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of ii|c 

tttoerstty of 





Classified lists of more than two 
thousand Russian words, with 
phonetic pronunciation of each 
and its English equivalent. 

Size 5 x 3 ins. 126 pp. Is. net. 



<f BY 







2. i 






PERSONAL experience in commencing the study of Russian, con- 
firmed by more recent experience in teaching classes supplied with 
one of the best of existing manuals, has convinced the compiler of 
this book that Russian grammar, if presented from the same end 
as that at which the study of Latin or French or German is usually 
begun, will always appear to be more formidable than it is. This 
book, the manuscript of which was practically complete before the 
end of December 1916, is an attempt to deal with the subject 
starting from a rather unusual point. The plan, however, once it is 
explained, may commend itself to teachers working with classes 
of younger pupils and to adult private students, and it is hoped 
that it will justify the book's claim to the title of a * practical ' 

In Russian, though it is possible to express many a simple 
thought or command without actually using a verb at all, the verb 
is still, as in our own speech, the " soul of the sentence," and 
is the part of speech which offers the greatest difficulty to strangers. 
The distinctive feature of the Russian verb is the system of 
' Aspects/ the theory of which can be made clear to a serious 
student in half an hour (see Lesson LI of this book). But the 
application of this theory to the practical purposes of reading and 
writing depends upon a thorough knowledge of the forms of the 
present tense. Unfortunately the present tense of the Russian 


verb, while it is beyond question the most frequently employed of all 
the forms, is for a beginner something like a maze in its apparent 
confusion of consonantal and accentual changes. More real and, in 
the final result, more rapid progress may be made if we take what 
may seem at first sight to be a longer way round. 

It happens that the past tense of Kussian verbs is remarkably 
regular and simple, having only four endings masculine, feminine, 
and neuter singiilar and one plural identical in form with those of 
nouns of corresponding gender and number. Upon that fact this 
method is based. We begin with the past tense. 

From the first lesson sentences are constructed and read, but 
while the student is learning the common forms of nouns, pronouns, 
and adjectives his attention is not simultaneously being distracted 
by the vagaries of the verb, for the past tense requires hardly any 
special study. When a considerable number of verbs have by 
mere iteration become familiar, the present is taken up, the student 
having the advantage of learning the forms without at the same 
time having to acquire a completely new set of words. Not until 
a useful store of material has been accumulated and is at command 
is the presentation of the Aspects attempted. 

Participles are of very frequent occurrence in Russian texts : 
their forms must therefore be known. These have been indicated 
in the grammatical summary at page 35 and illustrated in 
notes to the paragraphs referred to on page 35, but otherwise 
participles have been systematically ignored. There is much to 
be done by the beginner before he need concern himself seriously 
with the study of participles in composition. Indeed the foreigner 
who does not enjoy complete mastery of the language, provided he 


can recognize participles in his reading, may get along very well 
by the use of adverbial and relative clauses. 

Numerous summaries in the form of Lists have been given as an 
aid to clearness. 

For those who hesitate to adopt uncompromisingly the plan 
of the book, some suggestions as to its use have been given on 
page 36. 

Much attention has been devoted to the important matters of 
Script and Pronunciation. For those who value such things a 
phonetic transcript of every word used in the exercises and of the 
Russian exercises themselves is given . As for the system of phonetics 
adopted, it will be found to be approximately exact, though, 
especially with regard to the representation of certain unaccented 
vowels, there may be occasional and considerable divergence 
of opinion. 

The Vocabularies at the end of the book are, it is hoped, complete. 
Users of the book will welcome the arrangement of the general 
Russian-English vocabulary of verbs. 

The total number of words employed is considerable, but as 
the main purpose of this volume is to impress on the memory the 
essential forms of the language, the forms that must be mastered 
by the learner, there is a good deal of deliberate iteration in the 

For illustrations of many kinds indebtedness is acknowledged first 
of all to Tolstoi's Aa6yKa and KHHFH HJIH wenm , which 
' Primer ' and ' Readers ' have exercised a very marked influence 
on the substance and arrangement of many a Russian school-book 
published since Tolstoi gave up his experiments as a dominie. 


Secondly, reference has been made to many admirable books issued 
in Russia with the approval of the Russian Government for the 
teaching of Russian to foreign children in Russian schools. Three 
series of this kind that deserve to become widely known among 
those interested in the teaching of Russian are : 

MnxeeBt, KHHrn UJIH HTeHia, published by the 

Tnnorpa^ia in Kazan ; 

, POAHOH Mip-i>, published by K. F. 3nxMam> 
in Riga ; 

BoJibnepT>, PyccKaa P-fe^b , pubhshed by the author in 

While he is alone responsible for the plan of the book and 
whatever faults it may still contain, the compiler gratefully 
expresses his sense of obligation to his friend Mr James Melville, 
of George Heriot's School, in whose company he began the study of 
Russian, and who has kindly read the proofs of this book. Finally, 
for the care he has taken with the printing more than a word of 
thanks is due to Messrs. R. & R. Clark's reader. 

R. T. C. 

EDINBURGH, September 1917 





PARS. I AND II. The Alphabet 13 

PAR. III. Phonetic Symbols used 15 

PAR. IV. Hard and Soft Vowels 16 

PAR. V. Voiced and Voiceless Consonants . . . .16 

PAR. VI. Pronunciation 16 

PAR. VII. Contents of Pars. VIII-XX .... 17 
PARS. VIII-XX. Examples and Phonetic Values of the Letters 17-31 
PAR. XXL Importance of learning Accent . . .31 

PAR. XXIL Summary of Regular Forms . . . 32-35 



As Pronouns are used in every Lesson, beginning with the first, they 
are not often separately mentioned in headings of Lessons. 



I. Typical Masculine Nominative Singular Noun (hard form) and 

Adjective. " Is," " is not " 37 

II. Masculine Singular Past Tense. Nominative Singular of Pronouns, 

Personal, Possessive, Interrogative . . . . .38 

III. Genitive, Dative, and Accusative of Nouns in T>. Pronouns . 41 

IV. Use of y with Genitive to translate " to have " . .44 
V. Masculine Noun Soft Forms in b and it. Genitive after flea, 

xpn, HCThipe . .... .45 

VI. Genitive in Negative and J'artitivr l-'oi ins. Inliniiivr . . 47 

VII. Neuter Nouns in o, e Four Cases. Neuter AdjVetives. Certain 

General Rules of Orthography . . 49 




VIII. Neuter Past Tense. Reflexive Verb HpaBHTbCH. Dative 

with Kt . . . . . . . .51 

IX. XOJJHJTB and meJTb. Idioms with Infinitive. Complete Declen- 
sion of Masculine and Neuter Nouns. Instrumental Case 53 
X. Prepositional Case. Forms in ^ . . . .56 

XI. Revision of Pronouns . . . . . .59 

PARS. 48-50. Accentuation of Masculine and Neuter Nouns that have 

occurred. Lists . . . . . .61 

PAR. 51. Prepositions that have occurred . . . .61 


XII. Feminine Nouns in a and fl. Rules of Orthography . 62 

XIII. Feminine Adjectives. ojjHHt, OftHa, OJUHO . . .63 

XIV. Feminine Form of Past Tense. Pronouns . . .65 
XV. Prepositions BT> and Ha. Compounds of ineji'b . . 66 

XVI. Same subjects as last Lesson : Accusative and Prepositional 

Cases 68 

XVII. Feminine Nouns in b . . . . .70 

XVIII. Idiomatic Uses of Instrumental Case . . . .71 

XIX. Prepositions with Genitive . . . . .73 


PARS. 72-79. Nouns that have occurred classified according to Form 

and Accentuation of Plural. Lists . . . .76 

XX. Plural of Past Tense. Pronouns. Adjectives. Suggestions 
for the learning of the Plurals of Nouns and incidentally for 
the impressing of the Vocabulary in Lessons I-XIX . 81 

XXI. Plurals and Pronouns 84 

XXII. MaTb and jtoqb. Preposition no with Dative . . 85 

XXIII. Complete Declension of the Adjective. Forms in HH, an, oe, 

and 6ft, an, 6e . . . . . . . 87 

XXIV. Declension of Adjective in ift, HH, ee . . . .89 
XXV. Declension of Adjective in nitt, Kan, Koe . . .90 

XXVI. Declension of Adjective in qiii, *iafl, qee . . .91 

XXVII. A few very common Irregular Past Tenses, ineji'b and 

'fexaJi'b. Translation of ' from ' . . .92 

XXVIII. Prepositions no and npo. Indefinite 3rd Plural. Passive 

Voice. Reflexive Pronoun . . . . .95 

XXIX. Pronouns : cs6ft and forms similarly declined . . 98 

XXX. Dative, Instrumental, and Prepositional Plurals of Nouns and 

Adjectives ....... 101 

XXXI. Some Useful Idioms . 102 



PABS. 117-119. List of Nouns occurring for the first time in Lessons 
XX-XXXI, classified according to Form and Accentua- 
tion . . .... 104 

PAR. 120. Prepositions that have occurred .... 106 

Note. Genitive Plurals are discussed in Lessatis XXXVI, XL, XLV. 


PARS. 121, 122. Lists of Verbs that have occurred classified (1) according 
to Aspect A Imperfective, B Perfective ; (2) under A, 
according to form of Present Tense . . . 106 


XXXII. Future of 6biTb. Future of any A Verb . . .108 

XXXIII. Complete Plurals of Personal Pronouns . . .109 

XXXIV. Time Phrases 110 


XXXV. Endings of Present Tense ; Two Main Types. Present Tense 

of fffejiaTb Type . . . . . .112 

XXXVI. Genitive Plural of Masculine Nouns. Numerals 6-10, 20 . 115 


XXXVII. Type CTOK), cxoliiiib. Distinction between CHA"BTb and 

cajiHTbCH. Sequence of Tenses . . . .117 

XXXVIII. Type CT6io, CT6niiib. Numerals 11-19 . . .120 

XXXIX. Type CMorpib, CM6Tpnuib. Numerals 30-100 . . 122 

XL. Genitive Plural of Feminine Nouns. Numerals 100-1000. 

Adverbs of Quantity . . . . . .124 

XLI. Revision Past, Present, Future . . . .127 


XLII. Type >KHB^, JKHBeiiib. Various Forms of Infinitive. xoju'iTb 

and IITTII. Compounds of IITTII, their Future Tense . 129 
XLIII. Monosyllabic Verbs: riHTb ; JKaxb. Ordinal Numerals 

lst-19th . ... 133 

XLIV. Type nmii#, nrimeiiib. Regular Consonantal Changes. 

Ordinal Numerals 20th-100th . . . .136 

XLV. Genitive Plural of Neuter Nouns . . . .139 

XLVI. Exercises on the Verbs of all Types discussed in Les> 

XXXII-XLV . 140 


Lessons which may be read at any time after Lesson XX, though the 
exercises cannot be worked with any satisfaction till after Lesson XL VI. 


XL VII. On Numerals Declension, etc. Ordinal Numerals from 100th 

upwards ........ 142 

XL VIII. Verbs governing Instrumental Case . . . .146 

XLIX. Predicative Adjective . . . . . .149 

L. Comparison of Adjectives ...... 152 


LI. Explanation of this feature of the Russian Verb. Illustrative 

Passages with Translation . . . . .155 

LII. The Imperative. Salutations. Distinction between Imper- 
fective and Perfective Imperative. Verbs in Vocabulary 
grouped in Classes according to formation of Aspects . 164 
LIII. Declension of Bp&KH. Verbs -fecTb, -ExaTb, xorBTb. 

Conditional. Verbs in Vocabulary grouped as in Lesson LII 168 
LIV. Verbs in OBaTb and breaTb. Mixture of Tenses. ' Whether.' 

Verbs grouped as in Lesson LII . . . .172 

LV. Declension of HHTH and peSeHOKb. Nouns in aHHirb. Verb 

HaBaTb. Verbs grouped as in Lesson LII . . . 176 

LVI. Long and Short. Construction with Verbs of Wishing and 

Fearing. Distinction between caMTb and caMbifi . .180 

LIST OF PREPOSITIONS . . . . . . .185 

LIST OF ADJECTIVES showing Form and Accentuation of Predicative . 186 








INDEX . 246 


I. THE Russian alphabet is called the Cyrillic, as its creation is 
rightly or wrongly ascribed to St. Cyril, a Greek missionary of the 
ninth century who carried Christianity to the Slavs of Macedonia. 
This alphabet is based on the Greek capitals. It includes a few 
letters corresponding to Latin characters of similar form, a few 
more that have the form but not the value of Latin symbols, and 
several entirely new symbols that must have been invented. 

As applied to modern Russian the alphabet is, for various 
historical reasons, by no means perfect in its approximation to 
the phonetic ideal. It is, however, for the purpose of representing 
a Slav tongue far better adapted than the Latin character, for, 
once the Cyrillic alphabet is mastered, it is seen that the words are 
neither so long nor so barbarous in appearance in their native dress 
as when transliterated for English readers. The Czechs, Poles, 
and other Northern Slavs (exclusive of the Russians) use the 
Latin character, while the Russians, Bulgars, Serbs, and most other 
Southern Slavs use the Cyrillic. 


Printed Italic Phonetic 

Characters Characters Symbols 

A, a (vin) 1 A, a [ a ] [A] 

B, 6 (xiv) E, 6 [b] [b] 
B, B (xiv) B, e [ v ] [v] 

T, T (XV) T, 8 [g] [g] [g] 

fl, fl (XVI) #, d [d] [d] 

E, e (ix) E, e [je] [je] [jo] 

1 Paragraph in which illustrations of the phonetic value of each letter will be 
found. Specimens of script are given at pages 190-193. 










6 (xi) 










3 (XVII) 



[2] [t] 












& (x) 





K (XV) 



W [k] 





[t] [i] 


M (XIX) 



[m] [m] 


H (XIX) 



[n] [n] 


o (xi) 


[o] [A] 


n (xiv) 



[P] [ P ] 


P ( xx ) 



M t*] 


c (xvm) 



[s] [s] 


T (XVI) 



[t] [t] 


Y (xii) 





* (xiv) 



P] V] 


x (xv) 





U (xvi) 



[to] [ts] 


H (xvm) 





in (xvm) 





m (xvm) 





i> (xni) 










b (xm) 



[ ] [J] 





[js] [je] | 


3 (IX) 



M [e] 


10 (xn) 





a (vm) 



fja] [JA] 


e (xiv) 



[f] [t] 



Y, v this letter is another ' i ' ; it is no longer in use. 

There is no h, no w, no x ; these are usually represented by r, 
B, KG respectively. Certain symbols are redundant, e.g. i, 'B, and 
others have to stand for more than one distinct sound. 


III. The phonetic symbols employed in the transcript are as 
follows : 


[a] as in * father.' 
[A] as in * another.' 
[e] as in them.' 
[e] as in ' they.' 
[9] as in ' mother.' 

[I] as in bit ' (but see Par. X, note 1). 

[i] as in ' been.' 

[1] second hah* of diphthong in words like ' boy,' * my,' ' try.' 

[o] as in ' yon.' 

[u] as in ' too.' 

[j] to represent sound of English y before any vowel. 

[ ] The dot placed over any consonant indicates that the consonant is to be 

pronounced * soft,' i.e. to be palatalized (French mouillf). 
[( )*] added to a vowel indicates that a very faint is audible just before the 

succeeding consonant. 

LABIALS (6, n, B, <$, e). 

[b] as in ' ftooty,' [b] as in ' oeauty.' [p] as in * ^at,' [p] as in ' pure.' 
[v] as in ' van,' [v] as in view.' [f] as in /ar,' [f] as in '/ew.' 


[g] as in ' grood,' [g] as in ' figurative.' 

[g] voiced form of ch which is sometimes written in English gh (North 

German * wegren ' with the g aspirated), 
[k] as in.'Jtick,' [k] as in '#ew.' 
[x] as in ' ich ' (German), softer than ch hi ' loc/i.' 

DENTALS (a, T, n). 
[d] as in rfone,' [d] as in * o*ue.' [t] as in ' /ool,' [t] as in * fane.' 

SIBILANTS (1) (3, c). 

[z] as in * mase ' ; [z] as in * (he) sees you ' spoken as one word. 
[s] as in ' loss ' ; [s] as in * disunion.' 

(2) (>K, III, H, m). 
[J] as in hush ' ; [3] as in ' azure.' (Cf. Par. XVHI.) 

NASALS (M, n). 
[m] as in ' ?nan ' ; [lii] as in * /nuse.' [n] as in ' none ' ; [n] as in ' news.' 

LIQUIDS (n, p). 
[t] as in catt/e ' ; [1] as in mi///on.' [r] as in Russia ' ; [r] as in Harriet/ 


IV. Russian Vowels fall into two exactly corresponding series 
called hard vowels and soft vowels. This distinction is most im- 
portant, as it meets one at every turn in Russian orthography, 
and the observation of the exact correspondence will reduce by one 
half the labour of memorizing conjugations and declensions. 

The hard vowels are : 

a [a] 3 [e] or [e] H [i] o [o] y [u] 

The soft or palatal vowels corresponding are : 

H [jo] e, * [je] or [je] H, i, ft [i] [I] e [jo] K) [ju] 

There are, further, two signs that occupy much space in Russian 

printing, viz. T> and b : T> is called the ' hard ' sign, and indicates 

merely the absence of b, the ' soft ' sign. (See Par. XIII.) 

No Russian word is written with a consonant as the last letter : 

a word must end in a vowel or in t or b. These two signs were 

themselves originally vowels. 

V. It is often convenient to distinguish voiceless consonants 
(n, <j), K, x, T, c, in) from voiced consonants (6, B, r, r [g], n, 3, m), 
while certain consonants (>K, in, H, m), are by nature soft, in the 
sense that they tend to palatalize even the hard vowels. 


The articulation of the individual sounds in Russian is not so 
difficult for an English-speaking person as is the correct production 
of French sounds. The one serious difficulty in Russian pronuncia- 
tion lies in the fact that Russian more than other European tongues 
resembles English in two important respects : the accent is variable, 
and only the accented vowels have their full normal value. That 
is to say, in order to pronounce a Russian word with a semblance 
of correctness, one must know on which syllable the accent falls, 
and bear in mind that unaccented vowels are for the most part 
short and relatively obscure, though long compound words often 
have what may be called a secondary accent. 



Voiced consonants standing before final T> or b tend to become 
voiceless (see preceding paragraph), but this tendency should not 
be exaggerated, especially in monosyllables. 

In Paragraphs VIII to XX numerous examples illustrating 
all ordinary combinations of letters are given. 

VII. The following pages, Par. VIII to Par. XX, show for every 
letter of the alphabet : 

(1) Printed Character 

(2) Italic 

(3) Russian Name 

(4) Phonetic Value 
Examples. Explanatory notes. 

The letters of the Alphabet are arranged in the following order : 
Vowels : 

a, H (Par. VIII) ; 3, e, * (Par. IX) ; H, H, i, ft (Par. X) ; o, e (Par. 
XI) ; y, K) (Par. XII) ; T,, L (Par. XIII). 

Consonants : 

Labials (Par. XIV). 

Gutturals (Par. XV). 

Dentals (Par. XVI). 

Sibilants (1) (Par. XVII) ; (2) (Par. XVIII). 

Nasals (Par. XIX). 

Liquids (Par. XX). 

VTIL (1) A a, A a. Name : a. Value : [a] (accented), 
[A] (unaccented). 

Kapannaiirfc napandamb 
qacoe6ft vacoeou 

wapa Mcapa 


[tj'ASAv6l] 3 

he showed 

1 ' a' when accented has the sound of a in 'father,' =[a]. 

2 ' a ' when not accented has the sound of a or o in ' another,' = [A], 

3 ' a ' when unaccented after the consonants >K, H, m, m retains so little 
of the original open [a] sound that it might often be rendered by the 
symbol [a]; i.e. it becomes almost as obscure as the last vowel of 'another.' 
But it has been thought advisable not to insist on this refinement in the 
phonetic transcript. 



Soft vowel corresponding to * a ' : 

(2) H H, H si. Name : H. Value : [ja] (accented), [JA, jo] 

(This vowel never follows r, K, x, >K, H, in, m.) 



[jop6riiJA (IIJA)] 2 . 8 




[jagAdA] 1 




[jozfk] 2 




[J9J6,jeja] 4 

of her, her 



[zA P r6k] 4 

he yoked 



[utfitsA] 5 


1 'fl' when accented has the sound of ya as in ' yak,' = [jo, a]. 

' fl ' when unaccented has the sound of ye in ' lawyer,' ==[J9, a]. 
1 ' H ' in the unaccented terminations -fl, -ifl in nouns = [JA]. 

4 * H ' in a very few words has the value of yo in ' yon,' = [jo, o]. 

5 ' fl ' in the syllable -Cfl of reflexive verbs = [A]. 

IX. (1) 9 3, 9 9. Name: 3 o6op6THoe (e reversed). Value: [e, e]. 

BcTJiflHflifl dcmjiRHdifi [estiandiJA(dJA)] 2 Esthonia 

TOTT> dmomb [etvt] l this, that 

STH 9mu [^ti] 2 these, those 

3MHrpaHTi> dMuepanmb [emigrant] 2 emigrant 

1 ' 3 ' before a consonant or a group of consonants followed by the hard 
sign or any hard vowel has the open sound of the vowel in ' them,' = [e]. 

2 ' 3 ' before a consonant or a group of consonants followed by the soft sign 
or by any soft vowel has the close sound of the vowel in ' they,' ' hate,' = [e].* 

Soft vowels corresponding to * 3 ' : 

(2) E e, E e. Name: e. Value: [js, je] (accented), [jo, 9] 
Eepdna Eepona [javr6pA] 3 Europe 

MCJlOHb MCJlOHb [mstAtJ] 1 trifle 

secb eecb [ves] or [ves] 2 all, whole 

CKaMeflKa CKOMeiiKa [skAmeikA] 2 bench, seat 

M6pe Mope [more] 3 sea 

1 ' e ' when accented and preceding a consonantal group followed by the 
hard sign or a hard vowel has the open sound of ye in ' yet,' =[js, e]. 

2 * e ' when accented and preceding a consonantal group followed by the 
soft sign or any soft vowel has the close sound of the vowel in ' yea,' = [je, e]. 

8 ' e ' when unaccented has the value of ' ye ' in * lawyer ' = [ja, a]. 
For the value of e ' see Par. XI (2). 

* Care must be .taken not to pronounce this sound like the Southern English 
e 1 or el. Russian vowels are pure vowels, NOT diphthongs. 












to ride, drive, travel 


travelling, traveller 


he ate 


to eat 


traveller, passenger 


to see 

[zv6zdi] l 


[tsvot] ! 

was blooming 



[pfLvbf 6t] x 

he obtained 

[s6dtA] i 



(3) !> i>, 'B rb. Name : HTL. Value : same as that of ' e.' 

This letter is superfluous, as it has no sound which is not also represented 

It has the sounds [je, je, ja] according to the same rules as 'e.' 

1 In a few words ' -fe * has the sound of * e,' =[jo, -o], for which see Par. 
XI (2). 

X. (1) bl M, LI bi. Name : epu. Value : [i]. 

(This vowel is never initial and never follows r, K, x, >K, H, m, m.) 


to wash 

to low, bellow 

to be 

taken from real life 

to pour out 


made of stone 

1 ' hi,' accented or unaccented, is a vowel not difficult to imitate from 
the living voice, but not so easily described. We have it as an unaccented 
vowel in the second syllable of ' pretty.' As an accented vowel it is very 
nearly equivalent to the vowel of the first syllable of ' pretty,' as pronounced 
in the south of England, or more exactly, it is almost identical with the thick, 
slovenly utterance of the vowel i heard in some parts of Scotland in * bit ' 
and 'fit,' =[!]. 

- In the trnniiiiition of the masculine singular of the adjective this sound 
is theoretically prolonged by the half-vowel ii, hut the practical effect is so 
slight that it has been ignored in the transcript. 



[ti] 1 



[mit] 1 



[mitja^] l 



[bit] 1 



[bitAv6T] ! 



[viiit] l 



[stari] 2 



[kaihoni] 2 


Soft vowels corresponding to ' BI ' : 
(2) M H, If u. Name : i jjBoiraoe (i double). Value : [i]. 










[Hmdliit] 1 

he looks (at) 


[ 3 izn] 2 



[JlrmA] 2 



[ix, jix] 3 

them, of them 


[im, jim] 3 

to them 


[imi,jirhi] 3 

(with) them 

1 ' H * has the sound of ee in ' deem,' = [i], the d being pronounced as 
in ' rfuty.' Like all other vowels it is short when unaccented. 

2 ' H ' after n, >K, IH is pronounced like LI [I], After q and m this 
modification is not quite so noticeable and ' i ' has been kept in the transcript. 

3 Only in the last three words has initial ' H ' the sound [ji]. 

(3) I i, / i. Name : i ci> TOHKOH (i with a dot). Value : [ij. 
(This letter never stands before consonants.) 

IHC^CT> lucycb [iisus] 1 Jesus 

i&ms iiOHb [iju 1 !!, jVn] x June 

iiojib iiojib [iju 1 !, ju 1 !] 1 July 

Poccifl Poccifi [rAsi'JA] 1 Russia 

SHanie sname [zndnja] 2 knowledge 

Mipt Mip"b [mir] 3 world, peasant village 

MHpt Mup"b [riiir] 3 peace [community 

1 ' i ' has the same value as H ; it replaces H before vowels ; = [i]. 

2 The termination ' -ie ' might also have been rendered by [-ija], but in 
natural rapid speech the [i] is so short that the dotted consonant +[J9] 
seems adequate to represent this combination. 

3 ' i ' stands before a consonant in the one word Mipi>, ' world,' to dis- 
tinguish it from MHpi>, ' peace.' 

(4) H ft, tt u. Name : H CT> KpaTKOH (i with a short tnark). 
Value: [i]. 

(This letter is never initial; it always stands after a vowel, forming a 
diphthong with it.) 

Matt Mail [mal] 1 May 

capaft capaii [sAral] 1 cart-shed 

HOM6fi doMoii [dAmol] 1 homeward 

eouHa [vAlna] 1 war 


y&demb [uld6t] l he will go away 

neu? [tjel] l whose ? 

cxapbift cmapbiii [star!] 2 old 

flftud xiiiio [jlts6, jats6] 8 egg 

nocjiyuiaitre ! nocjiyiuaume ! [pAstufota] 8 listen / 

1 * ft ' added to a vowel turns it into a diphthong [a I, ol, ul, etc.] ; com- 
pare English ' btty,' ' boy.' 

2 'ft' added to bi and i makes in natural discourse so slight a change 
that it has been ignored in the transcript. 

8 ' ft ' added to unaccented a, H, e, gives an indistinct sound which can 
be rendered by [a] or [I]. 

XI. (1) o, o. Name: o. Value: [o] (accented), [ A ] 

(When unaccented, ' o ' is replaced by ' e' after >K, H, in, m, U-) 
6:ibra Ojibea [o^g-vl 1 Olga 

TB6tt meoii [tvol] 1 thy 

rep6ft zepoii [g^dl] 1 hero 



njioxdtt ruioxoii 

xopom6 xopouto 

of that 
pt6xA] 2 badly 

ptAx6I] 2 x 6od 

X.VTA/6] 2 ' ! W^U 

1 ' o ' accented has the sound of o in ' yon,' = [o]. 

2 ' o ' unaccented has the sound of o in ' other,' = [A]. Russian ' o ' is 
always open as in ' yon ' or * other ' ; it never has the value of the 
rounded o in * home,' ' bone.' 

Soft vowel corresponding to { o ' : 

(2) E e, e. Name: e. Value: [jo, -o]. 

&KHTCH eytcamcR []^\iQ\] it shrivels up 

HC&iTbiii yteeJimbiu. [?6tti] yellow 

JICFL ji'izb 0og] he lay down 

CHCTT, cv.emb [stjot] account 

mejiT. \uejvb [}ot] he went 

Be3T e< ; 36 [voz, vos] he conveyed (in a vehicle) 

BO3T> eott [voz, vos] cart-load 

' ti ' is always accented, i.e. * e ' when accented often = [jo, o]. The 
occurrence of this sound should be carefully noted, as it is only in books for 
beginners that accents and diacritics are used ; in ordinary Russian printing 
they do not appear, and there is nothing to distinguish * e ' from ' e.' 


XII. (1) V y, y y. Name : y. Value : [u]. 

yKpaima ynpauna [ukrainA] Ukraine 

^xo yxo [UXA] ear 

y-fexaxb yrbxamb [ujsxAt] to drive away 

yejiHHdHie yedimenie [ujadinenja] loneliness 

yumu [ulti] to go away 

6ydy [budu] / shall be 

Tyna my da [tuda] thither 

' y ' always has the sound of oo in ' too,' = [u]. The only difference 

between the accented and the unaccented vowel is one of quantity, the 

unaccented vowel being very short. 

Soft vowel corresponding to ' y ' : 

(2) K) H), K) K). Name: K). Value: [ju,-u]. 
(In native Russian words this vowel never follows r, K, x, >K, q, in, m.) 
lOpbeBi* lOpbeeb [jui'jaf] l Dorpat (city) 

K)n> was [jug, juk] south 

cioaa cioda [suda] hither 

loHonia K>HOUia [junA/A] a youth 

JiK)6Jiib jiK)6jiio [lubiu] / love 

K)CTHnifl wcmuiiifi [justftsJA] justice, law 

Hibxaxb Hioxamb [MxAt] to smell (trans.) 

Fioro FIOBO [g^go] 2 Hugo 

1 ' K) ' always has the sound of u in ' i*se,' = [ju, u]. As with ' y,* the 
corresponding hard vowel, the difference between '10' accented and un- 
accented is one of quantity only. 

2 ' K) ' is used to transliterate French u and German u. 

XIII. (1) T> T>, T> &. Name : ept, or TBepUHH 3HaKi> (hard 
sign). Value: [none]. 

(This sign is never initial ; it never follows a vowel.) 
6paT"b 6pamb [brat] brother 

cajj^ cadb [sad, sat] garden 

oS'beM'b odb'eMb [Abjom] extent, size 

uiyx-b wymb [jut] buffoon, joker 

HStflBJienie U37>a.ejieme [isjavienja] testimony 

Examples will be given with each of the consonants showing the use of 
this hard sign, which was originally a vowel, but is really a superfluous char- 
acter in the modern tongue, for it merely indicates that the b, or soft sign, 
is not present. 

The distinction between JIT> and Jib is particularly important (see 
Par. XX). 



(2) L> b, h b. Name : epb or MflrKifl 3Ham> (soft sign). 
Value: [ , j, or nil]. 

(This sign is never initial ; it never follows a vowel, or r, K, x.) 




nymb [tfu't] l 



g WAffi] l 

to speak 


s^t] 1 

sit down / 


vi -si - 

all, whole 


mol-inki] 2 



iub6 i f| 3 


denb [de'ii] 3 


pywcbe [TU7J6] * 

arm, rifle 

jibea [iva] 6 

of the lion 

powcb [roj] 6 









* b,' the soft sign, is very important, as it may not only alter the value of 
the consonant preceding, but very often, especially with H, Ji and T, may affect 
the preceding vowel. 

1 The consonant preceding the b is softened by the suggestion of a very 
slight [ja], which however must not be made into an extra syllable. The 
consonants which show most clearly the difference between the effects of the 
hard and soft signs are Ji, H, T. Examples are given with the various consonants 
to illustrate this point, the effect of the soft sign being indicated by [ ]. 

2 After some final consonants and when occurring between two consonants 
its effect is very slight, except in as far as it may modify the preceding vowel. 

3 In many cases its effect is noticeable on the preceding vowel to which 
it adds a very short [I]. (Of. French * Espayne.') When this effect is 
decided, it is marked in the transcript by [a 1 ] [o 1 ], etc. 

* When the b serves to separate clearly a vowel from the preceding 
consonant, it has been indicated by the use of [j]. 

6 The absence of b in JibBa would indicate the hard [t] (see Par. XIII (1)). 

* After the consonants >K, q, in, m, the b has no effect. 

XIV. B 6, E 6. 

Name: 6e. Value: [b, !>]. 

l [b A tgo iij A ( ij A )] l Bu Igaria 








1 '6 

2 < 6 

3 '6 

6i> and 6b is not perceptible. 

roll (of bread) 
shin, tibia 
beat ! 
swell, ripple 

[hel] 2 

[zup] 3 

[zip] 3 

before any hard vowel sounds as b in * 6ooty,' = [b]. 
before any soft vowel sounds as 6 in ' 6eauty,' = [b]. 
final resembles p rather than b, =[p]. The distinction between 

B B, B e. Name : Be. Value : [v, v]. 

vanetsiJA (SJA)] 2 Venice 



VldAt] 1 

to fcefray 



vit] 2 

to ^twZ 



'fpast] 3> 5 

to/a/Z t 

T>rr -rf A ivvf tr o T'Hb 
Jt> D lAwlHJtl ct 1 Jt> 

66 KOMHamrb 

fkomriAto] 3 - 5 

m the room 



/ j~j A 




lubtff] 4 




Vnuk] 5 


1 * B' before any hard vowel sounds as v in ' van,' = [v]. 

2 ' B ' before any soft vowel sounds as v in ' view,' = [v]. 

3 ' B ' is sounded [f] before any voiceless consonant, i.e. before p, t, k, etc. 
There is no difficulty in making this distinction ; English-speaking people 
make it instinctively. 

4 ' B ' when final = [f ]. The distinction between BT> and BB when final 
is negligible, except in so far as the preceding vowel may be affected. 

5 ' B ' is often initial before consonants. 

II n, II n. Name : ne. Value : [p, p]. 



;potr] 2 




>dpA] i 




"pot] 1 




>rigAt] x 

to jump about 



pd^] 2 



neu! [pel] 2 

drink / 


numb [pit] 2 

to drink 

o CHon^ 

o CHonrb [AsnAps] 2 

about tJie sheaf 





1 ' n ' before consonants, i>, and 

hard vowels sounds as p in ' ^>at,' = [p]. 

2 ' n ' before b and soft vowels soiinds as p in c _pure,' =[p]. The soften- 

ing before H 

is not so noticeable as before H, e, 'fe, e, K). 

O $, 0. Name : 3(jn>. 

Value : [f, f]. 

OpaHuifi <X>pamjisi [frantsiJA (SJA)] 





fancy, imagination 





dbapdb6p r b 


: fArfor] 




: furdfk\] 

uniform cap 

(JjbipKaxb cfibipnamb [firkAt] 

to snort 





' $ ' has the 

value of English /in '/ar,' =[f], or of /in 

'Jfew,' =[f]. 



[f, 0- 


pulpit, teacher' 8 desk 
IjA)] Thessaly 

name of this letter 

This consonant appears only in a few words of Greek origin, and in many 
of these even it is often replaced by <j>, which has exactly the same phonetic 

XV. r r, T e. Name : re. Value : [g, g, g].* 
(This letter is never followed by fl, bi, K), b.) 

8 e, e. 

Go Ma 

Name: ema. 



Value : 






FojuiOHdisi [gAtandiJA (dJA)] 
eoeopumb [gAVArft] l 
dpyzoa [drug6I] l 

L 6 Holland 
to speak 


MHOZO [mn6gA] l 

much, many 


epazb [vrak] 2 




druk] 2 




bogA] 8 

of God 



ihaxM] 4 




bAgatAVA] 5 

of rich 



bA^/dVA] 6 




oLvmci j IIAVA! 

domestic, tame 





BiiKTOp-b Tiord 

BuKmopt Fiozo 

viktAr gug6] 6 

Victor Hugo 



^gnit6I] 7 


1 *r' usually has the sound of g in '0ood,' =[g]. 

2 ' r ' when final has the sound of k, = [k]. 

3 * r ' in a few words is a deep aspirated voiced guttural sometimes trans- 
literated by gh (the same as the initial g in Dutch or the aspirated German 

4 Preceding a voiceless consonant (t, p, k, etc.), the sound described 
under (3) becomes voiceless like ch in * locA ' or more exactly like ch in 
German ich,' = [x]. 

6 In the genitive singular termination of masculine and neuter adjectives 
4 r'=[v]. 

6 There is no A in Russian, and although the consonant x is much nearer 
than r to h, this letter in foreign words has been generally transliterated 
by r, =[g]. The K) transliterates French u. 

7 * r ' must always be proncn; M when immediately preceding H. 

* In a very few words the dotted [g] has been used in the transcript, but the dis- 
tinction is not important. 


K K, K K. Name : na. Value : [k, k]. 

(This letter is never followed by a, K), LI, b.] 


KB act macb 

Kt H6M Kb nemy 

KB Gepery Kb depeey 

kitai] l China 

komnAtA] l room 

kvas] 1 kvass 

knemu] 2 toward him 

gberggu] 2 toward the shore 

[ksm] 3 with whom 

KHHra KHuea [knigA] 4 book 

KpOTKift Kpommu [krotki] 5 gentle 

1 ' K ' usually has the sound of k in ' &ick,' = [k]. 

2 There are in Russian several prepositions which consist of a single con- 
sonant prefixed to the noun, and pronounced as one word with the noun. 
KT is such a preposition. In some cases, as before voiced consonants 
(b, d, v, etc.), where the clear sharp value of k is almost impossible, the 
pronunciation is facilitated by taking [g] instead of [k]. 

3 ' K ' before "fe is pronounced as hi ' jfiTew,' = [k]. 

4 * K ' must always be pronounced, even before H. 

6 The termination hi is pronounced after gutturals with a slight rounding 
of the lips, but as this is not sufficient to warrant the use of [i] in the 
transcript, [i] has been used throughout. 

X x, X x. Name : xa. Value : [x]. 

(This letter is never followed by a, K>, H, b.) 

XpucmocfJopt [xristAfor] Christopher 

xywce [xu 3 o] worse 

xitri] cunning 

xrabri] brave 

Axotnik] sportsman 

dvux] of two 

' x ' has the sound of ch in ' locV or of softer ch in German * ich,' = [x]. 

XVI. R n, JJ d. Name : Ae. Value : [d, d]. 

LJA (nJA)] x Denmark 


dacLv.] 2 uncle 

drbdb det, dsd] 2 - 3 grandfather 

6ydb! bii^] 3 ' be! 

1 ' H ' before a hard vowel has the sound of d in ' done,' = [d]. 

2 ' jj ' before a soft vowel has the sound of d in ' due,' = [d]. 

8 * H ' when final, before either the hard or the soft sign, approximates to 
the sound of t, = [t, t]. 

xpaSpbift xpadpbiu 




T T, T m. Name : xe. Value : [t, t]. 





turtsiJA (sj.\)' 

1 Turkey 


"tak] 1 



tvAJa] 1 

thy (fern, sing.) 


= brat] l 



'brdit] 2 

to take 


tri] 1 



tobd] 2 

thee, of thee 


"mit] ! 


Mbimb [mit] 2 

to wash 

1 ' x ' before the hard sign or a hard vowel has the value of t in ' tool,' 


2 ' x ' before the soft sign or a soft vowel has the value of t in ' June,' 

IJ u, JJ, i\. Name : ue. Value : [ts, ts]. 

(This letter is never followed by K), H, or by unaccented o, which is 
replaced by ' e.') 





[tSAHtSA] ! 

[tsvet] ! 

r tst P At}ki] 
tetnik] l 
tssrkvf] 2 
tssti] 2 



colour, flower 




whole, entire 

1 ' u ' has the sound of ts in ' bite,' = [ts]. 

2 or the sound of te in " iCs useless," pronounced as one word, =[ts]. 

XVII. 3 3, 3 3. Name 

Sanaa* Sanad* 

3a6bixb aadbimb 

3Hajii> ana. 

SB'fepb 36n>pb 

3HXb 3Simb 

BH3i> earn 


36. Value : 

:, z]. 


to forget 
he knew 
wild beast 

son-in-law,or sister's 
elm [husband 


1 ' 3 ' normally has the sound of 2 in ' maze,' = [z]. 

2 * 3 ' before soft vowels has the value of 5 in " he Bees you," =[*]. 
8 * 3' when final before hard sign =[s], before soft sign [s] or [s]. 

ZAblt] ] 

zve'r] i 
zd't] 2 
va] 8 



C c, C c. Name : 3Ct. Value : [s, 


CeBacxonojib Ceeacmono.ib 


l l] 2 Sevastopol 

CO Jib CO Jib 

SO 1 !] 1 


cxyjii. cmyjib 

stut] 1 



snim] * 

with him 

cejia ceJid 

>O!A] 2 


rdjioct zosiocb 

"gotAs] 3 


OCb OCb [OS, OS] 3 


1 ' c ' normally has the value of ss in ' loss,' 


2 ' c ' before soft vowels has the sound of s in 

'disunion,' = [s]. 

3 Final CT> = [S] ; final Cb =[s] or [s]. 

XVIII* HI in, III ui. Name: ma. Value: [$]. 
(This letter is never followed by fl, K), bi, or unaccented o.) 

JvetsiJA (SJA)] Sweden 
jak] step 

Jest] six 




luupe [Jifa] broader 

Hauib [naj] our 

jej] eat! 

JASC] 1 road 

/AttandiJA (dJA)] l Scotland 
' in ' has the sound of sh in ' swis^,' = [ J]. Compared with the correspond- 
ing English sound ' in ' is more mouth-filling, and before the vowel following 
this consonant there is just the suggestion of a [j]. It is, along with JK, 1, m, 
regarded as by nature a soft consonant. 

1 in may precede unaccented o in foreign words. 

>K JK, }R we. Name : me. Value : [3]. 

(This letter is never followed by H, 10, bi, or unaccented o.] 








t6JkA] 2 

muj] 3 

roj] 3 



he lived 

to put, lay 





1 ' JK ' usually has the sound of s in ' measure,' = [3]. 

2 * JK' before voiceless consonants (p, t, k, etc.) has the sound of 

* swisV =[/]. 3 Final JKT> or jKb = [J]. 

* The French name for the consonants dealt with in this paragraph, chuintants, 
best describes them. 



H, v. Name : He. Value : [t$]. 
(This letter is never followed by fl, K), u, or unaccented o.) 







'/to, tjto] i 

to lie down 

' H ' is pronounced Like ch in ' chat,' = [t J]. Lake >K, ILI, m, this letter is 
regarded as by nature a soft consonant. 

1 Occasionally the ' H ' is heard without the [t] element. 

IIJ m, Ilf u/. Name : ma. Value : [$t$]. 

(This letter is never followed by fl, K), bi, or unaccented o.) 









cabbage soup 
beetroot soup 
pike (fish) 

'm' is the equivalent of IIH-H, i.e. 
'foolish chatter,' or Afo/mrch' =[JtJ]. 

it has the sound of shch in 

XIX. M M, M M . Name : 3MT>. Value : [in, iii]. 











niAskva] l 
ml/]' ' 
mosk] l 
s A torn A] l 

lilltA] 2 

ihot] 2 

ts] 2 
[moment] 1 ' 2 



brain, marrow 


dear, nice 


month, moon 


' M ' before hard vowels has the sound of English m in ' mass/ = [m]. 
2 ' M ' before soft vowels has the sound of English m in ' muse,' = [ih]. 



H H, H H. Name : 3Hi>. Value : [n, n]. 











von] 1 

llUXAt] 2 

[montein] 2 





away ! 

to smell (trans.) 




eve, day before 


1 ' H ' before T> and hard vowels has the sound of n in ' none,' = [n]. 

2 ' H ' before b and soft vowels has the value of n in ' new,' = [it]. 

3 ' H ' before K and r does not take the value of English ng, but retains 
the sound [n]. 


XX. JI ji, JI Ji. Name : 3jn>, 3Jib. Value 

[taptandiJA (dJA)] x 

[lapAt] 2 








[iubij] 2 







&, n. 



to smack 


tlwu lovest 

spiteful, wicked 




it was done 






* Ji ' has two sounds which are so distinct that they require the use of 
different symbols. 

1 Hard ' Ji ' has a sound akin to that of / in English ' batt/e,' ' people.' 
In Russian it occurs in any position, and may be produced by pronouncing 
I with the tip of the tongue drawn back so as to touch the upper palate 
just behind the teeth ; = [t]. This sound never precedes b or 'any soft 

2 Soft ' Ji ' is sounded like I in English ' miifton ' ; = [1]. This sound 
never precedes T> or any hard vowel. 


[utjitei] 2 
[stot] ! 
[sto 1 !] 2 



P p, P p. Name : 3pi>. Value : [r, f]. 













[rod, rut] l 
[rod, rat] 2 
[ruka] l 


[korkA] i 

[i'SZAt] 2 

O>dr6] i 
[tape 1 !-] 2 


row, rank 
hand, arm 
shell, rind 
to cut 
of times 

1 ' p ' is never silent and never uvular. It is distinctly trilled, as in 
Northern English ' were,' ' .Russia,' = [r]. 

2 Preceding b or any soft vowel, ' p ' is pronounced as in English ' Harriet,' 
but rather more softly, = [f ]. 

XXI. In ordinary Russian books accents are not used. 

It is in Russian, as in English, important to learn with every 
word the tonic accent. A difference in accentuation sometimes 
distinguishes to the ear words that in print are identical in appear- 
ance, e.g. : 






of the white (of 
the eye, or egg) 



fine weather 









of a gate 



on the way 









roast meat 









of drops 


[kApe 1 !] 




I cover 



I cut 



I wash 



my (fern, ace.) 










na i iaji6 


it began 



1 weep 



I pay 










cop oi. a 


of forty 



it costs 



it sin' 









of the ear 



fish soup 



XXII. Russian is richly endowed with prepositions and particles, 
but it is a highly inflected language, i.e. the relations between words 
are indicated by modifications in the form of termination and stem. 
For this reason, no doubt, the word-order, though by no means a 
matter of absolute indifference, is not so rigid as in English. The 
total number of different inflections is, however, small ; the principal 
ones are given in the following summary of regular forms. 






Soft Forms 





























*L or a 

LI or OBT> 

ft or H 

H or eBT> 

L or 

H H or eft 















(See Lessons IX, 



Hard Form 

Soft Forms 

































LI or T> 



HOTL (ft) 1 


H or eft 


OK), Oft 



, eft ieio (eft) HMH 







in 2 




(Lessons XII, XVII, XXII, Voc. XXXIV.) 


Hard Form 

Soft Forms 


Plur. Sing. 




nom. o 






gen. a 
dat. y 



eft (ft) 1 





ace. o 






instr. OMT> 






prep, 'k 


*(H) 2 




(See Lessons IX and LIII.) 

1 itt is the gen. pi. termination of nouns in -in and -ie. 

2 in is the prep. sing, termination of nouns in -in and -ie. 



Singular Plural 

M. F. N. M. F. N. 

nom. i-iii an oe bie 1.1:1 bin 

gen. aro ott aro WXT 

dat. oMy ott OMy MMT> 

ace. bift or aro yio oe nom. or gen. 

instr. biM-b oft (OK>) MMT> IJMH 

prep. OMT> oft OMT> bixi> 

(Lesson XXIII.) 

Variants : 6tt, afl, 6e (Lesson XXIE). 

ifi, Hfl, ee ( XXIV). 

Kift, Kan, HOC ( XXV). 
mitt, man, uiee ( XXVI). 

Nom. Case t, a, o, bi (Lesson XLTX and Lists, Par. 237). 


Comparative in -"fee. Lists of comparatives in -e at Par. 238. 
Most useful form of attributive comparative : 66jrfee + positive degree. 
Most useful form of superlative : caMbift 4- positive degree. 
(See Lesson L.) 


Typical form derived from the adjective ends in -o or -e. (See Par. 189 (1) 
and lists of predicative adjectives and comparatives.) 


Personal (Pars. 47 A, 59, 125, 126). Emphatic (Pars. 107 c, 235). 
Possessive (Pars. 104, 105, 108, 109). Reflexive (Pars. 38, 103, 132). 

Relative and interrogative (Pars. 47 D, 106). 

Demonstrative (Pars. 47 C, 106, 107). 

Indefinite (Pars. 47 E, 106). 


Cardinals (Par. 27, Voc. XXXVI, Pars. 148, 160, 155). 
Ordinals (Pars. 166, 171, 184). 
Declension (Lesson XLVH). 



Past Tense 

Sing. 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, 6bijn>, a, o (see Pars. 9, 58). 
Plur. 1st, 2nd, 3rd persons, 6biJiH. 

Present Tense 
3rd Sing. ecxb. 
3rd Plur. cyxb (very little used). 

Future Tense 
Sing. 6^ny, enib, en,. 
Plur. 6^aeMT>, exe, yxi>. 

Imperative (Lesson LII) 
Sing. 6yb, nycTb oirb (ona, OHO) d^Tjex-b. 
Plur. 6yfleMT>, S^jtbxe, nycTb OHH (on-fe) d^jjyxi). 


Adjectival Adverbial 

Pres. cymift, being, that is. S^^y^H, being, while being. 

Past CbiBUiitt, having been, that once 6b^BiiiH, having been, after having 

was. been. 

Put. 6^7jymift, about to be, that is to 
be, future. 



Type jrkjiaxb (Stem fl^Jia-) or naxaxb (Stem nain-, nax-) 


Past Tense 2 
Sing. Ji-b, Jia, Jio ; Plur. JIH. Similar endings. 

Present Tense 

Sing. K) or y, einb, ext. No present. 

Plur. eMT>, exe, roxx or yxi.. 
(Lessons XXXV, XLII-XLIV.) 

Future Tense 

Future of 6bixb + infinitive. Endings as for the endings of the 

(Lesson XXXII.) imperfective present tense. 3 

1 GbiB^Tb, to be usually the case, is a regular verb of the 1st conjugation. 

2 This tense corresponds to the Imperfect, Perfect, and Pluperfect in other 
languages, and has to be rendered according to the context by any one of these 

3 The perfective aspect may belong to the First or Second Conjugation. 



Imperative Mood 

2nd Sing, tt, H, L (one of these). Similar endings. 

2nd Plur. frre, HTC, bTe. 
(Lesson LII.) 

PARTICIPLES have been indicated but not thoroughly discussed 
in this book (see Preface). (Notes to Pars. 80, 96, 131, 139, 157). 


Pres. (active) -romitt, -ymift, formed No present participle, 

from 3rd plur. pres. tense, 
* one who is doing.' 

(passive) -CMbifl, from 1st plur. No present participle, 

pres., ' one that is suffering 
the action* 
Past (active) -Biiiitt, from sing, of past -Binifi. 

tense, * one who~fias done.' 

(passive^ ^HHbift, sometimes -HHbift or -Tbift. 

-Ttift, from sing, of past 
tense, ' one that has suffered 
the action.' 

Pres. -H, -a, from 3rd plur. pres., No present. 

' doing, 1 ' while doing.'' 

Past -BT> or -(B)IIIH, from sing, of past -BT. or -BIIIH. 

tense, * having done.' 

Type roBOpHTb (Stem roBOpn-) 

Has endings like those of the First Conjugation except in the 
present tense, which has 

Sing. K> or y, HIIIL, HTT>. 

Plur. HMT>, HTC, HTT> or HTT, (see Lessons XXXVII-XXXIX). 

The present participle active has 

-flmitt or -amitt. 

The present participle passive has 

The PERFECTIVE ASPECT may be of the First or Second Conjugation. 


Apart from the Passive Participles indicated above there is no 
Passive Voice (Par. 102). 


Naturally the first one is that the book should be used as it stands. 
But many may not care to spend so long as is required by this method 
before extending their knowledge of the verb beyond the infinitive 
and past tense. For them the following suggestions will be useful. 

(1) As far as the end of Lesson VIII nothing outside the scheme 
of Lessons I-VIII should be taken up. 

(2) Attention is drawn to the summary of regular forms, pp. 3235. 

(3) After Lesson VIII, Pars. 123, 124 of Lesson XXXII may 
be learned and the future tense be practised with any verb marked A. 

(4) After Lesson XIV, Par. 131 of Lesson XXXV may be 
learned and the present tense of any verb marked (131) be practised. 

(5) After Lesson XXI, Par. 211 (gen. rule) of Lesson LII 
may be learned and the imperative of any verb marked (131) be 
practised. But the exact value of the imperative will be appreciated 
only after reading Lesson LI. 

(6) It will tend to clearness and ultimate progress if the present 
tense of any other type than jjijiaxt be left severely alone till after 
Lesson XXXI. 

(7) Certain Lessons, namely XLVII, XL VIII, XLIX, L, may 
be read at any time after Lesson XX, and the principles applied, 
though, of course, the exercises in these lessons cannot be done satis- 
factorily until everything that precedes them has been learned, for 
all that is assumed in them. 

(8) The predicative form of every adjective that occurs in the 
lessons and is used in that form (see Lesson XLIX) will be found in 
the lists in Par. 237. 

(9) The lesson on the Aspects (LI) may be read at any time, but 
its principles cannot be profitably applied till the present tense of 
all the main types has been mastered. 

(10) Illustrations of the script and phonetic transcript of 
the Russian exercises will be found at pp. 190, 194. The student 
working without a teacher might find it profitable, after studying 
each lesson, to write out the transcript in ordinary Russian script, 
and compare his version with the original exercise. 


1. There is no article in Russian. 

2. There are two numbers, Singular and Plural. 

3. Gender is not determined by natural sex, but names of males 
are generally Masculine and names of females are generally Feminine. 
Names of things or abstractions may be Masculine, Feminine, or 

As a rule the form of a noun determines its gender. 

4. The typical masculine noun ends in the Nominative Singular 
in -T>, e.g. 

CUHT> [sin], a son, the son, son. 

5. The nominative singular masculine of the attributive adjective 
ends in -HH or -OH, e.g. 

CTapwft MyjKHKT> [atari mu3ik], the (an) old peasant. 
MOJio6ft OTCITB [mAiAd6l Atets], the (a) young father. 

6. If the adjective ends in -OH, the termination is always accented. 
The termination -bift is not accented. 

7. In the phrase He is an old man, the present tense of the verb 
" to be " is not used in Russian, so that 

OHT> cxapuft MVJKiiK'b [on stari mu3ik] means He is an old peasant. 
Oin> rjiyriLift qejiOB'feK'b [on gtupi t/^tAvek] means He is a stupid man. 

8. The negative form of these phrases is : 

OUT* ne CT&ptift My>KHKT> [on i'w star! mii3ik], He is not an old peasant. 
OHT. ne rji^nuft HCJiOB'feK'b [on iw gtupi t/otAvIk], He is not a stupid 

The dash is often used to replace the present tense of "to be " 

1 A word enclosed in round brackets ( ) need not be translated. The vocab- 
ulary of nouns and verbs in the Bret eight lessons has been deliberately restricted 
to a small number of words. 


38 LESSON II 9-ii 


[dsd (t)], grandfather cjiaSbifi [slabi], weak 

[sin], son CHJibHbiii [sflni], strong, powerful 

[dom], house rji^nbifi [glupi], stupid 

[iss], wood, forest yMHbifi [umni], intelligent 

[xlep], bread, corn S'kribiH [bsli], white 

[mc^itjik], boy qepnbift [tjorni], black 

[tfalAvek], man a66pbifi [dobri], good (kind) 

ox6irb [Atets], father njioxofi [plAxol], bad 

nanrb [naj], our cxapbin [stari], old 

Bairn, [vaj], your MOJIOSOH [mAlAdol], young 

H [i], and He [ns, ne, na], no^ 
a x [a], 6w, and 

Translate : > 

(1) GTapbitt n'fea'b. (2) Haunb OT^UT.. (3) OHT> cjia6bift ciapbin 

(4) B'BJIblft XJI'feS'b H HepHblH XJI'feS'b. (5) Baill^ CbllTb - 

'b. (6) HepHbift Ji-feci.. (7) OHT> njioxofl 
(8) Hanib CHHT. rjiynbift, a Bauib cbmi> 
HHKT>. (9) GxapbiiiaoM'b. (10) Haiirb A-E^T* nerji^nbift 2 

CblHb - yMHblU MCUlbHUKK. 


9. The past tense of Kussian verbs is peculiar in this respect, 
that it agrees with the subject in gender and number, while it does 
not vary with the person, i.e. there is one form of the past tense 
which is always found with a masculine singular subject, whether 
that subject be of the first, second or third person, e.g. 

fl A'fejiaJi'b [ja dstAl], / used to do, I did do, I was doing. 

Tbi 3 jj'EJiaJi'b [ti delvl], thou didst use to do, thou didst, thou wast doing. 

OHT jrtjiaji'b [on dstAl], he used to do, etc. 

Hauib CbiHT> jrlwiaji'b [naj s'in detAl], Our son used, etc. 

10. This verb corresponds either to did do or made. It will be 
observed that this masculine past tense ends like the noun in -T>. 

11. The negative form is : 

H He jj'EJiaji'b [ja iia detAl], / did not do, or make. 

1 This word may often be translated by and, but it always has adversative force. 
a Instead of making the verb negative the Russian often makes the adjective 
or adverb negative. 

8 Familiar second personal pronoun used only among intimates and children. 

12-13 LESSON II 39 

12. In interrogative sentences the particle JIH is used, e.g. 
^fejiaji-b JIH OHT>? [detAt ii on ?], Did he do, or make f Was he doing f 
Tbi JIH fl-BJiajTb? [ti U cUtAi ?], Didst thou do, etc. ? 

13. This particle is not required if there is in the sentence an 
interrogative word like who ? what ? how ? when ? e.g. 

MTO OHT, n-EJiaji-b? [Jto on det.vt ?], What did he do? 
Kxo JTEJiajn> 6xo? [xto detAt etA ?]) Who used to do this (or that) ? or 
KTO 6xo n-fejiajrt? [xto etA detAt l]fWho teas doing this (or that)? 
Kyua XH XOHHJIT>? [kudd ti XAdit ?], Whither did you use to go ? 
KandB-b 6bijn> HejiOB-BK-b? [kAkof bil tfatAvek ?], What like teas the man f 
i.e. What sort of a man was he ? What manner of man was he ? 


As the adverbs and pronouns given in this Vocabulary will recur again and 
again in succeeding lessons, it is not necessary to commit them all to memory 
before attempting Exercise II. 

For explanation of figure or letter A with verbs in this and following 
vocabularies see Suggestions 3-5, p. 36. 

6ujn> [bil], was, used to be XOXT> [tot], that (xo, neuter form) 

A [sit], lived, was living, used KXO? [xto], who ? 

to live qxo? [tjto, Jto], what ? 

A [jet], ate, etc. KaKOBi,? [kAkof], of what sort ? 

cnajit A [spat], slept, etc. KaKT>? [kak], how? 

jrfcjiaji-b 131 A [detAt], did, made, etc. xaKt [tak], so 

3iiajii> 131 A [znat], knew, etc. xaK6ft [tAkoi], such, such a 

xoaujrb A [xAdit], used to go BOXT> [yot], there is I there are ! seel 

nrpaJTb 131 A [igrat], played rflt [gde, gde], where (with verbs of 
npuraji-b 131 A [prig At], jumped rest) 

about Kyjja [kudd], where, whither (with 
pa66xajii> 131 A [rvbotAt], ivorked verbs of motion) 

H [ja], / Korfl [k.vgdd], when 

M6ft [mol], my, mine BT> [v, f], into 

XM [ti], thou, you (this pronoun is BT> Ji"BCT> [vies], into the wood 

i only in familiar discourse) xopoiiio [xATAjd], well 

XB6tt [tv6l], thy, thine nji6xo [p!6xA], badly 

OHT> [on], he, it HO [no, n.v], but 

er6 [j-?vo], him, it (direct object) MH6ro [mn6gA], much 

er6 [j^v6], of him, hix, Us HCMHdro [nomnogA], (a) little 

&XOXT> [etAt] (m.), thi*, lhn>, that one JTEXOMT> [iet.\m], in summer 

(3xo, neuter form) aiiMoii [zim6I], in winter 

40 LESSON II 13 

A. Translate : 

(1) Baint n-feffb 6bun cxapbifi HejiOB'fjK'b. (2) SuMott OHT> 
pa66Tajii> H6MH6ro; OHT> cnajn>. (3) H xoponio snajrb qepntift 
(see Par. 16 (2)), rfl'fe OHT> JKHJII. SHMott. (4) Hanrb oxerrb 
ne TaKoii cjiaSbift HejiOB'feKt. (5) JI^xoMt OHT> xoiUHJi'b BI> 
OHt MHOFO paSoTajTb. (6) Ero Cbint 6bi,m> ^MHtitt 
(7) JI'ETOM'b OHT> nrpajTb H npb'irajrb. (8) Ho OHT> 

nblfi 1 MaJIbHHKTb. (9) FjIi'B OHTj HrpajIT) 3HMOfi? (10) TbI 

HCMHOFO paSojajn. SHMOH; TH ne xoanji'b Bi) JTEcrb. (11) 
MajibHHKT> 'feji'b G-EJibrii xjitS-fc. (12) Tbi xoponio 3Hajn> Haim> 
(13) Tbi ero snaji-b. (14) M6fi MOJioaoft Cbm-b snajn. TBOfi 

(15) BOTb MOft CbIHT>. (16) BOT-b OH-b. 

Mou Mojiodou cbim> 3Hcui?> meou doM7>. 

B. Bonpocbi ( = questions). This rather mechanical exercise 
serves a twofold purpose : it affords practice in the interrogative 
forms and repeats the vocabulary and phrases of Exercise A. 

(1) KTO 6ejrb CTapbitt qejioB-BKi,? (2) HTO OHT, jrijiajTb 3HM6ft? 
(3) KaKT> a 3Hajn> HOMT>, rrib jKHji-b Bain-b jrtjrb? (4) KTO 
TaKoii cjia6biH? (5) Kyaa OHT, XO^HJIT,? (6) Kor^ OHT, 
BT> Ji-fec-b? (7) KaKOBT> SbiJi-b er6 CUHI? (8) HTO OHT> 
(9) ^TO ^feji-b Majib^HK-b? (10) Snajrb JIH H TBOH jjoivrb? (say, 
*you knew it'). 

C. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) Our father was a strong young man. (2) He did not sleep much. 

(3) In winter my old grandfather slept but my father worked a great deal. 

(4) He worked and (use conj. a) his young son played. (5) In summer the boy 
used to go into the wood, where your grandfather lived. (6) Whither did the 
boy go ? (Whither the boy went ?) (7) Your intelligent son well knew my old 
house. (8) He was a young boy ; summer and winter he played and jumped 
about. (9) Was he a stupid and bad man ? (10) What did you eat ? (say 
here, ' thou didst eat, i.e. atest'). (11) I ate the white bread. (12) What 
did the boy do in winter ? (13) What was the man like ? (14) He was a 
kind intelligent man. 

1 Form described in Par. 69 is also common. 

14-18 LESSON III 41 


14. The genitive case of nouns in -T> ends in -a, e.g. 

jrpyn,, zrp^ra [druk] [drugA], friend. 
CTapHKT>, crapHK& [st.vffk] [stArika], old man. 

(a) Some words preserve throughout the singular the accent of 
the nominative singular, like npyrt. To this class belong 
all the nouns in Vocabulary I except oxeut. 
(6) Some words do not have the accent in the oblique cases on 
the same syllable as in the nominative. To this class 
belongs the word oxeivb, oma [.vtets] [.vtsa], father. 
Note. This word, like many other masculine nouns with e or 
in the final syllable of the nominative singular, drops that vowel 
in all the other cases. 

15. The dative case of nouns in -T> ends in -y, e.g. 

jrpyn,, jrpyry [druk] [drugu], friend. 
CTapriKb, CTapHK^ [stAfik] [stAiiku], old man. 
OT^ITB, OTuy [Atets] [Atsu], father. 

1G. (1) The accusative case (direct object of transitive verbs) of 
masculine names of animate beings has the same form 
as the genitive. 

(2) The accusative case (direct object of transitive verbs) of 
masculine names of inanimate things has the same 
form as the nominal' 

17. So there are these two forms of declension : 

Animate Inanimate 

nom. Hpyn> [druk] HOMT> [dom] 

gen. flp>ra [dru<j\] fl6Ma [domA] 

dat. Hpyry [drugn] fl6My [d6mu] 

ace. np^ra [drugA] BOMT> [dom] 

18. In the phrase BT Ji-fect, into the ivood, Ji-fec-h is the accusa 
tive case after the preposition BT>. 

42 . LESSON III 19-21 

19. The genitive means * of a thing or person/ It corresponds 
to our possessive case, e.g. 

caft'b My>KHKa [sad (sat) mu3ika], the garden of the peasant, the peasant's 

20. The dative means ' to a thing or person.' It is used after 
verbs of giving, saying, etc. to indicate the indirect object, e.g. 

OHT> sani. MajiLHHKy xji'feS'b [on dat ma^tjiku xlep], He gave the boy 
the bread. 

21. The genitive and dative of pronouns used in this lesson are : 

(a) M6HH 1 [mana], of me (b) MITB [mns], to me, from fl 

TeCri 1 [tabd], ofthee Te6-E [tabs], to thee, TH 

ero l [javo], of him, his CM^ [jamu], to him, OHT> 

HXT> 1 [jix], of them, their HMt [Jim], to them, onri 

Koro? 1 [kAvo], of whom ? whose ? KOM^? [kAnui], to whom ? KTO 

^xoro l [stAVA], of this $TOMy [stAmu], to this, | T ^ 

Tor6 l [tAvo], of that TOM^ [tAmu], to that, TOTT> 

ner6? [tjavo], of what ? qeMy? [tjamii], to what ? 


6pai"B, a 2 [brat], brother roBOpiijnb A [gAVArit], spolce 

BH^KT., a [vnuk], grandson Tenepb [tap^^], now 

npyrt, a [druk], friend HHKor^a [nikAgda], never 

oropofl-b, a [AgAr6t], kitchen- Tor^a [tAgda], then ' 

garden, orchard TaMT> [tarn], there 

cajrt, a [sad, sat], garden sjt'feCL [zdes (s)], here 

cxap6KT>, a [stArfk], an old man 6neHB [otjan], very 

My>KHKi>, a [mu3ik], a peasant JTO [tjto, Jto], that (conjunction) 

a [sir], cheese no-p^ccKH [pAruski], Russian, in 
[dot], gave Russian 

CKa3ajii> [skAzat], said, told. no-aHrjiiHCKH [pAangifski or 
noKaaaJi'b [pAkAzat], showed giiski], (in) English 

OHT> HHKorna ne 3 roeopHJiT) no-p^ccKH [on nikAgda na 
pAruski], He never spoke Russian. 

1 Are also accusatives. Sxoro and xor6 are used as the accusative only of 
animate beings. 

2 When, in the Vocabulary, the genitive termination is not accented, the accent 
falls throughout as in the nominative singular. 

3 Notice the double negative used in the Russian form for he never, etc. So 
with all negative adverbs and indefinite pronouns. 


A. Give the genitive, dative, and accusative of 

cum, xjrk6T>, MajibqHKt, cxapHK-b, oxein>, H, OHT>, KTO. 
B. Translate: 

(1) Majib^KKt aajTb cxapnK^ TOTT> qepnbin xji-fe6i>. (2) Tsoft 
n66pbift oxeirt noKaaajrb MHl> XBOH cam> H orop6flT>. (3) Baiirb 
BHyKb MH-E cKaaaji-b 6xo. (4) OHT> Mend ne 3Hajn. (5) H xeGrf 
ne 3najn>. (6) Ero ^MHMH CWHT> noKa3ajn> Te6^> Moft cTapwii AOMT>. 
(7) H noKaaajrb ciiny 6-fejiuft SOM-L 6paxa. (8) ^TO ne 6-BJiwtt, a 
qepnutt xji-fe6i>. (9) fl najn> eM^ Baiin, cbipt. (10) OHT. er6 
(11) MXT, 6paTi> roBopiiJii. xopoiiid no-p^ccKH, HO OHT> 
Toraa 6qenb nji6xo no - anrjiittcKH. (12) Tfl-fe Baun> oTem>? 
(13) OHT, Ten6pb 3fl-fecb. (14) JI'BTOM'b CHJIBHMH MY>KHKI> 
BT> ji-fec-b; OHT> TaMt pa66Tajn>. (15) Tsott BnyKb noKaaaji-b 
orop6fl-b oxna. (16) Hauit Bpyn> Cbijit Tor^ MOJIOAOH, a OHT> 
Tenepb cxapbitt qejiOB-EKt. (17) H xopoui6 3Hajn> craputt OMT>, 
JKHJIT, CTapiiKb. (18) TH HHKora ne pa66xajn>. 

C. Bonpocu : 

(1) KOM^ Majib^HKTb najii> qepHtifi xji^6i>? (2) Hxo OHT> CM^ 
najn>? (3) Hxo MH"fe nonaaajTb XBOH oxem>? (4) Mxo MH!J cKa3ajii> 
BauiT> BHyn-b? (5) Mxo xe6-B nonaaaji-b er6 CUHT,? (6) KOM^ a 
noKaaaji-b HOMT> 6paxa? (7) Hxo OHT, 'BJIT,? (8) Kxo roBOpi'un. 
xopoiii6 no-pyccKH? (9) Kan-b OHT, roBOpiiJii. xorfld no-3HrjiiHCKii? 
(10) Kyjia xoflHJii> ji-fexoMi. cxapwtt MyHii'iKi,? (11) Hxo OHT> xaMi> 
(12) Hxo MH-B noKaaajTb xsott BHyKi>? 

Kyda xodiui* arbmoMb cmapwfi 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The brother's garden ; the peasant's kitchen-garden ; the father's 
house ; to the old man's son ; he is an intelligent boy ; that is his white house ; 
your black bread ; did he know that ? what did he do in summer ? he used 
to go into the wood ; I said to the boy's friend ; I spoke English badly then. 

(2) To him, to me, of thee, of them, to whom, of that, I showed him that. 

(3) There he is ; there is the old man ; he was never there. 

(4) He showed me your garden. Who was speaking ? I did not know 
where he (was). Their son gave them your old house. To whom did he 
give it ? He said that you (were) th< 



22. The genitive is also used after many prepositions, e.g. y [u], at. 

23. y OTija [u Atsa] means at the father's, i.e. at his house, at his place 
of business, in his possession, near him. 

y MCHH [u lhana] means in my possession, at my house, etc. 

24. (a) The form most frequently used to express our verb 
to have is a combination of the phrase in Par. 23 with the requisite 
tense of the verb " to be," e.g. 

(1) y OTH.& 6biJiT> MOJIOHOH CbiH-b [u Atsd bit mAtAdoi sin], The father 
had a young son. 

(2) y ny>KHKa 6bijn> cxapwft OMT> [u musika bit stari dom], The 
peasant had an old house. 

(3) y nero 6biJi-b ^Miibifi 6pai"b [u iiavo bit umni brat], He had an 
intelligent brother. 

(4) y HHX-b 6bijn> xop6miii xji-feOi. [u nfx bit xAr6Ji xisp], They had 
the good bread. 

(b) To give the present tense of the phrases in (a) the verb is 
simply omitted, e.g. 

y OTija MOJIOJJOH CbiHt [u Atsa mAtAdoi sin], The father has a young son. 

(c) The usual interrogative form is : 

BbiJi-b JIH y Hero? etc. [bil ii u nav6], Was there to him ? i.e. Had he ? 
ECTL JIH y Hero xji-feS-b? etc. [jest ii u iievo xlep ?], Is there to him, i.e. 
Has he the bread ? 

25. In examples (3) and (4) of the last paragraph notice y Hero 
and y HHXT>. The oblique cases of the third personal pronoun when 
governed by any preposition always have this H prefixed. We 
say y nero [u 119 vo], in his possession, etc., but y ero oxua [u jovo 
Atsa], in his father's possession, because it is oma, not ero, that is 
governed by the preposition. 


xopouiitt [xAroJi], good (the most onHaJKjibi [Adxu^di], once 

general equivalent) pa3T> [raz, ras], once 

3flOp6Bbitf [zdArovT], healthy % JJJIH [dia, dlA],/br -| , 

6ojibH6tt [bAilnoI], ill, sick 663-b [bes, bas], without [ gov 

qacxo [tjastA], often y [u], at 
ecxb [jesi],there is, there are, there exist 

26 LESSON V 45 


A. Translate : 

(1) JJjiH MajibHHKa. (2) Beat cxapHKa. (3) V ap^ra. (4) V 
ner6. (5) JUJIH MCHH; y HHXT>; JJJIH xe6ri. (6) J^JIH Kor6? (7) V 
Kor6? (8) Eea-b xe6rf. (9) Y oxua. (10) Ran oxua. (11) Tfl-fe 
HtiiJTb a66pbift cxapwft npyrb oxua? (12) Hxo CM^ najn> xeoft 
oxeui>? (13) OjjHajKflbi OHT> najit HejiOB-EKy xop6uiift 6-fejiutt HOMT. 
(14) KOM^ OHT> CKaaaji-b axo? (15) JI-fexoM-b axox-b MajibHHKi> 6bun> 
qacro y MywHKa. (16) Torna Baun. ^MHtitt apyn. >KHJIT, aatcb. 
(17) 3HM6tt CUHT> xaM-b pa66Tajn> Sea-b oxua. (18) Tw xopoino 3Hajii, 
^TO. (19) Eparb oxua CKaaajii. HMT axo. (20) Kyaa 
qacxo xonrijTb ji-fexoMT>? (21) Moft MOJiOAdtt BHyn-b xendpb y 
(22) Kxo SbiJTb xoraa y xe6)i? (23) V Menii an-fecb a66pwtt 
(24) y axoro My>KHKa 6bijn> Hepnbitt xji'feG'b. (25) CbipT> 
xe6ii, a AJIH HHXT.. (26) OHT> HHKoraa He nrpajrb y MCHH. 
e36 dpyza si HiiKozda He xoduji'b ei> Jirbcb. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The peasant's friend was a kind intelligent man. (2) To whom did 
he give [he gave] the good white bread ? (3) That is for the father. (4) He 
lived then at the son's. (5) He is now without a friend. (6) The black 
bread is for their grandson. (7) In summer he lived at his father's. (8) The 
peasant's kind friend is not a powerful [strong] man. (9) Who gave him that ? 
(10) To whom did he show your old house ? (11) They have a sick son. 
(12) At their friend's. (13) At whose house ? (14) Who is here ? (15) When 
did he live with him ? (16) He lived with me then. (17) He never lived with 
me. (18) There is his friend. (19) Have you a father ? (20) Had he an 
old house ? 


26. -i> is the hard termination for masculine nouns. But there 
are many masculine nouns ending in the nominative case in -b or -ft. 
with corresponding soft terminations in the other cases, e.g. 

nom. oxem> [.viets] ruipb [ten'r], czar rep6tt [cprol], hero 

gen. oxua [.vtsa] uapri [ts.uVil rep6n [c 

dat. oxuyf.vtsy] napib [teAi-ti] rep6io [g 

ace. oxua [Atsn] napri [tsAi-.'i] rep6n [g.>r6JA] 

(a) b is always preceded by a consonant, ft always by a vowel. 

(b) As stated in Par. 16, names of inanimate things have the 
same form for accusative and nominative. 

46 LESSON V 27 

27. Instead of the nom. plur. and the ace. plur., the genitive 
singular * is used after the forms nea [dva], two, Tpn [tri], three, 
HCTLipe [t$ot'ir9], four, e.g. 

jjsa cafla [dva sadA], two gardens. 
Hexbipe cxapHKa [tjatira stArika], four old men. 
uapfl [tri tsArd], three czars. 


pa66xHHKT>, a [rAbotnik], workman MajieHbKiH [maioiiki], small 

ojiem>, fl [Al^n], stag 6ojibni6ii [bA^JoI], big 

u.apb, A [tsa 1 !], czar xpaGpbifi [xrabri], brave r 

capaft, fl [sAral], cart-shed p66Kift [ropki], timid 

repott, fl [cprol], hero Spyron [drugoi], o^er 

ZHBOpe'u'b, 2 pua [dvArsts, dvArtsa], TOJIBKO [to4kA], only 

palace OHH [Ani], they (m. and n.) 

