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Full text of "A Practical guide to arts participation research"

Research 
Division 
Report 

#30 




Participation 
Research 



Research Division 
Report #30 



national 
endowment 

for^Wthe 



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ARTS 



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D li BY 

NATIONAL / 
ENDOWMENT 
FOR THE 
ARTS 



A 

PRACTICAL 

GUIDE 

TO 



RTS 



Participation 

Research 



Research Division 
Report #30 



NATIONAL 
ENDOWMENT 

FOR^jj^THE 

ARTS 



Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data 

A practical guide to arts participation research / prepared by 
AMS Planning & Research Corp. 
p. cm. - (Research Division Report ; 30) 
Includes bibliographical references. 

1. Arts audiences -United States. 2. Arts surveys -United States. 
I. AMS Planning & Research Corp. II. Series: Research Division Report 
(National Endowment for the Arts. Research Division) ; 30. 
NX220.P73 1995 

700M'030973-dc20 95-12004 

CIP 




PLANNING & RESEARCH 



2150 Post Road, Fairfield, CT 06430 
Phone (203) 256-1616, Fax (203) 256-1311 



/ 



M 



ABLE OF CONTENTS 



Preface i-Ui 

I. Arts Participation Studies and 1 

Audience Research Techniques 

What is Arts Participation Research? 2 

Why Conduct an Arts Participation Study? 4 

Assembling a Research Team 8 

II. Historical Perspective on 

Arts Participation Research 13 

Early Audience Studies 14 

Three Arts Endowment Studies Before 1982 15 

The Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts 20 

Local Area Arts Participation Studies 23 

Other Arts Participation Studies 27 

Future Research Issues 29 

III. The Anatomy of an Arts Participation Study 31 

Research Planning 32 

Seeking Professional Assistance 34 

Methods of Collecting Arts Participation Data 40 

Response Rates and Bias 44 

Sample Design Issues 48 

Survey Design Issues 53 

Preparing Data for Analysis 62 

Analysis and Reporting 62 

IV. Appendix 69 

Sample Survey Instrument 70 

Resources for Professional Assistance 80 

Selected Geography Definitions 81 

Sampling Error Table 82 

Census-Defined Demographic Cohorts 83 

Bibliography on Public Participation in the Arts 85 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries 



http://archive.org/details/practicalguidetoOOamsp 




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*|Fho is in the audience? Who isn't? Why do people participate in 
the arts? How can more people be attracted to our theaters, con- 
cert halls, and museums? Since early this century, the quest for 
information about the American arts public has sparked countless research 
efforts - from simple audience surveys to national studies - to gain insight 
on how Americans relate to the arts. If, as some suggest, the arts are an 
essential means for cultural expression, then the study of arts participa- 
tion is central to our understanding of American culture and its evolution. 

Interest in arts participation research has grown steadily since the early 
museum visitor studies of the 1920s. In post- World War II America, while 
arts administrators continued to seek information about their patrons, a 
larger constituency of policy-makers, educators, and fonder s grew active in 
the area of arts research. Changing demographic, cultural, political, and 
economic forces began to impact the demand for and supply of arts pro- 
grams. During the 1970s an emerging focus became arts participation 
research - the study of both attenders and non-attenders - separate from 
and complementary to audience research. With a broader context, research 
began to examine arts participation patterns in relation to the supply of 
arts programs and facilities, and myriad other issues such as music prefer- 
ences, arts participation through broadcast and recorded media, and barri- 
ers to increased participation. Today, such research is employed by local 
arts administrators as a resource for advocacy, facility development, cultur- 
al planning, marketing, and policy evaluation purposes. 

It is the goal of this publication to provide arts managers with an under- 
standing of arts participation research at the national and local levels. To 
this end, a two-fold approach is taken. First, the historical development of 
arts participation research is summarized in order to gain perspective on 
current research. Second, readers are provided with an overview of how to 
conduct an arts participation study. Thus, the term "guide" is used to 
reflect the practical applications of the information provided. 



i/ 




This report draws on the experience gained through numerous national 
and local arts participation studies, especially the nationwide Surveys of 
Public Participation in the Arts (SPPAs) conducted by the Census Bureau 
for the National Endowment for the Arts in 1982, 1985, and 1992 and the 
12 Local Area Arts Participation Surveys (LAAPS) conducted in 1992 by 
the Arts Endowment and local sponsors in each area. The first section 
defines "arts participation research" and discusses the reasons for initiat- 
ing a study as well as how to structure a successful research effort. An his- 
torical perspective on arts participation research is presented in the middle 
section, tracing the progression of arts participation research in terms of 
both knowledge gained and methods used. The third section provides an 
overview of how to conduct an arts participation survey, from design to 
implementation of results. 

hroughout the report and in the appendix, numerous references are 
provided to a range of research reports, instructional texts, and 
other publications on arts participation. Given the numerous 
demands on their time, arts administrators cannot be expected to have the 
time to follow the arts participation literature nor to possess the technical 
background to implement their own survey. Therefore the approach of this 
guide is to assume some level of professional assistance with research, 
rather than to spell-out every step in a hypothetical survey effort. This 
approach recognizes the varying research interests of arts administrators 
in different situations and allows for flexibility in the design of a study. 
Examples are provided throughout to illustrate a range of research 
solutions. 

Through this publication we hope to expand awareness and understanding 
of arts participation research and to assist local arts administrators in 
gaining fluency with the associated vocabulary and concepts. Armed with 
the background and technical information contained in these pages, the 
pathway to a successful study should be clearer. 

We are grateful to numerous individuals from arts agencies, service 
organizations, and institutions who shared their research experiences 
and provided examples of successful and unsuccessful studies; both were 
helpful. Special thanks to participants in the 12 Local Studies and to 



representatives of the Bay Area Research Project (San Francisco), the 
Audience Research Consortium (Toronto), the Greater Philadelphia 
Cultural Alliance, the Cleveland Foundation, and others for providing 
materials and de-briefing their research projects. 

More than anything, this handbook benefits from years of Arts 
Endowment-sponsored research - from the 1977 Audience Studies of the 
Performing Arts and Museums: A Critical Review (DiMaggio/Useem/ 
Brown) which took stock of early audience research efforts, to John 
Robinson's Arts Participation in America: 1982-1992 . published in October 
1993. The insight gained through almost twenty years of arts participation 
research is vital not only to national policy-makers, but to local arts admin- 
istrators who strive to understand the dynamics of arts participation in 
their own communities. 

Research Division 
National Endowment for the Arts 

January 1995 



Section I 



rts Participation 
Studies and Audience 
research Techniques 



T nformation-gathering is an essential element of good arts manage- 
ment. Since the early museum visitor studies of the 1920s, audience 
J1L research efforts at the local, regional, and national levels have explored 
the relationships between audiences, artists, and the institutions that 
bring them together. While arts par- 
ticipation was a simpler matter in 
the homogeneous society of America 
before World War II, the subsequent 
growth and diversification of the 
U.S. population has created a vastly 
more complex panorama. Today, 
policy-makers, arts administrators, 
funders, researchers and educators 
seek a better understanding of the 
forces behind arts participation and 
how they are changing or can be 
changed. 

Cultural diversity, shrinking leisure 
time, increased competition for disposable income, and other factors influ- 
ence arts participation patterns in new and unknown ways. Technology, as 
well, impacts arts participation patterns - both in the home and at the the- 
ater. How will the "information superhighway" impact arts participation? 
In a rapidly evolving cultural environment, the need to re-shape programs, 
re-focus promotional efforts, and create relevant policies levies a strong 
charge for thoughtful research. 




a) 
05 

■e 

.Q 



Computer Technology 
has greatly improved 
telephone survey 

METHODS. 



Arts participation research emerged as a concept distinct from audience 
research in the early 1970s, when advocates and politicians sought to 



4 



understand more about arts attendance patterns to inform policy decisions. 
The National Endowment for the Arts conducted Surveys of Public 
Participation in the Arts (SPPAs) in 1982, 1985 and 1992 - representing 
the most comprehensive research to date on trends in arts attendance pat- 
terns and related subjects. Numerous other national studies have also been 
conducted by various agencies and pollsters. An historical perspective on 
arts participation research is presented in Section II of this guide. 

At the local level, arts participation research has many applications. For 
example, survey results can be pivotal in lobbying elected officials for 
increased budget allocations. Assessing public attitudes about the arts (i.e., 
programs, facilities, public funding, etc.) can stimulate cultural planning 
efforts and add force to advocacy work. Measuring trends in arts participa- 
tion patterns is a critical step in effective long-term policy development and 
evaluation for local arts agencies, especially in culturally diverse communi- 
ties. The uses of arts participation research are discussed in detail below. 
First, arts participation research is denned and contrasted to audience 
research. 

What is Arts Participation Research? 

Arts participation research focuses on the general population; both users 
and non-users of all types of arts programs. Three characteristics broadly 
define these surveys: 

A general population is surveyed, such as all adults living in a certain 
area. Geographies to be studied can range from small cities or counties 
to larger regions, states, and the entire nation. 
• Some form of random sampling is employed so that results can be 
generalized to the population being studied. (Random sampling implies 
that each person has an equal, known chance of being interviewed.) 
The survey includes questions about the individual's participation in 
various arts activities as well as standard socio-economic and 
demographic variables such as age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, etc. 

Arts participation can include attendance at live performances, visiting 
museums, galleries or historic sites, reading literature, listening and/or 






STUDYING ARTS PARTICIPATION 



Audience 
Research 



Methods 



Research Topics 



Primary Uses 



Audience surveys, 
focus groups and 
interviews, mailing 
list analysis, etc. 



Satisfaction with 
programs, reasons for 
attending, purchase 
decision factors, etc. 



watching arts pro- 
grams on broadcast or 
recorded media, and 
performing or creating 
art (e.g., singing, 
painting). 

In contrast, audience 
surveys focus only on 
known attenders, often 
only at one particular 
arts institution. These 
surveys are frequently 
conducted for market- 
ing purposes (e.g., to 
assess audience satis- 
faction levels), or to 
measure the expenditures made by audience members as part of an eco- 
nomic impact study. In 1985, the Arts Endowment Research Division pub- 
lished a manual, Surveying Your Arts Audience , to help arts managers 
conduct more effective audience research. That publication, much like this 
one, was intended to raise the standards of research efforts and to promote 
industry-wide consistency in data collection efforts by establishing common 
research procedures. 1 



Arts Participation 
Research 



Community surveys 
(random sample), 
focus groups and 
interviews 

Frequency of atten- 
dance, reasons for not 
attending more often, 
awareness of arts 
programs, attitudes 
about the arts 



Audience development, i Advocacy, cultural 
economic impact, planning, arts policy 

testing promotional development, facility 
ideas, etc. development 



Audience vs. arts 
participation research. 



The object of arts participation research is to obtain information about the 
characteristics of people who do participate in the arts and about those 
who do not. Results are usually generalized from a subset of members of a 
population to the population as a whole (such as a city or county). Since 
everyone in the community cannot be interviewed, a random sampling 
technique is necessarily involved. While other research methods (such as 
focus groups) can add valuable context to arts participation research, the 
"general population survey" is the primary vehicle for data collection, and 
is the focus of this guide. 



*A similar publication, Visitor Surveys: A User's Manual by Randi Korn and Laurie Sowd, was published in 1990 by the 
American Association of Museums, and is available through AAM, telephone (202) 289-6578. 



Although issues addressed in arts participation surveys vary from project 
to project, certain "core" questions are common across most surveys. For a 
more complete discussion of survey design, see Section III. A few of the 
most frequently included topics are: 

III arts participation via attendance at performances and exhibits, via 

broadcast and recorded media, and through creation of art 
II frequency of participation 

II awareness of arts programs, facilities, and institutions 
II sources of information about arts events 
II reasons for not attending more often 
II participation in other leisure activities 

II attitudes/opinions about the arts 

III preferences for different types of arts programs 

Surveys covering these and other topics can incorporate standardized 
questions which have been used successfully in other surveys. A goal of 
this guide is to illustrate survey questions that have been successfully 
used in national and local arts participation surveys. The process of 
designing a survey is critical to the ultimate success of a research effort; 
there is no substitute for a rigorous and comprehensive research design 
process. The authors do not advocate wholesale copying of survey ques- 
tions from any source, although there is much to gain from the experience 
of others after setting your own research priorities. 

Why Conduct an Arts Participation 
Study? 

Usually, audience research is undertaken in response to a particular mar- 
keting challenge (e.g., to test alternative subscription packages, to mea- 
sure patron satisfaction levels). In contrast, arts participation research is 
used less frequently as a problem-solving technique and more often to aid 
in policy development. Results from arts participation research have many 
potential applications, including: 

Evaluation. Assessing the "state of the arts" in a locality or region 
involves arts participation research. Studying how the citizens of a 



specific area interact with the supply of arts facilities and programs can 
reveal important facts about the local arts system. When similar data are 
gathered over a period of years, it is possible to ascertain trends in arts 
participation patterns and begin to answer the question "how are we 
doing?" For example, communities experiencing rapid demographic 
change and/or cultural diversification conduct research focusing on the 
attendance patterns of key groups. Results can bring clarity to arts policy 
and may be used to support funding appeals for new arts programs, for 
example. 

Influencing Funding Decisions. Research is frequently conducted to 
ascertain public opinion on a variety of arts-related issues, often in connec- 
tion with ballot initiatives. Tax-based funding is an important source of 
income for arts groups in some cities. (For example, in Denver (CO), Fresno 
(CA), and San Antonio (TX), a percentage of proceeds from various taxes is 
allocated to arts programs.) As arts advocates seek to build a case for 
increased public funding, research is conducted to assess public attitudes 
about the importance of the arts and voters' willingness to support a fund- 
ing initiative. Similarly, local arts agencies have used results from arts par- 
ticipation studies to strengthen the case for arts education funding, 
sometimes in conjunction with school board elections. 



Survey results, when used to influence 
high level of scrutiny, particularly 
from those with an opposing view- 
point. Understanding the methods of 
obtaining high-quality data is partic- 
ularly important when researching 
public opinion. In addition to explor- 
ing current issues, such efforts can 
add valuable understanding to the 
arts participation patterns in a com- 
munity. 

Evaluating Proposed Arts 
Facilities. Planning efforts for new 
or renovated arts facilities (e.g., 



public policy, may be subject to a 



California Center for the Arts 

Escondido, California 

Prior to opening in 1994, management of this new arts 
complex conducted arts participation research to evaluate 
the market potential for various types of programming. 

A telephone survey was administered to a random sample 
of 400 area households, probing topics such as frequency of 
arts attendance, other leisure activities, purchase decision 
factors, personal values, and attitudes about arts program- 
ming. Results helped shape programming choices for the 
inaugural season, as well as creative marketing approach- 
es and targeting strategies. 



£ 



theaters, museums, cultural centers) frequently include a survey research 
component. Topics covered usually include: 



current attendance patterns/facility use 
III perceived need for additional facilities 
II preferences for site alternatives 
II support of funding alternatives 
II concerns about related issues (e.g., safety, transportation) 



The developer of a project (e.g., a Community Development Corporation or 
Redevelopment Agency) usually initiates the research effort, and the local 
arts agency is sometimes a partner. In a typical situation, research is con- 
ducted as part of a feasibility study. Publicizing results from such a study 
can help build awareness of the project. 



Obtaining Public Input for 
Cultural Plans. Numerous local 
arts agencies have undertaken cul- 
tural planning efforts which often 
involve survey research. In such 
plans, a community survey may be 
used to measure frequency of partici- 
pation, awareness of local arts pro- 
grams, adequacy of existing arts 
facilities, attitudes about arts-in- 
education, funding issues and other 
topics. The resulting data are used 
to develop priorities for local cultural 
development, such as expanded arts 
facilities, programs and events, etc. 

Other topics queried in a cultural 
plan survey might include sources of information about arts events, gener- 
al use of leisure time, arts participation through the media, attitudes about 
a united arts fund drive, and opinions about public funding of arts pro- 
grams. Cultural planning has been the catalyst for most of the local arts 
participation research conducted in the U.S. 



Anchorage Cultural Master Plan 

Anchorage, Alaska 

The municipality of Anchorage completed a community 
cultural plan in 1993. The planning process included a 
telephone survey of 350 randomly-selected households to 
measure arts attendance patterns, attitudes about the 
arts and arts education, preferences for different types of 
activities, sources of information about arts events, and 
other topics. Respondents were also asked about their 
willingness to support increased public funding for the 
arts through surcharges on movie tickets, video rentals, 
and cable TV bills. 

Results were used to establish a "Quality of Life" 
Coalition advocating for a stable source of public funds to 
support arts, culture, libraries, and amateur sports 
activities. 



Supporting Advocacy 
Efforts. A primary 
reason to conduct arts 
participation research 
is to gather data which 
can be used to heighten 
public awareness of the 
arts. In 1992 the 
National Cultural 



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S I 



K 



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Many Renoites prefer 
La Boheme to la ballgame. 



Alliance conducted a nationwide survey of 1,059 adults to measure the 
importance and availability of the arts and humanities in their lives. 
Results were released at a press conference and helped to shape a national 
public awareness campaign. 



Billboard artwork 
developed for the reno 
Arts Commission. 



Research can also fuel local advocacy campaigns. The Reno (NV) Arts 
Commission used results from a local arts participation study to design an 
arts advocacy media campaign. Reno's particularly high literature partici- 
pation rate was the focus of radio and television public service announce- 
ments and a series of outdoor billboards. Survey topics relating to attitudes 
and opinions about the arts (e.g., interest in the arts, perceived importance 
of the arts, value of arts education programs) are most likely to yield 
results that can be used for advocacy purposes. 



A word of caution is in order about research conducted for advocacy purpos- 
es. It is incumbent upon an ethical researcher to retrain from designing 
survey questions to yield results the client wants. Thus, the real possibility 
exists that survey data may in fact be harmful to advocacy efforts, and the 
ethical researcher is obliged to report these results in an objective fashion. 
Substantial controversy can result from biased questioning and/or incom- 
plete reporting; such activity can emasculate any research project and 
undermines the credibility of research in general. 

Audience Development. Arts participation research can play a vital role 
in audience development efforts. While audience research is limited to 
known attenders, a general population survey can collect valuable data on 
both attenders and non-attenders and the factors that distinguish them. 
For this purpose, surveys can help to identify: 



City of Oakland 

Oakland, California 

The Cultural Arts Division of the City of Oakland conduct- 
ed a telephone survey of area households in 1989 to assist 
with local audience development. Respondents were asked 
about cultural interests, attendance habits, sources of 
information about arts programs, and related topics. 
Audience surveys were also administered to obtain data 
from known attenders. 

Results were used to brainstorm cooperative marketing 
approaches for local arts groups and to shape a citywide 
"marketing and image enhancement campaign." Outside 
consultants also worked with individual arts groups to 
evaluate survey results and recommend specific marketing 
strategies and creative approaches. 



1 awareness of local arts programs 
potential audience segments 
factors influencing attendance 

I unique characteristics of local 
artists, arts organizations, and 
culturally-specific populations 
issues related to ticket 
distribution systems 

Although audience development is 
generally a concern of individual 
arts institutions, local arts agencies 
can play a coordinating role in iden- 
tifying common research interests 
among local organizations, and in 
providing technical assistance. 
Local arts agencies can also use 
research results to help constituent arts groups formulate umbrella mar- 
keting campaigns. Key to the success of such efforts is the involvement of 
marketing professionals who can help translate research results into 
creative promotional strategies. 

In addition to the uses of arts participation survey results noted above, the 
research process, itself, can favorably impact an organization in several 
respects. In a broad sense, an investment in research is a commitment to 
learning. The process of designing a questionnaire involves clarifying 
issues and setting priorities. This process - whether individual or collective 
- can bring a sharper focus to organizational goals and a heightened 
sensitivity to arts participation issues. Staff, board members, and other 
volunteers can also benefit from an enhanced understanding of research 
methods - technical skills that may be applied to future management 
challenges. 

ASSEMBLING A RESEARCH TEAM 



In addition to understanding the "what" and "why" of arts participation 
research, another key concept is the "who" - who can benefit from arts 



participation research, and how can they be involved in the process? At the 
earliest stages of planning a research effort, a constituency for the project 
should be defined and a "research team" assembled. (Section III of this 
report provides more information about research planning and seeking 
professional assistance.) Creation of a committee or task force comprised of 
key individuals who will be impacted by the research is a critical first step. 
Composition of the group depends on the purpose of the research and the 
level of oversight needed. Stakeholders might include: 

Wt arts agency administrators 

X public policy makers (elected officials, school board members, etc.) 

H arts presenters and producers (staff and/or board members) 

8 funders (corporations, community foundations, etc.) 

Wi media representatives (especially newspapers) 

M artists (visual and performing artists, crafts people) 

8 tourism/visitor industry representatives, including local businesses 

The meaningful participation of stakeholders in all stages of research from 
planning to communication of the results accomplishes several things. 
First, the relevance of survey results will be enhanced if potential benefi- 
ciaries have a hand in survey design. Second, results will be more broadly 
distributed and better understood if more people have a vested interest in 
a successful outcome. Finally, a group of well-placed individuals can add 
credibility to a research effort. 

The research team may include individuals from a variety of backgrounds. 
For example, if the primary purpose of the research effort is audience 
development, the involvement of local presenters and producers (both per- 
forming and visual arts) will be essential. If the arts participation patterns 
of culturally-specific groups are to be studied, project leadership should 
include representatives of the cultures to be studied. If advocacy is the 
focus, business and media representation on the research task force will 
lend credibility to the results and facilitate their communication. One pos- 
sible structure for an arts participation research project is presented in the 
chart on the following page. 



Collaborative Research: A Model 



Public Radio 
Station 



Local 
Orchestra 



University 
Presenter 



Community 
Theatre Co. 



} 
} 



Local Arts 

Agency 
(fiscal agent) 



Project 
Funders 



RESEARCH 
TASK FORCE 

(mechanism for 

stakeholder 

involvement 

in research 

design and 

project 
oversight) 



Professional 
Team 

(consultants, 

research field 

house, other 

specialists, 

etc.) 



In preparing this 
guide, interviews were 
conducted with spon- 
sors of numerous local 
arts participation stud- 
ies in order to see how 
results ultimately 
were used and to gain 
experience which 
might be shared 
through this guide. 

