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Full text of "A practical guide to garden plants, containing descriptions of the hardiest and most beautiful annuals and biennials, hardy herbaceous and bulbous perennials, hardy water and bog plants, flowering and ornamental trees and shrubs, conifers; hardy ferns; hardy bamboos and other ornamental grasses. Also the best kinds of fruits and vegetables that may be grown in the open air in the British Isles with full and practical instruction as to culture and propagation"

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SIOHAiiE ITEM 
PROCESSING- ONE 

U.B.C. LIBRARY 




GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



A PEACTICAL 

GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

CONTAINING DESCRIPTIONS OF THE 

HARDIEST AND MOST BEAUTIFUL ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS 

HARDY HERBACEOUS AND BULBOUS PERENNIALS 

HARDY WATER AND BOG PLANTS 

FLOWERING AND ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS 

CONIFERS; HARDY FERNS; HARDY BAMBOOS 

AND OTHER ORNAMENTAL GRASSES 

ALSO THE BEST KINDS OF 

FRUITS AND VEGETABLES 

THAT MAY BE GROWN IN THE OPEN AIR IN THE BRITISH ISLANDS 
WITH FULL AND PRACTICAL INSTRUCTIONS AS TO 

CULTURE AND PROPAGATION 
By JOHN WEATHERS, F.K.H.S. 

LATE ASSISTANT- SECRETARY TO THE ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY, 

HORTICULTURAL LECTURER TO THE MIDDLESEX COUNTY COUNCIL, 

FORMERLY OF THE ROYAL GARDENS, KEW, ETC. 



'Then let the learned gardener mark with care 
The kinds of stocks, and what those kinds will bear; 
Explore the nature of each several tree, 
And, known, improve with artful industry. 
And let no spot of idle earth be found, 
But cultivate the genius of the ground' — Virgil (Drytlm's translation) 



"WITH 163 ILLUSTEATIOITS 



LONGMANS, GEEEN, AND CO. 

39 PATERNOSTER ROW, LONDON 

NEW YORK AND BOMBAY 

1901 

All rights reserved 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

University of British Columbia Library 



http://www.archive.org/details/practicalguidetoOOweat 



PEEEACE 



In adding a ' Pkactical Guide to Gaeden Plants ' to the literature 
of Gardening my chief aim has been to produce a book that will be 
unique and of real use not only to Amateur Gardeners, for whom it is 
particularly intended, but also to those engaged professionally in 
Horticulture. The work is the result of many years' experience among 
all kinds of Plants, gained in various nurseries and gardens in this 
country and on the Continent under many different conditions. It 
deals thoroughly with the description, cultivation, and propagation of 
all plants — Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables — that may be grown more 
or less successfully in the open air in the British Islands, and it cannot 
be regarded in any sense as a botanical treatise or text-book. Tender 
plants which require the protection and artificial warmth of green- 
houses have been excluded, with the exception of a few that may be 
grown in the open air during the summer months. Due regard has 
been given to the different climatic conditions prevailing throughout 
the British Islands, and the reader is advised as to whether any par- 
ticular plant will flourish out of doors in all parts of the Kingdom, or 
only in a few favoured spots like Devonshire, Cornwall, and the South 
of Ireland. 

ABBANGEMENT 

The work has been divided into Four Parts for the sake of con- 
venience. In Part I. the Life History of Plants from start to 
finish is dealt with in such a way, and without the use of technical 
expressions, so as to give the reader a good idea of the work carried on 
by the roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits &c. of plants in general. 

The Propagation of Plants by means of Seeds, Cuttings, Budding, 
Grafting, Layering &c. is also discussed from a general point of view, 
so that the reader may be better able to grasp the details given later 



vi PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



on under each particular genus and species. The various kinds of 
Soils, Manures, and Plant-foods have also received a good deal of 
notice, chiefly because the importance of such subjects is as a rule 
not fully grasped by amateurs. Intimately connected with Soils and 
Manures are the various operations for the improvement of the soil, 
such as Digging, Trenching, Hoeing, Baking, Mulching, Drainage &c, 
all of which are explained to the reader. The management of Lawns 
and Pathways is also dealt with in this portion of the work. 

Part II. is devoted entirely to the Flower Garden, that is to say, to 
the Description, Culture, and Propagation of all the most beautiful 
Haedy Annuals and Biennials ; Haedy Heebaceous Peeennials ; 
Bulbous Plants ; Bock Gaeden .Plants ; Haedy Watee and Bog 
Plants ; Oenamental and Floweeing Teees and Sheubs, including 
Conifees ; Haedy Bamboos, and other ornamental Geasses ; besides 
Haedy Feens, Hoesetails, Clubmosses &c. 

This important part of the work includes almost everything worthy 
of a place in the garden. As many as 133 Natural Orders, containing 
over 1000 Genera and several thousand Species, have been described 
and fully dealt with in regard to Culture and Propagation in every case. 

The plants have been arranged on a systematic basis, and that laid 
down by Bentham and Hooker in their standard work, the ' Genera 
Plantarum,' has been followed in the main. The natural orders, 
beginning with the Crowfoot Order (Ranunculacece) , and ending with 
the Clubmosses (Lycopodiacece) , follow each other according to their 
natural relationship, and the genera in each order are arranged in the 
same way. The species belonging to each genus, however, follow each 
other in alphabetical order for the sake of convenient reference. 

The value of arranging all the flowering plants thus in their natural 
groups is fully discussed at p. 120 under the article on the ' Classifica- 
tion of Plants,' and need not be further referred to in this place, except 
to say that it is hoped the arrangement on such a basis will at once 
commend itself to every reader interested not only in growing plants, 
but also in studying them, and comparing their characteristics one with 
another. So that the reader may be able to see at a glance some of 
the choicest plants belonging to the various groups referred to above, 
a careful selection has been made from each of them. Thus there will 
be no difficulty in choosing any Annuals or Biennials, Hardy Herba- 
ceous Perennials, Flowering Trees and Shrubs &c. one may wish to 
cultivate in his or her garden. 

As colour plays a very important part in artistic gardening nowa- 
days, lists are also given of Hardy Plants, having flowers of white, red, 
blue, yellow, purple, and other shades. These lists will be valuable for 



PEE FACE vii 



the purposes of massing in herbaceous borders to produce effect by 
means of contrast in floral colouring. As the height is given to almost 
every plant described it is scarcely necessary to make out a list of plants 
with various heights. 

Under the ' Trees and Shrubs ' at p. 107 the list has been so 
arranged as to enable the reader to see immediately which kinds are 
in blossom at any particular month of the year, from January to 
December. 

Part III. is devoted to the Description, Culture, and Propagation 
of the best Hardy Fruits for our climate, and Part IV. is in the same 
way devoted to Vegetables. The Culture plays an important part 
in these two groups, and is fully described in simple language. The 
methods recommended are not those of any particular gardener, but 
such as are generally practised in the best gardens in the kingdom. 
Sometimes more than one way of growing a plant is mentioned, but 
the reader should always remember that while the principles of cultiva- 
tion are usually the same, there may be many differences in detail. He 
should, therefore, use a wise discretion, by taking into consideration 
the nature of the soil, situation, aspect, altitude &c. of his own particular 
garden, and then by means of the information given, mixed with a little 
common sense (one of the best plant foods known) , there will be little 
difficulty as a rule in growing his plants, flowers, fruits, or vegetables. 
As a reminder of the various operations to be performed during the 
year, a short calendar of work has been added to the Flower, Fruit, 
and Vegetable sections of the book. 



THE GLOSSARY 

Although it is always a difficult task for a technical writer to de- 
scribe the objects and operations connected with his own profession in 
ordinary language, I have endeavoured to avoid as far as possible the 
use of all technical gardening and botanical expressions throughout 
the work, except where such were inevitable. Simple language has 
been used throughout, but technical words are to be found here 
and there in the descriptions of the various natural orders and genera. 
These terms, however, are comparatively few, and occur many times 
over under similar circumstances, so that the reader will soon regard 
them as ordinary language. With a view, however, of making their 
meanings quite clear, all technical expressions have been grouped to- 
gether in a ' Glossary,' and numerous thumbnail sketches have also 
been given to further elucidate the meanings of many. 



viii PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



PLANT NAMES 

One of the greatest complaints amateurs have against gardeners and 
botanists is that they will use ' such long Latin names ' for their plants. 
And there are some even — very few it is to be hoped — who use this as 
an argument, not only against the study, but also the cultivation of 
beautiful plants. ' If you would only give your plants English names,' 
they say, ' we could understand them better and take more interest in 
them.' This may be very true, but such people seldom find difficulty 
with names like Begonia, Gloxinia, Campanula, Passiflora, Colchicum, 
Crocus, Primula, Geranium, Pelargonium, Zinnia, Phlox, Coreopsis, 
Nemophila, and many other botanical names which practice has 
rendered familiar. As a matter of fact it is simply impossible to give 
every plant an English name, and efforts to do so have resulted in 
some very peculiar if not really awkward and inappropriate appella- 
tions, which are often worse than the proper botanical name. There is 
no need to say anything against the use of proper English names for 
plants in all cases where they can be appropriately used and are gene- 
rally accepted. Such English names are a help to the amateur, and 
throughout this work they have been used on every possible occasion, 
even to the extent of adopting popular names such as Buttercup, 
Poppy, Daisy &c. to represent the various natural orders to which 
they belong. No attempt, however, has been made to coin new or 
awkward popular names ; and it must be pointed out that one and the 
same English name is often applied to two or more plants belonging 
to totally different families, as may be seen by reference to the copious 
Index at the end. The scientific names adopted throughout the work 
are those generally accepted by botanists throughout the world. 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

The illustration of species has not been attempted, as a satisfactory 
representation of each one would have necessarily increased the bulk 
of the book and its cost to the purchaser beyond what is thought 
desirable, and anything short of this would be of little practical value. 
As faithful a word -picture of a plant as possible has been given in 
the descriptions, and it is hoped that this will be of real practical 
value to the reader, and enable him to recognise any particular 
plant. Illustrations, however, have not been altogether abandoned. 
The ' Glossary of Technical Terms ' at the beginning of the book has 



PREFACE ix 



been freely illustrated, as have also such operations as Budding (p. 58), 
Grafting (p. 52), Layering (p. 59), Pruning (p. 1033), Tree-planting 
(p. 1032) &c. The differences between the branches bearing flower- 
buds and leaf-buds in most of the fruit trees have also been illustrated 
for the benefit of those amateurs who like to do their own pruning but 
are often not quite sure as to whether they are cutting away fruit-bear- 
ing branches or not. 

Such, in brief, is an outline of the work ; and I may add in conclu- 
sion that I am indebted for many hints and suggestions to numerous 
friends, among whom special mention may be made of Mr. James 
Britten, F.L.S., of the Botanical Department, British Museum ; 
Mr. Geo. Nicholson, F.L.S. ; Mr. W. Watson, and Mr. W. J. Bean, 
of the Koyal Gardens, Kew ; Mr. Geo. Tebbutt, of Mogden Gardens, 
Isleworth ; and Mr. W. H. Divers, Head Gardener to the Duke of 
Rutland, Belvoir Castle, who has kindly read the proofs of the Fruit 
and Vegetable portions of the work, and whose assistance may be 
regarded as an extra guarantee of accuracy and sound practical advice. 



JOHN WEATHERS. 



Isleworth-on-Thames ; 
September 1900. 



CONTENTS 



PREFACE v 

GLOSSARY OF TERMS * 

INTRODUCTION 1!) 

PART I 

LIFE HISTORY OF CULTIVATED PLANTS: 

Growth 21 

The Seed . ... 24 

The Root 26 

The Stem 29 

The Leaves 32 

The Flower 36 

FERTILISATION AND HYBRIDISATION 37 

THE FRUIT 38 

INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON VEGETATION 40 

PROPAGATION OF PLANTS : 41 

By Seeds 42 

By Cuttings 48 

By Grafting 52 

By Budding 58 

By Layering 59 

By Dividing the Rootstock 60 

By Suckers 60 

THE SOIL, ITS NATURE AND COMPOSITION 61 

IMPROVING THE SOIL 63 

PLANT FOODS AND MANURES 69 

PART II 

THE HARDY FLOWER GARDEN 77 

ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS 78 

THE HARDY HERBACEOUS BORDER. . . 80 



xii PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

PAGE 

LIST OF CHOICE HERBACEOUS PERENNIALS 86 

PLANTS FOR SHADY PLACES ■ . . . . 88 

TRAILING AND CLIMBING PLANTS 89 

HARDY PLANTS WITH WHITE FLOWERS 90 

RED FLOWERS 91 

BLUE OR PURPLE FLOWERS 92 

YELLOW FLOWERS 93 

PLANTS IN FLOWER FROM SEPTEMBER TO MAY 94 

BULBOUS AND RHIZOMATOUS PLANTS 95 

THE ROCK GARDEN 96 

ALPINE AND ROCK GARDEN PLANTS 102 

ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS 104 

AUTUMN TINTS 110 

EVERGREEN TREES AND SHRUBS Ill 

HARDY WATER AND BOG PLANTS 112 

LAWNS US 

GARDEN WALKS AND PATHWAYS 117 

CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 120 

KEY TO NATURAL ORDERS OF PLANTS 121 

DESCRIPTIONS, CULTURE, AND PROPAGATION OF ANNUALS, BIENNIALS, 

PERENNIALS, ORNAMENTAL TREES AND SHRUBS &c. . . . 131-956 

DESCRIPTIONS, CULTURE, AND PROPAGATION OF GRASSES, HARDY 

BAMBOOS AND SEDGES 956-972 

DESCRIPTIONS, CULTURE, AND PROPAGATION OF CONIFERS . . 972-1008 

DESCRIPTIONS, CULTURE, AND PROPAGATION OF HARDY FERNS, HORSE- 
TAILS, CLUBMOSSES 1008-1024 

CALENDAR OF WORK FOR THE FLOWER GARDEN .... 1025-1027 

PART III 

THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN 1028-1102 

PART IV 

THE VEGETABLE GARDEN 1103-1169 

INDEX 1171 



GLOSSARY 

OF THE PKINCIPAL TECHNICAL TEEMS USED 
SPAEINGLY IN THIS WOEK 



Like every other profession, Gardening ha= its own peculiar terms and expressions, which 
are readily understood by the skilled practitioner. To the amateur, however, such technical 
terms and expressions are often bewildering when not explained in simple language or with- 
out illustration. To meet this difficulty, and to encourage the amateur to take a keener 
interest in the plants he may have in his garden, the technical terms used in this work are 
explained in the following glossary. In all cases where there is likely to be some doubt as 
to the meaning, an illustration has been given. It must, however, be understood that as 
regards form, it may often be necessary to use two or more terms to convey an accurate idea. 
Thus a leaf may be called ' ovate-lance-shaped ' which means that its shape is somewhat 
between ovate and lance-shaped— it is broader than lanceolate (fig. 68) and narrower than 
ovate (fig. 75). And so on with other expressions. As a rule the mere botanical expressions 
have been avoided as far as possible in the body of the work, wherever a suitable English 
one could be substituted without inaccuracy. ' 



Abortive, Abortion, imperfectly formed or 

rudimentary, as is often the case of stamens 

and petals. 
Acanthus, spiny. 
Acaulescent, Acaulis, apparently stemless, 

as in Primroses and other plants where 

the spaces between the joints are very 

short. 
Accrescent, growing after flowering is over, 

as with the calyx of Physalis Francheti 

(p. 691). 
Accumbent, lying against a thing, applied 

to the seed leaves or 

cotyledons in the seed. 
Acerosus, needle-shaped, 

as the leaves of Pines, 

&c. (see Acicular). 
Achene, Achenium, a 

hard dry one-seeded 

superior fruit, as in 

Buttercup, Clematis, 

Strawberry. In fig. 1 

the left hand drawing 

shows a magnified achene of a Buttercup 

with a section of the ovary, within which 




FIG. 1. — ACHENE. 




the seed s appears. The stigma is shown 
at st. The right-hand drawing shows a 
feathery achene of Clematis. The fruit is 
at/, and the awn at a. 

Achlamydeous, flowers 
without sepals or 
petals, as with most 
of the plants de- 
scribed from p. 759 to 
p. 805. 

Acicular, needle-shaped, 
as in the case of Pine 
leaves (fig. 2). 

Acinaciform, scimitar- 
shaped, like leaves of some Mesembryan- 
themums. 

Acrogenous, growing from the apex, as in 
the case of Perns. 

Aculeate, armed with prickles, as the 
stems of Boses, Brambles cfec. (fig. 3). 

Acuminate, drawn out into a long point ; 
taper-pointed (fig. 4). 

Acute, sharp ; forming an angle less than a 
right angle at the tip. 

Adelphia, a brotherhood. Stamens are 



PIG. 2.— ACICULAR. 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



monadelphous,' as in the Mallows (p. 270), 
diadelphous,' as in the Labiate family 





*TG. 3. — ACULEATUS. 



FIG. 4.— ACUM1XATE- 



(p. 742), or * polyadelphous,' as in the 
Hypericums (p. 265) ; according as they 
are arranged in one, two, or more fas- 
cicles or bundles. 

Adnate, one organ united to another, as 
an ovary to the calyx-tube, or stamens to 
petals. 

Adpressed, pressed close to anything, but 
not united with it, like the hairs on stems 
and leaves. 

Adventitious, accidental, out of the usual 
place. Roots are said to be ' adventitious ' 
when developed from any part of a plant 
except the ' radicle ' or first downward 
growth from the seed. 

/Eruginous, verdigris coloured. 

^Estivalis, produced in summer. 

/Estivation, the arrangement of the parts of 
a flower (i.e. sepals, petals, stamens, 
pistils <&c.) when in bud. The term ' pras- 
floration ' is used in America. 

Agrestis, growing in fields. 

Alabastrum, a flower-bud. 

Alae, the wings or side petals of a papiliona- 
ceous flower, represented 
in fig. 5 at w. 

Alate, alatus, winged, as 
the stems of Thistles 
and various seeds — e.g. 
that of the Elm. 

Albescens, albescent, 
turning white, or whit- 
ish. 

Albumen, nutritious mat- 
ter contained in the seed 
to feed the young plant until it has de- 
veloped roots and leaves (see p. 25). 

Alburnum, the sap-wood, or outer rings of 
wood in dicotyledonous trees. 

Albus, white. 

Alliaceous, with a Garlic or Onion-like odour. 

Alpestris, sub-alpine. 

Alpine, a term applied to plants native of 

high mountains, beyond the forest range. 
Alternate, leaves arranged on the stem one 
after another (fig. 6). Petals are alternate 
with the sepals, or the stamens with the 
petals, when they stand over the spaces 
between them. 




FIG. 5. — AL.E. 



Alveolate, honey-combed like ; with hollows 
or depressions in regular order, as on the 
bare flower heads or receptacles of many 
of the Compositse (p. 492). 





FIG. 6. — ALTERNATE. 



-AMENTUM. 




FIG. 
AMPLEXICAUL 



Amentaceous, a term applied to plants 
having the flowers in catkins, like the 
Willow and Hazel (fig. 7). A female flower 
is shown at /, and the male ones at in. 

Amplexicaul, said of leaves when clasping 
the stem with the base 
(fig. 8). 

Ampullaceous, swelling 
out like a bottle or 
bladder. 

Anastomosing, forming a 
network, as the veins of 
leaves and fronds. 

Ancipital, two-edged, as in 
the flower-stems of many 
Iridaceous plants. 

Andrcecium, the male organs or stamens of 
a flower collectively (figs. 9, 55, 56, and 109). 

Anemophilous, wind-loving — said of wind- 
fertilised flowers, like Willows, Conifers 
&c, the pollen of which is blown about by 
the wind and is thus carried to the stig- 
matic surface of the carpels in the female 
flowers. 

Anfractuose, bent hither and thither. 

Angios, covered, hidden. Angiospermous, 
having the seed enclosed in an ovary 
(p. 121). 

Anisos, unequal. Anisomerous, parts un- 
equal in number in the same flower. 

Annual, flowering and fruiting the first sea- 
son of being raised from seed, arid of one 
year or season's duration only (p. 78). 

Annulus, the name 
given to the ring of 
tissue around the 
upper portion of the a - 
stalk in Mushrooms 
and other Fungi. . 
Also applied to the f\ 
row of strong cells in 
spore cases of Ferns. 

Anther, the essential 
part of the stamen 
which contains the 
pollen. In fig. 9 the anther is shown by 
the letter a. 




FIG. a.— ANTHERS. 



GLOSSARY 




Antheridium, the organ in Ferns correspond- 
ing to the stamens in flowers (p. 1009). 

Apetalous, without petals, as with Ane- 
mones, Clematis Ac. 

Apex, the end furthest from the point of 
attachment, as in the case of leaves. 

Aphyllous, leafless, like the stems of many 
exotic Euphorbias and Cacta- 
ceous plants. 

Apiculate, having a very small 
hard point at the end or apex 
of a leaf, as in fig. 10. 

Apocarpous, when several 
pistils or carpels in the same 
flower are separate, as in the 
Strawberry and many Ranun- 
culaceas. 

Apterous, without wings. 

Aquatic, aquatilis, living or 
growing in water. , 

Arachnoid, cobwebby, like some of the 
Houseleeks (p. 44). 

Arboreus, arborescent, growing into a tree. 

Archegonium, the organ in Ferns corre- 
sponding to the carpels or pistils in flowers 
(p. 1009). 

Arcuate, curved like a bow. 

Arenarius, arenose, growing in sandy soil. 

Argenteus, silvery. 

Argillose, argillaceous, growing in clayey 
soil. 

Argos, Greek for silvery white— as in argo- 
phyllus, white-leaved. 

Argutus, very sharply toothed. 

Arillate, seeds furnished with an aril or 
fleshy growth from the base, as in the Yew, 
Euonymus &c (fig. 11). At a is repre- 
sented the fleshy aril, and at/ the fruit or 
seed. 




FIG. 11.— ARIL. 



FIG. 12. — ARISTATE. 



Aristate, awned or bearded, like Barley 

(fig. 12). 
Articulatus, jointed. 
Arvensis, growing in cultivated grounds. 
Ascending, curving upwards into a vertical, 

from a more or less horizontal or prostrate 

position. 
Asper, asperous, rough ; furnished with 

harsh hairs. 
Assimilation, the process of manufacturing 

food by the leaves (see p. 34). 
Ater, deep black ; used in combinations such 

as atropurpureus, atrococcineus, atrosan- 

guineus dc. 




FIG. 13.— 
AURICULATE. 



Atratus, becoming black. 

Attenuate, narrowing gradually to a point. 

Aurantiacus, orange-coloured. 

Auratus, golden-yellow. 

Aureus, golden. 

Auriculate, Auricled, having auricles, or ear- 
like appendages at the base 
of the leaves (fig. 13). 

Awn, a long-pointed bristle- 
like appendage, as the beard 
of many kinds of grasses, 
like Barley, Oats &c. 

Axil, the upper angle formed 
by the union of the stem and 
leaf. 

Axile, proceeding from the 
centre or axis. This term is 
used in connection with the 
way seeds are arranged on the placentas in 
the ovary shown at a in fig. 86. 

Axillary, produced in the axils of the leaves 
or other organs. 

Axis, the main ascending stem and descend- 
ing root of a plant. 

Azureus, sky-blue. 

Baccate, having a more or less succulent or 
pulpy seed-vessel or berry as in the Fuchsia, 
Aucuba, &c. 

Barbatus, bearded, having tufts of soft hair. 

Bearded, having long hair like a beard, as 
the ' crests ' of many Irises (p.yi7 )• 

Berry, a pulpy fruit containing several seeds 
imbedded in the juice, as the Currant, 
Gooseberry, Orange &c. (fig. 14). 





14.— BERRY. 



FIG. 15. — BIFID. 



Bifid, divided half-way down into two parts 

(fig. 15). 
Bijugate, having only two pairs of leaflets, as 

shown in fig. 16. 





FIG. 16. — BIJUGATE. 



FIG. 17. — BIPISNATE. 



Bipartite, divided nearly to its base into two 
parts ; nearly the same as Bifid. 

B2 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Bipinnate, when the pinnae or divisions of a 
pinnate leaf are themselves again pinnate, 
as shown in fig. 17. 

Bipinnatifid, when the divisions of a pinnati- 
fid leaf are themselves pinnatifid (fig. 18). 




FIG. 18.— BIPINNATIFID. 



FIG. 19. — BITERNATE. 



Biternate, when the divisions of a ternate 
leaf are themselves ternate (fig. 19). 

Blade, the lamina or flat part of a leaf (fig. 
98, 6). 

Bracteatus, furnished with bracts. 

Bracteoles, minute bracts attached to the 
base of the pedicels. 

Bracts, small leaves somewhat different from 
the others, seated on the flower stalks 
(peduncles) (fig. 89, b). 

Bulb, a leaf-bud with fleshy scales, usually 
placed underground. In tig. 20 a repre- 
sents the scaly bulb of a Lily, and b the 
tunicated bulb of a Tulip. 

Bulbiferous, bearing bulbs. 




FIG. 21. — BULBILS. 



Bulbils, small bulbs, produced in the axils of 
the leaves of many Lilies (fig. 21, b). 

Bulbous, having bulb-like steins or roots. 

Bullate, blistered or puffed up, like the 
leaves of Savoys. 



Caducous, dropping off, as the petals of 

Poppies. 
Caeruleus, pale blue. 
Caesius, ash-grey. 
Caespitose, in close dwarf tufts, like many 

Dianthus (p. 238). 
Calcarate, furnished with a spur, like the 

flowers of Larkspurs, Columbines, Tropae- 

olums &c. (tig. 22). 
Calceolate or Calciform, having a pouch or 

slipper, as in Calceolaria and the Lady's 

Slipper Orchid (fig. 23). 



Calyx ( Sepals), the outer and usually greenish 
whorl of leaf-like organs of the flower below 





FIG. 22 —CALCARATE. FIG. 23.— CALCEOLATE. 

the corolla (petals). The calyx is shown 

at c, and the petals atp, in fig. 22. 
Cambium-layer, see p. 30. 
Campanulate, bell-shaped, 

as in the Campanulas, p. 

562 (fig. 24). 
Campestris, growing in 

fields. 
Candidus, pure white. 
Canescens, greyish-white. 
Capillary, like very slender 

threads. 
Capitate, Capitular, Capi- 

tulum, growing in heads or 

close clusters, as with most flowers of the 

Composite order (fig. 25). 




FIG. 24. — 
CAMPAXULATK. 





FIG. 25. — CAPITL'LUM. 



FIG. 26.— CAPSULE. 




FIG. 27. — CARCERULK. 



Capsule, a dry usually many-seeded seed- 
vessel, as in Poppy (fig. 26). 
Carcerule, the name 

applied to the fruits of 

many of the Mallow 

and Hollyhock tribe 

(fig. 27). 
Carneus, flesh-colour. 
Carpel, the free or 

united divisions of the 

ovary or capsule. 
Cartilaginous, tough 

and hard, often applied 

to the margins of 

leaves. 
Caruncle, an outgrowth 

or excrescence at the 

scar (hilum) of some 

seeds, such as the Castor 

Oil plant (Kicinus) and 

the Viola (fig. 28). 
Catkin, a spike of closely crowded flowers of 

one sex, in which the perianths are replaced 




FIG. 28.— CARUNCLE. 



GLOSS A BY 



by bracts, as in Alders, Birches, Hazels, 
Willows (fig. 7). 
Caulicle, a little stem ; the name sometimes 
given to the rudimentary stem in dicotyle- 
donous seedlings. 

Cauline, belonging to or produced from the 
stem. 

Cell, see p. 22. 

Centrifugal, applied to those forms of in- 
florescence whose terminal or central 
flowers open first. 

Centripetal, flowering from the base or 
circumference towards the centre or tip, 
as in Wallflowers. 

Cernuus, drooping, pendant. 

Chaffy, covered with minute membranous 
scales. 

Channelled, hollowed somewhat like a gutter 
on the upper surface of leaves or down the 
stem. 

Chlorophyll, see p. 33. 

Chryso, in compounds, signifies golden- 
yellow, as Chrysanthus. 

Cilia, Ciliate, hairs placed like eyelashes on 
the edge of leaves, petals <fec. 
(fig. 111). 

Circinate, rolled up from the top 
towards the base like a cro- 
sier, as with the unfolding 
fronds of Ferns (fig. 29). 

Circumscissile, divided by a 
circular slit or opening round 
the sides, as shown in fig. 90. 

Cladodes, leaf-like branches, as 
in Butcher's Broom, p. 810. 

Clavate, club-shaped, a body 
which is slender at the base 
and gradually thickening upwards. 

Claw, the narrow and suddenly contracted 
base of a petal (fig. 30). c represents the 
claw proper, b the blade, and s the scales 
often seen in many flowers of the Pink 
order (p. 238). 

Cleft, deeply cut, but not to the midrib. 

Coccineus, scarlet or carmine tinged with 
yellow. 




FIG. 29.— 
CIRCINATE. 





FIG. 30.— CLAW. 



FIG. 31. — COCCI. 



Coccus, Cocci, the separable carpels or nutlets 
of a dry fruit, as in Pelargoniums and Ge- 
raniums (fig. 31, shown at s). 

Cohering, the attachment of similar parts, 
as the petals forming a gamo- or mono- 




petalous corolla ; and when the filaments of 

stamens are united. 
Column, a term more particularly used to 

denote the united sta- 
mens and pistils in 

the Orchid family 

(p. 890). In fig. 32 st 

represents the stig- 

matic surface in a 

hollow on to which the 

pollinia (one of which 

is shown at p) must 

be placed to produce seeds. At a is shown 

the covering or lid over the pollinia. 
Comose, furnished with hairs at the end, as 

some seeds like those of the Composite 

order. 
Compound, formed of many similar parts, 

as the leaves of Thalictrums, Aquilegias, 

Horse Chestnut, Acacia &c. 
Compressed, flattened laterally. 
Conical, narrowing to a point from a broad 

circular base. 
Connate, when two 

similar parts are 

slightly connected 

round the stem, as the 

leaves of some Loni- 

ceras (fig. 33). 
Connective, the rib or 

part of the filament 

between the anther- 
cells, often produced, 

as in Paris quadrifolia (fig. 9, c). 
Contorted, in restivation, when one edge of 

a petal or sepal is covered and the other 

free or exposed ; twisted. 
Convolute, in aestivation or vernation, when 

one part is rolled up within another 
lengthwise. 
Cordate, with two rounded lobes at the base, 

heart-shaped (fig. 34). 
Coriaceous, leathery, tough. 




FIG. 38.— CONNATE. 




FIG. 34.— CORDATE. 



FIG. 35.— CORM. 



Corm, a fleshy bulb-like, solid, not scaly, 
underground stem, as in Crocus, Gladiolus, 
Cyclamen. See fig. 35, which represents 
the corm of a Crocus, the young one (yc) 
being above the old one (oc). 

Corolla, the whorl of floral leaves, called 



PB ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



petals, between the calyx and stamens, 
usually coloured. Figs. 5, 22, 23, 36, 40, 
49, 58 &c. show many kinds of corollas. 
Corona, a term applied to the crown or 
trumpet in the centre of most Narcissus 
and Daffodil flowers (fig. 36, c). 




FIG. 36.— CORONA. 



FIG. 37. — CORYMB. 



Corymb, a raceme with the pedicels becom- 
ing gradually shorter as they approach the 
top of the flower stalk, so that all the 
flowers are nearly on a level (fig. 37). 

Corymbose, in the form of a corymb. 

Costate, ribbed. 

Cotyledons, the seed lobes, often forming 
the first leaves of the plant (fig. 48, c). 

Crassus, thick and fleshy. 

Cremocarp, the name given to the half-fruits 
or carpels of the Umbellifer family, which 
split apart when ripe (fig. 38). 



*V 




PIG. 38.— CREMOCARP. 



FIG. 39.— CRENATE. 



Crenate, with rounded teeth on the margins 
of leaves. See fig. 39, which represents a 
heart-shaped (cordate) reniform (kidney- 
shaped) leaf with a crenate margin. 

Crenulate, minutely crenate. 

Crested, having an appendage like a crest, 
as in the cultivated forms of many Ferns 
and in Cockscombs (p. 762). 

Crinitus, furnished with tufts of shaggy hair. 

Cruciform, four parts, as petals, arranged so 
as to form a cross, as in Arabis, Wallflower, 
and most of the Crucifer order (fig. 40). 





Cryptogamous, see p. 121. 

Cucullate, hooded, as the spathe of Arum 

italicum (fig. 41). See Spathe. 
Cuneate, like a wedge, but attached by its 

point, usually applied to the shape of leaves 

or petals. 
Cuspidate, abrupt, but with a little point at 

the end ; something like apiculate but 

larger (fig. 42). 





FIG. 42.— CUSPIDATE. 



FIG. 43.— CYME. 



Cyme, inflorescence formed of a terminal 
flower, beneath which are side branches 
each having a terminal flower and 
branches again similarly dividing, and so 
on, as in many plants of the Pink Order 
(fig. 43). 

Cymose, arranged in a cyme. 

Dealbatus, covered with a greyish-white 
powder. 

Deca, in compounds signifies ten — as deca- 
jyetalus, ten-petalled. 

Deciduous, falling off, said of the leaves of 
large numbers of trees and shrubs in 
autumn ; Caducous has the same meaning 
but is applied to the sepals and petals of 
most flowers after expansion. 

Declinate, bent downwards, like the stamens 
in many flowers. 

Declining, straight, but pointed downwards. 

Decompound, subdivided more than three 
times, as the leaves of many Umbelliferous 
plants, Thalictrums &c. 

Decumbent, said of stems lying on the 
ground, but tending to rise at the tips. 

Decurrent, when the limb of a leaf is pro- 
longed down the stem, below the point of 
attachment of the midrib, as in the case 
of the common Comfrey, many Thistles 
&c. (fig. 44). 





FIG. 44.— DECURRENT. 



FIG. 45. — DECUSSATE. 



FIG. 40.— CRUCIFORM. 



FIG. 41.— CUCULLATE. 



Decussate, opposite leaves in four equal 
rows, as in many Veronicas (fig. 45). 



GLOSSARY 



FIG. 46.— DEHISCENCE. 



Deflexed, curved downwards or towards the 
back. 

Dehiscence, the mode in which an ovary or 
fruit opens to shed its 
seeds. Fig. 46 shows 
various ways in which 
the pods open ; a is 
called loculicidal, and 
b septifragal dehi- 
scence. 

Deltoid, fleshy with a 
triangular transverse 
section. 

Dentate, with short 

triangular teeth, as on the margins of many 
leaves. 

Denticulate, finely toothed, like the Camellia 
leaf. 

Depressed, when flattened at the top, like 
many Apples, Onions. 

Di, in compounds, signifies two, as diandrous, 
2 stamens. 

Diadelphous, stamens in two bundles or 
fascicles, as in some Legu- 
minous flowers (fig. 47). 

Dichlamydeous, having 

both calyx and corolla, as 
in most of the flowers 
described between p. 131 
and p. 759. 

Dichotomous, when a 
branch, stem, or flower- 
stalk is much forked in 
pairs. 

Diclinous, the same as 

Unisexual, when stamens and pistils are 
in different flowers. 

Dicotyledonous, said of plants having two 
seed-leaves, and afterwards net-veined 
leaves &c, as explained at p. 122. Fig. 
48 shows a seedling dicotyledon : r shows 
the true roots ; h the hypocotyl or part 
between the true root and true stem ; c 
the cotyledons or seed-leaves ; a, the first 
pair of true net-veined leaves, and p the 
first true bud after the original one called a 
plumule. 



Am 



ing from the top of the petiole, as the 
leaves of the Lupin, Horse Chestnut &c. 
(fig. 50). 
Dimidiate, the two halves of an organ very 




FIG. 50. — DIGITATE. 



I'ltt. 51. — DIMIDIATE. 




FIG. 47.— 
DIADELPHOUS. 





FIG. 48.— DICOTYLEDON. FIG. 49.— DIDYNAMOUS. 

Didynamous, having four stamens, two 
shorter than the others, as in many plants 
of the Labiate order (fig. 49). 

Digitate, fingered leaves or lobes all start- 



unequal in size, like the leaves of Begonias, 
Lime trees &c. (fig. 51). 

Dioecious, with the different sexes on 
different plants : stamens on one plant, 
pistils on another, as in Willows, Aucubas, 
Hippophae &c. 

Disc, a fleshy surface from which the 
stamens and pistils spring. The term ' disci- 
floras ' has been applied to a large class of 
plants having these characters (p. 123). 
Disc florets are the central flowers in Com- 
posite plants like Daisy, Marguerite &c. 

Dissected, deeply divided into many narrow 
lobes, like the leaves of Umbelliferous 
plants, Thalictrums &c. 

Dissepiments, the partitions of an ovary or 
fruit, as shown in fig. 46. 

Distichous, arranged in two opposite rows, 
as the leaves of Taxodium distichum 
(p. 983). 

Divaricate, spreading at an obtuse angle. 

Drupe, a fleshy fruit 
having a hard stone 
(putamen or endocarp, 
shown at s), as the 
Cherry, Plum, Peach 
&c. (fig. 52). m repre- 
sents the fleshy edible 
portion called meso- 
carp, and e the skin or 
epicarp. See Pome, 
tig. 88. 

Duramen, the heartwood 
or centre of Dicotyledonous trees, and the 
outer part of the stem of Monocotyledo- 



Echinate, clothed with spines or prickles, 
like the fruit of the Sweet Chestnut. 

Elliptic, oval, but pointed at each end. 

Elongate, much lengthened. 

Emarginate, slightly notched at the end, as 
in the case of many leaves (fig. 53). 

Embryo, the germ of a plant in the seed 
(see p. 24). 




FIG. 52.— DRUPE. 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Ensiform, sword- shaped, as the leaves of 

Iris, Gladiolus &c. 
Entire, said of leaves, petals, sepals not 

toothed nor lobed, nor divided at the edge. 





FIG. 53. — EMARGINATF. 



FIG. 54. — EPICALYX. 



Epicalyx, the term applied to the secondary 
calyx or sepals, as seen in Strawberries and 
Mallows. In fig. 54, e shows the epicalyx ; 
c, the calyx (or sepals) proper ; and p the 
petals. 

Epidermis, the skin of a leaf or stem im- 
mediately underlying the cuticle. 

Epigynous, when the parts of a flower are 
apparently seated on the ovary (fig. 55). 




FIG. 55.— EPIGYNOUS. PIG. 56. — EPIPETALOCS. 

Epipetalous,when the stamens are seated on 

the petals or corolla, as in Primroses &c. 

(fig. 56). 
Equitant, overlapping each other, as the 

leaves of the Iris. 
Erose, irregularly cut, as if gnawed, some- 
what as represented in fig. 95. 
Etaerio, a fruit composed of several drupels, 

as in the Blackberry. 
Exogenous, growing by additions to the 

circumference. This term was formerly 

used instead of Dicotyledonous. 
Exserted, projecting beyond, as stamens 

protruding beyond the corolla or petals, as 

in figs. 55 and 56. 
Exstipulate, without stipules. 
Extrorse, applied to anthers which shed the 

pollen outwards, or away from the pistil. 

Falcate, sickle-shaped, applied to leaves 
like some of the Eucalyptuses. 

Fasciated, a term applied to stems which 
become abnormally flattened, and bear an 
extraordinary number of flowers or leaves, 
as is often seen in Asparagus and in Lilium 
auratum. 



Fascicle, a cyme or crowded cluster of 

flowers placed on short pedicels of nearly 

equal length, as in Sweet William and 

other Pinks. 
Fasciculate, when several similar parts are 

collected into a bundle and spring from 

the same spot. 
Fastigiate, applied to the branches of a 

tree when they are erect and close, like a 

tapering birch broom, as in the upright 

Cypress and Lombardy Poplar. 
Fimbriate, fringed at the margin, like the 

petals of Carnations, Sweet Williams, and 

other Pinks, as shown in fig. 30. 
Fistular, applied to the hollow stems and 

leaves of plants, as in many of the Umbelli- 

ferffi. 
Flaccid, weak, flabby, as when leaves droop 

for want of water. 
Flavus, flavidus, pale yellow. 
Flexuose, zigzag, usually changing its direc- 
tion at each joint, like the branches of 

many trees, the Beech &c. 
Floccose, with little tufts like wool. 
Florets, the small flowers of Composite 

plants (fig. 25,/). 
Fluitans, floating. 
FJuviatilis, aquatic. 
Follicle, an inflated 1-celled carpel, opening 

by a suture to which several 

seeds are attached, as in 

Trollius, Delphinium, Pas- 

onia (fig. 57). 
Free, separate, not joined 

together or with any other 

organ. 
Frond, the leaf-like part of 

Ferns, whether simple or 

divided. 
Fruit, the seed-vessel or ovary 

with its ripe contents 

(seeds) and any external appendages. 
Frutex, Frutescent, Fruticose, a shrub, 

shrubby ; a woody plant destitute of a 

trunk, and branching from the base, or 

nearly so. 
Fugacious, soon falling off, like the cap on 

the flower-bud of Eschscholtzia, the sepals 

and petals of Poppies &c. 
Fulvus, dull yellow, buff. 
Funnel-shaped, tubular below, but gradually 

enlarging upwards, like the flowers of some 

Convolvuluses (fig. 66). 
Furcate, forked. 
Fuscus, brownish. 
Fusiform, spindle-shaped, thick tapering to 

each end, like the root of a long Radish. 

Galbalus, the fleshy and ultimately woody 
cone of Junipers and Cypresses. 

Galeate, shaped like a helmet, as the upper 
segment of the flower of Monkshood (fig. 
58). 




gloss a in- 



Gamopetalous, when the petals are united 
together, as in Canterbury Bells, Laures- 





F1G. 60. — GIBBOUS. 



many 



l'IG. 58.— fJAIJCATK. IIG. 59.— GAMOl'KTAI.OIS. 

tinus, Forsythias, and most of the plants 
described under Gamopetaloe in this work, 
p. 477, see figs. 59, 60, 63, 66, 67. 

Gibbous, swollen on one 
side, like the flower of 
Valerian (fig. 60). 

Glabrous, without hairs or 
down on the surface, as 
the leaves of Camellias, 
Aucubas, Cherry Laurels 
<ftc. 

Gland, Glandular, a wart- 
like cellular secreting 
organ usually raised above 
the surface, as on the leaves of 
Peaches. 

Glandular-hairy, having hairs tipped with 
glands. 

Glans, a name applied to the fruit of the 
Oak. In fig. 61, c represents 
the cupule, without the 
seed, and g the entire fruit. 

Glaucous, sea-green with a 
whitish-blue lustre, like 
the thick fleshy leaves of 
Echeveria secunda, and 
many Aquilegias &c. 

Globose, round like a globe, 
used in connection with in- 
florescences, like the heads 
of flowers of Echinops 
Ritro, as well as of single 
bodies like fruits, capsules &c. 

Glumes, the scales enclosing the spikelet of 
flowers in Grasses. 

Graveolens, possessing an intense odour, as 
in Ruta graveolens, the Bue. 

Gymnos, in compounds signifies naked, as 
' Gymnospermous,' naked-seeded, applied 
to the Coniferae (p. 972). 

Gynandrous, stamens and styles consoli- 
dated, as in the case of the Orchid family 
(p. 890), shown under Column (fig. 32). 

Gyncecium, the female organs, that is, car- 
pels or pistils collectively. 

Habit, the port or aspect of a plant. 

Hastate, a leaf enlarged at the base into 
two lobes pointing outwards nearly hori- 
zontally (fig. 62 




FIG. 61.— GLANS. 




FIG. 62. — HASTATK. 




KIG. 63. — HYPO- 
CKATERIFORM. 



Head, a close terminal collection of flowers 

surrounded by an invo- 
lucre, as in composite 

flowers ; the same as a 

capitulum. 
Herbaceous, the parts of 

plants which are not 

woody ; also organs, or 

parts of them, of a green 

colour. 
Hermaphrodite, flowers 

having both stamens and 

pistil, as in figs. 49, 55, 

60 &c. 
Hesperidium, a hard-rinded berry, like the 

Orange and Lemon. 
Hirsute, with long soft hairs. 
Hispid, covered with stiff hairs. 
Hoary, with greyish-white down. 
Hooded, flowers formed into a hood at the 

end, like the Aconites. 

See Galeate (fig. 58). 
Humilis, dwarf, low. 
Hybrid, see p. 37. 
Hypo, in compounds, 

signifies under, as hypo- 

gynous stamens, below 

the pistil, as shown in 

fig. 109. 
Hypocotyl, the part of the 

young stem below the 

seed leaves, as shown 

at h, fig. 48. 
Hypocrateriform, salver-shaped, said of flat 

corollas (fig. 63). At t is shown the ' tube' 

of such flowers. 

Igneus, bright scarlet. 

Imberbis, destitute of hairs. 

Imbricate, arranged over each other like 
the scales of flower and leaf buds. 

Impari-pinnate, pinnate, 
with an odd terminal 
leaflet, as shown in fig. 
63, in which I indicates 
one of the 5 leaflets com- 
posing the whole leaf, 
p the stalk or petiole, 
and st the stipules. This 
is the same as oddly- 
pinnate. 

Incised, deeply cut, as the 
leaves of the Haw- 
thorns. 

Included, not extending beyond the organs 
surrounding it ; said of stamens which do 
not project beyond the mouth of the 
corolla. 

Incomplete, some part wanting, as calyx 
corolla &c. Plants belonging to the In- 
complete section are described from p. 759 
to p. 805. 

Incurved, curved inwards. 

Indefinite, many, but uncertain in number, 




FIG. 64. — IMPARI- 
PINNATE. 



10 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 




FIG. 65.— 1NDUSIIW1. 



said of stamens when more than 20 in 
number, as in Buttercups, Wild Roses &c. 

Indehiscent, not bursting, said of fruits 
which do not open spontaneously when 
fully ripe. 

Induplicate, when the edges of organs 
arranged in a valvate manner are folded 
inwards. 

Indusium, the membranous covering of the 
spores-cases of many 
Ferns, as shown in 
fig. 65 ; in repre- 
sents the indusium, 
and sp the spore- 
cases. A solitary 
spore-case burst and 
scattering spores is 
shown in fig. 105. 

Inferior, applied to an 
ovary when the calyx 
tube is adnate to it ; 
and to the calyx when it is quite free from 
the ovary and below it, in which latter case 
the ovary is superior. 

Indexed, curved inwards. 

Inflorescence, the arrangement of the flowers 
upon the stalk or peduncle. Inflorescences 
are spoken of as racemose, cymose, spicate, 
capitate, corymbose, 
paniculate &c, accord- 
ing as to whether they 
are borne in the 
manner described by 
those terms. 

I nf undibulif orm .funnel- 
shaped (fig. 66). 

Internode, the space 
between two nodes or 
joints of a stem. 

Interruptedly pinnate, 

when pairs of small pinnns alternate with 
large ones. 

Introrse, said of anthers which open inwards 
towards the pistil or carpels. 

Involucels, the involucres of secondary 
umbels. 

Involucre, the whorled bracts at the base 
of an umbel, head, or single flower, as in 
figs. 25, and 113, in. 

Involute, rolled from the back of anything, 
as towards the upper side of a leaf. 

Irregular, petals or sepals unequal in size, 
or different in form in the same flower, as 
shown in figs. 5, 22, 23, 49. 

Jugum, applied to a pair of leaflets ; thus a 
leaf may be unijugate, bijugate, or multi- 
jugate according as there are one, two, or 
many pairs of leaflets (figs. 16, 17). 

Keel, the name given to the lower pair of 
petals of Papilionaceous or Pea-like flowers. 
In fig. 5 the keel is shown at h. 




FIG. 66. — INFUNDI- 
BULIFORM. 




FIG. 68.— 
LANCEOLATE. 



Labellum, the same as ' lip,' q.v. 
Labiate, lipped, as the flowers of many 
plants of the Labiataa 
family ; a corolla or calyx 
divided into 2 unequal por- 
tions (fig. 67). 
Laciniate, divided into nar- 
row irregular lobes. 
Lacteus, white, with a faint 

tinge of blue. 
Lacustris, growing in lakes. 
Lamina, the blade of a leaf, 

as shown at b in fig. 98. 
Lanceolate or lance-shaped, 
narrowly elliptic, and 
tapering to each end, as 
shown in fig. 68, in which 
a represents a lance- 
shaped leaf proper, and b 
an oblanceolate leaf, or 
a lance-shaped leaf re- 
versed. 
Lancet-shaped, shortly and 

bluntly lanceolate. 
Lax, loosely arranged, 
often used in connection 
with the arrangement of flowers on the 
stems. 
Leaflets, the subdivisions of compound 

leaves, as shown in figs. 16, 17, 50, 64. 
Legume, a 1-celled and 2- 
valved seed vessel with 
the seeds arranged along 
the inner angle, as in the 
Pea, Bean &c. (fig. 69). 
Ligulate, strap - shaped, 
used in connection with 
the shape of leaves, and 
also of the ' ray ' or outer 
spreading florets in plants 
of the Composite order fig. 69.— legume. 
(p. 492). 
Ligule, a membrane at the base of the blade 

of the leaf of Grasses. 
Limb, the flattened expanded part of a leaf 

or petal, as shown at figs. 70, 72, 73 <fec. 
Linear, very narrow and long. 
Lingulate, tongue-shaped, long, fleshy, con- 
vex, blunt. 
Lip, this term (and also the Latin equivalent 
labellum) is used particu- 
larly to designate the 
largest and most conspic- 
uous segment of an Orchid 
flower, as shown in fig. 
70. Here I is the lip, 
col the column, more 
highly shown at fig. 32, 
p the petals, s the sepals, 
and us the upper sepal. 
Littoralis, growing on the fig. 70.— Lir. 

sea-shore. 
Lobate, cut into rather large divisions, as 
with many leaves. 





GLOSSARY 



11 




Lobule, a small lobe. 

Locuhcidal (dehiscence), splitting down the 

back between the divisions. 

as shown in tig. 46, a. 
Lucidus, shining. 
Lunate, shaped somewhat like 

the new moon, but not so 

regular in outline. 
Luteus, yellow. 
Lyrate, a pinnatifid leaf with 

the lobes successively and 

gradually enlarging upwards 

from the petiole, and ending 

in one larger than the others 

(fig. 71). 

Macros, in composition, long, large, as 
macrophylla, large-leaved. 

Marcescent, withering, but remaining in its 
place, like the calyx and corolla of many 
flowers. 

Medulla, botanical name for pith. The 
medullary rays (see p. 30) are the ' silver 
grain ' of the wood of Dicotyledons. 

Membranous, of the texture of membrane ; 
thin and flexible ; more or less papery. 

Micropyle, the orifice in the ovule (sec 
p. 24). 

Midrib, the large vein extending along the 
middle of a leaf from its petiole nearly or 
quite to the other end, as shown in the 
leaves in figs. 4, 34, 72 &c. 

Mono, in compounds signifies one, as mono- 
cotyledon, one seed-leaf. 

Monocarpic, flowering and fruiting only 
once, like some of the American Aloes 
(Agave) (see p. 21). 

Monochlamydeous, the term given to 
flowers which have only one set of floral 
envelopes — either petals or sepals (see 
p. 126). 

Monocotyledonous, having one sheathing 
cotyledon or seed-leaf, as in the Oat, 
Wheat, Barley, Onion, Lily, and most of 
the plants belonging to the Monocotyledo- 
nous group, described between p. 805 and 
p. 972. 

Monoecious, with the stamens and pistils 
in separate flowers but on the same plant, 
as in Cucumbers, Marrows, Begonias, 
and Filberts. At fig. 7, / represents the 
female flowers, and m the male flowers 
of the Filbert on the same branch. 

Monosepalous, monopetalous, when the 
sepals or petals are joined by their edges 
so as apparently to form one, the same 
as gamosepalous and gamopetalous 
(fig- 59). 

Mucronate, abruptly tipped with a short 
point of the same texture. 

Multi, in compounds signifies many, as 
multiflorus many - flowered, multicolor, 
many-coloured. 



Multifid, divided into many parts. 
Muricate, covered with sharp short points. 
Mutabilis, changeable. 
Mycelium, the ' spawn ' of Fungi (see ' Mush- 
rooms,' p. 1167). 



Nectary, an organ which secretes honey. 
Nectaries are found at the base of the 
petals in Buttercups ; in the Hellebores 
(p. 152) &c. the petals are reduced to 
nectaries, and in the Parnassia (p. 428) 
there is a radiating fringe of nectaries at 
the base of each petal. 

Netted, covered with veins or nerves con- 
nected together like network, as shown in 
figs. 34, 39, 98, 101 &c. 

Niger, black. 

Nitidus, smooth and shining. 

Nivalis, from snowy regions. 

Niveus, snowy-white. 

Node, a point in a stem where a leaf is pro- 
duced. 

Nucleus, the name given to the central and 
denser mass in the protoplasm (see p. 22). 

Nudus, naked. 

Nut, a hard dry 1 -seeded seed-vessel. 

Nutans, drooping, nodding. 



Ob, in conjunction with terms means in- 
verted ; thus obcordatc (fig. 72) means a 
heart-shaped leaf attached to the stalk by 





FIG. 72. — OBCORDATE. 



FIG. 73. — OBOVATE. 



the narrow end ; obovate (fig. 73) means 
ovate with the attachment at the narrow 
end, and the same with ob- 
lanceolate (fig. 68, b). 

Oblong, long oval, equally 
broad at each end. 

Obtuse, rounded or blunt. 

Ocrea, a tubular mem- 
branous stipule surround- 
ing the stem, as in many 
of the Polygonums (fig. 
74). 

Odes, Oides, a termination 

denoting similarity, resemblance. 

Opposite, when two similar organs, as leaves, 
for example, grow one on each side of some 
body ; or different organs are opposed to 
each other with a stem between them. 




FIG. 74. — OCREA. 



12 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 




FIG. 75.— OVATE. 



Orbicular, nearly round and flat, as in fig. 

79, which shows an orbicular and peltate 

leaf of Tropceolum majus. 
Oval, an ellipse ; not broader at one end 

than at the other, and 

about twice as long as 

broad. 
Ovary, the immature seed- 
vessel. 
Ovate, egg-shaped ; a short 

fiat figure rather broader 

below the middle of its 

length (fig. 75). 
Ovoid, the same as ovate, 

but applied usually to 

solid, and not flat, bodies, 

e.g. Apples, Pears, Plums. 
Ovule, the name applied to the young seed 

before it has been fertilised by the contents 

of the pollen-tube. 



Palate, the prominent part of the base of 
the lower lip which closes the mouth of a 
personate corolla, as shown in the flower 
of Snapdragon at fig. 84, p. 

Palea, the leaf-like parts of the flower of 
Grasses, inclosing the stamens, pistils, and 
hypogynous scales. 

Paleaceous, furnished with chaffy scales, as 
the receptacle of some Composites. 

Palmate, spreading like the fingers of a 
hand from the same point. 

Palmate-lobed, palmate with lobes, as in the 
leaves of the Maple. 

Palmatifid, palmate, 
with the lobes extend- 
ing to the middle of 
the leaf, as in the 
Castor Oil plant (fig. 
76). 

Palmatisect, palmate, 
with the divisions ex- 
tending to the bottom 
of the leaf. 

Paludosus, Palustris, 
growing in marshy places. 

Panicle, a raceme with branching pedicels 
(fig. 77). 




FIG. 76. — PALMATIFID. 





FIG. 77. — PANICLE. FIG. 78.— PAPPUS. 

Papilionaceous, like the flower of a Pea 
(fig. 5). 



Pappus, the crest of the fruit in Composites, 
formed of the altered limb of the calyx. 
In fig. 78, a shows a sessile or stalkless 
pappus, and b a stalked or stipitate pappus ; 
/ is the fruit. 

Parasitic, living on another plant, like the 
Mistletoe (p. 781). 

Parenchyma, the soft cellular tissue of 
plants, the green pulpy material between 
the ribs and veins of leaves. 

Parietal (placentation), on the sides or walls 
of the carpels, as shown in fig. 86, p. 

Paripinnate, pinnate with an equal number 
of leaflets, as shown in fig. 85. 

Patent, spreading widely, a term often used 
by botanists in connection with the petals 
of a corolla. 

Pectinate, scalloped, crenately incised, like 
the teeth of a comb. 

Pedate, palmate with three lobes and the 
lateral lobes having similar large lobes on 
their outer edge, as the leaves of Helle- 
borus. 

Pedate-lobed, pedate, with rounded divisions 
or lobes. 

Pedatifid, pedate, with the divisions reach- 
ing to the middle of the leaf. 

Pedatipartite, pedate, with the divisions 
nearly reaching to the bottom of the leaf. 

Pedatisect, pedate, with the divisions ex- 
tending nearly to the midrib. 

Pedicel, the branch of a peduncle, otherwise 
the stalklet of an individual blossom, as 
shown in fig. 91, ped ; here the peduncle 
or main flower stalk is shown at p, and the 
bracts are shown at b. 

Peduncle, flower stalk. 




FIG. 79.— PELTATE. FIG, 

Peloria, the term applied 
to the regular form of a 
usually irregular flower 
like the Common Toad- 
flax (fig. 80). 

Peltate, when the point of 
attachment is on the face, 
not at the edge, of a leaf or 
other organ (fig. 79). 

Penninerved, Penniveined, 
when the veins of a leaf 
radiate obliquely and re- 
gularly from the midrib (fig. 81). 

Pentagonal, with five angles having convex 
spaces between them. 




FIG. 81.— PENNI- 
VEINED. 



GLOSSARY 



13 



Pentangular, with five angles and five flat 
or concave faces. 

Perennial, of three or more years' duration, 
and flowering and fruiting each year. 

Perfoliate, when the 
leaf completely sur- 
rounds the stem so 
that the latter seems 
to pass through it, as 
shown in fig. 82. 

Perianth, the floral 
whorls when the calyx 
and corolla are not 
distinguishable, as in 
Tulips, Lilies, Or- 
chids, Irises, Snow- 
drops &c, and many plants belonging to 
the Monocotyledons (p. 127). 

Pericarp, seed-vessel, including adhering 
calyx if present. 

Perigynous, growing upon the throat of the 
calyx around or above the ovary, as shown 
in fig. 83. 

Perisperm, another name for the albumen 
of the seed (see p. 25). 




PKKFOUATK. 




FIG. 83. — PERIGYNOUS. KG. 84. — PBBSONATB. 

Persistent, not soon falling off, as the leaves 

of evergreens. 
Personate, a gamopetalous two-lipped 

corolla of which the lower lip is pressed 

upwards so as to close the opening, as in 

the Snapdragon (fig. 84). At p the ' palate ' 

is represented. 
Petals, the divisions of the corolla. 
Petal-like, resembling petals in texture and 

colour as in Clematis, Hellebores, Marsh 

Marigold &c, in which the sepals have 

assumed the functions and appearance of 

petals. 
Petiolate, having a petiole or leafstalk. 
Petiole, the stalk of a leaf as shown at p in 

figs. 64 and 98 ; Petiolule, the stalk of a 

leaflet. 
Phaenogamous, Phanerogamous, having 

manifest flowers (p. 121). 
Phylloclades, branches assuming the form 

and functions of leaves (see Cladodes). 
Phyllum, in composition, a leaf. 
Pileus, the ' cap ' of a Mushroom and other 

Fungi. 
Pilose, with scattered rather stiff hairs. 
Pinnae, the segments of a pinnate leaf 

(fig. 85). 




FIG. 85. — PINNATE. 



Pinnate, when leaflets are arranged on 
opposite sides of a common stalk (fig. 83). 

Pinnatifid, a leaf deeply 
cut into segments 
nearly to the midrib 
(fig. 18). 

Pinnatipartite, pin- 
nate, with the divisions 
acute, and almost free, 
as in the leaves of the 
Corn Poppy. 

Pinnatisect, pinnate, 
with the divisions 
reaching nearly to the 
midrib, as in the leaves of Water Cress. 

Pinnules, the segments of pinnate leaves 
and fronds. 

Pistil, the ovary, style, and stigma taken to- 
gether. In fig. 55 ov represents the ovary, 
st the style, and stig the stigma. In fig. 
109 the style — or portion between the 
ovary and stigma— is absent or very short. 

Pith, the cellular tissue in the centre of 
Dicotyledonous stems. 

Pitted, covered with small depressed spots. 

Placenta, the process or body which bears 
the ovules in the ovary (fig. 86). 





FIG. 86. — PLACENTAS. 



FIG. 87. — PLAITED. 



Plaited, Plicate, folded in the manner of a 
closed fan, like many leaves before they 
are unfolded (fig. 87). 

Plumose, feathery. 

Plumule, the first or embryonic bud repre- 
sented in fig. 48 at p. 

Pod, a 1 -celled and 2-valved seed-vessel with 
the seeds arranged along the inner angle. 
See Legume (fig. 69). 

Pollen, the dust in the anther which serves 
to fertilise the ovules (fig. 9,p). 

Pollination, the application of the pollen to 
the stigma, as described at p. 24. 

Pollinium, the waxy pollen mass in Orchids 
(see fig. 32, p). 

Polycarpic, fruiting more than once, several 
times (see p. 22). 

Polygamous, a term applied to those plants 
having male, female, and hermaphrodite 
flowers intermixed on the same individual. 

Polygonal, with many angles. 

Polypetalous, with free, distinct, and separate 
petals, as in Buttercups, Eoses, and most of 
the plants described from p. 131 to p. 477. 



1.4 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 




FIG. 88.— POME. 



Polysepalous, with separate sepals. 

Pome, the name given to such fruits as the 

Apple and Pear. In 

fig. 88 st represents 

the remains of the 

stamens in the ' eye ' 

(e) of the fruit ; ct 

shows the calyx tube ; 

en the endocarp (core) 

within which are the 

seeds s ; the fleshy 

edible part is repre- 
sented at m (meso- 

carp), and ep the epi- 

carp. 
Pores, small, often roundish, holes. 
Praecox, flowering early. 
Pratensis, growing in meadows. 
Prickles, hardened epidermal appendages 

resembling thorns, but not woody (see 

aculeate, rig. 3). 
Procumbent, Prostrate, lying on the ground. 
Prothallium or Prothallus, the flat deep 

green body resulting 

from the germination 

of a fern spore, and 

bearing male and 

female organs as ex- 
plained at p. 1009. In 

fig. 89 the prothallium 

is shown at p, from 

the under surface of 

which are given off 

the rhizoids or root- 
like hairs, rh ; and the 

first fern frond /, after fertilisation has 

taken place. 
Protoplasm, the living jelly-like contents of 

plant cells (see p. 22). 
Pubescence, Pubescent, with closely ad- 
pressed down. 
Pulverulent, covered with fine powdery 

matter. 
Pumilus, short and dense in habit. 
Punctate, having minute spots on the sur- 
face. 
Putamen, the hard part or shell of stone 

fruit, like the Almond, Peach, Cherry, 

Plum (fig. 52, s). 
Pyramidal, nearly in the 

shape of a pyramid, as 

shown at p. 1035. 
Pyriform, Pear-shaped. 
Pyxidium, a seed-pod or 

capsule opening hori- 
zontally by means of a 

lid, as in many plants of 

the Primula and Sola- 

num orders. In fig. 90, 

o represents the oper- 
culum or lid ; s the 
seeds; and c the calyx supporting the 
capsule. 




FIG. 89.— 
PROTHALLIUM. 





FIG. 91.— RACEME. 



Quadrifoliate, with four leaflets diverging 
from the same point, as in Paris quadri- 
folia (p. 880). 

Quinate, arranged in fives, as the leaflets of 
Akebia quinata (p. 179). 

Raceme, a spike with stalked flowers, as 
that of the Laburnum, Currant, Wallflower 
&c. (fig. 91) ; o repre- 
sents a bract ; ped the 
stalklet or pedicel of the 
individual flower ; and 
p the peduncle or main 
stalk of all the flowers 
in the raceme. 

Racemose, flowering in a 
raceme. 

Rachis, the central stem 
of some kinds of inflo- 
rescence. The stalk of 
the frond of Ferns above the lowest pinna;. 

Radical, springing from just above the 
root, said of the leaves of many low-grow- 
ing tufted plants. 

Radicle, the first root of a young plant 
emerging from the seed (fig. 48, r ). 

Ramosus, much branched. 

Ray, parts diverging in a circle from a cen- 
tral point. Ray-florets are the outer strap- 
shaped ones, as in the Daisy and many 
other Composite plants. 

Receptacle, the dilated top of the 
bearing the flowers in Composites 
Torus). 

Recurved, bent moderately backwards. 

Reflexed, bent considerably backwards. 

Regular, all the parts of each series of a 
flower alike, as in figs. 40, 59, 63, &c. 

Reniform, transversely oval, but broadly 
cordate at the base ; kidney-shaped 
(fig. 92). 

Repens, creeping. 

Reticulate, forming a network. 



stalk 
(see 





92. — RENIFORM. 



FIG. 93. — KETUSE. 



Retuse, abruptly blunt with a notch in the 

middle (fig. 93). 
Revolute, rolled back, as towards the under 

side of a leaf, 
Rhizome, a thickish prostrate more or less 

subterranean stem producing roots and 

leafy shoots, as in Irises, Solomon's Seal 

&c. 



GLOSS ABY 



15 



Ringent, a 2-lipped widely open or gaping 
corolla, like that of the Dead Nettle (fig. 65). 

Riparius, growing on the banks of streams 
or lakes. 

Rootstock, a thick short rhizome or tuber. 
The term is loosely applied by gardeners 
to mean the clump, set, or mass of roots 
of an herbaceous perennial plant. 

Rosette, a collection of leaves growing close 
together, and radiating from the main 
stem. 

Rosulate, disposed in the form of a rosette. 

Rotate, a monopetalous corolla with a short 
tube and very spreading limb (fig. 94), as in 
Potato and other flowers of the Solanum 
order. 

Ruber, red of any tint. 

Ruderalis, growing amongst rubbish. 





FIG. 94. — ROTATE. FIG. 95. — RUNC1NATE. 

Rugose, covered with a net of lines enclos- 
ing convex spaces, like the leaves of Rosa 
rugosa. 

Rugulose, finely rugose. 

Runcinate, where the lobes of leaves are 
directed towards the base (fig. 95). 

Runner, a prostrate shoot rooting at its end, 
as in the Strawberry. 

Rupestris, growing on rocks. 



Sabulosus, growing in sandy places. 
Sagittate, like the barbed head of an arrow, 

the auricles or lobes pointing backwards 

(fig. 96) not outwards as in Hastate (fig. 62). 
Salver- shaped, a corolla with a long slender 

tube and flat limb, the same as hypocra- 

teriform (fig. 63). 




FIG. 96. — SAGITTATE 



Samara, applied to such winged indehiscent 

fruits as the Ash, Elm &c. (fig. 97). 
Saxatilis, growing on rocks or stones. 



Scaber, scabrid, scabrous, rough to the 
touch. 

Scales, minute rudimentary leaves or appen- 
dages to petals, as in many Pinks <fcc. 

Scandens, climbing. 

Scape, a leafless flower stem springing from 
the root, like that of Tulips, Hyacinths, 
Daffodils. 

Scarious, with a thin, dry, shrivelled appear- 
ance. 

Scorpioid, rolled up in a somewhat crosier- 
like fashion. See Circinate. 

Secund, all turned towards one side. 

Sempervirens, evergreen. 

Sepals, the division of the calyx. 

Septicidal (dehiscence), separating through 
the dissepiments (fig. 46, b). 

Septum, the partition of an ovary or fruit. 

Sericeus, silky. 

Serotinus, late. 

Serrate, toothed like a saw, like the margins 
of many leaves (fig. 98). 

Serratures, teeth like 
those of a saw. 

Serrulate, with very 
small saw-like teeth. 

Sessile, without a stalk, 
like many leaves. 

Seta, a bristle ; a bristle 
tipped with a gland ; a 
slender straight prickle. 

Setaceous, like a bristle. 

Setose, bearing bristles 

or setae usually ending in glands. 

Sheath, the lower part of a leaf or its petiole, 
which forms a vertical sheath surrounding 
the stem. 

Silicle, a silique about as long as it is 
broad (fig. 99). 




KIG. 98. — SEKRATK. 




FIG. 99.— SILICLES. 



A 



H 



FIG. 100. — SIL1QUES 



Silique, a long pod -like 

fruit of Crucifers having 

its edges connected by 

an internal membrane 

(fig. 100). 
Simple, not compound ; 

not branched, lobed, or 

divided. 
Sinuate, having many 

large blunt lobes, as in 

Oak leaves (fig. 101). 
Sinus, the recesses of a lobed organ, as shown 

in the leaf at fig. 101. 




FIG. 101.— SINUATE. 



16 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Smooth, free from all kinds of roughness. 
Solitary, growing singly, said of flowers when 

only one is borne on the stalk. 
Spadix, a succulent spike bearing many 

sessile closely placed flowers, as in fig. 99, 

where b.st represents the barren stamens ; 

f.st the fertile stamens ; bp the barren 

pistils; and fp the fertile ones capable of 

producing seeds. 
Spathe, a large bract often inclosing a spadix, 

as shown in fig. 41 ; s is the spathe and sp 

the spadix. 





PIG. 102.— SPADIX. 



pig. 103.— 

SPATHULATE. 



FIG. 104. — SPIKE. 



Spathulate or Spatulate, oblong, with a long 
and narrow base ; spoon-shaped (fig. 103). 

Spike, a long simple axis with many sessile 
flowers like a raceme except that the 
individual flowers have no stalks ; see 
fig. 104, representing the flower spike of 
Plantain. 

Spikelet, the small group of flowers in 
Grasses enclosed within one or more 
glumes. 

Spine, a stiff, sharp, woody, persistent thorn, 
as seen in Gooseberries, Barberries, Black- 
thorns &c. 

Spinose, furnished with spines. 

Spinulose, with small, often very minute 
spines or prickles. 

Sporangium, a single 
spore case which con- 
tains the spores or seeds 
of Ferns. In fig. 105 sp 
represents the dust-like 
spores falling from the 
ruptured case ; and a 
represents the stiffer 
ringed midrib or annu- 
lus (see Indusium). 

Spur, a tubular exten- 
sion of the lower part 
of a petal or monopetalous corolla, as seen 
in Columbines and Tropasolum (fig. 22). 

Squamatus, clothed with scales. 

Squarrose, rough with projecting or deflexed 
scales. 

Stamen, the male organ of a flower, usually 
formed of a filament and anther. In fig. 9, 
/ represents the filament; a the anther 
shedding the pollen p ; and c the con- 
nective or midrib between the 2 anther 




FIG. 105. — 
SPORANGITM. 



lobes. The connective is produced in 
one case, as in the stamens of Paris 
quadrifolia. 

Staminode, rudimentary organs next to the 
stamens ; usually barren or antherless 
stamens. 

Standard, the upper or posterior petal of 
a Pea-flower which is outside the others 
in the bud, shown at st in fig. 5. 

Stellate, radiating from a centre like a star ; 
applied to flowers of which the petals are 
narrow and distant and radiate like the 
rays of a star. 

Stellulate, like minute stars. 

Stigma, the cellular part at the top of a 
carpel or style to which the pollen adheres, 
shown at si in fig. 1, and stig in figs. 56, 
109. 

Stipe, the stalk of Fern fronds up to the 
lowest pinnae. 

Stipitate, stalked ; applied to carpels which 
are more or less slightly elevated on a 
stalk. A stipitate pappus is shown in 
fig. 78, b. 

Stipules, leaf-like appendages at the base of 
the petiole, shown at st in figs. 64, 98, 
111 (s). 

Stolon, an offset or runner producing roots 
at intervals, as in Strawberry. 

Strap-shaped, not very narrow nor long, 
and with nearly parallel sides ; the same 
as ligulate. 

Striate, with slender streaks or furrows. 

Strobilus, a flower-head or 
cone consisting of several 
overlapping scales, as seen 
in many members of the 
Conifer order (p. 972). 

Style, the slender termina- 
tion of a carpel bearing 
the stigma, shown in fig. 
83. 

Sub, in composition means 
almost or nearly, some- 
what ; thus sub-rotund 
means nearly round ; sub-shrubby, some- 
what shrubby ; sub -orbicular, roundish 
&c. 

Subulate, awl-shaped, tapering from the 
base to a fine point, a long narrow 
triangle. 

Sucker, a leafy stem produced at the end of 
an underground shoot, as with Plum trees, 
Lilacs &c. 

Suffruticose, rather shrubby. 

Sulcate, furrowed, like the stems of many 
Umbelliferous plants. 

Superior, above anything ; a calyx is superior 
when its tube is wholly attached to the 
ovary ; half superior when attached only 
to the lower half of it ; an ovary is superior 
when wholly free from and above the 




GLOSSARY 



17 



Supra-decompound, subdivided many times. 

Sylvaticus, Sylvestris, inhabiting woods. 

Syn, signifies union or growing together, as 
syncarpous, when the carpels are consoli- 
dated, as shown in fig. 27, or syngenesious, 
when the anthers are united, as in most 
flowers of the Composite order. 

Tap roots, roots with stout tapering bodies 

developed direct from the seed, like 

Carrots and Turnips 

(fig. 107). 
Tendril, a twisting 

slender organ for 

laying hold of objects. 
Tenuis, slender, thin. 
Terete, applied to 

round or nearly 

round stems, like an 

ordinary lead pencil 

or goose quill. 
Ternate, growing in threes, as shown in the 

portions of fig. 19, and in fig. 108, like the 

leaves of Choisya ternata (p. 296). 
Testa, the outer skin of a seed. 



Tri, in compounds, signifies three. 
Triangular, with three angles and three 

flat faces. 
Trichotomous, in forks of three prongs 

successively repeated. 
Trifid, when leaves are divided about half 

way down into three parts, as shown in 

fig. 110. 





PIG. 110.— TKii'in. 



KIG. 111.— TRIFOLIATE. 



Pitt. 107.— TAP-ROOTS. 





FIG. 108.— TERNATE. 



FIG. L09. — TETRA- 

DYXAMOLS. 



Tetradynamous, having six stamens, of 

which two are shorter than the other four, 

as in the Wallflower (fig. 109) and most 

plants of the Crucifer order. 
Tetragonous, with four angles and four 

convex faces, like the stems of Dead 

Nettles and many other plants of the 

Labiate order. 
Thalamus, the receptacle or torus of a 

flower. 
Thorn, an abortive branch with a sharp 

point ; distinguished from a Prickle by 

being woody. 
Throat, the orifice of the tube of a gamo- 

petalous corolla or gamosepalous calyx. 
Thyrsoid, having a close-branched raceme 

of which the middle is broader than the 

ends. 
Tomentose, covered with cottony entangled 

hairs, forming a matted shagginess called 

tomentum ; felted. 
Toothed, having small tooth-like divisions 

on the margin. 
Torus, the part on which the divisions of 

a flower or fruit are seated ; the same as 

receptacle. 



Trifoliate, composed of three leaflets, as 

the leaves of Clover shown in fig. Ill, 

where the leaflets are ciliated on the 

margins ; the stipules at the base are 

shown at s. 
Trifoliolate, having three leaflets proceeding 

from the same point, as in fig. 19. 
Trigonous, with three angles and three 

convex faces. 
Tripartite, divided into three parts nearly 

to its base ; more than trifid. 
Tripinnate, three times pinnately sub- 
divided, as if the leaflets in fig. 17 were 

again divided. 
Triquetrous, having three angles and three 

concave faces. 
Tristis, dull-coloured. 
Truncate, blunt as if cut off at the end, 

like the leaf of the 

Tulip tree (fig. 112). 
Tube, the pipe formed 

by the cohesion of the 

petals in a gamopeta- 

lous corolla, as shown 

in fig. 63, t. 
Tuber, a thickened and 

underground fleshy 

part of the stem, as 

the Potato and Jeru- 
salem Artichoke. 
Tubercles, little round knobs. 
Tubercular, tubercled, tuberculate, covered 

with little knobs. 
Tuberous, like a tuber, but not part of the 

stem. 
Tubular, hollow and nearly cylindrical, 

something like fistular. 
Turbinate, top-shaped, conical and attached 

by its long point, like many Pears. 



Uliginosus, inhabiting swampy places. 
Umbel, when many stalked flowers spring 
from one point and reach about the 

c 




18 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



same level, as in fig. 113. Partial umbels 
are umbels seated upon the branches of 
an umbel, the whole forming a compound 
umbel. 

Umbrosus, growing in shady places. 

Unarmed, where stems and leaves are 
destitute of spines or prickles. 

Undulate, having a wavy margin. 




FIG. 113.— UMBEL. FIG. 114.— UBCBOLATE. 

Unilateral, turned to one side. 

Urceolate, like a pitcher contracted at the 

mouth, like the flowers of many Heaths, 

as shown in fig. 114. 
Urens, stinging, as the hairs of the common 

Stinging Nettle. 



Valvate (aestivation), sepals or petals meet- 
ing at the margins, but 

not overlapping each 

other, as shown in fig. 

115. 
Veins, the nerves in leaves 

and their ramifications, 

as shown in figs. 34 &c. 
Velutinous, velvety, as the 

surface of leaves. 
Ventral, the anterior part big. 115.— valvate. 

of an organ. 
Ventricose, swelling unequally on one side, 




somewhat like the corolla of Valerian 
shown in fig. 60. 

Vernalis, produced in spring. 

Vernation, the arrangement of the leaves 
when in bud. 

Verrucose, warty. 

Versatile, affixed in the middle, applied to 
anthers like those of Lilies which swing 
backwards and forwards with the move- 
ment of the air. In fig. 9 a versatile 
anther is shown in the middle. 

Verticillate, arranged in whorls. 

Villous, shaggy with loose long soft hair. 

Virens, green. 

Virgatus, twiggy. 

Viridis, clear full green. 

Viscous, clammy. 

Volubilis, twisting. 

Wedge-shaped, like a wedge, but attached 

by its point. 
Whorl, whorled, similar organs arranged in 

a circle round an axis, as the 

leaves of Galium, Asperula 

(fig. 116), and of some Lilies. 
Winged, having leaf-like or 

membranous expansions, like 

the stems of many Thistles. 
Wings, the lateral petals of 

a Pea-flower, as shown at w 

in fig. 5 ; the flat mem- 
branous appendages of some 

seeds. whorl. 

Zygomorphic, said of a flower which can 
only be bisected in one plane so as to 
show two similar halves. Most Orchid 
flowers bisected vertically are zygomorphic, 
as are also many flowers of the Labiate 
family (p. 742), the Aconite (p. 162) &c. 




INTBODUCTION 



The cultivation of plants at the present day has been brought almost 
to the highest point of perfection. Far greater attention is now given 
to the problem as to how the finest Flowers, Fruits, and Vegetables can 
be produced in the best way at the least cost than at any previous period 
in our history. The whole country is alive to the importance and 
necessity of making the land produce as much as possible in the best 
possible way. County Councils are lavishing money to have gardening 
taught either in schoolrooms or in gardens, but as yet have not decided 
upon any definite plan whereby those taught are likely to obtain any 
or much benefit from what they learn. And yet, it is a curious fact 
that, although we know a good deal more about plants now than our 
ancestors did, and though thousands of plants, natives of all parts of 
the world, are grown in our gardens that were quite unknown to 
them, still there has been practically but little change in the principal 
methods of cultivation. The importance of tilling and manuring the 
soil and bringing it into a state of fertility has been recognised from 
the earliest ages, while little or nothing was known of its nature and 
composition, or the chemical changes that take place in it, or that are 
produced by rain, heat and cold, &c. The proper times for Digging, 
Planting, Sowing seeds, and various other operations were also well 
known, and modern gardeners still continue to work on the same old 
lines. The ancients were also acquainted with the arts of Budding, 
Grafting, Layering, Pruning, Thinning Out, Transplanting &c, and 
all these operations were alluded to as commonplaces by the poet 
Virgil before the Christian Era in his well-known Bucolics. It thus 
appears that, notwithstanding the march of time, the principles of 
cultivation remain the same in all ages, and gardeners have only to 

c2 



20 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

apply them with a fair amount of common sense, and attention to 
details necessitated by the nature of any particular plant. 

Although, unhappily, a good knowledge of plants, their structure 
and requirements, does not necessarily mean that a person with this 
knowledge is also a good cultivator, it is nevertheless true that a 
gardener who turns such knowledge to practical use has a much 
better chance of producing fine flowers, fruits, and vegetables than he 
who is not so well equipped in this respect. Many gardeners — amateur 
and professional — are like poets : they are born and not made ; they 
seem to know instinctively and exactly how to cultivate any particular 
plant ; or if they do not, it is not very long before they find out. 
Without knowing it, such gardeners carry out the true principles of 
cultivation, which after all are in strict accordance with natural laws, 
and therefore the more one studies the nature of a plant and its 
requirements the sooner will he be able to grow it to perfection in his 
garden. 

Before one can hope to grow a plant of any kind satisfactorily it is 
obvious that at least some knowledge is required in regard to the 
functions of the various parts of plants, the soil and its composition, 
and treatment, and many other details. An attempt has been made in 
this direction with a view to giving the reader information that may be 
of use to him in the garden. It is most important to have a clear idea 
as to the functions of the Hoots, Stems, Leaves, Flowers, Fruits, and 
Seeds, as this will prevent many mistakes in cultural treatment. A 
doctor who did not understand the anatomy of his patient, and what he 
required to keep him in good health, would be a sorry practitioner. So 
with the person who would grow plants successfully. He must under- 
stand them, he must know something about their relationship to each 
other, the countries in which they grow wild, the kind of soil that suits 
them best, whether they prefer sunshine or shadow, moist or dry 
situations, and how best they may be increased so- that they shall not 
die out of cultivation altogether, either through old age, ill-treatment, 
or other causes. 



GROWTH 21 



PART I 

THE LIFE HISTOKY OF CULTIVATED PLANTS 

Feom a gardening point of view cultivated plants may be said to be 
constructed on a common plan, although there is a vast variation in 
details. Speaking generally, most plants are characterised by having 
Seeds, Koots, Stems, Leaves, Flowers, and Fruit, and may be annual or 
biennial herbs, or herbaceous or woody perennial plants. 

Whatever group they belong to, their corresponding parts are 
constructed on the same principle and perform the same functions. 

As the good cultivation of plants depends to a very large extent 
upon a more or less intimate knowledge of their nature, it may be 
useful if a brief account is given of the various organs mentioned 
above. 

GROWTH OF PLANTS 

Perhaps one of the first things people notice about plants is that 
they grow. Plants, somewhat like human beings and animals, are 
living objects, and are affected in much the same way by heat, cold, 
moisture &c. They also are to be found in all parts of the world, 
and according to the climate in which they grow are looked upon as 
being more or less hardy or tender. They pass from what may be 
called the infant or seedling stage to maturity, and then more or less 
slowly or quickly begin to decay and ultimately die. They have a 
complete cycle of existence, and this cycle is completed by some in a 
much shorter time than others. Annuals and biennials for example 
complete their cycle of existence in one or two years, but others like 
herbaceous perennials, trees and shrubs &c, exist for several years 
before the individual becomes exhausted. And yet while an individual 
plant may pass from the seedling stage to death in one or more years, 
according to its nature, as a rule it makes provision for reproducing 
itself again before actually dying. This process of reproduction is 
naturally carried on by means of seeds. Some plants like annuals and 
biennials bear only one crop of seeds and then die. Plants with these 
characteristics — that fruit only once — are said to be monocarpic. 



22 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Other plants, however, which may live for very many years, like some 
of the American Aloes, also fruit or produce seeds only once in a life- 
time and then die. These are also said to be monocarpic. Nearly all 
our hardy herbaceous perennials, and woody perennials like trees and 
shrubs — Apples, Pears, Plums, Oaks, Ashes, Beeches &c. — fruit or 
produce seeds year after year for several generations, and are therefore 
said to be polycarpic. 

It little matters, however, whether plants be annuals, biennials, or 
perennials, whether they produce only one crop of seed or many, they 
are all governed by the same laws of Growth. 

Plant-cells. — To give the reader a better idea of how this process 
called growth takes place, it is necessary to point out that plants are 
made up of cells and tissues. Some plants, indeed, like the green 
Protococcus seen on damp walls, the mould on old leather &c, are very 
simple in their structure and often consist of one cell only. And it is in 
the contents of the individual cells, the presence of which was discovered 
in 1667 by Kobert Hooke, that we must look for the origin of growth. 

Protoplasm. — Every plant cell in a young stage is filled with a 
slimy jelly-like substance to which the name of Protoplasm was given 
in 1846 by a German botanist, Hugo von Mohl. This protoplasm is 
practically the seat of life. It is constantly undergoing more or less 
rapid changes in composition, absorbing new food, digesting it, and 
expelling all waste or worn-out materials. When the cells are young 
they are completely filled with it, but as they grow old the protoplasm 
begins to break up into strands, leaving spaces in between which 
become filled with watery sap absorbed and drafted up by the roots. 
By-and-bye the protoplasm recedes from the centre of the cell to line 
the cell walls, and ultimately vanishes altogether with age, the refuse 
from it going to make the cell walls thicker and harder, and producing 
what we know as wood or fibre. 

Before this stage is reached, however, the protoplasm, or rather 
the central portion of it called the nucleus, divides and forms a new 
cell. This, like its parent, becomes surrounded with a cell wall, and 
then becomes practically an independent individual working out its 
own life history in the same way. When it is remembered that plants 
are made up of millions of these cells containing protoplasm, and that 
with the advance of age each mass of protoplasm is capable of pro- 
pagating itself by division, it is not so very difficult to account for what 
we understand as growth — how plants often attain enormous heights, 
and the trunks of trees great diameters — according to their nature. 

Although each mass of protoplasm is as it were completely enclosed 
within its own cell walls, it is not, however, cut off from all communi- 



PROTOPLASM 23 



cation with the protoplasm in the neighbouring cells. It is supposed 
that thin microscopic strands of protoplasm pass through the cell 
walls from one protoplasmic mass to another, and also that the fluid 
from a well-filled or turgid cell is diffused through the cell walls into a 
comparatively empty one by a process which has been termed osmosis 
or endosmosis, and that in this way the cell-sap is drafted to the outer- 
most points of the shoots of plants no matter how tall. As the proto- 
plasm in each cell is therefore dependent for its support on the food 
dissolved in the cell-sap it naturally follows that no solid substance can 
possibly enter as such into the system of a plant. The protoplasm is 
formed, or forms itself, out of the food which has been absorbed in a 
liquid state, and it then proceeds to build up the various tissues of the 
plant which we know as shoots, stems, leaves, flowers &c. When the 
liquid or watery sap in the cells becomes excessive it is exhaled or 
breathed out into the atmosphere in the form of vapour by means of 
the pores of the leaves referred to below under ' Transpiration ' at 
p. 34, and fresh supplies as wanted are absorbed by the roots, but 
only under favourable climatic conditions. To sum up, the whole 
plant is dependent on the work of the protoplasm, and so long as this 
continues to perform its functions, so long will the plant live and 
produce in due course its flowers and fruits. Anything therefore that 
tends to interfere with the work of the protoplasm, such as too much 
heat or cold, too much drought or moisture, too much light or shade, 
also stops the growth of the plant, and until proper conditions are 
restored the plant is likely to die because the protoplasm cannot perform 
its work in a satisfactory manner. 

The great aim of the gardener, therefore, is to choose the most 
favourable conditions for his plants so that there will be no interference 
or check to the mysterious work carried on within the cell walls by the 
protoplasm. If a plant comes from a tropical climate, he endeavours to 
imitate the natural warmth by growing it in a hothouse, as he very 
soon discovers by the drooping and withering leaves and stems that a 
cool temperature will be injurious. In the same way plants from 
cold regions will be injured by excessive heat. As this work, however, 
only deals with plants which will grow in the open air in our own 
climate, the reader need not concern himself much about artificial heat, 
although he will find many cases in which he is advised to use hotbeds 
for raising seeds &c, and to place his plants in the warmest and sunniest, 
in the coolest and shadiest, in the driest or dampest positions in his 
garden ; but these instructions are all based upon this one principle 
of placing a plant under the circumstances most favourable to the work 
to be performed by the protoplasm in the cells. 



24 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



THE SEED 

It has been stated above that the growth of a plant takes the form 
of a cycle, and it is therefore difficult to take any one organ and say 
' growth begins here.' This cannot be said of the root, as it is the out- 
come of the seed ; it cannot be said of the leaves, as they are outgrowths 
of the stem ; and it cannot even be said of the seed, which is produced 
by the ripened fruit. As, however, for practical purposes it is necessary 
to start somewhere, the most logical beginning from a gardening point 
of view seems to be the Seed, which we will therefore consider. 

Many years ago, the late Dr. Lindley described a seed as being ' a 
living body, separating from its parent and capable of growing into a 
new individual of the same species. It is a reproductive fragment, or 
vital point, containing within itself all the elements of life, which, how- 
ever, can only be called into action by special circumstances.' 

As popularly understood, seeds are only produced by Flowering 
Plants or 'Phanerogams ' (p. 121). They are the result of the ovules 
(either naked, as in the Pine order ; or enclosed in carpels, as in most 
other Flowering Plants) being fertilised by the pollen tube. Each fer- 
tilised seed contains an embryo, or the rudiments of a young plant. 
When placed in a suitable temperature, with moisture, they are capable 
of reproducing all the characters of their parents. The so-called 
' seeds ' or spores of Ferns differ very much from those of Flowering 
Plants, and the way in which they are reproduced is explained at p. 1009. 

The process of forming seeds takes place somewhat in this way. 
When the grain of dust or pollen from an anther in the flower falls 
on to the stigmatic surface of the carpel, the grain of pollen begins to 
grow much in the same way as a seed in the soil, with the exception 
that all the growth is downwards. A microscopic thread called the 
pollen tube makes its way from the pollen grain downwards through 
the tissue of the carpel, and eventually reaches the ovule contained 
within the walls of the ovary. At one end of the ovule there is a small 
hole called the micropyle. The pollen tube enters this and comes in 
contact with a cell much larger than the others called the embryo-sac. 
Within the embryo-sac and close to the micropyle are three other cells, 
one of which called the egg-cell or embryonic vesicle receives the contents 
of the pollen tube and is thus fertilised. This operation, sooner or 
later, results in the production of what is commonly known as a seed. 
After fertilisation, the nuclei in the masses of protoplasm in the cells 
divide as explained above and form new masses, and thus fill up the 
interior of the embryo-sac. Eventually the embryo, or } r oung plant, 



THE SEED: GERMINATION 25 



fills up the entire space within the seed coats as in the case of the Pea, 
Bean, Horse-Chestnut, Oak &c. ; or it may occupy only a very small 
space as in Wheat, Onion &c, and remain imbedded in a substance at 
one time called albumen, but now more generally called perisperm. 

When the embryo occupies the whole seed, as in the case of the 
Bean &c, all the reserve material for the purpose of nourishing the 
young plant is stored up in the fleshy seed-leaves or cotyledons, and it 
is from these that food supplies are drawn until the young root has 
developed sufficiently to absorb food from the soil, after germination 
has taken place. In the case of other seeds, however, like those of the 
Wheat and Onion, the young plant is fed upon the albumen or peri- 
sperm, and not on the seed leaves, until roots are formed. 

Germination. — Seeds germinate as the result of a certain amount 
of heat, moisture, and air. The seeds of some plants germinate in a 
much lower temperature than others, but there is a certain point called 
the ' optimum ' at which seeds of any given plant will sprout more readily 
than at a point below or above it. The best or ' optimum ' tempera- 
ture for germination varies according to the nature of the plant or 
species, and the gardener learns by experience which temperature is 
most suitable for raising the seeds of any particular plant. He knows 
for instance that the seeds of many plants will sprout sooner if they are 
sown upon a hotbed than if they are sown in the open ground where 
the temperature may be 10° or 20° lower. He also knows that a 
certain amount of moisture is absolutely necessary, and that the free 
circulation of air between the particles of soil shall not be impeded, 
as he usually takes particular care to have the soil well drained, so 
that the water and consequently the air shall pass through it freely. 
Speaking generally, the seeds of most of the plants described in this 
work germinate readily either out of doors in autumn or spring ; in 
cold frames without artificial heat ; or in the gentle heat of a hotbed or 
greenhouse, say 60° to 70° F. or even less. 

Heat and Cold. — When a seed ' sprouts ' or germinates as a result 
of the suitable conditions referred to above it is obvious that growth is 
taking place. It undergoes a change from the apparently dried condition 
in which it was before its contact with moisture or suitable heat. In 
fact, heat is the prime mover of life in the seed ; hence by the use of 
hotbeds or frames or greenhouses several degrees more heat are obtained 
than out of doors. Chemical changes take place in the seed ; water is 
absorbed from the soil through the seed coats ; the latter are soon unable 
to contain their swollen contents and consequently burst. The first seed- 
leaves are pushed upwards through the soil, and the tiny rootlet down- 
wards into it. These signs are simply an indication of the work that is 



26 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



being done by the protoplasm in the cells as already explained. From 
the water absorbed through the seed-coats, the protoplasm receives a 
supply of food and proceeds to manufacture it, with the result that the 
nuclei in the masses of protoplasm divide and produce other nuclei, and 
these again in due course carry out the same process, not only until a 
plant is fully developed but until it dies. 

Vitality of Seeds. — Some seeds retain their vitality for several 
years — that is, their power of germinating does not appear to be much 
injured by being kept a long time — while others very soon lose it. For 
practical purposes it is preferable to obtain fresh and thoroughly 
ripened seed to secure the best results. The stories as to the germi- 
nating power of mummy-wheat 2,000 years old are fables, but many 
seeds will retain their vitality and produce good plants after careful 
storing for 5 to 10 years. 

THE ROOT 

To the ordinary observer every part of a plant which happens to 
grow naturally underground is regarded as a 'root.' This looseness of 
expression is not altogether confined to the uninitiated, as the term 
' roots ' is also applied by florists and nurserymen to entire plants, such 
as Pansies, Violas, Sweet Williams, Foxgloves, Double Daisies, and 
many other plants in which a large trade is done during the spring 
months. At present, however, we are chiefly concerned with real 
roots, and it is necessary that the gardener should have a clear idea 
as to their origin and function. 

The first Root is the downward growth from the lower end of the 
' caulicle ' or basal portion of the embryo. It usually breaks through 
the seed coat at germinating time, before the cotyledons emerge to 
the light, the object in view by nature evidently being that the young 
plant should be provided with roots as early as possible after growth 
has commenced in the seed. When the first root persists and continues 
to grow it becomes what is known as a tap-root, and is present in all 
Dicotyledonous plants (p. 131 to p. 805) raised from seed. Good examples 
are seen in the Carrot, Parsnip, and Beetroot as represented at fig. 107 
in the Glossary. As the tap-root in many plants has a tendency to 
grow down into uncongenial and sterile parts of the soil, it may be 
prevented from developing in a downward direction by more or less 
frequent transplanting; this injures the tip, stops its growth, and 
causes the more desirable fibrous roots to develop from the sides. 
Boots branch in all directions and apparently without system, and 
become finer and more threadlike towards the tips. They usually 



ROOTS 27 

avoid the light, bear no leaves or buds, and are generally of a pale or 
whitish colour although sometimes with coloured juice. 

Functions. — The main function of the root is to obtain liquid food 
from the soil. The tips of the root are chiefly concerned in this work, 
the older portions merely serving as holdfasts for the plant, and as 
channels for conveying the food to the stems and leaves. The 
extremity of each root-fibre is covered with a cap, formerly called a 
' spongiole,' which protects a mass of young and active cells forming 
the ' growing point.' As the roots push their way in a somewhat 
corkscrew-like fashion through the soil, the outer layers of the root- 
cap wear out and are replaced from within by the discarded layers 
of the growing point. The contents of the cells of the growing point 
are very sensitive to heat, cold, and moisture, and under favourable 
conditions absorb water and whatever plant food is dissolved in it in 
large quantities. During the spring and summer they are most active, 
gradually subsiding towards autumn and becoming almost inactive in 
winter. When plants are moved during the active state of growth 
most of the root-tips are injured or broken, and the supply of food and 
water is cut off from the plant until new roots are formed. Sometimes 
plants moved at this period never recover from the shock to the roots 
and, being unable to produce new ones quickly enough, die, practically 
of starvation and drought. 

Many roots have root-hairs. These are developed chiefly on land 
plants to assist in obtaining water more quickly from the soil. In 
water-plants root-hairs are usually absent. But the roots of such 
plants (e.g. the Watercress) grown on land soon develop root-hairs. 

From the above remarks it is obvious that one of the chief things 
necessary to enable roots to perform their work properly is water. 
Without moisture in the soil the roots are useless, and the entire plant 
collapses in consequence. From a gardening point of view, therefore, 
the greatest attention should be paid to the watering of plants, some 
requiring more and some less, according to their nature. Whether the 
water which is absorbed contains plant food or not depends a good 
deal upon the operations of the gardener. It is possible that many of 
the foods referred to at p. 70 are in the soil, but they must be readily 
soluble in water, and also be in a fit state to benefit the plant. 

Besides the substances absorbed in the water, root-tips and hairs 
absorb substances otherwise insoluble in water, and cling tenaciously 
to particles of minerals. They exude an acid secretion which dissolves 
the mineral matters, and these are thus modified so as to become 
digestible, and readily pass through the cell-walls into the protoplasm 
referred to above. 



28 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Root-pressure. — It is well known — indeed obvious — that the tallest 
tree in the world has water drafted to its highest point. This is an 
extraordinary fact when it is remembered that the Giant Sequoia of 
California and the Gum Trees of Australia often reach the great height of 
400 to 500 ft. The tips of branches being naturally the youngest and 
tenderest parts of a plant are always well supplied with water. How 
the water gets to the outermost tips is a debatable matter and many 
theories have been suggested ; but the fact remains that it gets there, 
and the propelling force has been termed 'root-pressure.' It is sup- 
posed that the water from the fully charged lower cells diffuses or 
filters through the partitions or walls into the upper cells by a process 
called ' osmosis,' referred to above under the chapter on ' Growth.' It 
can hardly, however, be a mere physical process, as each living cell in a 
plant contains the living substance called protoplasm already referred 
to. As each cell containing protoplasm is more or less supplied with 
watery juice from the roots, it is evident that a vast quantity of moisture 
is thereby taken from the soil, and passes from cell to cell by root- 
pressure. When trees and shrubs are cut in spring during the period 
of great absorption, large quantities of water are sometimes forced from 
the cut surfaces, and constitute what gardeners call ' bleeding.' This, 
if carried to excess, would be injurious, if not fatal, to the plant ; but 
the surplus overflow as a rule soon becomes checked by the development 
of fresh leaves, the cells of which must be supplied with sap, and serve 
to stop the overflow from any wounds. 

Kinds of Roots.— Roots, while all performing the same functions, 
differ a good deal in appearance. Broadly speaking they may be 
classified asfibrotis, fleshy, and tuberous. All grasses and many annuals, 
biennials, and herbaceous plants have fibrous roots, while the Dahlia 
may be taken as an example of a plant with fleshy roots. What are 
termed ' adventitious ' or accidental roots are those developed from any 
part of the plant except the seed. The roots of cuttings, layers, stems, 
&c. are therefore all adventitious. In the case of Monocotyledonous 
plants (see p. 127) the primary root from the seed soon ceases to grow, 
and all the roots afterwards developed are from the stem, and are 
hence mostly adventitious. Their functions, however, are precisely the 
same as those of the true roots developed directly from the seedling. 

The tubers of Potatoes and Jerusalem Artichokes, the rhizomes or 
rootstocks of Irises, the corms of Crocuses and Gladioli, and the bulbs 
of Onions and Lilies, although all naturally growing in the soil are 
not really roots at all but modified stems, and are referred to below. 



THE STEM 29 



THE STEM 

The stem is the axis of the plant which bears leaves, flowers, and 
fruit so that each shall be in the most favourable position for 
performing its functions. The leaves are separated from each other 
by greater or less distances called internodes. Sometimes these inter- 
nodes are so short that the plant appears to be stemless or almost 
so, as in the Primrose and Houseleek. Stems always originate in a bud, 
the first one arising between the seed-leaves from the small bud known 
as the plumule. Branches arise also from buds in the axils of leaves, 
and this gives the spreading habit so characteristic of trees and shrubs, 
all belonging to the Dicotyledonous and Gymnospermous groups of 
plants (see p. 122). Among the Monocotyledons (p. 127) and Ferns 
(p. 1008) buds at the end of the stem only are developed, hence the 
usually unbranched character of their stems. 

In the lower orders of plants, such as Seaweeds, Liverworts, 
Mushrooms &c, stems are unknown. The first trace of a stem 
appears in the Mosses, and becomes more marked in the Clubmosses 
(p. 1024), Horsetails (p. 1023), and Ferns (p. 1008) ; but the stem as 
generally understood attains its greatest development in the plants 
belonging to the flowering groups, as seen in the Oak, Apple, Beech, 
Elm, Pine &c. Whether they are herbaceous, that is, soft, tender, and 
deciduous as in annuals and biennials (p. 78), and herbaceous 
perennials (p. 86), or woody as in trees and shrubs (p. 107), the stems 
of all flowering plants have their origin in the ' plumule ' or first bud 
of the embryo plant. 

STRUCTURE OF STEMS 

Besides the differences in stems referred to below, it may be 
mentioned here that there is a very marked difference in the structure 
of the stems of Dicotyledonous plants (p. 122) and those of Monoco- 
tyledons (p. 127). An examination of the stem of a Willow, Apple, 
Fuchsia, Wallflower, or any other plant belonging to the Dicotyledonous 
group will show in transverse section that it consists of three distinct 
parts, viz. (i.) the pith in the centre; (ii.) then the wood; and (hi.) 
the bark or rind outside. The bark is readily peeled off, especially 
when the sap is flowing upwards in spring, and it leaves the white 
wood exposed to view. On the outside of the wood and next the bark 
is a very important layer of quick-growing and actively dividing cells 



30 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



called the ' cambium layer.' As long as ever a Dicotyledonous plant lives, 
this cambium layer has the power of doing two wonderful things : it 
adds by division of the cells a layer of wood on the inside every year, 
and a layer of bark on the outside, and it is by this process, which 
goes on year after year in woody stems, that the latter increase in bulk. 
It thus happens that the youngest part of the wood of a tree trunk is 
on the outside beneath the bark, and not in the centre near the pith ; 
while the youngest bark is next to it and not on the extreme outer 
surface. It is the addition of a layer of wood each year to that already 
existing that gives the ringed appearance to tree trunks, each ring 
representing one year's growth. 

If a strip of bark be taken off all round the trunk or branch of a 
tree without injuring the wood, it will be found that the leaves do not 
shrivel up or wither, as one might expect, as a result of the operation. 
It is evident, therefore, that the sap from the roots ascends by the 
vessels in the cambium and young wood, and not by means of the 
bark, nor yet by means of the pith or the old inner wood, as is indeed 
obvious when one sees a huge Elm, Willow, or Oak with all the 
interior scooped out of the trunk. It will also be noticed that, if a 
branch has a string tied round it firmly, the portion above the 
string will become swollen. This shows that the elaborated or assimi- 
lated food made by the leaves returns down the stem by the outer cells, 
and as these are compressed at the tie the descent of the nutritive 
material is checked at that point and the cells above become gorged. 

There are many other kinds of cells and vessels in the stems of 
Dicotyledonous plants, some being spiral, like compressed watch-springs, 
some cylindrical with slits or holes in the sides, or only at the base 
where they join another vessel, and so on ; and running through them all 
from the central pith or ' medulla ' to the circumference are rays known 
as ' medullary ' rays, popularly known as the ' silver grain ' in wood. 

All the cells and vessels in a stem are not of the same nature : some 
are very tender like those of the cambium, some tough like those 
of the bast cells, and others fibrous or woody. The latter are seen in 
the principal nerves or veins of leaves, and are gathered together into 
bundles. Each leaf is connected with the stem by means of these 
fibrous bundles, and as the leaves are arranged all round the stem it is 
obvious that the fibre-bundles from them collect and form a circle 
round the stem. The traces of these fibre-bundles from the leaf into 
the stem are well seen in the scars left by the fallen leaves in autumn, 
as in the Horse-Chestnut and other trees. 

Such are briefly the main points in the structure of the stems of 
Dicotyledonous plants, and they are referred to here chiefly because a 



STEMS 31 

knowledge of them is necessary for the operations of Budding and 
Grafting described further on. 

In the stems of Monocotyledons we find a different structure, the 
most striking feature being the absence of real pith, wood, and bark. 
There is no cambium layer, and consequently no concentric rings of 
wood and bark as in Dicotyledons, and the fibrous bundles are chiefly 
collected on the outer portions of them, and give them the hard texture 
so well known in the stems of Bamboos and Canes. 

As it is the presence of the cambium layer which enables grafting 
or budding to be done at all, it therefore follows that these operations 
cannot be performed satisfactorily on Monocotyledons which have 
no cambium layer in their stems. 

KINDS OF STEMS 

Stems are usually regarded as being above the soil, but there are 
certain modified kinds which perform their work beneath the surface, 
and are popularly looked upon as roots. 

Those above the surface are classified as follows : — 

1. Herbaceous. These are stems which die down to the ground 
every year after blooming, as in the case of most hardy herbaceous 
perennials (see list, p. 86). 

2. Sub-shrubby, more or less woody below but herbaceous above. 

3. Shrubby, arborescent, or arboreous, woody, and living from year 
to year, and attaining considerable size as in the case of trees and shrubs, 
a list of which is given at p. 107. 

Stems assume various directions in growth, some being erect and 
ascending, others more or less trailing or prostrate on the ground, 
others creeping and developing roots at the joints, where they touch 
the soil ; and others climbing or twining by tendrils, as in the Passion 
Flower and Virginian Creeper ; by twisted leaf-stalks, as in the Clematis, 
or by aerial rootlets, as in the Ivy. 

Stolons are stems or branches which recline on the earth and take 
root. Many plants are naturally increased in this way and the process 
of layering was no doubt suggested by seeing stems throw out roots 
when in contact with the soil. 

An Offset is a short stolon with a tuft of leaves at the end, from 
which roots also develop, as seen in the common Houseleek. 

Runners, as in the Strawberry, are similar in their nature, being 
long slender stolons which when fully grown develop roots at the tip, 
and afterwards buds and leaves to form a new plant. 

Tendrils are branches modified for climbing purposes, and are either 
simple or branched, but are useless for propagating purposes. 



32 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

Spines or Thorns are also modified branches or leaves ; but the 
prickles of the Bose and Blackberry are merely excrescences or cellular 
outgrowths of the stem. 

Underground Stems. — Perhaps the best known form of an under- 
ground stem is that of the Flag Iris (p. 917) and Solomon's Seal (p. 811). 
They look like real roots but the leaf-like scales and buds show them to 
be stems by nature. Many plants have underground and more or less 
creeping stems, as in Lily of the Valley (p. 813), Mint (p. 744), and Couch- 
grass, the latter on this account spreading rapidly and becoming a 
nuisance, especially when chopped by hoeing &c. 

Underground stems are often thickened and serve as storehouses 
for food during the winter in many plants with herbaceous stems. 
They take many shapes, among which may be mentioned : 

The Tuber, as in the Potato (p. 1133) j the Jerusalem Artichoke, the 
' eyes ' of which are leaf-buds from which stems arise (p. 1140); the Corm 
or Solid Bulb, as in the Cyclamen (p. 626), Crocus (p. 936), and Gladio- 
lus (p. 947) ; the Bulb, as in the Madonna Lily (p. 846), the Tulip 
(p. 860), Hyacinth (p. 833), Onion (p. 1148) &c. 

In some plants the stems are so modified in form and structure that 
they perform the functions of the foliage. The stems of many cacta- 
ceous plants are of this nature, and also the branches of the Common 
Butcher's Broom (see p. 810) which resemble leaves in appearance. 



THE LEAVES 

From definite points (called nodes or joints) of the stem and branches 
leaves are developed and arranged more or less horizontally, vertically, 
or drooping so as to obtain a greater or less amount of sunshine, and 
to throw water towards or away from the main axis of the plant, accord- 
ing to the nature of the species. 

It will be noticed for example that the leaves of Ehubarb (p. 770), 
ArumLily (p. 955) and other plants have the tips of the leaves uppermost. 
They are more or less channelled down the centre, and water is by this 
means transferred towards the centre of the plant, and down the stem 
to the roots. In such plants it will generally be found that the roots 
do not spread over large areas but are confined in a small space 
beneath the centre of the plant. Many other plants on the contrary, 
like most of our trees and shrubs and flowering plants, have the leaf- 
tips pointed outwards and downwards so as to throw the water chiefly 
around the circumference of the plant and away from the centre. In 
plants with these peculiarities the roots spread out and away from the 



STRUCTURE OF LEAVES 33 

centre in all directions, and usually go beyond the circumference of the 
foliage. In this way the active fibrous roots secure the full benefit of 
the rain which is thrown off the leaves. 

A complete leaf consists of a flattened portion, called the blade ; a 
stalk or petiole, and a pair of more or less scaly or leafy appendages 
called stipules, all of which characters are illustrated in the Glossary 
at fig. 98. The stalk and stipules are frequently absent, leaving the 
blade attached to the stem by the base, when it is said to be sessile. 
As a rule, when fully developed, leaves cease to increase in length or 
breadth, and remain unchanged in form until death, when they are 
removed by natural decay, as inmost Monocotyledonous plants (p. 127), 
or by breaking off at a joint, as in most Dicotyledons (p. 122). 

Some leaves develop and die in one season, and are called deciduous ; 
others persist for two or more seasons before falling off, new ones in 
the meantime being formed, thus giving the plant an evergieen appear- 
ance. 

The tissue of the blade is traversed by a framework of stronger ribs 
or veins more or less netted in Dicotyledons, as shown at fig. 48 in the 
Glossary, p. 7, and parallel or curved in Monocotyledons, as shown at 
fig. 96 in the Glossary. The beautiful arrangement of the veins is 
well seen in leaves which have been skeletonised — that is, when the 
more perishable tissue (called parenchyma) between the veins has 
decayed through artificial or natural agencies. These veins serve 
not only to strengthen the leaf-blade, but also as channels through 
which the sap from the root is distributed to the cells composing the 
blade. 

Structure of Leaves. — Ordinary leaves consist of an upper and 
under surface between which are layers of cells more or less irregular 
in shape and filled with grains of green colouring matter known as 
chlorophyll floating about in the protoplasm (see p. 22). The cells 
near the upper surface are much more compactly arranged than those 
beneath, hence the more intense green of leaves above. Where leaves 
receive an equal amount of light, as in Irises, Gladiolus, and many 
other Monocotyledons, there is not a great difference in colour between 
the two sides. 

The skin, cuticle, or epidermis of the leaf is studded with small 
openings or breathing pores, known as stomata. These are more 
numerous on the under surface, and it has been computed that there are 
as many as 60,000 of them to the square inch in a Lily leaf, and about 
100,000 to the square inch on that of an Apple leaf. The leaves of water 
plants present a striking difference from those of land plants. Those 
under water are more or less divided and are so thin in texture that they 



34 PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



can absorb the necessary food or throw off surplus gases through the 
walls of the cells instead of through stomata. Those floating on the 
surface have stomata above, but none or very few beneath. 

Functions of the Leaf. — The most important work of the leaf is to 
construct, manufacture, ' elaborate ' or make digestible food for the plant 
out of the raw materials in the sap, and to give off through its pores 
surplus gases and watery vapour. 

It is only under the light of the sun that the living protoplasm in 
the cells of leaves is capable of changing mineral matters and gases into 
plant food. From the air carbonic acid gas is taken in through the 
pores in the leaf and is absorbed through the cell walls by the proto- 
plasm in the cells. The carbon is retained and the oxygen is given off. 
This process of manufacturing food is called assimilation, and may 
be likened to what is known as digestion with human beings and 
animals. By its means starch, sugar, oils and various other substances 
found in plants are obtained, and constitute the food of man and 
animals. The absorption and liberation of gases by means of the pores 
is known as respiration, owing to its being somewhat akin to the 
breathing of animals, the great difference, however, ' being that plants 
breathe out oxygen during the day instead of carbonic acid gas, and 
thus keep the air in a purified state. 

Transpiration. — Almost every part of a living plant is continually 
giving off vapour from its tissues, although the quantity varies with 
atmospheric conditions. When in active growth the roots often absorb 
more water from the soil than is actually needed, and the surplus 
is given off into the air by means of the stomata in the leaves and 
minute pores in the stems. This continual discharge of watery vapour 
is known as transpiration, and according as the cells become emptied 
by evaporation they absorb fresh supplies from contiguous cells by 
means of the process already referred to as Osmosis, see p. 23. 

Whether large or small quantities are given off depends a good deal 
upon the wetness or dryness of the atmosphere, and upon heat and cold 

that is, practically on. the state of the weather. It is not merely a 

mechanical process of evaporation, as the amount given off is regulated by 
the plant itself. When too much vapour is being given off, the stomata 
begin to close, as if realising that the loss of great quantities of water 
means injury to the plant as a whole. So long as the supply of water 
from the roots exceeds that given off by the leaves, the latter remain 
plump and fresh, as the cells composing them are turgid or full of 
watery sap. But as soon as the leaves throw off more water than is 
supplied by the roots, the cells of the leaves gradually become emptied 



AliRANGEMENT OF LEAVES 35 

and collapse. As a consequence the entire leaf droops or, as gardeners 
say, it ' flags.' 

In hot dry summers many thin-leaved plants may be seen to ' flag ' 
daring the day, although the roots may be well supplied with water, 
and only recover their freshness in the cool of the evening, when the 
transpiration current is not so great. This current of water from root 
to leaves continues as long as ever a particle of moisture remains near 
the roots. And it even continues for some time after plants and 
flowers have been severed from the roots and placed in water. This 
explains why in a cut state stems and flowers often last a long time 
fresh in water. If the base of the stems is cut from time to time, and 
under water if possible, the freshness may be extended for several days. 

AKEANGEMENT OF LEAVES 

Leaves are arranged upon the stem in definite order and may be 
alternate — that is, one after the other with only one leaf to each joint 
as shown in the Glossary, fig. 6 ; opposite, when there are two leaves 
to each joint, one on each side and opposite each other (Glossary, fig. 
45) ; whorled or verticillate, when more than two leaves spring from a 
joint and form a circle (Glossary, fig. 116). In the case of Pine-trees it 
looks as if several leaves sprang from one joint, but such is really not 
the case : they are single leaves on a branch the joints of which are 
very close together. 

The blade of a leaf may be in one piece, when it is called simple, as 
shown in the Glossary, figs. 4, 8, 10 &c. ; or cut up into separate 
leaflets, when it is compound, as in figs. 17, 19, and 50 in the Glossary. 
Simple leaves assume roundish, elliptic, oval, or linear shapes with 
intermediate variations, and may be either sharp or blunt or slightly 
notched or pointed at the apex. The margins may be entire, wavy, 
serrate, toothed, lobed, or variously cut, and the base may be prolonged 
below the insertion of leaf-stalk, the lobes uniting and producing a 
peltate or shield-like form, as in the Indian Cress (Tropaeolum) shown 
at fig. 79 in the Glossary. When the leaf-stalk (petiole) is absent the 
leaf is sessile, and when stipules are absent a leaf is said to be exstipu- 
late. When the lobes of a sessile leaf are produced downwards to 
clasp the stem, leaves are said to be amplexicaul, as in fig. 8 of the 
Glossary ; and if the lobes of opposite sessile leaves unite, they become 
connate as in fig. 33 ; or if single and surrounding the stem perfoliate, 
as in fig. 82. 

Compound leaves may have the component parts called ' leaflets ' 
radiating from the end of the stalk, as in the Horse Chestnut, when they 

D 2 



36 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

are termed palmate or digitate (Glossary, fig. 50) ; or from opposite 
sides of the midrib like a feather, when they are pinnate (fig. 85). The 
leaflets of pinnate leaves may be divided once, twice, or more times. 
When the leaflets arise from one another on each side of the middle 
lobe, they are called pedate, as in the Christmas Rose (Helleborus). 
There is great variation, and as a rule two or more terms are employed 
to describe the shape of a leaf, but the main forms will be found illus- 
trated in the Glossary, pp. 1-18. 

THE FLOWER 

The botanist regards the parts of a flower as so many leaves specially 
modified for certain purposes. x\.n ordinary flower is composed of 
(i.) sepals (the calyx) ; (ii.) petals (the corolla) ; (iii.) stamens (andrce- 
cium) ; (iv.) carpels or pistil (gyncecium). The sepals and petals are 
often absent altogether : sometimes one, sometimes another. As a rule 
they form the most conspicuous and showy part of the flower, and their 
natural duty is supposed to be to attract insects to search for honey and 
thus disturb the pollen and fertilise the pistils or carpels. The stamens 
and carpels are the essential parts of the flower, without which it is 
impossible to obtain seed. The stamens contain pollen in the little sacs 
or bags at the apex called anthers shown at fig. 9 in the Glossary. 
Insects are useful in brushing this pollen against the sticky top (the 
stigma) of the pistil. The pollen is sometimes ripe before the stigma, 
and vice versa, and it thus happens that flowers are not often fertilised 
with their own pollen. In this way the pistils in one flower may be 
fertilised with pollen from another, and if the species are different a 
' hybrid ' has been effected, or a ' cross ' if the plants are of the same 
species. Seeds obtained from a plant thus crossed do not exactly 
reproduce the characters of the parents, although the differences may 
be very slight. 

Sometimes the sarnejjflower contains both stamens and pistil, when 
it is said to be hermaphrodite. When a flower contains stamens only 
or pistils only on the same plant, it is said to be monoecious, as in the 
Cucumber (p. 1156), Marrow (p. 1155), Begonia (p. 462). But when 
male and female (or staminate and pistillate) flowers are borne on dif- 
ferent plants, they are said to be dioecious, as in the Aucuba (p. 475) 
and Willow (p. 802). Very often flowers are without stamens and 
pistils, and are termed neuter or sterile, as in the cultivated forms of 
the Guelder Kose (p. 480) and the Hydrangea (p. 429). 

Double Flowers. — Cultivation often plays havoc with the stamens 
and pistils. These become more or less suppressed, and (as showing 



FERTILISATION AND HYBRIDISATION 37 



them to be really modified leaves) they are replaced by petals, as in the 
garden Eose (p. 382), Carnation (p. 240), Hollyhock (p. 272), Double 
Begonia (p. 462) and Chrysanthemum (p. 531). The more the stamens 
and pistils become suppressed or modified by cultivation, the less chance 
is there of obtaining seeds from such flowers, and plants bearing them 
are with difficulty increased by seeds. Hence the adoption of other 
methods of propagation in such cases. 

FERTILISATION AND HYBRIDISATION 

Since the functions of the stamens and pistils have been better 
understood, gardeners have taken full advantage of them by transferring 
the pollen from the stamens of one flower to the pistils of another with 
a view to raising new races or ' strains ' as they are called. When in a 
reciprocal state, fertilisation is usually effected, the pollen grows on the 
sticky surface of the pistil (called the stigma) and seeds are ultimately 
borne in the way described at p. 24. The plants raised from such 
seeds may combine the characters of both parents in a more or less 
even degree. When two species of the same genus are thus fertilised 
a ' hybrid ' is the result. When two species belonging to different 
genera are fertilised, the product is called a ' bigeneric ' hybrid. But 
when forms of the same species are fertilised with each other, they are 
simply called ' crosses,' and chiefly differ in the colour and size of the 
flower. 

Of late years hybridisation has been carried on to an enormous 
extent among all classes of plants, and some very fine garden flowers 
have been thus obtained. It must be remembered, however, that only 
plants having a natural relationship to each other are likely to produce 
hybrids. The more distantly related they are, the less likely are they 
to be fertilised or produce seeds. As most of the plants described in 
this work are arranged according to their natural relationships to each 
other, it will be easy to see which are the most likely ones to use for 
hybridising purposes. 

Unlike animals, it is a remarkable fact that most plant hybrids are 
capable of producing fertile seeds, and are as perfect in every detail as 
the species from which they were originally derived. Occasionally a 
hybrid is met with, which only with difficulty can be fertilised and made 
to produce seed. In such a case as with ' double '-flowered plants it 
must be increased by other means than seeds. 

It may be appropriate to mention here that certain flowers, like Prim- 
roses (p. 617), Auriculas (p. 618), Oxalis (p. 292), Loosestrife (p. 451) &c. 
have the stamens and pistils alternately long in some flowers and short 



38 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

in others, and Darwin has pointed out that pollen from long stamens 
in one flower is naturally adapted for fertilising the long pistils in 
another; and the same with the short forms. Many flowers are 
fertilised by bees and various insects, but many others, like the Pine 
trees (p. 972), Willows (p. 802), Alders (p. 796), Poplars (p. 803), 
Birches (p. 793) &c, depend upon the wind to have their pollen blown 
about and transferred to the ovules (as in the Pines) or pistils (as in 
the others). 

FOEMS OF FLOWEES 

Flowers are usually said to be ' regular ' when their sepals and 
petals are similar as shown in figs. 24, 40, 54, 59, 63, and 66 in the 
Glossary ; or ' irregular,' when one or more sepal or petal differs in 
size or shape from the others as shown in figs. 5, 22, 23, 58, 60, and 
67. The petals may be quite free from each other, when they are 
called polypetalous (see p. 122), or may be united, when they are said 
to be gamopetalous (see p. 125). In the Glossary figs. 23, 24, 59, 63, 
65, and 67 are examples of Gamopetalous flowers, while figs. 5, 40, 54, 
and 58 are examples of Polypetalous flowers. The stamens and pistils 
may also be either free or united. These characters are of great use for 
the purposes of classification, and are more systematically detailed at 
p. 120. 

THE INFLOEESCENCE 

The way in which flowers are borne is termed the inflorescence. 
Flowers may be at the ends of the branches or in the axils of the leaves, 
and may have stalks (peduncles) branched or unbranched forming 
racemes, panicles, corymbs, umbels, or cymes &c. ; all of which terms 
are explained and illustrated in the Glossary (p. 1). When without stalks 
they may form spikes, as in the Plantain, or heads, as in Clover, or 
catkins, as in the Birch. There are various modifications of these, as 
in the Arum Lily, where the flowers are in a fleshy spike (spadix) 
enveloped in a large and showy leaf called a spathe. 



THE FRUIT 

In popular language the term ' Fruit ' is very vaguely used. 
Strictly speaking, the ripened carpels, whether hard or soft, constitute 
the fruit, or, in other words, the seed vessel or ovary. All flowering 
plants which produce seeds enclosed in an ovary are termed Angio- 
sperms (see p. 121) and include both Dicotyledons and Monocotyledons. 



THE FRUIT 39 



The Pine trees and Cycads have their seeds quite naked on scales, and 
are termed Gymno sperms (p. 122). 

Development of the Fruit. — Soon after the stigma of a carpel 
has been fertilised it withers, and the ovary begins to enlarge, the 
ovules which it contained now developing into seeds as the result of 
fertilisation. Sometimes an ovary (or fruit) contains only one seed, 
sometimes many, and there may be many ovaries in one flower, as in 
the Strawberry (p. 1089), Kaspberry (p. 1085) &c, each containing only 
one seed ; or there may be few ovaries or only one, each containing 
several seeds. In any case the ovary consists of one or more carpels 
either separate and distinct, or united. 