[Adin], one, certain no - ^pann^acKH [pAfrAntsiiski], 
[bAgati], nc/i French, in French 

[bsdni], poor 

A. Translate : 

(1) Be3*b rep6fl. (2) J^Jifl cxapHKa. (3) J^ea cxapHKa. (4) V 
(5) Be3T> OJI^HH. (6) Tpn rep6fl. (7) Bojibmoft capaft. 
(8) Xpa6pBift repoft. (9) CnjibHtift napb. (10) 3nop6BBift 
HHKT>. (11) Mojioa6H CBIH-B ^apH. (12) V Te6ii Gor 

B. Translate: 

(1) E^AHBift MymiiK'L SHajTB repoH. (2) Xpa6pBitt rep6fi n6- 
6pBift qejiOB-BK-b. (3) SHMoft cxapBin padoTHHKi, He qacTO 
BT, ca^-b. (4) JI^TOMT, Baurb 6ojibH6ft CBIHT> JKHJI-B s^-fecb. (5) 
OH-B xen6pB? (6) Y oxna xpn cb'ma; BOXT> OHH! (7) Y 
xen6pb 6neHb MaJieHbKin orop6a-b 6e3-B capan; OHT> He SoraxBitt, HO 
'oqeHb G'feaiiBiH qejiOB'feK'b. (8) Pa3T> CHjibHBifi H.apb ffajiii rep6io 
dojibuiOH noM'b. (9) Y cxapHKa qexB'ipe BHyna. (10) Y ner6 
6ojiBH6tt CBiHi). (11) OHHHT> CBIHT. napa roBOpHjii. xopom6 no- 
$panuy3CKH H HO-P^CCKH, a npyr6ii roBOpHJi-b x6jibKO no-p^ccKH. 
(12) H ero HHKorna ne 3Hajii>. (13) Ta* >KHJI-B COJIBUIOH OJI^HB? 
Jlpyzoii C61H5 eoeopmiz mojibKO no-pyccKu. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) At the father's. (2) The czar's friend. (3) Without the hero. (4) 

For the stag. (5) Two cart-sheds. (6) Three peasants. (7) Four boys. 

1 See Pars. 179, 180. 2 Declined like 


(8) Three palaces. (9) Without whom ? (10) For me. (11) At his house. 
(12) Without him. (13) Without it. (14) The czar had a great palac 
(15) He was never a timid boy. (16) Your friend spoke French, but very 
badly. (17) The stupid man did not often work ; he slept. (18) Where did 
the peasant's son use to go in winter ? (19) For that. (20) Without them. 


28. In negative phrases the genitive of the object is used instead 
of the accusative, e.g. 

fl 3najn> UOMT> [ja znat dom], / knew the house. 

n He anajTb n6Ma [ja 119 znat dom.v], / did not know the house. 

29. The genitive is used also instead of the nominative in the 
negative forms corresponding to the examples given in Par. 24, e.g. 

Y Mend H-ferb xjrfeGa, H-fert capafl [u mana rist xiebA, net SATO j A], 1 
have no bread, no carl-shed. 

This word H'ferb represents 

He ecTb [ne jest], not is. 
ne cyxb [ns suit], not are. 

30. The genitive is used after adverbs of quantity, 1 e.g. 

MH6ro XJi'feo'a [mn6gA xlsbA], much bread (or corn). 
Majio Ji-feca [mdtA USA], little forest. 

31. The forms given in Pars. 29-30 are really all examples of the 
partitive genitive (cf. the French forms je n'ai pas de maison, 
beaucoup de pain). This partitive genitive appears also in 
simple affirmative phrases without any adverb or measure of 
quantity, e.g. 

OHT> HMT> najii> xjrk6a [on jim dot xiebA], He gave them bread, i.e. some 

OHT> HMT> najn> XJi^Gi. [on jim dot xlep], He gave them the bread. 
Cf. French il leur donna du pnin, il leur donna le pain. 

32. The great majority of Russian verbs have the infinitive in 
-TL, e.g. 6biTb [bit], pa66xaTb [rvbotAt]. From this infinitive is 
formed the masculine past tense by changing Tb into JTb, e.g. 

/I;IITI>, /Kiijn. [511, :;It] t to live, lived. 
cnaTb, cnajiii [spij't, spat], to sleep, slept. 
1 See Voi-. XL. 

48 LESSON VI 33 

33. The infinitive is used in many common idioms corresponding 
to our English forms, e.g. 

OHT> xox'feji'b nrpaib [on xAtst igra 1 !,], He wished to play. 
H He Mori, cnaib [ja na mog spc^t], I could not sleep. 


osec-b, 1 Bca [Av6s, Afsd], exits c-feflTb A [sejat], to sow 

HHMenb, H [jetfm&n, a], barley roHHTb 131 A [gAnc^t], to hunt 

ocejrb, 1 cjia [Asot, Asia], ass noHHMaib 131 A [pAiiimdH.], to 
HtT"b [net], no, there is not understand 

na, yes KynHTb [kupit], to buy 

noiCMy? [pAtfamu], why ? xox'feTb A [xAt^ 1 !], to wish 

MaJio (adv.) [mdtA], little ^CTb (irreg.) A [jest], to eat 

CK6jibKO [sko i ikA], how much, how 6biTb [bit], to be 

many jKifrb A [sit], to live etc., see Par. 
HHier6 (gen. of HHqx6) [riitjav6], 32 and Vocab. II 

nothing fl M6n> [ja m6g], / could 
KaK6fi [k,vk61], what ? what sort of? 


A. Give the genitive, dative and accusative of 

oce'jrb, HiMenb, MyjKriKb, capaft. 

B. Translate: 

He has much bread, he has no oats, no garden, no father, no friend, little 
barley, no ass, how much bread ? had he the oats ? have I any bread ? 

C. Translate: 

I did not buy bread, oats, barley, an ass, a house. 

D. Translate : 

(1) He could notl .. 

(2) He wished to / e ' slee P' eat ' hunt the sta ' 

E. Translate: 

(1) T IeTb^pe ocjia. (2) Bea-b nqMen^i. (3) J^JIH ocjia. (4) 
(5) Ebijrb Torna 6neHb ciijibHbift H Coraxbift napb; y ner6 6bijn> 
6ojibin6ft HBOpen-b. (6) y nap A 6bijn> npyr-b-rep6ft. 2 (7) IJapb 
repdio usa ji;6Ma H 6ojibiii6ii ji-fec^b. (8) JI'fexoM'b OHT> xoTfeji-b 
OJICHH. (9) E'b'jmbiii MymHK'b noKaaajiT* eM^ Tpn OJI^HH. 

1 DecUned like 0x6111., note to Par. 14. 

2 Treat these two nouns as one compound noun or as a noun plus an adjective 


(10) MajieHbKift cum. XOX-BJIT, qacxo Hrpaxb, a er6 oxeirjb HC xorBJTb. 

(11) OHT> 6tun> He6oraxbitt HejiOB-BKT>; y ner6 Majio xji-feGa, HO OHB 
C-BHJIT, MH6ro HHMCHH H OBca. (12) 3HM6tt OHT> HC Mon> pa66xaxb. 
(13) CHJILHLIH ijapb xorfejn> Kym'iTb er6 MajieHbnitt KOMI*. (14) V 
MyjKHKa x6jibKO flea china; oflihit cuirb MH6ro pa66xajn>, 
iun;or,u'i HH4er6 HC n^jiajn>, HO OHT> "BJITJ xopomiii xjitSi y 

(15) Oxem> HHKoraa He xorEjrb naTb CM^ xji"B6a. (16) 

ajiT> ocjiy MH6ro oeca. (17) Y Her6 H^TT. JUIMCHH. (18) fl Mon> 

T6jibKO Majio noHHMaxb. 

Omei4i> HUKoeda He xomrbjib damb eMy xjin>6a. 

F. Bonpocbi : 

(1) KaKoit flpyrt 6bijn> y uapn? (2) HTO CM^ najii, uapb? 
(3) CK6jibKO OHT> CM^ najn>? (4) Kora rep6tt xox-feji-b roniixb 
OJICHH? (5) Hxo CM^ noKaaaji-b My>HKT>? (6) Hxo XOX-BJIT* nacxo 
cbiHT> MyjKHKa? (7) Mn6ro JIH OBca y MymHKa? (8) Korna 
ajio pa66xajn>? (9) KaK6Bi> 6bijii> oflHHi> CLIHT>? (10) A 
(11) IIoHeM^ oxem> He XOX^JIT> naxb ^xoMy cb'iny xji^6a? 
(12) Hxo cxapHK-b aaji-L ocjiy? 

G. Translate: 

(1) I did not wish fb buy it. (2) The czar's young friend was hunting 
the stag. (3) Did he see the stag ? (4) No. I do not know why he did 
not understand it. (5) What sort of a house did the man give him ? 


34. Neuter nouns end in -o or -e (-e if accented) and are declined 
thus : 


nom. ceji6 [sat6], village l M6pe [m6r9], sea nnxbe [pitjo], drink 

gen. cejia [s9ta] M6pn [m6rA] HIIXLH fpitja] 

dat. ceji^ [s^tu] M6pro [m6ru] inixi.ib [pitjii] 

ace. ceji6 [s.)t6] M6pe [m6r.] niixi.i 1 I pitjo] 

(a) Nominative singular ends in -o or -e, -e (always accented). 

(b) Genitive and dative have the same endings as the mas- 
culine nouns. 

(c) Accusative has the same form as nominative. 

This is true of all neuter substantives and adjectives. 

1 With a church. 



35. Adjectives like nouns have 

. rmasc. 6-EJibiH [beti], white 

[ (neut. 

rmasc. SoJibHOft [bAnol], sick, ill 
tneut. 6oJibHoe 

SOFTENINGS 3 (masc. ctaitt [sini] blue 

\neut. CHHee [sinaja] 

(a) If the stem ends in K, r, x, >K, H, in, m, ift not bra must 
be written, e.g. M ajieHbKiH [maiaiiki], small 

Similarly we must write ee, not oe, when the o is not accented, 
after >K, % in, m, U, e.g. 

xopomift, xopouiee [xAroJi, xAroJaja], good. 


cejio, a [set6, a], village BKycHbiH [fkusni], nice (to taste) 

Mope, H [mora, A], sea KHCJILIH [kisii], sour 

He6o, a [nebA, A], sky, heaven dmiii [sini], blue 

, a [jabtvkA, A], apple MOH, Moe [mol, mAJo], my, mine 

a [zdarijo, A], building TBOH, TBOG [tvol, tvAJo], thy, thine 

H [pitjo, a], drink KOTOpnii, oe [kAbori, Aja], which 

, A], food naun,, name [naj, ndja], our, ours 
a [tsvst, A], colour * Bami., Bame [vaj, vdje], your, yours 

[pAtom], then, thereupon ^TOTT>, ^TO [stAt, etA], this, that 

BOTT> noneM^ [vot pAtfemu], that is TOTT>, TO [tot, to], tlwt 

why OJJH6 (neuter of OAHHT)) [Adno], one, 

cn-BJibift [spsti], ripe - a certain 

YqeHbe 1 CB-Erb, a neyq^Hbe 3 TbMa [ut|6nJ8 svst, A nautj^iija 
tmd], Learning is light, but ignorance is darkness. 

A. Translate : 

(1) BK^CHOG H^JIOKO. (2) CHHitt ^BBT'b ne6a. (3) Ci'mee Mope. 
(4) B'fejioe n66o. (5) Cri'fejioe aGjiOKo. (6) MaJienbKoe sjiaHie. 
(7) Xopoinitt cbipT> H xopduiee nuTbe. (8) Box'b TBoe cn'fejioe 
H6JIOKO. (9) Hauie xopoinee K^nianbe. (10) KHCJioe nuibe. (11) 
Bame 6ojibmoe cejio. (12) 5xo s^anie 6ojibui6tt aBOpeni,, Kox6- 
pbift flaji-b repoio ciiJibHbiH uapb. (13) MaJieHbKift cbiHT> np^ra 

6bIJTb 3flOp6Bblft MaJIb^KKX; OHT> 'BJI'b ^TO 60JIbUl6e H6JIOKO, KOTOpOC 
TbI MH^ JtaJITi. (14) nOT6MT> OHT> XOT'EJI'b HrpaTb. (15) 

nrpaji-b H nprirajTb; BOTT, noHCM^ H HHKor^^ ne MOFT, cnaxb. 

OH-b xomrbji"b uepamb. 
1 Also spelt -ie. 

36-38 LESSON VIII 51 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) A ripe apple. (2) Tasty food and drink. (3) Blue sky. (4) For the 
village. (5) Without food and without drink. (6) Our little village. (7) My 
good food. (8) His sour drink. (9) My old village. (10) Your timid 
old father. (11) The colour of the apple. (12) What was the peasant's 
son eating ? A nice ripe apple. (13) At his father's. (14) At their house. 
(15) The blue sea. (16) That large building is not his house. (17) That is 
the czar's palace ; his son used to live there in winter. (18) When did the 
man use to go [when the man went] to work ? (19) When did the little boy 
eat the good food ? (20) He never had food and drink [H GhUio]. 1 (21) The 
great palace that used to be there. (22) That is why he worked little and 
played a great deal. (23) The poor man who did not know the friend's house. 
(24) Four villages. Two apples. Three heroes. Two colours. 

C. Give the genitive, dative, and accusative of 

ri6jiOKO, nBopeirL, OBCC-L, ne6o. 


36. The neuter singular of the past tense ends in -o, e.g. 

masc. OHT> 6MJIT> [on bit], he (it) was. 
neut. on6 2 GLIJIO [AHO btt.v], it was. 

37. Reflexive verbs are very numerous in Russian. Sometimes 
they may be rendered literally ; sometimes they are employed 
where we should use the passive voice ; sometimes they correspond 
tq English neuter verbs ; sometimes they do not admit of a literal 
translation at all. 

38. upaBHTbCfl [nrdvitsA], to be pleasing, is a common reflexive 
verb ; the syllable -ca is a contraction for ce6a meaning self. The 

past tense is 

masc. HpaBHJiCH [nrd vitsA], was pleasing, 
neut. npaBHJiocb [nravitAs], was pleasing. 

(a) The T> after the Ji is absent from the masculine form, (b) -CH 
is written -Cb after the vowel in the neuter. 

The word is used thus : 

STOTB HOMT> CMV upaoiuicn [et.vt dom nrnvitsA], This (that) house 
was pleasing to him, i.e. fie liked this house. 

1 Note the accentuation in H 

1 end is not so frequently used as OHT, ; its place is often taken by STO, TO, this, 


And so ' / did not like the village ' is ' The village did not please me,' i.e. 
GeJi6 MITB HenpaBHJiocb [seto miis nanraviiAs], the thing or person liked 
being the subject of the Russian verb, while the name of the person who 
is pleased is in the dative case : 

HMT> HenpaBUJiocb [etA jim nanrdvitAs], They did not like that. 

39. The dative is governed by certain prepositions, e.g. Kt 
(KO) [k, ko, kAJ, towards : 

KT> 0X11$ [kAtsii], towards the father. 
KT> HHMTj [knim], towards them, to them. 
KO MH-E [kA mns], towards me, to me. 

Note. KO is used instead of KT> before words beginning with a combination 
of consonants difficult to pronounce ; K, M and H together would be rather 
awkward ; the o is inserted after K. 


KHfl3b, fl [knas], prince HpaBHXbCfl A [nrdvitsA], to be pleas- 
, fl [madv^t], bear ing 

[savpdnA], to-day, lit. of this * comaji'BHie [sA3AlenJ9], regret 

day Kb comaji^niio [kflAjAlinjul to one's 

[domuv], at home (with verbs of regret, unfortunately 

rest) B"b Jl'BC'b [vlss], into the forest (ace.) 

HTO [pAtAmujtA], because BT. Jitcy [vlasii], in the forest (Par. 46) 

BHjrliTb A [vidat], to see BT> caai> [fsat (d)], into the garden 

HHr-B [nigds], nowhere BT> ca^ [fsAdii], in the garden 


A. Add the necessary terminations where they are lacking in the 
following phrases : 

(1) Mo- oxen;- xenepb oneHb cxap- ^ICJIOB-BK-. (2) Hain- 
n66p- apyr-b. (3) Bain- xoponi- Kyuianb-. (4) 3x- G-BJI- xji-feS-b. 
(5) Ero cn-BJi- fl6jioK-. (6) Mo- KI^CJI- nnxbe. (7) OHT, xo^HJi-b 
BT> 6ojibiii- Jl'BC'b. (8) OHO 6biji- BT> cajiy. (9) H xoju^Ji'b KT> Mop- 
(10) OHT. XO^HJIT, K- MH-B. (11) 5x- HJIOX- nnxbe. (12) HepH- 
XJi-feS-b. (13) Xop6ui- OBec-b. (14) MaJienbK- H6jiOKO. (15) Ma- 
jienbK- oceji-b. (16) KT> OTII-. (17) V oxn-. (18) JJjm 6pax-. 
(19) Y cxapnK-. (20) Tpn cejt-. (21) Hexbip- capa-. (22) Y 
rep6-. (23) Ham- rjiyn- MajieT^bK- cbiHT>. (24) H xo^HJiT) KT> 
My>KHK-. (25) 5xo MH-B HpaBHn-. (26) Haiiie CHH- ne6o 
i-. (27) Be3T> nnxb-. 

40 LESSON IX 53 

B. Translate: 

(1) Crinitt UB-fex-b Mopn ii ne6a MH-B 6qeHb upaBHjicn; 6oJibui6tt 


npaBHJiocb. (2) Cer6nHH ojjHH-b HejiOB-EK-b XOX-BJIT> BHfl-EXb 

BT> jrfccy. (3) Kiinab, jipyrb uaprt, roiiAjii* MeflB-fean. (4) 3xo 

My>KHK*b. (5) nox6ivrb H BHjj'kji'b 3xoro qejios'BKa BT> 
. (6) KT> cojKajrBiiiio y My>KHK 6ojibn6tt MajienbKiit CUHT>; 

OHT> 6bun> y ^xoro cxapuKa, Koxdputt BT> caa^ pa66xajii>. 

(7) BK^CHOC nymanbe CM^ npaBHJiocb, HOXOM^ HXO OHT> xox'tjii. *BCXb. 

(8) Bojibiij6e aaanie, Kox6poe xw xaMT> Btiniun*, HBOp^ui, KH^SH. (9) 
M6ft ap^n> ne Jt6\ia xen^pb . ( 10) KT> co>Kaji'BHiio H er6 oxu^ HHrfl-fe HC 
Mon> Biia-fexb; OHT> HHKOFH^ n6 6biJTb 1 6Ma. (11) Box-b OHT> xen6pb. 

Bojibiuoe sdanie, Komopoe mil mctMi> eudrbjiz, deopei^b i\apn. 

C. Bonpocbi : 

(1) Hxo xe6i npaBHjiocb? (2) Hxo xeG'B HenpaEHjiocb? (3) Hxo 
xoxijn. BHfl-fexb nejiOB-BK-b? (4) KoFfla OHI, er6 xox-feji-b Blifl-fexb? 

(6) Tfl-fe GbiJi-b MeaB'Bflb? (6) KaK6BT> y My>KHK cbiHT>? (7) j^bMa 
JIH OHT> cer6nHH? (8) noHCM^ xbi HC Mon> BHjvfexb er6 oxua? 

(9) Kor6 xw HC Mon> BHfl-fexb? 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1) I wished to see my friend to-day, but unfortunately he was not at 
home ; that is why I could not see him. (2) In summer he often used to go 
towards the sea, because he liked the blue sea. (3) The little village that I 
saw there, I did not like. (4) The intelligent boy gave the old man tasty 
food and drink. (5) Did he wish to see the little building that you [thou] 
showed me ? (6) There is the great palace where the czar's friend lived ! 

(7) Why was the poor man sowing oats ? (8) He gave a lot of oats to this 
ass. (9) Had he not a kind friend ? * 

* Pars. 123, 124 may be studied at this point and the future tense be 
practised with any A verb. 


40. The word xottHJit, past tense of XOHHTL, has been frequently 
used. It means * one was in the way of going,' ( one icas in the habit 
of going* as when we say in English, * When he was young, not every 
boy went to school.' If we wish to say that ' one was actually going,' 
as when we say in English, ' He was going along the street when that 
happened, we must use the Russian verb 

masc. OHij uicjiTj [on jot], '. OHO njJio [ADO Jto]. 

1 Note the accentuation in 




41. Notice the following idioms illustrating the use of the in- 
finitive : 

HTO a r BJiaTb? [Jto detit], What is to be done ? 

HTO MITE (CM^) JTEJiaTb? [Jto mns (jamu) dstvt], What am I (is he] to do? 

B03MO>KHO JIH pa60TaTb JI'ETOM'b BT> Jll^Cy? [VAZm03IlA li TAbotAt 

istAm viasii], Is it possible to work in the forest in summer ? 

Hejibsa pa66TaTb SHMOIO (-OH) BT> JTBC^ [nalza TAb6tAt zim6ju (61) 
vlasu], It is impossible to work in the forest in winter. 

42. Four cases of the noun have been given. But there are 
altogether six cases in Russian. (Only one or two nouns have 
a special form for the Vocative.) The remaining two are the 
Instrumental and Prepositional. 

Their endings are identical for masculine and neuter nouns, viz. 


instr. OMT> CMI> (eMt if accented) 

prep, "fe 'fe 

43. The complete declension in the singular of the five types of 
nouns is, therefore, as follows : 

(The plurals are printed here, but as no plural forms will be used before 
Lesson XX., they need not be learned at this point.) 







Plur. Sing. 

nom. OT^iib 


gen. oxua 

OTu6BT> cejia 

dat. OTIT^ 

OTizaMi. cejiy 

ace. oxija 


i nstr. OTitOM'b 1 [Atsom] 

OTEtaMH cejiOMT) [sat6m] 

prep. OTITB [Atse] 

OTuax-b ceji^ [sals] 




Plur. Sing. 

nom. u;apb 

ijapri repott 


dat. ijapib 

ace. uapA 

instr. ixapeMT> [tsArom] 

prep. uap'B [tsArs] 




rep6eM-b [garojam] 

repot [cpr6ja] 

1 After >K, q, in, m, a, unaccented o never appears : its place is taken by e, 
e.g. c-b TOB&pHmeMt [stAvdrijtjQm], with the companion. 

44 LESSON IX 55 


Sing. Plur. 

nom. Mope MOJJH 

gen. Mopn M0p6tt 1 

dat. Mopio 
ace. Mope 

instr. M6peMT [m6ram] mup/unn v , 

prep. M6p-E l [m6ra] MOpHXT, Y 

(a) It must be remembered that masculine names of inanimate things 
have the same form in the accusative as in the nominative. 

44. The instrumental case is used after certain prepositions, e.g. 
CT> MajibHHKOMT> [smaHtfikAm], with the boy 
co 2 MHOK) (MH6ft) [sAmnoju (mn6l)], with me 
nepejTB ceJi6MT> [perat sat6m], before the milage 
3a CTOJi6MT> 3 [zAstAtom], behind the table 


TOBapniiTL, a [tAvarijtJ], companion Morynift [mAgutJi], powerful 

fl6MHKT>, a [doiiiik], little house nepeB^HHbitt [daravanl], wooden 

MimricTp-b [ihinfstr], minister KaM6HHbift [kamanij, of stone 

CTOJIT., a [stot, sUta], table co MHOK) [sAmnoju], with me 

Kopdjib, H [kAro 1 !], king CT> To66io (oti) [stAb6ju (bol)], with 
py6jlb, H [rup, rubla], rouble thee 

Macjio, a [mastA], butter ct HHMT> [snim], with him, with it ' 

OKH6, a [Akn6, a], window CT HUMII [sniihij, with them 

KP^CJIO, a [ki-sstA, A], arm-chair CT> ^THMT* [setim], with this (adj. or 
CTOHTb A [stAJd^], to stand pron.) 

cx6HTb A [stoit], to cost, be worth cirfeMt[stem],M^ ^(adj.orpron.) 

[krAsfvi], beautiful CT> K-BMT>? [skem], with whom ? 

[nakrAsivi], not pretty, H-BMT,? [tjem], with what ? 

ugly o6biKHOBCHHO [AbiknAvenA], usually 


A. Give the dative, accusative, and instrumental of 

rep6tt, HBopeuyb, pyCjib, Macno, co>Kaji-Bnie. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Towards me, thee, him, that, whom, the table, the boy. (2) Into 
[requires the accusative] the garden, house, fon -st , village. (3) Behind me, 1 1 
him (it), that, whom, the bulking. (4) With the father, e/.ar, hero, sea, man, 
stag. (5) For me, them, thee, him (it), that, whom, the little house [one word]. 

1 Nouns in -ie like aaAnie have prep. sing, in -ia and gen. pi. in -ill. 

* See note to KO in Par. 39. 

3 This is the Russian phrase for at table. With verbs of motion aa and nepe;n> 
require the accusative. 

56 LESSON X 45 

C. Translate : 

(1) Moryqift KHH3b CT> MHHHCTPOMT.. (2) BKycHbift xji-fe6i> Seat 

Macjia. (3) Cn'BJioe aSjioKO eMy HenpaBHJiocb. (4) Ero 
jrpyrb >KHJIT> sa JTECOMi.. 1 (5) OAHO Kpecjio CTOHJIO nepeat OKHOivrb, 
a jrpyroe CTOHJIO y ciojia (nepejrb CTOJi6MT>). (6) STOT'B CTOJIT> He 
CTOHJIT, HeTbipe py6jiH. (7) MajieHbKiii MajibHHK'b Hrpajn> CT> 
TOBapumeM-b B-b cany. (8) E'fejiHbra cbim, CTOHJIT, CT> OT^6M'b 

nepCH-b 6THMT, OKHOM-b. (9) C-b K-BMl, OHT> UieJTb KT, MOpIO? (10) V 

Memi SbiJiij Toraa KaMeHHbift aoMHK'b CT> capaeM^. (11) 
CTOHJIO 5xo aepeBjhraoe Kpecjio? (12) y Kopojia 

cmoujio 9mo depeeaHnoe Kpecjio? 

D. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) Why was the boy's companion standing [why stood, etc.] behind the 
arm-chair ? (2) I saw him when he was going towards the house. (3) When 
did you see [thou sawest] the father with his son ? (4) I told you [thee] that. 
(5) Was he going towards the window ? (6) In summer I used often to go 
into that wood. (7) The boy's father is there now with (his) companion. (8) 
He was going towards him. (9) The peasant's son was never with me at table. 
(10) How much was that little house worth ? (11) The wooden table, that 
used to stand before the window, was worth only three roubles. (12) To-day 
I saw the boy's companion. (13) Why was he there to-day ? (14) Did you 
[thou] see the little stone house behind the garden ? (15) No, I was never in 
the garden. (16) He used often to go towards the sea. (17) The great stone 
building that you saw there was not their palace. (18) Once he was going 
home with them. (19) (With) what did he usually do that ? (20) Before 
whom was he standing ? (21) What is he to do ? (22) He never saw the 
man ; that is why he could not tell you where he (was). (23) It is 
impossible to speak with his friend. (24) Is it possible to work in the forest 
in winter ? 


45. The Prepositional case is never found without a preposition : 
hence its name. Prepositions requiring this case are : o (written 
also o6t and 660), Ha, BT>, npn, e.g. 

OHT> rOBOpHJi'b o flOM'fe [on gAVArft A doma], He was speaking of the 

1 Note the accentuation. 

46 LESSON X 57 

66O l MHli, O TC6ij, O HCMT), O6T 2 6TOMT>, O TOMt [AbAmn, Atabl, Ah6m, 

AbetAm, At6m], of, about, concerning me, thee, him, //*/.?, that. 
na CTOJI'B [no BtAJI], on the table. 
BT> oropdjTE [vAgArdda], in the kitchen-garden. 

BO l MH'B, BT> TCG-B, BT> HCMt, B"b $TOMT>, BT> TOMT> [VAmiig, ftal>6, VllOm, 

vetAm, ftom], in me, in thee, in him, in this, in that. 

npil HCMT> [pri riom], in his entourage, in his presence. 

46. A number of very common masculine nouns, nearly all 
monosyllabic, have a form in -y following the prepositions BT> and 
Ha. BT> Ji'fecy 3 and BT> cany have already been given in the 
Vocabulary to Lesson VIII. Such are 

na nojiy [nApAtu], on the floor. 

na 6eper^ [nAbafagu], on the shore. 

na sepxy [iLvvafxti], on top. 

Ha Jiyry^ [n.vtugd], on the meadow. 

na MOCT^ [iLvmAstti], on the bridge. 

Bt ron$ [vgAdii], in the year. 

BT> UB-fex^ [ftsvatti], in bloom. 

(a) The y is always accented in these phrases. 


., a [vjest, zdA], entrance ryjiriTb 131 A [gulc^t], to go walking 

no.Tb, a [pot], floor (for pleasure) 

6epen>, a [berak, gA], bank, shore * K^niaxb 131 A [kii/At], to eat 

Bepxi>, a [vsrx], top part nocjiaxb [pAstd't], to send 

rdffb, a [god (t), cU], year cxpdHTb A [str6it], to build 

Jiyr-b, a [tuk], meadow OHT> noinejiT> [on pA/dt], he went 

M6crb, a [most], bridge (once) 

nep6, a [paro], pen jiewaTb A ^30*1], to lie, recline 

o, 061., 660 [o, A, Ab (Ap), 6bA], HaKOH^ui, [n^vkAiists], at last, in the 

about, of, concerning end 

BT> (BO) [v, f, VA, vo], in qT66bi [J'tobl], in order thai ' 

Ha [nA, no], on TO'/HC [t3.], also 

npii [pri], near, at, in the time of Tair/Ke [tuj3o], also 

o HIIXT> [Ai'iix], about them npii caM<>Mi, B*b r B3fl'B [pri suniAm 

O KOMT>? [Akom], about whom ? vj6z<l->], near, at the very entrance 

o U ; MT>? [AtjomJ, about aaH'liMTj? [zAt/em], with what object? . 

131 A [diimAt], to think why ? 

.; note to KO in Par. 3U. * Used before vo\\- 
3 C'f. m, .-ri.n, in Vocabulary to Lesson IJ. 

58 LESSON X 46 


A. Translate into Russian : 

(1) He was speaking of you [thee], him, me, that, this, the floor, the bridge, 
the shore, the garden, the forest, the window, the companion, the sea, the 
regret. (2) The pen was lying on the table, on the bridge, on the floor. 

(3) I was walking on the shore, in the garden, in the kitchen-garden, in the 
forest ; he was with me [in my presence]. 

B. Translate : 

(1) OftHITb CHJIbHblft Ijapb CTpOHJTB SOJIbUIOH KaMeHHblH iUBOpeiTb. 

(2) IlepeiU'b ^THMt SAanieMij 6tui'b o^enb KpaciiBLiii cant. (3) Ho 
npn caMOMi) BT/feaft-E BT> ca^i) CTOHJIT> MajieHLKin nepeBHHHbift aoMHKb. 

(4) STO HenpaBHjiocb ijapib. (5) BT> 3TOMT> SOMHK'B JKHJIT> 
MymHK'b, a CT> HHMT> er6 oxen;!.. (6) JlijToivrb ijapb qacio 

CT> MHHHCTpOM-b BT> Cafl^. (7) Pa3I> OETb TOBOpHJIT, C"b T 

o TOM-L MymnK-B. (8) HaKonen-b ^apb nocjiajn, MHHHerpa KI> 

MyJKHKy', HTO6bI OHT> KynHJITj CTapblH JliOMHK'b. (9) Kor^a MHHHCTpt 

nonjeji"b BT> oropo.!];!), nejiOB^KT* He 6biJiT> aoMa; OHT 
Torji;a BT> jrkcy. (10) GxapHK'b Tanme n6 6bijn> aoivia, a 

OHCHb MaJICHbHift CbIHT> MyJKHKa ^HJI-b 3a CTOJl6MT>. (11) 

HepHbift xji-feSt CT> MacjioM-b, a KT> comaji-BHiio TOTT, MajibqHKT, ne 
Mori> cKaaaxb MHHHcxpy, rA'fe xor^a GbiJi-b OTe^'b. (12) HTO 

C. Bonpocti : 

(1) HTO cxpoHJiT) i^apb? (2) HTO CTO^JIO nepejt'b 
(3) KTO JKHJII* BT> ^TOMT* AOMHK'fe? (4) OflHH'b [alone; by himself] 

JIH OHT> TaMT> H^HJIT>? (5) Tjlfc TyjIflJIT. Itapb? (6) GT> K'BM'b OHT> 

ryjiHJii.? (7) O KOMT> oirb roBOpHjn> ojiiHajKjiibi? (8) Ky^a ijapb 

nOCJiaJI-b MHHHCTpa? (9) 3a^M-b? (10) Kor6 MHHHCTpI> 

y MyjKHKa? (11) IloqeM^ MyjKHK-b ne 6burb 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The old man's wooden house used to stand at the very entrance to [BI> 
with ace.} the king's beautiful stone palace. (2) The powerful king wished to 
buy that little house. (3) One day the king was walking with the minister and 
saw the peasant at work [saw how the peasant worked] in the garden. (4) The 
peasant saw the minister and sent his son to him. (5) When the king's 
minister was on the bridge, the peasant's son, who was not a stupid boy and 
spoke Russian very well, went towards him and said to him, "The little house 
was grandfather's \use y with genit.~\. He never wished to give it to the king." 





47. The pronouns that have been introduced in Lessons I to X 






a, I 

MCH, of me 
Mirk, etc. 


Second Third 

TH, thou OHT>, OH6, llA, it 

Te6ri, etc. (n)er6, etc. 
Te6-B (n)eM^ 

Te6ri (n)er6 

To(56io (6ft) (H)HMT. 


OHI'I, they 1 \ 
(H)HXT>, of them, their 
(H)HMT>, to tJiem 
(H)HXT>, etc. 



M6ft, MOC, my, mine Hauii., name, our, ours 

TBOft, TBoe, thy, thine Baiin>, same, your, yours 

For the third person there is no possessive : er6, 2 the genitive of OHT>, is 
used as the equivalent of his or its ; HXT>, genitive plural of OHM, stands 
for their. 

Masc. Neut. Masc. Neut. 

nom. TOTT> TO, that ^TOTT, TO, this 










or Tor6 




Masc. Neut. 

KOT6pbift KOT6poe, which, that ; which ? 

KOT6pbift (inanimate) KOT6poe 

Singular and Plural 

KTO? 8 who ? *ITO? 3 what ? which f 

Kor6 ner6 

KOM^ 'U'.MV 

Kor6 HTO 


Fern, form is oirli. 

' See Les3on X XIX for use of'cu6fl. 

3 This word is also used as a relative 

60 LESSON XI 47 

Masc. Neut. 

nom. KaK6BT>? KaKOB6? of what sort ? 

ace. KaKOBTi (inanimate) KaKOBO 

nom. KaKOH? (attrib. adj.) KaKOC? of what sort ? which ? 

ace. KaK6ft (inanimate) KaK6e 


HHKTO [nixto], no one, and HHHTO [nijt6], nothing, are declined like KTO 
and I ITO, e.g. in the genitive case they have the form HHKor6, HHqer6 
[nikAvo, iiitjavo]. When compounded with prepositions the negative particle 
is separated from the pronoun by the preposition, e.g. HH CT> K'EM'L 
[niskem], HH o neivrb [iiiAtJom], with no one, about nothing. 

The forms KTO-TO [xto-tA], KTO-jra6o [xto-libA], KTO-miS^TJb [xto- 
nibuit], and HTO-TO [Jt6-tA], nxo-Jindo [Jto-libA], qxo-HH6^b [/to-nibu^], 
standing for some one, any one and something, anything, are in very 
frequent use, but in this book the forms given in this paragraph (E) will be 
little used except HHKTO and HH*ier6. 


A. Supply the proper forms of 

fl, TbI, OH-b, 3TO, KTO, HTO, TOTT> 

after each of the prepositions 

JIH, n6peni>, KTb, na, o, ci>. 

B. Translate : 

y Memi; 6e3i> Kor6?; o qeM-b?; aa MHOIO; y Te6a; 6e3i, nero; 
CT> K-feM-b?; o HCM-B; BT> TeQ^; ci> ToSoio; na qe'Mi>?; o KOM-B OHT> TOBO- 
PHJII>?; o He'Mt?; KOM^ OH-B ^TO roBopHJit?; CT> ^THMt; KT> 
KaKOBO OLIJIO ^TO 3j;aHie?; nepo, KOTOpoe jiemajio TaMi>; 
aoMT>, KOTOpbiH CTojii> npH B'b'Ba^; KaKOBi, 6bijn> er6 CbiHT>?; Tbi 
noineji-b KT> neiwy; TEM-b?; K-bcomajiiniio; a HHKoraHe CKasajiT, STOFO. 
a. HUK03da HB CKaacuib ^mo^o. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The great bridge that you saw yesterday. (2) That black arm-chair 
that used to stand before the window. (3) Where was his palace ? (4) What 
was on the floor ? (5) Who had a friend ? (6) Your oats. (7) His corn. 
(8) At their house. (9) Who told him that ? (10) What did he tell you 
[thee] ? (11) Forme. (12) Without him. (13) With you [thee]. (14) For 
him. (15) About me. (16) With what ? [no preposition required : use in- 
strumental]. (17) What was I speaking about ? (18) I did not know that. 
(19) He did not know you [thee]. (20) Our building; your companion; 
his table ; that butter ; my food ; his drink. (21) Behind it. (22) I liked 
it. (23) You liked it. (24) He liked it. (25) He never saw it. 



48. Nouns that preserve throughout the singular the accent of 
the nominative, e.g. flint, rfjua ; oropom>, oropojja. 

fl-feAT> JTBCT. o.H'HI, 

CHHT> XJI-feG-b 




TOBapmirb Mocrb Mdpe 

npyrt Bepxi> l 


pa66THHKT> BT^3aT> CCJl6 

,i<>M F> 6eperi> OKHO 

nojii> capatt 

flOMHKi, rep6ft 

Jiyn> KHH3B 

The forms in -y after BT> or Ha (see Par. 46) are exceptional. 
49. Nouns which have the accent on the termination, e.g. 

CTapHKT>, CTapHKa. 





50. Observe that no neuter nouns occur in the second list : in 
neuter nouns the accent does not change in the singular. 

51. The PREPOSITIONS that have already occurred are : 

with the genitive : 6e3T>, y, jyia 

dative: in> (KO) 

accusative: BT>, 2 na, 2 3a 8 

instrumental: sa, 8 CT (co), n6peT> 3 (n^peno) 

prepositional: o, BT> 2 (BO), na,- npii 

1 nrpxdMT. [verx6m] with the verb -fcxarb means as the top, astride a horse, 
mounted. * See Lesson XV. 

* With verbs of motion governs the accusative. 

62 LESSON XII 62-54 


52. Feminine nouns end in 

-a, e.g. Jiana [tapA], paw 
-H, e.g. HHHH [nanA], nurse 
-B, e.g. HOHB [not$], night 

53. Nouns in -a and -H are declined thus : 


Sing. Plur. Sing. Plur. 

nom. Jiana [to PA] jianbi HHHH [ndnA] 

gen. Jianbi [tdpi] JiaiTB HHHH [ndni] 

dat. Jian^ [tape] JianaMTi H^H-fe [nana] 

ace. Jiany [tapu] Jianti HHHK) [ndnu] HHHB 

. rjianott [tapAl] jianaivra (HflHett [ndiiel] HHHHMH 

r ' \JianoK) [lapAJu] (Hflneio [ndnaju] 

prep. Jiant [tdpa] Jianaxi, nAwk [none] H^KHXT, 

Note. ^The plurals need not be learned at this point, as no plural forms 
will be used before Lesson XX. 

(a) After K, r, x, >K 5 H, in, m, the vowels H, a, K) never appear ; 
they are replaced by H, a, y, e.g. 

coSana [sAbdkA], a dog 
gen. coSaKH [sAbdki] 

(b) After JK, H, in, m, ij, unaccented o never appears ; it is 
replaced by e, e.g. 

K6ca [ko5A], leather, hide 
instr. K6>Kett (eio) ^659! (9Ju)] 

nTHita [ptitsA], 6ir^ 
instr. HTHueii (eio) [ptitsai (aju)] 

(c) For the declension of nouns in -in see Poccin in 
Voc. XXXIV. Dat. and prep. sing, in -in ; gen. pi. in -ift. 

54. Some nouns accented on the termination draw back the 
accent in the accusative, e.g. 

Bo;na [vAdd], water 
ace. e6fl;y [v6du] 

55-66 LESSON XIII 63 


aMa, LI [ddmA, I], lady IUH, H [JeJA, Jei], neck 

co6ana, H [BAbdkA, i], dog sona, LI [vAdd, i], water 

K6uiKa, H [k6JkA, i], cat nxriua, LI [ptitsA, i], bird 

[ [5enJt|inA, I], woman ona [And], she 

i, H [stu^dnkA, i], servant uoA (fern.) [mAJd], my, mine 

cecxpa, LI [sstrd, i], sister xsori (fern.) [tvAJd], thy, thine 

66ymKa,H[bdbuJkA,i],<7rawdwio<Aer eA (not an adjective: genitive o/ona) 

l, H [devAtJkA, i], little girl [jaj6 PJd]. of her, her, hers 

[, H [ndi'iA, i], child's nurse nauia 1 [nd/A], our, ours 

Jiana, LI [tdpA, i], paw Baiiia [vd/A], your, yours 

K6>Ka, H [ko3A, i], skin, leather xa; xa [etA, ta], this; that 

Translate into Kussian : 

Without water, at the grandmother's, for the nurse, towards the lady, 
into the water, behind the servant, with the cat, in front of the dog, about the 
lady, in the water, on the neck, your dog, our cat, her servant, her father, she 
is our servant, the boy's nurse, the servant's son, his dog's neck, that lady, the 
colour of the bird, the grandmother's house, the girl's bread, for the woman, 
with the woman, she is my nurse, she is not his sister. 

The little boy lived in that house with his grandmother. He was 
speaking of his sister. The nurse has two [HB"fe, fern.] cats and a dog. 
What did he tell the lady [dat.] about her servant ? I did not know the 


55. Feminine adjectives end in -an or -HH. The full form of the 
nominative singular of the adjective is therefore : 


M. 6oraTbift [bA^dti] F. 6oraxan [bAcjdtAJ.?] N. 6oraToe[bAgdtAJf],rtcA 
M. 6oJibH6tt [bA'ln6i] F. 6ojiLHan [b.vMndJA] N. 6ojiLH6e [bA'inop], ill 

M. cmiitt [sini] F. CI'IHHH [Ain..j.] N. crinee [*fn-j.>], blue 

56. The complete nominative singular of OHHHT> is : 
n;ifnn>, ojjua, OHH6 [Ailin, \dn<i, Adn6], one, a certain, alone. 

' l The complete declension of naun> and the other possessives will be found in 
Pars. 104, 106. 



Ka [kusok, kuska], piece aHrjiificmfi [angliski or angliski], 
Bejupo, a [vadr6], pail English 

MHCO, a [rhdsA], meat <|>paHH.y3CKiH [frAntsiiski], French 

HHCTbift [tjisti], clean ecTb [jest], there is, there are 

rpfl3Hbifi [grdzni], dirty ecTb JIH? [jest H], is there? are 
pyccKift [riiski], Russian there ? 

A. Translate : 

(1) YcoSaKHKycoK-bMHca. (2) E-EJiafljianaKOiiiKH. (3) Grapaa 
HHHH H-BBOHKH. (4) V Hero Soraxafl 6a6yuma. (5) fl66pafl 
pyccKan jjaMa ct jjiBOHKOH BT> ca;n^. (6) San^Mt nepnafl Kouma 
na CTOJTE? (7) Ona Tenepb na nojiy\ (8) H BHju'BJi'b aaMy CT> 
co6aKoii BT> Jitcy^. (9) MajieHbKift pyccKitt Majib^HKi* nrpajiii CT> 
HHHeio na Mocxy. (10) y KOUIKH KpacHBafl uiefl. (11) 
MOH MOJioaan cecxpa na Jiyr^. (12) HTO OHT> ceroHH aajrb 
(13) H ne roBopnjTb o co6aK-fe. (14) Xopomift xjrfed-b Seai, Macjia 
H Mflca HenpaEHJicfl cJiyjKaHK^. (15) TpHsnaH Boaa BT> Beap-fe; 
HHCTan Bo^a B-b caj$\ 

Fpfi3HaH eoda es eedprb; micmasi eoda e& cady. 

B. Translate: 

(1) There is another dog behind the arm-chair. (2) The Russian peasant 
was eating a piece of bread and [say with] butter. (3) His son used to live in 
summer at his grandmother's. (4) I never knew her grandmother. (5) The 
young man went towards the lady ; he was Russian but he spoke French and 
English very well. (6) I have one servant ; she is my old nurse. (7) The 
woman's dirty house did not please him. (8) Did you see the dog's paw ? 
(9) I did not see his dog anywhere [I nowhere not saw]. (10) There it is. 
(11) Why was your little sister standing in front of the house ? (12) She 
was playing with the cat, that is why she was in the garden. (13) It is 
possible to work hi the house without a servant. (14) What is the woman 
to do ? (15) It was impossible to sleep, because the boy was playing with 
(his) brother and sister in the garden. (16) Has the boy two sisters ? [ecTb 
JIH y etc.]. 

1 Declined like oxem> : the o disappears in every case except the nominative 

57-59 LESSON XIV 65 


57. The feminine form of the past tense ends in -Jia, e.g. 

Ona n^Majia, roiirijia, cnajia, GhiJia [Ana ddmAtA, g.vnatA, spAta 
biti'ij, She was thinking (thought), hunted, slept, was. 

58. The complete singular of the past tense is therefore 

cnaJTb, cnajia, cnajio [spat, spAta, sputA] 

n^Majrb, fl^Majia, jr^Majio [dumAt, dumAtA, dumAtA] 

The accent does not always remain on the same syllable in all 
three genders. Wherever the termination is accented, the feminine 
form, and if necessary the neuter form, will be indicated. 

59. The feminine form of OHT> is ona [Ana], she. The singular is 
declined thus: nom ^ [An6? 

gen. (n)erf [>j6, jajd] 
dat. (n)eft [jel] 
ace. (n)ee [jaj6] 
instr. (n)eio [jeju] 
prep, (o) nett [Ariel] 

As with the masculine and neuter forms, the oblique cases, when 
governed by prepositions, must have the H prefixed. 


6a6a, u [babA], peasant-woman cxapyxa, H [stArtixA], old woman 

reporinfl, H [garAiiiA], heroine BHyqna, H [vnut/kA], granddaughter 

Uap^na, LI [tsArftsA], czarina ^Ty [etu] is the accusative of xa, this 

caMKa, H (oJienfl) [samkA (AJ^I'IA)], iy [tu] is the accusative o/Ta, that 

>>d, doe (female of stag) M3Tb [maH], mother 

nonpyra, r n [pAdrugA], female friend M0ri>, MOFJia, MOFJIO [mog, mAgta, 
nd^Ka, H [dotJkA], little daughter m.vgt6], could 

HiiT-b Tan6ro apymna, Kant poanaH MaxyiiiKa [net tAk6vA druska, 
kak TAdn<iJA m<ituJkA], There is no such good friend as one's own dear mother. 


(1) Rewrite Exercises B and D of Lesson VIII, substituting 
feminine for masculine forms wherever that is possible. 

(2) Rewrite Exercises B and D of Lesson X, treating them 
in the same fashion. Substitute noapyra for 

1 Par. 131 may be learned at this point and the present tense be practised 
with any verb marked 131. 


66 LESSON XV 60-62 


60. BT> and Ha are used with either accusative or prepositional 
(cf. Vocab. VIII). In the simplest instances, the rule that decides 
which case is to be used, is that with either of these two words the 
accusative suggests motion towards ; the prepositional does not. 
In less obvious idioms this principle is of doubtful utility. 

Compare : 

Ona Jierjia na nojit 1 [Ana logtd na PAT], She lay down on the floor (i.e. 
she performed an act involving motion), 


Ona JiemaJia na nojry [Ana ia3alA nA PA!U], She was lying on the floor 
(i.e. she was occupying a certain position, no suggestion of motion being 

Similarly : 

(1) Ona C'fejia na CTyjit (ace.) [Ana selA IIA stutj, She sat down on the clutir. 
Ona CHA'BJia na eryji-fe (prep.) [And sideLi nA stula], She was sitting on 

the chair. 

(2) OHT> nome'ji'B (or BOUiejii>, entered) BT> caA'B [on pAjot (vAjot) 
fsat], He went into the garden. 

OHT> ryjiHJi'B Bt cajry [on guldt fsAdii], He was walking in the garden 
(the motion was not from somewhere else into the garden). 

In OH-B CMOTp'BJi'B Ha nrpy (ace. feminine) [on smAtrel mi igrii], He 
was looking at the game, the application of the principle can still be felt ; the 
gaze was directed on to the game. 

61. Some phrases : 

na coJiHirii [mi sontso] (prep, neut.), in the sun. 

na ^JIHITE [nA uiits9] (prep, fern.), in (on) the street. 

na STOM'B M'ECT'E [nA stAm meste] (prep, neut.), in that place. * 

Ha HpMapny [mi jdrmArku] (ace. fern.), to the fair. 

Bij ^TOMT> cjiyia'B [vstAm stutjAJe], in that case. 

BT> Ji-fec^ [vissuj, in the wood (cf. Par. 46). 

62. The verb uiejit has been employed already : its meaning 
was explained in Par. 40. 

Note the following compounds of this verb : 

OHT> BOinejiTj [on vAfotl, \ 

f\ A ' r ft ' 1 \ wen t in t> !' e ' entered, is followed by the 

> r , r*/-i' [preposition B"B with the accusative, e.a. 

BOUiJia BT> noMT> [And VAjtd vdom]. 
1 Notice the accentuation in this phrase. 

63 LESSON XV 67 

OHT> npHiuejrh [on pri[6t], went, but in the direction of the speaker, 
i.e. came ; generally followed by preposition KT>, e.g. 

Ona npiiiiijia KO Mirk [.ma piijld kv mne]. 

OHT* npomejiT> [on prA/6t], went through, i.e. traversed. 

OHT> HaineJiT, [on nA/6t], came upon, i.e. found. 

OHT> noine'JTb [on PA Jot], went once (generally to some definite place}. 

OHT> iuejn> MHMO [on jot mfniA], was going past. 

63. Compare with uiejn> and npHnient in Par. 62 : 

HCCT>, HCCJia, HCCJIO [iios, iiastd, riast6], carried, was carrying, and 
npHHect, npunecjia, etc. [priiios, prinasta], brought. 

(a) Observe that HCCT>, like Morb, has no Ji in the masculine. See also 
Jien and cnaci> in the following Vocabulary. 

In Par. 239 is given a list of irregular verbs many of which 
show this feature. 


c1wn> [set], he sat down (inf. cliCTb) ynjn [updt], he fell 

Jie'rb, Jierjia, Jicrji6 [log, lagtd,. enact,, cjia, cji6 [spas, spAsld, 
lagto], he lay down, i.e. he laid sj>Ast6], he etc. saved 

himself down p^Ka, H (Par. 54) [rakd], river 

A [sidst], he was in a seat, nocTejib (nom. or ace.) (Par. 04) 
he was sitting [pASte 1 !], bed 

A [1050 1], he was in a re- ivrkcTO, a [mestA], place 

dining position, i.e. he was lying HeyjKCJlH [nau3eli], can it be that ? 
CMOTp'b'Tb A [smAtr^t], to look (at) surely not ? 

A. Translate: 

(1) OHII npiiiujia na jipMapny. (2) CoSana crapuna 
iia c6jinirfe. (3) l lepiian K6iiii;a ynajia BT> pti\y [or p-feny]. (4) H 

HC Bli,Tfejrb, HO ^TOTb Ma.lbMUK'b CO CHaCTi. (5) Ofla 

na caMKy BT> Ji-fecy. (6) ()in, IUTT, Be^p6 CT> 803610. 
(7) Hey/KCJiH OHM cuana na iVro.Mi, M'iu-T'b? (8) BT> ^TOMT> CJiyqa-fe 
eij oiia wi lie MOFJIU BIIJTBTL. (9) MOJIO;UUI no;ipyra ;i;rnmiiHi.i npomjia 
'.', u uoinjia BT> jrijcb. (10) li i;a:i;Vn., r;i I; oiia Tenepb. 

(11) HeymejiH ona ynajia BT> B6ay? (12) BOTT> ona! 

OHCL yna.ia eb eody? 


B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The poor peasant woman went into the house. (2) She never saw 
her in the house. (3) The czarina's daughter came to him. (4) The woman's 
friend went home with her. (5) The old man's granddaughter was going past 
the house [genit. after MHMO, which may be either an adverb or a preposition]. 
(6) The poor old woman lay down on the bed. (7) She was lying on the 
floor. (8) The peasant woman's friend was at the fair (prep.). (9) Surely she 
did not bring it here [hither] ? (10) It is not possible to sit on that chair. 

C. Write sentences 4 and 6 of Ex. A in the feminine, and sentences 

1, 7, 8, 9, 11 in the masculine. 

Same subjects as in Lesson XV. 


HOCT), a [nos], nose 6p6cnxb [brosit], to throw * 

XBOCTB, a [xvost], tail yS^JKaxb [yi5<S i tl to run away ' 

FJiaa-b, a [gtafc], eye JIHTB (jiHJia) A [lit (iitd)], to pour 

MOJIOKO, a [mA^Ako], milk iraxb (nnjia) A [pit (pild)], to drink 

c6jinu;e, a [sontsa], sun cxaxb [stdH,], to begin, to set about, ? 
roJiOBa, bi (Par. 54, ace. rojiosy) to become 

], head cinxb 131 A [sij^t], to shine 

[drdkA], quarrel, fight KaKT> pa3T> [kak ras], just then, as it 
KpyrJibift [krugli], round happened 

pdsoBLitt [rozAvi], pink ciojja [sudd], hither 

sejie'Hbitt [zoloni], green xyaa [tudd], thither 

[ri'5i], brown, reddish CHOBa [snovA], anew, again 

[diini], long B^epa [ftjsrd], yesterday 

[sen], grey MejK^y (instr.) [riissdu], between 

ocb tstutJfLvs], happened TO, HTO [to jto], that which 

OTornaTb [AtAgnd^], to drive away eme [jajtjo], still, yet 

nocxynHTb [pAstuplt], to behave, to BT> ^xo BpeMH (neut.) [vetA vreriiA], 
act- * at that time, then 


Ona JiHJia Ha K6niKy B06tt [And Iitd nAko/ku vAdol], She poured 
with water on to the cat, i.e. she poured water on the cat. 

A. Translate : 

(1) Bnepa xoGpbift cxaprim. cnH-fejrb aatcb na 5xoMi> cxyji-fe, 
KOx6pbiH ero BHym, npnuec-b na 66perb. (2) Cojinue eme CIHJIO. 
(3) OHT> Biiji-BJi-b, KaKi> xaivi-b jiewajia c-fepan KdiiiKa. (4) 


ona cxajia imxb MOJIOK6, Kox6poe ett npHHecjia 
jr&BOHKa. (5) KaKT> pa3T> Bonuia BT cajn> pii/nan coCana. 
(6) npmujia KT> KOiUK'b, xorfejia oxornaxb ee. (7) He Morjia. 
(8) lii.i.ia apiiK-a Mewfly co6aKott H KduiKott. (9) Cxapi'n<T> 
CMOXp'Bjn. iia flpany. (10) Bi. 5xo Bp<hin cxapan 6a6a mjia MHMO. 
(11) Biifl'bjia H l ona TO, HXO cjiyHHJiocb. ^( 12 ) Hecjia KHKI past 
6ojibiii6e f Bcap6 CT> Bon6ft H cxajia JIHTB Bos^-Ha Kdiuny H coSany. 
(13) CooaKa yGtmaJia. (14) K6iiiKa Jierjia H cn6sa cxajia cnaxb iia 

KOIUKCL Jiezjia u cnoea cmajia cnamb HO. 

B. Bonpocti: 

(1) Kxo CHA-BJIT, na 6eper^ pliKri? (2) Kyjia npunec-b er6 
BHyirb CX^JIT.? (3) KaKaa 6biJia nor6aa? 2 (4) KaKoea 6biJia 
K6iuna, KOT6pafl xaivn> jie>Kajia? (5) Kan6tt 6bijn, y neA HOCT,? [pink] 
XBOCXT>? [long] rjiaat? [green] (6) KaKafl Gwjia y nefr rojiOBa? 
[round]. (7) Hxo ona cxajia imxb? (8) Koxdpoe MOJIOKO? (9) Hxo 
cjiyHHJiocb KaKT> paa-b? (10) KT. KOMy npHinjia coSana? (11) Hxo 
noxoMt cjiyni'ijiocb? (12) Ha HXO CMOxpijn> cxapiiKT>? (13) KaKi> 
nocxyriHJia cxapaa 6a6a? (14) Hxo cjiyq&nocb CT> [to, lit. with} co6aK6tt? 

(15) A CT> K6lIIKOfl? 

C. Rewrite Exercise A, substituting 
cxapyxa and Buyqna for cxapHKi> and BH^KT, ; 
MyjKHKi, for 6a6a ; 

meH6Kt, Ka [Jtjon6k, Jtjenkd], puppy, for coSana ; 
KOxeHOKT>, na [kAt6n.vk, kAt6nk.v], kitten, for KOiiiKa. 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1)1 did not know what had happened yesterday. (2) It was fine went her 
[Ex. B 3] and she was sitting in the garden before the house. (3) Just 
then our little Muck puppy went into the garden and lay down in the sun. 
(4) The peasant -woman's stupid son saw the dog lying [how the dog lay] there 
and wished to drive it away. (5) He could not. (6) Then he behaved very 
badly. (7) He found a small bucket of [with] water that was standing behind 
the house. (8) He brought it, poured it on the puppy, and threw the puppy 
into the water; it was dirty water. (9) Then the young dog ran awuy and 
unfi.; it fell into the river. (10) But another boy e.uue and s,-;\vd 

it. (11) Then there was a scrimmage between the boy who (had) poured 
the water on the do<j and the boy who (had) saved it. (12) The little-girl 
[one u'or<l\ liked the cat's round head, its pink nose and ^reen eyo. (13) Stm-ly 
did not say that ? (14) It is impossible to say what she used to do. 
(!")) What is she to do now ? 

1 ii i ;ion means too. nl^n. 

~ }\'h'it sort of irc'ithcr ivas it? (}' 

70 LESSON XVII 64-66 


64. Many feminine nouns end in -b. They are declined thus : 

nom. ABepb [dve 1 *], door O& 

gen. ftBepH [dveri] &ft 

dat. aBepn [dveri] A O 

ace. jnsepb [dve 1 ! 1 ] /3/& 

instr. jlBepbio [dverju] p 6 

prep. HBCpn [dveri] # 6 * 

.ZVote. (1) Nominative and accusative are identical. 

(2) Genitive, dative, and prepositional are identical. 

(3) Prepositional ends in -H. 

65. Maib and HOHb are not declined like HBepb (see Par. 86). 

66. -b is the one termination that, of itself, affords no exact 
indication of gender, for, as was seen in Par. 26, masculine nouns 
also have this ending. The feminines are in a majority. 


Texpaab, H [tetrad], copy-book ae-fe (fern, of aea) [dve], two 

Ji6uianb, H [to/At], horse Te'njibift [topli], warm 

HOHb, H [notj], night xoJiouHbiii [xAtodni], cold 

nocxejib, H [pAst^i], bed Te'MHbiii [tomm], dark 

ocenb, H [oseii], autumn CB^TJIMM [svstti], light 
KOHlblllHfl, H [kAiiuJnA], stable *> 

EiiAHocTb (/.) He nopOKTj [bsdnAst na pArok], Poverty is no vice. 


A. Indicate the meanings of the following prepositions and the case 

or cases they govern : 

6e3i>, na, KT>, nepejrb, BT>, aa, o, iipn. 
Give one short sentence illustrating the meaning of each. 

B. Indicate the meaning of the following nouns, indicate the gender 

of each by placing an adjective before each nominative, and 
give the dative and instrumental case of each noun : 
uapb, 6a6a, Beap6, KoiiiKa, TOBapniirb, MHCO, BHVK-b, HOHb, 

capatt, nojjpyra, He6o, py6jib, aBopea-b, ojienb, Mope, KycoK-b, 

cojKaji^nie, caMKa, p'BKa, ocejrb, KombuiHH. 

C. Combine each of the nouns in B with jjsa, UB-fe or 

67-69 LESSON XVIII 71 


67. The instrumental case, apart from its use after prepositions 
as explained in Par. 44, is also employed, as its name implies, to 
indicate the means by which, or instrument with which, an act is 
performed. Contrast 

Ona npHiiiJia CT> naMOft [Ana prijta sdamAi], She came with, i.e. along 
with, the lady, 


Ona nncajia nep6MT>, KapaHnaui6MT>, M-EJIOMT> [Ana pisatA parom, 
kAFAndA J6m, ihEt.vm], She wrote with a pen, a pencil, chalk. 

KpecTbHHHHT, naxajn> coxow [krastjanin pAxcit SAXOJU], The peasant 
was ploughing wiih a plough. 

68. The instrumental is also used in certain idioms expressing 
times and seasons, e.g. 

cero^HH yTpOMT> [savodnA utrAm], this morning (to-day in the morning). 

BHep Be^epoMT) [ftjard v6tJarAm], yesterday, last evening. 

GiiBTpa yTpo:vn> [zi'iftrA utrAm], to-morrow morning. 

AHCMI* [dnom], day, by day. 

HO'lbK) [n6t|ju], by night. " .- 

BCCHdti [vasn6I], in spring. v 

aiiMoii [zimol], in winter. 

6ceHbK) [osonju], in autumn. 

Ji"BTOMT> [IstAm], in summer. 

69. The instrumental case is also used predicatively after the 
verb 6biTb (and several other verbs, some of which are illustrated 
in Lesson XL VIII). This is the general form of the phrase when 
a change of state or a temporary condition is described, e.g. 

Ho CMepTii (prep.) oxua OHT> GLIJITJ (or CTaji'b) HUJK ; MT> [PA suierti Atsu on 
bit (stnt) tsAromJ, On, i.e. after, hi* father's death he ivas (became) a 

Qua c-,it'.i;i.iacb noBaprixoio (oii) [AIK'I s<lst.\tAs PAVAILXAJU (A!)], She made 
herself, i.e. became, a cool:. 
Note. If the complement of 6biTb, ClTBJiaTbCH, to become, is an 

adjective, u-e the in.strunu-Mal ca-f (Par. 88) after the infinitive, and the 

predicative nominative (Par. 187) after any other form of the verb, e.g. 

Ona xorBJia GbiTb 6oraTOio [AIU'I xAtstv bit bAcj.'itAj'u], She wished to be 

OHU SbiJia 61i^na [AIK'I bitd l.dmij f She was poor. 



Becna, bi [vasnd], spring name [dd3a], even 

JTEXO, a [IstAJ, summer HJIH [ill], or 

6cenb, H [osan], autumn oxftbixaxb 131 A [Adm^t], to rest 

3HMa, b'l (ace. -y) [zimd], winter BCXp'BXHXb [fstretit], to meet 

, AHH [de 1 !!, diia], afoy CKasaxb [skAzd^], to tell, say 

, a [utrA], morning pascnasaxb [rAsskAzd 1 ^], to relate 

, a [vet Jar], evening OH a JKHJia A [31^0], sAe lived 

, LI [pAgodA], weather naxaTb A [pAxd^], to plough > 

Mopoaib, a [mAros], /rosi rnaxb A [30^], to reap 

^epeBHH, H [cbr6vnA], village BbipacxaxblSlAfvi 

Bi) aepeBH'fe [vdsr^vna], in ^ country grow 

KpecxbHHHHT>, a [krastjdiiin], npuroxoBJinxb 131 

peasant to prepare 

nojie, H [pola], ,/reM mapKitt [sdrki], /^oi 

maxBa, H [3dtvA], harvest ' xpyjjOJUoSiiBbiii [trudAiubivi], work- 

^ /KIIXO, a [3'itA], grain\ loving, i.e. industrious -^* 

cepm>, a [ssrp], sickle MOKpbiii [mokri], damp 

Koca, bi [kAsd], scytlie * aypnoft [durnol], bad 

coxa, H [sAxd], Russian plough noHXH [pAtJti], nearly 

KHHra, H [knigA], fcoofc Bcerji;a [fsagdd], always 

iiiKOJia, bi [JkotA], school HHor^a [imvgdd], sometimes 

yp6KT>, a [urok], lesson yme [u3e], already 

Bee TO, HXO a'BJiajiocb [fso to Jto dslAtAs], all that did itself, i.e. 
all that was done, took place. 

Note. cejio is a village with a church, aepeBHfl is a hamlet, a village without 
a church. 

A. Translate : 

(1) Bqepa yxpoivrb H Bcxp-fexnjia noap^ry, Kox6paa MITE paacna- 
aajia Bee xo, HXO H'fejiaJiocb , Korjia ona vKiuia BT> aepeBH-fe. (2) BbiJia 
Becn6ft eme xojioanaH norona, HO xpyaojiioSHBbiH KpecxbHHHH-b 
naxajn> Monpoe nojie coxoio, H C'EHJIT* HHMCHb H oBec/b. (3) J3,HeMT> 
OHT> pa66xajn> iia Jiyr^ 6jiH BT> caji;^; BeqepOMT) OH^ oxawxajii), 
a HOHbio OHT> cnaji-b. (4) BecnoH MOH noapyra x6we xoflHJia Bt 
iiiKOJiy. (5) BeqepOMT* ona npuroxoBJinjia yp6KT>. (6) JTEXOMT. 
Gmia o6biKHOB6HHo xopouiaH, xenjiaa, HHoraa wapKafl nor6a, 
H flHMGHb ywe Bbipacxajiij. (7) 6cenbio 6biJia maxsa. (8) Kpecxb- 


aypnan noroaa H cHnbHbiH Mop63T>. (10) SHMOH 
pa66xaxb na ABOp'fe [out of doors]. 

SUMOU nejibax padomamb na deoprb. 


B. Bonpocbi : 

(1) HiiMT> naxajrb KpecTi>riHHHT>? (2) A *TEMT> OHT> HOJIT* JK&TO? 
(3) Kanaa oi.uia 6ceHbio BI> ju-peBirfc nor6aa? (4) BooMdwHO JIH 
b 3HM6tt na HBOp-fe? (5) rioneMy? (6) Korjja 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The girl's book was lying with her pencil on the table that stood before 
the window. (2) She has no [y Heri Hln"b] copy-book, and her pen and black- 
pencil are in school. (3) In spring the peasant was never at home ; he was 
always ploughing or sowing, and often he was still working in field or meadow 
in the autumn. (4) Last night our young son lay down in [on to] bed, but 
this morning he was lying on the floor. (5) Surely he (had) not fallen on 
to the floor ? Yes, he was on the floor. (6) Yesterday morning, when I was 
walking on the meadow, I saw the two (little) girls ; one was playing with the 
dog, the other was working. (7) In that year there was a hot spring, and a 
cold autumn. (8) In winter the boy usually went (Par. 40) to [into] school. 
(9) In summer the idle man usedio lie in the sun ; he would never [never not 
wished to] work, because he always wished to sleep. (10) To whom did the 
little girl bring the nice ripe apple ? (11) What was the old man talking about 
this morning ? (12) Who was standing before the door ? (13) Whom did 
you see this morning ? (14) With what did she usually do that ? (15) I 
was not speaking of the rich man who became a peasant. (16) Last night I 
saw him giving [saw how he gave] oats to the horse. (17) He generally 
ploughed in spring when there was still bad weather ; and in autumn, when 
there was often hot weather, the industrious peasant reaped barley that had 
grown up [grew up] in the summer. (18) Is it possible to reap or sow in winter ? 

(19) Why did your old friend nearly always wish to work outside at night ? 

(20) He could see all you [thou] showed him. (21) I never knew that you 
[thou] still reaped corn with a scythe, because I never lived in the country. 


70. Of the prepositions governing the genitive several have 
already been introduced. The most frequently used are : 

fir:n> [l>ci, l'-'s), iritJiout n:n, [ iz, is], nut nj\ from 

6jiH3T> [blis], near i;po.Mt, [kroiin], besides 

HM i.cTO [vmest.v], instead of MI'IMO [mim.\], past 

B63Jrfe [v6zto], be on> [ot, .\t], / 

flJia [dlu, dl.v],/or y [u], at, near 
HO [do, d.v], up to, till, before 


E.g. : 

6e3T> KHHru [bas knfgi], without a book. 

6JIH3T> ijepKBH [blis tserkvi], near the church. 

BM'fecxo nepa [vriisstA para], instead of a pen. 

BO3JTE jjBepn [vo3ia dv6ri], beside the door. 

HJIH MCHH [dlA maiia], for me. 

HO 3Toro HHH [dA stAVA dna], till this day. 

H3T> niKOJibi [is JkotiJ, from school. 

H3i> Poccin [is rAsii], from Russia. 

KpOM'fe xoro [kroma tAvo], besides that, in addition. 

MHMO HOMa [rhimA domA], past the house. 

OTb apy ra [At driigA], from a friend. 

y Bact [u vds], with you, near you, in your possession, etc. 

71. Observe : 

OHI> 6bijn> aoMa [on b'il doimi], He was at home (rest). 

OHT> nouiejit AOMOH [on pAjot dAmoi], He went home (motion). 

Ona npniiiJia AOMoft [And prijtd dAmoi], She came home. 


Kaeeapa, u [kdfedrA], teacher's desk pncoBaTb A [iisAvc^t], to draw * 

CKaM^ftna, H [skAih6ikA], bench * yqHTb A [utjit], to teach 

Synara, n [bumdgA], paper yHHTbCH A [utfitsA], to teach one- 
flOCKa, H (ace. a6cKy) [d,vskd], self, to be taught, i.e. to learn 

board but yqriib ypOKt [utjit urok], to 
KJiaccnafl HOCKa [ktdsnAJa dAskd], learn a lesson 

black-board (class-board) cnpoc^Tb [sprAsit], to ask, to make 
noXBaJia, Bi [pAxvAtd], praise * an inquiry 

, LI [utJitelnitsA], lady- cnpauiHBaTb 131 A [sprdJivAt], to 
teacher ask questions 

, H [utjibi], teacher OTB'feqaTb 131 AlAtvQtja^to answer 

, a [utjanik], pupil KpacHbifi [krdsni], red 

, H [utfariitsA], girl-pupil ji-BHHBbitt [lanivi], idle 

KBH [tserk^vf], church BHHMaTejibHbiH [vnimdtainl], alien--, 
, a [riist], chalk tive 

, a [vAkzdt], railway -station npnjre>KHbiH [piiiesni], diligent 

noc-femaTb 131 A [pAsaJtJd^], to cxapmifi [stdrji], elder, eldest 

visit, frequent MJiaftiiiiJi [mtdtji], younger 

[(A)kontjit], to finish * cypOBbiii [surovi], severe - 

131 A [tfitd't], to read OTKyaa [AtktidA], whence 

1 As in Kyc6Ki> or OT^IVB the vowel in the second syllable disappears in the 
oblique cases. 


A. Translate : 

(1) Mott cxapuiift CMHT, yn<6 K6HHHjn> iiindjiy. (2) Ho Korn 
n GbijTb BT> Aep^BHli, er6 MJiaauiitt 6paxi> noc1>majn> eme MajieHbKoe 
yqiijimue, 1 noxdpoe CXOHJIO GJIHST, BOKaajia. (3) Paa-b OHT> npHiuejrb 
flOM6ii H3i> UIKOJIH. (4) Er6 BCXp-Exmi-b er6 MaJienbHitt xosapHUTb. 

(5) CnpocHjn> er6, Hxo Tbi cer6flim yxpOMT> fl-EJiajii, BT IIIKOJI-B?* 

(6) IlpHJi^JKHbiti ynenriK-b nonaaaji-b eMy Kimry H Texpaflb, paacKa- 
3ajn> Bee TO, MTO fl-fejiajiocb OSUKHOB^HHO, H cnaaaji-b, MTO Ceai. 
Kinirn H TexpanH Hejib3)i yqiiTbCfl. (7) Kp6Ml> KHIIFH CLIJIT, y 
ner6 nepHbitt KapaHflauiTj. (8) Hnoraa cxapiiiift yHeHHKi> nHcaJii> 
nep6Mi> BM^CXO KapaH^aI^Ia. (9) KpoMls xor6 OHT nncajn> na 
GyMarfe. (10) Kjiaccnaa JIOCK^ cxo&rca Boaji'fe Kaeeapu y i nixejifl 
H n6pem> OKH6Mi>. (11) TpynoJiioGiiBbiii ynnxejib qacxo nncajn> 
M-BJIOMT, na HOCK-B. (12) JI-BHHBbitt yqen^K-b Bcer^a CHfl-feji-b na 

6jiH3i> Kaeeapu. (13) GypoBbitt cxapbitt yniixejib najii, 
cer6AHH ^xpoM-b. (14) OHI> MH6ro cnpauiHBajrb, HO, KB 

, xojibKO OAHHT> BHHMaxejibUbitt ynenHK-b xox-fejn> OXB-B- 
(15) 5xoxT> MajibqnK-b nojiyqHJiT> OXT> 

dmomb MOAbmiKb nojiymiat omb ymimejia. noxecuiy. 

B. Kewrite Exercise A in the feminine, as far as the sense will 
admit of that. (Use nojjpyra in place of 

C. Complete the following : 

HHH-, CT> yHiixejibneu-, CT> 

i-, npn uapiiu-, no flsopu-, BM*BCXO K6>K , KT cecxp-, HJIH 
cxapyx-, BT, P-BK- [in], BT> p-BK- [into], na CXOJT-, na Jiyr-, B63JI-B 


D. Bonpocbi: 

(1) OxK^aa iipniiiejiT, Baiiii, cum,? (2) Kyfl^ OUT, iipiiuiejn.? 
(3) Mxo er6 cnpocHJii* xosapHmi*? (4) Hxo OHT, nonasaji-b xosa- 
pnmy? (5) Mxo OHT, M* pascnasajrb? (6) Tfl-b ciiAijiTj o6biKHO- 
nihnio vMiixcjib? (7) TaMi> JIH xair/Ke cimijiT, yqcHiiHi,? (8) Tfl-fe 
cxoHJia KJiaccnan Aocna? (9) V Kor6 Mii6ro M-fejia? (10) Hi, MI, 
ynrrejii. inicajn. na flOCK'fe? (11) I la MI-MI, IIIU-M.TI, y'K.'HiiK'b? (12) I\xo 
oxB'BHajn>, Kora^ yMHxejib 


76 PLURALS 72 

E. Translate into Russian : 

A warm spring ; a cold summer ; the cat's green eye ; its pink nose ; its 
black tail ; its two paws ; ripe corn ; good barley ; blue chalk ; a red pencil ; 
a lazy boy ; she is a kind teacher ; he is a good teacher ; he told you that ; 
I told her that ; she never spoke French well ; I related everything to him ; 
a lot of paper ; a little oats for the ass ; he has no oats for the horse ; how much 
bread ? two palaces ; three heroes ; once I asked him ; he used to be always 
putting questions ; he usually went to school, when he lived with his grand- 
father ; this morning he was going past the house ; he went to school yester- 
day ; she was at home ; she went home ; what is his sister to do ? surely he 
has not left school yet ? was it possible to save [cnacTH] the dog that fell into 
the river ? it is impossible to answer [na with ace.] this question. 

F. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Once in the spring my little sister came home in the evening. (2) She 
showed me a pretty red pencil which the lady-teacher had given her. (3) 
She always used to answer when I questioned (her), and on that occasion 
she related everything to me, when I asked her what happened in school. 
(4) I (had) bought a lot of paper. (5) I gave it to her, so that she might 
draw or write on it [so that she drew, see Ex. X B 8]. (6) But that 
paper did not please her. (7) She read very well, because she was a diligent 
little pupil. (8) At that time she studied in the school that used to stand 
beyond the meadow. (9) Her young brother could not yet read. (10) He 
was always a lazy boy ; that is why he could not read. (11) Surely he was 
not always playing out of doors ? 



Nominative plural ends in -H, e.g. 

[dsd (t), dsdi], grandfather. 

Jiana, jianLi [tdpA, tapi], paw. 

Nominative plural ends in -H, e.g. 

ijapB, ijapti [tsa 1 !-, tsAri], czar. 
iUBept, RBepn [dve 1 !-, dvefi], door. 

(a) If the stem ends in r, K, x, JK, H, HI, m, the termination 
is always -H, e.g. 

KapaHflaurt, KapaHaimi [kArAndaj, kArAndA/i], pencil. 

73-77 PLURALS 77 


Nominative plural ends in -a ; e.g. 

M'BCTO, MtCTa [rhsstA, ihastd], place. 

Nominative plural ends in -fl ; e.g. 

M6pe, Mopri [m6r9, nurd], sea. 

(a) If the stem ends in r, K, x, >K, q, m, m, the termination 
is always -a ; e.g. 

yqHjraiue, y'lHJinma [utjfii/tja, yt/iiiftfA], school. 

74. In all neuter nouns and adjectives, and in masculine and 
feminine forms denoting inanimate things, the accusative plural 
has the same form as the nominative plural. 

75. The accent frequently changes in the plural and there are 
many other irregularities among nouns in frequent use. A list is 
given here of the nouns that have occurred in Lessons I-XIX. 
The list is, of course, chiefly for reference, but it is recommended 
that the list be learned gradually group by group and every new 
noun as it occurs placed in the proper group. 


The nominative and genitive singular, nominative plural, and 
occasionally (in brackets) the genitive plural are given. 

The genitive plurals will not be used before Lesson XXXVI. 



fl-feflt, irkua, niflu, grandfather 

BiiyKT>, a, H, grandson orop6jri>, a, w, kitchen garden 

MajiLHHKL, a, H, boy BT/feajTL, a, u, entrance 

MinnirrpT>, a, M, minister M'feji'b, a, chalk 

HdMiiKT,, a, H, little house MOp63i>, a, M, frost 

TOBapmirb, a, H, companion CB'feTT., a, LI, light t world 

paf)6THHKT>, a, H, "' -rkman yp6in>, a, H, lesson 

BOK3ajn, a, w, raihcay station nop6m>, a, H, vice 

78 PLUEALS 77 

Most polysyllabic masculine nouns not accented in the nomina- 
tive singular on the last syllable, especially nouns in ei^, oSt, OKTJ, 
yet, do not change the accent in the oblique cases. 


CTOJTB, ciojia, CTOJibi, table 

cepirL, a, LI, sickle My>KHKT>, a, ri, peasant 

XBOCTT>, a, Ll, tail yneHHK'L, a, H, pupil 

HBOpij, a, LI, court, yard KapaHnaiiTL, a, 6, pencil 

cxapHKL, a, 6, old man 

Most polysyllabic masculine nouns accented in the nominative 
singular on the last syllable and many monosyllabic nouns have the 
accent on the termination in the oblique cases. 

OTeiTb, oma, OTijb'i, father 

BOpeiTL, pua, LI, palace KyneirL, nua, LI, merchant 

OBecT>, sea, B'I, oats KycoK-B, CKa, H, piece 

, cjia, LI, ass 3pyjK6K-L, Ka, 6, dear friend 


cana, caabi, garden 
nojn>, a, LI, floor MOCTT>, a, L'I, 6n'^e 

HocTj, a, &, Tiose Bepxi>, a, H, to^?, -zfp^er par^ 

pa3T>, a, ii, a ^'me CLipT>, a, L'I, cheese 


capaft, capan, capan, cartshed 
rep6ft, H, H, hero cji^qatt, H, H, occasion, opportunity 

ijapb, uapa, ^apH, C2;ar 

KOpOJiL, A, A, king HHM6HL, H, 6, 6arfey 

P^GJIL, li, li, rouble OJI6HL, 1 fl, H, sfagr 

6HL, JJHH, HHH, dfay MeflB-BAL, 1 H, H, bear 


rjia3i>, rjiaaa, rjiasa (T>), e?/6 

H6MT>, a, a (OBT>), Aoi^se Ji^ri>, a, a (OB"L), meadow 

ji-fec-L, a, a (oBi>),/ore5^ Be^ep-L, a, a (OB-L), evening 

66peri>, a, a (OBT>), bank, shore 

1 Notice the accentuation of ojiem. and MeflB-feflt. 

78 PLUKALS 79 

xjrfe6i>, xji-feda, xjrk6a, bread, r6fli, r6aa, roaa,) 

loaves (rare) r6flw,/ yea 

xjTECbi, corn ynrixejib, ynrixejiH, y^Hxejiri,^ , 

ijB'Bxa, UBlixa, colour (rare) 


cum,, cb'ma, ci.moBbH (B6ft), son, 
, Jipyra, npyabfi (36tt), 
, KHiiaH, KHH3bii (s^tt), 
6paTT>, 6p^xa, Spaxbfl (b6BT>), brother 
(bCBT>), chair 


Young of animals 

pe6eHOKi>, peSeHKa, peGnxa [r9b6iLvk], child 
men6KT>, HKa, Hjixa, puppy 
KOxeHOKT>, HKa, XHxa, kitten 

(Cf. Par. 229.) 


Names of classes of people and of many nationalities 
KpecxbriHHHT>, KpecxbriHHHa, KpecxbJiHe, a peasant 

(Cf. Par. 230.) 


, man, people 



Accent fixed 

6a6a, 6a6bi, 6a6bi, peasant woman 

6yMara, H, H, paper fl-BBOHKa, H, n (ein,), little girl 

GaGyiiina, H, H (CKT>), grandmother raaxBa, ti, bi, harvest 
BiivHKa, n, n (CKT>) , granddaughter HiOmunna, bi, M, woman 
repoinui, n, ii (b), heroine Kaee^pa, bi, bi, teacher's desk 

i, bi, w, lady icniira. n, n, book 

, H, n (^Hb), village, hamlet KO;K:I. n, n, leather 
, H, H (CKT.), little daughter KOHKMIIHH, n, H, stable 
, H, H, quarrel K6uil\a, n, H (CKT>), cat 

80 PLURALS 79 

Jiana, H, LI, paw CKaMeftKa, H, H (CRT*), bench, seat 

MaxyniKa, H, H (eKT>), mother cjiymaHKa, H, H (OKT>), servant 

mhiH, H, H (L), child's nurse co6aKa, H, H, dog 

noBapnxa, H, H, cook cxapy^xa, H, H, old woman 

norojja, LI, weather XLMa, LI, gloom, darkness 

nojxpyra, H, H, female friend yqennija, LI, LI, schoolgirl 

noxBajia, LI, LI, praise yHHxejiLHHija, LI, LI, lady teacher 

nxHija, LI, LI, bird ijapnija, LI, LI, czarina 
caMKa, H, H (OK-L), female (of men, H, H (ft), neck 

animals) iiiKOJia, LI, LI, school 


Singular termination accented ; plural stem accented 
Hrpa, LI, -*M, game Koca, L'I, -*H, scythe 

cecxpa, L'I, -LI (epT>), sister Becna, ii, -LI (enij), spring (season) 

coxa, H, -^H, plough 

The last four may also have ace. sing, accented on stem. 

Termination accented except in accusative singular and 

nominative plural 

Boaa, L'I, -^y, -*M, water 3HMa, LI, -^y, -LI, winter 

roJiosa, L'I, -y,- -LI (first syllable), aocKa, li, -^y or -^, -^H, board 
head p^Ka, ri, -^y or ^, H, river 

The difference in accentuation distinguishes in these words and 
in the words in Group 2 the genitive singular from the nominative 


1 jjBepn, jjBepn (eft), door nocxejiL, H, H, bed 
H, H (eft), night 6cem>, H, H, autumn 

H, H (eft), horse xexpaaL, H, H 5 exercise-book 

CMepXL, 1 H, H (eft), death C^AHOCXL, H, poverty 

ijepKOBL, 1 KBH, H (eft), church 



Draw back accent in plural 

Bejtpo, Beapa, Bejipa (epi>), pail OKHO, OKHa, OKHa (KOHTJ), window 
cejio, cejia, cejia, village 

1 Termination accented in oblique cases of plural. 

80 LESSON XX 81 

Move accent forward in plural 

MacJio , Macjia , Macjia (cejit), butter ^rpo , a , 6, morning 
M'fecTO, a, a, place Mrico, a, plur. rare, meat 

jrfeTO, a, a, summer, years /HIITO, a, plur. rare, grain 

ndjie, n6jin, nojiri (eft), ,/ieW M6pe, H, A (6ft), *eo 

The transposition of accent in neuter nouns is very general. 


Do not change the accent 

MOJIOK6, a, a, milk iraxbe, A, A (6ft), drink 

Kpecjio, a, a (cejn>), arm-chair K^iuanbe, H, H (ift), /ood 

COJIHUC, a, a (HCUT>), *MTI ynenbe, 1 -H, H, learning 

yqrijrame, a, a, cAoo/ neyn^Hbe, 1 H, H, ignorance, illiteracy 

ananie, H, H (ift), building coKajrfeme, H, H (iii), 

4 5 

, a, H6JIOKH, apple nep6, a, nepbfl (bCBT>), pen 

6 7 

ne6o, ne6a, neSeca (eci>), sky, epeMH, CHH, ena, time 
heaven (Lesson LIII) 


80. The plural of the past tense of any verb ends in -JIH. 
The complete form of the past tense is therefore : 


fnnyiuajTb, ayMajia (ayMajio), thought 
TW VnomejTb, noiiuia (nouuio), went 
OHT>, oHa, OHdJiiorb, Morjia (Morji6), could 

101 [mi], **. .vii] 

1 Also spelt -ie. 

82 LESSON XX 81-83 

Note. (a) The pronoun Bbi and the possessive Baiiit are often, 
especially in correspondence, written with a capital. 

(6) Adverbial past participle (invariable) : 
HyMaBTb or jr^MaBnra, nouiejmiH, MOFIIIH, having thought, gone, been able. 

Adjectival past participle active (declined like an adjective) : 
a^MaBUiifi, noniemniii, Moruiifi, one who has thought, gone, been able. 

Adjectival past participle passive (declined like an adjective) : 
(3a)a^MaHHbiH, something that has been thought. 

These forms are given only in order that the student may 
be able to recognize them in reading : they will not often appear 
in Part I of this book. 

81. MOH [mAi], TBOH [tvAi], HauiH [na$i], BaiiiH [va$i] are the 
plurals for my, thy, our, your or mine, thine, ours, yours. HXT> [jix] = 
of them, their, theirs. 3TH [eti] and i"E [is] are the plurals of 3Ton> 
and TOTb. 



Masc. Fern. Neut. 

sing. 6'BJibitt S'fejiaa G'fejioe, white 

plur. C'fejibie [betije] G'fejibiH [bsfrje], G'fejibiH [betijo] 

sing. MOJioaoft MOJiojiaH MOJiogoe, young 

plur. MOJioab'ie[mAtAdiJ9] MOJioab'ifl[nLvtAdiJ9]MOJio l n 1 bifl [niAlAdija] 


Masc. Fern. Neut. 

sing. KpattHift KpattHHH Kpattnee, extreme, last, least 

plur. Kpaftme [kralnija] KpaflHia [kralmja] KpaiiniH [kralnija] 

That is, the endings are, in the masculine plural, -tie or -ie, 
and in the feminine and neuter plural, -HH or -ia. 

83. Remember that LI can never stand after r, K, x, >K, H, in, m : 
the plural of pyccmH is pyccnie, ia [ruskijo]. 

The difference between Lie and BIH and that between ie and ia 
exist only in writing, as, in ordinary discourse, there is no appreci- 
able distinction to the ear. 

84-86 LESSON XX 83 

84. The accusative of masculine and feminine plural adjectives 
qualifying names of inanimate things has the same form as the 

All neuter accusatives of nouns and adjectives have the same 
form as the nominative. 

85. Before taking up Lesson XXI, at least the regular nomina- 
tive plurals should be learned. These and most of the others will 
be impressed on the memory with very little effort by reading over 
the Russian examples in Lessons I to XIX, taking them according 
to the following scheme. 

Re-read the Exercises, substituting, as far as the sense admits 
of it, plural for singular subjects. Omit OHHHT>, etc. (The word 66a, 
661*, 66a [6bA, oba, ob.v], meaning both, is a word that suggests 
itself now and then, but 66a l takes the genitive singular like flea.) 
(a) Learn masculine groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 12. 
Ex. I A, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 7, 10. 
Ex. II A (omit Nos. 6, 14, 15, 16). 
Ex. Ill B (omit Nos. 6, 8, 11, and 16). 
Ex. IV A, Nos. 13, 14, 15, 18, 20, 21, 24, 25. 
(6) Learn masculine groups 5 and 6. 
Ex. V B, Nos. 1, 2, 3, 8, 12, 13. 

(c) Learn masculine groups 7 and 9. 

Ex. VI E, Nos. 5-13. 

(d) Learn masculine group 8, and neuters 2-6. 

Ex. VII A. 

(e) Learn masculine groups 7, 8, 9 again and the remaining 
groups of neuter nouns. 

Exx. VIII B, IX C, X B. 

(/) Learn masculine groups 10 and 11 and the rule for the 
formation of feminine plurals (groups 1-3). 

Ex. XIII A, Nos. 1-12, Ex. XV A, and Ex. XVI A. 
(g) Learn fcminines, group 4. 


/0 ttt \ 

= to you). 

See Par. 176, d. 







a, H [prikastjik], Kjno^t, a, A [kiutf], fcei/ 

shop-assistant, clerk ** cyxoft [suxol], dry * 

36MJIH, H, -^K>, ^H [zomld], earth, land Hpmii [jarki], bright 

OBu;a, b'l, -^bi [Aftsa], sheep cepftHTbiii [sarditi], angry, violent 

Kopoea, bi, bi [kArovA], cow euje pasi. [j^Jtjo ras], still a time, 
Tpaea, b'l, -^bi [trAva], grass i.e. once more 

K^XHH, H, H [kuxnA], kitchen TOMy Hasaff-b [tAmii nAzat], to that 
KOMHaxa, bi, bi [komnAtA], room back, i.e. ago 

yjiHija, H, H [uiitsA], street Tpn ro^a TOM^ Hasaflii) [tri gocLv 

, MKa, MKH [zAmok], lock * tAmu nAzat], three years ago 

, a, H [trud (t)], trouble, diffi- ji;aBHb'iM'b- 1 aiaBH6 [dAvn'im-dAvno], 
culty long ago * 


A. Write the following sentences with all nominatives in the plural : 

(1) IIpuKdaHUKb npHine'jrb KT> npyry. (2) Kopoea a oei^d y 
(3) Bn^qKa ryjiajia CT> 6d6yuiKou. (4) H CM^ aajii, 
cecmpbi. (5) ymime.ib roBOpi^Ji'b o mempddu. (6) Cennuiasi 
MH-B 6qenb HpaBHjiacb. (7) mpaed na Jiyry. (8) 
Cyxda. 36MJiA eM^ HenpaBHJiacb. (9) OHT> cxponjiT) aepeB^HHbiii 
noM-b nepea-b deopi\6M^. (10) Cecxpa omi^d 6bma Taivi-b. (11) Mou 
moedpuui* Kymfon. Sojibiiiott saividK-b CT> KJiio^M-b. (12) Tbi npn- 
KT> omii$. (13) GTapan cjiymaHKa npnHecjia MajienbKoe 
cs eodou. (14) y*nrrejibHima cn^-BJia H Mocmtf. (15) OHT, 
nouieji'b 6e3i> Mcuibmma. (16) Hepnan jioniajtb 'fejia mpaefi. 
(17) B'BJian coSana cxonjia nepe^-b jidiuaduo. (18) KnH3b BHA^JIT) 
Apmil cefbmb BT> KOMHamrb. (19) Y cmapuKd cB'fexjibiH ji;6MHK'b, 
j, 6ojibiu6fi Jiyrt, S'fejibift oceji"b, Hepnan OBija. (20) 
npomjia uindjiy. 


B. Substitute for the words in italics in Ex. A the proper form of the 
3rd personal pronoun. 


C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Did the diligent pupils enter [into] the school ? (2) Why were they 
sitting on the floor ? (3) The young men did not come to [KT>] the prince. 
(4) Surely they did not go home ? (5) They came to that man. (6) The old 
women went through the room. (7) Why was the lazy cook not working 
in the kitchen ? (8) Once more the industrious peasant- women went into 
the forest. (9) We never used to come home in the evening. (10) Surely 
you were not always out of doors ? (11) The little girl was going home when 
she saw a bright light. (12) Why was the angry teacher always asking 
questions ? (13) That happened here long ago. (14) They arrived [came] 
here [hither] two years ago. (15) The hard-working lady- teacher asked once 
more but the idle pupils never answered anything [never nothing not answered]. 
(16) Could they understand that without difficulty ? (17) They sat down on 
the wooden chairs. (18) They were lying in bed. (19) We were sitting at 
the window.* 

* Par. 211 may be studied at this point and the imperative be practised 
with any verb marked 131. 



Singular Plural 

nom. Maxi> [ina't], mother MaxepH [mat.>iij 

gen. Maxepn [mat oil] Maxepeft [ 

dat. Maxepn [mdi-uij MaxepflM'b [mAtoram] 

ace. MaTb [ma't] Maxepen [m.Yt,reIJ 

instr. Maxepbio [matefju] MaxeprfMH (pbMH) [m-xt^njihi (nhf)] 

prep. Maxepn [mdteri] MaxeprixT. [m-vtorax] 

The declension of HOHL [dotj], daughter, is exactly similar. 

87. The preposition no is used with the dative case ; 1 it means 
along, on, according to, over. 

Some illustrations : HW^A IK) 

no Mii4ipAmi'ie], or no MOCMy [pAm.vj.inu], according to me, as far as 1 am 

concerned, in my opinion. ^ 

no UOMV [p.YiMmuJ, in his opinion. _ JTo *fO WJV 
no Kpaiiiu-ii M-jipt. [p^ kriln-l iiici-.], according to the least measure, at least. 
Qua LUJia no yjmirii [.vna jta p.v ulit- /.* going along the street. 

Una opo;u'i-'ia no npMy, n6 jrfecy [.vno brA'lit.v pA g6rAdu, pobsu], She 

wandered about the town, the forest. 
In n6 Ji-fccy note the accent. n6 ropofly may be similarly accented. 

1 I-i - it is us. accusative or prepositional, e.g. 

PHI in Par. UU. C'f. also Par. 183. 

86 LESSON XXII s 87 


M-fepa, LI, LI [msrA], measure OH-L y3Hajn> [on uzndi], he recognized, 

JTECXHHna, LI, LI [iesriitsA], stairs, he got to know 

flight of stairs r cHaiajia [snAtJdU], at first, to begin 

OH-L Cfl-BJiaji-L [on sdstAl], did (once) with 

OXKPLIJI-L [Atkr'ft], opened caMT>, a, 6, caMH [sam, sAmd, sAmo, 

OH'L nojlHflJiCfl [on pAdndisA], raised sarhi], self (emphatic) 

himself, i.e. went up noSxony [pAstAmu], so, therefore, for 

OH a nojjHflJiacb no Ji'fecxHHirE that reason 

[And pAdiiAlds pA lesriitsa], She Xoponio, ixo OHI> ^TO CKaaaJiT, 

raised herself by the stairs, i.e. [XAIA/O, Jto on etA skAzdt], It is 

went up the stairs good, nice, a good thing, that he 

said that 

Hie MaiL YHCHLH [pAftAienje ma 1 ! utfenJA], Repetition is 
the mother of learning. 

A. Translate : 

(1) JKeHmnna nomjiano ^jrarrfe CT. 6qepbio. (2) HaKOH^u-L OH 
npninjia K-L aeepH. (3) Oapaa MaxL OTKpL'uia cana ABepL H BouiJia. 
(4) Gnanajia ona npoiiuia K^XHIO H SB-B KOMHaxLi. (5) noT6MT> 6*6,11;- 
Han HtenmnHa noaHHJiacb no JI'BCTHHU'B H yanajia usepL. (6) J]|Ba 
roaa TOMy nasau^ ona onenb xoponio anajia xy ABepL. (7) Ho 
jK^niiuina He xox'fejia caaia oxKpLixLCro(8) Ilo^xoMy ona aajia zi;6 i iepH 
KJIIOHTJ oxi) KdMHaxLi. (9) flo^L Ses'L xpyffa oxKpLijia H OH-B eme 

JJcnb 6e3?> mpyda omKpbuia u owb eu\e. paaa eouuiu. 

B. Kewrite tlie sentences in A making the subjects plural. 

C. Bonpocbi : 

(1) G-L K-BMT. HOHL nonijia no ^JIHU-B? (2) Kyaa OH-B HaKOHe^'L 
npHuiJiH? (3) Hxo cjiy^HJiocL? (4) Kxo oxKpbiJi-b Bepb, Maxb 
HJIH oqb? (5) Hxo cjiy^Hjiocb HOXOM-L? (6) Kanyio KOMHaxy 
cnaqajia npouuiH? (7) KaKT> OH^ noanfljiHCb? (8) Hxo oni 
(9) Koraa OH-B 6neHb xopouio anajiH 5xy Bepb? (10) 
Maxb aajia KJHOTB? KaKOH KJiioq-b? (11) H-BMT. OHL oxKpLijia 

D. Translate : 

(1) Yesterday morning two (little) girls were walking along the street. 
(2) I walked along the street. (3) The old man's sons went into the peasant's 
garden. (4) The young women lived in the house that used to stand beyond 


the village. (5) His young companions opened the doors. (6) At first the 
lazy pupils thought that the flowers (wen-) not in the room. (7) The lady- 
teachers were not at home. (8) The diligent pupils were writing with pencil 
on paper. (9) It is a good thing that the two boys went up [verb plural] the 
stairs. (10) I could not see him anywhere. (11)1 saw the old benches in 
the room. (12) Surely the little girls did npt wish to play with that 
woman's daughter ? (13) At last the mother came and opened the door. 
(14) She wished to go for a walk with (her) mother. (15) We learned that 
the old servants (were) in the kitchen. (16) At least one old peasant woman 
went in. (17) She passed through the room and entered the kitchen, where 
the grandmother was sitting. (18) Beautiful, clean, bright villages. (19) In 
the evening we saw the old woman once more. (20) They were walking on 
the bank of the stream and were playing with the nurse. (21) That happened 
three years ago. (22) In his opinion the room is a very dark (one). 
(23) The kind intelligent boys saved the girl from [H3T>] the water. < '' r> 




(a) Stem accented 


Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. cxaputt [stari] cxapoe [starAJa] cxapan [starAJa], old 

gen. cxaparo [stdrAVA] cxapott [stcirAl] 

dat. cxapOMy [starAmuJ cxapott [starAl] 

ace. gen. or nom. nom. cxapyio [stamju] 

instr. cxapHMT. [starim] cxapott (OK>) [starAl (AJU)] 

prep. cxapOMT, [sturAmj rrapoii [starAl] 


Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. cxapbie [storip] cxapbin [sUirip] cxapi.iH [st/ir!j.| 

s _ ^ ________ T ^^/ 

gen. cTnpi.ixb [storix] 

dat. cxaptiMT. [storimj 

ace. gen. or nom, gen. or nom. 

instr. Cxapi.iMii [st.'iriiiii] 

prep. CTapwx-b [storix] 

The complete declension of tht> plural is printed here for conveni- 
ence : the oblique cases will nut be employed before Lesson XXX. 


(6) Termination accented 

Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. npocTofi [prAstoI] npocToe [prAstoja] npociaH [prAstaJA], simple 

gen. npocToro [prAst6vA] npocxdtt [prAstoI] 

dat npocx6]viy [prAstomu] npocT6ft [prAstoi] 

and so on, in all forms corresponding to (a) above. 

Note. (1) Except in the nominative and accusative the masculine and 
neuter forms are identical. 

(2) In the feminine singular the gen. dat. instr. and prep, are alike. 

(3) In (b) the masc. nom. sing, and the feminine gen. dat. instr. and prep, are 


[tvordi], hard (opp. of soft) ' 3HaKT>, a, H [znak], sign 

[trudni], difficult Kyn6irb, inja, bi [kupets], merchant 

asoti], heavy ' MyjKqHHa^w, LI (masc.) [muJtJinA], 
[5otti], yellow man (not a woman). 

H3biKi>, a, 6 [jaz'ik], tongue, language 

A. Decline in the singular and nominative plural : 

KapaHftaiirb, KpacHBaH a^BOHKa, xojiojtHafl HOHL, 
occ'jrb, lepnan JioiuaAb, xenjioe Ji'fexo. 

B. Give the (1) genitive singular, (2) instrumental, and (3) nominative 
plural of the Eussian equivalent for : 

Bad weather, a large pail, a difficult tongue, the hard sign, a young boy, 
yellow oats, a sick peasant-woman, long lesson, cold day, rich merchant, damp 
grass, red sun, green grass, brown horse, long nose, grey cat, brave hero, the 
rich woman, old book, the long garden, the old house, intelligent man, this 
womah^aficr thpt man. 

can have the wider sense of person. 











paHHiti [rdrii] 

Neut. Fern. 
paimee [rdnaja] paHHHH [rdnaja], early 

nom. or gen. 


p&HHie [rdnaja] 

[rdnavA] paHHeii [rdnol] 
[rdnamu] panned [rdnal] 
nom. paHHiOK) [rdnuju] 
[rdnirn] paHHett (ew) [rdnal (aju)] 
[rdham] paHHett [rdiial] 

panniH [rdiiaja] paHHin [rdnaja] 

paHHHXT> [rdnix] 
paHHHM-b [rdnim] 
nom. or gen. 
paHHHMH [rdniiiii] 
paHHHXt [rdnix] 

90. That is to say the declension of paHHift is identical with that 
of CTapwft, the soft vowels replacing the hard vowels throughout, 

i corresponding to bi preceding ft or a vowel 

H ,, LI in all other positions 

H a 

e ,, ,, unaccented o 

10 y 

n63flHitt [pozrii], late 

nepeminn [[i.)fedn.>j.>] (a feminiiu- 
adjeetive in form and ilrclincd 
&s such), enlntncc-hnll 


HOMainimi [dAnviinil, I'inif. 

(a neuter ad- 
jective in form and declined as 
Mich), <ut nniinnl 

90 LESSON XXV 91-92 


A. Decline in singular and nominative plural : 

cnnee Mope, HOSAHHH Becna, AOManmee mHBOTHoe, pammfl ocenb. 

B. Give (1) genitive singular, (2) prepositional singular, (3) nominative 

plural of the Kussian equivalent for : 

tame bird, green sea, red door, white paper, warm spring, heavy board, 
cold day, black cat, clean water, large bed, dark entrance-hall, late summer, 
early autumn. 



In the writing of adjectives, as in every part of Russian ortho- 
graphy, the general rules must be observed, that 

H, H, K) never appear after r, K, x, >K, H, in, m ; they are replaced 
by H (or i before vowels and half- vowels), a, y ; 

a, K), never appear after ij ; they are replaced by a, y ; 

unaccented is replaced by e alter >K, H, in, m, IJ. 

In words like jjHKiii [diM], wild, and ropaniii [gAratJi], hot, 
these rules must be carefully observed. 

92. ADJECTIVES IN r, K, x 


Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. w&Kf'u [diki] HHKoe [dikAp] ^Kafl [dikAJa], wild 

gen. HHKaro [dikAVA] HHKOft [dikAl] 

dat. AHKOMy [dikAmu] HHKOH [dikAi] 

ace. nom. or gen. nom. flHKyio [dikuju] 

instr. riKU.*t& [dfkim] HMKOH (oro) [dikAi (AJU)] 

prep. SHKOM-L [dfkAm] HKOH [dikAi] 


nom. nriKz'e [dikije] HHKZ'/Z [dikijo] xAmx [dikija] 

gen. iUHKiizz. [dikix] 

etc., H replacing LI. 

93-94 LESSON XXVI 91 

93. The terminations in which the type ntiKift differs from the 
type CTapbift are printed in italics in Par. 92. 


BCJiiiKift [vMfki], 1 great lUHpdidtt [Jlr6ki], broad * 

Jiernitt [idxki], light, easy ^3Kitt [6ski], narrow t 

Mrtrmft [muxki], soft ' 


A. Decline in singular and nominative plural : 

mapKoe $rpo, MiirKift 3Hairb, BejiHKift napt, jiernitt yp6irb t 

fll'lKOe JKHB6TH06, IIIHp6KaH CKaMCttKa, ^3Kitt CTOJIT>. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

soft hands, bright suns, broad streets, narrow rooms, easy lessons, hot 
[>KapKitt] days. 

C. Give the proper forms in the singular of the examples in Ex. B 

(1) with the prep, o 

(2) HJIH 

(3) KT, 



ADJECTIVES m >K, H, ui, m 


Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. ropffaittCgArdtfi] rof)riqee[gAfnt/.)j.)] ropfaax [gArdt/aja], hot 

gen. ropriqaao [gAi-atjavA] rop^ett [gArdtJ->IJ 

dat. ropjineMy [gArdtJ'omu] ropjiqeft [gArutj.)IJ 

ace. nom. or ace. nom. ropH l iy/o[gArotJuju] 

instr. ropfiHHM'b [gAi'v'itJim] rop>iHett(eio)[gArut|.>I (oju)] 

prep. ropriHeMT* [gAratj.>mJ ropiiHett [gAiVit|.IJ 


Masc. Neut. Fern. 

nom. roprinie [g.vrat{ijo] ropfiui)! [}j.\i-.'it j'ij..] ropri'iin [}j.\f(it/ij.] 

gen. roprinnx-b [gArdt/ix] 

etc., like pannift in Par. 89. 

1 Cf. p. 26, note 5 to K. 


95. The type ropaqift is very similar to the type 
from which it differs only in the terminations printed in italics in 
Par. 94 : a and K) never follow YK, q, in, m. 


CHaciie, H [stjastja], happiness nec^acTie, fl [nestfastja], unhappi- 

c$rn>, a, bi [sup], soup ness, misfortune 


A. Decline : 

xoponiaa norona, ropnqiii cyn-b. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

much ripe corn ; how much clean water ? he was speaking of the 
hard sign and not of the soft sign ; little warm water ; (it is ) cold weather 
to-day ; with the black horse ; of the blue chalk ; in the dark room ; about 
the easy lesson ; a late summer ; to a difficult language ; with a yellow pencil ; 
on the wooden table ; of the old black arm-chair ; without the poor man ; 
behind the dark forest ; into the old school ; about a difficult language ; 
on to the wild animals ; I was speaking of your great misfortune and of 
her happiness ; he saw a tame bird ; about the rich merchant ; into the deep 
water ; towards the bright light ; there are our black horses ; there is her 
poor mother ; his intelligent sons. 


96. Certain irregular past tense forms, 1 e.g. Hect, carried, and 
M0n>, could, was able, have been akeady employed (see Par. 63). 
Two verbs in frequent use having masculine past tense without the 
usual ji are : 

OHt yMepi> [uriiar], he died. 

OHT> B63i> [vos], lie carried in a vehicle, conveyed. 

In all such verbs the other forms of the past tense are regular in 
appearance : 

VMepJia, ^Mepjio, yMepJiH [uiharla, umarLv, urnarii] 

BC3Jia, BC3JIO, BC3JIH [vazld, V9zl6, vazllj 

(a) The past participles (cf. Par. 80, note b) of these and the 
verbs dealt with in Par. 97 are : 

1 See list of several such forms in Par. 239. 

97-98 LESSON XXVII 93 

Adverbial past participle : yMepiiiH, Besiun, XOHHBT>, 
uiejuiiH, -ExaB-b. 

Adjectival past participle : yMepuiift, BeauiiH, xouiiBiuiii, 

97. The verbs XOUHJIT, (inf. XOHHTL) and iuejn> (inf. HTTH) both 
mean he went. The distinction between them was explained in 
Par. 40. But both these verbs always mean to go on foot, to go but 
not in a conveyance. If the word go means to travel by any kind of 
vehicle, not on one's own legs, then the word that replaces mejit is 
(OHT,) -BxajiT, [jexAt], e.g. : 

OHT niejii* MHMO [on Jot ihfmA], He was walking (walked) past. 
OHT> 'fexaJi'B MHMO [on jex.vt riifmA], He was driving (drove) past. 

And just as we have 

OHT. npHiiie'ji'b (n'feuiK6MT>) [on priJ6t pajk6m], He arrived (an foot), 


OHT> npi'b'xaJi'b [on prijexAt] means He arrived (in a conveyance). 
npi'fexaTb BepxoMT> [piijexAt varx6m], to come riding. 

The prefix npH in these words evidently corresponds to the 
English near, up, up to. In the second example it is written npi 
because i, not H, is the regular form of this vowel when it precedes 
a vowel. 

Similarly we form compounds of ixaTL corresponding to all the 
other compounds of HTTH (infin. of uiejn>) given in Par. 62 : 

BT/fexaTb [vexAt]; npo'fexaTb [prAJexAt]; na'fexaTb [n.vjexAt], to drive 
up, come together; no*fexaTb [PAJSX.U]. 

98. The preposition from is sometimes troublesome to trans- 
late. Notice these examples : 

Tep6tt nojiynriji-b neopeirb orb uapri [g->r6l pAtutJtt dvArets At 
tsAfa], The hero received a palace from the czar. 

Maxb VMepJi OTT, XOJI^PM [mo't uiii.rt('i .\t xAleri], The mother died 
from (of) cholera. 

OHT> nprfexajTb HST* jxpyr6ro r6posa [onpi-ijexAtiz drugdvA g6r.\dA], 
He arrived from (out of) another town. 

KoJibu6 c/TBJiano l H3T> 36jioxa [kA i its6 8Ut.\n.\ \L z6tAt.\], The ring w 
made from (of, out of) gold. 

1 Neuter predicative (Par. 187) of pas*i :>! i-.iLiaiiin.iii. The 

active past participle of this verb is cn-feaamniii ( f- Par. 80, a). 


CT> Toro JJHH OHT> HHKoraa ne 6bijn> xaMT> [stAvo dria on nikAgdd 
nsbtt tarn], From (since) that day he was never there. 

Note. GT> (co) =from, is used with the genitive : 

OHT> CHHJIT> KHHry co CTOJia [on snat knigu sAstAld], He took the book 
from (off) the table. 


a, a [gorAt], town Bapyri) [vdruk], suddenly 

, a, bi [nArot], people OTBe'3'B [Atvoz (s)], conveyed away 

flpMapKa, H, H [jdrmArkA], fair ocxaxbCH [Astd^sA], to remain, be left 

xojiepa, LI [xAierA], cholera njiaKaxb A [ptakAt], to weep 

mena, hi, -LI [send], wife 3a6ojrkTb [zAbAl^t], to fall ill 

6oJibHHU.a, H, H [bA^nitsA], hospital SHaHHTT) [zndtjit], that means, that is 
6oji-&-3Hb, H, H [bAlezn], disease to say 

[u3dsni], terrible MHOFO napoay 1 [mnogA nArodu], 
[set/as], immediately, lit. many folks, many people 

this hour 

TOJibKO Tpn roaa [jemu to^kA tri g6cU], He is only three. 

A. Translate : 

(1) B-b oAHOivrb ropo^'fe 6biJia HpMapna. (2) BT, 5xo BpeMfl 
6biJia xojiepa. (3) Mnoro napoay yMepjio 2 OTT> 
6oji"&3HH. (4) ripi-fexaji-b na 3ry HpMapKy onHHT> 
apyroro ropoaa CT> JKenoft H MOJIOJJOH HOHKOH. (5) 
6biJio TOJibKO tiexbipe roji;a. (6) Bapyn> oxeu'b H Maxb 
(7) CeHHac'b OXBCSJIH Bt 6ojibHHii;y SojibHoro oxua CT> 
MaxepbK). (8) SnaHnxT,, ocxajiacb MaJienbKaH a^BO^na oana. (9) 
njiaKajia. 3 

3Hamimi>, ocmcuiacb drbeonna odna. 

B. BonpocH : 

(1) Fa-fe 6wjia iipMapna? (2) Kanafl Coji'fesHb 6bijia BT, 3TO 

BPGMH? (3) Hxo y>Ke cjiy^HJiocb? (4) OXT> Kanoii 6oji-B3HH OHM 

1 This form in -y is a partitive genitive found in certain phrases after measures, 
weights, adverbs of quantity. Cf. naiiiKa I&K> (Voc. XLIII). 

2 Note the neuter singular verb, the subject having the force of a singular 

3 In English, too, we make use of this simple device of repetition, in order to 
deepen the impression of intensity : she wept and wept. 

99-100 LESSON XXVIII 95 

P. in? (5) Ci iri,Mi. npi-fexaJTb Kyn^ivb? (6) CK6jibKO 
ji'BTb [years]? (7) HTO cjiymiJiocb, Koraa Kyneiri CT> >KeH6tt 
npi-fexajiH *? (8) Kyua cettnacT* OTBeajiii OTija H Maib? (9) HTO 
CT> [happened to] fl6HKOtt? 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) They usually lived in one small room. (2) In the winter my poor 
father died of that illness. (3) At that time a great many people were walking 
along the street. (4) The rich merchants drove up when we were standing 
before their door. (5) The cold streets of the big town did not please me. 
(6) His young son was then only two years old. (7) When did her old mother 
turn ill ? (8) The sick boy was in the other building, but I did not know 
then who (had) carried him away there [thither]. (9) Why were they 
left alone in that great dark house ? (10) She received that book from my 


99. The preposition no governs the genitive and means to, up 
to, till, before, e.g. 

flo STOFO HH [do (dA) etAV.v duo], up to, till, before that day. 

o PojKaecTBa [dA rA5(l>s(t)va], till Christinas. 

HO BOttHH [dA VAlnt], before the war. 

HO PowaecTBa XpiiCTOBa 2 [dA rA3cbstva xfistovA], up to, i.e. before the 
birth ofChrixt, B.C. 

OTT> HanaJia 30 KOHua [At nAt/atA d.v k.vntsa], from beginning to end. 

no Sxoro MajieHbKaro n6Ma [d.v et.wA mabrikAVA domA], up to that 
little house. 

100. The preposition npo is used with the accusative ; it means 
about, of, concerning, e.g. 

H npo Bairn- Huc'iaciie [ja uznni pr.v vaja iiast/astp], / got 

, ]/' '/our tntfif'-i 
MM pa:H-Ka.ja.iM npo BUUIIV [mi rASsk.\zoii prv v.\Inuj. \\'e told of the 

That is, npo with the accusative has the same value as o 
with the prepositional. 

1 Notice this plural form, v ular would be u>- 

a Genitive of XPHCTOBT,, a, o, u, an adjective found only in this short form. 

96 LESSON XXVIII 101-103 

101. The 3rd plural of the verb used without a subject expressed 
has the force of the indefinite they or people, e.g. 

rOBOpHJiH [gAVAffli], They were speaking, they were saying. 
CKaaaJin [skAzali], They said, it wax said. 

102. (a) This indefinite 3rd plural is often the most convenient 
idiom to use in translating our passive, e.g. 

Mirfe CKasaJiH [miie skAzali], They told me, i.e. / was told. 
He nycKajra ea [ne puskali jejo], They did not admit her, i.e. she was 
not admitted. 

(b) The passive may often be rendered by the Russian reflexive 
verb, e.g. 

5xo c.H'fejiajiocb [etA ed&AtAsfc That was done, that took place. 

103. The reflexive pronoun for self referring to any subject is 

declined thus : 

gen. ce6fl[ [sabd] ceS-fe [sabs] 

ace. cedn [sabd]* 

instr. co66io [sAboju] 

prep. ce6^ [sabs] 


CHpoxa, bi, ftxbi [sirAtd], orphan HCKaxb (with genit. or ace.) A 

cupoxKa, n, H [sirotkA], little orphan [iska 1 !], to seek 

Boima, LI, BOHIKJ [vAina], war saflyMaifc [zAdunLvt], to conceive a 

H, -H [semja], family plan 

TBO, a [rA3das(t)vo], Christ- p-EiiiHTh [raj'it], to make up one's 

mas mind, resolve, solve 

, a, a [nAtfalA], beginning GpojjHTb A [brAdit], to wander 

rope, fl, fl [<j6r9], grief, sorrow about 

CBOH [svoi], one's own B3fmT>, Jia [vzat, vzAta], he took 

ny>K6ft [tju3ol], strange, not one's (once) 

own ' BSHXb KT> ce6-B [vza^ ksabe], to take 

[tseti], whole, entire ' to oneself, to adopt 

[st/As(t)iivi], happy AOUie'Ji'L, iiijia, 6 [dA/6t, Jta, 6], went 

[nastjas(t)ni], unhappy, up to, reached 

unfortunate ox^ero? [Atjavo] stands for OXT> 

xaKT> H [tak i], and so too qer6? from what ? i.e. from what 

nycnaxb 131 A [puska 1 !.], to let, cause ? and is a common equiva- 

admit , lent for why ? 


A. Translate': 

(1) HaKOH^ui, ona aaa^Majia ncnaxb oxn.a H MaTb. (2) Iloiiijia 
ona no r6poy. (3) EpoflHJia IVBJIMH aeftb H T6jibKO KT B6iepy 
AOiiJJia ona ao 6oJibiu6ft 6oJibHHUbi. (4) Ho BT> GojibHHuy efi. ne 
nyckSjiH. (5) l>xajrb MHMO JTBBOHKH 6oraxbift KynSm,. (6) Ona 
paacKaaajia CM# npo CBOC x r6pe. (7) JJdopbin HC-HOB-EKI. BOIIICJIT, BT> 
6ojibHHuy yanaxb npo oxn.a H Maxb HecHacxnott a-BBOHKH. (8) TaMt 
eMy CKaaajiH, HXO OHM yK6 ^Mepjin. (9) H p-BiUHJTb noSpbiii Kyn6ui> 
B3HXb cnpoxKy KT, ccG-fe. (10) TaKb H cfl-BJiaji-b. (11) Cxajia >nnxb 
HecHacxnaH cupoxa BT> nywdtt ceMb'fe KaKi> BT> 

eMy cKaacuiu, nmo OHU ywce 

B. Rewrite Ex. A, making the subject of each sentence plural. 

C. Bonpocbi : 

(1) Hxo ona p-feuinjia c^-Bjiaxb? (2) GnoJibKO BP^MCHH [of time] 
ona 6poHJia no r6poy? (3) Konja ona aouijia no SojibHHuu? 
(4) Morjia JIH ona BHatxb oxn.a H Maxb? (5) Oxherd H-BXT,? (6) Kxo 
npi-fexaji-b BT> Sxo BP^MH? (7) IIpo HXO MajieHbKaa -BBOHKa eMy 
paacnaaajia? (8) KaK6BT> 6bun, 5xoxi> Kyneui.? (9) Hxo OHT> 
y3Ha:iT> BT> 6oJibHHu-fe? (10) Hxo OHT, p^uiHJi-b c^-fejiaxb nox6Mi? 
(11) Cn'BJiaji'b JIH OHT. 3xo BT> caMOMT> a'BJi'B? \in very deed, cf. npn 
caMOMT. BT/Eaali in Ex. X]. 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Surely she did not wish to wander all day about the street ? (2) We 
took it into our heads [conceived the plan] to remain in the garden all [BCK>] 
night [ace. sing.]. (3) They said he never reached the white house in which 
the old woman lived. (4) From the beginning of the year till Christmas he 
was left alone in that large house. (5) Why did they not let the boy into those 
beautiful rooms ? (6) What did you learn about the poor man's unhappy 
son ? (7) It was well that I was not told about that. (8) The rich man 
(had) already died in the great hospital. (9) 1 learned that only last 
night. (10) The young men were standing in front of that large window. 

(11) The kind Russian ladies who arrived to-day adopted the little orphan. 

(12) She was walking past the little ho; 

1 About her (own) grief. 

her (oirn) fumili/. The distinction between erf and ca6tt is made clear in 
the next Lesson, Far. 109. 

98 LESSON XXIX 104-107 


104. MOH, TBOH, CBOH, my, thy, one's own. 

Singular Plural 

M. N. F. M. N. F. 

n. CBOH [sv6I] CBOC [SVAJO] CBOH [svAJd] CBOH [svAJfj 

g. CBoero [svAJavo] CBOCH [svAJei] CBonx-b [svAfx] 

d. CBOCM^ [sVAJOmu] CBO6H [sVAJel] CBOHM'b [sVAim] 

a. nom. or gen. nom. CBOIO [SVAJU] CBOH [SVAI] , -HX"b [SVAX] 

i. CBOHM'b [svAim] CBoeH(eio)[svAJei(eju)] CBOHMH [svAimi] 


MOH and TBOH are declined in exactly the same way. 

105. Haiin>, Kama, name, nauiH, our, ours, and Baun>, Bauia, 
Bauie, BauiH, your, yours, are declined exactly like the words in 
Par. 104, except that the termination is never accented, e.g. 
naniero, Hainen, Hainnx-L are the genitives. 

106. The following pronouns and adjectives are also declined 
like CBOH : 

left [tjel], qbH [tjja], Hbe [tjjo], HbH [tjji], whose? (stem *n>, e.g. ace. 
sing. Hbero, HbK), Hb6), e.g. O Hben KHHF^ Bbi roBOpHJin? [AtJj6I 
knicp vi gAVArfli], Whose book were you talking about ? 

ceft [sel], cin [sijd], cie [sijo], cin [sii], this (stem c, e.g. gen. sing, cero, cett ; 
ace. fern. CK) or ciib). This word is idiomatic in a few set phrases and 
is otherwise little used, e.g. ceroflHH [s9v6diiA], of this day, i.e. to-day ; 
ciio MHH^xy [sijii riiimitu], this minute, i.e. at once. 

Becb [ves], BCH [fsa], Bee [fso], BC^ [fss-], all (stem BC, e.g. gen. sing. Bcero. 
'fe replaces H, e.g. instr. sing. BC'feM'b, gen. plur. BC'fex'b), e.g. Bee ^TO 
[fso etA], all that ; flJin BC'fex'b naci, [dL\. fssx nas], for us all. 

107. 3TOTT> [stAt], this, is declined fully thus : 

Singular Plural 

Masc. Neut. Fern. H. N. F. 

nom. 3TOT"b STO xa [etA] 5xn [eti] 

gen. 9xoro axoii [stAl] ^THXT> [etix] 

dat. ^TOMy ^TOH [stAl] etc. 

ace. gen. or nom. xy [etu] 

instr. ^THMT. 5Toii [stAl] 

prep. ^TOMT. ^TOH [stAl] 

108-109 LESSON XXIX 99 

(a) TOTT>, that, is similar in declension but takes -fe every- 
where instead of H and always accentuates the final syllable, e.g. 
gen. sing. Toro [two]. 

3TOTL corresponds to either ' this ' or ' that.' TOTT> means * that.' 
When both words occur in a sentence 3TOTT> means ' this ' and 
TOTL means ' that.' 

(6) OHHHT>, ojjHa, OHHO, with plural OHHH (-HXT>) for masc. and 
neut. and o^ni (-'fex'b) for feminine, is declined like 3TOTb, but the 
accent always falls on the final syllable, e.g. gen. sing. ojjHoro 
[AdnAVo], OHHOH [Adnoi]. 

(c) The emphatic pronoun caMt, caMa, caMO, caMH, self, 
has genitive caMoro, -oil, -oro, -HXT>, and is otherwise declined 
like omiHT>, OflHa, -HO, -HH. 1 (One form only for all genders in 

108. The words ero [javo], ea [jajo], HXT> [ix, jix], are the 
genitive forms of OHT>, OHO, ona, OHH and ont, but, as has been 
learned by this time, they do duty for the possessives of the 3rd 
person with the meanings his, her, its, their. 

109. The distinction in use between the possessives MOM, TBO&, 
naiirb, Baurb, ero, en, HXT>, and the word CBOH, CBOH, CBOC, CBOH, 
must be carefully observed. The latter always refers to the sub- 
ject of the clause and may refer to a subject singular or plural, of 
first, second, or third person, and may accordingly at different 
times require to be translated by any one of our possessive adjec- 
tives, e.g. 

H BHfl-fejiT. er6 crina [jn vM/l j ; >v6 BIIIA], / saw his son. 

H BHfl'feJi'b CBoerd China [jn \ M t sv\j.v6 SUIA], / saw my (own) son. 

OHT> BHjrijjn> Moer6 cwna [on vM^t m.\j.iv6 stn.v], He saw my son. 

OHT> BHfl'BJrb CBoer6 cuna [on fioal SVAJ.WO stn.v], He saw his (own) son. 

OHT. BHJX'BJi'b er6 cuna [on vil.t j.vo sin-v], He saw his (another man j s) 

Ona uiiJi'bJia ero (cA) ci.'ma [.\n<i j->v6 (joj6) aim.], She saw his 
or her (another person's) son. 

Ona BHA"feJia CBoer6 Cb'ina [.\n-i vi'1-tt.v sv.vj.w6 stn.v], She saw her 
(otcn) son. 

1 In the fern. ace. singular there is an alternative form caMoe 

100 LESSON XXIX 100 


xexKa, H, H [t6tkA], aunt npaBa, bi [prdvdA], truth 

H, H or bri [dddA], uncle TOJIOCT., a, a [golAs], voice 

a, H [piariidnik], KOJibijo, a, -a [kA^tso], ring 

nephew 30JIOTO, a [zotAtA], gold 

njieMjhraima, H, bi [piamdnitsA], rpoMtdft [gromki], loud 

niece aojioxoft [zAtAtoIJ, of gold 

pyKa, A, ^H [rukd], ace. pyny, Kp-fenKitt [ki-spki], firm * 

famd or arm apOJKamift 2 [drA^dJtJi], trembling 

najieirb, 1 najibija, LI [pdiats, cjibiuiaxb A [sii/At], to Aear 

pd^tsA], finger H^JKHO [misiiA], ^ is necessary ' 


A. Translate : 

(1) BH CTpOHJIH CBOft ^OMT). (2) XopOIUO, HTO H XOT'fejI'b KynHTb 

Banit KOMI.. (3) OHT, paSoiaji-b B-b cBoeMi, ca^y-. (4) Heymejin 
OH-b cioaa npi-fexajTb H3-b xoro ropo^a? (5) Mbi ^TO nojiynnjiH OTT> 
CBoero oma. (6) Baina Koposa 6po^6JIa secb aenb no 5xoMy Jiyry. 
(7) Hen rpoMKitt rpjioci, MH TaKb qacxo cjniuiajiH? (8) Bc-fe STH 


CKaaaib see TO, HTO MM y>Ke qexbipe roaa anaJiH. (10) 


(11) Be* nauiH jjpyabH SbiuiH xora sa-fecb. (12) HbeMy ciiHy BH 
aajiH crapyio CBQH) KHHrv? (13) Hb6fi aonepn BM paacKasaJin BCC 
xo, HXO cjiy^Hjiocb? (14) Heymejin ^xo npasjja? (15) ITo cqacxiro 
H HC SHajrb ^xoro rdpoaa. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) My aunt is the sister of my father or mother, or my uncle's wife ; I 
am her nephew. (2) My uncle is the brother of my father or of my mother ; 
I am his nephew. (3) My niece is the daughter of my brother or sister ; I 
am her uncle and my wife [remember the my wife is the subject of an in- 
dependent statement] is her aunt. (4) I heard his trembling voice. (5) He 
gave me his trembling hand. (6) The little boy was playing with his finger. 
(7) His firm hand was lying on the table. (8) In a trembling voice [instr. 
without preposition'] he was reading my book. (9) Whose book was he read- 
ing ? (10) I saw a gold ring on your finger. (11) Her ring was of (Par. 98) 
gold. (12) Can it be [is it possible] that he slept in his room ? [ambiguous in 

1 This word is declined like OT&UT>, but as the a in the nominative is soft, the 
b appears in the other cases to indicate that the Ji is still soft. 

2 In form a present participle active. 

110-114 LESSON XXX 101 


110. The dative, instrumental, and 'prepositional plural of 
nouns have one set of endings throughout, viz. : 


dat. plur. aMT>, e.g. CTOJiaiWb [stAtdm], tables 
instr. aMH, CTOJiaMH [stAtami] 

prep. axi>, CTOJiaxt [stAtax] 



dat. plur. HMT>, e.g. HriHflMT> [ndiiam], nurses 
instr. HMH, HHHMH [iicmami] 

prep. HXT>, HHHXT> [iidriax] 

111. Exceptional Forms in Instrumental Plural. Feminine 
nouns belonging to group 4 in Par. 78 often end in BMH, e.g. 
jioinaubMH [kjAcbniJ horses. 

MHTL has MaiepbMri [mabrmi] (see Par. 86) 
HOHb HO T iepbMH [dAtfarmi] 

112. Note that those words marked 1 in group 4 in Par. 78 have 
the accent on the termination in the oblique cases of the plural, e.g. 

nom. sing. Ji6inajrb [t6/At] but dat. plur. JiomaariMT. 
nom. plur. Ji6maflH [t6jAdi] instr. plur. JioinanbMi'i 

prep. plur. Jiouiaflfixt 

113. The corresponding case-endings for adjectives are : 


dat. plur. WMT>, e.g. KpacHbiMT> [krasnim], red, beautiful 
instr. i,i MII, KpacHbiMH [krasmihij 

prep. bix-b, KpacHbiXT* [krasnlx] 


dat. plur. HMT>, e.g. pannHMT, [ranim], early 
instr. IIMII, panHHMii [rin'iiiiii] 

prep. nxt, pauinix'i, [nh'iix] 

114. In connexion with the terminations given in Pars. 110 and 
113 remember the universal rules of Russian orthography : 

H must never appear after r, K, x, >K, H, ui, in, u : write a. 
LI r, K, x, >K, H, in, m : write H. 

102 LESSON XXXI 115-iie 


nopXHoft (an adj. in form) [pArtnoI], BbicoKift [visoki], high 

tailor rjiy66mH [gtuboki], deep 

KOp6xKift [kArotki], short * HHSKIH [niski], low (not high) 

[dotgi], long (more generally XHxiii [iixi], low (not loud) . 
of time) 


Decline in the singular and plural (omitting the genitive plural) 
;n66pbift Kyneirb, MOJioaoft njieMJhmHK'b, xopoinee KOJibijo", 
aixiKi), inupdnaH ^JiHija, MOH qepnan coSana, ^snan 
, naina rjiySoKan p^Ka, eji ;npo>Kamiii rojioct, ero Kp'fenKift 
., er6 apyraa ^OHB. 

B. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) He was speaking about the long days. (2) Into jail the long, broad 
rooms. (3) Towards these low doors. (4) For my rich old uncle. (5) Into 
the deep rivers. (6) About all the loud voices. (7) With [ci>] whose gold 
rings ? (8) From the nephew of that poor tailor. (9) Along [no] our 
narrow streets. (10) On the long tables. (11) Between your kind old aunts. 
(12) On to these short bridges. (13) Before their low doors. (14) The boys 
fell into the deep water but a brave man saved them. (15) About our damp 
fields. (16) Towards that high place. 

Notice the following idioms : 

115. ^S***** 

HTO 5xo sa neo? [Jto stA ZA par6], What is that for a pen ? i.e. What 
kind of pen is that ? What is there to know about that pen ? 

KaKHM-b 66pa30MT>? [kAkim obrAZAm], By what means ? How ? 


Mn-fe JierKO (H#>KHO) 6xo jrjjjiaxb [mns Iaxk6 (nusnA) tA delAt], It is 
easy (necessary) for me to do that. 

EM^ xp^flHO roBOprixb no-p^ccKH [jamu tnidnA gAVAfit pAruski], It 
is difficult for him to speak Russian. 

Mirk (HaMi>) npinxHO cjitniiaxh 3xo [mns (nam) prijdtnA sti/At etA], 
It is pleasant for me (us) to hear that. 

fiii HenpirixHO CMOXp-fexb na 5xy nrp^ [jel napfijatmv smvtr^t nA ^tu 
igru], She does not like to look at that game. Of. Par. 189, 2. 

116 LESSON XXXI 103 


napeHb, pHH, H [porari], lad cxapaxbCfl 131 A [stAra'tsA], to strive, 
prifl-b, a, LI (Bt pflfly, among) [rat (d)], try 

row, rank CKpbiBaxb 131 A [skrlva't], to keep 
Kposaxb , H , H [kr AVO 't ], bed, bedstead ' concealed 

nyBCTBO, a, a [tjuf stvA], feeling CKpwTb [skrit], to conceal 

KpacHbitt [krasni], red OHCBriuHO [At/avfdiiA], evidently ' 

noKpacH-BTb [pAkrAsiie't], to blush* priflOM-b c-b [rddAm s] (with instr.), 
6jTBHbitt [bisdui], pale alongside, close beside, (lit. in one 

noGjrEjjH'EXb [pAbladne't], to turn row with) 

pale MauiHHaJibHO [mAjind'ioA], absently, 
aaivrBXHXb [zArii6tit], to notice mechanically, instinctively 


A. Translate : 

(1) O#Ha MOJioaaa jK^nmnna, Kox6pafl CHjTBJia oaHamjibi piiaoM'b 
CT> cBo^ft l CTapoft TeTKott, H ManiHHajibHo nrpajia najibiiaMH e>i 2 pyKii, 
3aM"BTHJia 3OJiox6e KOJibu6 na najibu'fe TCTKH. (2) Ona cnpocHJia, 
TeTKa, HTO 6x0 aa KOJIb^6? (3) Gxapan jjaivia noKpacH-fejia , 
noxoM-b noSji-feflH-fejia, H cnaaajia naKOHdu-b apoKainHM-b rbjiocoMx, 
MH-B nenpirixHo o6-b ^XOMT. roBOpH[Xb. (4) O^eBiiflHO ona cxapa- 

JiaCb CKpblXb OXT> nJieM^HHHUbl CBOH 3 H^BCXBa. 

Oveeudno OHO. cmapcuiacb cKpbimb omb njieMfmnui^bi ceou vyecmea. 

B. Rewrite the passage A, substituting a small boy for the young 

woman, an uncle for an aunt, and make the old uncle answer 
in a firm voice. 

C. Bonpocbi : 

(1) rjTB cHjrtjia MOJiojjan w^Hmnna? (2) KaKOBa 6biJia e 
xexKa? (3) H-feM-b Hrpajia njieM^nnnua? (4) Kam, ona 3xo fl-fejiajia? 
(5) Hxo ona cnpocrijia? (6) Hxo cjiynrijiocb? (7) Xox-fejia JIH 
cxapafl aMa roBopAxb o 30Jiox6ivrb KOJibu^? (8) Hxo eft Obuio 
nenpi^txHo? (9) OXT> Kor6 ona xox-kia cnpusaxb q^BCXBa? 

D. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The rich merchant's beautiful wife drove up to [KT>] the door. (2) At 
last the door was opened [see Par. 102, a] and she entered [into] the hospital. 
(3) First she passed through a dark entrance-hall, then she entered a large 

1 cBo6tt referring to the subject 

8 eri does not ivfcr to the subject, but *o the other person, the aunt. 

s CBort referring to the subject in this sentence, OHM. 

104 PLURALS 117 

bright room, where (there) were clean white beds on which l lay the sick 
men. (4) She entered another room, passed one bed and came up to [Ex. 
XXVIII, A, 3] the bed which she was seeking. (5) There she found her son, 
the unhappy boy whom she had adopted two years ago. (6) He had been a 
strong, healthy lad then. (7) But suddenly he had fallen [past tense] ill with 
that dreadful disease. (8) There he (was) now a poor weak man. (9) His 
pale fingers were playing absently with the yellow papers that were lying on 
the bed before him. (10) The mother sat down on the chair that stood beside 
the wooden bed. (11) It was evidently difficult for her to conceal her feelings. 
(12) But she could say in a firm voice, " What papers are these ? " 


The numbering of the groups corresponds to that used in the 
list given in Pars. 77, 78, 79. 



snaKt, H, H, sign ruieMHHHHK'b, a, H, nephew 

cyirb, a, LI, soup npHKasqHK'B, a, H, shop-assistant 

Hapojj-b, a, LI, people 


TpyaT>, a, L'I, trouble, difficulty KJiio^rb, a, KT, key 

H3b'iKT, a, ri, tongue 


Kyn6irb, ima, nub'i, merchant naJieirr,, Jibija, JibUbi, finger (see 

3aM6KT>, MKa, ri, lock note to Foe. XXIX) 


pa3T>, a, bi (T>), time, occasion PH^I, a, b'i (na pflA^, in a row, at 

the same time), row, rank 

napenb, pun, H (eft), (peasant) lad 

rojioc'b, a, a, voice r6pojn>, a, a, town 

Feminine in Form 

, H, H (eft) or brf (bee-b), uncle Mymniina, bi, bi, man 

1 Kox6putt is declined exactly like any other adjective in -wfl. 

2 nopTn6ii, tailor, is in form an adjective. 

118-119 PLURALS 105 


Gojibin'ma, bi, LI, hospital npaBAa, w, truth 

, bi, bi, room cupOTKa, H, H (OKT>), little orphan 

KOp6Ba, LI, w, cow TiiTKa, H , H (OKT>), aunt 

K^XHH, H, H (OHT> or OHb), kitchen ^Jinua, bi, bi, street 

JTECTHnua, bi, bi, stairs xojiepa, bi, w, cholera 

M-fepa, w, bi, measure ripMapna, H, H (oKT),/atr 
njieMrfHHHua, w, H, niece 


Bofina, bi, ^bi, war Tpaea, bi, -^bi, grass 

, bi, H, wife 


, ii, -^bi (em>), sheep SCMJI^, li, ^K), -^n (^Jib), ear/A, fotwd 

cupora, bi, 6ibi, orphan pyna, ri, -^y, ^H, ^zw^, arm 

The first two may have the accent drawn back one syllable in 
the accusative singular, e.g. CHpoxy. 

Note ceMbri, A, ^H (6ft), family, has the accent on the stem only in 
the worn. plur. 

6oJi-B3Hb, H, H (eft), sickness, disease KpOBaTb, H, H (ett), bed, bedstead 

MaTb, epH, epH (eft), mother 6qb, epH, epn (eft), daughter 

nepeaiiHH (fern, adj.), hall, lobby 


KOJibuo, a, ^a (Jieq-b), nn^ 

r6pe, H, ji (eft), grne/, sorrow 


HyBCTBo, a, a, feeling, a, a, beginning 

30JIOTO, a, gold Po>KaecTB6, a, a, Christmas 

1 HiB6nioe, animal, is in form an adjective. 




3 (cont.) 

, fl, H (ift), unhappiness, CHacxie, H, fl (in), happiness 
misfortune noBTOp6nie, H, H, repetition 


With gen. : 6e3T>, 6jiH3-b, BM-fecTO, Bosjrfc, AJIH, no, H3i>, KpoM'fe, MHMO, 

ox-b, y. 

dat. : KT> (KO), no. 
accus. : npo, sa, BT> (BO), na. 
instr. : MejKfty, sa, CT> (co), p^noM'b CT>, nepe^i). 
>. : o, na, BT> (BO), npn, no (Par. 69). 



I A (cf. Lesson XXXV) 
(1) Bbipacxaxb 

A (see Par. 206) 

I A a, b, c, 
(a) (cf. Lesson XLII) 


(no)nTTH 2 (inf. 
(no)necTH (inf. of nec-b) 

(6) (cf. Lesson XLIII) 


IIA1, 2, 3 

1 (cf. Lesson XXXVII) 
* (no)roBOpHTb 



2 (cf. Lesson XXXVIII) 


(1) OTAblXaTb 


(1) npuroxoBJiHTb 
(1) npb^raTb 
(1) nycKaxb 

(c) (cf. Lesson XLIV) 


(2) CTOHTb 

3 (cf. Lesson XXXIX) 

(1) CKpblBaTb 

(1) cnpauiHEaxb 

(inf. of Mon>) 
[fut. is CMor^] 
(no)c^HTb (Par. 168 a) 

(2) XOtfHTb 

(sa)6oJi^Tb (simple verb = to be ill) 

(3a)xoT'ETb (irreg., (na)piicoBaTb 
Par. 222) (Par. 225) 

1 T>H must be written H. 

(no)-ECTb, to eat, is ir- 
regular (Par. 220) 
2 Contracted to noiini. 





B (see Par. 206) 
I a, 6, c 



(1) npHHecxri 


* npoftxri 

* imimi 

(1) nocjiaxb 

(1) ynacxb (ynajii.) 

(1) cnacxb (cnaci>) 

* cnasaxb 

(1) noKaaaxb (Par. 232) 
(1) paacKaaaxb (Par. 232) 
(1) oxKpwxb (Par. 232) 
(1) cnpbixb (Par. 232) 
(1) noflHjixbCfl 

(1) CHHXb 

(1) npi'fexaxb 
(1) JieHb (jieri.) 

(1) C^CXb (C'feJIT.) 

(1) cxaxb 
(1) ocxaxbCH 





(1) cnpociixb 

(1) 6p6cHXb 



(1) Kyniixb 
(1) y6"fe>Kaxb 
(1) nocxynnxb 

(1) BCXp-BXHXb 

(1) oxornaxb 


(1) axb (naji-b) is ir- 
regular (Par. 231) 

Gbixb is irregular 
(Page 34) 

7iO"Bjn> is irregular 
(see Par. 220) 

1 See note to Voc. LIII. 

108 LESSON XXXII 123-124 


123. The future tense of the verb 6biTb is : 

H 6^ny [bfidu], / shall be 
Tbi G^Tjenib [btidaj], thou ivilt be, etc. 

OH& 6$7jei"b [bfidat] 


Mbi SyfteMTb [budam] 
Bbi 6^exe [btidate] 


124. The future tense of any verb in the groups marked A 
(Par. 121) is composed by simply adding to the forms given in the 
preceding paragraph the infinitive of the verb, e.g. 

OH S^eT-B pncoBaTb [Ana budat risAva 1 !,], she will draw. 
BBI 6$7jeTe cxapaTbCfl [vi btidota stArd^sAJ, you will try. 

Note. No verb under B (Par. 122) can have a future of this 
form. This is most important (cf. Par. 204). 


npaBHJiLHO [praviinA], correctly HCHO [jasnA], clearly 

npaeo [pravA], really npSjKjje (prep, with gen. or adv.) 
npasua [proivdA], truth, the truth is [pr^da], before, formerly - 

CKOpo [sk6rA], quickly, soon n6cJi'B (prep, with gen. or adv.) 

[rii^dlanAJ, slowly [p6sla], after, afterwards 

[p6z(d)nA], late no-HliMen [pAnametski], in 
[p639], later German 

pano [ranA], early no-HTajib^HCKH [pAitAljanski], in 
panbiiie [rc^nja], earlier, sooner Italian 

ropaaao 66jibine [gArazdA bo^ja], M6weTb-6biTb [m63at-bit], may be, 
far more perhaps 

HHKTO nnqerd He noHHMaji-b [nixt6 nitfav6 na pAnimdt], No one 
understood anything. 

125-126 LESSON XXXIII 109 

A. Translate : 

(1) npasaa, H Sroro ne 3Hajn>. (2) Pano Ann n63jmo a. see" 

6yay snaxb. (3) Tora OHT> rosopiiji-b no-p^ccKH, HO 6neHb 

JI6HHO. (4) CK6pO OHT> 6yfleXT> rOBOpHXb HCHO H npaBHJIbHO. (5) 

OHT> npHiuejii, ndsjno, a ona npHiuji& ropaaao no3>Ke. (6) HHKXO 
3xoro HHKoraa HC 6y#exT> noHHMaxb. (7) M6jKerb-6biTb, OUT, 
MCHH HHKoraa He noHHMajn>. (8) Ona Tdnbno 6neHb HCMHOFO 


HTajiH, HO Bi> uiKdji-fe HMi> H^JKno 6^neTT> ropa3o 66jibiiie 
(10) Xopoiuo, HTO OH-B x6jibKO n63>Ke [not till later] 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Why will the boys be taught at home ? (2) Will they not learn far 
more at school ? (3) She will never answer quickly and clearly. (4) It is 
impossible to say when the industrious workmen will rest. (5) It is well 
that he will not eat all his bread till later [say : will eat only later]. (6) No 
one will write anything. (7) The corn will be growing up in spring. (8) 
From whose friend will she try to conceal her feelings ? (9) Sooner or later ,. 
these old men will be working Jn the fields. (10) All the diligent school-girls 
will learn their lessons. (11) The one girl will lie on this bed, the other will 
sit on that chair. 


125. The complete plurals of the 1st and 2nd personal pronouns 
are : 

nom. Mbi [mi], we Bbi [vi], you, 

gen. Haci> [nas], of u$, etc. Baci> [vas], of you, etc. 

dat. naMT> [nam] Ba\n> [vam] 

ace. naci> [nas] Baci> [vas] 

instr. HUMH [nriihi] BaMH [vniiri] 

prep. Haci> [nas] Baci> [vas] 

126. The plural of the 3rd personal pronoun is : 

Masc. and Neut. Fern. 

nom. oiiri [AHI'J onii [.vng], they 

gen. ( 11)11x1, [(j)ixj, of t> 

dat. (ii)iiMi> [(j)imj 

ace. (ii)iix'i, [(j)i.\J 

instr. (II)I'IMII [(j)fiiiij 

prep. 1 1 ii XT, [nix] 

Most of these forms have already been introduced. 

110 LESSON XXXIV 127-128 

127. Haa't [nod], over, above, 

nojj'B [pod], beneath, below, 

are both used with, the instrumental. Accompanying verbs of 
motion nojvfc governs the accusative. 


Translate into Russian : 

A. About them, on to them, behind us, over them, over me, between them, 
between us and you, with you, up to them, under us, with you, for them, 
towards them, according to them, towards you, about you, before them, in 
them, beside them, under them, over you, in his presence, in their presence. 

B. (1) We saw them all. (2) They answered us. (3) You heard it. 
(4) What were you doing there ? (5) We shall speak of you. (6) They will 
ask them questions. (7) When shall we eat them ? (8) They never let us 
(hi). (9) Are you speaking of our tame animals ? (10) The white sheep were 
lying under the old bridge. (11) I saw this bright light above them. (12) 
We shall look for it later. (13) He will know it far better to-morrow. (14) 
Who found the black cow that fell into the deep water ? (15) She will never 
do that again. (16) They heard nothing. (17) He was sitting under the 
old chair. (18) He never spoke to us. (19) Whose pupil was trying to read ? 
(20) Have you (got) those books I gave you yesterday ? 


128. Time phrases : 

KOTOpbifi qacTb xenepb? [kAtori tjas tepe'f], what time is it now ? 
BT, KOTOpoivrb *mcy? [fkAtorAm t/Asu], at what time ? at what o'clock ? 
BT> ,nsa *raca [vdva t/Asd], at two o'clock. 
BT> paHHeMT> qacy [vranam t/Asu], at an early hour. 
BT> BOCKpecenbe [vvAskfaseiijo], on Sunday. 
BT> 5TOMi> rosy [vstAm gAdii], in this (or that] year. 
BT> GyaymeM-b l ro^y [vbudujtjom gAdii], next year. 
BT> TCKymeM-b 1 roay [f tekujtjam gAdii], in the current year. * 
B-b HacTOHiuee 1 BpeMH [vmvstAJdJt/aja vreriiA], at the present time. 
na npyr6ft nenb [nA drugol dehi], on the following day. 
KT> Beqepy [kvetjaru], towards evening. 
no Be*iepaMT> [pAvetJ^rAm], of an evening. * 
[rstkA], rarely, seldom. * 

1 These words are participles. 





, a, u [.vbt], dinner 
3aBXpaKi, a, H [zaftrXk], break- 

, a, bi [t[as] (after 2, 3, 4, gen. 

sing. [tfAsa]), hour 

fl-BJibHHKb, a, H [ 

Man <Iai/ 

, H, H (eBT>) [vAskra- 
1, Sunday 

, a, a [deta], business, affair 
po>Kb, p/KH [ro|], rye 
imiem'ma, bi [p/anitsA], wheat " 
Poccffl, H (H, K>, eft, H) [FASIJA], 


BT Poccfa [vTAsii], in Russia 
Ppaimifl, H (H,io,ett,H)[frant;ij A], 


BO Opanuzu [vAfn'mtsii], in France 
AnrJiifl [ongliJA], England 
[italiJA], Italy 

FepMaHifl [cprmdniJA], Germany 
HHOcxpaneu-b, Hija, LI 

strdnats], stranger, foreigner 

, a [angiitjdnin], pi. 
5, am> [angiitfdna], 

MH'BHie, H, H [mfi^nja], opinion * 
HHHerd [mtjav6], it's not worth speak- 
ing about, never mind 
B6sce [v6fsa], at all 
ecjin [j6sli], if 
HOBLiii [n6vi], new 

[takiijtji], current ' 
[biidujtji], future 

[nAstAJd/tji], present, 

np6iiiJiMtt [pr6|ti], past, last 
rpOMannbiii [grAmddni], enormous 
OH-b yuiejiT> [on u|6t], he went 

A. Translate : 

(1) Ilp>Kae MajienbKan y^en^a x6jibKO HeMHoro yniijiacb, a 
BT> 6<7*ymeMT> roay ona ropaaao 66jibiiie 6^en> yquxbcn. (2) 
TIoqeMy oiia S^nerb cnpuBaxb OTT, Menii CBOH MH-feniH? (3) 
3iiaTb, HTO aasxpa 6^aexT>. (4) BT> BOCKpec^Hbc OHH 

nni ; M'i> n HOHbio 6ynexe pa66xaxb, 
, n niinoraa o6i> axoMT. ne ayMajn>. 
nycKaxb xaK6ro MajienbKaro Majib- 
(8) BT> 6yflymeivn> rony 5xn Goraxue 
cxponxb rpOMa;un>n'i ii6in>itt flBOpeui, na 6eper^ 
(9) j^o PojKflecxBa MM Gy.u-Mi, yMiixbCfl n6Ma. (10) Ha 
npyr6tt ;iciu, MI.I roBopi'uiH CT BaiunMT* ap^roMT>. (11) Becnbtt 
npiiJie>KHLiii Kpecxb^HHHT, 6^exi> c-fenxb Hi.M6iiL H OBCCT>, a 6cenbio 
po>Kb H iinu'iu'my. (12) rioHi'MV ainvui'iaiio iiin;or;ui HO XOX-BJIH 
roBopiixb CT> HIIMII? (13) Bi> KOx6pOMT> qacy BLI ripiiiiuiii ^OMOtt? 
(14) OHT npniuejiTj na jxpyr6ii ^em.. (15) Omi BOBCC nc noniiMa:ni 

nncaxb. (5) CJIH Bu 
Bbi 6^nexe GojrEXb. (6) 
(7) HIIKXO HHKoraa ne 

B-L iiainy iv'o.Miiaxy. 