Generalizing from the 
comments of research 



sponsors, the most successful efforts - in terms of actions taken based on 
survey results - were those which involved broad-based community 
involvement in research planning, survey design, and interpretation of 
results. Research efforts in Sedona (AZ) and Reno (NV) were notably suc- 
cessful in this regard. In situations where stakeholders were less involved 
throughout the process, survey results were more likely to be greeted with 
skepticism and less likely to be acted upon. 

Consortium-Based Research 

Consortium-based research (where a group of organizations collaborate on 
a study) is increasing in popularity. In 1991, a group of thirteen museums 
in the San Francisco area cooperated on an audience development study 
known as the "Bay Area Research Project" (or BARP), focusing on how to 
reach more diverse audiences. A Board of Advisors was formed to oversee 
the research effort, which included one or more representative of each 
institution. In 1988, four Toronto-based cultural institutions affiliated to 
form an "Audience Research Consortium" (see next page). The group 
received government funding to conduct an extensive multi-year visitor 
study resembling the San Francisco study but broader in scope. Other 
examples of consortium-based research can be found, including those by 
the National Endowment for the Arts and national service organizations 
such as the National Cultural Alliance. 



Collaborative arts participation research is a relatively new 
idea in the arts industry. The amount of coordination neces- 
sary to successfully complete a joint research project is sub- 
stantial, and with limited staff/board resources, arts groups 
can be reluctant to get involved. The chances of forging an 
alliance are greatly increased when a funder or other "project 
champion" comes forward (e.g., a community foundation, local 
arts agency, Chamber of Commerce). Also, arts participation 
research breaks the traditional problem-solving focus of 
research by forcing all participants to agree on common 
issues, all of which might not relate directly to their individ- 
ual concerns. 

Cost economies, however, strongly encourage collaborative 
research. In addition to arts participation surveys, such 
efforts can include: 

8 cooperative audience surveys 

M market area demographic and lifestyle reports 

■ analysis of overlapping audiences 

■ mailing list analyses using geo-demographic segmentation 
M workshops and other technical assistance programs 



Research partners might include museums, orchestras, dance 
companies, presenters, theater companies, opera companies, 
art schools, and public radio stations. Generally, the amount 
and quality of research that can be accomplished by a group of 
organizations far exceeds the limited resources of any single 
organization. Collaborative research projects also make attrac- 
tive funding opportunities for community foundations and local businesses 



■■■■■, 

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Ontario Research 
Consortium 

Ontario, Canada 

In 1988, the Art Gallery of 
Ontario, Royal Ontario Museum, 
Ontario Science Centre, and 
Metropolitan Toronto Zoo formed 
an "Audience Research 
Consortium" to study how they 
might individually and collec- 
tively attract a larger and more 
diverse audience. After a compet- 
itive bidding process, profession- 
al consultants were retained to 
conduct the research. 

A three-year program of surveys, 
focus groups, and in-depth inter- 
views was designed to explore 
the demographic, situational, 
psychographic, and motivational 
factors influencing attendance. 
Results were published in a 
series of three reports. 



The project was funded primari- 
ly through government grants. 
To obtain copies of the reports, 
contact the Art Gallery of 
Ontario, 317 Dundas St. West, 
Toronto Ontario, Canada M5T 
1G4, telephone (416) 979-6660. 



The process-intensive nature of collaborative research is both a challenge 
and an opportunity. Typically, some compromises need to be made in sur- 
vey design, sample sizes, etc., in order to accommodate all participants. 
Working with a large research committee or task force can also be 
unwieldy. Project leadership needs to be clearly structured with carefully 
denned roles and responsibilities. 



Section II 



istorical perspective 
on Arts Participation 
research 



.4 



M 



lthough arts institutions have been studying their audiences 
since the early part of this century, it wasn't until the 1950s and 
1960s that broad-based audience research began to evolve into 
arts participation research as we know it today. While early audience 
studies focused primarily on the characteristics of known attenders, more 
complex issues faced researchers as the cultural diversification of the U.S. 
accelerated and policy-makers sought new and better information about 
the changing arts public. Research focus began to shift towards studying 
both attenders and non-attenders and the factors distinguishing each 
group. As the nature of arts participation research became more complex, 
research methods also became more sophisticated and scientific. This sec- 
tion traces the development of arts participation research over the past 
several decades, highlighting a range of studies and their contribution to 
the field. 

With the establishment in 1975 of a Research Division within the National 
Endowment for the Arts, arts participation research began to be coordinat- 
ed at the national level. Responding to the information needs of cultural 
policy-makers and the arts community, the Endowment's Research 
Division has commissioned a substantial amount of research on artists, 
arts audiences, arts organizations, and related topics, and continues to 
play a central role. A milestone in the study of arts audiences was the first 
Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (SPPA) in 1982, which was 
repeated using similar methods in 1985 and 1992. Results from the three 
SPPA studies represent the most comprehensive data available on arts par- 
ticipation in the U.S. 

Arts participation research at the local level is a relatively new idea and 
mostly the result of interest sparked by the national surveys. A variety of 



community surveys, including the 12 Local Area Arts Participation Surveys 
(LAAPS) sponsored by the Arts Endowment in 1992, have studied arts par- 
ticipation patterns at the local level and uncovered some of the richness 
within each community. From an historical perspective, these local studies 
- and future ones - owe much to the accumulating body of nationwide 
research sponsored by the Arts Endowment and other agencies. 

Early Audience Studies 

Arts participation researchers credit much to a seminal audience study 
published in 1966 entitled Performing Arts - The Economic Dilemma , by 
William J. Baumol and William G. Bowen. Over a period of a year and a 
half, Baumol and Bowen studied the characteristics of performing arts 
audiences, surveying 153 performances of theatre, music, and dance, in 
over 20 cities across the United States. Survey topics included basic demo- 
graphics, questions related to transportation, ancillary spending, frequency 
of attendance, and willingness to contribute. Results showed a relatively 
homogeneous, well-educated audience made up of primarily white-collar 
professionals with a median family income twice that of the urban popula- 
tion. The authors concluded that "Attempts to reach a wider and more rep- 
resentative audience, to interest the less educated or the less affluent, have 
so far had limited effects." 2 



Survey Excerpt 

Q: Arts activities may include attending 
live performances of music, dance or 
theatre, visiting museums and galleries, 
listening to recordings at home, or 
creating art yourself, such as painting or 
playing a musical instrument. Would 

you say that you are 

[READ LIST AND RECORD ANSWER] 
in arts activities? 

Extremely interested 1 

Very interested 2 

Somewhat interested 3 

Not too interested 4 

Not at all interested 5 



Baumol and Bowen's work was significant in its breadth of 
data gathering and its depth of analysis; it was the first 
effort to develop a composite profile of performing arts audi- 
ences across America, and remains a landmark study in the 
progression of audience research. 

Numerous museum visitor studies were conducted during 
the 1960s and 1970s, although none comparable to the 
Baumol and Bowen study in terms of breadth. Around this 
time, audience research conducted by museums tended to be 
oriented towards visitor satisfaction and expenditure infor- 
mation to be incorporated into economic impact studies. A 
1969 study of 5,000 visitors to the Smithsonian Institution 



Performing Arts - Th e Economic Dilemma . William J. Baumol and William G. Bowen, Cambridge: M.I.T. Press, 1966, p. 96. 



represented a large-scale effort by one organization. 3 The same year, 
another study, somewhat broader in scope, gathered data on visitors to six 
New York museums. 4 Historically, the American Association of Museums 
(AAM), a national service organization, played an important role in com- 
missioning and publishing museum visitor studies, and in providing tech- 
nical assistance to its member organizations. 

Canada provided one of the earliest large-scale arts participation research 
efforts: The Museum and the Canadian Public , published in 1974. 
Researchers interviewed a random sample of over 7,000 Canadians age 14 
years and over representing all Provinces. A brief survey relating to leisure 
activities - including visits to museums and historical sites - was adminis- 
tered through in-home personal interviews. A follow-up survey, one for 
museum participants and one for non-participants, was left behind for 
each respondent to fill out and return by mail. 5 Results were generalizable 
to the Canadian population at a 95% confidence level with a sampling 
error of 1%. The study was significant not only in its findings but in the 
methods used, foreshadowing subsequent arts participation research in 
both the U.S. and Canada. 

Three Arts Endowment Studies 

BEFORE 1982 

Since 1976, the Research Division of the National Endowment for the Arts 
has been studying matters of interest to the arts community and issuing 
reports based on its findings. Different studies have focused on artists, arts 
audiences, and arts organizations. Prior to 1982 and the first nationwide 
SPPA, three separate studies examined public participation in the arts. 
Two of these studies explored different approaches to arts participation 
research (Reports #14 and #17), and the other presented a critical review 
of audience studies conducted prior to 1979 (Report #9). All three research 
efforts contributed in some way to the development of the nationwide 
SPPA surveys and to the progression of arts participation research in 
general. 

3 Smithsonian Visitor , by Caroln H. Wells, Smithsonian Institution, 1970. 
4 David A. Johnson, "Museum Attendance in the New York Metropolitan Region," Curator . 1969. 

5 The Museum and the Canadian Puhlic. by Brian Dixon, Alice E. Courtney, and Robert H. Bailey, published in 1974 by 
Culturcan Publications for the Arts and Culture Branch, Dept. of the Secretary of State, Government of Canada. 



'SO 



1. Audience Studies of the Performing Arts and Museums: A Critical 
Review . Research Division Report #9, 1978, by Paul DiMaggio, Michael 
Useem, and Paula Brown. 

The concept for this project was born in 1975 out of a concern on the part of 
Arts Endowment staff that audience studies being conducted by arts insti- 
tutions across the U.S. were of varying quality and usefulness. Particularly 
since the Arts Endowment was asked to fund some of these studies, a criti- 
cal review was thought to be needed before undertaking new audience 
studies. A total of 270 audience surveys were reviewed by the research 
team in light of two general sets of questions: 

ill What information about arts audiences can be ascertained from past 

audience studies when analyzed as a set? 
II What caveats and guidance can be developed for future audience studies, 

especially with respect to methodologies, based on the collective 

experience of past efforts? 

In the course of their review, the investigators communicated with hun- 
dreds of arts managers and other individuals who had been involved with 
one or more audience study projects. The resulting report, finished in 1978, 
advanced thinking about audience research in two important respects. 
First, survey results for demographic variables (age, education, income, 
occupation, gender, and race) were compiled across many studies, to build a 
composite profile of arts attenders. Compiled statistics described a well- 
educated, relatively homogeneous audience with respect to age, race, 
income, and occupation. Commenting on the data, researchers observed: 

"Individual organizations need to standardize their survey 
data in order to make results more useful to themselves and to 
others. " 

Further research was undertaken to assess motives for conducting audi- 
ence research and under what conditions the data were used most effec- 
tively. The investigators found a lack of understanding of the potential 
applications of audience research and a general lack of concern over techni- 
cal quality. Four recommendations resulted: 



support for systematic planning in the arts with some consensus as to 
the role of audience research 

creation of an information clearinghouse to publicize and disseminate 
arts research 

establishment of local consortiums for cooperative arts research to aid 
institutions that cannot afford their own work 
M workshops on social science methods for managers and administrators 
of cultural institutions 

Finally, the study called for a more methodical approach to audience 
research, but stopped short of suggesting a general population survey: 



"...we need on a national basis routine gathering of 
descriptive [audience] statistics over time. These should be 
from a sample stratified according to institutional type, 
region, degree of urbanization, programming policy, 
professional status, and ticket prices." 

"Non-attenders, who are of great interest to arts man- 
agers, pose a problem for audience research and may 
require special attention through in-depth interviews." 

More than any other single study, the DiMaggio/Useem/Brown 
report laid the conceptual groundwork for subsequent arts 
participation studies including the nationwide SPPA surveys, 
and mandated increased technical assistance with audience 
surveys (e.g., Surveying Your Arts Audience , the 1985 
Research Division manual), and ultimately this guide. 

2. Audience Development: An Examination of Selected 
Analysis and Prediction Techniques Applied to Symphony and 
Theatre Attendance in Four Southern Cities . Research 
Division Report #14, 1981, by Alan Andreason and Russell 
Belk. 

Based on data collected in 1977, this study was notable for its 
attempt to predict what marketing tactics would cause 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. I'm going to read a list of events 
that some people like to attend. If 
you could go to any of these events as 
often as you wanted, would you be 
very interested , somewhat interested , 
or not interested in attending 

[READ AND ROTATE 

LIST] more often than you do now? 



-*J — -w -— 

QQ > 00 Cfi 

- ? - - 

r> e - - _i - 

& c ° s .2 e 

> - v. - Z — 



Classical music 

concerts 
Jazz or pops concerts 
Country or folk music 

concerts 
Opera performances 
Broadway musicals 
Dramatic stage plays 
Comic stage plays 
Modern dance 

performances 
Ballet performances 
Other 



Survey Analysis Groups 



Leisure 

Life-Style 

Groups 



General 

Life-Style 

Factors 



Family 

Life-Cycle 

Stages 



Passive homebody 

Active sports enthusiast 

Inner-directed, 
self-sufficient 



Traditionalism 

Hedonism/optimism 

Defeatism 

Self-confidence/ 
opinion leadership 



Culture patron 

Active homebody 
Socially-active 

Source: Research Division Report #14 . Alan R. Andreason and Russell W. Belk. 



Cosmopolitanism 
Outdoor interest 



Young single 

Young married 

Young parent 

Parent of 
school children 

Empty nest 
Widowhood 



increased attendance 
among different 
"leisure life-style" and 
"family life-cycle" 
groups, and what atti- 
tudes about the arts 
were associated with 
future arts attendance. 
With this emphasis on 
audience development, 
the survey sample con- 
sisted of a total of 
1,491 frequent or 
potential attenders 
meeting certain eligi- 
bility requirements; 
those judged as having zero probability of attending theatre or symphony 
were screened out. Geographically, the sample was drawn in nearly equal 
parts from four southern cities - Atlanta (GA), Baton Rouge (LA), 
Columbia (SC), and Memphis (TN). All interviews were conducted by 
telephone. 

A lengthy, complex questionnaire consisting of over 150 items was com- 
pleted by nearly all pre-screened respondents, demonstrating the viabili- 
ty of telephone interviewing in 1977. (Such a response would be 
considerably more difficult today.) In addition to a battery of arts partici- 
pation questions, other areas of inquiry related to leisure activities, gen- 
eral attitudes and values, and reactions to various incentives to attend. 
Statistical procedures were used to classify respondents into different 
types of analysis groups, defined in the table above. The groups were 
then correlated to arts attendance variables to identify patterns in arts 
participation. 

In designing their study, the authors responded innovatively to questions 
raised in the DiMaggio/Useem/Brown critical review, which would later 
become integral to the nationwide SPPA surveys: 



M Does the audience come from a single group or many groups? 

S How important is early experience in arts-audience participation? 

M Why do individuals attend or not attend arts offerings? 

3. The Arts Public in the South . Research Division Report #17, 1984. 



Integrating results from several studies, this analysis examined participa- 
tion in arts-related activities in the broader context of leisure activity. In 
Leisure Participation in the South , a 1979 study directed by Richard J. 
Orend, randomly-selected respondents in thirteen southern states 
answered questions about their participation and desired participation in 
45 different leisure activities - including arts activities. Based on survey 
results, nine "participation" groups and nine "demand" groups were 
defined and analyzed: 



Leisure Groups 

"Participation" Groups 



"Demand" Groups 



Performing arts attendance 1.7% 

Active music and performing arts 1.6% 

Television viewing 12.5% 

Music, plays, and poetry on radio, 1.9% 
records, and TV 

Active sports 3.6% 

Visual arts exhibit and class attendance 4.2% 

Home media, family, and friends 3 



Folk music/arts and craft/performance 6, 

activities 



Active individual and family pursuits 17.0% 
Undirected participation 47.7% 

Source: Leisure Participation in the South , Richard J. Orend. 



0% 



Theater/music (not including jazz)/dance 4. 
performance attendance 

Home media and sports involving radio 11. 
radio, TV, and records 

Jazz concert attendance and home listening 6. 

Participatory music and religion-related 6. 
activities 

Visual arts activities and exhibit attendance 7. 



'O 

% 

7% 
h 



Family-centered activities 14 

Community service/performing arts 3. 
activities/TV viewing 

Popular/folk/arts and crafts exhibit, fair, 6.0% 
and carnival attendance 

Active sports and outdoor activities 9. 

Unspecialized demand 31. 



The study was also significant in that it investigated reasons for non-par- 
ticipation or 'limited" participation in arts activities, a topic later devel- 
oped in the 1982 and 1985 SPPA surveys. 

A second study, entitled Leisure Time Use in the South: A Secondary 
Analysis , by John S. Reed and Peter V. Marsden, analyzed data from three 
national surveys conducted in 1973, 1975, and 1978 by the National 
Research Center of the Arts (NRCA). In their analysis, Reed and Marsden 
examined leisure participation in the context of three dimensions: 

"active" vs. "passive" activity 
"away-from-home" vs. "at-home" activity 
"arts-related" vs. "non-arts-related" activity 

Since survey methods were similar, results from the Orend and 
Reed/Marsden studies were synthesized in a report, The Arts Public in the 
South . Arts Endowment Research Division Report #17. Findings related 
primarily to South vs. non-South leisure participation, demographic corre- 
lates of different leisure groups, barriers to increased participation, and the 
nature of unmet demand for arts-related activities. Both in terms of results 
and methodology, the Orend and Reed/Marsden studies made important 
contributions to the development of arts participation research, particular- 
ly in relating arts participation to leisure trends. 

The Surveys of Public Participation 
in the Arts 

Building on its previous research efforts, the National Endowment for the 
Arts initiated a series of nationwide surveys in 1982 to answer ten key 
policy questions related to public participation in the arts (see inset next 
page). These surveys were fundamentally different from previous research 
efforts in several respects: 

Rather than just studying audiences of particular arts institutions, these 
would be general population surveys designed to profile the arts participa- 
tion patterns of the entire U.S. adult population. 
II Different modes of arts participation were studied, including 



participation as performer, as audi- 
ence member, or through broadcast 
and recorded media. 

The surveys were designed to 
measure trends or changes in arts 
participation patterns over an indef- 
inite period of time. 
II Problems associated with tele- 
phone sampling were addressed by 
using a sampling methodology 
involving personal interviews. 

Standard definitions of certain arts 
activities such as jazz, classical music, 
and stage plays were articulated. 

By design, the SPPA surveys repre- 
sented a new and improved 
approach to arts participation 
research, answering, in many 
respects, concerns raised by 
DiMaggio, Useem and Brown in 
their 1977 critical review of audi- 
ence studies. Similar methods were 
used to collect data for each of the 
three surveys, allowing for comparison 
exceptions. 



TEN POLICY QUESTIONS 

Ten policy questions posed by the National Endowment for 
the Arts guided the development and analyses of the 
Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts: 

1. How large is the current audience for individual arts and 
for the arts as a whole? 

2. For the performing arts, what is the relationship between 
attendance at live performances and participation via 
television, radio, and recordings? 

3. Does the extent and nature of arts participation vary with 
geographic region and with community type and size? 

4. What is the relationship between an individual's social, 
economic and demographic characteristics and the 
individual's participation in the arts? 

5. What effect does family background have on particip- 
ation in the arts? 

6. Are there patterns of non-arts activities which are 
associated with arts activities? 

7. What are the extent and nature of unsatisfied demand 
for arts activities individually and as a whole? 

8. What reasons do those who say they would like to attend 
arts activities more often give for not doing so? 

9. How is amateur participation related to attendance? 

10. How does formal instruction and training in the arts 
and early exposure while growing up affect later 
participation? 



of results across surveys, with some 



SPPA questions were incorporated into the Census Bureau's on-going study 
of a randomly selected subset of U.S. households. All adults aged 18 and 
over in the selected households were eligible to be included in the survey. 
In 1982 and 1985, about 75% of all interviews were conducted face-to-face 
in the respondents' homes, with the remainder interviewed by telephone. 6 
In 1992, about 80% of all interviews were conducted by telephone. Sample 
sizes were 17,254 (1982), 13,675 (1985), and 12,736 (1992), allowing for a 



6 The Census Bureau states that no effective differences have generally been found between in-home interviews and 
telephone interviews for panel studies where pre-selected respondents have agreed to be interviewed. Results from the 
1992 SPPA appear to support this claim. 



9. 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. Some people have made the follow- 
ing statements. For each one I read, 
tell me if you strongly a gree , somewhat 
a gree , somewhat disagree , or strong ly 
disagree . [ROTATE ORDER] 

A. I would go to arts and cultural 
events more often if it cost less to 
attend. 

B. It is important to learn about the 
art and culture of people from 
different backgrounds. 

C. I am primarily interested in the art 
and culture of my own ancestors. 

D. I like to attend lots of different 
types of arts and cultural programs. 

E. I attend cultural activities to teach 
my children about their cultural 
heritage and traditions. 

F. Arts and cultural activities are only 
for the wealthy. 



high level of precision in survey results (e.g., sampling error 
rates of less than 1% for much of the data). 

Generally, each of the three surveys were similar in design, 
with minor changes made to clarify or re-focus certain topics 
and individual questions. With such large samples, certain 
questions were asked on a rotating basis to a subset of respon- 
dents, generating a broad range of data on topics related to 
arts participation including: arts participation via broadcast 
and recorded media, other cultural and leisure activities, 
socialization into the arts, interest in attending more often, 
and music preferences. 



A substantial volume of research work has been published as 
a result of the SPPA surveys, including general reports and 
research notes on each of the three surveys and numerous 
monographs examining special topics in some depth. (A bibliography on 
public participation in the arts is included in the appendix.) In connection 
with the 1992 SPPA, the Arts Endowment commissioned these special 
reports: 



II A ge Factors in Arts Participation . Richard A. Peterson and Darren E. 

Sherkat 
II American Participation in Dance . Jack Faucett Associates 
II American Participation in Theatre . AMS Planning & Research Corp. 
II Americans' Personal Participation in the Arts . Monnie Peters and Joni 

Maya Cherbo 
. . Arts Participation and Race/Ethnicity . Jeffrey Love and Bramble C. 