When ripe, some fruits open naturally and shed their seeds, and 
are said to be dehiscent ; others never open, and the seeds are only 
liberated by the rotting of the ovary walls. Such fruits are called 
indehiscent. As many kinds of fruits are mentioned in the pages 
of this work it may be as well to briefly define those best known. 

SOFT OR FLESHY FRUITS 

The Berry is a fruit which is soft throughout, the seeds being 
imbedded in a pulp, as in the Gooseberry (see Glossary, fig. 14), Currant, 
Grape, Tomato, and Orange (the latter having a leathery rind). The 
Pepo or Gourd is a hard-skinned berry, such as the Cucumber, Marrow, 
Melon. 

The Pome is a fleshy fruit like the berry, but the calyx is the 
thickened edible portion in which is imbedded the cartilaginous ovaiy 
known as the ' core ' in Apples, Pears, and Quinces (see Glossary, 
fig. 88). 

The Drupe is the name of the fruit of Cherries, Peaches, Plums, 
Almonds and Nectarines. The outer layer, often merely the skin, is 
called the epicarp ; the middle layer or flesh the mesocarp ; the inner 
layer or ' stone ' the endocarp (see Glossary, fig. 52) 

In the Blackberry and Piaspberry the fruit consists of a collection 
of small drupes and is called an etario. The fruit of the Mulberry, 
like that of the Blackberry in appearance, is the product not of one 
flower but of several crowded on a short stalk. 

HARD OR DRY FRUITS 

The Achene is a small dry indehiscent one-seeded fruit, well seen 
in Buttercups and Strawberries. In the latter they are popularly 
regarded as ' seeds.' The juicy edible pulp is in reality the swollen top 
or receptacle of the flower stalk (see Glossary, fig. 1). 



40 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

The Pod or Legume, familiar in the Pea, Bean, Scarlet Runner &c, 
is a fruit splitting into two valves, bearing the seeds on the edges (see 
Glossary, fig. 69). A L omentum is a pod constricted between the seed 
breaking transversely into distinct joints. 

A Samara or Key Fruit, like that of the Elm, Ash, or Maple, is an 
indehiscent fruit furnished with wings (Glossary, fig. 97). 

A Follicle, as seen in the Paeony, Larkspur &c, is a simple carpel 
opening on one side only (Glossary, fig. 57). 

The Capsule is a dehiscent fruit composed of more than one carpel 
usually with many seeds (Glossary, figs. 26, 27). 

The Silique and Silicle are the long and short pods respectively 
of the Crucifer order (p. 201) (Glossary, figs. 99, 100). 

The Cone is the peculiar multiple fruit of the Pine-tree family 
(p. 972). The cones consist of flat scales overlapping each other, and 
bearing the seeds at the base (Glossary, fig. 106). 

The Cremocarp is the name of the fruit of the Umbellifer family 
(p. 464). It consists of two achenes which split apart when ripe 
(Glossary, fig. 38). 

A Nut is a dry indehiscent fruit usually with one seed surrounded 
by a bony wall, as the Hazel or Cobnut (p. 797). In the Oak, the nut 
or acorn is fixed in a cup called the cupule, the whole fruit being called 
a Glans (Glossary, fig. 61). 

INFLUENCE OF LIGHT ON VEGETATION 

All plants having green leaves or stems can only properly develop 
and perform the function of assimilation or digestion by the aid of 
sunlight. Mushrooms (see p. 1166) and other Fungi carry out their 
functions with and without the aid of light. Some plants like as much 
sunlight as possible ; others only a little, preferring a diffused light or 
deep shade ; and others again seem to thrive better under intermediate 
conditions, some leaning towards light rather than shade. 

Light is essential in any case to secure the formation of chlorophyll. 
the name given to the green pigment found in the cells of leaves. But 
this substance also requires a suitable temperature, and will not develop 
in very cold weather. The absence of chlorophyll is noticeable by the 
pale or yellowish appearance of the plants. 

Sometimes gardeners are not anxious that it should develop at all ; 
hence the reason of blanching Celery (see p. 1130), Seakale (p. 1121) &c. 
by covering the leaf-stalks over with soil, pots, boxes &c. The exclu- 
sion of light prevents the formation of the green colouring matter, and 
the stems are in consequence more palatable when eaten. 



PROPAGATION 41 



In the absence of light the leaves will not absorb carbonic acid gas, 
which is essential to the welfare of the plant. The latter must there- 
fore live on whatever reserve material it has stored away in the stems 
or roots. 

All observant gardeners know the difference between plants grown 
in light and plants grown in darkness or deep shade. Those under the 
latter conditions grow rapidly, and plants that are naturally sturdy will 
assume a weakly, more or less climbing habit, being anxious to reach 
the sunlight. And every cottager knows that the leaves and shoots of 
the ' Geranium ' in his window always turn towards the glass and not 
towards the centre of the room. 

On the other hand plants grown in plenty of light do not develop 
so rapidly, but each part performs its own function properly and steadily, 
with the result that the plants are more sturdy, and the stems and 
shoots become better matured and produce better flowers and fruits. 

Light may therefore be said to have a dwarfing and ripening effect 
upon plants, while darkness has an elongating and weakening effect. 

Apart from this may be mentioned the fact that the leaves of many 
plants of the Leguminous order (p. 322), such as the well-known Sen- 
sitive Plant, go to ' sleep ' — that is, droop — during the night time, and 
only regain their spreading position in daylight. 

From a cultural point of view, therefore, it is important to notice the 
effect of light, shade and darkness in plants. Very often a plant which 
has been grown in strong sunlight will not thrive under the best of 
treatment ; but when it is shaded or partially shaded, it soon begins to 
show that it appreciates the altered conditions by the way in which it 
puts forth new growths. At p. 88 a selection of plants is given which 
will flourish in shaded or partially shaded situations, while many others 
are mentioned in various parts of the work. 



PROPAGATION OF PLANTS 

Propagation is the term applied to any method by means of which 
plants are increased or multiplied in number. Some plants can only be 
increased in one way, others in several ; but as a rule the gardener 
usually and not unnaturally selects the method which gives him the 
quickest and what he considers also to be the best results. In the 
case of annuals and most biennials (see p. 78) he has no other choice 
as a rule but to raise them from seeds. This is also Nature's method of 



42 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



increasing niost plants, but the process is often too slow to be regarded 
with satisfaction by the gardener. He therefore also has recourse to 
the other methods of propagation described below. 

I. Propagation by Seeds 

As just stated above, most plants growing in a natural state are 
increased by seeds. From a garden point of view, however, it is not 
always advisable to adopt this means, although many hundreds of plants 
may be very easily raised thereby. When it is desired to keep any 
particular plant true to its variety — that is, so that the progeny may 
faithfully reproduce all the features of the parent, in regard to habit, 
foliage, flowers, colour, fruit, flavour &c. — it is not wise to increase or 
propagate such a plant by means of seeds. For this reason : that pollen 
from the flowers of an inferior, or at least undesirable, variety may have 
fertilised the pistils in the flowers of the plant which it is desired to 
propagate. The characters of the original variety would in this way be 
tampered with, and the seedlings, although very similar to it, may have 
inherited some of the undesirable qualities of the strange parent, and 
lost the most desirable ones of the other. 

It is therefore almost impossible for any seed to reproduce all the 
characters and qualities of its mother parent with absolute fidelity. 
Where little or no importance is attached to this fact, seeds will be 
found one of the readiest methods by which large numbers of plants 
may be produced. Plants raised from seed offer immense variety, 
and where novelties are required either as hybrids or crosses (see p. 37) 
it is a most interesting occupation raising them from seeds. 

SEED SOWING 

The best time for sowing seed is either in the autumn when 
thoroughly ripe, or in spring, when the earth's natural heat is favour- 
able to germination. In a state of nature, as soon as seeds are ripe 
they fall to the ground and perhaps remain dormant during the 
winter, or else germinate sufficiently early to be strong enough to 
withstand the rigours of winter. All our annual weeds and a good many 
of our choice hardiest annuals if left alone would reproduce themselves 
in this way. And so would the hardy biennials and perennials, as 
witness the Evening Primrose, Horse Chestnut, Ash, Oak, &c. From 
a gardening point of view, however, it is found convenient to make 
spring the chief seed-sowing season, as there are so many other matters 
to attend to in the autumn. Other periods, when preferable for any 
particular plant, will be found noted in the following pages. 



SEED SOWING <&c. 43 



PREPARATION OF THE SOIL FOR SOWING SEEDS 

Seeds are sown out of doors, either in beds, or in rows or ' drills ' as 
they are often called. In whatever way they are sown the ground 
must first of all be specially prepared for their reception. It should 
as a rule be well dug or trenched some time previously, so that it will 
have had sufficient time to settle down afterwards. The surface must 
be made fine, and should be quite free from clods or lumps. As a rule 
seed beds are level, but they may under certain circumstances, where 
the soil, for instance, is naturally heavy and wet, be raised, with alleys 
about a foot wide between them, the better for thinning out, weeding 
&c. afterwards. Under south walls, the beds may be slightly inclined 
so as to catch more benefit from the sun's rays in early spring. The soil 
being thus warmed naturally excites growth, and the seedlings appear 
rather earlier than if sown under other conditions. 

The necessity for a fine surface is obvious when it is remembered 
that the seeds of a vast number of plants are very small. If the soil 
were in a rough state and somewhat lumpy, the small seeds would 
sink down much too deep, and the young plants would probably never 
see the light of day ; or if they did it would be in such a weak and 
exhausted state that they would recover only with very great difficulty. 

The upper surface of the soil may be made fine in various ways. 
It may be sifted and afterwards levelled with a rake ; or, if it is in a 
good friable condition, any lumps in it may be readily crushed with 
the spade or fork, before levelling properly with the rake. 

The soil also may be trodden down well with the feet or a very 
light roller. This will secure evenness and consistency throughout, 
and will afford a much better run for the roots than if it is left very 
loose and powdery. 

COVERING SEEDS 

There is a vast range of variation in the size of seeds — some being 
like dust and scarcely discernible, while others, like the Pea, Bean, 
Horse Chestnut &c. are large enough to be handled quite easily. 
The well-known seed of the Coco-nut Palm is one of the largest 
seeds known, while those of our British and exotic Orchids are 
among the very smallest. Similar to these latter are the spores or 
' seeds ' of Ferns, while those of Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and many 
other plants of the Heath order (p. 574) are very little larger. Such a 
difference in size naturally suggests a difference in treatment in regard 
to covering seeds. The rough and ready principle usually adopted is 
to cover seeds with soil equalling their own depth or diameter, and for 
all practical purposes this is found to work very well. Minute seeds, 



44 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



like those of Ehododendron, therefore, are simply sown on the surface 
of the prepared soil, the fineness of which should as a rule correspond 
to the fineness of the seeds sown. Larger seeds may be covered with 
soil to a depth varying according to their size. 



WATEEING SEED-BEDS 

Water is just as essential to growth as heat. Hence the soil 
in which seeds are sown must be in a more or less moist condition 
according to the nature of the plant. Some seeds require to be 
moderately moist, while others — such as those of marsh plants, a list of 
which is given at pp. 112, 113 — require to be sown almost or quite in a 
wet muddy soil. In the case of the fine seeds already alluded to, where 
there is no covering of soil, great attention to watering is necessary for 
some time. Being not only minute, but also tender and likely to be 
shrivelled up by drought, the soil on which these tiny seeds rest should 
before sowing be thoroughly soaked with water. Afterwards they may 
be kept moist with a sprinkling from a very fine-rosed watering-pot, or 
the pots or pans in which they are sown may be stood half their depth 
in water. In this way the soil will absorb moisture upwards from the 
bottom, and thus avoid the necessity of watering with a can. Very 
often, when the latter is used carelessly or thoughtlessly for fine seeds, 
these are washed into a heap at one side, and thus are too dense to 
permit any good growth in the seedlings. 

EECEPTACLES FOE SOWING SEEDS 

It is often more convenient to sow seeds in greenhouses, hotbeds, or 
cold frames ; or the quantity to be sown may be so small that it is not 
worth while sowing it in the open border. Under such circumstances 
flowerpots, pans, or shallow wooden boxes are generally used. Whatever 
receptacle is used it is first of all necessary to see that it is well drained 
before filling it up with soil. 

' CEOCKING ' OE DEAINING POTS 

In the case of flowerpots, these must be ' crocked,' as gardeners say. 
A flattish piece of broken pot, having about the same diameter as the 
bottom of the pot, is placed over the hole in the centre. Over this large 
' crock ' smaller ones are placed, sometimes as much as half way up or 
more, when particularly good drainage is required. Where large quan- 
tities of crocks are used, they should become gradually smaller towards 
the top. Over them all is placed a layer of moss, or fibre of some sort, 



DRAINAGE 45 



such as that shaken out of peat, or turfy loam. This prevents the soil 
from being washed down among the crocks, and thus choking up the 
spaces between them required for the free passage of water and air. 



NECESSITY OF DRAINAGE 

Too much importance cannot be attached to the proper drainage of 
soil, whether it is held in a pot or box, or whether it is in the open garden. 
Unless the water can pass away from the soil readily, it becomes more 
or less stagnant in it, causes sourness, prevents the circulation of air, 
lowers the temperature round the roots, and generally interferes with 
the health of the plant. Under the chapter on soils the question of 
drainage is more fully treated (see p. 66). Whether boxes, pans, or 
other receptacles are used, the question of drainage must be first 
attended to as with flowerpots. 

Having attended to the drainage, the soil, which must be of a nature 
suitable to the plants to be grown, may be placed over the moss and 
crocks, and pressed down more or less firmly with the fingers or a 
small piece of flat board, and brought to within half an inch of the top 
of the rim as a rule. Where very fine seeds, like those of Begonia, are 
to be sown the soil may be raised in the centre, forming a shallow dome, 
but in such cases the soil must be light and easily permeable by 
water. 

HOW TO SOW SEED 

As a general rule, it may be said that seeds of all kinds of plants 
are sown too thickly, with the natural consequence that the seedlings 
spring up very close to each other, and if they are not ' pricked out ' or 
' thinned out,' as described below, they soon stifle each other, and very 
few, if any, good plants are obtained. 

Where the seeds are fairly large and easily handled there is no 
excuse for sowing them thickly. It may take a little longer time to sow 
them at more or less regular intervals, but the time spent then will be 
saved, and more than saved, later on when they have germinated. In 
the event of other work requiring attention, thinly sown seedlings may 
be allowed to stand longer in the seed-pots without injury than those 
which have come up too close to each other. 

With tiny seeds it is very difficult to avoid sowing them thickly, 
and great care must be exercised in handling them. Some of them 
are so small and so light, that hundreds of them may be blown away 
and lost for ever by a slight puff of wind, or even a cough. Such seeds 
therefore should not be sown in a draughty place for this reason. 



46 PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



To avoid sowing them too thickly, it is a good plan to sift some dry 
sand through fine muslin or a hair sieve, and mix the seeds thoroughly 
with it. The sand and seeds may then be sown as thinly as possible 
over the surface, treating the grains of sand as if they were seeds — and 
the seedlings will as a rule not be so close together as if sown without 
this artificial aid. 

The sowing of Fern spores has been dealt with separately at 
p. 1008. 

THINNING OUT SEEDLINGS 

This will be necessary when the seedlings are large enough to handle, 
so that those intended for bloom will have ample space to fully develop 
without having had their roots disturbed. Thinning out is best done 
in dull showery weather when the seeds have been sown in the open 
air. Failing this, the seed bed should be watered before or after the 
work. 

PRICKING OUT SEEDLINGS 

This operation is almost equivalent to thinning the seedlings and 
to transplantation. It consists in transferring the seedlings from pots, 
pans, or places in which they developed from the seed, to similar 
receptacles or places, only much further apart according to kind. 
The plants have thus more room and air and become sturdy. They also 
produce more fibrous roots, as the removal usually injures the first 
central main or tap root, and its place must be taken by new fibrous 
ones developed from the sides. 

Many plants are improved in growth by pricking out or transplanting, 
but a few are injured by the process, and these are mentioned in their 
proper places. As a rule it is safer not to transplant or prick out any 
plants which are grown chiefly for the sake of their tap-roots, such as 
the Carrot (p. 1128), Parsnip (p. 1129), Turnip (p. 1119), Eadish 
(p. 1120), Beet &c. (p. 1151). If transplanted very young they may 
develop fairly regular-shaped roots, but as a rule they do not, hence are 
usually thinned out in the seed beds instead of being transplanted. 

Hotbeds 

As hotbeds and cold frames are most useful for raising seeds and 
for many other purposes in the garden, they may be referred to here. 

A hotbed when well made is an extremely useful adjunct to a gar- 
den, and especially a garden without greenhouses. It may be erected 
in some out of the way part where its presence is not too noticeable. 
By its aid all kinds of tender plants may be raised in early spring or 



GOLD FRAMES 47 



protected in winter ; cuttings of bedding and other plants will quickly 
root on it, and many other uses may be found for it. 

For making hotbeds the best stable manure should be used, to- 
gether with plenty of leaves, those of the Oak or Chestnut for choice. 

Stable manure by itself heats too quickly and dies out too rapidly. 
By adding leaves, heat is not generated so quickly but is more lasting 
and suitable for plants. 

The whole should be well mixed and turned over (any dry portions 
being thoroughly wetted) every other day for about a week or so, to 
allow the rank steam to escape. 

In making the hotbed, the litter and leaves should be placed evenly 
layer after layer, and in such a way as to be 6 to 12 inches longer and wider 
than the frame intended for it. As the bed proceeds it should be evenly 
and firmly trodden down, the better to secure a uniform heat. When 
finished and settled down the hotbed should be 3 to 4 feet high, sloping 
from the back to the front, and facing south. The surface may be 
covered with a layer of well-rotted manure, and upon this may be a 
covering of prepared soil or coco-nut fibre, varying in thickness 
according to particular requirements. 

It is advisable to tilt the ends of the lights at first to allow the escape 
of rank steam. Shading may be done, if necessary, by mats, canvas, or 
whitening the glass. 

When any plants described in this work require the assistance of a 
hotbed, the fact will be found mentioned. 

Cold Frames 

Besides hotbeds, cold frames are very convenient, more particularly 
for raising seeds of rather tender hardy plants, or for protecting peren- 
nial plants in winter that have been grown in the open air during the 
summer and autumn months. In very severe winters the frames may 
be banked round with litter, and covered with one or more layers of 
Kussian mats if needed. In fine mild wintry weather the lights should 
be taken off or well propped up during the warmest portion of the day, 
when not frosty, and should be closed early enough to retain a fair 
proportion of sun heat for the night. Cold frames are of various sizes 
and makes to suit different kinds of plants ; but they are rather expen- 
sive. The amateur, however, can easily improvise a frame good enough 
for practical purposes. See page 100. 

Labelling 

After seeds of annuals, biennials, or indeed any plant, have been 
properly sown, it is important that each kind should be distinctly 
labelled. Wooden labels varying from 3 to 12 inches long may be 



48 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



used. The surface should be slightly and evenly covered with white 
paint (Continental growers like yellow) and written upon while still 
damp. With the sharpened end of the label pointing to the left, the 
generic name should be written above the specific. The date of sowing 
should also be recorded, and to prevent it becoming obliterated by being 
pushed too far into the soil, this is best done on a space ruled off by a 
line at the top of the label. Several labels may be ruled at once, and 
there is nothing lost by a little neatness and clearness in writing. 
When special seeds are sown, the name of the sender, country &c. are 
worth while recording. Where many kinds of seeds are sown, it will 
be interesting to note how much longer it takes some seeds to germinate 
than others under equal conditions. 

In the Flower Border and Eock Garden it must be admitted that 
labels often look far from picturesque, especially when the plants they 
represent have disappeared perhaps for ever. In such cases they have 
not inaptly been termed tombstones, and should be removed when all 
hope of the plant beneath the surface is abandoned. 

On the whole, however, a good case can be made out for labels in 
the flower garden, whether of wood or zinc, especially when many species 
are grown, unless one has an extraordinary memory. In the case 
of deciduous herbaceous plants labels mark the spot in winter and 
prevent the plant being accidentally uprooted and thrown away. The 
size of the label, however, should always be more or less in proportion 
to the size of the plant, as nothing looks more ridiculous than to see a 
tiny plant an inch or two high hidden behind a label a foot long and 
2-3 in. broad. 

2. Propagation by Cuttings 

Perhaps there is no operation in which the amateur gardener takes 
so keen a delight as in increasing any choice plant in his stock by the 
readiest means, and sometimes by unusual means, for the sake of ex- 
periment. Apart from increasing plants by the natural method of 
sowing seed, that of making cuttings is most popular, and many 
amateurs whose enthusiasm knows no bounds endeavour to make a new 
plant out of every part of an old one, whether suitable or not. As a 
rule, these enthusiasts make the best gardeners, as every failure is a 
lesson, and the more failures they can reckon the greater the extent of 
their knowledge. 

Cuttings consist of detached portions of a plant — either root, stem, 
or leaves — from which separate and distinct plants with roots of their 
own are obtained, and lead an independent existence. Although some 
plants are more difficult than others to raise from cuttings, it may be 



CUTTINGS 49 



taken as a general principle that plants having buds, bark, and more or 
less pithy stems are capable of being increased by this means. This 
practically includes all the Dicotyledons except annuals (see p. 78) 
and excludes many Monocotyledons (p. 127) and Ferns (p. 1008). 
Plants are often increased by cuttings simply because there is no other 
way — but chiefly because seeds will not ripen or cannot be procured. 
Special varieties are also increased by cuttings, as, if raised from seeds, 
the distinguishing characters may be lost or blended with those of 
another variety, as already explained at p. 42. 

Selecting Cuttings. — Cuttings should always be selected from 
healthy plants and the best varieties. When herbaceous, they are taken 
from the young plump shoots. A few of the lower leaves are stripped 
off, and the stem is cut away to a joint. Herbaceous cuttings may be 
put in whenever they can be obtained, but spring and autumn are 
perhaps the best seasons. If cuttings of choice plants are placed in a 
little heat, as on a hotbed (p. 46), and kept shaded for a few days, they 
root or ' strike ' much more quickly than if left unprotected in the open 
air. But cuttings of a vast number of herbaceous plants and of trees 
and shrubs root easily in a shady border or in a cold frame. 

Until a cutting makes roots of its own, it must continue to live 
somehow. It is well known that plants with roots will suffer from 
want of water, and that very hot sunshine will often cause the leaves 
to wither even when the roots are well supplied with water. How, 
therefore, is a piece of a plant which cannot absorb water, as it has no 
roots, and cannot prevent the evaporation of the moisture already in it, 
going to exist for any length of time, and not only exist, but produce 
roots and eventually develop into a large plant from which several other 
cuttings may be taken ? It is well known that portions of plants placed 
in water often keep fresh and healthy for a long time, especially if kept 
shaded from bright sun. This fact is taken advantage of in regard to 
cuttings. They are usually placed in damp, sandy soil, and are kept 
shaded from the sun. Air is also excluded for a time. In this way 
evaporation is checked, the cuttings retain a good deal of their plump- 
ness, and the cells of the cut surface when cleanly cut with a sharp 
knife have the power of taking up and transmitting from one to another 
a certain quantity of water. 

The roots have still to be formed, otherwise the cuttings die, as they 
cannot live indefinitely in a rootless condition. In making cuttings .. 
they are usually cut clean across just beneath a joint with a sharp knife. 
The reason for this is that at every joint is one bud or more, usually m 
a dormant condition. These buds become plumper and plumper on 
the plant until they burst into leaf or flower. They evidently have the 



50 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GAJRDEN PLANTS 



power of attracting or drawing to themselves, therefore, a greater amount 
of nourishment than the part of the stem between the joints. When 
a cutting is severed just beneath this seat or storehouse of nourish- 
ment, the injured cells of the cut surface endeavour to heal their 
wounds and keep alive by drawing away some of this nourishment. 
When this takes place a cushion or ring is formed round the cut sur- 
face, and protects the inner cells from further injury. From this ring 
or cushion, which gardeners call the ' callus,' roots are soon developed — 
they are drawn out as it were by the moisture of the soil, and at once 
begin to absorb food in a soluble state at their tender tips. Once this 
stage has been reached a change is seen above the soil in the cutting. 
The young bud at the tip is no longer inactive, but begins to grow and 
put forth leaves, and these also begin to work in conjunction with the 
roots, and thus add to the size and weight of what is now an indepen- 
dent plant. Henceforth it must be treated like its parent and get the 
benefit of light, air, moisture and heat in the same way, according to 
its requirements. 

A large number of plants may be obtained from cuttings, but there 
are also a vast number which cannot be increased in this way, such as 
' annuals ' for example. The same may be said of most biennials, that 
is, plants which take two years to fully mature before dying down. 
To these may be added such plants as Grasses, Bamboos, Palms, and 
many other plants like them having leaves with parallel or curved 
veins, and no rind or bark, as in the Willow, Apple, Pear, Plum &c. 

Cuttings may be divided into two main groups — soft-wooded or 
herbaceous, and woody. In the Zonal Pelargonium, for instance, not 
only will the ends of the branches ' strike ' or produce roots but almost 
every joint, always provided the stems are not too sappy. And here it 
may be as well to mention as a general rule that all cuttings should be 
taken from fairly well-ripened and firm parts of the plants. Cuttings 
of stems too young and watery are apt to rot very soon, and those 
from very old and dried wood do not root, chiefly because there are no 
young cells full of life left. Cuttings of most herbaceous plants and of 
many trees and shrubs all require pretty much the same treatment. 
They should be inserted in sandy soil, a hole having first been 
vmade with a blunt-pointed dibber about twice as thick as an ordinary 
lead-pencil. The soil should be pressed firmly but gently round the 
fy&se so as not to crush the tissues, but at the same time firmly enough 
to prevent the cuttings coming out readily when gently pulled with the 
finger and thumb. 

VPots, pans, shallow boxes, or any other receptacle may be used for 
putting the cuttings in, but whatever receptacle is used it should 



CUTTINGS 51 



always be well drained as explained under ' Seed Sowing,' p. 43. No 
particular heat is required for the plants mentioned, but in others which 
do not come within the scope of this work a very high temperature is 
necessary both above and below to make them throw out roots. 

Cuttings of woody plants differ a good deal from those of soft- 
wooded or herbaceous plants. In them we have a quite different kind 
of cutting. The most notable thing is the absence of leaves, but dor- 
mant buds are shown at the joints where the leaves have fallen away. 
There are a large number of plants which are easily increased by cuttings 
of this kind. When the leaves have fallen off naturally in the autumn, 
the thoroughly ripened stems may be cut into various lengths and put 
into the soil, allowing them to remain during the winter. In spring 
the dormant buds will burst into leaf, and in the course of the summer 
new branches will be developed. All this is a sign that work is being 
done under the surface of the soil. Beneath the hard woody bark is a 
layer of green tissue, with a mass of green young cells full of the 
active growing material called protoplasm. During the winter the 
temperature has been too low to start the living matter in the cells into 
growth, and so they remain idle or dormant. But when the tempera- 
ture reaches a certain point in the spring it happens to be just suitable 
for the protoplasm, and the contents of every cell in consequence become 
active. A ' callus ' is formed at the cut end of the stem in the soil, and 
by-and-by young roots are developed exactly as in the soft-wooded 
cuttings, and the process of taking up nourishment from the soil begins 
in earnest. A large number of trees and shrubs, with net-veined leaves, 
can be increased in this way, among them being the Virginian Creeper, 
and its relation, the Ampelopsis Veitchi, which clings to walls, the 
Willow, Gooseberry, Currant, Mock Orange, Rose, Apple, Pear, Plum, 
Cherry &c. Of all these it is better to have a shoot about eight or nine 
inches long, so that about half of it may be inserted in the soil, 
although cuttings of many others need be only 2-3 in. long. 

Root Cuttings. — Tops of branches and portions of the stems are 
the usual parts of a plant used for making cuttings. But there are 
other parts which are equally useful for the same purpose. The root, 
for instance, of some plants like the Japanese Windflower (Anemone 
japonica) and the Japanese Quince (Cydonia japonica), Sea Kale, the 
Eose, and many others, if cut into pieces a couple of inches long, and 
' sown ' in the soil as if they were seeds, will produce young plants. 
As a rule root cuttings are usually best put in a little heat. Only 
those plants the roots of which have a tendency to develop buds are 
increased in this way. A distinction must be made between these 
roots and underground stems. 

E 2 



52 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Leaf Cuttings are employed in the case of plants in the Crassula 
order, and tender plants like Begonias and Gloxinias. The leaves are 
placed on fine sandy soil or coco-nut fibre, and the main nerves are 
cut through with a sharp knife. The sap from the cut surface forms a 
callus, and from this comes a little bud above and roots below. After 
a time the body of the leaves decays, leaving the plantlets, which are 
potted up singly into small pots, in fine rich sandy soil. 

Preparing Soil for Cuttings. — The soil for cuttings should always 
be specially prepared, particularly for those of flowering plants. What- 
ever soil the plant grows in best should be used, with more than the 
usual mixture of sand ; and it should always be well drained, as stag- 
nant moisture would very soon rot the rootless stem. The more tender 
or difficult the plant, the more care should be taken in watering, 
shading, and airing the cuttings. 

3. Propagation by Grafting 

A graft is somewhat like a cutting, but instead of its being placed 
to root in the soil it is inserted in the stem of another living plant 
which is already provided with roots. Only trees and shrubs and 
sometimes herbaceous plants of the Dicotyledonous group can be 
grafted. The cut surface of the graft or ' scion ' and the stock should 
fit neatly together, in such a way that the layer of the inner bark in 
each should be in contact. This layer is called the ' cambium,' and 
consists of thin- walled cells, which are always at work adding a layer 
of wood on the inside and a layer of bark on the outside, thus adding 
to the diameter of the plant stem, as already explained at p. 30. 




FIG. 117. — WHIP 
GRAFTING. 



FIG. 118.— WHIP 
GRAFTING. 



FIG. 119. — WHIP 
GRAFTING. 



FIG. 120. WHIP 

GRAFTING. 



Varieties of Grafting. — There are various ways in which a graft is 
attached to the stock, the chief being : — 



GRAFTING 



53 



(a) Whip Grafting.— This is most generally practised. It consists 
in making an oblique cut in both stock and scion in such a way that 
they will fit exactly as shown in figs. 117 and 118. A tongue (t) is 
also cut in each so as to fit one into the other. Where there is a 
difference in size the scion must be inserted nearer one edge to secure 
the meeting of the inner bark. When neatly fitted, as in fig. 119, the 
whole should be bound with woollen thread or raffia so as to keep the 
scion from moving about, and clay or grafting wax should be at once 
plastered all round to exclude the air and prevent drying. Fig. 120 
shows a completed graft tied up, the dotted lines representing the 
clay or grafting wax around the joined portions. 

(b) Cleft Grafting.— This method consists in splitting or cleaving 
the head of the stock open by a chisel or small chopper. The end of 
the scion is cut wedge-shaped and inserted in the cleft so as to make 
the inner edges of the bark meet. This may also be called Market- 
garden Grafting, as it is usually employed in furnishing the tops of old, 
worn-out fruit trees. The objection to it is that in splitting the stock, 
perhaps in three or four places, a much larger space than is required for 
the scion is made, and may take a long time to heal, if it ever does. 
There are variations of this method. 

(c) Saddle Grafting. — In this method the stock and scion must be 
of equal thickness. The stock, as shown in fig. 121 a, is cut upwards 
on two opposite sides to make a 

wedge. The scion, as shown in fig. 
121 b, is split up the centre and 
hollowed so as to fit on top of the 
stock. The reverse method, of in- 
serting a wedge-ended scion into the 
stock, is called Wedge Grafting. 

{d) Crown or Bind Grafting. — 
This system is generally practised in 
spring, when the bark easily separates 
from the wood. The scion is cut 
obliquely, but a square shoulder is 
made at the base by a transverse cut. 
It is pushed in between the bark and 
wood of the stock until the shoulder 
rests on the top of the stock. Several 

slender grafts may be inserted by this means round the edge of a large 
trunk, as shown in fig. 122. 

An improved method of Grafting is shown in figs. 123, 124, and 
125. It is not exactly new, as something similar was practised about 





FIG. 121. — SADDLE 
GRAFTING. 



FIG. 122. — CROWN 
GRAFTING. 



54 



PR ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ninety years ago ; but specimens from which the drawings were made 
were exhibited a few years ago in London to show the difference 
between the ordinary system of grafting and the improved one. Fig. 123 
shows a graft inserted in a much thicker stock. The rind or bark, 
however, is not cut away from the graft, but is carried over the head 
of the stock, and is inserted under the bark on the opposite side. This 
is the only difference in the two operations, the tying up and waxing or 
claying being done as usual. The result of the union is shown, how- 
ever, in fig. 124. This shows that a cushion of tissue and bark has 
formed over the head of the stock, and has thus protected it from 
decay owing to possible moisture, fungoid diseases &c. In fig. 125 






FIG. 123. 



FIG. 124. 



FIG. 125. 



the result of inserting a graft in the ordinary way is shown. The 
union is perfect enough, but the central cylinder of wood in the stock 
has not been covered over by the bark, and is thus left exposed to the 
weather, and may sooner or later decay. This, of course, means danger 
to the graft, although it may not take place for several years. 

(e) Side Grafting consists in inserting a graft sideways into the 
branch or trunk of a tree chiefly to fill up a vacant space. The scion 
may have either shooting buds on last year's growth and be inserted 
in April, or may have dormant buds on the current year's wood and be 
inserted about August or September, to develop the following year. 
The practise of inserting dormant fruit-buds has been tried in France 
and England, and the advocates of it claim that magnificent fruit has 
been obtained thereby. (See figs. 130, 131, p. 59.) 

(/) Veneer Grafting is practised in spring or autumn, preferably the 
former, chiefly with evergreen trees and shrubs. The corresponding 
sides of the stock and graft are cut obliquely about 1 in. long, fitted 
together, tied, and placed in a close frame. The leaves of the scion are 



GRAFTING 55 



not stripped off at the top, and the top of the stock need not be cut off 
till after the union has taken place. 

(g) Grafting by Approach or Inarching. — This is rarely practised 
except on Vines. It consists in bringing the stems of two plants 
together, cutting away a portion of the bark of each, fitting the cut 
surfaces together and tying. Here both stock and scion have roots, but 
the scion is not severed from its parent until it has been completely 
united to the foreign stock. 

(h) Root Grafting. — Many plants are grafted on roots of their own 
or an allied species, chiefly when the sap begins to flow in spring. 
Unless carefully performed the union will be imperfect and the plants 
useless after a time. Clematises were and still are grafted in this way, 
but sooner or later they nearly all die unless the operation is neatly per- 
formed, and it is therefore better to obtain plants from cuttings or seeds. 

Whichever kind of Grafting is practised, the main point to remember 
is that the cambium-layers — seated just between the inner bark and the 
young wood — of both the stock and scion must come in contact with 
each other. It is useless placing the hard wood of the one against that of 
the other, as the cells in that portion have long ceased to be in a living 
state. The cells of the cambium-layer in the stock unite with those 
in the cambium-layer of the scion, the contents as it were intermix or 
fuse together by the reciprocal action of the protoplasm (see p. 22), 
and a union between the two is effected. As plants of the Monoco- 
tyledonous group have no cambium-layer it naturally follows that they 
cannot be grafted ; but nothwithstanding this, numerous attempts 
have been made, and all have failed. 

Selecting the Grafts or Scions. — In selecting a branch for graft- 
ing due consideration must be given not only to the relationship exist- 
ing between stock and scion referred to in the preceding paragraph, 
but care should be taken to select well-ripened shoots of the previous 
year containing several buds. Attention should also be given to the 
buds to see that they are leaf-buds and not flower-buds. The main 
object in grafting being first of all to produce branches, it is obvious that 
this may be effected more readily by means of shoots having leaf -buds 
instead of flower-buds. In the various fruit trees described in this 
work the difference between the wood or leaf-buds and the flower-buds 
is shown in the illustrations, so that readers may not mistake one for 
the other. 

When grafting is practised only scions of really choice and fruitful 
varieties should be selected. The scions should be 6-8 in. long, and are 
best taken from the side shoots rather than those of the uppermost 
and strongest growing branches. It is not essential to unite a scion 



56 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



to the stock immediately it is detached from the tree. Indeed, a few 
days are allowed to elapse so that movement of the sap shall become 
slower in the scion than the stock. The shoots, however, must not be 
allowed to dry or shrivel up, but may be placed in the soil in a shady 
place. If they are to be sent away any distance it is a good plan to 
stick the ends into a Potato tuber or moist clay, or to pack them in 
damp moss. When, however, the scion is about to be inserted in the 
stock the end should always be cut so as to have a fresh surface. 

Time to graft. — Except where otherwise mentioned grafting is 
usually performed about March. About this time the sap is beginning 
to rise from the action of the roots, and the bark is more readily opened. 
The process of uniting also goes on slowly at first and becomes more 
rapid with the flow of the sap. The shooting of the buds on the scion 
usually indicates that union has taken place, and the ties should be 
looked at frequently afterwards, and loosened later on if necessary. 

Relationship of Stock and Graft. — It is important to remember 
that plants cannot be promiscuously grafted one on another. They 
must at least belong to the same Natural Order, and should as a rule 
be closely related. As all the plants described in this work are arranged 
according to their close relationship with one another it will be easy 
to avoid making mistakes in grafting one species on to another with 
which it has no near affinity. It is improbable, for example, that a 
Barberry (p. 178) could be successfully grafted on an Apple tree (p. 1042), 
and vice versa. At the same time such practices cannot be prevented, 
and if they should succeed it would indeed be a wonderful thing. 

Exclusion of Air. — This is another essential point to remember 
when grafting. If the air is allowed to circulate around the cut 
surfaces the latter are soon dried up, a film is formed over them, and 
an effective barrier is thus placed between the cells of the two 
cambium-layers. Various composts are used to exclude the air, but 
those referred to below are perhaps the best and most generally useful. 

Grafting Clay and Wax. — This is made of clay well worked up with 
a little chopped hay and horse or cow manure. If a hole is made in 
the centre of the heap, water poured in will keep it moist for a long 
time. It is an easy way of obtaining a good material for placing round 
grafts. In France a mixture of 28 parts black pitch, 28 Burgundy 
pitch, 16 yellow wax, 14 tallow, and 14 sifted ashes, is generally used 
instead of clay. 

Three parts each of resin and bees-wax and two parts of tallow 
also make a good wax, which can be used lukewarm for grafts of small 
or delicate plants. The wax known as ' Mastic l'homme Lefort ' is a 
clean preparation sold in tin boxes. It may be applied cold and is 



GRAFTING 57 

called ' French Cold Grafting Wax.' Although soft, it hardens with 
exposure to the air. 

ADVANTAGES OF GRAFTING 

Some authorities condemn grafting altogether on the ground that 
the plants sooner or later lose their vitality and become little better 
than scarecrows. Where the operation has been unskilfully performed 
this is undoubtedly the case, but there are hundreds, if not thousands, 
of examples of grafted trees in the rudest vigour throughout the 
country. It seems as if the constitution of a plant goes a long way 
towards proving whether grafting is a success or a failure, and it is 
scarcely advisable to argue general principles from isolated examples 
on one side or the other. 

It is claimed for grafting 

(i.) That it increases and accelerates the fruitfulness in fruit trees 
owing to the check of the elaborated sap at the junction of the stock 
and scion in its downward course. 

(ii.) That old and unfruitful trees with strong and healthy stems 
and roots may be rendered fruitful in two or three years by having 
scions of fruitful and healthy trees grafted on their tops. 

(iii.) That naturally tall-growing varieties may be dwarfed by 
grafting on a less vigorous stock, and the reverse may also be attained. 
When there is too great a disparity between the stock and scion, the 
device of double or treble grafting is often adopted, so as to equalise 
matters as much as possible. That is, one or two kinds intermediate in 
vigour may be grafted on the stock before the required scion is ulti- 
mately grafted on to one of them. 

(iv.) That a naturally deep-rooting tree, like the Pear, may be 
prevented from sending its roots down into cold and uncongenial soil 
by grafting it on a naturally shallow-rooting stock, like the Quince ; 
and 

(v.) That by means of grafting, choice varieties of fruit, the innate 
qualities of which cannot with any certainty be transmitted to their 
progeny by seeds, are preserved and multiplied with greater certainty 
and quickness, 

' And in short space the laden boughs arise, 
With happy fruit advancing to the skies. 
The mother plant admires the leaves unknown 
Of alien trees, and apples not her own.' 

Influence of Stock on Scion. — It is curious that notwithstanding 
the growth of one species on another, and the influence exerted in 
regard to fertility &c, yet each kind undergoes no change in its 



58 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



botanical structure. A Quince stock will produce Quince suckers, and 
the Pear grafted on it will produce only the leaves, flowers, and fruits 
of the Pear. In the same way, a Peach grafted on an Almond or a 
Plum will remain a Peach. While it is true generally that neither 
stock nor scion is affected by the other structurally, there is one 
remarkable exception afforded by Laburnum Adami, known as a graft- 
hybrid, and described at p. 327. 

4. Propagation by Budding 

The process of propagation by budding consists in detaching a 
ripened bud from one plant and inserting it beneath the bark in the 
stem of another closely related. It is confined almost entirely to woody 
Dicotyledons, for the same reasons as Grafting, viz. because they have 
a cambium-layer (see p. 30), and is usually performed about the end 
of May or June to the end of July, when the sap is in rapid circulation, 
and the bark readily separates from the wood. Almost all Roses, 
Stone-fruit Trees, as well as many ornamental trees, like Maples &c, 
are budded, and the practice is now being extended to many other trees 
and shrubs. 

Budding may be done in various ways, but the method usually 
practised is known as shield or T-budding. 

The bark of the stock should have a cut made lengthways and cross- 
ways like the letter T as shown in the sketch fig. 126. A bud is then 
carefully selected (in most cases care should be taken to select a leaf- 





FIG. 126. 



FIG. 127. 



FIG. 128. 



FIG. 129. 



bud, not a flower-bud) by passing the knife behind the bud so as to 
secure a piece of bark or a ' shield ' about ^ inch long above and below 
it as shown in fig. 127, but without any wood behind. By allowing 
a leaf-stalk to remain beneath the bud, a handle is supplied, which 
enables one to easily insert the bud between the lips of the T-cut in 
the bark when gently pressed open by the thin bone handle of the 
budding-knife. The bud must then be carefully and firmly — but not 
tightly — tied with woollen thread or soft matting, gently bringing 
the edges of the cut together. In a month or so the bud will have 
begun to swell, and the thread or matting if not already burst or 



BUDDING AND LAYERING 



59 



decayed should be loosened or removed altogether. Fig. 128 shows 
the bud inserted halfway in the slit, and fig. 129 shows it completely 
inserted and securely tied. 

About November the budded shoot will have grown a good deal, and 
should be cut back to within 5 or 6 inches of the insertion of the bud ; 
in the following March or April the shoot may be still further shortened 
back close to the bud itself before growth commences. 

Where much budding is done, care must be taken to keep the buds 
from being dried up by the sun and air. A good 
plan is to have them in a jar or water-pot with 
some wet moss to keep them fresh. 

Budding is often performed later in the season 
than August, with the object of keeping the bud 
from shooting until the following spring. It is 
also done in spring just at the beginning of growth, 
but the same principles underlie the operation no 
matter when performed. Sometimes a dormant 
fruit-bud as shown in figs. 130, 131 is inserted in autumn, and is said 
to produce larger and finer fruits than the other fruit-buds. 

5. Propagation by Layering 

This operation is extensively practised to increase trees and shrubs, 
and perennial herbaceous plants which cannot be so readily pro- 
pagated by other means. It con- 
sists in bending down to the soil 
a branch and fixing it by a peg 
(as shown in figs. 132 and 133), 
and covering it with a mound of 
earth (represented -by the dotted 




FIG. 130. FIG. 131. 





FIG. 132. — LAYERING HERBACEOUS STEMS. 



FIG. 133. — LAYERING WOODY STEMS. 



lines) until such a time as it has developed roots of its own, the 
layer in the meantime being fed by the parent plant. 

Very often the branch layered is cut halfway through lengthwise at 
the part to be placed in the soil, and a tongue or heel is formed, as 
shown near the pegs in the illustrations. The cut is kept open by the 



60 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

soil, a small peg, or a pebble, and this induces a callus to form and 
roots to develop more quickly. Where the branches to be layered are 
near the ground, as in Carnations, Strawberries &c. there is little 
difficulty in performing the operation. Occasionally, however, branches 
of trees a few feet above the ground have to be layered. They must 
be carefully bent down, firmly pegged at the point of contact, and 
covered with soil. As a rule when the branches are fleshy or woody 
they may be notched or slit, but they are also simply twisted so as to 
bring the cells closer together at the twist, and thus arrest the down- 
ward course of the elaborated sap. 

Principle of Layering. — Layering is practised on the principle that 
any injury which prevents or checks the return of the elaborated sap 
down the stem greatly facilitates the production of roots. This check 
is brought about by slitting the stem, removing a portion of the bark, 
notching &c. on the under side. As in a cutting, a ' callus ' is formed 
on the cut surface by the returning sap, and roots are eventually 
developed. 

Sometimes, instead of making an incision in the stems, a ligature of 
some kind, say wire, is bound round it tightly. This checks the return 
of the sap, and the stem above the ligature increases in size. If placed 
in the soil roots will be emitted, but if exposed to the air the effect in 
the case of fruit trees is generally seen in much larger and finer fruits. 

6. Propagation by dividing the Rootstock 

In the case of hardy herbaceous perennials (i.e. plants which live 
for several years, but the stems of which die down annually) dividing 
the roots in autumn or spring is found to be an easy means of propaga- 
tion. The more carefully the work is done, the less injury is caused, 
and the sooner the plants recover. Chopping up with a spade in the 
case of Phloxes, Perennial Sunflowers, Larkspurs &c. is not to be 
recommended, as too much needless damage is caused thereby. 
Wherever shoots spring from the base or around the old rootstock 
they may be carefully detached either with the fingers or a sharp 
knife, and if inserted in good soil and kept shaded for a time, will 
produce good plants. 

7. Propagation by Suckers 

Many plants throw up from the root numerous leafy branches 
called suckers. It is often found useful to detach these carefully by 
means of a sharp knife or other instrument with as much root ah 
possible attached. By transplanting to a shady place, they soon 
recover and are then practically established plants leading an indepen- 
dent life. 



THE SOIL, ITS NATURE AND COMPOSITION 61 



THE SOIL, ITS NATURE AND COMPOSITION 

Soil is the term applied to the upper crust of the earth's surface 
which has been ground and powdered into a more or less fine state by 
the action of man and the weather. It consists of particles of various 
kinds of rock mixed with decayed or decaying animal and vegetable 
matters. Beneath the soil in which the roots of plants grow is what 
is termed the subsoil. This may be a bed of clay, sand, limestone, 
gravel &c, and is generally not in a condition to supply the roots of 
plants with the food they require until it has been tilled and mixed with 
the surface soil. 

Soil absorbs and radiates heat and moisture and is gradually being 
broken up into smaller fragments by the action of heat, cold, moisture, 
and the gases of the air. Frost plays an important part in breaking 
down particles of rock and converting them into soil. The frozen water 
(ice) pushes the particles asunder and with the increase of temperature 
they fall apart. The absorption of heat by day and its radiation by 
night also reduce the soil to a finer condition. And the roots of plants 
themselves have the power of breaking up particles of rock, and even 
of dissolving by their action mineral substances not readily soluble in 
water. In fact a change is always going on in the soil, and the 
gardener simply hastens the process by his operations. It is as well, 
however, that he should always bear in mind that it is the upper layer 
of the earth's surface, and not that two, three, or more feet below it, that 
is likely to contain available food for the plants he grows. And although 
the under layers constituting the sub-soil may be broken up when 
occasion requires or opportunity permits, they should never be brought 
to the surface as a medium for the roots of plants to grow in. 

Kinds of Soil. — Soils for gardening purposes are usually spoken of as 
sandy, clayey, loamy, peaty, chalky, and gravelly. A mixture of these 
is on the whole better than any one of them by itself ; although for 
certain plants it may be better if one or other sometimes predominates. 

Sandy and Gravelly Soils are of little value by themselves, but may 
be improved by the addition of clay, vegetable matter or humus and lime 
or chalk. By this means a loose gravelly soil is rendered more 
adhesive, and the roots are enabled to perform their functions without 
being torn about by the wind. 

Clayey Soils are too sticky and retentive of water to be of any use 
to plants. They require to be broken up and mixed with sand, ashes, 
lime, humus, &c, until they are rendered sufficiently porous and at the 
same time capable of retaining moisture in the particles. 



62 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

Loam is a well-balanced mixture of clay, sand, and humus, and is 
termed ' sandy ' or ' clayey ' according as one or the other predominates. 
For garden purposes a loamy soil is best, as it can be most readily 
cultivated to suit the majority of plants. , 

Chalky or Limestone Soils are those in which chalk or limestone 
is present in appreciable proportion, say over 20 per cent. The 
presence of lime may be detected by adding vinegar or any other weak 
acid to the soil. If the lime is present in any great quantity it will 
cause a froth, owing to the carbonic acid being released. Wet chalky 
soils are as bad as clay, but in a hard state the particles are of great 
benefit in keeping the soil open, and preventing the accumulation of 
noxious acids in it. For this reason lime (or strictly speaking carbonate 
of lime) is added to wet sour soils to drive off the carbonic acid gas, 
which is injurious. Peaty soils by its aid and good drainage may be 
rendered more or less fertile in time. Clayey soils by a similar process 
are brought nearer the ideal of what is required for the growth of 
plants. 

Although lime is a great fertiliser of the soil and is always more or 
less essential in one form or another for a large number of plants, it is 
however injurious in the soil in which Ehododendrons, Azaleas, 
Kalmias and certain other plants belonging to the Heath family 
(p. 574) are grown. 

Vegetable Soil or Humus contains an excess of organic material — 
that is, something which has been in a living state at one time either as 
plants or animals. This kind of soil, recognised by its dark colour, 
readily absorbs and retains water. It is useful for light sandy soils, 
which it binds more closely ; and for heavy soils, which it renders more 
porous. It also has the power of retaining plant foods to a great degree, 
and by its slow decay or rotting generates carbonic acid gas, which is a 
powerful dissolvent of mineral matters in the soil. 

Wherever organic decay or rotting takes place heat is generated, 
and this is well instanced by farmyard manure, leaves &c. ; and when 
this heating process takes place in the soil, the latter becomes changed 
and rendered more fertile, and also warmer as a consequence of the 
fermenting processes which have taken place. 

Humus, although very valuable, is not alone a suitable medium in 
which to grow plants, being too light, spongy and loose, and devoid 
of much mineral matter. It is most useful in conjunction with the 
other soils, and is chiefly obtained from farmyard manure, and the leaves 
of trees. The latter should be collected every autumn and stored in 
heaps. The action of the weather, rain-water, and an occasional 
turning over will soon reduce them to what is termed 'leaf-mould.' 



IMPROVING THE SOIL 63 

In leaf-mould the gardener has a most valuable agent in rendering his 
soil suitable for the cultivation of plants. When well-rotted a little 
leaf-mould may be mixed with almost any soil used for the production 
of flowers, fruit, or vegetables, and some kinds are particularly fond of 
it as a rooting medium. Its use is frequently mentioned in the cultural 
operations in the body of the book. 

IMPEOVING THE SOIL 

No matter how rich or how poor a soil may be, it can always be 
improved and rendered more fertile by various tillage operations. By 
digging or trenching the soil it becomes not only finer in texture and 
better mixed, but portions that were underneath before become exposed 
to the action of the weather — rain, frost, heat, cold &c, all of which 
produce important changes in it, making it as it were more digestible 
and acceptable to the roots of plants. Wet land cannot be successfully 
improved until means have been taken to drain away the water by 
furrows, ditches or pipes, or in the case of flower borders by having the 
bed filled with bricks, stones, rubble or some rough material through 
which the water will pass. An excess of wetness in the soil causes it 
to be cold, and the heat of the sun, instead of being used to promote 
the growth of the plant, is absorbed by the water. Stagnant water in 
the soil prevents the free access of air ; hence acids are generated and 
bring about what is known as a sour condition. 

Digging". — This is one of the most important and necessary opera- 
tions for bringing the soil into a fertile condition. It is usually 
done with a spade or a fork, the object in view being to turn the upper 
layer of the soil completely upside down, so that what was under- 
neath shall be exposed to the action of the sun and air, frost, snow, 
rain &c, and thus become more broken up and finer in texture. 

Digging requires the exercise not only of physical strength but also 
of intelligence. Merely scraping the surface of the soil with the spade 
or the fork is not digging at all, and is of very little benefit, although 
to the uninitiated it may look quite as well on top as ground that has 
been properly dug. The object aimed at, however, is the improvement 
of the soil by crushing it, breaking it up, and completely inverting it. 
The spade or fork should therefore be driven straight down, almost at 
right angles, to the full length of the blade or tines, as the case may be, 
so that a good ' spit ' or spadeful may be obtained. Where an odd man 
is employed for digging purposes it should be seen that he drives the 
tool straight down into the soil, as the more slanting the cut the quicker 
the ground is got over, and the less good is done to it. Where, however, 



64 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

the owner of the garden can perform the digging himself it would be 
an excellent substitute for exercises such as rowing, cricket, lawn-tennis 
&c. 

Best time for digging. — Ground may be dug whenever it is not in a 
wet sticky condition, and when free from frost and snow. During the 
autumn and winter months, however, the work is seriously taken in 
hand after the crops have been cleared from the ground. The fresh 
upturned soil is then exposed until spring to the action of the weather, 
and owing to the rest given and the chemical changes that have taken 
place, it will be in a much improved condition either for sowing seeds 
or planting out fresh crops. 

How to dig. — The novice usually regards digging as a simple opera- 
tion until he has tried his hand at it for half an hour or so. In that 
short period he not only secures a serious backache and can hardly 
stand upright, but he has also got into difficulties in disposing of the 
soil which he has been trying to dig up. Instead of having a clean 
open furrow always in front of him into which to turn the next ' spit,' 
he finds he has nowhere to place it except back in the spot from which 
he has lifted it. 

To give some idea as to how the work is to be done, let the reader 
imagine this page to represent a piece of ground which is to be dug. 
If it is only a small area the first furrow — represented by the top line 
of type — may be taken out from the top and transferred to the bottom 
outside where the last furrow or line of type stands. Furrow (or line 
of type) number two may then be dug a spade deep and turned into the 
space left open by the first one taken out. And so on, digging each 
row from left to right or vice versa, and pushing it forward into the 
vacant furrow, until the last one is reached. The furrow here may 
then be filled with the soil taken from the first opening, and thus the 
whole surface will not only have been turned over, but will stand on a 
different bottom from what it did before. 

Should the piece of ground be too large to dig across it at once, it 
may be divided into two or more convenient portions. Let the reader 
imagine it divided into two portions like some pages of this book. The 
soil from the first furrow — -represented in the columns by the top line 
of type— may then be placed over at the top right-hand side or column. 
Then the various rows (as represented by the lines of type) may be dug 
one after the other as before until the end is reached. The workman 
then turns right about face to begin plot number two — as it were from 
the bottom of the page. The soil from the furrow (represented by the 
bottom line of type in the right-hand column) is transferred to the 
furrow at the bottom of the first plot on the left and thus completes it. 



IMPROVING THE SOIL 65 



Plot number two is then dug in the same way as number one, until the 
top is reached. And here the soil taken out when the work was begun 
is used to fill the last furrow. 

If the work is properly done, the surface, although perhaps cloddy, 
will be fairly even and be without hills and hollows. Before proceeding 
to dig each line or row, all weeds on the surface, and also manure, if 
any, should be turned into the bottom of the open furrow, after which 
the soil is placed upon it or them. The surface may be left as turned 
over, with the exception of any particularly big clods which are easily 
reduced with a slap of the spade or fork. If the surface is thus left 
rough for the action of the winter frosts and rains the clods will 
gradually fall asunder and by the spring the surface will be in a 
beautifully mellow condition, requiring only slightly forking over 
more for the sake of appearance perhaps than anything else. 

Double digging. — As the name indicates, this means digging the 
soil two spits deep. The first spit is taken out in the usual way 
described above, but the subsoil is simply dug and inverted without 
being removed from its original position. This is an excellent practice 
where the subsoil happens to be rather poor. It also opens the soil 
better and allows the water to drain away more readily from the roots 
of the plants. And while it is better than ordinary digging it is not 
nearly so hard as trenching. 

Ridging up. — This operation is performed by digging in a straight 
line and putting the soil from the furrow up on the left or right to form 
a ridge. The base of the ridge may be two spits wide and may have a 
spadeful of soil from a furrow on each side placed on top of it. Or it 
need only be one spit or spade wide, so that there shall be twice as many 
ridges and furrows, thus exposing more soil to the action of the 
weather. If the ridge on which the soil is placed has been dug before- 
hand it will be all the better. Ground thus treated may be left during 
the winter months to become mellowed and fertilised for spring 
cropping. 

A modification of ridging is to turn up a spit and invert it in the 
same place. Then on top of this place the next spit, leaving a 
corresponding hollow. The ground treated in this way will be a series 
of little hillocks and hollows. 

In the spring time, before planting, the ridges are forked down and 
made level, and it will be found that the texture of the soil has been 
wonderfully improved by the treatment. 

Trenching. — This is a much more serious operation than digging, 
and is also far harder work. Consequently it is not done more often 
than is absolutely necessary. The work is usually performed at the 



66 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



end of autumn or early winter. The object is to turn up a much 
greater depth of soil than can be accomplished by simple digging as 
described above, and to loosen and leaven the subsoil. As the latter, 
however, is generally much less fertile than the upper layer of soil, 
care must be taken that it does not completely replace that when the 
work is finished. Should it do so, more harm than good has been 
done, as the fertile soil has been placed at the bottom of the trench, 
where the roots cannot reach it ; or if they do they have to work in a 
lower temperature, and this in itself may be detrimental to the roots. 
Unless they work in a proper temperature, the protoplasm (see p. 22) 
in the tender cells is unable to become active, with the result that 
water and the food it contains cannot be absorbed. Hence the leaves 
cannot assist in assimilating the food necessary to build up the tissues 
of the plants and to produce flowers, fruits &c. 

Opening a Trench. — A piece of ground 3 to 4 feet wide should be 
marked off with a line. This is dug out about 3 or 4 feet — the width 
and depth of the trench usually correspond — and is wheeled to the 
other end of the ground, where the work is to finish. Indeed the work 
is laid out precisely in the same way as for digging, but there is of course 
much more soil to remove. 

The first trench being open, the next piece of ground, the same 
width, is marked off and dug into it. The soil, however, should not be 
completely inverted as in digging, especially if the subsoil is poor, but 
should be placed in the trench in such a way that it is always more or 
less on an inclined plane. To secure this the soil from one trench may 
be allowed to invade the other, thus keeping the worst soil always at 
the bottom, and the best on top. Manure should be placed or mixed 
with the lower layers of soil, which in due course will become improved 
in texture and fertility. 

Trenching may be repeated about every third or fourth year. But 
whenever it is done, the soil should, if possible, be trenched at right 
angles to the direction on the previous occasion, so as to secure greater 
distribution and change. 

The same may be said in regard to digging. If the soil is dug from 
north to south on one occasion, it should be dug from east to west on 
another, or in any other different direction. 

Drainage. — The necessity and importance of thoroughly draining 
the soil used in seed pots, pans &c. have been mentioned at p. 45. 
For the cultivation of outdoor crops, whether flowers, fruits, or 
vegetables, the necessity for a well-drained soil is no less important. 
Indeed the success of any crop depends very largely upon whether the 
soil is in such a porous state that water will readily pass away after 



IMPROVING THE SOIL 67 



wetting it, and not remain in pools either on the surface or some little 
distance below it. Even in the case of plants which grow naturally 
in marshy or boggy situations stagnant water is injurious and means 
should be taken to prevent its accumulation. 

Farmers are often obliged to drain their land by laying pipes at 
various depths, or by having trenches or ditches made at various inter- 
vals so that the water may be carried away from the soil in which 
their crops are growing. In the cultivation of flowers, fruits and 
vegetables perfect drainage is often secured by thoroughly trenching 
the soil, deeply digging it, and ridging it up as explained. I have seen 
neglected kitchen-garden ground so sodden with water that the surface 
became covered with the green slime so characteristic of stagnant 
moisture. But after it had been well trenched and left exposed during 
the winter months it became quite porous, and now bears good crops 
annually. The soil, therefore, cannot be turned up too much, and if the 
subsoil is too poor to bring to the surface occasionally it may be at 
least turned over as explained under ' Double digging.' 

In wet heavy soil all the stones and rougher portions may be placed 
at the bottom to act as drainage much in the same way as ' crocks ' in 
a flower-pot. Flower borders very often require to be thoroughly 
drained with a layer of brickbats, clinkers, stones, mortar-rubbish &c. 
at a depth of three or four feet when devoted to the cultivation of 
certain plants, such as Oncocyclus Irises (p 918), Mariposa Lilies 
(p. 872) and other plants which readily succumb to stagnant moisture 
at the roots in our climate. 

The reason why wet ground is so injurious to plant life is because 
the temperature is lower than in drained land, and the passage of air 
gases through the soil is prevented. As long as the soil is in a wet 
condition so long will the heat of the sun be used to evaporate the 
water instead of warming the soil. Even in the hottest summer, the 
warm water will come to the surface, while the cold will sink down 
and chill the roots- and retard, if not altogether stop, their absorptive 
process as described at p. 27. And thus the plants suffer perhaps in 
the midst of an abundance of plant food which is not placed at their 
disposal in a proper state owing to bad drainage. 

LIMING THE SOIL 

Besides digging and trenching the soil, it may, if in a wet condi- 
tion, also be improved by the addition of lime, which is a most important 
agent in fertilising the soil. It not only ' sweetens ' sour wet land, but 
makes it drier and more porous, and thus increases its temperature. 



68 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

It also frequently liberates potash (one of the most important plant 
foods locked up in the soil), and it is also a great preventive of 
vermin in the shape of slags, snails, caterpillars and grubs of all kinds. 
At the rate of from 10 to 20 cwts. per acre or £ lb. to 1 lb. per square 
yard may be applied during the winter months in a powdered state, 
when the soil is free from vegetation. But while there can be no 
doubt as to the fertilising properties of lime care must be taken not to 
be continually dressing the soil with it. It is a bad plan, not only with 
lime, but with all other fertilisers, to apply one kind only. A change is 
beneficial, and chemical changes take place between one and the other, 
but all the changes are more or less useful to the soil. See p. 1030. 

Gas Lime also may be applied during the same season, but must 
be given in smaller quantities, say at the rate of 1 to 2 cwts. per acre, as 
in a fresh state it is very injurious to plant life. It is, however, a deadly 
enemy to insect pests. The fresher the gas lime the smaller the pro- 
portion of it should be used ; about two or three ounces to the square 
yard would be quite sufficient. The longer it is exposed the less 
injurious to plant life does it become, as many of its poisonous gases 
escape into the atmosphere. 



HOEING AND BAKING 

Next to the spade and the fork the hoe is perhaps the most impor- 
tant tool used in garden cultivation. It is made in many forms, shapes 
and sizes, but that known as the ' Draw Hoe,' which the gardener 
pulls towards him as he walks forwards, and that known as the ' Dutch 
Hoe,' which he pushes from him as he walks backwards, are the best 
known and most used. 

Whatever the shape, however, the object in view is the same. The 
hoe plays many parts in the garden. It is used for drawing drills for 
seeds, Potatoes or other tubers, for breaking and loosening the soil, for 
thinning out seedlings, for cutting up weeds, and for keeping the sur- 
face of the soil generally clean and in good condition. Like everything 
else connected with gardening, hoeing requires a good deal of intelli- 
gence and knowledge of the crops, otherwise the workman may soon 
do far more harm than good. 

The rake also plays an important part in the improvement of the 
soil. It is indispensable for levelling the ground in the preparation of 
seed-beds, clearing the weeds and rubbish generally from borders, 
shrubberies, lawns &c, and its use in the hands of an intelligent work- 
man can never be a drawback in keeping a garden in good order. 



PLANT FOODS AND MANURES 69 



MULCHING 

The reader will find this expression used many times in connection 
with the cultural directions given for the various plants described in 
this work. It is therefore advisable to explain its meaning and value. 

A ' mulch ' or ' mulching ' in gardening language means an extra 
covering of soil, rotten leaves, or manure, either separately or 
combined, placed over the roots of plants either after the latter have 
been newly planted, or at any period during their growth when it may 
be considered advisable. 

The advantages of mulching may be summed up as follows : — 

(i.) During the hot and dry summer months it prevents excessive 
evaporation from the soil and thus not only preserves the moisture for 
the roots to absorb, but it also prevents the soil from becoming 
excessively hot by day, and cold by night, thus maintaining a more 
regular temperature. 

(ii.) In winter it protects the roots from frost and also keeps the 
soil warmer. 

(iii.) When a rich mulch is applied to newly planted trees and 
shrubs, it not only has the above advantages, but the manurial matters 
contained in it are washed down into the soil and enrich it with food 
for the benefit of the newly formed or forming roots. 

(iv.) A good mulching of rich manure to all kinds of fruit trees after 
they have set their fruits is highly beneficial in assisting them to swell 
rapidly and ripen more quickly. Once a plant — no matter whether a 
tree, shrub, or annual — begins to develop fruit and seeds, a demand is 
made upon its reserve materials. If these are not quite sufficient to 
meet the demand, it is easy to conceive that the extra food supplied 
by means of a good mulching will supply the deficiency. 

PLANT FOODS AND MANURES 

Besides being a rooting medium for plants, the soil may also be 
regarded as a storehouse containing some of the particular kinds of food 
required to build up the stems, leaves, flowers, and fruits of plants in 
conjunction with other foods obtained from the air. A soil is said to 
be fertile when it contains an abundance of plant food, and sterile or 
barren when this food is scarce or altogether absent. The great object 
a gardener has in view therefore is to treat the soil in such a way that 
it shall always be in a more or less fertile condition, and never be 
deficient in any of the essential plant foods. 



70 PB ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Plants require at least twelve different kinds of food to develop 
properly, and to bring their flowers or fruits to perfection. These foods 
are : — 



Oxygen 


Sulphur 


Lime 


Carbon 


Phosphorus 


Soda 


Hydrogen 


Potash 


Magnesia 


Nitrogen 


Iron 


Chlorine 



These are present in all cultivated plants in greater or less 
quantities, besides many other things which are said to be non-essential. 
As a rule all the foods except Nitrogen, Potash, and Phosphorus are 
readily obtained from the air, soil, or water by the plants themselves. 
Lime is often present in sufficient quantities, and is very important for 
fruit or leguminous crops. Only a small trace of Iron is necessary, yet 
without its aid the green colouring of leaves cannot be developed. The 
air supplies Oxygen and Carbon, which are absorbed in a combined state 
by the leaves of plants and are afterwards split up — the Carbon being 
retained to build up the frame of the plant, while a large amount of the 
Oxygen is liberated by the pores of the leaves (see p. 33). 

All the mineral substances are provided by the roots, but they must 
first of all be dissolved by water. Salt (chloride of sodium) is generally 
found in plants which grow naturally near the sea, and where these 
have been brought under cultivation, dressings of salt may be given to the 
soil occasionally, as in the case of Asparagus (p. 1145) and Seakale 
(p. 1121) &c. 



Three important plant foods 

The good growth of plants practically depends upon the presence 
of Nitrogen, Potash, and Phosphorus in such a state that they can 
readily enter into the plant and assist the other foods in building it 
up. The absence of any one of these three foods cannot be made 
good by an extra supply of the others. The gardener need not 
often worry himself in regard to the nine other foods mentioned 
above, with the exception of Lime ; but he should always satisfy 
himself that his soil is not deficient to any great extent in any of these 
three foods, the peculiarities and properties of which are referred to 
below. 

Nitrogen. — Although so abundant in the atmosphere — being four- 
fifths of the whole — this gas is very shy of uniting with others, or of 
being absorbed by the leaves of plants like carbonic acid gas. There 



PLANT FOODS 71 



is an exception in the case of Leguminous plants (see pp. 322-355). 
It has been found that plants of this order have the peculiarity of 
developing small nodules on their roots. These nodules are supposed 
to be the work of bacteria which possess the power of absorbing large 
quantities of nitrogen from the air, thus bringing it into contact with 
and fertilising the soil. For this reason it is unnecessary to give 
Leguminous crops, such as Peas, Beans, Lupins &c, nitrogenous 
manures. Indeed dressing the soil growing such crops with nitro- 
genous manures is likely to do a good deal of mischief. The plants get 
as it were surfeited with a food which they are capable of obtaining 
easily for themselves. They may require potash and phosphatic 
manures but never or rarely ever nitrogenous ones. And soil poor in 
nitrogen may be enriched by the cultivation of Leguminous plants, 
afterwards digging or ploughing them into the soil. 

Uses of Nitrogen. — Nitrogen promotes the growth of plants, giving 
the leaves a deeper colour and making them larger and more luxuriant. 
It is chiefly obtained from farmyard manure, and the droppings of 
various animals — pigs, horses, cows, chickens &c. — but never in a free 
state. Guano — the excreta of seabirds in South America— nitrate of 
soda, nitrate of potash and sulphate of ammonia are the principal arti- 
ficial sources which supply nitrogen. The manures containing it 
require to be used in very small quantities. 

Nitrate of Soda is a mineral salt found in Chili, Peru, and Bolivia, 
and has of late years become very popular as a quick-acting manure 
for all kinds of crops. It resembles dirty common salt in appearance, 
and like that substance readily dissolves in water. Care should there- 
fore be taken when storing it to deposit it in a dry place, otherwise it 
will lose much of its value. 

Care must be exercised in its use for garden crops. If too much is 
given the leaves of the plants will shrivel up as if they had been 
boiled. About 1 lb. to forty square yards is usually considered to be 
a safe dressing, and it may be applied with advantage to such crops 
as Potatoes, Cabbages and other Cruciferous crops (p. 1113), Beet, 
Tomatoes &c. 

Owing to its fleeting character, and the ease with which it is 
washed out of the soil, it is obvious that nitrate of soda is only of real 
value to the roots of any crop of plants in an actively growing state. 
It should therefore be used to hasten the growth of young plants, or 
to bring others more quickly into a state of full growth. 

As a rule it is best used by itself and not in conjunction with other 
manures, such as superphosphate which decomposes it. If mixed with 
armyard or other organic manures which have the power of extracting 



72 PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



and destroying all its value, it is so much waste, and at the same time 
there is little use in applying it to any soil which is not actually well 
supplied with phosphates and potash — the two other important manures 
referred to above. 

Sulphate of Ammonia. — This is very similar in appearance to 
Nitrate of Soda, but is if anything a little dirtier in colour. It is 
manufactured from the ammonia liquor of gas works, and is somewhat 
stronger and more durable in its action than Nitrate of Soda ; conse- 
quently it need not be used in such large quantities. Although it 
may be mixed with Superphosphate, Sulphate of Ammonia should 
never be used in conjunction with lime or chalk, ashes, or a manure 
known as ' Thomas's phosphate ' or ' basic slag,' as these drive off the 
ammonia from it. 

Gas Liquor. — This contains a good percentage of ammoniacal 
manures, and is stronger in action than Sulphate of Ammonia. A 
gallon of it should be diluted with at least four gallons of water, and 
may be used as a liquid manure. 

Soot. — This is not only a good nitrogenous manure but also con- 
tains a certain amount of phosphoric acid and potash, and may there- 
fore be said to be more or less ideal as it contains the three most 
important plant foods. It is valuable not only for its manurial 
properties but also for its great value in keeping away slugs, snails, 
and other vermin. 

Other Nitrogenous Manures. — Under this heading may be placed 
almost all refuse which has been in a living state at one time or 
another. The refuse from slaughterhouses, such as dried blood, and 
meat, hoof-parings, old rags, hides, leather &c, are all more or less of 
manurial value, but they do not yield up their food until in a 
thoroughly decayed state. They are therefore rather slow-acting in 
the soil, but are nevertheless valuable for perennial crops. 

Phosphatic Manures. — These are derived from phosphates, and 
have a marked effect in the production and early ripening of fruit, and all 
garden crops benefit by their presence, as they are compounds of potash, 
lime, and ammonia — all valuable plant foods. Superphosphate of lime, 
bones, phosphate of ammonia, and phosphate of potash, are the chief 
phosphatic plant foods used. 

Superphosphate of Lime. — When in a good condition this is a fine 
greyish powder, dry and friable to the fingers, and not wet and sticky. 
It has a peculiar smell and tastes very sour or ' limy.' About 1 cwt. 
of it contains 12-14 lbs. of phosphoric acid, or more than is yielded by 
a ton of good farmyard manure. It should be used carefully, about 
1 lb. to every 4 or 5 square yards being sufficient for vegetable and 



MANURES 73 



fruit crops. A smaller quantity, however, is safer for the flower border, 
applied in spring and lightly forked into the soil as the plants are 
about to begin growth. The best time as a rule for dressing the soil 
with superphosphate is in spring when seeds are being sown. If the 
soil is in a poor condition, superphosphate by itself will not be of much 
use, and the ground should have had a good dressing of farmyard 
manure the previous autumn to make it valuable. 

Bones. — The value of Bones as a phosphatic manure has long been 
recognised, and many gardeners are very partial to having a sprinkling 
of ' bone-meal ' or ' bone-flour ' always mixed with soil when repotting 
or replanting. Bones are, however, a very slow-acting manure, but 
the process of decomposition and consequent quicker action may be 
assisted by having them finely crushed. In the form of bone-meal, 
unadulterated and unsteamed bones contain about 45-50 per cent, of 
phosphate of lime, and also a small quantity— 4-5 per cent.— of 
ammonia salts. Steamed or boiled bones contain about 60 per cent. 
of phosphate of lime, but not so much ammonia. The phosphate of 
lime, however, is not soluble in pure water, but when acted upon by 
the carbonic acid in ordinary water, rain &c. it gradually dissolves and 
fertilises the soil. 

A manure called dissolved bones or bone superphosphate is produced 
by mixing a certain quantity of sulphuric acid (or oil of vitriol) with 
raw bone-meal — about 9 cwts. of sulphuric acid to 20 cwts. of bone- 
meal. About one-third of the insoluble phosphate of lime in the bones 
is changed by the chemical process into a soluble condition, and is thus 
more readily available for the roots of plants. A reasonable dressing 
for fruit and vegetable crops is about 1-2 lbs. to every ten square yards, 
and may be given in winter or spring. 

Basic Slag. — This is a dark coloured powdery substance also 
known as ' Thomas's phosphate ' and ' basic cinder.' It contains a 
good deal of oxidised iron (commonly called ' rust '), but not to any 
injurious extent. Its chief value lies in the amount of lime it contains 
in the form of a phosphate, and it is particularly valuable for improv- 
ing soils which are destitute of lime or chalk, and also vegetable or 
animal remains called humus. It is best applied in autumn or winter 
at the rate of 4-8 ounces to the square yard, or 10-20 cwts. to the 
acre, more or less according to the poverty of the soil in regard to lime 
and humus. It is good for fruit trees and most garden crops, but will 
give disappointing results if applied in spring instead of autumn or 
winter as recommended. 

Potash.— While nitrogenous food increases luxurious growth, and 
phosphatic food large crops of fruit, potash increases the quality and 



74 PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 

flavour by manufacturing the sugary ingredients so noticeable in Apples, 
Pears, Plums, Grapes, Beetroot &c. 

Garden soil is rarely lacking in potash, and a supply may always be 
liberated by the addition of lime. Soil which has been well manured 
with dung for years is very rich in potash, and in such cases it is 
scarcely necessary to trouble about obtaining special artificial manures. 
Where, however, the soil is poor in potash, it will be improved by lime, 
basic slag, and hainit — the latter a cheap and economical manure 
containing sulphate of potash, common salt, sulphate of magnesia 
(Epsom Salts) and chloride of magnesia. Besides these, sulphate of 
potash, muriate of potash, and phosphate of potash all yield potash, 
as do also the ashes of all vegetables and plants generally. Most fruit 
and vegetable crops, and particularly those belonging to the Cruciferous 
group, are improved by the addition or presence of potash manures in 
the soil. 

Other manures. — Besides the above manures, which are all more 
or less artificially manufactured and brought into a more or less soluble 
condition so as to be available as plant-food, it is now necessary to 
refer to others which may be termed natural manures. Of these the best 
known is certainly : — 

Farmyard manure. — This consists of the refuse of litter, solid and 
liquid excreta of all animals, &c. from stables. To be fit for use in the 
garden it should be turned over constantly and well watered, to pre- 
vent the escape of the volatile ammonia. The water however should 
not be allowed to drain away and be lost for ever, but means should be 
taken to secure it and use it as a liquid manure. 

Good farmyard manure contains about 10-12 lbs. of nitrogen, 
10-15 lbs. of potash, and 4-9 lbs. of phosphate, that is only 24-36 lbs. 
or less than ^ cwt. altogether of essential plant foods out of a ton of 
material. The remaining 19i cwts. of straw or litter however are not 
absolutely valueless. The material has been alive at one time, and 
has been produced by the soil and air. "When returned to the soil 
therefore it acts as a kind of tonic to the mineral particles in the soil, 
it retains moisture in hot weather, and keeps out cold in winter, and 
has other useful properties that make it on the whole an excellent and 
popular manure. Some gardeners have an inclination to do without 
farmyard manure altogether, and rely a good deal upon the chemical or 
artificial productions referred to above. It is a mistake, however, as 
mentioned before, to be always dressing soil with the same kinds of 
manures, and a medium course is best adopted. While farmyard 
manure may not give such good or clean results as chemical manures 
for some crops, such as Potatoes for example, that are subject to fungoid 



MANURES 75 



diseases, the use of chemical manures entirely would leave the soil 
in the course of time impoverished owing to the absence of all humus, 
and this as already mentioned is a very important ingredient of most 
soils. 

Peat-moss litter, now largely employed for bedding down animals, is 
also a good manure, but its heating qualities, although rapid, are not so 
lasting as ordinary stable manure. It however soaks up liquids from 
the stables much better and holds it in the tissues. 

Poultry manure. — Where fowls are kept it is a mistake to waste 
the cleanings from their pens. A ton of chicken manure yields 18-25 
lbs. of nitrogen, 12-24 lbs. of phosphate, and 6-12 lbs. of potash. The 
excreta should be used with care and should always be well mixed with 
soil, or made up in bags or sacks and sunk in tanks of water to yield a 
good liquid manure. 

Pigeon manure is even richer in manurial value than that of 
chickens. A ton contains about 72 lbs. of nitrogen, 48 lbs. of phos- 
phates, and 25 lbs. of potash. It may be used with care in the same 
way as chicken manure. Indeed the excreta of all animals make 
excellent manures and are well worth saving for garden purposes. A 
few experiments in using them will soon enable the gardener to find 
out the most useful quantities to use. 

Guano. — This is the excreta and decayed bodies of the sea-birds that 
frequent the rocky islands near the coast of Peru. In a saleable state 
it is a dark brownish or snuff-coloured powder, with a peculiar smell of 
its own, and weighs about 70 lbs. to the bushel. As a manure its value 
depends mainly on the amount of ammonia, soluble and insoluble 
phosphates, and alkaline salts which it contains. One ton of good 
Peruvian Guano is considered to be equal in manurial value to either 
33^ tons of farmyard manure ; 20 tons of horse-dung ; 38^ tons of 
cow-dung ; 22^ tons of pig-dung; or 14^ tons of ' night soil ' or human 
excrement. Looked at in another way it may be stated that out of 
1 cwt. (112 lbs.) of good Guano, there is about 8 lbs. of nitrogen, 18 
lbs. of phosphoric acid, and 3i lbs. of potash — the quantity of each per 
ton of course being 20 times as much. For garden purposes about 
2-4 cwts. per acre, or 1-2 ozs. to the square yard, is a reasonable 
dressing, but care should be exercised in its use, and it is better to give 
smaller amounts to most crops until the action has been tested. As a 
liquid manure it is very valuable, about a tea-spoonful — more or less — 
to a couple of gallons of water being a good stimulant for flowers. It 
is better not to wet the foliage of plants with liquid manures of any 
kind owing to their rather vigorous action. 

"When buying Guano or any other high class manure it is always 



76 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



advisable to obtain a warranty as to the amount of available nitrogen, 
(or ammonia), phosphates, and potash contained in them. 

Fish Guano. — This is the dried and powdered refuse from cod and 
herring and other fish factories, and may be regarded as containing a 
fair amount of nitrogen and phosphoric acid. According to the kind 
of fish used, this guano may contain from 7 to 14 per cent, of nitrogen 
in the form of ammonia ; 13-30 per cent, of phosphate of lime ; and 
only 2-3 per cent, of potash. To be of much value as a fertiliser the 
oily matters should have been extracted as far as possible, as the 
presence of oil retards the action of the manure and gives unsatisfactory 
results. The action of Fish Guano is somewhat similar to that of 
Peruvian Guano, but it may be used a little more freely, say about 
2-10 cwts. per acre, or at the rate of 1-4 ozs. to the square yard. 

The above are the principal manures in use, but in various seaside 
localities seaweed is much valued, chiefly owing to the potash salts 
contained in it. A ton of fresh seaweed contains about 10 lbs. of 
nitrogen, 10 lbs. of phosphoric acid, 30-45 lbs. of potash, and about 
50 lbs. of common salt. It may be turned over several times in a heap 
and allowed to decompose like ordinary farmyard manure, and in this 
state may be dug into the soil in the same way. 

Old rags, rapecake dust, meat refuse, horn shavings and almost any 
vegetable remains free from fungus diseases may also be used for 
manuring the soil. 

Coal ashes, which are often recommended in ignorance, should 
never be applied to any decent soil, as they do more harm than good. 
If used at all, it should be only to make sticky clayey soil more 
porous. 



THE HARDY FLOWER GARDEN 77 



PAKT II 

THE HARDY FLOWER GARDEN 

The modern Flower Garden embraces the cultivation of such a variety 
of plants that it may be as well to enumerate the different groups or 
sections in which they are usually placed. Thus, many gardens have 
a place set apart purposely for the cultivation of rock-plants and 
alpines ; also specially prepared borders for choice herbaceous perennials 
of all sorts ; streams, pools, or lakes for water and marsh plants ; and 
also sufficient space for the cultivation of ornamental trees and shrubs. 

Although the plants belonging to the various groups are described 
in their natural orders in the following pages, and may easily be found 
by referring to the Index, there is a certain convenience in having a list 
of them all together for ready reference. To facilitate obtaining further 
information about them, the page at which any particular plant is 
described is given immediately after the name. 

Should the reader, therefore, wish to have a list of the best Annuals, 
Herbaceous Perennials, Kock Plants, Water Plants, Bulbous Plants, 
Ornamental and Flowering Trees and Shrubs &c, he has only to con- 
sult the lists given below. If he does not know any plant mentioned, 
he will find a description of it with cultural information at the page 
quoted after the name. 

At the same time should there be a plant in his or her garden the 
name of which is unknown it will be possible to ' run it down ' or 
determine to which natural order or genus it belongs by means of the 
' Key ' given at p. 121. 

Although the lists are fairly exhaustive the author does not 
recommend the cultivation of all of them in every garden. This would 
indeed be impossible in most cases, but a selection should be made 
according to the taste of the reader, and the known capability of his 
soil, and what it will grow. As a rule it is more satisfactory to grow 
a few different kinds of plants well, and study their peculiarities and 
tastes, their likes and dislikes for certain soils and situations &c, than 
to fill a garden with many kinds that may be quite unsuitable, or 
cannot be properly attended to. 



78 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS 

Annuals are plants which spring from seed, flower, produce seed, and 
die in one year or season of growth. Many biennial or even perennial 
plants are treated as annuals, as it is less trouble to raise them from 
seeds every year than to house or protect the roots during the winter. 
« Hardy ' annuals are those plants which may be sown and grown 
from start to finish in the open air. ' Tender ' or ' half hardy ' annuals, 
on the other hand, require to be raised in gentle heat, and must not be 
planted out until all danger from frost is past ; or if sown outside, the 
operation must be performed later than for hardy annuals. 

Hardy annuals may be sown either in pots or pans, or in the places 
outside in the garden in which they are intended to bloom : whether in 
rows or patches of course depends on the grower. The soil should be 
well prepared, raked over, and levelled. The seed should be sown very 
thinly, and only slightly covered, and gently patted down with a flat 
board or the back of a spade, and the general instructions given from 
p. 42 to p. 46 must be borne in mind. 

When flowers are required in summer or autumn, hardy annuals 
may be sown out of doors in March and April. If required in early 
summer or late spring, then the seeds should be sown early in Septem- 
ber. When thinned out, the sturdy seedlings may be afterwards trans- 
planted to their flowering positions, sufficiently early to become 
established before winter. For further particulars the reader is referred 
to the article on seeds and seed sowing, pp. 24, 42. 

Biennials. — These are plants which usually require two years or 
seasons of growth to develop fully from seed before they die naturally. 
The seeds of hardy biennials are usually sown from June to August, and 
pricked out or transplanted in the autumn to the places in which they 
are to bloom the following year. Tender biennials must be sown in 
autumn in a frame or cool house, and the plants must be sheltered in 
these places until about the end of the following May, when they may 

be planted out. 

The following is a selection of the best annuals and biennials, or 
plants that may be treated in the same way. 



ANNUALS AND BIENNIALS 



79 



LIST I 

A Selection of the most Ornamental Annual and Biennial Plants, 
or those that may be treated as such 

The page at which description and cultural information for each are given appears 

after the name. 



Abronia umbellata, p. 700. 
Acroclinium roseum, p. 508. 
Adonis autumnalis, p. 145. 
Alyssum maritimum, p. 210. 
Amberboa moschata, p. 551. 

odorata, p. 551. 
Antirrhinum, vars., p. 710. 
Aphanostephus ramosissi- 

mus, p. 497. 
Arabis arenosa, p. 206. 
Asperula azurea setosa, 

p. 487. 
Baeria coronaria, p. 524. 
Balsam, p. 294. 
Brachycome iberidifolia, 

p. 497. 
Calandrinia discolor, p. 262. 
grandiflora, 
p. 262. 
Calendula officinalis, p. 544. 
Callistephus hortensis (the 
type) and various China 
Asters, p. 499, 
Campanula Loreyi, p. 567. 
macrostyla, 

p. 566. 
Medium, p. 566. 
sibirica, p. 568. 
spicata, p. 568. 
Candytuft, p. 218. 
Canterbury Bells, p. 566. 
Carnations, Marguerite, 

p. 241. 
Celosia, p. 762. 
Centaurea cyanus, p. 550. 

moschata, p. 551. 
Centauridium Drummondi, 

p. 496. 
Centranthus macrosiphon, 

p. 489. 
Cheiranthus, p. 204. 
China Aster, p. 499. 
Chrysanthemum carinatum, 
p. 531. 
coronarium, 
p. 531. 
Clarkia elegans, p. 452. 

pulchella, p. 453. 
Clintonia pulchella, p. 555. 
Cockscomb, p. 762. 
Collinsia bicolor, p. 717. 



Collinsia verna, p. 718. 
Collomia coccinea, p. 663. 
Convolvulus tricolor, p. 686. 
Coreopsis Drummondi, 

p. 518. 
Cosmidium burridgeanum, 

p. 522. 
Cosmos bipinnatus, p. 522. 
Datura, p. 692. 
Delphinium, annual vars., 

p. 158. 
Dianthus sinensis, p. 243. 
Digitalis purpurea, vars., 

p. 722. 
Dimorphotheca annua, 

P. 544. 
Ecklonis, p. 544. 
Dracocephalum, vars., p. 751. 
Erysimum alpinum, p. 214. 
Perofskianum, 
p. 215. 
Eschscholtzia, vars., p. 197. 
Eucharidium grandiflorum, 

p. 455. 
Eutoca viscida, p. 669. 
Forget-me-not, p. 677. 
Foxglove, p. 722. 
Gaillardia amblyodon,p. 527. 

picta, p. 527. 
Gaura Lindheimeri, p. 457. 
Gilia achilleasfolia, p. 664. 
coronopifolia, p. 664. 
densiflora, p. 664. 
dianthoides, p. 664. 
liniflora, p. 665. 
micrantha, p. 665. 
tricolor, p. 665. 
Glaucium, vars., p. 196. 
Godetia Whitneyi. p. 454. 
Gypsophila elegans, p. 248. 
viscosa, p. 249. 
Helianthus annuus, p. 515. 

petiolaris, p. 517. 
Helichrysum arenarium, 
p. 508. 
bracteatum, 
p. 508. 
Honesty, p. 207. 
Iberis coronaria, p. 218. 
umbellata, p. 220. 
Ionopsidium acaule, p. 216. 



Ipomopsis elegans, p. 
Kaulfussia amelloides.p. 498. 
Kochia scoparia, p. 766. 
Lamarckia aurea, p. 961. 
Lasthenia californica, p. 524. 
Lathyrus odoratus, p. 348. 
Lavatera trimestris, p. 274. 
Layia elegans, p. 523. 

platyglossa, p. 324. 
Leptosiphon densiflorus, 
p. 664. 
roseus, p. 665. 
Leptosyne calliopsidea, 
p. 519. 
maritima, p. 519. 
Stillmani, p. 519. 
Limnanthes Douglasi, p. 292. 
Linaria aparinoides, p. 708. 
bipartita, p. 708. 
multipunctata, p. 709. 
reticulata, p. 709. 
spartea, p. 710. 
Linum grandiflorum, p. 283. 
usitatissimum, 
P. 284. 
Lunaria biennis, p. 207. 
Lupinus affinis, p. 324. 

Hartwegi, p. 325. 
luteus, p. 325. 
Menziesii, p. 325. 
mutabilis, p. 325. 
nanus, p. 325. 
pilosus, p. 325. 
subcarnosus, p. 326. 
Malcolmia maritima, and 

var. alba, p. 214. 
Mai ope grandiflora, p. 271. 
malacoides, p. 271. 
trifida, p. 271. 
Malva crispa, p. 275. 

mam-itiana, p. 275. 
Marigold, p. 544. 
Martynia fragrans, p. 735. 
proboscidea, 
p. 735. 
Matthiola annua, p. 201. 
incana, p. 202. 
Mentzelia Lindleyi, p. 458. 
Michauxia campanuloides, 

P. 560. 
Mignonette, p. 222. 



80 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Mina lobata, p. 684. 
Morning Glory, p. 683. 
Myosotis alpestris, p. 677. 

dissitiflora, p. 677. 
Nemesia strumosa, p. 707. 
versicolor, p. 707. 
Nemophila atomaria, p. 667. 
aurita, p. 667. 
insignis, p. 667. 
maculata, p. 667. 
Nicotiana, vars., p. 695. 
Nigella darnascena, p. 155. 
hispanica, p. 155. 
Nolana atriplicifolia, p. 686. 
Nycterina selaginoides, 

p. 718. 
(Enothera, vars., p. 453. 
Omphalodes linifolia, p. 671. 
Oxalis rosea, p. 293. 
Oxyura chrysanthemoides, 

p. 523. 
Palava flexuosa, p. 271. 
Papaver croceum, p. 191. 
glaucum, p. 191. 
Rhceas, vars., p. 192. 
somniferum, vars., 
p. 192. 
Petunia, p. 697. 
Phacelia, vars., p. 668. 



Pharbitis hispida, and vars., 

p. 683. 
Phlox Drummondi, p. 660. 
Picotees, p. 240. 
Pinks, p. 246. 
Platvstenion californicus, 

p. 190. 
Polygonum orientale, p. 770. 
Poppies, p. 191. 
Eeseda odorata. p. 222. 
Rhodanthe Manglesii.p. 508. 
Salpiglossis sinuata, p. 700. 
Sanvitalia procunibens, 

p. 512. 
Saponaria calabrica, p. 249. 
Scabiosa caucasica, p. 491. 
Schizanthus pinnatus, p. 699. 

retusus, p. 700. 
Senecio elegans, p. 541. 
Silene Armeria, p. 251. 

Atoeion, p. 251. 

compacta, p. 251. 

pendula. p. 253. 

quadrifida. p. 254. 
Snapdragon, p. 710. 
Specularia speculum, p. 569. 
Sphenogyne speciosa, p. 544. 
Statice spicata, p. 603. 
Stocks, p. 201. 
Suworowi, p. 603. 



Sweet Pea, p. 348. 

Scabious, p. 491. 
Sultan, p. 551. 
William, p. 238. 
Tagetes erecta, p. 526. 
patula, p. 526. 
signata, p. 526. 
Tobacco, p. 695. 
Trifolium incarnatum, p. 334. 
Tropaeolum majus, p. 290. 
minus, p. 291. 
peregrinum, 
p. 291. 
Yenidium calendulaceum, 

p. 545. 
Yerbascum phoeniceum, 

p. 702. 
Verbena hybrida, p. 740. 
Viola, vars., p. 228. 
Virginian Stock, p. 214. 
Viscaria oculata, p. 257. 
Wallflower, p. 204. 
Whitlavia grandiflora. p. 669. 
Xeranthemum annuum, 

p. 547. 
Zaluzianskia, p. 718. 
Zauschneria californica, 

p. 452. 
Zea Mays, p. 964. 
Zinnia elegans, p. 512. 



THE HARDY HERBACEOUS BORDER 

In the flower garden proper, the hardy herbaceous border is un- 
doubtedly the most important feature. Its beauty and variety depend 
almost entirely on the taste of the owner, and a knowledge of the 
plants used. Some herbaceous borders nearly always present a bright 
and attractive appearance owing to a good and tasteful selection of 
plants arranged with due regard to their various heights, their period 
of blossoming, and the contrasts produced by the colour of their flowers. 
Other borders, however, which receive but little or no attention present 
anything but an attractive appearance. 

Many things have to be considered in the making of a good flower 
border — such as site, aspect, soil, habit, height, colour, and general 
requirements of each species, and whether they are better grown as 
individual specimens or in large or small masses or groups to produce 
the best effect. Indeed it may be said that the chief object in view in 
making a hardy herbaceous border is to secure a pleasing natural picture 
with plants and flowers of different habits, heights, colours &c. 

The nature of the locality must always be taken into consideration, 



THE HARDY HERBACEOUS BORDER 81 



and only those plants should be grown that will flourish with ordinary 
good care and attention. It must be borne in mind that some plants 
thrive in one locality and make glorious pictures in the flower border, 
while in other districts — perhaps not many miles distant — they prove 
to be utter failures, notwithstanding every attention to cultural details. 

Unfortunately, this is one of the peculiar things that puzzle gar- 
deners not a little. Many, of an experimental turn of mind, resolve 
to make a difficult plant grow by hook or by crook if good cultivation can 
do it. Very often they are highly successful, and very often not. And 
curiously enough, many of these so-called difficult plants to cultivate, 
when they fail under what is considered the best treatment, often 
astonish the disgusted cultivator by growing vigorously and flowering 
profusely when they have been neglected and left to shift for them- 
selves. A writer in the ' Garden ' has illustrated this point very clearly 
in connection with Tropaolum spedosum (see p. 291). He says : — 
This species was planted in many positions, care being taken to afford 
a porous root-run and a sufficiency of shade, for in the south it is 
almost impossible to establish this Tropaeohim in a situation exposed to 
the full rays of the sun. After the planting was concluded a certain 
quantity of roots remained over, and these were placed in holes dug at 
the foot of a spreading young yew tree, the soil not being disturbed 
further than was necessary for covering the roots. After this was 
effected, these latter were not given another thought, as they were not ex- 
pected to succeed, and had only been roughly planted as an alternative to 
being thrown away. In course of time all the carefully planted and 
tended Tropaeolums disappeared, and for a couple of years the forgotten 
roots beneath the yew did nothing to advertise their existence. In the 
third year, however, a vivid splash of vermilion on one of the branches 
of the yew drew attention to the fact that the plants were not only 
alive, but in the best of health, in which state they have since remained, 
garlanding the sombre foliage during the summer months with an- 
opulence of colour that year by year increases in extent.' 

The moral of this is that the reader must not be discouraged if he 
should fail to grow a plant under one set of conditions. Should this 
unfortunately happen, then he should at least try totally different condi- 
tions in his garden before finally rejecting the plant as unsuitable. 

Site of Herbaceous Borders. — Where a large and varied selection 
of plants from all quarters of the globe is to be grown in the same 
border, the best general site is one facing any point of the compass 
between east and west. There are several choice plants — Tropceolum 
spedosum, mentioned above, for example — that will flourish facing north 
or east ; but the great majority of choice border plants require a position 



82 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



sheltered from the bleak cold winds of the east and north. This shelter 
is better and more picturesque if given by means of ornamental trees 
and shrubs, or thick evergreen hedges. When herbaceous borders are 
made against walls and outside greenhouses care should be taken not to 
have the back portion choked up with vegetation with an idea of hiding 
the wall. The latter object can be secured by training various plants 
and climbers like Ivies, Vitis, Smilax, Choisya, Clematis, Jasmine, 
Bignonia &c. over them. 

But there is no necessity whatever to have beautiful flower borders 
near buildings or walls of any sort, or even fringing shrubberies, although 
all these situations are valuable if properly utilised. The flower border 
may stand alone in the grass and may be so arranged that sufficient 
shelter is afforded from a distance by hedges, trees, buildings &c. 

Width. — The width of flower borders is often so great that the 
plants towards the back are so placed as to be too far off to be 
properly attended to without constantly walking over the border and 
treading the soil down into a perfectly hard state. Five to six feet 
wide is quite enough for any border, and it should be so arranged that 
it may be viewed from both sides. Where flowers are largely cut for 
room decoration this will be found a convenient width, as it will admit 
of the flowers being cut from the centre of the bed without trespassing 
on the soil or the intervening plants. 

Where very broad stretches of ground may be used for the flower 
border, pathways of grass about 2 ft. wide may be left between the 
borders. This will allow for the erection at intervals of trellises, arches, 
pergolas &c, over which climbers from each side may be trained up. 
Where herbaceous borders run parallel with greenhouses or conserva- 
tories, as they frequently do, a pathway at the back by the walls will be 
a great convenience, and will also allow a freer circulation of air among 
the plants. The taste of the cultivator, however, will always decide 
where the borders are to be made, how they are to be planted, and the 
kinds of plants to be used. 

Soil. — For general purposes a rich loamy well-drained soil is best. 
It may be leavened by the addition of manure, leafsoil, peat and sand, 
as may be required for any particular plant grown in it. It should be 
from 2 to 3 feet deep and, before planting, well dug or trenched as 
occasion demands. In the following pages there is frequent reference 
to ' ordinary good garden soil.' This means any soil which is well- 
drained and consists of loam, sand, leaf-mould and other vegetable and 
animal refuse, clay, peat &c, all of which have been thoroughly worked 
with the addition of manures for years past. It would be difficult 
without analysis to say of what such a soil was composed. 



THE HARDY HERBACEOUS BORDER 83 



Planting. — As the herbaceous border is usually intended to last for 
several years, care should be exercised in selecting and arranging the 
■plants properly at first, to avoid subsequent alterations. If the borders 
are arranged as recommended it will not be necessary to have all the 
tall plants at the back, the others sloping downwards to the dwarf ones 
in front, thus giving a painful air of symmetrical arrangement. Many 
of the taller kinds may be placed in the centre, and behind or in front 
of them the dwarfer ones may be planted, according as to whether they 
require plenty of sunshine or shadow. In fact, the plants should be 
made to assist each other as much as possible in this respect. A tall 
plant may be readily used for shading a dwarfer one by its shadow 
during the hotter and sunnier portion of the day. In the same way a 
tender plant may be sheltered from the winds if arranged near 
another of a more hardy constitution. 

Massing or Grouping. — It often happens that one plant by itself 
fails to produce a good effect. It may be straggling in habit and small 
in flower, and is lost amid more showy surroundings. It is somewhat 
similar to a solitary soldier in a more or less gay uniform, and a whole 
battalion dressed in the same way. The individual looks common- 
place and excites no comment, but when he is one of a thousand he con- 
tributes his share to the brilliant effect of the whole. So it is with 
many plants. When they are ineffective as single specimens they 
become handsome and desirable subjects in a flower border when grown 
together in large masses. If Violets, Primroses, Saxifrages, Asters, 
Aubrietias, Larkspurs, Anemones, Campanulas, Coreopsis, Gentians, 
Phloxes, Pentstemons &c. were grown simply as single plants at a great 
distance from each other, they w T ould never produce the effect, or be 
so much appreciated as they are when grown in masses and groups. 

Colour and Time of Flowering. — This is an important point to con- 
sider in arranging the plants. In the following lists some of the best 
flowers are arranged according to the principal predominating colour, 
so that the reader will find no difficulty in making a selection for him- 
self. The period of blooming should also be taken into consideration, 
with a view to obtaining flowers in the open air for as long a period as 
possible. In this way the flower border will continue to maintain its 
interest from one year's end to another. As it is often useful to know 
what plants are likely to bloom in the dullest months of the year, a list 
of those which blossom between September and May is given at p. 94. 
It is scarcely necessary to give a detailed list of those which flower 
from May to September, as during this period there are so many, and 
there is no difficulty in finding them. In regard to the trees and shrubs, 

however, a list of which is given at p. 107, some pains have been taken 

g2 



84 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



to give the months in the year at which representatives of most of them 
are usually in blossom. 

General Arrangement of the Flower Border.— This has been 
treated so well by Miss Jekyll, of Munstead, in a paper read before 
the Horticultural Society that I take the liberty of reproducing her 
remarks here : — 

' An essential feature in a garden of hardy flowers is a well-arranged 
mixed border. It is here that we can show the true summer flowers 
at their best, but it is here, more than anywhere else, that the " art of 
many sacrifices " must be put in practice. For the main spaces plants 
should be chosen of bold and striking beauty, but as a border of all 
large plants would have a kind of monotony, certain spaces, chiefly 
towards the front, but also running back in many parts among groups 
of taller things, should be planted with those of lower growth. The 
chief plants for such a border are Oriental Poppies (p. 191), Paeonies 
(p. 165), the boldest of the Irises (p. 917), Day-Lilies (p. 815), Herbaceous 
Spiraeas (p. 364), Oenotheras (p. 453), a few of the best Campanulas 
(p. 562), Delphiniums (p. 158), Lilies (p. 842), three or four of the best 
perennial Sunflowers (p. 515), the tall blue Sea-Holly (p. 465), Tritomas 
(p. 817), Mulleins (p. 701), Thalictrums (p. 137), Dahlias (p. 519), 
Hollyhocks (p. 272), and a few others. These are the plants that will 
form the great effects of the border. The nearest parts, and some 
spaces between the taller growths, should have groups of plants of 
lower stature, and yet of a somewhat bold form of foliage. Of these 
the broad-leaved Saxifrages (p. 415), and Funkias (p. 816), are among 
the best. Still dwarfer plants, such as Pinks (p. 238), and Pansies 
(p. 233), are suitable for the extreme edge. 

' Each kind of plant in the mixed border should stand in a bold group, 
and the groups, differing in size and shape, according to the aspect of 
the plant, should follow one another in a carefully arranged sequence 
of colour, keeping plants of a colour together, such as Mulleins with 
Oenotheras, and Tritoma with Oriental Poppy. In the case of the last 
named, it is convenient to actually intergroup the two kinds, for the 
foliage of the Poppies dies away early and the blank space it would 
have left becomes covered by the later-grow T ing leaves of the autumn- 
blooming Tritoma. 

' Groups of red, orange and strong yellow follow well, and help each 
other by forming a rich colour harmony. Flowers of a strong blue 
colour, like Delphiniums, seem to ask for a contrast, such as that of 
white Lilies (p. 846) or the pale yellow of Oenothera lamarchiana 
(p. 453), and Verbascum phlomoides (p. 702), the best of the Mulleins. 
In practice it is perhaps best to exclude bulbous plants from the mixed 



THE HARDY HERBACEOUS BORDER 85 



border, " especially in light soils that need frequent enrichment," as the 
disturbing of the ground, occasioned by division of the plants and 
manuring, is perilous to the bulbs, the foliage of which has usually 
disappeared by autumn, and whose places are probably forgotten unless 
marked by unsightly labels. But exception should be made in favour 
of the three common Lilies, the White (p. 846), the Orange (p. 848) 
and the Tiger (p. 857). Labels must be absolutely abolished in the 
ornamental garden. (See p. 47.) 

' Some families of plants, especially those whose beauty is in infinite 
variety, may best be enjoyed in places almost by themselves, where the 
eye would be undisturbed by the consideration of other kinds of flowers. 
A garden of Lilies may be made of great beauty, the groups of Lilies 
appearing among dwarf and moderate sized shrubs and hardy Ferns. 
The Paeony family (p. 165) is another example of a large range of 
summer flowers that deserve such treatment in addition to their use in 
other places. A whole wealth of garden beauty exists in this one tribe 
alone, for, apart from those best known — namely, the double varieties of 
the old garden kind, the Chinese herbaceous (p. 168) and the old Tree 
Paeony (p. 171) — there are many other kinds, both species and their 
cultivated varieties, that are happily available for garden use. 

' Many a beautiful garden picture may also be made by the placing 
of quite a small number, or even a single example of some stately plant 
in a quiet place by itself, such as a group of Lilium giganteum (p. 849) 
with its noble flower spikes and its broad glistening leaves. A group 
of this grand Lily, in partial shade and backed by trees or small shrubs, 
shows one of the stateliest forms that can be seen of a flowering plant 
of one year's growth. 

' Such another example is offered by the Californian Tree Poppy 
(Ronmeya Coulter i, p. 190) which, when well established, will grow in 
one season into a bush 7 feet high and as much through. It is a 
remarkably beautiful plant and to an eye trained to harmonies of 
colour singularly pleasing in the relation of its large milk-white flowers 
and pale blue-green leaves. It delights in a sunny well-sheltered place 
in a light soil. 

' Old walls are easily made beautiful by sowing a few seeds of Wall- 
flowers (p. 240), Snapdragon (p. 710), Bed Valerian (p. 490), and Kock 
Pinks (p. 245), and even a heap of hungry sand will grow to perfection 
the handsome Lyme Grass (p. 959) and the beautiful Sea-Holly (p. 465). 
' There is no end to the interest of this kind of gardening, and the 
harder the problem the greater the triumph when, for instance, a 
difficult or ugly piece of ground has been compelled into beauty, and 
what was before unsightly is made delightful to the eye, and with such 



8G 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



skill that the result looks, not as if it had been done, but as if it had 
happened. 

' It should be remembered that a beautiful garden is a place of 
pleasant labour and happy restfulness, and that the more it can be filled 
with perfect pictures, the more it gives delight to the eye and solace to 
the mind, and the nearer it approaches to the making of an earthly 
paradise.' 

The following is a list of the best Herbaceous Perennial Plants for 
cultivation in the flower border. After each name the page at which 
information in regard to description, culture &c. is given is indi- 
cated in figures. 



Acanthus latifolius, p. 73(5. 
longifolius, p. 736. 
mollis, p. 736. 
spinosissiraus, 

P. 737. 
spinosus, p. 737. 
Achillea aegyptiaca, p. 528. 
asplenifolia, p. 528. 
Eupatorium, p. 528. 
Ptarmica, fl. pi., 

p. 529. 
tomentosa, p. 520. 
Aconitum, vars., p. 162. 
Adonis vernalis, p. 144. 
^Ethionema cordifolium, 

p. 216. 
Alstrcemeria, vars., p. 914. 
Altha?a rosea, p. 271. 
Alyssum saxatile, p. 210. 
Anchusa italica, p. 675. 
Anemone, vars., p. 139. 
Anthemis tinctoria, p. 530. 
Anthericum, vars., p. 825. 
Aquilegia, vars., p. 155. 
Arnebia echioides, p. 679. 
Arum italicum, p. 954. 
Arundo Donax, p. 958. 
Asclepias tuberosa, p. 647. 
Asphodelus luteus, p. 823. 

ramosus, p. 823. 
Aster, vars., p. 500. 
Astilbe, vars., p. 414. 
Astragalus monspessulanus, 

p. 343. 
Baptisia australis, p. 323. 
Betonica grandirlora, p. 755. 
Bocconia cordata, p. 195. 
Buphthalmum grandiflorum, 
p. 511. 
salicifolium, 

p. 511. 

speciosum, 

p. 511. 



LIST II 

Calceolaria alba, p. 704. 

Kellyana, p. 705. 
Calla palustris, p. 955. 
Callirhoe involucrata, p. 276. 
Calystegia dahurica, p. 684. 

pubescens, p. 684. 
Campanula abietina, p. 563. 
alpina, p. 563. 
carpatica, p. 563. 
dahurica, p. 564. 
glomerata, p. 564. 
grandis, p. 565. 
lactiflora, p. 565. 
latifolia, p. 565. 
mirabilis, p. 566. 
nobilis, p. 566. 
persicasfolia, 

p. 566. 
pyramidalis, 

p. 567. 
rotundifolia. 

p. 568. 
Trachelium. 

p. 568. 
turbinata, p. 563. 
Van Houttei, 
p. 565. 
Carbenia benedicta, p. 551. 
Cassia marilandica, p. 354. 
Catananche bicolor, p. 553. 
crerulea, p. 553. 
Centaurea americana, p. 549. 
babylonica, 

p. 549. 
macrocephala, 

p. 550. 
ragusina, p. 551. 
Centranthus ruber, p. 489. 
Cephalaria alpina, p. 491. 
Chelone glabra, p. 712. 
obliqua, p. 712. 
Chrysanthemum, vars., 
p. 531. 



Chrysobactron Hookeri, 

p. 826. 
Chrysogonum virginianum. 

p. 511. 
Cimicifuga racemosa, p. 164. 
Clematis recta, p. 135. 
Cnicus, vars., p. 548. 
Columbine, p. 155 
Commelina cselestis, p. 807. 
Convallaria majalis, p. 813. 
Convolvulus althaeoides, 
p. 685. 
Solclanella, 
p. 684. 
Coreopsis grandirlora, p. 518. 
lanceolata, p. 518. 
tenuifolia, p. 519. 
Coronilla iberica, p. 345. 

varia, p. 345. 
Corydalis lutea, p. 200. 

nobilis, p. 200. 
Crambe cordifolia, p. 221. 

pinnatifida, p. 222. 
Cypripedium Calceolus, 
p. 892. 
spectabile, 
p. 893. 
Dahlia, vars., p. 519. 
Delphinium, vars., p. 158. 
Dicentra eximia, p. 198. 

spectabilis, p. 1'.)'.). 
Dictamnus Fraxinella, 

p. 296. 
Dodecatheon integrifolium, 
p. 626. 
Jeffreyanum, 

p. 626. 
Meadia, 
p. 626. 
Doronicum caucasicum, 
p. 540. 
plantagineum, 
p. 540. 



HERB A GEO Us PER ENNL I L PLA A' TS 



H7 



Dracocephalum argunense, 
p. 751. 

austriacum, 

p. 751. 
grandiflor- 

um,p. 751. 
ruyschian- 
uni, p. 752. 
Eohinops Ritro, p. 547. 

ruthenicus, p. 547. 
Epilobium angustifolium, 
p. 452. 
rosmarinifolium, 
p. 452. 
Epimedium pinnatum, 

p. 184. 
Eranthis hyemalis, p. 154. 
Eremurus, vars., p. 824. 
Erigeron speciosus, p. 50(i. 
Erodium Manescavi, p. 287. 
Eryngium, vars.. p. 405. 
Erythroniuni, vars., p. 869. 
Ferula communis, p. 468. 
glauca, p. 469. 
tingitana, p. 469. 
Funkia, vars., p. 816. 
Gaillardia aristata, p. 527. 
grandiflora, 
p. 527. 
Galega officinalis, p. 337. 
iana Andrewsii, p. 653. 
asclepiadea, p. 653. 
lutea, p. 655. 
Geranium, vars., p. 285. 
Geum, vars., p. 374. 
Gillenia trifoliata, p. 369. 
Gunnera manicata, p. 446. 

scabra, p. 447. 
Gypsophila paniculata, 
p. 249. 
Steveni, p. 249. 
Hacquetia Epipactis, p. 467. 
Hedysarum, vars., p. 345. 
Heleniumautumnale, p. 526. 
nudirlorum, p. 527. 
Helianthus, vars., p. 515. 
Helichrysum arenarium, 

p. 508. 
Helleborus. vars., p. 152. 
Hemerocallis aurantiaca 

major, p. 815. 
flava, p. 815. 
fulva, p. 815. 
minor, p. 816. 
Hesperis matronalis, p. 213. 
Heuchera sanguinea, p. 427. 
Hibiscus militaris, p. 279. 
palustris, p. 279. 
roseus, p. 279. 
Iberis, vars., p. 218. 
Inula glandulosa, p. 510. 

Hookeri, p. 510. 
Iris, vars., p. 917. 



Jett'ersonia diphylla, p. 184. 
Kniphofia, in variety, p. si 7. 
Larkspur, p. 15s. 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, 
p. 34H. 
latit'olius, p. 348. 
rotundifolius. 

p. 349. 
splendens, p. 349. 
Liatris elegans, p. 495. 
spicata, p. 495. 
squarrosa, [). 495. 
Lilium, vars., p. 842. 
Linaria, vars., p. 707. 
Lindelotia spectabilis. p. 672. 
Linuin alpinuni, p. 283. 
arboreum, p. 283. 
flavum, p. 283. 
narbonense, p. 284. 
perenne, p. 284. 
Lobelia cardinalis, p. 556. 
tulgens, p. 557. 
splendens, p. 557. 
Lupinus aootkatensis, p. 326. 
polyphyllus, p. 326. 
Lychnis chalcedonica and 
vars., p. 255. 
coronaria, p. 255. 
diurna rl. pi., 

p. 256. 
fulgens, p. 256. 
haageana, p. 257. 
Lagasca\ p. 257. 
vespertina rl. pi., 

p. 257. 
Viscaria, p. 25s. 
Lysimachia clethroides, 
p. 629. 
punctata, j). 629. 
Lythrum Salicaria, p. 451. 
virgatum, p. 451. 
Malva campanulata, p. 276. 

moschata. p. 275. 
Meconopsis cambrica, p. 194. 
nepalensis. p. 194. 
Wallichi, p. 194. 
Medicago falcata, p. 333. 
Melittis Melissophyllum, 

p. 754. 
Menyantb.es trifoliata, p. (557. 
Mertensia sibirica, p. 676. 

virginica, p. 676. 
Monarda didyma, p. 750. 
fistulosa, p. 750. 
Monkshood, p. 162. 
Morina longifolia, p. 490. 
Myosotis dissitirlora, p. 677. 
palustris, p. 678. 
sylvatica, p. 678. 
Nepeta Mussini, p. 750. 
(Enothera, vars., p. 453. 
Omphalodes verna, p. 671. 
Onobrychis montana, p. 346. 



Ononis aragonensis, p. 332. 
rotundifolia, p. 332. 
Orobus cyaneus, p. 350. 
rlaccidus, p. 350. 
lathyroides, p. 350. 
variegatus, p. 351. 
vernus, p. 351 . 
Ostrowskya magnifica,p. 559 
Ourisia coccinea, p. 723. 
Pu?onia, vars., p. 165. 
Pansy, p. 233. 

Papaver bracteatum, p. 191. 
lateritium, p. 191. 
nudicanle, p. 191. 
orientale, p. 191. 
pilosum, p. 192. 
Pentstemon, vars., p. 712. 
Phlomis ferruginea, p. 757. 
fruticosa, p. 757. 
herba-venti, p. 757. 
Kusselliana, p. 757. 
Phlox, vars., p. 658. 
Phygelius capensis, p. 711. 
Physalis Francheti, p. >'<'.K). 
Physostegiaimbricata.p. 754. 
virginiana, 
p. 751. 
Phyteuma comosum, p. 561. 
Phytolacca decandra, p. 767. 
Plagianthus Lyalli, p. 277. 
Platycodon grandirlorum, 

p. 559. 
Plumbago Larpenta\ p. 604. 
Podophyllum Emodi, p. 185. 
peltatum, 
p. 185. 
Poleruonium caeruleum. 
p. 665. 
confertum. 

p. 665. 
humile, p. 666. 
pulchellum. 
p. 666. 
Polyanthus, vars., p. 620. 
Polygonatum multirlorum, 

p. 811. 
Polygonum cuspidatum, 
p. 759. 
sachalinense, 

p. 770. 
sph;erostachy- 
um, p. 770. 
vaccinifoliuni, 
p. 770. 
Potentilla, vars., p. 376. 
Primula, vars., p. 604. 
Prunella grandirlora. p. 754. 

webbiana, p. 754. 

Pyre thrum achille.-pfolium, 

p. 535. 

roseum, p. 536. 

uliginosum, 

p. 535. 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Ranunculus aconitifolius, 
p. 146. 
acris fl. pi., 

p. 146. 
amplexicaulis, 

p. 146. 
asiaticus, 
p. 147. 
Lyalli, p. 149. 
monspeliacus, 

p. 149. 
montanus, 

P. 149. 
spicatus,p. 150. 
Rheum, vars., p. 770. 
Rhexia virginica, p. 449. 
Romneya Coulteri, p. 190. 
Rudbeckia, vars., p. 514. 
Salvia argentea, p. 747. 

patens, p. 748. 
Santolina Chamrecyparissus, 
p. 529. 
incana, p. 530. 
Saponaria ocynioides, p. 249. 
Saxifraga cordifolia, p. 419. 
crassifolia, p. 419. 
Scabiosa caucasica, p. 491. 
Scutellaria alpina, p. 753. 

inacrantha, p. 753. 
Sedum kamtschaticuin, 
p. 439. 
populifoliuni, p. 440. 



Sedum Sieboldi, p. 440. 

spectabile, p. 441. 
Senecio, vars., p. 540. 
Sidalcea Candida, p. 276. 

malvffiflora, p. 277. 
Silene alpestris, p. 251. 

Elisabeths, p. 252. 
maritima, p. 252. 
Schafta, p. 254. 
Silphium laciniatum, p. 511. 
Sisyrinchium grandiflorum, 

p. 943. 
Solidago, vars., p. 496. 
Spigelia marilandica, p. 649. 
Spiraea Aruncus, p. 364. 
lobata, p. 364. 
palmata, p. 365. 
Stachys lanata, p. 755. 
Statice latifolia, p. 602. 
speciosa, p. 603. 
tatarica, p. 603. 
Stokesia cyanea, p. 493. 
Symphvandra Hoffmanni, 
p. 570. 
pendula, 
p. 570. 
Wanneri, 
p. 570. 
Symphytum asperrimum, 
p. 673. 
caucasicum, 
p. 673. 

LIST III 



Thalictrum, vars., p. 137. 
Thermopsis fabacea, p. 323. 
lanceolata, 
p. 323. 
Tiarella cordifolia, p. 426. 
Tradescantia virginica and 

vars., p. 807. 
Tricyrtis hirta, p. 879. 
Tritoma Uvaria, p. 818. 
Trollius, vars, p. 151. 
Tropseolurn pentaphyllum, 
p. 291. 
polyphyllum, 

p. 291. 
speciosum, 
p. 291. 
Veratrum album, p. 881. 
nigrum, p. 881. 
viride, p. 881. 
Verbascum Chaixi, p. 702. 
olympicum, 

p. 702. 
phlomoides, 
p. 702. 
Veronica, vars., p. 724. 
Vicia argentea, p. 347. 

Cracca, p. 347. 
Vinca herbacea, p. 645. 
Viola, vars., p. 228. 
Zauschneria californica, 
p. 452. 



A Selection of Herbaceous Plants etc. that will grow in more or less 
Shady Places. The description, culture, and propagation will be 
found at the page mentioned after the names. 

Acanthus, vars., p. 736. 
Achillea Ptarmica rl. pi., 

p. 529. 
Aconitum, vars., p. 162. 
Act»a, vars., p. 164. 
Ajuga reptans, p. 759. 
Anemone, vars., p. 139. 
Aquilegia vulgaris, p. 158. 
Aralia edulis, p. 470. 

nudicaulis, p. 470. 

racemosa, p. 470. 
Aristolochia, vars., p. 773. 
Artemisia, vars., p. 538. 
Arum Dracunculus, p. 954. 

italicum, p. 955. 
Arundinaria, vars., p. 965. 
Asclepias, vars., p. 647. 
Asperula odorata, p. 487. 
Asphodelus ramosus, 

p. 822. 
Aster, vars., p. 500. 
Astilbe, vars., p. 414. 
Astrantia, vars., p. 466. 
Baneberry, p. 164. 



Baptisia, vars., p. 323. 
Betonica grandirlora, p. 755. 
Borago orientalis, p. 674. 
Bromus, vars., p. 959. 
Buphthalmum grandiflorum, 

p. 511. 
salicifolium, 

p. 511. 
Calystegia vars.. p. 684. 
Campanula, vars., p. 563. 
Centaurea montana, p. 551. 
Chelidonium majus, p. 196. 
Clematis, vars., p. 131. 
Convallaiia majalis, p. 813. 
Coreopsis lanceolata, 

p. 518. 
Cortusa Matthioli, p. 624. 
Corydalis nobilis, p. 200. 
Crambe cordifolia, p. 221. 
Cyclamen, vars., p. 626. 
Cynoglossum Omphalodes, 

p. 672. 
Cypripedium, vars, p. 892. 
Delphinium, vars., p. 158. 



Dicentra spectabilis, p. 199. 
Digitalis, vars., p. 722. 
Dodecatheon, vars., p. 626. 
Doronicum Pardalianches, 
p. 540. 
plantagineum , 
p. 540. 
Dracocephalum Ruyschia- 

num, p. 752. 
Echinops, vars., p. 547. 
Elymus arenarius, p. 959. 
Epigffia repens, p. 578. 
Epilobium angustifolium, 

p. 452. 
Epimedium, vars., p. 184. 
Equisetum sylvaticum, 
p. 1024. 
Telmateia, 
p. 1023. 
Eranthis hyemalis, p. 154. 
Eryngium alpinum, p. 465. 
Erythronium, vars., p. 869. 
Eupatorium, vars., p. 494 
Ferula, vars., p. 468. 



TRAILING AND CLIMBING PLANTS 



89 



Fragaria, vars., p. 376. 
Fritillaria, vars., p. 857. 
Funkia, vars., p. 81(5. 
Galanthus nivalis, p. 906. 

plicatus, p. 906. 
Gaultheria, vars., p. 575. 
Gentiana septemfida, p. 656. 
Geranium, vars., p. 285. 
Geum, vars., p. 374. 
Gillenia trifoliata, p. 3(i9. 
Hedysarum, vars., p. 345. 
Helianthus, vars., p. 515. 
Helleborus, vars., p. 152. 
Helonias bullata, p. 878. 
Hemerocallis, vars., p. 815. 
Heuchera, vars., p. 427. 
Hieracium aurantiacum, 

p. 553. 
Hop, p. 788. 

Humulus Lupulus, p. 788. 
Hypericum, vars., p. 265. 
Inula Heleniuin, p. 510. 
Iris, vars., p. !)17. 
Lamium, vars., p. 75(1. 
Lathyrus, vars., p. 348. 
Lavatera, vars., p. 274. 
Leucojum, vars., p. 907. 
Liatris spicata, p. 495. 
Lilium, vars., p. 842. 
Linnffia borealis, p. 482. 
Lupinus polyphyllus, p. 326. 
Lychnis diurna, p. 256. 

vespertina, p. 257. 
Lysimachia, vars., p. 629. 
Ly thrum, vars., p. 451. 
Malva, vars., p. 275. 
Meconopsis nepalensis. 
p. 194. 
Wallichi, p. 194. 



