- gair 

amin 
Dishonour, disgrace, in- 
famy, L->-c iaib^jXs. idr 
Dismiss — see Discharge 
Disobedient, -©Ui cast 
Disobeyed (he), ^c casa, 

^«_ftJU. Midlaf 
Disorder, disturbance, Jli. 

khalal 
Disorder, sedition, juis fit- 

nah 
Dispersed (he), oi.^ sJiattat 
Displayed (he), spread out, 

j.^ madd 
Displayed — he exhibited, 

j^\ azhar 
Displeased (he or it), ]i\c\ 

agdz 
Displeased (he was), liliil 

igtdz 
Disposition, temper, ix^-L 

tabtcat 
Dispute, altercation, JU-a- 

jiddl, chj nizdi 
Disputed (he), e^^. hahath, 

J^U jddal 



Dissension, Ix^^.a^ 'khumma 
Distance, Xxj buid, ijLwo 

niasdfa 
Distinctjjli^ mumfdz 
Distinguished (he), j^.^ 

mayyaz 
Distress (5.), u-^ liarh^ ia*^ 

Mqa^ 8jc^ sJiidda 
Distressed, grieved [par- 

ticip.), ^^JoaOA mudtarib, 

ijjy^ mdhzun 
Distributed (he), c-j wazzai 
Ditch, ^jii gadir 
Divided (he), ^ qassam 
Division, ^^^3 taqsim 
Divine, heavenly, 4 jl 

ilahi 
Do — he did, ^ faial, J^c 

carnal 
Doctor (medical), c-^^--L> 

iabth 
Dog, f^J^halb (pi. i^\s^ 

kildb) 
Done (particip.), J>*3c* mai- 

mul, Jjxio mafiul 
Door, u«>lo bdb (pi, 

abwdb) 



'j-^i 



174 



VOCABULARY. 



Double, doubled, 

muddiaf, ^xi* muthanna 

Doubled (he), cacU didiaf 

it doubled, or be- 
came double, t-icLoJ ta- 
Miaf 

Doubt, suspicion, uncer- 
tainty, (sLJ^ shakic, u-^ 
raib, l^ sJiuhJia 

Doubted (he), (<*U. shakk 

Doubtful, duLl* mushtaha^ 
v_A-.i^ murib, ^^jSij* 
shukuki 

Doubtless, undoubtedly, 
c^. V Id raibj a (^■, ;.,.■>!:. ^ 
bild shubha 

Dove, icW hamdma 

Down (under), o^ taht 

Downwards, j^ ,^^-0 min 
fauq 

Dowry, ^ muhr 

Dragged (he), t-)J-> y«- 
tha5 

Draw — he drew, delineated, 

Draw — he drew along, ^^-d. 
jarr, i..^ sahab 



Draw — he drew or pulled 

out, 3^ qalai 
Dream, 5., Ja. hwZw 
Dress, ^\^ libds 
Dressed (he), v, a. \^kasa, 

^j«J labbas, ^j^\ albas 
Dressed (he), v. neitt,, ^j»JS 

talabbas 
Dressing {-partic), ^j»*A^ 

mulbis 
Drink, v., he drank, u->^ 

sharib 
Drink, s, i^Jia shurb, u-jJ^ 

shardb 
Drive — he drove out, he 

expelled, ^ tar ad, jto 

dafac 
Drop, S.J i^23 qatra, iiaaJ 

nuqta 
Drop — it dropped (liquid), 

kaJ naqqat 
Drought, ^kjl ^j^ adam 

al-mair, u-sltj nashdf 
Drowned (he or it), sub- 
merged, ,^ garraq 
Drowned (he or it was). 



VOCABULAEY. 



175 



Drowsiness, ^_^ nais 
Druggist,^ liac (.aiidr 
Drum, J*L iabl 
Drunkard, ^^]^C*» sakrdn 
Dr^ — he dried, ^^m-j yahhas 
Dry, adj., <,J^lj ndshif, ^^^ 

ydhis 
Duck (a), aki 5att«5 
Due, owing, Ujll t--^l^ w;4;V6 

al-wafd 
Dumb, ^js>'\ okYiras 
Duration, J^^ datvdm, Jj^^\ 

istimrdr 
During, j%b U md dam, UjI ^3 

ft athnd 
Dust, ^Lc gubdr, t->l^ ^ora6 



Duty, t-*j*»l^ wdjlb, ^jOj-J 

fard 
Dwell — he dwelt, ^J^=»^ 
I sakan 

Dwelling, habitation, ^JC^ 

makdn, ^Jx-*** masJcan 
Dyer, cl^ sabbdg 

r 

Each, jo.lj ^hull wdhid 
Eager, jjlx^ mushtdq 



Eagerness, A*^a* hamiyya 

Eagle, ^^ /zasr 

Ear, jjil z^thw (dual ^Jljil 

athndn, pi. ^J|jl dthdn) 
Early, adv., fjjSi badri 
Early (in the morning), 

\j^=>\) bdkiran 
Earned (he)^ acquired by 

industry, &c., ^^^ kasab. 
Earth, \^\J turdb; the earth. 



Lfy 



ardi 



Earthenware, ^U? /^khkhar 
Earthly, ^j\ ardi, ^c*^\s- 

idlami 
Earthquake, iJ^h zalzala 
Earthy, )]^ turdbi 
Ease (repose, comfort), li>.\j 

rdha 
Ease (facility), aJ^^* suhd' 

lah 
East (the), ^J^ sharq, 

^p^ mashrag 
Easy, facile, J^-- sahl 
Eat — he ate, Jfl a^a/ 
Eatables, J.^=>U ma^akal 
Eclipse, y^jS kusiif, 

v-jLXil inkisdf 



176 



TOOABULARY. 



Eclipse (of the moon), 

jj*^ khusilf 
Economy, JU::cl utiddl 
Edge (of a knife or sword), 

ja. hadd 
(brink), jS kandr, 

AsU- hafa 
Educated (he), ^j rahba 
Education, 1^3 tarhiya^ 

v->j»^lj> ta^adib 
Effect, result, consequence. 

Efficacious, Jli/auaZ 
Efifort, endeavour, ^^ saiy 

s^jdhd 
Egg, A^ baida 
Either — see Or 
Elbow, j»^ mirfaq 

Elegance, U\^ zardfa, 

i.VJaJ latdfa 
Elegant, «— w^ zarif 
Elephant, JJ fil 
Elevation, cUj^I iV^i/at 
Eloquence, h^\^ fasdha 
Embarked (he), cjT^Jl j j;5 

nazal fi^l-marlcah 



Embarrassment, oKW-^jI 

idtirdb, »^ h«t>a 

Embraced (he), jiW 4(£w«^ 

Embroidery, ji^ ^atm 

Eminent, Jlc ^aZ/ 

Empalement, ^^-^ kha^t- 
zaqa 

Empire, iiki-** saltana 
Employed (he), gave em- 
ployment to, Ji^ shaggaly 

j5^ waJckdl 
Empty, void, JU. khaZr, 

^\3fdrig 
Empty — he emptied, ^ 

fadda 
Emulated (he), ^jjL. sdbaq 
Enabled (he), ^jj qaddar 

jS9\ aqdar 
Encamped (he), pitched 

tents, ^ khayyam 
Enclosed (it), encompassed, 

L>Ui ahat 
Enclosing, encircling, W^ 

muhtt 
Encountered (he), he met, 

uJjU> sddaf 



VOCABULARY. 



177 



f 



Encouraged (he),^«*^ya55fl5r, 

d/». harraJc 
Endj^l akhiTy L-il infikd, 

ijU. thdtima 
Endeavoured (he), J^-^1 

ijtahad, s^jadd 
Endeavour, attempt, subs., 

J4*. jahd 
Ended (he), ^J tammam, 

^ khatam 
Ended (it), ^^i^ intaha, 

tamm 
Enemy, jj.c caduwtv (pi. 

Ucl «46?a) 
Energy, s.j^ qudra 
Engaged, busy, J^^-i-l-* 

mashgdl 
England, »^Kil Inkilterra 
Enjoyment (happiness), 

juj tanauum 
Enlarged (he), amplified, 

x.-aj wassai 
Enough, sufficient, ^^Jcdfi 
Enough, sufficiency, ajI^ 

kifdya 
Enraged (he was), kl_i-^l 



Entered (he), J-i-^ da>- 

khaZ 
Entirely, aXlb Ml Iculllya, 

iU^ jj fi ^l-jumla 
Entreated, ^J tarajja 
Envelope (of a letter), uJ^ 

gildf, Aslfl] Zi/4/« 
Envy, Ju-mj>. hasad 
Equal, ijjL^ musdtvi, (^ji-«-o 

must aw i 
Equal (an), ^y ^a?*i^ (pi. 

J\J\ aqrdn) 
Equalled (he or it), was 

equal with, jjjLJ tasawa, 

{Jj:l^\ istawa 
Equalled — he made equal, 

he equalized, (^jL. sdioa 
Equivalent, J^U* mucddil 
Error, Wii gaZat 
Escaped (he). Is? najd, cJlsl 

aflat 
Estate, property, J liic caqdr 
Eternal, ^jsj] ahadiyy, ^^ 

azaliyy 
Even, adj. — see Equal 
Even, even to, adv., ^ 

hatta 



178 



VOCABULARY. 



Evening, ll* masa 
Event, Axdlj rvaqica, ^jUJl 

ittifdq 
Ever — see Always 
Every, J^s* hull 
Evidence, g^LJi, shahdda 
Evil, suhs.jjli sJiarr 
Evil, «<//., jj^ r^c?/, j^Li 

Exact, adj., ]oj^Ji^ madbitt, 

^s-s*^ sahih 
Examined (he), ^JaJ fahas 
Examiner, (jj^j^o mufattish 
Example, a similitude, JU* 

mithdl 

a model, ijSd qidwa 

a warning, ij , c a*5rd5 

for), '3cu matJialan 

Exceeded (he), jj^ tqjd- 

waz 
Excelled (he), ^iXa fdq iola 
Excellent, J^'i fddil, u-a1^ 

muJcallaf 
Except, excepting, save, Vi 

illdy \^\>. hdshd, Uc cadd, 

^j^uj siwa, j^c. gair 
Exception, Lj:i--1 istithnd 



Exchanged, (he), Jjj hadal, 
Exchange, substitution, 

Jj jjt tahdll 
Excited (he), he stirred up, 

d,_a. YiarraTcy ^j-^ har- 

rod 
Exclaimed (he), — L? sah 
Excluded, forbidden, ^^j^ 

mdhrum, pjU^ mamnilc 
Excuse, subst,,jjs, cuthr 
Exempt from, adj., ujl-x-o 

^j^ mucdf min 
Exercise, use, practice, 

JU«i-j1 istumdl, <^\j^ 

tadrlb 
Exercise, recreatiou, ^j.ii3 

tafarruj 
Exercised (he), practised, 

jj^U mdras, 
Exigency, Lii5i zqtidd 
Exiled (he), aJ nafa, 2>jJo 

tarad 
Exile (an), Sijo tar id 
Expected (he), ^kj:jl m- 

tazar 
Exi[)eTided,particip., v^i^.^* 

masrilf — see Spend 



yOCABULARY. 



179 



Experience, hj^ tajriba, 

»^ khibra 
Expert, ^^ khabtr 
Explained (he), — ^ sharali 
Explanation,^^;j-M-ij tafstr 
Expressed (he), uttered, 

k_flj lafaz 
Extensive, s>x» madid 
Extent, :>]szti\ imtiddd 
Extinguished (he), ^ tafa 
Extracted (he), drew out, 

^^sf^l istak^raj 
Extraordinary, .^Li nadir, 

b^LseJl v«j!A_a. khildf al- 

idda 
Extravagant (with money), 

«wJ^-«uo musrif 
Extreme, extremity, ex- 
tremely, iU gdyat 
Eye, ^^ (.ain (pi. ^JJ_-_c 

aiytin) (dual J^^ caindn) 



Fable, 5w55., l^l^i^.Wiurdfa'k, 

Jio mathal 
Face, A_&.j ivajh (pi. 8^j 

ivujilh) 



Failed (it), was deficient, 

^jQA) naqas 
Faithful, ^^^1 amin 
Fall, subs. J Ljft^ suqUt 
Fall— he or it fell, ^j 

waqac, \zi^ saqat 
False, ^jj zdr, i_>iK Mthib 
Falsehood, ^^j^ kithb 
Family (household), Jj»>l 

o-JI afil al'bait 
Family (race), J^ nasi, 

c-^^ nasab 
Familiar (intimate), adj., 

v«^Iia rautaalif 
Famine, ks? ^aht 
Fan (a), ia-jj^ marwaha 
^ancy, JL^ khayaZ, ^^ 

Far, far off, x.^ badd 
Farewell (he bade), c,:>j 

waddac 
Farewell ! d^LU. khatr^;^ 
Fashion (form), ^^ zayy. 
Fashion (custom), g.>lc idda 
Fast (swift), »ij^ sarU 
Fastened (he), (jy qaicica 
Fat, adj., ^«w samin 



180 



VOCABULARY. 



ah, jJI^ todlid 



Fate — see Destiny- 
Father, 
Fatigue, t-^aJ taiah 
Fatigued (it), ^yo tauah, 

u^»)l atiab 
Fault, c-A^ iaib,La^naqtsa 
Faultless, t-^^^ '3o bild caib 
Favour, iJLo minna, a.*-rJ 

niima 
Fear, .?., uJ^ kha?//, asU:* 

mwkh/7/(a 
Feared (he). v_5U kha/ 
Fearful, frightened, w-iiU. 

kha^/, v^js:* mukhawivaf 
Feather, i^ risha (pi. 



(-rl; 



rfs/i 



Fed, par tic, v^jU* maddf 
Fed (he), he ate, J..^=»i a^aZ 
he gave food, ^-atJ?] 



at4am, u-aIc 6«Za/ 



Feel, he felt, 



u^ 



\iass 



Feel — he felt compassion, 

^jflj^ sJiafaq 
Felicitated (he), ei)^l> 5ara^ 
Fellow, companion, co- , 



Felt (the stuff called), ^U 

lubhdd 
Feminine, ^\ untha, e^^ 

mu^annath 
Fence (a), an enclosure, 

aLUI zhat^ 
Fermented (it), ,*ii.l ikh- 

tamar 



Ferociouf2, 



(jr^J 



wahsJii 



Ferry, subs,,^^^* macbar 
Fertile, c-^:j-aa^ khastb 
Festival (religious), j^x ctd, 

(pi. jLcI aiydd) 
Fever, ^&. humma 
Feverish, f*j*s^ mahmtcm 
Few, Jis g-^ZiZ 
Fidelity, iJUl amdna 
Field, open land, Jia. haj'Z 
Fig, iiJ fi^;2« (pi. ^^ iffw) 
Fight, a battle, Jlii ^/^aZ, 

Fight — he fought, u->^L». 

hdrab, JJli ^a^crZ 
Figure (shape), jCi shaMy 



^jy> 



B>tlra 



Filled (he), X» maWa 
Filled up, particip.y ^Js^ 
wiww^aZi 



VO0ABULA.RY. 



