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MNi{4iniiiifij])itiinninnn I Mtn MniitnuM 111 M i( iiiiHiM III! [■'• !!.M 11 IM' N I iiiiiiImhm n III M 'MiiH 

i1i!iHl i iiiH h t!it'finm li i i pt ' >f M i^hiintbffi?{fntin!iii 



iiMilJiiiiHiiinuiiiiii iiiiiiiiiiiliii liiiiiiiliiiilli i iiiii ii^ 



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ST. Paul's church yard, and waterlog place. 



ST. John's square. 



The following Reading Book is intended to be used simul- 
taneously with the "Practical Introduction to Greek Prose 
Composition." It may be used either as a Reading Book 
or for written Exercises. The Examples are principally 
from Kuhner and Kruger (especially the latter). 

The length to which the Particles were extending induced 
the Author to terminate them abruptly. It has not been 
thought necessary to add a Vocabulary, as the Abridgement 
of Liddell and Scott is both short and good. 

T. K. A. 


March 8, 1847. 


An asterisk prefixed to a verb denotes that it is irregular ; and must be 
looked for in tlie List of Irregular Verbs in the Practical Introduction (last 
Edition), or Wordsworth's Greek Grammar. 


Page IG. (Observation near the bottom,) for second and Ihhd read, first and second 
19. for crfKov rt ir^ioOvfioc read SFiXou rt — wpoOvfiog 


Lesson Page 

Introductory Remarks: Nature of a Sentence— Subject — Predicate.... 1 

1. Preliminary Remarks on some of the Tenses [Lesson I. Imperfect 

and Aorist, with the other past tenses] 2 

The Article [Lesson I. continued. Article with Participle] 3 

2. The Article (continued) 5 

3. The Article (continued) ib. 

4. The Article (continued) 7 

5. The Article (continued) 8 

6. The Article (continued) 9 

7. The Article as demonstrative Pronoun — Pronouns 12 

8. Pronouns (continued) 14 

9. Pronouns (continued) 16 

10. Of the Neuter Adjective 18 

11. Subject and Predicate [Words with which the copula is often omitted] 19 

12. On the Moods 22 

13. The Moods (continued) [si, dv, &c.] 25 

14. The Moods (continued) 27 

15. The Moods (continued) 29 

16. The Moods (continued) 31 

17. The Moods (continued) 32 

18. The Moods in oblique narration 34 

19. ov fiii 36 

20. Verbals in rtog 37 

21. Double Accusative 39 

22. The Accusative after Passive and Neuter Verbs 41 

23. The Accusative (continued) 43 

24. The Genitive 45 

25. The Genitive (continued) 48 

26. The Genitive (continued) 49 

27. The Genitive (continued) • • • • 51 

28. The Genitive (continued) 53 

29. Comparison 55 

30. Comparison (continued) 56 

31. The Dative 58 

32. The Middle Voice 61 

33. Middle Voice (continued) 63 

34. On the Perfect 2 65 

35. Additional Remarks on some of the Moods and Tenses 67 

36. On the Infinitive 7© 

37. The Infinitive (continued) [Preposition 'Etc, p. 75] 75 

38. The Infinitive (continued) [Preposition 'Avri, p. 77] 77 

39. The Participle 78 

40. The Participle (continued) 81 

41. The Participle (continued): rvyxavoj, XavOdt'w, tpQdvui [Prepo- 

sitions 'Atto (85) and Upo (86)] 83 



Lesson Page 

42. The Genitive Absolute, &c. [Words used in Accus. Absol.] 87 

43. The Relative ['El/ (92), 'Ara (93), Ei'e (93)] 91 

44. The Relative (continued) [ Aia, 97] 95 

45. 6 oTog au drriQ [Kara, 98] 98 

46. ovditg oarig ov 100 

47. oloQ, Siio, /teWw ['AjU^i, Tlspi, 103] , 101 

48. oTTOie, oil jujj ['EiTJ, 107] 103 

49. fxf], i^n) ov [MiTd, lU] Ill 

50. fiT} with Relatives, Infin., &c. [ITapa, IIC] 114 

51. Some Adverbs of Time, &c 118 

52. On Interrogative Sentences [ITpoCi 124] 122 

53. Indirect Single Questions ['Ytto, 127] •••• 126 

54. Double Questions 129 

55. Observations on ti, lap 1 30 

56. Condensed Questions 131 

57. Various Constructions 132 

58. Various Constructions (continued) 134 

Added Lessons: 

Modes of answering ' Yes ' and ' No ' ^ 136 

Adverbial Sentences of Place , 137 

Adverbial Sentences denoting Cause 138 

-List of Particles, &c.: 



dyi Si], dti, dXrjOeg, dXXo ri r), 

dWd page 140 

dW fi 141 

dW 7] 143 

ovStiQ rtXXoc, «X\' y, &c. . .") 

rig dWog dW 7) / 

dWiog Tt Kfli, dWwg n, tifia . 145 

dfxtXii 146 

dp with Indicative 147 

Subjunctive .... 151 

Optative 153 

Infin. and Partic. . . 156 

Omission, repetition, and position 

of dp 158 

dpQ' Ctv, dpa 159 

dpa 160 

OTdp 161 

yap 162 

yk 164 

SioTi, Sk 165 

Si) 169 

ri £ai; 170 

St]6f7', ciiTTOv, cr\7rovQiv, cfjra . 172 

(i, tap 17*^ 

tiTTfO, ilra, t'TTiira, liri . . . 174 

iTTfl, tTTlUi] 175 

t(TTi, tri, i<P' <^ 176 

7h V 




6i]p, "iva 179 


(CaiTTfp, Ka'lTOl 

jjid, fidXiara, fiaXXov Ss, fiep 
fxevroi, fii), iirjde, /o/rf, /i>/i', /*»;- 

Ti ye, v)), vvv, vvp, 6 /isP — 6 oi 
odovpSKa, olog, birort, ottou, o- 

TTiug, ontju'fpai, ocroc, ocrovoi, 

ore, on, ov, ov fii], &c. . 
ov Tidpv, ov ^rjfit, oil [i6vov,ovx 

oaop, ov-)(^ o'lop 

ovTi, firjTe, and oiive, /(»;?£ 


irort, ovTM, nip, TTtj n'tv — vi) 

ds, irXr\v, "KoXXaKig, ttotb, ttov 

irpog en 6twp, Trpb tov (Trporoi)), 

TTci, TTWTTOre (oUTTW, /iJ/TTW, 

&c.), TTwfiaXa, rd \up — rd Sa, 
Tcipa, rk 

rij n'sp — nj Ss, ri, rb Ss, roi, roi- 
vvv, roiyap, roiyaproi, rori 
n'iv — rork Si, rovptKa . . . 

ravro flip — rovro Si, rtp, itg 

wg dp 

o)g, waiTip, wan, iog .... 








Notes 197 

Index I. (Greek Phrases explained) 207 

Index II 211 





Nature of a Sentence. — Subject, — Predicate. 

A SENTENCE IS a thought expressed in words. The conceptions 
of the mind are related partly to each other, and partly to the 
speaker, — these are combined together and form a thought. Con- 
ceptions are expressed by what are called conceptional ^ or primary 
words ; their relations to each other, partly by inflection and partly 
by what are called relational words 

Thus, e. g. in the sentence to koXov poSov 6d\\-ti tv t(ij tov ■Karpbc K»}7r-y, 
there are five conceptional words, viz. kuXoq, podov, GdWtiv, Trarijp, kj/ttoc : 
ilifcir relations to each other are expressed partly by their inflection and partly 
by the relational words to, iv, t<^, tov. 

Every sentence must necessarily have two parts, a subject and 
a predicate. — The subject is that about which something is affirmed ; 
the predicate is that which is affirmed of the subject. Thus in the 
sentences, to pocov QaWii — b ai^dponroe fli'T/rdc eotiv, to pocov 
and dydpioTTOQ are the subjects, SctXXft and di'rjTOQ Iotiv the pre- 

The subject is sometimes expressed by the mere termination of 
the person, as ^iSw-fii, I give. 

The subject always is either actually or virtually a substantive. 

By a virtual substantive is meant some other part of speech used 
substantively : for instance, 

* Dr. Becker calls them notional words; but notional having the meaning o{ not 
real, I have thought it better to alter the term. 

2 1 — 4, [§ I. THE ARTICLE. 

[Personal substantive pronoun] iyw ypd^w, &'c. [A numeral] rpfTt; {three 
persons) i)X0()i'. [Aiijective with the article] 6 cro(pog (the wise man) ivSaifjitiJV 
iffriv. [Participle with the article] oi ^Ooi'ovi'rtc {those who envy; the envious) 
HKTovvrai. [Adverb with the article] oi ttuXiii {the long-ago men •=. the men oj 
old times, the ancients) avcpiioi rfoav. [Article with substantive under the 
government of a preposition] o'l Trtpt Mikrid^r}v {those about Miltiadeszz. Miltiades 
and those about him) kiiXuiq ifiaxioavro. I An infinitive with the article] ro 
l^iSafficHV {to teach; or teaching) KaXnv icTTiv. [Infinitive without the article] 
tTTtrai Ty niifr?^ awZtaOai {to be saved ^^preservation, safety), &c. So any single 
word or phrase with the article, when the assertion is made about that word or 
phrase, to il, ' the word if;' to rtra, ' the letter eta ;' to yrwOi atavTov, the pro- 
verb, ' know thyself.' 

§ 1. Preliminary Remarks on some of the Tenses. — The Article. 

1. The Imperfect has, besides the usual meaning of that tense, that of 
expressing continued or repeated actions, taking place in past time. 

2. The Aorists express actions independently, as completed in past 

Thus the aorist is used of actions conceived as single and definite (often 
momentary) actions, without any reference to their duration. The im- 
perfect, denoting that the action was going on at some past time, naturally 
implies some duration. Hence it is often used oi continued and repeated 

The dog bit him {aor.) : the dog howled all night {imperf). 

The aorist is a narrative, the imperfect a descriptive tense. 

Obs. The Imperfect (of habitual actions) is often construed by 'used 
to,' &c. 

The Perfect expresses actions continued or remaining in their 

3. effects up to the present time. 

a) Hence the aor. is nearly our perfect indefinite (the perf. 
formed by inflection^ : the perf. our perfect definite (or perfect with 
' have '). 

b) But when the connexion of the past with the present is obvious 
from the context, the aorist may be used for the perfect : or, in a 
narrative, for the pluperfect^. 

c) It is only when a particular stress is to be laid on the time of 
the occurrence, that the perfect or pluperf. must be used. All this 
is, liowever, greatly influenced by euphony. 

It is taken for granted that the pupil knows 

(1) That the verb agrees with its nominative case. 

(2) That every adjective word — whether adjective, participle, pro- 
noun, or article — must agree with its substantive in gender, number, and 

(3) That the transitive verb is followed by the accusative, &c. &c. 

^ Thus (1) rwj' oiKiTwv ohd'iva KaTtXnr (v {has hft), a'W uTravTag tts- 
irpaKfv. (2) Darius summons Cyrus from the government, tjq avrbv (TaTpdtrtfv 
(TToirjfftv (of which he had made him Satrap). 

§ 1. THE ARTICLE.] 5 — 7. 8 


Imperfect and Aorist (^with the other past tenses). 

1. 'E»' w (TV tiraii^ec, eyu 'iypatpov. 2. "Ore iyyvq riaav 
ol (iapjoapoi, ol "EWrjyeg iiia\ovTO. 3. "Ore ol (ia.pl3apoi iirt- 
\r)\v6eaar, ol "EWjjrtc enaxoi'TO. 4. Tort (or e y ravTy 
rrj ndxy) ol "EXXrji'Eg dappaXewTara Ifxaxovro. 5. 'ETniSfi 
ol "EXXrjj'tQ ETTiXTjXvdeffav, ol iroXi^ioi airtiTKptvyeaav. 6. 
"Ore ol avji^ayni eirXriaiai^oy, ol 'Adrjvalot tovq Ilfpflrae iveyi- 
K »'/ k- £ «T o I'. 7. 'EyeypcKpEiy ti)v e-mcrroXi]}', I had written the 
letter (e.g. before my friend came). 8. Tove TreXrooroc £^£^a^'^o 
ol ftupfyapot, K-at IfJiaxovTO. Ittei 2' iyyi^c ■^'lerav ol ottXItiu, ETpd- 
TTOVTO' KoL ol TrfXraorai evQvq t'tirovro. 9. O kvwv Eu,i.^pafiE 
Kai KadvXaKTEi avrovc. 10. 'Ev EKEiri^ rw KiupS, ote ttucti Sov- 
XEiav ETr£(j>Ep£V liapi3upoQ, ol Qr](3a~ioi jiet avroii i]<Tav. 11. 
'AyriaiXaoQ ra 0fta ovrwc iaifiETO, wc koX ol ttoXe^ioi tovq ekeivov 
opKOVQ Ka\ rctc Ikeivov a-jrophaq TrKTroripag ivofj-i^oy j; rfji' eavraiv 
(biXiav. 12. Ol HEXoTToyyi'idiot, mq EKaQii^ovro iv Ou'djj, npotrftoXaq 
TrapEaKEvd^ovTO rw TEtx^ei Troir]a6jj.Eyoi ^r)\ayaiQ. 13. 0< "EXX>;- 
VEQ EviKr)aav tovq JlipmiQ. 14. ^levei ^avro rijy apxr/y o Zevq 
Kai 6 YloaEiBCJy i:ai 6 IlXovTwy, ettei^i) irapa rov TrarpoQ irapiXa- 
flov. 15. (AoR. as Pluperf.) TCJy ohEzwy ovMva KarEXiwEy, 
aX\' dirayrag TTErrpaKEy. 16. Aaptloc Kvpoy yLEranifXTTETai dwo ri/c 
"PX^-» '^S avTov eraTpaTrrjy ETroirjaer. 

The Article. 

a. TO rfic dpETTJg icdXXog, the beauty of virtue, b. o rd tjiq tto- 5. 
X£wc Trpciy/iora Trpcirrwj', he who transacts (or manages) 
the affairs of the state. 

(a) A governed genitive is often placed between an article and its 6. 


In this way two and even three articles may stand together. 

(b) 6 irpaTTwy, (the person doing =:) he who does. 7- 

Hence the article with a participle is equivalent to a personal or 
demonstrative pronoun with a relative sentence. 

6 Trparrwr, he who does. 
TOi) TrpciTTOVTog, of him who does. 
IM. ol TTpdrrovTic, those u'ho do. 

tCjv TrpctTToyTwv, of those who do. 

B 2 

10 — 14. [§ 2. THE ARTICLE. 

LESSON I. {continued). (Article with Participle.) 

17. Ot Ka\u>c Tpa(j)i yre c Trcudsg ■^^aifioi kaoi'Tui rfj ttoXsi. IS. 
Ot ipdopovi'T eg fjiaovi'TUi. 19. Tovg Trpwrouf evpoi'rag rpayu- 
^laf d^ioy dav^aCitv. 20, At aptorcii hoKovaai liyai <f>\jaziQ /xoAtora 
Ttai^iiac tiovTCU. 21. Ilae rw a.ZiKOVf.iiv<o ftoriBtlro) K(ii a/^juierui. 
22. "AiTniO' V Tov Crjr ovvtoq tvpiai:ei ttvpoq. 23. ^UKparijg fiaai- 
Xelc Kcit ap-)(oyTag cv rovg tu aKrJTrrpa e^ovro*,' tcpt] elrai. 24. 
To ^r]TOv ^tvov ttXwTuv, eKcpEvyei ^e Tajxt\ovjxe.voy. 25. 'Avay- 
Kci^ti Toy i^t) povXofAEyoy. 

10. § 2, The Article (continued). 

a. liiipoy j-iercnrinTTETai, he sends-for Cyrus, ayaftaivti ovv 6 
Kvpoc, Cyrus therefore goes-up. 2. Sw/cparjjc, Socrates, o Sw- 
/v-parTjt', Socrates {as a celebrated philosopher). 3. 'A0»pat, Athens. 
al 'Adijyai, Athens (as a celebrated city). b. Swcpar?;? o (piXotro- 
(poQ, Socrates the Philosopher. c. 'iTrnog treice Xayujy, a mare 
brouyht-forth a hare. d. yvijy tiq opviv tl^tv, a woman (or, a 
certain woman) had a hen. e. >/ Kupq kyeyero uarKog^, the girl be- 
came (or was turned into) a leather-bottle. 

1 1 . (a) Proper names, if they have been recently mentioned or are to 

be pointed out as well-known and distinguished, take the article : but 

otherwise not. 

Hence the names of Deities, Heroes, &c. generally take the article; 
and the names of persons recently mentioned. 

12. (b) But if the proper name is followed by a description which 
has the article, the proper name is without the article ; unless it is 
to be distinguished from others, or expressed emphatically, as being 
well-known, or as having been previously mentioned *. 

13. (c) The Greek has no indefinite article (our 'a'). 

(d) When a particular person or thing is meant, though not 
named, the indefinite rig is often translated by * a.' 

14. (e) The subject ^ generally has the article, the predicate not. 

' Or, dsKog tytvtro r) Kopt], So, Qihg r]v 6 Aoyog, the Word was God. This 
arises from the nature of a proposition. We usually assert of a particular thing 
that it is included, as an individual, in a particular class; not that it is the whole of 
that class. 

* Kr. who quotes Bacch. 1314: vvv Ik S6p<i)v anfiog (K(itftkt)aopai | 6 KdS- 
pog 6 pkyag. 

' That is, the iwminulive before the verb. See Introductory Remarks. 

§ 3. THE ARTICLE.] 17 19. 5 


1. KvpoQ eVt Toy aSeXipov 'Apra^fp^fji' f.arpnTevero. 2. Swkp«r>/c 
EKeXevE \oyt(T/ioi'c fiardayeiv, 3. "Efpaai^ty o OaXfjs ycipiy ix^'" 
Ttj Tv^i]' irpwTOy f.ikv on ayOpwirog iyeiero Knl ov driptoy' tira 
on nyt)p i:cu oh yvyif rplroy on "EXA/ji' Kal oh joi'ipftapoc. 
4. Oi AaKt^atfioyioi rovg /uey tuq acnricaQ uTroftaXoy-ag n'lri- 
fiai^oy, Tovc ^e tci i;payi] Kul tovq diipaicag ov. 5. 'Atto rnv 
'I\i(7ffou Xiyerai 6 Boptctc Tt)y 'U>pEidviay apTrocrot. 6. Kvpog 
iyiyero paaiXevg twv WepaCjy. 7. Tovroig o <t('Ai7r7roc' j-teyuc 
r}hl,{iQt]. 8. 'i\X(.(/3ta^r;c ]ipidi] arrpaTTjyoc. 9. 'Arrt (piXioy kui 
Uyojy yvy koXuksq kuI Qeolg i-)(6po\ aKovovaiy {audiunt), 10. Nta- 
viag ng tf^iadcjtraTO vyoy. 11. E'lg Ian ^oiiXog oiKiag o CEaxoTTjg. 

§ 3. Article (continued). 

a, 6 (Tog dovXog, your slave. h. dXyw Ti]v kEcpaXrjy (I am 17. 
pained as to the head =) / have a pain in my head. c. ijhro 
Int nXovaioig ro'ig TroXiTuir, he rejoiced (or was glad) when the citizens 
were wealthy (or, that the citizens were wealthy), d. 6 Efjog Tran)p 
Kai 6 rov (ptXov, my father and my friend's (literaWy, my father and 
the of my friend). 

(b) My, your, his, &c. are denoted in Greek by the article, when 18. 

it is quite obvious whose the thing in question is. 

Whenever there is any opposition (as, when mine is opposed to yours 
or any other person's) the pronouns must be used. 

(c) "When an adj. without the article stands before the article and 19. 
its substantive, or immediately follows them, the thing spoken of is 
not distinguished from any thing else, but from itself under other 

circumstances ". 


1. 'Eif^a»'>)c kyiyETO i] rijg TroXEivg pijijJ-ri te koX apETt). 2. ' E^ti 
Tuy TTEXEKvy o^vraroy. 3. "Exo/x£>' pEftaioTEpoy rby Trpo^^TiKoy 
Xoyov. 4:." Aj^Oetui 6 j^acTiXEvg ETTi TTTM^olg rolg ■KoXiraig. 5. 'O 
ftaaCXEvg ^hiwg '^upi^ETai. rolg TroXlraig aycidolg. G. 01 yoyElg 
TO. TEKya GTEpyovaiy. 7. O aTparrjyog rovg erTparnorag iwl rovg 
TToXE^iovg ayEi. 8. Kvpog re icannrrjh'itrag aird rov ap^aTog ray 
duipriKa iyicv kciI avafjag ettl Toy 'ittttou tu TraXra ftg Tag 

" Thus in the example c it is not, ' rich citizens,' that are opposed to oilier 
citizens ; but the wealth of the citixens is opposed to llie jwverlij of the same 

G 22. [§ 4. THE ARTICLE. 

Xfipac tXo/Je. 9. "H(t0>;»' £7rJ TrXoufftotc rote K£p^■l/pato^(,■. 10. 

Mirp/a >'/ y^w ^oi'Xi/a, iif.tETpo(j Be >/ ro7c aydpoiTroir. II. Oi TroXt- 

f^lo^ Kal Ti)y lij^ie-epay Bvfaj^iy ^ofiovyTUi Kai tiiv Tuiy tru/xynaj^wj'. 

[Examples in which there are two or more nominative cases to the same verb, 
which is (1) sometimes in the plural, (2) sometimes in the dual, if tliere 
are (wo nominatives, (3) sometimes in the sing, agreeing strictly with one of 
the nominatives, and being understood with the others.] 

12. Twv avrCiy SioVTai Kal ?/ yvyfj Kai o dyi'ip, BucawcTuyrjQ 

KQi ao)(t>poavri)Q, 13. Mii'wc ''(t' AuKoi/pyoc ro^ovg iOErrfy. 

14. ^lOKpuTei oj-nXrjra yero/io'w Kpiriuc t£ Kai 'AXk'(/3ta^/;f 

TrXe'iara KaKct Tyjy TroXiy iTroirjauri] i\ lo.'FjfitWoy UTroXoyi/traff- 

dai Aeio-)^dpr]Q j) A iKct toy £ i'tjc. 16. ArjixoadiyTjg fiera rwy 

L,v(rTpaTi]ywy (Tiriv^oyTai. 17. 'AX/vt/j ta^jjg eic Sap^twi' /i£ra 

M.ay-i.fif.ov 'linrwv evTropiiaayreg d-izthpaaay Iq KXaCofxtvac. 

18. 'EorparjyyEt twv rewy 'Apiarevg Kai KaXXiKpaTTjg Kal 

Tt/iavwp. 19. 'AyifT-aro Ik tov GVfXTroa'iov u Tt/^tctpj^oc Kal o 

f^iXi'ifxioi' dizoKTevuvyTtg fiiKiay. 20. 'IIXGe Xpvaavrag re o 

n.ep(n]g Kal aXXoi Tiveg Tu>y vf.ioTif.noy. 21. BcktiXsuc Kai ot 

txvy aiiTu OiwKwy El(nr iirrti elg to KvpEioy aTpaToiVEdoy. 

§ 4. The Article (continued), 

22. d- h I'ov TToiijTov (Tocpia'', or fj aofla ?/ tov TroirjTov, the wis- 
dom (cleverness, &c.) of the poet, y KuXr) KEfuX)), or >/ KEfaXij t) 
KuXif ^ the beautiful head. b. ''AXES,aydpog 6 ^^iXittttov, Alexander 

 Substantives in la are derived from adj. and express the abstract notion of 
the adj. 

The oiher positions of the ^e?j. are frequently met with ; Mr)Stir)C Tr)v upTrayijv, 
Herod, i. 3. >'/ araxwpjyo-ic twv 'A6t]vaiwr, Thuc. i. 12. For a partitive gen. 
these are the only correct positions. Kuhner gives the following rule : If a 
substantive having the article is constructed with a gen., the position under 
a occurs, only when the substantive with its gen. forms a contrast with another 
object of the same kind, e. g. 6 twv ' AOr)vaiwv Siifxog or 6 ^rjfiog 6 tmv 
'AQr]vaiii)v, in contrast with another people ; the emphasis here is on the gen., 
e. g. OiiK dWorpiov riyiirai ilvai 6 'ABrjvaioJv Srjfiog tov Qrjjiaiwv 
ciinov, dvafUfn'ii'yKtTai 5e Kal Tag tCjv irpoy 6vo)i> twv eavTov tig Toiig 
OijlialovQ Trpoyoi/oi^C ivipytrriag. Dem. (Psephism.) 18, 18G. On the 
contrary, the gen. with the article is placed either before or after the other sub- 
stantive, when the substantive denotes only a pari of that expressed in the genitive, 
in which case the emphasis is on the governing substantive, e. g. 6 diifiog twv 
'A9r]vai(jjv, or tCjv ' AQriva'mv 6 diifiog, the people and not the nobles. Hence, 
with this position, not an attributive, but a partitive genitive is used; the Athe- 
nian people is not here considered in contrast with another people, but a part 
of the Athenian people is contrasted with another part of the same, viz. the 

* The latter position gives emphasis to the adjective or dependent gen. 

§ 4. THE ARTICLE.] 23. 7 

the son 0/ Philip {y'loc, son, understood), v Sw^pov/ffKou, the son of 
Sophroniscus. c. tic '"')>' 4>t/\('7r7rov, into Philip^s country {yij^mv, 
country, understood), d. rh tTjq iroXebjg, the affairs of the state 
{irpay jinra understood), tu kpa, my affairs, my property. 01 iv 
aarti, the people in the city, those in the city. 01 trvv rw (iacriKu, 
those with the hing {= 01 iv Ixarii or avv tiJ liaaiXel vrreQ: sc. 
ct »'0pw7r 01). 

(d) The substantive to which the article refers is often under- 23. 
stood: and often the participle 'being^ {wr) also; so that the 
article then stands alone before a genitive, or a preposition with its 


I. Tt hatpepti ctJ'SpwTroc aKpariic Orjpiov rov dt^paredraTov ; 

2. 'H dptTi) (jureari f-tei' dtolc, avvKTri ce drdpwTroig toIq dyadolc. 

3. To apicTTOV oh rovg rufiovQ tarh' iayytiv, ciW av^pa tov 
f-iera (ppovyjaeojg ftacrtXiKoy. 4. A/otkouiTOi at fier TvpavvicEQ 
Kui d\iyo.p\iaL rolg Tpoiroig twv IfeeTTifKorwr, a'l ^e voXtig 
(republics) al Eri^oKpaTovnivai rolg I'Ujioig TO~ig KEi/jiroir. 5. To 
linriKov TO EKf.ivb)v (sc. Tu)v 2/CU0WJ') ovTU) pff^^erai, to ^e ottXitikov 
TO ye Tbjv 'EWj/i'wi', utg iycj Xiyw. 6. 'Eyw pei> ovy iKeivovg rovg 
tir^pag (prjpt ov fiorov rwv (7U)pa.Ttt>v twv iipeTepuy TrciTepag eli'at, 
dXXa Kul Tijg eXevdepiag riig Tt iiperipag kui ^v/xn-aiTwj/ tuiu tv 
rrjdt Tfj j/TTttpw. 7. AiEiip-)(ovTai Tag re avpi^ophg rag Ik tov 
TToXipov TOV irpbg d\Xi]Xovg vfilv ytytrrjpivag koX rag w^eXetac 
-fic sK rijg arpaTtiag Trjg iw" tKtivov iaopivac. 8. [Sometimes 
the position varies in the same sentence.] Tctc ptyaXag r]hovag 
Kai TU dyad a to. ptyaXa >/ 7r££0u; /cat // Kaprepia kfu 01 ty rw 
Kaipu TTOVOi Ka\ Kiv^vroi 7rapi\oi'7at \ 9. HoliotoI fiiv, 01 Trpoadey 
ovB' Iv Ttj kavTuiy ToXpijj yreg 'Adrjyaioig aytv AnKtBaipoyiioy re 
Kal Tuiy aXXbjy neXoTcoyyrjtJtcJi' drTiTciTTeadai, vvy dirtiXoixny avrot 
Kad'' tavTOvg ififoaXt'iy tig Tijy 'ATTiKtjr. 10. Ot deoi ii^oXaaay Ti)y 
TOV dy^pog vl^pir. 

With, {_(Tvy, dat.] 

II. Tijg yrjc avv aycpaaiv KaXXiov »} Ktrfic Kpartly. 12. "Oaoi 
ye (Tvv J' 5* yjprifTTO. ftovXtvova ati, K-ar pi) TrapavriK, avOig tlffi 
y^piiaipoi. 13. 2i/»' pvp'ioiai tu KaXa ylyvtrai Trovuig. 14. 
IlwcpctrTjc avv r&> vopo) tKiXtvatv atl tov ciKaariiv \pfi(poy riOtadai, 
15. Svi' Tw hiKaia toi pty' 'ittoriy (pportli', 16. H Krrjfng rCjy 

' Wlien a substantive denotes an action in the abstract, and hence contains also 
a verbal notion, the attributive expressed by a preposition and its case, is placed 
after its substantive without the repetition of the article. So also, wlien an attri- 
butive explanation comes between the article and the substantive. 'H (TvyKofiidi) 
tK tuiv oypuiv ig to aarv. 'H vvv vfiiTipa opyrj ig MiTvXtji'aiovg. 

8 2(5, 27. [§ 5. THE ARTICLE. 

TTiarwi' toTU' ovcdfiwc (tvv -?/ /i/^x uAXn f^tCiWov rrvy Ttj cvepyfal^. 
17. SOi- dfo'iQ ovcevoc n7rt)j){iaoiJEt'. 18. Ol^at ftit', olfdat, avr 
Oeoj t tlpiifTETni, T<iv7i]Q ('nraWaiieii' ne t)~]q vfdaXfxiac. 19. NDr, 
(TV)' dsolc ftTTjTi', TToWctQ eXwiSaf; tx*^- 

§ "). The Article {continued). 

20. 1 Tra'Xoi^ the /o?(^ o^j/o men = the men of old (i. e. the men 
[heing, or who were'] long ago). 6 fxfralv xf<^*''-'£> the between 
time = //?e intermediate time, y avpioi', adv. {Ijnipa, day, under- 
stood), the morrow, the next day. 

27. An adverb connected with a substantive by the article is equiva- 
lent to an adjective ; if the substantive is omitted, the adverb has 
the sense of a substantive. 


1. 'Ei' fiicToiQ Tol^ TToXeju/oie dnidave. 2. '() (pBopwy Itti Kaico'ig 
TO~iQ T u) V TviXag ijcerai. 3. ^Eyeipetrde hk rijQ dfJieXtiac ravrrjg rrjg 
(lyar. 4. Oe ravrr] iiTreipiSrai avro'iQ (j>iXoi ilalv. 5. 0< 
CTaTpaTTCii ov KciraKTxyi'ovai riji' Ike'i ti aiSevtriv. 6. 'AvtarrfGe to 
L,v ^i fiax'-f^oi' TO tKtii'Yi TTci)'. 7. Tc'u a/'QpwTrou 6 ivToq civQpu)- 
TTOQ i(TTai lyKptiTEfTTaToc. 8. 'O Tlavaax'iar [y fieyuXu) y'jv d£,io)fiaTi 
^la r»)v nXaratctct »' i]yejJ.orLav, 9. Tj/c TrciXtj' juijjt'rja uBov, 
10. ' A^pt Tijc Tr'ifiepof }ifiepaQ ou^ei' Twy StovTuyp irpd^ai Evya- 
fiida. 11. 'El' T^ recoQ j^poj^w cKoXa^tTE tovq ^cjpoSoKovvTag, 
12. Oi»^£»' c/catoc E(TTiy kv rw vvv yivEi. 13. T>/i' i'jhri x^ipiv 


i'lyayov eIq T})y ttote (piXiay. 15. 'A7r//^Xo^£ Trjy ttoXip ^eovq 
kdi rapa)(J/C '■'/C tote, 16. 'O/cj'ai ye ^0^0 w v r w i' xptj^ ekx^cu 
j^apti'. 17. Pc^tOvj-ila Trjy vapavT i^ ^l^oyfiy Xaftovcra XvTraQ 
TU) j^porw ruTEij' (piXEi. 18. YnEpr}<pav<'jv Troy yiyyEff f] Xiay Tpv<j>r). 
19. 'H aya*' fXei/fltpia eI(; ciyay SovXslai' f.tETa(iaXXEt, 20. 'Ek- 
r>7f af.iEXeiag TavTr)Q tj)q ay ay opj^triaaTE. 2]. Etj^oi' J/yf- 
/Lioiac rwv TTcii'v trr par rjyui y. 22. Atct XoyitTjiov i/^fX^ Trpog 
r »/ J' oiTwc overlay Kowwyov^Ev. 23. 'E^•fI^'oc to^rtv o ctAijOwc 
ovparoQ Kul ru aXrjBuig <p<i>Q ^'n< j/ (jc aXrjdiJQ yi}. 24. 
'Ev(i»p>ycra»' tTTt Tyjv avTiKpvQ BovXEiay. 25. Tovc ofxoXoyov- 
fiEyu)Q covXovQ iji.iov ftarrayii^Eiy. 26. M6yi]y eorepye r^»' a- 
TrXuJQ ^iKTjy. 27. AlpEladE j/cjj r>)»' uvriica uKiycvywq Bov- 
XEiay. 28. AeCoiKE Toy avToSa^ Tponoy. 29. 'Ei^^ovcrtaff- 
TiKovQ TTOul »/ <I> p V y t (T r t app.oyia. — 30. 'I'oi' CaKTvXov aXyu). 31. 
KfiyLirw rove 6(j)daXnovc. 

2 So in English ' the ///?» Mayor.' 

§ G. THE ARTICLE.] 31 — 34. 9 

§ 6. Article {continued). 

a. 6 ptrokfpwc TriP Sopav ia-)(ypoTdTt]v t'x^t, the rhinoceros Jias 31. 
a very strong hide. b. 9£uyw/x£)' ra alaxp^^' ^tw^wyiuj' ra 
KaXcl, let us fly from what is base ; let us pursue what is 
honorable, c. fxij ^lutKw/^ev ra alayfid, let us not pursue 
what is base. d. to rayy XaXely, talking fast ; rov ra^v 
\a\i~ii', of talking fast, &c. ; -6 ndrrac kukuiq X/yftr, the 
speaking ill of every body. e. y ctpsTi], virtue ; a ■^(^pvcror, 
gold; 01 dyadoi, the good; oi uErnl, eagles, f. to TiXev- 
Tcuoi', at last; to ci-o Toiice^, henceforth. 
(a) To express, for instance, that a person 'has a very beautiful 31*^ 

head,' or ' very beautiful hands,' the Geecks said : ' has the head 

very beautiful ;' ' has the hands very beautiful.' 

The article must not be used, unless it is assumed that the thing 
in question has the property, the object being only to describe oi what 
kind it is; so that the information is conveyed by the adjective, not by 
the substantive. If the writer wished to inform us that the rhinoceros 
had a hide, whicli was moreover a strong one, he would not use the 
article. Thus of the crocodile: ixn- ^i Kai 6»'iiX"£ KapTtgovq, it 
has also strong claws. 

(6) TO caXoi', is: Hhe beautiful*,' 'the honorable,' in the abs^ 32. 
tract; beauty. ra KciXd, are: beautiful (or honorable) things; 
whatever things are beautiful ; what is beautiful ; or simply, beautifil 

\_Ohs. We learn from b, that the first person plur. o( Ihe pres. suhj. is 
used in exhortations ; and from c, that /x?} is used with it for ' not.' See 
108, 1.] 

(c?) The infinitive with the article becomes, in effect, a substantive 33. 
declinable throughout, and answering to the English 'participial 
substantive ' in — ing. 

(e) Abstract nouns, and the names of materials, generally take the 34. 
article. When a whole class, or any individual of that class, is 
meant, the noun, whether singular or plural, takes the article. 

Rem. But the names of the arts and sciences, of the virtues and vices, 
often omit the article, even where they occur in a definite relation, 
since, as well-known appellatives, they have come to be used as proper 
names. Kilhner. 

|^p° With the names of near relations and with Trarpig, TrnXig, the 
article may be omitted even when the substantives are quite definite. 


1. O'l VTTO Tou ijXiov KaTaXafX7r6f.iErui tu )^pwynara fXEXdyrepa 
i.'s^ovmi'. 2. Oi aTpovdoKafii^Xoi f-ieyedoQ 'f^ov(TL rE0yey£7 tv«/.i///\w 

' Literally, ' the from this' (time). 

'' Thus in English, " Burke on the Sublime and Beautiful." 


10 34. [§ a. THE ARTICLK. 

TrapanXiifTwy, ritg ^e Ket^aXac TrefpiKvUiQ dpiO- Xerrralg, tovq St 
6(p6a\iJ.ovg fieyaXovg Kal Kara Tt)u ■)(^p6ai' fiiXavag. 3. Tovq 
kviia cip^uvTaQ ataKpivETE eI yoviciQ eii Troiovmi'. 4. WiEEwaripd 
Kal 1^11)7 e pa i^al aSEX(}>ovg cat d/i' eavrov yvra~ii:a aJj^jiiaXwrovc 
yEyEvrjfiEvovQ. 5. 'ET£rp£;//ar£ au-w 7rar()<ca kol Trot^ac 'v'cit 
yvva'iKag. 6. 'YfAelg ttoXiv kiu oiKiag ^jjxlv irapahoTt. 7. 
AvTTt] Trapovcra Trcnror' eorij' >/ yvm). 8. 'O ttoTo' ivavTdyv QrjpiMv 
iari cva^ura'^EipiaTOTaTOv, 9. Ou p.6voi' v yipwy dig Tralg yiyi'oir 
di', dXXa kai 6 fxtdvcrdeig. 10. 'O aoipi erring Tvy)(cu'Ei we ifXTropog 
TIC. 11. To K'aXwe u7ro9aj'eI»' 'i^ior rolg Girovhuioig // (pvtrig aw- 
it'EifiEi'. 12. To £u 7rpa7T£ti' TTOpct r>)»' ciLfiav ddjop^rj rov Kaicwg 
(bpo relr roJg di'oriTOig ylypErai. 13. To rove viKiitjavTug aj.iE\El.i' 
l^tiya afiaprtjjjia. 14. To \£y£tv, ibg ^fl, tov tppovelf eu fxiyia- 
Toi' ariixE'iov iroiovyLEQa. 15. Ot iroXXol wpfxriKOTsg etti to (TKOTrelu 
Ta Twv dXXioi' Tzpuyj-iUTa uv TpETcuvTai etti to tavToiig e^etc'i^eiv. 
16. To <j)6ufE~iy Tolg EVTV^ovat Tovg aTvyjwvTug ovcev davfxair- 
Tuy. 17. 'AytjalXaog ov-)^ ovrcjg ettl t <o dXXbjy fiacriXEvEiy 7/ 
ETTi T(p euvtov u () )^ £ I )' EfiEyaXvyETO. 18. '() Xv^voc Sid TO Xa^wpdy 
<pX6ya 'i^Eiv cpiiig irapE^Ei, 19. Ta ttXeim vfxdg Tuiy irpayfxdTbjy 
fk-TrE(pEvyE T(p /i?7 j3ovX£(Tdai Ta hiovTa ttoieIv, av tw fxij hvvacr- 
6 a I. 20. Al(T^p6y Tovg fxly kj-nropovc TtjXikavTU TTEXuyri SiairEpdy 
EysKa TOV ttXeIio iroirjiTai t^jv virdpyovGay ovtrlay, TOvg Se ysoj- 
TEpovc fXTjEs Tag kara yrjv nopiiag iiTrojjEyEiv ettI rw ftEXrib) kutu- 
aTijaai tijv avrwi-. 21. Aid to elcivai savTOvg TrXfTora ctyaflrt 
TrdfT-^^ovGiy 01 diOpwiroi, did ce to Ed/eixrOai eavTwy ttXeIcttu K'am. 
22. ^lOkouTiic ETEKfJialpETO Tdg dyaQdg <p{j(TEig Ik tov raj^v fxaydd- 
vEiv o'lg ■7rpo(JE-)(oiEV. 23. 'Ap' r;c>/ tovQ^ iKayov irpog to Evlaifiord 
Tiva iToiT](Tai, to te KEKTTjfrQai rdyaQd (cat to ^piiaQai aiiTolg ; 
24. " AyOpuiTTog Qeov iuTiy ftjctt**'. 25. HoXejuoc ovk dy£v icivhvyiov. 
26.NiKr](Toy 6pyr)y t(3 Xoyi^ecrdai KaXiog. 27. "USETai o (ppoyCjy 
avT^ TO) (ppoyely. 28. H SiKuioffvyr) dpETi) e(tti. nor£poJ' 
dpETi] Tj dpETt'i Tig; 29. 'H dpETi) fxdXXoy H) >'/ <j)vyi) au)l^Ei Tdg 
\pv)^dc. 30. 'H EvXdfleia (tw^el Trrivro. 31. IloXXa SovXiKd Kal 
TUTTEiyd vpdyjjiaTa TOvg E\(v6tpnvg ?/ TVEvia ftid'^ETai Troitiy. 32. 
^vaEUjg KUKiag (77]fXE~i6y iariv a (^6 6 yog. 33. FIoitq ^ey ovy Efjioiye 
SokeI -a fCaXa cat tu dyadd datcriTd tlyai, ov-)(^ i'jKKTTa he fruxppoavyj]. 
34. 'Ettei ovv Ta TE SiKaia Kai Ta dXXa kuXd te kuI dyadd 
Traira dpETij irpuTTETai, CijXoy, oti koi hiKaioavvrf Koi ?/ dXXt] 
TTutra doETi) ao(l>la kff-i. 35. 'ETriaTy'i /.tr) dpa tro^m laTiv. 3G. 
MaXtirra yap ifiefiEXiiKEi abru) 'nrir iKijg. 37. Nik"^ o fieiiov 
Toy i^iiyav hiKai tj^wj'. 38. Ov TtayTay^ij o (l>p6yijiog dpfioTreiy 
Coke'i. 39. 'AXX' Ev (pEpEiy ■)(pr] ervfi(popdg tov Evy Eyf], 40. Ovk 
dpidjiog EtJTiy opiC,wv to ttoXv khI to oXiyoy. 41. "Ayttj' £7rt- 

§ 7. PRONOUNS.] 37. 11' 

■VEi^iovuiP 1 fitv Ka\o\ KayaQoX kir\ ru ayaOa.,oi ^£ nomjoni 
tTTi Tci. iropijpa. 42. 'EIjouXoi'tu tovq re vfjwi' ^t/fjovf jK»/(>tV( 
f^idWoy yti'iadai, rovg re a fxeivovt^ rd li^ia t'xtti'. 

§ 7. Article as demonstrative pronoun '. Pronouns. 

rh (ivra rovg fiev \vite~i, rovq le ripnti, the same things 37. 
pain some persons, but delight others, b. \i'/coe ctyu»t»j' iliw- 
KEk' b ^E Ei'c vaby t^aritpvye^, a wolf was pursuing a lamb; 
and (or but^) it fled for refuge into a temple. c, kuI oq 
e^cnrarrjdeiQ EiwtcEi ai'a Kparoc, and he, being deceived, pur- 
sues at full speed (literally, ' at or with force or strength '). 
d. avTOQ 'e<pr], he himself said {it), avrog 6 cuvXoq, or v 

^ Rem. l.When a substantive has two or more attributives, one of which limits the 
other, eitiier the limiting attributive with the article stands first, and the second 
follows with the article and substantive, or the limited attributive with the article 
stands first, and the limiting attributive follows with the article and substan- 
tive. At aXKai ai Kara to awjxa i]Covai, the other bodily pleasures. 'Ev 
toXq aXKoiQ Toig ifioiQ X'^P'O'C- 'Ev ry rov Aibg ry fxiy'iary eopry. 2. 
The limiting attributive maij also stand between the substantive and the limited 
attributive ; in this case the article is placed before each of the three parts, e. g. 
TO, Ttixv TM tavTwv rd fiUKpa direrkXicav. 3. Finally, the limiting attri- 
butive with the article is placed first, and is followed by the limited substantive 
and its attributive, both vfithout the article, e. g. Ilpoe tciq -KcipoiBi avfKpopdg 
tvSaifJiovag. 'Atto twv iv ry EvpwTry iroXsoJV 'EXXtjviSwv. Tag vnb ry 
Qp^Ky o'lKOvaag TroXsig 'EX\ qv iSag. 

4. When an attributive participle has a more definite explanation belonging to 
it, their relative position is as follows : 

(«) 'O Trpug rov TToXtfiov aipi9iig ar parijy 6g. 

(b) 'O aTpciTtfybg 6 rrpbg rov TToXffiov a'lpEOeig. 

When there are two of these more definite explanations, one stands either after 
the substantive or after the participle, e. g. Ti]v trpog EvjiovXov yfvoixsviji' 
TTiffTiv vfilv. — Twv Ka9' vfidg ntTrpayixEvwv koXwv ry voXei. — Ti/g vvu 
virapxovffijg avn^ Svvdfiiojg. — Tag Trap' ii/itwv vTrap^ovaag avrtfi rt[j.dg. 

(c) 'O nip td tig vpbg rbv voXefiov err part] yog. 
(ti) 'O a'lpEOttg arparijybg Trpbg rbv TroXtjuoj'. 

(e) 'O TTD. r. TT. arparqybg aiptQeic (tliis position is most frequent, when 
the participle has two explanatory words belonging to it). 

When there are two or more explanatory words belonging to the participle, they 
are either placed between the article and the substantive, [e. g. T>)v tote 
Qr}(iaioig pwp.r]v Kal do^av ii tt dp^ova av ;'\ or they are so separated, that 
one is placed eitlier before the participle or after it, [e.g. Oi Trapd rovrov Xoyot 
TOTE prfO ivr tg. TavTtjv rijv dnb rov tottov dacpdXtiav vrr dp-^ov- 
aav ry TroXfi.] 

^ Karaffvyix). 

' ^6 is not only but, but also and, and in Homer/or. It is used where no other 
particle is required, to avoid having a proposition in the middle of a discourse 
itncovtniected with what goes before. It is often, therefore, omitted in translating 

into English. 

c 2 

12 38—40. [§ 7. PRONOUNS. 

covXog avruc, the slave himself: o avruQ SoiiXog, the same 
slave. ndXXov tovto ^oftov^ai ij tov Oavarov auroi', / 
fear this more than death itself. 'i^wKEv uvrolc to irvp, he 
gave them the fire. civtoi> yap £lloy,for I saw the man him- 
self, e'tcov yop avT or, for I saw him. 

38. (o) 6 fxiv — 6 li *, this — that ; the one — the other, &c. ol jxiv — 

01 li, these — those ; some — others. More than one b Si may 


gSr" o fikv may relate as well to the nearer as to the more remote sub- 
stantive. If the o fisv — 6 de have a substa7itive v/ith them, the 6 is the 
article, not pronomhtal. 

39. {h) In a narrative o li stands (once) in reference to an ohject 
already named. So /cat 6'c, when the reference is to a person. 

40. {d) 1) avTOQ is ' se//,' when it stands in the nom, without a sub~ 

stantive, or, in any case with one. 

2) avTOQ is him, her, it, &c. in an ohlique case without a sub- 


3) 6 avTOQ is ' the same.' 

4) avTOQ standing alone in an oblique case, is never * self,^ 

except when it is the first word of the sentence. 


1. UtiQovai TOV ^aSoKov Tovg auSpag ly^tipitrai afiirii'' 6 Be 
TTEiaOslc avTOvg ^yXXctfifiayEi. 2. 'lyapwg ^Adrji'ctiovQ lirriydyETO' 
ol ce I'jXdoy. 3. "Iirwt,' vfi'iv ravTi Xeytov ^of.w Xiyeiv anavQali- 
l^ofXd'OQ' TO c' oxjK 'icTTi TOiovTOV. 4. XaXf TTwrf poj' IcTii' tvpelv drSpa 
Tuyudd KuXwg (pipovra ij rd KaKa' ra fiEv ydp vjipiv Tolg ttoXXoIc, 
Tu Si en>j(jjpo(Tvin]i' toIq iracnv e/x7rot£i. 5. IlepJ ttXeiovoq ttowv co^av 
KaXijv rj ttXuvtou fxiyav toIq Train i KaTciXiTTEly' 6 jxiv yap dyrjTog, 
if Se adai'aTog. 6. 'Affr^tog E\vai Treipw Ka\ (TEfifog' to fiiv ydp 
rfj TvpayyiCt Trpiirei, to ci vpog Tag (jvrovaiag apfxoTTEi. 7. Avtt} 
Trj 4'^XV ^^UTEoi' avTU TU irpay fiuTa. 8. XaAcTrov rifv aKpi- 
(lEiav avTtjv Twi' Xe-)(Bii>T(x)v Ciajj.yi]fxoyEV(TaL t)y. 9. Ol tovq 
avTovg a£i tteoi twv uvtwv Xoyovc XiyovTEg TntjTVTEpol Eiai tiHv 
cia^£pofxiy(i)v a<pi(nv avTo'tg. 10. Tijv 'Attiic))p ai'dptjiroi ukovv 
1 avTOL UEt. 11. T>)v ap£Ti)y oh rijy avTijv Evdvg ttclvteq 
Tijiwaiv, 12. 01)-^ o'lov T£ ufxa Trig te Eindvfilag kciI Tyg Tv^rjg tov 
avToy Tajutay yEyiadai. 13. ^EiayiOL iiri irXCiGToy afxa fxipoq 

^ [isv, indeed; — cs, bttf. Often, however, there is no considerable opposition 
between words so connected, the use of fdv being principally to prepare us for a 
coming M. It need not be translated, except when the context plainly requires an 

§ 8. PRONOUNS.] 43. 13 

yijc Kai iff^wporarot ol uvtoI Karia'^ov. 14. Avtoq SewOjjc* 
uriKpayev. 15. "Eic re avrf/c IleXoTror j'j/ctou riyeipov koX Tijg 
aWrje 'EXXaSog epirag. 16. Avtov ftaaiXiwg iiysfivreg ay 
yiyoiads. 17. II ^£v evTaL,ia (rwi^eiv BoKil, {/ ^e ara^ia iroWovg 
i'lSt] inroXojXEKEV. 18. Toy ^kv yiyrujaKU) vndy, tov 2' ov. 19. 
IlCjv SuL,uiy Tug fxty Bel Trepl ttoXXov TroielaOcn, rug Ce jxi]. 20. 
"^v Tiat rwv yeyijy ?/ jiavia Eyyeyofieyr} cnraXXay))y evpETO. 21. 
'Er Eviaig twv it oXEwy ovk e^ectti rdy iroXtrwy ovSevI fiavav- 
(TiKag TE')(^yag epyai^eadai. 22. ITorEp^ yvv yjtijaoyTai rwy Xoywy; 

23. Ot AfljjyaTot iroXXag TroXeig t^ tKaripag rCJy ijirEipwy EK-iaay. 

24. ls.iycvyEVEi tinwy ovBirEpog ovBey KnXoy Kciyaddy elcevcti. 

25. At j^flpee a ciavoovp-eQa ekcictt^ iifxwv virovpyovcny, 26. 'Ej' 
rale dXtyapj^i'aic ov-)(^ 6 ftovXofXEVog, aW 6 hvvaaTEVwv kcit- 
i]yopEl. 27. ^lavTivEiay, iraXn' ^ApKaSiag, ETCoirjaEV EycoL,oy 'ETrct^et- 
ywyBag rrj Bevtep^ yiKyaag junXJ? AaKtBaifAoyiovQ, iv rj kcu avTug 


( The Moon and her Mother.) 

28. 'H (TsXijyr) eSe'cto tote rfjg eavrijg |U?/rpog, OTTWg avrrj ■)(^LTwyioy 
v<pdvr] avfifiETpoy' ?/ Be eItte' Kai irwg ai) ix^xet pov vtpiivti); vvy 
fiEv yap op a (T£ TrayfriX-qyoy, avdig Be nrfyoeiBf], ttote Be 

{The Wolf and the Lamb.) 

29. AvKog cifivoy iBiojKEy. 'O ^£ tic yaoy KaTE(pvy£. TlpotrKaXov- 
fieyov Be tov \vkov Toy afivoy, /rat XiyovTog, oti OvcnatTEi avToy !> 
lEpEVQ T(o dew, EiCElyog e(j)r] irpog avToy' aW a'lpETWTepoy fxoi egti 
0£<J dvaiav eU'cu, i\ biro aov Bia(j)daprjyai. 

§ 8. Pronouns (continued). 

a. aXXoi, others; ol aXXot, the others; ol ETspoi, the others {with 43. 
a stronger opposition), the other party, b. >/ aXXr] x<^P"> 
the rest of the country. c. no XX 01, many; ol iroXXoi, 
the many, the multitude, most people. d. Trami ttoXic, 
every city ; iraau 1) voXig, the whole city, all the city. 
E. ovTog 6 cly)ip, or u dyi)p ovrog [not 6 ovrog a»')'/p], this 
man. iiceiyog 6 avy'ip, or u avi)p EKt~iyog, that man. avrog 
6 jScKTiXevg, or 6 iSaaiXEvg avTov, the kiny himself. 

" Proper names, and jSaaiXtvg {/d7ig) stand with ai/rog {self) wilhout the 
article as well as with it. 

14 44, 45. [§ 8. PRONOUNS. 

44. The noun with ovtoc, oSe {this), eke'ivoq (that), takes the article ; 
the pronoun standin<j before the article, or after the noun. 

45. True in the shiff. * without the article (= eV-aoroc), ^ each,' ' every ;' 
with the article, ' the whole,' ' all.' ^ 

Obs. 6 Trac, ol irdvrtg, &c., also means 'in all' when quantity or 
numbers are stated. 

06«. 2. Oyroc: (otirwc, thus), roiovrog, roaovroQ, mostly, but no/ 
always, refer to what immediately precedes: oli {Hjds, thus), TOiogSff 
Toaogct nearly always refer to what immediately follows. 


1. Tovg TToWovQ ovK iTTEiaai', 2. IloXXot avQpwwoi tov 
TrXovruv opEyorrcu. 3. 'II eripa ^(^ilp rrj hipq: ^(^piiTat. 4. Harree 
ol TU)v api urw y Hepcrwy Tralceg ettI tuIq j:>a(nXiu)Q dvpatg 
iraiSevovTai. 5. Ohiai a'l jxev TroXXat e.TTi.'WTWKtfjav, oXiyai Se 
TTtpiy]aav' er tcuq aXXaiQ TroXeai ruiv eavrov EKatrrog kcu iraicwv 
Ka\ oitcETwy Kill ■^prifiuTwi' ap-)^ovaiv (suis quisque liberis imperant). 
6. "ATTEifii irpog to dXXo arparEv^a, 7. O lovg 6'^' avrog roiiv ix*^^ 
oh Tvyyd^'^i' 8. A.oKpul hoKovaiv evi ofiijTaToi tCjv irEpX ekeIvov 

TUV TOTVOV JEyoVEVai. 9. To EVWPVfJtOy £(X0'' QiffTTlfjg, ETTt Se T(p 

KEpi^ EKUTEpu) OL tTTTD/c i]rjav. 10. ' AvTETTrjEaav ol 'AQr)vaioi Kiil 
tKUTEpiiJV rCJi' (TTparoTTE dwr t'u 't(j)(cxTa ovic i)XQev kg xf^pag. 
11. ('OTrXtrca) EKarov ctTrwXoiTo ol Trdi'TEg = ol trdi'TEg (oTrXTrai) 
o'i uttujXovto ekutov j/irro'. 12. YlapEC0(7ay ol TrdvTEg fffdg avroiig 
i^aKia-yiXioi. 13. THjjiTrovai x^Xiovg rovg Truyrag oTrXirag. 
14. \puyog 6 ^vfxirag iyivETO EJi^ojxiiKovTa ijfXEpai. 15. Svfi- 
TTUvTEg E^tiKoaioL l TT TT fj g ^vyEXEyi](Tay. 16. Tuvra fiEv oi Acike- 
^aifioyioi Xiyovai, tu^e Se iyw ypdcbw. 17. ^A-n-EBuvEy 6 ETEpog^ 
(7rpaTT)y6c. 18. Ou yiyyErcti tCjv roiuvnoy Erspog Eripov fiaQi^riig, 

Ka\ TOV ETEpOV O ETEpOg OVCEV 7iyE~lTUl tt^t'j'Ol. 19. Ov3ev TO 

Erepov oloy to ETEpov. 20. 'Ei'o/.u^fc')' liC civto ov^ yerfriifrdai ^t 
OTTEp ovh' ol ETEpoi J'act)'. 21. ol 'AOrjyaloi dpx^iy tCjv dXXuyy* 
d^ioiKTiv, 22. Ylavffdriag yyu/jji^v ettoie'ito (jaaiXil ^irdpTrjy te koi 
Ti]r uXXijy 'RXXdda viroxf^ipiov Troifjaai. 23. Xetp ^tlpa ri^Ei, 

' In the plur. TrdvTig must have tlie article, when there is reference to particular 
objects: when not, the usage is variable. 

2 When iKaffTog, each, every, belongs to a substantive, the article is omitted, as 
with TTcig in the sense oi each, every, when the idea expressed by the substantive 
is considered as general, e. g. kuQ' tKaarrjv iip.kpav, every day, each day; when, 
on the contrary, the idea contained in the substantive is to be made prominent, 
then the article is joined with it, and is always placed according to 19. 

Kara Tt)v I'lfi'spav kKuaTtjv, Dem. Cor. ,*ilO, 249. or kuQ' iKarrTijy 
Ti)v ypepav, every single day, but oIik oXiyu tart kuO' tKaarriv I'lfiipav 
(quotidie) roiavTci op^v rt (cat ukovhv, X. C. iv. 2, 12. 

•* "Ertpog, alter. 

* dXXoc dXXoy, dXXog dXX)), &;c. — the Lai. alius ahum, alius alia via, &c. 

§ 9. PRONOUNS.] 48 — 51. . 15 

SttKrvXai Se ^ciktvXovq. 24. "AWoiertv uWog dewr re Kur- 
dpunrioi' /LttXei. 25. KartOeoi' aXXoi aXX odev. 26. To; /uey 
aX\w OTf/orJ jyo-u^a^Ej', et^nroy Ce TrfAraorac TvooTVEfxini. 27. Ouv 
?'/>' X''P''''S °^^' M'^^o cif^poy ov^ir, 28. TLvcaifjoi'ii^erai vttu twv 
TToXirwv Kai Twi' dXXwv ^eVwj'. 29. Tipwv x'^f^* A*^^' f-'^'^P^'" 
renriov. 30. IltipacrQot (xP'z) KOirrj crw^eiv Tt)u Trurrnv StkeXt a i'. 
31. "E^osEJ' avToiq ov tovq ■Kapovraq jxorov airoKTtlvcii, aXXh kuI 
TovQ axat'TUQ ^lirvXrjyaiovQ. 32. 'Ai'dpuiiroicri yap rote "irum 
KQivov Tov^afjiapTdreiv. 33. 'E/ituwc juoi (pau'erai, wairsp to. tov 
irpoawTTUv fxopia 't.\£i irpOQ to bXov tt poawTro y, 34. 2u)'£7rX»/- 
pioOtjaay yijec a'l Trdaai cihca fiaXiffra Kcil EKaroy. 35. Ot trrpa- 
TtCJTai elXoy TO OTpaTOirthoy diray (ox airav to rTTpciToire^oy). 
36. Ot (TTpctTicoraL 7ra j^ree (or ttq itec ol crTpaTiutTai) KciXoig 
E/-tu-^£(Tayro. 37. Atci/Ktt'iou^t irdrTtq etq to Bv^dt'Tioy ol a-pa- 
Tiwrai. 38. Et vtto tt/c EXXacog ndrrrjQ dE,iu'ic in (tpSTrj 
dav/jdi^strOai, T))y 'EXXdSa TretpnTtoy ev ttojeTj'. 39. Yidpeiai KptVwr 
ovToai, KpiToftovXov tovCe Tva-iip, Ka\ Auaayiac, Al(7-)(^iyov tovtov 
nciTijo. 40. N>/£C £i:e~iyai ETnivXiovaiy. 41. 'ApiuTOKodTovc 1(ttI 
TOVTO TO icaXoy dvdQrj^a. 42. Ot juev KoptVStoi roiavra tl-oy' 
ol ^£ 'Adrjraloi TOidCe inreKpivavTO , 

§ 9. Pronouns (continued). 

a. iQi'Ct aavTov, accustom yourself, h. £(pr] ndi'Tag tovq ayQpwTzovQ 48. 
Ta kavTwv ay air qv, he said that all men loved'' their 
own things. c. yofiii^Ei tovq ttoXituq v7rr]p£T£7y kavTW, 
he thinks that the citizens serve him. d. (TTptiTrjyoQ'' i)y 
S£yoKX£ihr}Q, TrifiirTOQ civtoc, XenocUdes was their general 
ijiimself the fifth =) with four others, 
(a) In the reflexive pronouns {ejiovtov, &c.^) the av-oQ is not 49. 
emphatic. To express ' self^ emphatically, uvtuq must precede the 
pronoun, avTuv ai, &:c. 

(6) ' Own ' is translated by the gen. of the reflexive pronoun 50, 
(lavTov). * His ' by the gen. of avTOQ. (So ' their ' by gen. plur.) 

(c) kavTov is often used (like sui) in a dependent sentence, or in 51. 

^ It is an idiom of our language to use a past tense in a sentence beginning with 
'that' (and other dependent sentences), wlien ti)e verb on which they depend is 
in a past tense. The pres. infin. must be used in Greek, whenever llie action to 
be expressed by it did not precede the time spoken of, 

* From (TTpaTOQ army, ayw lead. 

7 W. 34, g. B. p. 43^ 

16 51. [§ 9. PRONOUNS. 

a clause having ace. and inji.n., for the subject of the principal sen- 
tence *. 

But the simple avrov is often used, or e {ov, ol, &c. (r<ptig, <T<pag, &c.). 

ov is never simply reflexive in Altic prose, but is confined to (his kind 
of reflexive meaning. B. ^ Tiie forms ov, e, occur in Plato, but not in the 
otlier great Attic prose-writers. Kr. 


1. 'A)oy)'W(7fr(u vfTiv tovtovq tvvq i'd/jovc o ypafjjjiartvc- 2. 'O 
ZiiiQ T))i> 'Adqrdv ecpvaeu ei: TijQ lavrov K£<paXiic. 3. Ttjy efit)v 
■rv)^r]v tL,tTa^(oi' wpoQ Tt]v oecivtov rrKOTrti, /cat evpijcrEiQ rijv e/j.i)i' 
I:>e\tiu) r>7c o/c. 4. Ot ^Adrji'cuoL iTric£it,ai' KCti ev tcCiq Zvarv^iaiQ 
T)iv EcivTwu uc)ETi]v. 5. M£r£7r£'/i;/'aro 'A(Trua'yj;c rijv kavrov 
dvyaTEpa kuI tov rral^a avrrJQ. 6. 'EXEvdepot' (])v\a-rE rov (t av- 
rov rpvnov. 7. Kct/covpyoraroj' Errri fxf] fAovov ror oIkov rov 
EcivTov (pdEipEiy, aWa kul to (rwjxa kcu ti)v iLu^?/)'. 8. l\uaj.tri<TO}' 
ri)t' \pv)^t]v ov/c aWoTplui aWa tm avrfjQ Kutrjiio. 9. '^vo/j-arri 
f-iov -»))' -npovoiav ^elXIcii'. 10. 'li yXuxxad aov top dvfiov 
wc Seii'ov TpE(pEi. 11.' 1] f.iwv o j3ioc. 12. "YTrroe 
TToXvg ovTE TO~iQ awnuai nvTE rate '^v^uIq vj-iCjv apf.ioTTWi' iarX 
KUTci (pvair, 13. MErEvrcYiv/zctro ^AtTTVuyriQ r t) v euvtov dvyaripa 
KCUTVJ' TTcilda civTrJQ. 14. 'AyaTTwffi tj/v £j' rw Trapoirt (Twrij- 
piar, 15. 'HyoTrwv t7} aioTtjpi (f. 16. ^ripyEiv i]v avdyKr) 
7})v Tv-^rji'. 17. Srt'psW rfj £/.irj rv-^^r). 18. A£l aTEpyeiv 
To'ig TTCipoviT II'. 19. 'EpouAfro 6 KXfVip^oc arrcw to (TTpc'iTEVfxa 
Trpoc tavToy £^£tv r>)»' yrwfxrjt'. 20. JLlniu'ai EKeXEvaEt', £t jjiXXoig 
aw EHVTiS EKTtXElv. 21. O KvpOQ avyKaXE~i e\q tiiv kavrov GK-qvriv 
rovQ apicrrovg Twi' TTEpl avrdf ETrrd. 22. MeiSUiq dvSpa drv)(^r)vvra, 
ov^EV avTOv >/( t/cjy/vfJra, (7VKo<pav-Elv wetq Zeiv, 23. ^vy^ eS,eiv o 
ri y^pi]GEadE avrw vopiCEi. 24. JJvj.KpvXaKag rijc evoaiijoriag o'l 
iveto xp)j)'cu £X^<»'. 25. A£y£rat 'AttoXXcov EK^e'ipai Mapavav 
Epli^oi'Tu 1 TTEp'L (70<piac. 26. IlapaKEXEVoi'Tai EV EavTolg wg a<pi(Ti 
i,v^Ha^oi Eg Tifi(i)piai' ETTEpyovTai, 27- ^EyKXiinara Eiroiovrro, OTTiog 
tr(f>i(Tiv OTt ^EylffTT) Trpofaaig e'it] rov tvoXehe'iv. 28. 'El^i^rovv ralg 
Eralpaig e^^oj'we GvyylyyEadai, rofxog yap i]v a^ictLv ovrog. 

[It seems a strange peculiarity, that iavrov is sometimes used as a reflexive of 
the second and Oiird persons (=: ifiavrov, aavrov): in the sing, this occurs 
even in Attic prose.] 

29. Et fXTi trpoE^aiiarrjfXEy, ovc' dyaXafjEly avrovg ay yi^vyriOijfiEv. 

30. 'lifXElg yE X'^P'G t-wj^ ciyayKaiojy KaKoiv avrol Trap' avrwy 'irEpa 

^ Of course only when it cannot be mistaken for he subject of the infin. or 
dependent verb. 

« Tliis i);issa^e is misconstrued, and so made incorrect, by the Eng. Translator 
of Buttinann, p. 325. 

§ 10. NEUTER ADJECTIVE.] 54 — 58. 17 

irpoarropl^ofxet'. Sl.'ATrocpairtre aKaioTciTOvt: kavTOVQ. 32. Aat/Kwj' 

laurw irXovalay yif^aq iari. 33. ^ice-ipai mictli'o cot cieXde Trpoc 

avToi'. 34. "E^£(T7t ffoi i^iji' KupTTovf-ieyoy TO. scivrou. 35. Ai/roc 
avToy aTTwWvoy. 

36. Ta /i£J' our?) ^i' aurj/c >7 ^''^X'/ £i"i(TK-07r£7, ra ^i ^tct rwj/ 
roD (jijjjiaTOQ ^vydjjeioy. 37. Toj' (xocpdv civroy avrw juaXtora ^tt 
(Tofoy eJyai. 38. Aft TraVra Xoyoi' uxnrep l^wov avyeaTclyai aCofxa. 
Ti 'i'x^oyra avToy avrov. 39. Ou'x )/yov)unt StKuiay dyai rijy 
airoXoyiay rijy TOiavrr]y. 40. Et rte ciya66y ti t))v TrarpiSa 
TToiEJy ireipdrai, ^la ri 6 roiovrog dWu) roiovru ov/c ay ^vyairo 
avyaofxvGui', 41. 'H ttoXiq Ik riLv roiuyyde ayoiycjy ra cidXci tripoiQ 
cl^ioaiy. 42. Tlpi-jrei ovhlv TtLy TOiovnoy rote ttjXikovto ig. 
43. HeuTTOvffiv ^u(T')(iXiovQ eavruiy oirXiraQ, cot rerrcrapaKoyTa yavg, 
TTOOQ TO. o0£(Trwro, Kal KaWi'ai' rdy KaXXid^ov, TTEjuTrrov avroy 
arpciTrjyoy. Th. 44. 2rparjjyoc »)»' SeyoKXeiSrjg 6 EuQi/cX/oue, 
TrifiTTTOQ avTog, 

§10. Of the Neuter Adjective. 

a. eiTre ravra, he said this. 6. to rCjy diu>y ^ipeiv ^£7, tt>e 54. 
should bear what comes {rom the gods. c. aocpuirspoy 7roi£tc, ?/om 
acf more wisely, attrj^tora SieTeXeirey, he lived in a most dis- 
graceful way. d. II aptTT] EOTtj/ £7ra IV £7-0 V, rfr/we z's praiseworthy. 
e. ij TToXXrj Ttjg ^^poc, the greater part o/ ^/je coMw^ri/. 6 i'ljXLffvg 
70V y^poyov, half the time. 

(a) In Greek, as in Latin, the neut. plur. of an adjective is used 55. 
without a substantive, where we should rather use the singular. 

{b) The neut. article with a gen. case is used in an indefinite Avay 5(3. 
for any thing that relates to, or proceeds from, what the gen. ex- 

(c) Neuter adjectives are used ff(irer-&w% ; and generally, 57. 

The neuter sing, of the comparative "I serve also for the comp. and 

The neuter plural of the superlative J superl. of the adv. 

With verbs signifying profit or damage [ioha is seldom used ; mostly 
[itydXa (great things = greatly), TroXXa (many things = much). 

(d) When an adjective is the predicate, it is often in the neut. 58. 

singular, when that is not the gender, or even number, of the 


This can only be, when the assertion is made of a class or general 
notion ; not of a particular thing. It may be supposed to agree with 
thing understood. 


18 , 59. [§ 10. NEUTKR ADJECTIVE. 

59. (e) TToXvQ {irXiwv or ttXe/w)', irXelffroQ), superlatives, and the adj. 
ijl^ncrvs * stand in the gender of the (jen. that follows them, when we 
might have rather expected the neut. adj. (Not 70 ttoXv rj/c yiic, 

but >/ TTuXXlj.) 


1. "llXXovTO vypr]Xa Knl Kov(po<c. 2. Wdavara filv <ppori7 rw 
^tfyo\(jv^u)(oc eirni, dyrjra ce rw trv^f-if-pioQ twv vTrapj^ot'Ttvi' utto- 
XavEii'. 3. Oi) Travra-^ov to ^port/JOv apfioTrei irapov Kai avj-ijiavt}- 
vai'ivia lei. 4. 'II ttoXlq /^po^ta yadi'iara fieyaXa i^i^jjiiMaeTUi. 
5. OiiK t(TTiv 0(jTiQ TravT ai'tjp tvcaijuonl. 6. OIkoq iv 10 tu 
Traj'ra Trpwrevei yvri^ ovk tcrir (xttiq ttiottut ovi: cnrajXeTO. 7. Ae- 
i]anfini Kal hiKaia koX fxirpia v/jiop, foorjOfjadl fxoi tci hiKaia, 
8. To tvajrla (TTpi\pat'reg 'Icpsvyor. 9. Upotri'iKeTE y/Jt'ii' to. fii- 
yiara, 10. floi'rjpov u (7VK0(pavTr]Q aei. 11. Ku'^vjoji' cvtoi 
criraficjTaTOL, o'i av iXa-^iar a iic tov (TipaXiiyai (iXaTTTovTiq TrXelara 
Sia TO evTV)(^tj(TaL wcpeXwcnr. 12. H (ftpove'li' eXnaaora y Cv- 
laardai at hCi ^tiL,ova. 13. Qupan, to toi liKuior i(t-)(^vei yutyo. 
14. "Or' tvTV)(^Elg /jfiXtcrro yut) (ppovsL ^iya. 15. Mf'ya (pdiy- 
yeTciL K(u ftciKTTjpiai' (j)ope7. IG. Ttj (jjurij jueya eXtyev. 17. 
M;) i-iiya Xiye. 18. Mj) /^eyaXct Xiav Xiye. 19. KaXoy tl 
IokeI thai TO TToXv viKav. 20. 'Osi) opa kcu ciKovti. 21. 
^iirXovv opuxTir 01 nadovTtq ypajifAaTci. 22. ITyWa oivT tpo f 

ftXtTZ OVTMl' a l-ll^XvTtpOl' OpiJPTtC TTOOTtpOl ilSoV, 23. MvpW 

o aXti\pcifji£i'og tiiraQ ofxoiop o^ti. 24. SwKrpctrjjc SiKaiog rju ovtuq 
ware ftXc'nrTtiv f.itr /UTj^f /utcjior nj]civa, M(j)eXt~iy It tci fjiyiara 
rovg ^^wjueVoug tavTu, 25. To twv 'E^opwr QuvfiaaTov wq 
rvpnvviKov yiyovtv. 26. Ovk idoKti povijioi' to tTjc oXiyapj^^iag 
tcTtadni. 27. Ta twv ^vpatcocrlwi' tfr] tjarru) Twi' (TiptTtpuv tlrai. 
28. "AcrjXa tci Twr iroXi fnoy. 29. To tiiq Ttj^^prjQ ivtpniroiTO 
av /cat Zlo. ffiyijc. 30. "acicTTov ifjTiv iv tm piut to tu avTOv 
TrpaVrtir. 31. Ta ^iXwv ovliv, jyi- nc cvfTTV^rj. 32. To Trjg 
TV'\^rjQ atpavig oi 7rpo/3//(T£rat. 33. KaXwg to. tu)V dtdv Kal to. 
~VC TV\r]Q £X*'' ^'^* QiXiov KoXwQ i^rjv fjt) tci twp cpavXwv 
(ppovti. 35. 'E6£\£i caret to tov SoXwroc i^ai aiiol fxavduvtiv 
tixxTTTtp av i^ij. 30. INIeya tort to Tijg Trt'orewc, vtvcipypv vpTiv. 
37. Tct Trie \pv^r\q tujv tov iTwfiaTOQ ean TrptcrfivTtpa. 38. ^f^iKpa 
jiiv Ta TOV ftioV tovtov o' ottwq ij}ti(TTa liantpdtrtTe. 39. Talc 
ilfxiatiaig tmv vediv Kvllov tcpvXaatTOv. Th. 40. IloXXj) 'itrTai 
TrJQ ocov dotvoc. 41. Tj/C Xtiac ti)v ttoXXtiv dniXafjov. 42. 
HifiTTtTt TOV TrtTroirjfiivov (titov top i'lfxiavv. 43. Ta'^^' av 

' Ace. plur. t'tq and faq. G. off in later writers. 

§ 11. SUBJECT AND PREDICATE.] 62 64. * 19 

cTioippoi'iffTEpoi wpoQ Tov XoLTTuv Tov y^povov yivoivTO. 44. Ma- 
\i<TTa Tfjq yijc >/ apicTTT) aei rag /xeTajdoXciQ ruiv olKriTupu)^ f'X^''- 
45. 'II KaWicrri] Kal jj-tyiaTt] rdv ^v lA^ioriuiy jjeyiarr] Cikui- 
OTUT av XeyoiTO aocpia. 46. Tijg i^rf/xiac iityiarri tu vivo ttovi]- 
poripov tipxEO-flot. 47. 'Opdordri] r/yc o-Kfi/zcwc [^(■tU twi' kin- 
(rrnfiarwy. 48. Ile/iTrfT-e rojy aprwp roi/g ijjxiaeig. 49. T^vyirtm 
KuXov fxtv, ciXXa TTpuyoyojy ay aOvy' ttXovtoq rifiioy /^tV, 
aXXU Tvx>]g Krijixa' coE^a ye fii]v ae/Jirdy, aXX' ajjejoaiov vyleia 
rifXKjy j.iEy, ciW thfitTatT-aTov' Icryvg C^XwToy [xiy, dXXa 
yoffu) evaXwToy ical yt]pa' TraiBeia Twy tV //^Tv fioyor lariy 
dOayuTuy Kul dt'ioy. 

§ 11. Subject and Predicate. 

a. TU ^(JUa rpt'^tt, the animals run. rijjy oyrioy ra fiiy lariy (52. 
i(f ijfuy, TU ^' ovK i(p' v/^'^t of existing things some are in our power, 
and others are not in our power, h. rocdie 'iOyrj effTpdrevoy, so 
many nations went on the expedition, c. ra Tujy (plXujy kouu, the 
property of friends is common. 

(a) The nom. neut. plur. generally has the verb in the singular ; 63. 
but often not (6) when persons or living creatures are spoken of. 

(c) The copula ^ is,' 'are,' {tari, elcrl) is often omitted, especially 64. 
in general propositions, observations, and proverbs ; in assertions of 
necessity, fitness, duty, possibility, &c. The words with which this 
omission very commonly occurs, are given in the two following 
hexameters : 

di,ioy atque ukoq, Qifiig, wpu, Kuipog, nydyicr]' 
pa^toy et ^vyarog, ^ijXoy re TrpuQv^oc, 'iroifxog' 

together with the synonymous and opposite notions, such as ■yciXeTroy, 
difficidt ; dSvyarog, impossible ; clog re, possible ; also with verbals 
in Tiog. 


1. Aid. rag yvya'iKog izdyra ra kukU yiyytrai. 2. Td i^aXwg 
evprjfiiy' k'pyct rw Xoyw /jiTjyvETai. 3. Id Trpdyfxard ecrri KaXd. 
4. Kafcou yap dy^pug Siop' oyrjoiv nvK e'x^'* -Eur. 5. Td fieipaKia 
SiaXeyofieroL kin^ijxyijyTai. ^it)Kparovc teal acpoSpa i-Kaiyovaiv. 6. Ta 
teXij ki,i-Ke}i\liay avroy. 7. Et jif.y ct) KuXog iariv o^e 6 Koajiog, 6 re 
cr)fxiovpy<)c dyadcc, cr/Xoy, wg irpog to d'icioy elDXeiray, el Ei, o fiijo' 
ilire'iy tlii Qijiig, irpog to yiyovog. 8. Ovk dL,ioy Trepl Tov-ujy 
vvv ipli^Eiy. 9. 'Efjoi te Elirtly kcu aol dKoixjui uiioy. PI. 10 C)J 
(^ovXevaaBui eti wpa, a'W j;C>/ iJEJJovXEvadcu. PI. 11. ^ifiuyih] ye 

D 2 

20 • 67. [§ 12. ON THE MOODS. 

ov pc^Bioy airia-eiv. 12. "Ilkiora TrpvOv^oi ap)(^Eiv, oi niWovreQ 
apieii'. PI. 13. XaXerroy yi as eXiy^ai. 14. ^ipeiv avdyKri 
rue TTCtpeoTwo-ae TV)^ag. 15. 'Er ro'ig kcikoIq ttoW// y' aydyKt} 
KaTTirqcevEii' Katca. 16. Ilaffa dvdyKri rovhe top k6(T[a.ov elKOva 
Tiroc e'li'di' 17. Ilao-a dvdyKr} ^iav eIvul rfiu dXtjOfj oSoy. 18. 
Oi/)^ o'tov TE dvEV ciKaiotJvvriQ dyaQov TroXirrjy yEviaQai.. 19. O* 
d^iKoi ovSex> irpdmiv fiET dX\i]\<i)v o'loi te. 20. ^ASvpuToy TroWa 
Tf)(_i'u)HEVov drdpujTroy Trdi'Tci KciXuic ttoleIv. 21. 'O k^Qpoq Iq TOtJovS' 
iifih' E-)(^dapTEOQ, wf Koi (j)i\7](TU)y avdi£. 22. Ot AanEScaixortoi 
^IPX"^ rtJi' 'EW/jj'wv ov TToXvQ ^poj'oe E^ ov. 23. "HXtica 6 tto- 
Xaioe Xoyoc i'lXiKa ripTTEiv. 24. ToTg 0£otc X"P'^ (^^* ^'''''•*') ort 
ov avv TToWrj pwfxi] i)\doi'. 25. "AXig Xoyiov, 26. Tovrwi' jUEy 
aSijr. 27. Tctura /xf»' ouv ovrioc 28. Aicr^pov (sc. av eVjj), et 
TTvdoLTi') TiQ, XoyoiQ KoXdi^Eiv w ftidi^Etjdut TTaprj , 29. ^tAjjKooe eywye 
»cca ijcicoQ dV n jiadoifxi. 30. Sv ovSiTru) rnireivoe ovS" eikeiq 
Kocolc. 31. Et ipi/^pri Xt'yw, o-y a'('-«oc, Trpdyfjard fiOL 7rajO£)^wv. 
32. Seauroi' ow/c £X*'^ ei/ptTf ottoioiq (papudKoiQ iaaiy.oQ. 33. 
AVyt<76 ETOif-ioi Kovic ctTrapj'ovynfQ' arci^. 34. Et a (Tvyu^£p£i ^wpig 
KoXciKEiag kdiXiiffETE aKovEii', Eroifiog XiyEiv. 35. Xp?) (p'lXois £7rap- 

K£n', wg ETOl^OQ tifx £yw. 

§ 12. Om //;e Moods. 

67, a. )Lif) kXIttte, do not steal (forbids stealing generally'). 

fii] KXE\prie, do not steal (forbids stealing in a particular instance), 
h. ( 7rdpEifj.i, na t^w, /am here to see. 
\ Trapiir, 'lya 'lEotfjn, I was there to see. 
' ovK k'xw (or ovK olca), ottoi^ Tpdirbjfjiai, I donH know which 

way to turn myself. 
OVK Eixov (or OVK rj^Eiv) oTToi'' TpaTToinriy, I did not know which 
way to turn myself. 
c. ijpEro, Ei oiiTwg e^^oi, he asked if it were so. 

eXe^e fxoi, OTi ij ocog (pipoi Eig t^v ttoXiv, ijvTTEp 6p<pr]y, he 
told me that the road led to the city which I saw. 

* In dependent (or indirect) questions, the regular rule is to use, 
not TTocroQ ; TToTog ; TnjXiKoe ; 

(quantiis ;) (qualis ?) how old or big ? 

but oirSffog, OTToiog, oTrijXiKog. 

So not TTort ; ttoi ; ttov; iruig; tzoQev; Trfj ; 

when? wldlher ? ivherp? how? whence 1 how? whither? 


So, also, not rig, but orrrig. But the direct intcrrogatives are very often used in 
indirect questions, as : Jjpwra /xf rig I'lrjv, he asked me who I was. 

§ 12. ON THE MOODS.] G8 — 72. 21 

(a) 1) The moods of the aorist do not refer to past time. 68. 

2) The moods of the aorist usually express single, definite^ 

actions not contemplated as continuing : those of the 

present contemplate them as coniimiing. 
The notion of the action's being completed is also so far 

left out of sight in the moods of the aorist, that they are 

usually construed by the English present. 
Obs. The sense of completion is, however, still prominent, when the 
subjunctive and optative of the aorist are used with conditional particles, 
and with such temporal and relative clauses as are virtuaUij conditional 
(e. g. clauses introduced by when, until, &c. and with og av = si quis, 
quicumque &c.). See examples in 89, c. d: and on infin. of aor. p. 30, 
end of lesson. 

Obs. The action may really be one that must take up a long time : 
e. g. Xen. uses ravra citj-yiiffaaQai of relating all that he had learnt 
about Cyrus ; his birth, character, &c. The moods of the aorist are used 
when the duration of the action (though it may be ever so considerable) 
is left quite out of sight, the action being contemplated as 07ie, definite, 
independent action. 

3) The participle of the aorist describes completed actions : 

TTEffujy, having fallen, 
(a) fj.1], when it forbids, takes the imperative of the present, the 69. 
subjunctive of the aorist *. 

Of course the subj. of the present must be used for the first person 
(when the present is to be used), as the imperat. has no first person. Mi) 
fiaivw^itQa, let us not be mad. 

t^ The optative is the regular attendant of the historical 70. 

{b) Hence: The relatives and particles (except the compounds of 71. 

ay in 76 ; see 90), which take the subjunctive after the present and 

future, take the optative after the historical^ tenses. 

The optative is thus, in fact, the subjunctive of the historical tenses, 
answering to the imperfect and pluperfect of the Latin subjunctive. 

(a) So the particles and pronouns, which go with the indicative 72. 

in direct take the optative in oblique narration. 

Oblique discourse {sermo obliquus) is when the opinions, assertions, 
&c., oi another are related in the third person. " He said that he thought, 
&c." — " He said, ' / think,' &c." would be in direct discourse {sermo 
rectus). By ' oblique narration' is meant that the events, sentiments, 
&c. are narrated as belonging io past time. 

3 It has been usual to say that the moods of the aorist express momentary 
actions: but I have rejected this term as both incorrect and likely to mislead. 

* A consequence of the distinction pointed out in G7, n and 68, is that " fxrj with 
imperative present tells a man to leave q^ what he luis already begun : jxri with aor. 
subj. tells him not to begin the action. The imperat. of the pres. is, however, 
often used with reference to not beginning. (Hermann.) For exceptions see KUhn. 

^ i. e. Imperf, aorisis, and pluperf. 

22 72. [§ 12. ON THE MOODS, 


1. 'A ray I'wcTEra I vfui' tovtovq tov£ voiiovq 6 ypcinf.iaTEvg, ly' 
tiSiJTe OTi o rof.i(j6e-i]c //y/;(T«ro ruy kuXwc Tpa(j)ii'Ta nal^a ■^^prjaifioy 
tcrfffQui rij ttoXei. 2. Twv cnrovruv <piXb)y fiifxvqao irpog tovq irapuv- 
rac, 'ii'a SuKfjc jurjct tovtwv ctTTOJTWv oXiywpftv. 3. IlEipw to {xev 
aw^ia thai ipiXuTToioc, d/)' Se \pv^))t' (piXucroipoij' '/vo tm ^ev iinTtXeiv 
Bvrr] TCI ^o^ai'Tci, Tij Be ■wpoopcj.v iiriaTy ra avficpipovTa. 4. Aio/k'ei 
-))i' TTtiXu' vfioiojg, wawip tov irarpwor ou^oj', roTc ^£j^ /caracricevalc 
XufXTTpwQ i^al /Ja(Tt\«/C(JJc, raTc ^£ 7^po^£(T^)^ UKpLJoajg, IV evBoKifxije 
cifia Kai BiapKrjc. 5. Aidov Trappijalai' to'iq ev <j>poi'uv(m', 'iva, 
Trepl ojy ay^]q, i-xriQ tovq GvydoKijJ.aaoPTag. 6. Aiopa Kul 
Tovg Ti-)(^yr] KoXaKevoyrag cat tovc yusr' evioiag depairsvoyTag, 'iva firi 
TrXiov 01 TTovrjpol Tu)y ■)(pr]r7T(i)y t^wirtv. 7- 'ETrio-K-oTret Tovg Xoyovg 
uel TOVC (xavrov kul Tag 7rp«s£tc, 'i y' wc eXaj^/oroic "o^c ayuapr/z/xatrt 
TTEpiTTt 7rrj/c. 8. Ei/pucfi/iac o Kupjji'atoc irvyjjLrj eyiK)](nr, (.KKpovar- 
delg i^iy vtto tov uyTayioiuiTTOv TOvg oBoyTug, KaTuiviwy c^e avrovg, I'l'ft 
jj)) u'itjd)]Tai 6 ai'TirraXog. 9. Hipaatg yojxog tji', oiroTt ftacriXevg 
aTTodayoi, dyofjiiay tlrai ■klvti. iifuepwri '(>'' u'ladoiyTO, baov aL,i6g 
loTiv I) jiucnXivg Kai b yoj-ioc. 10. MtVwt' b QeTTuXbg Bf]Xog i)v kiri- 
Qvfxwy J.IEV TzXovTtiv layvpwg, imOvftwy C£ ap)(£t)', unoyg TrXeiu) XafX- 
jjuvoi, E7ridvf.iii>y Be Tifxdudui, tya ttXeIw Kspcaiyoi' ^iXog t 
EpovXETO EiraL Tolg fiEyi(7Toy SvyajjiEyoic, 'iva aSiKwy fir] BiSoirj BiKijy. 
11. Aiyovai (payai rby ^wupaTr], tovc jxev aXXovc ayOpuiirovg i^yy, ty' 
iadioiEv' avToy Ce iadiEiy, 'lya fw'//. 

LESSON Xn. {continued.) 

' That ' after verbs of saying, &c.) [' That' after verbs oC ' saying,' 'hearing,' 
&c., is translated by on or wc (or ace. with infin.) 

(1) After the present (if it lie not the historical present), or future, the verb of 
the dependent clause will be in the indicative. 

(2) After a historical tense it will be in the optative ; though even here the indi- 
cative (which states the event, &c., as an actually existing thing [^objectively^) 
is often used. 

(3) The same rule applies to clauses beginning with the relative, and to depend- 
ent interrogative clauses. 

(4) In the oblique narration with oti, wg, when the reason is added in another 
clause {he said that — for that, &c.') the optative is used (after the optative, 
and also after the indicative or infinitive), or the indicative (after indie, or 
infin.). See Examples 25, 26, &c. 

12. KarotCE TayQpioirioy oti -^aipEiy TrifvKey ov-^i Tolg avTolg 

ail. 13. Af'yerai Cjg byTtog e(ttI KOiva to. oiXwy. 14. Ot 

(piX6(TO<poi CrjTOvaLy, Hjg aui'iKoa, tI e(Ttiv ayaBoy, kovSe Eig EvprjKE 

TToj Ti EcjTiy. 15. "EXEyoj' OTI Kvpog ^iev teO yrfKEy, 'Aptnloc 

^£ TTEcjjEvyiog EV to) GTa(ijj.(p eirj bOey Trj irpoTEpala ojpfxtjyTO. 16. 

TEXiVTcar iTTtfATTE TTpog AfpCO)', SlC(l(TKU)y OTI 01 'OXvydlOl KUT- 

§ 13. ON THE MOODS.] 75—78. 23 

EfTTpafj^Eioi TTlv fiEi^w ^vyofii)' WciKi^oviac 11(7 IV, Kai ovK avifaovni 
Tfjv iXarru), el fxri tiq avrovQ Travaei t7]c i//3p£wc. 17. HpoaKciXCjv 
TOVQ (plXovg ianovcaioXoyt'iTO, <jjq ErjXotr] ovg rifxi^, 18. 'Ettuj'- 
davovTO avTwv Kai oTvoai^v ^wpctr hiifXaaav kcCi tl oIko'ito >/ 
)^wpa. 19. 'Epoyut j'w J' iijxwv ooric f't'J kQ' £« C\l V l^^'h ^^ So^tXt^ 
e(pa<Tav cnrodavElv GrpaTivo^Evov, 20. Oi j3(iplDapoi tdtwvTO Bavfxa- 
l^oiTtQ birot TTOTE Tpi\pO)'Tai o« "EXX?j»'£C Kai Tl tv j'w i'y^oiev. 

\_lmperfect.'\ 21. O'l cTTpaTiCiiTai iirtidoi'TO r<J5 KXtcip^^w, opCji'TtQ 
uTi f.i6voQ k^poi'ti o'la ^E~i Tov ap^ovTa, oi h' aXXoi cnrEipoi I'lacir. 
22. 'O j^Ot^tioc drOpiOTTog >'/)uac SuSvet^ EL,cnzaT(ijv Koi Xiyiov wq 
(j)iXadiii'aioc i]v koi tclv ^lafito Trpwroc icaTEiTroi. 23. 'ETreXtXTjoSe 
TravrcnracTL av te oti (jacriXevc ijorda, o'l te aXXoi on av cipyjiM', 24. 
AvKo^i'l^rig (.XeyEy wq ^uroic rolg 'ApKaai YliXoTroyrTjaoQ intTpig eit}' 
^6roi yap avro-^doreg iv avrrj oli^olei', 25. "Hkovov Topytov wc »/ 
TOV TTEidEit' TToXv Sia(l>EpoL Tzaau>v TE'^riJjv' TTCLVTa yctp 1/0' avTTJ EovXa 
ci EKorTior, aXX' ov Biix fiiag ttqioTto. 26. Qripajuirrjc ararrrciQ 
XiyEi OTi Troii]a£i ware T))r ttoXiv eXarruxTai jxr]civ' o'iaiTo ^£ kqI 
aXXo Tl ayadui' -Kupa twv Aa/v'eoaiynov/w)' evpijcreadni Trj ttvXei. 27. 
'Y7r£'(7)^£ro TOV dV^p' 'Aj^atoTc tojEe dijXtjjffEiy dyojy, o'ioito fxev 
fxaXirB' EKOXXTinv Xa/3a>)', eI fiij diXoi c\ ciKoi'Ta. 28. Oio/xai avTOV 
kaKE'iyof EpElv Toy Xoyov, wg ciKvpoy ecti to ^ijcpiaf-ia' TrpojDovXEVfiu 
yap i(TTiy. 29. "E-t avTo'ic touivty) S6S,a ivapEiaTijKEi wp /coi'AO*/- 
vatoiQ TToXEfii'itrovffi' TrpodvfjiwQ yap toIq aciKovi-urniQ ijlovai 

§ 13. The Moods {continued). 
On eI and ay. Conditional Propositions. 
(Introductory remarks on ai.) 75. 

This particle (of whicli Hermann considers the real meaning to be 
by chance, perhaps ; hut Hariung, else, olhenvise) gives an expression of 
contingency and mere possibilily to the assertion. 

Its pr?72C?/)aZ use is in the conclusion of a hypothetical sentence; and '^*- 
when it stands in other sentences, it refers to an implied condition. 

It coalesces with several particles, so as to form one word with them. 77- 
Thus with £1 o7-£, tTTdSr), 

it forms sctv, ^v, af, OTav, tTTiiSav. 

The dv =: idv, d dv, regularly begins the sentence, and is tluis dis- 78. 
tlnguished from the simple dv, which 7nust have some words before it. 

a. tl £ftp6yTr](7£ Kai i](x-pa\pEy, if it has thundered it has also 
lightened, h. kdr ti '(.■^^wj.iEy ^ojaof.i£y, if we have any 

24 80, 81. [§ 13. ON THE MOODS. 

thing we will give it. e. si tiq rnvra tt par rot, fieya fx 
av ijj(p £Xr](reie, if any one should do this (or were to do 
this), he would do me a great service, d. ei n £<x**'> ^^'~ 
£ov cw, if he had any thing '^, he would give it. e'i ri 
£ff)(£)', 'iBwKiy iw, if he had had any thing, he would have 
given it. 

e'i Ti i'x^'P' ^"^> ^f y^^ have any tiling, give it. 

80. £< (like our * if) has the two meanings oiif and whether : it goes 
with the indie, or optative ; hut very seldom with the subjunctive. 
(See example in 67, c.) 

81. (o) Possibility without any expression of uncertainty: d with 

indie, in both clauses. 

(b) Uncertainty with the prospect of decision ; taV with subjunc- 

tive in the conditional, and the indie, (generally the future) 
in the consequent clause *. 

(c) Uncertainty without any such accessary notion : el with the 

optative in the conditional clause, and liv with the optative 
in the consequent clause. 

Obs. on c.) In English we very often, indeed generally, do not mark 
the contingent nature of the supposition in the conditional clause, but 
say in the indicative mood : ' if any one did this, he would do me a 
great service.' The optative in Greek expresses the notion as a mere 
conception. It conveys no notion of time, and intimates no opinion as 
to the existence or non-existence, possibility or impossibility of what is 
supposed. In every statement therefore which means, ' if this were 
true, that would also be true,' the optative is to be used in both clauses, 
whenever no intimation is conveyed whether the thing supposed is true 
or not. 

{d) Impossibility, or belief that the thing is not so : el with irn- 
perfect or aorist indie, in the conditional clause ; ctv with 
imperf. or aorist indic.^ in the consequent clause. 

(1) The imperfect is u«ed for present time; and also for conditions 
and consequences that, though ihey belong to past time, are to be repre- 
sented as flavins duration. 

•^ It is implied, that he has not any thing. ' See 335. 

* Both verbs may be in the future indicative (the verb in the conditional clause 
with li). The condition is then expressed in a more positive way, as a contemplated 
event : a construction which is often adopted when the condition expresses an 
event hoped for or feared ; as, t'i ti Treicovrai MTiSoi, ti'c Hepcrag to Suvov 

^ The pluperfect is used when the perfect would be the proper tense, if the 
statement were not hypothetical : tl yap avrapKT) ra ■^i)(pl(jpaTa f/v, ovk av 
^iXnrnoQ roauvTOv i'/3p(K£i xpo^'ov (would not have insulted, or liave been 
insulting us). 

§ 13. ON THE MOODS.] 81. 25 

(2) For conditions and consequences that refer to past time, the aorist 
must be used, unless either action is to be represented as continuing '. 

(3) Tlie condition may refer to past, and the consequence to present 

li i-!rein9t]v, ovk dv ripputffTOvv, if I had (tlien) been persuaded, I 
sliouid not (now) be out of healih. 


1. E'i rivoc in kvltiaQui ioKe'in, Trpog efie XiytTE' Koi e'i tiq 
ilirtly Ti fiovXerai, XEt,aT(i). 2. 'Erii' fisp apct aocpoQ yevri, a> 
7ra7, TravTBg aoi <pi\oi f:ctl TrciiTtQ aoi oIke'iol kiroirai. S. E.wi^pUTii 
£t TTpotrelj^^o y v'l ^Adr]valoi, Trcura ai' tyivovTO tvSai/xo}E(j, 4. 
'AyrjffiXaoQ, 6 tuiv AaKEhaijxo)'iu)v (DuenXevc, el fi)) fiereTri ixipa i'to 
avTUv oi ^TTctpTidTai Sia Tivag TroXiriKcig j^petac, a-^eSov ay (Coi -t)v 
6Xr}v Tail' llepffwv fiaaiXEiav elg Tovq ia')(JtTovc kiv^vvovq KariarrjiTEy. 
5. Et I'/Tri araads rove (boftovg Kal rag fiEplfxyac, ag 'i-^^ovtriy ol 
irXovatoi, TTc'irv hy hfilr (pevKTEoy 6 TrXovrog t'^OstJ'. 6. OvK d y 
EKwXvoy ol rofioi i^ijy tKacrToy cor' Idiay iEovrriay, ei fxrj 'irEpog 
ETEpov eXv fjiaiyETO' fdoyog yap aratTEuig ap-)(^))y aKEpyai^Erai. 7, 
Sfjutpn^tc, EavTTJ KaTaaKEvafrnaa racpov, (.yEypaxpEr, oarig dv ")(pr]iiaTtx)y 
BETjdij pacyiXEvg, SifXoira to jJLirjfXElor, uaa JDovXerai, Xajiely. Au- 
pelog oiiy CLeXcjy T^pZ/juara jjtEy ov\ EvpE, ypaj-i^aai ce Ezipoig Erirv^E 
rdBe <ppdl^ovaiy el yu>) Kakog »)(t0' dvfjp Kal ■yjprj^droiy dnXr^arog, 
OVK ay yEKpu>y OtjKag EKiyeig, 8. IloXXoi; dy a^ioy r'jy to TrXourtir, 
eI Kal TO ■)(^uipEiy avr(J avtrjy' yvy Be a/U(^w rovra KE-^wpinTai. 9. 
Et fii] TOT Eirovovy, tvy ovk ay Ev<ppaiy()fxr] y. 10. AvKovpyoc 
ov^Ey ay Sia<popoy Twy dXXwy iroXiv T)]y ^irapTtiv ETroirjaEv, eI yu^ ~i> 
■KEiQtcrdaL TO~ig yofioig fidXicTTU ev EipydaaTO avrij. 11. Twr aoi- 
Kri/jaTwy ay efiifiyr]TO Twy avTOv, e'L ti iTEpl kfxov y Eypdi^Ei. 12. 
Et TO. Trapa Tolg dXXottnv £i^£trjc KaKc't, da/dEyog s^otc d y, Ntko^wr, 
a yvy i^Eig. 13. Ovk ay (poprjrog eirjc, tt vp daaoig KuXiijg. 14. 
Et dwat'TEQ fxifirjaai fXEda Trjy AaKeSai^oylijy dpylay Kal TrXEoyE^iay, 
dwayTEg ay a?roXot^e9a. 15. 'Kdv tovto Xeyrjg, ajuopn'/trjj. 
16. 'Eav tovto Xt'^j/C) dfiapTt'iffr] (si hoc dixeris, errahis). 17. 
'Eav E^w/.te*' -^prjfiaO', k^onEy (j)lXovg. 18. ^ Ay yywg tI e(tt dv- 
dpiOTTog, ijSiwy EorEi, 

' When the actions, one or both, are to be represented as having duration, the 
imperfect, which will tlien be used, must be construed in the condition (at least 
generally) by the English pluperfect (as is often the case with the Latin imperfect 
of the subjunctive). The two forms in d are often, therefore, construed in the 
same way. Thus: ti rioav dvSpig ayaOoi, ovk dv ttote ravTa tTraaxov, 
if they were (or had been) good men, they would never have suffered this treat- 
ment. OiiK dv vi^auv iKpaTii, £i /itr; rt Kal vavriKov El^Ey- Sometimes 
the condition must be construed by the pluperfect, the consequence by ivuuld or 
should, not would (or should) have: £t firj tot t tt 6 vow, vvv ouk dv iixppai- 
vSpriv, if I had not worked then \^imperf. representing duration'], I should nut 
rejoice (or be rejoicing) now. 

26 84. [§ 14. ON THE MOODS. 

{The Wolf and the Shepherds.^ 

19. AvKOQ llijy TToifiiraQ, kadluvTaq kv aKrjvjj Trpvfiaroy, eyyvc 
7rpofTtXdu)v, liXiKOQ, i.<pr], av i]y Bopvjjoc, ti eyw tovto tnoiovy ! 

20. Ei XP'I y«J"c<''> XP'' **•' ''^ ytvvai'wj' ya^ueu', Eovvai r ic 
laOXovt; oartQ ev jSovXevsTai. 21. Et 0£o<' ri Bpioaiv oiVxpo'') oikc 
fJffJj' deoi. 22. Mj) Xf'y', ei (juXelg e/xe, fxijrtp, i(f EKaaro) to 
yiroc. 23. riwc '*/ u^^apiaToi, i) afiiXelg, j) TrXtoj^eKTat, f; citti- 
aroi, Tj uKpaTt'ig a.v6pu)TToi Cvvuiito ay (j>iXoi yeriadai', 

{The Gnat on the Bull's Horn.) 

24. Kijiyojx}/ Itti KepciTog (jooq iKadeaOr} i^ni r/vXei' etnE Se Trpoc 

Tov Iwvi', el /3apa) <rov tuv TtrovTu, ara^wpi'iao). 'O Si E<f>^, ovre 

OTE Ti'jXdec e'yi'W)', o'vte iky jJiiyr)Q, HEXymi jjloi. 

[After av wuh subj. (1) a. present sometimes follows in the apodosis*; — which 
describes the future event in a lively manner as present: (2; sometimes the 
optative with dv (which represents the consequence as probable): (3) some- 
times the imperative.] 

25. IJcirr' iariv iS,tvpE~iy, iixv /Jt) ray Troyoy (ptvyy] ric vc TrpoaEan 

ToiQ ^riTovf-iiyoiQ, 26. To ya/iEly, iay tiq r))y aXrjdEiay tncoTrr}, 

KOKoy fjiiy iirny, aW ayayKatov KaKvv. 27. *Ay iyyvg eXOt] ddva.' 

Tog, ov^Elg fiovXeTcii dvr'imceiy. 28. "Otov av tiq TrpoaTaTEvrj, ihv 

yiyyujrTKri te uj)' Se'i, kcu tuvtu nopii^Ecrdai ciivqTai, ayudog dv 

e'lT] Trpu(JTUTr]c. 29. JLiiXctjiov tcic ciajjoXdg, Kav \pEvS£7g wair, 

[Sometimes «i with indie, ful iire precedes an apodosis expressed by the future 
indicative. See p. 24, note 8.] 

30. Et /xj) Kadit,Eic yXGxTfTay, k rrr ai aoi kukIi. 31. Ov ivdv- 

CEivov (payelTui >/ a^i/cta, eI Qiwaaijioy 'iiTTai rw dEiKovvTi. 32. 

Ill' iQiXit) fiEy drrodyf](7KEiy virep 7w»' CiKaiojy, tvBoKifitfffOfiEv' 

el ci (bojirjrTOf-iEdu Tovg Kitdvyovg, elc TroXXag Tapa-)^ag KaTUGTi)- 

fTofJ-EV VfJiug uvTOvg, 

[Ej with suhj. is sometimes found even in Attic prose, when the notion of the 
future realization of the condition is predominant.] 

33. 0(5 yavTiKrjg Kcil <pavXov aTparidg fxovov fie'i, et l,v a t S) (T i v 

ui tvuXeic (pofiriQe'i a ai. 

§ 14. The Moods {continued). 

84. a. ijceujg ay deaaaifxrjy Tavra, I would gladly see this, or / 
should like to see this. avQpuTrov dvaicinrepoy ovk av Tig fvpot, 
a man (or, one) could not find a more shameless fellow, h. ovk av 
(pvyoic, you would not (but sometimes as positive as) you will not 

• Tliat is, the consequent clause. 

§ 14. ON THE MOODS.] 84*— 86. 27 

escape, c, iroaov av out e.vpe~iv to. aa KTiinara TwXoujUti'a ; how 
much do you think that your possessions would fetch (literally, find) 
if they were sold? d. ovc koru' eva cij'^pci av BvyT]dy}i'ai tvote 
uiravTa ravra Trpa^at, it is not possible that one man should ever be 
able to do all this. e. raWa^ (TiwTnji, ttoW ay t^wj/ eiTrely, I 
hold my tongue about the rest, though I should have much to say. 
a'lTtl ^laQuv, Cjq ovtojq irepiyevo jj evog ar* rdv 7ro\efxl(oy, he asks 
for pay on the plea that he could then conquer his enemies. 

(a) The optative with iiy is equivalent to our would, should, and 84*. 

sometimes may, might, &c. 

It properly refers (as our would and should) to a condition supposed. 
Thus in (a), ' / would gladly see it,' if it were possible ; in (A) ' one could 
not,' &c. if one were to look for one. 

(b) The optative with ay may sometimes be translated by the 86. 


It is really the consequence of a conditional clause suppressed. ' You 
would not escape,' i. e. ' if you were to attempt it.' — The Attics were 
peculiarly fond of expressing themselves in a doubtful way; of avoiding 
ail positiveness in their assertions ; and hence this optative with dv is 
used of the most positive assertions. 

(c. d. e.) av gives to the infinitive and the participle the same 86. 
force that it gives to the optative. 

Thus (as in d) the infin. gets the force of an infin. future^. 

This is the common way of expressing the future after verbs oi hoping, 
thinking, trusting, praying, knowing, confessing, &c. when it is dependent 
on a condition, expressed or implied. 

Oi dL. positive unconditional expectation, &c. the infinite without dv is 
to be used; the future, if future time is to be strongly marked ; if not, 
the aor. or present, according as the action is momentary or conti- 
nued. (K.) 


1. WayTEQ av 6 fioXoyijcraiTE bpovoiav fieyiVTOv ayadov eivai 
TToXei. 2. AiyoiQ ay, a hi Xiysiv. 3. Ovk av cnrocpEvyoic 
rriv voaov. 4. Tct ?;^jj ytyevqixiva ovk av Evvr)d£irjfievK(i)\vaai. 
5. Ovre (TV av cvvaio avrenrtiv, our' aXXoQ ov^e'ig. 6. 'H^cwg 
av TrvQoip-qv o,tl aoi cpatverai tovto. 7. {BovXotnijv av, velim : 
kliovX6p.r}v av, vellem.) 'El3ovX6pr]v av vfxaQ ofioiiog ifiol yiyvoxTKiiv 

* For ra d\\a. 

* Literally, ' as thus being-likely-to-conquer.' 

* ypa0£tv dv '=■ scripturum esse. 
ytypa<pkvai dv '=■ scripturum fuisse. 
y()d'^ai dv =: (a) script urutn fuisse, or 

as pres. (6) scripturum esse, 
ypdipiiv dv := scripturum fore. (K.) 
(,ypd^HV dv is proved, I think, to be correct by Harlung, against Parson, Her- 
mann, &c. Kiihner and Rost both agree with Hartung.) 

E 2 

28 86. [§ 14. ON THE MOODS. 

nvror. 8. 'H^twf ur KuWikXe'i tovtu) in c^ leXsyo firiv. 9. Tig 
av oJ)'idr) raiirn yericrdai ; 10. Ti ^»/ tfrriy arra tliTEV 6 ayrip irpo 
-nv darciTOV, Kai ttwc tTi\EVTa\ ijSiu)^ yap a r eyw clkov aaijxi. 
11, 'Eyw ovh' av kvoQ i'lhiov ai^ovaaifxt j) aou. 12, 'Eic Tovrcjy 
iKiri^d) (T(p()cp^ av ere rw)' KaXuJv kuI nf^viov epydrriv ayadov yevicr- 
dai. 13. 'KkeIvioq vjjidg iiyuvfiai raj^iur' av cKjieltrdai Trig So^rjg 
ravTTic. 14. T»)»' rc'illiv rov Trpwrog Xtyeiv ovk av e(pri TrapaXnrelv, 
15. () TlepcTuiv fiacriXevg dcr^eiog a >' Tovg 'Adqyniovg tig rijv avjx- 
^a-^iar TrpoatSi^aro- 16. "UpETO avrov, tl Kal (popriov t(j)ep£. 17. 
^(i)(Ppo(TVVT)v Tin a v (palfxev I'lrrov *; rw aKpaTU TrpoarjKeiv ; 

{The Old Man and Death.) 

18. Tipiov TTOTE ^vXa Koipag Kal Tavra ^ipojv TroXXrjv oSov Ifiaci^e. 
Aia ^e Tov KOTTov Trig o^ov Invodifievog to ^opTiov tov davarov erre- 
KaXelru' tov ce Qararov (^avivTog Ka\ Trvdofiivov, Si {jv alriav avrov 
TrapaKaXElrai, 6 yipwv 'ifij, "Iva to (popriov apjjc. 

19. 'Eyw ETTi TOvtrCE kXw, &(tt£ av avayKacrdrjvai ij/iHv 7rpo(Ti')(^Eiv 
TOV voiiv. 20. Ow r)v o ri av ettoieIte jxovoi. 21. Ovk oih' o 
Tl av iTTolrfCTev. 22. TaDr' oiS' 6 ti av ISpaTE. 23. Miya 
TEKfiripiov Cjg OVK av cnreKTEive ^puj't^oi'' v yap *^pvvi)(^og ovTog 
TOvg TETpaKoaiovg KaTEarrjrTEv. 24. Ovk oio ei Tig o'vrojg av oXiya 
ipyc'ii^oiTo wore f-u) Xajxlic'ivEiv tu Swfcparet apKovvTn. 25. Ovk 'icrriv 
u Tl opyi^opEvog didpfOTrog av yvoir]. 26. 'HnavXttroc Xeyei otg 
iig Eig TOV avrov iroTUjiov ovk av Efxftairjg. 27- EtTEi' on KaX- 
Xiara eIev ra upa Kal 6 avijp av aXwaifxog Eirj. 28. TeXoIov to el 
fXEv -o aiofia KiiKiov c'^ojTt aTrrjvrrjcrag to) firj av opyi^eadai' on 
St. rijv \pv)(_))v aypoiKorlpiog SiaKEijJuo) irepiirv^Eg, tovto (te XvtteI. 
29. Kvpog El £/?tw(T£)', aptfTTog av Soke7 i'lp-^wv y ev iadai. 30. 
"SibJKpurrfg TOvg Eicorag ri EKatrrov E'irj tSjv 6vru)V, evofiil^E Kui rolg 
aXXoig av E^r]yE~i(jQai Svvatrdai. .31. Oljiai iravrag av onoXoyfj- 
(Tui rove vf'inovg vXEiariov kuI jjityiffrijjv ayaSuij' alrlavg Eivai np 
jjiu) 7w TiLv a.vdpwTr(>)v. 32. Ew 'iadi fXTjCEv av fie rovrwv etti- 
)^£ip//(Ta ^'^d ae tteiOeiv, eI Svvaa-Eiav ^('nov Kal TrXoiirov Ewpojv 
a avrwv yEvrjffOfiErov. 33. lldcr'dj' (poftrjQElg'iadi. 