Medicago, vars., p. 333. 
Melittis Melissophyllum, 

p. 754. 
Mertensia, vars., p. 670. 
Mimulus moschatus, p. 720. 
Mitchella repens, p. 488. 
Monarda, vars., p. 750. 
Mulgedium alpinum, p. 554. 
Myosotis, vars., p. 077. 
Narcissus, vars., p. 893. 
(Enothera, vars., p. 453. 
Omphalodes verna, p. 671. 
Onopordon Acanthium, 

p. 548. 
Ornithogalum, vars., p. 842. 
Pffionia, vars., p. 165. 
Panicum altissimum, p. 902. 
capillare, p. 962. 
virgatum, p. 962. 
Phlomis, vars., p. 757. 
Physostegia, vars., p. 754. 
Podophyllum, vars., p. 185. 
Polemonium reptans, p. 066. 
Polygonatum multirlorum, 

p. 811. 
Polygonum affine, p. 768. 
cuspidatum, 
p. 769. 
Primula, vars., p. 004. 
Pyrola, vars., p. 598. 
Ranunculus aconitii'olius, rl. 

pi., p. 140. 
Rubus, vars., p. 371. 
Rudbeckia californica, 
p. 514. 
hirta, p. 514. 
laciniata, p. 514. 
triloba, p. 515. 



Ruscus aculeatus, p. 810. 
racemosus, p. 810. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 

p. 195. 
Saponaria officinalis, p. 249. 
Saxifraga cordifolia, p. 419. 

crassifolia, p. 419. 

Fortunei, p. 421. 

Geum, p, 421. 

umbrosa, p. 426. 
Scilla, vars., p. 838. 
Sedum spectabile, p. 441. 
Sinilacina bifolia, p. 813. 

stellata, p. 813. 
Spigelia marilandica, p. 649. 
Spiraea, vars., p. 304. 
Symphytum, vars., p. 673. 
Thalictrum, vars., p. 137. 
Tradescantia virginica, 

n. 807. 
Trillium grandiflorum, vars.. 

p. 880. 
Trollius, vars., p. 151. 
Tulipa, vars., p. 800. 
Tussilago fragrans, p. 539. 
Uvularia grandirlora, p. 879. 
Valeriana, p. 488. 

officinalis, p. 489. 

Phu, p. 489. 
Veratrnm album, p. 881. 

nigrum, p. 881. 
Vernonia, vars., p. 493. 
Vinca, vars., p. 645. 
Viola, vars., p. 228. 
Xerophyllum asphodelioides, 
p. 878. 



LIST IV 

Trailing and Climbing Plants, for covering Boivers, Trellises, Bailings, 
Old Trees, Stumps, Bockwork, Banks, Walls dx. 

Lapageria, vars., p. 810. 
Lardizabala biternata, 

p. 179. 
Lathyrus, vars. (Sweet Peas), 

p. 348. 
Lonicera Caprit'olium, 
p. 483. 
confusa, p. 483. 
rlava, p. 483. 
japonica, p. 484. 
Periclymenum, 
p. 484. 
Lycium europaeum, p. 692. 
Menispermum canadense, 

p. 178. 
Mina lobata, p. 684. 
Mutisia decurrens, p. 551. 



Abobra viridiflora, p. 402. 
Actinidia polygama, p. 207. 
Adlumia cirrhosa, p. 199. 
Akebia quinata, p. 179. 
Apios tuberosa, p. 351. 
Aristolochia Sipho, p. 773. 
tomentosa, 
p. 773. 
Bignonia capreolata, p. 731. 
Bryonia dioica, p. 461. 
Calystegia dahmica, p. 684. 
pubescens, p. 684. 
Cissus davidiana, p. 309. 

japonica, p. 309. 

platanifolia, p. 309. 

viticifolia, p, 310. 
Clematis, vars., p. 131. 



I Convolvulus arvensis, 
p. 685. 
mauritanicus, 
p. 685. 
Eccremocarpus scaber, 
p. 734. 
i Grammatocarpus volubilis, 
p. 459. 
Hablitzia tamnoides, p. 765. 
Hedera, vars., p. 471. 
Holbcellia latifolia, p. 179. 
Humulus Lupulus, p. 788. 
Ipomasa, vars., p. 683. 
Jasminum nudiflorum, 
p. 636. 
officinale, p. 637. 
revolutum, p. 637. 



90 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Passiflora ca?rulea, p. 460. 
I'eriploca graeca, p. 647. 
Polygonum baldschuanicum, 

p. 768. 
dumetorum, 

p. 769. 



Smilax, vars., p. 808. 
Solarium jasminoides, p. 689. 
Stachyurus precox, p. 268. 
Tamus communis, p. 884. 
Tecoma radicans, p. 732. 
Thunbergia alata, p. 735. 



Tropreolum, vars., p. 290. 
Virginian Creeper, p. 309. 
Vitis, vars., p. 307. 
Wistaria sinensis, p. 338. 



LIST V 

A Selection of Hardy Plants with White Flowers 



Achillea Clavennas, p. 528. 
Ptarmica pi., 

p. 529. 
serrata pi., p. 529. 
umbellata, p. 529. 
Aeonitum Napellus albus, 

p. 163. 
Actaea spicata, p. 164. 
Allium neapolitanum, 

p. 831. 
Alyssum maritimum, p. 210. 
Ammobium alatum, p. 509. 
Androsace Chamajasme, 

p. 622. 
Anemone alba, p. 139. 
alpina, p. 140. 
japonica alba, 

p. 142. 
narcissiflora, 

p. 142. 
nemorosa, p. 142. 
sylvestris, p. 144. 
thalictroides, 

P. 138. 
trifolia, p. 144. 
vitifolia, p. 144. 
Antennaria dioica, p. 507. 
Anthemis Bit-beisteini, 

p. 530. 
Antirrhinum majus album, 

p. 710. 
Aquilegia vulgaris alba, 

p. 158, 
Arabis, vars., p. 205. 
Arenaria montana, p. 260. 

verna, p. 2(50. 
Argemone grandiflora, 

p. 193. 
Asperula odorata, p. 487. 
Asphodelus ramosus, p. 823. 
Astilbe japonica, p. 414. 
rivularis, p. 414. 
Astragalus hypoglottis albus, 

p. 343. 
Bellium, vars., p. 498. 
Calla ffithiopica, p. 955. 

palustris, p. 955. 
Callistephus hortensis, vars.. 

p. 499. 
Campanula crespitosa alba, 
p. 563. 



Campanula carpatica alba, 
p. 563. 
glomerata alba, 

p. 564. 

lactiflora, 

p. 565. 

lamiifolia, 

p. 565. 

latifolia alba, 

p. 565. 
Medium alba, 

p. 566. 
nitida, p. 566. 
persicsefolia 

alba, p. 566. 
pyramidalis 

alba, p. 567. 
rotundifolia 

alba, p. 568. 
speciosa, 
p. 568. 
Trachelium 
alba, p. 568. 
Cardamine trifolia, p. 207. 
Centranthus ruber albus, 

p. 489. 
Cerastium, vars., p. 258. 
Chrysanthemum Leucanthe- 
mum, sinense, numerous 
white-flowered vars., 
p. 531. 
Clematis Flammula, p. 133. 
montana, p. 134. 
recta, p. 135. 
Convallaria majalis, p. 813. 
Crambe cordifolia, p. 221. 

pinnatifida, p. 222. 
Crocus, white vars., p. 936. 
Cynoglossum linifolium, 

p. 671. 
Dahlia, white vars., p. 519. 
Dianthus Caryophyllus, white 
vars., p. 240. 
deltoides albus, 

p. 244. 
plumarius albus, 
p. 246. 
Dictamnus Fraxinella alba, 

p. 296. 
Digitalis, vars., p. 722. 
Dryas octopetala, p. 374. 



Epilobium angustifolium 

album, p. 452. 
Erinus alpinus albus, p. 723. 
Erythronium Dens-canis 

album,p. 870. 
giganteum, 

p. 870. 
grandiflorum, 

p. 871. 
Hartwegi, 
p. 871. 
Eupatorium ageratoides, 
p. 494. 
aromaticum, 
p. 494. 
Fritillaria Meleagris alba, 

p. 859. 
Funkia grandiflora, p. 817. 
Galanthus, vars., p. 906. 
Galega officinalis alba, 

p. 337. 
Gentiana asclepiadea alba, 

p. 653. 
Geranium pratense album, 
p. 286. 
sylvaticum album, 
p. 287. 
Gladiolus Colvillei albus, 

p. 950. 
Gypsophila elegans, p. 248. 
paniculata, 
p. 249. 
Helleborus niger, p. 153, 
Hepatica triloba alba, p. 141. 
Hesperis matronalis alba 

plena, p. 213. 
Hoteia japonica, p. 414. 
Hutchinsia alpina, p. 220. 
Hyacinthus, vars., p. 833. 
Iberis corifolia, p. 218. 

correafolia, p. 218. 
saxatilis, p. 219. 
semperflorens, p. 219. 
Iris florentina, p. 922. 

germanica alba, p. 923. 
pumila albida, p. 929. 
Isopyrum thalictroides, 

p. 154. 
Jeffersonia diphylla, p. 184. 
Lamium maculatum album, 
p. 756. 



WHITE-FLOWERED HARDY PLANTS 



91 



Lathyrus latifolius albus, 

p. 348. 
Leucanthemum lacustre, 

p. 534. 
Leucojum sestivum, p. 907. 
vernum, p. 907. 
Libertia formosa, p. 942. 
Lilium Browni, p. 845. 

candidum, p. 840. 
japonicum, p. 850. 
longirlorum, p. 851. 
speciosum album, 

p. 855. 
washingtonianum, 
p. 857. 
[jinum monogynum, p. 284. 
perenne album, 
p. 284. 
Lupinus polyphyllus albus, 

p. 320. 
Lychnis vespertina fl. pi., 

p. 257. 
Malva moschata alba, p. 275. 
Michauxia campanuloides, 

p. 500. 
Musoari botryoides alba, 

p. 832. 
Myosotis sylvatica alba, 

p. 678. 
Narcissus poeticus, p. 903. 
Nicotiana affinis, p. 695. 
Nierembergia rivularis, 

p. 698. 
Nymphaaa alba, p. 186. 
Nymphaea hybrids, p. 187. 
(Enothera eximia, p. 454. 
speciosa, p. 454. 
taraxacifolia, 
p. 455. 
Onosma albo-roseum, 

p. 681. 
Ornithogalum arabicum, 
p. 842. 
pyramidale, 
p. 842. 



Ornithogalum umbellatum, 

p. 842. 
Oxalis Acetosella, p. 293. 
Pasonia, vars., p. 165. 
Pansy, vars., p. 233. 
Paradisia Liliastrum, p. 823. 
Phlox, numerous white hy- 
brids, p. 662. 
subulata alba, p. 662. 
Platycodon grandirlorum 

album, p. 559. 
Polianthes tuberosa, p. 915. 
Potentilla alba, p. 377. 
Primula involucrata, p. 610. 
Munroi, p. 610. 
nivalis, p. 612. 
pubescens alba, 
p. 014. 
Prunella grandiflora alba, 

p. 754. 
Pyrethrum Parthenium fl. 
pi., p. 536. 
roseum album, 

p. 537. 
serotinum,p.535. 
Ranunculus aconitifolius ple- 
nus, p. 146. 
alpestris, p. 146. 
amplexicaulis, 
p. 146. 
Romneya Coulteri, p. 190. 
Sagittaria sagittifolia plena, 

p. 806. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 

p. 195. 
Saxifraga ajuga?folia, p. 417. 
burseriana, p. 418. 
caespitosa, p. 419. 
ceratophylla, 

p. 426. 
Cotyledon, p. 419. 
diapensioides, 

p. 420. 
granulat fl. pi., 
p. 421. 



Saxifraga Hosti, p. 421. 

hypnoides, p. 422. 
lactea, p. 422. 
longifolia, p. 423. 
Mertensiana, 

p. 423. 
nivalis, p. 424. 
pallida, p. 424. 
rocheliana, p. 425. 
Scabiosa caucasica alba, 

p. 491. 
Scilla bifolia alba, p. 839. 
campanulata alba, 

p. 840. 
festalis alba, p. 839. 
Sedum album, p. 43',). 
Sidalcea Candida, p. 276. 
Silene alpestris, p. 251. 
maritima, p. 252. 
Zawadskii, p. 254. 
Sisyrinchium grandiflo 

album, p. 943. 
Smilacina bifolia, p. 813. 
Spirrea Aruncus, p. 364. 

Filipendula, p. 364. 
Ulmaria, p. 365. 
Statice Limonium album, 

p. 602. 
Tiarella cordifolia, p. 426. 
Tradescantia virginica alba, 

p. 807. 
Trillium grandirlorum, 

p. 880. 
Triteleia unirlora, p. 830. 
Tulipa, white vars., p. 860. 
Verbascum phcenrceum 

album, p. 702. 
Verbena, white vars., p. 740. 
Vinca minor alba, p. 646. 
Viola cornuta alba, p. 229. 
Yucca filamentosa, p. 821. 

gloriosa, p. 821. 
Zephyranthes Atamasco, 
p. 909. 
Candida, p. 910. 



LIST VI 

A Selection of Hardy Plants with Red, Crimson, Scarlet, or 
Pinkish Floivers 



Acaena microphylla, p. 381. 
Achillea asplenifolia, p. 528. 
Millefolium roseum, 
p. 529. 
^Ethionema, vars., p. 216. 
Allium acuminatum, p. 831. 
Althtea rosea, p. 271. 
Amaryllis Belladonna, p. 912. 
Androsace carnea, p. 621. 
Anemone coronaria, vars., 
p. 140. 



Anemone fulgens, p. 141. 

hortensis, p. 144. 

japonica, p. 142. 

pavonina, p. 141. 
Anomatheca cruenta, p. 944. 
Antennaria dioica, p. 507. 
Anthyllis montana, p. 334. 
Antirrhinum majus, p. 710. 
Apocynum androsaemifolium, 

p. 646. 
Aquilegia canadensis, p. 156. 



Aquilegia Skinneri, p. 157. 
Arabis blepharophylla, 

p. 206. 
Armeria Cephalotes, p. 603. 
dianthoides, p. 603. 
maritima, p. 603. 
Asclepias tuberosa, p. 648. 
Aster, vars., p. 500. 

China, vars., p. 499. 
Astragalus monspessulanus, 
p. 343. 



92 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Begonia, vars., p. 462. 
Bellis, vars., p. 498. 
Betonica grandiflora. p. 755. 
Brodiasa coccinea, p. 827. 

rosea, p. 829. 
Bryanthus erectus, p. 582. 
Butomus umbellatus, p. 806. 
Calandrinia umbellata, 

p. 262. 
Callirhoe digitata, p. 275. 

involucrata, p. 275. 
Calystegia pubescens pi., 

p. 684. 
Centranthus ruber, p. 489. 
Chrysanthemum, vars., 

p. 531. 
Colchicum, vars., p. 875. 
Coronilla varia, p. 345. 
Cortusa Matthioli, p. 624. 
Dahlia, vars., p. 519. 
Daphne Cneorum, p. 778. 
Delphinium nudicaule, 

p. 161. 
Dianthus, vars., p. 238. 
Dicentra eximia, p. 198. 

spectabilis, p. 199. 
Dictamnus Fraxinella, p. 296. 
Digitalis purpurea, p. 722. 
Dodecatheon, vars., p. 626. 
Epilobium angustifolium, 

p. 452. 
Erica, vars., p. 580. 
Erinus alpinus, p. 723. 
Erodium Manescavi, p. 207. 
Erythrasa littoralis, p. 651. 
Fuchsia, vars., p. 455. 
Geranium Laniberti, p. 286. 
macrorhizon, 
p. 286. 
Geum coccineum, p. 374. 

sanguineum, p. 286. 
Gladiolus, vars., p. 947. 
Hedysarum coronarium, 
p. 345. 
multijugum, 
p. 346. 
Helianthemum, vars., p. 226. 
Hepatica triloba rubra, p. 141. 



Hibiscus militaris, p. 279. 

moscheutos, p. 279. 
roseus, p. 279. 
Incarvillea Delavayi, p. 733. 

Olgse, p. 733. 
Ipomopsis elegans, p. 664. 
Kniphoria Uvaria, vars.. 

p. 818. 
Lathyrus, vars., p. 347. 
Lavatera Olbia, p. 274. 

trimestris, p. 274. 
Liatris, vars., p. 495. 
Lilium Catesbau, p. 847. 
chalcedonicum, 

p. 847. 
tenuifolium, p. 856. 
thunbergianum, 

p. 848. 
tigrinum, p. 857. 
umbellatum, p. 857. 
Linum grandiflorum, p. 283. 
Lobelia fulgens, p. 557. 

Tupa, p. 557. 
Lunaria biennis, p. 207. 
Lychnis, vars., p. 255. 
Lythrum, vars., p. 450. 
Malva, vars., p. 275. 
Matthiola, vars., p. 201. 
Menziesia empetriformis, 

p. 582. 
Miiabilis Jalapa, p. 760. 
Modiola geranioides, p. 277. 
Monarda, vars., p. 750. 
Montbretia crocosmiasliora. 

p. 946. 
Ononis rotundifolia, p. 332. 
Ourisia coccinea, p. 723. 
Oxalis, vars., p. 292. 
Pasonia, vars., p. 165. 
Papaver, vars., p. 191. 
Pelargonium endlicheria- 

num, p. 288. 
Pentstemon barbatus, p. 713. 
campanulatus, 

p. 714. 
gentian oides, 
p. 715. 
Phlox, vars., p. 658. 



Phygelius capensis, p. 711. 
Potentilla, vars., p. 376. 
Primula cortusoides, p. 607. 
japonica, p. 610. 
viscosa, p. 617. 
Pulmonaria, vars., p. 675. 
Pyrethrum roseurn, vars., 

p. 535. 
Rhexia virginica, p. 449. 
Salvia coccinea, p. 747. 

splendens, p. 749. 
Saponaria casspitosa, p. 249. 
calabrica, p. 249. 
ocymoides, p. 250. 
officinalis, p. 250. 
Saxifraga biflora, p. 418. 

cordifolia, p. 419. 
crassifolia, p. 419. 
ligulata, p. 422. 
oppositifolia, 

p. 424. 
purpurascens, 
p. 425. 
Schizostylis coccinea, p. 943. 
Sedum Ewersii, p. 439. 

pulchellum, p. 439. 
Sieboldi, p. 440. 
spectabile, p. 441. 
spurium, p. 441. 
Silene Armeria, p. 251. 

Elisabethae, p. 252. 
pendula, p. 253. 
pennsylvanica, p. 253. 
Pumilio. p. 253. 
Schafta, p. 254. 
virginica, p. 254. 
Sparaxis pulcherrima, p. 943. 
Spigelia marilandica, p. 649. 
Spiraea lobata, p. 364. 

pahnata, p. 365. 
Symphytum bohemicum, 

p. 674. 
Tigridia Pavonia, p. 936. 
Tropasolum speciosum, 

p. 291. 
Tulipa, vars., p. 860. 
Zauschneria californica, 
p. 452. 



LIST VII 
A Selection of Hardy Plants, with Blue, Bluish, or Publish Flowers 



Aconitum, vars., p. 162. 
Adenophora, vars., p. 569. 
Agapanthus umbellatus, 

p. 826. 
Ageratum, vars., p. 493. 
Allium azureum, p. 831. 
Anchusa, vars., p. 675. 
Anemone apennina, p. 140. 
blanda, p. 140. 



Anemone Hepatica, p. 141. 
Pulsatilla, p. 143. 
Aquilegia, vars., p. 155. 
Aster alpinus, p. 501. 

Amellus, p. 501. 

lsevis, p. 501. 

Shortii, p. 503. 

Stracheyi, p. 503. 

Townshendi, p. 503. 



Aster turbinellus, p. 504. 
Aubrietia, vars., p. 208. 
Baptisia australis, p. 323. 

exaltata, p. 324. 
Borago orientalis, p. 674. 
Brodiaea congesta, p. 828. 

grandiflora, p. 828. 

laxa, p. 829. 
Callistephus hortensis.p. 499. 



YELLOW-FLOWERED HARDY PLANTS 



93 



Camassia esculenta, p. 841. 
Campanula, vars., p. 562. 
Catananche caarulea, p. 553. 
Ccntaurea Cyanus, p. 550. 

montana, p. 550. 
Chionodoxa Lucilia>, p. 837. 
,, grandirlora, 
p. 837. 
Clematis, vars., p. 131. 
Commelina cselestis, p. 807. 
Crocus, vars., p. 936. 
Cyananthus lobatus, p. 560. 
Delphinium, vars., p. 158. 
Dracocephalum, vars., p. 751. 
Eehinops llitro, p. 547. 

ruthenicus, p. 547. 
Edraianthus Pumilio, p. 558. 
Erigeron speciosus, p. 506. 
Eryngium alpinum, p. 465. 
amethystinum, p. 465. 
oliverianum, p. 466. 
Funkia ovata, p. 817. 
Galega orientalis, p. 337. 
Gentiana, vars., p. 652. 
Geranium armenum, p. 285. 
iberieum, p. 286. 
pratense, p. 286. 
sylvaticum, p. 287. 
Globularia, vars., p. 737. 
Hepatica angulosa, p. 140. 

triloba, p. 141. 
Hyacinthus amethystinus, 
p. 836. 



Hyacinthus azureus, p. 836. 
Iris, vars., p. 917. 
Kaulfussia amelloides, 

p. 498. 
Linaria alpina, p. 707. 

purpurea, p. 709. 
Lindeloria spectabilis, p. 672. 
Linum, vars., p. 282. 
Lithospermum, vars„ p. 678. 
Lobelia, vars., p. 556. 
Lupinus, vars., p. 324. 
Mertensia dahurica, p. 676. 
lanceolata, p. 676. 
virginica, p. 676. 
Mulgedium alpinum, p. 554. 
Plumieri, p. 554. 
Muscari, vars., p. 832. 
Myosotis, vars., p. t',77. 
Nemophila insignis, p. 667. 
Omphalodes Lucilire, p. 672. 

verna, p. 672. 
Ophiopogon spicatus, p. 889. 
Orobus cyaneus, p. 350. 
flaccidus, p. 350. 
vermis, p. 351. 
Parochetus communis, 

p. 333. 
Passirlora casrulea, p. 460. 
Pentstemon azureus, p. 713. 
glaber, p. 714. 
Jaffrayanus, 
p. 715. 
Phacelia, vars., p. 668. 



Phyteuma, vars., p. 561. 
Platycodon grandirlorum, 
p. 559. 
Mariesi, p. 559. 
Plumbago Larpentas, p. 604. 
Polemonium, vars., p. 665. 
Prunella, vars., p. 754. 
Pulmonaria angustifolia, 
p. 675. 
mollis, p. 675. 
sibirica, p. 676. 
Puschkinia scilloides, 

p. 837. 
Salvia azurea, p. 747. 

patens, etc., p. 748. 
Scilla, vars., p. 838. 
Sedum eaeruleum, p. 439. 
Stokesia cyanea, p. 493. 
Symphytum caucasicum, 

p. 673. 
Trachelium canuleum, 

p. 570. 
Tradescantia virginica. 

p. 807. 
Verbena venosa, p. 740. 
Veronica, vars., p. 724. 
Vicia, vars., p. 347. 
Vinca, vars., p. 645. 
Viola, vars., p. 228. 
Whitlavia grandirlora, 

p. 669. 



LIST VIII 

A Selection of Hardy Plants with Yellow Flowers in Various Shades 



Achillea agyptiaca, p. 528. 
Eupatorium, p. 528. 
tomenlosa, p. 529. 
Aconitum Anthora, p. 162. 
barbatum, p. 162. 
Lycoctonium, 
p. 163. 
Adonis vernalis, p. 144. 
Allium Moly, p. 831. 
Alstrcemeria aurantiaca, 

p. 914. 
Alyssum, vars., p. 210. 
Anemone palmata, p. 143. 
ranunculoides, 

p. 143. 
sulphurea, p. 140. 
Anthemis tinctoria, p. 530. 
Argemone mexicana, p. 193. 
ochroleuca, p. 193. 
Arnebia cornuta, p. 680. 

echioides, p. 680. 
Arnica montana, p. 539. 
Asphodelus luteus, p. 823. 



Baeria coronaria, p. 524. 
Bartonia aurea, p. 458. 
Buphthalmum grandirlorum, 
p. 511. 
salicifolium, 
p. 511. 
Calceolaria amplexicaulis, 
p. 704. 
kellyana, p. 705. 
Caltha palustris, p. 150. 
Cassia marilandica, p. 354. 
Celsia cretica, p. 702. 
Centaurea babylonica, p. 549. 
macrocephala, 

p. 550. 
ragusina, p. 551. 
suaveolens, p. 551. 
Centauridium Drummondi, 

p. 496. 
Cheiranthus Cheiri, p. 204. 
Marshallii, 
p. 204. 
Chelidonium majus, p. 196. 



Chlora grandirlora, p. 651. 
perfoliata, p. 651. 
Chrysanthemum, vellow vars. 

p. 534. 
Chrysobactron Hookeri, 
p. 826. 
i Cistus formosus, p. 226. 
i Coreopsis, vars., p. 518. 
j Coronilla Emerus, p. 345. 
iberica, p. 345. 
juncea, p. 345. 
Corydalis in var., p. 199. 
Crepis aurea, p. 553. 

barbata, p. 553. 
Crocosma aurea, p. 945. 
Crocus in var., p. 936. 
Dahlia, yellow vars., p. 519. 
Delphinium Zalil, p. 162. 
Dendromecon rigidum, p. 196. 
Digitalis lutea, p. 723. 
Dondia Epipactis, p. 467. 
Doronicum, vars., p. 540. 
Draba aizoides, p. 211. 



94 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Draba Aizoon, p. 212. 

cuspidata, p. 212. 
tridentata, p. 213. 
Dryas Drummondi, p. 374. 
Epimedium pinnatum, 

p. 184. 
Eranthis hyemalis, p. 154. 
Erigeron aurantiacus, p. 506. 
Erysimum, vars., p. 214. 
Fritillaria imperialis lutea, 

p. 858. 
Gaillardia, vars., p. 527. 
Gazania, vars., p. 546. 
Genista, vars., p. 328. 
Geum macrophyllum, p. 375. 
montanum, p. 375. 
pyrenaicum, p. 375. 
reptans, p. 375. 
rhaeticuni, p. 375. 
rivale, p. 375. 
Helenium, vars., p. 526. 
Helianthemum, vars., p.'226. 
Helianthus, vars., p. 515. 
Helichrysum arenarium, 

p. 508. 
Helipterum humboldtianum, 

p. 508. 
Hemerocallis, vars., p. 815. 
Hunnemannia fumarieefolia, 

p. 197. 
Hypericum, vars., p. 265. 
Inula, vars., p. 510. 
Iris rlavescens, p. 922. 

germanica, vars., p. 923. 
Monnieri, p. 927. 
ochroleuca, p. 927. 
Pseudacorus, p. 929. 
xiphioides, vars., p. 934. 
Xiphium, p. 935. 
Kniphofia Macowani, p. 819. 
Lathyrus odoratus, vars., 
p. 349. 



Layia elegans, p. 523. 

platyglossa, p. 524. 
Lilium canadense, p. 845. 
croceum, p. 848. 
Hansoni, p. 850. 
monadelphum, 

p. 853. 
Parryi, p. 853. 
testaceum, p. 856. 
Limnanthemum nymphae- 

oides, p. 658. 
Linaria vulgaris, p. 710. 
Linosyris vulgaris, p. 502. 
Linum arboreum, p. 283. 

campanulatum, p.283. 
flavum, p. 283. 
Lotus corniculatus, p. 335. 
Lupinus luteus, p. 325. 

Menziesii, p. 325. 
Lysimacbia lanceolatea, 
p. 629. 
Nummularia, 
p. 629. 
Medicago falcata, p. 333. 
Narcissus, vars., p. 893. 
Nupbar luteum, p. 185. 
(Enothera, vars., p. 453. 
Onosma tauricum, p. 681. 
Orobus aurantius, p. 350. 
Papaver alpinum var., p. 191. 
croceum, p. 191. 
nudicaule, p. 191. 
Pblomis fruticosa, p. 757. 

russelliana, p. 757. 
Potentilla, vars., p. 376. 
Primula Auricula, p. 606. 
elatior, p. 608. 
imperialis, p. 610. 
luteola, p. 611. 
Palinuri, p. 613. 
sikkimensis, p. 616. 
vulgaris, p. 617. 



Ranunculus, vars., p. 146. 
Rudbeckia, vars., p. 514. 
Sanvitalia procumbens, 

p. 572. 
Saxifraga Cymbalaria, 
p. 420. 
sancta, p. 425. 
Sedum acre, p. 438. 

kamtscbaticum, 
p. 439. 
Senecio, vars., p. 540. 
Silphium, vars., p. 511. 
Solidago, vars., p. 496. 
Sphenogyne speciosa, p. 544. 
Statice Bonduelli, p. 602. 
Fortunei, p. 602. 
Sternbergia, vars., p. 908. 
Tagetes, vars., p. 525. 
Thermopsis fabacea, p. 323. 
lanceolata, 
p. 323. 
Trollius, vars., p. 151. 
Tropaaolum peregrinum, 
p. 291. 
polyphyllum, 
p. 291. 
Tulipa, vars., p. 864. 
Venidium calendulaceum, 

p. 545. 
Verbascum Cbaixii, p. 702. 
phlomoides, 
p. 702. 
Vesicaria, vars., p. 209. 
Viola pubescens, p. 231. 

tricolor, vars., p. 234. 
Waitzia aurea, p. 507. 
Waldsteinia fragarioides, 
p. 376. 
geoides, p. 376. 
trifolia, p. 376. 
Zinnia, vars., p. 512. 



LIST IX 

Plants that flower between September and May. The Dates are 
approximate only. For Trees and Shrubs see p. 107. 



September and October 

Abronia umbellata, p. 760. 
Aconitum japonicum, p. 163. 
Alyssum maritimum, p. 210. 
Amaryllis Belladonna, p. 912. 
Ammobium alatum, p. 509. 
Anemone japonica, p. 142. 
Aster, vars., p. 501. 
Bulbocodium autumnale, 

p. 877. 
Calandrinia Menziesi, p. 262. 
umbellata, p. 262. 



Callistephus bortensis, 

p. 499. 
Chrysanthemum, vars., 

p. 531. 
Colchicum autumnale, 
p. 876. 
speciosum, 

p. 876. 
variegatum, 
p. 876. 
Coreopsis, vars., p. 518. 
Cosmos bipinnatus, p. 522. 
Dahlia, vars., p. 519. 



Erianthus Ravenna?, p. 960. 
Erigeron aurantiacus, p. 506. 
Gaillardia, vars., p. 527. 
Gazania, vars., p. 546. 
Gladiolus, vars., p. 947. 
Gynerium argenteum, p. 960. 
Gypsophila elegans, p. 248. 
Heuchera sanguinea, p. 427. 
Lobelia fulgens, p. 557. 
Lychnis haageana, p. 257. 
Montbretia crocosmiffifiora, 

p. 946. 
(Enothera, vars., p. 453. 



HARDY BULBOUS PLANTS 



95 



Pentstemon, vars., p. 712. 
Phlox, vars., p. 058. 
Phy^elius capensis, p. 711. 
Pyrethrum Parthenium rl. pi. 
p. 536. 
vars., p. 536. 
Iludbeckia, vars., p. 514. 
Saponaria calabrica, p. 250. 
Sternbergia, vars., p. 908. 
Tagetes, vars., p. 525. 
Tritoma, vars., p. 817. 
Venidium calendulaceum, 

p. 545. 
Verbena, vars., p. 740. 
Zauschneria californica, 

p. 452. 
Zinnia, vars., p. 512. 

November to January 

Colchicum autunmale, p. 876. 
Cyclamen, vars., p. 626. 
Galanthus nivalis, p. 906. 



Helleborus niger, p. 153. 
Iris stylosa, p. 933. 
Petasites fragrans, p. 539. 
Viola, p. 228. 

February and March 

Anemone angulosa. p. 140. 

apennina, p. 140. 

Hepatica. p. 142. 
Aubrietia deltoidea, p. 209. 
Bulbocodium vernum, p. 877. 
Cheiranthus, p. 204. 
Chionodoxa Lucilise, p. 837. 
Eranthis hyemalis. p. 154. 
Erica mediterranea, p. 581. 
Galanthus, p. 900. 
Helleborus, p. 152. 
Iris persica, p. 928. 
Leucojum vernum, p. 908. 
Narcissus, vars., p. 893. 
Scilla sibirica, p. 840. 
Viola, p. 228. 



April 

Adonis vcrnalis, p. 144. 
.Ethionema grandiflorum, 

p. 217. 
Anemone fulgens, p. 141. 
Aquilegia caerulea, p. 156. 
Auricula, [). i',1n. 
Caltha palustris, p. 150. 
Centaurea, montana, p. 250. 
Convallaria majalis, p. 813. 
Dielytra speetabilis, p. 199. 
Doronicum, vars., p. 540. 
Fritillaria imperialis, p. 85«. 
Gentiana, vars., p. 652. 
Hoteia japonica, p. 414. 
Kaulfussia amelloides, 

p. 498. 
l'aonia, vars., p. 105. 
Primroses, p. 004. 
lleineckia carnea, p. 814. 
Tulips, p. kco. 



LIST X 
A Selection of the finest Hardy Bulbous and Rhizomatous Plants for 
the Outdoor Garden. Most of these belong to the Orders Ama- 
ryllidece (p. 893), Liliaceoi (p. 80ft), and Iridcce {p. 916), bid 
a few to other Orders. 



Acis autumnalis, p. 908. 
Agapanthus umbellatus, 

p. 820. 
Allium, vars., p. 830. 
Alstrctmeria, vars., p. 914. 
Amaryllis Belladonna, p. 912. 
Anomatheca cruenta, p. 944. 
Anthericum, p. 825. 
Antholyza, vars., p. 914. 
Arum crinitum, p. 953. 

Dracunculus, p. 954. 
italicum, p. 954. 
Asphodelus, vars., p. 822. 
Brodiasa coccinea, p. 827. 

congesta, p. 828. 

grandifiora, p. 828. 
Bulbocodium vernum, 

p. 877. 
Calla palustris, p. 955. 
Calliprora lutea, p. 829. 
Calochortus, vars., p. 872. 
Calopogon, p. 891. 
Calypso borealis, p. 890. 
Camassia, p. 841. 
Chionodoxa, p. 891. 
Colchicum, vars., p. 875. 
Crinum, p. 911. 
Crocosma aurea, p. 945. 
Crocus, vars., p. 936. 



Cypripedium acaule, p. 892. 
Calceolus, 
p. 892. 
guttatum, 
p. 892. 
spectabile, 
p. 893. 
Eremurus, vars., p. 824. 
Erythronium, vars., p. 809. 
Fritillaria, vars., p. H57. 
Funkia, vars., p. 810. 
Galanthus, vars., p. 900. 
Galtonia, vars., p. 831. 
Gladiolus, vars., p. 947. 
Hemerocallis, vars., p. 815. 
Hippeastrum, p. 910. 
Hyacinthus, vars., p. 833. 
Iris, vars., p. 917. 
Ixiolirion, p. 913. 
Kniphoha, vars., p. 817. 
Leucojum sativum, p. 908. 
vernum, p. 908. 
Lilium, vars., p. 842. 
Lycoris, p. 912. 
Merendera Bulbocodium. 

p. 877. 
Montbretia crocosmireflora, 

p. 946. 
Muscari, vars., p. 832. 



Narcissus, vars., p. 893. 
Ophrys, vars., p. 892. 
Orchis, vars., p. 891. 
Ornithogalum, vars., p. 842. 
Polianthes tuberosa, p. 915. 
Polygonatum, vars., p. 811. 
Puschkinia scilloides, p. 837. 
Bichardia africana, p. 955. 
Schizostylis coccinea, p. 943. 
Scilla, vars., p. 838. 
Sisyrinchium, vars., p. 943. 
Sparaxis pulcherrima, p. 943. 
Sprekelia, p. 910. 
Sternbergia lutea, p. 909. 
Tigridia Pavonia, p. 936. 
Tricyrtis hirta, p. 879. 
Trillium grandiflorum, 

p. 880. 
Triteleia uniflora, p. 830. 
Tritoma, vars., p. 817. 
Tritoma, p. 946. 
Tulipa, vars., p. 860. 
Watsonia, vars., p. 945. 
Xerophyllum, p. 878. 
Zephyranthes Atamasco, 

p. 909. 
Candida, 

p. 910. 



96 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



THE ROCK GARDEN 

This is one of the most important and picturesque features in the 
modern flower garden. Although many of the plants recommended 
for the Kock Garden will grow perfectly well in the flat flower 
border, still they appear in a different light and often to better ad- 
vantage when cultivated among the plants usually associated with 
alpine heights. 

The rockery is an attempt to imitate nature on a small scale by 
arranging masses or boulders of rock and earth more or less artistically 
and growing upon them, or between the chinks, plants usually found at 
high elevations on the mountains of Europe and other parts of the globe. 
It is only within the last twenty-five or thirty years that the formation 
of beautiful rockeries has been seriously taken in hand. Before that 
time all kinds of material did duty for a rockery, but usually not the 
slightest attempt at copying nature or studying the interests of the 
plants was made. And it was not until Mr. Kobinson, in his valuable 
little book dealing with ' Alpine Plants,' opened the eyes of the public 
to a better and more rational method of building rockeries and growing 
alpine plants upon them, that anything like a good rock garden was to 
be found in the kingdom. Now there are many good and several bad 
ones, but as the light is spreading we may hope to see the latter 
dwindling in number every year. 

Formation of a Rock Garden. — The Kev. C. Wolley-Dod, of Edge 
Hall, Malpas, Cheshire, who has for very many years been an expert 
cultivator of all kinds of hardy herbaceous and alpine plants, writing 
about the formation of a rockery a few years ago in the Koyal Horti- 
cultural Society's ' Journal,' made the following observations, which 
deserve every attention : — 

' The forms in which the rockery, usually so called, can be con- 
structed may be divided into three : (1) the "barrow-shaped" rockery, 
(2) the " facing rockery," and (3) the " sunk rockery." The first may 
be raised anywhere, the other two depend partly upon the configuration 
of the oround. No wood or tree roots should be used to supplement 
any of them ; they must be all stone. The kind of stone is seldom a 
matter of choice ; everyone will use what is most handy. The rougher 
and more unshapely the blocks the better. The size should vary from 
40 to 50 lbs. to 3 or 4 cwt. No mortar or cement for fixing them 
together must ever be employed ; they must be firmly wedged and 



THE BOCK G A EDEN 97 



interlocked, and depend upon one another, and not upon the soil between 
them, to keep them in their places. This rule is of the utmost import- 
ance ; if it is neglected, a long frost or an excessive rainfall may cause 
the whole structure to collapse. Each successive part of the stone 
skeleton must be put together before the soil is added. This applies to 
all rockeries. 

' Size, Aspect, &c. — The most convenient size for the barrow- 
shaped rockery is about 4 ft. high, and G or 7 ft. through at the base. 
The length is immaterial. If the long sides face north-east and south- 
west it will afford perhaps the best variety of aspect ; but the amount 
of sunshine each plant gets will depend on the arrangement of each 
stone as much as upon the main structure. 

' There cannot be too many projections, and care must be taken to 
leave no channels between the stones by which the soil can be washed 
down to the base. Overhanging brows beneath which plants can be 
inserted are very useful ; large surfaces of stone may here and there 
be left exposed, and irregularity of form is far better than symmetry. 
A formal arrangement of flat pockets or nests offends the eye with- 
out helping the cultivator, as the tastes of alpine plants as regards slope 
of surface and moisture at their roots are very various. 

' As for the degree of slope from base to the summit of the barrow, it 
will not be uniform. In some places there will be an irregular square 
yard of level on the top, bounded by large cross key-stones, for which 
the largest stones should be reserved. In other parts the sides will 
slope evenly to the ridge ; or the upper half may be perpendicular, 
leaving only wide crevices to suit the taste of certain plants. 

' If the blocks are very irregular in form, and their points of contact 
as few as possible, providing only for secure interlocking, there will be 
plenty of room for soil to nourish the plants. Ever-changing variety 
of stone surface, both above and below the soil, is the object to be aimed 
at, and any sort of symmetry must be avoided. 

' The " Facing Rockery."— The second form, or " facing rockery," is 
dependent upon the natural shape of the ground surface. Wherever 
there is a steep bank facing south or east, it may be utilised for the 
growth of alpine plants. The stones, as before advised, should be large 
and unshapely, and be buried to-two thirds of their bulk, and form a 
very uneven surface, all being interlocked from top to bottom as de- 
scribed. 

1 Kockeries of this form are less liable to suffer from drought ; if the 
surface covered is large, access to all parts should be provided by con- 
venient stepping stones, because, although every stone in the structure 
ought to be capable of bearing the weight of a heavy man without 



98 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

danger of displacement, it is better not to have to tread upon the 
plants. 

' The " Sunk Rockery." — This is perhaps the best of all, but entails 
rather more labour in construction. Where subsoil drainage is perfect, 
a sunk walk may be made, not less than 10 to 12 feet wide, with sloping 
sides. The sides may be faced with stones, as described in the " faced 
rockery," and all or part of the excavated soil may be made into a raised 
mound, continuing the slopes of the excavated banks, above the ground 
level, and thus combining the facing rockery and the barrow rockery. 

' If the outer line of this portion above the ground be varied by small 
bays, every possible aspect and slope may be provided to suit the taste 
of every plant. However, unless drainage is perfect, a sunk walk, 
rising to the ground-level at each end, would not be feasible. But a 
broad walk, excavated into the side of a hill and sloping all one way, 
could be adapted to a structure nearly similar to that described ; or the 
ground may be dug out in the form of an amphitheatre to suit the taste 
or circumstances. 

1 But whatever the form of the rockery adopted, let the situation be 
away from the influence of trees, beyond suspicion of the reach of their 
roots below, or their drip, or even their shade, above. Trees which 
shelter from only high winds are so far serviceable, and so are walls 
and high banks. There are few alpine plants for which a storm-swept 
surface is good, but trees are objectionable where they lessen the light, 
which is an important element in the welfare of most mountain plants. 
The shade and shelter afforded by the stones and form of the structure 
itself is the best kind of shade and shelter. 

'Soil for Alpine and Rock Plants. — We now come to the subject of 
soil, which is very important, though I attach less importance to it than 
others do who have written on the subject. I hold that where atmo- 
spheric and mechanical conditions are favourable, the chemical combina- 
tion of the soil is of secondary consideration. 

' It is true that in nature we find that the flora of a limestone moun- 
tain differs in many particulars from that of a granite mountain, and 
on the same mountain some plants will thrive in heavy retentive soil, 
while others will be found exclusively in peat or sand. But for one 
who is beginning to cultivate alpine plants to have to divide them into 
lime-lovers and lime-haters, lovers of sand and lovers of stiff soil, is an 
unnecessary aggravation of difficulties. 

' So large a proportion of ornamental plants are contented with the 
soil which most cultivators provide for all alike — even though in nature 
they seem to have predilections — that where an amateur has only one 
rockery it would be too perplexing to study the partiality of every plant, 



ALPINE PLANTS FROM SEED 99 



and to remember every spot where lime-lovers or their opposites had 
been growing. While saying this, I confess that I have some rockeries 
where both soil and rock are adapted exclusively for lime plants ; others 
from which lime is kept away, and where both soil and rock are granitic ; 
but the great majority of plants thrive equally well on both. . . . 

' With regard to soil, then, we must take care that it does not retain 
stagnant moisture and yet it must not dry up too readily. Plants must 
be able to penetrate it easily with their roots, the lengths of some of 
which must be seen to be believed. Good loam, with a little humus in 
the form of leaf -mould or peat, and half or three-quarters of the bulk 
composed of stone riddlings from the nearest stone quarry, and varying 
in size from that of rape seed to that of horse beans, make up a soil 
with which most alpine plants are quite contented. . . . 

' Where you are convinced that lime is useful, it may be added as 
pure lime, not planting in it till thoroughly slaked by mixture with the 
soil. Rough surface dressing is a thing in which all alpine plants 
delight, as it keeps the top of the soil sweet and moist and prevents 
their leaves being fouled. Use for this purpose riddled stone, which is 
better than gravel, as round pebbles are easily washed off the slope by 
rain or in watering. 

' Raising Alpine Plants from Seed. — A few words may be in place 
here about raising alpine plants from seed ; for constant succession is 
necessary, the duration of their life in cultivation being, for many ob- 
vious reasons, far shorter than in their native home. Reproduction from 
seed, where seed can be obtained, ensures the healthiest and finest 
growth ; and there is no better way of getting seed than saving it your- 
self. 

' In several cases the first hint I have had that a plant has ripened 
fertile seed has been the recognition of a seedling near the parent ; and 
this experience has taught me always to look carefully for seed after 
the flowering of rare specimens. 

' I need not say, therefore, that I disapprove of the practice of cutting 
off flower-heads as soon as they wither ; in some cases the seed-head is 
nearly as ornamental as the flower ; but I have before said that discre- 
tion must be used even in this, as seedlings of some things are trouble- 
some from their number. 

' When ripe seed is gathered I recommend its being sown at once. It 
is then more likely to come up quickly ; and as all such plants as we 
grow on rockeries are better sown in pans, there is seldom difficulty in 
keeping small seedlings through the winter. The greatest enemy we 
have in the process is the growth of Lichen, the worst being the 
Marchantia or Liverwort, which completely chokes tender growth. 

h2 



100 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



A coating of finely sifted burnt earth on the surface, and a piece of glass 
laid over the pan, especially if no water is used for them unless it has 
been boiled, reduces this trouble to a minimum. But sowings of 
choice and rare seed should be carefully watched, and the Liverwort 
picked off at the first appearance. 

'Division and Cutting. — Many alpines seem never to ripen seed 
in cultivation, and must be reproduced by division or cuttings. The 
skill required to do this varies greatly with different subjects : where a 
shoot can seldom be found more than half an inch long, as in the case 
of two or three hybrid alpine Pinks, the " striking " needs delicate 
manipulation. Other things grow very slowly, though not long-lived, 
and a constant succession from cuttings must be ensured. Some of 
the terrestrial Orchids — such as Bee, Fly, and Spider, excellent subjects 
for rockery — we must be contented to keep as long as they choose to live, 
as they never seem to increase in cultivation at all, though they may 
flower well year after year. 

' But there are not a few plants which refuse to be tamed, and from 
the time they are planted in our gardens seem always to go from bad 
to worse, and are never presentable in appearance for two seasons to- 
gether. Of these I may instance Gentiana bavarica (p. 653) and 
Eritrichium nanum (p. 673), which I believe no skill has ever kept in 
cultivation without constant renewal, and which perhaps are never 
likely to repay the trouble of trying to keep them alive on an English 
rockery. In all alpine gardening there will be (even where equal skill 
is exerted) different degrees of success according to the surrounding 
conditions, and it must not be expected that the same soil and treat- 
ment which keeps a hundred rare alpines in perfect health at Edin- 
burgh will be equally fortunate at Kew. 

' Cold Frames. — Where the area of rockery is considerable a cold 
frame (see p. 47) should be assigned for keeping up the supply of 
plants for it — cuttings and seedlings — in pots. The best treatment 
of these plants in winter has been much discussed in gardening jour- 
nals. I may say that I think all attempts to imitate natural conditions, 
such as snow and long rest, by unnatural means are mistakes. During 
warm winters, mountain plants will grow and must be allowed to grow, 
and to keep them unnaturally dark or drying when growing is fatal to 
their health. Even in severe frosts air must be given abundantly in 
the daytime and the frames must not be muffled up. Stagnant air, 
whether damp or dry, is their worst enemy ; but if the weather 
is warm enough to set them growing, they may easily die for want 
of moisture. I will not say more than this, for experience is the 
best guide, and every one thinks he can manage his frames better 



ALPINE PLANTS ON WALLS 101 



than his neighbour ; but of the use of frames for flowering alpines in 
pots I must add a few words. 

' There are certain very early flowering alpines upon which a mix- 
ture of admiration and lamentation is bestowed at the end of every 
winter. Their flowers are often beautiful in a treacherous fortnight at 
the beginning of February, and are suddenly destroyed by a return of 
winter in its severest form. I may mention, among others, Saxifraga 
barseriana and sancta, and their near relatives and hybrids, Primula 
marginata and intermedia, Androsace camea, Chamajasme, and Lag- 
gcri, several dwarf species of Alyssum and Iberis, and there are a good 
many more. Pots or pans containing these may be grouped together 
in an open sunny spot, and plunged in sand or coal-ashes, in a rough 
frame made for them, so that the lights may be not more than three 
or four inches above the pots. These lights should be removed in the 
daytime when the weather is fine, and air should be admitted, accord- 
ing to the temperature, at night. Such a sheet of elegant beauty, 
lasting, if well ranged, through February, March, and April, may be 
obtained in this way that I often wonder why amateurs attempt to 
flower early alpines in any other fashion. 

' With me April is the earliest month in which I can expect to have 
anything gay on the open rockery without disappointment. I am 
obliged to disfigure the slopes with sheets of glass and handlights to 
preserve through winter at all OmphaJodes Lucilice, Onosma tauricum, 
Androsace sarmcntosa, and others which cannot endure winter wet, 
and the real pleasure of the rockery begins when the frame alpines are 
waning. I recommend those masses of covered pots in early spring to 
all cultivators of alpines. 

'Alpines on Walls. — A few years ago I was driving through 
Dorking, and I noticed a smooth and by no means ancient brick wall 
covered, above the reach of boys' hands, with Erinus alpinus. Rough 
stone walls I had often seen well clothed with alpines, but from that 
time I became aware that there is hardly any garden wall, of whatever 
material, of which the parts otherwise bare might not be made orna- 
mental with flowers. I do not suggest that such things should super- 
sede climbing Roses and wall-fruit, but how often we see bare walls on 
which nothing is grown at all ! The capabilities of rough stone walls 
for growing mountain plants are very great. Falls of Aubrietia and 
Iberis, groups of Saxifrage, and similar subjects may make many a corner 
gay instead of bare. Some very pretty things I grow on walls which 
have defied all my attempts to cultivate them elsewhere. I may 
specify Lychnis Lagascce, a fragile evergreen plant of shrubby growth, 
easily multiplied by seed, which alternate snows and thaws generally 



102 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



crush up, but in this way it continues to thrive, and is covered during 
early summer with crimson flowers.' 



LIST XI 
Selection of Alpine and other Plants suitable for the Rock Garden 

Those marked with an asterisk (*) make suitable carpets or masses of green on the 

surface of the soil. 



*Aeaena microphylla, p. 381. 
Acantholimon glumaceum, 

p. 601. 
* Achillea, vars., p. 528. 
Aconitum Napellus, p. 163. 
Actaea spicata, p. 164. 
-Ethionenia, vars., p. 216. 
*Alchemilla alpina, p. 381. 
Alyssum maritimum, p. 210. 
montanum, p. 210. 
pyrenaicum, p. 211. 
saxatile, p. 211. 
serpyllifolium, 

p. 211. 
spinosum, p. 211. 
Andromeda, p. 578. 
Androsace, vars., p. 621. 
Anemone, vars., p. 139. 
*Antennaria, vars., p. 507. 
Antbemis Aizoon, p. 530. 
Anthyllis montana, p. 334. 
Antirrhinum, vars., p. 710. 
Aquilegia pyrenaica, p. 157. 
*Arabis albida, p. 205. 

androsacea, p. 206. 
mollis, p. 206. 
procurrens, p. 206. 
rosea, p. 206. 
Aralia, vars., p. 469. 
*Arenaria, vars., p. 259. 
Armeria, vars., p. 603. 
Arnebia echioides, p. 680. 
Artemisia frigida, p. 538. 
Arundo Donax, p. 958. 
Asperula odorata, p. 487. 
Aster alpinus, p. 501. 
Astragalus monspessulanus, 

p. 343. 
*Aubrietia, vars., p. 208. 
Azalea sinensis, p. 595. 
Bambusa, dwarf kinds, 

p. 968. 
Bellis caerulescens, p. 498. 
Berberis Darwini, p. 181. 

empetrifolia, p. 181. 
stenophylla, p. 182. 
Bulbocodium, p. 877. 
Buxus, vars., p. 783. 
Calandrinia umbellata, 

p. 262. 
Callirhoe involucrata, 
p. 276. 
pedata, p. 276. 



Calystegia dahurica, p. 684. 
pubescens pi., 
p. 684. 
Campanula abietina, p. 563. 
Allioni, p. 563. 
caespitosa, p. 563. 
„ alba, p. 563. 
Elatines, p. 564. 
fragilis, p. 564. 
garganica, p. 564. 
isophylla, p. 565. 
Mariesii, p. 559. 
portenschlagi- 
ana, p. 567. 
pulla, p. 567. 
Baineri, p. 567. 
rotundifolia, 

p. 568. ^ 
waldensteini- 
ana, p. 569. 
&c. &c. 
Cerastium Biebersteini, 
p. 258. 
grandiflorum, 

p. 258. 
tomentosum, 
p. 259. 
Chimaphila, vars., p. 598. 
Choisya ternata, p. 296. 
Clematis (the new varieties 
of the lanuginosa section, 
and many species), p. 131. 
Colchicum, vars., p. 875. 
Convolvulus arvensis, p. 685. 
mauritanicus, 
p. 685. 
Cornus canadensis, p. 474. 
Coronilla iberica, p. 345. 

varia, p. 345. 
Cotoneaster horizontalis, 
p. 410. 
integerrima, 

p. 410. 
microphylla, 

p. 411. 
thymifolia, 
p. 411. 
Crataegus Lalandi, p. 409. 
Crocus, vars., p. 936. 
Cyananthus lobatus, p. 560. 
Cyclamen, vars., p. 626. 
Cypripedium, vars., p. 892. 
Cytisus kewensis, p. 331. 



Cytisus purpureus, p. 332. 
Daphne blagayana, p. 777. 
Cneorum, p. 778. 
fioniana, p. 778. 
rupestris p. 778. 
*Dianthus alpinus, p. 239. 
caasius, p. 239. 
deltoides, p. 244. 
Knappi, p. 245. 
neglectus, p. 245. 
petrffius, p. 245. 
&c. &c. 
Diotis maritima, p. 530. 
Diplopappus chrysophyllus, 

p. 509. 
*Draba, vars., p. 211. 
Dracocephalum, vars., p. 751. 
Dryas Drummondi, p. 374. 

octopetala, p. 374. 
Edraianthus tenuifolius, 

p. 559. 
Empetrum nigrum, p. 805. 
Epigasa repens, p. 578. 
Epilobium obcordatum, 

p. 452. 
Erica, vars., p. 580. 
Erinus alpinus, p. 723. 
Erodium, vars., p. 287. 
Erpetion, vars., p. 229. 
Erythraea diffusa, p. 651. 
Erythronium, vars., p. 869. 
Euonymus radicans var., 

p. 302. 
Euphorbia Myrsinites, 

p. 783. 
Fragaria indica, p. 376. 
Fritillaria, dwarf vars., 

p. 857. 
Galanthus, vars., p. 906. 
Gaultheria, var-s., p. 575. 
Genista andreana, p. 332. 
germanica, p. 329. 
pilosa, p. 329. 
sagittalis, p. 329. 
tinctoria, p. 329. 
Gentiana, vars., p. 652. 
*Geranium argenteum, 
P. 285. 
*cinereum, p. 286. 
subcaulescens, 
p. 285. 
Geum miniatum, p. 374. 
Globularia, vars., p. 738. 



ALPINE PLANTS FOB BOCK GABDEN 



103 



*Gypsophila cerastioides, 
p. 248. 
repens, p. 249. 
Haberlea rhodopensis, p. 731. 
Hedera, vars., p. 471. 
Helianthemum, vars., p. 220. 
Helleborus, vars., p. 152. 
*Herniaria glabra, p. 761. 
*Heuchera sanguinea, p. 427. 
Hippocrepis comosa, p. 345. 
Houstonia oserulea, p. 187. 
*Hutchinsia alpina, p. 220. 
Hypericum *Coris, p. 260. 
japonicum, 

p. 266. 
moserianum, 

p. 266. 
nummularium, 

p. 267. 
perforatum, 
p. 267. 
Iberis petrrea, p. 219. 
Pruiti, p. 219. 
saxatilis, p. 219. 
Isopyrum thalictroides.p. 154. 
Jamesia americana, p. 434. 
Lathyrus grandiflorus, p. 348. 
latifolius, p. 348. 
„ albus, 

p. 348. 
tuberosus, p. 350. 
Ledum tbymifolium, p. 585. 
Leontopodium alpinum, 

p. 507. 
Ligustrum coriaceum, p. 61:). 
Linaria alpina, p. 707. 

anticaria, p. 707. 
Cymbalaria, p. 708. 
hepaticrefolia, p. 708. 
Linnrea borealis, p. 482. 
Linum alpinum, p. 283. 
Litbospermum Gastoni, 
p. 678. 
graminifo- 
lium,p.679. 
petrasum, 
p. 679. 



Litbospermum prostratum, 

p. 079. 
Lotus eorniculatus, p. 335. 
Lychnis alpina, p. 255. 

Lagascs, p. 257. 
Lysimacbia nemorum, p. 029. 
Nummularia, 
p. 629. 
Malva campanulata, i>. 276. 
Margyricarpus setosus, 

p. 381. 
Meconopsis, vars., p. 193. 
Medicago falcata, p. 333. 
Micromeria Piperella, p. 745. 
Muehlenbeckia complexa, 

p. 771 
Myosotis rupicola, p. 677. 
Niircissus, vars., p. 893. 
Nepeta Glechoma, p. 750. 
variegata, p. 750. 
Nierembergia rivularis, 

p. 698. 
CEnothera missouriensis, 
p. 454. 
taraxacifolia, 
P. 454. 
Olearia Haasti, p. 504. 
Ompbalodes Lucilia 1 , p. 672. 

verna, p. 672. 
Ononis fruticosa, p. 332. 

Natrix, p. 332. 
Onosma tauricum, p. 681. 
Orchis, vars., p. 891. 
Orobus, vars., p. 350. 
Oxytropis Halleri, p. 344. 
montana, p. 344. 
pyrenaica, p. 314. 
Paronychia serpyllifolia, 

p. 761. 
Pentstemon, vars., p. 712. 
Pernettya, vars., p. 575. 
Petrocallis pyrenaica, p. 212. 
Pbiladelpbus micropbyllus, 

p. 433. 
Phlox amcena, p. 660. 

divaricata, p. 660. 
reptans, p. 661. 



Phlox Stellaria, p. 661. 
subulata, p. 662. 
Plumbago Larpentffi, p. 604. 
Polemonium, vars., p. 665. 
Polygala Chamsebuxus, 

p. 237. 
Polygonum Bistorta, p. 768. 
vaccinifolium, 
p. 770. 
Potentilla alpestris, p. 377. 
Calabra, p. 378. 
bopwoodiana, 

p. 379. 
nitida, p. 380. 
Primula, vars., p. 604. 
Etamondia pyrenaica, p. 730. 
Ranunculus, \;n ., p. 146. 
Rhododendron, vars., p. 585. 
Rhus cotinus, p. 319. 
Rodgersia podophylla, p. 415. 
Rosa, vars., p. 382. 
Rubus arcticus, p. 372. 
Salix, vars., p. 802. 
Samolus repens, p. 632. 
Sanguinaria canadensis, 

p. 195. 
Santolina Cbamajcyparissus, 

p. 529. 
Saponaria ocymoides, p. 250. 
*Saxifraga, dwarf vars., 

p. 415. 
Scbizocodon soldanelloides, 

p. 600. 
Scilla, vars., p. 838. 
*Sedum, vars., p. 438. 
Sempervivum, vars., p. 441. 
Spirrea, vars., p. 363. 
Tbalictrum, vars., p. 137. 
*Thymus, vars., p. 745. 
*Tiarella cordifolia, p. 426. 
Trillium grandiflorurn,p. 880. 
Triteleia uniflora, p. 830. 
Tulipa, vars., p. 860. 
Tunica Saxifraga, p. 247. 
Vaccinium, vars., p. 572. 
Veronica, dwarf vars., p. 724. 
Viola, vars., p. 228. 



104 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING TREES AND 

SHRUBS 

One can hardly imagine a garden of any size which does not contain 
a flowering or ornamental tree or shrub of some kind or another. 
And yet until comparatively recent years the cultivation of this 
particular class of plants was more or less neglected, while a vast 
amount of time and labour was spent on that gaudy and ephemeral 
work known as ' carpet-bedding.' Fortunately, a more rational and 
natural view of plants in general is now taken, and there is no part of 
a garden which is not eminently suitable for the cultivation of some 
plant or another, either native or exotic, and whether tree, shrub or herb. 

In the British Islands we are of course confined to the cultivation 
of those kinds of trees and shrubs which are natives of temperate 
climates like our own, but a perusal of the list given below will show that 
there are already a very considerable number which can be grown suc- 
cessfully in various parts of the kingdom. They come from all parts of 
the world, from China and Japan, North and South America, Europe, Asia 
and New Zealand, and with few exceptions they adapt themselves to our 
climate with the greatest ease. A visit to Kew Gardens at any season 
of the year will give some idea of the great beauty and variety of the 
trees and shrubs which may be used to beautify the landscape. 

Planting - for Effect. — The arguments used in favour of massing 
herbaceous plants in borders apply with equal force to the planting of 
flowering shrubs, but not to large trees. The latter, on account of their 
size, are best planted in advantageous positions so that they will give 
the best possible effect to the landscape. Shrubs, on the other hand, 
which grow from two or three to ten or twelve feet high — like Dog- 
woods, Forsythias, Cotoneasters, Diervillas, Mock Orange, Viburnums, 
Andromedas, Azaleas, Rhododendrons, Barberries, Ceanothus, Daboecia, 
Deutzias, Ericas, Spiraeas &c. — may be grown in masses on the lawn, 
in the pleasure ground, or wilder parts of the garden. 

In what is usually called the ' shrubbery ' many choice shrubs are 
spoiled and distorted by being crammed in anyhow, as if the chief object 
of the planter was to hide the ground altogether, and prevent any 
chance of the plant's natural development. They are pushed away in 
holes and corners under large overhanging trees, and often smothered 
with the vigorous-growing Snowberry (p. 481), and when by chance 
they survive, they only manage to stretch forth a lean and almost leaf- 
less branch to obtain a little sunshine. 



ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING TREES &c. 105 



Even in shrubberies, plants would look much better in groups or 
masses not too close together ; and as much thought and attention 
should be given to the soil and position in which they are placed as 
one would bestow on choice fruit trees, Poses, or rock-plants. 

Planting. — Trees and shrubs are usually best planted in the autumn 
when the sap is in a more or less quiescent state. Many, however, 
which do not begin to grow until the usual time in spring may be 
planted up to the end of February. Mild open weather should always 
be chosen for performing the work, and the soil should be in a dryish 
and easily workable condition. If the ground is covered with frost or 
snow, the work is best suspended until a more favourable oppor- 
tunity presents itself. The actual planting itself should be done as 
carefully as if a fruit tree were being placed in the soil. The opera- 
tion is explained at p. 1032, to which the reader is invited to turn. 

Pruning and Training Ornamental Trees. — If there were no more 
trouble taken over the pruning and training of fruit trees than is usually 
taken over that of flowering trees and shrubs, the fruit garden would 
not only very soon present a neglected appearance but also show 
a big falling off in the returns of the fruit crops. All our Apples, Pears, 
Plums, Cherries &c. are more or less regularly attended to in the matter 
of training, pruning, thinning out &c. ; but their cousins, which are 
valued chiefly for their beautiful flowers and ornamental appearance, 
are often left to look after themselves, sometimes maybe for years, 
until they almost cry out for some little attention to be given them. 

Matters, however, in this respect are gradually becoming better, and 
trees and shrubs, other than those grown for their fruits, are receiving 
a proper share of attention in the way of training and pruning. The 
chief principles of pruning are the same as detailed for fruit trees at 
p. 1031. There is, however, far more variety in trees and shrubs, and 
the gardener should exercise his intelligence when dealing with any 
particular species. Its nature may be readily gleaned from its relation 
to others with which he may be well acquainted. Being arranged in 
botanical families in this book, that will still further aid him in his 
practical work. For instance, all the Hawthorns (Crataegus, p. 408), 
Almonds (Prunus, p. 356) &c. in the main follow the same principles 
of growth as other trees in the Rose Order (p. 355), such as 
Apples, Pears, Plums, Cherries &c, and require almost the same kind of 
pruning — due attention being given to the special peculiarities of any 
particular species. 

As a general rule the main point is to keep up a good supply of the 
younger wood, and gradually cut away the old and useless branches. 
On the branches that are left there are usually two kinds of buds, some 



106 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



plumper than the others, and these are generally the ones that produce the 
flowers. As the proper time for pruning is mentioned under each class 
of plants described it is unnecessary to discuss the matter further here. 
The way in which cuts are to be made when pruning fruit trees is 
explained and illustrated at p. 1033. It will be noticed, however, that 
the buds on most of the branches are arranged not 
exactly opposite each other, but usually in an alternate 
manner so that there is little danger of injury to the 
buds when making a cut. In some trees, however, like 
the Lilac (fig. 131), the Ash (fig. 135), Forsythias, and 
many others, the buds are usually arranged opposite each 
other as shown in the sketches. In such cases, when 
pruning, the branch should be cut where the buds or 
joints are not situated exactly opposite each other. In 
fig. 135 of the Ash taken from nature the thin trans- 
verse lines show where a shoot may be cut across so as 
to leave the bud immediately beneath the cut to develop 
and carry on a branch almost in line with that below 
it, and thus add to the symmetry of the tree. 

The following is a list of the best trees and shrubs 
worth growing in the open air either for their beautiful 
flowering qualities, or their ornamental appearance. 
The generic name only is given, as the species follow in 
alphabetical order at the pages indicated. 
It often happens that a list of ornamental trees and shrubs that 
bloom at any particular period of the year is required, and to supply 
this want an asterisk (*) has been placed after the names in the list to 
show the months when plants belonging to any particular genus 
may be found in blossom. As might be naturally expected, there are 
a very large number of trees and shrubs in bloom during April, May, 
June, and July, but it will also be seen that every month in the year 
has some particular plant in blossom. By means of the list, therefore, 
it will be possible to make a selection so as to have flowers in the 
border or shrubbery all the year round. It may be noted that species 
are not mentioned, but a reference to the page given after each genus 
will enable the reader to find what species belonging to it bloom dur- 
ing the months under which an asterisk appears. 

It may also be remarked that many trees and shrubs are more 
remarkable for their beautiful bright coloured berries, rather than their 
blossoms, such as Aucubas, Euonymus, Pernettyas, Sea-Buckthorn, 
Skimmias, while many others are remarkable for both flowers and 
fruit, such as the Cherries, Cotoneasters, Barberries, Hawthorns, Med- 




FIG. 134. FIG. 135 
LILAC. ASH. 



ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING TREES dr. 



107 



lars, Roses, Viburnums &c. An obelisk (f) has been placed in front 
of those genera which are remarkable for their beautiful fruits as well 
as flowers. 

LIST XII 
Ornamental and Flowering Trees and Shrubs 



AbeliM, p. 481 
Acanthopanax, p. 470 
Acer, p. 313 . 
Actinidia, p. 267 . 
Adenocarpus, p. 327 
jEsculus, p. 311 . 
Ailanthus, p. 299 . 
Akebia, p. 179 . 
tAlnus, p. 796 . 
+Amelancbier, p. 413 
Amorpha, p. 336 . 
Arnygdalus, p. 357 
Andromeda, p. 578 
Aralia, p. 469 
tArbutus, p. 574 . 
Arundinaria, p. 965 
Asimina, p. 177 . 
Aueuba, p. 475 
Azalea, p. 593 
Azara, p. 235 
Bambusa, p. 968 . 
Bentbamia, p. 474 
Berberidopsis, p. 180 
tBerberis, p. 180 . 
Betula, p. 793 
Bignonia, p. 731 . 
Bryanthus, p. 582 
Buddleia, p. 649 . 
Buxus, p. 783 
Csesalpinia, p. 353 
Calycantbus, p. 172 
Camellia, p. 269 . 
Carpenteria, p. 434 
Carpinus, p. 797 . 
Carya, p. 790 
Caryopteris, p. 742 
Cassandra, p. 576 
Cassiope, p. 576 . 
Castanea, p. 800 . 
Catalpa, p. 732 . 
Ceanotbus, p. 305 
tCerasus, p. 359 . 
Cercis, p. 355 
Cbimonanthus, p. 172 
Chionanthus, p. 642 
Choisya, p. 296 . 
Cistus, p. 223 
Clematis, p. 131 . 
Clerodendron, p. 741 
Clethra, p. 598 . 
Colutea, p. 340 . 
Conifers, p. 972 . 






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* 


* 




— 



108 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



tCornus, p. 473 • 
Coronilla, p. 344 . 
Corylopsis, p. 444 
Corylus, p. 797 . 
tCotoneaster, p. 410 
tCratffigus, p. 408 
f Cydonia, p. 406 . 
Cytisus, p. 330 . 
Daboecia, p. 582 . 
fDaphne, p. 777 . 
Daphniphyllum, p. 784 
Desfontainea, p. 650 
Deutzia, p. 431 . 
Diervilla, p. 485 . 
Dirnorphanthus, p. 470 
Direa, p. 779 
Elasagnus, p. 779 . 
Embothrium, p. 776 
Epigasa, p. 578 
Erica, p. 580 
Eriobotrya, p. 412 
Escallonia, p. 434 
Eucryphia, p. 371 
tEuonymus, p. 301 
Eurybia, p. 505 . 
Exocborda, p. 369 
Fabiana, p. 695 . 
Fagus, p. 801 
Fatsia, p. 471 
Forsytbia, p. 637 . 
Fraxinus, p. 640 . 
Fremontia, p. 280 
Fuchsia, p. 455 . 
Garrya, p. 476 
Gaultberia, p. 575 
Genista, p. 328 . 
tGleditschia, p. 354 
Gordonia, p. 268 . 
Halesia, p. 634 
Halimodendron, p. 341 
Hamamelis, p. 445 
tHedera, p. 471 . 
Helianthemum, p. 226 
Hibiscus, p. 279 . 
tHippophae, p. 781 
Hydrangea, p. 429 
fHymenanthera, p. 
tHypericum, p. 265 
Idesia, p. 236 
Ilex, p. 299 . 
Indigofera, p. 336 
Itea, p. 435 . 
Jamesia, p. 434 
Jasminum, p. 636 
f Juglans, p. 791 
Kalmia, p. 583 
Kerria, p. 370 
Kolreuteria, p. 310 
Laburnum, p. 327 
tLaurus, p. 775 . 



234 



* * 



ORNAMENTAL AND FLOWERING TREES &c. 



109 



340 



Ledum, p. 584 
Lespedeza, p. 346 
Leuoothoe, p. 577 

tLeycesteria, p. 485 
Ligustrum, p. 042 
Liriodendron, p. 170 
Lonicera, p. 482 . 
Loropetalum, p. 445 
Lycium, p. 601 
Lyonia, p. 578 
Magnolia, p. 174 
tMahonia, p. 180 
tMespilus, p. 40(i 
Myrica, p. 793 
fMyrtus, p. 448 
Negundo, p. 315 
Neillia, p. 368 
Notospartium, p. 
Nuttallia, p. 363 
Olearia, p. 504 . 
Osmanthus, p. (ill 
Ostrya, p. 797 
Oxydendrum, p. 577 
Ozothamnus, p. 507 
Preonia (tree), p. 171 
Paliurus, p. 303 . 
Parrotia, p. 444 . 
Paulownia, p. 712 
Pavia, p. 311 
tPernettya, p. 575 
Philadelphus, p. 432 
tPhillyrea, p. 641 
Phlomis, p. 757 . 
Photinia, p. 411 . 
Phyllostachys, p. 969 
Pieris, p. 579 
Piptanthus, p. 322 
Platanus, p. 789 . 
Populus, p. 803 . 
tPrunus, p. 356 . 
Ptelea, p. 297 
tPterocaiya, p. 792 
Pterostyrax, p. 634 
tPyrus, p. 405 
tQuercus, p. 798 . 
tRhamnus, p. 304 
Ehaphiolepis, p. 412 
Rhododendron, p. 585 
Ehodora, p. 591 . 
Rhodotypos, p. 370 
Rhus, p. 319 
Ribes, p. 436 
Robinia, p. 338 
tRosa, p. 382 
tRubus, p. 371 
Salix, p. 802 
tSambucus, p. 477 
tShepherdia, p. 781 
tSkimmia, p. 297. 
Sophora, p. 352 . 



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110 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Spartium, p. 330 . 
Spiraea, p. 363 
Stachyurus, p. '268 
tStaphylea, p. 318 
Stauntonia, p. 179 
Stephananclra, p. 369 
Stuartia, p. 268 . 
tStyrax, p. 635 
tSymphoriearpus 
Syringa, p. 638 
Tamarix, p. 264 . 
Tecoma, p. 732 . 
Tilia, p. 281 
Trachycarpus, p. 956 
Ulex, p. 330 . 
Ulmus, p. 785 
tVaccinium, p. 572 
Veronica, p. 724 . 
tViburnum, p. 478 
Vinca, p. 645 
Virgilia, p. 352 . 
Weigela, p. 485 . 
Wistaria, p. 337 . 
tXanthoceras, p. 312 
Xanthorhiza, p. 164 
Yucca, p. 820 
Zenobia, p. 578 . 



.481 



05 




5>> 







AUTUMN TINTS 

While the spring-time is remarkable for the beautiful and brilliant 
greens of the foliage of the numerous trees and shrubs which have 
awakened from their winter sleep, the autumn is no less remarkable 
for the great change of colouring that has come over this same foliage. 
In a few short months from May to October, the leaves have been hard 
at work assimilating food and building up the tissues of the plants. 
When they burst from their protecting winter buds, either from the 
branches or the seeds, they proceed to perform their natural functions 
with the greatest energy. But as the hot summer approaches, and 
then the autumn with its shorter days, the energy of the protoplasm 
(see p. 22) within the cells gradually subsides and ultimately ceases 
altogether in the case of those leaves which are termed ' deciduous,' or 
that remain on the branches but one season. 

It is unnecessary to dilate here upon the scientific reasons as to the 
falling of the leaves in autumn ; but it may be remarked that all the 
food manufactured for the plants is not wasted by the dropping of the 
foliage. Before this it has been drafted down the stems and to the 
roots in the case of perennials and root crops by means of the fibre 
bundles referred to at p. 30 as composing the main nerves and veins 



AUTUMN TINTS 



111 



of the leaves. During the process of withdrawal a change in colour 
comes over the foliage. The more or less brilliant greens are gradually 
replaced by yellow, orange, red, purple, and a variety of intermediate 
shades until most beautiful pictures are produced upon the landscape 
by this autumnal colouring. The masses of gold presented by the stately 
Elms, the deeper amber yellow of the Horse Chestnuts, the beauti- 
ful russety-brown of the Beech and Oaks, the purple-red of the 
Virginia Creeper, and the tints of all our native trees and shrubs are 
sufficiently well known and never fail to call forth our admiration dur- 
ing the autumn. But there are many other trees and shrubs natives 
of other climes quite as remarkable for their vivid colouring at this 
period, and they are well worthy of a place in gardens where they can 
be grown to produce an effect in conjunction with the various hues of 
the numerous evergreens of the Conifer Family, the Common Holly 
&c. It has been noticed in connection with autumn colouring that 
leaves covered with hair or down undergo but very little change in 
colour, and it therefore looks as if the change in the cells was due to 
the light. While all deciduous trees and shrubs are more or less 
beautiful in the colouring of their foliage in autumn, some are particu- 
larly fine and deserve especial mention in the following list. The name 
of the genus only is mentioned, as the species can easily be found at 
the page referred to after the name. 



Trees, Shrubs, and 

Acer, p. 313. 
Actinidia, p. 267. 
JEsculus, p. 311. 
Akebia, p. 179. 
Amelanchier, p. 413. 
Aralia, p. 469. 
Azalea, p. 574. 
Berberis, p. 180. 
Betula, p. 793. 
Carya, p. 790. 
Castanea, p. 800. 
Cercis, p. 355 
Clerodendron, p. 741. 
Cornus, p. 473. 



LIST XIII 

Climbers remarkable for 
their Foliage 

Coiylus, p. 797. 
Crataegus, p. 408. 
Enkianthus, p. 579. 
Eucryphia, p. 371. 
Euonymus, p. 301. 
Fagus, p. 801. 
Hamamelis, p. 445. 
Kolreuteria, p. 310. 
Leucothoe, p. 577. 
Liquidambar, p. 445. 
Nyssa, p. 476. 
Oxydendrurn, p. 577. 
Parrotia, p. 444. 
Pavia, p. 311. 



the Autumnal Colouring of 

Prunus, p. 356. 
Pterocarya, p. 792. 
Quercus, p. 998. 
Rhexia, p. 449. 
Rhus, p. 319. 
Ribes, p. 436. 
Salix, p. 802. 
; Sambucus, p. 477. 
Spiraea, p. 363. 
Stephanandra, p. 369. 
Stuartia, p. 268. 
Styrax, p. 635. 
Ulmus, p. 785. 
Viburnum, p. 478. 



Arbutus Unedo, p. 574. 
Arundinaria, vars., p. 965. 
Aucuba japonica, p. 475. 
Azara microphylla, p. 235 



LIST XIV 

Evergreen Trees and Shrubs 

Bambusa, vars., p. 968. | Berberis stenophylla, p. 182. 



Berberis Aquifolium, p. 180. 
Darwini, p. 181. 
nepalensis, p. 181. 



wallichiana, p. 182. 
Buxus sempervirens, p. 783. 
Ceanothus, vars., p. 305. 



112 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Conifers, p. 972. 
Cotoneaster, vars., p. 410. 
Crataegus Pyracantha, p. 409. 
Daphne pontica, p. 779. 
Daphnipnyllum glaucescens, 

p. 784. 
Elasagnus, vars., p. 779. 
Empetrum nigrum, p. 805. 
Escallonia illinita, p. 434. 

punctata, p. 435. 
Garrya elliptica, p. 476. 
Gaultheria, vars., p. 576. 
Hedera, vars., p. 471. 
Ilex, vars., p. 299. 
Kalmia, vars., p. 583. 



Ledum latifolium, p. 584. 
Leucothoe axillaris, p. 577. 
Ligustrum, vars., p. 642. 
Loiseleuria procumbens, 

p. 582. 
Lonicera aureo-reticulata, 

p. 484. 
fragrantissima, 

p. 483. 
Lyonia paniculata, p. 578. 
Magnolia grandinora, p. 175. 
Myrtus communis, p. 448. 
Olearia Haasti, p. 504. 
Osmanthus, vars., p. 641. 
Pernettya, vars., p. 875. 



Phillyrea, vars., p. 641. 
Phyllostachys, vars., p. 969. 
Pieris, vars., p. 579. 
Pittosporum crassifolium, 

p. 236. 
Prunus Lauro-cerasus, p. 360. 
Quercus Ilex, etc., p. 800. 
Rhododendron, vars., p. 585. 
llhodotypos kerrioides,p. 370 . 
Skimmia, vars., p. 297. 
Smilax, p. 808. 
Umbellularia calif ornica, 

p. 775. 
Veronica, vars., p. 724. 
Viburnum, vars., p. 478. 



HARDY WATER AND BOG PLANTS 

It is only of late years that any particular attention has been given 
to seriously utilising pieces of water in gardens. The common white 
Water Lily (p. 186) and the yellow Brandy Bottle (p. 185) were looked 
upon more or less as beautiful aquatic weeds. But the numerous 
hardy and brilliantly coloured hybrids that are now in cultivation (see 
p. 187) have revolutionised former ideas in regard to the use of water 
in the garden, and have served to call attention not only to Water- 
Lilies but to many other ornamental plants which may be grown with 
advantage either in water or on its banks. 

The following is a list of the best water and bog plants. The 
descriptions, cultural information &c. will be found at the pages given 
after each name. 



LIST XV 



A Selection of Ornamental Water and Bog Plants 



Acorus Calamus, p. 954. 
gramineujs, p. 9o4 
Alisma, vars., p. 805. 
Aponogeton distachyon, 

p. 805. 
Butomus umbellatus, p. 
Caladium virginicum,. 

p. 954. 
Calla palustris, p. 955. 
Caltha palustris, p. 150. 



Carex paniculata, p. 971. 

pendula, p. 971. 
Cyperus longus, p. 971. 
j Glyceria aquatica, p. 963. 
i Hottonia palustris, p. 604. 
806. I Hydrocharis Morsus-rana\ 
p. 883. 
Limnanthes Douglasi, p. 292. 
Limnanthemum nymphw- 
oides, p. 658. 



Limnocharis Humboldti, 

p. 806. 
Lobelia cardinalis, p. 556. 
Menyanthes trifoliata, 

p. 657. 
Myosotis palustris, p. 677. 
Nuphar, vars., p. 185. 
Nymphasa, vars., p. 186. 
Orontium aquaticum, 

p. 955. 



HARDY WATER AND BOG PLANTS 



113 



Parnassia, vars., p. 428. 
Peltandra virginioa, p. 954. 
Polygonum atrine, p. 768. 

Bistorta, p. 768. 
Pontederia cordata, p. 882. 
Ranunculus aquatilis, p. 147. 



Ranunculus Lingua, p. 149. 
Richardia africana, p. 955. 
Ruinex Hydrolapathum, 
p. 768. 

Sagittaria sagittifolia h". pi., 
p. 806. 



Scirpus lacustris, p. 972. 
Sparganium, vars., p. 953. 
Stratiotes aloides, p. 883. 
Thalia dealbata, p. 884. 
Typha in var., p. 953. 
Water Lilies, p. 186. 



A Selection of Plants thriving in Marshy or Boggy Ground 



Arundo Donax, p. 958. 
Bamboos, Hardy, p. 964. 
Butomus umbellatus, p. 806. 
Calla palustris, p. 955. 
Caltha, vars., p. 150. 
Carex pendula, p. 971. 
Chrysobactron Hookeri, 

p. 826. 
Coptis trifolia, p. 154. 
Cornus canadensis, p. 474. 
Crinum capense, p. 911. 
Cypripedium spectabile, 

p. 893. 
Dodecatheon Jeffreyanum, 
p. 626. 
Meadia and var. 
alba, p. 626. 
Drosera, vars., p. 444. 
Eomecon chionantha, p. 195. 
Epilobium album, hirsutum, 

&c. p. 451. 
Eupatorium, vars., p. 494. 
Galax aphylla, p. 600. 
Gentiana Pneumonanthe, 

p. 655. 
Gunnera scabra, p. 446. 
Helonias bullata, p. 878. 
Houttuynia californica, 
p. 774. 
cordata, p. 774. 
Iris fcetidissma, p. 922. 
fulva, p. 923. 
graminea, p. 923. 
Ksempferi, p. 925. 
Monnieri, p. 927. 
ochroleuca, p. 927. 
Pseudacorus, p. 929. 



Iris sibirica, p. 931. 
Juncus spiralis, p. 882. 
Leucanthemum lacustre, 

p. 534. 
Leucojum sestivum, p. 908. 
Hernandezii, 
p. 908. 
Liatris pyenostachya, p. 495. 

spicata, p. 495. 
Lilium canadense, p. 845. 

carolinianum, p. 856. 
pardalinum, p. 853. 
superbum, p. 856. 
Linmea borealis, p. 482. 
Lobelia cardinalis, p. 556. 
Lychnis Flos-Cuculi fl.pl., 

p. 256. 
Lysimachia clethroides, 
p. (529. 
Nummularia, 

p. 629. 
thyrsiflora, 

p. 630. 
vulgaris, p. 630. 
Lythrum, vars., p. 450. 
Monarda didyma, p. 750. 
Myosotis palustris, p. 678. 
Nierembergia rivularis, 

p. 6 
Nyssa aquatica, p. 476. 
Orchis, vars., p. 891. 
Osmunda palustris, p. 1022. 

regalis, p. 1022. 
Oxycoccus, vars., p. 573. 
Parnassia, vars., p. 428. 
Phormium tenax, p. 816. 
Pinguicula, vars., p. 728. 



Polygonum compact urn, 
p. 769. 
Sieboldi, p. 769. 
Primula denticulata, p. 607. 
farinosa, p. Ii08. 
involucrata, p. (ilO. 
japonica, p. (jlO. 
Munroi, p. 610. 
Parryi, p. 013. 
Reidi, p. 614. 
rosea, p. 615. 
sikkimensis, p. 616. 
Pyrethrum uliginosum, 

p. 535. 
Rhexia virginica, p. 449. 
Rodgersia podophylla, p. 415. 
Sagittaria, vars., p. 806. 
Samolus littoralis, p. 632. 
Sarracenia purpurea, p. 189. 
Saxifraga Hirculus, p. 421. 

peltata, p. 424. 
Scirpus zebrina, p. 972. 
Senecio pulcher, p. 542. 

speciosus, p. 543. 
Spigelia marilandica, p. 649. 
Spiraea Aruncus, p. 364. 

astilboides, p. 364. 
kamtschatica, p. 364. 
palmata, p. 365. 
Ulmaria, p. 365. 
Swertia perennis, p. 657. 
Symplooarpus feetidus, 

p. 955. 
Thalictrum anemonoides, 
p. 138. 
flavum, p. 138. 
Tradescantia virginica, 
p. 807. 



LAWNS 



All other things being equal, there is nothing that lends a greater 
charm and repose to a garden than a well-kept lawn. AVhere such 
exists it should always be carefully attended to, as once a lawn is 
allowed to become wild, it takes a long time to bring it back to a really 
good condition. 



114 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



In the pages of this work many plants are mentioned as being 
suitable for lawn decoration. It must not, however, be taken for granted 
that each and every plant thus mentioned is to be grown on the lawn. 
It would be far better to leave the lawn quite free from all except its 
natural vegetation than to spoil it by dotting groups of plants, or 
solitary specimens, all over it in a meaningless kind of way. The lawn 
should not be treated as if it were an orchard or a shrubbery, and 
anything that tends to interfere with its repose, or jars upon the taste, 
is to be avoided. 

Making a Lawn. — Lawns are made in two waj^s — either by sowing 
seed or laying turf. Both ways are good, but some have a preference 
for one rather than the other. When a lawn has been made by sowing 
grass it takes about three years before a really good foundation has been 
made, and during that period numerous rollings, cuttings, and waterings 
must have been given. The advantage of making a lawn with turf is 
that a good one can be obtained practically in one season — with the aid 
of frequent cuttings, rollings, and waterings. If the turf is good and 
free from weeds it is on the whole a better and quicker method of 
producing a lawn. 

Whether seeds or turf are used, the first and all-important point is 
to have good soil with a surface properly levelled and quite free from 
hillocks and hollows, however slight. The soil should be well dug and 
manured and afterwards trodden down with the feet, or rolled ; but the 
roller should not be too heavy — one weighing about one cwt. will be 
sufficient, or the ground will be pressed into a caked condition, more or 
less impervious to the passage of water. 

Levelling. — This is readily accomplished by means of a spirit level 
attached to the edge of a level board. Special implements are used 
for the purpose, but a stout quadrangular pole, about 8 ft. (or half a 
rod) long will do equally well, provided its edges are perfectly level. 

Where the lawn is to be of some size, wooden pegs must be driven 
into the soil at such intervals that the levelling rod can reach from one 
to the other. Having fixed one peg at what is to be the ultimate height 
and level of the lawn, all other pegs must be fixed or driven into the 
soil until the top of each peg is on a level with that of the next. This 
can be easily ascertained by means of the spirit level. 

The ground itself should also be carefully gone over with the level, 
resting the rod in all directions with a view to finding any risings or 
depressions. Where such occur they must be reduced or filled up by 
means of the rake until the entire surface is as flat and as level, but not 
necessarily as smooth, as a billiard table. 



LAWNS 115 

This point having been reached, and the soil having settled down 
properly, seeds of the best lawn grass may be sown during mild 
showery weather in March or April, as it then germinates in a very 
short time. Seeds may also be sown under similar circumstances in 
September, so that the seed shall germinate and the young grass become 
established before the setting in of winter. 

To ensure a thick and even sward, from 60 to 80 lbs. (or 3-4 bushels) 
of grass seed will be required to sow an acre of ground. The seed should 
be sown broadcast and as evenly as possible. The soil is afterwards 
raked over lightly and a light roller may also be used to bring the seeds 
and soil in closer contact, and give a finish to the work. If the weather 
is not showery, a good watering is also necessary and may be repeated 
from time to time if necessary. 

When the grass has grown sufficiently long, it should be cut with a 
scythe — not with a mowing machine, as the latter is apt to tear roots 
and all up at first. It is as a rule safer to have the first few cuttings 
done with a scythe, so that the grass may become strong and tufted, 
and thus better able to stand the mowing machine afterwards. 

When turf is used, the chief point to remember is : keep the surface 
level. Each turf is about 3 ft. long, 1 ft. wide, and an inch or so thick. 
The thickness, however, varies a good deal, and where thin turves are 
used a little fine soil should be placed beneath to bring them to the 
proper level. As three turves go to a square yard it is easy to estimate 
the number required for any particular piece of ground. The turf 
cutters, however, generally cut a shade under rather than over the 
dimensions, and it is therefore always safer to have a few extra ones 
in case of necessity. 

When the turves have all been laid down neatly edge to edge, a 
little fine soil is sprinkled over the surface, and brushed into the crevices. 
The whole surface may then be thoroughly beaten with a turf beater 
(a thick flat-faced piece of wood, with a long handle let in obliquely 
in the centre at the back) so as to reduce any slight inequalities. 
Failing this, beating the turf with the back of a strong spade will be 
almost equally efficacious. The first cuttings should be done with a 
scythe, and frequent rollings and waterings will soon make a fine 
greensward. 

General Treatment. — Once well established, a lawn should never 
be neglected. If looked after regularly, it will last in good condition 
for years, but if not, it will in the course of a few years show signs of 
wearing out. 

Weeding. — This should be done regularly in spring and autumn so 
as to keep such plant pests as Plaintain, Daisies, Dandelions, and other 

i2 



116 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

weeds down. Frequent cutting with the machine will prevent them 
flowering and ripening seed. Where, however, they take a strong hold 
they may be eradicated by dropping a little vitriol (sulphuric acid) or 
arsenic down the centre of each with a pointed skewer. The latter should 
be pushed down into the weeds, as some of them have tap-roots which, 
unless killed, will throw forth other shoots after the first ones have 
been destroyed. An intelligent lad can do this work easily, but great 
care must be taken in using the poison. 

Where the use of poison is feared or disliked, the only safe way to 
destroy weeds on lawns is to grub them up with an old knife or ' daisy- 
grubber.' It takes a long time, but if done systematically is very 
effective. An excellent plan is to strain two white lines about 2 feet 
apart on the grass and proceed to root up all the weeds between them. 
In this way the work is done systematically and in such a narrow space 
there is little chance of overlooking the weeds. When one portion 
has been cleaned, one line may be taken up and stretched 2 feet from 
the other on the opposite side, proceeding with the work in the same way. 

Manuring Lawns. — In the course of time the grass will begin to 
look poor, and lack vigour and freshness in growth, unless it has some 
plant food put into the soil in some way. Covering the lawn with 
short well-rotted manure is practically out of the question in most 
cases, owing to its unsightliness. Liquid manures of cow-dung, guano, 
sulphate of ammonia &c. may, however, be given at frequent intervals, 
care being taken that they are not too strong, otherwise the grass may 
be ' burnt ' and present a brownish appearance. About 6-8 lbs. of basic 
slag and 3-4 lbs. of kainit, mixed together, may be used in the autumn 
or winter months, and will sprinkle over about 40 square yards. About 
3 or 4 lbs. of superphosphate of lime will also cover the same area and 
may be applied, not with the basic slag and kainit, but the following 
spring. Bape-dust or fine bone-meal at the rate of about 4 lbs. to about 
40 sq. yds. may also be used. 

Mossy Lawns. — Moss-covered lawns are very unsightly, and some- 
times very difficult to clean. The moss should be well raked out with 
a good rake in moist weather during the autumn. The lawn should 
be gone over in two or three different directions, and although the grass 
will have the appearance of being torn up by the roots, it will in reality 
be injured very little. After being well cleared of moss, some fine rich 
soil and wood ashes may be strewn over the surface, and a little basic 
slag and kainit, as recommended above, may also be added. The surface 
is then levelled and lightly rolled. In spring any vacant spot should 
be sown with grass seed, so as to bring the whole surface into a green 
state. 



GARDEN WALKS AND PATHWAYS 



117 



Renovating old Lawns. — Where lawns, notwithstanding every care, 
show unmistakable signs of decay, there is only one thing left to be 
done. That is to lift the turf in autumn, and give the soil beneath a 
thorough digging and manuring as if about to lay turves in the first 
place. After the preparation and levelling of the soil in the way 
indicated above, the turves may be replaced, beaten down and rolled, 
and receive the same treatment generally as a newly made lawn. 



LIST XVI 

Ornamental Plants suitable for large Lawns, Parks dc, and for 
Subtropical Gardening 



Abutilon, p. 278. 
Acanthus, p. 736. 
Agave, p. 91(5. 
Alalia, p. 469. 
Arundinaria, p. 965. 
Arundo, p. 958. 
Bambusa, p. 968. 
Bocconia, p. 195. 
Canna, p. 885. 
Catalpa, p. 732. 
Chamrerops excelsa, p. 956. 
Cineraria maritima, p. 541. 



Cordyline australis, p. 822. 
Cortaderia, p. 960. 
Eucalyptus globulus, p. 447. 
Ferula, p. 468. 
Funkia, p. 816. 
Grevillea robusta, p. 776. 
Gunnera, p. 446. 
Gynerium, p. 960. 
Melianthus, p. 317. 
Molopospermuni, p. 467. 
Montanoa, p. 513. 
Musa Ensete, p. 888. 



Paulownia, p. 712. 
Phormium tenax, p. 816. 
Phyllostachys, p. 969. 
Polygonum, p. 768. 
Rhus, p. 319. 
Ricinus, p. 784. 
Sambucus aurea, p. 478. 
Solanum, p. 687. 
Trachycarpus. p. 956. 
Wigandia, p. 669. 
Yucca, p. 820. 
Zea Mays, p. 964. 



GARDEN WALKS AND PATHWAYS 



While it is an excellent thing to have beautiful Lawns, Flower Borders, 
Eock Gardens, and patches of Fruits and Vegetables in a garden, it is 
no less excellent to be able to reach any or all of these particular spots 
by means of pleasant walks, paths, or roadways. In designing any 
garden, therefore, it is a matter of the greatest importance to allow a 
proper amount of space for walks and pathways. Whether these are 
perfectly straight or more or less curved, wide or narrow, will depend 
a good deal upon individual taste and the size of the garden. Some 
people seem to have a mania for making walks in every possible place, 
and this results in cutting the surface of the garden up into a kind 
of patchwork, with little triangles here, circles there, horse-shoes, 
rectangles, and many other fantastic and useless shapes for flower beds 
&c. dotted about here and there. As few footpaths as possible should 
be in the garden, and space given only to those absolutely necessary. 
This will not only allow of more space for flowers, fruit, or vegetables, 
but will not necessitate so much labour in the up-keep of the pathways. 



118 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GAB DEN PLANTS 



Gravel Paths. — As these are undoubtedly the most important, it is 
necessary that they should be well made at first, as nothing will give 
so much trouble and inconvenience afterwards as badly constructed 
gravel paths. The main object in making a good pathway is to secure 
a firm and pleasant surface for walking upon in all weathers and seasons. 
The surface should be such that it will not work up into large pebbles 
in summer or sticky mud in winter. Pathways should always have 
a gentle slope away from dwellings or other buildings, and the highest 
point should be a few inches at least below what builders call the 
' damp course ' in houses. 

Drainage. — To secure a good pathway it is first of all necessary to 
consider the question of drainage, and also the nature of the soil beneath 
the surface. In wet heavy soils the drainage requires to be in a more 
perfect condition than when walks are constructed on a gravelly bottom. 
At p. 44 the drainage of flower-pots &c. for sowing seeds has been 
mentioned. Almost precisely the same principle must be carried out 
with pathways. In heavy soils there should be 1-2 ft. of old brickbats, 
rubble, clinkers &c. well rammed down and made perfectly hard without 
being mixed with any finer materials. Above this layer some finer 
rubble, stones, clinkers &c. may be placed and also rammed down firmly 
and evenly. This will give a perfectly porous layer between the surface 
and the soil beneath, and if the drainage is to be made still more perfect, 
as is often necessary with important walks and drives in public gardens, 
provision must be made at first to have drain pipes laid at the sides to 
receive the surface water in times of heavy rain or sudden downpours. 
The drainage having been made perfect, the surface may then be covered 
2-4 in. deep — more or less — with the best yellow gravel. Care must 
be exercised in selecting this, as some kinds have far too much clayey 
matter, and others too much sand and grit, to bind properly when 
rolled. What is technically known as ' hoggin ' in the London 
neighbourhood is an excellent gravel for pathways. It binds well, has 
a good colour, and when properly rolled down and watered gives a neat 
and finished appearance to the garden. In some large parks and gardens 
the gravel walks are covered with ground shells. These make a good sur- 
face for walking on in dry weather, although at first the colour is some- 
what trying to the eyes, and in wet weather they are not an improvement 
on good gravel. Pathways made of gravel should have a slightly convex 
top, so that the sides slope gently away from the centre. This will 
throw the rain off towards the sides, and give a good foothold in the 
centre, even in very wet weather, on well-constructed pathways. 

Weeding dx. — Pathways, like lawns, require constant attention to 
keep them free from weeds and neat in appearance. It becomes 



(rAlll)HX WALKS A XD PATHWAYS 119 



necessary occasionally to have the surface pricked up all over, and raked 
into proper positions so as to get rid of any hollows caused by wear and 
tear. Frequent rolling is also necessary to keep a good surface. Weeds 
if not eradicated by the hoe or hand may be destroyed by one of the 
many weed killers now on the market. Great care should be exercised 
in using these, and the instructions given by sellers may be followed out 
to avoid accidents to other vegetation and animals. 

Asphalt Paths. — Of late years Asphalt as used for making pave- 
ments has been used a good deal for garden paths, and when well made 
they seem to be very satisfactory, especially between tiled edgings. 
They have a smooth and agreeable walking surface in all weathers, and 
when constructed with a slightly convex surface — arching from the 
centre to the sides — the rain is readily drained away. They have another 
advantage in being nearly always quite free from weeds. This is a 
double-barrelled boon — it saves labour and the cost of weed-killers. 
Notwithstanding these advantages, however, the gravel pathway still 
holds its own in most gardens, chiefly perhaps on account of its 
colour, and because when the grass edgings adjoining asphalt paths are 
cut they leave a conspicuous narrow border of soil between the asphalt 
and the turf ; and asphalt cannot be so readily laid as gravel to cover 
unsightly spaces. 

Grass Walks. — There is nothing to equal the pleasure derived from 
walking on a beautiful greensward, whether it be a well-kept lawn or 
an alley between the flower borders. In small gardens it maybe, and of 
course is in man}' cases, impossible to have grassy walks ; but in large 
parks and gardens many parts now covered with gravel might be more 
appropriately covered with grass. 

A visit to the Koyal Gardens, Kew, will give one a good idea of how 
well grassy avenues, vistas, and pathways may be made, and how 
beautiful they look between the trees, shrubs, and flower beds. Years ago 
a long vista from the Palm House to the banks of the Thames facing 
Syon House was an ugly and very pebbly broad walk which no one ever 
walked upon unless obliged to by wet weather. The gravel, however, 
has vanished, and the greensward has taken its place, much to the 
advantage of the gardens and the comfort of visitors. This might be 
imitated with advantage in other gardens. The only disadvantage a 
grass walk can have is in wet weather, but at such a time there is but 
little inducement to use pathways at all — whether gravel or grass — 
only in the case of necessity. The short time during the year that 
grass may be unfit to walk upon should not, however, prevent its being 
used when possible for walks during the greater portion of the year. 



120 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 

It is a natural and almost unconscious process to place any two or 
more plants similar in appearance and character into the same group 
and say that they are more or less closely related, although they differ 
from each other in minor details. This is practically classifying plants 
according to their relationship to each other into natural groups, and by 
such a process the gardener is enabled to deduce many points that may 
be of importance to him in the actual work of cultivation. 

It would, for instance, be a very poor observer indeed who could not 
see the difference between, say, a Buttercup and a Lily, but it might be 
somewhat difficult for him to explain in words exactly the points where- 
in they differ. Just imagine for a moment a person who had never 
seen a Buttercup or a Lily asking what they were and how he was to 
distinguish one from the other, and some idea will be gained as to the 
difficulty in giving the information in such a way that the Buttercup 
or Lily will not be mixed up with an Orchid, or a Hose, or a Tulip, or 
any other plant. 

When plants are so common that they are grown by almost every- 
body, their general features or characteristics become impressed on the 
mind, and the names which botanists have given them usually come 
tripping off the tongue with ease. But when a strange plant appears 
without a name, an effort is at once made, almost unconsciously, to place 
it near some plant already known. The roots, stems, leaves, flowers 
fruits &c. are carefully and critically examined and compared one by 
one, and the plant is said to come near such and such a species but 
differs from it in many respects. 

If the cultivator of such a plant has even only a slight knowledge 
of the way in which plants have been grouped more or less naturally by 
botanists, he may, by the aid of his books, run the unknown plant very 
close, if not quite, to its own group, from the characters he sees. But 
if his books have the plants arranged simply in alphabetical order 
according to their names and not according to their relationship, he 
may as well give up his search at once, unless he has the time and in- 
clination to wade through every name from A to Z. Indeed, descriptive 
plant-books arranged in purely alphabetical order are only of value 
when the proper name of the plant about which information is required 
is already known. This is a sine qua non to the use of such books. 
' To call a Rose by any other name ' would in such cases probably lead 
to unlooked-for and perhaps not altogether satisfactory results when the 
cultural details came to be applied. 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 121 



For these reasons chiefly, and also because the majority of amateurs 
often find a difficulty in remembering the botanical names of plants, 
it has been considered best to have the plants described in this work 
arranged in their natural groups or Orders, so that in the event of a 
cultivated plant being nameless, it may with very little trouble soon be 
found by means of the ' Key ' given below. Where the name of a plant 
is already known, a reference to the Index at the end of the work will 
at once give the page at which description, culture, propagation and other 
information may be found concerning it. The amateur and the profes- 
sional gardener will both find it an excellent and interesting proceeding, 
however, to try to place or determine any particular plant into its 
proper group by means of examining the characters of the flowers, 
leaves, stems, roots &c. 

The ' Key ' to the natural Orders of Plants described in this work 
will be found useful in trying to place a plant whose name is unknown 
in its proper group, and, it is hoped, will ultimately lead to its identifica- 
tion. Although an attempt has been made to dispense as far as possible 
with botanical or technical terms, the use of some was unavoidable. 
Such terms will be found explained in the Illustrated Glossary at p. 1. 



KEY to the NATURAL ORDERS of PLANTS 
described in this work 

The Vegetable Kingdom may be divided into two Great Groups or 
Sub-Kingdoms, namely : — 

I. FLOWEEING PLANTS, or PHANEEOGAMS. 

These are trees, shrubs or herbs with more or less conspicuous 
flowers provided with stamens and pistils in the same or separate 
flowers, and seeds containing a distinct embryo, as in annuals and 
biennials, herbaceous plants, trees, shrubs &c. 

II. NON-FLOWEEING PLANTS, or CEYPTOGAMS. 

These include the Feens (Filices), Horsetails (Equisetum), 
Cltjbmosses (Lycopodium), Mushrooms (Agaricus), and all the 
lower vegetable organisms. 

Flowering Plants (or Phanerogams) are divided into Two Classes : — 
(i.) ANGIOSPERMS— This group includes all the flowering 
plants popularly known as annuals, biennials, herbaceous peren- 
nials and trees and shrubs, described in this work from p. 131 to 
p. 972. They are characterised by having roots, stems, leaves, 
and flowers, and have their seeds enclosed or hidden in an ovary, 



122 PBAGTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



seed vessel, or fruit. It is this latter characteristic that gives the 
name to the group, the word ' angiosperm ' being derived from 
' angios,' hidden, and ' sperma,' a seed. 

(ii.) GYMNOSPERMS.— In these plants the flowers are 
strictly unisexual, that is either all female or all male, and the 
perianth, ovary, and styles are absent. The ovules are naked 
(not enclosed in carpels), and are fertilised by direct contact 
with the pollen, and not by means of a pollen tube (see p. 24). 
Cotyledons (seed-leaves) 2, or sometimes in whorls of 3 or more. 
Natural Orders with these Characters. — Gnetace^e, p. 972, Coni- 
FER2E, p. 972. 

The Angiosperms (or plants having their seeds enclosed in an ovary) 
are also divided into two main groups or sub-classes, viz. : — 

1. Dicotyledons (p. 131) and 2. Monocotyledons (p. 805), the 
characters of which are given below with the various groups belonging 
to them. 

Sub-Class I. DICOTYLEDONS (p. 131 to p. 805). 

The plants belonging to this group are described in this work from 
p. 131 to p. 805, and are characterised by having stems with bark, pith, 
and wood, and when perennial, increasing in diameter by an annual 
layer of wood added to the outside of the old wood, and another of 
bark to the inside of the old bark. Leaves usually with netted veins. 
Flowers with the parts usually in fours or fives, and usually with 
a distinct perianth. Ovules in closed carpels, through the tissues 
of which the pollen tube passes to effect fertilisation as described at 
p. 24. Embryo with 2 cotyledons or seed leaves. 

Dicotyledons are subdivided into 3 main divisions, viz. : — 1. Poly- 
petalce ; 2. DiscifiorcB ; and 3. Calycifiora, each of which is again 
subdivided into series, cohorts, and natural orders as below. 

Division I. POLYPETALM (p. 131 to p. 477). 

Flowers with both calyx (sepals) and corolla (petals). Petals free 
or distinct from each other. 

Series I. Thalamifloile (p. 131 to p. 284). 

Sepals usually free. Petals definite, often numerous. Stamens 
inserted on a torus or receptacle, hypogynous, numerous or definite. 
Carpels free {apocarpous) or united (syncarpous). 

Cohort 1. Ran ales (carpels usually free). — Stamens numerous. 
Perianth consisting of calyx only, or of calyx and corolla. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Eanunculace^e 
(p. 131), Calycanthace^: (p. 172), Magnoliace^: (p. 173), Ano- 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 123 



nace.e (p. 177), Menispermace^ (p. 178), Berbebide.2E (p. 178), 

NYMPHiE ACEiE (p. 185). 

Cohort 2. Parietales (placentas parietal). — Stamens nu- 
merous or definite in number. Ovary 1-celled or with spurious 
dissepiments. Ovules usually many. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Sarraceniace.e 
(p. 188),Papaverace^ (p. 189), Fumariace^e (p. 198), Crucifer/K 
(p. 201), Eesedace^: (p. 222), Cistine^e (p. 223), Violarie^e 
(p. 227), BixinejE (p. 235). 

Cohort 3. Polygaline^e. — Sepals and petals 5, rarely 4 
or 3. Stamens equal to or twice as many as the petals or sepals. 
Carpels usually 2, cohering in a more or less perfectly 2-celled 
ovary. Flowers regular or irregular. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Pittospore^ (p. 236), 

P0LYGALE.E (p. 237). 

Cohort 4. CARYOPHYLLiNEiE (placentas free central). — Sepals 
2-5, rarely 6, free or united. Petals equal in number, or more, or 
fewer by abortion. Stamens as many as petals, or twice as 
many, rarely more or fewer. Ovary usually 1-celled. 

Natural Orders with these Characters.— Frankeniace^e 
(p. 238), Caryophylle^e (p. 238), Portulace.e (p. 261), Tama- 
riscine^e (p. 264). 

Cohort 5. Guttiferales (stamens numerous, calyx imbri- 
cate). — Sepals 2-5, often 4 or 5, rarely numerous. Petals as many 
as sepals, rarely more. Ovary usually 3- or more celled. Flowers 
regular. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Hypericlne^e (p. 265), 
Ternstrcemiace^e (p. 267). 

Cohort 6. Mal vales (stamens numerous, calyx valvate).— 
Calyx lobes or sepals 5, rarely 2-4. Petals usually 5, rarely none. 
Stamens free or united in one bundle. Ovary usually 3- or more 
celled. 

Natural Orders with these Characters.— Malvaceae (p. 270), 
Sterculiace^ (p. 280), Tiliace^e (p. 280). 

Series II. Disciflor^: (p. 284 to p. 322). 
Flowers regular ivith parts usually in fives. Calyx usually free 
from the ovary. Stamens often definite inserted beloio or above or 
around a disc. Ovary ustially superior or immersed in the disc. 
Carpels usually united. 

Cohort 1. Geraniales. — Disc often beneath the stems or ad- 
nate to the staminal column, or reduced to glands alternating with 
the petals. Ovary entire or often lobed, or with almost free carpels. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Line^e (p. 282), 
Geraniace^: (p. 284), Kutace^e (p. 295), Simarube^ (p. 298). 



124 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

Cohort 2. Olacales. — Disc cup-shaped or ringed, free, or 
bearing the stamens and petals, or divided into glands. Ovary 
entire. Leaves simple. 

Natural Order with these Characters. — Ilicine^e (p. 299). 

Cohort 3. Celasteales. — Disc cushion-like or adnate to the 
calyx. Stamens inserted around or on the margins of the disc. 
Ovary usually entire. Leaves simple or rarely compound. 

Natural Orders with these Characters.— Celastrine^e (p. 301), 
Khamne^e (p. 303), AmpelidejE (p. 307). 

Cohort 4. Sapindales. — Disc various. Stamens inserted 
beneath, above or around it. Ovary entire or often lobed. 
Leaves pinnate, or rarely simple or digitate. Flowers often 
polygamous dioecious. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Sapindaces (Acer- 
ines) (p. 310), Anacardiaces (p. 319), Coriarie^e (p. 321). 

Series III. Calyciflor^e (p. 322 to p. 477). 

Calyx tube enclosing the ovary or adnate to it. Petals in one 
series enclosed by the calyx tube. Stamens many or definite, inserted 
on the calyx tube. Ovary inclosed by calyx tube or inferior. 

Cohort 1. Eosales. — Flowers regular or irregular, often herm- 
aphrodite. Carpels solitary or numerous, free or united at the 
base. Styles usually distinct. Leaves variously compound, or 
simple. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — LeguminoSjE (p. 322), 
Bosaces (p. 355), Saxifrages (p. 414), Crassulaces (p. 437), 
Droseraces (p. 443), Hamamelides (p. 444), Halorages 
(p. 446). 

Cohort 2. Myrtales. — Flowers regular or nearly so, usually 
hermaphrodite. Ovary syncarpous, inferior or enclosed by calyx 
tube. Style undivided. Leaves simple, entire, rarely toothed. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Myrtaces (p. 447), 
Melastomaces (p. 449), Lythraries (p. 449), Onagraries 
(p. 451). 

Cohort 3. Passiflorales. — Flowers regular or nearly so, 
rarely irregular. Ovary syncarpous, inferior or superior, usually 
enclosed by the calyx tube, 1-celled. Styles more or less divided 
or entire, or distinct from the base. Leaves entire, lobed, or 
dissected. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Loases (p. 457), 
Passiflores (p. 459), Cucurbitaces (p. 460), Begoniaces 
(p. 462). 

Cohort 4. Ficoidales. — Flowers regular or nearly so, with 
numerous petals and stamens. Ovary syncarpous, half superior or 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 125 



superior, 1- or more celled. Styles free, or divided at the apex. 
Leaves entire, or absent on fleshy stems. 

Natural Orders ivith these Characters. — Cacte^e (p. 463), 
Ficoide^e (p. 464). 

Cohort 5. Umbellales. — -Flowers regular. Ovary inferior, 
2- or more celled. Styles distinct or united at the base. Stamens 
usually definite. 

Natural Orders ivith these Characters. — Umbellifer^e (p. 464), 
Araliace^e (p. 469), Cornace^e (p. 473). 

Division II. GAMOFETALM or MONOFETALM (p. 477 to p. 759). 

Flowers with both calyx and corolla. Petals more or less united 
into a 2- or more lobed corolla. 

Series I. Epigyn^e (p. 477 to p. 571). 

Ovary inferior. Stamens usually equal in number to the lobes of 
the corolla. Mostly herbs, often with milky juice. Shrubs in Capri- 
foliaceai and a few Composite. 

Cohort 1. Eubiales. — Leaves usually opposite or verticillate. 
Stamens attached to the corolla (epipetalous) . Ovary 2- or more 
celled, each cell with 2 or more ovules. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Caprifoliace^e 
(p. 477), Kubiace^e (p. 486). 

Cohort 2. Asterales. — Stamens attached to the corolla. 
Ovary 1-celled, 1-ovuled. 

Natural Orders ivith these Characters. — Valeriane^e (p. 488), 
Dipsace;e (p. 490), Composite (p. 492). 

Cohort 3. Campanales. — Stamens usually free from the 
corolla. Ovary 1- or more celled, each with 1 or many ovules. 

Natural Order ivith these Characters. — Campanulace^; 
(p. 555). 

Series II. Hypogyn^: (p. 571 to p. 759). 

Ovary often superior. Stamens free from the corolla, opposite the 
lobes, or twice or more than twice as many in number. 

Cohort 4. Ericales. — Flowers regular, hermaphrodite. 
Stamens twice as many as the lobes of the corolla, or equal in 
number and alternate with them. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Vacciniace^; (p. 571), 
Ericace^ (p. 574), Diapensiace^i (p. 599). 

Cohort 5. Primulales. — Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or 
polygamous by abortion. Stamens equal in number to lobes or 
petals of the corolla and opposite them. Ovary 1-celled. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Plumbagine^e 
(p. 600), Primulace^e (p. 604). 



126 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Cohort 6. Ebenales. — Trees or shrubs. Flowers regular, 
hermaphrodite or unisexual. Stamens equal in number to, or 
twice as many as, or more than, the corolla lobes. Ovary 2- or 
more celled. 

Natural Orders loith these Characters. — Ebenace^e (p. 632), 
Stybaceje (p. 633). 

Cohort 7. Gentianales. — Leaves usually opposite. Corolla 
regular. Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes and equal in 
number, or if fewer often alternate with the carpels. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Oleace,e (p. 636), 
Apocynace^e (p. 644), Asclepiade^e (p. 646), Loganiace^e 
(p. 648), Gentiane^e (p. 650). 

*** Ovary usually superior. Carpels 2, or rarely 1 or 3. 

Cohort 8. Polemoniales. — Leaves usually alternate. Corolla 
regular. Stamens alternate with the corolla lobes and equal 
in number. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Polemoniace.e 
(p. 658), Hydrophyllace^e (p. 666), Boragine^e (p. 670), 

CONVOLVULACE^E (p. 682), SOLANACEiE (p. 687). 

Cohort 9. Personales. — Corolla often irregular or oblique. 
Upper stamen smaller than the others, or often reduced to a 
staminode or absent. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Scrophularine^e 
(p. 701), Lentibularie.e (p. 728), Gesnerace^e (p. 729), BlGNO- 
N1ACE.E (p. 731), Pedaline^e (p. 734), ACANTHACE.E (p. 735). 

Cohort 10. Lamiales. — Corolla often irregular, oblique or 
2-lipped. Upper stamen often reduced to a staminode or 
absent. Carpels 1-ovuled or collaterally 2-ovuled. Fruit often 
enclosed by the calyx, indehiscent. 

Natural Orders icith these Characters. — Selagineje (p. 737), 
Verbenace.e (p. 738), Labiat.e (p. 742). 

Division III. MONOCHLAMYDEM, INCOMPLETE, or 
ACHLAMYDEM (p. 759 to p. 805). 

Flowers in which the corolla is usually and the calyx often absent. 

(a) Flowers hermaphrodite, or unisexual or polygamous in a few 

genera. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Nyctagineje (p. 759), 

ILLECEBRACE^E (p. 761), AMARANTACE.E (p. 761), CHENOPODIACEiE 
(p. 765), PHYTOLACCACE^ (p. 766), PoLYGONACEiE (p. 767). 

(b) Herbs or shrubs. Ovary apocarpous, syncarpous or mono- 

carpous. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Aristolochiace^: (p. 772), 
Piperace^e (p. 773). 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 127 



(c) Ovary usually rnonocarpous. Trees or shrubs, very rarely 
herbs. Flowers often hermaphrodite. Stamens perigynous. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Laurine^e (p. 774), 
Proteace.e (p. 776), Thymel;eace,e (p. 777), El^eagxack.e (p. 779). 

(d) Trees or shrubs, sometimes herbs. Flowers usually strictly 
unisexual. Perianth calyx-like, minute or none. Ovary syncarpous 
or rnonocarpous. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Loranthace.e (p. 781), 
EuphorbiacEjE (p. 782), Urticace^e (p. 785), Platanace^e (p. 789), 
JUGLANDE.E (p. 790), Myricace^e (p. 792), Cupulifer^e (p. 793), 
Salicine^e (p. 802), Empetrace^e (p. 804). 

Sub-Class II. MONOCOTYLEDONS (p. 805 to p. 972). 

The plants belonging to this class have stems without bark, pith, or 
concentric rings, and do not increase in diameter by annual layers 
of wood. Leaves usually with parallel veins, but net-veined in 
Aroide^e (p. 953) and Smilacixe^e (p. 808). Flowers with the parts 
mostly in threes or fours, never in fives. Embryo with a single seed- 
leaf (cotyledon). First-formed leaves alternate ; radicle not branching, 
but throwing out adventitious roots. 

Division I. PETALOIDE.fi (p. 805 to p. 952). 

Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely unisexual. Perianth rarely absent, 
usually in two series ; the inner series or corolla usually petal-like ; 
the outer series or calyx often also petal-like. 

Series 1. — Hypogynae. — Ovary superior, carpels more or less free 
and distinct from each other, or completely united. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Naiadace^e (p. 805), 

ALTSMACE.E (p. 805), COMMELINACE.E (p. 807) LlLIACE^E (p. 808), 
JUNCACE^E (p. 882), PONTEDERIACE.E (p. 882). 

Series 2. — Epigyn^e. — Ovary inferior. Flowers regular, irregular, 
or zygomorphic. Stamens in threes or sixes, sometimes reduced to 
one only, and sometimes in waxy pollen masses. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Hydrocharide^e (p. 883), 
Dioscoreace^e (p. 884), Scitamine^e (p. 884), FLemodorace.e (p. 889), 

ORCHIDEiE (p. 890), AMARYLLIDEJi (p. 893), IRIDE.E (p. 916). 

Division II. SPADICIFLOBM (p. 952 to p. 956). 

Flowers small, usually on a spadix, sometimes solitary, frequently 
unisexual, but sometimes dioecious. Perianth often wanting, never 
petal-like. 



128 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



Natural Orders with these Characters. 
Aroide/E (p. 953), Palmes (p. 955). 



-Typhacee (p. 952), 



Division III. GLUMIFLORjE (p. 956 to p. 972). 

Flowers hermaphrodite or unisexual, and then mostly monoecious, 
usually in heads or spikelets invested by imbricate bracts. Perianth 
absent or scaly. Ovary superior, 1- or more celled. 

Natural Orders with these Characters. — Graminee (p. 956), 
Cyperace^e (p. 971). 

Summary of the Above 

Sub-Kingdom I. Flowering Plants (p. 131 to p. 1008). 

Class I. Angiosperms (p. 131 to p. 972). 

Sub-Class I. Dicotyledons. Sub-Class II. Monocotyledons. 

Division (i). Polypetalae (p. 131 to Division (i). Petaloidese (p. 805 



top. 952). 
Series (a) Hypogynse (p. 805 to 
p. 883). 
(6) Epigynae (p. 883 to 
p. 952). 
Division (ii). Spadiciflorse (p. 952 

to p. 956). 
Division (iii). Glumiflorge (p. 956 
to p. 972). 



p. 477). 
Series (a) Thalamiflorae (p. 131 
to p. 284). 
(b) Disciflorae (p. 284 to 
p. 322). 
,, (c) Calycinorsa (p. 322 to 
p. 477). 
Division (ii). Gamopetala? (p. 477 
top. 759). 
Series (a) Epigynae (p. 477 to 
p. 571). 
„ (b) Hypogynae (p. 571 to 
p. 759). 
Division (iii). Incomplete (p. 759 
to p. 805). 

Class II. Gymnosperms (p. 972 to p. 1008), including Gnetacee 
(p. 972), and Conifers (p. 972). 

Sub-Kingdom II. Non-Flowering Plants (p. 1008 to p. 1024). 
Ferns (p. 1008), Horsetails (p. 1023), Clubmosses (p. 1024). 

How to use the ' Key.' — It may perhaps be as well to give an idea as 
to the way in which the ' Key ' is to be used for finding out the order, 
genus, and species to which any particular plant may belong. First of 
all, the plant should be carefully examined in regard to the roots, stem, 
leaves, flowers &c, noting size, shape, colour &c, and the ' Key ' should 
then be used in the following sequence, as shown in the summary 



CLASSIFICATION OF PLANTS 129 

above. 1. Sub-Kingdom. 2. Class. 3. Sub-Class. 4. Division. 
5. Series. 6. Cohort or subordinate group of each series. 7. Natural 
Order. 8. Genus. 9. Species. 

For the sake of example, let the reader assume that he has a Wall- 
flower but does not know that it is a Wallflower. He is then to proceed 
as follows to find out what it is from the ' Key.' 

1. He consults the two sub-divisions of the Vegetable Kingdom 
((1) ' Flowering ' and (2) ' Non-Flowering ' Plants) and decides that it 
belongs to the flowering one, as it has flowers and is therefore what 
botanists call a 'Phanerogam.' 

2. He then refers to the two ' Classes ' of Flowering Plants (Angio- 
sperms and Gymnosperms), and having discovered that the flowers have 
(i) a distinct perianth, and (ii) ovules (young seeds) enclosed in carpels or 
pods, the plant is regarded as belonging to the group called ' Angio- 
sperms,' or plants with seeds hidden or concealed within an ovary or 
fruit. 

3. The two sub-classes of Angiosperms, i.e. ' Dicotyledons ' and 
' Monocotyledons,' are next referred to, and as it has (i) net-veined 
leaves, (ii) bark or rind to the stem, and (iii) the parts of the flower 
arranged in fours or fives, he places it down as a ' Dicotyledon.' 

4. There are three divisions of Dicotyledons : namely, Polypetalce 
(p. 122), Gamopetalce (p. 125), and Incomplete or Monocklamydece 
(p. 126) ; and it is found that the Wallflower belongs to ' Polypetalas,' 
(i) because the flowers have ' both calyx and corolla,' and (ii) because 
the petals are ' free or distinct from each other.' 

