Skip to main content

Full text of "Practical guide to photography"

See other formats

MM • ^ 



♦ / -^ ■ 




*iL.' ■ 

'" vr- 










Printed by R, & R. Clark, Edmburgh. 



Chap. I. Historical Sketch. — Boyle — Niepce — Talbot — 

Daguerre — Daguerreotype process — Talbotype process 1 

Chap. II. Historical Sketch {continued). — The wet-col- 
lodion process — The dry -gelatine process — Britannia 
plates 9 

Chap. III. The applications of modern Photography. — 
Photography b}'' ladies — Photogi'aphy indoors as well 
as out-of-doors — Copying of pictures, flowers, etc. — 
Photography for the artist, for the military man, 
architect, engineer, etc. . . . . . . 15 

Chap. IV. The Dark Room. — Red light no effect on the 
films — Description of how to fit up a dark room — 
Lamps used in the dark room — Marion and Co. 's new 
portable tent 21 

Chap. V. The Exposure of Plates. — Apparatus required 
and description of the same — Putting the plate in the 
■ dark slide — How to take a landscape — Focussing . 27 

Chap. VI. Development. — The importance of under- 
standing development — Description of a negative — 
Formula for development — Description of how to de- 
velop — Object of fixing bath 33 

Chap. VII. Development (co/i/mi<c(/). — Compensation for 
under and over exposure — Different subjects retjuiring 
different times of development — The functions of 
pyrogallic acid, ammonia, and bromide of ammonium 43 



Chap. VIII. Variations in Development. —Ferrous- 
oxalate developer, its composition and how to use — 
Sodic sulphite developer — Soda and potash developers 
— Hydrokinone developer ...... 50 

Chap. IX. Defects and Remedies in Negatives. — 
General fog — Colour fog — Frilling — Flatness or thin- 
ness of image — Too great density of image — Spots — 
Flare spots — Ghost images — Bro-vni colour of the nega- 
tive — Lines across the negative — Floreseent appearance 
of films — A powdery deposit on the films — Halation — 
Solarisatiou ........ 60 

Chap. X. Photographic Optics. — What is a lens ? — Com- 
binations of a lens — Flatness and roundness of field — 
Distortion — Depth of focus — Width of angle — Rapidity 
— Relation between aperture and focal length — The 
single lens— Rapid rectilinear — Rapid symmetrical — 
Wide angle — The portrait lens 72 

Chap. XI. Optics. — Use of swing-back — Table of exposures 87 

Chap. XII. The Camera in the Field.— The Enjalbert 
— Photographing mountains — To make an artistic 
picture — The use of the swing-back — Various lenses 
required for the different sorts of work — Focussing and 
focussing-glass ........ 96 

Chap. XIII. Instantaneous Photography. — Shutters 

for instantaneous exposure — The academy camera . 107 

Chap. XIV. Portraiture out-of-doors. — Lighting — 

Background — Placing of sitter . . . . . 117 

Chap. XV. Portraiture in an ordinary Room. — 
Camera and stand for this work — Head-rests — Descrip- 
tion of lighting 122 



Chap. XVI. Portrait Groups . .... 132 

Chap. XYII. Printing with Ready Sensitised Paper. 
— Requisites in printing — Specimens of printing frames 
— Cutting of prints — The operation of printing de- 
scribed ......... 134 

Chap. XVIII. Toning and Fixing of Prints. — The 
toning -bath — The operations of toning and fixing 
described — Washing — Various toning-baths — Acetate 
bath — Carbonate of .soda bath — Platinum toning-bath 1 43 

Chap. XIX. Varnishing the Negative ; Sensitising 
Paper. — Hubbard's varnish considered good — Descrip- 
tion of varnishing — Description of sensitising paper — 
Ammonia fuming of paper 152 

Chap. XX. Defects and Remedies in Printing. — The 
prints refuse to tone — The prints tone sufficiently well, 
but the greater part of the tone is lost in the fixing- 
bath, and does not return — The prints tone unevenly 
— The portions of the print which ought to be white 
are yellow — The shadows of the print have a bronzed 
appearance — There is a powdery deposit over the sur- 
face of the prints ....... 164 

Chap. XXI. Vignetting. — The operation of vignetting 

described — Marion's vignetting frame . . . 172 

Chap. XXII. The Alpha Paper and the Alpha Opal 

Plates. — Alpha opal plates 180 

Chap. XXIII. Printing Skies into Landscape Nega- 
tives ; Combination Printing. — "Wlien and how to 
take clouds — Description of printing in skies — 
Hemery's printing frame . . . . 189 



Chap. XXIV. Retouching. — Working on the back of 
the negative — Retouching with pencil on the film side 
of the negative — A retouching desk — Retouching of 
the face— Modelling— Spotting 204 

Chap. XXV. Cutting up Paper ; Trimming Prints ; 
Mounting Prints ; Rolling and Burnishing 
Prints ; Enamelling Prints. — The amateur's scrap- 
book — Mounting solution — Rolling press — Mounting 
prints in optical contact with glass — Enamelling . 212 

Chap. XXVI. The Ferro-prussiate Process ; Enlarg- 
- ing; Lantern Slides. — Copying of plans — Enlarging 
apparatus — Description of enlarging — Cowan's gela- 
tino-chloride plates ....... 224 

Chap. XXVII. Concluding Remarks .... 237 


Boijle — Nicpce — TaJhot — Daguerre. 

So thoroughly has photography, the art of dra"sving by 
light, entered into our every-day life that it is difficult 
for us in the present day to realise how recently it has 
come to be. So accustomed are Ave to hare scenes and 
persons represented to us by its means, to become as 
familiar with the features of our statesmen and famous 
men and women of all classes as we are with those of 
our own near relations, and to depend upon the art as 
a means of truthfully recording almost all of our scien- 
tific observations, that it is difficidt for us to conceive 
how our forefathers managed without it. Yet half a 
century ago the very rich only could possess portraits 
of their friends or relations, the features of our great 
men were unknown to the mass of the people, the 
architectural and other beauties of foreign states and 
towns were conveyed only by the fallible pencil of the 
draughtsman, records of scientific observations were for 
the most part the result of weary watching. 

A tale of threescore years ago is told of a certain 
Frenchman. We do not guarantee its truth, but give it 



as showing, better than long description could, the state 
of knowledge of the time. 

The camera obscura was then kno"\vn. The beautiful 
image which it Avould give of surrounding objects, in 
which colour seemed to be even more vivid than in the 
objects themselves, had been admired by many, and 
some had sighed for the discovery of a means of fixing 
the fleeting image so that it might become a lasting 

A woman called at the house of one of the greatest 
French scientists of that time and explained that her 
husband had, in spite of the discoui'agement of his 
friends, got fixed in his mind the idea that the image 
amid be made permanent. He Avas spending all his 
time in vain experimenting, and she wished to know if 
such infatuation might be considered as a symptom of 
lunacy, or if there was really hope in the work he was 
carrying on. 

The scientist replied that, in his opinion, there was no 
hope ; but that the infatuation of the lady's husband 
could scarcely alone be considered as itself a proof of 

The woman was the wife of Daguerre ; the time was 
fourteen years before the date of the publication of the 
process known as Daguerreotype. 

A brief sketch we must give of the history of jihoto- 
graphy. It is usual in so doing to attribute the invention 
of the art to some one of the earlier experimenters in it. 
This we think is a mistake ; seldom does it occur that one 
single man invents or discovers entirely by himself a great 
scientific theory or fact. There is no new thing under 
the sun. It will generally be found that the so-called 


discoverer or inventor but improved on what went before, 
or put in a practical shape what had been floating in 
men's minds as h}'pothetical truth. A step is made 
which may be greater or smaller. The steam-engine 
was not invented by Watt, nor the locomotive by Stephen- 
son. These both took the materials wliich were at hand 
and improved upon them. 

So it is in photography. "We look in vain to find who 
first discovered the fact that certain chemical substances 
were changed in appearance by light. The credit of 
the discovery is generally given to Boyle, who lived 
about two hundred years ago. 

From this we may take a great stride, to the time 
when the first camera picture was produced ; — to the 
time when the much -admired picture of the camera 
obsciu'a was, in fact, caused to leave behind it some 
more or less lasting trace of its beauties. 

In 1816 Nicephore Niepce describes most accurately 
in letters to his brother the taking of camera pictiu-es. 
These were, however, but imperfect. They were in 
negative. Every shade of nature was reversed, and, 
moreover, the pictures, such as they were, very soon 
faded. Nevertheless, the letters referred to show 
wonderful penetration, and a knowledge in advance of 
the time in which the experimenter worked. To those 
who feel an interest in the matter we recommend a 
perusal of IMr. H. Baden Pritchard's interesting little 
book, About Photography and Photographers. Although 
experiments made by Xiepce were interesting and in- 
structing, and might, had they been carried farther, 
have led to great results, we hear nothing fui'ther of 
them than what is contained in the aforementioned 


letters, until we hear the name of Niepce coupled with 
that of Daguerre. 

About 1825 Daguerre became acquainted with the 
fact that Niepce had been Avorking in the same direc- 
tion, and with apparently far greater success than him- 
self. The two formed a partnership, and working 
together invented the process known as Daguerreotype. 
Before its publication Niepce had died, and Daguerre 
purchased from his son the right to omit any mention 
of him in connection with the publication of the process 
which bears to this day the name of Daguerreotype. 

The year 1839 was a momentous one in the history of 
photography. Daguerre in France published his process, 
which at once gained popularity ; and almost simultane- 
ously Fox Talbot in England published his method of 
photographic drawing on i^aper, which must be con- 
sidered as containing the germ of the negative processes 
of to-day. 

And now there occurred what we almost always see 
when a great discovery is made, what we have so 
recently seen in connection with electric light, the tele- 
phone, microphone, and phonograph. The public, at 
first indifferent, passed over to the opposite extreme. 
The most wildly-extravagant expectations of what the 
new process was to do were entertained. Painters were 
shortly to be no more required. A small step only in 
advance seemed necessary to secure the rendering of 
natural colours. The most impossible things were to be 
done. From this there was naturally a reaction. The 
Daguerreotype had so far obtained the larger share of 
public favour. The appearance of a picture by this 
process may not be known to all. The medium is a 


plate of polished silver, somewhat like a mirror, and on 
the sui'face is a picture beautifully delicate, but neither 
very bold nor distinct, requiring to be looked at from 
a certain angle. Daguerreot}qDes are not in all respects 
pleasing representations at the best, and it ^vill readilj^ 
be understood that the crudities which occur too often, 
even in the present day, in photographs, from want of 
artistic knowledge and taste, were much more conspicu- 
ous at a time wlien few were trained to the process, and 
when exjDosures were such as would now be considered 
extravagantly long. 

The Daguerreotype fell into comparative disrepute, 
and the process of Talbot, which as improved in 1841 by 
its originator was of far greater general utility than that 
of Daguerre, advanced in favour but slowly. 

It was not till Archer in 1850 invented the process 
known as "wet-collodion," and which up till -^"ithin a 
couple of years ago was the popular process with both 
amateurs and professionals, that photography began to 
assume the importance which has been attached to it in 
late years. 

A few words must be said in description of the 
manipulations used in the processes which we have 

That of Daguerre is the first which requires descrip- 
tion, those before having never passed the experimental 

In this a silver sm-face is required. For economy a 
copper plate is used, which is thickly plated vrith silver. 
The silver surface is polished and most carefully cleaned. 
Afterwards it is exposed to the fumes of iodine. A thin 
film of iodide of silver is thus produced, and this is sen- 


sitivc to light. The sensitiveness is, however, slight as 
compared with the films which we use in the present 
clay. An exposure of several hours was generally 

A great improvement was made by employing the 
vapour of bromine combined with the iodine. The ex- 
posiure was thereby reduced. The gTeatest improvement 
in the process Avas, however, the discovery of develop- 

Development is a process which requires some ex- 
planation, as it is the point on which turns the success 
of every modern process of photography. 

A tale is told of the discovery of development by 
Daguerre. It is as ill authenticated as the others which 
are told of him, but may, nevertheless, be recounted, 
as it will serve better to give an idea of the operation 
than a long description would. 

It is told that Daguerre, diuing his experiments, 
had inadvertently given to several plates so short ex- 
posures that little or no image was perceptible. These 
he placed on one side in a cupboard, with the intention 
of repolishing them at his leisiu'e, and of using them 

His sui^prise may be imagined when, on returning 
after the lapse of some time to his cupboard, he found 
that each plate had on it a picture apparently perfectly 
exposed. His first idea was that his cupboard was be- 
witched, his second that possibly some of the chemicals 
which were stored beside the plates affected them. He 
proceeded to place on the shelf where the first plates 
had been other under-exposed ones, removing after each 
was placed there one of the chemicals. Still, however, 


the apparently magical process went on. At last he 
bethought him of some mercury which had been spilt 
on the wood. This was indeed the magic substance. 
Further investigation showed him that a portion of the 
iodide of silver film, exposed to light for a period too 
brief to cause on it a Adsible change, yet had acquired a 
selective power and attracted to itself minute globules of 
this vapour of mercurj^, thus becoming visible. After- 
wards the process of "development," as it was called, 
was regularly carried out by placing the plates, bearing 
apparently no image, over a vessel containing mercury, 
which was heated. This process of development shoidd 
be well borne in mind. Something of the same kind — 
that is to say, a strengthening by some means of an 
image so weak as to be generally at first invisible, till it 
becomes as strong as we desire — takes place in every 
photographic process. 

The chief difference between the process of Daguerre 
and Talbot lay in this, that whereas the Daguerreotype is 
a positive process, the Talbotype is a negative one. The 
result of exposing a Daguerreotype plate was one finished 
picture with the lights and shades correct, but, unless a 
mirror or prism reflector was used, with, right and left 
transposed. If a second copy were required, the whole 
operation had to be gone through again. 

A Talbotype represented the shades of nature reversed. 
The darker shades are represented as white, the lighter 
shades as black. From such a negative it was, however, 
possible to get any desired number of copies "svith the 
shades correct, and without transposition of right antl 

Talbot used paper as a support for his sensitive salt. 


which, as in Daguerreotype, was iodide of silver. His 
negatives were developed with a solution of gallic acid, 
and afterwards the paper was rendered as transparent 
as possible by the application of white wax so as to faci- 
litate the taking of copies, or "printing," as it is usually 



The Wet-Collodion Process — The Dry-Gelatine Process. 

We have now brought our historical sketch up to the 
time of the invention of wet-collodion process, which, 
as the one that has held the first place for a longer 
time than any other, and has kept it till "ndthin the last 
few years, deserves a somewhat more detailed account 
than those which went before it. 

As we have said, the collodion process was invented 
by Mr. Archer, The novelties which this gentleman 
introduced may be stated as follows : He proposed glass 
as a support for the photograph instead of silvered 
copper or paper; he proposed as a vehicle for the 
sensitive salts collodion, which is a substance obtained 
by dissolving gun-cotton or pyroxylin in a mixture of 
alcohol and ether; and he proposed as a developer a 
solution of pyrogallic acid, or, as it is more properly 
called, pyrogallol, in water. 

The results of the changes were that a very much 
briefer exposure than had been required before was 
sufficient, that either a positive or a negative picture 
could be got as was desii-ed, and that there was more 


delicacy in the negative obtained than in that by the 
paper process, more boldness in a positive than in the 

As in the last-mentioned process, the sensitive salts 
were iodide of silver and a small quantity of bromide. 

Briefly described, the manipulations employed in the 
wet process are as follows : — 

A glass plate is cleaned with gi-eat care. A short 
time before the exposure has to be made this plate is 
coated mth what is known as iodised collodion, — that is 
to say, collodion in which is dissolved a certain quantity 
of soluble iodides and bromides. After the plate is held 
for a few seconds the collodion "sets" on its surface. 
Now the coated plate is dipped vnth great care into a 
vertical vessel containing a strong solution of silver 
nitrate, and kno-wn as the "bath." What is called 
"double decomposition" takes place, and iodide and 
bromide of silver are formed in the film. These are 
sensitive to light, and when the action has gone on for 
a few minutes the plate is ready for exposure. It is 
taken from the bath and placed in the camera whilst 
still wet in the manner which will be described for dry 
plates farther on. After exposure, and whilst still wet, 
it is treated with various diff"erent chemical substances, 
the operations being kno'wn as development, intensifica- 
tion, fixing, washing, drying, and varnishing. 

Now this process, although a beautiful one and a 
great advance on any which had gone before, left much 
to be desired, and this especially for the amateur and for 
the landscape photographer. 

The operations which have been mentioned were very 
delicate and required no little manipulative skill; the 


solutions were expensive and were liable to go out of 
order ; especially the silver bath, the most expensive of 
all, was liable to the most extraordinary, unexpected, 
and inexplicable vagaries. Great has been the lamenta- 
tion of many an amateur on suddenly finding that he 
could get on his plates no result but what is technically 
termed " fog," and that he would require to purchase 
many ounces of silver nitrate to make up a new bath. 

Then there was the dirtiness of the process. All 
must remember well the bedabbled appearance of the 
person and possessions of the "wet-plate amateur." He 
was a terror to his friends. His silver solution appeared 
to produce every result but the right one. Its devastat- 
ing effects were found in the most unexpected places. 
Clothes, carpets, and curtains alike suffered, and the 
stains produced were generally indelible; but all these 
inconveniences were less than what resulted from the 
fact that the whole manipulation of the plate had to be 
performed within the space of an hour or so, — that is 
to say, before the plate became dry. It was therefore 
necessary for the photographer, wherever he went, to 
burden himself with the whole of the aj^paratus and 
chemicals required to make and develop his plate ; and, 
as the manipulations could only be carried on in a yelloAv 
light, he had to carry with, him in addition a tent in 
which to work. Besides this, the exposure, although 
shorter than what photographers had been previously 
used to, was generally inconveniently long. What are 
known as instantaneous effects could only be produced 
under the most exceptionally favourable circumstances, 
whilst the amateur was unable to satisfy his desire to 
portray the features of his friends unless he had the 


means of doing so in the open air. To take a portrait 
in an ordinary room required so prolonged an exposure 
that it was out of the question. 

The wet-plate photographer sighed for such a process 
as would give him plates which might be kept for a 
length of time before exposure, and between exposure 
and development, so that he would not have to carry 
with him a chemical laboratory and workshop ; and he 
sighed for a process which would enable him to shorten 
his exposures. 

The first requirement was in a certain degree supplied 
by "dry-collodion " processes. In these, as indicated by 
the name, the plates Avere used dry. They could be kept 
for some time both before and after exposure. They 
had serious drawbacks, however. The results were gen- 
erally inferior in quality to those got by the use of wet 
plates, and the exposure required was longer. Besides 
this, most of the plates required in their preparation the 
use of the troublesome collodion and bath. 

A few years ago a great change took place. A pro- 
cess was invented which appears to embody everything 
which the photographer could possibly desire. This is the 
gelatine dry-plate process. The history of this process 
we cannot give here, but may say that the names which 
are most intimately connected with its discovery are 
those of Dr. R L. Maddox and Mr. Charles Bennet. 

In this process the plates are dry. They may be kept 
for an indefinite time either before they are exposed or 
between the time of exposure and development; how 
long is not known, but certainly the limit of time is to 
be measured by years. The exposure is less than one- 
tenth of that which was required for wet plates. The 


manipulations are so easy that they can be performed by 
any one almost without practice, and may be so cleanly 
that the most scrupulous need no longer fear to take uj) 
the practice of what used in the wet-plate days to he 
sarcastically entitled the "black art." If we add to all 
this that the results are artistically mperiw to those ob- 
tained by wet plates, and that, whereas everything which 
could be done with a wet plate can also be done with a 
dry, many things Avhich were impossible with a wet 
plate are no longer so when a gelatine one is used, we 
will see that the stride made was immense. 

What has, however, perhaps done more than anything 
else to make the benefit of the change fully available to 
the photographic public is that plates by the new pro- 
cess have become an article of commerce. 

It is evident that a wet plate, which has to be made 
and finished within an hour or two, must be made by 
the operator himself. The collodion dvy plates, it is 
true, would keep for some time, but the time was com- 
paratively limited and was somewhat uncertain. The 
consequence was that, although these plates were pro- 
duced commercially by one or two firms, they were never 
largely used. Besides this, the price Avas so high as 
to prevent the greater number of photographers from 
adopting them had there been no other objections. 

The amateur, as a consequence, if he used dry plates, 
manufactured them himself at the cost of great labour, 
considerable expense, and frequently Avith disappointing- 

It is true that there are even now in the days of gela- 
tine plates a few amateurs Avho manufacture their own 
plates, but those are such as have an experimental turn 


and take pleasure in the work itself. They viiW gener- 
ally be found "vnlling enough to admit that neither 
economy nor better results arise from their labom^s. 

The Britannia plates have now been before the public 
for some years and have given uniformly satisfactory 
results. They appear to possess every good quality 
which is to be found in a photographic plate. At the 
present stage, before we have commenced our actual 
instructions for working plates, we cannot enter into 
technicalities which would probably not be understood 
by most of our readers, but may briefly say that the 
plates are such that negatives of the best quality may 
be produced by their means with the utmost certainty, 
the shortest possible exposure, and the minimum of 
trouble, whilst the price is most moderate. 



We have brought our readers up to the present time. 
We have contrasted the wet -plate photographer of 
former days — who required to have at his elbow, whilst 
he exposed his plate, a quantity of chemicals and a tent 
to work in, and who consequently either was tied down 
to a very small size of plate or had to have in attendance 
on him several porters, or even a van or cart — with the 
dry-plate worker of to-day, who steps out on his work 
with a light leather case containing all that he requires, 
and who without assistance can walk a long distance 
carrying with him all the necessities for Avorking even a 
comparatively large size of plate. 

We have seen, on the one hand, the wet-plate photo- 
grapher, who, having prepared his plate, dreaded lest it 
should dry in the camera ere the effect, possibly of sea 
and cloud, which he ■wished to secure had established 
itself; on the other, the dry-plate worker, Avho can sit 
by his camera for hours if the effects he -wishes come not 
sooner, and may smoke his pipe in peace knowing that 
his plate will in no way change. 

Before entering on the practical working of the plates 
we may take a brief survey of the various ways in which 


photography as practised in the present clay may be useful 
to members of the general public. 

As we write rather for the amateur than for the pro- 
fessional photographer, we shall place amusement first, 
and amongst photographic amusements landscape work 
first of all. 

It would be difficult to think of any more delightful 
amusement than that aff'orded by amateur landscape 
photography. The occupation is a healthy one, and it 
is one which can readily be combined with any of an 
almost indefinite number of country occupations. The 
pedestrian can carry with him the academy camera, 
which will go into his pocket; the tricyclist may 
without inconvenience burden himself with a somewhat 
larger -sized apparatus; whilst the boatsman or yachts- 
man IS hardly limited to size at all. Full scope is given 
to any artistic feeling which the amateur may have, 
and many a picture will be taken which in after years 
may serve to bring back the memory of happy days. 
The enjoyment, too, of the scenes themselves is greater 
far when they are looked at with the view of selecting 
the spots and combinations of form and shade which 
will make a picture than when gazed on merely with a 
general idea of admiring what is beautiful in them. 

Landscape work is that in which English photographers 
excel, and it is the branch of photography in which the 
amateur shows best, as compared with the professional 

Nor is there any reason why the fair sex should not 
in these days practise the art far more extensively than 
they do. In the days of wet-collodion the difficulties of 
carrying the necessary bulky apparatus were naturally 


more felt by ladies than by men ; moreover, the dirti- 
ness of the process was a fatal objection in the eyes of 
most. Now these objections do not hold, and we should 
be glad to see members of the fair sex, who surely 
require rational amusement quite as much as their male 
friends, taking greater advantage of the opportunities 
which dry plates offer them. They would appear to be 
specially suited for the work. They are quite as often 
possessed of artistic taste as men, and more generally 
have had at least some slight rudiments of artistic 
training ; they are also neat and quick at manipu- 

If the advantage to the amateur landscape photographer 
by the introduction of dry plates has been immense, that 
to the amateur portraitist has been possibly even greater. 
The shortening of the exposure which dry plates make 
possible renders it practicable to take portraits in any 
ordinary room. 

Very excellent portraits can be taken out of doors 
if advantage be taken of surrounding objects to modify 
the light, but there is a certain roundness of lighting 
Avhich is scarcely to be got except indoors. This is 
afforded in perfection in the studio, but very fairly in an 
ordinary room, especially if it have a large ^^^ndow. 
Besides the superior lighting ol)tainal)lc indoors, we have 
to consider that many have not available space for por- 
traiture out of doors. To those will be specially wel- 
come the facilities for indoor work which dry plates 
offer. So cleanly are all the operations in connection 
with exposure that there need be no hesitation, on that 
score at least, in converting the drawing-room into a 
temporary studio. 



Even in the months of winter portraiture in the house 
is possible, except perhaps in the very heart of London, 
where the yellow fogs are prevalent ; but there are other 
means of using the art if the light become too poor for 
portrait work. Pictures may be copied — paintings 
either in oil or water-coloui", engravings, etchings, and 
so forth, are all equally Avell reproduced by the aid of 
the dry plate. 

When flowers are in season, beautiful pictures may be 
made by those who have skill and taste in arranging 
them. Special sets of apparatus are now prepared for 
boys and girls at school. 

So far for amusement ; but there is no reason why 
the photographer, although he be an amateur — that 
is to say, although his profession is something different 
from the photographic — should make nothing more 
than a plaything of his hobby. There is scarcely 
a profession in which photography is not at times 

How useful photography may be to the soldier and 
naval man is proved by the fact that the art is taught 
in naval and military colleges. 

To the artist photography may often be useful, and in 
fact it is greatly used by many painters, although, we 
are sorry to say, a few of those who do make use of it 
are not very willing to let the fact be known. Artists 
too often look on photography with a mingled feeling of 
contempt and jealousy. 

To the architect the art is possibly more useful than 
to almost any other professional man. Photographic 
reproductions of buildings must always be infinitely 
more faithful and useful for his purpose than the most 


elaborate and laboriously prepared sketches or dra"vnngs. 
The same applies of coiu'se to the builder. 

To the engineer, possibly as much as to the architect, 
photography is useful, and "o-ith him it is indeed con- 
tinually in force. "We know of civil engineers in charge 
of contracts far from home whose weekly report of pro- 
gress is accompanied by a photograph, which, we need 
scarcely say, will tell more than volumes of description 
would. To the mechanical engineer a special benefit is 
to be found in the use of photographs when work is 
being tendered for or ofi"ers are being made for erecting 
machinery. A photograph of a machine will in many 
cases give a much better idea of the general construction 
and arrangement of parts than -will the most elaborate 
drawing ; Avhilst, on the other hand, there is less of 
dimensional design revealed, because on account of per- 
spective, foreshortening, etc., there is difficidty in taking 
measurements from a photograph, except in certain 
special cases where it is taken with a view to measure- 
ment. The engineer thus gives to his customer a 
better general idea of his machine by the use of a 
photograph than by that of a draAving, whilst he is less 
likely to have his designs stolen. 

To the medical profession j)hotography is invaluable. 
Typical cases of all kinds are recorded, and the pro- 
gi'ess of disease or cure may be shown. To the Ahenist, 
or as he is generally jocularly called the "mad doctor," 
does this perhaps apply more than to any other specialist. 

In fact there is scarcely a case of any set of profes- 
sional men to whom photography may not be useful as 
something more than a mere plaything, and we might 
multiply cases without end. 


In pure science photography is used in every direction. 
Tliere is scarcely "a branch of science in which it is not 
used, either as a means of keeping records or in some 
other capacity, whilst for some scientific pursuits a know- 
ledge of it is absolutely necessary. 



"We now enter upon a practical description of the mani- 
pulations which take place in the production of negatives 
and finished prints, and of the apparatus which is used 
to assist such manipulations. 

Oar intention is to go through every manipulation, 
attempting to make it as clear to the mind of the be- 
ginner as possible, describing in brief and general terms 
as we go on the apparatus u.sed. Afterwards we shall 
describe more particularly and at some length the various 
modifications of this apparatus, so that the would-be 
photographer, having got an idea of what he will have 
to do to secure photographic pictiu"es, may then judge 
on what scale he will work and of what nature his 
camera and suchlike are to be. 

We must descril^e first of all what can scarcely be 
called a piece of apparatus, but what is nevertheless 
the first requirement in the manipulation of photo- 
graphic plates of any kind. This is the Darh Boom. 
Without entering into a disquisition on light or on the 
sensitive photographic film we may say this much. The 
plates with which the photographer is about to work, 
and which consist of pieces of glass with a film spread 


on them of a white creamy material called gelatine 
emulsion, are affected by the most inconceivably small 
amount of light which may reach them. This is true of 
white light, or of light of any colour except red. Red 
light has little or no effect on photographic films. Taking 
this into consideration, it will readily be seen that the 
only means of manipulating the plates without getting 
them affected — and consec^uently spoiled — is to work in' 
a room which is illuminated with red light onlj'. To 
such an apartment has been given the name of the 
"dark room." It is needless to say that the title is 
an incorrect one, and that "red room," or something 
of that kind, would have been better. The expres- 
sion "dark room" is so well known and universally 
used by photographers that we retain it throughout 
this book. 

In the old wet-collodion days, or even now, where 
wet plates are used for enlarging and suchlike pur- 
poses, the dark room is of necessity a somewhat elabo- 
rately fitted apartment, because there the plates have 
to be prepared as they are required. Moreover, 
in the case of wet - plate work, the all - pervading 
" silver bath " makes it almost impossible to use a com- 
mon apartment temporarily for the purposes of a dark 
room. The dark room has to he j^ermanent and estab- 
lished. ■ AVith dry plates the thing is different. The 
only necessities are a room which can be darkened, a 
plain deal table to work upon, and a lamp gi^^ng a red 
light to work by. The writer has often performed all 
his manipulations in the bedroom of the hotel at which 
he might be stopping after it was dark in the evening, 
iising the wnsh-hand stand to work on, and for a lamp 


to work by having nothing but a night light covered 
with a cone of red paper. Such make -shift arrange- 
ments are, however, rather for the advanced photographer 
in an emergency than for the beginner, who may meet 
with difficulty enough without making them for him- 
self. He should, if possible, have some room, no matter 
how small, which he can devote to the purpose of dark 
room solely. If a room ^yith a sink and water laid on 
can be got he will have as perfect a dark room as could 
be desired. A deal table is, as we have said, necessary 
to work upon, and there should be one or two shelves 
on which to place bottles, etc. 

Sujjposing the beginner have the means of either build- 
ing or fitting up a room, the following is the way in 
which it should be done : — 

Somewhat to the right of the centre of one of the 
longer Avails and against it there is fitted the sink. This 
should be of stoneware so that it may readily be cleaned. 
It may be about three feet long by one foot six inches 
wide. It should be supplied b}' a tap about eighteen 
inches above it, and projecting several inches from the 

Immediately to the left of the sink is the operating 
table. It should be somewhat high. Three feet six 
inches is not too much. The height prevents the neces- 
sity of excessive stooping whilst watching the progress 
of the various operations. The table may be three feet 
long or more, if there is s})acc to spare, and two feet 
wide. It is best covered with sheet-lead of the thick- 
ness known as 5 lb. It may slope slightly towards 
the sink, so that any spillings may find their way into 
this latter, and in this case it should ha^e a narrow 



ridge along the front edge, standing, say a quarter of an 
inch above the level of the rest, so as to direct such 
spillings. There should be a shelf about a foot below 
the table on which to lay dishes. 

The only further question is, how to supply the neces- 
sary red light, — it being, of course, understood that all 
extraneous white light is entirely shut out. If the side 
of the room against which the sink is fixed be an outside 
wall, there may be made in it, at a height of six inches 
above the operating table, a window, say two feet long 
and one foot six inches high, glazed with one thickness 
of ruby and one of orange glass. Whether this be 

done or not, a "ruby 
lamp" of some kind 
will be required for 
night work. Several 
varieties of such are 
here illustrated ; but 
we would specially 
recommend our Reflec- 
tor Developing Lamp, 
which is fitted Avith a 
new orange glass, al- 
lowing of much" more 
light and yet perfectly 
safe for even the most 
sensitive plates. An excellent arrangement when a 
"borrowed light" can be had is the following: We 
suppose the wall against which the sink is fixed to be 
a "partition dividing the dark room from another apart- 
ment which is well lighted. A window is made as before, 
but in this case it may be considerably larger, possibly 



two and a half feet square, and need be only glazed with 
one thickness of ruby glass. Opposite this window, 
several inches from it, and on the light room side there 
is fixed an ordinary gas-burner. "When the daylight 
wanes this burner is lighted, and affords the necessary 

In any case there should, if possible, be in the dark 
room at least one ordinary burner, so that there may be 
a comfortable light if it 
be desired to do any 
work which does not 
involve the exposure 
of sensitive films, — for 
example, the washing 
up of utensils, etc. 

The door of the room 
should fit light-tight, 
and there should be an 
opaque black curtain hung just inside it, so that the 
photographer may make his entrance and exit -onthout 
letting in a flood of light. 

Any available space on the walls may be occupied by 
shelves on which to place bottles, etc. Besides this, a 
useful piece of apparatus is a box which shuts light- 
tight, in which sensitive plates may be placed if it be 
Avished to turn up the gas. 

Such is the form which a permanent dark room usu- 
ally takes, and if the student be fortunate enough to 
have the means of fitting up such a room he will find it 
most convenient ; but it is not by any means necessary 
that he should do so. As we have said already, almost 
any room or closet may be used for a temporary dark 



room, and this not for the production of second-class 
work, but for the very best. Or oiu" (Marion and Co.'s) 
new portable tent and table may be used; it answers 
the purj)ose admirably, and has the great convenience of 
permitting its being put up in any room, outhouse, or 
even in the garden or courtyard. It is easily fixed, and 
as easily taken to pieces and stowed away. 

It will be seen that the room which we have described 

very closely resembles an 
ordinary pantry; and, in 
fact, if a pantry can either 
be secured altogether, or 
if one can be darkened for 
the tinje being, when the 
photographer wishes to 
operate, there will be com- 
pleted as good a dark 
room as can be desired. 
If a room with a sink 
cannot be secured, it is 
sufficient to have an ordi- 
nary table, to place imder 
it a large pail or tub to 
act as a sink, and on it 
a water-jug to supply the necessary water. 

For outdoor work it is not uncommon even in these 
days to use a tent, and for the amateui* this may take 
the place of the dark room altogether. The tent A\ill be 
described farther on. 



"We now come to the actual beginning of operations, and 
have to describe the exposure of a plate. 

The apparatus required for this is the following : 
A camera wnth a dark slide, a lens, a camera stand, and 
a focussing cloth. 

The photographic camera is simply a portable form of 
the camera obscura. It is a box, at one end of which is 
fixed the lens, whilst at the other there is a piece of 
ground glass on which falls the inverted image which 
the lens forms of any brightly-lighted object which is 
opposite to it. The dark slide is a light-tight case to 
hold one or more, generally two, sensitive plates, and 
so constructed that when the groimd glass is removed 
from the camera it (the dark slide) may slide into a 
groove, and so that after this, on drawing out a thin 
slab of wood, the sensitive plate finds itself in the precise 
position in which the ground glass before was, — the image 
formed by the lens now of course falling on it in place 
of on the ground glass. 

The lens will be fully described hereafter in a chapter 
on photographic optics. It may be called the chief of 
photographic tools. The first experiments may be made 


with any of the several forms of lenses. Every camera 
is fitted with an adjustment for altering the distance 
between the lens and the ground glass or sensitive plate 
so as to perform the operation known as focussing. 

The tripod stand is the three-legged support for the 
camera, which must be familiar in appearance to all. In 
most modern tripods the legs slide one half into the 
other, and the whole packs into a very small space. 

The focussing cloth is a piece of square opaque cloth 
to cover the head of the photographer and shut out the 
glare of light so as to enable him with ease to examine 
the image on the ground glass of his camera. The size 
may be from one yard to a yard and a half square 
according to the size of the camera. The best material 
is velvet. Black waterproof cloth is also good, but any 
cloth which is opaque and black will do very well. 

We now commence our first experiment. The smallest 
size of plates which are sold should be used, as the first 
results may not be of great use, and the smaller the 
plates wasted the better. The smallest size of plate com- 
monly used is five inches by four inches. If the dai^k 
slide be constructed for larger plates it may be fitted 
with a carrier for the size mentioned. Dark slides for 
dry plates are now always made to hold two plates each, 
and are called "double dark slides." 

The dark slide is taken into the dark room, and is 
placed open on the table opposite the red light. All 
other light that may be in the room is now extin- 

The box in which the dry plates are purchased is 
opened. A plate is taken out. On careful examination 
it Mall be seen that this plate is difi'erent on the two 


sides. One side shows the ordinaiy siu'face of a sheet of 
glass, the other is covered 'snth emulsion, and looks 
something like a ground-glass siu"face. Care must be 
taken not to touch with the fingers this last-mentioned 
side. The plates should be handled by the edges. It 
is placed in the dark slide with the film side downwards, 
so that when the shutter of the slide is withdrawn this 
side will be exposed. The other plate is placed similarly, 
and the piece of blackened tin which is used with every 
dark slide goes between the two plates. 

It must be explained that there are two Avays in 
which double dark slides are constructed. In the one 
kind the slide opens on hinges into two di^nsions like a 
book, a plate is placed in each division, and the slide is 
then closed. In the other kind both plates are put into 
the slide from one side. In this latter case the first plate 
is placed in film side doicnicarch, the blackened tin-plate is 
placed on it, and, last of all, the second plate is placed 
in the slide film side upwards. There is also a third 
kind, such as in our student and Oxford set cameras. 
In these the blackened tin-plate is fixed ; consequently 
the emulsion plates must be placed one on either side, 
with the film upwards. Whatever the constn;ction of 
the slide, Avhen it is closed the plates must be in it 
hack to bad; and with a piece of blackened tin or paper 
between them. 

When the slide is filled and closed, and Avhen the 
remaining plates have been again carefidly wrapped up 
or have been placed in a light-tight box, the photo- 
grapher may issue from the dark room. The dark slide 
should be placed under the coat, or may be -wrapped up 
in a piece of black cloth. It is not advisable to leave it 


for any length of time in bright hght, as the smallest 
fault would result in the destruction of one or both 

A subject must be chosen to make an exiDerimental 
exposure on. The best thing is a brightly-lighted land- 
scape, which should show as broad contrasts of light 
and shade as possible. The composition of the scene 
as a picture need not be considered at this stage. The 
camera is placed so that the subject will be lighted from 
the side, — that is to say, the position is such that the 
sun is neither before nor behind the camera. 

The lens is fixed in position and the operation of 
focussing commences. As we said, the lens may be of 
any of the diiferent varieties which are used. It is best, 
if possible, however, that it be not a portrait lens. If 
the lens have movable diaphragms or stops, they must 
be removed, so that the aperture or opening is the 
largest which the lens is constructed to work with. 

On covering the head with the focussing cloth, so that 
the focussing screen or ground glass is in comparative 
darkness, and looking at this latter, an inverted image 
more or less distinct of the object opposite the camera 
will be seen. Now we work the adjustment which 
alters the difference between the lens and the ground 
glass, and which generally is either a screw or a rack 
and pinion. "NVe try first one direction and then another 
till we find the image getting sharj). We then look at 
some bold object near the centre of the ground glass, 
and adjust till this appears quite sharp. We have now, 
in those lenses which are fitted with diaphragms or stops, 
to select a stop to insert in the slit of the lens. These 
are generally small plates of thin blackened brass, with 


various-sized holes in the centre of them. The plates 
may, any one of them, be slipped into a slit in the brass- 
work of the lens, which is made for their reception. 
In the case of some lenses there is, in place of the set of 
separate stops or diaphragms, a disk, which is an attach- 
ment to the brasswork of the lens, but which can 
revolve so as to let any one of several different-sized 
holes in it take the desired central position. The use 
of the diaphragms will be fully explained in the chajjter 
on photographic optics. Meantime, for the preliminary 
experiment, it will be best to use the smallest stop with 
which the lens is supplied. When this is adjusted we 
are ready to expose. 

The cap is jDlaced on the lens, the ground glass is 
removed or hinged up according to the construction of 
the camera, and the dark slide is jnxt into its place. 
This latter operation is best done under cover of the 
focussing cloth, which should remain over the whole 
of the camera •^^^th the exception of the lens till the 
exposure is complete. 

The shutter or sliding part of the dark slide is 
Avithdra^vn, when it ^vill be understood that nothing 
prevents the image from falling on the sensitive film 
except the lens cap. This latter is now gently removed. 
If the subject be a brightlj^-lighted landscape it may 
be kept off for two or three seconds, when it is replaced. 
The shutter of the slide is replaced. It will be best 
to make another exposure of longer duration on the 
other plate before the camera is shifted or the stop 
removed. A comparison of the two resulting negatives 
afterwards will be instructive. We may then, im- 
mediately after we have replaced the shutter, take 


out tlie dark slide, reverse it, replace it, withdraw 
the other shutter and expose once more, giving this 
time, say, ten seconds. The times may be counted from 
the seconds hand of a watch, or if the photographer be 
tolerably good at counting seconds he may use that 
method. It is quite accurate enough. 

After exposure the shutter is once more wrapped up 
or placed under the operator's coat, and the process of 
development may be performed. 



We would here pause for a few minutes to explain in 
as few words as possible what has taken place during 
exposure, and what is to take place during development. 
We request the special attention of the student to this 
explanation, because if he once thoroughly understands 
the matter — that is to say, the relation which exists 
between exposure and development — he will have passed 
the photographic |w?(S asinorum, and mil find his further 
way clear before him. 

In the first place it is necessary to understand what 
is the meaning of a negative. We may define it as 
a picture where all the shades of nature are reversed, 
where what is in reality black is shown as white, whilst 
what in reality is white is shown as black. When we 
hold up a photographic negative between us and the 
light this is what Ave see. For example, if the subject 
be a man dressed in a black coat, with white collar, etc., 
his collar Avill appear quite black, and his face nearly so, 
whilst his coat will appear white. 