Klipple 
II Arts Participation bv the Baby Boomers . Judith Huggins Balfe and Rolf 

Meyersohn 

Cross-Over Patterns in Arts Participation . Richard J. Orend and Carol 

Keegan 

Effects of Education and Arts Education on Americans' Participation in 

the Arts . Louis Bergonzi and Julia Smith 

Hold the Funeral March: The State of Classical Music Appreciation in 

the U.S. . Nicholas Zill 



X Jazz in America: Who's Listening? . Scott DeVeaux 

8 Patterns of Multiple Arts Participation . Jeffrey Love 

M Reading in the 1990s: Turning a Page or Closing the Books? . Nicholas 

Zill 

Socialization in the Arts - 1992 . Richard J. Orend and Carol Keegan 

Tuning In and Turning On: Public Participation in the Arts via Media in 

the United States . Charles M. Gray 

The Arts Endowment continues to evaluate its research programs and 
refine the content and methodologies of survey efforts. In her 1990 plan- 
ning report, Public Participation in the Arts: A Review of Data Sources and 
Data Needs . Constance F. Citro makes a strong case for continued govern- 
ment-sponsored arts participation research, and identifies emerging 
research issues, including: 

What has been the impact of changes in government spending for the 

arts on public participation? 

What has been the impact of admission fees and higher ticket prices that 

many museums and performing arts groups have had to adopt to cope 

with financial stresses? 

What has been the impact of the alarming decline in the quality of 

American primary and secondary education on arts participation? 

Local Area Arts Participation Studies 

As the quality of nationwide research on public participation in the arts 
increased, so did interest in arts participation at the local level. Since their 
focus was primarily national, the SPPA surveys were not designed to yield 
state or local level estimates of arts participation. Local arts administra- 
tors, seeking to understand arts participation patterns in their own com- 
munities, formed research projects based largely on the national surveys, 
but adapted to local situations. Several examples, illustrating a range of 
local studies, are described here. Experience gained through these efforts 
contributed greatly to this guide. 



/w 1 ?., 



Survey Excerpt 


Q. On a scale of 1 to 5, where 1 is not 
at all important and 5 is verv 
important, tell me how important each 
of the following are, in terms of their 
contribution to your quality of life? 
[READ - DO NOT ROTATE - REPEAT 
SCALE AS NECESSARY] 


1 


■si 




§ 


Quality public schools 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


Professional sports 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


A professional 
orchestra 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


Parks and recreational 
activities 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


Touring Broadway 
productions 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


Museums and galleries 


1 2 


3 


4 5 


A professional theatre 
company 


1 2 


3 


4 5 



1. Cultural Participation in the Philadelphia Area , commis- 
sioned by the Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance through 
the William Penn Foundation, 1984. 

The primary purpose of this research effort was to assist local 
arts administrators in audience development. A research advi- 
sory committee, including staff members from many of 
Philadelphia's cultural institutions, provided input into sur- 
vey design and the analysis of results. The survey instrument 
was divided into two parts; a number of arts participation 
questions borrowed from the 1982 national SPPA, and other 
questions addressing issues of local interest. A total of 404 
interviews were completed by telephone using a random sam- 
pling method. 

Results were compared to data from the 1982 national SPPA, 
including an analysis of Philadelphia area arts participation 
rates across the two studies (generally, participation rates 
were within one or two percentage points). Other data related 
to barriers to increased attendance, sources of information about arts pro- 
grams, factors influencing future attendance, audience potential during the 
summer months, and the ticket purchase decision process. 

2. Marketing the Arts in Cleveland: An In-Depth Survey , commissioned by 
the Cleveland Foundation, 1985. 

An example of collaborative research, nineteen cultural organizations par- 
ticipated in this study conducted by Ziff Marketing Inc. and Clark, Martire 
& Bartolomeo, Inc., both of New York. The research addressed issues relat- 
ing to cultural development in the Cleveland area, including: 

II How big is the area arts audience, currently and potentially? 

II What factors operate in the decision to use or not use the area's cultural 

resources? 

What marketing approaches might prove most effective in capturing a 

larger audience? 



A total of 3,050 interviews were conducted by telephone with heavy, light, 
and non-users of each participating institution, as well as 300 interviews 
with area adults who never attend the arts. Survey topics included interest 
in the arts, leisure values, factors impacting the decision to attend, cross- 
institutional use, background factors affecting arts participation, and tick- 
et pricing. Participating organizations were given the opportunity to add 
questions to the surveys administered to their own constituents, and there- 
by receive additional, confidential data. 

Researchers described a large "interest gap" between actual attendance 
rates and expressed interest in an artistic discipline. For example, among 
those who were 'Very interested" in musical theatre, less than half actually 
attend. The study also concluded that cross-institutional use was common, 
and that cooperative marketing efforts would be advantageous to both con- 
sumers and arts institutions. 

3. 12 Local Studies of Public Participation in the Arts . National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1992. 

To complement the 1992 SPPA, the Arts Endowment organized and co- 
sponsored a series of 12 local area arts participation surveys (LAAPS) in 
partnership with sponsors in each area. Survey sites ranged from Sedona, 
Arizona (1990 population 15,500) to metropolitan Chicago (1990 population 
7.26 million). The local surveys were undertaken to build a better under- 
standing of variations in arts participation patterns between different com- 
munities and to provide local sponsors with valuable information about 
their areas. Each local survey consisted of three components: 

a "Core Questionnaire", common to all 12 sites, including arts 
participation and demographic information identical to the 1992 
nationwide SPPA 
1 a set of questions, common to all sites but not included in the 1992 
national SPPA, concerning facilities where arts participation occurred, 
reasons for not attending more often, and sources of information about 
arts events 
II community-specific modules, developed by the local partners to address 
specific information needs in each community 



'W*... 



The surveys were conducted by telephone over a three month period from 
February to May 1992. To add context to survey results, additional 
research was conducted to assess the availability of arts programs and 
facilities in each local area. A summary report related arts participation 
patterns to the supply of local arts programs and facilities. 7 

Much was learned from the 12 Local Studies, both in terms of the knowl- 
edge gained through research results, and the experience gained through 
conducting 12 arts participation studies for 12 different sponsors in 12 dif- 
ferent areas. While survey results from the 12 Local Studies could not be 
compared directly with SPPA results (because of methodological differ- 
ences), comparisons across the 12 sites revealed some of the dynamic 
forces - such as arts facility development, demographic shifts, and local 
cultural traditions - that shape arts participation patterns at the local 
level. Attempting to understand the local conditions surrounding arts par- 
ticipation levels may eventually lead to a transfer of arts development 
strategies between cities. 

4. Dane County Arts Study , commissioned by the Madison (WI) 
Community Foundation, 1992. 

In an effort to increase public support of the arts in Dane County, 
Wisconsin, a community arts task force was convened by the Madison 
Community Foundation to solicit input on a research effort. Designed pri- 
marily for advocacy and audience development purposes, the study includ- 
ed two components, a series of five focus groups, and a general population 
survey of 400 Dane County residents. Research was conducted by Gene 
Kroupa & Associates, a Madison-based research and consulting firm. 

Survey topics included unaided awareness levels of local arts groups, inter- 
est and participation in the arts, importance of the arts, cultural tourism, 
and barriers to increased participation. The survey also tested the likeli- 
hood that various marketing offers (e.g., discounts, cross-institution ticket 
packages, an arts "hotline") would increase attendance. Illustrating how 
multiple research methods can work together, data collected through focus 



7 Summarv Report: 12 Local Studies of Public Participation in the Arts . Research Division Report #26, National 
Endowment for the Arts, prepared by AMS Planning & Research Corp., 1993. 



group discussions helped shape the content of the survey. 
Numerous other local area studies have explored aspects of 
arts participation. The most common examples are surveys 
conducted in connection with cultural planning efforts and 
the development of new arts facilities. A bibliography in the 
appendix lists selected local studies and their sponsors. 

Other Arts Participation Studies 

1. Americans and the Arts I-VI . commissioned by the 
American Council for the Arts and sponsored by Philip Morris 
Companies Inc.; research directed by Louis Harris, 1973-1992 

Starting in 1973, this well-publicized series of arts participa- 
tion surveys has been used primarily for advocacy purposes 
by the American Council for the Arts. The most recent study, 
completed in 1992, involved a random sample of 1,500 U.S. 
households. All interviews were conducted by telephone. 
Survey topics included: 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. Let's start by talking about how 
you spend your free time. I'm going to 
read a list of activities that some peo- 
ple enjoy. Tell me if you are very 
likely , somewhat likely , somewhat 
unlikely , or very unlikely 
to... [READ AND ROTATE, 
REPEAT SCALE AS 
NECESSARY] 



~s 
& 



-*» *-» 

eg a 

a a 

© o 

C/j CO 



II attitudes about the importance of the arts, and arts-in- 

education 

Wk personal participation in the arts through painting, writing, etc. 
8 attendance at various types of arts activities 

arts participation through broadcast and recorded media, and related issues 

reasons for not attending more often 



Take art classes, dance, 
or music lessons 



| 
I 



Attend sporting events 12 3 4 

Read books for pleasure 12 3 4 

Visit an amusement or 12 3 4 

theme park 

Visit museums or galleries 12 3 4 

Participate in church or 12 3 4 
religious activities 

Exercise or play sports 12 3 4 

Attend live performances 12 3 4 
of music, dance, or theatre 

Do volunteer or charity 12 3 4 
work 

Do home improvement 12 3 4 

activities 



12 3 4 



In contrast to the SPPA studies sponsored by the Arts Endowment, and in 
keeping with their advocacy focus, the Harris studies probed attitudes, 
opinions, and perceptions about the arts, artists, and arts-in-education 
more extensively, and were less concerned with consistency and objectivity 
in questionnaire wording and measuring trends. Generally, differences in 
methodologies prevent direct comparison of results from the Harris 
surveys with SPPA data. 8 



8 Copies of Americans and the Arts VI. including the survey form, tables, and survey methodology, may be obtained through 
ACA Books, American Council for the Arts, 1 East 53rd St., New York, NY 10022-4201, telephone (212) 223-2787. 



2. Canadian Arts Consumer Profile. 1990-1991 . commissioned by 
Communications Canada (a consortium of cultural ministries in all ten 
Canadian provinces plus the cities of Montreal, Vancouver, and Toronto), 
research conducted by Decima Research and Les Consultants Cultur'inc. 

The Canadian Arts Consumer Profile constitutes the first nationwide study 
of arts participation in Canada. Through a series of self-administered mail 
questionnaires and telephone surveys, both existing audiences and the gen- 
eral public were studied, encompassing both audience research and arts 
participation research as defined in this guide. 9 A total of six different sur- 
veys were administered for this study; four audience surveys and two gener- 
al population surveys (sample sizes in parentheses): 

Audience Surveys 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. If there was a central telephone 
number that you could call 24-hours a 
day to find out about upcoming arts 
and cultural events, would you be 

[READ LIST] to use 

such a service. 



II Festivals Short Questionnaire - a self-administered form distributed to 

audiences at festival events throughout Canada (N=5,650) 
II Performing Arts Short Questionnaire - a self-administered 

form distributed to audiences at music, dance, and theatre 

performances of all types (N=33,930) 

II Performing Arts Long Questionnaire - a self-administered 
form mailed to performing arts attenders (N=7,412) 

III Visual Arts Long Questionnaire - a self-administered form 
mailed to lists provided by galleries, artist-run centres and 
individual artists (N=l,672) 



Very likely 1 

Somewhat likely 2 

Not very likely 3 

Not at all likely 4 

Q. If this telephone call was to a 900 
number that cost $1.00 to make and 
was charged to your telephone bill, 

would you be [READ 

LIST] to use such a service? 

Equally likely 1 

Somewhat less likely 2 

Much less likely 3 



Arts Participation Surveys 

II General Public Telephone Questionnaire - a seven-minute 
survey of randomly-selected Canadian households (N=ll,106) 

■ General Public Long Questionnaire - a self-administered 
form mailed to randomly-selected households (N=5,457) 

In total, over 65,000 completed surveys were analyzed. Survey 
design involved extensive consultation with arts professionals 



9 For information about obtaining a copy of Findings: Canadian Arts Consumer Profile. 1990-1991 . contact the Director 
General, Arts Policy Cultural Development and Heritage, Department of Canadian Heritage, 365 Laurier St., 16th Floor, 
Journal Tower South, Ottawa, Ontario K1AOC8, telephone (613) 991-5727. 



o 



as well as focus groups with arts marketing experts. Each questionnaire 
was tested first in focus groups and subsequently on a small sample of eli- 
gible respondents. In terms of content, the arts participation surveys 
included a broad range of questions concerning leisure activities, perform- 
ing arts attendance, general attitudes and opinions about the arts (used to 
develop psychographic typologies), opinions on accessibility and ticket-pric- 
ing, young audiences and childhood experiences, the visual arts, media 
coverage, and demographics. Use of the self-administered mail survey - in 
addition to the shorter telephone survey - allowed researchers to probe 
survey topics in substantial depth. 

The nature, scope, and research methods of the Canadian Arts Consumer 
Profile study were significantly different from the Arts Endowment-spon- 
sored Surveys of Public Participation in the Arts, although some survey 
topics were similar, including frequency of arts attendance and childhood 
experiences in the arts. Given its breadth in terms of content and the fact 
that both audiences and the general public were studied, the Canadian 
study is an excellent resource for local arts administrators in conceptualiz- 
ing their own audience and arts participation studies. 

Future Research Issues 

The more we learn about arts participation, the more we discover remains 
to be learned. As studies accumulate and our collective understanding of 
the arts public evolves, the demographic, lifestyle, and cultural forces that 
shape arts participation in our society seem to change even more rapidly. 
In such a dynamic research environment, constant evaluation of research 
priorities, goals and objectives is necessary to regenerate momentum cre- 
ated by past efforts. A December 1992 conference sponsored by the Arts 
Endowment created an opportunity to reflect on several decades of arts 
participation research, to share the value of existing data, and to brain- 
storm future issues and directions for arts participation research. 

Attended by researchers, educators, funders, and arts managers, the confer- 
ence brought together a wide range of viewpoints about the purpose and di- 
rection of arts participation research. 10 A number of over-riding ideas emerged: 

10 For a summary of conference proceedings, read Research on Public Participation in the Arts: Summary Report on the 
December 1992 Conference , available through the Research Division of the National Endowment for the Arts. 



/w* 



II More detailed data is needed to investigate the arts participation 
patterns of different demographic, geographic, lifestyle, and life-cycle 
groups. 

III Definitions of arts activities (e.g., "classical music") are subject to 
interpretation by survey respondents; more information needs to be 
obtained on how the public defines arts participation, and the number of 
categories of participation needs to be broadened in future research 
efforts. 

II There appears to be a shift of focus away from factors that prevent 

participation (i.e., barriers) to factors that cause (or lead to) 

participation. 
II More information is needed about the cultural identity of respondents, 

including multi-cultural households, languages spoken, family 

immigration history, and self-defined cultural identity independent of 

race or nationality. 

More information about television as an arts participation medium is 

needed. Are cultural programs on TV displacing or supplementing live 

performances? 
II A common call was made for more research at the local level, allowing for 

investigation of arts participation patterns within a specific area with 

known facilities, programs and cultural traditions. 

Synthesis of these and other ideas shared during the conference suggests 
that future research of a more exploratory nature using qualitative meth- 
ods would complement existing survey efforts such as the SPPA. Arts man- 
agers continue to demand better information about consumers, calling for 
more application-oriented research particularly with respect to how deci- 
sions are made to attend arts activities. Finally, it was agreed that more 
local area studies using a combination of quantitative and qualitative mea- 
sures would add substantial context to the broad, nationwide patterns 
observed through previous arts participation surveys. 



30 



Section ill 



he Anatomy of an Arts 
Participation Study 




liat constitutes a successful arts participation study? How much 
time, money, and other resources should be allocated? Where do 
the critical decisions come throughout the research process? 
Where can a research effort go awry and how can costly mistakes be avoid- 
ed? This section begins to answer these and other process-related questions. 

Unlike audience surveys which can be standardized in design and imple- 
mentation, arts participation surveys have much broader applications and 
numerous different approaches. Since every arts participation survey is 
unique in design and purpose, there are no easy instructions to follow; no 
single prescription for a painless project. There are, however, numerous 
past studies from which to learn. Generally-accepted research methods 
should guide research design, and commonly-used survey questions can be 
borrowed or adapted. 

You do not need a graduate degree in market research or statistics to over- 
see a successful research effort. Professional researchers can guide you 
through the technical aspects of research design, data collection, and sta- 
tistical analysis. You should, however, be familiar with the vocabulary of 
market research in order to communicate effectively with your research 
team. Some of the basic concepts behind survey research are covered in 
this section. For a more thorough understanding of the theory behind mar- 
ket research, consult an appropriate textbook. 11 Use this guide to learn 
how to structure and manage a research process - from planning and 
design to data collection and implementation of results - and to under- 
stand your options along the way. 



n One excellent resource is State of the Art Marketing Research by A.B. Blankenship and George Edward Breen, copy- 
right 1993 by NTC Business Books; available through the American Marketing Association, 250 S. Wacker Drive, Chicago, 
niinois 60606. 



RESEARCH PLANNING 



Benefit from the experience of others. Find out about previous arts- 
related research undertaken in your community or region. You may be sur- 
prised to learn about existing audience or arts participation studies. Con- 
tact your state arts agency to see what research might be available at the 
statewide level. Review copies of old questionnaires and research reports. 
What ideas can be borrowed? What would you do differently? You may dis- 
cover "baseline" data against which you can compare your own results. 

A short telephone conversation with a colleague who has conducted a compa- 
rable research effort could save you hours of time and thousands of dollars. 
Representatives of national service organizations, including the Arts Endow- 
ment, may also be of assistance. Finally, professional consultants or re- 
searchers may be able to refer you to comparable efforts. The time that you 
invest in learning about other research efforts should pay off handsomely. 

Create a case statement for your research project. Why are you con- 
ducting an arts participation survey? What do you hope to accomplish? 
How will you use the results? Articulating the purpose and goals of a 
research effort is an essential and often difficult first step. Before you 
assemble a research team and before you seek funding or allocate 
resources, draft a short research statement that can be circulated for 
review and comment. Make sure you: 

II outline your reasons for initiating a study and how it is consistent with 

your organizational mission to do so 
II spell out the questions you hope to answer, or the hypotheses you wish 

to test 
II state the importance of the information to be generated 

II list who will benefit from the findings 

III establish the basis for interpreting and acting on survey results 

Essentially, create a project case statement that can be used to muster 
support, involvement, and funding. Later in the research process, if, for 
example, the first draft of your questionnaire is too lengthy, return to the 
case statement for clarity and direction. The document can also serve as 



32 



the foundation for a Request for Proposals ("RFP") if you plan 
to solicit bids from professional consultants or researchers. 

Start a participative process immediately. If you envision 
a collaborative research effort, contact each of the potential 
research partners and seek their input on the case statement. 
If your research effort does not involve other organizations, 
circulate your case statement in draft form to board/advisory 
committee members and to senior staff for their review and 
comment, or form a research review panel to provide input 
throughout your project. Generally, the more input you get, 
the better your chances for support later in the project. For 
example, if you hope to use survey results for advocacy pur- 
poses, publicizing results will be important. Identify and con- 
tact media representatives in your area who might get 
involved in your project. 

Estimate the resources you'll need. Do you have the time, 
money, technical skills, and other resources to successfully 
complete an arts participation study? 



H Time - What is an appropriate time frame for your study? 
Are results needed before an election? Is your study part of a 
larger planning process with a timetable? When will the announcement of 
survey results have greatest impact? A short telephone survey can take as 
little as three weeks to design, administer, and analyze (see inset). When 
the timeliness of data is essential, such an approach can be rewarding. For 
a more involved research project, a typical time frame might be three to six 
months or longer. 



"Spot Survey" 

In early 1994, the Director of a 
large performing arts center 
was nearing a deadline for 
programming commitments 
for the following season. Sales 
for the center's jazz presenta- 
tions had been unpredictable 
over the past few years, and 
future jazz programming was 
in question. 

A short telephone survey was 
designed to collect data on 
preferences for types of jazz, 
attendance at other programs, 
sources of information about 
jazz programs, etc. A total of 
100 known attenders and 100 
non-attenders were sampled. 

Results were available two 
weeks after survey design was 
completed, and helped man- 
agement make last minute 
adjustments to program plans 
and promotional strategies. 



I Money - A number of factors impact the amount of money needed to finance 
an arts participation survey. Key cost factors are: number of completed inter- 
views, survey length (number of data elements), sample design (especially 
respondent eligibility requirements), and of course, the extent of professional 
assistance needed. Thus, cost figures vary widely from project to project. 12 



12 One excellent resource on holding down the price is Cheap But Good Marketing Research by Alan Andreason, published 
by Business One Irwin, Homewood, Illinois 60430. 



t.jt.. 



The cost of data collection is only part of the total project expense. How 
much assistance is needed with research design? Analysis and reporting? 
Should you plan a facilitated workshop at the end of the project to discuss 
survey results and "next steps?" Too often, after many thousands of dollars 
are spent collecting data, results are underutilized for lack of resources or 
commitment to research interpretation and follow-up. 

II Technical Skills - What technical skills can you bring to the table, and 
what research expertise needs to be brought in? Be realistic - the level of 
professional help you need weighs in the balance. To some extent, project 
costs can be lowered if in-house people are knowledgeable about survey 
research. For example, if a staff or board member has experience with sta- 
tistical analysis, it may be unnecessary to pay a professional for data 
analysis and reporting. Assess your options for technical assistance in light 
of quality standards and available resources. 

II Other Resources - The amount of staff time needed to oversee an arts 
participation study should not be under-estimated, particularly in the early 
stages of research planning and design. Time consuming tasks can include 
selecting consultants, seeking project underwriting, organizing research 
committee meetings, and other process-related work. Consider carefully 
how this work load might impact your organization. 

The most important investment you can make in a successful arts partici- 
pation study is an investment of time and thought in planning. By develop- 
ing a case statement, learning about previous studies, initiating a 
participative process, and by understanding the resources needed for a suc- 
cessful study, your research effort will be off to a healthy start. 

Seeking Professional Assistance 

"Surveying an entire community . . . presents enormous diffi- 
culties for most arts organizations. In fact, we would strongly 
urge most arts organizations not to undertake community 
surveys on their own." - Surveying Your Arts Audience . Arts 
Endowment Research Division Manual, 1985 



*.$ 



Given the technical complexities of survey design, random 
sampling, and statistical analysis, it is recommended that 
some level of professional assistance be secured for all arts 
participation studies. The primary reasons for working with 
professionals include: credibility - involving outside 
researchers brings an element of objectivity to the study; 
expertise - knowledgeable researchers can help you avoid 
common mistakes in survey design and data collection; speed 
- experienced professionals can fast-forward you through dif- 
ferent parts of the study depending on your time frame; and context - arts 
industry consultants can help put your survey results in context with 
industry trends and other comparable data. 