181 



Filth, A-.U 

Find — he found, s>j vmjad 

Fine (a penalty), a » ) >_&» 

jarima 
Finger, ^u^\ isbai (pi. jL>\ja\ 

asabu) 
Finished — see Com plete, 

Conclude 
Fire, sub.,j\j ndr (pi. ^^1^ 

nirdn) 
he set on fire, ^jj>\ 

ahraq, j^ haraq 



it took fire. 



l|/^' 



ihtaraq 
he fired (a gun) — 

see Discharge 
Firm (steady), >*,V, rdsikh. 
Firm (determined), ci^jU 

ihdbit 
First, J^l Jjl atvwal (m.), 

Ula {fern.) 
First — at first, Vjl awwalan 
Fish, i5C»^ samaka (pi. (j*Uw 

5«mt?^) 
Fished (he), dU^ 

ta^ayyad samak 
Fisticufi", iS^ lahma 



Fit, proper, jjV Id'iq, c-^lj 

?/;4;i^, ^slj* mmodjiq 
Fixed (he), c>-j thabbat, 

dA-jl atlibat, j^ qarrar 
Flag, banner, ^Ic iolam, 

j;^) bairaq 
Flame, swJ^., ^^^ Z«^iZ> 
Flashed (it), 2. e. fire, or 

lightning, j j baraq 
Flask, ULJ^ sMsJia 
Flat, level, ^jjl^* rnvstawi 
Flat ground, ^^ saJil 
Flattered (he), ^jU mallaq 
Flatulency, -Aj TZfl/kh 
Flea, fleas, cjjSyi bargdf, 

cu-cL) bardgU 
Flee — see Fly 
Flesh, ^ lahn 
Flight (in the air), ^j\^ 

iayardn 
Flight (running away), .1^ 

firar, K^jb harb 
Fling — see Throw 
Flooded (it), v-jlL tdf 
Flour, ^j^ tahtrif 

daqiq 
Flowed (it), (j-^^. jar a 



182 



VOCABULARY. 



Flower, ijHj zahra 

Fly — it flew (as a bird), 

Fly — he ran away,^* hajar, 

c->^ harab 
Followed (he), xJ tabic 
Following, gjL':.^ mutdbi'' 
Folly, dil*a. hamaqa 
Fondness, sj^^* matoadda 
Food, e^^ qtlt^ As^ tacdm 
Fool, foolish, j^2^1 ahmar^ 
Foot, J-)^ rijl (pi. J^^l 

ar/wZ) 
Foot (the sole of the), j»jS 

qadam 
Forbid — he forbade, ^-^J 

naJia^ iti« manac 
Force (strength), i^ji 3'M^r(aj 
Force (violence), ^^yaJr 
Forcibly, \J\J^^\ idtirdran, 

j^ jabran 
Forehead, \:j<^jabin 
Foreign, foreigner, l->^^ 

garib 
Forest, h}^ gdba (pi. l-jIc 

gdb) 
Forget — he forgot, ^ nasa 



Forgive — he forgave, ^-ft,c- 

gi^/'ar 
Forgiveness, I^JlJc^ mag- 

fara,jRc^ cafivu 
Forgotten ^^..i^ munsa 
Fork, l^s»^ sTiauka 
Form (figure), jJlt 5^a^Z, 

8^j-d sw?*a 
Former, anterior, ^jjLi 5a6f$', 

j*ji* muqaddam 
Formerly, liU sdbiqan 
Formidable, ^-^^^ muMb 
Forsake — s^e Abandon 
Fort, fortress, ixlS ^6??;^ 
Fortune (good), lo^si Jakh^, 

k^ hazz 
Fortunate, Ojsj^ WA^Jkh^^^ 
Forward, adj, and «c?y., j«< ji 

qudddm 
Foul, filthy, ,^^:tf 7?«;V5 
Founder, originator, ^j^^y^ 



e- 



mubdii 



Fountain, ^j^ cain, (spout- 
ing) cj<jji yambui 
Fox, v-JIjo thadab 
Fragile, jJ>c^ munkasir 



VOCABULARy. 



183 



^ haMb, J-ii. 
fc-Lo sahib 



Fraud, ^ makr,j>jjJ taz- 

wir 
Free, freeman, .a. hiirr (pi. 

^'^p.\ ahrdr) 
Freed (he), ^j-jl^I actaq, 

^\]o\ atlaq 
Freed (he was), jjJlJaJl in- 

talaq 
Freedom, ij^-a. hurriyya, 

^ys. citq 
Friend, « 

'kh.alil, 
Friendship, l^ muhabba 
Frightened (he or it), «^^ 

kliaivwaf 
'Frighteiiedjparticip,, uJ^ 

rnukhawwaf 
Frightful, ^^jsf'mu'khatvtvif 
Front, ^1a9 qudddm 

(in), Jjl£o muqdbil 

Frosty s^jalid 

Frown — he frowned, ^j^^js. 

cabas 
Fruit, A4.^s>\i fdhiha, Ij^ 

tliamara 
Fry — he fried, ^^ qala 
Frying-pan, ^^11© tajin 



Full, ^\o maldn, ^:^c mum- 

tali 
Funeral, Ijc^jindza 
Fur, a fur- coat, 'ijj far tea 
Furnished (as a house), 

{j^5^ mafrtlsh 
Furnished (he), equipped, 

^)_4_a. jalihaz 
Furniture, ^j farsh 
Future, {adj,), T\dti, J-qi-** 

mustaqbil 

G. 

Gain, 5., ^^^^ hasb 
Gained (he), l-a-3 kasah, 

stsui\ intafai 
Game (sport), c->xl lacb 
Garden, i:^ janna, ^^» 

bustdn (pi. j^Lj 5«5(£- 

jj/w) 
Garlic, ^y tdm 
Gate, t_^lj &a6 (plur. ^\^\ 

abwdb) 
Gathered (he), ju^jamac 
Gathered (it was), ;> ,»-^\ 

injamai 
Gem — see Jewel 



184 



VOCABTJLAET. 



Gemmed (set with jewels), 

^j^ mura^^ai 
Generally, Uj^ curnilman 
Generation (begetting), sJy 

tauUd 
Generosity, ^^karam, Ls^ 

sdk\\d 
Generous^ jiji JcariJii 
Gentle, A->. haltm 
Gentleman, (Mr.), A-ft-lj-a- 

kh.awdja 
Geography, a^|^ j^igTa- 

Get — he got, J-aa. hassaZ 
Giddiness (in the head), 

A>j^ daukha 
Gift, Ike cata, hs^b hadiyya 
Gilded, ^Jko muialla 
Girdle, helt, jS^kamar 
Gir], cui> hint, l^^ ^abiyya 
Give — he gave, ^Ja^c cata, 

(jSit\ ahda 
Glad, ^^\^,9farhdn 
Gladdened (it)^ ^Jifarrah. 
Glass (the substance), —Uj 

zujdj, ;1}J qizdz 



Glass (a vessel to hold 
liquor), ^^ kds, ^j._i 
qadah. 

Gleamed (it), glittered, a.) 
lamac 

Glimpse (a), >J lamh 

Globe (the), i^ kurra 
Glorious, JJa. join, J^ 

wz//akhkhar 
Glory, j^ majd, ^\>.jaldl 
Glove, ^^jT kaff (pi. *«JuflJ 

kufdf) 
Go — he went, c-^i tha^fl^Z/, 

^1^ rah 

he went out, ^^ '^araj 

Goat (a),^)3to 7?i«i2;, ,j**jJ tais 
Gold, w-^j tha^ai 
Good, ^>^!o iayyih 
Goodness,^ khafr 
(Have the), Be 

kind enough, J^iw tafad- 

dal 
Goods, xAjd hadd'U (plural 

of ls\j^ biddid) 
Goose, i\^ wazza 
Governed (he), S^ hakam 



YOCABULARY. 



185 



Government, a-*^ huM- 

ma 
Governor, Jl^ lodli 
Gradually, j^;xJl Ij UH- 

tadrij 
Grain, corn^ ilc galla 
Grand, . A^g iazim, j..^..^^^ 

Jcahir 
Grandeur, i^kc iazama 
Grandfather, j^ jidd 
Grandson, jiU h.dfid 
Granted (he), conferred 

upon, _> ^scil amam hi 
Grapes, ^.*ic tma^ 
Grasped (he), d^* masah, 

^J qabad 
Grass, l-^.1c iwsA6 
Grateful, jjCl shaMr 
Gratitude, ^^=iii shuJcr 
Grave (suhst.), »^ hi/fra 
Gravity (of manner), iujb 

haiba, ^Jh . razdna 
Gravy, ii^ maraq^a 
Grease, ^^ JwA/z, j^-sr* 

s7i«hm 
Greased (he), anointed, ^^ 

dahhan 



Greasy, ^^j* mud'hin 
Great, ^Jai: iazim^ jS kabtr 
Greatness^ .5 kihr 
Green, ^i.1 «khd«r 
Greens, Ij^o^ khwd?'a 
Grey, ^Ui^ sinjdbi 
Grey-haired, l-oU» 5^a^e6 
Grief, ^ gamm 
Grieved (it), ^^ hazzan 

(he), ^^ h«2m 

Grind — he ground (corn, 

etc.), ^J-J^ tahan 
Grinned (he),j^kashshar 
Groaned (he), ^\j ndh 
Groom, ,j*jLi sdHs 
Ground, 5., ^j\ ard 
Grow — it grew, vegetated, 

, ^ nama, oJ nahat 
Guard, guardian, kslsr* mu- 

Icidjiz 
Guard, guardianship, ikals.* 

muhafaza 
Guarded (he), la,a,» hafaz^ 

^A^' hama 
Guessed (he),^^ hazzar 
Guest, uJ-wi daif 



186 



VOCABULARY. 



Guidance (direction), iJV^ 

daldla 
Guide (directer), JJ:) daltl 
Guiltiness, ^ jurm, Aa.'ui 

qabdha 
Guilty, ^js^ mujrim 
Gun, rijle^ ^t^^ hunduqiya 

cannon^ asXo madfai 

Gunpowder, o^b 5flr^^ 

H. 

Habit, 8ili: tttG?fl^ 
Hair,^^ 6'^ai?* 
Half, c— La) ?iMs/, ^ifs/* 
Hall, large room, acIs ^'a^a 
Hand, jj yac? (dual, ^jljj 

yaddn^ pi. ^^jj) azW/) 
Handkerchief, Jj jju» mandil, 

Imj^ mdhrama 
Handsome, J*^a. jamtl 
Hang— he hung up, jJ-c 

callaq 
he hanged a man, 

,^jii» shaitagf 

it was suspended, ^jUJ 

facallaq 



Happened (it), ijj^ Jcltcl, 

jjflj] ittafaq 
Happiness, s^U^ sa^ada 
Happy, juxw sadd, jjn.....^ 

Hard, x^^ jdmid 

unfeeling, ^l5 ^a^^ 

Hardship, hyc^ suMa 

Harm,^^ darar 

he harmed, j^ darr, 



Harvest, ^Laa. hasa^ 
Haste, dlsP cajala 
Hastened(he), Js?^^ istacjal 
Hastily, ^Ic idjilan 
Hat, aWJ^ barnaita 
Hated (he), ^Jaki ha^ad 
Hatred, ^jiih bugd, i&> K<^i 

JcardJia 
Have — see synonymous 

verbs 
I have, J IL Thou 

hast, dJ laic. He has, 

J Z«Az^, etc. 
Hawk, jlj hdz 
Hay, ^jlj-il*. hashish 



Head, jj*i1^ raS 



principal, leader, ^^^ 



VOCABULARY. 



187 



Headache, ^\Ji\ st.~s^j wajc 

ar-ra^as 
Healed (he), ^ sJiafa 
Health, a-sT^ sahh^?, Ijlc 

iafiya 
Heard (he), a_«._w samii, 

jl«;lJ\ istamai 
Heart, l-a15 qalh (pi. ^Ja 

qulub) 
Heat_,^&. harr, ij\j^ hardra 
Heated (he), ^&» hamma 
Heaven — the heavens, 

cj1jU-*» or oij«^ samdwdt 
Heavy, J-jij thagil 
Heel, K^id Jcaih, ^^aSc iaqb 
Height, clflj^\ irtifai 
Heir, il^lj war it h 
Hell, ^^^ jahannuvi 
Help, s., jtijljM muidtoana 
Helped (he), jcL. sat^J 
Hen, i».U^ dajdja 
Henceforward, jxj \^ ftmd 
baid 

Ij^Lflj ^^Vi ^^ min aU 

an fa^aHdan 
Here, Ua Amw^, Aiwa 



Hesitated (he), L-iicJ ^a- 

toaqqaf 
Hidden, ^::s:* m.u\^tafi 
Hide — he concealed, (c-a-^^ 

akh/a 
he hid himself, ^i>! 

zkh^a/a 
High, JU idU, slJj rafU 
Hill, JJ tall, tell 
Hindered (he), ^^_x,> ^a- 

iarrad, itio manai ■ 
Hint, 5., 8.1^1 isTidra 
Hire, rent, fare, J^jT ^^m, 

^>1 ajr 
he gave on hire, ijS 

kara, ijj^=^\ aJcra 
he took on hire,^L*.l 

istdjar 
History, . j^U ^<^nkh 
Hither, V^ Jl ila Jiund 
Hitherto, ^^\ Jl ila ^l-dn 
Hog,^,j^ thanztr 
Hold — he held, dl-** masak 
Hole, i*Qj tJiuqha, , sp. hharq 
Holy, ^ji^ mugraddas 
Honest, JU> saZzh 
Honey, J-m-^: iasal 



YOCABDLABY. 



Hook, 



Honour, dignity, v-J^ slia- 
raf,j\s^^ iftikhdr 

reverence, respect, 

j»]^»il ihtirdm, jc^ tak- 
rtm 

uprightness, i-oliJL**l 

tstiqdma 

Honoured (he), j« 5l akram, 
Jcarram 
^'3dkuUdb 
Hope, J* I amal, U^ rijd 
Hoped (he), ^J tarajja, 

J-el ammal 
Horizon (the), jsU. khafiq 
Horn, ^0^ qarn (pL cJA;^ 

qurun) 
Horrible, i^^ mahrdh 
Horse, ^j\.a>^\ii^dn. Horses 

(collectively), J^i. 'khail 
Horseman, ^J^ fdris^ JL&. 