112 LESSON XXXV 129 

B. Bonpocbi: 

(1) Hxo VHeHHija npejKfle jrtjiajia? (2) Hxo ona G^ex-b fl-knaxb? 
(3) Hero Hejibsa anaxb? (4) Kor^a OHH 6#ayxTb Hivrb nncaxb? 
(5) O qe'M-b OHT, HHKorjja ne jr^Maji-b? [On-b HHKorfla He a^Maji-b o 
x6M"b, ixo, about the fact that, etc.] (6) Koro HHKorjia He S^TjyxT) 
nycKaxb? (7) Kxo H ra^ 6yari> cxponxb nsopeirb? (8) Kanon / 
aBopeirb OHH Syuyxt cxponxb? (9) JHo noxoparo JI.HH MH SyACMT. 
yiHXbCH? (10) Hxo Kpecxbflne Syayxi) c'Baxb BecnoH? 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) To-morrow we shall speak about all that with the Russian merchants 
who arrived here last Sunday. (2) We shall all work by night and amuse our- 
selves by day [say ryjiflXb H iirpaxb]. (3) After dinner we shall sleep in your 
bed. (4) It was not easy to speak with your poor friends, as [xaKT> KaKT>] they 
came very late. (5) Their younger daughter will speak with you at an early 
hour on Monday. (6) How much will that breakfast cost ? (7) Next year 
" V we shall be in Russia and perhaps we shall live there till Christmas. (8) She 
was never in France before ; last year she was in Germany and this year she 
will be in England. (9) Why will the old peasant-woman pour the clean 
water on the already damp ground ? (10) Next day the peasant's friends 
arrived early from the town, but the old man (had) arrived still earlier 
along with us, and his wife arrived only a little later. (11) We shall write to 
them in the current year about this business. (12) At what time did they 
go in ? (13) They found him here at four o'clock. (14) Why did the silly 
boy not eat this black bread ? (15) Never mind, he will eat it to-morrow. 
(16) Wheat was sown last year and rye will be sown this year. (17) English- 
men will not always speak Russian badly. (18) They rarely spoke Russian 
well. (19) If you always speak [fut.] so fast, no one will ever understand 
what you are trying to say. (20) After Sunday we shall be living with our 
old friend. 


129. Up to tnis point only the infinitive, future, and past tense 
of the verb have been used. The PRESENT TENSE is not quite so 
simple in form as the past tense, and in many verbs it is not so simply 
derived from the infinitive ; in fact two verbs may be in the in- 
finitive very similar, and in the present tense quite different in 
appearance. Kussian verbs are usually classified according to the 
form of the present tense. * 

130-131 LESSON XXXV 113 

130. All verbs, excluding a very few irregulars, have in the 
present tense one of the two following sets of endings : 

i n 

K) or y [ju, u] H) or y [ju, u] 

euib OJ] Hiiib [if] 

exi> [jat] HTT> [it] 

e\Tb [jam] HMT. [im] 

exe [jata] nxe [ito] 

K)TT> or yx-b [jut, ut] HTT> or an> [jot, at]. 

Note, (a) Cf. the endings learned in Par. 123. (6) The variety of possible 
stem-forms is considerable. 

131. All the verbs under I A in Par. 121 form the present tense 
by substituting the endings I in Par. 130 for the Tb of the in- 
finitive, so that we have : 

(1) (2) (3) 

H n^Maio [dtimAJu], ryjiriio [guidju], cxapaiocb [stAidjus], try 

think walk 

TLI n^Maeuib [dumAJaJ] ryjirieiiib [guia jaj] cxapaeuibCH [stArd jaJsA] 


Vfl^Maext [dum.vjat] ryji^exT> [guidjat] cxapaexcn 


Mbi s^MaeMt [d6m.vjom] ryjuteMi [guldj^m] cxapaeMCH 

Bbi nyMaexe [dumAJato] ryjiAexe [gulajata] cxapaexecb [stArajatas] 

[dum-vjut] ryjiriiox-b [guiujut] cxapawxcfl [stAr'jjutsA] 

These are not three distinct types ; they are merely three 
examples. Verbs in 'fexb belong chiefly to this class. 

(a) The present participles of verbs of this type have the following 
forms : 

Adverbial present participle (invariable) : 

HyMan, ryjiflfl, crap^acb (pres. stem plus H), while 

thinking, walking, trying-, 

Adjectival present participle active (declined as an adjective) : 

uyMaiomiti, ryjifliomift, crapaiomificfl (formed from 

3rd plur. pres. tense), one who is thinking, walking, trying. 

(b) Compare Par. 80 (6). 


114 LESSON XXXV 132 

132. Note carefully the spelling of tlie present tense of the re- 

flexive verb : 

Cb in 1st sing, and 2nd plur. (i.e. after vowels). 

CH in all other cases. 

Before reflexive Cb, ca, in all parts of the verb b is preserved 
but i> is omitted. 


jiaMna, H, BI [tdmpA], lamp aajKHrdTL [zA^iga^i], to light, set on 
nniua, H, H [piJtjA],/oocZ fire 

[5al6 i t], to wish, desire Tp6raTb [trogAt], to touch 

[prAdAi3d i t], to con- cji^uiaxb [stu/At], to listen * 

tinue ynoTpedJiflTb [upAtf ablaut], to use 

OTKpbiBaTb [Atkrivd 1 !,], to open p-feuiaTb [rajd^], to solve, resolve 

saKpbiBaxb [zAkrivd 1 !,], to shut yM'fexb [um^t], to understand, to know 
nojiaraxb [pAtAgd^], to suppose, hoiv to 

have an opinion BHHMaTeJibHO [vriimdtainA], alien- 
HOJKHBaTb [pAsivc^t], to live, to dwell, tively 

to be (of health) 

All verbs in this vocabulary belong to class I A. 


A. Translate : 

(1) H BHHMaTeJibHO cjiyuiaio Bee TO, HTO Bbi qnTaexe. (2) OHH 
Bcerna A-BJiaioTt, Kan-b jKejiaioxi,. (3) EEoqeM^ Bbi npofloJi/Kaexe 
ro^opi^Tb 06^ 5TOMT>? (4) HTO HaMT> ca'BJiaTb [to do now, once, on this 
occasion]*} On& CKpbiBaK)TT> OT-B HacT> Bee TO, qTO OHH jr^viaioTi, . 
(5) Ona xopoiuo yn-feeTi. npnroTOBJiHTb 6TO MHCO. (6) Bceraa 
JIH pano aamnraroT-b jiaMny? (7) H n^Maio, ^TO ona HC cjiymaerb. 
(8) BTJ Poccin H BT> FepMaHiH po>Kb ynoTpeSjiflioTT) BT> nnnjy [as 
food]. (9) KaKi> Bbi noJiaraeTe? (10) HeyHiejiH OHT> VJK& y^HJi-b 
yp6K p b? (11) He nojiaraerb JIH OHT,, ^TO en yqemiubi nosme 
SyayTt y^HTbCH? (12) Xopomo, HTO MM panbine ne npninjiH ciosa. 
(13) KaKT> Bbi noJKHBaeTe? [How are you?] 

B. Write sentences 1-3, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11 in the^asZ and. future. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) They wish; they conceal; we think; you know ; do you know? 
what do you know ? (2) They touch. (3) We solve them all. (4) They are 
preparing that meat. (5) We are opening this book. (6) They shut it. (7) I 
am listening to all that [BCG TO, HTO] you are reading. (8) He supposes that 
they will speak to them. (9) It is done [ft-fejiaTbCH] here. (10) We are trying 

133-137 LESSON XXXVI 115 

to teach ; they will learn. (11) Do they always [Bcerfl JIH OHli] do that T 
(12) She fell ill. (13) She showed them all that. (14) Who generally opened 
this door ? (15) Did she not give them good food and drink ? (16) Does he 
not understand what [that which] you said ? (17) We use meat as food. 
(18) She can [i.e. knows how 1 to] speak distinctly and quickly. (19) Will be 
not [ne 6#aerb JIH] touch this thing ? (20) He asks them how they are. 


133. Nouns in -T> have genitive plural in 

-OBT>, e.g. CTOJIt, CTOJIOBT> [stAtof] 

or -eBT>, e.g. najiein>, najibueBt [pa^tsafj, after u when 
the termination is not accented. 

134. The most notable exceptions that have occurred, apart 
from words dealt with in Par. 136 (6), are : 

rjiaai), eye, which has gen. pi. rjiaat. 
pa3T>, time, past. 
anrjiHHaHUHi, aurjinqairb [angiitjan]. 
KpecTbriHHHT, KpecTbrfm, [krastjan], 

135. Nouns in -ft have the genitive plural in -eBT>, e.g. 

CJi^mft, cJiyqaeBT, [stut/AJaf] (Group 5, Par. 77). 

136. (a) All nouns in -b, both masculines and feminines, have 
the genitive plural in -eft, e.g. 

uapb, uapett [ts.vrel]. 

nocxejib, nocrejieft [pAstei-^I]. 
(Masc. nouns, Group 6, Pars. 77 and 117.) 
(Fern, nouns, Groups 4 and 5, Pars. 78 and 118.) 

(6) All nouns in -JKT>, -HTb, -UIT>, -iin, have the genitive plural 
in -eft, e.g. 

IIO>!\1, HO/KCtt [noi, iiA^I], knife. 

137. The genitive plural ending of adjectives is for all genders 
-MXT> in the hard form, e.g. 

KpacHBbiti, KpaciiBLix-b [krAsfvixJ, beautiful. 


and -HXt in the soft form, and after r, K, x, >K, q, in, m, e.g. 
nocjrEaHiii, nocji-EJUfflX-b [pAslednix], totter, tos*. 
MJiaainifi, MJianiimx-b [mldtjix], younger. 

138. The genitive singular of the noun must be employed after 
HBa, xpn, neTbipe, these words being nominative or accusative. 1 

With numerals, after 4, in the nominative or accusative case the 
genitive plural of the noun is used. 

Examples : Jjsa py6"jiH [dva rubid], two roubles. 

3;ecflXb py6jieH [desat rublel], ten roubles. 

BT> BOceMb qacoBt [wosam t/Asof], at eight o'clock. 

Notice the usage with compound numerals : 

flBajmaxb OAliH* py6jib [dvatsAt Adin rup] (nom. sing.), twenty-one 

roubles ; 
aBamjaxb Ba pySjifl (gen. sing.), twenty -two roubles; 

and so with 23 and 24, but 

BanaTb nflTb pydjiett [dvatsAt pa^ rublel] (gen. plur.), twenty-five 
roubles, etc. etc. 


y/KHHi,, a, bi [usin] supper yqHjramHbiH [utjfiijni], school, of 

>, a, bi [dvor], yard, court the school 

, a, bi (T>) [sAtdat], soldier BCHKitt [fsdki], every 

n, H [zAddt/A], problem, Ka/KmJH [kd5di], ea^ 

exercise nocji-Banin [pAslediii], latter, la-st 

UH.Tt> [pa [ i], five SeanpeciaHHO [basprastamv], inces- 

niCCTb [Jest], six santly, continually 

CCMb [sem], seven BM'fecx'fe CT> [vrii6st9s], together with 

BOceMb [yosam], eight HrpaTbBT> cojiaaxbitigraHfsAWati], 

[d^vdt], nine to play at soldiers 

[d6sat], ten saHHMaxbca I A [zAiiimd^sA], to 

[dvatsAt], twenty occupy oneself, to be occupied 

Bee [fso], all, always TaKT> KaKT> [tak kak], as (conj.) 

MHt HV/KHO [mns ndsiLv], to me 1160 [IbA], for (conj.) 
necessary, i.e. / must, I need to 


A. Give the genitive plural of : 

MajibinK-b, ocejrb, rjiaa-b [irreg.], repott, asepb, najieuyb, 

B. Translate into Russian : 

3 boys, 5 boys, 20 boys, 21 boys, 22 boys, 26 boys. 
1 Read Pars. 179, 180 at this point, 


C. Translate into Russian : 

past all the red houses ; beside these black tables ; for those tame animals ; 
from the other houses ; from my kind aunts ; out of the narrow, dark entrance- 
halls ; from those Russian towns ; till ft late dny ; that is done in our house 
of an evening ; we are trying to answer ; they are ill [GojTBXb] ; what are 
their sons reading ? whose sons are reading ? 

D. Translate : 

(1) HTO jrfejiaerB xenepb Baun> MOJion6ft cum,? (2) IIpaBO 
HC anaio, HO H nojiaraio, HTO OHT> xenepb BM'fecrfe co CBOHMT> 6paxo>n> 
BT> yHHJiHm-fe. (3) OHT>, M6jKeTT>-6uTb, co BCTBMH apyniMH Majienb- 
KIIMII MaJibHHKaMH Hrpaerb na yHHJiHm.HOM'b HBOp*E BT> cojiflaxbi, 

TaKT> KaKT>, BT> HaCXOrilUee Bp&tfH, BCAmft HCJIOB'feK 

name MajienbKie j$TtfaK>XT> xojibKO o nett. (4) 
Koraa 3a>KHraK>Tb JiaMny, HXT> MJiaauiift cbiHi> 
CT> crapiiiHMH cecrpaMH y crojia. (5) Tporaex-b, 

KHHFH H TexpaflH. (6) Bee BHiiMaxejibHO cji^inaexT> xo, 
qHxaiox-b ero 6paxbfl H cecxpbi. (7) OSbiKHoeeHHo nocji-feflHie 
no ^>Knna npnroxoBJiriiox-b ypoKH H p-feniaion> aaflaqn, a OHT, scer^a 
>KejiaexT> yanaxb, ixo fl-fejiaexca. (8) BeanpecxanHo cnpaiiinBaex-b, 
HO cecxpbi 6HCHb nacxo ne oxB-fenaioxT, na er6 BonpocM. 

E. As far as tbe sense admits of it, write the sentences in Ex. D in 

the past tense and future. 


139. Verbs in group II A in Par. 121 have in the present tense 
the second set of endings given in Par. 130, e.g. 

(1) (2) (3) 

fl roBOpib [g.vvAru], speak cxp6io [stroju], build yq^ l [ut/6], teach 
Tbi roBopriuib [gAVAff/J cxp6aiHb [stroij] ynHiiib [ut/i/] 

OH I) 

ona roBopnx-b [cjAVAiit] crp6HXT> [stroit] yqirrb [ut/it] 


Mbi roBOpiiMT> [gAVArfm] cxpoiiMT, [str6im] VIHMT [fit Jim] 

Bbi roBOpiixe [gwAift ] cxp6nxe [str6iM] VHIITC [\'r 

] roBOprix-b [] cxp6nxi> [] yqaxi l [fit /At] 

1 K> and H never appear after r, K, x, >K, M ; in, in, n. 

118 LESSON XXXVII 140-141 

(a) Types (1), (2), (3) differ only in accentuation. 
(6) The participles of verbs of these types have the following 
forms : 

Adverbial participle present : 

roBOpH, cxpoa* yna x (pres. stem + H), while speaking, building, 

Adjectival participle present active : 

roBOpniiUH, CTponmin, ynaiiUH * [from 3rd plural pres.], one 
that is speaking, etc. 

Adjectival participle present passive : 

, cxpoHMHH, yHHMHH [from 1st plur. pres.], one that is 
being built, taught. 

Adverbial participle past : 

roBOpHBT>, cxpOHBt, y^HBt [from past tense], having spoken, 
built, taught. 

Adjectival participle past active : 

roBOpHBiuiii, CTpoHBinift, yniiBiniH [from past tense], one 
who has spoken, built, taught. 

Adjectival participle past passive : 

roBOpeHHBiii, (no)CTpoeHHBiH, yqeHHBifi [y or K) of pres. tense 
changed into eHHBm], one that has been spoken, built, taught 
( = learned). 

(c) Compare Par. 80 (6), 96 (a), 131 (a). 

140. There is very frequently a change in the form of the stem. 
In verbs of the 2nd conjugation such a change in the present tense 
appears as a rule only in the 1st singular. 


, to be sitting BHC'ETb, to hang, to be hanging 

[sis<i] BHiir^ [viju] 

cnHUib [sidij], etc. BHCHUIB [visij], etc. 

[sAditsA], to sit down cnaTb, to sleep 

cnjiio 2 [splu] 
[sAdfJsA, sadiJsA], etc. cnnnib [spij], etc. 

1 ro and H never appear after r, K, x, w, i, in, m, u. 

2 Ji is inserted after 6, B, M, n before H>. 

142-144 LESSON XXXVII 119 

Jie/Kaxb, to lie, to recline crorirb, to stand 

CTOK) [stAJul 
[last/], etc. croriiiib [stAfJ], etc. 

Jio>KHTbCH, to lie down npHHanJie>KaTb, to belong 

A3i JSA], etc. npHHanjiejKriiiib [piiiLvdiasiJ], etc. 

142. (1) In CHH-ETb and caflHTbCH the fl changes to in the 
1st singular present tense. This is characteristic of verbs ending 
in -flHTb and -n1>Tb. 

(2) In BHCTETb the c changes into in in the 1st singular present 
tense. This is characteristic of verbs in -CHTb and -C'feTb. 

143. Observe carefully the difference in meaning between 
jie>KaTb, to be lying down (a verb of rest) and JiOTKHTbCH, to lay 
oneself down, i.e. to lie down. Cf. CHjj'fjTb and caflHTbca (Par. 60). 

Note jiojKHXbca cnaxb [tA3itsA spa't], to go to bed. 

144. In English we say, ' What is he doing ? ' ' I think he is 
reading,' and the Russian HTO OHT> H'tjiaerb? IlojiaraK), HTO 
OHT> HHTacTT* exactly corresponds. 

If the second sentence is reported in the past, it becomes, ' She 
thought he was reading/ but in Russian the verb in the subordinate 
class must still be present, e.g. 

Ona n^Majia, HTO OHT. qHTaerb. 

So: H CKaaajrb CM^, *rro er6 Maib CHA^TT. y OKHa, 7 told him that 
his mother ivas sitting at the window. 


B6jiKTj, a, H (6BT>, termination KapiiiHa, M, M [kArti'nA], picture 

accented throughout oblique cases Jinca, LI, LI (.nici'iua, LI, hi) (use 2nd 
of plural) [votk], ivolf word in oblique cases) [ 

, Jihoa, jibBbi [lev (ief), iva, iisftsA], fox 

IvIJ, lion CBliiibA, ii, -^H (termination accented 
, a, bi [aist], stork in oblique cases of plural) [svinjii], 

A, ri [suraf, surAvid], pig 

crane CTBHa, b^, -^y, ^bl [stand], wall 

, H, H (ett, AMI., etc.) [zve'r], aepeBo, a, a or aep^Bbn (BbCBT>) 
urild beast [deravA], tree 

H*BByiUKa, H, H (em>) [dlvuJkA], we [56], /or, indeed t of ten suggests an 
girl (growing up) antithesis 


A. Translate : 

(1) JJ'BByiiiKH cuAHTb y OKHa. (2) Ona CH^-fejia na cx^jila y OKHa; 
ona c-fejia na cxyjn>. (3) J^HeMt JILBLI H BC'fe apyrifl SB^PH cnflXT> 
Bt JTEC^. (4) .Tinea CXOHXT> sa 6xHM"b ftepeBOivrb. (5) AHCTH H 
jKypaBJiH CTOHTB na MOCT^. (6) Mbi BOBCG ne nomiMaeM'b, no^eM^ 
en KpacHBbiH KapxiiHbi BHCHTT> na cx'BHax'b xoft TCMHOH KOMHaTbi. 
(7) MH nojiaraeM-b, qxo T-B CBHHLH npHHaaJiemaTt S-feftHOMy KpecxbH- 
HHHy; eM^ me npHHa^JioKHT-b ^xa S-BJian Ji6inab. (8) C)XH ^pan- 
^^3CKie cojijtaxbi Jiomaxca HaaeMb ( = na aeMJiio); OHM jiemax-b na 

B. Write Exercise A in the past and future, as far as the sense 

admits of that. Omit sentence (2). 

C. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) He asks whose picture is hanging on this wall. (2) Our old dog is 
not sleeping. (3) She told me that the lazy girls were lying in bed. (4) They 
lie down on the bed. (5) They lay down on the bed. (6) They always went 
to bed at nine o'clock. (7) Why are you always speaking either [HJIH] of lions 
[o with prepositional] and other wild beasts or of tame animals that belong 
to poor peasants ? (8) To whom does this black pencil belong ? (9) I never 
go to bed at night ; I sit at the table and work all night, and then I sleep till 
dinner. (10) That is why they went upstairs [Hasepx-b]. (11) On whose 
chair are you sitting ? (12) She always sits on my chair, 


145. PRESENT TENSE OF TYPE II A 2 (Par. 139) 

BHA'feTb, to see cjiblniaxb, to hear 

BHwy 1 [vigii] cjib'iiny [sli/u] 

BHjniuib [vidij], etc. cjBbiuiHiiib [sti'Jif], etc. 

CXpOHXb, to build HpaBHXbCH, to be pleasing 

cxp6io [stroju] npaBJiiocb 2 [nravlus] 

cxp6nuib [stroij], etc. HpaBHHibCH [nrdvi/sA], etc. 

cx6nxb, to cost n6MHHXb [p6mnit], to remember 

CXOK) [st6ju] noMHK) 3 [pomnu] 

cxomiib [st6if], etc. noMHHiiib [pomnij], etc. 

1 Of. Par. 142 (1). 2 Ji inserted after 6, B, M, n before 10. 
3 Governs the genitive or takes o with the prepositional 

146-148 LESSON XXXVIII 121 

146. Do not confuse CT6HTL with CTOHTb. Note the difference 
in accentuation. 

He cx6HXT [ii9 st6it], It is not worth tohile. 

IIoK6pHO djiarojjapK) Baci>. He CTOHTT>. [pAk6rnA btAg.vdAiu 
(II A 1) vaa. ii8 st6it], '/ thank you very sincerely (lit. devotedly).'' 'Do not 
n it.' 

EM^ cx6HXT> T6jibKO HaMT> iiOKasaxb nacnopxi. [jamti st^it t6'ikA 
nam pAkAzd't pa JpArt], He only needs (it costs him only) to show its his passport. 

147. noMHHTb is often used reflexively and impersonally, e.g. 

BaMT> n6MHHTCH, M6>KeTt-6tiTb [vam pomiiitsA, m6s9t-bit], You 
remember, perliaps. 

148. NUMERALS 11-19 

[AdfnAtsAt] 11 

[dvanats^vt] 12 

[trindtsAt] 13 

[tJatirnAtsAt] 14 

[patndtsAt] 15 

[JastnatsAt] 16 

[samndtsAt] 17 

[yAsamndtsAt] 18 

[davatndtsAt] 19 

These numerals mean some unit added on to ten, nnaib being 
contracted from Jtecflib. 

Except 11 and 14 all have the accent on Ha. 

Carefully observe the spelling, e.g. the final e of HCTbipe and 
the b of nflTb etc. are dropped. 


, a, H [pAih^ftfik], land- fl^6t, a, bi [dup], oak 

owner CTOJidsaa (/em. adj.) 

pUCyHOKT,, HKa, IIKII [i-isuiiAk], dining-room 

sketch, drawing MI.'IIIIL, H, n (eii) [mij], mouse 

ycaflbCa, bi, bi (e6i,) [usci'dbA], CjiaroAapiiib II A 1 " 

estate to thank 

cnaJibHfl, H, H (em>) [sp'i'iiiA], noKupiibiii [[)Ak6rnI], submissive t 

bedroom humble 


A. Translate : 

(1) BHUHTC JIH Bbi STOTX rpoMaanbift SOM-L? (2) riojiaraio, HTO 
OHT> npHHajjjiejKHT'b TOMy noM'kiiniKy. (3) T'fe KapxHHbi HMT> 
s6Bce HenpaBHTCH. (4) Mnlj onenb HpaBHTCH 5xa MajieHbKan 
co6aKa. (5) CBHHbH cxofli-b nofrb fly^OM-L. (6) CKOJIBKO CTOHTT. 
xa ycajjbSa? (7) He CTOHT-B p^MaTb 061. TOMI>. (8) Mn-fe HOM- 
HHTCH, HTO Baiira spysbfl HHKora He SHJIH y Menn. (9) OHT, 
MCHH noKopno GjiaroaapHTi), HO npaso He CTOHTL. (10) BOTI> 
noneiviy M6tt a^aa HOBBIH capaft CTPOHT-L. (11) Hejib3H cjibiuiaxb 
BT> CTOJIOBOH ero jipojKamaro rojioca. (12) H HHKorfta He cjEbiuiaji'L, 
HTO ona er6 nanijia na Jiyr^. (13) TpHHamjaxb MajibHHKOBT> na 

B. Write Exercise A in the past tense. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) All that belongs to that rich old man that used to live in the village. 
(2) He said he never heard or saw anything. (3) Don't you remember the 
old wooden table that used to stand in the dining-room ? (4) Yes, I remember 
it. (5) I don't at all understand why he always goes to bed so early. (6) 
Surely you know that I have no sketches here. (7) How many bedrooms are 
there in this immense house ? (8) I supposed there were at least four large 
bedrooms. (9) Then I think the house is costing too [cJinniKOM-b] much. 
(10) I do not like- these little pictures. (11) 1 Fifteen men, nineteen men, 
three tall men, six tall men, twenty-four tall men. [Note that with numerals 
the genitive plural of qeJlOB'EK'b is like the nominative singular.] (12) Eleven 
rich merchants, five long fingers, three grey mice, fourteen lazy pupils, 
four old teachers, five heavy keys. (13) ' Thank you ; I did not know 
about that.' ' Don't mention it.' 


149. PRESENT TENSE OF TYPE II A 3 (Par. 139) 

to go KypHTb [kurit], to smoke 

[xA3u] Kypib [kurii] 

x6nHUib [xodij], etc. Kypniiib [kurij], etc. 

6poaHTb, 2 to wander JiioSnTb [lubit], to love 

6po>Ky [brA3u] Jiio6jiib 3 [lubiu] 

6p6jjHiiib [brodij], etc. JiibGHinb [lubij], etc. 

1 Read Pars. 179, 180. 2 Of. Par. 142 (1). 

3 Ji inserted after B, B, M, n before BO. 


CMOXp-fexb, to look at flepwaxfa [darsa't], to hold 

CMOXpib [smAtru] ep>K^ [darzd] 

CM6xpmiib [sm6trij], etc. 6p>KHiiib [de^i/], etc. 

CJiyjKHXb [stirjit], to serve 

150. NUMERALS 3Q-100 

xpiimjaxb [trftsAt] 30 ceMbHCCHXT, [semdasat] 70 

c6pom> [s6rAk] 40 B6ceMbaecHXT> [v6samd8sat] 80 

riHXbaecjh"b [padasat] 50 SCEHHOCXO [cfovon6stA] 90 

uiecxbAecrix-b [Jasdasdt] 60 cxo [sto] 100 

Distinguish these numerals carefully from the -teens. Here we 
are dealing with multiples : ' 5 tens? etc. Notice that the accent 
does not always fall on the corresponding syllable. Again observe 
the spelling (b or T>) : TpHHuaib alone is contracted, and the t in 
50-80 is to be thought of as the genitive plural ending of necflTL. 
The form for ninety has never been properly explained, while 
copOKt is the middle part of the Greek word for 40 (reo-o-apd/covra). 


qHH6BHHK-b, a, H [tfin6viiik], official o6poxa, w [d.vbrAtd], goodness * 

cxapocxa, bi, bi (m.) [starAstA], eemb, n, H [vejtj], thing, affair * 

village elder npaBjtfiBOCXb, H [prAvdivAst], up- 
cxaKaHT>, a, bi [stAkan], glass Tightness 

CKasKa, H, H [skdskA] tale, fairy-tale WHJibe, H, ^fl [3ilj6], dwelling 

6acnn, H, H (em>) [basiiA], fable na npHM*BpT> [DA piiiiidr], 'for 
CHrapa, bi, H [sigarA], cigar example 

nanHp6ca, bi, LI [pApirosAj, cigarette CKp6MHwtt [skromm], modest * 

xp^Gna, H, H (OKI,) [trupkv], pipe cJiriiiiKOM-b [sifjkAm], too much, too 

H Jiio6jiib er6 3a CKp6MHOCXb (ace.) [ju iublu j.>v6 ZA. skr6mnAst], 
/ like him for his modesty. 

CJiy>KHXb xp^6KOK> (itistr.) [s^^ii trupkAJu], to serve as a pipe. 

yirixb (II A 3) naH3^cxb [ut Jit iiAizusi], to learn by heart. 
- JlioSoBbK) Mipi> a6p>KHXCH [lubo\ u niir < Icr-jitsA], The world is maintained 
by love. 

j^66poe fl-fejio caM6 ce6A XBaJiwx-b [ddbrAJo d^tA sAm6 sabd xvniit], 
A good deed needs no praise (praises itself). 

Tpy;rb K6pMirn>, a Ji-feHb n6pxnxi, [trut koniiit A i,-'n portit], By labour 
we live, but sloth leads to ruin (\oork feeds, sloth #po\ls). 

124 LESSON XL 151-152 

A. Translate : 


CbiHOBbH Kynija 6p6iUHi"b no ropony. (3) ^TOTT. aepeBflmibin 
capaft cjiyjKHT-b GojibHOMV cxapnK^ jKHJibeivrb. (4) OHT> K^pnx-b 
rpHsnyio xpy^Ky; curapbi H nannpocbi CTOHTTE, cjrauiKOM'b MHOFO. 

(5) Mbi jiibSiiM'b Baurax'b apyseft sa HX^ AoSpOT^ H npaBjjiiBOCTb. 

(6) Bjiaroaapib Baci> sa KpacMByio Kiinry, Koxopyio Bbi MH-B ;uajra. 

(7) HejibSH yanaTb, HTO oirb ^epTKHTij pyi;6i (B-b pyK'fe). (8) I^TO 
npe>K;a;e cjiyjKHJio aBopu.oM'b. (9) IlpHJiejKHbie y^ieHHKH ^qax^ 
yp6KH Hans^cxb. (10) GxapocTa H aeBHHOCTO inecxb KpecTbHHT> 

B. Substitute past and future for the present tenses in Ex. A. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Wild animals are wandering about [no with dat.] the forest. (2) It is 
possible to find out [get to know] all that. (3) What are you holding in your 
hand ? (4) They said they liked the Russian fairy-tales, but that the fables 
were not so pleasing to them. (5) I thought they were always smoking bad 
cigars. (6) What are you looking at ? [on to what, etc.]. (7) They sent us 
five glasses of water and a little black bread. (8) Fifty cigarettes are not 
worth two roubles. (9) Why could he not show me the new books he had 
bought? (10) Do you learn this lesson by heart ? (11) 15 industrious men, 
65 poor men, 46 red pencils, 87 stone houses. 


151. Nouns in -a have the genitive plural in -T>, e.g. 

KOMHaxa, KdMHax-b [k6mnAt], room. 

152. (1) Nouns in -H have the genitive plural in -b, e.g. 

Hflim, HflHb [na 1 !!], child's nurse. 

(2) Nouns in -H preceded by a vowel or b take ft, e.g. 
inefl, ui&i [JeJA, Jel], neck, 

or eft, e.g. 

[samjd, samel], family. 

!5a-i66 LESSON XL 125 

153. If the a or H is preceded by two consonants which would 
be difficult to pronounce when final, the pronunciation is facilitated 
by inserting or e (when accented this is sometimes e) between 
those two consonants in the genitive plural, e.g. 

cjiy>KaHKa, cjiymaHOKT> [stu t -/m\k], servant. 
cecxpa, cecxept [sast6r], sister. 
ca6jifl, ca6ejib [sdblA, saboi], sabre. 

This e is also used in the genitive plural to replace L or ft, e.g. 

KonettKa, Koneen-b [kAp&kA, kA(>ejok], copeck. 
cnaJibHH, cnaJieH-b [spo'liU, spa Ian], bedroom. 

Notice in this last example T> is found where we might have 
expected b. 

Note. Nouns in b were discussed in Par. 136. 

154. As the points dealt with in Pars. 152, 153 are rather 
troublesome to remember, the genitive plural has been indicated of 
all feminine nouns not accounted for by Pars. 151 and 136. 

155. NUMERALS ' hundreds ' and ' thousands.' 

[dvesti] 200 

xpncTa (era gen. sing, of CTO) [tri'stA] 300 

HCTbipecTa [tJattfastA] 400 

nnxbcoT-b (gen. plur. of CTO) [jwtsot] 500 

mecTbcoT-b (gen. plur. of CTO) [Jasts6t], etc. 600 

TbICflMa [ttsot/A] 1000 

AB* THCHHH (gen. sing.) [dvs tisat/i], etc. 2000 

nflTb TMCHHI (gen. plur.) [pot tisatj], etc. 5000 
,, a, bi [miij6n] 1,000,000 


a, -^a (CJIT>) [tjist6], nacTb, H, H (ett) [tjast], part 

nber, date OKpecTHOCTb, H, n [.vkisiiA.<tJ, 

a [mn639stvA], a neighbourhood 

muni, . a lot r6HHitt [g6ntji], hunting 

IIO/KT>, a, H (ett) [noj], knife Mory i iiii [m.ujut i"ij, jwerful 

flCHbrn, en> (fern, plur.) [de'i'uji, BeOBKOnDHUll [\.tiik.\i6pni], 

len.k], money splendid 

KBapTripa, bi, bi [kvArtu-A], home, OCTpi.iii [ostrT], slmrp 

flat Tynoii [tupol], blunt 

ca6Jin, H, H (e.ib) [s.'iblA], sabre Ma.n.iii [milT], small 
1 ( Jovt-rns the genitive. Cf. Par. 30. 

126 LESSON XL 155 

MaJioe qHCJid, 1 a, -a [matAJa CKOJIBKO l [sko^kA], how many, how 

tjisto], a small number much 

Men-fee 1 [mengja], fewer H-ECKOJibKO x [neskA^kA], a few, 
66jrEe * [bo^ajo], more some 

MHoroHiicjieHHbift [mnogAtJfsieni], CT6jibKO 1 [sttfikA], 50 many, so 

numerous much 

MHJibift [miti], nice, dear SoJibinafl ^acxb 1 [bA^JaJA tfast], 
H3o6paJKaiomiH (a present parti- a large part 

ciple) [izAbrA5aju/tJi], depicting 66jibinafl qacxb x [b6 i ljoJ9 tjast], ike 
Majio * [mdtA], few, little larger part, the majority 

HCMHoro 1 [namnogA], few, little 


A. Translate : 

(1) MnojKecTBO xynbixt HOJK^H. (2) H^CKOJIBKO 
p^KT). (3) Mnoro Cojibinnx-b ycajteS'L. (4) CxojibKO Kon6eKi>. 
(5) Ha cyxott seMJi'fe. (6) CKOJibKO Renerb? (7) Bojibinaa qacxb 
6'fenHbix'b jKenmnHT). (8) M^H-fee jibBOBi) H 66jrfee BOJIKOB'L. (9) 

MHOrOHHCJieHHblfl C^MbH p^CCKHXT) KpCCTb^HT,. (10) Bl> 

TpaBbi. (12) HeMHoro 6oraTbiXT> noM'BmHKOB'b. (13) MHOJKCCTBO 

OCTpLIX-b CaSCJIb. (14) H-fecKOJIbKO OMainHHXl> JKHBOTHblXT, . (15) 
^HCJIO KpaCHBHXl, KOMHaT-b. (16) GxOJIbKO KapXHH-b H30- 

(18) y noM-femnKa o^enb MHOFO 
(19) GxojibKO jincnu-b. (20) O Mor^qeMi, KHHS* H 

pflXI, CKpdMHarO KpeCXbHHHHa. (21) HpOCXblH mnjIb 

(22) Cx6jibKO aeHert H xaKb MaJio xji'feSa. (23) MOH 
HHHH H CH MHoroHHCJieHHbie npy3bfl. (24) KamaoMy 
ajiH ocxpbifi Hom-b. (25) BoceMbnecHx-b naxb 
(26) CeMb xbiCHTb uiecxbcox-b xpHanaxb aepeBCHb. 

B. Translate into Kussian : 

For the young Russian ladies, the large estate of my old aunts, the dirty 
windows of that large infirmary, without money and without books, out of 
the dark rooms, the great doors of those splendid houses, at their nurses', his 
sisters' games, the necks and tails of the black cats, the white paws of their 
dogs, old women's tales, each of [H3T>] them, 100 cigars, 777 idle men, 11 small 
rooms, 16 young boys, 2222 wooden houses, the majority of your new pictures, 
the too numerous friends of our elder sisters, so many difficult lessons, how 
many splendid churches. 

1 Governs the genitive. 

156 LESSON XLI 127 

REVISION Present, Past, Future Tense. 


jiK)663HbiH [iubszni], agreeable, HHTepe"cHO [intoresnA], it is in- 
amiable teresting 

XHTpbift [xitri], cunning M6>KHO [md^nA], it is possible 

XHUjHbiH [xifni], ravenous HCflaBHO [naddviiA], not long ago, 

HM'ETb I A [iiii^t], to possess, to own recently 

npeflnoHHTaxb I A [pretpAtfitdit], B-fenb [ve't], why, surely 

to prefer CT> fl-ETCTBa [sdetstvA],/rom childJtood 

H3o6pa>KaTb I A [izAbrAsd't], to OHH (on-fe) snaKOMbi [AII! (AUS) 
depict znAkomi], they are known 

3a6birb [zAbit], to forget BO BCHKOMT. cji^qa 

siutfAJ9], in any case 


A. Translate : 

MLI p'feiiiaeM'b, ona 6yneTi> cnjt'BTb, ona mejiajia, H 6^7jy 
OHT. xporaeTTj, OHT> cnajrb, H CTOIO, MM aamnraeMT*, Bw 


x6flHTi>, H aep>Ky, H nojiaraio, omi ^Haxca, KypHie JIH BH? H OT- 
KpwBaio, BM CHAHTC, OHa BHciiT'b, OHii d^uyrb cnaxb, H Kypio 
nannp6cy, ona saKpuBaeTi*, H cnwy n6>ia, H cnjiib, OHH cjiy>KaTT>, 

HTO OHT> aep>KHTT> BT> pyK'B? OHH CpOflHTb, OHT> CMOTpHTt, Mbl 

jioKHM-b, H 6yy cnaxb, BH cjibiniHTe. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

He was reading, he is reading, he was lying, she is lying in [na] bed, they 
will stand, it will cost, I saw, I see, I worked, I am working, it cost, it costs, 
he stood, he stands, we do that, we used to do it, it used to hang, it hangs, we 
slept, we are sleeping, I hear, she heard, he is here, he was hen 1 , he will bo here, 
I do not love her and she does not love me, I was smoking yesterday, I do not 
usually smoke, I shall not smoke to-morrow, I serve, he served, he serves, 
what are you gazing at [na with ace.] ? we shall conceal it from her, it belonged 
1o him, it belongs t < 

C. Translate : 

(1) BT> Haineft oKpecrnocrH ecTb omhn> 6onVri>iii n M<>rv<mi 
. (2) Oin, M.Mt.en, MiuV.Ki'rrno r6nuHXi> cooaivb H 
BT CBoett ycaflbG-fe. (3) EMV npiinwie/Kirrb H [aho] 

128 LESSON XLI 155 

TOT-L rpoMajiHbiH, BejraKOJTBnHbiii noivrb, Koxopbiii CTOHTT, npn 
caMOM-b B-L'taa-fe B-L jrkcT>. (4) Korjja cnnax-b y M6HH BT> 
HJIH CTOHTT> y oima BT> nepeAHeH, MOJKHO Biijrkxb 3xoxi> 


ne snaio. (7) Bo BCHKOM'b cjiy^a-fe Bee 3x0 Mirk He HHxepecno, n6o 
(xaKb KaKb) H npe;nnoHHxaK) CKpoMHbix'b JiK)ji;eH H npocTb'm Bemn. 
(8) Ha npHM-fep-b, a nacxo xomy CMOxp-fexb na XH MHJIHH ^OMHKH, 
Koxopbie Bbi BHjjuxe 3^ JiyroM-b. (9) Mirk npaBHxcH axn Kpacii- 
BHH KapxHHbi, Koxopbia BHCHXi, Ha cx'knax'b Banieft KBapxnpbi. 

(10) HeaaBHO jiio663HbiH apyrb MOH nocjian-b Mo6ii cecxp^ OHH^ 
H3T> CBOHXT, KHHri, CT> pHc^imaMH HsoSpajKaioiHHMH cxapbifl pyccKm 


(11) B^Ab H Bbi caMH ne saSbijm BoJiK r b H AHCXT>, Jlnca H 
}KypaBJib, JleBTi H MbiiHb, CBHHbH HOA^ aydoM'b, ^(J^B'k Go6aKH. 

D. Bonpocbi : 

(1) FA'k HOM'kmHK'b? KaKOBT) 3X0X1* HeJIOB'liK'b? (2) KaKHXTj 

y Hero MHOJKCCXBO? Fa-fe OHT. HXT> jtepmnxij? (3) Fa-fe 
[finds itself, i.e. is] ero HOBHH aoMT*? KaKoft y nerd 
(4) OxK^a MO>KHO BH^-fexb ero? (5) Hxo roBOpmijeMy 
[speaker'] ropa3ji;o Cojibine HpaBHXCfl? (6) Ha HXO GM$ npiaxno 
CMOxp-fexb? (7) Fa-k tiaxoaaxcH Kapxiiiibi? (8) KaK^io KHnry 
[received] neaaBHO MaJieHbKaa A^Boqna? Oxi> KOFO? 
HsoSpamaiox-b pncyHKH? (9) Snaexe JIH Bbi CT> 
SaceHTb H CKasoKi,? KaKie, na 

E. Write Exercise C in the past tense. 

F. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) A lot of tame animals, of horses, cows, sheep, pigs, dogs, cats. 
(2) How many wild animals, lions, wolves, bears, 'foxes ? (3) Twenty- 
one cranes and five storks. (4) Four oaks and many other large trees. 

(5) Twenty old books, forty-one new books, ninety-six French books. 

(6) Five thousand six hundred and forty-four men. 

Gr. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The teacher showed the younger pupils a number of pretty sketches 
and pictures. (2) He asks them what those pictures represent. (3) In theii 
opinion they all represent old Russian fables. (4) You could see the raven- 
ous wolf lying [say how the wolf lies, or break the construction and say 
simply the wolf lies] under the tall oak in the forest along with the sick 
lion and the sly fox. (5) I always thought that there were a great many 
beautiful trees on the large estate of the rich proprietor who owns this village. 
(6) Surely they are not still sitting at table in the dining-room ? (7) I 
suppose they are smoking cigars after dinner ; at least they usually do that. 

166-157 LESSON XLII 129 

(8) In any case there are a lot of books lying on the table. (9) I know that 
she is still lying in bed. (10) We have known [pres. tense] these tales from 
childhood ; the majority of [H3T>] them are also known to our friends. (11) 
Next year we shall, perhaps, bo in France, and if we like your town and 
'its environs, we shall stay there till Christmas. (12) Did those Englishmen 
understand what was said? (13) I am told that it was two of his sons 
who saved him when he fell into the river. (14) We are all taught in the old 


156. In Paragraph 121 a small group of verbs is given imder 
I A (a, 6, c). They are sometimes treated as irregular verbs. 

The present tense of these verbs has a stem ending in a consonant, 
in -"fe (preceding -HTb), or in -b (see Par. 162). 

These verbs all have in the present tense the endings -y, 1 -eiiib, 
-erb, -6MT>, -ere, -yrb. 1 

157. I A (a). Terminations accented throughout : 

(1) )KHT1> [311], to live BCSTI'I [vastf], to be actually carrying 

>KHB^ [sivu] in a vehicle, to convey 

JKHBCIUb [31V6J] B63# [vazu] 

HCHB&Tb [SIVOt] BCaeiHb [V8z6|] 

TKHBCTC [3iv6ta] 
JKHB^TT. [31VUt] 

Similar are : 

(2) TKaib 2 [tko't], to weave 

TKy, TKeiJlb orftupuih, eta. [tku, tkoj (t/o/)] 

TKyTT> [tkut] 

(3) npflCTb [pi-astj, to spin 

npflu^, npnaeuib, etc. [pi-.vdu, pbbi6J] 

(4) HCCTII [n-KstiJ, to carry, to be actually carrying 

nec^, Heceiiib, etc. [n 

(5) HTTH [iti], to go, to be actually going 

ii.iv. n.ieiiib, etc. fidii, i 

(6) CMliriTbCfl ['i'tsA], to laugh 

cMbibcb, cM'be'iiibCfl [siii SA] 

1 I'ocome K) and K>TI, after vowels or i.. 

1 This verb might also have been given under Par. 163. 


130 LESSON XLII 158-159 

(a) The participles of these verbs have the following forms : 
Adverbial participle present : 

>KHBH, B63H, , npHJJH, H6CH, HUH (HHyqn), CM^flCb. 

Adjectival participle present active : 

BesymiH, TKymift, npflnymifi, Hecymift, 

Adjectival participle present passive : 


Adverbial participle past : 


Adjectival participle past active : 

Besiniii, TKaBiuin, npHnmift, HecuiiH, ineniuifi, 

Adjectival participle past passive : 


(b) Compare Pars. 80 (6), 96 (a), 131 (a), 139 (b). 

158. Note that changes in the stem of these verbs are frequent, 
and that, as well as the typical ending of the infinitive, viz. 

vowel + TB, e.g. R'EJiaTB, to do, 
there are the forms 1 in 

consonant + TB, e.g. npncTB, to spin, 

consonant + TH, e.g. HCCTH 2 , to carry, 

vowel + HB, e.g. MOHB 3 [motj], to be able, can. 

159. xonHJTb and uiejii>, which were exactly distinguished in 
Par. 40, are the past tenses of the verbs XOHHTB, to go, to be in the 
way of going (pres. xo>Ky), and HTTH, to go, to be actually going 
(pres. Hy), e.g. 

OSbiKHOBCHHO H xoJK^ no BBqepaMt aoMdii [AbiiknAvsnA ja xA3ii 
pAv6tj3rAm <Lvm6I], / generally go home of an evening. 

OHT> xenept naeTi,? [kudci on ta^r idot], Where is he going now ? 
HJteT'B 4 [snek idot], It is snowing. 
HfleTi> [dojt idot], It is raining. 

1 See Par. 239. 2 Infin. of nect, carried. 3 Infin. of Mor-b, could. 

4 =n&naen> [pddAJat] ca-fert, Snow is falling. 

160-161 LESSON XLII 131 

160. The compounds of HTTH (see Par. 122, 1 a, b, c noftTH, etc.), 
like the compounds of most other simple verbs, have a form which 
looks exactly like a present tense, but is really an immediate future 
referring to one definite event (see Par. 204), e.g. 

H nottjr^ cettnac-b [ja pAldii sot/as], / shall go at once. 

OHT> BottAerb He"pe3i> nact BT> K6MHaxy [on VAld6t t/eras tjas 
fkomnAtu], He will enter the room in an hour (lit. through an hour, after the 
lapse of). 

CerdnHH MM npittue'MT> (or npHflCMT,) KT> BaMt BT> xpn nac [savodnA 
mi pridom kvam ftri tjAsa], To-day we shall come to you at 3 o'clock. 

Similarly : 

npofiAy [pr.vldii], / shall go through, traverse. 
Bbiftjiy [vftdu], / shall go out (come out). 
nepettuy- [paraldu], / shall go through to the other side. 
HOftny [dAldu], / shall reach, go up to. 

161. PAST TENSES of verbs in Par. 157 : 

Beat, BC3Jia, 


TKajit, TKajia, TKajio, 
npHjn>, npnjia, npflji6, 


uiJia, uiJio, LUJIH 



tt l (m. pL) [ludi], people ona aoJiH<H^ [dvtsna], she must 

, a, a [snek], snow on6 flOJi>KH6 [d.vt3no], it must 

BT> entry [fsiidgu], in the snow * OHH aoJlJKHM [d.vt3nt], they must 

HOJKAb, A, H [do/t], rain na ABOp-fe [n.v dv.vis], out of doors, 

yfeajTL, a, M [ujest], canton, district * lit. on the yard 

ry66pnifl, H, H (ift) [gul>4naJA], H3T> flOMy 2 [fzdAmu], out of the house 

government (corresponding to emeflH^BHO [jejed&lnkAX daily, each 

province or department) day 

H36a, bi, ^y, ^bi [izba], peasant's COBC-BMT> H-fext [sAfsem net], not at 

house, Jtxt all 

H-BJIO, a, a [det.v], act, deed, business, q6pe3T> (gov. ace.) [t/6ivs], through, 

affair across 

roJl6aiiMii [jj. \t6dni], hungry naxo.u'iTbcn [n.\xAlits.\], to find it- 

OHT> adJi/KeiiT, n-BJiaib [on d6t; self, to be 

<l6t\i|, he is under an obligation yMiipaib I A [uiiiini't], to die * 
to (he must) do 

1 instr. plur. -BMI'I. ' Cf. on. xojiony (gen. in -y), Voc. XLIII. 

132 LESSON XLII 161 

A. Translate : 

(1) Ha ABOp"B Hflex-b HOJKflb. (2) He snaexe JIH Bw, 
JIH [whether] xenepb XH cxap^xn? (3) CoBC-EM-b H-fex-b; on'fe XKyrb. 
(4) Mbi nojiaraeivrb, ixo H-feMeijKie cojiaaxbi nepeuijiH iiepea-b pin^. 
(6) Ona ym6 qexbrpe r6a JKHBCTI, BT> TOM-B cejrB, HO HXT> aepeBHH 
naxoanxcfl BT> apyroMt yssA-fe. (6) 5xoxi> Majib^HK-b naex-b BT> 
uiKOJiy, BOT-B noHCM^ OHI> Hecexi, KHHFH H TeTpa^H. (7) Ger6HH 
OUT, npiftuerb aoMoft na-b uiKOJibi B-B xpn ^aca, HO o6biKHOB6HHO 
TOJibKO BT> naxb ^acoBi) npnx6AHTT>.' (8) OxHcro BaniH apysbH 
Bceraa CM'feibxcfl? (9) Mbi aojiJKHbi pa66xaxb OKeaneBHO 30 ymnna. 
(10) ToJioaHbiH coSaKH Jiemax-b BT, cn-fer^. (11) HbH H36bi cxonx-b 
sa p-feKdn? (12) HeyjKejin ^XH MHoro^HCJieHiibm ceMbu BC* JKHB^XT, 
BT> oaHOMi. aepeBHHHOMi) HOMHKt? (13) HejibSH ysHaxb, aofiaex-b 
JIH ona o 5xoro M-fecxa. (14) fl66pbie JIH) AH yMnpaiox-b, HO A-BJI^ HXT> 

B. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) In the hut the old peasant woman is spinning or weaving, but her 
husband is always working out of doors in summer. (2) She will come out 
of the house after dinner ; she will go through the garden and come to us. 
(3) We have lived in this town for [we live already] two years. (4) Our town 
is [say finds itself] in one of the large governments of Russia. (5) Surely you 
have not lived here for two years ? (6) I am going home now. (7) I go 
home every day at six o'clock. (8) To-day I'll go home at seven. (9) They 
went along the street this morning. (10) We must carry the little boy. 
(11) She is not to go out of the house. (12) What are we to do ? Do you 
know that it is snowing ? (13) He did not carry it. (14) I suppose she is 
spuming ; she does not know how to weave. (15) In this government there 
are [find themselves] seven districts, forty-six towns, two hundred villages, 
and one million two hundred and seventy thousand people. (16) Did she 
get to know that ? (17) Not at all ; she never reached the house where her 
friends were living at that time. (18) I did not know whether she came here 
yesterday. (19) They continued to laugh, because they did not understand 
what the old teacher was [is] saying to them. 

162-166 LESSON XLIII 133 



162. Initial consonant soft throughout : 

nHTb [pit], to drink 
nbK) [pju] 
nbeuib [pjoj] 3toLAlAdu"UJ 

DbCTT. [pjOt] 


nbiorb [pjut] 
Similar are : 

JlHTb [lit], to pour 
BHTb [vit], to tvind, ttcine 
iiiHTb [Jit], to sew 
6HTb [bit], to beat 

163. Some other monosyllabic verbs, often called irregular : 

[30 *], to reap JK^axb [sda't], to wait 

>KHy [SDH] way [sdu] 

nmeuib [snoj], etc. jKaeuib [sdof], etc. 

[30 't], to press TKaTb 

JKMy [sum] (see Par. 157) 

>KMemb [31*10]"], etc. 
The 3rd plural forms are jKnyxt, JKMVTT>, JKayTT> 


HHTL, BHTL, JiHTb, JKflaTL, TK^Tb have the accent on the 
feminine ending ; all the other past tense forms of verbs in Pars. 
162, 163 have the accent on the stem. 

165. Distinguish nuTb from irkTb, noio, eiiib, etc., irfejrb, n'fejia 
[pe't, PAJU, p-vjoS pet ; pet.v], to sing. 

166. ORDINAL NUMBERS are, as a general rule, formed from 
the cardinals by giving them the termination bift, an, oe. Just 
as in English, among the first few ordinals there are some exceptional 
forms : 

nepBbitt [prvi] 
BTOp6ft [ftAr6I] 2nd 


xp6xift (bH, be) [tr6ti (tje, tja)] 3rd 

qexBepxbift [tjatvorti] 4th 

nflXbiii [pdti] 5th 

inecTofi [Jastol] 6th 

cejjbMoii [sadmoi] 7th 

BOCbMofi [vAsmol] 8th 

eBHXbiii [cbvdti] 9th 

jjecflXbifi [dasdti] 10th 

oaHHHajmaxbift [AdinAtsAti] llth 

and so on up to 19th, the accentuation being the same as in the 

167. These words are declined like any regular adjective of 
corresponding form. 

In Tpexiii the stem is everywhere, except in the nominative 
masculine, TpeTb-. The genitive singular is Tpeibflro, TpeTbeii, 
TpeTbaro ; otherwise the declension is that of neii, HBH, etc. (Par. 
106) : 

TpexbHro iUHH [tr6tjavA dna], the day before yesterday. 

The nominative plural is TpeibH [tfetji] for all genders. 


qaft, H, H [tjal], tea BHHO, a, -^a [vino], wine 

pyqeft, bii, bH [rutJ6i], brook, stream njiaxbe, H, fl [ptatja], dress, clothes 

, H, H (era>) [tjdJkA], cup THXO [tixA], low, softly 

naio l [tjdJkA tjaju], a cup rpOMKO [gromkA], loudly, aloud 

of tea IHOJiro [dotgA], long (of time) 

pyGaiima, H, H (eKb) [rubaJkA], eBa [jedva], hardly 

shirt HecMOTpri na TO, HTO [iiasmAtrd 
nxiiqKa, H, H (eKi>) [ptitJkA], little nAto, Jto], not looking on to, i.e. in 

bird spite of, the fact that 

BepeBKa, H, H (OKI)) [varofkA], noJiHBaxb I A [pAlivd 1 !-], to water 

rope, line JiHTb pynbe'M'b (pynbHMH) [lit 
CJieaa, b'l, -M [slazd], tear mtjjom (rutjjdihi)] or JiHTb 

, H, H (b) [riactelA], week KaKT> H3"b Bejjpa [lit kak iz 

, H, H (em>) [p6siiA], song vadrd], to pour in torrents 

cnp6xcXBO,a[sir6tstvA], orphanhood JKaxbCH ox-b XOJIOJ]|L 2 [s^tsA At 
a, a [giiazdo, giiozdA], xotAdu], to shrink together with 

nest cold, to be pinched with cold. 

, a, a [pivA], beer 

1 Cf. Voc. XXVII. 2 Cf. to* HOMY in Voc. XLII. 


A. Translate : 

(1) BT> KOx6pOMi> nac^ Bbi nbexe oKeflH^BHOjiafl? (2) Cer6HH 
BHttxH riai, HOMY, noroM^ HTO ^Teltopfrmajor6fla^ (3) 
Haiiia MHJian, xpynojiioSriBafl Maxb iiibera HJIaTtH Ivm MJianuraxt 
Honepett H pySaiiiKH JJJIH cbinoBett. (4) Bqep aowab JIHJIT> pyqb^Mn; 
necMOxpri na xo, cxapaa cjiy wanna nojiHsaex-b Monpbitt y<6 cajn>. 
(5) AaBHbiMi>-flaBH6 BC-B Kpecxbrine BT> xott flepeBH-fe n'fejin II-BCHH, 
HO y>n6 asH6 66jibiue ajj-ECb ne noibx-b. (6) Tp^Tbaro HH OHT, BHJIT> 
sepeBKH. (7) He Brijmxe JIH Bbi, Kam, HXH^KH Bbioxi, rn-BSAa? 

(8) H xox-BJTb yanaxb, no^eM^ Baim> CMHT, 6bexT> CBOK) coGany. 

(9) Ona xaKi> xiixo noexT>, HXO H easa cjibiiiiy. (10) HepBbitt Aenb 
Hea'BJiH BOCKpecenbe, a Bxop6tt noHejrEJibHHK"b. (11) Tenepb 
ce^bMan HejTEJifl r6jia. (12) Xopom6, qxo xenepb xenjian nor6sa; 
npiiixHO pa66xaxb na jjBOp'E. (13) B^ndio noc'BHJiH, 1 a 6cenbio 
>KHyxT>. (14) MaJibHHKH JKM^XCH oxi> x6jioa^L (15) BT, cHp6xcxBli 

JKHXb - CJie'Sbl JIHXb. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Every day at five o'clock most ladies drink a cup of tea ; their little 
daughters drink a glass of milk. (2) It is well that she can [knows how to] 
sew. (3) I used to see her sewing [how she sews] at the window. (4) It is 
pouring in torrents to-day, and all the little birds are sitting in their nests, 
huddled together [and they press themselves] with cold. (5) Our friends 
did not sow in spring and they will not reap in autumn. (6) When does that 
bird IniiM [wind, weave] its nest ? (7) In spite of the bad weather we go to 
school each day, but to-day, perhaps, we shall not go to school. (8) How 
many cups of tea do yon drink ? (9) The industrious peasants must make 
[wind] ropes in the evenings, when it is to work out of doors. (10) 
A lot of large birds are building their nests in the wood. (11) I thought that 
they usually reaped the harvest "with a scythe or a sickle. (12) They have 
lived for fifty yars - in our ^overnnn-nt. (!.'>) Why were they speaking of the 
sixt h day of the week V (14) When I passed her, there she was pouring [pours] 
the water on the garden in front of our door. (l.~>) Ten men came through the 
second field. (16) Five easy books, i^hty-l wo white horses, four deep streams, 
six long veins. 2 (17) He never drinks wine or beer. 

1 // 

* Genitive plural with numerals after 'icrbipc is Ji-frrb from JI&TO. 

136 LESSON XLIV 168-169 


168. PRESENT TENSE, IA(c) (Par. 121) 

Termination accented only in 1st singular or not at all. 

(1) rracaxb [pisc^t], to write 

lining [pijii] 
niiineiiib [pijaj] 
riHinexT> [pi/at] 
nnuieMt [pijam] 
miniexe [pijata] 
iraniyx'b [pijut] 

Similar to iracaTb are : 

(2) Bflsaxb [vaza^], to knit 

BHJKy, B^JKeiiib [vo3u, v^a}], etc. 

(3) nJiaKaxb [ptakAt], to weep 

njiatjy, njiaqeuib [ptat/u, pWt/aJ], etc. 

(4) HCKaxb [iska^], to seek (governs gen. or ace.) 

HII^, Hmenib [ijtjui, ijtjej], etc. 

(5) 'fexaxb x [jsxAt], to drive in a vehicle, ride, go 

-feny, ijjeiiib [jedu, jedaj], etc. 

(6) naxaxb [pAxa^], to plough 

nainy, nanienib [pA/vi, pajej], etc. 

(7) MOHb [motj], to be able, can 

Mory, M6H<enib, etc., MoryxT> [mAgu, mosaj m6gut] 

(a) Verbs in -tflTb, like ciflTb, to sow, have the same endings : 
, cieiiib [seju ; sejaj], etc., K) replacing y after the vowel. 

169. Notice in these verbs the changes in the form of the stem : 

(1) Verbs in -cait, e.g. nncaxb, change c into ui in the present 

(2) Verbs in -3HTb and -saib, e.g. Bflaaxb, change 3 into >K. 

(3) Verbs in -xaib and -Kaib, e.g. njiaKaib, change T or K 
into q. 

(4) Verbs in -ciaxb and -CKaTb, e.g. HCKaib, change CT or CK 
into m. 

(7) Verbs in -Hb, e.g. MOHb, change H in the 1st singular and 3rd 
plural into r or K, in the other forms of the present tense into YK or H. 

1 The important distinction between this verb and ami was pointed out in 
Par. 97. 

170-171 LESSON XLIV 137 

170. PAST TENSE of verbs in Par. 168 : 

(1) nHcajTB, nHcajia, ano, ann (2, 4, 6 similar). 
(3) njiaKajTb, njiaKana (5 similar). In fact all these verbs 
preserve in the past tense the accent of the infinitive. 
(7) Mon, Moma, Morji6, MOFJIH. 

171. ORDINAL NUMERALS tens, hundreds. 
aBajmaxbitt [dvAts6ti] 20th 
;U)u;uiaTb n^pBbift [dvdtsAt prvi] 21st 
ABaroaxb Bxop6tt [dvdtsAt ftAr6l] 22nd 

and so on to 29th. 

xpnjmaxbitt [tritsati] 30th 

copOKOB6tt [sArAk.Ay6l] 40th 

petidasdtl] 50th 

[Jastidasdti] 60th 

[saihidasati] 70th 

[vAsmidasati] 80th 

eBHH6cTbift [davandsti] 90th 

c6Tbitt [s6ti] 100th 
CTO c6pOKT> n^Tbift [sto s6rAk pdti] 145th 

Notice in the last example that, as in English, only the last 
element has the form of an ordinal. 


ikTBCHirt, a, bi (CBT>) [m6sats], month 'kxaTb aa rpaiinny [z\ grAiiitsu], to 
niiCbM6, a, -^a (eMl) [pism6], letter go abroad, i.e. beyond the frontier 

qyjiOK'b, JiKa, JIK6 (6m>) [tjut6k], 6biTb aa rpanHneio [grAnitsaju], to 

stocking be abroad 

npyr*b flp^ra [druk drugA], each Bepx6MT> [v9rx6m], on horseback (lit. 

other as the top, the upper part) 

Apyrb flp^ry [druk drugu], to each -fexaTb Bepx6M-b [\orx6m], to ride, to 

other be fUing 

rpain'ma, w, bi [grAi'iftsA], frontier, xojii'iTb n-feuindM-b [x,vdit p8/k6m], 

boundary to go on foot 

TiopbMa, bi, -^M (CMT>) [turmd], naitTi'i [iiAltf], to fnd 

prison B3am>n Bncpem>[vzat ifp^r6t],6acfc- 

wards and forwards, to and fro 

HTO BLI Tan-b nocTynaexe? [Jto \iink pAsiupujata], Why do you act so? 

PaaB'fe OHT> 6xo CJi'BJiaJl'b? [r<izv. on ^tA sd^tAt], PerJiaps he did that? 


Did he do that? equivalent to M6jKexT>-6brrb, OHT> xo Cft'BJiaji'b, or simply 
. JIH OHT> 6xo? 

On r b ne xox'fejit (mejiaji'b) oxB-fenaxb } na H XOJIBKO [on na xAtei (s^dt) 
it, da i to^kAJ, He did not wish to answer, and that is all, that is the 
end of it. 

He BCHKifi xji-feS-b nauiexi), aa BCHKin ero -BCXT. [na fsdki xisp 
pdjat, dA fsaki javo jsst], Not everyone grows (ploughs) corn, but everyone 
eats it. 

RwrA HJianex'b, y naxepn c6p;we CoJinxt 1 [ditd pidtjat, u mdtari 
s6rtsa bAlit], The child cries, the mother's heart is sore, i.e. when the child 
cries, etc., etc. 

A. Translate : 

(1) PasB-fe OHX HHKorna ne nriniext? (2) H noKOpno 6jiaro- 
;o;66pyio cxap^xy, Koxopan MH-B Enmext qyjiKH, HO ona Bee 
HC CXOHXT*. (3) KT> comaji'BHiio OHT. BTJ nacxonmee 
aa rpaniii^y; nejits^ cnpocnxb ero. (4) KT> cqacxiio 
yjKe jjojiro mnBex'b sa rpaHHii;eio. (5) Pass's Bbi ne snaexe, 
'EBOHKa HJiaHexT)? (6) MH'B cnasajiH, HXO ao^na x'fex'b 
Jiioji;eH yme AOJiro iimexii Maxb, HO He Momex^ HaftxH ea. 
(7) Hxo OHH nmyxTi CBoero oxn;a? (8) H He jKejiaio axoro CKasaxb, 
na H xojibKO. (9) MH'B HOMHHXCH, Hxo MOM cecxpbi npiimyTb cloaa 
(10) Hxo OH-B Bee xoanx-b saam, H Bnepe'fl-b? (11) 
jnonett nojiaraiox'b, HXO ye OXBCSJIH Bauiero apyra BT> 
(12) H ne Mor^ BaMT> \noKa3axb HauiHXT> HOBbix-b 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Perhaps you did not know for whom the countrywoman was knitting 
stockings. (2) What sort of stockings does she knit ? (3) I think she does 
not knit stockings at all. (4) They write letters to each other. (5) They are 
riding to-day in the forest. (6) I usually go to the town on foot. (7) I 
cannot send them all ; neither can they [they also cannot do it]. (8) Why 
are they weeping ? (9) Whose letters was she carrying ? (10) What are you 
writing about and to whom ? (11) Surely you have known that for long ? 
(12) They told me he was walking to and fro in the garden. (13) He is at 
the present moment riding along the street. (14) Why can they not relate 
that story to you ? (15) I suppose they do not wish to, that is all. (16) 
The 25th day of this month is Sunday. (17) I was talking of the 37th week 
of the year. (18) A great many, too many, wealthy Russians live abroad. 

1 With a personal subject this verb Soji-fexb belongs to I A. 

172-174 LESSON XLV 139 


172. Nouns in -o haVe genitive plural in -T>, e.g. 

jriiTO, JiiiTb [let A, let], year, summer. 

As was explained in Par. 153 it is often necessary to insert o 

or e, e.g. 

OKH6, 6KOHT> [.vkno, 6k AH], window. 
KpecJio, Kpe<5ejii> [kr^st.v, kfsrf], arm-chair. 

173. Nouns in -e preceded by a consonant have -eft, e.g. 

M6pe, Mopeft [mora, mArel], sea. 
Nouns in -ie take -ift, e.g. 

3ame, 3#aHift [zddnja, zdani], building. 

174. The genitive plural of all neuter nouns is either indicated 
in the vocabulary or accounted for in Par. 172. 


[izvgs(t)iii], certain, yiOTHLiii [ujutni], comfortable, cosy 
knoicn, well-known BHCOTa, bi, BLIC6TM [visAtu], height 

ki], distant 


on the Declension of Nouns of all Genders 
Translate : 

The colour of the blue seas, how many distant places, a lot of wooden 
arm-chairs, the height of those tall buildings, a few pretty villages, for the 
splendid houses, towards the angry men, in a certain place, to [into] a remote 
village, of the simple pictures, from [OTT>] other friends, from [CT>] the long 
tables, from [H3T>] a distant government, a few dittieult things, a number of 
large pails of [with] water, too little good rye, about the I -ad w<-atln 
does not know these enormous buildings, he does not know these rieli land- 
owners, of your gold rings, so many jlen-ant rooms, about [o or npo] the 
larg- in a numerous family, the larger part of the dark forest, the 

majority of the 1\ oom, in their splendid 

dining-room, on to the green meadow, in front of their new red hou-'C, the 
angry lion's tail, in that beautiful neighbourhood, on the blue walls, under 
the wooden chairs; 5 brothers, 1 13 wood -, 1 8 sons, 1 18 friends, 1 

31 chairs, 86 years, 804 peopli-. 

1 See Par. 77 (9). 

140 LESSON XLVI 174 


Revision : Verbs of all the types discussed in Lessons XXXII 


jrfenyiiiKa, 1 H, H (eKT>) [cUdufkA], Sbreaxb I A [bivc^t], to be usually the 

grandfather case, to be customary, to happen 

GaxioniKa 1 [bdtuJkA], father saHHMaxbCH I A [zAnima^sA], to 
MaxyuiKa 1 [mtitufkA], mother busy oneself, to be engaged 

canorb, a, H (*b) [sAp6k], boot, foot- xeMfffexb I A [tamii^t], to grow 

gear dark 

K6>Ka, H, H [k63A], leather pascKasbisaxb I A [rAsskazivAt], 

faa, H (sing, collective) [pASiidA], to be relating (stories) 

vessels, utensils HOHHHHXb I A [pAtfina 1 !;], to re- 

n[m^\],furnitureril^^f pair 
Mexejib, H, H [mete 1 !], snow-storw ^/xonnxb (jiib, onnuib) [tApit], to 

., H, H (eft) [p^tf], stove heat 

b (neut. plur.) [drAvd], saxonjiflxb I A [zAtApla^], to heat, 

wood fuel make up fire 

(an irregular neuter noun, Par. npOBOUHXb (JK^, oftHiiib) [PIAVA- 

229) [deti], children dit], to spend (time) 

B3p6cJiHH [vzrosli], grown up poBHO [rovnA], exactly 

flpyrt CT> sp^roMT> [druk sdrugAm], oji;HaKO>iH> [AdnakAj], however 

with one anotlier HXXH cnaxb [iti spa 1 !;], to go to bed 

6xo np6cxo [etA prostA], that is npemae Bcero [pfe5do fsovo], before 

simple all, i.e. first of all 

3xo yioxHO [stA ujutnA], that is cosy ona xonex-b (Par. 222), she wishes 


A. Paying attention to the accentuation of each word, read aloud 
and translate the following verb forms : 

xodujiu, ona necjia, MM npdjiiij BH imexe, XH wcue'eiub, OH* 
a npiiRadJieatey ', OHH BOUIJIH, ona ebehib, Bbi >KHBexe, H 

, OHT, d^pMcunib, H xomy, Bbi MOJKexe, MH GyueMTj cudn>mb., 
ynamecb, eudrbmb, cm&uhib (two words), cmonmb, cmonmb, cmpSumb, 
npfljfex'b, MOFJI^, nucc^na, ona mnenvb, MH neceM^b, BH ornKpueaeme, 
ona npnuijia, H cMomplo, uibitimb, cn>emb, cmapaeMca, nprnomoennemb , 

dmb, juo6umb, H cnray, OHH cjibiiuamb. 

Diminutives in frequent use instead of the more formal n-feat, ox6qT., Mart. 

174 LESSON XLVI 141 

B. Give the infinitive and the 1st singular, 2nd singular, 3rd plural 

of the past, present, future tenses of the verbs printed in 
italics in Ex. A. 

C. Translate : 


;i;i. [eKoii rySepHiH. (2) 3HM6n 6<ieHb nacro y naci. GbiBaexi. 
nor6na. (3) FIosxoMy Mbi nnorna He M6>KeMi> ryjinxb BT 
[or n6 jrkcy]. (4) CerdflHH cn-fen, HflexT>. (5) Ha flBop"E cepanxaH 
MCTejib H nejibsri BMHXH H3i> HOMy. (6) MoA MJianiiiaH cecxpa 
miaiex-b H x6qen> snaxb, qxo naMT> n-fejiaxb H o HCMT, roBOpHTb. 
(7) OflHaKOH- BCC axo 6qeHb npocxo. (8) TaKb KaKt y>n6 pano 
xcMii-feex-b, 3a>KHraioxT> jiaMny BT> xpn qaca. (9) Ho npewae scer6 
MH 3axonjuieMT> nenb; nenb x6nflxi> (apoBaMH). (10) MajieHbKin 
, KoxdpwH HC noji>KHbi pa66xaxb, y>K6 C-BJIH na cxyjiba BOSJI-B 
(11) Onri HMxaiox-b KHHFH, nrpaioxt ap^n> CT> np^roM-b, HJIH 
npyrb np^ry cKaaKH H Gacnn. (12) B-b HsG-fe 
H yibxHO. (13) }K6HmHHM npHroxoBjiniox-b Kyuianbe. 
(14) Beiepoivrb MM nbCMi. HauiKy qaio p6BHo BT> ceMb HacoBT>; noxoivrb 
MOH MJiajxuiid 6paxi> JiojKiixcfl cnaxb. (15) Ho BspdcjibiMi. ndcjit 
y>KHHa eme ji6jiro nymno pa66xaxb. (16) Maxyuma H 6a6yiiiKa 
XKyxi>, npfm$TT>, B^JKyxT> nyjiKH, iiibiox'b njiaxbfl. (17) A 6axioinKa 
iiibex'b canorii H3i> K6>KH, HJIH noHHHitex'b nocyay H 

D. Rewrite Ex. C, 1-9, 11-17, in the past and future. 

E. Bonpocu : 

(1) TH-B roBOpriiuitt JKHBCXT.? (2) Hxo GbiBaexi qacxo y 

3HM6tt? (3) rioneMy^ HMT> nejibsji ryjinxb na 
(4) Kanafl cer6aHH noroaa? (5) IloneM^ ne Mdryxi, BUHXH 
HOMy? (6) Hxo x6qexT> snaxb MJiafliuaH cecxpa? (7) Tpyano JIH sxo 
cnasaxb? (8) BT> Kox6poMT> nacy sawnraioxT, JiaMny? (9) FIoqeM\ ? 
(10) H-BMT, x6nnxT> neHb? (11) Kyaa y>ne C-BJIH fl-fexn? (12) Huh-ibn, 
66pa3OMT> OHH npoB6aaxT> BpeMfl no y/KHHa? (13) K'am* 6biBaexT> 
BT> H36-B? (14) BT> KOx6pOMi> Hac^ nbK)XT> 'lanihv naio? (15) Kor 
HjiyxT> cnaxb cer6flHH? (16) H*BMT. aaniiMaioxcH >ia''iuiuini,i H 


F. Translate into Russian : 

(1) I was told that this man's two sons lived in the little village beyond 
the river, but at the present time they live, I am told, in that great house 
that you see before you. (2) Surely you sometimes have good weather 
in this district. (3) Do you know what problem they are solving now ? 

142 LESSON XL VII 175-176 

(4) I suppose their father has been carried away, that is why they are crying. 

(5) Perhaps they did not tell you that they went upstairs and entered the 
large dining-room, where the old lady was sitting. She was sewing or knitting. 

(6) What's to be done now ? (7) What is he to do ? He does not know 
how to work. (8) I thought that the stove used to stand near the windows, 
but there it is^standing}behind the door. (9) I was lying on one bed and he 
lay down on the other. (10) He is sitting there now. (11) What are they 
talking about ? (12) We told each other that that was not the truth. (13) 
Why did most of these poor people always drink tea ? (14) They do not drink 
tea at all ; they drink water or milk or bad wine or beer. (15) She remembers 
that the English lady gave him that little gold ring. (16) I do not like the 
colour of those enormous buildings at all. (17) Surely she does not want to 
go to school yet ? (18) Really I cannot say whether boots are always made 
of good leather. (19) You are obliged to remain at home after dinner. 

(20) Did you never think of the lesson that you were to learn by heart ? 

(21) Usually we go home at five o'clock ; to-day we are going home at 
four and after Sunday we shall always go home at three o'clock. 


175. The declension of ordinal numerals was indicated in Par. 167. 
If an ordinal numeral be compound, only the last element is 

declined, e.g. in " the 674th verst," 

mecTbCOTL ce"MbnecflT-b HeTBepxafl eepcxa [Jas(t)sot semdesat 
tJatvortAJ9 varsta] 

only qeTBepiaa is declined along with the noun. 

176. The declension of cardinal numbers : 

(a) Numbers ending in b are declined like regular feminine 
nouns in i> ; in 5-10, 20, 30 the accent is on the termination, e.g. 
HHTL, HHTH [pa't, p9ti]. 

(6) copOKt, HCBHHOCTO, cio, TbiCHHa, MHJiJiioHT> are declined 
like nouns of corresponding form. But when copOKb, HCBflHOCTO, 
CTO stand before other numerals the oblique cases all end in a, 
e.g. copOKa IIHTH, of 45 ; directly before nouns this also happens ; 
the prepositional ends in 'B or a. The genitive plural of CTO 
is COTT>. \ 

177-179 LESSON XL VII 143 

(c) The declension of OflHHb was indicated in Par. 107 (6). 
The plural means the wily, alone, the ones. 

(d) nom. 66a (m. and n.) [ob.v], 661* (/.) [oba], both, has 

gen. o66nxb |>b6ix], oft-feiixb [Abeix], etc., etc. 
66a, like flea, takes the noun in the genitive singular. 66i> 
takes the nominative plural. 