Ill 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. Typically, how far in advance do 
you purchase tickets to performing 
arts programs in your area? [READ 
EACH] 

A month or more ahead of time 4 

Several weeks in advance 3 

The week of the performance 2 

The day of the performance 1 



Working with professionals isn't always easy. Too often, organizations hire 
researchers, receive reports, and never follow through on results. 
Consultants who take over a research project completely are not doing you 
a service; they should keep you informed every step of the way and seek 
input on all important decisions. Conversely, clients must be prepared to 
spend time with their consultants and feed them the information they need 
to do their job. Frequent communication from both sides is central to a suc- 
cessful client/consultant relationship. 

Levels of Assistance 

Before selecting a consultant or professional team, decide what level of 
assistance youll need. For arts participation surveys, outside assistance 
may be obtained in four general areas: 

1. research design (including survey and sample design) 

2. data collection (interviewing), coding, and entry 

3. data analysis and reporting 

4. interpretation of results and follow-up 

Depending on your research needs and project budget, you can hire one 
consultant to lead you through the entire study or break up the tasks 
between paid professionals, staff and volunteers. Mamtaining consistency 
of oversight throughout the project is beneficial. However, if funds are not 



t.j> *.. 



available, it may be possible to engage consultants in a limited capacity to 
"point you in the right direction," to train volunteer interviewers, or to 
review your efforts at critical points. 

Sources for Professional Assistance with Arts Participation Research 

II Arts Consultants - A number of specialized consulting firms work exclu- 
sively or almost exclusively in the arts industry in the areas of marketing 
research, facility development, cultural planning, etc., and are highly qual- 
ified to provide a range of services in connection with an arts participation 
study. Services range from one-day workshops to multi-year projects includ- 
ing surveys, focus groups, and follow-up work. Contact a national service 
organization such as the National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies (NALAA) 
or the National Assembly of State Arts Agencies (NASAA) for a list of con- 
sultants. A list of service organizations may be found in the appendix. 

Depending on the nature and purpose of the study, arts consultants may 
affiliate with other professionals to create a specialized research team. For 
example, a team led by arts consultants may also include a research field 
house (to collect data) and a marketing consultant (to develop creative 
strategies based on survey results). 

II Colleges and Universities - Arts organizations located near colleges or 
universities can draw on the expertise of faculty members and/or gradu- 
ate teaching assistants with experience in survey research. Business 
schools offering coursework in market research may be a resource, as well 
as sociology departments in larger institutions. Faculty members may be 
available as free-lance consultants, or students may be assigned to work 
on an arts participation survey as a class project. For example, the 
Center for User Surveys at the University of Michigan - Ann Arbor pro- 
vides low-cost assistance to local arts groups in conducting surveys. The 
Heinz School of Public Policy at Carnegie Mellon University requires 
graduate students in arts management to work with Pittsburgh arts 
groups on a variety of projects including research. While collaborating 
with academics can be a cost-saving alternative to professional consul- 
tants, working within the school calendar may not be ideal, and the inter- 
pretation of data may be lacking in a broader, arts industry context. 






M Local Marketing Firms - Advertising agencies or public relations firms 
based in your area also represent a resource for professional assistance 
with arts participation research. Such firms may offer in-house research 
services to their own clients or may have connections with outside 
research firms. Marketing execu- 
tives are often well-versed in the 
technical aspects of research, and 
can offer valuable advice, particu- 
larly in translating survey results 
into creative marketing strategies. 
For this reason, professional mar- 
keters are well-placed on research 
committees. 



% Research Firms - Local or nation- 
al research firms (companies which 
specialize in market research) can 
assist with all or part of an arts par- 
ticipation survey. These firms may 
be contracted to advise on survey 
and sample design, to conduct tele- 
phone interviews, to code and enter data in a statistical computer pro- 
gram, and to provide initial tabulations. Other professionals with arts 
industry experience may be engaged to conduct further analyses of the 
data. 13 




Computer assisted 
Telephone interviewing 
(cati) helps control the 
interview process. 



Selecting Consultants 

Public arts agencies often require a competitive selection process involving 
issuance of a Request for Qualifications (RFQ) or Proposals (RFP), appoint- 
ment of a consultant selection committee, and a formal evaluation process. 
Although a competitive selection process can be cumbersome and time con- 
suming, it is sometimes worthwhile - even when a formal process isn't 
required - to obtain proposals from multiple sources, at least to see how 



13 For a list of research vendors, consult your local Yellow Pages telephone directory under "Market Research & Analysis" 
or "Marketing Consultants." The American Marketing Association's New York chapter publishes The Green Book , a 
national directory of marketing research companies and services, updated annually, at a cost of approximately $100. To 
order a copy, write AMA, 60 East 42nd St., Suite 1765, New York, NY 10165, telephone (212) 687-3280. 



different consultants approach your study and to get a sense of value for 
the various services proposed. For city-sponsored arts agencies or commis- 
sions, consultant selection may be handled through the city purchasing 
department according to established procedures. For private, non-profit 
agencies, a structured but less formal RFQ or RFP process may be 
appropriate. 14 

Issuing an RFP - A Request for Proposals is an invitation for interested 
professionals to prepare proposals - including a proposed scope of services 
and usually, but not always, a fee estimate for your project. In broad terms, 
an RFP should include: 

1. the goals of the study, including key issues and how the results will 
be used 

2. a situation description, including some history on how the project 
evolved to date and who is involved 

3. a description of the work to be performed, stated as specifically as 
possible, including reporting requirements and materials to be delivered 

4. what sort of a research team is envisioned, including professionals and 
volunteers (if any) 

5. the project time frame and any interim deadlines 

6. a description of how proposals will be evaluated 

7. a deadline for responding to the RFP 

8. a request for references (usually three) 

9. an approximate project budget or fee range (optional) 

Generally, proposals will be more relevant if you are able to provide defini- 
tive information about your project. Consultants and other professionals 
invest a great deal of time responding to RFPs. Although you are under no 
obligation to accept any of the proposals received (and should state so in 
the RFP), an RFP should not be issued unless funding has been approved 
for professional assistance. 



14 For more information about selecting consultants, read How to Find and Work with Consultants (Or Minding Your 
RFPs and Qs) by Dr. Michael C. Hardy, Association of Performing Arts Presenters 1988 national conference proceedings; 
also refer to Laying a Firm Foundation by Robert Bailey and Steven Wolff, Inside Arts, July 1993, both available through 
Arts Presenters, 1112 16th St., N.W., Suite 400, Washington, DC, 20036, telephone (202) 833-2787. 



o.Jt. 



M Issuing an RFQ - A Request for Qualifications 
(alternatively referred to as a Request for 
Quotations or a Request for Letters of Interest) is 
an abbreviated RFP inviting interested profes- 
sionals to submit their qualifications and 
demonstrate an interest in the project. 15 
Generally, RFQ's are used for smaller projects for 
which a less formal selection process is appropri- 
ate. In some cases a consultant is selected follow- 
ing review of RFQ submissions, and in other 
cases the selection process moves on to a full- 
blown RFP. 

If Evaluating Proposals - Established criteria 
should guide the consultant selection process. For 
example, when the National Endowment for the 
Arts issued an RFP for the analysis of survey 
data from the 1992 Survey of Public Participation 
in the Arts, established "evaluation factors" were 
included in the RFP (see inset). In less formal sit- 
uations, compare proposals along these general parameters: 

1. Does the proposal demonstrate an understanding of your research goals? 
To what extent does the proposed scope of services address your specific 
needs? Does the proposal demonstrate knowledge and experience with 
research of this nature? 

2. How many different people would be assigned to work on your project? 
What are their qualifications, and have they worked together before? Who 
would be in charge? Who would actually do the work? What have refer- 
ences said about these people? 

3. How does the proposed fee relate to the proposed scope of services? What 
other expenses are involved? Large differences in fee quotes should be 



Evaluation Factors 
for Award 

1. Technical Evaluation Criteria 

(45% - degree to which the proposal demon- 
strates knowledge and experience with 
research methods, data analysis, etc.; degree 
to which proposal demonstrates knowledge 
of and experience with arts participation or 
leisure activity research) 

2. Management Evaluation Criteria 

(40% - qualifications and availability of pro- 
ject personnel; management controls to 
insure appropriate coordination and timely 
completion) 

3. Price 

(15% - is the proposed fee within a competi- 
tive range?) 



Source: National Endowment for the Arts; adapted from 
RFP 92-01. 



15 In order to streamline the procurement of professional services, the National Endowment for the Arts issues "Requests 
for Quotations" (RFQs) for smaller research projects (up to $25,000) and RFPs for larger research projects (over $25,000). 



investigated carefully. Are they due to different approaches, assignment of 
senior vs. junior-level personnel, or different anticipated levels of effort? 
Are the proposed fees too high, or do you need to raise more money to 
accomplish your objectives? 

Experience has shown that the consultant selection process, whenever pos- 
sible, should involve the people who will work most closely with the consul- 
tants, as well as those who will be most critical of the work to be done. 

II Contracting - After a consultant has been selected, the scope of services 
should be finalized, and a contract should be drawn up specifying the 
terms and conditions of the consulting arrangement. The contract may be 
initiated by either party. 

METHODS OF COLLECTING ARTS 
PARTICIPATION DATA 



In practice, the "general population survey" is most commonly used for col- 
lecting arts participation data, and is the focus of this section. Other 
research methods - such as panels, secondary data analysis, focus group 

interviews, and observation studies 



Tracking Leisure Trends 

Arts participation is one of many types of leisure activi- 
ties. One company called Leisure Trends, Inc. of 
Glastonbury (CT), in conjunction with the Gallup 
Organization, uses telephone interviewing to collect time 
series data on leisure activities. 

Unlike some arts participation studies which ask respon- 
dents to recall the number of times they attended arts 
programs over the past year (or month), Leisure Trends 
randomly interviews a limited number of adults each 
night, and asks how they used their leisure time the day 
before. 

Over time, results are used to track changes in 
Americans' use of leisure time and related subjects. 



- are used less frequently in arts 
participation research, although 
interest in alternative methods is 
growing (see inset). The impact of 
lifestyle factors on arts attendance, 
for example, is difficult to measure 
using survey research exclusively. 
For this reason, larger studies often 
employ multiple research methods, 
especially when qualitative infor- 
mation is needed. Based on your 
research goals, consultants can 
advise you on the best overall 
approach for your study. 



Survey Data Collection Methods for 
Arts Participation research 



In-Person Interviews 



Telephone Interviews 



Mail Surveys 



§ 

£ 

o 

CO 

Q 



CO 

O 



Respondents are 
interviewed in their homes, j 



Respondents are called at 
home and interviewed over 
the phone. 



Respondents receive a print- 
ed questionnaire in the mail 
and are asked to complete the 
form and return it by mail. 



CO 

i 

CO 

a 
o 

CO 



CO 

fee 

> 

3 



CO 

a 
o 

•Pi 



In-home interviews can be 
cost-prohibitive since they 
require more time and 
personnel costs than other 
data collection methods. 



Response rates for in-home 
interviews are generally 
high. This is the major 
attraction of in-home 
interviews. 



A great deal of high 
quality data can be 
collected during in-person 
interviews. 



The labor intensive nature 
of telephone interviewing 
makes it relatively more 
expensive than other 
methods; difficult to use 
volunteers. 



Generally high response 
rates, although there is 
increasing resentment of 
telephone research and a 
general trend towards rising 
refusal rates. 

High amount of control is 
possible - interviewer can 
probe responses, clarify 
questions, etc.; sequence of 
questioning can be complex; 
studies can be completed 
quickly. 



Costs include printing, 
postage and mailing, 
incentives (if any), as well as 
data coding and entry. Lower 
cost per survey, although 
cost per response may 
approach telephone surveys. 



Mail surveys initially may 
yield only 20% to 30% 
response rates, which can be 
increased with follow-up 
measures and use of 
incentives. 

Surveys can be completed at 
respondents' leisure; time for 
more thoughtful response; no 
theoretical limit on survey 
length. 



Respondents are more 
likely to provide "socially 
acceptable" (biased) 
responses when interviews 
are conducted in person. 



Interviewers must be highly | There is no control over the 



trained; limited interview 
length; potential for sample 
bias is high (e.g., unlisted 
numbers, not-at-home, etc.). 



respondent-response time, 
the order in which questions 
are answered, or even if the 
addressee is the person 
responding. 



Survey data may be collected in person, by telephone, or by mail. Each 
method has advantages, disadvantages, and different cost ramifications. 
The table on the previous page summarizes these three methods of collect- 
ing survey data. The 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public Participation in the 
Arts (SPPAs) were administered primarily in person (sample sizes of 
17,254 and 13,675, respectively), whereas the 1992 SPPA was conducted 
primarily by telephone. All of the 12 Local Surveys (1992) were conducted 
by telephone. 

Other methods of collecting survey data include panels (pre-arranged 
groups of respondents who answer questions on a continuing basis), 
omnibus studies (ongoing studies in which a buyer can ask proprietary 
questions in the study), and completely self-administered surveys, where 
forms are distributed on an ad hoc basis and completed by respondents at 
their own initiative. 

Telephone interviewing has become the predominant method of collecting 
arts participation data, both nationally and locally, for a number of 
reasons. Researchers have developed very sophisticated methods of ran- 
domly selecting telephone numbers to call. One procedure, called "random 
digit dialing," ensures that both listed and unlisted telephone numbers are 
sampled. 

Also, with arts participation research, control over the sequence of ques- 
tioning is important, as well as establishing the eligibility of a respondent 
within a given household (e.g., adult age 18+ with most recent birthday). 
Telephone interviewing allows for tight control of who responds to the 
survey. 16 

Despite its popularity, telephone interviewing has become increasingly 
problematic for researchers, evidenced by rising refusal rates. One fre- 
quently cited reason is the rise of telemarketing and the inability of many 
people to distinguish between surveys and sales calls. Two-thirds of 



16 For a thorough review of different sampling procedures, read Survey Research Methods by Floyd J. Fowler, Jr., second 
edition, 1993. An excellent resource for detailed information about telephone surveying is Telephone Survey Methods: 
Sampling. Selection, and Supervision , by Paul J. Lavrakas, second edition, 1993. Both are available through SAGE 
Publications, 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA, 91320, telephone (805) 499-9774. 

42 



respondents to a 1992 survey 
believe that surveys and telemar- 
keting are the same thing or "don't 
know" if they are different. 17 
"Intentional deceptions committed 
by some telemarketers may well 
contribute to the confusion." 
Further, the study concludes that 
the ability to differentiate between 
surveys and sales calls differs by 
age, education, and income, with 
refusal rates increasing with higher 
education and income levels. The 
implication for arts participation 
research would be a downward bias 
in participation rates, independent 
of other sources of bias (see next 
page). To offset this trend, inter- 
viewers rely increasingly on a 
strong survey introduction stating 
the purpose of the call and identify- 
ing the organization sponsoring the 
survey. 

The increased usage of telephone 
answering machines poses another problem for researchers, according to 
the same survey, with increasing numbers of people screening their calls. 
The study found that answering machine ownership increases significantly 
with higher income and education levels (66% ownership for those with 
incomes over $75,000 vs. 20% for those with income under $10,000) - rep- 
resenting another challenge to telephone researchers in obtaining a repre- 
sentative sample. 



Why people Talk to 
pollsters 

A survey of 1,006 randomly-selected adults conduct- 
ed by the ICR survey research group identified eight 
reasons why people participate in polls, typified by 
the following phrases: 

1. "I'm a nice person." About 25% of respondents 
consider it rude to turn down a respectful request 
for cooperation. 

2. "Timing is everything." No other pressing time 
commitments. (20%) 

3. "I'm nosy." (15%) 

4. "You have a lovely voice." (15%) 

5. "It was a great opportunity to share information." 

(11%) 

6. "I didn't see any harm in it." (11%) 

7. "The questions were so interesting." (11%) 

8. "I've done this myself; I know what you're going 
through." Empathy motivates about 10% of 
respondents to cooperate. 

Source: The reasons why people talk to pollsters , by Richard Morin, direc- 
tor of polling for the Washington Post. 



17" 



Rising Refusal Rates: The Impact of Telemarketing," by Todd Remington, Quirks Marketing Research Review . May 1992. 



Response Rates and Bias 



Reliability of data is crucial to the success of an arts participation study. 
The best thought-out questions and the most high-powered analyses are 
meaningless without reliable data. Two related concepts impact the 
reliability of data collected through telephone surveys: response rates 
and potential sources of bias. Both are discussed below. As part of the 
research design process, the sponsoring organization should set clear 
expectations for: 

II acceptable response rates - at what point will you reject the data? 

what follow-up methods will be used to increase response rates - how 

many return calls will be made? can respondents reschedule interviews 

at their convenience? 
II how the data will be tested for bias - in what way are respondents 

different than non-respondents? 
II how bias will be corrected - what statistical adjustments or 

resurveying efforts will be made? 

Understanding these concepts and setting high standards for your 
researchers will increase the value of your data and establish the credibili- 
ty of your research project. Conclusions based on unreliable data do not 
add value to a decision-making process. Consider, for example, the long- 
term problems resulting from over-built arts facilities based on faulty 
research data. 18 

Response Rates for Telephone Surveys 

Maximizing response rates is a critical task. In order to understand why, 
consider the following illustration. A telephone survey of 500 randomly- 
selected households yields 400 completed interviews - a response rate of 
80%. An identical survey of 1,200 households yields 480 completed inter- 
views - a response rate of 40%. All other things being equal, which data 
set is more reliable? 



18 For an excellent and straightforward discussion on response rates, sample representativeness, and bias from refusals, 
read Mail and Telephone Surveys: The Total Design Method , by Don A. Dillman, published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 
1978 (ISBN 0-471-21555-4). 



Illustration of response Rates 

Total Calls 1,028 (124%) 

DisconnecteoVnon-working # 34 

Busy/no answer/machine 165 

Answered Calls 829 (100%) 

Non-residential # 69 

Eligible respondent never available .... 52 

Termination (language barrier) 8 

Termination (refusal) 298 

Completed Interviews 402 (49%) 



Although the first sample is 
smaller, it is more representa- 
tive of the population being 
surveyed. If you are successful 
in completing interviews with 
80% of selected households, 
then your sample will be very 
similar to the population as a 
whole. Conversely, if only 40% 
of a sample responds to the sur- 
vey, the final sample may have 
little in common with the popu- 
lation being studied. As the 
response rate declines, chances grow that the group of respondents will be 
different than the group of non-respondents. In arts participation survey 
data, for example, it is not unusual to find higher education levels among 
respondents compared to the population being studied. 19 

The pathway to a completed telephone interview can be cut off in many 
places. Professional researchers have established procedures for minimiz- 
ing the number of incomplete interviews, although some factors are out- 
side of their control. Many factors influence completion or "cooperation" 
rates, including the survey subject matter, interview length, respondent 
eligibility requirements, and even the geography being sampled. According 
to Blankenship and Breen, 

"It is generally accepted that for minimal dependability of 
results, at least 50 percent to 60 percent of those designated 
as potential respondents should end up being 
questioned." 2 ® 

Other researchers set different response thresholds, some higher and some 
lower. However, any researcher claiming that a 35% response rate for a 



19 For an illustration of this phenomenon, see Table 8 in the appendix of Summary Report: 12 Local Studies of Public 
Participation in the Arts. Research Division Report #16, National Endowment for the Arts, 1993. 
20 State of the Art Marketing Research . A.B. Blankenship and George Edward Breen, 1993, published by NTC Business 
Books in conjunction with the American Marketing Association. 



general population survey is acceptable without qualification should be 
highly suspect. To illustrate the range of outcomes from random telephone 
sampling, consider the results from a 1993 local arts participation survey 
(see inset from previous page). 

Two different problems must be addressed to maximize response rates for 
telephone surveys. The researcher must first gain access to the selected 
individuals, and then enlist their cooperation. Several tactics may be used: 



Make numerous calls, concentrating on evenings and weekends. Some 
researchers make up to 10 calls to a household before giving up. There is 
no substitute for persistence in reaching a targeted respondent. 
Arrange for interviewers with flexible schedules who can make appoint- 
ments at any time that is convenient to respondents. 
Articulate the purpose of the research and convince the respondent that 
their help is important. 
Assure the confidentiality of responses. 



Survey Excerpt 

Q. How are you most likely to learn 
about live performing arts programs 
that are of interest to you? [RECORD 
FIRST THREE ANSWERS] 

[PROBE] Any other sources of infor- 
mation about performing arts pro- 
grams? 



For the 1992 national Survey of Public Participation in the 
Arts, less than 20% of all eligible respondents in selected 
households could not be interviewed, yielding a completion 
rate of over 80%. Approximately three-quarters of all inter- 
views were conducted by telephone, with the balance conduct- 
ed face-to-face in respondents' homes. Other factors 
contributing to the high cooperation rate included the fact 
that the survey was part of an omnibus panel study conducted 

by the U.S. Census Bureau, meaning that pre-selected respondents had 

previously agreed to participate in an on-going study. 

In contrast, significantly lower response rates were achieved for the 12 
Local Studies conducted the same year. In this case, all interviews were 
conducted by telephone using random digit dialing. Response rates 
ranged from a low of 40% (Dade County, FL) to a high of 52% (rural 
Nevada). The gap between response rates for these national and local 
studies illustrates the complex relationship between the approach to data 
collection, sample design, and response rates. 



Potential Sources of "Bias" 

Along with the convenience of collecting data by telephone come a number 
potential difficulties in achieving unbiased results. "Bias" can result from 
sample design errors (e.g., a 'random' sampling technique that isn't really 
random), or from procedural problems (e.g., interviewers who influence 
responses, or a poorly-worded questionnaire). In data collected through 
telephone interviews, some forms of bias are unavoidable, but can be cor- 
rected through a statistical procedure known as weighting. 