[With the conjunctions ottojc wg {not 'iva), denoting purpose, the subjunctive 
is also found with av, pointing to a condition on which the realization of the 
purpose depends. Thus, ' I do it that I may ' (oTToif, wf) — ' I do it that so 
I may, &c.' {oitiog dv — less commonly ajg dv).~\ 

34. Tag upErag lirirriCEvofj.Ev ov)( 'Iva tCjv uXXwv (.Xarrov 
'(.■vijjfjiEv, uXy OTTiog av wg jiErh TrXEicrrioi' ayadijjv rov piov otdyw- 
fiEv. 35. Toj' "Epwra ce~i fuXa/Stlo-fiai, oVwe civ Trjv fiev i/Sovijv 
avrov KapTTOjtrrjrai ng, aKoXatriav ce /uriiefxiav e fjTroiii (rrj. 36. 

§ 15. ON THE MOODS.] 89 — 91*. 29 

iic O.V ^afljjc, (iic ovtror. 37. 'EiKire fxxpoj tovtoi, ujq a r dyroia 

§ 15. The Moods {continued). 

a. Trapiaofiui tdv n cir) ', / will come to you (or, be with 89. 
you), if I am wanted, b. i<pri irapiaecrdai, e'i tl cioi or ceiiani, 
he said that he would come if he were wanted. c. tote Sr} *, orau 
a XP'I^ TToiTJc, evTV)(^tlc, then only are you prosperous, when you 
do what you ought. Tore S)), orav a ^») Trou'/ir/je) tvrvx'I'^^i-C, theti 
only will you be prosperous, when you have done * what you ouyht 
(turn demum quum officia tua expleveris, felix eris). d. Lirti^'av 
uwavTa cLKovfTrjTt, KpivuTs, when (or after) you have heard all, 
decide. e. Siaipdepel 6,ti ay Xaj3ri, he will destroy whatever he 
takes, or lays hold of {ceperit). 

(a) The compounds of civ (taV, orar, iirtildv, &c. 77) regularly 90. 
take the subjunctive. The same rule applies to relatives 
with av. 

(6) "When they come into connexion with, past time or the oblique 91. 
narration, they either remain unchanged, or the simple words {d, 
ore, ETreiSi'i — 6c, ogtiq, oaoc, &c.) take their place with the optative 

(c. d. e.) When these compounds of dy, and relatives with uy, 91*. 
go with the subjunctive of the aorist, that tense marks the comple- 
tion of the action, and answers to the Latin future perfect {futurum 
exactum). See Obs. on 68, 2. 


1. Mty' tffrt KepSoQ, fjy cihdaKeffdai fxddrjg. 2. Nioq ay iroyti- 
(TTjc, yiipac £s£tc £vOa\eg. 3. Owre irefvKEy aQdvaToq SjfiCJy ov^eig, 
ovT, e'i TO) i,v nj3air], yiyoiro dy evhdfiujy. 4. "A ay fjadrj tic, 
ravra aw^tadai fiXel Tvpog yfjpag' ovrio rra'tcac ev irai^evETE. 5. 
Ttiv dp')(i\y Ti\y Kara BdXacrcray ottote put dy Kardaytjcny, virt]- 
Koovc t^ouort rag TrXf/orac raiy TrokEwy. 6. Ou^fig irwnOTE fKCjy 

^ rl z=. at all. lav ri Ssy, if it should be at all necessary, 

^ Then truly (and not before) ^ then only. 

7 XPV (oportet) — XP*'*?' X9y> XPH^^'^h port- neut. (to) xP^'^v. Imperf. fXPV^ 
or XP»J»' {not lxp>;) : fut. XP^^"- 

* Properly, ' when you shall have done :' but in English a future action, that is to 
precede another /«/«/<; action, is generally put in the present ov perfect tense. We 
do not, that is, mark that it is now future, but consider ourselves as removed by the 
'when,' &c. to the time of its happening. 

30 91*. [§ 15. ON THE MOODS. 

Eirni TvpayriSoQ a<j)t~tro o(Tirep cnru^ Kriiaairo. 7. Ow tovto ttw- 
iroTt tweitiQrjv, ljq i/ v^^X''' '^^^ i"^'' ^*' OrTfToi ffwjuart jj, 417, orav 
Se TOVTov aTraWayrj, Tt6vt]Kty. 8. Ot orrportwrai ore e^a> row 
?'£iyov yiroLVTO Koi it,Eit] vpo^ iiWovg inrtii'ai, ttoXXoI KXiap-^oy 
aTriXeiTTOi', 9. 'Eyw yviaiKi 'iv ti ■Kiarivii) fioi'uy, inav cnrodai'rj, 
OX) pitj(Tt(Tdai TraXw' ra S' aW airiaTu) Travd', 'Imq a v airodavTi. 

10. Avroi tcpcKTCiv avyiKTrXivcTt'iffdai, ewc '"« Trpayjuara Karaeral r], 

11. Botjdyffuri jioi, khi jji) ^i^aaKETe tovq avKo^rnvraq, [xe'ii^of vfxwv 
av-Qy cviuadai. 12. M») jiaiyijfiEda, jii^F aJfr^pwc uiroXu) jjeda. 
13. EvTV)(^nl.r]c, /catrv^o'C oVtui' tp^c- 14. Ovk ay TTore ^iKaioq 
a^iKOQ yiyniro. 15. Uaiiaal yvv I'l^)], fiqS' t pwrijfrrjQ iripa. 16. 
Mf) cnroKcifiijc, ctXXa iri^oTrei. 17. A/Vatoc t<r0', ha Kal hh:aiu)y 
^') ~^XV^' ^^' E^ofCfi ou <pa{)Xi]y Trefnrrioy cvyajuiy thai, ottwq 
TO re (j)p6yi]fia rwy yEyiKrjKorcjy kut atr [yeads irj Kai jjli) fxari^y ra 
7r£7rot?7^£i'a yiyotro. 19. 'Yirirr'^tTO ev iroiijaeiy rjfxac. 20. 
'E?e(idr)(Tay 01 Kophdioi rwy Meyapeoiy yavrrl (T(pdQ S,v fxw poTri fxxptiy. 
21. Ot 'AB)]iuliii iipiEyro rijc St/ctX/ac lip^tiy. 22. llai'T-a^oD eV 
rrj EXXa^i yofxoQ Ktirai tovq TroXtTag ofiyvyai ofioyoi) atiy. 23. 
Tovg yfirfjiaria^ovQ tovq vapa to Slicoioy yiyyofxiyovQ iiytiade firj 
TrXovToy, aXXa Kii'^vyoy noiriaeiy. 24. TlpoarjKEiv Si 'iywya yofjiil^b), 
orav fXEy %'ofioQETu)fjiEV, rovG' ij/uaQ (TKoiit'iy, ottojq KaXuiQ k-^oyraQ 
Ka\ av/jKpipoyTaQ yofxovg rrj ttoXei drjrroijxeQa, ETTEiSay Si yofiobETi]' 
«T(i)fxey, toTq vojioiq toIq KnixiyoiQ -n-Eideadai, tovq Be fi^ TreidojJEyovg 
KoXai^Eiy, el Sel ra rfJQ ttoXewc /cctXwc e^eiy. 

[The infinitive of the aorist has often a past meaning; but is often without 
reference to time or the completion of the action.] 

25. ^ufiey ov)( rjTtJoy avrol uxpeXfjcrai 1} rv^S'*' tovtov. 2G. 
' Aytv roil yiyyetrHai yeyiaOai ahvyuroy. 27. To yvutvai eiriar)]- 
firjy rov Xafie'iy early. 28. XaXcTror to Tvou'iy, to hi KeXtvaai 
p(j.Cioy. 29. rioXv pa.ov Eyoyruq (j)vX('iTTEiy f; KTijaraadai Trarra 
TZEipvKty. 30. ' iTrnoKpdrrjQ iitSvnE~iv CoksI eXXoyifj-og yeveaOai, 
tovto ce diETai ot fiaXiaru yEyitrdai, e'l aoi avyyiyoiTO, 

{The Hawk and the Nightingale.) 

31. 'Ajj^wv, iit\ hiycpov KadEi^ofxeyr], Kara to eIioOoq i^Sey. 'lipaL, 
Si, dEuiTcifxtyoQ i:al Tpo<prJQ ctTropwy, avyEiXrjfEy ETnrrTaQ. 'H S\ ayai- 
pE'iadai niXXovira, ece'ito rov lipaKOQ fxij l3pwdF]yai' ^tjSe yap ticai'/) 
Eii'ai lipaKOQ yaaripa irXijpovi', dE~iy ci uvroy, rpoipfiQ trpoaCEOfieyoy, 
ettI to. ^Etl^d} TiLy opyiojy rpaTriaSai. Kai o lEpu^ viroXaftijv eiirey' 
'AXX' iydjye afpojy ay e'irjy, el, rfjv ev ■^eprriv eroliJirjy rpo<j>iiv cKpeig, 
ra i^it) 0an'ojU£)'a' ttw Siojicoifii. 

§ 16. ON THE MOODS.] 94, 95. 31 

§ 10. The Moods {continued). 

a. virepMoy^ £«X^*' ottot' ev offrei ' Siarpiftoi^, he had an 94. 
upper chamber whenever he stayed in town. b. 'iirparTei' a. So^eiev 
itvToi, he did what (in each case) seemed good to him. c. ovq (jutv) 
'iBoi (.vraicrioQ Kal (ntoirfj wyrac, ewrjvii^, he used to praise those 
whom (at any time) he saw marching in good order and in silence. 

(a) The optative is used of what happened often, when the time 95. 

spoken of is past. [In this use it is called ' the optative of inde- 

jinite frequency.'^ 

Obs. Hermann properly observes, that tlie optat. does not \tie\f express 
the repetilion of the act, but only carries with it the notion of indefinite- 
rtess, tlie repetilion being marked by the verb of the principal sentence, 
which is usually the imperfect; sometimes a. frequentative verb, or an 
aorist with iroWaKiQ, &c. 

(1) For pres. or future time, the relatives with av, and compounds of ai' 
would be used with the subjunctive : ovq av Idy. 

(2) To relatives av gives in this way the force of our ever, og dv {'=■ 
quicumque, si quis) whoever, any man tvho ; in plur. all who. 


1. KoXo'^orrai ol ardpwwoi ovc ar o'latyrai aSiKe'ir. 2. "0>' av fiyi'i- 
ffwrrai (bpoi'ip.ot)Tepoy eavrwi' tlrai, tovtid oi avdpcjTroi vireprj^iiot; irti- 
doi'Tai, 3. OvTOQ at' e'it] (xuxppoi'icTTaTUQ, ofTTii; KO(Tp.iioTaTa Tag avfi- 
(popac (pipeir dvvarai. 4. Kotrj-iov (^vkaaaova oyriv av t a^rj ttoXiq. 
5. Hdv 6 Ti av jJiiWriQ kpeiv irpoTtpov tTnaKOtreL rtj yrw/iijj. 6. 'Eyw 
lopii^io OTTo'ini tiveq av ol TrpoararaL wai, roiavTag Kai Tag TroXiTsiag 
yiyvtcrdai. 7- Me'xpt rov^e ol eTraivoi avEKToi elai Trepl eTepwv Xeyo- 
fxevoi, ig oaov av Kat avTug eicaaTog f/tJjrai h'avog thai ^pdaai 
Ti tiv ijicovtrev. 8. IlaTpig laTi ttuct' 'iv av irpaTTr) rtc ev. 9. lie 
av \p{]ar]Tai Tig Tolg irpayixaai Kai Tolg Kaipo~ig, ovrwg avayKi] 
Kal TO TtXog licfiaiveiv kk avTU)v. 10. Ol 'Adqvaloi i]L,iovv ovg 
at] pLovoi viKftv uvB' dv utTci ^vnfAd-)(^u)v ^vvaadai. 11. Kupoc 
oiKTTivag fxaXiara opwrj ra KaXrt ^iMicoi'Tag, TOVTOvg irdaaig ti- 
fialg eyipaipev. 12, IloXXui^ig Kai twv cnrovriov fiXiav eariv o'lg 
kbjpa TTEHTTOvTa TavTa avTov o'lg iicrdtig tv-)((}i. 13. Kvpog dii 
i-n-e^iXeTO, oirure avaKrivo~iiv Tiveg Trap' avrw, onwg tvyapia- 
ToraTOi TE a/uft Xoyoi E[jil3Xr]d)i(rovTni Kal Trapopi^iwvTeg tig rdya- 
66v. 14. 'Ev KeXaivalg, TTJg ^pvyiag ttoXei ohovfxivri, fxeydXTj 

" virspi^ov, adj. understand oiKTjfia. inrepwioQ, (poc, from vnkp, as waTpuiog, 
— (fog, from narrfp. P. 

' d(TTV is used of Athens, as we use ' town ' of London. 

2 dt.aTpij3iiv, to rub (or wear) away, xpo^ov, ^iov (conterere tempus, terere 
vitam). Without ace. to linger, stay, &c. 

3 The imperfect of an habitual action : translated by ' used to,' &c. See 2, Obs. 

32 i)H, 99. [§ 17. ON THE MOODS. 

vat ivcaifwi'i, rw rtwrtpw Kvpw (jaaiXeia ijv Koi irupaStKrog fiiyae, 
aypiojv Qrjpiiov TrXt'iprjQ, a ecflrof IdtjoEVEr cnro 'Imrov, onore yvfi- 
i'daai l^oiiXotTo Enuroc re Kai tvvq 'imrovQ. 15. T>;c 'Apueiiac 
rjyc Trpoc eaTreuai' i/Trap^og j'yi' T>;p//3a(^oc rw j^affiXu uvru) (piXog 
yfyojJEi'OQ, wcrre, vttote TrapEiTj, ovBeIq IiXXoq jSatnXEa etti tuv 'iirirov 
aril'iaXXEv. 16. 'Ayr}aiXaoQ, ottote evtv^oi i], ovk at'Opwtrwy 
VTTEpECjipnrEi, a\Xa OeoIc X^P"' J?^"* 17. Foif'wi' u/JfXtt*', oi/re Stdcj 
oiirt oi'f^pwTTOc joui' t^wi' t.v[j.ftov\oc ttote yivoiT up ov^eIq ovceyl. 
18. 'Etti rcilg (^aaiXiuq dvpaig TroXXi)t' /.uv aucppoavyrjv h:ur(tfxdOoi 
lir TIC, ui(7')(_puv' ^' ovllt' ovTE ciKOvtrai, ovr IceIv laTiv. 19. 'OTrore 
UTzioiEv TrpoQ TO f'iXXo (TTpaTEVfia, ravra 'E7raa')(_ov. 

{The Wolf and the Kid.) 
20. ' Ep(0oc, varEprjrraaa 7>/C TTuijxvrjc, viro Xvkov KaTE^iwKEro. 
'ETTiorpa^tlcra ce Trpog avror, eIttei'' 'Qs Xvke, Itte'i TriirEiarfiai, on 
aov lypwfia yEviiaofxai, 'im jj.)) arj^wg airoQavu), avXrjaut' TrpuJTOi', OTrtog 
op\^](noi^iai, ToD ^e Xvkov civXoiu'toq, icn'i Trjg Epl(l>ov op'^ov^ivric, 
01 Kvi'EQ, cn^oiiaai'TEc, tov Xvh:oy e^iwkoi'. O di, £7rioTpa^£tc, rrj Epi<p(o 
<})i](Ti' AiKaliog TCiiiTci f.ioi yivETai' eBei yap ^lE, f.idyEipov otTct, avXr}- 
Tl]V fXt] flljJ Elrrdui. 

§ 17. On the Moods {continued). 

98. a. fiovXEc* ovv (TtcoTT ioney ; do you wish, then, that we should 
coKS?rfer (the question) ? h. ttoOei' (3ovXei d'p^w^at; ivhat do you 
wish me to begin with ? c. -i ttoiw ; what shall I do ? what am I to 
do? TTo'i Tpdirojfiai ; whither shall I turn myself? d. e'ittm ovu 
aoi TO u'tTiav ; shall I then tell you the cause ? e. vvv aKoixru) 
avOig — ; shall I now hear again — ? or ; am I now to hear 
again ? 

99^ The subjunctive is used in doubting questions, either alone, or 
after fiovXEi, diXEig {do you wish ?). 

So also after oiiK t'xio (or olSa : 67, b), and aTrop(o{e(t)) I am at a loss, 
inojToJ{dw) ask, ^Jjrwfsw) seek. (Optat. after the historical tenses, 
67, h.) 

Obf. The deliberative subjunctive is sometimes used with av, if a con- 
dition is referred to ; seldom, however, in direct questions : more fre- 
quently in indirect ones. (Kiihner.) 


1. 'Ei'nTLJfXEv 1} iTcywjuej' r; ti cpaffo^Ei' ; 2. "Ayt a k nir u) n e v Ka&' 
Ev EKuaTOV. 3. ^ipE cij TTEipadu) Trpog vfjdg cnroXoytiautrdai. 4. "A 

4 W. 48. Obs. l,note. B. 70. 

* The subjunctive used in this way (subjunctivus dubilativus or deliberativus) 
must not be mistaken for the future. 


§ 17. ON THE MOODS.] 99. 33 

fit) Ku-idov i-u) avE^y. 5. KdV fiovog rjQ, q>uv\ov fii]Tt Xc^jjc 
^//re kpyaari fxtjBty. 6. liiwira. Sot y' w Karapare aiw/rui 'yw ; 
7. O'tada Siori dav/Jcti^Eie ij iyw aoi ttTrw; lidw ye ttTrc. 8. 
Tt'iAajTo*' >/ Trpot's' ju/) \a/3w; 9. Ti/>' rJiv Koj^acwy Trpodvuiav 
Tov yeXola elg tovq ardptnirovc ttTrttc ?; Trapa^exw/utSa ; 10. 
Ilwc M"X'^i^"' Qi'r]TOQ toy deiq. "VXI' ' ^^* ^' 7r£t(7d/j£0a ; ttoI 
(pvytofiey] 12. ^uifiev ovtojq *i /jli) (pQfiev; 13. BouAet cte 0t5 
(poj3t]df]yai ; 14. BouXei J/yu£7c Trpoe >/;udc avTovg iinep rwy dXXtjy 
dfX((>iaj3r]TWfiEy; 15. BouXefftfe ro o\oj' irpdyfia cKpCJiXEV Kai 
fifl ^TfTwuey ; 16. Tt fiovXEtrdE eittw : 17. ©w (iovXEcrde 
Suj^EKtiTTiy i/yuclc ffVotCTfti^ ; 18. Ilorfpa 6£'X£tc f^oi fiaXdaKci \p£v^ij 
\iyix) Tj cricXrjp' dXrjdi} 0pd<[^£* <t>/ yap »/ Kpiaig. Eur. 19. 'AW 't0t 
fidSi^\ 'iufXEy. 20. Xwpetr', lir e ly u) jjeO a, 21. $£tcwjU£0' 
di'^pwj' EvyEyijy, 0£tcwyu£0a' kcikovq B' diroTrTixofXEv wavEp a^ioi. 
22. "Ay£ aicoirCjjiEv Kad' ev EKaaroy. 23. "Ay£7£ (caraX/Trw- 
^Ev rove ETrirrj^EiOTciTOVQ. 24. $£'p£ vuj' dvaXciljwfiEy waXiy rrj 
fiyt'lfiTf rag ETrirci^Eig. 25. 4>£p£ ^?) Trpog k^avToy dvaXd pit) o 
XiyEig, 26. $>'/(T£ic, oVav ro juerci roiJro 'iSrjg. Ae'ye ^/;, t^w, £^?j. 
27. S7ya, yryoag fxddio. 

{How Elephants are taken and tamed.) 

28. 'H dijpa Tuty iXEfdyrajy roiddE iariy' ciyafidyTEg ini riyag 
TU)y TLQaaawy Koi dyEpEiiov SicjKovtn, /.at oray Ka-aXd/3w(Ti, tvtctelv 
TrpoaTciTrovcn rovroLg Ewg a y EicXvffo)(n. Tote ce EXE(payTi(TTi)g Eiri- 
TTTjCi'iaag Karevdvyei rw EpEirdyu)' TCf)(^Ewg ce fXETa ravra TidaacrEVErai 
vat 7r£i9apj^£t. ''^TnlOE(3i]K6Tog jiky ovy tov iXEcpay-iarov diray-EQ 
7rpct£te £t<7iv* orav S' aKOJirj, o'l fiiy, ol c' ov' ctXXd rwy i^aypiovfiiyuyy 
TCI TTpoadia (tkeXt) ZEajXEvovai tTEipalg, tV ijcrv^cil^waiv. 

[" The third person is also found in the suhjunctivus deliberativus more fre- 
quently than is commonly supposed, though there is usually some various 
reading." Kruger.'\ 

29. Ildrepov ai rig, A\a\iyr], rfjg ttoXewc E-)(dpdy */ s/jLoy siyai (pfj ; 
30. Tt (Cat 7roi//(Tf7 ; ^r]Tf] iroXXa dyaXiaKEty i^oy EXdrno, k:al Trdyrng 
depaTTEVEiy /3ouXr;rat, cv rj rpE'ig E^oy ; 31. IldrEpa jur) ^w SiKr]y 
?*/ HEii^u) holt) ciKaiujg ; 32. TavO' ovrot TTEicrdwcrty virEp avrujy oe 
•koie'iv Ka\ rd rijg (rfjg dyaiadijaiag koi iroyrjpiag epya £^' savrovg 
dva^E^wvrat ; 33. Tt ttot dy ovv XiyoiixEv; 34. 'Eyw ydp 
TOVTO, (1) Ilpwraydpa, ovk wjxjiy hihaKrby Eiyai, croi ct XEyoyri ovk 
£^w OTTwg dy dmcTTio . 

6 Tt ttTT^ Tig; Dem. 21, 197; Plat. Soph. 225, ttoI Tig fvyy^; Soph. Aj. 
403; Ar. Piut. 438. Comp. ^sch. 3, 209, ttoT rig iXBij; Soph. CEd. R, 170; 
Plat. Men. 92, ttoT tXBojv tvpij ti)v aXiiOeinv ; Din. I, 8, Tivog uvtKa kutu- 
SfixO'j ToiovTov epyov; Dem. 20, 117, ri wuiiiffwaiv; Dem. 20, 37. 

34 102 — 105. [§ 18. ON THE MOODS. 

§ 18. Tlie moods in oblique narration. 

102. a. (i 7 1 i'^ot (or £X^0> ^V*? ^loaeiv^. b. ei ri e'x*''' '^f^ Bovvai 
til', c. £1 n tlx^)', £^?? ooi;»'at dv. Compare Examples in 79. 

103. («) "When conditional propositions occur in oblique narration 

(72, c), the consequent clause is in the infinitive. 

(b) Instead, therefore, of the optative with av (in 79, c.) we shall 
have the infin. loith dv. 

(c) Instead of the imperfect or aorist with dv (79, d.) we shall 
have the present or aorist infin, with dv. 

101. (a) Instead of the indie, future (79, b.) we shall have the infin. 

future ; and d with optative instead of lav with subj., if in 

connexion with past time. 
105. Thus where we should have had in the consequent clause, 

{woio'iLi dy ( TTOiricraiu.' dy ( TrtwoirjKOiu.' dv 

tnoiovv av { ETroir)(Ta av { ETmroiiiKeiv av 

we shall have, 

TTon'icreiv ttouIv dv ttoi^itui dv Tre7roir}Kevai av. 

Rem. But here (as in oblique narration generally) the subjunctive 
(which more regularly accompanies the principal tenses) is allowed to 
stand after historical tenses : and after both principal and historical tenses 
an indicative is very common. 


1. K.vpoQ VTri(7\€T0 ro7f (pvydcTLv, el KaXwc KaraTrpd^eiev £0 
a earpaTeviTO, fi)) Trpoerdev Traixratrdai irplv avrovQ Karayayot 
(HKuSe. 2. !^ivo(pu)y Meyul3vl^M tTriaTtiXev, j) »' fxlv avrog ffwdrj, 
tavToJ d-rrolovvat rh ■^ijp.aTa' el Si tl iradoi, dvaOel vai. 3. Et 
Xiyoifxi, Ev oio VTL CTjixrjyopE'iv dv fje (patrjQ. 4. No/xtifw Ifxac Ifiol 
elvai kui Trarpida Kat (piXovg Kui GV^fxiiyovQ' Ka\ avv v/ji'iv fiev av 
o'lfxui tlvai TifxiOQ, oirov av w' vfxuiy c tprifJioQ uiv, ovk dv iKavoc elvai 
vlfxui ovr uv <J)iXoy (bcpeXrjCTai, oi/r' av l)(dpdv dXe^aadai. Xn. 5. 
ripwroj' fiiv oiofiai av vfidc p.iya ovijcrai to trrpurevfxa, ft eiri- 
fieXeiridrjTe ottwc uvtI toiv cnroXojXoTiov ojg Tuxi^^ra (rrparriyol Kal 
• Xoxdyot dvriKaTU(TTaf)(I)/Tiv, 6. 'EirtiSdv ^e Karaarrjcrricrde roiig dp- 
)(^oyTug, oaovc eel, y v kui tovq dXXovc (TTpariwraQ avXXeyrjre icai 
irapadapav vT]Te, olfiat av vfj-dg Trdvv ev Kaipf iroirja-ai, Xn. 
7. "Ukoj TTpog oi, w 'llpiiKXeic, elSv'ia rovg yevyi'iaavrdg ae, Kai ti)v 
(pvffiv r})v at)y ev rf] Tvaiceia Kuraf-iaQovaa' e^ wv eXTrii^oj, ei tiiv irpoQ 
kjie icuy rpdnoio, ccpoSp' dv «t£ tuiv kuXCjv kui aefxvuiv ipycirriv 
dyaduv yeveaOui. Xn. 8. 'Edvofirfv, el (3iXTioy e'ir] vfi'iv efiol 
eTTirpexf/ai ravniv rijv dp-)Q]v, Kai f^toi ol dtoi ev toIq upolg ecrii/jtjvav 

' Also t'l n fx't' (•"' 'X"')} ^i"! Suaity av. See 86, x. 

§ 19. ov AND /o'/.] 107—110. .35 

ware kni lEiioTriv a i' yi'wiai (^ tyro) ui', would have perceived) on 
TavTTjQ 7?7e j-iorap^^uiQ cnri^tffdai f.i£ Sel. 9. 'E)'0i;yurj6>/''«t XP'I '-""' 
ovBeig kaTLV civd^xJirwy (pvaei ovre uXiyap-^ii^OQ ovre BrijjiOKpciTiKoc. 
10. 'Afi^oTipwv a^iov (LKOvaai, erOvfuovfiiyovc ori ovr' ay EKelia 
hvvaivTO TToteiv fxi] tTipiav avyLirpuTTovTioy, ovr' ay yvy tTTf^et- 
prjaay eXOely //>) vtto Tu>y aurwj' otdy^ejoi (TW0>/(7£o-0at. 11. JLiTrey 
OTi ohSsy avr^ ^t'Aoi tov iifxeripov dopvpov. 12. Kar oXiyag 
vavg heiXoyTO, Biori ovk -fjy irXeioffi irpoacj'^^eiv. 13. 'ETTft^j) 

iravTa iroiovyres EiKrjy Trap' avTwv ovk av hiivaiaQE Xo/jctv, irwg 
ovK alayjpoy vpTiy Kai ijyriyuiiy anoXine'iy • 14. Et /jd) (])vX('i^eig 
/i/fcp', airoXe'tc Ta ^eiCoya. 15. 'Ev tovt(o KEtCioXvfrdai icoKtt tKacrroQ 
«p fxri Tiyi Knl avrog cpyo) Traprjy. 16. "Orw aocpia fxr) irpocreir] 
TTCKTrjg aperrjc to fxiyitTTOv fiipoc, ovk a.y in teXsojc ayadog yevdfJtyoQ 
tvhaifiwv TTOTE yivoiTO. 17. "Orav fxi] Toiig ahiKovvTag Xu[or]TE, Tovg 
ivTvy)(civovTag KoXa^iTE. 

§ 19. ov and fj-i). ^ ^ 

a. OVK eQeXeiv (pr)<Tiy, he says that he does not choose, h. vouH^el 
ov KoXoy Eivai, he thinhs that it is not honorable, c. ov dvyarai 
ovT EV Xiytiy, ovt ev Troie'iy rovg (ptXovg, he cannot either speak 
well of his friends, or treat them well. d. ovk kirjv £l(TEXd£~iy -nrapa. 
Toy (TTparrjyoy, ottote fit] erj^oXa^oi, persons were not allowed to go in 
to the general, when he was not at leisure. (Hei'e a condition is im- 
plied : if he was not at leisure at that time.) 

1) Ov denies independently and directly. 107*. 

2) M?'/ does not deny independently and directly, but in reference 
to something else ; to some supposed case, condition, or pur- 
pose ; or in the expression of some fear, solicitude, or care. 

1) Mi] is used in q\\ prohibitions (see 32). 108. 

2) With all conditional particles, eI, lav (j']v, dy), orav, i-TTEiBay, 
&c., and with ote, ottote, 'when,' if a condition is im- 
plied {d). 

3) With all particles expressing intention or purpose ; 'iva, 6-Kiog, 
tie, &c. 

Note. — In the same cases the compounds of /«/ will be used, when 1 09. 
required : i. e. /ur]dEig, fir]KEn, &c., not ovSeig, ovketi. 

But ov is used with on, wg {that) : and also with ette'i, etteiS}] 
{when, after, and as causal conjunctions, as, since), because they 
relate to actual facts, 

{a. b.) Ov is also {generally) used, when the opinions, &c. of no. 
another person are stated in oblique narration. 

For though these seem to be dependent, they are only distinguished 
from direct assertions mform. 

F 2 

3G 111. [§ 19. ov AND fill. 

111. (c.) In negative propositions, indefinite pronouns and adverbs 
should be translated into Greek by the corresponding negative 

(1) Hence the particles {or neither — nor are to be used for ei^Aer — or 
after a negative ; and tto, nobody, no where, fcr any, any body, any 
where, &c. 

(2) The forms compounded with ov or fir) (as ovdiic, ovn — iiTjSeis, 
^d'its, &c.) are to be used according as the principal negative of the 
proposition is ou (or a compound of oii) or /ji!) (or a compound of /*//). 


1. "Oral' fxev — "f^jjirov fx-qEep (poftwvTai, fietTTOiel mv arol/ac' 
orav C£ ij ■yeifiuva ?) TroXejj.iovQ ^eiaioffi, ra KEktvofxtva Travra ttoi- 
ovaiy. 2. 'Av>)p diKaiog Icttiv ov\ 6 fit] aSiKuir, dW 6(ttiq ciBikup 
hvvafitvoQ fii) flovXerai. 3. M)) ^^r' a^iKriOM, 4. Mj) hoK&fiev 
^pwiTEQ av JiCib)jXida ovK avTiTiireiv avOic av \vTru)f.uOa. 5. M>) 
areXfj top Xoyoy KaTaXiirco jjiei'. 6. "A fiy) Kuridov fiff ctpiXr). 
7. M/jCETrore y>;/x7j firjBs e'iq evpovq efxoL 8. Mjj^ev ttXeov 
avTiJ y E I' rj T a I, uXXa irapaaKEvai^ov, vTtutq kfXE koL ce jj-tj^eIq BiapaXr}, 
9. Ov fii] ^ari icaipoc [it] fiuKpav jiovXov Xejeiv. 10. M?j^£tc 
oiEuQw fXE Xiystv wq BiKaioavvr] e(ttI BiSciktop. 11. Mj) \pEvtTOP 
w Zev Trig in-iovffrjQ EXTriSog. 12. 'Up ovtoq oe £t,r]Tra.TriffE, |U») Boto) 
ciKTfp. 1.3. M>) >/ (jia GE firj^ajjiaiQ vt KYjaciTU). 14. M») rpicrrjg 
fiidfffjiaTOQ Tovfiov fiEracT-^Elp, aXX' iXEvdEpu)g dcipu). 15. OhK Ecrrip 
ovTE TEi^og ovTE ^p//yuara ovt ctXXo Zvai^vXciKTOP ovSep ug yvvi), 
16. Qeoc ovSanij ovcafiijjg aciicog, Kal ovk iarip avrto opoiorepov 
ovCEP 7/ og cip iifiaip yEPOiro ciKaiorarog. 17. To yuoj'oetCfg ovSi- 
■KOTE ovcnfirj ovcajxCjg aXXoiwaiv ovBcfiiap epce^etui. 18. 'flt 
av TO SiKaaTr'ipiov KaTa\p)](pi(Tdrj, napaEodEig roig epSeku teBputu} 
uvdrifjLEpvp' EciP Be ttg apyvpiop KaTa\pr](pifTdrj, aTroTitTUTU) ep epBeku 
}]fXEpaig fiETo. Tijv BiKTjp, ECLv fJ.r] irapa^pTifxa SvprjTai cnroripEiv' £(og 
Be Toil UTrorlcrai Efp^QZ/rw. epo-)(Ol Be k'orwcraj/ ToiffBe rale aiTiaiQ 
Kcu 01 Eig TCI oiKETiKci (TuifiaTa Ei,ajj.apTapoPTEc. 19. 'YirEpcppovovffi 
fXEP v/J-uc, vTrofjLEPOvai B' ov. 20. 'Hp 6 TroTa/dog Baavg BipBpEcri 
irayiai (jlep ov, irvKPolg ci. 21. Su/i/xaj^oe EyEPOfiEda Tolg 'Adrf- 

PUlOig OVK ETTl KaTaCOvXdJGEL TWP EXXt'lPWP, llXX' Eir EkEvdEpwaEi. 

22. ^u)Kp(irr]g ETrifXEXEiadai dEovg epofii^EP apBpioirojp ov-)^ op Tpoirop 
01 aXXoi pon'iCovtnp. 23. 0< "EWjjvec to TrdXai ETpavroPTO Trpog 
XtjcTTEiap, rjyov^EPCJp cipBpwp ov tujp aBvpaT(i)Tu.Tb)P, 24. Mijr' 
oki'e'ite, fxi]T a<priT tirog kukop. 25. Mr/^tvi trvficpopitP OPEiBlffTjg. 
26. El ex^ig i]fjup E7riBE'iL,ai, wg BiBuktop inrip ij apETTj, fifi (bOovt)- 
irric, dXX' ettIBei^op. 27. Et fxt'i 0jj<Tt Tavra aXridfj eTpui, ri ov 
TrapaBiBwKE Tovg o'lKETag ; 28. 'Ear nEpi tov afi^iafirfTijawari kcu 

§ 20. VERBALS IN TfOC.] 114 120. 37 

fit) <prj 6 erspog Toy erepov opduig Xtyfir, ')(^a\ETraivov(Tiv. 29. 
'¥^-)(dpav ovTOQ avT(d irpuQ f/ut, civ t iyu) <pu> i'lv rt /xi] ^w, (prjaii' 
eiyai, 30. 'Eav ov ^c'ktkjj 'ipeaOe avrov, 31. 'Eav /u?) Trpoc- 
TTOt^rat uyutaii/ aKovEiv, firjh' vjueIc sKeivov idiXere ciKovtiv. 32. 
Et rtj'tc yvw'jLiT/j' /L(>; eTriTTj^eiav eliroy, ou^ ot ctTrdirfc rovrtav 
a'lTioi elaiy. 

§ 20. Verbals in riog. 

a. G. eTridvjJirjTioy eitti rrjg apeTfjg, we, you, &c. should desire 114. 
virtue. D. tTrtj^Etpjjrioj' tffrt rw epyw, z()e, 3/0?*, &c. should 
set about ^Ae work. A. k:oXoot£o»' tffrt 7ov Tra'iSa, we, yoxi, 
&c. should punish the hoy. h. affKririoy ecTTt aroi rtjy apEn'jy, 
or dffKrjria iari aoi 7/ dptri], you should cultivate virtue. c. 
TTEKTrioy Early uvroy, we must persuade him. TTEiariov Early avrf, 
we must obey him. 

N. B. These examples may all be translated passively. Virtue 
should be cultivated, &c. 

These verbals are formed both from trans, and intr ans. y/erhs; and also from 115. 
mid. (deponent) verbs, since they are sometimes used in a passive meaning. 

(fl) They are passive, and take the agent in the dative ; but they 116. 
also govern the object in the same case as the verbs from which they 

(a) When used in the neuter (with the agent in the dat. omitted), 117. 
they are equivalent to the participle in dus used in the same way, 
and express : ' one must, ought,' &c. ; ' we, you, &c. must, ought,' 
&c. ; or, * is to be,' &c. 

(&) When formed from transitive verbs, they may also be used in 118. 

agreement with the object, the agent being still in the dative. 

Here, too, they exactly agree with the participle in dus. 
Two peculiarities in Attic Greek deserve notice : 119. 

1. The neut.plur. is used as well as the neut. sing. 

2. The agerit is sometimes put in the accus. as well as the object. 

(c) When a verb has two constructions with different meanings, 120. 
the verbal adjective sometimes has both : thus TreiaTEoy with accus. 
has the meaning oi persuade (jrEidEiv rtm) ; with the dat. that of to 
obey (TTEideadai riyi). 


1. OvK advfxrjTEOy, iZ aySpeg 'Adr]ya~ioi, ro'ig irapovai Trpuyiiaaiy, 
ovB' Et iravv (pavXtog t\eiy SokeI. 2. Avrfj rrj ^pvxjj dEarioy avra 
Tu Trpay/jara. 3. UpoaipETEoy fXETpioy fiETct ciKaioavytjg fidWoy 
y fiiyay ttXovtov jj-et adiKiag. 4. Yldaay fxiy kukiciv (pEVK- 

38 123 — 125. [§21. double accusative. 

Ttoi' ifTTi To'lc yovr e')(^ov(Tt, fJuXiffra ds rifv irXtovti^iav. ,'). 
Ot l\.aKEhai}i6vioi. opCJi'TeQ T))y \\dj]vaiu)i' av!i,oiJii'i}t' cvvaj.uv e^o- ' 
ftovrro, Kul ovkItl aiaa-^^^eroy tvoioiivTO, uW It: ly^e ipr]r ia tcoKn 
drai TTcio-f; TrpoOu^/^, Kui KciOainETea 7/ lo-^vc (raurrjc rJ/C ttoXecjo). 
6. Et TifidfrOai fiovXei, wcpeX^jTia <tol »'/ ttuXiq Igtiv. 7. OvTt 
li, upov (iu)fi6p, ovre tK rfjc avdpu)irivr}Q (pvaeijjg a<paipeTeov tov 
iXtov. 8. To >' ftovXo/XEPOv Evhainova Eirai auxppoarvrtjy 


TOV KaKov, airaXXaKTEOv t(JTiv >/^t<>' tov avOptoTTov. 10. ITet- 
aTEoy Earh' iffxlv tov liySpa. 11. IlttoTt'o)' Early yfuy rolg 

{The Ephemeron.) 
12. WEp\ Tuy "Yiraviy ■Korafiuy top irspl ^oinropoy top Kififiipioy, 
yiyvETai ^woy TrrEpiordy TErpcnrovy, Zrj ce tovto kciI ttetetch e^ 
£U)dtyov yut'xP' ^ilXrjg' KarafEpofiiiov ^e tov >/Xtoi», airo^apaivETai, 
KaX cifxa cvojiEvo) cnrodyiicTKEi, fiiwaay ijjxipuy fxiay' Sio Kcii /caXeTrot 

§ 21. Double Accusative. 

123. a. Qijfiaiove XP'//^"'""^ yT-qaav^, they asked the Thebans for 
money. h. ov (te ctTroKpvxpcj TuvTa, I will not hide this from you. 
c. Tovg tvoXeixlovq ti) y vavy dtrEtTTEpijicafXEy, we have deprived 
the enemy of their ship. d. SicdarKovai rove; Trai^ciQ (no<ppocrvyr]y, 
they teach the boys modesty {inoderation or self-restraint), e. tov 
ira'ica i^ilvrrE roy ^.'T-wJ'a, he stript the boy of his tunic. 

124. Verbs of takiny away from, teaching, concealing, asking, repay- 
ing, putting on or off, take two accusatives. 

JO"). [^-a** £' /*') ^"^ .... (if not through =) but for ....]. 

Obs. 1. The double ace. is, of course, also found after verbs that in the 
pass, are followed by a nominative ; such as verbs of making, calling, 
thinking, declaring any body any thing: also in the phrases to do well 
or ill to any body ; speak well or ill of any body, when the well or ill is 
expressed by a neut. adj. Thus ■KOitiv (Trpdmiy, ipydi^tcjQai) dyaOd 
(or (caicd) Ttva' Xiytiv {i'nriii') ay add {or kuku) riva. A second 
ace. also follows many other verbs that are modified by a neut. pronoun or 
indef. numeral. 

Obs. 2. A second accusative is also found after many verbs that take an 
accusative cognatee significationis (127): the verb with its kindred accu- 
sative forming virtually a single notion. Thus, naiStiav iraiSiieiv (to 
teach a lesson), ypa(pr)v ypd^taQai {to write a writ = to indict, or im- 
peach) : both of which might be followed by an ace. of person. 

3 From xpaojitai (see 8, a). It is only in the plur. that it means money, &c. 
Properly, a thing used. 

1 aiTtladai in the mid. {sibi aliquid expetere) does not take two accusatives, but 
one ace. and Trapd ; or one noun and an infin. Poppo. [^A<paipel(jOai rivog ti 
is also found : seldom rtvd rn'Of.] 

§ 21. DOUBLE ACCUSATIVE.] 125. 39 


1. OvSiva TTWTTorf ypa<pi)y ey f)a>//a/n*j »/. 2. 'O TroXfjUOf 
aeifxyrjcrroy iraiStiay avrovQ iTraiBevffey. 3. Oi) XP') /^'f/o'^'C 
irovr)pa.Q fxijxel crdai rovg TroXf/xt'ouc. 4. "i2p*:w<Tav Trttirac 
roue (.leyicTTUVQ opKOVC- 5. 'Eyite 6 7raTi)p Tt)y rHy irai^ioy 
Trai^eiay yXiffXpojg 'irpeipey. 6. Toy avBpa ofxoXoys'i Tvirrtiv 
Tag irXrjydg. 7. Hulg fxiyag fxiicpuy t^wi' X"'**'''" '^Tepoy Troika 
fiiKpoy fxiyay ej^oira ^irwra iK^vnag avroy tov fJ-ey tavrov 
eKelyoy 7) j-ifieffe, tov B' EKsiyov avrog iviSv. 8. MeXXtre roue 
0fouc airely rayadci. 9. UpdrreTe avTov ra -^^^pi'i fxara. 
10. ^(OKpdrrjg tovq eavrov enidvijiovyTag ovK iTrpaTT ero XP^]- 
juara. 11. 'Hpwrwj' Kupoj' to. Eo^ayra ttj errpaTi^. 12. 
AioytiT<i)y Tiiv Ovyaripa eKpvxpe Toy ddyuTOV tov ciy^pog. 13. 
'O )^po)oc (vfu 7/ e/xneipia ra ju») /caXaic e'x^*'''" EKSiBdrTKEi Tovg 
dydpcj-TTOvg. 14. Taur' 'icrTiy a e'yw Sw/.pa'7>)v eTratj/Ji. 15. 
Touc ciadeyovyTag ola vfipil^Ei, tL Cel Xeyety ; 16. 'H yj; roue 
dpLCTTU depaTTEVovTag avT))y irXE'iaTa dyadd dvTnroiEl. 17. 
'O TToXXa KUKa CpCJy Tovg ctXXovc ^ot Trdcr-^Ei uvTog woXXd 
ETEpa. 18. Ot TToyrjpol ueI tl kukov Epydi^oyTai Tovg tyyuraVw 
kavTuiy oyTug. 19. TavTi fiE iroiovai.y. 20. Tt [x Elpydaw ; 
21. 'r))y QEoy TOvg crTE<pdvovg aEarvXijKaaiv. 22. To I'lfxicrv 
Tijg icaTTiyopiag i^avToy dwEiTTEprjcra. 23. IldtTwv dTreore- 
pr](TdE; ovxi ^ojKEag; ov lluXae; 24. Ta aTEpofiEva rrjg 
avTwy dpETiig icai^uig to aurwv kpyoy ipycKTsrai. 25. Tor diro- 
aTEpovyTU TOvg ^EtnroTag euvtov KoXd^Eig. 26. Touc Bsfffio- 
(popovg tu owXa dftjp 1} [XEOa. 27. Ot irXEoyEKTai Twy ^iXXwj' 
dfaipovyTdL ■)(^pri fxar a. 28. Tfjg SojpEag dcpTjpidt], 29. Ata 
ye vfxdg avTOvg ndXai dy diroXioXEiTE, 30. ^atVovrat ot "EXXjj- 
j/EC KpcniicravTEg dy Tu>y ^aaiXiwg Trpay/xaVwr, £i jxri Bid Kupo>'. 
31. 'E^OKOui' dy TravTU eti e^(o Ka-aXajOE'iy, eI fxrj Bid Ttjy ekei- 
vov fiiXXifaiy. 32. Ot 'Adrjydloi 'AiroXXoBiopov tov Ku^t- 
Kr]vov TToXXaKic (TTpaTJ]yoy eXXovto, 33. Kvpiog yEvofis- 
VOQ 6 IlspiKXrig rj/c ^uiJ.ov (^aiiTt] yap vfjiTog dfEiarijKEi and Tuty 
'Adr]vaiioy) icai KoXdffag TOvg ahiovg rrjg dnocxTdaEUJg, £7rp d^aro 
rovg ^afiiovg Tdg Eig Tijy TroXiopKiay y EyEyr]fjiEyag Ba- 
irdvag, Ti^rjrrdfXEyog avTdg TaXdyTWV BiaKoaiwy. 34. OvKovy EiKug 
ioTiv aXXov ye Bi] r) jxaiyofXEvoy dyBpa yiXwTa TidEddai ra ralg 
TToXecri vofx I'CofXEva, 35. Koiv>)j/ irpotrriKEi ndyrwy ixrjTEpa 
Tijy iraTpiBa yo [li ^Eiy, xai "^apiaTijpia rpo^wv dnodiBoyai Kai 
TTJg Twy vojuioy avTwy yywtTEOJc. 36. ^epsrjg orpareuw*' ettI Tt)y 
'EXXdBa ■n-poE^ETTEfx-ipE Ki'ipvKag Kal vpoaETa^Ey, Elg irdaag Tag TrcIXeie 
livai Koi roue "EX X >/ I'ct f uIteIv vBii)p Kctt yj/J'. 37. BafftXewc 

40 127 — 131. [§ 22. THE ACCUSATIVE. 

ayadov epyoy etrri rove a.p-)^^ojxivovQ wc TrXtiora a y aii h -KOiEiv . 
38. H yi\ TOVQ apiarTa depairevo vrag avrfju TrXftora ayada 
avTiTTOiil. 39. Of Trovijpoi del ti kukov epydiiovTai roiig iyyvraTU) 
tavToji' orrag. 40. lloXXa kuko. elirev dvdpujirovC' 41. Ta 
ttrXara kXeyov dWijXovg, 42. Sw/'r»jc Kf^i (Ttjcppoffv frj v 
iEiBa^e Toiig (rvyuyrag. 43. Hoiovaiv ol Tf)(^v~iTca, d ol 
cicd(7KaXoi aiiTOvg iwai^tvaav. 44. Tpta jiova Tovg TralBag 
TTCuBivovaii' 01 Ilipffui, iwn-evtiy Kai ro^eveif Kai dXrjdii^eadai. 45. 
Ayafxm'imo vf^dg rovg tCjv irpoyoviov tu)v ifjJLeriptoy KivBvvovg. 
46. Ov ae K.pui/'W T7)y ifxijy yycjfirjv. 47. 'Epwrtj <t£ rag tuiv 
(plXwy Tv-^ag. 48. NOv ^j) ey^e noXXol oIketch (tItov alrovct, 
TTuXXol ^£ I nana. 49. Ti)y ttoXiv tCjv 'Adriyalwu ov^Eig ay 
EiraLvtaeuv, on roaovTov TrXfjdog ■)(^pr][j,uTbjy elcnrpu^aaa rovg 
ffvixixw^^ovg elg Tt)y aKpoTroXiy dyiiveyKey, 

§ 22. The Accusative after Passive and Neuter Verbs. 

127. a. dtpatpidelg^ rijy a p^f^i] y, having fiad his government taken from 
him. b. 6 SwkparTjc iirirpeTTETat Ti)y St air ay, Socrates is en- 
trusted with the arbitration ; TTETriarevixai * tovto, this is entrusted 
to me, or / am entrusted with this. c. EKKOwEtg rovg (xjidaXfiovg, 
having had his eyes knocked out. d. pE~iy ydXa, to flow with milk ; 
i^rjy'^ (3ioy, to live a life; KiyBvytveiy Kiylvyoy, to brave a danger; 
TToXefjLoy 7roX£fiE~iy, to wage a war ; virvov Koifidirdai, to sleep a sleep, 
e. EyiKridE rovg [japfidpovg ri)y ly Wapadtoyi ^d'^^rjy, he con- 
quered the barbarians in the battle of Marathon. 

128. The accus. of the active becomes the nom. of the passive. 

129. (o) If the verb governs two accusatives, that of the^erson becomes 
the nominative ; that of the thing continues to be the object of the 
passive verb, as in Latin. But also, 

130. (J)) The dat. of the active sometimes becomes the nom. of the 
passive ; the object of the active continuing to be the object of the 
passive in the accusative (^knirpiTrtiy, ivKTrEVEiy rivi ri). 

131. i^d) Intransitive verbs take an ace. of a noun of kindred meaning ; 

and (as in pt'iv ydXa) of one that restricts the general notion of the 

verb to a particular instance. 

(e) Here the ordinary accus. of the object is found together with this 
limiting accusative. 

2 aip-aiQuo. See * aipku). 

^ iyitt Tnarivojiai (vtto tivoq), T am trusted, confided in, or believed. 
* ?aiu, xpciofiai, neivciu), Sitpdoj {live, use, hunger, thirst), contract at into t) 
(not a). ?w, i^yg, &c. 

§ 22. THE ACCUSATIVE.] 131. 41 


1. 'E^e/ttoito ?£ TU)V TToXcju/wj' avvuXiy^iroi tiveq, koX to. /.n) 
hmiifxtra rwr viroi^vyiuji' I'lpnai^oi', Kal a\\»'//\otc knayovTO Trtfjt avTwr. 
'EXitVorro 0£ cat tmv crrpaTi(/)-uiv o'i re ^ it<pQun fiivoi vno tTjq 
■)^i6rOQ TOVQ 6(pda\jxovQ, o'i re hiro tov \1/v-)(ovq tovq SuktiiXovq 
tCjv TTOcCJi' a-n-0(je(Ti]7r OTEQ. 2. Ot KopivOiui Tavra eireaTaX- 
fjiiroi cD'E^wpou)'. 3. Et ^vyyu)pi]at.Te, koX aXXo Tt fxe'ii^ou 
Evdiic k-mTax^^nazaQe. 4. Oi orparjjyot UTror uriBiyrec rae 
i;e<paXaQ ETeXevrrjaar. 5. 'Etjputv tov <i>iXnrwov viTEp c'to^'/C tov 
ocptiaXfiov EKKEKojx^Evor, T))v kXe'iv KarEuyora, -ijv X£'P«> 
TO (tkeXoc TreirripwuEvov {Dem.). 6. Ae'i tov aTpaTiwTTjv (pojJEla- 
dai TOV ap)(0VTa, eI fiiXXEi ^uXaicac <pvXaiEiv. 7. WQ^vrjaiv o 
Btjiiiog EtTTiv 6 dp'^^^tjv Tcig apy^^dg. 8. Ot kpuivTEg IdiXovaL cov- 
Xsiag ^ovXeveiv o'lag ox/3' av ^ovXng ovSEig. 9. 7jt](TEig ftiov 
KpcLTiOTOv, j/v dvfiov Kparfjg {Men.). 10. Adyw ftiov E^rjg. 11. 
Ilotoe av e'it] ddvaTog KaXXiojv ?} bv av /cctXXtora Tig cnrodavoi; 
12. 'EtccZ/yiiouc (TTpaTEiag ttoXv citto -Tjg euvtCjv ovk kli^Eaav ol 
"EXXr]i'Eg, 13. Tov hpov ttoXejuoj' kar pa.TEV(7av. 14. 'II 
KipKvpa avTapKY] dEmv ekeito. 15. To>' Ttj ttoXei Se'i crvfifipovTa 
yc'ifxov ^vrjaTEVEiv EKaa-ov. 16. Aciyw ftiov ^rJQ StSicjg kuI 
TpEi.i(i}r. 17. AiofJiai SiKaiav hi-qaiv. 18. Ot cwZpt'ioi out 
al(XXpovQ (poftovg (poftovvTai, our' alaxpa ddppr] Oapppvaiv. 
19. At'^ttto dv av ^rjv tov ftiov diravTa ridofXEVog iicovag rag 
[AEyidTag; 20. 'Ictrpol ^EivoTaTOi dv yivoiVTO, eI clvtoi Tvaaag 
voaovg Kauoitv. 21. Tig KivEvvog fiEii^iov dvOpdjTroig y 'X^EijJ.uivng 
(opa ttXeIv ti]v ddXaarjav ; 22. Ovk e(ttlv oIkeIv oiKiav cIvev 
Kaxoii {Gil.). 23. Ael yvva'iKa ev oIkeIv Tyv oliciav. 24. Tdfiovg 
6(701 aiTEvhoV(TL JJ.)) TTETTpWjUf rouf fxdTr]v TTOvovaiv {EuT.). 25. Nui' 
(TavTO) TUvavTia crirEvSEig. 20. STrow^ctfo^ev tijv fpovrjaiy 
Kul raXXci Trdvra Tci icaXd. 27. T t] v TrapaaicEvi) v dnatjav 
kiTEiyovTai. 28. YlXEiOTodval, -KpovQv fxiidi] tijv ^v fiftdcriv. 29. 
Bia(7a«T0ot kftovXovTO tov egttXovv. 30. T//>' ii^ovi/v kpisJTw, 
eI oiiK dyadov kaTiv. 31. XaXtTroj^ hoKEl to dizoKpiv auQai to. 
kpwTuifiEva. 32. 'Arap (xioJTrdv rd ye diKai' oh ■x^pi'i ttote {Eur.). 
33. SivWTrrei tov Xoyov yfxwv. 34. Ovhkv dXXo ^iSdtrKETai 
dvdpWTTog 7} k TTL (T T {] fJi 1] V . 35. 'Ytto twv k\QpiI)V TTEpiavXaraL 
irdaav T})v oh a lav. 36. TiauaipEpj'rig vivo ftaaiXiwg vEwaTi 
ETvyyavE TTEirpay i^iEvog rovg (j)6povg. 37. Avro toijto to ovofxa 
ol OeoI opdiLg EKXijdr] aav. 38. 'H KaTacppovrjcng ek tov TroXXovg 
(T(t)dXXEiv TO kvavriov ovoyia dcppouvvr] ijetw vofxaaTCii. 39. 
Atj^EKn iifilv »/ X'^P" TTcttra slg cvvufxiv iaa fAopia vEVE^r}Tai. 
40. 26/i7ra(7a >/ X^^F" kcitcl Iw^EKa fxipr] ^lavEvifjirjrai. 41. 


42 134—137. [§ 23. the accusative. 

'O 'AffWTTOc TToro/uoe eppvT] jue'yac. 42. 'O Ayefioc eKiryel fxeyac, 
43. "EoTt Kpi'i t'7] j/^£oe iJ^aroc K-ai a(bBovoQ piovffa. 44. Tw 
Ilv^wj't OpaffViOfiii'ui Kai iroWu pioi'Ti Ka9' vfiCJi' ovk li^a. 45. 
'O o^Xoc TrXft'wj' K"at irXeitot' liri^pti. 46. IloXuc role avfi- 
ioepriKOGH' tyKtiT ai. 

{The Fox without a tail.) 

47. 'AXwTTTJ^ VTTO TDOQ TTay'lloQ Tl)v OVpCtU dTTfJK'OTTfTffa, tTTEt^f) 

^t' cuT-^vyj^v aftiuroy ijytlro Tuy [noy i-)(tiv, eyyio Sely kciI rag 
uWag (tXwTTEK'ac £(C to uvtu tt poa ay ay i7y, 'lya tm KoiyJj nddei to 
i^ioy eXaTTCOfia (rvyKpvxpt], Kat Ci) cnrdauQ ddpoiaaaa irapr^vEi avralg 
rhg ovpaQ airoKu-nreiy, Xiyovan, uq ovk cnrpETrec fxovov tovto, ctXXct 
/cat TTspifTaov tl avra'ig ftdpog ivpoaripTr]Tai. Tovrojy ^i rig vtro- 
Tvy(ov(ja i(j>r], w uvrr), aXX' t'i aoi fxr) tovto avyiipepzy, ovk a.y ijfTiv 
avTO (TUj'elJovXevcrag. 

§ 23. The Accusative (^continued). 

134. a. KaXog to (riLjia, beautiful in person. Swcpctrjjc roi/j'o/xa*, 
Socrates hy name. irXi'iTTOnai Ti)y icetpaXi'iy, I am struck on the 
head, irdyra tv^utfxoytl, he is hajypy in all respects, h. ri x/"^" 
fiai ® avru ; what use shall I make of it ? what am I to do with it ? 
OVK oTca 6,Ti aroL y^puixai, I donH know what use to make of you ; 
I don't know what to do with you. c. iroXvy yjpovov, a long time, 
Tptig oXovg fxijyag, three whole months. rd iroXXd, mostly, (for) 
most of his time. d-rri-^Ei ^eko. araciovg, it is ten stadia off. d. tov- 
vavTiov^, on the contrary, to Xtyo^ityoy, as the saying is. 

135. (a) The accus. is used after nouns and adjectives where (caret, as 

to, might be supposed understood. 

It thus limils the preceding word to a particular part, circum- 
stance, &c. 

130. {b) The accus. of a neut. pronoun or any general expression is 
often used in this way after verbs that would govern a substantive in 
another case. 
137. (c) The accusative is used to express duration of time, and the 
distance of one place from another. 

Ohs. From this use of the Ace. to denote space, time, and quantity, 
very many adverbial expressions have originated, (a) T-qv Ta\i<JTr}v 
(656v), celerrime, rriv 7rpwri]v, primum, Ttjv tuQilav, rede, paKpdv, 
far, dXXr}v (cat dWtfv, sometimes here, sometimes there, &'C. II. »//, 116, 
TToXXa C' dvavra, Kuravra, Trapavrd re, SoxP-f-d t yWov. 

^ z= TO ovopa. 

' The subj. used as in 98, c expresses more doubt as to what is to be done than 

7 — 

= TO tvavTiov. 

§ 23. THE ACCUSATIVE.] 137. 48 

— (6) ar]fitpov, to-day, av(>iov, io-morrow, apxf}V, tiqv a(>xi]v (pro- 
perly at the first), omnino {at all), r'iXog, to TiXevTalov, finally, at 
last, viov, lately, Tvportpov, TrpCJTov, rb vpwTov, to irpiv, to aiiTiKa, 
ravvv, TO TrdXai, to iraXaiov, to Xoittuv *, &c. — (c) TrnXXd, sccpe, 
TO. iroXXa, plernnique, ttoXv, fiiyct, iityaXa, n'lyiOTa, oXiyov, /.iiKpov, 
fiiKpa, cvxvd, fioKpa, laov, tooovto, Trdpra, ckc. So also, fiifKOC, 


1. 'ATTEXEt >y nXa-aio rwy Qr}j3uti' araliovc, kfi^Ofxi]KovTa. 2. 
Mc'yapa aTrtj^et ^vpuKovawv ovrt irXovv ttoXvi' ovte 6o6t', 3. 
'OXt'yoi aroXoi fxeydXoi ttoXv ano rf/Q savTiov arrdpavreQ KaTtjpOwfravt 
4. At aTTorbai iviavTOV eaoi'Tcii. 5. '^ev^ofJiEyoQ ovcac XayQcivei 
TToXvy j^pdi'OJ'. 6. 'ii nuryi ^ipi'iyr] Trapdi^fiyoy Toy f^ioy iijjJy. 
7. 'Hyuf'pct op^a'yn£»'ot '■p"'?? Tavrrjy te slpyd^^oyTO ^.at Tijy rerap- 
ryjy ical Trjs Trc'juTrnjc A'fXP' apiarov. 8. UpuJTayopag rpiTTjy i'jSr] 
yfxipay liriEtSi'iiiijtcey. 9. Surej^wc jj^rj TpiToy irog tovti (rrpa- 
Tr]y(.~t. 10. Kai x^tg Kcii TpiTrjy ijfxipay to uvto tTrparrov. 11. 
^ ATTr]yyi\dr] ^iXnnrog vfily rpiToy ?/ TETuprov tTog tovti '\lpa~wy 
TEiyog ■KoXiopKU)y. 12. 'l^hiXdajjey tTog tovtI TpiToy tig HdyaiCTOy. 
13. ^loyiyzi ^ovXog r)v oyofua Mdyr]g. 14. Av^og £(tti to ye yog. 
15. niycapog Boiurug i)y Trjy iraTpiha, 16. IlaiTa aocpiv ou^ 
oTov TE dydpwTToy ilyai. 17. Tt Tojy cnrdyTOjy gv xp//(Tt/Joc £« ; 18. 
Ti ^») ■x^prjaoiutda tovti^ ; 19. Tj7 tcpi)yr] tu ivXtiaTov dt,ia E^pwiTO 
(ad res maximi momenti). 20. 'AW ?'/, -o Xeyofieyoy, KUTOTny 
eopTTJg j]i;ofjiey i^ai vffTipovjjLey ; 21. T?)>' KapSiav rj ;//ux''/''> >) '^>''' 
Set ahro oyofidaaL TrXr]yeig re /cat ^tj^^QeJc vtto rwf' ej' (piXoa-ocpla 
Xoytjy, ovK ediXio Xeyeiv oioy f/y ttXijv Tolg ^eSrjyfiiyoig. 22. ^ayepog 
7iy ^(OKpdTTjg oh tCjv ra aio^ciTa irpog wpay, ctXXa rioy Tag \pv)(^ag 
TTpoc apET^y eZ TTEipvKOTwy efiifiEyog. 23. /^lacpepei yvyfj dySpog rijv 
tpvaiy. 24. KaXoc tort ra o^fjiaTa. 25. KaKog e(tti Ti)y xpy^V*'- 
26. ^a'l'jjc i^ai yywixrjy iKayog, (cat rd TroXifiia dXKifJog i)y. 27. 
'AyicTTT] ^epavXag to aCjjxa ovk dfviig, cat r>)>' \pvxi)y ouv ay£»'V£t 
ai'^pt iotcw'e. 28. Ta tTTirfjhia ovte to ai/rtKa tVt eexo'' o"^^ ''" 

XoiTTOl' iVl f'/i£XX0)/ £^£11'. 29. To XoiTTOy fliy J'/PX^*'? "' ^' £7r££- 

Ooi'TO. 30. "Oi' aV 7rpo^t^o»/ra Xanjidyiocri, tovtu) obStlg dv airtiaairo 
Tov XoiTTov. 31. 'O Adf-twy rw YlpoSko) TvoXXd irXijaid^Ei. 32. 
Ot AaiCE^at/ifW'ioi i^tTaffTpa-OTTECevoi'TUL irvKva. 33. Ka/vo»' /jtoi' ot 
rwv -n-Xovaidjy irct'iEeg tu iroXXd i^waiy. 34. AvTrrjpoTepoy ek flatri- 
Xi(j)g l^iwTTiv (payijyai ?) (rj)v) apx'7»' M'/ fiaenXEvcrai. 35. n£7r£io-/tat 
roi/9' tfcayov TrpoXci/jfTj' i]fx~iy eiyai TJjy TrpioTrjy. 36. QoXXwi' 
Xoyti^v yEi'Oiuiycjy riXog ov^Ey iTrpd-^^dr], 37. "Eoo^e Trputroy Eg 

* TO XoiTTOj' = henceforth or thenceforth : tou Xoivov = hereafter, after that, 
i. e. a< awi/ future time ; not implying the w/io/e unbroken space of the future, as 
TO Xonrov does. 

G 2 

44 140 — 144. [§ 24, the genitive. 

X/o)' aurolc ttXeiv, to reXev-alor ^s ic 'EXXj/ffTrovror atpiKiadat. 
38. 'II 2a£X/a Trporepov Tpivajcpm tKuXe'iro. 39. 'II i^offoc to 
^EVTspov twtTra(7E Tolg 'AOrjialoic, Trupif.uive ^e to /jep vfrrepov 
oiiK 'iXaaaoy ei'icivTov, TO Se irpoTepor Kn\ ovo, 40. 'Ycile cti vizup- 
^ai tim) cij/J-OTiicw , irpwTOv ^ev iXEvdipur tivai, ^EVTspoy o' utto twu 
irpoyovioy tvtpyEdiai' rtrci npuc Tor' h~ii.ioy cturw vn-up^£i)', Tp'iTOv 
ai6(bpova Kcil jjETpioy ^f") ""E'/jv/xeVhi avToi', TETupTOV Evyrwfiova 
Kcil cvyaToy EiTTE'ii', Tri^TTTOv av^pEWV Elvai Ti]v ihv^^ijv. 41. At'yt- 
TUi TO ^vfiTrar Tptg yEyEvriatiai to ptvua Etc rJ/C A'tri'Tjc- 42. To 
t,vfnrav yvwTE avayKoiov or vfx'ii' atSpd(JLy hyado'ig yiyvEadai. 
43. Sourou '(.yEKa to j-iiyicTTov ttoie'i Tovg Xoyovc. 

§ 24. The Genitive. 

[The fundamental notion of the ,y:enitive is separation from, proceeding 
from; i. e. the notion of the prepositions /row, out of. B.] 

140. a. 01 (jjpoyinoL ToJy a vOpdjiruyy, sensible persons. ovCE\g 'EXXij- 
pu)y, none of the Greeks. ?/ i^uyiaTr] tcov roatoy, the greatest of 
diseases, h. Tplg Trie rifxipag, three times a day. ttoT. yjjc ; to 
{at) what part of the world ? irov yj/c; in ivliat part of the world? 
TTopph) Tijg y]XiKiag, far advanced in years. c. (.Swicd trot rtSv 
Xpiii-idTO)y, I gave you (some) of my money. irh'Eiy v^uTog, to 
drink some water, iadisiy tcpetiy, to eat some meat (of a particular 
time : with the accusative the meaning would be to do it habitually). 
d. oTEfarog vuKlyBioy, a crown of hyacinths. hivlpov TvoXXuiv 
ETwv, a tree many years old. yy ynp a^^w/ia^oc ^lEyaXov, for 
he was of cjreat consideration, e. ^lapTrdi^ovai tu Ifxa tov Kaicodai- 
/.loyoc, they are plundering my property, wretched man that I am ! 
rj/e avai^Eiag, what impudence ! 

141. (a) Partitives, numerals, superlatives, &c. govern the genitive. 

142. (h) 'J^'he genitive is used with adverbs of time and place. 

143. (^0 The genitive also expresses the material out of which any 
thing is made ; and generally such properties, circumstances, &c. as 

we should express by ' of 

Obs. 1. (6) Our indef. art. must be translated by the Greek {def.) art. 
in expressions liite ' once a day,' &c., where 'a' is equivalent to ' each.' 

Obs. 2. (t>) The geri. stands after possessive protiouns in a kind of appo- 
sition to the personal pronoun implied. It may be often translated as an 
exclamation. The gen. is also used alone, or after interjections, as an 

144. Phrases. — Till late in llic dtnj {n'sxpi rroppuj ri/g yniciag). JVillingly 
at least {tKojv iivai °). So to say, to speak generally (we iirog I'nrtlv ", 
showing that a general assertion is not absolutely true). 

» Such short phrases with the infin. are inserted in the sentence: oQtv ^») 
tKovaa tlvai oiiK cnroXt'nnTai r) i^jvxh- See 151, a. 

§ 24. THE GENITIVE.] 144. 45 


1. At (plKoTlfXOl TWV ^IKTEOJl' TW ITTCliru) TTapntVl'Ol'TCll. 2. 

AeI Tu)i' \ayb)v tovq ^nraiovc kuI rwi' Trpct'^Ewi' rctc firj^if 
TcpuQ Tov (3ioy (pspovffaQ ai'aipely lie iraaCjv tCjv oiarpt/jo))'. 3. 
Tate iiUKTeiaiQ rCbr vewv \s.rilov lifivXaaaor . 4. Ot Trpo- 
i-^ovTi-c tG)V TTOtj/rwi' fid\i(TTa ETTi ra'tQ i:a\ovjj.iraie y\u)jxaiQ 
id-Kovhuaar. 5. Out^'ra Xi\i]dey uaov lia^ipovtJL twv Xoywr ol 
Xeyofxeyoi rCbv a.yuyiyrit)CKO} 6. "Lochia ^xuvvv twv 
KTrjfxa.Tb)^ adaynrov. 7. IToXXot twv cipOpwirwy (la rag 
uKpaaiac ovk e/xfJiiyovin rolg Xoyiufio'iQ. 8. 'OX/ya ruiy iiriTi]- 
^eiuiy tt^or. 9. Ov^eig arGpwTro^v iikteI to XvffiTsXovy. 10. 
'H^t'/vT/jTO ot ^uo rwj' (3a.(TiXi(i)y. 11. Koi auroe i'jdsXe tu)V 
fX(.v6vTU)v elvai {one of those who remained), 12. 'Hr (.at 6 
SwKparjjc rwv a^^i MtAj/roi' gt paTtvo f-iiywv. 13. Ot ar ov 
iy To'iQ TtXeioiQ {ay^pacri) duiyiyu>yTai a)'£7rt/\?;7rroi, ovtoi twv y e- 
paiTspuv yiyyovrai {reckoned among the elders). 14. 'II 
ZfXeia sfTTi TviQ 'Afft'ac. 15. Tov QayciTOV yyovy-ru TrdiTfc ot 
ct/Wot rwj' jxeyiaTwy KciKwy eiyai. 16. Ot TroXf/^iot tre/xov 
'■'K y'7C' 17. 'A(j)ii](Ti TWV aix/zoX wrw V. 18. Mtrptwc c'tTro- 
Aau£ rwi' ySoywy. 19. Aoywj' « Aurrtac ftart'a roue curdrrac. 
20. Mayj'r;<7ta vpoafipEi TVEVT^KoyTa TciXavTU tov lyiavTov. 21. 
'O oTrXtTrjQ ^po)(jLt>/v iXni-i.fiays Tfjc j/^tpag. 22. KpEtrrov r) 
pou)V <piX(i)y ay iXr^y KEKTijaBai. 23. 'Opwfft (Twpovc triTuyv, 
i,vXu)y, XiBwr. 24. Tore ^tti' r}v o tov daXXov arefayOQ 
TifJiioc, yvi'l ^E Kal 6 xpu(Toi)e KaTaTre(pp()}'r]Tai. 25. 'EkeI Xiyovai 
pEly TToXv TTVp Kal TTVpOC; -TTOTClflOVQ /LtEyaXouc- 2G. OvfTt'ov 
Ej^fi ^pvcrou r) ciXXou Tiyog kti) [xutuq. 27. ' Arrtrt t^' w/i£- 
Ttpay TWV fiapftapwy '^wpav. 28. K£'p^"^'pa^' vTroXafyopTES pt^ 
yifiwv '° tl^oi'.' [Objective genitive: usually translated by pre- 
positions ; with, to, for, towards, against, &c.] 29. 'AKuovdywv 
TivEQ Ar) fiocrOiyovg (liiXia kcu 'Adrjyaiwv Evvoia EirEieovprjirav. 
30. Ot ijaaovEQ vTrifjEvov r>)v twv KpEtaaoywv SovXe iay. 31. 
Ttiij^ KUKwy (Tvvovrriaq (pEvyE ajXETaaTpETTTi. 32. Ot "EXXrjvec 
ovhev wpo TWV Tpwtiewy ^i' a[.ii^iav dXXriXwv adpooi eVposav. 
33. AiKTfre roe A a k£^oi/io vt w j' airovodQ. 34. 'Etupwi' tov 
TWV AaiCE^ai fxo 1' Iwv ttoXej-Iov <T(pl(7iv Eao^Evov. 35. 'O Xoyoc 
TOVQ "EXXrjyuQ Trapa/caXfT £7rt tijv twv fiapfidpwv (TTpuTEtav. 
36. "Ayua TJj TWV HXaraiw v ett ttrrpaT Eia EorTpuTEvcrav ettI 
XaXKi^ECtg, 37- AyijiotrQii'TiQ T))y Li? L)(^Eipr](Tiv twv 'EwnroXwv 
ettoieIto. 38. 'H 'Pdooc ttjc ftaenXiwQ ap^J/C Eir it Ei-)(^icr fia r)v. 

1° P'lq, TiVOQ (=: invito aliquo) against his will. 

46 144. [§ 24. THE GENITIVE. 

39. Ov X6y(i)v Tovg ayojpa£ irporidefxev, aW epyojv. 40. 
^Eiripy^Erai irore vuawv »/ iroXifKov (pdopa. 41. *H fjtera \pii(j>ov 

tt^tfcou Karay I'locTEMc t) x^'P' iKTwrro to kouteIv. [Gen.= 

on account of, about, concerning.'\ 42. Ov KuKovpyoQ fAjji ovS' evo^oq 
Tw tCjv KaKovpyior vofxu). 43. Oi AaiCESaifioyioi keXevovcti to 
MeyapEwi' \p i) (j) la fj. a KudciipE'lj'. 44. 'Hv 6 Tfjc fiXajSriQ vjxlv 
vofiug 7rd\at. 45. "OttXwj' cnrojooXrJQ e(ttu> Sikt] pKpHivTwv. 46. 
E(V£/\av)'£r£ avTci' etc tovc tov irpuy ficiTOQ Xoyovg, 47. Taiv 
uKovaiojp afiapTT] ficLTW I' KaTa<pvyi] Eiaiv ol ftiofioL 48. Xapti/ 

avTolg tTjq Trpodv/jilag airoEi!jiT(o. 49. Ou/c u^rfvvirb irov eKOVTog 

Eirai Eia-iraTT]QI](TEadai, w? oi'toq (piXoo. PL 50. IHirEifTfiat iyw 
e/cwj' Etjat jjijcita cicikeIi' aiSpojirwi'. PL 51. To t)£ oAoj' wg ettoc 

£t7r£7v (ITl^dJQ TE KClX CldXiwQ SovXoi'. PL 52. "EtV)(^E KUTCl TOVTO 

[row] Kaipov eXOuji'. 53. Etc rouro tjjc riXiKiag a(fiKTai. 54. 
Etc (XTor ifXiKiag iJKei, ovEevoq x^.-pwr EortV. 55. 'E>' tovto 
Tvjf^rjg £1(711'. 56. O Nt/c/ac i'lKiGra d^Log ijv Elg tovto ^vaTV- 
X'ac acpiKEcrOai. 57- Etc ToaovToy i'jKO^iEV inrai^EVCTEiag. 58. 
Etc tovto dpaaovg Kal avaiCEiag acpiKETo. 59. Ot 'A0?j)'atot 
£v xav-t ^^ advixiag a'jaar. 60. Etc Tar fio-)^drfpiag irpo- 
eXv/XvOe to. irpuyfiaTa, 61. Fj/c y£ ovBai.iov oificu a.yadi)v iroXi- 
TEiav Eirai. 62. Ovk otaG' ottol y ij g ovS' ottol yiwfirjg (pipEii^So.). 
63. 'Ec 2ty£io»' Ka-iipai' i;al uXXoite twu tuvth] ■^wpiuu. 64. 
Ttmc v^lv £k: TE'Apyovg opio ical aXXodEP tmv 'EXXijvwv eIq 
Tijv 'yjopav KaruKiafiErovg. 65. Ms^pi CEvpo tov Xoyov KciXiog 
ay iX"'' ^^" ^^^^ iyTUvO^ eittt] Tfjg vfopEwc. 67. 'Eyvw^orfc 
i)te ov j'/)' KaKov // 7ro\tc. 68. 'i^i -Xij/^ov ovk o'ktO' ol icaKCJy 
t.Xt]Xvdag. 69. lioppu) aocpiag ijiCEi. 70. 11 rj v i k' EfTTi Tfjg fjfJ-i- 
pug', 71. Trjg uipag lytyyETO oxpi. 72. AiEXEyo/jiTjy Troppo) Ttby 
rvKTiiy. 73. 'Eka0£u^oi' fii^pt noppu) Tfjg rifXEpag. 74. l^t'y- 
rOfjuL TTW^vg TTjyiKcivTa tov BEpovc. 75. Ot twv irXovcnoyTaTiav 
v'u'ig TrpwiaiTaTci Eig CiCaaKaXiar T^g iiXiKiag lip'^afXEVoi (poiTar 
oxpiaiTrtTa anaXXaTTOvTai. 76. 'H ra^te apitrra ati) jiaTioy ftxf- 
77. 'Ectwsar wG T-ctxouc EicaaTog E'f)(^Ey. 78. ^AKoXuaiav (^evkteov 
wg 'f^Ei TTOcioy EKtiaTog iifiCbr. 79. IltDf e'x^'C ^o^?/C row rot(;i/^£ 
TTEoi ; 80. 'i^c tt)^ vfjLE'ig Tvpog EKacTToy t.-^i)Te Evyoiag, ovrojg 6 
Xiytjy ECo£,Ey ev (ppoyEly. 81. OvTog Itcaywg etc itTTy) fj.T]g Ei,Ei. 
82. 'HpaicXEia tov te irpog 'Adrjyaiovg TroXifiov KaXaig eSokei 
KadiffTaadai, Tfjg te iiri Op(^i;r}g irapocov ■x^prjaifiug E^Eiy, 83. 
"Enot oyTEg wg aXrjOwg Toii Si'ifxov tiju (j)v(Tiy ov ErfuoTiKoi Eicriy. 
84. Ov (TV KpiTOjjovXoy Ero/xi^Eg Elyai Twy (Tuxppoyiicioy ay~ 
OpojTTOjy fiaXXoy t) Tfiy ayorirtjv; 85. Twy Xa^ftavovTOJv 
EicTiy 01 fxayQcivoiTEg, 86. Tj7c ftairiXik-ijg E(TTiy >/ vofxodETiKr]. 
87. ' Q-fj.oX6yri(Tug tCjv fiEyiaTwy uyadCjv Eiyai hiKatocrvyTjv. 

§ 25. THE GENITIVE.] 146 — 149. 47 

88. 'II STToprj/ Tuiy SXiyavdpwiroraTwv noXtwv iariv. 89. 
No^tcrarf tlvat tov KnXwq ■koXe^ie'iv to idiXeii' al(T\vy£a6aL 
Kal To'iQ ap^ouat TrelOeadai. 90. To if Icrrjyopiq ^okoE/jtci cisioj' riroi: 
ovra -ifxdadcu rwv KaXHv ecttiv. 91. To Xiyeiv Trspi avrov Trap' 
v/xly atl Ttjjy Traru XuffireXou jtw v iaTiv. 92. Ot ai' tv toJq 
teXeioiq SiayiywvTat ayiTTiXrjTTToi, oiiTOi twv yEpairipwv yiyvov- 
Tai. 93. SoXwj' rw>' cTrra crofiarwy EicXiidr}. 94. KaWapoJ' 
tTrey pa;//aro rw»' kixHv dovXtar. 95. Ou^ccjuou •kmizote 6 Mtt- 
^/ctc raJv o-uy^atpofTwv' t) crvvriSofiivwv rw ^///uw E£,r]Taadr]. 
96. Ti fjE icdjXvii KXi]pov(Tdai rdjy kyvia dpx,"^'^^^ y 97. 'E^e 
0£C rw»' TVETTEiaiiivixiv, 98. Tidr]Hi twv TrepJ rag ijoovaQ 
Ti]v fxayEipiKtjr. 

§ 25. T/ie Genitive {continued^. 

a. npaKTiKOQ tQv KaXwv, apt to perform (or, m the habit of per- 146. 
forming) honorahle actions. h. ^kttov eotl to 'Crjr (ppovriSojv, life 
is full of cares, a^iog riidijc, worthy of honour. Seladat yp-qfxdTwv, 
to want money; also hltrdai twoq {gen. oi person), to beseech a per- 
son, c. o^Eiy fxvp<jjy, to smell of perfumes. anTEudai yEKpov, to touch 
a corpse, ukoveiv ttcuHov KXaioi'Tog, to hear a child crying, rovg 
SovXovQ EyEvat ri]Q iXEvdeplag, he allowed his slaves to taste of 
liberty, ayeuoroc riJQ iXEvdepiac, one who has never tasted of liberty. 
d. EXEcrdai rwog, to cling to, or be next to. awTripiaq tyj^ndai, to 
provide (carefully and anxiously) /or one's safety, e. diraig appiyiov 
Traicdjy, withoiit male offspring. kyyvTara avru eijj.l yiyovg, I am 
very nearly related to him (literally, very near to him with respect to 
birth). ZaavQ ^iyhputy, thick with trees ; thickly planted with trees. 
f. EvSaiixoyi^oj ae rov rpouov, I think you happy in your dispo- 
sition. oLKTEipu) ae TOV TTudovc, I pity you on account of your 

(a) Verbal adjectives with a transitive meaning govern the genitive. 147. 
That is, the object of the verb stands in the gen. after the verbal 

(6) Words relating to plenty, want, value, &c., govern the genitive. 147*. 

(c) Verbs relating to the senses, except sight, govern the genitive. 148. 

CLKoviiy, hear, generally takes an ace. of the sound, and a gen. of the 
person producing it: but in neither case without exception. In 'to hear 
any thing from any body' (audire aliquid ex aliquo) the person is in the 
gen., the thing in tlie accus. 

{e. /.) The genitive is often used where we may supply ' in respect 149. 
to' in English. — It follows many adjectives compounded with a pri- 

48 149. [§ 25. THE GENllIVE. 

In this way, the gen. restricts <i general expression to a particular 
meaning; to some particular circuwHtdiice, object, &c. 

The genitive so used may often be supposed governed by 'iviKa, on 
account of. It is very frequently used in this way after words com- 
pounded with a privative. See examp. 42, sqq. of the preceding Lesson. 


1. T>7c KpavyT]Q jj aOoyrn. 2. ^aaiXevs riJQ fitv TrfJUQ tavrov 
£7ri/3ovX>7s ovK ij crOarETO. 3. Ovk dupowfiEVOL tov ^coyrvQ 
wiivvETE ^Seiv apiora. 4. 'AvuyKr) avrio tijv entfiiXtLuy Troieiadai 
et'iavrou kcu wpwv kch ovpayov Kal aorowv kcu TrvEvnarwv Ka\ iravTiov 
rojy T)] ~tX^'',l '^(J0(Ti]!^6i'T(i)y, el jjiiXXei t(o orri. vewg ap)^i/cot' £«7£0- 
Oai. PL 5, liapaffi^evaaT I ku I' nJy elg roy 7rci\£/.tor tov arpa- 
TTjyoy (.iyai XP^'l' ^' Tow iTvijiiXiladaL diy Trpocri'iKei (sc. ewi- 
fiEXtladai) out TL KwXvTLKMTEpov dicpadiaq eircu \ 7- "OaTig 
dpxi-KovQ dvdpojTTioy Svycircu Troielf, cijXoy on ovtoq Kai hecriro- 
-iKoiiQ dydpwTTUjy t)vyaTai ^iSdcri^Eiy. 8. ^povr] o'ecjq StlTroXXfjg 
Ttpog Toiig irXEiovg. 9. Act etcdarr} rtx>']l dXXrjg r£)()'7jc. 10, 
To7c K'aXoIc ndyado'ig rwy di'dpuJTvwy uvoiv de^aei ttoXXwv ypajx- 
fxdrbjy. 11. O i-ir}^ey dciKwy ovdtvbg Se'iTai yofiov. 12. Ta 
Tojy iKuyioy EXXEiTroyra uXiya Early. 13. 'AperJ/C Xeittu- 
fieya TraiTO kcu KTi'ifiaTa Kul lTrLTr]CtvfiaTa atfT^pct. 14. 01 rvpuy- 
101 ETTulyov OUTVOTE (7 TT u V O^ E T E , 1.5. "Udovg ciKuiov (puvXog ov 
xpavEt Xoyog. \6. Ilvpog (.an Oiyoyra [.ii) evdug KuiEadai, o/jKog 
Se iywyt ovte Tvvpog ovte Eputrog EKujy EU'ai uTrro/xai. 17- 
AieiceXEvorro drdaTrreadai twv Trpay fxanoy. 18. To TTOiqnKoy 
yei'og TroXXioy rwy /car' dXjjdEuiy yiyvoj-tEviDv ECJjdTrTerai. 19. 
'RXdftero Tijg )^£ipo£- avTov. 20. "Ewg iarl Kaipog, dvT iXapeaQE 
rwy Trpa y/.tarw )'. 21. ^oyr]ph (pvaig ^EydXr]g e^ovalag ettl- 
Xul3oj.iEyT] crjfxoaiag diTEpydi^ETai avjA(j)opdc, 22. No/xajj/ £)^£(7- 
Oai ndyra CeI roy a(j)(]>po)u. 23. Ut dyadoi rovg KaKovg Icoyreg 
dTifiaaBEyTug EvOvfiorepoy rijc dpErTJg dydEL,oyTni. 24. "Ayft 
riJQ ijyiag Toy 'iivKoy. 25. "Epyw £7r£ipw>'70 tov teIxovq. 
20. OvTwg upiaroy jm) nETTEipdadai KaXwy. 27. 'Ette /pairaj' 
tov ^w^j/oi/. 

{The Oxen and the Cart.) 

28. Jioeg u/.ia^fti' elXKoy' tov ce UL,oyog Tpi'CoyTog, liriaTpa^EVTEg 
Ecpaaay ovTuig Trpog avToy, u> ovtoc, {ij-iuiy to oXoy ftdpog (j)Ep6}'T(i)y, 
av Ti Kpdl^Eig ; 

29. 'O "Epwc <piX6^u)pog ev fXEyEiag, aBbjpog SvafiEyeiag. 
30. 11 KUKta TOV TrdrTUjy ijCiaTOV dedficiTog ddsaTog forir' 
oiiCEy yap ttujttote kavrTig Ipyoy KciXoy TEOinTdi. 31. 'AXlaKoyTfu, 
UTE TToyojy ayvfiyaaTOi. 32. 0< Ilato)£c' di'idEic tov kut- 

§ 26. THE GENITIVE.] 153. 49 

aKovetv TivoQ elaiy. 33. Act aKJiparov KaKoiv rjQiiiv viov ovra 
yeyoi'ii'ui. 34. Xpt/ rovg TroXiTevofuerovc oAtyapj^awf ctTtfiov^ 
Tov CTVfipovXeveii' v/xtv avrolc tcou'igQul. 35. "Eori ^oi dvyu.Ti]p 
ydfiov i'j^rj Cjpaia. 36. "Ecoaroc rf/C apX''S' ^^ ')PX^*'' '^"f^^v- 
dvfog y)y. 37. Ot AaKt^aiyuoj^tot oux vTrorEXEtc £'x°''''*C (popov 
TOVQ EvfAiJ,dxovQ yyoviTO. 38. <p£iSw\ol ■)(^p r) /j a r oj p zla'iv, (jjiX- 
avaXtJTai ce ciXXorpiwr. 39. Tv(j)\6y tov jxiXXovTuc lariv 
avdpo)iroQ. 40. Tovq dXrjdirovc Tivng XeyeiQ ', tovq Trjq aXrideiac 
(piXodtdfio vag, 41. Atl (piXofiadfj ere avdrTuyv eh'cu. 42. 
'OxpifjLaOtfg yiyovt rfjg dSiKiac olov Itynv. 43. Hiu fx->pr)(p6g 
ant elfii rovrov tov vofxov. 44. 'H yewpyia liriaTiJiiovag evBvg 
eavTijg TToiel. 45. KpiTiag ovSerog iSiMTrfg I'jv. 46. Ov TrdyTeg 
0fX0i07rnd£lc XvTrrig te cat y/Eoviig tlcnf. 47. Kvpog ifv irpdog 
Kal (Tuyyvwynwj' rwr dvdpojTTivtjjy a ixapTT] fxdT lov, 48. 'E/x- 
7ro^w»' dXXrjXoig voXXiLv Kai ay ad uiy 'icrecrde. 49. 'O cikpaTtjg 
icatcovpyog fxtr twx> uXXwv, eavTOv Ce ttoXXw KaKovpyoT epog. 
50. HavTog paaiXevg iiKovei. 51. 'Afcpoctcflat ^p?) rwr uttoXo- 
yovfxivwv. 52. "Oraj' a/vO«/u) aV^poc TTfpt a'ptrjjc hiaXtyofxivov, 
Xaipu) VTvep(pvb)g. 53. Oure ai/roc roiiro TTWKOTe ^wKpdTOvg i]KOV(Ta, 
ovTE dXXov <j)acncoPTO g aKrjKoivaL rjadofxrji^ 54. "Icwc ou juai'- 
dai'ETE fxov b Ti Xe'yw. 55. Toj)c KaTacbpofe'iP TrapaivovrTag xprf- 
jiaT(i)v twpujv dnpiL, exo^ivovg avrwv. 56. Toaovrwr iiijlf virap- 
XOvatHy CvvdfXEWi' EviXiri^Eg dnTEadai hiavoovfj-iQa tov TroXiftov. 

§ 26. The Genitive {continued). 

a. Most verbs that express such notions as freeing from, keeping 153. 

off from, ceasing from, deviating or departing from, &c. 
govern the gen. 

b. Most verbs that express remembering or forgetting ; caring for 

or despising ; sparing ; aiming at or desiring ; ruling over or 
excelling ; accusing of or condemning, &c. govern the geni- 
tive ; but not without many exceptions. 


l."AXyoc yvrai^iv avSpog eipyEadai teki'ov, 2. A.va6v fiE Zeir- 
fibiv. 3. "Ex£t Tovg TroXtfiiovg Tfjg etc to Trpoadsu Trpoocov. 4. 
TovTOvg Ttjg dyav KoXaKeiag kirKT-x^jcTETt. 5. 'EXXTjitkOw ttoXe- 
fxov tax^^i' OL^ Adr]va~ioi. 6. 'ETreV^O'' '■*7c rtix' <''£'^c. 7. Sw ouk 
dfirjg [.KOplag. 8. Twr aiaytco/wj' yv j.t%'U fritov fxedieyTai, 


50 153. [§ 26. THE GENITIVE. 

9. 'Y(j)i fjLEt'oq rijg y»7c to. ~tiy(i) Sia(j)v\dTT£i. 10. QrjaevQ rag 
'Adi'ii'ciQ Seivov TrpoardyfxaroQ I'lXevdiptoaey. 11. Ei rig 
TreniiXoLTO rfig noiijaewg to ^irpor, \6yoi y'lyvovTai to Trept- 
XeiTTfl^Ei'Oj'. 12. 'Ara^t'/jtoc Tdjv AloXi^ojy ttoXeioi' TrapEcnrdTo Tivag 
Tov 4>ap va/jct'^ou. 13. "Rj'^rjXa irdrTci e/ttIi' ev rrj ipv^^ij, ettei^civ 
yvfiiiodfj TOV (Tio iddTOQ. 14. 'E;/^£\ouro 6 Xofog tuv l-KTziiov, 

15, BouXou afinpri] i-iaT (i)y ti)}' ;|/u^>)»' wc dwctToy KaQapEVEiv. 

16. "H^aprc roil gkottov. 17. ^uncpciTrjg irdvTMv d i' 6 p oi tt ijj i> 
hIjt'EyKE ao(pt(f. 18. 01 "EXXrjVEQ EKpciTrjaay tCjv ftapftdpb)i'. 
19. Kat 0£ouc (iKovu) kpwTog li-TuaOai. 20. ^iKaioy -ireipdffdai 
ttXeovekteTi' tCjv i^dpwj'. 21. Oi Tvpavroi Ttj Evcppoffvi't] fAsiovEK- 
Tovcri Tijjy lSiu)Tu>i'. 22. 'Ep^iOK'parjjc IvvEaiv ov^tj'oc eXeItteto. 
23, ' Ai'dpioTTog ^viiaei vTVEpi^Ei Twy dXX(oy i^uuy. 24. Ol 'Adrj- 
ycuoi EfxTTEipia iroXv Tu)y dXXiov TrpoEl-^oy TTEpi ra yavTiKa. 25. 
nXy'idti vvEp^ipo^EV Twy ttoXe f^il u) y. 20. 2w(cpo-jjc dvtjiag duu)y 
fiiKpag ovSey riyE~iTO jiEiovaQat. Ttvy TtoXXh kcu fXEyciXa dvoyTcjy. 
27. ^wcppoi'OQ EdTiv EyKpa-t] iiyai ettiBv fj-iioy iraaCJy. 28. Ta 
fxo-^Qiipa di'Bpwma ttutwi' rwy etv idvfiiujy ciKpaTTJ e(ttiv. 29. 
Q>](TEvg ')^Eipu)frafiEyoQ Toy ly MapaOwrt ravpov tov Ti)y j^wpaj/ 
XvfxaiyofXEvoy, fxeyuXov (p6j3ov kcu fXEydXrig dnopiag irdyTag 
TOVQ nlKoiii'Tag Ti)y TroXiy dirriXXa^Ey. 30. llaca eTriorj/^// X*^" 
pi^OfdEyri CiKaioavyjjQ Kai TiJQ dXXrjg dpE-iig, Trayovpyia, dXX' 
ov (70(plu (j)aiy£Tai. 31. Ta fiEy ot'kat' iwaiyElg, tov Be KepSai- 

VEiy E-^Et. 

(Xenocrates and the Sparrow.) 

32. SEyoKpaTtjg 6 XaXKtjEoyioc, o ETolpog UXciTon'og, ret re aX\a 
?)»' (piXoiKTipfKjjy, Kai oil fioyoy (piXnydpo)Troc, dXXa KUt vroXXa tuiv 
aXoytjy i^onoy ))\Efi. Kcu ovy ttote Ka6rip.iyov Ly viruidpct), lutyKonEvog 
piutug cTTpouddc VTTO lipaKog, Eig roi/g KuXvovg civtov KaTEiTTTj. 'O 
Be d(Tju£)'we kBi^aro Toy opyiy, Kai BucpvXct^Ey cnroKpii-ipag, eiog 6 
CidJKuyy d7r>/X0fj'. "V^tteX Ze ijXEvQipitXTEy nvToy rod ([>ul3ov, aTrXuxrag 
Toy kcjXttoi , (t(})T^KE TOV opviy, ETTEiircjy, "Oti filj eEieBwke Toy 'iKt-rjy, 

{The Blind Man and the Wolf's Cub.) 

33. Ariip Tfqpog Etivdai Truy to ETTi-idifxeyoy eig Tag ^ttpaf avriJ 
^Gioy EcpciTTTOijiEyog XiyEiy, o-rro'ich' ti ectti. Kai By ttote XvkiBiov 
uvTu ETTicoOeyTog, \pr]Xci(ptiaag Kcii ufjclfiyyovg EiirEy, Ovk oiBa, iroTepov 
Kvvog EiTf T] dXwTTEKog }/ Toiovrov Tivbg C^ov yivyrijxu' tovto fxiyroL 
arcicpuig EwicTTafiai, oti ovk ETriTticEioy tovto to i^uioy Trpo/^drwi/ Troijxyrf 

§ 27. THE GENITIVE.] 156. 51 

§ 27. The Genitive (continuecC). 

\_Ohs. Kartjyopkuj may have ace. of the charge or crime, gen. of the 156. 
person: or, if no crime is mentioned, ^e?j. of person. 

KarayiyVioaKUi has accits. of the charge, or punishment ; gen. oi person. 
In the pass, the ace. will of course become the nom., and the gen. of the 
person remain.] 


1. XlpoaijKEL TOV (TV fK^ipOi'TOC f. V d V fXt'lfrQ a I. 2. " Al'OpMTTOQ 

wi' fXEjiv-qao Trjg icoivfjc ruj^r/c. 3. Tiov aTrdi'-wc <pi\h)v 
^i^Lvr)ao irpoQ tovq irapoi'Tac, 'lya SoKrjc jdrj^e Tovruyv cnruvrwy 
oXiyu) pE7r. 4. 'Ej^ irdai toIq ipyoic ov^ ovtw ri/C cipv^'C f"^'?~ 
fiovEvo^tv WQ TfjQ TsXevrfjc ciicrdrjaii' Xufiftaiofxev. 5. Tow etti- 
KpenaadevTOQ tcote heivov ft)) a fxrij ^oyelrt. 6. Twy rovQt- 
Titcdjy \6ywv tni\aQ6j.ievov ovcey QavjxaaTov koX rfjg (T<i)(j>po- 
avrrjQ EiriXadeffdai. 7. H tov dfov (j)p6vt](7iQ ixfia navTwv 
ETT I fiE\E~iT at. 8. Tt iin'iv rijg tCji' ttoWwv ci')t,r]Q yutXfi; riov 
kwieiKeaTa.T(3)y fiaWov a^iov (ppoyrii^Eiy. 9. Tioy yoiicjy kv- 
rpitrov. 10. 'Eavrou Ki'jSErai u irpoyoQy ciSeX^ov, 11. 
'OfJ.oi(i}g ayadog TToXiTrjg iarly og ay Kcil tov (Tiojxarog ti t:ai Tijg 
ovaiag irpo yoTjrai. 12, Tolg (nrovcaloig ov')(^ oioy te Tijg apEryg 
d/xeXEti'. 13. O'l '>l^6yov a.<ppovTi(rTE~iy idi^o/J-eyoi ovi: ula- 
■^vyovrai ala-)(^p6y ti ivoiE~iy. 14. ^Irf^tyog 6Xiyu)p£~iTE [xrjCE 
KUTU^pov e'ite Twy TvpocTTETay fj-ivu) y. 15. Tu>y ayadwy 
ovEiya aXXoy alTiUTEoy ij Toy dEov. 16. UporricaXovfiui <te 
/j/Xci^jyC. 17. 'Ayoaioy ectti Ttiy vloy Trarpi (^loyov EirEi,iiy(ii. 
18. To X"P'*^ airo^ovvai Traparofiwy ypatpr}. 19. Aiw/cw /dky 
KaKyjyoplag, rrj ^' avTJj \p)i(f)u) (poyov (jiEvyoj. 20. ^AysXEvdEpoy 
I'Ofjilc^oj KaKTjyopiag BiKcii^Ecrdai. 21. Ot UEpaat. SiKa^ovaiy 
aj^aptcTTiag. 22. 01 -irpiapEig ^wpwv Ei:pi6i](Tay. 23. Kara 
vojxov E^rjy Trapayolag eXoiTt tov traTEpa dijaai. 24. "^ev- 
oofiapTvpiwy aXuKTEadciL trpoacoK^. 25. Owoaoi KXoirT]g i) 
cojp(i)y ocpXoiE y, tovtovq eSei Kai ctvTOvg Kai Tovg en tovtwv aTifxovg 
thai. 26. rioXXa))' o't iraTEpEg rip-wv fir]S i(Tfxov dayaToy kute- 
yyuxray. 27- Tovg irapoyTag Trjg k^air aTrig Tifxcjpijcrd) /xeOu. 
28. T iy.(t)pi]crELy (JOL TOV TraiBog VTTKj-^yov^ai, 29. Aiyovaiy 
01 vofxoi, kay Tig ctXw k'Xott^c Kai fx)) TifirjOij OayciTov ', npouTi^ay 
avTO) iEafxoy. 30. O'l "lL<popoi tov ^(poSpiay VTrrjyoy dayciTOv. 
31. Xp>) fxi) KaTa(l>poyt'i y tov TrXydovg. 32. A£aj*>.pa7j;c kote- 
yywKEi avTOv Trpoce^wkti'at Ti)y Tra-pica. 33. KuTac itcai^u) 
kfiavToii rijg ecj^arije Siicrig ctstog Eiyai. 34. Ot 'Adrjyaloi Kare- 
xpTjcpiffayTO Twy arpaT-qyUiy. 35. Ov^Eig avTog avTOv kutt}- 
yoprjKE TTwTroTE. 36. M»; fxov KaTEiTrrjg irpog Tovg dXXovg. 37. 

QavciTov with verbs of condemning, &c. is a sort of gen. of price. 

H 2 

52 158*. [§ 28. THE GENITIVE. 

Ai' E'^dpay KaTa\li£vSoi'Tai ^ov. 38. Te'c ovk av karaytXci- 
aeitv vfxwy; 39. To reXevrijcrai. Trayrojv »/ TreTrptofxivrj Kari- 
Kpiver. 40. Ot^at u/idc (cara'y vaxreo-yai 7ro/\X?)>^ cii'oiaj/ Kat 
fxai'iay twp r>))' aSiKiui' 7r\eoyt£,iai' elvai yofxii^i'jvTUJt', 41. Ot 
'Aflijjalot epiiju)] ^Ikt] ddvuTOV KaTiyruxruv 'AXKipidSov, 42. 
'Ert w J' iTTfio'aj' i/yiiae a(.pirw )' ddi'iiroy tcaraiprjcpicraaOai. 43. 
Tct rwr TpiaKov-a aixapri'i [.lara ifiov Karrj-yopovy. 44. Twj' 
aWwy Karaxptv^Ei toiovto irpdy fxa. 45. V^artf^povrjaav 
rCJy 'AOi]raiioy dlvyaaiay. 4G. 'O tvyovj^pc KaTe(pp<)yr}a£ 
tT]q Kcinfjvaov fjLb)piaQ. 47. Ovk oXiywpa'iy ^p») roue 7ro\ir£i/o- 
fiiyovg rCjy KOiyCjy, ovS' rnroXaveiy niv wc Icion', h^Ektly hi u)q 
ciWoTpiwy, dWa K))h£(TOai j^ev wg olKetcjy, diri-^eadai Be wantp 
hei Twy fiTj^ey TrpoarjKoyTOjy. 48. Ov yutya'Awj' Se'i kinBvfitiy Ttapd 
TO o'lKaiov. 49. 'K(j)iijj.eyoi rijjy KepciHy ol ijtrcjovc virofiiyovtri r))y 
TiHy KpeiCTCToyioy luvXeiay. 50. Twv KuXHoy ("nravTEQ epQenv. 51. 
My) K"ara0poj'£t tUv v6fiit)v. 52. Wavaayiov KaTrjynpi'iro 
dhiKia TToXX)) vTTo Tioy 'EjXXi'jywy, Kal oui^ ///ciora M.r)hi(7 fxog. 

53. Tov M/j^io-jUou Tov Havaayiov AuKEhaifxoyioi ^vyeTrrjriwyro 
Kal TOV QefiiaroKXea, r'l^ovy re rolg avrolQ KoXd^taQai avTov. 

54. ^eidETui cvTE TTCiT poQ ovTE}Tp<)Q. 55. V)ap(id^ii)v ovhtvoQ 
ay (pEicraiTO, e'Ittep fioyoy EpixrjyEa tvoQev e\oi. 56. Oi/^^ic TrwTrore 
■kXovtoq rpoTTOV TTo ytfpov tv epLEyivETO. 57. Kat Oeovq te ukov- 
ojiEv 'ipwTOQ ijaaiicrOut, dyOpwirovg te "lajxtv, /cat jua'Xct tppoyifiovQ. 

{The Oak and the Reed.) 
58. AnvQ Kui KdXafiog i'lpii^oy TCEpl la^voQ' dvifiov Si a<pohpov 
yeyofxiyov, o ftiy KdXufioQ druKXw^Eyog Ka\ avyKXiyofXEyog tuIq tov- 
Tov Tryodlg Ti)y eKpl^cjaiy l^EipvyEy, >/ ^£ hpvg aVrtoracra ek pi^iHy 


§ 28. The Genitive {continued). 

158". a. hpnxf^^tc uyopd'Ctiy ti, to buy something for a drachma, b. 
■n-XEiffTvv^ tovto Ti^wjiai, I value this at a very high price (very 
highly). c. TpElg fxyag KaTddrjKE tov ittttov, he laid down three 
mince for the horse. xp>//Ltara Tovrtoy TrpuTTETui, he exacts money 
{or payment) for t\us. d. vvktoc, by night ; tifuepac, by day ; ■)(^pnyov 
av\i'ov, for a considerable time. e. iroXXiHy ii^Epuly ov fXEfxeXi- 
TqKu, I have not practised for many days. /. Xajh'iy (generally Aa- 
(ii^Hai) TTodog, to take (a person) hy the foot. dyEiv x^'f^^c, to 
^eac? by the hand. y. ruy Xvkov rwy &tmv Kparui, I get hold of the 
wolf by the ears. h. tovto ovk eany dySpdg ao([>ov, this is not 

^ iroXvg, TrXt'iMV or nXkuv, TrXfToroc;. 

§ 28. THE GENITIVE.] 159 — 162. 53 

the part of a wise man. /. ov 7ra vroc tJyai, not to be a thing 
that every body can do. tavrov dvai, to he one's own master. 

(a. 6.) After verbs oi price and value, the price or value is put in 159. 
the genitive. 

After verbs that express or imply exchange, the thing for which' 160. 
we exchange another is put in the genitive. 

{d. e.) A noun of time is put in the geii. in answer to the ques- 161. 
tions when ? and since, or within what time ? 

[If the point of time is defined by a numeral adjective, the time wheii is 
put in the dative : it stands however in the gen. with tlie former, the 
same, each, &c.] 

(/. g.') The gen. expresses the part by which a person leads, takes, 162. 
or gets hold of any thing. 

1. To fjiey EiriTifidp 'ictwq (pijaai tic at' pq^iov kcu ttcivtoq eJyai, 

TO ^' VTTEp tG)V TrapOl'TlOl' 6 Tl Ee'i Trpc'lTTElV (ITTUCbail'ttTdai, TOVT 

eirai avfjij:>ov\ov. 2. Ol TruXifxioi cnre^^^ujpijrxai' yvicTOi-. 3. H uIkici 
')(^£ I fjL w y Q )U£v eiii'jXioQ kdTW, tov Be Qipovg evaKiOQ, 4. Tovg 
'A6r]vaiovQ ^aert 7>/C avTrJQ i}jxipaQ vrvdiirdcu te Tr)y air6j3d(Tiy T))f 
Tuty iSnpjoapijJV kui fioridrjaai iitl tovq opuvc tTjc x<^P"C' 5. Ovceig 
t,ei'oc ct^IkTai -^poyov (tv)(^vov iKeWey. 6. Ovceig fie I'lpwrijice 
KciLycy ovSc.y TroWwr tTwy. 7. TpUiKoyTa ij/dspwy uiru Tavrrjg 
TTJQ iijdipaQ airiTU). 8. 'ETrtyutv/^Jje f/\0wi' TTfJo Tojy YlepaiKiliy ^eVa 
tTEtrt TrpoTspoy eiq 'Adtjyac elTrey, otl ^eku STwy ou^ V^ovaiy. 9. 
Xapt'cT/jUOC ^Adr]ya~ioc, dviip QavnuCoj-ieyoq ett' dy^peia cat CEiyorrj-i 
arpaTijyinc, irpoaEKpovaE AapEt'w Kunrep dyada avfilJovXtvactg tteoI 
tov ttoXe/jov' cwTi Aaptlog EiriXaj36iJ.Eyog Tijg tov Xaoi^j/yuou 
i^u)VT]c, kutu tov Tu)y Hspffwy yofiov, TrapiSioKE to'iq virrjpi-cuc, kcu 
TTpoaETa^ey aTroKTelyai. 10. Ate eE,apapTEly TavToy ovk dySpog 
aocpoii. 11, To eirijjiEXe'KTdai ov ay Sir) (ppoyijjwTEpov dySpug y 
TO ujdeXt'iy. 12. IlEj'm)' (pipeiy ov TrayTog, dXX dvSpog (rocbov. 
13. To (Tiydy o^oXoyovyTog eer-iy. 14. KaKovpyov fiiy iari 
KoideyT dTTodarely, aTpiiTrjyou ce na^o/jiEyoy Tolg TroXefxloig. 15. 
Tow fxey dp-^oyTog 1(tti ru TrpoardrTEiy Tolg iroXefiioig, tov Se dpvo- 
fxiyov TO TreidtuQai. 16. E(c to uvto odey iJKei 4'^X^ EKaaTT] ovk 
d<piKyelTai ETuiy fxvpiioy. 17- ^^'!rifxtyiSi]g elitey on Ylipaca ov\ 
ijiovtri Seku ETwy. 18. Ot A.aKEhatjj.6yioi biovTo oXlyioy ETuiy 
KadaipijaEiy T))y Twy 'Adijiaiwy Svyajjiiy, 19. 11 iy Mar-ot/a 
^a-)(^r] EyeyETO irXeiaTOV Bi) '^povov fjeylarr] twv 'EXXqrt- 
Koty. 20. 'OXiyov ■)(^p6yov ireipdcrETai ret ■^(^pitlJ-ciTu d-irotov- 
lai. 21. 'AjxvyTug lyTog Tpiwv fxrjyaiy KaTEcr^ty dwaaay Ma- 
KECoylay. 22. KXiapy^og Kai ijfiipag kui ivktoq I'jyey IttI Toi/g 
TroXE/Jiiovg. 23. Tavra rijg if^ipag kyerE-o. 24. Ot Xayd) Ttjg 

54 1G5, 166. [§ 29. comparison. 

vvKTOQ vifioi'rai. 25. llot'ou fxrivoQ Ka\ iv Tin yjixepcf £X^'" 
po-oi'i'iBi] Ai)fiotTdiyijc ', 26. AoDXot (iaaiXitvy elaiv, 6 l^auiXevs 
detjjr, u Oeug ar ay ktjq, ttcuto o', a»' aKOirrJQ (i\o)Q, tripwp 7rt(pvicey. 
27. O fiei' EeaTTorrfc tov ^ovXov BeinrortfQ fxoi'ov, iKtivov 3' ovk 
earir, 6 Se ^ovXoc ov p.6vov SeaTrorov SovXoq ioTiv, aXXii Koi 6Xu)g 
tKeivov. 28. E«/,u inl rw (iovXoniro), winrip ol artfioi tov ede- 
Xoj'TOQ elaiv. 29. 'Hcrar kv^OXvvd(^ tu'eq jiiv ^iXiTnrov, Tiyeg 
^e TOV fizXTifTTOV- 30. "O^' £CT7i TOV XeyovTOQ, rjy (pujiovc 
Xiyt]. [Compare Plebs novarum rerun atque Hannihalis lata esse, 
Liv. 23, 14.] 31. Ov ttoXlq eaO' ijTig ar^poc taQ' zvoq. 
32. Koivov Tvyj], yvu)fxr} c^f Tiov KeKTrj jiiyuip. 33. "ATrajTO 7a 
KaXa Toil ttovovvtoq yiyrerai. 34. Twi' TrXeiopdJV kcu cifiei- 
vov TrapecTKtvafT fxii'iop to KpiiToq Igtii'. 35. Ov TavB' ETaipwv 
ea-L i:ai <piX(i)v. 36. 'ATrooroo-tg tuiv ftiaiov ti ttckt-^^^ovtwi' 
eaTiv. 37. KXeTrrwv fxtv rj vv^,Trjc ^' aXrideiag to <pwQ. 38. 
Ai Tu}V iiadij iJiaTOJV ijSovai ov Twf voXXiov avdpuiTr cjv, aWa 
Twv (Tcpocpa oXiyiDv Eiaiv. 39. 0( QpaKEQ oji'Ovt'TO tcic yvi'aiKag 
irapa Twr yoriwr j^ p r] fJ- a t u) v jj-ey aXtov. 40. Tu>p irovdiv ttw- 
Xovaiv 01 deo\ toIq dj'OpwTroic Trcirra TciyaOa. 41. O'l XaXEaloi 
Hiddov tar pciTEVOvTO, ci'a to ttoXei.iikwtcitoi kcu nivriTEQ elfai. 