We here give a print which will explain the appear- 
ance better than words can do. The first cut shows a 
negative, the second the positive, which may be produced 
from it by the printing process. 




What we wish to produce thus by the camera is a 
negative representation of the picture on the ground 
glass. By the exposure which we have given we have 
got this negative, so to speak, in potential, — that is to 



tti^^l #^^ 

say, there is on the plate what is called a "latent image," 
that is to say, although there is as yet nothing visible, 
yet there is such a change of the silver bromide particles 
that, when the operation of development is performed, 
the negative Avill appear. We must further explain 
what is the effect if we have continued the exposure for 
a time either too short or too long, and how we can tell 
by the appearance of the negative whether or not the 
exposure has been sufficient. 

Let us examine closely the landscape which we have 
chosen for our first experiment. "We shall see that 
different parts of the subject reflect very different 
quantities of light ; in other words, there are different 
degrees of brightness. Possibly, to take an extreme 


case, there has been inchided a glaring whitewashed wall, 
or a line of clothes himg out to dry, whilst near this 
there is a widespreading tree with deep shadows under 
the branches. If we look with attention we shall see 
that certain small portions of the deepest shadow appear 
to be quite black. Apparently they send no light at all 
to the eye. 

Now let us consider what takes place when the cap is 
removed from the lens. The image, which, as we know, 
is an exact counterpart of the landscape in front of the 
camera, and shows all the same gradation of light, falls 
on the plate. The brighter shades, or, as they are usually 
called, the " high lights," naturally impress themselves 
first, and were the exposure stopped at a very early stage 
nothing but these Avould be visible in the negative. All 
the half-tone and the darker tones, or, as they are usually 
called, the " detail in the shadows," would be quite un- 
represented. To take the case that we have supposed, a 
very brief exposure would show nothing but the white 
wall or line of clothes. As the exposure is continued, 
however, darker and darker shades find their representa- 
tion until at last every detail which is visible to the eye 
is impressed on the film, — not visibly, be it understood, 
but in a form which may be made visible by the after 
process of development. "When this stage is reached the 
correct exposure has been given. It might be supposed 
that no harm could come of giving a much longer 
exposure, and it is true that less harm results from over- 
exposure than from under-exposure, yet excessiA^e ex- 
posure has its evils as well as under-exposure. It must 
be understood that there is always in the camera, besides 
the light forming the image, a certain amoiuit of diff'used 


light which arises from reflection from the sides of the 
bellows. If the exposure be much protracted this faint 
light ■will act on those portions of the plate which repre- 
sent the blackest parts of the subject, and which ought 
to be represented by transparency, or a near approach 
to it. 

Assuming that the student understands this explana- 
tion of what Ave may call the rationale of the matter, we 
pass on to the practical development of a plate. 

The chemicals which we require are the following : — 

Pyrogallic acid. 

Strongest liquor ammonia ("SSO). 

Bromide of ammonium. 

Nitric acid. 

Alum (powdered). 

Hyposulphite of soda (usually called hypo). 

The following solutions are j^repared from these : — 
No. 1. — Stock Solution. 

Pyrogallic acid 

1 ounce. 

Bromide of ammonium . 

600 grains. 

Nitric acid .... 

20 drops. 

Water, up to 

G ounces. 

No. 2. '* 

Strongest liquor ammonia (-880) 

3 drachms, 


1 pint. 

(This will keep some time if a\ 

•ell stoppered.) 

No. 3. 

No. 1 . . . ' . 

1 ounce. 


19 ounces. 

These are the developing solutions. They should be 
accurately prepared by weighing and measuring. Guess 
work will not do. 


To prepare No. 1 the twenty drops of nitric acid are 
added to four ounces of water. This is poured over the 
pyrogalhc acid and bromide of ammonia, and the quan- 
tity is then made up to six ounces. This solution will 
keep for a considerable time, certainly for some months. 

Xo special precautions are necessary in mixing No. 2. 
It will keep as long as the bottle is kept quite securely 

No. 3 will keep for only a few hoiu's, and is made 
by diluting No. 1 just before development is to be 

To save the amateur time and trouble we prepare 
bottles of developing solution ready for use. 

Besides these solutions the following are required : — 

Alum Solution. 

Alum . . ... 

2 ounces. 


1 pint. 

Fixing Solution. 

Hyposulphite of soda 

5 ounces. 

Water, up to ... . 

1 pint. 

These latter solutions are best made by pouring warm 
water over the chemicals mentioned, and stirring till 
complete solution takes place. They may be used when- 
ever they are cool, and will keep indefinitely. There is 
no necessity to be Avith them so exact as regards quan- 
tities as in the case of the develoi)ing solutions. 

The only apparatus necessary is the following : — 

A measuring glass to hold four or five ounces, and one 
to hold an ounce. 

Three flat dishes of such a size as to hold the plates 
to be developed. These are best made of vulcanite or 


papier-mache for the sake of hghtness, and to prevent 
the breakage which is likely to take place if porcelain 
dishes be used. We here illustrate a flat or developing 
dish : — 

When we are about to commence operations we take 
the three dishes and place them in a row along the front 
edge of the operating table. One dish is opposite the 
red light, the others are to the right of this one. Space 
is left between the dish opposite the light and the next 
one for the glass measure. The l)ottles containing the 
developing solutions may go beside the light, so that we 
may easily place a hand on them in the comparative 
obscurity in which Ave are about to work. 

Into the middle dish we pour alum solution to a depth 
of about quarter of an inch. Into the right-hand dish 
we pour a similar quantity of fixing solution. 

The dark slide being placed in readiness in any handy 
position on the table, Ave pour into the measure an ounce 
or an ounce and a quarter of developing solution No. 2, 
and a similar quantity of ISTo. 3. 

All light, except the ruby lamp, is noAV shut out or 
extinguished. The plate AAdiich Avas exposed first, and 
Avhich received the shortest exposure, is removed from 
the dark slide and is carefully placed, film side upAvards, 
on the bottom of the left-hand dish, Av^hich is the only one 
that is empt}^ The dish is noAV taken in the left hand 
and the measuring glass in the right. The edge of the 


glass is lowered to the edge of the dish, aud the develop- 
ing solution is rapidly tipped on to the plate, a quick 
rockinsc motion beiuo; iriven to the dish to make it cover 
at almost the same instant the whole of the film. All 
splashing must be avoided, so as to have as few bubbles 
formed as possible. 

The dish is now gently rocked, so as to keep the 
solution in motion, and the result is closely watched. 

After a time, which may vary from five seconds to 
half a minute, a change will be seen to take place on 
the surface of the plate, which at first was quite Avhite. 
Certain portions will be seen to darken. These are the 
high lights of the picture. To return to our example, 
the whitewashed wall or line of white clothes : next 
will appear the half-tones, probably the sky appearing 
first after the white objects just mentioned. Xow we 
can judge whether or not oiu' exposure has been correct. 
If it has, the whole of the plate ^nll darken more or less, 
or, as it is said, Adll be "full of detail," except those 
parts representing the portions of the landscape which 
appeared to the eye quite black. These and these only 
Avill remain white, or Aery nearly so. If large portions 
of the negative remain white, it is a sign that the 
exposure has been too short. If the whole of the surface 
blacken, it shows that the exposiu-e has been too long. 

After it would appear that all action of the developer 
has ceased, which will probably be after a minute or 
two, we have to do what is the most diflficult thing 
in connection "with development, or indeed vrith the 
whole of dry -plate photography — we have to judge 
whether or not the density of the negative is sufiicient. 
It will readily be understood that to get a print of the 


desirable brilliancy from our negative the most opaque 
parts of it must have just a certain definite amount of 
opacity, not much more and not much less. We can, 
of course, only tell this by looking through the negative. 
To do so we take it out of the dish and hold it between 
our eyes and the ruby light. To judge of the correctness 
or otherwise of density requires some practice, as there 
is a certain loss dimng the after processes. We may 
say here that the very densest portions should appear 
nearly if not quite opaque. If they do not the plate is 
returned for a time to the solution, and is again 
examined after the lapse of half a minute or so. When 
the density is sufficient development is complete. 

The plate is now taken from the dish and is well 
washed for a minute or two under the tap, or by pouring 
water on it from a jug. It is then placed in the alum 
solution, where it remains for five minutes. It is taken 
out and is again thoroughly washed. If the back of the 
plate be observed at this or any previous stage it will 
be found that it is still quite white. After the second 
Avashing the plate is placed in the dish containing the 
fixing solution. The whiteness Avill gradually disappear. 
When it is quite gone light may freely be admitted, 
but the plate must still be kept for a few minutes in the 
solution. In fact, a very long time in either the alum 
or fixing solution will in no way hurt it. 

The negative is now complete, and requires only to 
be washed and dried. The washing should be very 
thorough. The plate should be kept in running water, 
in one of the zinc tanks made for the purpose, for at 
least an hour. It is then reared on edge in a plate-rack in 
any dry place to dry. Heat must on no account be applied. 


If the beginner be able to secure a good negative to 
make comparison with, it will be well for him to notice 
whether the density of his is equal to that of the other, 
and be guided by the result in developing the next 

The plate which has received the longest exposure 
should be developed immediately after the first one, and 
whilst the action of the developer is fresh in the 
memory of the operator. A new quantity of solution is 
used. The image will come up more quickly than the 

If the stop used with the lens has been as small as 
the smallest usually sent out with landscape lenses it is 
probable that the first plate will have been considerably 
under-exposed, — that is to say, there will remain after 
development considerable portions which have not been 
blackened. The second plate will very likely show 
signs of over-exposure, — that is to say, no portions of the 
film will remain quite, or nearly c^uite, white. It is, 
however, to be remembered that unless the deepest 
shadows darken or " veil over " very much indeed, this 
latter fault is not so grave as the other. In fact, the 
best result is produced when no portion of the plate 
remains quite white. 

It should be noted that it is best to mix a fresh 
developer for every plate. The alum and hypo solutions 
may be used several times, but when they begin to be 
discoloured they should be replaced by fresh. 

The object of the alum solution is to harden the 
gelatine film on the plate, and to improve the colour of 
the negative. It is quite possible to dispense with the 
use of it, but it is not desirable. 


The object of the fixing-bath is to dissolve away such 
bromide of silver as is not reduced or blackened by the 
combined action of light and the developer. 

"We have described the process of development as 
taking place immediately after exposure. It must be 
borne in mind, however, that there is no need for this. 
It may be delayed for a very considerable length of 
time; how long is not known with certainty, but at 
any rate for some months. Thus the amateur may, if 
he be away from home, keep all his plates for develop- 
ment till he returns. 


DEVELOPMENT {Continued). 

Compensation fw Under and Over Exposure . 

We have so far been considering merely a case of " nor- 
mal exposui'e " and " normal development," but we must 
go farther than this and give examples of abnormal 
exposures and the corresponding variations which recj[uire 
to be introduced in development to correct these. 

One of the greatest advantages of dry plates is that, 
although there certainly is for every subject a correct 
exposure, any considerable deviation from which is to be 
as far as possible avoided, still it is quite possible to 
correct or compensate for considerable differences from 
this "normal exposure," as it is generally termed. 

Thus if the normal exposure for a certain subject were 
ten seconds — that is to say, if ten seconds were the 
exposure which, with the developer as commonly 
mixed, would give the very best result — it Avould be 
quite possible, by somewhat varying the manner of 
mixing the solutions, to get an equally, or almost 
equally, good result with an exposure as short as seven 
or eight seconds or as long as sixty seconds, or even 
possibly longer. 


This power to compensate gives what we term " lati- 
tude of exposure," and is one of the most useful powers 
which we possess in Avorking dry plates, because it is 
impossible to judge with certainty of the intensity of 
light, and could we not compensate in some way for a 
slight error it would only be on rare occasions that we 
could have a perfect negative. 

This compensating for under or over exposure is 
the chief reason for ever altering the proportions of the 
solutions used in development ; but there is still another. 
The nature of the subject to be treated varies very much, 
"We have some subjects which tend to give very strong 
contrasts of light and shade, whilst others exhibit no 
such strong differences of brightness. As an example 
of the first we may return to our old illustration, where 
we had side hy side a whitewashed wall and a tree with 
widespreading branches and deep shadows. As an ex- 
ample of the other we may take an open landscape, a 
scene with possibly a river in the foreground, and beyond 
that roads and houses all brightly lighted. Now, were 
the plates exposed on these two very different subjects 
developed in precisely the same manner, the result would 
probably not l)e satisfactory. The first would make a 
chalky picture, in which the wall came out in a pure 
Avhite mass showing no detail, the tree a deep black mass 
showing also almost no detail. The second would not 
show contrast enough, but would be flat and wanting in 

It is necessary then, at any rate occasionally, to vary 
the developer to suit the subject, even if the exposure 
have been correct. 

Before going into these c[uestions of variation of 


developer we must say a few words on the functions of 
the various chemicals of which the developer is made up. 
The three constituents are : (1) pryogallic acid; (2) 
ammonia ; (3) bromide of ammonium. The function of 
the nitric acid is merely to preserve the pyrogallic acid. 

This latter is the true developer. It is possible, if 
sufficient exposure be given to the plate, to develop with 
a solution of pyrogallic acid only, but not "«dth either of 
the other chemicals. 

The greater the portion of pyrogallic acid used, the 
denser Avill be the negative ; but the addition of pyrogallic 
acid beyond what is necessary to make the image appear 
does not tend to increase the amount of detail which 
can be brought out on the plate. 

The ammonia greatly increases the energy of the 
action of the pyrogallic acid. A certain quantity of it 
is necessary to secure sufficient density with normal 
exposure, but any increase beyond this has the effect of 
bringing out more detail until a point is reached where 
the developer has so much energy that it will reduce or 
blacken a film even Avhen it has had no exposure to 

The effect of the bromide of ammonium is to restrain 
the action of the developer. It may at first be thought 
strange that there should be added to the pyrogallic 
acid, first, a chemical to increase the energy of its actions, 
then another to restrain it, and it might be supposed 
that these two would merely counteract each other. 
This is not the case, however. The chief effect of the am- 
monium bromide is to make the action of the developer 
slower merely, but not to prevent it from ultimatel}' 
doing its work. When in considerable quantity, how- 


ever, it does actually counteract the effect of the am- 
monia. If a develojier be used without bromide as a 
restrainer the action is so rapid that it cannot be watched, 
and it is consequently not under control. If very little 
ammonia be used with the idea of preventing this very 
rapid action, then sufficient density is not gained. 

The result of increasing ammonium bromide is to 
make the action of the developer much slower, to keep 
back detail, and to increase the density of the image. 

Now we will see how we can alter the proportion of 
our developer so as to suit different circumstances. The 
solutions are so mixed that the bromide and the pyi'o- 
gallic are together, as these are in some respects similar 
in their action. 

If we have under-exposed we have merely to increase 
the quantity of No. 2 — the ammonia solution, and we 
shall increase the energy of the developer and thus bring 
out more detail. The power of the ammonia is, how- 
ever, limited. When increased beyond a certain amount 
the effect is, as we explained before, that even those 
portions of the plate which have received no impress of 
light are blackened, the result being to produce a foggy 
negative which is useless. 

On the other hand, if we have over-exposed we have 
merely to increase the proportion of the pyrogallic 
solution (No. 3), when we prevent the appearance of 
detail on account of the bromide, whilst at the same 
time the increased pyrogallic acid enables sufficient 
density to be gained. Unlike the last case, there is 
scarcely any limit to the amount of compensation which 
is j)ossible in the case of over-exposure. It will thus be 
seen that where we are at all doubtful of what exposure 


to give, we had better err on the side of over-exposure 
rather than under-exposure. 

So far we have indicated the variations in the de- 
veloper which it is necessary to make to compensate for 
errors of exposure, and it is evident that there is no 
difficulty involved if we know whether we have exposed 
too little, or too much, as may often be the case after we 
have developed the first of a series of plates which have 
been exposed at the same time. 

It very frequently happens, however, that we have to 
develop plates concerning which we are quite unceitain 
as to whether the exposiu-e has been too little, correct, 
or too much. We now describe the procedure to pursue 
when we are thus uncertain. First we will take the 
case which is common, for example, in studio work, 
where we know that our exposure cannot be much too 
little or too great. In this case we begin with the 
normal developer, but have in readiness the vessel con- 
taining No. 3. We watch the process very closely to 
see the first symptom of over-exposure. WTien a plate 
is over-exposed this is indicated by the manner in which 
the details appear. The high lights are a little quicker 
in showing themselves, and after they do so, the rest of 
the details, instead of coming up gradually in the order 
of their brightness, appear rapidly one after another, so 
that in the case of a very much over-exposed plate the 
whole surface darkens within a few seconds of the time 
when the high lights appear. 

Whenever the operator observes by this quick coming 
up of detail that his plate is over-exposed, he pours away 
the solution that covers it, and pours No. 3 into the dish 
in place of it. This vdW stop the further appearance of 


detail, but vnll allow density to continue increasing, and 
it is quite possible that the development may be thus 
completed. If, however, there appear to be insufficient 
detail the solution in the dish is emptied into a measure, 
and a little of Xo. 2 is added, and the solution repoured 
over the plate. 

If, on the other hand, the high lights have been 
slow of appearing, and shortly after they do come action 
ceases, leaving large patches of unblackened film, this 
indicates under-exposure, and a certain quantity of 
solution No. 2 must be added as described above. The 
addition of this may be continued until the desired effect 
is produced, or until there is two or three times as much 
of No. 2 in the developer as there is of No. 3. It is not 
safe to go beyond this or fog aWII probably result. If 
sufficient detail be not by this time gained it may be 
assumed that the plate has been so much under-exposed 
as to be useless. 

We now take the case which is very common in land- 
scape work, where we do not know but that our plates 
may be very much over-exposed indeed. It would now 
be dangerous to begin with the normal developer, as detail 
would out before we had time to pour off the one 
solution and pour on the other. "We now start with a 
solution consisting of one part of No. 2 and three parts of 
No. 3. For example, if we are about to develop a quarter 
plate we will take half an ounce of No. 2 and one and a 
half ounce of No. 3. With this developer the image "v^^ll 
appear but slowly even if the plate has been over-exposed, 
and very slowly if it has been correctly exposed. Only 
practice enables us to be able to tell at once from the 
rapidity with which the image appears whether we have 


over-exposed, under-exposed, or correctly exposed. If 
the fomier be the case we may continue development 
Avdth the solution as we began Avith it, or even may in- 
crease No. 3 if it appears that the exposure has been very 
much too great. If the exposure appears to have been 
correct we add No, 2 till we have as much of it as there 
Avas of No. 3. If it appears to have been too short, we 
have to continue adding No. 2 as described before. 

"We have now only to explain how it is, at times, desir- 
able to vary the developer so as to suit different subjects. 

A consideration of what we said Avith regard to the 
properties of each of the constituents of the developer 
will show that, apart from considerations of exposure, 
the effect of increasing No. 3 in proportion to No. 2 is 
to increase density or contrast, whilst the effect of in- 
creasing No. 2 in proportion to No. 3 is to reduce con- 
trast. All that we have to do then, if we have a subject 
in which contrast is excessive, and from which we expect 
to get a chalky print, is to increase the quantity of No. 
2. If, on the other hand, our subject presents but weak 
contrasts we have to increase No. 3. AVe may thus at 
times, even if exposure has been correct, use the two 
solutions mentioned in proportions of three or four parts 
of one to one part of the other. 

Some operators like to have in readiness, besides the 
solutions mentioned, a concentrated solution of bromide 
of ammonia and a strong mixture of ammonia and water. 
These may be usefid in certain circumstances. One 
ounce of bromide of ammonia may be made up with 
water to ten ounces, and a mixture may be made of one 
ounce ammonia to nine ounces water; these will then 
each be ten per cent solutions. 





Ferrous O.mlate BevelojJer. 

The developer which we have described, and which is 
usually called the " alkaline pyrogallic developer," or, for 
the sake of brevity, simply the "alkaline developer," is 
the one which is the most popular in this country, and 
is admitted by almost all to be the one which allows the 
greatest latitude of exposure, and admits of the greatest 
amount of variation to suit different classes of subjects. 

The ferrous oxalate or iron developer is, however, by 
far the most popular on the Continent, and with some 
few photographers in this country, and certainly it has 
some advantages. 

AVere the negative, instead of the print, the end at 
which the photographer aims, certainly the iron devel- 
oper would be the one to adopt. The colour of the 
image given by it is very much more pleasing to the 
eye than is the colour given by the alkaline developer. 
Moreover, the manipulations are cleaner. It is quite 


true that with ordinary care it is possible to work the 
alkah'ue developer without staining the hands, and it is 
also true that the stain even if made is not as indelible 
as a silver nitrate stain. The oxalate developer has, 
however, this advantage that it produces no stain at all. 

The following chemicals are required for this de- 
veloper : — 

Suljjhate of iron. 

Oxalate of potash. 

Bromide of ammonium. 

Of the first two of these saturated solutions in water 
are made, — that is to say, as much of each of them is 
dissolved in Avater as it will take up. 

This may be done in the following manner : — 

A pound of protosulphate of iron is placed in a pint 
bottle. Over this is poured hot Avater almost to fill 
the bottle, and the whole is shaken till as much of the 
crystalline substance as will dissolve has done so. As 
the solution is used water may be added, the bottle 
being shaken each time that this is done. 

The very same process is gone through with a pound 
of oxalate of potash. 

It is qrdte true that this plan of using saturated solu- 
tions is not a very accurate one, as the amount of the 
chemicals which remains dissolved varies with the tem- 
perature. It appears, however, to be quite good enough 
for all practical purposes. 

The solutions must, of course, not l>e used till they 
are cold. 

The bromide of ammonium may be used in a ten per 
cent solution, as was described at the end of the last 


We now have — 

No. 1. Saturated solution of protosulphate of iron. 

No. 2. Saturated solution of oxalate of potash. 

No. 3. Ten per cent solution of bromide of ammo- 

Nos. 2 and 3 will keep indefinitely. No. 1 will keep 
for a considerable time in a well-stoppered bottle, but 
not indefinitely. It should be of a bright gi"een colour. 
If it turns reddish it is a sign of deterioration. 

Just before we commence develoiiment we take two 
ounces of No. 2 ; into this we poiu" half an ounce of 
No. 1 ; immediately the solution assumes a beautiful 
ruby-red colour, due to ferrous oxalate, which is formed. 

Development is performed with this solution precisely 
as with the alkaline developer, but will, as a rule, be 
found to proceed more slowly. It is necessary also to 
make the apparent density of the negative somewhat 
greater than with the alkaline developer, as the colour 
of the film is less non-actinic. The time taken with most 
subjects will be about from three to five minutes. 

It is not in most cases necessary to use any bromide 
of ammonium at all, unless the plate has been over- 
exposed, when a little is added to the developer to re- 
strain its action. Many operators, however, prefer to 
have a little bromide in the solution in all cases, as 
clearer shadows are thereby obtained ; but, as the re- 
straining action of bromide is much more energetic in 
the case of the iron developer than is that of the alka- 
line, a less quantity is sufficient. Not more than about 
two or three drops of the ten per cent solution should 
be added to each ounce of developer unless there has 
been decided over-exposure. Ten drops to the ounce is 


enough to compensate for very considerable excess of 

^Yith the oxalate developer there is no accelerator 
which can be used as ammonia is "vvith the alkaline 
developer, but a slightly similar effect may be brought 
about by using a little hyposulphate of soda. 

It is best to prepare a very weak solution of this. One 
containing five grains to the ounce of water is sufficient. 
A few drops of this added to the oxalate developer brings 
up somewhat more detail on a plate, but great care must 
be exerted or a reversed action will commence which "svill 
destroy the negative. More than twenty minims of the 
weak solution mentioned should never be added to each 
ounce of the developer. 

Unlike the alkaline developer, the ferrous oxalate may 
be used to develop several plates in succession without 
the mixing of a fresh solution, if more than an hour or 
two do not intervene. By long exposure to the air, 
however, the strength of the developer is lost. 

A more concentrated and consequently more ener- 
getic oxalate developer may be made in the following 
manner : — 

A bottle — holding, say, a pint — is nearly filled with a 
saturated solution of oxalate of })otash. The whole is 
slightly warmed, and protosulphate of iron is dropped in 
in crystals. The bottle is shaken to dissolve these, and 
more crystals are added till no more will dissolve. The 
solution will keep for some weeks in a tightly-stoppered 

The operation of development with ferrous oxalate 
is, as we indicated, much cleanlier than that with 
alkaline pyro. For this reason it is likely to be a 


favourite with many, and especially with ladies. We 
shall therefore briefly describe how it may be used so 
as to secure the greatest latitude of exposure which it 
is possible to have with it. 

For the method of working which we are about to 
describe, three "dipping baths," large enough to hold 
the plates to be developed, are required, and one dipper. 
We illustrate a dipping bath. It will be seen that it is 

simply a vertical vessel so shaped as to hold a plate 
siuTounded with solution. The best material is glass. 
The dipper is a little piece of apparatus for lowering a 
plate into the bath. 

We shall call the baths Nos. 1, 2, and 3. 

Into No. 1 there is poured concentrated ferrous 
oxalate solution, made as just described. 

Into No. 2 is poured the ordinary ferrous oxalate 
developer, made as described first of all. 

Into No. 3 is poured the same developer as goes into 
No. 2, but there is added ten minims of the ten per cent 


solution of bromide of ammonium to each ounce of this 

When we have a plate to develop and do not feel 
certain whether the exposure is correct or not, we place 
it on the dipper and lower it into bath No. 2 or 3, 
according to the amoimt of our uncertainty. If we 
know that oui' exposiu'e cannot be very much ■wrong it 
goes into No. 2. If all proceeds satisfactorily it remains 
there till development is complete. If exposure appears 
to have been too great it goes into No. 3 to be finished. 
If it appears to have been too little it goes into No. 1. 

If we are very uncertain of our exposure, and think 
that it may have been very much too great, we com- 
mence with No. 3. It is less necessary to use the alum 
solution after ferrous oxalate development than after 
alkaline pyro. The fixing is performed in exactly the 
same manner in the one case as in the other. 

Sodic Siblphite Developer. 

The brownish or yellowish colour which a gelatine 
plate negative, which has been developed with the 
ordinary alkaline pyi'O developer, exhibits is considered 
objectional by many. 

To avoid it an addition to the developer was proposed 
by Mr. Herbert Berkeley some time ago, and the result 
obtained by his modification is certainly very excellent. 

The addition consists of sodic sulphite or sulphite of 
soda, which is used in the proportion of four parts to 
every one part of pyrogallic acid. 

The stock solutions may be mixed in the following 



No. 1. 

Pyrogallic acid 


1 ounce. 

Bromide of ammonium . 

600 grains. 

Sulpliite of soda 


4 ounces. 

Citric acid 

60 grains. 

Water, wp to 

1 2 ounces. 



Strongest liquid 



3 drachms 

Water . 

1 pint. 



No. 1 . 

2 ounces. 

Water . 

18 ounces. 

No. 1 is mixed in the following manner : The sul- 
phite (not sulphate) of soda is dissolved in eight ounces 
of water, a little heat being used. The citric acid is 
added. The solution is poured over the pyrogallic 
acid and bromide of ammonium, and is then made up 
to twelve ounces with cold Avater. 

Solutions Nos. 2 and 3 are used precisely as the 
solutions of the ordinary developer which bear the same 

Development will be slightly slower, but the result 
will be a negative of a very fine black colour. 

Soda and Potash Developers. 

Some operators prefer to use common washing-soda or 
caustic potash instead of ammonia. It would appear 
that thereby a slightly shorter exposure may be given. 
For this developer solutions may be mixed as fol- 
lows : — 



Pyrogallic acid 
Nitric acid 
Water, up tn . 

No. 1. 

No. 2. 

1 ounce. 
20 drops. 
6 ounces. 

Carbonate of soda (common wasliing-soda) 6 drachms. 

Water, up to . 

1 pint. 

No. 3. 

No. 2 


No. 1. 

Pyrogallic acid 
Bromide of ammonium 
Nitric acid 
Water, up to . 

No. 3. 













3 drachms. 







No. 2. 
Caustic potash 
Water, up to . 

No. 1 . 
Water . 

These solutions are used precisely as the ordinary 

Hydrohiiione Developer. 

Two or three years ago Captain Abney recommended 
hydrokinone as a developer instead of pyrogallic acid. 
At that time the substance was so dear as to prohibit its 
being used except experimentally. Now it is compara- 
tively cheap, and the developer is becoming a popular 



one. It may be used without a restraiuer, and Avhen 
first it was described it was claimed for it that it would 
enable plates to be worked Avith from one-half to one- 
third the exposure required when the ordinary developer 
is used. 

It would appear that this is a mistake ; nevertheless 
some prefer the developer to any other. It is at least 
wortliy of a trial by those who are of an experimental 

Solutions may be mixed as follows : — * 

No. 1. 




Nitric acid . 



Water, up to 





Strongest liquor 



B80) . 








No. 1 








Bromide of ammonium 



Water, ujd to 



Nos. 2 and 3 are used as with the ordinary developer 
when exposure is normal. No. 4 is only to be used 
in cases of over-exiDOsure when a few drops are added 
to the developer. 

This may be a good place to illustrate and briefly 
describe " MacDougald's Patent Developing Tubes." 

These consist of two a;lass tubes with closed ends 


and fitted into a solid block of wood, so that they can 
be carried in the pocket or sent per post without fear of 
breakage. One contains the "stock solution" No. 1, given 
on page 36. The other contains — in a concentrated form 
— the " stock solution " No. 2, given on the same page. It 

BCOTVtentFtoIlow info a Ami". I 




^^^^^^^Heerisar^ ^i[sEoun«s of WMo.r (atou 

is simply necessary to break the tubes and to dilute the 
solutions Avith water, when Ave have all ready for imme- 
diate use — the stock solutions Nos. 2 and 3 of page 36. 
The tubes are made of two sizes. In the case of the 
smaller .size the contents of each tube is diluted to six 
ounces Avith water, in the case of the larger to twelve 

"When travelling at a distance from home, or even 
Avhen near home, in the case where we wish to develop 
in the field, these tubes will be found specially useful, it 
being difficult or inconvenient to carry the solutions in 
the ordinary form. 



No photographic manual would be complete without a 
description of the defects which may occur in the pro- 
duction of negatives and the remedies which may be 
applied. Now that the manufacture of dry plates has 
reached the state of perfection that it has, hy far the 
greater number of defects which occur are due to faults 
in manipulation. Here we must remark that beginners, 
and occasionally too those who are not beginners and 
ought to know better, are very liable to lay the blame 
of faults on the i:)lates when they themselves ought in 
reality to bear it. 

Of the defects which, for the sake of completeness, we 
mention as existing in plates, few will ever be come 
across in the present day, whilst we think we may say 
with confidence that none of them will be found in the 
Britannia plates, as every batch of these is tested, not 
only by ourselves, but by an independent photographer, 
])efore a plate is allowed to go to the public. 

If the enthusiasm of the amateur at any time reach 
such a pitch that he determines to make his own plates, 
he is likely to meet with any or all of the faults which 
we describe. 


General Fog. 

When "we described the development of a plate we said 
that small portions of the film should remain quite white, 
and after fixing should appear quite transparent. If 
there be no such transparent portions, but on the con- 
trary every portion of the plate be more or less opaque, 
it is said that there is fog ; and according as the least 
opaque portions are of the same colour as the denser or are 
of a difi"erent colour, the terms "general fog," "green fog," 
etc., are applied. General fog may be of any degree of 
intensity, from the smallest possible veil over the shadows 
to such density that the whole negative is almost opaque. 
It almost always exists in a gelatine negative to a slight 
extent, and in fact a negative which shows absolute clear- 
ness in any part is not so good as one which shows a 
very slight veil. 

Apart from a defect in the plates rarely met with in 
commercial articles of the present day, the fog must be 
due either to the access of light at some time or another 
or to development. Most probably it is due to the first- 
mentioned cause. 

Light may act in either of the three following manners : 
First, by an unsafe light in the dark room ; second, by a 
defect in the camera ; and third, by over-exposure. 

If the plate after fixing be examined and it be found 
that the portions which are protected in the camera by 
the wires or rebates of the dark slide are clear, then Ave 
know that the fog-producing action is exerted in the 
camera, and must be either one or other of the following. 
There must be a defect in the camera, or the plate must 
have been over-exposed. 


To judge which it is, the cap is placed on the lens ; 
the camera is placed in the most brightly-lighted spot 
which can be found, the ground glass is removed or 
hinged back, the photographer covers his head with the 
focussing cloth and looks for any hole which may admit 
light. A few seconds' examination is not sufficient. He 
must keep his head under the covering till his eyes have 
become accustomed to the darkness before he can be sure 
that there is no defect. If there be one discovered it 
has of course to be made good. If there be none, 
the dark slide must be examined, and if this also be 
perfectly light-tight there can be no other assumption 
but that over-exposure has been the cause of the fog. 

If it be found that the protected portions of the plate 
have fogged as well as the others, then it may be assumed 
that the fog is produced either by unsafe light in the 
dark room, by error in development, or is clue to defect 
in the plates. 

To discover which of these it is we may develop an 
unexposed plate in total darkness. This is easily done, 
the operations being guided by feeling alone. The plate 
need be only developed and washed. Fixing is unneces- 
sary. If there be still fog it is due to either faulty plates 
or faulty developer. If there be no fog this time it may 
be assumed that the fog which was visible before Avas 
produced by unsafe light in the dark room. To corrobo- 
rate this a plate is placed in the dark slide. The shutter 
of the slide is drawn half-way up, so that one half of the 
plate is exposed to the light of the dark room. The 
slide is placed in the position usually occupied by the 
plate during development, and is left there for three to 
five minutes. The plate is now developed. If the half 


which was unprotected by the shutter of the dark slide 
blacken, it is proof positive that the light in the dark 
room is not safe. The red and all other lights are ex- 
tinguished, and the photographer looks for any chink or 
cranny which might admit white light. If he finds none 
the assumption is that he is using too much red light. 
It must be understood that dry plates are slightly sensi- 
tive even to red light. An unlimited amoimt of this 
must therefore not be used. The lamp must be turned 
lower or the developing dish must be placed farther from 
it during development. 

If fog has appeared on the plate developed in total 
darkness, we must try the efTect of mixing a little fresh 
developing solution, being very careful to adhere to the 
instructions given. We remember a case of one amateur 
who had persistent fog, and eventually discovered that he 
had forgotten to put any bromide of ammonium into 
the No. 1 solution. Another discovered at last that ho 
was using ounces of strong liquor ammonia instead of 
drachms ! If the developing solution is certainly correct, 
then the plates are at fault. 

Colour Fog. 

This includes red, brown, yellow, and green fog, all 
of which ajipear to be different degrees of the same 
disease, the fii'st-mentioned being the most malignant 
variety, the last-mentioned the least so. It is unusual 
in the present day to meet with any but the green fog. 
When a negative showing the defect is examined by 
reflected light, a dark object being behind it, the shadows 
or most transparent parts appear of one or other of the 
three last-mentioned coloiu's — brown, yellow, or green. 


If the case be a bad one, on looking tlirougli the plate 
these shadows will appear of a red colour, the intensity 
of which may vary from ruby to a faint pinkness. If 
the defect be the slight green fog which may be met 
■with under certain circumstances in the case of the best 
of plates, it is not visible by transmitted light, and is 
quite harmless. 

In good plates colour fog makes its appearance only 
when insufficient exposure has been given, and excessive 
forcing with ammonia has been resorted to, and then 
particularly in hot weather. The remedy is to give 
ample exposure, or to use ferrous oxalate developer, with 
which latter the defect is never ^■isible imless the chemi- 
cals be impure. 


In the early days of gelatine work frilling was one of 
the commonest of defects. The film of gelatine adhered 
so loosely to the glass that it frilled off when washing 
was being performed. The frilling generally commenced 
at the edge of the plate, and extended inwards, possibly 
only a quarter of an inch, possibly to the very centre 
of the plate. As the frilled portion stretched it could 
not be caused to lie flat on the plate, but, if the attempt 
were made, folded itself into wrinkles and spoiled the 
negative. At times frilling commenced in the centre, 
and the film rose in bhsters. 

At the present time frilling seldom makes its appear- 
ance unless very soft water be used for washing. If 
only soft water can be had, a few grains of Epsom salts 
shoidd be added to each ounce of it, and the alum bath 
should be used without fail. 


Flatness or Thinness of Iimuje. 

With good gelatine plates there is never any impossi- 
bility in obtaining plenty of density or opacity, but it is 
([uite likely that an error of judgment may be made, 
especially if the plate has been over-exposed, and the 
development may be stopped too soon. In this case 
it is necessary to intensify the plate, — that is to say, to 
increase the densitj' of the image. 

The following solutions are prepared : — 


"Water ..... 1 (j^iiart. 

Bichloride of mercury ... 5 drachms. 

Bromide of potassium ... 5 drachms. 


Water 1 quart. 

^ Cyanide of potassium . . 5 drachms. 

Nitrate of silver .....") drachms. 

After fixing, A is poured over the plate in a develop- 
ing dish till the film appears to be whitened or bleached 
through its entire thickness. A very thorough washing 
f(jllows, and then B is applied till the required density 
is got. Again the plate is thoroughly Ava.shed. 

It is well, if a plate be found on printing to require 
intensification, to give it (juarter of an hour or so in the 
tixing-bath first (afterwards washing). Intensification 
often reveals the fact that a plate, which appeared to be 
thoroughly fixed, is in fact not. 

^ Cyanide in crystals is the only kind that will answer the 



Too Great Density of Image 

is an error of the precisely ojDposite nature to that de- 
scribed last. It occurs if the development be allowed to 
go too far. 

A solution of thirty grains of ferric chloride in three 
ounces of water is prepared. The plate is placed in a fiat 
dish, and the solution is allowed to act on it for a short 
time. The plate is then washed and is placed in the fixing 
solution. It will now be found that the density of the 
image is considerably reduced. If it be not sufficiently 
so the operation may be repeated. 


Various kinds of spots appear in the finished negative 
at times. Opaque spots are due to defect in plates. 
Transparent spots with irregular outlines are also due 
to defect in the plates. 

Perfectly circular transparent spots with well-defined 
outlines ai^e due to bubbles in the developer adhering to 
the film ; they are liable to occur if too little solution 
be used. If the photographer be much troubled with 
this defect he should use a broad camel's-hair brush in 
development, sweeping it across the plate immediately 
after the solution is applied. 

Flare Spot 

Sometimes it "svdll be noticed in the case of a landscape 
negative that the central portion of the plate for a space 
of possibly a third of its length is fogged, whilst the rest 
remains clear. This defect is called "flare spot." It is 
due to a defect in the lens, and makes itself evident in 


the case of certain subjects. If there be a very bright 
light ahead, as, for example, may be reflected from the 
sky, and at the same time there be very deep shadows, 
so that a comparatively long exposiu'e is necessary, the 
defect may be seen. It scarcely ever occurs except when 
a lens of the kind known as the single achromatic is used. 
The lens may be so altered as to make it cease giving a 
flare spot by slightly changing the distance between the 
stop and the glass. 

Gliost Images. 

This is a defect somewhat similar to the last. If a 
subject consist almost entirely of dark shadow, but with 
a few points of very bright light, as, for example, would 
be the case with a cathedral interior in which there 
were small windoAvs through which the sky could be 
seen, a second faint image of the bright spots may be 
impressed on the films. This second image would appear 
to be due to reflection from some part of the glass of 
the lens. AMien a subject such as the one we have 
described is attempted, we should avoid the use of a 
lens which we find produces the defect. 

Brown Colour of the Negative. 

Sometimes a negative, instead of sho^nng a black or 
olive-green colour in the densest parts, shows a brown- 
ness in these, and a yellowness in the parts which ought 
to be transparent. This defect is to be distinguished 
from the yellow variety of colour fog by the fact that it 
is visible only by transmitted light and not by reflected 
light at aU. It does not in any way aftect the quality 
of the print which is got from the negative, but it 


greatly protracts the time taken in printing. It occurs 
if alkaline development have been continued for a very 
long time, and if the alum bath have not been used 
between development and fixing. To get rid of it we 
take half a pint of the alum solution, and pour half an 
oimce of hydrochloric acid into it. If the plate be 
dipped in this solution for a few minutes the broAvn or 
yellow colour Avill disappear. The plate must be after- 
wards very carefully washed. 

Lines across the Negative. 

If the developing solution has not been caused to How 
in one wave across the plate, but has left one portion 
of the film dry whilst another has been wetted with 
the developer, the result is that there is a line which 
distinctly marks the outline of the wetted portion. A 
camel's-hair brush, used as we directed to prevent air- 
bubbles, Avill also prevent this defect if the operator 
has not enough skill to avoid it otherwise. A better 

plan is, however, to make use of the rocking developing- 
dish, which we here illustrate. 


In this not only is there the advantage that there 
can be no difficulty in flowing the developer, but besides 
this the negative may be examined in regard to density 
•\Wthout removing it from the dish. 

It A\nll be seen that the apparatus consists in a dish 
suspended on "trunnions," so that it ma}' rock, and 
having a trough at one end to contain developing solu- 
tion. The bottom of the dish is of glass, so that all 
that is necessary to watch the course of development is 
to raise the dish till it is nearly vertical, when we ma^- 
look through the plate at the red light. 

Florescent Appearance of Films. 

It will sometimes be found after a negative is finished 
that there is upon it, and particularly towards the edge, 
a peculiar florescent or metallic lustre ; the negative 
appears at these places somewhat fogged when examined 
by transmitted light. 