5. Polypetalae is divided into three groups or ' series ' — Thalami- 
florae (p. 122), Disciflorse (p. 123), Calyciflorae (p. 124), and it will be 
found that the Wallflower belongs to Thalarniflorse, because (i) the 
stamens are hypogynous and are inserted on a torus, thalamus, or 
receptacle, and not on the calyx tube as in Calyciflorae, and (ii) the 
flowers are not in fives as in most of the Discifiorse. 

6. When a series is divided into ' cohorts ' or sections the characters 
of each of these are examined in the same way. The Wallflower 
evidently does not belong to the cohort ' Kanales,' (i) because the car- 
pels are not free, and (ii) because the stamens are not numerous. But 
owing to the ovary, or seed pod, being 1-celled, and containing many 
ovules or seeds, it may be safely assumed to belong to the ' Parietales ' 
group, which has such characters. 

7. Under this group there are eight distinct natural orders men- 
tioned. The point now is to find out to which one of them the Wall- 
flower belongs. They are taken in rotation, and the characters of 
each will be found at the page given in brackets. It is unnecessary to 



130 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 

detail the reasoning process with each order, but the reader may take 
it for granted or reason it out as above that the Wallflower belongs to 
the natural order ' Cruciferae,' because it agrees in the main with all 
the essential characters of the order as set forth at p. 201, and it cannot 
be made to fit into any other order. 

8. Having found the order, the genus or surname of the plant has 
next to be found. The genera in each Order follow in natural (not 
alphabetical) order, and the reader will find that his Wallflower will not 
fit into the first genus, ' Matthioli ' or Stock (p. 201), nor into the second, 
' Parrya ' (p. 203), but it agrees in almost every detail with the characters 
of the third genus, ' Cheiranthus ' (p. 204). It is therefore placed under 
that genus and bears its name. 

9. The last step in the identification of the plant is to discover what 
species it is. As there are generally only a few of these in each genus, 
they have been described in alphabetical order, for the sake of con- 
venience. The characters of each species have been given in sufficient 
detail to enable the reader to decide for himself which specific (or as it 
were christian) name he is to apply to the plant. He may regard species 
in the same light as brothers and sisters, differing from each other in 
details, but all having the same family or surname. 

10. Varieties. — Besides the above nine steps to be followed in 
tracing or running down any plant, it may be added that there are 
often many ' varieties ' or forms of one species (see, for example, Clematis 
heraclecefolia, p. 133). These varieties usually agree in almost every 
detail with the species, but often have flowers of a different shade of 
colour, or the leaves may be broader or narrower, hairy or smooth, and 
so on. Where such characters are constant, a varietal name, often 
describing the peculiarity, such as alba, rosea, purpurea, tomentosa, 
is sometimes given. 

11. Florists' Varieties. — What are known as florists' varieties, how- 
ever, are quite distinct from natural varieties. The custom now is to 
give popular fancy names to florists' varieties, and they represent often 
only the slightest variations in colour shades, which may differ with 
good or bad cultivation, shadow or sunshine &c, and can in no way 
be kept constant if the plants are increased from seeds. 

It therefore matters little what name is given to florists' varieties 
of such plants as Clematis, Pseonia, Carnation, Pink, Polyanthus, 
Primrose, Violet, Pansy, Phlox, Pentstemon, Hollyhock, Kose, Dahlia, 
Chrysanthemum, Gladiolus, and many others, although for the sake of 
convenience one must use them when they represent really fine garden 
plants. 



THE 

HAEDY FLOWEB GABDEN 

DESCRIPTION, CULTURE, AND PROPAGATION OF THE MOST 
DESIRABLE HERBACEOUS AND ALPINE FLOWERS, ORNAMENTAL 
AND FLOWERING TREES AND SHRUBS, BAMBOOS, FERNS, &c, 
SUITABLE FOR THE OPEN AIR IN THE BRITISH ISLANDS. 



Division I. POLYPETALOUS DICOTYLEDONS 
Series I. — Thalamifloile (see p. 122). 



I. RANUNCULACEiE— Crowfoot or Buttercup Order 

Chiefly herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, with alternate or opposite (as in 
Clematis) and generally much -divided leaves, the stalks of which are dilated 
at the base, forming a sheath half clasping the stem. Flowers regular or 
irregular, with 3-6 hypogynous deciduous sepals, usually imbricate in bud. 
Petals 3-15, hypogynous, in one or more rows, sometimes assuming very 
remarkable forms, as in Larkspur {Delphinium), Columbine (Aquilegia), and 
Monkshood (Aconitum). Stamens usually numerous, hypogynous. Carpels 
numerous, one-celled, free, or occasionally united into a many-celled pistil. 
Fruit either consists of dry, indehiscent achenes, as in Buttercup ; or berries, 
as in Baneberry ; or follicles, as in the Paeony. 

The order contains about 1,000 known species, chiefly natives of damp, 
cold climates. A few are found in the tropics, but at very high elevations. 

CLEMATIS (Traveller's Joy; The by a mulching of good rotten manure in 

Virgin's Bower). — A genus of shrubs autumn. Tbe plants are very ornamental 

which creep or climb by their leaf-stalks, trained over walls, trellises, arbours, &c. 

and have opposite compound leaves, with- They may be propagated by sowing the 

out stipules. Calyx consists of 4 petal-like seeds in spring in light sandy soil, in 

sepals (garden forms have more) usually gentle heat ; or in cold frames as soon as 

valvate. There is no corolla, and the fruit ripe, afterwards pricking the seedlings out 

is a head of sessile or stalked achenes, and giving more space for a sturdy devel- 

with long, generally feathered awns or opment. Planting out may take place in 

styles, which give the plants a beautiful spring or early in autumn. Clematises 

appearance even in winter. may also be increased by layers outside 

Culture and Propagation. — Clema- put in at any time, but care must be 

tises like a rich loamy soil with a certain taken that they are not separated from 

amount of chalk or lime, and are benefited the parent plants until well rooted. 

k2 



132 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



CLEMATIS 



Cuttings may also be made from the 
young shoots, cut almost to every eye and 
placed in a hotbed in sandy soil early in 
spring. The garden hybrids are generally 
grafted in spring on the roots of such 
species as C. Vitalba, C. Viticella and 
C. Flammula, but unsatisfactory residts 
often follow owing to an imperfect union 
between stock and scion, and also 
perhaps because growth in spring begins, 
or tries to begin, in one before the other. 
If the scion, for example, would natur- 
ally start into growth on its own roots 
a week or so in advance of the stock, it 
is easy to see that trouble woidd arise 
from this cause ; and the same with the 
stock starting into growth before the 
scion was naturally ready to absorb the 
sap. Increase by cuttings and layers is 
now more general in many places, but 
many kinds also admit of being divided at 
the root in spring or autumn in favour- 
able weather. 

C. aethusifolia. — A graceful climber, 
4-6 ft. high, from N. China, with small 
twice or thrice pinnatisect leaves with 
narrow linear lobes. The bell-shaped or 
tubular flowers are half an inch or more 
long, yellowish-white, and are produced 
in great profusion in summer. The variety 
latisecta is distinguished from the type by 
its larger leaf segments. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. alpina (Atragene alpina; A. aus- 
triaca ; A. sibirica). — A pretty climber 
from the mountains of Europe. The 
biternate leaves have ovate-lance-shaped, 
pointed, serrate leaflets. Flowers in May 
vary from blue to white ; petals 10-12, 
linear at the base, dilated at the apex. 
There is a white-flowered variety named 
alba. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

C. apiifolia. — A vigorous species about 
10 ft. high, native of China and Japan. It 
has ternate leaves, and dull white flowers, 
3-4 in. across, in August and September. 

C. brevicauclata (or C. Pieroti), with 
pinnate or twice ternate leaves, and small 
white flowers, is very near this. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

C. aromatica (C. ccerulea odorata). — A 
slender sub-shrubby species, 4-6 ft. high, 
probably of hybrid origin between C. 
integrifolia and C. recta. The leaves 
have five shortly stalked or almost sessile 
lobes more or less ovate-oblong in shape. 
The sweet-scented solitary flowers appear 



in summer and are about 2 in. across and 
of a deep violet-blue. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. ca^rulea (C. azurea grandiflora). — 
A Japanese species with spreading hairy 
ternate leaves, having ovate-acute entire 
leaflets. The large violet-coloured flowers 
with deep purple stamens are produced 
about Jvme and July. 

Many garden forms have originated 
from this species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. calycina (C. balearica, A. Rich). — 
This species — a native of Corsica and 
Minorca — is hardy only in the south of 
England and the milder parts of the 
British Isles. The ternate leaves have 
3-lobed stalked and deeply toothed 
leaflets, which in winter assume a fine 
bronzy tint. The greenish-yellow bell- 
shaped flowers are about 2 in. across, and 
heavily spotted with reddish-purple. They 
are produced from January to April in 
clusters of four or five and look very 
attractive at that season. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species should be sheltered by growing on 
a south wall. It likes a rich loamy soil, 
and is best left to ramble about at will, 
as it dislikes the use of the knife. The 
foliage is evergreen, and during the 
autumn and winter months may be used 
for room decoration with flowers, owing 
to its rather attractive tints. 

C. campaniflora. — A Portuguese 
climber, 12-18 ft. high, having biternately 
cut leaves, subdivided into about twenty- 
four entire or 3-lobed leaflets. The pale 
violet or white bell-shaped flowers are 
about one inch across, and are freely 
produced in June and July. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. cirrhosa (C. balearica, Pers.). — An 
evergreen climber 8-10 ft. high. Native 
of Spain, Algiers, and the mountains of 
N. Africa. Leaves ovate, somewhat heart- 
shaped, toothed. Flowers dull white or 
cream-coloured, about H in. across, downy 
outside, smooth within, produced in droop- 
ing clusters about March and April. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. coccinea (C. texensis). — A beautiful 
species from Texas, with stems 6-10 ft. 
high, which in this country usually die 
down in winter. The flowers vary in 
colour from crimson to scarlet, and are 
swollen at the base, the tips of the 4 
leathery sepals being recurved. They 



CLEMATIS 



BUTTE B CUP OBDEB 



CLEM \TIS 



133 



appear during the early summer months 
and at once attract attention by their vivid 
colour. This species has been used in the 
production of various hybrids. The variety 
major has larger flowers than the type. 

Of late years several beautiful hybrids 
between this and some of the leading hardy 
kinds have been raised by Messrs. Jack- 
man, of Woking, the most notable being 
'Countess of Onslow,' ' Duchess of York,' 
and ' Duchess of Albany.' All were figured 
in the ' Garden ' for October 16, 1897. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

C. connata. — A beautiful Himalayan 
climber with woody stems and coarsely 
toothed leaflets 3-5 in. long, and some- 
times more or less 3-lobed. Flowers in 
autumn, bell-shaped, clear yellow, re- 
curved at the tips. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

C. crispa (C. cijlindrica ; C. Simsi). — 
A hardy evergreen from N. America, 3-4 ft. 
high, with purplish stems. Leaves entire, 
3-lobed or ternate, acute. The nodding 
pale lilac, white, or purple fragrant flowers 
appear from June until the autumn. There 
seems to be great variation in the leaves 
and colour of the flowers of this species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Douglasi. — Although discovered 
many years ago on the Eocky Mountains, 
this species is not yet well known in British 
gardens. The flowers are about an inch 
long, bell-shaped, and recurved at the tips, 
deep purple within, paler outside. They 
are produced in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Flammula. — This native of Southern 
Europe is one of the oldest Clematises in 
cultivation, and at the same time one of 
the most vigorous and free-flowering of 
climbers. Leaves pinnate, smooth, with 
roundish, oval, oblong, or linear entire or 
3-lobed deep green leaflets, which remain 
on the plants well into the winter. The 
creamy white, fragrant flowers are less 
than an inch across, and appear in late 
summer and autumn, giving place to white 
and feathery fruits. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. flcrida. — A Japanese species 9-12 ft. 
high, with ternately decompound leaves, 
and ovate-acute entire leaflets. "When fully 
open the creamy white solitary flowers, 
consisting of 6 or 8 oval lanceolate sepals, 
are from 2-4 in. across with purple 
stamens in the centre. They appear from 
April to September. 



There is a well-known and beautiful 
form with double flowers. 
Culture dc. as above. 

C. Fortunei. — A splendid species, also 
from Japan, with leathery trifoliate leaves, 
and roundish heart-shaped leaflets. The 
white fragrant flowers, about an inch 
across, consist of numerous oblong-lanceo- 
late stalked segments, and appear during 
the summer months. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Fremonti. — A dwarf species 12 ft. 
high, from North America. The rarely 
branched stems bear numerous unstalked 
leathery leaves, 3-4 in. long, and drooping 
purple flowers recurved at the tips pro- 
duced during the summer. The tails or 
awns of the fruits are downy when young. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. fusca. — A somewhat shrubby 
species from N. Asia with prostrate rather 
than climbing stems, 6-8 ft. long. The 
reddish-brown bell-shaped flowers appear 
in summer and are covered with a short 
thick brownish wool. The hairy fruits 
form a globular head about one inch in 
diameter. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Hendersoni (C. eriostemon). — This 
is supposed to be a hybrid between C. 
Viticella and C. integrifolia, and origi- 
nated at Mr. Henderson's nursery, St. 
John's Wood, in 1835. It reaches a 
height of 8-10 ft. and produces from 
June to September deep blue, faintly 
perfumed flowers over two inches across. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. heracleaefolia (C. tubulosa). — Hya- 
cinth Clematis. — A dwarf, sturdy species 
from N. China, with more or less trailing 
stems, large lobed leaves, and short 
stalked corymbs of purplish-blue tubular 
flowers, like those of a Hyacinth, produced 
during the summer and early autumn 
months. 

The variety davidiana is often re- 
garded as a species. It has trailing 
stems 4-5 ft. long, and large ovate leaflets 
often about 6 in. long. Flowers tubular, 
bright lavender-blue, about j in. long, the 
tips of the petals reflexed. 

The variety Hookeri has large pin- 
nately 3-foliolate leaves with elliptic acute 
toothed leaflets, and tubular lilac flowers. 
Culture dc. as above. The plants 
are readily increased by division of the 
roots in spring. 



134 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



CLEMATIS 



C. indivisa. — A charming New Zea- 
land species growing several feet high, 
having dull green or purplish sterns and 
ternate leaves, the latter being composed 
of 3 oblong ovate leathery deep green 
smooth leaflets 2^-3 in. long. The pure 
white starry flowers, about 3 in. across, 
and consisting of 6-8 oblong sepals 
surrounding a cluster of greenish or 
yellowish -white stamens, appear out of 
doors in April and May, but in February 
if the plants are grown in greenhouses. 
They are borne in loose panicles, some- 
times as many as 20 in one truss. The 
variety lobata has flowers exactly like 
those of the type, but it is readily recog- 
nised by means of its more or less lobed 
or sinuated leaflets. 

Culture and Propagation. — Unfortu- 
nately this fine species is hardy only in 
the mildest parts of the south and west, 
but in other parts of the kingdom it is 
well worth growing in a cool greenhouse 
for the sake of its attractive flowers. It 
likes a rich sandy loam and warm situa- 
tions oiit of doors, and is usually in- 
creased by grafting upon stocks of the 
Common Traveller's Joy (C. Vitalba). 
Cuttings of the half-ripened shoots, how- 
ever, will root readily in early summer if 
placed in sandy soil in gentle bottom heat 
in a hotbed or greenhouse. Amateurs 
will probably find it more convenient to 
obtain established plants from a nursery- 
man. Pruning, if necessary, is best done 
immediately flowering has ceased, and 
not while new growths are being made. 

C. integrifolia. — A European species 
with erect stems 2-3 ft. high. Leaves 
unstalked, 2-4 in. long, entire, ovate- 
lanceolate. The drooping blue flowers 
are borne singly from June to August 
near the top of the stems in the axils of 
the united and cup-shaped leaves. 

The variety Durandi has 5-nerved 
leaves 4-5 in. long, with a purplish downy 
margin, and purple beneath. Flowers 
deep violet-purple, each sepal with a pro- 
minent deeper coloured keel behind. 
Stamens in a thick cylindric silky cushion, 
white and yellow. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. lanuginosa. — A fine Chinese species 
5-6 ft. high. Leaves usually simple, 
broadly heart-shaped, acute, smooth 
above, with a greyish wool on the under 
surface. The solitary flowers appear 
early in summer, lasting till autumn, and 



are 6-7 in. across, with 6 or 8 spreading 
and overlapping sepals of a pale lavender, 
pure white or deep rich purple colour. 

The variety pallida has flowers 9-10 
in. across. 

C. lanuginosa is the parent of many 
of the most beautiful garden hybrids 
described below. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. ligusticifolia. — A species with stems 
about 30 ft. long, from North America. 
Leaves composed of 5 leaflets, each li-3 
in. long, 3-lobed or very coarsely toothed. 
Flowers white, about f in. across, are 
produced in summer, the pistillate or 
female flowers being on one plant, and the 
staminate or male on another. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. montana (C. anemonceflora). — This 
beautiful and well-known species is a 
native of the Himalayas. Its stems will 
cover walls to a height of 20 ft. or more, 
and are furnished with smooth ternate 
leaves, with oblong toothed and pointed 
feaflets. During April and May the 
large white flowers are produced in great 
profusion, either singly or several to- 
gether, and almost cover the foliage with 
a sheet of white. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
will flourish under almost any circum- 
stances and in any soil. 

C. ochroleuca. — A native of the 
Eastern United States, with stems 1-2 
ft. high, and entire ovate leaves, the 
younger ones being silky beneath. 
Flowers in summer, solitary, cream- 
coloured within, yellowish outside. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. orientalis. — A native of India and 
W. Asia, requiring some protection in 
this country during severe winters, 
especially in the less favoured parts. 
The stems climb from 12 to 30 ft. Leaves 
pinnate with smooth wedge-shaped leaflets 
having pointed lobes. Flowers in August 
and September, greenish-yellow, sweet- 
scented, tinged with russet, and borne 
in great abundance. The fruits have 
elegant silky tails. This species is also 
known as C. graveolens, a name having 
reference to the rather heavy odour of the 
blossoms. 

Culture dc. as above. Easily in- 
creased by cuttings or seeds. 

C. Pallasi. — A pretty plant 3-4 ft. 
high with trailing stems, pinnate leaves 



CLEMATIS 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



CLEMATIS 135 



and shortly stalked, ovate, lance-shaped, 
acute, leathery leaflets 1-1 A in. long, with 
sunken veins. Flowers in June, white 
with greenish-yellow stamens, and ohlong 
spoon-shaped sepals. 
Culture dc. as above. 

C. paniculata. — A Japanese species 
the stems of which attain a length of 
about 30 ft. Leaves pinnate with entire 
oval heart-shaped acute leaflets. From 
July to September the dullish white 
flowers, which resemble those of C. 
Flammula, and have a Hawthorn- or 
Daphne-like fragrance, are produced in 
many-flowered panicles. 

Culture a ml Propagation. — This plant 
does best trained against a sunny wall, or 
for covering old tree stumps, pillars &c, 
in warm southern parts. The stems may 
be cut down to within a foot or so of the 
ground in winter to keep the plant within 
bounds. 

C. patens. — Also a native of Japan, 
6-10 ft. high with leaves composed of 3-5 
segments smaller and narrower than in C. 
lanuginosa to which it is akin. Flowers 
in May and June, with 6-8 delicate 
mauve sepals. 

Many garden varieties, some of which 
are mentioned below, have larger flowers 
with white, deep blue, or violet sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Pitcheri (C. coloradensis). — A 
pretty and distinct plant 9-12 ft. high, 
native of Colorado and Western America. 
Its leaves consist of 3-9 ovate or heart- 
shaped, entire or 3-lobed leaflets, the 
uppermost leaves being often simple. 
The dull purplish, bell-shaped flowers, 
each about 1 in. long and f in. wide 
at the swollen base, appear during 
July and August, and have narrow 
recurved sepals, the tips of which are 
often yellow. The reddish-purple fruits 
have thread-like tails slightly silky. 

The variety lasiostylis is distinguished 
by the recurved sepals being tipped with 
deep purple -blue and by the deeper 
coloured and more hairy fruits ; and 
Sargenti is a small-flowered form of the 
type. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. recta (C. erecta). — A species with 
erect herbaceous stems 2-3 ft. high, native 
of Southern and Eastern Europe. The 
pinnate leaves have entire, ovate, pointed, 



stalked leaflets. Flowers from June to 
August, numerous, in dense corymbs, 
while and sweetly scented, each about an 
inch across. The variety florepleno is not 
often seen. It differs in having double 
flowers in rather denser clusters. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
may be increased by dividing the roots. 

C. reticulata. — A climber from the 
S. United States with leathery pro- 
minently net-veined leaves ; the upper 
ones simple elliptic ; lower ones pinnate 
with 7 9 variable leaflets. Flowers in 
September, dull green outside, purple 
within, solitary, drooping on long stalks. 
Sepals united, recurved at the tips, and 
thick and fleshy in texture. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. rhodochlora. — A garden variety 
with simple broadly oval, or somewhat 
heart-shaped shortly stalked leaves. 
Flowers about 2 in. across, with 2 small 
wine-red sepals and 2 large green ones. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Robertsiana. — This species has 
only recently been discovered 10,000- 
11,000 ft. up on the mountains of 
Afghanistan, and is probably not yet in 
cultivation. Flowers solitary, 3-5 in. 
across, pale lemon-yellow, closely re- 
sembling C. alpina in shape. 

Culture dc. as above 

C. Stanleyi. — A remarkable species 
2-3 ft. high, native of S. Africa. It is 
shrubby rather than climbing in habit, 
and the stems die down to the ground 
every winter, new ones sprouting up in 
spring. The leaves are twice pinnate 
with variously cut lobes, and are mostly 
covered with soft silky white hairs, 
although a few leaves are greenish but 
hairy. The flowers are produced during 
the summer months in the axils of the 
leaves, and vary from 2 to 3 in. across, the 
sepals being at first cup-shaped, but after- 
wards spreading out flat. They vary in 
colour from deep violet or puce to rose- 
purple, and almost white, and are in 
strong contrast to the large bunch of 
bright yellow stamens in the centre. 
When in fruit the plants present an 
elegant appearance, owing to the long 
silvery-white tails resembling miniature 
ostrich feathers. 

Culture and Propagation. — In mild 
winters this species is fairly hardy as far 
north as the Thames Valley, but it is 



136 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS clematis 



safer to protect the roots with a layer of 
dry leaves, litter, bracken &c. in the 
event of severe weather. Seeds are freely 
produced and may be sown in cold 
frames as soon as ripe, although they 
may not sprout freely until the following 
spring. The seedlings must be pricked 
out and grown on until the following 
spring, so that strong sturdy plants will 
be ready for planting out. Established 
clumps may be carefully divided at the 
roots. 

C. Stans.— A striking Japanese species 
with herbaceous stems 4-5 ft. high and 
dark green downy leaves, with roundish 
toothed leaflets, more or less 3-lobed. 
Flowers in September and October in 
terminal panicles or clusters in the axils 
of the leaves, each about § in. long, pale 
blue, more or less bell-shaped, and 
Hyacinth-like. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. verticillaris (Atragene americana). 
A native of N. America with stems 10 
ft. or more in length. Leaves whorled, in 
fours, with stalked heart- or lance-shaped 
pointed leaflets, somewhat lobed or 
serrated. Flowers in May, 2-3 in. across, 
purplish-blue, with acute sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Viorna (Leather Floiver). — This N. 
American species attains a height of 10 to 
12 ft. and is not a particularly vigorous 
grower. The smooth pinnate leaves have 
entire 3-lobed or ternate leaflets, ovate- 
acute in shape. About June the droop- 
ing balloon-shaped flowers appear, havmg 
thick leathery connivent sepals of a dull 
reddish-purple, and reflexed at the tips. 

Closely related to this species is C. 
Addisoni, a native of the Alleghany moun- 
tains. It has dark violet-purple sepals, 
with reflexed yellow tips. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. virginiana. — This is the common 
Virgin's Bower of the United States and 
Canada. Its stems reach a length of 15 
to 20 ft., and bear ternate leaves with 
heart-shaped, acute, largely toothed or 
lobed leaflets. The small white fragrant 
flowers appear from June to August, and 
like C. ligusticifolia the male and female 
flowers are borne on separate plants. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Vitalba (White Vine ; Old Man's 
Beard; Traveller's Joy, dc). — This is 
the only Clematis really indigenous to 



England, but does not appear to be a 
native of Scotland or Ireland. It climbs 
luxuriantly in hedges and thickets, and 
is most common on chalky soils. The 
pinnate leaves have ovate, heart-shaped, 
entire toothed or lobed leaflets. The 
greenish-white scented flowers are about 
an inch across, and are produced from 
July to September. The fruits have a 
white feathery tail an inch or so in length, 
and these give the plants a very attractive 
appearance late in the year, and during 
the winter months. 

In the Duke of Rutland's garden at 
Belvoir Castle there is a specimen 20 ft. 
high and 30 ft. in diameter. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Viticella (Vine Bower). — An ele- 
gant twiner 8-12 ft. high, and native of 
S. Europe and Western Asia. The leaves 
are entire or ternately decompound with 
entire lobes. The drooping blue, purple, 
or rose-coloured flowers, each about 2 in. 
across, are borne in summer. There are 
now many varieties of this species with 
many shades of colour, and most of them 
are superior to the type. The form called 
magnifica has purple flowers about 4| in. 
across. 

Culture dc. as above. 

HYBRID CLEMATIS.— By means 
of fertilising the carpels of one species 
with the pollen from another, gardeners 
have succeeded in raising a vast number 
of hybrids or cross-breeds, many of them 
being of the greatest value for the flower 
garden, and superior to any of the species 
found in a state of nature. (See Hybridi- 
sation, p. 37.) 

It is, however, not only impossible 
but quite unnecessary to give a long list 
of the various hj-brids here, as new 
names are continually being added, often 
without any justification, whenever the 
slightest change of colour is noticed. 

Special mention must be made of the 
beautiful Clematis Jackmanni and its 
many forms. This fine hybrid was raised 
by Mr. George Jackman of Woking, and 
first flowered about 1862. It is one of 
the earliest and best, and its large deep 
violet-purple flowers with 4-6 sepals are 
produced during the summer and autumn. 
The two species concerned in its produc- 
tion were C. Viticella and C. lanuginosa, 
natives of widely different parts of the 
Old World. The species chiefly con- 
erned with the other garden varieties are 



CLEMATIS 



BUTTE 11 CUP ORDER 



THALICTKUM 137 



given below in sections, and it will be 
seen that only a few have yet been 
utilised by the hybridiser out of the many 
kinds described above. 

The following is a list of the best 
kinds for the flower garden. They are 
arranged in the botanical sections to 
which they belong, and the usual period 
of flowering is given, so that a succession 
of kinds may be arranged. The culture 
and propagation are as described above 
under the genus, p. 131. 

' FLORIDA ' SECTION 

The following produce large handsome 
double flowers in summer from the old or 
ripened wood. Care must therefore be 
taken, when pruning or thinning, not to 
cut the ripe wood away. 

Belle of Woking, beautiful silver-grey, 
June. 

Countess of Lovelace, bright bluish- 
lilac, very fine, June. 

Duchess of Edinburgh, pure white, 
deliciously scented, June and July. 

John Gould Veitch, lavender. 

Lucie Lemoine, white, with the centre 
in the form of a rosette. 

' JACKMANNI ' SECTION 

These are all summer and autumn 
bloomers, flowers mostly large, produced 
in masses on the current year's shoots. 

Alexandra, pale reddish-violet, very 
free. 

Gypsy Queen, dark velvety purple, 
attractive. 

Jackmanni, intense violet-purple, a 
universal favourite. 

Jackmanni alba, a, tinted white var., 
very beautiful. 

Jackmanni ' Snow White,'' pure white, 
free. 

Jackmanni superba, very dark violet- 
purple, larger and of deeper colour than 
Jackmanni, very profuse bloomer. 

Madame Ed. Andre, a free and distinct 
variety with velvety-red flowers. 

Madame Grange, flowers crimson- 
violet, with red bar hi centre, a rich 
colour, sepals prettily crimped at the 
edges. 

Prince of Wales, deep purple. 

Star of India, reddish-violet, with 
purple tinge and red bars. 

' LANUGINOSA ' SECTION 

These flower summer and autumn, 
producing their large flowers in succession 
on short lateral shoots. 



Alba Magna, a very large white-flow- 
ered variety of free growth. 

Beauty of Worcester, double and 
single flowers of a lovely bluish-violet, 
with white stamens. 

Blue Gem, pale blue. 

Excelsior, rich deep mauve. 

Fairy Queen, pale flesh with pink bar. 

Henriji, large creamy white, finely 
formed, one of the best white autumn- 
flowering Clematises. 

La France, deep violet-purple, dark 
anthers, large and vigorous. 

Lady Caroline Neville, delicate bluish- 
white with mauve bars, large and finely 
formed. 

Marie Lefebvre, a fine mauve variety 
with single flowers. 

Mine. Van Houtte, white suffused 
mauve, free-flowering and a strong grower. 

Mrs. Hope, silvery-mauve. 

Nivea, large white, fine. 

Otto Freebel, greyish-white. 

Princess of Wales, deep bluish-mauve, 
with satiny surface, very fine. 

Purpurea elegans, deep purple. 

' PATENS ' SECTION 

These produce their large flowers in 
spring and summer, on the old ripened 
wood, a fact to be borne in mind when 
thinning out. 

Lady Londesborough, bluish-lilac, 
with pale purple bar. 

Miss Bateman, white, chocolate-red 
anthers. 

Mrs. George Jackman, satiny white 
with a creamy bar, flowers large and 
produced in profusion spring and autumn. 

' VITICELLA ' SECTION 

These varieties flower during the 
summer and autumn in profuse masses. 

Jiybrida Sieboldii, lavender. 

Lady Bovill, flowers greyish-blue, cup- 
shaped, fine. 

rubra grandiflora, bright claret-red, 
profuse bloomer. 

THALICTRUM (Meadow Rue).— 
A genus embracing about fifty species of 
hardy herbs with perennial stems, nearly 
all natives of the North temperate and 
frigid regions. The leaves are ternately 
decompound, and ustially elegant in ap- 
pearance ; when present on the stems, 
alternate. Flowers green, yellow, purple, 
or white, often polygamous, borne in 
panicles or racemes, usually small, with 
the stamens conspicuously protruding. 



138 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS thalictrum 



Involucre and petals absent. Sepals 4-5, 
petal-like. Carpels numerous. Fruit an 
achene, often stalked and compressed. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Meadow Eues will grow well in any 
ordinary garden soil, and are easily multi- 
plied by dividing the rootstocks in autumn 
or spring. 

When grown in masses or clumps in 
the border or rock garden, they lend a 
light and feathery grace to the surround- 
ings. For cutting purposes the foliage and 
flowers are very useful when mixed with 
larger and more showy blossoms. Seeds 
may be sown out of doors or in cold 
frames as soon as ripe, or in spring, 
afterwards pricking the seedlings out in 
mild, showery weather. 

T. alpinum. — This is a native of the 
British Isles, although somewhat rare in 
Ireland in a wild state. It will thrive in 
marshy or boggy places and requires peaty 
soil. The foliage is glaucous beneath, and 
the purplish flowers with drooping stamens 
appear in July and August. 

Culture dec. as above. 

T. anemonoides {Rue Anemone). — 
This N. American species has a stem 
about 6 in. high arising from a cluster 
of thickened tuberous roots. The white 
flowers appear in April and May, and 
have yellowish stamens. The leaves are 
2-3-ternate with roundish somewhat 
3-lobed leaflets on long stalks. A useful 
rock plant. There is a double variety 
with smaller flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
often called Anemone thalictroid.es. It is 
as a rule best raised from seeds, owing to 
the fact that if established clumps are 
divided they often take a long time to 
recover themselves. A partially shaded 
situation in the rockery, such as under a 
jutting boulder of rock, and a deep moist 
peaty soil suit it admirably. 

T. angustifolium. — A pretty species 
3-4 ft. high, native of W. Europe, having 
masses of light and graceful, deeply cut 
foliage. The clear greenish-yellow flowers 
are produced in feathery clusters in June 
and July, and give the whole plant a fine 
effect. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. aquilegifolium (Feathered ov Tufted 
Columbine). — A native of Europe and 
Asia with purple mealy pipe-like stems 
1-3 ft. high. Leaves like those of the 



Columbine, thrice pinnate with rounded, 
smooth deeply toothed leaflets. Flowers 
in early summer. Sepals white, fleeting ; 
stamens usually purple, sometimes white. 

The variety atropurpwrewn has dark 
purple stamens and stems ; the variety 
forrnosum dark purple stamens, dilated 
at the apes ; and the variety roseum has 
rose-coloured sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. Chelidoni. — A pretty little species 
about 6 in. high, native of Thibet. The 
twice ternate leaves are divided into downy 
and roundish 3-lobed and toothed leaflets 
each 4— f in. across, and the lilac-purple 
flowers with a bunch of yellow stamens in 
the centre droop from thread-like stalks in 
August, like those of T. Delavayi. 

Culture dc. as above. This is a pretty 
rock plant, but to be effective should be 
grown in bold masses. 

T. Delavayi. — ■ A charming Chinese 
species 2-4 ft. high, with pinnate leaves 
ternately divided into roundish and some- 
what 3-lobed and toothed leaflets. The 
flowers appear during the summer months 
gracefully drooping or nodding from the 
ends of slender thread-like stalks. They 
are lilac -purple in colour with a large 
bunch of yellowish stamens in the middle, 
and in conjunction with the elegantly cut 
foliage look extremely handsome. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. flavum {False Rhubarb; Fen 
Rue). — A native of the British Islands, 
growing in wet places, and worthy of a 
place among marsh or bog plants in the 
garden. The stout stems arise 2-4 ft. 
high from a yellow creeping rootstock, 
and bear ternately 2-3-pinnate leaves, 
with 3-lobed leaflets 1-1^ in. long. 
Flowers pale yellow, anthers bright 
yellow, produced in July and August. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. fcetidum (Fetid Meadow Rue). — 
A native of Europe and Asia, about 1 ft. 
high. Leaves decompound clothed with 
a clammy pubescence, 2-3-pinnate, with 
roundish heart-shaped leaflets, 3-5-lobed 
at apex. Flowers small, nodding, pro- 
duced in early summer in an erect, 
spreading panicle. Sepals reddish out- 
side ; anthers yellow. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. glaucum. — A South European 
species, with round, erect, striped and 
mealy stems 2-5 ft. high. The leaflets are 



THALICTRUM 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



ANEMONE 139 



ovate, rounded, 3-lobed, the lobes deeply 
toothed. In June and July the flowers, 
having four or five yellow sepals, are 
borne on erect, compound panicles. 
Culture d'-c. as above. 

T. minus (Maidenhair Meadoiv Rue). 
A native of the British Isles, growing 
in dry places. The stems vary from 6 
in. to 4 ft. high, stout, rigid, often zig- 
zag, striped more or less throughout, and 
usually furrowed when dry. Leaves 
Fern-like, cut into numerous small smooth 
roundish glaucous leaflets, toothed at the 
apex. Flowers in summer, small, and 
drooping in a loose panicle. Sepals 
yellowish-green or pale purple with white 
edges. 

Owing to the beautiful frond-like 
foliage of this plant, it is suitable for 
rockeries, borders, and even as a pot- 
plant. For mixing with cut flowers in 
vases, the foliage is very ornamental, and 
lasts much longer than Maidenhair Fern. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. petaloideum. — A Dahurian species 
with round almost naked stems about 18 
in. high. Leaves ternately cut, with 
smooth, ovate, obtuse, entire or 3-lobed 
leaflets. Flowers produced in corymbs 
in June and July, with white, nearly 
round sepals, flesh-coloured filaments, and 
yellow anthers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. rhynchocarpum. — A very remark- 
able and handsome species, about 3 ft. 
high, native of the Transvaal. The foliage 
resembles some of the finer forms of the 
Maidenhair Fern. The flowers are borne 
in large panicles during the siunmer 
months, and are succeeded by the fruits, 
which are borne on long stalks and present 
a novel and attractive appearance. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species likes a warm, moist, and shaded 
spot in the rockery, and will not flourish 
in strong sunshine. The soil must be 
well drained, and a little protection in 
winter may be necessary. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

T. tuberosum. — A Spanish species 
about 12 in. high, with 2-3-pinnate 
crowded leaves, and smooth roundish 3- 
lobed leaflets. Flowers borne in loose 
corymbs in June, and having 5 white 
oval, blunt sepals. 

Culture dec. as above. 



ANEMONE (Wind Flower).— The 
generic name is derived from anemos, 
the wind, in allusion to the light and 
feathery seeds of some species which are 
easily blown about by the wind. 

A genus of about 70 species of orna- 
mental hardy perennials, with radical 
leaves much cut or lobed. There is an 
involucre of 3 cut leaflets some distance 
from the flower. Sepals 4-20 petal-like. 
Petals absent, or consist of the outer 
stamens changed into stalked glands. 

The sub-genus Hepatica is- now in- 
cluded in Anemone, and may be distin- 
guished by having an involucre of 3 entire 
leaflets just under the flowers, and a 
calyx of 6-9 petal-like sepals. 

Culture and Propagation. — Anemo- 
nes are best grown in a rich sandy loam, 
but most of them will thrive in ordinary 
garden soil. Where special treatment is 
required for any particular species, direc- 
tions will be found in the proper place. 

There are various methods of increas- 
ing Windflowers, and although division of 
the rootstock and cuttings of the roots 
are employed in autumn or early spring, 
most of the species may be obtained from 
seeds. These should be sown as soon as 
ripe in pans or boxes, and may be pro- 
tected in a cold frame. The other direc- 
tions given under Seed Sowing at p. 42 
will be found useful. 

A. alba. — A Siberian species about 6 
in. high, with ternate or quinate leaves, 
purple on the underside ; segments 
deeply toothed at top. Flowers in June, 
white, rising singly above the leaves, and 
having 5 obovate, concave sepals. May 
be used in borders or rockeries, in deep 
fibrous loam. Increase by seed or division. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. albana. — A handsome and distinct 
dwarf species 4-6 in. high, found in a wild 
state from the borders of Armenia across 
Central Asia to Siberia, growing on the 
mountain sides. The nodding cup-shaped 
flowers are produced very freely in April 
and May, and although only of a dullish 
yellow, they look very handsome over the 
green carpet of foliage. After the flowers 
have withered, the seed-heads present a 
very ornamental appearance. Forms with 
purple or violet flowers have been recorded, 
but do not appear to be in cultivation. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species grows well either in the ordinary 
flower border, or in the rockery in ordinary 



140 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ANEMONE 



garden soil. It prefers an exposed sunny 
spot, and will live for several years with- 
out being disturbed. Seeds ripen freely 
and may be sown as soon as ripe in cold 
frames. The yoimg plants are pricked 
out and grown on but will not begin to 
flower until the third year, according to 
Mr. Wolley Dod. 

A. alpina (Pulsatilla alpina). — A very 
handsome alpine species from the moun- 
tains of Central Europe, growing from 
6 to 24 in. high. Leaves biternate with 
pinnate and deeply serrated lobes, some- 
times smooth, and sometimes covered 
with long crowded silky hairs. Flowers 
produced in May, with 6 spreading ellip- 
tic sepals varying in colour from white 
to cream, white and purple, and yellow. 

The variety sulphur ea has soft yellow 
cup-shaped flowers, 2-3 in. across when 
fully expanded, the sepals having a silky 
down outside. The white-flowered form 
of A. alpina is a vigorous plant and 
delights in rich loam, peat and leaf soil, 
with the addition of a little lime rubble. 

Culture dc. as above. The best 
way to increase this variety is to sow seed 
as soon as ripe in a rather moist peaty bed 
and allow the seedlings to remain for one 
or two seasons, and then transplant in the 
spring to a fully exposed, well-drained and 
moist position. A little lime rubble or 
old mortar mixed with the soil is usually 
beneficial to A. alpina and its varieties. 

A. angulosa (Hepatica angulosa). — 
A beautiful species from Transylvania, 
6-12 in. high, with leaves 3 in. broad, 
pahnately 5-lobed, the lobes coarsely 
toothed. Flowers in February and March, 
2 in. across, of a fine sky-blue, with 
numerous black anthers surrounding a 
tuft of yellow styles. Suitable for par- 
tially shaded places in the rock garden, 
margins of borders, shrubberies &c, in 
deep rich soil. There is a fine variety 
called atroccFi-ulea with large deep purple- 
blue flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. Increase by 
seed or division. 

A. apennina (Apennine Windfiower). 
A tuberous blackish-rooted species from 
S. Europe, growing about 6 in. high. The 
leaves of the stern are in whorls of 3, 
ternate with long blunt lobes, all some- 
what pubescent ; the root-leaves biternate. 
Flowers about 2 in. across, bright sky- 
blue, appear on single stalks in March. 



There is a white (alba)- and also a rose- 
coloured (rosea) variety. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
prefers sandy loam or peat, and thrives 
under the partial shade of trees. It makes 
a beautiful carpet of blue, and should be 
grown for this piirpose in large patches. 
Increased by division. 

A. baldensis. — A rare tuberous-rooted 
species about 6 in. high, native of Switzer- 
land. The leaves are twice ternate with 
many-parted linear-lobed segments. The 
solitary flowers appear in May, and have 
8-10 oblong oval sepals, white, hairy out- 
side, and reddish tinged with blue. 

Culture dc. as above. Shady parts of 
the rockery suit it best. 

A. blanda (Blue Winter Windfiower). 
A lovely tuberous -rooted species from 
Greece. It grows about 6 in. high and 
closely resembles A. apennina. Leaves 
3-partite or cut, with stalked or sessile 
3-partite, cut segments ; those of the in- 
volucre deeply cut and stalked. The deep 
blue flowers, each nearly 2 in. across, 
appear in winter or early spring, having 
9-14 oblong linear sepals. The variety 
scythinica from N. Kurdistan has pale 
blue and white flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
likes a rich, light, and well-drained loam 
and a warm sheltered place in rockeries 
sunny banks, or warm grassy slopes. 
Increase by seed or division. 

A. coronaria (Poppy Anemone). — This 
is an important species, inasmuch as it 
has given rise to the many single and 
double florists' varieties which appear in 
such abundance in the early spring and 
summer, are so varied in colouring, and 
so popular in price. The typical species 
grows about 6-9 in. high, and has ternate 
deeply cut leaves with numerous narrow 
pointed segments. The flowers have 6 
oval rounded sepals varying from red to 
white, purple and pink. It is a native of 
S. Europe. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Poppy Anemone thrives in warm deep 
loam. The roots of the more select 
varieties may be taken up when the 
leaves wither, and planted at intervals m 
September and October or from January 
to March to secure a succession of flowers. 
If allowed to remain in the ground, how- 
ever, it often happens that the warm rains 
of late summer will cause the plants to 



ANEMONE 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



ANEMONE 141 



grow and flower again later in the year if 
the weather is mild. 

Seeds, which should be selected from 
the finest varieties, may be sown as soon 
as ripe in a spot where it will be possible 
to afford shade and moisture — the essen- 
tials to a rapid germination. The seed- 
lings may be allowed to flower where 
sown or transplanted in September or 
October. 

Among the many forms of the Poppy 
Anemone the following deserve special 
mention : 

1. The Chrysanthemum -flowered 
Anemone. — This is a fine race of double- 
flowered Anemones, having the appearance 
of some Chrysanthemums or China Asters. 
There are many varieties, chiefly distin- 
guished by colour, which varies a good 
deal, the principal tint being lilac-rose, 
deep violet, crimson, carmine, rose, 
purple, &c. 

2. Caen Anemones. — These are well 
known by their vigorous growth, the 
great size of their flower stalks, and their 
large and brilliantly coloured flowers. 
Both single and double varieties are 
represented. The ' Cardinal's Hat ' and 
' Double Nice ' Anemones are particularly 
fine forms, the first being deep scarlet 
with slight variations, the second of a 
beautiful rosy flesh colour. 

A. decapetala. — A distinct N. Ameri- 
can Windflower 12-18 in. high, with deep 
green 3-parted leaves, the lobes of which 
are cut into numerous linear segments. 
The creamy white or pale primrose flowers 
about 1-2 in. across appear in May and 
June. 

Culture dc. as above. This pretty 
species, although perhaps not so orna- 
mental as many of the other Windflowers, 
is valuable for planting in shady places. 

A. Fannini. — A very beautiful and 
remarkable Windflower, native of Natal, 
where it grows at an elevation of 3,000- 
4,000 ft. In a wild state it attains a height 
of about 5 feet, and the roundish, angled, 
Rhubarb-like leaves a width of 2 ft. or 
more. In a cultivated state, however, it 
grows only about 2 ft. high, and the leaves 
rarely measure more than a foot in dia- 
meter. The beautiful sweet-scented star- 
like flowers are quite as large as in wild 
specimens. They appear in April and 
May and are 2-3 in. across, the oblong 
acute segments being at first greenish- 
yellow, but afterwards a pure snowy white 



within, surrounding a mass of yellow 
stamens in the centre. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species seems to be perfectly hardy at 
least as far north as Kew, when grown in 
rich and well-manured loamy soil in warm 
positions facing south. It is best left 
undisturbed for several years so that it 
ni,i\ become thoroughly established. The 
leaves die down every winter and during 
that period the plants may be mulched 
with a layer of rich manure, and in the 
event of severe weather some litter or dry 
leaves may be placed over the crowns. 
The plants may be increased by carefully 
dividing the roots in spring or by sowing 
imported seeds under glass, afterwards 
pricking the young plants out. 

A. fulgens (Scarlet Windflower). — 
This is a native of S. Europe, growing 
about 1 ft. high, with bright green 3-lobed 
cut and toothed leaves. The large soli- 
tary flowers which appear in May are 2 
in. or more across, and of a brilliant 
scarlet-crimson colour, sometimes with a 
paler zone at the base around the jet 
black bunch of stamens in the cent: e. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
plant does best in rich loamy soil with a 
dash of lime in it, and is suitable for the 
partially shaded spots in the rockery or 
flower border. Stagnant moisture at the 
roots is fatal to it, hence the necessity for 
good drainage. The roots may be planted 
almost at any time, but during early 
autumn is the best time. Increased by 
dividing the roots, or from seeds. A. 
fulgens major is a fine form, and A. 
Pavonina (the Peacock Anemone) is a 
double form. 

A. Halleri (Pulsatilla Halleri). — A 
Swiss plant about 6 in. high, with pinnate 
hairy leaves, cut into lance-shaped pointed 
divisions. Flow T ers in May, the 6 oval 
lance-shaped sepals being of a purple 
or deep lilac colour, and in strong con- 
trast to the conspicuous bunch of yellow 
stamens in the centre. A. Hackeli seems 
to be a form of this species, but differs in 
having more woolly stems, less finely cut 
leaves, and larger blossoms. 

Culture dc. as above. This is a 
suitable plant for sunny positions in the 
rockery or the edges of flower borders. 
May be increased by seeds or division. 

A. Hepatica (Hepatica triloba). — This 
is the common Hepatica of S. Europe. 
It grows 4-6 in. high, with heart-shaped 



142 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ANEMONE 



leaves, having 3 entire ovate pointed 
lobes. The blue flowers, with 6-9 sepals, 
usually appear about February, and are 
very attractive. 

Among the many varieties of this 
species may be mentioned alba with 
pure white flowers; ccerulea, single and 
double forms of which exist, with blue 
flowers ; rubra (double and single) with 
reddish -pink flowers ; lilacina, a pretty 
mauve kind ; splendens, a single red ; and 
Barloivi, a richly coloured sky-blue sport 
from the single blue, besides others. 

Culture dc. as above. Hepaticas are 
charming spring flowers. They are of 
a deep-rooting nature, and prefer a rich 
porous soil in sheltered places. When left 
undisturbed for a few years the}' form fine 
clumps and often produce seedlings in 
favourable spots. 

A. japonica (Japanese Anemone). — A 
fine autumn-flowering Japanese species 
about 2-3 ft. high with ternate unequally 
lobed and toothed leaves. The rosy-car- 
mine flowers, which are borne on long 
stalks, are over 2 in. across, and have 
numerous conspicuous golden stamens in 
the centre, last a long time in perfection 
and make the garden gay from August up 
to the approach of frost. 

The variety alba — also known as 
Honorine Jobert — is a splendid variety, 
with masses of j)ure white flowers each 
about 3 in. across. 

The variety elegans (also called rosea 
and liybrida) is a variety with a more 
tufted habit, broader leaves, and pale rose 
flowers. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Japanese Anemone and its varieties 
thrive in deep rich soil, and if allowed to 
remain undisturbed for several years pro- 
duce a grand effect either in groups by 
themselves, or in the borders with other 
plants. They may be increased by 
division, or from root cuttings placed in a 
hotbed. It is very rarely indeed that 
A. japonica ripens seed in cultivation, but 
it has done so on one or two occasions. 
The seeds were sown with the result that 
varieties called Lord Ardilaun and Lady 
Ardilaun were raised. The latter is very 
fastidious and almost refuses to grow at 
all in some gardens, especially if the soil 
has been heavily dressed with rich manure. 
It has, however, been found to flourish in 
deep and well-dug loamy soil, with the 
addition of a little leaf mould at the time 
of planting. It grows about 4 ft. high, 



and may be recognised by its Vine-like 
foliage and white flowers flushed outside 
with violet-purple. When well grown it 
produces seeds freely. Lord Ardilaun is 
usually better, but neither variety is at 
present equal in beauty and vigour to the 
parent. Another variety named Wliirl- 
tuind has been introduced from America, 
and a nearly double-flowered variety has 
been raised in France under the name of 
Coupe d 'Argent. 

A. lancifolia. — A very rare tuberous- 
rooted species from Pennsylvania growing 
only about 3 in. high. The stalked ter- 
nate leaves are cut into lance-shaped 
roundly toothed segments, and the white 
solitary flowers with 5 ovate-acute sepals 
appear in May. A plant for the rockery. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. multifida (A. hudsoniana). — This 
N. American species grows 6-12 in. high 
and has ternate leaves, the wedge-shaped 
segments of which are much cut into 
linear lobes. The small red, whitish- 
yellow or citron-coloured flowers appear in 
June, having 5-10 elliptic-obtuse sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. Suitable for 
rockery or border. Increased by division 
or seed. 

A. narcissiflora (Narcissus-floivered 
Anemone). — This very variable and 
beautiful species, native of Europe and N. 
America, grows about 12 in. high. The 
somewhat hairy radical leaves are 3-5- 
parted with deeply toothed lobes. The 
many-flowered umbels of white or pur- 
plish blossoms appear in May, and have 
5-6 ovate, blunt or acute sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
prefers a somewhat calcareous or sandy 
soil in borders or rockeries, and may be 
increased by division. 

A. nemorosa (Wood Anemone). — This 
charming native species adorns the woods 
and copses all over the country as well as 
in Europe and N. America. It has a hori- 
zontal woody rootstock and reaches a 
height of 4-8 in. The stalked leaves, which 
are covered with silky hairs when young, are 
divided two or three times into long nar- 
row segments. The white (rarely purple) 
solitary flowers with 6 oval veined sepals 
are 1-2 in. across, and appear in April 
and May. The variety robinsoniana, 
which is probably identical with ccerulea, 
has sky-blue flowers and is very beautiful. 
A new form of this called Alleni is a more 
vigorous grower and has larger and more 



ANEMONE 



BUTTERCUP OR DEB 



ANEMONE 143 



highly tinted blossoms. The double 
variety {fiore pleno) is a pretty plant 
with white blossoms which last longer 
than those of the type. It is best grown 
in clumps in rich loamy soil. 

There is also a single and double 
variety rosea, with rose-coloured flowers, 
and a double form called bracteata fiore 
plena having white flowers surrounded by 
a large involucre. 

Culture de. as above. Although the 
Wood Anemone is far more effective in 
its native state, it is a lovely plant for 
the rockery or flower border in somewhat 
shaded situations. 

A. obtusiloba. — A Himalayan species 
with very hairy 3-lobed heart-shaped 
leaves cut into broadly wedge-shaped, 
deeply crenated segments. The flowers 
have 5 cream-coloured obovate sepals, and 
appear in June. 

Culture ,('■(-. as above. A warm and 
sheltered position is required for this plant. 

A. palmata. —This is a distinct tuber- 
ous-rooted plant about 6-8 in. high, from 
the Mediterranean region. The roundish 
heart-shaped leathery leaves are bluntly 
3-5-lobed, slightly toothed and hairy. The 
large, glossy, golden-yellow flowers with 
10-12 oblong obtuse sepals appear in May 
and June, opening in the sun. The 
double variety, fiore pleno, and the white 
one, alba, are both pretty but very scarce. 

Culture and Propagation. — A. pal- 
mata grows best in flat and dampish 
places in deep turfy peat, or loam and 
leaf soil, into which it roots deeply and 
forms strong clumps. It is increased by 
dividing the rootstocks or from seeds. 

A. patens. — A species of N. Europe, 
with pinnate 8-parted toothed leaves, 
which appear after the flowers. In June 
the purplish or rarely yellow flowers with 
5-6 sepals appear, being almost directly 
seated on the involucre. The variety 
nuttalliana is a pretty border plant about 

1 ft. high from N. America. The flowers 
are purple and cream-coloured with con- 
nivent sepals hairy on the outside. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. polyanthes. — A Himalayan species 
12-18 in. high, with round 5-7-lobed and 
toothed leaves 2-4 in. across, borne on stout 
stalks 4-10 in. long. The white flowers H- 

2 in. across appear in May and June and 
are borne on branched umbels at the top of 
a stout stalk, the base of the umbel having 



a leafy involucre of broadly wedge-shaped 
lobed and toothed bracts or stalkless leaves. 
Cult n re ill-, as above. This plant is 
not yet well known and is rather tender. 
It requires to be grown in warm sheltered 
spots and may be increased by careful 
division in spring as growth is about to 
commence. 

A. pratensis (Pulsatilla pratensis). — 
This N. European species is closely 
related to the Pasque Flower {A. Pulsa- 
tilla), and differs chiefly in having smaller 
flowers with narrower and more acute 
sepals connivent at the base, and reflexed 
at the tips. It is about 6-12 in. high, 
with many-parted linear-lobed leaves, 
and dark purple drooping flowers which 
appear in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Pulsatilla {Pulsatilla vulgaris). — 
The Pasque Flower is a native of our 
chalky downs and limestone pastures, 
and also distributed throughout Europe 
to N. Asia. It grows from 8 to 12 in. high. 
The leaves, which spring from a stout 
woody rootstock, and develop after flow- 
ering, are thrice pinnatifid, with linear 
segments, those of the involucre being 
sessile and cut to the base into long linear 
portions. The dull purple flowers, each 
aboiit lh in. across, appear in May and 
June, having 6 erect silky sepals, outer 
stamens reduced to glands, and fruits 
with long feathery tails. There are 
several varieties, among which may be 
mentioned dahurica, very dwarf, with 
very hairy oblong sepals ; Ulacina, with 
lilac flowers ; and rubra, a red-flowered 
form with blunter sepals. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Pasque Flower delights in deep, light and 
well-drained soil, forming strong clumps, 
and flowering freely, either in rockeries 
or the edges of borders. Increased by 
seeds or division. 

A. ranunculoides {Yellow Wood Ane- 
mone). — A tuberous -rooted species of S. 
Em-ope, growing 4-6 in. high, with 3-5- 
parted leaves having deeply toothed some- 
what trifid segments. The clear golden- 
yellow flowers, with 5 or 6 elliptic sepals, 
appear in March either singly or in pairs. 
There is a Pyrenean variety with purple 
flowers, and one named pallida with sul- 
phur-coloured ones. 

Culture dc. as above. This charming 
little plant is occasionally found natu- 
ralised in English woods, and likes the 



1U 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ANEMONE 



same treatment as the Pasque Flower. 
It looks best grown in broad patches in 
light and rather sandy soil. 

A. rivularis. — A very distinct plant 
from N. India. It grows about 2 ft. high, 
and has 3-parted hairy leaves, with 
cut and toothed wedge-shaped lobes. 
Large loose umbels of white flowers, with 
5 oval sepals, and purple anthers, are 
borne in April. 

Culture dc. as above. The shaded 
banks of streams or ponds, or damp situa- 
tions in the flower border, suit this species 
best. 

A. sibirica. — The typical form of this 
Siberian rock plant is very rarely seen. It 
is 6 in. high, with ternate leaves, and seg- 
ments deeply toothed and ciliated. The 
white flowers, with 6 rounded sepals, 
appear in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 
A. stellata (Star Windflower).— This 
is identical wiih A. hortensis and A. 
pavonina. It is tubercus-rooted, and 
native of S. Europe, growmg about 8 or 
10 in. high. Leaves 3-partecl, with deeply 
toothed, wedge-shaped lobes. The star- 
shaped flowers with 10-12 oblong bluntish 
sepals appear in April, and are red, purple, 
rose or whitish in colour. Double - 
flowered varieties are sometimes met 
with. 

Culture dc. as above. This plant likes 
a warm and sheltered position in well- 
drained soil, and may be increased by 
seeds or division. 

A. sylvestris (Snoivdrop Windflower). 
This handsome species is 6-18 in. high 
and a native of Central Europe. It has 
creeping roots, from which arise ternate 
or quinate leaves, hairy beneath and with 
segments deeply toothed at the top, those 
of the involucre being stalked. The 
slightly drooping, pure white, solitary 
flowers, which in bud suggest Snowdrops, 
appear in April. When fully open they 
are 2-3 in. across, fragrant and with 6 
elliptic sepals, and remind one very much 
of those of the white-flowered A.japonica. 
The variety major has larger and 
better flowers than the ordinary form, and 
fiore pleno is a new double form worth 
growing. Baicalense is a larger flower- 
ing variety, dwarfer in growth than the 
type, with flowers purple on the outside. 

Culture and Propagation. — A light 
soil, rich in humus, and a shaded, moist 
situation are best for the Snowdrop 



Anemone. Increased by dividing the 
roots as recommended above. 

A. trifolia. — This is a native of the 
woody hillsides of Piedmont, the Tyrol, 
and Siberia, and is closely related to the 
Wood Anemone (A. nemorosa). It is 
4-6 in. high, with a creeping habit and 
ternate leaves divided into ovate-lanceo- 
late acute and toothed segments. The 
white flowers with 5 blunt elliptic sepals 
appear in April. There is a rose-coloured 
variety from Austria. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. vernalis (Pulsatilla vernalis). — 
This is known as the Shaggy Anemone and 
grows about 2-8 in. high, the whole plant 
being covered with long tawny hairs. 
The pinnate leaves are cut into wedge- 
shaped lanceolate segments, while the 
erect bell-shaped flowers which appear in 
April are solitar3 7 and terminal with 5-6 
oval sepals, whitish inside, violet and 
clothed with silky down outside. 

Culture dc. as above. It is a native of 
the Alps and Pyrenees and should be 
grown in moist and well-drained sandy soil 
or peat. Increased by dividing the roots 
or by seed. 

A. virginiana. — AN. American species 
1-2 ft. high with ternate leaves cut into 
trifid, pointed and deeply toothed seg- 
ments. About May the purplish-green 
or pale purple flowers appear, having 5 
elliptic sepals, with a silky down on the 
outside. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
requires a damp situation and may be 
increased by division or seeds. 

A. vitifolia (Vine-leaved Anemone).— 
A Himalayan species about 1-2 ft. high, 
related to the white Japanese Anemone. 
Leaves heart-shaped, 3-5-lobed, with 
pointed deeply toothed segments, the 
under surface and stems being covered 
with a white wool. The white flowers 
appear in July, and are 2 in. or more 
across, with eight oval-oblong sepals, 
thickly covered with down on the out- 
side. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
plant does not thrive in all places, but 
where it does it is worthy of being 
naturalised. It requires a warm shel- 
tered position and peaty soil. 

ADONIS (Pheasant's Eye).— This 
genus includes a few species of handsome 
annual or perennial herbaceous plants 



ADONIS 



BUTT EEC UP OB DEB 



ADONIS 145 



characterised by alternate leaves divided 
into numerous narrow segments, and 
solitary terminal flowers with 5-8 coloured 
deciduous sepals, 5 16 conspicuous petals 
often spotted at the base, and numerous 
carpels. 

Culture and Propagation. — All the 
plants grow freely in ordinary garden 
soil, but prefer a rich, light sandy loam. 
They are excellent border and rockery 
plants, but to be seen at their best 
should be planted in good patches. They 
flower very freely for the most part, 
and, if anything, prefer slightly shaded 
situations to those fully exposed to the 
scorching rays of the sun. The annual 
kinds are very useful, and although occa- 
sionally a little weedy in habit they may 
be kept in bounds by a few short sticks 
and string. 

The annual species must of course be 
raised from seed sown in the spring or 
autumn each year, either in the open 
border or in cold frames ; the perennials 
may also be raised from seed in the same 
way, or by division of the roots in autumn 
or early spring. 

A. aestivalis (Pheasant's Eye). — A S. 
European annual about 1 ft. high, with 
an almost simple lengthened stem. The 
deep crimson flowers having flat oblong 
obtuse petals appear in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. amurensis. — This species is of 
recent introduction from N. China, and 
is somewhat like A. vernalis, but has 
denser foliage. The flowers are bright 
shining yellow, about li in. across, and 
usually appear in January and February 
before any of the other species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. autumnalis (Bed Morocco). — A 
native annual about 1 ft. high, with much- 
branched, very leafy stems and deep 
green leaves, very much divided into 
linear segments. From May to September 
the terminal solitary globose flowers 
appear, the sepals being greenish, and the 
broad concave petals scarlet, with a dark 
spot at the base. 

This is an excellent border or rock 
plant. The fleshy flower stems, when 
cut, will last a long time hi water or moist 
earth or moss, and the flowers will retain 
their beauty and freshness. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. distor ta.( A. apennina). — This pretty 
perennial is a native of the Alps and is 



intermediate between A. pyrenaica and 
A. vernalis. It grows 9-12 in. high, and 
produces its large bright yellow flowers 
just as those of A. vernalis are nearly 
finished. 

Culture dc. as above. It is an excellent 
plant for massing in moist and partially 
shaded places in the rockery. 

A. pyrenaica (Pyrenean Pheasant's 
Eye). — A Pyrenean perennial, with much- 
branched stems about 1 ft. high. The 
lower leaves are on long stalks with trind 
petioles and many-parted segments, the 
upper ones stalkless, much cut. with linear 
entire divisions. The yellow flowers with 
8-10 obtuse petals are almost sessile, and 
appear about July. 

Culture dc. as above. It is difficult 
to establish in some gardens, and when 
first planted should be guarded from slugs. 
Once well established it is safer not to 
disturb this species. The soil may be re- 
plenished annually with a good mulching 
of well-rotted manure or leaf mould. 

A. vernalis (Ox-Eye). — A beautiful 
European perennial about 1-2 ft. high 
with green feathery Fennel-like foliage. 
From March to May the bright yellow 
Anemone-like flowers, each with 10-12 
oblong somewhat incurved petals, are 
borne at the tips of the branches. The 
sepals are purplish-green and about half 
as long as the petals, and the flowers are 
often 3-3A in. across when fully open. 

The variety sibirica has somewhat 
larger flowers than the type. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is a 
graceful plant for the rockery and should 
be left alone for years in a rich moist 
sandy loam. It should be in a position 
more or less sheltered from rough winds, 
otherwise it is apt to become somewhat 
dishevelled in appearance. 

It is often best raised from seeds sown 
as soon as ripe in sheltered spots in the 
border. The seeds, as a rule, do not 
sprout until the following spring. "When 
large enough to be easily handled, they 
may be pricked out into a patch of rich 
soil, and in autumn — about the end of 
September — they will be fit for trans- 
planting to their permanent quarters in 
the rockery or flower border. Plants from 
seeds, however, do not usually flower well 
until about three or four years old. 
Where large clumps are established there- 
fore, and require removal, they may be 
divided to secure bloom more quickly. 



146 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS ranunculus 



A. volgensis. — A Russian species 
about, 1 ft. high, intermediate between A. 
pyrenaica and A. vernalis. The sterns 
are much branched, with scale-like leaves 
at the base, and in early summer produce 
large pure yellow flowers, the sepals of 
which are smooth outside instead of 
pubescent as in the other species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

RANUNCULUS (Buttercup; 
Crowfoot). — A genus with about 160 
species of annual or perennial herbs 
having entire or much-cut leaves, and 
white, yellow, or red flowers, either ter- 
minal, solitary, or in panicles. Sepals 
3 -5 caducous. Petals conspicuous or 
rarely minute, equal in number to the 
sepals — or as many as 15 — with a nectar- 
bearing* scale at the base; stamens and 
carpels numerous, free and distinct. 

R. aconitifolius (White Bachelor's 
Buttons ; Fair Maids of France ; Fair 
Maids of Kent).- — A beautiful plant 24 in. 
high, native of Europe. Leaves palmately 
3-5-lobed and deeply toothed, those of the 
stem cut into narrow lance-shaped lobes. 
The white flowers with oblong, wedge- 
shaped or rounded petals appear in May 
and June, sometimes few, sometimes 
many. 

The double variety — flore pleno — 
popularly known as the ' Fair Maids of 
France ' has pure snow-white flowers over 
half an inch across, and as symmetrical 
in form as a Camellia. 

Culture and Propagation. — It is a 
pretty plant, easily grown in a moist and 
shaded spot, as under a north wall, where 
the flowers last longer in perfection than 
if the plants are grown in strong sunlight. 
Seeds of the single variety maj r be sown 
in the open border in spring, or in early 
autumn, or in pots or pans in cold frames. 
The seedlings may be pricked out and 
grown on for transplanting in spring or 
autumn, according to the period of sow- 
ing. The plants may also be increased by 
dividing the roots in spring, or about the 
end of September or October, and this is 
the better and probably the only way to 
increase the double variety, which is a 
much finer and more decorative garden 
plant than the single-flowered type. 

R. acris flore pleno (Double Butter- 
cup ; Gold Knots ; Bachelor' 's Buttons). — 
The type of this plant is the common 
Buttercup of our pastures and meadows, 
and is too well known to need any 



description here. And besides, it is un- 
suitable for the flower garden. The 
double variety, however, is a pretty 
border plant, and very ornamental when 
in a good sunny position in moist soil. 
The bright yellow flowers are borne in 
button-like rosettes from April to Septem- 
ber. 

Culture dc. as above. The double- 
flowered Buttercup can only be increased 
by dividing the roots in spring or autumn. 

R. alpestris. — A native of the Alpine 
chalky regions of Central Europe, growing 
3-6 in. high. Leaves roundish heart- 
shaped, dark glossy green, 3-lobed, with 
the lobes deeply crenate and blunt at the 
apex ; the leaves of the stem lance- 
shaped entire or occasionally more or less 
trifid. From April to August 1-3 white 
flowers each about an inch across are 
borne on a stem, the 5 petals being 
obcordate or 3-lobed, and surrounding a 
conspicuous cluster of yellow stamens in 
the centre. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
grows well in moist, sandy soil, and is 
suitable for rockeries when grown in bold 
patches. 

R. amplexicaulis (Snowy Crowfoot). 
A beautiful species 3-12 in. high, native 
of the Pyrenees and Western Alps. It is 
easily recognised by its undivided ovate 
or lance-shaped tapering leaves, which 
clasp the stem at the base, and are 
smooth, glaucous, or with a few deciduous 
hairs on the edges. The snow-white 
flowers with yellow centres appear in 
April and May, 1-6 being on each 
stem. Occasionally the flowers are 
double. 

Culture dc. as above. Grows well in 
deep moist loam, and may be naturalised 
among dwarf-growing plants in rather 
shaded situations. 

R. anemonoides (Anemone Crowfoot). 
A pretty little plant from the Stj^rian 
Alps and Southern Tyrol. It is 3-6 in. 
high with glaucous green biternately 
divided leaves cut into linear segments. 
The rather large flowers, with numerous 
divisions in the petals, are greenish-white 
inside, pink on the outside, and appear 
during the summer months. 

Culture dc. as above. It likes a mcist 
well -drained soil and a cool situation. 
In some localities it is rather delicate, 
but once established in the clefts of the 
rockery it makes a pretty picture. 



EANUNCULUS 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



RANUNCULUS 147 



R. aquatilis (Lodewort ; Rum's Foot). 
A variable British Buttercup, found 
rlnating in shallow streams and pools of 
fresh water. The submerged leaves are 
much divided into slender linear lobes, 
while those floating on the surface of the 
water are usually 3-lobed, or absent. The 
beautiful pure white flowers, about : , ! in. 
across, are borne in great profusion during 
the summer months, and look like minia- 
ture single white Water Lilies on the 
bosom of the waters. 

Culture inn/ I'ropagation. — Seeds 
may be sown in pots standing up to the 
rims in water, or the roots may be divided 
in autumn after flowering is over. 

R. asiaticus. — Thisnative of S. Europe 
and Asia has given rise to all the garden 
Ranunculuses. It grows about 9 in. high, 
with erect stems, simple or branched at 
the base. The leaves are ternate or bi- 
ternate with toothed or deeply trifid 
segments. The flowers, which appear in 
summer, vary a good deal in colour, and 
are nearly always double in the cultivated 
forms, having very large obovate and very 
obtuse petals. 

There are many varieties of the Garden 
Ranunculus under fancy names, but the 
following varieties or sections deserve 
special mention : — 

R. a. sanguineus (Turkey Ranuncu- 
lus). — This variety has simple stems and 
ternate leaves with toothed obtuse seg- 
ments and double flowers of various 
colours such as orange, yellow, purple, or 
variegations of the same, excluding dis- 
tinctly white or blue colours. 

R. a. superbus is a pretty strain 
with large single, semi-double and double 
flowers of brilliant colours. 

R. a. tenuilobus. — This variety has a 
stern more or less branched and much- 
cut leaves with sharp linear lobes, the 
flowers being white or yellow, rarely 
purple. 

R. a. vulgaris (Persian Ranunculus). 
This ornamental variety has innumerable 
seedling forms in cultivation. It has a 
stem branched at the base ; leaves ter- 
nate with sharp-pointed trifid segments, 
and double and single flowers of almost 
every shade but blue. 

The above represent the main divi- 
sions into which the Asiatic Ranunculus 
naturally falls. But owing to the careful 
selection, Irybridisation, and intercrossing 
by British and Continental gardeners, 



extending over many generations, the 
wild forms have practically disappeared, 
and there are now an infinite number of 
varieties cultivated, being divided into 
groups, known as Scotch, Dutch, French, 
Italian, Persian, and Turban or Turkish. 
The Scotch and Dutch varieties are 
usually the finest forms of the Persian, 
and are dwarfer with double flowers 
edged and spotted. The French and 
Italian varieties are modifications of the 
Turkish, and are remarkable for their 
vigour and size. The Turkish forms are 
less variegated in colour than the others 
and have a large proportion of scarlet, 
white, yellow and orange self-coloured 
flowers, somewhat resembling Pseonies. 

As the names in tradesmen's cata- 
logues represent mere variations, it is 
imnecessary to give them here, as they 
woujid probably be obsolete in a very 
short time. It would therefore be better 
to make an up-to-date selection from the 
catalogues themselves. 

Culture and Propagation. — The best 
time to plant the garden Ranunculus 
is about the end of February, although 
the work may also be done in October in 
favourable weather. The plants like an 
open situation but not too much exposed 
to summer sun, and the soil should 
consist of loam well mixed with decayed 
manure, rotten leaves &c, so that it may 
always be kept in a fairly humid state. 
The claws of the roots should be placed 
downwards, drills about 6 in. apart and 
2 in. deep having previously been made 
with a hoe. The soil should be raked 
over the roots and made firm by patting 
with a spade. When the leaves appear, 
a little artificial manure or mulch of 
rotten dung may be given, the latter 
being preferable in dry seasons. As the 
roots deteriorate somewhat by lying 
dormant in the damp soil, especially in 
extra wet seasons, they should be taken 
up as soon as the leaves and flowers have 
withered, and stored hi a cool airy place 
until the time for planting comes round 
again. 

Seeds are obtainable as a rule only 
from the semi-double varieties. When 
the flower heads have withered, they 
should be cut off and placed in a paper 
bag, and hung up to dry and thoroughly 
ripen before being cleansed. The seeds 
may be sown in August and September in 
cold frames and in light rich sandy soil. 
The young plants should be protected 

l 2 



148 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS ranunculus 



from frost during the winter months, but 
should have as much light and air as 
possible on all favourable occasions. About 
the end of April or May they will be fit 
for transplanting to the open ground. 
Seeds may also be sown out of doors about 
April and May, but if the seedlings are 
left in the soil for the winter, the}' should 
be protected by lights. Seedling plants 
commence to bloom well about the third 
or fourth year. 

From the old roots there are often 
offsets. These may be placed by them- 
selves and sown like seeds the following 
spring. 

R. bulbosus flore pleno (Double- 
flowered British Buttercup). — This is a 
very pretty form of the common bulbous 
Buttercup of meadows and pastures. It 
grows about 12 in. high and produces 
numerous double yellow flowers during 
the summer. It is suitable for borders. 

Sometimes the flowers are singularly 
prolific. From the centre of one arises 
another, and front this second one some- 
times a third. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. acris 
flore pleno. 

R. bullatus. — An interesting species 
from N. Africa and Corsica, having tufts 
of oval toothed and more or less wrinkled 
leaves arising from a knotty rootstock. 
The fragrant yellow flowers appear late in 
the year and are therefore liable to injury 
from frost. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is too tender for the outdoor flower 
garden except in the warmest parts of the 
south and west. It may, however, be 
flowered in cold frames or greenhouses for 
the winter. New plants are obtained by 
dividing the rootstocks after the leaves and 
flowers have withered. 

R. cardiophyllus (Heart-leaved Butter- 
cup). — This hairy or pubescent plant is 
a native of N. America, and grows about 
12 in. high. The root-leaves are roundish 
heart-shaped, crenate and much cut, the 
stem-leaves being palmately cut with 
linear deeply crenate lobes. The large 
golden flowers appear in May. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius. 

R. carpaticus. — A handsome Hun- 
garian perennial about 1 ft. high, having 
creeping rootstocks and roundish pal- 
mately lobed leaves with crenate mar- 
gins. The bright golden-yellow flowers, 



which appear in May and June, are about 
2 in. across, and are very attractive when 
in masses. 

Culture dc. as for B. alpestris. 

R. cassubicus. — A species 6 in. high, 
native of Northern and Eastern Europe. 
The lower leaves are stalked, smooth, 
kidney-shaped and crenate, those of the 
stem being divided into linear toothed 
lobes. Flowers in June and July. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius. 

R. chaerophyllus (Chervil - leaved 
Buttercup). — A hardy tuberous-rooted 
species from Portugal, 8-12 in. high. 
Leaves stalked, much-divided segments, 
very narrow stems slightly downy. 
Flowers bright glistening yellow, over 
an inch across, with persistent non- 
reflexed sepals. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius. 

R. cortusaefolius. — This fine species is 
a native of Teneriffe and reaches a height 
of 3-5 ft. in the very mildest parts of this 
country. The leaves are very large, and 
like the branching stems more or less 
hairy ; the lower ones are heart or kidney- 
shaped, lobed with coarsely crenate edges, 
the upper ones being almost stalkless, 
3-5-parted, those near the flowers lance- 
shaped. The large glistening yellow 
flowers are 2 in. or more across, and are 
borne in erect corymbs in early summer. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. Lijalli 
below. Except in the very mildest parts, 
it would be safer to treat this plant as 
tender, and give protection in winter by 
covering the rootstock with coco-nut 
fibre, ashes &c. 

R. crenatus. — A charming Hungarian 
species about 6 in. high, with pure white 
flowers which appear in June and July, 
and rather remind one of those of B. 
alpestris. The petals, however, have 
crenate edges, and the flowers are only 
produced singly on the stems. 

Culture dc. as above for B. alpestris. 

R. creticus macrophyllus. — A native 
of the Greek Archipelago with branched 
slightly hairy stems and leaves, the latter 
being very deeply cut with slightly 
rounded teeth. The golden-yellow flowers 
appear in May, and the plant reaches a 
height of about 1 ft. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. Lyalli. 



i; \Nl!\('l'HS 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



aANUNCULUS 149 



R. Ficaria (Fig wort; Lesser Celan- 
dine ; l'ilewort). — This British plant 
would be very beautiful in gardens if it 
were not such a rank weed. Once 
established it is difficult to eradicate, and 
hoeing only serves to propagate it by 
dividing the small club-like roots. Hand- 
picking is the surest way of ridding beds 
and borders of it. It is easily recognised 
by its heart-shaped bluntly angled or 
crenate shiny green smooth leaves, radia- 
ting on the ground from a short stem, and 
flowering from early March till May. 

R. glacialis {Glacier Buttercup). 

This plant is found high up on the Alps 
and Pyrenees near the snow line. It is 
3-6 in. high, with leaves usually smooth, 
the upper ones sometimes hairy, palmately 
3-parted or ternate with lobes deeply cut. 
The flowers appear in summer, one to five 
on a stem, and are white, tinged with 
purplish-rose outside. 

Culture and Propagation. — Deep, 
gritty, peaty soil and a cool, damp spot in 
the rockery suit this plant best. B. gelidus 
and B. roseus are forms requiring the 
same treatment. 

R. Gouani. — A vigorous - growing 
Pyrenean Buttercup about 18 in. high, with 
slightly downy 3-5 -parted leaves, and 
bright yellow flowers, about 2 in. across, 
produced in May and June. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius. 

R. gramineus (Grass-leaved Butter- 
cup). — A native of S.W. Europe, 6-12 
in. high, with lance-shaped linear uncut 
leaves, arising from fascicled roots, and 
yellow flowers borne one to three on a 
stem in May and June. The variety flo re 
pleno has double flowers. 

Culture dc. This is the same as for 
the varieties of B. asiaticus. B. grami- 
neus likes a sandy calcareous soil in moist 
and semi-shady spots. When grown in 
large masses it looks very effective in the 
rockery. 

R. Lingua (Greater Spearwort). — This 
is a native of our marshes and ditches, 
about 3 ft. high, and is suitable for the 
margins of lakes, streams, bogs &c. The 
leaves are stalkless, lance-shaped, entire 
or toothed, 6-10 in. long, with parallel and 
reticulated veins. The handsome flowers 
about 2 in. across are borne in panicles 
from July to September, and are bright 
yellow in colour. 



Cull mi- ,ic the same as for It. aco- 
nitifolius. Besides seeds and division, 
plants may also be raised from the bulbils 
wlii eh often form in the axils of the older 
leaves. 

R. Lyalli (New Zen land Water Lily ; 

Bockwood Lily). — A very handsome 
species 2-4 ft. high, from New Zealand. 
Leaves peltate, smooth, on long stout 
stalks, the blade being roundish, concave, 
thick, and leathery, and sometimes more 
than 12 in. in diameter. The waxy white 
flowers appear in spring and are 4 in. 
across, the petals being broadly wedge- 
shaped. 

Culture inn/ Propagation. — B. Lyalli 
cannot be considered perfectly hardy, 
except in the mildest parts of the country. 
It should have a sheltered nook from the 
north and east winds, and deep peaty soil, 
and is best left alone where it is already 
doing well. It can be raised from seeds, 
provided they can be imported in good 
condition. They are best sown as soon as 
ripe, or when received, in light rich soil 
under glass. When the young plants can 
be easily handled they may be pricked 
out so as to give more room for growth. 
Afterwards, when they require still more 
space, they may be potted up singly and 
kept in cold frames until they have become 
sufficiently strong and well-established to 
warrant their removal to the open border 
or rockery. On the whole this is a diffi- 
cult Buttercup to grow well. It is 
probably ' coddled ' too much. 

R. millefoliatus. — A plant about 1 ft. 
high, with stems almost leafless, erect, 
hairy, and single-flowered, native of S. 
Europe. Leaves very much cut up into 
slender linear segments. The solitary 
yellow flowers appear from May to July. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius or B. ample xicaulis. 

R. monspeliacus. — A handsome plant 
12-18 in. high, native of S. Europe. 
Leaves woolly, the lower ones 3-lobed, the 
lobes wedge-shaped, trifldly toothed ; the 
upper ones 3-parted with entire linear 
lobes. Flowers bright glistening yellow, 
more than an inch across, appearing in 
April and May. 

Culture dc. as for B. aconitifolius. 

R. montanus (Mountain Buttercup). 
A dwarf plant 3-6 in. high from the alpine 
pastures of the mountain ranges of Europe. 
Leaves smooth, the lower ones roundish 



150 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS caltha 



3-parted, with 3-fid blunt segments; the 
upper ones stalkless, 3-5-parted into linear 
entire lobes. The solitary yellow flowers, 
somewhat larger than those of B. acris, 
appear from May to July, and are borne 
on more or less downy stems. 

Culture dc. the same as for B. aco- 
nitifolius. Easily increased by division. 

R. parnassiaefolius. — A distinct-looking 
species from high elevations on the Alps 
and Pyrenees, 3-6 in. high, with velvety 
stems of a purplish hue. Leaves entire, 
woolly on the edges, rather heart-shaped, 
ovate or roundish, those higher up the 
stem being ovate lance-shaped. The 
snowy-white flowers, sometimes tinged 
with pink, are borne in June and July on 
hairy stalks. 

Culture dc. as for B. alpestris. 

R. pedatus. — A species about 1 ft. high 
from E. Europe. Lower leaves stalked 
3-parted or pedate, with linear entire or 
bifid lobes ; the upper leaves are stalkless, 
and more or less linear or cut. The yellow 
flowers appear in May or June. 

Culture dc. as for B. aconitifolius. 

R. repens flore pleno. — This double - 
flowered yellow variety is often cultivated, 
but the single-flowered variety — a native 
of Britain— is a more or less troublesome 
weed, and best kept out of the flower 
garden. 

Culture dc. the same as for the 
double variety of B. acris. 

R. rutaefolius (Bue-leaved Buttercup). 

This grows near the limits of perpetual 
snow on the Alps, and is 3-6 in. high. It 
has distinct foliage, much cut and deeply 
divided, and yellow flowers with 8-10 
oblong petals, usually borne in early 
summer. There seems to be a white- 
flowered variety in cultivation. 

Culture dc. as above for B. atyestris. 

R. Seguieri. — A handsome species 
from the Alps, with deeply cut dark green 
leaves, and fine white flowers which are 
produced in May and June. 

Culture dc. as for B. aconitifolius. 

R. spicatus (Spiked Buttercup). — A 
beautiful plant 12-18 in. high, which dies 
down early in summer and re-appears in 
September and October. Leaves some- 
what hairy, roundish, and 3-lobed. The 
large bright yellow flowers appear in 
spring, 1-3 on a stem, the carpels in the 



centre being elevated in the form of a 
spike. Native of N. Africa and Sicily. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species may be divided after the flowers 
and foliage have withered. Seeds may 
also be sown as soon as ripe in the open 
border in special spots, or in pots or pans 
in cold frames. The seedlings are 
pricked out when large enough, and after- 
wards transferred to the open ground 
when sturdy enough to look after them- 
selves. In the colder parts of the kingdom 
a little protection is needed in winter, with 
a little bracken, or a handlight over the 
plants. 

CALTHA (Marsh Marigold). — A 
small genus of herbaceous perennials with 
stout creeping rootstocks, and radical 
heart-shaped leaves. Flowers few, ter- 
minal, white or yellow. Sepals 5 or many 
more, coloured, deciduous. Petals absent. 
Carpels many, sessile, becoming many- 
seeded foUicles when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
various forms of the Marsh Marigold are 
easily grown on the margins of lakes, 
rivers, streams &c, or even in the ordinary 
flower border in a moist spot. They are 
most effective in large clumps and may 
be increased by division of the rootstock. 
Seeds of the single-flowered varieties may 
also be sown as soon as ripe in pots or 
pans of loamy soil stood half their depth 
in water. As the seeds often do not 
sprout until the following spring, they 
should not be thrown away in autumn 
under the impression that they are useless. 

C. alpina. — A distinct and beautiful 
plant 1-2 ft. high, with a bold vigorous 
habit, resembling that of our native Marsh 
Marigold. The leaves are roundish heart- 
shaped or reniform with crenate edges, 
while the upper stem leaves are coarsely 
toothed and nearly always sessile. The 
rich orange-yellow flowers are larger than 
those of C. pahtstris, but appear about the 
same period. From a botanical point of 
view this plant may be only a variety 
of C. pahtstris, but it is quite distinct 
enough for garden purposes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. palustris. — This is a well-known 
native of our marshes, margins of rivers, 
ditches &c., with sterns 1-2 ft. high and 
large rounded kidney- shaped leaves 
toothed on the mai'gins. The brilliant 
golden-yellow flowers are 1-2 in. across 



TROLLIUS 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



TROLLIUS 151 



and borne on furrowed stalks from March 
to June. 

There are several forms among which 
may be mentioned the double-flowered 
nana plena and monstrosa plena ; and 
the single-flowered purpurascens from 
S. Europe, with purplish shoots ; biflora, 
a twin-flowered form from N. America; 
parnassifolia, a dwarf only 3-4 in. high, 
also from N. America, with heart-shaped 
ovate toothed leaves; and l&pto&epala 
from California with white flowers about 
li in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. radicans is a native of Scotland, 
and somewhat rare. It is probably only 
a form of C. palustris, but is distinguished 
by its deltoid sharply toothed leaves, and 
dwarfer habit. The yellow flowers appear 
in May and June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

TROLLIUS (Globe Flower). — A 
genus of about nine species of perennial 
erect herbs with alternate leaves palmately 
lobed or cut, and solitary or few large 
yellow or lilac flowers. Sepals 5-15 
petal-like ; petals 5-15, small, narrow, 
with a very short claw, and blade with 
a glandular pit at the base. Stamens 
numerous. Carpels 5 or more, becoming 
follicles when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Globe 
Flowers or Globe Buttercups will grow 
in ordinary garden soil, but to obtain 
luxuriant growth and freedom of flowering 
they should be planted in rich damp soil, 
and may be naturalised near the edges of 
ponds, streams or marshy places. 

The plants may be increased by 
dividing the rootstock in autumn or 
spring, the former period preferred, as the 
disturbed plants can make new roots 
before the winter sets in fairly. If divided 
in March, the bitter cold and drying 
winds of that period do a good deal of 
harm and weaken the plants. 

The Globe Flowers may also be raised 
from seed sown in pans or boxes in spring 
and planted out in the autumn, but it 
takes two or three seasons for the seed- 
lings to become really fine flowering 
plants. 

T. acaulis (Stemless Globe Flower). — 
A native of the W. Himalayas, 4-6 in. 
high, with very dwarf stern and 5-parted 
leaves. Its bright golden flowers, each 
about 2 in. across, are borne in July, the 



7 sepals being broadly oval obtuse, and 
the 14 petals narrowly wedge-shaped. 

Culture dc. as above. This plant 
prefers a fine peaty soil in a moist spot. 

T. altaicus (Altaian Globe Flower). 
A species 12-18 in. high with much- 
divided leaves, and pale orange or yellow 
flowers about 2 in. across, having 10, 
often 15-20 broad obtuse occasionally 
crenulate sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. asiaticus (Asiatic Globe Flower). 
A handsome free-flowering species from 
N. Asia, China, and Japan, 12-18 in. high 
and closely resembling T. europceus. 
Leaves deeply divided and cut. Flowers 
deep yellow with 10 spreading sepals, and 
10 petals longer than the stamens. There 
is a good deal of variation in this species 
owing doubtless to its somewhat wide 
geographical distribution. Japonicus or 
Fortunei, and ' Orange Globe ' with rich 
orange-yellow flowers, may be men- 
tioned as fine varieties ; also albus which 
has very pale yellow flowers — not white, 
as the name would imply; and major, 
with large blossoms. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. caucasicus. — A pretty Caucasian 
perennial 9-12 in. high with leaves deeply 
divided into 5-7 lobes. The large globular 
orange-yellow flowers appear in May and 
June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. europaeus (Boits ; Common Globe 
Flower ; Golden Ball). — A native species 
growing in subalpine pastures and copses, 
having stems 6-24 in. high. The lower 
stalked leaves are somewhat roundish, 
5-parted with wedge-shaped lobes ; the 
upper ones being smaller and without 
stalks. The flowers are about 2 in. 
across, pale yellow, with roundish con- 
cave sepals, and oblong petals, appearing 
from June to August. They emit a fra- 
grant odour, and seen at a distance appear 
to be semi-double, somewhat resemblirug 
forms of B. asiaticus. 

There are many forms in cultivation, 
such as albus, superbus, a fine late one, 
aurantiacus, and napellifolius, a some- 
what dwarfer and more showy kind, while 
giganteus, as the name implies, has larger 
flowers than the others. 

Culture dc. as abo iT0 . 

T. laxus (T. americanus). — A native of 
N. America, 6-9 in. high with palmately 



152 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS helleborus 



cut leaves. Flowers appear in May, pale 
greenish-yellow or nearly white, about 
1| in. across, with 5 or 6 spreading sepals, 
and 15-25 small petals much shorter than 
the stamens. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. patulus. — A Siberian species 3-12 
n. high with golden-yellow flowers. 
Culture dc. as above. 

HELLEBORUS (Hellebore; 
Christmas Rose, and Bear's Foot). — 
A genus containing about twelve species 
of erect perennial herbs, with more or 
less leathery leaves palmately, pedately 
or digitately lobed. Flowers solitary or 
in panicles, white, greenish, yellowish, or 
purple in colour. Sepals 5, regular, petal - 
like, persistent. Petals small, tubular, 
two-lipped. Carpels numerous, separate 
or cohering at the base, when mature 
(follicles) opening at the top. 

Culture and Propagation. — Helle- 
bores should be grown in deep rich 
loamy soil, in damp and rather shaded 
places, such as under trees or at the 
foot of a north wall. As the flowers 
appear during the cheerless and often 
rainy winter months, it is well to have 
the plants where they can be protected, if 
necessary, from the damaging effects of 
mud splashes. The Christmas Rose (H. 
niger). for example, has most beautiful 
white flowers in winter, if protected with 
a glass light, or even a piece of canvas, 
when in bloom. 

Hellebores are chiefly increased by 
dividing the rootstock after flowering. 
They may also be obtained by the slower 
process of sowing seeds when new varie- 
ties or variations of old ones are desired 
or expected. The seeds may be sown in 
rich soil, in pots or pans, in cold frames 
as soon as ripe. The following spring the 
seedlings will be fit for pricking out, so 
that with extra space they will become 
large and strong enough for transplanting 
about the end of September. Seeds may 
also be sown out of doors in specially pre- 
pared spots, not exposed to strong sun- 
shine. 

H. abschasicus {Caucasian Christmas 
Bose). — An evergreen Caucasian species 
about 1 ft. high, and leaves about 1 ft. 
across, divided into 5-7 bluntly lance- 
shaped widely spreading toothed lobes. 
Flowers from January to March green or 
purplish, nodding, about 2 in. across, with 
oval pointed sepals, yellowish-white sta- 



mens and 18-24 petals. The variety 
albus lias pure white flowers, which 
appear from February to May. 
Culture dc. as above. 

H. atrorubens. — A native of the woods 
and thickets of S. Europe. It is about 
18 in. high, the lower leaves pedate with 
5 9 lobes, the upper ones almost sessile 
and palmate. The deep purple flowers, 
changing with age to dull purple, appear 
about March and April, and have 
roundish sepals about 1 in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. caucasicus. — A Caucasian species 
about 18 in. high, with very glossy oblong 
leaves 8-4 in. broad. The pale green 
flowers appear from January to April, 
and have much-lapped sepals about 1^ in. 
long. The variety punctatus is a garden 
hybrid with showy reddish-purple flowers 
spotted inside with dark purple. A newer 
form called nigricans is recognised by its 
bluish-black flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. colchicus. — This is a native of 
Asia Minor, and is perhaps the best of 
the red or crimson Hellebores. It is 
about 18 in. high, with very large, pedate, 
toothed, and distinctly veined leaves, 
divided 5-7 times. From three to six 
bright deep purple flowers, with yellow 
stamens, are produced well above the 
foliage from January to the end of March. 
The flat sepals are sometimes rounded in 
shape, and overlap each other. 

H. colchicus has been crossed with 
H. guttatus and other species, the results 
being decided acquisitions to the garden. 
One variety — coccineus — has large, hand- 
some drooping bell-shaped blossoms of a 
beautiful plum purple suffused with red. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. foetidus (Stmking Hellebore; Setter 
Wort; Bear's Foot). — A very distinct 
and ornamental evergreen native species, 
growing in chalky pastures and thickets, 
forming luxuriant tufts 2-3 ft. high. 
The lower leaves are stalked, divided 
5-7 times into linear, toothed segments. 
The green flowers, 1 in. across, tipped 
with purple, are borne on drooping 
panicled cymes in February and March. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. lividus (H. corsicus). — A native of 
Corsica, about 18 in. high, with smooth 
trifid leaves, the segments bemg oblong, 
lance-shaped and sharply toothed ; from 



HELLKHOKVS 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



HELLEBORUS 153 



lOjto 20 pale green flowers with nearly flat 
and spreading sepals appear in March in 
a deltoid corymb. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. niger (Common Christmas Rose). 
This beautiful and well-known plant is 
a native of Central and Eastern Europe 
and W. Asia. It grows 6-18 in. high, 
with smooth leathery pedate leaves cut 
into 5-10 lance-shaped segments. From 
1-3 flowers, each 2 ."> in. across when 
fully expanded, are borne on a stem from 
Christmas onwards. They vary in colour 
from pure waxy white to a delicate blush 
tint. 

Among the varieties of this species 
may be mentioned : altifolius or maxi- 
mus, which has large flowers white inside, 
tinged with rose outside, becoming deeper 
coloured with age. The leaf-stalks are 
also mottled with purple; cmgustifoUus, 
of which there are two forms : one, the 
' Manchester,' with leaf and flower stalks, 
pale green and without spots, and numer- 
ous flowers pure white throughout ; the 
other, the ' Scotch,' a dwarf compact 
plant with flowers pure white within, 
slightly tinged with rose outside ; 
Madame Fourgade and major are varie- 
ties with white flowers, the latter being 
particularly free flowering. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
may be slightly forced by simply lifting 
the clumps and placing them in a cool 
greenhouse for the flowers to open in all 
their purity. The blooms are in great 
demand with florists at Christmas time. 

H. odorus (Sweet-scented Hellebore). 
This Hungarian species is about 18 in. 
high, with pale green leaves veined with 
white, those of the root stalked, pedate, 
with 6-8 lance-shaped regularly toothed 
segments. The green, sweet-scented 
drooping flowers, each about 2 in. across, 
appear from February to April. The 
variety purpu/rascens is dwarfer than the 
type, and has purplish-red flowers with 
rounded overlapping sepals curved in at 
the edges, and white stamens. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. olympicus (Olympian Hellebore). 
A handsome species 1-2 ft. high, native 
of Greece. Leaves digitate, pedate, or 
palmate, cut into 5-7 linear oblong 
smooth lobes with toothed margins. The 
purplish flowers, with roundish sepals, 



and yellowish stamens, appear from 
February to April, two or three being on 
one stem. 

Culture dc. as above, This plant re- 
quires a somewhat warmer situation than 
the other species and does well in shel- 
tered and sunny spots in the border or 
rockery. 

H. orientalis (Lenten Hose; Oriental 
Hellebore). — A fine species, native of 
Greece and Syria, and growing 8-24 in. 
high. Leaves much divided, and some- 
what downy when young, and cut into 
7-9 more or less lance- shaped toothed 
segments. The large rosy flowers with 
overlapping sepals appear from February 
to May, two to six blossoms on a stem. 
Several vigorous hybrids have been raised 
by crossing this species with the white- 
flowered H. niger and the purple form of 
H. odor tin. 

Other varieties, often described as 
species, are antiquorum, which differs 
from the typical H. orientalis by its 
smooth leaves, and white flowers softly 
suffused with pink and grey ; and guttatus 
with 5-7 white flowers on a stem, 2 in. 
across, dotted with purple ; subpunctatus 
is a form of guttatus, with white flowers 
faintly spotted with green inside. 

Culture dc. as above. Lenten Helle- 
bores are best seen to advantage when 
left undisturbed for several years. They 
thrive in a deep rich and well- drained 
loam in positions that are fairly well 
sheltered, either by shrubs or walls, from 
keen cold winds. Among the numerous 
forms, to which many fancy names have 
been given, only those with clear and 
distinct colours should be selected and 
grown in large bold masses. The dull 
dead purple kinds are often too smeary to 
be attractive. A good mulching of well- 
rotted manure around the plants every 
autumn or winter will be of the greatest 
advantage in imparting fresh food to the 
soil, and increased vigour to the plants. 

H. viridis (Green Hellebore; Bear's 
Foot). — A native of Em-ope, including 
Britain, growing about 18 in. high, with 
smooth, dark green leaves, the lower 
ones fully developing after flowering and 
cut into 5-7 narrow toothed segments. 
The green flowers are li-2 in. across and 
appear in March and April 5 or 6 at a 
time on the stems furnished with palmately 
cut leaf-like bracts. 

Culture dc. as above. 



154 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



COPTIS 



ERANTHIS (Winter Aconite).— A 
genus of dwarf and pretty perennials 
with tuberous roots, palmately cut leaves 
and solitary yellow flowers. Sepals 5-8, 
regular, petal-like, deciduous. Petals 
small, clawed, with a scale at the base. 
Stamens and carpels numerous, the latter 
separate, becoming follicles when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — There 
are only the species described below. 
They will grow in almost any soil, and are 
seen to the best advantage under trees or 
on banks in semi-wild situations. They 
are easily increased by division any time 
after flowering up to the end of September. 
Seeds may also be sown in the open 
border, or in pots or pans, but as a rule 
do not sprout until the following spring. 
Then they only produce a leaf or two for 
a few weeks and dry up, leaving only a 
small tubercle about the size of a pin's 
head in the soil. Every year this little 
tubercle becomes larger, and by the end of 
the third or fourth year is quite full grown 
and flowers freely. 

E. cilicica. — This is a plant with more 
finely divided leaves and rather duller 
yellow flowers which appear earlier or 
later than those of E. liyemalis according 
to locality and circumstance. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. hyemalis. — This, the best known 
species, is a native of W. Europe and 
grows 3-8 in. high. The yellow sessile 
flowers appear soon after Christmas or 
New Year's Day and continue to appear 
well into March. There are 6-8 oblong 
sepals and a similar number of very short 
tubular petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. sibirica. — A Siberian plant 3 in. or 
so high. The yellow flowers appear in 
March and April, having 5 oval sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

COPTIS (Gold Thread). — A genus 
of pretty evergreen bog plants, with ter- 
nately cut leaves and white flowers. Sepals 
5-6, regrdar, petal-like, deciduous. Petals 
5-6, small, hooded or linear. Carpels 
(follicles when ripe) numerous, separate. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants may be easily grown in moist sandy 
or peaty soil and increased by dividing 
the roots in autumn or spring. Seeds 
may also be sown as soon as ripe in pots 
or pans of sandy peat and placed in cold 
frames for the winter. The seedlings are 
pricked out when large enough into other 



boxes or pots, and may be transferred to 
the open ground in spring during mild 
weather. They may be grown as an 
edging or border to Rhododendrons, 
Azaleas, Kalmias, and other plants of the 
Erica family (see p. 574). 

C. asplenifolia. — A native of N.W. 
America and Japan, about 1 ft. high, with 
biternate leaves, cut into sharply toothed 
segments. Flowers white with 5 very long 
and narrow petals, dilated and hooded in 
the middle, appearing in early summer. 

Culture &c. as above. 

C. occidentalis. — A plant 6-12 in. high 
from the Rocky Mountains. Leaves 
trifoliate, with short - stalked broadly 
ovate leaflets. The white flowers have 
6 non-hooded petals and appear in early 
summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. orientalis. — A Japanese species 
3-9 in. high. Leaves ternate, each of the 
divisions pinnate at the base, and 
pinnatifid above ; lobes deeply cut. 
Flowers white, in early summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. trifolia (Gold Thread). — A native 
of N. America, Asia, and Europe, 3-5 in. 
high, with bright yellow fibrous roots, 
from which the popular name is derived. 
Leaves trifoliate, with blunt toothed and 
slightly 3-lobed leaflets. The white 
flowers appear from April to July on 
slender stalks which spring from the roots. 

Culture dc. as above. 

ISOPYRUM. — A genus containing 
about seven species of dwarf slender per- 
ennial herbs, with ternately decompound 
leaves and white flowers solitary or 
loosely paniculate ; sepals 5-6, regular, 
petal-like, deciduous. Petals 5, very short 
and very variable in form, sometimes 
absent. Carpels (follicles when ripe) 2-20, 
separate. Stamens sometimes as many as 
10 in number. 

I. thalictroides. — This European plant 
is the only species in cultivation and has 
very gracefully cut foliage somewhat 
resembling Maidenhair Fern fronds, or 
some of the Meadow Rues (Thalictrum). 
It is 9-15 in. high, and produces its 
small white flowers about April and May. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is a 
beautiful plant for the rockery and grows 
well in sandy or ordinary garden soil. 
It may be increased from seeds sown in 
spring in the open border, or in pots or 
pans in cold frames, so that the seedlings 



NIGELLA 



BUTTERCUP OBDEIi 



AQUILRGIA 155 



can be more readily attended to when 
large enough to handle easily. The roots 
also may be divided about the end of Sep- 
tember, or in spring just as growth is 
beginning. This species makes a gracefid 
edging plant. 

NIGELLA (Devil-in -the-Bush ; 
Love-in-a-Mist ; Fennel-Flower). — A 
genus of about 10 species of curious 
erect annuals, with alternate leaves cut 
into very narrow more or less finely 
cut pinnate segments. Flowers white, 
blue or yellow. Sepals 5, regular, petal- 
like, deciduous. Petals 5, clawed, with 
a small bifid blade. Carpels 3-10, more 
or less connate, and opening at the top 
when ripe to shed the numerous seeds. 

Culture and Propagation. — Nigellas, 
or Fennel Flowers, will grow in any 
ordinary garden soil, and may be easily 
raised from seeds sown in the open border 
every spring. When the seedlings are 
large enough to handle easily they should 
be thinned out to about 6 in. apart. N. 
damascena and N. liispanica are the kinds 
most generally grown, but the other species 
as described below may also be tried. 

They are all more or less ornamental 
and interesting plants in the rockery or 
flower border, and may be cut freely for 
bouquets, and for room decoration. 

N. damascena. — A native of S. Europe 
and Asia Minor, 1-2 ft. high, with finely 
cut leaves and large white or blue flowers 
appearing in summer and surrounded by 
a mossy involucre. Flore pleno is a 
double-flowered variety, and alba has 
white flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

N. hispanica. — A species 1-2 ft. high 
from Spain and the south of France. 
Flowers in July and August, large, deep 
blue, and without any involucre. There 
is a white- and also a purple-flowered 
variety of this species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

N. Nigellastrum (Garidella Nigell- 
astrum).— -This is the 'Star Nigella' of 
S. Europe. It has very finely cut leaves, 
and produces its brown and green flowers 
about July. 

Culture dc. as above. 

N. orientalis. — A curious species from 
Asia Minor. It is about 18 in. high, with 
pale blue-green foliage cut into long and 
narrow segments. The yellow flowers 
spotted with red appear in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 



N. sativa. — This plant is supposed by 
some to be the Fitches mentioned in 
Isaiah. It is about 18 in. high and a 
native of S. Europe, N. Africa, and Asia 
Minor. The rather hairy erect stems are 
clothed with leaves cut into short linear 
diverging segments. The bluish flowers, 
without an involucre, appear in July. 

Culture dc. as above. 

AQUILEGIA (Columbine). — A genus 
of erect perennial herbs, with ternately 
decompound leaves, the segments of which 
are usually blunt. The flowers are as a 
rule very beautiful, vary a good deal in 
colour, being blue, white, yellow, purple, 
and scarlet, with intermediate shades, and 
are borne either singly or in panicles. 
Sepals 5, regular, petal-like, deciduous. 
Petals 5, concave, produced downwards 
between the sepals into a tubular horn-like 
spur, curved at the tips. Stamens numer- 
ous, the inner row sometimes reduced to 
scale-like staminodes. Carpels 5, separate, 
changing into opening follicles when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Columbines are well-known and beautiful 
garden plants ; most of them can be 
easily grown in ordinary soil, especially 
if it consists chiefly of loam with 
plenty of vegetable matter in it. 
Some of the more choice alpine kinds, 
however, require a little care in regard to 
soil and situation. They thrive best in 
well-drained, but withal moist, sandy soil, 
in half shady places with a northern aspect, 
and are suitable plants for the rockery. 
A good nmlchmg of manure in autumn 
or early winter will be highly beneficial 
to the plants, and keep them in a vigorous 
condition for several years, and enable 
them to bring forth immense numbers 
of blossoms during the early summer 
months. 

Columbines are easily increased either 
from seeds sown in spring in the open 
border ; in the autumn in boxes or pans, 
placed in a cold frame ; or by dividing the 
rootstock in autumn. As seeds are pro- 
duced in great abundance as a rule, and 
cross-fertilisation is easily effected, the 
only sure way to secure an increase of a 
particular variety is by dividing the root- 
stock. Every shoot, if carefully detached 
and planted, will grow and make a strong 
plant the following season. On the other 
hand, a charming varietj'- in form and 
colour may be obtained by planting seed- 
lings. Where A. chrysantha, A. sibirica, 
and A. vulgaris are grown with other 



156 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS aquilegia 



species they sooner or later influence the 
progeny of the latter raised from seed, 
and ultimately crush the original types 
out of the garden. If seeds are not re- 
quired the withering flower stalks may be 
cut down and very often in favourable 
seasons a second blossoming will take 
place in autumn as a consequence. • 

A. alpina (Alpine Columbine). — A 
beautiful species 9-24 in. high, from the 
Swiss Alps. The leaves are twice ternate, 
with segments deeply divided into linear 
lobes. The large drooping flowers which 
appear from May to July are 2-3 in. across 
when fully open, deep blue, or blue and 
white, with straight spurs somewhat in- 
curved at the tips. Suitable for the rockery. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. atropurpurea. — A Siberian plant 
2-3 ft. high, with twice ternate leaves, and 
dark purple or bluish-violet flowers, almost 
2 in. across, and two or three in a head 
with straight spurs. A border plant. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Bertoloni (A. Beuteri). — A pretty 
little alpine about 12 in. high, with small, 
dark, blue-green leaves. Flowers in June 
and July, violet-blue, about 1 in. across, 
with short knobby spurs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. canadensis (Canadian Columbine). 
A very pretty border or rock plant, 12-24 
in. high, native of N. America. The 
leaves have 3-parted bluntish segments, 
deeply toothed at the apex. The hand- 
some and attractive flowers appear from 
April to June ; they are scarlet, mixed with 
yellow, and less than 1 in. across, with 
straight spurs, and styles and stamens 
protruding. The variety known as major 
is somewhat larger in growth and blossom 
than the type, and is an improvement 
upon it. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. chrysantha (Golden Columbine). — 
This fine vigorous species is a native of 
California and grows 3-4 ft. high, having 
twice ternate leaves. Flowers from May 
to August, many on a stem ; sepals prim- 
rose-yellow, 1 in. long, tinted with purple 
at the tips ; petals of a deeper yellow 
colour with straight slender spurs 1A-2 in. 
long. The variety flavescens (also known 
as aurea) has flowers of a uniform bright 
canary-yellow, tinged with red, and spurs 
somewhat incurved at the tips. There is 
also a dwarf form 12-18 in. high with 



golden-yellow flowers, and numerous 
variations may be obtained by raising 
plants from seed. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. caerulea (A. leptoceras ; A.macran- 
tlia). — A lovely species for borders or foot 
of rockeries. It is a native of the Rocky 
Mountains, and 9-15 in. high, with large 
twice ternate leaves. Several flowers are 
borne on a stem from April to July, each 
one being 2^-3 in. across when fully open, 
and are blue and white in colour, sometimes 
tinted with lilac or claret, rarely pure 
white ; spurs about 2 in. long, very slender, 
almost straight, and tipped with green. 
The variety alba (sometimes called grandi- 
flora) is a rare and beautiful form with 
large pine white flowers. The variety 
hybrida is a vigorous grower of garden 
origin and produces numerous bhie and 
white flowers. A double-flowered variety 
appeared some few years ago and is likely 
to remain constant. 

Culture dc. as above. In some soils 
A. ccerulea is apt to die out. Where this 
occurs it should be raised from seed 
annually. 

A. flabellata. — A pretty Japanese 
species about I ft. high, with a black 
tuberous rootstock, and stiffish grey-green 
leaves cut into 3-5 lobes. The white 
flowers with short greenish spurs appear 
in early summer in great abundance, and 
combined with the dwarfness of the tufted 
plant make a good picture in the border or 
rockery. 

Culture dc. as above. This Columbine 
may be grown in pots and gently forced 
in greenhouses in the early part of the 
year with good results. 

A.formosa (^4. arctica ; A. cahfornica ; 
A. eximia ; A. f. truncata). — A showy 
border plant from N. America, 2-4 ft. high 
with twice ternate leaves. The flowers 
appear from May to September, many on 
a stem, and have bright orange-red sepals 
about 1 in. long, with a green blunt tip 
and yellow petals ; the spurs are |-| in. 
long, slender, almost straight, distinctly 
knobby at the tips. 

The plant known as A. californica 
hybrida is a beautiful hybrid with yellow 
sepals and petals, tinted with orange, and 
long slender orange-red spurs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. fragrans (Fragrant Columbine). — 
A handsome much - branched bushy 
species, li-2 ft. high, native of the Hhna- 



AQUILEGIA 



BUTTERCUP OB DEB 



AQUILEGIA 157 



layas. The leaves are twice ternate, the 
iipper ones downy and somewhat glandular. 
Flowers from May to July, few on a stem, 
white or pale claret-purple, agreeably 
fragrant, and slightly downy ; spurs slender, 
twice as long as the truncated petals, 
slightly curved, and knobbed at the tips. 
Culture dc. as above. This plant re- 
quires a somewhat warm and sheltered 
position in moist sandy soil. 

A. glandulosa {Gland alar Columbi nu ?). 
A very pretty Siberian plant 8-12 in. 
high, with twice ternate much-lobed leaves. 
Flowers from April to June, with large 
deep blue nearly oval sepals, and fine blue 
petals tipped with creamy white, the spur 
being stout and much incurved. The 
variety jucunda is a smaller plant, but 
very handsome, and is best treated as a 
biennial. Seeds may be sown every year 
to keep up a supply. 

Culture and Propagation. — It is safer 
to divide this plant for increase before the 
leaves die down, as it is apt to perish, espe- 
cially on cold soils, if divided when at rest. 
In many places A. glandulosa does not 
flower very freely, either because it is too 
often disturbed, or the soil is not suffi- 
ciently rich and well manured. Once the 
plants are established, they should 
receive a good dressing of manure every 
autumn or winter, and they will nourish 
for four or five years without being 
disturbed. 

A. glauca. — A Himalayan plant 12- 
18 in. high, with twice ternate leaves of a 
blue-green sheen. Three to four fragrant 
white, claret-tinted flowers on a stem 
appear in June, having straight or 
slightly curved spurs about ^ in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. As this plant is 
somewhat tender it may not survive hard 
winters in unfavourable parts, and would 
therefore require a little protection. It 
should be given a warm dry spot. 

A. longissima. — A native of Texas 
and Mexico, 3-4 ft. high, and closely 
related to A. chrysantha. The stems and 
leaves are covered with silky hairs, the 
under surface of the foliage being bluish- 
green. The pale yellow or whitish 
flowers tinged with red appear in summer 
and have spurs 4 in. or more long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. olympica. — A native of Greece, 
about 18 in. high, with 2-3 ternate blue- 
green leaves, and large delicate mauve 



flowers with white petals and short blunt 
spurs. They appear about April and May 
and are very effective owing to the con- 
trast in colour between the sepals and 
petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. pyrenaica. — A pretty rock or 
border plant 9-12 in. high, native of 
the Pyrenees. Leaves 1-2 ternate, deep 
green with linear segments. Flowers 
from April to June, one to three on a 
stem, bright lilac-blue, with slender spurs 
nearly straight, about -\ in. long, and 
scarcely knobbed at the top. 

Culture <£c. as above. 

A. sibirica (A. bicolor ; A gamier i- 
wna ; A. speciosa). — A pretty rockery 
plant about 12 in. high, native of Siberia, 
and having 2 ternate leaves. Flowers in 
June and July, many on smooth stems, 
bright lilac, with blunt sepals, the limb of 
the petals sometimes white ; spurs stout, 
much incurved, £-f in. long. 

The double-flowered form flore pleno 
is a more ornamental plant. It is similar 
in habit to the type, but has heads of 
double flowers, the spurs of which always 
point downwards instead of upwards. 
They are blue and white in colour, but 
sometimes yellowish, and present a very 
handsome appearance when seen in 
masses. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Skinned.— A noble and disthict 
border species 2-3 ft. high, from the 
mountains of Guatemala, with leaves 
twice ternately divided and unequally 
lobed. The large handsome flowers are 
borne on slender stalks from June to 
August, with red or greenish lance-shaped 
sepals, small golden-yellow petals, and 
straight spurs about 2 in. long, and of a 
bright orange-red. 

Culture dc. as above. This should be 
grown in warm sandy loam. Several 
forms, apparently hybrids between A. 
Shinneri and A. vulgaris, have appeared, 
and seem to possess a more vigorous con- 
stitution than the typical A. Shinneri. 
The flowers also vary a good deal in 
colour, as might be expected, and red, blue 
and yellow shades are not uncommon. 
These primary colours will serve to pro- 
duce a vast number of intermediate shades 
in due course. Any exceptionally fine 
variety can only be kept pure by division 
of the rootstocks as advised above at 
p. 155. 



158 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS aquilegia 



A. Stuarti. — This is a splendid Colum- 
bine, closely related to .4. glandulosa, and. 
from a botanical point of view can only 
be regarded as a form of that species. It 
was raised by Dr. Stuart of Chirnside, 
N.B., by fertilising A. vulgaris wittman- 
niana with the pollen of A. glandulosa. 
It is, however, a much finer plant than 
the latter species, and produces its large 
attractive flowers — each about 4 in. 
across — in April and May. The sepals 
are of a deep and brilliant blue, and in 
striking contrast to the white and blue 
tubular and shortly 1 spurred petals sur- 
rounding a bunch of bright yellow stamens 
in the centre. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
beautiful border plant likes a rich and 
deeply dug soil and is best raised from 
seeds sown as soon as ripe in the places 
where the plants are to bloom. Instead 
of pricking out the seedlings, they may be 
thinned out to 8 or 12 in. apart, in mild 
showery weather. The thinnings may be 
transplanted to other parts of the garden 
if required. The plants should not be 
disturbed for 3 or 4 years, but should 
have a good mulch of well-rotted manure 
every winter. 

A. thalictrifolia. — A downy plant 
about 2 ft. high, from the Tyrol, having 
leaves with 3-stalked segments cut into 
deep oblong lobes. Flowers in June and 
July, 2-3 on a stem, lilac-blue, with oblong 
acute sepals i in. long, and slender spurs. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

A. transylvanica. — A beautiful and 
free-flowering Transylvanian species 1-2 ft. 
high. All its parts are quite smooth, and 
the lower leaves are twice ternate, with 
2-3-lobed segments. The bright rich 
blue or purplish flowers are 2-3 inches 
across, and appear in great profusion dur- 
ing May and June, the ovate oblong 
sepals being distinctly clawed. 

Culture dc. as above. It grows very 
freely and may be increased by dividing 
the roots in ' early autumn or spring. 
Closely related to A. glandulosa. 

A. viridiflora (Green-flowered Colum- 
bine). — A somewhat pretty and distinct 
species from Siberia, 12-18 in. high, with 
leaves. Flowers sage-green, sweetly 
scented and very useful for cutting. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. vulgaris (Common Columbine). — 
A native of our woods and thickets and 



very valuable for its many pretty garden 
forms. It grows 1-3 ft. high, with almost 
smooth 2-3 ternate blue-green leaves. 
The drooping flowers are borne in loose 
corymbs from May to July, and are blue, 
dull purple, white, or various shades, 
including red in the garden forms. Spurs 
hooked and knobby at the tips. 

There are very many forms — both 
single and double-flowered — to which it 
would be mere waste of time to give 
distinctive names. Mention, however, 
may be made of the following : alba, with 
pure white single flowers ; alba flore 
pleno, with white double flowers; ccBrulea 
nana fl. pi., very dwarf, with deep blue 
double flowers ; hybrida, with lilac -purple 
sepals and white petals; vervceniana, 
with variegated or yellow mottled foliage ; 
and wittnianniana, a fine variety with 
large bright lilac-purple sepals 1-1^ in. 
long, white petals, and curved spurs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

ANEMONOPSIS. — A genus con- 
taining only the following species : — 

A. macrophylla. — A pretty hardy per- 
ennial 2-3 ft. high, native of Japan. It 
has large smooth and twice ternate leaves 
with coarsely toothed leaflets, and some- 
what resembles an Actaea in appearance. 
The flowers, which resemble those of 
Anemone japonica, but are rather smaller, 
appear in June and July in loose raceme - 
like clusters. Each flower consists of 
about 9 or more concave sepals, pale lilac 
inside, purple outside, and 12 or more 
linear oblong petals with a nectary-bear- 
ing hollow at the base. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
Japanese plant is hardy in most parts of 
the kingdom but may require a little pro- 
tection with dry leaves, litter &c. over the 
crowns in the coldest parts. It flourishes 
in ordinary good and well-drained garden 
soil of a somewhat loamy and gritty 
nature, and may be increased by division 
of the roots about March. Seeds if obtained 
may also be sown in cold frames as soon 
as ripe, or in gentle heat in spring, and 
the seedlings planted out in May. 

DELPHINIUM (Larkspur). — A 
genus of about 40 species of erect annual 
or perennial herbs, with alternate lobed 
or cut leaves. Flowers in racemes or 
panicles, blue, purple, pink, or white, 
rarely yellow. Sepals 5, petal-like, 
separate, or cohering below, the upper 



DELPHINIUM 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



DELPHINIUM 159 



one drawn out into a spur behind. Petals 
2-4, small, the 2 upper having spurs 
within the sepaline spur, the two others 
spurless or absent. Stamens numerous. 
Carpels (follicles when ripe) 1-5. 

Culture and Propagation. — Perennial 
Larkspurs will grow in almost any soil or 
situation, but are most luxuriant when 
given a deep mellow loam well enriched 
with rotted manure, and fairly moist. As 
the Larkspurs vary a good deal in height — 
from 2 to 6 or 8 ft. — they are suitable for 
planting in various situations. If in beds 
by themselves, a distance of 2 -3 ft. should 
be between the plants, and greater distance 
still when in borders with other perennials. 

About every third or fourth year the 
rootstocks may be divided and replanted. 
This is best done in spring, just when the 
plants have started into growth. Autumn 
division is not advisable, as the roots are 
apt to perish during hard winters, pro- 
bably because the new ones have not had 
sufficient time to obtain a good hold of 
the soil. 

As with many other flowers, so Delphi- 
nium can be made to bloom a long time 
by picking off the flowers or spikes as 
soon as they begin to fade. The side 
shoots are thus stimulated into growth, 
and give a fresh supply of flowers. It 
must, however, be borne in mind that 
this continual development of flowers has 
an exhausting effect on the plant's con- 
stitution, and this should be counter- 
balanced by heavy dressings of manure 
in either a solid or liquid state. 

Besides the process of dividing the 
roots already mentioned, Larkspurs may 
also be increased by seeds or cuttings. 
Seeds of the perennial kinds are often 
very slow in germinating. Those of the 
annual species may be sown out of doors 
on a warm border in April, or. better still 
in pans or boxes, from which the seed- 
lings can in due course be pricked off into 
light rich soil. In early autumn the seeds 
may also be sown in cold frames, and the 
seedlings planted out in mild weather the 
following spring. 

Cuttings of the perennial kinds are 
made of the tops of the young shoots in 
either spring or autumn. They should be 
inserted in somewhat sandy soil either 
singly in small pots, or several in a 
shallow box, and placed in a cold frame, 
excluding the air for a few days. When 
well rooted the young plants may be 
transferred to their permanent positions. 



Besides the natural species described 
below, there are very many beautiful 
florists' varieties having single, double, 
and semi-double flowers in all shades of 
blue, lilac, lavender, purple and violet. 
As nurserymen are continually adding 
new varieties, a reference to their cata- 
logues may be better than giving a list 
here, which would probably soon be out 
of date. The following are the most 
distinct natural Larkspurs : — 

D. Ajacis (Rocket Larkspur). — A 
native annual of British cornfields, 12-18 
in. high, with fine deeply cut leaves, and 
blue, white or pink flowers about 1 in. 
across, produced in long racemes in June 
and July. 

D. Ajacis has given rise to very many 
varieties of annual Larkspurs, which vary 
a good deal in habit, and have a very 
extensive range of colouring among the 
single and double flowers. D. Ajacis 
inajus, D. A. minus, D. A. hyacinthi- 
florum, and D. A. ra/nwncuUflorv/m may 
be taken as types of the various sections 
cultivated. 

Culture Sc. as above. Seeds sown 
annually. 

D. armeniacum. — Closely related is a 
newer species native of Armenia. It 
has the habit and general appearance of 
D. Ajacis, but is more vigorous in growth, 
and has soft, sky-blue flowers. 

Cult u re (tx. as above. Seeds sown 
annually. 

D. azureum. — A perennial species 
from N.W. America, about 3 ft. high, 
with 3-5-parted, many-cleft leaves with 
linear lobes. The large beautiful sky- 
blue flowers are borne on erect racemes 
from May to July, the upper petals 
being all bearded, the lower ones hairy. 
The variety album has white flowers. 

Culture Sc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. brunonianum. — A rare species with 
a strong musky odour, native of Thibet. 
It is 6-12 in. high, the lower leaves being 
kidney-shaped and deeply divided ; the 
upper ones 3-parted. The large light 
blue flowers with purple margins and 
black centre appear in June and July. 

Culture Sc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. cardinale (Scarlet Larkspur). — 
A handsome Californian annual 3-4 ft. 
high, with smooth and somewhat fleshy 



160 



PB ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS delphinium 



deeply lobed leaves. The bright scarlet 
flowers, with distinctly yellow petal limbs, 
are produced in spikes during August. 
Owing to its long fleshy roots, this species 
should be grown in a good depth of rich 
soil. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds sown 
annually. 

D. cardiopetalum. — A Pyrenean 
annual about 1 ft. high, with smooth 
ternate leaves cut into linear lobes. 
Flowers dark bluish-violet on crowded 
racemes in June. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds sown 
annually. 

D. cashmirianum. — A native of Kash- 
mir 12-18 in. high, with palmately lobed 
leaves 4 in. or more across, deep green, 
and slightly hairy. Flowers produced in 
corymbs in July, of a distinct pale blue, 
each 1-2 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. Best increased 
from seed sown in autumn in cold franies. 
The variety atrojiurpureum has much 
larger and deeper coloured flowers than 
the type. The variety Walkeri is dis- 
tinguished by having dull yellow petals 
tipped with purple. 