§ 29. Comparison. 

165. a. fxdi^mi' ijxov, taller (greater) than I. h. kuXXIov ifxov adsic, 
you sing better (more beautifulh') than I (do). c. hvvaTU)TtpoL 
avTol av-(3i'^ lyiyiovTo, they became more powerful than ever 
(literally, more powerful themselves than themselves, i. e. than them- 
selves were at any other time), d. i^iti'Cu) ?/ cara laKpva Treirot'- 
dircu, to have suffered afflictions too great for tears. veKpog yuet'^wi/ 
f/ KUT dvOpwTTov^, a corpse of superhuman size. oirXa irXioj 
f/ KUTci Tovc vsKpoiig, more arms than could have been expected 
from the number of the dead (quam pro numero). e. rttJTspoi 
elan' i) waTe elcevai o'/wr 7ra-epo)p iaTipr}VTai, they are too young 
to know rvh at fathers they have lost. 

166. (a) The thing with which another is compared, is put in the geni- 

The fuller construction is with r/, than; which however is used only 
where the genitive cannot be employed. 
(li) The gen. is sometimes used, where it is not the immediate object of com- 
parison : e. g. in 6, the things compared are not '/' and ' your singing ;^ 
l)Ui 'my singing' and 'yours.' 

^ So \n siiperl.: ore StivoraroQ vavTOV Tavra fjaQci. The superlative is nseA 
when the person is represented as possessing the property at some particular time 
in the highest degree in which he ever possessed it. 

•' Literally, grea/er than in proportion to (or according to) man. 

§ 29. COMPARISON.] 167, 1G8. 55 

(c) Greater, &c. i/(a« ever, than at any other time, is expressed 167. 
by using uvtoq, before the gen. of the reciprocal pronoun. 

i^d. e.) Too great. Sic. is expressed by the comparative with f/ 168. 
Kara * before a substantive ; i] (oan. (sometimes ?} wc) before a verb 
in the infinitive. 

Obs. In example 31 of the following lesson, it will be seen that j) ojq 
may, when the subject is expressed, be followed by the opt. with dv. 


1. Tic opnc ev(j)<jJi'OTipa early arjSovoQ ; 2. 'Ap£r?7c ovdey 
■)(^prj^a aei-iyorepov, ov^e /Se/jaiorfpoi' ecrri. 3. Ai devrspai ttoiq 
^povTihiQ ao<p<jJTspcii. 4. 'H Kpew^rfg Tpocpi) 6»jp twoeo-re'pa Kul 
role aypioig ^ojoig irpoa<popi>)T ipa, 5. HoWcikiq 6 kirairwv rov 
\piyovTOQ liva'^ditTTepoQ. 6. BovXi/C /licj/ opQric ovdev aacpaXi- 
OTEpov. 7- Aapeiov »cat IlapvfTaricoc ylyvovTai Traiceg cvo' irpea- 
l3vTspog fxey 'ApTnL,epL,ric, ve^jt epoq ce Kvpoq. 8. TwalKeQ atcpwy 
(jtiXoTrEydeaTSpoi elai. 9. Ot ytiopyol ruiy (rra-^vwy ijcioy opujai 
TOVQ (CfcXt/LttVouc cat yevoJTag ekI yfjg. 10. To uEii^ely Kaicioy kari 
Tox) aSiKeladai. 11. Ov^Ey ■)(^pi}fia KuWioy (jyiXov. 12. Frw^ai 
ajU£tj/oue Etfft rw>' yEpairipioy. 13. Ei/zcatpoc ciyj) 7ra i^roc Xoyou 
icpEiTTwy. 14. A.ovXov ^ttpov vvcii'. 15. O 'Ay//(TjXaoe Trcpi 
rou yUEyaXou (iatriXiwQ elirEy' T/ yap t/ioD ^tt^wj' e/«.eu'oc, £< ^>) 
Kat ^iKatorepoc; 16. Zrjriay optHy rov Q tocppcKXTOv ettX tu ttoXXovq 
E-)(Eiv fxadrfTCtg davfiCii^ofiEroy, 'O EKEirov jxey ■)(^op6c, t<pr], iiEi^ior, 
ovj-iog Se avfKptjyoTF.poc. 17. Kpe'irrov aiwirdv tariv i) XaXely 
fjaTTjy. 18. l^iioig TO mydy KpElrroy eotti rov XaXelv. 19. floX- 
X(jjy "^^p rj fi (IT h) V KpetTTMv 6 Trapo tov TrXydovg 'tTrairog. 20. 
Qrjpojv airavTwy dypitoTEpa yvyrj. 21. Ilor/jp/a QaTToy darci- 
Tov rpix^Ei. 22. To \pevcEg oyeilog ov irepaiTipu) rijg aKofjg 
a.(piKy£~iTai. 23. O'l irepi Trjy ypajuyuort/c/))' iiaTrorrjOiiTEg avrol avruiy 
£v fxadiaTEpoi yiyvovrctL irpog rh jXEii^u) Kai airovcaiorepa rwy f.ia- 
di]fiaT(i)y. 24. Ol EirLaTii}xovEg rQv n^] EKiaTi^fxoywv QappaXe^jTEpol 
elai, Kai avrol kav-wy ETTEiSay fxadwai}' y irply jiuQE'iy, 25. 'Opio 
Eywye ku.1 rovg Trayv Efnreipovg tov aywj't46(70ai ttoXXw ■)^E~ipoy eau- 
Tiiiy XiyoyTcig, OTav 'iv rivi Kivhvro) waiy. 26. To Tovg yo^ovg 
ixvTovg rag TifXMp'iag Eyeiy joEXTioyog >) /car' ai'QpwTroi' rofiodirov 
^o«7 juoi Eivai. 27. Ot 'A07/va(ot ly StiCEXt^ juet^w rj kutci SaKpva 
ETrETrovQetTay. 28. Ot Qtol jJEXrlovg T; 7r«pa to ciKciwy vtto Tiitov 
Cbjpwy TrapaTpiwEadai KTjXovfXEioi. 29. To caijJLOiiov jxeyaXo- 
irpEiriarEpoy ijyovjJLcii ?) Cjg Tijg £/u»/C BprjaKEiag TrpoaSElerdai, 
SO. 'Hy fiEi i^<>) KUKci 7/ (jjdTE a I' o (c X ft £ t >'. 31. ' Ecrrt ^lEiCio tiike'i- 
ruiy kpya rj (bg roj Xoyw rig av eittoi. 

^ Or jj TTjiog. 

56 170 — 174. [§ 30. COMPARISON. 

§ 30. Comparison (continued). 

170. a. Tay^vTipa J) (To^MTepa {Herod.), with more haste than wis- 
dom, h. we rnx^ioTo, as quickly as possible, cnyji wg dwarbv 
■7rpo(T)Jeaai', they came up as silently as possible. ort iJieyiarog, as 
great as possible. c. ocrovc ijhvvaTo tvXe'kttovq'^ ddpoiaag, 
having collected as many men as he possibly could. d. Kaiirep ', 
ii nc Kal dXXoQ, tx^tg Tvpog ra Itt] fiiXuLyay Tijy rpi^a, though 
if any body has black hair for his years, it is you (i. e. you have 
remarkably black hair for your years). e. rovg dywi'i^ofiiyovg 
7r\el(TTa e~ig d)>i]p ^umjuej'oc wfeXeiy, being able to be of more 
service to the contending parties, than any other individual. /. 
■TrepiTTa tujp dpicuvy-wy, more than enough (of money, &c.). TroXXa- 
TrXdawi fi/jLuiy nvriZy, many times as numerous as ourselves. 

171. («) Two comparatives are to be translated by more — thaii, or 
rather — than, with the positive. 

For adverbs it is often convenient, as in the example, to use a sub- 

172. {b) 'Q^g and on (like the Latin quam) are used to strengthen 
superlatives, (So also ottwq, jJ, oiog, &c.) 

173. {d. e.) el ng kcu dXXog {si quis alius^, and Etc dvrip {unus om- 
nium maxime), have the force of superlatives, 

(fig yt avrip (Lv is also used.) 

174. (/) TTtpiTTog {exceeding, over and above), and adjectives in -irXd- 
aior {.fold), govern the genitive from their comparative meaning. 


1. npoOvj-iovfiEda Twv v'liuiy lic apicrrag tlyai rag xpvxag. 2. 
'Eyw vof^ii^u) TO fj-h^ prj^syoQ ^ietrdai Oslov elvcii, to 3' wg iXaxia- 
T(i)v iyyvra-iij tuv dtiov. 3. Ael on juaXiora evfiadelg elvai 
rovg I'EOvc. 4. Ovk d(bdoyia Twy TTpodvjjLOVfXEVwv u)g dpiarwv 
07 1 udXiiTTa Kni ihg ra)(i(7ra yiyyerrSai. 5. TbHu dyaduiy rj 
apiarov ku\ i'lCitTTOV tWoXai'crwynf)', 6. O /l<») ireiaag aiv yerw- 
renoc co^ar elyai j) (iciKwrepor u7rE\wpti. 7- Oi 6L,eig fJ.U7' iKCJ- 
repoi rj dvdpeiorepoi (piioyrai. 8. 'AvayKciloy fiy (Twroixwrepov 
7/ fTCKpierrenor ciaXsx^^ijyai. 9. VAg 'IdjXicoy iKOjJriv l,vv (toI, 
TrpoOvpog ovtTci fxaXXov ?/ ao^ojripa. 10. 'Arpevg Trpodvfitjg 

" Or, (in TrXtiffTOVQ uOpuiaag. 

' In tliis passage (which is from Theophrastus) Ka'iirtp is connected with 2i finite 
verb; which is very unusual, and had better not be imitated. See Ka'nztp in the 
' List of Particles.' 

§ CO. COMPARISON.] 174. 57 

iidWoy )) (plXtvc irarpi irapirrx^ hura. 11. Koitov kii'^vvnv roTf 
"EWrjiTi TrepifTTui'-og, ol 'Ad>]i(uoi cnrXutria rCji' ctXAwj' eiQ ti)v 
airavTWi' ffwr/yp/ur irapiaypvTO. 12. Y[oX\air\uaiovQ v^iov avriLv 

tVlKOLTE aVV ToIq Qto'lQ. 13. 'ETTft^ClJ' KTllCTiti^ai -irEplTTCl T G) V EfJlvl 

apKovi'Tijy, TovToiQ TCiq irSelac rwv (piXwv it,aKov}.ini . 14. Mupto- 
TrAc'to-ta >//*w)' Trctrra E^^t »'/ i^aaa tzoXiq. 15. lloWooTOi' fxipoq 
■fjv TO. vp/y/^Kt-n, wr vj-ttlc TTpofTiCOKciTe. 16. Ot 'A^Tji'aTot Ivva^iv 
tlyop fieyiarTi]y Toir 'EXXijvojy. 17. Rupoc ^i»/i'£yK£ rw TrXetora 
d»'0ow7rwi' ('wpeladai. 18. K«Xy\«ac crwfxa al,ioTr peTritrraroy 
l^ily Trie TtoXiuyQ £«X^''* ^^* ^o0/a TraXrt tor arjj rt (vui ttXei- 
a-T] Tojy 'EXXi'i vioy iv Kpi'iTij re kcu Aai^t^difiori, Kni (TufKTTcii 
TrXelfTTOL yj/c ««« EtVa'. 20. ndiTwi' rdy Eeirwy c (jjojios 
/iaXioTct KdruTrXi'iTTEt tuq \l^v)(^cig. 21. IIpo^iKoe rwv ao^ia-wv 
KuXXiara ra oyofinra Sirjpei. 22. 'H yavc apicrru fiot eVXei 
TTnrroe rov arparoTreSov. 23. 'C>iJii]pov kuO' ItcadT-qy TrayTiiETr]- 
piSa Twy Uayudi]yaiLL)y f.i6yov tuip aXXojy Troirjruty po^^/w^oi/iTfU 
TO. tTTT]. 24. 'lepoirpiTriaTaroc ^oicelg th'Ui tu)v tv poy (.yeyt)- 
fiiyioy. 25. 'AdTjyaloi ctpx')'' '"')>' 'i^'/ neylarrjy riby te Trply 
'EXXijyojy kcu rwv vvy KEKTr}VTai. 26. 'Ojow ret 7r/jay/,jara ou^ 
olci (MXTLara iy ttJ ttoXel oyra. 27. 2w(cpor;jc ttote oyroQ -rrayov 
o'iov ^EiyoTciTov ayv!r6Ei]T0Q ha rov Kpi/orciXXoi; iiropEVETO. 28. 
^Hy£ tTT-partrij' 6ai)y TvayruyodEv TrXel(TTi]y eOvvutO. 29. "Ac£taj^ 
TZEiv()ir}KE oarjy oTor r£ yayiadai ttXe/ crr>? i'. 30. 'Y7rt(7x»'oD)Tai 
(iu-)]dEiy -poTTW uTTuio) ay ^vvioyrai laxvpoTaro) Kara tu Ivyaroy. 
31. 'E^/)' Kupw Qr](Tavpovc yovaov TrXfioTouc ei't ctj/cpt ej' rw 
o"n:(^ KaraBiadui. 32. KciXXtar' ctij/p £te ErpcKprjy. 33. nttpa- 
txo/Ltcti 7w oiTt wf ci I' cuj'aj/.tat (^iXTia-TOQ wy Kal i^ijy Kai cnro- 
QyildKEiy. 34. AtJjy//(Toyjni vp^' wc "J' Ivywfxai Sia /jpaxura- 
7-(ijj'. 35. CEipaffOjUcit 3(t«o■^•£t)' Vjudc wc ci c otoc 7-£ o) aaipiaTara 
TTiol TiLy TrETTpayjxiyujy. 36. Ot yoi'fTc kTzij.uXo\jyTai, Trdrra -KoioTiy- 
T(c, OTTWQ 01 ira'ihc avro'ig yirwvTai ujg ^vyarov ftiXriaTOi. 37. 
'^vyrj ayadi] rrj avrfJQ upErrj auifJia napix^i ^c o'loy te joeXTiaToy. 
38, UEpifJEyE EUJcay Tuvva wc £»'« ijciaTa yEyrfrai. 39. 0( Aoice- 
CtiijjLortoL aiTO) »] ayvoToy jiet pnoTUTu Tpiipovai Ka\ (i\\/i^ >| ovia- 
rov yutkoordrw. 40. *H»^ yuEi' ydp i}^r](pi(JwyTaL eirEaOai, vf^ilc 
^o^ETE a'trioi EtJ'ot dp^rtiTfc roD ha(^aiyEiy, kul we vpaQvuo-u-oiQ 
ovffiy vLuy vdptj' eKtetul KvpoQ kui und^waEi' EiriaTaTai o' ei Tig 
Kal aXXoe' rj^ ^' cnro-^rjcpicrtjjyTai ol aXXoi, airij-iEy dirayTEQ [ft'c] 
TOViiwaXiy. Xn. 41. Tw dccpt oy av eXtj^Be TrEiaojdai t) cvyuTuy 
^dXtora, 'Ira eJc'jjte oti kui ctpxEO"^"' iniara^uu, to c tic Kal iiXXog 
pdXicTTa uyQpijTTwy. Xri. 42. TEGrnvai rofiiiio Xv/riTEXEly >) i^rjy. 
43. ZrjTOuai KEplaiyEiy Tj {jfidg nElOaiy. 44. Tw rjjc ii[i£TEpag 
ttoXeioc Tv^ijy ay EXoijjrfy i) -»/)' EKEiyov. 


58 177 — 183. [§ 31. the dative. 

§ 31. The Dative. 

177. a. TO. avra TTdnyu) aoi, / sw^er the same as you. Qr)(TEVQ Kara 
Tor avrur ■^povor 'HpacXtt ytvo^Evog, Theseus who lived about the 
same time as Hercules, b. 7ra-ao-(7£ti' pti'/K^w, to beat tvith a stick, 
c. ^nufjiio TTcipiiXdEv, he came running (literally, at a running pace). 
l^eydXt] (TTTovoij, in great haste. d. 0o/^w, through fear, kcl^veiv 
roaiD, to be suffering from (or ill of) a disease. dXytlr twi, to be 
pained at a thing, e. t-;] Tplnj hl-i^Pf^ on the third dag. f. roDrci 
XiXeKrai }i^uy, these things have been said by us. 

•1 Yft The notion of the dative is opposed to that of the genitive, as its funda- 

mental notion is that of approach to. 

l-Q The dat. expresses the person to or for whom a thing is done : it 

also follows words that express union or coming together, and those 

that express likeness or (a) identity. 

180. 0^) The instrument, (c) the mariner, and (d) the cause, are put in 
the dative. 

181. (^) The definite time at which a thing is done, is put in the 

IS'2. (/) The dative sometimes expresses the agent; especially after 

the perfect pass, and verbals in rioc, roc. 

]g3^ [Obx. Verbs o( reproachivg, &c. take ace. of the thing (as well as 

dat. of person), especially wiien it is a veut. pronoun. {lyKaXtiv, &c. 
Ti rivt.)] 


1. 'O uel Tvapioy TG>y TToXircuy Kvpioq kard) kwiTUTreiv toIq 
■rruKTiv V ~i «)' ayado)' coi^ij e'lrai. 2. Qr]jjaioiQ r>)y duudiav 
6i'£icii^ov(Tii'. 3. rio.Wa iniT I jjiwai toTq Trtir aihtv hevoiq. 
4. Tt lyKuXCji' hn'iv iTTi-^Eipt'iQ >//(uc ('nroXXvt'ui; 5. "OariQ ctj'- 
dodJTTOQ w»' drOpijJTra) rv^ijy -rrpoipEpEi, uvorfroy yiyovfxai. 6. 'Am 
rod (TvyEpyElv euvto'iq ra (TvpfEpovra etv i]pEdCov(j iv dXX fjXoig. 
7. AoDXof 7r£0vvwc evvoei t(^ hEairorrj. 8. To irdaLV dfia ^aXf- 
■KaivEiv -Kuniy tiVTolc i)[.uh'Oiuy IfJ-paXXEt. 9. ^vexEi nuaiv di'dpui- 
TTOiQ VTT dp'X^Ei role ETTCiiyova ly uvrovc d^dEerdai. 10. Oi'Adr)- 
I'oloi dTrii\Odyoy-u roic "EXX)j irt r. 11. 'llav-^lay I'jyEy tj ttoXiq 
role fiiy ftuplUdpoig avyyiyv6}(TKovaa, role c' "^XXrjaiy dyavaK- 
TOVfTu. 12. O'l dyadul kdy ti opyiadwm to'iq yovevair, avrol 
EavTovQ irapaiJivdovyTai. 13. Ovj^wdEig role alrloic (nrovSaiore- 
pov EiTTov d EiTvov. 14. '0/\oi9' o rolq Ey^ovat rdyriOd (pdoyiov. 
15."ApE(Ti:E Tzdai khi av fii) (ravrw fioyoy. IG. IJoXXwi' //yuEpwv 
bcov r']£(T(iy. 17- 'FjiropEVEro rrj ocdj, i]y avrog kvoirjtraTO. 18. 
"EXau>'£ Tov auvTov Spofxay. 19. 'Opw/Lt£)' izdyra uei loyra ^p6fi<o 
Kill rpE)(()yra. 20. Touc Trapa rolg EjJKppoiTiy evS6l,ovc ydfxovq ^prj 

§ 31, THE DATIVE.] tS3. f>9 

yafAtli'. 21. Ta/do) y ey o/,t jj(.we ~i/»' tV"'"' fJ^^lTipa kripav tiy^e 
yvi'CtlKa. 22. Nouoi' voaovjXEv rt)v tyavriay ^iiKq.. 23. Mrfiaf-iug 
ijyov di'TjKearh) iroi'rjpii} yoiruv Wdip aiovc. 24. Ta ap^oidrtpa 
Aioi'vrria TJj cojdeKaTi] Troiurat ev jurjyi ^ArdearrjpioJi'L. 25. 'Ispoi' 
opoe KareiXtjcjiE ^iXimroQ 'EXa^/j/joXtwj'oc f-ttp'og eiCTT] (pdutit-oc. 26. 
QeiTfiod>opioic yrjarevoj-iev. 27. X^ec avrvv Ciicpvyoi' ro'iq tiri- 
riKinig. 28. Ot 2f(/itot kLtiroXiopKiiBrjnuv iraro) fiqri. 29. Oi 
£»' 'WwfJT] TtTaoTO) STEt ^v yil3i](Tay . 30. Mf'XXtt yioc Eyiavrog fiETO. 
dEpivag -poTTCiQ Tu) ETTioyTi luqyl yiyyEcrdai. 31. 'Ej' ttcivtI Bei 
Kaipu TO CiKaioy erriKpaTE'iy. 32. 'Epjjcu fii^ yvKrl ol ttXeIotoi 
TTEpiEKOTrrjCiay ra TrpoirwTra. 33. Ov p(f.cioy tci £y dTrayri t(o y^poyo) 
Trpaj^^diyra iy ft(^ ij^ipa hr]\tJ)<Tai, 34. 'E i' kfiSo /.lyKoi'Ta Ereaiy 
ovc ay Eig \adoi 7ro»'j;poc wy ^. 35. NoyntXtre rfic avriig i^rj^iag a^lovq 
elyai tovq avyKpvirToyraQ toIc afxaprdyovtriy. 36. 'H EEtnroiya 
ofioiay ruTc covXciig £«)(£ ri]y Eadij-a. 37. Ov -ojy avrwy ovre 
Epydjv ovrt Xoyujy Effriy >'/ rtorr/c rtp yZ/p^. 38. ToTc: ofOaXfiolg 
vpwpEy. 39. Toi' Map^ioyLoy ayfjp ^Trupriarrjg oyofxa 'ApiiiiiTjtTTog 
cnroKTiyyvcri XlOu) rt)y k'£^o\j)i' 7rf(^a^ac. 40. AiTfxofrdEyijg ^uXk:o7g 
Kcu dda fxayr i yoig tei-^ecti Ti)y tCov ^ABr^yaiwv ■ywpav ETEi'^^itTE, rrj 
tG)v ^vpniiiiy kiu Qrjjjalojy av fjifxa-^l^. 41. Meyac r<o oyri ovrog 
o (tt't'ip, og ay [jEynXa cvyqrai yywfxy diarrpaL^aadui fiaXXoy ?) pi) fir]. 
42. OvCeIc (t)\j TEL dyadug. 43. N£)'j(x'/;i'rat ot tvoXe/J-ioi ical yavTi 
Kal TTEi^d). 44. rfaj'-i rpoira ftotjBtly \p)) rolg avunu-^oig. 45. 
$o/Jw airo(TTEpE~iTai rioy ivuftovXuy ?/ T^oXig, 46. O (ricrjpog laaT 
Ev T(3 TToXf'/iw rovg dfjdEyElg TO~ig la'x^vpolg. 47- AovXu) EoiKag. 
48. Ot TToyrjoot ciXXr/Xotc onoini. 49- Ou ^£t i(Toi' roue KUKovg 
Tolg ayado'ic 'i'^F.iy. 50. TtJ KaK(J irpEiTEi BovXev Eir. 51. 
M^o-flo^opw)' di'Cpt rvpoj'i'w ^el. .52. 'H TrXrjtTjJoyri /3Xr(/jEpa /xer 
rw rTu)[xar t, (oXajOEpct ci rj; \pv)(^ri. 53. 'AyaOot dy?pEg MfiXifjioi 
ra'ig iroXEaty. 54. Xprirrii-iq Tolg drd pijjTroig >/ larpiKT]. 55. 
'H ccKaioavyi] ov fxovoy rw t^^oiTt XvcrtrEXs/, rtXXa cat rote ciXXotf. 
56. O ayadog ro) ayaflw fAoyog <j>iXoc. 57. Ot 7ro)'/;poi kfxoiyE 
BoK vaiy dXX{]Xoig E-)^dpoi /idXXoi' iti (piXoi TTECpvKeyaL. 58. Tupai'joe 
a/TOc i'^^dpoc (.XEvBEpiri Kal yofxoig Eyavr'iog. 59. 'Opw >//^t»' 
(iJTtTraXovc Trpofftoi'-oc, otc ij/JLElg ov CvyufiEQa f^ia'^Eodai. 60. Tote 
(f> 00 y I luojTciroi Q TrXijcrlai^E, 61. Ot a{jfif.inyjn ol yvy TrporryEyof^iEyoi 
TrapafiEyovaiy yfiTv kui vavEooy. 62. ]xaKo~ig o/JiXwy avrog EKJ3)'ifT)] 
KaKog. 63. M*) £pt4'£ ro'ic yoyEvai, kciy ciKata Xiyrjc. 64. ' A X- 
Xoig fiEy TToXEfiOvm, To'cg ce ^Kvdaig ovk EdiXovm Siaycjyii^EaOai. 
65. IjWKpa-Tjg TroXXai^ig cuXiyETO rolg TE)(^y iraig. 66. Ov Trciyra 

* 'Ev vvktI j3ov\r) Toig aocpolffi yiyi'trat. Aotcft (3sXtiov (lyai tv t iT) 
^tijuwj'i -Raxta i^t«ria (poptlv. 'lag fiiyctXag I'/doyag ol iv t i^ Katpip 
TTOVoi -Trapkxovrai. 

I 2 

60 186 — 188. [§ 32. middle voice. 

XtvKU olc fieXara /i>) jue'/uutoi. G7. IIoWo ayuOa ol dsol Trapixovat 
To'iQ fti'^owTTOtc. 68. KaXor ireiOapx^'iy rote vofxoic, tt} ce 
iraTpiSi Kir^vfevovd}] fJoijOtlv. 69. Tor (T-pciTiu)ri]y txtfffJai 
Xp)) Ttp iiyi^ovi. 70. '\7r//p£r£7r£ rw ap^ojTt, o n at TrpoaraTrr} 
vjitT)'. 71. Ilac 7r/\oi)roc virtUei t ij aperf]. 72. Tw>' TrXoi/rouvrwJ' 
To'iQ fj.ei' 'ifTTi j^pj/jLtctra, roTc Si aypoi, Tolg ce fjoaKt'ifxura. 73. 
OvEev oiirwc //jueVtpov tortr, waizip ri^iig iif^ily avro'iQ. 74. turret 
UTrnp^Et role iOiXovai ■Koyilv kuI klvZvvevelv to. twv afjieXovPTivr. 
75. IIoXXoi Kul ayaOol (piXoi elalf ej^Lol, 76. Tt efxol irXiov to 
T})v yT]v TrXarvyeadai ; 77. tlXiov nvEey i]v ayavaKrovtriv »//^tT>'. 
78. Tujv udXi]Tu>y Cic TOcravTTjy puj[jit]v Xa/3ovrwv oiiSev av TrXiov 
yivoLTO To'iQ dXXoiQ. 79. Ei yivoiro to'iq ^pr/OToTc ju?jd' 
oriouv TrXt'or, Trvcnj rapn^^ yivoLT av eIkotwq; 80. 'Ay))p ci/jovXoc 
^/^oj^atf dtjpEvtrai. 81. Ttit XP'/ ko iyeaOai ra fxiXXorra Ka- 
Xwg i^pid)]f7EaBai ; dp' ou/c i jj-TVEipiq. te kul (jjpoyijffEi (cat Xoyw; 

82. TuX»?9£C UI'^p WTTO t(Tt J' OV^ EVp L(TKSTat. 83. TtDv TTEpt 70 

(7ai/ja voaijfiaTujy iroXXal OfpaTEtat cat Trarro^aTrat rote larpote 

tupjj JTOt. 

§ 32. Middle Voice. 

186. The middle voice denotes : 

1) That the agent does the action upon himself; or 

2) That the agent does the actioTi fo?- his own advantage ; or 

3) That the agent gets the action done for his own advantage. 

The strict reflexive meaning is found in but very few verbs; princi- 
pally those that describe some simple action done to our own persons ; as 
to clolhe, crown, &c. 

The reflexive sense is often equivalent to anew simple meaning; which 
may be either transitive or intransitive. 

187. The tenses that have the middle meaning, when the verb has 
it at all, are 

1) Pres. and imperf. 

2) Perf. and pluperf. 

3) Futures and aorists mid. 
And in some verbs 

4) The aor. 1. oi t\\e passive form. 

188. 1) Xovtiy, wash : M. wash wy self, halite^. 

a7r«yx£ii', uTTUy^ai, strangle: M. strangle (or hang) myself. 
[With new intrans. meaning.] 

(TTtSXtiv, to send: M. (to send oneself =) to journey ^ 
Ttaviiv, to make to cease : M. (to make myself cease =z) to slop, cease, 
leave  off. 

^ It may have an acciis. of a part of one's own person. 

' (TTsXXtaOai, to clothe oneself, and to send for, has aor. aniXaaOai : aTtXXtffQai, 
to travel, araXrjvai. 

^ of the passive form. 

§ 32. MIDDLE VOICE.] 188. Gl 

[With new irans. meaning.] 

■Kipaiovv {jiva), to put a man over (a river): W.. lo cross (a river, 

TiXKtiv, to pluck : M. to mourn for (ncc), i. e. by tearing one's hair. 

2) avymaxoi' iroiiiaQai riva, to make a m'ui one's ally {to form an alli- 

ance with a person), i. e. for one's own advantage. 
KaraaTtiaaaOai^ (pvXaKag, to place guards (over one's own property; 

for one's own ))roteclioti). 
aipiiv Ti, to lift or take a tiling up: M. to take up for one's advantage, 

i.e. to keep for oneself. 
ivplrsKdv, find : M. find for myself, procure, get. 
Trnpaff/ctwa^fii', provide: M. provide {for one's own use). 

3) TTapariOtnai TpctTTti^av, I cause a table to be set before me. 
fuadoti), let out for hire: M. {cause to be let to myself, =) hire. 

So diSdiTKiiv, teach : M. get or have (a peison) taught. 
[In general any remote reference of the action to self is expressed by the 
KaTaKka'iuv, weep for : M. weep for (one's own misfortunes, ace). 
iTridiStiyixtvog ti)v novijpiav, having shown his own wickedness. 
Oilvac vojiovQ, to enact laws, — of an absolute prince who does not 
make them for himself. BiirOai vojxovg, of the legislator of a 
free state, who makes them for himself as well as for his fellow- 

LESSON xxxir. 

1. Tj/j/ ekivQepiav eXoifxrjv av avrl tjv e'j^w TrdvT(i)y. 2. 'H ttoAic 
ij/dioi' TrpojTT] rofiovQ edero Kal TroXiTelav KareGTiiaaro. 3. X.Qr] 
•Kcirrn av^pa iiyt^alififvov ti]v iyKpuTEiuv aperTjq t'liai KprjTrlda, ravrrji' 
irpiiiToy EV rrj ii"^X'^ kcit atjK ev umKrOa i. 4. B/ov irupii^ov wav- 
Todtr TtXriv EK KaKivv. 5. AiopvtrioQ fxtyaXrjv hvrafxiv TrepiejoaXeTo. 
6. Qi'qrdlg opj/ywv avrug ev pu j.n] y irovovg. 7. HaXn' (palrjg au 
aSimt' iltai kuI aXXag iroXeig STri-^eipely SovXovadai rict/kwc kcu 
KaTaSeSovXuxrdai, noXXag Ee Kcil hep' kctvrfj ^x^"' hovXioaafxit'i)v. 
8. Mwpoc El. Tig ^(prjuarwi' eTriOu^wj' j)(J(Tar tt poatErat. 9. Opnarv- 
Xog oTrXirac KaTeXi^aro ■^(^LXiovg. 10. E<d£ ti)i' rod yeXwroTroioD 
QEpairov 4/v^})i' iridrfKov kvcvo^Evqv. 11. Ti/c Qpuu'i]g yfj-li' ki,- 
E<TTai ciTTOTE f-ivEcrdai ^wpny, 12. Tot' l-wiovra TiuXi^iini' otriur 
ECTTii' cifivrEfrdai. 13. Toi' ev Kal KciKwg c p w yr a i^ itrov aperij 
a fivvov /JEda. 14. Vevt'oluf kari rovg i^oiovg aim rov laov 
TijxiopE'iaQai. 15. A\^E~i<Tdat \pi], yvvai, tu Xiai- teal (j)vXa<Ta£a- 
dai <pQ()voi', 16. T»;»' Trap' kavrip Cuva^ir iiOpoiaaro. 17. IIoXu 
fUEy ipyoy Kcit to apx>/i' KaTUTrpdc,ai, ttuXv h' tVi /.it'ii^oy Xafioi'Ta cia- 
(TU)(7(iuOa t, \S. "Orra j/i'e'ycw, Truirct tig to KOii'oy KaTEdt]i;ag, 
19. Att [liiovTctc avTovg Trspl r))>' ayopav Tci f-iEi' ai'T apyvpiov 
aXXaLiUffdai Tolg tl ^eo^Eyotg cnroSoaOat, Tolg Se ciptI civ apyvpiov 
ciaXXc'iTTEiv, 6(701 Ti CEOi'Tai Trpictfrdai. 20. ' Apa yiyi oj-ieroi Xcifx- 
(oai'OfXEv Tag EinaTtinag ', 21. 'Aicptia ^'^X't ^«/^P>" ''"i^tE '''; '"'/C 
aXijdeiag ijiitpovTai. 22. 'H Kf'pvupa vavTLKov av jiiyKXToy vrap- 

-' KaQ-iaTnjxi, W. 84, B. p. 102. 

' This difference is not, however, strictly observed. B. 

62 190. [§ 33. MIDDLE VOICE. 

e'(TV£ To~iQ UiXoTrovi'Tjffioir. 23. Navr(K.o»' Trape t j^o ito ot Xtot, 
ot B' aWoi ■HS^ur icai -^pjinaTa. 24. "Eori Tropej^orza Tr^myjuara 
roTc TToXfjii/otc <"o7c <piXoiQ aafaXeiay Trnpi-^eiv. 25. "Aoj^orroc 
taTLv oiiy lavro}' fxoiov ayaBor tt api')(_t H'. 26. 'Aff(pa\e.ia Opaaog 
Trape^et. 27. !•)»' ToXjjiar tj S,vv£m^ i-^vptJTEpnv irapi-^^ETai. 28. 
Ta t,oy« X^'f"^ ^'^*' ^"7^'' ^mpiTXiTO. 29. Ta dijjra awfjara, 
oaov av iv avrolt; ■)(^p6i'oy i), ?/ 4'*'X'' '»<«''''■" Trape'^erat. 30. <I>tAo- 

TToXtf OC av fC TTOITOC T'pOTOU TT £ I p U d >j T)]l' SUVrOV (H'ClXaftilv. 31. 

T))»' TToAii' iTTtipaaav KaraXaiifiv, 32. Iloi'fTj/ yut xr")' ttoi'oJJjto 
^' c'ti'toj' fxiaOoi' fipeuOai, 33. Ou^.' tyw o Xtyou', rtW o Trpa^ae 
7-»)i' dTrt'x^^'"*' civru/y t/\nioc (j)£p£(Tdui tTTir. 34. H pi^ropiK}] rw 
act ycl/jTto dijoevETui t))'' uvoiav Kctl i£,u7rarci. 35. DoW?/? aioiug 
Kal TO OrjpdaQai Ktva. 36. Swfcp«rr/e tv po tr piirtTO tuvq aviovraq 
nai'Tdjy ficiXiaTU Trpog eyKpartiar, 37- To tuq yevofiirac Bta(popac 
Trpoc uXXi'iXdvc diaduL KaXwc, tovt t'lKorcjjQ i]^ri BoK£~i ar^pwy ayudutu 
Kul (TOJcpnoi'U))' epyoi' eu'di. 38. IIpoc thcutfiuriai' ovCev av (rvfjifjci- 
XoiTO TTjXiKUVTT)}' cu)((jLt(»', 0(Tr]i'Trtp (\pfT)) Kcu TCI f-iipr) TaUT1]C. 39. 
Ta fiiKoa puc 10 f toIq Xvyoit; inrepl'jnXiada i. 40. 'A/jpaCar/jc Trpoc 
Toi' liaKTpiaywv (jaaiXea TrpsapevLOy oi-^eto. 41. Ol Kopiydioi 
y'lXdov Ir Tcir ^Adi'ivag tt pe a j^ Evao ^leyoi, 42. 'O rvXivn-og eg t>)v 
Qovpiay Trpeaj^tvaafXEVoc apag Trapi-irXei Ttjy TTaXiav. 43. IIpEff- 
ftevofxiyoiQ to7c ^Adrjyaioig Trarra^oo-f jwridi'iy ovCeig ydsXey. 44. 
BouA.£w£(j' oujc tieaTL j'eoJTeooig Tou'tKoyTa ItILv. 45. 'II dw^pwi' 
TToXtr- 7w TrXtTrrrtt £i) ItavXtvovT i TrpoaTiQrjfTi Ti/Jt'iy. 46. Toi/c tou 
TToXefJioi' TToioiiyTag wg rj/c ^r^fJ-vKpaTiag KrjCofXEt ovg Evvovg Eivni 
vofiiConey. 47. 'Aytc ovk ev Tvapipyov tov ttoXe^ov ettoie'ito. 
48. Mf;^£«c vfiuiy oppwt)£trw yu£ra rou ctKaiov voiov fXEVo g tovq 
Kivhvvovg. 49. AeT tov^ KuXijy up-^yy tov piov ttoiovjj.evo y 
uvrov irpOTEpoy ?) -w»' uvtov ttoii) an erdai t t) y ett ijiiXEtay. 50. 
V ly yo fxivdi V Xoywi' ou/c e^tj roi/c A'iyoue ung Epyoig ojxoXoyEiy. 
51: 0< 'A9;;»'o7ot CEivoy ETroiovyTO, Et rove inijiovXEVoyTag afwy 
T(t) ttXijOei fi}) eiavy-ni. 52. To XiyEiv wg ct'i tov (Jjpoyely rb fJEyiiXTOv 
arjfie'ioy -iroiovjiEda. 53. Wovqpov ay^pa pjjCfVorE tvoiov (biXoy. 
54. O'l AaKECutf^ioyioL iroirieTajiEyoL avcpiayTag cvo tog curi Ilauffa- 
ylov cDtdEfjay, 

§ 33. Middle Voice {contimied). 

-inn a. * a'lnilv, lake; cnpu<T9ai, dionse (foUoweA by civri w'nh gen.), 

XajHilv, take, receive ; XafiiaQni, lake hold of. 
b. [Verbs wliose middle voice seems to have a reciprocal vieaving.^ 
j3ov\iv(iv, consult; (iovXfvtaOni, ratisult logcllier, delilierale : but 
also (with regular viit/. si{;iiilicatioii) to counsel myself, adopt a 
resolution. In the sense ot di liberate it is fullowed by inpi witli 

§ 33. MIDDLE VOICE.] 190. G3 

SiaXveiv *, to reconcile others ; SiaXvioQat, to he reconciled to each 
otiicr {TTpog with ace.) 

c. [Middle toiin<, of which there is jio active, and which must there- 

fore be considereil simply as deponents.] 
^'i\oiiai, receive; *aiadavo^iai, perceived, am informed of. 

d. [Aorists pass, with mid. nieaiiin};.] 

KciTSKXidifv (i) ^, laid ni ij self down ; laid down. aTTJjXXayJjr, took 
myself off: so iTr(patw9r]]>, i<poj5i)Qt]v, fKotiii)6i]v, i]aKi)9t]v 
(from iripcfiovaOai, (pojiiiaOia, KoifiuaOcti, daictlndai). 

e. [Some futures \. o( mid. furm liave a /;rt.s.9. meaning. — See Introd. 

List II.] 
w<pt\ri(roi.iai, ojuoXoyZ/ao^at, ^i'\«?o/tat, ^of^/o/iai : from w^tXsw 
benefits OjUoXoyioi, confess; ^nXarroi, guard; rps^tii, nourish; 
maintain — bring up. 

f. (pvXdrTicGai, viid., to be on one's guard ; to guard against, with ace. 

of tiling or person. 
^^° The agent after a pass, verb is mostly translated by viro : — some- 
times by TTpoQ (with gen.) to denote the powerful and immediate influence 
of a. person : by irctpd (with gen.) when the person is to be denoted as 
one from whose neighbourhood, sphere of action, e.xternal or internal 
means, the action has proceeded ; now and then by he, to denote the 
source froin which it flows, &c. 


1. OvhuQ fJLtT opyj/c a(r(l)ct\u)Q jiovXeveTcit. 2. TuvTofJ.aroi' 
ij^iHty KaWioi' ftovXevET ciL. 3. ()t UXaratijg t.(iov\ev(TUVTO 

AdijyaiovQ fi)) Trpocicorui, 4. "E^v nJJov\i.v6 j.itda aoi Ti )(p)) irou'iy' 
av ovv CFV fijJovXEVcTo y iii-tlf' o n ami tvntl KaWiarov tlpai, 5. 'O 
Sevocpwy eXBwt' elg AeXfovg ayeKoivwirt rip dew ntpl Trjg Trooiiac. 
6. 'Ev rale avrovaiuLc, oray ri ay ciKoiv Cj yrai aoi, oow ae kuXuiq 
(TV ^ foovXevo yrci. 7. Kcf^o/ vw I'rai \puyoy Tnlg ov KaKaJcriy ul 
KciKcil. 8. Tw hjarvyovyri -log rspizyuy ro Xiiai KuitoKXav aaaQai 
TTaXiy. 9. Tijc tov ovtoq BUiq o'lay j/Cort/i' t'^ft acvjctroy ciXXw 
ye-yivffdai 7rX))y <hi\otT6<p(^. 10. Ol 'Adrjvaioi MiXruldrjy elg ro 
j')apaQi)Ov fjiifjaXilr £\l/r}(pi(7ayT0. 11. Ovdey rjEioy rov Travaaa- 
6ai odvviOfjiEyov. 12, Xp>) yv [xya ^ eadai Kai Xov (rdai. 13. 

Erci^ftiTo wg a i-iv yov fj.e y o I. 14. Twy ayOpu)Tru}y irpog tu Xtyo- 
jiEva Kcii a'l yi'uifAcii 'larayTcii. 15. IlptTrti roue cohig optyofii- 
vovg KuX vaiceing ayr nvoiov jxiyovg riLy anov^aluiy ilvai ^u^tjjrcic. 
16. Twi' TToXiriKiijy Trpcty^c'trwi/ trcpaXepoy lariy dir-eadai. 17. 
n/ora iari KciXa orra ciKnioirvyrig e'^etui. 18. "Hr Tig iK^oiiycii 
I'jouXrjrai OvyarEpa, wpog Ifxs ^£t XiyEiy. 19. fliXot// iroXXcig t's- 
icoTO dvyaripag rviig apiaroic. 20. O'l yofioi KEXevovai rov Auact- 
fxii'ov £/<.■ rCjy noXE/Jiwy EU'ui roy Xvdfyrci. 21. Ov pcicioy iy ^poi'w 
dX/yw ^eyo'Xaf ciaj3()XctQ awoXv e (t6cii. 22. H/tac te rf]g inropiag 
EKXvaai Kcii avrog a voeIc pEftaiioaai. 23. 3uvXoirai iroXEfja) 

■• Xvio, Xiiffai, &c. — XsXvftai, tXv9r]v. 
^ Kara-KXivu). 

64 190. [§ 33. MIDDLE VOICE. 

f.tdX\o>' T/ Xoyotc T(i ey^\»//(ora S laXviaOd i. 24. Ot 0foi iroWiLv 
viTwi' trarr/'wj' o\/y(nc o^ai TpoTraia 'Icrracrdni ciconmv, 25. Ot 
TTpoyoi'fn TTfjOt rw)' avKOtpayrwr -^'xXettwtI^jovq r; TrtjoJ rJJ)' ciWwj/ 
(cak'oupyid))' Tovg vojiovc t defray. 26. BairtXeue aip elrai, 'ira oi 
eXofiei'Oi ci'a Tuvror iv Tr^jarrtoan'. 27. KXe'u;)' j/(>£Oij Ka-aaKOirog. 
28. A t p£ /(tO(ii r £K' rwr ;rpo/5£/3\r//t £ )' w j' Trdyreg ol rov ivoXijxov 
KUDwroi, 29. "A £'.\£yo)' £yw i\pii<pi(rTO vif i/^<wi'. 30, Mfrf- 
Trii.i(pdi] VTTO 'Ap)^£/3tnrou. 31. 'ATro^pwrrtuc; J/c>7 r£ n/x wp///,* £ 6a. 
32. I'pa^Etf roi' uywi'a tovtov tQ vjjuq t'larjXddy. 33. 'H oiviEte 
dplai, i^n) (ila-^pog (parjJQ, lay Trportpog ruv ac'£\0f;j' £11 TroiTJg ; 34. 
'H yu) )) KaratTKUTTt'iTat Bafici kavTip', iwiaKOTre'i ^e KOi ei tiq dXXoc 
avT))i' (hdrai. 35. EcivToy diroKpvTTTE-ai o KoiriTi]q. 30. <I>9//- 
(Torrni ?) ko/vW(Toi )/jUdc »/ (T(pdQ uvTOvg jjifyaiw a ciadai. 37. Ou- 
cc/^o/ Trpoieiro Iuvtovq. 38. '() yto^pyoc oiz/c uvrbc iroiija trai 
tavTco TO ttpo-po)', £/ j^ieXXii kuXo)' tiycit. 39. Ear n jUEpoc r^c 
TToXiioQ iip)'i}'i]i' i] TToXef.ior ivpoc tlvuq eavTM TvoiTjTai, BdvaroQ ecrru) 
ciKr). 40. 'Ap^»)i' K(u TvpayylSa twv 'EWZ/rwi' ipwaiv tavrio 

KUTUdKEVa l^i) fXeVOV it/AlTTTTO I'. 41. "Off' tw UVTOQ £ a 1/ 7 W TTOpl- 

(Tijrai EUCTETE. 42. 'Eyw Toy rouoy tfxuvTio rlOefxai Soicindi^tjv 

alaiTEu {'ipi]-aL ttouIv. [Agent after the passive verb.] 43. 'BovXuv- 

rni irdiTig vwo twv Ttaicwv QEpuTVEVtaQui. 44. Oi /i£i' viro 
y<')fX(x)y EdiXoiTEQ dpj^eadai ow^portc />'«! EXeudtpoi Kal ■^prjaTOi 
vofii^oiTui, ol c vTTo Tiov V X I J H p j^i w y LU'ciyCpoi Kcu CovXoi. 45. 
To tCEKirfjardai vtto twv (jpwfidrojy /cot t f] g tt o a e w g Trarv 
vif:6y Kcu dr]piwCEg CokeI Eirui. 46. To ojioXoyrjQEv irapa fteX- 
Tiorwy TTOV Kvpiwnpo)' ?/ to irapa j^Etpo I'w y. 47- 'ETrpa^Q?; 
riTTO T w }■ TV par y w y olcEy k'pyor a^(oXoyo^'. 48. Fi'w/iot d^' 
EKarrTwr tXiyn vTO, 49. KDpoc o f-ioXoy eItu i irpog TrayTwv 
icpaTiaTOg h) jEriadai dEpmrEvtiy (plXovg. 50. Touro fioi Tvwg Ik 

Oeov cicoT a I, tu')(v o'lo) r' £h'at yywvai. 51. Ovk ecxtiv ovceiq 

ooTig ov-^ avToy (jjiXeI. 52. IloWot Twy SvffTV^rj/rayTwr ave- 
Xafioy a'vTOvv. 53. lie ai' cvi'aiTo dvQpwTcog avev Twy ETnTtf^tiwv 
^ijy, ovceig tovto avroc avToy Treidei. 54. ^avToy (j)vXarre 
To7g TpoTvoic IXeiidEpoy. 55. Rvpoc lOiipevEy, ottots yv/uydaat 
(iovXoiTO iavTov te Kai TOvg 'iinvovg. bC). ToD evrv^tlv dti TrdpEj^e 
aeavToy to'iq opwaiv dt,ioy. oil. Etc T^oXXixg rapa^ag KaTaoTi)- 
(TOfiey lifxug avTovc, 58. Ev0p(ti)'£ rroi/ror, Tr'iye. 59. Mfj 
deXe XvtteIv aeavT 6 y, el^wg TroXXdi:ig on /cat to XvKOvy vaTepot' 
■^ap'ar dyei. 60. 'H ^aljuioy wg di'd^i' iiTifxw^tQa. 61. Tai/ra 
/i£i' // TToAic liXd-TTTETai' kyio c" ilia rt; dedaacrdE ijXiKa. 62. 
^lipyrjfTai o ti I'lpwD'idrjg. 63. TaiiTU ovceig av Treiadeii] iroTe. 
64. ToaoDro)' iiTTwyTUi. 65. Ala^b'rig XiKyofopog /cat 7-oiavra 
TT p o a (I y o p E V e T a I. 

§ 34. THE PERFECT 2.] 192—195. 65 

§ 34. On the Perfect 2. 

The Perf. 2. (improperly called the Perf. mid.) prefers the 192. 

intransitive signification, but never has the pure reflexive meaning 

of the middle. 

(1) If the verb has both the trans, and inlrans. meaning, the perf. 1. lias 
the former; the perf. 2. the latter. (2) If the intrans. meaning has gone 
over to the mid., or to the pass, (as often happens), the perf. 2. belongs 
in meaning to that voice. (3) If the verb is intrans., the perf. 2. has the 
same relation to it that any other /ler/". has to its verb. 

Perfl. Perf 2. 193. 

avoiyio ^, open, dviqjxc-) dvsffjya, stand open, 

iydpdi, arouse, iyqyipKa, fypfjyopa, aw awake. 

TTtiGw, persuade, TzkivtiKu, iriTToiQa, am confident, trust, have con- 


• ayvvjii, break, idya, am broken. 

" 6\Xw/it, destroy, oXwXeica, oXwXa, (peril,) am undone. 

* Trrjyvvfiiffix, -Trkirriya, am fixed, am congealed, &c. 
(N. B. aTToXXu/it, KaTayvvfii, more common than the simple verbs.) 

1. Mj) wq dew vo^lileTe ^tXtVTrw ra Tropoi'ra TreTrrjyirai vrpdy- 
l-iara adavara. 2. 'Q> ^vdvCri[.ie, 6 uEeXcpog crov i^r][X(j)OTfpiKe Toy 
Xoyoy Kai cnroXcjXe re kciI j/'rr>jrai. 3. Tw roiovru at'dyKt] ci) to 
fieTu TOVTO Kai e'l/xapTai cnroXijXirai viro twv i-^dpwv. 4. Tibv 
TO. wTa KaTEayoTiov^ aKovetQ tuvtci. 5. KaTeayora t'i tov i)v fiiXtf 
7/ bizoTpafifjiiva i^Qyrog, ical TfdviijJroQ tuvtci tuvtu EyBrjXa. 6. 'O 
TOiovTOQ ovTE j^ciipuiv ovTE XiiTTOu/ieroc uyui' (parijaeTai S.a to avT<3 
ireiroiQivai. 7. 'iTTTroKpaTiiQ ti]v dvpay ttj /3ak."r7/ptct ttoVv a(j>u^pa 
kicpove, icai eTreiSt) avTw ario)t,E tic, evdvg eiaw ijei tTTEiyoynevoc, /cat 7-17 
(fxtjyri JLieyci Xiyu)r,'Qi Swk-parec, 'ift], eypyyopciQ >) t^adtvSeiQ ; PL 
8. 'H \pv)(^)) fifily >'/ TOiavTr] kcu ovtw TrtfvKvla cnraXXaTTOniyr] tov 
awfxaTOc, evdvg Sia7r£(pviTi]Tai kciI air 6X(i)Xey. 

(^The Husbandman and the Snake.) 

9. TsMpyoQ y_£iiJ.u>i'OQ (opa bcpiy evpwv vtto Kpvovg TreTTJjyora 
TOVToy Xafjbjv vtto koXttov KciTedeTO. Qepf^aidelg St iKilroCf /cat 
ayaXaftujy T))y ISiav (pvcriy, ETrXrj^e Toy EVBpyiTTfy. 

§ 35. Additional remarks on some of the Moods and Tenses. 

a. 1] woXiTEta rtXtwc KtKoa^ii](rtTai, iav 6 toiovtoq avTi)v £7rt- 195. 
(TKowrj <pvXa^, the constitution will have been perfectly arranged, if 

* This verb prefixes the temporal to the syllabic augment — 
uv'ti^yov, avi(^b,a, inf. ovoijat. 
avi^tya belongs to later Greek writers: dvHfiyjuai was used by the older 

' Qui aures contusas habent : sc. pugnis, csestibus. 

66 196 — 205. [§ 35. moods and tenses. 

such a guardian superintends it. h. (j)pdi^e Knl ireirpd^ETai, speak 

and it shall {immediately) be done. c. tci ceaiTa kaofXEQa kyvw- 

(vTorec') '^nt \uytx)v j^iaraiioy anifKXay ^evoi, we shall have voted 

on the subject as we ouyht, and be freed from empty speeches. 

d. side 6 v'toc vEyiKi]Koi, would that my son had conqviered ! e. 

EtTTE)' oTL i']L,oi I'lf-itptf Tpirr], he said that he should come on the 

third day. f, TreTreipiKjdu), let it be attempted. 

196. (fi) The fut. 3. expresses a future action continuing in its effects. 

197« The/i<?. 3. differs, therefore, from the Latin futurum exaclum, in not 

being used to express merely the future completion of a momentary action. 
Its use is confined to principal clauses, and to subordinate clauses intro- 
duced by on, or iiQ {'thai'). In other subordinate clauses, the aorist 
suhj. (less frequently the perf suhj.) will be used instead of it, with a 
conjunction compounded or joined viWh dv (iciv, orav Sec. 77: or irpiv 
dv &c.). 'Eav ToSro \'t%tjQ, si hoc dixeris. — (See 91*.) 

198. {li) The fut. 3. is, however, sometimes used to express (1) the 
speedy completion of an action, or (2) the certainty of its completion 
in the most positive manner. 

199. The fut. 3. is obviously the natural future of those perfects, that, from 
their marking a continued state, are equivalent to a present with a new 
meaning : e. g. i.i(ixvr]fiai, KiKTij^iai. 

200. Some verbs have the fut. 3. as a simple future : e. g. dtdrjaonai ', 
■Ki-iravaoiiai, KtKu'ipofiai. 

201. (c) In the active voice a continued future state, or a future action 
continuing in its effects, is expressed by 'iao^aL with perf. parti- 
ciple : a circumlocution which is also used in the passive (as in the 

[The circumlocution with the participle is also found in other tenses : 
e. g., ovTOQ av — diroKTi'ivaQ avTOv lii]. Ant.] 

202. [d. e.) The perf. has also a subjunctive and optative, and the future 
an optative, which are used whenever that kind of uncertainty or 
contingency peculiar to those moods agrees with the time of these 

Only, however, when particular distinctness is required ; and even 
then, the perf. part, with t'lr^v or u) is generally preferred to the regular 
opt. and subj. of that tense. 

203. The imperat. perfect is principally \ised in those verbs whose 
perfects have the meaning of a present : fii.p.vr](ro, &c. 

204. (/) The third person of the imperat. perf. pass, marks a decided 
resolution : it is a strong expression for let it be done, &c. 

205. {(I) ti9i with the optative — and also the optative alone '" — expresses a wish. 

[If the wish expressed has not been (and now cannot be) realized, iWe is 

' yivbxjKuv interdum de plebiscitis vel populi jassis. Bremi ad Demosth. 
Phil. I, 54. 

■' From lib) to hind. 

'" As in (I) Tcal, yivoto TzarpoQ tiTvx((fTtpoQ. See also 295, e. 

§ 35. MOODS AND TENSES.] 205. 67 

used with itidic. of aorist or imperf., according as the time to which the 
wish refers is past, or presetit.^ 

So w^tXov * («Ci f) (ilone, or with tWe (especially in poetry), d yap 
or i}g, and followed by the infinitive. 


1. 'Ayr)ai\aoc Icei'iOr] rJ/C TrdXewc, a^elvat avTOV ravrrjQ rJ/C 
arparriyiac, Xiyoji' on rS irarpi avTOv iroWa virTjpery'jKOi ?/ tQu 
Mai'TiiEwy TToXiQ ey to'iq irpog Mtffcrj'/rr/v TroXefxotc. 2. E'tTroi Ct] 
rtg d'j'' OvKovy aJo-j^ur?; ovru) jutupwc £sO7ra7w/i£»'0C ; Nat jua Ala 
j/Vj^uj'd/xjj V fiivTOi, El VTTO TToXe^iov ye oyroQ £^?;7^a7■//0>J^'' ^<Xw o 
cJjTt i^aTTuraiy aitry^^LOv /uoi ^o/cet £/Vat, 7/ £^a7roracr0at. 3. Et /l«£>/ 
ovi' fw*/ kTvyy^ayev 6 'Ayuvrroc, EKilyoy av~6y ivapEL'^6jxi)y' vvy 
Se vfily (caXw rove (TvyeiSoraQ. 4. E"t9' cKpayKTdeiT} to KaKoy i£, 
aidptjjTrbjy. 5. Ei ynp yEvoifiTjy, TtKyov, ayri aov yEKpoQ. 6. 
'K.akv^wy u)Q aTToXniro yiyo^u 1. Et0' eI")(^eq ^pi]naTa Trcirra. 
8. EtQ' j)(T0a ^uvardc ^pav offov irpoQvfXoq eI. 9. E't0" EvpojiEV 
(TE ^)) XvTrovjjLEi'oy. 10, El yap io<pEXoy o'ioite eU'cii 01 iroXXol ra 
fj-Eyiara ayudci EEEpya^Ecrdai, 11. Avarrjyoc (>•■"' oi' oo(pOQ kekXi)- 
(TETai. 12. M-Eny-qfTOfXEQa on VfiE~iQ ainoi Ecr/iEy. 13. EuQi/e 
'AptaToc a(pEeTTi']L,Ei, w(ite (plXog Vf^iy oh^eic XeXeI^Petui, aXXU 
Kai 01 Trpocrdiy oyreg iroXijxioi iifJ-Ty Etjoirai. 14. Ei -KpoayEi'i]- 
(TETai Ev in, SiairETToXE [jr] (TETai avTolg ajj-ci-^ei. Tk, 15. Aeiyoy 
Efioiye ^oke'i Ehai, eI H, wy jjLEy i]Ct) iifiapTr)KE (.u^cettote nfitDptjOijcTETai, 
£s ojy ^£ ^xeXXei ev 7ron](7Eiy ySrj tet ijdi) cre-ai^. Ly. 16. Ot 
KfpaCTOvjTtoi we Ei^ov opuwyrag Kad' kavrovg, (Ta(j)u)g yoixi^ovTEg etti 
(j(pdg 'itcrdai, (pEoyovfTi Ipojju) Kal EfiiriTTTOvaiy Eig Tr)y daXarray. 
^vyEidETTEdoy Of Koi yiiijy avTuJv nvEg, Kal ETryiyero bang fii] ETvy)(^u- 
rey EiriaranEyGg VE~iy. Kat rovrovg tI ^okeIte ; 'HjOtVoi/V fiEV ovhiv, 
E^EiGav Se jj)) XvTra ng ulcTTEp Kvah' yj/JLly eix-ketttwkol. 17. A£t 
Ttjg afjg (piXiag fXEiA.yi]<TOfiai. 18. 'Er clcov ElaofXEBa raXrjdEg. 
19. YIpeffftvTepu) VEwripwy irayTuyy up-)(^Eiy irpoaTEra^ETat. 20. 
E'i nyci aXXi'iXoig ^ax>;»' (tviuxI/ete, yofxi^ETE ky rrj^E rrj v/^kp^ kf^k re 
KuraKEKOxpEaOai Kal vjxdg ov iroXv vavEpoy. 21. Oixc, tTreioav 
i]fXE~ig TEXEvri'icTw/JEy, 01 Xoyoi ol TTEpl i]iiwy (TEtTLyi'iaoyrai. 

[Compound form of perfect.] 22. Etc 6^e fxoyoyEyi^g ovpayug 

* oftlXd) (debeo), owe, ought. 6(pti\i]<jw. Jor. axpeXov (!j7z-Attic o<pt\ov) 
used only in wishes, ijjg ui^eXt Zyv SwKparj/f {how Socrates ought to be alive), 
would that Socrates were alive ! tWe KXcog i\a(3eg. el yap uKpiXov (sc. irpoTe- 
poQ iSilv) Plat, de hegg. 4, 43i5, C. ; and Crit. 44, D. With log Xen. ukov- 
Tiaag };/iapr££" ojg pifnoT uxpe^ov (sc. apapTtiv) ! II. 4, G2. 

^ XeXticpOiii, reliquum esto, imriipcKrOu), let it be tried, vvv Ik rovTO tetoX- 
fii)(T6iii i'nrtiv. So the Inf. in the Oratio obliqua, X. H. 5, 4, 7. t^i-ovTig St 
iiTTov, Tqv Qvpav KiKkilaQai, let it be shut, and rertmin shut. 

K 2 

68 205. [§ 35. MOODS and tenses. 

yeyoycjg lari te koi tr torat. 23. 'Ejuou ot fjiiv jvjjoi oh fjiupov 
airtyvijJKOTeQ elal ^tj aSiKsli', uXXci mu KtKeXevKoreg Tctvrrjv 
rfp' ciKr]i' XnfxlDai'Eir. 24. Ovtoq ay kui ovSilc erepor aTroKreiyaQ 

avToi' e'ir}. [The perfect itself, however, sometimes denotes an 

abiding effect.] 25. 'EirifieXioQ ul deal wy oi ct'i 9(JW7rot Siovrai i^ar- 
euKtvanaaiy. 26. Twr Troitjriijy ru'fc rwr irpoyiytyr]jiiy(»)y inrodiiKag 
wg "s^pij C^jy KaraXiXoiivaaiy. 27. IloXXrii TroXtig kyioTt Kui 
Kadinnp TrXola i;aTacv6j.uyci civXXvyTai kcu ^ loXujXacri Kni in 
SioXovy-ai cia Tt)y rojy KVJJtpyrjTuiy Kai yavriuy iioyfiiipiav. 

[General truths (as being founded on experience) are often expressed in Greek by 
the perfect, and still more commonly by tVie (wrist, where we should use the 
present, or, is wont to, &c. The foUowin^^ examples show the transilion from the 
usual meaning to this meaning o^ frequency . The aorist in this sense may also 
have ay wiih it.] 

28. IloWa ffrparomSa r'jBr] eTveatv vir' iXaaa6vb)v. 29. MiXXw*' 
y' larpor r;/ rorru) Si^ovg ^poroj' IdrraT r]Srj fiaXXoy >) rifjojy xpoot. 
30. YloXXciKig 'iX(oy rig ovoi TayayKoln vvv avpiov i rXovrrfa, 
ujffTE ^(aTipovg rpiijjeiy. 31. ^AOvfiouyreg aycpeg oi/ttw rpo-ncnoy tirrr]- 
eray. 32. O'v^eig eTrXovrrjae rn-^^hoc ciKniog &y. 33. M/' iij.iepa rov 
jiey KciOelXer vipodey, tov ^' ^p' avu). 34.^11 Kaipiog cnrovdri irvvov 
Xr/^ayTog inrvoy KaydiravXay ijyayev, 35. 'Pw/ir; hetcl fjiey (ppoyrj- 
aeiog w^eXijcrf v, uytv le ravn^g vrXftw rove 'ix^n'rag ipXaxpe, kai 
TO. fiiy (Tw^ftrct TLjy a(TKovyTU)y ek6(t fxt] ere, Tcug Of rrjg xpvj^ciig 
tTTifxeXEiaig EirecrKOTr] (te)'. 36. Ovk ewi (ca/rw EUri yiyvErai ov^Efiia 
yiyyoiJEyr] Kara vofxov, ^volv hk duTEpov ('nrEpydi^ETui ir-)(^EB6y' H) yap 
fjEXrioi'a f/ fioyQiipoTEpov i]TTOv i^Eipydaaro rov ri/y ciicriy vrapa- 
(Tj^oj'ra. 37. n«XXoi Sia S6£,ay Kal KoXiTiK))y ^vyafiiy jjiEydXa kukci 
■TTETCoydacTiy. 38. 'ETrtiCai' rig Trap' ifxov fiddr], diro^E^coKEy o 
tyw TrpdzTOfxai apyvpwy' lav Se ju?'/, eXOwy elg Itpoy ojxoaag otxov 

ay (f>ri d^ia Etyai ret iJa6{][xaTa, Toaovrov KaTiQrjKEV. [With ai'.] 

39. IloXXfktc tjKovaafiEV dv n laiKuig vjuac (iovXEVirafiiyovg ^liya 
irpdyixa, 40. E'i ruEg "idoiiv ttov rovg acpETEuuvg ETrncpaTovyrac, 
ciyEduparjcray a »'. 41. 'AyaXanftdyuy avrwy ra noit'ifxara, dyr)- 
pwTdjy ay avroiig rt XiyoiEy. 42. E't ng avT(o ivEpi tov dynXiyoi 
dyev aTToCEikEMC, ettI T))y hnodeaiy Enavi)yEV dy iray-a Toy Xoyoy. 

43. 'El' tffw y^poyio dXX(o ij^Eig ig rovg AvrofxoXovg ev oauTrep 

IE, ^V^\t<payTiyr}g r'lXdEg ig rf/y fxrjrpu-KoXiv ti)v AWioTruy. 44. 'He dy 
Tiyog 7r6XE(t)c to KOfxii^eadai rovg Evvovg TcTig icaOEffTwai X'^P"' dfiXrjCi 
oh fiiKpay (pvXaKi)y ahrujy Tavrr]y d(pripr]Ku)g 'itTEi. 

[The imperfect, especially with apa, is also used of a statement the truth of which 
is now recognized, but was not before.] 

45. Oh TOVT »'/ 1' Eh^aifuoyia, wc eoike, KaKov aTraXXayi'i, aXXci T))y 

§ 36. THE INFINITIVE.] 208. 69 

apx>l*' /^'jct KTijcne. 46. "A [lioXoy aiaxvyrj wou o'l/yxw/JtiJ', aX»j0r/ 
i'lpa fir, TO tlrai to cicitcely tov (lEiKeladai, '6au> irep dia^ioi', ToaovT<^ 
KaKtor. 47. Alai, (piXovQ up ovyl K(.iCTi]jxi]r TaXag. 

[There is very frequently an ellipsis of dv in expressions, which denote the idea 
of necessity, duty, reasonableness, possibility, liberty and inclination, e.^ g. 
XPnv, tSei, tu^fXoi', verbal adjectives in TSog, ir porr fi ke, Kaipog ijv, 
eiKOQ iiv, Ka\6v j/v, aiffxpov ijv, d^tov i]v, Ka\u>c t?X*> ^ ^ '/ ''i 
iiTTVpxf, iftiXXtr, £j3oi;X6ju7;v. Lys. 123, 3. XP'J*' ^^ '^^-l 

48. "^(peXe iitv Kiipoq i^ijy' ettei M TeTeXevrrjKEV, iTrayyeXXofiEda 
'Apia/w elg tI>v Qpuvov tov ftaaiXeiov Kudiuv avrut'. 49. 'O Oeog 
E.hit,Ey o'lay eSei kcu ^e~i T))y fXEyovauv fidXioTa apyj]^ yiyyEadai. 
50. Zi}y ovt: e^ei yvycuKa /cara ttoXXovq TpoTrovg. 51. 'E^p;}*' 
fiEy Eirat to kuXov EvyEviaTaTOv, Toy IXEvdEpoy Ie Trcn'ra^oi} fpoyEly 
fjiiya. 52. OvK i\priy TTOTE Tibv ■irpay^iUTb)v ttiv yXwcraay t(7\vEiy 
irXioy, aXX' e'ite XP'/'^'"' £^P«<»'£ 'XPn'^T eSei XiyEW, e'it uv -novnpu 
rovQ XoyovQ E~iyai tjadpovc. 53. Et 7ra>'6' a irpotTiJKE TrpuTTorTUjy 
ijfiojy KUKiog flx£ tu wpdyfjaTa, ou^' ay eXttIc r)y avTO. (IeXtiw yEviaBai. 
54. Mii'ED' liifv TO) KaTijyopovyTi Twy dXXwy' eI ce tovt ettoiei 
tKaoTOc, iy'iiCLjy ay. 55. Ou(C Eyijy fi>) TrapaKpovaOiyTUjy vfiuiv HE~ivai 
^iXi-mru). 56. E(\oe »]! v vfidg fj)) juaXa^wg, wtnrEp vvy, IflinnayEiv. 
57. A\(T\poy ijy to. fxkv e/itt lia-KEiTpdyQ^*^i-> J"" ^' EKEiywv Trepii^ttJ' ejie 

KaKbJQ E')(OVTa. 

1(a) The impf. appears sometimes to stand instead of the pres., since an action 
which continues into the present time, is referred to a past time in which it 
occurred, or was known to the speaker.] 

58. Kvpog E^EXavyEi — ettI Toy XaXov iroTa^ov, ovTa to Evpog ttXe- 
dpov, irXiipr) S' lyf)vii)y HEydXwy Kal TrpoEwv, ovg ol Hivpoi Oeovc 
kyciii'Coy kuX dliKElv ovk ttwi^'. 59. ' A(piK0VT0 vpog to MrjSiag 
KaXovi.iEyoy TEl^og' — direlx^ ^^ BaftvXtLvog ov -n-oXii. 60. Tj7 Ee 
■n-pujTi] iijJ-Epa d(j)iKOVTO ettI Toy TroTUjXoy, og wpi^E ti]V te tGiv MuKpu)- 
v(x)v \_X^pny^ wt '■')>' ~wi' 'LKvQiyuty. 61. 'Amp w ETotpE, dp oh Todt 
7iy TO iiycpov, kif OTTEp 7]yEg li^dg • 62. Ovk dp" dyaQog tu iroXiTiKct 
JJEpiKXijg 7/ y EK TOVTOV TOV Xoyov '. 

§ 36. On the Infinitive. 

a. 6 dyOpwTTog irifvkE (pCXEly, it is the nature of man to love. h. 208. 
Trapf'^w* EfiavToy ipoJT^y, I offer myself to be questioned, c. I'lXdoy 

1 Which the Syrians held for gods, namely, as I then saw, X. An. 1, 4, 9. 

2 Namely, when he so appeared to us, consequently = ouk dp' dyaQog IcTiv, 
ujg tipaivETO, Georg. 516, d. 

' irapix^aQai, mid. is also used for to afford, without any perceptible difference 
of meaning. See example in 295, b. 


70 209—213. [§ 36. the infinitive. 

iStli' (T£, I came (or am come) to see you. d. yhv^ ciKoveiy, sweet 
to hear, ctivog* Xiysir, clever at speaking. ^aXe-TroQ Xaf^e'ir, 
hard to take (or catch), e. ovtloq aVojjroc tortv, uiarE izoXefiov 
dvT £(p//)'T/c a'lpeladai, he is so senseless as to choose war in 
preference to peace. oi/rwg ciforjTog ecrnv, wctte iruXefioy dvT 
EipyjrrjQ alpt'trai, he is so senseless, that he (^actually) chooses 
war in preference to peace. f. (j>iXo-i[ji6TaToc 7iy, uiare iravTa 
vTTOfiElrai rov tTvaivE'iaQat evekci, he was very ambitious, so as to 
bear any thing for the sake of being praised. 

209. The use of the Greek infinitive is much nearer to that of the English 
than that of the Latin is; tlius: — 

210. {b. c.) It expresses the purpose and (b. d.) is often used in the 
active, after both verbs and adjectives, where the passive would be 
admissible, but less common. 

Hence it must often be translated into Latin by the participle in dus, 
or by tlie supine in u. 

211. The particle wote ^ expresses a consequence, and is used with the 
infinitive ; or, if the consequence be a definite consequence that has 
actually occurred, the indicative. 

^ So — as to ^ wore with infinitive always.. 

I So — that = wfTTE with infinitive or indicative. 

With the infinitive the consequence is more closely connected with the 
principal clause, as contemplated or resulting immediately and naturallt/ 
from what is there stated. Tlie consequence may be equally real. 
213. ' So that' should not be translated by the indicative, except where the 

sense would allow us to substitute therefore or consequently {itaque) for 
so that. 

Thus: " the road was so bad that I did not reacli my inn till midnight" 
=z "the road was very bad; consequently I did not reach my inn till 
midnight:" here the indicative would be properly used. 

wcrre properly answers to ovTwg, or some other demonstrative, in the 
preceding clause. 

Olis. 1. The MOTE = wherefore, may be followed by av with indie. 
or optative ; by the imperative (or subjunctive use) imperatively. 

Obs. 2. The inf. after wore will take dv, where in an independent 
clause dv would have stood with the optative or with a past tense of the 


1. "Eerri croi Evput}] yEviadai ttuXiq ev olKovp.Evr,, 2. 'Hyz/ffaro 
cvi'arijy kui vwo^vyioiQ iropEVEadai icoy. 3. Eteru' kViat tCjv 
UTTOKpiaEwv avayKa'iai dia p-uicpuiy rovg XoyovQ TroiEladai. 4. 
~£l irXoiid', out) fiEv p^arov eI jyc'ipog (pipEiy. 5. H tvicXEia bau) av 
TrXEiuiv Tj, TorruvTo) Kovtporipa (pipEiv yiyverai. 6. 'AKoXauia Koi 
ciBiKia ycv /cai evttetec Kriidafrdai, 7. XaXfTrat al vftirEpai 

* — vog, an old pass, termin. (like Ttog, toq), whence ScivSg, terrible, arvyvog, 
hateful, &c. B. 
^ More rarely oig. 

§ 36. THE INFINITIVE.] 213. 71 

tpvaeig ap^ai. 8. Mora^x'" "'''''A'°C X"^^^"^ '''"' ^"P ''''"'■'' ^^^°^- 
Ktjaai. 9. 'II alrla cnropwrdrri ecrrip ciTToSe'i^ai. 10. Teray^t'j'jj 
CTpaTih icaWiarov fxiv ISe'iy to'iq <pi\oiQ, lv(r\epi(TTaTov H 
toIq TToXenioiQ. 11. Heldov' Trporot'oc ov^ev di'OpwTroic t^u Kepcog 
Xafie'tv dfjieLyoy ovH yov ffotpov. 12. 'H o^oe j/ tic darv tTrirt]- 
Seia ■Kop^vofxivoiq Kul Xiyeiy iccu ciKoveir. 13. 'Eltrtv ey to'iq 
TToXXo'ic dydpwnoi ael Qiioi Tiytq uv noXXoi, Trayrog ^' d^ioi Ivy- 
yiyvtaQai. 14. To 0wc Toh' ayQawiroicfiv i\ci(TTOV /jXetteij^. 
15. Tciv ^iXiizTTOv tvTvyjwvTa opuiy -our?; fofjepov TrpotriroXEfxrj- 
aat ro/xt'^w. 16. 'Epw Xoyov ovk- d<polioy elwE'iy. 17. Attfctt 
fxey al yvralkec tvpioKEiv KUKa. 18. Xpi'ifxara TropUeiv eviropw- 
TciToy yvyi], 19. 'JLtti(tti]jj.(i)v IutI Xiyeiv re Kal aiydr 
■KpoQ ovQ hi. 20. 'Ayadoi iafxey to kukov Icj}" ETSpuy l^E~iy. 
21. TaXXa EvpijtTEig virovpyEly oyrag ij/^dg oh KUKOvg. 22. 
Tywvai TrcivTwv vfiElg o^vraroi ra priQiyra. 23. ^poyE~iv oi 
raxelc ohi^ dafaXElg. 2i. 'Acpopjjag roTg XoyoKXiv ciyadol Expvaiy, 
Kcly Tig ^ (jpacvg XiyEiy. 25. Ov fxdyTig Eifxl TCKpayij yyQyai 
aafwg. 26. Oi iralhg ijXiKiay e)(^ov<71 Trai^EVEcrdai. 27. 
TlEfvi^ucriy cnrayTEg Ktu Idli^ Kcti cr]jxoaia dfiapTavEiv, Kai ovk 
tort vofiog, ocrrig diTEip^Et tovtov. 28. UicpvKEy 6 dydpwtrog to 
fiEy dtpa-KEvoy inrepfpoyE'iv, to ce /.u) vne'iKoy Oav/j-a^Eiy. 29. 
Tw»' (TvyKvlDEVTuiy Tiyig kcu dXXoi J)v ov /3oi//\o^at tci oyojxaTa XiyEiy, 
Elairija'jtrayTEg vvKTCjp Eig Tr)v ohiav ov ukei 6 TliTTaXaKog, TrpuiToy 
jiEv avvETpiftoy to. aKEvdpia Ka\ BuppiTTTOvv slg Trjy bZoy, ciaTpayc'tKovg 
Tt Tivag haffEicrrovg /vai (pifiovg ical kv^evtikci ETEpa tipyaya, Kcit rove 
opTvyag teal Tovg dXEKTpvoyag, oijg ijydira 6 rpi<T*ca(Co^at^wj' dydodjirog, 
ftTTEKTEivay, TO CE TeXEVTCuoy ciiaavTEg irpog Toy doya avToy tov Uitto.- 
XaKov k}iaaTiyovv Tag ii, dydpioirwy izXriyag ovtu) TroXvy ■)(p6yoy wVr£ 
Kcu TOvg yEiTOvag alaQiaBai Tijg tcpavyiig. 30. Topyiag 6 AeoyT~iyog 
-ag TEX^'ag Tcig pT]ToptKag Trpwrog EUvpE Kul KaTU T})y trocpiiTTeidr 
ToaovTov Tovg dXXovg v-KEpi^oaXEV, w<tt£ HKjQoy Xa^lJc'iyEiu Trapa 
Twv fiaQifTwv jj-ydg EKUToy. 31. "A^^jjroc inl SiKaioavyr] Kul ev- 
CEfDEig. BtEviyicag ■!rpoiT(piXi)g dEo'ig lyivETO, iiri TorrovTO ^e St dpETr/y 
TifirjdEig, ulffTE Toy 'AiroXXioya TrpoffKoyiiayTCi An EodfjvaL Qr]TEveiv 
TTcipa TOV "ACfiTjTOv. 32. Brjcfuc irpuiTog -»)»' iroXiy cnropdSrjy /cat 
/caret Kcjfxag o'lKOvaay Eig TavTov avyctyaywy TrjXiKavTrjy ettoitjcte, io(tt' 
citt' EKEiyov TOV y^povov [JiEyi(TTrjy rwv 'EXXrj)'t^tt»»' tti^at. 33. 
AiyETCii Aioyvaioy Tpayudtay irouly (pavXtjg wdyv kuI yEXoliog, tHaTe 
Toy (^iXoUyoy iroXXdicig 3i' avTrjv ig Tag XaTo^iag k jx tt e a e'i v oh 
hvyd^Evov KaTi-)(Eiv tov yiXojTa. 34. Ovtu) xP^I >^o.dap6v that tov 
(3iov TOV (TLJfpoyog dvEpog, iSote fjrjCE cixs'^Qci'- c6E,ay aiTiag 
■Kovy]odg. 35. OuVcuc \oxvpov IfTTiv // dXi'idEia wtjTE Trurrajv etti- 
kouteI twv dydpuynivwv XoyiajjCbv. 36. Ta ly tm ftio) ovTOjg ) 

72 216. [§ 37. THE INFINITIVE. 

^oKtl ■n-at'TOQ u^ia (Hitte 7ra'iT£c to KaToXiwur avra TraVrwv 
HdXitrra (ptvyofxiv. 37. AuictZaifxot iol roaovroy diroXeXeifif^ivot 
r>7c KOivijQ TraiSeiuQ i:cu (pi\oeTO(piaQ tlffiv, war' oiide ypa^juara 
jLinfOdtovcrii', 38. K\e(ip)^vc; iiXavpey ewi Tovg M.E}>wi'()q, wore 
eKEll'OVQ EKTrETrXTJ-^^dai. 

[^Obs. 1.] 39. To ywpiov ■Kav-a\(')BEi' KaToirrov Icttiv, ware tiq 
av cm- ET 6X^1] (7 er iin'^EApyiirai toiovtu) irpdyfinri; 40. Ovk EhiSa^Ey, 
uitTTE avTovg at' iifidg ciot tovc te dyudovQ /cat rove i^aicovg Kpi'r>eiv. 
41, 'ETriuTaade, uiarE icav dXXovq eIkotcdq av Si^affKoiTE. 42, To. 
TToXXa a Upwrayopac evSov ^larpipEi, wore dcippEi. 43. "Eroijuoe 
Kai Kilhjc, w(7TE i-ii)re rnvra (pofiovfiEvog dwoKcifirig cravToy traxrat, 

lll]T£ O EXEyEQ EV Tf ^KafTTljplu) ^VO'^EpEQ OOL yEVECrQo). 44. Xpj) 

Trdvra ttoieIv wore apETijg /cat fpoi'tjaEivg ^lETaty^E'iv. 45. Ot 
irpoyovoL vfjtibv aTToQvifaKEiv EToX^wv wort ju?) rriv iroXiv ddo^Elv. 
46. 'Es>/)' avrolg twu Xonrwy d'p^eti' 'RXXyyuy wctt' avrovg vtt- 
uKovEiy fjaaiXEl. 

[Ois. 2.] 47. 'Eyw Inl tovoce eXui, mute av ayayKaadtjvat 
rifily Trporri^eiv rov vovr, 48. Sw/."pdr?;c o'vrujg i']dr] tote Troppu) Tijg 

ijXlKlUg l)v &(TTE, El KUL fl)} TOTE (sC. ETEXE\JTr}(JEv\ OVK CIV TToXXw 

vcTTEpov TEXevTijaai tov ftiov, 49. At'/crt iirjvag anoXijcpdEVTog 
TnvdptJTTOv, w(jTE [11] av CvvaaQai ktvavEXQElv o'lica^E, twv avTuiv 
ovZev EKOfxiaaaOE. 

(^Gorgias's Opinion respecting Death.) 
50. Topyiag o AEovT'ivog ettI TEOjiaTi ojv tov fttov, Kul yEyrjoaKtog 
EV fidXa, VTTO TivoQ dadEyEtag icaTaXrjipdEig, /cor' oAt'yoj' eiq virvov 
vTToXKxdaiyijjy ekeito. 'Ettei Si Ttg avroy TraprjXde tUv tVtrJ/^Etwi' etti- 
aKonovpEvoc, kul i'lpETo, Ti TrpaTTOi, 6 Topyiag ECpr], "H^r; pE 6 vTrvog 
dp-^ETat TrnpaKaTaTidEtrdai tm d^eX^w. 

§ 37. The Infinitive {continued). 

21G. a. ETEf)^inQr) C£ /cat 'ATaXdvTrj, tov fii) XrjaTag icatcovpyEly t^v 
Eu/3otar, aiid Atalanta also was fortified, that robbers (or pirates) 
might not commit depredations in Eubcea. b. ovIev E7rpd')(dr) Bid 
TO eke'ivov pi) TrapE'ivai, nothing was done, because he was not pre- 
sent, c. vvK opdiog £)(£t TO /cri/cwc Trd rr-^ovTa apvysadai dvTi- 
BpaivTa KUKuig, it is not right for one who sulFers wrong to avenge 
himself by doing wrong in return. d. hiopai gov -KapapEVEiv, I 
beseech (or entreat) you to stay with us. e^»/ aTrov^di^Eir, he said 
that he was in a hurry. awEiirEly opoXoyu), I confess that I assented. 

§ 37. THE INFINITIVE.] 217—221. 73 

e. 6 ^AXi^afSpoQ t^ao-Kev tlvai Aiog vlog, Alexander used to say, 
that he was the son of Jupiter. eTreiaa avrovg elyat deog, I per- 
suaded them that I was a god. kliovTo avrov tlvai irpoQvfiov, 
they entreated him to be zealous. t£,E(Tri p-oi yiviaQai tvhaip.ovi, 
I may (if I please) become happy. 

(a) The infinitive with the article in the gen. sometimes denotes 217. 
a motive or purpose. 

It may be considered as governed by tviKa understood. 

(Jb) When the infinitive has a subject of its own, the general rule 218. 
is, that it stands in the accusative. 

This rule holds good, when the ivfin. is used with to, as in c. 

(h) A preposition with the infin. may be equivalent to a sentence 219. 
introduced by a conjunction. 

(d) But when the subject of the infinitive belongs to and is 220. 

expressed with the former verb, [or implied by its person,'] it is 

generally not expressed with the infinitive. 

The examples show that this rule holds good, whether the subject of 
the iiijin. be the subject of the preceding verb or an oblique case governed 
by it. — In the second example the accusative would be expressed even in 
Latin: dixit se festinare. 

(e) When the subject of the infinitive is omitted because ex- 221. 
pressed with the other verb, an adjective or substantive that forms 

the predicate with the infin. is mostly put in the same case that the 

subject of the infinitive stands in in the other clause. 

Thus in (e) v\6q conforms to 'AXi^avSpoQ' Qtog to syti* ttqoOvjxov to 
avTov, &c. 

(This construction is called Attraction.) 

O'lOfiai a/iaprti V, / believe I have erred, or, that I have erred, credo me errasse. 
Otf I d/xapmv. Ourai ctfiaprtlv. Oco/xaQn aixapriiv, Oiofiai EvSai/Kov 
tivai, I thini: I am happy, or, that I am happy, credo me beatum esse. Oiti 
fv 5 a i fiiiiv (Ivai. OuTai ivSaifioov iivai. OlofitOa t v S a i fi o v i Q flvat. 
'O OTparjjyoe t^J? ir p66 v fioQ livai iTriliotjBnv. Her. 7, 136. S«p4'j;e ovk 
t<pt} 6^0 IOC tatffOai AaKiSaifjLovioiar Keivovg fiiv yap trvyxEai rd Trairwv 
avOpdjTTwv vofxtfia, cnr o kt e iv av t a g KijpvKag, avrbg (ipsum instead of se 
ipsum) Sk Tavra ov ttoiijcthv. 

Rem. 1. Very frequently, however, the qualifications of the predicate 
which are joined with the Inf. and refer to the object of the governing or 
principal verb, are not put in the same case as this object, but in the 
Ace. ; this is explained by considering the object of the governing verb 
at the same time as the subject of the Inf, e. g. Skofiai vjilhv v flag 
(3or]9ovg yiviaQai. Her. 6. 100. 'AOrivaiwv kSti]Oi]<Tav ff(pi<ji 
/3or)0ovg yevia9ai. In this sentence, ' AQrivaiwv is to be considered as 
the object oi idtrjOrjaav, and the subject of yeviaOai. 

Rem. 2. Verbs which take for their object a substantive, in the Gen. 
or Dat., sometimes take, in the construction with the Inf., this object in 
the Ace, since both objects are united in one. Lys. Fragm. S. 3. p. 144. 
Seofiai ovv vjxdg avyy vwjiriv ixuv. 

74 221. [§ 37. THE INFINITIVE. 

1. Mit'tog TO XrjCTTiKoy Kadtjpei Ik r>/e flaXadc/jc tov tuc TrpotroSovc 
fjiaWoy ley a I avro). 2. Tow fifj hiu^tvyeiv tov \uyli)v ek tCjv 
hiKTvwr, (TKOTTOVQ KaQiaTajxtv. 3. Et o'ieade XaXKiSiag Tr]v 'EWrtca 
trwcreiy, vjjleIq Se cnroBpaaEffdai to. TrpuyjxaTa, ovk opBwQ o'lEadE, 
4. Ovk t(pr] av-oQ, aWlKElyoy orparj/ytTr. 5. ^a<Ti tiveq ovk 
lyovaqc iy Tij 4"^Xf' ETTKTTt'ijdrjQ ct^eIc EVTtQivai. 6. Moj^fletJ' 
ayayKri tovq OeXoyTCig Evrv^^e'iy, ala-^poy te fio^dElv yu>) OeXeiv 
yEaylay. 7- To yvyaiK t^^eii^ Eivai te Tralduiy, Ilapniytjy, ira- 
TEpa ixsplfiyag rw jilu) voWag (fiipti. 8. 'ETrojuoo-ac Xeyw ») fiijv 
TTiaTEVEiy aoL (pvarsi yoiiii^Eiy (piXEly Tavra TravTag a(f wv av 
ihipEXtladai. yoi^ii^oxTiy. 9. Nojui^e yi'jfiag SovXog Elyai ^ict (ilov. 
10. E'tTrep aL,LQv f-iEV eXevQepol eivul, EKoyTag Zt~i ttoie'iv o TrXEia- 
Tov ix^iov (pniyETUi. 11. ^iXnnrog KEKpuTrjKE Ttjg woXewg rw Trpo- 
TEpog Trpog Tolg Trpay^aai y iyy Eadcii. 12. Ot yiyvuiCTKEaQai 
BoKovyrtg viro tov ap^ocroc tov KciXoy Ti TTOiovvTEg opaaQai jJciX- 
Xoy opiyoyrai, 13. H Trjg \pv)(f]g (piXia cut to ayyt) ft rat a^.■o- 
pEaroTEpa iaTiy. 14. OvSey Sincpipei icj^hg Trpop to lay^^vg Elyat, 
Eui' ~e (.y ayhp\ j), kay te ev yvi'cuij. 15. Ilfpi^Xj/C Trpog rw ev- 
<pvi]g elyai EKrljaaTO to v\l/i]X6yovy. 16. 'H TroXig ayTi tov TroXig 
Eiyai (ppovpioy Karirrrr}. 17. 'OAt'yoi iarfiEy wg iyicpaTElg elyai 
avTMi'. 18. nXyiBfi vTrepcpipofXEV, uiarE Tr/y yrjy hrjovv £Tri<poi- 

Tu/vTeg. [Gen. with Inf.] 19. Aiofxai aov TrpoQv/jou Eivai. 

20. Kupov khioyTO wg irpodv^oTaTOV -Kpog Toy TroXe/JLoy yEyiaBai. 

[Dat. with Inf.] 21. ^v/ujjovXevu) aoi irpoQv fxio Eivai. 22. 

"E^o^£ To'ig TMV '¥JO<}]vu)v (TTpaTtjyolg avcrKEvaaafiiyoig a 
Ety^ou Kctl Et,o7rXi(7a^i£yoig -KpoiEyai. 23. llarrt Trpou/jKtt ap' 

~)(^oyTt (ppoyifKo Eiyai. [Acc. with Inf.] 24. 'ETrorpvj'w (te 

Trpodvfxo y tlyui. 25. KiXevu) ge irpoOvfioy Elyai. 26. Ouk 
EtTTty a)'£w (piXoTifxiag ovte iroXiy ovte l^iuiTriy jdEyaXa /cat caXa 
Epya EpyaCerTdui. 27. 2w^pw»' eortv ot avTov ovk 'Et,E(TTiy 
acreXyuiy Eiv. 28. XiEpiEiaTi^KEi Tolg fioijdeiag BeiiuEtrdai ^oKovatv 
avTOvg j3i>r)dE~iy ETEpoig. 29. Tifiy Siditjg ovK (.(ttiv apyov Ka\ 
KuKov. 30. "EiOTiy eXevBe piovg Elyai /cat ayev "x^pvalov. 31. 
Ovk EijTiy uCiKovyTa kui kviopKovvTa Ka\ \p£vc6fj.Eyov ^vyaniv 
fttjSalay ktj'i TacrOai. 32. "Eorti' ovcettote fxiya Kal yEayiKoy (pp6~ 
yrj/jia Xa/3etv fXiKpa kuI (pauXu Trparrovrar. 33. Ti ^)j j3poTolariv 
OVK ifJTLv TuOE, yiovg ^ig Elvai Kal yipovTag av TraXiy ; 34. 
"EjEetyriy v/iii' Kal irpoadty ([>lXoig ovm rrj ttoXei ijp.iLy EVEpyETag 
(payriyai twv AaKECaiixovutiv. 35. '^vfX(pEpEi avTo'ig <l>iXovg elyai 
fjdXXor f/ -KoXEfjilovg. 36. Tw Korr^iio TrpoaETETUKTO avTOKpa- 
-opct tiyai. 37- ^^^X'J "^'^ 'yX*^P^' KaKi)y yEyojjerrjy ev ti 
6 epuTTEvei y. 38. Zoi avyyi (Ofii^ Xeyeiy Tub' Etrrl fii) n a a ■^(^o v (t a y , 

§ 37- THE INFIN. — PREP. tV.] 224. 75 

bjg eyw, KaKdc. 39. Tijv avriiv iariy avrovg re Trayra ra Kam 
ipyai^Ecrdai kui tovq tolovtovq (.iraiveli', 40. AiaOpv-n-rofjieyoQ vtto 
Twy ^eof.(ii'it)y juov ir poaTaTrj y yeyiadai ece^ufiTjv rijy arpuTtiyiay. 
41. 'AyhpCJy nMippoi'ojy ^liv icmy, tl pi) aSiKoTi'TO, ijav^d'CEi-y, ayci- 
dwv ^i, aBiicov fie yovQ ii; fiev f(p?p'?/t' 7roKtfXE~iv. 42. Seyla 
iJKEiy Trapi'iyyeiXe Xafioyra tovc aySpag. 43. "Effort ^' vn~ir, el 
ftovXeffOe, XajioyTag OTrXa tig Kivhyyov tpftaiytiv. 44. II p o- 
ayoptvtLy avrovg ii: rov lepuu cnrioyTag ctTroipepecdai ra aiptrepa 
avriLy [instead o^ avrolg airiovffii' avocj) .'\. 45. ^wKparrig avrapKetg 
kv rale TrpotTTjKoixTaig Trpa^Etriy avrovg (rovg uj-iiXovyrag ciirw) 
eirai ette neXe'iro^. 

Preposition Ik. 

[Preposition Ik, before vowel i^, (gen.) out of, forth from. Hence of 224. 
cause {i)i consequence of; from, for) ; and of succession in time.] 

Out of the city (ek rijg TroXiwg). For this cause or reason (Ik ravrrjg 
rijg alriag). This being the case, for this reason, therefore {Ik rovrov). 
After our former tears (sk rojv npoaGev SaKpvu)v). Unexpectedly (t^ 
aTrpo<ySoKi]rov — anpoffSoKqrog, utiexpected). 

LESSON XXXVII. (continued.) 

45*. Our' EK ')(^Ep6g fxideyra Kaprspoy Xidoy pq.oy Karaaj^Ely, ovr' 
airo yXwrrjjg Xoyoy. 46. 'H a la'^wprjerig rwy 'EWr/rwj' £^ 'lA/ou 
■)(^poyia yeyofxiyT] ttoXXci £j£0)^^tw(T£j'. 47- 'ATrtfiot EKiXevijEy ig ko- 
paKag eic rdv TroXirw y. 48. H ek rwy iroXEfxiwy rpo<pi} Kovcpori- 
pay rfiv arpareiav e^okei Trapi\eiy. 49. ]\ri]yr} ek ruiy Tao^wj' 
iXaftoy. 50. "YiKovtrav ovSey £/c rijg Aoku) yiKrjg TVEirpayixiyoy. 
51. 'Avayi'wSt roy yofxoy roy Etc rijg (rrriXrjg. 52. "H^adoyro ol ek 
Tuiy TTVpywy (pvXaKEg. 53. Xpt) ek /jev daXaTTTjg r^y Eu/3o(af 
TTpofiaXiadai rrpo rijg ^ArriKrjg, ek Se rijg fXEaoyEiag r^y Boicjrlay. 
54. "E(Tra(Tay Ylipaai jxev £K ^e^idcj ol h" aXXoi avpjju-^^OL e^ 
dpicTTEpag rijg oSov. 55. To ek rov ladfiov nl-^og ol 'Adrjyaloi 
dTroTEi\iaayTEg icppovpovy. 56. T)]y KiXiKiay opog mpii'^^EL n-)Q)pov 
KOI vxpt)X6y EK OaXdrrt] g Elg ddXarray. 57. Ek rtijy irocwv 
tig rrjy KE<paXi]v aoL irdyr ipw. 58. Ta arpwfiar d) ttuT Sijtroy ek 
rijg d(T7r iBcg. 59. 'E/c rijg daXdrrr/g dnaaa vfx7y ijprrjrai ?/ 
(Twrr]pia. 60. Ovre vavy li, tyog dyKvpiov ovrE iDiov ek fxidg 
iXTTi^og op jJLiarEOv. 61. 'E/c ttoctou ay 'iTnrog TTE^oy eXoi; 62. 
OvS' eI ra^vc e'It], Trei^og rcEl^bv av BiwKojy KaraXd/ioi ek ro^ov 
pvjxarog. 63. M£y/oTac CihorE ek rrayrog rov y^poyov Ewpedg 
rdlg rovg yvfii iKovg yiKcixTiy dywyag (cat arEcpayirag. 64. \aXETruy 

* So also the verbs slir elv, Xsy eiv, (p p dt^t iv, <p oivelv, in tiie sense of 
jubere, are constructed with the Ace. and the Inf., in the .Attic poets. S. Pli. 101. 
X«yw (t' tyoj S6Xc{) $tXo/cr^rf;i/ XajSelv. Also ■7tpoar}KEi, tt p e tt 1 1, In- 
tern, (TV p. j3 aiv ii, ^v fKpo p 6 V eori with Dat. or Ace. with Inf., S ti, XPV- 
Pi. Ion. 539, e. ovk ay tt p s tt o i ye iiTiXr]apova tivai paip (f) d 6v av S pa. 

L 2 

76 226. [§ 37. preposition tc. 

TO. Ik ttoWov KarexpevarfJiiya Koi lin^t(iov\EVfxiva, ravra Trapa^prjixa 
a7r£/\£y>^£i>'. 65. AaKeEcufJovioi KadiaTUffi yipovraq Ik tu)v ik Trat- 
hoQ UQ yiipac (rujcppui'tov. 66. Etc xpev^oQ Tptirofxeroi vyieg ovoev 
'£\ovT£g Eig cii'Spag Ik fXEipaKiuiv reXevTwirir. 67« Tepiryoy tK 
Kvvay lag Tpairei^a TrKi'ipTjQ, 68. 'Ar^pwi' ciyaOiIii' Ik jitv elpi'iPTjc 
TToXefielv, El) ^£ Trapaa^oy ek iroXifiuv naXii' ^vnjjrjrai. 69. H/xIj' 
-/ (Tvnj3uvXEVEig EK TOVTw}' TTOuti' ; 70. 'Ap^Ti'Of 6 EK KoiXrjc 
Eypud/aTO QpaavftovXov tvp Sreiptt'a. 71- ^tXovai rag e^ 'Adrjvdv 
Trapdiyovg. 72. To (TrparoTrEEoy f<X^'' ^^'''V '"owe /^f «7ro Oewv, 
Tovg S' It, avrCjv rwy dedy yEyoyvrag, 73. 'O yofiog keXevei 6 tov 
Hi6X(i}yog KpanTy -ovg appEvag kuX TOvg ek Tu>y appivwv. 74. 'Ek 
Twv ofjiolojy 01 KUKol ya^ovff uei. (^Eur.) 75. 'E/c rw»' Bwafiivwy 
eI arty 01 acbo^pa iroyrjpol yiyvofXEVoi rwy aydpwTrtoy. 76. lldcra TToXiTEia 
yu£ra/3dA\£t £s avrov rov E)(^oyTog rac apx"^' '^'^* ^'^ TtivriTog 
EK Twy v/JETEpwy TrXovtTiog yEyivrjrai. 78. H patrrwyrj oynog 
e(7t\v ek Twy TToywy, ek pc^ffTwvTfg ti ye, ot^ot, Trjg ot(7)(pde oi 
TTuyoi TTEtpvKani ylyyeadai. 79. Noffoi ruiy Kapirwy ek Aiog Eiany. 
80. 'EfC 0£wv KUKu yiyyEddai advyuroy. 81. At ETrifjovXai k^ 
ovhiyo)y irXEiovg ro7g rvpayyoig Eicriy ij cnro Twy fiaXtcTra tpiXElv 
avToiig ■7rpoiTiroiri(Ta[j.£ywy. 82, 'Ek dewy TTETzpwfXEyoy iarl TroXEfiovQ 
£»' uyOpotTTOtg yiyyEtrdcii. 83. Ei/f)t(r/C£rai y aX»/0£ta ek rwy eIko- 
Twy. 84. 'Ek TToXif.iov Eipijyq ftEftaiovrcu. 85. Tolq ^iSaeTKaXoig 
ki, di'ctycjjc TrapaTidEjj.i.da rovg tjixEripovg aiiTwy -Kaltag. 86. 
'EcparEtrt Ik tov Trpurri^Eiy Tolg irpayfJLaai ruv vovy. 87. TcLpar- 
TOfiEda kK TOV fir]()Ev (ppo yr ii^Eiy, wv k')(pi}y. 88. O rvpayyog 
ki, aTrayrog tov yoii ovk ay ttote ^vyaiTO (j)iXog yiyyEffOai. 89. 
Ftyj^rai c/c tov avrov rpoirov jiKjoXoyia koX fXLaayQpunria. 90. 
"Ofjrig TO. rjhiara kK irayrog rpoTrov i^rjTEi ttoieJv, ri av cuKfiipoi 
rCJy cKppoyEtTTUTujy jiouKijfiarwy ', 91. Ovk k^ itxavrog oei to 
KEpcaivEiv (piXsly. 92. Xp>) kK twv 'kpyioy aKonEly a EKaario Tvy- 
X«»'£t TTETtpaynEya. 93. Avm'icrEcrdE dEaaatrdai kK ruiv bjJLoXoyov- 
fxkyojy Kui ra ui'TiXEyofJEya. 94. 'Ek rdy kpywy XP^ fxaXXoy ?/ 
£K rCjy Xnywy rrjy \ptj(l)oy (pkpEiy. 95. OiiK kvoiovv kK tCjv ^vyKEi- 
{xiywy a E'iprjTO. 96. KXEap-)(^()Q kXiyEro ap-)(^iK6g tlyai wg cvyarov 
EK TOV TOIOVTOV TpOTTOV, o'lOy KUI kKElyog El^EV. 97. Upa^o/JiEy o 
Ti ay rjljuy wc t/c rwy Trap/iyrtoy KotTjiov fxaXirrra fiiXXri o'laEiv, 
98. Xpi) TOV iSeXtiu) kK Twy dvyarioy olel irayrayov atpEladai. 

§ 38. The Infinitive (continued). 
226. a. irpbg to avfifpkpov i^uiffi, Sia to <piXavToi Eiyai, they make 
self-interest the object of their lives, because they are lovers of 
themselves, b. kKTrifiTroyrai knl rw ^ o^oioi ro'ig XEnrofikyoig £t»'a«, 

'^ tTTt with dat. often marks a condition. 288. 

§ 38. THE INFINITIVE.] 227, 228. 77 

they are sent out, on the understanding that they are to be equal 
{on an equal footing) with those that are left behind, c. firjdeiQ tt/Xl- 
KOVTOg karu) Trap' vjjuv ware, tovq vofxovQ Trapo/jcie*, /i?) ^(jvvat. 
BiicriVf let no one be so powerful amongst you, as not to be punished 
if he transgresses the laws. 

Attraction may take place (that is, the predicate substantive or 227. 
adjective be in the nominative), when the infinitive is introduced by 
the article or wote. 

'Avri (gen.), instead of; in preference to (208, e) ; equivalent to. 228. 


1. "El' avd' evoQ ovk e\cf^i(TToy iywye de'irjv av elc ttoWU avhol 
vovv eyovTL irXovTOv ■)(^pr](riiuwraTOV elrai. 2. 'H^u ye TraT))p (ppo- 
vrjffiv dvT^ opyfjQ ^X"^^' ^" ^^~^ '"" M^'' drr' dfjyvpiov dXXa^aadai 
To'ig Ti Beofiiroig aTTodoadai, toIq ^e dvTt av d pyvpiov ciaXXdrreii' 
0(Toi TL hiovrai irpiaadai. 4. 'AjtJ tov t i fi o) p i.~i v toIq TvpdvvoiQ a'l 
TToXeiQ fieyaXwQ rifxCJtn tov aKOKTeivavra tov Tvpavvov. 5. Ka/ca 
Trpdrrei dvT dyadwv. 6. Ovk koTi tovto, thg 'ioiKSv, Iv dvOpwirov 
<pvasi Itti d o'ieTai KaKct livai dvTl rwv dyadoiv, 

7. 'Eyw r'ldeXov tovtu ravTrjv ijrig eir} fxeylaTr} tviGTig ^ovvai, 
i) fiffv kyu) TOV TTUTpug uKoveiv. 8. "E^o^t irdaaoiboQ elvai Slci to 
avTUQ fX)) olog r elvai iiriaTii}ir)v koX dvETnarr}^oavvr]v, kul jii^r}aLV 
i^erdaai. 9. Ot ppa^e'ig av iraiSEvQuxn Kul yvfxvdawvTai, eig ye 
TO o^vTtpOL avTol avTwv yiyvetrdai irdvTtg eTTiSiSoacnv, 10. 
AvTf TOVT(0 Biafipei 7w »/ fjLtv ifBovfj elvai, rj he fxf) ijhovi} 
Twv ii^ovCjv. 11. 'OpiyovTai tov irpCJTog eicaaTog yiyvecrdai. 
12. 'Ava^ifDiog hieTrpd^UTO ulcTTe avT 6 g EKTrXev (Tat apfio(rTi]g. 13. 
Ot yove'ig tovc iraldag Tolg TraiSoTpifDaig irapehocav lirl rw hiKuiwg 
Xpijf^Oai Tolg OTrXoig npog rovg iroXeiJilovg. 14. IlJic ciJ' ovrog 
edeXoi TCI dXXoTpLa dnoaTepelv ecp' to KaKohoiog elvai; Xn. 

i^A heathen's notion of a future judgement.) 
15. 'ETTCt^av oZv cKpiKwvTai ivapa. tov hiKaaTy]r, o'l fiev eK Tijg 'Acriag 
vpog TOV 'Pahd^avQvv, 6 'Pa^a^aj/Qug eiceivovg eiriffTijcrag dedrai 
eKaoTOv Trjv i/zu^jjv, ovk elhtjg otov ktTTiv, aXXa voXXaKig rov jieydXov 
(:)a(TiXewg eiriXaftufievog *i dXXov otovovv fiaariXeiog rj hvvdrrTOv KUTe'i- 
Bev ovcfv vyieg ov Tfjg .p^X''^' "-^^o Ziafxefia(TTiy(i)nevr}v teal ovXCJv 
fiecTTriv VTTO eTriopKiwv Kai aciKiag, a eKarxTio >/ Trpa^te avTov e^w- 
fiop^aTO elg rf/v \pvx/]v, icai irdvTa aKoXid viro \pevSovg kui aXa^oveiag 
Kai ovhev evdv hid to dvev aXrfOelag redpacpdai, icai vtt' e^ovaiag 
Ka\ Tpv(f)i}g Kai vftpewg Kai ciKpaTiag twv Trpa'sEwv davf^HETpiag re 
Ka\ al(TXpoTi]Tor ye^ovaav tijv \pv)(/]y elEev. iScjv ce aTifjiiog TavTtjv 
cnreTrefiipev evdii rFjg ippovpac, oi neXXei eXdovxra dvarXiivai ra 
Trpoai]KOVTa TrdQrj. 

* irapa^aivbi has also perf pass, irapapk^aftai, aor. irapeftaOrjv. 

78 230 — 235. [§ 39, the participle. 

§ 39. The Participle. 

230. a. yvyi'i rig X''P'' opi'w £''x^ '""*^^' i^xdarr]!' ijjxipav wov avrrj 
TiKTOvaav, a certain widow woman had a hen which laid her an 
egq every day, h. rh ■^n-ij^ara dvaXioa a "^ dw)iyE,aTO, when, or 
after, he had spent all Ins money, he hanged himself, c. yctXeirov 
knri Xiyeii' irpue t})i' yaaripa, wtu ovk ij(^ovaai', it is difficult to 

 speak to the stomach, because it has no ears. d. yiyvo)(TKovTEQ 
on KUkd l(TTir, uj.twc lindviiovaLP avruii', though they know that 
they are hurtful, they nevertheless desire them. e. \r]'i^('ifievoi 
i^toariy, they live by plundering. /. KpariSv de ijlovdv kuX etti- 
OvfiM)', diafepopTwc dp awfparol, but if he gained the victory over 
pleasure and his desires, he would be temperate in an uncommon 
degree, g. X«/3wj', £0?j, tovtov, paariyuxTov, take this fellow, said 
he, and flog him, pixpac o' o Troip-tii' irirpav, to Kepaq avrFig kcit- 
Eo^er, but the shepherd threw a stone and broke her horn. 

231. A participle assumes an assertion ; or rather states it attributively, not 
predicatively. Whenever it is convenient to express this assertion by a 
complete sentence, we may do so; connecting it with the principal sen- 
tence by a relative pronoun, or a conjunction (or conjunctional adverb) of 
time, cause, condition, or limitation. Hence vice versd — 

232. (a. b, c. d,) Relative sentences, and sentences introduced by when, 
after, if, since, because, although, &c. may often be translated into 
Greek by omitting the relative or conjunction, and turning the verb 
into a participle. 

In translating from Greek into English, the proper particle to be used 
must be found by considering the relation in which the participle stands 
to the principal verb. 

Th\is, " I visited my friend voaovvra," may mean, 'who was ill' or 
' because he was ill,' or ' when he was ill,' &.c., or ' though he was ill.' 

233. (^) The English participial substantive under the government 
of a preposition, may often be translated by a participle agreeing 
with the nominative case of the sentence. 

234. ig) A past participle may often be translated into English by a 

verb, connected with the principal verb by ' and,' 

Of course, vice versd, the first of two verbs connected by ' and ' may be 
translated into Greek by a past participle. 

235. [Participles with peculiar meanings.] 

/4t first, at the beginning (ap^o'/utvoc). ^t last {rtKtvrijv). After 
some time (^taXiTTwv xpoVoi'^). JVith (often translated by txwr, dyuiv, 
(j>kpwv, xpio/isvof : of course in choosing which may be used, we must 
consider whether the persons merely had, or led, or brought, or used the 
thing or person with which he performed the action). 

1. llapd fiutriXiwQ ttoWoI Trpog Kvpou dnfiXdor', eirei 7ro\£|Utot d\\»;- 
XoiQ kyirovTo, Kai ovtol pivroi fxaXiara vk avrov dycnrwfxeroi, vofxi- 

^ So Suik. TToXvv or dXiyov xp. 