This occurs if the plates have been kept for a long 
time — say, many months — in an impure atmosphere; 
for example, if they have been kept on a shelf near 
the roof of a room in which much gas is burned. The 
defect is, so far as Ave know, incurable. To prevent 
it, the plates, if they are to be kept for long, should 
be stored in an attic or some such place where the 
air is pure and dry. They will there keep for a very 
long time ; we do not know for how long, but certainl}'' 
for a time measured by years. Dampness is to be par- 
ticularl}' avoided. Heat to any moderate extent appears 
to be harmless. 


A Poirdery Deposit on the Film.<i. 

This sometimes occurs after ferrous oxalate develop- 
ment. It also may occur in the fixing bath if the 
negative have not been sufficiently "washed after the 
alum bath. The cause is different in the two cases. In 
the first case the deposit may be removed by placing the 
negative in a mixture of one pint of water to a quarter 
of an ounce of hydrochloric acid. In the other case it is 
to be avoided by thorough washing of the negative after 
it has come from the alum bath. 


Sometimes when particular!}- trying subjects are 
photogi'aphed a peculiar defect is produced which goes 
under the name of "halation" or sometimes "blurring." If 
there be a very bright part in a scene which is so dark 
in parts as to require a long exposure, halation vnW be 
visible round the bright spot. The case which we gave 
as an example of a scene from which a ghost image 
might be expected will do as an example of one which 
■^'ill possibly give halation also. Around the dense 
portions of the negative which represent the windows 
there will be found a halo of fog, extending to possibly 
only one-eighth of an inch, possibly to one or two inches. 
In the print this shows as a light halo, and the effect is 
very disagreeable. 

Where subjects have to be treated in which there are 
very bright parts in close juxtaposition to deep shadows, 
the plate, before exposure, should be laid face downwards 
on a pad of clean blotting-paper, and over the back of it 


there should be brushed a sohition of bitumen in coal- 
tar naphtha. The precise strength of this solution is not 
of importance, but it should be of such strength that 
when spread on glass the film is nearly opaque. 

The application of the solution prevents reflection 
from the back of the glass plate. Before development 
the " backing " is rubbed off by the help of a rag dipped 
in coal-tar naphtha. 


This curious defect is seen when the conditions men- 
tioned as giving rise to halation are present in an extreme 
degree. The appearance is sometimes entitled " reversal 
of the image," and this term well describes it. The very 
brightest parts of the subject, instead of being represented 
by great densitj^ in the negative, are represented by 
comparatively transparent portions. In fact a positive is 
produced instead of a negative. In the days of collodion 
dry plates reversal of the image was very common ; so 
much so that at times the sky would be a positive whilst 
the landscape was negative. AVith gelatine plates it only 
occurs in very extreme cases. If, however, for example, 
the sun be included in the negative there may be reversal. 
If it be suspected that there may be such the only pre- 
caution which can be taken is to use a somewhat in- 
creased amount of bromide in the developer and to keep 
the solution in very rapid motion during development. 

Reversal may be produced if too much hyposulphite 
of soda be added to the oxalate developer to accelerate 
its action. 



We do not intend to enter at all deejjly into the subject 
of the principles involved in the chief instrument used 
in the photographic art, — namely, the lens ; but to give 
very simple explanations of the why and wherefore of 
certain properties which it possesses, and of certain of 
the manipulations connected ynth it. 

If a room be completely darkened, and if there be 
made in the shutters of the Avindow a small hole so 
bevelled away on each side that it shall not be in the 
form of a tube, we shall have on the wall opposite an 
inverted image of any brightly-lighted oliject which may 
be over against the window. 

Here we see opposite the shutter with a hole in it a 
tree. From every point in the tree there passes in a 
straight line through the hole and against the wall oppo- 
site a beam of light. "We show in our sketch three 
such beams, and all three go to make up an image of the 
tree on the wall. 

We should here have a very perfect camera obscura 
but for one circumstance. The hole in the shutter must 
have some definite size. The consequence is that the 
rays reflected from a point of the tree do not come to- 



gether at a point on the wall, but spread over a disc a 
little larger than the hole in the shutter. If we make 

the hole very small, so as to get sharp definitions, we 
let through so little light that the image is scarcely 
visible at all. 

AMiat we want in this case is a Jens. The effect of plac- 
ing a lens in the hole will be that, although the opening- 
is of large size, the rays of light will nevertheless meet at 
a point instead of forming a disc. This we illustrate here. 

The lens which we show here is the simplest possible, 
and is one wliich, although by its means photographs of 
a kind might be taken, yet is not by any means a very 
perfect instrument. Still, however complicated a photo- 
graphic lens may he, its sole object is to produce the 


effect which we have shown here, — that is to say, to bring 
a set of rays of light which are either diverging or 
parallel to meet at a point. Photographic lenses are 
never made of one piece of glass only, but always of 
two at least, various valuable qualities being thereby 

We must here explain certain terms which are con- 
tinually used ^Yith. relation to lenses. 

Comhiiudions of a lens. — When a lens consists of several 
distinct pieces of glass, although these appear each to be 
only one piece, they are, as a matter of fact, built up of 
two or even three pieces. Each of these built-up struc- 
tures is called a "combination," and we speak of the front 
and back combinations of a lens, meaning those which 
are nearest and farthest from the object to be photo- 

A-perture is the opening of a lens Avhich admits light. 
When a stop is used, it is the opening of this. Where 
no stop is used, it is the opening of the smallest of the 
combinations of the lens, or, if these be all of the same 
size, the front one. 

Focal length is the distance between the lens and the 
ground glass where the image is sharply focussed. It is 
measured from the lens in the case of a single combina- 
tion one, from the stop or diaphragm in a double com- 
bination one. It is common to speak of focus instead 
of focal length. When we say that the focus of a lens 
is so many inches, it Avill be understood that we mean 
the focal length. Unless it is stated to be otherwise, 
it is to be understood that the focal length of a lens is 
measured when a distant object is focussed. 

Flatness and roundness of field. — In the last diagram 



which we ga^-e, we showed the various rays of light as 
if they all met on the fiat plane of the wall. As a matter 
of fact, with the lens which we showed, they wonld not, 
but would all meet at points equally distant from the 
lens, so that a sharp image could only be got by the use 
of a spherical screen, could such be had. AVe illustrate 
this here. The field is said to be round. Certain of 

the complications found in photographic lenses are in- 
troduced with a view to get rid of this roundness of 
field, and to give a comparatively /«^/f/f/. 

Distortion is produced at times by certain kinds of 
lenses. That known as the single achromatic, or simply 
the single lens (see page 81), is the only one which gives 
this defect to any marked extent. If such a lens be used 
to photograph any object which is made up of straight 
lines which are near to its edge, these lines will not appear 
quite straight in the negative, but ^rill be slightly curved. 
Thus a square object will appear somewhat like the fol- 
lowing cut. 

We have exaggerated the amount of the distortion, 
which is slight even if the square co^'cr almost the whole 


of the plate. If it cover only a small portion toAvards 
the centre it may be disregarded altogether. 

It is almost unnecessary to say that when the subject 
is such that there are no straight lines — as, for example, 
in an ordinary landscape^the distortion is not perceptible. 

Depth of focus. — The beginner, the very first time that 
he focussed a landscape or other object, \d\\ have noticed 
that objects whose distance from the camera is greatly 
different are not in focus at the same time, and that to 
bring a nearer object into focus he has to increase the 
distance between the lens and the ground glass. He 
will also have noticed that this difficulty of getting ob- 
jects of various distances into focus is greatly decreased 
when a stop is inserted. 

The qualit}' which the stop has introduced is entitled 
"depth of focus." Depth of focus decreases with the 
aperture of a lens, and also with its focal length. No 
other modification (form, etc.) has any eflect on it. 

JFidth of anr/Ic. — If we cannot get far enough away 
from an object, but j'et wish to include the whole of it 
in a photograph, we must include in our picture a very 
■wide angle. Certain lenses are so constructed that they 
will include a very wide angle, and are called "\nde-angle 
lenses. The accompanying sketch, which shows, slightlj^ 
exaggerated, the differences of form which exist between 
narroAv and wide angle lenses, will illustrate the point. 

riiOTOGUAriiic optics. 77 

^^^len we want to iuclude a Avide angle we must either 
use a larger plate or a lens of shorter focus than if we 
Avish to include only a narrow angle. 

It may be asked, Why not use at all times the wide- 
augle lens, and simply employ a smaller plate, if we do 
not wish to include all the angle which it will take in ? 
The reason is this : — The surface of the glasses of a lens 
which has to include a very A\"ide angle are so ground 
that even for a narrow angle it will not give definition, 
unless a small stop be used, and therefore it is at best a 
slow lens. 

Rapklit)). — With different lenses the length of the ex- 
posure necessary with the same subject and with the 
same light varies enormously. According as a long or 
short exposure is required with a certain lens, that lens 
is said to be slow or rapid. 

The relation between the focal length and the aperture 


regulates the rapidity of a lens. This we can explain 
by a very simple illustration. The lens may be con- 
sidered as lighting the ground glass or sensitive plate just 
as a window Avould light the wall of a room which is 
opposite it. Let us imagine a large room lighted by only 
one small window. We will now notice that if the size 
of the window were increased the wall opposite would 
be more brightly lighted, while if the size of the window 
were decreased the wall would be less brightly lighted. 
Here we have precisely what takes place when the aper- 
ture of a lens is increased or decreased. There is, how- 
ever, still another means whereby the light on the wall 
may be increased or decreased, besides increasing or 
diminishing the size of the window. Let us suppose 
that the wall opposite the window is not fixed, but is in 
the form of a movable screen. We are now quite aware 
that if we move the screen nearer the window it will be 
more brightly lighted ; if we move it away it will be less 
brightly lighted. If, on the other hand, we both increase 
the distance between the screen and the window and 
increase the size of the Avindow proportionately, the 
amount of brightness will remain the same. Thus, if we 
increase the size of the window to twice its former size 
in each direction, and at the same time increase the dis- 
tance between the screen and the window to twice what 
it was before, we shall not in any way alter the brightness. 
The precise same as this takes place in the case of 
lenses. If we use two lenses having the same aperture, 
but one of longer focus than the other — that is, involv- 
ing a greater distance between the lens and the ground 
glass — it will give less light on the ground glass or sen- 
sitive plate than with the other. 


If, however, the relation between the aperture and the 
focal length remain the same, the amount of light or 
rapidity will remain the same. For example, however 
different in size two lenses be, if in each the diameter 
of the aperture is one c[uarter the focal length, the 
rapidity Mall be the same in both cases. This relation 
between the aperture of a lens and the focal length is 
usually expressed thus — ' 

/ / / 
4' 8' lO' 

These various expressions would refer to lenses in 

the first of which the diameter of the aperture is 

one- fourth the focal length, in the second of which 

it is one -eighth, in the third of which it is one- 


Now Ave have in this means of stating the ratio of 
aperture a means of performing a most useful operation, 
— namely, of testing not only whether one lens is less or 
more rapid than another, but by what precise amount it 
is less or more rapid. That this is a thing most useful 
to be able to know must be evident. We are continually 
using different kinds of lenses, and, as we explained 
before, we require at different times to use various sizes 
of stops. Now it is most useful to be able to say, when 
we are about to expose, "On such and such an occasion 
a subject just like this took so many seconds with such 
a lens and such a stop ; therefore, with the lens and stop 
which I am at present using I shall have to give so many 
seconds of exposure." 

The calculation necessary to make to be able to do 
this is a very easy one. 

We have only to square the denominator of the 


fiactions j, r-, — -, etc., when "vve ^^dll have precisely the 

relative exposures. We would remind those who are 

rusty in their arithmetic that the denominator of a 

fraction is the lower figure, and that to square a number 

is to multiply it by itself. Thus 4 X 4 or 16 is 4 squared, 

8 X 8 or 64 is 8 squared, 10 X 10 or 100 is 10 squared. 

And in the examples given of three lenses, one working 

f f • f 

at -, another at -, and the third at—, the relative ex- 
4' 8 10' 

posures will be 16, 64, and 100, — that is to say, if the 

first required an exposure of 16 seconds, the others 

would require respectively 64 seconds and 100 seconds ; 

and if the first recpiired a half or a quarter of 16 

seconds — that is to say, 8 or 4 seconds— the others would 

require respectively a half and a quarter of 64 and 100 

seconds — that is to say, 16 seconds and 25 seconds. 

Possibly one more case will be useful. We have been 
working in an ordinary room using a lens of the " rapid 
landscape " type for portraits. We find that we have 
had to give 12 seconds. We want to discover Avhat 
advantage we would gain by using a })ortrait lens. 

We measure the aperture of our landscape lens, and 
find that it is 1 inch. The distance between the 
diaphragm and the ground glass we find to be 9| inches. 
We may disregard the fraction and say that the lens 

works at -. AA e take a portrait lens and on measure- 
ment find that the aperture of the front lens is 2i inches, 
Avhilst the distance between the diaphragm and the 
ground glass or the focal length is 10 inches. This lens 

works at exactly -. We now square 9 and 4 and wc 


get 81 and 16. The exposures -with the two lenses will 
be as 81 to 16, — that is to say, with the portrait lens 
they will require a shade less than a fifth of what was 
required with the landscape lens. The landscape lens 
required 12 seconds, the portrait lens will require about 
2| seconds. The ability to make this simple calculation 
might be enough to determine us Avhether or not to 
purchase a lens of the last-mentioned description. A 
little further on is given a table where the average ex- 
posures under various conditions are given for different 

We now pass on to a description of the various forms 
of lenses which have been designed to suit different 
kinds of photographic work. We take first of all, as 
being the simplest, that known as 

The Single Lens, 

or at times the single achromatic or the single combination 

lens. The particular variety of this lens, which we 

illustrate, is known as the ivide- angle landscape lens ; 

it difi"ers from all other single lenses inasmuch as there 

go three pieces to make up the combination instead of 

two only, as is commonly the case. Certain advantages 

accrue from this. 

The single lens is the most generally useful of all for 

landscape purposes. Its simplicity of form, there being 

only two reflecting surfaces, is a great advantage. The 

definition which it gives is exquisite ; it is fairly rapid, 

its largest aperture being about r^ ; and it will, if it be 

desired, include a fairly wide angle. In fact, it will take 
in far more than is necessary except in certain circum- 



stances, which will be described in connection with land- 

scape work. Its only drawback is that, as explained before, 
it will with some subjects give slight distortion. 

The Rapid Rectilinear or Rapid Symmetrical Lens. 
We here illustrate the lens which bears the above 


title. It may be taken as typical of a class of lenses 
which are generally known as "rapid" landscape lenses. 
The different kinds vary slightly, but each consists essen- 
tially of two lenses like single achromatic lenses fixed a 
little distance apart, and Avith the concave sides tOAvards 
each other. The " rapid " lens is about the most useful 
of any, and is the one Avhich the amateur should purchase 
if he AAashes to work with one lens only. It Avill do for 
any kind of landscape work. It is specially adapted for 
instantaneous photograph}-. It may be used for por- 
traiture even in an ordinary room if the light be good 
and it gives no distortion. 

It works Avith a maximum apertiu-e of about — , and is 

therefore four times as rapid as the lens described last. It 
does not, however, include quite so Av^ide an angle as the 
Avide-angle variety of the single lens. Still, the angle 
Avhich it Avill include is enough and more than enough 
for all ordinary cases. 

The Wide-angle Rectilinear and IVide-anfjle Symmetrical 

"We here illustrate the wide-angle rectilinear lens, 
Avhich may be taken as typical of a number of lenses 
Avhich are made to include a very AAdde angle. They 
are all constructed of tAvo combinations placed opposite 
each other, Avith the concaA'e sides facing one another. 

Such lenses should only be iised Avhen it is absolutely 
impossible to get far enovigh aAvay from the subject to 
use a lens of longer focus — that is to say, they should 
never be made to include all the angle Avhich they are cap- 
able of doing, unless it is unavoidable. There is no harm 



in using for ordinary circumstances a long focus lens of 
this type so as to take in only a narrow angle, but then 

the special property which the lens jjossesses, and to 
obtain which other properties are sacrificed, is not utilised 
at all, and another lens might be used instead. 

The subjects for which a very wide-angle lens are most 
useful are chiefly interiors, when it is impossible to get 
far aAvay from the object to be photographed. 

The lenses of this type give no distortion, 

not rapid, having a maximum aperture of about 
Indeed, they are the slowest lenses which 

They are 

are made. 

except certain old-fashioned forms of the single lens. 

Tlie Portrait Lens. 

This lens is the one on which the optician has expended 
his greater ingenuity. It was the outcome of working 
the slower photographic processes, which are now things 
of the past. In it everything has been strained to get 
rapidity, so that the exposure for portraits might be as 



short as possible. Rapidity has certainly been gained. 

f . 
The largest apertures of portrait lenses vary from j in 

the ordinary portrait lens to ^ in the extra rapid portrait 


lens. It is thus from four to ten times as rapid as the 

rapid landscape lenses. At the same time that rapidity 
has been gained the qualities which are required in a 
lens to be used for portraitm-e only have not been 
sacrificed. The definition given through a very narroAv 
angle is exquisite, and the field is fairly flat. The great 
difficvdty in the portrait lens is that, especially in large 
sizes, the depth of focus is very slight, unless a small 
stop is used, in which latter case the sole advantage 
which a portrait lens possesses — namelj', rapidity — is 

The Ch'ouj), <yr Universal Lens. 

This lens may be considered as a compromise between 
the rapid landscape lens and the ordinary portrait lens. 


It is not so rapid as the latter nor so slow as the former. 
It may be considered as a slow portrait lens, whilst on 
the other hand, if it be used with a small stop, it will 
include a moderately wide angle, and may be used for 

landscapes. It works at about — , and is therefore about 

twice as quick as the rapid landscape lens and twice as 
slow as the ordinary portrait lens. We do not consider 
it necessary to illustrate this lens, as in construction it 
does not materially diflfer from those already described. 

The Use of One of the Combinations of a Duuhle 
Combination Lens. 

One of the combinations of a double combination lens 
may be unscrewed and removed, and the other com- 
bination being left in its place may be used alone. In 
this case we get a lens of double the former focal length 
of the instrument complete, which is often useful if our 
camera will open wide enough, but we cannot expect to 
get any but a very slow lens by this device. The com- 
bination not being specially ground to work as a single 
lens will probably not work at a larger aperture than 

f f 

about — or even -^. 
20 30 

Either combination may be used, except in the case of 
a portrait lens, in Avhich case the front combination is 
the only one which will do. 



The Use of the Swing-Back — Table of Exposures. 

The use of the swing-back Avill be found to be referred 
to both in connection with landscape work and with 
portraiture. It is therefore advisable that a few words 
be said in explanation of the function of this very valu- 
able adjunct to the camera. 

The very first time that any object was focussed it 
will have been observed that the nearer the object was 
to the camera the greater was the distance required 
between the lens and the ground glass to make the 
object sharp. In other words, the focus of a lens is 
longer when a near object is focussed than when a dis- 
tant one is. Now, if we consider almost any subject 
which we are likely to photograph, it will be evident 
that there are in it different parts which are at different 
distances from the camera. Could we so arrange our 
ground glass and our sensitive films that those portions 
which received the impressions from distant parts of the 
subject were nearer the lens than those which received 
the impression of near parts, we might have everything 
in sharp focus even with the largest aperture of any 


lens. Now something approaching this can be brought 
about in certain cases. If we have either at the top or 
bottom of our subject a portion which is nearer the 
camera than the rest is, or if the same takes place with 
regard to the two sides, we may have such a state of 
affairs that, by sloping the ground glass, and conse- 
quently afterwards the sensitive film, either backwards 
or forwards, or to one side or the other, we may get 
both the nearer and the more distant parts in focus. 

The sloping of the ground glass is made possible by 
what is called the "swing-back." This arrangement is 
shown in the cut on the chapter on portraiture. It 
simply consists in causing the back j^ortion of the camera 
to be movable on a hinge, instead of being rigid. There 
is of course a means of clamping it tightly after the 
desired obliquity to the axis of the lens has been given. 
When the back can be adjusted backwards and forwards 
from the perpendicular the swing is called a "vertical 
swing." This is the most useful adjustment, and in many 
of the best cameras it is the only one. In some, however, 
there is besides this a side -swing, whereby one side or 
end of the plate may be caused to be farther from the 
lens than the other. 

All this of the differences of focal lens-th and smn^ina: 
of plates, so as to be oblique to the axis of the lens, 
sounds complicated when it is put in words, but we think 
that an illustration will make it very clear. 

We illustrate the case of a subject in which one jjor- 
tion is nearer the lens than another. We take the case 
of a sitter who sits with his face pretty well towards the 
camera and lens. His feet are placed somewhat forward, 
and are nearer the camera than his head. 


It will be seen at once that if the ground glass were 
to have the position A B perpendicular to the axis E F of 

the lens, the rays of light coming from the head would 
focus in front of it, those coming from the feet would 
focus behind it. If, however, we siving the ground glass 
so as to occupy the position C D, then both the rays from 
the head and the feet "vnll come to a focus approximately 
upon it. 

This is about the commonest use to make of the swing- 
back in connection -snth portraiture. It is also used to 
bring both the face and chest into focus when a head 
and shoulders form the subject of a picture. 

In landscape work there are quite as many cases in 
which the swing-back is as useful as in portraiture. A 
moment's thought will show that in almost every case 
the foreground is nearer the camera than is the rest of 
the picture. The rays from it will focus farther from 
the lens — that is, farther back — than will the rays from 
the rest of the subject. Consequently it will be an advan- 
tage to swing the ground glass backwards. 

Again, in landscape work the side-swing is frequently 


useful. For example, we may have on one side of our pic- 
ture a tree or a house or what not, which is comparatively 
near the camera, Avhilst the rest of the picture is more 
distant. Here Ave may use the side -swing, swinging the 
back of the camera so that the side of the ground glass 
which receives the image of the near subject shall be 
farther from the lens than the other side. It is c|uite 
possible to use both swings at the same time. 

It will be understood that in every case mentioned the 
same effect of bringing different planes into focus could 
be produced by the use of a small stop quite as well as 
by the use of the swing-back, the result being, however, 
the necessity of giving a nuuli longer exposure. This 
may not be objectionable in the case of landscape sub- 
jects, but it always is in the case of portraits. The 
s"\ving-back is therefore particularly useful in portraiture, 
and specially so where this is conducted in an ordinary 
room where every possible saving in exposure is to be 
taken advantage of. 

In the chapter on landscape work will be found 
reference made to the use of the swing-back for quite a 
different purpose from that which we have just described, 
and for one which must by no means be confounded with 
it. This is for the mere purpose of keeping the groimd 
glass vertical when architectural subjects, which are on 
the whole above the level of the camera, are being 

"Without our giving any detailed explanation of the 
matter, we may here state that if the ground glass of the 
camera is not vertical when a subject including vertical 
lines is included, these lines Avill not come out parallel 
in the resulting photograph, but will converge or diverge 


at the top according as the camera has been tipped back- 
wards or forwards. Accordingly, when the camera has 
to be tipped up so as to inchide the top of a building, 
the swing-back is used in the reverse direction to what 
is shown in the last cut. It is leaned forwards so as to 
make the ground glass again A'ertical instead of hachcards. 
This will cause the vei'tical lines to be shown as parallel, 
but Anil by no means enable a larger stop to be used than 
would otherwise be required. On the contrary, it Anil 
necessitate the use of a much smaller one. It will there- 
fore be understood that the swing-back is an appliance 
not to use for the purpose just described until the lens 
has been raised as high as the movable front of the 
camera renders possible. 

We now pass on to the subject of the length of ex- 
posure which it is necessary to give to plates on various 

We append — by permission of the author — a table 
which was first constructed by ]\Ir. W. K. Biuton, and 
was published in the British Journal of Photofjra])hij. 

AVe have altered one or two of the figm-es, somewhat 
reducing them, as we have found necessary, to agree 
Avith the exposures which we have been giving on 
Britannia plates. 

A few words must be said as to the subjects which 
have been chosen as typical. It will be understood 
that even with the same light every different subject 
requires a different exposure. It has been stated as a 
golden rule that we should "exjjose for the shadows, 
and let the high lights take care of themselves;" and 
although the high lights do not always take particularly 
good care of themselves, at times going in for solariza- 


tion and such like vagaries, the rule is on the whole 
sound. It is the darker parts of our picture that must 
be considered in guiding us to the exposure which 
should be given. 

A little consideration will show that all subjects can- 
not come under any of the headings which we find 
given to the various columns of the table, but that many 
will come between the one and the other. Besides this, 
certain of these headings — such, for example, as " Fairly- 
lighted interiors," and "Badly-lighted interiors" — are 
exceedingly vague. It is probable that the subjects 
chosen are as good typical cases as could readily be 
found, but they must only be taken as giving an idea of 
the exposure, nothing more. 

We will take each column and say a few words on it. 
First, we have one headed " Apertures calculated on the 
standard system of the Photographic Society" (of Great 

A committee of this Society decided some time ago to 
take as a standard, with which to compare other lenses, 
one whose aperture is one -fourth of its focal length, or 

which works at -—, and to call this No. 1. A lens which 

necessitated twice the exposure, or a stop which reduced 

the same lens to twice the slowness, had attached to it 

the figure 2. That which reduced it to four times the 

slowness was called 4, and so it went on — 8, 16, 32, etc. 

" Sea and sky " refers evidently to such marine sub- 
jects as will make pictures without any further objects 
than the two mentioned, no boats or ships being intro- 
duced, except perhaps in the distance. 

" Open landscape " means that type of landscape sub- 


ject in which there are no very dark shadows. We have 
such subjects often in river scenes, or, in fact, in ahnost 
any scene where there are no heavy shadows in the fore- 
ground. It must be explained that a shadow in the dis- 
tance never has to the photographic fihn the same or 
nearly the same darkness as a shadow in the foreground. 
The water vapour, dust, etc., which intervene between 
the distant shadow and the lens reflect a small amount 
of excessively actinic light. 

These two subjects are the ones most suitable for 
instantaneous work. Sea scenes Avith yachts, ships, 
boats, etc., in the foreground require exposures lying 
between these two. 

The heading of the next column, "Landscape with 
heavy foliage in the foreground," if taken in conjunction 
■with what we have just said, explains itself. 

In connection vdth it, it is well to say that green is a 
colour which does not have a very energetic action on 
the photographic film, and that if there be trees or 
shrubs — especially those of the evergreen nature — in the 
foreground the exposure must be long. 

"Under trees, up to" is what is given in the next 
column. We may say that the exposure of woodland 
glades, and such scenes as are entirely under the cover 
of foliage, is much longer than would be imagined. A 
great portion of the light is entirely shut off by the 
foliage, and a great portion of that which penetrates has 
been filtered through the leaves, and is of a green colour. 

The exposures which are given in this column would 
be required under trees even when the subject appeared 
to a person who had been for some time in the shade to 
be pretty good. 


The interiors must be taken as those of cathedrals, 
churches, etc. 

The portraits out of doors are supposed to be taken 
under such conditions as vnW be described in the chap- 
ters on portraiture. 

The exposures in studios are such as would be re- 
quired Avhen a someAvhat large portion of the glass is left 

The portraits in ordinary rooms are supposed to be 
taken under the conditions which will be described in 
the chapter on portraiture. 

Where there is a very large window the exposure 
may be only one-half that given, or where there is a bow- 
^Wndow it may be only one-third. 

We may say that all the exposures will be found to 
apply rather to work in the country, or in small towns, 
than in large towns. The atmosphere in large towns, 
and especially in London, is always more or less yelloAv. 
It is only in exceptionally fine weather that exposures of 
less than double those given will suffice in London. 

The remark concerning yellowness of atmosphere ap- 
plies to all parts, both of country and to"\\Ti, for certain 
parts of the year. During the winter months, when the 
sun never rises high above the horizon, it will be found 
necessary everywhere to give two or three times the 
exposures mentioned. 





1 1 


•' t" ./ 1 

r-l 1 CO 


<M rj< 1 00 1 




1 1 


(N ' I" 





■t'i.i. go o i o 



o o 

I— 1 






= 1 1 Hoo .^^ H^i ^ 




1— 1 







1 1" 

-t^ -^ 









S'=: 2-^ 



2 _-, ' 

>. « = - 

- ' -^ 5-1 ! Tl< X 








- 1 1— 1 





7-: o o o ' o . o o 

O rH 





S ^1 i 

S CM O 1 O 


o o 

o o 







-* (N 

^ (M 



So o 



O ; .-( 

(N o 




1— < 




u -^^ i 1 i 

£ c 

3i (M O o 

O 1 o , o 

o 1 o 







Tt !M 




1 = 

go c o 


O rH 







•= 1 







1 1 

i-^ '-Hi'*' -^^ 

-rt-i 1 .-( (M 











-^ H«. 

















ures cal- 
d on the 
d system 




















1— 1 












We have, we hope, given in the foregoing chapters 
snch instruction as will teach the student everything 
that can be learned about the manipulation of plates 
after exposure, except what can be acquired by practice 
and experience only. 

We mnst now say a few words on the diflferent sub- 
jects which come to be dejected by the camera, for it 
mnst be evidait that the manipulations and apparatus 
will be very different according as the desire is to por- 
tray possibly a building, or shipping in motion, or the 
face of a friend. 

We will first take the case of landscape work, -^shich 
is what the amatenr more often confines himself to. 

Tliis will possibly be the best place to say a few 
words on the size of plate to be used By reference 
to advertisements at the end of the book it will be seen 
that not only are the designs of cameras various, but 
that the size of plates for which cameras are made also 
varies greatly. 

It is true that very .sati-factory results can be got by 
the use of the .simplest of cameras — of srrjall .size, fitted 


with only one lens, such as is comprised in our " Students' 
Set" On the other hand, it cannot be denied that the 
various adjustments with which some of the more com- 
phcated instruments — for example, the "Enjalbert" — 
are fitted aflford great facilities for the production of 
eflects which could not otherwise be obtained, nor can 
it be denied that much more scope is given to the artist 
if his camera is furnished with several lenses of different 
focal lengths, any one of which may be used, than if he 
had but one. Besides this, many photographers ai'e not 
satisfied with a picture of the smallest dimensions, but 
aspire to the taking of something considerably larger 
than 5 by 4. 

"We would suggest 8i by 6i as a good size for such as 
intend to take the field unassisted. All the necessary 
apparatus may easily be carried in the hand by a man of 
average strength. An active man can carry apparatus for 
a somewhat larger size — say up to 10 inches by 8 inches. 
For any size be)*ond this it is necessaiy, if any distance 
is to be walked, that the photographer should have some 
assistance. Two men can easily cany all that is neces- 
sary for working very large plates — say up to 1-5 inches 
by 12 inches. 

As regards the subjects which maj* be selected for 
photographic representation, we may make the some- 
what wide statement that almost an}' brightly -lighted 
object which appears beautiful to the eye, and which 
owes its beauty to form or hght and shade, not to coloiu\ 
will make a picture. 

Landscapes which include trees and houses, rivers, 
lakes, quiet pools of water, or any of the objects which 
make a pleasing pictiu'e to the eye, will make a pleasing 



picture by the assistance of the camera. Buildings and 
all that is of interest to the architect, archaeologist, or 
antiquary will be rendered with a truth and reality which 
excels what is possible by any hand process. Admirable 
pictures have been made of mountains, but the subject 
is not an easy one to treat. The difficulty of giving a 
faithful rendering of distance by photography is great. 
It can, however, be done by taking advantage of proper 
atmospheric conditions, and particularly by avoiding 
those conditions of intense transparency which cause 
distant objects to appear even to the eye near and 

In selecting subjects it should be borne in mind that 
if the object is to make artistic pictures something more 
than mere beauty is required. A landscape may be most 
beautiful and may give the utmost pleasure to one who 
looks upon it, whilst we know that it does not possess 
the elements of a picture. 

It would appear that what is necessary for a picture 
is that there should be a certain harmony of the whole ; 
that it should not consist of a number of disjointed 
objects of beauty, but that every part should appear 
to bear a certain relation to every other. 

We often look about us when in a picturesque country 
and see with pleasure and admiration the objects around 
us, and yet are not looking on a picture. AVe are 
glancing our eyes from one object to another, and get a 
general impression of beauty. It is when we can look 
at some certain object and find that others near it appear 
to so fall in with it as to compose well, or give a harmony 
of form, light, and shade, that we should bring out our 
camera and try to make a picture, 


To descend from the general to the particular, it is 
common to say that there is necessary for a landscape 
picture a foreground, a middle distance, a distance, and 
a principal object which is usually situated well forward 
in the middle distance. It is impossible to lay down any 
such rule as absolute, but it is certain that these elements 
enter into the majority of good pictiures. 

The foreground may be a few shrubs, boulders or 
large stones, a pool of water, a fallen tree, or almost 
any object which does not look inappropriate to the rest 
of the pictiu'e. Often a very slight alteration of the 
position of the camera will enable various objects to be 
selected for foreground, without changing the middle 
distance, or distance to any considerable degree. The 
middle distance may consist of any of the objects which 
we have mentioned, and forms the greater part of the 
picture. Of the distance it may be said that it is only 
necessary that a very small portion of the picture be 
occupied by it, although there is no harm in allowing it 
to cover as much as a third or a fourth of the surface. 
A small spot of distance, seen, it may be, between the 
branches of a tree or through a gateway of a stone wall, 
Avill just make the difference between a picture and no 
picture. The finished picture should generally show 
some sky. This is generally best " printed in " from a 
separate negative, as will be described hereafter. If, 
however, there be — when the plate is exposed — clouds 
which appear to be particularly appropriate to the sub- 
ject, these should be secured. Unfortimately it is seldom 
that the same plate ■wall secure both clouds and landscape, 
— exceptions to this rule ■wall be mentioned in connection 
with instantaneous work, — because the exposiu-e which 


is sufficient to bring out all the necessary detail in the 
landscape generally over-exposes the clouds, so that no 
trace of them is to be had. The photographer, there- 
fore, if he mshes to secure the clouds which he sees with 
a certain landscape first exposes for the landscape, 
then gives an exposui'e of about one-fifth as long for 
the clouds, a second plate being used. These two 
are used for doul^le printing, which we shall explain 

Let us suppose Ave have selected a subject which we 
think will make a picture. There must be no hurry in 
the selection of the precise spot from which we are to 
take it. A few yards to the right or left raa^y, as we 
indicated before, so alter the foreground as to vastly 
improve the composition. If now we are working with 
the most simple of apparatus, as indeed is the best at 
first, we have only to erect our camera and focus as we 
described in a former chapter. To use the tripod-stand 
properly requires a little attention. It should be placed 
on the ground with its three legs fairly wide apart, and 
Avith one leg inclining toAvards the position of the centre 
of our proposed picture. BetAveen AA^hat then forms the 
two back legs the operator stands. If his picture be a 
landscape he may tijD up the camera by draAAdng the front 
leg toAvards him. If the picture be of an architectural 
design, or of such a nature that vertical straight lines 
are included, the ground glass must be kept in a vertical 
plane, otherAvise the lines Avill appear in the picture not 
vertical, but couA^erging either to the top or to the bottom, 
according as the ground glass has sloped backAvards or 

It is here that the various motions which are included 


in the more expensive class of cameras vrill be found 
useful. These motions are chiefly a means of raising or 
lowering the front of the camera, on to which the lens is 
attached, and a means of swinging the back, — that is to 
say, of sloping it either somewhat backwards or some- 
what forwards relatively to the lens. There is also in 
some cameras a side-swing whereby the back can be 
swung backwards. We here illustrate the camera which 
will show these motions. 

Let us now return to our manipulations. We have so 
far selected our view, have planted our camera, and have 
focussed to such an extent that we can jvidge somewhat 
of how much will be visible on our ground glass. AVe 
shall generally find that, if the camera be horizontal, there 
is too much foreground and too little height. If we are 
not right as regards horizontal direction we simply swing 
the camera on the screw which attaches it to the tripod- 

To get more height, if there are no vertical lines, we 
may simply tip up the camera to a moderate extent. 
If we are taking an architectural subject we must not do 
so, but must raise the lens, being carefiU to keep the 
ground glass of the camera vertical. If we require to 
take in still more height we must tip up the camera and 
bring the ground glass once more to the vertical position 
by the use of the swing-back. 


We have so far written on the assumption that we 
have l3ut one lens for use in landscape work, and that 
therefore we have no choice as to the amount of subject 
or width of angle which we can take in. 

It is evident, however, that we are very limited in 
the effects which we can obtain if we have the use of 
but one lens. It requires but little reflection to show 
that different subjects subtend very different angles to 
the eye. To take two typical cases : We require to 
take the photograph of a large house, but are unable to 
get very far away from it. It will be evident that the 
house occupies a very large field of view, or, in other 
words, subtends a large angle. But suppose, on the 
other hand, that we "vvish to photograph a yacht or ship 
on the sea. We are seldom able to get so near it that 
it occupies a large field of view. On the contrary it 
subtends a very small angle, and were our picture to 
include as wide an angle in the second case as in the 
first, the result would be that we should see' a long 
stretch of sea-line with the ship on it showing as a mere 

To enable different angles to be included, the photo- 
grapher usually employs several lenses of different focal 
length, — that is to say, certain of these are so constructed 
that the distance will be greater between the lens and 
the ground glass, which requires the camera to be 
farther racked out than in the case of others. This 
we have already explained in the chapter on optics. 
The greater the focal length of the lens the less will be 
the angle included, and the larger will appear such 
objects as are included. 

Now we will suppose that we have not only selected 


our subject, but have considered where our picture is to 
stop on each side, — that is to say, how much subject is 
to be included in it. Here a word of warning must be 
given. The beginner always inclines to include too 
much subject. He casts his eye about, and, seeing several 
picturesque points, wants to include all of them in his 
picture. By this means he fails to get a real picture, 
but has what possibly might have been the elements 
of several. He should understand that no more should 
be included in his picture than he can see with his eye 
at one time and -vWthout altering in the least the direction 
of his gaze. 

There are certain cases in which it is impossible to hold 
to this rule. Such, for example, is the case with the house 
which we took as an illustration some time ago, where 
the photographer cannot get far enough away. Here, if 
he have to photograph at all, he will have to include more 
subject than he can see ■vnth his eye without mo\'ing it. 

We will suppose, then, that we have determined what 
are to be the limits of our picture. We tr}' the lens 
which previous experience has taught us is likely to take 
in as nearly what we want as may be. If we find that 
we have taken in the right amount or not much more, 
we may rest satisfied. If we have taken in much more 
than enough or too little, we must try the next lens — a 
longer-focus one if we have taken in too much, a shorter- 
focus one if we have taken in too little. 

Three is a sufficient number of lenses for almost all 
cases, especially if some or all of these be double-com- 
bination lenses, as then one-half of the lens may be used 
as a lens of double the focal length of the whole. (See 
Chapter on Optics.) 



We now come to the process of exactly focussing the 
view. We use the lens' full aperture, — that is to say, 
Ave put no stop into the diaphragm slit, or if the dia- 
phragms be rotary we turn the diaphragm disc so that 
the largest hole occupies the central position. We now 
focus very accurately for the principal object. We may 
Avith great advantage make use of a focussing-magnifier 
to do this. We illustrate the instrument here. 

ISToAv we have to select the diaphragm to use. We shall 
probably perceive that, although the principal object is 
now quite sharp, neither the distance nor the foreground 
is so. We place the stop Avith the largest aperture in 
position, when we shall perceive a notable improvement 
on the definition of these parts. We try another and 
another stop till we get to the one Avhich gives every- 
thing /».?^ sharp. With this Ave expose. 

The time of exposure can only be judged by ex- 
perience. We have given, hoAVOA^er, at the end of the 
chapter on optics, a short table, which Avill be of some 

We have said that the best lighting is a side lighting. 


This holds generally true, but is by no means to be 
taken as an absolute rule. Lighting from behind occa- 
sionally gives good effects. Lighting from the front 
very often does, but the -work is difficult to do. The 
sun itself should never, or at least very rarely, be in- 
cluded in the picture. It must be either above or to 
one side, a shade being used to prevent the direct rays 
from falling on the lens ; or the shadow of a tree or 
some such object may be taken advantage of. 

On pages 18 and 19 we have referred to the use 
which photography may be to the architect and to the 

Concerning the photographing of buildings Ave need 
say little except that the following conditions should be 
observed : — 

When a photograph is to be taken very close to the 
building the lens should be of the type kno^uTi as the 
" wide-angle rectilinear," or a " rectilinear," when more 
distant, otherwise the straight lines of the building will be 
represented by curves towards the edges of the picture. 

The ground glass — and, of course, afterwards the sen- 
sitive plate — should be vertical, otherwise vertical lines 
in the building will be shown in the picture converging 
either towards the top or the bottom. 

Except where it is impossible to avoid it a wide angle 
of view should not be included, — that is to say, the 
camera should not be placed very near the building, 
otherwise a strained perspective will be the result. 

With regard to engineering i)liotography we may 
say that whether the subjects be bridges, etc., or be 
machinery, the same conditions should be observed as 
for architectural subjects ; whilst in the case of machinery 


an additional condition ought to be observed — namely, 
that the painted parts of the machine have a suitable 
surface. A very disagreeable effect is generally pro- 
duced if the dark-coloured and gloomy paint "with which 
machinery is commonly painted is photographed. We 
are indebted to The Year Book of Photogra2)hy for the 
following receipt for a "colour for coating machinery 
previous to photographing " it : — 

Dry Avliite lead ... 5 lbs. 

Lamp-black . . . . 2 to 5 ounces. 

Gold size .... 1 pint. 

Turpentine . . . . li pints. 

" The amount of lamp-black is varied to suit machine 
and lighting. This paint is easily removed with tur- 

The use of photography by engineers, builders, etc., 
for keeping records of their work, and so forth, is now 
so much on the increase that we have thought it advis- 
able to get up a special set for their use. This we have 
called " The Engineers' and Builders' Photographic Set." 
There is contained in it complete apparatus of a sub- 
stantial and efficient nature for taking negatives of any 
size up to 12 X 10. 