Arts administrators need not learn the involved concepts and technical jar- 
gon associated with survey bias. However, an awareness of the most common 
sources of bias will be helpful in communicating with your research team: 

Non-Response Bias. For a variety of reasons, many interviews are never 
completed. In addition to factors which are outside the control of either 
party (e.g., busy signals, eligible respondent not at home, reaching a non- 
residential number), potential interview subjects often refuse to take the 
survey or terminate the interview prematurely. Three common causes of 
non-response bias are: 

II Simple Refusal - a respondent may be unable, unwilling, or too busy to 
complete the call, regardless of the survey subject matter or persistence 
of the interviewer. 

II Self-Selection - occurs when a potential respondent decides to termi- 
nate the call, perhaps because of a lack of interest in the survey subject 
matter. With arts participation surveys, a higher cooperation rate from 
actual arts participants may be experienced, compared to non-participants. 
This type of non-response bias can be very difficult to avoid or to correct. 
A carefully worded survey introduction can minimize this problem. 21 

& Termination Due to Language Barrier - Unless multi-lingual interviewers 
are available, potential respondents may hang up due to a language 
barrier. Survey results may then under-represent certain non-English 



21 Hebert Research Inc., a market research firm based in Bellevue, Washington, began a 1993 local arts participation sur- 
vey with the following introduction: "Hello, my name is , and I'm a research assistant with an independent firm 

working for the City of . We are conducting research about leisure activities in your area. This call is for research pur- 
poses only and does not involves sales or fundraising of any kind. lean assure you that your individual answers will 
remain strictly confidential. This survey will take approximately 10 minutes. May I please ask you some questions?" 



speaking populations. In the case of arts participation levels, overstated 
figures may result. Statistical weighting procedures can help to counteract 
this effect, although the best solution is to have multi-lingual interviewers. 

Non-Coverage of Households Without Telephones. By definition, 
households without telephones are excluded from the sample. Some 
researchers claim that the primary distinction between households with 
and without telephones is income. 22 Arts participation research has shown 
that individuals with lower incomes are less likely to be arts attenders. 
Thus, arts participation rates tend to be overstated due to the absence of 
households without telephones in the sample. 

Ultimately, it is virtually impossible to remove all types of bias from your 
survey data. Professional researchers, however, can advise you on the most 
appropriate ways to minimize bias, including statistical adjustments and 
resurveying a sample of nonrespondents. 

Sample Design Issues 

Sample design is the process of defining who is eligible to be interviewed 
for your study. Since you cannot interview everyone in your community 
about arts participation, it is necessary to draw a sample from the popula- 
tion about which you are interested. The "sample frame" is the set of peo- 
ple that has a chance of being selected, given the sampling approach 
taken. For example, one of the 12 Local Surveys conducted in 1992 used a 
sample frame defined as "...all adults, age 18+, residing in Allegheny 
County, Pennsylvania." 

When results are to be generalized to a larger population, then a "random 
sample" must be obtained - where each person within the sample frame 
has an equal, known chance of being interviewed. Achieving a sample that 
is representative of the population being studied is essential to the utility 
and credibility of survey results. Several key parameters of sample design 
follow. 



22 The source for this observation is NuStats, Inc., a market research firm based in Austin, Texas. 



ft. 



Geography and Other Eligibility Requirements 

Denning a geography to be sampled is an important first step in designing 
an arts participation study. Definitions of commonly-used geography units 
are included in the appendix. For a local area survey, the geography to be 
sampled may be: 

K a city or group of cities (municipal boundaries) 

ffl a county or group of counties 

« a Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) 

II one or more ZIP codes (postal-defined geographies) 

S the area covered by one or more telephone exchanges 

The purpose of your study will largely determine the geography to be sam- 
pled. If, for example, your survey is to assess public opinion on arts-related 
issues in connection with an upcoming election, your geography may be 
limited to political boundaries. A study related to arts facility planning 
may sample from an area including all communities within a 60-minute 
drive of the proposed facility. For general arts participation surveys, the 
area to be studied should be large enough to encompass an entire "arts 
community" - an area within which the local supply of arts programs and 
facilities relates directly to arts participation patterns. 

Telephone exchanges do not always relate to census or postal-defined geo- 
graphies such as cities or ZIP codes. Therefore, it may be necessary to 
screen prospective interview subjects by geography - narrowing the defini- 
tion of eligible respondents. Generally, additional costs are incurred as the 
definition of eligible respondents gets narrower, since more calls need to be 
made to achieve the desired sample size. 

Other eligibility requirements can be imposed to farther define the popula- 
tion being sampled. Typically, respondents must be adults (age 18+). Also, 
to ensure random selection within each household, the adult with the most 
recent birthday can be designated as the sole eligible respondent. 



Determining Sample Size 

Determining the best sample size for your study is an important decision 
involving trade offs between cost, statistical reliability, and other factors. 
Strictly speaking, the sample is the number of persons from whom 
responses are sought. If everyone who is called responds to the telephone 
survey, then the sample size equals the number of respondents. Since this 
is almost never possible, there is an essential distinction between the 'sam- 
ple size' and the 'number of completed interviews' or 'N'. Still, researchers 
commonly refer to the number of completed interviews as the "sample 
size," without discussing response rates, follow-up procedures, or bias. 

As the size of your sample grows, so might the cost of your study, since 
more calls need to be made to achieve a larger amount of data. However, a 
larger sample size will be subject to lower sampling error rates. In con- 
trast, a smaller sample size might cost less to collect, but results will be 
subject to higher sampling error rates. Much depends on the purpose of 
your study and how the data are to be used. 

Each of the 12 local arts participation studies conducted in 1992 targeted 
the number of respondents at 400, even though the populations being sam- 
pled ranged in size from Sedona, Arizona (1990 population = 15,500) to 
metropolitan Chicago (population 7.26 million). 23 A review of other local 
studies shows a range of respondent pools between 200 and 600. 
Requesting price quotations for different sized data sets can be informa- 
tive. For recent national studies of arts participation, the number of 
respondents varied widely: 



: : : : ; : : ; : ; : : : : : : : ; : ; : : ; : x 



:*#x*:*£:*:***: 



Study Sample Size 

1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (Arts Endowment) 12,736 

1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (Arts Endowment) 13,675 

1982 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (Arts Endowment) 17,254 

National Cultural Alliance 1992 Public Opinion Survey 1,059 

1992 "Americans and the Arts VI" (directed by Louis Harris) 1,500 



23 At the request of the Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance, an additional 200 interviews were conducted in areas of 
Philadelphia in order to obtain a sufficiently large subset of data for special analyses of arts participation among the Black 
and Hispanic populations. 



Targeting an appropriate number of respondents is of strategic importance 
to the outcome of your study. Consultants or researchers may suggest an 
appropriate number, but the decision is ultimately up to management - 
based on precision requirement, cost, and other factors. 

How Precise Is Your Data? 

A certain amount of variation in your survey results is due to random error. 
This is because survey results can only estimate the true results from a cen- 
sus of the entire population. In research reports, "margins of error" are often 
noted simply as "plus or minus 4%," etc. These figures are calculated based 
on sample size, the observation being testing, and the desired level of confi- 
dence. It is not necessary to understand the statistical concepts underlying 
these calculations in order to interpret them correctly. A standard error table 
is included in the Appendix, and an illustration is provided below. 



wmmmmzmmmmmmm 



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A:; 



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Interpreting Margins of Error 

A 1992 study of arts participation patterns in rural Nevada revealed a 10% participation rate 
for classical music. In other words, of the 400 adults surveyed, 10% reported attending at 
least one live classical music performance over the past 12 months. How accurate was this 
estimate of the true participation rate for all adults in rural Nevada? 

Assume that you wish to evaluate this finding at the 95% level of confidence. This means 
that you want to be 95% sure that the true participation rate (for all adults) falls within a 
certain range around the sample statistic (10%). 

11 In the "Standard Error" table in your research report, you find that for a sample size of 400 
and a sample statistic of 10%, the confidence interval is 3%. 

Thus, the true participation rate for classical music lies within a range of 3% above or below 
10%. In sum, you can say: 

"The rate of participation in classical music for all adults in rural Nevada was 
estimated to be between 7% and 13%, at the 95% level of confidence." 

II Put another way, if you conducted that same study repeatedly, you could expect a classical 
music participation rate between 7% and 13% ninety-five times out of a hundred. 

11 The margin of error does not account for various sources of bias which might be present in 
your survey data (see earlier discussion in this chapter covering "bias"). 



Two Types of Random Sampling 

Another important design parameter is what type of random sample to 
use. The two types of random sampling most commonly used in local arts 
participation surveys are "straight" and "stratified" random sampling. 

II Straight Random Sampling - the sample is drawn randomly from a list 
of the entire population. Since not all adults live in households with tele- 
phones, simple random sampling by telephone has inherent limitations. 
Statistical weighting procedures for key demographic variables (i.e., age, 
race, and income) are often used to help correct this problem. 

III Stratified Random Sampling - the sample is divided into one or more 
sub-groups (e.g., age groups, geographical areas, ethnic groups) based on 
the known characteristics of the population being sampled. Then random 
samples are chosen from each sub-group. This type of random sampling is 
desirable when certain sub-groups or "cells" within the population being 
studied are of special interest, and you want to ensure that your raw data 
are representative of these sub-groups. 

For example, suppose that 35% of the population of an area being studied 
is of Hispanic origin, according to census figures. If the desired sample size 
is 500, a stratified sample may be designed consisting of 65% (or 325) non- 
Hispanic respondents and 35% (or 175) Hispanic respondents. Random 
sampling continues until these targets are met. The resulting data would 
reflect the known incidence of Hispanic and non-Hispanic individuals in 
the population under study. 

In arts participation surveys, a stratified sampling approach can be more 
costly or time-consuming than a straight approach since it may be neces- 
sary to make additional calls to meet the targeted response levels. This is 
especially true for population sub-groups which are less likely to be found 
in households with telephones. Several of the 12 local studies conducted in 
1992 employed a stratified sampling approach: 



*.$*£ 






Site 



Stratified Sampling Approach 



Pittsburgh/Allegheny County 



Total sample of 400 was drawn equally from two geographies, 
the City of Pittsburgh and the balance of Allegheny County, 
so that results from the two areas could be compared. 



Dade County, Florida 



Dade County was sub-divided into two sub-areas, one 
consisting of telephone exchanges with a high concentration 
of minority populations, the other consisting of all remaining 
telephone exchanges. The total sample size of 400 was split 
between those two sub-areas proportional to their respective 
populations. 



Philadelphia Metro Area 
(7 counties in PA and NJ) 



Three sub-areas were defined for this study, as follows: 

1. All counties in the Philadelphia MSA except Philadelphia 
(200 completed interviews) 

2. Telephone exchanges within Philadelphia with a high 
concentration of minority population (300 interviews) 

3. All remaining telephone exchanges within Philadelphia 
(100 interviews) 

The total sample size was 600. 



Source: Summary Report: 12 Local Studies of Public Participation in the Arts . 



Survey Design Issues 



The purpose and goals of your study should drive the survey design 
process. A well-designed questionnaire will lead the interview subject 
through a logical progression of survey topics and questions, eliciting un- 
biased responses and high-quality data. The primary challenges of design- 
ing an arts participation survey include: 

II using questions that relate directly to your information needs 

deciding how much data to collect about each topic 

constructing the questions properly to avoid bias 
II choosing the best response options (e.g., scaled responses, rankings) 

limiting the interview to a manageable length 

The technical aspects of survey design can get very involved. If you choose 
to develop your own questionnaire, read about survey design in an appro- 
priate text, and ask a research professional to review a draft of your sur- 
vey for content, wording, flow, etc. If professional researchers are drafting 



>'Ji.'. 



your questionnaire, your careful review of the form is essential. An under- 
standing of survey design issues related to arts participation topics will 
increase the quality of your input. 24 

Approaches to Survey Design 

To begin designing a survey, refer back to your research case statement, 
which should articulate what the survey is supposed to accomplish. This 
may include hypotheses that you wish to test, such as "our community is 
supportive of public funding for a new arts center," and a list of what needs 
to be measured to accomplish the goals of your survey. Such a list might 
include "frequency of attendance," "reasons for attending arts programs," 
and "attitudes about arts education." Then, prepare an analysis plan for 
each area of inquiry or "survey module," including definition of: 

II Dependent Variables - variables for which numbers, percentages and 
averages are to be estimated, such as "number of times attended a jazz per- 
formance," or agreement or disagreement with an opinionated statement. 
In its 1995 arts participation survey, the San Antonio Department of Arts 
and Cultural Affairs measured respondents' likelihood of using an arts 
information telephone line: 



Q: If there was a central telephone number that you could call 

24-hours a day to find out about upcoming arts and cultural events, 
would you be very likely , somewhat likely , not very likely , or not ajt 
all likely to use such a service? 

Source: San Antonio Department of Arts & Cultural Affairs/AMS Planning & Research. 



II Independent Variables - variables which are needed to explain or predict 
other variables. For example, demographic variables such as age, income, 
and education are often used to explain arts participation. The National 
Cultural Alliance, in its 1992 public opinion survey, asked a series of ques- 
tions relating to perceived value and relevancy of the Arts and Humanities, 
which were used to help explain art participation patterns: 

24 A theoretical approach to survey design is outlined in How to Conduct Surveys: A Step-by-Step Guide , by Arlene Fink 
and Jacqueline Kosecoff, 1985, available through SAGE Publications, 2455 Teller Rd., Thousand Oaks, CA 91320, tele- 
phone (805) 499-9774. For an overview of arts-related survey design issues, read Surveying Your Arts Audience , the 1985 
Arts Endowment Research Division Manual, pages 13-23. 






Q: The arts and humanities are 
considered to include the 
visual arts, such as painting 
and sculpture; literature; 
the performing arts or 
theatre, dance and music; 
and philosophy, history, and 
languages. Would you say 
the arts and humanities 
play a major role in your 
life , a minor role , or no role 
at all? 

Source: National Cultural Alliance/Research 
& Forecasts, Inc. 



H Variables with Other Functions - 
additional variables may serve to 
check out competing hypotheses 
or to verify the consistency of 
responses. 

Floyd Fowler, Jr., in his book 
Survey Research Methods , recom- 
mends this basic approach to sur- 
vey design, which may be followed 
by experienced researchers and 
first-timers alike. 

Although there are many combina- 
tions of survey topics and infinite 
variations of specific questions, it 
is not necessary to design every 
arts participation survey from 
[Scratch. Questionnaires developed 
by the Arts Endowment and other 
(agencies contain large numbers of 



DEFINITIONS OF "CORE" ARTS 
ACTIVITIES 



Jazz 



Respondents are allowed to 
define jazz in their own way. 
May include blues, soul, R&B, etc. 



Classical music 



Includes symphony, chamber music, 
choral music, and instrumental or 
vocal recitals 






Opera 



An opera is a drama set to music 
and made up of vocal pieces. 
Excludes operettas 



Musicals 



Plays 



Ballet 



Musical-dramatic productions 
consisting of musical numbers and 
spoken dialogue based on a unifying 
plot. Includes "Broadway musical" 
and "musical comedies" 

A non-musical stage play is a 
theatrical production consisting of 
spoken dialogue 

A theatrical art form using ballet 
dancing (dancing in which 
conventional poses and steps are 
used), music, and scenery to convey 
a story, theme, or atmosphere 



Other dance 



Includes modern dance, folk, tap, 
and other dance such as clogging, 
and traditional/ethnic dance 



Art museum/ 
gallery 



Attendance at museums or galleries 
that display or sell original works of 
art 



Other Arts Activities 



Arts/crafts 
fair/festival 



Includes events where arts or crafts 
are demonstrated or for sale 



Movie theatre 



Attendance at a cinema/movie 
theatre 



Historic 
park/site 



Includes any historic park or 
monument, as well as any building 
or neighborhood the respondent 
visited for its historical value or 
architectural design 



Source: National Endowment for the Arts. 



questions which can be used verbatim or adapted for use in a new sur- 
vey. Although it is not possible to replicate large numbers of survey 
questions in this guide, a reproduction of the 1992 SPPA questionnaire 
is included in the Appendix. 

"Core" Questions 

Questions about arts participation are necessarily part of an arts partici- 
pation survey, as denned in this guide. Although a wide range of addition- 
al topics may be included, certain "core" questions may be used to 
measure participation in key arts activities (see inset on previous page). It 
is not suggested that all arts participation surveys should be standardized 
or even limited to the topics discussed in this guide. However, the inclu- 
sion of topics and/or questions which have been tested and analyzed 
extensively in the body of research on arts participation is generally rec- 
ommended, for several reasons. Using previously-tested questions may 
help you avoid costly design errors and save time and money. Also, you 
may turn to published reports for ideas on how to structure your analysis 
of the data. 

Using questions from other surveys does not ensure that your data will be 
comparable. Differences in sample design may prevent you from making 
direct comparisons. In fact, unless the surveys, sample frames, and meth- 
ods of collecting data are nearly identical, it is not possible to make a direct 
comparison of results across the studies. However, it is possible to gain 
context from other studies by looking at general trends between data sets. 
Professional researchers can advise you on the comparability of your sur- 
vey results with other studies. 

Interview Length 

One of the greatest challenges in designing a survey is limiting its length. 
Generally, the maximum duration of a telephone interview should be 12 to 
15 minutes, beyond which it becomes increasingly difficult to keep respon- 
dents on the phone without an advance commitment. All telephone surveys 
should be pre-tested for average completion time and to uncover design- 
related problems. If it becomes necessary to edit your survey down to a 



&v 



reasonable length, return to your research case statement for guidance in 
prioritizing your information needs. 

It is not always necessary to ask all respondents the same questions, if 
your sample size is large enough. To broaden the scope of your survey it 
may be possible to divide the sample into two or more subgroups and ask 
certain questions on a rotating basis. For example, if your sample size is 
600, certain "core" questions may be asked of all respondents, followed by 
different groups of questions for the first 300 respondents and the second 
300 respondents. 

Overview of Arts Participation Survey Topics 

To stimulate the survey design process, topics from a variety of arts partici- 
pation studies have been compiled and are presented over the following 
pages. By no means exhaustive, this list of survey topics includes subjects 
covered in the 1992 SPPA and a number of other local and national studies. 
When applicable, topics are referenced with their respective question num- 
bers in the 1992 SPPA and 12 Local Area Arts Participation Surveys 
(LAAPS) survey forms. 



Topic: Attendance at Arts Performances/Events 



Arts 

Participation 

Rates 



Frequency of 
Participation 



Participation rates are measured for certain types of 
arts activities (e.g., live performances, art exhibitions, 
literature), over a given time period - typically the 
preceding 12 months. Eight "core" arts activities denned 
by the Arts Endowment include jazz, opera, classical music, 
musical theatre, plays, ballet, other dance, and art 
museums/galleries. Participation in other arts disciplines 
or sub-disciplines such as "traditional/ethnic dance" may 
be also queried. 

The number of times the respondent participated in a 
specified arts activity over a given time period. 



SPPA92: Ql-13 
LAAPS: Ql-13 



SPPA92: Ql-20 
LAAPS: Ql-14 



Participation 
through 
Broadcast and 
Recorded Media 



Measures rates of exposure to various arts disciplines 
via television/video and radio/recordings. 



SPPA92: Q14-20 
LAAPS: Q14-16 



Venues 
Attended 



Respondents are asked what type(s) of facility they most 
recently attended. In local studies, actual venue 
names may be used. 



LAAPS: Ql-7 



£ 



Topic: Personal Participation in the Arts 



Performance 
and Arts/Craft 
Activities 



Respondents are asked about their avocational 
involvement in various arts activities, such as: 

Making pottery/ceramics/jewelry, etc. 

Weavmg/qutttmg/crocheting/sewing, etc. 
11 Film/video/photography (as art) 

Painting/drawing/sculpture/printmaking 

Creative writing 

Music composition 

Own pieces of art 

Musician (various disciplines) 

Dancer (ballet or other dance) 



SPPA92: Q23-36 



Art Classes 
and Lessons 



To examine how people learn about and participate 
in the arts through classes and lessons, respondents 
are asked if they receive instruction in any of several 
disciplines, either as adults, or when they were children. 



SPPA92: Q38-45 



Topic: Participation in other Leisure Activities 



Frequency of 
Participation in 
Other Leisure 
Activities 



In order to assess how arts participation relates to other 
leisure activities, respondents may be asked about 
their participation (or their children's about activities as: 

Watching television (number of hours per day) 
ill Going to the movies 

Attending amateur or professional sports events 
11 Amusement parks, carnivals, etc. 

Exercising, or playing sports 

Outdoor activities (gardening, camping, hiking, etc.) 

Volunteer or charity work 

Home improvement 



SPPA92: Q22a-j 



Topic: Communication & Information 



Sources of 
Information 
about Arts 
Events 



Respondents are asked how they learn about about arts 
events (or a specific program), usually on an unaided 
basis. Sources may include direct mail, print media, radio, 
television, telemarketing, word-of-mouth, etc. Alternately, 
respondents may be asked how influential each source 
is to their decision to attend, using a scaled response. 



LAAPS: Q21 



Media Usage 



In local studies, readership of local newspapers and 
magazines can be measured, as well as which radio 
stations and television channels are used. 



LAAPS: Q21A-H 



Adequacy of 
Arts Information 



Satisfaction with the availability of information about 
arts events may also be measured. 



LAAPS: Q22 



Aided and 
Unaided 
Awareness 
Levels 



On local surveys, respondents may be asked to name the 
local arts programs or organizations that come to mind, on 
an unaided and/or aided basis. These data are particularly 
useful to individual arts groups, and may also point to 
community-wide communication and information issues. 



various local 
surveys 



<3c* 



Topic: attitudes & opinions about the Arts 



Interest in 
Attending 
More Often 



Evaluates what types of programs respondents would like 
to attend more often, and which of these they would like 
do the the most. Separate questions may measure interest 
in culturally-specific programs. 



SPPA92: Q21 
LAAPS: Q17-18 



Reasons for 
Not Attending 
More Often 



Reasons for 
Attending 
Arts Events 



Importance 
of the Arts 



Often called "barriers to participation," this survey topic 
was included in the 1982 and 1985 SPPAs. The 1992 
SPPA did not include this topic but the 12 Local Studies 
queried such reasons as cost, lack of time, transportation 
problems, safety concerns, etc. 

As an alternative to studying barriers to participation, 
some researchers are focusing on reasons why people do 
surveys attend arts events, such as "to be with friends,'' 
"for intellectual stimulation," and other reasons. 