§ 39. THE PARTICIPLE.] 235. 19 

^oi'T££ Trapa Kupw ofTeg ayadoi aL,ni}Tipuq iiv Tip.TiQ Tvyyaiiiy, 
rj Trapa ftciaiXel. 2. IIwq civ tiq ij ^iKrjy KaXibg EiKaaai, r) ai'dptJTrovQ 
Kara rponoi' Kp'irai cvt'ciiro, /Ji] Hi-i<poTip(i}v rwv uvti^ikwv rtcovdftc; 

3. Ou (pi\elQ fJ£, (h dvyarep' ov yap ar £/xe ctTTficpuTrrou to. aa iradq. 

4. "A (yap) ovroQ tpyw Trparrw*' ova jjo-j^urero, tuvt lyw Xoyw GCK^twi: 
iy v}xlv ELTTwv uvK ai' tht,df^T]y i^rjy. 5. 'O /jli) iTneiicrjQ TrXovTtja-ag 
evKoXoQ ov:tot' ai' laurw yivoiro. 6. Ot AuKelainoriOL TtJv '^v fi- 
■jToXefiijadvTCjy 'EXXjjytoy iiyi](ravTO. 7. Tuir Tpwwy ru'tc bfio- 
pOL To'iQ Hiiicuyo'iQ oiKj/cravrec "E\u/ioi (.KXrjQriaav' Trpoo-sVrwKjjo-av ce 
avToiQ Ka\ tCjv ^iOKiioy ririg. 8. llwc ay ev (ppoyi'itrayreg ravra 
k-aXwe s'x^"' »/yi7 0'a"''"o ; 9. UoXXoi drvxovai fiey rdlg <{>iXoig 
avydydorrai, tcaXuig Si Trpdrrovcri (pOoyovtriy. 10. Toi^c (piXovg 
evepyerovyreg Kai rovg e-)(dpovg dvyiiaeaBe KoXa^tiv. 11. ToTc 
virep Tov fteXrlffTOV Xiyovaiv ovhe ^oyXofxiyoig tvecmv eyioTE irpog 
■)^dpiy ovSev e'nrely. 12. Ilai^ictJj^ Kai yvyaiKuiv Koi viiiov diroda- 
yovTwy, iroXXol h) eKui'reg ijdiXijaay Eig aSov eXde'iy vno Tijg eXnicvg 
dyofievoi rod oxpeadai ekeI wy eTTsdvjJiovy, 13. Ae'r^pa jjiev rfirj- 
diyra icai KoirivTa rayiiog (pvsrai, avSpwy Se hia(^QapiyTwv 
avdig Tv-^tiy ov pa.Sioy. 14. Qeov didoyrog, ovdEy tCTXuEi (pdoyog. 
15. Ov Trdyv yi fit vvv hi] yEXatTEiovTa kizoir^aag yEXdcrai. 16. 
^vXd-TtaQai aizavTa r« i^wa iTricrrayTai dcf vjy fiuXicrra ceI, Kai 
Tavra Eig ov^Eyog nwiroTE ctlacncaXov (poiTijffayra. 17. Su/z- 
I^ovXevu) aoi, KaiTTEp vewTEpog wy. 18. Ilpoatpowrrat fxdXXou 
ovTO) KEpdaiyEiy div' dXXi']X(i)y, T] (rvyw([)EXovvTEg avrovg. 19. Tovg 
"EXXrjyac iSica^ay, oy rpoTToy BioiKovyrEg rag avrioy iraTpiSag Kai 
TTpog uvg TToXE^ovyTEg ^lEynXrjv Ti/y 'KXXdca 7rou)aEiay. 20. 'Ett/- 
Ba^xyog tori TroXig iy ^t^t^ EaTrXioyri tov '\6yLov kuXttov. 21. 
Kf'poc KaTE(TTpiy\jaTO Trdyra rd (.dyi), oVct 'S.vpiav EKJjdyrL ot«7 l-iE-)(pi 
kpvQpdg QaXda(Ti]Q. 22. 'Hfiipai i](jay rrj Mv-lXt] yrj EuX(i)Kvi<} 
ETrrd. 23. 'HfXEoa ijy tveiutttti EtrnrXiovai toI g W6t] yaloig. 24. 
QvojiEyio ol 6 ijXiog ?)/iavpw0jj. 25. 'ATropovyri avru) epj^erru 
npo/XTjQcuc. 20. 'Q>g (TvyEXoyri ElnE'iy, ovcsy dS,i()Xoyoy twv Trpo? 
Toy j3iov ■^(priai fiijjy dvEV nvpog KaratTKEvd^oyrai dydpojiroi. 27. To 
yoarjua iroXXd dXXa TrapaXtTro vri roiovToy i)y. 28. O'vroj (tko- 
7rovfiEy<i) KaXvy to Trpdy/uct. 29. To^ETav wc e/jiol aKEXpiy ETriTaT' 
TEig. 30. "Opa, El (Tol (^ovXofXEyo) laTiy d Xiyu). 31. Gau^ct^w, 
eI /X)) ucrfxiyoLg vjily d<fiynai. 32. ' Y.Tr ay iXQwjXEy, eI aol >/^o- 
}XEV(o EGTiy. 33. OvKovy TiQUjfXEy diro 'Ofxi]pov dplafj-iyovg 
wdyTag TOvg TroiriTiKOvg lUifxrjTdg ticwXwr dpETrjg tiyat, 34. 
AoKElg fioi dTE-)(^yu}g TrdyTag dydpunrovg ddXiovg iiyEladui -rrXijy ^lotcpa- 
Tovg, dwo (TOV dpid fiEyog. 35. T EXEVTuiy Trcnrct /cam Tradioy 
dvaaKiyhvXEvdi](TETat. 36. TtXfi;- w itec Kai dvo tov vcuTog Eipyoy 
TOvg"¥XXr\vac o'l Qo^Keg. 37. Ov noXvy ovy ^poyoy Eiri(T^ix)v i)ke. 

80 236*— 238. [§ 40. the participle. 

38. rioXXoi rci xP'/i""''" n j'uX wCTo>'7£c {after wasting their money), 
oJv TrpoaBty airti^ovTO Kepldv, a(V)(pfi I'o/Jiii^oyTeQ drai, tovtu)v ovk 
ctTrt'xojTOi. 39. "Afxa tuvt einwy avicfTr). 40. ^laXtyufiivwv 
ilfiwy fxera^v wpfxa a)'ri\u/x/Jar£<T0ai tov Xoyov. 41. Mera^w 
a.j'ayiyybjffKtaJv ^laXiytrai Tolg <f)i\oiQ. 42. Yjvdvg l^wv fJE 
Tfuira^tTO, 43. Ot AaKthai^ovioi zttl-kovw aaKijoEi evBvg vioi 
brreg to ai'Spelov fitrip'^^ovTai. 44. KaraX(7rw>/ ^povpav tv r<J 
■yjj)piu) ovTwg ett' o'ikov d)'£)(wp>7(Tf i'. 45. 'YTro\£i(j)6iyTeQ tVtoi >cat 
ou cvroyufj'Oi tiiptli' 70 ctXXo arparevfia eJra TrXarwyue vot ctTrwXoJTO. 
46. Kvpor wpficLTo tic "Sidp^Eioy (ppovpav jjitv Tre^jyv icaraXin-wj/ 7roXX))»' 
£j^ ^apieat, Kpo'iaov Se Ej^wr, ciyojv he ajxdiac, ttoXXqc. 47. Ot 
depanoirec yjKoXovdovi' (bipovreg to. aKevrj. 48. IIo/w hiKaio) XP**'" 
[IE roc Sipt^riQ ettX T))r 'RXXuca EtTTpaTEvaey', 

§ 40. T'Ae Participle {continued), 
236 . (jr. fy,;;, 'ip-)^o[xai v^Civ iwiicovpii (7U) v, I am coming to aid ^om. 

TOV aSiKovvTci TTcipa TovQ SiKaarhs ^, ayeiv ^eI hiKrjy Sw- 

crnrra, he who wrongs another should be taken before the 

judges to be punished (literally, one should take, &c.). 
roue TouTo Trail] <To I'Tag EKTrEj.nvEi, he sends out men to do this, 
b. jJEeiv tovq Tra'tSag Oi'rjTovg yEi'rt'iauc, I knew that I had 

begotten mortal children (or, / knew that the children I had 

begotten were mortal). 
rjaOoidiji' avrwy olojiiywy Eiyui ancpiOTCiTioy, I perceived that 

they thought themselves extremely wise, 
avroida ifxavTM (ro<p6g ai r (or, ao(p<p byrt), I am conscious 

of being wise {or, that I am wise). 
ov^ETTOTE ^ fXETEpiXr](!E jJLoi aiyljaayTt, I have never repented of 

having held my tongue, 

237. («) The participle of the/MCwre is used to express a purpose^. 

238. {b) Many verbs that signify emotions, perception by the senses, 
knowledge, recollection, cessation, or continuance, &c., take the parti- 
ciple, where we should use the infinitive mood, the participial sub- 
stantive, or ' that,^ &c. 

^ The diKuaTfjc decides in a court of justice according to right and law: the 
KpiTi^g in ilie other relations of life according to equity and his knowledge of 
human nature. (Pass.) 

^ TTio, TTwiroTt, ever yet, ever up to this time. The former is joined to ov, 
1X71 ; the latter to oiios, /itiSb ; and both relate to the past. OvSeTTort, yu/j^ETTort, 
are commonly employed only genernlly, or with reference to the /;//!/?e ; "but 
owCsTTorf, like nunqnain, is occasioniilly found with past tenses even in the best 
writers." P. 

^ The intention is spoken of in a less certain way by the addition of wg. He 
had Cyr/is arrested, i)g aTTOKTevojy. 

§ 40. THE PARTICIPLE.] 239. 81 

'EiriKovpebj {to bring assistance to, to aid, to succotir) governs the dat. ; 239. 
but may also have an ace. of the thing : tTriKovptiu Tivi ti, la ward or 
h-eep off any tiling from any body. Thus : I'l Tiii ^jj/jatj/a iirtKov(n]aa, Xen. 
iiriKOvpiiv voatj), to bear help against a disorder; to combat it). 

[Some verbs that take the participle.] See (*ci()aa>). Learn, am aware 
{* IxavBavii)). 1 repent (fiiTafikXii * /xoi). Make to cease, stop {iravw). 
Cease (XZ/yw, Travofiai). Am asitamed {aiffxivofiai ^.) Remember 
(jtt£/ii'7//;<ai). Appear {(paivo^iai'^}. Am evident (dfiXog tlfii'' = am 
evidently). Know (olda). /Jm conscious {crvvoiSa i/jiavrip). Rejoice 
(xaipi^)- Perceive (*aia9dvoixat). To suffer a thing to be done, to allow 
it to be done with impunity {ntpiopcux)) ^. 

1. "Hco^EJ' kKKX-qaLaaovTtQ irtpX TroXejuov Kal elptjvric. 2. 
TlapeXiiXvOa ov ^(^apiov jJierog vfih', aXX' aiTO<pavov iie.vOQ a 
Tvyyavu) yiyvu}aKu>v. 3. /^ikoltio 'irEi f^eTa tiiv ev Mapadwri juaj^rjv 
avdiQ 6 ftcipftapoQ rw /ueya'Aw oroAw tVi r>)v 'EXXa'^a hovXwtrofXEVog 
l)Xder. 4. Hf/iTrEt 6 (TicoTrdpxVQ Tira ayyeXovf-a rnvra rw Kupw. 
5. 'UpeiTaig iir laicEypoixivovQ ttpr] rovg aTpariwrag TVEiro/jfeyai 
^iXnnrog. 6. Qiot' ov Xj;^w Trore Trpoffrdrrjy 'iff^wv. 7. 'Eiri- 
(T)(£e opy i^o/x£ j/oe. 8. 'Aya6a}j^ (pvaei citi trore rrj ttoXel avvepaa- 
Tt)g c3 1' SiareXw, 9. OvSev ciEiKoy hiaytyivrj^Lai ttoiuiv. 10. 
'O ijXiog Tov TTCLVTa yjiovov inivTcoy XanTrporepog w »' ciayu£>'£t. 11. 
'ETTi/UEXtJ/tEvoc tSy Bel Bid^o). 12. Ou BotcQ croi cmoXoye'iadaL 
fxeXETwy Siaj3£fttu)Kivai; 13. Ov nwirOTE EiiXnrov Kal i^-qrCJy 
Kcil /.lai'ddywy 6 ri EEvydfAijv ciyadoy. 14. 'H iroXig rovg TEXEvri]- 
aayrag rtyuw(7a ovcettote ekXeitvei. 15. "E^rj judXtora afdg jXEaovy 
^EiirvovvTag. 16. Tov liKaiov uddrarog iui SoEa BiarEXET. 
/loyov. 17- Ev^ai/xoi'e'orarai ttoXeic XEyoyrai, ai dy irXE'iaTOV -j^povov 
kv Eip{]vri BiaTEXivcTLy. 18. 'Eav ejjle (piXoy Troiriarjg, rCJy j^oXETrJiv 
dnEipog Siaj3iu)(TT]. 19. Ovdtig dXvirog tov (3ioy Cii'iyayEy. 
29. ^vritTTE TToXXovg Kal fiEydXovg diicovg vtto twv KoXaKEvuvrojy 
dyacrrdrovg yEy Eyr]}xivov g. 21. ITpoc Tovg iroXEfilovg fiEyaXo- 
<ppoyE(Tr£poi yiyyoyrai ol dv SyVVEiSCjffiy kavro'ig ev tictkijkotec. 22. 
"HSicTToy avToy laurw avyEidiyai /Ltr/^fV EL,r) jjiapr-qKori. 23. 
^RirvdETO Kara TrXovy ijSrj wv to UXrinf-ivpioy vtto twv llvpaKotriojy 
eaXuJKog. 24. Xeppoyrjaov tcaTEfxadE TroXEig EyhKci ?) ^ujCEKa 
E-)(^ovtTay. 25. Tct tov TroXifJov TOiavTa iyiyvu)aKov ovTa wg i-iy) 

* UtTa-ixkXii, iitjTa-pEXijasi, &c. 

* aiffxvvoi.iai ttohXv =. I am ashamed to do it: aiaxvvonai ttoiwv or 
■7roi7Jffag, I am ashamed o^ doing, or iiaving done it. 

^ Lay (paiywfiai dSiKtiiv, if it should appear tliat I have acted unjustly. 
' £ri\6g tcTTiy dviwuiyog, he is evidently vexed. 

* It takes the infin. if the thing is to be prevented; the part, if it is to be avenged. 
Of course iripiiSnv will be used for aor., 7r£pe6>|/eff0ai for fut. — The phrase 
brings to one's mind our 'to stand by and see' (a man injured); but it gets 
its meaning in a different way ; i. e. not from the notion of seeing and yet not 
acting, but from that of no< seeing, of looking round about an object instead of o< it. 
Hence it agrees more nearly with our to overlook (an offence). 


82 239. [§ 40. THE PARTICIPLE. 

iicrrepil^eiy itoi' rov apypvTU. 2G. T vwaQ^qaofxeBa l,vvt\Q6vTeQ 
uiv, dixvvtadai hk ov roXyuwiTfc. 27. Kare I'OTjaay ov iroWove 
roiiQ 0)](3aiovc ovrag. 28. Ovct^a olca fiiaovvra tovq tiraivovv- 
rac. 29. Ei;//0»;e Iotlv oortf uyj'OEt tov iKtlQtv iroKt^ov heiipo 
ijciOi'Ta. 30. 'II TTtoraro rovg "EX\?ji'ac ovk eldiafxivovg vno- 
fiirtiy Tag /^to'op^/oe. 31. " AvdpcJTTO y orra aavruy dvafii- 
fivr](TK del. 32. M t ft m) f.i e d' tQ Kiv^vrov iXdurreg fiiyav. 33. 
"OoTic TU)V Qtov vpKutv (JvvoiCi.v uvT(o TraprjjutXr/fvWCj tovtov tyw 
ovTTorar f.\)lai^oyiaai}iL. 

{How Xeiwphon received the news of his Son's Death.) 

34. TpvXXog, 6 Sepofpdjyrog v'loc, ev rtj iid')^ TTep\ MajTtVttaj' 
lo-^upwc dyu)vi(jdj.uvoQ ETEXevrijaei'. 'Ei' Tcivrt] rij f^iuxV ''"' ETra- 
fAitwrEag twEcre, TrjyikavTa ct) Kcil tov Serofwyra (paal Qveiv 
EG-?t^L^iEyoy' aVayyeXfltJTOC ce civtm tov daidrov rov Trai^vc, ciTro- 
(TTEipnybjaaddai' etteitu ixuQoyra on yeyyaiwg, TraKiy EnidiaQai tov 
aTE(payoy. "Ertot ^e ov^e Eaicpvcrai (paair avroy, dWd yap tl7re7y, 
^^Eiy Qyr]Toy yEyEyyrjicwc. 

35. At/catog ECTTL TTcic, oaa yiyywaKtiv CokeT dyaOci role ttoXI- 
Taic, Taiira Etg to ^iaov XiyEiv. 3G. Mowj^ o QettuXoq drjXoe -fjv 
iiTiQv^Civ jJiEy TrXovTEly ta-)^vpwQ /cat apj^ttj/ i:al Tijudcrdai. 37. 
^TEpyioy (pavepog fjiEP »)>' ovciya, oto) Be (pair] (plXog Eivai, tovt^ 
Ey^TjXog kylyvETO etvi^ovXevwv. 38. Karo'^?;Xot ylyvov- 
TUL TrpoaTTOiov fXEyoi j^ep Eldiyai, Ei^OTEg ^e ow^eV. 39. 'ATret- 
TTOifiEv av dKovoj>TEg TE KUL XsyoyTEg, El -irdaag Tag Toiavrag 
Trpd^Eig li,ET d 1:^01 fiEv. 40. 'OpdJyTeg txe dvtkofxtBa Ka\ KapTspr]- 

aOfJlEV VTTO (Toil EVEpyETOV fXEyOL. 41. 'AlTElpriKa f/^JJ (TVdKEV- 

a^ofXEVog Kal j3adl^(t)y ical Tpi^^titv kuI rrt oVXa (pipuyv Ka\ kv 
Tdt,Ei lijy Kal (pvXaKug ^vXdTTioy K(xl jua^o/ne voc- 42. Tovg 
i,v ^fxdy(^ovg ov ir Epio^l/o^EQa dhiKOV ^iyovg. 43. 'AdrjyaToi 
^aaiv, Ev ov^Evi ?/juae irpoicrQai dZiKov fiivovg. 44. O QEog 
TToXXaKiQ "^alpEi Toiig fxey fjiikpovg /dEyaXovg ttoiwj', Tovg lie fuyciXovg 
fj-iKpovg. 45. AitiXey ufiEyoi (rt) ayoXXo/H£0a Tolg TrpoTETi/Jir)- 
fiiyoig [idXXoy, f/ Tolg ek tov Wow iifxJy ovai. 46. 'AB iKov /jIevoi 
Of dyBpwTTOi fxaXXoy opyl^oyTai, itj jita^o ^lev oi. 47. Ot 'AQjj- 
va'ioi fXETEjxiXoyTO Tag (rwoycdg ov ^E^d/iEyoi. 48. Tovg ek Trjg 
v>](Tov C£(T^wrac ^et e fxiXoyTO uTroceSwKt'jTEg. 49. Xa/pw aoi 

kXQoPTl. 50. 'YttO (TfllKpOTEpwV KU\ ^avXoTEpiOV T lfl(l> flEyOL 

dyaTTuKTi y, 51. Ilouw cte (iCiKovyTU. 52, llavofjal ue ahi- 
Kwy. 53. At ETTiOvfilai a tci^o/ut rat to. aiofxaTa Twy aydpwirdjy 
Kai Tag \Lv)^ag (c«i rove o't/couc o'vttote Xr/youcrir, tor' a*' ap^wtrti' 
avTojy. 54. 'EXXttTrtrut £u Trotwv TOvg EvepyETOvvTag eavroy. 
55. "Aplo/ictt uTTo TTjg laTpiKrjg Xiyioy. 56. Towc TEXEVT7](Tayrag 
Ttjxwaa ovCEiroTE t'cXetTrfi >/ jroXtc. 57. Kafiljvatjg iJKovcrEv 

§ 41. THE PARTICIPLE,] 240 — 242. 83 

apBnoQ ?;^»j ipya Zia'^Eipi^ofxevov tov Kv^ov. 58. Oica 
OvqToq &v, 59. Olha dvdpcjTroy dvrjToy ovtu. 60. '12 
l3nai\tv, SialiefiXri fiiyoQ VTTO 'AfudffioQ ov fiavddvEig ; 61. 'H^u 
TTvyOdyeadni aySpa <pi\oy kcu i,t~iyov tv wpi}a aoyra. 62. 
AiaBofxevoq Si ttote Aa/XTrpokXca Trpoe rijy fxrjripa -^aXtTrai- 

voyra. [With the Gen.] 63. "Hiadriaai ovy irwiroTi fiov 

yptvconapTvpnvyTOQ // avKO<j>ayTov^'TOQ', 

§41. The Paiiiciple {continued): rvyxoiw, \ayddyw, cpBayw. 240. 

a. 6 KvpoQ, (ire^ Trct'ig ujy, ijctro toIc toiovtoiq, Cyrus, as being 
a boy. was pleased with such things, h. tTV)(oy Trnpuyreg, they hap- 
pened to be present. rvy)(^r'iyEi. u>y, he happens to be (or simply, is). 
c. Xayddyu) ri iroiiav, (1) am concealed from myself Aomg it =: do it 
without knowing it ; tinconsciously, unknown to myself. (2) am con- 
cealed from others doing it := do it without being observed ; secretly ; 
without being seen or discovered, d. Efdijy avTovg cKptKufiEyog, I 
arrived before them. E<{)dr)v aipiKonEyog, I arrived first, e. ovk dv 
(pddyoiQ TToiuiy tovto, you cannot do this too soon. /. ovk dy 
^ddyoiQ iroiwy tovto; won't you do this directly ? = do it directly. 
g. XiyE (pddaac, speak quickly, at once, uyvaag^ ^P^X^> *"ww im- 

a) The particle drE (frequently strengthened by ^»/ ; ute erf) is 241 
used with a participle, when we denote a ground or reason which we 
allege as (in our opinion) naturally accounting for the action, conduct, 
&c. that we are relating of another person. [The participle may be 
in gen. absol. (249) : cLte fiaKpQy nJiy ivktcov ovcriHy.'] 

c — g) *$0a'i'w^ {come or get before) and *\ayQdyu} {am concealed) 
are generally construed by adverbs ; the participle that accompanies 
them must then be turned into a verb. 

The participle XavQavuyv or XaOwv may be construed by secretly, with- 242. 
out being observed, seen, &c. Hence eXaOev tlatXOdjy is nearly equivalent 
to iiaijXOtv \a9wv, but gives more prominence to the notion of secresy. 

The participle of the aorist added to the aorist marks that in which the 
action of the verb manifests itself. Hence with i<p9a(xa,iXa9ov, the par- 
ticiple is usually in the aorist. 

1. 'Ayr)<TiXaoQ fidXa iroXXd ifiXa-^E roiig 'ApyEiovg, drE dirpoaSoKi]- 
Tb)Q avTO~iQ tfifiaXu) y. 2. Kpiriag TrpOTrErrjQ t)i' etti to ttoXXovq 
aTTOKTElyai, are Kai <pvyu)y vno tov h'jfjiov. 3. "Are diidovg Tolg 
AaKE^aifjLoyioig yEyEyq [uiyrig Tijg TOiavrrjg <tv fi<^opdg, troXv 
■KEvQog ^r. 4. KXiap-^og Edayarwdri vtto twv iy ^irdprt] TEXwy mq 

9 It is really the neut. pi. of otrrE, and answers to the Latin qitippe. [Olov, or 
pi. ola, are used in the same way. See 411.] 

^ From avvtiv or avvruv, to accomplish. 

2 tipGriv is the older aorist : but i(p9aaa is used once even by Thuc, and from 
Xenophon downwards is the raore common form, B. 

M 2 

84 242. [§ 41. THE PARTICIPLE. 

aTTEidior. 5. Aak£^at^d)'toi el^ GfpjuoTrvXrtc ettI to Ilepauip ize^ov 
dTTj'/iTWJ' (jjc tr TOtc (TTEvoiQ K (i)\v a o >' T e £ aiiTOvc TrepuiTtpw npoeXddv, 
epcjTct, wc TctXrjdfi epovvTOQ. 6. HXeiaTOV co/vft utijp eirnirov a.L,iog 
clvai, uc at' (ftdnvr] tovq jute KoXefiiovQ (ccinwc Trotwr, Tovg Se (piXovQ 
evepyerwr. 1. Ot AaKi^ai^oviOL ovk iipOrjaay irvdofxevoi tov 
TTtpt Ti]v 'ArriK//j' nuXef-wt', /cai Trairwj' ruiy iiXXuv afitXijcravTec t'lKov 
ijfilv aj-ivyoiiyrec. 8. "Erv^et' »/ ^uA;) 'A»Tto)^(c Trpwra vtvovca. 
9. "E\a0£v a(j)dii'Ta ivayra kul KaTa(pXe^6i yr a. 10. Tow 
o'irov cKpaipeiy XP''' ^'^S XdOcj fiey IdpoiroTUL yevofjieyoi. 11. 
Aa0w)' il(Tep-)(f.Tai tig rijv oliciav. 12. AaSov vTreicrrjXdE to yfjpag. 
13. IIoXw K'pftTTOJ' (coi KXi\pai ti ireipdadcu XadovraQ Kai dpnatrai 
(pOcKTayraQ. 14. (1> 0c'i vo vrec ^rjovjutj' r*))' rwv TroXejui'wj' x'^'Pf'* 

{The Fox and the Ape.) 

15. 'Ej' avvo^o) rwy d\6y(t)y i^uiuyy Tridiji^og op-^tjaafxeyog Kai ev- 
BoKi[^u']iTac fiatnXevQ vtt' aiiTCjy l-)^EipoToyi]Qi]' aXwTrr/s ^£ avTW fdoytf- 
aaaa u)q idedaaTO ev tivi Tvaylci. Kpiag Ktip.Evov, dyayoxxra avrov 
ivTUvda tXEyf)', wg Evpovaa 6i]aavpoy avn) jaev uvk E'^ni^rraTO, yipng 
^e avTuJ ryjg /3o(TtXf/ac teti]P7]ke, kcu Traprjysi ovrw Xnfit7y. Tov ce 
iiTT)fXEX{]Twg IwEXduyrog, Kai vno rjyc TrayiSog (TvXXrjfdiyrog, ciItiijj- 
fjiiyov TE T))y uXioKEKa dig iyE^pEvaaaay avruj, EKEiyt] Efrj, 'Qi Tridr]K£, 
(TV Se TOiavrrjy \pv)^^i}y k-^ioy njjy aXoywi' l^uxjjy j3ciatXEV(TEig ; 

16. 'Ac£X(p))y ->))' Ejuijy yj]^ag kxE'C- 17. KpeTrToy Efi^ayijg 
(piXog 7/ TrXovTog d(j)ay{]g, oy av KCiropv^ag k'x^'G- IS- ^<^pi(i 
wKovy IcT'^^^vpd 01 Tao^oi, ev o'lg Kai rd ETriTri^eia Trdyra Eij(^oy dya- 
KEKoynaj-iiyoi. 19. ^Qivov jxevoi (iapftdpovg dydpajnovg Ej^ovaty. 
20. Ei'c drifjiiay T))y iroXiy {jj^iiuy ?/ Toiiruiy Troyijpia Kai xptvSoXoyia 
KaTaaTi'iaraaa ix^*' ~^' I^o/w ^u;/ Epyu) tovt dwEiXi] crag t'x^'C- 
22. To*' Xoyoj' aov davfxdaag ex*^* 2^' Mtytorov Twy KOKwy 
Tvy)(^dyEi oy to dCLKE~iy. 24. Ovk dy TV^oiEy yEyofiEyoi 
(:ia(nXEu)v tKyoyoi ?/ cvyaaTwv Tdg ipvaEig (jjiXotrocpoi. 25. "Apx*^*' 
dy})p Trdc, L,vyE(ny yy £X*^'' '''^XV' ^^' ■^'/o'E"^ ^'« TeXovg fxrj 
coKEi TToyrjpog o)V. 27. "OdTig ijctTai Xiyujy ueI, XeXijOeu 
avTov Tu'ig L,vyovffiy wy jiapvg. 28. Ot rj/c n'uTuiy Siayoiag dfxe- 
Xovyreg XEXijdufTi a<pdg uvTOvg dfxa tov te <ppovE~iy dficiyov KaX 
TOV TrpuTTEiy l:>i\Tiov Ttoy uXXuiy oXiywpoii yT Eg. 29. Iiirovhfj 
ciaXEyofiEtoi eXdO i-iE y ii/jidg avTOvg iraicioy ovcsy ^ ia<p£poyTEg. 
30. AeXtjOe <je OTi 7/ 1(t6ti]c 7/ yEWfXETpiKi] fiiya SvvaTui. 31. To 
avTO) into irdyTwy Iciq. Coida j-LaT t Xayddyei to koij'OV ddpoov 
(pdEtponEyoy. 32. aevoi, euv ovtcj Tv-^wai, tcTTiy ote Kat 
drrEKTEiyay dXXy'iXovc. 33. O irdycrji^og "Epwg EL,Epydi^Erai on dy 
Tv\rj. 34. IToXXoTc dwoKpiaig // a<i))Trri Tvy)(^dy ei. 35. Ei Tig 
Evvovg Tvy)(^dyEi,iTio jjeO' iiixcoy. 36. Kat to wdyv Xa^Trpov ouk: 
UK I y cv yoy Kvpel. 37. Ey y£ E7rolr](7ag dyufivijaag yuf. 38. 

§ 41. PREPOSITION aVo.] 243. 8.5 

IToXXac Twv iroXsfJilbjy ravg 'iXaftoy rptTjpo p)^?/(ra j'7£c- 39. 
To^£ fioi ^a'piffat dtroKpivd^itroQ. 40. "Oa iifJUQ rdyada. 
SiSpciKag etpy'irrjv iroiijaaQl 41. ^oloovj.u8a irepl roii %'iov, ju?'/ tiq 
(hdrj viatic Itt ciWo 7l tinTi}Ctv^a rpi^iac (ivrov T>)y hdi'Otav. 
42. BeXnoi' iari TrpoEnrEly, 'iva fj.^ Xddr]Te E^aTrarjj^f vrtf. 43. 
Td?e ^E~i uKOTztiv, orav i^ptreiv yutW/jc fxiffiv (j)iX6ao<poy, fiij ae 
XdOt] ^ere-^ovaa dveXEvdipiag. 

LESSON XLI. (continued.) 

[Preposition 'A 7r6,/rom ; pen.] 243. 

To fight on horseback {d<p' 'iTnroJv). To have done stipper (aTTO SEinvov 

yei'saOai). To do a thing of themselves (d^' iavrwv): at the suggestion 

of others {cltt' di'S^uiv irspwv). Openly {dirb rod Trpo(pavovg, from adj. 


44. At TToXatai ttoXeiq ^id ri]P Xjjore/aj' aTro daXdacrtjg 

udXXov (joKicrdrfCFav. 45. Oii^Eva 'ejouXe rtov diro (xkottov dcpEorwrwy, 

46. OvK dwu (TKOirov E'lpr]KEv a'l.adriaiy koi EmaTijfirjv ravrov difiEvog. 

47. OvdEy dwu -poTTOV XiyEig. "Opa h) Kni ei toSe irpog rponov Xe'yw. 

48. At hiupv^^Eg ijaay dirb tov Tlyprfrog iroTa^ov. 49. O rwr 
rifpiTtJi' (jaaiXEVQ ToXj-i^ ypdcpEir, on ^Edirorrjc Eariv uTvdvrwv didptv- 
TTLjy d(t>' 7/Xtou dyiovrog )U£XP' ^vofJiEyov. 50. Ovk citto rJyc civTuiy 
opjJuiyrai ' Adrjydloi, aXX' sk rfjg rdy £mKaXE(TafiEyu)y. 51. 'EyiiEro fj 
dp-vi) >/ '0^pv(Tu>y ETTi ^(.y QaXaaaav Ka6i]icov(Ta citto 'ApSi'iptoy iroXEwg 
ig Toy Ev^etroy iroyroy. 52." Apri c'tTr' EKsiyov Ep'^ojiai. 53. Upoo-- 
i]KEi. To'tg diufLfflh^TOvair apErfjg evdvg inrd ytvedc ^latpEpoyrag 
Eiyai rutv ctXXwr. 54. KariBricray dno ^EvSpu)v Tovg 'iTnrovg. 
55. 'AyeKpifiaaey vyiiac aTro rujv EXniSwy. 56. "Hprjjrai 
£C Twy Bewv dd-Eoa. 57- 'E**-' rwi' SiyEpioy riiEg dirl^yyovTu. 
58. Kvpoe ro Qi)pia idi'ipEVEy dvo 'ittttov. 59. To^otijc df' iTnnvy 
Kpijg OVK d^prjaTOC. 60. 'Atto yEuiy ETrE^ojurt^ovj'. 61. 'l/XEpa diro 
ZdyKXrjg wKiaBr] viro ILvkXeISov. 62. Ta>y citto tov Si'jfiov Tig 
dt'TE'iTTEy. 63. 'AXtjQec i)'' dpa iffOXwy otTr' dyhpHuy EcrdXd •ylyyErrdni 
TEKya. 64. TocrovTOL (.(pvXaaaoy diro te twv tt pEfrpvTaT wv kcu 
VEWTaTUiy. 65. Toaaurct XEXEiTOvpyr)KE dno ro<TOVT(i)v ^pTjjuct- 
rwi', 66. 'Att' £i^0pw V TToXXd ^arddyov(ny ol <TO(poi. 67. ^ipsiy 
■)(^pt) Ta TE ^aifioyia dvayKatwg rd te citto Twy TroXEfxiioy dySpEiwg. 
68. ^(ixbpnyli^Ei 6 ctTTo rwv copvcpopwy (pojjog. 69. At flfpaTrttai 
at dir 6 tCjv ^iyicFToy (ppovovcrwy yvyaiKuiv Eixppaivovcn f-idXiara. 
70. YliffTEvoiiEy TM d(j)' riixGJv avTCjy Ev\livyw. 71. 'A0' EavTioy 
Kal ov TOV irXijdovg KeXEvirayTog TavTa Eltroy. 72. 'H aEXi'iyr) utto 
TOV i/Xiov t)(££ TO (pwc. 73. Ovu dL,ioy dtro Tijg bxpEiog o'vte 
(piXEly ovTE nicrth' ovciya, aX\' in twv Epyioy cncoTTEiy. 74. Qapcrog 
Kal dno TE^^yqg yiyvETui didpunroig kul utto Qvjjlov koi dno 
[xaviac. 75. Avynfjiy dno tiov TponMv EKTrfacifiEda. 76. To J' 
dEuy noXEfioy dno noiov ay ro^ove ({jtvywy tic dnocbvyoi ; 77. 

86 245. [§ 41. PREPOSITIONS airo, irpo. 

'Atto TrJQ avrrjc ^icivoictg ^tl rag te Iclag SiKac ical rite ^rjuotriag 
Kph'iii'. 78. Ou)( ctoj' TE fii) ctTTo nvrnruXov Trapaaicevfjc ofioloy 
Ti 7/ 'i(Toy tQ TO i^oirui' jSovXevetrdai. 79. T>)i' roXfJ-au an 6 r»;c 
ofioiag rv^j/c »/ l,vvt<7iQ ek tov vwipcjjpovog e')(ypu>ripai' Trapej^erai. 
80. 'Atto <t t a (t e u) V EKTriiTTOVTEQ rhq TroXetg EKni^oi'. 81. 'Att' 
dpEriJQ TrporificiTai. 82. 'Att' avrwi' twp kpyui' crKOTTE'iTe. 83. 
Ov/>." tar' ctrato-j^vvrorfpov ovMy dijpioy yvyaiicog' aV EfxavTriQ eyw 
TEKf^iaipo^ai. 84. Tavra ov TroXf^uw e\a/?o»/, aW aTro r^c Tpo- 
Tepov ^v /xftuffEUQ. 85. 'Atto arrjfXEiov ei'uq ETTinrpE-ipavTEC rag 
vaSc fXETUiKTj^ov ettXeov. 86. "EoTi -wj/ ■^prif.iaTOjy an 6 rwy ^v/x- 
fxa-)(^wy »/ 7rpd(TO^oe. 87- Ot Xr/rrrai Cvi'arrai i^fji' cino ttoXv 
KpEiTTorior. 88. O /3/oc r'jy to'iq TrXEtiTTOig rQy XaXw/Swi' aTro 
eri^jjpEiag. 89. 'Ap' otti tovq Oeovc ojcpsXE'iffdai airo Tovroty d 
Trap' iijiCjy Xajx(idyov(nv', 90. Eic /i'a»' tV'aoToc TE^yr]v ev ttoXei 
KEKTrip.ivoQ ctTTO mvTTjQ O-jxa Kai TO l^r)y KTuado). 91. Qav[.ta<rT6v 
ECTTiy OTi ^wiTEQ OTTO TOV (jvKO(pnyTE~iv ov fcicTiy XajxjoayEiv dwo Tfjc 
ttoXewq. 92. AiaXa^joayovtri to aTro rw»' at^/xaXwrw J' yevo- 
fiEVoy dpyvpioy, 93. TifiodEog lioTuaiay eIXev aTro Tdy ■^prjjj.d- 
Twy d)v avTOQ ETTopKTEy. 94. Srpdr£Vjua GvyiXEl,Ey airo tovtwv 
tG)V Xp»jjUo7wr. 95. Avyaifirjv ay 'IXm^a oXrjy Kal ^OlvGGEiav 
u'tto ut 6 fxaroQ Etwelv. 9Q, 'A\pEvh'iQ tiq diro TavTOfjiaTOV 
irXayarai (pi]/^ir] tcnTci Tt)y TroXtv. 

irpo (before, of time, place, and preference — in behalf of, for). 

For (= in belialf of) the king (Trpo tov (SaaiXkuig). To value very 
highly, to attach great importance to (irpb TroWor' 7roi£i(70at, to value 
before, i. e. more than, 7nuch. See 282). To choose war before, in pre- 
ference to peace {irpb tlprjvijg, for which avTi is used in 208, e). 

97. Ilpo Tojy 6(pdaX fiCjy Kpo^aivETai. 98. IloXu ti (tkotoq, Cjq 

EOiKEv, EOTi trap vfi'iy npo ttjq dXtjOEiac. 99. YliySapoy Toy 

7roiTiT))y 01 TTpo yfiioy yEyovoTEQ viztp kyog fioyov pijfiaroQ, oti Tr/y 

-TToXty kpEiiTfJ.a Trjg 'EXXo^oc wyvfiaarey, lTi[xr}aav. 100. Ilpo 

hscTTTOT (by Tolg yErraioig CovXoig EvtcXEEffTaroy OayE'ty. 101. IIoX- 

Xdicig a Trpo avTov Tig ovk E^EipyuffaTo, rcivra 6 (piXog irpo tov 

<jjiXov HiipKEtTEv. 102. VEXdloy Kal (pavXov to Trpo rtDv f^eXriff- 

Tioy TO. /3pa^vrfpa alpovfiirovg (paiyEaOai. 103. BovXou yovelc Trpo 

Travroc tr rifjialg E^Eiy. 104. Ilpo ttoXXou ttoit} trai fit] y ay trot 

KE')^api(TjJiEi'wg eitteIj'. 105. Tt)y avT>)y cvyarai (ovXioaiy rj te fiEyiarri 

Kal iXa-^icTTr] ciKaitJffig Trpo BiKrjg Tolg iriXag EinTa(T(jop.iyr\. 

245. § 42. The Genitive Absolute, &c. 

a. Enov KaBEvhovTog, whilst / was asleep. rovTtoy ovTwg Ex^yTcoy, 
this being the case; or, as this is the case. b. ctd ti fiiyEtg, 1^,6 v 
diriiyai ; why do you remain, when you are at liberty to go away ? 
c. So ^Eoy d-n-iiyai, when, whereas, &c. you ought to go away. 

§ 42. THE GENITIVE.] 246 — 250. 87 

Bo^av^ lifiiv dwiirat, when we have determined to go away. 
Also Su^ay ravra*, this being determined, d. ini Kvpov i3aai\tv- 
ovToc, in the reign of Cyrus, e. tcriwira wg Travrac EiSorag (or 
TrdyTtjjp EiBoTtoi'), he held his tongue, as supposing that all knew. 

(a) The case absolute is in Greek the genitive : it marks the time, 246. 
or generally any such relation to the principal sentence, as we should 
express by when, after, since, as, because, though, if, &c. 

{b. c.) The participles of impersonal verbs are put absolutely in 247. 
the accusative ; of course without a subst., and in the neuter gender. 

(d) When the time relates to a person, tni is generally expressed. 248. 

(e) When a motive is attributed to another person, the particle wc 249. 
is generally used with the gen. or ace. absolute. The force of it may 

be given by construing it : as thinking (supposing, &c.) that with a 
verb ; or by, because they think, suppose, are convinced, &c. that . . . 
[The participle may stand in the nominative, if it can agree with 
the subject: dyuvaK-ovaiv, wq peydXcov Tirwv direaTepT] ^ivot, 
they are vexed, as conceiving themselves (or, because they suppose 
themselves) to be deprived of some great thing. ^ 

[Words used in ace. absol.] 250. 

When, or whereas, it was said or told (fiprjiitvov). It heing disgraceful 
— possible. — impossible — plain or evident (aiVxpov — SvvaTov — ciSvvaTov 
— dtjXov ov). There being an opportunity, when I may or might (irapov^). 
It being Jit or incumbent (TrpoariKOV. 7rpoai]Kti, dat., it belongs to. o\ 
TrpoffijKovTig, those that belong to us r= relations). IVhen, whereas, one 
ought (Siov). 

For the sake of (xapiv with ge7i. =: propter ; but xaptv i fii]v, for 
my sake). lifter the manner of a dog, like a dog \Kvvoq Siktjv). 
Without {dvtv,gen.). 

evEKa tCjv triptov aarpuiv, for any thing the other heavenly bodies 
could do to prevent it. As far at least as this is concerned, as far as 
depends on this {tovtov ye 'ivtKa). 


1. Eu/vXftaj' eXnftoy ovic dvEV iroWioy irovtoy. 2. Tt ftpoTo'iQ 
dvEV Attic rfXtTrcu ; 3. Tavra dvEV Ti)Q ttoXewc k-KpdaaETo. 

4. *H»' fiEV opfjLKrdrj rtc tifiHy eIq XtyutVct ruy r?/c tv^tiq, ijiaKET 
dyKvpar Kadd\paQ d(T faXtiag eivEKa. 5. Aiytic, a ^e XiyEig 
EyEica TOv Xa/Selv XiyEig, 6. OviiEp uvtoq EiEKa (j)iX(i)y toETO 
ZCiaQai, (ic avyEpyovg Eyoi, Koi uvtoq ETCEipdro avt'Epyog ro'tg (j)iXoig 
Kodriarog Eiyai. 7- ^rparEiag /; ttoXiq Trjg twv dXXwy £r£^' 'EXXi'/- 
y(jjv EXEvdEpiag kcu awrrjpiag TrETroh]~ai. 8. ^wf ft /u>) ttj^o/^ur, 

' So SoKovv, SfCoju'tvov. 

* Also Su^avTog rovruv, SoXdvrwv tovtwv, and lo^avra ravra. 

* i<!Tiv, ivtari, TzapirsTiv, l^iari, &c. Trpdrrtiv, all signify, one can or may ; 
but ivtari relates to physical possibility (it is possible) ; i^tart, to moral possibility 
(it is allowed) ; tan and TrdptffTi stand between these two meanings, without 
being confined to either of them; the latter implying also the notion of faci- 
lity. B. 

88 250. [§ 42. THE GENITIVE. 

OI.1010L TOtQ TvcpXolg ay y)iAtv evenc'i ye twv ii}XB.Ttpwv o^daXfxwv. 
9. 'Aff^fiXwe kc^uyy tvEKa yt tuii' (tv Kocpuvr ui y. 

10. itapt'ou Mos«/.tov ri)y TapaiTiriov TroXw kkoyrOQ kuI Mctp- 
Kov Aifiiov, Tov T))y ciKpoTroXiy (ppovpovyroc, Si eavroy kaXtoKeyai rtjy 
TTuXiy Xiyoyroc, o'l fxky aXXoi KareyeXwy, o Ik i^ajjiog dney' 'AAtjOjj 
Xeyeic;' el yap [xi) av t))v ttoXlv aVt'/jaAtC) ovk av lyw dveXufioy. 
11. Tov Xoij^ov rac 'A6//>'ae carfj^orroe ciefdtipoyro o'l irXelaTOL 
eyvaTctloL i^cil £/3^ojua7oi tnro tov eyTog KavfxaTog. 12. 'Huepag 
y ey e v r] fjt yi] c, TrpocrfjXdoy oi TroXt'juioi. 13. 'EiKeivov eiTToyTog, 
Trayreg enlywy. 14. Twj' awfiarioy Br]Xvv o ^i yii>y, Koi al tl/vyai 
TToXv cippw/TTorepuL yiyvoyTCii, 15. Ot "EXXrjyeg to wciXai eTpairoyTO 
TTpug XyoTEiay, fiyovfxeycjy ciyBpwy oh Twy dSv yriTMTaTU) y. 
1(5. Kvpov jja a iXevo yTog, iroXXo te /cat (CctXct epya inro tCjv 
JJeptruiy £7rp«^9r;. 17- ^i)y ^apiy e\iy)(eiy tov Xoyov eniBriao^eQa. 
18. '^vy\wpi]Tiov ^c'tpij/ (T/'/J'. 19. "XovTog e'itrei. 20. iluo-Kora- 
i^ovTog eXOorTeg KuwTOfiey tijv Ovpay. 21. OvT(og e^oyTog coKel 
iiy Tig croi eKujy avTov xeip<j> irou'iy ', 22. ^^j^ayyeXdivTog evpi- 
(TKovai TovTor. 23. "Orav aStfXov ovTog el TroXefiloig eyTev^ri 
iTupiVY} TTOV, Kara l-iepr] j^pr) Tag (pvXag aya-KUveiy. 24. OvTwg 
E-^oyTwy EtKog toIc 7roAf/u'o(c EvayTiovg tlyai Tovg Oeovg. 25. Ai 
voXeig wKiadrjTav i'ldr) wXoi [.i (jjrepwy hvTiiyy. 2Q. "En oyTwv 
uKpiTwy diaXXaywfxey. 27. ^r] jjiaydeyTWV rw Kvpto oti voXifXioi 
eiaiy ey tij X'^P" et^Efioiidei. 28. Ntw'av a/.'oi'-oe rov TvXimrov 
(nre<T(patciy, 29. Ein-oj' ipuTri (rayTog (sc. ai/roi;) ort Mcifcpwrtc 
elaiy, 30. IloWo) oi/Vw Trpoe Tivag k'^ovcny wore evtv^ovvtiov 
XvireTcrdai. 31. Oi/^ ouJj' re ju>) KaXuig vivoheiKvvyTog (sc. ru'df) 
vaXwe mne'iaBai. 32. Ilopf uo/ie c w >' (sc. «7rpar<wrwi') ara^/a 
ot yufj/ TrpoEp^o^Taf, ot ce vKoXEiiroyTai ivXeoy tov Kaipov. 33. 
2vr 0£w -KpaTTOfxeywy (sc. 7rpayjuartt»v) £tk;oc <>•'«« rae Trpa^etg 
Trnoieyni eiri to Xwoy. 34. 'ES,oy i^yy Vf-uy /i)/ K'aXwc;, KaXuig a'lpov- 
f^ieda juuXXoj' 7-tXeurai'. 35. 'Aj'^pwr ayaOuiy IdTiy eK fxey Elpijyrjg 
7roXEi.iEly, Ev Se TrapatT^oy, etc rroXenov TraXiy ^vfufiiiyai. 36, Bov- 
crtptg EdiCeiv ueto he'iy Toy 6-)(Xoy e^ifxiyEiy Ciiraai Tolg vtto tGiv 
ap'yuyT(x)v TrapayyeXXofjieyoig' h'o^i^e yap Tovg TovTwy oXiywpovyTag, 
Tvy^oi', Kai Tijjy f^iei^oywy KaTU(j)poy7iaEiy. 37. Kupof, ojg eyeyeTO 
ey MijCoic, (TvyBo^uy tm Trarpt Krai rrj firiTpi, yafxel T>)y ¥t.val,dpov 
Ovya-ipa. 38. UaputjTrj firjCeyi vjiwy, wq ev Ttj iiXXoTpla, oh 
•KpoaTjKoy, KiyCvyoy liyappnrTov^ey. 39. O^X f'VTOi iKuyoi eltriv 
uywiicrTal, o'lTiveg, aypviryfjaai Siov, iiTTwyTai tovtov. 40. Ou 
hiKrjv irapa Tdv aEncovvTWV Xa/jfyaveTE, uifrnen oh -ijg ^tJiAing avTolg 
fieXoy. 41. ^ecoyixevoy ahTolr, ehdvg ucvraTa r)v eTri-^^eipelv. 
42. Ot KtpK-upaloi ekeXevov Kopudiovg TOvg ev 'ETrt^a^uj'w fpovpovg 
airc'iyeiy, ojc oh jxetov uvTolg ^EiniCH/^iyov. 43. Tovg vulg oi izaTEpeg 

§ 42. THE GENITIVE.] 253. 89 

djTO Twv TTovrjpiLv avOpwirutv t'ipyov(Tiv, wg rriv fxev twv 'x^prjcrruiv 
ofiiXiai' aaicrjaiv ovaav riji; aperfjc, ri]v hs. twv irovqpibi' Kara- 
Xvaiy. 44. ^iXovq fxiv KribvTai ol didpuiroi, wg (3o7]du)y ceofjei'oi, 
TU)V ^£ a.BeXcpuii' afieXovaiy, wanip Ik TroXiriiiy fiev yiyvofiifovg 
(ptXovg, £s ^SeXipujy ce ov yiyyofiivovg. 45. '^g SiEaKrov 
ovffrjg riig aperfjg, Xeysi. 46. Sw/cparjjc TroXXolg tCjv ^vpovtiov 
irporjyopevs to. [xey iroiCw, utg rov ^atjuov/ov 'irpoar]jxaivovTog. 
47« '^g jJ-1] aKovau^ivuv ijfxdiy, ovru) ^tavo£7(T6£. 48. 'Qig vTrep 
riby £(7)(arw»' kao fxivov rov dyaJvoc v/wTv, ovtm TrpoarjKEi yiyrw- 

OKtlV. 49. 'ilc OVKtT OVTWV «7WJ' TEKViOV, (ppOVTllis 2^. 50. 

HapeKeXevnvTO Kpavyrj )^pwjU£)'ot, aSvvaroi' "ov Iv vvktl ctXXw rw 
arfjjLf]yai. Th, 51. 'Eyw oljiai. \pr](j)i(Ta(7dai av to irXrjdog avi'eXQov 
Tovg icpariGTOvg Kol Tijxalg koX htopotg ttXeovekteTv afjia fiev avv- 
ayopev6vTb)v rjfiuiv ajua ce al(r-)(^p6v ov avTiXiyeiv. Xn. 52. ^g 
ovK avayKalov to KXiirTEiv ainoE tov KXiTTTOvTa^. 53. UoTepovg 
(prjg Elg tov ttoXejiov ovk eOeXeiv livai, tcaXov ov (cat ayaOoVf 
Tovg CEiXovc, j) TOvg avEpEiovg ; 54. Ao^av-a tuvtu kuI TTEpav- 
divTa, TO. orparEu/xara aTrfjXdE. 55. Ao^av ri/J-lv ravTa kiropEvo- 
fXEda, 56. Ao^diTWJ' TOVTiov, aaTEXiTTov TpE~ig vavg. 57- ^r^nav- 
divTOiv T(5 'AcTTVciyet, on TroXifiiol etcriv Iv Trj X**'P?' £^fpo/;0£«. 
58. 'EirlaTafiai TpiijpEig noXXaKig EKTTEixirofiEvag, tovtov jxev aBi'jXov 

OVTOg, e'iTE (HXtiOV e'iTE KClKlOV EGrai, EKeLvOV ^E Zi)X0V, OTl OV^E- 

TTOTE aiToXrixpovTat d av EiatviyKtoaiv. 59. Tt TOvg ofxoXoyovvTag 
£-)(,dpovg £)(orr£c Eripnvg ^r]TOV[j,£v ; 60. 'HpojToivTO 6 tl ijkoiev. 61. 
TovT Eyib cKpiKonrjv, OTziog ev Trpctsatym' rt. 62. Hyu£V£pa avTUJv 
ipya ovdETEpog ej^ei XeyEiv. ravTa Ci) ui(T)(yv6fi£da Tovahe. 63. 
Ai/rd TUVTa vvv iJKOfiEV. 64. Tct ^£yd\a Trdvra EivLa<paXrj cat 
TO XEyofXEvov TO. KuXct Tu ovTL ETrifffaXfj. 65. Ot 'Adrjvaloi iroXXfj 
(TTpuTia ulpfxrjpro Trpofaariv [XEv'EyE(TTai(t)i' ^v fj fxa-)(_i(f, to ce aXrjdEg 
^itceXiag eiridvfjita. 66. AeI roue I^V~^ X6y(0 fJ-ijTE f'pyw ojcpEXifXOvg 
tivrag iravTa Tpovov KcoXvetrdai. 67. IIoXiv eIvul del dtKrjv 
KpaTfjpog KEtcpafXEvrjv, 68. To (ppovEiv avTo avTov -^f^apiv ayairwfXEV. 

69. ^A|o' OVK oKptXel (') Erjfxiovpydg tote vtuv Trpo'iKa ipydf/jrai ; 

70. Awpfdi' Trapci tov h'lfxov EXafts to yoiplov. 

§ 43. The Relative. 

a. OavfiaiTTov ttoieIc, og iijMv ovcev cicwg, you act strangely in 253. 
giving MS nothing, b. EfiaKcipi^ov r>/v firjTepa, o'l w v tekiwv EKvpriaE, 
they pronounced the mother happy in having such children. (Here 
o'liiiv = OTl TOiovTwv.^ c. OTrXa KTwvrai, olg djivvovvTai TOvg ddi~ 

" But also with tovtov, &c. : tovtov SrjXov ovTog, &c. See Example 58. 


90 254 — 257. [§ 43. the relative. 

Kovvrac, they are procuring arms to defend themselves with against 
those who injure them (or, with which to repel, or punish, those who 
injure thetn). d. ovroc larir, vi' tl^ec, aySpa, or oy tl^eg ardpa, 
ovroc toTU', this is the man you saw. 

Attraction of Relative. 

e. fiETaSiEuJc aurw tov airov^, oinrep avros iX^'C' ^^^ i)^^^ ^^^ 
a portion of the food which you have yourself, f. rw j/ytjufirt Trtortu- 
aofiev, J ay RDpoe ^w, we will confide in any general whom Cyrus 
may give us ^ (for ov Ciy^). g. diruXuvuj^ uiv t^M dyuduiy, I enjoy 
the good things I possess, fieixyrjfiaoc we 'inpuie, remembering what 
he had done. h. ^iTtiriinrsTo ctXXo arpdrEVf^ia, irpog w irpoadev 
fixe, he sent for another army, in addition to the one he had before. 

254. (a. b. c.) The relative is often used to introduce a cause, ground, 
motive, or design of what is stated. 

Obs. 1. When it expresses a cause or ground, it takes the indie. ; when 
it expresses a purpose, (as in c), ihe fut. indie. ^ 

Obs. 2. The relative is not used merely to connect a sentence with the 
one before it so frequently as in Latin. When so used, it is probably 
always expressive of some emotion. B. 

Obs. 3- oSe is not used as a 7nere antecedent to the relative, but ovroc, 
which is not so strongly demonstrative. 

255. (d) The antecedent is often expressed in the relative clause, and 

omitted in the principal clause. 

When this is the case, the relative clause often stands first; the subst., 
which mostly loses its article, is then not to be placed immediately after 
the relative. 

256. (e) The relative is often made to agree in case with the antecedent 

in the principal clause. 

This is called Atlraction of the Relative: it seldom takes place except 
where the relative should regularly stand in the accusative, the ante- 
cedent being in the gen. or dat. and without a demonstrative pronoun (as 
oiirof, tKilvog). 

257. (g) When the relative is attracted, the antecedent is often placed 
in the relative clause, but in the case in which it would stand in the 
principal clause. 

' Plur. often mra in Attic Greek, which is also found in Herodotus. 

8 Dederif. 9 See 95. 

^ aTToXavti}, airoXavaofiai. Imp. cnrikavov, aor. dntkavaa, though no simple 
verb is found. diri]\avov, dnii^avaa are later forms. — This verb (which is pro- 
bably from the same root as Xa/Sttv. P.) is properly <o recefue /rom ; to receive 
whether advantage or disadvantage from any thing. .So that (like our, to reap 
the fruits of) it is used in both a good and a bad sense. 

2 The subjunctive probably does not belong to Attic prose. ' Conjunctivus curn 
pronominibus adverbiisve relativis consociatus nonnisi in veterum epicorum ser- 
mone fini indieando inservit.' Herm. ad CEcl. Col. 190. So Kriiger, Lachmann, 
&c. In Thuc. 7) 25 : ») vavQ 7rpia(3tiQ dyn o'lVtp — (ppaawaiv, Hermann thinks 
the o'lTrtp sufficient to prove the reading incorrect, and suggests bjrwc. 

§ 43. THE RELATIVE.] 258. 91 

(g) The antecedent is sometimes wholly omitted. 258. 

As, for instance, when it is some general or indefinite notion (man, 
thing, &c. as in g, ex. 2), or has been before mentioned, as in h. 

In (//) the rel. seems under the government of a preposition belonging 
to the other clause. As in English sometimes, — "she would have the 
head of whosoever advised it." 


1. "EoTi TO BiaXeKTiKoy ^t) fiorov TdXTjOrj dnoKpiyeadai, dWa 
Kui ^L EKiiviov (J V av irpocToixoXoyrj 6 kptJTWiitvoQ. 2. " AXoyov 
diBpojTTovQ i^aipidii'Tag dciKiai' ddnctlf tovto) (2 ovk t^ovcriy. 3. 
'lig I'l wcpiXeia Tolq Qeoiq Tvyyavei ovaa d-Ko twv hwpuiv wv -Kap 
il/.i(i)v Xafipdvovaiv \ 4. ToTg a'yaflotc oIq e'^^o/jev tv rrj xj/v^^^rj, 
rovroic KTiontQa Ka\ rdg aWac bxpeXeiaq. 5. Xp>) tUq iroXeiQ 
^lolkeIv ToiovTOiQ i] 6 £ (X I y o'loiQ Euaydpac £«X^''* ^* Twj' 'iir- 
TTwi' orrtov o'Iljv St7, rovg 'nnriaQ au cKJKrjrioy. 7. X£ifiu)yoc 
oiTog o'lov Xiyeig v^opiCoy. 8. lloXXoi iTriOvfiiicjayreg icvpioi tiyat 
Trdyrwy Sid ravra xai ihv e.l\oy dTvirv^oy. 9. Ma-)(^ElTai irdy i^woy 
SuKpepoyrojQ wapoyTOjy ojy ay reKt]. 10. M;; wy TVEiaojiEQa /j-oyoy 
SEiyorrjTa Karavoelre. 11. Qrjf^a'ioi olg tvTV)^riKe(Tay iy AevKrpoig 
oh fiETplcjg iKiyjpr)yTO. 12. 'A0' tay Vote avrcii rd Trpnyi^ara Kpireiy 
cu. 13. MiXXovaiv eripay fi£raXy]\p£irdai So^ay dyd' >/c »'v»' 
£)(ov(7i)'. 14. Suv olg d')(oy ijei Trpog to Tei^og. 15. Ilpde w 
il-)^s ^vyiXzyE iravTa-^^oQiv irafiTrXrjdeg orpartvyuo. 16. BouXti Ice'ip 
Ti u)v <l)afi£y dT£')(^yii)y T£ (cac £VTi")(^vh)v eti^at ; 17. ' Ap' o'ui 
Toi/g d£ovg thtpEXElaOat dno rovTwy, d Trap' iifJtCjy Xafifidyovtriv \ 18. 
'Ei^pj/v jily yfjtdg trvXXoyoy Troiovfiiyovg Toy (pvyra dpy]y£ly £lg ocr' 
tp^Erot KUKu. 19. ^AniicXaoy Ti)y EfiavTOv Tvyj}y o'lov dySpog 
ETalpov EffTEprifjiiyog E'lTjy. 20. Kariicavae Tag K'w^ac, onwg (poftoy 
hdeiri cat To'ig dWoig oia TTEiaovTai, 21. ^vSaifxuy /j,ol 6 dvjjp 
£^ou'£ro, (jjg d^£wc f^ai yEvyaitjg eteXevtu. [= on ovTtog dcEwg &C.] 

22. "A TiouTy aicT\p6y, raura vofJi^E ^rjEs XiyEiy Eiyai KaXov. 

23. "A ov K£KTr][XEda, ^i^rjaig i'jdr] ravra crvyOrjpEVErai. 24. Mo- 
j^dtly dvdyKTi' rac Se Sai^ovwy TV\ag offTig (pipEi KakXiuT, dyyjo 
ovTog ao(}>6g. 25. IToXXot ra -^^p^^aTa KarayaXisjaaiTEg uty irpoadEy 
dir£i-)^ovTO KEpSiJjy nla-^pd yo/jti^oyrEc, TOVTCjy ovk dni-^oyTai. 26. 


KOfii^Eiy. 27. Ovk k/TTiy, w 7ra7, avfiTOfiuTEpa oSog Trept w y dy 
ftovXrf hoKEiy (ppoyijxog Elrai i] to yEyifrdai Trepi TovTCjy (ppoyifxoy. 
28. 'Etti rjjc avTijg i](nrEp vvy i^ovcriag /.lEyEl. 29. 'Eyw iy 
T^> xpoj'W w vfiu/y aKovu) diropovyT(i>y ti to ciKaioy, iy tovto) 
EiKaiOTEpovg Tovg dvQpijirovg ttoiuj. 30. Ov TTipt oyofxaTioy y 
dfi(l)if7J:»'lTr]<ng olg ToaovTioy Trept (TKExpig otrioy yfily TrpoKEiTai, 
31. Olg ovTog dirrjyyEiXE irpog vfidg, tovto ig TurarTia EnolrjfTEv 

N 2 

92 259. [§ 43. preposition h. 

itcelvog. 32. '0»' tpy^ TrtnolrjKe, Tovrtor ek \6yov i^pifftQ yiyvtrai. 
33. rioXXactc (i)v toIq Xoyoic eXvirrjacii', rovruti' role tpyoig rfiv 
Tifxuypiav 'i^oaar. 34. 'A0' t5 1' Trpoaairel icai Sareii^trai, airo 
TovTWv Itayti. 35. 'A^th'tt Sw/cporT/c ovq ?/ TroXtg lofxi^et deovg 
oh vojxil^ujv. 36. "EoTtr j'/v av TrpoTEpoy tXeyfc aperriv aXr;0?/c. 
37. M») ufiXrjtjdE vj-tajy civTwi' ?") »' 3ia TrajTOg a£t roii ■)^p6yov kekti]- 
oQe ho^av Ka\i]v. 38. 'AfiadEirraroi e<tte wv eyw oiSa EXX/;- 
j'wv. 39. Ot rfj^fTrai cnroKpinrToyTai ttwc ra cTrt/caiptwrara ^c 
fCaoTOC £X^' '■^X''?^* "^^^ Tourw yiyvovTUi ^vo ttcu^ec £^ >)c '"o 
7rpG)TOV ff^xE yui'aiKoc 41. 'ETroptutro cvi' j; t^x^ Swdfiei. 
42. Aoy/^erat ro ttXjjSoc a) v tyw ^prj jsarioi' ex*^* ^^' ^' 
C£ffn-orat roue lovXovg kXettteiv KwXiiovcyit' uTroKXtiovTEc oOev av ti 
Xafti'iy TJ. 44. Ot AaKE^aiixoinoi tuv Wavrraviov rn(por fitrfirEyKav 
ovTTEp aTTEdat'Ev. 45. "A^w vfiag Ei'da to 7rpay/ja kyivEro. 46. 
J^aTari6r]<n TraXiv oOev av EKciara XafAftdvr]. 47. "OOev aTrtXi- 
TTO^EV tTrariXBwuEV. 48. ^^nuvEi^i ivQev £7rt ravra E^ef:)i]v. 49. 
Upoo'/XaCTaj' £^ otTov rig tiiEXXEy aKOvatrrdai. 50. Tt'c ovrw 
fiivpog hg dctPEli' ip^t ; 51. Tt'c owrwc Effri SvcTTV)(r)g ovrig 
Trarpiia EPEKa Ksp^ovg /3pax£oe Trpoiadai fjovXritjETai ', 52. Ou- 
^Efiia EffTiy ovTO) KaXi) TcapaivEaig ijTig rovg /jlt] ovrag dyaBoiig 
avQ^]^Epov dKovcrat'Tctg ciyaOovg Tj-oiijaei. 53. 'Ec^vywi' £XEt rocrov- 
Tov dXyog ov ttot ov XEXy'iuETai, 54. AokeI fxoi Tri/jixpai aarpciTrag, 
oiTirtg apt,ov(n twv ivoiKoviToyv teal top Saafiot' XajjpdyovTEg rolg 
TE ^povpolg Ccjcrov(Ti fiiadov KCii dXXo reXiaovciv o ri av Bit]. 
55. "EXfyov on iJKOiEv ijyEfiorag (."^ovTEg, o'i avrovg a^ovaiv 
eydEV E^ovfTi TCI ETTiTJjCEia. 56. AeI tG)1' dp-^onEV(3}v tTctfiEXt'iaQai 
orrwg ujg joiXTiaTOi Icoj'Tai. 

LESSON XLIII. (continued.) 

259. 'Ev {in. in answer to where? — dat.'). Thefirst of all {iv rolg irpwrog^). 

It depends upon you {iv aol iffTi). 

'Ev roTg TrpoJroi 'ABtjvaloi tov ffiSt\pov KaTiQtvTO. 'Qfifj ri 
ardaiQ ico^E fiaXXov, Swtl iv Tolg irpwrrj iysvtTo 'Apiarap'xpg 
iv T olg fidXia T a kuI Ik TrXtiorou ivavTiog ry d7i[i(>j ^v. 

57. 'Ej' yrj wivEadai KptlrTov f; TrXovTovvTU ttXeIv. 58. A£ti>rvx'^'?C 
7/y£tro Twv EV MuicaXj/ 'EXXi^vwv. 59. ^KXdov Eig TpawE^ovvTa, 
TToXiv 'E\Xjjv/^a, olKOVfXEvr]v ev tm Ev^e/j'w TrovTto. 60. 'Eg to 
"Hpaiov KUTEcpvyov. 01 Ce ev tm 'Hpaiw KnrairEfpEvyoreg 
E^rJEaav. 61. "Qiy^ovTO ev To'ig 6)(^vpolg ical tU ettiti^^eiu iv tov- 
Toig avaKEKOfxia fXEVOL I'laav. 62. ^Oy\r}p(')v kaTiv ev vioig avijp 
yipbjv. 63. IlopEvo^EVOi EV TO~ig <piXoig ijaav. 64. Ot Kpjjrwi' 
vofxoi ovK eI(tI {laTrjv CiacpEpovrtjg iv irdaiv EvBoKifioi To7g "EX- 

* This phrase is elliptical : iv rolg irpSJroi Trapriaav = iv ToXg vapovcfiv irpSi- 
TOi TTaprjirav. Time, uses iv Toig even with afeyn. superlative. See iii. 81. 

§ 43. PREPP. if, c'u'ct, ds-l 259. 93 

Xjjfftr. 65. 'PijToptKovg K'aAw roue i^ tu irXrjOei (^ey ro7c ttoWoIq) 
Xiyeiy ^uj'oyue'j'ouc- 66. Ob ^oKovai aoi iv to'iq aSiKoic fcora- 
XoyO^eadai rovg a-)(^upi(TT0VQ ', 67- To (piXBlirOai viro rioy ap^ajjivwi' 
SoKel kv To'iQ fiiyiaTOic. tlvai. 68. AeI narpia^iiv kv ra'ig ev- 
Trpa^iaiQ. 69. 'EvtciIq 6\iyap-)(^iaiQ ovk 'kari KaKuQ Xkyiiv rovg 
apxoiTag. 70. To £ v iar)yopiq. hoKovvra -ivog al,iov dvai Ti/udcrdui 
Tujy KciXuiy karir. 71. KXvziv tov kadXuv avhpa y_pi] tQ)V kv teKei. 
72. Yl.p(j)Tay6pag TETTapuKov-a ett] ev ttj rf'x*^?? »'/'• 73. "Axpr^aToi 
toIq iroXXolg o'l EiriEifcia-aTOL twp kv (j)iXoao(j)i^. 74. Oi ftuffiXEv- 
(ravTEQ Eirai^tvaav to irXriQoQ kv apETrj. 75. Ta ttXeiw toIq avdpcj- 
TTOig Tov fiiov kv raJg kXiriaiv. 76. Hg ficiKc'tpiov ^porriaig kv 
Xpr](TTM rpoTTw. 77. 'Ev OTrXoig Eivai. 78, 'Ei' KapaoKEvrj euch. 
79. 'E»' nlria ex^eiv riva. 80. 'Ei' opyrj t'xEt)' (jvoit'iardcu) twu. 81. 
Tig ?/ kfJi) ^vvafxig ; aW ki' aol Trarrct kariv. 82. "OXrjg Tijg 
'EWa^oc kv Talg yvvaiiiv kcrriv »/ trwTrjpia, 83. 'Ej' ru'ig vuvcri 
tQ)v 'EXXr/j'Wj^ TO. irpay^aTci kykvETO. 84. 'Ei' rw Siicata) kXTrldEQ 
aiOTTjpUig. 85. 'E»' rw kVaoroi^ Bucaiwg up')(^£iv tJte TroXirEia Kal 

TO (iXXo TrXr]dog to VjUETEpOV (TW^ETat. 

'Avd (properly up ; ace. — in, on, through, of a large space or lime). 

Through the whole country {dvu ndaav ti)v y^v). Through the 
whole day, all day, {dvd Trdaav ti'jv I'lfx'ipav). Every day {dvd 
Trdaav yfikpav). Every year {dvd -Kav irog). By fives, or 
five-and-five {dvd ttevts). 

» 86. Touc Kap^ov)(oiic t^aortr oIkeTv avci tci opi]. 87. 'Avii 

irdaav yrjv cat ddXa-Tav E\pi]vr) 'kaTni. 88. 01 iraiSEc Tovg 

TrpEafDVTEpovg opuxnv ava Trdaav ijjdkpav cru)(jjp6v(i)g hayovrag. 

89. 'ETropEvdrjcrav ara ttevte Trapaauyyag Tijg ijfxkpag. 90. 

'Apyoe oi;^£«c dsovg f'x'*"' "''" oro/iia j3iov ^vvaiT av (TvXXkyEiv 

iivEV irovov. 91. npoAaivETai kXavvuJv rivci KpriTog i^povvTi rw 

tTTTTw. 92. AkyETai Tovg Xidovg 'e)(eiv avii tov avTov Xoyov t))v 


Ei'c (into ; ace. — towards, against, in reference to). 

tig SiSaffKaXov (poiTq.v * (understand, oiKiav), to attend a master, 
iig SidaffKaXov TTSfiTreiv, to send (a boy) to a master. 

93. "OpKOvg kytb yvvaiicog slg vEwp ypcKpio. 94. 'H yXw(T(Ta 

TToXXovg Eig oXEdpov jfyayev. 95. 'Airkftriaav kg Tr/v yrjv. 96. 

Uc'ivT ktd^aXvTTTWv 6 ^P^^og slg to ((nog ay ei. 97. ^ikeXoI eS, 'IraXlag 

hikftriaav kg 'ZiKEXiav. 98. 'Ek: tovtwv {twv ^offiarwv) kwupEv- 

6r)(7av Eig T a6j(^ovg. 99. O'l TpiaKovra noXXovg tu)v ttoXitcov slg 

TOvg itoXe [jiiovg kl^^Xatrav. 100. 'Eg oyXov 'ipiTEiv TrapdkvoiaLv 

ov KaXov. 101. 'Ero\)U)/ffa7-£ aw T<p iraTpiu) fpovt'iixaTL livai Eig 

avTOvg. 102. Udpig {,yay 'EWct^' Eig"lXiov. 103. Ovr' Eig 

AeX^ovc ov^' eig "AfxiJ.(ov' kXOovTEg ekeI Qvao^EV. 104. 'Bacii^ovaiv 

Properly, to go frequently into his house. 

9-i 262. [§ 43. PREPOSITION tig. 

elg d\\//Xouc« 105. Eie v/^uf daeXdojy eXirii^io 7wi' ^iKaitoy 
Tev^eaQai, 106. 'Avt'oraro tic u'lKrjfxd ri wg Xovtrof-itroc. 107. 
T>)f TToXi*' e^cXtTTOv 01 iyoiKovvreg Eig ^wpioi' o^vpor kni Ta oprj. 
108. QtjTEvg tcareXvae rwy aXXwv voXtuyy to. te ftovXsvTy'ipia Kai 
T(xg np)(^ag eg r))i' vvv ttoXip. 109. Tor (^wjto tig tovq TToXefii- 
ovg a.X6.i'Ta dp' ov Biopeaf SiSoyaL Bel rolg ediXovaL -^pfjadai rrj 
ayp(^i 6 Ti ay /^ouXwrrat ; 110. Srag etc ''« fJ.e(Tov avveKaXeae rovg 
eavruv <TTpaTLu)Tag. 111. IloXXfU'ic tig noXXr}i> advfxlay Kciri- 
arijy, 112. 'Atto aov Bel dp-)(^tadai, reXevTciy B' elg Eu9iiC»;/xoi'. 
113. "Ottov ay elg atcoyrioy cKpiKyiJTat, aKoyrii^ei' ottov B' ay tig 
Boparog ttX »/■///>', Traiti. 114. IloXXa Bel {.lo^Qtly roy ij^oyr elg 
eTraiyoy evKXeiZg. 115. BXtTrtu)' TreTraiBevfx elg ra rdiy TroXXuiy 
KUKc'i. 116. Ov \pri nnu rCjy iBlwy ayadioy OKyely BuTraydy elg 
TO Koiyoy ayaQoy. 117. Toy KUKitrroy irXovrog elg irptoTOvg 
c'lyei. lis. 'ATreljXe\pey elg AvroXvKoy, crfcoirtDy ri eKeiyio Bo^eiey. 
119. Mt) ftoiiXeade elg vfidg Ti)y alriai' Trepirpi^pni. 120. "Ea /i' 
ajjiupTely' ov yap eg a dfJ.apra.yu). 121. HpnircjjiXelg oyreg Bid r))y 
eg roy MfiBoy -n-podufiiay avrolg ervyxaroy. 122. Ov (ro<j)6c, dXridijg 
B' eg (piXovg ecpvy (j)iXog. 123. "A eJ-rroy elg dnrayTag ovk dpyrj- 
aofiai. 124. 'EK/j-npTvpely dyBpa rag avrov tvx^C «tC Trdv Tag 
ujjiaQig. 125. Ilrtj'u iXXoyifiog yiyoyey elg Tovg "EXXrjvac 'Apt- 
areidT]g. 126. 'H ijfiepa dei ri Kaiyuy elg to (ppoyTi^eiy (pepet. 
127. "AirayTeg eff/jey elg to yovderely ao<poi. 128. 'H a-rrdvif 
TTpox^ipog elg to Bpdy cam. 129. Tt elg iroXefjioy KTT]iJ.a XP^~ 
cnnwTepoy dydpwTTwy ; 130. MeyicrToy dyadoy to neidapxilf <p(iiy£Tai 
elg TO tcaraTrpaTTeiy ro dyadd. 131. ZrjXiorog oarig evTXJX^<^^v 
eg TeKya. 132. ^ev, Tolai yeyyaioicrty <l)g aTrayTaxoii TrpeKei 
Xo^puKrijp elg evxpvxic-i'- 133. AeI (C£)^apt(7yLt£rwc vparTeiy to irdy 
elg Bvvafxiy. 134. Svyejioi'iOi^a-ay elg e'lKotri jxaXiaTa. 135. Trig 
<pdXayyog ecpatray elg Tpelc T})y eyitijJLOTiay dyeiy' tovto Be crvjxpai- 
yeiy avrolg ov irXeoy 1) elg Bu)CeKa ru fiddog, 136. "Hwre elg rriv 
TpiaKocrriiy yfitpay. 137. '^0)6)] Bely rrjg dpeTrjg rfjg avrov 
fiyrjueloy el g roy uTrayra ^po vo j^ KftraXiTrtT)^. 138. Etc Kaipoy 
r)Xdec, Kui-rrep dyyeXXojy fvfioy. 139. "Eywye XuTrou^ai jjey elg 
VTz epfioXi]y enl rulg wapovaiy, ey Be rjj XvTrrj (ppoydH. 140. '£c 
reXog 01 fxev eaQXol rvyxdyovaiv d^lujy' 01 kukoI B', tiairep nefvicatT , 
ovTTor' ev Trpa^eiay ay. 

§ 44. The Relative {conlinued). 

262. a- <p6ftog, ijv alBw KuXov/jiey, the fear which we call bash- 
fulness, b. diro Ttjjy ey ^iKeXig. voXeioy eariy (by, from some of 
the cities in Sicily, c. ovcnren elBoy eariy ottov, whom I saw 

§ 44. THE RELATIVE.] 263—269. 


somewhere, d. evTiv ovcrrivaQ dydpwrrovc ndavfxaKag ewl (TO(pi<f; 
are there any persons whom you have admired for their wisdom ? e. 
Xilu) aoi if' w aiyij(rei\ I will tell you, on condition that you ivill 
hold your tongue, f. ripidi^auv i(p' wre crvyypdxpaL vof-ivvi;, they 
were chosen on the condition that they should draw up laws (i. e. to 
dratv tip laws), g. x'^P'-*' '^'" '^'^'^ dvd' ujv y'lXdig, I feel thankful 
to you for coming, h. 'ifSetpov e'i ti xpijcrifiov I'jv, they destroyed 
every thing of value. 

(a) When the relative, with such a verb as to be, call, believe, &c. 263. 
stands in apposition to a noun, it generally agrees in gender with it, 
rather than with its proper antecedent. 

(b) eariy-o'i ^ = hioi, some, and may be declined throughout : — 264. 

N. iffTiv o'i, lariv d'l, lariv li. 

G. tffTlV lOV. 

D. i(JTiv olc, iOTLV aig, eariv oTe, &c. 

(c) In like manner, the following phrases, formed with 'ianv, 265. 
are used like adverbs to express any time. 

tffTLP oTi = triors, est quando, i. e. interdum, e. g. ((Ttiv OTe 
tXe^iv ; 

tar IV "iva or otto v, est ubi, i. e. aliquando ; 

tffTiv Oil or (v9a, est ubi, somewhere, in some places ; 

OVK irrQ' OTTOV, nunquam; 

iCTTiv y or OTTJ;, quodammodo, in some manner; 

OVK iariv ott oif, nullo modo : oiiK tcrriv ottw? ov, certainly. 

iiTTiv oTTiog; in the question, Is it possible, that? 

(d) So also 'iffTiv with oarrtg is used as an interrogative. 266. 

(e) 'E^' J or (more commonly) Jre is, ' on condition that,' with 267. 

the future indie, or the infin. 

The relative in this construction answers to the demonstrative eirl 
TovT(f) : which, or iiri TolaSi, is not unfrequently expressed. 

(g) dvff J)', because, for {= dfTi rovruv on). 268. 

It may, however, be used in its proper meaning : ' in return for those 
things which,' &c. 

(h) e'i Tig '' does not express any doubt as to whether there teas 269. 
any, but is used as equivalent to ^arig, whosoever, vjhatsoever (= all 


1. 'ArdyKT] Trdai ru'ig (TTparEvofiivoic eirai rii'a 6t(J aK^uijg 
fiEXyjaei. 2. Ei<7t nreg oi ruiv toiovtu)v Ka-ayeXuxriy. 3. Tdy 
avf^l^dxoff vfuv elalv ot diaXiyoyrai irepi (piXiag. 4. EtcJ 

5 Stya'w cannot, like aiiOTrdai, take ace. of thing. Fut., generally, aiyfiffoixai. 
See List ii. 

^ For ' sunt qui dicant' the Greeks said, icttiv o1 X'tyovaiv, or thiv o'l Xeyov- 
Ttg, or tiaiv ot Xeyovo'ii'. Examples of the last construction are not uncom- 
mon. Kr. 

'' rig indef. has gen. rov, dat. r<^ (both enclitic), for rivSg, rtvi. So oarig has 
orou, or<{). 

96 269. [§ 44. the relative. 

Tuiy yijtTwy ai iineipwvTai. 5. 01 ixTTepov i'lKovTiQ elaXv ot lifKavri-' 
dijaai'. 6. 'li (TCI I' 01 Kai nvp irpoaicpepou. 7. KAeoTrojuTroc r^c 
■KapaQaXaaaiov eotm' a eBrjitxre. 8. "Eariv oarig jjovXerai 
a6\ioc Kal KamSalj^cji' thai', 9. Eortv orw a.\\(^ riov (nrovdal(ov 
ttXeiw cTrtrptVetc >) rij yvvaiKl', 10. "EctQ' orw flpatruvcrai. 11. 
"EoTt TTpoe OTTolov j3toy aWov y tov KoXciKevoyra tiKOTiog rpeyperai ; 
12. OvK" eoTt 0»'»jrw»' vcttic 'icrr iXEvBepog ; 13. Ou«r k'ort Trepi 
OTov oufc ctv 7rt0tt)'wr£f)o)' £t7roi o ptjropiKog jJidXXoy rj dXXoc barKTovv. 
14. Oi/C£te toTti' ovTiv' ov necpivaKiKE (^iXimrog rutv aiiTO) XP*?" 
trafiiycoy. 15. Oi/c eortc ow^etc oariQ ov^ aur^ (biXog. 16. 
Oik" £0-6' OTToloy (JTiivT ay at'dpu)Tru)y (^loy ovt alvicraifi av ovrc 
l.ien\paii.iT)y ttotI. 17. Ouk ay e'ir] oarig ovk IttI rolg ytytyq^ivoiQ 
ayayuKToir], 18. Ot orparz/yot toTtv tf otg rw*' (TTparr)yiKii>y ipyuv 
(A ytwfx)] Eia<pipoyT£g a.XXyX(i)y ol fxev jjeXrioyeg oi Si ■^(tipoyig elffiy, 
aXXo (Ta(pwg ETrifxeXeia. 19. "R(7Tiy ov ar lyag aydpwTruy redav- 
fjuKag Itti ao<pi(f. \ 20. Ylpoyuyu)y KaXa tpya ovic tarty oig fiti^ui 
KUL TrXtiuj uTTctpxEt '/ 'AdtjvaiuLg, 21. "Ynoirroi tyiyovTO tany tv 
olg ov TToioiiyTeg Ik rwy L,vyK£ifj.iyo)i'. 22. ^rpariay tix^^ ^^ ~'^^ 
ky ^iKtXttf TToXtwy ttrriy wy. 23. "Eariy acp' ujy '^lapiwv oTrXlrag 

tlxoy. 24. [Xen. even constructs 7iy with the plural of o'e.] Twy 

■7roXtjJ.iu}y i]y ovg vnotJirovhovQ cnricoaay, 25."Ecrrtv tyda x'7 ( = Kat 
ij) ciKT] ftXajjriy (pipti, 26. "Eortv ov my}} Xoyov Kptiacrwy yiyoir' 
ay, i(7Ti S' oi) aiyijg Xoyog. 27. "Ftcrriy 'ly' iiSv /i») Xlay <ppovt7y, 
(.any ci "^Cuttov (^= icai ottov) ■)(pt]aifjioy yyu)^i)y i')(iiy. 28. Aiptt 
rijy TToXiy rou -ti^ovg 'iariy j) TrsTr-wKoTog. 29. "E(t0' ottoi ij/jLag 
tr aCeig ; 30. "Eariy orrodey aiaQi'iati nXr^pwaewQ IfcnrTOLr ctr ; 
31. OvK £(771 J' oTTOv fir/cty TTOiovaiy eyto ra twv Troirjaoyruy tiwov 
i)g Cil yijJ.tiv, 32. Ovk fjv ottov ov irapeTiOeaav i^pia, 33. Eupjj- 
aere Kal tyda aytv yLtorap^'ae iroXig olKtlrai, 34. ^Ay^ptia Kal 
aocpla iariy ore ftXufitpa Kal fiXou- Kal TroXei coKtT tlyai. 35. 
Tavnjy -kot ovk 'iaO' ujg in ^waav yafxt'ig. 36. "EoTiv ottuq 
ov iTufJ-TToXv ^ia(pipti yvyi) aycpog ; 37. Ovk iariy OTrwg i}(3t]y 
K-)']ati iraXiy avdig. 38. Ovk tad' ovrtog 6'^' ovk 'Opiarrjg eariy. 

39. "Rariy r} to aydpojwiyoy yiyoc (pvati tlvI jxtTeiXr}(pty aQayaaiag. 

40. Kou'wrf'a 4^v)(rj Kcil awfjUTi ^laXvatwg ovk iariy i] Kpt'iTTOV. 

41. To XtvKoy TM fxiXari iariy ottt] irpoaioiKty ; 42. "HKeiy SiSuKtv 
iariy oy rponoy, ou^ oy ay rv-^r]. 43. 'Apyvpiov ovBslg ttui 
ovTw 7ro\j) tKrijaaro ware fxy) in rrpoactladai. 44. ITwc ay ovrog 
iOiXoi ra aXXorpia inroarepsly i<l>' <^ KUKoZo^ag flrot; 45. 'A<i>itfxiv 
as iirl rovro) if' lore /jijjKin fiXoaocptly. 46, E/p>'/j'jj)' tiroiovyro 
1 AaKtSaifioyioi, if' w ra re fiaKoa r£i-)(^r] Kal roy Ilftpata Kade- 
Xoyrag AaKtcaifjoyioig eireadai rovg 'Adrjyaiovg. 47- Tairtiyr] vfiwv 
yj ciayoia iyKaprently d iyiutre, 48. vitrei rf/y iy Kopioyei^ 

§ 44. PREPOSITION ^la.] 269*. 97 

u«)^>7»' r>)>' Botwrt'aj' Traffoi' lliXnroy 'Adrjvcuoi (nroi'^ciQ Troojo-n/Jei'Ot, 
i^' <J 70i)c ai?pag KO /jliou itci i. 49. Aiu) fAoXnyiiOr) o' ai/rw /vCtt tg 
roj' AoiTToj' ^jxiroj' cnroryTaXtifTicrdai 'A0//r«4e roO irtavroD £A.u<7rou 
/xvdg tiKotTi k<p' (St£ porjOijcreir t<hq 'Ayi<^i.a(TEvaiv 'A6))iTiai Kara 
Trai'ra rpoTrov. yEsch. 50. 'ATroXtTrdiTfc 'S.tipiaocpnv, e'i riyei I'jcrav 
Trap' avT(L ^ApKuCtq ?) 'A^aioi, <tvi iarrjfTdr. Xn. 51. 'A6f/ia7o£ Kat 
£t rivtQTwvt,vj-ijxn^(i)y Trctpiiffcir ewXi'jpovy rag vavg. 52. AidutTKe 
ft rt e'xEtc (Tofui-. 53. Iloioi/crii' uyudc £t rt rvyj^avovo-tv 

LESSON XLIV. (continued.) 
[Ata.] 269* 

Awi roi) is, '/Aroi/g-Zi ' of space of time ; and of 7neans. 
Aid Tov is, 'oh account of;' also, 'through' of a cause. 

On your account {Sid as). After a long time {Sid ttoXXov xpovov — also, 
£id xp(\vov, ofttr some lime). Every five years {Sid nei'Tt trwi'^). To 
pity {Si oIktov iy^iiv). To be angry with {St' opyfjg tx£i)'). To be at 
enmity with {Si ex^pcig yiyviaQai ripi ^). At a tittle, at a great distance 
{Si oXiyov, Sid TToWoi'). To have in one's hand {Sid y^tipoQ ixtiv). 
54. '^TToptvdrjaav hi'a XaXvfiioy araQ^ovq kiTTa.. 55. Ata Tf}Q 
dyopdg Troptverai. 56. 'H dper)) ftairei Sia ^o'^Biai'. b1 . Tipag 
eariy, e'i tic evrvx^'^^ ^'« fiiov. 58. ^iXapyvpia tovt 'iarir, orav 
ciipeiQ (tkutteIi' to. ^Uaia tov KtpcovQ hia iravTog covXog j/g. 59. Twv 
£»/ (ipoTo'ig ovK 'iariv ovliv Bia riXovg tvcaifxovovv. 60. Ovk eIkoq 
'Adr]vaioig Sia jid^rfQ kXBz'iv, 61. Ei jiovXtvoiieda irdXii' av- 
Tolg Old (ptXiag livai, drdyKX] rijudg TroXXt]y dOvfiiay EX^tv. 62. 
Ov Sl' exf^po.c ovSeripu) y £ v/j ffo/xat. 63. "ATraua ypv)(i] Eeij-iaai 
i,vvou(Ta £(c vicjy fxdXXuy dv ^la <p6j3it)v idii^oiTO yiyyetrdai. 
64. To firj dSiKely Tovg ofjioiovg kj(ypu)-ipa ^vvafxig r} Sid KiyBvvwv 
TO TtXiov 'i)^Eir. 65. "Eerrat >/ avyovaia, tiirep iffrai Sid ^iQr)g, 
OVK d66pv(3og. 66. Aia Seku EirdXi,£U) y Triipyot j'/frar. 67. 
Ifiltatryyrjy oid t et puKoa iojv krCJv fiiXXovai KaroiKii^Eiy. 68. Ta 
Bid TrXEiffTOV TrdyTEg 'i(T[XEy Bavfxa^ojxEya. 69. "E/\£yf Ot' tpfxr}- 
I'iwg. 70. M») '6yrii)v o'iwy Se'i Si' toy a'l fxiyiarai cat TrXElaraL 
Trpd^fig EfiiXXoy Etrai KuKCjg ijytlro rd avTov £^£tj'. 71. E'l rt KaXov 
fiayddrEt rig fAudrffjia Sid Xoyov fxayQdyEi. 72. At a tov dpi- 
(TKEiv role dydpu)Troig Kal ro Trparreiy ia-Tiy, // S' avddSEUi Eprif-iia 
tvyoiKog. 73. At a rove tv ^a-^^^onivovg a'l /.fax"' KptVojTot. 

74. Tac -^apoSovg XnfjE'ty yf^uvXero Kal rijy S6L,ay tov TroXf'yLtou tov 
SoKEly Si' avToy Kpitriv eiXr](pEi'ai Kai ro IliiQta dtlyai Si avTOv. 

75. Ata roue a^tfcwg TroAtrfuo/uc'j'ouc ky r>/ oXtyapx'? cr)fJ.o- 
Kparia yiyiETUi. 76. AiKaioavyr] uvt)) Si' kavT})y tov 'typvra 
6ytt'T)(Tiy. 77. "OoTtc up-^ETai tUv Sid tov aii)\iaTog rjSoyCiy Kai Sid 
TavTag fJt) Svyarai npaTTEiy ret (liXTiara, lOfiii^ng TOVToy eXEvdepoy 

* Also Sid TrsfiTrrov trovg and ^td Tri/xTTTiov krwv. 
' So Sid (piXiag I'lvai nvi. Xen. Anab. iii. 8. 

98 271—274. [§ 45. 6 oloc av ayy'ip. 

tlvai; 78. Toi'c Xoyto-juovc aKoixxare jinv ^t' ovq TavavTia tfioi 

§ 45. 6 oloc TV dvi'ip. 

271. a. G, i'poyuat ^ o'lov aov dy^poQ, I love such a man as you. D. 
■)(^ctpi^ofiai o'iu) (Tol dv^pi, I (/ratify such a man as you. A. eiraiyui 
oloy ae iirCpa, I praise such a man as you. b, N. 6 oloc o'«' ' 
(ai »/p), such a man as you. G. tov o'lov aou {av^p6q\ of such a 
man as you, &c. &c. c. dav iiaarov 6(tov irpo'v^^iopr^frt, he made 
astonishing progress, d. davfxucjiwc (Lg adXioQ yiyovs, he has 
become surprisingly miserable. 

272. These constructions may be resolved thus : 

i()aij.ui dvSpbg roiovrov, olog ai) tl. 
OnvfiacTTov tcTTiv, oaov Trpovxojptjci- 

273. (d) In this construction ocrof follows such words as Oavfiaarog, irXitcrroc, 

a.(pQovog : and wg the adverbs Gav/iaffiwg, Qavfiaarwg, &c. 


1. Viyivaai j.ioi cncf)^diiai 01 at ^^^uXett wrarai. 2. "Ovroc 
TTOTS TTuyov o'lov ^ EivoTc'iTov, ^(oKpaTTjg avvTCoCriTog £^t]ei. 3. 
XaXtTTOJ' epcorag cat ol'« ye eyixot awopov. 4. 'H^e'we \api^ofiat 
o'ta) aol cii'dpi. 5. TiyywcTKOfieu rolg o'loicnrep ^fJ.~iv re Kal 
vf.i~iv ^aXETTt))' -KoXiTtlav enai ti]v Br]fiOKpaTiay, 6. 'Ectlio Ben 6y 
rol<Tiy iiXiKOKTi I'W)'. 7. Ot ^£ o'loi -rrtp vfielg aycpeg 
TToXXuKig »>ai TCI jiovXevoiJeya Karafiavdayovaiv. 8. Xpi'ifiara 'eXajJc 
duvfiaaTO. oaa*. 9. 0« ce (^sc. TriOtjKoi) rr^i acpdoyoi oaoi tv 
To'ig ovpEcri yiyoyrai. 10. IIpoc aiEpag roXfxrjOovg o'lovg icai 'Adri- 
vaiovg^. 11. Ov (pavXoy to 'tpyoy, ay^pl o'lu) aol voXeixiarrj 
fXoyo[ja-)(fj(TaL. 12. XuXettoj' i'jpov, kcu o'l<o ye kfioX TravTdiraaLV 
arropoy^, 13. "E<m^' apa BiKaiov aySpog fiXaiTTeiy (cat oyriyovv 
aydpu)7rwy^. 14. "RaTijcray airi-^oyTeg oaov Tre irecai'^eca ora- 



LESSON XLV. (continued.) 

274. [Kara.] Kara properly expresses a motion from a higher place downwards. 

KaTU TOV, down from, down, under ; but more commonly against, with 

verbs o( speaking, thinking, &c. 
KUTo. Toy, at, by, near, during, in an indefinite way : also, according to, 
and with the distributive sense of our ' by ' {by twos, &<:.). 

* epdu), poet, tpafiai, tpa(, T^pduBijv, (gen.) love. 
Pres. puss, ipuifini, (toaffOai, iptofxtyng,) to be loved. 
Trip i"- often added : oi oiot Trip v/itig dvSpeg. 

* Instead of Gav/xaaToy IcTiv, '6(ja. 

* Instead of oloi 'AOrjvaloi liaiv. 

* Sc. j'crri, instead of Ttp roiovrq), olog yt jyoi tifii, airopov iariv. 
' Instead of ai/6pa»7rwv Kal bnriaovv tariv. 

* Instead of roaovro, 'oaov tlal tt. ffTaSioi. 


§ 45. PREPOSITION »cara'.] 274. 99 

According to reason {Kara \6yov ; also with gen., in proportion to). 
During, in, or al the time of the disease (Kara t>)v voffov). In villages, 
viratim (Kara Kwnag). Two by two 'Knrd duo). In all respects (Kard 
■ndvra). Sensual pleasures {at Kara ro Cwna 7)dovai). According to 
Plato (Kara IlXaVwi'a). 

15. ^ifis tra'i ra-^itog Kara ■)(^eip6e vSu)p. 16. Kara r»/e icXlfxaKog 

KaTa(3aivEi. 17. "^ixovro tcara tQv ■KEvpCJv (^epo^evoi koX airi- 

Bai'ov. 18. Kara rf/c yJ/C icuTalvniiai vno ti'iq airryyvrjQ. 19. 

Zr^Tovai TO. Kara yijc. 20. 'O/noo-aiTte '"•aQ' ttpw*' iyiypacpou fxe. 

21. "O fiavTivofiai kut' 'IffOKocirovg Xiyew edsXu). 22. 'Aa<pa\r} 

Kal uadiov tov (ca9' avTOv Troa'iaerat ettoivoj'. 23. Ouc kari ciKaioy 

oi'ra ■Ko\iTr]i' tovq icaO' v/Jiuiy Xoyovg, aXXa jjirj tovq vrrep vfxiov 

k(TKi(pdai. 24. 'Yovg (rravpovc eKaaroi tovq Kad' avrovg Cujpovi'. 

25. 01 "EXXrjvec LviKiiiv to /ca0' avTovg. 26. 'H evXaptia gkotov 

E^ft ca9' 'EXXa^a. 27. Oi opQOjg fiXoffocpovvTeg cLTzi-^ovTai tHiv 

Kara to (rdfia etndvfxiQjp cnracriljv. 28. 'larpoc 6 Xoyog tov (cara 

^//u^j/j/ naOovg. 29. To Sv(Trv)(i'](Tui KaTci iroXijxov niyifTTOv ectl 

tcatcoy. 30. Kara t)]1' ay op ay a^evCelv rofiog yt'ypaTrrat. 31. 

Ot "EXXtji'ec iriictav Toiig Uipffag cat Kara yijv Ka\ Kara 0aXar- 

rai', 32. El^oi' opfiwyrag Kad' kavTOvg, 33. OuOtJc iBiXti 

Tvpavvov Kor' 6(j)daXfiOvg Kar/jyopelv. 34. SuyK£)(VK£ vvi' 7-»)>' 

■KicTTiv 6 Kad' J/jLtac /3('oc. 35. AeT Kara 0u(7ii' tKaorov tVa tj/ 

TO auroD Trporreti'. 30. Tpta itrri ^t' wv aTraiTa yiyi'tTai, T] Kara 

Tovg vofiovg t) raTg aj'ciy/catc t) ro TpiTov tQti Tivi. 37- Owcej' 

oloy Tt yiyi'Effdai Kara rpoTOj' role ^ij koXwc Trept rwv oXwv 

fttjJovXevfjiioig. 38. Karo roj/ aKplj3ij Xoyov ovleig Tuiy 

IrjiiiovpyQv afiaoTciyei. 39. 'H yXwrra Kara Avalav tov pj]Topa 

yovv ovTE TToXvy ovT£ jJiKpov t'x^i. 40. Tvvfj, KttT-' civ^pa (7U)(f>p0y 

eu0po>'wc Xiyetg. 41. Ot "Iwvec ri^iovv Tovg 'AQrjvaiovg fiyefxorag 

(jfwr y£jfff6ai Kara to ^vyy evig. 42. "fl yf/poc we tTrax^^C ai'Qpw- 

TTotfTtv £« Kal Tray-aj(rj Xvirrjpov, ov icad' ev [Aoyov. 43. Kara ttju 

evSo^iay aQayaaiag {.leraXafilJayojUEy, rjg a^ior optyofxiyovg Kad' 

oervv oioi t Uixiy otiovv iraax'^*-*'. 44. ' Ai]TTr]Tog i] woXig to kot' 

kui. 45. Karo ac^iag avTovg yEyofXEyot aTTEKpiyayTO. 46. Twi' 

aynduiy Kui Twy KaKuiy ovSey avTO KaB' avTO Trapay/yrtroi rote 

aj'0ptl»7rotc. 47- Xa/3p/ac rptj/p£<e TrXioy T] E'lKoffiy EiXe, KaTct fxiav 

Ka\ cvo Xafiftdywy. 48. nofnrac ETrotrjaau Kara 'iByog EKaaroi 

Tuiy 'EXXi'iyu)}' kui ayuiyag yvjiriKovg. 49. ITpoo-j/fi E^aKoffta raXaira 

tie kni TO TToXv (popov kut' EviavToy airo twv EvfJi^a^wy tt} ttoXei. 

50. 2/t('Kp' ai^ BeXot/JL kui kuB' i]f.iipav 'ixuyy aXviroy oiKE'iy i3ioroy 

*l voatiy TrXovrCJy. 51. M^) ETreixBeyrec liovXEvcriofxer, aXXa KaB' 

ytrvxtay. 52. Kara rtt^oe kg X^'^P"^ rJEtray. 53. 'H oiKoSoiuta 

Kara cnrov^fiy kyivETO. 54. E'lXev Elloyikyrn' ^ev Kara Kpa-og, 

VopTvyiav ok oj-ioXoyig.. 55. Ot Kara fioyag dpicTTa KiOapi^oyTEc, 

o 2 

100 27G, 277. [§ 46. ovhie oWtc oh. 

ovroi Kal £1' T<p irXt'idii KpaTicrrtvovair, 56. 'Yirip iXevdepiat; oiioey 
6 TL Twv ^ED'wy oii)^ vKo^trtTtov ToiQ Koi Kara j-iiKpov afjeTfjg ayri- 
Truiovj.tiyoiz- •J7. Ilai'ra Tavra ajJLtXovfiwa vnippei Kara fxiKpov. 
58. Aw(7£i \6y(jy kcit'ci ajJ-iKpov kpixirio^EVOQ. 

§ 46. OU^Eig OTTIQ ov. 

2{6. N. ov^eiQ ocTTiQ ovK ay ravra iroLrjaEisy, 
G. ovOEvoQ OTOv ov KareyeXaaEy^. 
D. ov^eyl OTit) OVK d-rrEKpiyaTO^. 
A. ovSiya oyTiya ov KareKXavae. 

There is no one who would not do this. 
There was no one whom he did not laugh at. 
There was no one whom he did not answer. 
There was no one whom he did not weep for. 
' '  In ovceiQ oang ov {nemo non) the declinable words are put under 
the immediate government of the verb. 

Kiiliner calls this inverted attraction, because the substantive (or word 
representing it) conforms to the relative, not the relative to the substan- 

Sometimes adverbs are affected by this kind of attraction : ^rjvai 
KtlOev, oOiv TTfp TjKti (for KfTue). 

1. Oii^Ey o,TL ov ^vyEfyrf. 2, Ovc)Ev6g brov oii Trayndv ay 
iifiCoy kcid' iiXiKiay 7rar>)p E'ir]v. 3. Q,g y^vg Ei ! Tovg jjXidlovg Xiyeig 
Tovc (jioipporac. ^wk. Ylwg y^t^p \ ovoEig oang ovk ar yvoij), on 
ov TOVTO Xdyio. 4. 'A-TToXXo^ojpog ovhiya oyriya ov KaTEKXaae 
T&y Trap6yru)y. 5. ^nijEy ovEiya ovTiva ov ra fiEy uvToy i^ytia- 
Out Twt' dXXtjy (7o<p(jjTEpoy, ra Ct aXXovg Euvrov. 6. 'EyiTV)(ov 
aydpwTro), ov^Ey 6,ti ov^t u.Kpi(iiaTtpoy vrovoiiy ETnarauiyu). 

{Poverty of Epaminondas.) 

7. 'JLTrautywySag 'iya et^t rpipiova, kuI avTOv pvwCjvTa' t'l iroTt 
^E avToy tcuKEy Eig yra(pEloy, avrog vTrifjevty oixoi St awopiav 

8. 'E7r£tt») c' E(f lifjwi' avrwy o'l avfiTTpEafittg lyEVOfXEQa, a^olpa 
TTai'v nKvdi)it)iru(T(ig o -^ptjarog uuroai ^ripoadiyr^c cnroXojXEKtyai jxi 
'itbri 7-//)' TToXo' Kui TOVC rrvfjfja-^ovc, EKTrXnyiyrog ^e ovi; ejjov /j-oyor, 
aWii Kdl rutr rTVfi-pirTptujy inrairioy, Kill Tt)y airiay TrvyO(nofjE) tjjy 
Ci i/y ravT uTrty, i'lpETO /i£ ti tuii' 'Ay//i jj^t Trpayfiarwy EmXiXijaiJai, 

'■' ytXo'w, anafiai. I)iit tytXana. Short a. 

' .'/oc. 1. diroicptOrjvai is /xnsioe, from a7roK(jtva> (seccrno), except in ^te writers, 
who use it for dnoKpipaaOcu. B. 

§ 47. olof. Siio. fiiWu).'] 280, 281. 101 

/cat 70V ^fjfjioy Karatrivovrifxivov koX (r<p6hpa f.iriQvf.iovvTa Eipitvr\Q ii 
fi)) i^tif-irrifjai. " ») [.tiya fppore'iQ " 'iijni " £7rt r«7c i\pi](pi.tTiJii'aic fiev 

QiKUi- (biXiTTTTOP Kai roiavTa e'ifirjKag e^ viy ovk tlpttyt] yiroiT av ei: 

TToXiflOV, dXX' £^ tlpijriJQ TTuXtfiOQ aKyjpVICTOQ. 

§ 47. oloc, Sid). luikXit). 

a. oloc re elfxi, I am able (i. e. am such as to do a thing), olop 280. 
re kari, it is possible, b. ol TrpocrQer oEoirsg o'loi rifxyeiv tlaiv, 
our front teeth are adapted for cutting, ov yap i]v olog awv iray- 
Toc KEplaiyEiy, he was not of a character' to do any thing {however 
mean) for the sake of gain, c. oXiyov Blu) ^avpi/o-oi, / could 
almost cry ; or am near crying, oXiyov Se'iy eBaKpvcra, I was near 
crying. oXiyov Trdy-EQ, nearly all (Se'iy omitted). -ovro yap 
TToXXov Sely e'ittoi tiq ay, for a man would not assert that, far 
from it. d. Svoly hioyra^ E'lKoai, eighteen. e. fiiXXo) ypd\p£iy, 
ypd(peiy, ypd\pai, I am going to write, f. el [xiXXEi (j)iX6ffo(pog 
yEvirrdai, if he is to become a philosopher. 

(e) MiXXbj is followed by an infin. of the future, present, or 281. 

The future infin. is the most, the aorist the least common *. P. 


1. 'EvtVv^^oi' 2rwV*:w toiovtu) o'itj ^i'ite XyTTElirdai /J-i'it' 
opyii^Ecrdai. 2. Ovk: oiB' el olug r' ay Eir^Q fivijdfiyai. 3. 
Oloy TE o'ui TOVTU) /ut'yo 71 ^oKely tlyat roy dydpwniyoy /3«oi' ; 

4. "Ay£7£ ^i), Ti o'loi TE 'i (T E (T d E >//-t7i' avj-iiTpdlai TTEpl Tfjg SioSov ; 

5. 'Eyw OEi TOiovTO g oiog tiLv E/J-ioy /.(T/^fi'i dXXu) TreidEcrdai yj 
TM Xoyw. 6. KaXov ?/ ETriaTi'jfir] Kal oioy ap^Etv 7oi; didpujirov. 
7. Of dtoi yXwTray ^6yr}y ri]v rijjy dydounrujy ETroirjaay o'lay 

^ Or, was not a man to, &c. 

3 The construction ?ivoiv diovTOiv has disappeared, under the influence of 
modern criticism, from the woiks of the great writers, with the single exception of 
Xen. Hell. i. 1, 5: l7r«i(T7rXfT Svolv Siovaaiv ti/coffi vava'tv, where Siovaaig is 
undoul'iedly tlie proper reading. Kriiger. 

* There is a large class of verb-, the object of wliich, expressed by an infin., 
relates lo future time, and mat/, therefore, be in ihe f/itii re y though it often is in the 
pres, or aor. " The pres. is preferred when either the certain definite occurrence of 
the action is to he marked, or its iminfdiate commencement iVom the time the words 
are uttered." K. Buttinann properly obseives, that a distinction should be made 
between verbs whose object is necessarily future (e. g. hope, promise, expect) and 
those where the object is not necessarily future (e.g. i>ay, think, &c. ); with the 
latter the pres. or aor. might be misunderstood ; with the former, not. But the 
MSS. often agree in giving the pres or aor. (with reference to future time) after 
such verbs. B. ad Plat. Crit. 14 3. 

102 281. [§47. oloc. cew. /^eWw. 

aWo-e dWa^TJ \pnvov(Tav tov aro/jaroc cipdpovv Ti)y (jtiayi'iv, 8. 
01 TToWoi Xoyoiy KaAwv te cal iXevdepwy o'v^ aai'wc tTiriKOOi ytyo- 
vaaiv, o'/tur ^Jjrflr r« dXridig. 9. AuKtl totovtov -^wpiov Kara' 
ffj(£7j' offoi' i.^u) TOVQ iaydravq \6yovQ jEvindni. rnjy TroXtjiiuyv K£pd~ 
riov. 10. 'E^'f/L/o^'^o ra avriov (.t:aaTov oaov dw o i^ij v. 11. 'iig 
tVoc yap £(7r£7(', 0(\('you avrwv a.7r a vt£q ol Trapovrac hv ftiXriov 
'iXeyoy irepi luy avroi iiTETToujKeaay. 12. Ot Ylepainoi yofxoL eirifjii- 
Xoyrai, ottwq ->/r dp-)(^f)y fxi) roioiiroi (.(Toyrai ol noXlrai, n'loi iTOyrjpov 
Tiyog f/ ui(r-)(^pov ipyov £(j)l eadai. 13. Atl roue (jwXaKag napci twv 
dXXwv iroXiTwv ^i'^f.aQai fxiaduv TTjg (pvXaKTJc Toaovroy, oaov fitfTe 
irepiilyai oiroTc ttc tuv kviavroy fJtijTS iyBely. 14. 0/ ayadoi 
liKuiot re (vcii o'loi f^)) aciKely. 15. 'H ^Attiki) w£(j)VKey o'la TrXeifTTag 
irpoGutuvQ Tra pi-^tadai. 10. AiKaia Cpciffag avfx^ci'^ov rev^ei 
deov. 17. 'iic (i-Xrjdii oira Xii,o) aoi a f-iiXXu) Xeyeiv. 18. 
AEijcrei uyadov cttt ETriirruTov, el i^ieXXel >/ iroXiTEia (tw i^eaQai. 
19. KXiapyjiy XiyEiv E<paaav, wg iioi tuv (TrpariijjTtjy (ftopEiciQaL 
f.iaXXov Toy apy^Grra >/ rovg noXEfilovc, eI fxiXXoi »/ (j)vXai:dQ 
(pvXHL,£iy j) a.Kpo(pa(Tia-t))Q liyai vpoc tovq ttoXei-h'ovq. 20. Miyei 
EKuaToy Tovd\ OKip jjiiXXtL -KudE'iy. 21. MeAAw)' ti nparT eiv 
fj)) TrpoEiTTriQ firjCEi'L 22. Ol niXXoyrEe ixd-^EdQai, lEhiOTeq fifj 
71-rqdwrTii-, aduf^ojg huyovau'. 23. Surrf/urt /jiol tciq cLTroKpiaEiq 
Kcu j'jpa-^vTEpag koiel, eI fxiXXo) am ett Ecrdai. 24. Noftii^u) iyi^pa- 
rEiay ayadoy EU'at Tio /diXXoyri KuXoy ri npat,Eiv. 25. "SivyKXti- 
OjJEy Tiiv dp\iiy twv fjijdi'i rrEfrdui jdEXXuyrujy Tij TEXEvrfj rwv 
i]?q TrpoEtpT]j.iEywy. 26. ll(uCtac roiavrng El,Evpi(iK£v al ISpHJTa 
EfiEXXoy irapi^Eir. 27. "E^ifWoi' ol fjiy riifc ri/uapTyi aea- 
d(ti, ol Si ivXeIovc TEvt,E(Td(ti TOV a.Xi]Bovg Xoyiafiov. 28. 'E^fX- 
Xr](TEy EKirXE'iy. 29. Ilaic ov j.i£X\cj uTropEly fiiXXwy Xf'^£lJ' ; 
30, Utjr oh fiEXXEi TO aoipijJTEpoy i:aXXioy (palyEffOai; 31. Tt ov 
fjiXXEi yEXoloy Euai ; 32. 'JLveiceito Traira oaci i'^ojTec e/xiXXov 
dvdiEaOai. 33. T//C (^pE'^IQ, £i jjieXXei ttoXiq Eiyui, ohciva SeI 
Icioj-EUEiy. 34. El /jieXXei khkoc yEyiirBui, Ce7 avroy irpo- 
Ttpoy ayadoy yEyiffdai. 35. McVct EtcaffTOy tovO' bwEp fiiXXEt 
TradE'iy. 36. floXXou ^£t ra ^airo/uti'a twtTrw, Taura Kai flyai. 
37. Ov TToXXov C£(o xnpiv t'x^"' ^V i^aTTjyopw. .38. Ov S)) Koyiov 
TTtrTTOQ lariy ovSe ttoXXov ceI, 39. 'Ej' rate oXiyap^ovnEvaig 
woXeoi ■KTii)\ovQ op^Q oXiyov -K ay Tar. PI- 40. Tw fxiXXoyri 
awjiuTi EV k'^eii' dcpEKrioy r]()v(TfiaTh}y. 41. <^poi'<)UO»' ^£t yEyiadiH 
Toy fxiXXoyTa aujcppoya EnEtrBai. 42. 'Rce'ito tov KXEc'tp^ov fi^ 
TTOiEiy Tuvra. 43. 'O 0' t^aXtVatvEi' oti avTOv oXiyov hEi]aayTOQ 
KaTuXtvfTdfjyut TTOciwc Xiyoi to aliTov Trddoc, EiciXevi te avTOv ek tov 
jjiiaov £E,lfT-afT6ai. 44. Mtcpou ye a ^aXiora /i' eEei Trpog vfidg 
etTrelv, 7rapy)X0oy, Dem. 