1 The Year Boole of Photography for 1885, p. 204. 



It is in the particular branch of the photogi-aphic art 
which bears the above title that the greatest revolution 
has been brought about by the use of dry-gelatine plates. 
The photographing of objects which, being in more or 
less rapid motion, required that the exposure should be 
very brief, so that the motion might not produce notice- 
able blurring, was, previous to the advent of dry plates, 
a very difficult matter, and one in which only occasional 
success was met with, even when the conditions were 
most favourable. Everything had, so to speak, to be 
strained. The light required to be at its very best, the 
lens required to be one more rapid than would give the 
best of results as regards depth of focus, etc., and the 
chemicals had to be used in certain conditions which 
made the working of them even more troublesome than 
usual. It may be conceived what an alteration was 
brought about when plates were invented which re- 
quired but a tenth or twentieth of the amount of light 
action to impress the image. Immediately all straining 
ceased, and conditions very slightly different from those 
required for ordinary landscape photography were foimd 
to be adapted to instantaneous work. 


The subjects which are adapted for instantaneous 
treatment are innumerable. We may mention a few. 
First Ave may place sea-views, either sea and sky alone, 
which often make a beautiful picture, or the sea "odth 
all the various forms of vessels which float on its surface. 
Yachts, steamers, pleasure-boats, and such like may be 
depicted and may be made to afford beautiful pictures. 

Eiver scenes may be rendered as well as seascapes. 
Crowds of people in the street may be portrayed, and 
afford marvellous studies of life as it is in our crowded 
cities. Horse-races, foot-races — subjects without end — 
may be thought of ; thus not merely dead life, but living 
things and motion are portrayed. 

These are the subjects which make pictures. There 
are others which may be treated that do not give in 
themselves results that can be considered as artistic ; 
3'et they are highly interesting and instructive from a 
scientific point of xievf. More has been learned in the 
last few years of the positions which the limbs of 
animals take in rapid motion than had been learned 
through all the time which had gone before, and this is 
solely on account of the use which has been made of 
instantaneous photography. 

The only condition necessary in any of the subjects 
which we have mentioned is that it should be brightly 
lighted, and that it should not be of such a nature as to 
consist in great part of heavy shadow. 

The only apparatus necessary, in addition to that 
used for ordinary landscape work, is a lens of the " rapid " 
landscape type (which may constitute one of the several 
which most photographers use for ordinary view-taking) 
and an instantaneous shutter. 


A rapid lens we have mentioned as a necessity, al- 
though, in fact, it can scarcely be said to be so. It is a 
most useful piece of apparatus to be in the possession of 
photographers who take up instantaneous work, because 
it enables them to work on subjects and under conditions 
which would othermse be impossible. "We have seen a 
very fair picture of a train in motion taken with the 
camera of the Students' Set and the single achromatic 
lens which accompanies it. 

There are certain subjects which can almost always 
be taken without the use of a rapid lens, or an instant- 
aneous shutter either, and these are the ones on which 
the beginner at instantaneous work should make his 
first essay. They consist of sea and sky without ship- 
ping, or with such only in the distance, and of river 
scenes in which it is desired to secure the ripple of the 
water but not boats in motion. 

Whilst mentioning sky, we should point out that one 
of the chief charms of instantaneous work is that almost 
always it is possible to secure not only the land or sea- 
scape alone, but at the same time any clouds which there 
may be along with it. The subjects being such as have 
no very deep shadow require comparatively short ex- 
posures, and as a consequence the sky is not greatly 

Suppose such an easy subject selected as we have 
mentioned ; we operate in the following manner : — 

"We take our standpoint and manipulate our camera 
as we would were we taking an ordinary landscape. 
We then put the dark slide in position, cover the camera 
with the focussing-cloth, and wait for the eflfect which 
we desire, which may be a certain formation of cloud in 


relation to the sea or river which we are photo- 

We then draw out the shutter of our slide, gently 
ease the cap of the lens till it is almost loose, then with 
a rapid motion lift it a few inches, and replace it. The 
exposure given should not exceed one-third or a quarter 
of a second, and will be quite brief enough to ensure the 
faithful rendering of a ripple on the Avater, or of any 
waves, except such as may be breaking violently on the 

For the majority of subjects which come under the 
heading of instantaneous an instrument usually desig- 
nated an "instantaneous shutter" is required; and indeed, 
even for the subjects which we have mentioned, it 
vrill be found far more convenient to expose by the 
means of a shutter than by hand, although with a little 
care perfect results can be got by the latter method. 
The object to be effected by every instantaneous 
shutter is the quick opening and again closing of the 
aperture of the lens, so that the image of whatever is 
opposite the camera falls on the plate for a very brief 
space only. 

The duration of so-called instantaneous exposures 
varies according to the subject. It is evident that the 
more rapidly an object is moving the briefer must the 
exposure be. For almost any subject an exposure of 
from one -fifth to one -twentieth of a second is brief 
enough, but for some special ones shorter exposures are 
necessary. In most instantaneous shutters there are 
provided means of giving exposures of various different 

We here illustrate Cadett's patent pneumatic view 



shutter. This shutter fills all these requirements, for it 
will give exposures from the one-hundredth part of a 

second to any longer period of time without limit, and 
these results are obtained by the simplest of means ; — a 
revolving ebonite disc, worked by a coiled spring in the 
centre, two catches, and "vvith Cadett's pneumatic ap- 
paratus. Five minutes' careful inspection will enable 
any one to work it. 

Chadwick's patent view shutter, with Cadett's patent 

pneumatic apparatus, is a very serviceable one, and per- 
mits an adjustment for various times of exposure, but 
not to such a full extent as Cadett's view illustrated 
above. It is simple, light, and easily adjusted. 

Since we published the first edition of Marion's Practi- 



cal Giiide to Photography Mr. Cadett has invented a 
new shutter of most ingenious construction. We illus- 
trate it here. The principle on which it works is as 

follows : The disc which is seen towards the top will, 
when a trigger is released by pressure on the pneumatic 
ball, revolve, performing a complete circle. As it 
revolves the pin which will be seen near its circum- 
ference works in the slot of a rectangular shutter, which 
it lifts and again lowers, uncovering and again covering 
the lens in a marvellously brief space of time if desired. 
The little button which maj^ be seen at the side of the 
instrument is for adjusting the tension on the spring 
which carries the disc round, so as to vary the length of 
exposure at will. Besides this there is an adjustment, by 
applying which the shutter will remain open as long as 


the pressure on the indiarubber ball is sustained, closing 
as soon as the pressure is relieved. This adjustment 
makes the instrument very useful for portrait work. 

It should be mentioned that the shutter is made of 
ebonite, and that the moving part is so exceedingly light 
that, although the motion is a reciprocating one, the camera 
is not shaken even when the briefest exposure is given. 

The method of using these shutters is simple. The 
point of view is selected, and the camera is fixed up 
and manipulated up till the time of exposure, precisely 
as for ordinary work, the only difference being that the 
instantaneous shutter replaces the lens cap. 

The effect is again waited for. The shutter is set to 
give the length of exposure which is judged to be the 
best. Shortly before the expected combination of boats, 
ships, crowd of people, or whatever may form the 
picture, the shutter of the camera is "svithdra\\aa, and 
the photographer Avaits and watches Avith the pneumatic 
ball in his hand. At the correct instant he squeezes the 
ball, and the picture is taken. 

If the subject be such as a ship, yacht, or boat, cross- 
ing the field of view not far from the camera, it wants 
great nicety of judgment to be sure of getting it properly 
on the plate. It is not unusual, when the photographer 
makes sure that he has such a subject right in the centre 
of his plate, to find on development that only half his 
subject is on the glass, the remainder being nowhere, or 
even to find that there is no trace of the subject at all. 

To obviate this difficult}-, " finders " have been con- 
trived. These arc arrangements whereby, a su})ple- 
mentary lens and groimd glass being used, the operator 
is able to keep his eye on this, and thus knows better 



when the image Avill occupy the centre of the sensitive 

A very compact apparatus of this kind has been 
designed, and is entitled the Academy Camera. We 
illustrate it here. The lower portion of the cut shows 
the instantaneous shutter, behind which is the principal 
lens. Above this is the supplementary lens. The in- 
strument is so constructed that a dozen plates are carried 
in it, and can be exposed one after another without the 
use of any dark slides at all. 

The photographer may hold the instrument in his 
hand, watching the ground glass behind the upper lens, 
till the effect he wishes is produced, when he lets off the 
shutter. The larger sizes are constructed to hang on a 
stand of such construction that motion in any direction 
can be obtained, so that the subject may be as readily 
followed as if the instrument were held in the 

A piece of apparatus, possibly still more compact 
than the Academy Camera, is that which we here illus- 
trate. It is known as "the Miniature Camera." 

The picture shows the camera half size, so that it will 
be seen that it is indeed in miniature. The principal 



differences between the Academy and the Miniature are 
that in the case of the latter, instead of, as in the case of 
the Academy, watching the picture to be taken on the 
ground glass, it is "sighted" — after focussing on a separate 
groimd glass — through the little tube which is seen on 
the top. This is a far easier operation than watching 

the inverted image on the ground glass. Also that the 
shutter is a drop instead of a revolving one. This 
makes sheeling of the camera less likely. Lastly, that 
instead of the plates being carried in the apparatus, they 
are carried in small separate shutters, of which the 
photographer may carry any number he pleases. By 
this arrangement the bulk of the apparatus actually to 


be held in the hand during exposure is reduced to a 
minimum. The cut shows the apparatus Anth a slide in 
position, ready for exposure. 

Of course it will be imderstood that the very small 
negatives produced in the Academy and Miniature cameras 
may be enlarged to a much greater size. For the 
method of performing this operation the reader is re- 
ferred to a subsequent chapter. 

With regard to the development of pictures which 
have received so-called " instantaneous " exposure, little 
requires to be said, as it scarcely differs from that ap- 
plied to ordinary subjects. "We may, however, say that 
patience is the great thing. Development must not be 
hurried. It is better to wait than to hurry on the pro- 
cess by the use of an excessive c^uantity of the ammonia 
solution. "We may start with a developer containing a 
slightly larger proportion of the ammonia solution than 
we generally use. Possibly three parts of ammonia 
solution to two of pyro and bromide, or even one part 
of the one to two of the other. 

A final piece of advice we may give to the instant- 
aneous photographer. Let him aA'oid hurry and nerv- 
ousness in exposing. It is difficult to do so, but the 
effect, unless everything be done with calmness and con- 
sideration, generally is to expose either just too soon or 
just too late. 



We have now arrived at the description of that depart- 
ment of photography the practice of which will, in all 
probability, afford more pleasure to the amateur than 
any other. Even under all the difficulties of the wet- 
plate process the amateur was prone to portraiture. 
The difficulties he had to contend with were such that 
his results were seldom successful, in spite of which he 
persevered. Now his labours may be rewarded with, at 
least, very fair success. If it is true that he cannot hope 
to produce anything which will compare with the beauti- 
fully lighted and posed portraits of actresses and pro- 
fessional beauties which are exhibited in so many of our 
shop-windoAvs, it is equally true that he may quite hope 
to produce pictures which may be of a very satisfactory 
quality, and give great pleasure to himself and his friends. 
The amateur will naturally make his first attempts 
out-of-doors, because there the light is so good that he 
will be able to operate with precisely the same apparatus 
which he uses for landscape work. If he has a rapid 
lens, such as we mentioned as desirable for instant- 
aneous Avork, so much the better, but such is by no 
means a necessity. 


The two conditions which we must secure for a por- 
trait are — first, a suitalale lighting; and, secondly, a 
suitable background. 

With regard to the first, a few words may be said which 
■will apply to portraiture both out-of-doors and indoors. 
On looking at any set of good portraits, either photo- 
graphic or otherwise, it Avill be at once evident that a 
great deal of the pleasing effect which is produced de- 
pends on the fact that the face is not lighted equally 
from all sides, but that the light coming from one direc- 
tion is stronger than that coming from another. This 
has the eff'ect of causing the features to stand in relief, 
and gives roundness. There is nothing worse from an 
artistic point of view than a portrait lighted in such a 
way that there is no shadow — mouth, nose, and eyes 
appearing merely as so many spots on the face. On the 
other hand, there is to be avoided too much contrast, 
such as gives a harsh effect ; and it must be borne in 
mind that the shadows on the face of a photographic 
portrait almost always ai3pear darker than they in 
reality were. 

It will be observed that unless advantage be taken of 
some object which shades the light from one side, the 
lighting out-of-doors will be equal on all sides, or nearly 
so. It is taken for granted that direct sunshine is 
avoided. It -n^ill also be found that the general direc- 
tion of the light is from above. There is a great deal of 
what artists term "top light." Indeed, there is far too 
much, and vmless care be taken to shade off a portion of 
it the effect will be to produce an unpleasant likeness. 
The lines under the eyes will be intensified, and there will 
be produced an effect as if the cheek bones were abnor- 


mally high. The general effect vnW be an unfavourable 
portrait, making the sitter look old and ill-tempered. 

In working out-of-doors we have to take advantage 
of some objects which will give a certain shadow on one 
side of the sitter, and "will shade off some of the top light. 
To get shade on one side is almost always easy, but to 
stop oft' the top light is not always so. It is often 
possible to take advantage of the spreading branch of 
a tree or such like, but where this is not to be had a 
sheet or shawl should be used, so as to form a sort of 

With regard to a background, it is best when out-of- 
doors to have a natiu-al one if possible. An ivy-covered 
wall, the stem of a large tree, an evergreen bush, a rock, 
or even at times a wall "with a little curving to relieve 
the monotony, may make a good background. The 
sitter should be caused to sit or stand not very far 
from the background, so that both may be fairly well 
in focus. 

The position ha"sang been decided upon, and it having 
been determined how much of the figure is to appear, — 
Avhether the portrait is to be a full-length standing or 
sitting, or a half-length, or merely a head and shoulders, — 
the next thing to do is to pose the sitter. This is the 
point at which the amateur may show whether or not he 
possesses any artistic feeling. Even presuming he has 
he must not expect all at once to achieve success in this 
most difficult art of posing. It is needless to say that 
the object to be attained is to place the sitter in such a 
position that he (or she) Avill look his (or her) best. No 
rule can be given for this. Pleasing portraits have been 
made "snth the sitter looking in any possible direction, 


towards the lens, at right angles to it, and looking up- 
wards and do"\vnwards. The best course to pursue for 
the beginner is to cause the sitter to place himself in a 
chair in an easy attitude, and to make him look in first 
one direction, then in another. When what appears to 
be the most pleasing phase of the face is obtained, 
the next thing is to get a corresponding satisfactory pose 
of the body that shall harmonise with the features. 
The photographer must now direct the subject as 
to the placing of his hands and feet so as to give 
an appearance of unconstraint. It should be borne 
in mind that it is well to avoid having a hand or a 
foot projecting much forward, as such may then come 
out too large, especially if the lens be not one of very 
long focus. 

The height at which the camera is placed is of import- 
ance in the case of a portrait. It should be, as a rule, 
about level "with the face. In the case of a sitting 
figure this involves shortening the legs of the camera 
considerably, and the operator Avill find it most con- 
venient to sit Avhilst focussing. A focussing magnifier is 
particularly useful in portraiture, as the lens -vWll, as a 
rule, be used full aperture or nearly so, so that if there 
be a small error in focussing, this will not be improved, 
as would be the case were a small stop used. 

The eye of the sitter is, as a rule, the best spot to 
focus most sharply. If the face be three-quarters, so 
that both eyes are seen, but are not at the same distance 
from the camera, it is usual to focus first for the one, 
then for the other, then to divide as equally as possible 
the distance between them, so that there may be an 
equal slight want of definition in each. To bring into 


fairly good focus portions of the figiu'e which are at 
different distances from the camera — for instance, the 
face and the chest, or, with a sitting figure, the face and 
the knees — the swing-back may be used if the camera be 
fitted with such. 

After all the prehminaries are arranged as we have 
described, the exposiu:-e is made, the manipidations being 
precisely the same as in landscape work. From the 
table given at the end of the chapter on optics will be 
gained some idea of the length which this should last. 

The sitter should be instructed to keep his eyes fixed 
on the same spot dimng the whole of the exposure. 
Any motion of them will spoil the expression. There 
is, however, no harm in his blinking. 



The effects in portraiture which may he produced in- 
doors are superior as a rule to those which can be got in 
the open air, but, on the other hand, there is a Httle 
more skill required in the various operations. 

First, as to the extra apparatus which is required. 
Cameras and camera - stands are made specially for 
studio work, and these will be found much more con- 
venient for indoor work than the cameras prepared for 
field work. It is not, however, by any means necessary 
that the amateur should provide himself with such. He 
may use his landscape camera and ■svill produce quite as 
good results vnth. it as with any other. The only differ- 
ence is that he will require to work a little harder and 
to suflFer some inconvenience in finding places for the 
legs of his tripod and so forth. 

We illustrate here a camera and stand specially de- 
signed for studio work. It will be seen that the camera 
differs from the ordinary one, chiefly in being more 
massive and not folding up into so small a space, porta- 
bility being no object. The same may be said of the 
stand. There are also in the latter motions for raising 
the camera and for tipping it forwards. 


The next question has regard to a lens. The portrait 
lens, which is an expensive article, is not nowadays an 

absolute necessity for portraiture indoors, as it was in 
wet -plate days. If a room can be used which has a 
large window facing the sky, and more especially if the 
place be either in the country or in a small town where 
the atmosphere is clear, the light may be so good that a 
landscape lens of the "rapid" type may be used, and 
the exposiu-es "o-ill not be excessive. If, however, the 
operator desires to excel, or the conditions of lighting be 
imperfect, a portrait lens will be found a desideratum. 

A head - rest is another instrument which may be 
dispensed -sWth in the case of good sitters, but which 
vn\[ be found a very great convenience when unsteady 
sitters are taken, or if the light be poor. It will be 



found almost a necessity if lenses of the landscape class 
be used. The object of the head-rest is, as is implied 
in the name, to give rest to the head. There is also in 
most cases proAision made for rest for the body. 

^Ye here illustrate head-rests of the ordinary type. 

The frame is made of cast-iron so as to be heavy and 
give a sufficient support. There is an adjustable piece 
for the waist and another for the head. 

The head-rest is an instrument against which many 
have a prejudice, but this is merely because it is at 
times used without discretion. "We often hear people 
who have been photographed talking of having had 
their heads "clamped up in a machine." There is no 
excuse for doing this, as it is quite unnecessary. "When 
the rest is used, the sitter should be first posed mthout 


any regard to it, and then gently supported by the 
instrument at the head and waist. If the exposure be 
of short duration, the shoulders may be supported instead 
of the head. 

In regard to lighting, the difficulty will be found to 
be the exact opposite to that which is experienced in 
the case of work out-of-doors. Indoors the difficulty is 
to get enough shadow to give relief and roundness. To 
do so, we must be very careful in selecting the position 
for our sitter and for the camera. 

The best form of room to use, when it can be had, is 
one which has considerable length and which is lighted 
on one side by one or more windows. The broader 
these windows are the better. A bow window is the 
best of all, not so much on account of its particular form 
(although that too is sometimes useful) as because it 
offers so great an extent of lighting surface. "We have 
mentioned several windows, because a long room gener- 
ally is lighted by several, but it will be understood that 
only one is effective in throwing light on the sitter. 
Indeed, many prefer to darken all the windows except 
one. If there be any window behind or nearly behind 
the sitter, that at any rate should be darkened. 

Here Ave have two sketch plans of rooms such as the 
photographer is likely to have at his command. The 
first is the most usual shape, and therefore we "will 
consider it before the other. 

Here we have three windows which we may call A, B, 
and C. A sitter directly opposite one of those windows, 
and very close to it, aahII be on one side of the face 
most brilliantly lighted, probably more so than in most 
photographic studios. The other side will, however. 



be in comparatively deep shadow, even if reflectors be 
used to the best possible advantage. Moreover, wher- 
ever the camera be jolaced it will be impossible to get 
more than one-half of the face lighted. 


-;? B 


If, on the other hand, the sitter be j^laced a little 
away from and behind the window, at such a position as 
D, the shadow will not be so deep in comparison with 
the light, and, moreover, it will be possible, by placing 
the camera anywhere between E and F, to get more than 


one -half of the face lighted. Therefore, at about D 
will be found the best position to place the sitter ; and 
for the style of portrait which is likely to be most 
popular with amateurs — that is, the head and shoulders 
— the best place for the camera will be a little on the F 
side of E. 

Even \\'ith the sitter at D it will be found that there 
is too deep a shadow on one side of the face. It may 
not appear so to the eye, but a photograph taken as an 
experiment will prove it to be a fact. A reflector is 
therefore required, which is placed or held at about Gr. 
If the photographer can secure assistance, the very best 
reflector consists of a sheet held by persons standing 
on chairs. A slight degree of motion given to the 
reflector during exposure will somewhat soften the 
gradation from light to shadow. If the photographer 
has no assistance he must use either a light wooden 
screen with white paper stretched on it, or he may 
throw a sheet over either a clothes-horse or a folding- 
screen. A little experience will show that practically 
the whole of the light which falls on the sitter comes 
through the Avindow A, and that B and C may be 
entirely darkened without much altering the effect. 
On the whole, it is an advantage to do so. "False 
lights" are thus avoided, and there is less chance of 
dazzling the sitter. 

Now, as to the other form of room. It will be found 
that the effects which can be procured by its means are 
superior to what can be obtained with the first men- 
tioned. This especially applies to head and shoulder 
portraits, the lighting of which will be quite as good as 
can be got in any studio. For these effects the sitter 


is placed at A, and the camera anywhere between B 
and C, according to the relative amount of light and 
shadow which is required. The reflector is used at D. 
For full-length portraits, either standing or sitting, the 
subject is placed at E, and the camera between C 
and F. 

As to background something must be said. For 
mere head and shoulders, a quite plain background is, 
in most cases, to be preferred. The same is often suit- 
able for half-length portraits ; but is seldom so for full 

At times, especially noAv, when distemper is so much 
used for colouring walls, the side of the room which 
is behind the sitter may make a good background. 
Possibly this may not be the case, however, and as no 
one tint is suitable for all cases, it would not do ever to 
rely on it. Still it may be used occasionally. 

An artificial background is the best. The amateur 
can make one by stretching brown paper (sold in great 
\ndths and in continuous rolls as carpet -paper) on a 
wooden framework, and colouring it with distemper. 
Probably, however, he will find it best to purchase a 
background ready-made. He should have two different 
shades — a light one for vignettes, and a dark one for 
ordinary heads. Backgrounds are made "snth a suitable 
colour on each side, and go under the name of the 
Empire Background. 

For full-length portraits it very often happens that 
one of the modern wall-papers makes an excellent back- 
ground. No finer background can be had than a curtain, 
if of suitable colom-, gracefully draped. In distemper 
the amateur may prepare backgrounds himself if he 



be sufficiently an artist. The carpet -paper is again 
good enough. It is stretched on a large light Avooden 
frame, and the design is produced with distemper. It 
is made very sketchy A\-ith the gradation noAvhere hard. 
It is to be understood that the background must be 
distinctly subordinate to the figure. Here again, in 
most cases, the photographer will find it best to purchase 
his backgrounds, either selecting from the stock of the 
dealer or getting it painted to order. 

The beginner will use an ordinary chair for posing ; 
but the amateur who goes the length of making photo- 
graphy a hobby should purchase a studio -chair, the 
form and colour of which are particularly adapted to 

A few words on the manipulation. 

In posing the photographer should give freedom to 
the sitter so that he may have the opportunity of freely 
arranging himself into .suitable posture. 

It has been of course by this time decided whether 
the portrait shall be bust, half-length, or fidl-length. 
The beginner will have observed that to get a large scale 



for head alone, or for head and shoulders, he must bring 
the camera nearer to the sitter, whilst for the small scale 
necessary in sitting or standing figures he has to do the 
reverse. It is somewhat difficult for the beginner to be 
quite sure, in the case of head and shoulder pictures, 
that he has not got the head either too small or too large. 
If he finds this difficulty he should look out from his 
album a portrait, the head of which is about the scale 
desired. He should measure this, from the top of the 
forehead to the bottom of the chin, and should focus his 
camera till he gets the head on the groiuid glass of the 
same size. Great care must be given to get the head 
the correct height on the ground glass. It should be 
remembered that, especially Avhere a portrait lens is 
used, the definition is much better towards the centre of 
the plate than near the edges. The nearer therefore the 
head is kept to the centre the better, but care must be 
taken that it Avill not be too low on the paper in the 
resulting print. 

The use of the stop and swing-back may be explained 
here. Focussing is performed for the eyes, as explained 
before. It will now probably be found that the chest 
if a head and shoulders be taken, or the knees and feet 
if a sitting position be adopted, "will be much out of focus, 
because they are nearer the camera than the eyes. 

If the camera is fitted with a swing-back, this is tilted 
somewhat backwards, — that is to say, away from the 
sitter and towards the operator. Focussing is again 
performed, when matters will be found to be vastly 

By trying various angles of the swing -back any hco 
points may be brought into correct focus ; if the camera 


have no swing-back, stops must be introduced till the 
desired definition is secured. If the camera be with- 
out swing -back a much smaller stop will have to be 
used than if it be fitted with this adjustment. The 
exposure will consequently be longer. 

In working indoors it is not necessary to keep the 
camera or the dark slide covered "with cloth during 


GrROUPS, at any rate of more than two or three together, 
are seldom very artistic productions ; the taking of them, 
nevertheless, is one of the most pleasing departments 
of photography, and the photographs, if not, strictly 
speaking, very good pictures, are very often greatly 
valued for the associations connected with them. 

The taking of groups out-of-doors is, since the intro- 
duction of dry plates, a very easy branch of photography. 

If the number of persons to be taken be small — two 
to half a dozen — an attempt shoidd be made to group 
them with some purpose or intention. The ordinary 
method is to attempt the representation of a grouj) in 
ordinary conversation. More ambitious subjects to 
attempt the representation of are such as may be im- 
agined when the members of a family receive a letter 
from one who is abroad ; or when a book or a paper is 
read to a set of young j^eople or children who are each 
occupied in some especial employment ; or a card-party 
may be represented, and so on. Out of certain of these 
subjects very perfect pictures have been produced, but 
great artistic taste is necessary to do this. 

Where the group consists of a lai'ge number the 


attempt to pose each individual may be at once put on 
one side, and the only thing to look to is to so arrange 
the members that all may be as much in focus as possible. 
To do this it is best to place them in a semicircle, or 
something approaching it, so that the end figures may be 
nearer the camera than the centre ones. There may be 
a row reclining on the ground, immediately behind them 
a row sitting on chairs or other seats, and behind these 
again a row standing up. 

Groups in an ordinary room are never easy. If more 
than two or three persons are included they are very 
difficult, because it is impossible to get all in focus 
without using a small stop in the lens, ^^^len this is 
done the exposure is much lengthened, whilst the likeli- 
hood of a number of persons remaining still is manifestly 
much less than when there is only one. 

It is unnecessary to add much on the method of 
operating, as almost all necessary information is to be 
found in the instructions on taking single portraits 
indoors and in taking groups out-of-doors. Even the 
professional photographer is not likely to have a head- 
rest for every member of a group, far less is the amateur. 
Such positions should therefore be selected as it is easy 
to retain during some space of time. If it be found that 
any one individual is a bad sitter he may have the bene- 
fit of the head-rest. 

Out-of-doors the same remarks apply to backgrounds 
for groups as for portraits. Indoors the same back- 
ground which serves for a sitting or standing figure ma}- 
do for a group of two or three. For a number a special 
background is required, or, failing tliat, the walls of the 
room are made use of. 



The photographer who has reached the stage of having 
produced a finished negative is sure to be impatient to 
see some more agreeable result than the reversed picture 
which the negative presents. 

This is to be brought about by printing, a process 
whereby the shades of the negative are reversed, and a 
positive is obtained as has been already explained. 

There are many printing processes, but there is one 
which has held its own against all competition, and 
which, in spite of the prophecies which were ventured 
when first rival processes took the field, is still the 
popular process of the day. This is what is known as 
" silver printing," or to be more precise, printing on albu- 
menised paper, rendered sensitive with chloride of silver. 

It is useless to disguise the fact that this process has 
certain drawbacks, or rather has one very great drawback. 
The results cannot be relied on as permanent. Silver 
prints of thirty years' standing are to be met with as 
fresh as they were on the day when they were done, but 
they are the exception rather than the rule. Fading of 
some sort generally sets in after some ten or fifteen 
years. To be placed against this, there is the incom- 


parable beauty of the results. There is something in a 
silver print which cannot be imitated by means of any 
other process ; and, Avhatever may be said as to the inad- 
visability of issuing prints which are not permanent, the 
fact remains the same that the silver -printing process 
continues the favourite one both "s\ath professionals and 
amateurs, and bids fair to do so for many a long daj'. 
For this reason we describe it here.^ 

Most professional photographers purchase what is 
known as salted albimienised paper. This is paper 
coated with albumen containing a certain quantity of 
chloride in it — either chloride of sodium (common 
salt) or some other chloride, or a mixture of several. 
This is sensitised, as will be afterwards described, the 
nitrate of silver which is used decomposing the chloride 
in the albumen and forming chloride of silver. 

Until recent years the amateur as well as the pro- 
fessional could follow no other course than this one, 
which was troublesome, and involved the very great 
inconvenience of having to prepare paper, print on it, 
and finish it all within a few hours, — twenty-four at the 
most, — because the paper once prepared would not 
keep, but turned brown by exposure to the air, even in 
a dark room. 

Some twenty years ago a paper was invented which 
will keep for months without turning in colour. This is 
now a regular article of commerce. It is called "ready 
sensitised paper," and the convenience of it is enormous, 
especially to amateurs Avho have very often to print, 
tone, etc., at such odd hours as they can spare from other 

^ See subsc(jucut chapters on "Alpha paper," whicli had not 
been produced when this was written. 


duties. Indeed we can only compare the difference be- 
tween an amateur working ordinary paper — sensitising 
it as he requires it, and finishing his prints immediately 
afterwards — and one purchasing ready sensitised paper — 
printing at what times he can, and possibly finishing 
his prints at the end of the week or even the month — to 
the worker with wet plates and that with dry. 

The writer has worked both ready sensitised paper and 
has sensitised paper himself, and he is of the opinion 
that, with such sensitised paper as is sold by Marion and 
Co. at the present day, better results can be got than by 
sensitising paper as it is required. 

The necessary appliances for printing with ready 
sensitised paper are — 

(1) One or more printing frames. 

(2) Three porcelain flat dishes, somewhat larger than 

the largest print to be manipulated. 

(3) Some ready sensitised paper. 

The chemicals required are — 

(1) A tube containing fifteen grains of chloride of gold. 

(2) An ounce or tAvo of eitheracetate of soda or of borax. 

(3) Hyposulphite of soda (already mentioned as the 

chemical used for fixing dry plates). 

A printing frame is a frame for holding the negative, 
having a back hinged in two pieces, Avhich is pressed 
against the negative by two springs. One spring bears 
against each half of the hinged back, and it is thus 
possible to open away from the negative either half of 
the back. It Avill be seen that if the negative be placed 
in the frame, if a piece of paper be laid upon it, and if 
the back be laid on this paper and be pressed into . it 



by the springs, then the paper will he kept in close 
contact with the negative, whilst at the same time, by 
easing one spring at a time, and by opening one-half of 
the back, one-half of the print can be Adewed without 

danger of shifting the relative positions of the print 
and the ne<;ative. 

Wc here illustrate the more common style of frame, 



such as is used for small negatives, usually not for 
sizes larger than whole plate (8| x 6J-). In this the 
negative itself is laid on to the rebate of the frame, 
so that such a frame serves for one size of negative 

Here, on the other hand, we have one of the better 
class of frames, such as is used for printing large 
negatives. There is in it a piece of plate-glass, against 
which the negative is placed. By this device all danger 

of breakage is avoided, whilst it becomes possible to 
use the same frame for different sized negatives. Such 
a frame is, however, too cumbersome for very small 
plates, and as common printing frames are very cheap, 
the photographer should have several by him for such 
small plates as he works. 

The porcelain dishes are much the same as we have 
already been using for development. They have the 
advantage over black-coloured dishes that it is easier to 
see Avhen they are thoroughly clean, and it must be under- 


stood that for the delicate process of printing the utmost 
attention to cleanliness is absolutely necessary. 

The sensitised paper is purchased in sheets tightly 
rolled up, and should be kept so until it is desired to use 
it. We believe that in the original rolls in which it is 
issued it would keep for years. After it is unrolled it 
will still keep for at least a month or two. 

The paper is sensitive, — that is to say, it is darkened 
when light acts upon it, but it is not sensitive in at all 
the same degree that a dry plate is. No special room is 
necessary to work it in. It may be manipulated in a 
room brightly lit by gas or into which there is admitted 
qmte enough white light to see easily to work by. If 
the photographer happen to have a room, the window 
blinds of which are of the very common 3'ellow colour, 
he may pull those doAvn and may afterwards work with 
complete freedom. 

When prints are to be taken the paper is unrolled, 
and a sheet is cut up of about the size which the prints 
are required to be. A quarter of an inch should be 
allowed in both length and breadth beyond the ultimate 
size of the print. This is afterwards trimmed off. 
In a future chapter will be found hints on the best 
way to cut paper so as to get the greatest possible num- 
ber of different sized pieces from one sheet. 

During the operation of cutting and all subsequent 
ones the operator must be careful to let his fingers rest 
as little as possible on either side of the paper, but 
especially on that which is albumenised. If his hands 
have, a tendency to perspire he should wash them in cold 
water immediately before handling the paper. 

Before any number of prints are taken from a negative 


it should be varnished; but as a proof — or indeed, when 
sensitised paper is used, several proofs — may be taken 
before varnishing Avithout endangering the negative, 
we describe the process of varnishing after that of 

A printing frame to suit the negative from which a 
proof is wanted is placed front do^vnwards on a table. 
The back of the frame is removed. The neaiative is 
placed film side upicards in the frame, and on it there is 
placed the paper albumenised side downwards, all dust 
having first been removed from the negative by a camel's- 
hair brush or a handkerchief. If the paper is of the same 
size as the plate the back of the frame is immediately 
api^lied, but if, as is very often the case, it is desired to 
have the print somewhat smaller than the negative, we 
have to adjust the paper. To do this the frame is lifted 
in both hands, so that it is held between the face of the 
operator and a light — say from a window. The side on 
which is laid the paper is towards the operator. The 
thumb of each hand bears on the paper, and both serve 
to keep the negative from falling out of the frame, and 
to adjust the paper by pushing it in any desired direc- 
tion. After the correct position of the paper is set it is 
kept in that position with the thumb of the left hand, 
whilst with the right hand the back is placed over the 
paper and the springs are applied. This sounds very 
complicated, but it is the work of a few seconds. We 
have at the moment of writing a half -plate printing 
frame before us, and have gone through all the manipu- 
lations in less than ten seconds. 

When the negative and paper are in the frame the 
whole is placed out-of-doors to print, and here we may 


say a few words about the best light to print in. After- 
wards Avill be found described special cases in Avhich it is 
best to print in a particularly strong or a particularly weak 
light, but for the majority of cases it is safe to say that 
the brightest diffused light {that is, light other than direct 
sunshine) which can be had is the best light to print in. 
The light which can be had on the window sill or balcony 
on the north side of a house is excellent, or in fact any 
place where shade can be had ; but if no place can be 
found except such as where the sun shines on, the diffi- 
culty can be entirely got over by placing white tissue 
paper over the frames. 

The time which a frame must remain in the light be- 
fore the print is completed varies enormously ; but as it 
is always possible to examine the print and ascertain how 
far the process has gone, this need not trouble the photo- 
grapher. The time varies of course with the light, but 
also very greatly with the nature of the negative. Those 
which show great contrast and are fogged in the shadows 
require a very long time for printing. Those which are 
not very dense and are quite transparent in the shadows 
3'ield prints very quickly. 

The shortest time in which we can reasonabl}- expect 
a print from a good negative with the brightest diffused 
light is ten minutes, and many negatives ^Yi\l be found 
which require one or two hours, or even more. 

After the exposure has gone on for a few minutes the 
frame may be taken into a room where the light is moder- 
ate, and one-half of the back of the frame being opened, 
the progress may be examined. The print must be made 
considerably darker than it will eventually be required, 
for the reason that the after processes somewhat reduce 


it. The precise amount of depth of tone which is re- 
quired will soon be ascertained by practice. Those parts 
which it is intended shall be eventually white should 
appear slightly coloured when printing is complete. 
If the negative be of the proper density the deepest 
shadows will by this time have turned as dark as the 
paper is capable of becoming. 

The prints when they are finished are placed in a 
drawer or in any other place where they Avill be kept 
from the light, and when the desired number is done, 
they are kept for toning. 



The photograiDlier has now arrived at what is one of the 
most delicate of photographic processes, that is, the 
toning of the prints which he has just produced. The 
process is one in which there is scope for exercise of 
much taste and discrimination. The most casual glance 
at any collection of photographs will show that there is 
a great variety in the colour, and that whilst some are 
of a beautifully artistic warm purple or brown, others 
are of a slaty gray and altogether disagreeable shade, or 
show a general want of clearness and brightness of colour. 
These differences are due to the manner in which toning 
is performed. The process consists in treating the print 
Avith a weak solution of chloride of gold till the colour 
changes. The change is supposed to be due to the 
deposition of a very thin film of gold on the silver 
which forms the image. 

Various toning - baths are used by different photo- 
graphers, each one as a rule considering that he finds 
some special virtues in the bath which he uses. Wc 
will give several l^aths, all of Avhich we have found to 
work excellently with both ready sensitised paper and 


paper prepared as required. "We will give first that 
known as the borax bath. 

The tube of chloride of gold which contains fifteen grains 
is dropped into a pint bottle. A glass rod is taken and the 
tube is broken with it. Fifteen ounces of water are now 
poured over the chloride of gold, and the bottle is labelled 
" Chloride of gold solution ; one grain to the ounce." 

When we are about to tone we count our prints and 
calculate how many sheets of paper there are, or how 
great a fraction of one sheet if we have been printing 
only a few small proofs. This is for the sake of finding 
how much toning solution we ought to mix up. For 
each sheet of paper measuring 17x22 inches we take 
ninety grains of borax, which should be in the form of a 
poAvder. On this Ave pour a few ounces of hot water 
to dissolve the salt. "We noAv make up with cold Avater 
to fifteen ounces, and add one ounce of the stock solution 
of chloride of gold. 

This forms our toning -bath. It must be mixed 
Avithin an hour or so of the time Avhen it is to be used, 
as it does not keep Avell. Care must, moreover, be taken 
not to add the gold Avliile the borax solution is still very 
warm, or the gold may be throAATi down. 

All the processes in connection Avith toning and fixing 
of prints must be performed in a light not strong enough 
to act upon them. The best arrangement of all is to 
have a yellow light for all processes except that of toning, 
for Avhich white light is necessary to enable judgment of 
the colour to be made. It is quite possible, hoAvever, to 
perform all the processes in a Avhite light so feeble that 
no hurt Avill come from its use. 

The first operation is to Avash the prints. If a special 


piece of washing apparatus is not used this is best done 
in the following manner : One of the flat dishes is laid 
on the operating table filled with water, and the prints 
are laid one by one face doA^Tiwards in this. "When all 
have been so laid in the dish the water is poured off". 
More water is poured into the dish over the prints, and 
a second dish is placed, full of water, alongside the first. 
The prints are lifted one by one from the first to the 
second dish till all are in the latter, when the water is 
once more drained away. Clean water is again poured 
into both dishes, and the transference from the second 
to the first is commenced. 

It will be noticed that the water which is poured from 
the prints is no longer clear, but has a milky appearance. 
This is because some of the silver nitrate — which it is 
the object to wash away — combines with salts, which 
are always present in tap water to a greater or less 
extent, and produces a precipitate. This is a very con- 
venient test for the amount of washing which is necessary. 
As long as the water which drains from the prints 
appears Avhen placed in a tumbler or glass measure to 
be in the least cloudy, the washing process has to be 
continued. WTien there is no more cloudiness we may 
commence toning. 

The three dishes are arranged in a row along the 
front of the operating table. In the first or left-hand 
dish there are the prints which are about to be toned, 
the dish being kept full of clean water. In the second 
or middle dish is poured the toning solution. In the 
third or right hand dish goes clean water, into which 
some like to place a little common salt, so as to quickly 
arrest the toning process when the prints are placed in 


it. If salt is used it does not matter very much what 
quantity is taken, but there should be enough to make 
the water taste briny. 

It will have been noticed that, whilst the washing 
was going on, the prints turned from the brown colour 
which they had in the frames to something very nearly 
approaching brick-red. 

The prints are now placed one by one face do"\vnwards 
in the toning-bath, great care being taken that each print 
is thoroughly saturated with the toning solution, and 
that no two are allowed to stick together. When about 
half a dozen prints are in the toning-bath the lowest is 
drawn from under the others. It is placed on the top 
face upwards for a moment to enable the colour to be 
judged of when it is again turned face do^vnwards, and 
the one which is now at the bottom is similarly treated. 
Before this has gone on for many minutes it will be 
observed that the colour of the print begins to change. 
It becomes gradually browner and bro"\vner, and eventu- 
ally turns to a purplish colour, and, if the process be 
allowed to go far enough, to a slaty gray colour. 

It depends upon the taste of the operator at what 
stage the process is to be stopped. At one time almost 
all photographers preferred to get a deep purple colour 
in their prints, and allowed the toning process to go 
very far. At the present time most prefer a light brown 
colour, the most admired tone of all being an approach 
to sepia. When the desired colour is reached in the 
case of any print it is lifted from the toning solution 
and is placed face downwards in the salt-water dish. 
Another print may at the same time be taken from the 
left-hand dish. 