Wiayydl 
Horseshoe, Jjti nad 
Hospital, jjli-u^lc mdristdn 
Hot — see Warm 
Hour, AfiLi 5ai« 



House, ^b t?ar, c: 
(pi. ^Lj^ (:?zyar, 
huyut) 



bait 



Oj- 



How, L^Q.^^^ A:^^?/, Uft-^ 

Tiaifamd 
How much, S ^cim 
Humble, »-»>. ha^^r 
Humility, xJ>\^ tatcddtu 
Hundred, h\^ mi'a 
Hung, ^jLto mucallaq, jjii 

mashnuq 
Hunger, o.^t^jui 
Hungered (he), pUJat 
Hungry, so\^ jdH(, 
Hunt, hunting, the chase. 

Hunted (he), jlk->l ^staJ, 

j^ tasayyad 
Hunter, ^L© ^ayydd. 
Hurricane, isojj zdhaia 
Hurry — see Haste 
Husband, -.^^ zauj 

T. 

Ice, '^y buz, jJs^ jalid 
Idea, conception, jy^ ta- 

sawtouT, J Li. Wiaydl 
opinion, ^ fikr, Jio 



VOCABULARY. 



189 



Idle, ^\Slcasldn 

Idol, ^ sanam 

If,j! laUf ^j\ in, Ijl ztha 

— As if, JC Jcaanna 
Ignorance^ J^jahl 
Ignorant, ^\> jdhil 
111, sick, ^ijA marid 



Illness, 



u^ 



marad 



Image, 'ij^ sHra 
Imagined (he), jj^ tasaw- 

iuar, ^ zann 
Imitated (he), ^jjj^sI iqtada, 

jJS qallad 
Imitation, jJia) taqlid, ]x^\ 

iqtidd 
Immediate, JU. halt, ^U 

hadif 
Immediately, VU» \idlan 
Imperfect, ^^li ndqi^ 
Impertinent, A^a**» safih 
Implement, tool, iJl dla 
Implored (he), c, ,^ V ^a^- 

d«rra4 
Important (affair), ^^ twm- 

Jiimm 
Imported (he), ^.^jalah 
Impossible, jLs:* muhdl 



Imprisoned (he), ^j^^ hahas 
(he was), ^Ju^^\ in- 

habas 
Improved (he) v. trans., 

sallah 



r 



Imprudence, iUc gqfla 
Impudence, ia^lsj waqdha 
Inclination, J^ mail 
Inclined, JjU md'il 
Included (it), ^JlU damman, 

jjfi. ^y^\ isJitamal iala 
Income, juJp.ju* madkhu- 

liyya 
Increase, s., g^b^ zii/dda 
Increased (he), augmented. 



^h zdd 



it became augmented 

^i^l izddd 
Incumbent, imposed by 

duty^ S^l? 'loajih 
Indebted, in debt, ^y^x^ 

madyHn 

obliged, ^jji** tuamniln 

Indication, a pointing out, 

i\Ju\ isJidra, iJV^ daldla 
Indispensable, ^ji Idzim 
Industrious, ^L sdd 



190 



VOCABULARY. 



Inevitably, jj V Za hudd 
Infancy, iJ^ iufdliyya 
Infant, ji tifl, (pi. JliLl 

at/aZ) 
Infection, a)1^ sardya 
Inferred (he), ^;L)\ antaj, 

jjj^\ istantaj 
Infidel^^^^o^r 
Infirm, <^j«.g datf/^, Jix* 

(he became), ^ysMdall 

Influence, iyi nufili\ j^"^ 

tdtJiir 
Information, j^ k\iahar, 

^^1 iddm 
Informed (he),^-=^l aWibar, 

^ kh«&Z>«r, Jicl atZfit^ 
Informed (I was), jib 5aZfl^- 

gant (He was), A-i-Lf 

baZag^w 
Inhabitant, ^^=»t- 5(^^m 
Inhabited (he), ^jL» sakan 

(it was) , ^jSCj 1 insaJcan 

Inheritance, ol^^ mirdth 
Inherited (he), ci^^^ warath 



Injured (it), J-* 
atha 



da?7', ij'^\ 



Injustice, JU 2;wZwi 
Ink, j^>, hibr 

Inlaid (as gems, gold, etc.), 
ju»^ murassac 

Innocence, i^j) hard^a 
Innocent, ^^ hariyy 
Inquired (he), ^:u**i istaf- 

ham 
Insane, ^jy^ majnun 
Insecure, ^JJ.*Lo j^ gair 

ma^amun 
Inside (the), ^^b bdtin, 

Ji.b ddkhil 
Insincere, j^Jl-i* j^e. gair 

mukhlis, 
Insolent, a-A-j safth 
Inspired (divinely), ^ ^ 1 4> 

mulham 
Instance (for), '^mathalan 
Instant (an), Ls^ lajuha, 

a£Jj daqiqa 
Instantly, Jls!^ J fi 'Uhdl 
Instead of, ^J^ Vjj badalan 

min, fjc lijc catvadan can 
Instructed (he), As. iallam, 

\^js. (.arraf^ ^j^ darras 
Instruction, «^^l) ta^adib, 

A-j J tm^biya, JbJ tadim 



TOCABULART. 



191 



Instrument, tool, iJl dla 
Insufficient, il^ ^ gair 

Ufi 
Insulted (he), j:^:* sJiatam 
Intellect, Jic caql 
Intelligent, ^^ faJiim 
Intended (he), Xea qa^ad 
Intention, a_<.J niyya, ju*ai 

qa^d 
Intentionally, s^ ^c can 

qasd, Ixai qasdan 
Interceded (he), xaL) ta- 

sJiaffai 
Interest (advantage), »jiU 

fdHda 
Interest (of money), ^j rihh 
Interfered (he), inter- 
meddled, Ji.ljj taddkhal 
Intermediate, k^^ muta- 



! Interpreted (he), ^^ tar jam 
Interpreter, ^jU^' tarjumdn 
Interview (an), 'ds^^ muldqa 

I Introduced (he), Ja.^1 ad- 

I khal 

* 

Introduction, JU.^1 idkhdl 
Invented (he), p^^ ^'kh- 
farac 



Inverted, particip., 

munqalib, ^^jS^c^ mun- 

caJcis 
Investigation, l^ss hah.th 
Invincible, c_;^li* ^-c gair 

maglub 
Invisible, c-^lc gd'ib 

(it became), «_>lc gdb 

Invited (he), Ic^ daid, -c 

cazam 
Iron, jjiAft. liadtd 



v-u- 



Island, 

ji\j>. jazdHr 
Ivory, -Ic (,dj 



jaztra (pi. 



Jar, i^jarra 

Jealous, ^j^ gayyur 

Jest, jesting, a joke, -^ 

mazh. 
he jested, {J\^lJ\ is- 

tahza, ^y^ mazah 

Jewel,ytj^jawhar (pi. yfc]^ 

jawdhir) 
Joined, particip.^ J^*©j_-» 

maicQul 
Joined (he), J^j tcaml 



192 



VOCABULARY, 



Journey, Jl^ safar, J^j^ 

rami 
Journeyed (he), J\m sdfar 
Joy, ^fara\i 
Joyful, J^^ farhdn 
Judge — he judged, he de- 
creed, Jxft. haham^ ^jJ^ 

qada 
he considered, ^JJi 

zann 
Judgment (decree), ^_x_j>. 

hukm, Us qadd 
Juice, ^j-c caraq 
Juice (squeezed from fruit), 

jjn^ castr 

(meat), i5^ maraqa 

Jumped (he), loS natt, jJl3 

qafaz 
Just, jsi» mvhiqq,' ^:i\e' Mil 
Justice, j3>. \iaqq, Jj^ iadl 

K. 

Keen (sharp), ^U. \iddd 
Keep — ^he kept, he took 

care of, lafl>i \iafiz 
he retained, he re- 
served, ^\ abqa 



Kept, k^s:* mahfuz 
Kettle, ii^ks- galldya 
Key, — lii* miftdh. 
Kicked (he), ,j*i, rafas 
Killed (he), J:5 qatal 
Kind (sort), cjj nam (pi. 

c.\ji\ anwdc) 
Kind (adj.) J u-ft^j-kl latif, 

^jJut sJiafiq 
Kindness, ^^J rifq, ^JL^.1 

ihsdn 
King, (<*U* malik (pi. d^* 

muluk) 
Kingdom, axJU* rnamlaka 
Kiss (a), i**jj bausa, d\J 

quhla 
Kissed (he), ^j*,Lj ^as, J^9 

qahhal 
Kitchen, ^^ maihdkh. 

Knee, iSj ruhha 

Knelt (he), a.Sj rahai, ^ 

jatha 
Knife, ^jS^ sikJcin 
Knocked (he), c^ qarai 
Knot, »jic iuqda 
Know — he knew, uJ,-c 
iaraf, Ac ialim 



VOCABULARY. 



193 



Knowledge, As. dim, is^x* 
ma(,rifa 

L. 

Laborious, j^ mujidd, J^::^:* 

mujtahid 
Labour, suhst., jS kadd, 

l-ajJ taib 
Labourer, c^^kddd 
Lady^ o**» sitt, ^^y\^ kha- 

tun 
Lake, 8^52 huhaira, df^ 

hurha 
Lamb, ^^jj^ Wiaruf 
Lame, —^1 airaj 
Lamentable, jjs:!' muhzin 
Lamented (he), — Ij ndh 
Lamp, -p-l^ sarcij, i^.**<wc 

masraja 
Land (as distinct from sea), 

^ larr 

(a region), jl> halad 

(estate), Aiii: caqdr 

Language, ^jU lisdn, i-iJ 

Zwga 
Lantern, ^ji\3 fdnus 



Large, great,^--3 ^a5^r 
wide, 9.^ 



Lark (the), 5^ J qumhara 
Last, final, ^T akhzV 
Lasting, ^b ddim 
Lastly, l^i.1 dkhiran 
Latch (the), Jis g2{/Z 
Late, slow, ja<»* mubtt 

behind time, jJ>\.z.a 

niuta^akhkhir 
deceased, ^y>-j* mar- 



hiim 
it is late, 



C^ 



al'Waqt rah 
Laughed (he),t\_,d^ dahiq 
Laughter, d^s*^ dih^ 
Laundress, iJLji gassdla 
Law, Afl_9 ^^/i, p^ s^ari 

ixj J;, sliariia 
Lawfid, ^j^ shard, J^ 

haldl 
Lawsuit, ^^^ daava 
Lawyer, A.Hd faqih, o.^^-^ 



mutasharnc 



Laxative, 



L^J^ 



mwmkhkh^ 



Lay — he laid, he placed, 
«^j wadac 



194 



YOCABULARY. 



Lay — he laid up, stored, 

^':>\ iththa'kh.ar 
Lazy, ^^\S Icasldn 
Lead (the metal), ^\^j ra^d^ 
Lead — he led, ^15 qdd, jJ^l 

arsJiad 
Leader, jjl5 qd^id 
Leaf, As^j waraqa (pi. jl^^l 

aivrdg) 
Lean, adj., Jjj^-^-* makzulj 

K^u^ nahif 
Leaned (he), ^S^^ ittaJca, 

ji-Jl insanad 
Leap (a), iWi 7^^tta 

Ml 

Learned (he), Afc tacallam 
Learned (endowed with 

knowledge), ^Lc cdlim 

(pl. Ulc iulama) 
Learning — 5^e Knowledge 
Least, Jsl cfg«ZZ,^l asgar 
Leather, 'S^ jild 
Leave— see Permit, Quit 
Left (hand), JU^ shimdl, 

Lj yasdr 
Left (remaining), Jl^ Jar/i 
Leg, jU 5a^ 
Legacy, i^^ waUyya 



Legacy, he bequeathed, v-aAj 



ivahah. 



'J 



waqaf 
Legible, ijjs^ muqra 
Leisure, c.\^ fardg 
Lemon, ^jj^J laimun 
Lend — he lent, cJL. sallaf, 

J.s\ acdr, ^j qarad 
Length, J^ tul 
Less, Jil fl'^^ZZ,^! «sgar 
Lessened (he), JJU qallaly 

J^ saggar 
Lest, \1 Zi*«^Z/(^ 
Let ! (imperative), J-i. 

khaZZi 
Let (he), a house, ^j^^ «^r« 
Let (he), allowed, ^Ji. kh«ZZa 
Letter, l->j:3C« maktub, ilL.^ 

n'sttZa 
Letter (of the alphabet), 

<_i^ h.arf 
Lettuce, ^u->. kha^s 
Level, smooth, JaU* 5a^^7, 
V>,,^^ mwsattah 



■ he levelled, Ja-- 5attah 



Liar, i^\j!bkathihdb 



YOCABULART. 



195 



Liberal, ^^jS^Jcanm, ^k^ 

sakYd 
Liberation, diJ fakk, SU^ 

najdt 
Liberty, djj!>. hurrit/a 
Licked (he), ,^^ii lahas 
Lie — he lied, c.jjS' kathih 
. — he gave the lie to, 

i^jd kaththah 

— he reclined, KJI ittaha 

— (a), ^'S^ Iciinh 
Life,^c iumr, sLa. hay at 
Light (not heavy), t-ijA> 

^hafif 
Light, s., jji Mr (pi. ^1^1 

anwar) 
Lighted (he), Jjci s^i^i^Z 
Lightened (it)^ with light- 
ning, ^j haraq^ 

it illuminated, .jj 

nawwar 
Lightning, j^ harg[ 
Like (similar), Ji* 7?^^Y^Z, 

A--J;. sTiahih 
Like as, ta) ^'« (prefix) 
Likewise, dJj.:^3 Z;athaZ^y[; 
Limb, joint, j^c ^adw; 



Lime, jjJi' ^z75 
Limit, J&. hfl^^t? 
Limited (he), ^j.&. haddad 
Line (a), ki. khatt (plur. 

Ljiai. khwtwt) 
Linen, ..\-:^^ kuttdn 



Lining (of an article of 

dress), iilk) hiidna 
Lined (as a garment), ^^k*« 

muhaiian 
Lion, ju*.i flrs^f?, «.-«H ^cf'hi 
Lip, ifljt» shiffa 
Liquid, jJU ma^u 
List, catalogue, 1^4*9 fah^ 

rasa^ fihrist 
Listened (he), x^1m\ istamcn 
Litter (vehicle), iA^ mu- 

hdffa, ^^js> Tiaudaj 
Little, ^,^ ^agir, Jig q^alil 
Littleness,^.^ &i^^ar 
Lived (he), he was alive, 

^jilc idsh 
Livelihood, ^iU* 7nauish 
Liver (the), sfkihd 
Living (alive), ^ hai/y 

(pi. La.1 flh^/a) 
Load (a), J^^. /^amZ 



196 



VOCA.BULARY. 



lit 

Loaded (he), J**, \\ammal 

(a gun), d^ dalxJc 

Loaf, ^^Ji^j Tagif 

Loan, (^ qardi 

Lock, Jfli qufl 

Locked (he), Jii qafal 

Locust, 'i:i\j>- jardda 

Loitered (he), ^J^S takdsal 

Long, lengthy, Jj^ iawll 

Look (a), ijai nazra 

Looked at (he),^iaj nazar 
Looking-glass, sl^* mirdt^ 

h\jA mirdya 
Loose, Jjis.* mahlul, ^y^**^ 
mustarkht 

he loosed, Ja. hall, di 

faJck 
Lord, juM*» sayyid, sid 
Lose — he lost, ;t---i ^ayyau 
he endured lo^s, j^^ 

it was lost, cLi dcu 

Loss, E^L^ Wxasdra 
Love, j.^ a'5^^, l-o. h?55 
Loved (he), ^.^a. \\ahh 
Loved, partic, ^^^ mah- 
bub 



Lover, ^^^\c casJiiq 
Low, JiL. sdjil, Ll^ ?mtz 
Luck, dASi: Jakhf, «JIL ta/^i 

(bad)^ ^j^d nahs 

(good), JL-Jl iqbdl, 

i:\xM saidda 

Luggage, ^& iafsh, jLiJl 

atJiqdl 
Lungs^ hj riya 

M. 