D. caucasicum. — A Caucasian species 
1^-2 ft. high, with palmately lobed and 
toothed radical leaves, and lance-shaped 
acute bracts on the floral sterns. The dark 
blue flowers which are borne singly in 
the axils of the bracts are about H in. 
across, and are produced nearly the whole 
length of the stem. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. cheilanthum. — A species 2-3 ft. 
high from Dahuria. Leaves 5-parted with 
oblong pointed, sub-trifid, and somewhat 
toothed lobes. The dark blue flowers 
appear in September. 

Culture d-c. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. Consolida. — A European annual 
occasionally found wild in England, 12- 
18 in. high, with leaves cut into narrow 
linear lobes. 

This and D. Ajacis have given rise to 
a great number of garden varieties. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds sown 
annually. 

D. dasycarpum. — This hairy -fruited 
species is a native of the Caucasus, and is 



about 4-6 ft. high. The downy leaves 
have 5 lance-shaped lobes, somewhat 
trifid and deeply toothed at the apex. 
The rather large, beautiful blue flowers 
with brownish petals appear in June on 
simple downy racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. elegans. — A N. American species 
1-2 ft. high with smooth 5-parted leaves 
cut into cleft lobes and linear lance- 
shaped lobules. The dark blue flowers 
are borne on loose racemes in June 
and July. There is a double-flowered 
form. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. Emiliae. — A fine Californian peren- 
nial 1A-2 ft. high. It grows upon simny 
slopes in a wild state, with masses of 
Calochorti, and produces its trusses of 
deep blue flowers in June. As yet it 
does not appear to be well known in 
British gardens, and seeds have probably 
not yet been imported in quantity. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased bj r 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. exalatum (D. elatum). — A species 
3-6 ft. high from N. America. Leaves 
3-7-parted with wedge-shaped jagged 
lobes pointed at the apex. The blue or 
sometimes white flowers appear from 
June to August in erect spikes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. formosum. — The native country of 
this fine species has not been fixed with 
any certainty, but it is supposed to be of 
Asiatic origin. It is lr,-3J ft. high, with 
grey-green palmately lobed leaves, the 
lower ones stalked, the upper sessile and 
simply 3-parted. The flowers are borne 
on long spikes during the summer and 
autumn, and are of a fine azure-blue 
shaded with indigo ; the spur is of a 
violet-blue, rather long, two-cleft, and 
rumpled looking. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. grandiflorum. — One of the most 
beautiful Larkspurs, growing 1-3 ft. high, 
and native of Siberia and Dahuria. The 
light green leaves are smooth above, 
hoary beneath, and palmately cut into 
many narrow lobes. The large flowers, 
varying in colour from blue to white, are 
borne on spreading few-flowered racemes 



DELPHINIUM 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



DELPHINIUM 161 



from June to September, and have petals 
shorter than the sepals, the limb of the 
lower petals being entire and roundish. 

There are many varieties of this 
species, the best of which is perhaps 
chinense or sinense, which differs in 
having a stiffer and more erect stem, and 
in the 2 lower petals being bearded with 
yellow hairs. D. g. plenum is a fine 
double-flowered variety ; album has 
white flowers, of which there is also a 
double form. Other forms are pallidum, 
rubrum, pumilum album and pumilum 
cceruletim, the names of which give an 
idea of the colours. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. hybridum. — A native of Tauria, 
3-4 ft. high, with many-parted linear- 
lobed leaves having dilated stalks sheath- 
ing at the base. The blue flowers, the 2 
lower petals of which have white beards, 
appear on crowded racemes from June to 
August. The variety ochroleucum (also 
known as albifloruvi), a native of Arme- 
nia, has whitish flowers, smooth outside. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. intermedium. — A European species 
4-8 ft. high, with heart-shaped 5-7-parted 
leaves, the lobes of which are deeply 
serrated. In July and August the glau- 
cous racemes of flowers appear, the sepals 
being blue, and the very hairy petals 
almost black. There is a great deal of 
variation in this species. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. laxiflorum. — A Siberian plant 4 6 
ft. high. Leaves 3-7-lobed, the lobes 
being oblong, acute, and deeply cut ; the 
upper leaves are more or less 3-parted 
with narrow entire lobes. Flowers in 
June, on loose branched racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. mesoleucum. — The native country 
of this species is unknown. It grows 
about 3 ft. high, with somewhat downy 
stems, and has leaves rather dilated at the 
base with wedge-shaped segments, deeply 
serrated at the top. The flowers appear 
in June, having blue sepals and pale 
yellow or whitish petals. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. nudicaule. — A brilliant species 
12-18 in. high from California. The 



somewhat peltate fleshy leaves are 
3-parted with numerous sub-divisions, 
which in the lower ones are obcordate 
with notched lobes, and in the upper 
oblong entire. The flowers, which are 
borne on a loose raceme from May to 
August, have vivid red sepals inclining to 
orange, and clear yellow petals, the lower 
ones being spoon-shaped with a 2-cleft 
fringed lip; the -upper ones elongated, 
prominent, hairy at the ends ; the spur 
about twice as long as the smooth calyx. 
The variety elatius is taller growing than 
the species. 

Culture and Propagation. — D. nudi- 
caule grows best on raised ground in 
warm borders with light sandy soil. It 
is easily raised from seeds, but well- 
established plants may also be divided. 
General treatment as described above. 

D. Requieni (D. plctum). — A biennial 
species about 18 in. high from SAY. 
Europe. Leaves on long stalks, the lower 
ones cut into 5 broad, wedge-shaped, 3-5- 
toothed lobes, the upper ones into 5 linear 
entire lobes. The bluish hairy flowers 
appear in June. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds sown in cold frames as soon as 
ripe. The seedlings to be planted out in 
spring. 

D. Staphisagria. — A large erect bi- 
ennial 2-3 ft. high from S. Europe, with 
5-9-lobed leaves. The blue flowers with 
whitish petals appear on loose racemes in 
May and have a very short spur. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds sown in cold frames as soon as 
ripe. The seedlings to be planted out in 
spring. 

D. tricorne. — A X. American species 
about 9 in. high, with 5-parted leaves cut 
into 3-5 narrowly divided lobes. The 
bright blue flowers appear in May. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. triste. — A native of Siberia, 2 ft. 
high, with 3-5-parted leaves, having some- 
what pinnatifid sharp narrow lobes. The 
flowers appear on loose racemes from 
July to September, and are dark brown, 
the edges of the sepals being tinged with 
red, and the spur of a violet colour. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, division, or cuttings. 

D. trollifolium. — A beautiful N. Ameri- 
can Larkspur 2-4 ft. high, with stout 



162 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ACONITUM 



smooth or slightly hairy stems. The 
long-stalked leaves are divided into 5-7 
incised and toothed lobes, and the bright 
blue flowers with a white centre are 
borne in loose racemes during the early 
summer months in May and June. 
Culture dc. as above. 

D. Zalil (P. sulphur eurri). — A beautiful 
tuberous-rooted species 6 ft. or more high, 
native of Afghanistan, with deeply cut 
leaves and tall spikes of soft yellow 
flowers during the summer months. 

Culture and Propagation. — Unfortu- 
nately this species is somewhat tender 
except in sheltered sunny places in the 
south. It, however, flowers and seeds 
freely, but has a habit of dropping its 
leaves when in bloom. Although a peren- 
nial, it is best to raise seedlings in gentle 
heat every spring so as to have young 
plants ready for planting out in well- 
manured soil at the end of May. Or the 
seeds may be sown in cold frames as soon 
as ripe, so that the seedlings will be well 
advanced for planting out the following 
spring. 

ACONITUM (Aconite ; Monks- 
hood ; Wolfsbane). — -An extensive genus 
of ornamental and dangerously poisonous 
perennials with palmately lobed or cut 
leaves. Flowers in terminal racemes 
or panicles, blue, purple, yellowish, or 
white. Sepals 5, the upper one helmet- 
shaped, or like a monk's hood. Petals 
2-5, small, the 2 upper with long claws 
hooded at the tip, the 3 lower minute or 
absent. Carpels 3-5 becoming follicles 
when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — Aconites 
grow well in any garden soil, and if 
not disturbed for years will become 
splendid clumps, and produce masses of 
handsome flowers. As the roots have 
frequently been mistaken for Horse- 
Eadish, care should be taken to keep the 
plants as far away from the kitchen garden 
as possible, and even from the ordinary 
flower borders, in case of accidents. 
Copses, shrubberies, or the edges of 
streams or ponds are suitable places for 
these plants to grow. 

Aconites are easily increased by seeds 
or division of the roots in early autumn, 
but preferably in spring, as growth is 
about to commence. After performing 
the latter operation, the hands should be 
well washed as a precaution, or gloves 
may be used. 



Aconites may also be raised from 
seeds sown as soon as ripe in the open 
border in half-shaded spots. "Very often, 
however, they do not sprout until spring. 
The seedlings are pricked out into pre- 
pared soil for further growth, and allowed 
to remain until the autumn or the follow- 
ing spring before being shifted to their 
permanent positions. 

There are a very large number of 
varieties, but the following are among 
the best for garden purposes : — 

A. album. — A rare and handsome 
tuberous-rooted species 4-5 ft. high, 
native of the Levant. The large pure 
white flowers with erect helmet are 
freely produced in August. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. angustifolium. — A tuberous-rooted 
Siberian species 2-3 ft. high, with deep 
blue flowers, having a closed hemispherical 
hood, produced in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Anthora. — A species, 1-2 ft. high, 
from the Pyrenees. The pale yellow 
flowers appear in July on downy panicles. 
There are several varieties of this species, 
among which may be mentioned Pecan- 
dollei, euloplium grandiflorum, Jacquini, 
and nemorosum, all with yellow flowers. 

The black roots are more or less turnip - 
shaped and poisonous. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. autumnale. — A European species 
3-4 ft. high, producing its bluish-purple 
flowers from Jul} 7 to November. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. barbatum (A. squarrosum). — A 
native of Siberia, 2-6 ft. high, with hairy 
leaf stalks. Flowers in July, creamy 
yellow, rather downy, having the middle 
sepals densely bearded. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. biflorum. — A very rare alpine 
species, about 6 in. high, native of 
Siberia. The pale blue, usually twin 
flowers, downy outside, appear in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. chinense (A. Fortunei). — A stately 
Chinese species 4-6 ft. high, with very 
bright and intense blue flowers, borne on 
large compound racemes from July to 
September. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A delphinifolium. — A rare alpine 
species with slender stems, 6-24 in. high, 



ACONITUM 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



ACONITUM 163 



native of North America. Flowers pale 
bluish -purple in June. 
Culture dc. as above. 

A. eminens. —A European species 2-4 
ft. high, producing its blue flowers in June 
on erect or spreading downy stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. gracile. — A slender-stemmed 
Italian species about 2 ft. high, with 
large pale blue or violet flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Halleri. — A straight-stemmed 
branched plant, 4 6 ft. high, from 
Switzerland, with dense violet flowers 
in June. The variety bicolor has white 
flowers variegated with blue. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. japonicum. — A beautiful Japanese 
species 2-6 ft. high, with large, flesh- 
coloured flowers, produced from July to 
September. The variety cteruleum has 
deep blue flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Lycoctonum {True Wolfs Bane). 
A native of Europe, with slender up- 
right stems 4-6 ft. high. The rather 
large creamy yellow flowers are borne on 
more or less downy and branched racemes 
about July and August. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Napellus {Common Monk's Hood). 
A very handsome and at the same time 
virulently poisonous plant, with slightly 
pubescent stems, 3-4 ft. high. It is found 
wild in England in shady places near 
streams, and has black spindle-shaped 
roots, and 5-7 -parted leaves, with narrow 
pointed segments, the upper ones often 
sessile ; stalks dilated at the base. The 
dark blue hooded flowers are borne on 
racemes 1-2 ft. long from July to 
September. 

There are a large number of varieties 
of this species, differing chiefly in the 
shades of colour. One with whitish 
flowers is very interesting. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. ochroleucum (A. Nuttalli ; A. palli- 
dum). —A native of Eussia, 2-4 ft. high, 
producing its large cream-coloured flowers 
about July. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. ottonianum.— A plant 2-4 ft. high, 
from the Carpathian Mountains. The blue 



flowers variegated with white appear in 
July and August. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. paniculatum (A hebegynum).—\ 
native of France and Switzerland, 2 :; ft. 
high. The large violet flowers appear 
from June to September on a somewhat 
downy, much-branched, terminal panicle. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. pyrenaicum.— A Pyrenean species 
2 ft. high, with long-stalked leaves, 
smooth above, rather hairy beneath, and 
producing its large yellow flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. rostratum (A. alpmvm).—k Swiss 
plant 1-2 ft. high, with violet flowers 
produced in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. rubicundum.— A Siberian perennial 
about 3 ft. high, with very deep green 
foliage, and purplish flowers tinged with 
yellow, produced in July and August. 
Closely related to A. vulpwria. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. tauricum {A. plicatum).—A native 
of Germany 3-4 ft. high, with dense 
racemes of deep blue flowers appearing in 
June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. uncinatum.— A species 4-8 ft. high, 
from N. America, having branches arising 
from the axils of the trapeziform, pin° 
nately lobed leaves. The large lilac 
flowers appear in July, and have a some- 
what spiral spur. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. variegatum.— A handsome Euro- 
pean species 1-6 ft. high, with glistening 
deeply divided leaves. The large blue 
flowers appear in July and August, and 
are variegated with white. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. vulparia(4. lupicidum).— Foxbane. 
A well-known European plant 1-3 ft. 
high, with 3-5-lobed, ciliated leaves. The 
pale yellow flowers are borne on crowded 
racemes about July. 

There are several varieties, among 
which may be mentioned carpaticum, 
from the Carpathian Mountains, with lurid 
flowers sometimes variegated with yellow ; 
and septentrionale, from Siberia, with 
reddish-lilac or claret-coloured flowers 
produced in August and September. 

Culture dc. as above. 



51 2 



164 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS cimicifuga 



ACTJEA (Baneberry ; Herb Chris- 
topher). — A small genus of erect perennial 
herbs, with alternate. 2-3-ternate leaves, 
and long erect racemes of small whitish 
flowers which are succeeded by poisonous 
berried fruits. Sepals 3-5, almost equal, 
petal-like, deciduous. Petals 4-10, small, 
clawed, spoon-shaped, fiat. Stamens 
numerous, longer than the sepals. 

Culture and Propagation. — For the 
ornamentation of moist, half-shady spots 
of the rockery or flower border, the Actceas 
are very useful. They like a rich, moist, 
loamy soil with the addition of peat, leaf- 
mould and sand, the latter being essential 
to keep the whole light and porous. The 
plants may be increased by sowing seeds 
as soon as ripe about the end of July or 
August, either out of doors in a shaded 
place, or in cold frames in a compost of 
sandy peat and loam. The seedlings are 
pricked out when large enough to handle, 
and if sturdy they may be planted in 
their flowering quarters by the end of 
September or October. It is perhaps better, 
on the whole, however, to wait until 
spring. 

Actaeas may also be increased by 
dividing the blackish roots in autumn or 
in spring. 

A. alba (White Baneberry). — A North 
American species 12-18 in. high, with 
ovate-lanceolate, toothed or cut leaves, 
and simple racemes of white flowers in 
May and June. Berries white ovoid- 
oblong on red stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. spicata (Common Baneberry or 
Herb Christopher). — A native plant about 
1 ft. high found on limestone copses. It 
has a stout black rootstock and leaves 
2-3-ternately-pinnate and toothed. The 
white flowers appear in May, and are 
replaced by black, oblong, poisonous 
berries. 

The variety rubra is a very handsome 
variety from N. America. It differs from 
the ordinary Baneberry in having bright 
red berries in dense clusters overtopping 
the leaves. 

Culture dc. as above. 

CIMICIFUGA (Bugwort; Bug- 
bane). — A genus of ornamental herbaceous 
perennials resembling the Baneberries in 
habit and foliage. Flowers in racemes 
somewhat offensive in odour. Sepals 4-5, 
subequal, petal-like, deciduous. Petals 



1-8, small, clawed, 2-lobed, or absent. 
Carpels 1-8, separate, becoming follicles 
when ripe. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants are easily grown in ordinary 
garden soil, preferably in a moist shady 
place, and may be used in masses. They 
may be increased by dividing the root in 
spring, or from seeds sown as soon as 
ripe in the same way as recommended 
for Actcea above. 

C. americana. — A native of Carolina, 
2-4 ft. high, with tripinnate leaves, and 
beautiful feathery panicles of whitish 
sweet-scented flowers in August and 
September. 

Ctdture dc. as above. 

C. cordifolia. — Also a native of North 
America, 2-3 ft. high, with biternate 
leaves, having 4-5-lobed, toothed leaflets, 
heart-shaped at the base. Flowers in July 
and August in white racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. elata. — This is a fetid-smelling herb 
about 2 ft. high, native of N. America and 
Siberia, in which latter country it is used 
on account of its offensive smell for dri- 
ving away bugs. The leaves are ternate 
or biternate, with ovate oblong deeply 
toothed leaflets, and the panicled racemes 
of whitish flowers appear in June and 
July. 

Culture do. as above. 

C. foetida. — A beautiful European 
species 2-3 ft. high, resembling C. ameri- 
cana in habit and foliage, and bearing 
panicles of white flowers in July which 
are remarkable for their evil smell, as are 
also the green seed pods. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. japonica. — A Japanese species 3 ft. 
high, with large ternate leaves cut into 
5-7 heart-shaped lobes. The white un- 
stalked flowers appear in summer on long 
spikes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. racemosa (C. serpentaria; Actcea 
racemosa). — This is the ' Black Snake - 
root ' of N. America, and grows from 3 to 5 
ft. high, with 3-ternate leaves, having 
serrated or cut leaflets. The white flowers 
are borne on very long compound racemes 
in July and August. 

Culture dc. as above. 



XANTHORHIZA. — A genus 
only one species described below : — 



with 



XANTHOKHIZA 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



1\E0NIA 165 



X. apiifolia. — A pretty North American 
bush 2-3 ft. high, with long-stalked pin- 
nate leaves, composed of 3-5 more or 
less ovate lance-shaped, cut, lobed, and 
toothed leaflets. The small dark purple 
and often polygamous flowers are pro- 
duced in March and April in compound 
racemes before the leaves have developed. 
The flowers consist of 5 petal -like sepals, 
and 5 small clawed petals often broadened 
at the top. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species will thrive in ordinarj 7 good garden 
soil, and may be grown in the shrubbery 
or border. New plants are chiefly ob- 
tained by layering the shoots in summer 
and autumn, or by detaching the suckers 
and replanting in early autumn or spring. 
Seeds are seldom or very rarely produced 
in this country. 

PJEON1A (P^ony, Peony, or Piony). 
A genus of herbaceous plants with 
perennial rootstocks, or branched, more 
or less woody stems. Leaves alternate, 
large, more or less finely cut or lobed. 
Flowers beautiful, purple, white, rose &c. 
Sepals 5, herbaceous, persistent. Petals 
5-10, conspicuous, broad, not pitted. Car- 
pels 2-5, surrounded by a fleshy disc ; 
follicles dehiscent ; seeds large. 

Herbaceous Peonies 

Culture. — Paeonies will grow freely in 
most soils, but being gross feeders they 
prefer good moist loam, which previous 
to planting should be well trenched and 
have a dressing of rotted cow manure. 
Plants with 2 or 3 crowns eventually 
make splendid specimens, and provided a 
good mulch of manure is placed round the 
crowns every winter, say in January or 
February, the plants need not be disturbed 
for several years and will produce glorious 
masses of flower each year during May, 
June, and July, according to locality. 
The best time for planting is early autumn 
— say in October — before growth has 
quite ceased, and late spring, about April, 
when growth has commenced. The 
crowns should not be placed deeper than 
1-2 in. below the surface, and the clumps 
not less than 3 or 4 ft. apart. With a 
view to having fine plants in the future, 
the bloom-buds shoidd be pinched off the 
first season after planting, so that all the 
work of the roots and leaves is devoted to 
building up a strong healthy specimen. 

Paeonies if not ' coddled ' thrive in all 



sorts of positions, but the flowers last 
longer in shaded situations, and the foliage 
is more luxuriant than in spots fully 
exposed to the sun. 

If the flowers are cut just as they are 
about to open, they will retain their beauty 
and freshness a longtime in water. Mixed 
with masses of their own foliage, they are 
excellent for room decoration. If the 
flowers, however, are cut after expanding, 
they last only for a short time. 

Propagation. — The herbaceous 
Paeonies are usually increased by care- 
fully dividing the stocks in autumn or 
spring. Seeds may also be sown as soon 
as ripe, but they are a very long time in 
germinating. As, however, it takes from 
five to eight years to obtain a really good 
flowering plant from seeds, this method of 
propagation is rarely adopted, except by 
large growers who make a speciality of 
raising novelties. The single-flowered 
varieties produce seeds in abundance, but 
the double-flowered ones, which are much 
more highly valued, only rarely produce 
seeds. The best time to sow Paeony seeds 
is when they are thoroughly ripe. Pre- 
pared light loamy soil in a cold frame or 
sheltered border is used, or the seeds may 
be sown in pots or pans. 

P. albiflora (P. edulis). — This well- 
known species is a native of Siberia, 
where its roots are sometimes eaten by 
the Mongolian Tartars. It grows 2-3 ft. 
high, and has leaves at first reddish, then 
of a ruddy green, smooth, with oblong 
acute leaflets 3-4 in. long, 1-H in. broad. 
The beautiful white or pink flowers, 
which are bright red in bud, appear in 
Maj 7 and June, sometimes as many as 
five on a slender stem, and emit a sweet 
Rose-like fragrance. 

The best known varieties are fra- 
grans, sinensis (Humei), tatarica, uni- 
fiora, vestalis, and Whitleyi. 

Culture &c. as above. 

P. anomala (P. Fischeri ; P. inter- 
media; P. sibirica). — It is probable that 
the typical P. anomala is not in culti- 
vation, most of the cultivated forms, ac- 
cording to Mr. Lynch of the Botanic 
Gardens, Cambridge, being derived from 
a variety called insignis. It is a native 
of N. Europe, Siberia &c, and has large 
spindle-shaped roots from which arise 
stems 2-8 ft. high. Leaves 10-12, cut 
into numerous confluent lance-shaped 
acute segments 1J-2 in. long, the lower 



166 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GAB DEN PLANTS 



PiEONIA. 



leaves having 30-40. The bright crim- 
son solitary flowers, 4 in. across, appear 
in May and June, the outer sepals being 
produced into long, often compound, 
leafy points. The fruits (follicles) are 
covered with a red or white down. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 165. 

P. arietina. — A native of S. Europe, 
2-3 ft. high, with pale green or blue- 
green leaves, downy beneath, having 
more or less oblong or lance-shaped con- 
fluent segments. The dark red solitary 
flowers, about 4 in. across, appear in May, 
and are replaced by 3 or 4 densely woolly 
fruits, spreading almost horizontally from 
the base. 

The variety Andersoni, which is pro- 
bably a native of the Levant, has blue 
or glaucous-green leaves, and deep rose 
flowers with slightly crisped petals. The 
variety cretica, from the mountains of 
Crete, is one of the earliest of Paeonies, 
and may be recognised by its pale glau- 
cous green leaves when springing out of 
the ground. The flowers are pale rose or 
nearly white with torn or jagged petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Baked. — A distinct species, resem- 
bling P. triternata in habit, and named 
a few years ago by Mr. Lynch, of Cam- 
bridge. It has cylindrical and somewhat 
spindle-shaped roots, and stout stems 
about 2 ft. high, reddish, flexuose, and 
hairy from the lowest leaf to the flower. 
The red-stalked leaves are biternate, 
with broadly ovate-acute segments about 
3| in. long, the upper surface tinted with 
red, the under hairy and glaucous. 
Flowers deep rose, over 4 in. across, with 
obovate slightly crisped petals, usually 
with a white median line beneath. 

Culture dc. as above, 

P. Bard (P. Bussi, Bot. Mag.t. 22G4). 
This is another new species created by 
Mr. Lynch. It has leaf segments about 
5 times as long as broad, scarcely downy 
but very glaucous below, and brilliant red 
flowers produced in May. The true P. 
Bussi is described on p. 167. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Broteri. — A native of Spain and 
Portugal, and closely related to P. coral- 
Una. It has cylindrical roots, reddish 
stems, smooth ovate pointed leaflets, 
broadest near the middle, and rosy-red or 
sometimes white flowers, appearing in 
May and followed by hairy fruits. 

Culture dc. as above. 



P. Brownei. — A rare North American 
species about 18 in. high, with pale green 
or blue -green leaves, having ternately 
divided or cut leaflets. The globose 
flowers appear in May and are about 1 in. 
in diameter, with dull red petals brighter 
on the edges. 

The variety californica has bifid or 
trifid, never pinnatifid, leaflets, the apical 
segments being oblong, lanceolate, acute, 
and not glaucous. 

Culture dc. as above. 



P. corallina (P. Alas). — A native of 
S. Europe to Asia Minor, with spindle- 
shaped or knobby roots. It has reddish 
stems 2-3 ft. high, and smooth, deep 
green leaves with reddish veins, cut into 
more or less broadly ovate segments. 
The crimson or rose-red flowers appear 
in May, having 6-8 obovate or rounded 
petals 2-3 in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. coriacea. — A species from the S. of 
Spain, mountains of Morocco and Algeria. 
The leaves are cut into broadly ovate 
entire smooth leaflets, firm in texture. 
The flowers are large, bright crimson, 
appearing in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. decora. — A Servian species related 
to P. arietina, with smooth stems 2-3 ft. 
high, and pale green or slightly glaucous 
leaves, red at the edges, smooth or slightly 
hairy beneath, cut into numerous oblong 
blunt leaflets. Flowers in May, sohtary, 
crimson, with 6-8 petals 1^-2 in. long, 
and about 1 in. broad. The large hairy 
fruits are widely divergent. 

The variety Pallasi has narrowly 
oblong leaves, while those of elatior are 
broadly oblong. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Emodi. — A fine but rather rare 
species from the Himalayas. It grows 
2-3 ft. high, with thin, smooth, deep green 
leaves paler beneath, and cut into numer- 
ous lance-shaped pointed segments. The 
white flowers, 3-4 in. across, are produced 
in March from the axils of the upper 
leaves, and have unequal obovate petals 
\\- 2 in. broad, while some of the outer 
sepals are produced into leafy pohits. 

Culture dc. as above. This fine 
Paeony requires a warm sheltered situation 
and thoroughly well-drained soil so that 
t does not suffer during the winter months 



1-J20NIA 



B UTTER G UP OMDKl: 



P^ONIA 1G7 



from stagnant moisture at the dormant 
roots. 

P. humilis. — A well-known garden 
plant 18-24 in. high, native of the S. of 
France. The leaves are hiternate with 
red-tinted stalks, and are cut into numer- 
ous oblong-acute confluent segments, deep 
green and smooth above, pale green and 
downy beneath. The solitary bright red 
flowers appear in May on short stalks, 
having roundish petals 2 in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. hybrida, winch is not a hybrid but 
a native of the Caucasus, may be regarded 
as a variety of P. tenuifolia. It differs, 
however, in not having creeping stems, 
and the leaf segments are somewhat 
broader. P. laciniata is a synonym. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. microcarpa.— A species from the 
Spanish mountains, 12-18 in. high, and 
closely related to P. humilis. The red- 
stalked leaves are very downy beneath, 
and cut into numerous oblong-acute seg- 
ments. The flowers are bright crimson, 
appearing in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. mollis. — This is supposed to be a 
native of the Crimea, and grows about 
12 in. high. The rigid hairy stems bear 
dark bluish-green much-divided leaves, 
densely hairy beneath. The solitary 
purple-red flowers appear in May, and 
are smaller than those of P. officinalis. 
Fruits usually 3, erect, slightly incurved, 
and densely hairy. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. officinalis. — This native of South 
Europe is the most generally met with 
Pa?ony in gardens, especially the double- 
flowered varieties, which are very beau- 
tiful. It is 2-3 ft. high, with smooth deep 
green leaves, paler and sometimes downy 
beneath, cut into numerous lance-shaped 
segments, 1-2 in. broad. The solitary 
flowers are usually red or crimson, but 
there are various shades to white, all 
appearing in May and June. 

Among the finest varieties of P. offici- 
nalis mention may be made of the follow- 
ing : anemonceflora plena, in which the 
central petals are united into an elevated 
tuft, the outer petals being simdar to those 
of the single form ; purpurea plena (also 
known as fulgens and splendens) has 
globular double flowers of a reddish-pur- 
ple, the central petals being more or less 
narrowly strap-shaped, and raised some- 



what above the outer and much larger 
petals ; incarnata, plena has beautiful 
crimson flowers which become white as 
they grow older; alba plena is a fine 
double white variety, as is also maxima 
rosed plena, and striata el egans, with deep 
rose-striped flowers. P. lobata is a dwarf 
form with narrower and more numerous 
leaf-segments. It is a native of Portugal, 
and may be readily recognised by its 
brilliant salmon-coloured flowers. 

( 'ultu/re i(e. as above. 

P. paradoxa. — A native of Southern 
France and Hungary, 12-18 in. high, 
forming dense tufts of leaves, much cut 
and lobed, with red margins. The flowers 
appear in May and June, one on a stem, 
and are of a purple-red colour. 

This is closely related to the next 
species, but has smaller ovate and more 
glaucous leaves, with more divided, 
crowded, and overlapping leaflets. Culti- 
vation, however, has produced a good 
many modifications of the type, and there 
now exist forms between the single type 
and those with very double flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. peregrina. — A well-known plant 
from S. Europe. It grows 1.1 2 ft. high, 
having dull green leaves, smooth above, 
paler and hairy beneath, and cut into 
oblong acute segments, 3-4 in. long, and 
1-1£, in. broad. The bright crimson flowers 
having 5-10 petals appear on short stalks 
m May and June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. pubens may be regarded as a 
variety, and is distinguished by its hairy 
stems and leaves, the latter with red 
margins, the leaflets tapering to a point, 
and flowers rosy - red. The variety 
bij::antina has biternate leaves of a pale 
grass-green and stems covered with white 
hairs. Compacta grows only about 1 it. 
high, and has very broad, overlapping 
leaflets with very blunt divisions, and 
purple-red flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Russi. — A native of Corsica, Sicily, 
Sardinia and Algeria. It is 12-18 in. 
high, with spindle-shaped roots. The 
lower leaves are biternate, thin in 
texture, and cut into ovate or oblong 
segments. The bright crimson flowers 
appear in May and June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. tenuifolia. — A very distinct species 
2-18 in. high, with creeping stems, 



168 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



PJSONIA 



and a native of Transylvania to the 
Crimea, Caucasus, and Armenia. The 
leaves are cut into very numerous linear, 
one-nerved segments, and at once cha- 
racterise the plant. The solitary flowers 
with roundish sepals, and dark crimson 
elliptic wedge-shaped petals, appear in 
May and June, and are enhanced in beauty 
by the golden stamens with purple fila- 
ments surrounding the deep purple velvety 
carpels in the centre. 

The handsome double varieties of 
P. tenuifolia are those most usually grown 
in gardens. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. triternata. — A native of the 
Caucasus, Asia Minor, and the Crimea, 
18-24 in. high. The roots are oblong or 
cylindrical, and the smooth leaves, pale 
green above, glaucous beneath, are cut 
into oblong leaflets, bluntly rounded at 
the apex and with a small cusp. The 
rose-red flowers are borne in May and 
June, one on a stem, and have 6-8 
obovate petals 2-2£ in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. viilosa (P. sessiliflora). — A species 
closely related to P. mollis, but having 
longer petioles, and white flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Wittmanniana. — A distinct but 
somewhat rare species from the Caucasus 
and N. Persia. It is about 2 ft. high, with 
biternate leaves, usually having not more 
than 3 ovate deep green segments to each 
division, downy beneath. The flowers 
are borne on short stalks in April and 
May, and have roundish sepals and petals, 
the latter about 2 in. long, and of a pale 
yellow colour. 

Culture dc. as above. 

HYBRID PEONIES.— The Pajony 

owes its importance as a beautiful gar- 
den plant chiefly to the fact that hun- 
dreds of first class varieties have been 
raised in this country and on the Con- 
tinent by intercrossing a few natural 
species, chiefly P. albiflora and P. offici- 
nalis, although a few have sprung from 
P. peregrima ; two or three from P. tenui- 
folia ; what are known as the Chinese 
Pseonies from P. Beevsi and P. Pottsi ; 
and the Anemone-flowered kinds which 
bear traces of P. officinalis and P. 
paradoxa. 

The following is a list of the best 
Hybrid Pseonies grown, but as new ones 



appear every year, those in search of 
novelties may consult trade catalogues. 

HARDY DOUBLE-FLOWERED 
CHINESE PEONIES 

Many of the following are very 
fragrant. 

WHITE AND CREAMY YELLOW PjEONIES 

Alba plenissima, pure white. 
Albion, blush-white, centre primrose- 
yellow and white. 

Alice Julvecourt, blush, passing off 
white, centre tinged primrose. 

Candidissima, beautiful primrose - 
yellow, with pure white guard petals, 
anemone-flowered. 

Comte d'Osmonte, white, tinged blush, 
centre bright yellow and beautifully 
fringed. 

Countess of Clancarty, delicate blush 
and primrose-yellow, dwarf, erect grower. 
Couronne d'Or, large creamy white, 
laced crimson, showing golden anthers. 

Delacour Verhille, pure white, with 
fine broad petals, strong sturdy habit, 
flowers of perfect form. 

Duchesse de Theba, delicate flesh- 
white, large broad petals. 

Duke of Wellington, yellow, with 
large pure white guard petals, free 
bloomer. 

Elegans superbissima, pure white, 
dwarf grower. 

Festiva maxima, snow-white, large 
spreading fully double flower. 

Gracchus, primrose-yellow passing off 
white, very large. 

HeUne Leslie, primrose-yellow with 
large white guard petals. 

Lady Dartmouth, beautiful pure 
white, very large. 

Lady Godiva, pure white, centre 
tinted flesh, full-double, of highest 
quality. 

La Tulipe, large snow-white, laced 
crimson. 

La Vestale, white, with blush guard 
petals occasionally laced crimson, fine 
substance, strong sturdy growth. 

Madame Dupont, pure white, laced 
crimson, full-double. 

Marie Lemoine, pure white, with 
creamy centre, large globular- shaped 
flower, full-double. 

Nitta, fine broad-petalled pure white 
flowers, a new Japanese variety. 

Baiko, a new variety from Japan, 



P^ONIA 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



P^30NIA 169 



flowers large, pure white, and semi- 
double. 

Snoioball (Duchesse tie Nemours), 
large snow-white, tall. 

Solfaterre, beautiful primrose -yellow, 
passing off pure white, tall. 

Triomphe de Paris, large broad white 
guard petals, centre primrose, passing to 
white, handsome flower. 

Viscountess Folkestone, pure white, 
full-double, of finest form. 

Whitleyi, pure white, tinged rose, 
very early. 

BLUSH-PINK PEONIES 

Agnes Barr, softest of pinks, centre 
canary-yellow and blush, tall grower. 

Aretha sa, pink, passing to blush, free 
bloomer, tall grower. 

Auguste Miellez, soft pink, inter- 
spersed with yellow, tall grower. 

Belle Chatelaine, blush-pink, centre 
sulphur, changing to white. 

Belle Douaissienne, soft rose-pink, 
centre primrose, passing off pure white. 

Caroline Allain, blush-pink, centre 
flesh to white. 

Ceres, soft pink guard petals, with 
charming fimbriated blush-white centre, 
pretty. 

Charlemagne, blush, laced rose, full 
double. 

Delicatissima, flesh, passing to blush - 
white, full-double. 

Duchess of Stitherland, beautiful pink, 
tipped silvery - white, dwarf compact 
habit. 

Eugene Verdier, blush, centre white, 
very large beautifully formed flower, tall 
grower, free bloomer. 

Faust, blush-pink. 

Figaro, pink, centre blush, laced 
crimson. 

General Bedeau, blush-white, profuse 
bloomer. 

Grace Darling, soft pink guard petals, 
centre blush, splashed crimson, petals 
prettily fimbriated. 

Grandiflora cornea, soft flesh, early. 

Humei carnea, peach-blossom, centre 
blush, changing to white. 

Lady Ardilaun, delicate blush, centre 
shaded primrose, fine large flowers. 

Lady Somerset, soft rose-pink, laced 
crimson. 

Leonie, blush-white, of perfect form. 

Madame Breon, colour an exquisite 
peach-blossom, large handsome flowers, 
free bloomer. 



Madame de Galhau, beautiful soft 
pink, enormous flowers of perfect form. 

Madame de Vatry, white, guard petals 
flesh-coloured, fragrant. 

Madame Henri, peach-blossom, with 
prettily tessellated soft yellow centre. 

Madame Loise Mere, beautiful bhish- 
pink. large full-double flowers. 

Miidame Mannoir, beautiful soft pink, 
fully double, dwarf. 

Madame Moreau, pink, with blush- 
white centre. 

Madame Serret, delicate rose, passing 
to blush. 

Madame Vilmorin, blush-white. 

Magnifica, soft pink, centre primrose 
and rose. 

Monsieur Andre, pink, centre shaded 
flesh. 

Monsieur Paillet, soft pink, centre 
blush, splashed red, very pretty. 

Novelty, cream, flushed pink, full- 
double, very early. 

Paganini, primrose, passing off white, 
with large blush guard petals. 

Prince Pierre Galitzin, peach- 
blossom, primrose centre, prettily fim- 
briated. 

Princess Clotilde, beautiful peach- 
blossom, with creamy yellow and blush 
centre, fine form. 

Princess May, peach, with creamy 
yellow and blush centre, tall grower. 

Peine des Francaises, silvery-pink, 
interspersed with yellow, laced crimson, 
large flower. 

Pose d? Amour, lovely blush, full- 
double. 

Saucy Lass, lovely soft rose-pink, 
centre yellow, very pretty. 

Taglioni, pink, centre shaded blush, 
large showy flowers, profuse bloomer. 

The Lady, pink, laced crimson, free 
bloomer. 

Triomjphe du Nord, silvery-pink, show- 
ing the golden anthers, very pretty, tall 
grower. 

Zoe Verniory, soft pink, centre prirn- 



KOSE AND PINK PEONIES 

Alexandre Dumas, bright rose, inter- 
laced with cream, large flower, very free 
bloomer. 

Alice Crousse, beautiful soft rose, 
flesh centre. 

Comte de Paris, rose-carmine, centre 
stained salmon, passing off blush. 



170 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



P^ONIA 



Curiosa, pink, tipped white, tall 
grower, free bloomer. 

Dr. Boisduval, rose, centre salmon. 

Dr. Nestor Pelassy, rose-pink. 

Globosa, bright pink, centre interlaced 
with flesh. 

Gloire de Patrie, bright rose, tipped 
white, full-double. 

Grandiflora superba, large bright pink 
guard petals, centre flesh. 

Josephine Parmentier, rose, centre 
pink suffused salmon. 

Jules Lebon, rose, full-double. 

Lady Carrington, bright pink, tipped 
white, showing golden anthers. 

Lady Leonora Bramwell, beautiful 
soft rose, very large full-double flowers. 

L Elegante, pmk, centre shading to 
blush, very pretty. 

Madame Courant, deep rose, edged 
silver, fragrant. 

Madame Furtado, carmine, centre 
florets tinted salmon-rose. 

Madame James Odier, bright rose, 
centre passing to blush. 

Madonnis, rose, centre pink, large 
flower of fine form. 

Marie Houillon, bright rose, full- 
double. 

Mikado, a lovely new Japanese variety, 
with large bold guard petals of a beautiful 
cerise-rose, central florets pink edged 
gold. 

Mons. Galland, bright pink, full- 
double, late. 

Prince diaries, rich cerise-rose, centre 
tinged salmon. 

Peine des Fleurs, bright rose-pink, 
strongly full-double. 

Bose of Castile, bright rose-pink, large 
full-double anemone-flowered. 

Bosea magna, bright rose-pink, centre 
pink, very effective and showy. 

Sidonia, pink, shading to blush, fine 
large flowers. 

Silenus, bright pink, full-double, free 
bloomer. 

Sir Henry Irving, bright rose-pink, 
very large, of perfect form, a grand late- 
flowering variety. 

Vicomte de Fonceville, clear pink, 
frilled white. 

Washington, beautiful rose-cerise. 

FULL DEEP ROSE PEONIES 

Abel de Pujol, full rose, shading to 
pink, free bloomer. 

Adelaide Delache, deep rose, tipped 
white, profuse bloomer. 



Bonaparte, brilliant rose, large loose 
flower, showy. 

Charles Binder, bright carmine. 

Charlotte Bronte, bright rose-carmine. 

De Candolle, rose-pink, full-double. 

Dr. Bretonneau, deep satin-rose. 

Etendard du Grand Homme, brilliant 
rose, very large. 

Isabelle Karlitzky, full rose-pink. 

John Fraser, a lovebv cerise-rose, full- 
double, of perfect form. 

Madame Benard, bright rose. 

Madame Lebon, rich cerise-rose, full- 
double, profuse bloomer. 

Modeste Guerin, deep rose. 

Nobilissima, rose, finely formed 
flower. 

Sir Charles Dilke, bright rose, tipped 
blush, showing the golden anthers. 

Sir Walter Scott, brilliant rose, shad- 
ing to pink, showing golden anthers. 

Souvenir de VExposition Universelle, 
beautiful rose, passing off pink. 

DEEP CRIMSON PEONIES 

Buychii, intense crimson-purple, 
dwarf in growth. 

Delachei, very deep crimson. 

Edward Simmons, large rich crimson, 
showing the golden anthers, tall grower. 

Francois Ortigat, rich purple, a very 
richly coloured variety. 

Joseph Chamberlain, rich crimson. 

Lord Derby, rich purple-crimson, tall. 

Lord Salisbury, flowers rich crimson, 
very large. 

Louis Van Houtte, a fine rich purple- 
crimson, very handsome. 

Madame Charpentier, very deep crim- 
son, full-double, dwarf. 

Madame Stair, brilliant crimson, tall 
grower. 

Marshal MacMahon, rich fidl carmine, 
profuse bloomer. 

Paul Bisbourg, rich glittering crimson, 
late- flowering. 

Prince Imperial, beautiful bright 
crimson, tipped purple, fine form. 

Prince Prosper, glowing purple car- 
mine, showing golden anthers, very 
showy. 

Peine Potard, very rich glowing crim- 
son. 

Bobin Hood, rich glittering crimson, 
showing golden anthers. 

Bubra Triomphans, very rich glitter- 
ing crimson. 

Sir Frederick Leighton, rich crimson, 
tipped white. 



l'^ONIA 



BUTTERCUP ORDER 



P^ONIA 171 



Sir William Harcourt, rich glowing 
crimson, a very bright colour, tall grower. 

Siqjerbissimus, rich carmine, tall. 

Besides the double-flowered Paeonies 
there are also many handsome forms 
with single flowers. Names have been 
given to several by specialists, but it is 
better to consult catalogues, as new ones 
are constantly being added. 

TKEK P^EONIKS 

P. lutea. — This is a new and remark- 
able species from Yunnan, China, and 
was introduced to Paris in 1887. Being 
of a woody nature, it now shares with 
P. Mo id an the distinction of being a Tree 
Paeony. It is much dwarfer in growth 
than P. Moittan, and has paler green 
leaves with much more divided and 
pointed lobes, the secondary stalks being 
winged instead of channelled. The 
yellow flowers appear at the end of May 
and during June, and seem to be more 
profusely borne when the plants are 
grafted than when on their own roots. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is not yet well known, and but 
little can be said of its behaviour out of 
doors in cultivation. It is probably 
hardy in the mild southern and western 
districts, but would require protection in 
less favourable parts. The stems may be 
grafted in the same way as recommended 
below for P. Moutan, and the stocks 
mentioned there, as well as P. coralUma, 
would probably give satisfactory results. 
This species may also be raised from 
seeds. 

P. Moutan (Moutan, or Tree Pceony). 
A fine shrubby much-branched species 
3-4 ft. high, native of China and Japan. 
The smooth leaves are cut into oblong 
acute segments, and in a young state 
assume many shades of colour, from purple- 
crimson to green. The very large and 
handsome flowers appear in May, and 
have a wide range of colour, white, rose, 
salmon, lilac, scarlet, magenta, violet &c. 
being represented. 

Culture and Propagation. — Tree 
Paeonies like to grow in a good strong, 
more or less sandy loam, and being very 
gross feeders, they may with great ad- 
vantage be given occasional mulchings of 
well-rotted cow-manure. 

The shrubby varieties of the P. Moutan 



may be increased by cuttings taken in 
summer with a piece of the older well- 
ripened stem attached, and inserted singly 
in small pots with sandy soil, and placed 
in a cold, shaded frame or greenhouse. 
They must also be protected from frost m 
winter. These shrubby varieties are also 
grafted on the stout fleshy roots of such 
herbaceous kinds as P. albiflora and P. 
officinalis. The grafts are taken late in 
summer or early autumn, and should be 
without flower buds. Having united the 
graft to the root by inserting it in a slit of 
the latter, and binding the junction, the 
whole should then be potted and plunged, 
so as to cover up the graft a little, in 
ordinary soil, placed in a cold frame, and 
shaded until the union has become com- 
plete. Air may then be admitted, but the 
plants are best left undisturbed until 
spring. They may then be grown on in 
pots or transferred to the open border as 
required. 

In some parts of the country Tree 
Paeonies suffer more or less from the 
spring frosts, especially if the previous 
summer has not been favourable enough 
to thoroughly ripen the growths. Some 
of the many varieties are more tender 
than others, and in such cases a little 
shelter by means of a glass frame would 
save the young growths and flowers in 
spring. 

Tree Paeonies are often grown in pots, 
and are placed in greenhouses so that 
they may bloom by February. Forcing 
the plants out of their natural season of 
flowering, however, exhausts them a good 
deal, and plants thus treated can be 
used successfully for such a purpose only 
about every third year. If grown in pots 
with very rich soil, and placed in a cold 
greenhouse or cold frame for protection, 
Tree Paeonies will flower earlier than 
those planted out, the blooms will be 
much cleaner and finer, and the plants 
will not undergo any severe strain. 

The following are among some of the 
best varieties grown : — 

Antigonus, French white and lilac ; 
ccelestis, soft lilac ; Margaret Alt-wood, 
pure white, with a yellow centre ; The 
Mikado, rose and deep yellow ; Luna, 
white ; Mammoth, pink ; Morris, soft 
rose; Jupiter, salmon; Duhamel, lilac- 
rose ; Mdme. Battier, cream and flesh 
colour. 



172 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS chimonanthus 



II. CALYCANTHACEiE— Allspice Order 

Shrubs with square stems, and opposite, simple, and scabrous leaves without 
stipules. Flowers perigynous, axillary, solitary, and often fragrant or aromatic. 
Sepals and petals numerous, imbricated and combined in a fleshy tube. 
Stamens numerous, inserted in a fleshy rim at the mouth of the tube, the inner 
ones being sterile ; filaments short. Carpels many, distinct, inserted in a 
cavity, one-celled, tapering to a filiform style. The fruit is an etaerio of inde- 
hiscent one-seeded achenes. 



CALYCANTHUS (Allspice Tree). 
A genus of handsome deciduous N. 
American shrubs, with rather large, 
purple or livid sweet-scented flowers. 
They grow in somewhat shaded, moist 
soil in the warmer parts of the country, 
but in very cold districts may require 
a little protection in winter. 

Culture and Propagation. — Allspice 
trees like a rich, well-drained sandy peat 
and loam, but will grow well in any good 
garden soil. They are useful for the 
shrubbery, or in beds by themselves on 
the grass in warm and sheltered positions, 
or they may be trained on walls which 
are overhung and shaded by tall trees. 
Propagation may be effected by sowing 
seeds in a cold frame in spring, or as 
soon as fully ripe. The plants may also 
be increased by division of the clumps or 
offsets, and also by layers in summer and 
autumn, this method being probably the 
easiest in our climate. 

C. floridus (Carolina Allspice). — A 
native of Carolina 4-6 ft. high, with 
spreading branches and ovate leaves, 
downy beneath ; the wood and roots 
smelling strongly of camphor. The 
flowers, which have a sweet apple scent, 
appear in May. There are several forms 
of this species which receive distinctive 
names in catalogues. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. glaucus (C. fertilis). — This is also 
from Carolina, and grows about the same 
height as C. floridus. The leaves are 
ovate and lance-shaped, pointed, glaucous 
and downy beneath, and the livid purple, 
not strongly scented flowers appear in 
May. C. oblongifolius is a variety with 
somewhat elongated leaves. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. lffivigatus.— A shrub 3-6 ft. high 
with strictly erect branches, from the 



mountains of Pennsylvania. Leaves 
oblong, thin, blunt or acute, bright green, 
smooth, or nearly so, paler beneath. 
Flowers in May, livid purple, like those 
of C. glaucus. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. occidentalis (C. macrophyllus). — 
This is the ' Sweet-scented Shrub ' of 
California, and grows 6-12 ft. high, having 
oblong or ovate heart-shaped pointed 
leaves, slightly downy on the veins 
beneath. The brick-red sweet-scented 
flowers which are 3-4 in. across — each 
petal being about 2 in. long and h in. 
broad — are produced from June to 
October. 

Culture dc. as above. 

CHIMONANTHUS. — A genus 
closely related to Calycanthus, and con- 
taining only one species, described below, 
with the characters of the genus : — 

C. fragrans (Winter Siveet). — This 
beautiful hardy shrub is a native of 
China and Japan, and was at one time 
also known under the name of Calycan- 
thus prcecox. It grows 8-10 ft. high or 
more in the British Islands, and from the 
middle of December until the end of 
February and March its leafless twigs 
are covered with sweet-scented yellow 
blossoms, each about 1 in. across and with 
a purple-brown centre. The numerous 
outer scale-like sepals gradually pass into 
petals, from which they are scarcely dis- 
tinct. The stamens are in two rows, the 
5 outer ones only being fertile and united 
at the base, the inner ones being sterile 
and united into a conelike tube. The 
leaves appear after flowering is over, and 
are lance-shaped, tapering in outline. 
slightly hairy beneath, and rather rough 
to the touch. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
charming winter-flowering plant should 



MAGNOLIA ORDER 



ILLICIUM 173 



be grown in a deep and rich turfy loam, 
to which a little sand and leaf mould 
may be added. The soil should be well 
drained, as stagnant moisture at the root 
is not only injurious to the growth of the 
plant, but effectually checks the appear- 
ance of its fragrant blossoms just at a 
period when they are most desirable. 
During the late summer and autumn 
months the shoots may be layered, and 
will be well rooted by the following spring 
or autumn. 

In most parts of the country the 
• Winter Sweet ' requires the protection 
of a wall with a south or western aspect. 



The shoots may be trained upon it in the 
same way as those of the Peach and 
Nectarine. After flowering is over it is 
essential to thin out all the old and use- 
less shoots, so as to encourage the de- 
velopment of young branches during the 
year. It is on these yoimg shoots, formed 
each year after the flowering period, that 
the blossoms are borne in winter, and it 
would be a mistake, therefore, to prune 
the plants in the autumn, when a good 
deal of such work is done. The variety 
grandiflorus is superior to the type, and 
has larger flowers. 



III. MAGNOLIACE^— Magnolia or Lily Tree Order 

For the most part beautiful and often aromatic trees and shrubs, with 
alternate, leathery, entire or toothed leaves, distinctly jointed with the stem. 
Stipules deciduous, but when young are rolled together, and leave ringed 
marks where they fall off. Flowers solitary usually hermaphrodite ; sepals 
3-6, deciduous ; petals 3 or more, hypogynous, imbricated in several rows. 
Stamens numerous, hypogynous, often with dilated or thickened filaments, 
free, or monadelphous in male flowers. Carpels numerous, rarely few or 
solitary, spirally arranged upon a torus above the stamens, one-celled. Fruit 
either woody or fleshy, dehiscent or indehiscent. 

This order includes some of the most beautiful flowering trees and shrubs 
in the world. 

and Ireland. They require the protection 
of a wall, and their cultivation should not 
be attempted in cold districts. They 
thrive in sandy loam, and are propagated 
by inserting cuttings of the half- ripened 
wood in a cold frame under a glass during 
the summer months. 

ILLICIUM (Aniseed Tree). — A 
genus containing only a few species of 
rather tender smooth evergreen shrubs 
or small trees, with oblong leathery 
stalked leaves, which emit an aromatic 
odour when rubbed between the hands. 
The yellowish or purple hermaphrodite 
flowers are borne either singly or in threes 
on the sides of the twigs. Sepals 3 or 6, 
membranous, in one or two series. Petals 
numerous, in many series. Stamen fila- 
ments rather thick. Carpels numerous, 
arranged star-wise on the torus, and 
becoming fleshy or rather woody when 
mature. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Ani- 
seed Trees require precisely the same 
cultural treatment as mentioned under 



DRIMYS. — A genus of fine evergreen 
half-hardy trees with aromatic bark, and 
axillary terminal flowers. Sepals 2-3, 
membranaceous, cohering, deciduous. 
Petals 6 or more, overlapping in 2 or more 
rows. 

D. aromatica. — A highly aromatic 
Tasmanian shrub, 9-12 ft. high, with 
oblong light green dotted leaves, tapering 
towards the base. The white or pinkish 
flowers are borne in early siunmer — the 
males on one plant, the females on 
another — and consist of 3 sepals and 6 
(or sometimes 8) petals. 

Culture <fc. as for D. Winter i. 

D. Winteri (Wintera aromatica). — 
Winter's Barh.—K native of S. America, 
where it reaches a height of 25 ft. or more. 
It has deep green smooth oblong obtuse 
leaves, glaucous beneath. The flowers, 
with 8-12 petals, are about 1 in. across 
and have a Jasmine-like perfume. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
two species can be grown out of doors only 
in the most favourable parts of England 



174 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS magnolia 



Drimys above. A rich sandy loam, with 
the addition of a little peat or leaf mould, 
will suit them all well. They can be 
grown out of doors with any satisfaction 
only in the south, and even there they do 
best in warm sheltered positions. New 
plants are obtained by placing cuttings 
of the ripened or half-ripened shoots in 
sandy soil under handlights during the 
summer months. 

I. floridanum. — This handsome shrub 
is a native of Florida and other southern 
parts of the United States. It grows 
about 8 ft. high, and has oblong lance- 
shaped leaves somewhat tapering towards 
the point. The conspicuous deep purple- 
red flowers, each consisting of 20-30 
petals, are produced during the summer 
months in drooping clusters, and emit a 
fragrant odour. 

Culture dc. as above. 

I. religiosum {I. anisatum). — This is 
a native of China and Japan, and grows 
about 4 ft. high. The branches are 
clothed with smooth entire leaves, and 
during the summer months the small 
yellowish-white flowers are produced in 
clusters, emitting a sweet odour. 

This shrub is held in great reverence 
by the Japanese, who decorate the tombs 
of their friends with its branches, and 
burn the bark as incense. 

Culture etc. as above. 

MAGNOLIA (Lily Tree).— A genus 
of beautiful flowering trees and shrubs 
comprising about 20 species, some ever- 
green, some deciduous. Flowers con- 
spicuous, solitary, terminal, sessile or 
shortly stalked, with a spathe-like bract. 
Petals 6-12 imbricating in 2 or more rows. 
Carpels numerous, oblong, borne on a 
more or less conical receptacle. Leaves 
large entire. 

Culture and Propagation. — Magnolias 
thrive in warm sunny positions in deep 
rich loamy well-drained soil. When plant- 
ing, which shouldbe done in the spring just 
as growth begins, care should be taken to 
select a spot from which it will not be 
necessary to remove the plant for at least 
some years, as too frequent transplanting 
is detrimental. 

The easiest way of increasing Magno- 
lias in this country is by means of layers 
put down in summer. Seeds, when obtain- 
able, should be sown as soon as ripe in a 
cold frame, and kept fairly moist until ger- 



mination takes place. Cuttings of the half- 
ripened green shoots with a piece of older 
wood attached may also be struck under 
glass during the summer months, and 
should be grown under protection until 
well rooted and established before plant- 
ing out. 

Special varieties are increased by 
grafting them in July and August upon 
such stocks as the ' Cucumber Tree ' 
(M. acuminata) or the ' Umbrella Tree ' 
(M. Umbrella). 

Some Magnolias are not so hardy as 
others, and practical experience is the 
best guide as to whether a species will 
grow well in a certain locality or not. 
Very often the spring frosts play havoc 
with the flowers, although the leaves are 
left uninjured. The kinds described 
below are those found most useful in this 
country. Many of them are useful for 
cultivation near large towns, as the grime 
and soot does little harm to the smooth 
foliage beyond dulling its brilliancy some- 
what. 

M. acuminata (Cucumber Tree). — A 
N. American vigorous deciduous tree 
30-60 ft. high, with oblong acuminate 
leaves, downy beneath, and 6-12 in. long. 
The slightly scented glaucous - green 
flowers, tinted with yellow, are 3-4 in. 
across, having 6-9 petals, and appear 
from May to Jidy. 

Fine specimens of this tree may be 
seen in the Royal Gardens, Kew, at Syon 
House, Claremont &c. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. Campbelli. — A handsome decidu- 
ous tree attaining a height of 150 ft. in 
its native country — India. Unfortunately 
it will only grow in the most favoured 
spots in the British Islands. At Lakeland, 
near Cork, is a very fine tree 35-40 ft. 
high, which flowered for the first time in 
1883, and again in 1885. 

M. Campbelli has large oval lance- 
shaped leaves covered with silky hairs 
beneath. The slightly fragrant flowers 
appear in April, and are 6-10 in. across, 
pale rose inside, crimson outside. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. conspicua (M. Yulan; M. precia). 
The Yulan. — A lovely deciduous Chinese 
species 20-40 ft. high, with obovate, 
abruptly pointed leaves, which are downy 
when young. The large erect white and 
fragrant flowers, with 6-9 petals suffused 
with crimson outside, are produced in 



MAGNOLIA 



MAGNOLIA ORDER 



MAGNOLIA 175 



great profusion from February to the end 
of June, the first flowers opening before 
the development of the leaves. 

The variety Soulangeana is prob- 
ably a hybrid between M. conspicua and 
M. obovata. Its large white flowers are 
deeply tinted with reddish-purple. Soul- 
angeana nigra is a variety with dark 
plum-coloured flowers. Lenne is also a 
fine free-flowering variety said to be a 
hybrid between obovata and conspicua. 
There are other forms known as Alex- 
amdrma, cyathiformis, speciosa, speeta- 
bilis, superba, triumplians &c. scarcely 
distinguishable. That known as stricta 
is said to be a cross between Soulangeana 
and obovata. 

Culture dc. as above. The flowers 
ab,ould be protected with canvas or mat- 
ting in the event of frosty weather. 

M. cordata. — A deciduous tree which 
grows 40 -50 ft. high in X. America. Leaves 
heart-shaped, rather oval, acute, 4-6 in. 
long, smooth above, woolly beneath. The 
erect, scentless yellow flowers lined with 
purple have 6-9 oblong petals, and appear 
from April to July, and are about 4 in. 
across. Botanically this is regarded as a 
variety of M. acuminata. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. Fraseri (M. auriculata). — A fine 
deciduous tree with spongy wood, native 
of the Southern United States, where it 
attains a height of 30-50 ft. The smooth, 
spoon-shaped leaves are a foot or more 
long, heart-shaped at the base, with blunt 
auricles, the under surface being some- 
what glaucous. The erect creamy yel- 
lowish-white flowers are very sweet- 
scented, 3-4 in. across, and have 9 oblong 
petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. glauca. — A beautiful evergreen 
shrub from the Eastern United States, 
where it reaches a height of 15 ft. 
or more and is known as the Laurel 
Magnolia or Sweet Bay. The elliptic 
obtuse leathery leaves are bluish-green 
above, silvery beneath. The fragrant 
globular flowers, with 9-12 oval concave 
petals, are about 3 in. across, and of a 
creamy-white when first open, changing 
to pale apricot with age. 

The variety major (or thompsoniana) 
is a very vigorous form with leaves and 
flowers much larger than those of the type. 

Culture dc. as above. A moist soil 



composed of peat and loam suits this 
species best. 

M. grandiflora. — This stately ever- 
green tree is known as the Laurel Magnolia 
of the 3. United States, where it attains 
a height of 70-80 ft. In this country there 
are specimens 50 ft. or more high. The 
oval, oblong, leathery, deep green, shining 
leaves with a rusty under surface are 
characteristic of this species. The erect 
sweet-scented white flowers 6-8 in. across, 
with 9-12 petals, are produced freely 
during July and August on trees which 
have become well-established. 

The Laurel Magnolia is met with in 
many gardens grown either as a bush 
tree or trained against a wall with a 
south aspect, and does equally well in 
both positions. Cold north and easterly 
winds are apt to damage the young 
growths sometimes, and it is therefore 
desirable to secure a position sheltered 
from these as much as possible. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. hypoleuca. — A fine Japanese tree, 
60 ft. high or more in its native country. 
The leaves are 12 in. or more long, and 
6-7 in. broad, deep green, smooth above, 
covered with white hairs beneath. The 
deliciously fragrant, creamy white flowers 
are 6-7 in. across, with amass of brilliant 
scarlet stamens in the centre. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. Kobus (M. Thurberi).— Another 
Japanese species 70 80 ft. high in a wild 
state. The leaves are 6-7 in. long, and 
the creamy white flowers are 4-5 in. 
across, and appear in May before the 
leaves. This species has been grown in 
Kew Gardens for several years. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. macrophylla. — A very handsome 
deciduous tree with smooth white bark. 
It reaches a height of 30 ft. in N. America. 
As the name indicates, the beautiful green 
leaves are very large, 1-3 ft. long, 
8-10 in. broad, oblong-obovate, somewhat 
fiddle-shaped, heart-shaped at the base, 
the under surface being covered with 
white hairs. The open bell-shaped sweet- 
scented flowers, with 6-9 oval petals, 
appear in June, and are white with a 
purple blotch at the base, and measure 
8-10 in. across. 

This species must be considered as 
tender except in the most favoured spots. 
It prefers warm soils. 

Culture dc. as above. 



176 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS schizandra 



M. obovata. — A very pretty dwarf 
deciduous shrub about 5 ft. high, native of 
China and Japan. It has large obovate 
dark green leaves, and Tulip-like fragrant 
flowers, with 6 petals, purple outside, 
white within, produced in great abund- 
ance in April and May. 

The variety discolor (or purpurea) 
has larger and deeper coloured flowers 
than the type. There are many other 
garden forms differing very little from 
each other, the best being Borreri, 
angustifolia, and erubescens. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

M. parviflora. — A deciduous Japanese 
shrub, with roundish-oval, cuspidate 
leaves, the stalks and principal veins of 
which are covered with a reddish down 
beneath. The almost globular white 
flowers tinted with rose appear about 
April and May. 

Culture dec. as above. 

M. stellata (M. halleana). — A 
beautiful dwarf-growing deciduous shrub 
from Japan, with obovate obtuse or 
elliptic shortly pointed membranous 
leaves, 2-5 in. long. The white sweet- 
scented starry flowers with numerous 
petals appear from March to May and 
before the leaves develop. 

This is one of the earliest Magnolias 
to flower, and grown in beds as in Kew 
Gardens it forms a lovely sight in early 
spring. It rarely reaches a height of 6 or 
7 feet and has a spreading bushy habit. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. Umbrella (M. frondosa ; M. tripe- 
tola). — This is the Umbrella Tree of the 
S. United States, and is a free-growing 
and somewhat straggling deciduous shrub 
reaching a height of 35-40 ft. in a wild 
state. Its smooth lance-shaped spreading 
leaves are 1-2 ft. long, downy underneath 
when young. In April and May the 
slightly scented white flowers, 5-8 in. 
across, with 9-12 petals, are freely pro- 
duced. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

M. Watsoni. — A beautiful Japanese 
shrub or low tree, with oblong obovate 
leaves about 6 in. long, deep green above, 
paler beneath. The creamy or ivory- 
white flowers, about 5-6 in. across, are 
borne at the tips of the yoimg branches 
in June, and emit a powerful and agree- 
able fragrance. Each flower consists of 
7 or 8 concave or incurved obovate petals, 



outside of which is a rosy-pink calyx, and 
inside which, surrounding the conical pile 
of carpels, are numerous rows of stamens, 
havingrich crimson filaments and reddish- 
brown anthers. 

Culture d l c. as above. This species 
has been confused with M. parviflora, 
but is quite distinct. 

LIRIODENDRON.— As there is only 
one species in this genus, it is unnecessary 
to give a separate generic and specific 
description in this case. 

L. tulipifera(T»7^j» Tree; Wliitewood) . 
A very ornamental flowering tree resem- 
bling the Plane in appearance, native of 
the United States, having a stem some- 
times over 100 ft. high and 3 ft. thick, 
with a greyish-brown cracked bark and 
many gnarled and easily broken branches. 
The leaves are roundish, ovate, and three- 
lobed, the central lobe being obliquely 
truncate, and forming one of the chief 
characteristics of the tree. It is only 
when mature — between 20 and 30 years 
of age— that the Tulip Tree produces its 
beautiful Tulip-like flowers of soft green 
and yellow at the tips of the branches in 
May. The flowers consist of 3 reflexed 
sepals, 6 connivent petals, in two 
imbricated rows, and two-seeded carpels 
in an oblong spike. There are a few well- 
marked varieties of the Tulip Tree now in 
cultivation, the best known being aureo- 
maculata, integrifolia, fastigiata, and 
variegata. 

Culture and Pro2)agation. — The Tulip 
Tree requires similar soil and treatment 
to the Magnolias, but is, on the whole, 
hardier. There are some splendid trees 
in various parts of the country, and they 
seem to be quite as happy as the Horse 
Chestnut. Young trees of various sizes 
are procurable from nurserymen, but 
plants may also be raised from seeds 
sown as soon as ripe in moist sandy 
loam in warm and sheltered spots out of 
doors or in cold frames. A rich loamy 
well-drained soil suits the Tulip Tree 
best, but any ordinary good garden soil 
will grow good specimens. 

SCHIZANDRA. — Agenus containing 
about half-a-dozen species of trailing or 
climbing shrubs with membranous, pellu- 
cid dotted, exstipulate leaves. Flowers 
1-sexed, red, yellow, or whitish, solitary. 
Sepals and petals 9-12, gradually passing 
from one to the other. Stamens in the 
male flowers 5-15, more or less united 



SCHIZANDRA 



CUSTARD APPLE ORDER 



ASIMINA 177 



into a roundish or ring-like mass. Carpels 
in the female flowers numerous, becoming 
indehiscent berries when ripe. Seeds 
kidney-shaped. 

S. chinensis. — A handsome climbing 
shrub, native of China and Japan, with 
stems 10-20 ft. long, clothed with simple 
leaves, and bearing pale rosy flowers 
during the summer months. After bloom- 
ing, the berry-like fruits appear and 
assume a scarlet hue when ripe, remain- 
ing on the plant for the greater part of 
winter. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is the only one fit for outdoor cul- 
tivation in the United Kingdom. It re- 
quires a warm sheltered position, and 
must be protected in northern parts during 
severe winters. A rich sandy loam, with 
a little peat or leaf soil added, suits it well. 
Cuttings of the more or less ripened shoots 
may be rooted during the summer and 
autumn months under handlights or in 
greenhouses in the same way as Drimy 
and Illicium. 



KADSURA.— A genus of climbing 
shrubs closely related to Schizandru , but 
having usually leathery and only rarely 
membranous leaves. The 1-sexed solitary 
flowers are borne singly in the axils of the 
leaves. Sepals and petals 9-15, gradually 
changing one into the other. Stamens in 
the male flowers numerous, more or less 
united. Carpels in the female flowers 
numerous, capitate, becoming berries 
when ripe. 

K. chinensis. — A rather tender Japan- 
ese climbing shrub, with smooth, leathery, 
more or less oblong-oval leaves, with ser- 
rate margins, and tapering at both ends. 
The white flowers are borne during the 
summer months on stalks opposite the 
leaves. 

Culture and Propagation. — This plant 
likes a warm sheltered position and flour- 
ishes in southern parts of the kingdom in 
rich sandy loam, peat and leaf soil. It 
may be increased by inserting cuttings of 
the more or less ripened shoots in sandy 
soil under handlights during the summer 
months. 



IV. ANONACEiE Custard Apple Order 

An order of trees and shrubs with alternate, entire, exstipulate leaves, and 
hermaphrodite or rarely 1-sexed flowers. Sepals usually 3, more or less 
distinct. Petals usually 6, hypogynous. Stamens usually numerous. 

Although this order contains about 400 species, mostly natives of the 
tropics, the following genus is the only one that can be satisfactorily repre- 
sented out of doors in the British Islands. 



ASIMINA. — A small genus of shrubs 
or small trees, with feather-veined leaves, 
and nodding short-stalked flowers borne 
on the sides of the branches. Sepals 3, 
ovate, valvate. Petals 6, in 2 rows, the 
inner ones smaller than the outer ones. 
Stamens numerous. Torus (or receptacle) 
roundish. Carpels 3-15, becoming an 
oblong thickened berry when mature. 

A. triloba. — A small tree or shrub 
about 10 ft. high, native of Pennsylvania 
and other parts of the United States. The 
leaves are smooth, oblong, wedge-shaped, 
and the pale purple bell-shaped flowers, 
about 2 in. across, with a yellow centre, 
are produced in early summer. The three 
outer broadly ovate petals are distinctly 
larger than the three inner ones, and the 



points of both series form almost an 
equilateral triangle. 

Culture and Propagation. — This plant 
is best grown in southern and western 
parts of the kingdom in warm and shel- 
tered situations, but is fairly hardy in the 
neighbourhood of London. It likes a rich 
sandy loam, but will also flourish in well- 
drained good garden soil. To obtain new 
plants, the branches may be layered 
during the summer and autumn months, 
and severed the following year when well 
rooted. Imported seeds may also be sown 
under glass in rich sandy loam, but the 
young plants should not be placed in the 
open air permanently until they have 
attained a good size, and have been well 
hardened and matured by exposure during 
the summer months. 



178 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



COCCULUS 



V. MENISPERMACEiE 

An order of climbing woody or somewhat herbaceous plants with alternate, 
exstipulate, usually palmately nerved, entire or palmately lobed leaves. 
Flowers dioecious, small, usually borne in panicles, racemes, or cymes. Sepals 
usually 6, rarely 9 or 12. Petals usually 6, rarely fewer. Stamens in the 
male flowers usually equal in number and opposite to the petals, with free or 
united filaments. Carpels usually 3, rarely 16 or more, free. Fruit drupe-like, 
sessile or stalked. 



COCCULUS. — A small genus of 
climbing or twining shrubs with ovate or 
oblong entire or rarely lobed leaves and 
flowers in cymes or axillary panicles. 
Sepals, petals, and stamens, 6 of each. 
Carpels 3. Fruit an obovoid or roundish 
flattened drupe. 

Culture and Propagation. — The two 
species described below are the only ones 
grown out of doors in the British Islands, 
and are fairly hardy in the neighbourhood 
of London. They will grow in ordinary 
good and well-drained garden soil, but 
prefer a mixture of sandy loam, peat and 
leaf mould. As seeds rarely or never 
ripen in this country, new plants may be 
raised by means of cuttings of the young 
or half-ripened shoots inserted in sandy 
soil and placed in bottom heat under a bell 
glass during the spring and summer 
months. 

C. carolinus. — A somewhat downy 
climber 10-20 ft. long, native of the 
Southern United States, with entire or 
sinuate more or less heart-shaped or ovate 
leaves, and greenish flowers produced in 
summer in axillary racemes or panicles. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. laurifolius. — A compact and orna- 
mental bush 4-8 ft. high, native of the 
Himalayas, Japan &c. and clothed with 
smooth shining oblong tapering leaves. 
The small white or greenish flowers are 
borne during the summer months. 



Culture dc. as above. This species 
must be sheltered from cold north and 
east winds. 

MENISPERMUM. — A genus of 
climbing shrubs, with deciduous, rather 
peltate, palmately lobed or angled leaves, 
and small greenish- white or yellowish 
flowers in panicles. Sepals 4-8 in two 
rows. Petals 6-8, shorter than the sepals. 
Stamens in the male flowers 12-24, free ; 
in the female flowers 6, sterile. Carpels 
2-4, with a dilated stigma. Fruit a more 
or less flattened drupe. 

M. canadense. — A quick - growing 
Canadian climber with large handsome 
roundish or kidney-shaped peltate leaves 
and drooping racemes of small yellowish 
flowers produced in great abundance in 
summer. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is 
a good plant for covering walls, trellises, 
arbours &c, so as to give them an orna- 
mental appearance during the summer 
months. It likes a rich and rather damp 
soil and somewhat shaded situations, and 
may be increased by dividing the root- 
stocks in spring, or by inserting cuttings 
of the young shoots in moist sandy soil 
under glass at the same period. Seeds, 
which are ripened freely in this country, 
may also be sown as soon as ripe under 
glass, afterwards pricking the seedlings out 
and growing them on until large enough 
for the outdoor garden. 



VI. BERBERIDEiE— Barberry Order 

Shrubs or herbaceous perennial plants, very often spiny. Leaves 
alternate, simple or often compound, and usually without stipules. Flowers 
solitary, racemose or panicled. Sepals 2-6, deciduous, in a double row, sur- 
rounded with petal-like scales. Petals free, hypogynous, either equal in 
number to the sepals and opposite to them, or twice as many, f Stamens 4-6 



STAUNTONIA 



BARBERRY ORDER 



AKEBIA 179 



(rarely 8) in two series, opposite the petals, hypogynous, free or sometimes 
monadelphous in male flowers. Carpel solitary, free, 1-celled. Fruit a 
capsule or berry. 



LARDIZABALA.— A small genus of 
climbing shrubs with twice or thrice ter- 
nate leaves, having entire or sinuate - 
toothed leaflets. Flowers dioecious, violet 
or dull purple, borne on axillary peduncles, 
the male dowers in racemes, the female 
ones solitary. Sepals 6, fleshy. Petals 6, 
much smaller. Stamens in the male 
flowers 6, imited in one bundle (monadel- 
phous), and equal in number, but sterile 
in the female flowers. Carpels 3. Fruit 
an elongated oblong berry with numerous 
more or less kidney-shaped seeds. 

L. biternata. — A handsome Chilian 
climber with twice ternate, deep glossy, 
evergreen leaves, composed of oblong 
acxxte leaflets. The small purple flowers 
appear late in the year but only in very 
favourable parts of the kingdom. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is 
a useful climber for covering walls, over 
which it extends its branches often to a 
length of 20 ft. or more, and covers the 
surface with its distinct glossy foliage. 
It is hardy enough on a south wall in the 
neighbourhood of London, but becomes 
more luxuriant in growth in more south- 
ern and western parts. A compost of 
rich and light sandy loam and peat, 
thoroughly well drained, suits it best. 
New plants may be obtained by inserting 
cuttings of the more or less ripened shoots 
during the summer months in hght sandy 
soil under glass. 

STAUNTONIA.— A small genus of 
climbing shrubs having digitate leaves 
composed of 3-7 leaflets. Flowers monoe- 
cious, borne in axillary racemes. Sepals 
6, petal like, the outer ones broader than 
the inner. Petals none. Stamens in the 
male flowers 6, united in one bundle 
(monadelphous), equal in number in the 
female flowers, but sterile. Carpels 3. 
Fruit a roundish berry. 

S. hexaphylla. — An ornamental ever- 
green climber, native of China and Japan, 
with pinnate leaves composed of 6 deep 
green elliptic ovate-acute leaflets. Its 
small whitish and sweet-scented flowers 
are produced in early summer. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is fairly hardy in the neighbour- 
hood of London when grown in sheltered 



spots on a south wall. It, however, prefers 
the more genial climate of the south and 
west, and may be used in the same way 
as the Lardizabala for covering walls. 
It thrives in a rich and well-drained sandy 
loam or any good garden soil, and may be 
increased by cuttings of the more or less 
ripened shoots inserted in sandy soil 
under glass. In autumn any old or use- 
less shoots should be cut away, leaving the 
younger branches. 

HOLBCELLIA. — A small genus of 
climbing shrubs closely related to Staun- 
t a a ia, and differing from that genus 
chiefly in the purple or greenish flowers 
having 6 minute petals instead of none, 
and 6 free instead of united stamens. 

H. latifolia. — This beautiful climbing 
evergreen is a native of the Himalayas 
and was once known as Stauntonia lati- 
folia, a name under which it is still some- 
times better known. Its stems reach a 
length of about 20 ft. and are covered 
with deep shining green leaves divided 
into 3 or 5 oblong leathery leaflets. In 
favourable parts of the country, the small 
greenish-purple flowers are produced in 
axillary clusters in early summer, and are 
sweetly fragrant. The variety called 
angustifolia is rarely seen, and differs 
from the type chiefly in having the leaves 
composed of from 7 to 9 linear lance- 
shaped leaflets. 

Culture and Propagation. — This plant 
requires to be grown under the same con- 
ditions as Stauntonia hexaphylla de- 
scribed above. It likes similar soil and 
situations, and niay be increased from 
cuttings of the ripened or half-ripened 
shoots in the same way. 

AKEBIA. — A small genus of climbing 
shrubs with digitate leaves composed of 
3-5 leaflets. Flowers monoecious, violet, 
borne in few-flowered axillary racemes. 
Sepals 3. Petals none. Stamens 6, free 
in the male flowers ; in the female flowers 
6-9, sterile. Carpels 3-9, with a peltate 
stigma. Fruit an oblong - cylindrical 
berry. 

A. quinata. — A pretty climber 6-10 ft. 
high, native of China and Japan, with 
digitate leaves composed of 5 oblong 

N 2 



180 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS berberis 



ernarginate leaflets. It produces its small 
violet or purplish sweet-scented flowers in 
early summer, in drooping racemes. 

Culture and Propaga Hon.— This orna- 
mental plant is fairly hardy in sheltered 
sunny spots near London, but is much 
more at home in the south and west where 
the climate is milder. It may be trained 
on walls, arbours &c, and thrives best in 
a mixture of well-drained sandy loam, 
peat, and leaf soil. New plants may be 
obtained by dividing the roots in spring, 
or by cuttings of the half-ripened shoots 
in sandy soil under glass. 

BERBERIDOPSIS — A genus con- 
taining only one species described below. 

B. corallina. — A handsome evergreen 
climbing shrub, native of Chili, with 
alternate, simple, leathery, oblong, heart- 
shaped leaves about 3 in. long, and furn- 
ished with spiny teeth on the margins. 
The scarlet or crimson-red flowers are 
borne in axillary clusters on slender 
drooping stalks during the summer, and 
look very handsome and brilliant. Each 
blossom consists of 9-15 sepals and petals 
scarcely distinguishable from each other, 
and 8-9 free stamens in the centre. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is a 
fine plant for training on a south wall and 
is fairly hardy round London. It is, how- 
ever, more suited for warmer localities. 
It will grow in ordinary good and well- 
drained garden soil, but prefers a rich 
sandy loam. Seeds are produced in good 
seasons and in favourable localities, and 
may be sown as soon as ripe or in spring 
under glass to obtain new plants. The 
branches may also be layered in the 
autumn ; and cuttings of the young shoots 
may be inserted in sandy soil in spring. 

BERBERIS (including Mahonia).— 
Barberry. — A genus of about 100 species 
of erect or straggling yellow-wooded 
shrubs, with simple or compound leaves, 
often spiny or reduced to spines. Flowers 
yellow or orange, racemose or rarely 
solitary, or fascicled. Sepals 8-9, petal- 
like. Petals 6, slightly smaller, rarely 
larger than the sepals, often connivent, 
imbricated in 2 rows, and often with 2 
glands at the base. Stamens 6, free. 
Carpel 1, with a peltate stigma. Fruit 
a juicy indehiscent berry. 

Culture and Propagation. — Most of 
the Barberries are easily grown in any 
garden soil, and in almost any situation. 



They, however, prefer a rich and well- 
drained sandy loam, with the addition of 
a little peat or leaf mould, in which their 
roots love to ramble. Many kinds assume 
brilliant tints in autumn and are very 
effective at this season if they have been 
planted in bold masses. 

The plants may be increased readily 
by means of layers and suckers in late 
summer or autumn. Cuttings of the 
ripened shoots may also be rooted in 
sandy soil under handlights or cold frames 
in autumn. The plants may be trans- 
ferred to the open ground the following 
spring in mild showery weather. 

Seeds may also be sown as soon as 
ripe. They must be cleaned from the 
juicy pulp, and sown thinly in sandy soil, 
but it is likely they will not sprout till 
the following spring. When large enough 
to handle easily the seedlings may be 
given a little more room in the seed beds, 
and by the autumn or following spring 
will be fit for another transplanting. 

B. Aquifolium (Mahonia aquifolia). 
Holly-leaved Barberry. — A well-known 
shrubbery plant, 3-6 ft. high, from N. 
America, with Holly-like oddly-pinnate 
leaves which in a young state are various 
shades of pale green, brown, and purple. 
The yellow flowers appear in March and 
April in nearly erect and much-crowded 
racemes. Fruits deep purple with a 
' bloom,' useful for jam making. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
probably grown in larger numbers than 
all the others put together. Young plants 
are extensively used in autumn and winter 
for the decoration of window boxes and 
small gardens. Larger plants are valu- 
able for shrubberies, banks, or, in fact, in 
any part of the garden where any other 
plant will not thrive. It stands the drip 
of overhanging trees well, and is equally 
happy in the shade or open sunshine. 
It is a most good-tempered plant, and 
will grow in the worst of soils. The 
foliage is largely used by florists, either 
in its natural state or artificially tinted a 
deep wine-red. 

B. aristata. — This Himalayan Bar- 
berry is also known in some places as B. 
macrophylla. It grows 3-6 ft. high, and 
has more or less oboval, oblong or lance- 
shaped leaves with four or five spiny 
teeth, the lower spines being 3-parted. 
The numerous yellow flowers appear in 
March and April in drooping clusters and 



BEBBERIS 



BARBERRY ORDER 



iERIS 181 



look very handsome against the smooth 
green and tender foliage. 
Culture dc. as above. 

B. buxifolia (B. dale is).— Box -leaved 
Barberry. — A pretty shrub about 8 ft. high 
from the Straits of Magellan. Leaves 
almost sessile, oval or oblong, entire. 
Flowers solitary on slender stalks. The 
variety nana is dwarfer than the type. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. canadensis {Canadian Barberry). 
A Canadian shrub 4 ft. high with obovate- 
oblong distantly toothed leaves, and 3- 
parted spines. Flowers in many-flowered 
nodding racemes in spring. 

( 'ulture dc. as above. 

B. Darwini {Darwin's Barberry). — 
This beautiful plant is a native of S. Chili, 
and is perhaps the most popular and 
pretty of the genus. It forms a dense 
evergreen bush about 2 ft. high, with oval 
or oblong leaves about 1 in. long, having 
usually 5 spiny teeth. The racemes of 
orange flowers are produced in great pro- 
fusion in May, and sometimes in the 
autumn, and are very conspicuous against 
the dark shining green foliage. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. diaphana. — This is a recent intro- 
duction from China. It is a strong- 
growing upright shrub, with pale green 
leaves and handsome fruits, and also 
possesses sharp spines about an inch long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. empetrifolia. — A shrub 11-1 ft. 
high, from the Straits of Magellan, with 
linear, sharply pomted leaves, in bundles 
of about 7. The terminal flowers are 
borne on slender pedicels in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. floribunda. — A native of Nepaul, 
about 10 ft. high, with obovate, lance- 
shaped leaves, tapering much towards 
he base, having a sharp-pointed tip, and 
ciliated 3-parted unequal spines. The 
drooping many-flowered racemes appear 
in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. Fortunei. — A pretty evergreen 
Chinese Barberry 2-4 ft. high. The pinnate 
leaves are composed of 3-4 pairs of narrow 
lance-shaped tapering leaflets about 4 in. 
long, with spiny serrated edges. They 
are of a distinct blue-green or glaucous 
hue. The yellow flowers appear in small 
compact clusters in spring. 

Culture dc. as above. 



B. Fremonti. — A handsome evergreen 
shrub, 3-4 ft. high, native of Texas, 
Arizona &c. The pinnate leaves are com- 
posed of 2 -3 pairs of oblong lance-shaped 
leaflets, each of which is furnished with 
2 3 spiny teeth. The yellow flowers ap- 
pear in March and April in more or less 
erect loose racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. japonica {Mahonia japonica). — 
Japanese Barberry. — A distinct species 
native of China and Japan. Leaves usually 
cut into 9 sessile leaflets, about 3 in. long, 
broadly heart-shaped or rounded at the 
base, and with about 5 long spiny teeth 
and a terminal one. Flowers in terminal 
clusters in spring, lemon-yellow. B. Beali 
and B. intermedia are forms of this 
species. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. Lycium. — A handsome Himalayan 
Barberry 6 8 ft. high, with whitish stems, 
and almost persistent and entire leathery 
leaves, green above and glaucous beneath. 
The golden-yellow flowers appear late 
in spring or early summer in drooping 
clusters, and are succeeded by violet- 
coloured berries. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
quite hardy and is easily recognised even 
when not in blossom by its narrow entire 
leaves. 

B. nepalensis {Mahonia nepalensis). 
A distinct and splendid species 4-6 ft. 
high from Nepaid. The leaves are 1-2 ft. 
long with 5 9 pairs of obovate-oblong 
cuspidate leaflets rounded at the base, and 
with 5-10 spiny teeth on each side, and 3 
at the apex. The bright yellow flowers 
appear in March and April in slender 
elongated racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. pruinosa. — A dwarf Chinese shrub, 
of which the young growths, the under 
surface of the leaves, and the numerous 
berries are all pure white, while the 
flowers are pale creamy yellow. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. repens {Mahonia repens). — A North 
American species 12 ft. high, having the 
leaves divided into 2 or 3 pairs of rounded- 
oval spiny-toothed leaflets, with an odd 
one at the apex. Flowers in fascicled ra- 
cemes arising from the scaly buds of spring. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. sinensis {Chinese Barberry). — A 
Chinese plant 3-6 ft. high, with oblong 



182 



PEACT1CAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS bongardia 



blunt, entire or slightly toothed leaves ; 
spines 3-parted. Flowers yellow, borne 
in nodding racemes in May. 
Culture dc. as above. 

B. stenophylla. — This is supposed to 
be a hybrid between B. Darwini and B. 
empetrifolia, and its narrow abruptly 
pointed leaves and general habit help to 
confirm this opinion. It is an excellent 
plant for massing in groups on the grass, 
on banks, borders, sides of drives &c, and 
when bearing its garlands of bright yellow 
flowers, from February to April, looks 
reaUy magnificent. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. Thunbergi. — A handsome decidu- 
ous Japanese shrub with a low-growing 
spreading habit. The arching stems are 
furnished with straight spines and clusters 
of obovate or spoon- shaped leaves l-l in. 
long, which assume a glowing scarlet hue 
in autumn. The small drooping flowers 
appear in April, having red sepals and 
yellow petals, the latter tinged with red. 
In autumn they are succeeded by oblong 
scarlet berries, which with the foliage 
make this one of the most attractive of 
Barberries. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. vulgaris, the Common Barberry 
of our copses and hedges, is a somewhat 
acrid shrub varying in height from 4-12 ft. 
It has obovate spiny-toothed leaves, and 
produces its many-flowered drooping 
racemes of yellow blossoms in spring. 
These are succeeded by the orange-red 
berried fruits which look so handsome in 
autumn. There is a variety called atro- 
piurpurea which has rich purple-red leaves 
and looks particularly handsome in 
autumn, and many others which differ but 
little from the type — forty-three being 
given in the Kew Handlist alone. The 
variety (tsperma with drooping clusters of 
scarlet oblong berries is one of the most 
desirable for shrubberies or fences. 

Culture dc. as above. 

B. wallichiana. — A handsome Nepa- 
lese shrub 6-10 ft. high, with leaves in 
alternate bundles, 2-3 in. long, lance- 
shaped, with hollowed and toothed margins. 
The beautiful globular yellow flowers are 
borne in drooping clusters in spring for 
some distance along the slender branches. 

Culture dc. as above. 



BONGARDIA. - 

one species : — 



-A genus having only 



B. Rauwolfi (Leontice altaica). — A 
pretty little perennial about 6 in. high, 
native of Central Asia, with a tuberous 
rootstock from which spring the pinnately 
cut glaucous leaves with thickish seg- 
ments again twice or thrice divided or 
toothed with a purple blotch at the base. 
The golden-yellow flowers appear in May 
on branched pyramidal panicles, each 
blossom being about 1 in. across and 
drooping from a slender stalklet or 
pedicel. Sepals 3-6, petaloid. Petals 6, 
almost similar. Stamens 6, free. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
plant flourishes in light sandy soil in 
warm open positions in the rock garden 
or border. A little peat or leaf mould 
may be added to the soil, but in winter 
the rootstocks should be protected from 
cold heavy rains by a flower pot, bell- 
glass &c, otherwise the tuberous root- 
stocks are apt to perish. The plants may 
be increased by seeds sown in cold frames 
when ripe, or by offsets taken off in 
spring, or in early autumn and wintered 
in a cold frame. 

LEONTICE (Lion's Leaf). — A 
genus with 3 or 4 species of tuberous- 
rooted herbs and leaves twice or thrice 
pinnately cut. Flowers yellow, in racemes 
or panicles. Sepals 6-9 petaloid, the 
outer ones smallest. Petals 6, much 
shorter than the sepals, truncate at the 
apex and nectary-bearing. Stamens 6, 
free. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants may be grown in the same way as 
Bongardia Rauwolfi in light sandy soil 
in warm sunny positions in the rockery 
or border. The tuberous rootstocks or 
conns should not be buried too deep in the 
soil, and during the winter months should 
be protected from cold heavy rains by 
glasses &c, or they will share the fate of the 
Bongardias. The plants may be increased 
by seeds sown in cold frames as soon as 
ripe, or by means of offsets taken off in 
early autumn and planted in cold frames 
until spring ; or by detaching them in 
spring when growth has begun. 

L. Alberti. — A native of Tiukestan 
about 1 ft. high, with 5-parted digitate 
leaves, the lobes of which are bluntly 
elliptic. The golden - yellow flowers 
striped outside with red appear in April 
in conical clusters and look attractive. 

Other species met with occasionally 
are L. darwasica from Bokhara, and 



\ VNDINA 



BABBEBBY OBDER 



BPIMEDIUM L83 



L. Leontopetalum, both somewhat re- 
sembling the others and requiring the 
same treatment. 

Culture ,te. as above. 

CAULOPHYLLUM. — A genus 
having only one species : — ■ 

C. thalictroides. - An attractive 
perennial about 1 ft. high, native of X. 
America, and resembling both Bongardia 
and Leontice in having a tuberous root- 
stock. The leaves are twice or thrice pin- 
nately cut into narrow pointed segments 
somewhat resembling the Thalictrums 
(p. 137). The yellow flowers appear in loose 
racemes or clusters in April, and are suc- 
ceeded by roundish deep blue berries con- 
tracted at the base into a long stalk. 
Sepals (or bracteoles) 9, the outer ones 
much smaller, the inner ones petaloid. 
Petals 6, much smaller, nectary-bearing, 
dilated and hooded. Stamens (>, free. 

Culture (ind Propagation. — This 
species thrives in much the same situa- 
tions as the Bongardias and Leontices, 
but prefers a little more peat or leaf 
mould with the light sandy soil, and also 
a partially shaded place in the rockery 
or garden. It may be increased by 
separating the offsets from the tubers in 
early autumn and planting in a cold frame ; 
or in spring ; and also by sowing seeds 
if obtainable in cold frames when ripe. 
The rootstocks should be protected from 
heavy rains in winter with a sheet of 
glass or a handlight. 

NANDINA. — A genus containing at 
present only one species described below 
with the generic characters : — 

N. domestica. — A handsome erect 
evergreen shrub about 5 ft. high, native of 
China and Japan. The leaves are twice or 
thrice pinnately cut into entire leaflets, 
and the small white flowers are produced 
in summer in panicles at the ends of the 
shoots or opposite the leaves. Each 
blossom has numerous sepals and petals, 
six free stamens and one carpel, the latter 
eventually becoming an indehiscent berry 
about the size of a pea when mature. 

Culture and Propagation. — This shrub 
is fairly hardy near London, but it is 
better adapted for out-door cultivation in 
southern and western parts of the kingdom. 
It thrives in ordinary and well-drained 
good garden soil, but prefers a mixture of 
good loam, peat, and leaf mould. It may 
be increased during the summer and 



autumn months by inserting cuttings of 
tlu more or less ripened shoots in sandy 
soil under a handlight or in a greenhouse. 

VANCOUVERIA. — A genus with 
only one species : — 

V. hexandra. — A graceful and distinct 
N. American perennial 11', ft. high, with 
creeping rhizomes and pinnate leaves 
again twice or thrice divided into slender 
Fern-like segments. It produces its 
slender clusters of blush-coloured flowers 
in early summer, each blossom consist- 
ing of numerous sepals, 6 petals, and 6 
in ■ stamens. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species flourishes in sandy peat, in moist 
and shaded parts of the rock garden, and 
when grown in large masses looks very 
effective. It may be increased by division 
in early autumn or spring ; or by seeds 
sown when ripe in cold frames. 

EPIMEDIUM (Barrenwort). — A 
genus of about 8 species of ornamental 
herbaceous plants, with creeping peren- 
nial rhizomes and annual stems. Leaves 
stalked, compound, with bristly-toothed 
leaflets. Flowers variously coloured. 
Sepals 8, petaloid, flat. Petals 4, hooded or 
spurred. Stamens 4, free. Carpel 1. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Epimeditims are suitable plants for the 
rock-garden in somewhat shaded posi- 
tions, and flourish in a compost of peat 
and loam in about equal proportions. In 
winter the withered leaves look somewhat 
untidy, but they serve as a protection for 
the young buds and should not be removed 
until the spring, when danger from severe 
frost has passed. The foliage of many 
kinds assumes bronzy and ruby tints in 
autumn. 

The plants are usually increased by 
dividing the roots early in autumn, or 
better still in spring just as growth is 
about to commence. At this period cut- 
tings of the roots may also be inserted in 
sandy peat, and if placed in gentle heat 
will develop roots more quickly. Seeds 
may also be sown in pots or pans in 
spring, or as soon as ripe in cold frames, 
and may be treated like seedling Barber- 
ries as above. 

E. alpinum. — A plant 6-9 in. high, 
native of Central Europe, but found 
naturalised here and there in England on 
rockworks, old castle gardens &c. Leaves 
biternate with heart-shaped, oval-pointed, 



184 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS epimedium 



serrated leaves. Flowers in spring, 12-20 
in a loose panicle, outer sepals greyish, 
inner ones dark crimson ; petals yellow, 
forming a slipper- shaped spur, bearing a 
fancied resemblance to a bishop's mitre. 
Culture dc. as above. 

E. diphyllum (Aceranthus diphyllus). 
This Japanese species is the dwarfest of 
the genus, and rarely exceeds 3-4 in. in 
height. The leaves have stalks 2-3 in. 
long, with only 2 heart-shaped oval leaflets. 
The numerous small white drooping 
Mowers appear in April and May, and have 
spurless petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. macranthum (E. grandiflorum). — 
A handsome Japanese species 10-15 in. 
high with biternate leaves about 1 ft. long, 
cut into 9 heart-shaped oval leaflets 2-3 in. 
long with closely set hairy teeth. The 
white flowers appear in late spring and 
early summer on short racemes, and have 
the spur of the petals deflexed. E. viola- 
eeum is a dwarf variety, with smaller violet 
flowers. There are other forms. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. musschianum. — An erect compact- 
growing species about 1 ft. high, native of 
Japan. The leaves are ternate or biternate 
with nine heart-shaped oval leaflets 2-3 in. 
long. The dull white blossoms appear in 
May on short, close, simple racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. perralderianum. — An Algerian 
species closely related to E. pinnatum. 
Leaves with 3 heart-shaped oval segments 
2-3 in. long, bright green sometimes 
suffused with brown or dull purple. 
Flowers bright yellow §-§ in. across, the 
petals having an erect toothed blade, and 
an incurved strap- shaped brown spur. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. pinnatum. — A handsome, vigorous 
Persian plant 8-24 in. high, with 3-pinnate 
leaves 12-18 in. long, having ovate-acute 
stalked leaflets, toothed on the margins. 
Flowers in late spring or early summer, 
bright golden-yellow, in loose racemes 6 in. 
or so long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. purpureum. — A Japanese species 
somewhat like E. alpinum, but having 
larger divisions to the leaves. The flowers 
appear in May, purplish outside, brownish- 
yellow within, and much larger than those 
of E. alpinum. 

Culture dc. as above. 



E. rubrum (E. alpinum rubrum). — 
The native country of this species is un- 
known. The plant is much like E. alpi- 
num in habit, but is a more vigorous 
grower. The leaves vary from biternate 
to almost ternate, with sometimes as many 
as 20 leaflets. Flowers over § in. across, 
with oblong deciduous greyish sepals, and 
inner petals bright crimson, the outer 
petals being pale yellow tinged with red. 
Culture dc. as above. 

DIPHYLLEIA.— A genus with only 
one species : — 

D. cymosa (Umbrella Leaf). — A 
pretty N. American and Japanese peren- 
nial 12-18 in. high, with horizontal rhi- 
zomes, from which spring pairs of large 
roundish peltate and more or less deeply 
lobed leaves. The white flowers appear 
in summer and are borne in large loose 
clusters, being eventually succeeded by 
bluish-black berries. Each blossom con- 
sists of 6 petaloid sepals ; 6 somewhat 
larger flat petals ; and 6 free stamens. 

Culture and Propagation. — This in- 
teresting plant flourishes in moist peaty 
soil and is thus suitable for massing in 
front of Rhododendrons, Azaleas, Kalmias, 
and other peat-loving plants of the Heath 
order. Or it may be grown near the 
margins of lakes &c. in similar soil. It 
may be increased in spring as growth 
commences by dividing the rhizomatous 
roots. 

JEFFERSONIA. — A small genus 
containing only two species of perennial 
herbaceous plants having radical palmi- 
nerved leaves, mostly 2-lobed or 2-parted. 
Flowers white, solitary, on a naked scape. 
Sepals 4, petal-like. Petals 8, flat, larger 
than the sepals. Stamens 8, free. Carpel 
1. Capsvde leathery. 

J. binata (J. dipliylla). — A pretty her- 
baceous plant 3-6 in. high, native of the 
United States, with leaves deeply 2-lobed, 
and white flowers, having the above cha- 
racters, produced in spring. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species prefers a rather moist and shady 
situation in the rocker} 7 or flower-border, 
and will thrive in a soil composed of peat, 
sand and leaf soil. It may be increased by 
dividing the rootstocks in early autumn. 
Seeds may also be sown at the same 
period, or as soon as ever they are thor- 
oughly ripe. They may be sown out of 
doors in a prepared bed, and when the 



PODOPHYLLUM 



WATEli-LILY ORDER 



NUPHAR 185 



seedlings are large enough to handle may 
be transplanted to their permanent 
positions. 

PODOPHYLLUM (May Apple ; 
Mandrake). — A genus of two species of 
perennial herbs with creeping rootstocks 
and thick fibrous roots. Leaves peltate, 
palmately nerved and lobed, one or two on 
the stems. Flowers white, solitary, ter- 
minal, shortly stalked, nodding. Sepals 6, 
petal-like. Petals 6-9, flat, larger than 
the sepals. Stamens as many or twice as 
many as petals, free. Carpel 1, with a 
dilated peltate stigma. Fruit an indehis- 
ceut berry. 

Culture mill Propagation. — The 
Podophyllum* thrive in moist, peaty soil 
in warm, sheltered and somewhat shady 
spots. They may be increased by seeds 
sown as soon as ripe in sandy peat, in 
pots or pans, and sheltered in cold frames. 
The following spring the seedlings may 
be given more room to develop, and by 
autumn or the next spring will probably 
be fit for placing in the open border or 
rockery. Plants may also be raised by 
dividing the rootstock in early autumn or 
spring, the latter being on the whole the 
most suitable period. 

P. Emodi {Himalayan May- Apple). 
An erect Indian plant 6-12 in. high, with 
2 alternate long-stalked leaves 6-10 in. 
across, 3-5-lobed to the middle or base, 
lobes wedge-shaped, sharply toothed, 



the whole surface being heavily spotted 
or washed with purple . Flowers in May, 
less than 2 in. across with very deciduous 
sepals, and 6 (occasionally 4) obovate ob- 
long petals. Berries red, 1-2 in. long, 
elliptical, edible. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

P. peltatum (American Mandrake). — A 
North American plant 6 12 in. high, with 
poisonous leaves and roots. The glossy 
green wrinkled leaves are 5 9-parted, with 
oblong, rather wedge-shaped toothed lobes. 
The fiowerless stems end in a large round 
7-9 -lobed peltate leaf, like an umbrella ; 
the flowering stems have 2 one-sided leaves 
with the stalk near the inner edge. The 
waxy-white flowers as large as those of the 
Christmas Kose appear in May, and have 
12-18 stamens in centre. The green 
crab-like fruits, which are 1-2 in. long, 
sweet, and slightly acid, edible, ripen in 
July, and assume a yellowish tinge with 
age. 

Culture <{■<■. as above. 

P. pleianthum. — A distinct and very 
interesting Chinese species 1-2 ft. high, 
with roundish peltate leaves, divided into 
6-8 triangular toothed lobes. The floral 
leaf sterns are forked, and from the axil 
are produced large bunches of drooping 
purple flowers, which in due course are 
succeeded by glaucous-green berries 1-2 
in. long, becoming purple when ripe. 

Culture dtc. as above. 



VII. NYMPHiEACEiE- Water-Lily Order 

Herbaceous plants growing in lakes, pools, ponds, ditches, or slow-flowing 
rivers, at the bottom of which their fleshy rootstocks are embedded in the 
mud, and their large long-stalked heart-shaped or peltate leaves float on the 
surface of the water. The usually large, beautiful, and often sweet-scented 
flowers also either float on the surface or are slightly raised above the w T ater. 
There are usually 4 sepals, free or rarely adherent. Petals and stamens 
numerous, sometimes all free and hypogynous, often passing gradually one into 
another. The ovary is many-celled, with radiating stigmas, and numerous 
ovules, and is more or less surrounded by a large fleshy disc. 

NUPHAR (Yellow Water-Lily ; Stigma peltate, rayed. Fruit a berry of 



Brandy-Bottle).— A small genus with 
three or four species, natives of the 
northern temperate hemisphere. The 
flowers are rather large and yellow, with 
5-6 concave, leathery, hypogynous sepals, 
and numerous small stamen-like petals. 
Stamens numerous, shorter than the 
sepals, hypogynous, closely imbricated. 



separable carpels, ripening above water. 

The Brandy-Bottles are lovely water 
plants, requiring the same conditions as 
the \Yater-Lilies proper, which see. 

N. advena (Nymphcea advena). — A 
beautiful native of the lakes, ponds, and 
ditches of N. America from Canada to 
Carolina. Leaves erect, heart-shaped. 



186 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS nymph^a 



with divaricated lobes, on half-round 
stalks. The large yellow flowers with 
red anthers in the centre rise well above 
the surface of the water in summer, on 
round stalks. There are 6 sepals, purple 
within, green outside. 
Culture dtc. as below. 

N. luteum (Yelloiv Water-Lily). — A 
native of the still waters of Great Britain 
and Ireland, with roundish, deeply 2-lobed 
leaves 8-12 in. across. The fragrant 
yellow flowers appear from June to August 
slightly above the surface, having 5 sepals, 
18-20 obovate wedge-shaped leathery 
petals, and 10-30 rayed stigmas. The 
variety intermedium has flowers l£ in. 
across, with 10-14 rayed stigmas, waved 
at the margin. 

Culture dc. as below. 

N. pumilum {Nymplicea Kahniana). 
This plant is a native of Britain, and is 
also distributed over Arctic and Central 
Europe and N. Asia. It is very similar 
to-iV. luteum, differing in the smaller 
more rounded petals, and shorter anthers. 
Stigmas 8-10-rayed, lobed at the margin. 
The yellow flowers appear from June to 
August. 

Culture dx. as below. 

NYMPH/EA (Water -Lily). — A 
genus of aquatic plants with large floating 
deeply heart-shaped or peltate leaves. 
Flowers showy, solitary, red, white, blue, 
and intermediate shades. Sepals 4, in- 
serted almost at the base of the torus. 
Petals numerous and stamens numerous, 
adnate to the torus, the inner petals being 
transformed into stamens. Carpels nume- 
rous, sunk in the fleshy disc, and with 
it forming a many-celled ovary, crowned 
by the connate radiating stigmas. Fruit 
a spongy berry ripening under water. 

Culture and Propagation. — There are 
altogether between 40 and 50 species of 
Water-Lilies known, but most of them 
are too tender for out-door cultivation 
in the British Islands. Those described 
below have been found to stand our 
climate well, and should be grown by 
aU who have a small piece of water at 
their disposal. They grow better in 
natural ponds, pools, or quiet streams, 
but may also be successfully flowered in 
artificial tanks sunk in the ground to a 
depth of about 3 ft. The rootstocks are 
best planted in spring in about a foot of 
soil beneath the water. To prevent the 
soil being scattered it is a good plan to 



have it in a shallow basket or other 
receptacle which will readily sink to the 
bottom. Casks or tubs may also be used, 
and if sunk level with the surface of the 
ground the leaves and flowers will in due 
course make a pretty picture during the 
summer and autumn months. 

Water-Lilies are increased usually by 
dividing the tuberous rootstocks and re- 
planting them in spring as described 
above. The rootstocks may be left in the 
mud during the winter, or they may be 
taken up and kept in a cool place in sand 
until planting time. Seeds may also be 
sown in autumn as soon as ripe. As the 
fleshy fruits and seeds ripen under water 
and are apt to be lost or destroyed by 
water-fowl or insects &c, care should be 
taken to secure them in good time, but 
not before they are thoroughly ripe. The 
seeds may be sown in pots or pans of 
loamy soil, and just submerged in water— 
if possible in a greenhouse where they can 
be attended to, or if outside, under pro- 
tection. In spring, when the small round 
leaves appear and float on the water, each 
seedling may be placed in a pot by itself 
and again placed under water, to be grown 
on until the following spring. If large 
enough it may then be planted like the 
older rootstocks in a pot or tub, from 
which it cannot be easily lost during the 
dormant period. 

For room decoration the blossoms are 
admirably adapted. If cut just as they 
are opening and placed in shallow bowls 
of water with some green foliage, they 
make a handsome picture. The period 
of their freshness may be extended by 
cutting half an inch or so off the end of 
the stalks, thus allowing a fresh layer of 
cells to come in contact with the water. 
The absorptive process goes on for a long 
time in this way by renewing the cuts, 
and the flowers retain their plumpness and 
brilliancy much longer in consequence. 

The Queen's Water-Lily, the Victoria 
Regia, which attracts so rnanj' thousands 
to Kew every year, is closely related to 
the common hardy Water-Lily. It is a 
native of the Amazon River, and the 
circular leaves with upturned rims are 
often 6 ft. or more in diameter. It is 
raised from seed every year as described 
above, but the seed pots are placed in 
water up to 85° Fahr. 

N. alba. — This is the common white 
Water-Lily of Great Britain and Ireland 
and is a beautiful early summer flowering 



NYMPH.EA 



WATER-LILY OBDEB 



NY.M1-H.EA 187 



plant, and according to locality is often 
in bloom in May. It has fleshy root- 
stocks from which arise the roundish, 
heart-shaped entire leaves 5-10 in. across. 
The scentless flowers are 4-6 in. across, 
and float on the surface of the water. 
The sepals are linear, oblong, green out- 
side. Petals oblong, blunt. There are a 
few varieties, such as canclidissima, with 
broad-petalled flowers ; plenissima, with 
an extra number of petals; maxima, with 
larger, and minor, with smaller flowers 
than the type. 

Culture ((c. as above. 

N. Candida (N. semiaptera). — A Bohe- 
mian species like N. alba but smaller. 
Flowers snowy white, 2-3 in. across, 
sepals tinged with green. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

N. flava. — This is a native of the 
South United States, and is probably 
hardy enough for the mildest parts of this 
country. It has slender rootstocks form- 
ing numerous suckers, and oblong rounded 
leaves, 4-6 in. long, 3-5 in. broad, shal- 
lowly crenate, and irregularly blotched 
with dark brown in the early part of 
the season. Flowers in summer, canary- 
yellow. 

Unlike other species, N. flava is not 
quite deciduous, and the roots, if taken 
up, should therefore never be dried of!', but 
be kept in damp soil or wet moss. 

Culture rfc. as above. 

N. nitida. — A native of Siberia with 
heart-shaped quite entire leaves, on smooth 
stalks, and without prominent nerves 
underneath. The white scentless flowers 
with blunt petals appear hi June, and are 
3-4 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. 

N. odorata. — A beautiful N.American 
species resembling N. alba but quite 
distinct from it. Leaves heart-shaped, 
entire, with nerves and veins very 
prominent on the under surface. The 
sweet-scented flowers, 6 in. across, appear 
from June till September, usually white, 
tinted with rose, and opening in the 
morning, but closing after midday. 

The variety rosea or rosacea has 
beautiful flowers suffused with pink ; 
sulpliurea has prettily marbled leaves 
and sulphur-yellow flowers 8 in. across ; 
grandiflora has yellow sweet-scented 
flowers, and leaves mottled with brown 
above, and spotted with red beneath ; 
exauisita has flowers of a deep rosy- 



carmine almost red at the base of the 
petals ; superba is a fine large-flowered 
form, and minor has smaller leaves and 
flowers than the type ; Carolinian a is said 
to be a cross between the variety rosea 
and N. alba candidissima , and is a grand 
variety ; gigantea, as the name implies, 
has fine large flowers. 
( ' ulture dc. as above. 

N. pygmaea. — This elegant species 
from N. Asia is the smallest of the Water- 
Lilies. Its heart-shaped entire leaves are 
little more than 3-4 in. across, and the 
white fragrant flowers, scarcely 2 in. 
across, with a greenish-yellow torus in 
the centre, appear from June to September. 
Helvola is a seedling from this species, 
raised by M. Marliac. It is a beautiful 
plant with pale straw-yellow flowers, and 
somewhat oblong leaves blotched with 
brown above and red beneath. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

N. spharocarpa. — This is closely re- 
lated to N. alba, b;it has rose-carmine 
flowers, produced in abundance in May 
and June. 

Culture (ice. as above. 

N. tuberosa. — A beautiful species from 
the N.E. United States. It has a creep- 
ing rootstock with oblong tubers, and 
circular leaves 8-18 in. in diameter, with 
an entire or wavy margin. The faintly 
scented flowers are white, 4-7 in. across, 
and produced in July and August. It is 
readily increased \>\ dividing the roots. 

The variety rosea has exquisite pink 
flowers deliciously fragrant ; Bichardsoni, 
which is less vigorous than the type, has 
pure white double flowers standing w r ell 
above the water. 

Culture dc. as above. 

HARDY HYBRID WATER-LILIES 

Besides the natural species, many 
beautiful hybrids have been raised during 
recent years, and have become exceeding!}- 
popular owing to their hardiness in our 
climate, and because of their free-flowering 
properties. The name of M. Latour 
Marliac, of Temple - sur - Lot, France, 
deserves to be recorded as the raiser of 
most of these beautiful Water-Lilies. 

These lovely plants raised by M. 
Marliac may for the sake of convenience 
be classed into 2 groups, viz. : — Alarliacea 
hybrids and Laydeheri hybrids, as 
follows :— 

N. Marliacea albida. — This is the 



188 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS nymphzea 



finest and largest white Water-Lily, the 
flowers being fragrant and freely pro- 
duced. 

N. M. camea is very vigorous and 
free-flowering, with magnificent flowers, 
flesh-tinted with a delicate blush, and 
scented like vanilla. 

N. M. chromatella is a charming 
hybrid, with brown mottled leaves when 
young, and large fragrant flowers of clear 
yellow, produced from early spring till 
late autumn. 

N. M. flammea, a splendid variety 
with white and reddish-purple flowers, 
the outer petals pink, deepening in colour 
towards the centre. 

N. M. ignea has flowers about 5 in. 
across, with pale olive-green sepals edged 
with rose behind, and pale rose almost 
white in front, the closely imbricating 
petals being of a deep bright rosy-crimson 
surrounding the vivid orange-red stamens. 

N. M. rosea is the choicest of the 
hardy pink "Water- Lilies, with large cup- 
shaped flowers of an exquisite soft rose 
tint much deeper than the variety camea. 

N. M. rubro -punctata has flowers 4 
in. across, with dark olive-green sepals, 
flushed with rosy-lilac in front, and deep 
mauve -purple petals delicately dotted 
with carmine. 

The LaydeTieri group contains : — 

N. L. fulgens, a charming variety with 
dark green outer sepals and crimson - 
magenta petals. 

N. L. fulva has creamy yellow 
flowers tinted and lined with bright 
red, the stamens being golden-yellow, 
and the leaves blotched with brown 
above and spotted with red beneath. 

N. L. lilacea has lilac-rose flowers 
scented like Tea Eoses, and about 2i in. 
across. 

N. L. lucida has large soft vermilion 
flowers, with orange stamens, and large 
chestnut-spotted leaves. 

N. L. imrpurata has symmetrical 



flowers of a deep rosy-crimson and vivid 
orange-red stamens. 

N. L. rosea, flowers medium-sized, 
tender pink to carmine. Stamens orange- 
red. 

Other varieties are : Aurora, may be 
called the Chameleon Water-Lily, as its 
exquisite flowers change in colour from 
day to day, being at first rose-yellow, 
then orange-red, ultimately becoming 
deep red. 

N. Blanda is the purest white, with 
flowers 4-6 in. across, vigorous and free- 
flowering. 

N. Ellisiana is a choice variety with 
brilliant carmine-purple flowers. 

N. Robinsoni is a fine hybrid with 
deep rose-coloured flowers, deeper towards 
the centre, dotted with white, and with 
orange-red stamens. 

N. Signometi is a superb variety with 
delicate creamy yellow flowers tinted with 
pale rose and carmine. 

N. Andreana. — Flowers 5-6 in. above 
the water, brick-red, shaded with yellow 
ochre ; stamens orange, leaf stalks spotted 
with chestnut, and streaked with red- 
brown on the back. 

N. gloriosa. — A lovely scented flower 
7 in. across, very double, bright red, rosy- 
white at the tips of the lower petals. 
Stamens rich red. 

N. caroliniana nivea. — Flowers pure 
white, very large and double, very 
fragrant. Stamens rich yellow. N. c. 
perfecta has salmon-red flowers, very 
double ; petals blunt and perfectly regular. 

N. sanguinea.- — Flowers rich carmine- 
amaranth or clear carmine. Stamens 
orange-red. 

As the Hardy Water-Lilies have come 
into prominence only during the past 
few years, there is every reason to believe 
and hope that many fine varieties are still 
to be raised. Although all the above are 
really fine forms they are likely to be super- 
seded by others still finer in due course. 



VIII. SARRACENIACEiE— Trumpet Leaf Order 

A small natural order of remarkable and curious-looking perennial herbaceous 
plants, having tufts of radical leaves which are tubular or pitcher-like in form, 
and surmounted by a lid. The tubular portion corresponds to the stalk of 
ordinary leaves, but is more or less highly coloured, veined, and netted. The 
lid-like portion corresponds to the blade of an ordinary leaf, and is usually 
very beautifully coloured and netted, while on the inner surface are numerous 



SAREACENIA 



POPPY ORDER 



SAEEACENIA 189 



more or less bristly hairs. These point downwards like so many miniature 
bayonets, and are supposed to prevent the exit of insects which find their way 
unimpeded to the bottom of the pitcher. The top of the latter is furnished 
with a strong rim, and is also provided with downward pointing bristly hairs 
so that the leaves are veritable death traps to the insects which frequent them 
for the sugary secretion which is exuded on the inner surface. Sometimes 
the pitchers become almost or quite filled with the dead and decaying bodies 
of the insects. 

The flowers are few or solitary, and nodding. Sepals 4-5, free, hypogy- 
nous. Petals usually 5, free, hypogynous, but absent in the genus Heliamphora. 
Stamens numerous, hypogynous. Ovary free, 3-5-celled. Style simple, with 
an entire, lobed, or shield-like apex. 



SARRACENIA. — This genus is 
known under such popular names as 
' Indian Cup,' ' Pitcher Plant,' ' Side- 
Saddle Flower,' and ' Trumpet Leaf,' all 
more or less appropriate. It contains a 
few species of half-hardy herbaceous 
perennials with trumpet-like or tubular 
leaves as described above, and flowers 
borne singly at the top of a scape. Sepals 
5, spreading. Petals 5, united. Ovary 
f)-lobed, 5-celled. The style is remarkable 
owing to the fact that it is dilated into a 
broad peltate 5-angled, umbrella-like disk, 
with 5 radiating nerves, the tips of which 
constitute the stigmatic surface where it 
is necessary to place the pollen for the 
fertilisation of the ovules and the develop- 
ment of seeds. 

Culture and Propagation. — Most Sar- 
racenias unfortunately are too tender to 
be grown out of doors successfully in the 
British Islands. The kind mentioned 
below is the best for this purpose. It 
enjoys a marshy spot not too much ex- 
posed to hot sunshine. A damp peaty 
soil in the rock garden will suit it admir- 
ably, and the addition of Sphagnum 
moss will also be beneficial. It will 
retain moisture and prevent evaporation 



from the soil in summer, if placed around 
the plants. To allow the soil to become 
dry is almost fatal to the plants. As they 
do not grow very quickly it is rather 
risky to attempt to increase them by 
division until good-sized clumps have 
been attained. If seeds can be obtained 
they may be sown under glass in moist 
peaty soil as soon as ripe, and the plants 
may be grown on in pots until they are 
sufficiently large and sturdy enough for 
the open air. 

S. purpurea (Huntsman's Cwp). — A 
beautiful North American species with 
blood-red horn-like leaves 4-6 in. long, 
inflated in the middle, contracted at the 
mouth, and surmounted with an erect 
kidney-shaped lid, hairy within and netted 
with purple veins. The purple flowers 
are borne in early summer, on scapes 
about a foot high. 

There are many other kinds of Sarra- 
cenias, but they are all too tender for the 
open air. A large number of hybrids 
have been raised, and these surpass in 
beauty and vigour the natural species. 
Most of them may be seen in the green- 
houses in the Royal Gardens, Kew. 

Culture dc. as above. 



IX. PAPAVERACE^— Poppy Order 

Smooth and often glaucescent, or hairy annual or perennial herbaceous 
plants (rarely shrubs), often with a milky juice. Leaves alternate, entire, or 
lobed and cut without stipules. Flowers regular, usually nodding in bud, and 
borne singly on long stalks. Sepals 2, or 3, rarely 4, free, imbricate, 
caducous. Petals 4-6 rarely 8-12, hypogynous, free, in 2 or 3 series 
imbricated and often crumpled, deciduous. Stamens numerous, hypogynous, 



190 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ROMNEYA 



with slender filaments and erect anthers. Ovary 1-celled, or 2-4-celled by 
prolonged placentas. Stigmas as many as placentas, radiating and sessile. 
Fruit a pod, dehiscing by pores or valves. 



PLATYSTEMON.— A genus con- 
taining only one species, viz. : — 

P. californicus (Californian Poppy). 
A pretty annual about 1 ft. high, 
with narrow entire leaves, the lower 
ones alternate, the floral ones often 
nearly opposite or ternately verticillate. 
The yellow flowers are borne on elongated 
stalks from June to August, and consist 
of 3 sepals, 6 petals, numerous stamens, 
and carpels. The variety leiocarpus has 
smooth carpels. 

Culture and Propagation. — The seeds 
of this species may be sown, like those of 
the annual Poppies, in spring or autumn, 
in any good garden soil, and the seedlings 
should be thinned out if too close to- 
gether. 

ROMNEYA (White Bush Poppy).— 
A genus containing only one species — 
B. Coulteri, the characters of which of 
course are those of the genus. 

R. Coulteri is branched, smooth, and 
glaucous, perennial, 2-8 ft. high, with 
pinnatifid leaves, the linear lanceolate or 
deltoid segments of which have hairy 
margins. The large, fragrant, delicate 
white flowers, often 6 in. across when 
fully expanded, appear from June to 
September at the ends of the branches. 
There are 3 sepals about 1 in. long ; 6 
petals, broadly obovate, thickened at the 
base, each about 2i in. long, and in 2 
circles. Stamens numerous in many 
circles. 

Culture and Propagation. — This fine 
plant is a native of California, and will 
grow in most parts of the British Islands. 
It likes a rich and somewhat sandy loam 
in warm and sheltered situations. During 
severe winters in most parts of the 
country north of the Thames it is wise to 
protect the crowns by means of litter, 
dry leaves, or ashes, but protection 
should be given only in case of real 
necessity, otherwise the young shoots 
may be too tender and be unable to stand 
the later spring frosts. The plants like 
plenty of moisture in summer, and an 
occasional dose of liquid manure will be 
very beneficial. 

The easiest way to increase Romneya 
Coulteri is by sowing seed in spring either 
singly in small pots or in pans or boxes 



in a cold frame or in gentle heat. When 
large enough the seedlings may be pricked 
out into other boxes, and after being 
established may be hardened off for 
transplanting out of doors the next or 
even the following spring after that. 
Dull showery weather should, if possible, 
be chosen for this work. Seeds may also 
be sown as soon as ripe in autumn in 
sandy soil in cold frames or greenhouses, 
and the seedlings may be transplanted 
the following June. Sometimes the seeds 
remain dormant for several months after 
sowing. 

As the plants often suffer a good deal 
in transplanting, it is advisable to be 
very careful in handling the roots, so 
as not to cause more injury than is 
necessary. For this reason it is probably 
the best plan to raise the plants singly 
in small pots, from which they may be 
transferred to pots of a larger size and 
grown on in cold frames until sturdy 
enough for the open border. They are 
more easily transferred from pots than 
from boxes or from the open border. 
Cuttings of the roots about 2 in. long, 
inserted in sandy soil, and placed in a 
hotbed early in the year, will sometimes 
produce plants, but cuttings of the shoots 
rarely root, although they keep fresh for 
a long time. 

PAPAVER (Poppy). — A genus of 
about 14 species of hairy or glaucous 
annual or perennial herbs with milky 
juice, and lobed and cut leaves. The 
nodding showy flowers are red, violet, 
yellow or white, on elongated stalks. 
Sepals 2, rarely 3. Petals 4, rarely 6, 
crumpled. Stamens numerous, hypogy- 
nous. Capsule shedding its seeds by 
pores or valves under the ledge of the 
rayed and peltate stigma. 

Culture and Propagation. — Poppies 
— both annual and perennial — are very 
showy plants, and owing to the differ- 
ence in height, as well as their habit 
of growth, are suitable for various parts 
of the flower garden, in the front, back, 
or centre of beds or borders accord- 
ing to height. Mixed in patches with 
other plants, Poppies are far more 
effective by contrast than when grown in 
large patches by themselves. The annual 



PAPAVER 



POPPY ORDER 



PAPAVEB 191 



kinds are useful for covering up mounds 
of earth or bare places, upon which little 
else will nourish. They are easily raised 
from seeds sown in spring or autumn 
in the open border where they are to 
bloom, the seedlings being in due course 
thinned out. This process of thinning 
out is adopted chiefly because annual 
Poppies do not as a rule transplant well. 
and as the seeds germinate so freely one 
can afford to dispense with the surplus 
seedlings. The perennial kinds may also 
be increased from seeds sown in spring 
or autumn, or by division in early autumn, 
so that they will have a chance to become 
established before winter. But they are 
often treated as annuals. 