The time which toning takes, if the bath is correctly 
mixed, varies from five minutes to fifteen or twenty. The 
best results are got Avhen it is taking from ten to fifteen 
minutes. AYe have mentioned half a dozen prints as a good 
number for the beginner to have in his dish at one time, 
but when he gains confidence in himself, and has acquired 
the little skill necessary to enable him easily to turn 
over the prints without the likelihood of tearing them, 
he may have a much greater number of prints in his 
dish at one time. During toning the prints should be 
kept in constant motion. 

When all the prints are toned, they have to be washed. 
This is best done in the same manner that was described 
for the untoned prints. Ten minutes of washing is sufii- 
cient at this stage. After this washing then comes fixing. 
The fixing solution is mixed as follows : — 

Hyposulphite of soda . . • ^i ounces. 

AYater, up to . . . .1 pint. 

This is placed in one of the dishes, and the prints are 
placed in it one by one. After all have been placed in 
the fixing solution, they are turned over, the bottom 
one being raised to the top, as described before. This 
may be done once or twice, after which the prints may 
be left at rest in the solution for quarter of an hour. 
After once they are in the fixing solution, it is of no conse- 
quence whether they lie face doAvnwards or face upwards. 

It will be noticed that besides the change of colour 
which takes place in the toning-bath, there is a general 
reduction of the darkness of the print both in the ton- 
ing and in the fixing-bath. AYhen the prints are first 
placed in the fixing-bath there is likely to be an almost 


complete loss of tone, but in a few minutes there will he 
a return of the colour. 

Any hyposulphite of soda left in the prints will in- 
fallibly produce fading. It is for this reason necessary 
to have recourse to very thorough washing to get rid of 
all trace of the fixing solution. 

When a sufficient stream of water can be had, it is 
a common practice to let the prints remain in a large 
vessel of water vnth a constant stream through it. An- 
•other plan is to pour water on the prints in a large 
vessel, and to change this every half hour. In either 
case this process is usually continued from twelve to 
twenty-four hours. There are various ingenious auto- 
matic washing appliances whereby prints may be very 
thoroughly washed in a much briefer space of time than 
this, and there is a great advantage in this brief washing, 
inasmuch as the very long Avashings mentioned appear 
to cause a slight deterioration in the colour of the print. 
If the amateur has patience to continue for an hour the 
pi'ocess of washing by transferring the prints from one 
dish to another, he will get as good a result as can be 
got by any other means. But all the trouble may 
be saved by using the washing apparatus, which we 
illustrate here, and which will be found fully described 
in our advertising columns. 

In this apparatus the system of inflow and outflow of 
the water is such that the prints circulate continually in 
the trough, neither curling up nor sticking together, so 
that the washing is very thoroughly performed in a 
comparatively brief space of time. 

After washing is finished, the prints have next to be 
dried; then they are finished. Some place them between 


sheets of ordinary white blotting-paper, but this is not a 
safe proceeding, as hyposulphite of soda is often used in 

paper- Avorks in an " anti-chlor, ' — that is to say, as a 
means of getting rid of the chlorine which has been used 
to bleach the paper. As a consequence, hypo may be 
transmitted to the prints, Avhich may fade. What are 
knoAATi as drying boards may however be used, and this 
is the very best way of drying prints. A drying board 
is a piece of very thick, stiff, and smooth blotting-paper, 
the surface of which is free from all "fluff," and into the 
composition of which there enters no "hypo." Next 
to the use of drying boards the best method of drying 
prints is to spread a clean sheet or table-cloth on a table 
or floor, and to place the prints face upwards on it, 
haAing previously drained off such water as will run 
from the surface. 



Various Toning-Baths. 

The borax toning-bath which we have described above 
gives with us at all times excellent results, and has the 
great advantage that it is ready for use immediately 
after it is mixed. Either of the following baths will, 
however, also give excellent results, and may be pre- 
ferred by some. The first is perhaps the best bath of 
any to use if purple tones be desired. The second is a 
very good one, where very warm or light browns are 

Acetate Bath. 

Stock solution of cliloride of gold . 1 ounce. 
Water . . . . . .14 ounces. 

Acetate of soda . . . .20 grains. 

This bath must be mixed at least twenty-four hours 
before it is required for use. If it be used immediately 
after mixing, it will give what are termed " mealy " 
prints, — that is to say, prints of an uneven and dis- 
agreeable dull colour. 

The bath will not keep indefinitely, but will remain 
good for at least some weeks if it be kept out of any 
strong light. If it be found that a black powdery 
deposit is forming at the bottom of the bottle, it will 
be known that the solution is becoming useless, this 
deposit being in fact the gold. 

Carbonate of Soda Bath. 

Stock solution of chloride of gold 1 ounce. 

Water . . . . . .14 ounces. 

Bicarbonate of soda (baking soda) . 3 grains. 


This is mixed immediately before use. More should 
not be mixed than is required, as it does not keep very 

Pla tin u m Ton ing-Ba ih . 

There are certain subjects for which a very black 
tone is considered desirable. Copies of engravings and 
such like may be taken as examples. Such a tone may 
be had by using chloride of platinum instead of chloride 
of gold. We believe that any of the formulae may be 
used, but our experience has only extended to the ace- 
tate bath. By using varying proportions of platinum 
and gold different tones may be got. 



We said that a negative should not be extensively 
printed from till the film is protected by coating it with 
varnish. This is the case when ready sensitised paper 
is used. When paper which has been recently sensitised 
is employed it is not advisable to print from an un- 
varnished negative at all. 

There is a double object in the varnish. The first 
is simply to protect the gelatine film from accidental 
abrasion. The second is to protect it from dampness. 
Dry gelatine has a great affinity for water, soaking it up 
readily. If ready sensitised paper is used there is little 
danger from damp, but paper recently sensitised is some- 
times put in the frames before it is absolutely dry, thus 
an unvarnished negative is likely to be spoiled. 

A varnish particularly suitable for dry plates is now 
extensively sold. That known as Hubbard's will be 
found excellent. 

A little skill is necessary to varnish plates properly, 
and possibly the first few attempts may result in 
failure. The j^late to be varnished is Avarmed to a 
temperature of about 100" Fahr, This is a tempera- 
ture which feels pleasantly warm to the hand. The 


plate is held with the film side upwards by the left- 
hand bottom corner, and on it sufficient varnish is 
then poured to form a pool. This pool should cover 
about half the area of the plate. This latter is now 
gently " tipped," or sloped, so that the varnish will flow 
towards the corner opposite that by which the plate is 
held. The tipping must be very gentle, or the varnish 
will flow ofl" the j^late. When the varnish has reached 
the corner opposite the one by which the plate is held, 
the position is slightly altered so as to cause the varnish 
to flow to the left, and in that direction roimd to the 
corner by which the plate is held, and eventually to the 
corner immediately to the right of this. By this time 
the whole plate will be covered, but there will be on it 
far too much varnish. The bottle is brought under the 
last corner to which the varnish has flowed, and the 
plate is gently brought up to a vertical position. AVhilst 
it is being so raised it is rocked in its own plane, other- 
wise crapey lines will result. On the two lower edges 
there will now be a thick edge of varnish. This is re- 
moved by running a piece of blotting-paper along each 
of these edges whilst the plate still retains the vertical 
position. For a few minutes the plate is now laid on 
one side to set. It should if possible be placed in a 
plate-rack with that corner downwards from Avhich the 
varnish runs. It may, however, be laid against a wall 
standing on either of the edges next to this corner. In 
a minute or two the varnish will have set stiff, and it is 
only necessary to heat the plate once more when the 
process is complete. This time the temperature should 
be raised considerably higher than before. About 150° 
Fahr., or quite as high a temperature as the hand can 


bear to touch for a second or so, will not be too high. 
The plate is now set on one side to cool. 

The warming of the plate before varnishing, and the 
heating afterwards, may be jjerformed either before an 
ordinary clear fire or over a gas burner, the plate being 
kept a few inches clear of the flame. Better perhaps 
than either of these is an Argand burner or a large 
paraffin lamp with a chimneJ^ 

The plate is ready to be printed from after it has 
become cool for the second time. The varnish should 
cover it in a perfectly even film, although even in the 
case of skilful operators there is at times found a line 
marking a thick edge along each of the edges next the 
corner from which the varnish was returned to the 
bottle. Such a slight defect as this is of no consequence, 
but as the beginner is likely to have much more serious 
faults it is well to know how the varnish may be re- 
moved so as to go through the process a second time. 

One of the flat dishes is thoroughly cleaned, and is 
warmed to about as high a temperature as can be con- 
veniently borne by the hand. The plate from which Ave 
wish to remove the varnish is similarly warmed, and is 
placed in the dish film side upwards. Over it there is 
now poured sufficient methylated spirit to cover the film. 
It is allowed to remain so for a few seconds, the dish 
being rocked. A small piece of cotton wool or a camel's- 
hair brush is now gently passed over the film under the 
surface of the warm spirit. The greater quantity of the 
varnish is thus removed, and if the desire be simply to 
varnish the film again it may be done at once. It is, 
however, sometimes required to remove the varnish very 
completely so as to enable, for example, intensification 


to be performed. In this case the plate is removed from 
the dish after what has been described is done, is warmed 
again to about the same temperature as before, and is 
held over the flat dish whilst some clear methylated 
spirit is poured over it. 

The spirit which is now in the dish may be put into 
a separate bottle, to be used again for the same purpose 
if there be need of it. 

Sensitising Paper. 

The process of sensitising paper, although it presents 
no grave difficulties, is one which is somewhat trouble- 
some and is rather messy. It is almost impossible to 
perform it unless some special apartment can be put 
aside for photographic work, at least for the time being. 

The apparatus, materials, and chemicals necessary are 
as follows : — 

A flat dish, somewhat larger in each direction than 
the largest piece of paper to be sensitised. 

A number of American clips. 

Albumenised paper — as much as may be required. 

Nitrate of silver — enough to make up the solution to 
be afterwards described. 

An argentometer. 

A small quantity of kaolin. 

A funnel and filtering paper. 

The flat dish differs in no Avay from the ones which 
we have been already using in the manipulation of 
prints. It should, however, be kept for the one purpose 
of sensitising paper alone. 

American clips are after the nature of diminutive 



letter clips, and are used to suspend a piece of paper 
from a string stretched across a room. 

The albumenised j^aper is bought in rolls like the 
sensitised paper already described, and does not differ 
from it in appearance. It will keep for a very long time. 
The argentometer is an instrument used to discover 
the strength of the silver solution to be 
afterwards described. It is simply a 
cheap form of hydrometer, — that is to 
say, it consists of a bulb of glass with 
a stem, as shown in the cut. The bulb 
is so weighted that when the whole 
apparatus is dipped into clean water it 
will sink till the stem is nearly sub- 
merged. When, however, the specific 
gravity of the water is increased by 
dissolving nitrate of silver in it, the 
stem is floated up to a certain extent, 
and by observing to what degree this 
takes place we can tell the strength 
of the solution. The stem is graduated, 
and by reading off the figure at the 
surface of the liquid we can find, with 
a sufficient degree of correctness, how many grains of 
silver nitrate there are to each ounce of solution. An 
argentometer is usually provided with a tall glass vessel, 
which will hold just enough solution to float it. 

The funnel used for filtering is a well-known piece of 
apparatus. It is best to have a good large one. It is 
usual to support a funnel on a retort-stand whilst filter- 
ing is being performed, and if the photographer happen 
to have such a piece of apparatus he may by all means 


use it, Init it is scarcely advisable to purchase one for the 
special purpose. If a fairly wide-niouthed bottle be used 
to hold the silver nitrate solution, the funnel may be 
caused to stand in the neck of the bottle. 

Preparation is made for sensitising paper in the fol- 
lowing manner : The room is either lighted through a 
yellow calico blind or else all outside light is shut out, 
as much lamp light as is desired being used. If the 
weather is cold, a fire is lighted, or there may be used a 
gas or other stove of any description, so long as there 
are provided means of getting rid of the products of 
combustion. Strings are stretched across the room in 
any direction convenient, to be used to attach pieces of 
paper to for drying. 

The paper is cut up into pieces of the size which is 
desired. If ver}^ small prints are to be used, it is best 
to sensitise the paper in such sizes as will cut up to make 
several prints. Of course the size of the pieces of paper 
to be sensitised regulates the size of the bath. 

Enough solution to cover the bottom of the dish to a 
depth of a quarter of an inch is prepared as follows : — 

Silver nitrate . . . . 60 grains?. 

Distilled water .... 1 ounce. 

The solution is poured into the dish. 

A piece of the paper is taken by two opposite corners ; 
it is allowed to drop in the middle between these, so 
that when it is lowered on to the solution the first part 
which will touch the liquid will be a line between the 
two corners not held in the hand. When the paper has 
been so lowered on to the solution, the corner held first 
in one hand, then that in the other, is gently lowered, 


till the whole is floating on the surface of the silver 

The object of this particular method of laying down 
the paper is to avoid any air-bubbles being imprisoned 
under it, as such would leave white circular spots when 
printing was performed. If the process be carefully 
performed there will probably be no bubbles, but it is 
always best to make sure, for which reason, after the 
paper has remained floating for one minute or so, it is 
taken in the fingers by two adjacent corners and is 
gently lifted till all except a narrow portion of the other 
end is lifted from the solution. If we see any bubbles, 
they must be broken. This can generally be done by 
moving about the piece of paper, whilst one portion 
is kept floating on the solution and the rest is held 
above it. If the bubble will not break with this treat- 
ment it may be touched Avith the end of a glass rod or 
with a clean quill. 

During the whole of this process great care must be 
taken not to allow any solution to get on to the back of 
the paper. 

After we have assured ourselves that there are no 
air-bubbles under the paper it is left floating for tAvo 
or three minutes. It is probable that, whilst the paper is 
so floating, the edges may be noticed to curl up and rise 
from the solution. If we breathe gently upon these, they 
will be lowered. 

At the end of the time mentioned the paper is to be 
removed from the solution. To do this, it is taken by 
two adjacent corners and is lifted very slowh/ from the 
solution. By this means all superfluous liquid is drained 
from the surface by capillary attraction. 


The paper is fixed by one corner to one of the pieces 
of string by an American clip. A fragment of blotting- 
paper about an inch scjuare is brought into contact viiih 
the lower comer. It ^\i.\\ stick to the albumenised paper 
by capillary attraction, and will absorb a drop or two of 
silver solution which otherwise would fall. 

Another piece of paper is meantime floated on the 
bath. It has to be borne in mind that as paper con- 
tinues to be sensitised the bath loses strength. After 
a time it will require some silver nitrate added. Each 
sheet of paper, measuring 17 x 22 inches, ■nill extract 
something like 40 or 50 grains of the silver salt from 
the solution. The solution is reduced both in quantity 
and in strength. For this reason we should add to it, 
after every three sheets of paper 17 x 22 inches have 
been sensitised, one ounce of a solution made up as 
follows : — 

Silver nitrate . . . . 90 grains. 

Water, up to ... . 1 ounce. 

This will keep the liath approximately constant both 
as regards quantity and strength. At the end of a day's 
work we must test the strength of the solution by means 
of the argentometer, and correct any slight error which 
may have arisen even in spite of the additions of strong 
solution made. It will probably he found that the bath 
is slightly reduced in bulk, because, except in the most 
careful working, every three sheets of paper take up a 
little more than an ounce of liquid. In the first place, 
then, we make up the lu;lk to the original amount. "\Vc 
now pour a little of the solution into the argentometer 
tube and place the argentometer floating in the liquid. 


We will suppose that we find that the surface of the 
liquid crosses the stem at 55. This indicates that we 
have lost 5 grains of silver nitrate for each ounce of 
solution. AVe therefore add this amount to each ounce 
of " bath " that we liaA'e made up. If, as is quite pos- 
sible, the solution indicates about 60, Ave may reduce the 
strength by the addition of a little water. 

The bath which we have given is a very strong one, 
and no ill will result if it become considerably weaker 
dming use. It will certainly work well when reduced 
to 45 grains of silver per oimce of solution. 

After we have done using the bath for the day we 
must filter it before replacing it in its bottle. We may 
then shake it up with a little of the kaolin, which is a 
white chalky-looking powder. It takes some time to 
subside, and as it does so carries with it such organic 
matter as was in too fine a state of division to be re- 
tained in the filter. 

One of the greatest troubles in connection Avith sensi- 
tising paper is that, if it be allowed to hang up till it is 
dry it will curl up so tightly as to be almost unmanage- 
able. The writer has found the following plan an ex- 
cellent one to prevent such curling up : — 

The paper is allowed to hang up only till, if the piece 
of blotting-paper be removed from the corner, no solution 
will drop from it. It is then laid, albumenised side up- 
wards, on one of the " drying boards " — already described 
— a second drying board is placed over the paper, and the 
greater portion of the solution is blotted off. The paper 
is now laid face down on a second drying board, and 
other pieces are treated similarly. As soon as the first 
piece of paper has so far dried that the edges begin to 


turn stiffly inwards, it is laid face upwards on a piece of 
drying board a little larger each way than itself. A 
second piece of diying board is placed over it, and above 
this a flat wooden board with a weight over it. ^Yhen 
the next piece of paper is ready it is placed over the 
second piece of drying board, and a third piece of drying 
board is placed over if. In this waj* all the paper is 
piled, and it will dry quite flat. 

The paper gives the best results when not absolutely 
dry, but when very nearly so. It Avill be in the very 
best condition after it has been between the drying 
boards for perhaps half an hour or an hour. 

If before use the drying boards be dipped in a satu- 
rated solution of carbonate of soda (washing soda) and 
be then dried, the paper lying between them will keep 
white for at least a week. 

For paper to become surface dry requires only a few 
minutes if the draining have been properly performed 
and if the room be dry. If the paper become quite dry 
it curls up in a way which at times makes it very diffi- 
cult to get it flat enough to lay it in the frame. It may 
in this case be straightened in the following manner : A 
pad of blotting-paper and a blunt paper-knife are re- 
quired. The print is laid out as nearly flat on the 
blotting-paper as it can be by hand, the back being 
upwards. The paper-knife is now drawn across the 
back, considerable pressure being given by the edge. 
After this has been done for some time the paper will 
retain its flatness. 

Ammonia Fuming of Paper. 

When paper is sensitised as it is required it is com- 


mon to fume it with ammonia. If such be clone the 
paper will print somewhat more quickly than when un- 
fumed, and, at least with some operators, gives a more 
brilliant print. 

Boxes or chests are made specially for fuming paper. 
The operation consists simply in exposing the paper to 
fumes of liquor ammonia. The boxes are pieces of 
apparatus wherein the paper is laid on string nettings, 
or is otherwise supported whilst it is acted upon by a 
mixture of one part of ammonia and three or four of 
water, which is placed in a dish under it. 

The amateur who wishes to fume his paper on a small 
scale aWII easily think of means whereby such may be 
done. For example, in an ordinary cupboard or ward- 
robe a dish of ammonia may be placed whilst over it 
the paper flattened out, as already described, hangs on 
American clips. The usual time of fuming is a quarter 
of an hour or twenty minutes. 

The operations of printing, toning, fixing, and wash- 
ing of prints are almost precisely similar for the paper 
sensitised as we have described as for paper purchased 
ready sensitised. 

It will probably be found, and especially in the case 
of fumed paper, that the print fresh from the frame has 
none of the brown colour which the print on ready sensi- 
tised paper had, but appears as if it were already toned. 
Sometimes this colour will go off in the washing, giving 
place to the brick -red colour which we have already 
mentioned. If it "svill not, the desired change may be 
brought about by dipping the prints in water into 
which a little salt has been put. The precise amount 
of salt does not signify. The water should be made to 


taste slightly briny. The prints are dipped in this 
salt water, after they have been washed, till they are 
fairly free from silver nitrate. They are left in it for a 
few minutes, and are again washed for a like period. 

It might be supposed that if a print appear when it 
comes from the frame to have the same colour as a toned 
print there can be no need to tone at all. This is by no 
means the case, however. The fixing-bath would soon 
remove the apparent tone, reducing the print to a very 
disagreeable j^ellowish-red shade. 

Paper sensitised as required, and not fumed, takes 
somewhat longer to print than ready sensitised paper. 
That which is fumed takes about the same length of 
time to gain the same amount of darkness in the frame, 
but as it loses somewhat more in toning and fixing 
than ready sensitised paper does, it is necessary to print 
a little longer. 

Before concluding our remarks on printing we must 
say a few words on the diflferent effects produced by 
l)rinting in a weak or a strong light. If a print be taken 
from a negative of average density in the fullest mid- 
summer sunshine, and if another be taken in light so 
dull that it will require say a dozen times as long to 
print, the two will on comparison show a marked differ- 
ence. The print taken in bright sunshine will show 
less contrast than the other. From this it follows that 
if we have a negative which gives a print slightly hard, 
but not so hard that we incline to api)ly a reducer, our 
best course is to print in bright sunshine. If, on the 
other hand, the print got is a UtUe too soft we should 
print in a very weak light. 



Tlie Print refuses to tone. 

Sometimes the change of colour which ought to take 
place in the toning-bath fails to appear. This is usually 
caused by the fact that the bath is in an acid state. It 
must be understood that chloride of gold is usually 
somewhat acid, and that borax, bicarbonate of soda, or 
whatever is used with it is intended to neutralise this 
acidity and, moreover, to render the solution slightly 
alkaline. If the bath refuse to tone, the test papers 
must be used to find out Avhether it is alkaline or not. 
If red litmus papers be placed in an alkaline solution its 
colour is changed to blue. A book of test paper slips 
should be purchased, and a little piece of red litmus 
should be placed in the toning solution. If no change 
of colour takes place in the paper after a minute or so 
we may assume that the solution is either acid or neutral. 
In either case we have to add some more of the salt 
which was mixed with the chloride of gold to constitute 
the toning-bath. We may add a little at a time till 
the red litmus shows signs of changing its colour. If 
we add so much that the red colour of the paper is 


changed to blue the moment it is placed in the solution, 
we have rendered it too alkaline. 

If the bath adopted be one which has to be kept for 
some time before it is used vre must notice that the gold 
has not deposited itself at the bottom and on the sides 
of the bottle as we described already. The stock gold 
solution without any alkaline reaction is generally very 
stable, but we have known cases in which the gold has 
throMTi itself down. Of course when the gold has 
l)ecome deposited in the bottom of the vessel we have 
not far to go to seek for the cause of the refusal of 
the bath to tone. 

If the toning solution be very cold, toning may take 
a long time, or the prints may even refuse to tone at 
all. In winter time the temperature of the bath may 
be raised somewhat, but never above 70° or 80° Fahr. 

Some paper.s, ■snthout being in any way defective, 
require a toning-bath of greater strength than the one 
we have given. If we find that prints take too long 
to tone, and at the same time we are sure that our 
bath is not faulty, we may strengthen it by adding 
gold and whatever other chemical we are using. The 
bath may be made even double as strong as we have 

The Prints tone snfficienthj icell, hut the greater' part of the 
Tone is lost in the Firing-Bath and does not return. 

Before entering on particulars of this fault we should 
say that all photographers are not agreed as to the 
necessity of giving to the prints before they are toned 
the thorough washint;- that we have described. There is 


no doubt that if but a slight washing be given, the 
process being stopped whilst the water which runs from 
the prints is still cloudy, indicating that, considerable 
silver nitrate remains still in the paper, toning will go on 
much 7nore rapidhj. It is our experience, however, that 
the tone thus readily gained with only partially washed 
prints is very liable to be lost, or at least to deterior- 
ate in the fixdng-bath. We have, moreover, reason to 
believe that prints toned whilst there is still considerable 
free silver nitrate in the paper are less permanent than 
those toned after thorough washing. The greater 
number of photographers prefer to wash their prints 
thoroughly before toning them. 

Another cause of loss of tone in the fixing-bath is 
the use of too strong a solution of hyposulphite of soda. 
The fixing solution for plates may be made up by guess 
after a little experience, but weighing should always be 
resorted to for the print-fixing solution. Some recom- 
mend for prints the use of a fixing-bath containing five 
ounces of hyposulphite of soda to each pint of solution. 
This Ave consider far too strons;. 

The Prints tone iinevenly. 

The most common cause of this defect is to be found 
in the sticking together of prints through insufficient 
motion during toning, and especially if a solution so 
strong as to bring about the change of colour in a few 
minutes be used. The prints should be kept in constant 
motion till they are all toned. 

Finger-marks on the albumenised side of the paper 
are liable to come out as untoned marks in the print. 


Finger-marks on the back of the paper, although they 
always show A'ery plainly whilst the print is wet, usually 
disappear entirely when it is dry. 

If paper has been fumed, and the action of the am- 
monia has not been even, unevenness of tone is sure to 

The portions of the Print ichich ought fa be ichite are yelloic. 

This is a very common and most annoying defect. 
A great portion of the beauty of a photographic print 
depends on the pureness of the whites ; and this is 
especially true in the case of ^-ignettes. 

There are several causes of the defect. The first which 
we Avill take lies in the paper itself. If ready sensitised 
paper be kept too long, or be kept for a comparatively 
short time, in a damp place, or in a place where it is 
exposed to gas fumes, it will turn first yellow then brown. 
It is unreasonable to expect from such paper prints which 
will have pure whites. Exposm-e to the air Mill also 
cause the change of colour. The paper therefore should 
be kept tightly rolled up ; it will then keep almost in- 
definitely. If it be found necessary to keep for any length 
of time paper which has been unrolled and cut up, it is 
best to put it under pressure ; it may be placed under a 
flat board with a weight over it, or it may be placed in 
a printing frame, the back of which will afford the neces- 
sary pressure. In this latter case a sheet of ordinary 
paper should be placed between the sensitised paper and 
the back of the frame ; otherwise there Avill appear in 
time a dark line on the paper corresponding with the 
division between the tAvo halves of the back. 


Printed paper, such as newspaper, etc., should on no 
account be placed in contact "svith sensitised paper, other- 
Avise the printing will become risible on the sensitive 

It has already been said that paper sensitised as re- 
quired will not keep, except under certain conditions, 
for more than about twenty-four hours. It sometimes 
happens that it is necessary to leave a negative in the 
frame for a longer time than this before a single proof 
can be got from it. This may be the case with very 
dense negatives, and when the Aveather is xevy dull. In 
this case there should be placed between the sensitive 
paper and the back of the frame a piece of blotting-paper 
which has been soaked in a saturated solution of washing 
soda, and has been dried. 

The yellowness and brownness which we have de- 
scribed is unobjectionable compared with that Avhich we 
are about to describe, inasmuch as it is evident on the 
paper before this is even put in the frame, so that we 
know what to expect. Moreover, it is much reduced in 
the toning and fixing baths. In fact, a piece of paper 
which is quite perceptibly brown before it is put in the 
frame may give a perfect print. There is, however, a 
defect which is caused in the toning or fixing-bath, and 
which is, so far as we know, incurable, and moreover is 
accompanied by a general degradation of tone which 
makes the print totally useless. It is often accompanied 
by a curious metallic lustre on the surface of the print. 
This is to be distinguished from bronzing (to be after- 
wards described) by the fact that, whereas bronzing 
appears only in the deeper shadows of the print, this 
metallic lustre covers the whole surface, or, at any rate. 


the whole of that portion of the print which is affected 
with the fault, irrespective of lights and shadows. 

There are several parts of the process at which this 
defect may make its appearance. The first is when the 
print is first being washed before toning ; and this is, we 
believe, the most common. If the prints are allowed to 
remain for any length of time in the first washing water, 
which contains a considerable qiiantity of nitrate of silver, 
they will almost certainly be turned yellow in the high 
lights. This is still more certain to take place if they be 
allowed to stick together, and yellowness "\W11 give place 
to brownness if too much light get access to the washing 
water at this stage. 

The prints should be kept in as constant motion as 
possible in the first and second waters, and should be as 
quickly as possible transferred from the first to the second, 
and from the second to the third waters. 

The next possible cause of the fault is in the toning- 
bath. If too much light reaches the prints whilst here, 
the defect will occur. Further than tliis, if any of several 
foreign substances find their way l)y accident into the 
toning-bath, the same is likely to occur. The most likely 
substance, and one which will infallibly bring about the 
defect, is hyposulphite of soda. If a few drops of the 
fixing-bath get into the toning-bath the latter is ruined. 

Another danger of the defect is to be found in the 
fixing-bath itself. If this be acid, it is likely to come 
about. It is well to make sure that the fixing-bath is 
not acid by putting into each pint of it a piece of wash- 
ing soda the size of a hazel-nut, or by pouring into it a 
few drops of ammonia until the solution slightly smells 
of it, thereby indicating that it has been rendered a little 


alkaline. The alkalinity of the fixing-bath can do no 
harm, and ensures its not being acid, which latter is 
most hurtful. 

If the prints be allowed to stick together, either during 
fixing or immediately after in the washing water, yellow- 
ness of the lights may occur. 

The Shadows of the Print have a bronzed appearance. 

This appearance only occurs when a negative having 
very strong contrasts is used with paper which has been 
sensitised on a very strong silver bath. Very often the 
disagreeable appearance will pass away in the fixing-bath. 
At times, however, it is so strong that it does not. In 
such a case we must use a weaker sensitising bath. 

The Prints lack contrast. 

If this defect be not due to the negative it is due to 
the sensitising bath being too weak. In this latter case 
there accomj^anies the lack of contrast a jjeculiar defect 
to which the name of " mealiness " has been given. This 
we describe here. 

The Prints are "mealy" 

This word is used to describe an appearance of print 
which is most disagreeable. Instead of the deeper 
shadows being of an even dark hue, they are of a freckled 
nature, and as a rule the colour of them is not agreeable. 

As just mentioned, this defect may arise from the fact 
that the sensitising bath is too weak. In this case the 
evident course is to strengthen it. It also arises from 


the use of an acetate toning-bath which has been kept 
for too short a period. If it be found that an acetate 
bath which has been kept for twenty-four hours gives 
mealy prints, the next one used should be mixed up with 
boiling instead of cold water. 

There is apoivdenj deposit over the surface of the Prints. 

This defect may make its appearance if the prints 
have been allowed to lie face upwards in the washing 
Avater before toning. The evident remedy is not to 
leave them so. 



Every one who has looked at a set of photographs must 
have observed in the case of some the very agreeable 
effect of a certain class of print to which the name of 
" vignette " has been given. In this, instead of the photo- 
graph covering the whole of the paper, it is confined to 
the central portion, there being a gradual shading off 
towards the edges, which latter are pure white. 

For a long time the means of producing this pleasing 
effect was known only by a few, and was sold as a secret 
process for large sums. There are now known many 
ways by which it can be produced. Before describing 
these a few words are necessary as to the nature of sub- 
ject which is best treated in this manner. 

Both landscapes and portraits make excellent vignettes 
if certain conditions be observed. The first of these is 
that the negative be one which may be described as 
delicate, — that is to say, it must be full of detail and at 
the same time without excessive contrast in large masses 
of light and shade. A negative which might otherwise 
be considered slightly over-exposed is excellent for a 
vignette. Another necessity is that there should be no 
very deep shadow of great extent, which in an ordinary 


print extends over the portion which is fully printed and 
into that which in the vignette is to be white margin. 
With such deep shadows it is impossible to avoid an 
abrupt transition from dark to white, and the delicacy 
of the vignette is destroyed. For this reason a portrait 
with a dark background is not suitable for vignetting, 
nor is a head and shoulders of a sitter with a dress having 
a very dark body. 

We will take first of all the case of a landscape, and 
describe how the first experiments may be made. A 
negative showing the qualities which we have described 
is taken. A piece of ordinary cardboard is cut into such 
a shape and size that it "will cover the whole front of the 
frame. From the centre of this piece of cardboard there 
is now cut an oval hole about two-thirds as long as the 
length of the plate and also two-thirds as wide as its 
breadth. The following cut will give an idea of the 
relative sizes of the hole and the plate. The outside 
line shows the whole extent of the piece of pasteboard, 
the dotted line shows the size of the plate, and the oval 
portion is that which is removed. It is not necessary to 
draw the oval with any degree of accuracy. A rough 
line such as we show is quite good enough. 

The piece of cardboard is fixed to the frame. This 
may be done either by means of a little glue or by drawing- 
pins ; the latter method is the best. Printing is performed 
in diffused light, or still better in sunlight, a piece of tissue 
paper being placed over the opening. It is necessary to 
get a broad expanse of sky opposite the frame to produce 
good vignettes if diffused light be employed. The reason 
of this is evident. The shading off is produced by light 
which passes angularly under the edge of the opening in 



the pasteboard. Now it is evident that if there be not 
plenty of light striking the frame obliquely no rays will 

pass beyond the edge of the aperture in the pasteboard. 
It is therefore necessary if, as sometimes happens, espe- 
cially in a to^ra, a light from only a narrow portion of 
the sky can be obtained, to use tissue paper over the 
opening even when we are printing by diffused light. 
The effect of the tissue paper is to produce artificial 
diffusion spreading the light in all directions. 

It is best to cut the oval opening somewhat too small 
at first, and after a proof is taken, or even when the first 
is in progress, to alter it as apj^ears desirable. 

The first proof that is taken will show whether the 
arrangement of the pasteboard is correct. The distance 
between it and the negative should be for small plates 


half to three-quarters of an inch, for large plates pro- 
portionately more. "With this distance between the 
vignettes and the glass the shading off should be soft 
enough, but sometimes it happens that it is not. In this 
case the follownng course may be pursued. The edges 
of the cardboard are taken between the finger and thumb, 
and are bent upwards as far as is possible -without pro- 
ducing wide cracks. The section of the cardboard will 
then be something Hke the following. We have tried 
to show it as if it had been cut into two pieces, one 
only of them being represented. 

A very soft vignette will generally result from this. 
Another course which is sometimes adopted is to serrate 
the edges of the aperture as sho-\ra here. This also pro- 
duces a soft vignette. 

If it be considered that the vignette does not ex- 
tend far enough at any place the aperture may be 
widened, as in the following cut. If it extend too 
far a piece of paper may be gummed on to the paste- 
board so as to project beyond the edge. We show 
in the accompanying cut, in dotted lines, an example 
of hoAV such a piece of paper might be applied. At 
times it will be found that the negative is of such a 
character that the shading tends to extend farther in 
one general direction than in another. In such a case 
the vignettes may be brought nearer the negative at 
that end or side where the shading tends to extend 
too far. 

For portraits the proceeding is quite similar to that 


for landscapes. The opening in the paper is, however, in 
this case usually unequal at the two ends— is, in fact, a 


true oval or egg -shape, the broadest end being down- 

The background needs special attention in the case of 
portraits which are to be vignetted. It must be light, 
but should not be so light that it will print white. A 
blanket generally gives just about the right shade of 
colour for a background for vignetted portraits. This 
may be used by amateurs, but if it is, care must be taken 
to keep it at such a distance behind the sitter that 
it aWII be so much out of focus that the textiu'e -odll not 
be visible in the negative or print. 

It is necessary, in cutting the oval for a portrait, to 
be very careful as to its size. We here give a sketch 



which shows the general shape of a head and shoulders, 
such as would be suitable for a vignette, and in dotted 
lines we give about the shape of the aperture in the 
piece of pasteboard. 

A vignette should be printed scarcely so deeply as an 

ordinary print, the great aim, as we have said, being to 
secure delicacy. 

The extemporised piece of apparatus which we have 
described will do very Avell for the first experiments of 
the amateur, and indeed is the only thing that is used 




by many experienced photographers ; but there are 
several very neat little appliances whereby the process 
may be much facilitated. We may mention amongst 
these vignetting- glasses. These are plates of glass of 
about the same size as the negative to be printed from. 
There is a transparent oval in the centre, Avhilst the 
sides are of a ruby colour, so that no actinic light passes. 
The ruby colour is gently shaded off, so that great soft- 
ness is produced in the vignette. The vignetting-glass 
takes precisely the same position that the cardboard Avith 
the oval opening did. 

One of the best vignetters which can be had is cut out 
of a piece of wood a quarter to three-eighths of an inch 
thick. A hole is cut in this precisely as in the case of 
the cardboard, and this is bevelled away on the under 

side so as to produce the same effect that the pinching 
up of the cardboard at the edge did. 

Marion's new vignetting-frame, which we here illus- 
trate, is an extremely useful piece of ajiparatus. It will 
be seen that besides the ordinary frame with a folding 
back, there is a space for slipping in a piece of wood, 


Avith aperture cut and bevelled as we have described. 
There are, moreover, means whereby the position of the 
vignettes may be altered, and whereby it may be clamped 
fast when the proper position is discovered. Several 
vignetters are provided with each frame. It is very 
easy to get others made if they are required for special 



Whilst writing of prints on albumenised paper we 
stated that the process commonly entitled "silver print- 
ing " had held its own. against all competition. 

We by no means wish to take up the business of 
prophesying what may or what may not be the future of 
photographic printing ; but we will venture to say that 
in the Alpha paper, which has been brought before the 
public since the first edition of this work was published, 
albumenised paper Avill have a formidable rival, and that 
for certain purposes at any rate the use of " Alpha " paper 
will entirely supersede that of albumenised paper. 

Prints produced on Alpha paper can scarcely be dis- 
tinguished from those on albumenised paper, whilst the 
new process has the following decided advantages : — 

First. The time required for exposure, instead of being 
from perhaps a quarter of an hour to several days, accord- 
ing to the nature of the negative and the condition of 
the weather, is but a second or two when daylight is in 
question, only a minute or two even with gaslight or 

Second. There is every reason to believe that the 


prints on Alpha paper are more permanent than those 
on sensitised albumenised paper. 

Concerning the matter of the reduction of exposure, 
it is scarcely necessary to point out how advantageous it 
may be in many circumstances. Xotably it will make 
the paper useful where it is desired to produce a number 
of impressions from a negative in a short space of time. 
Possibly the amateur will feel the benefit of the intro- 
duction of the new paper more than any other. It is 
generally in the printing that he gets bothered ; it is 
so slow a process with the ordinary paper. Then the 
amateur is often engaged in business during the daytime 
— the only time when printing on albumenised paper is 
possible. His few holidays he likes to spend with the 
camera in the field, and, as a result, he often takes 
negatives from which he never gets a print, or he sends 
his negatives away from home to be printed from by a 
professional photographer. "With the Alpha paper he 
will be able, vrith. an ordinary gas-burner or lamp, to 
produce as many prints in an hour as he could on 
albumenised paper in a day. 

As to permanency, of course nothing absolute can be 
said at present, — time alone can prove this. But it is 
the general opinion of experts that the prints are at 
least far more lasting than those on albumenised paper. 
As we state this with considerable confidence we ought 
to give our reasons. 

There can be no doubt that in the case of prints on 
albumenised paper, at least one cause of the deteriora- 
tion which takes place through time — the chief cause, 
in the writer's opinion — is the organic compound pro- 
duced by the action of the excess of nitrate of silver on 


the organic materials in and on the paper. An organic 
compound is formed, — albumenate of silver we are told, 
— and this compound gives rise to an unstable image. 
Now during no part of the manufacture of the Alpha 
paper is free silver nitrate brought into contact with 
any organic substance. For this reason the organic 
compound of silver already mentioned cannot exist in 
the paper. 

Briefly stated the method of working is as follows : — 

Alpha paper is placed in a printing frame in the usual 
manner, manipulations being performed in the dark 
room, or, still better, in a room lighted with a good 
amount of red or yellow light. 

The paper is now exposed to light. There will be no 
visible image with the correct exposure unless the nega- 
tive is a very dense one, when the deepest shadows 
will be faintly visible. 

The paper is developed, an operation which takes less 
than a minute. 

It is then washed, treated for a quarter of an hour 
with alum solution, washed for a few minutes again, 
toned in the usual manner, then fixed. 

It is necessary to go somewhat more minutely into 
a description of these various processes. 

The length of exposure necessary will, of course, vary 
with the nature of the light and with the negative. 

With a negative of average density, and a distance of 
six or eight inches from an ordinary fish-tail burner, the 
exposure will be two to four minutes. By the use of an 
"albo carbon" light and a tin reflector the exposure 
may be reduced from ten seconds to half a minute. 
In bright summer diffused light the exposure may be 


about as brief as can be given. Certainly under a second 
will do. The exposure to bright sunshine is too brief to 
be under command, except in the case of negatives of 
extraordinary density. 

In an ordinary room, at about the distance from the 
window at which we recommend portraits to be taken, 
the exposure will be five to ten seconds. It is far better 
to work with such exposures which are under control 
than with the very brief ones which may be given with 
a brighter light. 

For development the following solutions are mixed :— 

No. 1. 

Oxalate of potash ... 1 lb. 

Bromide of ammonium . . 320 grains. 

Warm water, up to . . . 80 ounces. 

No. 2. 
Proto-sulpliate of iron . 4 oz. 250 grains. 

Water, up to . . . . 80 ounces. 

When prints are exposed a dish is taken somewhat 
larger in size than the prints to be developed. Enough 
developer is made by taking equal proportions of Nos. 
1 and 2 to fill the dish to a depth of at least half an 
inch. In mixing the solutions. No. 2 must be poui-ed 
into No. 1, not vice versd. Doubtless the photographer 
A\all recognise the developer as a modification of that 
used for dry plates, and called the "ferrous oxalate" 

The prints are placed dry into the solution, not more 
than three or four at a time. They must then be kept 
in constant motion. The development goes on more 


rapidly than that of a dry plate, and it is necessary to 
■\vatch intently as it gets near completion. The print 
must be taken out of the solution immediately that it 
has got as dark as it ought finally to be ; — if anything 
hef(yre rather than after it looks dark enough, because 
"whereas no depth is lost in toning and fixing, develop- 
ment is liable to continue for a second or two after the 
print is removed from the developing bath. 

The print, as soon as development is over, is placed 
in a dish of clean water, and is rapidly transfen^ed to a 
second and then to a third dish, each containing clean 
water. It then goes into a fourth, where it may remain 
for three or foiu' minutes. 

The develoj)er must not be used within more than 
about a quarter of an hour of the time that the first 
print has been placed in it ; but during that quarter of 
an hoiu" as many prints as is possible may be passed 
through it. 