Machine^ iJi dla 
Mad, ^jysf majndn 
Maddened (it), ^^ jannan 
Made, particip., J^-^-je-* 

maimtll, y]ytsu mafiul 
Madness, ^^juntlii 
Magazine, store-house, ^^^ 

makhzan 
Magic, ^^ sihr 
Magician, ^U*** sdhhd)' 
Magnificent, ^l^^-jalil 
Maid, cuij bint, ^ ^^A;r 
Maid-servant, aj .U. jdi^iya, 

i<«^La. khddima 
lady's-maid jLLI 

ma^^s/^ata 



YOCABULART. 



197 



Make — he made, lie did, 
J^ camalj ^xs facal 

Maker, J*U idmil, «iL> sdnic 

Male,^.^=9J> thaJcar 

Managed (he),^^ ddhlar 

Mankind, ^Ji\ insdn 

Man (a), Js^ rajul 

Manner, manners, beha- 
viour, ij^M sira, j^^^ 
sayyir, L-)b\ addh, tjr^^ 
akYddq^ 

Manner, mode, Jl^w* minwal 

Manufactory, l^V->jS Jcar- 
' khdna, J^x* macmal 

Map, iWp. khai'ta, 

Marble, ^^ marmar^ f*^-^ 
rukhdm 

Marched (he), ^ 
c-an>j zdhaf 

Mare, ^j^J faras 

Market, j^ silq^ (pi 
aswdq) 

Marriage, ^\^\ ziwdj 

Married (he), - c)j tazawwaj 

Martyr, J-4J:> sJiaMd (pi. 
Xx4^ sJiuhadd) 

Martyrdom, i^l^^ sTiahdda 



masha. 



^j\j^\ 



Masculine (gender), ^_Sj-* 

muthaJckar 
Master, Jx* muialUm, s^^ 

sayyid or sid, ^_^&.L9 sahz& 
Matter, affair,^] amr 
Mat, »»-*a&. h^a^ira 
Match (a lucifer-)^ oj^-jT 

kihrit 
Mean — it meant, :c (,ana 
Mean (sordid), ^5*. hagir, 

j^^^^^i. kh^sis 
Meaning, ^^ maina 
Means (method), i-Lj_**»j 

toasila 
Meantime (in the), U.:.^j 

hainamd, dUi ^j^-a-^ ^ 

^ gudun ihaliJc 
Measure, ^j^ilJ ^z?/as 
Measured (he), ^li ga5 
Meat — flesh-meat,^ la\\m; 

food in general, j%l_3t— L 

taidm 
Medicine (the art), l-aI? tzft^ 
(the drugs), Ij^ dawd, 

Meet— he met, ^V Zflfg^^ 
<^^L> sac?«/ 



198 



VOCABIJLART. 



Melon, Isj^ batttkha 
Melt — he melted (some- 
thing), c-jji thawwah 
(dawivah) 

it melted, became 

liquid, c-^li thdb (dab) 

Memory, H^ J thdkira, .5^ 

thikr 
Men, JU^ rijdl, ^\j nds 
Mend — he repaired, ^j^j 

ramram 

he improved (some- 
thing), X-^\ «sZah, 
B,allah. 

he, or it, mended, be- 
came better, Ik^l zstaZ^^h 



t 



Mentioned 



V^- 



t^mathkur 



(he),jfi thakar 

Merchandise, ij.^ tijdra^ 

IjsXjh bldaca 
Merchant, ^Ij tdjir (pi, .Is? 

tujjdr) 
Merciful, ^^a^ rahim 
Mercury (quicksilver), j-j^ 

ztbaq 
Merits jUsi^^ istihqdq 



ULjj risdla 



Messenger, J^^ rasul, j^l5 

qdsid, (PU* sad 
Middle, k**, wasat, e-LaJ 

nusf 
Mild, A>, halim 
Mile, J^ mil 
Milk, j^ laban, l->JI>. h«Zz& 



Mill, 



A-Jj> 



U^ idhuna, 



^J 



raha 

Minced (he), ^ i far am 
Mind, 5., Jb &aZ, Jac io^^Z 
Mine (underground), y^^au, 

maidan 
Miracle, a--sP 4q;%a 
Mirth, ^jj farahj i^jJ^ 

tarab 
Mischief, S^.^.* mudarra, 

Miserable, ^ shaqi, jjCj 

naMd 
Misery, ij\a^ sTiaqdwa 
Misfortune, % bald, JL*^* 

mustba 
Mismanagement, y^jji -^ 

su' tadbir 
Mistake, kic g«Z«t 
Mistress, kz^ sitt, ^^^\^ 

khatUn 



VOCABULAEY. 



199 



Mixed (he), y, mazaj, kii. 

'kh.alat 
Mixture, kU. khaZt, L^il-^l 

ikhtildt 
Mode, manner, a^j wajh, 

^jjL/1 aslub 
Moderate, adj., Jj:j^o mui- 

tadil 
Moderated (he), Jjc (.addal 
Moderation, JU-cl iUiddl 
Modern^ ^^Li-* nmta'akh.- 

kh^^, ci^j^s.* mulidath 
Modest, ^^:;s.'^ muhtashim 
Modesty, a^s. hishma 
Moment (of time), 'La^:> 

daqtqa 
Monastery, »p dair 
Money (coin), ^jU fulds 

(ready), j^aj noqd 

(wealth), JU mdl 

Money-changer, c-sl,^ sar- 



Monk, L-^1, r(xA«^ 
Monkey, (jj»** maimun 
Month, j^^ shahr 
Moon,^*9 qamar ; the full 
moon, ,jj hadr 



Morals, jl^l akhldq, ^\:>\ 

addh 
More, adject,, ^\ akfhar 
further, again, adv., 

^jUT Jcamdn 
Morning, ^ ^ubh 

Morrow, to-morrow, Ij^ 

gadd 
Morsel, i«iJ luqma 
Mosque, jsr^ masjid (pi. 

j^L** masdjid) 
Mosquito, ^j-j^oli ndmtis 
Mother, J umm, gjJl^ wall da 
Mount— 5^e Rise, Eide, etc. 
Mountain, J^ jabal (pi. 

J^jiMl) 
Mourned (he), ^9. \iazin 
Mournful, ^J^* ^azin 
Mouse, .U fdr (pi. ^Jj^ 

firdn) 
Moustaches, ^j\y> sliawdrih 
Mouth, J fum, jam, (pi. 

sljdl afwdh) 
Moved, set in motion (he 

or it), c*)^ h.arraJ€ 
— was in motion (he 

or it), i«J.5: tah.arrak 
Movement, iSj^^ haraka 



200 



YOCABULARY. 



Much, ^ J ^ > kathir j^\^ 
ivdjir, ^yijs^jazil 

Mud, ^j walil 

Mule, Jij hagl 

Muleteer, Jlij baggdl 

Murder, Jii g«/Z 

Murdered (he), J:J ^aifa? 

Murderer, Jjli qdHl 

Mushroom, l\S kamdt 

jMusic, liL-j* mustqdy a-jjJ 
nauba 

Musician, ^J) nauhdti 

Musk, di«^^ mz'sA; 

Must,awa?/L ?;er6 — the word 
^•V Za^m (necessary, 
obligatory) is used for it 
in connection with the 
principal verb. 

Mustard, J^^ Wiardal 

Mutton, J^-^ (•=! lahm ddni, 
♦:jj A» lahm ganamt 

Myrtle, ^ ds 

Mystery, ^ sirr (pi. j\^\ 

N. 
Nail, a spike, ^l*-.^ mismdr 
(pi. ^:j*L^ masdmir) 



Nail (of finger or toe),^ 

zufr (pl.^slki azdfir) 
Naked, ^jli^^^ carydn 
Name, ^»-i ism (pi. \ » .*>! 

asma) 
Named (he), ^»-*i samma 
Named, particip., ^» >m..-o 



musamma 



Namely, videlicet, ^jy ?/aa^^ 
Napkin, Al:5y/22t« 
Narrated (he), ^J^ haka 
Narration, narrative, ji^S 

taqnVy J-SJ naql, a-^.j 

^^ssfl5, ilsi hikdya 
Narrator, ^^^1^ ra?<;*, ^^'^>' 

h.dkij ^s^ muhaddith 
Narrow, ^j.^ ^ctf/PQ 
Nasty, ^j^d najis, 
Nation, i-oi umma, iiAb 

tdHfay aU 77^^7Za 
Native, ^^^jJb haladi 
Native country, ^^ waian 
Nativity, jJ^ maulid, .3^^ 

mildd 
Natural, ^j^Jio tabid 
Nature, temperament, issJe 

tabiiu 



VOCABULARY. 



201 



Navigation, ,.^}^ Jua safar 

al-lahr 
IN'ear, l-^ J qarth 
l^earlyjjsi nahw 
jSTeat, u-ft-lai naztf 
JS'ecessanly, jj ^ Id hudd 
!N"ecessary, ^V Za^sm 
!N"ecessity, ^jjJ luzum, Liis! 

iqtidd, ijjj^ diurura 
Neck, ^j:^ tw?2g, iJ^ raqaha 
Necklace, jic a'gt?, j^ taw^ 
Need, A&.U. h.djali, J^^-^^ 

ihiiydj 
Needed (he), J\j:>\ ihidj 
Needy, ^^^^ mulitdj 
Neglect, JUal ihmdl 
Neglected (he), ^sb\ alnnal 
Negligent, J^x> muhmil 
Neighbour,^Uyar (pi. ^^1^:^ 

jirdn) 
Neither^ nor, Vj, V Id^ wold 
Nest (a bird's) ^c cusJi, 

5^ wilcr 
Net, l^:^J:i shahaJca 
Never, \x->\ abadan, \^\ 

aslan, ks ^att 



New, SiSs^jadtd 
News,^ khabar (pl.^U.) 

akhbdr) 
Next (near), i^j^ qaHh 
(after), J-^LS g'a527, 

Night, aU Z«^^7^, JJ Za27 

(pi. JLl ZayaZ, or laydli) 
Nightingale, J-JI-j hulbul, 

c->Jjj^ candalib 
Nightmare, ^jjl^Z;aZ>ws 
No, V la, ,j^ Za?.? 
Noble, <^Joj^ shartf 
Noise, i-s.-^ dajjay iJU-i 

shamdta 
None, j^l V Id dhad 
Nonsense, ^jIj jjfe TiaiYiaydn 
Noon, midday, any time 

from 12 to \yj^ "Luhr 
North, JU^ shimdl 
Nose^ c-aJ1 a7^/, inf 
Not, V Za, lo md,j^ gair 
Not at all, ^-) A;flZZa il^l 

asZa^x 
Nothing, ^ V Zft 5^ay 
Novelty, l^ Jidda 



202 



VOCABULARY. 



Mihd al-tuaqt, \j:^J\ (J^ 

di l-icaqt 
Number, ^jc cadad 
Numerous, jj jjc iadid, J\j 

wdfir 
Nuptials, ^js. curs 
Nurse, s., a«-^ murdiua, 

i^\^ ddya 
Nut, ijjt^,^js>. jauza, jauz 

0. 

Oak, Ljl) haM\> 

Oar, «^!j£o mic[ddf 

Oath, ajj-»-j yamin, > ^^ 

Obedience, iclL ifa.a 
Obedient, jiJLW ta'^i, «..k* 

wwt^i 
Obeyed (he), clU tai, cli?l 

atai 
Objected (he), ,j^cl idarad 
Objection, jJ>[^l idirdd 
Obligation (something bind- 

"ig)> u^ /*^^^» ^-f^-^^J 
wujuha 

a favour, ^^L*>1 ihsdn, 

iu minna 



Obligatory, ^^^jJ luzumt 

^} Mdt " 
OlJiged (he)— see Compel 
he conferred a favour 

uj)on, ^Jc ^A ??2a7^7^ cala 
Obscure, dark, ^Ik* muzlim 
Observation, watchfulness, 

ilift.^* muldhaza 
Observed (he), WV Zah^^z 
Obstacle, «jU mdimi 
Obstinate, j-ic i«;z^t7, jjlat© 

muidnid 
Obstinate (he was), juJLc 

idnad 
Obtained (he), J«aa. h«ssa7, 

Jli ndl 
Occasion, a^ fur^aliy c:*ij 

icaqt 
Occupant, occupier, ««J^.axo 

mutaiarrif 
Occupation, occupancy, 

«_J^ ta^arruf 

see Employment 

Occupied (he), possessed, 

«^_i^-flji tasarraf 

see Employ 

he occupied himself, 

Ji::*^! ishtagal 



VOCABULAET. 



203 



Occurred (it), aJ^ tvaqai, 

Cjs^- hadathj ^j>. jara 
Occurrence, 9-y^j '^uqui^ 

Odd (in number), ^ fm'd, 

j^i? tdq 
see Strancje 



Offence, transgression, 8»Lj1 
isd^a 

(he gave), >L.l asd^a 

(he took), ^1 ingamm 

Offered (he), presented, j»ji 

^ qaddam 

I (proposed), ^jc. carad. 

Office, function, v«a^a man- 



sah, iftJi^ wazt/a 
Officer^ official, k^U ddhit, 

Afl-l?j ji thu ivaztfa 
Often, \j^ katJitran. As 

often as, U^* malimd 
Oil, o.): zait 
Old (ancient), j^uc 4a%, 

^j9 qadim 

— (man), >Jt, sJiaikli 

— (woman), jjsP iajuz 
Olives, ^^j zaitun 



Once (a single occasion), 

g^ marra 

6'ee Formerly 

Only, adverb, \aSjfaqat 
Opened (he), jjfatah 
Open, opened, -yiu maftuh 
Opinion, Jii zann, ^^j rdH 
• in religion, c->_aj^— * 

mathhab 
Opponent, c-alU:* mukhdlif 
Opportunity, l^ji fursa 
Opposite, pr^/) , IJ^ hithd 
(facing), adj., JjIH.* 

muqdbil 
Opposition, i^Lo mundqada 
Oppressed (he), Jii zalam - 
Oppression, J^ zulm 
Oy,j\ aw 

Orange, ^jl5J^-> lurtuqdn 
Order (arrangement), l-aJ^ 

tarttb, joj3 tadbiVy ^ILi 

7^^zam 
Order (command)^ l^^ wa- 

siyi/a, j^\ amr (pi. j*\j\ 

awdmir) 
Ordered (he), ^^1 amar 



204 



TOCABULARY. 