P.alpinum. — A beautiful alpine Poppy 
3-6 in. high, with smooth or hairy 
leaves finely cut into acute lobed seg- 
ments. Flowers in summer, yellow, rose- 
tinted or white, the sepals being covered 
with long adpressed hairs. Capsule 
roundish, prickly. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

P. croceum. — A Siberian perennial 
9-18 in. high, resembling Meconopsis 
cambrica (p. 194) in habit. It has tufts 
of erect radical leaves, light green above, 
blue-green beneath, and more or less 
covered with hairs. The large orange - 
yellow flowers appear in summer, and 
have the petals somewhat wavy on the 
margins. There is a double-flowered 
form of this species, which latter is now 
regarded as a variety of I', nndicaide. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seed and division. 

P. glaucum ( Tu Up Poppy) . — A brilliant 
annual Poppy 1-2 ft. high, native of the 
East, with thickish blue-green leaves, 
oblong in shape and more or less cut into 
unequally toothed lobes. The showy 
flowers appear in summer, the two large 
outer petals being of a deep scarlet red, 
shaded with orange, while the two smaller 
inner ones are of a similar hue, but more 
or less united and forming a cup round 
the violet-black stamens in the centre. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised annually 
from seed. 

P. Hooked. — An ornamental Indian 
species, forming a bushy herb 3-4 ft. high, 
and very much like the Common Corn 
Poppy in appearance. The flowers appear 
late in summer, and vary in colour from 



pale-rose to crimson-scarlet with a diffused 
white or blue-black blotch at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

P. horridum. — A native of Australia 
and S. Africa, having few-flowered hairy 
stems, about 2 ft. high, furnished with 
rigid prickles. The cut leaves are glau- 
cous, with prickles on the nerves and 
tips, and the pale red flowers with hairy 
sepals appear in July. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

P. laevigatum. —An annual Poppy 1-2 
ft. high, native of the Caucasus. It has 
somewhat glaucous pinnately cut leaves. 
and large bright scarlet flowers, the petals 
of which have a deep black blotch at the 
base, and a border of white round the 
edges. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

P. lateritium. — An Armenian peren- 
nial l.]-2ft.high, with linear elliptic leaves, 
cut at the base, and 6-12 in. long. The 
bright orange flowers, about 2 in. across, 
appear in early summer, the sepals being 
covered with long yellow hairs. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or division. 

P. nudicaule (Iceland Poppy). — A 
beautiful alpine perennial 9-18 in. high, 
native of Siberia, and the northern parts 
of America. The glaucous pinnate leaves 
are cut into fine acute lobed segments. 
The showy flowers with roundish petals 
and hairy sepals appear in summer, varying 
in colour from bright orange to yellow 
and white. 

Culture and Propagation. — Although 
a perennial, the Iceland Poppy is best 
treated as an annual, and the seed may 
be sown in autunin or spring, according as 
the flowers are required early or late the 
following season. General cultivation as 
above. 

P. orientale (Oriental Poppy). — A 
brilliant Poppy 2 3 ft. high, native of 
Armenia. It has rough, bristly, hairy 
stems and leaves, the latter being a foot 
or more long and pinnately cut. The 
deep scarlet-crimson flowers, 6-8 in. across, 
appear from the end of May to July, 
and have a black or purplish blotch 
at the base of each petal. The calyx has 
3 sepals instead of 2 as in other species. 
P. bracteatum (often referred to as a 



192 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS papaver 



species) is really only a variety of the 
Oriental Poppy. It grows, perhaps, a 
little taller, and has hairy deeply cut 
leaves with oblong serrated and deeply 
incised lobes, and scarlet flowers. There 
seem to be a good many forms in culti- 
vation, varying between orientate and 
bracteatum, and it is probable that they 
are hybrids between these two. Other 
forms are concolor, the flowers of which 
have no blotch at the base, and trium- 
phans, more dwarf and free-flowering. 

Culture dc. as above. Easily raised 
from seeds sown as soon as ripe or in 
spring ; or by dividing the plants in early 
autumn or spring. Plants may also be 
raised by cutting the fleshy roots into 
pieces an inch or two long, covering them 
with rich sandy soil, and placing under a 
handlight or iii a greenhouse. This work 
is best done when the flowers have passed. 
P. pavoninum (Peacock Poppy). — A 
native of Central Asia, with rather small 
leaves, twice pinnately cut. Flowers in 
slimmer, scarlet with a black crescent- 
shaped blotch at the base of each petal. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

P. persicum (Persian Poppy). — A 
Persian species about 18 in. high, with 
pinnately cut leaves, having almost 
undivided often aristate segments, and 
brick-red flowers which appear in June. 
Culture dc. as above, p. 190. 
P. pilosum. — A handsome perennial 
1-2 ft. high, with stem-clasping oval- 
oblong pale green leaves having toothed 
lobes, and hairy on both surfaces. The 
stems are also hairy and produce in 
summer many pale lurid scarlet or deep 
orange flowers, 2 in. across, with a white 
blotch at the base of each petal. Native 
of S.E. Europe. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

P. Rhoeas (Common Com Poppy ; Red 
Weed). — A native of British cornfields 
and waste places, varying a good deal in 
height. The common form has branched 
hairy stems with once or twice pinnately 
cut leaves, the ascending lobes of which 
have a bristle at the tip. The bright 
scarlet flowers, 3-4 in. across, appear from 
June to August, and have petals in 
unequal pairs. 

The variety umbrosum is a native of 
the Caucasus, about 2 ft. high, with 
dazzling scarlet flowers, having a jet black 



blotch at the base of each petal, which is 
sometimes edged with grey. 

Many beautiful double-flowered forms 
of this Poppy are now in cultivation, 
and are known as Carnation, Picotee, 
and Ranunculus-flowered, representing 
almost every shade of colour except blue 
and yellow. The French and German 
Poppies are also forms of this species. 
' Shirley Poppies ' are beautiful single- 
flowered variations of the common Corn 
Poppy, having the most exquisite and 
diverse shades— chiefly self-coloured, and 
without any blotch at the base of the 
petals. 

Culture and Propagation. — All the 
varieties of the Common Corn Poppy 
may be sown out of doors about the 
end of March in the spots where they 
are intended to bloom. The seedlings 
should be thinned out to about 6-8 in. 
apai't. To make this operation less tedious 
the seeds in the first place should be 
sown as thinly as possible. 

P. rupifragum atlanticum. — A pretty 
Poppy 1-2 ft. high, native of Spain and 
Morocco, with hairy stems and bright 
green more or less lance-shaped leaves 
6-8 in. long, and pinnately divided. The 
orange, red, or scarlet flowers appear in 
April and May, and are 2-3 in. across, 
erect when open but drooping like other 
species when in bud. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. setigerum (Bristly Pojrpy). — A 
native of Europe and Asia 1-2 ft. high, 
and closely related to the Opium Poppy, 
but differs in having the teeth of the 
hairy leaves ending in a stiff bristle. The 
violet flowers appear in summer, but 
there are now many forms and vari- 
ous shades in gardens. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

P. somniferum (Op>ium Poppy). — A 
beautiful annual Poppy 3 -4 ft. high, widely 
distributed over Europe, Asia, India, W. 
Africa, and naturalised in many parts of 
the British Isles. The broad, oblong, lobed 
and waved leaves, with a glaucous hue. 
are heart-shaped at the base and clasp the 
smooth stems. Flowers in summer, white, 
rose, lilac, often striped, and usually with 
a dark blotch at the base of the often 
fringed petals. 

The Paeony-flowered Poppies have 
been obtained by selection from this spe- 
cies, as has also the ' Danebrog ' Poppy. 



ARGEMONE 



POPPY ORDER 



MBCONOPSIS 193 



P. Musselli is a garden strain with 
double flowers having fringed petals. 
These double flowers vary a good deal in 
colour, and may be had in the following 
shades: lilac, crimson, red, purple, scarlet, 
rose &c. 

There is also a dwarf race of Opium 
Poppies, which are somewhat shorter in 
stature and have double flowers. The 
variety monstrosum is extremely curious. 
Most of the numerous stamens are 
changed into small carpels arranged round 
the ordinary capsule in the form of a 
crown or fringe. This form comes true 
from seed, but there is nothing particularly 
handsome in it. 

Cult ui'c dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds sown annually. 

ARGEMONE (Prickly Poppy). — A 
small genus of handsome brandling 
annuals and perennials, having yellow 
juice and covered with stiff prickles. 
Leaves stalkless, usually spotted with 
white ; recesses spiny-toothed. Flowers 
about 4 in. across, showy white or yellow, 
terminal. Sepals 2-3 (rarely 4), concave, 
mucronate. Petals 4-6 (rarely 8). 
Stamens numerous. 

Culture and Propagation. — Prickly 
Poppies love a warm loamy soil. They 
may be raised from seeds sown out of 
doors at the end of March, or earlier in 
pans placed on a hotbed, afterwards 
pricking out the seedlings to their flower- 
ing quarters. 

A. albiflora. — An annual species, 
native of Georgia, 1 ft. high, with feather- 
veined, stalkless leaves, and white 
flowers, with 3 petals, produced in July 
and August. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. grandiflora. — A perennial 2-3 ft. 
high from Mexico, with sinuate, smooth, 
glaucous and spiny - toothed leaves. 
Flowers in summer, large, somewhat 
resembling those of Bomneya Goulteri 
(p. 190), white with yellowish anthers. 

Culture dc. as above. Although a 
true perennial, this species is usually 
treated as a tender or half-hardy annual. 
The seeds are best sown in gentle heat so as 
to have the plants strong enough to flower 
early. When raised from seeds sown out- 
side in spring, this species does not bloom 
till late autumn, but will flower early the 
following summer if protected. 

A. hirsuta. — A beautiful Californian 



annual about 2 ft. high, with piimaiifid 
bristly leaves, and pme white flowers 3 5 
in. across, borne in September. 

Culture d ■< -. as above. 

A. mexicana (Devil's Fig). — A Mexi- 
can annual 2 ft. high, with hollow- 
edged spiny leaves blotched with white 
and very much resembling those of the 
Milk Thistle (p. 549). The solitary yellow 
flowers with 4-6 petals appear in June. 
A. hispida from Colorado is similar to 
A. mexicana but is much more hairy and 
has yellow flowers. A. platyceras is also 
closely related. It has white flowers. 

Cult iirr dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually . 

A. ochroleuca. — Also a native of 
Mexico, with prickly stems, and deeply 
sinuated or pinnatitid glaucescent leaves, 
blotched with white, and having prickly 
bristles on the nerves. The pale yellow 
flowers with 6 petals appear in August. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

MECONOPSIS.— A small genus of 
charming and pretty perennial, biennial. 
or rarely annual herbs, with yellow juice, 
and entire or often lobed or cut leaves. 
Flowers show}', yellow, purple or blue, 
on long stalks, nodding in bud. Sepals 2. 
Petals 4. Stamens numerous. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants will grow in ordinary good garden 
soil, and are easily raised from seeds 
sown in spring. If raised in pans or 
shallow boxes under protection from frost, 
the seedlings will be strong enough to 
plant out by the end of April or May, 
or they may be grown on in pots until 
the following spring when they will 
naturally be much finer in growth. 
When extra strong plants are required for 
spring planting, the seeds may be sown in 
cold frames or greenhouses as soon as ripe 
and the seedlings grown on during the 
winter. The plants like plenty of water 
in sunimer, but should be kept dry in 
winter, as at that period moisture at the 
roots is almost sure to kill them. 

M. aculeata. — A beautiful biennial 
about 2 ft. high, native of N.W. India, with 
long-stalked, oblong, somewhat pinnate 
leaves, and purple flowers 2 in. across, with 
numerous yellow stamens in the centre. 
They appear in summer and look very 
effective in masses. 

Culture do. as above. Raised from 
seeds sown as soon as ripe. 



194 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



MECONOPSIS 



M. cambrica (Welsh Poppy). — A 
beautiful native perennial about 1-2 ft. 
higb, with pale green stalked and pinnate 
leaves, having toothed lobes. The erect 
pale yellow flowers (drooping in bud) are 
borne on long stalks from May to August, 
each one being 2-3 in. across. 

J Culture dc. as above. The Welsh 
Poppy grows freely almost anywhere, and 
is perhaps most suitable for semi-wild 
places, on old walls, ruins &c. Where it 
flourishes it may be left to take care of 
itself, as seedlings will come up naturally 
and replace the older plants as they die 
out. 

M. heterophylla. — A beautiful Cali- 
fornian annual 12-18 in. high, remarkable 
for its handsome coppery orange -coloured 
flowers with a purple-black centre. They 
are produced freely in June, each blossom 
being about 1^- in. across, and with a 
delicious scent somewhat resembling that 
of Lily of the Valley. The flowers are 
not nearly so fleeting as those of other 
plants in this order, as they last a good 
time in water, especially if cut before 
they fully expand. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. nepalensis. — A lovely free-flower- 
ing biennial from the Himalayas. It 
grows 3-5 ft. high, and has pale golden- 
yellow nodding flowers, 2-4 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds sown under glass as soon as ripe. 
The seedlings are planted out in spring. 
They like warm sunny spots. 

M. quintuplinervia. — A dwarf-growing 
compact herb 6-12 in. high, native of 
Manchuria, and but little known yet in 
British gardens. The long-stalked lance- 
shaped leaves are all radical and 5-nerved, 
the green surface being covered with 
reddish hairs. The violet or purple cup- 
shaped flowers about Ik in. across appear 
in summer on hairy scapes, and have 4 
rhomboid ovate petals with numerous 
stamens in the centre, the inner ones 
being twice as long as the outer ones. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. simplicifolia. — A biennial from 
Nepal, about 3 ft. high, with tufted lance- 
shaped slightly toothed leaves, 3-5 in. long, 
covered with a dense brownish pubescence. 
The violet-purple flowers, 2-3 in. across, 
are produced in summer at the ends of 
unbranched stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. To keep up 



a supply of this species a stock of plants 
should be raised from seeds sown under 
glass as soon as ripe every year. The 
seedlings are planted out in spring in 
warm sunny spots and rich moist and 
gritty soil. 

M. Wallichi. — Perhaps the hand- 
somest species of the genus. It is a per- 
ennial from the Himalayas, about 4-6 ft. 
high, with hairy pinnatifid leaves 12-15 
in. long. The drooping pale blue flowers, 
about 2-3 in. across, are borne in June 
and July on erect pyramidal stems, the 
upper ones opening as soon as the lower 
ones begin to wither. 

The variety fusco-purpurea is an 
effective and ornamental variety with 
brownish-purple flowers 2-3 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seed and division. Although really a 
perennial, this fine species should be 
raised from seeds every year, sown either 
as soon as ripe in cold frames, or in 
spring, so that the stock may not die out. 
Many plants flower the second year from 
the date of sowing the seeds, but others 
do not flower for 3 or 4 years after, and 
then the plants usually die. Hence the 
necessity for raising fresh plants from 
seed regularly. 

CATHCARTIA.— A genus with only 
one species, described below : — 

C. villosa. — A beautiful biennial or 
perennial about 1 ft. high, from the 
Sikkim Himalayas, and somewhat re- 
sembling the Welsh Poppy. The stems 
and vine-shaped leaves are covered with 
tawny hairs, and yield a yellow juice. 
The rich yellow flowers are borne on long 
stalks in June, and have 2 sepals, 4 petals, 
and many stamens with conspicuous 
brown anthers. 

Culture and Propagation. — The plants 
thrive in shady damp sheltered spots, and 
may be increased by seeds which are pro- 
duced freely. They may be sown as soon 
as ripe in cold frames, or in spring in 
gentle heat, so that the plants may be 
ready for the open border in May. 

STYLOPHORUM.— Agenus consist- 
ing of three or four species of herbs with 
perennial rootstocks and yellow juice. 
Lower leaves pinnately cut or absent ; 
upper ones few, alternate, or the floral 
ones nearly opposite, lobed or cut. 
Flowers yellow or red, on long stalks, 
solitary or somewhat fascicled, nodding 



STYLOPHOKUM 



POPPY ORDER 



BOCCONIA 195 



in bud. Sepals 2. Petals 4. Stamens 
many. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
species described below thrive in ordinary 
garden soil. They prefer, however, a 
mixture of moist sandy peat and loam, 
and a cool half-shaded corner in the rock 
garden. They may be increased by 
dividing the roots in early autumn or 
spring, or from seeds sown out of doors 
about April or as soon as ripe. 

S. diphyllum (8. ohioensc). — Celan- 
dine Poppy. — A beautiful species 1 ft. 
high, from N.W. America, with leaves 
and flowers like those of the Celandine 
{Chelidonium ma jus), pale or glaucous 
beneath, smoothish. Flowers deep yellow, 
2 in. across, produced freely in early 
summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 

S. japonicum {Chelidonium japoni- 
cum). — -An elegant plant 12 18 in. high, 
native of Japan and N.E. Asia, with 
slender stems, and lower leaves long- 
stalked and pinnately cut. The yellow 
Poppy-like flowers appear in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

EOMECON (Cyclamen Poppy).— A 
genus having only the following species : — 

E. chionantha. — A beautiful Chinese 
perennial about 1 ft. high, with creeping 
underground roots, and pale green long- 
stalked and roundish shallowly lobed 
leaves, about 3 in. across, with a deep 
notch at the base, and resembling the 
foliage of some species of Cyclamen. The 
pure white flowers about 2 in. across 
appear from May to September, and have 
a bundle of deep orange stamens in the 
centre of the 4 roundish oblong petals. 
Both flower- and leaf- stalks are reddish 
in colour, and are effective in compact- 
growing specimens. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
pretty plant flourishes in rich and well- 
drained sandy loam with a little peat or 
leaf mould added for the sake of warmth 
in winter, and for retaining moisture in 
summer. It should be grown in warm 
sunny positions in the rock garden, and if 
necessary protected with a sheet of glass 
or a handlight in winter from cold and 
heavy rains. It may be readily increased 
by means of the underground creeping 
roots, which are about as thick as the 
finger and send up shoots at the tips 
every spring. 



SANGUINARIA (Blood Root; Red 

Puccoox). — A genus with only one 
species : — 

S. canadensis. — This native of North 
America grows 3-6 in. high and is a 
distinct and pretty plant, having thick 
creeping rootstocks with yellow juice, 
and solitary, rounded, pahnately veined 
leaves. The beautiful white flowers, one on 
a stem, appear in April and May, and con- 
sist of 2 sepals, 8-12 uncrumpled petals 
in 2 or 3 circles, and many stamens. The 
variety grandijiora has larger flowers than 
the type. 

Cttlturr a nil Propagation. — The Blood 
Root prefers a rather moist soil, and 
thrives under trees and other more or less 
shaded places. The rootstocks of this 
plant should not be taken out of the 
ground and dried off, as they are apt to 
lose their vitality by so doing. 

It is increased by dividing the root- 
stocks in spring just as growth is about to 
commence. When broken, they shed a 
reddish juice, whence the common name 
of Blood Root. Seeds may also be sown in 
pots or pans as soon as ripe, or in spring, 
but it is safer not to prick the seedlings out 
until the leaves begin to turn yellow and 
he young rootstocks are going to rest. 

BOCCONIA (Plume Poppy). — A 
genus of tall glaucous herbs or shrubs 
having yellow or orange-red juice, lobed 
leaves, and numerous small flowers in 
terminal panicles, each branch and 
branchlet of which is furnished with a 
bract. Sepals 2. Petals none. Stamens 
many. 

• B. cordata {B. japonica ; Macleaya 
yedoensis). — A handsome and stately 
Chinese perennial 5-8 ft. high, with large 
glaucous deeply veined Fig-like leaves. 
The small buff or cream-coloured flowers 
are produced in great abundance during 
the summer and look like feathery plumes 
in the distance. 

Culture and Propagation. — To see this 
plant to advantage it should be grown by 
itself in nooks and corners or in beds on 
the lawn. It is magnificent when grown 
in deep rich loam, and long after the 
flowers have passed, the flat pale brown 
seed pods look very handsome. When 
gently agitated by the wind they have a 
very graceful appearance. 

It maj 7 be increased by dividing the 
thickish roots in atitumn or spring. 
Cuttings of the young shoots from the 

o 2 



196 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS glaucium 



axils of the leaves may be taken in early 
summer, or from the suckers which spring 
up round the base of the plant. The 
roots cut up into pieces an inch or two 
long will also produce young plants. They 
are best placed in boxes of rich sandy 
loam and covered over about their own 
diameter and placed in gentle bottom heat 
early in spring. The plants should be 
hardened off with as much air and light 
as possible before transferring to the open 
ground during dull showery weather. 
Seeds may also be sown as soon as ripe, 
preferably in cold frames or in pots or 
pans under glass, and the seedlings may 
be pricked out into light rich soil in spring. 
B. frutescens is a Mexican species 
3-6 ft. high, not hardy enough to stand 
our winters, but useful for planting out 
from June to September. It has large 
handsome sea-green lobed leaves, and 
masses of greenish flowers. It is best 
raised from seeds, and must have the 
protection of a greenhouse in winter. 
Culture dc. as above. 
B. microcarpa. — A graceful species 
about 9 ft. high, native of X. China. It 
resembles B. eordata in habit and foliage, 
and is if anything rather more ornamental 
and effective, and that is saying a good 
deal. The feathery plumes of flowers 
have a bronzy tint that renders it quite 
distinct from B. eordata, and its beauty 
is still further enhanced when in fruit. 
Culture if-e. as above for B. eordata. 
GLAUCIUM (Horned Poppy).— A 
genus of 5 or 6 ornamental annual or 
biennial herbs, with yellow juice, and 
lobed and dissected leaves. Flowers large, 
yellow or crimson, on long stalks. Sepals 
2. Petals 4. Stamens numerous. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Horned Poppies will grow in ordinary good 
garden soil. They may be propagated by 
sowing seeds in the open air in April or 
May, transferring the seedlings, when 
large enough to handle easily, to their 
flowering quarters. This must be done 
carefully, however, as they do not like 
being moved. On the whole it is better 
to sow the seeds where the plants are 
required to bloom. They may be pro- 
tected with a handlight or a sheet of glass 
over a bottomless box until sturdy enough. 
If sown too thickly the seedlings may 
afterwards be thinned out. 

G. corniculatum (G. phoeniceum). — A 
species from the Mediterranean region, 



also found naturalised in England. It is 
about 9 in. high, with oblong, cut, hairy 
leaves and crimson flowers which appear 
in summer and have a black spot at the 
base of each petal. 

Culture dc. as above. 
G. flavum (G. luteum). — A native of 
Britain, W. Asia and X. Africa, 1-2 ft. high, 
glaucous throughout, with lower leaves 
hairy and deeply cut, and with a beautiful 
silvery sheen. The large bright yellow 
flowers 2-4 in. across appear from June to 
October, the petals in opposite dissimilar 
pairs, and are succeeded by a smooth 
curved pod about a foot long. The indi- 
vidual blossoms do not last long, but they 
are produced in great abundance, a certain 
number opening each day. 
Culture dc. as above. 
G. leptopodum. — A tufted Chinese 
species of recent introduction. It has 
divided leaves and bears yellow flowers 
in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 
CHELIDONIUM (Celandine; 
Swallow Wort). — A genus of erect 
branched herbs with yellow jvrice. dis- 
sected leaves, and yellow flowers. Sepals 
2 ; petals 4 ; stamens numerous. 

C. majus. — This is an erect branched 
perennial herb, native of Britain and W. 
Asia. Its stems reach a height of 1-2 ft., 
being brittle, sparingly hairy, and con- 
taining a yellow juice. The thin cut 
leaves are coarsely toothed, smooth 
beneath. The yellow flowers, about an 
inch across, are borne from May to 
August on slender stems, and have 2 
sepals. 4 petals, and numerous stamens. 

The variety laciniata has the leaves 
cut into linear acute lobes, the petals 
being also more or less cut. There is a 
double-flowered form. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Celandine grows freely in almost any soil, 
but prefers moist shady places. It is a 
beautiful plant for the wild garden, shrub- 
beries &c, and is easily raised from seeds 
sown when ripe in the open border or in 
spring. The roots may also be divided in 
autumn or spring. 

DENDROMECON (Tree Poppy).— 
A genus with only one species at present 
known : — 

D. rigidum. — A smooth ornamental 
shrub about 3 ft. high, native of the 
Californian moimtains, with an erect and 
bushy habit. The more or less ovate 



DENDKOMECON 



POPPY OlilH-lli 



ESCHSCHOLTZIA 197 



lance-shaped stiffish leaves are li- 2^ in. 
long and of a conspicuous blue-green 
or glaucous colour. The golden -yellow 
flowers, nearly 2 in. across, appear in 
June, the 4 roundish petals being in 
striking contrast to the numerous deep 
orange-yellow stamens in the centre. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
plant flourishes in a warm and sheltered 
position in the rock garden or ordinary 
flower border, and likes a rather rich and 
well-drained sandy loam and a little leaf 
soil. It may be increased by cuttings of 
the non- flowering shoots inserted in cold 
frames in sandy soil in late summer. If 
seeds are ripened they should be sown 
in cold frames at once, and the young 
plants may be ready in spring for the 
open air. 



HUNNEMANNIA. — A genus con- 
taining only one species. It is closely 
related to Escbscholtzia, and similar in 
appearance and blossom. Sepals 2. 
Petals 4. Stamens numerous. Stigma 
lobes 4, short, blunt, spreading or de- 
flexed. Capsule linear 10-ribbed. 

H. fumariaefolia. — A graceful and 
beautiful perennial herb about 2 ft. high, 
native of California and Mexico. The 
leaves are deeply divided like those of 
Eschscholtzia, and have a conspicuous 
bluish or grey-green hue. The solitary 
brilliant yellow cup-shaped flowers are 
about 2h in. across, and appear in August 
and September, the colouring of the wavy 
petals being enhanced by the cluster of 
bright orange-red stamens in the centre. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
beautiful plant is too tender to be treated 
as a perennial in the British Islands ex- 
cept in the south and west. It likes a 
warm sunny position in the flower border 
and is best raised annually from seeds 
which are produced freely. The seeds 
should be sown as soon as ripe in a cold 
frame or in shallow boxes in a cool green- 
house, but they will not sprout before the 
following spring. When large enough to 
handle they may be pricked out into light 
rich soil, and by the end of May or begin- 
ning of June may be planted in bold 
masses in the flower border. 



ESCHSCHOLTZIA (Califoknian 
Poppy). — A genus of smooth, glaucescent, 
ornamental annual or perennial herbs 
with leaves much cut and divided into 
linear lobes. Flowers yellow on long 
stalks. Sepals cohering, forming a de- 
ciduous cap. Petals 4. Stamens many. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Eschscholtzias are easily grown in any 
soil, and are useful for giving a brilliant 
effect to borders and shrubberies from early 
summer to the end of autumn. Seeds 
may be sown in either autumn or spring 
in the open border in spots where the 
plants are required to bloom. 

There are some 4 or 5 species all 
natives of NAN'. America, but E. cali- 
fornica and its varieties are the only 
ones usually grown. 

E. californica. — A perennial 12-18 in. 
high, with glaucous finely divided leaves, 
and large bright orange-yellow flowers 
which appear in early summer. A host 
of garden forms have originated from this 
species, their flowers being white, pinkish, 
or pale yellow. The variety called crocea is 
a showy biennial about 1 ft. high, having 
deep rich orange flowers in the type. 
The garden forms have white, red, and 
striped flowers ; also a double-flowered 
orange form. The form known as ' Man- 
darin ' is curiously pretty. 

Culture &c. as above. 

E. cucullata. — A remarkable Califor- 
nian species, the young leaves of which are 
strongly incurved or cupped. The flowers 
are lemon-yellow with an orange centre, 
but seeds are rarely proditced even in a 
wild state. This species is probably not 
yet in cultivation. 

Culture &c. as above. 

E. Douglasi. — A Californian plant of 
recent introduction with flowers inter- 
mediate in size between those of E. cali- 
fornica and E. tenuifolia. They are 
bright golden-yellow with a deeper yellow 
or orange centre, and open a week or two 
earlier than those of E. californica. 

Culture dbc. as above. 

E. tenuifolia is a compact-growing 
annual about 6 in. high, with leaves 
divided into threadlike segments. Flowers 
about 1 in. across, yellow. 

Culture dc. as above. 



198 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS dicentea 



X. FUMARIACEiE— Fumitory Order 

Annual or perennial herbs with brittle stems and a watery juice. Leaves 
usually alternate, much-divided, often with tendrils. Flowers irregular, 
purple, white or yellow. Sepals 2, small, scale-like, deciduous. Petals 4, in 
two usually dissimilar pairs. Stamens 4 distinct (in British species 6), hypo- 
gynous, in 2 bundles (diadelphous) opposite the 2 outer petals, one of which 
is usually furnished with a spur, rarely all separate. Fruit either an 
indehiscent 1- or 2-seeded nut, or a 2-valved or succulent indehiscent many- 
seeded capsule. 

The irregular flowers chiefly distinguish the Fumitory Order from the 
Poppy Order. 



HYPECOUM. — A small genus of 
glaucous annual herbs with leaves much 
cut into linear segments. Flowers 
white or yellow, with 2 small narrow 
sepals, and 4 spreading petals, the outer 
ones flat or slightly concave at the base. 
Stamens 4, opposite the petals. 

H. procumbens. — A native of South 
Europe, about 1 ft. high, with finely cut 
glaucous leaves, and bright yellow flowers 
in summer. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species will grow in any good garden soil, 
and may be raised from seeds sown in the 
open in spring, for flowering in summer, 
or in autumn for earlier flowering the 
following year. 

DICENTRA (Dielytra ; Diclytra). 
Lyre Flower ; Bleeding Heart. — 
A genus of very ornamental, erect, 
diffuse, or climbing perennial herbs, with 
tuberous, horizontal, or fibrous roots, and 
much-cut, stalked leaves. Flowers in 
terminal racemes, rose, pink, or yellow. 
Sepals 2, scale-like. Petals 4, connivent, 
the 2 outer ones concave, saccate, or 
spurred at the base. Stamens 6, in two 
bundles opposite the outer petals. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Dicentras thrive in a rich loamy soil, and 
are lovely plants for the border. They 
may be increased by dividing the root- 
stocks in early autumn or spring. 
Indeed this is the usual method of propa- 
gation. Cuttings may also be made of the 
fleshy roots, placed in sand and kept in a 
cold frame. Seeds may be sown as soon 
as ripe, or in spring in light sandy soil in 
cold frames. The young plants require to 
be pricked out and grown on imtil large 



enough for transferring to the open border 
in autumn or spring. 

D. canadensis. — A North American 
species about 6 in. high, with glaucous 
finely cut leaves. The white flowers 
appear in May, having 2 short blunt 
spurs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

D. chrysantha.— A Californian plant 
with rather stiff stems 3-5 ft. high, and 
very finely cut glaucous foliage. The 
long erect branching racemes of bright 
yellow flowers appear in August and 
September. 

Culture ti-c. as above. This species 
may be raised from seed, and should be 
planted in a warm sheltered spot. In cold 
localities it is desirable to cover the roots 
in severe winters with a little bracken or 
dry leaves &c. 

D. Cucullaria (Dutchman's Breeches). 
A curious and not particularly beautiful 
dwarf species 3-6 in. high, native of the 
United States. It has smooth, slender, 
3-ternate leaves, and produces its white, 
yellow-tipped flowers having 2 straight 
spurs in spring. 

Culture <<•(•. as above. 

D. eximia (Fumaria eximia). — This 
beautiful perennial grows wild in the 
rocky clefts of the mountains of Virginia 
and N. Carolina. It is about 9-18 in. 
high, with divided leaves, and has com- 
pound racemes of drooping reddish- 
purple flowers in spring and summer and 
sometimes also in autumn. 

Culture dc. as above. 

D. formosa (Fumaria formosa). — A 
North American species, about 6 in. high, 



DICENI'KX 



FUMITORY ORDER 



COEYDALIS 199 



very similar to D. eximia, but smaller in 
all its parts. The bright red broadly 
ovate flowers appear in May and have 
short and very obtuse spurs. 

Culture d:c. as above. 

D. spectabilis (Chinaman' 1 8 Breeches). 
This beautiful and popular plant i* a 
native of Siberia and Japan, and has now 
become well known in gardens. It is 
1-2 ft. high, with stalked leaves cut mto 
obovate wedge-shaped segments. The 
drooping rosy crimson flowers, about 1 in. 
long, are freely produced in spring and 
summer on gracefully arching racemes, 
and are more or less like inverted hi es in 
shape. There is a white-flowered variety 
which is not so effective. 

This species is slightly forced in green- 
houses in many thousands every year 
from rootstocks imported in the early 
autumn. As an outdoor plant there are 
few perennials to surpass it in the flower 
border, margins of shrubberies, or rough 
rockeries, especially if planted in rich 
loamy soil. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

D. thalictrifolia (D. sca/ndens). — ■ A 
pretty glaucous species native of the 
Sikkirn Himalayas, with slender creeping 
branches and leaves very much divided 
and cut as in the Meadow Rues (TJialic- 
Iriini) into oval, oblong, or roundish leaf- 
lets. The sweet-scented yellow irregular 
flowers tinged with red in the throat are 
produced in late summer and autumn in 
clusters from the axils of the leaves, on 
long slender stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. 

ADLUMIA. — This genus consists 
only of the species here described : — 

A. cirrhosa (Coryclalis fungosa). — 
An interesting N. American plant with 
climbing stems about 15 ft. long. The 
pale green leaves are thrice pinnate, and 
resemble the fronds of Maidenhair Ferns, 
The pale rose or purple coloured flowers, 
about f in. long, appear in June on 
axillary peduncles, and consist of 2 scale- 
like sepals, 4 cohering petals, gibbous 
at the base, and 6 stamens in 2 cohering 
bundles opposite the outer lobes of the 
corolla. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
pretty plant is a biennial, but in warm 
favourable spots will be reproduced 
annually from self-sown seeds. Its frail 
climbing stems and Fern -like foliage make 
it a useful plant for trailing against a wall 



or over shrubs, old blanches &c. Seeds 
may be sown in the ordinary way in light 
sandy soil as soon as ripe, and the seed- 
lings after being pricked out must be 
sheltered in cold frames during the winter 
months. In spring they may be planted 
out in mild showery weather. 

CORYDALIS.— A genus containing 
about 70 species of pretty, smooth, usual] \ 
glaucous herbs, with tuberous or tufted 
rootstocks, and diffuse or slender stems 
sometimes climbing by tendrils. The 
leaves are much divided, alternate or almost 
opposite. The flowers are red, white, 
or yellow in terminal or leaf- opposed 
racemes. Sepals 2, often scale-like. 
Petals 4, the two outer ones larger, one 
or both gibbous or spurred, often cohering 
in two usually dissimilar pairs. Stamens 
6, in 2 cohering bundles opposite the outer 
petals. 

Culture ami Propagation. — Of the 
many species of Fumitory comparatively 
few are worth growing in gardens, those 
described below being the best. They grow 
easily in ordinary garden soil, and some 
will thrive in shady spots in damp soil. 
They make charming groups in the 
rockery or the front of the flower border 
and are effective either in foliage or 
flower. The plants may be increased 
by dividing the roots after flowering or 
by offsets from the bulbous-rooted sorts. 
The annual species of course must be 
raised from seeds sown out of doors in 
early autumn or in spring each year. 

C. bracteata. — A Siberian perennial 
about 9 in. high, with biternate leaves 
cut into linear-lobed segments. The 
sulphur-yellow flowers appear in May 
and June. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
division in spring. 

C. cava (C. tuberosa). — A European 
perennial, 6 in. high, with biternate 
leaves cut into wedge-shaped segments. 
The white flowers are produced from 
February to May in loose terminal 
racemes. 

Culture Sc. as above. — Increased by 
division of the tuberous rootstocks in 
early autumn so that the plants will be 
established for flowering at the proper 
period ha spring. Seeds are not produced 
very freely, and besides, they often do not 
sprout for a year or so after being sown. 

C. glauca. — A graceful Canadian 
annual or biennial 9-12 in. high, with 



200 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS corydalis 



leaves twice pinnately cut into blunt 
oblong lobes, light green above, blue-green 
beneath. The scarlet flowers shaded with 
orange, and having violet sepals, are pro- 
duced freely from June to September, and 
in conjunction with the feathery character 
of the foliage, produce a very ornamental 
effect in the rockery or flower border. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds sown as soon as ripe. 

C. Gortschakowi. — A glaucous green 
perennial 1-H ft. high, native of Turke- 
stan. The leaves are twice pinnately 
divided or cut, the lower ones being 5-6 
in. long. The golden-yellow flowers 
appear in summer, and are borne in 
close racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. kolpakowskiana. — A tuberous- 
rooted perennial from Turkestan, 6 in. 
high, with smooth deeply divided leaves, 
and long-spurred pink or purple flowers 
borne in summer in loose racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. ledebouriana. — A pretty herbaceous 
perennial about 1 ft. high, native of the 
Altai mountains. It has tuberous root- 
stocks and leaves twice ternately cut 
into obovate glaucous segments. The 
purple flowers appear in summer, and 
have rather a thick pale purple spur. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. lutea (Fumaria lutea). — A well- 
known European perennial, about 1 ft. 
high, now naturalised on old walls inmany 
parts of Great Britain. The pale green 
biternate leaves are cut into obovate wedge- 
shaped trifid segments, forming graceful 
masses. The yellow spurred flowers appear 
in early summer in great abundance, and 
continue to be produced well into Sep- 
tember. Nestling among the foliage, 
which retains its freshness almost the 
whole year, they look very beautiful, and 
make the plant useful for the decoration 
of rockeries, ruins, old walls &c. In such 
places the seeds often sow themselves, and 
may be left to follow nature's course. 

Closely related to this species is C. 
ochroleuca, which has a similar appear- 
ance, and is distinguished chiefly by its 
whitish-yellow flowers, which continue to 
appear from spring until the end of 
autumn. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or division. 

C. Marschalliana. — A perennial 9 in. 



high, native of Tauria. Leaves biternate 
with oval entire or bifid lobes, and sulphur- 
yellow flowers produced in April and May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. nobilis. — A lovely Siberian peren- 
nial 9 in. or so high. Leaves twice pinnate, 
with wedge-shaped segments cut at the 
apex. Flowers in May, pale yellow, tipped 
with green, and having a long blunt spur 
incurved at the point. 

Culture dc. as above. Best increased 
in early spring by dividing the rootstocks. 

C. pallida. — A juicy herb 1-1^ ft. 
high, native of China and Japan. The 
pale green leaves are thrice pinnately cut 
or divided, and are blue-green on the 
under surface. The bright yellow flowers 
tipped with brown appear in summer and 
are borne in racemes at the ends of the 
shoots. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Sewerowii. — A pretty species 12-18 
in. high, native of Turkestan, with very 
finely divided glaucous green leaves, and 
deep yellow flowers in April and May. 
Spur short, saccate, and bent downwards. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. solida (C. bullosa). — A tuberous 
perennial, 6 in. high, native of Europe, and 
naturalised in woods and dampish places 
in Britain. The very glaucous biternate 
leaves are cut into oblong or wedge-shaped 
segments, cut at the top, and the large 
purplish flowers about 1 in. long are pro- 
duced in April and May. 

Culture dc. the same as for C. cava 
above. 

SARCOCAPNOS.— A small genus of 
dwarf-tufted glaucous perennial herbs, with 
dissected leaves, the lobes of which are 
usually broad and rather thick. Flowers 
white, yellow, purple, or red, in few-flowered 
terminal racemes. Sepals 2, scale-like. 
Petals 4, connivent, one of the two outer 
ones spurred at the base, the other flat, the 
inner ones narrow and cohering at the 
apex, keeled or winged behind. Stamens 6, 
in 2 cohering bundles opposite the outer 
petals. 

S. enneaphylla. — A native of S. Europe, 
2-6 in. high, with slender stems and thrice 
ternately parted and much-lobed leaves on 
slender stalks. The small yellow flowers 
marked with purple appear in June. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species thrives in ordinary soil, and is 
suitable for borders or rockeries. Easily 



FUMAKIA 



III/, LFL WEB OIWER 



MATTHIOLA 201 



increased by seeds or division of the 
roots in the same way as CorydaUs (see 
above). Cuttings of the shoots may also 
be made to root under handlights or cold 
frames during the summer months if 
inserted in light sandy soil, and kept 
shaded and fairly damp at first. 

FUMARIA (Fumitory). — A genus of 
about 40 species of annual (rarely peren- 
nial) berbsusually branched, often climbing. 
Leaves much divided, with very narrow 
segments. Racemes terminal or opposite 
the leaves. Sepals 2, scale-like. Petals 4, 
erect, conniving, the lower one gibbous or 
spurred at the base, the upper flat, the 



two inner ones narrow, cohering at the 
tip, winged or keeled behind. Stamens 6, 
in 2 bundles opposite the 2 outer petals. 

F. capreolata. — This is the only species 
worth growing. It is indigenous to the 
fields and waste places of Britain, Europe, 
and Asia, and may be grown in the wild 
gardens or border. It grows about 4 ft. 
high and has bipinnate glaucous leaves 
climbing by twisted stalks, and racemes of 
white, purple-tinted flowers from May to 
September. There are several forms. 

Culture dtc. as recommended above 
for CorydaUs. Seeds may be sown in 
autumn or spring. 



XI. CRUCIFER^- Wallflower Order 

Annual, biennial, or perennial herbaceous plants, rarely undershrubs. Flowers 
hermaphrodite, regular, usually yellow or white, occasionally purple, generally 
in racemes, and without bracts. Sepals 4, deciduous, imbricate or valvate 
in bud, the 2 lateral ones often saccate at the base. Petals 4, placed 
crosswise, and alternate with the sepals. Stamens 6 (tetradynamous), of 
which 2 are shorter and opposite the lateral sepals, hypogynous. Disk with 
various green glands opposite the sepals, and between the petals, stamens, 
and ovary. Ovary superior, one-celled, but apparently two-celled, owing to 
the parietal placenta meeting in the middle, and forming a spurious dissepi- 
ment. Fruit a long (siliqua) or short (silicula) 2-celled and 2-valved capsule 
or pod, opening by two valves, leaving the seeds on the persistent placentas 
(known as a rcplwn, well seen in Honesty), or indehiscent. 



MATTHIOLA (Stock).— An impor- 
tant genus of about 30 species of branching 
annual, biennial, or perennial herbs, or 
sub-shrubs, with oblong or linear, entire 
or sinuate downy leaves. Flowers in 
racemes, often purple, generally sweet- 
scented. Sepals erect, the lateral ones 
saccate at the base. Petals with long 
claws. Fruit-pod a roundish or com- 
pressed siliqua, with the lobes of the 
stigma connivent, thickened or horned at 
the back. The various garden Stocks, such 
as Ten Week, Intermediate, Brompton, or 
Queen Stocks &c, will be considered under 
the natural species from which they have 
been derived. 

The plant known as ' Virginian Stock ' 
is described under Malcolmia maritima 
(see p. 214). 

M. annua. — The Ten "Week and Inter- 
mediate Stocks have arisen from this spe- 
cies. It is an annual 1-2 ft. high, native 
of S. Europe, with erect, branching stems, 



furnished with lance-shaped, blunt hoary 
leaves. The flowers appear from May to 
October on erect racemes, and vary a 
good deal in size and colour. 

Ten Week Stocks 

There are many kinds of Ten Week 
Stock mentioned in catalogues, and they 
are all more or less worth growing. For 
cut flowers, Ten Week Stocks are most 
useful from early summer to autumn, and 
cutting the main flower spikes often 
induces the development of the side 
shoots, which would otherwise remain 
latent. 

Culture and Propagation. — During 
March the seed may be sown thinly 
in shallow pans or boxes placed on a 
gentle hotbed. In a short time the seed- 
lings will be sufficiently large to handle 
easily. They may then be pricked out 
into similar pans or boxes, filled with 
rich loamy soil and well drained. Give 



202 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS matthiola 



the plants as much light and air as possi- 
ble, to make them hard and sturdy. By 
the end of May or beginning of June, when 
all danger of frost is past, the plants may 
be placed where they are to bloom. The 
richer the soil, the better the plants will 
bloom and the more brilliant the colours, 
which are white, lemon, pink, rose, scarlet, 
purple, crimson, violet, with numerous 
shades of each. If there is no convenience 
for raising Ten "Week Stocks under glass, 
the seeds may be sown in the open border 
about the end of April. Plants raised in 
this way, however, must not be trans- 
planted, as the season in most parts of the 
country is scarcely extended enough to 
permit of full development. The seed- 
lings are best thinned out, leaving the 
most promising plants to flower where the 
seed has been sown. Among the kinds 
grown may be mentioned the Dwarf, 
Large-flowered, Giant, Wall-flower, Vic- 
toria, and Pyramidal Ten Week Stocks in 
various colours. 

In order to obtain dwarf, sturdy, 
bushy plants the leading shoot may be 
pinched out as soon as the flower-buds 
Begin to swell. By this means growth 
will be retarded in the main shoot, but 
will be accelerated in the side ones, each 
of which becomes longer and bears numer- 
ous blossoms. 

Seeds may be saved, but only from 
the single-flowering varieties. But as a 
rule seed saved in most parts of the 
United Kingdom is of little use, and it 
is much better to raise plants from the 
best imported seeds. To secure a large 
percentage of double-flowered varieties, 
it is, however, better to obtain well-ripened 
and imported seeds from a nurseryman. 

Intermediate Stocks 

These are also derived from the 
Common Stock, Matthiola annua, and 
are chiefly confined to scarlet, white, and 
purple varieties. They are very useful 
for flowering in spring before the ordinary 
Ten Week Stocks. To secure them at this 
season, the seeds should be sown in July 
and August ; the seedlings will thus have 
plenty of time to become well established 
and hardened to stand the winter. Where 
glass protection is available, the plants 
may be grown one or more in a pot, 
wintered in a cold frame or greenhouse, 
with as much light and air as possible, 
when they will make fine bushy plants 
for early spring flowering. 



East Lothian Stocks 

This is a form of the Intermediate 
variety of Matthiola annua and is 
chiefly valuable for producing its flowers 
in the autumn, after most of the Ten 
Week Stocks are finished. The seeds 
may be sown about the end of March or 
April, and when large enough transplanted 
in the usual way. By using the Inter- 
mediate, Ten Week, and East Lothian 
Stocks hi rotation as named, it is possible 
to have Stocks in bloom for the greater 
part of the year. 

M. bicornis. — This is a branched sub- 
shrub, native of Greece, and somewhat 
tender in the least favourable parts of the 
country. It has oblong lance-shaped cut 
leaves, the upper ones being entire. The 
flowers are purplish-red like those of 
the Wallflower-leaved Stock (M. incana), 
but smaller, and nearly sessile, with ob- 
long spoon-shaped petals, appearing in 
spring. 

Culture Ac. as for the Brompton 
Stocks below (see M. incana). 

M. fenestralis. — A sub-shrub about 1 
ft. high, native of Crete. It has erect 
simple stems with crowded, obovate, 
downy leaves, and scarlet or pale purple 
flowers produced in July and August, on 
a long erect raceme, sometimes slightly 
branched at the base. Only compara- 
tively few double-flowered varieties are 
obtained from seeds. 

Culture dc. as for the Brompton 
Stocks below. 

M. incana (Wallfloiver-leaved Stock; 
Brompton and Queen Stock). — This grows 
in a wild state in W. Europe, the Canaries, 
the Levant &c, to a height of 1 or 2 ft., 
having branched sub-shrubby stems with 
erect, hoary, oblong, lance-shaped leaves, 
and flowers 1-2 in. across in summer vary- 
ing from purple to violet. 
Culture dc. as below. 

Brompton Stocks 

These are vigorous growing bien- 
nials with handsome flowers of purple, 
scarlet, white, or crimson. They are 
not quite hardy in all parts of the British 
Islands, and where there is a likelihood 
of the plants suffering during the winter, 
they should be planted under the protect- 
ing branches of trees and shrubs, which 
will shield them a good deal from the 
effects of frost. 

Culture and Propagation. — Brompton 



MATTHIOLA 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



PAREYA 203 



Stocks are biennial and therefore require 
two seasons' growth to come to perfec- 
tion. The seeds may be sown in pans 
or boxes in June or July. When the 
seedlings are an inch or so high, they 
may be transferred to a piece of freshly 
dug ground and planted 8-12 in. apart. 
Should the plants bo inclined to make 
a too vigorous and sappy growth, they 
should be lifted and again transplanted. 
This will check the growth, and help to 
harden the plants for the coming winter. 
This second transplanting often saves 
the plants from being killed outright in 
severe winters. 

In the north and naturally cold 
localities it is on the whole safer to winter 
Brompton Stocks in cold frames, and 
have them transplanted in spring. If 
grown in pots they may with advantage 
be brought into blossom earlier by placing 
in the gentle heat of a greenhouse. 

In the south of England and Ireland 
Brompton Stocks, if raised from seed 
sown in spring in gentle heat, will in warm 
and favourable seasons flower the same 
year. Some forty or fifty years ago 
Brompton Stocks were cultivated exten- 
sively in the market gardens around 
London, but for many years past they 
have disappeared altogether from this 
region. In the south and in the Channel 
Islands, however, they are still grown very 
largely, and from the latter place some 
fine trusses of bloom are sent to the 
London markets every year. 

Queen Stocks 

These Stocks are supposed to be 
identical with Brompton Stocks and may 
receive the same treatment. It is said, 
however, that the seeds are darker than 
those of the Brompton Stock, and that its 
leaves are rough and woolly on the under 
side, while those of the Brompton are 
smooth on both sides. 

Wallflower-leaved Stock 

This is a variety of the biennial kind, 
readily distinguished by having smooth 
bright shiny green leaves like Wallflowers 
instead of dull-coloured downy ones 
like the other Stocks. It may be treated 
like the Brompton or Queen Stock referred 
to above. 

M. tricuspidata. — An annual about 1 
ft. high, from the shores of the Mediter- 
ranean. It has oblong, toothed or sinuate 



leaves, the upper ones being more divided 
or cut. Tho bright lilac flowers, lighter 
towards the base, appear in summer, and 
the entire plant is more or less pubescent. 
Culture dc. as for Ten Week Stocks 
above, p. 201. 

M. tristis (Hesperis tristis). — Night- 
scented Stock.— All interesting biennial 
from K. Europe, 9-24 in. high. Lower leaves 
stalked, upper ones ovate, acute, stalkless, 
entire or toothed, smooth or downy, pule 
green, 2-4 in. long. Flowers in spring 
and summer, varying from a dull white to 
a dull dark purple, usually fragrant in the 
evening, and scenting the atmosphere for 
many yards round. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
sweet-scented Stock flourishes in moist 
but well-drained garden soil of a loamy 
nature. It is raised from seeds sown out 
of doors as soon as ripe, or in the early 
spring under glass or in gentle heat. In 
the latter case the seedlings will flower 
the same year in favourable parts ; but 
autumn-sown seedlings arc pricked out 
and transferred so as to flower the follow- 
ing year. Imported seeds may also be 
sown as recommended for the Wallflower 
below. 

PARRYA. — A genus of low, smooth 
or hairy herbs, with perennial roots, and 
linear or spoon- shaped, entire or sinuate - 
toothed leaves. Flowers white, rose, or 
purple, with erect sepals, and clawed 
spoon-shaped petals. 

Culture and Propagation. — Parryas 
are suitable for the rockery or edge of 
borders. They grow easily in ordinary 
garden soil and may be increased by 
dividing the roots in early autumn or 
spring. Seeds may also be sown as soon 
as ripe in the open border, and the seed- 
lings should be transplanted not later than 
the end of September, so that the roots 
may obtain a good hold of the soil before 
winter. 

P. arabidiflora. — A Siberian plant 
6 in. high with somewhat fleshy lance- 
shaped leaves and purple flowers in May. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. arctica. — A native of Arctic 
America about 3 in. high, with almost 
entire leaves and corymbs of pale purple 
flowers in May and June. 

Culture d~c. as above. 

P. integerrima.— A Siberian plant 6 in. 
high, with entire, somewhat spoon-shaped 



204 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS cheiranthus 



leaves, and beautiful purple flowers in 
April and May. 

Culture de. as above. 

P. nudicaulis. — A pretty little rock 
plant from the Arctic regions. Leaves 
elliptic oblong, acute, entire or toothed, 
2-3 in. long. Flowers in April and May, 
1 in. across, with obcordate petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

CHEIRANTHUS (Wallflower).— 
A genus of biennial or perennial herbs or 
undershrubs with oblong or linear, entire 
or toothed leaves. Flowers rather large, 
racemose, without bracts, yellow or pur- 
ple, having erect sepals, the latter ones 
saccate at the base, and long-clawed 
petals. The long seed pods are more or 
less 4-angled, or winged, or compressed. 

C. asper (C. ca/pitatus). — A somewhat 
tender Californian species with linear 
lance-shaped more or less toothed or 
entire leaves, tapering towards the base 
and covered with close-pressed hairs. 
The rather large yellow flowers appear in 
dense corymbs in June. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species requires a rich loamy soil and 
warm sheltered positions. It may be 
increased in summer by cuttings of the 
young and non-flowering side-shoots, 
which shoidd be put under a hand glass 
and kept in a cold frame or greenhouse 
during the winter. Seeds may also be 
sown when ripe in cold frames, and the 
seedlings are safer protected in severe 
winters. In spring they may be planted 
out. 

C. Cheiri (Common Wallflower). — A 
well-known sub-shrubby plant distributed 
over Central and N. Europe, and reaching 
a height of 1 or 2 ft. The smooth or 
slightly hairy leaves are 2-3 in. long, 
lance-shaped, quite entire, on more or 
less angled stems. The fragrant flowers 
are about 1 in. across, and orange-yellow 
in a wild state, but various shades of red, 
purple or brown in cultivated forms. 

The Wallflower is a beautiful old 
garden plant, and gives a peculiar charm 
to old walls, ruins, and semi-wild places, 
on which it grows freely, and looks far 
more picturesque than when grown in 
rows like Carrots or Turnips. 

There are many kinds grown and all 
are very beautiful. Among the single - 
flowered kinds may be mentioned the 
' Blood-red,' ' Harbinger,' ' Belvoir Castle ' 



' Golden Tom Thumb,' « Ruby Gem,' 
' Eastern Queen ' &c. The double varieties 
are also beautiful, with many shades of 
yellow, pale and dull brown. 

Culture and Propagation. — The seeds 
of Wallflowers are usually sown too late 
in the year, the consequence often being 
that the plants are not sufficiently hardy 
to withstand a severe winter, especially 
when hard frosts succeed cold rains. Im- 
ported seeds of both single and double 
kinds are usually better than any saved 
in the British Islands, as our capricious 
seasons often interfere with the proper 
ripening of seeds. 

From March to the end of May is the 
best time for sowing so as to obtain a 
succession of bloom. The seedlings 
should always be transplanted to check 
the tap-root and cause the development 
of fibrous roots near the surface. By 
Mayor June the plants should be in their 
permanent quarters to give a splendid 
display of bloom from Christmas to 
March. 

The common custom among cottagers 
of filling gardens in spring with plants 
already almost in bloom is not to be 
recommended, as the plants are too far 
advanced to do any good, and very often 
are little better than scarecrows. If spring 
planting is adopted, it should be done as 
early as possible in mild open weather, so 
that the plants will make a brave show 
until the time for summer bedding out 
commences, that is, any time from the 
end of May to the end of June, according 
to season and locality. 

C. Marshalli. — This is a supposed 
hybrid Wallflower 12-18 in. high, having 
the lower leaves more or less spoon-shaped, 
and the upper ones lance-shaped. The 
deep clear orange-yellow flowers about 
1 in. across are freely produced in spring. 

Culture and Propagation. — Some- 
times this Wallflower does not seed 
freely, and it must then be increased by 
means of cuttings of the young shoots 
inserted in light sandy soil in spring and 
summer under glass, or in cold frames, 
much in the same way as recommended 
for C. asper. 

C. Menziesi. — A Californian plant 
6-8 in. high, somewhat tender, with 
oblong lance-shaped downy leaves 2-4 in. 
long, and bright purple flowers. 

Culture and Propagation. — Requires 
the same treatment as C. asper above. 



CHEIKANTHUS 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



ARABIS 205 



C. mutabilis. — A tender shrubby 
species 2-3 ft. high, native of Madeira. 
Leaves somewhat downy, linear lance- 
shaped, finely toothed. Flowers appear 
in early spring, cream-coloured at first, 
becoming purple or striped with age. 

Culture Sc. the same as C. asper 
above. 

C. scoparius. — A half-hardy shrubby 
species from Teneriffe, 2-3 ft. high, linear 
lance-shaped entire and somewhat downy 
pointed leaves. The flowers appear in 
May, at first white, changing to purple. 

Culture <£c. the same as for C. asjpt / 
above. 

C. sempernorens. — A half - hardy 
shrubby plant 1-2 ft. high, from Morocco. 
The entire roughish leaves are linear 
lance-shaped and the yellow and white 
flowers appear at various seasons. 

Culture and Propagation. — The per- 
ennial Wallflowers must be kept dry in 
winter and in sheltered places. They 
may be increased from cuttings taken 
in August or September, and during those 
months inserted in a shady place or in 
boxes of sandy soil. Also by seeds as for 
C. asper. 

BARBAREA (Winter or American 
Cress). — A genus consisting of about 20 
species of smooth, fibrous-rooted biennials 
or perennials, with angled stems. Flowers 
yellow on erect terminal racemes, some- 
times with bracts. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants grow in any soil, and are readily 
increased by cuttings, suckers, seeds, or 
division of the roots. The variety men- 
tioned below having double flowers rarely 
or never produces seeds. It nvust there- 
fore be increased by dividing the roots in 
early autumn or in spring, or by inserting 
cuttings of the side and basal shoots in 
sandy soil in a cold frame, or a shady 
border in the summer. 

B. vulgaris flore pleno (Double Yellow 
Rocket). — This is the only variety worth 
growing on account of its bright yellow 
double flowers which appear from June 
till the autumn. The lower leaves are 
cut like those of a Dandelion, the upper 
ones being obovate, toothed or pinnatifid. 

There is a form with yellowish varie- 
gated foliage, which may be reproduced 
from seeds, or by the other methods 
mentioned above. It makes a good 
edging plant, and is also suitable for the 
rockery. 



B. praecox, a British plant, is some- 
times grown as a salad, the lower leaves 
being used in the same way as Water 
Cress and also for seasoning and garnish- 
ing. 

ARABIS (Wall Cress; Rock 
Cress). — A genus of 60 or more species 
of smooth or hairy annual or perennial 
herbs, the lower leaves of which are 
stalked and spoon-shaped, the upper ones 
stalkless, entire or toothed, rarely lobed. 
Flowers mostly white, rarely purple or 
rose. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants grow in dry spots, and are very 
suitable for the rockery or mixed border, 
where their masses of snowy white 
flowers render them conspicuous in 
spring. They are increased from seeds 
sown in the open border in April and May, 
or as soon as ripe. The seedlings are 
pricked out when large enough, and may 
be transferred to the places where they 
are to flower either about tht end of Sep- 
ternber or in spring. Seedlings often 
come up spontaneously where a plant is 
flourishing. Cuttings of the perennial 
species placed in a shady border in summer 
will also root freely, and the young plants 
thus raised may be transplanted in 
autumn. As soon as flowering is over 
the plants may also be divided and re- 
planted in good garden soil, care being 
taken to water the plants well after 
moving. 

The following are some of the best 
kinds for the flower garden, but there are 
several others met with occasionally in 
botanical collections. 

A. albida (J., caucasica). — Aplant 6-9 
in. high, native of Tauria and the Cau- 
casus. Leaves few. toothed, hoary or 
downy, the lower ones obovate oblong, 
the upper ones cordately sagittate clasping 
the stem. The white flowers appear in 
masses from January to May. The 
variety variegata has variegated leaves, 
and is much used for edgings. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. alpina. — A European plant 6 in. 
high, with many-toothed lance-shaped 
acute hairy leaves, the lower ones stalked, 
the upper heart-shaped, stem-clasping. 
Flowers white, March to May. A double- 
flowered form has recently appeared. It 
has no stamens or pistil, but the petals 
are 12 instead of 4 in number. There is 
a variegated form having leaves bordered 



206 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



ARAB IS 



with yellowish - white, that render it at- 
tractive as an edging plant. 
Culture lite, as above. 

A. androsacea. — ■ A pretty, dense- 
growing species, about 2 in. high, from 
Mt. Tanrus in Asia Minor, at an elevation 
of 7000 or 8000 ft. The lower leaves are 
linear-oblong or lanceolate obtuse in com- 
pact rosettes ; the upper ones stalkless, 
linear or linear-ovate, slightly toothed. 
Flowers in summer, white with ovate 
petals. 

Culture dc. as above for A. albida. 

A. arenosa. — A native of Central 
Europe, 6 in. high, with branched hairy 
stems. Leaves hairy, the lower ones 
pinnatifid, the upper ones deeply toothed. 
Flowers from April to Jvdy, rose, rarely 
white or purple, slightly fragrant. 

C ultu re and Propagation. — This species 
being a biennial or annual is best raised 
from seeds annually. They should be sown 
as soon as ripe out of doors, or in bleak parts 
of the country in cold frames. The seed- 
lings are pricked out in light soil about 

1 ft. apart each way, about the end of 
September. If wintered in frames the 
plants should have plenty of light and 
air on all possible occasions, and may be 
planted out at the first favourable oppor- 
tune in spring. 

A. blepharophylla. — A Californian 
species 3^4 in. high, with lower leaves 
spoon-shaped, upper ones oblong, sessile, 
aU being edged with stiff hairs. Flowers 
rosy-purple, varying a good deal. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. Best 
raised from seeds annually, as it is often 
killed in winter. 

A. lucida. — A pretty rock plant native 
of Hungary, 4-6 in. high, with shining, 
obovate, thickish leaves, clasping the 
stem. The white flowers appear in 
summer. 

The variety variegata is a superior 
plant with light green yellow-edged 
leaves. It is a very beautiful rock plant 
and is very effective in bold masses in 
rocks or crevices. The flowers detract 
from the appearance of the foliage, and 
should be picked off. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. 

A. mollis. — A native of the Caucasus, 

2 ft. high, with large-toothed somewhat 
downy leaves, the lower ones roundly 
heart-shaped, on long stalks, the upper 
ones oval, heart-shaped and stem-clasping. 



The white flowers appear in terminal 
racemes from May to July. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. 

A. petraea. — A British plant 3-4 in. 
high, with smooth ciliated or rough leaves, 
the lower ones simple or bifid on long 
stalks entire toothed, the upper ones 
oblong linear. Flowers white or purplish 
with spreading broadly-clawed petals, ap- 
pearing from June to August. 

Culture d-c. as for A. albida. 

A. praecox. — A Hungarian plant 6-9 
in. high, with smooth, entire, oblong acute 
and stalkless leaves. The white flowers 
with obovate wedge-shaped petals appear 
from Apiil to June. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. 

A. procurrens. — A native of Servia, 
about 9 in. high, with creeping stems. 
Leaves ovate, entire, smooth, with hairy 
edges, the lower ones narrowed into a 
stalk, the upper ones stalkless and pointed. 
In May and June the white flowers with 
obovate petals appear. The variegated 
form of this species is a very pretty rock- 
plant or for edgings. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. 

A. rosea. — A native of Calabria, 12 in. 
high. The upper leaves are oblong, some- 
what heart-shaped, more or less stem- 
clasping, scabrous with branched hairs. 
The rosy-purple flowers with oblong 
wedge-shaped petals are produced from 
May to July. 

Culture dc. as for A. albida. 

A. verna. — A pretty annual 3-6 in. 
high, from S. Europe. The upper leaves 
are heart-shaped, stern- clasping, toothed 
and roughish with 3 -parted hairs. Flowers 
in May and June, small, purple, with 
clawed petals. 

Culture dc. as above for A. arenosa. 

STREPTANTHUS.— Alittle known 
genus containing about 20 species of 
smooth annual or perennial herbs, having 
entire leaves, or the lower ones lyrate pin- 
natifid, the upper ones stalkless or stem- 
clasping. Flowers purple, rarely white 
or yellow, rarely with bracts, sometimes 
drooping. Of the 4 sepals, 2 or all are 
saccate at the base, often coloured, some- 
times very broad. Petals having a 
straight or twisted claw. 

Culture and Propagation. — The two 
species described below are annuals, and 
may be raised from seeds sown about 
March or April out of doors, or earlier on 



STKEPTANTHUS 



WALLFLOWER oi.'DER 



LUNAIUA 207 



a hotbed like other annuals (see p. 78). 
They may also be sown in autumn as 
soon as ripe, and in cold parts of the 
kingdom protected in a cold frame during 
the winter months. 

S. hyacinthoides. — A simple stemmed 
or branching plant 2-3 ft. high, from 
N.'YV. America, having unstalked clasp- 
ing, oblong-linear pointed leaves. The 
deep bluish-purple flowers appear in 
autumn, having lance-shaped pointed 
sepals, and spoon-shaped 'linear petals, 
with a reflexed limb. 

Culture dc. as above. 

S. maculatus. — A native of the same 
region as the preceding, and 18 in. or 
more high. Leaves oval oblong, 3 <> in. 
long, glaucous, somewhat acute, the 
upper ones having long and blunt lobes 
clasping the stem. The showy deep 
velvety purjde flowers, with purplish 
sepals, appear late in summer, the stalk - 
lets of each flower being 3-4 in. long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

CARDAMINE (Lady's Smock; 
Cuckoo-Flower). — A genus of some 
60 species of smooth herbs varying a 
good deal in habit, and not much culti- 
vated. The leaves are stalked, entire, 
lobed or pinnately cut, differing greatly 
on the same plant. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants thrive in damp shady situations 
in any soil, and are easily increased by 
dividing the roots after flowering, and 
also by sowing the seeds in the open 
border as soon as ripe. They may be used 
in borders, rockeries, banks &c. The 
following are a few of the best kinds : — 

C. asarifolia. — A native of S. France 
and N. Italy, 12-18 in. high, with smooth, 
stalked, roundish heart-shaped leaves, 
somewhat sinuately toothed. Flowers in 
early summer, in close racemes, white. 

Culture dr. as above. 

C. pratensis (CucJcoo Flower). — This 
is perhaps one of the most common wild 
flowers of our damp meadows, its pale 
purple or white flowers appearing early 
in spring. It is too common to need 
cultivation in the flower garden proper, 
but its double-flowered variety (flore 
pleno) is worth growing in the border. 

Culture dc. as above. As the double 
variety does not usually produce any 
seeds it must of necessity be increased by 
division in spring. Cuttings of the shoots 



may also be rooted in light rich soil in 
a shaded part of the border during the 
summer months. 

C. rhomboidea. — A tuberous species 
from the United States; the lowest leaves 
are round, and rather heart-shaped, pass- 
ing upwards into ovate or rhomboid- 
oblong, :tnd almost lance-shaped, all 
somewhat angled and sparingly toothed. 
Flowers large, white, appearing in spring. 
The variety purpurea has rosy-purple 
flowers appearing earlier than those of 
the type. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. rotundifolia. — A plant found wild 
on the mountains of Pennsylvania, about 
6 in. high, with procumbent stems. 
Leaves smooth, roundish, slightly toothed, 
stalked. Flowers in early summer, white 
small, in a terminal raceme. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. trifolia. — A dwarf plant 3 6 in. 
high, with creeping runners, native of the 
mountains of Central Europe. Leaves 
smooth, ternate, with rhomboid-roundish 
toothed leaflets. Flowers in spring, white, 
in a terminal cluster. 

Culture dc. as above. 

LEAVENWORTH I A. — A small 
genus of dwarf and pretty annuals with 
lvrate-pinnatifid leaves, and flowers either 
solitary on scapes or in loose racemes. 

L. Michauxii. A native of the 
United States, 3 in. high, with leaves in 
tufts, and rosy-lilac flowers with a yellow 
eye, produced in June. L. aurea is a 
yellow-flowered variety worth growing. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species may be treated as a half-hardy 
annual, being raised from seeds in the 
usual way in gentle heat in spring, after- 
wards transferring the young plants to 
the open ground at the end of May or 
beginning of June. 

LUNAR I A (Honesty; Peter's 
Pence). — A genus containing 2 species 
of annual, biennial or perennial herbs, 
with stalked, entire, heart-shaped leaves 
and rather large flowers in erect terminal 
racemes. 

L. annua (L. biennis). — This charming 
plant is well known in gardens. It is a 
native of N. Europe, and about 2-3 ft. 
high, with deep green heart-shaped 
and irregularly toothed leaves, and ra- 
cemes of beautiful scentless violet-lilac 



208 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS aubkietia 



flowers produced from May to July. 
There are several varieties, chiefly differ- 
ing in the colour of the flowers — white, 
and various shades of purple. The great 
charm of the plant, however, lies in its 
large flat elliptic silvery seed pods, like 
opaque spectacles, which are borne in 
such profusion, and so much used for 
room decoration during the autumn and 
winter months. 

There is a variegated form in which 
the leaves are broadly edged with whitish 
or creamy yellow. 

Culture and Propagation. — Honesty 
should be raised from seeds sown in the 
open border every spring, and the seed- 
lings may be either thinned out or trans- 
planted early in autumn or preferably in 
spring to their flowering quarters for the 
following season. A good sandy loam 
suits them best, but any rich garden soil 
will produce fine specimens. The plants 
should not be nearer than about 18 in. to 
each other, and if the leading shoot is 
pinched out, fine bushy plants and plenty 
of blossom will be obtained by the 
development of the side shoots. As the 
young and tender shoots are greedily 
devoured by slugs, a watch must be kept 
on these marauders. A dusting of lime 
and soot early in the morning while the 
dew is still on the ground will keep them 
at bay. 

L. rediviva is a vigorous, hairy, branch- 
ing perennial species 2-3 ft. high, with 
large, heart-shaped, deeply toothed leaves 
on long stalks, and racemes of purplish 
fragrant flowers produced in early sum- 
mer. The fruits or seed pods are smaller 
than those of the Common Honesty and 
also less rounded, but they may be simi- 
larly used. 

Culture dc. as above. Although not 
so well-known as its biennial relative, this 
perennial species, which is a native of the 
Alps, is ornamental in the rockery or 
flower border if grown in masses for effect. 
It prefers a good sandy soil and a some- 
what shaded position facing north or 
north-west. Seeds may be sown as re- 
commended above for L. annua, but the 
established plants may also be divided at 
the root either about September or in 
spring when growth is about to commence. 
Cuttings of the non-flowering side and 
basal shoots may also be rooted during 
the summer months in a shady border or 
in a cold frame. 



SELENIA. — A genus of 2 species of 
small and not well-known annual herbs, 
with pinnatisect leaves, and terminal leafy 
racemes of yellowish flowers. Sepals 
spreading, coloured, sub-equal. Petals 
erect. Glands 10, hypogynous. 

S. aurea. — A native of the United 
States, with linear oblong pinnatifid 
leaves 1-2 in. long, having 5-7 pairs of 
segments. The golden-yellow scented 
flowers, with greenish yellow sepals, 
appear about June, and last a long time. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
pretty annual grows about 9 in. high and 
may be raised from seeds sown in early 
spring in gentle heat, or out of doors in 
April and May. The seedlings may be 
either pricked out in mild weather or 
thinned out 6-9 in. apart in ordinary good 
garden soil. 

FARSETIA.— A genus of about 20 
species of hardy or half-hardy branched 
erect herbs or undershrubs, more or less 
hoary or downy, with entire alternate 
leaves, and racemose or spiked flowers, 
sometimes minute, white, yellow or 
purple. Sepals often erect, the lateral 
ones saccate at the base. Petals clawed. 

Culture and Propagation. — Most of 
the Farsetias are pretty, and will grow 
in ordinary garden soil. They are good 
plants for rockeries, borders &c, and are 
easily increased by seeds sown in spring 
in gentle heat, or as soon as ripe in cold 
frames. The seedlings may be pricked 
out as soon as large enough to handle 
easily, and afterwards transferred to the 
open border about the end of May or 
beginning of June. 

F. aegyptiaca. — A somewhat tender 
much-branched shrub 1 ft. high, from 
N. Africa, with linear hoary leaves, and 
white flowers in July. 

Culture dc. as above. Grows best in 
sandy loam and peat in sheltered spots. 

F. clypeata. — A native of S. Europe, 
1-2 ft. high, with oblong spreading leaves, 
and yellow flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

F. lunarioides. — A sub -shrubby species 
about 1 ft. high, from the Greek Archi- 
pelago. Leaves oblong-obovate, stalked, 
hoary. Flowers in June, yellow, with 
whitish sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

AUBRIETIA (Purple Kock Cress). 
A small gemis of evergreen, more or 



AUBRIET1A 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



VESICAE! A 209 



less tufted, downy or hoary perennials, 
with entire or angularly toothed leaves, 
and few flowered racemes. 

Aubrietias are charming plants for the 
rockery, where they make dense carpets 
of sage-green leaves and purple flowers. 
They may also be used for edgings to 
borders, shrubberies &o. 

Culture and Propagation. — Aubrietias 
thrive in a deep rich loam, and are easily 
propagated by seeds sown in spring eith r 
in gentle heat about March or in the open 
border about April and May. The seed- 
lings are pricked out into light soil, and 
about the end of September may be trans- 
ferred to their permanent positions. 

Cuttings may also be rooted during the 
summer months in light sandy soil in 
partially shaded borders, and the plants 
thus obtained may be transplanted as in 
the case of seedlings. Aubrietias may 
also be increased by layering the long 
slender branches after flowering, covering 
them with sandy leaf soil ; and dividing 
the plants in autumn is likewise an easy 
and certain method of increasing the 
stock. 

A. deltoidea. — A native of the moun- 
tains of S. Europe, 2-4 in. high, having 
roughish rhomboidal leaves covered with 
very short stellate hairs. The lilac - 
purple flowers are produced in great pro- 
fusion in early spring, and almost hide 
the foliage. The petals are twice as long 
as the sepals, and have long claws. There 
is a charming variegated form in which 
the leaves are conspicuously edged with 
yellowish-white. It is elegant for rock- 
eries and border edgings, and as it does 
not seed freely, is best increased by means 
of cuttings, layers or division as stated 
above. 

The following are really only botanical 
varieties of A. deltoidea, but they are 
more or less distinct, and considered as 
species by some authorities ; and to them 
may be added the forms known as 
Col/u/rrmce, Leichtlini, and Mooreana, 
all with deep shades of purple. 

A. Bougainvillei is very dwarf and 
compact in habit, having light violet- 
purple flowers with very even imbricating 
petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Campbelli (A. Hendersoni). — This 
is a vigorous-growing form with larger 
deep violet-bhif. flowers than A. deltoidea. 
The variety grandiflora with a loose 



habit is very near this, and looks very 
pretty in masses. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Eyrei. — A very fine variety with 
large rich deep violet-purple flowers, and 
a free branching habit. A. ol/ympica is 
closely related, if not actually the same 
as this. 

Cult nrc dc. as above. 

A. graeca. — A strong-growing variety 
from Greece, about 4 in. high, and with 
a neat compact habit. The flowers, which 
are probably larger than those of any 
other variety, are a beautiful shade of 
pale purple. Superba is a form with 
rather deeper coloured flowers. 

Culture lie. as above. 

A. purpurea. — This has broader 
leaves, larger purple flowers — which also 
appear later — a more erect habit and 
more leafy stems than A. deltoidea. The 
variegated form is useful for carpet- 
bedding and as an edging to small beds 
&c. Dr. Marie is a beautiful garden 
form of A. purpurea. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. violacea. — This is a very fine 
variety with large deep violet-purple 
flowers fading to reddish-violet, and has 
a very effective appearance. 

Culture dc. as above. 

VESICARIA (Bladder Pod).— 
This genus contains about 20 species 
of branched annual or perennial herbs, 
with entire, sinuate or pinnatifid leaves, 
and large, rarely small, yellow or purple 
flowers, varying in form. Fruit pods 
globose or inflated. 

Culture and Propagation. — Vesicarias 
grow readily in ordinary soil, and are 
suitable for sunny parts of rock-work. 
The annual and perennial species are 
reproduced from seed which is produced 
freely in favourable seasons, and may be 
sown in cold frames either as soon as ripe, 
or in gentle heat in spring. The seedlings 
are pricked out into light rich soil when 
large enough, and by the end of May or 
beginning of June will be ready for 
transplanting to the border or rockery as 
required. To secure good effects, several 
plants should be grouped together about 
9-12 in. apart. The perennial kinds may 
also be increased from cuttings put under 
a hand-glass or in a cold frame during the 
summer or autumn months. 

V. arctica. — A perennial about 1 ft. 
high, from N. America. Leaves in clusters, 



•210 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS alyssum 



oblanceolate and linear spoon-shaped, of 
a beautiful silvery colour. Flowers in 
August, yellow, in dense racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or cuttings. 

V. gracilis. — An annual species, 6 in. 
high, native of Texas. The thread-like 
rigid and slightty rough sterns have 
lance- shaped entire or slightly angled 
leaves, the lower ones stalked, more or 
less spoon-shaped. Flowers in June, 
yellow, with spreading obcordate and 
nearly sessile petals. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

V. grseca (Alyssum utriculatum). — 
A perennial plant from Greece. Leaves 
of the sterile branches thick, oblong, 
spoon-shaped, slightly acute ; those of the 
fertile stems stalkless, erect, acute, with 
hairy and often slightly toothed margins. 
Flowers in summer, yellow. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and cuttings. 

V. grandiflora. — A downy annual from 
Texas, 1 ft. high, with erect flexuose stems. 
Lower leaves stalked, more or less 
lyrately pinnatifid, the upper ones stalk - 
less, sinuate-toothed. Flowers in July, 
large, yellow, with rounded spreading 
shortly clawed petals. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 



V. utriculata. — A perennial from S. 
Europe, 1 ft. high, having oblong, entire, 
smooth leaves, the lower ones with hairy 
edges and somewhat spoon-shaped. 
Flowers from April to June, yellow, 
closely resembling those of the Wall- 
flower ; calyx bisaccate at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and cuttings. 

ALYSSUM (Madwort). — A genus 
containing about 80 or 90 species of 
annuals or dwarf branching shrubby 
perennials often covered with hoary 
stellate hairs. Leaves sparse, or tufted 
at the base, entire, often linear. Racemes 
without bracts. Flowers white or yellow, 
often inconspicuous. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Mad- 
worts are most effective as rock plants 
or in front of other plants in the mixed 
border. They grow freely in ordinary 
well-drained soil, and are increased by 
cuttings during the summer months in a 
shaded border ; division of the roots in 



autumn or spring ; or by seed sown out 
of doors in April and May, or indoors in 
gentle heat earlier in spring. The seed- 
lings are pricked off and are usually ready 
for transplanting to their permanent 
positions about September or spring. 

The following are some of the kinds 
most frequently met with : — 

A. alpestre. — A pretty greyish-look- 
ing perennial 3 in. or more high, from 
South Europe, with ovate hoary leaves, 
and simple racemes of yellow flowers in 
Jime. A good plant for chinks of old 
walls. The variety obtusifolium is 
somewhat rare, with bluntly obovate 
spoon-shaped leaves, silvery beneath. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. atlanticum. — A native of S. Europe 
6-12 in. high, with lance-shaped, hoary 
and hairy leaves, and yellow flowers in 
June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. gemonense. — A desirable Italian 
species about 1 ft. high, with lanceolate, 
entire, greyish velvety leaves, and yellow 
flowers produced in close corymbs from 
April to June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. macrocarpum. — A native of S. 
France, less than 1 ft. high, with oblong, 
blunt silvery leaves, and racemes of white 
flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. maritimum (Siveet Alyssum). — A 
pretty British and European species 4-10 
in. high with linear lance-shaped downy 
leaves 1-li in. long and racemes of small 
white sweet-scented flowers produced 
from June to September. The variety 
compactum is a closer growing plant 
forming rounded tufts, and continues to 
flower during the summer and autumn 
months. There is also a variegated variety 
with yellowish-white bordered leaves. 
This rarely seeds, and in any case is best 
increased by cuttings or division. 

Culture dc. as above. Although in 
reality a perennial, the Sweet Alyssum is 
frequently treated as an annual. Seeds 
may be sown in either autumn or spring, 
and the seedlings are transplanted about 
the end of May, or in autumn, according 
to the season at which the seeds were 
sown. 

A. montanum. — A spreading tufted 
perennial 2-4 in. high, native of the Alps 
and Pyrenees. Leaves somewhat hoary, 



ALYSSUM 



WAL LFL WEB ORDER 



DRABA 211 



rough with stellate hairs, lower ones 
obovate, upper ones oblong. Flowers 
from May to July, yellow, sweet-scented. 
Culture dc. as above. 

A. olympicum. — A native of N. Greece 
2-3 in. high, with small, greyish, spoon- 
shaped leaves without stalks. Flowers 
in summer, small, deep yellow, in 
roundish corymbose heads. 

Citltu re dc. as above. 

A. orientale. — A native of Crete, 1 ft. 
high, with lance-shaped, repandly-toothed 
waved and downy leaves. Flowers in 
May, in corymbose clusters. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

A. podolicum. — A small alpine from 
South Russia, with a profusion of small 
white flowers in early summer. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. pyrenaicum. — A tufted Fyrenean 
species 8-10 in. high, with roundish 
leaves woolly on the under surface. The 
white flowers appear from June to August, 
and are noticeable for the brownish 
anthers in the centre. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. saxatile. — A well - known and 
beautiful species about 1 ft. high, from 
E. Europe, somewhat shrubby at the 
base. Leaves lance-shaped, entire, hoary. 
Flowers in April and May, bright yellow, 
freely produced, in loose panicles. The 
variety called compactum, which comes 
true from seeds, is particularly useful for 
rockeries and edgings on account of its 
dwarf bushy character. The variety 
variegatum, with yellowish-white leaves, 
is a pretty form, and does well in a sunny 
place in the rockery. 

Culture dc. as above. The variegated 
form is best increased by means of cuttings. 

A. serpyllifolium. — Also from South 
Europe, 3-4 in. high, somewhat woody 
at the base. Leaves %-h in. long, ovate, 
rough and hoary. Flowers from April to 
June, pale yellow, in simple racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. spinosum. — A native of S. Europe 
4-8 in. high, resembling A. macrocarjnim. 
Leaves lance-shaped, small and hoary, 
the branches being spiny when old. 
Flowers in early summer, small, white, 
in clusters at the ends of the branches. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. tortuosum. — A Hungarian species, 
•6 in. high, shrubby at the base, twisted, 



with rather lance-shaped, hoary leaves > 
and corymbose racemes of yellow flowers 
in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Wiersbeckii. — A native of Asia 
Minor, about 18 in. high, with roughish 
erect stems. Leaves 2 in. long, oval, 
oblong, acute, without stalks, narrowed at 
the base, and covered with rough pro- 
minences and fine hairs. Flowers in 
summer, deep yellow, about lh in. across, 
in large corymbose heads. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

A. wulfenianum. — A dwarf alpine 
Crucifer, native of Eastern Europe. The 
decumbent or trailing stems are 1-3 in. 
long, and the small oblanceolate leaves 
are covered with down. The golden- 
yellow flowers appear in summer in 
small compact corymbs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

DRABA (Whitlow Grass). — A genus 
containing, according to various authors, 
from 80 to 150 species consisting chiefly 
of very small, tufted, and hoary alpine 
plants, with entire leaves, the lower ones 
in rosettes. Eacemes short or elongated. 
Flowers without bracts, often small, white 
or yellow, rarely purple or rose. 

The Drabas are essentially rock 
plants, owing to their compact habit and 
to their love for sunny spots. For filling 
up nooks and crevices, on the top of old 
walls, ledges, copings &c, they are very 
useful, their cushions of leaves, thickly 
studded with white or 3-ellow flowers, 
being at once effective and beautiful. 

Culture and Propagation. — They 
grow easily in ordinary soil, and the per- 
ennial sorts may be increased by dividing 
the roots in early autumn. The annual 
and biennial species and also the peren- 
nials may be raised from seed sown in 
spring in the open border. If sown late 
in summer, annual kinds will flower the 
following year. 

D. aizoides. — A brilliant species 2 3 
in. high, native of S. Wales and Central 
Europe. Leaves narrow, lance-shaped, 
keeled, hairy at the edges, and arranged 
in neat rosettes. Flowers in March, 
bright yellow, in terminal racemes. The 
variety dedeana from Spain is a pretty 
plant with white flowers. It is some- 
times regarded as a distinct species. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. This makes fine 

p2 



212 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



DRABA 



cushions for the rock garden, and is a 
valuable early-flowering alpine plant. 

D. Aizoon (D. ciliaris). — A somewhat 
vigorous species, 3 in. high, from the 
mountains of W. Europe. Leaves 
linear, acute, keeled, hairy - edged.. 
Flowers in April, bright yellow, on naked 
hairy scapes. It ripens seed freely. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. alpina. — A native of N. Europe, 3 
inches high, with flat lance-shaped hairy 
leaves, and naked downy scapes of golden- 
yellow flowers produced in April. 

Culture etc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. aurea. — A biennial species from 
Greenland, about 6 in. high, with some- 
what branched velvety stems, and oblong- 
linear, acute, entire, downy leaves. 
Flowers in May, with obovate, blunt, 
clawed petals. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

D. brunisefolia. — A loosely tufted plant, 
about 4 in. high, from the Caucasus. 
Leaves linear, somewhat keeled, acute, 
in loose rosettes. Flowers in June, 
yellow, on naked downy scapes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. ciliata. — A fine white -flowered 
species 2 in. high, from Croatia and 
Carniola, and very much like a miniature 
plant of Arabis albida. Leaves rather 
leathery, smooth, with a cartilaginous 
margin slightly toothed and fringed with 
stiff hairs. Flowers in early summer, 
white, few, closely set. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seed and division. 

D. cinerea. — A Siberian biennial 3-6 
in. high, with somewhat downy stems, 
Leaves oblong-linear, entire, scattered. 
Flowers in early spring, white. 

Culture d-c. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

D. cuspidata. — A native of Tauria, 3 
in. high, nearly related to D. Aizoon, and 
probably only a form of it. Leaves 
in dense rosettes, linear, acute, keeled, 
hairy-edged. Flowers in spring, yellow, 
in terminal racemes ; scapes naked, 
hairy. 

Culture dtc. as above. Increased by 
seed and division, 



D. glacialis. — This is a native of 
Siberia and the granitic Alps of Switzer- 
land, about 2 in. high and like a small 
form of D. aizoides. Leaves linear and 
lance-shaped, entire, with stellate hairs. 
Flowers in May, bright golden-yellow ; 
scapes naked, with a starry down. 

Culture d-c. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. lapponica. — A native of the Lapland 
Alps, 2-3 in. high, with lance-shaped, 
entire, rather hairy leaves. Flowers in 
May, white ; scapes naked, very smooth. 

Culture dtc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. Mawi. — A lovely rock plant with 
masses of bright green densely tufted 
foliage. It is a native of Spain. Leaves 
linear-oblong, blunt, shiny, margin 
pectinate, with stiffish incurved or 
spreading bristles. Flowers in spring, 
white, f in. across ; sepals deeply con- 
cave, bristled behind, green tipped with 
red-brown. 

Culture die. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. nivalis. — A native of Arctic Europe 
1-2 in. high, more compact in habit than 
D. lapponica. Leaves linear-oblong, 
rather hairy, with fringed edges. Flowers 
in April, white ; scape naked or one- 
leaved, smooth. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. pyrenaica (Petrocallis pyrenaica). 
A beautiful Alpine 2-3 in. high, native of 
the mountains of S. Europe. Leaves 
wedge-shaped, palmately 3-lobed ; stems 
shrubby at the base dividing into many 
small branches. Flowers in April and 
May, at first white, pale lilac-purple, 
then faintly veined, sweet-scented, borne 
in short few-flowered racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. rupestris. — A compact-growing 
species 2-3 in. high, native of Norway, 
Scotland, and North America. Leaves 
crowded, lance-shaped, almost entire, 
hairy. Flowers in summer, white, few, 
small, on almost leafless stems. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. Sauteri. — A Swiss plant 4 in. high, 
with stiff spoon-shaped leaves, fringed 



DRABA 



WALLFLOWER OIWER 



HESPERIS 213 



with hairs. Flowers in spring, yellow ; 
scapes smooth. 

Culture ,(■<■. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. tridentata. — A native of the Cau- 
casus readily recognised by its 3-toothed 
hairy obovate leaves, narrowed at the base 
into a stalk. Flowers in spring, golden- 
yellow, in terminal racemes ; scapes 
naked, smooth. This species is also 
known as D. hispida, on account of its 
hairy leaves. 

Culture Sc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

D. violacea.— A native of the Andes of 
Quito, 6-12 in. high, with brandling sub- 
shrubby stems, and opposite ovate downy 
leaves. Flowers deep violet-purple. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and division. 

SCHIZOPETALON.— A genus con- 
sisting of 5 species of pretty-looking erect 
slightly branched annual hoary herbs 
with alternate, sinuate-toothed or pinna- 
tifid leaves. Eacemes terminal, with 
leafy bracts. Flowers purple or white. 
Sepals erect, nearly equal at the base. 
Petals clawed, pinnately lobed. 

S. Walkeri. — A curious half-hardy 
annual, 1-2 ft. high, native of Chili. The 
whole plant is covered with a branched 
down, and has alternate, sinuately pinna- 
tifid leaves, the upper ones near the flowers 
being more or less linear and entire. 
Flowers from May to August, white, 
almond- scented, fringed, and borne in 
long racemes, each pedicel having a 
linear bract. The prettily cut petals are 
often suffused with violet or purple be- 
neath. 

Culture and Propagation. — The seeds 
of this plant should be sown in the open 
in April or May in light, warm rich soil, 
and the seedlings should be left to flower 
during the siunmer and autumn where 
sown, as they do not transplant well. 
Cold damp shady spots should be avoided 
for growing this interesting plant ; and to 
obtain a good effect, the seeds should be 
sown in fairly large patches, as thinly as 
possible. If the plants are too thick they 
must be thinned out. 

HESPERIS (Dame's Violet; 
Kocket). — This genus contains about 20 
species of ornamental biennial or peren- 
nial erect hairy herbs with ovate or 
oblong, entire, toothed or lyrate leaves. 



Flowers rather large, in loose bractless 
racemes, often variously coloured, some- 
times fragrant. Sepals erect, lateral ones 
gibbous at the base. Petals clawed. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Rockets thrive in a somewhat damp 
Bandy loam, and are easily reproduced 
from seeds. These are sown in April and 
May out of doors in light sanely soil, or 
earlier in the year under glass in gentle 
heat. The seedlings are pricked out when 
large enough to handle easily, and may be 
moved later on in autumn to their flower- 
ing positions. The seeds may also be 
sown as soon as ripe in cold frames, and 
kept protected during the winter months, 
and the seedlings may be placed out of 
doors at the end of May. 

The plants may also be divided in 
spring, but as this would to a certain 
extent interfere with early flowering, the 
plants are on the whole better divided 
any time during August and September. 
They should afterwards receive a good 
soaking with water to settle the soil and 
prevent the plants ' flagging ' or wilting 
too much. 

H. grandifiora. — The origin of this 
plant is unknown. The lower leaves are 
oblong-ovate, blunt, the upper ones lance- 
shaped. The purplish flowers appear in 
summer in many - flowered crowded 
racemes. 

H. matronalis (Dame's Violet or 
Pocket ; Damask Violet ; Common 
Pocket). — This pretty old garden plant 
grows wild from S. Europe to Eussian 
Asia, and is 2-3 ft. high. Leaves 2-5 in. 
long, shortly stalked or tapering at the 
base, more or less ovate-lance-shaped, 
finely and irregularly toothed or serrate. 
Flowers from May to July, f in. across, 
white or lilac, scented in the evening. 

The double white and purple-flowered 
kinds (fiore pleno) are much more highly 
valued as garden plants, not only for 
their pretty flowers, but also for their 
delicious fragrance. 

Culture dc. as above. The seeds of 
this plant may be sown in the chinks or 
crevices of old walls, ruins &c, where it 
seems to be more at home than anywhere 
else. The double forms of the Dame's 
Violet (H. matronalis), however, are more 
easily increased by carefully dividing the 
roots, at least every alternate year, or 
from cuttings of the young shoots inser- 
ted in the open ground in a shady place. 



214 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS erysimum 



At one time the double varieties were more 
extensively grown than they are at the 
present day. 

H. violacea. — A pretty biennial or 
perennial species 1-2 ft. high, native of 
Asia Minor, with tufts of oblong downy or 
hairy leaves irregularly toothed on the 
margins. The bright purple or violet 
flowers, with deeper coloured veins, are 
produced from April to June in large 
trusses well above the foliage, and are 
highly effective and ornamental in the 
border or rockery. 

Culture dc. as above. This species, 
although really a perennial, is usually 
raised from seeds sown in autumn or 
spring. 

MALCOLM I A. —A genus of about 
20 species of beautiful branching and 
often prostrate hairy herbs, having alter- 
nate, entire, or pinnatifid leaves. Flowers 
in loose racemes, bractless, white or 
purple. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Mal- 
colmias grow easily in ordinary good gar- 
den soil, and may be raised from seeds 
sown thinly from spring till autumn, to 
obtain a succession of bloom. The general 
treatment is the same as recommended 
above for the Dame's Violet (Hesperis). 

M. chia. — A branching plant 6-12 in. 
high, native of Chio. Leaves downy 
beneath, entire or rarely toothed, lower 
ones obovate or spoon-shaped, upper ones 
narrower and more acute. Flowers in 
June, purplish-lilac. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. littorea. — A native of the 
Mediterranean region 6-12 in. high, with 
lance-shaped linear, nearly entire, hoary 
leaves. Flowers from June to November, 
bright pink -purple, the large delicate petals 
not being veined. Seed pods hoary. 

Culture dc. as above. 

M. maritima. — This pretty annual is 
commonly known as the ' Virginian 
Stock.' It is 6-12 in. high, native of 
Europe, having erect branching stems, 
and elliptic, blunt, entire leaves, narrowed 
at the base. Flowers from spring to 
autumn, lilac, rose, red or white, fragrant. 

Among the many varieties may be 
mentioned alba, white ; alba nana, also 
white but dwarfer ; and Crimson King 
or Kermesina, dwarf, deep red. 

The Virginian Stock is very effective 
in masses in borders, beds &c. It grows 



readily in almost any part of the garden 
and bears in great abundance its masses 
of sweet-scented blossoms. It is excellent 
for bordering beds of taller plants, and 
masses here and there in the rockery pro- 
duce a charming picture. 
Culture dc. as above. 

ERYSIMUM (Hedge Mustard).— 
A genus containing, according to various 
authors, from 70 to nearly 120 species of 
biennial or perennial, hairy or sometimes 
hoary-looking herbs. Leaves variable, 
narrow, heart-shaped, stem -clasping, or 
pinnately cut, linear or oblong, entire, 
sinuate toothed, or rarely pinnatifid. 
Racemes bractless. Flowers mostly 
yellow, sometimes purple, and scented. 

Culture and Propagation. — Very few 
species are wortby of cultivation, those 
described below being among the best 
and most showy border plants. They are 
easily raised from seeds sown in spring or 
autumn in the open border. From the 
end of March to the end of June sowings 
of the annual species may be made at inter- 
vals of 2 or 3 weeks, so that a long suc- 
cession of blossom is maintained. The 
perennial species may not only be raised 
from seeds in the same way as the annuals 
but also increased by dividing the roots in 
autumn. They all grow freely in ordinary 
good garden soil in open sunny situations. 
Grown in large masses thej' are very 
effective and telling on the landscape 
owing to the warmth and brilliancy of 
colour of their flowers. 

E. alpinum [Cheiranthus alpinus). — 
A Norwegian perennial 6 in. high, having 
straight simple stems, and lance-shaped 
distantly toothed leaves, covered with a 
starry down. Flowers in May, sulphur- 
yellow, sweet - scented, borne in loose 
racemes, and reminding one at a distance 
of some of the yellow Primulas, although 
the flowers, of course, have only 4 petals 
instead of 5. 

Culture dc. as above. This pretty 
plant is best known as a Cheiranthus. 

E. asperum. — A N. American biennial, 
about 8 in. high, with greyish hairy stems. 
Leaves linear oblong, lower ones toothed, 
runcinate, rough, downy. Flowers in July, 
yellow, the petals having white claws. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. marschallianum. — A biennial, 
native of the Caucasus, about 1 ft. high, 
with lance-shaped toothed leaves narrowed 



KKYSIMI M 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



HELIOPHILA 215 



at the base, and bright yellow flowers 
appearing in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
may also be increased by placing cuttings 
of the flowerless shoots in light sandy soil 
under handlights in August and September, 
and protecting them until the following 
spring in case of severe frosts in winter. 

E. ochroleucum (Cheircmthus ochro- 
leucus). — A procumbent perennial, with 
branching steins, (5 12 in. high, native of 
the Alps of Java. Leaves oblong lance- 
shaped, somewhat toothed, hairy or 
smooth. Flowers from April to July, 
beautiful sulphur-yellow, faintly scented, 
petals obovate. The variety helveticum 
has narrower entire or toothed leaves, 
with somewhat ascending hairy stems. 

Culture dtc. as above. E. ochroleucum 
is a good rock plant, and if divided every 
year seems to do better than by other 
methods of increase. It may, however, 
also be increased by cuttings in the same 
way as E. marschalUcmum and by seeds. 
It is excellent for carpeting the soil and 
trailing over stones in the rock garden. 

E. perofskianum. — - This is a most 
showy species from the Caucasus, about 
1 ft. high, with oblong lance-shaped 
leaves, and brilliant reddish-orange 
flowers in great masses during the spring, 
if the seeds are sown in autumn. By 
sowing in spring, flowers will appear in 
summer and autumn. It will grow any- 
where. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. pulchellum. — A very compact-grow- 
ing perennial species attaining a height 
of about 1 ft. with dense tufts of oblong- 
elliptic toothed leaves. The sulphur-yellow 
flowers are freely produced in spring and 
summer and emit a faint odour. It is a 
native of the East, and is an excellent 
plant for dry borders. Owing to its tufted 
masses of foliage it makes a good carpet 
plant, and rivals the Aubrietias in this 
respect. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. pumilum. — A charming perennial 
rock plant only 1-3 in. high, native of the 
Eastern Pyrenees. Leaves linear, lance- 
shaped, slightly toothed, greyish-green. 
Flowers in summer, pale sulphur-yellow, 
fragrant. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

E. rhaeticum. — A somewhat rare plant 
in cultivation. In summer its clear 



yellow blossoms are produced in great 
profusion above the dense masses of 
foliage. 

Culture dc. as above. 

E. Wahlenbergi. — A branching and 
showy perennial species about 2 ft. high, 
native of Transylvania. Its stems are 
clothed with lance-shaped toothed leaves 
and the bright yellow iiowers are freely 
produced during the summer months. 

Culture <{•<■. as above. 

STANLEYA.— A genus containing 
about species of smooth perennial 
glaucous herbs resembling the Arabia in 
habit. Leaves undivided or pinnatifid. 
Kacemes elongate, straight, many-flowered, 
bractless. Sepals short, spreading, equal 
at the base. Petals narrow, elongated, 
with long flaws. Anthers twisted. 

S. pinnatifida. — This pretty species 
from California is the only one at present 
grown. The thickish leaves are inter- 
ruptedly pinnatifid, and the yellow flowers 
appear in May in great abundance on tall 
racemes. 

Culture and Propagation. — It grows 
freely in soil with plenty of humus, and 
may be increased by seeds sown under 
glass in February or March or out of 
doors in April and May. Seeds may also 
be sown as soon as ripe in cold frames, 
and the seedlings may be pricked off in 
light soil and kept under protection during 
the whiter months until favourable wea- 
ther occurs for planting out in May. The 
plants may also be increased by division 
of the roots in early autumn or spring. 

HELIOPHILA.— A South African 
genus of little-known annual or perennial 
herbs, or branching smooth or downy 
unrlershrubs, with entire, toothed, sinuate, 
or pinnatisect leaves. Eacemes bractless. 
Flowers white, ^yellow, rose, or blue. 
Pedicels often slender. Pods often 
pendulous or deflexed. 

Culture and Propagation. — The fol- 
lowing species — all annual — are easily 
grown in ordinary good garden soil, and 
may be raised from seed sown out of doors 
in April and May, or earlier in spring 
under glass or on a gentle hotbed. The 
seedlings, if raised by the latter method, 
should be pricked off into light sandy soil 
and gradually hardened off so as to be 
ready for transferring to the open border 
about the end of May or beginning of June. 
A warm sunny position suits them best. 



216 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS ionopsidium 



H. amplexicaulis. — A plant about 9 in. 
high, with oblong, heart-shaped stem- 
clasping entire leaves, the lower ones op- 
posite, the upper alternate. Flowers from 
June to September, small, varying from 
white to purple. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. coronopifolia. — This grows 1-2 ft. 
high, having phmately parted leaves with 
entire linear lobes, and bluish-violet 
flowers from June to September. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. pilosa. — Grows 6-12 in. high. 
Leaves hairy, lower ones lance-sbaped, 
pinnatifkl, Tapper ones linear, entire. 
Flowers in summer, blue. The variety 
ineisa has linear, wedge-shaped leaves, 
trifid, rarely 5-fid at the apex, with linear 
or pointed lobes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

VELLA (False Cytisus ; Cress 
Rocket). — A small genus of much- 
branched, rigid, woody, erect, sometimes 
spiny undershrubs, natives of Spain. 

V. Pseudo-cytisus grows 2-3 ft. high, 
and has alternate, obovate, entire leaves, 
and yellow flowers in early spring, the 
long petals having dark purple claws. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species, if grown in a dry, warm, sunny 
border, is hardy enough to stand the 
winter in most parts. It is increased by 
cuttings of the young shoots placed 
under a hand-glass during the summer 
months. Seeds may also be sown as soon 
as ripe in cold frames or in spring in 
gentle heat, and the young plants may be 
placed in the open ground about the end 
of May. 

V. spinosa. — A much-branched spiny 
shrub 6-8 in. high, native of the Spanish 
mountains. The lower leaves are fleshy, 
and more or less lance-shaped, the upper 
ones linear with slender spines in the 
axils. The yellow flowers appear in 
early summer, and have long-clawed 
obovate spoon-shaped petals veined and 
netted with violet or purple. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
very rarely seen, even in botanic gardens, 
but it makes a good rock plant in warm 
sheltered positions. Another species 
sometimes seen is V. annua — a mere 
annual weed not worth growing. 

IONOPSIDIUM (Violet Cress).— 
A genus of 2 species of small, smooth 
annual herbs, with stalked or unstalked, 



spoon-shaped or rounded, entire or 3-lobed 
leaves. Flowers small, violet, white or 
flesh-coloured. 

I. acaule. — A charming little plant 
rarely exceeding 2 in. high, native of 
Portugal and North Africa, and covered 
all over during the summer and autumn 
with lilac, or white tinged with violet 
flowers. These emit a sweet honey-like 
fragrance and are borne on slender stalks 
which issue from the axils of the small 
roundish leaves. There is a variety with 
pure white flowers. 

Culture and Propagation. — This little 
annual flourishes on rockeries or rough 
places in ordinary soil, and in somewhat 
shady positions, where it frequently repro- 
duces itself annually from self-sown seeds. 
Grown in pots or small shallow pans it is 
also very effective as a window plant. 
Seeds may be sown at intervals of 2 to 3 
weeks in the open border from the end of 
March to the end of September to secure 
a succession of flower. Under favourable 
circumstances this plant comes into blos- 
som about 8 or 10 weeks, more or less, 
after the seeds have been sown. 

BIVON./EA. — A genus with only one 
species here described. 

B. lutea. — A pretty little annual, native 
of Sicdy, 3-6 in. high, with thread-like, 
sparingly branched stems. Leaves alter- 
nate, lower ones stalked, the others with- 
out stalks, heart-shaped, stem-clasping at 
the base, ovate, toothed, rather blunt. 
The small yellow flowers appear in April 
on terminal racemes, elongating as they 
grow. Pedicels thread-like, bractless. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species thrives in dry sandy soil, and may 
be raised in spring from seeds sown in the 
open border where the plants are to bloom. 
If too thick, the seedlings may be thinned 
out so that the remaining plants will have 
sufficient space to develop properly. It is 
suitable for rockeries, the edges of borders 
&c. 

^ETHIONEMA.— A genus of pretty 
annual or perennial smooth herbaceous 
plants or undershrubs, with round stems 
and slender branches. Leaves without 
stalks, glaucous, the lower ones sometimes 
opposite. Flowers small, racemose, clus- 
tered, fleshy or purple ; pedicels slender, 
bractless. The 4 larger stamens are 
winged, or prolonged into a tooth. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants grow freely in well- drained sandy 



iETHTONEMA 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



SCHOUWIA 217 



loam in the flower border, and sunny situa- 
tions, but dwarfer-growing species are 
more suitable for the rock garden. The 
annual and biennial kinds may be sown 
from April to June in the open border 
where they are to bloom. The perennials 
are also raised from seed, or from cuttings 
put in during the summer and shaded till 
rooted. In northern parts it is safer to 
protect the perennials raised from cuttings 
the first year in cold frames until favour- 
able weather in spring when they maybe 
planted out. 

JE. Buxbaumii (Thlaspi arabicwm). — 

A pretty erect branching annual, 6 in. 
high, native of Thrace, with oblong spoon- 
shaped glaucous leaves, and crowded 
racemes of pale red flowers in June. 

Culture dtc. as above. Raised from 
seeds annually. 

JE. coridifolium (Iberis jucunda). 
A pretty perennial, shrubby at the base, 
with erect stems 6-8 in. high. Leaves 
numerous, oblong, linear, glaucous, with a 
brownish point, and narrowed at the base. 
Flowers in June, rosy-lilac, prettily veined, 
and in dense terminal rounded racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. This species, 
being a native of Asia Minor, is not alto- 
gether hardy in all parts of the United 
Kingdom. It is therefore better to grow 
it in rich light and well-drained soil in 
warm, sunny and sheltered parts of the 
rock garden where it will not be injured 
by the severe blasts from the north and 
east. 

JE. gracile. — A shrubby perennial, 
about 8 in. high, native of the sandy hills of 
Carniola, with lance-shaped pointed leaves 
and crowded terminal racemes of purplish 
flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and cuttings. 

JE. grandiflorum. — A handsome bushy 
perennial about 1 ft. high, from Mount 
Lebanon, with ovate oblong, glaucous 
leaves. Flowers from May to August, of 
a warm shaded rose, in crowded terminal 
racemes. An effective rock plant. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds and cuttings. 

JE. membranaceum. — A neat dwarf 
shrub 3-6 in. high, with thread-like 
branches, and native of Persia. Leaves 
oblong, linear, obtuse, various, somewhat 
fleshy, and clothing the stem rarely closely. 
Flowers in June, purple or rose, in small 



dense terminal racemes. Pods overlapping 
each other, roundish, with a very broad 
membranous margin, notched at the top. 

Cull a re dc as above. Increased by 
seeds and cutting. 

JE. monospermum. — A pretty Spanish 
biennial 3-6 in. high, with stifnsh 
branches, and leathery, more or less ovate, 
blunt leaves. Flowers in June, large, 
purple. Pods one-celled and one-seeded. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

JE. pulchellum. — Perhaps the hand- 
somest and hardiest species, resembling 
2E. cor i tl if < ilium, but not yet very well 
known. 

i' 'a! hi re ii-e. as above. 

JE. saxatile. — A pretty Spanish annual 
about 8 in. high, with lance-shaped, acute 
leaves, and loose terminal racemes of lilac- 
rose or purplish flowers in May and June. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. It loves a rather dry and rich 
loamy soil. 

EUNOMIA.— A genus of 2 species 
of pretty little half-hardy evergreen, 
branched or tufted undershrubs or herba- 
ceous plants, native of Asia Minor. Leaves 
stalkless and stem-clasping, entire, thick- 
ish. Flowers in short racemes, white. 

E. oppositifolia. — A plant with decum- 
bent branched stems 6-12 in. high, with 
opposite, almost round, entire, smooth 
leaves, and terminal racemes of white 
flowers in June. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species may be grown in sheltered parts 
of the rockery in ordinary soil, and can 
be increased by cuttings taken in summer 
and put tmder a glass. Or seeds may be 
sown in April or May in the open border 
where the plants are to bloom. The 
seedlings may be thinned out. If sown 
earlier in the year, a little bottom heat is 
required and the seedlings may be pricked 
out and grown on for planting out at the 
end of May. 

SCHOUWIA.— A genus of 3 species 
of very smooth branching annuals, natives 
of Arabia, with entire leaves, the upper 
ones deeply auricled and stem-clasping. 
Flowers at first corymbose, afterwards 
racemose, purple; pedicels slender. 
Sepals nearly erect, the lateral ones 
broader. Stamens free, without teeth. 

S. arabica is a pretty annual about 
1 ft. high, with rosy -purplish flowers in 



218 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



IBERIS 



June. The other characters as described 
above. 

Culture and Propagation. — It grows 
freely in light sandy soil, and seeds may 
be sown in the open border in spring 
frorn the beginning of April to the end of 
June if a succession of flowers is required. 

IBERIS (Candytuft). — A genus hav- 
ing about 20 species of annual or biennial 
smooth branched herbs or undershrubs, 
with entire or pinnatifid, often fleshy, 
leaves. Flowers racemose or corymbose, 
white or purple, the outer ones radiating. 
Sepals equal at the base. Petals 4, the 2 
outer ones larger than the others. 

Culture and Propagation. — -All the 
Candytufts are easily grown in ordinary 
garden soil, in exposed sunny situations. 
The annuals and biennials are raised by 
seeds sown in the usual way, varying the 
date of sowing according to the period 
when it is required to have the plants in 
bloom. Thus, seeds may be sown as soon 
as ripe in cold frames so that a stock of 
strong sturdy plants will be ready for 
planting out in spring in mild weather. 
In February and March seeds may be 
sown in gentle heat, afterwards pricking 
the seedlings out, so as to enable them to 
develop previous to their being planted 
out about the end of Maj\ In April and 
May seeds may also be sown in the open 
border where the plants are to bloom. 
When the seedlings are well above ground 
they must be thinned out, but not trans- 
planted. 

In this way a good succession of 
flowers may be obtained from early 
summer to the end of autumn. 

The sub-shrubby perennial kinds are 
valuable plants for the border or rock 
garden, on account of their deep green 
masses of foliage, and clusters of flowers, 
which last a long time. The perennials 
may be raised from seeds, but it is gener- 
ally more convenient to root cuttings 
during the summer months in a shaded 
border or under handlights ; or to divide 
the plants after flowering. The stems 
may also be bent down and covered with 
light rich soil. In this way roots will 
develop as from layers, and the shoots 
may be detached in spring. 

I. affinis. — A pretty amiual or bien- 
nial species, native of France, rarely ex- 
ceeding 8 or 9 in. high, with a much- 
branched tufted habit, and pinnately 
divided leaves. The flowers appear in 



spring and summer, and are of a pure 
white, the sepals only being tinted with 
violet before the buds open. An excellent 
little plant for borders and edging. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seed. 

I. amara (Common Candytuft). — A 
British annual 6-9 in. high, with lance- 
shaped, acute, slightly toothed leaves, and 
racemes or corymbs of white flowers in 
summer. The variety liesperidifolia is 
larger and prettier than the type, and is 
also more vigorous in growth. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. bernardiana (I. Bubani). — A Pyre- 
nean annual, 6 in. high, with spoon-shaped, 
lobed, deep glossy green leaves in dense 
compact rosettes, and corymbs of pink 
flowers in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. ciliata. — A rather smooth herbaceous 
biennial about 9 in. high, native of S.W. 
Europe. Leaves linear, entire, edges 
hairy at the base. Flowers in June and 
July, white. The variety taurica maybe 
treated as an annual or biennial. It has 
somewhat fleshy leaves fringed with hairs, 
the lower ones spoon-shaped, sometimes 
with 2 teeth at the apex ; the upper ones 
linear. Flowers white, corymbose, a little 
earlier than ciliata proper. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. corifolia. — A Sicilian alpine 3-4 in. 
high, probably a small variety of I. sem- 
pervirens. Leaves linear, entire, blunt, 
smooth, in dense tufts. It has masses of 
small white flowers early in May, and 
looks well in the rock garden near the 
edge. 

Culture dc. as above. 

I. coronaria (BocJcet Candytuft). — 
A beautiful annual, the native country of 
which is unknown. It is about 1 ft. high, 
with lance-shaped, entire, leathery leaves, 
and numerous long dense heads or spikes 
of pure white flowers, borne well above 
the foliage in summer. The form known 
as ' Giant Snowflake ' is very fine. 

Culture d-c. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. correaefolia. — A splendid evergreen 
garden hybrid (probably between semper- 
florens and saxatilis) about 1 ft. high, 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



IBERIS 219 



with woody, slender, trailing branches. 
Leaves spoon-shaped, blunt, entire, smooth, 
about 1\ in. long. Flowers in May and 
June, white, large, in dense flat heads, 
lengthening with ape into spikes about 3 
in. long, the lower flowers opening first. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is an 
excellent plant for almost any part of the 
flower garden, but especially for rockeries, 
edges of borders, nooks &c. As it does 
not come true from seed, it is best in- 
creased by cuttings or layers. It grows 
well in dry soil and hot sunny places. 

I. gibraltarica. — A handsome but 
somewhat straggling evergreen, 1-2 ft. 
high, native of Gibraltar. Leaves wedge- 
shaped, blunt, fleshy, distinctly toothed at 
the apex, slightly ciliated, about 2 in. long. 
Flowers from Easter to Whitsuntide, 
large, white, often tinged with pink or red, 
in corymbose heads. 

Culture ((•(■. This species requires a 
well-drained soil in somewhat sheltered 
spots, as it may not be quite hardy in all 
parts of the country. The variety hybrida 
is a denser growing plant than the type, 
and has masses of creamy white flowers 
gradually deepening to a pretty rose- 
purple. Both species and variety are 
excellent plants for the rockery or flower 
border, and may also be grown to advan- 
tage in pots for the decoration of green- 
houses and conservatories in the early 
part of the year. 

I. nana. — A smooth herbaceous annual 
or biennial, only 3 in. high, native of 
Southern France and Italy. Leaves 
roundish, spoon-shaped, entire, rather 
fleshy. Flowers in June and July, 
purple. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. odorata. — A native of Greece, an- 
nual, 6-12 in. high, with linear toothed 
leaves, ciliated at the base, dilated at the 
apex. Flowers in summer, white, sweet- 
scented, in racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. petrsea. — A pretty alpine plant 3 in. 
high, with a flat cluster of pure white 
flowers, tinged with red in the centre, 
produced in summer. 

Culture dc. as above. A well-drained 
moist position in the rockery is the 
most suitable place for this plant. 

I. pinnata. — A pretty annual Candy- 
tuft 8-9 in. high, native of France, with 



downy much-branched stems and stalked 
pinnately cut or divided leaves, with blunt 
lobes. The white sweet-scented flowers 
appear from spring to autumn, according 
to the period of seed sowing, borne in 
dense corymbose clusters. The obovate 
petals are sometimes tinged with violet 
on t In' margins. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

I. Pruiti. — A Sicilian perennial 6 in. 
high, with smooth stems sub-shrubby at 
the base, resembling I. tenorcana. Leaves 
obovate, spoon-shaped, entire or somewhat 
toothed. Flowers in May and June, pure 
white, in compact heads or corymbs. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, cuttings, or layers. 

I. saxatilis (lioclc Candytuft). — This 
dwarf shrub, 3 <» in. high, native of S. 
Europe, is the commonest and perhaps 
most useful of all the evergreen Candy- 
tufts. It has linear, entire, somewhat 
fleshy, ciliated leaves, and corymbs oi 
white flowers in spring and early 
summer. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, cuttings or layers. 

I. semperfiorens. — A handsome but 
somewhat tender evergreen 1-2 ft. high, 
native of Italy, Sicily &c. Leaves wedge- 
shaped or spoon -shaped, rather fleshy, 
blunt, entire, smooth and of a deep green. 
Flowers from October to May, pure white, 
large, sweet-scented, in large, dense 
corymbs. 

Culture dc. as above. Owing to its 
tender nature, this species should be grown 
in only the warmest, sunniest, and most 
sheltered spots of the rockery or flower 
border. It may be increased by seeds, 
cuttings, or layers, and prefers a some- 
what chalky soil. 

I. sempervirens (Evergreen Candy- 
tuft). — A well-known plant 9-12 in. high, 
native of S. Europe. Leaves smooth, 
oblong, blunt, narrowed at the base. 
Flowers in spring and summer, pure 
white, in long racemes. The variety 
garrexiana has somewhat smaller flowers 
borne on racemes which lengthen with 
age, and is less spreading in habit. 
Superha has a bushy habit and dense 
heads of white flowers ; and flore pleno has 
double white flowers. 

The Evergreen Candytuft and its 
varieties are excellent garden plants, 
suitable for almost any position, and 



220 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS hutchinsia 



apparently quite proof against the bitterest 
winter. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds, cuttings, or layers. 

I. tenoreana.— A pretty perennial 3-6 
in. high, native of S.W. Europe. Leaves 
somewhat fleshy, crenated, lower ones 
obovate, narrowed at the base and fringed 
with hairs; upper ones oblong linear. 
Flowers in early summer, white changing 
to purple, freely produced in umbellate 
heads. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
liable to perish in severe winters on cold 
heavy soils. On well-drained sandy soil 
it does well, and is better treated as a 
biennial than a perennial. It is easily 
reproduced from seed sown as recom- 
mended above. 

I. umbellata. — This is the well-known 
pretty annual Common Candytuft, 6-12 
in. high, native of S. Europe. Leaves 
lance-shaped, pointed, lower ones serrated, 
upper ones entire. Flowers in spring and 
summer, very variable in colour, but 
usually purple in terminal umbels. Atro- 
purpurea has dark crimson flowers ; 
carnea, blush or pale flesh-coloured ; nana 
purpurea, dwarf, deep purple ; purpurea 
lilacina, dwarf, lilac-purple. There are 
several other varieties mentioned in 
catalogues, chiefly distinguished by the 
colour of the flowers. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
group of Candytufts likes a rich soil, and 
produces the finest flowers in spring from 
seeds sown in autumn. General cultiva- 
tion &c. as above for annuals. 

I. violacea. — A dwarf annual, 3 in. 
high, with stalked, spoon-shaped, bluntly 
toothed or entire, ciliated leaves. Flowers 
in summer, purple, in umbellate corymbs. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds. 

HUTCHINSIA.— A genus with only 
one or two species of small and rather 
smooth annual herbs, having the lower 
leaves usually in rosettes, and pinnately 
lobed. Scapes several, ascending, leafy. 
Flowers sub-corymbose, small, white, on 
elongated bractless pedicels. 

Culture and Propagation. — These are 
pretty plants for the rock garden, edges 
of borders &c, in sandy soil. They are 
raised from seed like other annuals, either 
in gentle heat about February and March, 
afterwards pricking the seedlings out and 



hardening them off before placing in the 
open air at the end of May ; or the seeds 
may be sown in the open border from 
April to the end of June for a succession 
of flowers. 

H. alpina. — A pretty little alpine with 
shining green leaves, and clusters of 
small white flowers on stalks about 1 in. 
high. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. petraea. — A more or less glabrous, 
erect, delicate annual, native of limestone 
rocks in Britain and Central and S. 
Europe, with lower leaves pinnate, and 
masses of minute white flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. 

IBERIDELLA. — A genus containing 
6 species of rather pretty herbs or under - 
shrubs, often branched and woody at the 
base, smooth, with alternate or opposite 
entire leaves, those of the stem often 
auricled, or cordately sagittate. Flowers 
racemose, white or rose. 

I. rotundifolia. — A native of the 
European Alps, 3-6 in. high, spreading, 
densely tufted, with opposite, fleshy, 
broadly ovate leaves. Flowers in early 
summer, rosy-lilac, with a yellow eye, 
fragrant, about ^ in. across, in erect, 
cylindrical, crowded racemes. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is adapted for the rock garden, 
and thrives in rather light sandy soil. 
It may be increased by seeds sown as 
soon as ripe in cold frames or in the open 
border in April and May. Or the plants 
may also be divided in early autumn, and 
cuttings of the shoots may be inserted in 
light sandy soil in a shaded border during 
the summer months. 

TCHIHATCHEWIA.— Agenuswith 

only one species : — 

T. isatidea. — A pretty Armenian rock- 
plant about a foot high, with very hairy 
oblong linear toothed leaves. The bright 
rosy-lilac and vanilla - scented flowers 
appear in May, and are borne in racemes 
about a foot across on thick fleshy stalks. 

Culture and Propagation. — • This 
plant flourishes in ordinary well-drained 
soil in the rock garden, and, being a 
biennial should be raised from seeds sown 
in cold frames when ripe every year so as 
to keep up a stock of plants. The young 
plants may be transferred to the open air 
in spring, or in autumn if large enough. 



BOLEUM 



WALLFLOWER ORDER 



CRAMBE 221 



PELTARIA. A genus consisting of 
8 Species of tall glabrous perennial herbs, 
with entire leaves, the upper ones of 
which are cordate-sagittate at the base. 
Flowers more or less in corymbs, white. 
Pods large. 

P. alliacea. — A pretty plant about 1 ft. 
high, native of E. Europe, and emitting 
a Garlic-like odour. The white flowers 
appear in June, followed by flat, smooth 
seed pods. 

Culture a in] Propagation. — It will 
grow in any light soil, and may be in- 
creased by seeds or dividing the roots in 
the same way as recommended above for 
Iberidella. 

ISATIS. — A genus of annual, 
biennial, or perennial smooth glaucous 
or downy herbs with entire leaves, those 
of the sterns being sagittate. The flowers 
are usually yellow and borne in loose 
racemes. Sepals equal at the base. 
Stamens free. Fruit-pod a linear, ob- 
long, ovate, roundish or wedge-shaped 
siliqua. 

There are about 30 species in this 
genus, the best known being the native 
Ewer's Woad (I. tinctoria) so much in 
use by the ancient Britons for staining 
their bodies. With the exception of the 
species described below, the others are of 
no garden value. 

I. glauca. — A beautiful perennial 3 4 
ft. high, native of Smyrna. The light 
green furrowed stems are clothed with 
glaucous - green oblong lance - shaped 
leaves 6 in. long, having a whitish mid- 
rib. The small clear light yellow flowers 
appear in July, and are borne in immense 
numbers in large loose branched racemes 
which look very handsome and effective. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is not yet well known. It thrives 
in ordinary good garden soil in warm and 
sheltered positions in the flower border. 
Being a true perennial it may be increased 
by careful division in spring or early 
autumn ; or by seeds sown in cold frames 
when ripe or in spring. 