§ 47. PREPP. afi<pi, TTEpt'.] 282. 


( The Fox and the Lion.) 

45. 'AXwTrr;^ ^tjcinoTe flfuo-a/itrij Xioyra, tTreih) Kara, rira avvrv- 

Xtov inrt'ii'Trfas, to jxiv irpioTOr iBovnu ovTOJg t.L,tTa()a-)(^dr], oOf /itt.\ooD 

anoOari'iy' Ik hvripov c avT<p erriTvxovaa tepoftt'idt]' Ik rpi-ov Si 

Qenaajxirr] cvru) KaTtdappi)(Tty, wc Kai TT^oatXdovaav avTf haXi- 


LESSON XLVII. (continued.) 

'Aju(/)i', n£jj(' (ge»., da/„ ace). 282. 

dn<pl, or TTfpi Tov, ' ahoiil,' in answer to both where ? and whither ? — 
aju^i or :r(pi ri or tivcl tXHv or tlvai is : to belong to *, to be or fee 
emploijcd abuut. 

■Kipi T(f denotes cnre about : it follows verbs of fearing {StSuvai), being 
at ease about (Oapptly), &c. 

dftfi and (more commonly) vipl rou are of, about (de), as in ' to lal/c 
about.' Also 0n/3«T(T0at, (piXoviinih' (to contend) irepi riyug. 

TTfpi iroWov TToitlaOai or I'lytladai *", to value very highlij, to make a 
great point of, or attach great importance to. 

46. TovQ afi(j>i r»;>' kavTOv o'i kjj a ly am og £(popq.. Al . 'AtzISoto 
Tov "iiT-Kov Ka\ a afJ.<l>' avrop e'X^''. 48. '/itn^oiirn ra uf2<pL ritv 
TToXefioy. 49. 0« TroXfjtuot elxoi' a/ti^t ra avrwy. 50. Ol avSpsc 
a/jKpi oirXa kuI 'ittttovc ayadovc i^^o^Xoyrai SuTvaydy. 51."Ii^>7 
jV afxfl ayopay ■n-\i)dovaay. 52. KXiap^OQ I'jy ore htXtvTa 
afiipi ra ireyriiKoyTa tTTj. 

53. 'Hyoir* av hiva Tracrxf"', e'i tiq kaTiy aioBriaiq toIq rtdyeuKTi 
Trepl rwy evOaSe yiyyofxeroy. 54. IlptVti kuI ffv/j^f'ptt t^jv 
Twv fiaaiXitt)v yywp.r}v uKiynrws ^X^"' wEpi rwv Siicaltoy. 55. 
OvK 'icTTiv w ttqI avyrofxioTepn oSuq Trepl u)v av l^ovXr] doKt'iy (ppo- 
viixoc iivai */ TO yeyiadai Trtpi TOVTwy ^poyinoy. 56. O Kni^wt; Cia- 
voTjdeic TTtpl TU)V oliceiwy ovliwoTt kuXCjq jJovXevaeTai Trepl twv 
aXXoTplo)V. 57. 'H laTpiKij Trepl tuiv Ka^ivovTuyv ttoieI cvyaTOvg 
elvai fpoyelv Kal Xiyeiv. 58. 'Eycl; otjuat cuv oh irepl 6vofj.uTU)v 
SuKpiptadai, aXXa Trepl ttjc twv tpywv ciavoiag. 59. I>o(l>oi>(; 
vofxt'Ce ov Tovc aKpi(iwg Trepl }xiKpwv epi^oyTag, aXXa Toiig ev Trepl 
tuiv fxeyiaTwy XiyovTag. 60. 'E^'Xtuoj- ^r]lev vewTepov TTOielv 
Trepl TWV avcpwv. 61. "H/dlv Trepl twv vfxeTepwv jufX^aei. 

62. Ilspt TOiavTtjg e^vi'iddr] yvvaiKog ») Trj Sob] ttoXv So'jyeyKey. 

63. To TrXiidog TT e pi tovtov XeXi]deyai ov davj^ai^w. 64. Upwrov, 
wc (br](Ti llpodiKog, Trepl ovonaTWV opdorrjTog {.ladi'iy Se'i. 65. Ov 
iravv >m<J' ovtw (ppovTiaTeov o ti epovcriy oi ttoXXoI fi/JLug, aXX b tl 
6 eTraiwy Trepl twv SiKaiwv Kul uSIkwv. 66. Ilept ^ev Ti'ig 

5 01 dfi(l)i (or •7rfpt)'Avi;7-o»', y/nytus and his followers or party: a phrase em- 
ployed by Attic writers, when they chiefly allude to only one individual; leaving it 
at the same time, for some reason, undecided and in the dark, whether they mean 
that individual alone, or oihers besides. B. 

8 So TTspi TrXtiovog, TrXtioTOv, &e. Trfpi jutiepov. See 243. 

104 284. [§ 47. PREPOSITION wepi. 

f^iapTvpiac, on ^'Eu?// /i£/(nprvp///v'nff(, avroi poi toKovmv epyu 
c^sXtyx^"' <^^^fl''- (>". 'AXijOeiap Trepl ttoWov noir]TEOv, 68. 
Ov TO i^rjy TTfpt irXtitTTOv Troirjrioi', ctWa ro eii ^ijf. 69. Xpi) 
ouTTore TTiot (TfiiKoov TToi e'lffd a I to (jouelr ayndovr (U'cii roic aWoig 
7/ fii) ^0(v£7)'. 70. Swk:p£(r/;c ''" I^^'its -n-tin Otovg a(T£/5»7(Tai ftZ/re Trtpt 
(uOpbinavQ acii^oc (pdyrivai ivepl Trai'ruc eTroitlrn. 71. O't Tpiaicnt'ra 
a-oKTiy>'V)ai arBpuiwovQ 7r£pt ovceyuQ ijyovyTo. 1'2, ^Kj.iol Trepi 
TrXei (TTOV iariy u/^dc ntlauL. 73. Of QpaK-eg (popouai ^friDvac oh 
Horoi' TTspt To'iQ aTtpvoiQ, aWit kul vrtpt ro'tc, firjpolg, 74. 
"Ecftffai' irepl rai -^wpia). 75. Htpi kavrwr (poftovyrai Kcii iiTTEp 
vfiHip. 76. AnjpriTdi 1] ayopa r/ vspi to. apj^eta rfVrapa fxipr}' 
01 Se iipTjjJoi K(nj.iojyTai izepl ret apj^eTa. 77. 'OX/yoi' Trpo rwi' 
M>;^t/ca)>' rpu'ipEig 7r£pt St/CfXiar to'iq rvpayyoig ec T:\rjdoQ iyiyoi'TO. 
78. Eifpoi a I' nc SvyacrTeiag oiiic iXa-TOVC TTEpl tovq jjapftapovg 
T] TOiig "F.XXr]yag. 79. O'l TTtpi -ijy [.lovaiKiiv kcu rag aXXag 
ayujyiug oyrtg a(pa.g aiirovg eyrtfiorfpovg KctriaTtj/ray. 80. HyoD- 
fjai Toug TTEpl -})y aar poXoy iny kcu t))i' y ho j^iet piay Eiarplj^ov- 
rag MqiEXEly Tovg crvyovrag. 81. 'Ev o'lg EKUTEpoi hiaTpipETE Koi 
Tvtpl a mrovha^ETE, ravT cifXEWOv EKCiTEpoig t'x^'' ^"^'f"'^ f^*' <^' 
7rpau£tCj vyLtt>' ce oi Xoyoi. 82. flfpl d6£,rig xprjarffg fiaXXoy crwov- 
Cai^ETS fj Trepl -^pr] f.iar u) y. 83. 'O (70(pi(TT})g ETraivuiy a. TrwXet 
£^a7rar>/(T£i J/yiicie, wcrTrfp oI 7r£pt rj/r row ai) fxuTog Tpo(pitr. 84. 
M/) d7r£(7rwjuf J' X£yoj/r£c ''t» Trfpt rj/i' fxnvaiKi]v r) ■^aXEiroy. 85. 
Et»/ai joovXov Ta irfpi r»)v iadiira (piXotcaXoc, ciXXa /i?) K'aXXwTrter- 
r>/c. 86. Tct 7r£pt rJJc Siicrjg tTrvdEadE ou rpoTToy kyivETO. 87- 
To 7r£pi ayZpiag TTE(j)VK6g Se7 elTrily. 88. 'Pawy iy rolg IXaTTOcriv 
{] f^EXiTt] TTui'Tog Tvipi i) Trepl tci fiEii^w. 89. Tijuodeog ovrwg a^uz/c 
■fiy TTpug T))v Tojy aydpioTrajy dEpuTreiay wanEp CEUog Trept T))y tS)V 
irpayiuctTOJV ett ifiiXEiny. 90. 'I'ovg ayaBovg ay^pag yiyyofiivovQ 

TTSpl T)]V TToXtl' TlfXUTE Kai TOVQ KOKOvg UTlfiai^ETE. 91. Ov^ElQ 

ov^Ev vytig, u)g Exog EtiTEly, TTEpi ra tCjv ttoXewv 7rp«rr£i. 92. 
"Hj' Ti TTEpl ///iclc ufiapraywai, Trepl rag eavTwy ^^v^ac cat ra 
aujfxara ajj-apTayovmy. 93. "Hcj; i)y Trepi TrXijdovaar uyopav. 

§ 48. oirwc. ov fxy'i. 

284. 0- (ppoi'Til^E, oTTwg nTjcey ai<Tj(^p6y Troirjaeig, take care to do 
nothing disgraceful, h. S,vvElo<)vXevev o'vro) TroieTy, o-rriog 6 alrog avri- 
(Tx^t he advised them to do this, that the provisions might hold out. 

c. oTTwg ny))p 'itrei, see that you behave (or quit yourself) like a man. 

d. oTTwc III) Troi)]arjTE, o TToXXaKig v/jiac tfiXaxpey, be sure not to do 
what has often been detrimental to you. e. ov nfi XaXijaeic, do not 
chatter, pray, ov [J-t) yeyrjTai touto, this will assuredly not happen. 

§ 48. oTTwc. 00 )Lt./.] 285—287. 106 

(a. b.) "Ottw*. ^ when it refers to the future, has either the subj. or 285. 
the future indie. *, and retains them even in connexion with past 
time, when the optative might have been expected (70). 

{c. d.) The verb on which the sentence with oiruig depends, is 286. 

often omitted. 

This construction is equivalent to an energetic imperative: — opa or 
bpari may be supplied. 

Ou /ujj", with the /Mi. indie, or aor. subj., is used as an emphatic 287. 

prohibition or denial. 

This construction is probably eWip</ca^- oir {Ssog iffrl) [ii^, &c. So that 
ov jiri ysvJjrai tovto '= non vereor ne hoc fiat. 

With the sec. pers. sing, of the future indie, it is a. prohibition ; with the 
subj., and other persons of the future, a denial. 

Elmsley says: "ou fi>) cum futuro vetantis est, cum subjunctive vero 
negantis ;" but Hermann shows, that the prohibitive meaning depends on 
the person, not on the tense. 

Elmsley explained this phrase by joining the /ttjj to the verb. Thus ov 
fii] \a\i}fftiQ; = will you not not-talk ? — will you not hold your tongue? 
:= hold your tongue. 

But Hermann (who at first agreed with Elmsley), Rost, Kiihner, Sec. 
adopt the otlier explanation, supposing SkoQ sffri, or some sach phrase, 
understood ; passages being actually found, here and there, in which 
such forms are expressed: ovdev de Stivbv, [ii] iv ip.ol arij {Plat. 
Apol. 28, A), wan ovx^ S'tog fxi) as (pi\i}<jy [Jristoph. Eccles. 650). 


1. Ylpoiriid) aoL w ^ivOr/ Kul rov 'Itttzov tovtuv ^wpoD/xcti, i(f ov 
K-at k6)KU)v oy ay IfltXj/c aip{](T£ig, /cat aTrox^pwi' ov /zj) ^et'o-jjc roy 
TToXijiiov. 2. Ovx* avyKXijatLQ oro/xa rat /x?) fxedncjELQ 
uvdiQ al(T^i(TTOVQ \6yovQ ; 3. Ou /xj) yvvaiKibv hiXov tiaroiaeig 
Xoyoy; 4. Ov aoi pt) neQi-^opai ttotI. 5. Toiovroy £7rtr»/- 
Ieiov ov^Eva pi] TTod' £vpt](T(i). 6. 2a^tDc dnE TEipEaiag ov 
prj TTOTE cruii Trjvh yfjy oIkovvtoq ev Trpa^Eiv ttoAd'. 7. To 
ayaduy ov fJii ttote tl dTroXtirrj. 8. 'Eai' Tr)v aiziaTiai' au)^T]TE, 
ov^Ev fxi] ^Eiyov Tradr}TE. 9. "AxpwJ' oxpig ov^Ey ciy fxy ttote 
'iorj. 10. 'Ej' Tuj TiptwruTO) to fiiyiaToy kukov ovSeig li^wi' fxy 
TTOTE \aj3ri Kul Cf] ^'« /^'ow k:£KTi]pEyoc avTO. 11. "Q^tTTrtp Toy 
TToifJiEya ETniieXE'iadai hi, OTTiog awui te e govt at al oiEg, teal tu 
tTriTi'jhiu 'ilovaiy, ovtu) /cat Toy orparjjyoi' ETTipeXEladuL hi, oirwg 

"> OTTbtg is properly 'how,' and it cannot be used for 'that,' except where for 
' that ' we might substitute 'that by this means,' or ' that so.' With the future indie. 
it is always strictly 'how,' ot<ij TpoTTo). 

* The fut. with oTrojc expresses a definite intention, for the accomplishment of 
which vigorous measures are to be pursued. R. 

^ Dawes laid it down as a rule, that the subjunctive of the aor. 1. act. and mid. 
was never used with owiog, ov ju?j, but that the fut. indie, was used instead. This 
rule is now given up by the best scholars ; but Buttmann thinks that the subj. of 
the aor. 2. was employed with a kind of predilection, and that, when the verb had 
no such tense, the/«/. indie, was used in preference to the subj. of the aor. 1. 


106 287. [§ 48. oTTwc. ov fxr]. 

aQoi re ol orpartwrai taovrai, Kal ra eTriTt'i^eia e^ovai. 12. 'Ev 
aTrafft toIc 'ipyoic fxi^vy^ao rfjc pu(n\Eiac, /cot (pnoyrii^e, ottuq fxtj^Ey 
ai'c'ityioy rijc TifjrJQ tuvti^q iroiiicreiq. 13. Ovhlp KoXKlov Krijfxa 
KaraXiTTOi ar TLq To'iq avrov ttukti, ij tTrtjufXj/ffac, owiog ljq ftiXriarot 
taovTai. 14. ^ofivdirr] ov tovto fxeXei, ottwq er ti yirog Iv 
■koXei ^laipspot'TWQ iv Trpctstt. 15. ^Tfjxl I'vv ■^pfjrat LwiraQfivai 
yifidg ei(; arc pay aOiay, ottwq tUji' re ayaduiv i] apiarov koX ij^iurov 
d7ro\au(TW/x£ I' »cal ciVwc tov ttcutwi' j^aXtTrwrdrou ciTretpoi yavbi- 
fitda. IG. Yi-eKevovai. irpoaTaTtvaai ^pijjxara XafiovTa, ottwq 
tKirXevay ij arpaTta. 17. 'Eyio iiyrjaojuai ro'tg 'iTriroiQ, oirwc> 
iiv Twa 'i^(i)jier, fij] hiaipvywv ari^Jivrj tu~iq TroXenioig. 18. Atl 
/u>/)^a) dtrWat oTrwg ol KaKol \(i)plQ o'l re ayatiol tcuq oi^oiaig tKartpoi 
^vXXi'iiovrai, ical yuJ/ rig avrolg t-)(^dpa ha ravra y/yvjj rat. 19. 
'E7re(3ovXevE(Tde, oTrwg p.rjT'' iiyadov jjtrj^ey xpTifiaaierde, TroXXdv 
re h'he'ig eaeGOe. 20. 'EKeXevoy TrapayyelXai ottwc etc to. 
arpaTO-Ktla fxrjEelg eiaEiaiy. 21. ^oftog karir, Lav fxrj Koafxioi 
(ijitv Trpog Tovg deovg, oTrcjg firj Kal avdig E la a'^iadr] cro fieOa fjai 
TT Epii^Ev i-^^ovTEg waiTEp ol ky -a~ig aTl]Xaig Kara ypa(priv iKTETvivb)- 
fxiyoi. 22. AeT rwr ap-)(oiuEyo)y EirifiEXeladai oirivg Cjg ftiXriaTOi 
EaovTui. 23. f^povTiC^ oTTWc iit]^EV ava^ioy rrjg fiacriXEiag 
TTon'jeTEig. 24. KciXwc cr}i.iayu)yi]ciEig, lav (TKOTrfjg oTrtjg oi 
(HXtigtol jJiEv Tag Tifiag ilov/riy, ol ^' dWoi jxriSEy aSiKriffovrai, 
25. 'AXX' oirwg TvupEGEi kal avrog Kal dXXovg a^Eig, o'itiveq 
iKayul aKovaavTEg Ko'iyai ra XayofXEya. 26. "Oinog ovy eaeade 
dycptg di,ioi Tijg EXEvdepiag. 27. "Ottwc fxuv /nj) KarEpelg. 28. 
"Oiriog ovy {jli] clttoXtj ^aariyov^EVog. 

29. 'EyravQa KaXXtag o XttXcioeuc, oy AijidoaOiyrjg jxiadapyCjv 
ivEKujfiia^ey, opwv to OTparoTrE^ov ro ri]g TvoXEutg E'ig Tiyug Sva^wpiag 
KaraKEKXeiiiEyoy, oBev firj yiKtiaam yia^-qy ovk t'jy avw^^wprfcriq ovEe 
ftorjdEiag tX^rlg ovt ek yfjg ovr ek OaXaTrrjg, avyayiipag k'S, awdanQ 
rfjc Evlooiag orparoTre^oi' Kal iraph ^iXiirnov Svyafny irpocrixETa-KEU.- 
\pafiEyog, o t' aCEXcpog avrov Tavpo<TOeyr]g, o rvyl iravrag Cit^iov}iEvOQ 
Kal irpoayEXwr, rovg ^WKtKOvg ^ivovg ^iafti(iaaag, r'jXdov kip" i]jJ.dg wg 
ayaipijaoyTEg. Kal ei firj irpairoy fiEy Otuiy rig 'iawae ro arparotrEZov, 
tTi-Eid' 01 (T-pariuiTai ol vnirEpoi Kal tte^oI kuI iTnre'lg dySptg ayadol 
iyivoyro Kal irapa rov iTnTodpofiov roy ev Tafivvaig ek TrapaTdt,E(jjQ 
fiaX]} Kparr'iaayreg cKbE'icray virocrnoycovg rovg 7roXEjJ.iovg, EKiyhvyEvcrtv 
av ii/jiwy »'/ TroXtc aia\ifTra rradE'iv' ov yap ro CV(j-v)(fi(rai Kara iro- 
XEfioy fiiyiaroy kari KaKOV, dXX' orav rig irpog ciyrayu)yi(Trag ayai,iovQ 
Eavroii ciaKiylvvEvwy anorv^r], cnvXaaiay EiKog Eirai rt)y avu6ooav. 

§ 48. [preposition liri.'] 288. 107 

LESSON XLVIII. (continued.) 

['Efft']. ETTi, ' oti,' in answer to where P generally with gen., sometimes with dat. 288 
{kip' "iiriTOv oxtiaOai — i<f 'imrt^ Tropiveadai). With ace, in answer to 
whither? (snl \6<pov rivd, to a certain hill;) and, more generally, on, 
iw, towards, to, &c. 

They marched to Sardis (tTri 'SdpStojv). They sailed to Chios {ini 
rrjg Xiov). Towards home {Itt' o'ikov). 

inl T(f denotes ' in addition to' ' besides ;' ' close by ' {kiri Tip Trorafiti>); 
an aim or condition (2G7), and the being in one's power (65). 

sTTt Tov often marks the <i?«e by means of something contemporary, 
generally a contemporary person (65). 

i\9iiv ini tovt({>, to come for this (to effect it). 

rouro, {to fetch it). 

To be drawn up four deep {ittI rerrdpuv Ttrd)(^9ai). To be named 
after a person {ovofia tx^iv stti rtvog). To endure a thing for the 
sake of praise {in iTraipqj). 

30. Tuyj^cirei to. ettI y>/c vttu tiS ovpayui opra. 31. 0£oi5 diXovrog 

Kav ini pinog nXioig. 32. Aeirri] rig eXniQ ear i(f jjc o-^^ovfieQa. 

33. Ainpeov KEirai tn\ rijg A.ui^ioviKi'jQ cot 'H At toe. 34. Uori- 

Sata iviKaipoTarou ■ywpiov npug rh kn\ Qp(}Kr]Q ano'^pr](TaaQai. 35. 

E'(w9a XtytLP kv ayopa ini twv rpane^wy. 36. 'Qiiofieda to. 

w^oXoyrjfiiia ini tov BiKaaTtjp iov Kvpui yf-ilv 'ecTEcrBai. 37. IIpo- 

iTU)TaT()} Trjg in' oIkov o^ov lint^ijpei. 38. 'Avt^uypi^aav in' o'ikov. 

39. 'Yinoprirrev bnoTip(i}(J£ hiaKiv^vi'EV(Tr] ■)^(i)pi}aaq i) ini TfJQ 'OXvi'- 

Oov ?) £c iioTiEaiuv. 40. 'A^iKvovi'TCii ini Qpancric. 41. XIoXuv 

yiXwTa 7rap£^o/x£^' cat CTrt tUv 'innwv Kadi/j-iEvoi, olfiai de ical ini 

Tfjg yfjg tcaTaninTOPTEg. 42. Ot 'Adrjvaloi TroXXae i<p' EKaTspag 

Tijg I'lnEipov noXEig 'EKTitrav, 43. Ot jjiev iv ralg avTuiy apoj-nog 

anoXXvyTai, ol Si ini ^eyrjg oXwirai. 44. 'Ap)^»)v a.p\Eig ?) 'nl 

(TTpaTtdg To'tg avaaiToig ayopdi^eig. 45. Tovg Xoyovg iy elprjvrf 

ini (T-)(^oXi']g notovvTai. 46. 'Evrt r£X£ii7>7c £7ri TTjy hiKato(Tvyr}v 

TTopoKoXw. 47. TeXevtS>v ini yiipwg, oh yap i(p' ^^rjg, i^EJ3Xi]dr]. 

48. ^H(^' i(j>' Ecrnipag. 49. 'Enl tov AekeXeikov noXifJov to 

vavTiKoy Twv 'Adrjyaiujy anu)XET0. 50. Ildrepoj' vfxlv iyco^OTtpa EokeJ 

y TToXtg Eiyai ini tu)V vvv Kaiptbv i] £7rt tG)V npoyoyuy; 51. 

'ETTt QT]<Tiiag Kal tUv npwTiov jiacriXiwv »/ 'ArriK)) ig Qrjffia 

ctel Kara ttoXeic (okeIto. 52. Ot AofCE^atynoj'ioi ttoXu iniKvditTTEpoi 

iyiyovTO £K Trjg in' 'AvTaXKidov E'ipi]rr]g KaXovjuiyrjg. 53. To 

BiKatoy ciy t ini fxiKpov rtg, ay t iirl fxEi'Coyog Tropo/jo/i'j/, tyiv 

avTi]v 'e\£i hvyafxir. 54. OpJi £7ri ndyTiov of-ioiwg /cat (pvaEi Eia- 

ibipoyTctg dXXi'iXojy TOvg di'Bpijnovg kuI inifiEXEiq. noXv iniciloyTag. 

55. ^vj-iaipEi ini te'tCjv dXXwv anayTojy teal yuoXior etti t<Lv 

X6yu)y i^t) Tag EVTV)^iag, dXXa Tag inifiEXEiag EVC0KijXE~iy. 56. "A 

ini Tutv aXX(i)v 6pa.TE, ravr i(p' vfjLwv avT<I>y dyi'oelrE. 57. Ilpoor- 

i/KEi ini fJify tiop KiySvyiot' Tijy dySpiay iyBsiKyvadai, iv Si t^ 

(TVfi(3ovXEVELy cppoviiAUJTEpa Tu>y dXXuyy ex*"' £t7r£t)'. 58. '07r£p £7rt 

Twy SovXfjJV ys iXeyofiEy, Tavruv BpaaTfOv tovto ye (Cot £7ri roTc 

V 2 

108 288. [§ 48. owwQ. ov nrj. 

iXivOipoicTtr. 59. Avrol £0' eavraii' e-^wpovv. 60. IlafTa irpd^tq 
avn) £^' EavTiJQ "KpaTrofxivr) ovte naXi) ovre aiG^pci. 61. 'Eyevovro 
TO fiEv fiiritinov kirl rpiaKotritov, to Ee joddoc k<p' eKaToy. 62. 
'Era'x6rj(7av Eirt TtTTapiov. 63. "lorao-Q' e^E^^c TravTeg eirl rpcTc 
affTTi^aQ. 64. 'ETrt rr7c ice(j)a\fjc to. onXa i<j>£pov. 65. Ot 
Op^Kff aXwrrEKtcae tTrt ralg Kt^aXaTc (j>opov(7i Kai toIq thai cat 
fttpac /<£XP' ''*^*' "'O^wi' £7ri rJii' tTTTrwj' t'l^ouo-tj'. 66. K»'»7/J0»' 
%'avap-^ov tTi ovtu kcu tovq oTrXirag etti vavalv oXiyaig evdvg 
irinTTovaiv. 67. 'E^fXauvft ££c lo'ffoi'c, r^c Kt\t*./uc Itr-^^tiT-qv irokiv, 
IttI Trj daXiiTT}] olKOVjiivriv. 68. "Eori /.lEyaXov (iaaiXitoQ j3a(riXEia 
Ev KiXatJ'atc Epvfiya ettI rale TrijyaTe rou Mapcuou Trora^ow vtto 
r^ aK-poTToXst. 69. HaiTEc o< Twf ItpiaTuv WEpawv ira'ihEQ kirl rate 
jjaaiXitoQ dvpaig TraidEvot'Tai. 70. 'Ilr rjXwQ ettI ^vafxalg. Tl. 
'EirariaTr} etti Trdcrii'. 72. 'OX/yoi rwi' £7rt Trdrriv vrro tHjv \piX<I)P 
cftridai'ov. 73. 'En-i KUTEipyaer fiiroig eXOely IwvXo^ai, 74. Ta 
ttXeToto <J>iXi7r7roe hu)i;ri(TUTo Tip SiafdeipEiv tovq etti tHjv Tvpajfxd- 
Tiijr. 75. Toue £7rt rote 7rp a y/xa <rtv ovroc airtwirat. 76. Kare- 
X£y>7 ^£ra QpacrvXXov tov ettI twv ottXituip. 77. 'Etti t<o 0£W- 
piKip tote wv £7re'ow*:a to ■^pijfiaTa, 78. 'Hffvi^taj' liroiriaEV tX^"' 
Tjyr' \lv)(j]v fiirovcray etti tm dXrjdEl. 79. Et Kai /cara Toy Xoyiajxov 
EKE~iya (pavEir] (oeXtiu), Tijg ye TV)(^t]Q tj'fica, rj Trapd. tuvt dynOij 
Kt-^pi](TdE, ETTI tovtwv d^iov fiE~iyai. 80. Aet KapTEpely etti 
To'iQ TTCipovcriy /cot dappely irtpi Twy /xEXXovTMy. 81. Ot Trpo- 
E^oy-eQ TTOirjTal etti rate t^aXovfiiyaig yvu)fj.aic yLtt'tXtor' Lairov- 
caaay. 82. To QiiXv yiyog dycpwy u' toIq kuXoIq ttoXXw XtXEiTrrat 
caTTt To7g atcxpole ttXeoj'. 83. npo(7>//v£t ETraivEly Tovg eir' 
dyadb) Ttyi CiacpEpoyTag. 84. 'Aft irEivibfiEy £7rt rate EXiriaiy. 
85. 'Eirt TToXXoTe XfydjuEi^oi' £?/ ro jujj KiyeJy ret aKiyrjTU koX TTEpi 
TOVTOv XeyoiT dy. 86. Aiacjjopd ettI Trj tov oIke'iov E)(^6pa. (TTacrig 
KEtcXrjTai, ETTI ce ttj tov dXXoTplov TToXEfAog. 87. "EcotE firl Eir' 
dySpi yofiov Tidiyai, lay jifi Toy avrov etti irdtrty 'AtJjjvai'ote. 
88. Xat'pEtv £7r' ala^palg ijCoyalg ov SeI vote. 89. Ou^eJc ^kl 
ff/Lt t/opo t(Ti Xvtte'itui (to(J)6q. 90. 'Airo^i-)(^ov twv ETaipujy fX)) fioyov 
TOvg £7rt ro7e Katcolg Cvo^EpaiyovTac, dXXh Koi tovq etti Tolg 
dyaBolg /Lt>/ fdoi'ovyTag. 91. Tt ^eI a TraXai irpocTEhoKwiXEV ttei- 
(TEcrdai, vTTtp TOVTtoy yvy d^QeirQai y Xiay ovTb) (oapibtg ^ipEiv ettX 
Tu'ig tTiq (pv(TEu)c (T V n <j) o p a~i c ; 92. EiXa/BflorQat BeI ravTU E(f olg 
TO~ig dXXoig ^aXen-iJg Tig tj^^ioy opdTai. 93. Toy etti rate ^ti^po- 
SoKiaig TrpOTpeTrofieyov Toiig ^iKanTag opyii^Ecrdat avToy XP^ ^'^*' 
TOiovTwy TToXv (KjiEOTayai. 94. 'Etti rt»'< jxaXiirTa ayoXX»; ; 'Etti 
<piX(oy doETrj /cat ^uj^ayttEt Kai oti toiovtoi ovteq ifiov EirifxiXovTat. 
95. M)) (paiyov ftXoTifjLovfiEyog etti rote Toiovroig a xal toIq KaKolg 
CiUTTpd^aadai CvvaToy kaTiy, aXX' ett' dpeTrj fiiya (ppovwy, ijg oiiBev 

§ 48. [PREFOSITION £7rt.] 288. 109 

fjipoQ Tolc TToyrfpo'ig /ifVeortr. 96. Ou^t vovy e'xEti' ijyovfiai, t'l tiq 
tv d(pd6toic rpa^tlc eiri tovtio (refxrvviTai. 97. 'Etti ettwi' Troiyiarti 
"Onrjpov eytoye fxaXierra reOavfxaKa, IttI lie Tpayu)Si(f ^ocpo^Xia. 98. 
AeI (tkutttoixwov e<P' kavT(j yeXCiy. 99. Ke'p^rj rotatra ^^p?; Tira 
KTciadai fiporCji' e(j)' o'lin /jteWti fiijirod' vartpoi' aTEviiv. 100, 'Ettj 
/u£)' role dyadolQ (paiSpoi, eirl Ee role kukoIq aKvdpuynol yiyvov- 
rai. 101. Ylpo(.CK6fxi]v riav ySorwv rag ettI Tcilg cci,aiQ tcuq ^l 
dvBpayadiui' yiyyofxiiac. 102. "Epwg EfLirou'i Ti)y fiey iiri uer rolg 
atff^poTc alcr^vyijv, r»)i' Be IttI toIq KaXo'ig <piXoTiniav. 103. Ot 
iw\ TO~iQ KciXCjg TTpa-^Belffiy 'tTraitoi riLv ovru) reTeXEvrriKOTwy 'iSioy 
Krfjfid elaiy. 104. Xp>) ett' d^ioig Tvoye'iv. 105. Aiicaiog ay e'itie, 
on ovK ihayrar^g eirl 7rXeore^i<^, 106. Tavra ett' evvoiq. ttJ 
v/UETEptf <pa(Ti irapavofxiiaat. 107. Ovk ay ttoXX)) dfuadla e'it} ro'ig 
£7r' w^fXeta 7renoir)fiEyoig ettI /3\a/3jj ;)(p>7(T0ai ; 108. AwpatTTt 
rw kavTov i^aKU EKtjy ovEeIc Xa^ftdyEi. 109. 'EttJ rw /c£pc at j'£ 1 1/ 
TTOi' aj' cvTog voitiaeuy. 110. 'Ettj te^.'^J? fiaiOayei, <bg (70(j)i(7rt]g 
t(T6f.iei'og. 111. Ki/Aw)' ^■o^E'/\a/3E r/)i' aKpoiroXiv ujg eirX rvoayyiBi. 
112. "Ei'toi ETTt ro7c v^iETepotg ehujpohoKovy. 113. "Exouirt )(f>»/- 
fxura e<f)' v/J-ly. 114. O'l Sayeii^ofieyoi paclwg ettI ro'ig fiEydXoig 
TOKOtg f,ii:-:poy Eviropijorayreg ■)(^p<')yoy iicrTEpoy koi Tb>y dpj^^aicjy dnicrrr]- 
aay. 115. 'HXeToi TrnpeKXi'idrjaay virh AETrpearuiy etti rrj ijfxirTEia 
Ttjg yijg. 116. Uporepoy ijaay tirl prjrolg yepaai-KaTpiKaXfiaai- 
Xe~iai. 117. 'AXKtlDtdcrig Ti)y KaXXiov 'Eyr}jXEv dcEXcjjijy ettI ceku 
TaXdyroig. 118. Ovk ay ^vfjijja'ifjiEv dXXwg ;/ ivl ro'tg Elpriiui- 
voig', 119. 'Hpwra ivi ti(tiv ay Evi^fta-^oQ yivoiro. o S' direicplyaTo 
i<l>' (b re rovg TroXirag eXEvdipovg re /cat avroyofiovg lay. 120. Ta 
vfjieTspa avTO)y £(^' v^'iv ciKuiwg etrrl aal ev kuI KuKwg, Ear fiovXrjirdE, 
StUTiOEffOcn, 121. Et ETTt To7g TToXi fiioig kyivovTO, ri ay Evadoy ; 

122. To ETTt TOUTOig eiyai iy rolg ^Eiyordroig Kiicvyoig KadEarijkaTe. 

123. 'EkeXeve TO ETTI (T(pdg Eiyai ETriyj.ipe~iy, 124. 'Ava/JcuTEe ett t 
Tovg 'iir — uvg iiyovyro. 125. Ovk ex^' (pvaty Tovg ao^povg ettl rag 
Twv TvXovatwy dvpag liyai. 126. Ov )(p>) irvp etti Trv p 6y_ETEVEiv. 
127. 'O Elg TO fTuxppoy ett' dpETiiv t ayuiv Epdjg i^r]X(OT(jg civOpu)- 
TToiiTiy' tjy EUjy Eyw. 128. [loXAot rw»' ui'0pw7rwi' dideXi'iaai'TEg tov 
aviAcpiporrog etti Tag ijooyag ipp.waiv- 129. O ■yj)6yog ■^aipet 
fXETairXaTTwy izdyTag kwl tu ■^ei poya. 130, Ilaj' KTiijxa Kal 
Qpififxa TO ETTt TO (jeXtiov loy, TOVTO Kai. evfpah'eiy [xd- 
Xtora WETO. 131. Ovk eivoc dp-^))y eirl ap^')*' (TTpaTevaai. 
132. Ovcey egt ofeXog ttoXewc ijTig lui) vEvpa etti TOvg dCiKovyrag 
E^Ei. 133. To Ofifia hvvaTaL etti iroXXd crTaBia E^iKye'Krdai. 134. 
AaKeEai[x6yioi ovk etti ttoXv Tag ^tw^Etg iroiovyTai. 135. T>))' yfjy 
dTTEidlffdujaay etti leKa ett]. 136. JlEj-nrovaiy inl ilrj fioadi ii^v 
Kal ETTI Tag eiKoai yavg Tuiy 'Adijyaiujy, 137. "En-Aft £0' 'Itpoy 

110 290—293. [§ 49. p/. iifj oi. 

irrl rijv TrapaTro/Lxxi) v tov airov. 138. O'l BiaKovoi tyjv tov cru)- 
{.laroQ l(JXvv 'iKai'tjy etti tovq ttoi'ovc £^ou(tii'. 139. Etc rflv 
ayopar ■^Einoroi'elre tovq rastap^ouc, ovk eni tov TToKef-ior, 140. 
AlpovfTtti avToy inl rag j-ieyiaraQ ctpj^dc. 

§ 49. //?;. fir) ov. 
290, a. BiSoitca ' ^ t) dmu), I fear that I shall die. ciBoiKa fxr] ov 
ddi'U), I fear that /shall not die. b. (l>ofiovixui. j.ii] ehpi'ioofiey, I 
year we shall find. <j)o[3ovfjai fu) ('t[.t(j>oTip(>)y y jjiaprriKafiey, I fear 
that we have missed (lost) both. c. nXXa yu)) ovk rj SiBuktoi', but 
perhaps it is a thing that cannot be taught, d. tl ce yei'Tjcroneda em 
fjaaiXel, ri k jjl iv o C ij v fi)) ow^i ivavTU rh Stu'orara TradoyTag 
O7ro0a)£t»' ; but if we shall fall into the power of the king, what will 
prevent us from being put to death, after suffering all that is most ter- 
rible ? e. uTTOKtoXvcrat roi)c "EXX/jcac //») eXdsly, to prevent the 
Greeks from coming. I'lpyovyro fxri weTVTWKirai, they (denied that 
they had fallen) said that they did not fall. ainaTovvTtQ avroi' fifj 
ijieiy, not believing that he would come. f. av yap vnifT^ov Cv'V- 
OEiv^, wQ <JVX oaLov^ (Toi ov fir] ov ftor]Qi.~iv diKawavyri, for you 
promised to investigate it (with us), as holding it impious in you not to 
come to the assistance of justice. g. ovte fit] ixe/AyfjirdciL Evya/Aai 
avrov, ov-a fXEfiyrj[.ityog jj)) ovk sTraiye'iy, I can neither not remember 
him, nor remembering not praise him. 

291. {a. b.) After expressions of fear, solicitude, uncertainty, &c. /u>; is 
used with the subjunctive or indicative. Mt) ov must be used when 
it is feared, &c., that the thing has not taken place, or will not take 
place. Hence BicoiKa firj = vereor ne : dthoiKa fxri ov ::= vereor ut, 
or vereor ne non. 

The indie, is used when the speaker wishes to intimate his conviction 
that tiie thing feared, &c., has or will really come to pass. 

Of course the subj. becomes the opt. after the historical tenses. (71, 

292. (c) The notion oi fear is often omitted before /x/) ov, the verb 
being then generally in the subjunctive. 

293. (/. g.) /JU ov (which are then := quominus or quin) are also used 
with the infi7i. after many negative expressions. 

(1) After to hinder, deny, feel misgiving, &c. when they have a nega- 
tive with them; if not (ej they are used with fir], where we use no 
negative *, 

' SdSu), Stiffofiai, SiSoiKa and Se£la (both with meaning of pres.). Aor. 1. 

■' 281, c. 

2 But as opposed to 'upoQ, oatog relates to man, i. e. to natural laws : hence upd. 
Kal orria, ' divine and liuman things.' 

* But the fir] is not always expressed s.het vcr\)% oi hindering, preventing, Sic. 
axv'^'^ <^* TT/j^^j', &c. 

§ 49. fill, fx)) ou] 293. Ill 

(2) After such expressions as Seipov tlvai, aiaxpov or al<j\vv7]v 
tli'oi, alaxvveaOai. 

(3) After such negative expressions as, to be unable, impossible, not 
right, &c. 

(4) /x>) ov is also sometimes used with the participle' and with wort 
and itijin. after negative expressions. 


1. 'ETr/oTOffai, utl o'l (poioovjjLevoi, jjiy) (pvyojai Trarpila, Kal o'l 
HiWoi'reg fiayeadai ceSiorec, jxi] iitttjOui air, advfiwc ciayovatv. 
2. ^vXaTreadai (prjiii Btlf, /i?) Trp6(pa.(nv Biofiev fjaaiXel. tov rh 
hiKaia VTrip rojy aXAwi' 'EXXf/jwv ^i]Te~ii'. 3. 'O KXe'apj^oc ovk 
i'ldeXey cnro(77raaca anu rov ttotuhov to Be£,i6i' K(pag ^o(io\jfxevoQ, fxi} 
KvfcXcjdeiT] ap.(poTipwQtv, 4. "E^ettrai' ol "KXXrjytQ, fxi) wpoa- 
ayotev oi lUparai irpug to Kepag ical irepi-KTv^avTec a/jKpoTeptodei' avTovg 
KaTaKoxpeiar. 5. Ol KepKvpaloi dvTinXiov to'iq Kopitdioig cei- 
aapTEC, fii] EC Tijy yrji' (T(pwv Tceipuxriv aTvo^aivtir. 6. Ot fJ^XP'- 
QepfionvXCbv "EXXrji'Ef kc>oj5riQr](Tar, fxrj koi ettI afdg 6 aTpctTog 
■)(^(i)p{](Trj. 7. "Opa, fxi] ficiTtjy KOfiirog 6 XoyoQ 6 e'lprjiiiyoQ e'lr], 
8. 'Nvy (po^ovfxeQa, fifi dfxfoTeptjy ajj.a y] fxapTiiKu fjLtv. 9. "Opa, 
fii) TToXXwu eKCKTTU) iinuiv ^eipCJy ^eijctzi Kal 6<pQuXfxGiv. 10. 
^ol^tlaQe, fii] Bv(TKoXu)Tep6y ti rvy ctocet/iat ») ey t(J Trpoadty 
ftlb). 11. Ael Twy dp^ofiiyhyy iirifiEXtiadai ottwc ^Q fieXritT- 
Toi icToyTui. 12. Ol Tvpayyoi (pojoovyrai tovc fxey dycpeiovg 
fxi'l Ti ToXfj.t]TW(Ti rijs iXevdepiag eiEKU' rovg ^e <TO<povg, jiij ti 
fxr]yayi}ab)yTai' rovg Ee S itcalovg, fxi] n iiridv^ijar} to TrXrjdog vir 
avTuiy TrpoaTCiTEladui. 13. T»)i' VTTEpftoXijy twv 6piii)v eBe^oi- 
KEaav fxi] ■!rpoKaTaXif](l>dEi rj. 14. Tovc dydpwirovg (pvXu^y, jj.i] 

(TE UTlflClCTdJaiy. l5."£^ei(T£ TTEplTU y E y E I l]fXO)V jJif] dlT oXo IT o 

Trdv. 16. 'AiciyKij laTiy dEl tov fxiXXoyTa diTodarEladai ^ESiiyat 
iiTTEp r»7c nvTOv \pvxrjg, fiif ky Trj yvy tov awj-iaTog viai^EV^Ei iray- 
TUiraaiy dn oXrjTai. 17. Tijy irapovaav bvyafjiii', jjt) avTijy 
KaTaTrXayrJTE, BEiaayTEg EirpEtrljevcTafXEda, 18. Tt]y yi)(Toy Tavrr)y 
e(f>ojoovyTO, fxfi t^ avTrjg tov iroXefxov a(l)iai iroiCJyTai. 19. Ilfpt 
TiLy viEwy ly aTropig. elfii ti Ce'i avTolg yjpyiaaaBat. 20. Et 
ufia T IXcvdepog Eitjg Kai irXovaiog yiyoio, Tirog av cioio, /j-i) ov^^t 
TrdfXTrav thcaifiwv cti'oi ; 21. Aj^ tcaXwg ytVr/rat rd Efid Trpoy/ictra, 
£v EiriaTaadE, oti ov /x>) EiriXddwiuai vjxCjy, dXXd Tra'Xtv -Kapiaofxai 
7^pa'^wv (ijv fijjwv ^£l(T0£. 22. 'Ay^pEiag ovliy ofEXog, fiij Trapovarjg 
diKaiotTvyrjg. 23. Kat Tovg bi^juoKaXovg tU SicaaKaXEla Kal Tovg 
TTaL^OTpiJDag Tag TraXaiaTpag dyoiyEiy j-iky dnayopEVEi fi)) npoTEpoy irplv 
av b {jXiog dyl<T')^i^, kXeieiv ^e irpoaTaTTEi. irpo iiXiov ^E^vKOTog. ^sch, 

* Thus SvffaXyriTog yap av \ I'lrjv ToiavSe juj) ov KaroiKTtipoJv 'i£pay. Sojjh. 
Ant. 96. 

112 293. [§49. /x^. fifi ov. 

24. Ou^ oaiov ao'i Irrri fxf] ov fiorfBe'iv ^iKatocrvvr} tig hvvafiiv 
TraiTi "poTTw. 25. OvK ky\ii)pEl rolq TrXeoyeKTEiv j3ov\ofiir'otQ fifj 
ovi; ikTTo^wi' noie'iadai rovg 'iKavwrtiTovc BiaKwXvn}'. 26. 'A^v- 
ra-a ?'/i' /i ») ov jUtyaXa /SXaTrretj'. 27. FA ixfia eXevdepoc t eirjc 
Kai nXovcrioc yiroio, rivog ar Beoio |U») ov)(i Trciinray ivdaijxuv elvai; 
28. 'A»'ojjrov i\yovpai (toi f-ifi ov Kal tovto ■yanic^e(jQui. 29. 
Ai(T\p6v i<TTi aocplcii' i:cu tTrtoTt'/jUJ/v fxri ov-)(^i 7rdi'T0)v KpuTiaTov 
(pciyai tti'oi rtiiv di'dpioireloji' Trpay^oVwi'. 30. FIoXX// dfoia to 
fii] ov^ £v K'ai TavTov fiyeltrdai to etti Tradt role aiifxacn ndWoQ, 
31. OiiOftc ourw TTCiT^ac lii ■Jrcucevasrai wot' £(>• 7T0vr]pwi' fxi] ov 
KaicovQ nefviciyai. 32. Ovk dy ttot e.(T')(^oi' /.n) ov rdS' i£,Ei7relv 
TrarpL 33. Tt» ayrotlj' owe iKtpevyei rfj uXrjdeioi fii) ovK kn- 
ovti^LOTOv iiuai. 34. Ma^ac ovu dp rovjjLai [J t) ov avfiiie(ir}Kivai 
fioi. 35. O 'AoTuciyj/c, o,ri SioiTO civrov 6 Kvpoc, ovhev kcvvuTO 
di'T i'^eii' [li] ov ^(^cipi^eadai. 36. OvSeIq Trcjirort dvTs'nrE fxri 
ov KfiXuic k^Eij' roue I'Ofiovg. 37- 'Utt iarov v /.u; elrai Tovg tu 
oVXct Trnpaioi'Tag rolg t£BveG)(jiv o^o'iovq. 38. 'HpvowjTO ^?j 
TTETrr w/c£ j'ci I. 39. ITwc w ToXfiMfitv i^apvoL ft rat ro KaXoi' 
^»; KaXot' ehai • 40. 'O i'ojjloq dnayopiVEi fxiijTE SiKcdojg yii]T£ 
dciKwg dir u KT e'iv a I. 41. Ot rofxodETCii to icaXov to eic tu)v yvjxvatriiov 
iK'nTtCOVTEg aTretTroi' rote ^ovXoig firj ijete^eiv, 42. Nd/.twj^ ypa<pal 
E'ipyovai -^pfjcdni fxrj Korct yriofi-qv rpoizoig. 43. Kt<>Xuo/x eOa 
/^t /; f.iadE~ii' d iwvXojxai. 44. napoj^ tTECfwtrdai (pEVL,6 fieda jat] 
Bhve'iv. 45. Xp>j TrttJTtttg EvXa j3e'i aQai yEiTora yt'iTOvi fitf^Ey 
TTOit'ir CuKpopoi', 46. 'E(^uX ct i^nro jj-rj^iya (juXe'iv. 47. 
^ECotKE f-irj^Ev kiufxapTdyEiv. 48. 'H ■Kupovaa evEaifioyia 
Trapt'o-^fi' oki'OJ' ^trj eXOe'iv ec ra CEird. 49. 'P^o>' etoX/jci tiq 
d Trp(')TEpoy diTEKp-uTTT ETO fir] caO' iihoydg Cpdy. 50. 'O Trarjjp 
aTrew^atr' dv rote 0£otc fxrt^n fiuig kutu Tag tov v'liog eu^dg ytyi/fo-- 
Ocu. 51. 'E/iou ot yofjioi an EyrtJicoTsg eIoti jjrj dciKE^y. 52. 
Tiavffailag Koideig utteXvOi] /i i) dciKE~iy. 53. 'A(j)E i jJ-Eda uriSev 
ay ttXt] fjifxEXEly. 54. 'A 7r£(T^oi'ro /t/) £7rt 7/)v EKaTEpiov y^v 
crrpaT Ev arui, 

(^Account of a Voyage.^ 

55. AycrniTfc Ei^' Movi'v^tac kaiTEpag Xiifinpui crcpoBpa ^Kipori irEpl 
fiEcrrjy i^jiipav KaTi}-)(Br]HEv Eig K.oprj(T(Toy Tip' Kew. KadiaayTeg Be 
ripepag Evyla, (7Kaiog yup i)y 6 uyEfxog, eltu EGTiinag XvaayTEg dfia 
-fj Eo) Eig AfjXoy i']X8oiJ.Ey. Ar/Xiot oe Eyoirovy Xoifxojcr] rtrd yoaov' 
-d fXEv Tzpoawna EwifiTrXayTO XEVicrjc Kdi Tdg Tpi-)(ag XevkoX kyiyrovTO, 
b Be Tpd-)^r]Xoc i^ai ret aTEpya diw'o£i, 7rvp£roi ^' ovk kyiyyoyTO ovht 
dXyr]h'jyEc fAsydXai, ovce rd hdrw fjiipt] Trapi/XXctrrfi' ovMy ti. TavTa 
c etIQevto (Card //?)i't»' 'AttoXXwj'oc av;o7c fTVfilDEJirjKEyai, Ta^iyTog ev 
Trj yi]au) Tivoc rwy ETTKpuvCjy, ov irpoTEpoy £<ti>6>oc' ek tovtov irpouftaXtlv 

§ 50. fxr] WITH RELATIVES, &c.] 293* — 296. 113 

avrotQ Toy Qtov TTjy vocrov ravrrjv virikajxftavoy. ///xtlc ^e wanep eit,- n 
idvoQ a\X6(pv\oy 77 vijaov tv rrj e^w Oa\aa<Tri a(piy^ivoi, Kal I^optec 
£^ui(pvr]Q TTOiKtXovc aydpwirovc, rvi^Tog in aizo(p{.vyoyTeQ (^y^ofxtQuy 
TTvidavv^EVOL a.X\r]\<a)v Kara Toy rropoy, el to )^pwjua ex"' ixajToc oioy 
eKo/Ji^ir o'licodey Kal Tag Tpixac. (^Pseudo-JEschines.) 

[Preposition Mtro.] 293*. 

fxtTO. Tov, after; [itTO. tov, with ; (x,Erd Ti^ (only in the poets), among, 

56. AoptToc fiETo. Kanftv(7r]y Hepaijjy e(3a(Ti\tv(7ey, 57. Mera 
fxovaiKriv yvjivaaTLKri dpenTEoi 01 viaviai. 58. narrwr tujv avTOV 
t:TT][JiaTwy fxeTci deoiig 4'^X^I OeioTaToy. 59. Qeojpi'jffaTS fiaXiaTci to 
TTpayjia Ik tovtojv a. j'urt fisTcx ')(^£lpaQ t'x^''^' ^^* 1°'^^^ TrXioy 
ye ayyoely eori vvKTOjp 7/ fied^ ijf.i.ipav. 

§ 50. yuj; with Relatives, the Infinitive^ Sj-c. 
a. Tig Se Bovyai hvyaTUt eTepo), d fit) avTog i'^ti ; hut who can 295. 
give to another what he has not got himself? b. aa(pu\Eiu.v gol 
TvapiiovTai, Cjute at \xy\Ziya XvttcIj', they will afford you security, 
so that no man shall annoy you. Trpoy^ara raptlxo'', ojcrre ovketl 
IBvyaTO TO aTpuTEVfia TroptvEuQai, they harassed them, so that the 
army could not advance any further {any longer^, c. ou^elc . . . 
6(TTiQ fAt) TTapicTTai, uo onc who shall not he present (or, who is not 
present *). 6 yu?) irKTTevujy, he who does not helieve (= si quis non 
credit: 6 ov Tri/rTEvojy ^ is, qui non credit, or quum non credat, 
quia non credit), to. /x?) icaXa, dishonorable things, d. to fit) Tifi^y 
yipovTcig avoaiov eori, it is wrong (an unholy thing) not to honour old 
men. e. fit) yiyoiro ', may it not be so ! fit) 'iSoig tov-o, may you 
never see this ! 

{a. c.) With a participle or adjective jur/ is used, when these can 29G. 
be resolved by a conditional clause (a clause, that is, with '?/'). — In 
other cases oh is used. The same rule applies also to substantives, 
adverbs, and prepositions with their cases, (See Examples 8, 12, 
19, 20, &c.) 

Oil is used with the participle when used absolutely, and with wg, 
liiairip. But fit] is used for ov when the participle occurs in a construc- 
tion that itself requires fir): e. g. with an imperative, an injin. that re- 
quires fit) (297) or a. hypothetical sentence. (Kriiger.) [See Examples 
22—29 in the following Lesson.] 

* In connexion with future time, the Greeks and Romans marked the futurity 
of the condition or connected notion. JVe generally do not. Thus in the example 
we should say, 'a man who is not present,' taking that as a general notion, without 
referring it to the time of the other verb. The future must be used when it is 
necessary to mark this out; but to use it always, as some writers do who plume 
themselves upon their accuracy, is against the idiom of our language ; of which 
any one may convince himself by examining a few consecutive pages of the English 
Bible. See ^English Grammar for Classical Schools,' p. 39, c. 

' Translated by ' God forbid r in the English Bible. 


114 297, 298. [§ 50. /jt) with relatives, &c. 

297. {d) The infinitive generally takes fj)), except where the opinions 

or assertions of another person are stated {in sermone ohliquo). See 


Hence fii] stands with verbs of commanding, willing, praying, per- 
suading, conceding ; after what should or must take place ; as well as in 
all phrases wliere the action appears only as supposed or conceived. So, 
too, fit) stands witli the inf., ivhicli has the article, since here it is not a 
single definite case which is pointed out, but only something general; 
something, therefore, that only exists in the conception of the speaker. 

298. {b) With wctt-e' the infinitive takes /n^, the indicative ov. 


1. At So^at BpaTrerevovffiv ek Trjg ^pvj^rjg rov avdpwirov, wart ov 
TToWov aE,iai etaii'. 2. T/)»' (biXoXoylav rjyovvTai ov /jLiKpov av/x- 
fiaXitrdai fxipog npog rz/v TraiSeiay, war' ovk aSiKiijQ vrroXajj.- 
(^arovtriv UTravTEg rovg Xiyeii' ovrag Beiyovg rijg TvoXEwg eIvui fxa- 
drjTug. 3. 'Eof^arTj a^iicUt coicelv CiKaioy Eivai fii) ovTa. 4. Ov 
TTWTTor' E^/jXwffa irXovTOVi'Ta atpoSpa aydpwTroy cnroXavoyra firj^Ey 
wi' f'x^'" ^' '^ f^^l ^"P£'C (iydpioTTog ov Trai^sverai. (^Men.^ 6. Ouk 
EVTV^ovrrai ^o^et ouj(t SvaTV^^^Elv. (^Eur.^ 7. "Ep^erat raXjjQec £C 
(pCjg Ei'iOT ov i^rjTov ixEi'oj'. 8. Etc TrvKrrjg hvolv jli>; irvKTatv ovk 
av Soke! aoi pif-Siiog fid^Eodai ; {PI-) 9. ^iXoao^ovaiv ol ovte 
ayadoi ovte kukoi ttlj biTEg. 10. Tov ovk ovra Trdg EiwdEV 
kiraivE'iv. 11. EtwSare ra ovk ovra XoyoTToiE~iv wg eotiv vfxlv 
ETOifia. 12. O fxi] larpog dfETrKTrrj/uiov wv 6 larpog ETnaTijfiwy, 
13. AokeI Tig (TOi tlyat uko)) f] twi' dXXioi' uKoivv clkovei kciI twv jifi 
(iKoiLv; 14. OvTOi (piXa tu jli ») (piXn. 15. Ta fxijTE dyaSa 
fjii'jTE KUKo. ov (jovXafXEda. 16. To fii] ejjlttoCw v dvavTayoiviarto 
Evroia -ETifxtjTcii. 17. EiXoyu/j)/ dTro(yyi(TQai riig ToiavTrjg l^iag ^l 
afi(p(jTEpa, cid T£ Tovg ovk EVKaipwg avTfi ■^pwjj.iyovg Kal Sict TO 
/i») ftovXEffdai raTTEU'oripovg vroit'iv rovg iifxidiovc. 18. Ovk ii^iov 
rrj ttoXei oyEiciaai a fxi) /jletci vofjuov ijfiapTEv. 19. 'O juj) ^vv 
civdyKT] Ti TTuQwy ^aXeTrwrepoe hiai^vyijv rov cnru rrjg 'iffjjg E-^Qpov. 
20. MctXtora 1 ^i) ^vv v pocpda ei Tiva KaKihg iroiovvTEg kirip'^^ovTaL 
KoX hioXXvvrai. 21. M17 ypdfu) /jev; dXXd fxoi XiyETE, Elaiw y 
fii] ; elQe fj.)) ypd<poig. 22. "^rjfiaaadE tov ttoXe/ioi', /xij ^o/SjjfleiTfc 
TO uvTiKa hEivov. 23. Tvi'ui (TtKp' 'iffdi fit] fiE duTTEvaavrd <T£. 
24. 'O TTCilg t'lTrep Ecrriog (jxivEpog vfxly eort jj-t) ftXrjO^ig, EtjXovtui 
Old Tt]v avTOv dfiapTiuv d-KoQavo)v, 25. ilc e^ov fitihiiroTE dfiE- 
XrjffovTog, ovrwg ej^c rfiu yvwfJLrjv. 26. 'AcpiEri fJ.e r) ^») d<piET£, wq 
EHov oi/K dv iron'] (7ovrog ctXXa. 27. Xp)] roy dyadov TtoXiTrfv fxfl 
EK(}>oftovi'Ta Tovg dpTEpovirag, uXX' citto tov "laov ^aivEodai dfiEivov 

* Or o)Q, which is used (though less frequently) in the same way. 

§ 50. /Ltji) WITH RELATIVES, &C.] 298. 115 

XiyovTa. 28. Ei^c5ra ye fxi^ el^ivai to avTO rj fir) el Bora el^ivai 
a^vvaTOi'. 29. 'YTre'orj^Ero eipyvrjv Tron'jaeiy fJ-ijre ofxripa hovq /i'/rt 
TO. T£t)(^T] tcadeXcjy. 30. ^ Ai'ay ruxTETCu oe vfily tovtovq tovc vofxovtj 
6 ypaufiarevc, iV' elSijTe on 6 vofxoQirqq i]yi]<7UT0 rov KciXwg Tpa<pii'TCi 
iralBa aiSpa yevofxevov ■^piiainov eaeadai ttj TroXei' orav c »/ (pixng 
Tov aydpujTrov evOvg izovripav ap-)(r\v Xujjt} Tfjg TraiSeiag, en tu>v Kai^Hig 
Tedpnuneydjy ■jraiScji' -KapairX^aiov ijyijtraro TroXirrjv ecrtcrdai Ti/uctpj^w 
TOVTtoi. Xiye avro'ig tovq vojiovq tovtovq. 31. 'Yyuag TrayTug el^iyai 
iiyovjJLiu TOVTUV ovTd) OKaiov elvai ulare ov BvvucrOai [xade'iv to. 
Xeyofxeya. 32. Ovrcjg ujfxaXicrniyoL ralg (TO}fJi<popaig eltriy ware 
firjBera yyQyai ^vyaffdai rovg tcuKiirra TrparTovrag civtwv. 33. 
'Eyw vofxil^ii) TrjXiKovTuiy Trpayj-iarioy 'AXKiftu'iCrjy airtov Eo^eiy ware 
fii]Siya T(by Trporeptjy o^t/c/7/,farwJ' i^efxyiitrdai, 34. Ovtu) Kadapoy 
Xpn Toy j3ioy eiyai. tov (jijj(ppoyoQ ayBpog &aTe \xr\ tTrt^ej^effQat 
Z6l,ay alriag iroyqpdc, 35. 'EyiJ; toiovtov kfiavToy ky ralg rfjg ttoXcwc 
(TVfi(j)opa~ig Trapia^oy &(TTe, el TravTsg r?jV avrtjy yytjfirjy ea\ov kfioi, 
fxrihiya civ vjuujy fXTjEe^ii^ Ke-)(pfi<7dai avfifop^. 36. 'A^iui avToy fx)) 
iroielv or ovk astw avTov Trou'iy. 37- AeI ju?) iroiely or ov Eel irouly. 38. 
AovXov, <pr)(Xtv 6 vofiog, /jt) yvfiyn^ecrdai. 39. KeAfuet avrovg fxt] 
Xoyoig fxdXXov Trapayecrdai rj Tren-ipai ay^pag, 40. UapeKaXei jj.)) 
Big Trpog Toy avroy Xidoy irraieiv. 41. ^v fJifoovXevw aoi fxr) a(j)ni- 
pe'iffdai a ay B<Jg. 42. "EXeyoy avro'ig yn») dSiKe'iy. 43. Et 
a^iolg <T0i firi^iv aXyeiyoy ttote M?/^£i' ecjEcrdai fiaKaplurg t'x^'^ 'PP^' 
vG)y. 44. AvTt] eavT^y OVK eTTtiae fxr) KaKOTej(^yri(Tai. 45. Ovk 
ay Bvyaio fit] yeveaQai EetnroTa, dydpojTrog urv, drdpwTrog. 46. 
'Hyovfxeda eXevdepiag crijfieloy elyai fxrjSey noiely aKovTug. 47. 
Tag bfxoiag ^apiTug fif/ dyr iBiiioyai aio-xpov. 48. li.e pBiaToy 
ev (ppoyovi'Ta fii] hoKelv (bpoyely. 49. EtKoe aocpoy dr^pa fii) 
Xrjpely. 50. 'Evo/xt^oj' kS,e~iyai rw jJovXofieyo), i}av')(iay eyovri 
firjre SiKag e^eLy fir'ire irpa.yf.iaTa. 51. Xpfjy vfxdg r) fir) kcikojq 
Xeyeiy r] fit) ^vyelyai. 52. M?) oicyelv Bel. 53. Kay evTV)(^ti Tig, 
urg eoiKe, irpocj^OKay aei ~t Bel (cat fii] ti -Tricrreveiy Tv-)^r]. 54. Ahiay 
e'i^eTe fit) jiorjOe'iy Tolg d(piaTafievoig. 55. 'Yfie~ig o'loi re kaTe tu 
VTrap^oyTci Te GioCeadai koll einyyuryai fir)hey Kal tpyw ov^e Tavay- 
Ka~ia k^iiceadai. 56. Kal to yr\fiai teal to fit) yijfiai KaKoy. 57. 
2iKai6y to TrXovTe'iy KaWo firjBev lEevui. 58. Ovk aTreli'^^ovTO Tag 
Karriyopiag, fie'ii^oy fiepog vifiovTeg tw fif) j3ovXeadai aXijBt'j elyai. 
.59. Tov fir) dSiKeladai KTt^aaaQai Zvyafxw Tray^aXeizoy. 60. 
WepiKXfig eKKXrjaiav ovk eTrolet tov fit) opyfj ti fidXXoy t) yyutfirj 
k^a flap Tel y. 61. "Ofirjpog ovEe ftapftapovg e'lprjKe Bia to firjSe 
"KXXr]yag ttw dyTiivaXoy elg ev oyofia cnroKeKpladai. 62. T^c 
AaKetaifioviwv apyfig dirrfKXdyrjfxey, ovhey TrpofffJKoy kKeiyovg 
rifily kwirdarcTeiy. 63. 'E,dopv(oelTe wg ov TTOitjaovTeg raOra. 

Q 2 

116 299. §50. [preposition Trapa'.] 

LESSON L. (continued.) 

299. [Preposition Eapct,] 

Besides his bread (Trapa Tbv dprov). Beyond, more than, the others 
{irapd TOVQ dWore). Against the laws of the gods (7ro(j« tovq twv 
6twv Gifffiov^). Contrary to or beyond what was expected (Trapd ^o^av). 

Trapa tov, from, after such verbs as to receive, learn, bring, come ; and 
with tlie agent after the passive verb. 

irapd TOV, to, and (in answer to where ?) at. 

Trapd TOV h-is also the meaning of the Latin prater ; besides, beyond, 

I had a narrow escape from death (Trapd (iiKpbv l]\9ov aTToQa- 
vilv). 1 had a narrow escape (tt a (I ' oXiyov Su<pivyov). 

64. Ilapa (piXov o)v irpoaijiiXe'ic Xt'stic Xoyove, 65. Ilap' aropug 

WQ avBpa iliahi^EV. 66. 'Hyou upariarov eivai uapii fxev twv dewv 

iV7V)(^iav, Trapa B' ijfxwv avTwv evj^ovXiav. 67. No/xi'^w rw ovti 

avTOjjLaTa Tayada rw (piXovfxivio yiypeadat Kal Trapa deuiy tat Trapa 

avdpojTTbyp. 68. Ol a^ioi Trap^ vfiCJv to. BiKuia £t,ov<Tiv, 69. Ilapa 

TToXe i-iiwv uKoi'Twv Xafxloave.iv tzcivtmv jjCkxtov 'iytaye vofii^u) eivai. 

70. najTic 01 CYijxoaiq. (pLXoTifioi Trapa. TrJQ ayaOrjc 0jj(/ujjc fiyovvrai 

Tijv S6i,av Kofiuladai. 7l. S090V Trap' avcpog \pi] (T0(j>6v n fiav- 

davsLV, 72. Tlapa twv eIBotwv dtcrjKoaTe. 73. Eu k'^fi to rjyc o'^C 

TE^vrjg Trapa (row Tru»'0aj'£<T8at. 74. T/; Tinfj Ka\ ttJ /3f/3ator7jrt rac 

Trapa twv Bijfiwv Zwptaq evprjcrtTS ovrrag jieXTiovg. 75. At ttoXeic 

^ta Trjv adavaaiav vTrofxivovat Ka\ tciq Trapa twv dvd pwirwv cai 

rac Trapa twv Oewv TijiupiaQ. 76. Aoyoj' Trap' i-^dpov jU?;Tro0' 

Vyyi(T7] (piXov. 77. Svyit/ja/iEi rJ)c svvoiag tViq Trapo rwv TroXtrJiv 

IJ.T)0£i'ag dXXovQ KaruXEiTrendai KXrjpovofxovg ttXiiv tovq e^ rifiwv ye- 

yovoTac, 78. Qap' vfx~iv irpdfrjv. 79. AouXEt'ai' KaKicTTrjv vofxiiiw 

r?))' TTUpii To'ic KaiciarTOiQ ceaTTOTaic. 80. Tp/a tori Xoyow a^ta ro«c 

"EX\jj«rt vaunca, ro Trap' v/xlv ivOi 70 iijuiTepov Kal to Kopiv6io)v. 

81. Tfi xpjyjuara Trapa tovtoiq ?'/»', 82. Ilapa roic dv^patrt 

t'Evofiicriiida ilvai Travovpyoi, 83. Tovc Tapa rote kfi(j)poaiv 

fvcosovc ydfiovQ j^p») yafitlv. 84. 'O rw Xoyier/iw Traj/ra Trap 

eaurw (tkottwv to kukov ddiaipel, Tayadov Ce XanJodvei. 85. T^c 

Trap' £^£ ttuofou cot 6 2a/;ag apsfi. 86. Ilapa r/)r 0aXarra»/ 

iwoptvtTO, 87. 'Ho-av Kwfxai ttoXXul Trapa tov TTOTajxov. 88. 

Toi' ^dXtoj' dvlpa ^twye Trap' oXov tov (3iov. 89. Kap)(»j2oi'tot 

vai Aaicecatjttdj'tot Trapa tov ttoXe/jlov ftaaiXEvovrai. 90. T^c 

Trap' iifiipav yjcipirog -d fiEyiaTu dTroXwXiKaaiv. 91. To r»/C AydriQ 

TEKva Trap' iijJEpav EKUTEpoc kv ohpavw Kal ev"Ai3ov Eirrlv. 92. 

Ilapa T))v TroXiv j)v Trvpa/.ttc. 93. Ilap' a XX jjX a torat ^avtpw- 

T-fpa. 94. "Ecei Trap' ovra rd dBiKri ftuTU tijv Tifxwpiav Trouladai, 

95. El vfuv BoKw (nrovEaioXoyijtTai [auXXov j) Trapd ttotov TrpETTEi, |U») 

Oavfiu^ETE. 96. Ilapa ra uXXa i^wa waTrEp dsol 01 drdpWTroi 

pioTEvovaiv. 97. SwcparJjg' cidcrjXoQ i)v Trapd Toinj dXXovQ EvraK~ 

§51. ADVERBS OF TIME, &c] 301 306. 117 

rwv. 98. Xp») fi}) Trap a fiiicpov {jyslffOai to Trapa ■waaiv evZoki- 
fieJi'. 99. OvK o)fir]i' avrw Trap' oXlyov laeaQai, c'tAXd Trapd ttoXv. 
100. "E.dtTO Trap' ovSev rag t/ictc iiriaToXac, 101. Ilorepa Trap' 
ovBey Tov (.')iov Ki'i^ead' in ; 102. ITapd rpE'ic ^y'i(povc fxtTecr-^e 
rrJQ 7r6\t(i)c. 103. 'Ert(v.'7;(Tav ol KepKvpa'ioi iraph ttoXu. 104. Ilapd 
fjiii; pov ijXdofxev arcpaTroCiadiirai. 105. Ilapd ToaovTov kyevtr 
avT<p fjit) TTEpLTreiTt'iv To'iQ 'AOrji'uioiQ, 106. Ovcev Trap' era ai'dpvj- 
irov iyii'ETO tovtwv. 107. Ov^Ciq irapa Ti]v eavrov a^iKaiav 
o'lETai fiXa-^Eiv. 108. Ovk e<ttl Trapa raur' a\Aa. 109. 'O vofxoi; 
Tvpavi'og wr rwv ar'dpu)iro)v TroXXd Trapa Tt)r <pv(Tiv l:}ia^£Tai, 110. 
'O Trap' j/XtK.tai' j'ove fucru^ t^epyd^trut. 111. Oi^fvt TrwTrore 
^uj'fj^wpj/CTa ou^fv Trapd ro SiKaiov, 112. IloXXd Trapd yyojfirji' 
ey Tolg ^iKaarrfpioie a.7ro(3aivEi. 113. Ilap' eXTTiBaQ fjolpa j3aiy£i. 

§ 51. A^ome Adverbs of Time, 8^c. 
Adverbial sentences^ denoting <i?He, are introduced by the following conjunc- 
tions, ort, oTTOTi, (x)c, riviKa, when ; kv (f, swd whilst; iirti, sTreiSi'j, postquam, 
i^ oil, t? OTOV, also iS wi', ca' ^^o, and dp' oii, since ; Trpiv, Trpiv rj, priusquam, 
ewf, Eo)Q oil, t'lQ o, fOTi, /i^xP'- o'' '^XP^ "^j A*^XP' orow, ns\pi, till, until. 

a. al,ib)Q i]jiu)v Tro\£jxii(TOfJLiv, we ivill conduct the war in a manner ZQ\. 
worthy of ourselves, h. Elai)\QEi> wc Efxi, he came in to me. c. 
Trapicrofiai, ottote icEXevcrEic, I will be with you whenever you bid me. 
d. TrEpifiEvui E(i)Q d>'(or fA£')(^ptg ay) eXOrj, I will wait till he comes 
(venerit). Trohjaoy rovro, twc etl e^ectti, do this whilst you still 
may. eore (;l(£'') at (nroyEal fjcrar, ovttote ETravofXTjy fifxac olKTEipujy, 
as long as the treaty lasted, / 7iever ceased to think upon ourselves 
with pity. oviroTE Xijyovaiv, tor' ay ap)(^(i)aiy avrUJi', they never 
leave off till they rule over them. e. Trp\v i) eXQeIv e^e (or Trph' 
eXOE'iy EfXE '), before I came : Trply ay eXOu), till I come (== till I shall 
have come ; venero). 

(o) Some adverbs govern a substantive in the same case as the 302. 
adjectives from which they are derived. 

Hence comparatives and superlatives take the gen. 

Some particles are sometimes simply adverbs, and sometimes preposi- 303 
<?ons governing a case : e. g. afia, ofiov, together: — apa (or opov) roXg 
(b) (ic, as a preposition (= Trpoe), is only joined to persons. 304. 

Some adverbs, especially relative ones, refer to verbs and whole clauses, 305. 
and thus connect propositions. 

This is the origin of conjunctions. 

d."Axpi- or fiixpi, ewq- and eo-e, both in the sense of 'until' 306. 

^ Adverbial, because they perform the part of an adverb. ' I went out very early ' 
(adv.) : 'I went out just as the sun was rising' (adv. sentence). 

1 The indicative of an historical tense is used of a past event that is to be stated 
as having actually occurred : Trpiv riXBov tyw. The preceding clause has often 
Trp6<j9tv in it, which makes the Trpiv appear superfluous. 

2 pexpiQ ov is often found. So 'iioQ ov, &c. 

118 307, 308. [§ 51. ADVERBS OF TIME, &C. 

and in that of ' as long as,' govern the subj. or opt. when there is any 
uncertainty; the indie, when not. 

Of course the opt. will appear without uv in oratione ohliqud, even 
where there is no uncertainty. 
307« Hence, when a thing is spoken of as an object or purpose contemplatedf 

the stibj. with av ^ will be used in connexion with prcs. ox future time; 
the optative *, in connexion with past time and the oralio obliqua. 
308. (e) TTpiy, as being a comparative, takes r; (which however is often 
omitted), and generally the infinitive ; but the subj. with dy, if the 
event is future when the principal clause is negative. 

Hence the subj. with du will be used after the imperative and future 
with negatives: i. e. when before =: till. 

Obs. £wc aV, tor' aV, ap-^^^wfriv ■=■ as long as they rule: i(oq 
ay, tar ay, ap^u)(ny = till they have obtained the rule or mastery. 

1. "Or' eurv^elc /xctXtora, yu»/ /^tya ^p6v%i. 2. "Ewe yc /i£- 
vofxty avTOV, (ncnrreoy jjiol CokeT elyai, uttloq wq cKJcpaXearaTn ^tvov~ 
/i£i'. 3. 'Erret^// aveui-^di^ tu Ee(Tfxwr)]pioy, elaljXOofxey, 4. 
'HviKa I'l y cei\r], e^aTrlyrjc eTrtfuivoyTai ol TroXijiioi. 5. Qig eyi- 
icXtyay ol TreXraff-ai, iy tovtu) ol ItttteIc tiridtyTo. 6. Mf'^pt tov- 
Tov Aaadiyr/g ^iXoQ (hyofiai^eTO '^iXiTnrov, eujQ tt povSojKey "OXvydoy, 
ju£)(pt TovTov T«/n6Aaoe, ecjQ cnrijjXetTe Qt'ifiag. 7- yieaarjylove 
TToXiopKovyTEQ oh TTpoTspoy enavaavTo ol AaKeSaifJioyioi, Trply e^i- 
/joXov £K rfiQ ^wf)ac. 8. "Or ay (nrev^r] tiq avrog, ^w dtog 
avvuTTTETai. 9. "ATvurra cva')(ipiia, Ti)y avrov (pvcrLy orav Xiiriiy 
TiQ Spa TU fX)) TrpoaeiKora. 10. ^vnftovXevo) troi, btTorav iSrje 
Tiya KaXi]r, (pevyeLy TrpoTpowaSriy. 11. Maiyofieda Trayreg, OTrorav 
opy li!^ tt) jueOa. 12. 'Hj't'/c' av oIkol yeyw yrai, Spuxriy ovi; dya- 
ayird. 13. MryOEJ'a (plXoy ttoiov, wply a i' i^eraffrfg ttwc Kej^prjTai 
ro~ig Trporepoy fiXoig. 14. '() vo^oQtTrjg rovg hiSaaKaXovg to. SiSa- 
CKaXela ical rovg TraiSorpilJag rag TraXalarpag dvoiyuv inrayopevet 
fii) Trporepoy irpiy dy o ijXiog dyia^i], 15. "A dv davvraKra fj, 
dydyKYj ravra del Trpdy/jLura ivapi'^^eiy, ewg dy ■^(wpav Xa/Sjj. 16. 
"Ecrr' a*' ?} ■^^^n.iiCjra r) iroXe/Jilovg SeiattXTiy, rd KeXEVOjJLEya irdyra 
TTOioviTiy. 17. M£)(pt TOVTOV TTOiZ/iToi'roi TYiy dia(popdy fii'^pi ov 
dp 01 a'lTioL dyayKaaBix) a IV vno Tuiy uyaLTibjy dXyovrrwy covyai 
ciKtjy. 18. AeI roue yeyofJEyovg /xiy^^pi dy i^waiy TTOVE'iy. 19. 

* With Trp'iv and ftv'iKa, and (in poetry) with fi'iXC-t ^XPh ^'^Cj '^^^ subj. is some- 
times found with dy. K. 

* And according to Hermann (against Elmsley) with dv. " Ubi in recta oratione 
Trpu' dv et similes particulae conjunctivum requirunt, in oratione obliqua manet dv, 
sed conjunctivo substituitur optativus ut proprius orationis obliquae modus." Praef. 
ad Track, p. 8. — Hartung says: " When the optative thus takes (in oblique narra- 
tion) the place of the subjunctive (in direct), the particle dv may, whenever one 
pleases, be left at his old post." Partikelleh.-e, ii. 304. — Poppo, however, rejects 
dv from Xen. An. vii. 7, 35. i^'iovro fit) ciTreXOtlv Trplv dv uTraydyoi to orpa- 
rtvjxa (which in direct narration would be, fX)) direXdyg irplv dv uTraydygg ...-), 
a passage quoted by Hartung. 

§ 51. ADVERBS OF TIME, &C.] ObsS. Oil 30G — 8. 119 

^Eirdv TiQ Tvy^arr] XvirovfJievog, I'laaov ohwarai, (plXov lay vapovT 
'i^T], 20. "Ottwc a(f>p(oy 'iarai // 4'^X''h tTTEi^ctv tov a(ppopoQ aojfxaroc 
Siva yivrjrai, tovt ov TreTVEiafxai. 21. "Ore e^u) tov Seiyov yi- 
voivTO, noWol TOV \\.\iap")^pv airiXenroy. 22. 'Ottot' sv TrpaarcroL 
TToXtf) £X"'P^> ^WTpwc 3" £.(pepev ei ti Bvcttv^o'i. 23. OvSafiodEV 
a(i)itaav, irplv irapadelev avTolQ apiaTov. 24. Tiepufxivofxev 
ktcaaroTe, fwe avoL'^QEii) to Se(T[j.u)Tr]pioy' eirEiSi] Se uvoi^detr], 
rjeifjiey wapa. tov SwKpctrjj. 25. Ot broi oi dypioi, kmi tlq Biojkoi, 
■irpoSpafi6vT£Q av toTaaav, Kal irakiv, stteI 7r\jj<rtdfoi 6 ittttoq, 
TavTov ETToiovv. 26. ^Trop^ctQ iTTOir'icravTo, ecjg cnrayyeXdeir) to. 
X£-)(OivTa. 27. 'LTavpii)ixa ETroiijaravTo, eojQ h) ol ^vfxfia^oi avrolg 
(3oj]di)(TOi£v. 28. "Ex£i9ov fj.)) TzoitiaQai fia-)^riv, irpXv ol 0?j|3a7ot 
TrapayivoivTO. 29. n.povKivi](Tav to aT~i<poc, Cjq TravaofxivovQ tov 
duoynov, eTTEi (T(pdQ 'iSoiev irpoopfxiiaavTaq. 30. 'Airioifiev av, 
OTTOTt TOV fiiadov 'i^otEv 01 TavTa vfxlv i:aTaTrpa.S,avTEQ. 31. At- 
oiTO CIV avTOv jXEVEiv, EffTE (TV aTriXdoiQ. 32. 'O^w ra i,vvTOjJLWTaTa 
ii, 'Afth'jpiov eg "IdTpov avrip Evi^wvog EV^EKaTaTog rtXel. 33. 
TiJv Iiapl3ap(i)v r]Bri ev ttj 'AttiktJ ovtwv, ETrEfX\pav ol Seku 'Adr]valu)v 
arpaTriyoX ^Ei.SinniBr]v tov KripvKa ig 27raprr;v j3or]d£iav aiTovfXEvoL 
Tovg AaKtZainoviovg' Ka\ 6 '^EiSnnridrjg ^EVTEpalog e^ 'Adrjvivv 7]v 
EV ^Trdprri. 34. T?/c twv 7roAfjU(wv crTpuTidg ol fiEV irpuiTOL dcfjiico- 

{XEVOL EV £7rirJJ^£tW Till X*^P'V It^TpaTOJCE^EVOVTO, ol ^' VtTTEpOl <T K 0- 

Taloi TrpoatovTEg, tl)g ETvy^^avov EKatrroi, rjvXi^ovTO. 35. Kara- 
Xrf^QivTEg utt' dvifjov ev Trj Tropeia Kal av^vov ■^povov hiaTpif^Eiv 
dvayKacrdir'TEg 6\piaiTaT0i Eig r»)v ■iroXiv eIctiiXOojuev, twv irvXiLv 
i]Sr] KEKXeifffxivbJV. 

{Observations on 306 — 8.) 

1) Several of these conjunctions are also found with the subj. 
without av, even in the best prose writers, when the thought is to be 
expressed as in no degree problematical. ITptV and l-iE-)(^pi- ov are often 
found so used, especially in Thucydides and the poets. (Kriiger.) 

2) When the principal verb is an historical tense, either the con- 
struction with dv and subj. is retained, or the optative is used without 
dv. Kriiger. See, however, note 4 on preceding page. 

3) The iterative optative (or optative oi indefinite frequency , 95) 
is now and then found after a (not historical) present or future. 

4) In the Tragedians and Thucydides irpiv (in Thucydides especi- 
ally Tzplv h), Tvpiv ye hi]) with the indicative is found after affirmative 
sentences, which, as a general rule, take irpiv with infin. (which, 
however, may also follow negative sentences). 

36. Ou \pri ap)(»7c dXXrjg opiyeadai rrplv f/v E-)(0fjiEv (oefiaiwaii)- 
fxtda. 37. "E<T7r£«<rrat fXE)(^pi ov ETraviXdojcr iv ol 7rpf'o-/3£ic. 38. 


'£>' rjJ {ppoveiv fjLTjhev rjBi<TTog (3ios, ewg to ■^^iilpeiv kui to kvTTElffdai 

39. 'II^- »/ yviofxi], oTcir 'Adrjraioi im (T(j)a.c j^wpwffiv, ey fxi(r^ 
ttouIp avruty tovq iroXcfilovQ, 40. Tuv iroKefiov avrodev Troieladai 
ovTTU) ISoKEi Svyarov eircii, Trp'iv av IwrriaQ fXETa-Kifi^uyaiv. 41. 
T>/>/ YlarQeiav iKiXtvaiv 6 Kiipoc ^la^uXarrtu' tup 'ApaaTrrjf, 'iwQ ' 
a I' avVoc XafD)], 42. Ov Trpotdv^iidrjcjav ^v^irXt'cv, Trptv ra'laOfita 
SieopTaaojcTip. 43. "^Xeyev oti rofxii^oiTO, ottote anl ^eiirvov 
KaXiaai ^evdqc, Swptlcrdai awrw roue KXrjdii'Tag. 

44. 'Ettci eyyuc ';^»/ tlev ol oj'riVaXot, TrapeXavi'oi eirl tovq 
■koXeh'iovc 45. 'Ettei tiq trrOieiv tci Ikava '^xoi, kKirovovvTi Spdiog 
/jdXXoy ^OKsl fxoi ij vyieta Trapa/jiti'tiv. 40. ^ApicrTatrdai kl, evi'iJQ 
e'idiiTfiai., i]yii:a eVt iy^oy KaTnXafij3ayoLij.i, ei Tiva Stofieyog ISeXv 
Tvyy^ayoifxi. 47. ^»'/<ro/x£v fxi)6inoTt fxridey ay fxt'i^oy /w»;2e cXarrov 
yeyifrdai, ewg 'iaoy e'ir] avTO kavTtZ. 

48. Tt'c ay ^iKijy Kpiytuy ?/ yyoirj Xoyoy, Trpir ay Trap' a/jKpdiy 
fxvdoy iicfiadr} aa^we; 49. Aeffj^por ijyovfxai TTpOTepoy Travaatrdai, 
TTpiy ay i//ietc o n a*' fiovXr](Tde tprjcpiffrjade, 50. "Aippwy peoq t ifv, 
Trply TO. TTpuyfiaT kyyvQty aKOTrwv kcxe'idov. 51. 'Ayfjp aaejiijQ /cat 
TToyripug tv^ov ay (pQaatu TeXtvTi'jcrag, irpiy covyai ciicrfy TCjy y/jiap- 
-jjijiywy. 52. Noynog itjy kni-^wpiog Hiptraic, Toy etg 6(pdaX/j.ovg 
kXdovTa Tox) (iamXiityr jjn) TrpoTspoy Xuyov ^eraXay^aj'ctv, irpiv rj 
TT poaKwrjaaL avToy. 53. Ae'yft Kpirt'ac, QeynaTOKXia Toy Nfo/cXt- 
ovg, Trpiy ?) apiacrdaL ■KoXiTEvetrBai, Tpia TuXayra 'i-)(£iy, Tt]y ovcriav 
Tt)y Trarpway. 54. 'Ettsl cnroffTpicpeiy avTov kireipiLyTO k^ 'IcTdjjLov, 
kyTavda ovkiti TrtidsTai. 55. 'Ettej inreTi^vovTo avTOV, kvTavda 
cifi porjftEiy EKiXEvey. 56. "Orar TrXfirxTu. tiq ext], tote xXeIcttoi 
TOVTU) Kal (pQoyovai KaX iTZLJiovXEvovdi Kal TzoXEp.ioi yiyyoyrai. 57. 
'FjTteiC)) <^iXnnroQ ^itcaiay QETTuXo'ig -jrapECWKEr, kvTavd' ijSr} fiEre- 
■7riid\pai'T0 'AdrjyaiovQ. .58. ^rjfil OE~iy, kav fxrj kOiXioffi ttoleIv Tavra, 
tot' i'jhi fJiETct TU)v kdEXoyTcjy ///idc ytyyEffduL. 

§ 52. On Interrogative Sentences. 
311. «• «p' EVTvxElg ; are you prosperous ? 

dp' ovK EOTW aadEyijg; is not he ill? y r-y -, 

he is ill, isn't he ? ) 
^dpa fxi] i(XTiy cltrdEyrjg ; is he ill? \ r-^ -. 

I he is not ill, is he ? ) 

c. i] TTov TEToX^rjicag ' rawrct ; have you indeed dared to do this ? 
[No,] d. i] yap, kav tl kpioTcj. ge ^ojKpaTrjg, awoKpiyET ; if Socrates 

^ Of things requiring courage, here of a m.'/c/i:*'^ courage, an impious daring. It 
has also the meaning of sustinere, to bear to do so and so. 

§ 52. INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES.] 312 — 316. 121 

puts any question to you, you will answer him, will you not ? [Yes.] 
e. ovTi TTou eyij aypoiKi^ofiai ; surely I am not behaving rudely, am 
I? [No.] f. fxwv Ti ae d^icEt®; he has not injured you in any re- 
spect, has he? [No.] g. fj.{] ri vewrepoi'^ ayyiXXeig ; you bring no 
bad news, I hope, do you? [No.] //. elr' eaiyag UXovroc &y; 
and did you then hold your tongue, you Plutus ? i. ETrtir' ovk out 
deovQ avdpujTTijjv ti (ppovTiiieiv ; do you then really 7iot think that the 
gods regard mankind? k. aXXo ti rj Tnpl TrXeiaTOv ttoitj, ottwc 
u)Q fiiXTKTTOi 01 vEWTspoi ECTOPTat ; do not you look upon it as a thing 
of extreme importance, that the rising generation should turn out as 
well as possible ? aWort oZy o'lye (piXoKepSe'ig (piXovuL to KipSoQ ; 
what ! do not the covetous love gain ? 

Besides the interrogative adverbs and pronouns the following particles 312. 
are used in questions. 

apa is mostly used in questions that imply something of uncer- 313. 
tainty, doubt, or surprise. 

The answer ' Yes ' is expected by, — 314. 

dp' ov(^nonne?); ov \ ovkovu ; aXXo ti r; ; 
The answer ' No ' is expected by, — 315. 

apa fxri ; fxri or yuwv*; 

Obs. 1. ov expects ijes ; fir], no: the fii) always implying solicitude, 
fear. — ov is often followed by jxevtoi : also by dr/, Sri irov, with which 
it has an ironical force, / imagine, forsooth, &c. Also ovti ttov. 

Obs. 2. The proper meaning of rj is that of a particle of asseveration = 
'surely,' 'indeed;' and this meaning it retains in questions. In >; ydp 
the ydp points to an inference drawn from what preceded, which has 
raised a suspicion in the mind of the questioner, of which he wishes to 
enquire the truth. It often therefore indicates a well grounded surprise, 
sometimes with a tinge oi quiet irony, which however does not lie in the 
particles, but in the words of the question. It is often therefore a rhe- 
torical question, implying that a fact is too surprising to be believed, or news 
too good to be true, &c. The connexion with the preceding statement, 
which is given by the ydp, may be pointed out by 'why' or 'what!' in 
English. [See note on Example 11.] — At the end of a sentence ij ydp; 
=1 is it not so ? 

Obs. 3. 'H TTOV does not necessarily expect the answer no. The rj con- 
tains an asseveration, the indefinite irov (= aliquo modo) implies that 
the questioner either does not know or passes over the wanner in which the 
fact, of which he possibly entertains no doubt, can be true. See the pas- 
sage from Eur. Medea, 678, given in Example 35, and the note upon it. 

(h. i.) eha, eVetra {then — and yet — and nevertheless) express 316. 

8 The pres. of this vvord is used for the perfect, for a man continues to wrong us 
till he has made us reparation. Heindorf, Protag. 463. 

7 v£ai7-£pov for vkov (a 7iew thing; news) and that per euphemismum for kukov. 
Ileind. Prot. 461. 

* fiCJv = lit) ovv: but the etymology being forgotten, ovv is sometimes used 
with it. Also fioiv nil ; {iHiv ov; the latter requiring an assenting answer ( = 
nonne ?)■ 


122 317, 318. [§ 52. interrogative sentences. 

astonishment and displeasure, implying that what they suppose has 
been done, is inconsistent with something before mentioned. 

317. {k) From the frequent use of aWo ti ?';, it came to be used as 
a simple interrogative particle, and the jj was often dropt ®. It is 
then better to write it as one word, dWon (K.). 

318. Tt Tradujy; {having suffered what? =) what possesses you to . . . 

&c. ? 
Ti fiadwy ; {having learnt what?=:) what induces you to . . . &c. ? 
These phrases are used in indignant, reproachful (\uesUons: the former 
obviously relates to the feelings; the latter to the understanding, and 
consequently to more deliberate offences. 

1. "lEjWrjveg orreg j3ap(iapoig EovXevcrofiev ; 2. O v k ehog vtrrara 
a(j>iKi'e~iadai ro (ipac^VTUTa ; 3. Zu)a ov ravra KciXt'ig, d av \pv)(i]'' 
t'Xf? ; 4. Ti TO arrepeadai irarpi^og, r) kokov fJiiya; 5. 'Ap' 6(j)£X6g 
TL Tu)i' ciWiov KTiTfJciTLJi' OLVEV (ppovijcTeujg Kal (70(j)iag ', 6. Tw»/ ttoXXHv 
KaXuiy fxiov ri ecrriv o ovk atcrj^po)' (papyitTsraL ', 7. IIwc VH~t^ ^X^'^ » 
8. "EoTt TrpoiTEyeyKtlf rd oro/iara role npciy^affiy wv fjufxrifxard tarriy, 
Tf ov ; 9. Ode oJEep uTToTa oTroioig Svyard koivojpsIv rj ri^rrfg Ee7 
r<J fjiXXot'TL Spar karwg avrd ; 10. 'Apa /.li] larpog jJovXei ytvi- 
<rdai ; 11. 'Apci fiov fii/jtrricTde ; 12. 'H ttov tl yaXEirov eort to 
iptvcii Xiyuv^; Men. 13. Tt TiadovaaL — dvi]Taig ei^acri yvvai^iv; 
14. Tt ydp fxadour' eg deovg vfipii^troy ; 15. Tt fxadwv /cara- 
(ppoviig Tbjp djjLEiroi'u))' ; 16. Tt Tradorreg aciKeire Tovg (piXovg j 
17. Et rig ere fjpero, o-rriog effcjdrjg, ri dv aTreKpiru) ; 18. 'Apa 
fidXXor ar el3ovXuv ^le opdv SiKaiwg r) d^ticwc dTrodvrjffKovTa; 19. 
Ov rovTO ye QdvaTug oi'opid^erai, ■yjjjpinjjog ipvyfig cnro aivixarog ; 20. 
Ov Trepifxevelg ; 21. Tt yap oil irdpeaTiy ; 22. Tt'e ovk dy Trapu' 
(ppoiah^ v^dg yoniaeuv ; 23. M>) civtov diet, (ppoyrirrai dayarov 
teal Kivhvvov ; 24. Tourw jxt] eari tl eyayrioy ; 25. 'Qi EyQu^poj', 
ov <po(3rj SiKui^o^eyog t<J irnrpi, ottojc fxi] av dvoffiov irpdyfjia rvyj^a- 
rr]g Trpdrrtjy ; 26. E'l Tig avXely fxr] einiTTd^svog kti) iraiTO TOvg 
Tifiodeov avXoiig ij Tovg 'Icrjirfyiov, dpa Sid tovto kuI avXely ov- 
vaiTo; 27. Tijy vtto ndyTtjy bjJoXoyoviJiiyrjv dpiuTov elvai elptivrjy, 
TTtDc ow XP^ '^"' ^*' hf^t^ avTolg Tronjaaadai ; 28. Tu>y <i?eiciov epyiav 
Tl ndXifTTu eir^veaai ; Tt 0' d\Xo jj t>iv Arjfiriay, jj Kal eVtypai/zai 
Tovyofja u (^eiSiac 3'/s/tti(T£ ; ^rai yi} At'a, Tijy 'Afjta^oya lirtpeiZojxevriv 
7&J Cnpariu). 29. Eu 'itrOi, ecpy], on, el roiji^oi/Jii deoiig dvdpwTrwv ti 
fpoyTii^eiy, ovk dy d^eXoirfv avTwv. Soar, "Eire it' ovk o"ui (^poyTi^eiv; 

' Stallbaum thinks it was dropt in animated, impassioned questions, and retained 
in those of a more sedate and sober character. 

' The answer will be here 'no,' because it is a. ' rhetorical question' (or 'question 
of appeal '), which when positive in form expects a negative answer ; the answer 
is however still one oi assent. 


ot TrpoJTOi' jL(£i' /jLoroy twv i^wwv ai'dpioirwy opdov ayeaTrjaai' K.r.X. 30. 
KaTreira toiovtov ovra ov (piXelg auror ; 31. 'H ovroi, efri, to 
Trainee, noXifXioi eifrtv, ol tcpeffriiKacn rule 'iinroig ijpe^o. ; IloXe/utoi 
fiivToi, tcpT). 32. 'H opdCJQ (TOL loKu), tfrji', af elmlv ovru) Xiyu)i', ij 

ov; 'Opdu>c, 'i(j)i]. 33. Ti Xiyfig, w Kvpe; ^ yap av rale 

aalg X^P"^' tovtwv ti efvTtvaaq ' ; 34. ^H nov, i)v c' eyco, w Avon, 
atpohpa ^iXti ae. u Trarijp ical >/ [^rjrrjp ; flajv ye, r) h' og. 35. 
Medea: yvva'it:' if' ?//i<r leanoTii' loyiwv eyei. jEgeus : 'H ttov 
reroXurjK tpyov a'ta^^iarov rcJ^e*; 36. Ovk IdiXeig lit'ai; [non or nonne 
vis ire ?] 37. Ov av fxivTOt'Ofn'ipov eKaiyirrjg el; 38. 'AXXo /x>/ 
np-x^iTEKTwr jSovXei yevicrdaL ; Ovk ovv 'iywy\ f.<p-q. 'AAXa ^»/ yewfxi- 
TpT)g ETTtdviJie'ig, e(j>r}, yevetrdai. ayudog; Ov()e yewfierprjg, tcpr}. 
39. Mj) ouy, t<pr] 6 'EvBvcr]fiog, oh CvriiifxaL tyw to. Tijg hicaioavyrjg 
epya i^T]yt](Taadai, 40.~Ap' e(j)Tf 6 ^wKparrjg, wairep, (piXov o'ikov ei 
av^fjaai fiovXoio, TrXovcnojTtpoi' avrov eni'^^eipoi.rfg av Troir\aai\ Ilavu 
fievovy, efr). 41. ~Apa, 'ifri, w Uappdcru, ypafucii eirnv 17 ehaaia 
tG)v ipb)}iivwv ; 'AXrjQri Xiyeig, ecpi]. 42. ~Ap' ovy otafla rwag, 
ot a.yo)(peXe~ig oPTeg o)(j)eXifj.ovg cvravrai (plXovg Troie'itrdai ; Ma At" ov 
BfJT\ e(j)r]. 43. "Ap' oiiv, efr}, Kai oiKerai aov a')(QovTai TtivovTeg re 
avTo Ka\ XovojJLevoi aurw ; Ma tov At", t^'/*' ^4. 'Ap' ovv Sia ty^v 
Tov '^(aXKeviiv af-iaQiav tov ovo^iarog tovtov Tvy)(f.ii'ov(nv ; Ov ciira. 

45. 'A pa ye ov ■^ri Tvavra aicipa, /yyjjaa/xej'Oi' T))y eyKpuretav aperrig 
elrat KpTjirlCa, ravTTjv Trpairoy ey ttj ^v^ij KaraaKevaaaadai. ; 

46. 'Apa fxi] BiaftaXXeadai S6S,Eig iin i/J-ov ; 47. Tt Se ^j) 
(DovXofievog uyadog yeveadni, ecprj, d) Ev^vBr]f^e, crvXXeyeig ra ypa/x- 
fxara; 'Apa /it») tarpog ; e<pT]. Kat 6 Evdv^rji^og' Ma At", 
'itpT}, OVK eyojye. 48. '^Apa ^17 ai(j\vvdu)nev tov IlEpo-wv fiaaiXia 
fii^i^traaQai; 49. 'O vonoQeTYig ovk aXXo rj irpog r»)i' fxeyi(TTr]V aperijy 
fiaXiara (iXeTrujy di'icrei Tovg vofiovg, 50. 'Eyeirprjaay tU irXma oTTwg 
avoyyoia fi tov aXXo ti *; »cpar£7v TTJg yfjg. 51. Ovcey aXX jj 
avjiflovXevovcnv iifi'iv iraXiy irepi aycpa-rzo^ia^ov Kivcvyeveiy. 52. 
OvZev aXXo iroiovaiv T] KudiaTaai Tijy TroXiy elg tov avTOv Tponov. 
53. Ovhev aXXo r\ ttoXel iKiniroXiopKTjfiiyr} kwKeaay. 54. 'AXXo 
Tt r) TOVTOig ovTE al liriaTiiiiai ■^pi'jfjaTo. elaiy o'vTe tci KTij/JiaTa; 55. 
Ot rtyafloi aXXo n j) 0pdrt^oi ; 56. "AXXo ti t) ^atr;c ay ayayKa'ioy 
eh'ai (piXocTofe'iy ; 57. Tt aXXo ovtol 1] kire'i^ovXevaay ; 58. 'AXXo 
TL o ayadog Tip ayo0w fx6yu> (ptXog ; 59. "E(7TT]Kag apyog ; 

* ' You surely did not plant :' or ' what ! did you really (or actually, or indeed) 
plant V ' what ! do you mean to say that you planted, &c. V He knew that he had, 
because Cyrus had just told liim. 

* ' Has Jason indeed dared to do this most shameful thing ?' — Elmsley would 
read rj yap, to express a stronger surprise ; but Pflugk and Klotz defend ?} ttov. 
The latter says, that ^Egeus, though fully expecting an affirmative answer, is still 
pondering over it in his mind with surprise and a somewhat of doubt {subdubitans). 

* Profecto non segre ferunt. 

R 2 

124 319. § 52. [preposition Trpoe.] 

OvTOiTL aoi Kor^vXoc. GO. Aj/Xoj' kn\ rirri (jjHoyovcn Kai riaiv, iiirtp 
ktTTlV (pdui'OQ XvTTt] TlCf /^») '« Vtt Tt aVTf, dAXti St tKeirovQ. 61. 
Marlay [yap] Tiva icpt'iaafiey dvai tov tpwra. >'/ yap ; 62. Tt hfi 
fovr] oivTOQ afjiaoTCLrei, Kal artj^rof Trout XeKreoy. r) yap ; 63. H 
yup iariy, wq aXrfdilJg, rrjvB' dcpiyfjiiyog ^Oora ; 

64. Tt h' laTiy ; i) ttou kuX av avKoipayrpia 
'Ev rate yvvaLl^iv yada ; 

.Ma At" iyu) jj.e.v ov. (Aristoph.) 

gjg LESSON LII. (continued.) 


Trpog, to, close by, generally takes the ace. in answer to whither? the 
dat. in answer to where ? 

Trpof TOV is also towards, against, in reference to, with a view to, in 
comparison of. 

Trpoc TOV is from, by, after to hear, to be praised or blamed by, and 
frequently after the passive verb. 

TtpoQ TOV is also used of situation and in adjurations. 

I am wholly wrapt up in this {n poQ tov ri^ o\oq dpi). To pay close 
attention to one's affairs {irpbg Tolg Troaynaai yiyvtaOai). Jn addition to 
this (Trpoc Touroif). To fighi against a person (Trpof Tiva). To calculate 
with oneself (Xoyi?£<T0ai irpbg iavrov. So with aKk-KTtaBai, aKoniiv, 
to consider). To be dishonoured by (^aTipaZ,iaQat. TipoQ tivoq). On the 
father's side (irpog Trarpog). 

ilvai Trpog Tivog is (1) to he consistent with, like, or characteristic of; 
(2) to be on his side ; (3) to make for him, to be for his interest ; to be a 
good thing for him. 

64*. "i2(T7r£p XaX/ctc rw tottw Tijg Eu/3ot'ac Trpoe rriq Boiti>rt'ac 
kCitui, oi/rtu Xepffoyljaov /cetrat Trpbg rfje Qp^Ktjg >; Kap^iayioy ttoXiq, 

65. To Trpoc ^tKvuJvoQ Koi Trpog Icnripac Te~i-)(oc ttf-TEiy^iLiTay. 

66. 'AXK.t/3tao?;c Xiytrat Trpoc Trarpoc fJ^^y 'AXKfiaiwvihwv dvai, 
Trpoc ^£ [j,r}Tpde 'iTnroyiKOV. 67. Xpijerrou irpOQ avSpog firjZlv 
ivvoiiy KuKoy. 68. IIpoc tov Aaicw I'licoi} Tpovrov to tu (ipa-)^y- 
Tepa ael TTpo-lfiay. 69. Ae~i TideaBaL -a oVXa irpog tov XoyiaTi- 
Kov. 70. KaXXt'«€ fot ^o/v'£t TTpof ripwrayopou liyai. 71. 
Ilpoc iraihuiv Kal yvyaiKioy Kal deCjy iketevoj Kal avnfioXu/, 
eXeijaaTS /lie. 72. Tfjy tvyiveiay, irpog deioy, fxi) fioi Xiye. 73. 
"O n EiKaioy kaTi Kal irpog dewy Kul Trpog ayQpwTTwy, tovto Trpa^oj. 
74. At (yayavaiKal rtj^j^at a^o^ouiTai Trpog Tu>y iroXewy. 75. 'H 
yewpyt'a BoKe'i eycoS,OTaTri eiyai Trpoc Twy iroXewy. 76. Et^roc 
^vyyywfxoy ti yiyyeadai irpog tov deov. 77. Ot TrOTafiol npog 
Tulg 7rr]ya~ig ov fieyaXoi tlaly. 78. flpoc rw Xapeiv wy 6 vovg 
rdXX' oux 'V?* ^^' flpoc rw (.iprffxiyo) Xoy^ ^i'. 80. Towr' 
tctJ' (TKOTrfj KUKa Trpog Tolg KUKolaiy ovTog tTspa avXXiyei, 81. 
SiKavoi rd fjiicra Kal to. Trpog (ooppay Trig vriaov E-^ovaiy. 82. 'Hv 
TTpoc VfJ-ipay }]hr}. 83. "Efvyoy Trpog Trjy yfjy. 84. 'Ej'd^t^fj' 
oiiTU) TTpog Tovg (j>iXovg Kal elg Trjy TroXiy Tovvofia jj-el^oy afi^eadai. 
85. "Oray 'iByg irpog v\pog ^pfjiiyov riyd, tovtov ra^^tiay rifjisariy 

§ 53. [preposition Trptif.] 319. 125 

tiidvg Tvpoa^oKa. 86. ^iXei Trpug to. xpjjora ttuq opav. 87. 
XaXfTTCj^ yvvaiKa Trpoc viav i^ev^ai teop. 88. "A au f^o-dtf tic, 
Tavra (Tw^ec^daL (piXt'i irpuc y^lpcig. 89. YlaveracrdE kuI Trpug 
ipyov fso/3/^w/i£0o. 90. 'AdviAWQ fxtv TiXQov knl ra orrXa, aSv/iwe 
Se irpoQ rag tpvXaKdc' 91. 'Qii fiavdarofity Trpog to elcipai 
Tr)v aXifdeiav ottj/ tj^et Trdi' act Terarai. 92. H ^iXon/dia fiaXiirra 
irapoivyei Trpoc ret KciXa Kai evTi/ja. 93. Tt 0j/c ; XciQilv '(■))twv 
Ti irpoQ yuratv' £p£te ; 94. Sty// juou uKovaare. Cirjyov^ivov ciTraj-ra 
Trpoc vixac. 95. Twi/ a;rd»'rw>' (plXwi' fiinvr)(TO irpoQ tovq irapov- 
rac. 9Q. TopyiaQ irpuQ airavra e'^jj cnroKpireladat. 97. "Ertpoc 
\6yoQ ovTOc, ov Trpoc ffE- 98. AoylaaGQe irpoc vfiac avTOvg 
ri (TVjJL(ii]aiTai. 99. 'Ev r^ kKaarov yj'w/xj; (j)iXavdpojTria vrpoc 
<j>d6yoy Ka'i hiKaioavt-q Trpoc ivai>.'<a»' curirarrfrat. 100. Ilpoe 
rowc TToXefxiovc eotii' avlplaQ Kpicr,.Q. 101. Ilpoe vtoi' opy/)v 
ovK 'i')(ti ■)(jir)aTuc irariip. 102, Ou ^uai^d/xeQa vrpdc ai/T-ovc 103. 
npde (ce'jTpa /i>) XiiKTii^E toiq Kparovtri aov. 104. QapaoQ ye npog 
Tag (TVfxfopag jiiya adivei. 105. Ot U^po-ai iTreTruiStvr-o Kal 
irpog Xi/jioy Kai irpog p'lyog Kaprsptlv. 106. 'O/diXei rwy ttoXeuji' 
Trpug rag iJTTovg. 107. 'HSiwg t-x^ Trpug aTravrag, XP<«' ^^ ''oic 
fieXriaTOig. 108. Ni5v irpog aXXi'iXovg St' avTiXoyiiov weipwiJtda 
KaraXXayiitai, 109. Aetioy tv-v)(^u)P a.yi)p irpog KaKwg Trpaa- 
aovTac. 110. 'O o-oXT/pdraroc Trpdc vlov iv rw vovQeteIv, ro'ig ^(.y 
Xoyoig TTLKpog iari, To'ig 3' epyoLg narrip. 111. ITpoe roy teXevti]- 
aayd' EKaarog, icdy c^d^pa irply E-)(6p6g 7) Tig, yiyvtTai (piXog tote. 
112. B£/3a«drarai cokovui (piXlcu Euai yovEvai irpog ira'iSag. 113. 
'Ev Tolg wpog aXXijXovg avvovcriaig 7) Xoviopovaiy 7) XoicopovvTui. 
114. "Ayti r>)i' Trpdc vjnae Elpiiyrjy. 115. Tac avyQIiKag rag irpog 
aXXrjXovg aincTTiag h'EKa iroiovfxtda. 116. Ilpdc Toy SEdiroTTjy 
EeT iirjv E^t. 117. Olca Toiig a.ydpu)irovg irpog Tag lvfj(j>opag Kal Tag 
yyojfxag TpEiro/jEyovg. 118. Xp^ Trpdc to irapuy ael (iovXEVEaQai. 119. 
Ou TTpdc 7-d apyvpiov Ti]v Evlaijxoyiav EKpiyoy. 120. Ilpde Ti)y 
avayK-qv irayra raXX' £ot' acrdEvij. 121. Oi»^£J' >/ evyeVeta Trpdc 
ra xp»;/iara. 122. Ta (Tfiiicpa irpog to. /utyaXo a^iKpa iiXTiy. 
123. 'Ev 'A0//iatc XP'/M"'"' £»'£''■'■"' dXt'you ^t'w Trpdc ctTrao-ac rac 
aXXac TrdXtic £tTr£t»'. 124. 'E6f'Xw croi ciTrsTi' {jtrirtp 01 yEWfJETpai, 
o 6-<po-iToai.-f) irpog tarptK?/*', tovto prjropiKi) irpog ciKutTTitcij y. 
125. Ti^odEog cKpv^g ^y irpog rj)v rwv ayOpwirwy y^pEcav. 126. 
Updc EKaaTa Se'i 1*; i-^Qpov rj <piXov fXETO. Kaipov yiyyEtrdai. 127. 
Ta yvfj-yaaia irpog rag aratxEig yaXEiza. 128. To roue TroXXodc 
ayv^yaTTiog iyeiy irpog te ip^X^ **■"' ^poc daXirri ov cokeI aoi 
iroXXi) ai-iEXEia E^yai ; 129. Oi5 T<p itXijOei Tu>y irdy SiacpipofXEy 
irpog TO EV (j>poy£~iv aXXi'jXtjy. 130. Ov rw api0/iw oi;r£ ro TroXXa 
KpiyETai ovTE ro licaya, uXXii irpog Tag ■ypijcrELg. 131. Il£Trat^£i;- 
fiEda Trpdc ap£Tr]y, 132. T('0£rai ImaTri 7; apx'l t^^Q rojJLOvg irpog 

126 321 — 325. [§ 53. indirect single questions. 