Origin, J^l ad (pi. J^.^1 

UQul) 

Ornament, ijj ztna 
Ornamented, ^ly^muzayyan 
Orphan, ^^ yatim (pi. ^bj 

aitdm) 
Otlier,^! akhar, fern. ^^^1 

ukhm, jjc gair 
Ought— 5^6 Behoves (it) 
Out, ^^U khar^y, \j harrd 
Outside, ^^01 jjl n-kMrij 

> (the),^lk zdJiir 

Over, ^^fawg_ 
Overflowed (it), A> tafah 
Overtook (he), d,jl adrak, 

(j> Zah^g 
Overturned (he), ^Is qalah 
Owed (he), ^^^ ^ic ialaih 

dain 
Owl, ^ji Mm 
Ox, 5^ haqara 
Owner, e>a.U sahz^^ dUL 

P. 

Page (of a book), is?^ safha, 



Pail, bucket,^:) dalw 
Pain, ^^ i^j^y^fi, Jl alam 
Pained (it), ^^ w?^;}'^^^ 
Painful, ^j^ mujic, ^Jl 

Painted, coloured (he), jj^J 
laicivan, ^J^i naqqash 

he delineated, ._^_^ 

^aivwar 

Painting (the art or prac- 
tice of), ^Aj naqsh 

see Picture 

Pair (a), ^jj zauj 

Pale, pallid, ^_j_ol a^far 
(fem. J^ ^afrd) 

Palm (a tree), Jii w^jkhZ 

Palm (of the hand)^ l ocz^ 
kqf 

Paper, j^^ z^?am^, u-U^^ 
2'«rt«s 

(a sheet, or leaf, of), 

isjj tvaraqa 

(blotting-), ^Lii j^^ 

?(/'fljr«^ naslislidf 
Parasol, sunshade, ^ ^ „ - » -- 

sliamsiyya 



VOCABULAET. 



205 



Parcel (bundle), S^ surrah, 

i-*)_a. huzma 
Pardon (he asked), jakL*,\ 

istagfar 

see Forgive 

Parents, ^jljj'j wdliddn 
Parlour, hjS. gurfa 
Parrot, »^j durra, U-.) hab- 

hagd 
Parsley, ^jJJb haqdunis 
Part, portion, las. h^ss«, 

^«J qism, A_j5_k9 ^^ti<35 
Parted from (he), J^ilJI 

iftaraq 
Participated (he), i d^l 

ishtarah fi 
Particular^ special, ^JOJ^k^ 

Particularly, Uj^i. kh.u^u- 

san 
Partner, di^^ sharik 
Party, assemblage, A_i:U^ 

jamdca 
Pass — he passed, went over, 

^ iabar,j* marr 
he passed on, 

iYiahah 



Passage (of troops), ^^^., 

muTur 
Passenger, ^U mdrr, J[^^ 

musdfir 
Passport, ^iJI ifxS tai\u 

Jcirat as-safar,j^^:^jawdz 
Past, bygone, j,L. sdbiq, 

-^L mddit 
Path, j.^^ mamarr, ^lL^ 

maslak, jj^L t«rzg 
Patience,^^^ s«^r 
Patient, adj.,^^ saMr 
Paused (he), UJj loaqaf 
Pay— he paid, j^ wafa, 

(^j1 adda, 

Payment, bj ^^^q/cE, bl add 
Peace, U swZh 

• in a religious sense, 

Jl^ saldm 
Pearl, jj^ Zi^M (p]. JV 

ladli) 
Peasant, J^^ falldh 
Peep (a), i^ lamha 
Pen, Js qalam 
Peninsula, g^ )a. jazira 
Penknife, ]^^ 77226m 



206 



VOCABrLARY. 



People, ^l; nds, Jal ahl, 

A^ qawm 
Pepper, ^^ fulfut 
Perfect, ^J^kdmil, Js tamm 
Perfection, ^^ Icamdl 
Perforated (he), u-^ tha- 

qah 
Perfume, Jac cuir, jj-ss- 

hakhur 
Perfumed (it), Jas. cattar, 

jgi Jakhkhar 
Perhaps, J«l la (.alia 
Perished (he, or it)^ (*dd-ib 

haJah 
Permanent, o_)Lj tMhit, 

J\:> ddHm 
Permission, ijUl ijd?:a, ^':>\ 

iihn 
Permit, imperat., Ji. Wialli 
Permitted (he), li. Wialla 
Perpetual, ^Si\ abadt, ^b 

ddzm 
Perplexed, ^^]^ hairdn 

{ii),j^ hayyar 

(he was),^^*.! ilitdr 

Perseverance, llo\^ muivd- 

zaba 



Persevered (he),^^*::-^] ista- 

marr, »-^klj wdzah 
Person, jj^sr* s.^akhs (plur. 

jj£>lsr'' a^y^kha*), ^ nafar 
(a certain), so-and-so, 

^J% fuldn 
Personally, in person, ol JJb 

hi *th-ihdt 
Perspired (he), j^ caraq 
Persuaded (he), x.j\ aqnac 
Petition, JU. ^jC^ card-hdl 
Phial, iJ:^ sMsJia, jjs^^ 

Yiunjur 
Physic— 5^6 Medicine 
Physician — see Doctor 
Piastre, fJ^jC ^jjc. gursTi, 

gurushy Jii^ \J*j^ qirsh, 

qurtlsh 
Pickles, jls:' mukhallal 
Picture, ijya sura, (j^aJ 

naqsh, jiya^ taswtr 
Piece, bit, ixks qitca 
Pierced (it), siu nafath. 
Pig, jij^ khinztr 
Pigeon, A-^l » >. hamdma, 

i«Ui yamdma 



TOCABULARY. 



207 



Pillar, ^^$^ camud, (pi. iXi^\ 
acmidat, and s^^js- catvd- 



Pillow, iSs^ mukhadda 
Pin (a), (j-jo dabhiis (pi. 

jj^^jIj^ dahhdhis) 
Pincers, ^^yX halhatun 
Pinclied (he), ^jo^ gara^ 
Pious, 5i taqi 
Pipe (a), djJ:> sJiihuh 
Pistol, A^Us iabdnja 
Pit, ditch, hole, »^ "hufra 
Pity — he pitied, ^a^ sliafaq^ 

^•^j raham 
Pity, A-ft..a-^ sJiafaqa 
Place, position, ^^K* makdn, 

A^j* mawdai 
Placed (he), lie put, «— ^ 

tf;fl;dai 
Plague, pestilence, ^j^-cLL 

tdidriy \i^ wabd 
Plaister (for a wound), 

^3y^ lazqa 
Plank, -j) Za2^1i (pi. ^\^\ 

alwdih)) 
Planted (he), ^^ gar as 
Plate, ^js:^ m\\n, ias** sah/a 



Play, sporty u^x) lad)^ l^ 

lu(,ha 
Played (he), c-^sj ladh 
Pleasant, (<i^-* w^<3^^d* ^Li 

Please (if you), dULiJ ^^ 

??im fadilak 
Pleased (it), ^j\ arda, »-as?1 

Pleasure, sjJ Z^iththa, ^^^ 

Pledge (a), ^j rahn 

Plentiful, j\j tvdfir 

Plenty, plenteousness, ij^ 

hatJira, j^9j wufdr 
Plough (a), J\s^fadddn 
Ploughed (he), ^a. 'harath 
Plundered (he), ^^ naJiah 
Pocket, ^^^jaih 
Poet, ^cU, sJiddr (pi. \^x^ 

shucard) 
Poetry ,^s?w sJncr 
Point (of a knife or needle) 

j>. hadd, jjajL rds 
Pointed to (he), Js. J.v dall 

cola 
Polish, gloss, jLc Baql 



208 



YOCABULART. 



Polislied (lie), Ji-^ mg^al 
Polite, l-a)^1 adth 
Politeness, u^^l adah 
Pony,^4* muhr 
Pool, pondj^jfi gadtr, ^j^- 

haud 
Voor, jS J faqir 
Port, haven, Lj* mma 
Porter (doorkeeper), v->1j-j 

bawwdh 
Porter (carrier), JUs^ ^«m- 

wdl 
Portion, i.A&. h/ss^, i*^ 

Portrait, S^j.-o Si2ra, ^^-ai 
;fas?^7^r 

Portrait-painter, j^oa, mu- 
sawwir 

Possessing, being the pos- 
sessor of, is expressed hy 
ji ihd, d^li tha^, c-a>L> 
sdhih 

Possessed (he), ciU^ onalak 

Possession, e*iU mulk, \^j^ 
ia^arruf 

Possibility, ^^^1 imkdn 

Possible, ^^;C* mumkln 



Potatoes, j__^Ulki haidiis 
Poured (he), he poured 

out, L-^u-o mhh, w-A.^=u*> 

sakah 
Poverty, ^^ faqr 
Powder, v^^a^ siifuf 



gun-, c 

j>jj.L bdrtid 



-"JJ 



\-j hdrut. 



Power, ijSa qudra ^ljj-5l 

iqtiddr 
Powerful, .il5 qddir, y'A 

iaziz 
Practice, E^lc cad a, i-**i^U* 

mumdrasa, JUjuL-I ^s^/i- 

Praise, j.^*. hamd, — j^ wat^h, 

Praised (he), »x*». hamad, 

— juc madah 
Prayed (he), A^ salla 
Prayer, 8jL> saldf, Ic^ t^^^ia 
Prayers (the call to), ^jbl 

ath«w 
Preached (he), kc^ wacaz 
Preacher, kfil^ i^j^i/z v-^Jai. 

khatt^ 



TOCABULARr. 



209 



Precious, costly, ^jk,^") tha- 

min 
Preface, icjio muqaddama, 

i>lj^ dibdja 
Preferred (he), -_a^ rajjdh, 

Ac ^a9 fadidial cala 



Preference, 



(T^ 



tarjth 



Prepared (he), L^ tahayyd, 
M^ hadd^r 



hudur, ijA 



Presence, jj^a. 

hadra 
Present (not absent), ^U 

hddir 
(a gift), jj>a hadi- 

ya, Ik^ tuhfa, ^J*^^ 

hakhshtsh 
Presented (he), ^Ji^ hakh.- 

sTiash, ^^stj wahah 
Presently, now, VU. hdlan 
Pretence, pretext, JJLx-5 

taiallul, j^ys. cuthr 

claim, fjjc^ dacwa 

Pretty, ^^f 'kuwayijis 
Prevailed (he), l-^Ic galah 
Prevented (he), «.** manai 
Price, ^ tJiaman, i^J qimay 

txuj siir 



Pricking, 5., »^a hamza 
Pride, jS^ takahhur^ jj^ 

guTur 
Printed (he), aJ© iahac 
Prison, ^sT* sajn, ^j^:>. hahs 
Prisoner, ^j^ mahbics 
Privacy, »jli. khalwa 
Probable, J«;^ muhtamil 
Produce (of cultivation or 
vegetation), J-oU hdsil, 
Ac- galla 
Profit, 'isi\9 fa^ida 
Profitable, jju mufid 
Profited (he), «iijl intafac 
Promise (a), saj waid 
Promised (he), jcij waiad 
Pronounced (he), articu- 
lated, kflJ lafaz 
Proof, JJ^ dalU 
Proper, ^^J^ wdjib, c->-L» 

mundsib 
Property, possessions, ci)I^ 

mulk^ Jlo mdl 
a quality or pecu- 
liarity, JusU. khassa 
Prophet, ^J nabi (nabiyxj) 
Proportion, 'i^Jc^ mundsaba 



210 



YOCABULARY. 



Proportionate, e-^^-Li* mu- 

tandsih 
Proposal, j^^c cardi 
Proposed (he), ^j^c iaradi 
Prose, .i3 nathr 
Prospect, ^,ku manzar 
Prospered (he), ^\ aflah. 
Prosperous, ^y, inuwajfaq^ 
_a.lj ndjih 

Protected (he), ^^ hama 
Protection, a;Ua. himdi/a 
Proud, ^,Jki* mutakahbir 
Proved (he), demonstrated, 

^^ji harhan 
he tested^ u'^ imfa- 

han 
Proverb, Ji* matlial (pi. 

J'vicl amthdl) 
Providence (divine), ^\ lLc 

dndyat Alldli 
Province (a), ijy aydla 
Provisions^ »^&.i i\\a\\\nra^ 



^\\ rAd 



ha^ira, iiks 



Prudence, 'ij 

fiina 
Publisher (of books), ^U 

ndsliir 



Pulled (he), i_>j^ jaihab, 

K^si** sahah 
Pulse (the), ^^ 7iahd 
Punished (he), u-asIc idqah, 

i^jfi catliihah 

(he was), l-asUS tacdqab 

Punishment, «^l jc cathab 
Pupil, scholar, j^) talmtth 
Pure, Hi naqi, ^^blls idhir, 

j^lU. khdUs 
Purification, wJaj tathtr 
Purpose, s^ qasd 
Purse, ^j^SMs 
Pursued (he), ^J».'i lahaq, 

^IL tdi^ad 
Pushed (he), xo dafac 
Put — see Place 

Q. 

Quail (a bird), ^jU-** sum- 
man 

Quality, LJu.^:^ Tcaifii/ija, 
liu> sifa 

Quantity, l.^ kammiyya, 
^Ijfl-o miqddr 

Quarrel (a), cKj nizdi, 



TOCABULARY. 



211 



Quarrelled (he), c jli ndzac 
Quarter (a fourth), ^ij rubi 
(region or district), 

8.U. hdra 
Queen, iM* malilca 
Quenched (he), ^L iafa 
Question, JJ^ su'dl, ili.^^ 

mas'dla 
Questioned (he), JL. sa^al, 

^X^J^ istafham, j...Jl::^\ 

istafsar 
Quickly, Uj^ sartcan 
Quiet, adj., cia-^ssL. sd/cit, 

^^SU sdkin, ^♦isA mut- 

suh., i».\j raha, jj^b 

hadu' 
Quill (feather), 2^^ risJia 
Quince, J^-^a-. safarjal 
Quitted (he), eJ^j taralc^j:^ 

Tiajar 
Quotation, jl,jil h^dd, (j-Uiil 

iqtihds 
Quoted (he), ^j,*,^\ iqtahas, 



E. 