Attitudes about the importance of the arts in general or 
about the importance of the arts in education are measured. 



LAAPS: Q18 



various local 
surveys 



LAAPS: Q19-20 



Opinions on 
Arts and 
Related Issues 



Respondents may be asked their opinions on a variety of arts- 
related issues, such as public funding for the arts (or surveys 
a specific arts project), the importance of arts-in-education, 
perceived need for additional arts facilities, and other issues. 
One approach is to measure respondents' agreement/ 
disagreement with a series of opinionated statements. 



various local 
surveys 



Topic: Anticipated behavior & Preferences 



Likelihood of 
Attending Arts 
Programs 



In local surveys, respondents may be asked their 
likelihood of attending an existing or proposed arts 
facility or program, or their desire to participate in arts 
classes, etc. This line of questioning is most often used 
in surveys related to arts facility development and 
cultural planning. 

An alternate line of questioning relates interest in 
attending a specific type of arts activity to anticipated 
attendance, to study the gap between interest and behavior. 



various local 
surveys 



Music Preferences 



Respondents are read a list of types of music and asked 
to what extent they enjoy listening to each, and which 
they enjoy most. Over 20 types of music were listed in 
the 1992 SPPA, ranging from opera to rap music. 



SPPA92: Q37 



>'J< 



Topic: Respondent Characteristics 



Age 



Race/Ethnicity 
and Cultural 
Identity 



Respondents are asked their age or age group using 
predefined "cohorts." When age cohorts are used for data 
collection or analysis, it is often useful to use U.S. 
Census-defined cohorts so that survey results can be 
compared to census figures for the sampled geography. 
Census Bureau definitions of cohorts for selected 
demographic variables are included in the Appendix. 

Almost all arts participation surveys collect 
race/ethnicity data using cohorts defined by the Census 
Bureau (see Appendix). Additional questions may 
identify respondents' nationality/country of origin. 

Researchers seeking to understand more about the 
cultural identity of respondents may design additional 
questions to address issues such as multi-cultural 
households, languages spoken, family immigration 
history, and self-defined cultural identity independent 
of race or nationality. 



all surveys 



all surveys 



Household 
Income 



Total household income includes income from employment 
and other sources for all household members. 



all surveys 
all surveys 



Educational 
Attainment 



Respondents are typically asked to identify the highest 
level of education they completed. (Education level is 
consistently found to be the most significant predictor 
of arts attendance.) 



Marital Status 



Categories may include Married/Life Partner, Single/ 
Never Married, Separated, and Divorced. 



all surveys 



Number of 
Children in 
Household 



In some cases, it may be useful to collect household size 
data broken down by age group, especially children ages 
0-5, 6-12, and 13-17, etc. 



all surveys 



Occupation and 

Employment 

Status 



Owner-Occupied 
Housing Status 



Occupation and employment status data can offer insight 
in combination with other demographic variables, for 
example, in exploring arts participation patterns of 
working mothers, etc. [reference standard categories]. 

Allows distinction between renters and property owners. 



all surveys 



all surveys 



Geography 



Residency Status 



Respondents may be asked to identify their home ZIP 
Code or other geography to verify that eligibility 
requirements were met and to facilitate data analysis 
for geographical sub-areas. 

Researchers may seek to identify seasonal residents in 
order to qualify arts participation questions as relating 
to local activity only. 



various surveys, 
local and national 



local area surveys 
only 



Topic: Buyer Behavior 


Purchase j Respondents are asked to identify who usually 
Decision-Maker i selects the arts events that they attend (e.g., friends, 

1 spouse, joint decision, etc.). Buyer behavior questions 
are frequently used in audience surveys, but may also 

\ be included in community surveys to measure 

! general trends. 


various local 
surveys 


Method of 1 Preferences for purchasing tickets at the box office, 
Purchase j by telephone, or by mail can be measured and are 

\ frequently correlated to demographic characteristics. 


various local 
surveys 


Tuning of Surveys may test the hypothesis that different groups 
Purchase I of arts patrons have different planning horizons and 

| can be segmented according to how far in advance 

| they typically purchase tickets. 


various local 
surveys 


Type of Tickets j It may be useful to identify respondents who have 
Purchased \ purchased subscription or series tickets in the past 

'$ year. 


various local 
\ surveys 



Pre-Testing 

The final draft of an arts participation survey should be pre-tested on 20 to 
50 eligible respondents under conditions approximating actual data collec- 
tion. The primary reasons for pre-testing a telephone survey are: 

H to assess average interview length and make adjustments to the survey 

as necessary 
if to check that the questions are easy for interviewers to read and for 

respondents to understand 

to see if respondents can answer questions accurately. Problems may be 

indicated when respondents ask for clarification or provide initial 

answers that require probing. 



One advantage of telephone surveys is that the questionnaire can be 
edited up until the moment that data collection begins. Pre-test results 
should be reviewed by the research team and changes made to the 
questionnaire as necessary. With such large sums at stake, survey pre- 
testing is a relatively small investment in assuring high-quality results 
and avoiding costly errors. 



Preparing Data for Analysis 

Data coding is the process of assigning values or codes to survey responses 
to facilitate statistical analysis. Data entry is the process of entering sur- 
vey data into a computer file for subsequent analysis. Whether or not you 
have data coding and entry to do depends on how data was recorded dur- 
ing the telephone interviews. Generally, if your data was collected by a 
commercial research firm, data coding and entry will be done for you. A 
commonly-used technique called "computer-assisted telephone interview- 
ing" (CATI) automates the data coding and entry process. 

Manual data coding and entry is a time-consuming project, especially 
when open-ended questions were included in the survey. Even if your data 
was collected on paper forms, coding and entry can be sub-contracted com- 
mercially at a very reasonable cost, with or without subsequent analysis. 
Ideally, data should be entered into a computer program that will run tab- 
ulations, cross-tabulations, and other statistical procedures. At a mini- 
mum, enter your survey data into a commonly-used spreadsheet or 
database program, most of which have some statistical analysis 
capabilities. 

ANALYSIS AND REPORTING 



The amount of time and energy devoted to data analysis and reporting - 
the process of understanding your results - will heavily impact the overall 
success of your research effort. At one extreme, consultants may analyze 
your data, make a final presentation and help you develop a plan to act on 
survey results. At the other extreme, data may be analyzed by a staff 
member or student researcher using whatever tools are available. 
Regardless of the level of assistance with data analysis and reporting, a 
familiarity with basic statistical analysis procedures will enhance your 
understanding of what can be done with your arts participation data. 25 



25 A straightforward discussion of data analysis and reporting may be found in Surveying Your Arts Audience . Arts 
Endowment Research Division Manual, 1985, pages 57-65. The general principles behind summarizing survey results are 
covered in Blankenship and Breen's State of the Art Marketing Research . 1993, pages 249-290. 



12 



Analyzing Single Variables 

The first step in analyzing data from an arts participation survey is tabu- 
lating responses to each question and computing useful statistics including 
percentages and averages: 

Percentages - the number of responses in a given category divided by the 
total number of valid responses. For example: 



Q: In general, how important is it to you to be able to attend or to take part in arts 
activities and events? Would you say it is. . . 



RESPONSE 



very important 
somewhat important 
not at all important 
don't know/refused 



Frequency 


% 


98 


24.4 


203 


50.7 


92 


22.9 


8 


2.0 



Valid% 



Cum% 



24.9 

51.6 

23.5 

missing 



24.9 

76.5 

100.0 



TOTAL SAMPLE 401 

Source: San Jose area arts participation survey, 1992. 



100.0 



In this example, several percentages are computed: the response 
percentage (which accounts for all response options), the valid percentage 
(excludes missing cases and "don't knows" from the total sample size), and 
cumulative percentage (the running total of percentages on a continuous 
scale). 



■ Averages - what statisticians call measures of central tendency, come in 
three forms: the mean (the sum total of values divided by the number of 
cases), the median (the middle case in a series - half fall above the medi- 
an and half fall below), and the mode (the most frequent response). All 
three figures have a different meaning in the example on the following 
page: 



Q: On a scale of to 10 with meaning not at aU likely and 10 meaning very likely, how 
likely would you be to make an annual contribution to a United Arts Fund drive, like a 
"United Way" for arts and cultural organizations? 



RESPONSE SCALE 



- not at all likely 

1 

2 

3 

4 

5 

6 

7 

8 

9 

10 - very likely 

don't know/refused 



TOTAL SAMPLE 



Frequency 



% 



35 
12 

7 
16 

9 

58 
16 
27 
19 
21 
63 
17 



11.6 
4.0 
2.3 
5.3 
3.0 

19.3 
5.3 
9.0 
6.3 
7.0 

21.0 
5.6 



300 



100.0 



Source: Anchorage (AK) cultural planning survey, 1993. 



Valid % 



12.4 
4.2 
2.8 
5.6 
3.2 

20.5 
5.6 
9.5 
6.7 
7.4 

22.3 



Cum. % 



12.4 
16.6 
19.1 
24.7 
27.9 
48.4 
54.1 
63.6 
70.3 
77.7 
100.0 



In this example, the mean response is 5.85. The mean was calculated by 
multiplying each number on the scale by its respective number of respons- 
es, summing these figures, and then dividing by the total number of valid 
responses: 

Calculation of the Mean 

(0 x 35)+(l x 12)+(2 x 7)+(3 x 16) . . . = 1,656 

1,656 divided by 283 valid responses = 5.85 

Thus, on a scale of to 10 (with 5 = average likelihood of making a contri- 
bution), respondents indicated a higher than average likelihood of support- 
ing a United Arts Fund. 

The median (or middle) response was 6, meaning simply that half respond- 
ed 6 or higher, and half responded 6 or lower. In the table above, 137 peo- 
ple responded below 6 and 140 people responded above 6. 



The mode, or most frequent response was 10, indicating a substantial 
group of strong supporters, but not descriptive of the entire sample. In this 
example, the mean figure seems most informative. Median figures are par- 
ticularly helpful when data sets (such as income figures) are skewed by one 
or more extreme observations, since the value of the middle statistic is 
unaffected by extreme cases at one end or the other. 

Analyzing Multiple Variables 

Cross-tabulations are useful in measuring the amount of similarity 
between two sets of data. Selecting which variables to cross-tabulate is an 
important part of your analysis. For this reason, it is helpful to have some- 
one familiar with arts issues play a role in data analysis. Demographic 
variables are frequently cross-tabulated with arts participation data to 
reveal underlying patterns. Additional relationships between variables 
should be hypothesized in your research case statement, and should be 
explored in your analysis. For example, you may hypothesize that interest 
in attending more often is related to frequency of participation, and con- 
struct an analysis to prove or disprove your theory. Another use of cross- 
tabulations is to obtain data on overlapping audiences between the 
various arts disciplines (e.g., what percentage of jazz attenders also attend 
ballet). 

Graphs can effectively communicate the results of cross-tabulations. The 
example below relates frequency of arts participation with educational 
attainment. In addition to displaying results in tabular or graphical for- 
mat, measures of statistical significance should also be reported, such as 
Chi-square, T-test, and F-ratio. The Chi-square statistic, for example, tells 
you when to conclude that the distribution of two variables is independent 
(or dependent). Proper interpretation of these statistics requires some 
knowledge of statistics, but no report is complete without them. Most com- 
puter software programs compute these statistics automatically for cross- 
tabulations. 

A word of caution about cross-tabulations. Finding a relationship between 
two variables does not prove that one variable necessarily causes the other. 
Cross-tabulations cannot prove causality - a variety of other factors may 






Frequency of Participation by 
Education Levels 



I I High School or 



Lower 






Some 
College 



Bachelor's 
Degree or 
Higher 



.9 > 

3 3 

< s 

■** ••■« 



60% 



50% -- 
40% -|- 
30% 
20% 

10% ^ 

0% 



f urw r 





Times 1 Time 2 or 3 Times 4 or 5 Times 6+ Times 

Attended any of Eight Benchmark Arts Activities . . . 

Source: Summary Report: 12 Local Surveys of Arts Participation . 



be at play. Rely on 
your intuition and 
knowledge of the sur- 
vey subject matter to 
infer causality 
between two or more 
variables. 

Advanced 
Statistical 
Procedures 

Tabulations and cross- 
tabulations should sat- 
isfy most, if not all, of 
your analysis needs. 
However, it may be 

helpful for someone with statistical training to conduct further analyses. 

Several of the more advanced statistical procedures used in analyzing arts 

participation data include: 

III Regression Analysis - used to measure the relationship between a depen- 
dent variable (y) such as classical music participation, and one or more 
independent variables (xl, x2, x3 . . .) such as education level, participation 
in childhood music lessons, etc., which might predict (y). 
■I Factor Analysis - a technique used to boil down a large number of vari- 
ables into a limited number of dimensions for analysis. 
II Discriminant Analysis - results from this analysis identify which factors 
contribute the most to a particular variable such as jazz participation. In 
the 12 Local Surveys, discriminant analysis was used to determine the 
demographic variables which best distinguish between those respondents 
who participate in the arts and those who do not. 

Acting on Your Survey Results 

How can your survey results be put to work? While some arts participation 
studies conclude with a final report or presentation, additional work 
remains to be done in most cases, depending on the original purpose of the 






study. Further dissemination of survey results may be advantageous, 
including press conferences, written press releases, one-on-one meetings 
with elected officials, presentations at city council and various board meet- 
ings, and facilitated workshops for local arts managers. Look beyond the 
original purpose of your survey for additional applications of the data. A 
survey conducted for advocacy purposes, for example, might also produce 
valuable marketing data for local arts managers. 

Generally, arts participation research has value to the arts administrator 
in three areas. All arts participation research has knowledge-value; it con- 
tributes to the collective understanding of the complex and changing arts 
participation patterns of Americans. In this sense, your research effort can 
benefit future studies, just as you benefited from the experience of previous 
researchers. Newly-gained knowledge may be shared with policy-makers 
and the public to inform their decisions and raise their awareness of arts 
issues. 

Survey results may also have decision-value in that they contribute infor- 
mation to a decision process typically related to arts facility development, 
program selection, or other resource allocation. For example, survey results 
can provide crucial direction and momentum to cultural planning efforts. 
In some cases, planners may simply take research results under advise- 
ment; in other cases, key decisions are based largely on survey results - 
underscoring the importance of using scientific research methods. 
Individual arts groups may also make decisions based on survey results - 
most often related to ticketing, programming, and marketing issues. 

Finally, survey results may have creative-value in the development of advo- 
cacy or audience development campaigns. Research findings may be trans- 
lated into campaign themes (e.g., "Reno is one of America's best read 
cities." billboard campaign) or creative ideas might surface during data 
analysis, particularly when responses to open-ended survey questions are 
analyzed. Revisiting your data with a different analytical perspective (e.g., 
marketing or education) may prove especially worthwhile. 



67 



SECTION IV 






PPENDIX 



Sample Survey Instrument 

Resources for Professional Assistance (listing of service organizations, etc.) 

Selected Geography Definitions 

Sampling Error Table 

Census-Defined Demographic Cohorts 

Bibliography on Public Participation in the Arts 



Sample Survey Instrument 



1992 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts (long form), National Endowment for the Arts 



July-December 1992 



FIELD REPRESENTATIVE - Ask SPPA-2 if respondent is 18 years of age or older 



INTRODUCTION - Now I have some questions about your leisure activities. The Bureau of the 
Census is collecting this information for the National Endowment for the Arts. The survey is 
authorized by Title 20, United States Code, section 954 and Title 13, United States Code, section 
8. Your participation in this interview is voluntary and there are no penalties for not answering 
some or all of the questions. (If PERSONAL INTERVIEW, hand respondent the Privacy Act Statement, 
SPPA-13.) 



PGM 3 



010 



2. 



012 



013 



The following questions are about YOUR 
activities during the LAST 12 months 

between 1. 19 . and 

,19 



With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances, did YOU go to a live 
jazz performance during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
classical music performance such as 
symphony, chamber, or choral music 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
opera during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
musical stage play or an operetta during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



014 



015 



7. 



016 



8. 



017 



9. 



016 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
performance of a non-musical stage play 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
ballet performance during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(With the exception of elementary or high 
school performances,) Did you go to a live 
dance performance other than ballet, such 
as modern, folk, or tap during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
visit an ART museum or gallery? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
visit an ART fair or festival, or a CRAFT fair 
or festival? 

oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



10. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
visit an historic park or monument, or 
tour buildings, or neighborhoods for their 
historic or design value? 



£1U oDNo 

Yes - About how many times did you do 
this during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of times 



11. With the exception of books required for 
work or school, did you read any books 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



.222J oDNo 

Yes - About how many books did you 

read during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



Number of books 



12. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
read any - 

Read answer categories 



a. Plays? 



1 021 I 1DN0 aDYes 



b. Poetry? 



_ELJ iDNo 2DYes 



c. Novels or short stories? [J!!] 1DN0 2D Yes 



13. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to - 

a. A reading of poetry, ■ » 

either live or recorded? I 024 I 1DN0 2D Yes 



b. A reading of novels or 
books either live or 
recorded? 



I 025 I 1DN0 2DYes 



14a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you 
watch a jazz performance on television or 
a video (VCR) tape? 



026 



1 DNo - Skip to item 14c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
3D VCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



027 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to jazz on radio? 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to jazz records, tapes, or compact 
discs? 

I 1DN0 
2D Yes 



030 



15a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
watch a classical music performance on 
television or a video (VCR) tape? 

1 D No - Skip to item 15c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
3D VCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



031 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to classical music on radio? 



032 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to classical music records, tapes or 
compact discs? 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



16a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
watch an opera on television or a video 
(VCR) tape? 



034 



1 DNo - Skip to item 16c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
sDVCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



035 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to opera music on radio? 



036 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



d. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to opera music records, tapes, or 
compact discs? 

1DN0 
2D Yes 



17a. With the exception of movies, did you 

watch a musical stage play or an operetta 
on television or a video (VCR) tape during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



038 



1 D No - Skip to item 17c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
3D VCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



039 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to a musical stage play or an operetta 
on radio? 



040 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



(During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
listen to a musical stage play or an operetta 
on records, tapes, or compact discs? 



041 | 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



Page 2 



FORM SPPA-2 (4-9-92) 



18a. With the exception of movies, situation 
comedies, or TV series, did you watch a 
non-musical stage play on television or a video 
(VCR) tape during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

1 DNo - Skip to item 18c 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

zDTV 
3D VCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in the 
LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



043 



Number of times 



c. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you listen 
to a radio performance of a non-musical stage 
play? 



044 



iDNO 

2 D Yes 



19a. With the exception of music videos, did you 
watch on television or a video (VCR) tape 
dance such as ballet, modern, folk, or tap 
during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



045 



1 □ No - Skip to item 20a 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2 DTV 
3 D VCR 
4 □ Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



046 



Number of times 



20a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you watch 
a program about artists, art works, or art 
museums on television or a video (VCR) tape? 



047 



1 □ No - Skip to item 21a 

Yes - Was that on TV, VCR, or both? 

2DTV 
sDVCR 
4 D Both 



b. About how many times did you do this (in 
the LAST 12 MONTHS)? 



048 



Number of times 



2 1a. I'm going to read a list of events that some 
people like to attend. If you could go to any of 
these events as often as you wanted, which 
ones would you go to MORE OFTEN than you 
do now? I'll read the list. Go to - 

Mark (X) all that apply. 



iDJazz music performances 

2D Classical music performances 

3D Operas 

4 D Musical plays or operettas 

5 D Non-musical plays 

6 D Ballet performances 

7 D Dance performances other than ballet 
sD Art museums or galleries 

9 D None of these - Skip to item 22a 



* 



t^; 



If only one is chosen, skip to item 22a. 
If more than one is chosen, ask - 

b. Which of these would you like to do most? 



Category number 



00DN0 one thing most 



22a. The following questions are about your 
participation in other leisure activities. 

Approximately how many hours of television 
do you watch on an average day? 



055 



Number of hours 



. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did YOU go 
out to the movies? 



056 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



057 



058 



059 



060 



, With the exception of youth sports, did you 
go to any amateur or professional sports 
events during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 

1DN0 
2D Yes 

. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you go to 
an amusement or theme park, a carnival, or 
a similar place of entertainment? 

1DN0 
2D Yes 

During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you jog, 
lift weights, walk, or participate in any other 
exercise program? 

1DN0 
2D Yes 

During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you 
participate in any sports activity, such as 
softball, basketball, golf, bowling, skiing, or 
tennis? 

1DN0 

2D Yes 



g. Did you participate in any outdoor activities, 
such as camping, hiking, or canoeing during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



061 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



h. Did you do volunteer or charity work during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



062 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



i. Did you make repairs or improvements on 
your own home during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 



063 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



Did you work with indoor plants or do any 
gardening for pleasure during the LAST 12 
MONTHS? 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



23a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you work 
with pottery, ceramics, jewelry, or do any 
leatherwork or metalwork? 



065 



1 DNo - Skip to item 24a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



FORM SPPA-2 I4-9-92) 



Page 3 



24a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do 
any weaving, crocheting, quilting, 
needlepoint, or sewing? 



067 



1 □ No - Skip to item 25a 

2D Yes 



b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 



068 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



25a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you 
make photographs, movies, or video tapes 
as an artistic activity? 



069 



1 □ No - Skip to item 26a 

2D Yes 



b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 



iDNo 



2D Yes 



26a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do 
any painting, drawing, sculpture, or 
printmaking activities? 



071 



1 □ No - Skip to item 27a 

2D Yes 



b. Did you publicly display any of your works? 



072 



iDNo 
2D Yes 



27a. With the exception of work or school, did you 
do any creative writing such as stories, poems, 
or plays during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



073 



1 DNo - Skip to item 28a 

2D Yes 



074 



b. Were any of your writings published? 

i DNo 



2D Yes 



28a. Did you write or compose any music during 
the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



075 I 1 DNo - Skip to item 29a 
2D Yes 



b.Was your musical composition played in a 
public performance or rehearsed for a public 
performance? 



076 



iDNo 

2D Yes 



29a. Do you own any original pieces of art, such 
as paintings, drawings, sculpture, prints, or 
lithographs? 



077 



1 D No - Skip to item 30a 
2 D Yes 



b. Did you purchase or acquire any of these 
pieces during the LAST 12 MONTHS? 



078 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



30a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you 
perform or rehearse any jazz music? 