TO eavTTJ (TVfKpipov. 133. "Acwt rwi' 7r£pt ro aCj^a yvf-ivaaicoy fifi 
ra TTpoc '"')»' pw/Lij;)', ciWct to. Trpof r?/r vyleiav av^cpipovra. 
134. To'iQ cuvXoiQ K(u »/ coKovaa dijpiwhjc Trai^tUi tlvai irarv iariv 
ETraywyoc irpiq to Trtidtadai SiSatriceiJ'. 135. IIpoc ri jue Tavr 
epwr^g ; 136. To Trirew Trpog fiiuy "icjov kukov vitpvKS rw ^i\pfjy 
fiiq. 137. "Etticoi' Trpoe iiBoPTjy. 138. Ou/v' e'&iXtr' acouEti' ttX^i' 
rdiv TTpog ijSoi'yjy CrjfxqyopovvTiiM', 139. To Trpoc ^cipiJ/ priQiv 
emcTKOTel tw KciQopav vixag to (HXtkttov. 

§ 53. Indirect (or Dependent) Single Questions. 

321. a, ovc ot^a (or ovk t'x*^) ottoi Toairajfiai. (See 67, 6.) ow ol^a 
bcTTir ecTTi, I don't know who he is. ovk ol^a ottwc ro irpayua 
eirpa^E}', I don't know how he did the thing. cnroKpirai a.vSpeiu)Q 
oTTOTspa (701 (pait'ETctt, answer boldly which of the two is your 
opinion. h. 'itr^ev noaa te k(r-i kui otto'iu, we know both how 
many they are, and of what kind. c. bpag ovv iii^uq, lipri, oaroi 
i.(Ti.ui' ; do you see, said he, how many we are ? (or how many there 
are of us?) d. ovtoq^, tL ttoieiq; — o, tl ttolu) ; you there, what are 
you doing ? — ivhat am I doing ? 

322. (a) The proper forms for indirect questions are those pronouns 
and adverbs which are formed from the direct interrogatives by the 
prefixed relative syllable 6 — , which gives them a connecting power. 

Thus from irocrog ; ttoToc; ttov ; TroOev; ttwq; &c. are formed OTTOffog, 


So oarig, formed by prefixing the relative to rig, is the proper depend- 
ent interrogative. See G7, ^. — Whether is tl. See 335. 

323. But as the Greeks often pass from oblique to direct narration, so 
they often use the simple interrogatives in dependent questions ; and 
even, as in (Jb), intermix the two. 

324. {c) Occasionally, though very seldom, the relative forms them- 
selves are used in dependent questions. 

(c) Wlien, as in this example, a pronoun or noun is the accus. after the 
first verb, and the nom. before the second, it is generally expressed in the 
accus. ^ and not in the nominative. 

325. {d) When the person of whom the question is asked repeats it, he 
uses the forms beginning with o — . 

1. \ikov, tl ovx rJnapTeg ravTU Xe^ag. 2. 'ETruvSaro/ijji/, el oh 
TovTO ttcaaruv tit) kpyoi', o av KaXXiOTU tCjv aXXiov epya^riTai. 3. 
BouXo^at iptadai, el nadtjv rig n Ka\ iJie[jiyr]jj.ei'og fiij olhev. 4. 
'Hpwrwv avToi', el fjirihev (ppoyTi^ti tCji' TrcipovTwy. 5. ^KeTrreoy 
Tfivg d(j)poi'a.g re kciI cppoyi hovc, TLveg ttot elaiv. 6. To tCjv 

5 ovTOg, avTT], are used (instead of «;oc.) in exclamations; you there! 
•' The accusative is generally retained in the English Bible ; " I know </<ee, who 
thou art," &e. 

§ 53. [preposition utto.] 326. 127 

\prfua.T(t)v, TTOffO Kal Trodtr iUTai, fxuXiara -rrodelTe aKOvtrai, 7. 
Ol^£V ovhlg Tov QavaTOV, tl rvyxai'si ti^ avSpwiru -navTuyv fiiyirrrov 
ov TU)}' ctyadQi', ^e^iaai d' wc iv elcureg, on fxeyiarov rwv KaKuiv 
Eartr. 8. Tovg vofxovQ (.okotvovv, owtjq ciKpifiwg Kai KaXwg i^ovaiy. 
9. ^pwri^oj, /J)) KpaTitTTov fi fJtoi aiy^v. 10. 'Apa TravroQ 
avSpog kariv eKXt^aadai tto'iu ayada tSjv ijSiwy tari /cat biro'ia 
Kaicd' rj Tixi'iKov Eu elg tKatrrov ; (i). 11. 2v d rig av- 
hpwv ', "Ocrrig Eifx' iyw ; Mirwy. 12. XIwc av ravra l,vy')(ij)poi- 
/xey ; "Ottwc,- ; tl dsog iij-uy ^oiri ng avfx^ioriav. 13. Ovk 'iyji>) eywye 
oirwg aoi tinuj o row. 14. Ou fxayOnyeig oirtjg ay tovto yevoiro. 
15. Ovk, w (.HXtkjte iravv rjiTiv ovrut (ppoyrtcrrioy ri ipovcny o'l noXXol 
7//xac ciW o -L 6 iTra'iwy irepi rwy ^iKaitoy Kal a^iKwy (6). l6."lipiT0, 
6 Ti ytXcSrjv. 17. Ov (Twcppoyi'iffeig; ov fxadiov og el (pvcriy aXXoy tIv 
a^eig ciyEpa Sevp' eXevdepoy, oarig wpbg i]}JLag avrX aov Xilei r'a aa ; 
18. Act Tovg dearag fx eiSeyai og ti^' eyw. 19. Ovk: olda bang 
aydpwTTog yeyivr^nai. 20. 'EKeirog, &g <j)r](ny, oide, riva rpoiroy ol 
vioi hatpdtipovrai. 21. 'U.Tr6povy, ri ttote Xiyei b deog. 22. OvSelg 
Tipwra, TTola rig e'ir) fi Topyiov Ti^yr], aXXci Ttg Ka\ ovriva Siot 
KaXuy TOy Topyiay. 23. Tai5ra ^£ KaTapid/jiyiaaneyog, ojg cikovw, 
fieXXei jj-e irupaKaXdv Kal errepijJTdy biroiov Tovrejy rwy TeTrdpujy av- 
Tov Kaipwy KUTTiyopui kuI ttote avrbv ov rh iSeXritTTO. <pr}^i rw 2?7/iW 
TriTToXiTivaQaC Kay /J») deXu) cnroKpiyarrdai, aXX' tycaXuTrroijuat Kal 
cnrocidpdffKU), tKKaXvxl^Hy fii <pr}(n irpoatXQujy Kal a^eiy eirl to (irjua Kal 
dvayKacreiy airoKpiyaadai. 24. Tig i]v, d> Sti^parec, w x^^f ^*' 
AvKEtu) SiEXiyov ; — 'OtroTEpoy Kal epuirdg, w Kpirwy, ov yap elg, 
dXXa Svo ijarrjy. PL 25. 'EireiMy Tig avTOvg epwr^ on noiiLy 
Kal 6 Ti ^iEd(7K(x)y oia<pdeipei TOvg yeovg, ov^ey t.\ovatv elne'iy, 26. 
'AXXo -t'e yap e\ ; "Ocrrtg; iroXiTng XPI'^'''"^' 
LESSON LIII. (continued.) 

[irro.] 326. 

VTTO TOV,' under,' after verbs oi rest as well as verbs oi motion. Also 
' about,' of time. 

VTO T(P, ' under,' after verbs of rest only : sometimes, instead of the 
gen., after passive verbs {lafiT]vai viro Tivi). 

vnb TOV, ' by,' after passive verbs and active verbs with a passive 
notion. Also, to express a cause ; from, out of, through. 

To die by the hands of{ano9avtiy virb — gen.). To learn hy compulsion 
(vtt' avdyKTig). He did it through or from fear {iirb Ssovg. Skog, n.). 
To be mad from intoxication (utto fik9r]g iiaividOai). Sub noctem, at 
or about 7nghtfall {viro vvkto). 

27. 'HyoutTO Tui Toiig avrov KaTaii7-)(yyayTL o'vTe Tiya dvdpwwMV 
ovTe Qewv <piXoy elvat ovt eirl y»/C ovd' vvo yf/c TeXev-r](TavTi. 28. 
Movoy ovx ^TTO KijpvKog wwXovai ret Koiyd. 29. Ol flapjiapoi 
EToievoy VTTO naffTiyajy, 30. 'Eyiy»'£'"0 Epyto vtto tov Trpujrov 
dy^pbg dpxh- 31. OefiKTTOKXfjg ^v ey /ieyaXw d^tti^an vnb Twy 

128 328 — 330. [§ 54. double questions. 

'EW^^wv. 32. "H^erat rr} vtto Trc'iyrtjy rifxij. 33. Ai'icaioi ovr£C 
a^i'lfiiOL VTTO deuir EaofieBa. 34. Twv aTro/^aWoiTwv ti 6\pei ov^iva 
^vvajxtrov KaOevCeiv utto Autttjc. 35. '11 ^vx"") ^^^ y(TV)(^iaQ oifre ri 
fiavOat'tt, a re ai' i^nBr] EirtXaydayETai. 36. 'Ytto avavEplag rj 
yt'jpijQ i] Tii'OQ aX/Xrjc acrdeveiac xpiyei to aSiKelp. 37. 'Ytt' 
eXtti^wv aj'^pac ro iCEp^og ttoXKcikiq SiwXEaey. 38. Ovketi olov re 
i]y KcidEvdeiv inro riov 'nnr£0)v, 39. Ei/icXc?)^ davEi yvvij r aplcTrr) 
TLJy v(p^ >/Atw ficiKptv. 40. "Effrt (oaaiXEia if KtXairale vtto r^ 
dk'poTroXf I. 41. Tt e\eiq vtto rw tjuar/w; 42. 'Hv trt w;ro 
vo^oif Kai Ti-arpi. 43. Tuii/ 'EAXjyvwv ol fXEV v(j)' rjfi'iv^ ol 3' 
VTTO AciKEhaifiovioiQ eiitu'. 44. Ot Trpoyopoi vtto rote rupav- 
roig Eyiroi'To. 45. Ewayopae roue (piXovQ raTg fi/Epyefftate w^* 
eavrw ettoieIto. 46. 'ETropfvoyujjj^ r»jj' tsw TEi^ovg i/tt' avro to 
T£'l')(^OQ, 47. 'Ev r«7e UTTO ro opog kw/jluiq rjvXil^oyro. 48. 'Ai^a- 
KE-)(^(i)priK6T£Q VTTO TO te'i^oq Kal Tcig TTvXag fjav^lav -^yov. 49. 
'Ytto rr)t' (TKictv EKadEi^ETO. 50. To*' ^iXnnrov tmv viro tov ijXiov 
ardpu)Tr(i)y E(pri Trarrwr CEiruTaToy t'lvai. 51. Tcivtci vtt' auyoc 
fjidXXoy 'i^(i)ner. 52. Qvpiav (.Eorrny AuKE^aifxoyioi Atynr/ratc 
EKTTEtTovaiy ei'oikeIv Sid te Tag vtto rdv OEia^vv afiai yeyofiivag 
Kal riiiy EiXwrwv Trjr EnayctiTTaaiy EvepyEaiag. 

§ 54. Double Questions. 

328. a. TTOTEpoy ExpovTai Kupw, r) ov ; will they follow Cyrus or not ? 
■Kp\y lijXov EiyuL . . . ivoTEpov E^poyTai Kvpw ») ov, before it was 
known, whether, &c. b. tovtm Toy vovv ■jrp6(rf)(E, eI BiKaia Xt'yw, 
7] /x>;, attend to this, whether what I speak is just or not. c. (tkottw- 
fXEv e'ite eiKog^ owrwc £X^n', e'Lte fi{], let us consider whether it is 
likely to be so, or not. 

329. Direct double questions are asked by TroTepoy (or Trortpa) — ^, less 
commonly by dpa — >/. 

f^twv — i} is still less common ; ?/ — tj belongs to poetry, especially epic 

330. Indirect double questions are asked by — 

TTOTEpoy — r/. 

,/ „_ f Of these eiTe — hte gives more prominence to 

' < the speaker's indecision and hesitation between 
^t Vt V the two possibilities. K. 

7] — 7] belongs to epic poetry, though occasionally found in Attic poets*. 
HTt — 7], and il — tire, are also used by poets ; who sometimes omit the 
first tire altogether. 

^ Neut. of tiKtbg, part, of eoiKa {am like), which has three forms of part. ioiKutg, 
iiKitig, oiKiag. B. 

* Hermann, who denies this (against Elmsley), is opposed by Hartung, Klotz, 
and others. 

§ 54. DOUBLE QUESTIONS.] 330. 129 


1. Ot <paivovTai koX Xiyovrtc a. ixrj 'iaaai Koi TrpaTrovrec "Torcpa 
aoi^oKoixTiv CTTt ToiQ TouiiiToii; kiraii'ov /.idWov f/ ipoyou Tvy)(^aveiv Kai 
iroTtpov Oavudi^eadai ndWoy y icaTa(ppoi'e1(rdui ] 2. Srpartuoiro 
"irorepog av p^or, 6 yu/) Ivvci^ivoQ avtv iroXvTtKovi; EialrrjQ ^fjy jj ^ 
TO irapoy apKoirj ; 3. Ylore pu)c av fidWov drdpunrot owtppoyoley, 
apyovvTiQ II Ttjjy j^pT/i/jutiU' tTrifxikov^tyoi ; 4. Tt'e o yy(i)(TOfieyo£ ; 

TTOiijaac ») o 'j^prjcro^tvoQ ; 5. ^au'erai ^iktei ni'a opdurtfTa ej^of 
ilvat ro orofxa' rj ov \ 6. Ilorfpoi' at yui'al/cec £v rale to\£<71 
<ppoyi/jil)Tepai not SoKovaiv eiyai f; ot ayBpec, we ro oXoj' £t7r£7>' yooc ; 
Ot dy^peg. 7- IIorEpoi' l^iiraKag tovto f; ttwc olada ; 8. Horepov 
ipojfjiiy Ti tlyai avro KaXov kuI dyaddy Jj fit] ; 9. E'tTrar', t'ire ^ptj^eT 
c'lT oh ■)(pT}^£Te iptvytiv. 10. ^Kexpwfieda, t'lT dpn kv ^iov tlaiv at 
4'i'X*^* TeXevrriady-uy ruiv dyBpuTrioy, eire Kal ov, 11. Uorepoi' piay 
(pUjfiiy tJyai, T] fifi (puifiey ; 12. M ») dTrocpiVwftai rovrtoy fiySiy; 
13. IloXtoptou/xii'Wj' Tuiy ^AQr]yaiwy viro AvadyBpov, Qepafxtyrjc tv 
iKK\r](Tiq. uney, oti, tl fiovXayrai alruy Trifxxpai irapd Avaayhpov, ilcwQ 
ij^ei AaKt^aifioyiovc, Trorepov tiar'^poTro^t'o-aorQoi rf/y TroXiy fiovXo- 
fievoi dyri-^ov(TL irepi TtLv reij^wi', f; Trt'oretiic tyEKa. 14. Ilorfpoj' 
IwiaTa^tyoy riyio^e'ty Itti i^eiiyog Xafitly Kpt'trToy, y) ^i) kiriaTd^tyov ; 
15. Kat 6 SwK-pfirjjc e^rj* Ilorfpa li, o5 Xatpe\-par£C> ou^ei't dpiaai 
Ivyarat Xaips^tDv, — r\ eariy oig Kai irdvv dpiaKEi', 16. Ti ci, ijf 
^pi'lfxara TroXXd tX'?' ^9^ TrXovreTy, >) irivriTa vok'iq ; 17. Tawra 
oiJrw irpoyoTiTiKuig TreTrpayfxiya, aTropt'ic, n ore pa TV\riQ, t] ynofirji 
'ipya eaTiy ; 18. Bo6\£i kuI tovto (TKexl/wjueda, irorepoi ^w(7(J' ijEioy, 

01 dpypvTig }*; "oi dp-)(6fiEyoi ; 19. 'OpiLvTEQ avTovg ol DXarat^c 
dirtiXrjfx^iyovQ kftovXevovTO e'lre KaTaKavaioaiy wffTTfp txovirt*' t^irpx)- 
aavTEQ TO o'lKrjfxa, e'lTe n dXXo ■x^prjrrojyTat, 20. 'O ci KAfap^oc 
tlSovXevETO, XIpo^Eioj' KaXiaag, TrXTjixiaiVaroc ydp ^y, £t irinnoiiv 
Tiyag, f/ TrdyTtg 'ioity tiri to (TTparoTreSoy dp7it,oyTEg. 21. Kat avrot 
tjiovXEvoyTO, El avTOv [-iEu>ayT£g ret oKEVo^opa kyTuvda uyoiVTO, »/ 
dnioiEV £7ri to aTpaTOTZECov, 

{JEschines slandering Demosthenes.) 

22. Ot /<£V yap aWoi aXa^oi'fc orar ti J/fu^turrat, aopiirra Kal 
daacjjij 7r£ipw»'rat Xt'yEii', (pojJovixEtoi Toy 'kXEyxpy' ^rjjioaQEyqg ^' otuv 
dXa^oyEvr]Tai, irpwToy fih' /x£0' opKov ^pEV^ETai, EL,u)XEUiy ETrapwfiEyog 
lavTui, ^EVTEpoy CE, d Ev oISev ovHttote EfTOfXEya, ToXfi^ XiyEiy dpidfjwy 
Elg OTTOT EffTcii, Kul i5y Tu aojfJLaTU ov)(_ EUJpaKE, TOVTdJy ret oj'o/iara 
X£y£t, icXEirrtuj' Tt)y dKpoaaiv kcu miiovfiEyog tovq TdXydij XiyoyTug. 
Sio Kcd (T<p6^pa d^iog ectti fiiaEladai, vti troyrfpug wv icat ra Twy XP^'^' 
Tu>y (T>}fiEl<t hu(f>Otln£i. rnvra ^' tlnwy ci?(jj(ny dyayyuivai \pii(piaiua tu 


130 333 — 336. [§ 55. observations on tl, lay. 

■Ypafj/jaTel naicpoTepor jiev Tijg 'IXtd^oc, ktrorepor ^e tuiv \6yu)>' ovg 
e'iwdt Xiytir (cat roii j^iov or fieftiwKs, f-iearvv o' eKTrit'ioy ovk kcoyiivuiv 
KoX arpaTOTti^wv ov^iTTon. avWiyriao^inor. 

§ 55, Observations on d, tav. 

333. fl. ayaraKTU) el ovrwrrl^, a voCj, fit) otdc t' dfil elireli', I am 
indignant at being so unable to express my meaning, ovk ayarr^, ei 
fii) ciKTjv iSioKEi', he is not contented with not having been punished, 
duv fid^u), el /jirjStig v^Cjv opyi^erni, I am astonished, that not one 
amongst gou is angry, b. (TKixpai^, ti 6 'EWrjvwv rofxoQ KaWlov 
£)^£«, consider whether the Grecian law is not better. uKt-^ai, kitv 
Toie (Tol fxaWov dptcrKrj^, see whether this 2^i6^ses you better (or, 
ivhether this does not please you better), c. firjSi rovro apprjToy 'iffrto 
fioi, lay (re ttioq ■miad), nor let me leave this unsaid, if / may by 
any means persuade you ; i. e. {that I may see ivhether) I can, &c. 

334. (a) £t is used for on {thai) after davfid^u), and some other verbs 

expressive o^ feelings. 

This arises from the Attic habit of avoiding posHiveness in speaking; 
which, in this case, speaks of what may be quite certain as only probable. 

335. {b) £1 is (as we have seen, 80) used for ^whether:' it has this 
meaning after verbs of seeing, knowing, considering, asking, saying, 
trying, &c. — It is also to be observed that, even when the interroga- 
tive clause contains a proposition which the speaker thinks ought to 
be assented to, the Greeks often use el only (thus leaving it doubt- 
ful, as far as the form goes, whether the proposition should be affirmed 
or denied). In English we use whether . . . not, and thus imply 
that it should probably be affirmed. 

336. {b) lay is also used in this way with the subjunctive when the 
question relates to an expected case that remains to be proved. K. 


1. To^f tdavfiatra, tl iy dperTjQ Kal aocpiaq TtQriq jiipei Tt/y aSiKiar, 
-i]y ^e ZiKuwTvvqy ey toIq eiuvTioic, 2. 'AArjf^wc ciyaiaKTU), el d 
you) fii] o'loar tlfil elirely. 3. OiiK ala-^^yyo^ai, el rdy yofiwy eXarTOV 
^viufidi. 4. Ovk ayair^, el /ui) ciKrjy ce^wKey, riW el fii) kuI -^pytriS 
a-e(pu.y(^ (j-e<pa)'(ijBti(TeTai, ayayaKrel. 5. 'F^7rt(TKe\pu>fxeda, el 6 tipiaroQ 

^ Demonstrative pronouns and adverbs are strengthened by what is called the 
I demonslrativum, which is a long accented i answering to -ce in Lat. Short vowels 
are thrown away before it ; and long ones shortened, ovrorri {this man here), ovttji, 
Tovri, &c. So ovTwoi. 

' The Attics use okottw, VKOTrovfiai for pres. (tiot er«7rro/ita«), but aKt^ofiai, 
lOKti^djirjv, and i'tTKf/x/xat, from aKiTTTOfiai, de|)()n. middle. 

^ d{j£(T#:w, dpsffw, &c. perf. pass, fiptrrfxai : i)p'ta9r}v. 

§ 56. CONDENSED QUESTIONS.] 339, 340. 131 

ivluifioviaraTOQ koX 6 KaKiaroc adXiuivaroc, *; aWojg t^^i ; 6. 'Hpw- 
T(t)y avTOf, el fXTj^sy (poorTi^Ei twi' naporrwv. 7- 'E^£^ao■w^l£I' ra tpya 
rov o'lKoiofiov Kol Tov arparrjyov, ha tlcwi-iei' irortpov to. uvtu iotlv ?/ 
Zia^ipti. Ti. Xen. 8. ^KOTrt'iTS ay aXridij Xiyu). 9. flpoc Atoc, w 
ai'^pee 'AflrjiaToi, [jir]^£ig (pdnyo) to f-iiWoy uKovari, iW ay aXrjdeg r} 
OKo-iTiiru). Dem. 10. BuvXoiiai ovy avrov Ka\ it, kripwy yvixii)y Trepi 
TOVTbiv ^t^H^oi, ay no)Q d\Xa vvv iiri tov fit'ifiuTOQ TrailtvOij, kuI to 
XoiTToy rifuy fi>] irapi-^^rj Trpdy^ara. Dem. 

{Anecdote of AgisI) 

ll."Ayj<,' o jjaffiXevg 'iipt], Tovg Acn^Ehaij^oriovg /.u) epoj-^r, birvaoi 
tiaiy, dXXd irov eltri ui TroXifiioi' cat IpoJTuiyTog Tiyog, noaoi tiai 
AaKe^aifioyioi, i(pr], 'iKarol TOvg KUKOvg airepvKtir. 

§ 50. Condensed Questions. 

a, Ti av TTOiovvr eg dvaXdfioiey Ttjy dp^alav dpeTr]y ', what 339. 
must they do to recover their ancient virtue ? (or, by what conduct 
can they, &c. ?) b. KaTafxefiddrjicag ovy, TOvg ti TTOiovy-ag to ovo^xa 
ToiiTo diroi:aXov(Tiy ; (have you learnt =) do you know, then, v/hat 
those persons do, to whom men apply this name ? c. Tivag Tovah^ 
bpu) livovgt who are these strangers whom / behold ? 

(a. b. c.) By attaching the interrogative to a participle, or using 340. 
it in an oblique case, the Greeks employ a single sentence in ques- 
tions where we must use two. 

Thus in translating from English into Greek, a relative clause attached 
to an interrogative one will be got rid of, 


1. ^Hicoy iprjffOfievoL ti ay Troiovyreg eipr\yr]g Tv\ouy. 2. MeXXeig 
TeXe'iy 'l-TTTotcpuTet fjiKjdoy we Tiyi ovti ; iic larpw. 3. Anyicrurrde 
Ti irotov vTtjjy ijfiCjy o ^pojoc ctTrac cieXrfXvdey ovtoc. 4. 'Etti rt 
<j)rig'irag tlyai TOvg dappaXiovg ; dp' £7rt to. Send rj itrl rd /j// ; 5. 
Tiyog e IT KTTJ] ^ (jJ y eizKTTrf^ovdiQ Xeyeig ; 6. Tovg iribg Eia- 
xeifxevovg Xdfioiey ay [xudriTdg ; 7- Twc riva Tpoizoy cuoKoy- 
T(t)v avTO Kal ev tivl irpatu >'/ airovZi] cat // avvTaaig"^pii)g ay KaXo'iTo; 
8. 'O rTo(j)i(TTt)g TO)y Ti aotpijy ea-iv ; 9. Tw Tiyog epyto 6 ixpdy- 
TTic ^(^pilcTiTai ; Tf tov TeKTOvog. 10. 'Epwrjjffoi' rourovc t^I^ ttote- 
pov Tv\r]y ay eXotd' enaaTog avTwy ; 11. T»/C Trepi ti TreiSovg 
y prjTopii^r] ecrTi Te-)(^i'r} ', 12. Tov eic iroiag iroXewg aTpuTriyoy 
irpotrhoKu) Taii-a ■KpdE,eiv ; 13. '11 Std Tiyog Bvya/jiig to IttI 
ndai KOLvoy StjXoI aoi ; 

s 2 

132 343 — 350. [§ 57. various constructions. 

§ 57. Various Constructions. 

343. «• 'T l^h^ tiraQor rovro, I protest that I suffered this, ofivvfii^ ^ 
fiijv ^u)(T£ii', I swear that I will assuredly give (or, solemnly swear 
that I will give), b. aVwXovro al rije^ avTo'ig dvlpdaiv, the ships 

■were lost together with their crews. c. Siatpipovrec v ooipiq. ri 
KaWei, >*; dii^oTipa, distinguished either for wisdom, or beauty, or 
both. d. rd re aWa iv^aL^ovtl Kai iraiZaQ ej^ft KurriKoovq avr^, 
he is happy both in other respects and especially in having obedient 
children, e. onap tja * epwy, what I was going to say. f. irdKai 
davjxdtTUQ i^w, I have long been wondering, g. Traii^eig^ ej^wv, 
you are joking, h. viriftaXEv kavroy <pipwv Gjj/3a/o<c, he went and 

Jlung himself into the hands of the Thebans. 

344. (a) i] pi]v is a solemn form of asseveration. 

345. (6) The prepos. avv is omitted before avria, avrrj, &c. which then 
= together with, with. 

346. (c) dfKpoTtpoy is used adverbially (or elliptically) by the poets ; 
both ; as well — as, &c. So dp<p6r£pa is used in reference to two 
words, without being made to conform to them in case. 

347. (d) When kcU refers to aXXog, it has the force of especially, in 

348. (e) ep-)(_£adat, livai, with part, fut., is to be going to, or on the 
point of. 

349. (f. (J.) Sometimes e^w makes an emphatic circumlocution with 
the past partic. : and with some verbs (e. g. the 27id pers. of XTjpelv, 
vaiiien', ^Avapttj/) it is used to make a good-humoured observation. 

350. (''0 (pipi^v appears redundant in some expressions, but denotes a 

vehemence of purpose, not altogether free from blame. 

Hence it answers to our to go and do a (foolish, impetuous) thing : to 
take a thing and fling it aivay, &c. 

1. Owfc avTo TuvvavT iov irapoiKo^o^tlv ziijQaptv \ 2. ToSt fxoi 
tliri, it XiyoyTai 'Adrjyaloi Cid. IlepiKXiovg (^eXriovg ytyovivai ri trdv 
Tohvavriov duKpdapijyat i/tt' (.Ktivov. 3. Ile/Qwytxfv ri ■^dpLtriv ri 
cwpoiQ y dfJKpoTtpu. 4. 'ETTidv/jiovyTa tariv kviore fxtv w^tXipwQ 
ETrSv^tiy, kvioTE Ce jiXafiepuiQ, iyiort de a /JKpuTtpa. 5. Qpaffv- 
povXoc cipKiocTE irdyrag rovg (rrpariwrac: rovg fieyiarovg opKovg, ?) fi'^v 
^r}fxoKpari}(TE(Tdai. 6. Al cnro SupaKouawv yf/EC arraffai EnXuitrav 
avTolg dycpaaiy. 7- Tag iroXiag eyETrifnrpaaay avToJtrt roltrt 

' Perf. pass, ofuji^ioafiai, but the other persons and aor. 1. pass, more commonly 
without the g. 

■• Impcrf. of tl/ii, t6o. 

' naiKiti, Trai^ufiai, ov/xat, TrtTraiff/iat. ?7rai(Ta. Later writers have iirai^a, 
TTiiraiynai. B. 

§ 58. VARIOUS CONSTRUCTIONS.] 353 — 356. 133 

ipo'iai. (Herod.; Ionic Greek.) 8. '0/zoXoy>/o-nc v fifi^ TrelOeaBai 
ti'vTt Treiderui ovte irtidei iifJ.dc. PL 9. "Ofirvfjii avi »'; /x >) v nrj^tTrvri 
(701 trepoi' \('iyoy inicdieir. PI. 10. flota viroa'ifiUTa (pXvupelg 
£)^w»'; PL 11. Tt Kvirrnilete c'xwj' Trtpi rffy Ovpav ; 12. Naue 
^iwnofiii'Ti vTTo TTjc 'AttikTiq fipovffa eyijSuXe {= cum impetu aggressa 
est) rrii (piXlrj. (Herod.; Ionic Greek.) 13. Et rivo^ [xiyn 7]^ to 
abject (pvcrti »*/ rpoipa rj ufiforepa ^wi'toq, tovtov Kai tTrei^ay airodcu'T} 
6 >'f»>poc jJiiyag. PL 

14. Tv^oji' ^£ <Tuyyi'<i»yur/e Trap' vj-iijjy KaXX/ag 6 XaXKiSevc fiiKpoy 
ctaXiTTwy ■^poyoy iraXiy »/k"f q)£p6fiEyog ttg rijy tavrov (pvair, Ei/poV/cov 
fxey TtL Xuyu) avyihpioy tlq XaXicicJa avyc'iyivy, l(r)(ypay Si TTjy Rvfioiay 
£(}>' vfidg tpy^ irapaaicevdi^wy, ii,aip£Toy c avTui TvpayyiBa ivtpnroiov- 
/Jsyoc. Kai ravrtjg (.Xwi^wy avyayioviarijy ^iXnnrov Xi]\peadai anrjXdEy 
elg Maci^o'tov ku'i Treptrjei fiErd. ^iXiTnrov, Kai rwi' kraipwy tig 
wrofida^tTO. aciKrjaag Bi. ^iXnnroy KciKtldty drroBpas inriftaXey kavToy 
<pipwy Qr](iaioig, 

§ 58. Various Constructions (continued). 

a. BiKaiog tlfii TovTo TrpdrTiiy (= Bihaioy tariy ifie rouro 353. 
Trpdrrtiy), it is just (or right) that I should do this. h. £<j)daa£ roaov- 
Toy oaroy Ud^rjra dytyvMKiyai to ;///;0i<7/xa, it arrived first (indeed), 
hut only sufficiently so, for Paches to have had time to read out the 
decree, c. cpddvtig tXKii)v r) tu irT-qvd (ptvyeiv, you draiv (your nets) 
before the birds fiy away. d. ovk av <j)ddvoi aVo^j'j/ffkwv *, he will 
certainly die (or, be killed^, e. ti aXXo ovtoi f/ ETri(jovXi.vGuy ; what 
did these people do but plot ? f. dirzicpivaTo on (SaaiXeiay ovk dv 
Be^aifiTjy, he answered, "1 would not receive a kingdom." y. ti 
OVK £7roi7/(7a/x£j' ; (why have not we done it?=: ) why don't we do it? 
Let us do it directly. 

(a) With SiKaioc, fi^iog, &c. the personal construction is preferred 354. 
to the impersonal. 

(b) oaov is used elliptically with the infin. 355. 

(c) Some words that imply a comparison (e.g. (pOdreiy, hafipeiy, 356. 
iyayTiog, BnrXdaioc, 'iBiog, VTrepdey, irpiy) often take the construction 
with 17. 

According to Hermann the meaning of (pOavw is cesso, desino. Hence 
ipOdaag tTroiTim =: desiit facere (he did it and had left off, i. e. when 
another did it or wished to do it =) prior fecit. So ov (pQdviiv := (1) 
no7i cessare, perpetuo fieri [as ov (pGdvoir ir av BvTjffKovrcg, non cessa- 
hunt cades] ; (2) non omittere aliquid facere = qtiam maxime agere [as, 

^ That is, he cannot die too soon (for die he must). Buttmann gives a different 
explanation, Hermann rejects the meaning occupo altogether, and asserts that 
<p9avoj =■ cesso, desino. 

134 358, 358*. [§ 58. various constructions. 

ovK av ^Bdvoifti TctXijO)} X'lywv, qiiam ma.xime dicam qua vera sunfl. 
Hence it comes at last to tlie sunie tliiiifj; whether we read ov/c &v <}>9a- 
voiQ interroiiaiivehi, or not. Ovkit' av ipQdfniTi KXyQga (Ti'fnri^ai- 
Tomg /toxXoIe (without an interrogation) =: non omilletisfores occludere. 
Oil (pBdi'oiT av &c. (with iii(eirogalion) -=. non effeclnm diibitis tit sint 
occlusa fures ? Hence we also see that this might be expressed without 
the negative: ov tpQdvoiT dv — =: non omittetis occludere fores : 
(pOdvoir dv — =: omittile. occlusas (i. e. occltiserilis). [Kiiliner calls this 
a mirnm commcntum.^ See Herm. ad Vig. p. 7t>4. ^Qdvo) may also be 
followed by ku'i. 

358. (/) A person's quoted words, when quoted exactly as he uttered 
them, are introduced by oV«. 

Here the Greek idiom differs from our own: zve omit 'that,' when a 
person's words are (|UOted exactly, and insert it when not. 

*358. {g) After -i ov — ^; (in questions) the aor. appears to be used for 
the present. 

1. ^'iKaioQ kariv a.Tro\ix)\ivai. 2. ToDro ro orojua ^t /caioc eori 
fsperrduL. 3. nXtiOTOU 2ok£( dryjp livairov a^ioc ttrot vq uv (j/dat'T) tovq 
jjev TToXEfJiovc K."rt(v'J>c TTotw r, rove de (pIXovi; tvepyeTwv. 4. Ot Auke- 
Catnoi'ioi ovK icpdaaay rijy cipx>1^ caraffj^o^rtc Kui to~i^ Qr]j3aioig 
evdvg tTTilSovXEVffav. 5. To dddvarov aiov Ka\ doia<pOopoy otj^trat 
ctTTto)'. 6. Ao^ctc a)'»)j3 aptffroc o'i')(^eTat davujr. 7' Ovi; ay (pda- 
votc Xiyiov* ; 8. OvK ay <})dai'oiT\ e(pr), aKoXodovyreg ; 9. Ovk 
av <pdayoiQ Trepaiyioy^ ; 10. Ov^iv kwXvei, w XwKoarec, lay ye 
(TOi doKtj. IlpwToy H fioi Eu'iyrjirru ryy aocplav ro'iv avcpolv, tiq evriv, 
'iva el^io u ri Ka\ iiaQr](j6p.(.Ba. Socr. 11. Ovk liv (pdavoiQ ocou- 
u)v' wg OVK av i\oijJ.i ye Eiiriiy on ov ■npoati\ov tov vovv avroly, PI. 
12. Ovk ay (pOarotQ, tfr], Xiyujy, e'i ti r^aQr^trai /u£ (piXTpoy tTriaTnyityov 
u kyu) dCLJC XiXi]da efxavTov. 13. Tt ovy, kipr), to TadaTa, ov-)(^i to. 
^fv Tei^T] (pvXaKrj iyypa £7ro(7j<Tac; 14. Ei ovv tiq vfiiav (.vTzopit)- 
Tepae i/xov, ti ovk inreKpi vuto^ ; 15. [The Pres. is, also, so used; 
still it is in cases when the expression is far weaker, e. g.] Ti ovy, 
i) c' 6q, ovk ipioT^g '; 

( Origin and Business of the Cicadce.) 

16. Aiyerai, w'c iroT r/uai' o'l rcVriyce aydpuiroi tHjv irp\v Moudac 
yEyovivai, ytvop-iviov Be Moviroi*' kuI tpayelarjQ w'^i/e, ovTwg apa Tiyeg 
Ttbv Tore elenXayriaay v<f riSoyrjc, wore ^'^orrtt' Ti[J.eXr)tTay airwy re Kai 
iroTvjy, Kai eXudov TeXevTt'iaavTec uvtovq. Il, mv to Terriycjv yivoQ fier 

^ Ti ovv, i<pr\, ov £iriyr](Tu fioi ; quin tu mild narras? " Haec interrogatio 
alacritatem quandam animi et aviditatem sciendi exprimit." Weiske. 

* Quin statim loqueris? i. e. quantocius dicas? 

' Statim reliqua conclude. ' Is quam celerrime respondeat. 

2 Stronger than kpoira, but weaker than T« oiiv ovk ^pwrijerof or ijpov; 
PI. Lysid. 211, d. 

§ 58. VARIOUS CONSTRUCTIONS.] 358*. 135 

iKE'iyo (pvtrni, -yepac tovto Trapa Movartjy Xafioy, jjrjcev -po<p})Q ^e'ladat 
yivofierov, aW aaiTov re kcu airoTni' evQvq ^ceiv, twQ ay TtXevrijari, 
Kal jxtTO. Ttivra eXBoy Trapa Movaag <nra-yyi\XeLy, rig riya avTdiy rifi^ 
Tibv erOaSe. Tep\l>ix6pr] fiey ovy tovq iy ro'ig yopoiq TETifi^Koraq av- 
r^y airayyiXXoyreg Trotovcrt TrpcxrcpiXeaTepovc, rfj Se 'EparoT rove h' 
To7g 'EpwrtK'oTc, cat Talg dXXaig ovtu), Kara to eiCog eKaarrig Tifxi]g. rij 
Se 7rp£(T/3urdr>) KaWtoTr/j Kal rfj fier avT))y Ovpayig^ rovg iy (piXoffocpi^ 
^tayoirag re icai rifiwrrag rrjy eKeiywv fxov(Tiicf]y uyyiXXovaiy, ot C)) 
fiaXitrra rdv Movaioy irepi re ovpavbv Kol Xoyovg ovaai dtiovg re cot 
aydpu)7riyovg m<7i KaXXiarrjy (po)yiiy. 


1. Ovre ifjdiovffi ttXeiu) r; ^vyayrai <pepeiy, Siappaysley yap ay, 
oiir afiipuyyvyraL irXeiu) y ^vya^'Tai (pepeiy, aTroTr vtyele v yap ay. 
2. Ovi: ept'ig 6t<o ovk elal ■Kainroi' irwg yap kyiyovr' ay Trore ; 3. 
Xp»7i' rwy (piXwv reKjjrjpioy aacpig n Keladai kovk ay ijirarbJ/xeda. 

4. Hayrag depanevtiy j3ovXi]Tat ^v ?) rpe'tg t^ov ; jiaivoiro fievTCiy. 

5. Ovk ettI rovTOig r'l^iojffay Tijg TruTpidog (j)vy))y iroi^cracrQai' f/ iroXXovg 
ay E^yXaaay. 6. Avrol ay ETTopEvdrjcray ?J ol dXXoL' r'a c 
vTToi^vyia OVK ^y aXXrj rj ravrri EKftijyai. 7. EJ fiEv iyw vyunc iKayiLg 
^i^cidKu) o'lovg CeI irpog aXXyXovg Eiyai' ei Se fii], Ka\ irapa rwy 
7rpoy£ye»'T//i£')w»' ^ardayEze. 8. 'Eai^ juer aoi tSeXj; ctTrrevfrrt 't-^oyvL 
TToXvy j(_p6i>oy Traviadai >/ Xvy^,' ei ^e yu)/, v^ari ayaKoyyyXlaaoy. 9. 
"E^o^e (TKT]KTbg TZEOE'iy Etg rtjy olKiay kuI ek tovtov \a/.i7re<70at 
Trdaay. 10. ITpoc ^vo ov^' 6 'HpaKXfjg Xiyerai olog r E^yai. 
11. Aeyerat Kal rovg dEovg viro rod Atoc (oaaiXEVEadai. 12. 

"Rpiog onoXoy E'lrai irapa irdyrojy [jiyag dtog Eiyai. 13. OfioXo- 
yetrat roue diro tov Aioc EvyEyEcrrdTovg ruiy r/juit>£wj' etrat. 14. 
KaKuig dp^ oyrcjg elxEg, wg y' Efiol BoKElg. 15. "O^^ov Trripe^etCj wc 
'ioiKag, <i yvyat. 16. Ov^ Etnrov ro'ig Ae^Seto-u', we (palyEi. 17. 
Ot Eupurai'fe oi/io^ctyoi Eiaiy, u) g Xiyoyrai. 

[In oblique narration the infin. is sometimes found after relatives and 
the conjunctions wg, ore, tirei, siriiSi), &c.] 
18. Ovk ay tvote (l>a~iiiEy dXr]dEt(f. \ripuy KUKuy aKoXovOijffai, aW 
vyiEg re Kal EcKaioy t']dog, (J Kal awcppo (Tvyrjy ETTEffdai. 19. "E^f/ 
d(biKyE~iaQai TErapraiovg 6d£y Kadopdy dyii>dey hd Trayrog tov ovpayov 
Kal yf/g TErajjiyoy fwg evQv. 20. Ot Aa/ire^ot/itoj'iot liKa dy^pag 
^TrapTiaruiy npoa-EiXoi'TO (jacnXel, dyiv wy /Lt»/ Kvpioy elyai dirdyEiv 
(TTpariay Ik rijg TroXEiog. 21. 'ilc aKovtrai rovg irapoyrag, d6pv[ooy 
yEyiffdni (patrly. 22. Aeyerat 'AAcYia/wit, ote di) dXaaOai avroy, 
Toy 'AttoXXw TavT7]y T))y yfjy Xpij(Tat o'lKely. 23. ^ocrtr u— o Tuiy 
ij^oydy rjTTdadai Kal ov Trparreii' ^ta raiira ro /^eArterra, etteI yiyyu- 
(TKEiy. 24. TovT E(j)r} (tkettteov enot, Tig KTrjcng ciKuia eVrtV, eTreto/) 


TO fi£y vofxifioy BiKaioy elyai, tu St avofiov fiiaiov. 25. 
HiofJi^u) OTi b(TTiQ Iv noXifio) tjy araaidCti Trpog tov ap^oyra, tov- 
Toy irpog T))y kavrov atjjrrjpiay araaid^eiy. 26. ^Ofxt^tiy ^^ 
wg aySpag dyadovg fxaWoy f; kukovc avrovg yeyiiffeaOai. 
27. npo Twy Tpwaw)' ovSiy (pairerai irporepoy Koiyrj Epyaara/xiyr) ^ 
'EXXcie, coice'i Si /xoi ovce rouioytxa ^iifXTriKru ttw elvEv, aXXct irpo 
"EXXtj I'Of oi(^£ clrai r/ kwiKXr^mQ uvrtj. 28."E\dots ay lifji'iy elcioe 
Trayra ra ro)y iroXe^iioy' oijiaL Si Kai Xoyujy kuI (iovXevfxaTioy Koi- 
riayor ay ae Troiolyro. 29. Ol^' iyw yytlxrei kukou dvfxov teXevt^v 
u)c KaK)) ■KpoayiyvETai. 30. Ta fiiy b: tov TrapaxpVf^d f^oi cirJEi, to. St 
■KpOTtpoy EtJKE^ijiiyr], ote fioi SokeI avyETidri tov EiriTdc^ioy Xoyov. 
31. KvirpiQ ToiiToy Xafiovcfa ttHic Soke'is KadvfipiGey. 32. T/i'cg 
<j>r)Q I'jtray ol Xoyoi ; 33. TavTrjy iriyEiv yydyKai^oy ovToi fiot 
Soke'i. 34. Tt anoXoyr)a6^EQa ffJQ' 


{Modes of answering Yes and No.) 
1. "Q>Tiov I'jy Ti tpyov •, Na/. 2. ^i;^/;i' oh Trjy dvSpdOTCiTrfy Kai 
<ppoyifiu)Tdrr]y iJKiaf ciy Ti i^(i)dEy TTCidoQ TapdE,£iEy ] Nat. 3. 'Ar^pw- 
irovg ft)) oiiTOJ (pwfiEy pXaTTTOfiivovc e\q Ttjv aydpojiTEiay apETtjv \Eipovq 
yiyytadai ; Hayv fj Ey ovy. 4. ^iXoaofog Ti)y (pvuiy torat 6 ^eXXwr 
KaXoQ kdyaSoe EorEadai (pvXaL, ttoXewq ; nayTctTracTi fiEV ovv. 5. 
Ovic ulada uTi cip-^)) ttuitoc ipyov fXEyirrToy, aXXwc te koi yiu) Kai 
uTTuXd} ora)ovy; fxdXiaTa yap Srj tote irXaTTETai Kai iySvETUi tvttoq ov 
dv Tig iiovXr]Tai EyarijxiivaaQai EKaaTf. Ko/jiiSrj fxiy ovy. 6. Eu^at- 
fiovag XiyEiQ oh toxic TaynOd Kai rd KaXd KEKTrjfiiyovc ', Ila'i'v ye. 
7. Ou TOVTO yt ddyaroQ oyofia^ETUi, Xv(Tig Kai ■yjapiafioQ ;//i;^j;e aVo 
<7w/mroc ; WayTdiracri ye. 8. Ti to i^fjy ] \pv)(fJQ (bt'iao/XEP 'ipyov 
tlyai ', Ma'XifTra ye. 9. 'H wEpi tov iroXtfioy dyojvia oh TE\viKff 
SokCi tiyai\ Kat fidXa. 10. Tode jjioi eItte' vjipEi te Kai aKoXaaiif 
EdTi Tig Koiyioyia ; IlaPTuy fiaXiffTa. 11. 'O EinrrTrjfiwy (to^oq ', 
<bT)iii. 12. Ou Tt'/y ye uxpiXtiay EKdaTTjg rfjg TE-)(vrig iSiuy wfioXoyf)- 
aufity Eivai\ "Eorw. 13. 'Apa Kai dpETtj 6<})daXf.iioy eVrtv ; Kat 
dpErij. 14. Ta ETnTr]SEVfxaTa oh Ta ahrd dnoSoTEa Tulg avTolg <pv- 
aEtjiv \ Ta aura. 15. 'Kpi]aijxoy Kai ly tlptivy SiKaioavyrj ; Xpri- 
(Tifioy. 16. 'OcpddXfiuiy, ^u/ueV, 'iaTiy 'ipyoy ; "EtxTiy. 17. OvK 
EiyEyorjKug u>g dixa-^oy ti Kai aKiyrjroy Ov/jiog ; 'Ey yEy6i]Ka. 18. 
SvufitiXaia XiyEig Koiywyti/jiaTa i'] ti dXXo ; Koiyuyi) jxaTa SrJTa. 
19. OtffOa' TTUv tCjv ytyyaiwi' KvyHiy oti tovto (j)vtTti avTwy to i]dog jrpog 
fiEv Tovg (Tvyi'ideig te kui yyiopifj-ovg utg oloyrE irpaoTaTuvg eti-oi, irpog 
CE TOvg dyrwTag rovyai'Tioi'. Otca fxi'TOi. 20. 'Ap' oh tovto tovtov 
ipyoy Qi]fTO}XEv\ QijtJOfiEy fily ouy. 21. Ou Kid TrEidtadiu Tclg 


dpj(ov<n 0»)c ^iKaiov eJyai; "Eywyc. 22. Aofcc7 rl aoi elvaL 'ittttov 
epyov ; "E^otye. 23. 'O Oeoq re *:a£ m roD dsoii Travrrf apurra i-)(^Ei ; 
Hojg B' ov; 24. "Eortj' oiruic ov Trd/JiroXv BuKpipei yuij) dy^pog rijv 
(pixTiv \ Owe ^' ou ^la^f'p £t ; 25. 'O rpoTroc r?7c Xi^cwc /cat o Xo).oc 
ov Tip T7]g v^vx^C >/0£t eirerai; Ilwc yap oy; 26. Ov ^povi^ovq 
Tovc (pvXaKUQ Btl virdp-)(^eir Ka\ dvvoTOvs Kat Krj^efjoyag rrJQ iroXtwg ; 
'EoTt ravra. 27. Ov Kuy sXaTToy yiyvrjTai, Ik ^(.il^oroq ovtoq -rrpo- 
Tspoi' varepov eXarTOv ytv{](Ttrai\ "Eo■^t^' ovtu)q. 28. Ovk iv jx6t'r\ 
Trj TOiavrr) ttoXei tov re itkvtotohov (TKvrorofjLov evpijaofiey Kai roy 
ye<i)py6v yetjpyoy ; 'A\?jO»7. 29. Ovk tKsl fiiv aKoXaaiay >/ TroiKiXta 
iyfTiKTEV, eyravda ^e yoaoy; 'AXyjOiarara. 30. Toy Ipwrdy ical 
diroKpiyeaOai kirKTrdfievov dXXo ri av tcciXelg t) ^laXtKTiKoy ; Ovk, dXXa 
TOVTo. 31. "E(T0' o-w dv dXXb) 'i^oiQ 7/ 6(j)0aXfj.o~ig ; Ov ^j/ro. 32. 
Tow TreTTOiijKOTOQ 6 TreTroi'diog iXarroy 'iS,(i> Trap' vfjuv ; M>) Sfjra' 33. 
Tt Si; dKuvcraiQ ay dXXb) Tj dxTiy ; Ou^a/iwc. 34. "Ov // ri'X'/ *•'"' 
TO Sai^oviov (piXov fxey dXvaiTeXrj, avucpipoyTa ^' E^Qpoi' en(puyi^Ei, 
TovTov ijfiE'ic <poftwfieda ; Mrj^afiaig. 35. 2v roi)c ap^ot^rac ey Tulg 
TtoXerri tovq we dXijOiog dp^oyrac eKoyrag diet dpytiy ; Ma At" ovk, 
ifrj, dXX' tv olha. 36. Ov KaXtiQ avToy koX jjifi d^iiaeic, ; M/j^ajuwc* 
dXX tare avrov. 37. Ow'rw tre (puijuey Xiyeiy ; "HKiora ye. 38. 
E(T-t Ti dyadov ; "Eortv. Tovrw tdTi ti tyavTioy nXijy to KaKov; Ovk 
ear IV. Tt ^e' ; 'iari ri o^v ay ^wv^ ; "E^/j. Tourw /^t]7 serTi n evayrtoy 
dXXo TrXf/y TO (3apv ; Ovk e'^77. 39. "Hcitrra av TroWac fiop({>aQ 'icj^oi 
o Geoc ; "Hcio-T-a ^^ra. 40. 'Hyet Tiyd ttot dy yeyirrdai dy^peloy 
TOV ddvarov SehoTa ; Ma At'a, >/ B' og, ovk eywye. 41. Tt aoi eVt 
TTOirjau) ; »/ elg n)y \pv^f]v ^ipcjy hdijau) tov Xoyov ; Ma At ', I'jv 0' eyw, 
fjLi) av ye, a'W a dV eiTrjjc, sfxneve TovToig. 


Adverbial Sentences ' of Place. 

Adverbial sentences denoting place are introduced by the relative 
adverbs of place, ov, j), oVj/, okov, ivda (uhi) ; oQev, evdev (unde^ ; 
oT, OTToi, y, OTTT) (quo), and, like adverbs of place, express the three 

* Adverbial sentences are adverbs or participles and substantives used adverb- 
ially, expanded into sentences, and, like adverbs, denote an adverbial object, i. e. 
such an object as does not complete the idea of the predicate, but merely defines it. 
Hence, they express a more full explanation of the place, time, reason, manner and 
mode. Adverbial sentences are connected with the principal sentence by relative 
adverbs, e. g. ov, 69i, iiig, ore, etc. The relative adverbs of the subordinate clause, 
have, in the principal clause, corresponding demonstrative adverbs expressed or 
understood, by which both clauses are imited into one, e. g. ore rb tap i]X9(, 
TOTE TO. dvQrj 6dXX(i—o>g tXtKag, otSrwc tTrpa^ag. 


relations of direction, where, whence, and whither. The use of the 
Moods in these sentences, is in all respects like that in relative 

Adverbial Sentences denoting Cause. 

1. Causal sentences are sometimes expressed in the form of 
adverbial sentences of time by means of conjunctions of time, viz. cirt, 
OTTOTE (both rare), wg, tTrei, quoniam (the French pwfs^'Me), ^ as, 

' since,' I-kei^I], quoniam, and o-rrov, quandoquidem. 

2. But the more regular causal sentences are substantive sentences 
introduced by the conjunctions on and Eiotl (formed from Sia 
Tovro, on) and the Poet, ovveicci (formed from roiirnv eveKa, o) or 
oQovvEKa (instead of otov 'iveKo). 

The indie, is used when the cause is stated by the narrator as a 
fact : the optative when it is given as the statement or assumption of 
another person (i. e. in oblique narration), or as the mere conjecture 
of the speaker himself ; av being added when such conjecture rests 
upon an expressed or implied condition. The indicative of an his- 
torical tense may also be used with av if the cause is founded upon 
the fact that something which has not taken place, would have taken 
place, if the thing were so. 

'ETTft also introduces interrogative and imperative clauses, where 
we must translate it hy for. [Compare etteI, 384.) 


Place.] '[."Okov yap IdvrreiE crrparEVEadai, TTcivTa ol £)(wp££ Evrv- 
j^Ewc (indefinite frequency). 2. "ETTEo-Of (tictTo-e), ottoi av rig rjyfirai. 

3. Maj^o/i£j'oi Of 01 TToXEfxioi ical, oVij sir) arsvov yjMpiov, TrpoKara- 
Xa^ftdvovTEg ekwXvov rag vapoEovg (Opt. on account of ekcjXvov), 

4. 'Edt'jpa oiruvTTtp kirirvy^dvoiEv drjpioig, wherever. 5. Ov 
dv TIC EavToy rdtri, Ivravda SeT fiivovTa kivSvi'Eveiv, 

Cause. 3 0. M?/ /ie KrE~iv\ etteI oiij^ 6fioydaTpiog"JLKrop6g eI fii (quoni- 
am sum). 7 • XaXfTra ^£)' ra Trapovra, ottote {since) dvcpHJv arpaT-qyiLv 
TuiovTWv oTEpofiEda KOI Xo^aywv Kal arpaTiwrwv. 8. "Ore roivvv 
-avff oh-iOQ 'f^Ei, izno(ji]KEi -Koodvjiwg eOeXeiv ukoveiv. 9. 'Yttoei^ev 
^j^tTpag Efjag, etteI ov ksv dvidpojTi y' ETEXEtrdr) (^since, if he had not 
escaped, the thing would not have been accomplished without 
effort). 10. ' Apa to baiov, on omov kan, ^iXEiTai vno twv Oeuiv, q, 
(in ^iXftrcK, b(Ti6v E(Tti ; 11. 'ATVEdarov ol tCjv 'YAXiivwv aTparrjyoi, 
OTi iarpdrEvaav ettX ftaaiXia aiiv Kw'pw. 12. 'Etti tu ddiK7]fdaTa 
E^oiye cokeI »/ prjropitc)) ■^pt'icniJ.og Et^'at, ettei tiS ye fii] /jeXXuvti 
dciKElv ov fieydXr] Tig fioi SokeI »/ XP*'" nvTfjg Eivai. 13. UpaV- 


TWfXtv ravTT], ETreiSrj ravrri 6 deog v^f/ytlrat. 14. Trj vtrrepaiq. 
^K£v ayyeXoc Xiywv, on XeXonrwg e'lt] ^viprecrig to. aKpa, £7ret 
rjadeTO to te MeVwi'oe arpdrevfia on i'lSr} kv KtXtict^ et»j icai on 
rpiijpEiQ i'jicove TTEpnrXeovaag airo 'lioviag elg KiXiiciay. 15, XIoXu 
iTrXeorlicrei 6 HtXoTricag napa no Tlipar]' £(j^£ yap Xtytti', koX on 
fiovoi Twv 'EXXj'/vwv 01 Qrjfialoi ftauiXii avvEf^ia-^^ovTO kv UXarataTe, 
KoX on vcTTEpop ov^ETTwwoTE aroaTEvauivTO ktrX fiatriXia, Kal wg Aqke^ul- 
fiovioi ^la TOVTo 7roX£^//(r£iav avTolg, on ovk kdEXijcraiev fiET 
'AyrjaiXaov kXdEiv ett' avrdr, ov^k dvaut kaeraiEV avrov kv AvXiSi rfj 
'Apreyut^t. 16. Swcpctrj/c ov fxovov rovg crvvoyTag k^oKEi ttoieIj', ottote 
VTTO Twv avQpu)TT(s)v 6p(oi'TO, aTTE-^iaQcu Tu)i' avoctiiov TE Koi aciKujy, aXXa 
Kal OTTOTE kv kpr]fii<} eiev, kirEiTTEp riyijaaivTO f-Uj^kv av ttote wv 
TrpuTToiEv dEoi/g SiaXadE'tv. 17. AiofJtai aov irapctfiE'ivai y^lv, ujg tyw 
ovB' av Ei'og ijSiov aKOvaaijiL rj aov te koX Ilpwrayopou diaXEyofikvoiv. 
18. Tpi{]prig »/ (TE(Tay JJ.EV1) avQpwnwv Bia tL aXXo (poftEpov etti 
TToXfjUJotf rj cpiXoig ai,iodia-ov ij otl raj^u ttXeI; ^la tI Se d'XXo 
aXvTTOi aXXi'jXoig eIctIv ol k^irXiovTEg y Bioti kv Tcii^Ei KcidyvTai ; 19. 
H Kal ftaffiXEVEiv kiriiXTaaai, otl olaQa kiraiviaavTa "OfArjpov tov 
'AyafjiEfxvova, wg fla<TiXEvg e'It) ciyadog ; 20. Upog TavTU KpvnTE 
^rjCiv, wg 6 TraVS' opwv Kal ttcIvt aKovwv ttcIvt dva-KTvaati "^porog. 
21. AeI /i?/ jiovov KEKTijaOai to. dyadd, dXXd Kal -^^pytrOai avrolg, wg 
ovBev ocf/EXog Ttjg KTi)(T£wg yiyvETai, 22. Me'ya to 6f.iov Tpa(pT]rai, 
etteX Kal TO~ig drjpioig iroQog Tig kyyiyvETai twv <TvvTp6(pwv, 

T 2 



Besides the enclilics ye, re, to'i, the following are postpositive particles: dv, 
dpa, ail, yap, 5ai, Se, Si], Si]vov, trjTrovOtv, SrJTa, jxkv, ftkvTOi, firiv, ovv, 

361. a) aye h'l, ' but come ;' 'come wot<);' with reference to several persons, 
ciytre cfj, or d'ye St], 

362. b) asi (Ion. and poet, alel, aliy), always. It often has the meaning 
of quocunque tempore, ' at any given time.' Thus 

ti cut ap-)((n)v, the archon for the time being ; the person who at any 
time is archon. So with participles, to. ael Traporra coyfAara, the doc- 
trines which at any time were before him, &c. = whatever doctrines 
happened to be before him at the time. So with relatives and dV : 
og ay ael afiaprarr], 'whoever at any time sins' [= quicumque ; 
si quis ; quoties quis]. 

363. a.\r]BtQ (accented in this way), ironically, indeed ? itane ? 

364. uWo Ti i] (or aWori) ; used as an interrogative particle (317). 
dAXd (from iiWog, other) is an adversative particle denoting prin- 
cipally difference and separation = but (in direct opposition : e. g. 
' not A but B '), or, but, yet, however (in limitations and qualifying 
restrictions : e. g. ' a good man, but rather weak '). 

c) In direct opposition it usually follows a negative, which how- 
ever may be implied by a question. 

d) When dXAd [or cQ follows an ov^eic or fxtj^eig, it is necessary 
to supply an ei^ucT-og as the subject. 

e) A sentence of the form '^ not B' is sometimes expressed in 
Greek by, ' A but not B (dW ov or yu?/) : sometimes by ' A and not 
B.' dXX' ov is also ' but not,' ' and not ' after a question with ov. 
/) After another question or wq, uxririp, it is equivalent to ' and not 
rather ' (= ac non) ; and dW ovci to ' nay not even.* 

w\Xd.] 3G4. 141 

g) After oh jj.6voy, fiij fxoroi' for dWrt i:ai we find dXXct alone when 

the opposition is emphatic : just as in Latin we have 7ion solum • 

sed, for non solum sed etiam. 

h) 'AWct may also begin a speech when it is opposed to that of 
another person. In this way it often introduces answers in a quick, 
abrupt manner, when they are of an opposite character to what tuas 
just said, or to some previotis thought or wish of the speaker, or even 
to some general view from which the speaker declares for his own part 
that he dissents [= way but; well; why']. It often in this way in- 
troduces objections [= at]: and is used in exclamations, exhortations, 
&c., especially when the discourse is suddenly interrupted, and some- 
thing new introduced. dW aSvyarov, ' nay but it's impossible ' (or 
'why, it's impossible ') : dWd /3ou\o/iai,' well, I will /' or ' well then, 
I will.' 

i) 'AXXd sometimes follows conditional particles, el [xri, &c., and 
may be construed by 'yet ' or 'yet at least.' Just so 'at' in : si mihi 
bond republicd frui non licuerit, at carebo mala. Sometimes 
dXXd in the middle of a sentence has this meaning of at least [tamen, 
certe] : but the opposed notion may always be readily supplied, with 
an ' if not ;' e. g. Cjq ay dXXd vcuS' ej.a)y pvawixeO' &c. (Eur. Or. 
1561.) that we may at least save my daughter, i. e. may at least 
save her [if we can do nothing more]. In this sense dXXd . . . ye ; 
dXX' ovy . . . ye are also found. 

k) In the combinations ov yuj)j' dXXd, oh ixivroi dXXd, oh yap 
dXXd (which is far less common) there is always an ellipse : the 
verb of the preceding sentence is to be supplied with oh /di'jv, &c. to 
deny the previous assertion, the dXXa introducing an opposite state- 
ment. Thus (') IVttoc iriirrei elg yovara, ical fxiKpov KUKsTyov i^e- 
r^a-)({]Xicrey' oh /ij)v (sc. e^ETpaj^fiXicrey) dXXct eTrep-eiyey 6 Kvpoc 
poXig TTUJQ, fcot 6 'iinroQ ki,nyi<TTr], the horse fell on his knees, and 
very nearly threio Cyrus over his head : he did not however [^throw 
him over his head], but Cyrus with great difjiculty stuck on, and the 
horse got up again. So yu>) (tkoj-ttte [j.' w^e'X^' oh yap dXX' t'^w KaKoJc, 
i. e. oh yap ware (TKojnreiy, for it is no subject for jeering me, but I 
am indeed in a miserable situation. In translating, we may, of 
course, proceed more simply, and translate oh fx))y (or ^iyroC) 
aXXd, ' however ' [yeruntamen] ; ov yap a'XXd [etenim], 'for indeed,' 
'for assuredly.' 

I) dXX' ») in interrogations = an {an ergo), when one asks a 
question with something of surprise or perplexity. The a'XXd marks 
departure or difference from what the enquirer had expected. The 
force may usually be given by adding ' then.' 

142 364. [dWct. 


a. a) 1. "Aye ^>), vvv fj/jinpov 'ipyov ijSr) tov Qijpa /JirjKtT aVttrac. 
2. "Aye ^?), /cai e^oi avXrjfTaru). 3. "Aytrt ^?), ecpr) o Sei'ocpuiy, ri 

b, y/Jiuiy citjcrtade \pi](Taadai, av i,v^i^a^0L vjuwr yErojfjitda ; b) 4. Oi/v 
oc fii.y TTOj'/jpot /cakov ri epydi^oiTai tuvq del iyyvrdro) eavrCjy 
oyrag, o'l B' dyadol dyadoy ri; 5. O'l KUTrrjXoL t to dt.\ evidv- 
fiovvTt. tnaivovaL wdyra a TvwXovcn. 6. "ETrerat 6 at* kQi\(i}v rt 
/cat hwcijievoQ. 7. 'Eyw vjAug, avSpsQ 'A07jvaloi, ddwdi^ofiai fiev 
Kai (piXu), weiaofiat ^e judWoy t(o deiJ j) vfily, Kai iiotnrtp dy kfxiryiio 
Kol oldc re w, ov jj-t) Truvawfiui (piXuaocpCbv kch vfxlv TrapaKEXevofiavog re 
Kai iy^eiKyvfieyoQ otu) dy del ivTvy^^cii'U) v^Cjv, Xiy(i)v omTrcp ftoida. 

C. c) 8. Ouj^ 01 TrXovatoi ev^nifxcyig elaiy, dXX' ol dyadat. 9. Tovro 
TO Trpayjxa MfpiXi^ov fxiy errriy, a'AX' oh KuXoy. 10. Alcry^pdy 
yvvcuK eyr][Aag, dXXd TrXovcriar. 11. Tt It'i Xeyeiy irepl Twy 

d. TTaXuiCJv ; dXXd rovg i<p' )]fX{I)V avTwv dvaXoyiaaaQe. d) 12. Ovceig 
avTcg avTOv Kctrriyoprjae Ttwirore, dXX ujg »/ TroXig ret oyra d(prjpT]Tai 
Xeyei. {Dem.) 13. M»j^£<c fdurio to fjeXXov dKovtrrj, dX\' dy 

e. dXtjdeg ri nKOTTtiTU). (^Dern.) e) 14. To cvveToy deog cicwcriy, oiJjf 
6 irXovTog. 15. Twy KaKuJy dXX" uTTa ^el i^rjTely ra atrta dXX' ov 
TOV Qtoi-. {PI.) 16. 'loTOt yvyaiKojy tpya kovk eKKXrjaini, {Gn.) 

f. 17. Ov Tore dyTiXiyeiy avrovg e^pfj}', dXXd fxrj yvy kjie tcpiyeiy ; /) 
18. Tt Twy TOiovTCjy tpyujy KCiXoy iariy i) aej.iv6y, a'W ovK alrryhyriQ 
d^ioy\ 19. Ti]g d^^^prjaTiag Tovg fx)) "^piojieyovg KeXeve aiTidffdai, 
c'tXXa fxi] Tovg eTTUiKelg, 20. 'lii' avrol XafijSdyeTE xaptv lOTf, uanep 
vjxe~ig Ta TovTOjy fXKrQo^opovrTeg, a'W ov TovTioy ret v/jieTepa KXeTrroy- 
TO)v. 21. Toy Kul Xoyto Kai tpyw Treiowfjieyoy efie dyidy ovk dy Svyaiurjy 

g. ovT ev Xeyeiy ovt ev Troie'iv, a'W ovle Treipdaofiai. g) 22. 'I^artoi' 
7lfjt<piecrai ov jioyoy (pavXoy, dXXd to avTO depovg te Kai ■yeip.Cbyoq. 

h. k) 23. [A messenger had told the Greek Generals that Ariaeus would 
wait for them the rest of that day, and, if they did not join him, set 
out without them the next morning.] KXeapxog ce ro^e elTrev' a'W 
uxpeXe jjiev Kupoc <f>/»'' ^^^t ^£ TETeXevr-qKev, UTrayyeXXeTe 'Apialo), oti 
i]fie7g yiKCjfiey Te tov paaiXia, kuI, wq bpuTe, ovSelg tri fjfily yua'^erat 
K'at, ft )u») v/Jielg ijXdeTe, eTropevofxeda dy ettl (^aaiXia. 24. TtVa Kai 
a'vn/3t/3ct(TW/uai ^erjaofjeyoy uTTfjj i/navTov; Toy Trarepa ; dXXd TedyrjKey' 
dXAct roue dceX(povg ; dW ovk tlniy' uXXd TOvg Trdlcag ', dXX' ovirtj 
yeyiyriyTai, 25. Tt ydp kciI (iovXofievoi ixeTeTrifxirtaQi' dv avTOvg ; 
ETTi Tt]v elpiivrjy, dW VTrrjp'^^^ey diraaiy. 'AW iirl Toy iroXeiiov ; dX\* 

i. aiirol irepl elprjyrjg eftovXeveaQe. i) 26. Avti} ye yovy cr)(^eg dXXd tu 
■yj}6yu} TTOTB. 27. BouXo^at avToy Si^d^ai, dy irwg dXXct yvy ye 
TraiSivdij. 28. Tovg irpioTOvg ^poyovg dXX' ovy irpoffeiroiovyd' vjiiv 

aXV >;.] 364. 143 

<pi\oL eirai. 29. 'Evoyui^oi' rove «XXovc dXX' ovv TTiipaaBai ye 
Xardurtiv KUKovpyovyrag. 30. Ei aw/jin dovXov, a XX' 6 JoDf tXeu- 
0£()oc. 31. Et ^») TToi'-ci, aXXa TroXXa ye icrre. 32. Et Kai ^i) *:a6' 
'EAXa^a Ttdpc'ifXfied', c'tXX' ovv ^vvera ^loi ^okuq Xiyetv. 33. Ot act 
7o7c avToiq twiaraTovrTtQ, yy Kcil rtfy (piiaiv Karaciearipay s'x^ucriy, 
dXX' ovv rtiTc y' EynTTEtptaic iroXv tHjv aXXwi' tzpoiyuvtriv. k) 34. A. 
Kai TOVTwy kytyKelv e'^w TrapaceiyfxaTa TrXtTora yuev t/c rwy ISiw-i- 
kSjv irpayfAaTwy' oh jJ-iiv ciXXa fieii^w ye Koi (pavepuirara roTc 
CLKOVovaty Ik rwy hfjut' Kcii AaKeSaifxoyioie (Tuyu/Bderwv. (/s.) 35. 
'Aet . . . o< 0' i}fieTepoL irpoyovoi Ka\ AaKE^aifiorioL (piXori iiuq Trpoc 
aXXijXovQ t'X^''» ''^ M'/'' "^Xa Trepi KaXXlffruiy ev Ike'lvolq toIq 
\p6roiQ e<piXoi'iKT](Tav. {Is.) 36. Tic ooi ^irjyelro ; 'Aptoro^Tj/JOc j'/v 
Tig, tr^iKpoQ, uvvTOCij-nQ aei' ov fiivTOi dXXd Sw»>.pdr7/ ye tVia fjoij 
avrjpofJTjy, wj' tKeivov iJKOVffa, Kcti f-ioi wfioXoyei Kadcnrep EKelyog 
^irjyelTO. (PI.) l) 37. 'A XX' ?) SoXoy Tiy' w ^e'l'' d/i^t fJ.oi irXeKnc ; I. 
(Eur.) 38. Kni ot e'nroy' 'AXX' r) Er]jj.ay ojyeT 6 dviip tovq avcpaq; 
(Xn.) 39. OvTOQ, dXX' 7i TrapaTrahic ; 40. 'AXX' >';, to Xsyofxeyov, 
KaTOiriv Trjg eopTrJQ ijicofxev Kai iiffTepovfiey; 


dXX' ?'/. 

Sometimes dXXd introduces something not contrary, but merely 

1) After concessive prepositions (= but, however). In the first 
preposition yntV or ^i stands. 

2) The particles dXX' /'; refer to a negative and a word that ex- 
presses separation. Thus ou^^Ic aXXoc dXX' fi^ {nemo alius, nisi or 
prcEter : fully ' nobody else but than '). Here properly the dXXd 
refers to the negative, the r) to ov^eig. 

3) But very frequently the uXXoc falls away after the negative, so 
that the form becomes ov^eig dXX' ^. 

Very frequently again one of the two particles dXX' ^ is dropt ; 
so that the form becomes 3) ovhig ciXXoc dXXd ; or 4) ovhig ctX- 
Xog i]. 

1 Since the full form with ovStv would be ovciv dWo, dXX' i), and this might 
be abridged to ovStv ciXXo »j (= ovSiv d\\' ij) or oiiSiv dW ij, it is obvious 
that it must be uncertain whether, in some passages, the correct reading should be 
ovSiv dXX' Ij or ovSkv d\X' rj. 

Kiihner decides for ovdiv dXX' ?;, where ttoiui is to be supplied =' I do nothing 
but.' Kriiger thinks that it is better to understand it always to be dXXd. 

144 3C4. [a\V ^. 

Again the process of abridgement is carried on still further, and 
we have 5) ovSt'tg dWd or ovStig rj. 

Hence the forms for nemo alius nisi, or prceter, are : 

1) ov^dc aXXoQ, dX\' t] . 

2) ov^eiQ, dW T], 

3) ovSeiQ ct/Woc, aXXci {rare^). 

4) ovBeiQ aWog, ij. 

5) ov^elc, ciWd. 

6) ovSeiQ, ?;. 

Instead of ovhlg aWoc, the first clause may contain a negative 
particle with some adverbial form derived from aXXog (e. g. a\Xwe» 
dWodt, &c.); or from evEpog. 

The preceding sentence may be a 'rhetorical question' or ' ques- 
tion of appeal,' which (when it contains no negative) is virtually 

Here, too, the a'XXa or the ij may disappear from the second 
clause ; or the aXXoc fi'om the first. 
Thus the forms are : 

rig f'iXXog {or dXXog rig) a'XX' r/ . . ; 
rig dXXog {or dXXog rig) dXXci . . . ; 

rig dXXog {or dXXog rig) r] ; 

rig — i] ; 
Obs. rig dXXog is ; Tfho else ? What other person ? 

dXXog rig is ; Does any one else ? Does any other person ? 


1. Ta f-iiv K-aQ' i^jxag 'ifxoiye ^oku KaXoJg ^x^iv, dXXh rd ;rXa- 
yia Xvrre'i fxe. Xen. 2. Ov^£»' aXXo oKOTVEiv aXX' r) ru dpiarov. 
PL 3. 'Eyw yap ^i ovliv, a XX' r) cid ao(plav riva rovro ro 
oi'o^a e(Txr]Ka. 4. 'Ev ^e rJ /.ttVw ciXXjj /ley noXig ovSefiia ovre 
(biXla ovre 'EXXTjyig a XX a QpuKeg ol Bidvt'ol. Xen, 5. OvSe- 

2 Orta est hac loeutio ex confusione dnarum loquendi formarum, quarum altera 
opposilionem [dX\a'\, altera comparationem [?)] indicat. Itaque quum recte dici 
posset oicrrs nt]civ dWo doKilv tlvai aXTfOig d\Xa to ffiofiarotiSkg, et quum 
recte etiam diceretur wcrrt firjS. dX\. Sok. tlv. dXt)9ig, fi rb awi^aTotiSkg, 
utraqiie lo(iiiendi forma in iinum conjuncta dici solitum uxTre ^rjSiv dXXo SoKtiv 
flvai d\T}9eg a'XX' f) to (JwfiaTotihg. Quae quidem ratio quum ab initio in 
simplicibus enuntiatis usurparetur, postca etiam ad interrogantes sententias trans- 
lala est. Eandem explicationem habet ttXijv fj, prcBterquam. Stallbaum ad Plat. 
PhaeH. C. 

^ Graeci non inferunt nisi raro post ov^tv in ejus modi locis dXXd particulam, 
[particula i] non adjuncta] neque id faciunt nisi ubi jam omnem rei comparationem 
omittunt et tantum modo aliquid, (juod diversum sit ab eo, quod ante dictum sit, 
adjiciunt. {Klotz.) 

a'AXwc— «/^a.] 364, 365. 145 

fiiav a\Xr]v iiyouj-irjy av elrai fxoL awrrjptav ij at irtiaaL, Ly, 
6. "Ort ovle.v aW f; CTrirdrretc f-v toIq Xoyotc *. PI. 7. OvS- 
ev oi'Tctg dXXa Koj((tovc. Ar, 8. "EkT£tj'£ ^' avTUv o'vtlq, aW 
iyw aovi]. 9. Ou^t^' dW ?/ TrpofxcuieTj' vvi\, nil aliud 
quam orare ilium suspicabar [i. e. nil aliud facere, &c.]. 10. 
Et fxlv ^r]lafxu)Q aWojg olot' r 7fy SrjXovy rag avTcig Trpa^eig dW 
f; Sia fJitdg Uiac, dxtv av Tig viroXaftuy, &c. 11. Su/'Ctg on ovtc 
ctWwc 'ApTaflcivog iKdvfxu)g re fid^erai Kai irponfxit'ei, aXX' i) olofxavog 
'Ayrujy'ivoy (.lax^adai. 12. S^o^pa yap aurw ravra Eo^ei, fx-qBufiov 
iiXXodi KaOapibg ivT£VL,e(Tdai (ppuyi'iaei, dX\' ?/ £«.£(. 13. Ov yap 
eTepwdev yiyovtv, dXX' oQev ol Xoyoi. 14. Ae'ov avTov Kara- 

yopaacu <t>opTia 'A0?/>'/j9f»' jivwv EKuroy ceKaTziyre, ov Karr^yo- 

puaev dXX' ») trerTaKiayjLXiMV kuX Trerraicoff/wj' hpa-^Qiwv. 15. M/) 
^pfi(T8aL eXaio) dXX' ?) on a[utKporaT<o. 16. Tt aXXo reXog ^x^^^ 
Xiyaiy dXX' f; ySovag re (fat Xi/Trac ; 17. Tovro ^' aXXo tl »*/ 
dtoipiXeg yiyyerai; 18. Tt oJj' rovrwv earriv airiov rj otl. . .• 19. 
Tt TTOtwi' f/ tvioyovnevog', 20. Tt'i'oc e'i'£»ca mj' rtc, wc ttTrttJ^, C^^y 
dXX' 17 Twv ToiovTwu yjBoyijy epsKa', PL 


a) "AXXwg rt Kai {both otherwise and also =) ' especially ' (prse- 
sertim). The phrase relates to some condition or state of things the 
existence of which is assumed. Such condition is, however, not 
always fully expressed (by £t, ote or oray, iireih'i, &c.), but often im- 
plied by a participle or even an adjective or (rarely) substantive. 

5) "AXXwe 7£ = ' alioque modo,^ id est ^ major eque mo do' 
(Herm.) : that is, it states that the thing occurs iti another way, and 
implies that it is a greater, a 7nore important way. It may be con- 
strued, 'and besides this,' ' and more than this,' 'moreover.' 

c)"AXXwe sometimes stands adjectively before a substantive, and has 
the force of ' MseZess,' ' worthless,' or ' mere.' It perhaps gets this 
meaning from that of 'otherwise than as it should be ;' from which it 
obtained the meaning of jua-jji', ' in vain,' 'to no purpose.' 

"Afxa is properly ' together ' ox ' at the same time,' ' at once.' Its 365. 
principal use is to mark the occurrence of two events at the same 
time either actually or virtually, the first being no sooner over than 
the second commences. 

d) In d'^a jUfV — dp-a Si {simul — simul) we have an instance of 
anaphora (i. e. the emphatic repetition of a word, which then, at 

* Here and in 9 Kuhner would read dW {=. dWo). 


146 366. '^_dfJla. ajxiXu, 

least in the second and subsequent clauses, takes the first place). 
They are construed by at once . . . aiid, both . . . and, and some- 
times partly . . . partly. 

e) "Afxa . . . Kai connects either single notions (like ofiov) or whole 
propositions ; in the latter case it is equivalent to our ' no sooner . . . 
than ;' or ' the moment,' followed by anotlier proposition without a 
conjunction : or ' already . . . when;' * tvhen . . . at once,' &c,, ac- 
cording to the view with which the coincidence is pointed out. 

/) Kat d'/ia sometimes introduces a second reason without on. 

ff) Other combinations are, d'^ci te Kai or re afxa kui : or te .. , Kai 
afia: te kciI . . . ajxa : also ajxa . . . kui : dfia re . . . kui iifia : dfia 

. . . ^£. 

A) "Ajua fiEi' is sometimes followed by eti ^e Kai, which is an in- 
stance of anacoluthon (i. e. a departure from the strict grammatical 
structure of the sentence). 

^) With a participle dfxa may be resolved into a sentence with 
' whilst,' ' as,' or (if it is a past participle) by ' when,' or ' as soon,* 
with the pluperfect. "A/j-a fiEy . . . dfxa ^i with participles introduce 
two reasons influencing the mind at the same time. 

(^" "A/j.a is also = avr, ' together with,' ' with :' it then takes the 
dative ; and this dative has sometimes a participle with it : the 
phrase may then be resolved into an adverbial sentence of time, 
' when,' ' as soon as,' &c. e. g. d'/xa rw 7ipL dpypiXEr(^, ' as soon as the 
spring began ;' = 'at the beginning of spying.' 
366. k) ' AjjeXel is properly the imperative of apeXiu) = * don't mind,' 
' don't trouble yourself,' ' don't be afraid,' and, in threats, ' depend 
upon it.' It has sometimes the force of nempe, nimirum, videlicety 
scilicet, utique ; and sometimes = dXXd pijv, ku\ fii'iv \_atqui^. 


L'AXXwc 7£ K"ai'.] 1. Ov^E KaraXvEcrdai 'in kuXov, ciXXwc ''£ f^a* 
£t B6£,ofiE}' liplai fxdXXoy rrjc Biaipopdc. 2. Ow ce~i aSiKEly rove 'iKirag, 
dXXwc TE Kai OTav pET Evvoiag nvog, ov irovripia Trraiartomv. 3. 

At! ETTl TWV TrpdS,E(OV tHiV ')(^pr](TTU)V UVTOVQ ^OKtpdi^ElV, dXXojQ T ETTElElJ 

Trepl TWV yvf-iruGiior rwi' 7J/C ^t-'^i/c upcpiaftriTouaiy ol Trept r»)v (biXo- 
fTO(piay oi'TEc. 4. 'Edopuftovi', ctXXwc te kui otvoy EiXr](p6TSQ. 5. 
ripor Tt)v Troi'rjpiav ufiiWrjTEOv rjfxiv laTiv, liXXajg te kui TrpotriJKov 
ilfuv (3E\Ti(7T0ig aTTui'-ioy uvBpw-KtJi' eivat. 6. IloXXd dv tiq £\ot, dX- 

XwQ TE Kai pr]TU)p, ElvTEly. {PI.) 7. ["AXXwc r£. "AXXwC"] Tavra 

CE Trayra ri ay iyij Xiyoipi aoi ; "Otra te yap tywyf rj^Eiy, irdyra 
aKi'iKOUc' aXXioQ te uotiq eCokei n tovtmv iniaTairOai, ovBfyog avrdv 
i][jiE\r]Kac ovb' acat)c yEyiyrfdat. c) 8. Au/3oa>i' tciq ^otyiaauc raiJg 
^lEyoi'Tfc, dXXojc ciio/ia Kai ovk Epyov KircvyevffEiy ^larpijjiiyai. Th. 

&r.'] 367. 147 

9. 'AyaWoyrai t^ ovelBei, Koi o'iovTat Ilkovuv on ol Xijpoi elffi, yiJQ tiX- 
XioQ 0)^677, aW aySpeg o'Iovq Bel tv iroXti tovq crtx)Qr\aoiiEvovQ. {PI") 
d) 10. ["Ayua.] To Treideiy o'lov t tlvai ro'ig Xoyoie iffrlv a'lTiov iifjia d. 
I^Ev IXevdepiag avrdlg to'iq dydpojTTOic, &fia Se tov aWwy ap-^^eiy tv 
TTJ avTOv TToXei kKaoTo). {PL) e) 11. ^irayiwraroy eviraiBlag rux'7>/ e. 
cifia (Cat TToXviraiBiag. 12. 'E(p6yevoy ayBpag ijxov Kai 'iivKOvg. 
13. "Ajua TrXovTOVffi Kai v^ag fxtcrovaiy. f) 14. " Afxa aKx^Koafiiv ti f- 
Ka\ Tpirfpapxovg KaQiarajxtv. 15. "Kfxa SiaXXaTToyrai Kai rJ/f ixOpag 
Tiig yf.yeyr]jjL£vi)g i-KiXavQavovrai. {Is.) 16. 'A/^upraloj' ha [liyedog 
Te TOV eXovg ovk iBvyayro kXtiv KaX a/ja fxaxilJ-(i>TaToi tlai rwr 
AlyvirTi(i)y 01 aXeioi. g) 17. AvirtiTai te ixfxa Kai ^a/ptt. 18. 5'* 
"Afxa ravT tXeye Kai dwrJEi. 19. "Opa, fir) afJ-a te ev TroiijfTTig Kai 
d/da ov (piXoy voyiiawai ite. {Xen.) 20. 'Ati . . . iirEfiiXETO 6 Kiipog, 
OTTOTE av(TKr)vol.EV, oTvijjg Ev\api(TT6raToi te dfia Xoyoi E^l:)Xi]di]aoyTaL 
Kai Trapop^wyTEg eg Tciyadov. 21. "Afia avToi te BiKaoTai Kai 
priTopEQ Enontda. {PL) 22. Tuura jjloi Bokw avr<3 aXXoig Xiyeiv, 
Trapafivdovfieyng dfxa fiEy vfidg, dfia ^' kfiavTuy. {PL) h) 23. «. 
'Hv . . . Irrojg 6 Kvpog TroXvXoywTEpog, dfxa ^ev oici Ti]y TzaiSEiay, oti 
r'lyayKa^ETO vno tov hdauKctXov Kui ^i^ofot Xoyoy wv ettoiei Kai Xafx- 
ftayEiy Trap' aXXwy, ottote BiKa^oi' eti Be Kai, Sui to (juXofjiadtig 
EJyai, TToXXa fiey avTog dti roue Trapovrag diTJjpwra Trwg tyoyra 
Tvyyavoi, Kai oaa avTog vir' dXXujy tpwTUTO, Bia to ayxivovg Eiyai 
Ta\v cttTEKpiytTO' wote Ik -irdvTwy tovtwv j/ TroXuXoyia avyEXEyero 
avTw. d/ua tuvt eIttiov dvt'crrr;. i) 24. Ot j3apliapoi Kai (^ev- i. 
yovTSQ dfxa tTiTptaaKoy, 25. 'E7r£t0£ro 6 KaXdfftptc dfia fXEv ti3 
Kyi'ijiujyi xapii^oixEyog, djia Be tov 'NavaiKXia tHjv fXETO. roiiru evekev 


k) I'AfxiXei.'] h. 

26. TTwe av fxadoi Trod' ovTog dTr6(j>Ev^iv BtKTjg; 
Str. dfiiXEi, BiSaaKE. Qv/j-offocpog ecttiv (bvaEi. 

27. IltDe dv dvyi](T£i [xavdavEiv ; Str. dfiiXa caXwc. 

28. 'O ^£ avTTVog ovTog, wairEp to ypvaovv ekelvo kwSiov (pvXuTTWv, 
E(f EUTTEpag Evdiig i]Sr] KEKpayev, aXX' ovti yaipiov yt" dfivrov^ni yap 
dfiiXEi (TE, ^iv fxovov yfiepa yEvrjTai, (TVVTpi(ou)V ry fiaKTripiq.. {Luc.) 


"Av. 1) With the indicative.'] In this mood cij/ belongs to the im- 367. 
perfect, aorist, and pluperfect. It occurs in two principal cases : 
A) As the consequence oi a conditional proposition ; to denote what 
would take place, or would have taken place, if a condition had been 
fulfilled which has really not been fulfilled: B) to denote what 

u 2 

148 361. l&y. 

takes place regularly under certain circumstances ; i. e. repeated 
actions. Repeated actions are, however, also expressed by the im- 
perfect without ar. 

A) a) In this class, the condition is expressed by ft with 
the imperfect or aorist indicative. In English we use * would — ' 
for what would now occur if the condition were now realized ; 
'would have — 'for what would have occurred at a past time 
if the condition had then been realized. The Greeks do not 
confine the imperfect to present time, nor even the aorist to past 
time, but use either tense for either case, according as they wish the 
action to be considered in its progress (i. e. as having duration — av 
with imperfect), or as quickly over, without any reference to its 
continuance (civ with aorist ^). h) The condition is often only implied, 
e. g. ex^F*?? "''» y^" would have been delighted (i. e. if you had seen 
it). Here belong especially (Joprjy ay, tyyiay av, rjcrOofirjy dy, &c. 
(like crederes, putares, cerneres, videres, &c. in Latin), where some 
such condition as ' if you were there,' ' if you had been there,' &c. is 
understood. tftovXo^rjv av := vellem : flovXoii-irjy ay = velim. The 
indie, with ay still remains in dependent clauses with tin, tE»c, &c., and 
dependent interrogative clauses. (?) The condition is often implied by 
an adv. e. g. eyda Si'i (tum vero), then or there ; yap, for = ' for else,' 
'for othertvise,' i. e. 'for if this were not so.' It is very com- 
monly expressed by a participle. See below on dy with participle. 
d) The pluperfect now and then occurs, but only when it is to be 
implied that the completed state, if it had ever been realized, would 
have continued in its effects. 

B) e) The imperfect and aorist are the tenses here used : of which 
the aorist is the less common, being found principally (but not only) 
in the dramatic poets and Xenophon *. [See example 24.] The 
pluperfect is not used here except M'hen it has the meaning of the 
imperfect. The condition is either actually stated, with ote, ottov, tl, 
&c., with optative, or implied by a participle or otherwise. 

In both A) and B) the preterites of the indicative occur not only 
in independent clauses, but also in relative sentences and subordinate 
sentences that declare a purpose or consequence. [See examples 6, 

On the omission of dy with these tenses.] /) This happens in the 
consequence of a conditional proposition, when the speaker takes no 

' Hermann says: " Imperfectum phrumque refertur ad prcrsevs: saepe vero 
etiam ad prateritiun, ejusmodi quidem quod diulurriitalem aliquam vel repet'Uioncm 
facti continet. Aoristus plerumque de prcete.ito tempore usurpatur. Quum vero 
ad prcesens tempus refertur, est illud de eo, quod cito perficitur intelligcndum." 

* Pape. 


•] 367, 149 

notice, as it were, of the obstacle that prevents or prevented the reali- 
zation of his statement, but represents it emphatically as an actual 
occurrence. This is commonly the case with expressions of 7ieces- 
sity, duty, reasonableness, possibility, liberty, inclination, e. g. with 
XPV^f £^£t, to(p£\oy, verbals in riog, vpocrfjice, Kaipug I'jy, eIkos r)y, koKov 
i)y, ala-)Q3oy y']y, a^ioy 7]v, KaXcog £tx^» ^^V^> ^^rj/pj^e, eiueWey, iftov- 
Xofxrjy. And these words often appear without any antecedent 

1^" In all these expressions, however, ay must sometimes be used^ 
g) The omission of the ay is also naturally found with the imperf. 
or aor. of iciycvyeveiy, 'to be in danger of^ = ' to seem likely ;' for 
the meaning of the verb confines the positive assertion which belongs 
to the indicative to the positive assertion of a mere being near suifer- 
ing something, which was really not suffered. So if in the apodosis 
oXiyov, /jLLKpou, ra^a (^=nearly, cZmos^) are joined with the indicative 
of an historical tense. 

h) When there are two consequent clauses connected by ' and,' the 
ay is sometimes, but comparatively seldom, omitted in the second of 
the two clauses. This applies both to A) and B). 

A) c) 1. Et TO e'x^"' ovtojq, w(7;r£(j ru Xa^fiavEiy ijhv ?'/>', ttoXv ay a, 
Bii(p£pov Evcaifioyi<f ol irXovaioL ruiy ttei'tjtiiji', [See examples in Les- 
son XIII., p. 25.] 2. 'Ayafxif^ywy ovk ay yy'iawy tl,w Twy TrtpioiKihwy 
eireipwTTjg u/y iicpaTEi, £t jji) tl yavriKoy ei-)(^£y^. Th, 3. M£V£i»' 
ki.r}y rw KarqyopovvTL tiLv ciXXwy' el ^k tovt eiroiet etcaaroc, iVLKwy 
ay. Dem. 4. ^l kKiXevov ^vfMrXtir, tXvovr^ ay al anoy^ai. Th. 
5. (Ed. Pi\}/oy fX£ yfJQ ek rrjaB' oaov rayj-ara. — Cr. "E^pacr' av ', ev 
TOVT 'lad' ay, el fxri tov Oeov \ Trpwrtor' E'^^^prj^oy EKjiuQE'iy ti irpaKrEov. 
i^Soph.^ b) 6. To Xiytiv i}^ ''ovK ay tJofx-qy' tic yap ay i]X7ri(T£b. 
TavTa yEyiadai]" fiiyiaTOV eiyai j^ol SokeI aijjJLEloy airEipiag. Pol. 
7. '^y CwrTEQ i]yy£\jxeyoL yaay ol TrpoirliKOVTEQ, oXiyovg av Ei^Eg. 
Xen. 8. 'Eiriyytag av ekeI ov^iya ovte opyi^vixEvoy icpavyfj ovre 
^a'povra vfipiaTiKwg yiXwrt, dW ISioy ay avToiig ijy ijaui rtjJ hyn kg 
KaXXog ^^y. Xen. 9. Ovk i)y o n av ettoI eite fioyoi. Dem. 10. 
OifK oi^^ o Tt hv EiroirfCTEy. Isce. 11. Tavr' o«^' oti ay khpaTE. 
Ar. 12. Mfiya TEKfii'ipioy o>g ovk av ankKTEiy e <bpvyi-)(ov' 6 yap 
^pvyiy^og ovTog rovg TETpaKoaiovg KaT£<TTr](T£y. Ly. 13. 'E,]v 
a y vfxdg ofioitog k^ol yiyvwoKEiy avTov. Isce. 14. 'Wciwg a v KaX- 

^ " Ubi aliquid, quod iionnisi certd conditione verum est, commemoratur, neces- 
saria est particulae adjectio." (Herm.) 

* In this and the two following examples the imperf. must be construed by the 

" Facerem. 

150 367. ["''. 

XaXtT TuvT(p 'in ^ttXeyd^T/v. PL 15. Tig ay uridr) Tuvra yevi- 

c. (rdcii ; Dem. c) 16. "Ei'6a ^17 e'yi'w tic af tovq hjxorifinvQ imraiSev- 
fieiovc oiQ ce~i. Xen. 17- Ma^J/ (.Kparrjaai'. dfjXov Si' to yap ipvfxa 

d. Tto <TTpaTOTriS(j ovk av kTti\i aavTO. Th. ct) 18. Ei ^£ yum fxovov 
{sc.Twv xpi'icpu}}') HETineaey, virEpojpiuT' civ, f/ cnriOai'ti'. 19. EJ wtto 
rwi/ TrX/jyuij' o ai'>)p Trapnypri^a liiriQavtv, W t'/xoO /xer ^ticat'wc ^' aj* 
iT£6i'i]Kei' vvv h' tTTEiC}) vv Trapcf^pijfxa airiQavtv, ou)( vn k^ov Sfj 

e. UTcidayey. B) e) 20. 'Hi' toIq fiiv ofdaXfJole iTriKovpr]^a Tijg ^lovoe, 
e'i Tig fiiXay tl i'^^iov irpo Tuiy otpdaXjjiwy TropevoiTO' Tutv Si tto^wj', 
£t Tig Kivo'iTO. Xen. 21. Kvpog e't Tiva opiJr) Seiyoy oyra ohovo- 
fiov EK Tov SiKa'iov Koi TrpoaoSovg iroiovrTa, ovhiya av TrwTrore aipei' 
Xeto, aXX' uEi TrpoaEliiov. Xen. 22. Et Tig cLVTEiiroi, evdvg 
TEdyi]KEi. Th, 23. rioXXa/ctc ijKovcraiXEV ay ti tcaKwg viiag 
ftovXEvau^ivovg jxiya TTpdyj-ia. Ar. 24. EV TivEg "iZoiiv irov Tovg 
(Td>ETipovg IwiKpaTOvyTag, avEQaparjaav av. Th. 25. 'AraXay^jpa- 
viav avTwv to. 7rot>'//iara, avripioTioy av aiiTovg ti Xiyoiev. PI. 26. 
Et Tig ciurw TTEpi Tuv avTiXeyoi avev aiToZEiiEU)g, eki r>)v vnoQEOiv 
iiraviiyEV av TravTa tov Xuyov. Xen. 27. Ovic ala)(^vyri ovTia 
fxwpuig Et,aTraTbJfiEvog ; Nai [la Aia rj trx^^oijiri v ^evtoi, eI i/tto 
TToXEfiiov y£ ovTOg iirfTraTijOriy. Xen. 28. 'O Trpwrog Evptjy SiUTpocpyjy 
Trrw^w 7£')(»'jj»' TToXXovg ETroir}aEv adXiovg' cnrXovv yap 'i]y tov fii) 
cvvafiEvov ^I'lv aXvTTiog airodavEly. Men. 29. Ei ^air ETvy)(av£y 6 
'AjjivvTag, eke'ivov avTov TrapEi-)(^6}ir]v' vvv Bi vfuy icaKui TOvg 

f (TVVEiSorag. Lye. f) 3O."li0£X£ fxiv Kvpog ^iiv' etteI Si teteXevtyikev, 
iirayyEXXofiEda 'Apiaio) Eig tov Opovov tov fiaaiXEiov KaduTv uvtov. 
Xen. 31. O deog 'icEiL,EV c'lav icei Kal ce~i ti/v /XEVoiKTav [xaXiaTa 
dp^i]v yiyvEoBai. PI. 32. XTjv ovk e^ei yvva'iica Kara TroXXovg 
TpoTTovg. Gn. 33. 'E^^pjj v fiiv eIvui to kuXov EvyEviaTaTOv, tov 
eXevBepov ci TvavTa-yov cjypoyE'iv fiiya. Men. 34. Ovk exPV>^ ""ore 
Twv TTpayjicLTwy Ti]v yXuxrcrav i(7yyEiv TrXiov, aXX' eite -^^^pijar icpaae 
yjpl]aT eSei XiyEiv, e'it av izoviipa Toiig Xoyovg Eivai aaBpovg. Eur. 
35. Et 7raV0' a irpocrfiKE irpaTTOvriov iifidv KaKuig ei\£ tU Trpa'y/Ltara, 
ovS' dv iXirig 7]v avTci ftsXTiu) yEvitrQai, Dem. 36. MivEiv i^V*' t^ 
KUTriyopovvTi tu>v dXXuv' eI Si tovt' iiro'ui eKaaToc, evikiov dv, Dem. 
37- OiJc Evr\v fi)) TrapaKpovadivTuiv vfxwv fXEivai ^iXimrw. Dem. 38. 
EtKoc j) V vfidg fJLfj fxaXaKiog, uktttep vvv, ^v/i^aj^£i>'. Th. 39. Ala'X^pov 
riv TO. fiiv Efxa SiairETTpd^Bai, to. S' ekeiviov ttepliSe'iv ifii KaKwg 'i-xovTa. 
Xen. 40. Et . . . aterxpov ti 'ifXEWov ipyuffaadui, ddvaTov dvT avTov 

(I irpoaipETiov 1) v^. g) 41. H TvoXig ekivSvvevcte naaa Siaipdapfjvai, 

£t dvE^og iwEyivETO iTrlcjjopog ig avTi']v. 42. Et firj Spofio) fxoXig E^E(pv- 

_ _ — _ 

* Mors preeferenda erat. When ai' is thus omitted, we may approach to the 
more positive statement, by using ' were ' for ' would be.' 


367. 151 

yofxiv Iq ^eX^ovc, eKiyEvvevffciHEv uTToXeaOai. 43. "Eywye tvBv- 
uoviievoQ on avroc oii^ oloc t kaofxai ou^' tyyvc rovrwy oiiCey icaXoy 
elne'iy, vtt' oiffj^urjje SXiyov awoSpag (J^ojxrjv, £t ttt; d^oy- PL 
k) 44. Et . . . ctcptroc ^v, eiKOTCOQ ay rdy KUTr)yopovyTU)y riKpodade, h. 
Kai Efiol uyayKuloy i) y airoXoye'iGdat irepl TovT(i)y. Andoc. 45. Et 
IJjovXeto tU SiKaia ttou'lv iSovXevey av 'AXkeVjj /cat j)y evdaifjLwv 
Kara ye tov aov Xoyor. PI. 


"Av with the subjunctive.'] The subjunctive expresses things that 
wai; happen under certain circumstances, it being left to experience to 
determine whether those circumstances really exist or not. It always 
therefore refers to the futtire. 

a) "Ay with subj. in direct and indirect questions.'] In direct ques- 
tions dy with the deliberative subjunctive (99) is rare ; but it is 
more commonly found in indirect questions, when there is some 
condition {expressed or understood) to which the question can be 

b) "Ay with subj. after final conjunctions (i. e. in dependent 
clauses that express a pzirpose).] Here, too, ay refers to a suppressed 
condition ; such as, if it be or may be so, &c. ; i. e. it is implied that the 
attainment of the purpose is only to be expected under favorable 
circumstances. The addition of a r is more common with oVwc than 
with wc, and never occurs with iVa = ut. [In Lesson XVt. Ex. 8, 
p. 31, 'Iva = where.] 

"Ay with the subjunctive in relative clauses, and with relative adverbs 
of time, &c.] c) Here oq ay, oariQ av (seldom 6c dv tiq), are nearly 
^ kdy rtc, ' if any body.' They are to be construed ' ivhosoever," 
and we have the case o{ indefinite frequency -. TheaVis added after 
the present and future ; but after the historical the optative is used 
without a. '. (See 95, 1, 2.) 

d) Instances however are found where av with subj, follows an 
historical tense ; and even sometimes, but only as a very rare 
exception, dy with the optative. 

e) With particles of time, &c.] Here, too, otuv, nearly = (et dv) 
tdv : and the usual rule is, that the subj. with dv follows i\\e present 
and future ; the optative without dv, the historical tenses. Both con- 
structions denote either the indefiniteness of a single action, or the 
repetition of the same action. 

* Sometimes however og a»/'(with subj.) = qui forte, &c. (H.) 

152 367. [av. 

f) After an historical tense the subjunctive with av may be 
retained, though the optative without a »- is, of course, correct. 

On ntpy ay see 428 '. 

g) On av in hypothetical sentences (where ei dV = iav i^v, dy) 
see 81 ; and for the moods and tenses that occur in the consequent 
clause, see remark on p. 26. 

a. a) 1. ITwc ay ev (ppori^crarTes raiira KaXCJg exEti/ rjyricriovrai • 
2. Tt TTOT av ovv Xiywfiev to TnnXavTjKos r/fide elrai; 3. 'Eyw 
yap TOVTO, t5 ITjowroyoprt, ovk <ffir]v SidaKrov eivai, aoi Be Xiyovri ovk 
f')(w oVwc av ctTTtoTw *. 4. ""Av c av yfJielg vLKG)fX(.v, XtXvfjiivr)Q ttjq 

h. yecpvpag, ovx H'JvaLV iKslvoi vwoi av <pvyu)aiv . b) 5. 'EkeXeve, 
rbv ^epavXav £TnfX£X7]dr]vai, 6ttu)q av ovtu) yivrjTat avpiov // 
EL,iXa(7iQ, tjfnnp eSo^e KaXaig £X^'»'. 6. Ta ETTirrjBEia ottwq av 

c. 'e')(^u)(Tiv, Ecpri avTf ^EXrirrtiv. c) 7. Ot avOptJ-rroi tovtoiq fxaXiara 
ediXnvffi, TTEidtadai, ovq av ijyCjVTai (ieXriaToiQ Euai. [See Les- 

d. son XVI. 1 d) 8. Toiovrovg i'jXTrii^ov Eaeadai tovq dXXovg, oloiirep 
e.av wariv ol twv Trpay/xdrtov EWKTraTOvvreg. Is. e) 9. "Orav 

(titevBj] rig avrog, j^w (= Kai 6) Otog avvdnrETai. jEsch, 10. 
"AwavTa cv(T\Epeia, rifv a'vTOv (jwffiv urav Xiirwv rig Bp^ to. 
fi}) irpotTEiKora. Soph. 11. 2v^/JouX£uw aoi, oirurav 'iSr]g riva 
KaXijv, (pevyEiv TrporpoTraBrjv, Xen. 12. M-aivufdEda irdvTEg, oirorav 
6pyl^wf^E^a. Phil. 13. 'Hvik' av o'iicoi yivoJVTat, Spwffiv 
OVK di'a<T\ETd. Ar. 14. Mrfhiva (^iXov ttoiov, Trplv av E^ETaarriQ 
■Kwg K£Xp7/roi Tolg TrpoTEpov flXoig, Isocr. 1$. 'O vojJ.odErr]g rovg 
cicaoKaXovg ra SiBuatcaXiui /cat Tovg TraiEorpil3ag Tag naXala-Tpag 
avoiyEiv awayopEVEt fit] vpoTEpov itpXv dv o ijXiog dj'iV^jj. jEsch. 
10. "A a»' davrraKTa jj, drdyKi] TUVTa aEi Trpa'yjuara Trapt'j^Et*', iwg 
dv x^pav Xdfii]. Xen. 17- "Eor' dv ij '^Eifiibva i) TroXeniovg Sel- 


TvoniaovTai rrjv (latpopdv fii-^pi ov dv oi a'lTioi dvayKaadwtriv vird 
TWV dvaiTiwv dXyovvrwv Boiivai Siicrjv. PL 19. Ae7 roue ysvofxivovg 
/Jt'j^pc dv i^CHaiv ttove'iv. Men. 20. 'ETrdv Tig Tvy)(dvr) Xvttov- 
fiEvog, Ticrcrov oCvvaTai, (ptXov kdv TrapovT 'idy. Phil. 21. "O-iriog 
dfpwv 'iffTai >/ i^vx''' £T£tcdv rov d^pvrog aw^arog ^/^a yivriTai, 
TOVT ov TriwEiiTfxai. Xen. 22. "Ore iS,u) tov Beivov yivoivTo, ■n-oXXoX 
Tov KXt'opxoJ' aTriXEnrov. Xen. 23. Ottot' ev Trpda goi vroXtc, 

* Undoubted instances are found in the poets of relative pronouns and adverbs 
with the subjunctive without dv. In prose writers the passages have usually been 
altered. (A'.) "Oirov 'AnoWwv OKawg y, rivtr ao(j)oi; Eur. Compare the 
remark on k', on p. 2(J. 

* = idv tv (l>povt]T(i>(Ti. ■' i. e. il av \'iytig. 
' Xen. Anab. 2, 4, 20. Here only two MSS. omit dv. 

d','.] 3G7. 153 

e-)(^aipe, Xun-pwc ^' t'^tpEJ' £1 rt ^u«rrv)^o(. 24. Ov^a^oSev a<^U(Tav 
irplv TrapadeTeu avro'ic apicTTOV. 25. IlEpic^evo/^fj' ekatrrorf, £ w c 
a.voi-)(^dei7] to letrfxwT^tpiov' kirtilri It aroi^deit] iiEifJ-ev irapa. tov 
^(jjKpnrr]. f) 26. 'liy ff yvtjfxri, orav 'Adrjraioi IttI cr(pag ■^wpwaii'^f' 
iv fii(T(^ TTOiely avrHiy rovs TroXe^iovg. Th. 27. Tov ■KoXtfJiOV avrudev 
TTOieladai ovvru) e^otcsi ^vvarov elrai, irplv ay nnriac fiETawifi^l/waiv. 
Th. 28. T?)j' Ilai'Stiaj' eKiXtvatv 6 Kvpog ^lacpvXarrcn' tov 'Apci- 
ant]!', ewg a r avrug Xafirj. Xen. 29. Ov ■KpoeQv^i]Qr}aay ^vfXTrXtTy, 
TTpiv Ta."l<7dfiia EieopTciarwaiy. Th. 30." EXeyey on vofJii^oiTO, ovro- 
re tirl BelTryoy KaXiffai 2iEvdrig, ^wpetcQat avT^ rovg KXrjdiyTag. Xen. 


"Av with the optative.^ 1. The optative is sometimes used inde- 
pendently, and sometimes vicariously , that is, where, if the narration 
were direct, the subjunctive would be used. 

A) The optative proper with av. 

The optative by itself denotes, according to Hermann and his 
followers, a mere conception : when dy is added to it, it is implied 
that that conception would he realized, if a certain condition were 
previously realized. This condition may be either expressed or 
understood. ■nroioir]y dy, faciam. Ttonjaaiix dy, fecerim. When 
expressed, we have the optative with dy in the consequent clause of 
a conditional proposition (81, c : see examples 12 — 14 in Lesson 
XIIL p. 25). 

a) If the condition is understood, it may usually be supplied with 
ease, either from the context, or from some generally prevalent notion 
or belief. Instances are found where the Greeks themselves express 
such condition : e. g. ireidoC dy, d irdQaioi, ' you will (or may) per- 
haps ohey.^ This example may teach us how to supply the sup- 
pressed condition in other cases ; thus, cat av yap ■npu^eiag ay Kaicujg, 
^ for you too may suffer misfortune,^ i. e. tt irpdiEiag, or el ^vfifiaii] 
(cacwc Trpdrreiy, ' if you should suffer any,' ' if it should so happen,' or 
the like. 

b) The Greeks, especially the Attics, frequently use the optative 
with dy as a courteous form of stating very positive opinions. Hence 
the optative with dy often may, and even must be construed by the 
future in English (85 ; and examples 3, 4, 5, in Lesson XIV. p. 27). 
c) It may sometimes also be rendered by the imperative. 

The optative with av sometimes relates to past time : e. g. t'lrfvav S' &v 
ovToi KpTjTeg, ' these may have been Cretans.' Herod, i. 2. 

d) "Ay is but seldom used with the optative in wishes, £md then 
only in questions, a wish being turned into an enquiry how the thing 


154 367. [a»'. 

desired may he realized, if it can he realized at all. The most 
common forms are rig dV ; ttwq dy, &c. 

Hoc dicitur non ita quidem ut de eo, quod optamus, queeratur, quomodo 

fieri possit, quern ad modiini rem Hermannus explicavit, sed ut qujeratur, 

quo modo aliquid fiat, si quidem fiat. (Klotz.) 

e) In both direct and indirect questions, the dV refers the question 
to a certain condition, which is usually easily supplied, and thus adds 
to it an expression of uncertainty and doubt. Thus ri yap dy 
uxpEXolfii at ; for of what use could I be to you? i. e. tl Xiyoijxi, ' if 
I were to speak.' 