It is immediately after development that it is first 
possible to teU whether or not the exposure has been 
correct. This is ascertained chiefly by the colrnir which 
the print assumes during develoj^ment. The print -srill 
show a colour tending towards red if the exposure has 
been correct. If it has been too short the prints will be 
black or of a greenish-black. If too long they "u-ill be 
very red, and will appear weak or lacking in contrast. 

It is sometimes desirable to get prints of an engl'a^-ing 
black tone. In this case an exposure of only perhaps a 
third or a quarter of what we have mentioned must lie 

After the prints have been washed they are placed in 
a bath composed as follows : — 


Ground alum 


6 ounces. 

Water, up to 

80 ounces. 


The water is poured over the alum hot, but the sohi- 
tion must not be used till it has become quite cold. 

The prints, after they have been for a quarter of an 
hour in the alum, are vrashed as before. They are then 
ready for toning. They may be toned by the aid of light 
of the same nature as that in which prints on albumenised 
paper are toned. Toning is performed in precisely the 
same manner as in the case of prints on albumenised 
paper, excej)t that when we wish to judge of the change 
of colour we look through the prints, holding them in the 
hand, not (\.o\nx upon them. The surface of the print 
will have assumed a piu'ple tint long before toning is 

The prints may be toned in any toning-bath, but as 
the baths generally used for albumenised paper are very 
slow in their action on Alpha paper the following bath 
is recommended : — 

"Water ..... 1 pint. 

Acetate of soda .... GO grains. 
Cliloride of lime (fresh) . . 4 grains. 

Chloride of gold .... 2 grains. 

The water is poured hot over the acetate of soda and 
the chloride of lime, and when the solution has become 
cold the gold chloride is added. 

After toning the prints are washed once more. They 
are then placed for five minutes or longer in a fixing 
solution, composed as follows : — 

Hji^o 1 lb. 

Water . . . . .80 ounces. 


The colour will change to a foxy red in the fixing- 
bath if the prints have been properly exposed, developed, 
and toned ; but this red will give place to a colour vary- 
ing from warm broAvn to rich purple when the prints 
are dry. 

After the prints have been fixed they are washed 
exactly as are prints on albumenised paper. 

This may be a good place to give a word or two of 

Absolute cleanliness in manipulation is quite as 
necessary in the case of prints on Alpha paper as in the 
case of prints on albumenised paper. The dishes must 
be most carefully washed before operations are com- 
menced, and on no account must a drop of one bath be 
allowed to get into another. 

The prints must be kept in continual motion in all the 
solutions and also in all the washing waters, othenv'ise 
irregularity of tone and impure whites will result. 

Prints which show large expanses of white, especially 
vignettes, should be developed before others, so that they 
may have the advantage of freshly-mixed developer. 

After the final washing the prints may be mounted 
in the same manner as albumenised prints, and rolled or 
burnished in the usual way. 

A beautiful enamel surface may be obtained in the 
following manner : — 

A piece of glass somewhat larger than the print is 
thoroughly cleaned. Powered talc, commonly kno^^^l as 
French chalk, is now dusted over one surface of the glass. 
It is then polished off with a piece of dry flannel. The 
wet print is placed face downwards on the glass and a 
squeegee is gently passed over the back of it to expel the 


moisture. The whole is placed on one side to dry in a 
warm room. When dry the print may easily be stripped 
off the glass. When it is removed it will he found that 
it has a splendid surface. 

If it be desired to mount such prints so as to retain 
the full gloss, the following method is pursued : — 

On the back of the prints upon the glass, when they 
have become about half dry, there is pasted with thick 
starch a piece of "three sheet board." When the whole 
is dry the print will strip, as in the former case, but will 
of course come off attached to the thin board. This thin 
board may be attached to an ordinary mount with glue 
or mounting solution. 

By pursuing a far simpler course a surface almost 
equal to " enamel " is obtained. 

On to the back of prints when half dried on the glasses 
is brushed some very thick starch. The prints are then 
allowed to dry and are stripped from the glass. For 
each print an ordinary mount is taken. It is damped on 
one surface with a wet sponge. The back of the print is 
placed in contact with it, and the mount and print 
together are passed through the rolling press cold. 
Perfect adhesion of the print to the mount will ensue. 

Alpha Opal Plates. 

Positives on " opal " glass have a most charming effect. 
The absolute purity of the Avhite of the matt-siurface of 
the glass is like alabaster. There are various methods 
whereby prints on o})al glass may be obtained, but the 
one to which we now refer has certain advantages over 
others. In regard to briefness of exposure and perma- 


nence of results it has precise!}- the same advantages that 
the Alpha paper has, "whilst it is the only process that sve 
know of in which the positives may be toned to any 
colour that is desired, exactly as silver prints are. 

If the opals are to be ^dewed as prints by reflected 
light the manipulations are precisely the same as for 
the paper, except that, in the case of plates, it is of coui'se 
possible to have but one in a dish at a time. 

If they are to be viewed as transparencies hung up 
against a ^vindow or in some such position the)' must be 
somewhat more fully developed than in the other case. 



A LANDSCAPE in which the sky is represented by an ex- 
panse of white is a most inartistic production. One in 
which there is a uniform light tint is somewhat better, 
but it lacks much of what is wanted to make a picture. 
A graduated sky — that is to say, one which is slightly 
tinted all over, but is somewhat darker towards the top 
than at the bottom — is again an improvement, but all 
these fall very far short in effect to what is produced 
by the introduction of a few clouds, even if there be 
merely an indication of them. 

We have already said that in certain cases suitable 
clouds can be got on the same plate as the landscape, 
but this is a very rare exception. In nine cases out 
of ten a landscape negative shows no clouds or only 
such as are unsuitable for making a picture. In this 
case it is necessary to print in clouds from another 

In our chapter on landscape work we mentioned cases 
in which it is desirable to take a cloud negative for the 
sole purpose of printing into a certain landscape. This 
is a thing which may be done on the rare occasions when 


the clouds which are in the sky at the time of exposure 
appear to compose better with the picture than any 
others could. The landscape photographer cannot, how- 
ever, consider that he has all the necessities for printing 
until he has a set of negatives of clouds of all the various 
kinds which are to be seen, and lighted from all the 
different directions, so that he may find one suitable for 
any landscape which he wishes to print. These cloud 
negatives are very easy to get if a suitable position be 
chosen and when suitable weather occurs. It will be 
noticed that by far the finest cloud effects are to be 
seen Avhen the weather is somewhat unsettled. On a 
breezy day in spring, when it appears just possible that 
a shower may fall at any moment, the photographer, if 
he can find a position which commands the whole four 
quarters of the heavens, may secure as many cloud 
negatives as will serve him for years. A word of warning 
must be given. It will be found that the most striking 
effects of clouds are always to be seen near the sun. At 
a distance of ten to sixty degrees from the sun's position 
the clouds usually have very beautiful outlines, and are 
lighted in a very brilliant manner. A few negatives of 
such clouds may be secured, but it is to be borne in mind 
that it is comparatively seldom that they will be brought 
into requisition. Landscapes are at times taken with 
the camera looking towards or nearly towards the sun, 
and some of these give very fine effects, but the vast 
majority of landscapes are lit from the front or side, 
and therefore the photographer should be careful to 
secure cloud negatives similarly lighted. It will be 
noticed that the effects produced when the sun is high 
in the heavens are quite different from those seen when 


he is near the horizon. For this reason we should 
secure negatives both taken near midday and in the 
early morning, or late in the afternoon. The exposures 
for clouds at midday are somewhat shorter than those 
which we give in the table of exposures under the 
heading " Sea and Sky;" for clouds when the sun is very 
near the horizon they are somewhat longer. 

A thiiig to be further borne in mind is this — the 
more striking a cloud negative is, the finer a result 
may be got by an artistic worker, but the more likeli- 
hood is there, if he possess not the requisite skill, 
that an incongruity ^'vi\\ result. "We must all begin 
at the beginning, and it is well to remember that 
the printing in of clouds is an operation requiring 
great judgment, and that, until we have attained suffi- 
cient confidence in ourselves, it is best to use negatives 
which will give only a suggestion of fleecy clouds, 
and not have such as show striking outlines and bold 

Nothing can be conceived more ridiculous than a 
landscape showing clouds which were evidently lighted 
in a totally different manner from the terrestrial 

We have seen photographs of two landscapes lighted 
from different sides, the sun evidently in the case of each 
high and somewhat to the front (that is to say, rather 
behind than in front of the camera). In each of these 
landscapes there were sho-mi the same clouds. These 
were unsuitable for either, being e^-idently lighted from 
nearly behind, and to make the absurdity complete were 
printed in vpside down/ 

AVe hope that none of oui' readers will fall into such 


blunders as these, but it must be borne in mind that 
there are many smaller errors which may be committed. 

Cloud negatives may be pmchased. They are 
generally on paper rendered transparent Avith wax, or 
on films of transparent gelatine. They have the 
immense advantage that they can be printed from 
with either side towards the albumenised paper, so that 
each negative presents two lightings. 

.We think it is a poor thing for the amateur when he 
becomes an experienced photographer to depend for his 
skies on negatives taken by others, but the beginner 
can do nothing better than purchase a few such nega- 
tives as we have described. He will find them easier to 
work than negatives on glass, and they will serve to 
give him a good idea of what he is to aim at when he 
commences to take sky negatives himself. 

Before describing the method of printing from 
sky negatives we will tell how a simple graduated or 
shaded sky is j^roduced. This sky has an excellent 
effect in the case of certain subjects. The effect pro- 
duced is generally that of a loio sky, or one such as is 
seen in eai^ly morning or shortly before the sun sets. It 
is therefore suitable for subjects taken at these times or 
in winter, the shadows being long. It is also suitable 
for subjects with comparatively straight horizons. 

First as to the landscape negative. Before a sky 
of any kind is printed in, it is necessary that the 
place which it is to occupy should be white in the 
print. If the sky of the negative be so dense as to 
print quite white, well and good ; if not, it is necessary 
to block the sky out. This is done in the following 
manner : Some ordinary water-colour vermilion is 



mixed, gum-water being used instead of pure water, so 
that it Avill take readily on the varnished film, and is 
used with a fine camel's-hair or sable brush. The out- 
line of the horizon is now very carefully painted along 
on the varnish. A line of vermilion, about a quarter 
of an inch -wide, is thus put on. On the back of 
the negative we now block out the whole sky, making 
our blocking overlap that which has been done vnth 
great care on the film side. We may use on the back 
of the plate either Indian ink mixed with gum-water or 
Bates' black varnish. Either is applied with a some- 
what large brush. 

If, before blocking out, the sky printed just a very 
light tint it is sufiicient to block out on the back of 
negative only, keeping the colour about a sixteenth of 
an inch away from the horizon line. In this case the 
narrow fringe of very light tint "\W11 not be notice- 

Having got our print with a white sky we proceed 
as follows : We take a piece of cardboard, tin, or zinc, 
somewhat larger than the print, and bend it to the 

shape sho^vn in the sketch, — that is to say, we simply 


bend up an inch or two of one of the edges. We 
noAV lay the print on a piece of wood or other 
convenient rest, the landscape portion being covered 
with the shade from A to B, the sky portions being 
under the bent-up portion of the shade. The print is 
taken into the light, when, as will be understood, 
the top portion of the sky will rapidly begin to change 
colour, whilst that under the shade does so more 
slowly, a gradation being produced. The shade is kept 
moving slowly backwards and forwards over the print 
till the desired effect is produced. The very same result 
can be brought about by the exercise of a little skill, 
the focussing cloth alone being used. In this latter case 
there is more necessity to keej) the shade (the cloth) 
in constant motion than in the other, or lines be 

Now Ave come to the use of sky negatives. In the 
first place a suitable negative is to be selected. When 
one is got we place the print with white sky in contact 
with it and look through both, the negative being next 
to us. We shift the position of the one with regard to 
the other till it appears to us that we have got the 
clouds in that position which will produce the best sky. 
We now lay the negative with the print over it on to 
a printing frame with plate-glass front, the frame being 
considerably larger than the negative, so as to allow for the 
probable fact that, when the best relative position of the 
print and negative is obtained, the print will extend far 
below the negative. The former must not be folded 
back or the albumen will be cracked. According to 
the nature of the negative the next proceeding varies. 
If the negative has a tolerably straight horizon line 


■we may use the same shade as we did for the graduated 
sky. In this connection we must explain that if there 
be only dark objects, such as trees, etc., against the sky 
these may be disregarded and the sky may be printed 
right across them, as it ■will not be visible. In the case 
which we have imagined the shade is used precisely 
as in the case before. Even if the horizon be not 
straight, but if the line of it be not very crooked, it is 
possible to use the focussing or other cloth; a little 
skill and constant attention to the print is all that is 

When the horizon line is very crooked, and especially 
when light-coloured objects project far into the sky, it is 
necessary to use a mask, Tliis is a piece of some 
opaque substance which may be placed between the 
landscape and the cloud negative so as to shade the 
landscape, the outline of the mask precisely correspond- 
ing with the horizon line. 

The best way to make a mask is to take a print as it 
comes from the frame untoned and unfixed, and to cut 
away the sky with a small pair of scissors. As it mil 
be impossible to lay the print over the mask with ab- 
solute precision it is best to cut away a very narrow 
strip of the landscape matter when making the mask. 
If the sky overlap the landscape by a thirty-second or 
even a sixteenth of an inch it will be unnoticeable, but 
if there be the smallest white space left between the 
landscape and the clouds the effect will not only be 
noticeable but disagreeable. 

When the mask is made it is applied to the sky 
negative Avhich is to be used, the printed side of the 
mask being next the film side of the nesrative. The 


position of the mask with relation to the sky is altered 
till all the sky except what is to be printed into the 
picture is covered up. If several prints from the same 
negative are to have skies printed into them it is best to 
fix the mask to the sky negative with a couple of wafers or 
drops of gum at the lower corners. The print is now 
placed on to the sky negative, the adjustment between 
the two being made by looking through them from the 
negative side. Some patience is necessary to get the 
horizon line to correspond precisely with the outline of 
the mask. 

If it be desired to have the sky equally dark at top 
and bottom the frame is put out to print just as it is. 
It is usually best to have the sky somewhat darker at 
the top than at the bottom, and for this reason the shade 
is generally used for a part of the exposure. 

When printing from paper or gelatine-film negatives 
a printing frame is not always necessary. The print 
may be laid on a board, over this the flexible negative, 
and above all two pieces of glass, one covering the lower 
part of the print, the other the upper, the line between 
them being an inch or so below the horizon. The shade 
or cloth is used over these precisely as over the frame, 
and when we wish to inspect the progress of printing all 
we have to do is to press firmly on the lower piece of 
glass so as to secure the print from movement, while we 
lift the upper glass and bend up the sky negative so as 
to examine the print which is Ijelow it. 

As we have said, great judgment is necessary in 
determining how dark the sky is to be printed. The 
best effects are often got by skies printed very boldly, 
but great artistic skill is necessary in such a case. It 


is best in most cases to print very lightly. In any case 
the highest lights of the sky should be pure white, and 
the general tint of the sky should be lighter than the 
distant portion of the landscape. 


Combination printing may be said to be the highest 
development of photography as a fine art. It has not 
been practised with any great degree of success but by 
a few, and we shall only dwell on it briefly here. It 
consists, as the name would indicate, in printing from 
two or more negatives. The artistic skill and knowledge 
necessary is vastly greater than is required for ordinary 
printing ; still, to understand the results which may be 
obtained, one requires to have seen one of the original 
prints of Rylander's "Two Ways of Life," or some of 
the compositions of Mr. H, P. Eobinson, or one of the 
other leading photographic artists who have given their 
attention to this special branch. 

We shall take one of the simplest cases of combination 
printing, and shall describe the operation. 

The case which we will suppose is that in which a 
figure forms the principal part of the picture, and in 
which a landscape forming the background is subsidiary 
to the figure. It may be asked, Why resort to combina- 
tion printing at all in such a case 1 Why not place the 
figure Avliere the landscape will of itself form a good 
background and take the whole thing on one plate 1 
There are many reasons whj' this can seldom be done 
with a good result. In the first place, there is the diffi- 
culty of having the figure and the landscape together. It 


is more than probable that where we can gain the assist- 
ance of a good model there is no suitable landscape ; 
whilst where there is a suitable landscape one cannot get 
a good model. Then there is the difficulty of getting 
both the figure and the landscape in focus. In fact, to 
get the figure to fill the greater part of the plate requires 
it to be so near the camera that, except in the case of very 
small plates with short-focus lenses, it is practically im- 
possible to get both the figure and the distance in focus. 
To do so Avould require the insertion of so small a stop 
that the exposure would be greatly protracted. Further, 
it is most unlikely that a pleasing lighting could be 
secured for the face of the model. 

When a combination is to be made the conditions 
should be as favourable as possible for the landscape 
itself, and again for the figure itself. 

First, as to the landscape. It may be almost of any 
nature, but as it is to be subsidiary to the figure it 
should not be too bold or striking. It may with advan- 
tage be what would otherwise be considered somewhat 
over-exposed, so as to give a delicate print. 

It is to be observed that the focus of the lens used 
should be about the same as that which vdW be used 
for the portrait. A slight difference will be in no way 

The point which requires most attention is the 
position of the horizon. It is to be remembered that 
under no circumstances does the horizon appear as 
appreciably below the level of our eye, — it may appear 
much above it. The horizon line in the landscape must 
therefore be at least as high as that point of the figure 
which is on a level with the photographic eye or the 


lens. As we always endeavour to have the camera 
level or nearly level with the face of our model, it 
follows that the horizon line of the landscape must be at 
least as high up as that on the portrait, — that is to say, 
it will be about one-third of the height of the plate 
from the top. It may be even higher. The only excep- 
tion to this is when the figure is shown as on a piece 
of raised groimd or some other high place, so that it 
is reasonable to suppose that the observer is looking up 
at it. 

Our landscape should not have the sun shining, at 
least in the foreground, otherwise the absence of a 
shadow from the figure will be noticeable. 

We now come to the figure. Unless a studio can be 
had, it is best to take the negative of this out-of-doors. 
The lighting in an ordinary room is far too strong, — 
that is to say, there is too much shadow to be suitable 
with the landscape. A broad enough lighting can 
generally be got in a studio. If the figure be taken 
out-of-doors it is necessary to observe the precautions 
already enumerated "svith regard to out-of-door portraits, 
and particularly to observe that the lighting be not such 
as will appear inappropriate to the landscape. Another 
precaution — the background must be pure white. A 
sheet will do well. 

A print is taken from the figure negative. If the 
background be represented on the negative by sufficient 
density to show quite white in the print, this negative 
requires no further manipulation. If it print with a 
tint only more or less nearly approaching to white, then 
it must be blocked out as has already been described for 


The print is now taken, and, without its being toned 
or fixed, the figure is very carefully cut out of it with 
a pair of scissors. This cut-out figure is now placed 
against the landscape negative with the albumenised 
side against the film, so as to block out that portion 
where the figure is to be in the finished print. The 
cut-out figure may be fixed with a little gum, or may 
be simply put in position by hand each time a print is 
taken. The print which we now get from the laud- 
scape negative will have the appearance of those pic- 
tures in children's picture-books, where on one page 
is represented a scene Avhich would be lively but that 
all the figures are represented by white patches, whilst 
on another page there are the figures ready to be cut 
out and pasted over the patches. Indeed this child- 
ish amusement most closely represents combination 

The figure negative is now taken and the landscape 
print is adjusted to it, so that the figure on the negative 
precisely corresponds with the blank space of the print. 
The process after this is quite simple. The printing 
should be so conducted that the figure stands boldly out 
against the landscape. 

A sky may afterwards be printed into the picture. 
We have now made a composition from three negatives. 
There are photographers who have made compositions 
from many more than this number. 

Whilst on the subject of composition printing we 
must not fail to mention a piece of apparatus Avhich will 
be found very useful in many cases. This is Hemery's 
patent automatic self -registering printing frame. We 
illustrate it here, and shall briefly describe its use. 



It will be seen that, unlike other frames, this one 
has the back hinged to the frame, so that it cannot be 

entirely removed. On the back there are two little 
punches, which Avork into corresponding holes in front 
of the frame. Now as to the working of the apparatus. 
To take an example : — It is desired to print a foreground 
from one negative together with a distance from another. 
Two similar frames are used. The negatives are tempor- 
arily fixed to the plate -glass of the frames by bits of 
gummed paper along the edges. A piece of sensitised 
paper is now placed over the negative from which the 
foreground is to be printed, the paper being allowed to 
project so far down that it will be perforated by the two 
punches. The second frame has two precisely similar 
punches, so that if the portion above the foreground 
of the print just mentioned be cut away and the remain- 
der be applied over the punches of the second frame, 
a mask will be made, and if prints be taken from 
the second negative, the punches being caused to per- 



forate each i:)iece of jjaper, no further adjustment Avill 
be necessary in printing the foreground than to place 
these prints on to the first frame so that the punches of 
it pass through the holes made by the punches of the 
second frame. 

To those "vvho ^nsh to go deeply into the matter of 
composition printing we recommend a jjerusal of The 
Art and Practice of Silver Printing, by H. P. Eobinson 
and Captain Abney. 

Another little piece of apparatus we must not omit 
to mention whilst we are still on the subject of printing. 
This is a marker used for registering the number of 
prints taken from the frame. The ordinary way of 
keeping count of prints is to glue a piece of paper to the 
edge of the frame and mark each print with a stroke 
from a pencil or pen, the sixth (or twelfth) stroke being 
made to pass through the others, so as to mark a com- 
pleted half-dozen or dozen, thus — 

AMien this practice is carried on for long the frames 


get covered ^nth paper till they are almost spoiled. By- 
using the little appliances which we here illustrate the 
frames are left undamaged. 

A pair of these go to each frame. One is screwed 
on to each side. The little tubes which are to be seen 
on these bars can be slipped up and down, catching in 
each notch. The left-hand marker is moved on one notch 
for each single print finished, the right-hand one for 
each dozen. 



Retouching is an art which is abused by many, and 
Avhich undoubtedly is over-practised at the present day. 
The elaborate modelling which is frequently performed 
by photographers not only spoils a picture as a photo- 
graph but generally produces a result far from artistic. 
Still, to say that no retouching whatever should l^e per- 
mitted is erring in the other direction. Who, for example, 
can honestly say that he considers it an objectionable 
practice to remove those blemishes which are peculiar to 
the photographic process itself? Who even would say 
that it is Avrong to touch out from the negative such 
spots on a face as no painter would think of putting 
on his canvas 1 Even farther than this Ave would go, 
and would ask why those lines and indications which 
mark age, and which are generally rendered somewhat 
more strongly in an untouched photograph than they 
appear to the eye, should not be softened by the re- 
toucher's pencil, so long as he does not go too far? 
Indeed, we think that a certain amount of retouching is 
a necessity for the production of tolerable portraits, and 
we shall therefore give instructions for performing such 
of it as the amateur is likely to gain skill enough for. 


The term " retouching " is generally applied only to 
such work as is done with a pencil on the film side of 
a negative ; hut we use it in a wider sense, and intend to 
include vmder it all cases where hand work is applied, 
either to the negative or to the print. 

We take first of all, as the simplest, 

Worling on the Bach of the Negative. 

The back of a negative may be worked upon when it 
is desired to modify the shade of large portions of the 
print, and especially where it is ^vished to lighten them. 
Thus, if a negative is just barely dense enough, but is not 
so much wanting as to make us incline to intensify it, if 
a little be added to the high lights by colouring on the 
back of the negative brilliancj' enough may be got. 

Some prefer to apply the colour direct to the glass, 
but we think it best to Avork on a piece of tissue paper, 
which is fixed by the edges to the back of the negative 
and covers the whole of it. On this tissue paper we may 
work lightly with pencil, or more strongly with charcoal 
or crayon. Effects may thus very often be much im- 
proved. By a gradual shading off towards the part of 
the negative which represents the distance an appear- 
ance of atmosphere may often be given, and so forth. 
In the case of a certain class of negative a sky may be 
artificially produced. "When the sky in a negative is 
quite clear, — that is to say, without accidental spots, etc., 
— and when it is of such a density that it gives a light 
tint in the print, it is only necessary to work with the 
})encil or crayon over that portion of the tissue paper 
which covers the sky, when clouds are produced. Of 


course, some taste and a little practice are necessary 
before good results can be got ; and as, the working being 
on the side of the glass which is at some distance 
from the film, perfect sharpness cannot result, no clouds 
with bold forms may be attempted, but merely such 
fleecy things as show no very clear outline at any time. 

Retouching with Pencil on the Film Side of the Negative. 

For this retouching proper far more skill is required 
than for that which we have described. The necessary 
articles are, a retouching desk, a few pencils, and a small 
quantity of some "retouching medium." 

The retouching desk is the only requisite which is at 
all elaborate. We illustrate it here. It will be seen 

that it consists essentially of a frameivork or desk at 
Avhich the retoucher sits, the negative being so placed 
that he can see through a portion of it whilst his head 
is shaded from the light. The negative rests with its 
lower edge against a slip of Avood, so that it can be raised 
or lowered, or canted to one side or to the other. There 


is a clear space about four inches square behind the 
negative, and behind this space, so that the retoucher 
looks on to it, there is a little shelf holding a piece of 
Avhite paper. The angle of the shelf may be varied so 
as to catch the light as well as possible. A mirror may 
be put in the place of the piece of white paper when 
very dense negatives are to be retouched. A piece of 
bluish glass is placed between the negative and the illu- 
minating piece of paper when it is desired to work by 
lamp-light. There are also adjustments for varying the 
angle of the frame itself to suit the operator, and to en- 
able him to change his position when he gets tired. 

The pencils are ordinary lead pencils of the best 
quality. Those marked H and HH will generally be 
found the best. 

The object of the " retouching medium " is to give a 
bite or tooth to the pencil so that it vnW be possible to 
mark readily on the film. Of the many mediums which 
are made we have known none which gives better results 
than does Cadett's Mattline. 

We will describe as accurately as we can the method 
in which the pencil is used, premising our remarks by 
saying that practice is in this branch of photography 
more all-important than in any other. 

The negative must be varnished first of all. "We "\W11 
presume that it represents a head and shoulders portrait. 
The retouching will naturally come on the face only. A 
drop of the mattline is dropped on to the centre of it, 
and is quickly spread over the portion which is to be 
retouched, either the finger or a small pad of Avash 
leather being used. The film is briskly rubbed in a 
circular manner till it appears to be quite dry again. 


There Avill now be a tooth, on which the pencil ^vill bite 

The first experiments may be made without a retouch- 
ing desk, the negative being placed against the pane of 
glass of a window, a piece of white tissue paper going 
between the negative and the glass. The position neces- 
sary for retouching in this manner will be found to be 
very fatiguing, and the desk "s\dll be found a necessity 
when even a moderate amount of retouching work is 

A print is taken from the negative before it is re- 
touched at all. It will probably at once be seen that 
certain points would bear improvement. Probably there 
will be observed many spots somewhat more transparent 
than the surrounding portions of the film. These prob- 
ably are due to defects in the skin of the sitter, which 
are too slight to be seen by the eye, but which, being of 
a yellowish colour, are very visible to the photographic 
film. The next thing we will notice is perhaps that 
the oblique line Avhich passes down from the inside 
corner of the eye to the cheek appears far more pro- 
nounced in the print than in the model. The cause is 
pretty much the same as it Avas in the last case. The 
effect given is that of an expression of care and anxiety. 
The exact same applies to the lines which generally fall 
obliquely from the lower corners of the nose, at times 
from the corners of the mouth. All these generally 
appear stronger in an untouched photograph than in 
nature, and, if they be left so, give a woebegone ex- 
pression to the face of the sitter. 

We shall first of all confine ourselves to the eradi- 
cation of the evils which we have mentioned. 


The spots are the first thing to turn our attention to. 
The pencil is made very sharp, and is gently worked over 
one of these, beginning at the centre, and working round 
and round to the edge. It will be found surprisingly 
easy to make the spot disappear entirely, or nearly so. 

The lines are not quite so easy. These must not be 
entirely worked out, but must be lightened and shortened. 
We begin at the lower end of each, and, working the 
pencil in short strokes in the direction of the lines, make 
these lower ends entirely blend into the rest of the face, 
whilst we Avork over the whole line, somewhat increas- 
ing the density. 

The next defect which may be noticed is a general 
roughness or want of evenness in the skin of the face. 
This will not take place if the model have a skin of per- 
fectly peachy smoothness, but any irregularities either in 
texture or colour of the skin will be very strongly marked 
in the negative, and must be softened or entirely done 
away with. This is a thing rather difficult to do, as it 
generally involves worldng over almost the whole face of 
the negative, and it is quite likely that when one portion 
has been made smooth it will be found that it does not 
agree in density with those surrounding it — that, in 
fact, we have made small individual patches smooth 
whilst we have left a roughness on a large scale. To 
avoid this we must frequently look at the negative 
from such a distance as to get a general impression of 
it, and assure ourselves that we are doing correctly. 
The manipulation of the pencil is much the same as 
when spots are being filled in. 

The next defect which we have to modify is that 
which makes itself most evident in the case of persons 



having at all angular featui'es, especially high cheek 
bones. The print shows all these defects exaggerated. 
If we look closely into the precise manner in which 
this defect is brought about, it viiW be found that it is 
on account of a too abrupt transition from high light to 
shadow, and that to correct it we have to modify this. 
To do so is not easy, and requires much more practice 
than what we have already described. The pencil has 
to be taken and lines have to be gently drawn around 
the high light where it first passes off into transparency. 
These are somewhat after the manner of the lines which 
are made in an engra^^ng, and will, for example, take a 
form such as we show here. 

This modelling may be carried to any desired extent, 
and when once the skill necessary to perform it is gained 
it is common for operators to go too far with it. 

It should be borne in mind that we are only justified 
in modelling to such an extent as is necessary to oblit- 
erate the exaggeration of defect which the camera pro- 
duces, giving possibly here and there the benefit of a 

Xow we come to the case of the lines which mark 
advancing age, and here a word of warning must be 
given. It is true that the camera generally renders 
these lines more strongly than they really are, but it 


must be borne iu mind that there are many faces of old 
men and women which owe their beauty almost entirely 
to those very lines which so many try to obliterate by 

It is onl}- when people are beginning to get old that 
any intensification of these lines is objectionable, and it 
is only in this case that we ought to soften them with 
the pencil. It is , by no means difficult to do so. The 
point is made very sharp and is worked over the lines. 

If retouching be unsatisfactory it may be removed 
by a drop or two of turpentine and a brisk rubbing with 
a cloth. 


This term is applied to all hand working which is 
done on an ordinary print. Probably the name arises 
from the fact that by far the greater quantity of such 
work consists in removing white spots. Water-colours 
are used, several being mixed to get a shade which 
exactly corresponds to the colour of the print. The 
three most useful colours are Indian ink, sepia, and 
crimson lake. In fact Avith these three any desired 
shade can be got. They are mixed on a palette A\-ith a 
little gum-water or albumen (white of egg) and water, 
and are applied by means of a sable or camel's-hair 



When i^aper is being cut from the sheets, Avhich are 
always of about the same size, — namely, 17 inches and 22 
inches, — it is quite worth while to give some attention to 
the best way to do this so as to waste as little as possible. 
It is desirable to have about xV inch margin for trimming 
in the case of every print, but beyond this the less there 
is the better. "We here give a set of sketches showing 
how paper may be cut with the best ad-s-antage for dif- 
ferent sizes. When the sizes are small there is no great 
difficulty in getting a very fair degree of economy. 
When they are large it is far more difficult. Indeed, 
for some large sizes the waste is excessive, unless smaller 
sizes he ivorJced at the same time, in which case, by getting 
several different sized prints from each sheet, we may 
have fair economy. 

We take first of all the smallest size which is likely to 
be required — namely, carte. The smallest divisions in 
Fig. 1 give sufficient for trimming on all sides, and it 
will be found that there are forty-two of them. 


Next we take cabinets, as this is the size next in 
popularity to the carte. 

Fig. 2 shows how fifteen can be cut from a sheet. A 
strip 4 inches wide is first cut along one end of the sheet. 
This is divided into three pieces. The remainder of the 
sheet can then be cut up into twelve more. 

7| X 4i is a popular size for landscapes. The dark 
lines in Fig. 1 mark out nine pieces which are a little 
larger than this. A strip cutting into six cartes will 

Whole-plate, or 8h inches x 6| inches, is as near as 
possible double-cabinet size. The thick lines in Fig. 2 
mark out six whole-plate prints, leaving a strip cutting 
into three cabinets. 

A sheet cut into four, as in Fig. 3, gives 10x8 prints, 
with some waste, but not very much. 

One of these 10 x 8 squares will of course cut into 
four 5x4 squares, as shown in one of the top squares 
of the figure ; by cutting such a square in hvo as in a 
lower corner two 7| x 5 prints are got, there being in 
this case, however, a considerable margin of Avaste. 

The most troublesome size of all is the 12 x 10. In 
fact, if no size but this be required from a sheet the 
waste is excessive. In this case the manner of cutting 
shown in Fig. 4 is the only one to resort to. 

The size 12 x 10 is, however, too nearly square for by 
far the majority of subjects, and a print of that size will, 
as a rule, be improved by cutting away from 1 to 2 inches 
of the width. The same refers to 10 x 8 prints. Fig. 5 
shows one good way of cutting up a sheet when both 
12 X 10 and 10 x 8 prints arc required. It will be seen 
that there is one full size 12 x 10 print got. Another 


FIG 3. 





FIG 5. 



12 X 11 








is 1 2 inches long but only 7 inches broad. The size will 
be found to give a very good picture from many 12x10 
negatives. It may be cut down to 10 x 7 and make a 
somewhat narrow print from a 10 x 8 negative. There 
is another which without any further cutting is 10x7, 
whilst there is one 10 inches square which will serve for 
a full-sized 10 x 8 print. 

\\Tiere 12 x 10 negatives are being printed from, but 
no 10 X 8 ones, the method of division shown in Fig. G 
will be found very useful. 

There is one full -sized 12x10 print given; two 
which are of the preferable size, 12 x 8| ; and there is 
left a piece of paper Avhich may be used for a 7^ x 5 and 
a carte, or for a 7^ x 4i and a carte, or for a cabinet and 
two cartes. 


It ^Yil\ be readily seen that these sizes are only 
approximate, and that there must be after printing a 
trimming performed so as to get the precise size. 

In the case of cartes, cabinets, and the other popular 
portrait sizes it is necessary to adhere exactly to the 
usual dimensions ; but in the case of other sizes, which 
are generally used for landscapes, the prints being either 
pasted into a book or mounted on large mounts with a 
very considerable margin, it is by no means essential 
to adhere precisely to any particular sizes, and indeed 
there is great advantage in not doing so. As a rule the 
photographer feels unwilling to curtail the size of his 
photograph by trimming a considerable portion off it, but 
in not doing so he often acts unwisely. Very frequently 
a photograph may be vastly improved by cutting an inch 


or two off either the length or the breadth of it. This 
especially applies to the prints from negatives of the 
sizes which somewhat approach a sc^uare, as, for example, 
the 12x10 and 10x8. In the case of these it is seldom 
that an improvement cannot be made by cutting an inch 
or two, or at times even more, from the breadth, the 
foreground being as a rule the part which is best re- 

The implements used in trimming prints are the 
following : — 

Cutting shapes. 


Cutting knives. 

A trimming table. 

A small drawing-board, and a 


The cutting shapes are pieces of thick plate-glass with 
edges ground accurately to the sizes which the prints are 
desired to be. The edges are sometimes bevelled away. 
For the reason given above it is desirable to have glass 
shapes only for the popular portrait sizes, marking out 
as appears best in the case of each print those which are 
from large landscape negatives. 

In cutting with shapes either a pair of scissors or a 
trimming knife is used. Probably the amateur wiU find 
the scissors the most convenient. The length of the 
blades must be such that the print is cut with a single 
snip along the longer edge of the largest shape used. 
The print is taken up in the left hand and is adjusted 
under the cutting shape, and is thus snipped round with 
the scissors. 

In cutting with the trimming knife the trimming 


table is used. This has a revolving top. The print is 
laid on it, the glass shape being placed above, the left 
hand bearing on it, so that the print is nipped between 
the table top and the shape. The knife is now run 
along first one edge then another, the table being turned 
a quarter revolution after each is cut. 

In trimming landscape pictures by whatever method 
it is necessary to observe one or two points. A vertical 
line, such as the corner of a house, must always be parallel 
to the ends or sides of the print. If the sea is introduced, 
no land being seen beyond it, the horizon line must be 
parallel to the top or bottom of the print. 

When prints of the larger sizes are to be trimmed it 
is best to mark each one out with a pencil, using the 
small drawing-board and T-square. In doing this it is 
necessary to observe what we have just said with regard 
to vertical lines and the horizon, and also what we said 
a little time ago about occasional trimming away of a 
portion of the photograph. 

After the prints are marked they may be trimmed 
by the scissors, but it is best to use the trimming table 
and a ruler of plate -glass longer than the longer edge 
of the largest print to be trimmed, and two or three 
inches wide. This is used to clip the print down to the 
table and as a guide for the knife. 

Prints may be trimmed either before or after they 
are toned. It is easier to do them before, as they lie 
flat, and, moreover, the clippings are valuable as they 
contain siher. If they are trimmed after toning, fixing, 
etc., it is necessary to flatten them out first with a paper 
cutter, as we described already when writing on the 
preparing of paper sensitised as required. 



Prints may be mounted either on cards or in scrap- 

When the photographs are portraits it is usual to 
have mounts which show only a narrow margin. In the 
case of smaller sizes the mounted prints are put into 
the well-known albums ; in the larger ones the mounts 
themselves are commonly made with gilt sides, so that 
when placed, for example, on a mantleshelf leaning 
against the wall, the mounted print has a finished 

Landscapes, and at times large portraits, are mounted 
on cardboard mounts with Avide margins, the length and 
breadth of the mount being commonly nearly double 
the length and breadth of the print. Gilt bevel-edged 
mounts have been recently introduced, and when these 
are used the photographs are mounted close up to the 
edges. The effect is ver}^ good. 

Scrap-books are very suitable for receiving photo- 
graphic prints of all kinds, but especially landscape 
prints. Indeed, it is a very desirable thing for amateurs 
to make a rule of fixing a print from evenj negative 
taken into such a book. This does not prevent them 
from mounting in a more ornamental way such prints 
as they consider their best. Amateurs are to be warned 
against making the negative the end instead of the 
means. It may seem strange that it should be so ; but 
after some time the photographer gets to look with so 
great satisfaction at the negative that he is perfectly 
pleased if it is perfect, and is liable to place it on one 
side without even taking a print from it ! It is for this 


reason that we urge that at least one print be taken 
from every negative and be pasted into the special book 
which is made for the purpose, and to which the name 
of "The Amateur's Scrap-Book or Eegister of Work" 
has been given. 

On Avhatever the print is to be mounted the process 
of mounting is the same. Various solutions are used for 
the purpose. Starch and glue are the most common, but 
both these have the drawback that they cockle or bend 
the mount. This is objectionable in any case, but not 
so much so when mounts are used as when the prints 
are pasted into a scrap-book. In the former case the 
cockling may be removed by the after process of burnish- 
ing or rolling, which will be described, but in the latter 
it cannot, "Marion and Co.'s moimting solution for 
photographs" does not cockle the mount, and is 
therefore preferable to either of the other mountants 

The method of using it is as follows : — The prints are 
first of all flattened, as has been already described. 
The solution is warmed till it is quite liquid. The 
prints are taken one by one and solution is applied 
with a hard brush. Each one is then brought into 
contact with the moimt, a clean cloth being used to 
press it down. It is best not to apply the print the 
moment that the solution has been brushed on, but to let 
it remain for a moment or two till it becomes somewhat 

If a scrap-book made of thick paper instead of card- 
board be used, photographs may be inserted without 
any mountant at all. A slit is made for each corner of 
the print, as we show, and the corners are inserted. It 


will be seen that by this method prints can only be fixed 
on one side of each leaf. 


After prints have been mounted it is necessary to 
perform some process to give a finish or gloss to them. 
There are two methods of doing this, which are in 
common use. One is burnishing, and is usually applied 
to small prints on mounts with narrow margins ; the 
other is rolling, and is generally applied to large 

In the first of these the print is drawn across a hot 
steel biu'nisher by means of a roller, which bears on the 
back. In the other it is simply pressed between steel 
rollers very much as clothes are mangled. The first 
process gives the finest gloss, but unless the burnisher 
is very carefully used the prints are liable to be torn 
to pieces. 

In Marion and Co.'s self-adjusting rolling-press and 
burnisher, whicli we here illustrate, a compromise is made 


between the t-\vo processes. It will be seen that the 
two rollers are geared into each other. The one is 
caused to travel a little more quickly than the other, 
and the result is that, whereas a finer polish is produced 

than even with the burnisher, there is no danger of 
tearing the print. 

Before either burnishing prints or rolling them Avith 
the special press a solution of one grain of Castille soap 
in one ounce of methylated spirit should be rubbed over 
the surface, which is then ready for burnishing when- 
ever it is dry. 


This is a method of mounting prints which gives 
a particularly pleasing eflfect. A piece of glass free 
from all air-bubbles or other blemishes is selected. A 
porcelain dish Avhich will hold the plate is taken. A 
solution of gelatine is made up in the folloAving manner : 
Over 300 grains of hard gelatine is poured a half pint 
of cold water. "When the gdatine becomes soft the cold 
water is poured off and hot is added till the total 
amount is ten ounces. If the heat is not sufficient to 


entirely melt the gelatine, the vessel containing it is 
placed in a basin of hot water or near the fire. The 
temperature of the solution should be about 120° Fahr. 
The dish and glass plate are warmed by pouring hot 
water into the former. This water is poured off, and the 
gelatine solution is poured over the plate. There must be 
enough solution to cover it to a depth of at least a quarter 
of an inch. The quantity which we mention is merely 
taken so as to give the proportion of gelatine to water. 
The print which is to be mounted on the glass is soaked 
in warm water till it is quite soft, when it is placed face 
do^vnwards into the gelatine solution. It is brought 
into contact with the plate. The plate, with print on 
it, is now removed from the solution, and a squeegee is 
applied to the back of the print to press out the super- 
fluous solution. A squeegee is a strip of pliable india- 
rubber mounted on a piece of wood. For small prints 
it may be dispensed with, the gelatine solution being 
pressed out Avith the ball of the thumb. 