Rabbit, l-o .1 amah 

Radish, ^^ fijl 

Rags, oL_3t-5^* marqaiydt 

J-»jU^ raidhU 
Railway, JUs!' jj^L taoiq 

al-hadid, jjij.U aSC sihkat 

al-hadid 
Rain, ^;. and 5.,^la^ maicw 
Raised, uplifted, s,ji,^j_^ 

murtqfii. 
(he), ;t3j rafai 



Raisins, 



, zahib 



Rank, or row (soldiers), 

Rapid^ ^^M sariL 

Rapidity, ic^«a suna 

Rare, .^li nadir 

Rash, .^y,::^ mutaliawwir 

Rat, ^^^^j>. jirdaun 

Rate, proportion, i-w-L:._^ 

mundsaha 
Ravaged or wasted (he), 

i_^^ Miarrah 
Raven (a), clj zdg 
Raw, *,3 naij A>. khdm 



212 



TOCABULARY. 



Eazor, ^j^ mus 

Keached (he, or it), iJU 

balagj J^:*. hassal 
Eead (he), \J qar'd 
Eeader, ^Jis qdrt 
Reading, subst., 'i\j qir'a 
Ready,^U. hadir 
Real, j^-fisfc haqiqt 
Reaped (he), j^a. hasad 
Reason (intellect), Jcc caql 

see Cause 

Reasonable, JjSx^ macqul 
Rebellion, g^Lac iamwa 
Receipt, J^^j wusdl, Lx^j 

rajia 
Received (he), A^ tasallam 
(welcomed, enter- 
tained), c-^a^) tara\\\\ah, 
y^Ja^\ istaqhal, «^U daf 
Recent, lIjjU. hddith, «^)J^ 

hadith 
Reckoned (he),c-A--^ h«5«J, 

Sc cadd 
Reclined (he), ^5ji ittaka, 

jj.^1 insanad 
Reclining, reclined, ^ -- ^ 

muttaM 



Recognized, recollected, 

(he), jfjj tathaJchar 
Recollection, ^^~ taihahJcur 
Recommendation, jL^y taw- 

myya 
Recommended (he), t-i-^j 

wasaf, ^j wassa 
Recommended, je-««-* mu- 

wassa ' , 

Recompense, »UKc muMfd, 
Recompensed, ^\C muMfi 

(j\^ mujdzi 
Recovered, regained (he), 

^J\ istaradd 
Recovered, he got well, 

jlsi afdq 
Recovery (of health), U\J\ 

ifdqa 
Red,^^*a.l dhmar, fem., L«^ 

\\amra 

(it was or became), 

j^ ihmarr 
Redden (it made red),^ »-» 

hammar 
Reflected (he), considered, 
^ fakkar 



VOCABULARY. 



213 



Reflected (it), threw back, 

^jJkstSl incakas 
Reflexion, thought, ^5LaJ 

tafakkur 
Refrained (he),3^a.l ihfaraz 
Refused (he), ^A aba, siiia^ 

imtanac 
Regard, esteem, ^L::^^^ ufibdr 
Regiment (of an army), 

(jVl ala'i (Turkish) 
Regretted (he), i_a---U 

ta^assaf 
Regular, l^* murattah 
Regularity, c-^Jy tartih 
Rejected (he), ^ radd 
Rejoiced (he), ^j.farih. 
Relation, narrative, ^-j^^-SJ 

taqrlr 
Relative (a), «_*)^ q^arib 
Religion, ^j^ja din,J^\ imdn, 

ilo milla 
Relied on (he), ^ S^c\ 

idamad cala 
Remained (he) — see Stay 
Remained (it), it was left, 

ii baqa 
Remaining, remainder, sur- 
plus, ^Ij bdqt 



Remark — see Observe 
Remedy (medical), -;,^c dldj 

(j^\S'i faddwt 
Remembrance, if^ thikrah 

see Recollect 

Removed, changed his resi- 
dence (he), JflJLii intaqal 

took away (he), J-S-i 

naqal 
Renewed (he), ^^ jaddad 
Rent (hire), \jS kirdj lj>\ 

ijra 
Repair — see Mend 
Repeated (he), jj^karrar 
Repelled (he) »s:> dafac 
Repentance, i^ljj naddma, 

h jj tauba 
Repented (he), yj^i idb, ^^) 

nadam 
Reply— s^e Answer 
Reported (he), ^J^ qarrar, 

cU.1 ashd(, 
Repose — see Rest 
Reproached (he), ^"i Idm, 



i^> 



wabba^h. 



Reptiles, Jj^ Tiawwdm, 
ol,«l>- hashardt 



214 



YOCABULARY. 



Request (a), (j*»Ul iltimds 
Requested (he), ^JiL idlah, 

.^j**^! iltamas 
Resemblance, J^iJ tamtldl 
Resided — see Dwell 
Resignation (to providence), 

^JlJ tasUm 
Resisted (he), ^jl5 qdwam, 
ajU mdnaCj l-sjU. \hdlaf 
Resoluteness, l^r^c caztma 
Resolute, i^j^jj thw cazi- 

ma 
Resolved (he), ^ iazam^ 

Juai qa^ad 
Respect, ^^j^ takrim^ J^ 

ikrdtn 
Respected (he), ^^ Tear ram, 

j^\ idabar 
Respecting, with reference 

to, ^jo^.a^ hi-khusds jL.^ 

nishatan 
Rest, s., l^\j rdha^ a>.Li^1 

istirdha 
Rested (he), j^]/--l istardh 
Restless, l^\j% hild raha, 

^\Jc^ qaJqdn 



Restrained, checked (he), 

la--^ da^at 
Result, s.y is^^ 7iatija, J-^U. 

hdsil 
Retired (he), v-»5^1 insaraf 
Retirement, reclusion, ij^ 

khahca 
departure, v^l^^.. 31 

insirdf 
Return, 5., c.js^j rujuc 
Returned (he), as^ rajac 

gave back, Aa. . Tajjaiy 

^j radd 
Revenge, suh., i»iJ naqma, 

f%lA.iJl intiqdm 
Reversed — see Inverted 
Revived (he gave new life)> 

^.a.1 ahya 

(he received new life), 

^\m\ irudsh 
Revolution (revolving, 

changing), c-iSi taqalluh 
Reward, l^ jazd 
Rewarded (he), ^ kdfa, 

^js. iawwad 
Rib, »Li dalac 
Rich, ^c gant {ganiyy) 



VOCABULARY. 



215 



Eiches, JU mdl, ^ gana 



Eice, j^ ruzz 

Eide — he rode, ^j raJcib 
Eider, j^M . rdkib 
Eight, just title, ja. haqq 

correct, ^-sr^ sahth. 

Eight (not left), ^J^^ yamin 
Eing, i-ftU h.alqa ; a seal- 
ring, 2\^ kha^m 
Eipe, (5^* mustawt 
Eise — he rose (as the 

moon), >tlL taZai 
— he stood up, ^ qdm 
Eiver, j-^Ji ndhr fpl. ^14^1 

a?2^(xr) 
Eoad, jijo iaiiq (pi. ^^ 

X,uruq), ^j^ darh 
Eoasted, ^j^ mushwi 

(he), ^j^ sJiawa 

Eobhed (he), j^ saraq 
Eobber, ^1 liss (pi. ^jJ 

Zwsi2s), ^^j^^- haraiW^, 

^^^ sarrdq 
Eobe, lyS Mswa, jjLii-5 

qaftdn, lA^ khihat 
Eock (a), »^ s^rkhm 



Eoof, k*^ 5at'h, 



sag/ 



Eoom, chamber, 6^j\ awda 
Eoot, J^l asl 
Eope, J-a. haiZ 
Eose (a), »^ war da 
Eough, ^.li. khusJin 
Eound (circular), .^Xa mu- 

dawwaf 
Eound about, J^ haul 
Eouted (lie), ^a hazzam 
Eude, brutal, kJi galiz 
Euin, devastation, v}^ 

kham^, ^>i^' ifakhri^ 
Eule (regulation), ^j«_)L9 

Eun — he ran, ^^^ ra^ad 
Eust, \xa &add 

S. 

Sack, bag, i*.-.^ zahila 
Sacred, ^ji* muqaddas 

Sad, ^-A-*-ir ^fl^'^6, i;;-i^)-=»' 

ha^m 
Saddle, -^ sar; 
Saddler, -1^ sarrdj 

Safe, secure, ^J^*U ma^amun 
Safety, i«^**» saldma 



216 



VOCABULARY. 



Sail (of a ship), suhst,, cLi, 

sliirdc, «.l5 qalac 
Sailor, ^jj^^ bahri 
Salary, 1X»> jamikiyya 
Sale, Ao haii, 
Salt, !• W27h 
Salted, ••jU* mamluli 
Salty, JU mdlih 
Sand, J-cj r«mZ 
Satisfied (it) ^AyszmZZy, a-^ 

shabhac, x..^\ asJibac 

(he was), jl^ sJiahu, 

p.:,<^l iktafa 
see Contentment 



Saved (he), kto. hafaz, ^^U. 

khaZZas 
Saw (a carpenter's), .It-i* 

Say — he said, Jls ^aZ 
Scales, balance, ^\y^ mizdn 
School, A_^.ju-* madrasa, 

K.^jis^ maktab 
Science, Jlc dim, ^ fann 
Scissors, j^fi* maqass 
Scoundrel, Li---.i. khahttlij 

j-U fdsiq . 



Sea, ^, Jahr 
Sealed (he), ^ hJiatam 
Seal-ring, JU. khtx^m 
Searched (he), j^pLs fattash 
Season, time, ^\j\ awdn 
Seat (a), ^S^kurst 
Secret, sub., «*. sirr 
adj., fjj^ sirri, ai. 

khaft 
See — he saw, Jaj nazar, 

ujl^ shdf, ^\j ra^a 
Seed, ^j) b'izr 

(he sowed), c. j- zarai 

Seek — he sought, ^>JL1> 

ialab, JL^iJt fattash 
Seem,^^ zahar 
Seized (he), ^J qdba^ 
Seldom, \^^ gibban, L^lJ 

nadir an 
Self, ^j^iu nafs ; myself, 

jj-ij nafsi; himself, a.^ 

nafauh 
Sell — he sold, cl* bdi 
Selling (act of), x^o baii 
Send — he sent, cUxj baiath 

J-^l fl7'5aZ 



VOCABULARY. 



217 



Sender, J^^ mursil 

Sent, partic, J*^^ mursal, 



CJjju^ 



mabiutJi 



Sensible^ shrewd, Jilc idq'd 
Sense (understanding), JHc 

iaql ; (meaning), ^_3t_^ 

macna 
Separate, j^* munfariq 
Separation, istli© mufaraqa 
Serpent — see Snake 
Servant, j«^U. khddim (pi. 

Js^ 'khudddm) 

see also Maid-servant 

Service, ioji. khidma 
Servitude, h<i)j^ iuhudiyya 
Set (as a jewel), ^f^-^j-* 

murassac 
Set (it), as the sun, i^jC. ga- 

Several times, j^l^ mirdran 
Sewed (he), k*i. Wiayyat 
Shade, shadow, JU zill 
Shaded {participle), J-i-ia* 

muzallal 
Shake — he shook (some- 
thing)^ ^jo-iiJi nafaA, 

he was agitated, j^l 

irtaiad 



Shaken, ^^.a..:;.:.^ muntafid 
Shame, disgrace, ^.^-c caih. 



^> 



khizt 



bashfulness, J^*" kha- 

jal aIU?" khtjala, L&. hay a 
Share, i-aa. h^ssa 
Shared (he), ^ja^^- hassas 
Sharp, ^U hadd 
Shaved (he), trans,, jJL&. 

halaq 
Sheep, ^ ganam (pi. ^Uiil 

agndm); a sheep, l^^ 

ganama 
Sheet (of paper), dusl^ ial- 

hiyya, Uj^ waraqa 

(of a bed), H^ maWa 

Shelter (refuge), U* maJja, 

Ikl* maltd 
Shine — it shone, ^ lamac, 

jj^l asJiraq 
Ship, ejT,* markah 
Shoe, L«ft&. kh«^, u^^j-T^.* 

mar Mb 
Shoemaker, <«jK1» sakkdf 
Shoot — he shot, ^, rama 
see Fire 



Shop, oj.JL&. hdnut, ^^^ 



duJckdn 



ns 



VOCABULARY. 



Short, ^wai qastr 
Slioulder, ^^Jdfkaf?/, Utf 
Show — he showed, ^ .1 ara, 
y^i>\ azliar 

Shut (he), jJui galaq, rLl^\ 

aglaq, s^ sadd 
Sick, ill, ^Jaxj^ mar id 
Side, ^.^ Janih (pi. <-:>j:^ 

junuh) 
Signal, mark, l^ls. (,aldma, 

8,lwl tshdra 
Signature, U^l md(^ 
Silence, cjy^ sukut 
Silent, oSL. saH^ 



Silk, 



y-j"- 



harir 



Silver, 1^5/adda 
Similar — see Like 
Simple, \z^^ hasit 
Sin, s., iJai. "kYiaiiyya 
Since, because, ^^ lidn 
Since, from, x^ munth. 
Since then, c^^l dli ^ 

m^;? thdJc al-waqt 
Sincere, j^U sat//g' 
Sincerity, ^_^^1 ikhlds 
Sing — he sang, ^c ganna 
Singer, j.io muganiyy 



Single, one only, ^ /^rJ, 

^io muff ad 
Single, unmarried, c->;-cl 

cuzdh 
Singly, lj^[j wdhidauy 1^ 

far dan 
Sink — it sank, j^ g^^ng, 

,^^Jac gata* 
he made sink, ^jJzc. 

gattas, jjfi. garraq 
Sister, eua.1 wkh^ 
Sit — he sat, SsS qacad ^yJ^ 



Size, ^^jirm 

Skilful, jiU. h«th/g,^aLx> 

mdJiir 
Sky, ja. jaUf Uw sama, nt^U 

falak 
Slave, j^ iohd^ (^jl*^ mam- 

luJc 
Sleep, 5., j*^ naum 
Sleep — he slept, Jo warn 
Sleeping, ^li ?^a^7/^ 
Sleepy, ^jL^i naisdn 
Slipped (he), jl; ;^a/a<2' 
Slipper (for the feet), J^j>\i 

bdbush 



VOCABULARY. 