079 



1 D No - Skip to item 31a 
2D Yes 



Page 4 



30b. Did you play any jazz in a public performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 



080 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



31a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you play 
any classical music? 



j£Ll 1 D No -Skip to item 32a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you play classical music in a public 
performance or rehearse for a public 
performance? 



082 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



32a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you sing any 
music from an opera? 



083 



1 D No - Skip to item 33a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you sing in a public opera performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 



084 



1DN0 
2D Yes 



33a. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you sing 
music from a musical play or operetta? 



£2U 1 D No -Skip to item 33c 
2D Yes 



b. Did you sing in a public performance of a 
musical play or operetta or rehearse for a 
public performance? 



086 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



c. During the LAST 12 MONTHS, did you sing in 
a public performance with a chorale, choir, 
or glee club or other type of vocal group, or 
rehearse for a public performance? 



087 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



34. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS.) Did you act in a 
public performance of a non-musical play or 
rehearse for a public performance? 



088 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



35a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you dance 
any ballet? 



089 



1 D No - Skip to item 36a 

2D Yes 



b. Did you dance ballet in a public performance 
or rehearse for a public performance? 



090 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



36a. (During the LAST 12 MONTHS,) Did you do any 
dancing other than ballet such as modern, folk, 
or tap? 



22L\ 1 D No - Skip to item 37a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you dance modern, folk, or tap in a 
public performance? 



092 



iDNO 

2D Yes 



FORM SPPA-2 (4-9-92I 



37a. I'm going to read a list of some types of 
music. As I read the list, tell me which of 
these types of music you like to listen to? 

Mark (X) all that apply. 



* 



094 

-*- 

095 



096 



■%•■ 



098 



1 D Classical/Chamber music 

2D Opera 

3D Operetta/Broadway musicals/Show tunes 

4 D Jazz 

5 D Reggae (Reg gay') 
6DRap music 

7 D Soul 

eD Blues/Rhythm and blues 

9 D Latin/Spanish/Salsa 

10 D Big band 

11 □Parade/Marching band 

12 D Country-western 
nDBIuegrass 

14 D Rock 

isDThe music of a particular Ethnic/ 
National tradition 

16 D Contemporary folk music 

17 D Mood/Easy listening 

18 D New age music 

19 D Choral/Glee club 

20 D Hymns/Gospel 
21 D All 

22 D None/Don't like to listen to music - Skip to item 38a 



b. If only one category is marked in 37a, enter code in 
37b without asking. Which of these do you like 
best? 



099 



Category number 



00D No one type best 



38a. Have you EVER taken lessons or classes in 
music - either voice training or playing an 
instrument? 



100 



1 D No - Skip to item 39a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



101 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM A 



Refer to item 38b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 38b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item B 
DYes - Ask item 38c 



38c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



102 



1D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM B 



the respondent is under 25 years old? 

DNo - Skip to item 39a 
DYes - Ask item 38d 



38d.Did you take any of these lessons or 
classes in the past year? 



J°lI 1DN0 
2 DYes 



39a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or 

classes) in visual arts such as sculpture, 
painting, print making, photography, or 
film making? 



104 



1 D No - Skip to item 40a 
2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



105 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2 D 1 2-1 7 years old 

3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM C 



Refer to item 39b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 39b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item D 
DYes - Ask item 39c 



39c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



106 I 1D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM D 



Refer to item 39b 

If box 4 is marked in item 39b, ASK item 39d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 39b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

D No - Skip to item 40a 
DYes - Ask item 39d 



39d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



107 



iDNO 

2 DYes 



40a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
acting or theater? 



108 



1 D No - Skip to item 4 1a 

2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



109 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



Refer to item 38b 

If box 4 is marked in item 38b, ASK item 38d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 38b AND 



CHECK 
ITEM E 



Refer to item 40b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 40b? 

DNo - Skip to Check Item F 
D Yes - Ask item 40c 



40c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



1,0 I 1 D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



FORM SPPA 2 (4-9-92I 



Page 5 



CHECK 
ITEM F 



Refer to item 40b 

If box 4 is marked in item 40b, ASK item 40d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 40b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

DNo - Skip to item 41a 
DYes - Ask item 40d 



40d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



111 



iDNo 
2d Yes 



41 a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
ballet? 



112 



1 D No - Skip to item 42a 
2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



113 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2 □ 1 2-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 

4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM G 



Refer to item 41b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 41b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item H 
DYes - Ask item 41c 



41c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



1 D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM H 



Refer to item 41b 

If box 4 is marked in item 41b, ASK item 41d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 41b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

D No - Skip to item 42a 
\3Yes-Askitem41d 



41 d. Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



115 



iDNO 

2 DYes 



42a. (Have you EVER taken lessons or classes) in 
dance, other than ballet such as modern, folk 
or tap? 



116 



1 D No - Skip to item 43a 
2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were - 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 

1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
2D 12-1 7 years old 

3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM I 



Refer to item 42b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 42b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item J 
DYes - Ask item 42c 



42c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 



118 



1D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM J 



Refer to item 42b 

If box 4 is marked in item 42b, ASK item 42d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 42b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

D No - Skip to item 43a 
DYes - Ask item 42d 



42d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



119 



iDNO 

2 DYes 



43a. Have you EVER taken lessons or classes in 
creative writing? 



120 



1 D No - Skip to item 44a 

2 DYes 



b. Did you take these lessons when you were 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



121 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
% 2 D 1 2-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



CHECK 
ITEM K 



Refer to item 43b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 43b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item L 
DYes - Ask item 43c 



43c. Were these lessons or classes offered by the 
elementary or high school you were 
attending or did you take these lessons 
elsewhere? 

122 I 1 D Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM L 



Refer to item 43b 

If box 4 is marked in item 43b, ASK item 43d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 43b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

D No - Skip to item 44a 
DYes - Ask item 43d 



43d. Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



123 



iDNO 

2 DYes 



44a. (Have you EVER taken a class) in art 
appreciation or art history? 



124 



1 D No - Skip to item 45a 
2 DYes 



b. Did you take this class when you were • 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 



125 



1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
3g 2D 12-1 7 years old 
3D 18-24 years old 
4 D 25 or older 



75 



Page 6 



FORM SPPA-2 H-9-92) 



CHECK 
ITEM M 



Refer to item 44b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 44b? 

DNo - Skip to Check Item N 
□ Yes - Ask item 44c 



44c. Was this class offered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take this class elsewhere? 



iD Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
aD Both 



45c. Was this class offered by the elementary or 
high school you were attending or did you 
take this class elsewhere? 

130 I iD Elementary/high school 
2D Elsewhere 
3D Both 



CHECK 
ITEM P 



CHECK 
ITEM N 



Refer to item 44b 

If box 4 is marked in item 44b, ASK item 44d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 44b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

D No - Skip to item 45a 
D Yes - Ask item 446 



44d.Did you take any of these lessons or classes 
in the past year? 



iDNo 
2D Yes 



45a. (Have you EVER taken a class) in music 
appreciation? 



2£iJ 1 D No - Skip to item 46a 
2D Yes 



b. Did you take this class when you were ■ 

Read categories. (Do not read category 4 if 
respondent is under 25 years old.) 
Mark (X) all that apply. 

129 I 1 D Less than 1 2 years old 
* 2D 12-1 7 years old 

3D 18-24 years old 

4 D 25 or older 



Refer to item 45b 

If box 4 is marked in item 45b, ASK item 45d. 

If not - Is box 2 or 3 marked in item 45b AND 
the respondent is under 25 years old? 

DNo - Skip to item 46a 
DYes - Ask item 45d 



45d.Did you take this class in the past year? 



131 



iDNO 

2 DYes 



46a. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your FATHER completed? 



132 



01 D 7th grade or less 
02 D 8th grade 
osD9th-11th grades 

04 D 12th grade 

05 D College (did not complete) 

06 D Completed college (4+ years) 

07 D Post graduate degree (M.A., Ph.D., M.D., J.D., etc.) 
08 D Don't know 



b. What is the highest grade (or year) of regular 
school your MOTHER completed? 



133 1 01 D7th grade or less 
02 D 8th grade 
03D9th-11th grades 
04 D 12th grade 

05 D College (did not complete) 
06 D Completed college (4+ years) 
07 D Post graduate degree (M.A., Ph.D., M.D., J.D., etc.) 
08 D Don't know 



CHECK 
ITEM 



Refer to item 45b 

Is box 1 or 2 marked in item 45b? 

D No - Skip to Check Item P 
DYes - Ask item 45c 



CHECK 
ITEM Q 



Is this the LAST household member to be 
interviewed? 

D No - Go back to the NCS-1 and interview the 
next eligible NCS household member 

DYes - END INTERVIEW 




FORM SPPA-2 I2-9-92I 



Page 7 



The Survey of Public Participation in the Arts has been conducted 
in cooperation with a much larger multi-agency data collection 
program of the Bureau of the Census. Each cooperating agency has 
its own questionnaire for specific questions. General questions 
are asked separately and shared. Therefore, these questions are 
not included on the special forms for the Endowment's Survey of 
Public Participation in the Arts. 

The following list names the data that is available for analysis in 
combination with the information collected on the questionnaire for 
the Survey of Public Participation in the Arts. 

A. Geography 

1. The following geographic data is available on the 
computer tape. It is possible to combine these with the 
arts participation data in many different ways including 
detailed correlation and regression analyses. 

a . Urban 

b. Rural (farm, non-farm, 10 acres or more, 10 acres 
or less) 

c. Population size of place (16 levels of population 
subdivision) 

d. Description of place (central city of an SMSA, 
central city of an urbanized area only, other 
incorporated place, unincorporated place) 

e. Standard Metropolitan Statistical Area (central 
city, SMSA-outside central city, outside SMSA) 

2. The second group of geographic data that follows is 
available in tabular format only and requires a special 
contract with the Bureau of the Census. It is not 
possible to use the tabular data in more sophisticated 
correlations or regression analyses. The subdivision of 
the geographic data into the two groups and the 
limitations on the use of the second group are imposed by 
the Bureau of the Census to maintain the privacy of the 
individuals responding to the survey. 

a. State (name of state) 

b. County (name of county) 

c. Metropolitan status of county (in a single county 
SMSA, central county of a multi-county SMSA, 
suburban county of an SMSA) 



d. Status of non-metropolitan counties (with places of 
25,000 to 50,000, with places of 10,000 to 25,000, 
with urban places but no place over 10,000, no 
urban population) 

e. SMSA (name of SMSA) 

f. Population size of SMSA (5 levels of population 
subdivision) 

B. Demography 

The following kinds of demographic data are available on the 
computer tape and permits combination with the arts 
participation questions in many different ways including 
detailed correlation and regression analysis. 

1. Race (White, Black, Other) 

2. Origin (20 origin codes including German, Italian, Irish, 
French, Polish, Mexican-American, Puerto Rican, Afro- 
American) 

3. Age 

4. Marital Status 

5. Sex 

6. Relationship in household (husband, wife, son, etc.) 

7. Highest grade or year of school attended or completed 

8. Combined household income (14 levels of income 
subdivision) 

9. Number of children in household 

C. Housing 

Many housing details are available on the computer tape. 
Examples of possible housing data that can be obtained are: 

1. Type of housing unit 

2. Telephone availability 

3 . Number of housing units in structure 

4. Tenure of living quarters (owned, rented, occupied 
without payment of cash rent) 



D. Occupation and Employment 

The background data collected includes the standard questions 
used to develop the Department of Labor's employment and 
unemployment statistics. Data is available on the computer 
tape that is comparable with the regular federal reports on 
occupation and employment. These include: 

1. Employment status (labor force status) 

2. Reason for unemployment 

3. Extent of job search efforts 

4. Occupation 

5. Type of employing organization 



RESOURCES FOR PROFESSIONAL ASSISTANCE 

The following national arts service organizations may provide lists of 
consultants or referrals for professional services in the area of research. 
Some also offer research publications. 

1. American Association of Museums 

Technical Information Service and AAM Bookstore 
1225 Eye Street, N.W., Suite 200 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 289-1818 

2. American Symphony Orchestra League 

777 14th Street, N.W., Suite 500 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 628-0099 

3. Association of Performing Arts Presenters 

1112 16th Street, N.W, Suite 400 
Washington, DC 20036 
(202) 833-2787 

4. International Association of Auditorium Managers 

4425 W. Airport Freeway, Suite 590 
Irving, TX 75062 
(214) 255-8020 

5. International Society for the Performing Arts 

2920 Fuller Ave., N.E., Suite 205 
Grand Rapids, MI 49505 
(616) 364-3000 

6. League of Historic American Theatres 

1511 K Street, N.W, Suite 923 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 783-6966 

7. National Assembly of State Arts Agencies 

1010 Vermont Ave., N.W, #920 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 347-6352 

8. National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies 

927 15th Street, N.W, 12th Fl. 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 371-2830 

9. National Endowment for the Arts 

Research Office 
1100 Pennsylvania Ave. 
Washington, DC 20506 
(202) 682-5432 



SELECTED GEOGRAPHY DEFINITIONS 



Geography 

U.S. Census 
Division 



Description 



The U.S. Census Bureau has divided all 50 states in the U.S. into nine 
regional divisions: New England, Middle Atlantic, South Atlantic, East 
North Central, East South Central, West North Central, West South 
Central, Mountain, and Pacific. 



State, County 
ADI 



MSA 
(Census-defined) 



Defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. 



"Area of Dominant Influence" - defined by Arbitron as a group of 
counties or county parts that define a television viewing area. 

"Metropolitan Statistical Area" - an urbanized area such as a grouping 
of counties generally with a population of at least 50,000. 



Place 

(Census-defined) 



ZIP Code 

(Postal-defined) 



Census Tract 

(Census-defined) 



Cities, towns, villages, boroughs, etc., which may cross county 
boundaries. (For example, census data is available on states, counties, 
places, census tracts and block groups.) 

The standard five-digit ZIP Code denotes the area of the country and 
the U.S. Postal Service delivery office for a particular address. There 
are approximately 36,000 ZIP Codes in the U.S. 



A relatively small unit of geography containing between 2,500 and 
8,000 residents. Generally, census tracts do not cross county 
boundaries. 



Block Group 

(Census-defined) 



ZIP+4 

(Postal-defined) 



Census tracts are sub-divided into block groups containing between 
200 to 300 households, on average. Block groups are the smallest 
geographies for which census data is publicly available. 

ZIP+4 is a postal code assigned by the U.S. Post Office which facilitates 
address identification and mail sorting. In the ZIP+4 extension, the 
first two digits denote the delivery sector, which can be several blocks, 
a group of streets, several buildings or a small geographic area. The 
last two digits denote a delivery segment within the delivery sector. 
The delivery segment can be one floor of an office building, one side of 
a street, specific departments within a firm, or a group of Post Office 
boxes. Generally, a ZIP+4 contains between 5 to 15 households. There 
are over 23 million ZIP+4s in the U.S. 



&4 



Sampling Error Table 

Any value derived from the use of sampling methodologies reflects the "true but unknown" values 
which occur in the data. For example, simply because the mean age for survey respondents in a 
given area is 46, this number is not absolute. There is variability surrounding this "point estimate" - 
since it was derived through sampling techniques and not through a census of the entire area. 
Therefore, a standard error must be calculated to define the area surrounding the point estimate in 
which the actual "true but unknown" value lies. Sampling error is affected by three variables: 

1. the sample size 

2. the "level of confidence" desired 

3. the sample statistic to be tested 

The formulas for computing sampling error and other measures of variability may be found in a sta- 
tistics textbook. 26 The table below lists sampling error rates for various sample sizes and survey 
results at the 95% confidence level. 

For example, say that 21.5% of respondents to a survey indicated that they attended at least one 
stage play in the past year. If the sample size was 400, and you wish to know the margin of error, 
find the "Survey Result" row for "20% or 80%" then move over to the column for "Sample Size" equals 
400. The figure you want is 3.92%. Therefore, you can say that the actual number of people in the 
population you sampled who attended a play in the past 12 months is 21.5% plus or minus 3.92% at 
the 95% confidence level. 



Margins of Error for Survey Results 

(95% Confidence Level) 

Sample Size 
Survey Result j 100 j 200 I 300 j 400 j 500 j 600 | 800 



1000 I 1500 



5% or 95% 
10% or 90% 



4.27 
5.88 



3.02 
4.16 



2.47 
3.39 



2.14 
2.94 



1.91 
2.63 



1.74 
2.40 



1.51 
2.08 



1.35 
1.86 



1.10 
1.52 



15% or 85% 


7.00 


4.95 


4.04 


3.50 


3.13 


2.86 | 


2.47 


2.21 


1.81 


20% or 80% 


7.84 j 


5.54 


4.53 


3.92 


3.51 


3.20 


2.77 


2.48 . 


2.02 


25% or 75% 


1 8.49 | 


6.00 


4.90 


4.24 


3.80 


3.46 


3.00 


2.68 | 


2.19 


30% or 70% 


8.98 ; 


6.35 


5.19 


4.49 


4.02 
4.18 


3.67 | 


3.18 


2.84^ 


2.32 


35% or 65% 


9.35 


6.61 


5.40 


4.67 


3.82 \ 


3.31 


2.96 | 


2.41 


40% or 60% 


9.60 


6.79 


5.54 


4.80 


4.29 


3.92 | 


3.39 


3.04! 


2.48 


45% or 55% 


! 9.75 1 


6.89 


5.63 


4.88 


4.36 


3.98 | 


3.45 


3.08 I 


2.52 


50%> 


! 9.80 ! 


6.93 


5.66 


4.90 


4.38 


4.00 \ 


3.46 


3.10 ! 


2.53 



26 A widely used textbook on statistics is Statistics for Business and Economics , by James McClave and P. George Benson, 
1985, Dellen Publishing Company, ISBN 0-02-378770-8. 



Cf/C- 



CENSUS-DEFINED DEMOGRAPHIC COHORTS 

In designing arts participation surveys, it is often beneficial to use standard demographic categories 
or "cohorts" defined by the U.S. Census Bureau. Survey results for a given geography can then be 
compared to Census data for the same area. Census data is widely available through libraries and 
commercial sources. Census cohorts for age, education, income, occupation, marital status and 
race/ethnicity are provided below, along with "alternative" cohorts which may be groupings of census 
cohorts or other categories used by researchers. 



Census 
Cohorts 



Alternative 
Cohorts 



LAge 



0-4Yrs. 
5-9Yrs. 
10-14Yrs. 
15-17Yrs. 
18 - 20 Yrs. 
21-24Yrs. 
25 -29 Yrs. 
30 - 34 Yrs. 
35 -39 Yrs. 
40 -44 Yrs. 
45 - 49 Yrs. 
50 -54 Yrs. 
55 - 59 Yrs. 
60 -64 Yrs. 
65 -69 Yrs. 
70 - 74 Yrs. 
75 -84 Yrs. 
85+ Yrs. 



Under 18 Yrs. 
18 - 24 Yrs. 
25 -34 Yrs. 
35 -44 Yrs. 
45 -54 Yrs. 
55 -64 Yrs. 
65 - 74 Yrs. 
75+ Yrs. 



2. Education 

(highest level 
completed) 



3. Income 

(total annual 

household 

income) 



0-8Yrs. 

Some High School 
High School 
Some College 
Associates Degree 
Bachelors Degree 
Graduate Degree 



Under - $5,000 
$5,000 - $15,000 
$15,000 - $25,000 
$25,000 - $35,000 
$35,000 - $50,000 
$50,000 - $75,000 
$75,000 - $100,000 
$100,000 - $150,000 
Over $150,000 



Less Than High School 

High School Graduate 

Vocational School 

Some College/Associates Degree 

Bachelors Degree 

Some Graduate Study 

Graduate Degree 



Under $25,000 
$25,000 - $35,000 
$35,000 - $50,000 
$50,000 - $75,000 
$75,000 - $100,000 
$100,000 - $125,000 
$125,000 - $150,000 
Over $150,000 



ss 



Census 
Cohorts 



Alternative 
Cohorts 



4. Occupational 
Status 



Admin. & Management 

Professional Specialty 

Technical Support 

Sales 

Admin. & Clerical 

Private Household Occup. 

Protective Services 

Other Service 

Farming, Forestry & Fishing 

Precision Crafts & Repair 

Machine Operator 

Transportation & Moving 

Laborers 



In-School Full-Time 
Working Full-Time (for pay) 
Working Part-Time (for pay) 
Unemployed/Seeking Work 
Homemaker Full-Time 
Volunteer Work Full-Time 
Retired 



5. Marital Status 



Married 

Single 

Previously Married 



Married/Life Partner 
Single, Never Married 
Separated or Divorced 
Widowed 



6. Race/Ethnicity 



White 
Black 

American Indian 
Asian Chinese 
Asian Japanese 
Asian Indian 
Asian Korean 
Asian Vietnamese 
Asian Other 
Pacific Islander 
Other 

Hispanic* 
Hispanic White 
Hispanic Black 
Hispanic Amer. Indian 
Hispanic Asian 
Hispanic Other 
Non-Hispanic 



Alaskan Native 
Asian/Pacific Islander 
Black/African American 
Hispanic/Latino Origin 
Native Amer./Amer. Indian 
White, Not Hispanic 
Other 



*independent of race 



Bibliography on Public Participation in the Arts 

The following bibliography includes publications and reports related to public participation in the 
arts, including national and local studies commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts and 
various other agencies. Local studies are listed separately at the end for ease of reference. 



Publications and Reports on Research 

Commissioned by the National Endowment for the Arts 

Final reports of research projects administered through the Research Division of the National Endowment for the Arts are 
available through the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC), sponsored by the National Institute of Education 
of the U.S. Department of Education. Where applicable, ERIC reference numbers are included in the listings below. 

Inquiries concerning the availability of microfishe or paper copies of these documents should be directed to ERIC 
Document Reproduction Service, Cincinnati Bell Information Systems (CBIS) Federal, 7420 Fullerton Road, Suite 110, 
Springfield, VA 22153-2852. Telephone (703) 440-1400 or toll-free (800) 443-ERIC. Fax number (703) 440-1408. 



Abreu, Dan; Friedman, Andrea; Logan, Catrina; Reinhart, 
Kay; and Ziff, Charles, Survey of Public Participation in the 
Arts: Musical Theatre. Operetta, and Opera Attendees . 
National Endowment for the Arts, 1987, (ERIC No. 289760). 