Prints mounted on glass show a beautiful depth and 
transparency of shadow. They may be framed in oak 
frames, the glass taking the place of the glass of the 
frame. A second glass may on no accoimt be placed in 
front of the one supporting the print. 


If the plate of glass used in the process just described 
be coated with plain collodion and be allowed to dry 
before it is placed in the gelatine solution, the print may 
be stripped from the glass after it is dry, and will have 
a very highly -polished surface. Such prints must be 


mounted before they leave the glass, — that is to say, the 
mount must be applied to the back of the print, and then 
fixed with mounting solution before it is stripped from 
the glass, which may not l)e done till the mounting solu- 
tion is completely dry. 

A special plain collodion is made for enamelling 




This is perhaps the simplest of all printing processes, 
there being no toning or fixing to perform. The print 
Avhich is got is of a bright blue colour. The chief use 
of the process is for copying plans and drawings such as 
are used by engineers and architects, the lines coming 
out white on a background of blue. Yery pleasing effects 
can, however, be got from negatives of certain subjects, 
notably of sea-pieces. 

The paper is manufactui'ed and sold by Marion and 
Co., and is ready sensitised. It is placed in a frame like 
albumenised j^aper, and the process of jDrinting is watched 
in precisely the same way. Several changes of colour 
take place. The print becomes first yellow, then greenish, 
afterwards greenish-blue, deep bluish-gray, and lastly, an 
olive tinge with a metallic tint is acquired. The deepest 
shadows should reach this colour. The time taken is 
about four or five times as long as for albumenised paper. 
When the printing has gone far enough the piece of 
paper is placed in a dish and clean water is poured on to 


it. The water becomes yellowish, and the print almost 
instantly becomes of a bright blue colour. The washing 
is continued as long as the water comes ofif of a yellow 
colour, which is only a few minutes. It should not be 
allowed to go farther, otherwise the depth of the blue 
may be somewhat reduced. The print is next pressed 
between sheets of blotting-paper to remove surface 
moisture, and is hung up to dry when it is finished. 

When drawings are to be copied, they are best traced 
first on transparent tracing-cloth or paper. It is, how- 
ever, possible to take prints even from drawings on thick 

The following is the course pursued in a large drawing 
office attached to a mechanical engineering work : The 
drawings are pencilled in as usual on drawing-paper, but, 
instead of inking them in, a tracing on very transparent 
tracing- cloth is made. The thing most necessary to 
observe is that the ink be quite opaque. The best way 
to secure very white lines in the prints is to mix a little 
vermilion colour ^Wth the Indian ink used for the tracing. 
This will not notably alter the appearance of the tracing, 
whilst it will stop all chemical rays. The sectioning, 
instead of being done in colour, is done in lines. The 
tracing is now kept in the office as a finished drawing, 
the pencil drawing being destroyed. "When copies are 
wanted for the workshop or to send out they are taken 
on the ferro-prussiate paper. As it is difficult to turn 
over the very large frames which are generally used for 
draAvings, it is best to leave a narrow margin of ferro- 
prussiate paper beyond the tracing -cloth, so that the 
change of colour may be watched. Another plan is to 
put a very small drawing in an ordinary quarter or half- 



plate printing frame beside the large one, and look at 
the progress of it from time to time. 

Corrections or additions may be made on the blue 
paper by writing or drawing with a solution of a few 
grains of caustic potash to each ounce of water. The cor- 
rection is made, and as soon afterwards as possible the 
part is sjjonged Avith clean water to remove superfluous 
potash, which would otherwise cause the line to spread. 

If it be desired to have blue lines on a white ground, 
a double process has to be gone through. A special paper 
is made for taking prints Avith white lines on a blue 
ground, which, being transparent, may be printed from. 
In this case the exposure must be continued for several 
times as long as if white lines on a blue ground only are 
required. This print, taken on the transparent paper, is 
now used precisely as the tracing was, and there results 
a print with blue lines on a white ground. 

It is almost needless to remark that the paper must 
be kept from any bright light except during exposure, 
just as sensitive albumenised paper is. 


It may be said that, other things being equal, the larger 
a photograph is the finer it is, at any rate within limits. 
The apparatus for taking very large pictures is, however, 
exceedingly cumbersome, and the plates necessary are 
very expensive. ]\Ioreover, certain optical difficulties are 
met with. It is exceedingly difficult, indeed impossible, 
to make a large lens equal to a small one even in its 
propei'ties of definition and flatness of field. But it is 
in a want of depth of focus that large lenses show them- 


selves most defective. When we get beyond such lengtlis 
as fourteen and twenty inches Ave find that, to get the 
foreground and distance both anytliing like in focus, we 
have to use excessively small stops, so that the exposures 
are prolonged and certain effects become impossible to 
attain. For example, instantaneous views are most diffi- 
cult to do with a lens of beyond about 20 -inch focal 

For all this the photographer need not despair of 
getting prints as large as he likes of any subject which 
may be taken on even the smallest jilate. He may have 
recoui'se to the process of enlarging. Recently this process 
has been made much more easy by the introduction of 
gelatine bromide paper, which is simply paper coated 
Avith a gelatine emulsion specially prepared for the pur- 

First, as to the negatives to be used for enlarging. 
These require, of course, to be very sharj). For this 
reason focussing must be performed with great accuracy, 
a focussing magnifier being used in every case. A nega- 
tive which will give a perfect silver print will alwaj^s 
give a good enlargement. The thing to be specially 
avoided is hardness. AVe must therefore neither under- 
expose nor over-develop. A negative Avhich Avill give 
a silver priiit somewhat too soft will generally give an 
excellent enlargement, especially if the shadows be 
very clear. 

Various designs of apparatus have been made for en- 
larging, the most convenient of which is "Marion and 
Co.'s Enlarging Apparatus," Avhich we illustrate here. 
We believe that we shall most readily make the object 
of this clear by saying that it is simply an improved 



magic lantern, and that indeed it may be used as such. 
^Vhen it is used for enlarging, the negative takes the 
place of the magic lantern slide, and the enlarged image 
is thrown on to the sensitive film. No lens is shown 

in the engraving, but any photographic lens of suitable 
focus will do well. A portrait lens, or one of the rapid 
type of about six or seven inches equivalent focus, will be 
found the best. 

We illustrate also a cheaper form of apparatus designed 


specially for amateurs. It is not quite so convenient or 
perfect as the more elaborate appliance, but will be found 
to give excellent results in use. 

An easel is made to go with the apparatus. This has 
an adjusting screw, so that its distance from the camera 
may be varied. The sensitive paper is fixed to this. 

We shall now describe the precise method of using 
the apparatus. It may be used in any room which can 
be darkened, or rather in which there is only non- 
actinic light. 

The lamp of the apparatus is lighted. Opposite the 
lantern, and so that the disc of light shines full upon it, 
is placed the easel at a distance of a few feet, care being 
taken to ensure its being at right angles to the axis of 
the lens. A piece of wdiite drawing-paper is fixed to it 
with drawing-pins. If the disc of light appears evenly 
illuminated we may proceed. If not, the lamp is moved 
farther from or nearer to the condenser (the large lens 
which will be found between the lamp and the groove 
for the negative) until an even illumination is got. The 
negative is now placed in its groove. We must deter- 
mine of what size the enlargement is to be. We adjust 
the distance between the negative and the lens till the 
image is fairly sharp on the drawing-paper which is 
pinned to the easel. We now measure the image to see 
if it is the right size. If it is too large we move the easel 
towards the apparatus; if it is too small we move it away. 
We focus roughly once more, and measure again. When 
we have got the size we want we make a final very 
accurate adjustment by means of the screw of the easel 
till we get the image quite sharp. We may say that it 
is seldom that 2;elatine nea:atives will stand enlaraiinj; to 


more than six or eight diameters, as beyond that the 
texture of the emulsion itself becomes very evident. As, 
however, such a degree of enlargement will give even 
from a quarter-plate negative a print thirty -four inches by 
twenty-six inches, it will be seen that it is ample. An en- 
largement of four or five diameters is generally sufficient. 

When the focussing is accurately pei'forrned the cap 
is placed on the lens, the drawing-paper is removed, and 
its place is taken by a piece of gelatino-bromide paper, 
when the exposure is made. As the exposure may vary 
according to the lens used, and the distance between 
the lens and the sensitive paper, from a few seconds to 
many minutes, it is best to make a trial exposure first, 
using only a small piece of paper, which is at once 

When the exposure is over the enlarged print may be 
developed. This is done in almost precisely the same 
way as a plate is developed, ferrous oxalate being 
used. The directions which are issued with the paper 
should be implicitly followed. If the enlargement be 
of moderate size, say not more than fifteen inches by 
twelve, it may be developed in a dish ; if it is larger it is 
usual to construct a dish out of the paper itself, which is 
laid on a board or piece of plate-glass, and the edges are 
carefully turned up. 

After development is complete the print is washed. 
Then it is treated with the precise same alum solu- 
tion which is recommended for negatives, is washed 
again, and is fixed with the negative -fixing solution. 
It is once more thoroughly washed, and when dried is 

The remarks which we made with regard to the use 


of opal glass for positives when treating on the alpha 
paper and plates (see p. 180) hold equally good in the 
case of enlargements. The Britannia argentic bromide 
opal plates are made specially for the production of 
enlargements, and very beautiful results can be got with 

It will be seen that for enlarging in this manner a 
separate operation with the enlarging apparatus has to 
be gone through for each negative which is required. 
This is very troublesome if many enlarged prints are 
wanted. Moreover, the colour of the gelatino-bromide 
print, which is of an engraving black, although it 
is liked b}^ many, is by some thought not so good as 
that of a print on albumenised paper. If an enlargement 
on this latter is required, it is necessary to take an 
enlarged negative, usually on glass ; and if many enlarge- 
ments of the same subject are required, it is best to do 
the same. 

There are two ways in which an enlarged negative 
may be got. Before describing them we must mention 
that a transparency is a picture on glass like a negative, 
but with the shades correct instead of reversed. Such 
may be got by simply placing a sensitive plate in contact 
with a negative, and allo'^'ing the light from a gas- 
burner or lamp at a distance of a couple of feet or so to 
shine through the negative for a few seconds. Develop- 
ment is performed as usual. 

If a glass plate take the place of the scnsiti\-e paper 
mentioned already, an enlarged transparency will result. 
To get an enlarged negative wc may either take a trans- 
parency by contact from the small negative, and place 
this transparency in the enlarging apparatus, and thence 


get an enlarged negative, or we may place the small 
negative in the apparatus, and get from it an enlarged 
transparency, from which an enlarged negative may be 
got by contact. 

The former plan has the advantage of economy, — one 
large and one small plate being used, whereas in the 
latter two large plates are used. There are, hoAvever, 
advantages in the latter case which more than counter- 
balance the slight additional expense. In the first place 
it is likely that the final negative will be sharper, but, 
besides this, there is offered an excellent opportunity for 
retouching which would not otherwise be afforded. If 
our chapter on retouching be considered, it will be seen 
that the only defects which can be eradicated are those 
which appear too transparent in the negative and too 
dark in the print. Such as appear too dense in the 
negative and too light in the print can be corrected 
only by manipulating each separate print. When, how- 
ever, we have an enlarged transparency as Avell as an 
enlarged print we can eradicate defects of both natures. 
It might be supposed that the small transparency 
would serve as well for retouching on as the large 
one ; but it must be borne in mind that the marks of 
the pencil on the small transparency, when magnified in 
the enlarged negative, would appear excessively coarse. 

Taking all this into consideration, we describe the 
process for getting an enlarged negative by means of an 
enlarged transparency. 

The plates used are the same as those employed for 
landscape work. The best thing to focus on is a piece 
of glass whitened by rubbing a piece of putty on it. 
This is fixed to the easel by drawing-pins, the edges of 


the pin-heads being made to clip the glass plate. The 
plate is of the same size as the enlarged transparency 
and negative are to be, and its thickness ■nail allow for 
the thickness of the former of these after focussing. The 
small negative is placed in the lantern, and focussing is 
performed exactly as for the paper. 

The whitened glass is removed, and a sensitive plate 
takes its place. The sensitiveness of this will be found 
to be much greater than that of the paper, probably five 
or six times as great. On the other hand, the time 
allowed must be such as to give (allowing for difference 
of sensitiveness) a far more complete exposure. "\Miere 
a positive is desired the highest lights must remain pure 
white. When a transparency is wanted it is necessary 
to get printing density in all the details of the highest 
lights. To make sure of this we must give such an 
exposure that no part will remain quite white. The 
exposure will therefore, allowing for the difference of 
sensitiveness, most likely be about one-half that required 
for a positive on paper. The development is performed 
exactly as for a landscape negative. If ferrous oxalate 
developer be used the transparency itself will be very 
pleasing in appearance, and may be kept to hang iip 
against a window, so as to be looked through. 

After it is dry, and any retouching which is required 
is done, a negative is taken from it by contact. It is 
best to jjlace the transparency and the negative both in 
a printing frame so as to ensure there being no motion 
between the two. The exposure required will average 
about ten or fifteen seconds at a distance of four feet from 
an ordinary 15-candle gas-burner or good paraffin lamp. 
The development is conducted precisely as for a land- 


scape negative, and the negative should not be different 
in appearance from one taken direct, except on very 
close examination. It is treated precisely as an ordinary 


There is no way of exhil^iting photographs which shows 
them to half so great advantage as the magic lantern, and 
as the photographer who possesses Marion's enlarging ap- 
paratus has in it a most excellent " optical lantern " — as 
the magic lantern is now generally denominated — it is a 
pity he should not know how he may produce slides to 
use with it. It is often the case that a photographer, 
seeing for the first time the projection on the screen 
from a slide taken from one of his negatives, is aston- 
ished at the amount which there is in it. Details which 
were entirely overlooked in an ordinary print are now 
clearly visible, and the whole appears to stand out in 
bold relief. 

The usual size of magic lantern slides is about three 
and a quarter inches square. Quarter-plates are therefore 
very suitable for their production. If the negative be on 
the same sized plate the transparency which forms the 
slide may be taken by contact. If the negative be of any 
size from quarter to half-plate it is best to use the enlarging 
apparatus, the focussing screen being brought very near 
the lens so as to get the image very small. 

If the negative be very large it is necessary to have 
recourse to another plan. A room must be used in 
Avhicli it is possil)le to fix the negative in an aperture 
made for it in a shutter, and from which all actinic light 
except such as comes through the negative is excluded. 


The camera is now placed opposite the negative, and the 
distance is so adjusted that the size of the image on the 
ground ghiss is three and a quarter inclies long. There 
is fixed outside the window, at an angle of 45° with a 
horizontal line, either a mirror or a board of wood with 
a piece of white paper on it, so as to reflect light from 
the sky on to the negative. 

In developing the slides the utmost care is necessary 
to have the high lights absolutehj dear. At the same time 
any approach to hardness must be avoided. Indeed, the 
density must be considerably less than what would be 
required to make a transparency which would look well 
when held up against the sky. To ensure getting these 
qualities an ample exposure must be given and a ferrous 
oxalate developer must be used, which is both weak and 
considerably restrained, the development being stopped 
before the highest lights discolour in the least. 

AVe may add one ounce of the solution of protosulphate 
of iron to five of the oxalate of potash, and, having diluted 
this with an equal quantity of water, may add to the 
whole four to six grains of bromide of ammonium or 
potassium. The development with this will be very 
slow, taking possibly ten minutes or quarter of an hour; 
but if the exposure have been correct, perfectly clear high 
lights will result. 

Whilst we are writing the above we have just heard 
of Mr. Cowan's gelatino - chloride plates, and we are 
inclined to believe they give the best resiilts for all 
kinds of transparencies, and at the same time are very 
quick in printing, and very easy to develop. We do 
not think it necessary to give directions here, for Marion 
and Co., who have the sole sale of these plates, send 


out printed instructions in each box. They likewise 
prepare the solutions ready for use. Therefore all diffi- 
culties are smoothed away for the photographer. 

Since the last paragraph was written for our first 
edition Mr. Cowan's plates have come into very general 
use amongst photographers, and it is now generally ad- 
mitted that, except perhaps where enormous c^uantities 
of similar slides or transparencies are required, they give 
better results than can be got by any other process. 

The special cjuality which gelatino- chloride plates 
possess, and which distinguish them from all others, is 
their power of giving an extraordinary range of tone in 
transparencies. By mere variations of exposure and 
development any colour, from a rich engraving black to 
a crimson red, can be obtained. 



We have now finished our work of instruction. Our 
endeavour throughout has been to give directions of a 
nature so practical and so far devoid of technicalities 
that any one quite unacquainted with photography might 
take up our book and, beginning at the beginning of it, 
might, without any further assistance, acquire a know- 
ledge of the beautiful and fascinating art which forms 
the subject of it. If we have succeeded in this we are 
satisfied, and have but a word or two further to say to 
our reader. 

In every photographic operation care and deliberation 
are above all things necessary. The beginner should 
confine himself to one branch at a time, and, until he 
has learned by experience what deviations can be made 
from them with safety, should adhere absolutely to the 
instructions given. As he advances he is sure — and it 
ought to be so — to deviate in small matters from any 
written instructions which can be given him ; but he 
will always find that careful and cleanly working is a 
necessity if good results are required. 

Above all, let him endeavour to avoid making the 
mere technicahties of his photographic work an object. 


instead of letting them lie but a means to an end. Let 
him try at all times to produce pictures which will be 
a credit not only to himself but to the art by Avhich 
they are produced, bearing in mind that if photography 
is not ranked by all as one of the fine arts, it is rather 
because it is practised by so many who have not any 
artistic feeling, or will not take the trouble to acquire 
any artistic knowledge, than because it is incapable of 
producing ti^ue works of art. 


Printed by R. & R. Ci.ARK, Edinburgh. 







That has ever been made. 

Price 30s. 

Size of Plate, 4^ x S^. 
Comprising — 
1 Mahogany Camera, 1 Good 
working Lens, a Tripod Stand, 
Focussing Cloth, Dry Plates, 
Dishes, Solutions, etc. etc., and 

Complete and Clear Instructions 
how to work. 

NONPAREIL PRINTING SET, with Stock of Material, 
Dishes, Mounts, etc. . 12s. 6d. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 


242 Advertisements. 


A, B, C SET 

FOR PLATES 41x3^. 

Comjmsing — Camera Avith Double Dark Slide, Lens, Stand, 
Dry Plates, Chemicals, Lamp, Trays, etc. 

Packed in Cardboard Box, complete. 

Price £2 : 5s. 

The above Set has been specially got up for Schools. It 
will be found a convenient size, and the Camera and Stand very 
jjortable. The Lens is suitable for views, near or distant, and 
groups can also be got vn.t\i it ; but for single portraits it would 
be desirable to employ the Special Portrait Lens (see list of 
extras below). Concise instructions are sent out with each Set, 
and we assert that any youth using ordinary care will be enabled 
at once to get a fair negative. The Printing Set is put up apart, 
and comprises all the apparatus needful, as also a little stock of 

Printing Set for above . . . . £1 : 3s. 

If packed for the Country, 2 s. extra is charged. 

Prices of Extras and Materials. 

Portrait Lens (double combination), 1.5s. ; Leather Case to 
take Camera, Slide, Lens, and Focussing-Cloth, 10s. 6d. ; extra 
for Double Slide, 6s. 6d. ; Britannia Dry Plates, per dozen, extra 
rapid, 2s. 4d. ; ordinary, Is. 6d. ; Solutions, No. 1 and No. 2, 
Is. 6d. ; Alum, per bottle, 3d. ; Hyposulphite of Soda, in jar, 4d. ; 
Ruby Lamp, Is. lOd. ; Trays, each. Is. 9d. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 






I Comprising — 

CAMERA, with Double Dark 
Slide, Lens, Stand, Dry Plates, 
Chemicals, Lamp, Trays. 

Packed in Cardboard Box, complete, 

Price £2 :10s. 

"A Marvel of Cheapness." 

The above Set is complete with 
all the Apparatus and Material re- 
quisite for the production of a realh' 
good class Negative. Our aim has 
been to produce a useful "Working- 
Set at the minimum of cost The 
Directions issued ■with each Set are 
written expressly for the Amateur Avho knows nothing Avhat- 
ever of Photograph^', and will, if carefully followed, enable such 
to produce a fairly good negative even at the first trial. "We 
have every confidence in recommending this to Beginners. 

Printing Set for above 

. £l:5s. 

If packed for the Country, 2s. extra is charged. 

Prices of Extras and Materials. — Portrait Lens (double com- 
bination), 15s. ; Leather Case to take Camera, Slides, Lenses, and 
Focussing-Cloth, 10s. Gd. ; Extra Double Slide, 7s. 6d. ; Britannia Dry 
Plates, per dozen, 2s. 3d. ; Solutions, Nos. 1 and 2, Is. 6d. ; Alum, 
per bottle, 3d. ; Hji^osulpbite of Soda, in jar, 4d. ; Ruby Lamp, 
Is. lOd. ; Ruby Chimney, Is. ; Trays, each, Is. 9d. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




To make Negatives 6i x 4f (Cabinet Size), 





The above Set is complete for working tlie pop\;lar Cabinet size, suitable 
either for Portraits or Views. The Camera is well made, with leather bellows, and 
has two double dark slides ; thus four dry plates can be worked with it. Printed 
instructions are given with each Set sufficiently clear and precise for a 
Beginner. It must be noted, however, that the plates are fitted into the 
backs slightly different from the method given in the directions. The metal 
plate in the backs or slides is a fixture, consequently each of the gelatine dry 
plates is fitted in coated side upwards. The folding-board of the Oxford 
Camera is made rigid by turning the brass bars at its side round into the 
side of the Camera base. 

Packing Charge (if sent into the Country), 5s. 

Prices of Extras and Materials. 

Superior Lens for taking single Portraits .... 

Leather Case to take Camera, Slides, Lens, and Focussing-Cloth 
Extra Double Slide ...... 

Extra Eapid Britannia Plates (per dozen) 
Ordinary ,, ,, ■ 

Travelling Candle Lamp ...... 

Printing Set for the above, with supply of |^ 
necessary Apparatus and Stock of Material / 

£3 5 










MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Solio Square, London, W. 




For Plates 3^ x 4^ 

A light but strong Camera, Leather Bellows, Eack and Pinion, ami 
with 3 Double Backs, 1 of 

Marion's quick -acting Recti- 
linear Lenses, Focussing-Cloth, 
and "Waterproof Case to hohl 
the above. 



Measurements of Case — 
Length, 8 in. ; width, 6 in. ; 

depth, Sin. Complete. Price £7 : 15s. 

Also Tripod Stand in "Waterproof Case. 

This might well be called The LADIES' Amateur Photographic Set, 
so light and so easj' to work. 

Specially prepared for the use of Engineers, Builders, &c., who 
require records and copies of their works. The set is quite complete, 
comprising everything requisite for the making of negatives (a good 
strong Camera, an effective Lens), and it will take negatives up to 
12 X 10 in.. Full partimlars on ap2)lication. 

Price Complete, £22. 


(For 5x4 Plates, 25s. ; for 6^ x 4f, 30s.) 
In Strong Cardboard Boxes, comprise — 

Ready Sensitised Paper, Porcelain Dishes, Gold and Acetate of Soda 
for toning, Hypo for fi.xing, Blotting-Paper, Cutting Glasses, Mounting 
Boards, Mounting Solution, Printing Frames, etc. 

{For Directions in Photographic Printing see previous 
fart of this worJc.) 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

246 A dvertisements. 




Comprising — Leather Bellows, Body Camera, Screw Adjustments, 
Extending Back, Single Swing, with 3 Double Backs, Strong 
Tripod in Twill Case, Single View Lens, 1 dozen Britannia Dry- 
Plates, Bottles of Britannia Solution, Liquid Ammonia, Alum, and 
Hypo, Nest of 3 Ebonite Trays, Glass measures, Euby Candle 

Contained in Black Polished Fine Case, complete. 

Price £10. 

The unprecedented success which has attended the sale of our 
" Student " and " Oxford " Sets has induced us to comply with 
the repeatedly expressed desires of our friends, and to introduce 
the above set for Avhole plates (8| x 6i-), which is constructed as 
nearly as possible after the same manner. It will be patent to 
all that with each increase of size there must be a proportionate 
rise of cost ; but the above Set has almost all the advantages of 
superior finished instruments, and, with careful usage, is in all 
respects fitted for the production of good class work. 

PRINTING SET suitable for the " University " Set . . . £2. 

PRICE of MATERIALS, etc., that can be used with the 
" University " Set : — 

Portrait Lens for Cartes and Cabinets 

Britannia Plates (S^- x 6|), ordinary series (per cloz.) 

,, ,, „ extra rapid series „ 

Bottle of Britannia Solution (lialf-pint) 
Bottle of Ammonia Solution (half-pint) 
Leather Case for Camera, and 3 Backs 

Packing Charge [if sent into the Country), 55. 










MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

A dvertisements. 247 



(Size of Necjative, 6i x 4|). 

Comprising — Best-make Spanish Mahogany Camera, Bellows Body, 
Rack Adjustment, Double Saving, Horizontal and Vertical Sliding Front, 
New Reversing Arrangement of Back to take Dark Slide either upright 
or oblong, 3 Double Backs, Marion's No. 2 quick-acting Rectilinear 
Lens, Strong Sliding Tripod, Velvet Focussing-Cloth, Leather Case (for 
Camera, Lens, 3 Backs, and Cloth), Waterproof case for Tripod, | gross 
B.D.P. Half-plates, Bottles of Britannia Solution, Liquid Ammonia, 
Hypo, Alum, 1 Rocking Developing Tray, 2 Ebonite Trays, Zinc 
Washing Apparatus, Ruby Lamp, Glass Measures, Draining Rack. 

Packed in Blacit 
Polished Pine Case. 

Price £17. 

Everything in the above Set is of excellent quality both in material 
and workmanship. There is every convenience that may be required 
both for tourists and home practice. It will be noted that all essentials 
are included at a moderate cost consistent -with quality ; and the 
possessor need have no fear but that his instrument will favourably 
compare with that of any brother artist whom he may meet, both in 
appearance or adaptability, while in durability it is surpassed by none. 
{For Uliole-Plate Sets see next jKige.) 

Printing Set for above . . . £2 : 5s. 

Packing Charge {if sent into the Country), 5s. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

248 A dvcrtiscm cuts. 




(Size of Negative, SJ x 6j). 

Comprising — Best-make Spanish Mahogany Camera, Bellows Body, 
Rack Adjustment, Double Swing, Horizontal and Vertical Sliding 
Front, with new Reversing Arrangement to allow the Slides being 
used either upright or oblong, 3 Double Backs, Marion's No. 3 
Rectilinear Lens, Strong Sliding Tripod, Velvet Focussing-Cloth, 
Leather Case (to hold Camera, Backs, Lens, Cloth, etc.), Water- 
proof Case for Stand, |- gross B.D. P. Whole-Plates, Bottle Britannia 
Solution, Liquid Ammonia, Alum, Hypo, 1 Rocking Developing 
Tray, 3 Ebonite Trays, Zinc Washing Tank, Ruby Lantern, 2 
Glass Measures, Draining Rack. 

Contained in Blacl( Poiislied Pine Case, complete. 

Price £20. 

The above Set is complete in every respect, and well worthy 
the careful attention of intending purchasers. We can re- 
commend each article for durability, compactness, and finish. 
The advantage of a " Whole-Plate " Set consists in its being 
capable of use for smaller pictures 'when the larger and more 
effective size is not required. These Cameras are suited alike 
for Portraiture and Landscape work ; and, when the effectiveness 
of the size of picture is fully estimated, it is usually thought that 
a whole jilate is, notwithstanding its l)eing somewhat more bulky, 
the most desirable sized instrument. 

PRINTING SETS suitable for above, £3. 

Packing Charge (if sent into the Country), 6s. 6cl. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

Advertisements. 249 


Ten by Eight Photographic Set 

(Size of Negative, 10x8). 

'^omjmsing — Best -make Spanish Mahogany Camera, Bellows 
Body, Rack Adjustment, Double Swing, Horizontal and Vertical 
5liding Front, New Reversing iVrrangement at the back to allow 
;h6 Slides to be used either upright or oblong way, 3 Double 
Backs, Marion's No. 4 Rapid Rectilinear Lens, Strong Sliding 
Fripod, Velvet Focussing-Cloth, Leather Case (to contain Camera, 
;he 3 Double Backs, Lens, Cloth, etc.), "Waterproof Case for 
5tand, 3 dozen 10x8 Britannia Plates, Bottle Britannia Solu- 
,ion, Liquid Ammonia, Alum, Hypo, 1 Rocking Developing Tray, 
2 Compo Trays, Zinc Washing Tank, Ruby Lantern, 2 Glass 
Measures, Draining Rack. 

All in a Black Polished Pine Case, loith divisions, and lined green baise. 

Price £28. 

The above Set is of the best material, and complete in every respect 
'or making negatives. The Camera is suitable either for Field or 
Studio work, and it is fitted with a new arrangement for working the 
Backs, either horizontally or vertically, without disturbing the body 
)f the Camera. This is a very great convenience for all kinds of 
Landscape work. The 1 x 8 is an effective photographic size and is 
argely used ; in fact, it ■n'ill always be found that a good size photo- 
graph is far more effective and makes a better show in any collection 
liati the smaller sizes, and as regards working there is no greater 
lifficulty in using the 10 x 8 than in the smaller sizes. 

Printing Set, Apparatus, and Stock of Material 
suitable for the above, £4 :5s. 

Packing Charge (if sent into the Country), 7s. 6d. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

250 Advertisements. 



Twelve by Ten Photographic Set 

(Size of Xegative, 12x10). 

Comimsing — Best -make Spanish Mahogany Camera, Bellows 
Body, Back Adjustment, Double Swing, Horizontal and Vertical 
Sliding Front, Xew Eeversing Arrangement at the back to allow 
the Slides to be used either uj^right or oblong way, 3 Double 
Backs, Marion's No, 5 Eapid Rectilinear Lens, Strong Sliding 
Tripod, A^elvet Focussing-Cloth, Leather Case (to contain Camera, 
the 3 Double Backs, Lens, Cloth, etc.). Waterproof Case for 
Stand, 3 dozen 12x10 Britannia Plates, Bottle Britannia Solu- 
tion, Liquid Ammonia, Alum, Hypo, 1 Eocking Developing Tray, 
2 Compo Trays, Zinc "Washing Tank, Euby Lantern, 2 Glass 
Measures, Draining Eack 

All in a Black Polished Fine Case, with divisions, and, lined green baise. 

Price £34. 

The above Set is of the best material, aud complete in every respect 
for making negatives. The Camera is suitable either for Field or 
Studio work, and is fitted with a new arrangement for working the 
Backs, either horizontally or vertically, -n-ithout disturbing the body 
of the Camera. This is a very great convenience for all kinds of 
Landscape work. The 12 x 10 is an effective photographic size, and 
is largely used ; in fact, it will always be found that a good size photo- 
graph is far more effective and makes a better show in any collection 
than the smaller sizes, and as regards working there is no greater 
difficulty in using the 12 x 10 than in the smaller sizes. 

Printing Set, Apparatus, and Stock of Material 
suitable for the above, <£5, 

Packixg Charge (if sent into the Country), 7s. 6d. 

MARION & CO,, 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

Advertisenunts. 251 


THIS small Camera, known as tlie ACADEMY CAMERA, is 
invaluable to the Artist, ^lilitar}- Man, and others who require a 
haudy instrument that will operate without a stand or the cumbersome 
backs. The Tray underneath contains 12 Plates, which can be ex- 
posed in rotation, and (a still further advantage) the Tray with exposed 
Plates may be removed and replaced by another filled with unexposed 
Plates, and this change may be safely made out-of-doors without danger 
of spoiling the Plates. The Cameras are made in four sizes. For 
particulars as to size and price, see next page. The following are the 


The under tray is filled A\-ith 12 plates, film side towards the front of Camera; 
of course this must be done in a pliotogi-apher's dark room, or in fact in any 
room from which tlie light is excluded, using our Candle-lamp with its ruby 
chimney. The^ tray is now slipped on to the under part of the Camera, and 
moved by the rack-work close up to the front. The plates are thus protected 
from daylight, and the Camera may be taken anywhere. 

In photogi-aphing, the Camera is generally held in the hand like a pistol 
when aim is taken, or rested on any convenient place. Touch the little knob 
which is behind the Camera front on the left ; this releases the ebonite 
revolving disc, which must be turned toward the right by means of the brass 
projecting head until it catches in a spring. It will be observed, as the 
ebonite plate turns, the slot in it reveals the under lens. (This is the acting 
lens, its fellow above merely serving to focus with.) When the ebonite disc 
is pushed home, adjust the tray by the rack-work so that the brass finger on 
the other side of the Camera covers the first notch of the brass plate. Now 
turn the Camera upside dowm, lay hold of the brass-milled head at the back 
of the Camera and pull it outwards, — this leaves free passage for the plate to 
fall from the grooved tray through an ojjening at the bottom of the Camera. 
When the plate is heard to fall into the Camera, let go the milled head ; the 
spring released closes the apertures of the Camera and retains the plate in its 
proper position. The Camera is now turned over to its normal position, and 
the object to be photographeil is foiussed, the Camera being held a little 
distance from the eyes ; the focus is obtained in No. 1 (Academy Camera) by 
pulling outwards or pushing inwards the brass wire projecting beneath the 

252 A dvertisements. 

ground glass, until the object is sharp and distinct on the ground glass. 
Nos. 2, 3, and 4 have a rack and pinion on the top of the instrument for 
focussing. Now touch with the forefinger the brass knob on the right hand 
behind the Camera front. The ebonite disc is released, revolves, and exposes 
the plate, passes on, and is caught in the catch. The picture is now taken, 
and the plate is released by pulling outwards the brass-milled head at the 
back of the Camera — the plate falling through into its groove in the tray 
beneath. When the click of its fall is heard, release the spring. 

P.S. — When the plate has been dropped into the Camera from the tray 
the tray must not be moved until the plate has been exposed and allowed to 
drop back again into its place in the tray. 

For another exposure repeat the operation, of course moving forward the 
tray by the rack-work till the brass finger points to the next notch. There 
is no difficulty in working— one j^oint only requires care and judgment — viz. 
time of exposure. This difficulty can only be overcome by experience. The 
revolving ebonite disc moves at a greater speed, as the steel spring beneath 
the button 'on face of shutter is turned from left to right and fixed in the 
bags. In dull weather it may be necessary even to hold it open by the hand. 
This is done by holding the brass head between the finger and thumb. 

The negatives, though small, have jyerfect definition, and give excellent 
sharj} prints, and 77iake good enlargements. 

N.B. — On the shutter of Camera is engraved an arrow. This 
signifies, when extra speed is required, the direction in 
which the wire spring must be turned and fixed into the 
toothed wheel. The red star on disc is in centre when the 
shutter is ready for release. 


No. 1. ACADEMY CAMERA, for Plates IJ in. square, including a 
]iair of Lenses, and Tray with 12 Plates. Size of 
Camera, 4 x 3 in. . . . . each £2 10 

(Extra Trays for ditto, 4s. each. 
\\ in. square Britannia Dry Plates, Is. per dozen.) 
No. 2. ACADEMY CAMERA, for Plates 2 in. square, including a 
pair of Lenses, and Tray with 12 Plates. Size of 
Camera, 9 x 7 x 4f in. .... each 3150 
(Extra Trays for ditto, 5s. each. 
2 in. square Britannia Dry Plates, Is. 3d. per dozen.) 
No. 2a. Superior Workmanship. — Academy Camera, best maho- 
gany, with a pair of JIarion & Co.'s Rectilinear Lenses, 
Tray, Porcelain Slab for Memoranda . . each 7 7 

(Extra Trays, with Ivory Number Tablet, 6s. each.) 
No. 3. ACADEMY CAMERA, for Plates 3^ in. square, including a 
pair of Lenses, and Tray with 12 Plates. Size of 
Camera, lOJ X 6f X 10| in. . . . each 5 

(Extra Trays for ditto, 10s. each. 
3| in. square Britannia Plates, Is. 6d. per dozen.) 

A dvertisements. 253 

No. 3a. Superior "Workmanship.— Ac.vdemy Camera, best maho- 
gany, with a pair ot Marion & Co. 's Rectilinear Lenses, 
Tray, and Porcelain Slab for memoranda . . each £10 10 

(Extra Trays tor ditto, with Ivory Number Tablet, lis. each.) 
No. 4. ACADEMY CAMERA, for Plates 4| in. x 3^ in., including 
a pair of Lenses and Tray with 12 Plates. Size of 
Camera, 11| x 61 x lOJ in. . . . each 6 10 

(Extra Trays for ditto, 12s. each. 
i\ X S^ in. Britannia Diy Plates, Is. 6d. per doz. ) 
No. 4a. Superior Workmanship. — Academy Camera, in best maho- 
gany, with a pair of AIaiuox & Co.'s Rectilinear Lenses, 
Tray, and Porcelain Slab for memoranda . each 12 12 

(Extra Trays for ditto, with Ivory Numlier Tablet, 13s. each.) 
Metal Attachment for the Academy Camera, for No. 2 
size, 42s. each ; for No. 3 and No. 4, 60s. each. 

For those who are not already supplied with chemicals and dishes, 
we have prepared a set of the materials and apparatus for making and 
developing the negative taken by the Academy Camera, likewise 
everything reqtiisite for Photographic Printing- — all neatly arranged 
in a mahogany box, including the Camera, which in addition has a 
leather case for carrying it on exj)editions. Thus the Camera with 
one or more trays can be taken on distant excursions in a A'ery small 
compass, and the development can be made after the return ; but it 
will be desirable to practise with the instrument first, so that there 
may be a complete mastery of it before starting. (See advertisement 
end of book.) 

ACADEMY CAMERA SETS, complete with everything re- 
quisite fur Photographic Negatives and Photographic Printing, fitted 
in mahogany box, comprising Camera and Lenses, Leather Case, 
Twelve Dozen Plates, Chemicals, Trays, Lamp, Measure, etc. 
Also material for Printing and Mounting. 

No. 1 Set • 

2 „ . 

3 „ • 

4 „ . . . 
Ditto, ditto, with superior workmanship. Camera and 

Marion's Rectilinear Lenses. 
No. 2a Set . • £11 17 

3a ,, ■ • . 16 5 

4a „ . 18 17 

C6 10 

8 5 

10 15 

12 15 


MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 






Singe the iutioduction of Dry Plates a want 
lias been felt for a Camera that should cora- 
lline in itself an arrangement for holding 
^(\eial plates, permitting of their exposure 
I ( ing made in rotation, thus avoiding the 
iimbersomeness and inconvenience of several 
vtia dark slides or backs, and which shall 
1 I also of light weight, yet strong and rigid. 
These requirements will be found fully met 
in the Enjalbert. The simple way in which 
the difficulty is overcome of changing success- 
i\ e ])lates will, we are sure, be much appre- 
ciated, and will be admitted as superior to 
any other method employed. 
The total weight of half-})late Camera, with its drawer complete, is under 4 lbs. 
Extra Drawers are supplied, and being made to a gauge, are interchange- 
able iu the Camera. Each drawer contains 8 Holders, and being light and com- 
pact, a large number of Plates may be carried at a minimum of weight and bulk. 
The Camera is adapted for use either upright or oblong way. 
It is easily set up. 

Its power of expansion or contraction allows the use of any Lens. 
Its front shifts in all ways. 

Focussing is easy, being adjusted by rack- work and fixed by a screw. 
The Camera is well balanced. 

The focussing-glass is in a supplementary groove in the body of the Camera. 
The sliding bottom board has a scale, so that any of the plates may be 
used after once focussing. 


The Drawer with 8 Slides and the Ground-Glass Screen included. 

6J X 4|, 200s. I 8i X 6|, 270s. | 10 x 8, 310s. 

Made in Best Mahogany. 


Telescopic Camera Stand, extra strong 45/ 
Extra Drawers containing 8 slides 

or Holders . . . 61- x 4| 40/ 
Do. do. 8* X 6^ 50/ 

Do. do. lO' x 8 55/ 

Inner Carriers . . . . 6^ x 4J 2/6 

Inner Can-iers . . . . 8^ x 6J 3/ 

Strong Leather Case for Camera 6i x 4| 30/ 

Do. do. Sj X 6} 35/ 

Do. do. 10 X 8 40/ 

Strong Waterproof Case for Telescope 

Stand 10/6 


{N.B. — Eqiuil to a Camera ivith S Douhle Backs.) 

Comprising Camera, Marion & Co.'s View Lens, Stand, 1 extra Drawer, 

4 Inner Carriers, Leather Cases, 1 gross Britannia Dry Plates, Chemicals 

Trays, Measure, Wasliing Apparatus, Lamp, Strong Box with partitions. 

No. 1. For Plates 6J x 4| . . £25. | No. 2. For Plates SA x 6J . . £30. 

No. 3. For Plates 10 x 8 (with only 4 Carriers), £39. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 





To those Amateurs who desire to 
make a complete study of Portrait 
Photography, MARION & CO. 
can give an estimate for erecting 
"Studio" and fitting it up com- 
plete with Apparatus and Acces- 
sories, etc. 


Self-Adjusting Rolling Press & Burnisher 

For CD. V.'s and Cabinets, Plain Nickle Rollers . . 47s. 6d. 

For CD. V.'s and Cabinets, fitted with Hot Roller for Burnishing,', £5. 

For Boudoirs, Imperials, Panels, etc. (9 in. Roller) . ." £9. 