219 



Slow, Ja) hatt 

Slowness, slothfulness, ^\z) 

batU, ^yS Jcasal 
Small, j^ sagtr, J^ig qalil 
Smashed (he), ^--.^3 kassar 
Smell — he smelt (some- 
thing), ^ sJiamm 
it smelt, A^l. J laJiu 

raHha 
Smell, odour, i^L rd^iha 
Smile, subst., ^*^ tabassum 
Smiled (he), ^....J labassam 
Smoke, ^U.^ dukhkhdn 
Smoked (it), ^^^ ddkh- 

Vhan 
Smoked tobacco (he), i^jL 

jjU.^ sTiarib dukhkhdn 
Smooth, ^li nddm, JjLx* 

masqul 
Snake, a---a. laayya, ^JL>- 

hanash 
SnufF, ^^j> barnuti, ]ojx^ 

SUiUt 

Snow, Ji tJialj 
Snowed (it). 111 tlialaj 



So, \s^=^ haJcathd, i^ j..^=» 
Jcathdlik ; so that^ \^^=^^ 
likai, U^J^ss kaimd 

So-and-so, a certain person, 
yj'% fuldn 

Soap, ^j^l*d sabun 

Society (concourse), a^«*^ 
jamdyya 

(friendly), dus.-^ swh6a, 

iiij^ rufqa 

(a Co.), iSj:* sJiirka 



Soft, ^cli nddm J ^ lay y in, 
Sold (particip,), x.^.^mabtc 
Solid, j^Xo matin 
Solitary, ^Lu munfarid 
Some, ^iti baid 
Something, somewhat, ^ 



'» lTu^*^ 



bacd shai 



Sometimes, UL&.1 ahydnan 
Son, ^^1 ibn (pi. LjI a&wtx, 

^jLi banun), jJ^ tcalad 

(pi. jVjI awidd) 
Son-in-law,^^ sz'/^r 
Song, Lc gi/za, a*:.c1 agniyya 
Sons (collectively), jij &a72w. 
Soon, acZt;., Lstj^ sartian, 



220 



TOOABULARY. 



Sorrow, ^^.^ huzn, ^^ 

gamm 
Sort, kind, c^j nam, Jk^ 

shaJcl 
Soul, spirit, self, ^JJ6 nafs 

(pi. ,j**ail anfus, ^^-3 

niffus) 
Sound, healthy, ^^ saMh, 

JL. sdlim 
Soup, ijjjlt sJiuraha 
Sour, j^*U. ham/d 
South, ^ys^ janub 
Space, ijx* mada, is* mud- 
da, IxMj was (.a 
Spark, 8.1 J^ shardra 
Speak — he spoke, ^fcS faTcal- 

lam 
Speaker, Jjli qdHl, ^Kic mu- 

tahallim 
Spear, _^ rumh (pi. -L,l 

armah, — U, rimdh) 
Special, ,j^U. khass, ^yts^ 

wakhsws 
Spectacle, a show, ^_l^ 

manzar 
Spectacles, oJ^Uai nazzdrdt 



Speech, utterance, ^ 

Us an, ka] lafz 
(an oration), ^\^^s» 

Tcaldm, i^lki. kh^ta& 

see Language 

Spend — he spent, \^j ^ 

Baraf 
Spice, ^l4j hahar 
Spill — he spilt, l->-> sa6&, 

\^ kdUb, 
it was spilt, u^waJl 



in^dbh, ^^\ inkahh 
Spirit, hreath, ^jj ruh (pi. 

Jijj\ arwdh) 
Spit — he spat, j^ hasaq 
Split (he), j^ shagq 
Spoiled, wasted, ^^sr* mi^- 

khassar, L-aiio mutlaf 
Spoon, iflxlo mihaqa 
Spotted, i:*)j"kL malkuh 
Sprained (particip.), xls^ 

mz^T^khaZii 
Spread (he), Wwj Sasat 
Spring, a fountain, ^^ cain, 

cjjj yamlHi 
— ^ — the season, **>. ra?>/'i 
see Leap 



VOCABULARY. 



221 



Sprinkled (he), ^J,j rasJish 
Spur (a),jU4* mihmdz 
Spurred (he), j^a hamaz 
Square, squared, aj^ mu- 

rahhac 
Stag, deer, Jl^ gazdl 
Stairs, staircase, — ^^ daraj 
Stamp (postage or other), 

dic^ damga 
Stamped (he), 9J0 tahac, 

^J^ naqa^ih 
Stand — he stood up, ^li qdm 

he stood still, s^aJj 

' waqaf 
Standing — being on one's 

feet, J<3 qd'im 
Star, ^ najm, l^ najma, 

^.Sf Imukah 
State^ condition, JU. haZ (pi. 

J]^l ahwdl), j^U. sJidn 
State, government of the 

nation, iSl^ mamlaka 
Stature, 1*15 qdma 
Stay — he stayed, continued, 

remained, <ju-C-o makath^ 

^liu-i istaqdm 



Steady, o>1j thdhit, ^j^s»\^ 

sdkin 
Steal — he stole, ,j^ sm^aq 
Steam, *., .lis hukhdr 
Steamer, steamship, .U c-^5^ 

markah ndr, i^yj tvdhura 
Steel, iVj) Mldd 
Stern, grim, ^j-c cahus 
Stick, cane, Lac «sa 
Still, quiet, ^^^La /mc/i, 

(till now), t^Vl Jl iZa 

aldn 
- (yet again), UjiI a/da;* 
(nevertheless), jT ^ 

Cill j wat ^e^ZZ thaZi^ 
Stirrup, 1^^ ralcdh 
Stocking, i^\j^ jural) 
Stomach, gj.,^ miidaJi, Jiay 

bain 
Stomach-ache, ^ja\k» mugds 
Stone, js?- hajar (pi. J^\ 

ahjdr) 
Stopped — he ceased, d^ 

tarak 
see Stand 



222 



VOCABULARY. 



Store, storehouse, c^-^ 

makhzan 
Storm, lx)jj zauhaca 
Stormy, ^UP cajjdj 
Story, A<A9 qissa, aj^s^ hikdya 
Straight, ^*fli--* mustaqtm, 

^ly qawim 
Strange, a stranger, c-o^ 

^arib (pi. \ijS- gurabd) 
Straw, ^ tihn 
Stream, a^'^-w sdqiya (pi. 

A\j^ sawdqi) 
Street, jl5^ zuqdq 
Strength, is-^ sJiidda, 5jJ 

qmvtva 
Strengthening (confirma- 
tion), jjj^ t ash did 
Strengthened (he), ^yJi 

qawwa 
Stretched (he), j^ madd 
Strike — he struck, «-^— ^ 

darab, ^ laiam 
String, 6\, kja- kha/t 
Stripped (he), he made 

naked, trans., ^jc iarra 
Strong, ^^ qatct, jjjJ:. sha- 

did 



Student, JLstjl^ mufacallitn, 

A*UJ tatmith. 
Studied (he), ^^^ daras 



Stupid, J.*_L) &a/fi/, J_a_i«« 

mugaffal 
Subdued (he), «.^l akhdai, 

c-^lii gal ah 
Subject, vassal, dLc^ o^a^iyya 

(pi. Uc . ra(,dya) 
Submission,submissiveness, 

cj^iii. khwdwi, Acll?l ztaia 
Submitted (he), stj^ khadai, 

^^il athi<^;^ 
Succeeded (he, to another), 

(he attained his 

object), ^sf najaXx 
Success, -Itfi Tzq/ah 
Succession, iJ^ khz7^//a 
Succession (in), succes- 
sively, jl^^" bi ^f-tau'dli 
Successor, a.q 1^ khalifa 
(pi. Uii. khwZa/a) 

Ml 

Sucked (he or it), ^^a* mass 
Sudden, (jLs? fcfjd'iyy 

(fajdi) 
Suddenly, iiJb hagfatan 



TOCABULART. 



223 



Suffer (he felt pain), it.^y 
taivajjai, Jli" taallam 

(he endured pain), 

'J*::&.\ ihtamalj Si}^ kdhad 

Sufficed (he), ^'^=> l^afa 

Sufficiency, li\j^k{fdya 

Sufficient, ^ hdfi 

Sugar, 5^-*, sukhar 

Summer, v—fl-.^ ^aif 

he passed the summer, 

(^^ ^ayyaf 

Sun, . »**^ shams 



,£■ £furuh 



Sunrise, ,^^*-lil cjAL iului 

ash-sJiams 
Sunset, ^^*.w!l 



ash-sJiams 
Supper, iJic cashd 
Supplied (he), furnished, 

^S9 qaddam 
Supported (he), aided, ilA£.\ 

agdtkj ^Jlci acdn 
' he propped up, ji--l 

asnad- 
Supposed (he), ^J* faradi 
Supreme, A^ sdnUy J'c 

idli, Ac\ acala 



Sure, certain, ^Ju yaqw^ 

jjHs.* inuYiaqqaq 
Surety (one who gives a 

pledge for another), ^U 

ddmin, ^^=» Jcafil 
Surface, a>j wajh (pi. 5jaj 

wujuh) 
Surname, l-aHI laqah 
Surprised (it),^^^ \\ayyar 
Surprised (he was), u.^^'" 

taiajjah 
Surprising, wonderful, «j>j 

hadti 
Suspicion, c-o , raih, l^ 

shuhha 
Swallowed (he), s.\i halac 
Swear — he swore, ^r— *-9 

qassain, u-aU halaf 
Sweat — see Perspire 
Sweep — he swept (with a 

broom), ^j**^^=s kanas 
Sweet, jia. Jidlu (halw) 
Sweetened(he), made sweet, 

la. hall a 
Sweetmeats, oLi^J-a. hal- 

wiyat 
Sweetness, 'iji>. haldica 



224 



YOCABULARY. 



Swelled (it), grew big, ^jj 
warim, va-iil intafakh. 

Swim — he swam, ^^ sabah, 
Ac cam 

Sword, »— a-Mi saif (pi. i— i^**** 



suijuf) 

T. 

Table, »jj.U mdHda, -.^J Z2^h, 

lju» sufra 
Tail, c-oi ihanah (pi. cjliJl 

«thwa6) 
Tailor^ LL&. khrt^?/?/^^ 
Take — he took, j^l «kh«th 
Taken^ ija.U mctkhuth. 
Tale — seg Story 
Talked (he), j^jss tahad- 

dathj JSo tahallam 
Tall, Ji^ tau'*Z 
Tame, «.oj K;a^u 
Tank, ^^j>. haud 
Tasted (he), jb thdg' 
Taste, flavour, ^ tacm 
Tea, (^U. sAai 
Teach — he taught, ^JLc 

iollam 
Teacher, Ax^ muiallim 



Tear — he tore, ,^ khdzzaq 

^ shaqq 
Tear (moisture from the 

eye), dju^^ danna (pi. c^*.> 

Teased (he) ,^^=»U ^aA^ar 
Tell — he told, ^^ haA;a, 

^^ kha55«r 
Terrible, J^ muJiawwil 
Terrified (he) — see Fear 
Terror, J^ haul, d-c. rail a 
Testimony, 8^14^ shahdda 
Text (of a book), ^^ ma^/i 
Thanked (he),jCi shakar 
Thankful, ^^d shaJcur 
That (demonstrative), dli 
thaA;, dili thaZf^, (fem. 
dU tdJCf ciUJ ^iZ^; com- 
mon pi. doiVjl uldik) 
Then, at that time, dJi Jic 
a'TicZa thdltkj '^ f • .:^ hi- 
?^a'^thm 
Thick, ^^^ thakhm 
Thief — see Bobber 
Thin, lean, c-a.sJ nahtf 
Thing, ^ s//aj 



VOCABULARY. 



225 



Things, Lll asJiyd, oUU 

hdjdt, ujU-di asndf 
Think — he thought, jS^^ 

fakkar, ^^ zann 
Thirst, j^^pkc iaiash; thirsty, 

^^\,->t>,.lag aishdn^ ^jl-L?lc 

tatis^ 
Thirsted (he), ^j^^Wc iat?'^^ 
Thorns, d^.! shawq; a thorn, 

a-5^ sJiawJca 
Thought, ^K9 ^^r 
Thread, k-i- kha^t 
Threat, jjJ^j tahdid 
Threatened (he), ^ jjb haddad 
Throat, jjU halq 
Throne, ^c ^ars^, y^-lr-*' 

sarir 
Throw — he threw, ^^L 

tarahj ^j rama 
Thumb, ^1^1 ihhdm 
Thunder, scj raid 
Thundered (it), jc^ ra^ad 
Thus, Ui==» kathd 
Tied (he), Jii: iaqad, kj^ 

ra&at 
Tiger, y*3 nimr (pi. »^j^ 

TiwTTZitra) 



Tile, tiles, s^^Ji qarmid 
Till, until (before a noun), 
^-.i_&. ha^^a ; {before a 

verh), ^\ Jl ila dii 
Tilled (he), ii fala\ cl^ 

harath 
Time, ^^U^ zamdn, ci^ij i^<if^^ 
Times (at all), c:^ij Jf ^ 

f% hull wakt 
Timid, <->^ haytxb, ^— ^i^ 

kha^^/ 
Tired, ^jLjJfaiJaTz, ^^maUl 
Tobacco_, i^U.^ Jwkhkhan, 

i.L t<a^&ag 
Together, \x^^ jamiian 
Tolerated (he), allowed, jj^ai^ 

rakhkhas 
Tomb,^^ qabr 
Tongue (the organ of 

speech), ^jU lisdn (pi. 

<iu--Jl alsind) 
Tooth, ^j^ sinn (pi. ^JL*.1 

asndn), ,^j-^ di>5 (pi. 

^|^*^1 adras) 
Top, A*9 qimma, ijj':> thirwa 
Torch, Jst^ misJiiol 
Total, ii^jumla 
Q 



226 



VOCABULARY. 



Touclied (he), ^j^J lamas, 



LT- 



mass 



Towards, js: ndhw 
Towel,^Xlj hasJiJcir, IJajJ 

futa 
Tower, ^^ burj (pi. ^j^ 

hurdj) 
Town, IijJlo madina (pi. 

^jjuo mudun) 
Traced (he), marked, ^ ,»^ 

Trade (profession), i.J^_&. 

hir/a 
Trade (commerce), s^L-s? 

Hjdra 
Tradition, e^jJ-^ hadith, 

l)}jj riwayah 
Transcribed (he), copied, 

>J wasfl^kh, JiJ wflf^'^Z 

Transcript, ii*^ 72W5kha 

Transferred (he), JSJ w^^'^tZ 

Translated (he), ^J tarjam 

Translation, "L^J tarjama 

Translator ^;;U:^ tarjumdn 

(pronounced in Egypt 

targumdn, equivalent to 

the European drago^nan) 



Transparent, v-^iU^ sliaffdf 
Travel, subst.,^ Ju» safar, 

Aa.L*. sif/dha 
Travelled (he), «?.,^Li sdfar, 

-.L» sdh. 
Traveller, j^\ ,».■■■ .o musdjir, 

— L*» sayydli 
Treacherous, ^\s>, khdHn 
Tread — he trod, ^j^b dds, 

^j wail 
Treasure, yS Tcanz, Ajh_&. 