BOLEUM. — A genus with only one 
species here described : — ■ 

B. asperum. — An ornamental ever- 
green shrub, 6-12 in. high, native of 
France, covered with rather stiffish hairs, 
and having alternate oblong-linear, entire 
leaves, the lower ones somewhat divided. 
Flowers in April, creamy yellow, in short 
erect and elongated racemes. Sepals 



erect, equal at the base. The longer 
stamens united in pairs. 

Culture and Propagation. — In severe 
winters this plant would probably require 
protection in northern parts of the country. 
It grows well in ordinary soil, and may be 
increased by seeds sown in a hotbed in 
spring, or in the open border in summer. 
Cuttings of the young shoots may also be 
rooted in light sandy soil under a hand- 
light during the summer months. The 
plants thus raised may be protected in 
cold frames until favourable weather in 
spring will permit of their being planted 
out. 

CRAM BE (Sea Kale).— A genus with 
16 species of herbs or undershrubs having 
thickened rootstocks and branched and 
glaucous smooth or hairy stems, furnished 
with large and often pinnately cut leaves. 
Flowers in elongated branched racemes or 
panicles. 

Cult ii re and Propagation. — The Sea 
Kale (('. iiniril i ma) is probably the best 
known representative of the genus, and its 
culture &c. is fully dealt with in the 
Vegetable section of this work at p. 1121. 
The species described below are the only 
ones at present known of any value as 
decorative plants. They are rather large 
and coarse growing, but when in full 
blossom are among the showiest and most 
attractive of flowering plants, chiefly on 
account of the immense numbers of 
blossoms they produce. They nourish in 
any garden soil and are more suitable for 
wild parts of the garden in open sunny 
spots, for association with such plants as 
Heracleiim giganteum, p. 469, Bujili- 
tlialmum speciosum, p. 511, &c. They 
ripen seeds freely and may be increased 
by that means sown out of doors or in 
cold frames as soon as ripe or in spring. 
The roots may also be divided at the 
latter season as growth is commencing. 

C. cordifolia. — A vigorous and deep- 
rooting Caucasian perennial about 6 ft. 
high, with tufts of large radical heart- 
shaped lobed, wavy, and wrinkled leaves 
12-18 in. wide. The white cross-shaped 
flowers are produced in immense numbers 
in June and early July, and are borne in 
much - branched panicles, which stand 
about 3 ft. above the foliage and are 
4-6 ft. through, the branchlets spreading 
horizontally, or drooping at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. Grows well in 
shade. 



222 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS morisia 



C. pinnatifida. — Another remarkable 
Caucasian perennial 4-5 ft. high, with 
pinnately divided and lobed leaves some- 
what resembling those of a Turnip, only 
being much larger. The flowers appear 
at the same time as those of C. cordifolia, 
but the branching panicles are not quite 
so large, and the branchlets are rather 
ascending than horizontal and descend- 
ing. It makes a good companion for C. 
cordifolia in the wilder parts of the 
garden. 

Culture &c. as above. 

MORISIA. — A genus with only one 
species here described :— 

M. hypogaea. — A charming little 
perennial 2-3 in. high, native of the 



Sardinian mountains. The smooth, deep 
and shining green leaves are more or less 
cut and lobed like those of Dandelions, 
and form dense tufts on the surface of 
the soil. The clear bright yellow flowers 
about an inch across, and with wedge- 
shaped petals, are produced in great pro- 
fusion in April and May, just topping the 
foliage. The roundish one-seeded fruit 
pods are buried in the soil, but they do 
not ripen seeds freely in our climate. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
pretty plant flourishes in rich, damp, 
sandy loam in the flat border or in the 
rockery. It may be increased by seeds 
which should be sown when ripe, or fail- 
ing these the plants may be divided in 
spring. 



XII. RES EDACE^E— Mignonette Order 

Annual or perennial herbaceous plants, rarely shrubs, with alternate, 
entire, or pinnately divided leaves, and minute gland-like stipules. Flowers 
irregular, hermaphrodite, or rarely unisexual, borne in racemes or spikes, and 
furnished with bracts. Calyx persistent, 4-7-partite, often irregular, imbricate 
in bud. Petals 4-7, rarely 2 or none, deciduous or persistent, hypogynous or 
perigynous, entire or 3 to many partite. Disc hypogynous, conspicuous and 
glandular. Stamens usually many (3-40), perigynous or inserted on the disc, 
equal or unequal, free or connate. Ovary sessile or stalked with 2-6 connate 
carpels, lobed at the top, and open between the stigma-bearing lobes, with 
numerous ovules. Fruit dry and membranous, or succulent, opening at the 
apex ; or apocarpous, with empty carpels surrounding a central placenta, or 
hooded and 1-seeded. Seeds kidney-shaped. 



RESEDA (Mignonette). — A genus 
containing about 26 species of erect or 
decumbent, smooth or hairy, annual or 
biennial herbs, with entire, lobed, or 
pinnatisect leaves, having gland-like 
stipules. Flowers racemose, with bracts. 
Calyx 4-7-parted. Petals4-7, hypogynous, 
unequal, twice or many times cut. Torus 
almost sessile, urn-shaped, dilated behind. 
Stamens 10-40, inserted in the torus. 
Capsule indehiscent, 3-lobed at apex. 
Seeds numerous. 

The following are the only species of 
any garden value, but B. lutea with 
greenish-yellow flowers and B. Luteola 
(the Dyer's Rocket or Dyer's Weed) 
with small pale yellow flowers are to be 
met with in botanical collections. 

R. alba. — A fine biennial about 2 ft., 
native of S.Europe. Leaves all pinnatifid 
or sometimes interruptedly pinnate, seg- 



ments lance-shaped, smooth, rarely wavy. 
Flowers from May to September in dense, 
erect spikes, with white petals, brownish 
anthers, and a 5-6-parted calyx. 

Culture and Propagation. — When 
given plenty of space to develop, this 
species makes a fine and effective border 
plant, and will grow in ordinary garden 
soil. Seeds may be sown in the open 
border in April and May, and the plants 
afterwards thinned out to about 1 ft. or 
18 in. apart. 

R. odorata (Mignonette). — This uni- 
versal favourite is a native of N. Africa, 
Egypt &c, and has lance-shaped, blunt, 
entire or trifid leaves. Flowers out of 
doors from June to October, in loose 
racemes. Petals yellowish-white, finely 
cleft into several club-shaped filaments ; 
anthers saffron-yellow, and catyx 6-parted. 
The variety frutescens is simply a shrubby 



RESEDA 



MIGNONETTE OBDER 



cistus 223 



form of this species. There are many 
garden forms, among which may be 
mentioned ' Machet ' with fine bold spikes 
of flowers in which the red-brown anthers 
are so conspicuous, ' Golden Machet,' 
' Golden Queen,' ' Miles' Spiral,' ' Victoria,' 
' Prince Bismarck,' ' White Diamond,' 
' Parson's White ' &c, all worth growing. 

Culture and Propagation. — Were it 
not for the delicious fragrance of its 
flowers it is doubtful if the Mignonette 
would receive any attention at all in 
gardens. If sown in open patches in 
borders or beds, at the end of March or 
April till midsummer, in a few weeks the 
plants will be producing trusses of fragrant 
flowers, which may be cut freely. It is 
important to sow rather thinly, and even 
then it will be necessary to thin the plants 
severely, at the same time pinching out 
the tips of the strongest shoots on the 
plants left. This treatment will result in 
strong bushy plants. 

If sown in the autumn, the plants will 



survive mild winters, and will flower early 
in spring in the milder parts of the 
kingdom. 

If required in pots, it is best to sow 
the seeds in spring in gentle heat, say a 
dozen seeds or so in each pot, afterwards 
thinning down to one, two, three, or five 
plants, according to the size of the pot. 
By judiciously pinching the points, one 
bushy plant will ultimately be found 
sufficient for a pot. The shrubby variety, 
fruh'scens, may be cultivated in pots for 
four or five years, by giving attention to 
pinching out the tips of the shoots so as 
to cause the side shoots to develop, and 
also by picking off the flowers as soon as 
they fade. The energy of the plant is 
thus not wasted in producing seeds, and 
is utilised for the development of more 
shoots. In this way quite large specimens 
can be obtained. 

The soil for Mignonette in pots should 
be a rich and light sandy loam, with a 
little leaf mould. 



XIII. CISTINE^— Rock Rose Order 



Perennial herbs, shrubs, or undershrubs, often with viscid branches. Leaves 
entire, opposite or alternate, generally feather-veined, sometimes fan-veined. 
Stipules leafy, small or none. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, regular, 
solitary and terminal, or in scorpioid cymes ; very fleeting ; white, yellow, or 
red, never blue. Sepals 3-5, imbricate, the two outer ones small or absent, 
the three inner twisted in bud. Petals 5, rarely 3 or none, fleeting, often 
crumpled in bud. Stamens numerous, rarely few, hypognous, free ; ovary 1- or 
many-celled, with 3 stigmas. Fruit a 3-5 (rarely 10) valved capsule. 



CISTUS (Gum Cistus ; Bock Bose). 
A genus containing about 20 well- 
defined species of beautiful shrubs, rarely 
undershrubs, often somewhat viscid, with 
opposite entire or somewhat toothed leaves 
without stipules. Flowers often beautiful, 
like Wild Boses, in terminal cymes or 
panicles, rarely sub-racemose or solitary. 
Petals 5, usually with a differently coloured 
blotch at the base. Stamens numerous. 

Culture and Propagation. — It is 
somewhat unfortunate that lovely plants 
like the Bock Boses will grow well only in 
the warmest and most congenial parts of 
the British Islands. The flowers, though 
very fleeting individually, not lasting more 
than a day or so, are produced in such 
numbers in succession that the bushes 
always look full of bloom, and make a 
lovely picture. A rich, light, sandy soil, 



and sheltered position facing south, are 
best, and a little extra protection in hard 
winters would probably save many a plant 
which now dies. 

The Bock Boses may be increased by 
seeds, layers or cuttings. The latter should 
be about 3 or 4 in. long, and placed in 
sandy peat under handlights in early 
autumn. Layers may be made almost at 
any time. Seeds, however, give better 
plants. They should be sown early in 
spring in light soil under glass, and when 
the plants are 1-2 in. high, they may be 
shifted singly into small pots, and kept 
close and shaded in the frame for some 
time to get established. When hardened 
off by gradually allowing more air and 
sunshine, the plants may then be trans- 
ferred to the outdoor garden in mild 
showery weather the following sjmng. 



224 



PB ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



CISTUS 



C. albidus. — A native of S.W. Europe, 
2 5 ft. high, with stalkless, oblong elliptic, 
hoary or woolly leaves, somewhat 3- 
nerved. Flowers in June, 2-3 in. across, 
pale purple or rose, yellow at the base, 
petals overlapping. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. candidissimus (Bhodocistus bertlio- 
letianus). — A shrub 4 ft. high, native of 
the Grand Canary Islands. Leaves ovate, 
elliptic, acute, covered with hoary wool, 
3-nerved ; stalks short, sheathing at the 
base, with hairy margins. Flowers in 
June, pale rose. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Clusii. — A native of Spain and 
Portugal, 2 ft. high. Leaves somewhat 
3-nerved, linear, with revolute edges, hoary 
beneath. Flowers in summer, white, in 
heads, bracts hairy, broadly ovate, pointed, 
ciliate, deciduous, rather longer than the 
flower stalks. The true plant is rarely 
seen in cultivation, that which bears its 
name being usually C. monspeliensis. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. creticus. — A native of Crete, 2 ft. 
high, with spoon-shaped, ovate leaves, 
wrinkled, covered with hairy wool, waved 
at the edges. Flowers in June, pale 
purple, yellow at the base. Sepals hairy. 
This is now regarded as a variety of C. 
villosus. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. crispus. — A native of S.W. Europe, 

2 ft. high. Leaves stalkless, linear, lance- 
shaped, waved and curled, 3-nerved, 
wrinkled, downy. Flowers in June and 
July, about 2i in. across, almost stalkless, 
reddish-purple. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. cupanianus. — A Sicilian plant, 2 ft. 
high. Leaves stalked, heart-shaped, ovate, 
wrinkled, net-veined, upper surface rough, 
lower covered with fascicled hairs, mar- 
gins fringed. Flowers in June, white, 
with a spot of yellow at the base of each 
imbricating petal. Sepals hairy. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. cyprius. — A native of Cyprus, 4-6 
ft. high. Leaves stalked, oblong, lance- 
shaped, smooth above, covered with hoary 
wool beneath. Flowers in June, about 

3 in. across, white, with a dark spot at the 
base of each petal. 

Culture dc. as above. 
C. heterophylius. — An Algerian plant 
2 ft. high, with ovate, lance-shaped, short- 



stalked leaves, sheathing at the base, 
margins revolute. Flowers in June, large, 
red, yellow at the base, on hairy leafy 
stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. hirsutus. — A native of S.W.Europe, 
2 ft. high, with unstalked, oblong, blunt, 
hairy leaves. Flowers in June, about 

2 in. across, white, with a yellow mark at 
the base of the petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. ladaniferus {Gum Cistus). — A 
native of Spain, 4 ft. high. Leaves almost 
stalkless, connate at the base, linear lance- 
shaped, 3-nerved, clammy above, woolly 
beneath and 4-5 in. long. Flowers in 
June, about 3 in. across, white, terminal, 
solitary. The variety maculatus has a 
dark blood-red blotch at the base of each 
of the white petals ; while albiflorus has 
only a yellow stain at the base of the 
white petals. 

Ctdture dc. as above. 

C. latifolius. — A native of Barbary 

3 ft. high. Leaves stalked, broadly heart- 
shaped, acute, with curled, wavy, toothed 
and ciliated margins. Flowers in May, 
white, with a yellow spot at the base of 
each petal. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. laurifolius. — A native of S.W. 
Europe, 5-6 ft. high. Leaves stalked, ovate, 
lance-shaped, 3-nerved, smooth above, 
woolly beneath, stalks dilated and con- 
nate at the base. Flowers from June to 
August, about 3 in. across, white, with a 
yellow spot at the base of each petal, and 
borne in umbel-like clusters. There is a 
somewhat rare variety called maculatus, 
recognised by the deep purple-crimson 
blotch at the base of the white petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. laxus. — A native of S. Europe, 3 ft. 
high. Leaves shortly stalked, ovate, lance- 
shaped, pointed, with wavy, somewhat 
toothed edges, upper ones hairy. Flowers 
in July, white, with yellow spots at the 
base. Flower stalks and sepals hairy. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. longifolius. — A native of Spain and 
S. France. Leaves shortly stalked, oblong, 
lance-shaped, with waved and downy 
edges, veined beneath. Flowers in June, 
white, spotted with yellow at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. lusitanicus. — Probably a hybrid 
between C. ladaniferus and C. mons- 



CISTUS 



ROCK ROSE ORDER 



cistus 225 



pelieusis, forming a dense compact bush 
8 S ft. high. It has deep green leaves 
and large white flowers with a purple 
blotch at the base of each petal. 
Culture dc. as above. 

C. monspeliensis. — A plant 4 ft. high, 
native of S. Europe, with linear, lance- 
shaped, stalkless, 3-nerved, clammy leaves, 
hairy on both surfaces. Flowers in July, 
1-li in. across, white, borne in clusters 
of from 5 to 20 according to the vigour of 
the plant ; petals imbricate and crenate 
with a yellowish blotch at the base. The 
variety florentinus has narrow, lance- 
shaped, wrinkled, almost stalkless leaves, 
veined beneath. The white flowers, 
yellow at the base and tipped with rose, 
are about 2 in. across and are produced 
somewhat earlier than those of the type. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. oblongifolius. — A native of Spain, 
4 ft. high, with hairy branches. Leaves 
shortly stalked, oblong lance-shaped, 
blunt, downy and waved at the edges, 
veined beneath. Flowers in June, white, 
concave, spotted with yellow at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. obtusifolius. — A Cretan species, 
12-18 in. high, with a spreading habit. 
Leaves almost stalkless, tapering to the 
base, ovate-oblong, blunt, wrinkled, downy, 
margins somewhat toothed. Flowers in 
June, about 2 in. across, white, spotted 
with yellow at the base, several in a 
cluster. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. parviflorus. — This is also a native 
of Crete and has a spreading habit like 
C. obtusifolius. The shoots are furnished 
with downy twisted leaves about an inch 
long, and the small pale rosy flowers, about 
1 in. across, are borne in June in cymes 
or clusters at the ends of the shoots. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. populifolius. — Native of S.W. 
Europe, 3-8 ft. high, with heart-shaped, 
pointed, wrinkled, smooth leaves, re- 
markable for having stalks 1^-2 in. long. 
Flowers in May and June, about 2 in. 
across, white, borne in cymose clusters ; 
sepals clammy, bracts oblong. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. psilosepalus. — A plant 2-3 ft. high, 
native country unknown. Leaves shortly 
stalked, oblong lance-shaped, 3-nerved, 
acute, waved at margins, somewhat 
toothed and ciliate, rather hairy. Flowers 



from June to August, white with a yellow 
spot at the base of each broadly wedge- 
shaped petal. Sepals long pointed, 
smooth, shining, with ciliated edges. 
Culture dc. as above. 

C. purpureus. — A native of the Levant, 
2 4 ft. hi<fli. Leaves oblong lance-shaped, 
pointed at each end, wrinkled, with short 
hairy sheathing stalks. Flowers in June, 
reddish-purple, with a dark purple spot at 
the base. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. rotundifolius. — A native of South 
Europe, 1 ft. high. Leaves roundish 
ovate, blunt, flat, wrinkled, net- veined, 
with fascicled hairs on both sides, stalks 
furrowed, somewhat sheathing at the base. 
Flowers from June to September, purple 
spotted with yellow at the base. Sepals 
heart-shaped, hairy. Flower stalks very 
hairy. This is now considered to be a 
variety of < '. r/llosus. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. salvifolius. —Native of S. Europe, 
2 ft. high, with many varieties. Leaves 
stalked, ovate, blunt, wrinkled, woolly 
beneath. Flowers from June to August, 
white, medium-sized, with woolly stalks. 

The variety corbariensis (also known 
as C. cordrifolius) is supposed to be a 
natural hybrid between this species and 
C. popuUfoliu8. It grows in the south 
of France to 2 ft. high or more. Leaves 
rather heart-shaped, ovate, pointed, with 
fringed margins, wrinkled on both sur- 
faces, and very clammy. Flowers in June 
and July, li-2 in. across, white, with a 
yellow centre, each flower being on a long 
stalk. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. vaginatus. — A native of Teneriffe, 
2 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped, acute, 
3-nerved, hairy, net- veined beneath ; stalks 
furrowed, dilated and sheathing at the 
base, with pilose margins. Flowers from 
April to June, deep rose. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. villosus (C.incanus ; C. uudulatus). 
Native of S. Europe, 3 ft. high. Leaves 
stalked, roundish ovate, wrinkled, woolly 
and hairy ; stalks furrowed, connate at the 
base. Flowers in June, large, reddish - 
purple, about 2^ in. across. The variety 
canescens is dwarfer and has ob.'ong 
linear, bluntish, woolly, waved leaves, 
3-nerved, without stalks and somewhat 
connate at the base. Flowers in May, 



226 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS helianthemum 



dark purple, tinged with blue, spotted 
with yellow at the base of each crenulate 
petal. Sepals downy. 
Culture dc. as above. 

HELIANTHEMUM (Sun Rose).— 
A genus of about 30 distinct species of 
annual or perennial herbs or shrubs, often 
prostrate, with opposite and alternate 
leaves. Flowers usually smaller than 
those of the Rock Roses, in secund 
racemes, sometimes corymbose, some- 
times paniculate. Petals broad, 5 (in per- 
fect flowers) ; stamens numerous, rarely 
few. Stigrna capitate, or crestedly 3- 
lobed. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Sun 
Roses grow freely in sandy loam, and are 
splendid plants for the rock garden, where 
they form compact masses of lovely 
flowers and foliage. The annual kinds 
are raised from seeds in the usual way 
in gentle heat about March, the seedlings 
being pricked off into light rich soil, and 
grown on until fit for the outdoor garden 
at the end of May. The perennials may 
also be increased in this way, but they 
are more easily obtained from cuttings, 
which root readily in sandy soil in a 
shady place during the summer months 
under a handlight. 

H. atriplicifolium. — A woolly shrub 4 ft. 
high, native of Spain. Leaves stalked, 
broadly ovate, bluntish, waved at the 
base, woolly on both sides. Flowers in 
June, large, yellow, on hairy stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or cuttings. 

H. canadense. — An erect, herbaceous, 
downy, Canadian species, 1 ft. high. 
Leaves oblong linear, margins usually 
revolute, woolly beneath. Flowers in 
summer, minute, crowded ; stalks very 
short, 1-3-flowered. 

Culture d-c. as above. 

H. carolinianum. — A native of the S. 
United States, 6-12 in. high, shrubby at 
the base. Leaves shortly stalked, lance- 
shaped, toothed, hairy. Flowers in 
May and June, yellow, 1 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. formosum. — A hoary-branched 
Portuguese shrub, 4 ft. high. Leaves 
shortly stalked, obovate lance-shaped, 
covered with hairy wool, the younger 
ones hoary. Flowers in summer, large, 
yellow, spotted with black at the base ; 



stalks hairy. This has been also called a 
Cistus. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. Fumanum.— An elegant Heath-like 
undershrub, native of S.W. Europe, 
with linear fleshy and slightly hairy 
leaves, and bright yellow flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. globularisefolium. — An herbaceous 
species, about 9 in. high, native of Spain 
and Portugal. Lower leaves long-stalked, 
ovate-oblong, hairy, furrowed above ; the 
upper ones stalkless, lanceolate. Flowers 
in summer, citron-yellow, black-spotted 
at the base of the petals and borne in dense 
racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. guttatum. — A native annual of 
stony places in Britain, Europe, North 
Africa, and W. Asia. Stem 6-12 in. high, 
with branches 2 or 3 times forked. Leaves 
1-2 in. long, linear or obovate, or oblong 
lance-shaped, lower ones opposite with- 
out stipules, the upper ones alternate with 
stipules. Flowers from June to August, 
h in. across, yellow with a red spot at the 
base of each wedge-shaped petal. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds sown annually. 

H. halimifolium. — A shrub 3-4 ft. high, 
native of Spain. Leaves downy, ovate 
lance-shaped, acute, wavy. Flowers in 
summer, large, bright yellow, slightly 
spotted at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or cuttings. 

H. italicum. — A European species only 
3 in. high, with long, procumbent, hairy 
branches. Lower leaves stalked, ovate ; 
upper ones almost stalkless, linear oblong. 
Flowers in summer, small, yellow ; 
racemes simple, hairy. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. laivipes. — A pretty shrub of S.W. 
Europe, 1 ft. high, with linear, needle- 
shaped leaves, and yellow flowers in 
summer. This species requires protection 
in severe winters. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. lavandulaefolium. — A hoary 
branched undershrub 1 ft. high, from the 
Mediterranean region. Leaves oblong- 
linear, hoary, with revolute margins, 
under surface woolly. Flowers in sum- 
mer, yellow, in crowded racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 



HELIANTHEMUM 



VIOLA AND PANSY ORDER 



hudsoxi.v 227 



H. ocymoides. — An undershrub 1-3 
ft. high, native of S.W. Europe. Leaves 
stalkless, ovate, lance-shaped, blunt. 
Flowers in summer ; petals yellow, cre- 
nate, with a dark base. H. algarvense, 
H. candidii))! and H. ritgosum are forms 
of this variable species. 

Cult it re Ac, as above. 

H. polifolium (H. pulverulentum). — 

A rather rare British plant, but also dis- 
tributed over Central and Southern 
Europe, and N. Africa. Leaves opposite, 
hoary and downy on both sides, with 
recurved edges. Flowers white, from 
May to July, marked with yellow at the 
base of the petals. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

H. scoparium. — ACalifornian perennial 
about 3 in. high, with alternate, linear 
leaves without stipules. Flowers in May 
and June, small, yellow, in twos and 
threes at the ends of the branches ; 
sepals 5, of which 3 are ovate-acute, and 
2 awl-shaped. 

< 'nil it re Ac. as above. 

H. umbellatum. — A perennial 9-18 in. 
high, with linear oblong leaves, recurved 
and ciliated at the edges, clammy when 
young. Flowers in June, pure white, in a 
whorled raceme ending in an umbel. 

Culture (/v. as above. 

H. vineale. — A European shrubby 
evergreen, with variable obovate, ovate, or 
elliptic hairy leaves, and simple racemes 
of yellow flowers in summer. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

H. vulgare (H. surreianum ; Cistus 
tomentosus). — This is the Common 
Sim Rose of Britain, and from it have 
sprung most of the beautiful garden 
varieties. It is a shrubby procumbent 
plant 3 10 in, high, with opposite, oblong, 
stipulate leaves, hairy above, downy 
beneath. Flowers from June to Sep- 
tember, more than 1 in. across, yellow, 
borne in loose racemes. 



Among the many varieties may be 
mentioned: barbutum, with ovate or 
elliptic lance-shaped leaves, covered with 
white hairs; hyssopifoliu m, with flat, 
linear lance-shaped leaves, and saffron- 
coloured or coppery-red flowers, with also 
a double form of the latter; macranthum, 
with flat, ovate oblong, acutish leaves, 
smooth above, densely woolly beneath, 
and white flowers yellow at the base ; 
nmtdbile, with pale rose-coloured flowers, 
yellow at the base, changing to white with 
age ; and ovalifolium (or serpyllifolium), 
with roundish or ovate glossy green leaves, 
white beneath, and yellow flowers. 

Cult a re Ac. as above. 

HUDSON I A. — A genus consisting of 
3 species of distinct evergreen, Heath- 
like, tufted undershrubs, with small, 
needle-like, imbricated, downy leaves. 
Flowers small, yellow, numerous, crowded 
along the upper ends of the branches. 
Petals 5, small, fugacious. Stamens 
numerous. 

Culture and Propagation. — The Hud- 
sonias require a well-drained peaty or 
sandy soil, and should be grown in 
sheltered sunny spots. They do not grow 
well in pots, but may succeed better in the 
rockery or border where they would 
remain undisturbed at the roots. They 
may be increased by layers in summer, or 
by cuttings put under a glass and pro- 
tected until the following spring, when 
they rnay be planted out in favourable 
weather. 

H. ericoides. — A native of the Eastern 
United States, 1 ft. high, with needle-like 
leaves, and yellow flowers from May to 
July. 

Culture Ac. as above. 

H. tomentosa. — A hoary and downy 
N. American plant, with oval or narrowly 
oblong, short, close-pressed and imbricated 
leaves, and sessile or short- stalked yellow 
flowers in early summer. 

Culture Ac. as above. 



XIV. VIOLARIEiE— Viola and Pansy Order 

Herbs or shrubs with alternate, rarely opposite, simple, entire, or rarely lobed 
leaves, and small or leafy stipules, which are usually deciduous in shrubby 
species. Flowers usually hermaphrodite, axillary, regular or irregular, solitary 
or in racemose or panicled cymes, 2-bracteolate. Sepals 5, often persistent, 
equal or unequal, imbricate in bud, and usually elongated into a spur at the 

q2 



228 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



VIODA 



Petals 5, hypogynous or slightly perigynous, equal or unequal, imbri- 
cate or often contorted in bud. Stamens 5, hypogynous, or slightly peri- 
gynous ; filaments dilated, with connectives produced beyond the anthers. 
Ovary sessile, free, 1-celled, many-seeded. Fruit a 3-valved, dehiscent capsule, 
rarely an indehiscent berry. 



VIOLA (Violet; Pansy; Hearts- 
ease). — A genus containing over 200 
species according to some authors, but 
reduced to about 100 by Bentham and 
Hooker, mostly pretty perennial herbs, 
rarely shrubs, with alternate leaves, and 
persistent, often leafy, stipules. Flower 
stalks axillary, 1- rarely 2- flowered. Se- 
pals almost equal, produced at the base. 
Petals spreading, the lower ones often 
larger, spurred or saccate at the base. 
Anthers connate and produced at the apex, 
the 2 lower stamens often spurred at the 
base. 

Violas often produce two kinds of 
flowers — the large petalled ones, which 
appear first and often yield no seed ; and 
the smaller petalled, or non-petaloxis ones, 
which appear later, and produce seed 
freely, being often fertilised in bud, when 
they are said to be ' cleistogamous.' 

Culture and Propagation. — Generally 
speaking Violas of all kinds are among 
the most easily grown plants in gardens. 
They delight in a rich, moist, sandy soil 
but dislike stagnant water at the roots 
and a position that is never shaded from 
the scorching rays of the summer sun. 
As most of them grow naturally in banks, 
copses, more or less marshy places, pastures 
&c, where they are to a certain extent 
shaded by the overhanging branches of 
trees, or by the leaves of the surrounding 
vegetation, they thrive under somewhat 
similar conditions in a cultivated state. 
The cultivation of Sweet Violets (V. 
odorata) and Pansies (V. tricolor) is dealt 
with under their respective species. 

Violas are easily increased by seeds, 
cuttings, or division. If desired to flower 
the same year, say in autumn, the seeds 
should be sown in spring in the open 
border during April and May in light 
rich soil. If the flowers are wanted in 
spring, the seeds may be sown in August 
or September so that the seedlings will 
be strong and well-established for the 
winter months. The seedlings may be 
either pricked out and transplanted once 
or twice to induce the development of 
masses of fibrous roots, or they may be 



thinned out in the spot where the seeds 
have been sown. Cuttings may be taken 
early in April and inserted in a prepared 
patch of fine sandy soil in a shady border, 
and protected by handlights or frames, 
until well rooted. By September they 
may be transplanted to their permanent 
quarters, and will give a good supply of 
bloom the following spring. If planted 
in beds by themselves they should not be 
nearer than 1 ft. apart so as to admit of 
hoeing. After flowering the plants may 
be lifted and carefully divided into as 
many pieces as possible, and replanted, 
each rooted portion making a good tuft 
for next season's flowering. 

V. altaica. — A native of the Altaian 
Mts. with hard creeping slender roots. 
Leaves oval, with sharply toothed wedge- 
shaped stipules. Flowers from March to 
June, yellow, large, with acute toothed 
sepals, and an urn-shaped stigma. 

Culture rfc. as above. 

V. arenaria. — A somewhat rare British 
species, compact in growth, and covered 
with a hoary down, the whole plant 2-6 in. 
across. Leaves roundish, ovate, blunt. 
Flowers from April to June, with broad 
pale blue petals, and a short spur. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. biflora.— A pretty little Violet 3-4 
in. high, widely distributed throughout 
Asia, Europe, and America. Leaves 
kidney-shaped, serrated, smooth, with 
ovate stipules. Flowers from April to 
June, small, yellow, the lip streaked with 
black, usually in pairs, petals smooth ; 
spur very short, sepals linear, stigma 
bifid. 

Culture &c. as above. This curious 
little Violet requires well- drained sandy 
peat and loam, and may be increased by 
dividing the roots in early autumn or in 
spring, and also by seeds sown as above. 
It dislikes sunny places. 

V. blanda. — An American species with 
creeping rootstock, and roundish, heart- 
shaped or kidney-shaped, slightly downy 
leaves. Flowers in early spring, white, 
small, faintly scented ; petals almost beard- 



VIOLA 



VIOLA AND PANSY OBDEli 



viola 229 



less, the side ones veined with lilac ; spur 
short. 

Cult ure ire. as above. 

V. calcarata. — A very variable fibrous- 
rooted species, native of the Austrian 
Mountains. Leaves roundish or spoon- 
shaped, crenate, stipules palniately cut or 
trifid. Flowers in early summer, light 
blue or white ; sepals oblong, glandularly 
toothed; spur awl-shaped, longer than the 
calyx. The variety fla/oa or Zoysii has 
yellow flowers ; albijiora has large white 
flowers, and Halleri large blue ones. 

Culture <(■<■. as above for V. bifiora. 

V. canadensis. — A free-growing N. 
American species 6-9 in. high, with 
alternate broadly heart-shaped, pointed, 
serrate leaves. Flowers from May to 
August, whitish inside, the upper petals 
mostly tinged with violet beneath, the 
side ones bearded ; spur very short. 

Culture d~c. as above. A very suitable 
plant for sloping banks or the rockery. 
Easily increased by dividing the roots in 
spring or early autumn ; also by seeds 
and cuttings. 

V. canina (Dog Violet). — A very vari- 
able species, native of British pastures and 
banks. Leaves 1-3 in. across, long-stalked, 
crenate serrate, varying from broadly 
ovate heart-shaped to lanceolate. Flowers 
i-l| in. across, from April to August, 
blue, lilac, grey, or white ; sepals narrow 
pointed ; spur blunt ; style club-shaped, 
hooked. The variety lactea is a very 
slender plant with ovate lance-shaped 
leaves, rounded or wedge-shaped at the 
base, and with narrow grey petals. 
Persiccefolia has long rootstocks with 
runners, leaves oblong lance-shaped, and 
white or lilac flowers with a very short 
spur. The variety alba, as the name 
indicates, has white flowers. 

Culture tie. as above. 

V. capillaris. — A Chilian species with 
many tufted, decumbent stems. Leaves 
ovate-oblong, blunt at the base, slightly 
acute at the apex, with glandular teeth 
on the margins. Flowers from May to 
August, pale blue, side petals densely 
bearded, spur short, blunt, greenish. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. cornuta. — A tufted, fibrous-rooted, 
ornamental species, native of the Pyrenees 
and Switzerland. Leaves heart-shaped, 
ovate, crenate, ciliated, with obliquely 
heart-shaped, toothed, ciliated stipules. 
Flowers from May to July, pale blue ; 



sepals and spur awl-shaped, the latter 
elongated and abrupt at the base. The 
variety alba has white flowers which look 
pretty nestling among the masses of deep 
green leaves. 

Culture tt-c. as above. This species 
and its variety look pretty in masses in 
shaded parts of the rockery, or on banks 
or slopes, and although the flowers are 
odourless they are effective. Best in- 
creased by sowing seeds annually. 

V. cucullata. — A very variable free 
flowering species with very scaly root- 
stocks, native of N. America. Leaves 
long-stalked, erect, more or less kidney- or 
heart-shaped, with a broad sinus, smooth 
or slightly downy, bluntly serrated. 
Flowers in early summer on scapes 3-10 
in. high, deep or pale violet-blue or purple, 
sometimes almost white or variegated 
with white as in the variety called va/rie- 
gata; the side petals and often the 
lower ones bearded ; spur short, thick. 
The variety palmata has leaves 3-7- 
parted or cleft, or the earlier ones entire 
on the same plant. 

Culture <(x. as above. Increased readily 
by dividing the roots early in autumn or 
in spring. 

V. declinata. —A pretty Transylvanian 
Viola about 6 in. high with ovate and 
bluntly toothed leaves, and large flowers 
of a rich bright purple, with deeper mark 
ings near the yellow centre. 

Culture (/c. as above. 

V. delphinifolia. — An interesting spe- 
cies, native of the Missourian prairies. 
Leaves pedately 7-9-parted, with narrow 
2-3-cleft segments, reminding one of 
Larkspur foliage ; stipules ovate lance- 
shaped, nearly entire. Flowers in spring, 
beautiful sky-blue, the 2 upper petals 
downy, the lower ones notched at the 
end ; spur pouched, short. 

Culture ((■(-. as above. 

V. hederacea (Erpetion hederaceum ; 
E. reniforme). — A tufted Australian 
species, with roundish, kidney-shaped or 
spoon-shaped leaves, | to 1 in. broad, 
entire or toothed. Flowers in summer, 
blue, rarely white, small ; petals smooth, 
or the side ones slightly downy inside ; 
spur reduced to a slight concavity. The 
variety grandiflora is an improved form. 
Culture dc. as above. This pretty 
species requires protection in winter. It 
should be propagated by cuttings in 
autumn, kept under glass in winter, and 



230 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



VIOLA 



planted out at the end of May or beginning 
of June. 

V. heterophylla. — A pretty alpine 
Violet with a dwarf compact habit. The 
leaves are narrowly lance-shaped and 
toothed, and of a bright green, while the 
large blue flowers are produced in great 
abundance in early summer. 

Culture d'c. as above. 

V. hirta. — A tufted, hairy British 
plant, near V. odorata but with narrower 
and more triangular leaves, with deeper 
crenatures, and a shallower sinus. 
Flowers from April to June, faintly 
scented or not ; spur long and hooked. 
The variety calcarea is a dwarf starved 
form with narrower petals. 

Culture Jr. as above. 

V. lanceolata. — A N. American species 
with a creeping rootstock, and lance- 
shaped, blunt, erect leaves tapering into 
long, margined stalks. Flowers in early 
spring, white, small ; petals beardless, the 
lower ones veined with lilac. 

Culture etc. as above. 

V. montana. — A simple-stemmed, erect 
species 1 ft. high, native of Europe, 
Siberia &c. Lower leaves heart-shaped, 
upper ones ovate, acute, stalks margined ; 
stipules oblong toothed or incised. 
Flowers from May to July, white, be- 
coming bluish ; spur conical, straight, 
greenish ; stigma papillose, slightly re- 
flexed. The variety Runpii has heart- 
shaped or lance-shaped leaves and pro- 
cumbent stems. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

V. munbyana. — A pretty free-flower- 
ing, vigorous species, native of Algiers. 
Leaves ovate - heart - shaped, bluntly 
crenate, smooth or slightly hairy on the 
edges. Flowers from February to May, 
and also during the autumn months in 
favourable seasons, large, violet or yellow, 
produced well above the foliage ; spur 
straight, nearly twice as long as calyx. 
The variety lutea has yellow flowers 
which are faintly striped with purple at 
the base. 

Culture dc. as above. Although a 
perennial it is on the whole better to treat 
this species and its variety as a biennial, 
by raising seeds annually as recommended 
above. 

V. odorata (Sweet Violet). — This 
well-known plant is wild in British 
copses and banks, and is also distributed 
over Europe, N. Africa, N. and "W. Asia 



to the Himalayas. Bootstock short, 
scarred, with long runners. Leaves deeply 
heart-shaped at the base, sinus closed ; 
stipules glandular ; stalks with deflexed 
hairs. Flowers from March to May, 
sweet-scented, blue, white, or reddish- 
purple ; the side petals with or without a 
tuft of hairs ; spur short, blunt. Anther- 
spurs linear oblong. 

The dwarf and distinct variety alba 
has white flowers ; pallida plena (the 
Neapolitan or Parma Violet) very sweet- 
scented, double, pale lavender flowers ; 
permixta (probably a hybrid with V. 
hirta) pale, scentless flowers, runners not 
rooting ; and sepincola (also probably a 
hybrid) flowers dark, scentless, plant more 
hairy, with rooting runners. Sutyhurea 
is a new variety of Sweet Violet, with 
shining deep green leaves, and lemon- 
yellow flowers, with a deeper yellow shade 
in the centre, and a pale violet spur 
behind. There are many garden varieties, 
among which the following are best 
known : — argent&flora, purplish-white, 
fragrant ; Comte Brazza, white, double, 
sweet-scented ; Czar, very large, single, 
blue and fragrant ; White Czar, a fine 
white form of the preceding ; Admiral 
Avellan ; La Grosse Blene; California; 
Princess of Wales; Belle de Chatenay, 
strong double white or rose-white ; La 
France; Luxonne, strong, beautiful, paler 
than the Czar but larger, much grown in 
the S. of France ; Lady Hume Campbell; 
Marie Louise, lavender blue and white, 
very large, sweet-scented and free-flower- 
ing; Queen of Violets, double white, 
flushed pink; Victoria Regina, large 
double blue, sweet-scented ; Russian, an 
old free-growing large single blue variety ; 
Wells iana ; Wilson ; La Violette des 
Quatre Saiso?is, flowers throughout the 
autuinn, winter and spring, and is a great 
favourite with Parisians. 

Culture and Propagation. — In the 
open border Sweet Violets delight in a 
rich and fairly heavy soil. They require 
a little shelter, and the best and most 
natural is that given by the surrounding 
plants, among which the air circulates 
freely. Away from brick walls, and on 
banks at the base of a hedge, facing north 
or north-west, is perhaps the best place 
for violets. Failing such natural positions 
the plants will of course do well in the 
ordinary flat border, not facing due south. 

During the summer months a mulch- 
ing of short rotten manure or the 



VIOLA 



VIOLA AND PANSY OBDEB 



VIOLA 231 



remnants of spent mushroom beds is 
beneficial. It not only prevents the 
moisture in the soil from evaporating too 
quickly, but also stifles the weeds, if any. 
A gentle watering in the cool of the 
sun nner evening is also most refreshing 
to the plants. 

If the plants are too much crowded, 
or in too hot a position, they are liable to 
be attacked in the first case by green-fly, 
and in the second by red- spider. Both 
these pests, however, may be kept at bay 
by frequent use of the syringe, using clean 
hot water (say 80°-120° '¥.). Dusting 
with fine sulphur is a good remedy, but 
it makes the plants very unsightly. 

Forcing Sweet Violets. — Where cold 
frames exist in any garden, Sweet 
Violets may with advantage be grown in 
them for flowering during the winter and 
early spring. The plants should be 
lifted about the end of September from 
the open ground and planted in rich soil 
in the frames, with the foliage as near 
the glass as possible. The plants should 
be thoroughly watered in, and kept close, 
that is, no air, or very little, should be 
admitted for about a week or ten days 
after planting, so that the roots may 
more quickly take a hold of the new soil. 
After this and throughout the winter, on 
favourable days, plenty of air may be 
given, and the lights may even be removed 
altogether on mild sunny days. Winter 
fogs are very injurious to both leaves 
and flowers, the former damping off, the 
latter remaining undeveloped. 

Most of the varieties named above are 
suitable for growing in frames, but Marie 
Louise, Cornte Brazza, and the Neapolitan 
(or Parma) Violets are the best. 

Sweet Violets are easily increased by 
simply dividing the crowns after flower- 
ing, and planting about 9 in. apart in rich 
soil, in a somewhat shaded place. Fine 
flowering plants may also be obtained 
from seed, which should be sown as soon 
as ripe, or during the spring months as 
recommended above for the species in 
general, p. 228. 

V. palustris. — A native of the swamps 
and bogs in Great Britain and Ireland, 
chiefly in the northern parts. Rootstock 
white scaly, creeping. Leaves kidney- or 
heart - shaped, slightly crenate, with 
gland-like stipides. Flowers from April 
to July, h in. across, white or lilac, scent- 
less ; side petals almost smooth ; spur 
short, blunt. 



Cull lire do. as above for the species in 
general, p. 228. 

V. pedata (V. fldbelUfoHa ; V.flabel- 
lata). -Bird's Foot Violet. — A beautiful 
N. American species with a thick rootstock. 
Leaves pedately divided, something like 
a bird's foot, with linear lance-shaped 
leaflets, entire or deeply 3-toothed at 
apex, sometimes very narrow and much 
cut; stipides ciliated. Flowers in May 
and June, usually bright blue, sometimes 
pale or white, large ; petals smooth ; spur 
very short ; stigma large and thick, 
margined, obliquely truncate. 

The variety atropurpurea has incised, 
wedge-shaped leaf segments, dark purple 
flowers and a downy pistil. Bicolor is a 
rare and handsome variety, with the 2 
upper petals deep velvety violet. It does 
not grow equally well in all places, and 
requires special care. The form called 
alba lias white flowers. 

Culture <(<•• as above for the species 
in general, p. 228. 

V. pedunculata.— A Californian species 
with rhomboid-ovate leaves about 1 in. 
long, rather thick, coarsely and bluntly 
toothed, and abruptly narrowed at the 
base. Flowers in spring, large, deep 
yellow ; petals broadly obovate, the 2 
upper ones conspicuously clawed, the 
side ones bearded at the base ; spur very 
short. 

Culture dr. as above for the species in 
general, p. 228. 

V. pinnata. — A species from the 
mountains of S. Europe and Siberia. 
Leaves deeply divided into 4 or 5 segments, 
each 3-parted or pinnatifid, jagged and 
very narrow. Flowers in early summer, 
pale blue, with darker veins, the 2 side- 
petals bearded ; sepals ovate ; spur' broad, 
nearly straight. 

Culture d-c. as above, p. 228. 

V. praemorsa. — A North American 
species, usually densely hairy, with short 
erect stems. Leaves ovate lance-shaped, 
repandly toothed or almost entire ; stipules 
entire. Flowers in spring, rather large, 
yellow; lower petal veined with brown, 
emarginate ; spur very short. 

Culture d-c. as above, p. 228. 

V. pubescens. — A softly downy species 
6-12 in. high, native of N. America. 
Stems simple erect, naked below, 2-4 
leaved above. Leaves broadly heart- 
shaped, toothed, somewhat pointed; 



232 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



VIOLA 



stipules large, ovate, entire or serrated 
at the top. Flowers in spring and early 
summer, yellow, lower petal streaked 
with purple ; sepals oblong lance-shaped ; 
spur very short; stigma with 2 tufts of 
hah. 

The variety eriocarpa is much taller, 
stouter growing, and more downy than 
the species, and has woolly seed pods. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. pyrolaefolia. — A Patagonian species, 
with ovate or more or less heart-shaped 
leaves, with stipules fringed at the apex. 
Flowers in winter (January), yellow ; 
petals densely bearded within ; sepals 
pointed ; spur short, blunt. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. rostrata. — A native of N. America, 
4-6 in. high, with roundish heart-shaped, 
serrate leaves, upper ones acute ; stipules 
large, lance-shaped, fringed, toothed. 
Flowers in early summer, dingy purple 
or lavender, with darker streaks. Petals 
smooth ; spur slender, rather acute, i in. 
long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. rothomagensis. — A free-growing 
hairy species, native of Belgium. France, 
and Sicily, with rather spindle-shaped roots, 
and zigzag branching stems. Leaves ovate, 
the lower ones somewhat heart-shaped, 
crenate, fringed, stipules pinnatifid, rather 
lyrate ; flowers from April to August, 
bright blue, the side petals and lip striped 
with black ; spur tubidar, blunt, shorter 
than the sepals ; bracts near the flower, 
lance-shaped, with a tooth on each side. 

Culture d-c. as above. This species 
requires a warm, sheltered position. It 
is sometimes called the Rouen Violet, and 
is best raised from seeds sown annually as 
recommended above. 

V. rotundifolia. — An American species 
with a creeping rootstock. Leaves shining, 
roundish ovate, heart-shaped, slightly 
crenate, increasing from 1 in. broad at 
flowering time to 3 or 4 inches. Flowers 
in early spring, yellow ; side petals bearded 
and lined with brown ; spur very short. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. sagittata ( V. dent at a). — A smooth 
or hairy species from N. America. Leaves 
with small and margined or naked stalks, 
varying from oblong heart-shaped to has- 
tate, sagittate, oblong lance-shaped, or 
ovate, toothed. Flowers in spring and 
early summer, rather large, purplish- 



blue ; usually the side, but sometimes all 
the petals, bearded ; spur short and thick , 
stigma bearded. The variety emargina ta 
has almost triangular leaves, lacerate - 
toothed near the base ; petals emarginate 
or with 2 teeth. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. Selkirki (V. u/ubrosa). — A small 
delicate fibrous-rooted species, native of 
North America. Leaves roundlj 7 heart- 
shaped, crenate, with a deep, narrow sinns, 
and minutely hairy above. Flowers in 
spring and early summer, pale violet ; 
spur very large, nearly as long as petals, 
thickened at the end. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. striata. — A North American species 
with ascending angidar stems, 6-12 in. 
high. Leaves heart-shaped, finely ser- 
rated, often acute ; stipules large, oblong 
lance-shaped, fringed with strong teeth. 
Flowers from April to October, cream- 
coloured or white ; side petals bearded, 
the lower ones lined with purple ; spur 
rather thick, much shorter than the petals ; 
stigma beaked. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. suavis (Russian Violet). — A native 
of Tauria, with long creeping and rooting 
stolons. Leaves downy, kidney- or heart- 
shaped, crenate. Flowers from March to 
May, pale blue, white at the base, sweet- 
scented ; sepals blunt ; four upper petals 
narrowest, the lower one emarginate, the 
2 side ones with a hairy line ; stigma 
hooked, naked. 

Culture dc. as above. 

V. sylvestris (Wood Violet). — A native 
of the copses and woods of Britain. Root- 
stock very short. Plant smooth with 
leaves in a rosette, broadly ovate heart- 
shaped, stipules lance-shaped acute, 
fimbriate or toothed. Flowers from 
March to July, bluish-purple or lilac ; base 
of sepals much produced in fruit ; spur 
short, broad, compressed, furrowed, usually 
pale. The variety reichenbacliiana has 
flowers smaller, paler and earlier ; spurs 
longer, fruiting sepals scarcely produced. 
The variety riviniana has the lower 
leaves as broad as long ; the upper ones 
a little narrower than long. Flowers 
later in summer than the type, bluish - 
purple or lilac, scentless ; petals obovate 
oblong, the lowest much broader than the 
others ; flower-stalks long, with 2 small 
bracts. There is also a variety having 



VIOLA 



VIOLA AND PANSY OHDEll 



viola 233 



pure white flowers (alba), and another 
rarely seen with rose-coloured ones 
(rubra). 

Culture dc. as above. Easily increased 
by seeds or division of the roots. 

V. tricolor (Heartsease and Pansy). 
This is the wild plant from which the 
well-known Heartsease and Pansy are 
supposed to have originated, although 
some believe that these popular Howers 
are descended from V. altaica. The wild 
Pansy is a native of the pastures, banks 
and waste places in the British Islands, 
and is also found in such diverse places 
as Arctic Europe, N. Africa. N. and W. 
Asia to Siberia and N.W. India. Stems 
4-8 in. high, branched, erect or ascend- 
ing, angled, tlexuous. Leaves, with long 
stalks, ovate oblong or lance-shaped, cre- 
nate, 1-1 i in. long, lyrate, coarsely and 
remotely crenate-serrate ; stipules very 
large, pinnatifid ; lobes spreading like a 
fan, linear or oblong obtuse, the middle one- 
largest. Flowers from May to September, 
J-lj in. across, with purple, whitish, or 
golden-yellow petals, sometimes parti- 
coloured ; spur thick, blunt ; stigma 
capitate, hollowed. The variety arvensis 
has white or yellowish flowers, petals 
usually shorter than the sepals: Curtisi 
has a branching rootstock, with runners, 
and blue, purple, or yellow flowers, with 
spreading petals ; and lutea (known as 
the Mountain Vine) has a branched 
rootstock, short stem with underground 
runners, and blue, purple, or yellow 
flowers, with spreading petals much 
longer than the sepals. 

Culture dc. as below. 

HYBRID PANSIES 

The natural species and its varieties are 
utterly eclipsed by the vast number of beau- 
tiful forms which have been raised from 
them by British and Continental garden- 
ers. Among the numerous cultivated 
varieties are many in which the flowers 
have only one— or almost one colour, 
chiefly white, yellow, rose, copper, violet, 
blue in various shades, chestnut, purple, 
intense velvety black &c. Others, and 
more numerous, have various colours on 
white or yellow grounds ; others again 
have copper, old gold, or bronzy flowers 
with various shades. Then there are 
veined, striped, blotched, variegated, 
flamed, bordered and zoned flowers, 
washed and shaded with various colours 
in all sorts of ways, sometimes giving the 



flowers a most singular appearance. 
Indeed the range and combination of 
colour in Tansies is truly infinite, and 
where seedlings are raised regularly every 
year, new combinations, colours, and 
developments take place. 

Pansies have come under the arbitrary 
ride of the florist, and he has divided 
them into three main sections as 
follows : — 

(1) English or SI/ow Varieties. — 
These are subdivided into white grounds, 
yellow grounds, and selfs. The flowers 
of • white ground ' Pansies have a large 
dense, dark blotch in the centre, with a 
lint,' or band of white, cream or straw 
colour around it, and this ring may be 
edged with blue, or various shades of 
purple. In the 'yellow grounds.' the 
ring is a pale or deep gold colour edged 
with various shades of bronze, maroon 
&c. The ' selfs ' must be clear decided 
colours, of one shade, and should have 
a dark well-defined blotch under the 
eye or centre. 

(2) Belgian or Fancy Varieties. — 
These are usually very large and richly 
coloured, and should have a deep coloured 
blotch covering almost the whole of the 
bottom petal or lip and contiguous parts 
of the side petals. The remaining 
portion of the flower may be any of the 
numerous shades referred to, but should 
always be so pale that the colour of the 
lower petal is much denser and decidedly 
conspicuous in comparison. 

(3) Tufted Pansies is the modern 
name, and certainly an appropriate 
one, for Bedding Pansies and Violas, and 
many simply call them Violas — a pretty 
name. They are hybrids between V. 
cornuta and various garden-pansies, V. 
cornuta being the seed bearer. If the 
reverse cross is made, a more or less 
ordinary Pansy will result. 

Violas or Tufted Pansies generally 
have a dwarf, close, bushy habit, and 
beautiful flowers — usually self-coloured — 
much smaller than the ordinary Pansy. 
In beds by themselves, or associated with 
other plants as a kind of floral carpet, 
Violas make a charming picture. 

Culture and Propagation. — Pansies 
germinate readily from seeds, and may 
be sown in the open border or in shallow 
pans or boxes in July and August, in rich 
sandy soil with plenty of leaf mould in 
it. In the open border the seedlings 
may be thinned to about 6 in. apart, and 



234 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS 



VIOLA 



by the end of September they will be 
large and strong enough to transfer to 
the positions in which they are required 
to bloom the following spring. From a 
packet of choice mixed seed, plants with 
the most gorgeous flowers may be 
obtained, and if there are any particularly 
fine, it will be easy to perpetuate them 
by means of cuttings. To obtain a good 
supply of these, the plant may have its 
branches pegged down, and as quickly as 
the shoots are produced they may be 
detached. 

Cuttings may also be inserted in July 
and August, and by the first week in 
October the plants will be ready for 
their permanent positions. 

Provided the plants are grown hi a rich 
sandy loam, well-manured, Pansies and 
Violas are the easiest of plants to grow. 
Some thousands of Pansies and Violas are 
sold every spring in the London markets 
neatly bound in hay enclosing a ball of 
soil round the roots. The regular trade 
done rather indicates that all — or at least 
the majority — of the plants thus sold 
perish during the year. The reason 
probably is that Pansies and Violas do 
not really care to be disturbed in spring, 
just about the period when the flowers 
are draining the plant of its reserve 
material for the production of seeds. 
The flowers trying to carry out the 
natural laws of seeding, and the injured 
roots trying to re-establish themselves, 
the plant as a whole becomes more or 
less exhausted, and naturally succumbs 
in due course. 

Pansies and Violas for Spring Bed- 
ding. — Too much importance can scarcely 
be attached to these charming plants for 
decorating flower-beds and borders during 
the spring and early summer months, and 
right up till the autumn even. If the 
very best results are required Pansies and 
Violas should be planted about the end of 
September, or as soon as ever the beds 
and borders have been cleared of the 
usual stock of summer bedding plants. 
The soil should be well dug and manured, 
and if light or heavy should be improved 
according to the recommendations given 
at p. 63 in the chapter on Soils. Whole 
beds may be planted with a variety of one 
colour alone, or two or three distinct 
varieties and colours may be used in an 
agreeable combination. The best contrasts 
are obtained by the juxtaposition of the 
primary colours, such as reds, blues, and 



yellows, and when intermediate shades 
are used care should be taken so that one 
colour has an effect upon another. For 
example, yellow looks colder with blue 
than with red, but blue is more effective 
with yellow than with white, and so on. 
As a ride the section known as ' Violas ' or 
' Tufted Pansies ' are most effective for 
bedding purposes, and the colours chosen 
shovdd always be clear and well defined, 
not ' washy ' or indefinite, as if one coloiu- 
had run into another before it had got 
dry. 

The following is a list of some of the 
best Pansies and Violas arranged in 
the three main shades of colour, but any 
one can probably raise equally as good 
from choice seeds. There are many 
intermediate shades of colour, but as a 
rule the varieties with clear and well- 
defined self or uniform colours look best 
for bedding purposes. 

WHITE -FLOWERED VIOLAS 

Accushla, Blanche, Countess of 
Hopetoun, Countess of Wharncliffe, Dr. 
Svulthorpe, Marchioness, Mary Scott, 
Mary Stuart, Nipihetos, President, 
Sylvia. 

YELLOW-FLOWERED VIOLAS 

A. J. Bowberry, Ar dwell Gem, 
Bullion, Duchess of Fife, Fanny 
Emmeline, George Lord, Golden Bee, 
Golden Boy, Goldfinch, Henry IV., 
Kitty Hay, Kitty Whitworth, Lemon 
Queen, Lord Elcho, Molly Pope, Mrs. 
Greentoood, Nellie M. Brotvn, Pembroke, 
Benotvn, Sir Robert Peel, Wonder. 

BLUE AND PURPLE-FLOWERED VIOLAS 

Acme, Blue Gown, Border Witch, 
Britannia, Commander, Councillor W. 
Waters, Dorothy Tennant, Ethelinde, 
J. B. Biding, John Shires, Magnificent, 
Mrs. Grant, Mrs. H. Bellamy, Olivetta, 
The Mearns, William Haig. 

V. variegata. — A native of Dahuria, 
with rather hard subdivided roots. 
Leaves heart-sbaped-ovate or roundish, 
violaceous beneath, obscurely green 
above, white at the veins, and rather 
hairy ; stipules lance-shaped, toothed. 
Flowers in May and June, pale violet ; 
spur cylindrical, straight, as long as the 
sepals. 

Culture dr. as above, p. 228. 

HYMENANTHERA.— A genus con- 
taining about 4 species of rigid shrubs on 



HYMENANTHERA 



BIXINEJE 



AZARA 235 



small trees, with alternate, sometimes 
clustered, often small, entire or toothed 
leaves without stipules. Flowers axillary, 
small, sometimes polygamous, solitary or 
in clusters. 

H. crassifolia. — An ornamental shrub 
2-4 ft. high, native of New Zealand, 
somewhat resembling a white -berried 
Cotoneaster when in fruit. Leaves alter- 
nate or tufted, linear spoon-shaped, entire, 
about \ in. long. Flowers about March, 
yellowish, small, followed by masses of 
white shining berries, \ in. long, oblong 
obtuse. 



Culture and Propagation. — This is 
* the only species of any note in cultivation. 
It flourishes in a mixture of sandy peat 
and loam, and may be increased by 
cuttings put in sandy soil under a bell 
glass during the late summer months and 
protected until the following spring. 

The plant is quite hardy as far north 
as Cheshire, and perhaps still further 
north. It is not only an excellent plant 
for the garden, but is also remarkable for 
its shrubby habit, so unlike what is usually 
associated with its relatives, the Pansies 
and Violas. 



XV. BIXINEiE 

Trees or shrubs with alternate, simple, toothed, or more rarely entire leathery 
leaves, often marked with transparent dots. Stipules caducous or none. 
Flower stalks axillary, many-flowered. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite or 
unisexual. Sepals 2-6, often 4-5, slightly cohering at the base. Petals none 
or equal in number to the sepals, or numerous, and imbricate or contorted in 
bud, deciduous. Stamens hypogynous, of the same number as the petals, or 
some multiple of them, dehiscing by a pore at the apex. Ovary 1- or more 
celled, with several more or less distinct stigmas. Fruit either fleshy and 
indehiscent, or capsular, with 4 or 5 valves, the centime filled with a thin pulp. 
Seeds numerous. 

This order contains about 160 species, mostly natives of warm regions and 
not hardy enough for our climate. The following are the only repre- 
sentatives grown out of doors in the British Isles. 



AZARA. — A genus of about 12 species 
of ornamental evergreen trees or shrubs, 
with entire or serrate leaves, often with 
conspicuous stipules. Flowers herma- 
phrodite, borne in clusters, or shortly 
corymbose or almost spicate. Sepals 4, 
subvalvate, or 5-6 imbricated. Petals 
none. Stamens numerous (except in A. 
microphylla). 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Azaras thrive in well-drained, rich, sandy 
loam, and may be increased from cut- 
tings of the ripened shoots placed in sandy 
soil under a glass and in gentle bottom 
heat in late summer and autumn. 

In the southern counties and the 
milder parts of Ireland and Scotland the 
Azaras are hardy, but in more unfavour- 
able parts protection may be required in 
severe winters. Trained against walls 
with a southern aspect, or grown as 
bushes, they are ornamental. All the 
plants are natives of Chili, and those 



described below are hardy against south 
walls in sheltered situations near London. 

A. dentata. — A shrub 12 ft. high, with 
ovate, serrate, roughish leaves, woolly 
beneath ; stipides leafy, unequal in size. 
Flowers in June, yellow, in few-flowered 
sessile corymbs. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. Gilliesi. — A beautiful shrub 15 ft. 
high, with reddish-tinted branches and 
large, smooth, ovate, coarsely toothed 
leaves, like Holly. Flowers in autumn, 
bright yellow, in axdlary densely packed 
panicles. 

Culture <£c. as above. 

A. integrifolia.— About 18 ft. high, 
with obovate or oblong, entire, smooth 
leaves ; stipules equal, persistent. Flowers 
in autumn, yellow, fragrant, on short 
axillary spikes. There is a rare varie- 
gated form. 

Culture d'c. as above. 



236 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



IDESIA 



A. microphylla. — An ornamental shrub 
12 ft. high, with srnall obovate obtuse, 
dark shining green leaves, in opposite 
rows up the stem. Flowers in autumn, 
greenish, corymbose, followed by numer- 
ous small orange-coloured berries. 

Culture d'-c. as above. This is probably 
the best known species. 

IDESIA. — A genus with only one 
species, the description of which is given 
below with the generic characters. 

I. polycarpa (Flacourtia japonica). — 
An ornamental tree native of China and 
Japan, where it assumes very large pro- 
portions, but is much smaller in cultiva- 
tion. It has large and rather heart-shaped 
5 -nerved alternate leaves with serrated 
margins, and long racemes of rather large 
yellowish flowers borne in long drooping 
racemes at the ends of the branches. The 
male flowers are borne on one plant, the 
females on another. There are 5 (or 3-6) 
woolly sepals, no petals, and numerous 



stamens with shaggy filaments. The 
stamens are replaced by staminodes in the 
female flowers, in the centre of which are 
5 (or 8-6) spreading styles. The fruit is 
a many-seeded orange-yellow berry about 
the size of a pea. 

There is a variety called crispa rarely 
seen, and now perhaps not in cultivation, 
remarkable for its curiously cut and 
crisped leaves. 

Culture and Propagation. — This tree 
is fairly hardy in the neighbourhood of 
London, in warm sheltered situations, and 
thrives in ordinary good garden soil, 
which must as a matter of course be well- 
drained. It may be increased by inserting 
cuttings of the more or less ripened shoots 
in sandy soil during the summer and 
autumn months, and placing them in 
gentle heat under glass. Seeds, if obtain- 
able, may be sown as soon as ripe or in 
spring in light rich soil, and placed in 
bottom heat. 



XVI. PITTOSPOREiE 

A small order of usually smooth shrubs or small trees with alternate, entire, 
toothed, or very rarely incised leaves, without stipules. Flowers hermaphro- 
dite, regular, or slightly oblique. Sepals 5, usually distinct. Petals 5, hypo- 
gynous, longer than the sepals. Stamens 5 ; hypogynous, free, alternating 
with the petals. Fruit a capsule or berry. 



PITTOSPORUM.— A genus of usu- 
ally smooth and evergreen shrubs or small 
trees with entire or sinuate-toothed leaves, 
often more or less whorled near the ends 
of the branches. Flowers borne in various 
ways in clusters at the ends or sides of 
the branches. Sepals distinct or united at 
the base. Petals more or less cohering in 
a tube, or rarely spreading. Ovary sessile 
or shortly stalked. Fruit a roundish, 
ovoid, or pear-shaped capsule. 

Culture and Propagation. — Although 
about 50 species have been described in 
this genus, those mentioned below are the 
only ones suitable for cultivation in the 
open air in the milder parts of the British 
Islands. They are fairly hardy in ordinary 
winters in the neighbourhood of London, 
and on the west and south coast even P. 
Tobira has been uninjured by 20° of frost. 

Pittosporums will thrive in any good 
and well-drained garden soil, but they 
prefer a rich fibrous loam with a little 
sand and leaf mould added. They may 
be increased during the summer months 



by means of cuttings of the half-ripened 
shoots inserted in light sandy soil under 
a handlight or bell glass, and placed in 
gentle bottom heat. The plants thus raised 
may be grown on under glass until they 
are large enough and thoroughly hardened 
off to stand being planted out of doors, 
an operation best performed during mild 
weather in spring. 

P. crassifolium (P. Raljihi). — An orna- 
mental bush 4- 10 ft. high, native of New 
Zealand, where it is known as the ' Parch- 
ment Bark.' The branches are clothed 
with rather narrowly oblong obovate light 
green leaves, quite smooth and shining 
above, but rather woolly beneath. The 
deep brownish-purple flowers are produced 
in abundance in early summer in stalked 
and nodding umbels. 

Culture dc. as above. 

P. Tobira (P. chinense). — A pretty 
Japanese shrub 10-12 ft. high, with 
bluntly obovate smooth leathery leaves, 
and clusters of white sweetly scented 



lUHtS.VIMA 



MILKWORT ORDER 



POLYGALA 237 



flowers produced during the summer 
months. 

Culture tic. as above. 

P. undulatum. — An ornamental Aus- 
tralian shrub 6-10 ft. high with oval lance- 
shaped, wavy, deep green, and rather 
leathery leaves, tapering at both ends. 
The small white flowers appear in early 
summer in somewhat downy clusters. 

Culture Sc. as above. 

BURSARIA. — A small genus of 
stiffish and rather spiny shrubs, with 
small entire leaves often in clusters. 
Flowers small, whitish, in pyramidal 
panicles at the ends of the branches. 
Sepals minute, distinct. Petals narrow, 
spreading almost from the base. 



B. spinosa (Itea spinosa). — An orna- 
mental evergreen spiny shrub 6-10 ft. 
high, native of Australia, with small and 
entire oblong wedge-shaped leaves and 
trusses of small white flowers produced 
during the summer and autumn months 
in favourable situations. 

Culture dud Propagation. — Although 
fairly hardy in warm and sheltered situa- 
tions in the vicinity of London, this plant 
is much more luxuriant in the milder 
south and western parts of the kingdom. 
It thrives in good and well-drained garden 
soil, but has a preference for rich loam and 
peat or leaf soil in about equal proportions. 
Cuttings of the young or half-ripened 
shoots may be rooted in gentle heat under 
glass in the same way as Pittosporuiu* 
above, p. 236. 



XVII. POLYGALE^-Milkwort Order 

Erect or climbing herbs or shrubs with alternate, rarely opposite, simple 
entire leaves, always destitute of stipules. Flowers hermaphrodite, irregular, 
usually in spikes or racemes, often small and inconspicuous but showy in 
many species of Polygala. Two to three small bracts are at the base of the 
pedicels. Sepals 5, free, the 2 inner larger and petal-like and known as the 
' wings.' Petals 3 or 5, hypogynous, of which one known as the ' keel ' is 
larger than the others. Stamens 8, rarely 5 or 4, hypogynous, with filaments 
united in a split sheath, which is usually adnate to the petals. Ovary free, 
2-celled (rarely 3-5-celled). Fruit usually opening through the valves ; some- 
times indehiscent, membranous, fleshy, leathery, drupe-like or winged. 

There are about 400 species in this order, distributed throughout temperate 
and warm regions. 



POLYGALA (Milkseed ; Milk- 
wort). — An extensive genus containing 
about 200 species, of which only those 
mentioned below are worth growing out 
of doors, although there are many pretty 
species suitable for greenhouse cultiva- 
tion. There are 3 species native of 
Britain. 

The Polygalas are chiefly shrubs or 
undershrubs, or herbs, with alternate, or 
rarely opposite, or verticillate leaves. 
Flowers pea-like in appearance, in termi- 
nal or lateral racemes, rarely axillary, 
sometimes in contracted heads, rarely 
paniculate. Flowers sometimes showy, 
sometimes minute, variously coloured. 
Sepals 5, unequal, the 2 inner ones large, 
petal -like, forming wings. Petals 3, 
coherent. Stamens 8, with filaments 
iinited. 



Cult/we and Propagation. — The 
species described below are chiefly useful 
for rockeries, and thrive in fibrous peat 
and sandy loam mixed, in a somewhat 
shaded place. They are increased from 
seeds, or by cuttings struck under glass. 
The seeds may be sown as soon as 
ripe in cold frames, protecting the seed- 
lings afterwards under glass until the 
following spring. Or the seeds may be 
sown in spring in the same way, and the 
seedlings grown on singly in pots until the 
following spring before transferring them 
to the outdoor garden. 

P. Chamaebuxus (Bastard Box). — A 
pretty creeping shrub 6 in. high, found 
wild in the mountain woods of Austria 
and Switzerland. Leaves oblong lance- 
shaped, with a point at the apex. Flowers 
in early summer, creamy or yellow. 



238 PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS polygala 



tipped with purple, fragrant, in axillary August of a fine rosy-purple colour, some- 

few-flowered racemes. The variety pur- times white, large, in threes ; keel crested. 

purea is a much prettier plant, with Culture dc. as above, 

bright _ magenta-purple flowers, clear p SenegSL t Seneca Snake Boot).— 

yellow in the centre. Also native of N _ Amer ica, 6-12 in. high, 

Culture dc. as above. with i ance . s h a ped or oblong, rough-mar- 

P. paucifolia. — A North American gined leaves. Flowers in May and June, 

herbaceous perennial 3 in. high, with almost sessile ; wings roundish obovate, 

simple erect stems, naked below, and concave ; crest short, 

ovate leaves. Flowers from May to Culture dc. as above. 

XVIII. FRANKENIACEiE— Sea Heath Order 

An order with only one genus (Frankenia) consisting of perennial herbs or 
much-branched undershrubs with jointed nodes. The leaves are opposite, 
small, without stipules, and the usually pink flowers are regular and herm- 
aphrodite, being sessile in the division of the branches, and terminal, embosomed 
in the leaves. Sepals 4-6, united in a furrowed tube. Petals alternate with 
the sepals, hypogynous, clawed, often with appendages at the base of the 
limb. Stamens, 6, sometimes 4, 5, or numerous, hypogynous, free, or slightly 
connate at the base. Ovary 1-celled, many-seeded. Fruit 2-, 3-, or 4-valved, 
enclosed by the calyx. 

This order contains about 30 species chiefly natives of Northern Africa 
and Southern Europe, although a few are indigenous to South Africa, New 
Holland, and temperate Asia. 

FRANKENIA laevis (Sea Heath). — This is a small creeping evergreen with pubes- 
cent stems and wiry branches having oblong linear leaves with reflexed margins, and 
small rose-coloured flowers which appear in July and August. It is found wild on 
our southern sea coasts and the Channel Islands, and may be used in the rock garden. 

Culture and Propagation. — -This species will thrive in ordinary garden soil, and 
may be used in sunny and rather dry positions. It is most readily increased by 
dividing the rootstocks in early autumn or in spring. Seeds may also be sown in cold 
frames as soon as ripe, or in the open border in April and May, but they are more 
easily attended to if sown in boxes or pans in a cold frame or greenhouse. 

XIX. CARYOPHYLLE^— Carnation, Clove, and Pink Order 

A large order containing from 800 to 1,200 species, natives chiefly of the cold 

and temperate parts of the world. Annual or perennial herbs, rarely shrubby, 

branches usually thickened, and sometimes jointed, at the nodes. Leaves 

always opposite and entire, often connate at the base, often 1-3-nerved ; 

stipules none, or if any small and scarious. Flowers hermaphrodite, rarely 

unisexual by abortion. Sepals 4-5, persistent, distinct or cohering in a tube. 

Petals 4-5, hypogynous or slightly perigynous, entire, or frequently split into 

2 parts, sometimes minute, scale-like, or absent. Stamens (8-10) usually twice 

as many as the petals, in two circles, of which the inner is often wanting ; 

filaments awl-shaped. Fruit a 2-5-valved capsule with numerous seeds. 

Placenta free, central. 

DIANTHUS. — This is the genus to as many as 200 species were described 
which Carnations, Pinks, and Sweet under it, but this number has been reduced 
Williams belong botanically. At one time to about 70 by Bentham and Hooker. 



DIANTHUS 



CARNATION ORDER 



DIANTHUS 239 



They are chiefly perennial, occasionally 
sub-shrubby herbs, with narrow grassy- 
like glaucous leaves. Flowers terminal, 
solitary, panicled, or clustered, often rose 
or purple, rarely white or yellow. Calyx 
tubular, 5-toothed, with imbricating bracts 
at the base. Petals 5, with long claws, 
the blade entire, many-toothed or cut, or 
notched in two, hairy or smooth above, or 
with claws produced into scales. Stamens 
10, capsule cylindrical-oblong, rarely 
ovoid, opening by 4 teeth or valves. 

The following are some of the best 
kinds in cultivation out of doors. Their 
culture and propagation are the same 
as those of the Carnation (Dianthus 
Caryophylliis), the Pink (D. jdumarius) 
and the Sweet William (D. bcvrbatus), 
under each of which instructions will be 
found. 

D. alpestris. — A native of the Alpine 
pastures of Europe, 6-9 in. high, with 
linear-lanceolate leaves. Flowers in July, 
red, usually in pairs ; petals emarginate. 

Culture dc. the same as for D. ccesius 
below, as well as notes for each species. 

D. alpinus. — Native of the Austrian 
Alps, 3-4 in. high. Leaves oblong-linear, 
blunt, green. Flowers in summer, large, 
deep rose spotted with crimson, solitary, 
and very freely produced ; petals crenated. 

Culture dc. the same as for D. ccesius 
below. 

D. arenarius. — Native of N. Europe. 
Flowers in summer, white, with a livid 
spot and purple hairs at the base of the 
deeply divided petals. 

Culture Se. the same as for D. ccesius 
below. 

D. atrorubens. — A species 1 ft. high, 
native of S. and E. Europe, with 3-nerved 
linear leaves. Flowers in summer, dark- 
red, small, sessile, in clusters, with an 
awned involucre. 

Culture dc. the same as for D. ccesius 
below. 

D. barbatus (Sweet William). — The 
type of the well-known Sweet William is 
a native of S. and E. Europe, 1-2 ft. high, 
with lance -shaped nerved leaves. Flowers 
in summer, variously coloured, from dark 
purple to white, in dense heads ; petals 
bearded. 

There are almost innumerable varieties 
or forms of the Sweet William, and of late 
years they have been much improved 
from the florist's point of view. The 
individual flowers are larger, more circular 



in shape, thicker petalled, and have; the 
colours more clearly defined. In what is 
called the ' Auricula-eyed ' section, the 
flowers have a clear white centre sur- 
rounded by red, purple, or some other 
deep, rich colour. There is also a section 
in which the teeth of the petals are almost 
if not quite obliterated, being called 
' smooth-edged.' ' Self-coloured ' flowers 
exist also, being either pure white, pink or 
crimson. Put there are a vast number 
of pretty flowers variously edged, spotted, 
mottled &c, which remain. There is a 
double dwarf variety called magn/ifieus, 
with deep velvety crimson flowers, but 
the other double kinds are not particularly 
desirable. The forms known as fnlgens, 
nigricans, Candidas, oculatus, margi/n- 
alas, and nanus are all handsome, and 
their peculiar features are expressed in 
the names. 

Culture and Propagation. — Sweet 
Williams are easily raised from seeds 
sown in the open border or in cold frames 
as soon as ripe, or in spring about March 
and April. The seedlings may be pricked 
out when about 2 in. high into light rich 
soil, and may be transplanted either in 
early autumn or spring in mild showery 
weather, according to the period at which 
the seeds were sown. 

Where plants are once established in a 
garden any number of self-sown seeds will 
come up every year. By thinning out or 
transplanting into good soil six inches 
apart about the end of September, the 
plants will become well-established for the 
winter and will flower freely the following 
summer. Special varieties may be in- 
creased by cuttings taken in early summer, 
and inserted in rich sandy soil in a shaded 
place. Transplant in September to the 
flowering positions. The plants may also 
be divided in September, but Sweet 
Williams being better treated as biennials, 
neither this mode of propagation nor 
cuttings is much practised, except when 
it is desired to keep some particularly fine 
variety quite true. 

D. bicolor. — A native of S. Russia, 1-2 
ft. high, with awl-shaped leaves, the lower 
ones woolly. Flowers in summer, white 
above, lead-coloured beneath ; petals 
dilated. 

Culture dc. as for the next species D. 
ccesius. 

D. ca;sius (Cheddar Pink). — A very 
glaucous species 3-G in. high, native of 



240 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS dianthus 



Britain (the limestone rocks of Cheddar). 
Leaves of the barren shoots linear, blunt, 
the upper ones of the flowering stems 
acute. Flowers in June and July, 1 in. 
across, fragrant, delicate rose ; petals 
obovate, crenate, downy. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Cheddar Pink is a beautiful plant for 
making a carpet at the edge of the flower 
border, or may be used in masses in the 
rockery. It likes a rich sandy soil and a 
warm sheltered position to appear at its 
best. It ripens seeds freely, and these 
maybe sown in the same way as described 
above for Sweet Williams (D. barbatus). 
It is, however, much easier to increase the 
plants simply by dividing them during 
mild showery weather, either in early 
autumn or in spring. Once established 
the plants need not be disturbed for three 
or four years unless they exhibit signs of 
weakness. Besides seeds and division 
most of the perennial species of Dianthus 
may also be increased by cuttings and 
layers in the same way as stated for 
Carnations, p. 242. 

D. callizonus. — A beautiful alpine 
Pink, native of Transylvania, with a dense 
tufted habit and lance-shaped pointed blue- 
green leaves. It flowers profusely during 
the siunmer months ; the rich rosy-purple 
blossoms are lf-2 in. across, with a distinct 
deep purple zone in the centre, and 
scarcely overtop the bed of blue-green 
foliage, but rather nestle amongst it. 

Culture and Propagation. — This plant 
does not apparently seed freely in the 
British Islands, although it is perfectly 
hardy. It may, however, be easily in- 
creased by division in autumn or spring, 
like D. ccesius, and also by means of 
cuttings -placed in sandy soil. It is an 
excellent rock plant. 

D. Caryophyllus (Carnation; Clove; 
Pink). — The Wild Carnation is naturalised 
here and there on old castle walls in Eng- 
land, and is also distributed all over Cen- 
tral and E. Europe. It is a stout glaucous 
smooth perennial, much branched and 
leafy below, 18-24 in. high. Leaves 4-6 
in. long, linear awl-shaped, grooved above. 
Flowers in summer, li in. across, fragrant, 
nearly every colour except blue, but rosy 
in the type ; petals broadly obovate, 
toothed and crenate. 

CARNATIONS 

The Carnation, like the Rose, has for 
several centuries been a favourite garden 



plant, and careful selection and cultivation 
by generations of gardeners through these 
long years have produced flowers so 
beautiful in shape, and so diversified in 
colour, that one can hardly imagine them 
to be descended from such a simple plant 
as D. Caryophyllus described above. 

Carnations are divided into three mam 
groups by florists, viz. :— Biz arres (sub- 
divided into crimson, pink, and purple, 
and scarlet-flowered) ; Flakes (subdivided 
into purple, rose, and scarlet) ; and Selfs, 
which as the name indicates have flowers 
of a uniform colour of any shade through- 
out. 

The Bizarres are variously coloured 
or spotted or striped, with two or three 
distinct colours on a clear ground. The 
Flakes have a pine ground flaked with 
one colour only the entire length of the 
petals. 



Besides the Carnations proper, there is 
also a very important and beautiful class 
known as Picotees. These are easily 
distinguished by having a ground colour, 
the petals being edged wich a distinct and 
striking colour. This edging may be 
either 'heavy' or 'light,' and serves to 
separate Picotees into two sections, in 
each of which the edges may be either 
purple, red. or rose ; in addition to 
which are the ' Yellow ground ' Picotees, 
a vigorous class in which the flowers are 
various shades of yellow, buff and apricot, 
sometimes marked on the edges, or with 
lines radiating from centre to edge. 

What are known as ' Tree or Per- 
petual ' Carnations are usually grown 
under glass for flowering in winter in 
pots. They do not therefore come within 
the scope of this work. 

In the olden days, there was also a 
section known as ' Painted Ladies,' in 
which the under side of the petals was 
white, and the upper side red or purple, as 
if painted on the white. This class has 
practically disappeared from cultivation 
altogether, but the National Carnation 
and Picotee Society may endeavour to 
revive it some day. 

The characteristics of a good Carnation 
or Picotee flower may be said to consist 
of a circular outline, with smooth and 
rounded edges, regularity in size and 
shape of the petals, and a calyx which 
does not split. Where a tendency to 
burst the tubular calyx exists, a thin 



DIANTHUS 



CARNATION OIIDEB 



DIANTHUS 241 



piece of raffia or worsted may be carefully 
and not too tightly tied round it, so that 
the (lower can open freely. It may be 
mentioned that there are many Carnations 
like the Tree section and others — which 
have fringed or toothed petals, many of 
them very beautiful. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is 
precisely the same as detailed for Carna- 
tions below. 

Marguerite Carnations. — A new and 
distinct race remarkable for the rapidity 
with which they produce their flowers 
after sowing the seed. About 70 or 80 
per cent, of the flowers (which are 
beautifully fringed and of many charming 
shades) come double. Seeds, if sown in 
gentle heat in early spring, will produce 
Mowers out of doors by July or August. 
Or better still the seeds may be sown in 
cold frames about August and September, 
and after the seedlings have been pricked 
out once, they may be grown in the cold 
frames until the following April and May, 
when they may be planted out in mild 
weather. The plants should have as 
much light and air as possible during the 
winter months on all favourable occasions. 
They are very useful for room decoration, 
in a cut state. 

'Jacks.' — This peculiar name is 
applied to the large and vigorous growing 
Carnations which are grown in hundreds 
of thousands annually, chiefly to simply 
the great trade done in them by coster - 
niongers. There is no doubt whatever 
that nearly 100 per cent, of the amateurs 
who buy these plants do so in the belief 
that they are obtaining some very choice 
double-flowered kinds, such as they see in 
florists' windows or in other amateurs' 
gardens. These ' Jacks ' are mostly 
single-flowered Carnations, raised from 
seeds in spring, and afterwards planted 
out and grown on until the following 
spring. They are then taken up for sale, 
and as they are apparently remarkably 
cheap, they find a ready sale among 
cottagers and the uninitiated. As a rule, 
however, the purchasers are disappointed 
when the plants bloom, owing to the 
prevalence of single flowers among them. 

CULTIVATION 

Although there are naturally many 
ailures in Carnation growing, the plants 
are not really difficult to grow. The 
failures usually result from too much 
coddling and shifting about, and never 



allowing the plants to have a fair chance. 
Of course where plants have been accus- 
tomed to the protection of frames during 
the winter, and grown in pots, they are 
not nearly so hardy and vigorous as those 
grow ii without any protection, and what 
is worse, they are not so well able to ward 
off or withstand the attacks of insect and 
fungoid pests. Of late years great efforts 
have been made to secure a really hardy 
race of Carnations, for the flower garden, 
and there are now a large number of 
varieties which will grow without any 
protection in winter in almost any part 
of the British Isles. Where, however, 
any one does not wish to run risks with 
extra fine varieties whose actual hardiness 
has not been tested by experience, it may 
be well to give some slight shelter ; but 
the hardiness or otherwise should be 
tested as soon as a plant can be easily 
spared for the experiment. 

Soil. — The best soil for Carnations is 
a rich loamy one, with plenty of leaf 
soil, and a portion of well-rotted stable 
manure, and enough coarse sand to keep 
it open. Light hot soils are quite unsuit- 
able for Carnations, and should be well 
enriched with leaf soil, farmyard and 
other vegetable manure with a view to 
making it cooler and more retentive of 
moisture. Soil should always be well 
dug some time before planting except in 
cases where the plants succeed a totally 
distinct crop. 

Mann re. — This should never be 
applied in a fresh state, and certainly not 
to the roots when planting. It is best 
applied in a rotten state and as a mulch 
on top of the soil in spring. Soot is an 
excellent fertdiser ; it tends to give the 
foliage a fine 'bloom,' and is also more 
or less obnoxious to slugs, snails &c. 
Various artificial manures, such as nitrate 
of soda and sulphate of ammonia, are also 
beneficial, but their use is attended with 
great risk — the inclination for a beginner 
being to give an overdose which would 
probably kill the plants. If given at all, 
these are best in a liquid form, say a tea- 
spoonful to a gallon or two of water. 

Planting and Layering. — Late plant- 
ing is responsible for many deaths during 
the winter. In Scotland planting should 
be finished by the first or second week of 
September, and practically about the 
same period in England and Ireland. 
In order to be able to do this the layers 
should also have been made at a period 



242 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS dianthus 



correspondingly early — say the first and 
second weeks of July — thus giving them 
about 3 full months to become established 
plants. 

The benefits of layering and planting 
early are obvious. The plants are well 
leaved and their roots well established in 
the soil before winter sets in. They are 
thus in a position to resist the frost ; 
they bloom earlier in spring, and the 
chances are that the flowers are not only 
finer, but in much greater abundance 
than from later planted specimens. 

An important point to remember in 
connection with planting is not to insert 
the plants too deeply in the soil. Spread 
out the roots carefully and cover them 
firmly, but do not bury the stems beyond 
half an inch or so. If in rows, the plants 
should be about 9 in. apart, with at least 
a foot between the rows, to allow of 
hoeing &c. in spring. 

Staking .— Each plant should be pro- 
vided with a stake about 3 ft. high at 
time of planting, and the stems should be 
neatly tied, so that they do not chafe 
when blown about by the wind. Atten- 
tion to staking is essential, otherwise the 
branches and blooms will straggle about 
in the dirt, and be more or less worth- 
less. 

Position. — Perhaps the most natural 
and ornamental way to dispose of Carna- 
tions is to plant them in groups, large or 
small according to the space available. 
They are thus seen to better advantage 
when in bloom, and it is easier to notice 
their general peculiarities, than if planted 
here and there in isolated specimens. 
Where possible the plants should be so 
placed as to be sheltered from the north 
and east, and fully exposed to the west, 
and more or less partially shaded from 
the summer sun when facing south. 
About 9 in. to 12 in. apart will not be too 
crowded for the plants. 

PROPAGATION 

Carnations are increased by seeds, 
layers, and cuttings — the latter being 
known as ' pipings.' 

Seeds are usually sown in April and 
May in pots or shallow pans. The soil 
should be rather finely sifted, and com- 
posed of loam, leaf soil and silver sand. 
It is best to carefully place the seeds 
about £ in. apart, slightly cover them 
with soil, and place in a cold frame 
after watering with a fine-rosed can. 



When about 6 leaves have developed, the 
seedlings may be pricked out round the 
edges of a pot or in a shallow box, about 
2 in. apart in a similar compost. As 
soon as the plants are 3-4 in. high, they 
may be pricked out into beds or borders, 
about 4 in. apart, and by the first week 
of September they should be fine sturdy 
plants fit for removing to their flowering 
positions. It should be borne in mind 
that Carnations from seed are liable to 
vary a good deal, and that many of the 
flowers will be single, and others poor in 
quality. Still there is a possibility of a 
really fine variety appearing among them, 
in which case it should be carefully 
labelled and kept for stock. 

Layering is perhaps the most common 
method of increasing Carnations and 
Picotees. As stated above, layers should 
be made by the first and second week of 
July with a view to getting strong estab- 
lished plants before winter. A fresh 
compost like that in which the seeds are 
sown should be placed round the base of 
each plant, about 2 in. deep. The leaves 
of the lower portion of each shoot to be 
layered should be stripped off, leaving 
about 3 or 4 leafy joints above. A slit 
should then be made lengthwise with a 
sharp knife, just below a joint which is 
neither too woody nor too tender or sappy, 
taking care not to sever the shoot from 
the plant, but about halfway through, so 
as to form a tongue. The shoot thus cut 
should then be carefully pegged down 
with a piece of bracken stem, or a hair-pin. 
in such a way that the cut is left open and 
the tongue is firmly fixed in the soil. A 
little more compost should then be placed 
over the pegged portion of the shoot. 
When every branch has been treated in 
the same way, the soil should then be 
well watered, using a fine-rosed can, and 
in a month or so the layers will be 
rooted. By the first or second week of 
September they may be severed and 
transplanted. The sketch at p. 59 
will show at a glance the way in which 
the shoot of a Carnation or Picotee may 
be layered. 

Pipings or Cuttings. — Carnations in- 
creased by this method are never quite 
so good as those from layers, but it is 
employed in the case of rare or special 
kinds to obtain stock more quickly, or 
when the shoots are too short and 
numeroiis for layering. The pipings 
should be taken with a ' heel ' or cut off at 



DIANTHUS 



CARNATION ORDER 



DIANTHUS 243 



a joint which is fairly well ripened, but 
not woody. They should then be firmly 
inserted in a fine sandy compost, well 
watered, and placed in a close and shaded 
frame, for 3 or 4 weeks, after which they 
may receive plenty of air, and will be 
ready for transplanting at the season 
recommended. 

In the case of layers and cuttings, the 
tops of the outer leaves are often snipped 
off with the knife. It is then easy to 
see when new leaves are forming, as of 
course their tips will not be mutilated. 
The thin lines across the leaves in the 
sketcli show how the tips are cut off. 

Thinning the buds. — With the ex- 
ception of those who make a business 
of exhibiting Carnations for prizes, the 
practice of removing some of the flower 
buds is seldom or never practised. By 
reducing the number of flowers to each 
stem, and even by cutting out a whole 
flower stem now and again, the flowers 
left will certainly be much finer and fuller 
when developed. 



When Carnations are continuously 
grown on the same soil, or on cold heavy 
land, or too closely together, they become 
more or less subject to various diseases. 
And some varieties which thrive in the 
south are miserable failures in the north, 
and vice versa. 

The Carnation Rust (Uromgces 
Caryophilinus) appears on the stern or 
leaf as a pale raised pustule, over which 
the epidermis soon breaks, hanging round 
the edges in a ragged state, revealing the 
brown powdery reproductive spores of the 
fungus. These may be blown or washed 
from plant to plant, spreading the disease 
rapidly, when in a proper state for 
germinating. It may be checked by 
finely spraying with sulphide of potas- 
sium, dissolving one ounce to 10 gallons 
of water. 

Leaf spot is a troublesome disease 
often caused by a damp atmosphere or 
over-crowding. It appears on the leaves 
and stems as a more or less circular 
purplish spot with a whitish centre, the 
latter being often dotted with black by 
the fruiting portions of the fungus. The 
fungus enters the tissues of the plant 
rather deeply, and the spores which are 
produced in great abundance are rapidly 
distributed by wind and water. It does 
not, however, attack all varieties with 



equal virulence. The plants may be 
dusted with a mixture of soot and 
sulphur, or sprayed with sulphide of 
potassium as recommended for rust. 
Gout is a disease which attacks the stems 
close to the ground, and is supposed to be 
caused by ' eel-worms ' which enter the 
plant to lay their eggs, out of which 
conic other worms to feed upon the plant 
and kill it. Plants grown in too rich a 
soil, and making sappy growth, are more 
subject to attacks than others. 

The maggot is a pest which often 
attacks Carnations. The eggs are laid in 
the tissues of the leaf, and the young 
insects eat their way down the main 
stem to the centre and kill the plant. 
The plants should be carefully watched, 
and the eggs destroyed between finger and 
thumb wherever discovered. 

Spittle-fly is easily seen. It appears 
when the plants are in bud, and should 
be squeezed to death between the finger 
and thumb. 

D. chinensis (X). sinensis). — Chinese or 
I ml in a Tink. — A Chinese biennial 6-12 in. 
high, with pale green lance-shaped leaves. 
Flowers in summer, usually reddish, but 
very variable in colour, either single or 
double, with toothed petals. Among the 
many forms of D. chdnensis, the following 
may be noted as distinct : — albus, flowers 
double, white ; carneus, flowers double, 
flesh-coloured; fulgens. flowers double, 
brilliant scarlet crimson; nanus albus, 
ii. atro-sang u ineus, and n. flore pleno, all 
dwarf forms ; laeiniatus is a fine Japanese 
form with very blue-green foliage and 
flowers about 2 in. across, remarkable for 
having the petals deeply incised or jagged 
almost half the length of the blade. The 
variety Gardneri is a native of China, it 
has very large flowers with finely cut 
petals. The variety Atkinsoni is a beau- 
tiful old-fashioned hybrid Pink, with deep 
blood-red flowers. It does not ripen seed, 
and is rather difficult to increase by 
division or cuttings. D. Heddeiveggi is 
a beautiful annual or biennial with 
variously coloured flowers — single and 
double. Very useful for borders in 
summer. The forms of Heddeiveggi 
known as atropurpureus and diadematus 
flore plena are very distinct and worth a 
place in the flower border. 

Culture and Propagation. — D. chin- 
ensis and its varieties may be treated as 
tender annuals or biennials. As annuals 
the seeds may be sown about March in 

r 2 



244 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS dianthus 



gentle heat in light and rich well -drained 
soil. When about 2 in. high the young 
plants may be pricked out into other boxes 
about 2 in. apart, and grown on under 
glass until the end of May or beginning 
of June. In the meantime they must 
have plenty of light and air, and be 
gradually hardened off so as to be ready 
for the outdoor garden at the time stated. 
Besides sowing under glass, the seeds may 
also be sown in the open border in April 
and May in patches, where the plants are 
to bloom eventually. In this case the 
seedlings are to be thinned out about 6 to 
8 in. apart, as if transplanted at that late 
period the plants will hardly come into 
bloom the same season, except in the south 
and west. 

D. cinnabarinus. — A free-growing 
species, native of Greece, with tufts of 
linear leaves. The flowers appear in 
summer, and are a beautiful orange or 
cinnabar-red. 

Culture dc. as for D. deltoides. 

D. cruentus. — Native of E. Europe. 
Leaves linear lance-shaped, very acute, 
lower ones tufted. Flowers in summer, 
small, numerous, blood-red, scarlet ; petals 
toothed, bearded near base with scattered 
reddish-violet hairs. 

Culture dc. as for D. deltoides. 

D. deltoides (Maiden Pink). — A much 
branched British perennial 6-9 in. high. 
Leaves narrow lance- shaped, downy, the 
lower ones blunt. Flowers from June to 
September, f in. across, rarely 2 together, 
rose-coloured, with a dark circle spotted 
with white, or white in the variety albus. 
Calyx smooth, strongly ribbed. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Maiden Pink is excellent for carpeting 
borders and rockeries with its dense 
masses of leaves and flowers. It likes a 
rich sandy soil and a warm sheltered 
position to appear at its best. It ripens 
seeds freely, and these may be sown in 
the same way as described above for 
Sweet Williams (D. barbatus). It is, 
however, much easier to increase the 
plants simply by dividing them during 
mild showery weather, either in early 
autumn or in spring. Once established, 
the plants need not be disturbed for three 
or four years unless they exhibit signs of 
weakness. Besides seeds and division 
most of the perennial species of Dianthus 
may also be increased by cuttings and 



layers in the same way as stated for 
Carnations. 

D. dentosus (Amoor PinTt). — -A native 
of S. Rtissia, 6 in. high. Leaves rather 
broadly linear, sometimes slightly wavy, 
glaucous, tinged with a reddish hue, 
especially in autumn. Flowers in sum- 
mer, violet-lilac, more than 1 in. across, 
with a regular dark spot formed of purple 
streaks at the base of each petal, produ- 
cing a dark eye in the centre. Petals 
toothed at the edge, bearded at the base. 

Culture d-c. as for D. deltoides. The 
Amoor Pink seems to have crossed readily 
with some of the other species, as there 
are now several varieties of it in cultiva- 
tion, some with double or semi-double 
flowers, all larger than those of the type. 
These double-flowered forms are mostly 
sterile and do not produce seed. They 
must, therefore, be increased by division. 

D. fimbriatus. — Native of Spain, 1 ft. 
high, with awl- shaped, roughish leaves. 
Flowers in summer, rosy, solitary. Petals 
oblong, multifidly toothed, beardless, 
somewhat like those of D. superbus. 

Culture dc. as for D. superbus below. 

D. Fischeri. — A somewhat rare Rus- 
sian species 7-10 in. high, with stiff lance- 
shaped serrulated leaves. Flowers in 
summer, light rose, with petals much cut 
or feathered at the edge, almost beardless 
at the base. 

Culture dc. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. fragrans. — Native of the Caucasus, 
6-9 in. high, with awl-shaped, rough- 
edged leaves. Flowers from July to 
September, white, fragrant, suffused with 
purple. Petals somewhat cut, beardless. 

Culture dc. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. Freyni. — A beautiful perennial of 
garden origin, forming dense masses or 
cushions of foliage, and producing in early 
summer, and often again in autumn, 
bright rosy-carmine flowers, about f in. 
across, sitting close to the grassy foliage, 
the entire plant being not more than 2 in. 
high altogether. 

Culture dc. as above. This pretty 
little plant is apt to rot off at the ground 
if placed too low down. It does not 
spread by means of suckers like some 
other species, and is best propped up 
between two or three pieces of limestone 
rock, so that water will pass readily away 
from it. As slugs are rather partial to it 
a watch must be kept for them. 



DIANTHUS 



C 1 UNA TION ORDER 



DIANTHUS 245 



D. fruticosus. — A shrubby -stemmed 
species 1-2 ft. high, native of the Grecian 
Archipelago. Leaves bluntly obovate 
lance-shaped. Flowers in summer, dark 
in the centre, rose at the edge, white and 
hairy at the base. 

Culture dc. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. gallicus. — Native of France, Spain 
and Portugal, about 6 in. high, with 
linear, somewhat ciliated leaves. Flowers 
in summer, white, dull purple at the base. 
Petals much cut and toothed. 

Culture (/c. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. giganteus. - A native of E. Europe 
2 4 ft. high, with long linear leaves con- 
nate at the base. Flowers in summer, 
purple, numerous, in hemispherical heads, 
supported by leafy bracts. 

Cult air (!■<-. as above for D. deltnides. 

D. glacialis (Glacier Pink). — A native 
of Central and S.VY. Europe, 2-4 in. 
high, with short erect tufted stems, and 
linear acute serrulated green leaves. 
Flowers in summer, small, purple, scent- 
less ; petals toothed. 

( 'ulture </<■. ;is above for D. barbatus. 
This species is best raised from seeds, 
as it often dies out when pulled to pieces. 
It does best in crevices in the rockery in 
peat soil, mixed with nodules of rock for 
support. 

D. Holtzeri. — A fine species from 
Turkestan. Leaves linear lance-shaped. 
Flowers pink, about 1 \ in. across ; petals 
more or less fringed. 

Culture und Propagation. — This 
comes very near D. superb us, and is 
probably only a variety of it. It requires 
the same treatment and may be increased 
like D. superbus. The following forms 
have been noted: dent at us, with sharply 
toothed petals; ebarbatus, with paler 
flowers than the type, and scarcely any 
hairs in the throat; fimbriatus, with 
fringed petals, and flaccidus, with weak 
decumbent stems and rosy-purple flowers. 

D. Knappi. — A very disthict species 
about 1 ft. high, native of Eastern Europe. 
It is closely related to D. liburnicus, and 
has narrow lance-shaped leaves. The 
flowers appear in July and August and 
resemble those of a Sweet William. They 
are, however, remarkable for being of 
a clear primrose-yellow, and therefore 
singular and interesting among single- 
flowered Dianthuses. 

Culture <{-c. as above for D. deltoides. 



D. latifolius. — The native country of 
this species is unknown. It is about 1.] 
ft. high, with oblong lance-shaped leaves, 
and somewhat resembles the Sweet 
William in habit. Flowers in summer, 
pink, in clusters. 

Culture <(<■. as for D. chinensis and 
D. barbatus above. The plant described 
here is possibly a variety of the Indian 
Pink or the Sweet William. 

D. liburnicus {D. Balbisi). — A glaucous 
plant 1 2 ft. high, with angular stems, 
and lance-shaped linear leaves. Flowers 
in summer, red, almost sessile, in capitate 
clusters. Native of S. Europe. 

Culture <tc. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. monspessulanus {Montpelier Pink). 

A native of S. and E. Europe, 6-12 in. 
high. Leaves linear, serrulate. Flowers 
in summer, red or white, solitary ; petals 
digitately cut, smooth in the throat. 
Culture dc. as above for D. ccesius. 

D. neglectus. — A lovely alpine Pink, 
no.tive of the Pyrenees, the high Alps of 
Pauphiny &c\, and closely related to the 
Glacier Pink. D. glacialis. In its native 
state it only reaches a height of 1 -3 in., 
but in cultivation often as much as (5 8 in. 
It has a strong sturdy habit, forming tufts 
of rather blue-green grassy foliage. The 
beautiful and brilliant deep rosy flowers, 
quite an inch across, appear in summer 
and have the petals attractively mitred or 
serrated at the edge, the backs of the 
petals being of a nankeen colour. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species, if grown in sandy well-drained 
soil, even if rather poor, will stand almost 
any winter. It flowers very freely and is 
easily increased by division of the tufts or 
by means of seeds, which ripen in favour- 
able seasons, and should be sown in cold 
frames at once, or even in the rockery 
under a sheet of glass. 

D. pallidiflorus. — A Russian species 
6 in. high, forming dense branching tufts. 
Leaves linear, pointed, flat, sessile. 
Flowers late in summer, purple -rose, 
numerous, solitary. 

Culture dec. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. petraeus (Rock Pink). — Native 
of E. Europe, 1-6 in. high, with smooth 
awl- shaped, entire leaves. Flowers in 
summer, fine rose, numerous, usually 
solitary ; petals beardless, cut at the 



246 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS dianthus 



edges. There is a pretty form with 
double flowers called flore plcno. 

Culture dtc. as above for D. deltoides. 
D. plumarius {Garden Pink; Pheasant's 
Eye). — This is supposed to be the origin 
of all the Garden Pinks. It is a glaucous 
plant 9-12 in. high, native of Eastern 
Europe, and naturalised on old walls in 
various parts of England. Leaves linear, 
rough-edged. Flowers in summer, white, 
purple, either single or double, spotted or 
variegated ; petals bearded, jagged. The 
variety called serotinus blooms somewhat 
later than the type, and flore pleno has 
double creamy-white flowers. 

Garden Pinks have always been great 
favourites owing to the great freedom in 
which they produce their beautiful sweet- 
scented flowers, their dwarf, tufted habit, 
and their great hardiness, surpassing in 
this respect the Carnation. 

Culture and Propagation. — Pinks 
may be propagated by exactly the same 
methods as recommended for Carnations, 
viz. by seeds, layers, and cuttings 
(pipings). The latter method is usually 
adopted, as many of the varieties are too 
short, close and tufted to readily admit of 
layers being made. The mode of pro- 
cedure is the same as for Carnations 
(see p. 242). 

In June or July, when the stems are 
fairly well ripened, cuttings, or ' pipings ' 
will readily root in light sandy soil under 
handlights if placed in a cool and shaded 
part of the garden. When well rooted, 
the plants may be transferred to their 
flowering positions, but all planting should 
be finished by the end of September at 
least. If plants are moved much after 
October it is safer to winter them in cold 
frames, as they will not have had sufficient 
time to enable them to develop new 
roots and become established before the 
approach of winter. 

Soil similar to that for Carnations is 
also best for Pinks. The latter, how- 
ever, do not like too much moisture at 
the roots, and where possible the Pink 
beds or borders should be somewhat 
raised above the ordinary level. Top 
dressings of rotted manure, spent mush- 
room beds &c. are very beneficial in 
spring and summer, and water must not 
be lacking in the hot weather. Where 
particularly fine flowers are required, 
some of the blooms may be pinched off, 
leaving the most likely ones only to develop. 

Pinks are usually divided into two 



classes, viz. Show or Laced Pinks, and 
Border Pinks. The latter are most suit- 
able for outdoor cultivation, but are also 
forced a good deal in greenhouses for 
early bloom. The ' Show ' or ' Laced ' 
varieties are grown under glass especially 
for exhibition purposes. The following is 
a selection of the best Pinks for outdoor 
cultivation : — 

WHITE-FLOWERED VARIETIES 

Alba maxima, large border variety, 
fine for bouquets ; Albino, an improve- 
ment upon Snowflake, almost like a 
Carnation, fine full flower ; Alice Lee, 
Carnation, Fairy King, Her Majesty, 
pure white of exceptional size : in the 
opinion of some, the very best ; Mrs. 
Sinkins, fine border variety, fine for 
bouquets ; Mrs. Welsli and S?iotvflake, the 
latter a lovely variety with branching 
steins ; it rarely bursts. 



Anne Boleyn, rose -purple; Ascot, 
pink ; Bertha, white, rosy centre ; Boiard, 
very large, white, bright red lacing; 
Conqueror, dark red, laced ; Empress of 
India, white, laced purple; Ernest, red, 
broad lacing, large ; Ernest Ladhams, 
light pink with deeper centre, flowers as 
large as a Malmaison ; a fine novelty, 
wonderfully free ; John Ball, dark plum- 
purple ; Lena, rosy-purple ; Lorina, pink ; 
Loivlander, red ; Masterpiece, purple- 
maroon ; Minnie, bright red ; Modesty, 
white, rose centre, evenly laced ; Mrs. 
Pettifer, white, purple centre, heavily 
laced ; Professor, red ; Sarah, fine white, 
darky velvety red centre, perfect ; 
Vigilant, red. 

D. ramosissimus {Bush Pink). — A 
free-flowering species, 6 in. high, native 
of Tartary, with linear pointed leaves. 
Flowers in late summer, purple -rose, on 
wiry stems. 

Culture <ic. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. Seguieri. — A native of S. and E. 
Europe, Asia &c, about 1 ft. high. 
Flowers in summer, rose-purple. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
comes very close to D. dentosus, and is 
probably only a variety of it. It may be 
grown under similar conditions and in- 
creased in the same way. 

D. semperflorens. — This is the name 
given to a comparatively new race of 
Garden Pinks, supposed to be the result of 



DIANTHUS 



CARNATION OLD HI: 



DKYPIS 247 



a natural crossing between D. Cargo- 
phyllus and D. chvnensis. They are very 
elegant in habit and flower profusely, the 
colours ranging from pure white to deep 
rose and carmine, the petals of some 
varieties being prettily striped and 
marked. The plants are branching in 
habit, and about 12 18 in. high, the 
stems being clothed with long lance- 
shaped leaves. The Mowers are slightly 
fragrant and continue to appear until 
cut down by severe frosts. In a cut state 
they last a long time in water. 

Culture and Propagation. This race 
grows well in ordinary good garden soil, 
and the plants may be readily increased 
by dividing the roots in early autumn or 
spring. They may also be increased by 
means of cuttings in the same way as 
Carnations (see above, p. 241) at almost 
any season, but preferably about May and 
June. 

D. squarrosus. — A species 6 in. high, 
native of S. Russia, with stiff, short, 
recurved, awl-shaped leaves, furrowed 
above. Flowers in summer, white, finely 
lagged at the edges. 

Culture dtc. as above for J>. deltoides. 

D. suavis (Sweet Pink). — -The native 
country of this species is unknown. It 
grows about 6 in. high, and has linear, 
glaucous leaves. Flowers in summer, 
sweet-scented, pink, with bearded and 
deeply serrated petals. 

Cult irre dtc. as above for D. deltoides. 

D. superbus (Fringed Pink). — A native 
of Europe and Asia, 9-18 in. high. 
Leaves bright green, linear lance-shaped, 
acute. Flowers in summer, rosy or 
reddish ; petals divided beyond the middle, 
feathery, bearded at the base. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
charming and distinct species is not only 
remarkable for its beautifully fringed 
petals, but also for the sweet fragrance of 
its blossoms. Grown in masses in the 
rockery or flower border it makes a fine 
display during the summer months. It 
flourishes in ordinary good and well- 
drained garden soil, but prefers that of a 
rather light rich sandy and calcareous 
nature. It may be raised from seeds 
every year exactly in the same way as 
recommended for D. chvnensis above. 

D. virgineus. — A plant 6-12 in. high, 
native of S.W. Europe, with tufted, linear, 



serrulate, stiffish leaves. Flowers in 
summer, red, with crenated petals. 

Culture dtc. as above for D. deltoides. 

TUNICA. — A genus containing about 
10 species of graceful slender and some- 
what rigid or wiry stemmed herbs, 
smaller than Dianthus, and having 
narrow leaves. Flowers like those of 
Dianthus but smaller, cymose-paniculate, 
collected into a close or rounded head. 
Calyx top-shaped, or elongate-tubular, 
bluntly 5-toothed, 5-15-nerved, usually 
with a pair of imbricating bracts at the 
base. Petals 5, long-clawed ; blade refuse 
or emarginately bifid, without scales. 
Stamens 10. Torus small, or rarely pro- 
duced on a short stalk. Ovary 1-celled ; 
styles 2. Capsule ovoid or oblong, open- 
ing at the apex by 4 teeth or valves. 

T. Saxifraga. — A small perennial "2 '■> 
in. high, found wild in dry stony parts of 
the Alps and Pyrenees. Leaves narrow, 
lineal-, acute, roughish. Flowers in July, 
rose, freely produced in loose forked 
panicles. Seedling forms often exhibit 
a good deal of variation in colour, and the 
Mowers also come double or semi-double. 
Culture and Propagation. — This is 
the species generally met with in gardens. 
It will grow in poor soil almost any- 
where, and is useful for the chinks and 
holes in old walls, ruins &c, or for the 
rock garden. It may be increased by 
carefully dividing the numerous wiry 
branches with their roots in spring. 
Indeed, this is the only sure way to retain 
the characteristics of any particularly fine 
seminal variation. Seeds, however, are 
freely produced, and may be sown out of 
doors in warm sheltered and weh\drained 
places or in cold frames, as soon as ripe, 
if extra strong plants are desired for early 
summer flowering. Seeds may also be 
sown in gentle heat about March, after- 
wards pricking the seecilings out and 
growing on until the end of May, when 
they may be put out of doors. Or seeds 
may be sown in patches where the plants 
are to bloom, in April and May, afterwards 
thinning the plants out 6-9 in. apart. By 
sowing seeds at intervals in this way 
blooming is considerably extended. 

DRYPIS. — This genus contains only 
the following species, a native of the 
Mediterranean region : — 

D. spinosa. — A pretty little herbaceous 
perennial about 6 in. high, with very 
rigid 4-sided stems, and stiff awl-shaped 



248 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS gypsophila 



spinescent leaves. Flowers in early 
summer, small, pink or white, in dense 
cymes, with spinescent bracteoles and 
calyx teeth. Calyx tubular, 5-toothed. 
rnany-nerved. Petals 5. narrowly clawed, 
blade bifid, without scales. Stamens 5. 
Torus small. Styles 3, rarely 2 or 4. 

Culture and Propagation. — This plant 
is well suited for rockwork, and in sandy 
soil produces its pale pink or white 
flowers in great profusion. It is increased 
by cuttings put in sandy soil under a hand- 
glass, or by seed sown in spring — about 
March — in gentle heat. When the seed- 
lings are large enough to handle, it is 
well to prick them out into their flowering 
positions as soon as the weather is favour- 
able. They should be well watered until 
fairly established. 

GYPSOPHILA.— A genus contain- 
ing about 50 species of very graceful 
annual or perennial, usually glaucous 
and slightly glandulose, pubescent herbs, 
with flat or rarely needle-shaped leaves. 
Flowers usually small and numerous, 
panicled, calyx more or less tubular or 
bell-shaped, o-toothed or 5-fid, broadly 
5-nerved. Petals 5, narrow-clawed, with 
an entire or emarginate, scaleless blade. 
Torus small. Stamens 10. Styles 2, or 
very rarely 3. Capsule globose or ovoid, 
deeply 4-valved. 

Culture and Propagation. — Gypso- 
philas thrive in ordinary garden soil, with 
which a little lime or brick rubbish may 
be mixed. They are easily increased 
from seeds, bixt the perennial kinds take 
quite a year to make sood flowering plants. 
The annual kinds like G. elegans flower 
the same year — about June and July — if 
the seeds are sown out of doors about the 
beginning of April. The perennial species 
may also be increased by cuttings taken 
from the young side shoots in summer, or 
in autumn by dividing the rootstocks. All 
the Gypsophilas, however, are better in- 
creased fi'orn seed, and several sowings 
may be made out of doors of the annual 
kinds to keep up a supply of bloom. 

G. arenaria. — A perennial species, 
native of Central Europe, in sandy, 
gravelly soil, about 1 ft. high, with rather 
fleshy, smooth, flat, linear leaves. 
Flowers in summer, pale red, in dense 
long corymbs ; petals rarely notched. 

Culture dc. as for G. paniculata 
below. Increased by seeds, cuttings, or 
division. 



G. Arrosti. — A beautiful perennial 
2^-3 ft. high, native of Asia Minor. Its 
light and graceful stems have fleshy grey- 
green lance-shaped leaves about 1\ in. 
long, and the small white flowers appear 
in August in immense panicles when those 
of G. paniculata have disappeared. 

Culture dc. as for G. pcmiculata 
below. This is a new species and well 
worth growing to follow on after G. 
paniculata. 

G. cerastioides. — A Himalayan peren- 
nial over 3 ft. high, with erect 4-sided 
stems. Leaves hairy on both sides, with 
ciliated edges ; lower leaves spoon-shaped, 
with long stalks, abruptly pointed. 
Flowers in early summer, white, red- 
veined ; petals notched. 

Culture dc. as for G. pcmiculata 
below. It is perfectly hardy and forms 
neat cushions of foliage. 

G. elegans. — A charming Caxicasian 
annual, 12-18 in. high, with slender much- 
branched knotted stems and opposite blue- 
green more or less linear lance-shaped 
leaves. The small, beautiful flowers, less 
than half an inch across, are pure white, 
sometimes faintly striped with violet or 
reddish -purple. They are borne during 
the sunnner and autumn in graceful 
forked panicles, which have a light and 
airy effect— a mass of white starry flowers 
over a blue -green ground. 

The specific name is very appropriate, 
and G. elegans is highly valued for floral 
decorations. This species has recently 
been crossed with the perennial G. 
paniculata, and has produced an inter- 
mediate hybrid resembling G. paniculata 
in blossom, but G. elegans in habit. 

Culture dc. as above. Raised from 
seeds sown two or three times annually 
in the open border. 

G. fastigiata. — A European perennial 
about 1 ft. high, with rather fleshy, linear, 
smooth, flat leaves. Flowers in July, 
pale red, petals rarely notched. 

Culture dc. as for G. paniculata 
below. 

G. glauca. — A perennial about 18 in. 
high, native of the Caucasus, with downy, 
clammy branches, and rather fleshy, 
bluntly linear, lance-shaped leaves. 
Flowers in summer, white, in straggling 
panicles. 

Culture dc. as for G. paniculata 
below. 



GYPSOI'HILA 



CARNATION ORDER 



SAPONARIA 249 



G. paniculata. — A beautifully light and 
graceful perennial, forming a dense com- 
pact bush 2-3 ft. high, native of Europe. 
Sterns much branched, knotty, smooth 
and glistening, very slender and fragile. 
Leaves linear, lance- shaped, opposite, 
without stalks. Flowers during the 
summer, small, white, very numerous, 
borne on stiffish threadlike stalks. 

Culture dud Propagation. — Although 
this species may be increased by dividing 
the thickish roots in spring, it is as a rule 
better to raise the plants from seeds. 
These may be sown thinly out of doors in 
April and May hi a warm and not ten 
sunny border with finely prepared soil. 
As soon as the plants are large enough to 
handle easily they may lie pricked out 
into another bed, afterwards keeping them 
well watered and shaded until established. 
By the end of September, or in mild 
weather in spring, the young plants ma\ 
be moved to their flowering positions in 
the flower border. They will not bloom 
so well the first and second year as after- 
wards, but once established they produce 
immense clouds of blossom annually, 
and are very valuable for cutting for 
bouquets, room decoration kc, either in 
masses by themselves or mixed with other 
Mowers. 

G. perfoliata. — A perennial H-3 ft. 
high, native of S.W. Europe. Leaves 
smooth, lance-shaped, acute, more or less 
stem-clasping. Flowers in sttmmer, pink, 
in forked clammy panicles. 

Culture tic. as for G. paniculata. 

G. repens. — This is a pretty perennial 
species 8-6 in. high, native of the Euro- 
pean Alps, with smooth linear leaves, 
and white or rose-coloured flowers from 
July to September, borne in 3-forked 
corymb-like clusters. 

( 'ulture dc. as above for G. paniculata. 
A very useful plant for the rockery. 

G. scorzoneraefolia. — A Crimean peren- 
nial 1-3 ft. high. Leaves lance-shaped 
acute, more or less stem-clasping, 3-5- 
nerved and 3-4 in. long. Flowers from 
July to September, white, numerous, in 
slightly clammy panicles. 

Culture dc. as above for G. panicu- 
lata. 

G. Steveni. — A Caucasian perennial 1- 
2 ft. high, with linear lance-shaped, keeled, 
gray leaves, nearly all radical. Flowers 



from July to September, white, panicled ; 
petals broadly linear, blunt, not notched. 

Culture dc. as above for Q. panicu- 
lata. 

G. viscosa. — This pretty annual is a 
native of the East. It resembles G. 
elegans in height and appearand-, and 
has been considered simply as a rosv- 
flowered form of that species. It differs, 
however, in having a more blue-green 
appearance and more knotted and leafy 
stems. The Mowers are borne on shorter 
and more erect stalks, and are white 
Mushed with rose, and slightly fragrant. 
There are other minor differences, among 
which may be mentioned the elamminess 
of the stems, and the somewhat broader 
and rather stem-clasping leaves. 

Culture dc. as above for G. elegans-. 

SAPONARIA (Fuller's Brbb; 

Soapwort). — A genus containing about 
30 species, some of which are annual, with 
a habit like the Gyvsophilaf,, and some 
perennial with growth like the Silcnes. 
Calyx ovoid or oblong tubular, 5-toothed, 
obscurely nerved. Petals 5, narrow-clawed, 
with an entire or notched blade, scaly or 
not at the base. Stamens 10. Styles 2 
or very rarely 3. 

Culture and Propagation. — Sapo- 
narias grow well in sandy, loamy, well- 
drained soil and may be utilised in the 
rock garden, borders, edges of shrubberies, 
waste places, old banks &c. The perennial 
species are easily increased by seeds or by 
dividing the roots. The seeds of annual 
and biennial kinds should be sown in 
April and May in the places where the 
plants are to bloom, or earlier in the year 
on a hotbed or warm greenhouse, after- 
wards transferring the seedlings to the 
open air about the end of May. 

S. caespitosa. — A pretty alpine peren- 
nial 3-6 in. high, native of the Pyrenees. 
Leaves in dense tufts, smooth, rather thick, 
linear, rough at the edges, keeled behind. 
Flowers in summer, bright rose, some- 
what umbellate ; petals obovate, entire, 
with 2 awl-shaped scales at the throat. 

Culture dc. as for S. officinalis below. 
This species makes a good carpeting be- 
neath taller plants, but although it likes 
shade and shelter must not be suffocated 
with coarser plants. 

S. calabrica. — A beautiful annual 6-12 
in. high, native of Calabria, with erect, 
forked stems. Leaves obovate spoon- 
shaped, usually 1 -nerved, smooth or 



250 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS saponaria 



slightly downy, with ciliated edges. 
Flowers in late summer, beautiful rose, 
with rounded petals, narrowed at the base, 
and borne on forked branches. The in- 
flated reddish calyx is usually hidden by 
the upper leaves after flowering. There 
is a variet}' with white flowers, and a 
dwarf compact one with deep rose ones. 

Culture and Propagation. — Seeds of 
this species and its varieties may be 
sown in gentle heat in March, afterwards 
pricking out the seedlings into shallow 
boxes, and growing them on under glass 
until the end of May, when they may be 
placed out of doors in masses, allowing 
about 6 in. apart each way between every 
plant. Seeds may also be sown out of 
doors in April and May where the plants 
are to bloom. When the seedlings are 
large enough, they may be thinned out 
about 6 in. apart as above. From the 
beginning to the end of September seeds 
may also be sown in the open border and 
the plants will survive an ordinary mild 
winter except in the bleakest parts of the 
kingdom. Plants raised from seeds sown 
at this period are much larger and bloom 
earlier the following year than those from 
spring-sown seeds. 

S. glutinosa. — A biennial about 18 in. 
high, native of E. Europe, with ovate 3- 
nerved leaves. Flowers in summer, blood- 
red, with minute petals deeply notched 
at the apex and scales at the throat. 

Culture dc. as above for S. calabrica. 

S. lutea. — A pretty perennial 3-6 in. 
high, native of the Alps, with linear leaves 
ciliated at the base. Flowers from June 
to August, yellow, in heads ; calyx woolly, 
with short lobes ; petals obovate, entire ; 
stamens more or less violet -coloured. 

Culture dc. as for S. officinalis below. 

S. ocymoides (Bock Soapwort). — A 
lovely trailing perennial native of S. and 
Central Europe, forming dense tufts 6-12 
in. high, with forked branches. Leaves 
ovate lance-shaped, usually 1 -nerved. 
Flowers from May to August, red or pink, 
in panicled clusters ; calyx purple, cylin- 
drical, hairy, and somewhat clammy. 

The variety splendens has larger and 
more deeply coloured rosy flowers than 
the type, and is very effective used as an 
edging to taller plants, or in masses in the 
rock garden. 

Culture dc. the same as for S. offici- 
nalis. 



S. officinalis ( Bouncing Bet ; Common 
Soapivort). — A stout, vigorous and showy 
perennial 1-2 ft. high, native of Em-ope, 
Asia, and N. America, and also found in 
Britain in hedges, roadsides, fields &c. 
Leaves smooth, glaucous, oblong lance- 
shaped, 3 4 in. long, 3-nerved. Flowers 
in August and September, lilac or white, 
1 in. across, with obcordate petals. S. 
hybrida is a variety with connate upper 
leaves, and a gamopetalous corolla. The 
variety puberula has the upper part of the 
stem and the calyx downy. There is also 
a double-flowered variety (Jlore pleno) 
with rather pale blossoms like a small 
Carnation. 

Culture dc. — This species and its 
varieties, although perennial, may be 
raised annually from seeds in the same 
way as recommended for S. calabrica 
above. The double-flowered form, how- 
ever, which rarely seeds, must be increased 
by dividing the roots in early autumn or 
in spring. The single-flowered forms may 
also be increased by division at the same 
period. 

S. Vaccaria (Cowherb). — An annual 
1-2 ft. high, native of Central Europe and 
occasionally found in British cornfields. 
Leaves ovate lance-shaped, without stalks. 
Flowers in July and August, red, 
paniculate; calyx smooth, 5-angled. 

Culture dc. as above for S. calabrica. 

SILENE (Catchfly ; Campion). — A 
large genus containing according to 
Bentham and Hooker about 200 more or 
less distinct species, although as many as 
400 have been described by other authors. 
They are annuals or perennials with erect, 
tufted, decumbent or diffuse-climbing 
stems with opposite entire leaves. Flowers 
solitary or rarely in cymes, often in one- 
sided spikes forming a terminal cluster 
or panicle. Calyx variously inflated, 
ovoid, bell-shaped, club-shaped, or tubular, 
o-toothed .or 5-cleft, usually 10-nerved. 
Petals 5, narrow-clawed, with an entire 
2-cleft or rarely laciniated blade, often 
with 2 scales at the base. Stamens 10. 
Styles usually 3. Capsule opening at the 
apex by 6 (rarely 3) teeth or valves. 