The optative here answers not only to our may, can (or might, 
could), but also to should, or even am to ? is to ? in deliberative 

/) "Av with optative in relative sentences.] ^' (1) A 'proper or 
attributive relative sentence ' is one that adds attributively some 
nearer specification to the object it refers to. Hence it is virtually 
an adjective; and, like an adjective, may sometimes become virtually 
a substantive. (2) A ' hypothetical relative sentence ' is one where 
oc, uffrtQ = £1 TiQ ; o'e, offTiQ dv = kdv tiq. (3) A ' co-ordinate re- 
lative sentence ' is one in which the relative pronoun is equivalent to 
a conjunction with a demonstrative pronoun ; e. g. oq = Ka\ ovtoq, or 


g) Relative clauses (whether attributive or co-ordinate) may take 
any of the forms of which independent propositions are susceptible. 
Hence the optative with au will stand with the same meaning as in 
a principal sentence. 

h) When the verb both of the principal and of the relative would 
naturally take du with the optative, di' may either be retained or 
rejected in the relative clause. 

i) In hypothetical relative clauses the present and future are fol- 
lowed by the subjunctive with dy' the historical tenses by the opta- 
tive without dV : sometimes, however, especially in oblique narration, 
VQ dv, &c., with optative, is found after an historical tense. 

j)" Av with optative in the conditional clause of a hypothetical pro- 
position.] Here dv indicates that the condition itself is dependent 
on some other condition, either expressed in what preceded, or easy 
to be supplied : it mostly implies that the condition is considered by 
the speaker as uncertain. 

k) "Av with the optative in substantive sentences introduced by 
oTt, 6)£, 'that.''] With these sentences dv is added to the optative to 
indicate that the statement in the dependent sentence is considered 
dependent upon circumstances ; i. e. just as it would be in a prin- 
cipal sentence. 

a>'.] 367. 155 

I) "Av with optative in final sentences, introduced by ottwq, wc, 
*«/,' or oVw rpoTTw; and in sentences expressing a consequence, wure, 
&c.] Here after verbs signifying care, endeavour, Slc, the usual 
construction is oVwc with the future [284] of the indicative ; but the 
optative with ay is also found ; and also the future optative alone 
with ai' in oblique narration after an historical tense. 

m) The substitutive optative, i. e. the optative in oblique discourse, 
and generally whenever a statement is to be referred to past time.] 
Here the optative in oblique takes the place of the subjunctive in direct 
narration ; and where the subjunctive would take iii', it may be re- 
tained with the optative. — The optative is also used when the state- 
ment is referred to past time, and also when another optative has 

«) 1. Qavuv p.Ev ov xpj/i^w, XtTTwj/ I' av ovokv a-)(^Boinr]v (iiov. a* 
Eur, 2. 'Ec riXoc oi ayaQol Tvy)(6.vov(7Lv aliwv' ol KaKol S\ ojinrep 
■7rs(j)VKa(7\ ovirOT ev irpa^eiav av. Eur. 3. IloXXae av evpoig 
fxr]-}(araQ' yvvi) yap el. Eur. 4. Harreg av ofioXoyijaaire 
Ofiovoiav fieyKrrov ayadov Elvai ttoXei. c) 5. At'yoic av wf ''"X"'^''"' ^' 
Kal TCi'^ ei(Topai. Eur. 6. Xwpolc av eVo-w avv rax^'* Xoywv yap 
ov j vvv eariv dyw)', dXXa TrJQ xpvxrJQ nipi. Eur. d) 7. II we av d, 
6\oip.r]v avv ro'iaEe riicyoig \ kolvov iq "ALlr)v Karaf^aaa; Eur. 
e) 8. IIou ^j/r' av elev ol '^ivoi; ^iSaaKe fue. Soph. 9. S/iiicpoIc e. 
TO. fieyaXa iriog e\ol tiq av ttovoiq ; Eur. 10. Tt av rig ov)(l Trpog 
(T£ Ta\t]di'] Xiyoi; Ar. 11. Hoi. rig a v rpcnroiro ; Ar. 12. Hot 
ZfjT av TpaTToiyL-qv ; Ar. [^Indirect.'] 13. Skottwj/ oirwg av koX- 
Xiirra Kal Tu^iara ravra yivoiro^. Xen. 14. Ovk iaG' oirwg av 
Tig (pvyoi. Xen. /) 15. Ovk ecrriv 6 tl opyii^ufitvog avdpu)Trog av f' 
yvoir], g) 16. Ov pqhiov kariv evpa'iv 'ipyov £^' w ovk av Tig aiTiav ff' 
f^X'^'^' 17. Ovk ktrriv o ti av Tig fieli^ov tovtov kukov TrdBoi T] Xoyovg 
fiiafjaag. A) 18. 'Y/uiDj' ovS' av tig ovEev wv av iSt^ tivI Soit], h. 
TOVT a(j)iXoiTO irdXiv. 19. IltDc av elSeiijg irepl tovtov tov 
TTpdy^aTog ov iravTatraaiv dntipog e'ir]g] 20. AfjXov otl Kvi^epvav 
KaTacTTaQsig 6 /iTj ETncrTcifjievog ^ crTpaTTjyElv aTroXicreiEV av ovg 
iJKitTTa (iovXoLTO. Xcu. 21. 'O avTo avTw dvo/Jioiov eit) Kal Sid- 
(popov, (TxoXrj y' av rw dXXw ofxoiov j) <piXov yivoiTO. 22. Ovk 
av dpi^aig dvdpa oarig eOeXoi te Kal SvvaiTO aov dirEpvKEiv 
Tovg ETTix^ipovvTag dSiKslv (te ; Xen. i) 23. Sw/cpar?jc Tovg Xapftd' i. 
vovTag Trjg ofiiXiag fiiaQbv avEpaTroSiaTag kavTwv avEKdXEi, Sia to 
avayKalov aWolg alvai ^laXiyEadai Trap' wv av XdftoiEv tov pitrdov. 
Xen, j) 24. EtTrep ri dXXo (pairjv av, oXiya ^' dV <paiT]v, Ivj, 

B' OVV Kal TOVTO EKtivLJV dElTjV dv . PI, 25. Et fXl]T EGTl filJT 

'' sc. it ykvoiTO. 
X 2 

156 367. \_ay. 

i]v fir]T a J' elrrelv tX"' /xjjoeic ju?j^e7rw Kol rt'ifiepou, t'i tov (tv[x- 
k. ftovXoi' t)(pr]y iroie'ii' ', Deni. k) 26. 'llpciKXeiTOQ Xeyei we cic 
etc TOV avTov iroTOfiov ovk av £^/3a/rjc. PI. 27. Et;r£v on KaWitrra 
ilep tU lepa icai 6 dj'?)p a »' aXoxri/Koc eir}. Xen. 28. Ot^a, on koi 
Mv(TO~ig l3a(Ti\evQ TToWovQ iiyejxovaq dv Boirj. 29. ^biXimrog 3' cure 
(piXuQ ovT £-)(^0p6c, wtTT ovM TavTtjv OL V TiQ kiTEviyKOL Tifvalriay. 
Dem, 30. NDj^ klXlveiq /.is -irpoffrareveiy aov Kai £7rt/i£\£ tffflai 
oTWf di' yn?) TravraVaCTH' d\jj6(jic 7r£Vrjc y£»'0'0 ; Xen. 31. Atjjyjj- 
». auf^itda 7] EiTLniXoyTai wg ay (iiXriaTOL tltv o'l ivoXlrai. Xen. I) 32. 
"Ottwc Cjg (ieXriaToi eeroLvro, ovkItl tovtov rfjv ETrifxeXeiav aXXoig 
m, Trpoairarrev. Xen. — m) [In relative and temporal clauses.] 33. 
'RkeXeve TTpoKaTaXajSElv to dtcpoi' Eiog av avrog eXOoi. Xen. 34. 
"O ri yap d>' Xdi^oi anipixa koXCjq Kai ZiKaiwc diTEBiSov. 35. 'O 
fiUi'Tig TTapijyyEiXEv avrolg ^tj) TrpOTEpov ixiTideadai irpli' av rwy 
aipETEpojy j) iriexoL rig ii rpwQe/r;. Xen. 36. 'E\pr](pi(TaPTO ttXeu- 
aavra Toy ilEiaay^poy /cat Seku dvBpag ^et uvtov TrpdrTEiv o tl av 
avTolg SoKoh] dpicTTa eUi''. Th. 37. 'H^iovy avToiig fiaariyovy tov 
EK^odiyTa fcal aTpEftXovy iwc dv rdXrj0>J ^6t,EiEv avrolg Xiyeiv. Isc^. 

[7« indirect questions.~\ 38. ^l\y -KpoaloKia ovlEfiia ^?) dv ttote ol 

TToXifitoi il,ainvai(i)g ovrtoc EKTrXEixTEiav. Th. [_In hypothetical sen- 
tences.^ 39. 'E/ciXfve roue EiriirXovg, r]v nov Kuipog e'it] TroiE'icrdai. Th. 
40. "ZwETrEfixpi fjoi 6 Pa^dfiavdog tov 7rop6/x£a 'NuvttXiov iv', eciv 
KaTa-^dEhjjjEv eg Tag yr)(TOvg, [xr}CE\g r/fjidg avXXdpoi. 41. O o 
av Eydfii^E fj-aKapiwraTog eivai, otl EnirpOTroy El,oi a^^oXiiv irapE- 
■XpvTa wpd(T(TEty o ti dv avTf ydv e'Lt]. [0« account of pre- 
ceding historical tense.l 42. 'AirEWE^-dje Biaridtadai 'HpaKXEtSriv 

Etg nipivdov, oTTiog dv fXKjdoc yivoiTO. [Ow account of preceding 

optative.'] 43. ''EjXoyi'Cofxr^v eI ravra irpodvfxog aoi avKXafioifxi, we 
oliCE'iog re aot Eaoifxrjv icai k^iaoiTO [xol SiaXiyEcrdai aoi OTroaov av 
■)(p6yov ftovXolfiijy, 


("Ai' with the infinitive and participle.) 

Where, if the infinitive or participle were resolved into a sentence, 
av would stand with the indicative or optative, there it is properly 
added to the infinitive or participle. [See examples 28 — 33 in 
Lesson XIV. p. 28.] 

a) The infinitive with dv is very common after verbs of think- 
ing ; also after verbs of hoping, trusting, knowing, confessing, saying, 


.] 367. 157 

The infin. is here usually the present or aorist, both of which, 
especially the aorist, may thus receive a future meaning. The 
future infinitive may probably take ay, though it is very rarely 
found \ 

b) The infinitive with dy also occurs in propositions with uxtte, 
and with the infinitive used substantively. 

c) "With the participle it occurs where, if resolved, we should have 
a substantive sentence with ' that,' a relative sentence of time or 
cause, or a conditional clause with el, &c. 

a) ^fter verbs of thinking.'] (I.) Present infin. 1. Eittwi' oVt, da. 
. . . fiey fjiKXovroQ avrov E/J-loaWEiv aeiffsie, KwXvtiy ay avroy 
fiye'iro. 2. Ovtol . . . tXeyov . . . on ov voji ii^oiev evopKely ay 
(Trparevofiei'Oi iir 'Adrjyaiove fxr]My TrapaairoySoy iroiovyTaQ. 3. Ou3' 
dy ovTOc fioi BokeI Bikucwq avalrioq tlyai a<ppo(Tvyr)g. (IT.) Infin. 
aor. mostly, but not always, with a future meaning.'] 4. KaWtVrjj /uev 
yitp SiiTTOv BokeI TroXiTsia Eivai rj AaKtSaifjioviwy' £t Be EKeiyt] Itti- 
\Eipi](TEiE TiQ Twy 'F,(j)6p(i)y avTi tov toIq irXEiotn TTEideadai \l/iyeiy te 
Tt)y ap')(}]y teal EyaPTioiiadat toIq ■KpaTTOfxivoiQ, ovk av o'iectBe avroy 
Kal vrro avTuJy rdy 'E^dpwv Kal iiird rrJQ dXXijc cnracxrjQ ttoXecjc rf]c 
u.Eyi(JTr]Q TiyLuypiaQ a^itodrjyai', 5. ' Ap ovv ay fXE o'isadE rotraSE 
irr] oiayEyitjdai^, eI 'iirpaTToy rh BqfJiotTia, Kal -Trparrwy at,io)s 
avBpoQ ayadov E(ioi]dovy to'iq Bitcatoig Ka\, wcnrep xpv, ruvro irEpl 
ttXeigtov ETTOiovfiriy ; 6. Et Be ovrcjg tX^'j tyw /i£v ov^Ey fiaXXov 
AaKEBaifioyioiQay vfiaq yyovnai arparEixrayTas (jorjOijeTaL t) kui 
vfji'iy avTo'iQ. 7' Kat BokeIte dy ///xag etl KaraXaljE'iy avroiig 
TTply iy To'iQ ipvuaaiy tlrai ; i) ,8. Ta evtuq ovTixJQ EKaETO, warEb. 
fifiTE Twy Trdvv XetttILv Ifjiarlcjy rag imfioXag avEy^EaBai, rjBiffTa. 

TE ov ie vBoip \pvxpov (Tcpdg avrovg piirrEiy '". c) \^To be c. 

resolved into a substantive sentence with ' that.'] 9. Et tote 
VTTOjjLEii'ayrEg Bia Travrog drrij^drjadE ky rrj »/y£/ioi'tct, wawEp yfJ^Elg, 
Ev 'ia^ey /i); dv i]a(Tov vfidg Xvnripovg yiyyo^xiyovg rolg su/u^d^oic 
Kal dvayKaadiyTag ay, T] dp\Ety iyKparwg r) avrovg KwBvyEVEty. 
10. Eupotre B' ay royBE irepl ov vvy fiovXeveadE, ovk dy EXd-)(^iaTOV 
ysyo/j-Eyoy^ eI ffw^povwe rig avroy kKXoyil,oiTO, 11. \_^ relat. 
clause.] 'Eyw B\ w Kptr/a, KEiyoig ^Ey aEi ttote iroXEfxQ, rolg ov 
TrpuadEv o\o^ii'Oig KaXijy ay BrjiioKparlay Eiyui, Trply ay Kal ol BovXoi 

^ Hermann says: " quum recte diceretur TTiKpiog av dyyiXolfxi, nihil est cur 
dyyiXilv av rejiciatur." 

^ Here the »;/. with av is to be resolved into a past tense of the indie, with av. 
"> That is, 'if they could have done so,' ti olovri vv. 
' ^ on . . . OVK av yevoiro. 

158 367. [a','. 

Kai 01 ^t' fiTTOplav ^pa)(jto7c av uTrodvfxsvoi^ ryjv TroXiy fxiTE^ouv. 
[ = temporal or causal clause^.'] 12. 'E^Z/XStre eIq KupivQov, tQv 
TOTE 'Adr]yni(oy TroXAct o y e^o rTuv ^vriaiKaKTjaai. — \_In the himemhral 
consequence of a hypothetical proposition^] 13. Et fxkv Trepi Kaivov 
TiyOQ TTpayfxnTOQ Trpov-idsTO w ciy^peQ 'AOrjra'ioi Xiyeiv, ettktj^wv av, 
e(oc 01 ttXeIotoi Tu>y eiivdorcoy yyuifxr^y anecpijyai'TO, el fisy ijpecTKi tI fioi 
Twy vTto rovTOjy pT]diyTU)y, ifCfv^iav dy »/yov *. — \_In the conditional 
clause of a hypothetical proposition.] 14. OTyuat avy vfxly dy (iov- 
XevofieyoQ ovt: dy ap.apTdy£iy. 


{Omission, repetition, and position of or.) 

a) " Av may be omitted in the second of two connected clauses, 
both of which should take dy. 

"Ay is sometimes repeated. This happens {b) when it is used 
once at the beginning of a sentence to point out its conditional 
character, and then repeated with the verb. This is especially the 
case when the principal sentence contains several subordinate clauses, 
or when several words precede the verb to which dv belongs, (c) 
It is sometimes repeated because the speaker or writer wishes to 
give emphasis to a particular word, which he effects by appending 
the dy to it. He then adds it to the verb also. In this way, some- 
times, even three dvs occur, two being added to emphatic words. 

d) " Av is sometimes found without a verb. When it stands alone 
in this way, we may readily supply the verb that has already oc- 
curred, or such part of it as the sense requires, or some such general 
notion as eh], Tvowi^q, i'ittoiq. 

e)" Av with the optative is sometimes removed from the dependent 
and placed in the principal clause, especially with ol.ha {ovk olh' dv el, 
&c.), (/) In some parenthetic sentences, too, dv stands first in its 
clause, a proof that the Greeks did not place a stop before such 
clauses, but considered them as blended into one sentence with the 
principal clause. 

The dv, if placed after the verb, usually follows it immediately; 
but when it precedes the verb, it often stands at some distance from 
it. It attaches itself especially to words that affect the whole cha- 
racter of the sentence, such as negatives, interrogatives, adverbs of 
time, place, manner, conjunctions, and hypothetical relatives. 

2 ■=. oX cnrkSovTo av. 

^ This is especially the case with wg and particip. in gen. or ace. (See 245, e.) 

* ^ t-Ki<syov uv . . . Kai tiyov. 

a pa 

,] 3G9, 370. 159 

a) 1. 'O tKtijv iriijy ^ayoi av onore ftovXoiTO, Kal 6 eicu)y ^i\piov a. 
TTioi. Xen. 2. Bi(f ovr af eXoie ovTi KtiTa.(T)(^o ic (piXoy. Xen. 3. 
Utidoi ay, el -Ktidoi, aire iQ oil] q h' "l(tu)q. Msch. 4. "Erepoi/ ay tl 
tif)' ov yap ^>] to ye avro Trparrot. PL 5. Et ejiovXeTO tcl Biicaia 
TTOiEty, iSovXivey ay 'AXkiTr] Kal I'lv evlaimov Kara ye rvy aoy Xoyoy. 
b) 6. OiiTU) yuratkoe ovSiy ay ^Et^oy icaKuy KaKiJQ Kri'jcrair ay, oi/ce 0. 
ail)(ppoyog Kptiaaov. 7. 'H tou acpo^p' a y ol KUKwg TreTroyduTeg tnti- C 
ptLvT^ ay biKTiy Trap' kjinv Xajj.[3dvEiy. c) 8. So^we yap ay, el 
Treidoifxi vfxdc, Oeovg dy di^dcTKoi^i fxfi j/yelcQai v/iac eirai. d) 9. d. 
"OX/jov lirippveyTog evrvx^f^'^pog dXXov yeyoir' ay dXXor, evSaificoy 
ii' dy ov. Eur. 10. Miael Kal (piXil ovairep dy »/ narpig (sc. fiicrfj 
Kal fiXrj). Dem. 11. Ol epaaral kdiXovnt. SovXeiag BovXeveiy o'lag 
ovh' dy BovXog ovhlg (sc. ^ovXeveiy IdeXoi). PL 12. 'H yvyi] ovk 
i'ldeXey dniiyat, wg dy dcrfieyr] fxe kojpaKvla iJKoyTa cid j^poj'ou. Ly. 

13. Ot oheTai piyKovaiy, dXX ovk dv irpo rov (sc. tppeyKuy). Ar. 

14. Tt EiiT d y (sc. etTroic), erepoy el nvBoio ZtoKparovg fpoyriajdu. 
Ar. e) 15. Ovk olB' dy el Tre/orti^t, neipu(jdaL Se xpi). Eur. e. 
16. Ovk dy olh" o tl TrXiov evpoL tovtov. Dem. /) 17. EiTrep el Twy f. 
(piXoa6<pij}y, olfxai, dy Cjg eyw ttoioIc. PL 18. T/ oi/v, ay (pair] o 
Xuyog, e-i aTZLcrriig ; PL 


'Aj/Q' J)y is either (1) quare (= avrt Tovrwy, wy) ; or (2) propterea 369. 

"Apa is a particle whose origin and primarj' meaning is still 370. 

The most probable derivation seems to be that from dpw, to Jit, to 
be adapted or suitable : so that the particle properly denotes con- 
formity to the nature of things. Hartung contends that it comes 
from the same root as ap-7ra^w, ra-pio, re-pente, and the German 
rasch, so that it originally denotes suddenness, and hence surprise, 
&c. This notion is now generally and properly rejected. Rost 
refers it (not, I think, with more probability) to a'ipeir, to raise, with 
reference to its power of raising or exciting the attention. 

In Attic prose it is principally used in questions and inferences. 

a) In questions it asks with something of surprise or perplexity, 
and with the desire of an immediate explanation or answer. 

b) In inferences (where it may often be rendered ' then ') it 
often (but by no means always, as Hartung would have it) relates 
to something paradoxical, and is therefore connected with surprise. 

c) It often stands with an imperfect, to denote that now, from know- 
ing better, one is undeceived with respect to an opinion hitherto 
entertained {= ^ then,' or 'then after all,' or 'now'), d) 'Q^g dpa 
(not OTi dpa) = 'that forsooth ;' d apa, idv apa = 'if haply,' ' if 

160 370. [apa. 

perchance ;' si forte (tJ apa also = num forte); eI /uj) apa, nisi forte 
(ironically), e) It is sometimes explanatory (= scilicet), and may 
be translated ' 7Wiv.' 

b, a) 1. Ti'c apa pvatrai', rig dp" ETrapKeaEi dewy; b) 2. Ourw 
Koiroy Ti apa X°P? "^"^ XvTrr) ^aKpva kariv. 3. Tt 7if pt i^i/j^^e eXe- 
yo/^t£v ; bparuv tirai */ oy^ oparov ; Ouj^ oparov. 'Ati^ec apa, Nat. 
'0/iOtdrfpoJ' fi'pa vl/U)/*) (Ttof-iurog kari T(p deicsl, to ce tu oparw. /*/. 
4. Tavra uKovcrag 6 Kvpog inaiaaTO a pa tov nrfpov. 5. EJ titrt 
j3u)fxot, elcrl Kui deoi' aWa i.u)y (= atqui) tlal fiwfiol' elcrly d'pa' kuI 

C. deoi. Luc. c) G. 'ii 7ra7ci£c wg * d'pa ifXvapovfiEy ore to. ly rw 
Trapa^ftCTO) drjpia edrjpuifXEy' ofiotoy eyuoiye ^ofcel etyat oio^'Trep t'i rtff 
CtcEG^iva ^wa 6>]p(pr). 7- IlwXoj' aicj^ui'r; wou ffvyi^wpe*)', aXrjdfj 
dpa i)y TO Eiyai to dCiKe'iy tov dEn^Elcrdai oato Trep o'to-j^tov toctovtu) 

d. KaKioy. d) 8. Toiavra Xiyovcn Tcapa^EiyjxaTa Cjg dp' ol irpoyovoi 
fjLEydXa Ev iradovTEg ovciv ETifiqcray. Dem. 9. 'EroA^ua XiyEiy, wg 
dpa lyio KEtcwXvKuig E'irjy ti]v ttoXiv Tzoiiifraadai (sc. rriv Eipyii'rjy), 
10. 'O rofiodirrjg SiSdaKEi Ti/Jidy to yfjpag, Eig o irayrEg d(f)i^6fJLEda, 
lay dpa ciayiyrojusda, JEsch. 11. IIwc dv ovv TOiovrog dyrip 
ha<j)dEipoi Tovg yiovg ; eI jui) dpa ?/ TTJg dpErrjg ETTi^Afia Sia<pdopd 
laTiv. 12. ScoTTw El dpa ri e(tti Tolg deo'ig Epyov rj^ dydpioTTOig 

e. dEpuTTEVEiy. e) 13. 'LaKo. ^e, cpdyai Toy'Aarvdyrjv, rw olyo'^ou), oy 
lyw ^dXiara Tifiu), ovSev SiSivg ; 'O Se Sdicac dpa KaXog re toy 
IrvyyayE /cai Ti^ijv tX'^*' TTpocrdyEiv TOvg ^EOfxiyovg 'AaTvdyovg, 


'Apa (post-Homeric) is the illative dpa (igitur) strengthened by 
the tone of interrogation, and properly therefore introduces a question 
founded on something before said, perceived, &c. — (o) According to 
Hartung, it does not of itself imply whether an affirmative or a 
negative answer is expected, but that from the expression of surprise, 
doubt, &c. that often accompanies it, it may appear to do so. He 
adds, that it often implies irony. Hermann (who is followed by 
Kriiger) says : " Est eadem particulae dpa ratio quae Latinse num, 
ut ibi usurpetur, ubi responsio exspectatur negans id, de quo erat 
interrogatuni ; sed praeterea observandum . . . dpa interdum sic poni 
ut afjirmans responsio sequi debeat." b) It stands mostly at the 
beginning of its clause ; but sometimes even prose writers place it 
after one or several emphatic words, c) It is often strengthened by 
yi, which follows it cither immediately, or after an emphatic word 
interposed, d) If the answer yes or no is confidently expected, dp' 

5 It stands here in the conclusion of a syllogism. 

" The wg is here not that, but how. 

^ ■=: tl Ti ci^Xo tpyov, ?), &c. (dubito an quicquam negotii sit diis, nisi ut &c.) 

tipa.] 370. 373. 161 

ov {nonne) is used to imply that the answer yes is expected, doo /n'/ 
{numnam) to imply the answer mo, ' the latter mostly witli some ad- 
mixture of irony ' (Hartung). e) If the question is entirely founded 
on what preceded, dpa has oiiy added to it : this dp' ovv is also used 
by Attic writers where no answer is expected, biit the questioner 
passes rapidly on to a further examination of the subject. In this 
application the <' ()' ovv are still interrogative, not (as many think) 
affirmative; the particles are so used when the questioner leaves it 
undecided whether the person addressed will agree with him or no, 
and also suspends his own judgement : so that the question is eqvii- 
valent to a doubtfully expressed assertion, dpa ruirvr, dgd ye, and 
upa only, are also used in the same way. f)'Apci is also used in 
indirect questions, but the construction is that of a direct question. 
g) In dramatic and lyric poets apa has the illative force of dpn = 

'Ardp, but [a weakened form of the Homeric avrdp = av-£ ao or 373. 
apa]. (a) It retains the emphatic power of c'lpo, and thus gives addi- 
tional weight to the word or notion introduced by it. b) In Attic 
Greek the particle occurs principally when the discourse is suddenly 
broken off, and the speaker passes on to something else, c) Hence 
it is very common in questions when any thing is suddenly opposed 
to something before said, d) It also follows and relates to /xeV, 
fiivToi, but then always confers especial emphasis and prominence on 
the second clause, e) It sometimes has an ouv added to it when, 
after a general statement or notion, a particular one is added 

a) [See examples 40 — 48, p. 123, observing that in 41 the answer a. 
is affirmative.] 1. ^Ap' tori \i)poQ iravra irpog -0 yjpvtjiov ' ; Gn. b) b. 
2. Ta ci fxi'iTE ayaQa fJ.f]T£ KUKa dpa roidEe XiyeiQ ; PL 3. WfiaOiay 
dpa TO Toiorce Xiyert ; PL c) [See example 45, p. 123.] d) 4. B/a c. d. 
Ti iariv' dp' ov\ orar 6 Kptirrwi' roy ijTTio /.u) ireiaaQ dWa /jiao-ct- 
fXEvoq dvayKaari Ttnitlv o n dr avrto Cokt] ; 5. Tfjg KatciJQ re ecu 
atVii^pdc TTiticeiaQ Iv woXei dpa /i»; n fic'ii^ov e'£,tic: Xafttlr -tK^iipiov Jj 
TO celadciL Inrpuiv; e) 6. Socr. Kadag dpa \pvxiie dTraXXdrrerai be. 
c(ki]i' ?i^ovQ ; Pol. vai. Socr. dp' ovv rov ptyiarov aTroWarrtrai 
Kuicov ; PL 7. [^Gorgias having given dejlnition oi oratory, Socrates 
says,] 'Ap' ovv fiarddyuj o'iav avTip' (iovXei KaXtiv ; '■a'x« ce. 
eiiJOHai. o-a^f'cr-epor. /) 8. S(.£V^wjU£0a 70 dhi^ouyra h^orai SIktjv f, 
dpa jiiyttTToy twv kukwv iarir, 1) jj-s'ii^oy to /.(») cihoyai. PL g) 9. ^. 
Toiu'iGCs ■^pritJ i-iol Q dpa ■y^pi) TreTroidirai. JEsch. 

* This is ambiguous. 

162 375. [yd p. 

a. ['Ara'p.] a) 10. Oi/S' olKerag xpi) KoXoXf"' opyrj' (trap ut'TLTrdXoie 
Tu i-ier Ojjyj/t aXXa fJi) yrw/^irj 7rpo<70£'p£(T0at u\o>' hfiaoTrifia. Xen. 

6. i) 11. 'O j.!)) ETTiiTrdj^ie) oc ovte crrpuTi^yug ovte Jorpoc icTif, ov?e say 
VTTu TzdvTwr di'dpujTTOj}' (t'lpedij. "A rap, tcptj , , . Xiiuv til-uy, irodty 

c. i'li/i'i'o a£ h^duKeiy T))y (JT-parrjym)'. c) 12. Kat raiiru Xiyw}', ovre 
Oeovq cti(T')(vy)] ovre rovroi' roi' dvcpa, vg riiy f.iii' ere ipq. TrXovrovvra, 
TToii' C£ yfur <f>iXov yei'icrdiiL, d-rvu Xi^arelag tov j'jiov t^O) ra, wq ovtoq 
e<fj7l(rda. 'Arap ti kuI Trpoe «7*£ Xiyeig Tavra ; tcpr]' ov yap tywy' tTi 

d. dn-)^io, ciXXn AaKe^ai/JorioL. Xen. d) 13. IIoXXa'Krtc ^e'' yf c/j, t5 
Sciijj.6yi£, (Cat dXXoTE KaTty(')t]aa, urcip Kui yvy, wc eik6t(s)q ol ly rate 
(piXouocpiaic TToXvy xpoi'oj' tita-p/i^airtc £<c J"" SiKuaTiinia torrtc yeXoloi 

e. (puiyoyrui pij-opeC' PL e) 14. Kat t'yw ciKovdug del fxey h) Ti)y (pvmy 
Tov TXavKtoyoe te kui tov 'Aieifxdyrov 7)ydfir]y, drcip oiiy^ Kcii tote 
Trdvv ye i](Tdriyy &c. PL 

375. ^dp {iiam : = ye dpa) properly denotes an explanatory affirmation ; 
the predominating notion being sometimes the explanation, sometimes 
the affirmation. 

a) As explanatory (=: nam) it is used especially after demonstra- 
tives, and such sentences as arj^tlov {rtKj^nipioy, ^apTvpioy, cFiXoy) H 
[sc. £(T-/]' CiiKyv^i ci, (TKE-^aaQe hi, and the like. 

b) The proposition with yap may relate to another that fol- 
lows it. 

c) 'AXAct — yap, and also aAXa ya'p without any word interposed 
(which Hermann confines to ' familiar discourse '). This dXXa yap 
(^= at enim ; attamen) is often elliptic, referring to some other thought 
that must be supplied (^ hut something else happens : something 
else is to be considered, /or, &c.), 

d) Wlien yap occurs, as it often does, in oblique narration to con- 
vey t/ie reasons any body gave for his opinion, the verb will be in the 
optative if an optative preceded, as it usually does if the verb of 
the principal sentence was in an historical tense. 

e) In yap dv (= '/or else,' ^ for if so,' &c., followed by ^ would') 
there is an ellipse of some obvious condition. The particles are 
quite independent ; i. e. do not in the least modify each other's 

/) In replies, yap is often used with an ellipse of a ^ yes' or ^ no* 
(^yai or ov). 

g) " In on:ni iutcrrogatione locus est particulse ya'p, quia intelli- 
gitur semper ncscio vol die mihi, vel simile quid. Unde et Latini 

' The oil)' refers to the previous occurrence, as the ground or cause of liis pleasure. 

ya'p.] 375. 1G3 

quisnam vel nam quis dicunt." (^Hermann.) Reisig and Kriigcr make 
it elliptical, referring to a preceding declaration, so that oXwXe yap ; 
= oXwXtr; ov-u) yap Xiyuq. (See Reisig En. ad Q2d. Col. 1575.) 
Here belong ov ya'p; i] ya'p; ' is it not so V ttuiq yap ; {^for how can 
it be so?) ^ ' by no means.' ttwc yap ov ; {for how can it be not 
so ?) =■* to be sure,' an emphatic affirmative answer. Ti ynp ; is 
sometimes used (like quid?) as a formula of transition to a new ques- 
tion ; sometimes it has the force oi quid enim ? quidni enim? {why 
not ? certainly ; naturally), in reply to a preceding question ; and 
sometimes introduces a question expressing emotion {quid ergo ? 
Soph. (Ed. Col. 539, 547). 

a) 1. 'AQi]i'n~ioi irapX ')^pr]aTriQ ^6^i]q fidWov t.(Tnovcal,ov ?) iTEpl XP1~ ^• 
fid-iov. Tek-fiiiptoi' Se' j^jjyuara yap irXe'iara i/Trtp (^iXon/itac av)'/- 
XuxTCiv. Dem. 2. Ov^er inlaTEVor eics'iroi' crrifie'iov Se' ov yap au 
Stvp' riKov we ?//xac,'. Dem. 3. T/Jc ViXuadiiovQ iroXiTeiag ovk av 
Evpoifxey pdXXoi' avj-i^ipovaav' reKfxi'ipiov Be jxiyiffToV ol yap 
tKtii'i] ■^(^piofjiei'ui Trap' eKOvrwy rwy 'EXXi]yii)y T))y iiyEjioyiay EXaftoy, 
Isocr. 4. To iy rolg TrpeajivraToy siyai roy Qeov rifitoy. TEKfxijpioy 
Be tovtov' yoj'»7c y a p " EpuiToq ovk Eiaiy. PI. 5, 'E/jouXoito rove 
afiEiyovQ Ta a^ta t'x^u'. TEKfj-iipioy Ce we ov ■n-oXef.itwg E-rrparraov' ov 
yap ijciKriaay uvBiya, Th. 6. Kf^aXatov tov KaXCJQ aXXiiXoiq 
6jxiXE~iy' at yap KrijdEiq airfaXE'ic ijaay. Isocr. 7. Avro to 
iyayriojrarov' avrrf yap rj itpi'jyt] roy Siijuoy ruy 'Adrjyaltoy 
vdirjXdy i)pey. And. 8. To Ey^o/xeyo y' (rrpaTOirtBoy yap trr] Siica 
kartV^Er. Isocr. b) 9. ^t'pe ci), fujropiujg yap (pTjc Eniariiiidyy b, 
TE^yrjQ elyai, ?/ p»jropt(C») Trtpi ri rutv oyrioy rvy^^ayEi oiiaa; 10. Nvi/ 
Bi, atboBpa yap Kai Trepi jJLEyiaTtov \pEvd(')iAeyoc SokeIq dXrjQti Xiyeiv, 
But ravra. ge iyio xpiyu). c) 11. 'A XX' l/Bv yap rot Kriifiut r»7e yiKrjQ c. 
Xaftely, roX/ia. Soph. 12. Et tyw (^alBpoy dyi'ow, Kut Ef-tavrcv 
iTTiXEXrjfTjjiai' iiXXa yap ovBirEpa 'iart rovrtov, £v olBa ort ov^ ciTra^ 
ijKovarey. PI. 13. Svyicrfiiy ye rjjxiy avrolq KtfXovfiii'ote vno Ti}s 
iron^TtKfJQ, dXXa yap to Boicovy dXrjOEg ov^ oarioy npoBiBoyai. PL 

14. "I'Twe 'Eod'ue Etrrty ek TpayuBiag. 
(iXintt ye rot jjiayiKov te Kal TpuyuiCiKoy. 

[quibus alter opponit :] dXX' ovtc k'x^et ydp ^^^ac '. 

15. 'AXX' ear f'/xoiy' v(oe ^^Xoe te Kiiyadog' 
aXX' OVK ediXEi yap [AayddyEty^. 

' Reddit causam, quare non 'EpivvQ arbitranda sit, quae negatio in aXXd adver- 
sativa, implicite continetur, ut sit inlegra locutio : tiXX' ovk tanv 'Epivvg, ov yap 
t^ii S^Sag. (Devarius.) 

* Hie dWd yap simpliciter quidem exponiliir pro attamen. Si quis autem causa- 
tivam vim rov ydp servare velit, non repetendum, sed supplendum erit extrinsecus : 
dW ovdiv oipeXoQ tov KaXbv KayaOov avrov dvaf ov ydp tQeXei [xavOdvitv. Kl. 

Y 2 

104 376. 


d. d) 16. Avicojjiictjc £ Xtyc V wr jiovoiQ TtHQ ' ApKaai HfXoTroi'rijffoc ttutqiq 
t'ii)' i^ioioi yiip <LV76-)^QovE(; iv avryj oiicolev. Xeii. 17. "llicovov 
Tupyiov ii)(; )'/ ruu ireidEty iroXv CicKpepoi naaCjv t£)(J'{x)v' ncii'Tn yap 

e. v<f av7)j ^ovXa ii tKov-MV, ciW ou hia ftiuQ ttoco'ito. (?) 18. Oi/rt 
EdQiovai TrXeiw »*/ Cvtuirai (pipeiy, B lappayeH e y yap du, ovr cif^icbiiv- 
I'Virai irXiiu) rj Svvarrai (pipiiy, ukutv viy t'lty yap dv. Xen. 19. 

f. Ovt: epelc vru) ovk elixi TvaTTnoi' ttwc,- yap kyivovr^ at' tto-e ; f^ 20. 
To ye ^i/XoyLutftc ^ru (l)iXu(TO(poi' ravroi'; Tavroy yap, ecprj. PL 21. 

(J- A( fi7]TipEc TO. iraiBia ju») ii^SeifiaTOvi'Tioi'. M>/ ydp, E(pr]. PI. g) 22. 
O vtariaKOQ drayiXaaaQ iIttev' o'iet yap, tfrj, lo Kvpe iKavoy elvai 
KaXXoQ dvQpwTvuv uyayKai^ew ray fj.)) louvXofieyoy Trpdrreiy irapa to 
jytXricrroy ; Xen. 23. Ail Ik ruty wfioXoyrjfxevioy aiiroy eavToy 
fjdXiara (pvXdrreiy uttioq yuj) dcLK)'i(J£i' ov ydp; PL 24. ^iXoaoiptj- 
Ttoy wfXoXoyr']iTa^ty TeXEvrojyTtg' // ydp ; PL 25. Oi;^ ai(T)(_pay 
TO ypdcpeiy Xoyovc. T/ ydp ; PL 

26. Tyndareus. WtreXaE, TrporrcpOiyyiL vlv di'oaioi' Kttpa ; 
MeneL 'Y l ydp; cplXoQ /iot Trurpog ItJTiy EKyovoc. 

27. Tt yap, £0»/, w nal, tCjv dXXwv loy e^uicei ttoB' iifxiv dyuyKuloy 
tlyai p)) ivupajiEXE'iy i) jiiuyrjaai ; 


376. «) Te {quidem) is a restrictive particle that does not exclude 
the notion to which it is opposed, but gives that to which it is 
attached a degree of emphasis that distinguishes it from all others. 
Accordingly as it distinguishes its notion as being less than others, or 
greater than they, it may be construed by {at least) quidem {certe, 
saltern), or by even, himself {itself), vel etiam. The force of the ye 
is often to be given in English by a mere elevation of the voice, 
adding emphasis to the word or notion to which the yi be- 

h) It is frequently attached to 'pronouns, and from the emphasis 
they thus receive, the accent of tyw, e}xqv, kfxoi, tjii, is moved back to 
the first syllable. [See example 3.] With relative pronouns it 
adds emphasis to the whole relative clause : 6c ye {otrrig ye), quippe 
qui. [See example 4.] 

c) It is often used in appeals, wishes, commands, questions, and 
asseverations, dpa . . . yi, and ?i . . . yi, are very common. 

d) Fe is also used in replies and supplementary additions that are 
closely connected with another person's ppeech, to correct or com- 
plete it. 

e) It introduces, especially after relatives and conjunctions, a 
thought, that confirms or completes a preceding one ; e. g. by adding 
the 'necessary limitation or restriction. Kai ... ye, et quidem ; eV ye, 

^£.] 376—378. 1C5 

siquidem (which is el . . . ye when the ye distinguishes the interposed 
word, £( ye when its influence extends to the whole clause) ; tfrei ye, 
quando quidem (to which the remark just made also applies, as also 
to other combinations) are always to be understood in this sense. 
/) Ti is employed in the same way in explanatory and completing 

g) Common combinations are, aXXo fif)v . . . yi\ koX /.n)i' . . . yl\ 
ovce (ou) fx))i' . . . ye. ye cri := sane quidem, enirnvero ; the ^»/ simply 
adding an asseveration to the sentence restricted by ye. ye rui =: 
certe quidem {'yet at least,' ^ yet at all events '), the rot indicating a 
degree of opposition between this and the preceding notion or notions ; 
ye fji{]t' = certe veto. 

«) 1. 'KSug ye tt/j to' ahoc 'A(ppocirT]Q ycWn. Ar. H) 2. 'ILttI- a. h. 
<pd()r()t' \iav y' eTTCiii'tly e(TTiy. Eur. 3. Mf'/i)'»/^tat tywyt. KciAwc 
ye (TV, i)v c' eyo), ttoiud'. PL 4. Noyuouf nwQ ctr tlq }/y»/(Tairo cttov- 
ccuoy 7rpay/ia, ovq ye ttoWcikiq avrol ol dt/Jteioi airocuKi^aaavreQ 
fte-aridei'Tai ; Xen. 5. ^iXovg eTideaav tovq ye TiroXe fxiwraTOVQ. 
Eur. 6. Tct y' apKovid' iKciva ro'ig ye (TOJippoaii'. Eur. 1. Zrj-)]- 
rioi' o(7-i£ ii/Jug evi ye ru) -poTru) lieXriovg irotrjaei. PI. c) 8. JLvSai- c. 
fiovel y' iu'dpuTTOQ^. 9. Apa y' ti ri cpnaeig. 10. Kan'Of ye tovto. 
11. '12 Qeoi TvarpMOi GvyyereoQi y' aWu lur. 12. "Ei a ^e jj.)) 
Svrafxerog wipeXiicyni, Trwg av TroXXovg ye cvi'rjdtiij ; 13. "Otov c 
atrtiv ou(c ea, Truig ov atpocpa ye ^ovvai KwXvei ; 14. 'H [.tnii'srai ye. 
d) 15. noTtpov a?.eX(pw firjrpog earor Ik ^icig ; — ^tAorTyrt y\ d. 
ItT/jey ^' ov tcaaiyvi'jTit), yviai. 16. KuTreira rov yepovrog i]aai]d7] 
ytpi ', — Aiho~i ye, cot jjl epr]i.ioy o'l-^erni Xittwv. e) 17. Flap- e. 
eafxev, o'la o?} y' iuov irapoviria. 18. Ttri ctWw Tig ay e'ir] uo^og, 
e'i ye fii) £7rt<Tr>//j>j ; 19. ITpw-r; Oayoig av, el ^iKiig ye ruyj^cnote. 
20. 'A Wet iJ))y (t'l ye (ppoyif-ioi kuI ol ayi^pe'ioi uyadul, oi ce ct'iXoL cat 
a(j)poveg kukoi. 21."E(70'*, ddXiog ye Kov^rifjtov ical TravT((\ov. /) 22. f. 
"E^oj.tiy Ti TrapafivQelardcu avroy, Kal TTetdeii' I'/pepa eTriKpyirropeyoi, 
on oux vytotJ'Et. — Ae'i ye rot ^i). 23. Tt ovy ; roy "Epwra ovk 
^Acppocirrig kuI Oec'iy rwa J/ytt ; — Aeyeral ye ^i). 24. MacpctJ' 
yap epiTEi yyjpvc, ef^^avijg ye juj; r. 


Aton (= ha rovTo on), because : but later writers often use it for 377. 
on, that. 

At (weakened from a), as i-iey from fiijy) ranks, like the Latin 378. 

* :=u< I ace am cetera, aiit etiam si minus cetera habet c ommoila, 
beatus quidem homo est. {Klotz.) 

* Vivit. 

166 378. l^E. 

autem, between the copulative connectives {ri, kot) and the adversa- 
tive (('(\\n, &c.), and hence either opposes one thought to another 
{adversative), or merely contrasts it {copidative). Hence it is very 
frequently used in Greek, where in English we should use 'and.' 

a) The mutual relation between the concessive and adversative 
clauses, is commonly expressed by the concessive piv, which points 
forward to the second member expressed by ci. The li may denote 
either a strong or a slicjht contrast. The original signification of ^iv 
(from ^ »'/)') is '' truly,' 'indeed;'' yet its signification is not always so 
strong as this ; being indeed often so slight, that it cannot be trans- 
lated at all into English. 

h) MtV — hi are especially used in the following cases: 

With divisions oi place, time, number, order, aud persons, e. g. 

'JLrrnvOa {.lir — ekeI Si, 'irOa [.tip — 'i)Oa Si, tote jmii' — rori Si, 
VOTE pi r — TTOTE Si, at one time — at another, sometimes — sometimes; 
aWoTE //£) — aWoTE Si, at one time — at another; af^ci ^liv — ct'/xct 
Si {simul — simul), Trpibrov pir — ETreira Si, to jxiv — 70 Si, to. }xiv — 
ra'Si, and tovtv p.iv — tovto Si, partly — partly, on the one side — 
on the other ; 6 jxiv — o Si, hie — ille. 

c) When several predicates belong to the same object, and also 
when several actions refer to the same object. 

d) Where the same or an equivalent word is repeated in two dif- 
ferent clauses. {Anaphora. See 365, a.) 

This principle is not, however, always observed, '^liv is regu- 
larly omitted, when Si kciI follow. 

e) When ^iv stands in an adjective or adverbial clause, it is some- 
times repeated, for the sake of emphasis, in the corresponding demon- 
strative or concluding clause. 

/) So also, when, instead of the adjective clause, a participle with 
the article is used. 

g) In this way /xeV twice preceding has ^£ twice following; this 
always implies a strong emphasis. 

This parallelism is, however, but seldom found so regularly 
carried out, as in the example given below (10). 

h) The i^iiv — Si are commonly placed after the words, which are 
opposed to each other ; yet they are often to be referred to the pre- 
dicate or to the whole clause. 

i) When a substantive or adjective is connected with the article 
or a preposition, fj-ii' and Si are very often placed between the article 
and the preposition, and between the preposition and substantive or 
adjective, e. g. Trpoe fiii' tovc (piXovQ — irpoc S' E-)(Bpovc: but uni- 
formity in this respect is by no means always observed. 

k) The adversative particle which might be expected after /xiy, is 

^£.] 378. IG7 

sometimes omitted, though there is a corresponding adversative mem- 
ber. This is the case, when the word expressing the contrast is such, as 
of itself without H to make this contrast sufficiently manifest, as 
e. g. with ivravda fxiv — eke'i, and almost always with irpuiroy 
ftiv — £7r£ira. Secondly, even the clause expressing the contrast 
may be wholly omitted, in which case it must be supplied by the 
mind (/i£»', solitarium). 'Eyw fXEv vvk olla' wc fiev Xzyovmv' 
Tavra fxlv )//.u'' '/yyEt'^E '"'C* ol^ui jxir, >/yov/.tat /xe'i', IokCj 
fiir, ovK olSa fxiv, and the like. 

l) On account of its general signification, U, like autem, frequently 
connects sentences, even when they stand in a causal relation to each 
other ; then the hearer or reader is left to gather from the con- 
text the particular mode of connexion. Thus ci is very often ex- 
plaiiatory (= autem), and is used instead of yap. 

7)i) In questions, ^e is sometimes used as an adversative, the inter- 
rogator giving vivacity to his question hy omitting the concessive 
member ; but sometimes it has a copulative force, and continues a 
question which had been interrupted by the answer of the other. 
The same principle holds good in answers. 

n) Kai — Si (in the Epic writers Kal Si not separated), and, though 
more seldom, the negative ovSi — Si, in which connexion ci has the 
force of ' also,' ' even,' adding emphasis to the word interposed. 

a) Sometimes the proposition with ^tV, or that with ci, is 
virtually a subordinate clause, and may be construed by whilst, 

p) In the apodosis, as in principal sentences, ci has a double force, 
either adversative, or merely contrastimj. Sometimes ^iy stands in 
the first member. 

(1) The adversative ci in the concluding clause, expresses the 
contrast between that and the antecedent clause. It is used (a) after 
hypothetical antecedent clauses, where iiWa is often found instead of 
li ; (/5) after relative antecedent clauses, and such as denote com- 

q) (2) After an antecedent clause denoting time, li commonly has 
a contrasting force, yet sometimes an adversative one also (very often 
in the Homeric language, and also in Herodotus, but seldom in the 
Attic writers). 

r) Sometimes li occurs after a participle, which may be con- 
sidered as virtually the protasis, to which the sentence introduced by 
li forms the apodosis. 

a) 1. To fj-iv McpiXijJioy KciXoy, to li (iXal^epoy cucr^por. 2. A(£- a. 
<j)d£ipay UXnraiiioy ju e i' nvrwy vvk IXucfctovq Ciaicoalwy, 'Afitiraiwy ce 

168 378. [H. 

c. irirre Kal lii^omy. c) 3. 'Eyw yet'og fiiv eifii rJjc TrepippvTOv S/cypov, 
TrXiu) o' t'c o'ti^ov, av^iofiai ce ttoIc 'A^''^^'^^ NtoTrnJAf/Joe. 4. Ot 
easjjuXoi' /!£)' te 'jyi/ 'Affa/i', KiUfiepiovg eKJiaXovrtg Ik tTjq EvpwTr/jc, 
Tovroiai Ct ETricTTTOfieioi (pevyovai ovrw Iq rfju Wr]CiK))y ■\}opr]v airi- 

Cl, (vVHTO *. 6?) 5. 'Eyw (TVt'ElfXl fJiiv dlo'lQ, aVVElflLB'a.l'OpWTrOlQTO'iQ 

ayaOoJc. 6. ^ojkparrjc; dvioi' (paiepog i] ttoWukiq fxti' otKOt, iroX- 
XuKig ce ETTi tG)1' kolvCjv TiJQ TToXtujg f:>u)jj(Li'. 7- XaXtiroj' yap 
(jvT(o 71 TToiFiaai, ware firicev afiuprCiv, ^aXtirvv hi xai arct^aprri- 

e, Tu)Q TL Troi))<TavTa ju») ayrw^on Kpirrj Trepirv^El}'. e) 8. Kai tov 
(i. e. or) fiEi' KaXioviTi dipog, tovtov ^ev TrpofTKvi'iovai te Kal tZ 

f. TToiovai' Toy ^i )^£(^<w)'o, k.t.X, f) 9. Tw f-i e r vTrepEyEyKoiri rijy 
ai'dpM—u'rji' (pvair (^lipuKXel), — tovtu) jj.ei' o Rvpvffdevg ettitcittioi' —  

(/' ciiTeXEaei'. g) 10. 'Eyw ovv Ceira uf £'t/;r EtpyacTniyog, w drCpeg 'A9?j- 
yaloL, El, OTE fiiy fXE o'l ixp-^oyTEg 'iraTTOv, ovg vfiElc I'lXeffdE a.p')(^Eiy 
fiov, KcCi EV WoTiCuia Kui Ev 'AyLt^iTToAei Koi Eiri ArjXlu), tote fjiEy ov 
ekeIioi tTCiTTOi' tfiEvoy — Kal EKircvrEvov aivodavtly, tov Ce Oeov tut- 
ToiTog. ihg iyu) (Jljdrjy te Kal vTriXafioy, (fiiXocrocpovyTa jje SeIv i^rjy Kal 
Et,£Tai^orTa Efxavroy Kul tovc aXXovc, ErTuvda ^e (j)ol.h]dElg i) davn-oy 

k. Tj dXXo oTiovv Tvpdy^u Xiiroifxi Tt)y tu^iv. h) 11. Kat EAtyt fxey (Sw- 
Kpa.Tr]g) wg to ttoXv, to'iq Ie jJovXafiiyoig £s>;i' uKovtiy. 12. "E7ra0£ 

i, fiEy ovliy, ttoXXci ?£ kukci LvojxiaE 7roiij(Tai. i) 13. Ta j-ily dydpw- 
TTEia TTupiirec, tu CaLjj.6via ce aKowouvTEg >/yoDr-at to. ivpnai^KoyTa 
TrpuTTtii', 14. Ovce Tijv Trapovcray £tp//i'jj)', ovSe T))y avToyojU-iay Tijy 
Ey Talg TroXiTEiaig f-tey ovK Erovaav iy ce Talg (TVidi'iKaig drayEypajJL- 

k. fiirr]y u^ioy iXiffdui jjdkXoi' i) T))u up->^i)y Tijy lif.iET£pay, k) 15. 

I. Atyfrot o^£ 6 Xoyoc, e/joI f.i e y ov Tridujoc. Z) 16. AvTog ETray~ 

yEiXafjEyoc aijaEiy Tt)y ttoXw, avTog aTrwAfCf, <pd(TKU)v Trpdyjua EVp7)Ke~ 

lai fiiya Kal iroXXov d^iov vTriry^ETO Ce Elpyjytjy iroit'jaEiy jLi)/r£ Of^rjpa 

m. Sovg fii'iTE TU Tiij^^r] KaOeXiov. ni) 17. Kai 6 '^wKpdri^g. JLlni /j.ot, 
'E<pr], w KpiTOjy, Kvyag ^£ rpiftig, 'lya aoL Tovg Xvkovq citto -J)j' irpopd- 
Thiv dTTEpvKioai ] 18. OvKOvy oiada, (.(pj], oti nXridEi ^ev ovIev /.ieiovq 
Elfrly 'Adrfyaloi BoicJTuiy ; Oiha yap, e^t}. Sw/>(ara he t'tyciOci Kal 
KuXd TTOTEpa EK lioiwrwr o'iel ttXeIu) dy £KA£xO)/''f<', '/ tk 'AOrjywy. 

n. 7i) 19. OV TE dXXoL TrpoOvniog rw TeXevtI^. vTvrjpETOvy, Kal >/ rHy 
Qrjjjaiwy hi TvoXig TrpodvfJiUJg E,vyETrE[XTrE Kal OTrAtVoc Kai nnriag. 20. 
'EiTTvvddyoyTO hi Kal ig tovq E'/Awroc TvpdaaEiy ti avToy, Kal i)v he ov- 
TU)g. 21. Kat ovciy ovci rovToy vadEly Eipaaay, ovh' dXXog he riov 

0. 'EAAj/rwj' iy tuvty] tt} f^d'^r] tTradEy ovcftg ovciy. o) 22. To £ti'at fjiev 
Tdc draycatorarar TrXEia-ng wpd^Eig To'ig di'6po)7roig iy inraidpo), TOvg ce 
TToXXovc uyvjiydrTTOvg e-^iiv Tcpog te '4'vxn '>^''' T^pog duXirrf ov hoKET ffoi 
—oXX)] dp.iXeui Eiyat. lltDc ov (T^iTXioy r»)i' fiiv iroXiv avTtjy i]fj.u)y 

•' (Herod. Ionic Greek.) Observe that the fiiy is in a principal, the Sk in a 
subordinate clause. 

?^.] 379. 169 

Xftac ; 23. Atj; rt uurwj' j) fMurrty {(^ofiiidiiQ, o'l ce noXifJiui o'vk 
tp^orroi; p) 24. 'AW' tt /ur/^e roDr', i«/)»;, iSovXn anoKpirarTdm, rrv p. 
Se Tovr-tvdiv Xiye. 25. 'Y^KuBtvlov avrio iv ralei, wa-ep ol <nr\~t-cn, 
ovru) ce Koi ol irtXrnffTai kcu ol toIotui. q) 26. Airap tinX xl^vx^Q 1' 
fjEt' aiTEcnciBcicT ciXXvhc aWrj aytn) UepaEipoi'eia yvvaiKwi' OijXvretjciun', 
7lXde ^' ETTt ypvxn 'Aya/ie'/JJ'0)oc 'Arpt/oao. 27. 'Ettei ^t a^t/coj'ro, 
eVfJct o ^£»' T/yprje Trora^oe TvaiTa-nainv atropoQ i)v Sia to ftddog 
fiiyEdoc;, irdpoEog ce ovk liv — , e^okei ^e" To'iq (TTpciTiwraiQ Slo. tCjv 

6pEU)l' TTOpfVTEOl' EUai. 7') 28. Kai TTOTE UVTOQ TTCtyOU u'ioV CEUOTUTOV, T. 

KUi TraVrwj/ — EVEiXiyiiEi'wv tovq tto^uq Etc ttiXovq kuI api'dKicac, 

OVTOQ C Iv TOVTOIQ E^t]El tX'*"' '7'"'''^'' » ^^"'''''■^P ''■"' TTpOrfpOJ' iIojOeL 

(pupEli'. 29. 0au/ia'4'w crow, £1 £K.£('j'Oue p^^/wc x^Lpoi) ^Ev oc, tovtqiq 
it fit]C£i'a -puTzoi' o'lEi Zvi'i'iaEadai vpoaEVEyQi'trai, 


A// {-dum, -dem, -jam, i. e. the jam in qnoniam, quispiam). 379. 

A/) (probably a weakened form of ?;^/j) affirms that the speaker 
knows that the thing in question exists at the moment actually present, 
or present to his mind. Hence it also denotes, in general, the being 
ready, or at hand; certain existence as a fact ; an appeal to what is 
evidently before one's eyes, &c. Here we may note, a) Its use with 
adverbs of time ; denoting that the thing is limited to the time de- 
noted by the adverb, vvv hii = {dpn) 'just now.' Trplv (it'i, pridem. 
ETi St], ovKETi ct], ueI It], TzoXaL hi}. (Compare nuncdum, etiamdum, 

b) Kai Sy'i =zjamjam (' already,' &c.). This combination is used 
in replies, and also in suppositions (^ = fac ita esse), the supposed 
event being stated to have actually taken place (7, 8). With reference 
to a future moment it implies its immediate following, = (continuo) 
' immediately,' ' this moment,' 'at once.' 

c) Kai ^//, Kai . . . Ir] {et vero; quiri) are also sometimes used in 
explanatory statements added to a previous one, the former giving 
emphasis to the whole clause, the latter to the interposed word. So 
^f 111 gives emphasis to an opposed notion. A?'/ is also used generally 
in replies and clauses added to preceding ones. 

d) This is especially the case with imperatives (with which ive 
often use 'now,' 'then'). Compare dicdum, cedodum. 

e) The particle is also used extensively with reference to purposes 
of prevention, asseveration, Sic. It here denotes the thing as settled, 

^ This passage (which Kiihner quotes) is a doubtful one, being absent in some 
MSS. ; and both Poppo and Kiiiger read Srj. 

170 379. l^'h 

completed, certain, &c. yu/; ri h'l or /i// rl ye h'l {not at all surely =), 
nedum, ' not to say.' 7} h'l, ' assuredly.' 

f) Its use in explanations to denote an immediate judgement of 
the mind, formed upon the obvious appearance of the thing. So in 
yap h'l, w£ Bi], ola Ei) (utpote). Here there is often an admixture of 
irony, as if the thing were so obvious that it may be assumed as a 
fact without hesitation. 

g) Its use after demonstratives to denote limitation to the thing in 
question, which it distinguishes as being the very thing meant, often 
as remarkable, well known. Here it may sometimes be construed 
'precisely,' 'just ;' but often cannot be construed, but must have its 
force given by emphasis nMed to the word. So tote h), ovtoq h'l, 
ai) Ci'i, TO. avTci cij tuvtu. Compare dumtaxat and demum. 

h) Its use with relative pronouns and adverbs: here it either 
distinguishes the thing (as with demonstratives) or explains the par- 
ticular thing meant. OQ ({), oloq II], tTreict] {quoniam = quumjam), 
'ivda di]. (See k.) 

i) With interrogatives it implies (as in commands) impatience, as 

requiring an immediate explanation. Tig h'l; 'whoever?' ' who in 

the world?' irCJe c//; It has the same meaning in exclamations: 

oaoQ cij ! 

(Here the Attics in their co//og'H?ananguage extended the particle to 
Coi, as VI) to vai, especially in rl dai; aiii' tu? 'how so ?' 

k) Its use with indefinites. Here, too, it denotes haste and indif- 
ference ; any one, without going further to take in others : = {-cunque, 
-vis, -libet). oartg ^1), nescio quis. oanc h) woTe, quicunque tandem; 
OTToloQ h). orroi cf], quotqunt : aWoq ^i], alius nescio quis: eite Si], 
' whether it be that,' &c. {=sive). With tIq ttote, ttov, the ^?'/ precedes; 
C)j Tig, quispiam, or nescio quis : hi] ttote, uspiam ; h) ttov, ' in any way,' 
'surely' (as used in a half-questioning or half-doubting manner). 
With c)'] the relative oaoQ gets the indefinite meaning oi ' any degree 
whatever,' often of ' any degree however small' {= quantuluscunque). 

I) After expressions of number and degree (e.g. comparatives and 
superlatives), it denotes limitation to the asserted magnitude or de- 
gree, which the thing precisely attains to. It may denote either that 
the number or degree is not exceeded, or that it is fully reached, i. e. 
is ' not fallen short of.' /ioroc H, ' quite alone :' Tpe'ig c>], ' no more 
than three:' tvuvtec clj, ' all without exception:' ucrdEvtjQ ^//, 'very 
weak :' fipaj^yg ct), evOvq If], Trdiv Cij, fiiya 2»j, irXt'iara Zr], iiiy^oTOQ 
c»i (' the very greatest '). 

m) It may be added, that ^ often appears in the apodosis (with 
particles of time, &c. tote c//, Ei'TadBa clj) to denote exact coincidence 
with the event or circumstances mentioned in the protasis. 

Sf,.-] 379. 171 

a) 1. OvSei' aWo aKeirriov */ owep pvv Bi) eXsyoy. 2. 'HviKa St a. 
TrpoffiorreQ iXiyovTO ovdri Sex Vf^^p^^ o^^" uttex^h', tuts h) 6 Kvpoc 
Xiyei' ~0 KvaS,apt], wpa h) i^airarTq.v Kai /uiire to'ic TroXEfxioie coct'iy 
l^fjre toIq ytieripoic 0o/3ou/K£»'ouc /.<*) avrnrpocnirai. b) 3. 'Akouu) r//e b. 
dvpac Kal C)) \p('i(j)Oy. 4. BXi\poi' icutu). Kai ci) ftXtTVio. 5. Uefi- 
iroijx av i]hr] TorSf (Jvv rvxV " ''^ ''*"' ^^ ireireinr-ai. G. 'Ottoctoi 
^' av TO. TToXef-UKa fn) (nroTidu)i'Tni oTrXa, IttI tovtovq yfielQ i^ai h) 
(TrpaTevcTOfxtda. Xen. 7. hi) TtQraai. rig fie SiieTai ttuXiq ; 8. 
Kctl dt) hceyixaC tiq Ei fxoi Tifi>) luiyei ; 9. Kal St) TpEirvjin'oi 
TTOtovg II iTnriac i] To^orac T/ TrfXracrrac »/ aKoi'Tiffrag avev 'iinrwi' orrtQ 
ZvvaifxeG' av (psvyofTOQ i) Xafieiv j) KaraKaiveiv ; c) 10. 'Q.Q cidXioi C. 
01 SiKijv SiSorree, Jjv Se Si) 6 Spuiv tuvtu Oeog, ovi: iariov Xiytiv tov 
7rot»jr»/i'. 11. i\ii(i) irpwTov Trepl tov irpwrov Kuipov, icai Si) Inavayio 
ifxavTov iwl Tt)v elpijviiv. 12. ndrrtc o'l rwv [iapljapwv apxovreQ 
fiiaov t^oiTfc TO avrojy iiyovvTO. Kal (oaaiXevc Si) tote fxiauy elx^ 
TfJQ lavTOv arparidQ. 13. Su)U7r£/u»//o»' roiyvv fioi riva. Aaftwy Si) 
'idi, ifr}, ovTiva kdiXeiQ. 14. [Astyages made a great hunting-party 
for Cyrus:] ical /iao-iXi/cwc Si) Trapujv avTog, anjjyopeve j^rjliya 
fiaXXeiy Trplv KvpoQ ijjnrXrifTdeir} di]pu>y. d) 15. "E^f Si], i(pi]v iyd)- d. 
ii^iov yap rot eTri(TKi\Laadai, o Xiyeig. 16."E7r£t ■KpoQvp.EL, XP') XeyeiV 
cLKOve Si]''. 17. Qoi/J-tda Si] to (pSpTior. e) 18. 'Eyw Ss. Kal kv toTq e. 
deaTpoig opHj Toiiq aywviaTag vwo tuiv iraiCMV Trapo^vvonerovg, ]xi] tl 
Si) vtto ye twv 0/Xwr, ovg av Tig oajrai fie~'a aTrovcrjc tear' evvoiav 

TrapuKeXeveadai. \_JVith relative pronouns and adverbs.'] h) k) 19. h. k. 

'Pi]yvvTai OTToia Si) <pXe\p. 20. Ti nOTe ov to oaiov e'lTt ^iXe'iTai 
VTTO deiov e'lTt c ti Si) Tzacrxei. 21. 'Ec Ti)v " AffirevSov tj tivi Si) 
yvw^i] cKptKve'iTai. 22. To i^ffv oiroaov Srj xpo^'°^ '■^*' u)g aXridwg 
iif'Spa euTeov laTir. 23. 'E^ctTrujjc ureXctfi-ipev oiKta otov Si) ev- 
a\pavTog. 24. Qpaavfiaxoc SiaJ3aXXetv re Kal SiaXvaairdai SiapoXag 
odev Si] KpaTicTTog yeyovev. 25. "Evioi to. fxlv (j)iXoveiKi<}, m S' 
■qTLVL Si] TTor' aiTiq. TrpoayovTai Xeyecv. 26. Tovto TriirpaKTai vvvl 

oircjg Si] TCOTE. 27. 'E^tirSwCTaro )U£ ocTTig Si) ttot' ovv. 

[^Miscellaneous.'] 28. Ovx ovrojg ex^'- 5 '^X^' ^V* 29. UXelfTTaQ 
arijp elg'HpaKXfjg eyr]fXE Si). 30. Ilapa ^o^or TroXXa TzoXXolg Si) 
kyivETO. 31. 'i^Trrat 7ra\ai ^j) Koi l3tj3ovXEVTai tciSe. 32. IToXXot 
KaKCjg Trpatraovcriv, ov av Si) fxovog. 33. \p6vog EyyiyvETUi, og Sr) 
SokeT tu TToXXa KaXuig j^acrail^eiy. 34. Ti Si) {irore) ovrwg ETrijvecre 
TOV 'AyajuEyui'OJ'a ; 35. Tw ye fiiXXovTi aSiKelv ov jxeyaXr] rig /jlol 
SoKel f] XP^'" ^^^ pr]TopLKrjg Eivai, el Si) kcu eotl rig XP^'"' ''^^* 
Tvyx^-vovai tote irapovTEg orav Si) avro'ig iJKr] // TzXriajjiovi) rorrnv 

^ Here it has also an annective force. 
z 2 

172 380. lErjdtv, &c. 

<pEpov(7(i. 37. Ovce Tutv roj^iioi' (ppoyTii^oveTif, 'i i>a ^>) fir]dai.iij fjrj^ag 
avToiQ >) ^((jiroTTjc. 38. Tw fx)) ipMrri fidWuf (jtrjai htlv j^aoli^eadai, 
lion S)) o fiiv jj^ali'irai, 6 le ffuxppoi'd, 39. 'Ec/^a^ni' wg (car' 

£V)'o<a>' St) Xiyeiv. \_Inlroducing the apodosis.~\ 40. 'Einl kcu 

EVTUvda e-)^il)pov}' 01 "EXXr/iff, Xiiirovffi Bi] Kal tov Xvcpov 01 'nnreJc. 
41. '£-££ vTrtTifiroi'To nuror, evravBa li) ftor]dE~n' tKiXevEt'. 


380. «) Ar/0£)' (from h'j and Oiy, a weakened form of Oij)', scilicet) is 
properly an affirmative particle, but is mostly used either of a false 
pretence or notion {= Trpufuaiy : 'in appearance;^ 'as they Sj'c. 
wished- it to be thought '), or as an ironical affirmation (^scilicet, 
videlicet; quasi vero). It is however, sometimes, though seldom, 
used as a simple explanatory particle. 

b) AijTTov (opinor), ' I imagine,' ' I suppose,' 'doubtless.' 

c) Ai'jTrovdEv (from <! i'ittov and Otp'), ' I hope,' ' I suppose,' 'surely' 
(ncmpe, ironically). 

d) AfjTfi (fromt^j/, and perhaps eItu^, 'then') serves like ct), only 
in a higher degree, to render prominent, and more exactly define the 
word which stands before it. It may be joined with all the parts 
of speech, in order to define them, whether by extension or restriction 
of their meaning. It is very often used after interrogatives, with 
which it is either consecutive (i. e. relates to a preceding statement), 
'then,' or has the force oi 'really ' 'indeed.' It is often used with 
imperatives (^z= ' do,' 'do pray,' &c.) ; and very often in replies 
(usually with repetition of the word assented to), where it denotes 
unconditional emphatic assent. It frequently has an ironical force 
(^^ 'forsooth.^ See 14). Also, ?i cijra, yes, surely; ov BfjTa, 
minime vero ; fii) cfjra, 'nay do not,' &c. ; khX cjjra. 

a, a) 1. 'ATrE?r£[.i\puiJiriu roi' viuv, p-iya (ppoi'uiy, on SridEV rrjc IjairtXitog 
dvyarpoQ o^hoipiiv ror ipuu v'toi' yuptTrj)'. 2. Tovto C)) to ayog 01 
AaKEZaijxoviOi kXavyEw EKlXEvor lijOei' rolg Oeo'iq TtpCoTOV TifiwpovvrEg, 
ETfptcXea ^£ EiSoTEg rov SayQiinrov TrpoTe-^opLEt'ov avTto kcito. Trjv 
prjripa. 3. Frw/zfjc TrapaiyiiTEi STjOev tw koivm ETrpEtrftEvaarTO. 

b. 4. Orestes: 'NiKi]i' lug yplt' e1 cii^ai' ulmvuEOa. b) 5. Ov dr]7rov 
C, Tor ap-)(Orra rcDr upy^ofiEiu)y TroyrfpoTipoy irponijiCEi eIicu. c) 6. "Ar- 

6pu)nog El crjiTOvd EV ovk eot' ovSe Eig w pt) ca/coi' ti yiyovtv y yivri- 
(Terai. 7. 'Eyw ^£ t^v iinzEvtiv fiadw, otuv pEy etvX tov 'imrov yiviopai, to. 

* So Kiiiger. Klotz thiiiks tlie tu is related lo the old indefinite pronoun 
Tog; &o ihii cT]Ta'=:^'jam aliqiid ten us;' 'jam aliqtid ratione;' i.e. jam 
sane; jam qiudem ; jam pnifeclo ; jam certe. 

C(, £U)' 

.] 381. 173 

Tov iTnrutcei'Tnvnov ^ijirovdev BiaTrpuE,oiiai. d) 8. Electra: Aoq Sffra d. 
■rra-pnc -o'lah Tijuopor ^it:r]v. 9. M >) h'irn ^parrtjQ ravra y ahov- 
Hai a iyu). 10. Tt cf]r' iy oXjiu) /.n) cra^tT /5£/3/y»:or£c ov i^w^iv utq 
ijcKTra fj}) Xviroufjevoi; 11. 'Att' i^QpQv lijTci iroWa iiatdaiovaii' 
oi ao(poi. 12. T«Dra ct'ir aict(T\eT('i ; 13. Svf^ijiuXaia ^e Xeytii; 
KODWj'/fjuara, ?'; ri ciWu ; — Koi rw )'7j^t«ra Si'ira. 14. 'AX/V tVct- 
^((^9(1) Sfj-a ^u(T(T£/v£7i' Trarfp ; 

LESSON XVI. [e;, £ar.] 

a) In Attic writers, when two conditional clauses are placed in 381, 
contrast by tl {tar) jdii tl {iaf) Se /ui'/ ; in the first the apodosis 

is omitted, as containing a thought which may be easily supplied, 
and the discourse hastens on to the following more important 
thought. — Et Tig does not express doubt of their being any ; but is 
nearly = ocrnc, ' whoever ' (2, 7). 

b) The verb is sometimes omitted after el, &c. Thus in el ^») 
?iin = ' //"it were not for,' ' if it had not been /or,' as in ft jj)) Sia tov 
Kwi'o, ' but for the dog.' c) Frequently, e. g. with £t7r£p {voTe), a 
verb must be supplied from the principal clause, d) So, too, el fj.)) 
receives the meaning of nisi. The form el Se fji) {sin minus), ' but 
if not,' often occurs without a verb ; e. g. after /j-aXiaTu fiei' (properly 
potissiimtm quidem ==), ' if possible,' of the thing to be done by pre- 
ference, if it can be done. ' e) When el jjh) has the meaning of 
' except,' another £tis sometimes subjoined, thus tl jji) el, like nisi si; 
the predicate of el is omitted. /) This ft ^f /u»'/ having become a 
standing formula, it was used after ear niv (where one should expect 
ihi' H jj))): and also after negative notions it is found introducing the 
opposite supposition (though this is here affirmative), the strict oppo- 
sition being neglected from its having become the regular office of ft 
^£ fii) to express 'but on the contrary supposition,' 'otherwise.' [Et yap, 
utinam; see 205, note, p. 67. On the forms of conditional proposi- 
tions, see 78, and remarks on p. 26.] g) Kat tl = ' even if {etiam si ; 
etiam turn, si); here the 'even' preceding the supposition marks it 
as an improbable and extreme condition, or, at all events, as the 
most unfavorable that can well be conceived; in spite of which the 
consequence is still believed by the speaker to be certain : ft Kat, 
' if even ' {etsi), represents the condition as one of possible occur- 
rence, which yet will not affect the consequence, h) As implying 
its possible occurrence it may often (like etsi) be rendered ' although ' 
{quamquam). In other cases the Kui (as also prjci after el) often 
relates to some following notion, i) In ovM el (eciv), /x/jct ft {iay), 
it is also the connective particle which the olci, firjEi involve, that be- 
longs to the conditional particle ; the negative belonging to the prin- 




Tu. etre. 


cipal clause. So that, e. g. ovc tl = kuI el . . . oh. In other words, 
the particles are to be construed ' even if or * although,'' and a ' tiot^ 
carried to the verb, k) FAirtp (properly := si omnino, or si quidem 
omnino) states the condition as a supposition, often as one of which 
there is little doubt. 

/) E(ra and £7r £iro, and more emphatically (c^r a, cctTreira, often 
introduce questions of astonishment, indignation, and irony. They 
express antithesis or contrast, ' {and) yet,' ' {and) notwithstanding,^ 
implying that there is an inconsistency between the two notions, 
actions, &c. 

m) Etre =: sive : tdv re (>'))' re or av re) being used where edv 
{ijy, ai') would be used for el. Eire . . . e'ire {idv re . . . edv re) = 
sive . . . sive (the whether . . . or ; either ...or, of indifference, the 
speaker leaving it undecided, which supposition he assumes to be the 
true one). They are also used as dependent interrogative or delibera- 
tive particles ; and that whether each clause has its verb, or the con- 
struction be elliptical. 

The following forms, also, are sometimes used, viz. e'i — e'tre 
{si — sive); e'ire — el oe {sive — si vero), when the second member 
contains something opposite to the first; e'ire — r/ ; j; — ft re (sel- 
dom and only poet.): when e'ire is used but once, it is poetic. 

n) By e'ir e. . .e'ire in indirect questions the indecision and hesi- 
tation of the speaker between two possibilities are made more pro- 
minent than by £t . . . >'/. 

a. a) \, Kal eai' jjter eKoji' ■n-eiOijrai (sc. kciXwq ^X^'' '^^^l')' £t ^£ 

b. f^Vf evduvuvtny inreiXalg cat TrXtjycuQ. b) 2. Ov i^eXevcrit), el /irj 
t,vp(penoi', 3. Atp//«r£i Qtairtjrov /y rwv (iWbjy e'i riQ <tol Kara vovv, 

c. c) 4. Oi) ro yu/) ftovXeirdai, uXX\ e'iirep, ro juj) Zvyaadai ciaKtoXvaei. 

d. 5. ^rip\ Celv eBeXrjcrat, e'iirep irure, Kal vvv. d) 6. 'H^Ti^ ov2ev 

e. eoTLv uyaQov dXXo el /^ >) oVXa Kai aperi'i. e) 7. O \pr]fMari(Trii:6Q 
7:p6g ru Kepcaiveiv t)]v tov rij-tdadat. yjSoi'rju i) rijv rov fiavQdveiv 
ovheroQ aiiav <pij(Tei, el fif] e'i rig auVwi' dpyvpiov iroie'i. 8. Ov yap 
ro eavrdiv, olfxai, eKaoTOi uana'CovTUi, el [xi) e'i rig ro pev dyaOov 

f. oli^elov KuXel. f) 9. Ma\ terra pei' evper))g yiyvov rCjv fteXriffrwv' 
el ce fii], fiipov ra irapa rolg dXXoig opdiog 'e'^^ovra. Is. 10. 'Eav 
pey Ti hilly coKib Xeyeiy nXrjdec, ^vyof-ioXoyi'itrnre' el Se fii), Travrl 
Xoyu) dyrireivere. 11. 'ATrj/rsi ra yjpr\para' el 2e /it 77', TroXefxrjtreiv 
'ecjjt] uvro'ic. 12. UoXefioy ovK e'iu)y Troie'iy' el oe pi), Kal avrol 
ayayKaadrjrTeTOai 'e(f)a(Tay (j)iXovQ TroielrrOai o'vg ov ftovXoyrai. 13. 
TIpog rwy dewy, fxi} ovrio Xeye' el 2e fit], ov dappovyrd pe tL,eig. 

sc. Xriiperai. 

elro. iire.l 382. 384. 175 

g) 14. T>7c yiJG tcparoviTeQ, i^al el 0a\ctVr?jc e'ipyoiVTO, IvvaiVT g. 
av (coXwf ^la'CTiv. 15. 'HytTro urliwc, ilvai ayndov dxpeXe'iy tovq 
(fiiXovc, i-'fil eI firjEelg fxiXXoi tiaeadai, IG. Kat £t /ir/^tVa arSow- 
nwi' ijcrxvyov, rovg dtuvc f'xpO'' ""^ hhiiai. 17. 'Aj'>/p TTorr]f)UQ cvgtv- 
v£t, Kai' turuxjj. 18. Mr; aTijida(i>iiEV tlirtiv, tt /cat rw afiiKporepov 
SoKel dial. 19. Ta Sktua Trdi'VEc, ihv Ka\ /.it} f^ovXwyTai, cuaxv- 
vorrai fv] Trpdrreii'. h) 20. El Kal rvparvelg, ilidtaTioy to yavv h. 
\tT avTiXiiai' Tovh yap Kayu) Kparib. 21. Aewoy y uttuq, el kui 
^ijc daywf. 22. Ei Ka\ fxrjEiv fioi TOVTUiv vrrripyE, ^iKaiwQ av twv 
fieyiarwy r)^iu)Qr]P. i) 23. Oi f.n] xP'?ff"yLt£j'oi role Kaipulg opOCJc ovc' i. 
el (TvrelJr] tl Trapa rCbv OtiLi' j^p/joroi' /i)j;/.jor£uovo-i>'. 24. ()i)o av 
^tKaKiQ diroddii} «t>//\t-.-7ror, ov^u' /idXXor v/^telc ye t^iyt'icredOe. 25. 
Ou^' el Tp'ic oaa ivv KtKrtjcrai irpoayeyotro aoi, ovZ' cS Q ay iKaya jjoi 
?ioKe'i eiyal aoi. 26. Ovk dy rd dela KpvnroyTtoy deH/y jxdBoiq av, ovh' 
tl irdvT e-KeiiXdoiQ aKOiziLy. 27. Ou Treiaeig, ov^' Tjy ireia^Q. 28. 
Tov /uj) Xeyovra rCoy hovrioy jJ^rjH tv [.laKpuy yojJi^e, tcay Sv' e'lTrr) 
avXXajSdg' tov h' el Xiyovra jji) yoj-uC euai j.iaKp6y, jJ-rjo' av (r(p6cp' 
etTTJj TToXXd Kai TToXvy xporoi'. 29. "E/iioiye IokeI kuI eI jirj^' f-^ T\i 
avTT] ttoXel e'it] t(3 KeKTr]jjiey(o, Tvdvra tov o'ikov Eivai orja tiq tCEKTrjTai. 
Jc) 30. AfTrat o Oeoc, e'ittep ear' ovTug deoc, ov^eyck- 31. FAirEp k, 
ifv dirip dyudoc, e\priv av ,u»/ Traparo/uwe dp^i^iv. 32. 'H evarcpia 
hiduKTOV, E'iwep Ka\ fipefog ^i^dffKtrai aKovEiv d' wy j-idd)](7iy ovK e^ei. 
33. Ou TvdvTEQ ipdv fafjiev, e'ittep ye TrdvTEQ tCjv u'vtujv Epwcri (.at aEi ; 
Z) 34. 'Y-oOt'/uf roe au)(ppocrvvr)v elvai to Ta eavrov TrpctrrtU' errEiTal. 
ovcey (prjffi ku)Xveiv Kal tovq Ta twv dXXiov TrpdrTovTag ffttxpoovE'iy. 35. 
Ou Evvd^Evoi tvpE~iv rag oEovg, Eira itXaybJiiEvoi dnioXoyro. 30. 'Hv 
iKTi](Tio KUKwg I'lp^Eg. eIt iyw ^Iktiv cm awv tcaKwv 6 fxri (T(paXEig ; 37. 
El voijii(oi.fii dEOvg dvdpu)Tru)y ti fpovriiiEiv, ovk civ diXEXolrjv uvtwv. 
"Etteit' ovk diet (ppovTi^Eiy ', o'i TrpwTOv fdev fiovov twv i^ojwv dyOpio- 
TTOV opdov dvearriaay. 38. KdneiTa roiovroy ovTa ov (piXelg avrov ; 
m) 39. AiKaiov, e'it' dyaOuv e'Ite (paiiXoy to ctpx*"'' Trdrrac uvtov m. 
fierex^Eiy. 40. 'O dyadog dvijp (7w(ppu)v iov koI SiKuiog ev^alfnov 
£OTt Kai /xaKapiog, edv te j-iiyag kui lnxvp<'>g, £«'' t£ (Tf-UKpog Kal 
dcrdeyijg »;, Kal edv itXovttj kui f^n). 41. 'EaV -tc daeftfj Xoyoig e'It' 
epyoic, 6 iruparvyxdytoy dj.ivieT(i), 42. Etr£ Avaiag >'/ Tig dXXog 
TTunrore 'eypaxl/ev, ovEiCog rw yodfovTi, eite tiq (j)r]aiy e'Ite fii'i. 


a) 'Ettei, ETVEili'i [which become with dy, iwdv or Iwi'iv and ETTEicdv, 384. 
of which the latter is far the more common, and i-irdv somewhat 
more common than etti'iv'] are properly particles of time {'when,' 'after,' 
postquam) ; but, like most particles of time, also denote cause, ' since,' 

176 385—387. \_t 

TTu. art. 

(imisque), quoniam, (p. 139. 22). 'E7r££ {tTrtih)) rax<<Tra = 'as 
soon as,' 'as soon as ever' (See Lesson, p. 138). b) Both are 
also ' since ' of time. 

e) Paiticula exei cum aliis conjuncta particulis has fere signifi- 
cationes habet : eirel roi, nam profecto ; inti ye, quundoquidem ; 
k-EiwE^), quum semel, quando semel ; kwelKep yt., quandoquidem semel ; 
tTVEi -01 /cot, nam certe quidem. (Herm.) 

d) 'E-rrel (= 'for if not,' 'for otherwise,' ' for if so,' &c.) is some- 
times used argumentativcly, where tl Se fn'i, or after negative pro- 
positions tl ci might be employed. The particle does not really 
change its meaning of quando quidem, but there is an ellipse of a 
conditional sentence, such as ' if you doubt it,' ' if you think so,' &c. 

385. e)"Ea-e (= eq ote ^), until, as long as. 

3SG. "E-t, yet, still, further. 

ovKETi, ni)KETi, 110 morc, no longer. 

387. 'E^' w ^, on condition that (267) : e^' J te, the same, mostly with 
the infinitive (sometimes future infinitive) ; but also with future 

a. a) 1. Ot rptukoiTft fiplOrjiTav, etteI Tuj^^iffra ra TEi^rj Ka.Qr]^iBr]. 
2. 'EtteiSi) Tif^iaTa i^oKifiafrdrji', EnE^iiKdoy role rpiuKoyra iv 

b. Apelu) TToyw. 3. 'Qiq ra/^iar a emq vT:E<paLi'EP, eQvovto. &) 4. 
C. Of TToXvQ xpoj'oc ETTEiC)) -^iroiyaQ Xirovg ETravaayro (popovyrtQ. c) 5. 

Ter. O'lov avEpa XiyEiQ iy KiyEvy(i) Etyai ; Eu. KaXoy te a:oi 
ayudoy, ti Ttp\Liwy, etteL toi Kai ivy ijKovoy THioy fjciXa lyKOfxi- 
ai^oi'TOjy (ivTuy iTEpl T))y fia^rjy. 6. Ovte yap Sifxelg ItCEtyov 'in arpa- 
Tiwrai, ETTEi y£ ov (TvyETvufiEda uvTw, (WTE ekeIvoq 'in ii/Ji'iy fiiadoho- 
TTjQ. 7. TovQ uiiTodEy dp' ovK ay EdeXt'iffEiEy . . . Tuiy Trcpi kavroy 
Eopvcpvpwy Troii'iaderOai ; — 2(^o^pa ye, 'i(j)i], ettei toi Kal TricTTOTaroi. 
avT'p ovroi claiv, 8. Ovte . . . cittoXXvtui to fit) hy, ovte yiyyETai . , , 

d.ETTEi-Ep Ovlafirj ^ETE\^El ovtrkiQ. d) 9. OvK o'iil Et,tX7jXEy)(dai, (i 

^ojKpuTEc, iiTuy ToiavTa Xey>]c, a ovEeIq ay 6t]tTEiEy aydpwTrtoy; iirei 
'tpov nra Tovrujy^. 10. Noffoi' yap o TraTtjp aXXoKoroy avTOV vooe'i, 
ijy oi/o' cti' Eic yyoiT) ttot ovc' ay t,vfjl3aXoi, eI fxr] irvOoid' ii^wv, ettei 
e. TOTza'(,ETE . e) 11. Svyil^rjfray Trpog tovq Aai^tSatfioiiovg E(f w te 
EL,iuaiy EK WtXmroyyiiaov vTrvmroyEoi Kal fi-qlinoTt kiTLlirftTovTai 

1 This derivation seems disproved by such passages as Xen. An. iv. 5, 6, Iote 
tTTt TO coTTtSov, vxqiie. ad. I believe it to be iq with the old connective tL See t«. 

2 Here i.(p' (jj (pro|)erly 3: tTri tovtiij o — ) is equivalent to f7r« tovtoj die — . 
^ Qiiorl si inilii nnri credit, percon/rire horiim aVKjiiem. Dev. 

* i. e. quod si conjicere vos posse arbitramini, /aci/e /)erictt/«»J. Dev. 

//. >].] 388, 389. 177 


"11, 'or;' in comparisons ' than.' "il — i], avt — aut ; vel — vel. 38S. 

a) The comparative ?; is sometimes used after iidWoy omitted, 
or after a positive. - This is the case after expressions of willing, 
choosing, and the like, because these contain the idea of difference, 
separation, or preference, e.g. ftovXtaSai, idiXeii', alpel adai, 
a'lpacTii' ^ovyai, iiridv fxel v, ci^^^iadai, ^r]T£~tr, XvaireXtlv 
(^^ potius esse). 

b) So »'/, ' thai),' stands not only after comparatives, but after words 
that express a difference (e. g. aWog, ovStlg aWoe, aXKo'iog, kvavrioq, 
\hLOQ, Biafipu), K. T. \.), and after all words which have the force of a 
comparative (e.g. cikXc'ktios, Troiv, tpQavo), k. r.\.). 

c) {Comparatio compendiaria.) In comparisons, the Greeks often 
compare not the attribute of one object with that of another, but the 
attribute of one object with the other object itself to which the attri- 
bute would belong. In this case the genitive is regularly used. 

d) The particle j/ occasionally connects different constructions by 
which similar notions are expressed. 

e) In questions, ?;, like the Latin an, is properly used only in 
the second member; often, however, the first member is not ex- 
pressed in form, but is contained in what precedes or maybe easily 
supplied from it. "H may then be translated by 'perchance.' 

f) Sometimes after a general and quite indefinite question, »/ 
introduces one which, in the opinion of the speaker, is probably very 
near the truth : ' or — not.' 

g) ~R (profecto) expresses confirmation. To strengthen it, [xiju is 3S9. 
often added {=' assuredly ,' in asseverations, promises, &c. 344). 
[The Epic //rot, like 7}, strengthens the meaning.] '11 (in questions); 

'H yap : 'H TToD : See 315, Ohss. 2, 3. 

a)l. Zr]7 0v(7L Kephtiveiv, T] rifiug izeiditv. 2. ' AyrfCTiXaoQ rjoc'iro a. 
Koi axiv Tw ytvvaiu) paioveKrtiy, i} avv tm uciku) irXioy 'f^np. 3. 
Ttdyavai yo^ii'Covai XvcnreXEiy, T; ^riv. b) 4c. Ovley iiXXo avrol iirt- b. 
rtj^tvovan', ij cnrodyi'itn^tiy re Kctl redyayai. 5. To ^j) ytyiadaL kaAv 
ij TTf^uktrat KpE'iaaov KaKwg irarT^oyra. 6. "Eotj 4'^X^'i ""'^^f'*'? ovcey 
erepoy y TroXireia. 7. IIoAu ol Xoyoi oiiroi ayriut ?/ owe tyw 
iiKovoy. 8. navra rayavTia V7r«p)(£i to'iq to. erwficira ev t^oi/crti' >/ 
ro7c ^"a/:wc. 9. ^tci^parrQe ri doiiXoy i) eXEvdepoy thai Ctrt^tfJEi, 
10. Aiu(j)op6y TL o'iei iroie'iy rovg rolg yojuoig Trtidoi-ui ovg (jjavXii^ojy 
fj el Tovg kv Tol.g iroXifioig evTaKTOvyrag 'ipiyotg ; 11. IlpoCTf/jaAoj' eK 
Tov pTraXiy ij ol dy^peg avrwy vTrepijjaiyoy. c) 12. Xwpnv kj^cre ovcty c, 

A a 

178 390. [i'l^T]. 

d. ijTTOi' lifjwi'^ tmi^ioy. d) 13. 'Etto ( i'ou^e roi fiCiWop ?) toIq a\- 
XoiQ airacji ^ca'ptrf. 14. 'E»' oXiyiopiif Lttolovvto, Cjq brnv ti:,i\i3o)(nv 

C' >) o^X ii ^o fJ^^ yovrrac rrcpac ») pt^citog Xri\p(') fie vol p/^. Th. e) 11). 
Xlf't) -' i'loa (TV ye tci Iv urOoujTroiQ (plX-pa tTTiaTafXiroQ nuXai rnreKovir- 
-nv' y vKvelg", ifq, iipiai, fu) a'lrT^pug (j)Ui'rJQ, Vav TvpoTepoQ tuv 

f. acEXipiii' tv TToiijc ; f) IG. YloOev >;f£i ; i) SiiXuy on i^ ayopciQ ; 17. 
T/'c >/ TTcti^eta ; j) -^^HXeTruf £i/pf7i' /jfXr/w Tfjg vno tov -troXXov -^poiov 

g. t-vpt]i.iur]Q ; g^ 18. 'II joapv (popijjj.' atOpioiroc, tvTV)(_u)y a(j>p(jjy. 19. 
^H nov -I "^aXeiroy tan ro \pevcrj Xf.yeiy. 20. "Oj-iyvfii (rot r) /it>)>' 
jj-^li-Kori not inpoy Xoyoy tTncdk^w. 21. 'O^jtoXoyijauQ ») l^i]v 
TnideaOat ovre TnidiTcu ovre neidei fii^iig. 


390. "IIo; O^"0' ^) With reference to presertt and past time := ' already,^ 
^ just,' and in a negative proposition, ' hitherto ' (adhuc), ' as yet.' 
b) With reference to /;//2<7-e time, ' at once,' 'immediately,' 'forthwith,' 
stronger than ~<'<x«> '^"^^ opposed to the indefinite ttote, ' at some time 
or other,' and iy vrrripii) ^ixh'o). c) With commands and exhortations 
it may be construed ' at once :' it is also used in impatient questions, 
like our 'now,' and like ' quid jam?' in the Latin comic writers. 
d) With reference to future time beginning and extending onwards 
from the present, >/c>j = ' henceforth ' (posthac) ; r)ci; oi/k-, = ' henceforth 
not,' or ' jzo more.' e) It is also applied to space, and denotes con- 
tiguity, f) Of unexpected or long expected events, ?/^»j Trort :='at 
last;' 'at length' (jam tandem, tandem aliquando). But this com- 
bination has also the indefinite meaning of 'several times already.' 

g) From this temporal meaning j'/^/j passes by a natural transition 
to its other use, that of denoting immediate, present existence, i. e. 
present reality, certainty, &c. In this vi'ay it often serves like our 
' at once ' to mark a consequence that immediately follows from a 
preceding statement, &c., or a state that commences at once, or is at 
once discovered without going any further, h) It frequently attaches 
itself to demonstratives : ov-oc ijct], tot i'lSr), eyravd' i]Si], &c. 'O ^?j/ 
is ohen =' present.' [Recent writers, Klotz, Rost, &c., maintain 
that the temporal meaning is not the primary one. See Practical 
Introduction to Greek Prose Composition, Part II. i'j^rj,^ 

5 Instearl of rrjg rifiiTtpag. 

e^/^. na.] 392, 393. 179 

a) I. Tolg fikv yap ^^rj toIq 2' tr varepb) ^^porw Ta repTrra a. 
TTiKpa yiyytrai. Soph. 2. Ilpoc rac ttvXoc i]^r) ^y >/ ayuo^a. 3. 
Tluyto-flai >/^Jj ra oioyuora aurwi' ovk e"i)(Of^£y. b) 4. "E^r; j^pi/iai 6. 
eiaj'n'ov aTrcii^rwi' ?;C?; XEjeiv. 5. Awo voug t-ovc Kopndiovg ijC)] 
hiXevey ol irifjiveir, eg 'Acririjy rag ce Xonrag TrapaaKiva^eadcu. c) 6. C. 
Qaptret, naidEiu, Kai X"^P^ ''"' UTvidi i'l^t]. 7- Kuutuv i'jEr] ttou ; 
d) 8. "Hctj ct~i fXE SovXevEW naXir. 9. "Hc»j rci roi)^' ov'' cutTETi- d. 
/UTjrat 0£olc. e) 10. ^wwucrir 7/^/; o^opog >/ Botwrt'a iaTir. /) 11. e. /. 
^ AvanavaMjiEv j/^>j Trort r>)i' iroWiiv (ppovrica 'Vw^inidov. Plut. 12. 
Oil/: ot^ct £1 rte eu)paKe to. Evrog ayoXjuoro. oW £yw ?)or; ttot' 
sT^or. ^) 13. E« ^£ Jf'oc ») TrpEuftvTrig i) ciKuiog ?) acii:og, ff- 
i'l^T] ^lafepei. 14. E'i ye )U))i' oVa e'ipT]Ka irepl kfj-avTuv, fxriCeig 
^vi'CiiT ai' £^£\£y^at yti£ wc i/y£u^o^at, ttwc ou(c aj' ?/o?j ciKaiwg Kai 
vTo BeQiv kol vtto ai'dpioTTwi' £TraiyoiftT]i' ; h) 15. JNIfra ravrah, 
rjBri yiypETat ra TrpoEiprjidiva. 16. Ei'rauOa i'lSr] ijdpoiCoyTO. 17. 
To OTTO TOVTOv i] S r] o Ti av cLfiaprayoxTiv alrlay it,nv(ny. 


0)/i' (^enclit.), ' I should imagine ;' ' surelj/ ;' in ironical, sarcastic 392. 
speeches, ov dijy, ^ Ofp'. It is peculiar to Ionic and Doric poets. 

"Ira is properly a particle of place, ^ where,' but in this sense is 393. 
hardly found except in the poets. Its usual meaning is that of a 
fnal particle = {ut), ' in order that,' ' that.' As such, it does not 
(like oTTwg) go with the future indicative, nor with the conditional 
particle ci'r, which would express the purpose as contemplated con- 
ditionally only, i. e. if haply it may (or might) he so : whereas '/ra 
represents the plan as adopted in order that, in that case, the event 
may definitely follow. Hence, though onwg ar, wg ay are found, i'»'' 
av never are, except where I'ra is a local adverb = ' where.' {See 
example 8, p. 31.) "Ira (oVwc, uig) with the indicative of an historical 
tense, denotes a purpose now unaccomplished which would be or have 
been accomplished, if a certain condition had been realized. 

1. <I>£i5, <pEv, TO fxi] TCI irpayfjaT ayOpwiroig ^X^'*' <p^^'V^) **'' ^cruv 
fjfq^Ey 01 CEiyol Xayoi. 2. Aokw ay vfi'iy KEXevEiy etCElvo)' jdirEiy, \ va 
fXET EfAOv Toy [Xoi-)(^(iy ETi/JKopElTO. 3. Ilfjo TToXXov uy i7rou](Taiui]y 
ETTiareiXcii croi Tavra, 'ly', eI eTrEladr]c, fjfi TrjXiicovTO) Kiyovyo) iTEpi- 
ETTEtytg. 4. 'Y.')^pT]v civTovg ^T]TE~iy, 'lya a-mjXXr'iy ijsd a tuvtov tov 

' "H^jj . . . oil, no longer. 
A a 2 

180 394. [ko/. 

crjjuayMyov. 5. Zwjti 'iSti ftoi)QEiv Tvurraq roiiq TrpocrriKovrag, ottuiq 
on ^ncciioTaror wr (cat vcTiwraraQ il^r] re l,wv Kcu Tt\evT)]a(ic hrifxi}- 
pijTOQ ay KaKioi' ai.iap-t]jdd-ti)y kyiyvETO tov [jleto. tu>' ivOdSe (oioy. 
(i. 'E^pv'' T-oi' evTV)(ovyr on TrXeirrrovg ^X^"' 7vi'«<Kf«c> si-Trep av 
Tpo<pt] S(')fini£ Trap?/)', wg T))y kcik^ji' f.tey ttiifiaWs ^w/iaVwj', rfiv 5' 
ovaciy er7d\))y ij^iuig eaM^ero, 


394. Kat {et) connects notions of which the second is either as im- 
portant as the first, or even more important [= ac, atque). Ka/ . . . 
(Cat; tI . . . Kai ■= 'both . , , and:' the kuI . . . Kai connecting the 
notions more independently ; tlie ri . . . kui implying a closer con- 
nexion, and often an ascent to the more important: :^quum . . . turn. 
a) When three or more notions are connected, the kui is placed, 
not like our ' a7id,' merely between the two last, but also between 
the others, and sometimes also before the first, b) Asyndeton (i. e. 
the mere apposition of notions, without any conjunction) is also often 
found in enumerations of this kind. 

c) When two adjectives belong to one substantive, the Greeks 
■usually connected them by kuL, less commonly te kui. Hence nctt 
' the good old times,' but ' the good and old times.' This is especially 
the case after rroXvg, but even here the conjunction is sometimes 

d) After o uvtoq, 'iaoc, ofAoiog, TrapuTrXjiaiog, and the corresponding 
adverbs tjaavriog, &c., kciI = ' as.' (Compare idem atque, &c.) 

e) After ov (pddyuj a^a [3G5, e], ijSr], and after sentences that 
denote the passing of time, kui introduces the following event, where 
we should use ' when.' ov (pQiwu) . . . icai, ' no sooner . . . than.' 

f) When a general remark is followed by a particidar instance 
which illustrates its truth, kciL vvv ^= * and so now,' ^ and so in the 
present instance;' teat tote = 'and so then.' And generally a simple 
connexion by t:ui is often found, where we should use 'and so,' 'and 
thus,' 'and by so doing,' &c. 

g) Kai = ' and also,' when it introduces a clause in which the 
verb of the preceding clause is repeated, or a synonymous one used. 
The common form for 'and also' is kui . . . Ei (378, m); often = 
' and moreover,' 'and especially.' [In negative sentences ovce . . . 

h) The Attics, as a general rule, never employ Kat . . . te except 
when the te has another kui (or te) answering to it, so that the first 
Kui connects with the preceding sentence a twofold clause connected 
by TE . . . Kat or te . . . te. 

K«,'.] 394. 181 

i) Km = 'also,' ' too,' 'even,' not only adds a new notion to one 
previously stated, but also frequently refers to a notion not expressed, 
but more or less easily supplied ; and in cases of this kind tlie 
Greeks reckoned upon more quickness of comprehension in seizing 
upon the intended notion than we do. Kat ahroQ, 'even himself,' 
'himself (i. e. 'as well as others,' or 'certain others'). Kal ovto£ 
= atque is, isque ; kui tuvtu, idque, 'and that too.' 

k) In sentences o? comparison {'as . . . so,' uxTirsp . . . kcil), and in 
other sentences where notions are compared together (one being a 
demonstrative, the other a relative clause), the Greeks expressed cat 
in the relative, and most commonly in both clauses. The case is the 
same with n (»; . . . i']), ' or,' and after j), ' than,' when a notion im- 
plying difference precedes, ovci, j^tjU being used instead of (cat if the 
notion is negative. 

I) In the same way ical appears in ei (or we) tiq aWoc, where the 
cat often refers to a teal iyuj, (tv, ovroe to be mentally supplied. 

m) In many connexions the icni does not belong to tlie single 
notion before which it stands, but to the whole proposition. So in 
o da Kcii — . 

n) After an interrogative pronoun or adverb, Kal denotes that the 
notion it precedes is the particular notion about which one requires 
full information. In English we should pronounce the following 
word with emphasis. [Hermann explains it differently : qui, -i xpv 
Kcu Xiyeir^ interrogat, is non solum quid, sed etiam an aliquid 
dicendum sit, dubitat. Klotz says : si dico ri XP') '^'f* X£y£"', pro- 
prie hoc qucsro, quid sit dicendum, etiam si sohim de dicendo 
cogitemus; i. e. the questioner passes over all the particulars 
about which he might enquire, and confines himself to this particular 


o) So, too, after ete/, iireih'], ha, Kai (unless it belongs merely to 
some one following notion) adds emphasis to the precise cause 
alleged, omitting all the other possible accessory causes. 

p) When the following notion is far more important than the pre- 
ceding one, Kui = 'even i' and often 'very,' 'indeed.' So koI Trat'-Ec, 
'even all the rest,' i. e. all without exception; kui ^aXa, 'very 
indeed;' Kni ttcu'i', properly 'quite entirely;' often a negative, 'at 
all.' With superlatives = vel. 

q) With participles Kai is used adversatively=' even though.' This 
kcd is often combined with (^iwc {'nevertheless'), and often appears as 
Kcinrip, which in Attic writers is hardly ever found except with a 
participle or some virtually participial construction : whereas kcutol 
(= ' although') is used only in independent sentences. Later writers 
use them even vice versa. To the passage from Theophrastus (170, d), 

182 394. [i 


where Kainep is used witli a finite verb, Kriiger adds Plat. Symp. 
219; Rep. 511 ; Lys. 31, 34? 

r) AVhen Kai [^^ even') limits the notion of a word, by making an 
assertion of ^ that at least, if n o more;' ^ even that, if no more;' 
it may be construed ' if only ;' ' though but,' &c. : sometimes before 
an infin. by ' mere,' ' merely.' to kcu Xiyeiv tovto, ' the merely say- 
ing this ;' ' the mere fact of saying this.' Kai vaXai = ' not only now, 
hut long ago,' but would be construed in English by an emphatic 
* long.' 

s) This Kai {'even') is often used to strengthen the indefinites: 
orrTLdovv Q any soever') ; iiroioarKjovv {^ of any kind whatever'); 
owo(TO(Tuvi' (' however much,' ' however little') ; and the corresponding 
adverbs oirwaovy, oTrwrTTiovy (' in any manner,' ' in any way'). With 
oh, i-u'i, we shall have, not kuI ov (f-u)), but ov^i, fdrjcE. 

t) Kai = ' also,' ' even,' may follow Kai = ' and,' if a word be in- 
terposed : Kai TiQ Kai' Kai en Ka\ vvu' Kai 3») Kai. On Kai £i (ea''), 
tl (ertj') Kai, See 381, g. Kai yap has several meanings. (\) Etenim, 
so that the Kai relates to the whole sentence. (2) Nam etiam, so 
that the Kai ^= etiam, relates to the nearest notion. (3) Nam et, 
so that Kai answers to a following Kai. Thus kuI yap avfijxa-^tiv 
lOiXovffi may mean : (1) for they are also j resolved to form an 
alliance ; (2) for they are resolved even | to form an alliance; 
(3) for they are resolved both to form an alliance {and also to do 
.something else; e. g. izpoaiyEiv tov vcvv). In the second meaning 
the opposed notion may be inserted between the Kai and the yap. It is 
only in the first and second meanings that the form becomes nega- 
tively ovci yap. To the [first or] second belong also kuI yap el {eav) 
and ovii yap tl {ear). We also meet with Kai yiip Kai, etenim etiam, 
and Kai {uvci) ycip nvCe. 

Kaiirep, ' although.' See 394, q. 

Kairoi {'although,' 'though ;' ' but, however,' &c.) quamquam (espe- 
cially the corrective quamquam) ; sometimes verum, sedtamen. Kairoi 
y£, the same, with more emphasis on the following assertion {quam- 
quam quidem). Kairoi ri (ptifu ; 

a. b. a) 1. Xpiifxara E^iopi'icraro avTo'iQ Kai oIkiuq kuI av^pcnroda. b) 2. 
^vpftaXoi'Ttc raq aaTridag IwQovt'TO, k fia^orTO, airtKren'or, 

c. (ITT id rrjaKO r. c) 3. 'H TroKir vojxovq vTTiypa\pey, ayadijjv Koi 
TraXatw)' I'OjJodiTCjv EvpijfiaTa. 4. Aia TroXXiijy (rf) Kai Beit'Oiy 
{TrpayficiTioi') a£(7ii)r7f-iiyoi -KapEfTrt, 5. T(ig fieu yvi'alKcic iroXX' 

d. ay ad a XiyEi, cte ce TToXXa KaKc'i. d) 6. 'Tuvro y av ^xdXiaru. 
(piXv'i TiQ w £i//J^£(j£ij/ iiyolro ra air a Kai lavTu). 7. 'O yvovQ 
Kai fi)) aa(puic CLCai,aQ ev iGto Kai el yn>) irEdv^iidrf. 8. At 

Kid.'] 394. 183 

dairdtai oy^ ujioiLJC i^n\ Trpir, aWa ttoWJ fitll^ovg KaOi- 
araaar. 9. "E^o^ev avToiq TcapaTrXi) aria Kal avTeXtyoy. e) 10. e. 
"Hr>7 (rt) i)v fierTrif.ilypia kuI uidpwTroi )J(76dyorTO. 11. OJ^ttw 
Tovrio ^u' J/ rpsTc SpoftovQ TripitXiiXvOuTE iiartjy ical tlafp')(^E-ai 
KXtuiac. 12. Oi Aa^'e^atjuoiiot ou/c efdacrav t)]v up^iff Kara- 
0)(^6rrtc f^'fn- Tolc QripaioiQ tvOvc eTrtftovXevaay. Is. 13. 'Ei'Tuvdu 
ifieiyay {ijAipfic Tptlg, Kal iJKe Mirtjy. Xen. /) 14. 'Ert'orf/. 
a»' Kal KaraxpEv^oiJapTvprideir) rig vrru noXXuiv Kal ^oKouyruy tli'at. 
Ti' Kal rvy wepl wy av Xiyeig oXiyov aoL TraiTfc avfKpijcrovtn ravra 
'Adqyaloi Kal ol iiyoi, 15. To yiyoq to rCjy QpaKwy foyiKojraroy 
i<TTi. Kal TOTE iTrnreaoyrtc ^iSacTKaXti^ Traidioy KariKoxliuy Trayrag, 
16. "A^ioy iirils'iiai we tovc ahKovintQ Tij-iwpeladE, Kal roue vjdiTipnvQ 
dpxovTag fteXriovg irotiieTere. g) 17. ^po dXXujy TvpoftijoX^fxiyoQ (J. 
aTTf^wpEL' Kal 01 dXXoi ttpoq tovq avyrtTayfiiyovQ cnriiXdoy. h) 18. h. 
To TToXv avroj ciyaTETapayneyoy tiropevEro, Kal i'lor] ts i)y dj-i(pl dyopciy 
irXijOovaay Kal TrXrjtjioy fjy 6 (ttuB^ioq. Xen. i) 19. Ot AaKf^ai/^ortot /. 
ETToiijaav tovq 'Adrjyainvg (if.ioXoy£ly AuKeSat^oriovg Kal avTwy 
iiyEj-iuyag EU'ai. 20. ' AE,wv fXEy "EXXrjPEg oyTEg Kal aiiTol vf' vfiuiy, 
oyTwy 'EXXi'it'ujy, dyadoy ti TraVxti^. 21. KXiap-)^og EKoXa^Ey ueI 
t(T)(^vpuig, w(TTE Kal avT(p nETajxiXtiy 'iaff ote. 22. 'H yEwpyia iroXXa 
Kal avTi) Bicd(TK£i. 23. Ot liEOKvpaloi ovo' aiiTol hEyooutro 
ftidi^Effdai. 24. 'Anopwy ecttI Kal tovtwv Troyripwy o'lTneg Idi- 
Xovai Si" ETTiopKiac Trpd-TEiy ti. 25. FAaly oi ■y^pi]aii.ii}TEpoy yofiii^ovcn 
yp>//uarct y dcEX0ovc, Kal ravTa t u) y ^lEV cKppoycoy oyTioy, tov 
Ee (ppoyinov. 26. 20 aavTOV <pp6yi}i6y ti coKE~ig e'x^"', dXXodi B' 
ov^afiov ov^Ey o'isi (ppovij^ioy EU'ui ; Kal raura EiSojg on yrjg f.uKpov 
j.iipog iy Tip awfiaTi, TroXXijg ov(Ti]g, e^^'C- 27. Tuiy aroJi^dTwy Twy 
drjXvyofiiyioy Twy Kal al \pv)(_al tvoXv dppuxTTOTEpaL yiyyoyrai. 28. 
To i^irj^Ey dSiKE~iy Kal (piXaydptoTrovg ttoieI. 29. Tov tvrvj^oD^ra 
Kal (ppoyEly yof.u'Coi.tEy. 30. Oi jueV dyriKpvg TroXEfxovaiy, ot Ee 
Kal ^id TO AaKEcatf-ioriovg eti ijav^d'Ceiy hE'^-qp.ipoig cnroy^a'ig kuI 
avTol KaTEXor-ai. k) 31. AokeI fxoi (^.cti) ra -wv dvcpioy cwjuctra k. 
Tavrd Trdaj^Eiy uwEp Kal Ta tCjv ev rrj yrj (pvofxivwy. 32. "i^o-7r£p 
Kal vTiEa^u^iriv, ovtu) Kal 7roiJ/(TW. And. 33. AiKaioy i] (Kal) 
Twy uyad(I>y KoiiioyEly, ?) nr/ci Twy aTv^iuiv aTroXavEiy. Is. 34. 
'E;'j>rftro ovciy n fuaXXoy i/tto rwi- dXXtjy i) Kal vrr' Efiov, I) 35. I. 
"ApxErrdai ETziaTafiai, tog Ttg Kal dXXog. 36. ^VfifipEL vfJ-'ty e'lTTEp 
TO) Kal dXX<i> TO yiKay. m) 37. Ol i-uy dyTtKpvg TroXE/J-oixriy, ol ^e m. 
Kal hd TO AaKE?iuii-ioyiovg eti })av)(^d^Eiv BEj(^i]HEpoig GwoyCu'ig Kal 
avTol KaTEyovTui. Th. n) 38. Tt kuI iSovXtadE, u) yEujTEpoi; 39. n. 
'EKEXEVffEy ELTTEly TT V Kal ETrXZ/yTj. 40. E(/Ji Tr}p)jaov(T d ti Kal 
Ipdati TTori. Eur. o) 41. "Ottgic aujGEig fj.', etveI KinrwXEaag. 42. o. 
YipujTayopag pa^iwg ETrEKhSdL,Ei, etteiS)) Kal ~a tto/Wu rawrct e^eci- 

184 394. [ko/. 

Bu^ei'. 43. M)) Trapa S6^ai> cnrnpltov, 'lun Kal Ti TTEpatVw^t*'. 