(e) nom. flea (m. and n.), flB'fe (/.) 

gen. nsyxt [dvux] 

dat. jjByMi> [dvum] 

ace. nom. or gen. 
in>tr. HBVMri [dvuihd] 
prep. Byxt [dvux] 

(/) nom. xpn [ti-i] qexbipe [tjatira] 

gen. xpex-b [trox] qexbipeXT, [tjatir6x] 

dat. xpe'M-b [ti-om] nexbipeMi, [tjatir6m] 
ace. xpn or xpext nom. or gen. 

instr. xpeMri [traiiia] HCXbipbM^ [tjotlrmd] 

prep, xpe'x-b [trox] qexbipexi, [tj"atir6x] 

177. In numerals of two or more digits each figure is separately 
declined, if the number be cardinal, e.g. 

nom. xpiicxa [trist.\], 300 uiecxbXHCHTb [jas(t)tisatj], 6000 

gen. xpex-bcox-b [troxsot] uiecxHXUCHHT> [J'astitisatJ] 

dat. xpeM-bcxaM-b [tromstam], etc. uiecxHTbiCHqaMT>[|astitisotJam],etc. 

Fortunately, however, numerals occur with great frequency in 
the nominative or accusative. 

178. It has already (Par. 138) been pointed out that after the 
\v<>rd om'iHTj in the singular, even when this is merely the last clement 
in a compound numeral, the noun is singular, e.g. 

cxo flCBHH6cxo o^na ;Kcniiuina, 1'Jl women. 

179. HBa and HCTbipe (two pairs] were dual forms. The dual of 

ilint- r.mins happened to be identical with the genitive singular. 
a ",d when the dual fell into disuse the mechanical rule 1" 
universal that after 2 and 4, even when they are merely the last 
element in a compound numeral, the genitive singular of the noun 

144 LESSON XLVII iso-i8i 

must be used. TpH came to have the same effect by analogy. In 
any phrase involving one of these three words, i.e. where the con- 
struction normally requires nominative or accusative, though the 
noun is in the genitive singular, the adjective is nominative plural 
or genitive plural, e.g. 

RBamjaTb HBa Sojibiinix'b (6ojibinie) jjoivia [dvatsAt dva bA'ij'ix 
(bA^Jije) domA], 22 large houses. 

180. After other numerals from 5 upwards, when the numeral 
is nominative or accusative, both noun and adjective are in the 
genitive plural, e.g. TprizwaTb nflTb 6ojibnraxT> AOMOBI, [tritsAt], thirty- 
five great houses. 

Whatever be the cardinal numeral used in a phrase, if the 
phrase be nominative or accusative, the numeral determines the 
form of the noun ; if the phrase be in any other case, the numeral 
must agree with the noun. 

181. (a) The date of the month is expressed by using the 
genitive ('ofthe tenth of the month '), or nominative neuter. 

jjecHTaro Maa, cer6 (jvrECHija) [cbscitAVA maJA, sav6 (m^satsA)], on the 
tenth of May, of this month, curt. 

Cer6u;Hfl jtecflxoe (HHCJi6) iibjifl [sov6dnA cbsatAJa ijiilA], To-day is the 
10th of July. 

(b) The date of the year is expressed in two ways : 

(1) ' 1892 A.D: is 


jiecTB'B (no = after takes the prep.) XpHCTOBOM'b [xristovAm] (after the 
birth of Christ). 

(2) ' the 22nd June 1892 ' is 

BTop6ro IIOHH Tbicfl^a BoceMbc6Ti> ji;eBHH6cTO BTOp6ro 

(3) * In June ' is BT> irbn-fe [vijuno]. 

(4) ' On Monday ' is BT> nonea^JibHHKi 

'On Mondays,' ' of a Monday,' is no noHejrb'JibHHKaM'b 

(c) The time of day is expressed thus : 
[rhimitA], minute. 

[tjas], one o'clock (=hour). 

Tpn, qexbipe *mca [tJAsd], two, three, four o'clock. 
nflTb, niecTb etc. Hac6B*b [t/Asof], five, six etc. o'clock. 

182-184 LESSON XLVII H5 

HeTBepxaro [t/6tvart], 3-15 (a quarter of the fourth hour). 
nojiOBHHa neTBepxaro [pAtAvfaiA], 3*30 (half of the fourth hour). 
6e3T> HBTBepTH HCTbipe [baa t/etvarti], 3'45 (four, less a quarter). 
necHTb MHHj'Tb nrixaro [d6sat minut pcitAVA], 4-10 (ten minutes of the 

fifth hour). 

6e3t aecHTH MHH^TT> HHTb [desati], 4-50 (five less ten minutes). 
BT nHTh *mc6BT>, at five o'clock 
6KOJIO nHTii Hac6Bi> [6kAtA], about five o'clock (genitive). 

182. To indicate an approximate number the numeral is placed 
after the noun, e.g. 

pyGjiett [dvatsAt rubieTj, tioenty roubles. 
but pySjieft jjBanuaxb [rublel dvatsAt], about twenty roubles. 
r6fla HCTbipe [godA tj'atira], about four years. 

183. To express the distributive form (at the rate of, so many 
each) no is used with the accusative of uea, ipn, qerbipe, but with 
the dative of any other numeral, e.g. 

OHT, HMT> aajn. no xsa py6jirf [on jim dot pA dva rubid], He gave them 
two roubles each. 

no OflH6tt KonettK-fe [pA Adnol kvp^Ika], one copeck each. 
no xpHHajiuaTH [PA trinatsAti], at the rate of thirteen. 

184. ORDINAL NUMBERS that have not yet been given are : 

HByxT>c6Thift [dvuxsoti] 200th 

TpexT>c6xbitt [troxsoti] 300th 

MeTbipexT>c6TLitt [tjatiroxs6ti] 400th 

[p9tis6ti] 600th 

[Jastis6ti] 600th 

CeMHC6Tbltt [suiiisntlj 700th 

BOCbMHC6TLIli [vAsiiiis6tl] 800th 

[davatis6ti] 900th 

[tisot/nl] 1000th 

TbicflMHLitt [d\ ij 2000th 

CTOTi.'ic>iiHF,iii [st \tis-.tjnij 100,000th 

[riiii6nl] 1,000,000th 



oc. XXXIV) Mapr&, a, bi [mart], March 

Monday (Voc. anpijib, a [Apre 1 !], April 

XXXIV) Matt, fl, H [mdi], May 

, a (second (working -)day) iibHb, fl, H [ij^n], June 

[ftornik], Tuesday lib Jib, fl, H [iju 1 !], July 

cpejja, b'l (middle (of week)} [si-add], aBrycrb, a, bi [dvgust], August 

Wednesday ceHTfl6pb, fl, H [santdbr], September 

qeTBeprb, a [tfatvsrk], Thursday OKTfl6pb, fl, H [Aktdbr], October 

nflTHHija, bi [pdtnitsA], Friday HOfl6pb, fl, H [iiAJdbr], November 

cy666xa, bi (sabbath) [subotA], jjeKaSpb, fl, H [cbkdbr], December 

Saturday pojjHTbCfl [rAditsA], to be born 

flHBapb, fl, H [janvd 1 !-], January CKOHHaxbCfl [skAnt/d^sA], to die, lit. 
$eBpajib, fl, ii [fevrd 1 !], February to come to an end, to decease 

Translate into Russian : 

(1) The woman's rich friend died on the 29th of January, 1852. (2) They 
were born on the 10th of May 1903. (3) To-day is the 9th of October. (4) 
How much did she give you ? She gave us only ten copecks each. (5) In 
June we sometimes have good weather, seldom hot weather. (6) The third 
day of the week is Tuesday. (7) There are 365 days in the year. (8) Twenty 
men went into this little room ; but the twenty-first man they did not 
admit. (9) The landed proprietor who lives near [in the neighbourhood of] 
the town has four beautiful white horses and about twenty hunting-dogs. 
(10) The twenty-fifth of December is Christmas. (11) They came here early 
in the morning of the 23rd of this month. (12) We saw about 40 soldiers 
who were walking along this wide street. (13) 546 men, the 546th man. 
(14) On Fridays we always go to church. (15) 257,649 roubles. 


185. Certain verbs in frequent use require the complement in 
the instrumental case. Such verbs are : 

6bixb [bit], to be 1 

cxajb [sta^], to become x 

CA'EJiaTbCfl I A [sdetAtsA], to become l 

cjiy>KHTb (^, -^Hiiib), to serve as 

SBaib (30B^, eiiib) [zvaH;], to call, to name 

1 Especially when a merely temporary quality or change of state is expressed. 
See note to Par. 69. 

^^AJUv -e^G^ fa 
186 LESSON XLVLII "f 147 

IA [nAzivd'tsA], to be called 
CHHxaxb I A [stjita't], to reckon, to consider 
C.fcHHxaxbCfl I A [pAtfitd'tsA], to be regarded as 
BJiafl'fexb I A [vtAdeH], to dominate, to rule over 
Examples : 

OHT, cxaji-b 6oraxbiMT> Kyim6MT> [on stat bAgdtim kuptsfon], He 
became (a) rich merchant. 

5xa KdMHaxa CM^ CJI^JKHXT. ciiajibiieio [tA k6mnAtA jamu siusit 
spdiiiiaju], This room serves him as a bedroom. 

Er6 3OB^TT> HnKOJiaeMT> [jav6 zAvut nikAidjam], They call him 
Nicholas (by the name of N.) 

3xo H cmrraio ny>KHbiM'b [&A jo stjitdju niisnim], / consider that 

186. caMLift [scimi] preceding an adjective gives to it the force 
of a superlative. This word itself means self, same ; prefixed to an 
adjective it means extremely, in the highest degree, e.g. 
6ojibin6tt [sdmi bA^JoI], the largest. 


Ky3H6in>, a, w [kuznets], smith ibr-b, a [jug, juk], south 

B-feK-b, a, H or a [vek], age, century BOCT6m>, a [vAst6k], east 

na CBoeM-b B-feK^ [no svAJ6m voku], aanafl-b, a [zdpAt], west 

in his (lifetime npnx6KT>, a, H [prit6k], a tributary 

UapcxBO, a, a [tsarstvA], kingdom, BepSjiKWb, a, bi [varblut], camel 

empire CM^pXb, H, H (6ft) [sriiert], death 

UapcxBOBaxb [tsdrstvAVAt] (ijapcx- Bepcxa, bi, -bi [varsta], verst (1067 

Byio, euib [tsdrstvuju]) (see metres) 

Par. 225), to reign pa66xa, bi, bi [rAb6tA], work 

Focyjjapb, H, H [gAsudd 1 !-], the nycxbiHH, H, H[pustti'iA], wilderness, 

Ruler, Lord, Emperor desert 

HMiiepaxop-b, a, bi [impardtAr], 63epo, a, *a [6zorA], lake 

Emperor noKoiiiibiii [pAkolm], deceased, late 

Tocyfl. HMnep. [gA^udd 1 !- impard- pa66 l iift [rAb6t|i], working, work- 

1 \rj. If is Majesty the Emperor man 

rocyflapcxBO, a, a [gAsudtirstvA], npaa^ini'ini.iri fpr(iz(d)nitjnl], holi- 

state, empire day, feast(-day) (adj.) 

KOpojiCBa, 1,1, 1,1 [k\r\ievA], (fiieen nojie'aHbitt [pAUzni], useful 

BJia-|jHie, H, n (ift) [vtAdenj-.J, rniiyxbcn (y, ^eiiib) [Lvnii'tsA], to 

territory, possession stretch, extend 

BJian-fexb I A [vtAde't], to rule over, floxomixb (>K^, 6nmm>) [d^x^vdit], 

possess to reach 

c-BBep-b, a [ssvar], north snaaaxb I A [fpAdd't], to fall into 



A. Translate : 

(1) Bx> iHecTHawaTOMt B-feidj H 6bijio BX> BJiaa-fenin Poccin HH 
ojmord Mopfl, HO xenepb ona BJiajrBexx H-BCKOjibKHMH 
(2) Bx> np6mjioMX> ro^ n.apcxBOBajix>rocyaapb tiMnepaxopx, 
Bxop6n; OHX> cxajix. (cjrijiajicn) HMnepaxopOMx> nocjrk (or no with 
prep.) CM&PTH noKoimaro AjieKcan^pa xpexbnro. Bx> Hacxomnee 
BpeMH y?K6 ne n,apcxByexx>; xenepb HT>XX> nnnepaxopa. (3) P^ccKoe 
napcxBO, Koxopoe XHHCXCH ex, Bocxona na sanaj^Tb Ha xpiraajmaxb 
XbicflHt Bepcxi), a CT> c'BBepa na lort na nexbipe xbicnqn Bepcxt, 
pyccKie CHuxaiox'b caMbiMi. SojibuiHM'b rocyaapcxBOM'b na 
(4) HexBepXbift aenb nea^Jin HasbiBaexcn cpejioio, a uiecxofi 
(5) Illecxb padoqnx-b nnefi JIIOH paCoxaioxx, 
, a BT, BOCKpeceHbe H BT, npyrie npasamiHHbie HHH Bc-fe oxjtbixaioxi, 
OXT> pa66x-L H xo^flx-b BT, nepKOBb. (6) B-b roa^ BliHannaxb 
M^cnneB^, a EB-EHaftnaxbiH M^cnn-b 30B^xi> aeKa6pe'MT>. (7) 
Kox6pan HC jtoxoanx-b 30 Mopn HJIH ^o dsepa, a Bnanaex-b BT, 
nasbiBaexcfl npHXOKOMi,. (8) BepSjuofl-b onenb 

, xaKT> KaK-b Mdmex-b npoiixH, q^pesx. nycxb'mio, OXT> cxa 

o SB^XCOXX, Bepcxi, BT, He-BJiio. (9) OHT> 
B-b xbiCHHa BoceMbcoxx, Baanaxb BXOPOMX> rojj^, a 
xpn^uaxb nepsaro Man xb'icnna BoceMbcoxx> aeBHHocxo nnxaro r6s;a. 

B. BonpocBi : K/^^^d 

(1) Kora PocciH ne DJMfffcjHi HH oanoro Mopn? (2) Kxo l 
uapcxBOBajix> BX. Anrjiin BX> xbicnna BoceMbcoxx, aeBanocxo naxoMX, 
ron^? (3) Kxo 2 cxajix, KOpoJie'MX, no CMepxn 5xoft Kopoji^Bbi? 
Kox6poe napcxBO aHrjiH^ane CHHxaioxx, caMbiMX. 6ojibiuHMX> na 
cBT>xt>? (4) CKOJibKO paSoqnxx, aneH BX> nea^Jin? (5) Kara. 
3OB^xx, n^pBbiH jtenb He^fiJiH? A xpexin senb? (6) KanaH PTJK& 
nasbiBaexcH npnxoKOMx,? (7) rioqeMy" BepSjiibax. cnnxaexca nojiea- 

HblMX. H^HBOXHbIMX>? (8) Korft^l Bbl pO3HJIHCfl? 

C. Translate into Kussian : 

(1) I have been told that the present landowner is the son of a smith 
who lived in this district forty-five years ago. (2) The smallest wooden house 
in the village served his father as a dwelling at that time. (3) But a few years 
after the death of his wife the man went abroad. (4) He lived in one of [H3X>] 
the largest towns in England. (5) There he became a merchant and was 
soon regarded as a very rich man. (6) The youngest son, who was only ten 
years old at the time of his mother's death, was born on the 24th of February 
1885. (7) The father died abroad ten years ago and the second son, who had 
always wished to live in Russia, bought this little estate. (8) He has been 
living here for five years now [$res. tense with yJKe"]. 
1 BHKr6piH. 2 

187-189 LESSON XLIX 149 


187. Most of the adjectives that have occurred have been used 
attributively, i.e. they qualify nouns. But there is also a shorter 
form of the adjective ending in -T>, -a, -o, -H (or -H), which, in theory, 
ought to be used when the adjective is predicative. 

y nero 6ojibHoft CHHT>, He has a sick son, shows the attributive 

Ero CMHT> 66jieHT> [javo sin boien], His son is HI, shows the 
predicative form. 

This form is obtained from the attributive by substituting in the 
masculine T> for ufi, 6ft, by dropping, in the feminine and neuter, 
the final fl and e, and, in the plural, the final e or fl, e.g. 

, cjia6oe, cjia6we, MH 
cjia6-b, cjiaGa, cjiaGo, cjia6ti [stab (p), stAba, stabA, stdbi], weak. 

In fact the predicative adjective in the singular and often in the 
plural has the endings already associated with the past tense of the 
verb and with the noun. 

188. The word pant [rod (t)], meaning glad, has no longer form. 
Adjectives in CKift like pyccnift, and adjectives indicating materials 
and ending in HHHbiii, like nepeBflHHuft, are without the predicative 
form. Most other qualifying adjectives have this form. As it is 
found very frequently in current speech and in literature, the pre- 
dicative form must be known, but both in writing and speaking the 
attributive form takes its place to a very great extent. Outside 
popular poetry one rarely meets the predicative form in the oblique 

189. The neuter singular is of very frequent occurrence : 
(1) Used as an adverb, e.g. 

xopoind [xAr.v/6], leell. 
nji6xo [pt6xA], badly. 

150 LESSON XLIX 190-191 

(2) As the complement of the verb to be expressed or under- 
stood in phrases like 

Mirfe H^JKHO, nenpiflTHO, JICFKO, Tp^nno 310 irtjiaxb [mne nu3nA, 
iiaprijatiiA, Iaxk6, triidnA etA dstAt], It is necessary, unpleasant, easy, difficult, 
for me to do this. (Cf. Par. 116.) 

190. It will be observed in the lists given in Par. 237 that o or e is 
sometimes inserted in the masculine to facilitate pronunciation ; e.g. 

KOp6xKifi : KOpoxoKb [kArotAk], Kopoxna, etc., short, 
xp^AHbift : xp^aeiTb [trucbn], xpyflna, etc., difficult, \ 

but to give a rule is hardly practicable, for combinations of consonants 
that at first seem almost impossible to the foreigner are quite easily 
negotiated by the Russian, e.g. 

MepiBt [mortf], dead. 

191. The accentuation of the attributive adjective is a very 
simple matter : the accent remains throughout on the syllable 
corresponding to the accented syllable of the nominative 'singular 
masculine. In the predicative form the accent can only be mastered 
by continual observation. Paragraph 237 gives the predicative 
forms of most of the adjectives that are used in this book. 


), a, b'i [grip, gribd], mushroom rposa (in ace. sing, and nom. plur. 
, a, bi (OBT>) [trus], coward stem accented] [grAza], thunder- 

6biK*b, a, H [bik], ox storm 

neci>, nca, H [pos], dog JK^SHL, H [31211], life 

r^cb, H, H [gus], goose KOCTb, H, H (eft) [kost], bone 

uiKam,, a, iii [Jkap] (BT> ninan^ naao [nadA], it is necessary 

[fJkApii]), cupboard KaJlKO [sdtkA], it is a pity 

rp6MT>, a, bi (oB-b) [grom], thunder BJTE3Tb [viest] (BJitai,, BJi-fesjia ; 
Ji6;nKa, H, H (oK-b) [totkA], boat fut. -rfeay, -einb), to climb 

Jiairaa,H, H (OKI.) [taipkA\,foot,paiv cxaxb [sta^], to become, get; to set 

(diminutive) about 

H He snaio, npoiueJTb JIH oirb [ja n.9 znaju, prAjot ii on], / do not 
know whether he has passed, it is past. 

cpasy no jjBa, JTB-E [srdzu pAdva, dve], two at a time. 

The following simple examples are taken chiefly from Tolstoi's 
Any adjectives not yet given in the vocabularies will 
be found in the list in Par. 237 and in the general vocabulary. 

191 LESSON XLIX 151 


Translate : 

(1) JJ-fea-b 6bijn> cxap-b H cjia6i>, a BHyKi> MJiafl-b l H rjiym. (2) 
Cxajn> Haun> caai> rojn>. (3) Cxajit nann, ne'CT> njioxt. (4) Majib- 
Minn, 6bijn> pant. (5) rpnGi. 6bijn> rnmrb. (6) Out 6bijn> xpy- 
cjiiin-b. (7) Cxaji-b 6biKb aojTb. (8) OHT> n6cjrfe xor6 He n6jiro 
6bun> ;KIIBT>. 


(1) Hrpa dujia njioxa. (2) CoGana 6wjia yMna. (3) M36a GWJI^ 
HC Majia. (4) Ba6a 6wjia paa. (5) Bo& GLIJI^ HHCTa. (6) 
Cxajia Ji6flKa HOJIH^ BOJI^I. (7) J!HC^ fejia cpaay no flB'fe MIJLLIH, H 
crajia JKupna. (8) EA JKHSHL Tpyana. (9) Kp-fenna KaKT> KocTb. 


(1) Ha Boai 6BUIO rjiajiKO. (2) Ha asop^ 6biJio ^PICTO. (3) 
EM^ cxajio ciWEiUHd (he felt inclined to laugh). (4) MITE JierK6 
5xo n'fejiaTb. (5) BI.IJILI rpoa^ H rpoivrb. 2 MajibHHKi> 6buii> 
TpycT>. OHT> BJTE3T> BT> uiKani). TaMt 6iJJio CM^ TCMH6 H J^UIHO. 
EM^ n6 6biJio CJIUUIHO, npouiJi^ JIH rposa. (6) FH'fesffd y>K6 6biJio 
n^cxo. (7) Bee, HTO nano. (8) flsepH SWJIH T-fecnij. (9) Jlannn 
rycett Giijin BiinHbi. (10) MajibiHKH cxajin Mdnpu. (11) 




TOM^, KTO ao6p^ ne fl-BJiaex-b HHKOM [xud.v tAmii, xto d.vbrd 
na d^ nik.vinu], Woe be to him who does good to no m<m. 

Hxii.jiiL flan^ na fl66pbiH fl-fejid [sizu dAnd n\ dobrij.) data], Life teas 

us for good deeds. 

(nain> is the predicative form of Hainn.ift, passive past participle of 
Such participles in :nn>, nira, ano, anw are very frequent.) 

nenb no senepa, KOJII^ flijiaxb nenero [skutj^n de'n dA 
vet|.>r\. k\if iletAt n6tj.>vA], The day is long (tveary, tedious) till evening, if 
there is nothing to do. 

y B6ra BC'fe paonu [u b6gA fse ri'jvni (r.vvnt)], Before Ood all are 

1 =M<5jiojn. a rpoMi, rpeMiin, [gix>m gtomft], the thunder rolls. 

152 LESSON L 192-195 


192. The predicative form of the comparative degree of the 
adjective is formed by changing HH, in, or OH into 'fee. The short 
form M is frequently used in poetry and popular speech. In most 
adjectives of more than two syllables the accent remains where 
it falls in the positive ; in words of only two syllables in the positive, 
the predicative comparative is accented on the 'fe. 

Examples : 

npflMoft, npnivrfje [pramol, pramja], upright, straight 
npi^THbift, npiih-irke [prijatni, prijatnaja], pleasant 
KpaciiBbift, KpaciiB'fee [krAsivi, krAsfvaja], beautiful 
^MHBIH, yMH'fee [limnl, uirm6ja], intelligent 
MOKptift, MOKp'fee [mokri, mAkr6ja], damp, wet 

193. A number of adjectives, mostly in frequent use, have the 
predicative comparative in -e. Many of these also modify the final 
consonant of the stem. A list of some of the forms in frequent use 
is given in Par. 238. 

194. Than following the comparative is translated by HiiM-b 
[t$sm] or H6JK6JIH [nesaii], e.g. 

CbiHij yMH-fee q-feMt jjo^Ka [sin umn6ja tfem dotjk\], The son is more 
intelligent than the daughter. 

JKejiiao nojieaH'fee q'feM'b cepe6po [saUzA pAUznaja tjsm sarabro], 
Iron is more useful than silver. 

M6n npi^xejib Jiyqine q^Mt A [m6I prijatal tiitja tjem ja], My friend 
is better than I. 

Another way of using the comparative is to omit H'feM'b or 
HeJKCJiH and substitute for the nominative the genitive case. The 
three examples might therefore have been written : 

GLIHT> VMH-fee JJOHKH [dotjki]. 

JKeji'feso nojieaH'fee cepe6pa [sarabra]. 

Mofi npirixejib Jiyquie MCH^. 

195. When the comparative is attributive it is formed, as in 
English, by prefixing Son-fee [bolaja], more, to the positive, e.g. 

66ji1>e aopor6ft cxyjn> [b6laja dATAg6l stut], a more expensive, a 
dearer, chair. 

196-198 LESSON L 153 

(a) As in English, a few words have exceptional forms, e.g. 
xopbmift [xAr6Ji], good Jiymuitt [tutji], better 

xyn6tt [xud6l], bad x^fliuitt [xutji], worse. 

MOJiojj6ti [mAt.vdoI], young MJiajmiift [mtdtfl], younger or junior -jj& 

crapbift [stdrl], old cxapiiiift [stdrfi], elder or senior 

[visoki], high Bucuiift l [viji], higher 

[ni'ski], low Hlteiiiift 1 [lif/I], lower 

[mall], little /MCHbiuitt [rii^^Ji], less or lesser 

\MCHbUl6tt [riwnjdl], younger, youngest 

, large\ 66 ^ bmUi prfijq, p^ 

[v9lila], great J 

196. A few adjectives have a special form for the attributive 
superlative ending in -ftiiiift, -iftmift, e.g. 

rjiy6oKifl, deep rjiyGoHaftiiiift 

, simple npocrfeftmift [prAsUlJ 

weak cJiaS-fetiiiiitt [stAb4l|i] 

, rich 6oraT-fettiiiift 

, distant, far Hajibirfefiuiifi [(Lv^n^I/i] 

KOp6TKitt, short KpaxHattuiitt [krAt/alji] 

, long ttOJi>Kaftinift [d^vtsalji] 

strong Kp-fenHaftiiiift [kraptjdlji] 

These words are absolute superlatives in meaning, as they 
correspond to the English very deep, very simple, etc. 

197. The relative superlative, the form corresponding to the Eng- 
lish adjective in -est, is expressed in various ways ; the most useful 
form is obtained by prefixing caMbift to the positive (cf. Par. 186). 
This superlative is used both attributively and predicatively. 

198. The three degrees of comparison of an adjective having 
all the forms, attributive and predicative, that have been mentioned, 
are therefore as follows : 


Kp-fennitt CTOJIT> CTOJIT, 

66ji1>e Kp-fennitt CTOJIT* crojit 


Kp-fcnKitt ciojTb CTOJTB caMhitt 

1 These forma are not now so frequent as the regular forms with 66jrfee. 





B6p-b, a, bi (OBT,) [vor], thief 
CBHHeHTE>, Hua [svinsts], lead (metal) 
cxoJiHHa [stAHtsA], capital (city] 
CKapJiaxHHa [skArlAtfnA], scarlet- 
nep^axna, H, H (OKT>) [partfdtkA], 


flopora [dArogA], road, way 
cxpana, li, -^bi [strAna], country 
npH6biJib, H, H [pribil], profit, 


rriSejib, H, H [gibal], ruin 
njiomajjb, H, H (eft) [ploJtjAt], 

place, square 

SHanie, H, H (ift) [znanja], knowledge 
6oraxcxBO, a, a [l>Agdts(t)vA], 

[ranani], wounded 
ftoporoft, aopome [(LvrAgoI, 
dear, dearer 

[38iezm], iron (adj.) 
[britansld], British 
ncnancKift [ispdnski], Spanish 
sapaSaTBiBaxb [zArAbdtiivAt], to earn 
BopoBaxb (p^K), yeuib) [vATAvd^], 

to steal 

MITE KaJKexcH [mne kc^atsA], it 
seems to me 

66jibine Bcero [bo^Ja fsavo], more 

than all, most 
nanpOTHB-b (with gen.) [nAprotif], 


A. Translate : 

(1) Hepnoe npecjio, na KOT6pOMT> BH CHanxe, ropaaao KpacHB-fee 
5xoro cxyjia. (2) B-fejibift xjitdi. ne Bcerjja aopome HepHaro. (3) 
GaMoe 6ojibin6e snanie BT. nauieM-b ^6po^'fe caMaH cxapaa u^pnoBb, 
HO nocjrBUHHH MeHbine XOH ^epKBH, Kox6pyio Bbi BHA-fejiH Hanp6xHBT> 
CBoeft KBapxHpbi BT> cxoJIH^'B. (4)' YMH^ftinafl yqeniiua HHKoraa 
ne XOHCXT, oxBtnaxb, Kora ee cnpainnBaexT> 66paH yMHxeJIbHH^a. 
Ona yMHa, HO ea cxapuiift 6pax-b npHJiemen-b H ropas^o BHHMaxejib- 
H'fee ea. (5) P^KH paneHbixij S-feji'te ^MT* KposaxH, na 
OHH JiejKax'b. (6) Heywejin He BC^ snaiox'b, ^xo xojiepa 

6ojii>3Hb q'BM'b CKapJiaxiina? (7) CaMaH xeMnan KOMnaxa 
HpaBuxcH 66jibiJie Bcero. (8) MH'B roBopHX"b, ^xo caMan cxapan 

BHmex-b caMbie ji^qiuie qyjiKH H nepnaxKH. (9) 
Sorax-feHiuie noM-feiunKH sceraa jKejiaiox-b HM-fexb eme 66jibuie 
(10) MH-B KawexcH, HXO HacxonmiH OM-b uapa BejiHKOJi'fenH'Be 5xoro 
rpoMannaro SBOpi;a, Koxopbift xenepb cxp6Hx-b. (11) Xopoiuo, HXO 
caMbie xpyAOJiioSHBbie KpecxbHHe HHorji;a aapaGaxbiBaiox'b 
(12) OHH nojiy^iaiox'b caMyio GoJibui^io npii6bijib. (13) 
CB-EXJI-BC c6JIH^a. (14) Snanie ji^iuiee 6oraxcxso. (15) 

sdjioxa. (16) Bop-b Bop^ex-b ne AJIH npH6biJiH, a AJIH CBoeft 

19&-201 LESSON LI 155 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) In their letter they say that white bread is now dearer than black. 
(2) Perhaps your sister is younger than you. (3) In the majority of towns 
there are broad streets and narrow streets, and all the streets are narrower 
than the squares. (4) The largest village is more distant than your town. 
(5) I do not like that white paper that you sent me, it is too thin ; send me 
some thicker paper [partitive genit.]. (6) Of course, the railway [iron way] is 
shorter than the river. (7) It seems to me that the problem we are solving 
to-day is far easier. (8) In our country the evening in summer is generally 
hotter than the morning. (9) The Russian language is, in my opinion, much 
harder than Spanish. (10) When I was living in that village, they told me 
that the old blacksmith was richer than all the hard-working peasants. (11) 
We thought that the light was brighter in the other room. (12) I thought 
that everybody knew that lead was heavier than iron, and also that iron 
was cheaper than lead. (13) I do not know whether the Russian Empire was 
really larger than the British Empire, but in the opinion of the Russians their 
empire was the largest of all. 


199. The Russian verb has no special form for the conditional 
mood of other tongues : this is rendered by simply adding the 
particle 6bi [bi] to the past tense, e.g. 

OHT> HM'feji'b 6hi [on iriit bi], He would have. 

200. Nor is there any special form for subjunctive or conjunctive : 
the past tense introduced by the conjunction HT66bi [Jtobi], that, 
in order that, does duty for that rnood, e.g. 

Hapb nocjiajrb MHHHcrpa, HT66w OHT> Kynrijn. cam> MVJKHK& [tsn'r 
l>.\ liiii'iisti-A, jtobi on kupit sot mu^ik-ij, The czar sent his minister, that 
he might buy the peasant's garden. 

201. In order to express modifications in the meaning of verbs 
some languages have elaborate systems of moods and tenses : this 
is characteristic of Greek, Latin, and the Romance tongues. Other 
languages achieve the same end by the facility with which they 
combine, in an almost endless variety, infinitive and participles 
with auxiliary and modal auxiliary verbs : English and German 

156 LESSON LI 202-204 

are two such tongues. The Kussian verb has but three moods : 
infinitive, imperative, indicative ; and of these only the indicative 
appears in different tenses ; it has the three tenses that have been 
discussed. The Russian verb possesses only to a very limited extent 
the power of forming compound tenses. Yet, lacking the character- 
istic features of both the French and the English verb, the Russian 
verb is one of the subtlest instruments of expression, as the want 
of variety in mood and tense is more than compensated for by the 
modifications introduced by the use of numerous prefixes and by 
transformations of the stem itself. 

202. One form of the verb indicates merely that the action was 
going on, is going on, or will be going on, without any reference to 
its beginning or end, without affording any information as to its 
completion. In this form, which is called the IMPERFECTIVE ASPECT, 
the action is thought of only as a duration. 

Most, not all, simple verbs, i.e. verbs not compounded with a 
prefix, are imperfective. All the verbs under A, in Paragraph 121, 
are examples of this aspect, which therefore, in the indicative mood, 
has three tenses : past, present, future. 

203. Another form of the verb expresses the action from the 
point of view of its completion : it indicates that something happened 
once and was done with, or that something is about to be begun and 
completed. This form of the verb is called the PERFECTIVE ASPECT. 

All the verbs under B, in Paragraph 122, are examples of this 
aspect. Now, as an action cannot at one and the same time be 
conceived as perfected and as still going on, this aspect has no 
present tense ; it has only two tenses : past and future. 

204. For foreigners the chief peculiarity of this perfective aspect 
is, that the future tense has exactly the appearance of a present 
tense. 1 That is to say, all the verbs under B, in Paragraph 122, 
have a tense with the inflexions of a present tense and the meaning 
of an immediate future. A mistake that must be carefully avoided, 
is to form the future of the perfective aspect on the model of the 
imperfective future. 

1 The verbs given in Par. 160 are examples of this perfective future. 

205-206 LESSON LI 157 

205. The complete scheme of the verb in the infinitive, indicative, 
and imperative, is therefore as follows : 



micaxb, to write, to be busied with nanncaTb, to write once, to start 
writing writing and get it finished 

Indicative Past l 

H imcaJTb, / wrote, I was writing, H Hanncajrb, / wrote once, I have 
I was occupied in writing, written on a definite occasion, 

I busied myself with writing I have completed the writing 

Indicative Present 
H nnui^, / write, I do write, I am None 

Indicative Future 

iracaxb, / shall write, I shall H Banning, / shall write now or soon, 
busy myself with writing I shall get the writing started and 


nnuiiixe, write, make it your practice Hanmurixe, write now, write something 
to write, be busied with writing definite on a definite occasion, 

write and get it finished 

206. In the list of verbs given under A, in Paragraph 121, it 
will be observed that each word is accompanied by a prefix enclosed 
in brackets, or by one of the signs (1), *, or (2). 

a. Verbs marked (2) have no separate form for the perfective 
aspect, are not used as perfective verbs, or undergo a real change 
of meaning in the so-called perfective. 

b. * indicates a verb whose perfective aspect is expressed by 
the use of a different root, e.g. 

roBopHXb, 2 cKaaaxb, to say. 

c. (1 ) indicates a verb whose perfective is derived by modifying the 
form, often the length, of the stem or by changing the termination ; e.g. 

cnpauiHBaxb, cnpocrixb, 8 to ask, 
ptuiaxb, ptuiiixb, to resolve. 

In this class of words the perfective is frequently a simpler form 
than the iinperfective, the latter being derived from the former. 

1 These Past Tenses also render our / have or had toritlen. 

* roBopttn>=to speak has as the perfective noroeopiixb. 

* For this type see Par. 232. 

158 LESSON LI 207-208 

d. Where a prefix is given, it is this prefix that is used to form 
the perfective aspect, e.g. 

nyMaTB, noayMaib, to think. 
njiaKaxb, aanjiaKaxb, to weep. 

The list of perfective verbs given under B in Paragraph 122 is 
marked in the same way. 

207. All the words in those lists are in frequent use and as the 
lists were not compiled for the special purpose of illustrating the 
formation of the aspects, they may not unfairly be regarded as a 
representative collection of verbs. It would therefore appear 
(1) that the majority of Russian verbs come under headings c or d 
of the last paragraph, i.e. that they have a perfective aspect ; (2) 
that perfectives formed by modification of the stem are numerous ; 
(3) that any prefix may be used to form the perfective, but that the 
prefix no is of far greater frequency than any other. Very often 
this no has the effect o ' doing the action a little.' 

208. Which prefix, if any, is precisely the right one to use for 
any given verb, can be learned only by observation. If any other 
prefix be taken, the compound verb resulting, if it really exist, is 
indeed a perfective verb, 1 but one in which the meaning has been 
altered according to the meaning of the prefix. The peculiarity 
of THE perfective aspect of an imperfective verb is, that the force 
of the prefix is more completely exhausted in making the verb per- 
fective, though even in this form the modification of the sense 
may be so decided, that the meaning is best rendered into English 
by a different verb. 

Some illustrations : 

Simple verb imcaxb [purity], to write H^Jiaxb [dslAt], to do 

Perfective nanncaxb [nApisaH] cfl'BJiaxb [sdslAt] 

Other Com- cnncaxb [spisc^t], to copy najVEJiaxb [nAdelAt], to prepare 

pounds Bbmncaxb [vipisAt], to BbiflliJiaxb [vicbtvt], to fashion, to 
extract, subscribe for execute 

Simple verb imxb [pit], to drink imaxiixb [plAtit], to pay 

Perfective BbmHXb [vipit] aamiaxiixb [zApiAtit] 

Other Com- HaniixbCfl [nApitsA], to oxruiaxHXb [AtplAtit], to pay back 
pounds drink one's fill of BbmjiaxHXb [viplAtit], to pay out 

1 See note following this paragraph. 

209 LESSON LI 159 

Simple verb nyMaxb [dumAt], to think 

Perfective noa^Maxb [pAdumAt] 
Other Compounds BbwyMaTb [vtdumAt], to devise 

[zAdumAt], to propose to oneself 

All the verbs given under * other compounds ' are perfective verbs 
in virtue of the fact that they are simple verbs compounded with 
prefixes, and corresponding imperfective forms are made from most 
of them on a system which is explained in Paragraph 232. 

Note. There is, however, a class of verbs of which XOHHTL and 
HTTH (for the distinction see Paragraph 40) may be taken as the 
type. These words occur in two forms, each form having both 
imperfective and perfective aspects. XOHHTL is called the indefinite, 
potential, or abstract form of the word, and HTTH the definite, actual, 
or concrete form. In verbs belonging to this category the com- 
pounds of the indefinite verb are all imperfective and the com- 
pounds of the definite verb are perfective. (See Voc. LII (4) ; LIV 
(5) ; LV (5) ; LVI (4).) 

Such verbs are : 

(no)6'Braxb (aro) and (no)61>JKaxb, to run 

(no)BOflHXb (my, 6Him>) (no)Becxii, to lead 

(no)B03iiTb (my, 63Him>) (no)BC3XH, to convey 

(no)roHrixb (riio) (no)rnaxb, to drive, persecute 

(no)jiexaxb (aio) (no^Jierk^b (H#, exmiib), to fly 

(no)HQCHXb (iii^, 6cHMb) (no)Hecxli, to carry 

(no)njiaBaxb (aio) (no)njiHXb (WB^, eiiib), to swim, float 

(no)-b-3AHXb (-B3>Ky, fcflHUib) (no)-fexaxb, to drive, ride, travel 

209. Only a few exercises on the use of the aspects are given, 
but before undertaking these exercises it will be useful to read 
carefully the following passages, observing, in the light of Pars. 
199-208, in which aspect each verb appears. New words occurring 
in these passages are given in the vocabulary, but as the purpose 
in printing them here is solely to illustrate the distinction between 
the imperfective and the perfective, a close translation of each 
passage is given : the English version is, for our present purpose, 
as important as the Russian. 



(Perfective Verbs are in Italics) 

6biJia roT6Ba. H crbJi-b BT> nee CT> flByMfl rpeGuaMH. OHH 
H yddpunu BT> Becjia. 
He6o SHJIO HCHO. JTyna cinjia. Horona dtuia xiixaa. Bojira 


BOJIHI>. UpouiJid OKOJio nojiy^aca. Mti docmiiejiu cpe- 
Bapyn> rpe6m>i HO.HCUIU. uieirraTbCH M6mj;y coSoio. 

HTO Tande? cnpocaji'b H. 

He 3HaeMi>. 

rpeSuii CMOxp-fejin BI> OAH^ cxopony. Tjiasa Mo6 nptinAjiu Ton^e 
nanpaBJienie, H H yeudrbJi-b BT> cyiwpaKt qTo-xo. HesnaKOMLitt npen- 
MeTi> njibiJii, BHH3i> no Bojirt. ripH6jiHJKajicfl. Jlyna aauuid sa 
66jiaKo. IIjibiBy^mift npHSpairb cdrbjiajicn eme TCMH'fee. OHT> 6biJit 
OTB MGHH yme 6.HH3KO, a H Bee eme ne MOF-L ero pasjiumimb. 

Bjipynb Jiyna euuuia H3i>-3a 66naKa, H oaapujia 3p^Jinm;e ymacnoe. 
Ki> HaMi> HaBCTp-fe^y njibuia BHcrsjiHija, ymeepwcdeHHCui na njioxy. 
Tpn T'fejia BHC'fejiH na nepeKjiaHHH-fe. BoJiisneHHoe 
MHOIO. H saxomrbJi'b eszjiRHmb na 


(Perfective Verbs are in Italics] 
Bojibinan, BbicdKaa, TCMnaH sajia, ocemuieHHCtfi TOJILKO 


paneHbix-b, 6biJia 6yKBaJibHO nojina. Hoc^JibmnKH 6e3npecxaHHO 
BHOC&JIH paneHbix-B, CKJia^biBajiH HXT> oaHHT, noajrfe apyrbro na 
nojn>, na KoxopOMi, ym6 6b'uio xaKT> X-BCHO, HXO HecnacxHbie xojiKajincb 
H MOKHyjiH BT> KpoBH Apyr^ npyra, H IHJIH sa HOBbiMH. Gecxpbi, co 
iHiiaMH H ci> BbipameHieM'b ainxejibnaro npaKXH- 
ynacxia, xo xaivrb, xo CHMT> MejibKajiH MejKay paneHbiMH. 

CT> aacyneHHUMti pynaBaMH, ocMaxpHBajin, 
H 30H3HpOBajiH paHbi, HecMOxpfl na yjKacHbie CXOHM 


xy MHH^xy, KaKT> BT> KOMHaxy eoiu&it o^nnep-b, 3anHCbiBajn> 

GeBacx6nojibCKie Pa3CKa3bi, 

209 LESSON LI 161 


The boat was ready. I embarked (seated myself into it) with two boatmen. 
They cast off and set to work (struck away) at tlje oars. 

The sky was clear (bright). The moon shone. The weather was calm. 
The Volga flowed smoothly and quietly along. The boat glided over the 
surface of the dark waves. About half-an-hour elapsed. We had reached the 
middle of the river. Suddenly the oarsmen began to whisper to each other 
(among themselves). 

" What is that ? " I asked. " We do not know." 

The oarsmen were looking in a certain direction (to one side). My eyes 
took the same direction, and I caught sight in the gloom of something or other. 
The unknown object was floating down the Volga. It was approaching. 
The moon went behind a cloud. The floating apparition became still darker. 
It was already close to me, but I was still unable to make it out. 

Suddenly the moon shone out from behind the cloud, and illumined a terrible 
spectacle. The thing that was floating along to meet us was a gallows fastened 
to a raft. Three bodies were hanging from the crossbeam. A morbid curiosity 
mastered me. I was seized with the desire to look upon the faces of the dead 
men (hanged men). 

The Captain's Daughter, 


The great, high, dark hall lighted only by the four or five candles, by the 
aid of which the doctors were stepping up to examine the wounded, was 
literally full. Stretcher-bearers were continually bringing in wounded men ; 
they laid them down one beside the other on the floor, on which they were 
already so closely packed that the unfortunate men were rolling up against 
each other and weltering (being drenched) in each other's blood ; [then] they 
would go for more. The nurses, with unruffled countenance and an expres- 
sion of active practical sympathy, flitted hither and thither among the 
wounded. The doctors, with sleeves turned up, examined, palpated, probed 
the wounds, in spite of the awful groans of the sufferers. One of the doctors 
was sitting near the door at a little table and at the moment when the 
officer came into the room he was already entering number 532. 

Tales of Sebastopol, 

162 LESSON LI 209 


(Perfective Verbs are in Italics) 

nocjitiuiaii, CJI-BHOH! cKaacui* OHT>: Gepern TO MCTO . . . 
anaeiHb? xaivrb 6oraxbie xoBapn . . . CKCLMCU xosHHHy, ixo H CM^ 
Sojitine ne cjiyra. .H/EJia nouuiu xyjjo, OHT> MCHH 66jibine He yetidumt: 
xenepb onacHo: nofbdy HCKaxb pa66xbi BT> upyroivrb M'ECX'E; xaMT> H 
6yy JKnaib ya66naro cjiynan. fla CKCIMCU, ecjinSt OHI, nojiynuie 
njiaxiiJii. aa xpyob'i, xaKT> H H 6bi ero ne nonuHyjib. Ona norbdemb 
co MHOIO; eft nejibSH aju^cb ocxasaxbCH. 


OHT> HXO-XO nojiowcuji'b cjrfenoMy B-L pyny, nf^MOJieue-b: Ha, 
Kynti ce6-fe npHHHKOB-B. TojibKO? cnasdjvb cjifcion. Hy, 
xed-fe eme, H ynaeiuaa Monexa aaseennjia, yaapncb o 
Cji-fenoii ei ne nodHfuiz. OHH CT&yiu BT> JiOHny; B^xep-b ayji-b OXT> 
6epera; OHH Sb'icxpo noHecjiucb. J^oJiro npn CB-BX-B M-fecHna MCJIB- 
napycrb Memay BOJIHT>; CJI-BHOH see CHA-BJIT, na 6eper^ 

TepoH nauiero 

[slightly altered], 


(Perfective Verbs are in Italics) 

TeMa nyBCXBOBajTb ce6H OKOH^axejibHo c6umbiM?> CT> 
Kopnyc-b, eme xaKi> HeaaBHo KasaBiniHCH a'fejiOM'b pn>uieHHbiMTj, 
omodeimyjiCR Kyaa-xo najieKO-aajieKO . 

Tbi Koraa, Te'Ma, norbdewbl cnpoctuia Haxania, Bxopan 
cecxpa, cxapancb cnpbimb BOJiHOBaBinifl ee HyBcxsa noai, MacKoii 
npocxoro JiK>6onb'ixcxBa. 

Te'Ma 3aejiHHyji7> BT> rjiasa cecxpb'i. 

HnnyAa H ne norbdy, omeri>mmii> on-b, esdoxHijeK, H ecmae^, 
nanpdeujicfi BT> KaGHH^xi*. 

Tawb OHT> marajTb Bij cosHaniH npimeceHHOu HMT> JKepXBbi. 
M6jKexi>-6bixb, JI;JIH jKepxBbi ero EHR^ CHJIT, CJIHUIKOMTJ cnoK6eH"b, 
HO x'feM'b HC MeH-fee 5xo ne M'Biuajio CM^ c^nxaxb ce6a jKepXBOH, H 
CM^ Kasajiocb, HXO OHT> cpasy XO^HO eb'ipoc* na H^cKOJibKo JI^XT,. 
OHT> jiezb na HHBan-b, dajioztcujit aa rojiOBy P^KH H aadyMcuicx o 
XOMT>, HXO ?KH3Hb He xaKafl npocxafl H JierKaH Bemb, KaKoii ona 
KamexcH no napyjKHOMy BHjiy. 

TaKi> H ycH^jfb, H^Man Bee o XOMT> we. 

CeMeHHaa Xp6nHKa, >> 

1 o= against governs the accusative. 

209 LESSON LI 163 



" Listen, blind boy," he said ; " keep a watch on that place. You know ? 
There is great wealth (are rich wares) there. Tell the master that I am no 
longer his servant. Things have turned out (gone) badly, he won't see me any 
more ; it's dangerous now. I am going to seek work in another place. There 
I shall await a convenient opportunity. And tell him, if he had paid me better 
for my labour, I should not have left him in the lurch. She is going to go with 
me ; it is impossible for her to remain here." 

" And what about me ? " said the blind boy in a piteous voice. 

He put something in the blind boy's hand, adding (having said) as he did 
so, " There, buy yourself some spice-buns." " That's all ? " said the blind 
boy. " Well, there is something more for you," and a falling (fallen) coin 
tinkled as it struck (striking) the stone. The blind boy did not pick it up. 
They took their places in the boat ; the wind was blowing off the shore and 
they were swiftly carried away. For a long time the white sail in the midst 
of the waves shimmered in the light of the moon ; the blind boy still continued 
sitting on the shore and wept and wept. 

A Hero of Modern Times, 



Timothy felt himself driven once for all from his position [i.e. felt that 
he had no ground left to stand upon] ; [his entrance into] the corps [of 
officers], which, such a short time before, had appeared a settled thing, had 
[now] receded to a point (somewhere) far, far away. 

" When are you to set off, Timothy ? " asked Natalia, his second sister, 
trying to conceal the emotions that agitated her under the mask of mere 

Timothy looked into his sister's eyes. 

" I am not going anywhere," he answered with a sigh (having sighed) 
and getting up (having stood up), he betook himself to his room. 

There he strode up and down in the consciousness of the sacrifice he 
had made (that had been made by him). Perhaps, for a victim, his aspect 
was too calm, but nevertheless that did not prevent him from regarding 
himself as a victim, and it seemed to liim that ho had, as it were, grown 
older all at once by several years. He lay down on the sofa, put his hands 
behind his head, and gave himself up to musing on the fact that life was not 
such a simple, easy thing as it seemed on a superficial view. 

And thus, still thinking over that fact, he fell asleep. 

Family Chronicle, 




210. As indicated in Paragraph 205, both the imperfective and 
the perfective aspects have an imperative mood, formed in the im- 
perfective from the present and in the perfective from the future 

The 2nd singular ends in -ft, -H or -b ; 
the 2nd plural ends in -ftTe, -HTe, -bxe. 

211. I. When the termination of the 2nd singular is preceded 
by a vowel, change the termination into -ft and -ftTe, e.g. 

cjrljjiaeinb cienib cxapaenibCH 

cjrfejiaH [sdetAi], do c'fefl [sel], sow CTapaftci? [stArals], try 

CA^JiafiTe [sdstAlte] c-feftxe [selte] CTapairrecb [stArciltas] 

(a) The verbs in Par. 162 change the b which follows the initial 
consonant into e, e.g. 


nefi [p&], drink 
nefiTe [p&te] 

(b) The verb aaTb, which is very irregular in the future tense, 
has Haft [dai], jjaftTe [ddito] (cf. Par. 231). 

212. II. When the termination of the 2nd singular is preceded 
by a consonant : 

A. If the termination is accented in the 1st singular, 1 change 
the termination of the 2nd singular into H and HTC, e.g. 


Hec6 [nesi], carry CKHTKii [skAs'i], say, tell xoflri [x^vdi], go 
neciiTe [nesita] CKajKrixe [skA3ita] xo^HTe 


JIK)6H [lubf], love yqri [utji], teach (learn) 

JiK)6&Te [lubib] y^HTe [utjita] 

The accentuation of the 1st sing. pres. is generally that of the infinitive. 

VL <***-* 'V^ 

213-216 LESSON LII 165 

B. If the stem is accented in the 1st singular, change the termina- 
tion of the 2nd singular into b and Lie ; e.g. 

BJi-fcay njiany 6^y (future) 

BJi-feaeiiib njiaqeuib 6^aeuib 

u.Tl;:jb [vie's], climb mia'ib [platj], iveep 6ym> [bu't], be 

BJiiabxe [viesto] njianbxe [ptdtfto] 6#jibxe [bu'ta] 

C. If two consonants precede the termination, then, irrespective 
of where the accent falls, change the termination into H and me ; e.g. 
KpHKHy [kriknu] M^flJiK) [medlu] nym^ [pu/tjii] 
KpHKHeuib [kriknaj] MCflJiHUib [m6diij] n^CTHUib [pustij] 

Kpi'iKHH [kh'krii], cry out' M^flJiH [rii^dli], hesitate nycTH [pustf], let 
Kpi'iKHHie [ki-ikiiita] Me^JiHTe [rii6diib] nycraxe [pustfta] 

213. The verb Jie^b has Jiflnb 1 [lak], Jiarre [lafe], lie down. 

-fecTb tnibUeSJ^iUbTefjeStalcai. (Cf.Par.220.) 

214. The first plural of the fafore perfective may be used without 
a subject as the equivalent for let us do etc. ; e.g. 

QrliJiaeM'b TO, ITO OHT> Haitrb BejiHTT> [sdetAJam to, Jto on nam vailt], 
Let us do what he orders us (dat.) to do. 

215. The imperative nycKaft [puskai] of nycKaxb, to allow, or 
- the form nycib [pu'st] is used with the 3rd sing, or plur. of the present 

imperfective or future perfective as 3rd sing, or plur. imperative ; e.g. 
IlycKaft OHT> npoftae'T"b cam. [puskdl on prAldot sat], Let him go 
through the garden. 

216. Many salutations and other frequently used expressions 
are imperatives ; e.g. 

anpaBCTByftxe [zdras(tvuI)t-], good day, how are you? 
is really the imperative derived from the present anpaBCTByio, euib 
etc. of the verb 3flpaBCTBOBaTb, and means hail ! be of good health ! 

npomattxe! [prA/tfaHa], farewell I 

(flo cBiinaiiin [d.v svidnnjo], au revoir) 
and npocrriTel [prAstit.], pardon me! 

are respectively the imperfective and perfective imperative of 
npomaTb, npocTHTb. 

CMOXpiixel [sniAtrit.t], look out I H3BHHlixe! [izvinit-i], excuse me! 
no/K^Jiyii! [J-A yitul], after all t as far as I am concerned, may be ; 
mwcajiyftcxa! [pA5it(ul)stA] f please. 

1 The only imperative ending in T>. 

166 LESSON LII 217-218 

217. The imperfective imperative is a general command ; the 
perfective imperative is an indication that something is to be done 
now, at once. 

In negative commands the imperfective form is generally used. 

218. The infinitive is often used instead of the imperative in 
general commands or prohibitions, e.g. 

He Bcxasaxbl [iia fstAvc^t], Do not stand up! 
He roBOpnxb ! [na gAVAf it], No speaking I 


(1) Perfective formed with prefix 
(no)6oHXbca (ib, HUib) [(pA)bAJd i tsA], to fear 
(rary, 1 JKmeuib, mryx-b) [set/], to burn 

(comry) [ssetf] 
(nono)>KHaxb (^, euib) [(pAdA)3dd i t], to wait, await 

(2) Imperfective in axb, perfective in HXb 
f nojiynaxb I A [pAtutJd^], to receive 
\nojiyqHXb (i^, ^muib) [pAlutJit] 
fnocxynaxb I A [pAstupd't], to act, behave . 
(nocxynrixb (njiib, ^nnuib) [pAstupit] 
fnycKaxb I A [puskd^], to let, allow, admit 
\nycxHXb (m^, ^-cxHUib) [pustit] 
Jnpomaxb I A [prA/tJd^], to remit, pardon 
\npocxnxb (m^, cxiiuib) [prAstit] 

(3) Imperfective long : perfective short. 

(In this group many of the imperfectives, especially those in Baxb, are 
verbs indicating the repeated or continuous occurrence of the act, and are 
derived from the perfective verb, which is itself a compound of a simple verb. 
Cf. Par. 232.) 

JnoKaabiBaxb I A [pAkdzivAt], to show 

\noKa3axb (JKJT, ameuib) [pAkAzd^] 

/Bcxasaxb (scxaib, euib) [fstAvd^], to stand up, get up, rise 

\BCxaxb (any, euib) [fstc^t] 

Jo^BaxbCH I A [Adavd^sA], to clothe oneself, dress 

\ojrixbCfl ('Buycb, euibcn) [Ad^tsA] 

/'paBfl'BBaxbCfl I A [rAzdavd^SA], to undress 

\pa3H*fexbCH [rAzde^sA] 

/yMbiBaxbCfl I A [umivd^sA], to wash (oneself) 

(yMbrrbCH (610, euib) [umitsA] 

>fc 2- ^ 

VTTV^- ^ 


^% ^ i I A A ^ 


(4) Imperfective and perfective from different roots or from 

different forms of cognate stems 
/npoxoflHXb (>Ky, 6flHiub) [prAXAdft], to traverse 
\npottxH (uy, eiiib) [pr.\iti'J 
\ npmiocHXb (uiy, 6cHiiib) [pfinAsft], to bring 
\npHHecxri (c^, eiiib) [pririastf] 

(Cf. note to Par. 208.) 

x6jibKO HXO [tfrlkA Jto], just (with no CHXT> nopT> [dAsixpor] (up to 
past tenses) these times), till now 

nopa Cfl-fejiaTb (perf.) ^TO [pArd CT> T-fext nopi> [stexp6r] (since those 
sdstAt stA], it is time to do that times), since then 

nop, bi, ^y, ^bi [PATQ], time 


(from KOBaxb) JKCJi-feso, nona ropnq6, Strike the iron while it's hot. 
cxapHKa, caMi> S^aeiiib crap-b, Honour (esteem) the aged 
(man), you will be old yourself. 

- B^KTi JKHBH, B-feKT. y^i'icb, Live o life-time (an age), learn a life-time, i.e. 
if s never too late to learn. 

Bepern nonee^Ky npo nepHbitt nenb, Save the farthing for a rainy day. 
JIioGn 6jiri>KHHro, KaKT. caMor6 ce6ri, Love thy neighbour as thyself. 
He MOJiii Ji'Bxa n6jiraro, MOJIH xenjiaro, Don't pray for a long summer, 
pray for a warm one. 


A. Translate : 

I. jr/BJiattxe, c-fettxe, crapattxecb, aasatt, cjiyuiattxe, croft, crpottTe, 
nycKatt, npomattxe, anpaBCTByttxe, HM-fettxe, ne 66ttxecb, noma- 
Jiyttcxa, play, answer, work, ask questions, read, build, continue, laugh, do 
not blush, dress, undress, let, farewell, sing, wash, behave. 

(ti) nettxe, Jiettxe, beat, wind, sew. 

II. () HCCI'I, cna>KHxe, cnpociixe, xomixe, Hjirixe, yqiixecb, speak, 
show, sleep, sit down, pardon me, live, seek, write, look, inquire, plough, act 
(perf.), bring. 

(6) Bjrtabxe, njia^b, Bcxanb, eat, sit down, d- 

(c) KpfiKimxe, MCAJluxe/let, press, reap, wait, burn. 

III. r;d..i:H'Mi.. iioiiereM-i,, 3anJiaMeMi,, I;])MI;IK'M i., let us sow, let 
us listen, stand, build, play, go, live, look, wait, write, burn, dress, wash. 

B. Translate : 

(1) Ilpinieciixe Mirk, no>Ha.i\ iirra, 3xy ndsyio pyccKyro KHI'II y! 
(2) npmiociixi' Mirh e'/He^n^BHo xexpa^H cx^pmnx-b yneHHK6BT,I 

168 LESSON LIII 219 

(3) JIojKHxecb cnaxb KaJKAbiH Beiep'b BT. CCMB i iac6B'bI (4) Ilopa 
HXXH cnaTb! PasirljHbxecb, Majib^HKH, H jmrxe cnaxbl (5) nmiiH 
MejjJieHHO H npaBHJibHo! (6) HanHUTHxe xo, HXO H Ban* cKajK^l 
(7) CMOXpiixel (8) ITocMoxpHxe xo, ixo OHH -fejiaioxi> xenepb! 

(9) He roBOpiixe eft o XOMI>, qxo H BaMi. x6jibno ^xo paacKaaajTb! 

(10) He jriiJiaHxe 5xorol (11) He oxB'feqaftxe na 9xoxT> Bonpoc'bl 
(12) riycKaft ona ca^Jiaex'L, KaKi> ona JKejiaextl (13) Ilycxb OHH 
nofla^x'L xenepb BT> iiiK6jiyI (14) Bcer^a cji^uiattxe xo, ^xo TOBO- 
PHXT> yqiixejibl (15) YnHxejib roBOpHXT, xenepb; nocjiyuiattxe er6I 

C. Translate into Eussian : 

(1) Stand up at once. (2) Always sit on this chair, please. (3) Don't 
do that. (4) Let him receive the money. (5) Bead this paper quickly. 
(6) Read aloud at home. (7) Let us have a look l at what is going on out of 
doors. (8) Show me, please, what you are holding in your hand. (9) Do 
not eat so quickly. (10) Halt [stand]. (11) Get up early in the morning, 
wash, dress, and go to school ; do [act] so every day. (12) It is time to get 
up, boys. Get up, wash, dress, and go to school. (13) Let them live here. 


219. Declension of epeMH, time. 

Sing. Plur. 

nom. BpeMH [vreriiA] BpeMCH^ [vfamana] 

gen. 6HH [vremani] e'HT> [vremon] 

dat. 6HH [vremani] enaMT. [vfamandm] 

ace. a [vreriiA] ena [vf amend] 

instr. eHeMi> [vferhanam] enaMH [vfamgnami] 

prep. CHH [vfemani] enaxi. [vrariianax] 

There is a small group of nouns, all neuters, of this form. The 
most frequently used of them are : 

6peMH [breriiA], burden 
HMH [iriiA], name .^-^ 

(3HaMeHa5[znaihA], banner 

[pierfiA], tribe 

[ptariiA], flame 
CXpeMfl [strerhA], stirrup 
[>seriiA], seed 

1 Perfective of 

220-224 LESSON LIII 169 

220. The verb -fecib, no-kerb [jest, pAJest], to eat, is irregular. The 
present tense is 

-feM-b, -Biub, -kerb [jem, jej, jest], -femhrbrHTej-rfrb [jadfm, jadfta, jadat] 
The imperative is -feiiib, -feuibTe [jej, je'Jta]. 

221. (no)'fexaTb, to drive or ride, has in the present fey, j 
-^euib [jedu], and only one form in the imperative, no*fe3>Kaft,J 
aftre [pAJasai]. 

222. Present tense of xortrb [xAte^], to wish ; perfective 

[zAXAte't], to conceive a wish or desire : 

[XAtJu] XOTHM-b [XAtfm] 

[x6tjaj] XOTHTC [xAtfta] 
[x6t/at] xOTj4TT> [xAtat] 

223. (1) The conditional in Russian is formed by adding the 
particle 6bi to the past tense, e.g. 

Om npocrijn> 6bi [on prAsft bi], He would ask or he would have asked. 

If the condition is unfulfilled, this form of the verb is used in 
both parts of a conditional sentence, e.g. 

H(ySanHcajTB^M^, CCJIH 'OtjJH SHajnA^TO [ja bi nApisat jamli, jesli 
bi ja znat e*tA], / should write (have written) to him, if I knew (had known) that. 

AVith &CJIH or HTO, 6u often becomes 6i> : 6cjiH 6i>, HTo6i>. 

(2) If the present tense is used in English in the conditional 
clause, there is still a chance of the condition being fulfilled or if 
may have the force of whenever ; and in Russian the present and 
future tenses without 6bi are used, e.g. 

IICJIH Bbi 6yjjeTe roBopriTb CT> HHMI>, CKa>KiiTe CM^, etc. [je*sii vl 
b6data gAVArlt snim, slcv3tta jamu], If you speak with him, tell him, etc. 

H B-Bpio eMy, ecjiH OHT> MH* Tam. roBOpiirb [ja veru j^mii, j6sii 
on mrie tak gAVAi-it], / believe him (dat.), if he speaks to me so. 

224. ^1) With xorferb when only one person or group of persons 
is involved, the construction is the same as in English, e.g. 

H XOH^ (c)fl'BJiaxb [ja xAt/6 (s)de'tAt], / wish to do. 

(2) If there are two persons or groups of persons involved, the 
Russian does not say 7 wish you to do but 1 wish that you did or 
/ wish that you should do : 

fl xony, nr6 6ti Bbi c;vkjiajiH [ja XAt/ti, jt6 bi vi sd^hvii]. 

This is the construction to use with other verbs of requesting. 

170 LESSON LIII 224 


(Where no special indication of genitive case, etc. is given, it is to be understood 
that the oblique cases of the noun in question are regularly derived and that there 
is no change of a'ccent. ) 

Eorb [box], God cxapynma [stAruJkA], old woman 

Borne! [bosa], God! Jionaxa [LvpatA], spade 

<J>paimy3'i> [frAntsiis], Frenchman cxapima [stArind], former days, days 
[klad (t)], treasure of old 

[nAxotkA], a find, treasure- GbiJib [bfl], true story 

trove qxo-HHS^ftb [Jto-nibttft], something 

or other 

BocKpeceHbe [svsttAJa vAskrasenja], Easter Sunday (Bright 
day of Resurrection) 

neqero [H-fex-b nnqero, qero] [iietfavA], (there is) nothing of which 

[H-fex-b Hnqero, H-EM-b] [net Jam], (there is) nothing with which 


(1) Perfective formed by use of prefix 
/HXXH (nay-, eiiib) [itf], to go (on foot) 

noftxH (noft^y-) [pAltf] 

(s^pbixb (OH), euib) [(pA)rit], to dig 

(no)npociixb (uiy', 6cniiib) [(pA)prAsit], to request, beseech 

(no)MOJTHXbCH (ibcb, -^HUibCfl) [(pA)mAiitsA], to pray, say one's prayers 
/ (no)njiaKaxb (aqy, enib) [(pA)ptdkAt], to weep, lament, bewail -> 
\(3a)njiaKaxb x [(zA)pidkAt], to weep, start weeping 

(o6)pajjOBaxbCfl (panyiocb, euibcn) [(Ab)rddAVAtsA], to rejoice 

(2) Imperfective long perfective short (see Par. 232) 
JnoMoraxb I A [pAmAgd^], to help, assist 
\noMOHb (like Mory, Par. 168) [pAmotJ], (dat. of person) 
/sapbiBaxb I A [zArivc^t], to bury 

\3apbixb (OK), euib) [zAT'tt] . Jo^wt - &<*J* 

JnocbiJiaxb I A [pAsitd^], to send /IS ***~i 

\nocjiaxb (IIIJIK), eiiib) [pAstd^] 
/BcnoMHHaxb I A [fspAriiind^], to remember 
\BcnoMHHXb (K>, Hinb) [fspomnit] 
JnoKynaxb I A [pAkupd 1 !,], to buy 
\KynHXb (njiib, ^nuiub) [kupit] 

JpasroBJiflXbCH I A [rAzgAvld^sA], to eat meat for the first time after a fast 

\pa3rOB'BXbCfl ("BlOCb, 'BCUIbCH) [r 

1 Perfectives formed with the prefix aa are mostly inchoatives, i.e. they indicate 
the beginning of an action. 

224 LESSON LIII 171 

(4) Imperfective and perfective from different roots 

f roBOpiixb J (ib, Hiub) [gAVArft], to speak, say 
\CKasaxb (ray, eiiib) [skAzd't], to say, tell 
( 6paTb (6epy, e'uib) [bra't], to take 
OAjt uuft \B3HTb (B03bM^, eiiib) [via't] 

A. Translate: BBmb ^^ Jfo W J 

BT> ojjH6ft nepe'BH'E Hrajia cxap^uina co (CT>) BH^HKOK. OH-B 


BocKpecdnbe. Hap6ai> paayexcfl. Bet Kyn6jiH ceG'EpaaroB'ETbCH, 
x6jibKO crap^iiiK'B co BH^HKOii H i TEM'b pasroB'BTbCH. IlonjiaKajiH 
oil's H cxaJiH B6ra npocrixb, Hxo6i OHT> HMT> noM6n>. H Bcn6MHHJia 
cxap^iiina, HXO BT. cxapHHy', BO sp^MH <j>P aHI J^ 3a MyjKHKia n^Hbrn 
BT> neMJiK) aapi.majin. Cxap^xa H rosopiix'b BH^K'B: BOGLMII (XM), 
BH^qna, Jionaxy H Hflri na cxapoe ceji6, noMOJiricb B6ry, na nop6tt 

BT> 3CMJrE: M6H<eXT> GblXb, Bori> HaiVTb H nOIIIJlfrTb HXO-HH6^Sb. 


He p6ft npyr6My rfiwy, caMT> BT, nee nonaaeiiib, Don't dig a pit for 
another, you may fall into it yourself. 

Hxo noc-Eeiiib, xo H nowHeiiib, What you sow, that also shall you reap. 

Oxx xy6ro C-EMCHH ne JKH n66paro nji^Menn, From bad seed do 
not expect a good stock. 

Kxo pa66xaex-b, XOM^ Bori> noMoraex-b, Who works, him God helps. 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) Do you know that they are digging ? Always let him dig here. Dig 
now. We shall dig at once. You will be digging (this) afternoon. She 
has just dug. She was digging. She would dig if she had a spade. Her 
mother wants her to dig. 

(2) Why will she be crying ? Why will she lament ? Why will she begin 
to cry ? Do not cry. She bewailed her misfortune. She would have started 
to cry, if they had taken her father away. We do not want her to cry. 

(3) Go home at once. Do you not know that she has gone already ? I 
am going home now. I shall go home now. I should go to the village, if 
my mother told me that (there was) a tn MMHV iliciv. 

(4) The old woman would have been glad, if God had sent her a treasure. 

1 The perfective noronoprtrb must be used when the verb corresponds to to speak. 

172 LESSON LIV 225-227 

(5) She says her prayers every morning. Has she said her prayers this 
morning ? No, she is going to say her prayers now. Every day say your 
prayers night and morning. 

(6) Who usually helped the poor girl to do her work ? We often help her. , 
You are going to help her now. Surely you did [ney>KeJiH . . . He] help her. 
She wants me to help them. I should be glad if you helped them. 

(7) Send us a lot of those pretty flowers every week. Send her the flowers 
now. I should have sent them, if I had got to know that she liked flowers. 

(8) I generally buy my books of [y] that man, but to-day I am going to 
buy what I need [what to me (is) necessary] of my friend. Surely you have 
not bought yours already ? I should have bought them, if I had had any 
money. I want you to buy your books here. 

(9) She'll tell you what we are talking about. Speak with him about it 
and tell him what you think of the matter. I should speak to him about it, 
if I knew where he lived [lives]. I want to tell you something. 

(10) Take this pen and paper. We'll take them now. He is always taking 
what does not belong to him. You would have taken the money, if it belonged 
to them. 

.(11) Do not eat that meat. 
(12) He will drive to church. Drive home. 

C. Translate into Russian : 

Before [30 with genitive] that time I did not know that peasants in that 
district buried their treasure in the earth, but at Easter, when the others were 
buying fpod^for the feast, we prayed to God that He might send us something, 
so that we too might have food and clothes. I took a spade and went into 
the old village ; I asked God to help me and started to dig in the damp earth. 


225. Verbs in -OBaib have the present in -yio, -yeiiib ; -eeaib 
changes to -IOK), etc., e.g. 

pncoBaxb, puc^K), imperat. pncyii [risui], to draw. 
paflOBaxhCH, pajnyiocb, imperat. pajjyftca [raduisA], to rejoice. 
ropeBaib, ropibio, imperat. ropibft [gArava 1 !,, gAful], to grieve, mourn. 

226. Verbsin-HBaibj-HBaTbareregularverbswith-BaiOj-Baeiub, 
tc., e.g. oTKpHBaTh, OTKpbiBaio [Atkrivaju], to open. 

227. Ex. A of the last lesson and Ex. A of this lesson are almost 
exactly Tolstoi's version of this story. It will be noticed that the 

228 LESSON LIV 173 

writer mingles past and present tenses, where, in English, we should 
prefer the past or the present throughout. 

228. Remember the form corresponding to whether in sub- 
ordinate clauses : 

Out Mend cnpocHJTb, anaio (anajrb) JIH H TO [on ihana sprAsft, 
znaju (znat) li ja ii\\, He asked me, if (whether] I knew (had known) that. 


Focnbub (r6cnona, y, a, OMT>, *fe) MOJiHTBa [mAJitvA], prayer 

[gAsp^t], the Lord cep^GpflHwtt [sar^branJ], of silver 

r6cnojm! [gdspAdi], Lord nojind [p.vtn6], (it is) full 

npa:i,iniiKT> [prdznik], festival n6jlHO [p61m\], stop, enough ! 

JKHTCJlb [sital], inhabitant o, 660 (with ace.) [o, 6bA], against 

Awa [jamA], pit, hole BHesaimo [viiazapnA], suddenly 

KySwuiKa [kubifkA], jug ny [nu], well 

MOH&ra [mAiietA], coin 6^nerb [biidat], that will do, enough I 


(1) Perfective with prefix 
I A [(pA)dumAt], to think 
(no)BeJi'ETb (ib, HUib) (dat. of person) [(pA)vai6 i t], to order, command 
(no)6jiaroaapHTb (ib, HUib) [(pA)btAgAdArit], to thank 
(no)6"B>KaTb ("fer^, miiiub, 3rd plur. ryrt) [(PA) 1)936 *t], to run 
(3a)3BeH"BTb (ib, HUib) [(zAJzvan&t], to ring, tinkle, jingle 
(3a)xox-BTb (Par. 222 and note to Voc. LITE) [(zAjxAte't], to wish 
(c)jVBJiaxb I A [(s)cletAt], to do, make 
(y)cjniuiaTb (10, nuib) [(u)sttjAt], to hear 
(y)BrijTBTb (my, HHUib) [(u)vfdat], to see d>erf. =to catch sight of) 

(2) aTb, HTb 

JCpocarb I A [brAsa't], to throw 
\6p6cHTb (6iuy, 6cHUib) [br6sit] 

(3) Long and short (see Par. 232) 
|BbipbiBaTb I A [virlv.i't], to excavate 
\BbipbiTb (OK), enib) [vtrit] 
IOTKPLIBUTI, I A [Atkrivi'tJ, to open 
\OTKpMTb (OK), enih) [Atkrtt] 

I A [pAdnim.i'f], to lift, pick ?<;> 
(HIIMV. ihu'iiib) [jwdnn't] 
b I A [j>Ati v-i't], to shake 
\noxpHCTii (cy, i ; uib) [pAtrastf] 

^ *\ 
tjl&*' ) 

ti^eu'w w/o^r' 


(4) Perfective in nyxb ^ ^ -t- 

/HarnSaxb I A [nAgibdit], to bend HATH C. 5t - 

\narHyxb (ny-, euib) [nAgn^t] 
fcxynaxb (qy, HHiiib) [stutjd^], to fcwocfc 
\cxyimyxb (y, einb) [stuknut], to knock once 
JKpunaxb (*r^, miiiib) [kfitfdH], to cry, call out 
(KpHKHyxb (y, eiiib) [kriknut], to cry out once 

Perfective verbs in Hyxb indicate a single, and often sudden, performance 
or occurrence. 

(5) Different stems 

fnaxoanxb (my, oaniiib) [nAXAdit], to come upon, find 
\naftxii (a^, eiiib) [nAlti] 


A. Continuation of the " True Story " from TOJICTOH. 
Translate : 

Bn^qna H nyMaexi> : KaKi, MOJKHO KJiaffL naiixH? Hy aa, c^-fejiaio , 
6a6yniKa BejiHX-b. Baajia Jionaxy H noiujia. BiiipbiJia ona 
H ay^Maexi>: B^nexT>, nofta^ aoMott. Xox-fejia noannxb 
Jionaxy, cjibiinnx-b l 660 qxo-xo Jionaxa cx^imyjia. Qua narnyjiacb, 
B^anx-b 1 Ky6biuiKa SojibUJan. rioxpncjia ee, HXO-XO 3BeHHXT>. Ona 
6pocHJia Jionaxy, no6-E>Kajia KI> 6a6yuiK'B, KPHHHX-B: Ba6yuiKa, 
nanijial OXKPHJIH Ky6biniKy, BT> Hen HOJIHO cepe6pHHbixT> 
H 6a6yuiKa co BHyqKoft KyniiJiH ceS'E KT> npaaannKy, 
pa3roB"BXbCH, H Koposy Kynnjin, H 6jiaroaapiijiH Bora, HXO 
OHI> cjEbiiuajiT) HXT> 


MaxepHHCKaa MOJiHXBa co ana [dna] Mopa noannMaex-b, A mother's 
prayer raises (even) from the bottom of the sea, i.e. can remove mountains. 