'khazdna 
Tree, »^ sJiajra 
Trembled (he), JLmj\ irta- 

iasJij v^:». rajaf 
Tribe, aLJ qaUla (pi. JjU 

gfl5&a'i7) 
Trick, il^ \\ila 
Trifling, trivial, XJb\ zahtdy 

^*fl* haqtr 
Trouble, c-axj ^«iJ, ^J^J 

^as^ii 
Troubled (he, or it), v^alT 

kallaf, jsS kaddar, ^\\ 

azcaj 
(he wsLs\jS^ takadda?' 



VOCABULARY. 



227 



Troublesome, jL^ sMqq, 
s^ muzdj 

True, ^J^ haqq 

Trust, JlSLJl ittikdl, ^1^1 

iUimdd, ^Uicl iUiqdd 
Trusted (he), x^ idamad 

Jxyl ittaJcal 
Truth, jj>.hfl55'g', dii>. Yiaqiqa 
Try — he tried, tested, ^j>. 
jarrah, ^^^^ imtdhan 

see Endeavour 

Turn — he turned over, 

reversed, ^Js qalah 
he turned his face, 

Aa.jJ tawajjah 

he turned (himself) 

round, ^b ddr 
he turned (something) 

round, ^bl addr, jjo 

dawwar 
Turnip, e^ lift 
Twice, repeatedly, ^^J^J^ 

marratain 
Twice, double — see Double 
Tyrant, Jit zdlim 



U. 

U^g^y» ^. bc^shic ^^ qabih 
Umbrella, i^..*^ shamsiyya^ 

iiU zulla 
Unable, jA^lc idjiz 
Uncle (father's brother), ^ 

iflr7nwz(plur. l^y^ mmuma, 

or ^Ucl aiVfidni) 
(mother's brother), JU. 

kh^Z (plur. aJ^^ kliu'ula, 

or J 1^1 akhwdl) 
Under, ^z^ taht 
Understand — he under- 
stood, ^ fahim 
Understanding, ^ fahm 
Undertake — he undertook, 

^Jfr j^ (.azam cola 
Undertaking (an), ^yc. cazm 
Undressed himself (he), 

{jjxi ta(.arra 
Union, ^Usl ittihdd jlaJl 

ittifdq 
United (he), J^j wa^al, 

J^l ittahad 
Unjust, y U. jdHr 
Unknown, J^s* majhul 



228 



TOCABCLARY. 



Unless, V)j wa Hid, Vjl lauld, 

^jJ lau Jam 
Until, Ji ila, ^a. hatta 
Up, upwards, upon, jj_J 

fauq, jjc i^Zflj 
Upper, ^1 aiala 
Upright, ^^** mustaqim 
Uprightness, a-^li::**,! isti- 

qdma 
Urgent, yJa-^_* mudiiarr, 

\Jj^j^ dai^uri 
Use — see Custom, Experi- 
ence, Practice, Advantage 
Useful, jwlj ndjii jJu mufid 
Utmost (the),^l aqsa, ili 

gdi/a 
Utterly, wholly, ijKjb hi 7- 

kulliyya 

V. 

Vacant, JU. khaZ/ 
Vain, JLb 5ati7 
Vainly, ilLb haiilan 
Valley, ^^^J^ wddi (pi. aojl 

awdiya) 
Valuable, ^jm-w nafis, ^j^ 

tJiamin 



Value, I»J ^ma 

Valued (he), rated, ^^.5 

qaivwam, ^ thamman 

he prized, ^,-j:c1 idahar 

Vanished (he), Js:^' zd^«- 

h«ZZ 
Vanity — see Pride 
Variable, varied, . ^ ■; r ^ 

mutagayyir 
Various, (^Jksr* mukhtalif, 

cjjju mutanawwii 
Veal, JsP ^ Z«hw^ djl 
Ventured (he), dared,^^lsi' 

tajdsar 
he hazarded, ^^Li. 

Widiar 
Very, \ss^ jiddan 
Vexation,^35s3 takdir, suXai 

tasdti 
Vexed (he or it), c,Xo saddac 
Vice, dLi, raihtla 
Victory,^U zafar, ^ fat'\i 
Videlicet, that is to say, 

^joo yami 
Vigilant, a^j:u muntahih 
Village, i i qarya 



TOCABULART. 



229 



Yine^ ^^ Jcarm (pi. ^j^ 

kurum) 
Violence, ^ ragm, jjj zawr 
Violent, c-i^ ianif, sis!:^ 

sJiadid 
Virtue, a! .^.r^ 4 fadila (pi. 

Jjl*a9 fadd^il) 
Virtuous, ^{3 fadzl 
Visible, »\aJl JjU g'a5i7 an- 

nazr 
Visit (a), 5,1; ziydra 
Visited (he), .Ij zdr 
Voice, oj-d ^aut 
Volume, jlsr* mujallad 
Voluntary, (j:,U:;s»'t ikhtiydrt 
Vow (a)^ ^ jj nathr 
Vowed (lie),^jj nathar 
Voyage, ^;5^^' ^ safar al- 

ha\ir 
Vulgar, ^^ dani,jS>^ hagir 
(the), the common 

people, i«lc idmma 

W, 

Wages, ijj>\ ujra, lijJLc 

iulufa 
Waggon, hjs. iaraha, iLs.^ 

iojala 



Waited (he), u-MjJ tawaqqaf 
Waited for (he), j. k-sJ< 

intazar 
Wakeful, sleepless, ^1^,_4_-- 

sahrdn, kft-iw-wa mustaiqiz 



Wakefulness^ .^w sahar 
Walked (he), ^^ masJia, 

*LJ tamashsha 
Wall, kjiU. ha*zt,^^_^ 6^Mr 
Walnut— see Xut 
Wandered '(he),^!-- sdr 
Want (need), -.IJs-l ihtiydj 
(desire), jLjl^I ish- 

tiijdq 
Wanted (he), was in want 

of, ••ba^i ihtdj 

see Desire 

War, t-j^ harh 

(a holy), ^l4&. jihdd 

Warm (as to things), ^sr** 

sukhn; (as to weather), 

^U harr 
Warmed (he), made warm, 

^jk^ sdkhkh.an 
Warmth — see Heat 
Warred (he), made war, 

c_j,U harab 



230 



VOCABULARY. 



Washed (he), J^c ^asal 
Washed himself (he), J^iJ 

tagassal 
Wasted (he), uiUl ailaf, 

u-i^l asrqf 
Wasteful, extravagant, 

mutlif 
Watch, time-piece, icL 5^^^ 
Watched (he), kept vigil, 

j^ sahir 
Watched (he), he observed 

closely, ]kJi Idhaz 
Water, U md, hy, muya 
Water-closet, i^rivy, iiU. k^^\ 

ddab-khdna, -J^x-** mus- 

tardh, LJufkan(f 
Wave, ^^ maz/j/' (pi. ^1^| 

amwdj) 
Wax, ^t^ 5^ami 
Way, ji^L tariq, J_^ 5^^,//, 

aX** sikkah 
Weak, «— ft*x-^ df/a/ 
Weakness, cJaui daiaf,j^ 

injaz 
Wealth — see Riches 
Wear — see Dress 



Weary — see Fatigue 
Weary, wearied, J^ tac^ 

hdn, L^ycu matcdb 
Wearying, ^x:u mutdb 



Weave — he wove, ^ nasaj 
Week, cj-M»l ashui, 1 * ^ _^ 

jurma 
Weep—he wept, J^ haka 
Weeper, weeping, ^j^sLf 

hdki 
Weighed (he), ^^ wazan 
Weight, Ijj^ ivazna, ULiJ 

tJiigla 
Weighty, J^' thagil 
Welcome ! U.^ inarhdbd 
Welcomed (he), ^ i^^Jy 

tarahhab fi 
Well (a), ^ Mr, ^^juhb 
Well (bene), e^^L tayyih 
West, western, ,^A garb, 

^j^A magrib 
Wet, J^Lo mabUl, u^U^ raiib 
What, lo md 

What 1 U^fjcaif, J\ ayy 
Wheat, ^ qamh 

Wheel, ils^ uijala 



VOCABULARY. 



231 



When, il ith, IS) ithd, U 

lammdy ^ mat a 
Whenever, \JS kuUa7nd 
Where, Ca-^. haith 
Where 1 ^^A ain 
Wherever, Ui^a. YiaitJiamd, 

UjjI ainamd 
Whether, A am, Ja hal 
While, whilst, U^ bainamd, 

^blc md dam 
Whip, ^\i^Jcurhdj 
Whisker, L-r,U» shdrib (pi. 

c-^lj^ shawdrib) 
Whisper (a), iij^ z^;a5A- 

Whistled (he),^^ ^afar 
White, ^jaii\ahyadi (fern, l^ 

haidd) 
White men and black men, 

^J\:>^^ fj\^a^^ hiddn wa- 



Whither, v^^ Jl ila haith 
Whole, entirety, A^jumla, 

1^ hulliyya 
Whole, every, J^ hull 
Whole, perfect, ^^ Mmil, 

j«Uj tammdm 



Wholesome, sli sMfi, «iU 

ndfic 
Why, li U lima thd 
Wicked, ^^ sJiartr, eAjo> 

khaJz^^ 
Wide, jt^lj wdsic, ^ij^ 

(.arid 
Widow, iL,l armala 
Widower, J*,l armaZ 
Width, Ix^j wasia,^js. card 
Wife, As..^ zauja 
Wild, savage, ^^^^ tvahsM 

uncultivated, (jj> barri 

Wilderness, j^ harr, Ls^ 



Wilful, j-ic caiitd 

Will (voluntas), sjy zVat/^, 

5L«L* masTiiyya {masJii^a, 
Will (testamentum), i ^^^ 

waBiyya 
Willed (he)— 5^5 Wish 
Willing, ^-il^ rad^, jo^^-* 

murid 
Wind (the), ^_^ nh 
Window, dLL sJiuhhdk (pi. 

doLi» shabdbik) 



232 



VOCABULARY. 



Wine, I.J nahtth. {naUd)^ 



kh<2wr. 



jK*A» 



sJiardh 



Wing, 



*a. janh. (pi. -lis. 



jandh) ; _L^ jandh (pi. 

isH^' ajniha) 
Winter, bj;, 5^2^^ 
Wiped (he), ^^ wasdh 

Wisdom, 'i^^=K>. YiiJcma 
Wise, ^^ haMm (pi. UC 

hukamd), J5lc ^(£^^7 
Wish (a), .iK* murdd, 'Lk. 

ragha 
Wished (he), .il^l ^^ra^, .i^ 

rdd, ^^ tarn anna 
Within, inside, Ji.b ddkhil, 

Without, outside, 1^ harrd, 

l^^li. khdrijan 
Without, exclusive of, ^j 

bildjjJo bi-gair 
Witness, jaUi sJidhid 

(he hore), ^4^ shahad 

(he brought or called), 

j^j^ shahhad 
Woe, J)j Z(?«z7 
Woeful, ^ mugimm 



Women, womankind, L^ 

w/sa, ^\j^) nisivdn 
Wonder, l-.s? i«;'a& 
Wondered (he), ^:f^ ta- 

iajjah, u^iiw-1 istagrah 
Wonderful, ^^^ cajtb, *,jo 

badii 
Wood (lignum), ^^ hatab, 

^A^i. kha^A^i 
Wood (forest), ^^ hirsli, 

c_->lc ga5 
Woodman, woodcutter, 
L-ilk^ h«^tt(x5 

Wool, «»j^ snf 

Woollen- draper, v^l^ sae^;- 

Word, aJL^s Jcalima 
Work, J^ i«m«Z (pi. jUtI 

ai»2aZ) 
Worked (he), Ji^i.! i^^Afa- 

gfljZ, J^ iamal 
Workman, joU s^^we'i, JJvc 

idmil 
Workshop, J^jJI Js^ mahall 

al- carnal 
World, U^ duni/d, Jlc ia/a?^ 
Worm, ».>^^ dauda 



VOCABULARY. 



233 



Worship (religious), »^Lc 

dbdda, :>js£^ svjud 
Worship (place of), j.--x* 

maihady jsr** masjid 
Worshipped (he), s^ cahad, 

Sst** sajad 
Worthy, deserving, j5i^**** 

mustahiqq 
Would that ! c>J lait . 
Wound (a hurt), -^jwrh 
Wounded (he or it), ^^^ 

jarah. 
Wounded, hurt, t^j^ 

majruh 
Wrapped (he), cal laff 
Wrapped (particip,), v-jyL 

maljuf 
Wretched (in condition), 

^jS^***M misktn, ^u. shaqi 
Write (he wrote), w->-.^=9 

katah 
Writer, \^^ kdtib 
Writing (a), l>\£ hitdha 
Writing (penmanship), ki. 

khatt 
Written, ^ySZ^ mahtuh 



Wrong (a sin, an error)^ 

Iks. khata 
Wrong (mistaken), ^-^ 

mukhit 
Wronged (he), Jii zalam, 

j^ darr, {js^) taiadda 



Yard (a measure), chS 

thJrai 
Year, ai-a sana, (pi. ^j^«i_^ 

sanun), Ac. cam (pi. Jjc.\ 

aiwdm) 
Yellow, ^^1 a^far 
Yes, ^xj naiam 
Yesterday, ^j^*l ams, ^.U' 

aUdriha 
Yet, however, Ld ammd, 

^jW Za^m, Vi J wa-illa 
Yet, still, ^Vi Ji 27« «Z-aw ; 

not yet, I J lammd, L^ 

lissa 
Yielded (he), surrendered 

^U sallam 
Yoke (for oxen),^ ntr 

Young, u^U. shdhh, ^9 fata 
R " 



234 



VOCABULARY. 



Youths. ^jLw sJiahdh (pi. of 

Youthfulness, i-jj-*' shaM- 
hiyya 



Z. 

Zeal, s^ii gaira 
Zealous, ^^ gayyur 
Zephyr^ L© s«5a, ^**J nastm 



Gilbert & Rivington, Ltd., St. John's Houee, Clerkenwell, London. 



THE TURKISH LANGUAGE. 



WELLS (Dr. Charles). A Practical Grammar of the 
Turkish language^ based upon the best modern 
Turkish work on the subject ; also including such 
rules of Arabic and Persian Grammar as have been 
adopted by the Turks, 8vo. (pub. at 155.), cloth. 
1880. [Beduced to 10^. 

The best and most practically useful book of its kind. 

EEDHOUSE (Sir James). English-Turkish and Turkish- 
English Dictionary, new and enlarged edition, by 
Dr. Charles Wells, complete in ttvo parts, formimj 
one volume, 8vo. 884 j!?p. double columns, (pub. at ^22.), 
cloth, 1880. [Reduced to 25^. 



In preparation : 

WELLS' Turkish Keading-Book, or Handbook of Turkish 
Literature, ^yo,, uniform with the preceding Grammar 
and Dictionary, \_Nearly ready. 



BBRNAED QUARITCH, Publisher, 

15 Piccadilly, London. 

1891 



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