J>- p) 44. KttXo»' ye kciI yipoyra j^iayOaieu' (nxpd, 45. To kuXwc 
tX"^ '"'^^ i^P^~i"oi' iari icai v6f.iov, 46. "E(7^l^' a.t,ia ?/ xwpa Ka\ 
VTTo TTciiTU)}' tTruijeladai, ov fiovov v<f )ifiu)y. 47. 'Afxeii'wv ar 
£11] 6 ty'i hvydfxeyoQ upeaTOvc Trou7y ?/ oarig /cot iroWo'ig ] 48. 
YloXirijQ TTpo^oTtig /vfii rpig, ov^ airci^ cnroXojXiyai BiKuiog. 49. 
Ovrog 6 yufioQ kat juaXa JcaAwe ^X^'* ^^* ^okeI jj-oi irpu 
"E\/\>;»'Oc cat -dyv ovce tlyai avri] >/ £7r(\/\ij(7ic . 51. Tovfxoy ye 
<Ppd^id ovo^a Ka\ Xiav aatpCjg. 52. Otc TrAEiorai ju£ra/3oAat ett' 
ct/J^orepa L,vjx(iefi{iKaai, citcawL elai kuI dniaTOTaroi tlyai ralg 

q, iVTTpaylaic, q^ 53. At avjitpopal teal ftpaxyy oyru fxaKpov ^oKily 
tiyai TTOLOvcfL ruy fttoy. 54. Kvirpig ov^i vovd tTOv fit yr^ yaX^. 
55. ^vfiloovXevu) aoi, Kdlirtp ytwrepoc: aiy. 56. AiaKeTrpayf-ieyog 
r]K£, Kaiire p irdyv ttoXXu) y a I'TiXeyuyr (oy. 57. OvK ay Trpo^oitjy 
Kaiirtp dxpvxoy (piXoy^ 58. Aiyeig aXr](iri, tcaiirep Ik fiuKpov 
Xpoyov. 59. 'H ^OKtl rig aoi yiyyuxTKiov rd kuku on kuku eariy 
o/Liwc iTviOvfJiely avrwy ; GO, Kai yt'itrKOv (j' oixwg, iTuXXijy Trpo- 
loiay tlx^ey evtrx^'juioc TriOEly. 61. Ueidov yvyai^iy, Kulirep uv 
aripywv ofxiog. 62. $o/3£trai ju?) ?/ \pv)(^r] 6iuti)g Kal deivrepoy /cat 
caAAtov o«' Tov (TU)fiaTog TrpouTroXXvtj-ai. 63. Ovc av alaOdyiofiai 
bf.i(t)g Kal Ev 7ra <7X'"'''«C tVi aciKtiy TTupu^iyovg, rovrovg itg 
ayr]Ki(TTOvg TrXsoyeKrag o)Tag jy^>j kuI t))q XP'^^^wg diroTravu). 64. 
"O^iog Trpug ye rag dXXag rix^'ag KairrFp ovru) Trpurrov tTrjg 

T, ^iXoaotpiag to tista^/ua fxeynXoTvpiniarepoy KaraXeiireTai. r) 65. 
EutjSec ro cat SoKely op)'idag (hcjteXely PpoToug. 66. 'i2c role naKuig 
TrpatTGOVfTiy {jCv Kal ftpa^^t' XP^'''"'' Xudiadai tHjv irdpearwrujy 
KUKCjy. 67. Oi/of vovi' e'xst to Xiytiy wy /u»/7£ ru a aydyKriv fut'jre tov 
tiKora Xoyov Kal nerpiwg dy rig eliruy tit] cvyarog. 68. 'E^^i' 
uvTolg Kal fir]ciya Xnre'iy. 69. A(/cot' efioiyE Kal irdXai COKelg 

S. Xiyeiy. s) 70. IltDc ovk aitrxP''"^ Kal tjyriyovy SiKrjy (nroXnrtly', 
71. "Ayev evyoiag ri o^eAoc »cai OTroiarr- lyoaovy kiriTpotrov ETnfTTij- 
filQ ytyrerai ; 72. Ei Kal uwaaoyovy fuaXXoy Ei'Euxrovai, ciacbdapi]- 
auvTui. 73. 'ETTctcovE, El vovy Kal birioaovv e^eiQ' 74. Is.oviov nap' 
vfiwy ovc' ijynyovy d<j)opfi)]y An/jjwr Kar£yavndxt]a£ AaKiBai/JOJiovc. 
75. O'l yiKt'lCiuy-Eg ret Trpdyi^iara oiiTwg icKpSTEpiaayTO, locrrE dpx^C 
fXTjC' briovv fUTahilovai roTg y]-rr]d£'t<7iy. 76. Toiig laTpovg au 
t. aycptiovg KaXslg; Oi/2' ottoj^t lovy. t) 77- 'E^eAw/xev dXXjjXwy 
Tijy cnritTTiay' Kal yap olSa dydpujirovg v7 tTrot/jiro)' ayi]KE<TTa KaKc'i. 
78. Oto' £yw ctifp' oyra Toy aiy ttu'icu' Kal yap i^Opog cjv cikov- 
(TETUt Tu y EirdXa xprirTTog u)v dyi'ip. 79. Siyovg livii^E' Kal tjv yap 
^iyoc y 'e(t7]. 80. Ovk irrTi -TTEyiug ovciy dQXiMTtoov iy rtJ /3ta> 

* i e. »/ 'EAArtf. 

fid—fiiy.'l 396—399. 185 

(TVfXTTTWfjia' Kal yap ay (pvcrei a:ruvSaloc pc> TrivTjg hi, KardyeXwc 
iarj. 81. ^tivbv to tikthv iariv' ovhk yap kukwq ircicryovTi yTiaoq 
wv TEKT] wpoiryiyyeTai. 82. Ovk iariy oiKtly oIkiuv ayav icaKov' cat 
■yap Tu yiji^ai (cat ro yu)) yij^at KUKuy. 83. 'AW tTravaE fxey rovrujy 
TToWovg ciptrj/c Troit'iaag'iy Kal {.XniCac irapaa'^wy, ay tavruiy 
ijTtjufXwvrai, i^aXovg Kal ayaOuvg iaeadai. Kairot ye ovCeTrwnoTe 
vwicT'^tTO BiBaaKaXug flvat tovtov. 


yua, ' %,' a particle of swearing, taking the ace. of the deity, a) 39G. 
It is principally used in negative asseverations, with ov preceding or 
following, or both. \jjv fi'a tovq deovg, el kivailoTTOLriaa^riv, ovk 
oiha £1 EKTrfaafiriy 7ra7oa ttot ay, &c.] b) The negative is some- 
times omitted. [_ovK ej3aX\ero ; Ma At", aW 6 Siifiog ayejioa Kpiaiy 
TTOttTv.] c) In Attic prose, the name of the deity is sometimes 
omitted, [f^if^l tywye- Ma roy — ov av yt.J d) Nat ^a — is 
affirmative : and sometimes even fxa itself occurs affirmatively, if the 
context sufficiently implies the affirmation, [/ua rijy TtXtioy rfjg 
kfirig iraicog J^iKrjy, jEsch. Ag. 1407: so fxa Ata, By Jupiter.'] 

/jLaXicTTa piy — tt ce fxy), &c. = if possible — but if not, &c. — men- 397. 
tioning what is best to be done, and also what is the second best, if 
that is not feasible'. [^KarayiyywaKere avrov fiaXiGra p-ey Oayarov, 
£t he ^}j, dft^vyi'av.] 

fiaXXoy hi, or rather. 398. 

*piy, shortened from pljy, has properly the same asseverative power 399. 
(= certainly, indeed). This it retains in some combinations, espe- 
cially in piy ovy : properly quidem igitur, sane igitur, profecto igitur : 
hence sane quidem, immo. Also with irayv, TravTanacri, KopiSrj, it 
strengthens the affirmation [p. 136. 3, 4, 5] : so also with aXXa juey 
hi), Kal pky hi], ov piv hi]. In these combinations /xj/»' never appears. 

In a similar way yutV stands with single notions (such as tytti 
fxiv . . .) where one may suppose an opposed notion with ^£. 

^^ The notion opposed to or contrasted with that to which piy 
belongs, is usually accompanied by hi or piyroi : less commonly by 
Toiyvy, ardp, dXXa, pi]y, ov pijy dXXa. Compare hi and tira. — Mej/ 
hi) and piy oIp are often used (like our ' then,' ' thus then,' ' so ') 
to terminate a subject, after which a new one is introduced by hi. 
Also /i£v ovy "in continuando sermone cum quadam conclusionis 
significatione usurpatur, ut apud Latinos et quidem. Upwroy piy 
ovy, ac primum quidem.'^ Herm. 

' With nuvierals, ■wor&z of time, &c. jidXi<JTa {about: iv TtaaapaKovTa fid- 
Xiara I'lpipaig) signifies that the statement made is 7iearly exact {according to 
the belief of the speaker), without pretending to be quite so. 


186 400—408. [i-ieyroi—o fxh. 

400. *^ivToi, 1) sane, enimvero, ' certainh/ ;' especially in affirmative 
answers (Lesson LX. 19); 2) tamen, 'but,' 'however,' in objec- 
tions and other oppositions ; 3) " in inlerrogationibus sic dicitur, 
ut videatur aliquis rem negare, quo certius ea ab respondcnte 
affirmetur." Herm. e. g. owk diTtXtyoucn fjivroi; 'surely they oppose 
each other, don't they ?' 4) ironically = scilicet. 

■101. yu»/, «o/!(l78 sqq. ; 295—298); 2) lest, or that not ; 3) that {nfter 
verbs oi fearing, &c. 290). In questions it expects the answer 'no,' 
being somewhat stronger than fxthi", {num ?) After some verbs (e. g. 
restrain, prevent, forhid, deny, &c.) it is used where it seems to be 
superfluous, from our using no negative particle (290, e). Ov ixr\, 287. 
Ill) ov : see 293. 

402. iifi, 1 See 420. 
M^^^ J 

403. V''"' (= i'e^'o), partly affirmative and -^VLXily adversative ; com- 
monly the latter, but generally with other particles. The follow- 
ing are common combinations: kcu yu»/j', et vero, et sane or atqui : 
aWa fii'ii', at vero (and atqui). On ov fxifv aWa, see p. 141, k. 
Kat ni]v is also used in dialogues when the approach of a person 
is pointed o^xi=^' and lo,' 'and see.' [Kcd ^»)j' ro /.letpuKioy ro^l 
Trpoaip-)(_eTai.'\ Ti cannot follow /j>/i' without the interposition of a 
word. Fe /jLjjy, see ye. In questions fiip' = quceso, obsecro: e.g. 
TTwe /Jirjy . . . . ; iro'ioc f^ti'jv . . . . ; &c. ri /-*»'/)'; = quid, quceso, (^aliud?) 
' why not V ' ivhat else ?' &c. (i. e. ' certainly,' ' undoubtedly '). 
Nearly so -kHq fJ-yy ; ~H /.t>/»', 343. 

404. ynj/ 74 ye (nedum), much less. 

405. vi'i, ' by,' in affirmative oaths (with ace). 

40G. vvf, ' now,' ' then.' It is the same word as yvv, the ' now^ of time, 
but used quite unemphatically, so as not to refer the whole sentence 
to present time, but only the word which it follows as an enclitic. 
In this respect it corresponds exactly with our unemphatic ' now,' and, 
like it, is often used with imperatives. It occurs chiefly in the 
dramatic poets : the v is lony in Aristophanes, long or short in the 
7'rag'?c poets. Swaov rvy avrov' fxijd' epa rov "rvX-qaiov. ' I6i ivy, 
ecpt], (KpTiyrjcrai tovtm ti (toi cnreKpiyafirfy. Xen. 

407. ^^^ Br], 1) now ; 2) with a. past tense, just now. 

40S. 6 fiiy — o ^£*, the one — the other. 
01 fiii' — o'l ci, some — others. 

I) fjLcy, i c ov often stand alone in reference to a preceding pro- 
position. Trayrac (piXrjTioy, aW ov roy fiey roy 3' ov, we must love 
every body ; not (love) one and not another. TTaprjcrav ovx « /t/iv 
o d ov, aWa Trayrec. 

2 For 6 fjiev — 6 cs we sonietimes find oq n'tv — 'dg 6s. 

O t£ 

:'— ov.] 409-418. 187 

o ^£ {quod vero est), after which the tovto s/rrt is omitted, [o ^f 409. 
TraiTwr ^etrdrarov (iwi t^/?ai «s the most terrible thing of all, is this)]. 

6QovvEKa{=: oTov tviKo), because; that, in the Tragic poets. 410. 

oloQ {iroulv), of a kind or character (to do, Src, 280). 411. 

oloQ re, able ; possible (280). 

olov zIkoq, as is natural; as one may (or might) suppose. 

oTTore, I) when, whenever ; 2) since : as quando, quandoquidem are 412. 
used for quoniam. 

onov, 1) where; 2) [seldom] since (siquidem, quandoquidem). 413. 

virug, 1) properly adv., how; quomodo ; 2) con^yinct., in order that, 414. 
that [with subj. or fut. indicative, which may stand even after the 
historical ien^es, 284 : though the optative is then the regular mood]. 
Sometimes too 6tzo)q and wc (not 'iva) take av with the subjunctive, 
which then refers to a condition: = that so, or, that, if it may be 
so (p. 151, b). VTTWQ Effeade, see that you be = a strong imperative 
(284). OTTwc /Lij/ with subj,, 284. ottwc with indicative of a past 
tense, 393. 

oaai iij.iipai or barif-iE^ai, daily ; properly, as mar??/ days as there are. 415. 

v(70Q follows QavfxaaTOQ and superlatives of quality. TrAtlirra oaa or 
6W TvXEidTa, quam plurima : Qavj.Laa-bv oaov, mirum quantum (271, c). 

oaov oh {ox vaovov), all but. \rov fiiWovTa kuI baovov itapovra 

ore, when (quum, quando, sometimes quandoquidem). Sometimes 41(3, 
apparently = on {that), after jj-efxrijadai, Xaduv, ciKovtiy. On orav, 
see ar with subj., p. 367, e. ore fxiv — brt Bi^, sometimes — sometimes. 

on, 1) that, quod; after verbs sentiendi et declarandi. [See 417. 
remarks on ojq conjunct. 1)]. On the mood, see p. 22 (Lesson XII.); 
and on the optat. with ay, p. 154, k. 2) because, for ^m rov-o on, 
i. e. Sion. 

on also strengthens superlatives (172), and is used to introduce 
a quotation in the very words of the speaker, where we use no con- 
junction (see 353,/). On ov^ otl — aXKa Kai, see 419. 

on i-n), after negatives, {nisi) ^except.' 

oh, not : in questions it requires the answer 'yes.' 418. 

{rj) oh ^uiXvaiQ = the non-destruction. 

oh yap ctXXa is commonly used in the sense of 'for,' 'for indeed' 
(364, k), with increase of emphasis, q. d. 'for it is no otherwise, but.' M. 

oh fjij] : see 287. 

oh fxi'ir, I) yet not, but not; 2) as a negative protestation. See 
^ fiiir (343). 

oh fiiiy aXXci (or, far less commonly, oh p.ivToi dXXa), see 364, k. 

' Whenever the foims rore, ort are used twice (sometimes only once) for ?rori 
— irork, sometimes — sometimes, they are accented rori — , br't — . B. 

B b 2 

188 419. [ 


ov irayv, by no means. 

ov (pr}fxi, I say (that) not; that is, the ov, though it attaches itself 
to the ^?;^h', belongs to the infinitive, [ov fprja kaativ &c., he says 
that he iviU not suffer &c.] 
419. a) ov fdoiov — aXXh i^ni (aXX' ovSi^', b) ov fxnvov on, 
(also ovx ''7-t juoroJ'), or ov)( on (o7rwc)» or firj on, fii) 
oTTioc (used elliptically for ovk epw, on or ottwq' ^u) Xeyr, on or ottwc) 
— ct/Wa (cai (dXX' ovee), not only — hut also {but not even\vi\\er\. the 
less important member precedes the more important, c) oi/j^ ottwc or 
/i^ oVt* (oTTwc) — dXXa K'a/ (dXX' ovdi), not only not — but even 
{but not even), when either the more important member precedes the 
less important, or when two strongly antithetic clauses are opposed 
to each other, d) ov — dXXd Kai, not — but even, ov — dXX' 
ovBi, not — not even, dXX' ovSi being stronger than dXXd Kai. e) 
ov ^ovov — dXXd without Kai is used, when the second member 
is so much stronger than the second, or so much more general in its 
meaning, that it virtually includes it, making it quite unnecessary to 
mention the weaker notion. 

ov\ 6(7ov and oi))^ o'loy are also found for ou^ otl and ov\ oVwc 


a. a) 1. ^wKpuTTjQ ov fxoyop (TO(poQ »;i', dXXd Ka\ ayadog. 2. Kai 
fii]v vTrepmrodryiaKew ys fuoi'ot ideXovaiv o'l ipdiVTEq, ov ^ovov on 

b. dt'cpic, dXXd Kai yvia'iKEQ (non modo — sed etiavfi). b) 3. Ou)^ 
C. on fxovoQ 6 KptVwj' ir iiav^it/. r;»', dXXd Ka\ ol <pi\oi nvrov. c) 4. 

Ov^ OTTttiQ Tovc TToXefiiovg ETpe\pavTO ol "EXX»j»'£c, dXXd Ka\ Ti)y 
■)(^u)pui' avTujy tKaKUitrar, 5. Ouj^ owwg j^npu' avTolg (role 'Adrfyai' 
oig) £X^'f' «^^" *>■■"* jutfT^wirac (xtavTOV Kara tovtwvi ttoXitsvyi {non 
modo non — sed etiarn). 6. Tovc Orjfiaiovg tiytiro oux ottwc 
avrnrpal,uv Ka\ diaKcoXimeir, dXXd >;oi uvaTpuTEvatir. 7. Ow^ 
onojQ TyJQ KoiyfjQ iXevOepiag fiET£-)(()', dXX' ovSe SovXtiag fiETplag 
I'liii'odrj^Ev rux^Ii' (no7i modo non — sed ne — quidem). 8. M?) oirug 
6p)(^E~iadai Ev pvdij(i>, uXX' ovo' opdovcrdai EclivaadE {non modo non 
saltare, sed ne rectis quidem pedibus stare poteratis). 9. Tf/y ohiav 
y a\Xo Ti ojy KEK-Tjtrai, yo/xi^ioy apyvpiov a£,ioy Elyai, ovSevI av fx ij 
on -n-po'iKa doir]g, dXX' ovc' fXaTToy rfig aE,iag Xaj3u>y {non modo non 
gratis des, sed ne si minus quidem accipias, quam est illarum rerum 
d. pretium). d) 10. Toy kui Xoy^ Kai ipyi^ nEiputHEyoy efie ayi^y ovk 
ay cvvaifirjy ovt ev Xt'ytiv oiir' ei) TroiE~iy, dXX' ovSe TTEipacrofiai. 

* When ju// oVt, fiiij OTTiDg begin the sentence, vnoXdjiy rig may be supplied ; 
or they may be understood like the Latin ne dicnm, and are thus stronger than the 
preceding expressions, but both in a negative sense. 

ovr£, ov^i.'] 420. 189 

11. AapeiKovg Xa/Jwf ovk tig to 'iSioy KciTiBifiijv efiot, aW ovSe 
Kadr]^vnadT](Ta, aW eiQ vjuac i^aTraroir. 12. Ov Tcovqpoc, aWa Kai 
irayv ^(^prjtTTog. e) 13. Ov fiovvv ettl tovtwv avTOVQ b\pet r))y yvw- e. 
UTfv ravrrjy kyoyraCf aW ewi iravrwv ofioiug. 


{cure, fJty'iTEy 1 If the successive clauses are negative, they are 420. 
ou'^£, /uj;^£, J connected, a) by ovhi (/jtj^e), when a negative 
member precedes: b) by Ka\ ov (^-ai ^t?'/), when an affirmative 
member precedes ; this is the regular form in Attic prose ; but in the 
Ionic and poetic writers ovoi or fxrili can also be used here : c) in a 
more emphatic and definite manner by ovti — ovtb {fj^vre — p-vt e) 
neque — neque {neve — neve), ' neither — nor,' when the two or more suc- 
cessive members are negative: d) by ovrt. — tz (seldom Kai), neque 

— et, where we must use 'not — and ;' or 'not — but;' 'not only not 

— but' (if the two notions are strongly opposed), e) The following 
connective forms are more rare, and belong mostly to poetry, viz. 
cure — ov, ov — ovTt ; re ov — ti ; ovte — re ov ; ovte — ovBe, 
'neither — nor yet,' which is found also in prose. /) Ovhi (= ne — • 
quidem) always relates to some preceding notion (expressed or im- 
plied) ; and when ov^i — ovSi are repeated, they are not car- 
responsive particles (like neque — neque), but the first ovoe has its 
own proper force, and the second adds to it a second notion in the 
same independent way : = ne — quidem — neque. 

ovSi before a single notion = ne — quidem. 
ovh' &g (ne sic quidem), ' not even so.' See wq. 


a) 1. Ovk av ovv To^orag ye (?/ KoXij Tcapaipeaig ayadovg iroiijaeity) a. 

— ov^e firiv ctKOVTiirrng, ov^e jut/i' 'nnriag. b) 2. ^lartivov fjaWov b. 
irpog TO aavTW Trpoai^eii', Kai fii) d/ie'Xct rtDv rtjc TroXeug. 3. $a/- 
vojiui roivvv eyw •^(a.piTog TiTv^riKwg rove Kai ov fje/J-ypewc, ovSe 
rifiwplag. 4. 'ETra/iioare — /cat jjifj 7rp6r]ade ijfJicig. 5. 'Kuxtip cipa 
ere a (jovXei ttoieIv Ka\ ov^iv eimrXiiTrovcnVf ovSe SiaKwXvovcri iroielv 

liy av tTTidvijfjg. c) 6. Ovte Qeoi, ovte ardptJiroi. d) T ."Qijioaav c. d. 
— firjTE TrpoSwaEip aXXrjXovg avfifia^yoi te EaEodai. 8. Oure yap 
dyopd EOTiv tKavy) —, rj te X***?" 7ro\e/i/a. 9. O'l AaKESalf^6ylol 
al(jd6f.iEyoi OVTE £KU)Xvoy, eI fiij ettI /Spa^w, ii(TV"^a^()y te to ttXeov tov 
■^poyov. e) 10. '^KKXrjtriay te ovk ettoiei — , Ttjy te ttoXiv iijtvXavaE. e. 
11. Ovte EKElyog eti KaTEyorjaE, to te juavTEloy ovk ih'iXov. f) 12. y. 
Ew ydp "ladi, on ov^e ev aXX^ ov'^eit ctywvt, ovhk kv Trpu^ei ovltjiifjf. 
fiE~iov ii,Eig Ziix TO fiiXrioy to aiiifia irapaaKEvaaaaQai. 

190 421—428. [oly—TTov. 


421. *ov»', therefore, ihen^. It gives to relatives {hariaovv, &c.) the 
force of the Lat. cunque {ever, soevei'). 

ovKovt'' ovKovy. " Particula ovkovv scribenda est ovkovi" ubi signi- 
ficat 1) nonneercjo? nonne igitur ? 2) e7-(/o {scilicet, nempe '^) ;■ — 
3) OVKOVV vel ohtc ovv, non ergo. 4) ovkovi', ubi significat non sane, 
non profecto, nequaquam." (Kiihner.) 

422. oinru), never yet. 

ovliiro-t, never, is used of both j^^^^t ^^^ future time ; ov^eTTuyn-ort 
only of past time. (See ttw.) 

ovTU), ovrwg, thus ; so. (See 444.) After a participle it sometimes 
introduces the (virtual) apodosis. [_u7ro(pvyo}y £e. kul tovtovq, arpaTrjyog 
oiiTUJ ^Adtji'aicoi' £7r£^£<^0?j.|] 

423. *7rf/3 (enclit., w/Zgwe ; often adversatively :=: ^'ttami;?*). It comes 
from the preposition Trepl, ' round,' ' denoting the whole compass of the 
notion, so that the word to which it is attached, is to be taken in its 
whole extent, whatever that may be. In Attic Greek it is principally 
appended to relatives, and adverbs of time, cause, and condition 
(ocrnep, oaoairsp' ovirep, OTrovirep' tiirsp, KaiirEp, &c.). With the rela- 
tives it often has the force of our ' ever,^ ' soever.' [tO/jpa oirovwep 
tTriTvyy/iroi, '■everywhere, where,' ' wherever.'~\ Its proper force 
is to indicate that the assertion belongs especially to the person or 
thing denoted by the relative. 

424. irT] fxlv — 7rf/ H, partly — partly. Hermann recommended tt/) filv 
. . . TTi) ce' but the particle is invariably circumflexed in the MSS. 

425. TrXijy, except: as conjunction, or preposition with gen. : TrXyjv el, 
except if. [Related to TrXelr, TvXiov, ' more.' Klotz.] 

426. TToXKaKiq, often, after £*, tar, fii], has sometimes the meaning of 
{forte), ^perchance ;' i. e. it refers to the possible happening &c. of 
what often does happen. 

427. *7ror£ (enclit.), at any time. With interrogatives it expresses sur- 
prise : TiQ TTo-e ; who in the world ? 

428. *Trov {enclit.), 1) somewhere ; 2) perchance, perhaps ; 3) I imagine, 
used in conversation when any thing is assumed in a half-questioning 
way, that the speaker may build, something on the assent of the per- 
son appealed to. 

* ovv is often used to resume a speech that has been interrupted by a paren- 
thesis (= / say). 

' OVKOVV, extra interrogationem, acerbam interdum habet ironiam. Bremi, 
Dem. p. 238. 

^ Or, from irspi (as the word is then accented) =: TTBpiffffijg, very. The same 
particle appears in semper, parumpcr, &c. Hermann's derivation of it from Trtpi in 
the sense oi ' circiler,' denoting objects of which we only conjecture the truth, or 
exact extent, is decidedly to be rejected. 

Trp6—TQ 429—435. 191 

irpog ae dtwy, I adjure you by the gods {'n^ertvoj is generally omitted 429. 
in this form of adjuration). 

TTpo rov (better Trporov), before this or that time (= -pu tovtov or 4 30. 
Ikiliov tov j^poj'ou *). [_iv yap Tip irpu rov ovcefxia jiot'iOEui ttuj ring 
MeyapEiKTiv ovSafxodtv iTrrjXdsv. Thuc.iv. 120.] " Quando in serie 
orationis prceteritum tempus memoratur, tunc de eo, quod ante illud 
etiam fuerit, formula vpurov non videtur adhiberi posse, nisi simul 
insit relatio ad prcesens tempus ; hoc est, nisi diserte simul significare 
quis velit, nunc non amplius ita esse." Buttm. ad Alcib. I. 14. 

*7rw (enclit.), "I ^z7^ now, hitherto. In this sense they principally 431. 
*7rw7ror£, J follow negatives. Without a negative ttw occurs 

only in questions that are virtually negative [ttoAic a^icjTa^irr] rig 
TTb) TovTii) iTrey^iLpiicra ; Thue.~\ : ttidtvote occurs in such questions and 
after et [wore /iTjo' £t TrwTrore aJtciidrjaay, &c. Dem. ei rig aydpio- 
TTwy i'j^ij TTWTTorE ewEffKixparo. Plat.'\ 

ovTzu), pijiru)^ {ov^i-TTw, jiyiH-m), never yet, not yet. Trcj-n-ora is 
seldom annexed to the simple ov, jii], but to ovCi, jdijci 
{ovSenujirore, fjirj^irw-uroTe). The form without ttw {ovcirrorE, 
never) is commonly employed only generally or with respect 
to the future. Both irw and TrwTrore may be separated from 
the negative particle by the interposition of other words. 
TrujfxuXa \ properly, how so ? how then? hence, by no means. 432. 

7a iiiy — ret li, partly — partly (adverbially). 433. 

*rdpa (which some write rcifja, Dindorf ) ; Attic contraction for 434. 
TOi apa. 

*Ti (que). See Kai. 435. 

In the old language (as we find it in the Epic poets) re seems 
to impart to many pronouns and particles the connecting 
power, which they afterwards retained in themselves without 
the particle. 
Thus we find jiiy te, ^i re, yap re, &c., and even Kai re. 
Especially the particle is found after all relatives, because these 
in the old language were merely forms of the pronoun 
demonstrative, which through this ri obtained the connecting 
power {and this), and thus became the relative (which). As 
soon, however, as these forms were exclusively allotted to the 
relative signification, the particle rt was dropt as superfluous. 

* It answers exactly to our ' before this,' ' before that.' 

'■' Not to be confounded with Homer's ovttu, ^»J7rw = ovTrwg, firjiriog, in no tvay, 
by no vieans. 

1 For TTwc ndXa ; B. Others say for ttw naKa ; ttCj being a rather uncom- 
mon Doric form for ttoQiv ; 

192 436—441. [ry—rovyeKa. 

Hence we often find in Homer oc re, ocov te, &c. for oc, oaov, 
and the like. The particles wtrrf, art, and the expressions 
Otoe r£, k(f f re. are remains of the ancient usage. 
430. ri'] f.iii' — T)j Si, in one place and another; here — there; in one 
respect — but in another. 

437. ri, in some respect, in any respect, at all ^. ri fxijv \ See /x>)v. 

438. 7-0 li often introduces a statement opposed to what has been said 
before, and may be translated by {quum tamen ^) whereas, but how- 
ever, or sometimes, but rather. See Heindorf, Theaet. 37. 

TO Si with the superlat. often stand alone, with the omission of 
ToTiTo tarn', to ci fiiyiCTOv TroVra ravTa fxovog KarupydaaTO, but 
the greatest thing is (this), that, &c. (See o U — , 409.) 

439. *To'i. (enclit., certe), jDrobably an old dat. for Tf (443). It has a 
strengthening force * ; and is frequently used with personal pronouns, 
and in maxims, proverbs, and other general propositions \Uaipoi 
7-01 TvoWwv TTiaTot' e-^oviTL j^oo*'] ; also with verbs expressing emo- 
tion [we {'icofiai toi, &c.] ; with adversative particles [e.g. kuItoi, 
tamen, quamquam; fxivroi, tamen ; urdp toi, dWd tol, at vero ; 
atsane']. Also ovtol (/itjtoi), certe non ; ydproi, namomnino; ^rot 
— ?/, still stronger i'lToi ye — //, aut sane (profecto) — aut. 

^^ ^oi, yi. Trip, all add emphasis to the word they are attached 
to: Toi adds this force asseveratively ; yi, intensively ; wip, ex- 

*Toiyvr, igitur. — jam vero, porro ; therefore, then; — now, so now. 
It is also used when a person proceeds with an argument; now fur- 
ther, but now. Besides this, it is frequently used in lively replies : 
why, or why then ; well then, " quum quis alterius orationem cele- 
riter et alacriter excipit, eique prompto animo respondet." (Kiih.) 
[Very seldom as the first word of a clause. P.] 

Toiyap {ergo), therefore [_= hac de causa igitur. Klotz]. 

Toiyuproi, quapropter sane. Toiyupoxiv, hac de causa igitur ; qua- 
propter ; quocirea (more syllogistical from the addition of ovy). 

440. '■ore fuiy — Tori Ei^, at one time — at another. 

441. rovvEKa (Epic), on that account; therefore. 

' It is often added to ttc'ivv, axiSov, ovSsv. 

2 TO 5' ov Stl, we, &c. — quum lumen non oporteut. 

* According to Hartung, rot has not a s/renglhenhig but a restrictive meaning, 
which, liowever, often comes to the same thing: e. g. iKnivd roi a dv, I would 
have hilled you, and nothing more or less than tiiat: = / would assuredly have kilkd 
you. Nagelsbach thinks it the old dat. of the pron. au (tv). Klotz considers one 
rot (the stronger) to have been demonstrative (to', accented); another (the weaker) 
to have been unaccented, and =: the indefinite Tt^, nvi, aliquo modo. 

' See note on on. 

TovTo—u,s.] 442—444. 193 

Tuvro fiiv — rovTo Si, on the one hand — on the other. 442. 

T-w (propterea), therefore (poetical). 443. 

(ic {qvam; quasi, tamquam ; ut; — quod), 'how,' 'as' (both of man- 444. 
ner and time), ' that,' ' in order that :' properly a relative adverb 
(from o'e or from 6, which was originally both demonstrative and 
relative). Its original meaning therefore is ut, quomodo, quam 
(' how '). 

a) It corresponds to quam (1) in exclamations [_wq atrreloQ 6 
am'ip ! u>Q ovSev y ixadrjaig, av fxfi povg iraprj, quam nihil est doctrina, 
nisi mens adsit'\ ; (2) with superlatives (especially adverbs) and some 
positives [wc Tu-x^tara, quam, celerrime ; we XayuTrpdrarof, quam 
splendidissimus ; wc uXijOuic, quam vere or verissime (properly sic 
ut vere, Klotz). See note 34, on Lesson XIV.] 

b) It corresponds to quasi and tamquam; 1) with substantives : = 
*as,' 'for' [0uXarr£(T0at wg TroXefiiovg fi^dg' wc (pvXaKci avvi- 
7refi\pey avroi'l; 2) with ^ar<«c?pZes (especially when used aisoZw^e/^), 
to denote what seems or is given out. If what is given out is con- 
sistent with truth, wc may be construed by feeling or acknowledging 
that: if it is based on an erroneous notion, by supposing or fancying 
that : if deception is intended, by pretending that. [See 249, 250, and 
237, note '.] It has often the simple meaning of ' as,' ' as being,' 
&c. (= quippe or quippe qui). 

1. 'l^Tvy\av£y die TifxuifxevoQ iv ti3 irXtjcnaiTano Sitppu liivQr} 
Kadri/Jievog. 2. 'Qiq aTrrjXXay fievoi tovtiov ij^iojg EKOifiijOrjaay. 
3. ^vXXafjipavEi Kvpop uic cnroKTeyoJy. 4. Ova: ig Xoyovg iXt'iXvd', 
ciWd ore KTevwy. 5. "EyLitvov wg KaTi-)(^o%'Teg to aKpov' o'l h' oh 
(carEtj^ov. 6. 'YiiaBav6^r]v avrov wg hr\p,OTiicov bvra Treipaaeadai 
irapa to BiKuioy awl^tadai. 

c) The meaning of ' as if belongs also to we with prepositions 
(e. g. tig, eiri). This occurs in statements where less is said than 
is meant ; e. g. to prepare himself we £Tt fxdxv^i ' as if for battle,' 
where there is no doubt that the person really 'prepared himself 
for battle.' — It is probably from this usage of we that it obtained 
the force of a preposition (but only before personal names or pro- 
nouns): e. g. iJKEiy we Ejut = yKEiv we [""poc] efxi. 

1. JJapearKEvdi^ETO we ig jidxi]V' 2. 'AvdytaQai e^eXXev wg 
£7rt vavyuaj^ta V. 3. Ou^ i'lKEi Trpog ge Krjpvaaioy oSe, uXX' we 

9 f 


d) From this notion of what seems to be the case may also be 
derived the meaning of we with numerals or indefinite numerals = 

c c 

194 444. [(if. 

fere, circiter ; and such conihinations as wq to. iroWd, wq eiri to 
TToXv =' ti early,' (or as it were) ^ for the most part ;^ 'mostly,^ 
' (/cneralli/,' 'usually.' 

1. "F.^dJiCEV thg jiivpiovQ ^poj^/ua'r. 2. 'O irctyKaKOg wf ret 
TToWo wy affioTog jJiaXa irinjQ. 3. 'H rwf (Twjudruty t^ig viro yv/Ji- 
vacritijv Kai Kii'i](re(jji> wg ctti to ttoXv trcji^eTai. 

e) As corresponding with ut, uti, wq is used 

1) = as, wQ olfiai, u opinor. 

2) In wishes: wc tp'c cWoAotro! utinam [uti-nam] rixa 

pereat ! 

Here we find also otJrwc (we) — i)Q: the clause of comparison, intro- 
duced by iOQ, expressing tlie object of tlie protestation. Thus in Latin, 
' ita me dii anient, ut ego nunc laitor.' II. v. 825, ti yap lywv, ovtm 
yt Aibg rralg atyioxoio Eirjv — , 'Qg viiv yn'spt] i'lSt (caKov ftpu 'ApytioKTi 
Uam fxdXa. 

3) To denote an effect or consequence : kuI yap . . . to. /aev aw- 
tKTiKTEL TWf i^uyioi' TO(TavTr)i' Tpo(p}]V u) g hay})^ elyai, &C. 
In this use of wg, it occurs [though less commonly than Sgre'] 
with j; after a comparative, where we should 'too' and the infin., 
the Romans the comparative with quam ut. \t6 Baifxovioy 
fiEyaXoTTpeTTF.CTTepoy iiyovfxai i) log Tf{g i/Jiiig dprjffKslag irpoa- 
ltiaQai.~\ It has sometimes a similar force after the positive, 
or a substantive denoting a character or quality : here we can 
use the infinitive : e. g., ' 7 know they are but ordinary (or 
ignorant) persons to contend with us,' ixiaTafxai iSiwrag 
by-ag wg Trpog ii/J-ug ay aiy i i^ eardai, 

4) Like ut, and as, wg is also used of time; wg 'iSev (ut vidit) : 
it is also used sometimes (as other temporal particles are) of 
cause; 'Croesus, as it was summer, did so and so,' wg dipog 
■fjy. {Xen.) 

f) As a final conjunction, to denote a purpose : = ut, iVa. ' He 
killed him,' -^pvaov wg E^of KTaywv {ut haberet). 

On wg av {wg as final conjunction) with subjunct., see p. 151, b. 

g) 'Qg is also synonymous with on after verba sentiendi et declaravdi [see p. 22]. 
Here the infinitive also occurs. — -"Ort, iog are very rare after o'ucQai, Sokhv, iXiri- 
Ziiv, <pdvai; but not so after Xiyiiv, ilntiv (which are more objective than (pdvai). 
TItiOiiv with infin. = to persuade to do any thing; with wg =: to convince that 
any thing is so. As being properly relative, it also stands with reference to a pre- 
ceding demonstrative or ti, or where one may easily supply the circumstance 

h) 'Qg (ut) in connexion with a substantive (for which a predicate must be sup- 
plied from the principal clause) is used, like the Latin ut, in order to explain the 
predicate in the principal clause. It expresses either comparison or limitation, and 
in the first case is to be translated by 'as,' in the latter by ' for :' the former occurs, 
when the object is assumed to possess in a high degree the thing affirmed in the 


predicate of the sentence; the latter, when it is assumed to possess it only in 
a small degree. Soph, CEd. R. 1118. Aaiov yap i]v, tiTrtp tiq aWoq, iriOToq, 
o)Q vofifvg avi'ip (^as being a shepherd); but: yv £k ovk aSvvarog ug AatcE- 
Saifiovtog dniiv {for a Lacedcemonian ; it being known that they were no great 

i) In clauses introduced by wg, werirep, ware, an attraction in 
regard to case sometimes occurs, particularly in the ace. (Lys. 
Accus. Agor. 492, 136) : ovSafxov yap ianv ^Ayoparov 'Adr)va~iov 
elyai uxTTTsp QpatrvloovXoi'. The nom., however, often stands 
(for which a verb must be supplied from the context) : Dem. Mid. 
363. k')(pi}v avTov rh ovra avnkiaKovTa, Cjairtp iyw, ovtuj fxev a,<p- 
aipelcrdai riiv viKrjv. 

j) In tjg dv there is often an ellipse : e. g. icni rbv Kvpov eire- 
piadai TrpmreTwg wg ay Tralg fxrihiTrw viroTZTiitJauyv {Xen.^ =: ijg av 
iraig 'ipoiro. 

wg evi (=: wg evEari, as it is possible) is used with superlatives : 
wg evL i-idXitTTa, as far as it is any way possible. 

wg ETTOg, SO to say. 

(jjg (TvveXovTi (sc. \6yui) elirCiv, to be short ; in a word. 

[For which avveXovTi tnreiv, and avvekovTi alone, are found.] 

&g (with accent) = ourwc, thus. It is common in the poets, 
especially the lonians ; but in prose is found only in ovh' wg, 
Kai wg. 

wan, so that, >} ware, see e) 3), 164, and 168. 

Table of the meanings of Prepositions in Composition 
(omitting some of the most obvious). 

c't/L/^t, 071 both sides. 445. 

ayri, against, marking opposition: hence also retaliation {avri- 

am \ «^ (dvf'xitv) ; back (^ava')(^u>pelv) ; again (^avand^EaQai). 

cid, through (^tip^ojuat) ; trans {hiaf^aiveiy) ; then through, all 
through (marking continuance through a space of time, Biafiiveiy) : 
= dis, marking separation and distribution {^uaraadat, Siacicurai). 

EK, out of ; forth : sometimes denotes completeness {e'^owXi^ecrOai, 
iKXoyi^eirdai, &c.). 

ly, often into. 

^ With ^aiviiv, &c. ava, up, and Kara, down, mean respectively into Ike 
interior, and down to the coast. 

c c 2 

196 445. [prepositions in compos. 

Kara, 1) down; it often implies completion'', and hence 2) ruin, 
destntetion (answering in both to per; or con, in comburerey con- 

fjerd (trans) marks transposition, change {iiiTaroeli', to repent) : 
sometimes imparting, participating {fierixeiv, /Jtra^t^ovat). 

irapd sometimes signifies (like prceter) missing or doing amiss, 
napn-jjaireiv, to transgress, &c. 

vTTEp, above, over (of excess), excessively (nimium; hirepfji'KTely' 
viripcrotbog); vTrspopap (literally to overlook =) to disdain, to slight. 

* Hence Kara, is sometimes equivalent to up in English : KaTa^aysiv, to eat up. 


^p° The numerals after the word to be explained refer to the paragraphs 

of the work. 

Lesson I. — 1. 'Ei^ ip, literally ' in which,' is construed, whilst. The full form is 
iv Ttf xp6v<;j, (^, 'in the time, that.' \\ 2. ore, 416. || 4. OappaXidjrara, 5T. 
II 8. STTti, 384. t'iirovTo, v. sVo/iat. || 9. t^-k-Spaix-e' v. eKTpix'^- II H- o'vtwq 
— iig = ita — id. Kai, 394, p. \\ 12. ug, p. 194, 4). Trapfff/cfva^ovro . . . 7roi>j- 
aofiei'OL: it may be construed 'prepared to make,' literally 'prepared being about 
to make.' The fut. participle marks the intention with which the preparations were 
made. It is more common to express wc («*) with the fut. participle after Trapa- 
ffK£vd2o/uai. II 14. iTreiSi], 384. irapa, from, 190, I^W {end). \\ 19. a^iov: 
the verb iariv is understood, C4. || 20. Order: ai (piang 5oKoi)(Tai (— which 
seem : literally, seeming) tlvai apiorat. Ssonai governs the gen. || 24. aXwTov, 
'tariv understood. TdfiiKovfitvov =^ to afiikovptvov. 

Lesson II. — 3. l^aaKtv, 2 Obs. x^P"' *X^'*' = *e gratiam habere, 220. ort, 
417. lira, upon this; then (marking the sequence of events in order of time) ; in 
enumerations, then, next. If it occurs with the second term of the enumeration = 
secondly. \\ 9. ccKOvovaiv, audiunt := vocantur. || 10. tuiaOixxraro, 188, 3. 

Lesson III. — I. rt Kai, 394. || 5. x«P'?f<^6«' governs dat. of person. || 10. 
dixirpog. f^° A muta cum liquidd does not, generally, make a short vowel long 
by position; but. 

At the juncture of compounds position holds true. 
And when middle mutes > stand before lambda, mu, nu. 

Hence tK-j'E/iw, /3i'/3\oe- || \2. tCjv avrCJv, AO,^). Kai — Kai, 394. diKaioavvTjQ, 
&c. in apposition to riov avTHv. See Lesson 1.20. || 13. vopovQ 'tQ'tri]v, 188, 
end. TE Kai, 394. TrXtTerra koko. rriv irokiv i.TroiriaaTr)v, 125, Obs. 1. || 15. 
cfitSXov a.-Ko\oyi]aaaOat, 281. || 17- Alcibiades with Mantitheus is equivalent 
to a plural, tunopilv governs the gen. dirtSpaaav, see SiSpdcrKw, irr. || 19. 
diroKrevoiivreg, 237. 

Lesson IV. — 5. to yi, 376, a (end). \\ G. ovv, 421. oi /uovov — dXXd 

Kai, 419, a). \\ 12. Kav firj, even though not. Kav =: Kai dv (^ Kat sdv, 

77. 78). II 15. ToL In what kind of sentences is it often used? 439. || 17- 

dvoptiv governs gen. || 18. dnaWdrTtiv (to free from) governs gen. of that 

from which the person is freed, 153. 

Lesson V.— 9. fiefivi)<jo, 153, b. || 15. 153, a. || 16. yt, 375 (end of a). 
II 17. iKx^ai. See £k-xs<«>, irreg. || 18. ttov, 128. || 23. w£ dXr)9CJt; (= quain 
verissime), 444, a), (2). || 27. ijSt), 390. || 30. tov SaKTvXov, I7. 

Lesson VI. — l_Note. It must not be supposed from 33 that the Greek infinitive 
with TO may not often be translated by the English infinitive. It may also often be 
translated by a substantive, e. g., in 15, to tavTovg i^tTaZtiv = (I) ' to examine 
themselves :' or (2) ' the examining of themselves :' or (3) ' the examination of 
themselves.'] — 1. vtto, 190, ^g° {end). \\ 2. aTpovOoKaiijjXog, ostrich (from its 
camel-Uke neck). |j 3. The nine Archons (i. e. the highest magistrates at Athens). 

1 j8, T, S. 


NOTES. [lesson VII X. 

yoi'fac, 125, Obs. 1. || 9. yiyvoir' dv, 84", 85. 1] 10. Tvyxc'^n- ^v (participle 
of fi/(i). 240, i. II 11. TO Ka\w(: c'tTToeavtlv ((he dying well, or, to die well) may be 
construed by a substantive with an adjective, ' mi honorable (or noble) death.' 
II 15. See note above. || 20. Ai^xpov, 64. {irjU, not even, iirl — 'for the pur- 
pose of: II 21. t\l/tvaeai iavrdv = ' to be deceived in themselves,' (or • in their notions 
of themselves'). So i^tvuiiivoi Tijg rwv 'AOi)va'nov Swa^ewg, ' being deceived 
in their notions of the Athenian power.' The usual sense ot xptidiffOai with gen. is, 
to miss a thing (i. e. to be deceived in one's expectation of obtaining it). || 22. olg 
irpofftxotei'. Trpoakxiiv = 'to turn one's attention' to any thing: the ace. rov 
vovv {the mind) being understood, ole {quibus = ea, quibus) irpoakxoitv (the 
optative), ' such things as they (at any time) turfied their attention to.' This is 
cjilied 'the optative of ««rfe/?/»-/e./Ve^«ent>' See 95. || 23. apa; = ««m, 313. rjSii 
— 'at once: without going any further, ap' i)cr] tovt . . . ' is then this alone . . .' ? 
II 25. G4. \\ 27. avTiji T<f ^poi'tlv. avroQ here ■= itself (40, d). to (ppovtiv may 
be construed by a substantive : understanding, prudence. iroTtpov ...?/;=: utrum 
. . . an? 329. || 33. ^iv ovv, 399 (l^F)- ovx i'lKiara Se, and not least = (et max- 
ime quidem) and especially. This is an instance of litotes {KiTorrjg or utiiuaig), 
the saying less tlian is meant. || 34. iird, 384. ovv, 421. rt . . . Kai (/cat .. . 
Kcii), 394. 6ri\ov,6i. II 35. dpa, 370, b. \\ 36. t^ufyutX/jKti, pluperf. from im- 
pers. verb ps\n, which governs dat. of person, gen. o{ thing. 

Lesson VII. — 3. ravH, from ovroai, p. 130, note 9. || 7. QeaTtov, 115, 117: 
the verb omitted, 64. || 11. tvOvg, here 'necessarily: i. e. ' at once, without more 
ado,' ov . . . tvGvg = non continuo in Latin. See Pract. Intr. II. 308. || 12. ovy 
oloiTt, 64 and 280. afia, 365. || 16. av ykvoiaBi, 84*, 85. ?}5jj, 390. || 28. 
hlaOai., to request, governs the gen. ttote (enclitic), o7ice on a time; once. 
'oTTuig vipavy (literally, '/iow she would weave, &c.') may be construed by the infin. 
' as/ced her to weave: v^tjvu), subj. aorist, 98, c ; the aor. of i/d>ai'vw is v0nva, 
Att. v^dva. II 29. aWd, 364, h. 

Lesson VIII. — 1. dpeyiaeai, to desire, 153, b. || 3. xP'i'^^ai governs the dat. 
II 7; TvyxavtL ixciv,2A0. II 9. 'nnvi)Q, ^\. o{'nnrivg,usud\\y 'nnrug: the termi- 
nation  r)g belongs to the old Attic dialect. || 21. apx^v, to nde over, govern, 
153, b. II 24. fieXn = cura est. || 28. To construe Kai rwv dX\u)v ^evoJV by 
'and the other strangers: would imply that the citizens were strangers. But in 
Greek d\\og is often used in this way : it may here be construed also : so dfia ryye 
Kai dfKpiTToXoi k'iov dWai, with her came {her) servants also. || 31. 419. || 32. 
rou?a/xaprdv«iv = to tKafiapTavtiv. || 33. tx". habent sc. se, {have themselves 
— ) are. || 38. irtipaTiov, 115—117. iv iroitiv, 125. || 39. ovroai, p. 130, 
n. 9. 

Lesson IX.— 7. 419. || 11.64, || 12. oCrt— oSre, 420. || 16. arkpynv is 
construed like dyani^v. \\ 26. ijg, that. || 27. '6Trojg,ut: opt. after historical 
lewse, 67, b. [In the observation, for second and third rea.d first and secoyid.] \\ 29. 
dv tSwIjetJutv : dv with aor. — would have, &c., 79, d. \\ 40. dv Svvairo, 
84*, 85. 

Lesson X.— 2. r(p' dvai nsyaXoipvxog, by being, &c., 33. aTroXaieiv governs 
the gen. || 3. ro^^poyt/xoj/ {the sensible =^) ' sense: 'sensible conduct:'m the 
abstract, 32. to tVTVxeg, good fortune, to dvaicOrjTOv, wa?it of feeling ; insen- 
sibility, ov .. . Kai, here Kai may be construed but, as in Latin : 7ion putabant 
. . . suspicionibus debere judicari, et exspectandum (= but that they should wait) 
dum se ipsa res aperiret. Pr. Intr. II. 234, a, 2. Compare with the sentiment, 
Horace's dulce est desipere in loco. \\ 6. TToJTrort, 431. || 7. ii/ioij', gen. after Jfia- 
Bai, to request. || 11. ol dv w^fXwffiv, p. 367, e). \\ ^2. fi—rj, either— or. || 13, 
Toi, 439. II 14. ore, when; fii}, 108. || 22. /3\€7rdv7-(jv, ^^eTz. governed by Trpo- 
Tipoi {priores), which may be construed by the adverb, ' before: or ' sooner (than): 
Comparatives in Greek govern the gen. || 24. ovrujg . . . uicrTe, 208, e. \\ 25, 
TO Tthv 'E^opwv, &c. The articles to and rd with the gen. are used in the way of 
indefinite reference to any thing connected with what the substantive in the gen, 
expresses : rd Ti'ig Tvxtjg, ' the events of fortune: or simply 'fortune: tu tojv 
panjidpwv, 'the affairs of the barbarians,' i. e. the barbarians and their goitigs on. 


or simply 'the barbarians.' So here to twv 'Eipopojv = 'the Ephori,' or the 
proceedings of the Ephori [the Spartan magistrates so called]. Apply this to the 
phrases in the next examples. Qav^iaarbv wq rvpav. y'ty., ' become surprisingl y 
tyrannical.' iariv \s understood [()4], wf is 'how:' so that it is literally, 'it is 
surprising, how tyrannical,' 271, 272. || 29. TTipaivoiro dv, 84*, 85. || 31. 64. 
iiv, il dv, 77) '?/' (with subj.). || 32. d^avsf, 62. ol, ' whither'' ■=. to what, ol 
7rpo/3>j(r£rat, ' to what it will advance ' i= ' what will come of it at last,' ' how it 
will turn out.' ewanep dv ^fj, ' as long as (ever) he lives,' i. e- ' may happen to live.' 
fwc (subj.) strengthened by Trip. See 306, and 367) e). Ii 38. OTrwg CiaTrtadatTE, 
284, c), 286. II 43. dv ytvoivro, 85. || 45. dv Xiyoiro, 84*, 85. || 46. vtto, 
190, gg°. 1146.64. 1147.64. || 49. 64. 

Lesson XI. — 5. StaXiyofisvoi, the masc. ; persons being meant, though fxeipaKia 
is neuter. || 7- ti  • • Sr] {si jam), 'if or ' if now,' the €i strengthened by Si], 
I'i dk = 'but if;' here the opposite supposition is only implied: it must be 
construed 'but if not^.' \\ 11. ^ijiuviSy yt : the force of yi is to make 
Simonides emphatic, 376 (so in 13, 15). || 15. KairirrjStietv = Kal Ittit. \\ 19. 
oioc re, of persons = able. \\ 22. ov TroXvg xpovoQ l^ ov : literally, ' 7iot a 
long time from which ' '=■ 'not long ago.' The verb is understood by 64. 
II 24. 'on, that. || 2?. ptv ovv, 399. || 28. dv tit), 84*. || 29. j'/^swc dv 
fjidOotpi, 84, a. II 31. Trapsx^r. Resolve the participle into a sentence with 'be- 
cause,' or a relative sentence with ' who.' \\ 32. oii/c ?X''C) literally ' have not ' 
= 'are not able.' Construe atavrbv as if it were av avrog before idaipoq («t). 
321, c, and Rem. (c) on 324. A\yiaQt, voc. of .^gisthus. Who was he? || 35. 
'ETrapKflv governs the dat. ojq, as. 

Lesson XII. — 3. r<p n'tv, t<^ dk : the articles do not belong to the infinitives, 
but ::: ' by the one ' . . . ' by the other,' 38. || 4. ofioiiog, wcrirep (in like manner, 
as ZZ.) like. \\ 5. aKpIjSwg. ufia, Kai, 'at once, and,' or 'both, and.' oq dv, 
367, c. II 6. Why /ii7, not oi-? 108, 3. \\ 7. wg iXax-, 112. \\ 8. tKKpova9etc 
roiiQ oSovrag. Cf. 127, c. KaraTTitiv, aor. 2. parlicip. from Kara-Trivoj. \\ 9. 
biroTi — dizoQdvoi, 94, 95. d%ioQ, gen. || 10. dr}XoQ i]v STriQvfiiov, 239, and 
note 7. I'trxopwc- II 12. rdvOpojTrwv. Cf. on X. 25. Trs^iJKe, 208. || 15. ry 
■rrpoTfpai^ (sc. iifiipq.), 181. || 16. TtX., propername. £i pi], 381, d. Traviiv is 
' to make to cease,' with ace. of person, gen. of thing, /ro;« which. KarecrTpa^ipivoi 
iiffiv is perf mid. [ffrp(<pu)^. \\ 17- wq, here =: 'in order that,' ' that.' \\ 20. ottoi, 
whither, irork, 427- 67, b, for ' which way they would turn themselves ' use ' what 
course they would take.' ri, 67, note 2. || 21. Sti ■=. oportet. rbv dpx- sc. 
(jtpovitv. II 25. ») Tov TTiiQiiv, sc. TEXVJ]. ttoioXto (4) at head of Lesson 27. 
p.dXiaTa plv . . . . ei pi) . . . Sk, 397. II 28. aKvpog. 

Lesson XIII.— 1. ivSiitjOai, gen. ^ in, 386. || 2. dpa, 370, b. || 3. li 

Tcpoatlxov, sc. rbv vovv. \\ 4. How is ' not ' expressed after ft, kdv 1 108. || 4. 

Kai, 394, p. II 7- offTtQ dv, quicunque. ouv, 421. ivTvyxdriiv, dat. xprip,. dirX., 

149. II 8. d^. gen. TOTS, then; vvv, now. Sidtpopog, gen. pipvtjaQai, gen. \\ 18. 

ri; Wiiat other form might be used ? 67, note 2. pkXii poi, curce est mild. \\ 27. 
dv. How is this distinguished from another dv 1 78. || 28. TrpooT., gen. Stl, 
gen. II 29. Kdv == Kai dv (kuI tdv). \\ 32. i]v, 78. 

Lesson XIV. — 4. ijSri, 390, a). \\ 5. ovrs—ovrt, 420, c. || 6. o,rt, neut. of 
'otTTtg ; the comma (now often omitted) is a mere mark of convenience, to distinguish 
it from OTi, that. Sometimes the o is separated from ti by a small space, as in 20. 
II 7. bfioiuig tpoi (in like manner with rne =) ' as well as I do.' \\ 8. SiaX. with 
dat. =^ to converse with a person. \\ 10. ri 5?), 379, J. || 11- aKoiifij', 148. || 13. 
Cf. 153. II 16. £1,335. li 18. Trort, ' once (on a time'). oSov, 131. The case 
absolute in Greek is the genitive. TrapaKaXiirai : in hdiiin, quum mors . . . interro- 
garet, quamobrem . . . invocaret ; but in dependent sentences (interrogative, 
relative, &c.) "the Greek often show a to us surprising preference for the indicative, 

* Compare Plat. Conviv. 212. 

^ The case put after a verb thus, means that it governs a genitive. 

200 NOTES. [lesson XV — XVIII. 

which represents the fact as objectively true." (Kiihner.) And they then often use 
the prcseul indicative after a paxt tense. || 19. tXuJ {fg, ^), fut. from tXavvb) (for 
IXdffio). II 20. ovK >/)' on, [on on see above, 0,] non (or nihil) erat, quod &c. 
II 24. £(', 355. II 2(i. wc. Lesson XII. p. 22. || 2H. r(^ (enclitic) = rivl. dirav- 
T^v, dat. TrtpiTiiyxni'di', dat. || 30. ri, G7, note 2. || ^4. ottuq dv. Cf. 
p. 151,6. dig jiera ttXei trrwj' = jitcrd wf TrXttortov (cum quam plurimis). 
When a superlative is governed by a preposition, its strengthening wg or on (172) 
is prefixed tn the preposition, e. g. Sel on iv ^Qay^vTciTif} rtjv a/iapTiav 
KaraXvaai. dil wg tK TrXtiffrov (pvXdrreaQai raig napacTKtvalg. 

Lesson XV. — 1. 7/1', 77- II 2. r<^ (enclit.) = rtW. || 3. ipiXsiv (Uo love' —) 
'to be wont;' solere. || G. TnoTtort, 431. iKiov dvai, 144. Tvpavvidog, 153. 
rovrov, 153. (bg, p. 22, Lesson XII. 7- *we . . . . y, 306". || 8. i^dr], fr. j'^ftrrt, 
//ce^ II 9. tTrdv =: tTTfi «i', 384. See 3G7, e. II 10. avveKTrXivatladai. irXiv- 
aovfiai is the fut. from ttXsoi. This fut. in ovfiai is called the Doric future (not 
to be confounded witli the Attic future formed from -taofiai). TrXsw has also 
TrXeiiffo/iat, and in later writers TrXfvau). eiog — Karrtdrai'/;, 91 and 307 (where 
see note). || 11. (SorjOuv, dat. \\ 13. tvTvxoirjg, 205. kpav, gen. \\ 15. vvv, 
40G. TjCT), 'S90. II 17- ^^,379. II 18. ■RiinrTiov tlvai (i^ mitlendam esse), 114, 
115, &c. II 20. SiiaBai, gen. Cf. 221, Rem. 2. || 21. dpxeiv, gen. || 24. 
'oTTwg Qr]rsoijxt9a. Observe the optative, though after principal tenses (and subj. 
vofioOerwfxtv). The optative is used \n fijiat sentences (denoting intention, purpose, 
&c.) after principal tenses, when the effect is doubtful; and when the opt. is 
potential, and may be rendered by a circumlocution with posse. oTrwg , . . vofjiovg 
QrjaoiiuQa, quomodo leges ferrc .... possimus. Hermann's Rule is: " Placuit 
Gra?cis de prcesenli futuroque consilio fere tum optative uti si effectus dubius esset." 
— " Observandum est etiam antiquos et diligentes scriptores optativum praesentibus 
jungere, ubi finem indicant hunc esse, non ut 17?/;^ fiat, sed ut possit fieri." On 
QiaQai vo/iovg cf. 188, fin. tTTH^dv, 384. rovg p,t) irnQofikvovg : fii} is used with 
participles hypothetic ally, i.e., when it may be resolved by si quis, 295, c. \\ 25. 
TvxtXv, gen. \\ 28. Copula omitted, 64. || 30. o'l, sibi. o'itrai .... yivkuOai. 
Others would read here av ytvkaQai: since the sentence, if resolved, would be 
on, tl ffoi ffvyyivoiTO .... tovto dv ytvoiro. But the infin. without dv marks 
a stronger and more confident expectation. See the last paragraph of 86. avvti- 
vai or avyyevecrOai =■ 'to attend' a teacher, for the purpose of being instructed 
and trained by him. || 31. diroQiiv, gen. iTrnrTdg : ETr-tTirrjv, aor. 2. See lirt- 
TTtro/iat. HT}St yap .... tlvai, 'for that she was not,' i. e. 'for she said that 
she was not ;' as in oblique narration in Latin. 'iKavi], nom. See 221. dXXa, 364, 
h. TTci, 431. 

Lesson XVI. — 2. 165. || 3. /cotr/itwrara, 57. || 5. fi'iXXtjg tpelv, 28\. ri wv 
:^ri rovTwv, a &c., 256. 81. 'Iva dv = ubictinque. See p. 151, b. || 9. wg 
.... ovTwg ^z ut . . . . ita. \\ 10. ovg {xi) . . . . viKi^iv. fii] is used with relatives 
when they are used hypothelically, so that og rrtJ rig, si quis. 

d OVK ex^' ciUTog =^ qua ipse non habet. 
& fii] tx«t avTogzz si eaipse non habeat, 

(or simply, qjia ipse non habeat.) * 

— dv cvvaaOai (so. vm^v), 86. || 12. lanv olf, 264. || 13. On 'owwg with 
fut. indie, cf. 284, a. || 16. vinptppov. 153. ySei, see oUa {elSkvai). \\ I7. 
dfiiXtiv, gen. 153. || 18. lariv (better 'ianv in this sense) := is it possible. 

Lesson XVII.— 1. Sri,S'i9,d. \\ 2. & fir],X\l. 10. || C. ys, 376. || 8. 64. 
II 9. »}, 315, 06s. 2. II 18. Trortpa — 7), 329. |1 19. dXXd, 364, A. || 21. cpsiS., 
gen. II 25. 379, rf. || 27. fflyd, A!<i/i .' adv., the imper. would be triya (= (xiyae). 
ewg dv, 307. I^iv ovv, 399. ot fiiv, 01 5' ov, 408. || 29. Trorspov ....?/, 329. 
II 30. ri Kai Tioujay, 394, n. i^ov, 345, b. \\ 33. r« ttotj, 427. oiiv, 421. 
dv Xkywiiiv (and in 34 dv uTriarw). On uv with the deliberative subj. cf. Obs. 
and p. 151, a. || 34. dTricmlv, dat. ovk txw (ottwc), non habeo (=: non scio). 

Lesson XVIII. — 1. i)7rscrx"'o . . . . 7rai;(Ta(r6)ai, 86. {last paragraph.) Kara- 


yitv is the oerbum proprium of restoring an exile, who was said KartXOur, ' tn be 
restored,' ' to return.' \\ 2. iniareX., dot. Ti iraOilv { to suffer any thing) is a 
euphemism, (like 'si quid alicui humanilas acciderit,' ' if any thing should happen 
to one, &c.) for to die. \\ 4. ottov dv u),95,(\). \\ 5. ojg Tax^rra, ]12. \\ 7. ijKU 
{= vcni), ' / am come.' || 8. tQvofiijv, d . . . . «ei;, '/ was sacrificing [to learn] 
whether,' &c. || 9. ciirtx., ge7i. ovSetg .... ovre .... ovTf, 111, 1. ||^ 10. 
afi(porcpt»v, 48. fir) o'loiiivoi =■' if they did not think.' \\ 11. /xfXfi /toi rovrov 
(hoc mihi curae est), ' / care for it.' || 12. ovk taTt{v) ; ouk r)v with inf. = ' it is 
not possible,' ' it was not possible.' || 13. vwe ovk ahxpov, &c., 64, (how is it 
not disgraceful ? =:) how can it be otherwise than disgraceful? or 'is it not dis- 
graceful?' 'must it not be disgraceful ?' Tfavra TTOiouvrfc, resolve the participle 
by a sentence with ' though.' Kui i)vTivoiiv, 'even a single one,' 421. (Having lost 
the reference to this passage, I cannot inform the pupil what substantive it agrees 
with.) 11 14. Cf p. 84. Obs. before 30. ti iii], 108. 1| 15. kv TovTift [spy v] 
KtKwXiJaOai .... V nvi (pyv, &c. \\ 16. oTip [= (firtvi, dat. of offrig], firj 
with relat., XVI., 10. On the participle with /i/;, cf. 295, e. 

Lesson XIX.— 1. Si]irov, 380, 6. The words are jumbled together; read 
jiifTToi tiaiv : pioroQ, gen. \\ 3. Sfjra, 380, d. \\ 4. dv . . . dv are misprints for 
av . . . . tiv { — & dv). II 10. Xkyiiv wg, p. 22. Lesson XII. (4), and 444, g-. 
II 11. jxi) \l/iv(Jov. Is there any thing very untisual here, and in the two follow- 
ing examples? 69. [See Elrasley on Soph. Ajax, 1180.] y\/tvStiv, gen. oi thing, 
ace. of person. H 25. oviihiZiiv, with ace. oi charge, dat. of person, (like objicere 
alicui aliquid,) to reproach a person with any thing. \\ 27- ti pi] (prjai ravra . . . 
tlvai, ' if he says that these things are not;' cf. 107, «. and see 418. ^ |1 28. 
Tov (enclit.) — rivog. pr/ <py. See last Remark. 1| 29. ay, 78. H 31. 'tdv pri 
ir/ooffTTOi^rai = tdv it poaTroiiJTai pijSic.; as with 0>j/«'. 

Lesson XX. — 9. aTraWaKTtog fr. aTraXXdafftiv (aor. pass. airriWdxOtjv or 
din}k\dyr\v),toget rid of. \\ 12. 't% 'tuiQivov (sc. x9ovov),from the morning, dpa 
£vofisviii sc. j'/Xiy. 

Lesson XXI. — 9. irpdrrtiv (with 2 ace), here = to exact. See 33. || 10. 

Cf 33. II 11. TO. So^avra (aor. 1. part. fr. SoKtoj) ry arpariqi, ea qua plncuerant 
exercitui, 'what had been resolved upon by the army.' 1| 18. iyyvrdruj (superl. of 
iyyvg, near), governs gen. \\ 19. tuvti, 331, note 9. || 23. |^ Besides the con- 
struction with two accusatives, verbs of depriving have the following constructions : 

1) (TTiptlv, dTToareptlv rivd rivog, ace. of person, gen. of thing, very often 
(seldom d<^aipilaQai Ttvd rivog, and then in the sense of restraining, 

2) dfaiptlaOai, diroartpiiv rivog ri (gen. of person, ace. of thit)g) = to 
withdraw something from somebody. This is more rare. Kiihner. 

11 29. Sid yt vpdg avrovg {through yourselves at least =) if you had been left to 
yourselves. Aid, here = through, with ref. to a person's instrumentality : as in the 
phrase (which occurs in the next example) ti pr) Sid, ' but for,' 125. |1 30. Kpartiv 
[potiri), gen. Kpartjffavrtg av, 86. |1 31. dv belongs to /cara\a/3tlv. || 33. Trpdr- 
rtaOai, with ace. of person and thing = to exact (money from any body for oneself, 
cf. 9). raXavr., gen. of price after verb of valuing-, 159. 1| 34. ovkovv, 421, 4. 
dXXov ye 5>) . . . . i) {that any other surely, than =) that any but &c. ykXujra 
riOtcGai (or iroitXabai) ri = ludibrio habere aliquid. \\ 37- wC nXtlara, 172. 
38, 39 are repeated by mistake. See 16 and 18. H 41. rd iffxara Xkytiv rivd 
{to say the extremes! thiftgs of any body =.) ' to load any body with abuse.' 

Lesson XXII.- 8. ovS' dv SovXog, &c. sc. £0£Xoi, p. 158, d. || 12. aTro rrjg 
kavrCJv what is under^tood ■? 22, c. |1 13. ' The Sacred War.' When? SkKaio 
av, would you {accept r=) consent ? |1 25. aavrip rdvavria {= rd tvavTia), ' the 
opposite to yourself := ' the contrary of what you did before.' \\ 32. ye, 376, a. 
II 44. TToXvc pt'iv is here uied figuratively of a fiow of words. Kara, with gen. = 
« against.' \\ 47. Kai Si], ' and so,' 379, c. Here it has simply the force of nien- 


202 NOTES. [lesson XXIII— XXVIII. 

tioning a fact that was naturally consecinent on a preceding statement, viro- 
Tvxi^v (i'TTori'yxavw), to ml crrupt (a speaker), w avri], p. 120, note 5; it is 
here an angry, scornful address (= ' O you rogue'). 

Lesson XXIIl.— 8. i)St),^'M). \\ 12. rovn, 331, note 9. || 16. olov rt, 280. 
II 18. Ti Si], 379, i. II 28. What infinitives follow ^eXXw ? 281. || 30. See note. 
II 33. rd TToWo, 137, b. || 34. Cf. G4. || 41. to Kvfnrav, 'in all.' \\ 42. yvdrs 
Of, 2.39. 

Lesson XXIV.— 3. Cf. 59. || 13. aw (contra), 'again,' 'on the other hand.' 
II 19. icrn^v, here = (figuratively) to entertain with (as at a banquet) ; to give any 
body a feast of. \\ 27. twv f5ap(3dpwi', 143, Obs. 2. || 32. dQpooi =zin a body. 
II 34. loipiov .... taofiii'ov, 239. a^ienv. Wlien used? 51. || 47. Kara^vyrf. 
II 49. iS.aTrarrj6r]<Tea9ai, 86, Obs. See 144. || 05, &c. Here follow some adverbs 
of place with gen. Stvpo, hither = up to this point, ov, where (07), in what state 
or degree, &c. ol, whither =: 7(p to what point or degree. \\ OJ. tyvwKoreQ r/rt. 
The participle wilh pres. or imperf. of iJvai marks a continued state more strongly 
than the simple perf. and pluperf \\ 70. Adverbs of time with^e?;. -Koppw, ' far ;' 
'tip to an advanced point' (of space or time). || 86. vopoQtTiKog, ' legislative.' 
Tixvi], ' art,' understood. || 89. dvai = that it belongs to, with gen. \\ 92. tv 
toIq rtXiioig (sc. dpSpdcyiv), ' among the men ' (considered as a class, following 
the tft]j3oi, those who were just arrived at mart's estate). 

Lesson XXV. — 1. ft fitWd .... tmaOai, ' if he is to be' (= if he is meant 
or intended to be). On ifftaOai ct. 281. \\ 11. 6 pijdfv dSiKwv =^ si quisnon 
injuste ficit, 295, c. |] 10. tan = ' it is possible.' In this sense it is not enclitic, 
XVI 1 1. 12. II 22. iravra, ' in all things,' 137, Obs. (c). || 28. & ovtoq, 321, d. 
■t'llitbv . . . <ptp6vTii)v. Resolve it by ' when' or 'as.' \\ 31. art = qnippe, 'as 
being,' 241. || 35. ?j5r], 390. || 42. Construe as if it were oTov kariv r) dSiKla: 
cf. 324, and note. || 54. Cf. 324 and note. What is there said of the ace. applies 
to any oblique case the verb may happen to govern. 

Lesson XXVL — 1. 04. || 2. ixav with gen. is to keep a person off horn any 
thing; to withhold, restrain, &c. || 11. fc Tig -rripiiXoiTo . . . . yiyvovTau 
The usual form would be the optative with dv in the consequent clause (81, c) ; 
but the present indicative is sometimes found after li with opt. to denote the certain 
occurrence of the consequence if the condition should be complied with. Thus : to 
Xkytiv (V Stivov iariv, ti (ptpoi Tivd (SXd^rjv. {Eurip.) \\ 15. lag Svvutov 
(sc. t(TTiv) = as far as possible. || 30. Travovpyia, dXX' ov ao^ia, 364, e. \\ 31. 
Ix«ti 140, d. II 32. Ta Tt dXXa .... Kcii .... The /cat here = and especially, 
394, first paragraph. — ttot'e, mAefinne {=' at any time,' ' at some time'), will be 
construed differently in different connexions. In narratives of past events it is 
'once,' ' once on a time ;' after negatives, it is 'ever.' KaOtjfikvov sc. avrov, gen. 
absol. I! 33. What forms of the correlative pronouns are used in dependent inter- 
rogative dauses? {6T, note 2.) Kal Sr},XXll. 4T. TTorE, see noteon32. TroTtpov 
....»;, 329. ixtvroi, 400. 

Lesson XXVII. — 1. 'iva SoKyg .... oXiyupilv. Instead ' that you may seem,' 
construe it, 'that it may seem (probable) that tjou' &c. \\ 6. 64. || 11. ti, 

somewhat {= in some degree). || 12. 280. || 15. 116. || 25. oTroffot 

o<l)Xoitv {6(pXiaKdvui). Why opt. ? 94, b. \\ 28. Tipn^piiauv, 86 (last paragraph). 
II 29. Why iir] (not ov) 1 103. || 40. KaTayvwaiaOai, 80 (last paragraph). || 49. 
Does any nam. pi. end in ovg ? || 65. ttoOsv, indef. ('from some where,' 'from 
some quarter'). tiTTtp, 381, A;. 

Lesson XXVlll. — 8. univ 'oti . . . , ovk ij^overi. " In verbis alterius pro- 
ferendis non solum optativus usurpatur, sed saepe admodum indicativus, et maxime 
quidem in futuro." (Hermann.) 1| 9. KotVfp, 394. How is it generally used ? 
II 19. irXtiaTov Sij, 379, /. II 26. Which dv is this? || 41. voXfutKWTaToi .. . 
uvai, 227. 



Lesson XXIX.— 3. ttwc, indef., somehow. \\ 12. Cf. XXVIII. 49. |1 15. ri 
yap . . . , 375, g. tl /i)j Kal . . . . unless he is also. || 24. Trpiv [laOilv, 301, e. 
II 31. See 168, Obs. 

Lesson XXX. — 6. "O /i>} TriiaaQ. When is nrj used with participles? 295, c. 
II 15. (Lv (for «), the relative being attracted; i. e. put in the case of the antecedent 
(understood), 256. || 23. fiovog rwv aXKtav TTOtijroiv. Here we should say, 
(Homer) only of all the poets ; \i we were to say, he only of all the other poets, we 
should make him one of the other poets. But aWoq is often so used. Thus Od. 2, 412, 
fiijrtjp oiiTi TTETTWffra* OvS' aXXai dfiwai, neither my mother nor her maids. So 
riat. Gorg. (473, D.) virb tu)V iruXiTwv Kal tHjv aWujv Uvwv, and (485) 
Kari]yopov oi'ra Kal aiirov Kal twv dWwv oiKtiwv. In a nearly similar way 
(as in the next example) the Greeks place 'the geji. after superlatives, though the 
gen. expresses a class to which the individual of whom the superlative is spoken 
does not belong. Milton imitates this, when he says, " The fairest of her daughters 
Eve;" which to us makes Eve one of her own daughters. || 26. In this and the 
following examples we have the superlative strengthened by olog or oaog, qxiantus. 
Instead of saying ' the very greatest,' this idiom says ' [such] as the greatest,' ' [so 
griat'] as the greatest:' there is of course an ellipse : ' i«c/j as are </ie greatest ;' 
but the grammatical structure is neglected, and the oloc or oaog attracted into the 
case of the relative. See examples in 27, 28. In other examples, Svvaadai or 
oloQ T£ (eivai), Svvarov or dvvffTov (flvai), &c. are introduced. Compare 
" quantis maximis itineribus poterat .... ducebat, quantam maximam vastitatem 
potest .... ostendit," || 37- tvi (with accent thrown back) = tvtari See^p. 87, 
note 5. II 42. After verbs of desiring, preferring, its being better, &c., the i] with 
the iiifin. is used where we should expect fidWov, 'rather,' to precede. (Hermann 
denies the e///p«e.) Thus: jSovXajx' iyw Xabv aoov 'ifinevai t) dnoXkadai, 

Lesson XXXI.— 1. dd. Cf. 302. || 14. Opt. 01 a wish. || 25. On the division 
of the month at Athens, cf. Liddell and Scott, under ipOiw. || 32. The Herma ; 
see any Greek history. npocnoTra. How governed ? 127- || 37. There is an 
abridged comparison : her garment was not like her slaves; but like those gar- 
ments which her slaves wore. U 81. rd fiiXXovTa, which are, or are intended, 
&c. dp' ovK ; 314. 

Lesson XXXIL— 1. wv, attracted, 256. || 8. juwpoc {= fiiLpog tern), 64. 
irpoffUadai rjaaav =: to draw defeat upon himself; to court defeat ; literally, to let 
or make it come near (him). || 20. dpa, 370, a. || 41. 237. II 54. wc dvTi . . . , 
as if instead of; we should say ' instead of.' 

Lesson XXXIII.— 4. On ri and on cf. 67, note 2. || 9. to ov, ' that which is,' 
is a philosophical term for the real nature and essence of things (as opposed to the 
shadows, as it were, of things here below), hence = the divine tialure. So the true 
God called himself to Moses "/nm." || 13. 237- || 17- 146, rf. || 21. 64. || 33. 
j}, inlerrogaiive particle, 315, 06s. 2. || 36. (p9dvoJ,nr. \\ 38. a fisXXn, 280, f. 
II 46. TTOv (endit ), 128, (3). || 49. Kpar. Sri ... , 379, I. fioi . . . . o'l'v t tlvai, 
221. II 55. oTcoTt .... PovXoiTO, 95. 

Lesson XXXIV.— 3. dvdyKt] 5>) . . . (64), 379. || 5. Remember that the 
unaccented (enclitic) rov, r<jj, are = (respectively) rivog, rivi (enclitic), from the 
indefinite rig, any {body ;, some (body). 

Lesson XXXV. — 2. dtj, 379. ovkovv, 421. vai fid ... , 396, d. fisvToi, 
400. yffxvvofiriv... £1 . . . £5»;7rar/j9/jv z= ' / should be ashamed, if I 
had been deceived.' On the omission of dv cf. p. 148, /. || 10. 280. || 11. 
Svar7]V0Q Kal ov (JO(pbQ . . . , 364, e. || 16. 'iSiKTav fxr} . . . , 291 and Obs. Kal 
rovrovg ri SoKtirt ; Tovrovg, ace. before i/ifin. understood, e. g. iroulv. \\ 18. 'V.v 
q,Sov sc. olK(p, 'in the house (or dwelling) of Hades' {= Orcus), the god of the 
infernal regions, p. 68. || 28. Observe that when an adverb like i'iSt] refers an aorist 
of such general truths to what has happened up to the present time, we use the perf. 

D d 2 

204 NOTES. [lesson XXXVI — XXXIX. 

definite with 'have.' t'lSt] iiriatv, 'have before now been defeated' \\ 29. ye, 
370, a. II 38. iav Si (iij, 381, d. || 40. See 95, Obs. |j 42. row (enclit.), 
XXXIV. 3. II 44. dv inserted bet%veen rjg and Tivog, gen. of oariQ. \\ 45. rqv 
apxrjv, 137. II 4C. ()<t<^. . . tooovti^ = quanta . . . tanto ; qiio . . . eo. On the 
fl-ff), cf. 423. II 48. w^£\£, cf. p. G7, note 1. || 61. arap, 373, b. ap ov,370, d. 
II 62. dpa, 370. 

Lesson XXXVI.— 13. rig indef. is often appended to adjectives (like quidam), 
where we should use a in the sing, and the adj. alone in the plural. It may either 
strengthen or weaken the meaning of the adj. It is often used ironically, and 
maybe translated by 'somewhat of ,' or (colloquially) ' a bit of ' (a rogue, &c.). 
(ppevofiavt'jg Tig d' Kivdvvevov(ii{v) oh <\>av\oi riveg tlvai, &c. || 29. The 
imperfects denote coritinued or repeated actioiis ; they may best be construed by, 
they began or proceeded {to do so and so), rag i% av6pw7ru)v -irXriyag .... 
= the most dreadful blows. Compare Plat. Thesetet. 170, c. oi ye fioi rd I? 
dvOpwTTWv irpdyfiaTa Trap'exovai, ^ ' immensa, ingenlia negotia ; negotia quae- 
cunque uspiam inter homines reperiuniur.' — Stallbaum. \\ 31. stti, here = 'for, 
after £ia(pepHv {to differ m to he distinguished). \\ 33. Dionysius (the tyrant of 
Syracuse) used to send those who would not admire his poetry to the prison 
called the Stone- quarries, Xarofiiai {Latomics or Lautumia). \\ 46. oio-rf, here as 
ut sometimes after ita — on condition {of or that). So tiS^g & Ti/zaffiwvi oi 
'HpaKXfiSrat tnayytXoivro iiart iKirXtlv, i. e. what they promised on con- 
dition of their sailing away. Xen. An. 5, 6, 26. 

Lesson XXXVII.— 3. 86, last paragraph. || 5. ivrt0lvai, 281, note 4. Con- 
strue this infin. by the fut., or <paai, 'say,' by 'profess.' On present infin. 
see 281, note 4. So facere se . . . . dixerunt, Caes. || 9. vofu^e . . . tlvai, 281, 
note 4 ; but here we might use the present, ' that if &c. you are a slave for life.' 
II 14. laxvg, -rrpbg to hxvg tlyai, ' with reference to its being strength,' we should 
say, 'strength, considered simply as strength;' 'strength, as strength' {strength 
quoad strength). || 17. oX'iyoi . . . i)g iivai, few . . . to be = too tew, to be, &c. 
II 29. XVIII. 12. So in 29, 30, &c. ||33. 379,i. || 41. ft a^iKoT vro. Here the 
subj. with idv might be expected, toriv and r'lffvxdttiv being of the present tense. 
" There are a few single examples in which the opt. [in oblique narruiion] follows 
a principal tense; but then a thought is quoted as the sentiment of another, who 
at the moment of quotation is to be represented as one no longer present." (Kiihner.) 
This rule does not seem to apply here, where il dSiKolvro can hardly be considered 
the sentiment of another. || 51, 52. Here sk must be construed 'on,' not as having 
that meaning, but because the Greeks spoke as contemplating the objects dif- 
ferently, as suspended from the pillar ; as looking down, fighting, &c. fro7n the 
towers. II 54. k StKidg, ' on the right ' (a dextra). || 61. We should say, ' within 
what space.' The reference to the distance behind the one of the point /ro7» which 
the other starts. || 63. SiSore, ' you have given,' i. e. and ' do still give.' So in jam- 
pridern cupio,&c. || 66. t/c fitipaKiwv, cLapuero, apueris, &c. \\ 68. ev napa- 
ffxov . . . , 247. II 78. The ye adds emphasis to p<}(Triovr}, 376, a. || 81. IK 
oWevuv .. .fi .. . , 364, 3), {b). \\ 87. Attraction of the relative. || 97- wc In 
Twv irapovTajv, ' under the present circumstances ;' where the wg seems to us 
superfluous. fxeXXy olativ, 281. 

Lesson XXXVIII.— 2. 376. || 7. v fiiiv . . . , 343. || 9. Which av ? avrol 
avTwv, cf. 165. II 13, 14. iiri, 226, b. \\ 15. orovovv, gen. from oariaovv, 
421. fv6i (with gen.) =■ straight to (a place). 

Lesson XXXIX.— 1. vop.iKovTeg . . . dv . . . rwyxa»'"»', 86 (with note 4). || 2. 
fiii aKovaag, 295, c. ij 3. oi) yap dv dirtKpi)TTTov =-for otherwise you would not, 
&c. ; a condition is understood, t'l yap iipiXtig fit, ovk dv dirtKpvnrov. \\ 12. 
37, d, I. tig (^Sov (sc. oIkov), XXXIV. 18. || 22, 23. Observe these methods of 
translixnng so many days, 8cc. after an event. || 26. 444. || 29. wg 'tnol.,.,for 
me,for a man like me. t"i aoi jiovXo}ikvij) iari {—. ' if it is to you wishing it ') if it is 
agreeable to you, &'c. Sallust imitates this construction: quibus bellum volenti' 



bus erat. The two next examples contain similar phrases. || 33. 421. || 34. 
ano ffov dp^dfitrog (having begun with you::z) and you as much as any body. \\ 39. 
365, f. II 40. fitra^v, with panic. = may be resolved by a clause with whilst, fiir. 
irfpiirarHiv {inter ambulanduni), 'whilst lie was walking.' \\ 42. tv9vg iSuiv 
{quic/cly having seen =.) the moment he saw, tv9vQ iJKdjv, immediately on his 
arrival. tv9. ytvo^evoi, as soon as we are horn. || 44. oSrwf, after participle, 422. 
II 45. flra (then), often introduces the apodosis after a participle, where we should 
use the participle only. It points out conformity witli the preceding statement. 

Lesson XL. — 3. The article denotes the well-known great armament. || 35. 

Lesson XLL — 16. tx<^, with past participle = the Latin perspectum habere, 
&c. implying the continued condition as a possession (as it were). This is the 
origin of the compound perfects of modern languages, 'to have married,' &c. 
II 32. 265, e. || 43. 281. || 89. dpa, 370. || 91. ov <paaiv \anj5. (= <paa. 
ov Xa/ijS.) neganl se, &c., 418. || 96. rig, XXXV. 13. 

Lesson XLII.* — [^^ (1) Skov '=qiiumfas sit or esset ; 'e^ov, irapacrxov, 
VTtdpxpv, Trapov :=■ qiium liceat or liceret ; TrpoaiJKov, quuni deceal or deceret ; 
So^av avToXg '=■ quum iis visum sit or esset ; doKOuv =: quum videatur or videretur ; 
ilprifikvov =z quum dictum sit. (2) The accus. is also used occasionally with neut. 
pronouns: do^avra ravra: /cupoiQiv (St) ovSkv, quum nihil decretum esset. (3) 
The gen. is sometimes found with impersonal verbs and phrases : dSi{Kov ovrog, 
&c. (4) The gen. participle is sometimes found alone ; this occurs vvhen the sub- 
ject (as being obvious) could be omitted with the finite verb ; e. g. Ga\Tric,H, the 
trumpeter blows his trumpet ; vu, it rains, &c. ; so aaXTri^ovrog, 'vovrog.'\ 
o'vTdig ixti {res ita se habet), the thing is so ; o'vrtjg ixoiTog, this being so. 
II 4. dyKVpav. || 19, sqq. See Obs. prefixed (4). || 36. Bovmpig. tvxov {if 
it should happen =) perhaps, possibly. Aor. 2. partic. from TVyx^vu). \\ 61. 86. 
ufxa fiiv . . . iifxa Se, 365, i. \\ 64. to Xeyofitvov = ' as the saying is.' || 69. 
dp' ov ; 370. TTpoTica, Sioptdv ^^for nothing, gratuitously, Sic. (literally 'as a gift,' 
Sic. ace. substantives). 

Lesson XLIIL— 13. 281. || 19. oV'oi;, &c., 253, b. \\ 29. ri, 67, note 2. 
II 55. Observe both the indicative and optative in oratione obliqua. See XXVIII. 
8. And compare iXiyov on KDpoc pi.iv rkQvijKtv, 'Apidiog St ^((pivytjg . . . 
eiTi- Xen. II 56. 284, and note 8. || 76. utg {how!) ; cf. 64. || 86. ^° With 
numerals dvd has a distributive sense ; it has also sometimes a causal sense, 
denoting manner. \\ 92. \6yog is here 'proportion.' || 105. 86. || 107. t/g may 
here be consirued 'for ;' it is an abridged construction for they left it {and entered''^ 
iuto {■=! settled in). It may also be so construed after notions of being Jit &c. for 
a porpose. || 108. Here also is an a6;7V/^«rf construction. || 109. tip is used after 
some ,'erbs of rest {ffrfjvat, irapiivai, &c.), the previous motion being considered. 
II 120. tf = against. || 130. ilg {ad), up to ; as many as. fidKiara, 397, note. 
II 138. Kai-rrtp, 394. 

Lesson XLIV.— 19. 262, d. \\ 44. «^' y . . . tlvai, 267, e. Sid. ^T That 
with gen. of time Sid signifies either after such a time, or (distributively) after every 
such interval; where we use 'every' only (e. g. every ten years). It has also this 
meaning with local relations; e. g. in Exan)ple 66. 

Lesson XLV. — [On oloc with snperl. cf. XXX. 26.] || 6. yXiKog (what mean- 
ing ?) is used in the same abridged construction as olog. \\ 13. apa, 370. || 23. 
364, e. 

Lesson XLVI. — 7- i^ai- ahrov, and that too. \\ 8. 331, note .9. 

* Whether these impersonal forms are nominative or accusative absolutes is not 
quite agreed upon. Rost still calls thein nom.; Kiihner, Hartung, Kr'uger c )iisider 
them accusatives. 

206 NOTES. [lesson XLVII LX. 

Lesson XLVII.— 4. 361. || 12. 284, and note 8. |1 44. ftiKpov (like 6\iyov, 
280, c) = nearly (i. e. within a little). \\ 91. 444. 

Lesson XLVIII. — [j^^ Observe the violations of Dawes's rule, by which its 
incorrectness is proved.] 1| 15. y, 172. || 29. tTrtira {then), in enumerations :=. 
deinde, in the next place ; secondly, after ttqCjtov fiiv . . . , &c. || 31. kuv (= Kai 
&v) ; Koi = even. || 122. to iirl toxjtoiq tlvai =. * as far as it depended on 
them ;' ' as far as they were concerned ; ' * as far as in them lay.' \\ 123. to 
IttI (Tipdg ilvai, ' as far as was in their power.' 

Lesson XLIX. — II. 284, and note 8. || 19. Construe xp^'^'^'^Sai by ' to do 
(with).' II 44. Obs. before XLII. 

Lesson L. — 21. ypatpiofnv; tiaioj ; deliberative suhixinctives, 99. || 30. T0VT(pt, 
331, note 9. || 45. liaTroTa should have a comma before it. 

§ 51. 301. In d (and note 2) read /isxP'> f""" '' '^ "°**' established that 
M'XP'C' ^XP'C ^° "'•' occur. 

Lesson LI. — 21. 94,95. || 54, sqq. After an adverbial sentence of time, «7rtt, 
iiriiSf] (for which a participle may be used), we often find ivravGa (Sfi),ovr(i} {Sf)), 
wde, <tc. in the apodosis. ivTavd' r]Sr] is stronger than ivrauda Sri, "'^" ^^ once. 
See example 57. 

Lesson LII. — 29. 382. || 42. 396. || 53. iroiio, irowvai, &c. understood after 
ovSiv. Compare 52, where it is expressed. || 59. 331. || 123. 280. || 136. 
Trpbe (3iav, 'on compulsion.' || 138. To speak, &c. TTpbg rjSovrjv or x^P'^'j '* with 
a view to curry favour, hence insincerely. 

Lesson LIII. — 4. Obs. (here and in other examples) both indie, in oblique 
narration, and present after historical tense. || 5. 427. II 8. 284, and note 8. 
II 13. ovK txtj), non habeo ■=. non scio. \\ 24. icai IpwT^g, 394, n. \\ 38. iitto 
here z= 'for,' of a preventive cause. 

Lesson LIV. — II. The deliberative subjunctive. || 18. 98. 

Lesson LV.— 8. av = tdv (336). |1 10. to Xoiirov, 137. Obs. b. 

Lesson' LVI.— 4. dpa, 370. 

Lesson LIX. (added.) — 1, sqq. A conditional clause is omitted (e. g. in <Aw 
sentence), ' for [if they did^ they would burst.' || 4. =: pkvroi, av. \\ 7, 8. After 
the first of two conditional clauses (ei piiv — ti Si pi)), the apodosis is some- 
times omitted. fVe should supply 'well,' ' well and good,' or ' be it so.' || 10. 
\iyopai, &c. (like videor, dicor, &c.) are more commonly used personally than 
impersonally. For impersonal use, see 11. 

Lesson LX.— 3. piv ovv, 399. || 5. p. 144, a. \\ 25. 375 {end). \\ 31. 
5^ra, 380, d. \\ 40. 396. f/ {= t<pT]), said. Only in this phrase ^ S' off, 
7]v 6' tyioyf, S.'c. 


[List of Phrases and Words explained. — Roman numerals refer 
to the Notes upon the Lessons. — The usual references are to the 
paragraph, unless p. { = page) is prefixed.] 

aye Sri, 361. 

aywv {= 'with'), 235. 

id, 362. 

aiffvurouat -{ ~ } P. 81, note 5. 

aiTtiaQai {mid.), not with two accusa- 
tives, 123, note. 

'A\fXavSpo(^ 6 ^iK'nnrov, 22. 

dXXa, 364. in quick replies, 364. 

dXV ^, 364, /. 

dX\' 7), p. 144. 

dWoQ apparently redundant, XXX. 23. 

dWo Ti y — ; dXXoTi ; 317. 364. 

dXXu^c re Kai, p. 145. 

a/JLa, 365, h. 

dfikXei, 366. 

dfjiiporfpov (-a), 346. 

dv — idv, 78. 

dv omitted with ixpt}v, &c. p. 69, Obs. 
and p. 149, B,/) | when dv must be 
used with XP^^> ^c., p. 149, note 7« 
I dv omitted with tKivdivtvfff 6\i- 
yov, fiiKpov, rdxa ( — nearly, almost), 
p. 149, g). 

— with INDICATIVE, p. 147. I of re- 
peated actions, p. 148, top, and B, e) 

I with imperfect, though relating to 
past time, p. 148, A, a), and 81, note 
1, p. 25. I dv with indie, the con- 
dition being understood, p. 148, A, b) 

I with pluperfect, p. 148, A) d, and 
p. 24, note 9 ; pluperf. not used with 
dx> of repeated actions unless =: im- 
perfect, p. 148, B, e) I dp when omit- 
ted with past tenses oi indie, p. 148, 
foot I dv sometimes omitted in the 
second of two co-ordinate conse- 
quences, p. 149, h. 

— with verb omitted, p. 158, d. 

dv with SUBJUNCTIVE, p. 151. I in 
direct and indirect questions, p. 151. 
I rare with deliberative subj., p. 151, 
a). I dv with subj. in final clauses, 
p. 151, b). ggr- not "iv dv. \ in rela- 
tive clauses, p. 151, b, c). | dv with 
subj. after historical tenses, p. 151, 
d and /. | with particles of time, 
p. 151, e). 

— with subj. followed by present in 
apodosi or by optative, p. 26, Rem. 
before 25, 

— with the OPTATIVE, p. 153. ( as 
a courteous form of expressing posi- 
tive assertions, p. 153, b). \ re- 
lating to past time, 153, c. | n'g dv; 
vuiq dv; &c. with optat.,^. 153, d. \ 
in direct and ind^ect questions, p. 
154, e). I in relat. sentences, p. 154, 

f,g, i. I in conditional clauses, p. 154, 
j. I in substantive sentences with 
oTi, a)Q, p. 154, k. I in final sentences 
introduced by oTTwg, ojg, ut, p. 155, /. 
I substitutive optative, p. 155, m. 

— witli infinitive and participle, p. 156 
See Infinitive. 

dvd witli n?««era/i, distributive, XLIII 

dv9' (jjv, 369. 
dTTo aov dp^d^evog, XXXIX. 34. 

SctTTVov ytviaGai, 243. 

rov irpofavovi;, 243. 

dpa, 370. 

dpa, .370. 

dpxv^t or Ti)v dpxvv, 137. 

dpxofiivoQ, 235. 

drdp, 373. 

iirt, uTt St), 241. 

avToig dvSpdaiv, 343. 



aiiTOQ, 40. I avTOQ avrov, 165. 
dtj)' iavTwv, 243. 


/3i^ nvoc, p. 144, note. 


ynp, 375. i implying a condition ( = 
'for otherwise'), p. 148, A, c), and 
XXXIX. 3. 

yk, 376. 

ytXoira ridtadai (or TTotfiffOai) ri, 
XXI. 34. 

^£, 378. 

SiSoy/xivov, 245, n. 

^tu'oraro^ aavTOv fjvOa, 165, n. 

^£01', 245. 

Sii, 379. 

^>')0ti', 380. 

S>]\6(; (till, 239. 

SriTTov, 380. 

Sr'jTToveiv, 380. 

^r>n, 380. 

5i' opyjjc txnii, &c., 269*. 

5ia y£ ii/:<at; nvTovi;, XXI. 29. 

^laXtTTioi' xpoJ'o*') 235. 

^iKoiof t'V*i> 353. 

SioTi, 377. 

^oKoiiv, 245, and n. 

lo^cw [So^av Tavra, &c. ), 245, c. 

SoKavTW ra So^avra ry arparig., 

XXI. 11. 
Svi'aTWTipoi (ivToi ai'TMi', 165, c. 
^uoii^ Siovra (not ctovroiv), 280. 
Sdupictv, XLll. 69. 


tavTov ilfai, 158*, i. | fai^roii for 1st 

and 2ii(l persons, p. 16, Obs. 
iyKuXtlv Ti rti't, 183. 
ft (idv) c« /i//, 381, d. 

— with subj. p. 26, Rem. before 33. | 
with fut. indie, p. 26, Rem. before 

— with optat. followed by pres. indica- 
tive in the consequent clause, XXVI. 

— in oral, ohliqud when found with opt. 
afier principal tense, XXXVII. 41. 

— ^ whether . . . not, 335, b. 

ti (Toi liovXofikvq} iarii', XXXIX. 30. 
£1 ntWti yti'iaOai, 280,/. 
tl fjii) ctct, 125. 
tl Tig, 269. 

tl Tig Kai dWoQ, 170, d. 

£10' (jjipiXov (eg, t), 205. 

tlpTjfikvov, 250. 

iig drijp, I70, e. 

tig SioaOKaKov (Trkfiirtiv, (poirfv), 259. 

— Ttjv ^iKimrov, 22. 

— after arrival, vapiivai, &c., XLIII. 

liaiv o\ X'iyovTig \ „„ . 

01 Ktyovdi f 

tlra in enumerations, zz then, next. \ 
in apodosi, XXXIX. 45. | in ques- 
tions of astonishment, 382. 

£Kwv tlvai, 144. 

tv ^Sov, XXXIV. 18. 

— rote irpairog, 259. 
EViKa Twv trepujv, 250. 

ivOd S>], implying a condition, p. 148, 

, A, c). 

£i't = tvtan, XXX. 37- 

ivTavOa (Sj)), in apodosi, LI. 64. 

t^ aTrpocrdoKTirov, 224. 

IKov, 245, b. 

tTrdv =: £7r£t dv, 384. 

£7r£i, 384. 

tireira, in enumerations = deinde, 

XLVUI. 29. I in questions of irowy, 

&c , 382. 
£7ri Tip tlvai, 226, b. 

— TO tTTi TovToig tlvai, 122. 

taTiv ovK £crri(»'), ovk ^v, with inf., 'it 

is not possible,' X\'III. 12. 
eoTiv ot ( = ivioi), 264. 

ovarivag . . . . ; 262, d. 

tTi, 386. 

ivQi] Tt)g (ppovpdg, XXXVIII. 15. 

tvOvg i'jKiov, XXXIX. 42. 

t(p' (f or (fre, 267. 

£X£tv {voujcrag, &c.), XLI. 16. 

with gen. XXVI. 2. 

txi<^dui- Tivog, 146. 
txiov (—'with'), 235. 

//, 389. 

»/ avptov, 26. 

>/ 7ro\\() Trig ;^it»pae (not ro tvoKv), 59. 

>} /it;v, 343. 

r/, 388. 

T/, after fSovXonai, &c., XXX 42. 

Tj Kara, with ace. 165, «?. 

— aiart, with i?i/?M. 165, e. 

. or wt; after comparative, with 

infin., 168; with opt. and ai/, 168, 

jj with stiperl., 172. 
ilSeujg dv Qiaaa'iyirjv, 84. 
>/()»/, 390. 
r;K(jj ^ 8;e«i, XVIII. 7- 



6 ^/Kt<TWc Tov xpovov, 54, e. 

, &.C. 59. 

fiv oJ, like iffTtv 01, XLIV. Example 

Oavjjidffag e^w, 343. 
Qavfxaa'ntiQ ws, 271, d. 
Gavixaarbv ocroi', 27 li c 

Qi<r9m }»'«/^''"C' ^^^ (3). 
ftiyr. 392. 


Vva, 393. (V av, only when 'I'l-a = 
where, 393. 


icai, 394. 

— ' Am?,' after ov, &c., notes, X. 3. | 

(cat, 394. I after an interrog. and be- 
fore a verb renders it emphatic, 394, 7i. 

Ka'i yap, p. 182, t. 

Ka\ Si), ' and so,' in the progress of a 
narrative, XXII. 47- | ^ai Sr], (cat 
. . . Ss (et vero, quin), ' ay and,' or 
' rtnrf moreover,' 379, c. | icai Sri = 
(fac) grant or suppose that, 379, 6. 

(cai og, 37, c. 

(catTTfp, 394. 

Kairoi, 394. 

(carayfiv =: to restore an exile, XVII. 

(cartXOfir = to be restored of an exile, 

KVV'OQ dlKTIV, 250. 


\av9av(i), with partic, 240, c. 
Xjjpfte sx'^i'' 343, g. 

/ua Ai'a, 396. 
fiaWov apparently omitted before rj 

after verbs of desiring, preferring, &c. 

XXX. 42. 
fiaWoi' Sk, 398. 
fiavOdvoj (with part.), 239. 

fl£\(l jUOl TOVTOV, XVIII. 11. 

/ueXXw, 281. I = 'is' (to be), &c., 

ypdcj)tiv, &c., 281. 

fikv, 399. I /iiv ovv, ib. 
fikpTot. 400. 

fiirafiiKu (with part.), 239. 
/ifra^ii TrtptTrardiv, XXXIX. 40. 
jus^pt TToppui TTJQ y'lfxtpag, 144. 

/*£XP». "o' M«XP'£' P- 206. § 51, 301. 
fxr] with participles, 295, c. 

— with relatives, XVI. 10. 

— 107*, 108. 
/x^ ri yf, 404. 
fiiiv, 403. 


vai ^d, 396, rf. 
vvj', 406. 

6 dk, 37. 

6 olof (TV dvjjp, 271. 

oOoiviKa, 410. 

ot dju^i "Aj'vtov, 282, n. 

— TToXKoi, 43. 

— TrpoarjKOVTtq, 250. 
oloc with superl., XXX. 6. 
oloc rs £i'/ti, 280. 

oVojv (= ort rotowrojv), 253, b. 
oXiyov deu), Sclv, &c., 280. 
biroTi, 412. 

OTTOD, 413. 

OTTixiQ, 414 ; with fut. indie, 284, and 
note 8. 

oirwQ av, with sm6;., p. 28, Rem. before 
34, and p. 151, 6 ; with opt., p. 155, 
/. I 'oTToyQ, 'iva, &c., with opt. after 
principal tense, XV. 24. 

dvf]p tati, 284. 

'oaov ov, 4l5. 

oaog with superl., XXX. 26. 415. 

ocrovQ Ti^vvaTO vXtiarovg. 170- c. 

ocKp — 'ToaovT({>f XXXV. 46. 

'on, 416. 

'on, 417. 

'on fi'tyiCTOQ, 170, 6. 

on fir], 417. 

o,ri, or o n, XIV. 6. 

ov yap dWd, 418. 

ov yap av, &c. = 'for otherwise you 
would not,' condition being under- 
stood, XXXIX. 3. 

ov firj XaXiiffeiQ; &c., 284. 

ov ni}v, 418. 

oi) ixi]v dXXd' ov jxivrot aXXd, ."^64, k. 

ov {xovov, dXXd Kai, 419. 

oil TTajTOc ilvai, 158, /'. 

ov TrpoffTroioi'juai, XIX. 31. 

ov (prjfii, 418. 

ov, not simply reflexive, but used in de- 
pendent sentences to denote the sub- 
ject of the principal sentence, 51, 
p. 16. 

— £ not used by Attic prose-writers, 
except Plato, 51, p. 16. 

oi'Sk . . . oidi, 420,/. 

E e 



Olid' wf- 420. 

oi'^fif boTif oil, 277' 

ovK tan = it is not possible, XV III. 12. 

— tuTiv, 84, (/. 

t\'(i> (r: 7;o?i habfo), 67, 6- 

oi5Kouv (oiicoiJv), 421. 
ovv, 421. 
oiire, 420. 

. . . ovTt, 420. 

. . . Tt (seldom Kai), 420, d. 

ovTOQ I 321, rf. 

distinguished from oSt, 45, 2. 

ovrocFi, 331, note 9. 

ovTto (Sii), in apodosi, LI. 54. 

o'vrioQ, 422 | after participle, ib. 

— — • Ex"v, 67, e. 

ov\ OTrwt,-, aXXa Ka/, 419. 

ovx on — dXXd Kai, 419. 


TTaQnv n = ' to die,' XVIII. 2. 
TTapd fiiKpbv 'tK9i~n>, &c., 299- 
TTop' oXiyov Sie<pivyov, &c., 299. 
Ttaaa >'/ :roXic, 43, f/. 

TToXif, 43, d. 

■tral'Hv, 'make to cease,' ace. oi person, 

gen. of thing from which, XII. 16. 
■jrifiTTTog avTog, &c., 48, rf. 
TTsp, 423. 

7r£(j( n-oXXoC TroifTcrOai, 282. 
TTfptop^i', 239, note 8. 
TTtpiTrd Twv dpKovi'Twv, 170,/. 

TTiCpVKt, 208. 

TTJj /i£l' Trjj ^£, 424. 

7rX?/v, 425. 

TToXXaTrXdcriot imdbv, l'JO,f. 

TToppijj Ti'iQ y'lXiKiag, 140. 

TTOTt, XXVI. 32, 427. 

■iroTfpov (or -a) ... »), 329. 

TTov, 428. 

rrpiv dv, with opt., p. 118, note 4. 

7rp6 TToXXoD TToitluOai, 243. 

— Toil {-TrpoTov), 430. 
Trpo'iKa, XLIl. 69. 
npoq at 9ton', 429. 
7rpoc7)}i:oi', 250. 

TTi/O, 431. 

7ribfj.a\a, 432. 

irwTTort, 431. 

TTwc OVK alaxphv . . . ; XVllI. 13. 


avvoiSa tfiavnp {ao(pbg div or (To0(p 
6v7-t)j 236, 6. 

rd rwv 'E06pwv, ' i^e Ephori,' X. 25. 

— tffXara Xtytcv Tivd, XXI. 41. 
rapa, 434. 

raQ tS, avOpwTTiov 7r\r]ydg, XXXVI. 29. 

raxvTipa f; ao(pt>)Tepa, 170, a. 

TE, 435. 

TtXfVT-oJj', 235. 

ry p.kv — T\j Se, 436. 

T))v Taxi<yrriv, Trptirjjv, &c., 137, 06s. 

n, 437. 

ri fiaOwv; 318. 

— Tra9a)v; 318. 

rtf, in dependent clauses, 67, note 2. 
r/g (indef.), with adjectives, XXXV. 13, 
TO awb Toiidi, 31, g. 

— Ss, 438. 

— ETfi TovToig flvai, XL VIII. 122. 

— X(y6/i«vov, XLII. 64. 

— Ufi-rrav,' in all,' XXIII. 41. 

TlXtVTOiOV, 31, ^. 

Toi, 439. 

^o'^P 1439. 
roiyaprot j 

Toivvv, 439. 

row (with infin.), 216. 

Tou (enclit.) = Tivog, XXXIV. 3. 

TovvavTioi', 134. 

royj'ojua, 134. 

TovTov y« sV6Ka, 250. 

ru^ov ^ forte, XLII. 36. 

T(i> {ericlit.) = rtj/(, XXXIV. 3. 

0£pwv (= ' with '), 235. 

343, h. 

(piiytiv =: (pvytlv, 269*, g. 

(pOdvM (&c.), 240, c?, e,f. 353, 6, c, rf. 

^tXttv ^ solere, XV. 3. 


Xapiv enrjv, 250. 
XpwfievoQ {=: ' w/^/i '), 235. 

■tpivStaGai (with gen.), usuaZ and rarer 
meaning, VI. 21. 

(LJt, m apodosi, LI. 64. 
w'g with siiperl., 172 : if preposition is 

used, it precedes the prep, [wf i»c 

nXtiarov, &c.] XIV. 34. 

— fTTOc tliztiv, 444, j). 

— (Tvvt\6vn I'lTTtlv, 444,_;). 

— TcixiOTa, 170, b. 

iliOTi with inf. z= ' on condition oj,' 
XXXV. 46. I when the inf. has av, 
p. 70, Obs. 2. 

w(p(\ov, 206. 


Accusative absolute, 247, and Obs. pre- 
fixed to XLII. 

AoRisT (with or without dv), of gene- 
ral truths, founded on experience, 
p. 68, Obs. before 28. | aorist of sub- 
junctive (seldom imperative), 69. | 
exceptions to this, p. 22. 

Attraction with infinitive, 227. 

of the relative, 256. 

Comparison abridged, XXXI. 36. 

Conditional propositions, 81, sqq. | 
fut. indie, with ti, p. 24, 8. | present 
in apodosis after av with subj., p. 26. 

Copula omitted, 64. 

Doric future, -ov/iat, XV. 10. 

Future indicative after on in oblique 
narration, XXVIII. 8. 

Genitive after superlative, where we 
must use comparative with ' than any,'' 
XXX. 23. 

absol. without subst. XLIF. 

Obs. I gen. absol. of impersonal forms, 
sometimes found, XLII. {init.) 

Imperfect (often with apa) of the pre- 
sent of a past wrong conclusion, p. 68, 
Obs. before 45. | apparently ■=. pre- 
sent, p. 69, Obs. before 58. 

in conditional &en\.ences, 8\ , 

note 1 (p. 25). 

Indicative in dependent clauses (and 
indie, pres. after historical tense), 
XIV. 18. I Indie, (especially future) 
after cri in narration, XXVIII. 8. | 
Indie, and opt. in same clause, XLIII. 

Infinitive with dv after think, hope, 
promise, &c., 86 ; but also infin. jire- 
sent or future without dv, 86, last 

Infinitive when with dv after oicrrt, 
p. 70, Obs. 2. I after verbs of hoping. 

thinking, trusting, praying, knowing, 
confessing, &c., 86 ; without dv of an 
unconditional expectation, 86, last 
paragraph. | infinitive of present or 
aor. relating to future time after 
hope, &c., and say, &c., 281, note 4. 
[Cf. examples 4, 5, on p. 74.] 

Objective gen., p. 144, Rem. before 

Optative after historical tenses, 70. | 
in oblique narr. with on, ioq, p. 22, 
(4). I opt. with dv, p. 153. | opt. 
with dv after dv with subj., p. 26, 
28. I when used in final sentences 
3ifler present or future, XV. 24. \ after 
principal sentence in other tenses, 
XXXVII. 41. 

Participle perfect with tlvai, XXV. 
67- Other participles, 201, c. 

Participle with fiavQavu, &c., 239. | 
Partic. oi fut. to denote a purpose, 

Position of limiting notions with parti- 
ciples, p. 11, Rem. 4. 

Presknt indicative in the apodosis 
after £i' with opt. in the conditional 
clause, XXVI. 11. 

Subjunctive, tl with subj., p. 26, 33. 

( with dv, p. 151. 
Superlative strengthened, 170, sqq. 
and XXX. 26. 

That, after verbs of saying, &c., p. 22. 
I 'for that' (in oblique narr.) 
p. 22, (4). 

Verbs oi depriving or taking aivay from, 
124, and XXI.^23. 

fVell and good, &c. to be supplied after 
the first coiulitioiial clause in ti i-ih' 
. ..d Si fifi, LIX. 7, 8. 






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