Focnoab noBejTEJi'b OXT> 3eMJiH KOpMHXbCH [gAspo 1 !; pAvaiet At 49mli 
kArriif ISA], The Lord commanded men to live on the fruits of the earth. 

Kxo B^epa cojir&JTB, xoMy H aasxpa ne noB'fepHX'b [xto ftjard 
sAtgdt, tAmii i zdftrA iia pAvei-At], Who (has) lied yesterday, will not b& believed 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) How difficult (it is) to find the treasure we are seeking ! How easy to 
dig a hole in the garden when you have a good spade ! We must do as granny 
has ordered. 

(2) Thank you. When we thanked him for his goodness, he said, " Don't 
mention it." 

1 This broken construction with verbs of hearing and seeing is very common. 

228 LESSON LIV 175 

(3) The old man ordered his grandson to bring him his pipe. Why does 
he order you to take a look at what the other pupils are doing ? Order him 
to write this letter to-day. 

(4) Why is she running ? They are not running. I should like [condit. 
of xorkTb] to know whether she did indeed run home to her grandmother. 
Run to her. 

(5) Suddenly we felt a desire to hear what they were saying to each other. 
Did you hear that they had already opened the book ? We hear the coins 
jingling [how the coins jingle or we hear the coins are jingling]. 

(6) We caught sight of them throwing stones at the dog [how they were 
throwing with stones into the dog]. Throw (away) the wooden spade. I 
shall throw it away, if you command me. 

(7) What are they excavating in the ground ? Let them go into the 
garden ; let them excavate a deep pit, perhaps they will find what we want. 

(8) Do you know whether they have opened the door ? They always open 
the doors at six o'clock. They will open them at once. If they open them, 
we shall go in. If they opened them, we should go in. 

(9) I want them to pick up all those white stones and throw them into the 
river. Pick them up. She will pick up the spade at once. Why did the old 
teacher want the elder pupils to write on white paper instead of copy-books ? 
If you shake the black jug, you will hear the coins jingling. If you had shaken 
it, you would have heard the coins jingling. Shake it. Do not shake it. 

(10) She was always bending down. She bent down and saw something 
in the ground. 

(11) It is well that they always knock. Then he knocked, opened the 
door and went in. Surely they are not still crying out ? They started to 
cry out. He cried out, " Mother, I have found that beautiful treasure you 
were speaking of. God has heard our prayer." We do not always find that 
which we seek. We always used to find it. I found it yesterday. I want 
to find it. I want you to find it. I asked him whether you had found it. 
I'll seek it and perhaps I'll find it. If I find it, I'll tell you. 

(12) If those foreigners had known that cholera (was) in the town, 
perhaps they would not have come to the fair. I should like to know how 
many of the unfortunate inhabitants have already died of such dreadful 



229. Declension of two words for child. 











nhrri [ditd] 

&IH [ditati] 


eft [datel] 


eft [datei] 

HMH (BMH) [data mi (datmi)] 


\ATSL [fabdtA] 





peSe'HOK-L [rebonAk] 

HKa [rab6nkA] 

HKy [rabonku] 

HKa [rabonkA] 

HKOMT) [fabonkAm] 

HKli [rab6nka] 

(3) Of these the singular of (2) and the plural of (1) are in 
most frequent use. 

Pe6flxa ! is used by officers addressing soldiers. 

(4) The declension shown in (2) is typical of the names of 
young of animals. (G|. Group 10, Par. 77.) 

230. Many names of peoples, of classes or ranks, end in -aHHHT>, 
-HHHHt, -HHT>. In the singular they are regular. The plural 
endings are 

-(an)e, -(aH)i>, -(aH)aMt, -(aH)T>, - 

-HHC, etc. (Cf. Group 11, Par. 77.) 

Such words are : 

ape [bAtgarin, ara], Bulgar 

ane [angiitjanin, ana], Englishman 
HHHi> ane [datjanin, Ana], Dane 
rine [dvAfanin, fdna], noble 
>, ane [grA3dAiiin, dna], burgher 
ane [rhajtjanin, dna], small townsman 
Ane [krastjdnin, jdna], peasant 
ane [xristJAnfn, jdna], Christian 

Typical feminine form : ' 

, anrjiH^aHKa [bAtgdrkA, angiitjdnkA] 


ji;aT t ia 

231 LESSON LV 177 

231. The verb naeaTb, Haib, to give, is irregular. 
Present tense of naeaTb is 

flarf), eiiib, etc. [dAJii, dAJ6J], 
but the imperative is 

naBafl, afire [dAvdl, dAvdlta]. 
Future tense of HaTb is 

HaMT> [dam], naiub [daj], nacrb [dost], naflHMT> [dAdim], tire [dAdfta], 
najtfn, [dAdtit], 

and the imperative is 

naft [ddl], attTe [ddlta] 

The imperative gaBaft is frequently used with an infinitive in the 
sense of let us, e.g. 

JJaBaft HHraxb [dAvdl tjitd't], Let us do same reading. 


cnyra, 6, ^H (masc.) [stuga], servant c^pnue, a, a (6m>) [s^rtsa], Aeart 

caMoeapi [sAmAvdr], tea-urn KOJI^HO, a, H [kAlgn-v], knee 

6apHHT>, a, Gape [barin], master ocTajibndit [Ast^lnol], remaining 

uiaji^ffb [jatun], young scamp OB6jibno [dAvo^nA], sufficiently, 
npHp6j;a [prirodA], nature fairly, rather 

npHx6n<aH (adj. inform) [prix63aJ9], KaK6tt-HH6yab [kikol-nib^t], some 

ante-room, corridor or other 

BOp6xa (also accent on a) (neut. pi.) np6cTO [prostA], simply 

[vAr6tA], gate caajm [ssadi], from behind 

cropona (accent on CT6 in ace. sing. He 16 [iia t6], not that, if not that, or 

and nom. pi.) [stATAnd], side else 

Jie>KaHKa [ia3dnk.v], bench beside He Tam> [na tdk], not in the right way 

tlie stove paayM^CTCH [rAznm^jatsA], it is 
[kut/A], heap, lot, group understood, of course 


(1) Perfective formed with prefix 
fw&^OJiTaTb I A [(pAjbAttaH], to chatter 

(no)craBHTb (BJIIO, nuib) [(pA)st<ivit], to set, put, stand (trans.) 
(no)crofh'b (id, Hiub) [(p*)*tAJd*tl to stand (intrans.) 

(llO)jIK)6HTb (6JIK), -^Hlllb) [(pA)iubl't], to love 

(no)MUpun> Mo, iiiiib) [(|>A)iiiiritJ, to reconcile, make peace betiveen 

(Mi'ipi, [liiir], peace) 

(IK . ainiii,) [(j).\)<i''U'-'i], to sit 

(no, 3a)BOp' iiiiih) f(p.\, /.\)v\rtj(i l t], to grumble, growl 

(B3);ip(.-Man> (M;I :ib) [(vzjdramd't], to doze, slumber 

I A [(ujvidd't], to see 

178 LESSON LV 231 

(2) axb, HTB 

/ sacxaBJiHXb I A [zAstAvlc^t], to cause, get, make, oblige 
\3acxaBHXb (BJIK), BHiiib) [zAstdvit] 
ocxasjiflXb [AstAvia 1 ], to leave, abandon 

ocxasjiflXb [AstAva], to leave, abandon 
nocxaBJiflXb [pAstAvld't], to set, put on /^* 

(3) Imperfective long perfective short (see Par. 232) 

I A [pAdmatd 1 !,], to sweep up 
\nojjMecxH (ex^, eiiib) x [pAdmesti] 
( oSBHBaxb I A [AbvivdH,], to twine round, embrace 

\o6BHXb (o60BbK), CIHb) [Abvit] 

fnocMaxpHBaxb I A [pAsmdtrivAt], to look on things about you 

\HOCMOXp r EXb (K), -HUIb) [pASmAtr^t] 

fycxpaHBaxb [ustrdivAt], to arrange, organize 
\ycrpOHTb (610, niiib) [ustroit] 

(4) Perfective in nyxb 

JnoKHsaTb I A [pAkidd 1 ^], to give up, leave 
\noKHnyTb (y, euib) [pAkinut] 

(5) Different Stems 

JyxojiHTb (>K^, o^nuib) [uxAdit], to go away 
\yftTH (^, enib) [ulti] 

j npOBOAHTb (m^, -jmiiib) [prAVAdit], lit. to lead through, pass, spend (time) 
\npOBCCTH (ejjy, enib) l [prAvesti] 

A. Translate: JUmHBHH Cnyra 

oi-b npupoabi, OH-L ocxajibHoe BpeMH HHiero 

OHT> ne aasajTb ceC^ xpyfla HH 2 nocTaBHTb caMOBapa, HH 2 
noji6B-b. OHT>, HJIH ApeMajii> BT, npnxo>Keft, HJIH yxo^HJii 
BT> KyxHio; He TO, xaKi, no H-fejibiMT, HacaMi> CTOHJIT> y Bop6xT> H 
na BC'fe cxopOHbi. OHT> BopHajn> BCHKitt pasT>, KaKT> 
6apnna 3acxaBJiHJi"b er6 noKHaaxb jiemaHKy. HecMOXpa 
Ha Bee 5xo, OHT> 6biJiT> ^OBOJibHO MHrKaro H ;a,66paro cepmta. OHI> 
jHoSHJi-b same npoBOAHXb BpeMH CT> a'fexbMH. Ha flBop'B, y Bop6xi>, 
ero nacxo BnnajiH CT> K^HCH fltxeH. OHT> HXT> Mnpiix^, ycxpanBaexij 
na npyrde, a caa^H uieio er6 oSoBbexi, eme 

Adapted from OoJlOMOB'b , 

For past tense see List A, Par. 239. * neither 

1 ' Having taken,' from Banrb, to take. 

231 LESSON LV 179 


He ocraBJiM [AstAvioiJ OTIU'I 11 iwaTepw na cxapocTH [starAsti] 
Jl1>rb, H Bori> Te6ri ne ocxaBHTT>, Do not abandon father and mother in their 
old age, and God will not abandon you. 

KTO npasahi rimers, Tor6 Eon> crimeT-b [sfft/ot], Who seeks truth, 
him God will find (seek out}. 

KaKT> Bon> no JiK>n6tt, TaKt OTCUT> no fl-fexett, As God is to men, so 
is a father to his children. 

MaJientKoe xmA Maxepn r6pe; 6ojn>in6e flHTri omy 3a66xa 
[zAb6tA], A young (little) child is the mother's sorrow : an older (big) child is 
the father's care. 

3a ynenaro [ut/6nAVA] flsyxT> HeyHe'HHXT> [nautJ6mx] jjaiorb, One 
instructed person is worth two ignorant ones. 

Tepn'BHie flaerb yivrfeHie [tarperija mherija], Patience brings power 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The rich burghers would sometimes like to be [Lesson XL VIII] nobles, 
and poor workmen often wish to be burghers. 

(2) Surely those two lazy servants are not always standing chattering in 
the corridor ? Would you like to know what they are chattering about ? 
Perhaps they are grumbling because their master makes them get up so early. 
Make them go to bed. When their master is kind, few industrious servants 
will grumble. 

(3) Let us sweep this dirty floor. I thought it had been swept already. 
Give me what you are holding in your hand. I am not holding anything. I'll 
give the poor man what he needs. Give him a few silver coins. 

(4) As he was rather kind-hearted [of a fairly kind heart], you might 
[could] often have seen him sitting near the iron gate, playing with his master's 
lit 1 le children. One would sit [sat] on one knee, a second would be on his other 

. while (a) third young scamp would embrace his great thick neck from 

(5) He is always looking about him on all sides. Look at [na with ace.} 
him ! If you had looked at what [TO, HTO] was going on out of doors, you 
would have known that he was not a bad man, in spite of the fact that [TO, 
HTO] he was lazy by nature. He has just been arranging the children's games, 
but he did not do it right. I wish you would make peace [between] those 
thivr rhil>. 

(6) I wonder why [I should wish to know] he always makes me leave the 
bench when I am do/ing in the comfortable kitchen. He'll make you go 
away. They will oblige us to go to one of [H3T>] those old houses that still 
stand on the meadow behind the wooden church. Do not leave your kind 
old master. 

180 LESSON LVI 232 

(7) How do you spend so much time at home when it is raining and it is 
impossible to work outside ? I like to play with the child ; I study a little, 
of course not too much ; or I repair the furniture. I should have spent the 
whole day in bed, if I had not been well [healthy]. I want her to spend the day 
at home ; I want her to sweep the floor, to prepare the dinner and then to knit 
stockings for her father. Do you know whether she has put on the samovar ? 

(8) You have lived a long time [already live long] with us in this cold, 
dark forest ; if you went away now you would never know what might [ = could 
(cond.)] happen to [ci>, instr.~\ all your friends. If she goes away, what will 
you say to her ? I do not want her to go away. She goes away every day 
at six o'clock. Go away. Do not go away. 


232. In vocabularies LII-LV appear a number of verbs 
under ' Long and short ' belonging to a very numerous class. The 
typical verb of this class has in the perfective aspect a form com- 
posed of prefix plus simple verb, and from the perfective is formed 
the imperfective infinitive by adding to the stem the termination 
(bi)BaTb or (H)Baib, the stem-vowel occasionally being modified. 
Such words are : 

(1) (Ha)nHcaxb, to write (5) (no)cxpOHXb, to build, construct 
/oiracaxh (perf.), to describe fycxp6HXb, to arrange 
\onricbiBaxb (imperf.) \ycxpaHBaxb 

(2) (no)pbrrb, to dig (6) (C)BHTB, to twine 
faapbrrb, to bury foSBiaxb, to embrace 
\sapbiBaxb \o6BHBaxb 

(3) (no)Kpbrrb, to cover (7) KasaxbCH, to appear 
i oxKpbixb, to open / noKaaaxb, to show 


. to close f paacKasaxb, to relate 

\ paacKaabiBaxb 

(4) (no)npocih'b, to request 
/cnpocHXb, to ask 

This type of imperfective indicates that the action takes place 
again and again (cf. Voc. XIX, cnpaiiiHBaTb and cnpocHTb) or 
occupies some duration of time. 

233-235 LESSON LVI 181 

233. The verbs (JK>)HantflTfafl [(pA)nA(ieJ8tSA], to hope, and 
(no)6oHTbcft [pAbAJa'tsA], to fear, have the same construction as 
xorfiTb (cf. Par. 224 (2)), i.e. they are used with the conditional, e.g. 

/ fl Hajjlsiocb, HTo6bi OH& upHiujia [jo iLvd^jus, Jtobi And prijta], / hope ,) 
the comes. 

* OHT> Goriicfl, Hx66bi H ne noiiHJTb [on bAftsA, Jt6bl ja na p6riAt], He 
is afraid I shall understand. 

Note the He in the last example. 

234. If the subordinate clause following 6oflTbCfl is negative, 
use the future perfective with conj. HTO, e.g. 

OHT, 6oiiTCH, HTO H ne nottM^ [on bAitsA, Jto ja na pAlm6], He w 
afraid I shall not understand. 

235. Distinguish clearly between caMLift (used before nouns 
with the meaning of same, very, and before adjectives to form the 
superlative) x and caMT>, the emphatic pronoun (meaning self). 

CaMtifi is declined like any adjective in -Lift. 

CaMT> is declined like OUHHT> (see Par. 107 (c)). Examples : 

OH CHM He noHHMaex-b [Ana SAma ne pAnimajat], She herself does 
not understand. 

Ca>i6 co66io paayM'texcfl [sAm6 sAboju rAzum^jatsA], That understands 
itself of itself, i.e. it is, of course, understood ; it goes without saying. 


x6/Ke caMoe [to59 8dm.vJ9], (just) the same thing ; 
BT* caMOMT* fl'feji'fe [fsdniAm d6ia], in very deed ; 

npHM-fep-b [sami tiitji piiih^r], the best example. 


renepaJit [gananit], general BCioay [fsiidu] or BC3^ [vazdg], 
nox6ai> [pAxot], campaign everywhere 

HenpijiTejib [Aoprijatol^ enemy ne B*fepHO? [n-> veniA], not true ? i.e. 
B6iicHO, a, ^ [volskv], army is it not so? 

Bparb, a, li [vrcik], enemy HCnpaBHi.iii [ispnivm], correct, exact 

pa3CHa3T>, i>i[r\8*k('\*], tale, narration civrBJibift [siiieti], bold 

CJi$M6a(>)[8\&3b\], service BecgJiutt [vasdti], glad, jolly 

Kauia [ka/.v], gruel, porridge coJlflaTCKitt [sAtd-itskil, soldierly 

IliyTKa (OKT>) [jbtk\],joke Bodiniuii [v.vjenij, uYir/i'to, military 

IUH, mett .(fern, pi.) [jtji, JtJ6l], H.T.fl.=HTaK'bnaJi'fee[itakduieJ9], 
cabbage-soup and so forth 

Ha Macax'b [stAJ.i't j, to be (stand) on guard. 

1 Cf. Voc. X.'pars. 186, 197. 



(I) Perfective formed with prefix 
(no)6HTb (6bK>, euib) [(pA) bit], to beat 

(rimy, HCTHiiib) [(pA)tffstit], to clean 

CEIO, -feeuib) [(pA)nAdejotsA], to hope 
)cM'EiiiiiTb ($", iiiiib) [(HA, pAJsriiaJit], to make laugh 
(Ha)y i iHTbCH (dat. of subject learned) [(nA)utJitsA], to learn, study 
(Bb^yHHTbCH * (dat. of subject learned) [(vi)utJitsA], to learn, learn off 
(o)6e3noKOHTbCfl (K), nnib) [(A)baspAk6itsA], to put oneself about, take 

/noKoft (m.), rest 

( noKofiHbitt [pAkoIm], peaceful, at rest, deceased 
\(c)noK6fiHOH H6HH I [(s)pAkoInAl notji], good night li 
(npo)cJiy>KHTb (^, -^Hiiib) [(prA)stu3'it], to serve 

(c)KOMaHjjOBaTb (ayio, enib) (gov. instr. case) [(s)kAmandAVAt], to 

(2) aib, HTb 

fnocxynaTb I A [pAstupc^t], to step, act, behave, enter (upon) 
\nocTynHTb (njiib, ^nnuib) [pAstupit] 
rno6"feJK3;aTb I A [pAba3da i t], to conquer, overcome 
\no6-feAHTb (tJKfl^, -feAHiiib) [pAbadit] 

(3) Long and short 

JoniiCbiBaTb I A [ApisivAt], to describe 
\onncaTb (iny, -^uieiiib) [Apisd^] 
JCHHTaTb I A [stjita^], to count, consider, regard as 
\cqecxb (COHT^, eiiib) [stjest] 
/HaHHHaTb I A [nAtJina^], to begin 
\naqaTb (HH^, Heuib) [ 

(4) Different stems 
/npnxoaiiTb [prixAdft], to come 
\npHTi6 [pritf] 

A. Translate : 

Majib^HKi) pano nanaji-b yqHTbCfl H CT> pannnx-b 

KHHFH, BT, KOT6pbIXT> OHliCblBajIHCb BOftHbl, nOXObI, H.T.fl. 
1 Perfectives in BU are accented on the prefix. 

235 LESSON LVI 183 

MOJion6tt CyB6pOBi> nocxynujTb na 


He 6biJio ccwinaxa HcnpaBH'fee ero: OHT> Bcxasajrb panbiiie npyrnxt, 
caMi> HHCXHJIT> ce6*fe canorii H njiaxbe H cxoftrn> na Hacaxi> BO Bcrinyio 
nor6ay. JKmrb OHT> BM'fecrfe CT> npocxbiMH coJiaaxaMH H 'BJIT* cojmax- 
cnifl HIM H Kauiy; GI.UIL Bceraa cMkjn> H Becejii, H cM-feiuiuTb CBOHXTJ 
Touapumeii BecejibiMH iiiyxKaMii H pascnaaaMH. Bc-fe JiioGiiJiH ero. 
OHT> cxajii, o$HuepoMi H nanaji-b KOMaHAOBaxb cojiaaxaMH, 
Ha BoiiH-fe OHT no6-B>Kflajn> nenpiiixejifl. 

Pe6iixa rosopriji-b CyB6poBT> co;maxaMT>, Bcer^ Hflrixe sne- 
na spara. He Geanondftxecb o XOMT>, CK6jibKO nepem> saMH 
Henpiiixejiett. Bbi B-feab npniujin 6nxb HXT>, a ne cHnxaxb. 
From HexBepxafl KnHra HJIH Mxenin , 

by H. C. MHX^CBT. 

(Kaaanb, 1907) 

B. Translate into Russian : 

(1) The brave general was at that time only a private [Lesson XL VIII] 
in the Russian army. I thought that the Russians regarded [Lesson XL VIII] 
him as their best officer. Why did he call him their weakest general ? 

(2) Don't beat the poor children. She was always beating them. I wish 
she would not beat them. Let her beat them, if she likes. If she often beat 
them, they would not love her. 

(3) I want the same servant to clean the children's black boots and I hope 
that she will clean ail the windows and the utensils in the kitchen too. She 
is cleaning them now, I am told. 

(4) Some of that boy's friends are always laughing ; he keeps them laugh- 
ing all day. It would be a pity if the silly boy made his little friends laugh 
on that occasion. 

(5) Surely your youngest brother has not learned his lesson yet ? Yes, 
he has already learned it by heart. Has he been studying the Russian lan- 
guage [dat. case] ? 

(6) If you put yourself about over that business, it would be a pity. It 
will be a pity, if you put yourself about. Don't put yourself about, I should 
be glad if she took [gave herself] a little more trouble when I tell her to put 
on the samovar and to sweep the floor. Perhaps she did not understand 
what you said. 

(7) Perhaps your eldest son finished his service long ago. Do you not 
understand that that dark pit served the animal as a dwelling ? I did not 
muliTstand you. 

(8) Of course, as an officer, he had command of large numbers of private 

184 LESSON LVI 235 

(9) Would you not like to know how he would act, if you told him what 
had happened to [ct, instr.] his rich old aunt ? When will you enter military 
service ? Really, I scarcely know myself yet. I hope that I may soon enter 
the service, but I am afraid that I may not enter it till Christmas. 

(10) Is it really true that that general always defeated his numerous 
enemies ? He would always defeat them, if he had enough soldiers. 

(11) If you ask those two intelligent children, they will describe fairly 
well what took place. Describe it to me. 

(12) You must never count your enemies. Do not count them. I hope 
he won't start counting them to-day. If he does, we shall not come home 
till late [come only late]. 

(13) I am afraid the lazy boys will not get up before nine o'clock. We 
always used to get up early in the morning, but to-day we did not get up till 
eight. Stand up. Sit down, please. 

(14) When the four little boys came into the wooden hut, they found 
their father and mother weaving. They begin to work very early. When 
will he begin to repair the old arm-chair ? He has already begun, hasn't he ? 
We shall begin a little later. Begin now, if you like. Why must I begin ? 




With Genitive 

6JIH3T>, near np6>Kfle, before (of time) 

BM'ECTO, instead of C3aflH, from behind 

B63JTE, near, beside 6e3i>, without 

Kp6M*fe, besides flJifl, for 

MII.MO, past no, up to, till, before 

Hanp6THBT>, opposite H3i>, out of, from 

6KOJIO, about, approximately M6>Kfly (cf. instr.), between 

n6jui1i, beside OTB, away from, from 

n6cJTB, after CT (co) (cf. instr. ),/rom, off 

np6THBT, against y, at, near, with 

(The words from 6jiH3i> to C3a#H are also adverbs.) 

With Dative 
KB (KO), to, towards 
no (cf. ace. and prep.), over, on, along, according to 

With Accusative 

BT>, into (cf. prep.) no, up to, at the rate of (cf. dat. and 

3a, behind, in exchange for, in return prep.) 

for (cf. instr.) noflt, under (cf. instr.) 

na, on to (cf. prep.) npo, about, concerning 

HCCMOTpii na, in spite of CKBO3b which has not occurred means 

o, o6l>, 660, against (cf. prep.) through 

n6pefli>, before (place) (cf. instr.) n6pe3T>, through, across, in (of time) 

With Instrumental 

M6>Kny, between (cf. gen.) aa, noT>, n6pejn> (cf. ace.) 

CT (co), with (cf. gen.) naflT>, over, above 

With Prepositional 

BT>, in (cf. ace.) no, after (cf. dat. and ace.) 

na, on (cf. ace.) npn, near, at, in the time of 

o, o6i>, 660, concerning (cf. ace.) 

Note. 3a, n6peni, noin> govern ace. or instr. 
ST., Ha, O govern ace. or prep. 

CT> governs gen., ace. (=as in comparisons), or instr. 
no governs dot., acc. t or prep. 
Me>Kfly governs pen, or instr. 





Observe that o or e is inserted very frequently in the masculine 

Other forms in brackets indicate alternatives. 

The neuter may generally be used adverbially, though the accent 
sometimes changes. 

(1) Feminine termination accented, e.g. 

npocioH : npocrb, npocxa, npocio, npdcxbi 
Similar are : 
. SjrkiUHbiii (em>) 
S-EttHbift (em.) 
6-BJibia (6) 
Bece'jibift (Becejrb) 
(em>; 6, bi) 

BbicoKiii (6, H) 

(OKI, ; 6) 
rjiy66KiH (6, ri) 





KpacHbitt (em> ; 6, bi) 

(6, bi) 







(cHJie'm. ; or (2)) 



(or (2)) 
(Teneji-b ; or (2)) 

xpa6pbift (a or a) 



>ipi ;i ii (OKT>) 

HecTHbitt (em.) (em) 

Note. ciiiiitt : cunb ; A, e, H 

(2) Terminations accented, e.g. 

n66pbift : ao6pi>, Ho6pa, Ao6p6, 
6ojibn6ft (66jiem ; o) MfirKitt (OKT>) 

CoJibiiiottK 6cTpbitt (ocrepi) 

(BejiiiKT>: o, H) 
IHM ii i,i ii / v CB-fexJibift (CJIT>) ( Ho.R'ii i, > CHJibiibiH (see (1)) 

Bb!C6Kiii CM 1,11 [Ho ii (on |, | 

ropjinitt (e, H) TrMin.iii (CHT>) 

;i'topi,iii Tyn6ti 

KanoBoii (OBI.) 

KOp6TKitt (6x6KT>) 

(om>) xiiTpbitt (epi>) 


(3) Accentuation of the attributive adjective preserved, e.g. 

3AOp6Bblft I 3^Op6BT>, SJlOpOBa, 3HOp6B( 

GoraTbiii OHCBHflHbitt (em>) 

(CH-L) noKoftHbift (6em>) 

(em.) noKOpHLift (em>) 

(em>) nojie3iibiri (em>) 

(em) npmie>KHbitt (em>) 

flOBOJibiibiit (em.) npiiiTHbitt (em.) 

(3OJiT>), 3Jia, etc. 

H3B'BCTHbltt (eHT>) 

ulrrepecHbitt (em>) CK6pbitt 

HcnpaBHbitt (CHI.) i-Mt,. n.iii 

KHCJibitt (ejn>; or (1)) cypdBbitt 

i;|);inii:i,ni c-iar iMiiiu.iii 

.lI.IUIBblli TpyflOJIK)6lIBbltt 

JIK)663Hbltt (CHT>) TpyCJIj'lBbltt 

Mi'.MfHIII.lii TtcHbltt (CHT>) 

Morynitt ywacHbitt (em>) 

iii'icpac-nHbiii ywTHbitt (CHT>) 

HecnacTHbitt (CHI.) xniuHbitt (em>) 
(4) Note. xojidanbitt : x6jio^em>, flna, 6 or o, bi or bi 

xopdmenbHitt : xopoiueHem., eHbKa, etc. (jwetty) 

cBHT6tt : CBih-a etc. 




itt, H>Ke, near HH3Kift, rime, low (not high) 

ift, a>Ke, smooth p'E.UKiii, -feme, rare 

rjiy6oKift, Gme, deep cxporift, 6me, 

, 6>Ke, dear TBepatift, PJKC, 

, rime, /w'd ^3Kift, ^we, narrow 

xynoft, xyme, bad 

Note. The stem of the positive ends in -r, -jj, -an, -3K. 
(a) n63flHbiii has nosme or noaan^e, late. 


Bfcic6Kiii, Biime, high cyxoft, ^ine, dry 

ift, jibine,/ar Tnxift, nine, low (not loud} 

, 6jibine or oji-fee, long TOHKift, ontnie, thin 
Note. The stem of the positive ends in a guttural, 

(a) Observe the irregular forms : 

xop6uiift, ji^Hine, good cxapbift, apine, old 

6oJibin6fi, Sojibine, large paHHift, anbine, early 
MajieHbKift, MCHbine, little 

(3) ENDING IN -me 

rycx6tt, ^me, thick, dense T6jiCTbiii, ojiine, fat 

npocTdfi, 6me, simple qricxbifi, Hiu;e, clean 

Note. The stem of the positive ends in -CT. 

(4) ENDING IN -qe 

6oraTbift, aqe, rich KpyTofi, ^qe, steep, brusque 

r6pbKift, pne, bitter KpinKift, nqe, strong 

qe or H'fee, loud jierKift, 6rne, light 

He or ^ie, pitiful Mejraift, Jib^e, fine, shallow 

qe, hot Mrirmii, Mrine, soft 

KOp6TKift, 6qe, short p66Kift, 6ne, timid 

Kp6TKift, 6qe or OTHC, gentle Apmu, pne, bright 

Note. The stem of the positive ends in -K or -T. 
(a) Observe : 



, eBJie, cheap THHtejibiii, THJK^jie or TH>KejrEe, 

uinp6Kift, uiHpe, broad heavy 

The pronunciation of these forms in -e is simple : the syllable preceding 
the termination bears the accent. 








Infin. Pres. 

(1) (no)Becrri en^, e'uib 

Kjiacrb aa^, euib 

The perfective is 
(y)KpacTb aj#, eiiib 
(no)npricxb HJ^, euib 

(2) (Bbi)Mecrri CT^, euib 
(3a)uB'fecTii "feiy, eiiib 

(3) (no)rp6crb e6^, eiiib 

Perfective also rpe6n^Tb. 
CKpecrii e6^, eiiib e6ii 
Perfective CKp66nyTb. 

(4) (no)Hecrii ecy, eiiib 
(no)TpflCTii HC^, euib 
(Bbj)pocrii CT^, euib 

(5) (npo)KJiricTb niiy, enib 


JIT>, a, 6, A, to lead 
ajit, a, o, H, to put, lay 
(>Ky, 6>KHiiib). 

ajn>, a, o, H, to steal 
HJIT>, a, 6, ri, to spin 
6jrb, a, 6, ri, to *u>e 
"fejn. [jot], a, 6, li, /o 
e6t, 6jia, 6, 6, to ro 

e6i., 6jia, 6, 6, to 



CCT>, cjia, 6, A, to carry 
net [jos], cjia, 6, 6, to shake 
OCT., ocJia, 6, H, to grow 
HJIT>, a, o, H, to curse 




Pres. Imperat. Past 

ea^, euib esli e'3i>, 3Jia, 6, A, to convey, 

carry in a vehicle 

bi3^, euib MSH rpbi3T>, Jia, o, H, to gnaw 
-fesy, euib -fesb JI-BST,, Jia, o, H, to c/m6 

(no)6epe i ib 


Pres. Imperat. 
r^, JKe'uib 2 erri 
ry, weuib 2 JKFH 


en>, rjia, 6, 6, to Jkep, preserve 
>Ken>, mrjia, o, H, to 

Future Perfective co>Kr^ etc. 

K^, He'UIb 2 -BRA 
(no)T6Hb K^, HfiUIb 2 CKli 

"BKT>, -BKJI3, O, H, to Cl^, flog 
6KT,, KJia, 6, A, to flow 



Imperat. Past 

JiJiry, jiH<eiiii, Jinn>, nrre Jien>, Jia, 6, H, to /ie down 
cAny, euib cfi^b, bxe ctjii, a, o, H, to sit down 

The Imperfectives are JiowifrbCH and cafliiTbCH. 

> Cf. Par. 166. 

8 Present tense like that of MO% : ry (ny), wcnn, (ifnn.) etc., ryn, (Kyn>). 


"GVie Written. AlpK^et 

A a c^?, C c 

B 6 cJ^f^</~ T T 

B B /^/^ y y 

E e 

M,JK>,fi $ 



M Mi^fc ^ 9 3 

HU #S 1, tss TA 

Kris & // K) K) 

0s ft a 

^^ /A IjL. 

SZ~S~~~"* s+ ,* 

II n 

' /" s 




Words from Section* V1U -XX 
a. i <Wl 


ix i 











(1) stari dsd(t). (2) na$ Atsts. (3) on stabi stari t$otAvsk. (4) 
bsti xjsp i tjorni xlsp. (5) ya$ sin silni mAtAdoi ma^tjik. (6) 
tSorni Iss. (7) on ptAXOi ma^tjik. (8) naj sin gliipi, a va$ sin 
umni ma^tjik. (9) stari dom. (10) naj dst nogtupi tJotAvsk. 


A. (1) vaj dst bit stari t$otAvsk. (2) zimoi on rAbotAt nomnogA ; 
on spat. (3) ja XAiAjo znat tjorni dom, gds on 5it zimoi. (4) naj 
Atsts bit no tAkoi stabi tJotAvsk. (5) IstAm on XAdit vlss, gds on 
mnogA rAbotAt. (6) javo sin bit umni ma^tjik. (7) IstAm on igrat 
i prigAt. (8) nA on bit liegtupi maltjik. (9) gds on igrat zimoi? 
(10) ti ngmnogA rAbotAt zimoi ; ti na 2L\dit vlss. (11) stAt ma^tjik 
jst bsti xlsp. (12) ti xArAjo znat naj dom. (13) ti jovo znat. 
(14) moi mAtAdoi sin znat tvol dom. (15) vot moi sin. (16) vot on. 

B. VAprosi. (1) xto bit stari tJstAvsk ? (2) Jto on dstAt zimoi ? 

(3) kak ja znat dom, gds 311 vaj dst ? (4) xto iis bit tAkoi stabi ? (5) 
kuda on XAdit ? (6) kAgda on XAo'it vlss ? (7) kAkof bit jovo sin? 
(8) Jto on dstAt ? (9) Jto jst ma^t^ik ? (10) znat li ja tvoi dom ? 


B. (1) ma^tSik dot stAiiku tot tSorni xlsp. (2) tvoi dobri Atsts 
pAkAzat mns tvoi sad (t) i AgArot. (3) vaj vnuk mns skvzat stA. 

(4) on riioiia no znat. (5) ja toba no znat. (6) jovo umni sin 
pAkAzat tobs moi stari dom. (7) ja pAkAzat s'inu bsti dom bratA. 
(8) stA ns bsK ; A tjorni xlsp. (9) ja dat jomii vaj sir. (10) on 
jovo jst. (11) jix brat gAVArit XArA^o pAruski, nA on gAVArit tAgda 
otSon ptoxA pAangiiski. (12) gds yaj Atsts? (13) on top^r zdes (s). 
(14) IstAm siini musik XAdit vlss; on tarn rAbotAt. (15) tvoi 



vnuk jMkAzat mne Ag.vi6t Atsa. (16) naj druk bit tAgda 

a on tape 1 !- star! t$atAve"k. (17) ja XAFA$6 znat stari dom, gde 

stdiik. (18) tl nikAgda ria 


A. (1) dk mtfltJikA. (2) bas stAfika. (3) udrugA. (4) unavo. 
(5) dlA mana; u nix; dJA taba. (6) diA kAVo ? (7) u kvvo ? 

(8) bas taba. (9) u Atsa. (10) d\\ Atsa. (11) gde sit dobri stari 
druk Atsa? (12) $to jamu dot tvoi Atets? (13) Adnasdi on dat 
tJatAve'ku XAioJi beti dom. (14) komu on skAzat ^tA ? (15) UtAm 
tAt nia'itSik bit tJastA u musika. (16) tAgda vaj umni druk sit 
zdes (s). (17) zimoi sin tarn rAboUt bas Atsa. (18) ti x^vrAjo znat 
HA. (19) brnt Atsa skAzat jim etA. (20) kuda ma^tjik tJastA 
x.vdit let Am ? (21) moi mAtAdoi vnuk tape'f u mana. (22) xto bit 
tAgda u taba ? (23) u riiana zdes (s) dobri druk. (24) u etAVA 
musika bit t$6rni xlep. (25) sir ne dlA taba, a aUA nix. (26) on 
riikAgda na igrat u mana. 


A. (1) bas garoJA. (2) diA stArika. (3) dva stAfika. (4) u 
tSAfa. (5) bas AlenA. (6) tfi garoJA. (7) bA'ijoi SAFOI. (8) xrabri 
garoi. (9) silnitsa'f. (10) zcLvrovi ma^ik. (11) mAtAdoi sin tSArci. 
(12) u taba bAgati druk. 

B. (1) bedni mustk znat garoJA. (2) xrabri garoi^ dobri tJatAyek. 
(3) zimoi stari rAbotnik na tJastA XAdit fsad (t). (4) l^tAm vaj bA'lnoi 
sin sit zdes (s). (5) gds on tape'f ? (6) u Atsa tfi sin A ; vot .\ni ! 
(7) u musika tape'r 6t$an malahki AgArot bas SATO j A ; on ri bAgati, nA 
otSan b^dni tjatAV^k. (8) raz (ras) siini tsa^ dat garoju bA*ij6i dom. 

(9) u stAfika tjatifa vnukA. (10) u navo bA'lnoi sin. (11) Adln 
sin tSA^a gAVAfit xAFAjo pAfrAntsuski i pAruski, A drugot gAv.\iit 
to'lkA pAruski. (12) ja javo nikAgda na znat. (13) gde sit bA^Jo! 
Ale ! n ? 


E. (1) tJattiM Ast.'i. (2) bas jatSihoua. (3) di.v Astq. (4) Astu. 

(5) bit tAgda otjan siini i bAgati tai'f ; u I'DVO bit b/Afil dvAiits. 

(6) u l)it druk-garoi. (7) tsa'f dat garoju dva dom A i 
b^ijoi les. (8) tetAm on XAt^t cjAixVf AJenA. (9) b^dni mu^ik 

jamu tfi .viei'iA. (10) malahki sin XAtet tJastA ignVt, A 


javo Atsts na XAtet. (11) on bit nabAgati tJatAvek; u navo matA 
xlebA, nA on sejat mnogA jatSmaiia i Afsa. (12) zimoi on na mog 
TAbotAt. (13) silm tsa l r XAtet kupit javo malaiiki dom. (14) u 
mus'ika to'lkA dva s'inA ; Adin sin mnogA rAbotAt, drugoi nikAgda 
nitSavo na detAt, nA on jet XArop xlep u Atsa. (15) Atsts liikAgda 
no XAtet dcrt jamu xlebA. (16) stArik dal Astu mnogA Afsa. (17) u 
n9v6 net jotjmana. (18) ja mog to^kA matA pAnimci 1 !;. 


A. (1) fkusnAJe jablAkA. (2) sini tsvst nebA. (3) sineje more. 
(4) bstAJQ nsbA. (5) spstAJa jabUkA. (6) malankAJa zdanija. (7) 
xAroJi sir i xAioJajo pitjo. (8) vot tVAJo spetAJa jab^AkA. (9) na$8 
XArojjoja kuSAnja. (10) kisUja pitjo. (11) vaja Wljoja sato. (12) 
etA zdanja bA^Joi dvArets, kAtori dot garoju siiini tsa l r. (13) malanki 
sin drugA bit zdArovi maUtJik; on jet etA bA^Joja jabtAkA, kAtoiAJa 
ti mne dot. (14) pAtom on XAtet igraM;. (15) maUtJik igrai i 
; vot pAtjamu ja nikAgda na mog spa 1 !;. 


B. (1) sini tsvet inorA i nebA mne otjan nravitsA ; bA^Joi les mne 
nravilsA, nA vaja malaiikAJa sato mne otjan matA nravitAS. (2) 
savodnA Adin tJatAvek XAtet vidat madvedA vlasii. (3) knas ; druk 
tsAfa, gAiiat madvedA. (4) etA jamu skAzat mus'ik. (5) pAtom 
ja yidat etAVA tJatAvekA fsAdu musika. (6) ksASAleiiju u musika 
bA^noi maianki sin ; savodnA on bit u etAVA stArika, kAtori fsAdii 
rADotAt. (7) fkusnAJa kujAnja jamu nravitAS, pAtAmuJtA on XAtet 
jest. (8) bA^Joja zdanja^ kAtoiAJa ti tarn vidat^ dvAfets knazA. 
(9) moi druk na domA tape 1 ! 1 . (10) ksASAlenju ja javo Atsd nigde na 
mog vidat ; on nikAgda ne bit domA. (11) vot on tape 1 ! 1 . 


C. (1) mAgutJi knaz sministrAm. (2) fkusni xlep bas mastA. (3) 
spetAJa jabtAkA jamu nanravitAs. (4) javo dobri druk s'it zaiasAm. 
(5) Adno krestA stAJatA perat Aknom, A drugpja stAJatA u stAta (perat 
stAtom). (6) etAt stot na stoit tjafifa rubla. (7) malanki xna^tjik 
igrat stAvafiStJam fsAdu. (8) bedni sin stAJat sAtsom perat etim 
Aknom. (9) skem on Jot kmofu? (10) u mana bit tAgda kamani 


domik ssArajam. (11) sko'ikA stoitA it\ dafavanAJa kfsLv ? (12) u 
k.\T\\a bit kiAsfvi sad (t). 


B. (1) Adin siini tsa j f stroit b^ljo! kariiani dvAfts. (2) per at etim 
zdanjam bit otjan kiAsivi sad (t). (3) ILV pfi samAm vjezda fsat stAJat 
maianki dafavuni doiiiik. (4) etA iianravitAs ts.vru. (5) vetAin 
domik a sit bedni musik, A snim javo Atts. (6) 1st Am tsa 1 !- tJastA 
guiat sihinistrAm fsAdu. (7) ras on gAVArit stAvariStJam Atom 
mu3ike. (8) iLvkAiiets tsa 1 !- pAstat ihinlstrA kmusiku, Jtobi on kupit 
atari doiiiik. (9) kAgda niiiilstr pAjot vAgArot, tJatAvek ni bit domA ; 
on rAbotAt tAgda vlasu. (10) stAflk tagsa ne bit domA, A to'lkA 
6tjan malaiiki sin musika bit ZAstAtom. (11) ku$At tjorni xlep 
smastAm, A ksASAlenju tot ma^tjik na mog skAza 1 !: minlstru, gde tAgda 
bit Atsts. (12) Sto detAt ? nalza kupit doriiikA. 


B. uriiana ; IbaskAvo ? Atjom ? ZAmnoju ; utalxi ; Ibasnavo ; sksm ? 
Anom ; ftabd ; stAboju ; nAtSom ? Akom on gAVAfit ? Atjom ? tvmu 
on ^tA gAVAfit ? setim ; k^tAmu ; kvkAvo bitA it\ zdanja ? pare, 
kAtorAJo iasatA tarn; malanki dom, kAtori stAJat pfi vjesda ; kAkof 
bit javo sin ? ti pAjot knamu ; tjem ? ksASAlenju ; ja nikAgda na 
sk.vzat etAVA. 


A. (1) u sAbaki kusok masA. (2) betAJa tapA kojki. (3) starAJa 
ndnA devAtSki. (4) u navo bAgatAJa babuJkA. (5) dobrAJa rustLvja 
damA sdevAtSkAi fsAdu. (6) ZAtSem tJornAJa koJkA nAstAJe ? (7) 
Ana tape'f nA pAtu. (8) ja vidat damu ssAbakAi viasu. (9) malahki 
ruski ma'ltSik igrat snanaju nAmAstii. (10) u kojld kr.\siv\jo JCJA. 
(11) Savodi'iA mAJa niAtAdaJA sastra nAtugu. (12) Jto on savodnA dot 
SAbaka ? (13) ja iia gAVAfit A sAbaka. (14) XAroJi xkp bas mastA 
i masA lianravitsA stusanka. (15) gfuzn.\j.) vAda vvadf^ ; tJistAJa 
VAdci fsAdu. 


A. (1) An'i pfijta n.\ jc'irniArku. (2) sAbcikA stAfikt'i J,\v'itA n\ sontsa. 
(3) tjornAJa koJkA upi'it.v vr,>ku (vfsku). (4) jn j,>j6 ni|U no vidat, nA 
jojospos. (5) AIU'I sni.\tftA HA sainku vlasu. (6) on nos 


vadro svAdoju. (7) nauseii Ana spAtd HA stAm mesta ? (8) vstAm 
stut$AJa Ana jo jo no mAgtd vidat. (9) mAlAdaJA pAdrugA sen^im 
^td sad (t) i vA^td vlss. (10) nalzd skAzd't, gds Ana tape'r. (11) 
i Ana updtA vvodu ? (12) vot Ana ! 


A. (1) ftjard dobri stArik sidst zdes nA stAm stula, kAtori javo vnuk 
priiios nA berak. (2) sontsa ja$tS6 sijdtA. (3) on vidst, kak tarn 
lasdtA SSIAJO koJkA. (4) pAtom Ana stalA pit niAlAko kAtorAJo jei 
prinasia angliskAJa dsvAtSkA. (5) kak ras VA^ta fsat 1130 j a sAbakA. 
(6) pfijta kkojka, xAtetA AtAgna^ jajo. (7) na mAgta. (8) b'itd 
drakA mssdu sAbakAi i ko^kAi. (9) stArik sniAtrst nA draku. (10) 
vstA vreiiiA starAJa babA Jta ihimA. (11) vidali i Ana to, Jto shitJitAs. 
(12) nasta kak ras bA^Joja vadro svAdoi i staiA lit vAdoi nA kojku i 
SAbdku. (13) SAbakA ubasaiA. (14) koJkA lagta i snovA statA spa 1 !; 
nA sontsa. 


A. (1) ftjara utrAm ja fstretiiA pAdrugu^ kAtorAJa mns lAsskAzatA 
fso to, jto dstAlAs, kAgda Ana sita vdarevna. (2) b'ila vasnoi joS^S^ 
xAtodnAJa pAgodA, nA trudAlubivi krastjanin pAxat mokrAJa pola 
SAXOJU, i seJAl jatjihe 1 !! i AVOS. (3) dnom on rAbotAt nAtugu ill 
fsAdu ; vetJarAm on Adixat, A notjju on spat. (4) vasnoi mAJa 
pAdrugA tosa xAdita fjkotu. (5) vetJarAm Ana pfigAtAvldtA urok. 
(6) 1st Am bitd AbiknAvsnA xAroJaja, toptAJa, inAgda sarkAJa pAgodA, i 
jatSm^n u^s viirAstat. (7) osaiiju b'itd scitvA. (8) krastjdnin sat 
3itA sarpom ill kAsoju. (9) zimoi bitd pAtJti fsagdd durndJA 
i siinii mAros. (10) zimoi nalzd rAbotAt nA dvArs. 


A. (1) moi stdrji sin u^s. kont^it Jkotu. (2) nA kAgdd ja bit vdarevna, 
javo mtdtji brat pAsaJtJdt jajtjo mdlankAJa utSiiiStJo, kAtorAJa stAJdtA 
bliz VAkzdtA. (3) ras on prijot dAmoi is Jkotii. (4) javo fstretit javo 
mdianki tAvdriJtS. (5) sprAsit javo, " Jto ti savodnA utrAm dstAt 
fjkola ? " (6) priissni utjanik pAkAzdt jamu kiiigu i tatrd^, rAsskAzdt 
fso to, $to detAtAs AbiknAvsnA, i skAzdt, Jto bas knigi i tatrddi nalzd 
utJitsA. (7) kroma knigi bit u navo tjorm kArAnddJ. (8) inAgdd 
stdrji' utjanik pisdt parom vm^stA kArAndA^d. (9) kroiha tAvo on 


pisat DA bumago. (10) ktusn.vj.i d.vska st.vjatA vozla kafodri utJitaiA 
i pefat Aknom. (11) trud.viubivi utjitai tJastA pisat riietAm DA dAske. 
(12) iomvi utjoiifk fsagda sidet DA skAmeika blis kafodri. (13) 
surovi star! utjitol dut urok savodiiA utrAin. (14) on mnogA spraJiVAt, 
HA, ksA3Aieiiju, to'lkA Adin vi'iimntoini ut$anik XAtet AtvatSa't. (15) 
mo'ltjik pAtut^it At nfeJftoLk 


A. (1) pfikastjik pfijot gdrugu. (2) kArovA i Aftsa u 
(3) vnutSkA gulatA sbabuJkAi. (4) ja jomu dot knfgu sastri. (5) 
utSitol gAVAi-it Atatradi. (6) svettAJa ulitsA mne otjan nravitAs. 

(7) niokrAJa trAva nAtugu. (8) SUXQJA zamla jamu nanravitAs. 
(9) on stroit dafavani dom perat dvArtsom. (10) sastra Ats^ bita 
tain. (11) moi tAvafiStJ kupit bA^Joi zAmok sklutSom. (12) ti 
prijot kAtsu. (13) starAJa stusankA prinasta malankAJa vadro 
svAdoi. (14) utSitaluitsA sidetA nAmAstii. (15) on tuda PA Jot bas 
ma'itSikA. (16) tS6rn.\ja to^At jstA trAvii. (17) betAJa sAbakA stAJatA 
perat tojAdju. (18) knas videt jarki svet fkomnAta. (19) u stAfikri 
svetti domik, muianki sat, bA l ljoi tuk ; beti Asot ; tJornAJa Aftsa. (20) 
utjanitsA piA^ta Jkotu. 


A. (1) 3en$t$inA pA^ta pAulitsa sdotjafju. (2) nAkAnts Ana pfijta 
gdvei'i. (3) starAJa ma 1 !; AtkritA SAma dve ! r i vAjta. (4) 
Ana prA$h'i kuxuu i dve komnAti. (5) pAtom bednAJa 
p.vdi'iAtas pAJesnitsa i uznatA dve 1 !*. (6) dva godA tAmu iiAZi'it AIK'I 
otjau XATAjo znatA ety dve 1 ! 1 . (7) u\ senStSinA noxAtitA s.xnu'i Atkr'it. 

(8) pAetAmu Ana dAtci dotjari kiiitj At komnAti. (9) dot$ bas trudu 
AtkritA i Aiie jajt^o IAS VASH. 


A. (1) VAdnom gorAda bita jarnLvrkA. (2) vit\ vfeiiiA bita ziliiA. 
(3) mnogA nArodu uihortA AtetAi U.V'ISHAI btll^sbi (4) prijsxAt 
ji'inn.vrku vdin kuj>- : ts izdrugovA gorAdA ssanoi i m\tA(loi 
(5) dev.\t\k.) b'itA to'lkA tSattfa godA. (6) vdruk Atsts i m<i l f 
(7) saty'is At\ .zif vbA'initsu bA'inovA Atst'i sbidllA] iiKit.M'ju. (8) zm'itjit, 
.'il.u'ikAJ.) (UvAtJkA A<lni. (9) phik.vtA, bednAJa, 



A. (1) nAkAnets Ana ZAdumAlA isktii Atsa i mati. (2) pAjla Ana 
pAgorAdu. (3) brAdilA tssK de [ ii i to^kA kvet^ru cU^a Ana dA 
Wl'joi bA^nitsi. (4) no vbA^nitsu jojo no puskali. (5) jexAl ihimA 
devAtJki bAgati kupsts. (6) Ana rAsskAzatv j0mu pro SVAJO gofg. 
(7) dobrii tJatAvik VA$O! vbA^nitsu uzna't pro Atsa i majt n9stSas(t)nAi 
dsvAt$ki. (8) tarn jamu skAzali, Jto Ani uss uriiorli. (9) i f^'it 
dobri kupsts vza^ sirotku ksobs. (10) tak i sdslAl. (11) statA sit 
nastSas(t)nAJ8 sirAta ftjusoi soriijs kak fsvAJei. 


A. (1) vi stroili svoi dom. (2) xArA$6 ; Jto ja xAtst kupit vaj dom. 
(3) on rAbotAt fsvAJom SAdu. (4) nouseli on suda prijsxAt istAvo 
? (5) mi stA pAtutJili At svAJavo Atsa. (6) va^A kArovA 
ves de 1 ^. pA stAmu Mgu. (7) tjei gromki golAS mi tak tJastA 
(8) fse eti dikijo si'yotnijo jell to^kA Adnu Aftsu. (9) 
b'itA jix druzjam skAza^ fso to ; Jto mi' U^B tJatirQ godA znali. 
(10) vAzmosnA li bi'tA vidot to, Jto vi dsLdi fsvAJei komnAta ? (11) 
fss naji druzja bill tAgda zdes (s). (12) tSjomii s'inu vi dali staruju 
SVAJU knigri ? (13) tjjei dotjori vi rAsskAzali fso to, Jto 
(14) nQuseii stA pravdA ? (15) pAstJastju ja no znat stAVA 


A. (1) Adna niAtAdajo senJtJinA, kAtorAJ9 sidstA Adnasdi fadAm 
ssvAJei starAi totkAi, i mAjina^nA igralA pa^tsAriii jojo ruki, ZAihetitA 
ZAlAtoja kA^tso nA pa^tso totki. (2) Ana sprAsilA, " totkA ; Jto etA ZA 
kA^tso ? " (3) starAJa damA pAkrAsnsiA, pAtom pAbiodnstA, i skAzal"A 
nAkAnsts drAsaStJim gotASAm, "mns ngpfijatnA Ab stAm gAVArit." 
(4) AtJevidnA And stAralAs skrit At piomanitsi SVAI tJufstvA. 


A. (1) pravdA, ja etAVA na znat. (2) ranA ili pqznA ja fso biidu 
zna^. (3) tAgda on gAVArit pAruski, nA otjan medlanA. (4) skorA 
on budat gAVArit jasnA i pravilnA. (5) on pri$6t ppznA, A Ana 
pfijta gArazdA poso. (6) nixto stAVA nikAgda iia btidat pAnima 1 !}. 
(7) mosot-bit, on moiia nikAgda 119 pAnimat. (8) Ana to^kA otjon 
namnogA gAVAfitA pAiiamstski i pAitaljanski. (9) presdo Aiii 


namnogA tjitaii, IIA fik6le jim DUSHA budat gArazcLv bo'lja tjitd't. 
(10) XATA$O, $to An ttflki posa budut Atvatja't. 


A. (1) presda maiankAJa utJanltsA to l lkA namnogA utJftAS, A 
vbudujtjam gAdii ADO gAidzdA bo'lja budat utJftsA. (2) pAtJamu 
Ana budat skriva't At rharia SVA! mneiiJA ? (3) nalza zna't, Jto 
zuftTA budat. (4) WAskrasehjo AII! budut (i)im pisa't. (5) jesli vi 
feagda diiom i notjju budata rAbotAt, vi budata bAle't. (6) prdvdA ; 
ja nikAgda Ab stAm na diimAt. (7) nixto iiikAgda ria budat puska't 
t.vkovA maiankAVA ma'ltJikA vnaju komnAtu. (8) vbuduJtSam gAdu 
efi bAgatijo inAstrantsi budut stroit grAmadni novi dvAfets ILV baragu 
faki. (9) dA rAsdastva mi budam ut^itsA domA. (10) nA drugoi 
de ! n mi gAVAfili svajim drugAm. (11) vasnoi prilesni kfastjanin 
budat seJAt jatSme'n i AVOS, A osanju roj i pjanitsu. (12) pAt$amii 
angjitjana nikAgda na XAteli gAVAfit snimi ? (13) fkAtorAm tjAsu vi 
pfijii dAmoi? (14) on pfiSot nA drugoi d^n. (15) Ani vofsa na 
pAiiimali fsavo etAVA. 


A. (1) ja vnimatainA stu^AJu fso to, Jto vi tjitajata. (2) Aiii fsagda 
detAJut, kak satajut. (3) pAtSamii vi prAdAtsajata gAVArit Ab etAm ? 

(4) Jto nam sd^tAt ? AIII skrivajut At nas fso to, Jto AIII dumAJut. 

(5) Ana XArA$6 umejat pfigAtAvla't etA masA. (6) fsagda li ranA 
ZASigajut tampu ? (7) ja diimAJu, Jto Ana na stujAJat. (8) vr.\sii 
i vgarmahu roj upAtfablajut fpiStJu. (9) kak vi pAtAgajata ? (10) 
nauseli on u,5^ ut$it urok ? (11) na pAtAgajat lion, $to jajo ut$.init<i 
posa budut ut^itsA ? (12) XAIA^O, \to mi rd'nja na pfiSli suda. (13) 
kak vi 


D. (1) $to detAJat tnp&'f vaj mAtAdoi sin ? (2) pravA no znaju ; 
n.\ ja pAtAgaju, Jto on tape'r vihesta SASVAim brut AIII vutSiiiStJa. (3) 
on. niosat-bit, sAfseriii drugiihi mal^nkiiiii m(Vit\ik:.Miii icjn'ij 
utSiiiin\ni dv\r-' fs \tdati, ink kik, vnAstAJ.'i\t\.'j.^ vreiiiA. fs'iki 
t\.t.\vk z\i'iiiii('ij.)tsA vAinoju. d-i-.t ni('ii,>nkij.> duniAJut to'ik'A A 
liei. (4) kn^li vot\.r. kAjjd'i ZA.Vfjii'ijut t('im})ii, (j)ix mh'ityi sin : 
fadAm sstxjrS'iiui sostrAiui u stAtd. (5) trogAJot, Atkrivi'ijot. ZAkrivdjat 


knigi i tatradi. (6) fso vnimatolnA siujAJat to, Jto tjitajut javo bratJA 
i sostrl. (7) AbiknAvsnA pAslednaja dA us'inA prigAtAvlajut uroki i 
fajajut zAdatJi, A on fsagda saiajat uzna 1 ^ Jto dstAJatsA. (8) baspra- 
stanA spraJivAJat, nA sostri otjaii tJastA ne Atvatjajut HA javo vAprosi. 


A. (1) dsvujki sidcit u Akna. (2) Ana sidsU nA stulo u Akna ; Ana 
sstA HA stut. (3) dnom iv"i i fss drugija zveri spat vlasii. (4) lisa stAit 
ZA etim deravAm. (5) aisti i surAvli stAJat nA mAstii. (6) mi vpfsa na 
pAiiimajam, pAtJamu jajo kiAsivija kArtini viscit nA stanax stAi tomnAi 
komnAti. (7) mi pAtAgajam, Jto is svinji pHnAdla^at iDednAmu 
kf astjdninu ; jamu 33 prinAdias'it stA bstAJa tojAt. (8) eti frAntsiiskija 
SAtdati tAsatsA nazam (nA zemlu) ; Ani lasat nA mokrAi zamls. 


A. (1) vidita li vi etAt grAmadni dom ? (2) pAtAgaju, Jto on 
etAmu pAriie^tJiku. (3) te kArtini jim vofsa nanravatsA. 
(4) mns otjan nravitsA stA malankAJa sAbakA. (5) svinji stAJat pAd 
dubAm. (6) sko^kA stoit ta usci^bA ? (7) na stoit diimAt AD etAm. 
(8) mns poninitsA, Jto vaji druzja nikAgda ne bill u maiia. (9) on 
mana pAkornA blAgAdAiit, nA pravA na stoit. (10) vot pAtJamu moi 
dadA novi SArai stroit. (11) nalzd stijAt fstAtovAi javo drAsaJtJavA 
gotASA. (12) ja nikAgda iia sli^Atj Jto Ana javo nAjta nAhigii. (13) 
trinatsAt ma^tikAf nA utilinAm dvAfs. 


A. (1) AbiknAvsnA mi xodim dAmoi vdevat tjASof. (2) sinAvja 
kuptsa brodat pAgorAdu. (3) stAt daravani SAPOI stusit bA^nomu 
stArikii siljom. (4) on kiirit gfaznuju triipku ; sigari i papirosi stojat 
sliSkAm mnogA. (5) mi lubim vajix druzel ZA jix dAbrAtii i prAvdivAst. 
(6) blAgAdAru vas ZA krAsivuju knigu, kAtoruju vi mns dali. (7) 
naizd uzna 1 ^ Jto on ders'it rukoju (vruks). (8) stA pfesda stusitA 
dvArtsom. (9) pfilssnija utjaniki litjAt uroki nAiziist. (10) starAstA i 
davanostA Jest krastjdn stAJat perat domAm tJinovnikA. 


A. (1) mnosastvA tuptx nAsei. (2) nsskA^kA prijatnix fsk. (3) 
mnogA bA^Jix usadap. (4) sto^kA kApejak. (5) nA suxoi zamls. 


(6) sko'lkA deiiak? (7) b6 l i$aja tjast bednix senJtSin. (8) menaja 
Ivof i bo'laja VAlkof. (9) mnogAtJfsianija 66mji niskix kfastjan. 

(10) fprijatnAi AkresiiAsti najix dafave'ii. (11) sliJkAm mnogA mokrAi 
trAvt. (12) namnqgA bAgatix pAih&$t$ikAf. (13) mnosastvA ostrix 
sabal. (14) nskA i ikA dAmaJiiix sivotnix. (15) mritAJa tjisto krAsfvix 
komnAt. (16) sto'lkA kArtin izAbrA3uju$tSix mujtjin i ma'itSikAf. 
(17) sifJkAm mnogA voiikAJepnix dAmof. (18) u pAiiieJtJikA otjan 
mnogA gontjix SAbak. (19) sto'lkA lisits. (20) o mAgutJam knaza i 
dAtJafax skromnAVA krosfjaninA. (21) prAStfja silJA skromnix ludei. 
(22) sto'lkA deiiak i tak matA xUbA. (23) mAJa ihitAJa nanA i jajo 
mn6gAt$isianija druzja. (24) kasdAmu ma^tjiku dali pstri noj. 
(25) vosamdasat pa't tJatAvek. (26) sem tisatj Jastsot tritsAt daf ave'n. 


C. (1) vnajai AkfesnAsti jest Adin bAgati i mAgutJi pAmeJtJik. 
(2) on imejat mnosastvA gontjix SAbak i tAjAdei fsvAei usa'dba. (3) 
jamu pfinAdlastt i stAt grAmadni, valikAlepni dpm, kAtori stAit pri 
saniAm vezda vies. (4) kAgda sidat u maiia fspa'lna, ili stAJat u Akna 
fpafednai, mosnA vidat etAt dvAfets vozia tserkvi. (5) sko'lkA stoit 
tAkoja siijo ? (6) pravA, ja na znaju. (7) VA fsakAm sttit$AJa fso etA 
mne na intaresnA, ibA (tak kak) ja pfatpAtJitaju skromnix iudei i 
prAsttja veStJi. (8) nA pririier, ja tJastA XASU snLvtfe't nA eti mitijo 
doniiki, k^vtorija vi vidita zatugAm. (9) mns nravatsA eti krAsivija 
kArtlni, kAtorija visat nA stanax vajai kvArtiri. (10) nadavrnv lubezni 
druk moi pAstat mAJei sastre Adnu is SVAIX knik sfisunkAiiii 
izAbrA3ajuJtSiihi starija riiskaja basni i skaski, kAtorija ka5dAmu 
is nas.sdetstvA zmikomi. (11) ve't i vi sarni na ZAbili " votk i aist/' 
" lisa i suraf/' " lef i mi$," " svinjd pAd diibAin/' " dvs sAbaki." 


A. (1) mv dvAfe idot doSt. (2) na znajata li vi, pfadut H tape'r eti 
stAruxi ? (3) SAfS^m net ; Ane" tkut. (4) mi pAtAgajam, Jto nametskija 
SAtdati pafaSli tjefas feku (fakii). (5) Ana 1156* tjatira godv sivot 
vetAm sale, nA jix doievnA nAxoditSA vdrugom ujesda. (6) ^tAt 
mtfltjik idot fjkohi, vot pAtJamu on hosot knii'ji i t,>tradi. (7) savodiL\ 
on priidut dAinoi is Jkoti ftri t\.\s'i, n v .vl)'ikn \\ -:DA to'Jk'A fjxi't 
prixodit. (8) AtSovo vc'iji dru/ju f.sogda siiiojiitsA ? (9) mi dAt.yii 
rAbotAt jasadnevnA dA U.^IIIA. (10) ijAtodnijo SAJxiki lo^6l fsriagu. 

(11) tjji izbi stAJcit ZA rakoi ? (12) nauseli eti mnogAt$isianija 


senrji fse sivut VAdnom daravanAm dorhika ? (13) nolza uzna 1 !, 
dAidot H Ana dA tAVA mestA. (14) dobrija ludi umirajut, DA data 
jix sivut. 


> A. (1) fkAtorAm tjASti vi pjota jasadnevnA tjai ? (2) savodnA 
naiza v'iiti izdAniu, pAtAmuJtA naxAroJaja pAgodA. (3) na$A mflAJa, 
trudAlubivAJa mcrt Jjot ptatja dlA mlatjix dltjarei i rubajki dlA smAvei. 
(4) ftjara dojt lit rutjjami ; nosmAtra HA etA ; starAJQ stusankA pAlivajat 
mokri u^s. sad (t). (5) dAvn'im-dAvno fss krastjane vstAi daf evno peli 
pesrd, nA use dAvno boHjo zdes (s) na pAJut. (6) tfetjovA dna on vit 
varo&i. (7) iia vidita li vi, kak ptitjki vjut gnozdA ? (8) ja xAtst 
uzna 1 ^ pAtJamu vaj sin lyjot SVAJU SAbaku. (9) Ana tak tixA pAJot, 
Jto ja jodvg sti'Ju. (10) pervi de^ nodeli vAskresenja, A ftAroi 
pAnad&inik. (11) tape 1 ! sadmaJA nadelA godA. (12) XAiAjo, Jto 
tape 1 !- toplAJa pAgodA ; prijatnA rAbotAt nA dvAre. (13) vasnoju 
pAseJAli, A osanju 5nut. (14) ma^tSiki smutsA AtxolAdu. (15) 
fsirotstva sit slozi lit. 


A. (1) razva on nikAgda na pijat ? (2) ja pAkornA btAgAdAfu dobruju 
stATtixu, kAtorAJa mns vasat tjutki, nA And fso gAVArit : na stoit. 
(3) ksASAlenju on vnAstAJaJtJaja vreihA jedat ZA grAnitsu ; nalza sprAsit 
javo. (4) kstjastju on 1135 dotgA s'ivot ZA grAiiitsaju. (5) razva vi na 
znajata^ pAt$amu dsvAtJkA ptatjat ? (6) mns skAzali, Jto dotJkA tex 
bedmx ludei use dotgA ijtjat ma 1 ^ nA iia mosat nAiti jajo. (7) Jto Ani 
iStJut svAJavo Atsa ? (8) ja na sataju stAVA skAza 1 !;, da i to^kA. 
(9) mne pomnitsA, Jto mAi sostri priidut suda savodnA. (10) $to An^ 
fso xpdat vzat i fpafot ? (11) nsskA^kA ludei pAtAgajut, Jto use 
Atvazii vaJavA drugA ftufmii. (12) ja na mAgu vam pAkAzci 1 ^ najix 
novix kArtin. 


C. (1) mi sivom vmalankAi izb^ vujezda fsem izves(t)nAi 
gubernii. (2) zimoi otjaii tJastA u nas bivajat durnaJA 
(3) p.vetAmu mi inAgda na mpsam gul^t vlasu (polasu). (4) savodnA 
snsk idot. (5) nAdvAfe sarditAJa mate 1 ! i nalza viiti izdAmu. (6) 
mAJa mtatSaja sastra ptatjat i xotjat zna't, Jto nam delAt i Atjom 
(7) AdnakA$ fso etA otSan prostA. (8) tak kak use ranA 


tamhejat, ZAsi'gajut tampu ftri t$Asa. (9) DA presda fsavo mi 
zAtApiajam petj ; petj topat (diAvami). (10) malahkija deti, kAtorija 
ha dAtsnt TAbotAt, use sell DA stulJA vozla hajo. (11) Arii tjitdjut 
krifgi, igrajut druk zdrugAm, ill rAsskazivAJut druk drugu skaski i 
bashi. (12) vizbe prijatnA i ujiitnA. (13) senJtSini prigAtAvlajut 
kujAiija. (14) vetJarAin ini pjom tjajku t^aju IOVDA fsem tjASof ; 
pAtom moi mtatji brat tA^itsA spa't. (15) DA vzrostim posla USIQA 
jajtjo dotgA nusnA rAbptAt. (16) matuJkA i babuJkA tkut ; pfadut, 
vasut tjutki, SJ ut pMtja. (17) A batuJkA Jjot SApAgi iskosi, ili 


A. (1) fSos(t)natsAtAm veka n^ bitA vvtAdehii rAsii hi AdnAvo mofA, 
HA tape'r Ana vtAdejat heskA'lkimi mAfariii. (2) fpro$tAm gAdu 
tsarstvAVAt gAsuda 1 !* imparatAr hikAtai ftAroi ; on stat (sdstAtsA) 
imparatArAm posla sriierti pAkoinAVA AlaksandrA tretjavA. fnAStAJaJtJaja 
vteihA use ha tsarstvujat ; tape'f net imparatATA. (3) ruskAJa tsarstvA, 
kAtorAJe tahatsA svAstokA HA zapAt nA trinatsAt tisatj vorst, A ssevarA 
nA juk nA tjatira tisatji vorst, ruskaja stjitajut samim bA^Jtm 
gASudarstvAm nA sveta. (4) tjatvort'i de'h hadeii nAzivajatSA sfadoju, 
A Jastoi de'h pdthitsA. (5) Jest TAbotJix dhei ludi rAbotAJut tsett de ! h, 
A WAskrasehja i vdrugija praziiitjni'ja dhi fse Adixdjut At rAbot i 
xodat ftse'rkAf. (6) vgAdu dvanatsAt mesatsaf, A dvanatsAti mesats 
zAvut dakAbfom. (7) iaka, kAtorAJa ha dAxodit dA mofA ili dv ozarA, 
A vpAdajat vdruguju fakii (r^ku), nAzivajatsA pfitokAm. (8) varblut 
otjah pAJeznAJa sivotnAJa, tak kak mosat prAiti, tjefas pustiuu, 
At sta VASmidasati d.\ dvuxsAt vorst vhadelu. (9) on rAditsA fttsat^A 
VAsamsot dvatSAt ftArom gAdii, A skAntJatsA (umar) tfitsAt pervAVA 
maJA tisatjA VAsamsot davanostA pritAVA god A. 


A. (1) ded (t) bit star i stop, A vnuk mlat i gtup. (2) stat naj sad (t) 
got. (3) stat na$ pos ptox. (4) ma'itiik bit rad (t). (5) grip bit 
gnit. (6) on bit truslif . (7) stat bik zot. (8) on posla tAvo ha dotgA 
bit 3 iv ( 3 i). 

B. igrc'i bitn ptAxa. (2) sAlxikA bitn umnn. (3), izba bita h9 
niAta. (4) babA bitd radv. (5) VAda bita tjistc'i. (6) statA totkA 
potna vAdi. (7) lisa jetA srazu pAdve miji, i statA 5'irna. (8) jajo 
3izh trudna. (9) kfapka kak kost. 


C. HA vAcls bitA gtatkA. (2) nA dvArs bitA tJistA. (3) jamu 
statA smajno. (4) mns laxko stA dstAt. (5) bita grAza i grom. 
ma^tjik bit trus. on vies fjkap. tarn bitA jamu tamno i duJnA. 
jamu lie bitA stiJnA, prA^ta li grAza. (6) giiozdo use b'itA pustA. 
(7) fso, Jto nadA. (8) dveri b'ili tssni. (9) tapki gusei bill vidni. 
(10) ma^iki stall mokri. (11) sdtkA bitA. 

A. (1) tJornAJo krsstA, HA kAtorAm vii sidita, gArazdA krAsivajg etAVA 

stutA. (2) bsti xlsp na fsogda dAio^Q tJornAVA. (3) samAJ9 
zdanjo vnajam gorAdo samAJa starAJo tserkAf, HA pAsiednoje 
toi tssrkvi, kAtoruju vi vidoli nAprotif svAJei kvArtirii fstAKtsa. (4) 
uranei$9J8 utJonitSA nikAgda na xotjot Atvatja 1 ^ kAgda jojo spraS'ivAJQt 
dobrAJo utJitaliiitsA. Ana umna, nA jajo starji brat prilesan i gArazdA 
vnimataineja jojo. (5) ruki raneniix taleja tjsm krAvati, nA kAtorix 
Ani losat. (6) nauzeli 119 fss znajut, Jto XAlsrA bo^gjg usasnAJa 
bAlezii tjsm skArtAtinA ? (7) saniAJ9 tomnAJg komnAtA mns nravitsA 
bo 1 ^ fsavo. (8) mns gAVArat, Jto samAJ9 stcirAJ9 senJtJinA va59t 
sami'J9 tutjip tjutki i pgrtjatki. (9) pAtSgmii bAgAteiS'ijg pAmeJtSiki 
fsggda 39tajut im&i J9StS6 bo^lje zamli ? (10) mns kasatsA, Jto 
nAstAJaJtS9J9 dom tsAra vglikAlepngjg stAVA grAmadnAVA dvArtsa, 
kAtori tgpe 1 !- strojgt. (11) XAiAjo, Jto samip tmdAhibiviije kr9stjan9 
inAgda zAiAbativAJut boHje. (12) Ani pAtutJajut samuju bo^Juju 
pfibiii. (13) pravdA sv9tleJ9 sontsA. (14) znanjg tutJ9J9 bAgats(t)vA. 
(15) pravdA dAro39 zotAtA. (16) vor VArujat ne dlA pribili, A dlA 



totkA bita gAtovA. ja sst viiajo zdvuriia grgptsami. Anf 
i udafili vvostA. 

nebA bitA jasnA. tuna sijatA. pAgodA bita tixAJ9. votgA nastas 
rovnA i spAkoinA. totkA skA^zitA pA pAvsrxnAsti tomnix votn. prA^to 
pAtutJasA. mi dAstigli sradini raki. vdruk grgptsi natjAli 
tsA mssdu sAboju. 

jto tAkojg ? sprAsit ja. 

ri9 znajgni. 

graptsi smAtfeli VAdmi storAnu. gtAza mAi prinati to39 nAprA- 


vlenja, i ja uvfdat fsumrAka Jto-tA. naznAkomi pfadmet ptit vriiz PA 
votga. pribiisatsA. tuna zA$tu ZA obLvkA. ptivuJtSi pfizrAk sdetAtsA 
ja$t$6 tamneja. on bit ot ihana M& biiskA, a ja feo ja$t$6 na mog 
javo rAzlitJit. 

vdruk tuna viJtA iza obUkA, i AZAh'tA zfeiijtja usasnAJa. knam 
nAfstfetJu ptita visaiitsA, utvarsdonAJa DA ptAtii. tfi tetA viseli DA 
pafaktadino. bAleznanAJa lubApitstvA AvtAcUtA mnoju. ja 
vzgianii't DA li'tsA visoiniL\f. 



ja, visokAJa, toranAJa zatA AsvaJtJoiLvja to'ikA tSatinha fli 
pAtju svatSarhi, skAtorimi dAktAra pAdxAdiii AsinatrivAt rananix, bita 
bukva'InA pAtua. nAsiijtSiki basprastanA vnAsili rananix, sktadivAii 
jix Adin podia drugovA na pAt, HA kAtorAm use bilA tak tesnA, $to 
nastSas(t)mja tAtkalis i moknuli fkrovi druk drugA, i JU ZA noviriii. 
sostri, SA spAkoiniriii iitsAihi i zvirAsenjam deJAtalnAVA prAktitJasLvvA 
utJastJA, to tarn, to sam malkali riissdu rdnanimi. oLvktAra, zzAsutJoniriii 
rukAvami; AsmatrivAii ; AStJupi'vAH i zAndirAVAli rani, nasnLvtia n\ 
usqsnija stoni strAda^tsaf. Adin iz dAktArof sidet oLvtA dveri z\ 
stolikom, i ftu miniitu, kak fkomnAtu vAjot Afitser, zApisivAt use 

patsot tHtsAt dva. , ...... . , , 

savAstopA'lslaje rAsskazi, 



pAshija (AI), slapoi ! skAzat on : bafagi to mestA . . . znajaj ? 
tarn bAgatija tAvari . . . skASi xAzdinu, (to ja jamii bo l lja na stuga. 
data pAJli xudA, on mana bo^Ja na uvldit : tape'f ApasnA ; pAJ^du 
iskn't rAboti vdrugom mesta ; tain ja budu sda't udobnAVA aft6t{AJA. 
da skAst, jeslib on pAtiitJa ptAtit za trudi, tak i ja bi javo na pAkinut. 
AIU'I pAJedat SAmnoju ; jei nalzd zdes AstAva'tsA. 

a ja ! skAzat siapoi sutAbnim gotASAin. 

on Sto-tA pAtASit slapomu vruku, priinotvif : " HA, kupi sabe 

pfVuakAf." "to 1 !! sk-A//it slapoi. " nu, yot tabe jaJtSo," i 

up<'if\AJ. niAi'iftA /AZv.>i'ietA, udAiVis o ki'iiii.>n. siopoi j.>jo no podiiAt. 

ii vtotku ; vetar dut ot bifog* ; AUI btstrA pAiiosiis. dotgA pfi 

s\ ot.) iiir>.ts\ iii.ik<U hit'i jx'irus nis.^iu votn ; siapoi fso sid^t n\ baragii 

i plakAt, i dotgA (161(fA. ,. 