Culture and Propagation. — Silenes 
grow in almost any light loamy soil, and 
many of the dwarfer kinds are very useful 
as rock-garden plants, while the taller 
kinds may find a place in the ordinary 
flower border. The perennial species may 
be increased by seeds, by cuttings, or 



SILENE 



CAHXATION ORDEll 



SILENE 251 



division of the root. The annual kinds, 
such as S. pendula and its variety emit 
pacta, are best from seeds sown late in 
summer. If transplanted not Later than 
the end of September, they make good 
strong plants for spring flowering. 

S. acaulis (Cushion Pink). — A very 
dwarf alpine herb tufted into light green 
masses like a wide-spreading moss, but 
quite firm. Native of the mountains of 
Scotland, Ireland, North Wales, the Lake 
district of England, and many other 
parts of Europe ; found also in Asia and 
America. Leaves short, linear, smooth, 
crowded. Flowers in summer, pink, 
rose or crimson, on short stalks barely 
peeping above the leaves ; petals obovate, 
slightly notched ; calyx bell-shaped or 
tubular, quite smooth, with rather blunt 
teeth. Alba is a variety with white 
flowers; exscapa, with the flower-steins 
shorter than in the usual form ; and 
■muscoides, dwarfer still ; but none of 
them are far removed from the common 
plant. 

Culture and Propagation. The 
Cushion Pink, as the popular name im- 
plies, is a charming little plant for making 
green carpets in the border or rock garden. 
It likes a well-drained soil composed of 
sandy loam, peat, and leaf soil, and also 
a partially shaded situation. 

Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe in 
shaded parts of the border or in cold 
frames in pots or pans. The seedlings 
are pricked out when large enough, and 
are best wintered in cold frames in the 
bleakest parts of the kingdom. They 
may be planted out in mild weather in 
spring in such localities, but in warmer 
situations they will stand an ordinary 
winter if planted in September. The 
plants when well established in clumps 
may also be divided in September or in 
spring. 

S. alpestris [Alpine Catchfly). — A 

dwarf and beautiful alpine herb, about 
6 in. high, native of the Alps. Leaves 
linear - lance - shaped, bluntish, tufted, 
smooth, erect ; stem simple, few-leaved. 
Flowers in early summer, white, 
shining, rather large, panicled ; petals 4- 
toothed ; calyx erect, with blunt teeth, as 
long as the petals. Some varieties of this 
species are quite sticky from viscid matter, 
and others perfectly free from it. 

Culture d'x. as above for S. acaulis. 



S. Armeria {Sweet WilUam Catchfly). 
A smooth annual 12 -18 in. high, native of 
France and Switzerland, with ovate-lance- 
shaped blue-green leaves rather heart- 
shaped at the base, borne on erect, knotty, 
forked stems which are somewhat clammy 
near the top. Flowers from July to 
September, pink, in corymbose panicles. 
The variety alba is readily distinguished 
by its white flowers, and there is another 
form with flesh-coloured blossoms. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Sweet William Catchfly is a very orna- 
mental border plant and grows well in 
almost any soil, so long as it is well 
drained and fairly sandy. 

Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe in 
spots where the plants are to bloom, and 
the seedlings niay be thinned out about 
6 in. apart, in preference to pricking them 
out or transplanting. In cold parts of 
the kingdom it is advisable to sow the 
seeds in cold frames, and transplant the 
seedlings in spring. Seeds may also be 
sown in April and May out of doors in 
the same way as recommended for 
autumn. 

S. Atocion. — A downy - stemmed 
annual 6-12 in. high, native of the 
Levant. Leaves roundish obovate, lower 
ones long - stalked, the uppermost ones 
sessile. Flowers in summer, pink, in 
more or less erect three-forked panicles. 
Petals obcordate, blunt, with a sharp 
tooth on each side at the base, crowned 
with 2 protuberances. 

Culture dc. as above for S. Armeria. 
Increased by seeds. 

S. chloraefolia. — A smooth-stemmed 
Armenian perennial 1-2 ft. high, with 
elliptic pointed leaves, the upper ones 
rather heart-shaped. Flowers in August 
and September, large, white, becoming 
reddish with age ; calyx long, striped ; 
petals cleft half way down with a 2-lobed 
crest. 

Culture <£c. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. compacta. — A smooth, glaucous 
biennial about 18 in. high, native of 
Russia. Leaves ovate heart - shaped, 
without stalks, the two large ones beneath 
the flowers appearing almost connate. 
Flowers in summer, pink, or deep rose, 
crowded into dense corymbs ; petals 
obovate, entire. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is 
one of the most beautiful members of the 



252 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



SILENE 



genus. It must be grown in a rich well- 
drained soil, as it cannot stand the wet 
and cold of winter. It must not however 
be grown in a soil that is too light and 
inclined to be dry, but rather in one with 
plenty of huraus or decayed vegetable 
matter. In fairly inild parts of the king- 
dom seeds may be sown out of doors in 
autumn as soon as ripe, or in spring, in 
the same way as recommended for S. Ar- 
meria. In cold northern parts they are 
best sown in cold frames either in autumn 
or spring, afterwards moving the plants 
outside in mild weather in spring. 

S. Elisabethae. — A beautiful perennial 
3-9 in. high, native of the Tyrolese 
mountains, with downy and clammy 
stems and leaves, the latter being 2-3 in. 
long, lance-shaped, acute. Flowers rather 
late in summer, li in. across, bright rose, 
the bases or claws of the wedge-shaped 
notched petals being white. 

Cult live Sc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. This 
species should be grown in a warm corner 
of the rockery, in deep soil composed of 
well-drained peat and loam. 

S. fimbriata. — A downy perennial 2-4 
ft. high, native of the Caucasus. Leaves 
large, ovate lance-shaped, wavy, on long 
stalks. Flowers from May to August, 
white, in large spreading panicles ; petals 
fringed. 

Culture dr. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. Hookeri. — A Californian perennial 
with decumbent stems. Leaves downy. 
2-3 in. long, the lower ones elliptic- spoon - 
shaped, narrowed into long stalks, the 
upper ones elliptic-lance-shaped, acute or 
pointed. Flowers in early summer, over 
2 in. across, pink; petals variously lobed. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 
It requires a warm sheltered place in the 
rock garden and nourishes in rich sandy 
loam, peat and leaf soil. 

S. inflate (S. Cucubalus). — This 
glaucous, smooth or downy perennial, 2-3 
ft. high, is a native of the roadsides and 
waste places of Britain, and is popularly 
known as the Bladder Campion or Catch- 
fly, Cow Bell, White Ben, White Bottle. 
Leaves 1-3 in. long, ovate, obovate, or 
oblong. Flowers from June to August, 
f in. across, drooping, white, some having 
stamens only, some pistils only, others 
both ; petals deeply cleft ; calyx bladdery, 



net-veined. The variety pubcrula is a 
rarer form with downy leaves. 

Culture St. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. lacera. — A procumbent hairy bi- 
ennial, native of the Caucasus, with long- 
stalked, ovate-lance-shaped, wavy leaves. 
Flowers from May to August, white 
with jagged petals, and a much inflated 
calyx. 

Culture dc. as above for S. compact a. 
Increased by seeds sown in early autumn 
or spring. 

S. laciniate. — A downy perennial 3-4 
ft. high, native of Mexico and California, 
with large lance-shaped, acute leaves. 
Flowers in summer, large, terminal, 
rather drooping, crimson, with a white, 
two-parted crest ; calyx cylindrical, 
inflated ; petals more or less 4-cleft. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. This 
plant should be grown in the warmest 
part of the garden. 

S. livida. — A flexuous, downy perennial 
1 ft. high, native of Carniola, with oblong 
lance-shaped leaves. Flowers in smmner, 
white above, purplish-green beneath, 
panicled, drooping to one side ; petals 
2-cleft, with scales. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. maritima. — A perennial species, 
native of British and W. European sea 
coasts, very similar in growth to the 
Bladder Campion, S. inflata. It has a blue- 
green appearance, the numerous stems 
being clothed with thickish oblong acute 
leaves, the edges of which are furnished 
with small spiny teeth. Flowers from 
June to August, white, larger than those of 
S. inflata and remarkable for the con- 
spicuous blue anthers of the stamens ; 
petals shortly cleft, the segments broad, 
with 2 scales at the base. The variety 
flore pleno has handsome double flowers 
rising slightly above the tufts of sea-green 
leaves. 

Culture Sc. as above for S. acaulis. 
The double-flowered variety can only be 
increased by dividing the roots or stems 
in spring. 

S. monachorum. — A pretty Bosnian 
species very nmch resembling S. quadri- 
fida in appearance. Its slender green 
stems, however, are furnished with 



SILENE 



CARNATION OliDEl: 



SILENE 253 



shorter, narrower, and blunter leaves, 
about 5 in. long. The dowers are white 
and appear from June onwards. They 
have wedge-shaped petals with 4 blunt 
teeth, and resemble those of S. alpcstris, 
S. auad/ridentata, and S. quadrifida. 
Culture do. as above for 8. ant ii lis. 

S. noctiflora. — -An erect, soft, downy 
annual 1-2 ft. high native of sandy places 
in the British Isles. Leaves 8-4 in. long, 
oblong lance-shaped, acute, the lower 
ones stalked. Flowers in summer, erect, 
open at night, fragrant. Petals rosy 
within, yellow outside ; calyx cylindrical, 
with 10 green nerves. 

Culture it'e. as above for S. Armaria. 
Increased by. sowing seeds annually as 
soon as ripe, or in spring out of doors. 

S. nutans (>S\ paradoxa). — Notting- 
ham Catch fly. — A downy perennial with 
a woody rootstock, native of dry places, 
walls &c. in Britain and the Channel 
Islands. Stems 2-3 ft. high, clammy 
above. Lower leaves oblong lance-shaped, 
2-5 in. long, tufted, stalked, the upper 
ones small, narrow, without stalks. 
Flowers from May to July, dimorphic, 
opening and fragrant for 8 nights. ."> 
stamens ripening on each of the two first 
nights, the styles protruding on the third. 
Calyx tubular, swollen in the middle. 
Petals white or pink, drooping. 

Culture ii'c. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seed or division. 

S. orientalis. — A beautiful perennial 
about 2 ft. high, native of Eastern Europe. 
Leaves glaucous, ovate, pointed. Flowers 
in summer, deep rose, in dense umbel- 
like heads 3 in. across. 

Culture <tc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. pendula. — A downy trailing annual, 
native of Italy and Sicily, with ovate- 
lance-shaped leaves. Flowers in spring 
and summer, flesh-coloured, pendulous ; 
calyx swollen, petals cleft. There are 
many varieties of this species, the best 
known being compaeta, very dwarf, 
densely tufted, covered with beautiful 
pink flowers in spring; compaeta alba, 
with white flowers ; ' Empress of India,' 
' Snow King,' ' Double Pink,' r uberrima, 
and ruberrima Bonuetti, and ' Zulu 
King ' (double) are other forms worth 
growing. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
Silene and its varieties grow 6 9 in. high, 



and are very popular for spring bedding, 
especially as they soon make fine tufts, 
and produce their pretty flowers in great 
abundance. Seeds may be sown as soon 
as ripe in some spare part of the garden, 
and as soon as the beds and borders are 
cleared of the usual summer bedding 
plants, they may be filled with the young 
Silenes. It is better to get them planted 
at least before the middle of October, and 
not later than the middle of September 
for northern parts of the kingdom, as 
otherwise they will be unable to establish 
themselves before the frosty weather sets 
in. By planting early, good strong tufty 
plants will be obtained for flowering pro- 
fusely in spring. For flowering during 
the summer months seeds may be sown 
in the open border in patches in April and 
May, afterwards thinning the seedlings 
out 6 9 in. apart. 

S. pennsylvanica (American Wild 

I'inln.—A. beautiful downy X. American 
perennial 4-8 in. high. Lower leaves 
narrowly spoon-shaped, nearly smooth, 
tapering into hairy stalks ; upper ones 
lance-shaped. Flowers in early summer, 
pink, clustered ; petals wedge-shaped, 
slightly notched and jagged-edged. 

Culture dtc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds and division. 

S. picta. — A pretty rush-like annual 
1 2 ft. high, native of Asia Minor and 
Syria, with much -branched slightly downy 
stems. Lower leaves obovate spoon- 
shaped ; upper ones linear, acute. Flowers 
in summer, pink, loosely panicled ; calyx 
striped, and petals veined with red. 

Culture dtc. as above for 8. pendula. 
Increased by seeds. 

S. pumilio {Pigmy Catchfly). — A 
beautiful densely tufted perennial, 2-3 in. 
high, native of the Tyrol. Leaves shining 
green, linear or spoon-shaped, somewhat 
fleshy and blunt, and slightly downy. 
Flowers in summer, rosy, about an inch 
above the leaves ; calyx swollen, hairy, 
niany-nerved ; petals obcordate. 

Culture etc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. 

S. pusilla. — A charming little plant, 
closely related to S. quadrifida. It has 
mossy foliage, and the white flowers are 
produced throughout the summer months 
on stalks 2-4 in. high. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 
It flourishes in moist sandv loam with a 



254 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



SILENE 



little mortar rubbish in half- shady places 
in the rock garden. When it finds a favour- 
able spot it reproduces itself readily from 
self-sown seed. 

S. quadridentata. — A species closely 
related to 8. alpestris. It grows 4-6 in. 
high, and forms dense masses of green 
linear oblanceolate leaves about lj in. 
long. The flowers are freely produced in 
summer — from June onwards — in loose 
panicles, and are pure white with wedge- 
shaped 4 -toothed petals. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 

S. quadrifida. — A pretty loose-growing 
European species somewhat resembling 
Gypsopliila elegans in appearance. It 
grows 3-6 in. high, its slender stems being 
furnished with linear leaves about l.j in. 
long. The white wedge-shaped flowers 
with 4 blunt teeth appear from June 
onwards in great profusion and are very 
attractive. 

Culture de. as above for S. acaulis. 

S. regia (Royal Catclifly). — A downy 
perennial 3-4 ft. high, native of the S. 
United States. Leaves thickish, ovate 
lance-shaped, acute. Flowers in summer, 
deep scarlet, numerous, in clusters ; petals 
spoon-shaped, lanceolate, mostly un- 
divided. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 
Increased by seeds or division. Should 
be grown in a warm corner of the flower 
border. 

S. Saxifraga. — A smooth, rather 
clammy tufted perennial, 3-6 in. high, 
native of the Alps, with acute linear leaves. 
Flowers from June to August, yellowish- 
white above, reddish beneath, and usually 
borne singly on very long stalks, but oc- 
casionally two or three on the same stem. 

Culture and Projiagation. — Owing 
to the thickness of its light green leaves 
this species is excellent for making a 
carpet under taller plants in the rockery 
or border, especially as it likes a certain 
amount of shade, but plenty of ventilation, 
and a light and rather sandy soil with a 
little leaf mould or peat. 

Seeds may be sown as soon as ripe in 
the open border, and the young plants 
may be moved to their flowering positions 
before the end of September, or in mild 
weather the following spring. In cold 
northern parts, it is safer to sow in 
autumn in cold frames and plant out in 
spring. Seeds however may also be sown 



out of doors in April and May for later 
blooming. The plants may also be divided 
when they have made good tufts in spring 
or early autumn, the distance between the 
replanted portions being 9 to 12 inches. 

S. Schafta. — A pretty Caucasian peren- 
nial rarely exceeding 6 in. high. Leaves 
obovate, acute. Flowers from June to 
October, purple, erect, gradually covering 
the stems ; calyx club-shaped, more than 
1 in. long ; petals wedge-shaped, small 
toothed. 

Culture dc. as above for S. Saxifraga. 
Like the latter species S. Schafta is ad- 
mirably suited for carpeting patches in 
the rock garden or border. 

S. supina. — A tufted Caucasian peren- 
nial, with downy, clammy, woody stems. 
Leaves linear, acute. Flowers from June 
to August, white, on short alternate 
stalks ; calyx long, cylindrrcally club- 
shaped, woolly ; petals long-clawed, cleft. 

Culture dc. as above for S. acaulis. 

S. vespertina. — A beautiful downy 
annual 1 ft. high, native of Greece. 
Leaves spoon-shaped, acute, on ciliated 
stalks. Flowers in summer, rosy, all 
turned on one side of the raceme ; calyx 
bladdery, club-shaped ; petals 2-lobed. 

Culture de. as above for S. compacta, 
or 8. pendula. Increased by seeds. 

S. virginica (Fire Pink). — A downy 
perennial 1-2 ft. high, native of North 
America. Leaves thin, spoon-shaped, or 
the upper ones oblong, lance-shaped. 
Flowers in summer, 2 in. across, deep 
crimson, few and loosely cymose : calyx 
oblong cylindrical, becoming obconi- 
cal ; petals oblong, 2-cleft. 

Culture and, Propagation. — This 
species is best raised from seeds, as it 
takes a long time to recover if divided. 
It should have a particularly well-drained 
position in the rockery or border, as 
wetness at the root in winter is more or 
less injurious to it. 

S. Zawadski. — A pretty Galician per- 
ennial with rosettes of radical lance- 
shaped acute leaves, and slender erect 
flower stems 6-8 in. high, bearing forked 
clusters of white flowers from May to 
July. The roundish petals are furnished 
with 2 linear scales at the base. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species requires the same treatment in 
ever}' way as S. Saxifraga and S. Schafta, 
above. 



LYCHNIS 



CABNATION ORDER 



LYCHNIS 255 



LYCHNIS (Rose Campion).— A genus 
containing about 30 species of beautiful 
annual or perennial herbs, often erect, 
with the habit of Silene, from which it 
differs chiefly in the flowers having more 
numerous styles — 5 instead of 3, Calyx 
inflated, ovoid, or club-shaped, tubular, 
5-toothed, 10-nerved. Petals 5, narrow- 
clawed, with entire 2-cleft or laciniated 
blades, often with 2 scales at the base. 
Stamens 10. Styles 5, rarely fewer 

Culture ant! Propagation. — The Can; 
pions are easily grown and thrive in a 
light, rich, loamy soil. They may be in- 
creased by dividing the rootstocks in 
autumn or spring, or by seeds. They are 
brilliant objects in the border, and are verj 
useful for the great quantity of flowers 
they afford for cutting. 

The species described below are all 
perennial except where otherwise men- 
tioned. 

L. alpina. — A smooth British and 
European plant, 4 6 in. high, with crowded 
narrow linear-lance-shaped leaves 1-2 in. 
long. Flowers in early summer, about 
£ in. across, rosy-pink, in compact heads ; 
petals narrow, deeply cleft. 

Culture etc. as for L. chalcedonica. 
Best increased from seeds and with more 
difficulty by division. This dwarf plant 
is excellent for carpeting patches in the 
rockery. It likes partially shaded spots 
and light sandy soil. 

L. chalcedonica. — A handsome and 
striking species 1A 3i ft. high, native of 
Russia. Leaves lance-shaped, somewhat 
heart-shaped at the base, hairy, stem- 
clasping. Flowers in summer, bright 
scarlet, in dense heads ; calyx round, 
club-shaped, ribbed. There is a white- 
flowered form called alba, and also a 
double-flowered one called Jiore jileno. 

Culture and Propagation. — There 
are many varieties of this fine species, 
including double red and double white 
forms. The single-flowered varieties are 
on the whole best increased from seeds, 
although they may be also multiplied by 
division. The seeds may be sown as soon 
as ripe out of doors in the milder parts of 
the kingdom, or in cold frames in unfavour- 
able localities. The same remarks apply 
to spring sowing, but if the plants are 
required to bloom the same year, it is 
better to sow the seeds in gentle heat, and 
have the seedlings grown on and hardened 
off, so as to be fit for planting in the open 



border by the end of May or beginning of 
June. 

The double-flowered forms —both scar- 
let and white — can only be increased by 
dividing the plants, as they very rarely 
produce any seeds at all. Division is best 
done in early autumn, before the end of 
September, or in mild weather in spring. 

The double-flowered kinds are some- 
what less vigorous than the single-flowered 
ones, and are best left undivided if doing 
well, for at least two or three years, or 
even more according to circumstances. 
Splendid tufted plants are produced on 
well-manured and well-drained loamy 
soil. 

L. Cceli-rosa (Agrostemma Cceli-rosa). 
Rose of Heaven. — An annual species 
about 1 ft. high, native of the Levant. 

It lias tufts of much-branched stems 
clothed with bright green linear lance- 
shaped leaves. Flowers during summer, 
delicate rose, bright purple in the type, 
with obcordate petals having white scales 
at the base. 

The variety fimbriata (also known as 
nana) grows about 9 in. high, and has 
fimbriated petals. There is also a form 
of fimbriata called lilacea having pale 
lilac blossoms, the plant itself densely 
tufted and very free-flowering. The white- 
flowered form resembles the type in every 
way. with the exception of colour. The 
variety purpurea is compact in habit, 
with deep purple flowers. 

Culture ami Propagation. — Being an 
annual, the Rose of Heaven and its varie- 
ties are raised from seed sown annually, 
either in early autumn in cold frames, or 
in the open border about April and May, 
according as early or late flowering is 
required. The seedlings may be thinned 
out about 6-8 in. apart when the seeds 
are sown out of doors in the flowering 
patches. 

L. coronaria (Agrostemma coronaria). 
A species 2 3 ft. high, native of S. 
Europe, with broadly lance-shaped, 
leathery leaves, 3 in. long, covered with a 
whitish woolly down. Flowers in July 
and August, about 1 \ in. across, crimson- 
red, calyx somewhat bell-shaped, ribbed, 
petals notched. The variety atrosan- 
guinea has fine dark crimson-red flowers. 
White-flowered and double red-flowered 
forms are sometimes seen. 

Culture and Propagation. — L. coro- 
naria and its varieties are excellent border 



256 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS lychnis 



flowers, and are very valuable for cutting. 
The plants may be increased much in the 
same way as recommended for L. chalce- 
donica, either by seeds sown in autumn 
or spring, in cold frames or in the open 
border according to locality ; or by dividing 
the plants in early autumn or spring. 
Better plants are however, as a rule, ob- 
tained from seeds. 

L. dioica (L. diurna). — Bachelor's 
Buttons ; Red Campion. — A native of 
damp copses, hedgebanks &c. in the 
British Islands, and also found in Europe, 
Siberia &c. Stems softly hairy, rarely 
quite smooth, clammy above. 1-3 ft. high. 
Lower leaves 3-6 in. long, obovate, 
stalked ; upper ones narrower. Flowers 
from spring to autumn, purple-rose, 
usually dioecious in wild specimens — that 
is, the male flowers are on one plant, the 
females on another ; calyx very hairy, 
reddish. The double-flowered variety is 
very attractive. It Mowers incessantly 
and is a fine border plant. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
double-flowered variety being seedless it 
may be increased by simply dividing the 
rootstocks in autumn or spring. The 
single form however may be increased 
either by seeds or division in the same 
way as recommended for L. chalcedonica. 

L. Flos-cuculi (Cuckoo Flower; 
Bagged Robin). — A somewhat rough- 
stemmed plant 1-2 ft. high, native of 
moist meadows, copses, cornfields &c, in 
the British Islands. Lower leaves stalked, 
oblong lance-shaped, pointed, the upper 
ones narrow. Flowers in May and June, 
drooping, rosy, rarely white, petals with 4 
linear segments ; calyx purplish-red. with 
ten darker ribs. The double -flowered 
variety {Jtorc pTeno) is superior to the 
type and is more highly valued as a garden 
plant. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Bagged Robin flourishes in any good and 
well-drained garden soil, and prefers 
rather damp and shaded situations. It 
is useful for planting under tall trees 
or near the edges of pieces of water, or in 
damp shaded parts of the rockery. For 
cutting purposes the flowers of both the 
double and single kinds are very useful. 

Seeds of the single variety may be 
sown either as soon as ripe, or in spring 
as recommended for L. chalcedonica, but 
the plants may also be increased by 
dividing the roots about the end of Sep- 



tember or in spring. The double-flowered 
variety can only be increased by division 
in this way. 

L. Flos-Jovis (Agrostemma Flos- 
Jovis). — Flower of Love. — A Swiss plant 
12-18 in. high, with woolly lance-shaped, 
stem-clasping leaves. Flowers in summer, 
purple or scarlet, in umbel-like heads. 
Calyx cylindrical, club-shaped ; petals 
2-lobed. ' 

Culture and Propagation. — Although 
a true perennial this species is as a rule 
better raised from seeds in the same way 
as L. corona/ria. The plants, however, 
may be also divided in spring or autumn. 
They like a sandy well-drained loam. 

L. fulgens. — A Siberian perennial 6-12 
in. high, with ovate lance-shaped, hairy 
leaves. Flowers in spring and summer, 
bright vermilion, large and handsome ; 
petals 4-cleft ; outer divisions awl-shaped ; 
calyx cylindrical, woolly. 

Culture and Propagation. — This bril- 
liant species requires to be grown in rich 
and well-drained turfy loamy soil, or well- 
manured garden mould, as it sometimes 
fails to establish itself if neglected. 
Seeds are freely produced, and may be 
sown as soon as ripe in cold frames, after- 
wards pricking the seedlings out and 
growing them on in the frames until mild 
weather in spring, when they may be 
planted out in the open border. Here 
they should be grouped in bold masses 
for effect, each plant being 6-9 in. away 
from the next. The plants may be in- 
creased by division about September, or 
in spring, and also by means of cuttings 
of the young shoots. The latter are best 
taken in spring, and inserted in light 
sandy soil, and placed on a gentle hot- 
bed until rooted. They are afterwards 
potted up singlj-, and when established are 
hardened off for planting out. 

L. grandiflora. — A Chinese species 8-12 
in. high. Leaves ovate, almost stalkless, 
smooth. Flowers from June to August, 
brick-red or scarlet, about 2 in. across, 
with spreading lacerated petals, and an 
inflated calyx. 

Cultureand Propagation, — This beau- 
tiful perennial is not quite hardy in all 
parts of the kingdom, and hence may 
require some little protection with bracken 
or dried leaves <kc. in the colder and more 
northern parts in severe winters. It 
likes a well-drained sandy loam and peat 
or leaf soil, and a warm, sheltered and 



LYCHNIS 



CARNATION ORDER 



LYCHNIS 257 



partially shaded situation in the rock 
garden or flower border. If seeds are 
produced they may be sown as recom- 
mended for L. fidgens above. Failing 
them, the plants may be divided about 
the middle or end of September, and re- 
planted about 9 or 12 in. apart in masses. 
Division may also take place in spring, 
but does not as a rule succeed so well as 
when done in early autumn. Cuttings of 
the young shoots may also be rooted like 
those of L. fit l(/ens. 

L. haageana. This fine plant is 
supposed to be a hybrid between L. fid- 
gens and L. corona/ria or L. grandiflora. 
It has shaggy stems, 1-2 ft. high, and 
large lance-shaped, pointed, hairy leaves 
purple-brown beneath. Flowers in sum- 
mer, 2 in. or more across, bright scarlet. 
Petals broadly obovate, somewhat deeply 
notched, and with 2 awl-shaped teeth at 
the side. Calyx shaggy, swollen, and 
angled. 

There are several varieties varying in 
colour from scarlet to pure white, the 
intermediate shades being rose, salmon, 
pink &c. The form known as grandiflora 
has very fine and brilliant flowers of vari- 
ous shades, and that known as nana 
represents a somewhat dwarfer and more 
compact race. 

Culture and Propagation. — -This is 
undoubtedly one of the finest, most showy 
border perennials. It flourishes in ordinary 
good and well-drained garden soils. It 
however prefers a mixture of peat and 
loam, and may be massed in front of 
Rhododendrons, Azaleas, and other Erica- 
ceous plants. L. haageana and its varie- 
ties may be increased by sowing seeds as 
soon as ripe, or in spring, in the way 
recommended for L. chalcedonica or 
L. fidgens, and plants obtained in this 
way present a great variety of shades of 
colour. Any choice or rare variety how- 
ever may be increased by division in 
early autumn or spring, and also by means 
of cuttings of the young shoots, in the 
same way as recommended for L. fidgens 
and L. grandiflora. 

L. Lagascae (Petrocoptis pyrenaica). 
A beautiful Pyrenean species about 3 in. 
high. Leaves obovate or oblong, rather 
leathery, and slightly glaucous. Flowers 
in spring and summer, bright rose, less 
than 1 in. across, with a white centre. This 
is a fine tufted plant for sunny parts of the 
rock garden. 

Culture dc. as for L. alpina above. 



L. oculata (Viscaria oeulata). — A 
lovely Algerian annual. 6-18 in. high, 
forming compact and free-flowering tufts. 
Leaves glaucous lance-shaped acute, be- 
coming narrower up the stems. Flowers 
in summer in great profusion, pinkish- 
purple, the notched petals having a deep 
purple spot at the base. Calyx suddenly 
contracted below the middle. 

There are several desirable varieties 
such as cardvnalis, bright crimson-purple ; 
carulea, bluish ; alba, white ; Dunnetii, 
rose ; splendens, scarlet ; elegans picta, 
crimson-purple edged with white ; and 
nana, a dwarf about 9 in. high with 
flowers of various shades, rose, purple, and 
white. 

Culture (ie. as above for L. Cwli-rom. 

L. Presli. —A native of Poland, 12-18 
in. high. Lower leaves numerous, in 
rosettes, ovate-lance-shaped, or obovate 
pointed, prolonged down the stem ; 
upper leaves ovate, abruptly pointed, 
entire, much veined, deep green. Flowers 
in summer, purplish or carmine-rose, 
about 1 in. across, opening in the day- 
time, numerously produced in forked 
panicled clusters, and having reddish 
bracts ; the corona in the centre is fringed, 
satiny and rose-white ; calyx reddish, 
much swollen. 

Culture dc. as above fori. Haageana. 

L. pyrenaica. — A Pyrenean species, 
3-4 in. high. Leaves glaucous, leathery, 
lower ones spoon-shaped, those of the 
stem heart-shaped, sessile. Flowers in 
summer, pale flesh colour, about i in. 
across, in forked clusters. Petals slightly 
notched ; calyx bell-shaped. 

Culture dc. as above for L. alpina. 

L. Sieboldi. — A handsome Japanese 
species about 1 ft. high. Leaves sessile, 
lower ones oblong, closely set, the others 
ovate-oblong acute, entire, soft and downy. 
Flowers in summer, large pure white, 
with wedge-shaped irregular slightly 
notched petals with jagged edges. 

Culture dc. as above for L. grandi- 
flora. 

L. vespertina (L. alba). — White Cam- 
pion. — A British and European species 
1-3 ft. high, with swollen-jointed purplish 
sterns. Leaves connate, ovate-oblong, 
pointed, tapering at the base, hairy, the 
lower ones stalked, the upper ones sessile. 
Flowers from May to August, white, 
slightly scented in the evening. Calyx 

s 



258 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS lychnis 



over i in. long, hairy, ribbed ; petals cleft. 
The double-flowered variety flo re -pleno is 
best known, and is more highly valued for 
the flower garden. It is an excellent 
border plant and has large white flowers 
that are very useful for cutting. 

Culture dc. as above ioxL. dioica. The 
double-flowered variety must be carefully 
divided when it is wished to increase the 
stock. 

L. Viscaria (German Catchfly). — A 
handsome evergreen 10-18 in. high, 
native of Britain, Europe &c, with 
smooth erect stems, clammy at the nodes. 
Lower leaves 3-5 in. long, grass-like, with 
stalks downy at the margins. Flowers 
in early summer, almost sessile, with 
obovate red-purple notched petals. Calyx 
i in. long, purple, swollen upwards. 

There are several varieties, among 
which alba, white, splendens, deep red, 
and the double-flowered form (flo re -pleno) 
with rosy-pink blossoms are best known. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species and its varieties, especially the 
beautiful double-flowered ones, are excel- 
lent border or rock plants, and when grown 
in masses produce a very striking effect 
when in blossom. The single-flowered 
varieties produce seeds in abundance, and 
may be increased by that means in the 
same way as L. haageana or L. chalce- 
donica. They are also very readily mul- 
tiplied by dividing the tufts in early 
autumn or in spring, and this is the only 
way that the double-flowered forms can 
be increased, besides cuttings of the young 
shoots in spring in the same way as 
mentioned under L, fulgens. 

CERASTIUM (Mouse-Ear Chick- 
weed). — A genus containing according to 
some authors about 100 species, but 
reduced to about 10 by Bentham and 
Hooker. Chiefly downy or hairy, rarely 
smooth, annual or perennial herbs. 
Leaves various, but rarely awl-shaped. 
Flowers in terminal, forked, sometimes 
leafy, sometimes almost naked, cymes. 
Sepals 5, rarely 4. Petals equal in 
number, notched or 2-cleft, very rarely 
entire or laciniated, sometimes minute. 
Stamens 10, or fewer by abortion. Styles 
5, rarely 4 or 3, opposite the sepals. Cap- 
sule cylindrical or cylindric-conical, often 
incurved. 

Culture and Propagation.--XW. the 
Cerastiums grow readily in ordinary 
garden soil. They are easily increased by 



division in early autumn or in spring ; or 
by cuttings in the open border in a shady 
place during the summer and autumn 
months. Seeds are freely produced by 
many kinds, and may be sown as soon as 
ripe in pots or pans of well-drained soil, 
and placed in cold frames during the 
winter months. The seedlings should be 
pricked out when large enough to handle 
into other boxes or pans, and should have 
as much light and air during the winter as 
possible and on all favourable occasions. 
They will be strong and sturdy for plant- 
ing out in spring. Of the perennial 
species described below, BLebersteini, 
grmidifiorum, and tomentcsum are most 
generally grown on account of their 
attractive silvery foliage. They are effec- 
tive for borders and edgings, and contrast 
forcibly with the brighter colours of other 
plants. They are also useful for massing 
in the rockery, and most of the species like 
an open and sunny situation. 

C. alpinum. — A British species 2 4 in. 
high. Leaves ovate elliptic or oblong, 
covered with long silky hairs, or smooth, 
Flowers in summer, white ; panicles 
rather hairy, few-flowered. There are 
several forms, the best known perhaps 
being lanatum and villosum. 

Culture d-e. as above. This species 
seeds freely. 

C. Biebersteini. — An evergreen species 
about 6 in. high, native of Tauria. 
Stems branching, with woolly ovate- 
lance- shaped leaves. Flowers in early 
summer, white, on erect forked stalks. 

Culture d : c. as above. 

C. Boissieri. — A Spanish species 4-12 
in. high, with sessile silvery leaves, 
usually ovate-lance-shaped, acute, entire. 
Flowers in early summer, white, large, in 
regular forked cymes. 

Culture <tc. as above. 

C. decalvans. — An interesting plant, 
native of Servia. It has trailing and 
rather woody stems, and dense rosettes of 
green leaves covered with tufts of wool. 
The numerous pure white flowers appear 
in May and June. 

Culture <tc. as above. 

C. grandiflorum. — A strong-growing 
deciduous species about 6 in. high, native 
of E. Europe. Leaves narrow, acute, 
hoary or woolly, with somewhat revolute 
margins. Flowers in summer, white. 



ARKNARIA 



CARNATION ORDER 



ARENARIA 259 



large, conspicuous, 7-15 on an erect 

stalk. 

Culture ((■(-. as above. 

C. latifolium. — A deciduous European 
species 3-6 in. high, with ovate slightly 
stalked leaves, pale green or slightly 
glaucous. Flowers in summer, large, white, 
solitary, or on sparingly forked stalks. 

Cult ii re dc. as above. 

C. purpurascens. — A remarkable 
species, native of the alpine regions of the 
Caucasus. It has a bulbous rootstock 
from which spring stems 2i-3£ in. long, 
furnished with oblong linear-lance-shaped 
leaves. The rather large Mowers appear 
in summer and are of a beautiful blue, 
which contrasts well with the purple 
sepals. 

Culture and Propagation. — This is a 
very effective plant in the rock garden 
when in blossom. It will grow in well- 
drained soil in sunny situations, but can 
be increased only by means of seeds sown 
in the way advised above. As neither 
runners nor side shoots are produced 
from the central stock it cannot be in- 
creased by division. 

C. tomentosum. — A beautiful and well- 
known evergreen species, 6 in. high, 
native of S. and E. Europe. Leaves 
silvery and oblong, spoon-shaped, upper 
ones lance-shaped. Flowers in early sum- 
mer, white, in forked cymes on erect 
stalks. This species is extensively used 
as an edging for beds, borders, banks &c. 

Culture <rr. as above. 

ARENARIA (Sandwort). — A genus 
of more than 130 species of annual or 
perennial herbs, sometimes slender or 
stifhsh with small awl-shaped leaves, 
sometimes spreading or tufted with 
broader leaves. Flowers terminal, 
cymose-paniculate, or capitate, rarely 
axillary or almost solitary. Sepals 5, 
rarely 4. Petals equal in number, white, 
or very rarely red, entire or slightly 
notched, or rarely absent. Stamens 10, 
rarely 8 or fewer by abortion. Styles 3, 
seldom 2, or 4-5 in some flowers. 

The plants known as Alsine are now 
referred to this genus. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Arenarias are pretty little plants, chiefly 
suitable for the rock garden in more or 
less exposed situations, ha ordinary soil. 
The perennial species, which only are 
worth growing, may be increased by 
division in early spring or autumn ; by 



seeds sown in spring in a cold frame ; or 
by cuttings put under a bell glass during 
the spring and summer months, keeping 
them shaded until fairly well rooted. The 
following are some of the best Sandworts. 

A. balearica. — A pretty perennial 
Sandwort, native of Corsica, with very 
small ovate, shining, rather fleshy, ciliated 
leaves. Flowers in early summer, white, 
numerous, borne on purple or violet 
stalks 1-3 in. high. 

Culture a ml Propagation. — This is an 
excellent plant for covering the faces of 
rocks or stones, as the tiny foliage almost 
adheres to the surface, making it a mass 
of deep shining green with scarcely an 
interstice. It likes open, airy, and par- 
tially shaded situations with plenty of 
moisture. If exposed to hot sunshine and 
drought it soon becomes parched and 
withered. 

Seeds are freely produced, and though 
minute may be saved with comparative 
ease if picked before the pods are ripe 
enough to burst. The seeds may be sown as 
soon as ripe in pots or pans of fine sandy 
soil, and require scarcely any covering. 
They must be kept shaded and moist, and 
when the tiny seedlings are well above 
ground, they may be pricked out into 
similar pots and pans, and wintered in 
cold frames until spring. 

An easier method of increase however 
is by dividing the plants at any time dur- 
ing the summer months. The divided 
portions should be placed on fine soil, 
and have a little soil sprinkled here and 
there over the patches to hold the plants 
down. If kept shaded and moist they 
will soon root, and may be placed in the 
rockery. 

A. ciliata. — A procumbent, tufted 
evergreen species, 2-3 in. high, native of 
Ireland, the Orkney and Shetland Isles, 
Europe &c. Leaves small, ovate, downy, 
fringed with hairs near the base. 
Flowers in summer, about h in. across, 
white, with spoon-shaped petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. graminifolia. — A tufted evergreen 
grassy Caucasian plant 6-10 in. high. 
Leaves long, awl-shaped, rough-edged. 
Flowers in summer, white, on erect 
stalks; petals obovate, 5-6 times longer 
than the blunt sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. grandiflora. — A native of France, 
3-6 inches high. Leaves awl-shaped, 

s2 



260 



PBACTICAL GUIDE TO GABDEN PLANTS akenakia 



3-nerved, fringed with hairs, lower ones 
crowded. Flowers in summer, white, 
usually solitary, on long downy stalks. 
The variety biflora has two flowers on a 
stem, and trifiora three. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. laricifolia. — A Swiss species about 
6 in. high, with awl-shaped leaves tooth- 
letted and ciliated on the edges. Flowers 
in summer, white, 1, 3, or 6, borne on 
rather rough upright stems. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is suitable for rockeries or border 
edgings, and flourishes in light sandy soil 
in sunny situations. It is easily increased 
by division of the tufts in early autumn or 
spring, or may be raised from seeds in 
the same way as A. balearica. 

A. longifolia. — A Siberian species 6-9 
in. high, with awl-shaped, thread-like, 
serrulated leaves. Flowers in summer, 
white, crowded on three-forked smooth 
panicles. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. montana. — A handsome species 
about 3 in. high, native of France and 
Spain. Leaves lance-shaped linear, 
borne on very long stems, procumbent. 
Flowers in summer, white, large, over an 
inch across, solitary, on long stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. As an orna- 
mental plant for hanging over the faces of 
rock in half-shaded places in the rockery, 
A. montana is superior to any other 
species of Arenaria. Its loose and elegant 
and numerous white flowers make it a 
charming picture in suitable positions. It 
is easily increased by cuttings made in 
April and May, and inserted in sandy soil 
in shaded spots. Seeds are also freety 
produced and may be sown when ripe or 
in spring. 

A. peploides (HonTienya peploides). — 
Sea Purslane. — A native of British sea- 
shores, 3-4 in. high, with rather fleshy, 
ovate-acute, recurved leaves. Flowers 
from May to August, \ in. across, white. 
Petals of the staminate flowers as long as 
sepals ; of the pistillate flowers shorter. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. purpurascens. — A closely tufted 
evergreen species, about 6 in. high, found 
abundantly on the higher Pyrenees. 
Leaves smooth, ovate lance - shaped, 
pointed, stalkless. Flowers in early 
summer, purplish, numerous, borne on 
downy stalks. 

Culture dc. as above. 



A. rotundifolia. — A Siberian species 
4-6 in. high. Leaves about \ in. across, 
roundish, ciliated, on tufted branches. 
Flowers in summer, white, solitary, with 
roundish ovate petals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. tetraquetra. — A distinct looking 
tufted species about 6 inches high, native 
of the French Mediterranean shores. 
Leaves ovate, edged with a white carti- 
lage, and fringed at the base. Flowers 
in summer, white, in heads, with narrow 
leaves between. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. verna. — A native of dry rocks, 
pastures, banks &c. in the British Islands, 
and also found in Central Europe, N. 
Africa, and N. America. It is 1-3 in. 
high, with densely tufted 3-nerved awl- 
shaped leaves. Flowers in early summer, 
5 in. across, white, with greenish centres, 
freely produced. The variety c&spitosa 
has very leafy sterns, smooth calyx and 
flower stalks. In the variety Cerardi 
the leaves do not end in a small point. 

Culture dc. as above. 

SAGINA (Pearlweed ; Pearl- 
wort). — A genus of about 8 small tufted 
annual or perennial herbs, with awl- 
shaped leaves, and small, usually long- 
stalked flowers. Sepals 4-5. Petals 
4-5, entire, or slightly notched, some- 
times minute or absent. Stamens equal 
in number to the sepals, or twice as 
many, or fewer by abortion. Styles 
equal hi number to the sepals and 
alternate with them. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Pearlworts being mostly weeds, the 
species mentioned below is the only one 
worthy of notice as a garden plant. It 
may be raised from seed sown in May, 
and increased in the autunm by dividing 
the patches. For making a green carpet 
or edging to a border it is very useful, 
and great hopes were at one time 
entertained of its value for making 
lawns, but with the greatest care it 
becomes too patchy for this purpose. 

S. pilifera {Spiergula pilifera). — A 
tufted moss-like plant, about 2 in. high, 
native of Corsica. Leaves linear, awl- 
shaped, smooth. Flowers in summer, 
small, white ; petals twice as large as 
the oblong blunt sepals. The variety 
aurea has golden-yellow foliage, and is 
more or less used for carpet bedding. 

Culture dc. as above. 



PORT IT I, AC A 



I'UHS LANE ORDER 



CALAXDRINIA 261 



XX. PORTULACEiE— Purslane Order 

An order containing about 15 genera and 125 species of succulent herbs or 
undershrubs, often smooth, but sometimes hairy. Leaves alternate, seldom 
opposite, entire, often fleshy. Stipules scarious, sometimes lacerated, or 
changed into hairs, or absent. Flowers solitary, at the ends of the branches, 
racemose, cymose, or paniculate, the lower ones axillary or lateral. Sepals 
usually 2, rarely 5, free, or adnate to the base of the ovary, much imbricated, 
persistent or deciduous. Petals 4-5, rarely numerous, hypogynous or rarely 
perigynous, free, or connate at the very base, imbricate, entire, often fleeting 
or deliquescent. Stamens inserted with the petals, often adnate to them at 
the base, sometimes equalling them in number, sometimes fewer and opposite, 
sometimes numerous ; filaments thread-like, distinct. Carpels 3 or more ; 
stigmas several, much divided. 

P. grandiflora [Sun Plant). — A 
beautiful Brazilian plant, about 6 in. high, 
with cylindrical, acute leaves, having tufts 
of hairs in the axils. Flowers in summer, 
crimson-purple, three or four together, 
crowded, surrounded by whorls of leaves 
and crowded hairs. The variety Thellu- 
soni is a taller plant, with less cylindrical 
and blunter leaves than the type, and 
large scarlet flowers, with 2-lobed petals. 
There are several forms such as aurea, 
aureo- striata, alba, coccinea, splendens, 
caryophylloides, Thornburni,aurantiaca, 
Bed ma mi i &c, with single flowers of 
various hues, and most of them are ob- 
tainable from a packet of mixed seed. 
The variety called jj/ewa has beautiful 
double flowers of a brilliant crimson- 
purple, and looks very handsome. 

The popular name of ' Sun Plant ' is 
derived from the fact that the flowers open 
as a rule only during bright sunshine ; 
hence the necessity for planting in warm 
sunny positions to obtain the best results. 

Portulaca oleracea, an Indian annual, 
is sometimes grown as a salad, the leaves 
being eaten fresh or in a cooked state. 

CALANDRINIA (Rock Purslane). 
A genus containing about 60 species of 
smooth or hairy annual or perennial 
herbs, sometimes shrubby at the base. 
Leaves alternate or tufted, rather fleshy. 
Flowers solitary, long-stalked, or axillary, 
or in loose terminal racemes or con- 
tracted heads. Sepals 2, herbaceous, 
ovate, persistent, or rarely deciduous. 
Petals 5, often ephemeral, rarely fewer or 
numerous, hypogynous. Stamens 5 or 
more, free, cohering into a ring at the 



PORTULACA (Purslane).— A genus 
containing about 16 species of spreading 
or ascending fleshy herbs, with alternate 
or nearly opposite flat or rounded leaves, 
often with tufts of bristles in the axils, 
the upper ones often forming an involucre 
round the flowers. Sepals '2, cohering in 
a tube and adnate to the base of the 
ovary, free above, deciduous. Petals 4-6, 
free, or slightly connate at the base. 
Stamens 8 or more, at the base of the 
petals, and with them perigynous. Style 
deeply cut into 3-8 branches. 

Culture and Pro2)agation. — Outdoor 
Portulacas are best treated as annuals. 
The seeds may be sown thinly in April 
in pans in a cold frame. By June the 
seedlings will be ready for planting out. 
If pricked off into pots or pans previously 
and kept in a well-aired frame the seed- 
lings make much better plants. Seeds 
may also be sown in the open border 
about the end of May, to bloom later 
than those raised under glass. 

The double-flowered varieties may be 
increased by means of cuttings during the 
summer and autumn months, but this 
process necessitates keeping the plants 
under glass during the winter period. 
The cuttings should be inserted in light 
sandy soil and may be rooted in a shaded 
part of the garden, out of doors or under a 
handlight ; or if the season is unfavourable 
on a gentle hotbed. 

Portulacas are not particular as to 
soil, but rich loam and leaf mould suit 
them best. They should be planted in 
the sunniest and warmest parts, and in 
bold masses to secure better effect when 
in bloom. The best kind to grow is: 



262 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS calandeinia 



base, or adhering to the petals. Capsule 
globose or ovoid, 3-valved. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
species described below are the ones 
chiefly grown as annuals from seed, 
except C. umbellata, which is treated as a 
biennial. They like a light sandy soil in 
warm places in the rock garden. As the 
plants do not transplant well, it is better 
to sow seeds where the plants are to 
flower, protecting them with handlights 
or sheets of glass until all danger of frost 
is over. The flowers of most species ex- 
pand only in bright sunshine, thus resem- 
bling the Portulacas. 

C. discolor. — A Chilian plant 12-18 
in. high, with fleshy obovate leaves, 
nai'rowed at the base, pale green above, 
purple beneath. Flowers in summer, 
bright rose, 1A in. across, with a yellow 
tuft of stamens in the centre, borne on 
long racemes. The blossoms are at first 
drooping, but become erect when fully 
expanded. This species is often called 
C. elegans in gardens. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds may be 
sown in the open border in warm sheltered 
situations, with plenty of sunshine, in 
April and May, and even as late as the 
end of June, to secure a succession of 
flowering till late in autumn. The seed- 
lings when large enough may be thinned 
out 6-8 in. apart. 

C. grandiflora. — A native of Chili 1 ft. 
high, with rather shrubby stems. Leaves 
fleshy, rhomboid, acute, stalked. Flowers 
in summer, 2 in. across, rosy, in loose 
racemes ; calyx spotted with black. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. Menziesi (C. speciosa). — A Califor- 
nian species with much-branched stems 
at first prostrate, but afterwards turning 
upwards 12-18 in. high. Leaves spathu- 
late, much narrowed towards the base. 
Flowers from June to September, deep 
purple-crimson, i-1 in. across. 

Culture dc. — This is one of the most 
beautiful members of the genus and looks 
very effective grown in large patches. 
Seeds may be sown at intervals from 
April to July to keep up a succession of 
blossom. 

C. nitida. — A pretty tufted species 
about 6 in. high, native of Chili. Leaves 
smooth, oblong, spathulate, sub-acute, 
narrowed at the base. Flowers in sum- 



mer, rosj 7 , about 2 in. across, and borne 
in many-flowered leafy racemes. 

Culture dtc. as above for C. discolor. 

C. oppositifolia. — A pretty Californian 
species with a thick and fleshy tuberous 
rootstock, and oblanceolate leaves 2-2£ 
in. long. The pure white or blush 
flowers, each about 1^ in. across, are borne 
in late summer, 3 or 4 on a stem 3-6 in. 
high. The sepals are roundish and 
sharply toothed, as are also the 5 deeply 
cleft petals, surrounding a cluster of 
about 20 stamens in the centre. 

Cult are Ac. as for C. umbellata below. 
This species is rather tender and is 
best wintered in a cold greenhouse in un- 
favourable parts of the kingdom. C. 
Tiveedyi, a dwarf -tufted species with thick 
fleshy leaves and bronzy flesh-coloured 
flowers, would probably succeed if treated 
in the same way, at least in the milder 
parts of the kingdom. 

C. umbellata. — A distinct and pretty 
Peruvian species about 6 inches high, 
with radical, linear, acute, hairy leaves. 
Flowers in summer and autumn, brilliant 
magenta-crimson, less than 1 in. across, 
in many-flowered cymose corymbs. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is a perennial on dry soils, and 
may be grown in warm fully exposed 
sunny parts of the rock garden. The seeds 
should be sown in fine sandy soil in pots 
or in the open some time during Sep- 
tember, or in April and May as mentioned 
above for C. discolor. If sown in pots the 
seedlings should not be pricked out, as 
they are apt to perish by such treatment, 
but the whole potful — soil and all — should 
be carefully planted without breaking the 
soil. In favourable parts of the kingdom 
this species and also C. grandiflora will 
often reproduce themselves from self-sown 
seeds. 

CLAYTON I A. — A genus containing 
about 20 species of fleshy annual or 
perennial herbaceous plants, usually 
smooth, sometimes with tuberous root- 
stocks. Lower leaves stalked, upper ones 
alternate or opposite. Stipules none. 
Flowers in terminal racemes or cymes, 
rarely axillar}' or solitary. Sepals 2, 
herbaceous, ovate, persistent. Petals 5, 
hypogynous. Stamens 5, opposite the 
petals, and adhering to them at the base. 
Style 3-cleft or 3-furrowed. 

Culture and Propagation. — Clay- 
tonias are adapted for the rockery or 



CLAYTONIA 



PURSLANE ORDER 



LEWISIA 263 



wild garden. The annual fibrous-rooted 
species may be increased by seeds ; the 
tuberous-rooted ones also by seeds, or by 
offsets taken in autumn or spring. The 
tuberous species thrive best in damp 
peaty soil ; the annuals in loamy soil. 

C. caroliniana. — A spreading dwarf 
species, native of North America, with 
sputhuJate oblong or ovate-lance-shaped 
leaves. Flowers in spring, rosy, in loose 
racemes. 

Culture itc. This species may be 
grown in peaty soil in the rock garden in 
partially shaded and moist situations. It 
may be increased by seeds sown as soon 
as ripe in pots or pans in cold frames. 
The seedlings are pricked out and grown 
on till the following spring before trans- 
ferring to the open ground. The roots 
may also be divided in early autumn or 
in spring. 

C. perfoliata. — An annual species 
3-6 in. high, native of N.W. America to 
Mexico, and Cuba, also found naturalised 
in parts of the British Islands. Upper 
leaves connate or perfoliate, forming a 
roundish disc ; lower ones stalked, oval- 
rhomboid. Flowers from May to August, 
white, small. 

Culture de. This species will grow in 
any garden soil, and may be increased by 
seeds sown out of doors as soon as ripe, or 
in April and May. 

C. sibirica. — A Siberian perennial 
3-6 in. high, with spindle-shaped roots. 
Leaves ovate, the lower ones stalked, upper 
ones opposite, sessile. Flowers in spring, 
rosy, with 2-cleft petals. 

Culture £c. as above for C. caroliniana. 

C. virginica. — A tuberous-rooted N. 
American perennial 3 in. high. Leaves 
linear lance-shaped. Flowers in spring, 
white, with notched petals. 

Culturedc. as above for C. caroliniana. 

SPRAGUEA. — A genus containing 
only one species here described : — ■ 

S. umbellata. — A rare Californian 
perennial 6-9 in. high, with somewhat 
fleshy spathulate leaves, and small 
scarious stipules. Flowers in summer, 
pinky-rose, in dense imbricated spikes. 
Sepals 2, roundish heart-shaped, mem- 
branaceous, persistent. Petals 4, hypo- 
gynous. Stamens 3, opposite the petals, 



and adhering to them at the base. Style 
2-cleft. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species is probably not quite hardy in 
unfavourable parts of the country, and in 
such places may require slight protection. 
It grows in ordinary soil and is useful for 
the rockery, or edges of the flower border. 
To obtain flowers the same year, seeds 
should be sown on a hotbed in February, 
the seedlings being pricked out singly 
into small pots so as to be ready for 
planting out by the end of May, to bloom 
in August and September. Seeds sown 
later in the open will not produce flowers 
until the following spring or summer. 

LEWISIA. — Like the preceding, this 
genus has only one species : — 

L. rediviva {Spathim). — A remark- 
able and pretty N. American plant 1-3 
in. high, with edible, tapering, fleshy, red- 
etemmed roots, white within. Leaves 
densely tufted, linear, fleshy, withering on 
the appearance of the flowers. The latter 
appear in summer on one-flowered scapes, 
jointed above the middle, pink, with a 
nearly white centre, 3-4 in. across. Sepals 
6-8 (most of the other plants in this order 
have only 2), broadly ovate, contorted, 
imbricate, finely veined with red, persis- 
tent. Petals 8 10, hypogynous, imbricate. 
Stamens numerous, inserted with the 
petals. Styles deeply 6-8-cleft. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species should be planted in a nook or 
crevice in the rockery, where its fleshy 
roots will obtain plenty of moisture. The 
position, however, should be a sunny one, 
as the flowers will not readily develop in 
shady spots. After blooming the plant 
shrivels up into a withered string-like 
mass. In very hot seasons the plants 
should be watered every day. Lewisias 
are increased by seeds, or by dividing the 
roots in spring. The seeds should be 
sown as soon as ripe hi pots or pans in 
cold frames, and the seedlings after being 
pricked out should be grown on during 
the whiter months in the frames until fine 
weather in spring, when they may be 
planted out. Or the seeds may be sown 
in gentle bottom heat about February and 
March. The seedlings are pricked out 
and hardened off so as to be ready for the 
open air by the end of May or beginning 
of June. 



264 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS tamakix 



XXI. TAMARISCINEiE— Tamarisk Order 

A small genus containing 5 genera, and about 40 species of shrubs or under- 
shrubs, rarely trees or durable herbs. Leaves alternate, very small, often 
scale-like, imbricate, entire, and often fleshy with a usually pitted surface. 
Stipules none. Flowers regular, often hermaphrodite, in close spikes, or 
racemes, often white or rose, flesh-coloured, small or showy. Sepals 5, 
rarely 4, free or connate at the base, much imbricated in bud. Petals 5, 
rarely 4, free, or cohering in a tube at the base. Disc hypogynous or slightly 
perigynous, 10-glandular, crenate or angulate, rarely absent. Stamens 5 or 
more, inserted on the disc, free, or variously connate at the base. Anthers 
2-celled, versatile. Ovary free, 1-celled, or imperfectly septate. Capsule 
dehiscent, leathery. 



TAMARIX (Tamarisk). — A genus 
containing about 20 species (50 according 
to some authors) of small trees or bushes, 
with minute, scale-like leaves, stena- 
clasping or sheathing. Flowers white or 
rose, in spikes or dense racemes. Sepals 
4-5, rarely 6, free. Petals 4-5, inserted 
under the glandular, crenate, angled or 
lobed disc, free, or slightly connate at the 
base. Stamens 5-10, rarely 4, or 11-12, 
inserted on the disc, free or connate in a 
ring near the base. Ovary narrowed up- 
wards ; styles 3-4, short, thick. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
Tamarisks thrive in almost any good 
garden soil, and are very effective orna- 
ments in shmbberies and borders. Along 
the south coast and in the Channel 
islands the common Tamarisk (T. 
gallica) is a lovely feathery, Heath-like 
tree. Plants may be increased by insert- 
ing cuttings of the flowerless shoots about 
4 in. long under glass in sandy soil during 
the summer months. When well rooted 
they may be planted out in spring in a 
warm sunny border and well watered. 

Seeds may also be sown as soon as 
ripe in cold frames, and the young plants 
may be grown in the frames imtil the 
following spring, when they may be trans- 
ferred to a warm and sheltered border. 
Seeds may also be sown in spring and 
treated in the same way. 

T. chinensis. — This is somewhat 
similar to T. gallica, but has if anything 
a more graceful and feathery appearance. 
It is sometimes called T. japonica 
plumosa, and produces pink flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. It is not quite 
so hardy as T. gallica. 



T. gallica (Common Tamarisk). — A 
fast-growing, beautiful evergreen shrub 
6-12 ft. high, native of Britain, and also 
distributed throughout Europe to India. 
Leaves very small, closely imbricated, 
triangular, auricled and keeled on the 
very slender, feathery branchlets, and 
about | in. long, and awl-shaped on older 
wood. Flowers from July to September, 
white or pink, in catkin-like spikes 1 in. 
long. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. hispida (T. hliasgarica). — This is 
a recently introduced species from Central 
Asia. The leaves are very small and 
blue-green in appearance, closely pressed 
to the stems, and therosy-carrnine flowers 
are produced in autumn. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. parvifiora (T. africana). — A 
native of S.E. Europe, 6-10 ft. high, 
with small lance-shaped acute leaves, 
slightly keeled. Flowers in summer, 
pink, crowded on spikes or lateral 
racemes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

T. tetrandra. — A Caucasian shrub 
6 8 ft. high, with lance-shaped stem- 
clasping leaves. Flowers in summer, 
pinkish-white, borne on lateral racemes 
about H in. long, and remarkable for 
having only 4 stamens or anthers, as 
indicated by the name. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
very hardy and produces seeds freely in 
the neighbourhood of London. 

MYRICARIA. — A small genus con- 
taining 3 or 4 closely related species 
of deciduous undershrubs, with small. 



MYRICARIA 



ST, JO NX's WORT ORDER 



HYPERICUM 265 



narrow, clustered leaves. Flowers rosy 
or white, in long spiked terminal 
racemes, leafy at the base. Sepals and 
petals 5, free. Stamens usually 10, 
inserted on the disc, slightly connate at 
the base or beyond the middle. 

M. germanica. — An elegant Heath- 
like shrub 3-6 ft. high, native of Europe 
and Asia, with rigid, erect, and slightly 
angular branches. Leaves somewhat 
glaucous, linear, blunt, spotted. Flowers 
in summer, white or rose-tinted, in spike- 
like racemes ; petals lance-shaped, acute. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
above is the only species of note. It 
is a good shrub for dry banks in warm 
sandy soils, and may be increased by 
seeds sown in the open air about May, 
or by cuttings of the firm young wood 
during the summer months, inserted in 
light sandy soil under a handlight. They 
may be transplanted in mild weather the 
following spring. 



REAUMURIA.— A 
species of little-known 



genus of 10 
much-branched 



procumbent or straggling shrubs with 
small or roxuidish, fleshy, often clustered 
leaves. Flowers terminal, solitary, often 
showy, larger than in Tamarix. Sepals 
5, nearly connate at the base or almost 
free, surrounded by few or many imbri- 
cated sepaloid bracts. Claws of the petals 
broad. Stamens numerous, free, or in 
5 bundles opposite the petals, more or 
less connate at the base. Styles 5, awl- 
like. 

R. hypericoides. — A beautiful Syrian 
shrub about 2 ft. high, with leathery 
leaves, varying from linear to lanceolate 
oblong. Flowers in summer, purple ; 
petals irregular, ovate or ovate-oblong, 
very blunt, with appendices short and 
slightly fimbriate at the apex. 

Culture and Propagation. ■ — This 
species grows readily in sandy loam and 
peat in a warm corner of the border or 
shrubbery. Cuttings of the ripe young 
wood root readily in a sandy soil under 
a bell glass in the same way as re- 
commended for Tamarix and Myri- 
caria. 



XXII. HYPERICINE^E— St. John's Wort Order 

An order containing 8 genera and over 200 species of evergreen or deciduous 
herbs, shrubs, or rarely trees. Leaves opposite, rarely verticillate, simple, 
entire, penni-nerved, or glandular-toothed, herbaceous, or very rarely leathery 
in texture, sometimes small or needle-like, usually full of pellucid dots, and 
bordered with black glands. Stipules none. Flowers regular, hermaphro- 
dite, terminal or rarely axillary, solitary, cymose or cyrnose paniculate- 
usually yellow or white. Sepals 5, rarely 4, imbricate. Petals 5, rarely 4, 
hypogynous, imbricate, often contorted, bordered with blackish dots, some- 
times with a fleshy scale or hollow at the base. Stamens numerous, hypo - 
gynous, often in 3 or 5 connate or approaching bundles, sometimes in many 
bundles, with fleshy glands intervening. 



HYPERICUM (St. John's Wort). 
A genus containing about 160 species 
of deciduous or evergreen shrubs or under - 
shrubs. Leaves often almost sessile, 
small or membranaceous, entire or rarely 
somewhat toothed, usually with pellucid 
black dots at the edges. Flowers yellow, 
rarely white, solitary, cymose or panicu- 
late. Sepals and petals 5. Stamens free 
or slightly cohering at the base into 3-8 
bundles. Styles distinct or rarely co- 
hering. 

Culture and Propagation. — Hyperi- 
cums prefer a rich sandy loam, but will 
grow readily in any ordinary garden soil. 



They are useful for shrubberies, borders, 
banks, or in beds by themselves. They 
are increased quickly from seeds or cut- 
tings, or by dividing the creeping rooted 
species. The half-hardy kinds may 
require a little protection in winter in 
northern parts of the country. All the 
kinds described below lose their leaves 
in winter and have yellow flowers except 
where otherwise stated. 

H. aegyptiacum. — A half-hardy round - 
stemmed evergreen 6-18 in. high, native 
of N. Africa and the Levant. Leaves 
glaucous, small, ovate, crowded, without 



266 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS Hypericum 



dots. Flowers in summer, small, few, 
almost sessile. 

Culture and Propagation. — Although 
from sunny Mediterranean climes this 
species is hardy in ordinary winters in 
the neighbourhood of London. It must, 
however, be grown in warm and sheltered 
spots and in well-drained rather sandy 
soil. Cuttings of the ripened or half- 
ripened shoots, without flower buds, may 
be rooted under a handlight during the 
summer and autumn months, and trans- 
planted the following spring. Seeds may 
also be sown as soon as ripe, if obtainable, 
and the young plants moved into a warm 
border the following spring after all danger 
from frost is over. 

H. Androsaemum (Sweet Amber; 
Common Tutsan). — A sub-shrubby species, 
native of Britain, with sessile, ovate, 
somewhat heart-shaped leaves, minutely 
dotted. Flowers in summer, large, ter- 
minal, stalked. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freehy 
produced. 

H. Ascyron. — A Siberian species 3 ft. 
high, with 4-angled stems. Leaves stem- 
clasping, lance-shaped, acute, full of pellu- 
cid dots. Flowers in summer, very large. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. calycinum (Aaron's Beard; Rose 
of Sharon). — A beautiful almost ever- 
green species about 1 ft. high, with 4- 
angled stems, native of S.E. Europe, and 
naturalised in parts of Britain. Leaves 
broadly ovate, lance-shaped, leathery, full 
of pellucid dots. Flowers in siunmer, 
large, terminal, solitary, 3 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely. 

H. Coris. — A half-hardy round- 
stemmed evergreen 6-24 in. high, native 
of the Levant. Leaves in whorls, linear, 
with revolute edges. Flowers from May 
to September, less than 1 in. across. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 

H. elatum. — AN. American species 
about 5 ft. high, having reddish stems 
when young. Leaves ovate -oblong acute, 
dilated at the base, slightly notched and 
rather revolute at the edges. Flowers in 
July, borne in corymbose clusters. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds produced 
freely. 

H. elegans. — A fine Siberian plant 
1 ft. high, with winged and black-dotted 
stems. Leaves ovate-lance-shaped, some- 



what stem-clasping, bluntish, full of pel- 
lucid dots. Flowers in summer, borne in 
racemose clusters. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
seems to be somewhat rare. 

H. elodes. — A native of bogs, ditches 
and wet moors in the British Islands, 
with creeping, round, hairy stems. Leaves 
roundish, ovate blunt, shaggy, woolly, mil 
of pellucid dots. Flowers in summer, i in. 
across, pale yellow with green ribs, open- 
ing only in sunshine. Sepals smooth, 
oblong blunt, with red glandular serra- 
tures. 

Culture dc. as above. A good plant 
for the bog garden. 

H. empetrifolium. — A half-hardy ever- 
green 6-12 in. high, native of South 
Europe, with slender erect 4-angled 
branchlets. Leaves linear with revolute 
margins. Flowers in summer ; petals 
without glands. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 

H. hircinum (Goat-scented St. John's 
Wort). — A species from the Mediterranean 
region, 2-4 ft. high, with winged branches. 
Leaves dilated, sessile, ovate-lance- 
shaped, with glandular edges. Flowers in 
summer, large, with very long styles. 

There is a variety called minor which 
is smaller in all its parts. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. hookerianum (H. oblong ifoliu m). 
A half-hardy evergreen 2 ft. high, native 
of Nepaul, with round, shrubby stems. 
Leaves elliptic-lance-shaped, crowded, 
slightly revolute at the edges, frill of 
pellucid dots. Flowers in summer, large. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. japonicum. — A Japanese species 
about 1 ft. high, with weak, 4-angled, 
smooth, decumbent stems. Leaves 
broadly ovate, mucronate, blunt, with 
revolute edges, full of pellucid dots. 
Flowers in spring, small, in loose panicles. 

Culture dc. as above. 

H. kalmianum. — A North American 
species 2-4 ft. high, with 4-angled stems, 
and linear lance-shaped leaves. Flowers 
in summer, 3-7 in a terminal corymb-like 
cluster. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely. 

H. moserianum. — This is a hybrid 
between H. calycinum and H. patulum, 



HYI-URICUM 



CAMELLIA ORDER- 



ACTINIDIA 267 



and has become very popular of late 
years. There is a beautiful variegated 
form called tricolor, the leaves of which 
are blotched with white, green, and rosy- 
carmine. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 

H. nummularium. — A Pyrenean species 
3-6 in. high, with round ascending stems, 
and roundish stalked leaves. Flowers in 
summer, racemose. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 

H. orientale. — A native of the Levant, 
6 12 in. high, with erect, slender, 2 -angled 
stems. Leaves stem-clasping, linear, 
blunt, erect, fringed with glandular hairs. 
Flowers in summer. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 

H. patulum. — A Japanese species 6 ft. 
high, with round, purplish, herbaceous 
stems. Leaves ovate lance-shaped, 
acute, tapering to the base, revolute at 
the edges, without dots. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. perforatum (Common St. John's 
Wort). — A native of the copses and 
hedge-banks in the British Islands, and 
also distributed in the north temperate 
regions. It grows about 3 ft. high and 
has slender brown stems. Leaves sessile, 
oblong, with pellucid dots and occasionally 
a few black ones beneath. Flowers from 
July to September, 1 in. across ; sepals 



lance-shaped acute, entire, with a few 
glandular lines or dots. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. prolificum. — A round-stemmed 
species with angular branches, 1-2 ft. 
high, native of N. America. Leaves 
linear lance-shaped, with revolute edges, 
full of pellucid dots. Flowers in summer, 
corymbose. H. densiflorum is closely 
related, but has narrower leaves and 
smaller flowers. 

Culture dc. as above. Seeds freely 
produced. 

H. pyramidatum. A X. American 
species 4 ft. high, with winged herbace- 
ous stems. Leaves stem-clasping, oblong- 
lance-shaped, acute, with revolute edges. 
Flowers in summer, large, on short thick 
stalks. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 
H. triflorum. A half-hardy smooth- 
stemmed species, native of the mountains 
of Java. Leaves membranous, ovate- 
oblong, bluntish, full of pellucid dots. 
Flowers in summer, solitary, usually in 
threes on terminal stalks. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 
H. uralum. — A native of Nepaul 2 ft. 
high, with 2-edged compressed branches. 
Leaves elliptic, abruptly pointed, smooth, 
shining. Flowers in summer, terminal, 
somewhat corymbose. 

Culture dc. as above, p. 265. 



XXIII. TERNSTRCEMIACEiE— Camellia Order 

An order containing over 30 genera and 260 species of trees and shrubs, rarely 
climbers. Leaves alternate, rarely opposite, simple and entire or rarely 
digitately 3-5-lobed, or often serrate, leathery, penni-nerved. Stipules none, 
or very rarely, minute, and very caducous. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, 
or rarely diclinous. Sepals 5, rarely 4, or 6-7, free, or slightly cohering at 
the base, imbricate, the inner ones often larger. Petals 5, rarely 4, or 6-9, 
hypogynous, free or often cohering in a short tube or ring at the base, much 
imbricated or twisted. Stamens usually numerous, rarely equal in number 
to the petals, hypogynous, free or often connate with each other at the base, 
or adnate to the base of the corolla. Disc none. Ovary free. Peduncles 1- 
or many-flowered ; or flowers in terminal or axillary racemes, rarely in elongated 
panicles, often with 2 bracteoles beneath the calyx. 



ACTINIDIA. — A genus containing 
about 8 species of ornamental, climbing, 
smooth, stiffly hairy or woolly shrubs, 



with entire or serrate leaves often mem- 
branaceous, penni-nerved. Flowers poly- 
gamous or dioecious. Sepals 5, slightly 



268 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS gordonia 



imbricate, somewhat connate at the base. 
Petals 5, rather twisted, imbricate. 
Stamens numerous, with versatile anthers. 
Culture and Propagation. — Actinidias 
thrive in a light, rich, loamy soil in warm 
situations, and are excellent for trailing 
over walls, trellises, arbours &c. They 
may be increased by seeds sown in gentle 
heat under glass, or the shoots may be 
layered during the summer and autumn 
months. Cuttings of the ripened shoots 
may also be rooted in the autumn in 
sandy soil under a bell glass and grown 
on during the winter months under the 
protection of a cold frame or greenhouse. 

A. Kolomikta. — A beautiful species 
from N.E. Asia, with ovate-oblong, 
stalked serrate leaves, rounded or some- 
what cordate at the base, and tapering to 
a long point, very beautiful in autumn, 
changing to red and white. Flowers in 
summer, white, i in. across, solitary, 
axillary or cymose, the stalks being 
covered with fluffy white down. 

Culture do. as above. 

A. polygama. — A Japanese species, 
with heart-shaped, serrate, reddish-stalked 
leaves about 3 in. long, and fragrant white 
flowers in June and July, drooping from 
the leaf axils and succeeded by edible 
berries in the autumn months. 

Culture dc. as above. 

A. volubilis. — A free-growing Japanese 
climber, with oval and elliptic leaves, 
and small white flowers in June. 

Culture dc. as above. 

STACHYURUS.— A genus contain- 
ing only 2 species of smooth shrubs or 
small trees with membranous serrate 
leaves and small flowers in lateral spikes 
or racemes. Sepals and petals 4 each. 
Stamens 8, free. Fruit a 4-celled berry. 

S. praecox. — A Chinese and Japanese 
shrub with flexible sterns 9-10 ft. high, 
furnished with bright more or less oval- 
lance-shaped tapering leaves 4-6 in. long, 
with serrulate edges. The small greenish- 
yellow flowers are freely borne in short 
axillary clusters early in March, before the 
leaves are developed. 

Cu It ure and Propagation. — This plant 
flourishes in ordinary good and well- 
drained garden soil, and may be utilised 
like the Actinidias for clothing a south 
wall which will give it the necessary 
protection from cold winds. It may be 
easily increased by cuttings of the ripened 



or half-ripened shoots in August and 
September, placed in sandy soil under a 
handlight and protected until the follow- 
ing spring from the severities of winter. 

STUARTIA. — A genus containing 
3 species of beautiful shrubs, with mem- 
branous deciduous leaves, and shortly 
stalked, solitary, axillary flowers. Sepals 
and petals 5, rarely 6, the latter imbri- 
cate, cohering at the base. Stamens 
numerous, adhering to the base of the 
petals ; anthers versatile. Styles 5, dis- 
tinct, or connate. 

Culture and Propagation. — Stu- 
artias thrive in a peaty and loamy 
soil, and in the milder parts of the 
country make handsome shrubs. In less 
favoured parts they should be protected 
from the north and east winds by hardier 
trees and shrubs, as the young shoots are 
apt to be injured by severe frosts. A 
warm and sunny position is essential for 
the thorough ripening of the growths. 

The plants may be increased by 
layering the lower branches, or by putting 
cuttings of ripened wood in sandy soil 
under a bell glass during the late summer 
and autumn months. 

S. pentagyna (Malachodendron ova- 
turn). — A somewhat slow-growing species 
about 10 ft. high, native of N. America, 
with ovate-acute leaves. Flowers from 
May to July, creamy-white, with 5-6 
sepals and petals, the latter being obovate 
with jagged edges and a purplish downy 
outer surface. 

Culture dc. as above. 

S. Pseudo-camellia (S. grandijiora). 
A beautiful Japanese shrub, about 12 
feet high. Leaves ovate-elliptic, shortly 
toothed, pointed, narrowed into a reddish 
stalk. Flowers in summer, creamy- 
white, with finely serrulate dull reddish- 
brown sepals. 

Culture dc. as above. 

S. virginica. — A rounded and spread- 
ing bush 6-10 ft. high, native of N. 
America, with oblong-ovate, serrulate 
leaves, softly downy beneath. Flowers in 
early summer, white, about 3 in. across, 
with crimson-red stamens. Sepals ovate ; 
petals 5, roundish-obovate. 

Culture dc. as above. 

GORDONIA (Loblolly Bay). — A 
genus containing 10 species of evergreen 
trees or shrubs with entire or crenate 
leaves. Peduncles solitary, 1 -flowered. 



GORDONIA 



CAMELLIA ORDER 



CAMELLIA 269 



Sepals usually 5, unequal. Petals free, 
or slightly connate at the base, much 
imbricated, the inner ones larger. 
Stamens numerous, often in 5 bundles, 
or united in a ring and adnate to the 
petals. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
species mentioned below are the only 
ones grown out of doors in the British 
Islands, and, although they have been 
introduced more than a century and a 
half, are still very little known. This is 
owing chiefly to the fact that tht\ are 
not readily increased, either by seeds or 
layers — the methods of propagation 
usually adopted. They thrive in light 
peaty soil with plenty of leaf mould in it, 
and should be placed in the most shel- 
tered and warmest parts of the garden. 

As seeds are very rarely produced in 
our climate, it is not possible to obtain 
plants by that means very often. Im- 
ported seeds should be sown immediately 
on arrival, in light sandy peat and leaf 
soil, and placed in gentle heat. Layers 
may be made during the summer and 
autumn months, and cuttings of the 
ripened shoots may also be inserted in 
moist sandy peat and loam, either in 
gentle heat (which is best) or under a 
handlight. 

G. Lasianthus. — A beautiful Camellia- 
like shrub 8-10 ft. high, native of the sea- 
coast swamps of the S. United States. 
Leaves oblong, smooth, serrated, leathery. 
Flowers from July to September, white, 
about 4 in. across, fragrant, borne in the 
axils of the leaves. 

Culture <('•('. as above. 

G. pubescens. — A slightly dwarfer 
species from the same region, with 
obovate-lance-shaped, somewhat serrated 
leaves, downy beneath. Flowers late in 
summer, white, about 3 in. across, frag- 
rant, with a bundle of conspicuous golden- 
yellow stamens in the centre. 

Culture dc. as above. 

CAMELLIA.— A genus which in- 
cludes over a dozen species of beautiful 
evergreen trees and shrubs, with serrated, 
leathery or membranous shining green 
leaves. Flowers axillary, solitary or clus- 
tered, sessile or shortly stalked, showy. 
Sepals 5-6, unequal, gradually passing 
from bracteoles to petals ; the latter 
slightly cohering at the base, much im- 
bricated. Stamens numerous, many of 



the outer ones cohering and attached to 
the base of the petals ; inner ones free. 

Camellias, although usually grown 
in cool greenhouses, are in reality hardier 
plants than is generally supposed. Prom 
the Thames Valley southwards, and in 
favourable parts of the south-west of Scot- 
land and Ireland, they are practically 
hardy. Indeed during the severe frosts 
of the winters of 1879-80 and 1880-81 
Camellias in widely distant parts of the 
country (Wales, Isle of Wight, Dorset, 
Argyllshire, Surrey, Cornwall &c.) were 
quite uninjured by frosts, although in 
many parts well-favoured geographically 
the plants were injured. Altitude, 
exposure, soil and drainage would account 
for this, however, in many cases. 

Culture and Propagation. — Camel- 
lias like a good rich compost of sandy peat 
and loam, and should never be allowed 
to get too dry at the roots, as the 
flowers are likely to drop as a conse- 
quence. The plants are greatly benefited 
by a daily syringe during the summer time 
— either early in the morning or late in the 
afternoon. If the water is applied with 
some force from a hose pipe, the stems 
and leaves are kept beautifully clean, and 
the flower buds become plumper, and are 
more likely to develop, than if the plants 
are not attended to. 

The best position for the Camellia is 
facing north or north-west, with a wall or 
hedge in the background for protection 
from fierce cold winds, which seem to do 
a good deal of mischief. If low-growing 
hardy shrubs like Osmanthus, Olearia &c. 
are planted in front of them, they are a 
great protection to the stems and roots, 
wdiich are often more affected by biting 
winds than the foliage. A shady position, 
but one at the same time fully exposed 
and well ventilated, is best for outdoor 
Camellias, as they do not like the scorch- 
ing heat and bright sunshine of summer. 

As the wood is fairly well-ripened by 
July, that is the best time for planting — 
either from pots or the open ground. 
Have the hole sufficiently large to admit 
of the roots being evenly spread over the 
surface and not crumpled up in a ball. 
In this way the soil will get in among 
the roots properly, new ones will develop 
more rapidly, and thus enable the plants 
to become well established before the 
winter. Planting is always best done in 
dull showery weather, so that the plants 
will not suffer too much by the evaporation 



270 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS camellia 



of moisture from the foliage. If planting 
takes place in dry sunny weather, the 
soil should be well watered and the 
plants should also be well syringed daily, 
early in the morning and late in the 
afternoon, and until they are well esta- 
blished it may be advisable to shade 
them during the hottest portion of the 
day with a covering of thin canvas or 
some other light material. The way to 
plants trees properly is shown in the 
diagram at p. 1032. 

Single-flowered Camellias may be 
increased by seeds, layers, or cuttings, the 
two latter methods being used for the 
double and variegated kinds. Cuttings 
are best taken in August, and inserted in 
sandy peat and loam in a cold shaded 
frame. By the following spring those 
that have rooted will begin to grow. 
They should then be potted off singly in 
a similar compost and kept in a close 
frame for a time and well syringed until 
well established, when they may have 
plenty of air to ripen the wood. 
Camellias are also grafted or ' inarched ' 
in early spring when growth begins upon 
stocks of the common variety of C. japo- 
nica which are raised from cuttings. With- 
out the aid of a greenhouse, however, it is 
not worth while for the amateur to raise 
his own plants. He will get them much 
better and cheaper from a nurseryman. 

Most of the Camellias seen in gardens 
are varieties of C. japonica, but other 
species also are here described. 

C. euryoides. — - A hairy, branched 
Chinese species, about 4 ft. high, with 
ovate lance-shaped, pointed leaves, ser- 
rated on the edges, and silky beneath. 
Flowers from May to July, white. 

Culture dc. as above. This plant is 
very rarely seen. 



C. japonica. — A lovely tree about 20 
ft. high, native of Japan and China, with 
ovate, pointed, sharply serrated leaves. 
In a wild state the flowers are red, 
resembling those of the Wild Eose. 

This species was introduced to Europe 
in 1739 by Lord Petre, but the double- 
flowered forms did not appear until 1792 
onwards. The variety anemoncefiora 
has nearly all the stamens transformed 
into small incurved petals, which give 
the flower a likeness to a double 
Anemone. 

Among the many varieties of C. 
japonica, the following are probably best 
for outdoor culture, but others may be 
equally good, if not better : — 

alba plena, double white ; Chandleri 
elegans, large, light rose ; Donckelaari, 
large semi-double, rich crimson, marbled 
white ; fimbrlata alba, white petals 
notched at edges ; imbricata, deep car- 
mine, occasionally variegated ; Lady 
Hume's Blush, very free, good form, 
flesh colour ; Mathotiana, brilliant red, 
and Mathotiana alba, white ; Lavinia 
Maggi. pure white, flamed with cerise ; 
Countess of Orkney, white, striped with 
carmine, sometimes pink, shaded with 
deep rose. 

Culture dc. as above. 

C. reticulata. — A fine Chinese shrub 
about 10 ft. high, with oblong pointed, 
serrated, net-veined leaves, and large 
semi-double bright rose flowers. There 
is also a full double-flowered form, and it 
is possible that many of the garden forms 
are derived from this species. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
must be grown in warm, sheltered, and 
sunny situations as it does not like ex- 
posure to cold winds. 



XXIV. MALVACEAE— Mallow Order 

An extensive order (about 60 genera and 700 species) of herbs, shrubs, or 
rarely trees, with stellate hairs. Leaves alternate, usually palminerved, more 
or less divided, stipulate. Peduncles axillary and one-flowered, in fascicled 
racemes or panicles. Flowers regular, hermaphrodite, rarely dioecious or 
polygamous. Sepals 5, rarely 3-4, more or less united at the base. Petals 
5, hypogynous, twisted in bud, free, or adhering to the base of the stamen 
tube. Stamens many, hypogynous, filaments more or less united, rarely free. 
Disc small, sometimes growing up between the numerous carpels. Fruit dry 



MALOPE 



MALLOW ORDER 



AI/TH-SEA 271 



or rarely berry-like, the carpels often united and forming a fruit known as a 
carcerule (see Glossary, fig. 27). 



MALOPE. — A genus containing only 
3 species of little-known smooth or hairy 
ornamental annuals, with entire or 3- cleft 
leaves. Flowers stalked, violet or rose, 
with 3 large heart-shaped bracteoles. 
Calyx 5-lobed, persistent. Stamen-tube 
divided into numerous filaments. 

Culture and Propagation. — Malo- 
pes thrive best in sandy loam, in sunny 
situations, but .are not fastidious. They 
may be raised from seeds sown in slight 
heat in March, or in the open bor- 
der at the end of April. The latter 
method is better on the whole, as the 
seedlings do not stand transplanting from 
seed pots very well. When sown in the 
open border they may simply be thinned 
out 6-9 in. apart. During the summer 
months they require to be frequently 
watered as they absorb and exhale mois- 
ture very freely. They look more effec- 
tive in masses or groups. 

M. malacoides. — A native of South 
Europe, about 1 ft. high, with oblong- 
ovate, crenate or pinnatind leaves, wedge- 
or heart-shaped at the base. Flowers in 
summer, large, rose-pink, tinged with 
purple. 

Culture <{■(-. as above. 

M. trifida. — A beautiful annual ] 3 ft. 
high, native of S. Spain. Leaves 3-eleft, 
toothed, smooth, with pointed lobes. 
Flowers from July to September, large, 
solitary, purple, or white as in the 
variety alba. The variety grandiflora is 
a well-known and more vigorous plant 
with crimson flowers, of which there are 
red and white variations. 

KITAIBELIA.— A genus with only 
one species here described : — 

K. vitifolia. — A perennial herb 6-8 ft. 
high, native of E. Europe. Leaves Vine- 
like, 5-lobed, acute, toothed. Flowers 
late in summer, stalked in the axils of 
the upper leaves, large, showy, white or 
rose. Calyx 5-lobed, with 6 9 united 
bracts. Stamen-tube divided into nume- 
rous filaments. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species thrives in any garden soil and is 
easily increased by dividing the rootstock 
after flowering. Seeds are produced freely 
and may be sown as soon as ripe in cold 
frames or in gentle heat in greenhouses. 
The seedlings should be pricked out into 



boxes or pans, or into fine sandy soil in 
cold frames, giving them protection from 
frost until the following spring, when they 
may be transferred to the open border 
The seeds may also be sown either in 
gentle heat early in spring or in the open 
ground during April and May. 

PALAVA. — A small genus containing 
only 3 species of rather smooth or woolly 
annual herbs, natives of Chili and Peru, 
with leaves often lobed, sinuate, or dis- 
sected. Flowers stalked, axillary, solitary, 
purple. Calyx 5-cleft. Stamen-tube 
divided into numerous filaments. 

Culture and Propagation. — Pala- 
vas thrive in ordinary soil. Seeds may 
be sown in a little heat in March, 
so that the seedlings will be ready for 
transplanting by the end of May. Or 
seeds may be sown in the open border in 
April, afterwards thinning the seedlings 
out 6 9 in. apart. 

P. flexuosa. — A pretty slender- 
stemmed annual about 1 ft- high, with 
twice pinnatind, hairy, stalked leaves 2-4 
in. long. Flowers in summer, light 
mauve or lilac, paler in the centre, with 
bright red anthers ; petals red and sepals 
purple at the base. This species is also 
known as Palava dissecta. It seeds 
freely in the British Islands, and in warm 
favourable localities would probably re- 
produce itself annually from self-sown 
seeds. 

Culture iVc. as above. 

P. rhombifolia. — A somewhat prostrate 
hairy species with soft rhomboid leaves, 
about 2 in. long. Flowers in July and 
August, rose-purple, about 1 in. across, 
scentless. 

Culture dec. as above. 

ALTHAEA. — This genus contains 
about a dozen species of more or less well- 
known tall or dwarf woolly or hairy bien- 
nials or perennials with lobed leaves, and 
usually solitary, axillary or racemose 
flowers variously coloured. Bracteoles 
of the involucre or outer calyx 6-9-eleft, 
united at the base. Calyx 5-cleft. 
Stamen-tube divided into numerous fila- 
ments. Carpels in a regular whorl, 1- 
seeded, indebiscent. 

Culture and Propagation. — Most 
of the plants thrive in almost any garden 



272 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS althaea 



soil, and being of somewhat coarse and 
vigorous growth are suitable for shrub- 
beries or the rougher parts of the flower 
garden. The perennial species niay be 
increased in early autumn or in spring 
by dividing the rootstocks carefully. They 
may also be multiplied by sowing the 
seeds as soon as ripe either in a warm 
border or in a cold frame, afterwards 
thinning the seedlings out, or pricking 
them out into light rich soil at least 
before the end of September. The culti- 
vation of the Hollyhock will be dealt with 
separately under the species from which 
it has been derived, viz. A. rosea, and as 
a matter of fact the other species de- 
scribed may be cultivated in the same 
way. 

A. cannabina. — A perennial 5-6 ft. 
high, native of S. France. Leaves 
downy, lower ones palmately parted, 
upper ones 3-parted, lobes narrow, teeth 
coarse. Flowers in summer, rose. 

Culture dc. as above. Increased by 
seeds or division. 

A. caribaea. — A hairy-stemmed bien- 
nial about 3 ft. high, native of the Caribbee 
Islands. Leaves heart-shaped, roundish, 
lobed, crenate -serrate. Flowers in spring, 
rosy, with a yellow base. 

Cult u re dbc. as above and for A. rosea 
below. 

A. ficifolia {Antwerp Hollyhock). — 
A stout and vigorous Siberian biennial 
6-10 ft. high, with somewhat open 
hand-shaped leaves, irregularly toothed 
on the edges. Flowers in summer, red 
or yellow or orange, large, single or 
double. 

Culture dc. as above and for A. rosea 
below. 

A. flexuosa. — A perennial 2-3 ft. high, 
native of N. India, with long-stalked, 
cordate, 7-lobed leaves. Flowers in 
summer, scarlet, solitary ; petals obcor- 
date. 

Culture dc. as above and for A. rosea 
below. 

A. narbonensis. — A strong-growing 
perennial 3-6 ft. high, native of France 
and Spain. Leaves downy, serrated, 
lower ones 5-7-lobed. Flowers in 
August, pale red, on many-flowered 
stalks. 

Culture dc. as above and for A. rosea 
below. This plant is closely related to 
A. cannabina, and is practically a botani- 



cal form of it, although distinct enough 
for garden purposes. 

A. officinalis (Common Marsh 
Mallow; Guimauve). — -A well-known 
British marsh plant 3-4 ft. high, with 
soft, woolly, heart-shaped or ovate, 
toothed, undivided, or slightly 5-lobed 
leaves, and flowers in summer of a 
delicate blush colour. 

Culture dc. as above. This species is 
useful for associating with bog or marsh 
plants, and therefore requires to be grown 
in moister soil than the other species. 

A. rosea (Hollyhock). — The wild 
Hollyhock is a straight-stemmed, hairy 
perennial 6-10 ft. or more high, native of 
China. Leaves rough, heart-sbaped, with 
5-7 crenated angles or lobes. Flowers in 
summer, rosy, large, axillary, without 
stalks, somewhat spiked at the top. 

The cultivated Hollyhock, which has 
been derived in almost innumerable 
varieties from this species, and has been 
grown for more than 300 years, is one of 
the most beautiful and noble-looking of 
hardy plants. From 35 to 40 years 
ago it was extensively cultivated, and 
from July to the end of September was 
a feature at horticultural exhibitions. 
There were the English and Scottish 
types, the former having small closely set 
flowers, with neat, well-filled centres and 
narrow ' guard-petals ' ; the latter large 
flowers, wide guard-petals, and smaller 
centres indented with openings called 
' pockets.' The two types were crossed 
with each other, and a new race — that 
now most generally seen — was the result. 

Soil. — Hollyhocks like a deep, rich, 
loamy soil, well enriched with farmyard 
manure. About the end of March is the 
best time for planting, the ground having 
previously been well trenched or dug. 
During the hot summer months the 
plants should have plenty of water. A 
mulching of well-rotted manure will 
greatly assist in keeping the moisture in 
the soil, and prevent its being baked by 
the fierce rays of the sun. Plenty of 
moisture at the root in summer and 
dryness in winter suit Hollyhocks best. 

Propagation. — Hollyhocks may be 
increased by seeds, cuttings, or by care- 
fully dividing the rootstock ; also by 
' eyes,' that is buds, taken with a portion 
of the older stem, usually during July and 
August. By seed is probably the easiest 
and most natural method, and there is 



AliTH^A 



MALLOW ORDER 



alth.*:a 273 



always a chance of obtaining some really 
fine varieties, whereas the other methods 
simply reproduce their parents. Seeds 
have the further advantage of requiring 
no glass protection ; and on the whole 
plants obtained by this means are not 
nearly so liable to attacks of the dreaded 
Hollyhock disease as plants raised from 
cuttings that hnve been rooted in heat. 
The seeds may be sown in the open 
border in May, and the seedlings may be 
afterwards pricked out about 6 in. apart 
in a prepared bed of fine soil. About the 
first or second week in September they 
may be transplanted to the spot in winch 
bhey are to bloom the following year, and 
there should be at least 8 ft. between the 
plants in the beds or borders. If planted 
too close to each other, a good circulation 
of air is prevented, and this in itself is 
favourable to the development of the 
Hollyhock disease mentioned below. 

Cuttings are taken in the summer and 
autumn by cutting out the matured side 
shoots, or from shoots at the base of the 
stem. They may be inserted in sandy 
soil either singly in small pots, or several 
in a shallow box or pan, and placed at first 
in a close shaded frame, a little air being 
given after a few days. As the plants 
become well rooted and established, they 
should receive all the air and light possible 
so that they may never be subject to a 
damp and sluggish atmosphere. 

General Remarks. — Although vigorous 
Hollyhocks will shoot their strong stems 
up to a height of 8 to 12 ft. they are 
liable if at all exposed to strong winds to 
be blown aboxit, and more or less spoiled. 
It is advisable therefore to supply stoutish 
stakes 4-6 ft. high at the time of planting, 
so as to prevent injury to the roots at a 
later period. As the stems lengthen they 
may be tied to the stakes with a piece of 
raffia or tar twine. The tie should first 
of all be made firmly round the stake at 
the desired height so that it wdl not slip 
up and down. The loop of the tie may 
then be left large enough for the stem, 
but not so tight as to cut into the bark. 

As the lower flowers, which open first, 
begin to fade, the petals only should be 
removed if seeds are required, leaving the 
pods to ripen ; but if not, the pod and all 
may be removed for the sake of a tidy 
appearance. The spikes themselves, if 
cut and placed in water, will retain their 
freshness for a considerable time and the 
flowers will continue to open. By fre- 



quently cutting a piece off the bottom of 
the stem the blossoms last longer. 

When the flowers, seed-pods, and 
leaves have finished their season's work, 
the plants may be cut down to within 6 
in. of the ground, and the soil may be 
raised a little around the crowns to throw 
off the cold rains of winter, which are 
injurious if not drained away from the 
roots. In this protected state the root- 
stocks pass through severe winters safely, 
and make vigorous shoots the following 
spring. Treated in this way plants will 
continue to flower profusely for several 
years without being disturbed, but it is 
always safe to raise a stock of young 
plants regularly by one or other of the 
methods described above. 

Insect Pests. — In hot weather red- 
spider is apt to be very troublesome to 
the foliage, if the plants have not been 
frequently syringed. A daily application 
of water to the leaves, and particularly 
the under surface, will keep this pest 
away, and also serve to water the plants. 
Thrips are also fond of the Hollyhock, 
but may be checked by the same means. 
In the early stages of growth the spittle- 
fly is somewhat mischievous, but is easily 
destroyed between the finger and thumb. 

The Hollyhock Fungus {Puccinia 
mal/oacecvrwm) is by far the most serious 
disease the gardener has to cope with. It 
is a native of Chili, whence it was intro- 
duced to Europe about 1869, and in 4 
or 5 years had spread with great rapidity, 
dealing destruction all round to Hollyhocks 
in England, France, Germany, Holland. 
Hungary and parts of Italy. 

The fungus appears in early summer 
in yellow or orange spots on the leaves — 
usually the under surface — and stems of 
the Hollyhock. The spots rapidly in- 
crease in size, becoming brown in colour, 
and when in great profusion interfere 
with the work of the leaves to such an 
extent that the flower-forming material 
is either checked or absorbed by the 
parasite with the natural consequence that 
the flowers never develop and the consti- 
tution of the entire plant is ruined. 

When a hardy plant like the Holly- 
hock is increased in large numbers with 
the aid of artificial heat, it is not un- 
natural that its once hardy constitution 
should undergo a change, become more 
delicate in fact, and thus be unable to 
resist the attacks of its natural enemies. 
Where Hollyhocks are allowed to stand 



274 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS althaea 



in the garden without any protection 
winter after winter, as they do in many 
cottagers' gardens, the Hollyhock fungus 
rarely or never makes its appearance. 
But on plants that have heen raised 
from seeds or cuttings in heat, and pro- 
tected in frames in winter it is almost 
sure to find a congenial home. One of 
the best and most natural preventives 
therefore against the fungus is to grow 
the plants without any protection what- 
ever, but taking all necessary precautions 
to keep the soil clean, rich, and well- 
draihed. 

Remedies. — Many have been tried to 
rid the plants of the fungus, but they 
have been practically useless, except for 
a short time. AVashes of soft soap and 
sulphur seem to have been useful in the 
early stages of the fungus, but not after- 
wards. Perhaps one of the best remedies 
for plants seriously attacked is to dissolve 
some permanganate of potash in almost 
boiling water, and spray the plants 
thoroughly with this by means of a very 
fine syringe. The water will lose much 
of its heat in transit from the syringe to 
the plant, and the tiny globules of water 
on the surface will be further cooled by 
the surrounding air, so that the actual 
temperature of the water when it strikes 
the fungus will probably not exceed 
150° Fahr., and the sudden increase in 
temperature will probably kill the fungus 
outright. This suggestion inust not be 
considered as tantamount to dipping the 
plant in boiling water. It has proved 
efficacious in the case of mildew on Vines 
in fruit without the slightest injury to the 
foliage, and if properly done should also 
be of service to the Hollyhock. If the 
plants are in a really bad condition and 
beyond all hope, it is safer to take them 
up carefully and without shaking them 
about violently so as to spread the fungus 
spores, and have them burned. If other 
plants are to take their place, the soil into 
which they are to go should be well 
watered a day or two beforehand with 
boiling water. This will kill any of the 
fungus spores which may be lurking in 
the crevices of the soil. 

LAVATERA (Tree Mallow). -- A 
genus containing about 18 species of 
woolly or hairy trees or shrubs, with 
angled or lobed leaves, and flowers 
axillary, solitary, or in terminal racemes. 
Bracteoles of the involucre 3-6 cohering 



about half way up. Calyx 5-]obed. 
Stamen-tube divided into numerous fila- 
ments. 

L. arborea. — A stout-growing downy 
shrub 6-10 ft. high, native of British and 
S.European coasts. Leaves long-stalked, 
roundish, with 5 9 broad, short lobes. 
Flowers late in summer, about 2 in. across, 
purple, glossy. The form known as 
variegata is a very beautiful plant with 
variegated leaves, the surface of which is 
handsomely marbled with yellow and 
yellowish-white on a grey-green ground. 

Culture and Propagation. — This spe- 
cies is best raised from seeds every year. 
They may be sown out of doors in April 
and May, or raised in gentle heat about 
March so that the seedlings will be ready 
for the open ground at the end of May. 
Plants raised the first year do not attain 
great dimensions, and it is better to keep 
them until the second so that they may 
appear at their best. In cold and un- 
favourable parts of the kingdom they will 
not stand severe winters, and in such 
places they must be wintered in a green- 
house or cold frame. The variegated form, 
which is the most popular, and is much 
used for sub-tropical gardening, is more 
tender than the green-leaved type, and 
consequently requires even greater pro- 
tection in winter. 

L. Olbia. — A rough-stemmed shrub 
about 6 ft. high, native of Provence, but 
now naturalised in some parts of the 
British Islands. Leaves soft, woolly. 
3 -5-lobed, the uppermost leaves oblong, 
almost entire. Flowers from June to 
October, reddish-purple, solitary, on short 
stalks. 

Culture dc. as above for L. arborea. 
This species likes a light rich soil in open 
sunny situations, and during the summer 
months should be frequently watered. 

L. trimestris. — A beautiful annual 
3-6 ft. high, native of S. Europe, Asia 
Minor &c. Leaves smoothish, roundish, 
heart-shaped, upper ones lobed. The 
solitary flowers 2-3 in. across are freely 
produced from the beginning of July to 
October, and are of a beautiful transparent 
rose, with deeper coloured veins, and a 
purple blotch at the base of the petals. 
There is also a white-flowered variety, 
alba. 

Culture and Propagation.— -This fine 
species may be raised from seeds sown 
annually either in gentle heat in March. 



MAJiVA 



MALLOW ORDER 



CALLIBHOB 275 



or in the open border, where the plants 
are to bloom, in April and May. In the 
first case the seedlings must be pricked 
out and grown on till the end of May or 
beginning of June before transferring them 
to the outdoor garden. In the second 
they need only be thinned out 12 to 18 in. 
apart. In hot dry seasons they like plenty 
of water at the root. The white-flowered 
form of L. trimestris is very pretty. 

L. unguiculata. — A woolly-stemmed, 
shrubby perennial, native of S.E. Europe, 
with acutely 3-5-lobed woolly leaves. 
Flowers in late summer, light rosy-lilac, 
about 3 in. across, axillary, on short 
stalks. 

Cult arc ilc. as above for L. arborea. 

MALVA (Mallow).— A genus of 16 
species of smooth or hairy annual. 
biennial, or perennial herbs, with leaves 
often angled, lobed, or dissected. Flowers 
solitary or clustered, stalked or un- 
stalked, or rarely in terminal racemes;. 
Bracteoles 3, distinct; calyx 5-lobed, 
stamen -tube divided at the apex into 
numerous filaments. 

Culture and Propagation. — The 
species described below are the only ones 
worth growing. They thrive in any 
fairly good garden soil, and may be used 
in borders, shrubberies or the wild garden. 
The annual kinds are raised from seeds ; 
the perennials also, and by cuttings. 

M. Alcea. — A European perennial 
aboiit 4 ft. high, with light green, downy 
leaves palmately lobed and cut. Flowers 
in summer, about 2 in. across, pale rose- 
purple. The variety fastigiata (also 
known as M. Morenii) is a native of Italy, 
2-3 ft. high, with lobed and toothed 
leaves, and red flowers produced from 
July to October. 

Culture dec. as above. This species 
flourishes in ordinary good garden soil in 
warm sheltered positions, and seeds freely. 
It may be increased by sowing the seeds 
as soon as ripe in a cold frame, afterwards 
pricking the seedlings out when large 
enough into light rich soil in the frames, 
or in shallow pans or boxes. They are 
best kept under protection during the 
winter months, giving as much air and 
light as possible, however, on all occasions 
except in frosty weather. By the end of 
May or June they will be ready to plant 
in the outdoor garden 12-18 in. apart. In 
the milder parts of the kingdom seeds 
may also be sown in the open border in 



April and May. During the summer 
months cuttings of the side shoots nia\ be 
rooted in sandy soil under handlights and 
wintered in cold frames. 

M. crispa. — An erect annual 2 « It. 
high, found naturalised in many countries 
but probably a native of China. Leaves 
smooth, angular, toothed, curled. Flowers 
in summer, white, pale purple at the tip, 
axillary, and almost or quite stalkless. 

Culture ,(;-. as above. This plant is 
highly ornamental owing to the pretty 
appearance of the crisp-edged leaves and 
bushy habit. It likes a rich well-drained 
soil and partially shaded situations with 
plenty of water during the hot summer 
months. It may be raised from seeds 
sown in gentle heat in March, pricking 
the seedlings out and transplanting at the 
end of May. Seeds may also be sown in 
the open border in April, and the seedlings 
afterwards thinned out about 2 3 ft. apart. 
In warmer parts of the kingdom seedlings 
will come up annually from self-sown 
seeds in autumn. 

M. mauritiana. An erect annual 4 b" 
ft. high, native of N. Africa and South 
Europe, with obtusely 5-lobed leaves, 
and numerous deep purple flowers in 
June. 

Culture <(■(■. as above for M. crispa. 

M . miniata. — A bushy Mexican species 
14-2 ft. high, having oval 3-lobed toothed 
leaves, and axillary flowers of bright red 
or orange-red, borne in erect spikes from 
June onwards until cut down by frost. 

Culture a ml Propagation. — This 
species, owing to the vivid colouring of its 
flowers, makes a very effective border 
plant when grown in masses. Although 
really perennial, it is scarcely hardy enough 
to stand out of doors during the winter 
months except in the very mildest parts of 
the south and west. It should therefore 
be raised from seeds and cuttings annually 
in the same way as M. Alcea above. 

M. moschata {Mush Mallow). — A hand - 
some British perennial 2-3 ft. high. Lower 
leaves kidney-shaped, cut; upper ones 
with 5 deeply pinnatifid, jagged segments. 
Flowers in summer, about 2 in. across, 
rose, in terminal and axillary clusters. 
The variety alba has beautiful pure white 
flowers. 

Culture d'-c. as above for M. Alcea. 

CALLIRHOE. — A small genus con- 
taining about 7 species of elegant annual 

t 2 



276 



PB ACTIO AL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS callikhoe 



or perennial herbs, all natives of North 
America, usually with lobed or parted 
leaves, and similar in growth to the Mal- 
lows. Bracteoles 1-3, distinct, or none. 
Calyx 5-lobed. Stamen-tube divided at 
the apex into numerous filaments. 

Culture and. Propagation. — They may 
be grown and increased in the same way 
as the Mallows, and as mentioned below. 

C. alcaeoides. — An erect perennial 
species 2-3 ft. high, with deeply lobed 
leaves and rosy flowers about 1 1 in. across 
borne during the summer and autumn 
months. 

Culture dc. as for C. digitata. 

C. digitate. (Nuttallia digitata). — 
A glaucous perennial 2-3 ft. high, with 
somewhat peltate 6-7 parted leaves, cut 
into linear entire or 2-parted segments. 
Flowers in summer, reddish-purple, on 
long stalks. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species thrives in ordinary well-drained 
garden soil, and likes rather warm stinny 
situations with plenty of moisture at the 
root during the summer months. It may 
be increased by sowing seeds as soon as 
ripe in cold frames, afterwards pricking 
the seedlings out and growing on in frames 
until the following April or May, when 
they may be planted out in mild showery 
weather. Seeds may also be sown out of 
doors in April and May in the milder parts 
of the country, but the plants will not 
bloom till late in the season. Cuttings of 
the side shoots may also be rooted in cold 
frames or under handlights during the 
summer months, and will make good 
strong plants by the following spring. 

C. involucrata (Malva involucrata). 
A hairy-stemmed, procumbent perennial 
about G in. high, with leaves divided 
almost to the base, 3-5-parted ; seg- 
ments narrow lance-shaped, 3-5-toothed. 
Flowers in summer, about 2 in. across, 
crimson, shading off into white at the 
base, in the centre of which is a cluster 
of bright yellow-anthered stamens sur- 
rounding purple stigmas. 

Culture and Propagation. — Although, 
if allowed to ramble over the surface of the 
soil, this plant only reaches a height of 
about 6 in., its stems nevertheless are 2-3 
ft. long. They may be trained on a trellis or 
against a Avail if desired, or if allowed to 
grow naturally the plant might be placed 
on a mound so as to allow the stems to trail 
downwards all round. They may be kept 



in position by a few pegs here and there. 
Seeds are freely produced and may be 
sown as soon as ripe in cold frames or in 
spring in gentle heat. The seedlings may 
be planted out about the end of May. 
Being a native of Texas, and rather too 
tender to stand our winters except in the 
mildest parts of the south and west, pro- 
pagation by seeds is the easiest method of 
increase for plants to be grown in the 
open air. 

C. macrorhiza. — A thick-rooted peren- 
nial 2-3 ft. high, bearing erect racemes of 
piirple-carmine flowers during the summer 
and autumn months. There are several 
shades of colour, including pale rose and 
rose-purple, but the white-flowered variety 
is very pretty. 

Culturedc. as above for C. involucrata. 

C. Papaver (Nuttallia Papaver). — 
Poppy Mallow. — A somewhat trailing 
perennial about 3 ft. high, with lower 
leaves lobed or pedate, the others being 
palmate-pedate or digitate or simple as 
they ascend the stem. Flowers from 
early summer to late autumn, bright 
purple - red, with ovate - acute fringed 
sepals. 

Culture dc. as above for C. involucrata. 

C. pedata. — A pretty trailing perennial 
(although usually treated as an annual) 
2-3 ft. high, with laciniately pedate and 
trifid leaves, and panicles of cherry-red 
flowers each about 2 inches across pro- 
duced during the summer and autumn 
months. The varieties compacta and 
nana are dwarfer and more compact in 
growth than the type. 

Culture dc. as above for C. involucrata. 

SIDALCEA. — A genus containing 
about 8 species of perennial herbs, like 
Mallows and Hollyhocks in growth, and 
with lobed and parted leaves. Flowers 
shortly stalked or sessile, in racemes or 
terminal spikes. Bracteoles none. Calyx 
5-lobed. Stamen-tube doubled at the 
apex, the outer portion divided into 5 
anther-bearing bundles, the inner into 
numerous filaments. 

S. Candida. — A native of Colorado, 
2-3 ft. high, with roundish, glossy, 7-lobed, 
long-stalked leaves. Flowers in summer, 
white, freely produced in terminal racemes. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species will flourish in ordinary good 
garden soil in open sunny situations and 
likes plenty of water at the roots during 



SIDALCEA 



MALLOW ORDER 



PLAGIANTHUS 277 



the Hummer months. Although a true 
perennial it is best raised from seeds 
sown every year as soon as ripe in 
cold frames, or in spring in the .same 
way. or in gentle heat. The seedlings 
must be pricked out so as to have space 
enough to develop into bushy plants. 
Those from summer or autumn seeds 
flower earlier and are finer plants than 
those raised from seeds in the spring. The 
latter bloom later in the season. Where 
the plants are not killed by winter frosts 
they may also be increased by division in 
early autumn or in spring, but seedling 
plants are usually more satisfactory. 

S. malvaeflora (Callirhoc spicaia). — A 
slender, twiggy-stemmed species about 2 3 
ft. high, native of Texas. Lower leaves 
roundish, 5 9-lobed and cut, the others 
variously lobed, cut, and toothed, the upper 
ones being almost entire. Flowers in 
summer, lilac or pale rose, less than 2 in. 
across, numerous. The variety Listeri 
has beautifully fringed pale pink flowers, 
borne on tall graceful spikes. 

Culture dc. as above. 

MALVASTRUM. — A genus con- 
taining 60 80 species of erect dwarf or 
trailing herbs or undershrubs resembling 
the Malvas and Sidas. Leaves various, 
entire, heart-shaped, or deeply lobed. 
Flowers scarlet, orange, or yellow, borne 
in the leaf axils or at the ends of the 
shoots. Bracteoles 1-3, small or none. 
Calyx 5-cleft. Stamen-tube divided into 
numerous filaments at the apex. 

Culture and Propagation. — These 
plants flourish in warm sunny positions 
in ordinary good garden soil and are 
suitable for the herbaceous border or rock 
garden in the milder parts of the kingdom. 
Although more tender, on the whole they 
may be treated much in the same way as 
the Malvas, Sidalceas, and Callirhoes, 
and are increased by seeds sown as soon 
as ripe in cold frames or by cuttings of 
the side and basal shoots in autumn. 

M. campanulatum (Malva campanu- 
lata). — -A downy Chilian species 1-1 1 ft. 
high, with large deeply lobed and divided 
leaves. Flowers late in summer, bright 
rose-purple, borne in long loose spikes at 
the ends of the shoots. 

Culture dc. as above. This can only 
be considered hardy in the milder parts 
of the kingdom. 

M. coccineum. — A native of the 
United States, about 6 in. high, with more 



or less deeply lobed blue-green leaves 
and trusses of scarlet flowers from July 
to September. The variety gronsular ice- 
folium grows 1.1-2 ft. high, and has 
strong hairy stems and leaves, and red 
flowers. 

Culture ,(<■. as above. 

M. Gilliesi {Modiola geranioides). — 
A pretty plant about 6 in. high, native of 
temperate S. America. It has trailing 
stems and palmately lobed leaves, and 
during the summer months produces 
bright red flowers. 

Culture do. as above. This is best 
grown in rich sandy and well-drained 
loam in warm sunny parts of the rock 
garden. In low damp places it is often 
killed in winter. 

M. lateritium {Malva lateriUd). — A 
hairy perennial, native of Montevideo. 
Although the stems are only about 6 12 
in. high, they trail as much on the ground 
before rising. The beautiful salmon-pink 
Mowers, each about 1.1 in. across, with a 
purple blotch at the base of the petals, 
are borne in great profusion from June to 
September, singly on long stalks in the 
leaf axils. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
only ripens seed in hot favourable seasons. 
It may be, however, easily increased by 
severing the trailing stems which root at 
the joints, or by cuttings of the non- 
flowering shoots inserted in cold frames 
in autumn. These will produce sturdy 
plants by spring. Perfectly hardy only 
in the milder parts of the kingdom. 

PLAGIANTHUS. — A genus con- 
taining about a dozen species of shrubs or 
rarely herbs with entire, sinuate, angulate, 
or rarely lobed leaves. Flowers often 
small, whitish, clustered in the leaf axils 
or in spikes at the ends of the shoots, 
rarely solitary, or arranged in short 
axillary panicles. Bracteoles none, or 
distant from the 5-toothed or lobed calyx. 
Stamen column divided at the apex into 
numerous filaments. Ovary usually 2 5- 
celled. 

P. Lyalli. — A beautiful flowering shrub, 
native of New Zealand, where it attains 
a height of 20-30 ft. in the mountainous 
districts, and is said to be deciduous 
above an altitude of 3,000 ft., but ever- 
green below that level. The shortly 
stalked leaves are 2-4 in. long, ovate 
heart-shaped in outline, tapering at the 
apex, and deeply and doubly crenate on 



278 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS 



SIDA 



the margins. The pure white flowers li 
2 in. across are home in drooping clusters 
in Jiuie onj the previous year's growths, 
and are remarkable for the conspicuous 
bundle of yellow anthers in the centre. 

Culture and Proj)agation. — This 
handsome shrub will flourish in the open 
air in the milder parts of the kingdom, 
but is almost sure to be severely injured 
if not killed in hard winters in northern 
parts. It is best grown against a wall 
with a more or less southern aspect, 
although it succeeds well as a bush in the 
south of Ireland, Cornwall &c. It likes 
a rich and well-drained sandy loam with 
a little leaf soil and manure added, and a 
top dressing in winter or in spring when 
growth is being made will also be bene- 
ficial and induce the plants to flower pro- 
fusely. After flowering — say during July 
— the old wood should be cut out where 
necessary and the young shoots trained 
in and exposed to the sun and air so as 
to ripen well for blooming the following 
year. 

This species may be increased by in- 
serting cuttings of the more or less 
ripened shoots in sandy soil under hand- 
lights in late summer and autumn. 
Sometimes only a few cuttings root, and 
the riper they are probably the better. 
The lower branches may also be layered 
in autumn, and detached the following 
year when well rooted. 

There are a few other species of Plagi- 
anthus — all natives of New Zealand or 
Australia — known, but they are now 
rarely, if ever, seen in cultivation. The 
following may be mentioned: — P. beiu- 
linus, with Birch-like leaves and terminal 
panicles of small whitish flowers ; P. 
divaricatus, a marsh plant with small 
narrow leaves and whitish flowers either 
solitary or hi clusters ; P. Lam/peni with 
whitish-yellow flowers; P. pulchellus, a 
shrub o-4 ft. high, with heart-shaped 
leaves and small whitish flowers. 

SIDA (Indian Mallow). — A genus 
containing about 80 species of softly downy 
or woolly herbs or shrubs, with flowers 
sessile or stalked, solitary or clustered, 
axillary or in terminal heads, spikes, or 
racemes. Bracteoles none, or distant from 
the calyx. Calyx 5-toothed or lobed. 
Stamen-tube divided at the apex into 
numerous filaments. 

The following are the only species 
suitable for outdoor cultivation, and mav 



be treated like the Mallows, Callirhoe. and 
Sidalceas. 

S. incarnata. — A showy Brazilian 
perennial about 2 ft. high, with smooth, 
deeply cut, and variously lobed and 
toothed leaves, fringed with short hairs. 
Flowers in summer, less than 2 in. across, 
pink, borne in close pyramidal spikes. 

Culture d'c. as for S. Napeea. 

S. Napaea. — A smooth herbaceous 
perennial 4-10 ft. high, native of North 
America. Leaves 5-cleft, with oblong, 
pointed tooth lobes. Flowers in summer, 
large, white, in umbellate corymbs. 

Culture and Propagation. — This 
species may be used in masses in the 
border, but the plants shoidd not be too 
crowded. Seeds are freely produced every 
year and may be sown as soon as ripe 
either in cold frames or in gentle heat in 
spring. The seedlings in both cases are 
pricked out and grown on to be transferred 
to the open ground in mild weather in 
April and May. The plants may also be 
divided in early autumn or spring, but the 
same general treatment as recommended 
for Sidalcea eandida will also suit this 
plant perfectly, see p. 276. 

ABUTILON. — A genus containing 
about 70 species of soft, downy herbs or 
shrubs, rarely trees, with leaves often 
heart-shaped, angled or lobed, rarely nar- 
row. Flowers usually axillary. Brac- 
teoles none. Calyx 5-cleft. Stamen-tube 
divided at the apex into numerous fila- 
ments. 

Culture and Propagation. — There are 
no Abutilons hardy enough to stand a 
frosty winter in the British Islands, except 
perhaps in the very mildest parts. In the 
winter of 1879-80 plants were uninjured 
out of doors at Bournemouth, but at Byde 
in the Isle of "Wight they were not un- 
naturally injured by 15° of frost. In most 
parts of the country nearly all kinds may 
be placed out of doors from the end of 
May till September, in rich turfy loam, 
peat, and leaf soil, with plenty of sand. 
In the very mild parts the following kinds 
may be tried permanently, with protection 
in the event of severe winters. They 
root readily from cuttings of the young 
wood in spring in a temperature of 65° 70°. 
When well rooted the plants are placed 
singly into small pots in rich soil, and 
kept shaded and moist for a few days 
until they become established. They are 
afterwards moved to a cooler place, and 



\l-.l I'lLON 



MALLOW ORDLl; 



BIBI8CU8 279 



gradually hardened off with plenty of air 
and sunshine, and will be ready for the 
outdoor garden by the beginning of June. 
Cuttings of the ripened shoots will also 
root readily in heat about August and 
September, and plants raised at this period 
will make tine specimens for planting out 
the following June if grown on in heat 
during the winter and early spring months, 
afterwards hardening them off as advised 
;i hove. Seeds of Abutilons may be sown 
as soon as ripe or in spring in a tempera- 
ture of 65°-70° Fahr. 

A. Darwini. — A Brazilian species about 
4 It. high, with large, broad leaves, and 
finely cupped, bright orange flowers, with 
darker veins. There are many hybrids 
raised from this. 

Culture de. as above. 

A. megapotamicum {A. vexiUarium). 
A well-known species from the Rio Grande 
river with ovate acute toothed leaves and 
masses of drooping bell-shaped flowers, 
having deep red sepals, and pale yellow- 
brown petals with deeper coloured netted 
veins. 

Culture dtc. as above. This species is 
usually grown up pillars or on the roofs 
or sides of greenhouses, in which it is very 
ornamental during the autumn and w inter 
months. In the south and west it is 
practically hardy in ordinary winters, as 
is also A. vitifolium below, and both are 
valuable for covering south walls. 

A. striatum. — A free-growing Brazilian 
species, with large lobed leaves and orange- 
yellow flowers, veined with blood-red. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

A. vitifolium. — A fine Chilian climbing 
shrub, suitable for walls. Leaves heart- 
shaped, 5-7-lobed, assuming a fine golden 
tint in autumn. Flowers in early summer, 
large, cupped, porcelain-blue. A. Sello- 
wicmum ma/rmoratum, with beautifully 
marbled leaves, is a lovely plant. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

HIBISCUS. — This genus contains 
150 species of trees, shrubs or herbs, 
with leaves often lobed or variously cut. 
Bracteoles persistent or caducous, numer- 
ous, rarely 3-5, often narrow, free or 
united. Calyx 5-cleft or toothed. Stamen- 
tube truncate or 5 -toothed below the apex, 
rarely anther-bearing, with numerous pro- 
truding filaments. 

CultwreandPropagation. — The follow- 
ing are the only species which grow well 



out of doors in this country. They like a 
rich loamy soil and warm sunny positions 
to bring their flowers to perfection as early 
in the summer as possible, otherwise they 
will not bloom until autumn and may be 
spoiled by early frosts. The perennial 
kinds may be increased by seeds, or cut- 
tings rooted under glass ; the annual kinds 
from seeds sown in gentle heat about 
February or March, or in the open border 
in April and May. 

H. Manihot. — A handsome shrub 6 9 
ft. high, native of the Old World Tropics, 
with pedately lobed leaves in. across, and 
beautiful soft yellow flowers 4-6 in. across. 
wit li a deep purple blotch at the base of 
each petal. 

( 'nit wre and Propagation.- -This plant 
is best treated as an annual, and may lie 
raised from seeds sown in heat in February 
and planted out at the end of May. Seeds 
may also be sown as soon as ripe in cold 
frames or in gentle heat, and the seedlings 
may be grown on during the winter 
months under glass, until favourable 
weather in May, when they may be 
planted out. 

H. militaris. — A fine perennial 3-4 ft. 
high, native of the United States. Leaves 
heart-shaped, toothed, more or less 3-lobed, 
downy beneath. Flowers rosy, about 4 
inches across, bell-shaped, produced in 
late summer and autumn. 

Culture <(c. as above. This species 
should he grown in damp places. 

H. Moscheutos. — A vigorous N. Ame- 
rican perennial 3-5 ft. high, with large, 
ovate, pointed, serrate leaves, downy 
beneath. Flowers white, with a purplish 
centre, sometimes pale rose or purple. 

Culture dtc. as above. 

H. palustris. — A native of the swamps 
and marshes of N. America, 3- 5 ft. high. 
Leaves broadly ovate, bluntly serrate. 
downy and whitish beneath. Flowers 
large, bell-shaped, 3-4 in. across, white 
tinted with rose, and having a ring of 
deep purple at the base. 

Culture dc. as above. This species 
reqtrires to be grown in damp situations, 
where, however, it will have plenty of 
sunshine. 

H. roseus. — An attractive species, 4-6 
ft. high, naturalised in marshy spots in 
France, but native of N. America. Leaves 
large, broadly ovate, pointed, white beneath. 
Flowers large, rosy, solitary, about 4 in. 



280 



PRACTICAL GUIDE TO GARDEN PLANTS hibiscus 



across, and spotted or blotched with purple 
at the base. H. militaris and H. j^alus- 
tris are considered to be botanical varie- 
ties of this. 

Culture dr. as above for H. palustris. 

H. syriacus {Althaea frutex). — A de- 
ciduous Syrian shrub 6-8 ft. high, with 
ovate wedge - shaped, 3 - lobed, toothed 
leaves. Flowers in the type purple with 
a crimson spot at the base of each petal. 

There are many varieties with colours 
varying from pure white, such as totus 
albus, to deep blue, like ccelestis. There 
are also several very fine double-flowered 
varieties in various colours. 

Culture dc. as above. This makes a 
beauti