Andreason, Alan R. and Belk, Russell W., Audience 
Development: An Examin ation of Selected Analysis and 
Prediction Techniques Applied to Symphony and Theatre 
Attendance in Four Southern Cities . Research Division 
Report #14, National Endowment for the Arts, 1981, (ERIC 
No. 283754). 

Andreasen, Alan R., Expanding the Audience for the 
Performing Arts . National Endowment for the Arts and 
Seven Locks Press, Washington, DC, 1991, (ERIC No. 
289804). 

Blau, Judith R. and Quets, Gail A., The Geography of Arts 
Participation: Report on the 1982 and 1985 Survey of Public 
Participation in the Arts . National Endowment for the Arts, 
1987, (ERIC No. ED289762). 

Citro, Constance F, Public Participation in the Arts in 
America: A Review of Data Sources and Data Needs . 1990, 
Research Division, National Endowment for the Arts. 

Cwi, David, editor, Research in the Arts: Proceedings of the 
Conference on Policy Related Studies of the National 
Endowment for the Arts . December 7-9, 1977, (ERIC No. 
ED227023) Includes the following arts participation-related 
articles: 

Orend, Richard, "Developing Research on the Arts 

Consumer" 
Andreasen, Alan R. and Belk, Russell W, "Consumer 

Response to Arts Offerings: A Study of Theatre and 

Symphony in Four Southern Cities" (ERIC No. 

ED230450) 
Peterson, George L. and Anas, Alex, "A Behavioral 

Approach for Assessing the Demands for Cultural and 

Artistic Recreational Activities" 
Katzman, Natan, "How Broadcasters Assess the Response 

to Program Offerings" 



Cwi, David, "The Policy Uses of Audience Studies" 
Useem, Michael and DiMaggio, Paul, "A Critical Review of 
the Content, Quality and Use of Audience Studies" 

DiMaggio, Paul J.; Useem, Michael and Brown, Paula, The 
American Arts Audience: Its Study and Its Character . 
National Endowment for the Arts, 1977. 

DiMaggio, Paul J.; Useem, Michael and Brown, Paula, 
Audience Studies of the Performing Arts and Museums: A 
Critical Review . Research Division Report #9, National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1978. 

DiMaggio, Paul J. and Ostrower, Francie, Race, Ethnicity 
and Participation in the Arts: Patterns of Participation by 
Hispanic. White and African- Americans in Selected 
Activities from the 1982 and 1985 Surveys of Public 
Participation in the Arts . Seven Lock Press, Washington, 
DC, 1992, (ERIC No. 293759). 

Horowitz, Harold, The American Jazz Music Audience . 
National Jazz Service Organization, Washington, DC, 1986, 
(ERIC No. ED280757). 

Keegan, Carol, Public Participation in Classical Ballet: A 
Special Analysis of the Ballet Data Collected in the 1982 
and 1985 Survey of Public Participation in the Arts . 
National Endowment for the Arts, 1987, (ERIC No. 288756). 

National Endowment for the Arts, A Sourcebook of Arts 
Statistics: 1991 (1989. 1987) . Washington, DC, 1992, 1990, 
1988, (ERIC No. ED349240). 

National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division, 
Surveying Your Arts Audience . Washington, DC, 1985. 

National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division Report 
#17, The Arts Public in the South . Publishing Center for 
Cultural Resources, New York, 1984. (ERIC No. ED286785) 
National Endowment for the Arts, Research Division 
Report #4, Arts and Cultural Programs on Radio and 
Television . Washington, DC, 1977, (ERIC No. ED165205). 



OS. 



O 



National Endowment for the Arts, "Research on Public 
Participation in the Arts: Summary Report on the 
December 1992 Conference," also "Conference Overview 
and Research Issues," Research Division, 1993. 

Orend, Richard J., Leisure Participation in the South 1980: 
Volumes I-III . Human Resources Research Organization 
and National Endowment for the Arts, 1980, (ERIC No. 
ED206521, 2, & 3). 

Orend, Richard J., Socialization and Participation in the 
Arts . National Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 
1989, (ERIC No. ED283768). 

Robinson, John P.; Keegan, Carol A., and Triplett, Timothy 
A., Survey of Public Participation in the Arts: 1985 . Volume 
I Project Report. University of Maryland and National 
Endowment for the Arts, Washington, DC, 1987, (ERIC No. 
289763). 

Robinson, John P., Arts Participation in America: 1982- 
1992 , Prepared by Jack Faucett Associates, Research 
Division Report #27, National Endowment for the Arts, 
1993. 

Schuster, J. Mark Davidson, The Audience for American Art 
Museums . Seven Locks Press, Washington, DC, 1991, 
(ERIC No. 294780). 

West, Jerry, Public Participation in the Arts: Demands and 
Barriers . National Endowment for the Arts, 1987, (ERIC 
No. ED287764). 

Zill, Nicholas and Winglee, Marianne, Who Reads 
Literature? The Future of the United States as a Nation of 
Readers . Seven Locks Press, Washington, DC, 1989, (ERIC 
No. 302812). 

Waterman, David; Schechter, Russell and Contractor, 
Nashir S., Public Participation in the Arts via the Media . 
National Endowment for the Arts, 1987, (ERIC No. 290674). 



Other Publications and Reports 
on Arts Participation 

American Association of Museums, Resource Report, Visitor 
Surveys: A User's Manual , by Randi Korn and Laurie Sowd, 
1990. 

Andreasen, Alan R. and Belk, Russell W, "The Effect of 
Family Life Cycle on Arts Patronage," Journal of Cultural 
Economics . 6:2, pp. 25-35. 

Arts for America/NALAA, The Arts in Rural Areas . 
Washington, DC, 1988. 

Balfe, Judith H. and Heine, Joni Cherbo, editors, Arts Ed- 
ucation Beyond the Classroom . ACA Books, New York, 1988. 

Balfe, Judith H. "Social Mobility and Modern Art," Social 
Movements. Conflict and Change . Vol. 4 (1981), pp. 235-251. 



Bailey, Robert H.; Dixon, Brian; and Courtney, Alice; The 
Museum and the Canadian Public . Culturcan Publications, 
1974, for the Arts and Culture Branch, Dept. of the 
Secretary of State, Government of Canada. 

Bamossy, Gary, "Socializing Experiences as Predictors of 
Performing Arts Patronage Behavior," Journal of Cultural 
Economics . 6:2, pp. 37-43. 

Baumol, William J. and Bowen, William G., Performing 
Arts: The Economic Dilemma . The Twentieth Century 
Fund, New York, 1966. 

Blattberg, Robert C. and Broderick, Cynthia J., "Marketing 
of Art Museums" in Feldstein, Martin, The Economics of Art 
Museums . University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991, pp. 
327-346. 

Blatti, Jo, editor, Past Meets Present: Essays about Historic 
Interpretation and Public Audiences . Smithsonian 
Institution Press, Washington, DC, 1987. 

Cameron, S., "The Supply and Demand for Cinema Tickets: 
Some U.K. Evidence," Journal of Cultural Economics . 10:1, 
June 1986, pp. 38-62. 

Cornwell, Terri Lynn, Democracy and the Arts: The Role of 
Participation . Praeger, New York, 1990. 

Cwi, David, "Changes in the U.S. Audience for the Arts," 
Governments and Culture . Association of Cultural 
Economics, 1984, pp. 32-42. 

Cwi, David, "Market Segments for Theatre: Research to 
Increase Arts Participation," Economic Efficiency and the 
Performing Arts . Association of Cultural Economics, 1986, 
pp. 150-158. 

Dickenson, Victoria, "Museum Visitor Surveys: An 
Overview, 1930-1990," Cultural Economics . Ruth Towse and 
Abdul Khakee, editors, Springer- Verlag, New York, 1992, 
pp. 141-150. 

DiMaggio, Paul J. and Useem, Michael, "Cultural 
Democracy in a Period of Cultural Expansion: The Social 
Composition of Arts Audiences in the United States," Social 
Problems . Vol. 26, 1978, pp. 179-97. 

Evrand, Yves, "The Determinants of Cultural 
Consumption," Artists and Cultural Consumer . Association 
of Cultural Economics, Akron, OH, 1986, pp. 192-201. 

Falk, John H., Leisure Decisions Influencing African- 
American Use of Museums . American Association of 
Museums, 1993. 

Feldstein, Martin, editor, The Economics of Art Museums . 
University of Chicago Press, Chicago, 1991, "The Museum 
and the Public," a panel discussion, Ch. 2, pp. 35-60. 

Felton, Marianne Victorius, "Major Influences on the 
Demand for Opera Tickets," Journal of Cultural Economics . 
13:1, pp. 53-64. 



c5o 



Felton, Marianne Victorius, "On The Assumed Inelasticity 
of Demand for the Performing Arts," Journal of Cultural 
Economics . 16:1, June 1992, pp. 1-12. 

Fitzhugh, Lynne, "An Analysis of Audience Studies for the 
Performing Arts in America."k Journal of Arts Management 
and Law . Part I: "The Audience Profile" is in 13:2, Summer 
1983, pp. 49-85; Part II: "Market Behavior" is in 13:3, Fall 
1983, pp. 5-31. 

Gapinski, James H., "Economics, Demographics and 
Attendance at the Symphony," Journal of Cultural 
Economics . 5:2, pp. 79-83. 

Gray, Charles M., "Subsidizing the Arts with Vouchers: A 
Case Study of the Twin Cities Metropolitan Arts Alliance," 
1992, unpublished paper. 

Harris, Louis, and Associates, Americans and the Arts: A 
Nationwide Survey of Public Opinion , periodic surveys, 
American Council for the Arts, New York, 1992, 1988, etc. 

Heilbrun, James, "The Distribution of Arts Activities Among 
U.S. Metropolitan Areas," Cultural Economics 88: An 
American Perspective . Association of Cultural Economics, 
1988, pp. 33-40. 

Heilbrun, James, "Growth and Geographic Distribution on 
the Arts in the U.S.," Artists and Cultural Consumers . 
Association of Cultural Economics, Akron, OH, 1986, pp. 24- 
35. 

Hendon, Mary Ann; Richardson, James F. and Hendon, 
William S., Bach and the Box: The Impact of Television on 
the Live Arts . Journal of Cultural Economics, Special 
Supplement, 1985. 

Hendon, R. Claude, "A Comparative Study of Leisure 
Activities of the Elderly in the Community and in Nursing 
Homes," Cultural Economics 88: An American Perspective . 
Association of Cultural Economics, 1988, pp. 143-148. 

Hendon, R. Claude, "Arts Participation: Comparing the 
Elderly and Non-Elderly," Journal of Cultural Economics . 
16:1, pp. 83-92. 

Hoffman, Miles K. and Fritschner, Linda Marie, "Arts and 
Art Audiences: Testing the Market," The Journal of Arts 
Management and Law . 14:2, Summer 1984, pp. 5-19. 

Hood, Marilyn, "Staying Away: Why People Choose Not to 
Visit an Art Museum," Museum News . April 1983, pp. 
50-57. 

Hood, Marilyn, "Getting Started in Audience Research," 
(Museum News . February, 1986, pp. 25-31. 

Horowitz, Harold; Keegan, Carol and Kempnich, Barbara, 
L Cultural Participation and Geographic/ Population 
Schema: From New York City to the Rural Farm," Artists 
and Cultural Consumers . 1986, pp. 36-50. 



Hughes, Michael A. and Peterson, Richard A., "Isolating 
Cultural Choice Patterns in the U.S. Population," American 
Behavioral Scientist . Vol. 26, March/April 1983, pp. 459- 
478. 

Johnson, Alton C. and Prieve, E. Arthur, Older Americans: 
The Unrealized Audience for the Arts . Center for Arts 
Administration, University of Wisconsin, Madison, 1975. 

Kangun, Norman; Otto, Gordon and Randall, Dana C, 
"Marketing Strategies for Bolstering Symphony Attendance 
among College Students," Journal of Cultural Economics . 
16:1, June 1992, pp. 25-40. 

Katz, Jonathan and Sikes, Torn Fountain, editors, 
Consumer Behavior and the Arts , a special issue of The 
Journal of Arts Management and Law . 15:1, Spring 1985. 
(entire issue). 

Kurabayashi, Yoshimasa and Ito, Takatoshi, "Socio- 
Economic Characteristics of Audiences for Western Classical 
Music in Japan: A Statistical Analysis," Cultural Economics . 
Ruth Towse and Abdul Khakee, editors, Springer- Verlag, 
New York, 1992, pp. 275-287. 

McCain, Roger A., "Game Theory and Cultivation of Taste," 
Journal of Cultural Economics . 10:1, pp. 1-16. 

McCain, Roger A., "Reflections on the Cultivation of Taste," 
Journal of Cultural Economics . 3:1, pp. 30-50. 

McCaughey, C, A Survey of Arts Audience Studies: A 
Canadian Perspective. 1967 to 1984. Research and 
Evaluation, The Canada Council, Ottawa, 1984. 

Mitchel, Arnold, The Professional Performing Arts: 
Attendance Patterns. Preferences and Motives . Association 
of College, University and Community Arts Administrators 
Inc., Madison, Wisconsin, 1984. 

Morison, Bradley G. and Fliehr, Kay, In Search of an 
Audience: How an Audience was Found for the Tyrone 
Guthrie Theatre . Pitman, New York, 1968. 

Morison, Bradley G. and Dalgleish, Julie Gordon, Waiting in 
the Wings . American Council for the Arts, New York 1987. 

Morrison, William G. and West, Edwin G., "Child Exposure 
to the Performing Arts: The Implications for Adult 
Demand." Journal of Cultural Economics . 10:1, pp. 17-23. 

O'Hare, Michael, "Why Do People Go to Museums? The 
Effect of Prices and Hours on Museum Utilization," 
Museum . 27:3, pp. 134-146. 

Owen, Virginia Lee and Hendon, William S., editors, 
Managerial Economics for the Arts. Association of Cultural 
Economics, Akron, OH, 1985. Section on "Measuring Arts 
Participation," pp. 181-206 includes the following articles: 

Horowitz, Harold, "Measuring Arts Participation in 

Canada and the United States" 
Kinsley, Brian L., "Cultural Activities Surveys - The 

Canadian Case" 



Robinson, John P., "Estimating the Public's Exposure to 

and Expenditures on the Arts" 
Zuzanek, Jiri, "Studies of Arts and Cultural Participation: 

Problems and Controversies" 

Pankratz, David B., "Arts Policy and Older Adults" The 
Journal of Arts Management and Law , 18:4, Winter 1989, 
pp. 13-64. 

Pankratz, David B. and Morris, Valerie B., editors, The 
Future of the Arts: Public Policy and Arts Research . 
Praeger, New York, 1990, "Part III: Social Trends and 
Research on Public Participation in the Arts," pp. 63-187, 
includes the following articles: 

Cornwell, Terri Lynn, "Democracy and the Arts: The Role 

of Participation" 
Shuster, J. Mark Davidson, "Correlates of State Arts 

Support: The Geographic Distribution of 

Organizations, Artists, and Participation" 
DiMaggio, Paul J. and Ostrower, Francie, "Participation 

in the Arts by Black and White Americans" 
Meyersohn, Rolf, "Culture in the Bronx: Minority 

Participation in the Arts" 
Keller, Anthony S., "Arts Policy, Cultural Diversity, and 

the New Century" 
Pankratz, David B., "Arts Policy in an Aging Society" 
Also see extensive "Selected Bibliography", pp. 289-310. 

Peterson, Richard A. "Patterns of Cultural Choice", special 
issue, American Behavioral Scientist . Vol. 26, 1983. 

Pommerehne, Werner W and Kirchgassner, Gebhard, "The 
Decline of Conventional Culture: The Impact of Television 
on the Demand for Cinema and Theatre Performances," 
Economic Efficiency and the Performing Arts . 1986, pp. 44- 
61. 

Rau, William, "Does Education Lead to Fine Arts 
Appreciation?" Artists and Cultural Consumer . Association 
of Cultural Economics, 1986, pp. 284-286. 

Reed, John Shelton and Marsden, Peter, Leisure Time Use 
in the South: Secondary Analysis . National Endowment for 
the Arts, 1980. 

Robinson, John P. "Cultural Indicators from the Leisure 
Activity Survey", American Behavioral Scientist . Vol. 26, 
1983, pp. 543-552. 

Schliewen, Rolf E., A Leisure Study - Canada 1975 . Arts 
and Culture Branch, Department of the Secretary of State, 
1977. 

Schuster, J. Mark Davidson; An Inquiry into the 
Geographic Correlates of Government Arts Funding . 
National Endowment for the Arts, 1988. 

Semenik, Richard and Bamossy, Gary "Methodological 
Issues in Arts Marketing Research", Managerial Economics 
for the Arts . Virginia Lee Owen and William S. Hendon, edi- 
tors, Association of Cultural Economics, Akron Ohio, 1985, 
pp. 23-34. 



Vaughan, D. Roger, "Marketing: A Positive Approach to 
Managing Recreational Use of Sites in the Countryside", 
Managerial Economics for the Arts . Virginia Lee Owen and 
William S. Hendon, editors, Association of Cultural 
Economics, Akron, Ohio, 1985, pp. 143-150. 

Waterman, David; Schechter, Russell and Contractor, 
Nashir S., "Overcoming Barriers to the Live Arts: Can the 
Media Compensate?" Journal of Cultural Economics . 15:2, 
pp. 19-40. 

Wyszomirski, Margaret Jane and Clubb, Pat, editors, The 
Cost of Culture: Patterns and Prospects of Private Arts 
Patronag e. ACA Books, New York, 1989. 

Zuzanek, Jiri and Lee, Marlene, "Social Ecology of Arts 
Audiences," Journal of Cultural Economics . 9:1, June 1985, 
pp. 65-84. 



Selected Local Area 

Arts Participation Research 

Dane County Arts Study , conducted for the Madison (WI) 
Community Foundation by Gene Kroupa & Associates, 
1993. 

Cultural Participation in the Philadelphia Area , commis- 
sioned by the Greater Philadelphia Cultural Alliance 
through the William Penn Foundation, 1985, conducted by 
the Survey Research Center, University of Maryland, 
(directed by John P. Robinson) (ERIC No. ED263028). 

Marketing the Arts in Cleveland: An In-Depth Survey , com- 
missioned by the Cleveland Foundation, 1984-1985, con- 
ducted by Ziff Marketing Inc., and Clark, Martire & 
Bartolomeo, Inc. 

Cleveland Arts Marketing Study: The Outer Market , com- 
missioned by the Cleveland Foundation, 1985, conducted by 
Ziff Marketing Inc., and Clark, Martire & Bartolomeo, Inc. 

Bay Area Research Project: A Multi-Cultural Audience 
Study for Bay Area Museums , sponsored by the Bay Area 
Research Consortium, 1994, research conducted by Museum 
Management Consultants, Adrienne Horn, Project Director. 

Summary Report: 12 Local Studies of Public Participation 
in the Arts . Research Division Report #26, National 
Endowment for the Arts, 1993, research conducted by Abt 
Associates and AMS Planning & Research Corp. (ERIC No. 
ED362452). 

Summary Report: Audience Researcb Consortium, (Ontario, 
Canada), 1993, (Art Gallery of Ontario, Royal Ontario 
Museum, Ontario Science Center, Metropolitan Toronto 
Zoo) research conducted by Ernst & Young, funded through 
the Ontario Government and the Canada Department of 
Communications. 



oc 



About NALAA's Institute for 
Community Development and the Arts 

The purpose of NALAA's Institute for Community Development and the Arts is to promote local 
government funding for the arts. This will be accomplished by educating local arts agencies, elected 
and appointed municipal officials and arts funders about the important role of the arts as 
community change agents for economic, social and educational problems. NALAA's Institute will 
also identify innovative community arts programs and nontraditional funding sources to enable 
local arts agencies and local civic officials to replicate or adapt these programs in their communities. 



NALAA's Institute for Community Development and the Arts will: 

Examine innovative arts programs and nontraditional funding sources that address community 

development problems 

Strengthen the leadership roles of local arts agencies 

C Build partnerships with local government leaders 
Stabilize and promote local government funding for artists and arts organizations 

The Institute for Community Development and the Arts' Partnership is comprised of the 
following organizations: 



U.S. Conference of Mayors 




(g)ICMA 



mill 




National 
Association of 
Towns and Townships 



PRESIDENTS COMMITTEE 

ON THE ARTS 

AND THE HUMANITIES 



ENWJWMtVT 



ARTS 




International City/County 
Management Association 



National Conference of 
State Legislatures 

National Association of 
Towns and Townships 

President's Committee on 
the Arts and Humanities 

National Endowment for the Arts 

Bravo Cable Network 

National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies 



•onsored in part by the National Endowment for the Arts, The Rockefeller Foundation and 
ie Pew Charitable Trusts. 



A practical Guide to 
Arts Participation research 

A Practical Guide to Arts Participation Research, National Endowment for the Arts 
Research Division Report #30, was first published in 1995 under a cooperative arrange- 
ment between AMS Planning & Research Corp. (the author), and the National Assembly 
of Local Arts Agencies (NALAA) through its Institute for Community Development and 
the Arts. The guide was commissioned by the Arts Endowment in 1993 and was pub- 
lished with permission. Additional copies may be obtained through NALAA. For infor- 
mation about the availability of other research reports and publications commissioned 
by the National Endowment for the Arts, write to the National Endowment for the Arts, 
Research Division, 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20506. 




NA TIONAL ASSEMBL Y OF 

LOCAL ARTS AGENCIES 



PLANNING & RESEARCH 



AMS Planning & Research Corp. is a 
national arts management consulting 
practice involved in the planning and 
development of projects and programs of 
all types. With offices in Connecticut, 
Michigan, and California, the firm 
provides services in the areas of cultural 
facility development, organizational 
design and development, strategic plan- 
ning, program evaluation, and market 
research. 

AMS Planning & Research Corp. 
2150 Post Road 
Fairfield, CT 06430 

(800) 887-3282 



NALAA 






ARTS FOR AMERICA 



The National Assembly of Local Arts 
Agencies was established in 1978 to 
represent the nation's 3,800 local arts 
agencies in developing an essential place 
for the arts in America's communities. 
NALAA, in partnership with its field, 
takes leadership in strengthening and 
advancing local arts agencies through 
professional development, research and 
information, advocacy, formulation of 
national arts policy, and resource devel- 
opment for local arts agencies. 

National Assembly of Local Arts Agencies 
927 15th Street, NW, 12th Floor 
Washington, DC 20005 
(202) 371-2830