" garoi naJavA vremam, 



tomA t$iifs(t)vAVAt sobd AkAntJdtoinA sbitim spAzitsii : korpus, 
tak noddvnA kAsafpsA dslAm roSonim, AtAdvinutsA kuddtA 

ti kAgdd, tomA, pAJedoJ ? sprAsitA nAtdA, ftAidJA sostrd, stArdJAS 
skrit vAinAvafJijo jojo t$iifs(t)vA pAd (t) maskAi prAstovA iubAp'its(t)vA. 

tomA zAglAnut vglAzd sostri. 

nikuda ja no pAJsdu, Atvetit on, vzdAxniif, i fstav (f), nApravitsA 

tam on jAgat fsAznanjo prinasonAi jim ssrtv'i. mosot-bi't, dla 
3ertvi jovo vid bit siiJkAm spAkojan, nA tsm no menaja stA no rhoJatA 
jomii stjita 1 !; soba ssrtvAi, i jomii kAzatAS Jto on srazu totJnA VIIAS 
nA neskA^kA 1st. on log nA divan, zAtAsit za gAtAvu ruki i zAdumAtsA 
A torn, Jto si'zn no tAkaJA prAstaJA i loxkAJe veJtS, kAkoi Ana kasotsA 
PA nAiusnAmu vidu. 

tak i usniit, dumAJA fso Atomse. ,. . 

"someinAjo xronikA/' 


B. (1) pfinosito mns, pA5at(ui)stA, stu novuju ruskuju knigu 

vam skasii ! (7) sniAtfito ! (8) pAsniAtfito to, Jto Ani dstAJut 
(9) no gAVArito jei Atom, $to ja vam to^kA Jto rAsskAzat ! (10) no 
dslAlto etAVA ! (11) no Atvotjaito nA stAt vApros ! (12) puskai And 
sdsiAJot, kak Ana sotajot ! (13) pu^t Ani pAidut tope 1 !* fjkotu ! 
(14) fsogdd shijoto to, Jto gAVArit utjitol ! (15) utjitgl gAVArit 
tope 1 !- ; pAstiiJoto jovo ! 


A. bil 

vAdnoi dorevno sita stAruJkA SAvnutSkAi. Ans bill otjon bsdni, i jest 
jim bllA netJovA. prijto svettAJo vAskfoseiijo. nArot radujotsA. fse 
kupili sob TAzgAv^tsA, t64kA stAruJko SAvnutSkAi netjom rAzgAve^sA. 
pAptdkAii Aiis i stdli bogA prAsit, Jtob on jim pAmog. i fspomiiitA 
stAruJkA, Jto fstArinu, VAvreriiA frAntsusA, musiki d^ngi vzemlu 
ZArivdii. stAriix^v i gAVArit vnut^ko : " vAzmi (ti),, vnutJkA, tApdtu i 
idi nA stdrAJo soto, pAmAlis bogu, da pAroi vzomls : mosot bit, bog 
nam i Alot 



A. vnut$kA i dumAJat : " kak mosiiA ktad (t) nAitf ? nu da 
sdstAJu, kak bdbuJkA volit." vzAtd tApdtu i pA$td. vtritA Ann jdmu, 
i duniAJot : " biidat, pAidii dAmoT." XAtetA pAdi'uVt tApdtu, stljit 6bA 
Jto-tA tApatA stuknutA. ADO nAgnutAs, vidit kubtJkA bA*lj6JA. pAtfastd 
jajo, Jto-tA zvanit. Ana brositA tApatu, pifogdiA xbdbujka, kfitjit : 
"babuJkA, ktat nA$td ! ". Atkrili kubijku, vnei pAtno safebfanix 
mAiist. i babuJkA SAvniitSkAi kupili sabd kprazniku, tSera rAsgAve'tSA, 
i kvrovu kupili, i blAgAcLvfiii bogA, Jto on usttjAt jix mAiitvu. 


A. ionivi sluga 

ienivi At prirodi, on AstA'lnoja vreriiA iiitjavo no ddtAt. on na 
ivvat 3ab truda ni pAstdvit SAmAvarA, ni pAdmasti pAtof. on, ill 
dromat fprixosoi, ill uxAdit bAH64 fkuxriu ; na to, tak PA tsefim 
tjAScim stAJcit u VArot i pAsmutfivAt nA fss storAnl. on VArtJat fsaki 
ras, kak gotAs bdrinA ZAstAvlat javo pAkiddH lasanku. nasmAtra m\ 
fso etA, on bit dAvoUnA mdxkAVA i dobrAVA sertsA. on lubit dasa 
pr.vvAclit vfeihA sdatmi. nAdvAfe, u VArot, javo tJastA vidali skutjai 
aatei. on jix riiirit, ustrdivAJat igri, ill prostA sidit sniriii, vzaf AOJIAVO 
HA Adno LuiiiAj drugovA nA drugoja, A sadi $eju javo AbAvjot jaStJo 



ma'ltSik rdnA ndtjAt utJitsA i sranix let pAlubit knfgi, fkAtorix 
\pHivAiis vomi, pAxodi", i tak dalaja. patnatsAti let niAtAdoi 
SUVOFA! pAstupit HA VAJenuju stusbu i devat let prAstu3it prAsttra 

ne bitA SAtddtA ispraviiojo javo : on fstAvat ra'nja drugix, sam 
tjistit sab^ sApAgi i ptatja i stAJat nA t$Asax VAfsdkuju pAgodu. sit 
on vriiesta sprAstiiiii SAtddtAiiii i jst sAtddtskija Stji i kdju ; bit fsagdd 
smet i vesat i sme$lt SVAIX tAVi'iriJtSai vasotiriii JutkAiiii i rAsskdzAiiii. 
fss iultiii javo. 

kA(}da on stat AfStiizAm i ndtJAt kAmdndAVAt SAtddtAiiii, fsiidu nA 
vAine on pAbasddt neplijdtolA. 

l)dtA gAVAfit SUVOFA! SAtddtAin, fsogdd idito fporot n v vr.\fj'>. 
na baspAkoifas Atom, sko'ikA ]>ef.>t vi'niii noprijdtoioi. vi ve't pfijlf 
bit jix, A ue stSitd't." 




The verbs are arranged alphabetically according to the form of the imperfective 
aspect, but every verb used in the exercises is given separately whenever its form 
differs so markedly from that of the imperfective infinitive that its meaning might 
be troublesome to find. 

The form of the perfective aspect is indicated by the prefix enclosed in brackets 
or is given immediately below as a separate verb. 

First and second singular present and first and second singular future perfective 
are indicated. Reflexive pronouns are not always repeated. 

The number enclosed in brackets indicates the vocabulary, paragraph, or 
exercise where a phonetic transcript of the word will be found. 

Verbs marked with an asterisk will be found also in the lists in Par. 239. 

*(no)Becxii or secxb (ny, eim>), lead 
f BsrjiriflbiBaxb (aio, aeuib), look at 
\B3rJijmyxb (y, Hneuib) 
/B3Hbixxb (aro, aeuib), sigh 
\B3Hoxnyxb (ny, oxneuib) 
B3HXb (28) (see Spaxb), take ; Bsnxb 

KI. ce6-B, adopt 

(y)BHaaxb (aro, aeuib) (55), see 
(y)oiiaiiXb (>Ky, ainiib) (8), see 
f BHC-fcxb (my, criuib) (Par. 141), hang 
-| (intrans.) 
(noBHCuyxb (y, einb) 
fBHXb (Bbro, euib) (Par. 162), wind, 
-j twine, build (nest) 
[cBHXb (coBbro, euib) 
(3a)BjiajTBXb Cfero, -teuib) (48), rule, pos- 
sess, command 

TBJTEsaxb (aro, aeuib), climb into 
\BJi-B3Xb (sy, euib) (49) 
j^BiiocHXb (uiy, dcmub), bring in 
\BHecxri (cy, euib) 

Bottxii, see Bxojuixb 
(B3)BOJiHOBaxb (nyro, yemb), excite, 


(c)BopoBaxb (pyro, yemb) (50), steal 
(3a)BOp*iaxb or (no)Bop*iaxb (qy, riuib) 

(55), grumble 
Bouiejii, (Par. 62) (see 

(6rocb 6inm>CH) (56), 
put oneself about, take thought 
*(no)6epeib (Sepery, >Keun>, ryxt), pre- 

serve, keep, watch 
(no)6HXb (6bro, erab) (Par. 162), beat 
(no)6jiaronapiixb (ib, limb) (38), thank 
(no)6jiii;mrtxb (-few, -feeiiib) (31), turn pale 
(no)6ojrraxb (aro, aeuib) (55), chatter 
f (3a)6ojrBXb OEK>, -feeuib) (27), be (fall) ill 
-! Gojnrrb, 6ojirix-b (3rd pers. form) 
I (44), be sore, hurt 

(no)6ofixbCH (orocb, riiubcn) (52), fear 
/6paxb (Gepy, eiiib) (53), take 

\B3HTb (BOSbMy, CUIb) (28) 

(no)6pomixb (my, oamiib) (28), wander 


/Gpocaxb (aio, aeuib) (54), throw 
\6p6cHTb (6uiy, ociiuib) (16) 
CyaexT, (54), that will do ! 
6bisaxb (aio, aeuib) (46), be usually, 

happen, occur 

6biTb (see 2, 6 ; Par. 123), be 
(no)6-fe;Kaxb (ry, H<riuib, ryx-b) (54), run 

*(no)B63Tii or Besrb (3^, euib) (Par. 157), 
convey, drive (trans.) 

(Par. 96), past tense of BBSTH 
(ib, rinib) (Par. 214), order, 




, aciiib), fall into 
I HIIJU-TI, ui.-iy, euib) (48) 
in iioMimaTb (aio, aeuib) (53), re- 

lu-n.iMiiiin. do, nun.) 

TaoaTb (610, aeinb) (52), stand 
up, rise 

Bcxaxb (any, enn>) 
f Bcxptiaxb (aw, aeon,), meet 
\Bcxp-Bxirrb OBiy, Bxmiib) (18) 
ojiHXb (JKV, t'uimib), go into, 

BottTH (ay, eim,) 
ijrBJibiBaxb (aw, aeuib), prepare, 

(aw, aeuib) (Par. 208) 
, BuiiTii, see Bbixonrirb 
f' uiJiKiaMiiiiaxb (aio, aeuib), pay out 
I m'jti.ia-iiiTi, (qy, THIIU,) (Par. 208) 
Bbipacxaxb 1 (aw, aeun>) (18), 
sprout, grow up 
(cxy, ciiib) 

(aw, uciiib) (54), dig 
out, excavate 
(ow, enib) 

(y, doHiiib), go out, 
come out 

I^BbittxH (ay, enib) (Par. 160), 
(no)B-Bpin-b (w, nun,) (Par. 223), 

believe, trust 

(c)BHaan. (wy, -^eim,) (Par. 168), 
knit, bind 

(no)niaxb (61110, dimuib), hunt, drive 

|(no)roBopiixb (w, riiiib) (3), speak, say 

\ cKaaaxb (wy, aweuib) (3), say, tell 

(no)roHrfxb (Am, eiiib) (6), hunt 

(no)ropeBaxb (pibio, eiiib) (Par. 225), 

grieve, mourn 
(aajrpeivrfexb (M.IH>, Miiiin.) (Ex. 49 (c)), 


*(no)i i . i-iiii.), row 

*(paa)rpbi3xb civ, i-iub), gnaw, torment 
(no)ryjirfxb (rtw, rteiiib) (10), walk ; be 

(imperat. of naaaxb, Par. 
231), let us, etc. 

(aaw, einb), give 
,, he gave 
(no)aepmaxb (my , epmuiiib) (Par. 149). 

i, see 

/flocxHraxb (aw, aeiiib), reach 
(flocxrirnyxb (iiy, eiiib) 
Tfloxcjiiixb (my, 6;uiiiib) (48), reach, 
I arrive at 

lnoftal (ttny, euib) (Par. 160) 
ffoniejn>, imia (see noxojuixb) (28), 

(Ba)ApcMi'i 1 1. ( M.iro, cM.ieuib) (55), doze, 


r(aa)flpo>KaTb (wy, Ann,) (29), tremble 
\ npdrnyxb (ny, eun,, or iiy, einb) 
(no)ayMaxb (aw, aeuib) (10), think 
(no)ayxb (yw, euib), blow 
(c)flijiaxb (aw, aeiiib) (2), do, make 
(c)ai.iaxi,CH (Par. 69), happen, take 
place, become 

ecxi. (13) (pres. tense of Curb, be), 
there is, there are 

r(no)H<axi, (Hwy, eim>) (Par. 163), press 
| (c)maxb (co>My, eim,) 
\ TKaxbcn (43), shrink together 
( maxb (way, emb) (18, Par. 163), 


I (c)Htaxb (cojKiry, enib) 
(nono)mnaxb (way, eiin.) (Par. 163), wait, 

await, expect 
(uoi/Kc.iaxh (aw, aeuib) (35), wish, 


l*S!&a (52) (mry, HOKemb, wryn), 
-| burn 
(cJKeqb (co;i;ry) 
(no)mHxi, c,iciiuy, i-nib) (2, 6), live 

/3a6o.i-EBaxb (aw, aeuib), fall ill 
i.aa6o,TBXb (-few, -Benn.) (27) 
TaaGkiBaxb (aw, ncuib), forget 

I .iiiMijn. (oy;iy, euib) (41) 
(no)aaBxpaKaxb (aw, aeuib), breakfast 
i . 1 1 MI jnaxi, (aw, aeuib), glance at 
\aar.Tnnyxb (ny, IUUMIII.) 

MIJHJITJ. (;ih), aeim. >. 

MUTT, (aw, aeuu.) (28) 
i;i;i;Miaxb (aw, aeim.) (35), light, 
;i;."ii. (a;r\ . a;,i,i-uii.) 

D, acini.), put; 
pawn ; yoke: lay 
jiOHcuri. i\ , .lacium.) 
/ .tai.-pijBaxb (aw, aeuib) (35), cover 
i.iTb (p6w, 6emi.) 

1 Also spelt with o in stem. 



(aro, aemb), notice 
\3aM-EXHXb (-Bqy, -BXHiiib) (31) 
fsaHmiaxb (aro, aeim>) (36), busy, 

occupy, engage 
[aaHHXb (aaftiwy, enn>) 
fsaniicbiBaxb (aro, aenn>), inscribe, 
-! enter 

(aanHcaxb (nray, rimeint) 
f aapaSaxbraaxb (aio, aemb) (50), 
-! earn 

(sapa66xaxb (aro, aemb) 
/ sapwfiaxb (aro, aemb) (53), bury 
\3apbrrb (poro, OCIIIB) 
aacxaBJiHXb (riro, rfemb) (55), oblige, 

compel, cause 
aacxaBiixb (BJIK>, BHmb) 
aacyqaxb or aacyqasaxb (aro, aeinb) 
, yqmiib), roll up 
(rfro, rieiiib) (46), stoke, 
keep up fire 
saxonrixb (njiro, 6nHmb) 
faaxoaiixB (my, 6amiib) fset(of sun) 
\3attxii (finy, eim.) \go behind 

(no)3Baxb (soBy, eim,) (Par. 185), caU 
(aa)3BeH-fext (HK>, rinib) (54), resound, 

(y)anaxb (aro, aemb) (2), know 

(qy, nrai,) (27), mean 

(pyro, yenn>), sound, 

f nrpaxs (aro, aeint) (2), play 
\ cwrpaxb 

/H3BHHrfxi> (riro, Heiiit), excuse 
\H3BHHrixB (nro, limb) (Par. 216) 

f H3o6pa>Kaxb (aro, aeiiib) (41), depict, 
-! represent 

[n3o6pa3iixb (Hty, 3Him>) 
/naynaxb (aro, aenib) \learn, study 
\H3yukxb (qy, yqninb)/ thoroughly 
(-iro, -feeuib) (41), have, 

(no)ncKaxb (nmy, rimenib) (28), seek 
( Hxxii (nay, eiiib) (Par. 157), go, go 
on foot, be actually going 

cnaxb (46), go to bed 
KaaaxbCH (Kawexcn) (50), appear, 

/*KJiacxb (any, enib), put, lay 

\ IIOJIO/KHXb (/Ky, 6>KHUIb) 

(c)KOBaxb (Kyro, enib), forge, hammer 
(c)KOMaHflOBaxb (nyro eim>) (56), have 
command of troops 

/" Konqaxb (aro, aemb), finish, end 
\(o)K6nqHXb (qy, enib) (19) 
(na)KopMHXb (MJIIO, opMHnn,) (39), feed 
(no)KpacH-fexb or (3a)KpacH-BXb (iro, 

feenib) (31), blush 
*(no)Kpacxb or (y)Kpacxb (jry, emb), steal 

{(3a)Kpnqaxb (qy, Him,) (54), cry, cry 
Kpi'mnyxb (ny, emb) (Par. 212), cry 
out once 

(see noKynaxb) (6), buy 
or (aa)KypHXb (ro, ypnmb) 
(Par. 149), smoke 
(no)Kymaxb (aro, aemb) (10), eat 

(co)jiraxb (Jiry, Jimeuib, Jiryx-b) (Ex. 

54 (a)), teU lies 
jier-b (15) (see jiontiixbCH), he lay 

(no)jiejKaxb (>Ky, jKiiiut) (10), lie, recline 

Jieqb (see JiojKHXbca), lie down 
(no)jnixb (jibro, enib) (16), pour 
( jioHtiixbCH (n<ycb, JKiimbcn) (Par. 
-j 141), lie down 
(*Jieqb (Jirfry, Jirimemb, jiryx-b) 
*(no)jrB3Xb (-fesy, emb), climb 
(no)jno6HXb (6jiro, roSninb) (Par. 149), 

(ro, nmb) (Par. 212, C), 
hesitate, delay 

/MejibKaxb (aro, aemb), flit, flit past 
\M6Jib KHyxb (ny, enn>) 
(no)MHpiixb (ro, 6mb) (55), reconcile 
Mon> (6) (past tense o/Moqb), could 
Mdmexi, (present tense o/Moqb), can, 


(npo)M6KHyxb (ny, enib), be wet through 
(npo)M6jiBiixb (Baro, BHinb), speak, say 
(no)MOJirixb (jiro, ojramb), pray 
(no)MOJirixbCH (53), say one's prayers 
(c)Moqb (Mory, 6/Kemb, 6ryx"b) (Par. 

168), be able, can, may 
(no)Myqnxb (qy, Him,), torture, torment 
(no)M-Eiiiaxb (aro, aemb), prevent, dis- 

(arocb, aembcn) (54), 
-| bend, stoop 
(narHyxbCH (nycb, nenibCH) 
o)Han-fejrrbCH (-ferocb, -teuibCH) (56), 


TnasbiBaxb (aro, aemb), call, name 
- Hassaxb (soBy, emb) 

(Par. 185), be called 



fiiaiipaBJirixb (riio, rieuib), direct 
1 naiipamiTb (BJIK>, niiiin.) 
j iia\(),urii. c.i.-y, <>;uniii, (54), come 
I upon, tiiul 
j nartrii (ttay, vim.) (44) 
'. 1 1: i \oAftTbCH (42), be, be found 
hiammaxb (aio, aeuib) (56), begin 
\Haqaxb (Hiiy, euib) 
iiauie.Tb (Par. 62), found 
neiipaBiixbCH, neg. of upaoirrbCH 
*(no)nccni <mc-y, euib) (Par. 157), carry, 

be actually carrying 
HecTiicb, hurry along 
H.-CT. (Par. 63), carried 
(no)Hociixb (ray, dcHnn.), carry, be in 

the way of carrying 
(no)npaBHTbcn (sxrocb, BHiub) (Par. 38), 
be pleasing 

(aro, aerab) (55), twine 
-j round, embrace 
VoCfirixb (o6oBbro, euib) 
(no)ooiuaxb (aro, aerab), dine 

foBJiajrfcBaxb (aro), master, take 
-! possession 
I OBjiajrtxb (-fcro, -beinb) 
J oo-EBaxb (aro, aemb) (52), put on, 
-( dress, clothe 
(ojrfcxb Cnny, emb) (52) 
j oaapnri. (jiro, rieuib), shine (upon), 
X light up 
( oaapiixb (ro, liuib) 
( oiiHCbiBaxb (aro, aemb) (56), de- 
1 scribe 

(onucaxb (ray, riraeuib) 
|ocB-fcmaxb (aro, aeuib), illumine 
\ocB*xrixb (tray, 'BXHinb) 
TocMaxpHBaxb (aro, aemb), survey, 
-| inspect 
(ocMoxp-BXb (pro, 6xpHiub) 

ocxaBaxbCH (ocxaibcb, grabcn), re- 
in .1 in, be left, stay 

ocxaxbcn (anycb, erabcn) (27) 

ocxaajirtxb (rtro, fterab) (55), leave, 

ocxaBHXb (BJiro, BHim,) 

oxBoaiixb (my, <) innn.K convey away 

oxii. .in.) (27) 

/oxB-fcnaxb (6ro, aeuib) (19), answer 
\oxB-f.niii, ( I-.MV, I. mini.) 
j oxroiiiixb (rtro, rterai,). drive, chase 
1 away 

^ oxrouaxb (oxrouro, 6iiiuub) (16) 
( oTjBiiraxb (aro), remove 
\ox(o)anMHyu. my. 

(aro, aemb) (18), rest 
\OTflOxnyn. (ny, euib) 

KpbiBarb (aro, aeiub) (35), uncover, 


KpiJTb (6ro, 6erab) (22) 

qajiHBaTb (aro, aeuib), unmoor, 

cast off 

(ro, HI iib) 

(aro, aeinb), drive off, 

oTb-fexaxb (-feny, euib) 
oraynbiBaTb (aro, aemb), palpate, 

ourynarb (aro, aeuib) 

) (Par. 159 note), fall 
\nacxb (any, enn.) 
(ac)naxaTb (iiainy, amerab) (Par. 168), 


nepenn^ (Par. 160), see nepexoarirb 
TnepexoHHTb (wy, 6flHiiib),go through, 
-| across 

(nepettrri (ettny, enn>) 
(na)inicaTb (ray, liinerab) (Par. 168), write 
(Bbi)niiTb (nbro, nberab) (Par. 162), drink 
(aa)njiaKaTb or (no)nnaKaTb (aqy, enib) 
(27 and 53), weep, bewail, lament 
njianaTbCH, wail (intrans.) 
(aa)n;iaTHTb (any, axuuib) (Par. 208), pay 

noG.TEflirfexb, see Gji-fcflH-txb 
CnoG^JKflaxb (aro, aeim.) (56), conquer, 
-I vanquish 

f noflMexaxb (aro, aeuib) (55), sweep up 
\*nomviecxH (exy, erab) 

nniiMaxb (aro, aeuib) (54), lift, raise 
nojiHHTb (iniMy, iiMcmb) (22) 
UuiiMaxbCH, rise 

^xofliixb (>Ky, 6jnuib), go up to ; 
aoitTH (iijy, eiin.) 
TnomHBaxb (aro, aeuib) (35), live, 
j dwell 

(noH<rirb (>KiiBy, einb) 
/noKaauaaxb (aro, aemb) (52), show 
\noKaaaxb (sivy, a;i;euib) (3) 
riioKiinarb (aro, aeuib) (55), abandon, 
-| leave in the lurch 

I IH'KlUiy II, (V. OII1I.) 

llui;pai-ir(-.Tb, 866 Kpacitf.n. 
| noi.-yiian. (aio, acini,) (.">:>), buy 
\_ijymiri, (ii.i!->. \nuiiib) (6) 
/no.iaraxb (aro, aeuib) (35), suppose, 
- think 
1;f;uTi, (;i;y, 



(aro, aeinb) (43), water 
\_nojiHXb (jibro, benib) 
nojiojKHXb (see KJIBCTB,) lay, put 
fnojiyqaxb (aro, aenib) (52), receive 
\nojiyiHXb (yiy, ymiiiib) (Par. 98) 
(Bc)n6MHHXb (H>, Hint), remember; e\iy 
noMHHTCH, he remembers (Par. 

fnoMoraxb (aro, aeint) (53), help 
\noM6ib (ory, onteuib, 6ryn>) 
fnomiMaxb (aro, aeiiib) (6), under- 
\ stand 

InoHrfxb (nofiMy, enib) 
fnonanaxb (aro, aeim>), fall upon, light 
-j upon 

(nonacTb (any, euib) 
(Hc)n6pxnxb (6pny, 6pTHinb) (39), spoil, 


/nopuBaxb (aro, aeiiib), tear 
\nopBaxb (pay, enib) 
nopbisaxbCH, strive for, try hard 
nocjiaxb (see nocbmaxb), send 
nocMaxpHBaxb (aro, aenib) (55), look 

at, observe 

nocMOxp"EXb (ro, 6xpHmb) 
nocxaBJirixb (HK>, rfeuib) (55), set, set 

up, erect 

nocxaBHXb (BJIW, Biimb) 
nocxynaxb (aro, aeuib) (44), behave, 

act, enter upon 
nocxyniixb (njiro, ynmnb) (16) 
fnocbmaxb (aro, aeiiib) (53), send 
\nocjiaxb (injiro, euib) (10) 
(noctmaxb (aro, aenib) (19), visit, 

Inoc-fexrixb (-femy, -BXikiiib) 

noc"BHJin, see cinxb 
f noxpncaxb (aro, aeiiib) (54), shake 
I *noxpHCxii (cy, eiiu.) 
JnoquHrixb (rfro, rieim.) (46), repair 
\noHHHHXb (ro, rimiuib) 
TnoHHxaxb (aro, aeim) (Par. 185), 

esteem, regard, consider 
I noiecxb (nxy, euib) 
InoHHxaxbCH, be considered as 
noiue,ii>, mjiA (10) (see Hxxli), went 
no-Bcxb, see -fecxb 

/npe^no'iMxaxb (aro, aeiiib), prefer 
\npemiOHecxb (nxy, emb) 
/npeacxaBJuixb (rfro, rfenib), represent 
\npeacxaBHXb (B.IIO, Bunib) 
[npuSJiHHtaxb (aro, aenib), bring 
-j nearer 

(npn6jni3HXb (HHty, iiaiinib) 
npH6jiH>KaxbCH, approach 

(rfro, aeuib) (18), pre- 

, Bimu>) 

(y, limb) (Par. 
141), belong 

/npuHHiwaxb (aro, aeinb), accept 
\npHHrfxb (npiiMy, Aivieiiib) 
rnpHHOciixb (ouiy, bcniiib) (52), bring 
-j npHHecxri (cy, enib) (52) 
UPHHGCI, (Par. 63), he brought 
rnpnxojwxb (}Ky , daiiuib) (56), arrive, 

come (on foot) 
npaxxH (Hfly, einb) 

uijia, etc. (Par. 62), came 
160), wiU come, are 
to come 
npiliajKaxb (aro, aeuib), arrive (not 

on foot) 

npi-Bxaxb (-By, emb) (Par. 97) 
npoBoHXb (?y, 6Hinb) (55), lead 

through, spend (time) 
npOBCcxik (ey, emb) 
npoaaBaxb (aro, euib), sell 
nponaxb (aMt) (Par. 231) 

oflojiauixb (aro, aeinb) (35), con- 

ofl6ji>Kiixb (6ji/Ky, 6jiH<6nib) 
npoii^y, see npoxoaiixb, go through 
(no)npociixb (ury, 6cHinb) (53), beg, 

rnpoxomixb (>Ky, 6aranb) (52), tra- 

verse, go through 
1 npottxii (finy, enib) (52) 
J npouiejii,, injia, 6, A (Par. 62), tra- 
l versed 

^npomaxb (aro, aeim>) (52), pardon, 
I remit 

j npocxrixb (omy, cxAmb) (52) 
VnpomaxbCH, bid farewell 
/npiiraxb (aro, aeinb) (2), jump about 
\npwrnyxb (ny, emb), jump (once) 
*(no)nprfcxb (nay, emb) (Par. 157), 


Tnycnaxb (aro, aeiub) (28), let, admit 
\nycxiixb (ymy, ycxnuib) (52) 

nycxb, let ! (Par. 215) 
(c)n-BXb (noro, emb) (Par. 165), sing 

(no)pa66xaxb (aro, aeiub) (2), work 
(o6)paaoBaxb (ayro, enn>) (53), delight 
(o6)panoBaxbCH, rejoice, be glad 

fpaaroBJirixbCH (nrocb, jiembcn) (53) 
I paaroB'fexbCH (-trocb, BeuibCH), eat 
1 meat for the first time after the 
I fast 



{pa3;rLBaxb (aw, uemb) (52), undress 
i, (i.ny, -fcuciiib) (52) 
p.. (intrans.) 

I pa.i.iirian. i a !, aniiM, distinguish 
\pa:i.iii'iiin. ciy, 'uiiub) 
f paacuaauBaxb (aio, aeuib) (46), re- 
J Lvte, toll 

[paacKaaaxb (a<y, ameuib) (18) 
(y)pa3y>rfcxb (-few, -feeuib), understand 
paay.M-fcexcH (55), it is understood, 

it goes without saying 
*(Bbi)pacxa or pocxii (cry, eiub), grow 
(na)pncoBaxb (cyw, euib) (19), draw 
fpoHuaxbCH (awcb, aeuibcn), be born 
\pojrixbCH (atycb, ariuibcn) (47) 
(no)puTb (p6io, 6einb) (53), dig 
(no)pbrrbcfl, stir up, rummage about in 
(pljuiaxb (aw, aeuib) (35), solve, 
-I resolve 

(y, riuib) (28) 

, aaiiuib), plant 
f caaritxbCH (wycb, aaiiinbcn), sit down 
\*cbcTb (crfay, euib) (15) 

j cGnuaTb (aio, aeiiib), knock off, 

J. lead astray 

(cSHTb (C06bK), ClUb) 

cj-fe.iaTb (fee fl-fejiaxb), do, make 
(no)ciui-feTb (niy, aiiuib) (15), sit 
irb (rfro, Aeiiib) (16), shine 
/CKaaueaTb (aio, aeun>), relate 
\CKaaarb (>Ky, aweuib) (3), tell, say 
?CKJianbiBaxb (aw, aeiiib), put to- 

gether, fold 
CK.iacxb (aay, euib) 

(>Ky, 6/KHnn,) also means 

fcKo.ibaikTb (wy, aiiuib), slide, gb'de 
\CKOJib3iiyrb (ny, euib) 
CKOiiqarbCH (aiocb, aeuibCH) (47), 


fcKpusaTb (aw, aetiib) (31), hide, 
-! conceal 

(cKpuTb (p6w, 6cuib) (31) 
(no)c.iymiiTb (>KV, yaauin,) (Par. 149), 


rc.iyiaTbcn (a ;>on 

\CJiymh-bCH (-^IITI-JD (hi) 
(no)c.i\ in. i ii, (aio. acnii.) (:{.")). listen 
.. iy, linn.) (L )( .)- 

... (Mpiiim.) (I'jir. 1 !'.). 
contemplate, look upon, con>i.l-r 
(no)CMl.nuin. "/ (iia)i-Mhinuri. (y, linn.) 
(.'))), make laugh 

(3a)CMtrtTbcn (-fewcb, *erabCH) (Par. 

157), laii. 

rciuiM&Tb (aw, aeuib), take down, 
1 take off 

[cHHTb (CIIHMV, llMCUIb) (Pat. 98) 

f cnacaxb (aw, aeuib), save 

-| cnacxii (cy, euib) 

(cnac-b (15), he saved 
(no)cnaxb (cn.iw, cininib) (2), sleep 

f cnpauiiiBaxb (aw, aeuib) (19), ques- 

! tion, ask 

(cnpocrixb (uiy, 6cnuib)(19) 
(no)cxaBHXb (B;IW, Biiuib) (55), set, 

{cxaiiOBHXbcn (BJiwcb, 6Biiuibcn), 
cxaxb (16) (cxany, einb), become, 
set about, begin 
(uo)cxapaxbCH (aiocb, aeuibcn) (31), try, 

strive, endeavour 

fcx6irn> (6w, dumb) (9), cost, be 
worth ; ne cxdnxr,, don't mention 
( it 

(no)cxodxb (ow, oAnib) (9), stand 
(no)cxp6nxb (6w, ouuib) (10), build 
/"(no)cxyHaxb (qy, rtuib) (54), knock 
\ cxyKnyxb (ny, euib) 

cmixaxb (aw, aeim,) (56), count, 


cqecxb (coHxy, eim.) 
cbicKiiBaxb(aw,aeiin>)(Ex. 55 A(a)), 

seek out 

Cbicnaxb (cbrajy, limeiub) 
c-fe.iT, (15) (see cajwixbcn), he sat 


*c-fecxb (see cajirixcn), sit down 
*(Bbi)c-tm, or *(no)dbnb ("bKy, -fcqeuib, 

feKyxi), chop up; flog 
(no)cinxb (iw, -feeuib) (6), sow 

(no)xeMirkxb or (saJxeMirfexb (-few, -fceuib) 

(4t>), grow dark 
(na)xKaxb or ( co ) TKM n. ( ncy, MCIIII,, nyn.) 

(Par. 157), weave 
rxo.n.aii.ra i aiocb, aeuibcn), strike, 

kiiDrk airainst 

^xo:ii;ii\ TI.DI (iiyc-i., 
(in in .nun. (ii. ik), oiiiiiui.) (46), heat, 


Trp(3raxb (aw, aeuib) (35), touch, 
-| move 

(xp6iiyn, diy, oiiii.) 

(no)x>inyxbcn (xniiycb, rineun>cH) (48), 
extend (intrans.) 



fyCiiraxb (aio, aenib), run away 
\y6-BH<axi> (try, jKriiiib, ryn.) (16) 

amaxb (aio, aeuib), respect, 


(rfro, rfeuib), drive, hunt 
yriiaxb (romo, dnimib) 

(riio, rfeuib), strike 
(K>, nun.) 

f yanaBaxb (yaiiaio, eiiib), recognize, 
-! get to know 

(yaiiaio, euib) (22) 

(aio, aenib) (42), die 
\yMepeTb (yiwpy, eiiib) (Par. 96) 
TyMbiBaTb (aro, aeuib) (52), wa'sh 
-J (face and hands, etc.) 
(yMbiTb (yM6ro, 6enib) (52) 
(c)yM-BTb Ckio, -Beiiib) (35), under- 

stand, know how to, be able 
/ynanaxb (aio, aenib), fall (off), sink 
\ynacxb (ay, enib) 
ynajn, (15), he fell 
/ynoxpe6jirixb (HIO, rfeinb) (35), use 
\ynoxpe6rixb (6jiib, Siiuib) 
TycxpaiiBaxb (aio, aeiiib) (55), 
I arrange 
[ycxp6nxb (610, 6nuib) 
( ycbinaxb (aio, aenib), fall asleep 
\ycnyxb (ny, euib) 

BepjK^axb (aio, aeuib), affirm, 

BfepflHXb (pw(n)y, pflHiiib) 
yxomixb (*y, onuuib) (55), go 

away; escape 
yttxii (ttay, eiiib) 

(yiy, yqiinib) (19), teach 
- (Ha)yniixbCH (19), learn, study 
[ yqrixb nansycxb, learn by rote 

yniejn,,mjia, etc. (34)(see yxofliixb), 
went away 

(no)xBajiiixb (ib, ajinun>) (39), praise 
xonrixb (xomy, x6HHiub) (2, Par. 
149), go, be in the habit of 

(3a)xoxixb (6 ; Par. 222), wish 
xdieuib (46; Par. 222) 

ijapcxBOBaxb (cxsyio, enn>) (48), 

rule, reign 
*(3a)n.Becxri (txy, enib), bloom 

(no)micxnxb or (Bbi)qncxHXb (6my, 

ikcxiiinb) (56), clean 
T^fw^iHxaxb (aio, aeiiib) (19), read 
- (no)iyBCXBOBaxb (BCXByro, yeinb), feel 

/raaraxb (aro, aenib), step, stride 
\marHyxb (ny, euib) 

niejn>, iiuia, etc. (see IIXXH), went 
" (npo)menxaxb (n'iy, enieuib), whisper 
meimyxb (ny, euib) 
miixb (uibib, uibeuib) (Par. 162), 

(c)uiHXb (couibib, euib) 

past tense of -fecxb 
(no)-hcxb (6 ; Par. 220), eat 
(no)-Bxaxb (-Buy. -Bfleuib) (Par. 97), go 

by any conveyance, not on 



;i in a special vocabulary on pp. 210-216, and do not appear in 
this vocabulary. 

Of nouns the nominatives singular and plural, and occasionally the genitive 
plural, are given. When the noun ends in -i or when any other cause of ambiguity 

'. he gender is marked. 

Otherwise nouns in -T,, -tt arc masculine ; nouns in -a, -H are feminine ; nouns in 
-o, -e, -MH are neuter. 

When a masculine noun l is printed : 

I. m.i.imt, ti, the accent remains throughout on the stem; 
II. r6,Tb,a, the accent in the singular is on the stem and in the plural on the 
termination ; 

III. aBop-b, li, the accent falls throughout on the termination. 

IV. u6.iKT>, ii (6Bi>), all cases of the singular and the nominative plural are 

accented on stem, oblique cases in plural have accent on termination. 

Of adjectives the predicative forms (see Lesson XLIX), when in common use, 
are given in the lists in Par. 237. 

Regularly derived adverbs in -o (see Par. 189 (1)) are not always separately 

The number enclosed in brackets indicates the vocabulary, paragraph, or 
exercise where a phonetic transcript of the word will be found. 

Gacnn, H (em.) (39), fable 

CarioinKa, H (m.) (46), father, dear father 

GesnpecraHHo (36), incessantly 

GesnpecTaimutt, continual, incessant 

6e3i>, 6630 (4), without 

Gepen,, a, II (10), shore, bank 

G.imne, nearer 

G.-iibioiitt (adj.) (52), neighbour 

G:iii;iKifl, near 

(gen.) (Par. 70), near 

(31), pale 
GorarcTBo, a (50), riches, wealth 

G. .1 a i Mil (.">), rich 

Gorane, richer 

Bdn,, H (6BT.) (53), God 

! (53), ( 

6aGa, u (14), peasant- woman ,ipnm,, ape (Par. 230), Bulgar 

CaGyuiua, H (12), grandmother, old Eo.irapin, i 

woman 10), Bulgarian woman 

Gapmn., nape (.'.".). n: n'ma, u (27), infirmary, hospital 

1 With many nouns, and especially with monosyllables, the use of the figures I, II, etc., 
is not necessary. 


a (1), and, but 
aery en, , u (47), August 
aBTopi., u, author 
aaCy-Ka, H, alphabet, ABC book 
anon., ti, I (37), stork 
::>a, Alexandra 
! oxander'i:inii; irishman 

am .iiiMiiiii:;i , n f Par. 230), Englishwoman 
anr.niU-Kin (13), KriL'lish 
Aur.-iin (34 i 

,, n (//?.) (47), April 



6ojibH6tt (4), sick, ill 

66jibine (32), more; 66jibme ecer6 (50), 

more than all, most 
66jibinift (Par. 195), greater, larger 
6ojibin6tt (5), great, large, grown up 
66jrbe (40), more 
6oJTB3HeHHbift, sickly 
6ojrB3Hb, H (/.) (27), disease, sickness 
6pax-b, TbH (CBT,) (3), brother 

t (50), British 
(impers. verb) (54), that will do, 


(Par. 128), future, coming 
6yKBajibHbiii, literal, exact 
Syiviara, H (19), paper 
6bi, 6i> (Par. 199), conditional particle 

6bIKT>, H (49), OX 

GbiJib, H (/.) (53), true story 
6bicxpbiii, quick, sudden 
6-BflHocxb (/.) (17), poverty 
6-BflHbift (5), poor 
(1), white 

Bann,, a, e, H (7), your, yours 

BHpyn, (27), suddenly 

Bep6, eapa (13), pail 
(56), everywhere 
(25), great 

-fenHbitt (40), splendid, magni- 

, M (48), camel 

sepeBKa, H (43), rope 

Bepcxa, epcxbi (48), verst (1067 metres) 

Bepx6.\rb (Par. 48), on horseback; -ixaxb 
Bepx6MT>, to ride 

Bepx-b, H (10), top, summit 

Becejibift (56), merry, glad, jolly 

Becjid, ecjia, oar 

secna, ecHbi (18), spring (season); 
Becndio, 6tt, in spring 

secb, BCH, Bee, BC-E (Par. 106), all, entire 

secbMa, very, extremely 

Beqep-b, a (18), evening; Beqepoin-b, in 
the evening 

Bemb, H (/.) (39), thing, affair 

B3am> (44), backwards 

B3p6cjiutt (46), grown-up, adult 

ariflHbiti, visible, evident 

Brijrb, bi, sight, view, aspect 

BHHO, t-a. (43), wine 

iuic-r,.iima, bi, gallows 

, H, man who has been 

(7), nice, tasty 
, a. (48), possession, territory 
BM-BCXO (gen.} (Par. 70), instead of 
BM-Bcxi (36), together 
Biiesaniibiii (54), sudden 

(19), attentive 
, H, granddaughter 
,, H (3), grandson 

H (14), little granddaughter 
BO=BT>, in, into 
BOBce (34), at all, completely; Bdsce ne, 

not at all 

Bona, -u (12), water 
BoeHHbitt (56), military, warlike 
B63JI-E (gen.) (Par. 70), beside, near 
B03M6/KHHtt (Par. 41), possible 
Bottna, -w (28), war 
B6flcKO, a (56), army 
BOKsajTb, bi (19), railway-station 

B6JIKT,, H (6BI) (37), WOlf 

BOJina, -bi, wave 
B6jibHbifi, free 
Bopoxa (neul. pi.) (55), gate 
B6pi>, H (6B-b) (50), thief 
BoceMHanuaxb (Par. 148), eighteen 
(36), eight 

B6ceMbecHXT> (Par. 150), eighty 

BoceMbcox-b (181 (6)), eight hundred 

BOCKpecenie, resurrection, Easter 

BocKpecenbe, H (Par. 128), Sunday 

BocxoK-b, I (48), East 

BocbMH^ecjixbiii, eightieth 

BocbMHcdxbifl (Par. 184), eight-hundredth 

BocbMoa (Par. 166), eighth 

BOXT, (2), here is ! there is ! there are 1 

Bnepejrb (44), forwards 

spar-b, M (56), enemy 

BPCMH, Mena (n.) (Par. 219), time 

nee (18), all, entire; aAmaya 

Bceraa (18), always 

Bcer6, gen. case of secb, etc. 

Bcioay (56), everywhere 

BCH, fern. sing, of Becb 

(36), each, every 

KTb, H (47), Tuesday 
Bxop6ti (Par. 166), second 
Biepa (16), yesterday 
B-b, BO (ace. or prep.) (10), in, into 
BT.-B3m>, bi (10), entrance 
Bbi (Par. 80), you 
BbipameHie, H, expression 
Bbic6Kitt (30), high, tall 
Bbicoxa, 6xb"i (45), height 

(Par. 195), higher, highest 



Bbiiiie ucer6, higher than all, highest 
B-fcab (41), why, surely 
B-fcK-b, u or & (48), age, century, lifetime 
B-fepiio, truly; iie B-fepno? (56), is it not 


B-fcpiibitt, true, faithful 
,, rpu or a, wind 

ra-fe (2), where>, u (56), general 

FepMaiiin (34), Germany 

report, H (5), hero 

repoihin, H (14), heroine 

rri6e.ib, u (/.) (50), ruin 

r.iajKiii, smooth 

rjiaat, a (i) (16), eye 

r.iy66Kitt (30), deep 

r.iyiiuft (1), stupid 

rim.idn, decayed 

nrfcaad, ^a (43), nest 

roBoprimift, the person speaking 

r6jrb, a (10), year 

rojioBa, rojioBu (16), head 

ro.i6;uibift (42), hungry 

rdjioci,, a, II (29), voice 

r6;ibifl, naked 

r6n<iitt (40), hunting (dog) 

ropaajo (32), by far 

r6pe, A (28), grief, misfortune 

rdpoai,, a, II (27), town 

rdp-ie, more bitter 

r6pi.Kiii, bitter 

roprfnift (Par. 94), hot 

rocndab (m.) (gen. sing. rdcnona) (54), 

the Lord 

rocyaapcTBO, a (48), state, empire 
rocyaapb, H (m.) (48), ruler 
rordButt, ready 
rpawnanHHi., ane (Par. 230), burgher, 

r i t izen 

rpaiuiiia, u (44), frmr 
rpe6em>, 6uii, III, rower 
rpiiCi,, bi (49), mushroom 
rpoaa, ^-u (49), thunder-storm 
rpoMajiibift (34), enormous 
rpOMKin (29), loud 
rp.nn,, u (6BT.) (49), thunder 
i , u, heap, lot 
., H (/.), breast 
i rt y 

i government 
rycTOfl, thick, dense 
ryes, u (6ft) (m.) (49), goose 

(6), yes, and, but 

naBiid (21), long ago 
, long, long since 
name (18), even 
aa.ieidft (45), far, remote 
jtajibuie, naji-be, farther 
;uMa, u (12), lady 
aaiiiiutt, given 

.lai'ianmiT,, ane (Par. 230), Dane 
;ui'ia, u, summer resort 
nsa, asii (7), two 

(36), twenty 
, H (ett) (/.) (Par. 64), door 

, pubi, III (5), palace 
ABopi>, ii (36), court, yard ; na Hsop-t 

(Ex. 18, A), out of doors 
aBopmnnn,, rtne (Par. 230), nobleman 


HByxcdxbitt (Par. 184), two-hundredth 
mrkiuuiiaTb (Par. 148), twelve 
HB-BCTH (Par. 155), two hundred 
HCBHHOCTO (Par. 150), ninety 
aeBHTHc6Tbitt (Par. 184), nine-hundredth 

(Par. 148), nineteen 
(36), nine 

, nine hundred 
CKa6pb, ii (m.), Ill (47), December 
nem>, ami (m.) (18), day 
xciibni (/. pi) (40), money 
aepeBHH, H (enb) (18), hamlet (without 
church) ; BT> aepeBH-fe, in the country 
n6peBo, a or eBbH (beBi.) (37), tree 

(9), wooden 
(36), ten 
, cheap 
jlHBaHi>, u, couch 
HriKifl (Par. 92), wild 
mrrrf, fl-f,Tii (n.) (Par. 229), child 
.i.uiniiun (16), long 
nan (gen.) (4), for 

., (Par. 68), by day 
:ui". loiibji (beB*b), bottom 
no (gen.) (Par. 70), up to, till, before 
ao6por& (39), goodness, kindness 
ndCpufl (1), good, kind 

tick-ntly, fairly, rather 
aoaub, ii (w.) (42), rain 
;i->i;iii|>i., a, II, doctor 
.i-'.n in (3<), long 
aci.iro (adv.) (43), long 
a6.i:Kcni., predicative of fl6.i>i<Htitt (42). 
obliged, compelled 



(8), at home 

(24). domesticated, tame 
. H (9), little house 
home, homewards 
(1), house 
op6ra, H (50), way, road 
nopor6ft, nopdme (50), dear, dearer 
HOCKa, ^H (19), board 
n6iKa, H (14), little daughter 
noib, Hriiepn (Par. 86), daughter 
npaKa, H (16), fight, scrimmage 
npoBa (n. pi.) (46), firewood, timber 
HpojKaiuitt (29) trembling 
npyr6 (5), other, second 
npyrb, npysbri (a6ii) (Par. 15), friend 
apyrb, Hpyra (44), one another; npyrt 

c-b apyroM-b (46), with each other 
npyjKdK-b, A, III (14), little friend, dear 


nyS-b, & (38), oak 
nypH6fi (18), bad, hateful 
, close, oppressive 
(12), little girl 
, H (37), girl (growing up) 
, H (ent) (m.) (46), grandfather 
, M (1), grandfather 

(50), really, indeed 
, a (34), deed, affair, business 
(n. pi) (Par. 229), children 
JTEXCXBO (41), childhood 

H or bri (bCBt) (m.) (29), uncle 

er6 (2), him, of him, his, it, its 
(43), hardly, scarcely 

(42), daily 
eiwy (Par. 21), to him 
CCJIH (34), if 

ecxb (13), there is, there are 
eme (16), still 
erf (12), her, of her, hers 


jKajiKitt, piteous, pitiful 
ajiKO (49), it is a pity 
mapmtt (18), hot 
jKaxea, bi (18), harvest, crops 
we (37), for, but, yet, on the other 

hand, though, too, anyway 
meJiTbiil (23), yellow 
>KejrB3Hbifi (50), of iron 

, a (Par. 194), iron 
, eHM (27), wife 

, M (12), woman 

a, M, victim, sacrifice 
, living, alive 

(n. adj.) (24), animal 
, thin (of fluids) 
>KH3Hb (/.) (49), life 
KHJibe, ^H (39), dwelUng 
H<iipHbift, fat 

jKHxejib, H (m.) (54), inhabitant 
JKHXO, a (18), crops, corn 

, A (m.), Ill (37), crane 

aa (ace., instr.) (Par. 44), behind, for, 

at ; HH 3a qxo, not at any price ; 

HXO sa-? what sort of ? 
aa66xa, w, care 
saBxpa (Par. 68), to-morrow 
saBxpairb, H (34), breakfast, lunch 
sanaia, n (36), exercise, problem 

, w, hall, drawing-room 

, castle 

, saMKii, III (21), lock 
3anajrb, I (48), west 
sai-tMTb (10), for what, why 
3Bi>pb, H (eil) (m.) (37), wild beast 
snanie, H, I (7), building 
3nop6Bbiii (4), well, healthy 
, health 

(Par. 216) (imperative 

mood of 3HpaBcxBOBaxb (syro, yenn>), 

good day ! how are you ? hail ! 
3-fccb (3), here 
3ejieHbift (16), green 

, -^H (6^tb) (21), land, earth 

, -^-bi (2), winter 
3HMdft (Par. 68), in winter 
3Ji6tt, bad, cross, spiteful 
3HaK6Mbiti (41), known 
3HaKT>, H (23), sign 
aiiaMH, ena (Par. 219), banner 
snanie, H (50), knowledge 
3HaHHX-b (pres. tense of snainxb) (27), 

that means, that is 
sdJioxo (29), gold 
sojioxdft (29), golden 
30Jii>, predicative form of sjiott 
sp-fcjiume, a, sight, spectacle 


H (1), and, also 

A6o (conj.) (36), for 

arpa, -^-bi (Par. 60), game 

H36a, ^bi (42), peasant-house, hut 

(Par. 216) (imperative mood), 
excuse me I 



(45), well-known, certain 
uaoopawaiomitt (pre*. part.) (40), re- 
present in _' 

H3i>, H3o (gen.) (Par. 70), out, out of, from 
H3i>-3a (gen.), from behind 
ri. (18), or 

HMneparop-b, u (48), emperor 
IIMT, (Par. 21) (dot.), to them 
IIMII. iiMeiia (Par. 219), name 
imoraa (18), sometimes 
luincrpaiieirb, imu (34), foreigner 
iiHTepeciibitt (41), interesting 
iiciiaiiudft (50), Spanish 
HcnpaunbiO (56), correct, exact 
Hrajiifl (34), Italy 
irra.ibrfHcidtt, Italian 
IIX-B (Par. 21), them, of them, their 


irojib, H (47), July 
iroiib, H (47), June 


KaGimerb, u, I, private room 

Ka<Jibitt (36), each 

Kai;6Bb (2), predicative of KaKOBdtt? 
which ? what sort of ? 

K8K6tt? (6), which ? what sort of ? 

KaKiitt-miGynb (55), some or other 

i<am> (2), how, as 

pa3T, (16), just, just as it happened 

(9), of stone 
,, MIIII (efl) (m.), stone 

Kaiiirraiicidtt, belonging to the captain 

KapunnaiiTb, ri, III (Par. 67), pencil 

Kap-niiia, bi (37), picture 

Kama, H (56), gruel 

i.-aocMpii, u (19), pulpit, teacher's desk 

KBapri'ipa, bi (40), flat, dwelling 

KBaci, I, kvass (beverage made with 
rye-bread and malt) 

Kric.iLitt (7), sour 

K.iaji>, 14 (53), treasure 

KJiaccifbitt (19), class, belonging to class- 

KJiwrb, ri (21), key 

Mima, n (18), book 

:.. brt (sea) (m.) (8), prince 


iv-orna (2), when 

Kord? (Par. 21), whom ? whose ? 
K6>Ka, n (12), leather, skin 
KO.-III, if 

KOJibu6, (29), ring 
10, n (55), knee 

I:OMII:II-:I, M (21), room 

KOM^ (Par. 21), to whom 

KOMI> (prep, of KTO) (10), whom 

Hoirrdpa, u, office 

Koiiioumn, n (17), stable 

Kon6e'iKa, H, a little copeck 

Konenua, H (Par. 153), copeck 

K0pa6.ii,, :i, 111 (m.), ship 

Kopoea, 14 (21), cow 

Kopojiesa, u (48), queen 

Kopdjib, M, III (m.) (9), king 

KopdTKift (30), short 

Kop6ie, shorter 

K6pnycb, a, II, corps (of officers) 

Koca, ^bi (18), scythe 

K6cTb, H (ett) (/.) (49), bone 

KorenoK-b, Trfra (Ex. 16, C), kitten 

Kor6pbift (relat. pron. ; relat. or interrog. 

adj.) (7), who, which 
K6nn<a, H (12), cat 
Kpartnitt (Par. 82), extreme, last; no 

Kpannen M-fep-fe, at least 
Kpaciiubitt (9), beautiful 
KpacHbitt (19), red; beautiful 
Kpecjio, a (9), arm-chair 
KpecTbrfiiiurb, fine (18), peasant 
KpoBarb, H (/.) (31), bedstead 
K P 6nb (/.), blood 
Kp6M* (gen.) (Par. 70), besides, except; 

KpdM-fe Tor6, besides (that) 
np6TKitt, gentle 
Kpyrjibift (16), round 
Kpyr6il, stiff, abrupt, thick 
KpinKift (29), firm, strong 
KTO (2), who 

KCbiuiKa, H (54), jug, pot 
(2), whither 

, to somewhere or anywhere 
T,, li, III (48), smith 
, iniu, III (23), merchant 
, cnri, III (13), piece, bit 
KVXHJI, n (oiib or OUT,) (21), kitchen 
Kyna, H (55), heap, lot 
Kyuuiiibc, H (7), food 
KT,, KO (dot.) (Par. 39), towards, to 
i?-t>n>? (CT.) (9) (interrog.), with whom ? 


jiaMna, bi (35), lamp 
nana, u (12), paw 

ittle paw 

jiee-b, ni,Bbi (37), lion 
jigridtt (25), light, easy 
afene, easier 

, H (55), bench by the stove 



JIH, JIB, interrogative particle (Par. 12), 


(jmca) jiHciiua, H (37), fox 
jnm6, -^a, face; person 
ji6nKa, H (49), boat 
jionaxa, w (53), spade 
ji6inaHb, H (eft) (/.) (17), horse 
Jiyrb, a (10), meadow 
jiyna, ^w, moon 

(Par. 195), better, best 

(19), idle, lazy 
(/.) (39), laziness 
, u (22), stair 
jrfec-b, a (1), wood, forest 
, a (2), summer, year 
(2), in summer 

(41), amiable, dear 
jiK>66Bb (gen. 6sri) (/.) (39), love 
jiroSoiibrrcxBO, a, curiosity 
jiibflii (m. pi.), eft (42), people 


Matt, H (47), May 
ManeHBKitt (5), little, small 
Majio (adv.) (6), little 
(40), little 

, H (1), boy 
Mapx-b, bi (47), March 
MacKa, H (OKI,), mask 
Macjio, a (9), butter 
Maxepn, see Maxb, mother 
MaxepHHCKift, motherly 
Maxymna, H (CKI) (46), mother, dear 
, Maxepn (Par. 86), mother 

(31), mechanically, absently 
M66ejib (/.) (46), furniture 
, H, I (8), bear 

(32), slow 

(instr. or gen.} (16), between, 

, small, fine 
MeHbiue, Men-fee (adv. and adj.} (40), less ; 

Menbiiie Bcer6, least 
Meiibiniii (Par. 195), smaller, less 

(Par. 195), younger, youngest 
(3), me, of me 

(Par. 190), dead 
Mexeab,H (/.) (46), snow-storm, blizzard 
MHJiJii6H i b, w (Par. 155), million 
Mrijiuft (40), nice, dear 
MHMO (prep, with gen. ; adv.) (Par. 62), 


MHHricxp-b, M (9), minister 
MHHyxa, u (Par. 181 (c)), minute 

Miip-b, I (55), peace 

, bi (39), world j village community 

(19), younger, youngest 
Mii6ro (2), much 
Mii6roHHcjieHHbiii (40), numerous 
Mii6>KecxBO, a (40), a lot, large number 
Mn6ft, Mii6io (9), (with etc.) me 
ii-fe (Par. 21) (dat. or prep.), me 
, H (34), opinion 

(9), mighty 
M6jKex-b-6bixb (32), may be, perhaps 
MOJKHO (4), it is possible 
Moarb, A, brain, marrow 
MOH, Mori, MOC, Mori (Par. 104), my, mine 
MOKPWU (18), wet, damp 
, w (54), prayer 
(1), young 
MOJIOK6 (16), milk 
Monexa, LI (54), money, coin 
M6pe, rf (7), sea 
M0p63-b, w (18), frost 
M6cx-b, bi (10), bridge 

, A, III (3), peasant 
, H (23), man 
ymbri (efi), husband 
MW (Par. 80), we 

, H (6fl) (/.) (38), mouse 
, I (19), chalk 
M-fepa, bi (22), measure 
M-bcxo, a (16) place 
M^cfln-b, bi, I (44), month, moon 
M-femaniiH-b, ane (Par. 230), small towns- 


MrfrKitt (-25), soft 
Mrico (13), flesh, meat 


na (ace. and prep.) (10), on to, on 
naBcxp-fciy, towards, to meet 
nao (49), it is necessary; Mirfe nano, I 
have to, I must 

, nao (instr.) (Par. 127), over, 

(21), back, ago 
(39), by heart 
(10), at last 
nanpaBJi6Hie, H, direction 
nanpoxHB-b (50), but, on the contrary; 
(prep, with gen.), opposite 
,, bi, I (27), people 

(Par. 128), present; real 
(53), a find 
naiajio, a (28), beginning 
iiuui-b (7), our, ours 



iie (1), not 

tie(5o, iiem-ca (T), sky, hea 
ner6, form used for er6 after prepositions 
no (41), recently, not long since 
MI, ii (43), week 
n MI. MI. (Par. 194), than 
iHMinucoMhiii. unknown, strange 
HeKpaci'mutt (9), ufily, not pretty 
utMi.uri (Par. 41), (it is) impossible 
m-MHoro (2), a little, not much, some- 


neMy=eMy after prep. 
iienpbire.Ti,, n {."Hi), enemy 
iiriipifiTiiufl (Par. 11(3), unpleasant 
ii.-cMOTpji im (ace.) (43), in spite of 
mviacTie, Ji (->), misfortune 
necqacTHbitt (28), unfortunate, unhappy 
iie r6 (55), if not that, or else (15), surely not, can it be ? 

is it possible that ? 
m-\ -icnie (or be) (7), ignorance 
ncyu-iiuit (55), ignorant 
iieiero (53)=HtTT. miqerd, ITO (qer6), 

nothing of which 
r, (53) = irfcTb Hiiierd, q-feMT>, 

nothing whereby 
H n nfe (8), nowhere 

Hii.u.iii (30), low, not high 

i!iu;:ii;6ft, no sort Of 
HiiKor.ia (3), never 
HiiHo.iaii (gen. an), Nicholas 
HHKT6 (Par. 47, E), no one 
njn:y,ia, to nowhere 

HUM!. (CL IIIIM-b) (9) inslr. of OUT., bjlll 

iiiiMM KM. HUMID (9) instr. of onii, them 
HIIXT,, see Par. 126 

. 1 6), (jen. 0/HHMT6, nothing; (3ro) 
ini'iero (34). it does not matter 

Par. 47, E), nothing 
no (2), but 

3-1). new 
HO;I;I,, ii (40), knife 

:HIUH>, M, Ixjarer 
Hoci,, u (16), nose 

iiu-i:..n(efl) (/.) (17), night; H6m>(Par. 

pk, ii '(,.), Ill (47), November 
iiy (">l . 

-'.), necessary; MH). ii\:i;iio. I 

H-fc-n, (6), no, not, there is not 
miiiii, n (12), children's nurse 

o , 660, 061 ( 1 0),conceming, about (prep. ); 

against (ace.) 

66a, 66-t (Par. 176 (<*)), both 
66jiai<o, a, cloud 
66pa3T,, BI (Par. 115) form, manner, 

image; uaniiM-b 66pa30Mi? in what 

manner ? how ? 

(9), usually 
, usual, customary 
66-b, fern, of 66a 
06-fefli,, bi (34), dinner; noc.rfe oo^feoa, in 

the afternoon 
ouec-b, OBCIJ, III (6), oats 
oBua, -'u (21), sheep 
orop6ni,, u (3), kitchen-garden 
(Par. 148), eleven 

n-f,Mftn>, MHU, German 

u.i;i (<idj.\ a few, some 

ibno (witk gen.) (40), a few, some 

ojiini,, niia, 6, ik (m. and n.), -t (/.) 

(Par. 107 (6)), one, a certain, sole, 


(4). once 
(46), however 
6aepo, a or epa (48), lake 
OKH6, -a (9), window 
OKOJIO (Par. 181 (c) (gen.), about, nearly 
OKOHHaxejibno, finally, definitively 
OKpecTHocxb, ii (/.) (40), environs 
OKTrf6pb, ii (m.) t III (47), October 
ojiem., n (m.) (5), stag 
OHX, ona, 6, A (-fe) (2, 12, Par. 126), he, 

she, it, they 
onaciibitt, dangerous 
OCCJIT,, c.ibi, III (6), ass 

,, H (/.) (17), autumn 
(55), remaining 
ocrpbitt (40), sharp 
OTCUT,, Tnii, III (1), father 

,;l (19), Whr 

oTier6 (28), wherefore, why 

orb, 6ro (gen.) (Par. 70), away from, from 

cxlmiu-p-b, M or a, I or II, officer 

;.uio (31), i-viiK-ntly 

o'irin. (.'>). I 

nAaem>, ni.iibi (29), finger 


iiapcni.. pun (31). (peasant) lad 

u.. en.. pi i.. u or a (Par. 146), passport 

ii.-pnutt (Par. 166), first 

nepeAiiHH (/em. adj.) (24), ante-room, hall 



nepejrb (Par. 44) (ace., instr.}, before, 

in front of 

nepeKJiaflHiia, bi, cross-beam 
nep6, n6pbH (10), feather, pen 
nepiaxKa, H (50), glove 
nec-b, ncu (49), dog 
neib, H (eft) (/.) (46), stove 
HHBO, a (43), beer 
nncbMo, ^a (44), letter 
nnxbe, A (7), drink 
mima, H (35), food 

, ena (n.) (Par. 219), flame 
, H (beB-b) (43), clothing 
, Mena (Par. 219), race, breed 

, H (29), nephew 
njiqHHHiiima, M (29), niece 
njitfx-b, M, raft 
njidxo (2), badly 
njiox6ft (1), bad 
na6manb, H (/.) (50), square, (market-) 

no (Par. 87), (dot.) on, along, according 

to, etc. ; (ace. ) up to, as far as, at the 

rate of (Par. 183); (Par. 69) (prep.) 


no-anrjiilicKH (3), in English 
noBaprixa, H (Par. 69), cook 
noBcpxHocxt, H (/.), surface 
noBTOpenie, H (22), repetition 
noroaa (18), weather 
n6njiii (gen.), beside, near 
nonpyra, H (14), friend (/.) 

, ndflo (ace., instr.) (Par. 127), under 
(imperat. of ncmcaJioBaxb) (Par. 

216), if you like, as far as I am 

concerned, perhaps 
nojKajiyficxa (Par. 216), please 
ndaoiiitt (24), late 
n6a>Ke (32), later 
no3HiuH, H (ift), position 
noKa, as long as ; nona He, till, until 
noK6iiiibiii (48), peaceful; deceased; 

(c)noK6ftHOftn6HH! (56), good-night! 
noK6pno (38), humbly, obediently 
n6jie, A (18), field 

(48), useful 
(54), stop, that is enough 

(54), full, complete 
nojiyiine, better, in a better manner 
nojinaca , gen. no ay iaca (m. ) , half -an - hour 
ndJTb, li (10), floor 
n6jii>, bi, sex 

noM-tmHK-b, n (38), land-owner 
noHejrfcjibHHK-b, H (34), Monday 
nopa, -*- (52), time ; nopa, it is time 

,, H (17), vice 
nopxH6ft, IJH (30), tailor 
no-pyccKii (3), in Russian 
nocjrfc (gen.) (32), after 
nocji-fennitt (36), latter, last 
nocxejib, n (/.) (15), bed 
nocyna (/. coll.) (46), vessels, utensils 
noxoiviy, therefore 
noxoMy HTO (8), for, because 
noxdivn, (7), thereafter, then 
no-<J>paHiry3CKH (5), in French 
noxaajia, li (19), praise 
nox6fli>, bi (56), campaign 
noicMy (6), wherefore, why 
noiTii (18), almost, nearly 

(22), therefore 
(32), truth 

(39), truthfuhiess, upright- 

(32), regular, correct 
npaBO (32), really, truly 
npaBbiii, right, just 

, H (54), festival 

(48), festival (adj.) 
, practical 
npeBocx6flHbu1[, excellent 

, a, offer, proposal 
, bi, object 
npe>Kne (prep, with gen. ; adv.) (32), 
before ; npemae Bcero (46), first of all 
npn (prep.) (Par. 45), at, near, in the 
time of 

, H (/.) (50), profit 

, H, I (21), shop-assistant, 

(19), dih'gent 

ti, example; na npHiviip-b 
(39), for example 
npnp6na (55), nature 
npHT6m>, H (48), confluent, tributary 
npnx6>KaH (/. adj.) (55), ante-roorn> 


npirfxejib, H (Par. 194), friend 
npirfTHbitt (Par. 116), pleasant 
npo (ace.) (Par. 100) =o (prep.), concern- 
ing, about 
npocxrixe! (imperat. of npocxiixb) (Par. 

216), excuse me ! pardon me ! 
npdcxo (55), simply 
npocx6ft (Par. 88 (6)), simple 
np6iujibiti (34), past ; last, preceding 
npomaftxe! (imp&rat. of npoiuaxb) (Par. 

216), farewell ! 
npnM6ft (Par. 192), upright 
, H, gingerbread 



imiua, u (12), bird 

rmi'ma, 11 (43), little bird 

nycrdft, empty; vain 

nycr&HH, H (48), desert, wilderness 

mneiuina (34), wheat 

irLciin, ii (43), song 

n-bimrfM-b (44), on foot 

nnrnc6Tbitt (Par. 184), five-hundredth 

nfmiajwaTb (Par. 148), fifteen 

inn mma, u (47), Friday 

nrfrufl (Par. 166), fifth 

nan, (36), five 

(Par. 150), fifty 
(Par. 155), five hundred 

pa66rn, u (48), work 

pnfioTiniK-b, H, I (5), workman 

pa66iitt (48), workman ; working (day) 

paHHo.iyiimuii, indifferent 

paBHbitt, equal 

pain,, a, o, M (Par. 188), glad 

paaB-b (44), perhaps ; interrog. particle 

paacitasT,, bi (56), tale, narration 

past, ii, time, occasion ; (adv.) (4), once 

pana, bi, wound 

paiieiibitt (50), wounded 

paimitt (Par. 89), early 

pane (32), early 

panbiue, paufce (32), earlier 

peSenoicb, ima, Crfra (Par. 229), child 

pucynoK-b, HKH (38), sketch, drawing 

p66uifl (5), timid 

p6eno (46), exactly 

pojwtitt (14), related, native, dear 

poTKflecTBd (28), Christmas 

pomb (/.) (34), rye 

p630Bbttt (16), pink 

Poccfn (34), Russia 

pyCainna, H (43), shirt 

pyG.ib, A (m.) (9), rouble 

pyna, -^n (29), hand, arm 

pyccidtt (13), Russian 

py^ett, bii (b6Bi>), III (43), brook, stream 

pyibeMi,, PVMI.MMII (43), in torrents 

pundit (16), tan (-coloured) 

(Par. 128), rare, infrequent 
, --n (15), river 

CT, (31), beside, in one row with 
(31), row 

ca6jiH, H (40), sabre 
, bi (3), garden 

, H (14), female animal; hind 
ca.Monapb, u (55), tea-urn, lit. self-boiler 
caM-b, a, 6, H (emphatic) (22), self, same 
ca.Mutt (Par. 186), very, same; prefixed to 

adjective it has the force of extremely, 


can6n,, ii, III (46), boot 
capatt, H (5), barn, cart-shed 

u, ro-union, meeting; no 

cniuanin (Par. 216), au revoir 
gen. sing, nua (50), lead 
, --H (ett) (37), pig 
cB6tt, ji, e, ii (Par. 104), one's own 
cntraurt (17), light, bright 

BocKpecerae (53), Easter 


, 1(7), light; world 
, -^H, candle 
, holy 
(reflex.) (Par. 103), self, of self; 

ce6-B, to oneself 
cer6jjHH (8), to-day 
cenbMdtt (Par. 166), seventh 
cett, cirf, e, A (Par. 106), this 
cettiac-b (27), at once 
cejid, ejia (7), village (with church) 
ce.Miic6Tuit (Par. 184), seven-hundredth 
ceMiiajwaTb (Par. 148), seventeen 
ce>ib (36), seven 
ce.MbAecHTb (Par. 150), seventy 
ceMbc6Tb, seven hundred 
ceMfcfi, -LH (6tt) (28), family 
ceHT>i6pb, ri, III (47), September 
cepjoirwil (21), angry, violent 
cepnue, a (44), heart 
cepe6p6 (Par. 194), silver 
cepcopHHbiit (54), of silver 
i-cpiMiiua, u, middle 
ceprn,, u (18), sickle 
cecrpa, ecrpbi (12), sister 
cyajn (adv. and prep, with gen.) (55), 

from behind 
ciirapa, bi (39), cigar 
cii.ibiiurt (1), strong 
cuiiiit (7), blue 

cnpora, -<-bi (m. or/.) (28), orphan 
i iipiinra, n (28), h'ttle orphan 
ciip6rcTBO (43), orphanhood 
cKaana, H (39), fairy-tale 
CKaM&tKa, ii (1!>). l>eiich, seat 

i, scarlet f 

ci<6abKO (6), how much, how many 
CKOPO (32), soon 
cKp6MiiocTb (/.) (39), modesty 
39), modest 



CKyiHBift, sad, wearisome 
cjiaGBitt (1), weak 
cjieaa, eaw (43), tear 


wiyra, -<-H (m.) (55), servant 

cjiymaHKa, H (12), maid, servant 

cjiymSa, M (56), service 

cjiyiaft, H (Par. 61), case, occasion, op- 
portunity; BO BcrfKOM-B cjiyqa-t (41), 
in any case 

cjiLiuiHbiii, audible 

cjTEjryiomift, following 

cji-knbft, blind 

civiepxB, H (6ft) (/.) (48), death 

CM-EJiBift (56), bold 

civrBniHoft, ridiculous, laughable; eiwy 
cM-femH6, he is inclined to laugh 

cnaiajia (22), first, to begin with 

cn6Ba (16), again, anew 

CH-irB, a (42), snow 


co6aKa, H (12), dog 

co66ft, 6ro, instr. case of ce6rf, self 

COBC-BMT, ne (H-ETI>) (42), not at all 

cojKajrBHie (8), regret; KB 
(8), unfortunately 

coanaHie, consciousness 

cojiaaxcKift (56), soldierly 

cojiaa-n,, BI (X-B) (36), soldier 

c6jiHue, a (Par. 61), sun 

copoKOBdft (Par. 171), fortieth 

c6poKB (Par. 150), forty 

con,, gen. of cxo, hundred 

c6xBift (Par. 171), hundredth 

coxa, -^H (18), Russian plough 

cnajiBHH, H (em.) (38), bedroom 

cnoK6ttHBift (56), quiet, still, restful 

cn-BJiBift (7), ripe 

cpaay (49), together, at one time 

cpena, -'-BI (47), Wednesday 

cpejuina, M, middle 

cxaKaHi,, BI (39), glass, tumbler 

cxapriK-B, 6, III (3), old man 

cxapHiia (53), days of old 

cxapocxa, M (m.) (39), village elder 

cxapocxt (/.), old age 

cxapyxa, H (14), old woman 

cxapyniKa (53), old wifie 

cxapmitt (19), elder, eldest 

cxapBitt (1), old 

cxo (Par. 150), hundred 

cxojTriua, BI (50), capital (city) 

cToa6Ban (/. adj.) (38), dining-room 

CXOJTB, & (9), table 

O (40), so much 

cx6HT>, BI, groaning 
cxopona, 6poHM (55), side 

, hundred-thousandth 

UBI, sufferer 
cxpana, -^BI (50), country, land 
cxp6MH, ena (Par. 219), stirrup 
cxp6rift, strict 

cxyjrB, cxyjiBH (CB-B) (Par. 60), chair 
cxina, ^BI (37), wall 
cy666xa, BI (47), Saturday 
cyMpaK-B, I, twilight, gloom 
cyn-B, BI (26), soup 
cyp6BBitt (19), rough, severe; dark 
cyxdti (21), dry 
cnacxie (26), happiness ; no (KT>) cqacxiro, 


ciacxjniBBiti (28), happy 
C-B, co (gen.) (Par. 44), from, off, since; 

(ace.) about (approximately), as; 

(instr.) with, along with 
CBYH-B, CBIHOBBH (ett) (1), son 

,, BI (3), cheese 

I (48), north 
C*MH, c-hmena (Par. 219), seed 
cipBiii (16), grey 
cioa (16), hither 

, 6, III, tobacco 
(10), also, likewise 
(2), such 

(2), so; xaK-B naK-B (36), as (conj.); 
HC xaK-B, not so, in the wrong 

xaiw-B (3), there 
TBepHBifi (23), hard 
XBOH, it, e, li (Par. 104), thy 
xe6-B (dat. or prep. O/XBI) (Par. 21), thee 
. of X 

(gen. or ace. of XBI) (Par. 21), thee 
xeKymift (Par. 128), current 
XCMH6, (it is) dark 
xeMHBrti (17), dark 
xen6pB (3), now 
xenaBitt (17), warm 
xepn-BHie (55), patience 
xexKa, H (29), aunt 
xexpaB, H (/.) (17), copy-book 
xiixitt (30), low, soft, not loud 
xo, neuter of XOX-B, that; ne x6, if not 

that, or else ; xo >ne, the same thing ; 

xo . . . xo . . ., now . . . then, at one 

time ... at another time 
xo66io, 6ft, instr. of XBI (9), thea 
xoBapmiTB, H (9), companion 



Tosap-b, ii, wares, goods 

Torna (3), then, at that time 

Tor6, gen. of TOTT,, TO (Par. 21) 

T6jKe=TaioKe (10), also 

TOJicTbrtt, thick 

T6.ibKo (5), only ; na M rtijii.KO (44), and 

that's all; rdjibKo qro (52), just 

(tnth past tenses) 
TOMy, dot. o/TOTb, TO (Par. 21) 
TOTE, Ta, TO, rt (2, Par. 107), that, the 


T6TT, we, same 
Tu'uio, as it were 
rpaua, ^u (21), grass 
Tperitt (Par. 166), third 

mil (Par. 184), three-hundredth 
TPII (Par. 27), three 
Tprijwa-n, (Par. 150), thirty 
TpnuaanaTb (Par. 148), thirteen 
TpAcra (Par. 155), three hundred 
Tpy6ita, H (39), pipe 
TpyjjHbitt (23), difficult 
TpynonioGitouft (18), industrious 
Tpyjrb, ii (21), trouble, labour 
Tpyc.iriBbitt, cowardly 
Tpyc-b, M (6BT.) (49), coward 
Tyaa (16), thither 
xyn6tt (40), blunt 
Tbi (2), thou 

(Par. 155), thousand 

(Par. 184), thousandth 
(/.), darkness 

, a, body 
T-BMT, (9), instr. of TOTT,, with that 
T-IJMT. ne M6n-fce, none the less, narrow, close 
^u (44), prison 
(23), heavy 

y (gen.) (Par. 70), at, near, with ; y nerd, 

he has 

y,i: .u -nutt (27), terrible, frightful 
ywc, narrower 
y>e (18), already ; y>6 nann6, for a long 

time past ; y>n6 ne, no longer 
\ ;i:iinb, u (36), supper 
yaidn (I'.")), narrow 

i. u (21), street 
yMHun (1), intelligent 
\-.:(,nic, unirrst.iii<iinrj, capacity 
yiiiMitTc.-ii.nufl, luirniliating 
yp6m,, u (18), lesson 
ycajp>Ga, u (38), farm; estate 

yTpo, a (18), morning; yrpOMi,, in the 


jrtiacrie, share, part, interest 
yirmiirb, ri, III (19), pupil 
yiciiuiui, u (19), pupil (/.) 
y-i.-iii.nt, learned man 
yneiibe, n (7), learning, teaching, study 
y'ni.nime, a (Par. 73 (a)), school 
ym.-imuiiult (36), connected with the 


y^Tera,, A t U (19), teacher 
yHiVrejn>HHu;a, u (19), lady-teacher 

, u (42), circuit, district, canton 
(45), comfortable 


, A (m.), Ill (47), February 
(34), France 
$paHuy3CKitt (13), French 
<Jt>paniry3T,, u (53), Frenchman 

XBOCTT,, & (16), tail 
(41), sly 
(41), ravenous 

M (1), bread 

>, a, corn 
xo:iHiurb, xojHcaa, host, master 
xojiepa (27), cholera 
xoji6OTbitt (17), cold 
xopoiuitt (4), good 
xoponi6 (2), (it is) well 
xpaGputt (5), brave 

xpiicTiainim,, ane (Par. 230), Christian 
XPHCT6BT,, a, o, u (Par. 181 (6)), of Christ 
xynott, bad 

xyjmiitt (Par. 195), worse, worst 
xy;ie, worse 


napi'ma, u (14), czarina 
napcTso, a (48), reign, empire 
qapb, A (5), czar 

,, & (7), colour 

,, ii, flower 
uepKOBb, KBII (ett) (/.) (19), church 
uf,.ii4tt (28), whole 

qatt, qaii, II (43), tea 

qacro (4), often 

lacTb, H (6n) (/.) (40), part 

Mac!,, w (Par. 12S), L hour; but aoa, rpn, 

qeri i _', 3, 4 hours or o'clock; 

OUT, iia qacaxi (56), he is on guard 



, H (43), cup 
qer6, gen. of qxo (Par. 21) 
qefi, qfarf, e, li (Par. 106), whose? 
qejioB-EKT, (l),pl JUOHH (42), man, people 

(after the numerals 5, 6, 7, etc., in the 

nom. or ace. use qejioB-tKt) 
qeiuy, dat. o/qxo (Par. 21) 
qeMT> (10), prep, of qxo 
qepea-B (ace.) (42), across, through, after 

the lapse of 
qepHufi (1), black 
q6cxHtrti, honest 
qexsepn,, 6, III (47), Thursday 
qexBepxwft (Par. 166), fourth 
qexBepxfe, H (eft) (/.) (181 (c)), quarter 
qexripe (Par. 27), four 
qexiipecxa (Par. 155), four hundred 
qexupexcdxbiii (Par. 184), four-hundredth 
qexupnaanaxb (Par. 148), fourteen 
qHHriBHHK-B, H (39), official 
qHCJi6, -'-a (40), number 
q6cxufi (13), clean 
qxeme, n, reading 
qxo (pron. and conj.) (2), which, what; 

that; why 

qx6, that which, what 
qx66ti, qxoG-b (10), that, in order that 
qx6-jra6o, anything; qxo-nH6^m> (Par. 