To roll Photographs 12 in. wide (12 in. Roller) .... £15'. 
The pressure adjusts itself according to the thickness of the Mount. 
There are no screws or levers ; the pressure is entirely self-acting. The 
Rollers are of hardened polished steel, and the top one hollowed out to 
receive a Burner, by which the Roller is heated. The glaze or burnish given 
by these Rollers is more glossj^, and the photo is less scraped and pulled to 
pieces than with the ordinary Burnisher. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

256 A dvertisements. 



Patent Pneumatic Photographic Shutter. 

Made to fit inside or outside the Camera. Price 42s. each. 

It has often been remarked by eminent Pliotograpliers that any arrangement 
which would enable persons to be photographed without their being aware of 
it would be a most useful one. All that has been done in this direction 
necessitated the operator being by the Camera ; here we have an instrument 
which permits him to be at any part of the Studio that he pleases. 

When using with very rapid Plates, we recommend the operator to put a 
collar of velvet round the hood of the lens ; thus the velvet flap lies against 
it, and is perfectly light-tight. The Shutter, we feel certain, with this pre- 
caution, may be used for instantaneous view work. 

Cadett's Patent Instantaneous View Shutter. 

The gi'eat use of Dry Plates for landscape work has necessitated the em- 
ployment of a Shutter capable of working with the utmost rapidity, at the 
same time offering the means of readjustment for medium or slow exposures. 
All these requirements are fully met by tliis Shutter. 

The Shutter is fitted to the hood of the lens, therefore it is necessary to 
state, when ordering, what Lens the Shutter is to lie used with. 

No. 1. For Lens of a diameter l\h in. . . . 50s. 

„ 2. „ ,, 2? „ . . . 50s. 

„ 3. ,, ,, 3ft ,, . . . 60s. 

If the ShiMers are required between the above sizes, Leather Collars are 

supijlied at a small extra charge. 

Just Introduced. 

Cadett's Patent Pneumatic Drop Shutter 

for the Studio. 
Price 24s. 

All the London Photographers are buying it. , It will fit the 
largest size Dallmeyer's Lens, but the hood of the Lens must be 

In ordering, state for ichat Lens it is to be icsed tcith. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




with Cadett's Patent Pneumatic Arrangement 

Made in Five Siz<;s. 

No. 1. 
No. 2. 
No. 3. 

No. 4. 

No. 5. 

Diameter of hood 1| . 

„ U . 


An extremely serviceable Shutter for 
general landscape work, but when ex- 
treme rapidity of exposure is required, we 
recommend Cadett's Lis-htnin" Shutter. 


h. Cadett's Patent Pueumatic Arrangement. with Cadett's Patent Pneumatic Attachment. 

}[,ii-Jr in .^/cfs ns nhnvr. Fits Oil in front nfthc Camera and behind the Lens. 

I Shutter being now in course of manufacture, the 
: are not yet establi?ihed ; they will be somewhat higher 
the above list. By a simple and an ingenious arrange- 
the exposures can be changed from a moderate one 
the most extreme rapidity ; there is also an arrange- 
for focussing. 


It is so constructed as to give greater exposun 
the foregi'ound than to the sky. The range of 
posure in this Shutter is very gi'eat, from a slow 
to a flash exposure. The mechanism is boxed 
and working in a very shallow space. The app( 
ance of the Shutter is very like an ordinary cam 
front, only a little deeper. It being now only 
course of manufacture, the prices are not yet ILs 
but they will be moderate. 

In ordering please state si:e of Lens. 



The Reflector 

Price 23s. 9d. each ; 
Smaller Size 9s. each. 

This new lamp, glazed with new 
orange glass, permitting a clear light to 
work by, yet perfectly safe for the most 
sensitive dry plate, has a shade reflector 
•which throws the light down on the 
developing tray, but stops the raj'S from 
ascending ; consequently the 63^6 of the 
operator is well protected from the ^ 
orange light, and yet the plate is much ^^ 
bcttter illuminated than by the ordi- 
narj-- lamp. 


The Candle Lamp, as used in our 

Student's or Beginner's Set. 

Is. lOd. each. 


With Oil Lamp.* 
5s. each. 

* If desired, this lantern can be supplied 
so as to fit over a gas buiner. Price the 


A concentrated and convenient Solution for developing Britannia Dry Plates. 

On the same day of using, pour out one ounce of this Solution into nine- 
teen ounces of water ; this forms Solution No. 3 of our developing formula. 
It is mixed in equal proportions with Solution No. 2. This latter is so easily 
made up by every Photogi-apher that we do not offer it in a separate bottle. 
It consists of 3 drachms of strongest liquid ammonia to one ])int of water. 
The quantity of Solution that should be mixed together of Xo. 2 and No. 3 
must depend on the size and number of plates to be developed, but always in 
equal parts of one to equal parts of the other. 

N.B. — If the plate is found to be over-exposed, at once remove it from the 
dish, and pour over it once or twice some solution of No. 3, allowing that which 
runs off the plate to mix with the solution in the dish. Upon returniug the 
plate to the dish it will be found in most cases to develop as if correctly exposed. 

In cases of under-exposure the development may be hastened by adding 
more of Solution No. 2. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 







Price £4 : 5s. 

Out Tent is so devised that it may 
be fitted up indoors or out-of-doors. 
Stands 6 feet high, and is 3 feet 
square. Folds up in a compact form 
for travelling. The Table is fitted 
M -with developing sink and partition for 



Two advantages, sure to he appreciated by all dry- 
plate workers, are found in this Tray. Pivoted on 
a stand, the rocking motion flows the developing 
solution in a smooth even wave over the negative. 
Being made of papier-iuache, with a glass bottom, 
when tilted ii]i the light from ruby lamp shines right 
through the glass bottom, and thus the development 
may be watched without touching the plate. 

Prices — For J plate, 9s. ; h plate, lis. 4d. ; 
\ plate, 12s. 3d. ; 10 x 8, 13s. .3d. ; 12 x 10, 15s. 3d 

12, 17s. 


Thick, in White or various Tints, will be found a great boon to all 

Photographers. It saves an immensity of trouble, is always ready for 

use, and with ordinary care it will keep without losing quality over 

six months. 

Price lis. 6d., and the best Supertine 14s., per Quire. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




These Frames have each three thick 
slabs of wood with bevelled oval open- 
ing each a different size. These Slabs 
are placed in front of the Printing Frames, 
and are held in their place by two screws, 
but their positions ma)' be shifted ; the 
oval holes, being some distance from the 
negative, permit the rays of light to slant, 
thus effecting a soft pleasing vignette. 

None Cheaper ! None Better ! 

Prices—^ plate, 2s. 6d. ; i plate, 4s. ; -} plat 


This Apparatus offers all the desiderata for 
a complete and thorough wash to the Plates. 
The water falls in a gentle shower ; when 
nearly full the overflow syphon begins to 
work, so there will be a constant inflow and 
outflow. When the water is turned off the 
syphon sucks out the last drop, thus there is 
no fear of Hypo dejiosit remaining. 

Size of Plate. 



Size of Plate. 



50 grooves, j 

. 17 


36 grooves, 7 x 5 or 7.^ x 5 


50 „ 5x4. 

. 20 

36 „ 9x7. 


50 „ i 

. 20 

24 ,, 10 X 8. 


50 ,, 4ori. 

. 22 

24 „ 12 xlO. 



Price 40s. each. 

The box is large enough to change plates 
up to 12 X 10. 

Mr. Cowan has designed this box on the 
principle that it is much easier to change 
plates by the touch only than to do so 
whilst looking through an obscure medium. 
The apparatus is not only a box in wliieli 
plates may fie safely changed in the open 
air, but it also forms a portable travelling 
case, in which camera, dark slide, and plates 
maybe packed — a notable convenience when 
work must be done away from the studio. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 





Price 15s. 

Approved hy a Committee comprising several of the leading Members of the 
Photographic Society of Great Britain. 

This Instrument lias been invented by Mr. Warnerke to serve as a 
standard measure of sensitiveness to all the Photographers of the ^vorld. 
Thus when Gelatine Dry Plates are said to be 16 by the Standard Sensito- 
meter, all shall know at once what degree of sensitiveness and what exposure 
is necessary for the Plates. All the Standard Sensitometers register alike, 
and never vary. Thus, if four Dry Plates made by four different makers 
register (when developed alike) in four different Sensitometers the figures 16, 
it can be depended on, as a matter of fact, that the}- will all require the same 
exposure. In practice, tlie actual exposure-signified by a given number will 
soon become a recognised and familiar fact. In order to find without trouble 
the exposure necessary for any given number of the Sensitometer, Mr. War- 
nerke has worked out a table giving the relative exposure of each number. 
Instructions for using ivill be sent vnth each Sensitometer. 


There are some new features in this 
instrument which make it an improve- 
ment on other kinds in use. The platform 
on which the white paper or reflector is 
placed can be adjusted at any angle. 
There is a slit at the top of the instrument 
to allow the negative to slide through 
when it is desired to retouch parts of the 
negative awkward to get at without this 
]irovision. The bar across front on whicli 
the negative rests can be shifted at difler- 
ent angles to facilitate working. The sup- 
ports of front, as will l)e seen by the wood- 

cut, can be screwed firmly at any desired 

elevation. The disk also forms a convenient easel, on wliicli finishing of en- 
largements may be done. It can be used for negatives from :J-plate to 12 x 10. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 






We have prepared the above in accordance with the 
pressing wish of numberless customers who find the emulsion 
of the Britannia Plates superior to all other, and who desire 
that the same superior quality may be supplied on a plate 
specially prepared for Extra Eapid Work. 

These "Extra Eapid" Plates will be found invaluable 
in the Studio, by enabling the Operator to secure much 
more natural and pleasant expressions, whilst for instant- 
aneous effects out of doors their utility is practically unsur- 

'Please note that these Plates are as quick as any in the market. 

Per Dnz. 

Tiii- Doz 


.<;. d 


s. i:l. 

1\ in. square 

. 1 6 

7k X 


. 6 5 


. 1 10 

7h X 


. 7 3 

H X 3i . 

. 2 3 

8 X 


. 8 8 

4J X 3i . 

. 2 4 

8* X 


. 10 


. 3 9 

9 X 


. 12 

Q\ X 4| . 

5 3 

10 X 


. 15 

6i X 43 . 

. 5 3 
15 X 12 . 

12 X 

. 33.S. 

. 22 6 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

A dvertisements. 




From their Cheopness and Excellence are in Universal Use. 


Altliougli the unprecedented sale of the Beitaxxia Plates may be said 
to be a sufficient guarantee and acknowledgment of their superiority over all 
other Plates before the public, the Proprietors are convinced that there are 
still many Professional and Amateur Photographers who have not given due 
consideration to the advantages obtainable b}^ the use of Britannia Plates, 
and they beg to submit the annexed Prices and Testimonials for their careful 
attention, the Plates being now of much superior quality to those of earlier' 

Vigour of Image. Evenness of Film. Great Sensitiveness. 

Fineness of Texture. Freedom from Fog and Frilling. Clearness of Shadows 

and Edges. Cleanness and Simplicity of Devcloinnent. 

Durability, Uniformity^ and Cheajmess. 

Per Gross. 

Per Gross 





s. d. 

1^ in. square 

. 12 

8* X 4i . 

. 54 


. 15 

7h X 5 

. 60 

3.i „ 

. IS 

81 X 6i . 

. 72 

4i X 34 . 

. 18 

Per Doz. 


. 27 

9 'x 7 

. 7 6 

6i X 3| . 

. 38 

84 X 8h . 

. 8 6 

6.i X 44 . 

. 40 

10 X 8 . 

. 10 6 

6i X 4| . 

. 42 

12 X 10 

. 15 

74 X 4^ . 

. 51 


13 X 8 
15 X 12 


. 15 
. 26 6 

Per Doz. 

Per Doz. 





s. d. 

17 X 11 . 

. 32 

20 X 16 

. 43 

17 X 14 . 

. 38 

23 X 15 

. 47 

IS X 14 . 

. 40 

24 X 18 

. 65 

IS X 1(5 . 

. 41 


Being a few out of many hnndrcds received froni all parts of the Country. 

From Messrs. VALENTINE & SONS, Perth Road, Dundee. — " January 14, 1SS4. We 
are very niucli pleased witli the quick Plates you sent the other day. They are the finest 
quality of really <iuick Plates \vc ever used." 

From Mr. J. HAWKE, of Plymouth.— " January IS, 18S4. I am very pleased with 
the Extra Rapid Plates, and shall lie glad if you will forward three gross of half-plates per 

From Mr. F. W. BROADHEAD, of Leicester.— "January 16, 1884. I received a 
sample of your new make of Plates, and they are the best I have yet used. They are in 
appearanee more like the best wet jilates, and quite free from green fog." 

From Mr. J. Smale, of Dartmouth.— "January 10, 1884. I have this day thor- 
oughly tested your new Rajiid JJritannia Plates, ami cannot but say that they are the most 
rapid and unifonii Plates I have ever used." 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 


A dvertisements. 

Gelatino -Chloride Plates. 

MARION & CO., Sole P roprietors. 

Tlie attention of Photogiaphers and Amateurs is respectfully solicited to 
these plates. In our opinion their use is likely to be very extensive, and a 
source of considerable profit to the profession. 

Gelatino-Chloride Plates are printing plates for positives ; a good print 
can be obtained in 1 to 5 seconds in diffused daylight, and with; gaslight in a 
proportionately longer time. 

Xo Transparencies have ever been produced finer in tone or richer in 
detail than those by Cowan's Chloride Plates. 


1 . Portraiture and landscapes ; most lovely effects visible by transmitted light. 

2. Lantern-slides and stereoscopic transparencies ; with more detail, and 

better tone than by any other process. 

3. Transparencies for enlargements ; full of detail, soft, vigorous, and 

equal in all re.sjiects to the finest carbon jiositives, with this advan- 
tage, that they can be produced in any light. 

4. For reproduction of negatives ; they are invaluable. 








31 . . 

. 2 


X 6l 

. 10 



31 . . 

. 2 



X 7 

. 12 



4 . 

. 4 


X 8 

. 14 




4| . . 

. 5 



X 10 

. 22 



5 . 

. 7 



X 8 

. 22 



H ■ • 

. 8 

Any other Sizes to Order charged in same projiortion. 

Samples of the Transparencies supplied — 

C.D.Y., Is. ; Cabinet, 2s. ; and AVhole-Plate, 3s. each. 


Nos. 1, 2, and 3, 10 oz. bottles, Is. 9d. ; 20 oz. bottles, 3s. each. 
Iron Solution ,, ,, 9d. ; ,, ,, Is. 3d. each. 

y.B. — In preparation a series of cheap Metal Gilt Rims specially adapted for Trans- 
parencies. Tliey will be made in all sizes, and be low in price. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

A dvertisemen ts. 265 



A very rajiid Printing Paper, hy which Prints can be obtained equal to 
Silver Prints in the dark days of November, by an exposure of 1^ to 4 seconds, 
also good Prints obtained by exposure to gaslight for 25 seconds. 

The quantities beloiv are equivalent to a quire of ordinary Photograph 
1020 pieces of full Carte-de-visite size, in boxes ready for use 


, , , Cabine 


8i X 6i 


10 X 8 


12i X \Ql 


15i X \2h 


244 X 19 


Rolls of 1( 

ic Paper. 

Rolls of 10 ft. S in. long by 24i in. wide 
Can be had in Boxes one-third of the above quantities. 
From The Times, Xovemher 24, ISS4. 

"The difiBcultj- of procuring warmth of tone with rai>idity of exposure seems now to 
have been overcome in a new material which Messrs. Marion, the photographic dealers of 
Soho Square, have produced and are about to supply commercially. Messrs. Marion 
propose to work the process in secret, believing that a safer method of proceeding than 
patenting it ; and consequently the invention is of less use to the scientific photographer 
than it would be if the manner of production as well as the results were revealed ; but 
probably the effect on the photographic industry will be much the same. The paper is 
obviously coated with a gelatine emulsiun of some sort, and in all probability rival experi- 
ments will before long find out its precise nature. As regards the results producible by its 
means, their value does not seem to admit of much doubt. No industrial process can 
properly be termed successful tiU it has stood the test of regular commercial work ; but it 
is at all events safe to say that no improvement of such promise has been introduced into 
photography since the advent of gelatine plates. In Messrs. Marion's studio, on Saturday 
last, the writer saw produced three prints which nobody could tell were not ordinary silver 
prints, prfxluced with exposures of two, three, and four seconds, and he afterwards at home, 
at four o'clock in the afternoon, with an exposure of 15 seconds, produced on a first trial 
almost equally good results. 

" Xow, if material of similar quality can be supplied commercially and at a reasonable 
price, it is easy to see what a valuable "power the portrait photographer has given to him. 
The whole process of producing a couple of dozen prints need not take an hour. Allowing 
time for washing, mounting, and finishing, an energetic man can, if required, supply his 
customers with their likenesses the next day after the portraits are taken. In these dark, 
short, winter days, it may be weeks before a photographer gets bght enough to print a batch 
of pictures ; but by Messrs. Marion's invention the whole thing can be done by gaslight. 

" The process of working the paper is quite simple. As may be supposed, the image 
has to be 'developed '—that is, no \isible image is produced by the exposure to light. 
Consequently the exposure has to be estimated, as it has in taking a portrait or a view. 
The development is effected in very much the same way as if an ordinary gelatine plate 
were under treatment, the developer being a weak solution of ferrous oxalate. After de- 
velopment the image is of a rich purple ; but as this would change in the final, or ' fixing ' 
bath, it is necessary to 'tone' the picture, as is done with an ordinarj- silver print, in a 
.solution containing gold. After tliis the picture is ' fixed ' in the usual manner. Consider- 
able variety of tone can be produced, the tints ranging from a warm red brown to a purple 
or even black. 

"The objections to the process are that it requires rather more skill than the old system. 
It has to be carried out in greater darkness and with greater precaution. Nor are the 
results quite so bright and good as the Ijest silver printing. It would, however, require an 
expert to tell the difference, and certainly no purchaser would be likely to complain if he 
were supplied with a batch of prints on the new jiaper. As regards permanence, only time 
can answer that question ; but tliere seems no reason why it should be less permanent than 
the old; which unfortunately has in this particular not much to boast of Having regard 
to all considerations, it may be expected that the alVmmenizetl paper will still hold its own 
for the finest work, and for work in summer when the light is bright and abundant ; but the 
new paper will in all probability come largely into use for winter work, and it ought to be 
used by all portrait photographers for sending out ' proofs ' at once of their portraits." 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 





Tliis Plate is used for contact printing, and gives most beautiful tones and 
rich effects, far surpassing any metliod of printing on opal yet known. 

Size^—ik X 3J, 5s. per doz. ; 5 x 4, 7s. ; 6^ x 4f , lis. ; 7Ji- x 5, 15s. ; 8^ x 6i, 
18s. 6d.; 9x7, 22s.; 10x8, 30s.; 12x10, 40s.; 15x12, 63s. 



A new Bi'omide Paper for Enlargements, etc., giving a superior tone 
to all other papers, and "with a perfectly even coated surface fit for 
full printed Prints as well as Vignettes. 

A Box of 24 Sheets 12| x 10^ 
16 ,, 15i X 12* 
20 „ 24| X 19 

A Roll of 10 ft. 8 in. x 2U wide 




So perfect are the tones, and so clean and even the emulsion, that very 

little artistic work is required to make a finished picture. 

Flates—6^ x 4|, 10s. per doz.; 8J x 6i, 17s. 6d.; 10x8, 25s. ; 12 x 10, 35s.; 
12 X 15, 53s. {Li Bo-res of Half-a-dozen.) 


No. 1. 
Iron .... 
Water .... 

No: 2. 

Oxalate of Potash . 
Ammonia Bromide . 
Water .... 
1 oz. of No. 1 to he added to 4 ozs. of 
No. 2 for developer. 

1 lb. 
48 ounces. 

1 lb. 
20 grains. 
64 ounces. 

Hypo ... 4 ounces. 


4 oimces. 

After well washing from Hypo, im- 
merse a minute or two in the following 
solution : — 

Strong Sulphuric Acid 
Water . 

\ ounce. 
SO ounces. 

Rinse in several changes of water, 
then dry. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 



Cowan's Patent Cutting Boards, 16s. each. 

—^ — Xo. 1. For centring and cut- 

Xo. 1. ^ -^—r-— , ting glass. Any piece put on the 

"^^-^T ^^^ lioard can be immediately cut 

- -f 'xactly into half. For Dry- Plate 

y" work it IS a great economiser of 

/-'' time. 

No. 2. 

No. 2. For cutting glass photo- 
gi'aphic sizes from ^-plate up to 
10x8. A rule, a movable stoj), 
and a firm straight edge for the 
diamond to work on, form the 
simple means of this time and 
labour-saving instrument. 



Is. per Bottle. 
This Solution has been in use during the last five 
years in a large Photographic Establishment, and will 
be found to possess the following qualities : — 
It has no disa^eeable Smell ; 
It does not cockle the thinnest Mounts ; 
It does not discoloiir the Photograph ; 
It does not perish ; and it is easily used. 
DIRECTIONS FOR USE. — Place the bottle in 
warm water, or on a stove, till the Solution is melted. 
Apply it with a stiff brush (which must be perfectly 
dry) to the back of the Photogi-aph. Let the Photograph 
thus coated remain for a few seconds and then place it 
on the Mount and press it well down. 


If a print from every negative that an Amateur may have taken be 
mounted into a book, it will be surprising how interesting the collection will 
grow. Such a collection would show the advance in quality of work, and 
would also be a memento of time and places. Without some such method 
the Amateur has no security against forgetting or losing his negatives. 

No. Size. s. d. 

R.M. 10. 12 X 9J French Jloroceo, half-bound, Cardboard Leaves 6 6 

,, 12. 15 X 11 Do. do. do. 

,, IS. 12 X Oi Morocco, Gilt Back do. do. 

,, 20. 15 X 11 Do. do. do. 

„ 64. 12 X 9J Anglo-Russia, full-bound do. 

„ 66. 15 X 11 Do. do. do. 

,, 72. 12 X 9i Morocco, Gilt Edges do. do. 

,, 74. 15 X 11 Do. do. do. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 









A dvertisements. 













Metal Mounts Nickled. 

We guarantee each Lens perfect. 

Size of Plates. Diain. of Lens. Back Focus. 

1. 44 X 34 and 5x4 

2. 6i X 4f and 7i x 5 

3. Six eiandS^xS 

4. 10^ X 8 . 

5. 12 X 10 . 

6. 15 X 12 . 









s. d. 













We guarantee each Lens perfect. 

Size of Plates. Diam. of Lens. Back Focus. 

4ix 3.i 
6ix 43 
Six 64 
10 X 8 
12 xlO 
15 xl2 





s. (1. 








Serviceable Portrait Lexs for C.D.V., Ij^ diam., 4 focus £1 

Do. do. for Cabixet.s, 3^ „ 6^ ,, 2 

ExcEL.'iiOR CD. V. and Cabinet Lexs, 2-/-^ ,, 3 

For Promexade and Cabixet, ^yill cover a whole plate, Nickel 


or 10 

Mounts ; quality guaranteed 
Extra Rapid C.D.V. Portrait Lexs, Nickeled Mounts . 
Extra Rapid Cabixet do. do. 

Extra Rapid Promexade and Cabixet Portrait Lexs . 
Portrait Lexs for 10 x S Plates, diam. 4, focus 17, Nickel 

Mounts ....... 

Paxel Lexs for Plates 13 x 8 or 12 x 10, diam. 5, Nickel 

Mounts ; this is a long focus lens and requires a long 

studio ; we guarantee the quality 
Graxd Paxel Lens for Plates 24x18; diam. of lens, 6; 

long focus, Mounts Nickeled ; we guarantee the quality. 50 
Focrssixo Glasses . . . . 5s 



MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




Can be strongly recommended as 
most efficient. It also serves as 
an effective Magic Lantern. We 
supply a special spirit for the lamp 
which gives a brighter and whiter 
light than any mineral oil. The 
Apparatus may be used in any 
room, provided all actinic light 
be excluded ; a hood, as shown in 
the woodcut, covers the lamp, to 
prevent any light escaping. Every 
part is movable, therefore the ad- 
justment is easy. We append 
directions for use, and we may add 
that the operations are much 
simpler than they seem as de- 
scribed in the directions. 


Price £2 : 16s. 

Fitted with Portrait Lens, £4 : 4s. 

Upright Easel Stajid for ditto, 21s. 

The above Apparatus is made on the same 
principle as our £6 : 13s. Enlarging Appara- 
tus, which has given such general satisfac- 
tion. The same spirit and the same lamp are 
used, thus the illuminating power is eqtial. 
It is fitted to take up to a quarter- plate nega- 
tive. Combining, as it does, the lantern and 
the enlarging, this Apparatus will be found 
both to the Amateur and Professional one 
of the most useful and one of the cheapest 
instruments ever offered. 


The apparatus must be used in a darkened room from which all actinic light is excltided. 
It will, however, of itself give sufficient light to work by. Place it on a table or bench ; a 
flat board should rest on an upright easel — this latter to have wheels so that it might be 
moved backwards or forwards. Remove the hood or metal box which covers the lamp, and 
light the lamp in the ordinary manner. Now take out the slide from the wood upright, 
and into this slide fix the negative, and then replace into its former position. 

To the front of the Enlarging Apparatus must be fixed a lens (generally a J or J plate 
portrait). Now adjust the bellows until an image of the size desired is thrown on the "screen 
or board which rests on the easel (a sheet of white paper is attached to the board during 
this operation), and the exact focus is obtained by moving the easel stand backwards or 
forwards. To get the fullest power of illumination, the glass condensers as well as the lamp 
are made movable. There is one particular point which will be found to give the greatest 
light — this can only be discovered by adjustment. Now the correct size of image, the 
sharpest focus, and the greatest illumination being obtained, replace the hood in its position ; 
this will shut out all light except that which comes from the lens. The white sheet of 
paper is removed from the board, and sensitive paper placed there instead. Care must be 
taken not to disturb the position of the easel, otlierwise the focus will be lost. The ex- 
posure takes place, and will dejjend on the nature and sensitiveness of the paper used. 

A few words with respect to the lamp. Great care must be taken that the wick is always 
kept clean ; after using, no camphine should be allowed to remain in the lamp, and the wick 
should be thoroughly trimmed. It is a safeguard to wash it in methylated spirit. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




















53 5 






'05 ci =; 



o o 

.2 P 

O m 




5 2. 

CO |°S3 

CO c'S:^ i 

LLl ^ J^ 

CC ""'"'" 

Q. ___ 

I- ' ' ' ' 





I TS'S s 

•e >> 


-g'f c«- 



1 o I 

•^ « S i 

OJ rt 02 ^ 
--C bc-t-> 

A dvertisements. 


Prices from £1 : Is. to £3 : 10s. 





»— ( 











According to description of Binding. 

:z; rt tc MH 

272 A dvcrtisements. 



{Made at Marion's Factory, Courbevoie, near Paris.) 


800. Best Ivory Carte de Visite Mount of a slight, cream tint, Is. for 50, 

aud Is. 6d. for 100. 

801. Best Ivory Carte de Visite Moimts, iu wliite. Is. for 50, and Is. 6d. for 


802. Best Enamelled Carte de Visite Mounts, iu wliite, cream, and salmon 

tints. Is. 3d. for 50, and Is. 9d. for 100. 

803. Best Enamelled Carte de Visite Mounts, cream tint, with gold design 

on back and line on front, round corners, and gilt edges, 2s. 6d. for 
50, and 3s. 9d. for 100. 

804. Best Enamelled Carte de Visite Mounts, cream tint, with carmine 

rands and round corners, 2s. for 50, and 3s. for 100. 

805. Real Gold Bevelled Carte de Visite Mounts, medium thickness, in 

cream, rose, blue, black, olive, and chocolate tints, 3s. 6d. for 50, 
and 6s. for 100. 

806. Do. do. as above, but extra thick, in same tints as above, 4s. 

for 50, and 7s. 6d. for 100. 

900. Best Ivory Cabinet Mounts of a slight cream tint, 2s. 9d. for 50, and 

5s. for 100. 

901. Best Ivory Cabinet Mounts, in white, 2s. 9d. for 50, and 5s. for 100. 

902. Best Enamelled Cabinet Mounts, in white, cream, and salmon tints, 

3s. 6d. for 50, and 6s. for 100. 

903. Best Enamelled Cabinet Mounts, cream tint, with gold design on back, 

4s. for 50, and 7s. for 100. 

904. Best Enamelled Cabinet Mounts, with carmine rands and round 

corners, 4s. 6d. for 50, aud Ss. for 100. 

905. Real Gold Bevelled Cabinet Mounts, medium thickness, in cream, rose, 

blue, black, olive, and chocolate tints, 5s. for 50, and 9s. 6d. for 

906. Real Gold Bevelled Cabinet Mounts, extra thick, iu same tints as 

above, 6s. for 50, aud lis. 6d. for 100. 

1000. Landscape Mounts, cream tint, 8x6, lOd. ; 9|x 7i,ls. 2d. ; 12| x 9^, 

2s.; 13i X lOi, 3s.; 16 x 13, 4s. 4d. ; 19 x 14, 5s. per doz. 

1001. Landscape Mounts, cream tint, and with line, 8x6, Is. 6d. ; 9g x 7i, 

2s.; 12| X 9i, 3s.; 13| x lOi, 4s.; 16 x 13, 5s. 6d.; 19 x 14, 6s. 3d. 
per doz. 

1002. Landscape Mounts, with tint on cream ground, with line, 8x6, 2s. 6d. ; 

91 x 7h, 3s. ; 1'2'i x 9^, 3s. 9d. ; 13i x lOJ, 4s. 6d. ; 16 x 13, 6s. ; 
19 x 14, 7s. 

1003. Finest Quality Mounts, with real gold bevels for views. Photos on 

the above are mounted close up to the bevel in cream and olive 
tints. For 5i x 3^, Is.; 6^ x 4, Is. 4d. ; 7.^ x 5, 2s. 4d.; 8§ x 6i, 
3s. ; 10 X 8, 4's. 8d. ; 11^ x 9i, 7s. 6d. per doz. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




For Plates l^ ix. squakk. 

PRICE . . 25s. 

A Box of 12 Slides for do. . 12s. 

Extra Slides ..... Is. each. 

Britannia Plates, 1| in. square . Is. Doz. 

Do. Extra Rapid Series Is. 6d. Doz. 

The above illustration represents the Miniature Camera in 
half size ; it can therefore readily be seen that such an instrument, 
with 12 dark slides, may easily be carried in the pocket. It is 
made of metal, is well finished and light tight ; a good lens is 
used, and there is a finder on the top of the instrument to centre 
the object. A separate focussing-glass in a square shade is 
supplied, but is scarcely necessary, as the change of position of 
lens for distant or near views is so very trifling that the correct 
position can be marked on the Camera, and thus the focus is 
established for ever. The weight of one slide is two-thirds of 
an ounce. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




j3 2 

■5 ce 

■'- u n. ■-' p, 













OJ o 




O c3 












CO -tf 

"^ m 

© j3 

a -^ 


I— ( 

a! 1) -tJ '^ 

rt r3 G 


A dvertisements. 






Price 7s. 6d. each. 

The above illustration shows exactly the size and shajje It is 
easily put together, and packs, as will be seen, in a very small com- 
pass ; thus It is the best Lamp for travelling about with. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 2Z Soho Square, London, W. 





Enstantantous 13i)otcigrapf)3 bg OE. Cobb. Size, 9 x 7|. 


















Royal Exchange. 
Do. do. 

Do. do. 

St. Paul's, Steps, West Front. 

Queen Victoria Street. 
Do. do. 

St. Margaret's Church and 
Clock Tower, Houses of 

Westminster Bridge, Clock 
Tower, and St. Thomas's 

Parliament Square, from Vic- 
toria Street. 

Do. do. do. 

Victoria Street and West- 
minster Hospital. 

Trafalgar Square. 

Trafalgar Square and St. 
Martin's Church. 

Fleet Street looking East. 

Do. do. do. 

Strand, looking East. 

Do. do. do. 

Do. do. do. 

Do. do. do. 

Fleet Street, looking East. 

Strand, looking East. 

Strand, Palace of Justice. 

Waterloo Bridge and Somer- 
set House. 

On Waterloo Bridge. 

The Thames at London 
Bridge (Sunset). 




A Thames Steamboat. 
Waterloo Pier, on the Thames. 

Do. do. do. 

Lower Marsh, Lambeth. 
Blackfriars Bridge and Royal 


Do. do. do. 

Blackfriars Bridge and Rail- 
way Bridge. 
National Gallery and St. 

Martin's Church. 
Trafalgar Square and St. 

Martin's Church. 
St. Martin's Church. 
Villiers Street. 
London Bridge. 
Evening on the Thames at 

Thames from Charing Cross 

Railway Bridge. 
Pall Mall. 
Looking from Charing Cross 

Regent Street, looking West. 
Piccadilly, looking East. 
Westminster Bridge and 

Houses of Parliament. 
Charing Cross, looking East. 
Regent Street : The Quadrant. 
Regent Circus. 
Oxford Street, looking West. 
Bishops Road, Bayswater. 
Victoria Station. 

PRICES. ' '^• 

Unmounted ...... each 1 6 

Mounted on Panel Boards, Gilt Edged ,, 2 

In Gilt Rims, Vignette . . . „ 5 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

278 A dvertisements. 

SCENIC BACKGROUNDS, representing Interiors, Woodland 
Scenes, Sea-scapes, Kiver and Mountain Scenes, etc. etc. Size — 7 ft. 
6 in. high by a ft. 6 in. wide. Price 50s. A large Selection always 
on hand. 

CLOTH BACKGROUNDS. 8 feet wide, any length, and 

kept in stock ; various tints. 3s. 6d. per foot. 
MOUNTS, of the best French boards, made specially for the Photo- 

grajihs at Marion & Co.'s Factory, Courbevoie, near Paris. The 

variety is immense ; all sizes and sorts kejtt in stock. 

Lessons in Photography are given in Marion & Co.'s Studio, 
spiecially erected for the purpose, at 22 and 23 Solio Square, London. 

Enlargements from 12 x lO up to 36 in., finished in Monochrome, 
Water-Colours, or Oils, on Paper, Opal, Canvas, etc. Estimates given 
for work complete and in Frames. 

Ferro-Prussiate Paper. By tliis process Drawings, Patterns, 
Plans, etc. , may be produced very quickly by simply using the prepared 
Paper, light, and water. 


BRITIES, in CD. v., Cabinet, Promenade, and Panel sizes. The Largest 
Stock in England. 

Marion's Series of Eminent Political Men. Size of 

Permanent print, 24 x 18. GLADsroNE, Beaconsfield, Bright, 
NoRTiicoTE, etc. etc. 

Marion's Series of Views — The Streets of London. 

Size, 10 X 8. 2s. each. 
Agents for Bourne & Shepherd's Views of India ; Stillfried's 
Views of Japan ; Laurent's Spanish Cities, Churches, 
and Palaces, etc. etc. 

Photographs Mounted and Bound up in Volumes. 
Amateur's Negatives Printed from. 
Photo Prints Mounted and Framed. 

Marion <Sc Co.'s 

The Alexandra. With 13 illustrated pages. Bird life. 
The Renaissance. Pages richly ornamented in that style. 
The Fern Album. English and foreign ferns decorate the images. 

The K.C. or Album of Quotations. An Album of clever 

designs and taking words. 
The Olive Album. Each board in the new green tint, with 
floral designs. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




The great feature of this 
Apparatus consists in the 
rotary movement of the 
prints, caused by the system 
of inflow and outflow of the 

Tlie prints are in con- 
stant motion with the 
water ; they circulate con- 
tinuously in the trough 
from top to bottom, and 
never curl together. An 
hour and a half is sufficient 
to thoroughly wash them. 
This has been certified to 
by the public Analyst of 
Brighton, who tested a 
batch of prints washed in 
this time, and found not 
the slightest trace of hypo. 

We have gi'eat confid- 
ence in recommending this 

DIRECTIONS FOR USE.— Procure a piece r.f india-rubber tubing, and attacli one end to 
the water-tap, the other to the tube of apparatus, and turn on the water fiom the tap ; 
when the trough is nearly full, the overflow pipe will commence to run off the water, and 
the prints should then be put in. The inflow of water is generally arranged so that the 
outflow carries ofl" about the same quantity. It must be understood that the overflnw pipe 
is not a syphon ; therefore, when it is desired to run off all the water, the tap at the bottom 
of the ai)paratus must be turned on and, of course, the inflow stopped. The two tubes, 
which are pierced, and throuj;h whicli the water falls in a shower into the trough, are 
pivoted so that tliey may be turned to the right position for the watei- to fall at a proper 
angle, to cause a swift rotary mf)vement. It will be obser\'ed that this movement is not in 
full force till the overflow commences. Very little water is required after once the trough is 
filleil. and it need only be run oH' for the purpose of cleaning out about once every ten days. 

Nos 1. 2. 3. 4. 

( Length, 15 inches. 21 inches. 30 inches. 3S inches. 

Sizes -^ Width, IS ,, IS ,, 10^ .. 21 

( Depth, U)i ,, lOi ,, 20* ,, 21^ .. 

Prices .... 40s' SOs. 60s. 70s. 

JV.B.— It should be noticed that we ofl'er the above also with enamelled Trough ; we our- 
selves do not think this necessary, but as some writers in the Photogiaphic journals have 
expressed a suspicion of the ettects of plain zinc, we have arranged for the inside of the 
Trough to be enamelled for all those who wouM prefer it so. 

With Trough Knamelle.l. extra is. 3d. ..3s .. 3s. Gd. .. 4s. 3d. 

Self-Acting SYPHON TANK for WASHING NEGATIVES (Eegistered). 

The advantage oflercd by this Tank is a continuous eliange of water with- 
out personal supei vision. 'When the water arrives near tlie top, the Syplion 
commences to ojierate and swiftly empties the tank. The water from the tap 
running in all the time, soon begins to refill it, and thus the operation goes 
on continuously and the plates get repeated fresh baths of water, a moderate 
supply of which answers the purpose well. 

For 24 plates— i- plate, "s. id. ; ^-plato, 9s. ; Whole-plate, 10s. Cd. ; 10x8, Il's. each. 

No. 1 P. Combination, for J, i, and 1/1 plate hys 12s. Cd. 

„ 2 P. ,, ,, 1/1, lOxS, and 12x10 hys ISs. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 




"With Metal Spring Backs, 


No. M2.— Bevelled-Edged Glass with Narrow Gilt Border. 

Carte-de-Visite . . 9d. each Boudoir. . . 2/0 each 

Cabinet. , . . 1/6 ,, Imperial . . . 3/0 „ ' 

Promenade . . . 2/0 „ | Panel . . . . 4/6 ,, 


With Metal Spring Backs, 




M2 Oblong.- 


Edged Glass 

with Narrow Gilt Border. 

Cabinet . 

. . 1/6 


10 X 


. 3/4 each 


X 5 . 

. 2/0 


Hi X 


. 3/6 „ 


X 6i. 

. 2/3 


Hi X 


. 5/0 „ 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

A dvertisem ents. 281 

Collections of Photographs, Prints, &c., put into 
order, collated, mounted, remounted, titled, and 
bound into Volumes, portfolioed or framed. 

If Collectors will send their Photographs to Maeion & 
Co. unmovinted, and numbered on the back in the order 
they are wished to go, they can arrange, mount, roll, title, 
and bind them into convenient Volumes. 

It is necessary to do this work pro^Derly that Marion 
& Co. should mount the Photographs before binding, in 
order that they may roll them, which is most necessary to 
ensure flatness and smoothness of surface. If Photographs 
are mounted into a book after binding, they are apt to 
cockle, and perfect flatness cannot be guaranteed. 

Marion & Co. recommend Volumes of not more than 
fifty leaves, and they always put linen joints to their books, 
thereby ensuring strength and perfect flatness when opened. 

Locks, Clasps, Monograms. Cyphers in pierced and 
engraved Metal — Gilt, Silvered, or Nickel. 


Cut-out Mounts are recommended for framing Photographs. 

Old Collections looked through and re -arranged. 


MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

T 2 




Of Wax-paper for Printing-in Skies. 

Is. 6d. 2s. 3s. 

For6lx4f 8lx6i 10 x 

4s. 5s. eacli. 

12 X 10 15 X 12. 

Adcock's Patent Yignetting Frame. 

A very useful and ingenious 
Vignette, to be screwed on to 
tlie front of Printino; Frame. 

For Carte-de-Visite size, 
3s. each. 

For Cabinet size, 
4s. 6d. each. 

MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 

A dvertisements. 283 

Used in the Dra^wing Departments of the Leading 
Shipbuilders, Railways, Engineers, Contractors, 
Architects, and others. 



Bi/ this process Drawings, Patterns, Plans, etc., may he reproduced 
very quickly by simply using the prepared Paper, Light, and Water. 

N.B.—-Oi all the varioiis methods for reproducing Draw- 
the simplest and most practicable. In order to work it no 
complicated apparatus is necessary, nor does it require ex- 
cessive care. 

No dangerous acids or poisonous substances are used. 

Another advantage is, that the process of printing can be 
watched without the aid of a Photometer. 

After printing, simply washing in cold water is all tliat 
is necessary. 

We would call attention to our new Paper, No. 515. 
This is made specially for workshops, etc., being stronger, 
thicker, and less costly than Paper No. 494. The prints 
obtained from this Paper are not quite so fine as from No. 
494, but they are far superior to any made from Paper not 
specially manufactured for the Ferro-Prussiate Process. 

No. 514 is a strong Paper. No. 494 gives best and 
clearest results. 
MARION & CO., 22 & 23 Soho Square, London, W. 





Printingfrom Amateurs' Negatives in Silver or Carbon. 


Enlargements made on Paper, Canvas, or on Opal ; and finished 
in Black and White, Water Colours, and in Oils.