47, E), something or anything ; qx6- 

xo, something 
q^BcxBo, a (31), feeling 
q^jTHwii, wonderful 
qyH<6ft (28), strange, not one's own 
qyji6Ki>, JIKIV, III (44), stocking 
qyxfc, scarcely 
q-BMt, instr. case of qxo, conj. (9), where- 

with; than (Par. 194) 


, III (55), scamp 

mecxHc6xHft (Par. 184), six-hundredth 
niecxnajmaxB (Par. 148), sixteen 
mecx6ii (Par. 166), sixth 
iiiecxb (36), six 

niecxbaecHxi, (Par. 160), sixty 
men, H (12), neck 
imipe, broader 
inHp6Kifl (25), broad 
niKam, or iima^*, iS (49), press, cup- 

niK6jia, H (18), school 
niyxna, H (56), joke 


, HKH or meHrixa (Ex. 16, C), 
(/. pi) (56), cabbage soup 


j, M, print, engraving 

3xoro, gen. of dxoxi, ^xo (Par. 21) 
5xoMy, dat. of ^xoxt, 6xo (Par. 21) 
3X0X1,, axa, o, H (2, Par. 107), this, 


ibr-b (48), South 

H (2), I 

ri6jioKO, n (7), apple 

, li, III (23), tongue, language 
, M (54), pit, hole 

, li, III (47), January 
(21), bright-coloured 

, H (27), a fair 
(32), bright, clear 
HqMem> (m.), Ill (6), barley 


The two preceding vocabularies give more detailed information as to forms of 
verbs and nouns and to pronunciation. This vocabulary gives, quite frequently, 
only one form for each verb the infinitive of the imperfective aspect ; where two 
verbs are given separated only by a comma, the second form is perfective. Of 
nouns the nominative, singular and plural, is given. 

all, not at, Bdece irfcn> (ue); COBC-EMI 

H-BTb (ue) 

all, that is, na H T&ibKO 

along, no (dat.) 

along with, ci, PHAOMT, ct (instr.) 
aloud, rpo.MKo 
alphabet, aa6yKa 
already, yw6 
also, raKJHe ; T6we ; H 
always, scerna 
amiable, nioGeaiiutt ; MiiJiuft 
among, iwewny (gen. and instr.) 
and, H; a ( = but) 
angry, cepjiiiTuit 
animal, HuiBdrnoe, un 
another, npyrdft; one another, npyn 

npyra; to one another, npyn. 

npyry; with one another, npyra 

ci, npyroMi. 
answer, to, oTB-Biai-b (dat. of person; 

ua with ace. of question) 
anything, rro-mi6yni 
anywhere, rn*-HH6ynb 
appears, it, Ha/uerca 
apple, >H"..I.. 

approach, to, npiiGjimuaTbcn 
April, :iiipi..n. (in.) 

arm, PVI..I, n 

ann-chair. i.-priMO, a 

army, uoficKO, a 

arrange, to, ycrpaiiBarb 

arrive, to, npji\.;uin,; npi-Bxarb; (attain 

abandon, to, ocraanrfTb ; 

ABC, aaoyKa 

able, to be, MO<H> ; y.M-kxb 

about, o (prep.); npo (ace.); no (dat.); 

6KOJio (gen.) 

about, to be put, 6e3noK6im>cn 
above, over, nani> (instr.) 
abroad, aa rpam'my (motion); an 

rpamincio (rest) 
abrupt, Kpyrott 
absently, Mamiiiia.n.Ho 
accept, to, npniiiiMaTb 
according to, no (dat.) 
across, ipe3i>,<ipe3i, (ace.); cKBoab(occ.) 
act, to, nocrynarb 
active, jrfenrejibHbift 
activity, n"BHTe.TbiiocTb (/.) 
admit, to, nycKan, 
adopt, to, B.)>irb (perf.) KT> ceCii 
adult, Bjp6c.iutt 
affair,, a; B6mb (/.), n 
affirm, to, yrBepmnarb 
afraid, to be, see to fear 
after, (gen.); no (prep.) 
afternoon, n6cjrfa o6-&oa 
again, cuoiia; omirb 
against, npdTiiin, (gen.) 
age, see century 
age (old), cTapoc-Tb (/.) 
agitate, to, BoniiouaTb 
ago, TOMy naaajT. 
Alexander, A.iei<caiinpi> 
Alexandra, Ajienraiupa 
alive, miiB6a 
all, uecb, BCH, BCC, BCB 

arrived, he, iipiiuu-.n, ; npil.xa:n, 

i.; xairbKaKT,; instr. case of nouns 



as it were, xdrao 

ask, to, npocrixb (request) ; to ask (ques- 
tions), cnpaniHBaxb, cnpociixb 

aspect, Bii;rb, M 

ass, oce.Tb, cjni 

at, y (gen. ) ; npn (prep. ) ; BT> ( = in, prep. ) ; 
na (=on, prep.) ; aa (=for, behind, 

at once, ceftiac-B 

ate, -feji-b ; Kymairb 



August, asrycTi, 

aunt, xexKa, H 

author, aBjopt, H; imcaxejib (m.), n 

autumn, 6cem> (/.), H 

await, to, jKaxb 

away from, OX-B (gen.) 


bad, nypn6tt ; xynofi ; 

badly, mid&o 

bank (shore), Ceperb, a 

banner, anaMH, ena 

barley, HUMCHB (m.) 

barn, capafi, H 

be, to, 6brn> ; HaxojrrixbCH ; to be usually, 

CbiBaxb ; to be (of health), 
bear, MejjB'fejus (w.), H 
bearer, HocrijibmiiKt, H 
beast, wild, sB^pb (m.), H 
beat, to, 6iixt 
beautiful, KpaciiBi>iii; 
because, noxoMy- ixo 
become, to, (c)A-BJiaxbCH; cxanoBiixBCH 
bed, nocxejib (/.), H 
bed, to go to, see Par. 143, Voc. 46 
bedroom, cnajitun, H 
bedstead, Kposaxb (/.), H 
beer, HI'IBO, a 
before, (time) npeame (gen.); no (gen.); 

(space) nepem (instr. or ace.) 
beg, to, npocrixb 
begin, to, HaiHHaxb ; cxaxb 
beginning, nanajio, a 
behave, to, nocxynaxb, nocxyraixb 
behind, aa (ace. or instr.) 
behind, from, caajjH (gen.} 
believe, to, B-fepnxb (dat.) 
belong, to, npHiianJie>Kaxb 
bench (seat), cKaMefea, H 
bench by the stove, ne>KaiiKa, H 
bend, to, (trans.) Hara6axb; (intrans.) 

beside, 363^1* (gen.}\ priflOMi, c% (instr.) 
besides, (prep.) i<p6wb (gen.); (adv.) 

Kp6M-B xor6 

best, Jiynimft; HaHJiy'nnift 
betake oneself, to, HanpaBJirixbcn 
better, Jiyimifi 

better (adv.), Jiyinie; nojiymne 
between, Meatny (instr. or gen.) 
bewail, to, (no)iuiaKaxb 
beyond, see behind 
big, 6ojibin6tt 

bird, nxiina, M; little bird, nxriiKa, H 
bit (piece), Kyc6K-b, CKri 
bitter, r6pbKifi ; more bitter, 
black, nepHbiJi 
blacksmith, see smith 
blind, cjrfendft 
blizzard, Mexejib (/.), H 

blood, KpOBb (/.) 

blow, to, yxb 

blue, ciinifl 

blunt, xyn6i4 

blush, to, KpacH-Bxt 

board, nocKa, -^-H 

boat, ji6Ka, H 

body, X-BJIO, & 

bold, cM-fejibifi 

bone, Kocxb (/.), n 

book, KHiira, H 

boot, canorb, 6 

born, to be, pojKjjaxbcn, 

both, 66a, 66* 

bottom, AH 

bought, he, 

boy, Ma.JibH 

brain, M6arb, A 

brave, xpaGpwft 

bread, xji-tG-b, bi 

breakfast, aaBxpaKi,, H 

breakfast, to, aasxpaKaxb 

breast, rpy^b (/.), H 

bridge, M6cx-b, b"i 

bright, CB-txjibiii; rfcHbift; rfpniii 

bring, to, npnuoc^xb (impf.); npHnecxii 


bring in, to, BHociixb (carry); 

bring near, 

broader, imipe 
brook, pynett, 
brother, 6pax-b, 
brown (tan), p 
bucket, see pail 



build, to, crpoirrb ; Bim, (nest) 
building, aaaiiie, n 
Bulgaria, Eojirapiu 
Bulgarian, Go.irapum., ape; 

(/.), Go.irapKa, n 
burgher, rpaMciaiuiii i> 
burn, to, >Keib 
bury, to, aapUBan. 
business, jrfcao, a 
busy oneself, to, 
but, HO; a 
butter,, a 
buy, to, noKynarb, 
by, instr. case of noun 
by far, ropaaao 

cabbage soup, mn (/. pi) 

call, to, a Barb ; naaunaTb 

called, to be, HaausaTbCH 

came, npHine.ii> ; npHixa.n, 

camel, BepG.iib;n>, u 

campaign, nu\o,u,. 1.1 

can (verb), MOHI>; y.\dm> 

candle, cB-fcia, -^H 

canton, aecjiistrict 

capital (city), cxojirtua, LI 

care, aaGdra, u 

carried away, he, orBeat 

carry, to, nociirb (indef.); Hecrri (def.); 

Boaiirb (in a vehicle) 
cart-shed, capait, H 
case (occasion), cnyqatt, H; in that case, 

BT raK6Mi> cjiyia-fc; in any case, BO 

Bcrii.-oMi, c-.iy'ia-b 
cast otf (unmoor), to, 
castle, aaMoirb, MI.-II 
cat, Koiima, 11 
cause, to, aacraejifiTb 
century, B-feici,, n or a 
certain, o.uini 
chair, cry.n,, bi; (arm-chair), npecno, a 
chalk, Mt.ii, 
chatter, to, Goararb 
cheap, aeui. 
cheaper, jiemteae 
cheese, cupi., u 

child, anTii; peufiiuicT, (see Par. 229) 
childhood, aim 
children, ;il;rn; 
cholera, xo.iepa 
Christ, of (ti</j.), 
Christiiui. xpiu-riainim., aue 
Christmas, PomAecrBO (XpHcrdeo) 
church, ucpKOBb, I;BH (/.) 

cigar, curapa, u 
cigarette, nainipdca, u 

a, rpu>iuaiii'tin> ( ane 
class, KJiacci>, u 

class, connected with, KJiaccnufl 
clean, qricrwtt 
clean, to, 
clear, rfcuutt ; 

clinil), to, a-fean, ; to climb into, 
close (stuffy), nymmift 
close, to, see to shut 
clothing, n.iarbe, H 
cloud, 66.iaKo, a 
coin, MOHera, u 
oold, xo.idjnutt 
cold, with, on> xdnojry 
colour, usin,, a 
come, to, iipnxo;niTb ; npi L3-,i;arL (not on 


come out, to, BUXOAHTI> 
comfortable, cosy, yibruutt 
coming (adj.), 6y;rymitt 
command, to, see to order 
command of, to be in, 


companion, Tosapinm., u 
compel, to, aacraBJiftTb 
compelled (obliged), 
completely, coBepineinio 
conceal, to, CKpuBarb 
conceive, to, aanyMusaTb (see Voc. 28) 
concerned, as far as I am, rio/ica.iyft 
conquer, to, noGlv/iuaTi, 
consciousness, coannme 
consider, to, nomrrarb 
considered, to be, noiirraTbcn 
contemplate, to, . 
continual, Ge.uiprriaiini.iii 
continue, to, nponoji/i; 
contrary, ojithe, naupiri!in. ; naoCop6n> 
convey, to, Boaiirb ; Be;mi ; (carry), 


cook (/.), noBapiixa, n 
copeck, KoncttKa, n ; little copeck, mite, 

copy-book, xerpaai. (/), " 

i., & 

corps (officers'), K6pnycK, & 
correct, npaBii.ibiiun 
corridor, npn\6>i:a>i (ndj.) 
cost, to, crdirrb 
cosy, see comfortable 



could, ite, Mon> 

count, to, ciiixaxb 

country," expand, -^H ; in the country, 

course, of, see understood, it is 

court(yard), uop-&, li 

cover, to, aaKpueaxb 

cow, Kop6Ba, bi 

coward, xpyc-b, bi 

cowardly, xpycjiHBbift 

crane (bird), HtypaBjn, (m.), 6 

crops, jKaxsa (/.), u 

cross (adj.), ajioii 

cry, to, Kpimaxb; njianaxt (weep) 

cunning, xiixpufi 

cup, laiima, H 

cupboard, niKain> or niKa$b, li 

curiosity, JiroSontixcxBO 

current (adj.), xenymitt 

czar, uapb, A (m.) 

czarina, uapiiua, bi 


daily, ejKejjHeBHbiii 

damp, M6KpwU 

Dane, flaxiaHHHTb, ane; (/.), naxiaHKa, H 

dangerous, onacHuft 

dark, xeMHufi ; it is dark, XCMHO 

dark, to grow, XCMH-EXI, 

darkness, xeMHoxa ; xbMa 

daughter, 6Hi>, qepn ; little daughter, 

HdiKa, H 
day, aeHfc (m.), HHH; by day, 

good day ! 
dead, MepxBtitt 
dear, floporoft ; 
dearer, op6>Ke 
death, ciwepxi, (/.) 
deep, rjiy6oKiii 
defeat, to, see to conquer 
delay, to, MeflJiaxi, 
depict, to, H3o6pa>Kaxi> 
describe, to, onHcuBaxt 
desert, nycxuna, H 
desire, to, Htejiaxb ; xoxixb 
desk (teacher's), naeeapa, bi 
did, jrtaaji-b, cH-fejiaji-b ; indicates past 

die, to, yMHpaxb ; CKOHiaxbcn 
died, he, yMepi 
difficult, xpyflHbrtt 
difficulty, xpyflHocxb (/.) 

dig, to, PHXB ; to dig out, 
diligent, npnjie>KHbiii 
dine, to, oQiiHaxb 
dining-room, cxoji6BaH, HH 
dinner, o6-fejrb, bi 
direction, nanpaB^enie 
dirty, rpkaabili 
disease, GOJI-BSHB (/.), H 
distant, see far 
distinctly, HCIIO 
district (canton), y-fesH-b, bi 
do, to, n'BJiaxb 
doctor, fldKxop-b, a 
dog, coGana, H ; neci., ncu 
domesticated, HOManmift 
door, flsepb (/.), H; out of doors, na 

down, BHH3*b 

doze, to, jjpeMaxb 

draw, to, pHCOBaxt 

drawing (sketch), pucyHOK-b, HKH 

drawing-room, aajia, H; rocxrinan, MH 

dreadful, yntacHbitt 

drenched, to be, Mdirayxi, 

dress, to (act.), on-feBaxb; (neut.), ofl-E- 

BaXbCH, Ofl-BXbCH" 

drink, nnxbe, H; drink, to, nnxi, 
drive, to (=go in a vehicle), ixaxb ; 

(= convey in a vehicle), 

to drive away (= chase), 

oxroHrfxb; ( depart), 
drove up, he, npi-txajii, ; 
dry, cyx6ft 


each, KajKjjbift ; each other, npyri, flpyra ; 
to each other, npyc-b apyry; with 
each other, npyri> c-b npyroM-b ; see 
Par. 183 

early, paimiii; (adv.), pano 

earn, to, sapaGaxbiBaxb 

earth, aeMJia, ^H ; Mipi, bit (world) 

easier, jierne 

east, BocxdK-b 

Easter, CB-ixjioe BocKpecenbe 

easy, jiertdft 

eat, to, -fecxb; Kyniaxt 

eight, B6ceMb 

eighteen, BoceMiiajmaxb 

eighth, BocbMdtt 

eight hundred, BoceMbc6xt 





either, II.IH 

elder, crapmitt 

elder, village, crapocra, bi (m.) 

eleven, o^riiiuajmaTb 

else (or), tie r6 

embrace, to, oCsHBarb 

emperor, nMneparopt 

empire, uapcruo, a 

empty, nycrdtt 

end, Koiicin., nmj 

enemy, iienpiareJib, n (m.); span., 11 

engage, to, see to occupy 

England, Aiu.ihi 

English, aiirjiittcKitt ; in English, no- 


Englishman, aiir.iii*iaimiii>, ane 
enormous, rpo.Majjiiijft 
enough, aoBo;n>Ho; enough ! n6-in<>! 
enter, to (=go in), BXOAHTB; (= in- 

scribe), aaniicbiBarb ; to enter upon, 

entered, he, Bome.Tb 
entire, irEJiuft ; no.iiibin 
entrance, Bi>-B3jn>, u 
entrance-hall, uep^iinn, in 
environs, oKpecniocTb (/.), H 
equal, pa mi LI rt 
erect, to, nocraBJirfTi, 
estate, ycajn>6a, LI 
esteem, to, ysawaTb ; noqnraxi, 
even, na/Ke 
evening, B^nepi,, a; in the evening, 



everything, see 



exact, uciipaBiibitt 

exactly, p6uuo 

example, npuM-tpi, u; for exanr, 

excuse me! 

excavate, to, Bupuearb 


excuse, to, 

execute, to, 
exercise (problem), aajaua 

expression, nupa:; 
extend, to (intr.), THH> 
external, iiapymuutt 
extreme, Kpuiuiin 
extremely, caMijft (adj.), 
eye, rnaai, a 


fable, GacuH, B 

face, JiBud, ^a 

fair, a, ripMapua, B 

fairly, noB6jibiio 

faity-tale, cnaaua, B 

faithful, sipnuft 

fall, to, ynaaaxb ; to fall into, 

family, coibrf, -^B 

far, na. 

far (before compar.), ropaajio 

farewell ! npomattxe! 

farther, na.Tfee, naJibine 

fast, see quick 

fat, mapHbiH 

father, oTeirt, xmi; CariouiKa, B 

fear, to, Sorfrbcn 

feast, see festival 

feather, nep6, nepbH 

February, $eBpajib (m.) 

feeble, cjia6un 

feed, to, KopMHTb 

feel, to, H^BCTBOBarb 

feel a desire, to, aaxoTBTb (perf.) 

feeling, lyBCTBO, a 

fell, he, ynajii. 

festival, npaajmairb, B; (adj.), npaa- 

few, ncKoobKo (with gen.); neMn6rie 


field, i io. if, H 

fight, ,ip;uca, n 
find, a, iiaxdnKa 

find, to, II:I\M;UHI, 

fine, see good 

. na.ieuTb, 
lini^h. to, i;o;< 
fire, oioiu,. riii'i (m.); to keep up the 

. to stoke, aaTonjirixb 
firewood, nposa (n. pi.) 
iinn, iqri.iiKitt 
first, n6paufl ; at first, cnaqajia ; first of 

all, npc>iue n> 
five, n 

five hundred, nHTbcd-n. 
tl.ime, II.I.IMM (n.), eaA 
flat (a : ipnipa, u 

; flesh, 



flit past, to, 

flog, to, c-EH 

floor, n6jrb, 


fold, to, 


food, nikma, H; KymaHbe, H 

foot, nora, -^H; to go on foot, 

for (conj.) 660, noxoiwy qxo; (prep.), 
HJIH (g'ew.); aa (ace.) (of price); 
na (occ.) (fc'rae) ; as for, <m> 
KacaexcH (with HO arwZ </m.) 

foreigner, HiiocTpaHeir&, HU.H 

forest, ji-tct, a 

forge, to, KOBaxb 

forget, to, saSbiBaxb 

form (figure, way), 66pa3t, bi 

fortieth, copoKOB6fi 

fortunately, KI> (no) ciacxiro 

forty, ctipOKb 

forwards, Bnepejrt; to go backwards 
and forwards, xojjrixb B3ajrb H 

found, to be, naxojntrbCH 

found, he, na 

four, nenipe 

four hundred, 


fourth, q 

fox, jinca ; JIHCI^^a, M 

France, Opanuia 

free, B6jn,HMtt 

French, ^painryacKia ; in French, no- 

Frenchman, , 

Frenchwoman, <J>paHny>KeHKa, H 

frequent, to, noc-Emaxt 

Friday, nrixmma 

friend, Hpyn,, -ysbri; nojjpyra (/.), H; 

npijixejib (w.), H 
frightful, ymacHMtt 
fro, to and, Bsajrb H snepem 
from (=out of), HSI, (gen.); (=away), 

on, (gen.); (=off, suice), c* (gen.); 

from behind, csaflH (gen.) 
front of, in, see before 
frontier, rpanriija 
frost, Mopds-b, bi; hard frost, 

full, ii6. T im,iii 
furniture, MeSejib (/.) 
future (adj.), 6yymitt 


gallows, Biic"fejiHLia, M 
game, nrpa, -^M 
garden, cant, bi; kitchen-garden, oro- 

gate, Bop6xa (n. pi.) 

gave, he, naji-b 

gaze, to, see to look at 

general, renepaji-b, w 

generally, OSMKHOBCHHO 

gentle, MiiJibnl 

German, H-tivreu-b, MW ; (adj.), 

Germany, TepMaHiH 

get up, to, see to rise 

ginger-bread, HPHHUKT., H 

girl, jrkByimia, H; little girl, g-EBOwa, n 

give, to, naBaxb, naxb 

given, naHHbrii 

glad, pam, 

glad, to be, pajjoBaxbCH 

glance, to, 3arjiribiBaxb 

glass (drinking), cxaKan-b, bi 

glide, tO, CKOJIb3HTb 

gloom, cyMpaKt 

glove, nep^axKa, H 

gnaw, to, rpbisxb 

go, to, xojnixb; Hxxri ; -fexaxb (not on foot) ; 
to go abroad, -fexaxb 3a rpannuy ; to 
go away, yxojntrb 1 ; to go into, 
BxonikTb l ; to go on, c^'EJiaxbCH ( = 
to take place); to go out, BWXO- 
Hiixb 1 ; to go through, npoxoanxb x ; 
nepexojnixb J j went through, npo- 
mejTb ; to go up to, noflxojtiixb * ; 
oxo6xb 1 ; to go to bed, jiojKtiTbcn 
cnaxb ; nxxii cnaxb ; to go upstairs, 

God, B6rb, H 

gold, 36jioxo 

golden, 30Jiox6ft 

good, xop6miii; 66pbitt 

good-bye, o cBHaaniH 

good-day, sApaBcxByflxe 

goodness, noGpoxa 

goods, Bem;b (/.), H ; xoBapi, bi 

goose, rycb (m.), n 

government (administrative division of 

Russia), ry66pniH, H 
grand-daughter, BuyiKa, H 
grandfather, fl'tm., bi ; jrEflyuiKa, H 
grandmother, 6a6yuiKa, H 
grandson, BHym., H 

Cf . note to Par. 208. 



grass, rpasa, -'u 

great, 6ojn>ui6rt ; nc.niiciii 

greater, 66.11, mitt 

green, ai-.n-iiurt 

grey, etpuit 

grief, rdpe, A 

grieve, to (intr.), ropeBarb 

groaning, cr6nt, ia 

ground, see earth 

grow, to, pacrii ; Bbipacrarb 

grown up, Bap6c.iutt 

gruel, Kama 

grumble, to, nopqan, 

guard, on, iia nacaxi 

half, nojioBiiua, H 

hall, aajia, u; (vestibule), nepeoHHH, in 

halt ! = stand! 

hamlet, ;iep6Bim, H 

hammer, to, 

hand, pyna, -^H 

hang, to (intr.), 

happen, to, cjiyiaxbcn, <uiyuiTbcn ; 


happiness, cuacric 

happy, c'lacT.'iiiBbitt 

hard, TBepaun ; see difficult 

hardly, easa 

hard-working, TpyaojiioCiiBuil 

harvest, marea, u; to harvest, man 

have, to, 6bm> y + gen. of person ; IIM krb ; 

BJiajTBTb ; have I ? CCTB JIH. y iweiui? 

I have to, H ji6n>Kem, (na, 116, HLI) 
he, OUT, 
head, ro.iona, rdJiosti; to take into 

one's head, see to conceive 
health, 3Aop6Bi>e 
heap, uyqa, H 
hear, to, 
heart, cepwie, 6; to learn by heart, 

yufrn. uauaycrb 
heat, to, TOM tin. 
heaven, 11660, -Geca 
heavy, TJUK&ndt 
height, Bucora, OTLI 
help, to, noMora-rb (dot.) 
hence, orcibfla 

her, eA (gen.\ en (dot.\ ct (ace.) 
here, aa-kcb ; here is ! BOTT>! 
hero, repott, H 
heroine, repoinin, H 
hesitate, to, 

hide, to, 
high, nuc6i;iu 
higher, Biamift 
highest, Bbiuie Bccr6 

.'. (gen. and ace.), CMJ- (dat.) 
hind, ca.MKa (oaeiui i 
his, er6 
hither, ciona 
hold, to, nepmarb 
hole ( = pit), AMB, LI 
holy, cBHTdtt 
home, at, n6a; home (with verbs of 


honest, nee-mutt 
hope, to, 

horse, .lomajib, H (/.) 
horseback, on, Bepx6>ii> 
hospital, Go.ibuj'ma, u 
host (master), xoarfmn., 
hot, roprfnitt ; ;Kapnitt 
hotter, Htapqe 
hour, Mi'ici., u 
house, JOMT., a; little house, 

H; peasant house, naCa, -^u 
how, Kairb ; KaniiMi. 66pa3OMi, ; how are 

you ? Haiti. Bbi HonniBacTC? 
however (con/.), omiano/Ki.; BceTai;n 
how many, how much, cii6ai>Ko 
huddled, to sit, see to press (themselves) 
humble, iioKopnuti 
humiliating, yHi!;uiTe.ii>iiuii 
hundred, cro 
hundredth, corutt 
hunt, to, roniiTb ; runn, 
hunting (used for), r6n-iiii 
hurry along, to, necnicb (used of the 


hurts, it, 6ojiirn,, GoarfTB 
husband, My>m>, i>A 
hut (wooden house), iiaCa, -^u 


if, rf.ll! 


ignorant, iieyHeiuiMii 

ill, r.i.-ibii6ft; to be ill, Co.Ttrb; to fall 
ill, .jaoo.Tim, 

illumine, to, ocB-fcuiarb-; oaapjin. 

image, oGpaai, u 

immense, see enormous 

impossible, ncB03M6>mihin ; it is im- 
possible, IK 



in, BT>, BO (prep.) 
incessant, nocxorfHHbiii ; 


indeed, n-feiicxBiixejibHo ; npaBna; npaso 
indifferent, paBHonynmbrii 
industrious, npHJiejKHbiii; 
infirmary, Goatmina, H 
inhabitant, jKaxejib, H (m.) 
inquire, to, see to ask 
inscribe, to, aaniicbiBaxb 
inspect, to, ocMaxpHBaxb 
instead of, BM-BCTO (gen.) 
intelligent, yMHbift 
interest, yqacxie 
interesting, HHxepecHbtft 
into, BT, (ace.) 
iron, KejrE3o; of iron, 
is there ? ecxb JIH? 
is to, ndjiHceirb 

it, ond ; 6ro (or masc. or fern, forms) 
Italian, HxajitriHcuiii (adj.); in Italian, 

Italy, HxaniH 
its, er6, en 


January, HHBapb (m.) 
jingle, to, aBeirtxb 
joke, myxKa, H 
jolly, Becejibni 
jug, KySbiinKa, H 
July, iibjib (m.) 
jump about, to, np&raxb 
June, iibiib (m.) 
just ( = right), npaBbift; just (with past 

tense), xdjibKO HXO; just as it 

happened, Kan-b pas-b 

keep, to, nep>Kaxb; 6epeib 

key, KJiioq-b, A 

kind, H66pbifi; JiroSesHbitt 

kindle, to, aaHtnraxb 

kindness, noSpoxa 

king, Kop6jib, H (m.) 

kitchen, Kyxnn, H; kitchen-garden, 

kitten, KOXCHOKT., xrfxa 

knee, Koa-feno, a 

knife, IIO/KL, A 

knit, to, BHaaxb 

knock, to, cxyiaxb 

know, to, y iiars; to know how to, 

yiw-fexb; to get to know, yanasaxb, 


knowledge, ananie 

known, anaKOMbiti ; well-known, HSB-BCX- 


kvass, KBaci 

labour, see trouble 

lad, MOJio^dtt ^ejioB'BK'bj napenb (w.), 

PHH ( = peasant -lad) . 
lady, naivra, M 
lake, daepo, a or epa 
lament, to, (no)nJiaKaxb 
lamp, jiaivina, 1,1 
land, SCMJIH, --H ; cxpana, -^M 
landed proprietor or land-owner, HOM-B- 

mnm,, H 
larger, 66jibiniii 
largest of all, 66jibinitt scer6 
last, nocji-BAHifi ; np6iujibifl (past) 
last, at, HaKOH6irb 

late, n63flHiii; (= deceased), noK6tebili 
late (adv.), n63HO 
later, n6sjKe 
latter, nocji-B^Hbitt 
laugh, to, cM-ErixbCH; to make laugh, 


laughable, CM-BniH6tt 

lay, to, KJiacxb 

lay down, she, Jieraa 

laziness, jrfeHb (/.) 

lazy, jiiiHriBbift 

lead, cBuneiTB, gen. HUE 

lead, to, Becxri 

lead astray, to, cSiroaxb 

learn, to, yqiixbCH (neut.) (dat.); nayiaxb 

(transitive,=to study a subject) ; to 

learn by heart, yqrixb Haasycxb ; 

see to get to know 
learned, yienutt 
learning, yqeiiie 
least, MeHbiniii; at (the) least, no 

Kpafinett M-Epii; not in the least, 


leather, K6a<a 

leave, to, noKimaxb (=to leave in the 

lurch) ; to leave (school), KOH<raxb ; 

to leave alone, ocxasjiiixb 

left, JTBBbltt 

left, to be, ocxasaxbca 

less (adj.), M6Hbniitt; (adv.), inenbrae ; 


lesson, ypoK-b, H ; to learn a lesson, 



let, to, nycKa-n.; let ! nycrh! ; nycKaft! ; 

let us ! Aauart! 
letter, nncbM6, -<* 
lie, to ( = to tell lies), aran,; ( = to 

recline), jiewarb; to lie down, 

life, wiiaiib, ii (/.) 

lifetime, in his own, BT, CBOC.MT, Bln<y 

lift, to, nojuuiMarb 

light, CB-tn> (gen. sing, a) 

light (=not heavy), jiendfl; (=not 

dark), cB-ET.iuft 
light, to, aajKiirarb; to light upon, 

like, to, nto6An>; upasm-bcn ( = to be 

pleasing) ; if you like, nowajiytt 
lion, JICBT,, HBBU 
listen, to, cnyuiarb 
literal, GyKBu.n.nutt 
little (adj.), M&nem>Ki&; Manutt; (adv.), ; a little, neMndro 
live, to, jKitTb ; no/KiiuaTb 
living, >KHB6tt 
lock, 3aM6in>, MKik 
long, a.iii!iiibitt; ao.irift (time); long 

ago, jaBiibiMi>-jaBii6 ; not long since, 


look, to take a, nocMorp-Bn, (perf.) 
look, to, cMorp-BTb ; to look at, cMorp-ferb 

na (ace.); nocMaTpuBaTb; Barjiri- 

nbiBarb ; to look for=to seek 
Lord, the, Tocndab (m.), Tbcnoaa (gen. 

lot, a, MHOro; MH^KCCTBO, a; ( = heap), 

nyqa, n 
loud, rp6MKitt 

love, jiio66BH (/.), g^n. sing. 606 
love, to, .iioGiiTb 
low ( = not high), mijuift; (=not loud), 

lower, H^sinitt, tubice 



maid (servant), cnymaHKa, H 

majority, 66.nunn Hacn> ( H 

make, to, jrijia-n. ; see to oblige 

man, qe.iOB-fciCb, pi. .TKUH ; Mync'tiiitn, u 

manner, 66pa3i>, u; in what manner ? 

H (/.) 

many, MHOPO 
March, >iaprb 
marrow, M6an>, A 

mask, Macita, H 

master, XO;IHHHT,, -rfeaa 

matter,, a; it does not matter, 


may (verb), Moqb (be able); it may be, 

me, Mcurt (gen., ace.), MII* (dot.) 

meadow, Jiyn,, a 

means, that, 

measure, M-fepa, w 

meat, MHCO 


meet, to, BCTp*qan.; till we meet again, 


meeting, CBnaanie, H 

mention it, don't, ne cT6im. 

merchant, Kyneirb, nmi 

merry, Bece.iutt 

middle, cpejiiina, u 

mighty, Morynitt; ciuibiiLifl 

military, soemiun 

milk, MO.IOKO 

million, MH.i.ii6in>, u 

mind, never, nimer6 

mine, Mort, MOH, MoS, MOH 

minister, MHHHCTPT>, u 

minute, MiiHyra, u 

misfortune, Hecnacxie, H; r6pe, fi 

modest, cKpOMHutt 

modesty, cKpdMHocn. (/.) 

moment, Mo>i6im,, u ; Mirayra, bi 

Monday, noHe^Ejn>HnKi> 

money, 6ra,rH (/. pi.) 

month, M-ECHITI., u 

moon, Jiyna, -^u 

more, 66jrfce, Go.ibiue ; far more, ropaajo 

morning, yrpo, a; in the morning, 


most, 66jibine Bcerd ; see majority 
mother, Man., Marepn; MaryuiKa, n 
motherly, MareprtucKitt 
mourn, to, (no)n.iaKaTb ; ropcsaTb 
mouse, MHnib, n (/.) 
much, Mii6ro 
mushroom, rpn6i>, 
must, I, H n6.iweirb, jima, etc.; MH* 

my, Molt, Mort, MOC, MOii 


naked, rfjiufl 
name, HMH, nMcna (n.) 
narrow, yaKift; rtcnialt 



native tongue, pojm6ft 

nature, npHp6jja 

near, 6jiH3t (gen.); SJIHSKO oxi, (gen.) 

nearly, HOTTH 

necessary, HynmbiH 

neck, men, H 

need to, I, MH* HyjKiio ; MH-B nao 

neighbour, 6jiH>KHiH (adj.) 

neighbourhood, oKpecxnocxb, n 

neither= also not ; HH 

nephew, HJieMrfHHHK-b, H 

nest, rH-fesjid, nrtana; to build nests, 
BHXB rH-E3jja (-B=e) 

never, HHKorna 

never mind, mraerd 

nevertheless, x-fem-b He Men-fee 

new, HOBMii 

next= folio wing or future 

nice, BKycHbift (to taste); MHJibifi (dear) 

Nicholas, HHKOJiatt 

niece, njieMHraraua, H 

night, H6*n>, H; by night, H6n>io; good- 
night ! (c)noK6fiHoft 

nine, n6BHXb 

nine hundred, 


ninety, jjeBjm6cxo 

no, H-fex-b; ne 

nobleman, HBOpHiiHHb, Hue 

no one, mn<x6 

nor, HH 

north, c-feBep-b 

nose, ndc-b, i 

no sort of, HHKaK6tt 

not, H-fex-b ; ire ; HH ; not at all, 
HC (n-fex-b) ; B6Bce He (H-BXI.) 

nothing, HHnx6; HHier6 

notice, to, aaM-feqaxb 

November, noriSpb, H (m.) 

now, xen6pb 

nowhere, unrjrB 

nowhere (nowhither), HHKya 

number, qncji6, -^a; MH6a<ecxBO, a (=a 
great many) 

numerous, MiioroiHCJieimbiH 

nurse (child's), HHHH, H 

oak, y6-b, li 
oar, Becjid, *a 

Oats, OBCC-b, BCbl 

object, npeHMex-b, bi; seinb, H (/.) 
oblige, to (compel), aacxaBJirixt ; to be 

obliged, 6bixb 6a>KeHi>, n<na, etc. 
observe, to, nocMaxpusaxb ; 

occasion, cjiyian, H 

occupy, to, aaiiHMaxb 

o'clock, at what ? Bb noxdpoM-b 

October, oKXHSpt (m.) 

of, nab (out of; gen.) ; ox-b, (from ; gen.) 

off, cb (away from; gen.); ox-b (gen.) 

offer, npejtJio>K6Hie, H 

office, KOHxdpa, M 

officer, o$Huep-b, M or a 

Official, qHH6BHHK-b, H 

often, nacxo 

oldjcxapufi; old age, cxapocxb (/.) ; old 

man, cxapnK-b, H ; old woman, 

cxapyxa, H; days of old, cxapnna 
on, na (prep.); on to, na (ace.) 
once, OHHajKHbi ; paa-b ; ojuin-b past ; 

at once, celiiacb; once more, eme 


one, ofliiH-b, ana, 6, H, -fe 
open, to, 
opinion, MH-feme, H; in my opinion, no 

opportunity, see occasion 

opposite, npdxHBi. (gen.) 

oppressive, jrymubiii (= close) 

or, HJIH; JIH 

order that, in, ixoSbi 

order, to, Bejiixb (dat.) 

orphan, cnpoxa, -^-bi; little orphan, 

cnp6xKa, H 
other, npyrritt ; each other, npyn, npyra ; 

to each other, npyr-b npyry 
our, ours, nam-b, a, e, H 
out of, H3-b (gen.); out of doors, na 


outside = out of doors 

over, nab (above; instr.); o (about; 

prep.); qepea-b (through; ace.) 
own, cB6ii ; c66cxBeHHbifl 

OWn, to, 
OX, GblK-b, H 




, -a 

, piui 

; to be (turn) pale, 

palpate, to, onjynbiBaxb 

paper, Gyiwara, H 

pardon, to, npomaxb; ii3BHH>ixb; pardon 

me ! npocxrixe! 
part, qacxb, n (/.) 
pass, to (of time), npoBoanxb ; pass by, 



passed through, he, npom&n 

passport, nacuopn,, u or a 

past (adj.), np6ui.-iun; (prep, time), 

nocjrfc (gen.); (adv. or prep, space), 

MriMo (gen.) 
patience, Tepirfciiie 
paw, Jiana, u; little paw, jianita, a 
pay, to, n.ianrn,; to pay out, Bbimia- 

peace, Mi'ipi; to make peace between, 
see to reconcile 

peasant, MyjKiiia., rt ; Kpecn>riinnn,,>ine; 
peasant-house, iiaCa, *; peasant- 
woman, 6aCa, u 

pen, iiepo, uepbii 

pencil, Kapaiuaiirb, li 

people, nibjni (folks) ; nap6jn>, ti (nation ; 

perhaps, M6werb-<5uTb 

person, .111116, -^a 

pick up, to, see to lift 

picture, itaprihia, bi 

piece, Kyc6m,, crai 

pig, CBiuibri, -MI 

pink, pojoButt 

pipe, rpyCKa, H 

pit, rtMa, u 

piteous, pitiful, 

pity, it is a, 

place, M-fccro, a 

play, to, in pan, 

playground (school), ynii:iiiunibiit nsopi 

pleasant, npirtrinaO ; MI);IUH 

please, to (to be pleasing), iipaBirrbcn; 
if you please, nowajiyttcra 

plough (Russian), coxa, -MI 

plough, to, naxarb 

point, rdiKa, ji 

poor, 6-Ejuiuft 

position, no;n'iuii, n 

pOtBOSQ, to, iiMlin, ; Bjia^Tb ( = have 
under command) 

possession, BJiaa^uic, n 

possible, Bo:iM<'Kiiutt; is it possible? 

Il6>i:ii<> -in.' HC i\i('.;i:ii() :m? ; it is 

possible, MO/KHO ; is it possible, can 

it be ? ncywenn . . . in .' 
pot (jug), KyouniKa, u 
pour, to, nun. 

V, C^ailOCTb (/.) 
p. -\vi-rf ul. MOI <'iifi 
practical, upaimiMiiuit 
praise, noxsajia, u 
praise, to, xBajiiin. 
pray, to, MC- 


prayer, MojiriTBa, u ; to say one's 
prayers, Mo.iriTbcn 

prefer, to, npeano'urr:: 

prepare, to, upm oroBjniTb ; BburB.ibiBaTb 

presence of, in, npii (prep.) 

present (adj.), nacTorfuut 

preserve, to, 6epe<n> 

press, see cupboard 

press, to, waTb : warbCH (Voc. XLIII) 

pretty, itpacrieurt ; xoptiuieiibidft 

prevent, to, M-bmarb 

price, u-Ena, -^u; not at any price, 
mi :ta <rr6 na CB-BT-B 

prince, Kiuiab, ti 

print, a, acraMni, u 

prison, TiopbMa, -^u 

private, see simple 

problem, aajiaMa, H 

profit,>, H (/.) 

proposal, npejtJiomeuie, H 

proprietor, see landed proprietor 

pupil, yMPiniin,, 11 (m.); ynemina, u (/.) 

puppy, nien6Ki>, HKii or meiniiu 

put, to, KJiacrb (=lay); to put on, 
craBHTb ( = set, stand); to put on 
(clothes), ojrBBaTb ; to put behind 
(to pawn), 3aK.iaauBaTb ; to put 
questions, see to ask 

quarrel, see fight 
queen, i<opoji6Ba, u 
question, eoiipoeb, u 
question, to, cnpamiiBaTi, 
quick, ci;6purt 
quiet, cuoKdniitin; rixitt 

race (stock), HJICMH, Meiia (n.) 
raft, nji6rb, u 

railway, meji-B3iian nopora, n 
rain, non<ju>, A (.) 

u. iiAen, 

raise, to, iiooiumaTb 
rare, pi 
ran-ly, pf.;u;<> 

rate of, at the, no (Par. 183) 
rather, CHOP ( = in preference ( fairly) 
ravenous, xi'muiufl 
reach, to, noxonirrb (=go as far as); 

, (=get, attain) 
reached, he, nonic.n, (ao) 



read, to, iirraxb 



really, upaeo ; jrfettcxBikxejibHO ; BT, 


reap, to, 

recede, to, 

receive, to, nojiyqaxb, 

recently, nenaBHo 

reckon, to, 

recognize, to, 

reconcile, to, 

red, KpacHHtt 

regard, to, cmoxp-fexb ; noinxaxb (= 

esteem); ysajKaxb (= respect) 
regret, coHtajrBHie, H; to one's regret, 


reign, rjapcxsoBame ; ijapcxso, a (=em- 


reign, to, rjapcxBosaxb 
rejoice, to, paaoBaxtcfl 
relate, to, cnasbiBaxb ; pascKasuoaxB 
related, closely, poanoii 
remain, to, ocxaBaxbca 
remaining, ocxajibn6tt 
remember, to, n6MHiixb ; BcnoMimaxb 
remote, aajieKift 
repair, to, noTOHrfxb 
repetition, noBxopenie 
represent, to, npeacxaBJirfxb; H3o6paKarb 
representing, naoopa/Karomitt 
request, to, npocrixb 
resolve, to, ptmaxb, p-feimtrb 
resound, to, 3BCH-txb 
respect, to, ysajKaxb 
rest, to, oxjjuxaxb 
resurrection, BocKpec6nie 
rich, SoraxMfi 
richer, Soraie 
riches, 6oraxcxBO 
ride, to, -ixaxb Bepx6ivn> 
right, npaebift ; not right, He xaKi 
rise, to, Bcxasaxb (=get up); 

(of the sun) ; noHHHMaxbca ( = go up) 
river, p-BKa, -^H 

road, flopdra, H ; nyxb, 6 (m..) 1 
room, K6MHaxa, M ; (private room, 

study), KaGmierb, bi 
rope, sepeBKa, H 
rouble, py6b, tit 


row (rank), 

row, to, rpecxri 

rower, rpeGeqi,, 6ini 

ruin, rnGejib, H (/.) 

rule, uapcxBOBanie 

rule, to, BJia-fexb (instr.) 

ruler, rocynapb, H (m.) 

rummage, to, pbixbca 

run, to, S-feataxb ; to run away, 

Russia, Poccin 

Russian, pyccKifi ; in Russian, no-pyccKH 

rye, pojKb (/.) 

sabre, ca6JiH, H 
sacrifice, mepxBa, H 
sad, cKyiHbrtl 
sail, napyc-b, a 
same, caMMft 
samovar, caivioBap-b, bi 
sat down, he, c-feji-b 
Saturday, cy666xa, w 
save, to, cnacaxb 
saved, he, cnac-b 
say, to, roBoprixb, CKaaaxb 
scamp (playfully), niajiyn-b, 
scarlet-fever, cKapjiaxrina 
school, uiKOJia, M; ynrijinme, a; (adj.), 
school-boy, yHemiKb, 
rHMHaaricx-b, M; school-girl, 


scrimmage, npaKa, H 
scythe, Koca, -^-w 
sea, M6pe, A 
season, BpeMH rdjia 
second, Bxop6fi ; ;upyr6ft 
see, to, siifl-fexb ; Bnnaxb 
seed, c-feiviH, ena 

seek, to, HCKaxb ; to seek out, cbiCKiisaxb 
seems, it, KajKexcn 
seldom, P-BHKO 
self, ^,e6A (refl. pron.) ; CI'IM-B, a, 6, -^H 

seU, to, nponasaxb 
send, to, nocujiaxb, nocjiaxb 
September, cenxHSpb (m.) 
servant, cjiyra, -^n (m.); cjiymaHKa, H 


serve, to, 

1 Declined as a fern, noun, but the instr. sing, is nyieM-b. 



service, cjiy>6a, u 

set, to, craniiTb (trans.) ; aaxoaihr, (of 
the sun); to set about, na-m: 

(per/, verb); to set up, 

seven, CCMB 

seven hundred, ce.Mbcorb 

seventeen, ceMna;in:ni, 

seventh, cejp>M6ft 

seventy, c^Mbaecnn. 

severe, cypouutt ; crpdritt 

sew, HIM 1 1. 

shake, to, noxpncaTb 

share, ynac-rie 

sharp, 6crputt 

she, ona; 3ra 

shed, capatt, H 


shine, to, 

ship, Kopa6.Tb, ri (m.) 

shirt, py6aiiiKa, n 

shop-assistant, clerk, npuKaaquKb, H 

shore, 6epen,, a 

short, Kop6TKitt 

shorter, Kop6ie 

show, to, noKaauBaxb, noKaaarb 

shrink, to, 

shut, to, 

sick, 6ojibH6tt 

sickle, cepn-b, u 

sickness, Go.i-feaiib, H (/.) 

side, cxopona, - -u 

sigh, to, Bajnjxarb 

sight (spectacle) ap-BJimne, a ; (view) 
Briar,, bi 

sight of, to catch, yaiijrBTb (perf.) 

sign, anaKb, n 

silly, see stupid 

silver, cepe6pd; (adj.), cep66pnbifl 

simple, iipocrdtt 

simply, npdcTO 

since (prep.), CT, (gen.); (adv.), CT, 
s nopi, ; roMy naaajfb ( = ago); 
long since, yw6 jauno; not long 
since, iiejaeiio ; (con/. ) ram. Kam> 
(=as); CT, rfcxT, nbpi,, imin, (of 

sing, to, nf.Ti, 

sister, cecrpa, -u 

sit, to ( = to be seated), ciu"liTb; to sit 
down ( = take a seat), 

six, inecTb 

six hundred, iuecTbc6n 


sixth, uiecrdft 

sixty, raecTbaecrtrb 
sketch, piicyiioirb, IIKII 
skin, no/Ha, n 

oo, nefieca 
sleep, to, criarb 
sleep, to go to, jnrri cnarb ; 

t na rb ; ycbinarb 
slide, to, cHo.u.JiiTb 
slow, Mi';i.icHiii,ni 
slumber, to, ^pcMarb ; cnarb 
sly, xiirpbirt 
small, Ma.Tuii ; Ma.iciibHiit ; 

( = fine) 
smaller, Metibiiiift 
smith, Kyaiieu-b, u 
smoke, to, KypArb 
smooth, rjia,iKitt 
snow, . cH-ferb, a ; snow, to, cn-fcn. 

snow-storm, Merejib, n (/.) 

so, xam,; crojibKo; so much, cr6.ibKo; 

so that, rr66bi 
soft, MrfrKitt (=not hard); riixitt (=not 


soldier, cojiaarb, u 
soldierly, coaaarcKitt 
solve, to, p-femarb 
some, irBKOTOpbitt ( = a certain); Kandtt- 

Hii6yoi>; irfecKO.ibKie, in ( = & few) ; 

H-fecKQjn.KQ^ (governs gen. ) ' , 

something, "^6^- nngp^) qro - Hn6y jb ^ ^ 

( = anything) ; TO&-TO*" 

somewhere or other, to, 
so much, cTtfjibKO 

SOn, CLIH-b, -HODbH 

song, rrfecmi, n 

soon, c-Kopo ; pano 

sooner, paiibiuc; cuop-BC 

sorrow, r6pe, A 

sort of, no, iniKaKott; what sort of, 

HaKOBoH (odj.) ; i;ai;(ift 
soup, cym,, u; cabbage - soup, mu 


south, wn, 
sow, to, 
spade, Jionara, u 

Spanish, iiriiaiu-i.-iii 

speak, to, roBopun. : 

spectacle, api.:nnu\ a 

spend, to (time), upon 

spin, to, up; 

spite of, in, iiecMorprf na (occ,) 





spoil, to, ndpxnxB 

spring (season), Becna, ^H; in spring, 

SprOUt, tO, BblpaCXaXb 

square (in a town), nji6m;anb, H (/.) 

stable, KombmHH, H 

stag, ojienb, H (m.) 

stair, jTBcxHiiua, bi 

stand, to, cxorfxb (intr.); cxaBHXb 


stand up, to, scxasaxb, Bcxaxb 
start, to, naqiraaxb ; cxaxb ( begin); 

OTb-bajKarb (= drive away) 
state (polit.), rocynapcxBo, a 
station (railway), BOKsajrb, LI 
stay, to, see to remain 
steal, to, BopoBaxb; Kpacn, 
stiff, Kp'tnKiii 
still (adv.), see yet; (adj.), xrixifi ; 

stirrup; -cxpeMH, ena (n.) 

stocking, qyji6Ki>, JIK& 

stoke, to, aaxonjirixb; xonrixb 

stone, KaMeiib, MHH (m.); (adj.), KaiueH- 


stoop, to, HaraSaxbCH 

stop ! ndJiHo! 

stork, ancxi,, LI 

story, paacnasi,, H ; CKaaKa, H 

stx)ve, ne i ib, H (/.) 

strange, cxpaHHuii; qywdft (=not one's 


stream, pyqeft, b6 ; p-feKa, ^H 
street, yjiHLta, H 
strict, cxp6rift 
stride, to, maraxb 
strike, to, yaapjixb ; 6nxb; to strike 

against, xojiKaxbCH 
strive, to, cxapaxbCH 
strong, cHJibHbitt ; Kp-fentun 
study, to, see to learn 
stupid, rjiynbitt 
such, xaK6it 

sufficiently, flOB6jibno ; nocxaxo'ino 
summer, ji-fexo, a; in summer, JTEXOMT,; 

summer (country) residence, naia, 


sun, c6nime, a 
Sunday, BocKpecenbe, H 

_ .:, y>KHHi, H 
suppose, to, nojiaraxb 
sure, B-EPHLI& /' 
surely, B-EPHO; surely not, 
surface, noBepxnocxb, H (/.) 
survey, to, ociwaxpHBaxb 
sweep up, to 

table, CXOJIT,, bit; at (the) table, aa cxo- 

tail, xBOCx-b, bi 

tailor, nopxH6ft, lie 

take, to, Spaxb; to take away (in a 

conveyance), oxBoaiixb; to take off 

(down), cHHMaxb; to take place, 

cjiyqaxbCH ; jTEJiaxbca ; to take 

thought, 6e3no-K6&xbCH 
tale, paacKaa-b, M 
talk, to, Gojixaxb ; rosopiixb 
tall, Buc6Ki# 

tan (colour), 
tasty, BKycHbEtt 
taught, to be, see to learn 
tea, qatt, Bt 
teach, yq^xb 
teacher, yqiixejib, H (m.) ; yqiixejibmnja, 


tear, cjieaa, -^M 
tear, to, nopwBaxb 
tea-urn, caMoaap-b, LI 
tell, to, cKasbiBaxb, CKaaaxb ; seji-fexb 

ten, necHXb 
terrible, ywacHbrti 
territory, B^aA"feHie, H 
than, qijivrb; HewejiH 
thank, to, 6jiaroflapiixb ; thank yon, 

that (demonstr.), xoxi, xa, xo, x-fe ; ^xox-b, 

5xa, 3xo, 3xn; (relative), Koxoputt ; 

KXO; qxo; (conj.), qxo ; qx66bi; that 

is, xo ecxb ; anaqiixi. 
that is why, BOXI, noqeiviy 
thee (ace. and gen.), xe6rf; (dat.), 

their, theirs, nx-b 

them, Hx-b, HM-b, etc. 

then, xoraa (=at that time); 

(= after that) 
thence, oxxyHa 
there, xaivn,; there is or are, ecxb 



therefore, noxoMy, no3xoMy 

there is 1 there are 1 eon,! 

they, ourt (TO. and n.) ; oirn (/.) 

thick, T6.i- 

thief, n6p-b, u (68-b) 

thin, x6iiKirt ; Hi;u<ifl (of fluids) 

thine, ate thy 

thing, Beiub, H (/.); npenMex-b, LI; 

jrluio, & 

think, to, ayMaxb 
third, xpexitt 
thirteen, xpmianuaTb 
thirty, xpii;uuixi, 
this, dxox-b, 5xa, xo, $TH 
thither, xyna 
thou, xu 
though, xoxrf 6u 
thousand, xbicaia 
three, rpn ; three hundred, Tpricra 
through, H6peai (ace.) ; CKBO3b (ace.) 
through, went, npom< 
throw, to, Cpocaxb, 6p6cnrb 
thunder, rp6>n>, LI; to thunder, 


thunderstorm, rpoaa, -^bi 
Thursday, qexseprb, A 
thus, xam> ; xamiM-b 66pa3O.vrb 
thy, TB6fl, oA, oe, oA 
till, no (gen.); till now, no CIIXT, iiopi, ; 

(con;.), noKa . . lie 
time, Bp6.MH, eaa (n.); piia-b, ii ^occa- 

sion); it is time, nopa; at the 

present time, BT> nucrofimce upi-M>i ; 

at a time (=at one stroke), cp;i.y ; 

what time is it ? Kor6putt nac-b? 

every time, Bc>ii<itt paai ; at times, 


time of, in the, npn (prep.) 
timid, pdGidtt 
tinkle, to, .iiu-H-BTb 
to, BT, (acc.) (=into); m, (dot.) (=to- 

wards); no (gen.) (=as far as); 

na (acc.) (=on to); nun (gen.) 

( = for); dative case of noun 
tobacco, TaGam,, A 
to-day, ccru;iM>i 
together, BTBCTB 
to-morrow, aasrpa 
tongue, nauin., A 

too, c.-iiiuii<oM-b; too much or many, 
Miioro; too (=also), 

top ( = highest part), a6pxb, 11 

torment, to, MNMUTI, 
torrents, in, 

torture, to, Mymm, 

touch, to, TpdraTb 

towards, in, (dat.); 

town, r6pom>, a 

townsman, small, M-biuamhn., ane 

traverse, to, npoxon^n. 

treasure, KJiajrb, u 

tree, ndpeao, a or eabn 

tremble, to, nponcarb 

trembling, npowamiit 

tributary, npirrtirb, H 

trouble, xpyni*, ii 

true, aLpnurt 

truly, snpaBny; npaao 

truth, npaana 

try, to, cxapaxbCH 

Tuesday, Bxtipmun. 

turn ill, to = to fall ill, see iU 

turn pale, to, 



twice, nsa paaa ; 

twine, to, siixb 

two, nsa, ne* 

two hundred, 


uncle, njinn, H (m.) 

under, noni. (instr. or acc.) 

understand, to, noiuiMaxb ; 

understanding, yitrBuie 

understood, that is ( = goes without say- 
ing), paayM-feexcn 

undress, to (intr.), paantsaxbcn 

unfortunate, iiecuacTniart 

unfortunately, HI comajTBiiiio 

un happiness, nee M aerie, >i 

unhappy, uec'iacTiiutt 

unknown, iiennaKoMun 

unpleasant, iioiipiiixiiutt 

until, see till 

up, no (gen.) (=as far as); no (d<it.) 
( = over, along); (<i<lr.), m; 
ii,ii;r|\ i, ; up and clown, H.KI,U. n 

upright, npii.M6tt ; npaannoutt 

uprightness, npaBjutoocxb 

upstairs, aaaepx-b (with verb of motion) 

use, to, ynoxpeO.i 

used to, rendered simply by the Im- 
perfective Past or by this tense 
followed by GUB&JIO 

useful, nojieauuit 



usual, o6biKHOBemibifi 
usually, oObiKiioBeinio 
utensils, see vessels 

vanquish, to, no6-fejKaxb 
verst, sepcxa, "w 
very (adj.), caMtiii; (adv.) 6'ienb 
vessels ( = utensils), nocya (/. collect.) 
vice, nopoKb, H 
victim, wepxBa, u 
view, BHjrb, M 

village, cea6, -a ; nepeBiin, H (without a 
church) ; village community, Mfp-b, 


virtue (quality), Kaiecxso, a 
visible, BHjmuii 
visit, to, noc-femaxb 
voice, rtaocfc, a 


wait, to, jKjjaxb 

walk, to, xoinixb ; HXXH; ryjirixt; to go I 

for a walk, uxxii ryarfxb 
wall, cx-fena, -^bi 
wander, to, Opoaiixb 
want, to, see to wish, to seek 
war, Bofina, -^M 
wares, see goods 
warlike, BorincxBenHbritt 
warm, xenjiufi ; roprfiift (=hot) 
was, 6burb, Jia, JIG 
wash (oneself), to, yMbreaxbCH 
water, sona, -M 
water, to, nojiimaxb 
wave, BOJiHa, -^bi 
way, nop6ra, H ; nyrb, A (m.) 
we, MU 
weak, cjiaSbitt 
wealth, 6oraxcxBo 
wearisome, cKyqubitt 
weather, norriua 
weave, to, xnaxb ; BHXb (wind) 
Wednesday, cpena 
week, iiefl-BJiH, H 
weep, to, njiaKaxb 
well, xopom6; ny; see healthy 
well-known, ii3B-EcxHbifi 
went, xom^Jii. ; uieab, nomejii,, see 

to go 

were, SUJIH 

wet, M6Kpbitt 

wet through, to be, 

what (adj.), Kox6pbift (=which); KaK6ft 
(=what sort of?); (pron.), 
(=that which) 1x6 ; xo, YTO 

wheat, niuenikua 

when, Korjia ; xor^a 


where, rat; nowhere, Hnr-B; every- 
where, noBcioay, 8633^; where- 
with(al), itMi 

whether, JIH (Par. 228) 

which, Kox6pbitt (adj. and pron.); qxo 

whisper, to, nienxaxb 

white, 6-BJibift 

whither, Kya 

who, KXO ; Koxopbift 

whole, q-BJibili; BCCB, BCH, BCC, BC-B 

whom, Koro, KOMy, etc. 

whose ? qefi, ibH, ibe, qbn; whose, gen. 
of Koxopuft 

why, no^eMy ; aaq-BMi, ; oxqer6 ; HXO 

wide, uiiipoixiii 

wider, nnipe 

wife, }Kena, -u 

wild, a^Kitt; wild beast aB-fepb, H 

wind, B-fexepi,, xpu or a 

wind, to, BHXb 

window, wend, a 

wine, BHH6, ^a 

winter, 3Hina, ^u; in'winter, aHMoti 

wish, to, ejiaxb ; xox-fexb 

with, c-b (instr.); y (gen.); (from-) ox-b 

without, 6ea-b (gen.) 

WOlf, BdjIK'b, H (6BT>) 

woman, jKenmnHa, M; old woman, 

cxapyxa, H 

wonderful, yanBiixejibHbiH 
wood (=forest), JI-BCI, a; ( = timber), 

nepCBo ; (=fuel), jrpoBa (n. pi.) 
wooden, nepeBjinnwH 
work, pa66xa, M; work, to, pa66xaxb 
working (day), pa66niH 
workman, paSdxmiK-b, H ; pa66qitt 
world, CB-BXI; Mipt, ii; seMarf, -^H 

worst } x y mitt > x ^ e 

worth, to be, cx6nxb; it is not worth 

mentioning, ne cxdnxi. ; miierd 
would, see Par. 199;= wished 
wound, pana, M 



write, to, niic&Tb 
wrong, nenp&Burt 

H6 Tam> 

in the wrong way; 

yard, neopi., u 

year, rdjn,, & ; JTBTO, a. After 1, 2, 3, 4 

twe ronii, nSfla ; o/<er 5, 6, 7, efc. 

in nominative or accusative use 


yellow, TKCJITLlft 

yes, na 

yesterday, BiepA 

yesterday, the day before, 


yet (adv.), emc; (eon;.), onaaKo; ne- 

i li na 5ro 
you, BU, Bacr>, etc. 
young, MOJion6ft 
younger, MJIU juiitt ; Mciibtirfft 
your, yours, saui-b, a, e, u 


The figures refer to the paragraphs in the text, the Roman numerals to those 
of the Introduction. 

Accent, importance of, vi, xxi 
Accusative, meaning of, 16 
after prepositions, 60, 100, 127, 160,183 
animate and inanimate, 16, 74, 84 
neuter, 74, 84 
in time phrases, 128, 181 
Adverbs in o, e, 189, 237, 238 

of quantity, Voc. XL 
Adjectives : 

accentuation, 6, 191, 192, 237, 238 
declension, see Declension 
comparative, attributive, 195 

attributive, exceptional forms, 

195 (a) 

predicative, 192 
in e, 193, 238 
predicative form, 187-190, 237, 238 

use of, 69 (note), 116, 189 
superlative, 186, 196, 197 
Animate and inanimate, see Accusative 
Approximate number, 181 (c), 182 
Aspects, see Verb 

6MTb, p. 34 

secb, 106 

BT>, 60, 61, 128, 181 (c) 

BI>I (pronoun) written with 

capital, 80 (note) 
BIJ, prefix in perfective verbs, 

always accented, Voc. LVI 


Consonants, voiced and voiceless, v 

Dash, use of, 8 
Date, to express the, 181 
Dative, meaning of, 20 
after prepositions, 39, 87 
after verb ' command,' 214; * believe,' 
223 (2); 'help,' Voc. LIII (2); 
'learn,' Voc. LVI (1) 
Declension of adjectives, 88, 89, 92, 94 
of predicative adjective, 187, 188 

Declension of nouns : 
masculine, 43, 133-136 

names of young animals, 229 
of peoples and classes, 230 
feminine, 53, 64, 86, 151-153 
in IH, Poccin, Voc. XXXIV, 152 (2) 
in b, 64, 86, 136 
neuter, 43, 172, 173, 219, 229 

in ie, 43 (note), 173 
Declension of cardinal numerals, 176,177 

of ordinal numerals, 167 
Declension of pronouns, see Summary, 

p. 33 
Dentals, xvi 

HHTrf, 229 
HO, 99 

e dropped or interpolated in 
declension, 14 (note), 153, 
172, 190, 237 

ecxb, ecxb JIH, Voc. XIII 

' from,' translation of, 98 

aa, 44, 115, Voc. XXXIX 
aa as prefix, Voc. LIII (note) 

Gender, 3, 66 
Genitive : 

meaning, 19 

after numerals, 27, 138, 179, 180 

after prepositions, 70 

after adverbs o^ quantity, 30, Voc. XL 

after comparative, 194 

in negative phrases, 28, 29 

partitive, 31 

plural masculine, 133-136 
feminine, 151-153 
neuter, 172, 173 

ending in y, Voc. XXVII (note), 
Voc. XLII, Voc. XLIII 

after y with GLITB, 24 




* go,' translation of, 40, 97, 160 
Greetings, Ex. XXXV. A (13), 216 
Gutturals, xv 

' have/ translation of, 24 
Hours of the day, 181 (c) 

H =afco, Ex. XVI A (11) 


Imperative, see Verb 
Instrumental case : 

after prepositions, 44 

after verbs, 69, 185 

exceptional form in plural, 111 

of means, 67 

of manner, 115 

in time phrases, 68 
Interrogative forms, see Verb 
Irregular verb, see Verb 

ji interpolated in 1st singular 

of verbs, 141 (note 2) 
Labials, xiv 
4 let him (them),' 215 
4 let us,' 214, 231 
Liquids, xx 

Modification of verb stem, 141 (note), 
142, 158, 169, 201, 207, 232 

H prefixed in declension, 25 
na, 60, 61, 128 
najb, 127 
Nasals, xix 
Negative, 8, note to Ex. I, 217 

double, Voc. Ill and note 
Nouns : 

accentuation, 48-50, 54, 75, 112 
declension, see Declension 
plurals, 72-76 

lists, 77-79, 117-119 
genitive, see Genitive 

Him,, 29 
Numerals : 

approximate number, 182 

cardinals 1-10, 20, see 138, and Voc. 

xxx \i 

11-19, Mt 148 

30-100, see 150 

hundreds, thousands, 
declension, see Declension 
distributive, 183 
ordinals, lst-19th, 166 

20th-100th, 171 

200th upwards, 184 

Numerals continued 
time of day, 181 (c) 
with genitive singular, 138, 179 
with genitive plural, 138, 180 

o or e dropped or interpolated, 
39 (note), Voo. XIX (note), 
153, 172, 190, 237 

ojnhn,, 107 (6), 178 
Orthography, general rule of, 91 

on,, 98 

Passive voice, see Verb 
Peoples, classes, names of, 230 

n6pejn>, 44 (note 3), Voc. IX 
Phonetic symbols, iii 
transcript, 194-209 

mm and irfcnb, 165 
no, 87, 183 
no as prefix, 207 
nojn., 127 

Prepositions, list of, 236 
Prepositions in o on,, 39 (note) 
Prepositional Case : 
occurrence, 45 

in time phrases, 128, 181 (6) 
in y, 46 

npn, 45 

npn as prefix, 62, 63, 97 
npo, 100 
npo as prefix, 62 
Pronouns, see Summary, p. 33 
Pronunciation, see Introduction, especi- 
ally iv and vi 

Poccfn, Voc. XXXIV 

Salutations, 216 

e.iMutt and caMt, 107 (c), 186, 

ceoft, 104, 109 
Script, pp. 190-193 

cett, 106 

Sibilants, xvii, xviii 
Signs, hard and soft, xiii 
Suggestions for use of this book. p. .V> 
Summary of Regular Forms, pp. 32-35 

ci, co, 39 (note), 44, 98 

'than.' I'.'t 

4 they ' (indefinite), 101, 102 

Time phrases in, on, at, by, 68, 128, 

!''<>, 181 
date, 181 

TOTT,, 107 (o) 



Verbs : 

see Summary of Regular Forms, pp. 


actual and potential (or definite and 
indefinite, or concrete . and ab- 
stract), 40, 159, 208 (note) 
aspects, 199 et seq. 
changes in stem, 141 (note), 142, 158, 

169, 201, 207 
classification, 129, 130; 202, 203; 

208 (note) 

conditional, 199, 223' 
dative, governing, 214, 223 (2) (ex- 
amples), Voc. LIII (2), LVI (1) 
of fearing, 233, 234 
future : 
Sun,, 123 
imperfective, 124 
perfective, 160, 204 
of hoping, 233 

imperative, formation of, 210-218 
first plural, 214 

imperfective and perfective, 217 
negative, 217 

expressed by infinitive, 218 
imperfective aspect, 202 
imperfective aspect derived from per- 
fective, 232 

indefinite 3rd plural, 101, 102 
indicating a state of rest and cognate 
verbs describing an act or 
motion, 60, 143 
infinitive, 32, 33, 41 

irregular forms, 158, 239 
as imperative, 218 
use of, 33, 41, 218 
instrumental, governing, 69, 185 
interrogative forms, 12, 13, 24 (c), 

228, Voc. XV and XLIV 
irregular, 156, 220-222, 231, 239 
ji interpolated in 1st singular 

present, 141 (note) 
in -oeaTb, -eBaxb, 225 
omission of verb, 7 
participles, see Summary, p. 35 
passive voice, see Summary, p. 35, and 
Pars. 80 (a), 102, 139 (6), 157 (a) 
past tense : 

form, 32, 57, 58, 80, 161 
without ji in masculine, 96 

Verbs continued 
past tense : 

irregular forms, 96, 239 
with CM, 199, 223 
with <rro6t, 200, 233 
perfective aspect, 203 
formation of, 206, 207 
forms of, illustrated in Vocs. LII 

illustrative passages, following 

plural for singular, Ex. XXVII B 


prefixes, effect of, 208 
present tense : 

in aro, aenib, 131 
-few, Hkeuib, 131 
y, -eiiib, 157 
-bio, -bemb, 162 
-y or -y, ^enib, 168 
-16, -riuib, 141 

-^K>, -^HlUb, 145 

to, -^Hfflb, 149 
-yro, yeiiib, 225 
irregular forms, 220, 221, 222, 

231, 239 

present for English past, 144, 227 
reflexive verb, 37 
spelling, 132 
for passive, 102 (6) 
scheme of Russian verb, 205 
tense sequence, 144, 227 
tense systems, 202, 203 
of wishing, 224 
in -HBaib, 226, 232 
' there is,' Voc. II, XIII 
Vowels, hard and soft, iv, viii-xii 

' whether,' 228 

y with genitive and 6bm= 

to have, 24 

Young of animals, declension of names 
of, 229 

xoariTb and irrni, 40, 159, 208 

qett, 106 
sh-on,, 107 


* L *** 




Currall, Richard Thomas 
Practical Russian grammar